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Full text of "Ibn Khallikan's biographical dictionary"

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IBN KHALLIK'AN'S 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



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JiN KHALLIKM'S 

BIOGKAPHICAL DICTIONAKY 

TRANSLATED FROM THE ARABIC 
BT 

B" MAC GUCKIN DE SLANE, 

MEMDBR OF tHE COCnClL OP THE ASIATIC SOCIKTI OF TAlUa, CORRESPOHDINO MSUBER OF THE ACACEII)' 
OF SCIBNCBS DF TUBIII, BTC. 



PARIS, 



FBINTXD POB THX 

OMENTAL TKANSLATION FUND OF GEEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND : 

BENJAMIN DUPR&T, BOOKSELLER TO THE INSTITUT DE PRANCE AND THE BlBLIOrHfolUE ROVALE, 
AND ALLEN AND CO., LEADENHALL-STREET, LONDON. 



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5 

'Xl 33 
1^43 
\J-X~ 



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INTRODUCTION. 



'* It is a curious circumslance that the majority of the learned amongat the 
" Moslims beloDged to a foreign race'; very few persons of Arahlan descent 
" having obtained distinction in the sciences connected with the law or in 
" those based upon human reason: and yet the promulgator of the taw was an 
" Arab, and the Koran, that source of so many sciences, an Arabic book." 
The justness of this observation, made by Ibn Khalddn in his Prolegomena, 
will be admitted by those who may have occasion to consult Ibn Khallikftn's 
BioGRAPnicAL Dictionary : they cannot have £iiled to remark that many of the 
individuals to whom the author has devoted an article are designated by him 
as tnawlas , a term denoting their foreign origin and the precise meaning of 
which shall be given farther on. The reason assigned by Ibn Kliatdt^n for this 
peculiarity may not be completely satisfactory, but it is stated in a manner 
so highly characteristic of that writer that it cannot tail to interest the Euro- 
pean reader. 

'* The {Moslim) religion," says he, '* when first promulgated, did [not 
*' include {the knowledge of) either science or art; such was the extreme 
" simplicity of (hat nomadic civilisation {to which thi$ doctrine wtu adapted). 
" The articles of the taw, or, in other terms, the commandments and 
*' prohibitions of God, were then borne(fiot in bookt but) in the hearts of men, 
" who knew that these maxims drew their origin from the Book of God 
" and from the practice (sunna) of the Prophet himself. The people, at that 
VOL. II. a 



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vi INTRODUCTION. 

" time, consisted of Arabs wholly ignorant of the mode by which learning 
*' is taught, of the art of composing works and of the means by which 
" knowledge is enregistered; for to these points they had not hitherto directed 
'' their attention. Under the companions of Muhammad and their immediate 
" successors things continued in the same state; and, during that period, 
" the designation of kurrd [readers) was applied to those who, being not 
" totally devoid of learning, knew by heart and communicated information. 
" Such were the persons who could repeat the Koran, relate the sayings of 
" the Prophet, and cite the example of his conduct in different circumstances. 
" {Tkit.wai a neceaary duty) inasmuch as the articles of the law could only be 
" known from the Koran and from the Traditions which serve to explain it. 
" The blessed Prophet himself said: / leave witkyoutwo things whkh, as long as 
" you adhere thereto, will preserve you from error: these are, the Book of God and my 
" practice (sunna). 

" But, under the reign of ar-Rashid, this mode of oral transmission, now so 
" long continued, rendered necessary that the [traditional] explanation of the 
" Koran should be set down in writing, and that the text of the Traditions 
" should be secured against alteration, lest they should be corrupted. To 
" distinguish the authentic Traditions from those of less credibility, an 
" exact knowledge of the isndds (I) was found necessary, and a close scrutiny 
" was directed into the character of those persons through whom traditional 
" knowledge had passed down. 

" Whilst the maxims of law deduced from the Koran and the sunna rapidly 
" augmented in number, the purity of the Arabic tongue underwent a gradual 
'* alteration; it therefore became necessary to lix the rules of grammar; and, 
" as none of the sciences connected with the law could be mastered till the 
" mind had acquired the Acuities of elicitation, deduction, investigation, and 
" comparison (the attainment of which depended on a prior acquaintance 
" with the principles of the language, the rules of elicitation, those of com- 
'* parison, and the arguments by which the dogmas of the faith could he 
" defended), the acquisition of these sciences could not be effected without 
" tl\e previous development of certain mental faculties under the tuition of 

\l) See vol. I. InlToductiOD, f. iiij. 



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INTRODUCTION. vii 

'* a master. Hence resulted that these sciences took their place among the 
" {proftmonatj arts; and, as arts do not flourish hut among people settled in 
" fixed abodes (a state of civilisation from which the Arahs were, of all 
" mankind, the farthest removed], science hecame a product of domiciliation, 
'* and the Arabs were therefoi'e averse to its acquisition. But the domiciled 
" people consisted, at that time, of Persians, mawlaa, and other persons who 
" had adopted the Persian habits of settled life; for them, the arts and the 
" sciences were a customary occupation, these habits having taken root 
" among them at the origin of (he Persian empire. Thus Stbawaih [1), the 
** master in theartorgrammar,al Farisi(2),at a later period.and, after them, 
" ar-Zajj&j (5), were natives of Persia; the majority of those who (to the great 
" advantage of Islamism) preserved the Traditions (by learning them by heart) 
" were Persians or naturahsed in Persia; all the learned in the fundamentals 
" of jurisprudence were Persians , a feet of which the reader is well aware ; 
" so also were the dogmatic theologians and most of the commentators of 
*' the Koran. 

" The Arabs who were contemporary with this state of civilisation pre- 
" ferred the customs of nomadic life : under the Ahbasides , the ex^cise of 
" military command and their occupations in the service of government 
" diverted their attention from learning and study ; attached to the state in 
' ' (he quality of protectors and {iubordmUe] rulers, they were withheld by pride 
" from engaging in hterary avocations, which, as we have just remarked, 
" had assumed the rank of arts; and we know that persons accustomed to 
" command others look upon the arts vrith scorn. They, in consequence, 
" left such studies to the Persians and the mixed race (sprung from the inter- 
'* marriage of the contju&ron with the conquered), fully acknowledging their ser- 
" vices in the cultivation of science." 

The influence of the same principle by which Ibn Khalddn was guided 
throughout bis Prolegomena is strongly marked in this passage; led away by 
his passion for generalizing , he examined every question in the abstract , 

(1) Sm toI. n. page 3M. 
(S) See TOU i. pige 370. 

(3) Vol. I. p. 38. — Here Ibn EhaldOn hai fallen Into a mitUke ; at-Z«jjlj «at preceptor to al-Plrlii and 
died ai leatt iSlj jean before bin. 



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viii INTRODUCTION. 

and always assumed that, (or one effect, a single cause was quite suFlicienl. 
This rule is by no means so certain as he imagined, and its weakness is ma- 
nifest in the present case. That the Arabs, when once converted into a 
people of rulers and occupied in the exercise of power, neglected learn- 
ing and left its culture to foreigners is a fact attested by history; that they 
were restraiaed by pride from such a pursuit is natural enough (not 
however because they considered it in the light of an art, but because it 
would have betrayed their own ignorance and incapacity), yet it still remains 
to be explained why foreigners were induced to devote their niinds to the 
study of Mostim law and Arabic lileratui-e. 

Though it should appear presumptuous to control the judgments of 
perhaps ihe ablest philosophical writer which Islamism ever produced, the 
attempt may be justified in some cases, and this is one of ihe number. The 
question which Ibn Khaldtin overlooked admits of an easy solution : learning 
was the only path by which members of the conquered nations could hope to 
reiich a position which might ensure them the respect of their masters; and 
by b'arning we are to understand such branches of knowledge as could serve 
to elucidate the doctrines of Islamism and develop the principles of the law : 
tbey saw the Arab government unable to apply to the new state of things 
by wliicb it was surrounded those vague and incoherent maxims of jurispra- 
dence which were furnished by the Koran, the Traditions, and the practice 
of the first Moslims; they felt that the ' faculties of mind which they had 
themselves derived from an advanced state of civilisation could be applied 
^'ilh advantage to the task of collecting and discussing the Traditions, clearing 
up the obscurities of the Koran by the study of Arabic literature , and 
moulding into a regular system the ordinances of the law. This they under- 
took and accomplished; labouring to establish their own right to public 
respect, they gave consistence to Islamism; and the conquests of the Arabs 
received stability from the more peaceful occupations of the mawks. 
. The word mawh {^y) is derived from the verb wala (^jj to be near) ; its 
grammatical form shows it to belong to that class of nouns which are called 
nouns of place (jj'^ ■'-*-!), and serve to designate either the place in which 
the action indicated by the verb of the same root takes effect, or tiie tul^ect in 
which the stale of being expressed by that verb has its existence. The signiti- 



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INTRODUCTION. ix 

catioD of the word mawla is therefore lAe place in wkieh, or the person in whom 
proximity m$t$, and, in its ordinary application, it serves to denote the ideas . 
of matter and slave, patron and client, companion, neighbour, confederate, relation 
{affmit), the granter and the receiver of a favour, etc. It is easy to see that one 
general idea pervades these various significations, that of proximity, either in a 
physical or a moral sense. The primitive signiGcalion of the verb loala is 
also apparent in the derivative wall (^Jj propinquus), which serves to express 
the idea of friend, and that of taint, because saints are near to God. 

The relationship betwen patron and client is termed wald ('^j) and it im- 
plies mutual assisUmce [tandtur). This mutual assistance embraces two condi- 
tions: t. The obligation of the patron [al-mawla aUaala) to pay the diya, or 
fine for blood (1), incurred by the client (a/-mawfaai-a«/al); 2. The right of the 
patron to inherit of the client; or, in other terms, that the patron should 
become his client's aakik ('^^ rantomer) and wdrith {>^j'j heir). 

Wald results from enfranchisement or from approximation; it is therefore 
of two kinds, relatimnhip by enfranchisement {wald 'l-atdka), called also relation- 
skip by favour [wald 'n-niina), and relationihtp by approximation (wald 'l-muwdldt); 
terms for which may be substituted in English effective patronage and adoptive 
patronage. 

EITective patronage is established by eDfrancbisement. The enfranchised 
slave becomes the client of him who enfranchises, and if he die without male 
heirs, his property is inherited by the enfranchiser or his heirs. Effective 
patronage is valid not only when the two parties are Mosllras, but when they 
are both infidels, or when one is a Moslim and the other an inGdel. 

Adoptive patronage is established by a contract made with mutual consent, 
as when a person jnakes profession of Islamism to another person, and then 
says : ' ' Thou art my mawla {patron), to inherit of roe when 1 die and to pay 



il) Tbe diya is Ihe penally imposed on the aulhor of a homicide per tn/brluniuni. Il coDsisu ot one 
huDdred earoeU, or une thousand pieces of gold {dinaTi), or twelve thousand pieces of silver (derbimg). The 
diya incurred Tor the homicide or a woman, a Christian, a Jew, or a Magiaii, is half ibe ordinary diya. The 
diya 'a incurred for having occasioned the loss of ihe two hands, or of Ihe two feel, or of the two eyes; tbe 
lot* of a single hand, foot, or eje, requires the pemltj of a half diya. The whole diya is incurred for 
kafing caused ibe loss of ihe nose, or of |1ie hearing, or of the reason, or of the longue, or of Ihe teiual 
organi. eic 

VOL. II. i 



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X INTRODUCTION. 

" the fine for me when I am amerced; " and the other replies : " I accept," 

or : "I form proximity with thee." 

The necessary conditions of this act are that the future client should be 
without heirs, that he should not be an Arab or a mawla to an Arab, that no 
other person had already engaged to pay the One for blood in case of his 
being amerced, and that the right of inheriting and the obligation of paying 
the fme should be enounced when forming the contract. Islamism in one or 
both parties is not a necessary condition , according to the majority of the 
doctors : a zimmi may contract wald with -a zimmi or with a Moslim, and a Moslim 
with a zimmi ; a man may also contract it with a woman, and a woman with a 
man; neither is it necessary that the act should pass in a Moslim country. The 
children of the client (born after the contract, for, before it, he was without 
heirs,) are bound by that act and benefit by the advantages which it assures 
them. Adoptive patronage confers on the foreign neophyte all the civil 
rights possessed by a Moslim, and by it he has the advantage of chosing his 
adMhi. 

In the eyes of the Moslim law every individual must have an adkiia, that is, 
a person or a body of men bound to pay the fine of blood if he be amerced. 
The adkiia of a man are all those who are inscribed on the same roll [diwan] 
with him, if he be engaged in military service, or if he receive a pension 
from the public treasury; otherwise, it is his tribe or family; then bis pa- 
tron, then his clients ; and if he have no adkiia. the public treasury pays for 
him. If he inhabit a city or its suburb, ail the enregistered inhabitants 
form his adlHlay and if he exercise a profession there, all the members of 
the same trade are his adkiia. Each class of zinunis is the adkiia of its indi- 
vidual members; the adkHaof a mawla by enfranchisement are the emanci- 
pator and kindred of the emancipator, and the adkiia of a mawla by approxima- 
tion are his patron and patron's kindred. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



MOSLIM EDUCATION. 



The course of study universally followed in Muhammednn countries has 
been briefly indicated in the first volume of this work (1), but it is much to 
be regretted that the information we possess on this subject is very slight, 
and that the system of mental culture requisite to form a well-educated Mos- 
lim is a point on 'which great obscurity still prevails. And yet the impor- 
tance of obtaining a clear insight into the causes which gave to the character 
of a great and polished nation its peculiar cast and form cannot but be deeply 
felt. Were it possible to dissipate the obscurity in which this question is 
involved, a more exact idea would then be formed of the Moslira mind and 
Moshm civilisation. In such an investigation the works of Arabic authors 
might be expected to afford the highest assistance, but unfortunately the do- 
cuments which they have left on this subject do not enable us to view it 
in all its bearings. These indications are not, however, without their value; 
they aid us to understand some parts of the system, and from the parts we 
may judge of the whole. One of the most curious is that given by Ibn Khal- 
dl!tn in his Prolegomena, where he expresses himself thus : 

" To teach children the Koran is a sign of religion shown by the Moslims 
" in all their cities, and a duty which they universally fulfil; for by this 
" means the faith is lirmly planted in the youthful heart, as also a know- 
*' ledge of the dogmas which are enounced in the verses of thai book. The 
" Koran is therefore the basis on which are reared the future Acuities of 
" the mind ; for that which is learned at an early age remains deeply im- 
" pressed on the memory and serves as a foundation for what follows, and 
" we know that the form of the edifice is determined by the disposition of 
* ' the foundations. 

" The different systems followed in teaching children the Koran are dis- 
*■ tinguished by the peculiar faculties developed by each. In Maghrib [Al- 
" gien and Morocco), that book is taught without any accompaniment; they 

(i) S«e vol. I. InCroduciioD, page lui. 



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lii INTRODUCTION. 

" b^n by making the scholar read it over; then he learns it by heart from 
" the edition of the text received in that country; and he is instructed, at 
" the same lime, in its peculiar orthography, the questions to which it 
" gives rise, and the various readings remarked in the systems of those 
" {ancient masters) by whom it lyas transmitted down. Till this first step be 
" surmounted, every thing else, such as Traditions, jurisprudence, poetry, and 
'* the idiom of the desert Arabs, is excluded. It therefore happens that a 
" failure in this early stage of the pupils prepress puts an entire stop to 
" his career. 

" Such is the mode of instruction followed in the cities of Maghrib and in 
' ■ some Berber towns where the example has been adopted ; it applies equally 
" to the scholar who has not attained the age of puberty, and to persons more 
" advanced in years who intend to recommence their studies; the result is, 
" that the Maghribins are more intimately acquainted with the orthography 
" of the Koran, and know it by heart much better than people of other 
" countries. 

" In Spain they proceed otherwise; for, whilst they make it a rule to teach 
" the reading of the Koran and its orthography as actually used (because 
' ' they consider that book as the foundation of learning, the groundwork of 
" education, and the basis of rehgion and the sciences), they instruct their 
•• children at the same time in poetry, epistolary writing, the principles of 
" grammar, and the art of penmanship. The acquisition of this last accom- 
" plishment occupies scholars till the age of puberty, so that whilst youths 
" obtain a knowledge of grammar and an acquaintance with the works of 
'■ the poets, they become skilful penmen and persevere, nearly all, in the 
" pursuit of learning. But learning subsists by transmission, and, as its trans- 
'■ mission has been interrupted in the provinces of Spain, the students of 
' ' that country can only acquire such portions of knowledge as are accessible 
" from the first steps of their education. This is however sufficient for him 
" whom God directs, and it gives him the means of reaching other branches 
" of learning. 

" In Ifrlkiya {the province of Tunis), they generally instruct their children 
" in the Traditions whilst teaching them the Koran, to which they add the 
" principles of the sciences and some of the questions which they involve; 



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INTRODUCTION. xiii 

** bnt, as their chief object is, to communicale a correct knowledge of the 
"■ text and various readings of that book, the nrt of penmanship is neglected. 

" Id the East instruction is also of a mixed nature, but I do not know to 
' ' what length it is carried ; we have been told however that they pay more 
^ ' attention to the culture of penmanship and of the sciences than to the 
*' study of the Koran. 

' ' The people of Ifrtkiya and Maghrib, by coniining their application to the 
" Koran, can never attain the faculty of mastering the language. The 
" reason of this we shall here explain: IVo peculiar faculty can be develo- 
'* pedin the mind by the study of the Koran, because the declaration that it is 
"■ impossible to produce anything equal to it prevents it from being taken 
" as a model for imitation; so that the student, though he may acquire an 
" ample share of spiritual merit, can neither obtain a good command of 
" Arabic nor a focility of diction. The people of Ifrfkiya are perhaps more 
" advanced in this last respect than those of Maghrib, because, in studying 
" the Koran, they learn Traditions and scientific rules; thev have therefore 
" a certain command of language, but they do not attain elegance of ex- 
" pression. 

" The habit of teaching pupils, of repeating poems and epistles, and of 
* ' studying the rules of grammar is so general in Spain, that the natives of that 
' ' country have acquired a complete mastery of the Arabic tongue ; but in the 
" other branches of knowledge their skill is inferior, because they have not 
'* paid suflicient attention to the Koran and the Traditions, which are the 
" source and basis of the sciences. In grammar, however, and polite lite- 
' ' rature they excel in a greater or less degree, accordingly as they have 
" devoted more or less time to these occupations on terminating the studies 
" which engaged their youth. 

" The kddi Ahfl Bakr Ibn al-Arabi (1) has laid down, in his Rihla, a highly 
" curious and original plan of study. He proposes that youths should be first 
•' instructed in grammar and the works of the poets, conformably to the 
•• Spanish custom, * for,' says he, 'language is enregistered in its poetry, 
*' 'and the corruption of the Innguage renders it necessary that you should 

H) The life of AbO Bakr Ibn al-Arabi will be found in th« ihird lolume orihliwarh. 



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liv INTRODUCTION. 

" ' commence by that and by grammar; you should then pass to arithmetic, 
" ' and^ having acquired an idea of its rules, you may proceed to the study of 
" ' the Koran, which, by means of these preparatory labours, will be found 
'* ' much easier than it generally is. You may then commence dogmatic 
" ' theology {osul ad-dtn) and tlie I'undamenlals of jurisprudence (o$iii al-fikh)* 
" * after which you may proceed to dialectics {djedel), and from that to the 
" ' Traditions and the sciences connected wiih them.' He disapproves of 
" leaching two sciences simultaneously, unless the pupil be remarkably intel- 
" ligent. Such are the counsels of the kddi, and I acknowledge that the 
" plan laid down by him is excellent; but settled custom, that influential 
" element in the human character, renders it inadmissible. In taking the 
" Koran for the basis of education, people are actuated by the desii-e of me- 
" riting the divine favour, as, by this means, they protect youth against its 
" own follies and preserve it from that levity of mind which not only ruins 
" the knowledge already obtained or interrupts its acquisition, but would also 
" prevent the young Moslim from learning the Koran. Indeed, whilst under 
" the guardianship of his family, he may be retained in habitual submission, 
" but, when the age of puberty delivers him from control, the storms of 
" passion may soon cast him away on the coast of folly. They therefore 
" take advantage of the lime during which he is under command, to teach him 
" the Koran, so that, at a later period, he may not be entirely ignorant of its 
*' contents. However, were it certain that the student would persevere in 
" the pursuit of knowledge and submit to receive instruction, the system 
'' proposed by the kddi would be the best which the people of the East and 
" the West could adopt; but God ordains what he pleaseth, and no change 
" can be effected in His decisions." 

To proceed from this first step so well described by Ibn Khaldfln and fol- 
low the young Moslim in his path through the higher departments of study, 
we must have recourse lo the biographical notices on llieir learned men. 
The life of Avicenna offers us a iransitory glance at his early education, and 
therefore merits attention, but much fuller information will be obtaijied from 
the autobiography of Abd al-Lalif. In this work, he gives us a perfect outline 
of his own studies under some of the most distinguished masters of the epoch. 
Were this treatise less known, I should have felt it indispensable lo insert an 



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INTRODUCTION. xv 

extract from it here, but it has been rendered fully accessible by two editions, 
one in Arabic and Latin by Mousley, and ibe other iu Arabic and French 
by de Sacy; the latter so admirably translated and commented that, were I to 
undertake a new version of it into English, I feel I should rest far— very far 
indeed — beneath that illustrious orientalist, my deeply venerated master. 

Another contribution to the same stock of documents is furnished by Ibn 
Khaldtln in his autobiography. He informs us that, having learned to read 
the Koran and got it off by heart, he read it again according to each of the 
seven readings or editions, and then combined these various readings in a final 
repetition of the text. During this occupation he went over the Koran twenty- 
one times, and in a twenty-second repetition, he went over all the various 
readings. He Gnished by the lecture of the two editions, or systems of read- 
. ings, taught by Yakilb(l). At this period, two other works occupied his atten- 
tion : the Ldmiya, a poem of Ibn Firro as-Sbatibi, on the readings of the Koran , 
and the Miya, another poem by the same author on the orthography of that 
book {%. He next studied the Takam, a treatise composed by Ibn Abd al- 
Barr (3) on the Traditions cited in the Muwatta (4), and a great number of 
other works, such as the TashU (5) of Ibn Malik and Ibn al-Hadjib's (6) abridg- 
ment of jurisprudence, but these last he did not get off by heart. During 
the same period he cultivated the art of grammar under the tuition of bis 
father and of the Brst masters. He perused also the Six PoeU (7), the Hamdsa, 
the poems of Abil Tammam (8), part of al-Mutanabbi's (9] poetical works, and 
some of the pieces preserved in the Kitdb ai-Aghdni (10). Under Shams ed- 

(1) He means YakOb Ibn Isbak al-Hadrami, out of the great readers. Hit life is given bj Ibn KballikJin. 

(2) See page i09 or ibis Tolume. By (be Ldmiya, Ibn KhalJ&n means to deiignate Ibn Firro's flirt al- 
ia) In a subEequect volume will be found Ihe life of Ibn Abd el-Barr. 

(4) See page S49, note (12), of tbi» Tolame. 

(6) This is a treatise on grammar by Ibn Mtlik, the auibor of Ibe .tl/*'!'''' "Iio died A.M. 672 (A. D. 1273-4}. 
See M. de 3acy'« AnIhologU Grammalicate, pages 203, 21S. and Pluegel's Hajji Kbalifa, (om. II. page 290. 

16] See page 193 of ibb volume. 

(7) The Mix poett are Amro 'l-Kais, Ntbigha, Alkama, Zohaih, Tarafa, and Aniars See page i of my 
preface (o the Diman d'Amro 'l-Kait. 

m See vol. I. page 348. 

(9) See vol. I. page 103. 

(10) See vol. II. page 2(9. 



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xri INTRODUCTION. 

din al-Kisai, chief traditionist of Tunis, he perused Muslim's collection of 
Traditions and received a general h'cence (ijdza). In law he studied the 
abridgment of the Mudaicwma (1) composed by Abfl Said al-Baradai, and the 
exposition of the doctrines held by the sect of Malik. He followed, besides, a 
general course of law and learned Malik's Muwatla; certificates were also 
obtained by him authorizing him to teach that book, the Sirat ar-Ras&l {%, the 
treatise of Ibn Salfih on the Traditions, and many other works. He obtained 
access to the library of Abd at-Muhaiinin al-Hadrami, chief traditionist and 
grammarian of Morocco, who had accompanied to the city of Tunis Abd 'I- 
Hasan, the sovereign of that empire, in the quality of secretary of state. 
This collection of books consisted of more th:m three thousand volumes 
on the Traditions, law, grammar, philology, the intellectual sciences, gene- 
ral literature, and poetry; these manuscripts were all of the highest cor- 
rectness and their authenticity was guaranteed by certificates annexed lo 
them. Under another master he studied logic, dogmatic theology, juris- 
prudence, and all the intellectual and philosophical sciences. Whilst pursuing 
his studies, he followed the public lectures at Tunis, and attended the 
assemblies held by the first doctors and professors of the place. He finally 
devoted three years to study under a shail^ called Abd Abd Allah al-Abbali 
(iJ^'^') " and then", says he, " I felt thati knew something." Ibn KhaldOn 
terminated his studies in the twentieth or twenty-first year of his age (5). 

(1) Sea Tol. 11. page 86. 

(2) Yd). It. page 12S. 

'3) TbJs Doticf wai just lerminaletl, nfaen a large manuscript, containing (he biograplij' of ihe doctor and 
hisloriiD Ahmad Ibo Ali Ibn Hajar al-Askallni, bj the Mfit Shams id-din Muhammad aa-Sakbtni, fe1< ioti) 
the writer's hands. A chapter of this vork is devoted to Ihe history ot Ibn Hajar's youth, travels, studies, 
etc.; but Hit drawn up In such a manner that to make an analysis of it vould be a very difficult task. We 
find however that he began by learning the Koran by heart, and proceeded lo the study of the Traditions and 
jurisprudence; followiog, in fad, the same system vbicb has been already indicated in the iniroduciion or 
our 6rst volume. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



AASIM IBN ABI N-NAJUD. 

Abu Bakr Aasim was the son of Abfi 'n-Najud Bahdala, a- mawh to the tribe 
of Jadima Ibn Malik Ibn Nasr Ibn Koain Ibn Asad. His acquaintance with the 
koranic readiatgs drew upon him general notice and ranked him as one of the 
seven great masters of that science. He had learned it from Abu Abd ar-Rah- 
man as-Sulami (1) and Zirr Iba Hubaish (2); he taught it to Abu Bakr Ibn 
Aiyash (see vol. I. page 553) and Abu Omar al-Bazzaz (3), but these two varied 
very much in their manner of reading certain words. Aasim died at Kufa, A.H. 34S 
427 (A. D. 744-5). — The word najM signifies a femaie uM cat not pregmtU ; 
others say that she is thus designated whMi keeping watch on the top of a 
hill. — Some persons state that Bakdaia was his mother's name (not M> father's). 



(1] AM Abd •r-ttahmlB Alid AlUb On Haldb oi-SnUmi al-KOfi {a m»mbtr of IA« tribt of Sttlaim and a 
nativt of KUfa) wuborn ia tlie lifetiiDe of Uubimmad. HelearDedto read the Konn under the luiUonof the 
kbalifs Olhiitln and AU, and then taught (he lame Kience in the great moique af Ktita. He died A. H. 74 
(A.D. 6g3-4).-(Ad-Dababi's Tabakdl at-JTurrd.) 

(3) Ahi) Hirjam Zirr Ibn Hubalih Ibn Hid>aM, a member of Ihe irihe of Aaad and a native of KOfa, wu one 
of the gTNt loaften in Um aK of reading the Koran. He wai celebrated also ai a philologiii, and died at a 
rer; advanced age, A. H. 83 [A. D. ?01).— (Ad-Dahabi's Tabakdi al-Kurrd, fol. 8.) 

|3) AbbOnuT Hah Ibn Abi D&wOdal-Baiili, thediiciple of al-Attim. waaa native ofK&b and emowlato 
the tribe of Awd. Bora A H. 90 (A.D. TOS-ft); died AH. IM (A.D. T1»-T).-[Tai. al-Eurra.) 

VOL. II. i 



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ABU BURDA IBN ABl MUSA. 



Abu Burda Aamir was the son of Abil Musa Abd Allah Ibn Kais al-Ashari, 
one of Muhammad's companions, who had come to him from Yemen with the 
Asharites when they became converts to Islamism (I). Muhammad Ibn Saad 
mentions in his Tabakdt that Abd Burda succeeded to Shuraih 'see vol. I. p. 61 9) 
as kadi of Kufa. By the nobleness of his conduct and by his virtues he attained 
a high reputation. Abu Musa, when governor of Basra, married Taniya the 
daughter of Damraun, a native of Taif, and she bore him Abu Burda ; the child 
was put to nurse with the tribe of Fukaim, which dwelt at al-Ghark (2); when 
grown a boy, he was dressed in two mantles (burda) by (Jus foster-father) Abu 
Shaikh Ibn al-Gharik, and brought to his father, who then sumamed him Abd 
Burda ; from that time his real name ceased to be given him. Abik Musa was 
kadi of Basra under the khalif Omar and afterwards, in the reign of Othman, he 
acted as a kadi at Kufa; his (grand)soa Bilal was also kadi of Basra: this was 
the circumstance which gave rise to the saying, three kddis in mccestion. — The 
poet Zu 'r-Rumma composed a number of splendid poems in praise of Bilal, and 
in the following verse, addressed to his camel, he alludes to him also : 

When (hon readiest BilA) the [granSjson of AbA MAsa {thy loiii are at an end,] and 
the butcher then may wield his aie to disjoint thy limbs. 

He said also of him : 

On hearing; that the tribe were roaming through the desert with their flocks in search 
of pasturage, I said to Saidab : " Seek abundance near BilAl I" 

Saidah was the name of the poet's camel. — Bilal was one of the deputies in the 
service of Khalid al-Kasri (see bis life, vol. I. p. 4.84) ; when the latter was deprived 
of the government of Arabian and Persian Irak, his successor Yilsuf Ibn Omar 
ath-Thakafi required from him and his agents an account of what had been 
done with the revenues of these provinces, and employed torture to make them 
refund; al-Kasri and Bilal expired under their sufferings. In a book containing 
a collection oi anecdotes I found the following : At a public assembly Abu Burda 
was extolling the virtues of his father, and mentioned that he had been one of 
Muhammad's companions; he vaunted also the glory which accrued to himself 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 3 

in being sprung from so illustrious a parent. He held a long discourse on this , 
topic, till the poet, al-Farazdak, who happened to be present and wished to 
humble his pride, made the remark that, had Abu Musa possessed no other 
merit than that of having cupped the Prophet, such an honour would have been 
quite sufficient for his reputation. On this, Abu Burda got angry (3) and 
replied : " Your observaUon is true, but he never cupped any person either be- 
" fore or after." — " By Allah !" exclaimed al-Farazdak, " Abu Musa was too 
" good a man to dare make his first essay in cupping on the person of the Pro- 
"phet!" This retort silenced Abii Burda and forced him to smother his 
anger.— The following anecdote is related by Ghars an-Nima as-Sabi (4) in one 
of his works : " Abu Safwan Khalid Ibn Safwan, a member of the tribe of 
" Tamim, was celebrated as an eloquent speaker. He used to visit Bilal Ibn 
'* Abi Burda and converse with him, but his language was frequently ungram- 
" matical. This grew at length so irksome to Bilal, that he said to him: ' 
" Khalid ! you make me narrations fit for khalifs to hear, but you commit as 
" many faults against grammar as the women who carry water in the streets.' 
" Stung with this reproach, Khalid went to learn grammar at the mosque, and 344 
" some time after he lost his sight. From that period, whenever Bilal rode by 
'* in state, he used to ask who it was, and on being answered that it was the 
*' emir, he would say: 'There goes a summer-cloud, soon lo be dispelled." 
"■ When this was told to Bilal, he exclaimed : ' By Allah ! it shall not be dis- 
" pelled till he get a full shower from it ;' atid he then ordered him a whipping 
*' of two hundred strokes. This Khalid was extremely giddy and never paid 
" the slightest attention to what he said. He drew his descent from Amr Ibn 
" al-Abtam (5), one of Muhammad's companions; his grandfather Abd Allah 
'* being that person's son. Al-Ahtam was the son of Sumai Ibn.Sinan Ibn 
" Khalid Ibn Minkar, of the tribe of Tamim; and for this reason he bore the 
" surnames of al'Mmkari and tU-Tam^mi. His real name was Sinan, but when ^ 
" Kais Ibn Aasim al-Minkari (6) struck him across the mouth with his bow and 
*' broke his front teeth, he was called al-Ah(am (broken'tootk)." Others say 
that his teeth were broken on the battle-day of al-Kulab (7). Shabib Ibn 
Shabba (8) was an uncle of this Khalid.— Abit Burda died A. H. 103 (A. D. 
721-2), but others place this event in the years 104, 106, and 107. (Mttham- 
mad ) Ibn Saad says that Abu Burda and as-Shabi died in the year 1 03 and on 



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the same day, which was a Friday. — We shall explain the mean n 
name at-Ashari in the life of Abu 'l-Hasan (Ali) al-Ashari. 



(1) The coDvereion of ifae Yemeoiies took place io the tenth year of the Hijra. 

ti) 1 am unable to fix with an; certainty the situation of thia place. The author of the Merdiid merely sayt : 
••al-G/iOT*. a Tillage in the dependencies of Marw— alGAort, a village in Yeralma, and a planuUon of date- 
" trees belonging lo the tribe of Adi Ihn Haulfa." 

(3) The profcMion of a cupper wai conridered by some Jurisconsults as degrading. In one of the Traditions 
it u said: "The price of a dog is impure, and the wages of fornication are impure, and the pay ofa cupper is 
" impure."— (Mattbew'9 Mitheil, vol. 11. page 3. See alio the Grat volume of the present work, p. SOI.) 

(4) Hention has been made of this historian in the firu volume, page 300. 

(B) Amr, the son of Sioln al-Ahlam. an eminent chief of the tribe of Tamlm, an able orator and a good poet, 
Qourished before and after the promulgation of Islamism. He and Amr Ihn Zibriktn went together to Md- 
hammad and embraced bii religion. He died A.H. SS (A D 677-8). For further information see Rasmuasen's 
HUtoHaAntHtlamica,^. llflnote; and his AddUamtnta ad BUt. Ulam. p. 33. 

(6) See to). I. page 166, note (17]: Rasmuven'i .AdiUlinnanta, p. 67, and S<s(. .InMst.— Jt-.WfnJtan'. the 
surname borne by Kail, is derired from Stitdtar, Uie name of one of his ancestors, descended from Tamlro. 

(7) For the account of this battle or ikirmish see Rasmussen's Bitt. AnttUlam. p 117. 

(81 Sbablb Ibn Shabba, a celebrated preachn {FihrUt. fol.l71),«ua coateiiipotV7o'>l>eU>*l)''>l-Hdidi. 
That prince had a daughter named al-YtkOta, of whom he was lo fond thai he could not bear lo be separated 
from her a tingle instant. He therefore had her attired in the uniform of a page, so that she might accompany 
him when he rode out. Sbe died before him, and he continued inconsolable for her loss till Shabtb Ibn Shabba 
addressed to him a short but moit etfective eihoHatien.— (Ibn al-Athlr's fdmfi, year 16V.) 



AS-SHABI. 

Ahu Amr Aamir as-Shabi was the son of Sharahtl Ibn Abd Ibn (1 ) Zi Kibar : 
Zu Kihar was one of the princes of Yemen. As-Shabi sprang from Himvar 
and was counted as a 'member of the tribe of Hamdan, but Kilfa was the place 
of his birth. He held a high rank among the T&bis and was distinguishcil alw 
by his profound learning. It is staled that Ihn Omar (2) walked past him one 
day whilst he was relating the history of a victorious campaign made hy the first 
Moslems, and said, on hearing the narration which he made : " He knows what 
" was done at the expedition better than I who was with it." Az-Zuhri made 
the remark that the really learned men were four in number : Ibn al-Musai- 
yah (3) at Medina, as-Shabi at Kufa, al-Hasan al-Basri (4) at Basra, and Mak- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 5 

h61 (5) in Syria. Il is said that he conversed with five hundred of the Pro- 
phet's companions. The following anecdote is related by himself: Ahd al-Malik 
Ibn Marwan sent me on an embassy to the king of the Greeks ; and that prince 
addressed me a number of questions, to all of which 1 returned satisfactofr an- 
swers. It was not customary for ambassadors to make a long stay at his court, 
but he detained me so many day^ that I desired impatiently to depart. When 
on the point of quitting him he said to me : " Are you of a royal family?" to 
which I replied: "No; I «n one of tfae gpeneral class of Arabs." On this he 
muttered some words and a paper was put in my hand : " When you have given 
" to your master an account of your mission," said he, " present this paper to 
" him." Having returned to Abd al-Malik, I informed him of the results of mv 
embassy, hut 1 never thought of the paper, and it was only on passing through 
another part of the palace with tbe intention of withdrawing, that I recollected 
it. I immediately went hack and presented it to him. When he had perused 
it he asked me if tbe Greek sovereign had said any thing to me before he gav<< 
me the paper? "Yes," I replied, "he asked me if I was of a royal family,and I 
" answered that I belonged to tfae general class of tfae Arabs." I then retired and 
had reached the door when 1 was brought back into the khalif 's presence. " Dtr 
you know," said he, "what is in this paper?" — "No," said I ; on which he told 
me to read it. It contained these words : / am astonished that a people wko have 
among them a man Wie this cotM have ckotm emy other Imt him for thm nder. " By 
"Allah I" I exclaimed, "had I known the contents, I should not have taken 
" chai^ of it; bad be evw seen you, he would not have said such a thing !" 
— " Are you aware," said Abd al-Malik, "why he wrote it." — "1 am not."-^ 
" It was because he envied me so able a servant as you, and hoped to incite me 
" by tfais to put you to death." These words, continues as-Shabi, reached at 
length the ears of the Greek king, who acknowledged that such was really his 
design. — As-Shabi once spoke to Omar Ibn Hubaira, the governor of the two 
Iraks, in favour of some prisoners, and asked him to set them at liberty; but 
not being able to obtain his consent, he addressed him in these terms: "Oemir! 
" if you have imprisoned them without cause, let your justice deliver them; and 348 
" if they be guilty, let your clemency be ample enough to reach them." Ibn 
Hubaira immediately set them free. — It is slated by Katada that as-Shabi was 
born four years before the death of the khalif Omar (which happened A . H. 23), 



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6 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

but Khalifa IbD Khaiyat (6) mentions thatal-Hasan al-Basri and he were bom in 
the year 21, and al-Asniai says that became into the world at Kiira, A.H. 17. — 
As-5habi was a thin emaciated man, and be once said, on being asked the cause - 
" I was straitened for room in my mother's womb." The fact was that she 
had two sons at a birth, and (Ibn Kutaxba,) the author of the Kitdb al-Madtif 
pretends that she was pregnant with him for two years. — It is related that al- 
Hajjaj Ibn Yiisiif ath-ThakaG said to him one day ' ' ' How much is your yearly 
** salary?" (kam ataak, auording to the vulgar pronunciation], to which as-Sbahi 
replied (m the same jargon): "Two thousand dinars" (alfain). — "Tut!" ex- 
claimed al-Hajjaj, " kam alduka ?" {repeating the quettion correctly), and aa-Sbabi 
then answered (grammatimlly) : alfdni. "Why," said al-Hajjaj, "did you speak 
" incorrectly at first?" — "The emir spoke false grammar," replied he, " and 1 
" spoke false grammar ; and when he spoke with the right inflexions, 1 did the 
" same; for I could not have allowed myself to speak grammatically when the 
" emir did not." Al-Hajjaj was highly pleased with this answer and made him 
a present. — As-Shabi was inclined to pleasantry ; he was one day sitting in his 
bouse with a female when a person came in and asked : "Which of you two is 
" afr5habi?" To which he replied: "She is the man." — He was born in the 
seventh year of the khalifat of Othman, (A. H. 30, A. D. 650-1) ; others say, 
however, in A.H. 20 or A.H. 31 ; but it is related that he himself mentioned that 
his birth took place the year in which the town of Jaliila was taken, and this oc- 
curred A.H. 19 (A. D. 640) (7): he died suddenly, A. H. 104 (A. D. 722-3); 
other accounts say 103, 106, 107, and 105. His mother was one of the cap- 
tives made at JalAla. — Shdbi means belonging to SM6, a branch of the tribe of 
Hamdan. Al-Jauhari says : " This relative adjective is derived from zA-Sb^ain 
" (t/ie double^valleyed), which is a mountain in Yemen, where Hasan Ihn Amr 
" the Himyarite (8) and his children took up their residence, and where he was 
" buried. The descendants of that family who inhabit Kufa are calledthe Slui~ 
" bt^n; those in Egypt and Maghrib are styled cd'UshUb; in Syria the name of 
" ShAbdni&n is given to them, and in Yemen they are known as the people of 
" ZH Shdbain." — JalAld is the name of a town in the province of Pars, where 
a famous battle was fought in the time of Muhammad's companions. — As-Shabi 
often cited this verse of Miskin ad-Darimi (9) : 

To judge of a man's prudence, observe him when provoked, not when pleased. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 7 

(I) In the printed tat the word /bn ^ bu btta left out bj miMake. 
(3] Ste T«l. I. ptge 867, note (1). 
(3) See his life, vol. I. page 068. 
(*) See Tol. I. ptge 370, 

(5) ne life of Mak'hlil and that of ai-Zahri will lie giten hj the antbor of this work. 

(6) His life is given in the Gr»t volume, page 493, but b; a strange mistake bis father's name Is wriiun 
throughout that article Halyat. 

(7) The celebrated baUle of JalAla was fought A. H. 16. See Alifi 'l-Fedl's Annals; Price's Retroipect, 
vol I. page 124. 

(8) This is the prince whom Hama aMspabl^ mentions as the immediate predecewor of ZO Sbanttir, the 
celebrated tyrant of Yemen, who was slain b; Zb Nuwti.— (SeeSchuIten's HUtoHa focianjdarum, p. 37.] 

(9) M. de SaCT ujt, in his AnlhologU Grammattcala, p. 390, that this ancient poet's real oame was Rabia 
Ibn Aamlr Ibn Ontif ; hut at-Tabriii sajs in his oommeniarj on the Hamdia, p. 744, that according te Abll '1- 
Ala, Hiskln'i name was Amr. 



AL-ABBAS IBN AL-AHNAF. 

Abu '1-Fadl al-Abbas Ibn al-Ahnaf Ibn al-Aswad Ibn Taiha Ibn Jaradin(l) 
Ibn Kalada Ibn Khudaira (2) Ibn Sfaihab Ibn Salim Ibn Haiya Ibn Kulaib Ibn 
Abd Allah Ibn Adi Ibn Hanifa Ibn Lujaim al-Hanafi al-Yam&mi, a celebrated 
poet, was gifted with a tender spirit and a subtle wit ; all his poems are love 
pieces, and the diwdn of his works does not contain any eulogium. The follow- 
ing verses from one of his kasidas may serve as an example of his pathetic style : 

Desist, self-lormenlor I thus only can thy woes be healed. Thy eyes have exhausted 
their tears in veeping; try then to find oUiers shedding copious drops, and -with them 
recmit the last of Uiine (3). But who would lend thee his eyes that thoa mayest weep 
with them ? Were eyes ever lent that their tears might be shed 7 

The two next lines, extracted from a piet« of verse, are also his, but stmoe at- 546 
tribute them to fiashshar Ibn Burd (4) ; and Abii AH 'l-Kali (5) mentions in 
his Am^ that Bashshar said : " A hoy of the tribe of Hanifa (6) kept running in 
* * and out of where we were till he at length recited these lines : 

' They who caused me to taste tiieir love now make me weep ; they awoke my heart to 
' passion, but then their hearts yielded to slumber. They roused me, bnt when I stood 
' up with the burden which they placed upon me, they sank into repose.' " 

The following verses are also his ; 



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S IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

I prefer love-pains with hope to repose vith despair. Did I not love yon, I had spared 
you my reproaches ; and you had then been for me as the rest of mortals. 

O Saad 1 thou hast spoken to me of my beloved and increased my folly ; speak yet 
more to me, Saad ! My heart shall never know any love but thai 1 bear her I it is a 
love without beginning and without end (7). 

Since thy rigours cannot be softened unless by the intercession of another, I renoance 
such love as requires a mediator. I swear that indif^rence or dislike are not the mo- 
tives which withhold roe from reproaching thee thy cruelty; it was the certainty that 
all complaints were useless. If I cannot bear my pains in patience, I must yet submit 
to them though unwilling. 

All his poetry is good. — He was the malernal uncle of Ibrahim Ibn al-Abbas 
as-Siili,as we have already mentioned (vol. I. page 23). His death took place at 
Baghdad in the year 192 (A. D. 807-8); hut the following anecdote on the sub- 
ject is given on good authority by Omar Ihn Shahba : " Ibrahim al-Mausili, sur- 
' ' named an-Nadim, died in the year 1 88, on the same day as al-Kisai the gramma- 
^' rian, al-Ahbb Ihn al-Ahnaf and Hushaima al-Khammara; (the khalif) ar-Ra- 
" shid, who had been informed of the circumstance, ordered (his son) al-Mami^n 
" to say the funeral prayers over them, and the corpses were therefore placed 
" in a line before him. He asked whose body was that which was nearest to 
'^ him, and on learning that it was Ibrahim al-Mausili's, he ordered it to be 
< ' removed and that of al-Abbas Ibn al-Ahnaf to be put in the first place. When 
" he had finished the prayer and was returning home, HashJm Ihn Ahd Allah Ibn 
" Malik al-Khuzai went up to him and said : ' My lord ! why did you honoui- 
" al-Abbas Ibn al-Ahnaf with the first place?' To which he replied by repeal- 
" these verses : 

' Some persons accused thee and said that it was thon who caused my pains and aflflic- 
' tions ; but I denied the truth of their words, so that their suspicions might be turned 
' away from thee to another : — I like the lover who refuses ((o revtal the name of hit 
' btloved).' 

" AUMamiln then said : ' Can you recollect them?' and Hasbim replied : ' I 
" can,' and then repeated them. 'Well,' said the prince, ' is not the author 
" of such verses worthy of the first rank?' — ' He is, my lord.' " — I must ob- 
serve that this anecdote is in contradiction with what we shall say farther od, in 
the life of al-Kisai. as we there mention that he died at Rai (not at Bagkddd); 
besides which, much incertitude prevails respecting the year of his death, and 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 9 

moreover, the death of al-Abbas has beeo placed by some ia the year 192. 
AbA Bakr as-SuH says: " Athi Ibn Muhammad infonned me that his father 347 
" said to him : ' 1 saw al-Abbas Iba al-Ahnaf at Baghdad after the death of ar- 
*' Rashid,aad his dwelling was near the Syrian gate. He was a friend of mine, 
*' and he died before he reached his sixtieth year.' " Here as-Siili remarks that 
he must have died later than the year 1 92, since ar-Rashid's death took place 
at Tus on the third of the latter Jumada, 193 (24th March, A. D. 809).— Al- 
Ahnaf, the father of al-Abbas, died A. H. 150 (A. D. 767), and was buried at 
Basra. Al-Masudi, in his MurHj ad-Dakabf gives the following anecdote on the 
authority of some natives of Basra : "We set out," said they, " to perform the 
'* pilgrimage, and on our way we saw a boy standing by the side of the road, 
" who called out to us to know if any of ns were natives of Basra. On this we 
" went over to him and asked what he wanted; to which he made answer: 'My 
" master wishes to give you his dying injunctions.' We then turned off from 
*' the road and followed him till, at some distance, we found a man lying under 
" a tree and unable to give us any answer. We seated ourselves around him, 
" and being at length aware of our presence, he looked up at us, but his weak- 
" ness was so great that he could hardly raise his eyes. He then recited these 
" verses: 

' Alas I a stranger, lonely and far from home, is here veeping in afRiction I With 
' each iiresh burst of grief, illness draweth closer to his enfeebled body !' 

*' He then swooned away, and we remained sitting about him for a long time, 
" till he at length came to himself. At that moment a raven perched on the 
" top of the tree and croaked aloud, on which he opened his eyes and listened 
" to its cry. The boy then pronounced these lines : 

' The heart receiveth yet a deeper woand from the cry of that bird which lamenteth 
' on its branch. The same misfortune which has worn as down afflicteth him and he 
' grieveth ! each of us are grieving for the loss of a true friend 1' 

" "Hie sick man then heaved a deep sigh and breathed his last, and we did 
" not leave his corpse till we had washed it and shrouded it and said over it the 
" funeral prayer. When we had buried him, we asked the boy who it was, 
"and he said: 'It is al-Abbas Ibn al-Ahnaf.'" God best knoweth if this 
relation be true. — Hanaji means bekmgmg to the tribe of Hanifa, who was the 
VOL II. a 



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10 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

son of Lujaim Ibn Saab Ibn Ali Ibn Bakr Ibn Wail; it k a celebrated tribe. 
Hanifa's real name was ITthal, but it was changed for this reason : he and al- 
Ahzan Ibn Auf al-Abdi were conversing together on a subject which it would 
take us too long to relate, when Hanifa struck al-Ahzan with his sword and cut 
of{(jazaTn) his hand, and al-Afazan struck Hanifa on the foot and shattered it 
(hanaf); so al-Ahzam received the surname of Jazima (the one-handed), and his 
adversary Uiat of Hantfa (the ekih-footed). This Hanifa was the brother of Ijl 
-the progenitor of a famma tribe). — Yamdm means belonging to Yamdma, a town in 
the desert which forms part of the province of Hijaz; the greater part of the 
inhabitants belong to the tribe of Hanifa. It ^as there that the impostCM* Mu- 
sailama set up for a prophet and lost his life. His history is well known. 

il) Jaritdin m^iU^ In the lutograph MS. 
l3) Bhuiaim ^tJ J^ in the autograph. 

(3) iDplaceof c}_jj,the aniograph has v^Ium : the aente fi then ; irr and find olher ejes to help you. 

(4) Hi« life irill be found in ibe firsi Tolume. 
IS) See hii life tn (be fint rolnme. 

(6) It nnui be remembered that al-ibUi biEoulf b^onged to Ibat tribe. 

(7) Literally : It has DCither before nor after. 



AR-RUSHl. 

Abu '1-Fadl al-Abbas Ibn Faraj ar^Riashi, a grammarian, a philologer, and a 
native of Basra, was a man of great learning and a trustworthy transmitter of 
oral literature ; he knew besides the traditional accounts of the combats and ad- 
ventures of the desert Arabs, and possessed great general knowledge. The in- 
formation which he communicated to others was given by him on the authority 
of al-Asmai, AbA Obaida, and other great masters, and his own authority was 
cited by Ibrahim al-Harbi (1 ), Ibn Abi 'd-Dunia (2), and others. The following 
is one of the (curious philologicai) passages which, according to his statement, he 
had learned from al-Asmai ; " An Arab of the desert," said he, " passed near 
348 " us in search of his son, and we said to him : * Describe him ;' and he an- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 11 

" swered : ' He is like a (pretty) little piece of gold ;' on which we replied that 

*' we had not seen him. Soon after, he returned with a swarthy little fellow, as 

" Mack as a beetle, perched upon his shoulder; and we then said to him : ' Hadst 

" thou asked us about that fellow, we could hare directed thee, ftn* he did not 

** slir out of our sight all day (3).' Al-Asmai then repeated these lines : 

' Any bedfellow is good on the break of day, after a frosty night, when the chilled 
' (»leeper) shivers -with cold. God makes her as charmiDg to (he heart as the son is 
' cbarmittg to the eyes of hisfiatherl'" 

Ar-Riashi was slain at Basra during the insurrection of al-Alawi al-Basri (4), 
the chief of the Zenj. He lost his life in the month of ShawwSl, A. H. 25T 
(September, A. D. 871). He had been asked towards the 6nd of Zii '1-Hijja, 
A. H. 254, how old he was, and he replied ; " Seventy-seven years, I believe." 
Our shaikh Ibn al-Athir mentions, in his great historical work (the Kdtmi), that 
ar-Riitshi was killed hy th6 Zenj at Basra, A. H. 265, but this is a mistal^e ; for 
all persons who have studied history unanimously agree that the Zenj entered 
Basra at the hour of Friday prayer, on the 16th Shaww&l, A. H. 257; that night 
and the following Saturday they ravaged the city with lire and sword, and on 
Monday they entered it again, after the flight of the garrison, and proclaimed a 
general amnesty; but when any of the people showed themselves, they massacred 
them. Very few of the inhabitants escaped, and the great mosque with all who 
were in it was destroyed by fire, Ar-Riashi lost his life in one of the above-men- 
tioned days, for he perished in the mosque. — Ridshi is derived from Bidsk, which 
was the name of the ancestor of a man wbo belonged to the tribe of Judam ; 
this man possessed as a slave the father of (al-Abbds ar-Rid$hi,) him who was 
sumamed after him. The father had (first) received this surname and it ne*er 
quitted him. 

(1) See vol. I. page 40, note (6). 

(2) See ToL I. page 531- 

(3) Thia passige conltini lome diminutive nouna of rare occurreiice. ind it wu^tfaerefore prefioui for philo- 
logen and loUcognpherg. 

(4) Ai-Alani tl-Bairi, i. c. tht dtteendant of Ali and native of Batra. Hit real name wti Ali Ibn HahaiD' 
nud ; he revolted k. H. 35A, and after devaitating the loutherii provinces of the kbalibt for manj jean, he 
wa* ntade prifoner and executed, A.H. Z70 —(See hlthlatorj in Abulfeda'i jlnnaI*;PrKe'alta(roi|iBet, vol. II. 
pagelU; andal-Haktn, p. 162. Thia lait writer (tTlea him ^Ot i aLc ..^.^^ys^l (tk« widtfd toratcA, 

chief of the Zenf), iritich wordi Erpeniai hat rendered ffaMku Khorwn Domitrnt. 



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IBN KHALURAN'S 



ABD ALLAH IBN AL-MUBARAK. 



Abd Abd ar-RahmaD Abd Allah Ibn al-Mubarak Iba WMih al-Marwazi 
(native of Marw), a mawh to the tribe of Hanzala, was a man possessing pro- 
found learning combined with great self- mortification. He studied jurispru- 
dence under Sofyan ath-Thauri, and Malak Ibn Anas (1), from whom he learned 
by heart the Muwatta, and then taught it to others. He loved retirement and 
solitude, and was extremely assiduous in the practice of ascetic devotion. It is 
related of his father, who, like him, was a man of great piety, that he served a 
master who employed him to work in his garden ; he had passed a considerable 
time in this occupation, when his master came to him one day and told him to 
bring him a ripe pomegranate, on which he went to a tree and gathered an un- 
ripe one. His master having broken it open and found it sour, got angry with 
him and ordered him to go for a ripe one ; he then went and cut one off an- 
other tree, hut it was also sour, and his master's anger became more violent : 
" I asked you for a ripe one," he exclaimed, " and you give me a sour one ! 
" bring me a ripe one !" He went then for the third time and did as before, 
on which his master said to him : " Do you not know the difference between a 
" ripe and an unripe pomegranate ?" — " No." — " And how does that hap- 
" pen?"—" Because I never tasted of them so as to know the difference." — 
" And why did you not?" — "Because I had not your permission." His master 
having found on examination that he had told the truth, conceived the highest 
respect for him and gave him his daughter in marriage. It is said that God 
blessed this union with a son, this. Abd Allah, to whom were transmitted the 
divine graces granted to his father. In some historical work 1 have found the 
same thing related of the pious and holy Ibrahim Ibn Adham (2), and it is told 
of him also by at-Tortflshi (3), towards the commencement of his work the 
Sirdj tU'Mid'&k. Ahi^ Ali '1-Ohassani (4) relates the following anecdote : Abd 
Allah Ibn al-Muharak was asked which was the more blessed man of the two, 
Moawia Ibn Abi Sofyan or Omar Ibn Abd al-Aziz, to which he made answer : 
" The very dust which entered into Moawia's nostrils when accompanying God's 
549 *' blessed Prophet is a thousand times more holy than all Omar. Moawia was 
" praying behind (he Prophet when the latter said : God h^rkm^ to him who 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DIOnONABY. 13 

" $peak$ Am praise. Ob which Moawia exclaimed : Lord t to thee be prme I 
" Can there be any stronger proof of Moawia's blessedness than that ?" — Ibn 
al-Mubarak composed some poetry, from which we will quote the following verses : 

Other men open shops to sell their goods, but you have opened a shop that you may 
sell religion ; — a shop between the columns (of the motqw) and without a lock, where 
you give religion in exchange for the money of the poor. Yoo have made of religion a 
Eiicon wherewith to catch your prey, but falconers never acquire riches by their trade (5). 

One of his sayings was : "We sought learning that we might acquire worldly 
*' advantages, and it led us to renounce the world." He died at Hit, on his 
return from an expedition against the infidels, in the month of Ramadan, A. H. 
1 81 (November, A.D. 797). He was bom at Marw in the year 1 1 8 (A.D. 736). 
— HU is a town situated on the Euphrates, higher up than al-Anbar ; it belongs 
to the government of Irak, but it lies on the Syrian side of the river, whilst 
al-Anbar is on the Baghdad side. The Tigris flows between these two last 
cities. Ibn al-Mubarak's tomb is still visible at Hit and continues to be a place 
of pilgrimage. The history of bis life has been compiled in two volumes. 



(1) 1 htTe hilbnto truMcrib«d ~j I bj Ant, but tlie lni« proDniiciation ii Ana* or Jhm. 

(S) Aba Ifbak Ibrahim Ibn jLdbun Ibn Hmidr tl-Balkhi was celebrated for hia bolj life. Bii filber Adbam 
wu ■ natife of Balkb uti belonged to one of the Gnt fatniliei id the place. He made the pilgrimage to 
Hekka with hit wife wbo wai then pr^nant, and ahe brought forth Ibrahim in that cit;. His father carried 
hiSD rounA the Kaibt and begged of the auembled multitude to implore God'a bleaalnga on the child, and the 
eOtal of their prajers wa* rotnifefted man; jeara later. Adham waa very rkh and pouewed numerous iltvea, 
horaef , honndt, and fUcona ; hia md Ibrahim took the dogi and fikoDi one daj, aud rode ont to hunt ; be was 
galloping atler the game when he beard a voice m;: "0 Ibrahim I what meaneth thia sporlT doat Ibon think 
"that we created Ibee in iport! Fear Gtid and make prorlaian fhr the day of need!" On hearing theie 
word*, he got off hij horse and renounced die world. Hu death took place A.H. 160 (A.D. 77&-7) — (AbAV 
Mahbin's iVi^ilm.)— 'Fhii author givei him the surnames of at-Tamlml al-ljli {belonging (o the tribe* of Tmntrn 
and O't], which doei not seem tobeeuct, as thoie two tribes were quite diatluct; that of l^mlm drawing its ori- 
gin from HiUr by Hodir andTlblkha, and Ijl fh>m Nit4r by Rabla. — AbO'1-Fedt gireaaome account of Ibrahim 
Ibn Adbam and places hia death in 161 ; al-Ylfi, who vaonts the high perfection which Ibn Adham bad attained 
by his spiritual eierciaea, raentioni that h« died in 162. 

(3i The life of Abb Bakr Hohammad at-Tortdahi will be found in tbia work. 

(4) Hu life will be fonnd in toI. I. page 4S8. 

(fi) this is manifeatty directed againat some teacher of theology who opened ■ course of lectures in the 
mosque and required ptyment from hia acholari. Such a proceeding was highly scandalous at that early period, 
but in later timet it wu permitled as a netcaatry evil.— (See d'OhitOD's Tableau giniral d» Vrnpin othoman. 
torn. VI. page 143.] 



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U IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

IBN ABD AL-HAKAM. 

Abt^ Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Abd al-Hakam (1) Ibn Aayan Ibn Laith Ibn 
Rifi was a doctor of the sect of Malik and a native of Egypt. He was the best 
acquainted of all Malik's disciples wilh the various branches of his master's 
doctrine ; and on the death of Ashhab (2), the presidency of the Malikite sect de- 
volved to him. He transmitted orally to his scholars the contents of Malik's 
work, the Muwatta^ which he himself had learned by heart under that imam's 
dictation. His riches and the numerous hotels (3) which he possessed enabled 
him to live in great state, and (for fas virtue) he was treated with profound 
respect. He filled the office of jtalifier and impigner of witneuet (4) ; but neither 
he nor any of his sons would ever give evidence in a court of law, on account 
of a vow which he had previously made against doing so : this particularity is 
mentioned by al-Kudai in his Kbilat (or topographical hiitory) of Old Cairo. It 
is said that on the arrival of as-Shafi in that city, he gave him one thousand 
dinars out of his own money, with two thousand more, one half of which he 
had obtained for him from a merchant named Ibn Osama, and the remainder 
from two other men. He was the father of Abd Abd Allah Muhammad (Ibn Abd 
al-Hakam), the disciple of as-ShaH, whose life we shall give in the letter M. — 
Bishr Ibn Bakr (5) relates that some days after the death of Malik Ibn Anas, he 
had a dream in which that doctor appeared to him and said: " There is a man 
"in your country called Ibn Abd al-Hakam; receive the knowledge he may 
" impart to you, for he is a sure authority." — Abu Muhammad had another 
son called Abd ar-Rahman, who studied the Traditions and history, and wrote 
some works, one of which was on the conquests of the Moslims. — Abfi Muham- 
mad was bom A. H. 150 (A. D. 767-8); some say 155; he died at Old Cairo in 
the month of Ramadan, A. H. 214 (November, A. D. 829). He was buried 
close to the tomb of the imdm as-Shafi, at the south side of it; his son Abd 
ar-Rahman died A. H. 257 (A. D. 870-1), and was interred at the south side of 
his father's grave; so that, of the three tombs, Abij ' Muhammad's is in the 
middle. 

(t) Id the firtt TOlurae of Ihii tmulatioa, tbii oante ku b««ii eirDDeaudy irantcribed AM al-Hukm. 
{% See Tol. 1. (Mge 233. 



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BIOGRAPmCM. DICIKM^ARY. 15 

(3) 0otat; laAnbierata Sea vol. 1. page 347, noM (3). 

[4) The3U$tifiealionandiiitpugningofwUneim (taikiya via tnjnh) ii a dut; derohed McretlT bj tbeUdi 
on •ome person of ■cknowledged probit; liviDg in bis jurudiclion. Tbil e«nJor euminei into the moral chi- 
racter of the vitneates and inronni Ibe kldl wbetber Ibeir erideace is receiTabIa or not. He is called also (be 
mutaUt or purt/ter. Consult on this Mibject Hamilton's Hedaj/a. chap, on Evidence. Here, in the printed 
Arabic leitof Ibn KballiUn, is a repetltfon of the same Iknlt alread; noticed, vol. 1. page 417, note (11. 

(S] Aba Abd Allah Bishr Ibn Bakr at-Tinobi as-Shlrai ( a natim of Tinntt anil tpnmg from a family 
toAt«A tiikahittd Dama*cut) it known u a TradiUoitUl. Be studied under al-Avilt and died toward* the end 
of A. H. 305 (A. D. BU) —{Tab. aU-M»ha4MtMn.) 



IBN WAHB. 

Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Wahb Ibn Muslim, a member, by adoption, 
of ihe tribe of Koraish, a doctor of the sect of Malik and a native of Egypt, was 
a mawla to Rihana, who was herself a mawla to AbA Abd ar-Rahman Yazid Ibn sttO 
llnais, of the tribe of Fihr (or Korauh). He was one of the great imams of that 
age, and had been a disciple of the imam Malik Ibn Anas during twenty years : 
he put down in writing Qm maxler't worki) the greater Muwatta and the less. 
M^lik said of him : " Abd Allah Ibn Wahb is an imdm." Abii Jaafar Ibn al- 
Jazzar (\ ) mentions that Ibn Wahb set out (from his native place) to see the imam 
Malik in the year 148 (A. D. 765-6), and never left him till he, Malik, died. 
He had commenced his studies under him more than ten years before Abd ar- 
Rahman Ibn al-Kasim (2). When Mfilik wrote to consult him, he addressed 
his letters thus : To Abd Allah Ibn Wahb the mufti, an honour which he never 
conferred on any other of his disciples. Ibn Wahb saw and conversed with 
upwards of twenty persons who had studied under Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri. His 
name and that of Ibn al-K&sim were once mentioned in the presence of Malik (3 > 
and that imAm said : " ibn Wahb is a learned man, and Ibn al-Kasim a juris- 
*' consult." Al-Kudai says in his Khiiat : " Different opinions are entertained 
'* respecting the site of Ibn Wahb's tomb, but in the Majarr Bani MisMn (4; 
'* there is a small one, much dilapidated, which people call the tomb of Abd 
" Allah; it is a very ancient monument and is probably the tomb of Ibn Wahb." 
He was born at Old Cairo in the month of ZA '1-Kaada, A. H. 125 (September, 
A. D. 743), but some say 124; he died in the same city on Sunday, the 24lh of 



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16 IBN KHALUEAN'S 

Shaaban, A. H. 197 (April, A. D. 813). He composed a number of well- 
known works on jurisprudence, and was also a Traditionist. Yunus Ibn Abd 
al-Aala (5), one of tbe imam as-ShaH's disciples, relates as follows : The khalif 
wrote to Ibn Wahb, desiring him to accept the place of kadi at Old Cairo, on 
which he concealed himself (6) and avoided stirring from home; but one 
of his neighbours, Asad (7) Ibn Saad, happening to look out, and seeing him 
making his ablutions in the court-yard of his house, called to him and said : 
" Why dost thou not go forth to the people and judge between them according 
" to the book of God and the mrma of the Prophet?" — On this, Ibn Wahb 
looked up and replied : *' Is that the utmost extent of thy wisdom? dost thou not 
" know that the learned shall be raised to life with the prophets, and the kadis 
" with the princes?" (8) — Ibn Wahb was a man of learning and holiness, living 
in the fear of Almighty God. His death happened in the following manner : A 
student was reading to him out of his own Jdmi, or collection of Traditions, an 
account of the terrible signs which are to precede the day of judgment, when 
something like a swoon came over him, and he was carried to his house, he 
I'emained in that state till he expired. Ibn Yunus al-Misri says in bis Histor)- 
(of Egypt J that Ibn Wahb was a mawh to Yazid Ibn Rommana, who was himself 
a taawla to Abu Abd ar-Rahman Yazid ibn Unais ; the statement Brst given is 
made by Ibn Abd al-Barr, and God best knoweth which is the truth. Tbe fol- 
lowing anecdote is related by Abd Allah Ibn Wahb : "When Haiyat Ibn Shu- 
" raib (9) received his yearly salary of sixty dinars, he used to distribute it all 
" in alms before he went home, but on entering into his house, he would find 
" this money again under his mattress. Haiyat had a cousin who, on learning 
" the circumstance, took bis salary also and gave it in alms; he then sought it 
' ' under his mattress, but found nothing ; and Haiyat, to whom he complained of 
" his disappointment, said to him : ' I gave to the Lord with full confidence, 
" but you gave to him tnerely to make a trial of his goodness.' " 



(I) See vol. I. page 673. 

(S) The life of chit celebrated diidple of HUik will be tbnnd In this toIudk. 

(3) Some miilakei dlafigure thii noiice in iht piioted Arabic teit: bere >^U^t J.^ lui been pu( for 
oll< Jue, and in the fint line Jl> j for ■iJ,j). In the third line the word ^1 must be tuppreiMd. A leo 
scnipuloiu tdberenee Ut bii nuDUtaipti led the editor Into ihe*e faoitt and tooie oihen, which ihall be noticed 
when met with. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 17 

(4) 1 bare oot been able to discover any account of thia place in al-Rhkrlri'i Shitat. 

{6) HU life it giTCD by IbD Kbillikla. 

(fl) The prioled teit bat Li' and ihe autograph ^J>sr'. Tbe meaoiDg of both words ii the same. 

(7) In place otAiad jl.1 the autograph kodi to bave SAodtn ^,J-^. 

(B) 9eean obiervation od Ihii lubject in *oM. p. 230, doIc(B;. 

(9) There were Ito TradilionitU of this name, both of whom drew their origiu from HadramAt. The fint, 
who wu probably the same perton who b mentioned here, hore the lurname of AbO Zaraa iiic.', and wai a 
Dative of Egypt. He taught the Tradilioiu on the authority of Ibo al-MuUrab. Ibn Wahb, and other docton. 
He died A. H. ItTT (A. D. T73-4), duiiog ihe kbalibt of Abfk Jaafar al-Hanabr. The other Halyat Ibn Shuralh 
was ■prnamed AbQ 'l-Abbtt iDd wat a native of Emeua. His authority ii cited by al-Bukhtri in that diapler 
of his work which treats of the prayer to be said id time of danger.— (Tdb, at-JIfuAorf.) 



ABD ALLAH IBN LABIA. 

Abu Abd ap-Rahman Abd Allah Ibn Labia Ibn Okba Ibn Labia al-Hadrami 
al-GhaGki {member of the tribe of Gkdfik) (1 ), a native of Egypt, was a narrator of 
Traditions, bistorical relations, and pieces in prose and verse, a great quantity of 
which he transmitted down. Muhammad Ibn Saad slates that be was a man of 
weak memory, and that those who received from him oral information when be 
first began to give lessons, had most probably acquired more correct versions of 
the pieces which he taught them, than those who studied under him in the latter 
period of bis life. It sometimes happened that his pupils read to him ((mt of 
Uieirnote-books) passages which be bad never taught them(2\ and be would 
make no observation on the subject ; being afterwards told of tbe circumstance, 
he would reply: " It is not my fault; they come to me with a book and read it 
" in my presence; they then go away. Had they asked me if that was what I 
" taught them, I should have told them that it was not." In the beginning of 
the year ^ 55 (A.D. 772}, be was appointed kadi of Old Cairo by Abii Jaafar al- 
Mansur, and was tbe first person raised to the place of kadi in that city by tbe 5S1 
direct nomination of the khalif. He was removed from office in the month of 
the first Rabi, A. H. 164. He was also tbe first k&di who made it his duty to 
be present when watch was kept for tbe first appearance of the new moon in tbe 
month of Ramadan (3), and this custom is still continued to the present time (U). 
Ibn al-Farra mentions him in his Annals under the year 152: "In this 

VOL. II. 3 



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18 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

" year," says he, " died the kadi Ahii Khuzainia Ibrahim Ibn Yazid al-Himyari 
" (descended from Himyar) (5); he was succeeded by Abd Allah Ibn Labia al- 
" Hadrami. Ibn Kbudaij (/fudat)'), who was in Irak, at that time, relates in the fol- 
' ' lowing terms the cause of his nomination : ' 1 went to see Abu Jaafar al-Manstkr, 
" ' who said to me : Ibn Khudaij ! there is a man in your city who has just died 
" ' and left the people in affliction for his loss. — Commander of the faithful ! 
" 'Implied, it must be Ibn ',Khuzaima ! — It is, said he; and whom do you 
" ' think we should put in his place? — I answered. Commander of the faith- 
" ' ful! I suppose Ibn Maadan al-Yahsubi. — It is not fit that a kadi should be 
" ' deaf, replied al-Mansur, and he is. — It is then Ibn Labia, said I.— The very 
*' ' man, answered the khalif, although his memory be a tittle weak- He then 
" ' gave orders for his appointment and settled on him thirty dinars a month.' 
" He was the first kadi who received a salary, and the first also who was nomi- 
" nated directly by the khalif; before that, the kadi was chosen by the go- 
*' vemor of the city." (6) — Ibn Labia died at Old Cairo on Sunday, the i 5th of 
the first Rabi, A. H. 174 (August, A. D. 790), — or by another account in 170, 
— ^ed eighty-one years. Abu Musa al-Anazi (7) says in his History, that al- 
Laith Ibn Saad was one or two years older than Ibn Lahia. Ibn Yunus also 
mentions him in his History, in these terms : " Abd Allah Ibn Lahia Ibn Okba 
" Ibn Furau Ibn Rabia belonged to the family of Odul, one of the first in 
" Hadramaut. His surname was Abu Abd ar-Rahman. Traditions were given 
" on bis authority by Amr Ibn al-Harith (8), al-Laith Ibn Saad, Olhman Ibn 
" al-Hakam al-Judami, and Ibn al-Mubarak (9)." He then gives the date of 
his death and adds : " He was bom A. H. 97 (A. D. 715-6);" after which, he 
mentions the following words, and traces them down, through an uninter- 
rupted series of narrators, from Ibn Lahia to himself : " On going to see Yazid 
" Ibn Abi Habib (1 0), he said to me : ' I think I see you seated on the cushion,' 
" meaning the one on which the kadi sits.' " And so it came to pass, for Ibn 
' Lahia did not die before he filled the place of a kadi.— ffodramt means belong- 
ing to Hadramautf which is a country in the most distant part of Yemen. 



[1) AocordiDg to the author of the AntOb, Ghifik wu the md of si-SbUiii] Iba Alkanu Ibn Akk, t desceod- 
ant tram Kahlln. 
(3) StndeDU took noief of the nailer** leuoD* and read ihero lo him the neit daj. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 19 

<3) Id thoM couDtriM where the SumtiU doctrine* ire profeued, the bit of Rmudln it not commenced till 
the appearance of the new tnooD ha« been regularl; certified. 

(4) Ibn Khalliktn might hive duerved that It vas discoDtinued under the Feiimite Jfoaitj and had heen 
re-etlabiiihed bj Salih ad-dln. 

(5) Aba Khuiaima Ibrahim Urn ItM. a neUve of Old Cairo, wm ippoiated kldi of that dlj bj Taild Ibo 
Hltin, A.H. 144 (AD. 761-3). He conUDued to Gil Ihis pbce till hit death, which took pUce A.H. 1S4 (A. D. 
770-1). lie wata men of great pielj and lived b; making halters, of which he Mid two ever; da;; with the 
price of one he supported himself, and he gave the price of the other to hi* brethren in AJeiandria.— [HViiory 
0/ the kOdU of Cairo, b; Sibt Ibn Hujr, M9. No. 691.) 

(6) Siht Ibn Hujr, iu his Ltvat of tht SOdii, mentiona Ibn Labia aod relalea the anecdote given here. Ibn 
Khndaij, or, as he writes the name, Abd Allah Ibn Abd ar-RahmlD Ibn Budaij, was the son of a ktdi of Cairo 
who had been nominated A. H. 88 aud died A. H. 94 (A.D.7ia-3j. 

(7) In the Arabic teit this name is incorrectlj printed ^ JjJi. 

(8) Abfl Omaiya Amr Iho al-Htrilh Ibn YaUh,analiveof Egypt and sumamedal-HnwBddIh(tAepra(;«p(or}, 
was allied b; adoption to the Anslrs. He learned the Traditions from KaUda and other great masters, and 
among hi* own pupils he had Ibn Wahb. Hi* death look place between A. H. 147 (A. D. 764) and 140. He 
was then upwards of flfi;.— (Tab. al-Huhad.) 

(0) He life of Ibn al-Mubirak is given in thi* volume, page 12. 

(10) Abb Ha]4 Tadd Ibn Abi Habtb Suwaid, a member by adoption of the tribe of Eoraish and a native of 
Egypt, studied the Traditions under a number of eminent masters and had al-Laitb Ibn Saad among hi* own 
pa[dl*. Be died A. H. 128 (A.D. 745), aged between seveDty.4ve and eighty years.— (Tub. at-Muhaddiihln^ 



AL-KAANABI. 

Abu Abd ar-Rahman Abd Allah Ibn Maslama Ibn Kaanab al-Hirithi, 9ur- 
named al-Kaanabi^-was a native of Medina. He received instructions in jurispru- 
.dence and tbe Traditions from the imam Malik, and was one of his most talented, 
learned (1), and virtuous disciples. He knew by- heart his master's work, the 
Muwatta, and taught it to bis own pupils from memory ; for such was the man- 
ner in which this work was traosmitted down by a number of MSJik's disciples : 
some diversity exists in the text as thus related by each ; but the most perfect copy 
of it is that given viva voce by Yahya Ibn Yahya, as shall be again remarked in 
his life. Al-Kaanabi was surnamed ar-Rahib (the monk) for bis devotion and his 
virtue. Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Haitham related that bis grandfather bad 
Euiid to him, in speaking of al-Kaanabi : " When we went to see him, he would 
" come out to us with the face of one who had been looking down on (the ter- 



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20 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

" ron of) hell; may God preserve us from it ! " He died at Basra, the city 
where he resided, on Friday the 6th of Muharram, A. H. 221 (January, A. D. 
836). Ibn fiashkuwal mentions, in his list of those who transmitted orally 
SSS ihe Muicatta from Malik to their own pupils, that al-Kaanabi died at Mekka. — 
The surname of KmnaH is derived from the name of his grandfather. 

It) The word ULJ tignlBea aittmad ai a *urs authority for the »xaef«$ntf tk» TraHUon* vkteh kt 
Irantmtd. It ii here r^dered bj Uamtd 



IBN KATHIR THE KORAN-READER. 

Abu Mabad (1 ) Abd Allah Ibn Kathir, one of the seven great masters in the 
science of horanr^eading, died at Mekka, A. H. 120 (A. D. 737-8). This is the 
only information I can Gnd respecting him. — I have since discovered that he is 
spoken of in the Kii&h ai'Ihnd (2), a work treating of the different readingt of 
the Koran. The author of that hook says: *' Ibn Kathir al-Makki (native of 
" Mekka) ad-Dari (behnging to the tribe of ad-Ddr'^, which is a branch of that of 
" Lakhm and produced Tamim ad-Dari (3) ; some say however that he took 
" this surname from Darain (4\ because he was a druggist and perfumer, and 
'* that is the place where perfumes are procured ; this last derivation is the true 
" one. They say that he was a mawla to Amr Ibn Alkama al-Kinani, and 
'^' that he drew his origin from one of those Persians whom Chosroes had sent 
"■ by sea to Yemen, when he expelled the Abyssinians from that country (5). 
** He dyed his beard with hinna (6) and was kadi of the community at Mekka (7). 
" In the classiGcation of the Tdhis, he was placed in' the second division (8). He 
" was advanced in years, his hair was white, his beard long, his body large, his 
" complexion tawny, and his eyes dark blue; his grey hair was dyed with kirma 
" or with yellow dye (sufra), and in his conduct he displayed a dignified gravity. 
" He was born at Mekka, A. H. 45' A.D. 665-6}, and he died in that city, A. H. 
" 120." — ^This writer gives here the same date for his death as that mentioned 
above, and it seems a point on which all the readen agree; but, in my opinion, 
it cannot be exact, for Abd Allah Ihn Idris al-Audi, who learned the readings 
of the Koran under Ibn Kathir, was horn A.H. 1 1 &; and how could be have done 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICnONARY. 21 

so, if his master had only lived till A.H. 120? This error originated with Abu Bakr 
Ibn Mujahid, who was deceived by the fact that Abd Allah Ibn Kathir of the 
tribe of Koraish, hut a difTerent person from the koran-reader (9), died in that 
year ; but God knows best! (1 0) The system of reading followed by Ibn Kathir 
was transmitted down orally by two persons, Kunbul and al-Bazzi ; the former, 
whose real name was Muhammad Ibn Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Muhammad Ibn Kha- 
lid Ibn Said Ibn Jurja al-Makki al-Makhzumi died A. H. 291 (A.D. 903-4), aged 
ninety-six years ; the latter, who bore the name of Abu 'l-Husain Ahmad Ibn 
Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Kasim Ibn Nafi Ibn Abi 'l-Bazza fiashsbar 
al-Farii (i \ \ died A. H. 270 (A.D. 88*4}, aged eighty. 



(1) The autograph iMtAbA Said, but the fftyflm writes the Dime AbH Uabadu here, and the author of the 
TabakAt al-KarrA atate* eipreulj Out guch wa» hii real aumame. 

(3) AM Jaafar Ahmad Ibn Abi 'l-UaMn All Ibn Ahmed Ibn al-BAdbb (^ JU I, a descendant fna tbe An- 
tin and a celebrated teacher of the koranic raadlngt, wai a naUve of Gnuiada, and beld the office of poblk 
preacher iu that city. Hia work, the Iknd jt 'ISiraOt [the mffleient help, treating of tht koranie readingi), 
is esteemed one of the best treatises on the subject. He was likewise well acquainted «ith the Traditions. Died 
A.H. 542 (A.D. 1147-4}.— ( Tab . al-Kurrd, fol. 183 verao.) 

(3) AbA Rnhaija Tamlm Ibn AAi ad-DIrl was originallj a ChriatiaD, but embraced lalamiam in tbe ninth 
jear of the Hijra and became one of Huhammad'a Companioni. He was ao assiduous in the practice of devo- 
tion, that he obtained the appellation of RAhib al-Omma {th» meak of the people). He possessed a talent for 
relating stories or histories, and he continued that practice with the permission of the Prophet.— (Majma 7-^ft- 
Mb, HS. fbnd* St. Germain, No. 131 ; Siar a*-Salaf. ibid. No. 133.)— Sec d'Heii>elot's Bib. Orient. Tamih. 

(4) According to al-Idrlsi, Mrain is situated in the province of Pars ; and the author of the MarAtiil calls it a 
■ea-port where mutk was imported firom India. 

(9) According to Abt '1-Fedl, this occurred in the reign of Anushirwln ; Saif Ibn Zi-Yazan then recovered tbe 
throne of bia ancestors. 
(8) See vol. 1. page 46, note(3i. 

(7) Kadi of the community &cU^t ^.^li ; this was a title given to ^ecbief kadi (Udt 'I fudatj. nore 
particularly in Africa and Spain. See IVoticet »t Extraili. torn. XII. page B78. 

(8) Tbe TdMs were classed b; the length of time which they had known and ftequenled the companions of 



(«) Thu Ibn Katblr is cited in tbe SaUh as an authority for one of the TradiUons given in that work. His 
grandtather'a name was al-HurUalib.— (7ab. at-KurrH.) 

(101 On this subject, td~Dahabi makes tbe following observations in hia Tabakdt al Kurrtl : - AbflJaarsr Ibn 
" al-Bidish al-Andaluai it grossly mistaken in saying that Abd Allah Ibn Idrli il-Audi studied koran-reading 
" under Ibn Katblr ; a statement on which an opinion has been founded that Ibn Kathir died later than A. H. 
'■ ISO, which is another mistake."— {MS. No. 742, fol. 17 verao.) 

(11) Al-Baiii was a vuncla to the tribe of Makht&m, and a mutDazitn in the great mosque of Mekka, Ad- 
Dahatn has a long article on him in the Tabakdl oISmttA. 



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IBN KHALL1£AN*S 



IBN KOTAIBA. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 28 

he remained quiet, and he continued to utter the profeBsion of faith till day- 
break the next morning, when he expired. — His son Abii Jaafar Ahmad Ibii 
Abd Allah was a doctor of the law, and taught also all the works of his father, 
by whom he had himself been instructed in them. He filled the place of kadi 
in Old Cairo, which city he first entered on the 1 8th of the latter Jumada, A. H. 
321 ; he died there in the exercise of his functions, A. H. 322, in the month of 
the first Rabi (February-March, A. D. 934) : he was bom at Baghdad. — It is said 
that most of the learned men {of that time') called the Adab alrKdtib a preface 
without a book, and the hldk o(-itfonIiA (Ibn ai-SMii't work) a book without a 
preface; but this observation betrays a certain degree of prejudice against Ibn 
Kutaiba, for his Adab al-Kdlib contains an abundance of information disp(ttcd 
under regular heads ; and I am convinced that their only motive for saying so 
was, because its preface is very long, whilst the Isldh has none at all. It is re- 
ported that he composed this work for Abu 'l-Hasan Obaid Allah Ibn Yahya Ibn 
Khak^ (1 3), the vizir of the Abhaside khalif al-Motamid^ son of al-Mutawakkil. 
It has been commented by Abu Muhammad (Abd AHah) Ibn as-Sid al-Batalyausi, 
whose life will be found farther on. This learned scholar has explained therein 
the difficulties of the Adab alrKdUb in the fullest manner, and pointed out ttie 
mistakes into which the author has fallen. His treatise bears the title of alrllUir 
d^ (i nhark Adab al-KutWi (Extemporizmg, being a commentary on the Guide 
for Kdtibs), and is a proof of the extensive information possessed by its author. 
— Kvtaiba is the diminutive of kitba, the singular form of the word aktdh, which 
signifies en^oill. It is a common noun, hut came to be used as a proper name. 
From it is formed the relative adjective KiU<dn. — Dtnawari (or Dainawari, as it is 
pronounced by as-Samani, hut incorrectly) means belonging to Dinaxmr, a town 
in Persian Irak near Kirmistn, which has produced a great number of eminent 



(1} Tbe KitaJ> al-Matr^,. or. tu it might be denomimtMl, Ae BooA; of FaeU. u ■ mMl useful worit. Eicb- 
haru eilracted fron it iha genealogiei of the Anbi published in his Jfonununta hittoria Araimn. It contains 
beiidea i great number of short biographical noticei on the earl; Hoslims, etc. 

(2) The Adah al-KAtib, or Writvi'i Guide, Is a short work on orlbogrtphy, phtloiogf, syDonjmi, and gram- 
mar. The prebee is nmarkato for its length. 

(3) See Tol. I. page ISO. 

H) Aba Ishak ai-Zildi descended from Zitd Ibn Abth by the followiog line : His fitfaer Stttjin was son lo 
SnlaimlDlbD AMBakrlbnAbdar-Rahmln ibn ZUdlbn Ablh. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICHONARY. % 

the Traditions ; a treatise on the ideas and allusions usually met with in poetry ; 
the £tfdA alrHaiyi iva 'UMaiyit (U), the £U4& atr-Tawasmt, or arbiter between al- 
Akhfash and Thaalab relative to their explanations of the Koran ; the History of 
Koss Ibn S^da (5) ; a treatise on those nouns which have each opposite significa- SS4 
tions ; the History of the Grammarians ; and a refutation of al-Farra's doctrines 
in rhetoric. He commenced also a number of other works, but did not finish 
them. 

(1) See vol. 1. page 629. 

(5) Ttm Fiutk DT eorreel tpeaker is, tt \U tille implies, a philologkt] WOTfc It u nol eucUf known wbo wu 
Ihe luthoT of it; aoine aitribuie it to Ibn a»-SikkH, tod othe» to Abtl 'l-ibbls Thulab. It bai beeo duel- 
dated bj a great number of com mediators. 

{3) Hajji Khalih doea not specif the mbject of Aii work. 

(4] The Haiyi wa 'l-Matyil {living and dead ) is meotioned bj H^jji Khalifa, but without an; renmrk. 

(6) Ko5> Ibn Satda Ibn Amr al-Ibldi [the NeMlorian Chrittian) vu bishop of I4ajrlD in Yenwo and cele- 
brated for hi( eloquence. Muhammad met hbn at Okli and heard Um preach, same time preriouil; to ibe 
ptonulgatioD of Islanaiim. Al-Maabdi ipeiki of him in Uie Mun^j; m« Dr. Sprenger'* UraoilaiioB of thai 
work, vol. I. page 137. 



AI^KAABI. 



Abu 't-Kaaim Abd AUab Ibn Ahmad Ibn Mabmud al-Kaabi al-6alkhi, a man 
celebrated for his learning, was (he author of that sect of the Motazilites, the 
members of which are called Ka/^itet. He taught some doctrines peculiar to 
himself; for instance, that Almighty God has not ^the faculty of intention, and 
that all his acts happen without his having any intention or will to produce them. 
He was (me of the great masters in scholastic theology, and held someedectic opi- 
nions in this science. His death took place on the first of Shaaban, A.' H. 317 
(September, A. D. 929). — Kaabi means belonging to the tribe of Kaab. — Balkhi 
signifies belonging to Balhh, one of the great cities of Khorasan. 



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ae iBN KHAUKAiva 

AL-KAFFAL AL-MARWAZI. 

Ab4 Bakr Abd Allah Ibn Abmad Ibn Abd AUah at-Kafial al-Manrazi (native 
of Mwvo\ a doctor of the sect of a&-ShaR, was the paragon of his time for legal 
knowledge, traditional learning, pUty, and self-mortification- The results of 
his application to the development of the imam as^hafi's system of doctrine far 
surpassed those of his contemporaries : all bis deductions are sound and his 
arguments decisive. Great numbers studied with profit under his tuition, and 
among the number were Abu Ali as^inji, the kadi Husain (whose life has been 
already given) (1 ), and Abu Muhammad al-Juwaini, the father of the Imam al- 
Haramaiu. All those persons became imams of great note; they composed 
most instructive works, propagated as-Shafi's doctrines in the dilTerent countries 
of the Moslim empire and taught them to others, who, iu their turn, became 
eminent as inuims. ' Al-KaBal was already advanced in years whoi he b^an to 
study the law; he had spent his youth in making locks (akfdl), an art in which 
he attained great skill, and it was for this reason that he was sumamed ^Kaffdl 
(the iockmnith). It is said by some that he was thirty years of age when he com- 
menced learning Jurisprudence. He composed a commentary on Ibn al-Haddad 
al-Misri's (2) treatise on the secondary principles of the law, a work which has 
been commented also by Abu Ali as-Sinji and by Abu Taiyib at-Tabari ; it is a 
small volume and difficult to be undwstood ; some of the questions treated in it 
are so obscure (3) arid ao strange, that none but jurisconsults of superior talent 
can resolve them and widerstaBd their parport : we shall speak of the author 
of this bode, when' givingthe lives of those whoAe name is Mufaaminad. Al- 
Kaffiddiedintheyear 417(A.D. 4026-7), at the age of ninety, aud was biuied 
in Sijistan, where his tooftb is still w>ell kw>WD mdwoitiniira to be visited as a 
place of sanctity. 

(1) For u^iBJi'i life, aee vol. I. p. 410 In page 418 of ihe Mme volume will tw found Om life of Hnmkt. 
<2] Hi* life will be found in this work. 
(3) In (he printed Arabic leit read t^ja. 



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BIOtiRAPHICAL UICTICffiARY. 



ABU MUHAMMAD ALJUWAINL 



Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Yuauf Ibn Muhammad Ibn Haiydya al- 
Juwaini, a doctor of the sect of as-Shafl and the father of the Imam al-Hara- 
main (whose life shall he given later), was a great master in the interpretation 
of the Koran, and in law, dogmatic theology, grammar, and general literature. 
He cultivated this last science at Juwain under his father Abu Yakub Yusuf, 
and then proceeded to Naisapiir, where he studied jurisprudence under Abu 
't-Taiyib Sahl as-Soluki (see vol. L p. 606). From thence he went to Marw and 
put himself under the tuition of al-Kaflal al-Marwazi, him whose life has just 
been given. He followed with great assiduity the lessons of that doctor and 
derived from them much profit and information; he acquired also under his 
tuition a solid knowledge of the ShaGte doctrines, great skill in controversy, and 
a perfect acquaintance with the pecidiar system followed by him in developing 
the principles of the law. Having finished his studies under al-Kaffal, he re- 5tJS 
turned to Naisapur in the year 407 (A. D. 1016-7), and obtained the place 
of professor and mufli. A great number of persons, and amongst them his 
own son the Imam al-Haramain, pursued their studies under him. The 
deepest respect was always shown to him, and no conversation hut the most 
serious was ever held in his presence. He composed a great commentary on 
the Koran, containing much varied information, and also a number of works on 
jurisprudence, such as the Tabiira (ebtcidator), the TazHra (r&nembrancer), the 
Mukktasar al-Uukktasar (abridgment of the abridgmerU) (1 ), the Fark (2), the /omo, 
the 5iinJa (rJtain) (3), the Maukif ai-Intdm wa 'ISHUn^ (station of the imdm and 
thote over whom he presides), etc. He drew up also a number of Taltkas (4), and 
had besides learned a great quantity of the Traditions. His death took place in 
the month ofZu '1-Kaada, A.H. 438 (April-May, A.D. 1047), according to as-S*- 
mani in his Zail; but in his Ansdb he says that it happened in the year 434 (A.D. 
1 042-3) at Naisapur ; God best knoweth the truth ! The same author mentions 
that he died at an advanced age, and he gives the following anecdote as it was 
related by the lAat^ Abu S&lih, the mwcazsm : "The shotfcfc Abd Muhammad 
** al-Juwaini's illness lasted seventeen days, and he expressed a desire that the 
*' washing of his body should be done by me, and that I should preside at his 



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38 IBN KHALLtKAN'S 

" interment. When he died, I washed him, and on shrouding him I perceived 
" that his right arm, from the shoulder downwards, was luminous although it 
" bore no traces of injury; it shone with a lustre like that of the moon, at 
" which I was filled with admiration, and I said to myself : 'This is a blessing 
*' which bis falwas (legal decmom) have drawn down upon him.' " — Juwaini 
means belonging to Juwain, a large territory near Naisapiir, crowded with 
villages. 

(l)Thu it an abridgment of al-Munni'c compcndiom of the Sbafiie iocKnnes.—iTabakitac-SMfljiin.] 

(3) This leems to be a mistake of Ibn Khallikln ; the author of the TabakAt ai-Shdfijiin calls it the Fordi, 
and HajjL Khalifa mentions it under this title iu his bibliographical dictionary. 

[3} Thefe worlis all treat of Shafite jDrispnidence. 

(4) See bdow, note (1). 



ABU ZAID AD-DABUSI. 

Abu Zaid Abd Allah Ibn Omar Ibn Isa ad-DabAsi, one of the most eminent 
jurisconsults of the sect of Abu Hanifa, and a doctor of proverbial reputation for 
his learning, was the first who invented the art of (Moslitn) dialectics and brought 
that science into existence. A number of taalikas (1) were composed by him ; 
he wrote also other works, such as the Asrdr (mysteries') (2j and the Takwtm Ul- 
Adilla (gyst&n of demonstrations) (3). It is related that he once had a discussion 
with another doctor, who only smiled or laughed when pressed by his argu- 
ments, on which he pronounced these verses : 

Why does he answer me by a laugh or a grin when I bring farward a decisive proof T 
If grinning be the result of legal knowledge, how excellent a jurisconsult is the bear of 
the desert 1 

He died in tlie city of Bokhara, A. H. 430 (A. D. 1 038-9).— Dofclhi is derived 

from Dabiisiya, the name of a town between Bokhara and Samarkand, which has 

produced a number of learned men. 

(1> rtMllioi vere of two kinds: the Brst consisted of notes taken by the student during (he lessons of his 
professor ; and the second, ot notes composed lo clear up obscure passages in an author and lupplj hit orois- 
Eions; asort ofcommeQlar;, in fact. Ad-DabOsi's were of the latter kind. 

(2) This is a treatise en the dogmas and the secondary points of the law. 

(3) This work treats of dogmatic ihcoli^y. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



AL-MURTADA IBN AS-SHAHROZURI. 

Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn al-Kasim Ibo al-MuzaCfar Ibn Ali Ibn al- 
Kasim as-Shahrozuri, surnamed at-Murtada (him in whom God is pleased), and 
father of the kadi Kamal ad-din, was celebrated for his great merit and his piety. 
(We shall give the Ufe of his father and that of his son.) This One preacher, 
who was equally remarkable for the elegance of his Ggure and the harmony of 
his style, was kadi of Mosul and taught the Traditions in that city; he had 
]>assed some time at Baghdad in the study of the latter branch of learning and 
the pursuit of legal knowledge. lie composed some beautiful poetry, and 
amongst othw pieces a iuaida of great merit, written in the mystical style pecu- 
liar to the Sufis. We shall give it here (i)i 

The light of their fire glimmered (from afar], and already the nighl had darkened 
[around ut) ; the weary camel-driver could ro longer continue his song, and our guide 
stood perplexed and bewildered. I looked at that fire, but the glance of my eye was 5tt6 
feeble; my mind also had been weakened by my separation {from the beloved); my 
heart was that affiicled heart [wkith you have known »o long] ; and my passion, that in- 
most passion [wkiek has »o long been my lormenl). I then turned towards the Hame and 
said to my companions : " That is Laila's fire ; rein over to it." They directed towards 
it firm glances from their eyes; glances which were repelled and turned aside. Then (my 
eompamom) began to reproach (me] : "Was it not a flash of lightning which you saw, or 
" else a phantom of your imagination?" On this I abandoned them and bent Ihitber 
my way ; desire was the camel which conveyed me, and passion the rider who sat behind 
me. With me was a companion [love] who followed my traces ; for it is the nature of 
love to be importunate. The fire blazed up and we approached nearer, till some time- 
worn ruins intervened. We went on to them till our progress was stopped by sighs and 
sadness. "Who dwell in these abodes?" I exclaimed, and voices answered: "A 
" woilnded man, a captive in bondage, and a victim slain 1 what seekest thou here?"— 
" 1 am a guest," was my reply ; " I seek hospitality, where is the stranger's meal of wel- 
"come?" — They pointed towards the courtof the dwelling: "Stop there," said they, 
"and kill thy camel for thy food; from us a guest never departeth more! He who 
■■ comes to us must throw away his staffof travel." — "But how," said I, "can 1 reach 
" that fire? where is the way?" We then halted at the habitation of some people whom 
the wine had prostrated even before they had tasted of it. Passion had efTaced all traces 
of (heir former existence, and had itself become the mere traces of a ruin ; in this ruin 
they had fixed their abode. Among them was one abstracted, in whom neither com- 
plaints nor tears found any longer place; his sighs alone denoted his existence, and 
even of these {his mil) was guiltless; from these his consciousness was Ear apart. ' 
Among them also was one who made signs that we should observe his passion which, 
less intense {than that of the othen), had allowed his consciousness to exist. I saw that 
each of them had reached ttaitom the description of which would require a long epistle. 



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30 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

" People of desire," said I, " peace be upon yon ; I have a heart so preoccupied with 
" you that it perceived you noil my eyes were required to furnish torrents of tears, so 
" great was my wish to meet you. The impulse of desire hurried me towards you 
" through the vicissitudes of events. I should be in bultwerel to ask you pardon {for 
" my boldnetg) ; may I then hope for a kind reception fmia him who knows what motive 
" I have for not asking pardon 1 1 have come to warm me at the fire ; can I find a road to 
" your fire, now that ^e morning draweth near?" To this they replied not, but their 
external state gave me answer sufHcient, as every veil between my intelligence *aA it 
was now rent asunder; here was the reply: "Let not tiie beautiful gardens deceive 
" thee ; between thee and them are hills and pitfells. How many have tried to 
" reach that fire by surprise I (hey strived to attain the object [of tktir wuhtt), bat to 
"approach it was difficult. They stopped to contemplate; but when Uiey had 
' " every sign of succeeding, the banner of fvlfiltnent appeared, borne in the hand of 
"passion, and tile chie^ gave the c(nnmand to charge. 'Where,' eiclaimed tbey, 
" ' where are they who pretend to resist us in combat? This is tiie day wherein all false 
" ' pretensions shall fade away 1' They charged like heroes ; and on the day when foes 
" meet in arms, it is the heroes alone who (a\\. They lavished every eflbrt, whilst the 
" object of their desire avoided their approach and slighted all their endeavours. They 
" plunged into the abyss and disappeared in its waves ; the currents then cast them back 
" among the ruins which they now stained with their blood (2), shed, alasl in vain. 
" Such is our fire ; it shineth for him who travelleth at night, but it cannot be reached. 
" The share of it which falls to the sight is the utmost which can be obtained ; but those 
" able to conceive this are few in number. One whona yon well know went towards it, 
" hoping to take from it a brand ; he approached with outstretched arms, with wishes 
" and supplications, but it rose far beyond his reach ; it vas too exalted to abide his 
"proximity, and yet he was a prophet. We therefore rest amazed as thou hast seen; 
" all our efforts to reach it being vain ; we pass away the time in [the delutioni of] hope, 
" but judge what is the state of that heart whose aliment consists in being tantalised ! 
" Each time it tastes the bitter cup of misfortune, another cup is brought to it, sweet- 
" ened with hope. Each time fancy sets a project before us, we are turned away from 
" it and told that patient resignation befits us best. Such is our state; such is all that 
" our knowledge can attain ; but every state must undergo a change." 

I give this kasida on account of its rarity and because it is in high request. 
It is t^lated by a (S&fi,) $kaikk that he had a dream in which he heard a voice say : 
" Nothing was ever uttered on Sdfism so good as the Mausiliyan kasida (the Mo- 
" sul kadda);" and this is Oie one which was meant. — The following distich was 
given by Majd al-Arah (glory of the Arabt) (3) al-Aamiri as having been com- 
posed by al-Murtada : 

O my heart I how long will good advice prove useless? Quit thy sportive humour; how 
often has thy gaiety brought thee into danger 1 There is no part of thee without a 
wound [h] ; but thou wilt not feel the bad effects of inebriation till thy reason returneth. 

The kdtib Imad ad-din gives the following verses as al-Murtada's in the Kha- 
rida: 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 31 

I songbt my heart, Aat I might ask of patimce the force to sustain, fbr a moment, the 

rig^re of -my beloved; but I mitber biuad my heart nor patience. The sunahine of 

,< oar fbsd iotercouree vas gone; darkness had overshadowed the paths of love, and I 

stopped amazed ^td confounded; but a single instant had scarce elapsed when I saw 

her again a sovereign mistress, and my heart her captive. 

These verses also are by the same person : 

Those whom I love departed, and how copious were the tears of blood which they then 
let loose {from our a/t»); and how many hearts did they bring back into bondage I Blame 
me not if grief for their absence make me reject the controul of reason ; what I have just 
said will suffice for my eicuse. 

For Ihem my heart is in affliction ; fbr them I shed tears of blood ; for them 1 am con- 598 
snmed with Bames ; for them my heart is broken. At their door we are a crowd of 
suitors; our hearts melting away with apprehension; they have left us scarcely a 
breath of life ; that they saw our state. Kindness or aversion, sleep or waking, des- 
pair or hope, patience or restlessness, — these eiist for us no longer. O that they had 
remained even after they had broken the ties of friendship and treated me with cruelty ! 
Were the love 1 bear them to deprive me of existence, Uie perfume of that love woidd 
yet remain I I am like tbe taper, useful to those around it, but consuming itself away. 

' I never went to meet thee, Laila 1 without feeling as if the earth were folded up from 
under me (lo rapid uxu my pace) ; but when my resolution turned me from thy door, 1 
stumbled over the skirts of my garment. 

Most of his poetry is in the same style. He was bom in the month of Shaa- 
ban, A. H. 465 (April-May, A. D. 1073); he died at Mosul in the month of the 
first Rabi, A. H. 5H (July, A. D; 1H7), and was interred in the sepulchral 
diapel of the Shahrozuri family. The kMb Imad ad-din says in his KharUa, 
where he gives a notice on al-Murtada: ^'As-Samani mentions having heard 
" that the kadi Abit Muhammad," — meaning al-Murtada, — '* died some time 
" later than the year 520." 



(1] All (he iita* of the fttuldti are boTroired from ptiloral life : io the foUowiog piece they luTe a mytlic 
imfoit biifci, u dull be bere iadioUed. Dm lioht of their fin; the pretence of the Dirinily iDinlfetted lo 
iheMinU. TAa n^At: motd darkaeu. Tht camtl-drbftr : the ^ntdiv. The gtUdt; Ihi dhioe. Tht be- 
lotwd.- God. J[A(Ia.- tbe nameof Ihebeloved, God. Deiira: the loveof God. Piuifon: The aniioiu with to 
eojoj thedivioe Preaeaee. Tht l(m«-icom rvint: the world, the teal of detolalion id the ejei of the devout, 
inUBHUh al tbe pmeace of tbe Divinitj it not Blirajt felt in it. Tht ttoutuUd. tht eapUve. and tht victim: 
the nnqojthed bj itie bveof God. Frvm m ^ gimt atver departelhvtore: till hit fool u re'eated bj death. 
Tht ptoplt: the derout, the SAfl brethren. Wine; tbe delight caiued by the perGeption of God's pre- 
fesee. Slalioiu: degreei of exaltation attained by the tout ibrough the meant of tpiriiual eierdiet and 
FtofUofdttin! antditr BUM for the lovwt of tbe IMviBitT. Thtwarmlhof thtfin: the 



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32 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

beneBcUl influence of God'i preience. The morning : Qie eaUtncn of the novice inw the Sdfi life itter •b»n- 
doning the world, which U the »eit of darkneu. The gardent : pondite. The banner of fulfilmeni: the «iri 
that (he novice has become an adept and fulfilled all the necessar; duUei of spiritual Ufa. The chieft. Ille- 
terally. the people of the trutki .- so called because tbej have obuined a clear insight into the spiritual world, 
which ia tbe abode of truth as ihU earth is the abode of illusion. To charge: liicrall;, lo canlw round and 
round the field of haiile and challenge the enemj; it then signifies, to turn round as (he dervishes do. The enemt/: 
the world and iU passions. The abyii : the Divine nature. rAroirn back among the ruini .- recovering from 
an ecalai; of divine love and finding oneself in the world. One lehom you aell know .- Ihe prophet Hoks. 
The brand: see Koran, sural 27, verso 7; Eiod. 111. 

(2) In the Arabic leil. for 3^^ read i.J. 

(3) The autograph alone has wJiJI -X-p*, not ,^.jJ' J>=r* « *• olw MSS-l *« A"' ^ ceruinlj the 
right reading. ImAd ad-Dln has a notice od ihis person in the Kharidtt. the sum of which is ; The emir Hajd . 
al-Arab HuiilTarad-Dawlal Aba Farts Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibo Ghilib al-Alroiri was the wonder of tbe age for 
his poetic ulent, and his verses were proverbially said lo be as fine as those of his nantesake Abd Farls (see 
Ibn Khallikln's Biograpb. Diet. vol. I. page 366). He was born in the province of Irak and went to Ispahln, 
A. B. S37 (A. D.1142t3I, where he pronounced his eulogistic kasldas and acquired great reputation. The 
kdHb saw him for the last time al Mosul. A. H. S70. — {Kkarida US. No 1447. fol XT, where some long «- 
tracts from bis poetry are given.) 

(8) The autograph has \»%. ^j • but the tense ceruloly requlrea U1 J« <jJl'. 



SHARAF AD-DIN IBN ABI USRUN. 

Abu Saad Abd Allah Ibn Abi 's-Sari Muhammad Ibn Hibat Allah Ibn Hu- 
tahhar Ibn Ali Ibn Abi UsrAn Ibn Abi 's-Sari at-Tamimi, surnaraed first al- 
Hadithi and then al-Mausili (native of Moml\ entitled also Sharaf ad-din (noble- 
ness of religion^, was a doctor of the Shafite sect, and one of the first men of the 
age by his talents and his learning as a jurisconsult. His reputation spread to 
distant countries and his influence was most extensive. In his youth he studied 
the ten readmg$ (1) of the koran under Abu 'l-Ghanaim as-Sutami as-Saruji, 
al-Bari Abu Abd Allah Ibn ad-Dabbas (see vol. I. page 459), Abu Bakr al-Maz- 
rati (2\ and other masters. He commenced learning jurisprudence under the 
kadi al-Murtada Ibn as-Shahrozuri (vol. II. p. 29\ and Abu Abd Allah al-Husain, 
Ibn Khamis al-Mausili (see vol. I. page 422} ; he had afterwards, when in Bagh- 
dad, Asaad al-Mihani {vol. I. p. 189) for preceptor in that science. He studied 
dogmatic theology under Ibn Barhan al-Usuli (vol. /. p. 80), and learned there 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 3S 

also dialectics. From Baghdad he proceeded to Wasit and read the Koran under 
the tuition of Ahu Ali 'l-Fariki (vol. I. p. 376), the kadi of that city, by whom 
he was instructed also in the Fawdid al-Mvkaddab. In the year 523 (A.D. \ 1 29) 
he himself gave public lessons at Mosul, after which he resided for some time 
at Sinjar whence he proceeded to Aleppo, A,H. 545: from that he removed to 
Damascus, when Ni^ ad-din Mahmud Ibn Zinki got possession of that city in 
the month of Safar, A. H. 549 (April-May, A. D. 1154). He then opened a 
class in the western corner of the great mosque, and was appointed adminis- 
trator of the endowments ( wakfs ) possessed by the mosques. He then re- 
turned to Aleppo, where he settled. A great number of works were com- 
posed by him to elucidate the doctrines of the sect to which he belonged; of 
these may be mentioned the Safwat aUMazbab (quintessenee of the Shafite doetrina), 
extracted from the (/wwim ol-ffofomom'i) Nihdyat aUMalUdf, in seven volumes; 
the Kitdb alrlraisdr (vindication of the Shades), in four volumes ; the ^db at- 
Munhid (the guide, a work on the secondary points of law), in two volumes ; and 
the SUdb az-Zarta ft Marafat as-Sharia (means of acquiring a knowledge of the 
law). He composed also the Tafstr (explanation), a work forming four volumes 
treating of the points in which his sect differs from the others; the Mdkkaz an- 
Nazar (point of view); a short treatise on the dividing of inherited property; 
and a work entitled alrlrshdd al-Mughrib fi Nusrati %Mazhab (plain directions for 
the defence of the Shafile sect); this last however he did not complete, as it was 
stolen from him with other pro|ierty at Aleppo. The number of students who 
followed his lessons and profited by his tuition was very great. His merit 
having at length rendered him conspicuous, he obtained the esteem and favour 
of Nur ad-din, lord of Syria, who erected colleges in Aleppo, Emessa, Hamat, 339 
Baalbek, and other cities, for the express purpose of having him to teach in 
these places. (At different periods) he filled the post of kadi at Sinjar, Nisibin, 
Harrln, and elsewhere in Diar Bakr; he then returned to Damascus, A.H. 570 
(A. D. 1 174-5), and three years afterwards, he was appointed to fill the same 
functions in that city when the kadi Dia ad-din as-Sbahrozuri gave in his resig- 
nation ; an act of which I shall state the motive in the life of Kamal ad-din 
Muhammad as-Shahrozuri. Ten years before his death he lost his sight, but 
continued to hold his office, the duties of which were discharged by his son and 
deputy, Muhi ad-din Muhammad. At that time, he composed a short treatise 

VOL. II. & 



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34 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

to prove that the place oF kadi could be lawfully held by a blind man ; a point 
in opposition with the doctrine of as-Shifi on the subject : I have read, it is 
true, in the Kitdh az-Zawdtd, a work composed by Abil 'l-Hasao al-lmrani (3), 
the author of the Kitdb al-Baydn, that, in one point of view, it is lawful ; this 
Is, however, quite an extraordinary opinion, and I never found it advanced 
in any other work but his. (Speaking of this suhject 1 must mention that) a letter 
fell into my hands, addressed to al-Kadi 'l-Fadil at Cairo from the sultan Salah 
ad-din at Damascus; it was wholly in that prince's handwriting and, among 
other passages, it contained one relative to Sbaraf ad-din's blindness and his 
opinion that the post of kadi could be lawfully filled by a blind man, although 
all the other jurisconsults declared the contrary — ' ' you will therefore," says the 
writer, " have an interview with the j/iatfcfc Abu 't-Tahir Ibn Auf al-Iskan- 
'* darani, and ask him what are the traditions on this subject, and if they au- 
'* thorise it or not." — But after all, there can be no doubt of his eminent merit. 
The hd^z Ibn Asakir mentions him in the History of Damascus, and the kdtih 
Imid ad-din makes his eulogium in the KhaHda and pronounces him the last of 
the tmtftis : he gives also some verses composed by him. The two which fol- 
low were recited to me by one of our shaUdu, with the remark that he had heard 
Ibn Abi Usrdn repeat them very often, hut that he did not know if they were his 
own or not; they are given, however, as that doctor's by the kdtib in the KhaHda: 

I hope for a lengthened life ; and yet every hoar the dead pass by me, as their biers are 
borne rapidly along. Am I not as they, except that I must pass a few more sad nights 
lo complete the time of my existence? 

The following Hoes also are quoted as his in the same work : 

I always hope (o meet my beloved, and yet 1 know fall well that I must quit her shortly 
aRer. Mounted on the steeds of Mortality, we rush, as if wiUi emulation, towards the 
goal of death. that we both might expire together I neither of us then would taste 
the bitter loss of the other. 

thou who askest me how I have been since thy departure t God preserve thee from 
what my heart has felt since our separation. Tears of grief swore never to cease flow- 
ing from my eyes, and sleep swore never to visit them till I met thee again. 

The time which has passed is gone for ever, and that which is to come exists not. 
Thy life is only the present moment; the days of man form two sums, one increasing, 
the other diminishing. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 35 

Ibn Abi Usrun was bom at Mosul on Monday, the 22nd of the first Rabi, 
A. H. 492 (February, A. D. 1099); he died at Damascus on the eve of Tuesday, 560 
thellthof Ramadan, A. H. 585 (October, A.D. 1189). He was buried in the 
madrasa which bears his name and which he himself had founded within that 
city : I have often visited his tomb. On his death (one of his female relatives) 
received a letter of condolence from al-Kadi 'I-Fadil, in reply to one wherein she 
announced to him this event : his participation in her grief was expressed in the 
following terms : "I have received the letter of the honourable lady for whose 
" welfare may God provide ! may He preserve her for the happiness of her 
*' family; may He smooth for her the path leading to spiritual welfare, and 
" make her words and actions proceed from the wish to gain his favour." It 
contained also this passage : " I shall only add — and what 1 mention is a dimi- 
** nution in the strength of Islamism, and a breach in the frame of human 
" society, so great as nearly to cause its ruin ! — I mean that which God decreed 
" concerning the death of the imam Sharaf ad-din Ibn Abi Usrun, may the 
" divine mercy be upon him ! — the loss sustained in him by the world at large; 
" the affliction of the pious — and the joy of the foes to religion. For he was a 
" land-mark set up in the tracts of science, and he counted an^ng the last rem- 
" nants of a holy race now passed away. And God knoweth my grief for his 
'* death, my desolation in the world now deprived of the blessing of his pre- 
" sence, and my sadness in losing the abundant merits of his charitable pray- 
" ers." — HadUhi means belonging to the Haditha of Mosul, a village on the east 
bank of the Tigris near (the taouth of) the Upper Zab. It must not be con- 
founded with another place of the same name, the Radttha of on-iVllro, which is 
a fortress on an island in the Euphrates, at some parasangs' distance from al- 
Anbar. The former lies at the most eastern extremity of the territory called the 
Sawdd, and is the one meant by the jurisconsults when they say, in their books : 
" The land of Sawad extends in longitude from the Haditha of Mosul to Abba- 
" dan, and in latitude from al-J(adisiya to Hulwan." 



(IJ There are tefen authoriged reaMngi of the Koran, aaaied afler leven greai doctors who fitat taught tbem 
and whose lives are given by Ibn KhalliUn ; three more Ttadingt were afterwatdi admitted, and Yakftb IbR 
Ishak al-Hadrami, the author of one of them, is considered as the ei^lh r«iKl«r. I have not yet been able to 
discover the names of ihe two others. 



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36 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

(9) Aba Bakr Huh«naiiil Ibn al-HuMin al-MairaG, ■ tMcher of the koranic nadHtgt and i calculator nf 
th« diTisioD of [DheritancM (al-fonufi). inhabited Hainfa, a village Ijing b«twMD BaRlidad and Okbara. He 
was born at Baghdad, A. H. 439 (A. D. 1047-8), and died prajing, A. H. 62T (A. D. HS3).—{Tab al-Kurrd. 
fol.UK.) 

(3) 3aad Ibn Yabja Dm Abi 1-Khair al-ImrlDi, a oatiTe of Temeo and the aathor of the Baf/An, or eluci- 
dation of the Hcondarj poinU of the law, wa> a doctor of tbe leci of aR-3hin, and held a high reputalion for 
bia knowledge of the law, dogmatic and scholaslie theology, and the science of grammar. None possesaed a 
belter acquaintance than he with the works of Abb lihak aa^hlrlii, and he wu lurpaued bf noQe in pietj and 
derotioD. Students came trom all countries lo sludj under bim ; hut il is said that he sonwtimei combined 
with the Shafite doctrines certain principles tiorrowed from the school of Irak, the great imim of which was 
AbftHantra. Hewasbom A. H. 4B9 (A. D. 1096), anddied A. H S98 (A. D. 1103-3). The following works 
were composed b; him : the Baj/An. in ten volumes ; Ibe Zawaid, or additioni lo Abfi Isbak as-Shirlii's Jlfu- 
haddah, in IwoTolomes; Ibefftdb os-Saicdl, questions on the obscure points of the dfuAoddab; an abridged 
collection of /bfuxu; an abridgment of al-Ghaiilli's /Aya oJdm ad-dtn; thefnfUor, or aid. a refutation of tbe 
Kadarilet. He composed the Haydn in somewhat less than four years and the Zaudid In aboui Ave.— [Tab. 
tuShdf.)— In the autograph MS. of Ibn Khallikin, his surname is given as AbA 'l-Husain ; in tbe TMotdt 
tu-Shdflytn, as Ab& 'l-Kbair ; and in the Tabakdt al-Fokahd, as Abb '1-Hasan, which is also that found in the 
other manuscripts of Ibn Khallikln's work . 



IBN ASAAD AL-MAUSIU. 

Abu 'l-Faraj Abd Allah Ibo Asaad Ibn Ali Ibn Isa, generally known by the 
appellation of Ibn ad-Dahhan al-Mausili (ton of the Motid oti-merc/ian(), entitled 
also al-Himsi (native of Emeua) and sumamed al-Muhaddab (1), was a juriscon- 
sult of great abilities, a learned scholar and a fine poet. His verses are remark- 
able for the elegance of their turn and the beauty of their thoughts. Poetry 
became his ruling passion, and it was to it that he owed his reputation. His 
poetical works are all of great merit and fc»>m a small volume. Mosul was his 
native place, but poverty forced him to take the resolution of going to Egypt, that 
he might pay his court to as-Salifa Ibn Ruzzik, the lord of that country («ee hxt 
life, vol. I. page 657). Obliged, by the insufficiency of his means, to leave his 
wife behind him, he addressed tlie following lines to the $hartf Dia ad-din Abfi 
Abd Allah Zaid Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Obaid Allah al-Husaini, the 
nakib or chief of the thartfs at Mosul : 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 37 

An afflicted female, bathed in teara for my departure, ho[>ed to detain me by declaring 
my project the result of folly. Her entreaties were urgent, and when she saw me deaf (o 
her prayers, the tears which fell from her eyes wounded me to the heart. She perceived 
the camels already loaded, — and the moment of separation had united the lamenters and 
those for whom they were lamenting, — when she said : " Who will save me from gtarva- 
" lion in thy absence?" — "God," I replied, "and thy patron Ibn Obaid Allah. Fear 
" not for want of sustenance; there is one whose beneficence is ample^ like the showers 
" of the Pleiades ; him I have asked to shed abundance upon thy place of dwelling." 

When the $hartf read these verses, he immediately undertook to proride for 
the poet's wife, and he furnished her with every thing she required as long as 
her husband was absent. As for Ibn Asaad, he went to Egypt and recited to 
as^lih Ibn Ruzzik the poem composed in his praise, and rhyming in K, of 
which some verses have been already given (vol. 1. pageGSS). He afterwards 
underwent various vicissitudes of fortune and became at length a professor at 
Hims (Emestd), where he fixed his residence. It was for this reason that he re- 361 
ceived the surname of al-Himn. The kdtib Imad ad-din speaks of him in the 
Kharida: *'WhenI was in Irak," says he, " my constant desire was to meet him, 
*' for I had read his admired kadda$ and was struck with the beauty of his ideas; 
** his poem rhyming in K had already circulated throughout all the literary 
" world, and was itself a written proof that none of his contemporaries had at- 
« lained to such a degree of excellence as he." After tliia eulogium he conti- 
nues: **A slight lisp only served to display the perfection of his style, and the 
*' very impediment in his speech only showed off better his command of lan- 
" guage." Farther on he says : "When the sultan Salah ad-din arrived at 
" Emessa and encamped outside the city, this Abu 'l-Faraj came out to us, and 
" 1 presented him to the sultan, saying : * This is the man who said in his poem 
" on Ibn Ruzzik: 

' What I shall I praise the Tnrks in hopes of their bounty 7 Why 1 the Turks have 
' alirays left poetry in neglect.' 

" On this the sultan made him a present, and observed at the same time that 
** he did so in order to prevent him at least from saying that be was neglected." 
The poet then celebrated the praises of the sultan in a kasida of which each verse 
ends in the letter atn ; it is in this poem that we find the following passage : 

I shall say to her [2] whom religious scruples prevented from replying to my salutation : 
' ' Why then didst thou shed my heart's blood without feeling compunction t Thy pro- 



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38 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

" mise was to meet rae in the coniiig year; bat think not that I sliaU survive till thy 
* ' return. Miracle of beanty ! Uiou in vhoae face ak>ne the Creator employed bts almost 
> ' care I it coald not have banned thee hadst thou given me, on the day of oar sflpara- 
" tion, a sign of recognition with thy eye or with thy hand. Be aBSured, however, that I 
" love thee with devotion ; so do with me as thou pleasest." 

The kdtib mentions also that Ibn Asaad recited to him the following lines, and 
stated tliat the thought which they contained was perfectly onginal and had 
never before been expressed: 

His letters are the destruction of squadrons ; and when they go forth, I know not 
which is most effectual, — their lines or an army. The sand adhering to the writing had 
not been appropriate, did earth not adhere to the soldiers' legs when marching. 

These two verses belong to a kastda, and the author has displayed in them 
gieat originality. But a certain poet has said, in comparing the pen to an 
army (3) : 

A Eamily who, when Ihey seize their pens in anger and dip them in the ink of fate, 
inflict with them on their enemies greater harm than with Iheir swords. 

I may observe that the idea expressed in Ibn Asaad's 6rst verse resembles 
that which is contained in the following lines, composed by Abu Tammam, in 
praise of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Malik az-Zaiy4t, al-Motasim's vizir : 

Prince of the faithful I you have roused Muhammad, and in your hand he is a lance 
and a sword. You no sooner direct his thoughts towards a rebel, than you have di- 
rected an army against that foe. 

I afterwards discovered an idea similar to that contained in Ihn Asaad's second 
verse ; it is to he found in a hastda composed by at-Tograi (whose life has been 
given, vol. I. page 462), in honour of Nizam al-Mulk : 

When the day is changed to night by the cloud of dust which shrouds the battle-Keld, 

those heroes never cease to wield their blood-stained weapons of Indian steel. Lines 

562 are traced on (heir armour by the strokes of the sword ; those lines are pointed by the 

thrusts of lances ; thus is formed a page of writing for which the dust of the combat 

serves as suid. 

The following verses by Ibn Asaad arc currently cited : 

All day she avoids me as she would an enemy ; but &om evening to morning she bears 
mc company. When she passes by me, she fears discovery and her words are re- 
proaches; but her wanton glance is a salutation. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAKY. 39 

By the same, on a girl whose lip was stung by a bee : 

How dear to me is that maiden stung by the bee t It gave pain to the noblest and most 
precioDB of beings. Its sting left a mark on that lip which God had only created to be 
kissed. It took her mouth far its hive, pn finding that the moisture of her lips was like 
honey. 

The apprehension of lengthening this notice too much prevents me from giving 
more curious passages from his poems. He died at Emessa in the month of 
Shaaban, A. H. 581 (November, A. D. 1185), but some say, 582: the latter 
date is that given in the work entitled as-Sail wa 'z-ZaU (A), but the former is 
the true one. He was then nearly sixty years of age. — The sharif Ibn Obaid 
Allah, of whom we have spoken above, died at Mosul in the year 563 (A. D. 
1 167-8). He was a generous rdi* (5), always ready to do good and possessed of 
every virtue. He is the author of some poetry, of which we may cite the fol- 
lowing lines ; 

{JHy attmiet) said (to my beloved): "He is resigned to his loss." They spoke the 
truth ; I am resigned to (he loss of all consolation ; not to the loss of her affection. They 
said: "Why has be ceased to visit her?" I answered: "Through Fear of censorious 
"spies." They said: " Bow can he live in such a state?" I replied :" That is really 
" ^e wonder." 

The HtA Imad ad-din mentions Ibn Obaid Allah in the £?»arCda, and, after 
praising him highly, he says : ' ' When at Baghdad I heard a piece of verse sung 
"there which some Syrians attributed to the shori/* Dia ad-din j in it was the 
- " following passage : 

' willow of the valley I thou whose glances have shed my heart's blood ! — or shall 1 
< not rather call thee the slender reed of the plain ? — It is mine to disclose to thee what I 
' snfFer from the pains of love, and it is thine not to hearken to me. By what means 
' shall I obtain the object of my wishes 7 my hands are unable to grasp it, and I feel like 
' one deprived of them (6) I' " 



(1) At-Uukaddab it probabiy the equivalent otMukaddab ad-dtn. 
&) LitcroUr: Say to har; that i>, b«ar thit menage from me to A«r. 

(3) Tbe obienratioDg which follow are evidentlf later addilioD*. Tbej are writlen in the margin of Ibe auiu- 
gTiph HS. and it ma; be perceiTed from a date inipection, that thej were Inserted succeMivelj and at three dif- 
fBteot periodi. It may even be remarked that manj of the aulbor't later additiona, such ai these, are of 
Tery slight Importance. 

(4) This i( a raliUke, but It is found in all tbe maouKripU, the antograph included. Ibn Khalllklin should 



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have irriuen a$-Sait ala 'i-Zail, which work is ■ continuation, b; the kdtib Intid ad-dIn, of a>-Samlni'» 
supplemeot lo the History of Baghdad. See Fluegel'a Haiji Skalifa, No. 2179. 

1,8^ The author givei Ibn Obaid Allah the title of rdii, or ckiaf, becauM he wag noilb of the tharift. 

(0) This verse is rather enigmatical, but as the poet has just hinted that his mistress resembled a willow or a 
reed by the thinness of her waist; he most probably means here that her waist was too thin to be clasped ; Id 
shon, an evuietceDt quantity. 



IBN SHAS. 

Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Najm Ibn Shas Ibn Nizar Ibn Ashair Ibn Abd 
Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Shas al-Judami as-Saadi, surnamed al-Jalal (1 ), was 
an able jurisconsult of the sect of Malik, in the principles of which he was pro- 
foundly versed : I met a great number of his former pupils at Cairo, and they all 
spoke of his merit in the highest terms. He composed on the system of doctrine 
founded by the imam Malik a valuable work, displaying great originality and 
entitled al-Jawdkir atk-Thamina ^ Mazbab Aalimi %Madtna (prmou* Jems, being 
a treatise on the doctrines lartght by the learned man of Medina) -. it is drawn up on 
the plan of Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali's Wajtz, and furnishes many proofs of the 
vast abilities possessed by its author; the Malikites of Cairo study it with great 
assiduity on account of its excellence and the rich store of information which 
they find in it. Ibn Shas was a professor in the college near the Great Mosque 
of Cairo, but when the fortress of Dimyat (Damietta) was taken by the misguided 
565 enemy (the cmsaders), he proceeded thither with the design of Qghting in the 
cause of God, and he died there in the month of the latter Jumada, or in thai 
of Rajab, A. H. 616 (Aug.-Sept. A.D. 1219). — We have already explained the 
meaning of the words Juddmi and Saadi (see vol. I. page 1 48). 



(1) The autograph has JiM' 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



ABD ALLAH IBN AL-MOTAZZ. 



Abik '1-Abbas Abd Allah Ibn al-Motazz Ibn al-Mutawakkil Ibn al-Motasim Ibn 
Harun ar-Rashid Ibn al-Mahdi Ibn al-Mansur Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Abd 
Allah Ibo al-Abbas Ibn Abd al-Muitalib al-4Iasbimi (a de$cendanl from Hdshim 
Ibn Abd Mandf) acquired his knowledge of literature under (he tuition of Abu 
'l-Abbas aUMubarrad, Abu '1-Abbas Thaalab, and other eminent masters. He 
was not only well acquainted with the pure Arabic language, but equally skilled 
in the arts of eloquence and poetry. In his verses he displayed a natural talent 
and superior abilities ; they were clear in their meaning and easy in their style. 
These qualities, joined to a fertile genius and a mind prompt in conceiving ori- 
ginal ideas of great beauty, inclined him to cultivate the society of learned scho- 
lars and literary men, and as such he was himself counted, till the fatal event 
which befel him in the khalifate of al-Muktadir. Having then entered into a 
conspiracy with the principal civil and military officers of the empire, they de- 
posed al-Muktadir on Sunday the 20th, or by another account the 23rd, of the 
first Rabi, A. H. 296 (December, A. D. 908) ; after which they proclaimed Abd 
Allah khalif, under the title of al-Murtada billa ( him in wltom God is pleased ), or, 
as it is mentioned in other statements, al-Munsif billah (the dispenser of jvstif,e in 
God's name), or al-Ghalib billah ((he victor with God's ojmlonce), or ar-Radi billah 
(the plemng by God's favour). He remained in authority during one day and 
one night, when his supporters were attacked and dispersed by the partisans 
of al-Muktadir, who had united in considerable force; the deposed khahf was 
restored to the throne, and Ibn al-Motazz fled for concealment to the house of 
a person named Abu Abd Allah al-Husain Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Ilusain, but 
who was more generally known by the name of Ibn al-Jassas at-Tajir al-Jau- 
hari (the tnerchant jeweller, son of the gypsum seUer). He was there discovered 
by al-Muktadir and handed over to the eunuch Munis (1 ), the lord treasurer, 
by whom he was put to death. His body was then delivered up to his family, 
enveloped in a cloak. Some persons have mentioned that he died a natural 
death, but this is not true j for he was certainly strangled by Munis on Thurs- 
day the 2nd of the latter Rabi, A. H. 296 (December, A. D. 908). He was 
interred in a ruined building opposite his own house. His birth took place 

VOL. II. 6 



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h% IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

on the 22nd of Shaaban, A. H. 247 (October, A. D. 861), or according to Sinan 
Ibn Thabit (2), in the year 246. The fall of Ibn al-Motazz is an event of which 
the history is well known; a full narration of it would lead u» too Sir, but 
(he main points of it are yvhtA we have just mentioned (3). Ibn aUJassas 
was ih^i arrested by al-Muktadir's orders, and fined to the amount of two 
millons of dinars, but some time after, seven hundred thousand of them were 
restored to him. He was an inconsiderate and simple man. His death occurred 
on Sunday the 13th of Shawwal, A. H 315 (December, A. D. 927).— Ibn al- 
Motazz composed the fotlowing works : Kitdb az-Zahr wa 'r-Ridd ( fkwen and 
gardena); Kitdh al-BoM (tret^se on the bemUie* of sttfle); the Mukd^at <U-Ikhwdn 
( poetMal corre^ondeme between the Bretkrm) ; the Jawdrih wa '*-Smd (o treatite on 
fdams <md game); on Plagiarisms; Poems by royal authors; the Aiiidfr a^Addb (on 
poKfcrwM and ioml d?rf«*}; the ffoiyu 'Mfc/tMr (Awtoncoi j«tceii); ih^Tahahdt 
at'Shuard (a clamfied tnogr<^hy of the poets); the Jdmi (a eompr^mmve treo-. 
Ute on vocal munc), and a collection of rajax verses in dispraise of early drinking. 
One of his sayings was: ** Eloquence is the just expression of ideas in few 
" words (4).'' He observed also that if he was asked what was the &iest pas- 
sage of poetry which he knew of, he would say that it was the following, by 
al-Abbas Ibn al-Ahnaf : 

The public have cast suspicions on us (5] and spokw of our conduct in various man- 
ners. But some were mistaken and suspected a vrong person {to be my beloved), and 
others were right in their ooi^ectures, but knev it not. 

Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Bassam, a poet whose life shall be given in this work, 
lamented the death of Ibn al-Motazz in these terms : 

Hov eloquent were thy words, thou iriiom destruction has placed among; the dead, it 

was thou to whom belonged the pre-eminence of learning, of polished manners, and of 

364 worth. Never did an if or an unlttt diminish the valne (of the favours conferred by thee); 

the only conjunetion which ever occurred to thee was thy amjimettM with sudden 

death (6). 

As a specimen of the charming verses composed by Ibn al-Motazz, and of his 
novel comparisons, we may quote the following : 

May an abundant shower water the shady groves of al-Mattra and the convent of Ab- 
diln. How often, at the dawn of day before the lark took wing, I was awoke to take 
my morning-draught of wine by the voices of convent-monks at theirprayere. (Ilothed 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICnONARY. 48 

in bladt robe§, they chaunted matins ; aronnd their waists were belts, and on their heads, 
crowns of hair (7]. The light of the new moon had nearly betrayed us, when she ap- 
peared, thin as a paring of the nail. I shall not say what passed ; question me not, but 
think tiie best. 

Here is another pretty piece not to be found in his collected poetical works, 
but which all those who first transmitted his poems by oral tradition agree in 
considering as his : 

A nymph arrayed in a short tunic hastened towards the caronsers, bearing a corne- 
lian (red tnne] in a white pearl {a porcelain cup). The bright moon in the heavens 
seemed like a coin of gold thrown on a carpet of asure velvet. How often did this maiden 
cheer me with her society, in night* ontrouMed by the dread of jeidous spies. Another 
too was there with a slender waist, and tongue-tied by the efF^ts of wine ; she could 
only converse by nods and signs. I pushed her with my hand and said ; '*Awake, thou 
" who art the joy of oar friendly and convivial band." And she answered with a voice 
enfed[>led by inebriation, and interrupted like that of one who stammers : " I understand 
" thy words, but the juice of the purple [fwit) has overcome me. Leave me till morn- 
"ingthatlmayrecover, and tiien, master, treat Uiy slave as Uiou wilt(6)." 

By tiie same on boiled wine (9), — a piece which proves that its author was a 
Hanefite : 

My friends 1 the purple liquor is now fit for drinking ; for it I have renounced my piety, 
and (yrore dnnnci haveiaid} "It is praiseworthy to renounce former habits." Give here 
the wine in its robe of glass, like a mby set round with brilliants ; the water forms on its 
surface bobbles of silver rising in circlets which break and fonn again . It has the qua- 
lity of preserving me from the flames of hell (10), and ^t is a great merit; deny it who 
can I 

Itm al-Motazz was of a deep tawny complexion and l(aig>(aced, with a beard 
dyed black. I read in a compilation of aoecdotes that he used to say : " There 5tt3 
'* WOTe four poets whose works bore a character opposite to that of their au- 
" thors: the poems of Abil '1-Atahiya were noted for th«r spirit of piety, yet 
" he himself was an atheist; those of AbO Nuwas were on an infamous sub- 
" ject, yet he was more passionate for females than a baboon ; Abu Hukaima 
** the )UIM'$ poetry was considered as a proof of his impotence, yet he was 
'* really more ealacioas than a goat ; and the verses of Muhanunad Ibn Hazim 
" were in praise of contentment, yet be was greedier than a dog." But I was 
told an anecdote of Ibn Hazim which proves the contrary of what Ibn al-Motazz 
said respecting him, and shows that his character accorded with his writings : 
He ws^ living, it seems, hi the neighbourhood of Said Ibn Humaid at-Tusi, the 



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U IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

Mtib, and made a satire on him in consequence of some affair that passed be- 
tween ihem : Said, on learning the contents of this poem, overlooked the affront, 
though sufficiently powerful to punish the author of it. Some time after, Ibn 
Hazim was reduced to poverty and removed from that neighbourhood ; this 
came to the ears of Said, who immediately sent to him a present of ten thou- 
sand dirhims, some trunks of clothes, a horse with his harness, a male and 
a female slave, accompanied wiih a letter worded in these terms: " A man of 
" instruction can be led by a whim of his imagination to describe a subject 
" under a false aspect, and his talent may induce him to depict it in other co- 
" lours than its own; of such a nature must certainly be that satire which, it 
" is reported, you have composed on me. I have now just heard of the state' 
" to which you are reduced and of the poverty from which you suffer,- a mis- 
" fortune which is by no means a disgrace to one who, like you, is gifted with 
*' a noble spirit and a lofty soul. Let us he now partners in what we both 
" possess and share equally what we have. So I here offer you something which, 
" though small, may serve as an opening to greater favours which arc to follow." 
However, Ibn Hazim sent the whole back with these lines : 

You have treated me as al-Muhallab treated al-Farazdak when he overwhelmed him 
with his unbounded generosity. Vou sent riches (11) to tempt me, but you shall not 
effect your project; I swear by the Lord of that tchkh u double atuf that which U *!«- 
gle! (12 I will never accept the lavours of a man whom I have covered with everlasl- 
ing ignominy. 

This is a proof that Ibn Hazim was really contented with his lot, and that he 
could support poverty with patience and resignation (1 3). — Abu Othman Said 
Ibn Humaid was a kdtib, a poet, and a writer of epistles ; gifted with a sweet 
style and possessing superior abilities in his profession. He was also a skilful 
plagiarist; so much so, that a wit said : "If Said's prose and verse were ordered 
" to return to their real authors, he would be left without a line of his own." 
He claimed to be descended from the kings of Persia, and composed a work called 
the Taswiya (equalization), in which he vindicated the Persians from the depre- 
ciation in which they were held by the Arabs. His epistles form also a volumt-, 
and his poetical works another of small size. — Malira is a village near Sarra-man- 
raa. — The Abd^n, after whom the convent is so called, was brother to the vizir 
Said Ibn Makhlad (1 /() : he frequently visited that establishment, to pass some 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 45 

time there, and it was by his means that it had been erected ; for this reason it was 
called the Convent of Abddn (Dair AbdAn). It is hard by al-Matira. Another 
Dair Abdun is situated near Jazirat Ibn Omar (1 5), front which it is only sepa- 
rated by the Tigris; it is now in ruins, but was formerly much visited by the 
inhabitants of that city in their country-parties. — The verse of Ibn al-Motazz, 
The light of the moon had nearly betrayed m, etc. (1 6), contains an idea borrowed 
from Amr Ibn Omaiya, who thus describes the new moon ; 

The daaghter of the cloods of night descends towards the horizon, [in ikape) hke the 
nail-cutting pared oif a little finger. 



(1) MfinU was also lord cbamberlain lo the khtlif and possessed immense inOueoce. 

(2) Abo Satd Sinln Ibn Thibit Ibn Kurra al-HarrAni {a Sabian by reHgion and a nalivt af Earrdn) vat 
the cbief physician of the khalif tl-Muktadir, and be afterwards lened al-Kthir in Ibe same capacilj. This 
priDcG alvaye consulted him and placed die highest cooBdence in his talents. He invited him to become .i 
MosluD. and itler a long mistance. Siotn was forced u> compliance b; the threats of the khalif and the appre- 
hension iDspired bj his violeDt characl«r. Some time afterwards, perceiving in al-KShir's conduct a change 
which foreboded nothing good, he fled to Kborasin, and after a residence in thai counlrj, he returned t« 
B«gbdad,wbere he died in the Moslim religion, A.H. 331 (A.D. (M2-3). In the reign of al-Huktadir, be had 
risen to be the rdfs, or chief of the ph^r^'^n^ : "^^ i° lie jear 309, that prince gave orders that none should 
be allowed to practise without a certificate of capacitj ttom Sintn. In consequence of ihii decree, upwards of 
eight hundred and siitj persons, from Baghdad alone, applied lo him for certilicate!; hut the other pbjsicians 
attached U> the court, and those whose reputation was already established by extensive practice, were dis- 
pensed from that obligation. In the year 306 (A. D. 618-9], al-Muktadir fonndcd an hospital, at Sinln's re- 
quest, near the Damascus Gate [BAb oi-SAdm), and granted to it a monthly sum of (wo hundred dinars. 
In the same year the hospital called BlmOriitdn at-Saiyi:la was founded also at bis desire ; six hundred dinars 
a month were allotted for its support, and the admin is tration of (he establishment was confided to the cele- 
brated astronomer Y&snf Ibn Yabya. Sinln Ibn ThAbit composed a treatise on the history of the old Syrian 
kings; an eiplanalion of the principles of the Sahean religion; some treatises on mathematics and , astronomy ; 
and a number of medical works besides. Fuller details respecting him will be found in the Tdrtkh al-Hu- 
kamA and the work of Ibn Abi Osaiblt. 

(3) The author fitrnishes more information on this bead in the life of the viiir Ali Ibn a^Furlt, and the 
event is noticed by all historians. 

(4) Literally : Eloquence is ^le attaining to the idea without a long journey of words. 

(5) Literally: Have swept over us the trains of their suspicions. 

(ff) I have here rendered the Arabic pun by an Iteglish one nearij equivalent. If and unlsij are classed 
hy the Arabian grammarians among what they call particles {hmf), a term by whidt they designate all the 
pans of speech which are neither nouns nor verbs. " The only particle which occurred to thee," says Ibn 
Basslm, "was the particle of correction ^J^IJ^," Ath-Thaalibi emplojs this eipression in bis radma 
when speaking of (he poet Aba Paras Ibn Hamdln, " who," says he, " received the iMson of advtnitg (lite- 
rally Iht mUf)>rtvne of oorreettoft) and " wia taken prisoner by .the Greeks." In this case, the first word 



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Ut IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

should be pnuKHmcMl lUrpi ; but Iln BaMlm prouauac«d it harfa, lo eStei a verbal quibble. Tbii eipre*- 
sioD MineUinra, ai In the vene quoted bj Ibn Kbtllikln, ligDifiea on unffnuly death, which is alwaj* a 
moral letjom for olheri. 

(?) Here, in the Anbic, (bllDW fbnr linet, whidi, for niMiiH alrtady gira, I bn« not truuhted. 

(8) Tlii* last vene b get to be found in iome of the MSB., the aniofraph anoug Ibe Dninber. 

(0) It appean (rom (he trealUee on the Hanefite ijileiD of juriipnidence, that mutt, or the unfenocDied 
juice of the grape, may be lawflillj drunk, provided thai It be reduced by boiling to Itii than two-thirdt of 
iu origioal volume. 

(10) Had Ihii sort of wine not eibted.^die poet we«ld have drunk wine prcpared by fennentation, and have 
lhu« committed a mortal lin. 

11) In the printed Anbic tcit, read Jlj*"i!Li . 

(IS) That it: Of all crtated tUngi. See Koran, »Qrat 89, verse 3, with Sale'i note. 

(13) It ii rather a proof of hi« pride, insolence, and heartleuneu. 

{14] It ii probable that the author meant to cay ah-Ha$an Ibn Haklad, who was one of the khalif al-Mota- 
ndd'i vijirt.— (MS. No. SW, fol. 333 v.) 

(15) Jailrat Ibn Omar, or DJutreh, ii litnated on Ibe weal bank of the Tigris, and Ilea to the uorlh of 
Mosul, in the province of Nisibtn. 

(16) See page 43. 



ABU MUHAMMAD IBN TABATABA. 

Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Ati Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Ibrahim 
Tabataba Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Haaan Uhi al-Hasan Ibn Ali llm Abi 
'niib, a native of Hijaz but an inhabitant of Egypt, in whidi country he died, 
366 was a $haiHf noted for the purity of his life, the nobleness of his character, his 
vast possessions in lands and tenements, the brilliant style in which he lived, 
the number of his slaves, the greatness of his retinue, the ease which be en- 
joyed, and the comforts with which he was surrounded. There was always a 
man in the hall of his house occupied from monuog till night in pounding 
almonds for sweetmeats ; these his master sent as presents to different persons in 
the city, such as al-Kafikr al-Ikhshidi and others of inferior rank ; the man 
himself received two pieces of gold every month for his pains. Those presents 
were taken to some daily, to others every Friday or every month ; but to Kafur 
were brought ev^ second day two vases filled with sweetmeats and a cake be- 
sides, all folded up in a handkerchief and carefully sealed. This raised tlie 
envy of a great man at court, who observed to Kafilr ^at the sweetmeats were 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. V7 

certainty good, but that the cake did not appear to him to be an ofEering suited 
to a person of his rank. On this, Kiifiir wrote to the sharif, requesting him to 
forward the sweetmeats as usual, but to dispense him from accepting the cake. 
Ibn Tabataba, perceiving ffxim this that some envious person wished his ruin, 
inunediately mounted his horse and rode off to Kafur ; when they were together, 
he told him that he had not sent the cake through a feeling of pride or haughti- 
ness, hut that it was kneaded and baked by a young maiden of the family oi 
Hasan (1 }, and that it was she who offered it to him out of purely reUgious mo- 
tives ; however, if he wished, it should he discontinued. " By no means," re- 
plied Kafur ; *' let it be brought to me as usual, and for the future 1 shall eat of 
" no other-" From that time, the cake and the sweetmeats continued to he sen) 
regularly as before. After the death of Kafur, Egypt was reduced under the 
domination of al-Moizz kbA Tamim Maad al-^baidi by his general Jawhar, him 
of whom we have spoken (tn vol. /. page 340); and at a later period, al-Moizz 
came there himself from the provinice of Ifrikiya. Hia pretenuons to he a des- 
cendant of Ali had been already contested, and on his approach to Old Cairo, 
the people of the city weat forth to meet him, accompanied by a band of $kartft ; 
and Ihn Tabataba, who was one of the number, asked him from whom he drew 
his descent; To this question al-Moizz replied : '*We shall hold a sittingto which 
" all of you shall be convened, and there we shall expose to you the entire chain 
" of our geneakigy." Being at length established in the castle of Cairo, he 
gave a public audience as he had promised, and having taken his seat, he asked 
if any of their chiefs were stUI alive? "No," replied they, " not one of any 
" consequence survives." He then drew his sword half way out of the scab- 
hard and ejutlaimed: " This is my genealogy! and here," said he, scattering a 
great quantity of gold amoi^ them , * ' here are the proofs of my nobility! ' ' On this 
they all acknowledged him for their lord and master (2). — Ibn Tabataba treated 
the intoidants of his domains with great attention and kindness ; he went on 
horseback to visit them and his friends, giving them every mark of poUteness 
and sittii^ with than for a oonsiderahle time before retiring. Great numhers 
owed their wealth to his generosity ; indeed the whole tenour of his conduct was 
most fMTttiseworthy. He was born A. H. 286 (A. D. 899), and he died at Cairo on 
the 4tfa of Rajah, A. H. 348 (September, A. D. 959). Funeral prayers were said 
over his body in the Musalla of the Festival (3), and an innumerable multitude 



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&8 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

were present at his interment. He was buried in the Karafa, and his tomb Is 
in high repute for the rulfitment of prayers offered up at it : it is stated that a 
man made the pilgrimage to Mekka, but had forgot to visit the tomb of the 
blessed Prophet at Medina ; an omission for which he continued to feel the deep- 
est regret : but he at length saw the Prophet io a dream, and was told by him 
that when he forgot to visit the tomb at Medina, he should visit that of Abd 
Allah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Tabataba. Of all the holy men, it was he principally 
who appeared to the inhabitants of Cairo in their dreams (4). It is also related 
that a person indebted to his kindness recited these verses at his tomb : 

Since thy death, the existence of mankind is troubled with care ; but during thy life, 
they were secure from misfortune. 

He then had a dream in which Ibn Tabataba appeared to him and said : "I 
•' heard thy words, but my answer with the accomplishment of thy desires was 
" intercepted before it reached thee ; go, however, to a mosque (5) and make a 
" prayer of two Takas ; then ask, thy request shall be granted." — We have al- 
ready explained the meaning of the word Tabdtabd (in vol. I. page i 1 5). — The 
anecdote which we have just related, of Ibn Tabataba's interview with al-Moizz on 
that prince's arrival in Egypt, is taken from the work called ad^Dual alrMunkatia'6\ 
but it is in contradiction with dates ; for al-Moizz entered Cairo in the month of 
Ramadan, A.H. 362 (June, A.D. 973), as we shall again mention in his life, and 
S67 Ibn Tabataba died A. H. 348, as has been already said ; how then can we admit 
that a meeting took place between them ? I learned the date of his death from 
our shaikh Zaki 'd-din Abd al-Azim al-Mundiri, whom 1 consulted also on this 
anachronism : he replied that the date of Ibn Tabataba's death was perfectly 
certain, and that it was perhaps his son to whom this circumstance happened 
with al-Moizz; God knoweth best if this conjecture be right or not ! (7) I have 
since found that the emir aJ-Mukhtar al-Musabbihi gives, in his History of Egypt, 
the same date for Ibn Tabataba's death as that which I received from Zaki 'd-din. 
He adds also : " He died, after long sufferings, of (on excrescence like) a mul- 
" berry which obstructed his throat, and for which every remedy that they tried 
was useless. It was a strange and unheard-of malady." — Since writing the 
foregoing observations, I read in Ibn Zulak's History of Egypt that the ihartfx 
who went to meet al-Moizz were Ahu Jaafar Muslim Ibn Obaid Allah al-Hu- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONABY. k9 

saini (8) and Abu Ismail Ibrahim Ibn Ahmad al-Husaini ar-Rassi ; it was pei-- 
haps one of them to whom the circumstance happened (with al-Moizz). 



(1) The lulograph hu Li— i^. The girl vaa apparently the diughier of Ibn Tabtlabi, who, as hi* genea- 
log; ihowi, wai descended from Uaun, grandson of Huhammad. 

(2) See Ibn Khallikan'a obiervaiioni od this aaecdoie, towards the end of the article. 

(3) See vol. I. page 60B. 

(4) The opinion'or the HoBllms on the subject of dreams is stated in the first volume. 

(5) The autograph has ji«-**, 

(6) See vol. I. page 1S3, note (S). 

(7) I am convinced ihal this anecdote is totally folse. Al-Moiiz was loo prudent to make any declaration of 
thelund, as it would not only have destroyed his own title and that of his descendants to the khaUbie. but 
hate shaken the fidelity of his Berber troops, who oidy served him from their c«nviciion that he was really 
descended from the Propbei and the true bcir lo his anthurity. I must also observe that, notwithstanding 
Hajji Khalifa's favonrable opinion of the work, the Dual at-Munkatia does not seem to be always a sure 
guide; some of the anecdotes eitracled from it by Ibn Khallikln are totally unworthy of belief. 

(S) See vol. 1. page 323, note (IJ. 



ABD ALLAH IBN TAHIR. 



Ahu 'l-Abhas Abd Allah Ibn Tahir Ihn al-Husain Ibn Musab Ibo Ruzaik Ibn 
Mahan al-Khuzai, a prince whose father's life we have given (vol. I. page 649), 
was gifted with superior abilities, a lofty soul, and great discernment. Al-Ma- 
raun placed in him the highest conGdence, and treated him with the utmost con- 
sideration, on account of his personal merit and the faithful services which his 
father and his ancestors had rendered to the Abbaside family. He was governor 
of Dinawar when Babck al-Khurrami invaded Khorasan with his followers and 
entered al-Hamra, a town in the province of Naisapdr, where they committed 
great ravages. Al-Mimun, on receiving intelligence of this event, wrote to Abd 
Allah, ordering him to proceed to Khorasan ; he set out on the 1 5th of the first 
Rabi, A. H. 213 (June, A. D. 828), and waged war with the rebels. In the 
month of Rajab, A. H. 215 (Aug.-Sept. A. D. 830), he arrived at Naisapur, 
which had suffered much that year from the total want of rain. His entry into 
the city was accompanied by a heavy shower, on which a cloth-merchant went 
out to him from his shop and recited these verses : 

VOL. II. 7 



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30 IBN KHALLtKANS 

We were afflicted witii drought till thy arrival ; but with thee abundance drew near. 
Two showers came at the sameUme; so let us welcome the emir (1) and the rain. 

Such is the statement set forth id as-Salami's History of Khorasan, but at- 
Tabari says in his Annals : " Abd Allah the son of Tahir was at Dinawar in the 
" year 213, at the time of his brother Talha's death." — 'We have spoken of 
Taiha in the Ufe of his father Tahir (vol. I. pp. 649,654).—" The kadi Yahya Ibn 
" Aktham was then sent to him by al-Mami^n with a message of condolence and 
*' with directions to felicitate him on his elevation to the government of Khora- 
" san." — ^Farther on, however, when giving an account of Talha's administra- 
tion, he makes a different statement : " At the time of Tahir's death," says he, 
" Abd Allah was at Rakka, combatting Nasr Ibn Shabath (2), and al-Mamdn 
" conferred upon him the government of all the provinces held by his father, 
*' and granted him that of Syria besides. Abd Allah then sent his brother Talha 
*' to Khorasan." The same author says again, under the year 213 : " A1-M4- 
" mi^n now appointed his brother al-Motasim to the government of Syria and 
" Egypt, and he nominated his own son al-Abbas as ruler over Mesopotamia, 
" the northern frontiers of that province and those of Syria (Mh-TkugMr vca '(- 
" Auodmii). He gave to eadi of them five hundred thousand dinars, and to Abd 
" Allah Ibn Tahir a similar sum. It is said that he never gave away as much 
" money in a single day as he had done in that' (3)." — The poet Abu Tammam 
at-Tai set out from Irak with the design of paying his coiut to Abd Allah, and, 
cm reaching KAmis after a long and fatiguing journey, he pronounced these 



B We arrived at KAmis, worn away by our journey and the btigaing pace of our camels, 

now no longer restive. My companions then said: "Dost thou mean to lead us ((q 
"eariA'< fartkai Hm»(«,) to the place of sunrise?" — "No," Ireplied; " but to the point 
" where the suo of generosity riseth over ttie world." 

I may here observe, before going farther, that Abu Tammam has stolen the 
idea and the very words of these verses from a piece by Muslim Ibn al-Walid 
al-Ansari (4), in which he says : 

My companions hastened forward on their journey, and the horses lent heavily on 
thebit: " Dost tiioo intend," said Uiey, "tolead us to theplaceof sunsetT"— "No," I 
replied, " but to the spot where liberality riseth over the world." 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 51 

When Abu Tammam arrived at his journey's end, he waited on Abd Allah' 
and recited to him his splendid kattda rhyming in B, wherein he says : 

These riders, worn away with fatigue and thin as the points of spears, toiled through 
the darkness which invaded the earth ; and the beasts that bore them were emaciated like 
them. They came on a business which it was theirs to Commence, and another's to 
finish (5). 

The following verse also is contained in the same magnificent ka^da : 

Bat Abd Allah struck (6) terror into the night, and, throngh dread of his vengeance, 
it ceased to assail us; the very scorpions (T) which crawl forth at night did not dare 
to stir. 

It was iif this journey that Abu Tammam composed the Hamdsa ; for, on ar- 
riving at Hamadan, the winter had set in, and, as the cold is excessively severe in 
that country, the sno^ blocked up the road, and obliged him to stop and await the 
thaw. During his stay, he resided with one of the most eminent men of the 
place, who possessed a library in which were some collections of poems com- 
' posed by the Arabs of the desert and other authors. Having then sufficient 
leisure, he perused those works and selected from them the passages out of 
which he formed his Hamdsa. — Abd Allah was versed in the belles-lettres and 
possessed an elegant taste ; he was also a good musician and composed the airs of 
a great number of songs, inserted as his in the Kildb alrAghdni ; they are very 
beautiful and have been transmitted down unaltered by the persons who make 
music their profession. Some fine verses and charming letters of his are stilt 
preserved. One of his pieces is as follows : 

We are a people who yield to the force of large and brilliant eyes, and yet (armour of) 
iron yields to our {blowi in war]. Submissive to these gazelles, we are vanquished by 
their glances ; we who with our spears vanquish lions. We subdue the beasts of chace, 
bat are ourselves subdued by fair maidens with modest eyes and cheeks unprofened by 
public gaze. The lions dread our anger, but ve dread the anger of a fawn{-/t)U njftnpA), 
when she seems displeased. Behold us freemen in the day of battle, but in peace 
slaves to the fair. 

These verses have been attributed to Asram Ibn Humaid, a person in whose 
honour al-Mutanabhi composed some of his poems; but God best knows who was 
their author. — One of Abd Allah's most remariiable pieces is the following : 



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52 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

Forgive mybult and merit my deepest gratitude; the recompense of my thanks shall 
not be withheld from thee. Oblige me not to find an excuse for my conduct; I may 
perhaps be unsuccessful. 

One of his sayings was, that a well-Clled purse and a glorious reputation are 
never found together (8). A paper was one day put into his hands, in which it 
B was represented to him that a number of persons went out of the city on a party 
of pleasure, and that they had taken with them a young boy. On reading the 
complaint, he wrote above it these words : " What mode of legal proceedings 
" can be taken against young men who go out to amuse themselves, and satisfy 
" their inclinations as far as lies in their power ? And the boy may be a son to 
" one of them or a relation of some of them(9)." Abd Allah held for some time, 
hut at different periods, the governments of Syria and of Egypt. When in the 
latter country, he was spoken of in these terms by a poet : 

People say that Egypt is a distant land, but for me it is not d^nt since the son of 
Tdfair is there. Farther from us than Egypt are some men that you see here present, but 
whose fevours you never see. They are dead to every virtue, and a visit to them in 
hopes of a generous gift is as a visit made to those whose dwelling is the tomb. 

These verses are also attributed, but I do not know on what grounds, to Aiif 
IbnMuhallimas-Shaibani(IO). Abd Allah entered Old Cairo A. H. 211 (A. D. 
8*26), hut left it towards the end of the Same year, and in the month of Zii 'I- 
Kaada he arrived at Baghdad. During his absence, he confided the government 
of the province to his lieutenants. In A.H. 21 3, he was replaced by Abft Ishak 
the son of Hariin ar-Rashid, who was afterwards khalif under the title of al- 
Motasim. Al-Farghani says in his History that Abd Allah Ibn T^ir succeeded 
in the government of Egypt to Obaid Allah Ibn as-Sari Ibn al-Hakam (11); the 
latter left the country in the month of Safar, A.- H. 21 1 , and Abd Allah on the 
25th of Rajab, 212, when he proceeded to Irak, after leaving the government of 
the country to his lieutenants ; they remained in authority till the appointment 
of al-Motasim. The vizir Abu '1-Kasim al-Maghribi (1 2) says in his Adab aUKka- 
wdu that the Abdalawi (or Abdallian) melon which grows in Egypt was so called 
after Abd Allah Ibn Tahir. This species of melon is not found in any other 
country, and it was perhaps named after him because he was fond of it or 
was the first who cultivated it there. Abd Allah and his family belonged to 
the tribe of Khuzaa by right of adoption ; their grandfather Ruzaik having been 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 53 

a mawla to Ahd Muhammad Tatha Ibn Abd Allah (13) Ibn Khalaf al-Khuzar, 
who is generally known by the name of Talhat at-Talhat. Talha acted as go- 
vernor of Sijislan, under the orders of Abu Harb Muslim Ibn Ziad Ibn Abih, 
ibe governor of Khorasan. He died there whilst Abd Allah Ibn az-Zubair was 
in revolt against the khalif. The poet Obaid Allah Ibn Kais ar-Rukaiyat (14) 
said on this subject : 

Hay the mercy of God be shown to the bones which were interred in Sijist&n— ^n 
Talhat at-TalhAt. 

Talbat at-Talhal was so called because his mother's name was Talha, daughter 
of Abil Talha. This observation is fumi^ed by«Ab6 'l-Husain Ali Ibn Ahmad 
as-Sat&mi in his history of the governors of Khorasan (1 5). — K^mas or KHmis, 
the country of which AbA Tamim speaks in the verses given above, is situated 
in Persian Irak ; its limit on the Khorasan side extends to Baslam, and on the 
Irak side to Simnan, and includes both of these cities. — Abd Allah died at Marw 
in the month of the first RabI, A. H. 228, or 230 (Nov.-Dec. A. D. 844), which 
is more exact. [At-Tabari says that he died at Naisapur on Monday, the 1 1 th 
of the fu^t Rabi, 230, seven days after the death of Ashnas at-Turki.] He lived 
to the same age as his father, namely forty-eight years. We shall give the life 
of his son Obai^ Allah . 



(1) The companion of a generotu man lo a ihower ii very mmmon. Like the drops of rain which water a 
parched toil, bit gitia ipread sbundanee around. 

&i The rerolt of Natr Ibn Shabalh ia not noticed by Abfl 'I-Fedt, although mentioned by Ibn al-Athtr in 
hU Kdmtl. Thb hiiioriao relalet that in the year 1«8 [A. D. 813~4], Nan Ibn Sbabatb al-AluU, who waa 
then iDhabiling Kaii<Un .u-ji^*, a place to die north of Aleppo, rerolted against al-HtnitUi. He waa de- 
Toledly attached lo al-Amtn tod had lalien the oath of allegiance to him ; wherefore, on that prince'a death, 
bU anger waa eicited, and declaring himself Ibe vindicator of the Arabic race, whoM rigbti the Abbaaidea 
had contemned by introdvciiig foreignera into the lervioe of tbe empire, he lelied on all the neighbouring 
towna, and Somalall among the real. Being then joined by a great anmber of the deaert Araba and needy 
advenmren, he crossed die Euphrates with tbe intention of subduing Heaopolamia. In the year 199, he laid 
dege (0 Harrln, and Tlhir.who was lent against him, did not gain over him any lignal idTantage. He per- 
aerered in bla rerolt till A. H. 90B, when he vu bcrieged in KalsAm by Abd Allah Ibn Tihir, and forced to 
tnirender. ne conqueror levelled that place to the ground, and sent his prisoner to at^llmQn, who, it 
would appear, pardoned him. The aotbor of the EhuUtat alAkhbAr and Qm KhilllUji place tbe defaat 
of Kaar Ibn Sbabilb at Rakka, which howerer wu the head-quartert of Abd Allah. I must obserre that in 



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5i IBN KHALURAN'S ■ 

the Arabic editioD of Ibli work, I hive priDted the word Shabalh u here trtiucribed, ilthoagb written oifaer- 
wiK in raj HSS. Mj correction hu becD confinned hj the reiding of Ibe autograph and bj the int of Ibn 
■1-Athlr, where ihe orihographj of ibe name ta given letter bj ieller. 

(3) Tlie avarice of al-Hlmdn wa« proverbial. 

(4) See vol. 1. page 2B, note (3). Hailim Ibo al-WalM died A. H. V» (A. D. SSM). 

(fi) Tbej let out in hopei of obtaining money, and Ibtt depended on the will of tbe patron to whom tbej 
intended to applj. 

(6) Id tbe printed Arabic teit read .,^'. 

(7) Id Arabic tbe word y_i Jjic meant both leorfUmi and tacrcl foei. 
(B) The reatOD ii clear : generous men never hoard up manej. 

(9) I luipect that in the original Arabic, tbi* note bear* throughout a double meaning. The more obvfons 
is lUat given here; the other is of incb a nature as cannot be even alluded to. 

(10) The autograph hai the wordi Atif Ibn inmted before at-MuhaUim. Tbii if probablj the same poet 
whoM death Ibn Shikir places in the jea^390, and of whom he ghet rather a long notice. According to him. 
Aba '1-HinhlI Allf Ibn Huballim (I read /Xx-, not /S^,) al-Kbuill was one of the leamed men of that 
age, and equally remarkable Jbr hii convivial talents and hit wit. He became the inaeparable oompanioa of 
Tlhir Ibn al-Huaain and enjoyed hia favour to luch a degree, that even in travelling, he rode bebiud him on 
the same camel or was borne in the same litter Jj j.c. His Bnt acquaintance with thai emir was formed by 
accident : He saw bim in a pleasure-barge on tbe Tigris and addressed bim in the line* already mentioned by 
Ibn Khalliltln, vol. I. page SBl, and which begin thus : I wonder how tkt bark. ele. (It may be obterred 
that the latter writer aitribuiei them to another poet.] Tlhir then made him get into the boat, and ttwn 
Lliat moment the patron and the poet were inseparable. Allf frequently asked leave of absence from Tlhir 
that he might go and see hii own family, hut his master was so much attached to him, that the permission was 
constantly refused. When Ttbir died, Adf naturally hoped that he might then tliit tbe relations whom be 
had not seen for so long a time, but Ahd Allah the son of Tlbir eanceived for bim the same fondness af hit 
father had done, and would not allow him to depart. He thenceforward treated ibe poet with great kindoets 
and raised him to opulence by the abundance of bis gills. ACif having at length obtained the long-desired 
permission, set out to see his family, but died on the way.— [Oyitn at^TVnrttrffcA. voLVm. (bl. 10. — Other 
anecdotes respecting him are to be found in the next pages of that work.) 

(11) In Ibe month of ShaUn, A. H. 306 (January. A. D. SXS), Obaid Allah Ibn aa-Sari wu proclaimed go- 
vernor of Egypt by tbe tnwps, on the death of bis brother Hnhammad. By the dotible right then conferred 
upon him of presiding at public prajen and of admioisiering the revenues of the state, he possessed tbe 
greatest privUegei which a provincial governor could obtain. But bis ambition was not satisfied, and some 
time aflerwards he revolted againtt bis sovereign a1~Him6n. Ahd Allah Ibn TUtir was immediately recalled 
from KborasAn and sent with an army against the rebel. After an obstinate conflict outside the walls of 
Cairo, Obaid Allah was forced to take refuge in the eiladd and propose terms of surrender. He sent also to 
Ibn Tlhir a present of one thousand male and one thousand female slave* ; each of tbe latter bearing a silken 
pune in which was eoniained one thousand pieces of gold. The argument was irresistible, and Obaid Allah 
obtained an honourable capitulation. He bad been in the eiereise of power foor yews seven month* ud 
eight dayB.-(Ab(i '1-Hahttio's JTajOm.) 

(12) His life is given in vol. I. page 4110. 

(13) In page MO of tbe precedhig volume 1 have written this name Obaid AHA, allbongh it b ininted Abd AIUi 
in the teat. The same manuscript which induced me to think that the reading of tbe leil wu erroneous, led 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 55 

me to write Obaid AJUfa io ihe Arabic leit ctHTespooding lo the present pauige : but Abd Allah it the true 
reading in both pliCM, not Obaid Allah. 

(141 Obdd Allah Ibn KaU Ibn Shuraih Did Hllik Ibo Rabta «I-Almiri, a nitWe of Uijii and a celebrated 
poet, compoted veraet io honour of Mnitb Ibn af-Znbafr and Abd at-Halik Ibn Harwln. He «ai aurnaoied 
ar-Sukaigdl, because he luDg in gome of hi* pieces Ihe charms of three females, each of «hom bore the 
ume of RMkaiffa.—{Se« SuftU'i Sharh Shavudkld at-Moghni, HS3. No. 423S, fol. 33.] 

(IK) We read hoireTer as follows in Ibn Shlkir'i OyAn at-TamOxikh, vol. III. fol. 4 : " A. H. SO (A. D. 
" 6W-700J. In this jear died Talhi Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Khalaf, one of the persons renowned for their gene- 
" roiitj, and the most liberal man of all the inhabiiantg of Basra. Al-Asmli hjs: "Those noted for their 
" * bene6cenc« w,ere Talha Ibn Obaid Allah at--Tamlmi, sumamed al^Khatr (tA« good); T«lhi Ibn Amr Ibn 
" ' Abd Allab Ibn Mlnur, somamed al-JOd {libtraUij/); Talha Ibn Abd Allah Ibn AOf Ibn Akhl Abd ir- 
" ' lUhmln Ibn AM, sumamed an-lfida '.atmnOeHM giftt) ; Talha Ibn al^istn Ibn Alf, sumamed at-FaiyM 
" ' [owrfioving with gttttroiity), and Talha Ibn Abd Allah Ibo Khilaf, sumamed TaUiat ai-Talhlt (Ihe 
" ' Talha of tht Talha*), who, in generoiit;, gurptssed ibem all.' " 



ABU 'l^AMAITHAL. 



The kdiih Abu '1-Amaithal Abd Allah Ibn Khulaid was a mawUi to Jaafar Ibn 
Sulaiman Ibn AH Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Abbas Ibn Abd al-Muttalib, and came, 
it is said, of a family which inhabited Rai {m Permn Irak). In his style he 
affected pompous expressions and the use of uncommon tenns (1). He was em- 
ployed as a secretary by T^ir (Ibn atrHimm al-Kbuzdi), and was afterwards at- 570 
tached in the same capacity, and in that of a poet, to tlie service of Abd Allah, 
llihir's son. The pure Arabic language was well known to him, and he made 
frequent use of the idioms peculiar to it. In the art of poetry he displayed con- 
siderable abilities, and the following lines on Abd Allah Ibn Tahir are of his 
i»mposing : 

O you who desire to possess qualities such as those of Abd Allah, be silent and listen 1 
I swear by. Him to vhose temple the pilgrims resort, that I shall give you a sincere 
advice ; hearken then, or renounce your project : Be true, be modest, be charitable ; 
endure vith patience and indulgence; pardon, oblige; be mild, be gentle and be 
brave; act vith kiDdoess and lenity, with longanimity, courtesy, and forbearance; be 
firm and resolute; protect the fieeble, maintain the right and repel injustice. Such is 
my counsel, if you choose to accept it, and are disposed to follow a straight and open 
way. 



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56 IBN KUALLIKAN'S 

This is really a piece of extraordinary beauty, and he composed some others, 
equally fine. It is related that he one day went to the palace of Abd Allah Ihn 
Tahir, but was refused admittance, on which he said : 

Never shall I return to this door whilst admittance is so difficult as I find it now; I 
shall wait till access be more easy. And on the day in which I did not find a means to 
enter, I at least found means of not fovouring the master with my presence. 

These verses were repeated to Abd Allah, who blamed the dooP-keeper's con- 
• duct, and gave orders that the poet should be admitted. AbA 'l-Amaithal ob- 
served that the word ttomdn was one of the terms used to designate blood, and 
that the flowers called shakd^ an-Nomdn, or Nomdn jwppie* (2), had received this 
name on account of their red colour, the opinion that they were so called aftei' 
an-Noman Ibn al-Mimdir being totally unfounded. "I made this observation," 
continued he, '* to al-Asmai, who repeated it, adding: * Such are the words of 
" ' Abu Amaithal.' " This opinion however is in contradiction with that held 
bv all eminent philologers ; thus Ibn Kutaiba says, in his KilSh aUMadrif: ** An- 
" Noman Ibn al-Mundir" — the last Lakhmide king of Hira — "went out of 
** Kdfa into the open country at a time in which it was all yellow, red, and 
" green, from the quantity of herbage and flowers, among which were poppies 
'* in great abundance. On seeing them, he declared that their beauty pleased 
" him and that he forbade them to be gathered. This prohibition none dared 
" to transgress, and they were therefore called an-Nomdn'i poppie$." Al-Jaw- 
hari also mentions in his Sakdh that they were so denominated after this an- 
Noman, and other writers have made a similar statement : which opinion may be 
right, God best knows ! It is related that when Abu Tacomam recited to Abd 
Allah Ibn Tahir his poem rhyming in B, of which we have spoken in his life (3), 
Abu 'l-Amaithal, who was present, said to him : " Abu Tammam ! why do you 
" not say something which may be understood?" To this (he other retorted : 
" Abu Amaithal ! why do you not understand what people say?" — Abik Amai- 
thal one day kissed the hand of Abd Allah Ibn Tahir, and as the prince com- 
plained of the roughness of his mustachioes, he immediately observed that the 
spines of the hedgehog could not hurt the wrist of the lion. Abd Allah was 
so highly pleased with this compliment, that he ordered a valuable present to be 
given to the poet. — The following works, amongst others, were composed by 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 57 

thai : a treatise on the terms which bear different meanings ; a work entitled 
IStdb al-Tathdindi (U) (mutual regemblanee) ; a notice on those verses which are 
current and well known, and a treatise on the ideas nsuallf expressed in 
poetry. He died A. H. 240 (A. D. 854-5). — The word Amaitkal serves to desig- 
nate a number of things, and, amongst the rest, the lion ; that such is its mean- 
ing in the -present case is perfectly evident. 



(i) In ibe Artbic t«it, resd uyu. 

(3) The ShaMdH an-ffomdn, here iranslated nn-JVomdn'f poppiai, ig MDifdeTcd b; Ibo BailUr u the wme 
plant vhicb Diiwcorides describes under the name of the anemony. This writer noticee two species of it, the 
wild tnd the cultivated, and a genus called bj biro argemoni, resembllDg the wild poppj. The Dover of 
ibis plant ha> Tarnished the Arabian poeu «ilb a great number of comparisons, Itotn which it would appear 
ihat ill petals were red or vennilioD-coloured, and it) siamena black or brown. AccoTdiog to the aiuhor of 
the EAm6t, these flowers were called tAotdilt, because Ibeir colour was red, like that of thelightDing-Oath; he 
gires also tfae same reason as Ibn Kniaiba for the origin of the name thakdik an-Ifomtln. It cannot, bow- 
ever, escape observation that a great resemblance subsisu between the word an-iVomdn and the old Greek 
name of annumi, from wbich it ma; be inferred thai the former is a mere alteration from the Utter. 

(3) See vol. I. page 9S0, the lines which begin thus : " At Uie sigbl of dwellings," elc. 

(4) Such is the oribographj of Hajji Khalifa and of Ibn KballiUn Umaelf : all the lain- Banuscript* of his 
work are wr»ng bere. 



ABU L-ABBAS AN-NASHI IBN SHIRSHIR. 

Abu '1-Abbas Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad an-Nashi al-AnbIri, generally known 
by the name of Ibn Shirshir, was a poet of great talent and a contemporary of 
Ibn ar-Rumi and al-Bohtori. It is he who is denominated an-Ndshi 'l-Akbar (the 
elder Nhhi), to distinguish him from an-Nashi aUAsghar, or the younger^ whose 
life is to be found in this Tolume. He was also a grammarian, a prosodist, and 571 
a scholastic theolopan. The city of Anbar-Was the native place of his fanyly, 
but he himself resided during a long period at Baghdad, and then proceeded to 
Old Cairo where he passed the remainder of his life. He was deeply versed in 
a number of sciences, and his skill as a logician was so great, that he could ovei^ 
turn any proofs alleged by grammarians in favour of their doctrines. His 
penetration and sagacity enabled him also to bring into doubl the established 

VOL II. 8 



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58 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

principles of prosody, and to lay down forms of versification entirdy different 
fr(»n those admitted by aWKhalil Ibn Ahmad. He wrote a kastda of four thou- 
sand verses, all terminating in the same rhyme, and in this poem be treated of 
various sciences. A number of fine works were written by him, and he com- 
posed a great quantity of verses on the animals used for hunting, on the dififerent 
sorts of game, on the implements and every other subject connected with the 
chase. In these poems he displayed knowledge worthy of a professional sports- 
man, and many passages are quoted from them by Kosh^jlm, in his work called 
airMoidid wa 'l~Matdnd. Some of his poems are ka^diu, and some, (ordiyai 
or huntin^pieces, in the style of those made by Abu Nuwas ; the rest are de- 
tached passages, but in all of them his talent is equally conspicuous. One of 
his (orrft^of, containing the description of a falcon, runs as follows : 

When the veil of darkness was rent off the face of the heavens, and the light of the 
morning rejoiced in shedding its brightness, I went forth on Uie tracit of the game, with 
a cream-coloured (bird), from its birth, of singular beauty. It was clothed by the 
Creator in raiment of the softest tissue, and when it darted forward or circled around, 
the eye coald net follow its motions. From its cheeks to its eyes extends an ornament 
which serves it as a diadem (1). Its active spirit is denoted by its beak, and by its claws 
is shown the art wherein lies its skill. Were a traveller journeying in darkness, the eye 
of that animal might serve him as a taper to light him on his way. 

In describing a singing girl of great beauty, he expresses himself in the fol- 
lowing terms : 

Ihoo fbr whose welfare 1 should sacrifice my lif^ 1 [The tpitt who twrround me) do 
not appreciate thy charms, or else Uiey had not allowed me to fix my eyes on thine. 
They forbid me to look on any other f^ales ; did they thinli it possible Uiat the eyes 
of men could be turned towards any but theeT They placed thee to watch my con- 
duct; viiiom then have they placed as a walch over thine? Fools that they werel did 
they not read in thy cheeks the written revelation of thy beauty t 

His poetical works are very numerous, but we ^lall confine ourselves to the 
foregoing extracts. He died at Old Cairo, A. H. 293 (A. D. 905-6). — Ndabi was 
a surname given to him (2). — Anbdri means belonging to al-Anhdr, which is a 
town on the Euphrates, ten parasangs (to the tcett) of Baghdad; it has produced 
a number of learned men. Ai^dr is the plural of ntirty and signifies magtamet of 
provmms ; this place was so called because the ancient kings of Persia used to 
keep provisions stored in it (for the vse of their troopt). 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 59 

(1) He muM mND the AaAj ban whkh lUrk the plnmap of tke gitWem, or dM Us k»od. 
(3) The word ndthi hai a number of meaiilngi ; it is UtereTore Dot euj lo determine «hat ia the ilgnifica- 
ILon it bean here. 



IBN SARA AS-SHANTARINI. 

Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn S5ra a&-Shantarini, a native 
of Spain and a member of the tribe of Bakr, was celebrated as a poet, but he 
possessed also superior abilities as a prose-writer. Notwithstanding his talents, 
his lot through life was little else than adversity and disatppointment : he lived 
without Cnding a place of abode to suit him or a prince to protect him. He is 
noticed by (IJm Kkdkdm)the author of the Kaldid al-/injr4», and is praised by Ibn S71t 
Bass^ in the DofcMra. This writer says : " After endeavouring to obtain (1) 
" even the meanest employments and undei^ing great sufferings, he rose at 
" length to fill the place of secretary to a provincial governor ; but at the period 
" in which (YUmf Ihn Tdikiftn) dispossessed the Spanish sovereigns of their 
" dominions, he retired to Seville in a state more dismal than night itself and 
" more solitary than the star Canopus (2). He then supported his existence 
" by binding books, an art with which he was well acquainted. and in which 
" he displayed great skill. This profession he followed, although it had then 
" greatly fallen off and was almost totally neglected. To this he alludes in the 
" following lines : 

' The trade of a bookbinder a the vont of all ; its leaves and its fraits are oon^t but 
' disappointment. I may compare him that folloirs it to a needle, vhich clothes otiiers, 
'but is naked itself!'" (3) 

These verses also are by the same poet : 

That maid vith the flowioe ringlets is encircled ^ a host of tender charms, aid for 
her a tender passion fills onr hearts. It is not dark curls which shade her cheeks, but 
rather a tint cast upon them by the black pupils of her eyes. 

He said also of a girt with blue eyes : 



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60 nJN KHALLIKAN'S 

I se«, within the circle of necklaces which adorn that slendflr-wsisted nymph, a moon 
[iumdMtne face) which receives its lustre from the gems of beanty. She is formed like a 
lance that she may pierce as to the heart, and on this lance gleams a point of bine {tieet). 

A similar thought is thus expressed by as-Salami : 

In embracing her waist, I have clasped a pliant spear; and yon will recognise its 
deadly point in the glances of her ej'es. 

It was from this verse that Ibn an-Nabih al-Misri (U) borrowed the idea which 
he has thus expressed : 

The complexion of this brunette is like the colour of the lance (5), and her eyes might 
be taken for its point, were they not painted with antimony. 

The following verses of Ibn Sara's inculcate the renunciation of the world 
and its pleasures : 

thou who hearkeneat to the call of the cupbearer, though warned of thy approaching 
end by gray hairs and age t If thou wilt not listen to oiy admonitions, why hast thou 
hearing to receive men's words, and memory to retain them? He alone is bbnd and 
deaf who followeth not the lessons offered by the present and the past. Time shall not 
endure for ever, nor the world, nor the lofty spheres, nor the two great lights, the sun 
and the moon. The inhabitants of the world, both those who dwell in tents and those 
who live in towns, must leave it, though unwilling. 

It was he who composed these verses : 

1 have for a companion one who, like an inward disorder, cannot be shaken off, and 
who loves me, as the wolf does the shepherd. He extols me — may God requite him for 
his good intentions I — with praise such as Hind bestowed upon Rauh Ibn ZinbA. 

This Hind was daughter to an-Noman Ibn Bashir al-Ansari, and wife to 
Rauh Ihn Zinba '1-Judami (6), the favourite officer of the khalif Abd al-Malik 
Ibn Marwiin. She detested her husband and made on him these lines : 

Hind, a filly of pure Arabian breed and sprung from noble steeds, has she not been 
S covered by an ass ? If she bear a foal of good points, she had a right to do so ; but if 
it be only a half-blood [ikrdf], wonder notl it had a worthless sire. 

These verses are attributed also to her sister Humaida, the daughter of an-No- 
m^. Thewordi^(!/'indicates that the dam was of Arabian breed and that the sire 
was not; another word, hujnai, is employed to mark that the sire was of Arabian 
blood and that the dam was not. — Ibn Sfira composed a great number of poeti- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 61 

cal pieces, most of them very good, and they have been collected into a volume. 
He died A. H. 51 7 (A. D. 1 1 23) at Almeria in Spain, a city already mentioned 
(in vol. I. fo/gei A3 orui 151). — Sdra, his grandfather's name, is written either 
with a (<n or a $M (a hard or a toft s). — Shantartm means belongwg to Shantartn 
(Smtarem), a town in the Spanish peninsula. 



(1) nie true reading is aJLj. 

(2) The Arabs coiuider Caoopua u the brightesi of the 6ied stars ; it has conteqnentlj do ftUovo or com-, 
pardon. Ibn Basslm is here led awaj, a* unul, b; the tetaptation of a mere quibble. 

(3) These venes Qi the meaoing in which the word vrir^ux i-jlij must be Uittn here. It s^ifies alio 
Ihe profession of a ttatiiyntr and that of a eopyiit of books. 

[4| " AK QtQ HnhanmiBd Ibn an-Nablfa, one of the moat emineni poei» of his tioie in Egypt, died A.H. 621 
" (A.D. laai)."— (Aa-SoytiU*j Ham al-KuhdiUTa, MS. No. M2, fol. ISO verso.) 

(S) Lances were generall; made of a species of bamboo. 

(6} Xbt Zarla Rauh (or Rbh] Ibn Zinbl, the bead of the tribe of ludtin, was possessed of stick great inDu- 
ence, thai the khalif HoawEa resolved on putting him to death, but was induced at length to change his mind. 
When Abd al-Malik Ibn Harwin came to the throne, Bauh received the government of Palestine and became 
the intimate and inseparable companion of his master. In the semce of Abd al-Malik he Blled all the duties 
of a vizir and proved himself not oolj prudent and intelligent, but also learned and religious. He died A.H. 
84 (A. D. 703).-(flrujAm. At-Tilt.) 



IBN AS-SD) AL-BATALYAUSI. 



Ab6 Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn as-Sid al-Batalyausi was an 

able grammarian, eminent also in philology and general literature, of which 
sciences he possessed a profound and exact knowledge. He inhabited the oily 
of Valencia, where his lessons drew crowds of pupils, anxious to study under 
his tuition and to profit by his learned observations. His mode of instructing 
and the talent with which he rendered the most difficult points intelligible to his 
auditors were very superior, and the passages which he cited from memory 
illustrative of the pure Arabic language were not only copious, but correct. 
He composed a number of instructive works, such as a Muthallath (1 ) in two 
volumes, containing many novel observations and denoting vast erudition in 
the author. This can be better appredated when we mention that the (cek- 



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62 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

brated) treatise of Kulnib, which bears the same title, fills only one quire (or 
about twmty jtaget), and yet it gives as current certain examples which wore only 
poetical liceaaes, and contains besides s<HDe words which do not exist, and 
others to which a wrong signification is attributed. He wrote also the IktiddA 
(ezlmponztn^), a work designed as a commentary on the Adidt aJ-£itM, and of 
which we have already spoken in the life of Ibn Kutaiba (page 23). He drew up 
also a commentary on Abu Ala's work, the 5iJfc( az-Zand, in which he fully de- 
velops the thoughts and allusions contained in the text of that poet ; it is even 
superior to the treatise on the same subject composed by Abu '1-Ala himself and 
entitled Ddw a»-Sikt. In a treatise on (the right use of) the letters (_/*, j«, jo, ■», 
aiid i (in the orAograpky of words), he has assembled a great quandty of curious 
observations. He composed also the Htthd (elucidatioru) (2), which is a com- 
mentary on tbe verses cited as examples in (az~Zajjdj%'s gratrnnoHecd eon^endium) 
the Jumal ; the mistakes committed in the same work were pointed out by him 
in a treatise entitled al-Khtdd (the fauUs) (3). His TanHh, or indkation, is a trea- 
tise on the causes of the dissensions which have prevailed among the (Mo$lm) 
people. He composed also a commentary on the (imdm Malik's) Muwalta, and 
another, as I have been informed, on the Ditcdn of al-Muianabbi's poems. This 
last work 1 have never seen, and it is even said that no copies of it ever reached 
the East. We may conclude this list by observing that every subject which he 
undertook was treated in the most masterly manner. He composed also some 
- good poetry, from which we may quote the following passages : 

The man of learning Uvea after his death, though bis t>ones be bnried and crumbling 
into dust. But the ignorant man is dead, thouf^ he yet walk upon the earth ; he is 
thought to be of the living, but he is not. 

On the length of a night (patied in mffering ) ; 

B^old 1 the dark locks of our night are turned hoary with age. She has become 
gray like myself; or rather, a meadow, white with flowers, is spread over the heavens. 
The seven nights of the vetk seem to baTe come together in Uie sky without a day's 
interval between them. 

From the beginning of a kastda in praise of al-Mustain Ibn Hud (4) : 

My patience under afSiction was bom away From me by the people of that tribe, when 
they set out with moons encircled with necklaces and which rose from over a willow 
branch (5). They hare left me here, in the valley amongst the sands of the desert, bat 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DIGTIONARV. 63 

whererer they go, my heart journey? with their caravan. Hay tiie spot where I last 
saw them on the border of the valley be watered with grateful showers, copious, but 
yet nearly equalled by the torrent of my tears. O my friends I will those days ever re- 574 
turn? till the end of time can 1 ever receive consolation for your absence? My eyes 
are bathed in tears ; and in my bosom is a heart always yearning to meet yon. Fortune 
was cmel to me after your dqiartare, and misfortnnes of every kind have alighted at 
my dwelling. 

In the eulo^stic part of the poem he says: 

We saddled the camels of euloginm and abandoned that spot; its fountain was not 
like that of Sudda, neither did it prodace the laaddn (6). And we went to a prince on 
whom Joseph had bestowed his bean^, and whose lofty palace had been reared by So- 
lomon (7); one of those high-minded men whose hands are torrents [of generoBily] and 
whose minds are all fire. 

This ka^da is of great length, but we shall confme our citations to those just 
given. Ibn a&-Sid was born at Batalyaua (Badajoi), A. H. 444 (A. D. 1052-3) ; 
be died at Valencia on the 1 5th of lUyah, in the year 521 (July, A.D. 1127). 
— Std is one of the names by which the wolf is known, but it is also used as 
the proper name of a man. — Batalyaasi means belonging to BtOalyaiu (or Bada- 
joi); this city and Valencia are situated in the Spanish peninsula and bave pro- 
duced a niunbcr of learned men. 



(1) Tha woriu called bj the generic tide of MvthaUath, or Temarj/, trail of ikoH word* whfeh bear Oart 
diderent rigDiflettionf aecordingi} a* the Brsi Billable to pronoonoad with an a, an f. or in «. 

(5) The word JJU. is the plural Jla. and ligniflei trafellen who halt after Ihdr journey and vntit the 
cord) vhldi hold their hagfage on Uie camel*. It nratt (herefore nean here : ObserratioDa whidi tmtie or 
unraml knotlj difBcaltie*. 

(3) In the Arabic teit, this title to in«irreellT priolod JWl, 

[4] Abft Aiyflb 9iilaiiHii Ibn Huhatmad Uu HOd, anmamed al-Huiialn bUlah came to ibe throne of Sara- 
gOM A.H. 431 (A.D. 103V.) Hedled A.H. 438 {A.D. WHt-T), after a reign of aeren Meii^t yean. 

(6) The moon* are Uie Ikce* of bir maMen*, and tte Wllew bronoA i* Ibe pUamt mUU over which ibe 
poet nippOM* eadi of theae moon* to cnlminate. 

(6) Sudda » (he name of a well, the wain of ulrieh wa* celebrated for iu pnritf . Saaddn to the name of 
a plant which fumishet eicellent food for caneU. — See Preytag'i Maidani, torn. II. pp. U?, Q90, and De 
Sacj'l HarM, p. 39. 

[7) The poet means Ibn Bfld UanselT, whoae name wa* Snlaimln (Solonion), boi he pb]r* npon the word 
and makca an allo^n to the edifice* raited by the ruler of the lews. 



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IBTf KHALLIKAN'S 



!BN NAKIYA. 



Abd 'l-Kasim Abd Allah (some say Abd al-Baki) Ibn Muhammad Ibn al'Hu- 
sain Ibn Dawud Ibn Nakiya, was a native of al-Harim az-Zahiri, a quarter in 
the city of Baghdad. His talents as a poet and a philologer, his acquaintance 
with the belles-lettres, and his abilities as a writer of epistles obtained for him 
a high reputation. He composed some works remarkable not only for their 
beauty, but for the instruction which they conveyed ; such were his Mvlah al~ 
^fumdUha (elegancies of polished intereourse), and the Kitdb al-Jumdn (book of 
pearls), in which he treats of the similes employed in the Koran. He is also the 
author of a well-known collection of maMmaSf in which he displays a great 
command of pure Arabic. Besides these works, he made an abridgement in 
one volume of the Kitdb al-Aghdni, and a commentary on the F<uth (1). His 
poetry forms a large book, and his epistles have also been collected into a sepa- 
rate volume. The kdtib Imad ad-din al-Ispah^ni mentions him with commen- 
dation in the Khartda, and after giving a sketch of his life, he cites the two fol- 
lowing verses addressed by him to a certain emir who had got himself bled : 

May He who possesses all perfections grant to you, from thy blood-letting, reco- 
very and health. Say now to thy right baud: "Hay thy bounties never cease I Poar 
" forth thy showers, for thou art a cloud (of bmejicmce) overshadowing the world I" 

These verses are certainly very well turned. — In another of his pieces he 
says : 

Since your departure, my dearest friendsl I have never been familiar with the sweets 
of life, and sorrowful remembrance has never forsaken my bosom. Tiie taste of sleep 
1 have not enjoyed, neither have my eyes perceived an object gratefiil to their sight. 
My fingers have never since wantoned with the wine-cup when the bearer passed it 
round, neither have they touched the strings of the dulcimer. 

Ibn Nakiya bore the reputation of an atheist and a follower of the doctrines 

held by the ancient (Greek phUosophers) ; he even composed a treatise on the 

subject, and he was noted also for his disorderly life. It is related on good au- 

57B thority that, when he died, the person who washed his body previously to its 

interment perceived that his left hand was closely shut, and having opened it 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 65 

with some difficulty, he found in it a writiDg, the words of which were intri- 
cately combined one with another. After some time he succeeded in reading 
the contents, which were these : 

I am gone to seek hospitality from one who never disappoints the eipectations of his 
goest; and I hope for salvation from the pains of hell. Though in dread of God, I 
confide in his bounty; for God is generous and bountiful. 

This poet was born on the 1 5th of Zu i-Kaada, A.H, 410 (March, A.D. 1 020), 
and he died on the eve of Sunday, the 4th of Muharram, A. H. 485 (February, 
A. D. 1092), at Baghdad. He was interred at the Damascus Gate (Bdb cu- 
Skdtn). — We have already given, in the life of Abik Ishak as-Shirazi(voi./. p.lO), 
a fragment of an elegy composed by Ibn Nakiya. 

(1) This vorli U auributed to die pliilologer AbO '1-Abbtt Tlialab; ue vol. I. page SJ. 



ABU 'L-BAKA AL-OKBARI. 



Abu '1-Baka Abd Allah Ibn Abi Abd Allah al-Husain Ibn Abi 'l-Baka Abd 
Allah Ibn al-Husain al-Okbari, siuTiamed Muhabh ad-din (beloved for few reli- 
(/ton), was a jurisconsult of the Hanbalite sect, a skilful arithmetician, a calcu- 
lator of inheritance shares and a grammarian. Baghdad was the place of his 
birth and residence, but his family belonged to Okbara, This doctor was to- 
tally deprived of sight. He learned grammar at Baghdad from Abu Muhammad 
Ibn al-Kbashshab (see the next article) and other teachers of that time, and was 
instructed in the Traditions by Abu 'l-Fath Muhammad Ibn al-Batti (1), Abu 
Zuraa Tahir Ibn Muhammad Ibn Tahir al-Makdisi, and some others. In 
the last period of his life he was without a rival in the various sciences which 
he professed ; but his attention was chiefly engrossed by grammar, and on that 
subject he composed some instructive works. He made a commentary on 
Abu All i-Farisi's treatise, the Id^, and another on the poems of al-Muta- 
nabbi ; to whieb must be added a grammatical analysis of the text of the Koran 
in two volumes, a small volume containing a grammatical analysis of the Tra- 

VOL. 11. * 9 



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66 IBN KHALLnUN'S 

ditjons, a commentary on Ibn Jinni's work the Lumd, (he Kitdb <U-lMbdb (e$sence , 
treating of the examples given in proor of the rules of grammar, a grammatical 
analysis of the verses contained in the Ham&sa, a full commentary on az-Za- 
makhshari's Mufassal, a commentary on the kkotbds of Ihn Nubala (2\ and 
another on al-Hariri's Makdmat. He composed also some original treatises on 
grammar and arithmctie. Numerous pupils studied under him with great 
profit to themselves, and his reputation extended, even in his lifetime, to dis- 
tant countries. His birth took place A.H. 538 (A.D. 1143-4): he died at Bagh- 
dad mi the eve of Sunday, the 8th of thelalter Rah), A.M. 616 (June, A. D. 1219), 
and was interred in the cemetery outside the Gate of Harb. — Okbari means 
belonging to Okbara, which is a village on the Tigris, ten parasangs higher up 
than Baghdad. This spot has produced a number of men remarkable for learn- 
ing or for other acquirements. 

(1) Aba Pilh HuhtmnMd Ibn AM tl-Mki Ibo al-Bitli. the ht^ib, was the chief traditioDist of Irak in ihat 
age. He died A.H. 664 (A.D. 1169, aged elgbty-seven jears.— IffujOm.) 

(2) I have given the leit and traoglaticn of one of these Khotbat in the Journal Atialiqvt for Jan. 1810. 



IBN AL-KHASHSHAB. 



Abd Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Ahmad, surnamed 
Ihn al-Khashshab, was a native of Baghdad celebrated for his abilities in philo- 
logy, grammar, the koranic exegesis, Traditions, genealogy, the calculation of 
inheritance shares, and arithmetic; he knew also the Koran by heart, so as lo 
repeat it according to most of the reading$ (1). His mind was filled with every 
species of knowledge, and in each branch of science he displayed abilities of the 
highest order. His penmanship (2) was also extremely beautiful. The kdtib 
Imad ad-din mentions him in the Kkartda with the enumeration of his various 
talents and his excellencies; he then adds: "He composed but little poetry ■ 
" this, however, was made by him on a wax-light : 

8 ' It is pale, but not from sickness ; how could it be sick when its moUier is the restorer 

' of health T [3] It is naked, but its interior (the wick] is clothed ; how strange that it 
' ahonid be at once both clotiied and nakedl' " 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONABY, 67 

The kdtib quotes also an enigma by Ibn al-Khashshab, of which the word is 
hook ; it runs as follows : 

It has many faces, yet it does not betray your secrets as a double-foced man would 
do. The lines [atr&r] on its face reveal secrets [asrAr] to yon and make them audible to 
the eye whilst you look upon diem. 

This thought is taken from al-Mulanabbi's poem on the vizir Ibn al-Amid, 
where he says : 

Iliy enemies called thee the rAts (V) wilhoat any addition, but thy Creator entitled tbee 
ar-R&is al~Jkbtar (the greatest of the ckiefi). Thy qualities have rendered these words 
of His as a writing for our eyes, so that they fill the ears of him who uses bis sight. 

He composed a commentary entitled al-Martajal (extempore dmertation) on Abd 
al-Kahir al-Jurj5ni's (grammatical treatise the) Jumal, but he left some chapters 
towards the middle of the book without any elucidation; he wrote also a com- 
mentary on Ibn Jinni's work the luttia, but did not finish it. He was dirty in 
his person and paid hardly the slightest attention to what he ate or wore. The 
kSAih Imad ad-din mentions that Ibn al-Khashsbab was an acquaintance of his, 
and that he had kept up a written correspondence with him. "When he 
" died," says the same writer, " I was in Syria, and 1 saw him one night in a 
" dream, and said to him: 'How has God treated theeV — 'Well,' he replied., 
" — ' Does God show mercy to literary men?' — 'Yes.' — 'And if they have been 
" remiss?' — ' A severe reprimand will be given and then will come eternal hap- 
" piness.' "—ibn al-Khashshab was born A. H. 492 (A. D. 1098-9); he died 
on the Friday evening, the 3rd of Ramadan, A.M. 567 (May, A. D. 1 172), in the 
house of Abu '1-Kasim al-Farra, situated near the gate of al-Azaj, at Baghdad. 
He was buried in the cemetery of Ahmad, at the gate of Harb, on the Saturday 
which followed his death. The funeral prayers were said over him in the Jami 
's-Sultan (the mltan't great mo$qm.'j 



(1] For the rradingi of the Koran. Me vol. I. page tS2. 
IS) Tbe lulograph haa u^, not rth^-^. 

(3) In [he Tndilions ii h mentioned thai Huhammad praised the great medical virtues of boDe;, saying tbal 
in it WIS a cure for luaii. See Httibew's Miihkdt, vol. II. p. 374. 
[t) ffdtf or chief ms a title given to viiirs and diief ofBcors in the adminuu-ation. 



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68 IBN KHALIiKAN'S 

IBN AL-FARADI. 

Abii '!-Walid Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Yusuf Ibn Nasr al-Azdi, sur- 
named Ibn al-Faradi, a native of Cordova in Spain, was a jurisconsult deeply 
versed in the sciences connected with the Traditions, and well acquainted with 
the history and character of the persons by whom the Traditions were handed 
down ; he possessed also immense information in general hterature and other 
branches of knowledge. Amongst the number of his compositions, we must, 
notice his History of the Learned Men of Spain ; this is the work in continua- 
lion of which Ibn Bashkuwal wrote his SiUU. Another good production of Ibn 
al-Faradi is a treatise on homonymous terms (aJrMuldUalif tea 'l-M^Udif), and 
on those relative adjectives the derivation of which.might be mistaken (JtfujAta- 
bih an^Nisba) ; he composed also a history of the Spanish poets. In the year 
382 (A.H. 992-3), he travelled from his native country to the East; in this visit 
he made tiie pilgrimage and frequented the company of the learned, communi- 
cating to them information, listening to their instructions, and writing down 
their observations (awwMt). He composed a great deal of poetry, specimens of 
which we here give : 

A prisoner enslaved by his sina stands at Thy door, his heart filled with dread for 
reasons which Thoa knowestwell. He trembles for crimes the homdness of which 
cannot be concealed from Thee, and thou alone art the sole object of his hopes and 
fears. In whom should hopes be placed, — whom should man foar but Thee? nought 
can prevent the folfilment of Thy judgments. Lordl let not the book in -which my ac- 
tions are written bring roe to shame, on the great day of reckoning, when the registers 
of men's deeds shall be opened to view. Be my consoler in the darkness of the tomb 
7 when my ^mily abandon me and my friends know me no longer. In Thy abundant 
mercies I hope to find pardon for my transgressions; if Thy mercies fail me, I am lost 
for ever 1 

By the same: 

If she who leads me a willing captive be not equal to Uie Full moon in beauty, she is 
yet hardly surpassed by it. My submission as a lover proceeds from the power of her 
channs, and my languishing sickness is caused by the languor of her eyes. 

He was born in the month of Zii 'l-Kaada, A. H. 351 (December, A. D. 962). 
During some time he officiated as a kAdi in the city of Valencia, and on Monday 
the 7th of Shawwal, A. H. 403 (April, A. D. 1013), he was slain in Cordova 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 69 

at the storming of that city by the Berbers (1). His body lay in his house 
during three days, and was at length buried in a state of putrefaction, without 
being washed, or shrouded, or prayed over. Speaking of this subject we may 
cite here a circumstance which was related by himself: "When performing the 
" pilgrimage, I clung to the veil of the Kaaba and asked of Almighty God the 
" grace of dying a martyr; but on withdrawing, i reflected on the terrors of a 
" violent death and repented of my wish ; I even thought of returning and 
'* praying God to consider it as null, but shame withheld me." It is related 
aUo that a person saw him lying amongst the stain, and on going over to him, 
heard him utter these words with a feeble voice : " No one shall be wounded in 
" the cause of God, (and God well knoweth him who is wounded in that cause!'; 
" but will come at the day of resurrection with his wound dropping blood ; its 
" colour will be that of hl<»d, hut its smell that of musk (2) ;'' thus repeating 
to himself the Tradition relative to those who die martyrs. The same person 
said that he expired immediately after. This Tradition was first given by Mus- 
lim in his Hadithf or collection of the Prophet's sayings. 



[1) This Mcuired in Ihe reign of Hidilm il-Muvaifad, who diMppeued Id the caUiiropbe and wat never 
beard of after. Sulaimlo Ibn al-Hakam, nirnamed al-Huslatn biUah, theo attended tbe throne for the second 
lime. On taking the city, his African troops puied three dayi io the perpetration of everj eicess. 

(3) Thit is one of the Mjiogs pronounced bj Hubanmad.— See Matibev's MitMtdt al-Ma$dMh, vol. 11. 
page 237. 



AR-RUSHATI. 

Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn AH Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Khalaf Ibn Ahmad 
Ibn Omar ar-Rushati, a member of the tribe of Lakhm and a native of Almeria 
in Spain, was assiduously devoted to the study of the Traditions, the Tradition- 
ists, the transmitters of oral information and the historians. He is the author 
of a good work on the genealogy of Muhammad's companions and of the per- 
sons by whom the history of (his) deeds was handed down ; it is entitled Iktibds 
tdrAnwdr w'Utmdt al-Azhdr (acqvisition of lights and tearch for jl(ncers\ This 



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70 IBN KHALLIKANS 

compilation, which is drawn up with no inferior talent, was explained by ar- 
Rushati himself to his pupils : it is arranged on the same plan as the Am&b, a 
genealogical treatise composed by Abu Saad as-Samani. Ar-Rushati was boi^ 
at Oriuwala (Orihuela), a town in the dependencies of Murcia, on Saturday 
morning, the 8th of the latter Jumada, A. H. 466 (Tebruary, A. D. 1074) ; 
he died a martyr at Almeria when that city was taken by the enemy on Friday 
morning, the 20th of the first Jumada, A.H. 542 (17th October, A. D. 1147) (1). 
— Rush&ti; this relative adjective is derived neither from the name of a tribe 
nor from that of a place, but originated, as he himself states in his work, from 
the following circumstance : One of his ancestors had a mole on his body, and 
when a child he was nursed by a Persian (or a foreign) slave, who when play- 
ing with him used to call him Ruihtdla (2), whence he became known by the 
name of Riahdti. 



(1) AJnteriB was thea one of Ihe most iroportaot «ea-porta of the Spanuh Hoilims aod Ihe cenire of a yui 
sfitem of piracy whicb desolated the shores of the Hediteiranean. Il was takea bj the ChrigtiiDs after a long 
siege. duriDg whicb Alfonio Haimond, king of Airagon and Catalonia, aided by bii Horiim ally Ibn Gbtoia 
iDd by the king of Arragon, blockaded it by laod, whilst the count of Barcelona, with the combined fleet of 
Ihe Genoese and Pisans, attacked it by sea. We find here, for the Gnt time, the precise date of [hat event. 

(2) I here follow the reading of the autograph HS., but Rushdta, as given in the printed text, seems pre- 
rerable,aB the relatiTe adjectire Rutlum it regularly derived fh>m il, whicb is not the case with flujAMM.where 
the relative adjective would take the form of RutktdU. The meaning of this word is uoknown to me, but 
(be Portuguese roxo (red) or the French touiu appears lo form a part of it. 



IRN BARI. 

Abil Muhammad Abd Allah Ihn Abi '1-Wabsh Bari Ibn Abd al-Jabbar Ibn 
Bari was a native of Egypt, but his family belonged to Jerusalem. . His talents 
as a grammarian and philologer, the abundance and exactness of the oral 
information whicb he transmitted, and his general instruction obtained for him 
the reputation of the most learned man of the time, the greatest hafiz of the age, 
n78 and the phenix of the epoch. He studied grammar under Abii Bakr Muham- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 71 

mad IbD Abd al-Malik as-Shantarini (1 ), Abu Talib Abd al-Jabbar Ibn Muham- S7Q 
mad Ibn AH al-Maafiri al-Kortubi (2), and other masters in that art; he was 
taught Traditions by Abu Sadik al-Madini, Abii Abd Allah ar-Razi, and others. 
The greater part of the language spoken by the Arabs of the Desert was familiar 
to him, and he composed a book of excellent notes on al-Jawhari's lexicon, the 
SoMh, in which he brought forward many curious examples and pointed out 
numerous mistakes committed by that author; this work is a proof of his ex- 
tensive information, his great abilities, and his profound learning. Amongst 
the crowd of pupils who studied under him and profited by his tuition, one of 
the most conspicuous was Abu Musa (Isa) al-Jazuii, the author of the Miikad' 
dama, or introduction to the science of grammar, of whom further notice shall 
be taken (in this volume). Al-Juzuli speaks of his master in the Mukaddama, 
and towards the end of it he gives some traditional information which he bad 
learned from him. Ibn Bari was well acquainted with Sibawaih's Kildh and 
witli the examples adduced by that grammarian in support of bis doctrines (3). 
He was supervisor of the Chancery Office (of Egypt\ and every letter addressed 
by the government to foreign princes had to pass through his hands before it 
could be sent off; his duty being to peruse it and correct the faults which might 
have escaped notice. Such also was the post held by Ibn Babshad, as we have 
already stated (vol. I. page 648). 1 met in Elgypt a number of persons who had 
studied under him, and they communicated to me some of the traditional in- 
formation which they bad ofauined from him; in testimony of this, I procured 
from them certificates of license. It is related that Ibn Bari spoke bis language 
very carelessly and that he paid little attention to the Bnal vowels,using whichever 
came uppermost. This he carried to such an extent, that he said one day to a 
pupil who .was studying grammar under him: "Buy me a small quantity of 
" ^mage with the roots on (hindaba iwoMiMj." The other replied (*n eorreeting 
"/lim); "Ves, hindabah bwr&kih." Provoked with the observation, he ex- 
claimed: "Do not take it without the roots (bioruh&);" — (repealing the fault) — 
" if it he without roots, I will not have it." He used many other expressions 
of a similar kind, being quite indifferent to the manner in which he spoke, 
and paying no attention to the final vowels. 1 have seen a collection of notes 
made by him on al-Hariri's Dwrat al^hawdss ; there is also a little book by 
him in which he points out the mistakes into which jurisconsults have fallen. 



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72 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

Besides these works he composed an able defence of al-Hariri against Ibn al- 
Khashshab, who had written a work in order to expose the blunders committed 
in the Makamds. Ibn Bari was born at Cairo on the 5th of Rajab, A. H. 499 
(March, A. D. 1106); he died in the same city on the eve of Sunday, the 
■27th of Shawwal, A. H. 582 (January, A. D. 1187). — Bari is a proper name, 
though by its form it resembles a relative adjective. 



(1) Abo Bakr Muhimmad IbD Abd al-Milik, laniained Ibn aa-Sairlj, nu bom at Stnlareni, but he Gied 
his residence it Seville. He studied grammar nnder Ibn Ahi '1-AlGja and Ihn. al-Akhdar, and received Tra- 
ditione from Abd '1-Kl«im sn-Nafti t.i:1) from Khom sUo he learned {tKa tmAm Kitik't work) the JHw- 
leatta, whkh he tben traDgmiUMl orallj to hii ovn disciples. Id the jear BIS {A.D. 1121-3) he travelled lo 
Egjpt, where he taught the reading oT the Koran and the Tradition!. He then nude t visit to Yemoi. His 
works are the Tanbih al-Albdb (a hint to the leiie), treating of the Desert Arabs and their eicellenciei; ■ 
treatise on prosodj; an ahridgmeDt o( Ibn Rashtk's work the Omda {tee vol. /. page 384), in which be 
points out tbe mistakes committed b; that writer. He died tt Old Cairo, A.H. S4S (A.D. illKM|.— [Ibn al- 
Ahhtr's Takmtta.) 

(3) AbO Ttlih Abd al<labblr Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali at-MatBri was bora at Cordova, hut he fixed his resi- 
dence in Egjpl. He learned the Uakdmai from Ahtl Muhammad Abd Allah, the bod of the celebrated al- 
Hariri, and be Unght ibem on his authority. In the jear SB3 (A. D. 11S7) Ahfl Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr 
al-Judlmi a»-Sibti learned them from Abd Tllib in Egjpl.— [Tolmrila.] 

(3) Those examples are genersil; single verses quoted from ancient poems, and to understand them well 
it is necessarj lit study the pieces to which thej belong. 



AL-AADID. 

Abu Muhammad Abd Allah was the son of YAsuf Ibn al-HaCz Ibn Muhammad 
Ibn al-Muslansir Ibn az-Zabir Ibn al-Hakim Ibn al-Aziz Ibn al-Moizz Ibn al- 
Mansur Ibn al-Kaim Ibn al-Mahdi. He bore the surname of at-Aadid and 
was the last Obaidite (Fatimite) sovereigns of Egypt. We have already given 
notices on some members of his family and shall speak of the others in the 
ensuing portion of this work. At-Aadid was raised to the throne on the 
death of his cousin al-Faiz (in the month of Rajab, A. H. 555). His father 
Yusuf was one of the two brothers who were assassinated bv Abbas on the 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 73 

death of az-Zafir, an event already noticed (voL I. page 222). Al-Aadid held 
merely a nominal authority, all the real power being in the hands of as-Salih 
Ibn Ruzzik. This prince was a violent shtitCf most bitter in his execrations 
on the companions of Muhammad (who were not partismu of Ali}, and when- 
ever he met a Surmite he ordered him to be put to death. During his 
reign, the vizir as-Saiih Ibn Ruzzik pursued a line of conduct highly repre- 
hensible, forestalling all the provisions in order to raise their price, assas- 
sinating the great officers of the empire lest they should turn against him, 
and weakening all the resources of Egypt. He put the bravest of its officers 
to death, and left not a man of prudence or resolution in the country, 
whilst he displayed great ardoiu* in seizing on tlte property of others and 
inflicting heavy fmes on persons who never had the slightest business with 579 
him. In the reign of al-Aadid, his relation [Abu Abd Allah] al-Husain Ibn Nizar 
Ihn al-Mustansir advanced from Western Africa with a large body of troops, 
but, on approaching the Egyptian territory, he was betrayed by his followers 
and delivered up to al-Aadid, by whose orders he was put to death. This event 
occurred in the month of Ramadan, A. H, 557 ; but according to another state- 
ment, it happened in the reign of al-HaGz Abd al-Mujid (1). Al-Hnsain had 
assumed the title of al-Muntasir hillah. — In the life of Shawar and in that of 
Shirkdh we have noticed the causes which contributed to the fall of the Fatimite 
dynasty and placed the Ghozz family on the throne of Egypt ; further observa- 
tions on the same subject shall he presented to the reader in the life of Salah 
ad-din; it is therefore unnecessary for us to enter into a long exposition of them 
here. — I have heard a number of Egyptians relate that when these people (the 
Fatimtei) commenced their reign, they told one of the learned to write on a leaf 
of paper a series of surnames Gtted to be borne by khalifs, so that they might 
select one of them for each of their princes when he came to the throne. This 
person wrote down a great many surnames, and the last on the list was al-A&did : 
a singular coincidence with the fact, the last of their sovereigns bore that ver)' 
title; it was observed also that, as a word employed in the language, al-addid 
means the cutter, and in fact it might he said that this al-Aadid cut $hort their 
dynasty. I was also informed hy a learned Egyptian that, towards the end of 
his reign, al-Aadid dreamt, when in Old Cairo, that a scorpion came out of a 
well-known mosque there and stung him. When he awoke, he reflected with 

VOL. II. 10 



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n IBN KHALLTKAN'9 

dread on what he had seen, and caused an interpreter of dreams to be brought 
in, to whom he related the vision. The answer he received was, that he should 
receive harm from a person sojourning in that mosque. Al-Aadid immediately 
sent for the governor of Old Cairo and ordered him to make a perquisition in a 
certain mosque which he named, and if he found any person sojourning in it, 
to bring him into his presence. The governor went thither and found a t&fi, 
whom he brought before al-Aidid. On seeing him, the prince asked where he 
was from, how long he had been in that country, and what motive had induced 
him to come there; to these questions be received satisfactory answers. Struck 
with the (apparent) veracity of the $^fi,, and believiDg that a person so miserable 
as he could not possibly do him any harm, he said to him : "0 skaikkl pray for 
" US;" and then dismissed him with a present. The P&fi returned again to his 
mosque, but when the sultan Salab ad-din became master of the country and 
formed the intention of seizing on al-Aadid and his partisans, he consulted the 
doctors of the law on the legality of the measure; they declared it lawful, inas- 
much as al-Aadid followed heterodox opinions, to the perversion of the true 
belief, and frequently insulted the memory of the Prophet's companions in the 
most public manner. . Now the strongest fatwa of any was that given by the 
tA^ who lived in the mosque just mentioned, and he was no less than the 
shaikh Najm ad-din al-KhubAshani, the jurisconsult whose life will be found in 
this volume. In his declaration, he summed up at great length the misdeeds of 
those people (the FaUmite$) and declared them infidels. Al-Aadid's dream was 
thus fulfilled. This prince was bom on Tuesday, the 20th of Muharram, A.H. 
546 (May, A. D. 1151); he died on the eve of Monday, the 12th of Muhar- 
ram, A. H. 567 (September, A.D. 1171). It is reported that, in a paroxysm 
of rage against Shams ad-Dawlat Turan Sh&h, he ended his days by poison. 
According to some accouuts, he expired on the night of AashAra (the night pre- 
ceding the tenth day of Muharram). 

\ 

(1) This eveat it doI noticed bf an; of the hitloriant whom 1 luTe contnlttd; in tlie iVtifdm, AMI '1-Ua^, 
hluD mereij cites Iba Khailililin'i word(, when giviog the ekeich of the life of ai-Aldld ; but under the fcar \ 
5K7, he taliM do nolice of such an occurrence. The revolt of Nitir against al-HusUlI in A.H. 487 (see vol. I. ^ 
page 160), may have been confounded with the death of al.-HBMD the son of al-Hlfii, in H29, and given rife i 
to the discordant itatement* bera brooghl forward b; Ibn Khallildn. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DlCnONARY. 75 

ABU R-RADDAD. 

Aba 'r-Raddad Abd Allah Ibn Abd as-Salimi Ibn Abd Allah Ibn ar-Raddad, 
the mmoasiin and guardian of the Nilometer, was a native of Basra and a man 
of holy life. In the year 246 of the Hijra(A.D. 860-1) he was appointed keeper 
of the new Nilometer erected in the island of (Rawda, near) Cairo, with the in- 
spection and direction of every thing connected with it. This olEce continues 
to be exercised by his descendants to the present time. He died A. H. 279 
(A.D. 892-3), or 266 (879-80).— AUKudai speaks of him in his topographical 580 
description of Cairo, and also of the young girl whom they used formerly to 
throw into the Nile (1 ). These passages are to be foand in the chapter on the 
Nilometer. 

(I) S«« Line's Moiem Egyptiam, to). 11. page 363. 



OBAID ALLAH IBN ABD ALLAH. 

AbA Abd Allah Obaid Allah Ibn Abd AUah Ibn Otba Ibn Masud Ibn Aakil 
Ibn Habib Ibn Shamakh Ibn Makhzum Ibn Subh Ibn Kahil Ibn aUHarith Ibn 
Tamim Ibn Saad Ibn Hudail Ibn Mudrika Ibn al-Yas Ibn Modar Ibn Nizar Ibn 
Maadd Ibn Adnan al-HudaH was one of the seven great jurisconsults of Medina. 
(Of these doctors four have been already noticed.) This Obaid Allah was 
grandson to the brother of Abd Allah Ibn Masud, one of Muhammad's par- 
tisans. He held a high rank amongst the TdMs, having met and conversed 
with a great number of the Prophet's companions ; besides which he received 
Traditions from Ibn Abbas, Abii Huraira, and Aaisha. Traditions were given 
on his audiority- by Abu 'z-Zinad, az-Zuhri, and others. The last>4iamed hdjiz 
said that he had seen four oceans (of knowledge), and that one of them was this 
Obaid Allah. He said again: *'I received a great deal of traditional know- 
" ledge on the Science (of the law), and I thought that I had acquired a suffi- 



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76 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

" ciency; but on meeting Obaid Allah, 1 Telt as if I possessed not the slightest 
'■' particle of it." (The kkalif) Omar Ibn Abd al-Aziz vas heard to say that for 
him a coDTersation with Obaid Allah was more precious than the world and all 
it contained. He said another time : " By Allah ! for the advantage of passing 
" of an evening with Obaid Allah I would give one thousand pieces of gold out 
** of the public treasury (1 )." On hearing this, the persons present said : " How 
'* can you say so, Commander of the faithful '. You who are so strict and scru- 
" pulous in such matters ?" To this he replied : " Whither do your tmagina- 
" tions lead you ? By Allah ! to obtain his advice and counsel and guidance, I 
'* should have recourse to ibe public treasury for a thousand, nay for thousands 
" of dinars : conversation like his gives fecundity to the intelligence and repose 
'* to the heart; it dissipates care and improves social manners." Obaid Allah 
was as pious as learned; he died at Medina, A. H. 102 (A. D. 720-t), but other 
statements say 99 or 98. He composed some pieces of poetry, one of which is 
given in the Hamdta (2) ; it runs as follows : 

You rent my heart and shed in it love for you ; it was then blamed for its weakness 
and the wound closed up. Love for Athma has entered deeply into my heart, and what 
my bosom manirests accords with what it conceals. Love for her has penetrated it to 
a depth which food, or sorrow, or joy, has never reached. 

AVhen be first pronounced these verses, he was asked bow he (who was a graee 
man) could express himself in such a manner, to which he replied : " The man 
" whose heart is wounded finds solace in complaining." He was the author of 
the expression : "The man whose lungs are diseased cannot help spitting." — 
Hudali means belonging to Httdail; this is a large tribe, and the majority of those 
who irdtabit Wadi Nakhla, near Mekka, belong to it. Abd Allah, Obaid Allah's 
father, died A. H. 86 (A. D. 705). At a lime previous to the introduction of 
Islamism, the chieftainship of this tribe was exercised by his ancestor Subh 
Ibn Kahil. 



[1) It is neceaMry to obaerre here Hut the public monoy could only be employed for ibe public welbre, 
•ad tbal Omar Ibo Abd al-Aib wu eitremely acrupuloui on ibia point. 
(3) See HamOsa, ptge S9I. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL WCTIONABY. T7 

OB AID ALLAH THE MAHDL 

The genealogy of Abii Muhammad Obaid Allah, surnamed al-Mahdi (the 
directed by God), is a subject on which I have met with statements of the most 
discordant kind ; the author of the History of Kairawan (1 ) says that he was the 
son of al-Hasan Ihn All Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Musa Ihn Jaafar Ibn Mu- 301 
hanunad Ibn Ali Ibn al-Husain Ibn AH Ibn Abi Talib; another historian calls 
him Obaid Allah the son of Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ihn Jaafar (Ibn Muhammad 
Ibn Alif etc.) as before ; a third states that his grandfather Ismail was the son of 
Ali Ibn al-Husaio Ibn Ahmad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Muhammad 
Ibn Ah Ibn al-Husain Ibn Ali Ibn Abi Tahb; others again call him the son of 
at-Taki (the fearer of God), who was the son of al-Wafi (the perfect), who was 
the son of ar-Rida (him with whom God is weU pleased}, which three persons are 
designated as the concealed in the essence of God ; Rida was the son of Muhammad 
Ibn Ismail Ibn Jaafar (this Jaafar is the same person as he mentioned above) ; 
the real name of at-Taki was Husain, that of al-Wafi was Ahmad, and that of 
ar-Rida was Abd Allah; they were called the concealed, because they lay hid 
through dread of being apprehended by the Ahbasides who had been informed 
that one of them aspired to the khalifate, as others of Ati's descendants, whose 
adventures and enterprises are well known, had done before ; the Mahdi was 
called Obaid Allah to conceal him rnM-e eflfectually. — Such are the statements 
made by those who consider him to be really descended from al-Husain the 
son of Ali, and it may be observed how much their accounts arc at variance : 
moreover, among the persons learned in genealogies, the most exact investi- 
gators reject Obaid Allah's pretensions to such an origin, and we have already 
related in the life of Abd Allah Ibn Tabataha (tee page 47) what passed be- 
tween that simif and al-Moizz on the arrival of the latter in Egypt, with the 
answer which al-Moizz made to him when questioned on the subject : the 
words of that prince are in themselves a proof that he did not" spring from 
al-Husain, otherwise he would have set forth his genealogy without having had 
recourse to the meeting of which we have there spoken (2). They say also 
that his true name was Said, and Obaid Allah his surname ; accordii^ to them, 
his mother was the wife of al-Husain Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abd 



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78 IBN KHALLIKAN-S 

Allah Ibn Maimun; this Maimun was suroamed al-Kaddah (the piercer), because 
he was an oculist and lajtced eyes in which humours had settled. It is said also 
that when al-Mahdi arrived at Sijilmasa, al-Yasa, the sovereign of that city and 
the last prince of the Midrar dynasty (3), was informed that the struiger was 
the person whose rights Abil Abd Allah the Shiite was then proclaiming in the 
province of Africa ; (of these proceedings we have already spoken, vol, I. p. 465). 
In consequence of this, al-Yasa imprisoned Obaid Allah ; but the Shiite, on 
learning the circumstance, collected a large body of troops from different tribes, 
and especially from that of Kilama, and mardied against Sijilmasa with the in- 
tention of delivering the captive. Al-Yasa, being informed of his design, put 
al-Mahdi to death in the prison, and then fled the city on the approach of the 
hostile army. Abu Abd Allah immediately entered the place in which al-Mahdi 
was confined, and found a servant of his, a devoted follower, staying by the 
corpse of his murdered master. Apprehending that all his plans, hitherto so 
successful, would come ta ruin if the troops learned what had happened, he 
brought the servant out to them and said: "This is the Mahdi (4)." The 
rest of his history is so well known that it is needless to repeat it (5). He was 
the first of that family who established his authority in Maghrib and maintained 
with success his pretensions to the khalifate. When he got the power into his 
own hands, he put his fMswrnary (6) Abu Abd Allah the Shiite and that perscra's 
brother to death, as we have already mentioned. In the month of Zu '1-Kaada, 
A. H. 303 (May, A. D. 916), be laid the foundations of the city of al-Mah- 
diya in the province of Africa, and he finished its construction in the month of 
Shawwal, A. H. 308 (February-March, A. D. 921). He also fortified Tunis with 
a wall of great strength and repaired a number of its buildings. Al-MahA^a 
was so called after him. He was succeeded by his son al-Kaim, on whose death 
al-Mansur, (he son of al-Kaim, ascended the throne. Of al-Mansur we have 
already spoken (vol. I. page 218). After him came his son al-Moizz, be who 
sent his general Jawhar to the conquest of Egypt, where he founded Cairo. 
Their dynasty continued to reign in that country till overturned by Salah ad- 
din. We have already given the Uves of some of the princes desceiuled from 
Obaid Allah, and shall notice the remainder in the sequel of this work : they 
were denominated ObaidUes on account of their descent from him. His birth 
(ook place in the town of Salamiya, A. H. 259 (\. D; 872-3), or by other 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 79 

accounts in the year 260 or 266 ; but some say that he was bom at K6fa. 888 
Prayers were first offered up for him as khaHF from the pulpits of ar-Rakkada 
and KairawaD, on Friday the 20th of the latter Rabl, A. H. 297 (January, A. D. 
910); this was subsequently to his return from SijilmSsa and after his ad- 
ventnre there. He made his appearance at Sijilmasa on Sunday the 7lh of 
Za 'l-Hijja, A.H. 296 (August, A.D. 909).— The province of Maghrib was thus 
withdrawn from the domination of the Abbasides. Obaid Allah died on the 
eve of Tuesday, the 1 5th of the first Rabi, A- H. 322 (March, A. D. 934), at al- 
Mahdiya. — SoIamM/o is a town of Syria, situated in the ^vemment of Eraessa. 
— ReMfdda is a town in the province of Africa. 



(t) Hajjl KhalUa noticn Br« anthenirlio hiTe compoied worki on Uie Uitory of Kiiravin.— (See Fluid's 
ediiioa ot tbe Bibliegraphiesl Dietionar;, torn, II. p«ga 143.) 

[S] Thii Imt ugament ii not well fonDdetl; Ibo Klultikln himself admiu thatlhe lAorf^Ibn ToMtabl vu 
dead manr yean ttttoie the arriTil of al-Hoiii in Egypt. The opinion eipressed by our author and the 
genealt^ti vho like him lived under the authority of the Abbuide khalifa, cannot be of any weight, at 
they could not have dared to enounce any other. H. de Sacy'i Etepoii dei doctrintt de» Dnati gire* the 
be<l inromwtioD on the history of the Mahdi and the origin of the Fatimitet. 

(3) H« «u not the last prince of the Hidrar dynuty; the last of then wu al-Hotan Ihn ai^fattir, wbo 
wa« tlalD A. B. 368, serenty years after the death of al-Yasl. 

(4) It muM be ohMtred that Ihn KbalUkln glres thit story u mere rqwrt, as ilie word Jji, or il it taid, 
always Implies. 

(5) See it in H. de Sacy's Dni%ei. 
(S] That is, his precursor and agent. 



OBAro ALLAH IBN ABD ALLAH IBN TAHIB. 

Abu Ahmad Obaid Allah al-Khuzai was the son of Abd Allah Ibn Tahir Ibn 
al-Husain Ibn Musab Ibn Ruzaik Ibn Mahan. We have already spoken of his 
father and grandfather, and mentioned tbe high favour and esteem in which 
(hey were held by aHMamuu ; we have also related how he appointed them to the 
government of Khorasan and other provinces. Obaid Allah held a military 
command under the khalif, and acted for some time as lieutenant for his brother 
Muhammad Iha Abd Allah, who was chief of the police^^iards (Shwta} at Bagh- 



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80 IBN EHALLIKAN'S 

dad ; on the death of his brother, he was promoted to the vacant place. He 
ranked amongst the most eminent of the tribe of Kudaa, and succeeded to the 
chieftainship over them; he was the last of the family who died in possession of 
that post. A number of works were composed by him, such as the ItMra (indi- 
cation}, containing a history of the poets ; an epistolary treatise on govermnent ; 
a collection of letters addressed by him to Abd Allah Ibn al-Motazz ; the KiUib 
aZ-Bordal «;o 'l-Foidhat (on the excellence of style and perspicuity), etc. He trans- 
mitted also some oral information on the authority of az-Zubair Ibn Bakkar and 
others. As an epistolary writer and a poet, he displayed an elegant imagina- 
tion, a delicate taste, and a talent for conceiving and expressing with pro- 
priety the finest thoughts. In one of his pieces he says : 

Does pride make you fly a youth who has disclosed your Dame (of hert uhom fu adore$)t[i) 
The supplications of a lover are entitled to an answer! From a distant land he sends 
you his salutation ; return one yet kinder, or else return it simply. — ^They bridled their 
camels on the morn of separation and departed with their loaded caravan, leaving me 
behind to weep over their abandoned dwellings. But I followed In Uieir steps, and, to 
remove the suspicions (o^ Ike jealotu guardians who surrottnded my bthved), 1 said that 
I had been sent to drive the camels and cheer tiiem with my song. " And what means," 
said they, "that sigh so deeply drawn? wherefore droop those eyelids?" — "That sigh," 
said I, " comes from this long and weary journey, and those tears are caused by some 
" grains of dust which have fallen into my eyes." But when they entered the land of 
Najd, and night had spread its deej)est shades around, 1 raised my voice in the darkness 
to call on my beloved: "0 thou who hast disordered niy reason and enslaved my heart! 
" shall I hope for (he happiness of a fortunate meeting ?" 

Since writing these verses, I Gnd them attributed to Abii 't-Tarif, the favourite 
poet of al-Motamid, the Abbaside khalif. — Another of his pieces is as follows : 

what deadly pangs were ours on (he loss of those friends who were lights to guide, 
and forts to protect us! [In bailie they were) lions, (in beneficence] gushing showers, (in 
danger) firm as mountains, (and for u»] a safeguard and [iouitm of) ease and tranquillity. 
Fortune was never unkind to us till death removed tiiem to another world. But now 
each burning fire is (on emblem of] our hearts, and each spring of water [tht likenett of) 
our eyes. 

585 By the same : 

The true prince is he who, though deprived of authority, is still a prince [at heart). 
Worldly power he may lose, but the power which his virtues give him can never cease. 

By the same : 

Render service as much as thou art able, and be ever ready to dispel the affliction 
of thy brother. The best days of a man's lifie are those in which he renders service. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 81 

Obaid Allah having fallen sick, was visited by the viiir, to whom, when 
he withdrew, he addressed a note containing these words : "I know of none 
" but myself who ever felt gratitude to sickness; I feel obliged and grateful 
" to it for its kindness, since it procured me the pleasure of seeing you. It is 
' ' with me as with the Arab of the Desert, who blessed the day on which his 
" beloved and her tribe departed for a distant land : ' Blessings,' said he : 

' Blessings be on the day of Beparation despite the pains it causes I it vas such a 
' day which gave me a sight of [my beloved) Omm ThAbit. It allowed me to see maidens 
' bronght up in the inmost recesses of the tents, and whom I could never have seen bat 
' in the descriptions of those kind females who spoke lo me of their beauty (2).' " 

A note similar to this was written by al-Bohtori to Abu Ghanim (3), who had 
fallen sick and was visited by the vizir : 

' Von have been a gainer, AbA GhAnim t and may genial showers never cease to 
' shed abundance on your land I 1 should willingly consent to suffer as you have done, 
' were I to receive the visit of him who went to you. The honour which the vizir thus 
' conferred upon you has caused joy to your friends and vexation to your enemies.' 

The poetical works of Obaid Allah have been collected and form a diw^. 
He was bom A.H. 223 (A.D. 837-8); he died at Baghdad on the eve of Saturday 
the 12th of the month of Shawwal, A. H. 300 (May, A.D. 913), and was inter- 
red in the Cemetery of the Koraish tribe. He once visited the grave of his bro- 
ther Sulaimltn Ibn Abd Allah, who died A. H. 265, and there, leaning on his 
bow, he contemplated the family-tomb^ and gave utterance to his feelings in 
the following lines : 

Sighs of sadness mount from my bosom, and tears Dow from the orbits of my eyes, on 
beholding a spot so small inhabited by those for whom my affection was so great 1 



(1) The autograph has \^ S> ^Jje.\ ^sl ^jScV! *> you proudly otwW o yulk imptUed to lout 
you? This reading it given in the autograph and in one of the maauecripts which I siade use of, but the 
measure of the Terse does not permit it. The reading adopted in Ihe printed leit is authorised b; other 
maDuscripta. 

(3) Here the printed teit and all the manuscripts, eieept the autograph, give a reading whicb is rhythml- 
calli VTong. The true reading is wsclyJI j:.>IwoIj, 

(3) Abd Ghinim tfr-Shih Ibn Mtlttl was govemor of Fan; his praifei vert celebrated not ontj by al-Bob- 
lori, but b; Ibn Doraid. 

vol. II. 11 



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83 IBN KHALUKAM'S 

ABU I^HAKAM AL-MAGHRIBI. 

AbA 'l-Hakam Obaid AUah Ibn atMuzafbr Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad 
al-Bahili, sumamed al-Maghribi, a physician and an elegant scholar, vas bom 
in Yemen, but be drew his descent from a family which inhabited Aimeria in 
Spain. In an historical work compiled by Ahik Sbuja Muhammad Ibn ad-Dah- 
han al-Faradi (see his life in this work}, it is staled that Abu 'I41akam went to 
Baghdad, where he kept a boy's school for some time, and that he had a know- 
ledge of the belles-lettres, medicine, and geometry ; then follow the dates of his 
birth and death. Another writer says of him : "He was a man of the highest 
" accomplishments, and cultivated with equal success the belles-lettres and phi- 
" losophy. There exists an edition of his poetical works, which are very good, 
" but their tone is in general licentious." The kdtib Imad ad-din mentions in 
584 the Kkarida that this Abu 'l-Hakam was attached as a physician to the camp- 
hospital which always followed the army of the Seljiik sultan Mahmud, and for 
the transporting of which forty camels were allotted. He says also that aa-Sadid 
Ahu '1-Wafa Yahya Ibn Said Ibn Yahya Ibn al-Muzaffar, who was afterwards 
chief kidi of Baghdad in the reign of the khalif al-Muklafi (Hamr Ulak), and is 
better known by the surname of Ibn al-Murakhkhim, was a phlebotomist and a 
phystcian in the same hospital. The kdiib then mentions Abu '1-Hakam's talents 
and conduct with high approbation and notices a work composed by him under 
the title of Nahj al-Wadda (1 ) li (Mli 'irKhalda (path of Aumt/i^ marked oiU for 
the dissolute). He proceeds to slate that Abu 'l-Hakam removed to Syria and 
settled at Damascus, where he had many amusing adventures indicative of his 
light-hearted disposition. I read the following anecdote respecting him in bis 
Ditcan: " Abil '1-Husain Ibn Munir at-Tarabolusi" — the same of whom we have 
spoken (in vol. I. page 1 38; — " was stopping at the castle of Shaizar with the 
" emirs of the Munkid family, by whom he was treated with great attention, 
" when a poet of Damascus, named Abii 'l-Wahsh, whose facetious disposition 
" rendered him the intimate friend and companion of Abu 'l-Hakam, resolved 
" on visiting Shaizar,that he might recite laudatory poems to the Munkid princes 
" and obtain gifts in return. He therefore asked Abu 'l-Hakam for a letter of 
" recommendation to ibn Munir, and obtained one written in these terms : 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 83 

' Hearken, AbA 'I-Husain 1 to the words of a man who, obliged to speak unprepared, 
' utters his thoughts off-hand. Here is Aba '1-Wahsh, who goes to praise the Family 
' {with ickom you are retiding] ; vaunt then his merit when he arrives, and repeat to them 
' in your own excellent language, what I now relate to you respecting him. Tell them 
' that he is a man the like of whom was never seen before : the qualities which they will 
' find in him render unnecessary any description of mine; any other information than 
' this no sensible man need require. — Notwithstanding his continual levity (of conduct] 
' he acknowledges that he is a heavy fellow (2). He is allied to silliness, stupidity, 
' and folly; for other connexions, he has none. If you essay to open him with the 
' intention of discovering what he contains, you will open a vacuity. If he sojourn 
' with you, treat him with indignity and coBtempt, but when he intends to set off, be 
' officious in helping him. Give him poison to drink if you 6ad the opportunity, and 
' mix it for him with the honey of yonr tongae {fiattmng lanjuage] . ' " 

One of his most admired pieces is a humorous maksAra {poem rhyming in a 
short a), written in imitation of Ibn Duraid's, and which contains this verse .- 

Things joined in close union must one day separate, even were they stuck together 
with glue. 

He composed also an elegy on the death of Irakd ad-din Zinki, the son of Ak 
Sunkur (see vol. I. pages 539 and 225); in this piece he has combined the oppo- 
site extremes of gravity and humour. The greater part of his poetry is charac- 
terised by the natural simplicity of its ideas and style. He was horn in Yemen, 
A. H. 486 (A. D. 1093-4), according to Ibn ad-Dubaithi, in his supplement (to 
the Hittory of Baghdad); he died at Damascus on the eve of Wednesday, the 4th 
of Zu '1-Kaada, A. H. 549 (January, A. D. 1 1 55); but Ibn ad-Dubatthi says that 
his death took place after the second hour of the night which preceded the sixth 
day of Zfi '1-Kaada, whidi day was a Wednesday. He was interred at the 
Gate of at-Faradis. — The kadi Ibn al-Murakhkhim, mentioned in this article, is 
the same person on whom the following Hnes were made by Hibat Allah Ibn 
al-Katt£in, a poet of whom we shall give an account in this work : 

Ibn al-Hurakhkfaira, you have now become a kftdi amongst us I say if it be fortune Sflit 
which has gone mad ((o bring about so absurd an mini), or is it a prank of the stars? 
Were your judicial practice confined to judicial astrology, your decisions might be 
sometimes right, but how did you come to know the laws of Muhammad T 

(1) Thii ii the readinf of the autograph, bnl all the other nuiiuicripU vhich I have consulted and the 
Bibliographical Dictionir; of Hajji Ehallfa have ar-Radda. 

{2] The autograph haa '^UJI, but no (uch word eiista in Arable; the true reading it '^'1, ai I haie 
primed it. 



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84 IBN KHALLIEAN'S 

ABD AR-RAHMAN IBN ABI LAILA. 

AbA Isa Abd ar^Rahman Ibn Abi Laita Yasar Ibn Bilal Ibn Ohaiba Ibn al- 
Jullah al-Ansari was one of the principal Tdbii who settled at Kufa. DifFerent 
opinions are held respecting the true name of his father Abil Laila, who was 
one of the Amdrs; some say it was Yasar, others DawAd, etc. Ibn Abi Laila 
learned Traditions from AH Ihn Abi Tatib, Othman Ibn Allan, Abu Aiyub al-An- 
sari (1 ), and others ; it is mentioned also that he received some Traditions from 
Omar, but this is a fact which no hd^z considers as well established. His 
father Abii Laila handed down a saying which he had heard uttered by the Pro- 
phet himself, and it was he who bore the standard of Ali at the battle of the 
Camel. Ibn Abi Laila received also Traditions from Abd ar-Rahman as-Shabi, 
Mujahid (2}, Abd al-MaHk Ibn Omair, and a great number of others. He was 
bom (A. H. 21 , A. D. 642) two years before the death of Omar, and was slain 
at the river Dujail, or drowned in the river of Basra; some say however that he 
was one of the missing after the battle with Ibn al-Ashath at Dair al-Jamajim in 
A. H. 83 (A. D. 702). Other accounts place his death in the years 81 and 82 of 
the Hijra. 



(It AbCi AifQb Ehtlid Ibn Zaid al-Analriia member of the trib« of Khairaj, was Ihe penon at whoie houM 
Muhammad alopped on hU arrival at Medina, when forced to abandon Hekka. He fought under Muhammad 
at Badr and Ohod, and nnder Ali at Ihe battle of the Camel, at SiOlD and at Nihrawtn. He died A. H. 5i 
<A. D. fl72), under the walli of Conal«nl)DopIe, during the liege of that dtj b; Um iroo|M of Ae klialif 
Moavia ; a Ughl; venerated moaque still marks the place of his iDlermenl. 

(2) Seevol. T. page 868. 



AL-AUZAI. 

Abii Amr Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Amr Ibn Yuhmid al-Auzai, the chief imam, or 
doctor of the law, among the Moslims of Syria, was the most learned man of that 
country in the science of jurisprudence. It is said that he gave the solution of 
seventy thousand legal questions. He dwelt at Bainit. It is related that when 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 85 

Sofyan ath-Thauri heard that al-Auzai was coming (to town), he went out to meet 
him, as far as ZA Taui (1), and taking the halter off al-Auzai's camel, he placed 
it ahout his own neck, and as he went on, he called out to the different bands 
of people whom he met : '* Make way for the master !" Al-Auzai learned the Tra- 
ditions from (Ibn Shihdb) az-Zuhri and Ata (Ibn Abi Babdh); he taught them to 
ath-Thauri, who gave some on his authority, and he had besides a great number 
of other pupils, amongst whom was Abd Allah Ibn al-Mubarak. He was born 
at Baalbek, A. H. 88 (A.D. 707), or 93 ; his childhood was passed at al-Bikaa (2), 
whence his mother removed him to Bairut. In stature he was above the middle 
size ; his heard was thin, his complexion tawny, and his hair was usually dyed 
with hinna. His death took place on Sunday, the 27th of Safar (some say in 
the first Rabi), A. H. 157 (January, A. D. 774), at the town of Bairut. His 
tomb is in a village called Hantus, situated outside the gate of Bairut and inha- 
bited solely by Moslims. He lies buried in the Hbh of the mosque, but the 
people of the place do not know who is interred there; they merely say ; '* Here 
'* reposes a man upon whom the divine light descends." It is only persons of 
education who are aware of the real fact. A poet deplored his death in these 
lines: 

Hay genial rains descend each evening on the tomb in Syria whose cavity contains 
al-Auz&il a tomb which contains a mountain of legal knowledge! blessings on that 
tomb ^m Him who knoweth, and who worketh good I The world ofFered itself to 
him, but he turned away in pious abnegation ; Oh, with what resolution I 

It is stated by the hdfiz Ibn As^kir, in his History of Damascus, thai al-Auzai 
went into a bath at BairQt, and the master of the establishment happening to be 
called away on some business, locked the door. When he returned, he went in 
and foimd aUAuzai dead, with his left hand placed under his cheek and his face 
turned towards Mekka. Others relate that it was his wife who locked thesQQ 
door undesignedly, and that Said Ibn Abd al-Aziz ordered her to set free a slave 
in expiation of her fault. — Auzdi means belonging to Auzda, which is a branch of 
a tribe in Yemen called Zii Kalaa. Others state that his ancestor Auzaa be- 
longed to the tribe of Hamdan, and that his real name was Marthad Ibn Zaid. 
Some again say that al-Auzaa is a village near Damascus on the road proceeding 
from the Gate of al-Faradis, and that he drew his surname from thence ; it is 
true, say they, that he was not a native of the place, but he resided there for 



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86 tBN KHALUKAN^ 

some time, having been one of the captives made by the Moslims when tliev 

(irst subdued Yemen. — Bair&t is a village on the coast of Syria; the Franks 

look it from the Moslims on Friday the 10th of Zu 'l-Hijja, A. H. 593 (A. D. 

1193). 



(1) Thi> pltce leeros U> have been In tbe nrighbonrhood of Basn. 

(2) Bikia or Bikta 'H£ilb, an extensive canlon lituated between Baalbek, EmetM, and Damaicna, ia well 
watered and conuins a great number of village!.— (ifordiW.) See alw Aba l-FeiU'* Geograpb;, Anbic 
uu, page 40,nol«, and tbe tranalation hj M. Iteiiiaud, page 49. 



IBN AL-^KASIM AL-MAUKI. 

Abu Abd Allah Abd ar-Rahman Ibn al-Kisim Ibn Khalid Ibn Junada^ sar- 
named al-Olaki, by right of adoption, was a doctor of tbe sect of Malik, and 
not less distinguished for his knowledge of the law than for his severe self-mor- 
tification. He studied jurisprudence under Malik and other teachers of the 
same epoch, and he continued, during the space of twenty years, to follow Malik 
as a pupil. On the death of that imam, his disciples studied with great profit 
under Ibn al-Kasim. He is the author of the Mudawwana (written collection), 
containing the doctrines peculiar to the Malikites, and esteemed by them as one 
of their very best works on the subject. He gave lessons to Suhniki in juris- 
prudence. His birth is placed diversely, in the years 132, 133, and 128 (A. D. 
745); he died at Old Cairo on the eve of Friday, the 7tb of Safar^ A. H. 191 
(December, A. D. 806), and was interred in the cemetery outside the gate of 
the Lesser Karlfa, opposite to the tomb of Ashhab, tlie Malikite doctor. 1 have 
visited those two monuments, which are situated near the city wall. — OtaH 
means belonging to the Otakd (the lih^ated) ; these people were not all of the 
same tribe ; some being desc«ided from Hajar of (the trifce of) Himyar ; others 
from Saad al-Asbira^ others again from the Modarite tribe of Kinana, etc. llie 
great majority of them resided at Old Cairo, and the Abd ar-Rahman of whom 
we are now speaking was a mawla to Zubaid Ibn al-Harith al-Otaki, who him- 
self drew bis descent from Hajar of Himyar. Abfl Abd Allah al-Kudai says .- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONABY. 87 

" The tribes which settled in the Zdhir {back grounds) of Cairo were the Otaka ; 
*' this body of people consisted of bands belonging to various tribes, which 
< ' waylaid the persons who went to visit the Prophet. In consequence of 
** this conduct, he sent an expedition against thcni and had them all brought 
" to him prisoners; he then gave them their liberty, and for this reason 
" they were called the Otakd (1)." " When Amr Ibn al-Aasi conquered Misr, 
" an event which took place on Friday, the first of Muharram, A. H. 20 
" (December, A. D. 640), the Otaka were with him and formed a portion of 
" the People of the Standard. These were so denominated for the following 
** reason: The Arabs of each tribe had taken a distinctive standard, but some 
"of the tribes were in such small numbers that a standard could not be 
" granted to them ; on which Amr Ibn al-Aasi said : ' I shall establish a 
" ' standard bearing the name of no particular tribe, and it shall be your 
*' * rallying point.' They consented to his proposal, and the tide of the 
"People of the Standard became a general denomination for them all, and 
" such was the name by which they were designated on the muster-roll. When 
" Alexandria was taken, Amr returned to Fostat, and the different tribes marked 
" out the grounds where they intended to build their dwellings. The Olakn 
" arrived afterwards, but not finding building-room where the People of the 
" Standard had laid out their settlement, they made a complaint to Amr on the 
*' subject, and Moawia Ibn Hudaij (2), who was director of the works, advised M7 
" them to settle outside die other tribes and call the spot where they fked their 
" residaice az-Zdhir (the outtide). They adopted his counsel, and they then 
" became known by the name of the People of the Zdhir." All this is taken 
from a KhUat, or topographical description of Cairo, by Abu Amr Muhammad 
Ibn Yusuf Ibn Yakftb at-Tujibi (3) ; it is a useful piece of information and neces- 
sary to he known, for which reason 1 am induced to give it. 

(1) The ciution which follovs \» Ukeo from another work. 

(S) Thia nameisgeieralljfoundwriiteii jrAtida<;^JLa.,buti(8 true orl)iogr«ph;uglTenb; Abfi'I-Mibisiii 

IB Ike Bahr ta-Zdkhir under the jear tf2,— AbO Noaim Hoawia Ibn Budaij Ibn Jofba, ■ meniber of the lrib« 
of Tujlb, t bnoA of that of Kinda, joined the Maiidu'd of Mnhanunad and vat present at ihe Uting of 
Mekka. When Amr Ibn al-Atii got posKsaion of Aleiandria, it was Ibo Hudaij whom he diipatclied nilh 
the news to the khalif Omar. He lost an eje in an expedition against the Nubians, undertaken by Ibn Abi 
'i-Sarb, A. B. 31. He commanded three eipeditions into Western ATdca in A. H. 31, 34, and iO. He vu 



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88 IBN KHALLIKANS 

one of tbe chief partiuns of Othm*n, «Dd, on the de»ih of that kbillf, he fought againtt the iroop* of AH 
nod slew Muhunnud the son of AbQ Bakr. In A.U. 45, Ifae khtlif Hoawu oamed him goTemor of BUghrib. 
Towards the end of 49, he returned (o the E*M and held other important poats under the tame pr)nc«. He 
died A. H. Sa (A. D. sn).— lAt-Bahr at-ZOkhir ; ai^Nt^Am at-Zdhtra; Journal A*ialiqiM for February. 
184f.) 

(3) Tbii it the tame historian noUced in toI. I. page 3W, oole (2). I ihould bare there observed that the 
date of bis death as given bj Hajji Ehalifa is false. Ipalead of 24$, he must have intended to write 346, and 
tbe ftcl is that Abil 'l-MahSsin notices the death of a hifit named Muhammad Ibn Yaklib Ibn Tusftf, who 
died in (hat year. But this person wu a naiive of Nalsapdr, a client U> Ibe Omaijides, and be bore the sni^ 
nameof Abfi'l-Abbts; here is therefore a double error committed by Hajji Khalifa. Ad-Dababi In bia Annals 
U more satiafaetory, he says under the year 380: "In [he month of Shawwtl of ibis year died Abtt Omar Hn- 
- hammad Ibn YOsuf Ibn Takth Ibn Bafs Ibn YOsuf Ibn Kusatr «1-Kindi, the author of the hiatory of Egypt : 
■• at the age of 67 years." Ibn Khallikin in Ihu place gives bim the surname of T^W. not of KtnM; but 
ibto difficulty is easily got over; the tribe of Tujlb being descended from dut of Klnda by tbe following line; 
Kinda, Aahras, as-Sokttn, Sablb, Asbrai, Tujtb.— I must observe that in the revised edition of Bqjji Kbalib's 
text, MS. of the Bib. du Boi, fonda Schuli. Aba Omar's dealb is placed in A. H. 390 ; the foregoing obser- 
vations are therefore completely borne out. 



ABU SULAIMAN AD-DARANI. 

Abu Sulaiman Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Ahmad Iba Atiya al-Ansi ad-Darani, a 
person celebrated for his mortified life and one of the men of the path (1 ), held 
an eminent rank among the holy ascetics, and was one of those who were the 
most successful in their efforts to attain the communion with the divinity. 
A saying of his was: "He who doeth good works by day is protected (by 
" Providence) during the night, and he who doeth good works by night is 
" protected during the day." He said also: " When a man seriously re- 
" nounces his lusts, Almighty God removes them from his heart; and He 
*' would he too just to punish a heart for the lusts left in it (by Hmself)." 
He said again : " The best of works is to resist the passions of one's mind." 
He related also as follows : '* I was saying my daily task of prayer, when 
" sleep overcame me, and behold! a maiden of paradise stood before me, 
" and said : ' Thou sleepest, and yet I have been brought up for thee under the 
"shelter of curtains during five hundred years!'" He pronounced a great 
number of fine maxims. His death happened in A. H. 205 (A. D. 82th-1), or 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 89 

A. H. 215. — Ami means belonging to the tribe of Am, who was the son of 
Malik Ihn Odod; it is a branch of the tribe of Madhij. — Ddr^ means behnging 
to Ddriya ; Dariya is a village in the GfaiJta or cultivated country around Damas- 
cus : this relative adjective is formed irregularly. 

(1) SeeTol. I. pageSSg. 



AL-FURANl 

Abd '1-Kasim Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Muhammad Ihn Ahmad Ibn Fiiran al- 
Furani was a native of Marw and chief doctor of the Shafit^ in that city. He 
was profoundly learned in the dogmas of religion and the developments of the 
law. His master in jurisprudence was AbA Bakr al-Kafial as-Sh^bi. He com- 
posed works on the dogmas of the faith, on the doctrines of his sect, on the points 
of controversy subsisting between his sect and the others, on dialectics, and on 
the different religions and sects. Being then appointed the chief of the Shafite 
community, be filled ihe land with disciples. In explaining the doctrines of as- 
Sbafi, he treated some portions of them in a manner peculiar to himself and de- 
noting great soundness of judgment. On these doctrines be drew up an isstruc- 
tive treatise, entitled aUIbdna (the ehteida^on) ; and 1 heard one of the learned 
say that when the Imam al-Haramain was a boy, he went to al-Fi^Lrani's lessons ; 
but, on account of bis youth, his remarks and observations did not receive from 
his master the attention which they deserved : from that time be always pre- 
served a feeling of rancour against al-Furani, and it was be whom he bad in 
view each time he says in his Nihdyal al-Matlab : A certain author sayt to and 
so, imtit mistakm, which words he always follows up by an attack. Al-Furani 
died at Marw, in the month of Ramadan, A. H. 461 (June-July, A. D. 1069) 
at the age of seventy-three years. The hd^z Abd al-Ghafir al-Farisi mentions 
him in his Sidk, or continuation of (al-Hdhtn Ibn al~Baii'$) History of Naisa- 
pikr. — "Furdm is a relative adjective formed from FAran, the name of his 
" great-grandfather." Such is the observation made by as-Samani. 



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IBN KHALLIKAN-S 



ABU SAAD AL-MUTAWALU. 



18 Abu Saad Abd ar-Rahman the son of Muhammad (whose real name was Ma- 
mun), the son of Ali (or of Ibrahim it is said), and surnamed al-MutawaUi, waa 
a doctor of the sect of as-Shafl and a native of Naisapiir. To his great learning 
he united a profound spirit of piety; the rectitude of his conduct was not more 
admired than the scrupulous care with which he investigated legal questions ; 
and in dogmatic theology, jurisprudence, and controversy he displayed abilities 
of the highest order. On the death of the tbaikh AhA Ishak as-Shirazi, he was 
appointed professor in the Nizamiya College at Baghdad ; but towards the close 
of the year 476 (A. D. 1084), he was superseded by Abu Nasr Ibn as-Sabbagh, 
the author of the S/idnul, who thus filled that post a second time(1) but was 
again removed from it in the following year, when Abi^ Saad al-MutawalU 
was reinstated and continued to hold it till his death. In the supplement to 
Abu Ishak as^hirazi's Tabakdt, or Classification of the Jurisconsults, which was 
written hy Abu Ahd Allah Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Malik al-Hamadani, this author 
says : " Ahmad Ibn SalAma the muhtatUf (2) related to me as follows : When 
" Abd Saad al-Mulawalli took his seat as professor, on the death of our shiikh 
" (meaning XhH Ishak as-Shirazi), the jurisconsults disapproved of his sitting 
" in the place which had been occupied by their former doctor, and wished 
'* that he had given a mark of deference to his predecessor hy sitting lower. 
" Their feelings on the subject did not escape the penetration of Abu Saad, and 
" be said to them : ' Know that, during the course of my life, two events only 
" ' gave me pleasure ; the first, that I came from beyond the Oxus and entered 
" ' Sarakhs in garments much used and not such as arc worn by persons of 
" * learning : 1 then went to the conference held by Abu '1-Harith Ibn Abi 
" ' '1-Fadl as-Sarakhsi and sat down behind his pupils : they then discussed 
" ' a question, and I spoke upon it and made objections ; when it came to my 
*' ' turn to speak again, Abi^ i-Harith bid me come forward and I obeyed; I 
<* * again spoke in my turn, and he told me to draw nearer, till at last he called 
" > me to him and seated me by his side; he then stood up with me and ad- 
" ' mitted me into the number of his disciples. On this occasion I was over- 
" ' powered with joy. The second circumstance which gave me pleasure was, 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONABV. 91 

*' ' to be judged worthy of succeeding our $haihb Abu Ishak, which is the great- 
" ' est delight and favour 1 could ever hope to enjoy.' " A number of eminent 
jurisconsults finished their studies under him ; he himself had studied the law at 
Marw under AbiH '1-Kasim Abd ar-Rahman al-Fdrani (tee page 89), at Marw 
ar-RAd under the Kadi Husain, and at Bokhara under Abi^ Sahl Ahmad Ibn 
Ali '1-Abiwardi (3). He learned also the Traditions, and composed a work on 
jurisprudence, entitled Tatimmat al-Ibdmf, intended to form the completion of 
his master at-Fikani's treatise, the Ibdna, hut he did not IWe to finish it. It only 
went as far as the chapter on punishments, but was terminated afterwards by 
the joint labours of some doctors, one of whom, Abu '1-Futith Asaad al-Ijti has 
been already noticed (vol. I. page i 91 ). They did not, however, follow the plan 
nor attain the object of the original author, who had collected into that treatise 
legal questions of the rarest occurrence, and extraordinary cases, scarcely ever to 
be foimd in any other book. Al-Mutawalli composed also a short but very in- 
structive treatise on the division of inheritances, and he drew up a system of 
controversy containing the indication of the different manners in which ques- 
tions may be discussed. Another of his works is a short treatise on the dogmas 
of the Moslim faith. All his writings are hi^ly instructive. He was bom at 
Naisapjkr, A.M. 426(A.D. 1034-5), some say A.H. UV ; he died at Baghdad on 
the eve of Friday, the 18th of Shawwai, A. H. 478 (February, A. D. 1086), 
and was interred in the cemetery at the Abrez Gate. — I do not know for what 
reason he received the surname of al-MutawaUi, neither does as-Samani men- 



(Ij See Tol. I. page 11, and Um life of Un u-SabUgb in tbu toIudh. 

(3) See Tol. 1. page STB. 

(9) Abu Sahl Ahmad Iko M 'l-jU>lvardi nn i doctor of the Shafite *ect, bol liule ebe \m kaowa of him 
than what ia here indkaied by Ibn Khallikln. The author of the Tabakdt lu^haftyin placet bii death, b; 
conjecture, between A.H. 460 and 480. 



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92 IBN KUALLIKAN'S 

FAKHR AIW)IN IBN ASAKIR THE JURISCONSULT. 

Abd MansAr Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Hibat Allah 
Ibn Abd Allah Ihn al-Husain ad-DJmishki (naUve of Damatms'), surnamed Fakhr 
389 ad-din (glory of the faith', and generally known by the appellaliou of Ibn Asakir 
al-Fakih (the jvmcoruult), was a doctor of the sect of as-Shafi, and the most 
eminent person of that age for his learning and piety. He studied jurispru- 
dence under Kuth ad-din Abu '1-Maili MasM an-Naisapdri (a shaUtb whose life 
will be found in this work), and derived great profit from his tuition during 
the period in which he lived with him as a pupil. He then married the daugh- 
ter of his master, and, confiding in his own abilities, he professed for some time 
at Jerusalem and Damascus. Many of those who attended his lessons and com- 
pleted their studies under him rose to distinction as imams of great talent. 
The le^l opinions which he gave as a m&fU were held in high esteem for 
their correctness. He was brother's son to the hdfiz AbA 'l-Kasim Ali Ibn Asa- 
kir, author of ihe history of Damascus. This family produced a number of 
men eminent for their learning and for the exalted posts which they filled. 
Fakhr ad-din was bom, to the best of my opinion, A. H. 550 (A. D. 1155-6}, 
and a note in his own handwriting states that his birth took place in that 
year (1). He died at Damascus on Wednesday, the 10th of Rajab, A. H. 620 
(August, A. D. 1 1 23). I have visited his tomb, which is situated in the Ceme- 
tery of the Sufis, outside Damascus. 



(1) It maj be percelred Out Uiij lait puuge vu tdded lubaequently. In (he aulognph, it i> wrilteD id 
Ihe margin. 



ABU VKASIM AZ-ZAJJAJI. 



Abu 'l-Kasim Abd ap-Rahman Ibn Ishak az-Zajjaji was an inhabitant of Bagh- 
dad from his early youth, but by his birth he belonged to Nah&wend, which 
was also the native place of his family. He was a master of the highest au- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 93 

thority in the science of grammar, on which subject he wrote his Kitdb alrJumal 
al-Kubra (the greater collection), which is an instructive work, but extended to 
loo great a length by the number of examples. He learned grammar from 
Muhammad Ibn al-Abbas al-Yazidi, Ab6 Bakr Ibn Duraid, and Abu Bakr Ibn 
al-Anbari ; he had been also the private pupil of Abu Ishak Ibrahim Ibn as- 
Sari az-Zajjaj (see Jm life, ml. I. page 28), and from this circumstance he ob- 
tained the surname of az-Zajjdji. Great numbers proGted by his tuition and 
finished their studies under him at Damascus, where he had fixed his residence. 
His death took place in that city, in the month of Rajab, A. H. 337 (January, 
A.D. 949); some say, but eironeously, in A.H. 339, or in Ramadan, A.H. 340. 
It has been stated also that he died at Tiberias. (/ have sisiee discovered that) he 
left Damascus in company with Ibn al-Harith, the administrator of the estates 
belonging to the Ikhshide family (1), and (that) he died at Tiberias. His work, 
(he Jumai, is most instructive, and none ever studied it without deriving great 
profit from the information it conveys. It is said that he composed it at Mekka, 
and ^at on finishing each chapter, he went seven times round the Kaaba, pray- 
ing the Almighty to pardon his sins and render his book useful to those who 
read it. 



(1) The lUuhtde prince AnAj&r vu iheD rcignUig in EgTpt under the (olonhip of the celebrated Klfdr. 
He held hii lutboril; oyer that conDtr; and Sjiie b; right of an act of confinnalion luoed hj the UiaJif of 
Baghdad, ar-RML— (See the lift of URit.] 



CBN YUNUS THE HISTORIAN. 



AbA Said Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Abi i-Hasan Ahmad Ibn Abi MAsa Y6nus Ibn 
Abd al-Aala Ibn MAsa Ibn Maisara Ibn Hafs Ibn Haiyan as-Sadafi was a native 
of Egypt, a traditionist and an historian. The information which he had ac- 
quired respecting eminent men, his acquaintance with the works in which their 
history was set forth, and the correctness of the facts which he adduces from 
personal knowledge, entitle him to the highest confidence. He composed two 



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94 IBN RHAIXIKAN'S 

E^;yptian histories, — the greater, coDtaining the lives of natives o( that country; 
and the less, giving an account of the most remarkable foreigners hy whom it 
was visited. These works display no inferior talent, and have been conti- 
nued, on the same plan, by Abu '1-Kasim Yahya Ibn Ali al-Hadrami (1). Abu 
Saad was a grandson of Yunus Ibn Abd al-Aala, one of as-Sbafi's most distin- 
guished disciples and a transmitter of that imam's modem layingt (2); we shall 
give his life in this work. Ibn Yunus died on Sunday, the 26th of the latter 
Jumada, A. H. 347 (September, A. D. 958) ; the funeral prayers were said over 
him the next day by Abu '1-Kasim Ibn Hajjaj, and the following elegy was «)m- 
590 posed on his death by the grammarian and prosodist Abii Isa Abd ar-Rahmau 
Ibn Ismail Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Sulaiman al-Khaulani al-Khashshah, who was a 
native of Egypt ; 

By thy books and thy lessons thou hast spread learning tbroughont the world (3), and 
after a happy life thou art become one of the lamented. And we, Abfl Satdt shall not 
relax our dutifid effisrU, til) thy works, confirmiDg and correcting {the itatemmt* of kuto- 
riani), have obtained a wide renown. In writing history, thy ardour did not cease, till 
thy name appeared to us, enregistered in its annals. I have inscribed this fatal date on 
my mind and written it in my pages, that he may know it who records my death, if it 
happen that I leave a friend to regret me (4). Thou hast displayed a standard to 
taske known the fame of those who dwell in Egypt, and hast set it up on the basis of 
their merit (5). Thou hasi revealed their glory, (Jo gubtutj among mankind as long as 
the voice of the turtle-dove is heard (6) resounding in the groves. Thou hast pointed out 
tiieir brilliant genius; thou hast selected the eminent (7); men whose talents attract in- 
vestigation. Thou hast spread the fame of the illustrious dead, and they still live in 
the notices wherein thou Iracest their descent ; mentioned Aas, they seem not to have 
died. Noble qualities oblige to noble deeds; and in thee, O Abd ar-Rahmdnl tiiese 
qnaliUes were firmly implanted. Thou art now hidden from our eyes ; and let the world 
produce the greatest man it may, he too must disappear. Such are death's doings ; 
be never spares him who is cherished by his Mends. 

Sadafi means belonging to the tribe of as-Sadif, the son of Sahl, a great branch 
of the tribe of Himyar, which settled in Egypt. This relative adjective is pro- 
nounced with an a in the second syllable, although the word from which it is 
derived has that syllable with an i ; it is thus also with TVbnwri, derived from 
Narmra, and such is indeed the general rule (when the primitive has an t in 
the second syllable). [It must however be remarked that at-Sadif is sometimes 
pronounced as-Sadaf.] — Abii Isa Abd ar-Rahmiin, author of the verses just 
given, died in the month of Safar, A. H. 366 (October, A. D. 976). 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICHONARV. 95 

(1) Acrarding to Hajji Khalilii, Plnegel'i cdlUoD, vol. n-^t^t, 148, Abt 'l-KA«im Tstiya Ibn Ali al-Hadrami, 
•urnamed iI-TiIMd, died A.B. 416 [A.D. 102tt-6). In the ume p«ge, line 7, is a double error, u Instead 
of Ibn Fuiu/ Ahd-«l-Takman Ben Ahmed Sufi we must read Ibn Funuj Abd'tl-rahman Ben Ahmed 
SaM/l; it being, in fact, the aanie person whose life is here giren by Ibn Khilllkln.[ 

(3) See vol. I. ptg« 374, note (S). 

(3] In the anlograph raannsCTipt, two dUTerent readings are given of this first heinistich ; thai of the teit 
runs thus: L_»yiJj Uj yLJ' side ..iGjl). "Thou hasi spread thj learniog abroad, east and we«;" the 

other, ioserled in the margin, runs as follows) lo JLJj Uj^ai' .^tS^ais tJ^J i "Thou hast made thy 

" linowledge clear to others by thjwritten works and renderod II accessible bj Ui; etplanalions." "Hte read- 
ing whidi I followed is given bj al-Ttfl in hia Annals. 

(4) For Ifi.-^^ the autograph fats Uw.^; if the latter reading be adopted, the translation of the vers« 
should run thus: "That he ma; know it who records my death, if indeed 1 be deemed worthy of notice." 

(5) In Ibis Terse Ibn Khalliktn writes J^st); ibe verse then sipifles: "Thou hast displayed a standard to 
" honour the merit of thon who dwell In Egypt, (a standard) firmly set up," 

(0] For ^j- , «^vf tbe antograpb has ■J^-.ny^. The meaning is ^en: "As long at the cooing of the tiiltl»- 
•* dOTB resounds in the groves." 
(7) Hae the sntognph has ^^,^ for .^kH ; tbe sense is the same. 



IBN AL-ANBARI THE GRAMMARIAN. 

Abu '1-Barakat Abd ar-Rahmlin Ibn Abi 'l-Wafa Muhammad Ibn Obaid Allah 
Ibn Abi Said al-Anbari the grammarian, surnamed Kama! ad-din ( perfection of 
religion), was one of the most distinguished masters in the science he professed. 
From his early youth till the time of his death he resided at Baghdad, where he 
studied, at the Mzdmiya college, the system of jurisprudence peculiar to the 
Shafite sect, and gave lessons in grammar. He learned philology from AbA 
Mansur (JfoufcAft) Ibn al-Jawaliki and had lived as a private pupil with the 
shartf Ahii '1-Saadat Hibat Allah Ibn as^bajari (1), under whose tuition he made 
great progress and attained a profound knowledge of philology. His own les- 
sons were attended by great numbers who afterwards became conspicuous for 
their learning, and with some of whom I was acquainted. He is the author of 
a grammatical work, easy to be understood and highly instructive, entitled Aardr 
al-Arabiya (teerett of the AraiAc kmguage); he composed also another treatise on 
the same subject, bearing the title of al-Mtzdn {the balonee). In a third work, 



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96 IBN KHALLIKAN-S 

which, though short, is comprehensive, he gives a chronological list (Tab<Ucdt) of 
the literary men, both ancient and modem. All his productions are replete with 
information, and his personal instructions were, by divine favour, so highly 
successful that none ever received them without rising to distinction. Towards 
the close of his life, he renounced the world and worldly society, and shut 
himself up in his chamber that he might pass bis time in study and prayer ; 
thus holding to the last a most praiseworthy conduct. His birth took place in 
the month of the latter Rabi, A.H. 513 (July-August, A. D. 1119), and his 
I death on the eve of Friday, the 9th of Sh&han, A.H. 577 (December, A.D.IISf), 
at Baghdad. He was interred at the Abrez Gate, in the mausoleum erected over 
the grave of Abu Ishak as-Sbirazi. — ArA^ means belonging to al-AT^dr, which 
is a town of great antiquity situated on the Euphrates, at the distance of ten pa- 
rasangs from Baghdad. It was so called because the Kisra (or Persian king) had 
established granaries (andbir) there. Andb^ is the plural of anbdr, which is 
itself the plural of Nibr. 

(1) Tlw life of IbD al-Javtllki and Ibn ai-Sh^jiri are given In thit work. 



ABU 'L-FARAJ IBN AL-JAUZI. 

The hdfiz fihxk 'l-Faraj ilm al-Jauzi, sumamed Jamal ad-din (the beauty of reli- 
gion), a celebrated preacher, a doctor of the seel of Ibn Hanbal and a native of 
Baghdad, was a member of liie tribe of Taim, a branch of that of Koraish, and a 
descendant of the khalif Abi^ Bakr; he therefore bore the appellations of al- 
Korashi, at-Taimi, and aUBakri. His genealogy is traced up as follows : Abil 'I- 
Faraj Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Abi 'I-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn All Ibn Obaid 
Allah Ibn Ahd Allah Ibn Humm^da Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Jaafar 
al-Jauzi Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Kasim Ibn an-Nadr Ibn al-Kisim Ibn Muhammad 
Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Abd ar-Rahman Ibn al-Kasim Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr 
as-Siddik : the rest of the ancestry is well known (1). Ibn al-Jauzi was the most 
learned man of his time, the ablest traditionist and the first preacher of that 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 97 

epoch. He composed works on a variety of subjects, and one of them, the ZAd 
<UrMaitr fi Ilm itrTafitr (provitioia for the journey, being a treatm on the tdence of 
koranic mt&rpretation)y forms four volumes and contains many novel facts and 
observations. He wrote also numerous treatises on the Traditions, and a great 
historical work, entitled aUMuntaam (the regularly arranged). Another of his 
productions, the MaudMt (forgeriet), in four volumes, contains all the false tra- 
ditions relative to Muhammad. He composed also the TaiHh Fu/iitm (Ahl) il- 
AUm' (^•uctification of the intellect, for the use of thoie who are engaged in hutori- 
eal researckes) (2), which is drawn up on tlie plan of Ibn Kutaiba's KUdb al- 
Ma&rif. We shall close this list by merely stating that his works are too nume- 
rous to be counted. The quantity of sheets which he wrote with his own 
hand was very great, hut people esag^rate when they say that on summing up 
the number of hjxrdios (3) written by him and taking into account the length of 
his life, if the former be divided by the latter, it will give nine kurr&soi a-day ; 
but this is a result so extraordinary, that it can hardly he admitted by any rea- 
sonable man. It is related also that liie parings of the reed-pens with which he 
wrote the Traditions were gathered up and formed a large heap ; these, in pur- 
suance to his last orders, were employed to heat the water for washing his corpse, 
and there was even more than enough for the purpose. He composed some 
pretty verses, and the following, in which he addresses the people of Baghdad, 
were repeated to me by a person of talent : 

There are people in Irak for whom I feel no friendBhip, but my eitcnse is this : their 
hearts are formed of churlishness. The; listen with admiration to (he words of a 
stranger, but those of their own townsmen attract no attention. If a neighbour pro- 
fited by the water which flowed ^m the roofs of their houses, they would turn (he spout 
in another direction. And when reproached, Uieir excuse is : That the voice of the song- 
stress has no charms for the tribe to which she belongs (&). 

Hie quantity of verses which he composed is very great. At the assemblies 
which met to hear him preach, he had occasionally to answer questions ad- 
dressed to him, and this he did with great readiness of wit. It is related that 
on a dispute between the Sunnites and Shiites of Baghdad about the relative 
merits of Abu Bakr and Ali, both parties agreed to abide by the opinion of the 
thmkh Abi] 'l-Faraj : they in consequence deputed a person who questioned him 
on the subject when he was seated in the preacher's chair. The reply which 

VOL. II. 13 



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98 IBN KHALLKAN'S 

he made bears in Arabic two different meanings ; the 6rst, that the best of than 
was he whose daughter was married to the other man ; and the second, that the 
best or ^em was he wlio had mairied the daughter of the other man (5). He 
then withdrew promptly lest he should be questioned farther, and the Sunnites 
said: "He means Abu Bakr, because his daughter Aaisha was married to the 
"Prophet." — "Nay," said the Shiites, "he means Ali, because Fatima the 
" Prophet's daughter, was married to him." The answer was certainty very 
S(Mt clever ; had it even been the result of long reflexion and deep consideration, it 
would have been admirable, but coming as it did, without any previoDS prepa- 
ration, it was still more so. It would be too long to enumerate the particular 
circumstances in which his character and talents appeared to great advantage. 
His birth is placed by approximation in A. H. 508 (A. D. 1 1 1 4-5) ; but some ac- 
counts refer it to the year 51 ; he died at Baghdad on the eve of Friday, the 
12th of Ramadan, A. H. 597 (June, A. D. 1201), and was interred at the gate 
of Harb. His father's death took place in 514 (A. D. 1120-1). — Jauzi means 
belongmg to the port of alrJauz, which is a well-known place (6). 



(1) The Uullf AbQ Bakr Abd Allah was the aoD of Abb Kiihlb Othmlii Ibn Atmir Ibn Amr Ibn Katb Iba 
S«ad Ibo Taim Ibo Hurra Ibn Kaab Ibn LnwAl Ibn Gblllb Ibn Pibr Koriiib.— (See Koiegarteii'a Tabari, 
torn. 11. page 14S.) 

(3) CoplM ot ifae firtl volume of ifaii trork are not rate. It contain* a ihort acoiunt of Hubammad aod his 
prijicipal coiDpanioDS, littt of (be other conipanioDi, of (be TIbts, and of the early trad i lion i«ts. etc. 

(3) The kvrrAia geDerill; contain* twenty pagei. Arabic, Pervian, and Turkish books are composed of 
ktuTdtat in (be same mauDer at European books are composed of sheets. 

(4) Confequenllj a stranger vould amuse them better. Id the printed leit are two [;pographiea] faults, 
iw-» y«)l tor w^ jJl and *^jL» for ..^jW. 

(5) It is impostible to turn an English phrase so ai to conrey ibe double meaning vbich the original Ara- 
bic here involves. 

(6) The author of the Maritid DoticM a region called the river of al-Jaui, situated between Aleppo and 
al-BIra, and containing a great number of villages and gardens; but the port of a)-Jani wu probablj the 
name of a wharf ou the banks of (he Tigris, in or near Baghdad. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



AS-SUHAIU. 



Abu 'l-Kasim, sumamed also Abi^ Zaid, Abd ar-Rabman al-Kbatbami as- 
Suhaili was tbe son of the khatib, or preacber, Ab6 Muhammad Abd Allab, the 
son of the Mtattb Abu Omar Ahmad, the son of Abik 'l-Hasan Asbagh, tbe son 
ofHusaJD, the sun of SaaduD, tbe s<mofIUdw^, tbe son of Futub, who was the 
first of the family who came into Spain: "Such," says Ibn Dibya, " is his 
" genealogy as I took it down from his own lips." This is the celebrated imam 
who composed the commentary on (Ibn HisMm's) Sirat ar-RasiU, or lAfe of the 
Prophet, entitled ar-Raud al-Onuf{the gardms of delight) (1). In atiother work, 
the Kitdh at-Taartf wa 'l-lWm (book of mf<yrmation and indicatiom}, he has elu- 
cidated the proper names of doubtful pronunciation (or derivation) contained in 
the Koran. He wrote also tbe Natdij al-Fikr (offspring of refleseion) (2); a ij-eatise 
on the appearance of the Divinity or of tbe Prophet in dreams; another, enti- 
tled aa-Sirr (the mystery), in which he examines why ad-Dajjal (or Antichrist) is 
to be blind of one eye, with many other instructive disquisitions. Tbe follow- 
ing piece of verse is given by Ibn Dihya, to whom as-Suhaili recited it with this 
remark : *' I and every person who repeated it, when asking a favour from 
" Almighty God, obtained the fulfilment of their desu^:" 

Thou who knowest ttie secret thoughts of man 1 TTion art his ready support when 
miBfbrtune befols him. Thou in whom the afflicted place their hopes of deliverancel 
Thou to whom they address their complaints and fly for refuge I Thou, the treasures of 
whose bounty are produced by a sole word of thine — Be ! grant my prayer, for with 
Thee is all good. My only mediator with Thee is my poverty, and that is yet more op> 
pressive, joined as it is to the need in which 1 stand of Thy assistance. My only resource 
is now to knock at thy door ; and if 1 am repulsed, at what door shall 1 knock? O Thou 
whom I implore and whose name 1 invoke, if Thy bounty be withheld Irom me, Thy 
needy creature, yet let not Thy glory plunge a sinner into despair; fbr Thy grace is 
abundant and Thy bounties are immense, 

He composed a great deal of poetry, and as for his other works, they are re- 
plete with information. He continued in his native place, leading a life of 
purity and subsisting on very slender means, till the sovereign of Morocco 
(Ydtiib al-Maiitiir) heard of his merit and invited him to that city. On his arri- 
val, he met with a most favourable reception from the prince and was treated 
with tbe greatest kindDeas till bis death, which occurred about three years aflciv 



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100 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

wards. He was born at Malaga, A.H. 508 (A.D. 1 114-5}, and he died at the city 
of Morocco OD Thursday, the 26th of ShabirijA.H. 581 (NoTcmber, A.D. 1185); 
he was iateired the same day at the hour of afteroooo prayer. As-SuhaiU was 
deprived of the use of his sight. — Khalhami means belonging to Khatkam Ibn An- 
mar, a great tribe so called, but other derivatioDS are given of this adjective. — 
SuhaUi means belongmg to SuAail, a village near Malaga, which received this 
S name, because the only spot in all Spain from which the star Stduiil (Canopu$) 
could be seen was on the summit of a mountain at the foot of which this place 
was situated. — Mdiaga is a great city in Spain ; as-Samani proDounces it MaHga, 
but erroneously. 

(1) Literally: Tht vnbl»miih$d gairdm*; ibat i<: gtrdena vhlch hSTB neTer been profkned brUieTiilt of 
taj morul. 
(9) It appean from Hajji Khalifa that this li a tr«atiBe on grtmmar js^t Jic ,j. 



ABU MUSUM AL-KHORASANI. 

AbA Muslim Abd ar-Rahman the son of Muslim, some say of Othman, al- 
Khorasani, was the champion and assertor of the rights of the Abbasides to the 
khalifate. According to some accoimts, his name was Ibrahim the sod of 
Othman Ibn Yasar Ibo Shadi^s (1 ) Ibn Judern, a descendant of Buzurjmihr Ibn 
Bakhtigan the Persian (2), but he changed it to Abd ar-Rahman at the desire of 
Ibrahim the imdm Ibn Muhammad Ibn AH Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Abbas Ibn Abd 
al-Muttalib, who said to him : "Change thy name or else our enterprise will not 
" succeed." — God knows if this be true. — ^His father belonged to a village called 
Sanjird, situated in the canton (rmtdk) of Faridin (3); but some say that he was 
a native of Makhwan, a village three parasangs from Marw. This village and 
some others were his own property, and from time to time he exported cattle to 
Kikfa. He then contracted to farm the revenue of Faridin, but at one period, in 
consequence of his inability to keep his engagements, the government agent sent 
a person to bring him before the court of administration. He possessed at that 
time a slave girl called Washika, whom he had purchased at Kufa and confided 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 101 

to the care of Azin Ibn Bundad Ibn Wastijan (4); her, then pregnaat, he took 
with him, and, to avoid meeting the officers empowered to make him pay in the 
amount of his yearly rent, he proceeded towards Adarbijan. On his way, he 
passed through the canton of Fatik, when he met Isa Ibn Makil Ibn Omair, the 
brother of the Idris Ibn Makil who was graodfather to Abd Dulaf at-ljli. He 
stopped with Isa for some days, and had there a dream in which it seemed to 
him that a fire proceeded from his loins and then mounted to the sky, whence 
it illuminated the earth as far as the horizon, after which it fell ia an eastern 
directioD, He told his dream to Isa Ibn Makil, who replied : " I have no doubt 
« but that she will bear a boy." On quitting his host he went to Adarbijan 
where he died, and his slave brought forth Ahik Muslim, who passed his first 
years at the house of Isa. When grown a hoy, AbA Muslim went to the same 
school with Isa's son, and on finishing his studies there, he attracted general 
attention by the learning and intelligence which he displayed at so early an 
age. Soon after, Isa Ibn Makil and his brother Edris allowed their arrears 
with the slate to run up so high that they avoided going to the receivers of 
the revenue at Ispahan, and the adml (5) of that place made the circum- 
stance known to Khalid Ibn Abd Allah al-Kasri, the governor of Arabian and 
Persian Irak. Khalid, who was then at Kufa, had them arrested and brought 
before him, after which he cast them into prison, where they found (a rela- 
tion of their$) Aasim Ibn Yunus al-Ijli, confined for some misdeed. Pre- 
viously to this, Isa had sent Abu Muslim to bring him the crops from the 
territory of a certain village in the canton of F&tik. On his way back, AbA 
Muslim received information of his patron's imprisonment, on which he sold 
all the com he was bringir^ with him and took the price thereof to Isa, who 
immediately sent him to lodge in his own palace, in the quarter of the city 
inhabited by the people of the Ijlite tribe. He then made frequent visits to Isa 
and his brother Idris in their prison, and it happened that a number of nakibs 
(lieutmatUs) in the service of Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Abbas 
Ibn al-Mut(alih, who had just arrived at Kiifa in company with some natives 
of Khorasan, devoted partisans of the Ahbasides, and who went to the prison 
with the intention of paying their respects to the Ijlite prisoners, found Abt^ 
Muslim with them. His iotelligence and knowledge, his elegant language 
and his learning struck them with admiration, nor were his own feelings less 



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102 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

biassed in their favour. Their iotentions then became knovn to him, and he 
learned that they were missionaries in the service of the AU>aside family. To- 
wards the same time, Isa and Idris effected their escape from prison, aud Abu 
Muslim left the quarter where the Ijlites resided, and joined these nakibs, with 
whom he some time afterwards proceeded to Mekka. On arriving there, they 
394 went to Ibrahim the son of Muhammad the Abb^ide, who had succeeded to 
the imamale on the death of his father ; and they presented him with twenty 
thousand pieces of gold and two hundred thousand pieces of silver. (Of ihis 
Ibrahim we shall speak again in the life of his father.) They then introduced 
Abu Muslim, and Ibrahim, struck with his language, intelligence, and instruc- 
tion, said to them : " This youth will be a calamity to crush the foe (6)." From 
that moment, Abu Muslim remained in Ibrahim's service, aoconquuiying him in 
his travels, and staying with him wherever he took up his residence. After 
some time the ndUbt called openly on the people to espouse the cause of the 
imdm, and they asked Ibrahim for a man capable of directing the proceedings of 
their party in Kborasan. His reply was ; " I have put this Ispahanite to the 
*' test, and know his interior as well as his exterior; he is the whole rock of the 
*' earth (and trtii enuh all before him)." He then called him in, and having ap- 
pointed him to the direction of affairs, be dispatched him to Kborasan. Such 
was the commencement of Abu Muslim's public career. Previously to this, 
Ibrahim had commissioned Sutaimin Ibn Kathir al-Harr^i to proceed to Kbora- 
san and make an appeal in favour of the People of the Home (7). On sending Abu 
Muslim thither, he directed his partisans in that province to obey him as their 
chief, and at the same time he ordered Abi^ Muslim to obey Sulaiman Ibn Ka- 
thir ; Abu Muslim then became the envoy who kept up the communications be- 
tween Sulaiman and the imam Ibrahim. — The khalif al-Miimiln once said, on 
hearing Abu Muslim's name mentioned : " The greatest princes of the earth 
" were three iu number, and each of them caused an empire to pass from one 
" dynasty to another ; 1 mean Alexander, Ardashir (8), and Abd Muslim the 
" Khorasanite." [During (9) a number of years, Abu Mushm continued his 
appeals to the people in favour of a person belonging to the family o[ Hi- 
shim (1 0), and performed in Khorasan and the neighbouring places those deeds 
which are too well known to require relation here {1 1 }. Marwan Ibn Muham- 
mad (the last of the Omaiyidet') employed every artifice to discover the true nature 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DtCnONARY. 103 

of these proceedings and the real person for whom Abil Muslim was making such 
exertions; and he found At length that this person was Ibrahhn theim^m, who 
was then residing with his brothers and relatives at al-Humaima, a place of 
which we shall speak again in the life of Ali Ihn Abd Allah Ibn al-Ahbas, He im- 
mediately sent to have him arrested and brought to Harran ; on which Ibrahim 
ddegated his rights and authority to his own brother Abd Allah as-Saflah, When 
he arrived at Harran he was kept in confinement by Marwan, but after some 
time the latter had him thrust head foremost into a leather sack containing a 
quantity of quicklime; the mouth of the sack was then tied up and kept closed 
till the Tictim perished. This event took place in the month of Safar, A. H. 
132 (Sept.-Oct. 749). It is said by some, that he was put to death in a dif- 
ferent manner, hut that which we have mentioned is borne out by the general opi- 
nion. Ibrahim was then fifty-one years of age ; he was buried somewhere within 
the walls of Harran, and AbA Muslim immediately called on the people to sup- 
port the ri^ts of Abi^ 'l-Abbas Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad, surnamed as-Safiah. 
It had been a rule with the Omaiyides to prevent the descendants of Hashim 
from mairying any woman belonging to the tribe of Harith, on account of a pre- 
diction which declared that this business {of the Abbaside eon^racy) would ter- 
minate successfully by the accession of a Harithide female's son (Ibn aUHdritkxya^ 
to the supreme power. When Omar Ibn Abd al-Aziz was raised to the kha- 
lifate, Muhammad Ibn Ali went to him and said : " I wish to marry the daughter 
" of my maternal uncle, who is of the tribe of Harith Ibn Kaab; will you give 
" me your permission ?" — " Marry whom you like," replied Omar; on which 
he took to wife Raita the daughter of Obaid Allah, who was the son of Abd 
Allah al-Midan, the son of ar-Rakkab, the son of Kalan, the son of Ziad, the son 
of al-Harith Ibn Kaab. This woman bore him a son who was the as-Saffah 
above-mentioned.] Al-Madaini (13) gives the following description of Abu 
Muslim's person : " He was low in stature, of a tawny complexion, with hand- 
*' some features and engaging manners; his skin was clear, his eyes large, his 
*' forehead lofty, his beard ample and bushy, his hair long and his back also, 
' ' his legs and thighs short, and his voice soft ; he spoke Arabic and Persian with 
' ' elegance and discoursed agreeably ; he could recite many poems, and had great 
'* skill in conducting public afiairs. He was never observed to laugh, and he 
'' never condescended to jest except at proper times. The gravest events could 



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HA IBN KHALUKANS 

" hardly disturb the serenity of his countenance ; he received news of the most 
" important victories without expressing the least symptom of joy; under the 
" greatest reverses of fortune he never betrayed the slightest uneasiness; and 
" when angered, he never lost his self-conunand. He abstained from inter- 
" course with females, except once in each year. 'Such an act/ said he, 'is a 
*' sort of folly, and it is quite enough for a man to be mad once a year.' Widi 
*' all this, he was the most jealous of mortals (13)." Abu Moslim had some 
brothers, one of whom was Yasar, the grandfather of Ali Ibn Hamza Ibn Omara 
Ibn Hamza Ibo Yasar al-Ispahani. The birth of AbA Muslim took place A.H. 100 
(A. D. 718-9) in the khalifate of Omar Ibn Abd al-Aziz, at a village called Na- 
wana (H) in the canton of Fatik. The natives of Jai, the quarter of Ispahan 
so called, pretend that he was horn in their city. He made his first public ap- 
pearance in Khorasin at the city of Marw, on Friday the 21st, or according to 
al-Khatih (alrBaghdddi), aa the 25th of Ramadan, A. H. 129 (June, A. D. 
747). Nasr Ibn Saiyar al-Laithi, who was then governor of Khorasfin for Mat^ 
wan Ibn Muhammad, the last of the Omaiyides (and who di$eovered what wa$ 
passing), then wrote the following line to the khalif : 

I see here a young horse who will never be broken in, if once he casts his first teeth ; 
hasten then, before he gets his second teeth. 

To this, Marwan made no reply, being then engaged in quelling some insur- 
rections which had broken out in Mesopotamia and other provinces [one of 
which was headed by ad-Dahhak Ibn Kais al-Haruri] (1 5). AhA Muslim bad 
at that time only fifty followers. The governor then wrote to MarwSin a second 
letter, containing the following verses [extracted from a long poem composed 
by a poet whom he had in his service, and who kept a school in Khorasan. 
This poet, whose name was Abu Maryam Abd Allah Ibn Ismail, was a member 
of the tribe of Bajila and a native of KAfa] : 

1 see fire glimmer under the ashes, and it will soon burst out in flames. Fire is pro- 
duced by the friction of wood, and war has its beginning in discourses. If men of pru- 
dence do not extinguish it, human heads and bodies will be its fuel. O (hat I knew whe- 
ther the sons of Omaiya be awake or sunk in sleep I If they are sleeping io such times 
as these, say to them : " Arise, the hour is come 1" (16) 

39tt The answer to this did not arrive, and Ahii Muslim's power became so great 
that Nasr had to abandon Khorasan, and was retreating to Irak when he died 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 105 

on the way, near Sawa, a place not far from Hamadan. His death took place 
in the month of the Grst Rabi, A.H. i3\ (November, A.D. 748). [He had go- 
verned Khorasan ten years.] On Tuesday the 28th of Muharram, A. H. 132 
(September, A.D. 7^9), Abd MusHm attacked and imprisoned AH Ibn Judai Ibn 
AU (17) al-Kirmani at Naisapur; he then put him to death, and having seated 
himself in the chair of state, he was saluted governor, after which .he officiated 
at the public prayer and pronounced the khotba, imploring the blessing of God 
on as-Saflah Abi^ 'l-Abbas Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad, the first khalif of the 
family of al-Abb^s. Khorasan then submitted to him without resistance, and 
the authority of the Omaiyides having ceased throughout the province, he 
despatched an army against Marwan Ibn Muhammad. The same year, on the 
eve of Friday the 1 3th of the latter Rabi (25th November, A. D. 749), a&6aflah 
was proclaimed khalif at Kiifa, where he suddenly made his appearance (18). 
Other dates are assigned, however, to this event. The Khorasanites and the 
other troops were then placed under the orders of Abd Allah Ibn Ali, the uncle 
of as-Safiah, and they marched against Marwan who had advanced as far as the 
Zah [the river between Mosul and Arbela], and in an engagement which took 
place at Kushaf [a village in that neighbourhood], Marwan's army was defeated. 
He then retreated to Syria, but being closely pursued by Abd Allah, who fol- 
lowed with all his forces, he retreated to Egypt. [Abd Allah halted at Damas- 
cus, but sent a body of troops under the orders of al-Asfar (who is named also 
Musfar or Aamir) Ibn Ismail al-Jurjani, in pursuit of the prince.] Marwan then 
arrived at Busir, a village near al-Faiydm (m Egypt), and was slain on the eve 
of Sunday, the 26lh of Zii 'l-Hijja. A. H. 132 (5th August, A. D. 750); [or, it is 
said, in the month of Zu '1-Kaada. He fell by the hand of the Aamir above- 
mentioned, who then cut off his head and sent it to as-Saflah, by whose orders 
it was carried to Abu Muslim, that it might be exposed to public view in the 
towns of Khorasan. (When Marwdn was ai his last mometUt) some person asked 
him what had reduced him to such a state, and he replied : "The little atten- 
'* tion which I paid to Nasr Ibn Saiyar's letters when he wrote to me from Kho- 
" rasan for assistance."] The fall of Marwan is an event well known, and the 
consequence of it was that as-Saflah took possession of the khalifate without 
meeting any further resistance. He afterwards treated Abil Muslim with the 
hi^est honour for his services and for the talent he displayed in directing this 

VOL. II. 1* 



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106 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

important enterprise. From that period the foUowiog lines were very often 

repeated aloud by AbA Muslim : 

By resolution and aecresy I succeeded in an undertaking which the sons of MarwAn 
had vainly combined their forces to resist. I never ceased my efforts to work their 
ruin, whilst they slumbered iu Syria, heedless of danger. I then struck them with the 
sword, aud roused them irom a deeper sleep than any had ever slept before. When a 
shepherd feeds his flock in a land haunted by beasts of prey, if he yields to sloth and 
neglects his duty, the lion will undertake the tending of the sheep. 

As-Saflah died at aUAnb^r of the small-pox, io the month of Zu '1-Hijja, 
A. H. 136 (May-June, A. D. 754), and his brother Abii Jaafar al-MansAr, who 
was then at Mekka, succeeded to the khalifate on Sunday, the 13th of the same 
mooUi. From that moment the conduct of AbA Muslim was marked by a num- 
ber of particularities which produced a total change in the khalif's feelings 
towards him and made him resolve his death. During some time he hesitated 
whether to take the advice of his counsellors on this matter or follow his own 
determination, and in this state of mind he said one day to Muslim Ilm Kntai- 
ba (1 9) : " What do you think of the manner in which Abil Muslim is getting 
" on?" To this MusUm made answer : " Were any other god but God in the 
'* world, heaven and earth would be destroyed (by mcb a man)." — '* It suffices; 
" Ibn Kutaiba 1" replied the khahf, "you have con&led your thought to 
" safe ears." All the efforts of al-Mansiir being then directed to inspire Abil 
MusUm with a false security, he at length succeeded in drawing him to the pa- 
lace. (Another ciroumttance eorOributed to alUof AHihalim't e^ppr^iensiofu:) He 
used to consult books of predictions (20), and he found therein his own history; 
that he was to destroy a dynasty, create a dynasty, aiul be slain in the land of 
BAm (Am Minor). Al-Mansur was then at Mmotyat aUMaddin (21), a place 
founded by one of the Persian kings, and Abii Muslim never suspected' that he 
should meet with his death there, as he fancied that it was the land of the Greeks 
which was meant by the oracle. On entering into al-MansAr's presence, he 
met with a most favourable reception, and was then told to retire to his tent ; 
but the khalif only awaited a favourable opportunity in order to take him un- 
awares. Abil MusUm then rode a number of times to visit al-Mansur, who 
cconmenced reproaching him with some pretended misdeeds. At last he went 
to the palace one day, and being informed that Uie khalif was making a general 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICHONARY. 107 

abluUoD previously to prayers, he sat down io the antechamber ; but in the mean 
lime, al-Mansur posted some persons behind the sofa on whidi Abu Muslim was 
to sit, and ordered them not to appear till he, the khalif, clapped his hands ; on 
this signal, they were to strike off Abii Muslim's head. Al-Mansur then took 
his seat on the throne, and Abu Muslim being introduced, he made his saluta- 
tion, which the khalif returned. Al-Mansur then permitted him to sit down, 
and having commenced the conversation, he proceeded to reproaches : *' Thou 596 
" hast done this," said he, "and thou hast done that !■' — "Why say you so to 
" me," repUed Abu Muslim, " after all my efforts and my services?" — "Son of a 
'* prostitute!" exclaimed al-Mansur, " thou owest thy success to our own good 
" fortune ; had a negress slave been in thy place, she had done as much as thee ! 
" Was it not thou who, in writing to me, didst place thy name before mioe? Was 
" it not thou who wrotest to obtain in marriage my aunt Aaiiya, pretending, in- 
" deed, that thou wast a descendant from Salit, the son of Ahd Allah Ibu Abbiis? 
"Thou hast undertaken, infamous wretch! to mount where thou canst not 
" reach !" On this AhA Muslim seized him by the hand, which he kissed and 
pressed, offering excuses for his conduct; but al-Mansdr's last words to him 
were : " May God not spare me, if I spare thee !" He then clapped his hands, 
on which the assassins rushed out upon Abd Muslim and struck him with their 
swords; al-Mansur exclaiming all the time: "God cut your hands off, rascals! 
" strike !" On receiving the Grst blow, Abil MusUm said ; " Commander of the 
" faithful ! spare me, that I may be useful against thy enemies." But the khalif 
replied : " May God never spare me if I do ! where have I a greater en^ny than 
" thee V" The murder of Abu Muslim was perpetrated on Thursday, the 24th 
of Shaab&n, A. H. 137 (February, A. D. 755), or by other statements on the 
27th of the month ; or on Wednesday the 22nd ; others again say that he was 
put to death in the year 136 or 140. This occurred at Rumiyat al-Madain, a 
village on the east hank of the Tigris and in the neighbourhood of al-Anh^r; 
it is counted as one of the Maddins, or cities built by the Persian Ring. When 
Abu Muslim was stain, his body was rolled up in a carpet, and soon after, Jaafar 
Ibn Hanzala entered (22). "What think you of Abii Muslim?" said the khalif 
tohim. " Commander of the faithful," answered the other, " if you have ever 
'* the misfortune to pull a single hair out of his head, there is no resource for 
" you hut to kill him, and to kill him and to kill him again." — " God has given 



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lOe IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

" thee understandiDg ; " replied al-Mansur, ''here he is in the carpet." On see- 
ing him dead, Jaafar said : *' Commander of the faithful ! count this as the first 
'* day of your reign." AI-Mansur then recited this verse : 

She threw avay her staff [of travel) and found repose after a long journey; she Fell 
as the traveller on his return, when his eyes are delighted (by Iht tight of home) (23). 

After this he turned towards the persons present, and recited these lines over 
the prostrate body : 

Thou didst pretend that our debt towards thee could never be paid 1 receive now Ihy 
account in full, AbA Mujrim (2I») ! Drink of that draught which thou didst so often 
serve to others ; a draught more bitter to the throat than gall. 

Different opinions were held respecting Ahu Muslim's origin : some slated that 
he was of Arabian descent, others of Persian, and others again of Kurdish. It 
is in allusion to the last opinion that Abii Dulama (lee vol. 1. page 534) said : 

O AbA Mujrim I God never replaces by afflictions the fovours which he grants to his 
creatures, unless his creatures misapply them. Ah t thou wouldst meditate treason 
against the empire of al-MansAr I Is it not true that thy own progenitors, the Kurds, 
were always a race of traitors? Thou didst menace me with death, AbA Mujrimi but 
that lion with which thou didst threaten me, has turned upon thyself! 

RUmiya was built by Alexander Zu 'l-Kamain when he was stopping at al- 
Madain, after having traversed the earth from west to east, as the Creator in- 
forms us in the Koran (25). He chose no other place of residence in the earth 
than al-Madain, where he then built Rumiya ; but this God knows best! (26) 



' trj^ 



(1) The autograph hie . 

{%, Tbu wai the celebratad viiir of AouahirwiD. See D'Berbelot'i Bib. oritnl. Buidme Mihik. 

(3) Thii vord b vrjtten In the aaUtgraph with i point on the 5. 

(4) The autograph has ,ilf~— j, 

(5) See vol. I. page 444. 

(6) Uierall;: "Thia Is a caUmiij of Ihe calamities;" a common eipreuion used in tpeiking of mighty 
men and heroes. 

[T] ThtPtopUoftheBoute; that is, the members of Ihe family of Muhammad. The partisans of Alt natu- 
rally supposed tint It was his descendants who were meant, and the; joined in the conspirtcj. But as al-Abbl« 
was an uncle of Muhammad, the Abbasides pretended ilut Aey also were People of the Houtt, and the; tbu( 
uiurped the throne. It was precUel; Uie equirocaloess of the term which induced the Abbasides to employ It. 

(8) Ardasbir overthrew the Ashkanian dynuiyaod founded that of the Ststnidea. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 109 

;V] Tbe following long paiMge it UaotAtteA from Ihe leii of the lutograph MS., in which it ii written on 
(he margia of the page. It eii»ls also in one of ifaeHSS. of the Bib. dv Roi, but es 1 had some doabtaofits 
autbentieitj, I luppreaaed it. The original teit ahall be giTen with the supplementary notes and corrections 
wlueh are to accompany the Arabic edition. 

(10) Be thua deceived tbe ShIitM and drew dieni over to his parly. They imagined that he intended t« piacv 
a descendant of Hubammad on the fhroiie, whilst his real design wu to establish on it a descendant of al-Ab- 
blt, Mubammad's uncle. AbbSi and Hubammad were both descended from Hlshlm, who wis gran^ather of 
tbe one and greati-grandfather of the other. 

(11) The history of Abft Muslim's proceedings will be found in Ab6 '1-Fedli, Price, el-Haktn, etc. 

(12) See vol. I. page 438. 

(13) Here in the autograph MS. are Inserted these words: i^ja.! \a JUi -^ A< U vJUi)-) J J ^Jj 
jui Jt ^y w>1 " Be was once asked how he attained to suidi an authority as be then possessed, tn 
" which he replied : 'I never put olT till to-morrow the business of lo-daj.' "—Then follow two passages con- 
lainiDg some insignificant anecdotes from ai-Zamakbshari'i Rati al-Ahrdr; they are not in Ibn Khallikln's 
hand, but m that of the person who inserted in Ae life of Saif aHsUm Toghtikin, a passage from a supposed 
author, Ih adnlln Ibu Ai&klr; This person's additions do not stem to merit great confidence. 

(14) The autograph bas ij\j\i and the lUardMid jjl^U u in the printed text. 

(15) See vol. I. page 100. 

(IB) Here the author has another passage added in the margin, and which is found also in some of the other 
copies. As il is in contradiction with what precedes and what follows, I suppressed it in Ihe Arabic teil, but 
ihall give it here in English: "This bas some similarity with what is related of one of the Alides, Muhammad 
■' Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Hasan Ibn All Ibn Abi TIlib (or his brother Ibrahim Ibn Abd Allah), who, when he 
" moiled against AbO Jaafar al-Hansbr, recited these lints: 

' I see a fire bluing on the heights and lighUng up the country round. The sons of al-Abbis mind il 
' not, but pass their nigbl in (/alia) security and enjoyment. They slumber at Omaiya did, and like bim 
' they will awaken to avert tbe danger, when it is too late.' 
" Let us retuni to our subject: Ibn Saiytr awaited Uarwln's answer, which at length arrived ; it contained 
" these words : ' Ve were sleeping when we gave you the goverameni of KhorasAu ; he that is present sees 
" ' what the absent does not. Cut off the wart whidi is before you.' On reading these words, Nasr said : 
" ' 1 told you that he could be of no assistance.' He then wrote to him a second {third) time. " 

(17) The autognph has in the raai^lo : J,* ^i k^j^Ao. ^Ji. 

(18] He had remaijied In concealment for some time, lest the Omaiyides sbonld put him to death. Src 
Abfl '1-Fed*. 

(19) Xht Abd Allah Muslim Ibn Kuliiba Ibn Muslim Ibn Amr Ibn al-HasIn ^^..as^l, a member of the 
tribe of Blhila, a native of Khorasio, and the father of Said Ibn Muslim, was governor of Basra under Yaild 
Ibn Omar Ibn Hnbaira, lo the reign of Harwln al-Hirotr (the last of tbe Omaiyide dynasty in Ihe East). He 
held again the same post in the reign of AbH laafar al-MansQr. His conduct as an emir was marked by great 
prudence and justice. His death took place A.H. 149 (A.D. 7M).— (JVu;tlm.) 

(30) Kvtub ai-!Ualihim. See H. de Sacy's ChnitomatkU. lorn. II. p. 398. 

(31) See at the end of Uiis article, 

(39) Jaabr Ibn Hanula, one of al-Hansdr's generals, was a native of Nahrawtn, In A.H. 139 (A.D. TSA-T) 
he commanded an expedition to Halatiya.— [iVujilm.) 

(33) See the observations on Ibis verse in vol. I. pp.221 and 672. 

(34) ^W MHfrtin means /artero/owllain; it is a sort of pun on the name of ^6il .tfuifim. 



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110 DtN KHALUKAK'S 

\,Vt) Koran, XVIII. M. 

(S6) IbB KbtlUUn Menu to have bad a Tigue knoir ledf« of fbe fgnndiDg of Selraeia bj 8iimicai NieaUr, om 
of Aieiauder (he Great's generaU. It ii veil known ibit tbe conqnett of Babjloo b; Selnicui gate riae m 
the era of ibe Seleucide, eallMJ alto bj the Arabs the era of Zb ']-Kantain. — BUrkhaiud atlribQle* the km»- 
daiion of Mmiya lo ADdihirwln, who built It on ihe precUe Modd of AdIimIu See De Smt'i JMmfn aw 
Im antiquitit de la P«rta, p. 334. In a doi« to the French mnilation of AbA 'h-Peti'i Geography, H. ftai- 
naud Indjcalet the men citiei of which al-Hadlln «aa conpOHd. 



IBN NUBATA THE KHATIB. 

The ftAoflft, or preacher, AbA Yahya Abd ar-Rahim Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ismail 
Ibn Nubata al-Hudaki al-Fariki, the author of the celebrated khoUxu, or sermons, 
597 was a perfect master of all the sciences connected with general literature. The 
divine grace bestowed upon him is conspicuous in his kbotba$^ which are unani- 
mously considered as unrivalled and which remain a proof not only of his exten- 
sive learning, but of his fine genius. He was a native of Maiy^iarikin, and he 
held the post of kbatib at Aleppo. In (hat city he met Abi!t 't-Taiyib at-Muta- 
nabbi at the court of Saif ad-Dawlat, and learned from him, it is said, a number of 
his poems. As Saif ad-Dawlat was frequently warring against the enemies of the 
faith, a large portion of the khatib't sermons are on the duty of holy warfare, and 
were intended by him to stimulate the people and encourage them to support 
that prince. Ibn Nubata was a man of great holiness, and he once dreamt that 
he was standing in the cemetery, when the Prophet appeared to hira and said, 
pointing to the tombs: "0 khatiblwhat sayest thou?" "And I replied," said 
Ibn Nubata : " Tkey tell not of the state to which they are come; and were they 
' ' abie to ^eak, they would do $o : they have drunk the bitter cup of death, and are 
*• »M)w a$ if they had never r^oiced tbe eyet of their friendt — as if they htd never 
" been counted among the living. He who gave them ipecch bai brought them to 
' ' iilence ; he who created them hat earned them to perish : but at he wore them out, 
" so vnll he renew them; as he scattered their frame, sowtii Ac reunite if (1)." The 
Prophet then spat in his mouth, and the Miattb awoke with a brightness oh his 
face which had not been there before : he then related his dream and mentioned 
that the Proj^et had honoured him with the tide of kktUtb. For eighteen days 



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BIOGRAPHICAL mCnONARY 111 

after, he lived without eating or drinking, by the grace of that spittle. The 

kkotba from which the foregoing passage is taken continues to be known by the 

title of ai-ldtotba aUnandmiya (the sermon of the mtum). The only historian in 

whose works I have been able to discover the date of the l^atib's birth and 

death, is Ibn al-Azrak al-Fariki, who says in his History of Maiyafarikin : " Ibn 

" Nubata was born A. H. 335 (A. D. 946-7), and he died A. H. 374 (A. D. 

'* 984-5) at MaiyafSrikin, in which city he was interred." I read the following 

passage in a collection of anecdotes : " The vizir Abil '1-Kasim Ibn al-Maghribi 

" said : ' I saw the fduiUb Ibn Nubata in a dream, after bis death, and I asked 

" htm how God had treated him ; to which he replied : < A leaf was handed to 

^' me on which these two lines were written in red letters : 

' Before this, thou wert in safety, but to-day thou art doubly safe. Pardon is not for 
' Uie worker of good ; it is only for the transgressor 1' 

"I then awoke, repeating these verses." — HvMki means beUmgmg to Hvr 
ddha, a branch of the tribe of Kudaa ; but Ibn Kutaiba says, in his History of 
the Poets, that Hudak is a branch of the tribe of Aiyad ; God knows best ! 

(1) 1 have giveo the leil and innslation of thia aermoa in the Jownal Attattque for Januaiy, 1B40. 



AL-KAD! 'L-FAML. 



Abii Ali Abd ar-Rahim al-Lakhmi al-Askalani (a member of the trU)e of LMm 
and a native of Atcalon), generally known by the title of aWCSdi '1-Fadil (the ta- 
temied kddi) and sumamed Mujir ad-din (the protector of religion)y was the son of 
al-Kadi 'l-Ashraf (the mott noble kddi) Baha ad-din Abu '1-Majd Ali, who was ttie 
son of al-Kadi 's-Said (the fi)rtumte kddi) Abii Muhammad Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan 
Ibn aUHasan(4) Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Faraj (2) Ibn Ahmad.— Al-Kadi 'I-F&dil, sur- 
named also at^isri because he resided in Misr, or Kgypt, was vizir to the sultan 
at-Malik an-Na^r Salah ad-^lln, by whom he was always treated with the very 
hi^iest favour. As a writer of epistles he reached pre-eminence and surpassed 
eTa7 predecessor ; and in his {nxxluctions, numerous as they were, he constantly 



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112 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

displayed novel beauties of style and thought. I have been informed by a man of 
talent and veracity, who was well acquainted with every thing respecting the 
Kadi, that the books containing the rough draughts of bis epistles, and the 
B loose sheets on which his UUtkas (memoranda) were written, would certainly form 
a collection of one hundred volumes, and that the greater part of these docu- 
ments are masterpieces. The kdlib Imad ad-din al-lspahani speaks of him in 
the Kharida in these terms : " He was the majSterof the pen and of lucid ez- 
*' pression (3), of eloquence, and of language; his genius was brilhant, his 
" sagacity penetrating, and his style marked by originality and beauty. His 
" abilities were so great that we know not of any ancient writers who could 
' ' have entered into competition with him or even approached him, had they 
" lived in the same time. He was like the law of Muhammad, which annulled 
" every preceding law and became itself the basis of all science ; to him be- 
" longed novelty of thought, originality of ideas, display of brilliancy, and pro- 
*' duction of the fairest flowers ; it was he who conducted the empire by his 
" counsels, and fastened the pearls (of $tyie) on the thread (of discourse): whcr 
" be pleased, he could compose in a day, nay in a single hour, documents 
" which, were they preserved, would be considered by masters of the epistolary 
'* art as the most precious materials they could possess. How far was Koss (4) 
*' beneath bim in eloquence, and Kais (5) in prudence! Compared with him 
" in generosity, what was Hatim(6)? and in bravery, what was Amr?(7)." He 
then continues his eulogium in the highest terms. — We shall give here a letter 
by al-K3idi 'l-F&dil, addressed to Salah adniin and presented to him by the khatV> 
(preacher) of Aidab (8)^ in it he recommends the bearer as a proper person to 
fill the place of preacher at at-Karak (9) : *' May God preserve the sultan al- 
" Malik an-Nasir and fortify him ; may He grant a favourable acceptance to his 
" acts and make them fructify; may He crush his enemies unawares, when they 
'* slumber by day or sleep by night ' and may He quell their insolence by 
" means of his servant's sword and cast them prostrate ! This tetter, bearing 
" the humble service of thy slave, will be presented by the kbatib of Aidab, 
" forced to quit that place which was for him an unpleasant and inconvenient 
" residence. Having heard of those victories, the fame of which has filled tiie 
" earth, and which entitle thee to the gratitude of its inhabitants, he abandoned 
" the burning atmosphere and the salt soil of Aidab, and travelled forth in a 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 113 

'* night of hope, brilliant as day; judge then what the morniDg itself must 
*' be! He is anxious to obtain the preachership of al-Karak, for he is a 
'* preacher; and he employs the mediation of thy humble servant to address 
'* this request, which can be easily granted. He removes from Egypt to 
** Syria, from Aidab to al-Karak; a change singular enough: but poverty im- 
" pels with violence ; his family being large and his means small. The bounty 
" of God to mankind in preserving our sovereign master is most gracious. 
*' Adieu." — In one of his epistles he describes, in the following original strain, 
a castle situated on a lofty hill (10): *' This castle is an eagle among precipices; 
*' a star in the clouds; a head turbaned with vapours; a finger which, when 
*' dyed by the rays of the evening, has for its nail the new moon." His compo- 
sitions abound in originality and beauty ; he wrote also some good poetry, such, 
for instance, as the piece he recited on arriving at the Euphrates in the retinue 
of the sultan Salah ad-din, and in which he expresses his desire of again seeing 
the NileofE^pt; 

Bear from me a message to the Nile ; (ell U I never could quench my thirst with 
water (rom the Euphrates. Ask my heart if 1 say the truth ; it will be a sufficient wit- 
ness for me, even did my eyes withhold their (ears. O my heart I how many Buthainat 
hast (hou left there after thee, but God forbid that thou support thy sorrows wiUi pa- 
tient resignation [jamil] (11). 

He often recited the following verses : 

When the eyes of Fortune guard you, sleep without fear, for places of danger are 
then places of safety. Pursue the phoenix, fbrtune will serve you as a net; take the 
constellation of Orion for a steed, fortune will be your bridle. 

The following lines were composed by him : 

We passed the night in the gratification of our desires; but there are pleasures 
which it is not possible (o describe. The guardian of our door was the night, and we 
said to her: " Leave us not, or the morning will break in." 

1 have expressed this idea in a distich which runs as follows : 3 

What a night of pleasure we passed at the mountain-foot ! to describe it would for 
exceed my power. I saidto the night: "Thou art &e guardian of our door; leave us 
" not, for we dread the breaking in of the dawn." 

Al-Kadi '1-Fadil composed a great quantity of ftoetry. He was born at Asca- 

lon on the 1 5th of the latter Jumida, A.H. 529 (April, A.D. 1135) ; his fathei- 

VOL II. 15 



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11& IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

held for some time the post of kidi at the eity of Baisin (1 2) ; and for thi& rea- 
son, all the family received the surname of aWBaisani. In the life of al-Mu- 
waffak YAsuf Ibn al-Khallal, we shall relate liow al-Kadi 'l-Fidil began the 
world, and how he went to E^pt, where he was employed to draw up docu- 
ments in the chancery-office by al-Khallal ; it is not therefore necessary for us 
to repeat the same account here. He was then attached to the service of the 
sultan at Alexandria, where he remained for some time. The jurisconsult 
Omara al-Yamani speaks of him in his work on the history of the Egyptian 
vizirs, entitled (m-Nukat alrAsriya, where he gives the life of al-Aadil Ibn 
as-Salih Ibn Ruzzik : " Among the actions," says he, " which redound to his 
" (al-AMii'i) honour, and merit to be enregistered in the history of his life — 
" or rather, I should say, incomparably the best deed he ever performed and a 
*' favour (to the world) not to be repaid — was his despatching an order to the 
" governor of Alexandria, with directions to send al-Kadi '1-Fadil to court; 
" after which he took him in his service and employed him as his secretary 
'* in the army office. He thus planted a tree from which not only the state, but 
<* religion drew profit; a blessed tree of rapid growth and firmly rooted, bearing 
'* its branches to the sky, and furnishing good fruit at all seasons, by the per- 
'* mission of the Lord." We have already mentioned that (subsequentiy to this) 
he was appointed vizir by Salah ad-din, and gradually mounted in favour till 
that sultan's death. During the reign of al-Malik al-Aziz, the son and suc- 
cessor of that prince, al-Kadi 'l-Fadil maintained his rank and influence ; al- 
Malik al-Aziz's son, al-Malik al-Mansur, then succeeded to the throne in conse- 
quence of the measures taken by his uncle al-Malik al-Afdal Ndr ad-din ; and 
al-Kadi 'l-Fadil continued to hold his rank and honours to the last moment of 
his life. He expired suddenly at Cairo on the eve of Wednesday, the 7th of 
the latter Rabi, A. H. 596 (January, A. D. 1200), at the time of al-Mahk al-Aa- 
dil's entry into that city, when taking possession of Egypt. He was buried 
the next morning in the mausoleum bearing his name, and situated in the lesser 
Karafa Cemetery, at the foot of Mount Mukattam. I visited his tomb more than 
once, and I saw the date of his death, as it is here given, engraved on the 
marble enclosure which surrounds the monument. He was one of the orna- 
ments of the a^, and time will not readily produce another fit to replace him. 
He founded a madrata at Cairo in the street called Dm-b al-Mal&khiya, and I 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 115 

perused a note io his own handwriting, wherein it was stated that on Saturday, 
the first of Muharram, A. H. 580 (April, A. D. 1 184), this estabHshment was 
first opened for the instruction of pupils. — As for his surname, his family say 
that it was Muhi ad-din (reviver of religion), but in a document addressed to him 
)>y Ihn Abi Usrun (see page 32), I find him styled Mujir ad-din. — His son Abd 
'1-Abhas Ahmad, surnamed al-Kadi al-Ashraf Baha ad-din (the most noble kddi, 
the luHre of the faith) lived in high favour with the princes (of the family of 
Saldh ad-d^) ; he was most assiduous in learning Traditions and indefatigable 
in collecting books. His birth took place at Cairo in the month of Muharram, 
A.H. 573 (July, A.D. 1177), and he died at the same city on the eve of Monday, 
the 7th of the latter Jumada, A. H. 643 (October, A. D. 1 245). He was buried 
at the side of his father's tomb. Al-Kadi al-Ashraf, having been commissioned 
by the prince al-Malik al-Kamil Ibn al-Malik al-Aadil Ibn Aiyub to proceed from 
Cairo on a mission to Baghdad, he addressed to the vizir these lines of his own 
composing : 

O my lord vizir! you whose bvours dissolve the pact which boaad me to adverse 
fortiinel How can I thank you for your kindness, feeling that I can hardly sustain the 400 
honour conierred upon me. Those favours are light in your hands, but their burden is 
weighty on the shoulders (13) of those who receive them. 



il) TheautogTiph hai j^™=J!, 

,2) ^jii\ in ibe autograph. 

(3) We have here in the original a good «peeimcD of Imld ad-dln's Bijle, with ill beanllM and its faults; 
but (he former vanish in iranslatioD, and the laiur l)ei»ine still more glaring. One or two pasMges in Ibis 
citract are so higbl; Sgurttive Ihat it is impossible M render tbem literally into an; EuTopeaa laagnage. 

(1) Se« vol. I. page 137. 

(9) Ktis Ibn Zuhair al-Absi ja the pergoD meant in the proverbial expression : shrnrd<r than Saii. He took 
aniclive pari in ibe war of DIhis and Ghabra. SeeBasmuisen's .4(I(li'(ain«nfa,' AbA'l-Fedi'sl7tjl.^n(ei'i(am. 
p. 141. 

(ft) This is Ihe celebrated Htiim at-Tal. 

(7) Amr the son of Malik, of Ihe Iribe of StsA, ■ contemporv]' of Huhammad, vras surnamed for liis braverj 
Huldfb al-Anrtna {he Ihal playt with tht tpear poind].— (See Risraussen's Additammita ad hist. At.) 

i8) The town of Aidflb is situated on the western coast of tbe Red Sea, In Ut. 3S* §^. Berghaus has 
omitted it in his map of Egypt and Arabia. 

(9} Karak or Kerek lies to the east of the southern eilremity of the Dead Sea. 

(10) Probably Salat Saukab {Star Catile), a fortress situated on a lofty bill overiookiag die Jordan. 
Bergbaui placet it in lat. 33° yf. 



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116 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

(11) For ibe lovet of Jamil and Bulbaina, see vol. I. page 331. It m»j be perceiTtd thai (he VMi htt »t- 
umpted a pun in ihu Tene. 

(IS) Baittn lie* about nine milei south of Lake Tiberias, near the right b«ok of the Jordan. 

[13] Liierall; : On th» tuekM. In Arabic tbej laj, h» hung a favour on Ala ntrt l^ « jjj ; an eiprauion 
equiTBleot to Imo a^jI he eonfereed a favovr tm Aim. 



IBN JURAIJ. 

Abd Khalid Ab^ al-Malik, suraamed also Abu '1-Walid, the son of Abd al- 
Aziz Ibn Juraij, was a native of Mekka, and a member, by adoption, of the trib<> 
of Koraish ; Omaiya Ibn Khalid Ibn Asid being his patron. According to another 
statement, (Aw grandfather) Juraij was a slave to 0mm Habib, the daughter of 
Jubair and the wife of Abd al-Aziz Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Khalid Ibn Asid Ibn Abi 
'l-Eis Ibn Omaiya ; and for this reason he was considered as the matcla of the 
latter. Abd al-Malik was one of the most celebrated men (of that age) for his 
learning ; it is said that he was tlie first who, after the promulgation of Isla- 
mism, composed books. He frequently related (he following anecdote: "I 
" was in Yemen with Maan Ibn Zaida (1), and the period of the pilgrimage 
" came round without my having any intention of making it, till the following 
" verses of Omar Ibn Abi Rabia's (2) came suddenly to my recc^ection: 

' Say to him, 1 pray you, but not reproachfully : Why do you make so long a stay 
' ia Yemen 7 If yon be in search of fortune (3) or if you have obtained her favours, what 
' sum have you received for neglecting the pilgrimage?' 

*' I immediately went to Maan and told him that it was my intention to 
'* make the pilgrimage, on which he asked me what could have induced me to 
** form such a design, as I never before had spoken to him on the subject. I 
" then related to him the circumstance and repeated Ibn Abi Rabia's verses, on 
" which he provided me with the expenses of my journey and sent me off." IIm» 
Juraij was bom A.H. 80 (A.D. 699-700); he went to Baghdad to see Abu Jaafar 
al-Mansur, and died A.H. 1 49 (A. D. 766) ; some say, 1 50 or 1 51 . 

(1) Hii life will be found in this work. 

(3) The life of Omar Ibn Abi Rabia is given in this votume. 

\,3) Read Uij in die Arabic teit. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



ABD A1.MALIK IBN OMAIIV. 



Abfi Omar,ai>d Abik Amr, Abd al-Malik Ibn Omair Ibn Suwaid, sumamed al- 
Kibti al-Farsi,was a member of the tribe of Lakhtti and one of the principal inha- 
bitants of Kufa, where he filled the place of kadi on the death of as-Shabi. He 
ranked among the most distinguished of the TAbt$ and was also one of the most 
trustwortliy as a transmitter of Traditions. He saw Ali Ibn Abi Talib and gave 
Traditions on the authority of Jabir Ibn Abd Allah (1). The following circum- 
stance of his life is related by himself: <M was with Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwan 
" at the castle of Ki!ifa when the head of Musab Ibn az-Zubair was brought in 
" and presented to him. On seeing me shudder, he. asked me what was the 
" matter, and I replied : ' May God preserve the Commander of the faithful ! I 
'* ' was in tliis castle, and in this very room, with Obaid Allah Ibn Ziad when 
** * the head of al-Husain the son of Ali Ibn Abi Talib was placed before him ; 
*' ' 1 was then here with al-Mukhtar Ibn Abi Obaid atli-Thakafi^ when- Obaid 
/* ' Allah tbn Ziad's head was brought to him ; I was here again when al-Mukh- 
** < tar's head was presented to Musab Ibn az-Zubair, and behold now the head 
*' ' of Musab !' On hearing these words, Abd al-Malik rose from his place and 
" ordered the pavilion in which we were to be levelled to the ground." Ibn 
Omair was at one time taken ill, and a person sent his excuses for not going to 
visit him, on which he answered : "I cannot reproach a person for not visiting 
** me, whom I myself should not go to visit were he sick." He died on or 
about A.H. 136 (A. D. 753-4), aged 103 years.— The relative adjective Kibti is 
formed from Kibt; he possessed an excellent race-borse so called, and from tliis 
circumstance he derived his surname. — Farn is derived from Fart (hone), and 401 
was applied to him for the same reason. 



U) Abo Abd Atlah Jibir Ibn Abd Allah IbD Amr u-Sulami al'Ansliri wu ■ lutive of M«dliu aod a Tradi- 
lioniM of gTM( tulborilj, having cooveried with the Prophei. He died at hit Diii?« place, A. B. 78 (A. 1>. 
097-6) agvd aiitj-four yean.— (fab. at-Huhaddithbi.) 



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118 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

iBN AL-MAJISHUN. 

Abik Marwan Abd a)-Malik Ibn Abd al-Aziz Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Abi SaUma 
al^ajishuQ, tlie Malikite doctor, was a native of Medina and a dient to the 
Munkadirs, a family which drew ils origin from Taim, a descendant of Ko- 
raish : he was therefore surnamed al-Korashi, at-Taimi, al-Munkadiri ; he bore 
also the appellation of al-Aaiui (the blind'), because he did not possess the sense 
of sight, or because he lost it towards the close of his life. His ancestor Abu 
Salama was surnamed al-Majishun, but his real name is uncertain ; some say 
that he was called Maimun, and others, Dinar, Ibn al-Mfijishun studied ju- 
risprudence under his father Abd al-Aziz, the imam Malik, and others. He 
look great pleasure in hearing vocal music, and to this, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal 
bears testimony : "He came to visit us," said he, " and was accompanied by a 
" person whose business it was to sing to him." He was also noted for his 
talent as a narrator of anecdotes and for the purity of his style : relative to this 
it is related that, when the imam as-Shafi conversed with him (on literature), 
the persons present understood very little of what they said ; the resson 
was that as-Shafi had acquired his knowledge of pure Arabic by living for 
some time in the desert witli the tribe of Hudail, and Ibn al-Majishun had 
learned it in the same manner from the tribe of Kalb, who were his relations 
hy the mother's side. It was said by Yahya Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Muaddal = 
" When l reflect that Abd al-Malik's tongue must sooner or later moulder into 
" dust, the world loses its value in my sight." The same person being asked 
how great was the dilTerence between his own talent as a correct speaker and 
that of his master Abd al-Malik, he made this reply: *' The tongne of Abd al- 
" Malik, when embarrassed, was more lively than mine when animated (1)." 
Ibn al-Majishun died A.H. 213 (A.D. 828-9), but it is mentioned by Abu Omar 
Ibn Abd al-Barr (2) that his death took place in 212; others again place this 
event in 214. — M&jisk&n signiCes iinqed with a rose cohur, or, according to 
some, tinged with white and red ; it was the surname of Abu Yusuf Yakub the 
son of Abu Salama Abd al-Malik's great-grandfather, and the uncle of Abd al- 
Malik's father. This surname was given him by Sukaina the daughter of al-Hu- 
sain Ibn Abi Talib (3), and it passed to all his children and to those of his bro- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICHONARY lid 

iher. But the origin of this appellation has been explained in another manner: 
as they were originally from Ispahan, they used to salute one anotlier, when 
they met, with the words iMni ihdnt ; and they were called Mdjish^n for that 
¥-eason (U) : this we give on the authority of the hdfiz Abu Bakr Ahmad Ibn 
Ihrahim al-Jurjani. It was said by AbA Dawi^d (5) that Ibn al-Majishun did 
not understand the Traditions, and ILn al-Barki (6) relates that a man having 
requested him to go and see Abd al-Malik, he went and found that he had no 
conception of what a Tradition was. Muhammad Ibn Saad mentions him in 
his greater Tt^akdt, and says: '*He liad a knowledge of jurisprudence and 
''handed down orally traditional information." — Muf^tadiri means descended 
from ai-Mtmkadir the son of Abd Allah Ibn Hudair, a member of the family of 
Taim, which is a branch of the tribe of Koraish. He was the father of the 
Muhammad, Abili Bakr, and Omar, whose history is given in full by Ibn Ku- 
taiba, in the Kitdh aUMadriff under the head of Muhammad Ibn al-Mxmkadir (7;. 



^1] In this piMsge all the MSS. except the autograph are wrong: for ajIiLJ' we moit read ^jUj, and 

ii) Thit person's life is given by Ibn Khallikln. 
{3) Her life will be found in vol. I. page 681. 

(4) I hire not been able to diseOTCr «bat the words lAdni and MOjithitt* mtj mean in this case; had Ibn 
Khallikln known it, he would most probthly have eiplained it. 

(5) Probablj AbD DtwAd ihe imlm ; see vol. I. page B89. 

(6) Abt Ishak Ibrahim Ibn Abd ir-Rabnitii Ibn Abi 'l-Kl'di al-Barki at-Hisri {a native of Egypt, bal 
sprung from a family inhabUi<ng Barka in florth Africa) was a doctor of the seel of MIlik, and esteemed us 
One of the itilest juriseonsolts of Egypt. He studied the law under Asshhsb and Ibn Wahb. Bis death Is 
placed bj as-SuyOlhi inA.H.24B (A.D. 8B»^).— (Hutnaf-iHuAiMJra. MS. No. eS2, fol 116 verso.) 

(7) Abd Bakr Huhammad Ibn al-Munkadir Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Hudair at-Taimi, a member of the tribe 
of Kenisb, was an eminent Koran-reader and Tradilionist. His masters were JIbir Ibn Abd Allah, Anas Ibn 
Malik, Orwa Ibn ai-Zubair, etc. He had for pnpils the imtm Malik, Shdba, ath-Tbanri. Ibn Oytlna, Ibn Ju- 
raij. etc He died A.H. 131 (A.D, 748-9) —Jab. al-IUuhad.) 



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THE IMAM AL-HARAMAIN. 



The Shafite doctor, Abu 'UMaali Abd al-Malik, surnamed Dia ad-din (tplen- 
dour of relujim) and generally known by the litle of the imam al-Haramaln, was 
son to the thaikh Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Abi Yakub Yusuf Ibn Abd 
Allah Ibn Yiisur Ibn Muhammad Ibn Haiyuya al-JAwaini. He was, without 
exception, the most learned doctor of the Shafite sect in later times, and is uni- 
versally considered as a (mujlahid) imam ; it is also agreed on by all that he 
sUmmI prcneminent by the extent of his information and his skill in many diffei^ 
ent branches of science, such as dogmatic theology, jurisprudence, philology, 
etc. (We have spoken of his father in vol. II. page 27.) By a favour of the 
divine grace, he was enabled to carry the practices of devotion to an- unexam- 
pled pilch of fervour ; he repeated also from memory, and without the least 
hesitation, lessons to his pupils, each of which would have filled a number of 
402 leaves. When a youth, he was instructed in jurisprudence by his father Abu 
Muhammad, who was struck with his capacity, acquirements, excellent disposi- 
tion, and other prognostics of future eminence. Abd al-Malik having thus 
gone through all his parent's works and mastered their contents, suqiassed him 
in accuracy of knowledge and sublilness. On his father's death, he replaced 
him as a teacher, and, having accomplished that duty, he went to the Madrcua 
<)f al-Baihaki (\ ) and mastered the science of dogmatic theology under tlie tuition 
of the u$tdd Abu 'l-Kasim al-Iskaf, - a native of Isfarain (2). From thence he 
travelled to Baghdad, where he met a number of the learned ; he then proceeded 
to Hijaz, where he made a residence of four years, partly at Mekka and partly 
at Medina. During this period he filled the duties of a professor and a mufti, 
whilst the rest of his time was devoted to the task of collecting the Shafite doc- 
trines from all the various channels through which they had passed down. It 
was on account of his residence in these two holy cities that he received the 
surname of the Imdm al-Haramain (imdm of the two sanctuariet). Towards the 
commencement of Alp Arslan's reign, he returned to Naisapur, and Nizam al- 
Mulk, that sultan's vizir, founded there a Nizdmiya College for the express 
purpose of establishing the Imam in it as a professor. This doctor filled besides - 
the place of khatib, or chief preacher of the city, and held assemblies in which 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DIGTIONARV. 121 

he gave exhortations and presided at discussions on points of doctrine. The 
works which he had written became then generally known, and h.is lectures 
were attended by doctors of the highest eminence ; the presidency of the Sha- 
fite sect devolved on him ; and the administration of the wahfs, or religious en- 
dowments, was confided to his care. During a space of nearly thirty years he 
continued in undisputed possession of these places, and held with general con- 
sent the posts of olHciating imam at public prayers, of preacher in the prin- 
cipal mosque, of professor, and of president at the assemblies which met every 
Friday to hear pious exhortations. He composed works on very many subjects, 
and Islamism has never produced one equal to his treatise, the Nihdyal al-MaU 
lab fi Dirdyai aUMazhab (satisfactory results to iTiquiry, being a guide to the know- 
ledge of the Shafite doctrines). The hdfiz Abu Jaafar (3) relates that he heard 
Abu Ishak as-Shirazi say to the Imam al-Haramain : '* instructor of the peo- 
" pie of the East and of the West! thou art to-day the imam (chief) of the 
" imams." — The Imam al-Haramain was taught Traditions by a great number 
of the learned in that branch of knowledge, and he possessed a licence from 
Abi Noaim al-lspahani, the author of the Hilyat al-Atolia (see vol. I. page 74), 
authorising him to teach those which he had communicated to him. His other 
works are the Shdmil (comprehmme), on the dogmas of religion ; the Burhdn 
(proof), on the fundamentals of jurisprudence; the TaAhts at-Takrtb, an abridg- 
ment of ( al-Kdsim Ibn Muhammad as-Shdshi's treatise on jta-isprudence ), the 
Takrib ; the Irshdd (direction, on the fundamentals of jurisprudence) ; al-Aktda 
an-Nizdmiya (4); the Maddnk aWk&l (results of the utmost efforts of human reason), 
which work was left unfinished ; an unfinished abridgment of the Nihdyat al- 
Maiiab; the Ghidtii alrllmam (help for the nations), in which he treats of the 
imdmat or presidency over the whole Moslim community ; the MugWt al-Khalk 
(assister of God's creatures), leading to the choice of the true way; the Ghunyat 
ai-Jfuftorsfctdin (5) (suf^eimt help for those who desire guidance), being a treatise on 
controversy. He composed also some other works. Whenever he entered into 
an explanation of the sciences peculiar to the Sfljfs and Of the state of extatic 
exaltation (6) to which they sometimes reached, he would draw tears from all 
present. During the entire course of his life he never swerved from a line of 
conduct most praiseworthy and agreeable to God. 1 was told by a shaikk tliat 
he had read a full account of the Imam al-Haramain's life in a certain treatise, 



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122 IBN KHALLTKANS 

and that bis father Abu Muhammad began the world as a professional book- 
copyist: having amassed some money by his labours, he bought a slave-girl 
bearing a high character for piety and virtue, and her he supported with the 
lawful gains furnished him by his trade. She bore him a son, afterwards 
known as the Imam al-Haramain, and he told her not to allow any person but 
herself to suckle the child ; hut it happened one day, that on going into her 
apartment, he found her indisposed, and as the child was crying, a woman who 
wasoneof the neighbours, gave it the breast forasbort time to quiet it. When the 
father saw this, he felt much vexed, and taking the child, he held it with its head 
downwards, stroked its belly, and put his finger into its mouth, till he succeeded 
in making it throw up what it had swallowed .- " I would rather see him die," 
said he, ''than have his natural disposition spoiled by the milk of one who was 
" not his mother." It is related also of the Imam himself that a languor of 
mind sometimes came over him during the conferences at which he presided, 
and that he attributed it to the effects of that milk, a portion of which had 
remained in his stomach. — He was born On the 18th of Muharram, A. H. 419 
(February, A.D. 1028); in his last illness he was borne to Bashtanik&n, a village 
situated in the province of Naisapur and noted for the salubrity of its air and 
water ; he died at that place on Wednesday, the 25th of the latter Rahi, A . H. 478 
405 (August, A. D. 1085), just as the evening bad closed in. His body was taken 
to Naisapur that night, and was buried the next morning in (the court of) his 
house, but, some years later, it was removed to the al-Husain Cemetery and 
interred beside the grave of his father. The funeral prayers were said over 
him by his son Abu i-Kasim, and on the day of his death, all the shops were 
shut, the pulpit in the great mosque from which he preadied was broken lo 
pieces, and the whole population mourned for him as for a relation. A great 
number of elegies were composed on his death, and one of them we shall give 
here : it is as follows : 

The hearts of mankind were in torture (7) and the days of mortals became dark as 
nights I Can the tree of science ever again bear frail, now that the inftm AbA 'l-Maftli 
is no more T 

At the moment of his death, his schdars, who were four hundred and one 
in number, broke their pens and inkhoms and let a foil year pass over before 
ihey resumed their studies. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 123 

(1) Tbii modrtua ku ciUed after the doctor Abu Bakr al-Bailuki. See bla life.val. 1. p. K7; ind lotro- 
duetion, p. in Mi. 

(2) kbit 'l-Kisim Abd al-JibbSr Ibn Ali Ibo Mubammad, auraamed al-ritdd {the maiter) and generally 
known bj the denoniaatian of d'laktf (tA« eobileT),yfM a native of Ufarftin and a disciple of tht'thaikh 
Abb labak tt-IiforliBi. He compoied a nunber of woriia on the dogmaa of Calib, on ibe fuadBinentals of 
jurisprudence, and on dialectics. As a joiiscongull and a scholastic Ibeologiaa he held a high rank; as a 
conirovertist and a professor he displayed great powers of language, and as a mafti, he was esteemed one of 
the most capable. If we lake into oonsidenillon beside* that be was a striu Imiutor of the original Hoslims 
in derolMD and self-denial, wa must allow that he had no equal among bic conlempomries. He lived in the 
knowledge of his duties towards God and in the perfonnance of them. His death occurred in the month of 
Safer. A.H. 4M (A.D. 1063).— (Tdfi. ai-Shafiyin).—\bD KhallikSn writes bis surname Iikafi, not likdf. but 
I prefer the authorlt; of the XdmOs and the Tabokit aiSMfiyin. 

(3) The autlwT of the Tabakdt M-SMflgln mentioni an Abd Jaa&r HnhAmmad Ibn Abi Ali al-Hamadtni 
in the life of thelmlm al-Haramain: this was perhaps the same person as the Mfit. 

(4) To judge from the dtle, this should be a profession of faiib for the use of the students at Ibe A'i:dmi^a 
college. 

(0) Read ^ JJJJL..J1 in tlw Aral»ic teii. 

(«) Read JLa.'^ • 

<7) Literally : On bying pans 1 



AL-ASMAI. 

The celebrated philok^er Abi^ Said Abd al-Malik Ibn Kuraib al-Asmai drew 
his descent from Adoan, his father Kuraib being the son of Abd al-Malik Ibn 
Ali Ibn Asma Ibn Mutahhir Ibn Riah Ilm Amr Ibn Abd Shams Ibn Aaya Ibn 
Saad Ibn Abd Ibn Ghanam (1 ) Ibn Kutaiba Ibn Maan Ibn Malik Ibn Aasar 
Ibn Saad Ibn Kais Allan (2) Ibn Modar Ibo Mizar Ibn Maad Ibn Adnan. — Al- 
Aunai bore also the surname of BiUiUi (detcmded from BfJJnia), and yet no such 
name appears in his genealogy ; he was so entitled, however, because his ancestor 
Malik Ibn Aasar was the husband of the female named B^ala ; others say that 
Bahila was the name of a son of Aasar (3). — Al-Asmai was a complete master 
of the Arabic language, an able grammariaD, and the most eminent of all those 
persons who transmitted orally historical narrations, singular anecdotes, amusing 
stories, and rare expressions of the language. He received his iflformation from 
Shoba Ibn al-Hajjaj (lee vol. L page 493, note 8 ), the two Hammads (4), Misar 



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12& IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

Ibii Kidam (vol. I. p. 580, n. 3), aiid others; his own authority was cited by 
his brother's son Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Abd Allah, Abu Obaid al-Kasira Ibti 
Sallam (5), Abu Hatiin as~Sijistani (vol. I. page 603), Ahu '1-Fadl ar-Ki^shi 
(v. II. p. 10), and others. He was a native of Basra, but he removed to Bagh- 
dad in the reign of Harun ar^Rashid. Some person then said to Abu Nuwas 
(vol. I. p. 391) that Abu Obaida (6) and at-Asmai had been just presented to 
ar-Rashid, on which he repUed : " As for Abu Obaida, be will recite to them, if 
'* allowed, (he history of the ancients and the modems ; but as for al-Asra<ii, he 
" is a nightingale to charm them with his melodies." It is related by Omar Ibn 
Shabba (7), that he heard al-Asmai say that he knew by heart sixteen thousand 
pieces of verse composed in the measure called rajaz (8) ; and it was observed 
by Ishak al-Mausili (vol. I. page 1 83) that he never heard al-Asmai profess to 
know a branch of science without discovering that none knew it better than 
he.' Ar-Rabi Ibn Sulaiman (vol. I. p. 519) relates that he heard as-Shafi pro- 
nounce these words: "None ever explained better than al-Asmai the idiom 
" of the desert Arabs." And it was mentioned by Abu Ahmad al-Askari (v. I. 
page 382) that when al-Asmai was at Basra, he received most pressing invitations 
from al-Mamiin to go and see him, but refused on the pretext of his feebleness 
and advanced age; al-Mamun then used to draw up collections of questions on' 
doubtful points (of literature) and send them to him that he might resolve them. 
The following anecdote was related by al-Asmai : " I and Abu Obaida went to 
" see al-Fadl Ibn Rabi (9), who asked me in how many volumes was my work 
" on horses, and I replied : * One only !' He then made the same question to 
" Abu Obaida respecting bis work on the same subject, and he answered: 
" ' Fifty volumes.' Fadl then said to him : ' Go over to that horse and jJace 
" < your hand successively on all the parts of his body, naming them at the 
" ' same time.' — ' I am not a farrier,' replied Abu Obaida, ' but all I have com- 
" ' piled on ibis subject was procured by me from the Arabs of the desert.' Al- 
" Fadl then told me to do it, on which I went over to the horse, and, taking 
" hold of his mane, I commenced naming the different parts of his body as I 
"placed my hand successively upon them; repeating at the same time the 
" verses in which the Arabs of the desert mentioned them. When I had 
" fmished, he bid me keep the animal, and whenever I wished to annoy Abik 
" Obaida, I rode on that horse to pay him a visit." Al-Aamai carefully-ab- 



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BIOGRAPmCAL DICTIONARY 125 

stained from explaining any of the obscure expressions occurring in the Koran 
and the Sunna, and when questioned on a point of this kind, he would answer: 
*' The Arabs of the desert say that such and such an expression means so and 
" so, but I do not know what may be its signification in the Koran and the 404 
" Sunna." His adventures and the anecdotes related of him are very numerous. 
His grandfather Ali Ibn Asma committed a theft at Safawan (10), for which he 
was arrested aqd taken before Ah Ibn Ali Talib. "Bring me witnesses," said 
AH, " to prove that he purloined the object out of the saddle-bag (11)." The 
person who tells this story proceeds to say that evidence to that effect was 
given before Ali, who immediately ordered the fingers of his hand to be cut 
off. On this some person said to him: '* Commander of the faithful! why 
" not cut it off by the wrist (12)?" — "God forbid!" exclaimed the khalif; 
" how could he then lean on his staff? How could he pray (13)? How 
" could he eat (14) ?" When al-Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf arrived at Basra, Ali ibn 
Asma went to him and said : ** emir! my parents treated me most foully in 
*' naming me Ali; give me another name." — "You come," replied al-IIajjaj, 
" with an excellent pretext to excite my interest; I appoint you director of the 
" Gsheries at al-Baraja with a daily salary of two danaks (1 5) in copper-money; 
" but, by Allah! if you go beyond that sum, 1 shall cut off the porljon of your 
" hand which Ali left on(16)."— Al-Asmai was bom A. H. 122 (A. D. 740) or 
1 23, and he died at Basra in the month of Safar, A. H. 21 6 (March-April, A. D. 
831); some say, 214 or 217; and others mention that his death took place at 
Marw. The khatib Abu Bakr (vol. I. p. 75) says : " I have been informed that al- 
" Asmai lived to the age of eighty-eight." Kuraib, al-Asmai's father, was born 
A.H. 83 (A. D. 702), but 1 have not been able to discover in what year he died. 
KttraU) was only a byname, but he was not generally known by any other appel- 
lation ; according to alMaznbani (1 7) and Abu Said as-Sirafi {ml. I. page 377), 
his real name was Aasim and his surname Abu Bakr. — Altndi is a patronymic 
derived from the name of his grandfather. — Safawdn is the name of a place 
near Basra ; [the road from Basra to Bahrain passes successively through Safa- 
wan and Kazima to Hajar, the capital of Bahrain. — Al-Bdrajah is the name of a 
place at Basra.] (18). — The following anecdote is related by Abu '1-Aina (19;: 
" I was at al-Asmai's funeral, and the poet Abu Kilaba Hubaish Ibn Abd ar- 



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1» IBN RHALUKAN'S 

" Rahman al-Jarroi (20), with whom I was conversing, redted to me these iines 

" of his own composing : 

' God curse the bones which they are nov beariag on the bier towards the abode of 
' corruption 1 bones hateful to the Prophet, to the Prophet's family, and lo all the saints.' 

" I was then accosted by Abii '1-Aalya al-Hasao Ibn Malik as-Shami, who 
" recited to me the following lines: 

' Let [tkt rivulet$] the daughters of the earth cease to flow ; afflicted as they now are 
' by the dealh of al-AsmAi I They [tHH ftow on, yet) do not wash away our grief. Live 
' in (he world as long as you may, you will never meet a man like him, or with learning 
' such as his.' 

" I was much struck with the difference of these two persons' feelings to- 
" wards the deceased." — Al-Asmai composed treatises on the following sub- 
jects : the human frame, the different species of animals, on the anwd, or influ- 
ence of the stars on the weather, on the letter Aamza, on the long and the short 
elify on the difference between the names given to the members of the human 
body and those given lo the same members in animals (21 ), on epithets, on the 
doors of tents (22), on games of chance played with arrows, on the frame of the 
horse, on horses, on camels, on sheep, on tents, on wild beasts, on the first and 
fourth form of certain verbs, on proverbs, on words bearing each two opposite 
significations, a vocabulary, on weapons, on dialects, on the springs of water 
frequented by the nomadic Arabs, a collection of anecdotes, on the principles of 
discourse, on the heart, on synonymous terms, on the Arabian peninsula, on 
the formation of derivative words, on the ideas which usually occur in poetn', 
on nouns of action, on rajaz verses, on the palm-tree, on plants, on homonv- 
mous terms, on the obscure expressions met with in the Traditions, on the 
witticisms of the desert Arabs, etc. 



(1) Tbe auiograph hai Alam Jc, «hicb, by Hie iddiiion ot a poiol on Mdi of the fini tvo leUen, hw 
been chaDged iau> J.^. '' 

(2} I follow ihe aulograph in reading EaU AiUn, but Mine of the Arabian gcnealogitla make AiUn or 
Ghallln tbe father of Kail, not the ume person. 

(3) The lUlbor raake* aome farther obsertalioDi on the nimame of BdMla in the lih of Kulaibi ibn 
Muslim. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 127 

(t) Mj retearchH bt*e led me to the coDclation thai the perioDi deiigDtUd u ifae two Hamnilds {al- 
BammAddrttj were AbA StUml Hammld Iba Silama Ibo Dinar and Abft IimtU Hammtd Ibo Zaid Ibti 
Dirhim. Tbe former wu a rnlive of Biira, a mavla lo the tribe of Tamlm, and ■ tiiter't soa to Humaid 
al-Tawll, from whom and other eminent uaehen he received his Iraditional knowledge. Be bore a high cha- 
nci«r for euctocM ai a iradUioiiiil and a hafts ; he apokc with great paritj, and waa eonridered a* an n- 
caUent audwrit; Id Arabic grammtr and phUologj (arobfya). He was noted for fail leaniiag. piety, and letf- 
mortifieation. He died A. H. 167 (A.D. 783-4).— (iVujtIm. k\-^htr% MirOat.) 

Abb bmall Hammid Ibn Zaid Ibn Dlrhim, lurnamed al-Airak [tht blti»-gyed), wa« a native of Basra and x 
MMwIa to the trOM of Tamlm. He received bii knowledge flrom the fim doctors of that age. tome of whom 
w»re tfae tame a* thoae under whom hit n«iiKt«k« tiuunld Ibn SaUma ttudied. He held a high reputation 
u 1 jaritcon«alt, ■ Traditionut, and a hifii. He died in A.H. 179 [A.D. 79tM).— (Tab. al-Fokaha.—Tab. 
ol-lTiiAaddftAln.— Al-TUI.) 

(B) The life of Ibn SalUn will be found in thii irorii. 

(A) Hit life it giron b; U>n KhaUikla. 

(7] Hit life will be fonnd in thlt work. 

(8) See vol. 1. fntrod. p. itI, note (3). 

(9) Hit life Ii ghen in thlf volume. 

(10] Aeeordlng to tbe ifartutd. SafainOa is the nadie of a place al a Atft jtmntj from tbe Mlrbad. or 
btlting-place at Batra, where there it a large pool of water- 
(11) The autograph hat Jji. Jl. 
(tS) Such vat the usual pualthmenl for ihefl. 

(13) Before prtjing, an abhition wm necettarr, and thlt could not well be performed with one hand. 

(14) To make ute of the left hand in eating it a grott impropriety. 

(15) About fourpence; there are tli dlnaki to a dirhlm. 

(16) This anecdote it related alto by al-Tabrlii in his commentary on the Hamdta, p. 240. 

(17) The life of ahHambtDi will be round among thoie of the Muhammadt. 

(IB) Thii paatage b one of the author's lat«r addilioni. II etitia in the autograph and in one of the Paris 
nunuscriplt. 

(19) The life of AbO Abd Allah Muhammad Abb l-Ainl is given by Ibn KhalUklo. 

(90) AbA KiUba Bubaiih Ibn Abd ar-Rahmln «1-Jami, a rdwf, or Iraatmilter of oral informallon. was n 
bigoted ihUte, and for that reatou he deletled al-Atmti. The author St the Oj/Ao at-TawOilkk places bis 
death nnder the year S3D (A. H. 83K-6). 

(21] Such ia tbe meaoing of the word ,^U}| ■■■ appears by H. de Hammer's manuscript of a portion of 
al-Atmti's worki. 

(22) Id the autograph I read k.^Lj «; but the punctuation it very indittinct. 



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138 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

IBN HISHAM, THE AUTHOR OF THE SIRAT. 

40S Abu Muhammad Abd al-Malik Ibn Hisham Ibn Aiyuh al-Himyari al-Maafiri, 

the author of the Strat ar-RasUll, or hUtory of the Prophet, is spoken of in these 
terms by Abu 'l-Kasim as-Suhaili (see page 99 of this volume), in bis work enti- 
tled ar-Raud al-Vrmf, which i? a comiuentary on the Stral: " He was celebrated 
'' for his learning and possessed superior information in genealogy and gram- 
" mar ; his native place was Old Cairo, but his family were of Basra. He com- 
" posed a genealogical work on the tribe of Himyar and its princes ; and I have 
" been told that he wrote another work in which he explained the obscure pas- 
' ' sages of the poetry cited in (Ibn hbak's) Siar. — His death occurred at Old Cairo, 
" A. H. 213 (A. D. 828-9)."— This Ihn Hish&m is the person who extracted 
and drew up the Hittory of the PropAet from Ibn Ishak's (1 } work entitled ai- 
Maghdzi wa 's-^r; as-Suhaili explained its difficulties in a commentary', and it is 
now found in the hands of the public under the title of Strat Ibn Hishdm (Ibn 
Hiskdm's Sirat, or Historti). Abu Said Abd ap-Rahman Ibn Yunus (tee page 93), 
the Egyptian historian, says, in his work on the eminent men who came to 
Egypt from foreign parts, that this Abd al-Malik died on the 13th of the latter 
Rahi, A. H. 218 (May, A. D. 833); God knoweth best which is the true date of 
his death ! Ibn YOnus says also that he belonged to the tribe of Dohl (2). — 
Mad^ri means de$cended from Mdafir Ibn Ydfur, the progenitor of a great tribe (3) 
to which a great number of persons, principally inhabitants of E^ypt, trace 
their origin. 



(1) The life ot Hubamniad Ibn Ishak al-HulUlibi is giveo by Ibn KlulliUn. 

^3) The tribe or Dohl ipniag from ihai of Btkr Ibn Will, which lut drew iu detcenl from Rabla Ibn Nidr. 

i3i Rcid K--f <y^ *" '''^ Arabic leil. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



ATH-THAALIBI AN-NAISAPURI. 

Abu Mansur Abd al-Malik Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ismail ath-Thaalibi an-Naisa- 
puri (a native of NakapUr) is spoken of in these terms by Ibn Bassam, the au- 
thor of the Dakhtra : "In that age, he was the man who pastured bis genius 
" on the loftiest summits of knowledge ; tlie great compiler of prose and vei-se; 
' ' the chief author of his time, and the ablest also in the opinion of that epoch ; 
" his reputation spread abroad tike a proverb which circulates far and wide; 
'* the camels (which bore travellers to see hm were comtantly) arriving, tlieir 
*' breasts panting from the rapidity of their speed; his compilations rose over 
*' the horizon not only in the East but in tlie West, and they ascended (to the 
" zenith of fame) as the stars ascend through the darkness ; his works hold a 
" place of high eminence, shining with refulgence even from their first appear- 
*' ance; the number of persons who learned them by heart or who collected 
" them can neither be deGned nor described, and it would be vain to essay, 
<* even in the finest and most harmonious style, to do full justice to the merits 
" of his writings." Ibn Bassam then quotes some passages of ath-lliaalibi's 
composition in prose and verse; one of the latter is the following piece ad- 
dressed to the emir Abu '1-Fadl al-Mikali (governor of the province of Fart) : 

Vonr talents are admirable and so numerous that no other mortal ever possessed as 
many. Two of them are oceans ; one, an ocean of eloquence composed of al-Wal)d's 
{Bohtori't) poetic spirit and the charming style of al-AsmAi ; the other, a skill in epis- 
tolary writing equal to that of as-Sftbi (1), and embellished in its superiority by a pen- 
manship which, like Ibn Mokla's, merits the first rank (2). Let us give thee thanks! 
how many admirable passages have come From you [tout], as wealth comes abundantly 
on the noble-minded man who, but a moment before, was borne down by poverty. 
When the buds of thy poetry unfold and blossom, their beauty is displayed in an 
ornamented phrase, forming two hemisliches. You have dismounted the horsemen of 
eloquence, and broken in the horses of original invention ; for you are yourself an 
illustrious and original genius. You have engraved charming devices on the seal of 
time; devices which surpass in beauty the meadows of spring. 

By the same : 

When I sent (a mtttage to my beloved)— ~aad, alas ! my representations were fruitless 
— the fire of passion raged fiercer (tn my bosom) and, to preserve my life, I kissed those 
eyes with which my messenger had seen her 

VOL. II. 17 



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130 IBN KHALUKANS 

406 One of his longest, finest, and most comprehensive works is that entitled 
Yattma-tad-Dabr fi Malidsin AMi 'l-Asar (the pearl of the age, treating of the merits 
of our contemporaries) (3). The following lines were composed on this hook by 
the celebrated Alexandrian poet Ahu 'l-Futuh Nasr Allah Ibn Kalakis, whose life 
will he given later: 

The verses of the poems in the Yatima are virgin daughters of the spirits who 
lived of old. They are now dead, but their daughters survive, whence the work bears 
the name of Yatima [k]. 

Ath-Thaalihi composed also the Fikh al-Loghat (law$ of lastguage), the Sihr al- 
Baldgha (magic of eloquence), the Sirr al-Bar&a (secret of excellence), ^db man 
gbdb anhu 'l-Mutrib (book for him wbo ha$ no one to amu$e him) (5), the Munis 
al-Wabtd (companion for the solitary), and many other works besides, containing 
anecdotes of eminent men, notices on their lives, and extracts from their poetry 
and epistles; all these productions are indicative of vast information in the au- 
thor. He himself composed a great deal of poetry. His birth took place A. H. 
350 (A. D. 961), and his death in the year 429 (A. D. i OZl-S). — ThadUhi 
means one wbo sews together and dresses foxes' skim ; he was so denominated he- 
cause he had been a furrier. 



(1) See vol. I. page 31. 

(2) Id place of ihU Terse, nbicb is given in ibe HS3. of the Yatima, Ibn KhalliUn hiB inseried the rollow- 
ing: ^j* *a1* ^H ij e~jJIS'j1 jjJ(rjt^3r>-J!rjl jjjJK' "like Dowers, or liLe magic, or like the 
" full nwoD, or like the colours of a Qovered garmeDt, ontamenled also wilh a border." Wue this reading 
to be admitted, ve should not koow what Ihe (uo teat were, of which ath-Tliailibi ipeaks. The reading 
(ulopled in die printed text is taken from the cop; of the poem which the author has inserted in Ihe Yattma. 

(3) Tbis work eonlaini noticei on poels and other literary men, ulih eitracts from [heir writings. It forms 
one large volume, two copies of which are in A» Sib. du Rot. For a list of Ihe articles contained in the 
Yattma, see Calal. USS. Or. Bibl. Bod. lorn. 11. p. 313 et seq. 

(4) Yalima signifies both orphan and precioui pearl. 

(6) This is a collection of elegant extracts in prote and verse, classed under different heads. It is drawn 
up widi great lasle. Another of ath-Tha&Iibl's works, but which is not noticed by Ibn KhalliUn, bears the 
title ot Sildb al-Ejdj fi 'l-Ijat;'n is a collection of laconic Myingsand maiims. An edition of it has been 
lately published at Leyden under the direction of M.Wejers. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 131 

SUHNUN. 

Abu Said Abd as-Salam !bn Said at-Tanukhi (o member of the tribe of TanAkh), 
and sumamed Sukhnun, was a doctor of the seel of Malik. He studied under 
IbD al-Kasim («ce v. II. p. 86), Ibn Wahb (v. II. p. i 5), and Ashhab (v. I. p. 223), 
after which he became the head of the tdeme, or chief imam, in Maghrib. He 
wsed to say: "God's curse on poverty I I was a contemporary of Malik, but 
*' (having no means of going to see htm,) I was obliged to take lessons from Ibn 
" al-Kasim." (1) He held the post of kfidi at Kairawan, and on points of doc- 
trine his opinions are of standard authority in Maghrib. He is the author of 
the Mvdatowana (digest) containing the doctrines of the imam MaUk ; this work, 
the contents of which he had received (by oral trammimon) from Ibn al-Kasim, is 
the main authority relied on by the people of Kairawan, The first who under- 
took to draw up a Mudawwamt was the Malikite doctor Asad Ibn al-Furat (2), 
when he returned from Irak. It originally consisted in questions proposed by 
him to Ibn al-Kasim with their solutions by the latter ; he then took them with 
him to Kairawan, and Suhnun wrote them out under his dictation; it was 
called the Aiodiya (or Asadian aflen" Asad Ibn al-Furdt}, but as the questions were 
put down without any order in this first sketch, Suhnun drew them up under 
separate heads and augmented their number; besides which, he resolved some 
by means of the Traditions with which his memory was furnished when he 
learned by heart Ibn Wahb's edition of the Muwatta. Some points remained, 
however, which Suhnun left incomplete. Suhnun had a greater number of 
pupils than any other of Malik's disciples, and it was by his means that the 
doctrines of that im^m were propagated throughout Maghrib. He was bor'n 
A. H. 160 (A. D. 776-7), and he died in the month of Rajab, A. H. 240 (Nov.- 
Dec. A. D. 854). — Sahniin or SwAn^ is the name of a bird found in Maghrib 
and remarkable for its sagacity ; it was for this reason that Abu Said was so 
sumamed. The pronunciation of this word with an o or with an u involves a 
question of grammatical forms peculiar to the Arabic language, but it would be 
too long to expose it here, neither is this the proper place for such a disquisition ; 
it has besides been fully and properly treated by Ibn as-Sid al-Balalyausi, who 
has always executed in the best manner whatever task he undertook. 



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133 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

(i) The mthor of ihe Tarlkh ixl-Eairatedn MS. No. 792, gives a long notice on SuhnAo, in wbich I remirk 
the following pasMge: "He wa» originaltf from Emessa in S]fria, but he was taken Ihither (to Maghrib moil 
" probably) when his father accompanied the militia ijund) of Emeesa." This must have been during the 
government of Taild Ibn Hitim al-Huhallabi; see Journal Aiiatique for November, ISIl, p. 481. The jtmd 
were the troops furaished bj the ArabJAn tribes which had settled in the different military divisioos {Jundt) ot 
Syria on the lirst conquest of that counb^ bj the Mostims. They received a Gied pay from the khalif, and a 
certain number of them were always in actual service. Fuller information on this subject will be found in 
M. de Reinaud's translation of AbO 'l-Fedi's Geography, chap, on Syria, and in Ihe account of the first Moslim 
governors of Maghrib, translated fl^m the universal history of an-Nuwalrl and inserted by me in the Journal 
Aiialigae. 

[i) AbO Abd Allah Asad Ibn Furftt Ibn Sinin was a matDfa to the irihe of Sulaim. Speaking of his own 
names, he used to say: "I am Atad (Hon), and the lion is Ihe noblest of animals; my father was called 
" Furdl, and the Furlt lEuphratti) Is the purest of waters; and my grandfather's name was St'ndn (spear), 
" wbich is the beil of weapons." His family belonged to Kborasln, and he was born at Harrtn, A.H. 1J2 
(A. D. 7S9). Accordmg to his own account, he came into the province of Africa with the troops which bad 
been sent thither, AH 1(4, by the khalifal-Mamfia, under the orders of Muhammad Ibn al-Ashllb al-Khuilt 
(see Journal AiiaUque for November 1841, page 4ft4). After passing five years at Kairawln, be accompanied 
his father to Tunis, where he resided nine years. At the age of eighteen he had learned the teit of the Koran 
by heart, and the desire of completing his studies then led him to the East. He met the fmlm Mllik at Me- 
dina and followed his lessons, in the course of which he heard him teach the Mmeatta. From thence he went 
to Irak and met some of AhA Hanlfa's principal disciples, such as AbO YOsuf, Asad Ibn Amr and Hnhiromad 
Ibn aSHasan. When in that province he wrDl« down the Traditions which he had learned, and pursued Us 
studies in jurisprudence. After the dealli of MAlik, he proceeded to Egypt and became the assiduous disciple 
of Ibn al-Ktsim, under whose instraclion he gathered the materials of the Atadij/a, which he brought to Kti- 
rawto. In A.H. 181 (A D. 797) he returned to that city and gave lessons to numerous pupils in lite Aiadiya, 
the JIfutcafta, and in other branches of knowledge. From dut lime his authority as an imim was fully e«ia- 
blished. In the year 202, Zi&dat Allah Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Aghlab nominated him kidi of Kainwln, and he 
held that post till the year 212, when the same prince gave him the command of die troops which were about 
to be sent on an eipedltion against Sicily. In the month of the fint Raht, A.H. 212 (June. A.H S27), he sailed 
for that island with nine thousand one hundred foot and nine hundred horse; and after achieving there a 
number of important conquests, he died of his wounds, A. H. 213 (A. D. 828-9], whilst betiegiog Syracuse. — 
iTarikh alKairawdn, MS. No. 7S2, fol. M.—AI-Hillai ofSij/ard, MS. fol. 148 v.) 



ABU HASHIM AL-JUBBAI. 



Abu Hashim Abd as-Salam was the son of Abu Ali Muhammad al-Jubbai Ibn 
Abd al-Wahhab Ibn Salam Ibn Khalid (i) Ibn Humran Ibn Aban ; this last was 
a mawh to the kbalif Othman ibn Allan. Abu Hashim al-Jubhai, a ccte- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 133 

brated scholastic theologi^, a learned doctor and the son of a man of learning, 
was, like his father, one of the principal heads of the Motazilites : both of them 407 
taught doctrines peculiar to that sect, and all the works on scholastic theology 
are filled with their opinions and systematic views. Abu Hashim had a son 
Called Abu Ali, who was quite a simpleton and knew nothing; he went one day 
into the presence of the Sahib Ibn Abbad (gee vol. 1. page 21 2), who, imagining 
that he should be a person of some learning, received him politely and seated 
him in the place of honour : he then proposed to him a question, and obtained 
this reply: "I do not know even the half of all (he science." — "True, my 
"son!" replied the Sahib, "and your father went away with the other 
" half." The birth of Abii Hashim took place A. H. 247 (A. D. 861-2); he 
died at Baghdad on Wednesday, the 17tb of Shaaban, A. H. 321 (August, A. D. 
933), and was interred in the cemetery called the Bustdn, or garden, which lies 
on the east bank of the river. The celebrated philologer Abii Bakr Muham- 
mad Ibn Duraid died on the same day. We shall give the life of Muhammad, 
Abu Hashim's father. — Jubb&i means native of Jubha, a village in the depen- 
dencies of Basra, which has given birth to a number of learned men (2). 



(1] Here and in other places thia name a Triiten jia, io the autograph. 

(2] Ttie author of the Mmhtixrifi notices four places bearing the name of Jubba; ooe of ihem, a canton 
in Khuieitln, was, according to him and to the author of the MarAtid, Ihe native place of AbO Htihim »V- 
Jnbbli and of hia father. 



DIK AUnNN. 

The celebrated poet Abu Muhammad Abd as-Salam Ibn Raghb^n Ibn Ahd 
as-Salam Ibn Habib Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Raghbin Ibn Zaid Ibn Tamim, a mem- 
ber of the tribe of Kalb and surnamed Dtk al-Jinn (1), was born at Emessa, but 
his family belonged to Salamiya. Tamim was the first of his ancestors who 
embraced Islamism ; he made his profession of faith to Habib Ibn Maslama al- 



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13^ IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

Fihri (2), when taken prisoner of war; and he then contested the pre-eminence 
of the Arabs, saying: "They have no advantage over us; we have turned 
*' Moslims as they did." — Dik al-Jinn was one of the poets who flourished un- 
der the Abbaside dynasty ; he always remained in Syria, and was never induced 
to derive profit from his poetical talents hy travelling to Irak or other coun- 
tries foi" the purpose of celebrating the praises of the great. In his religious 
opinions he was a moderate SMile, and some elegies composed by him on the 
death of al-Husain are still extant. His conduct was disorderly and licentious, 
being so strongly addicted to pleasure and amusements, that he wasted all his 
patrimony. His poetry is the acme of perfection (3). The following anecdote 
is related hy Ahd Allah Ihn Muhammad Ihn Ahd al-Malik az-Zubaidi : "We 
" were sitting with Dik al-Jinn when a youth came in and recited to him some 
" verses of bis composition, on which Dik al-Jinn drew from under his praying- 
" carpet a large roll of papers containing pieces of his own poetry, and gave 
•' it to the young man, saying: 'Make use of this, my boy! and take it as a 
" help when you compose verses.' The youth then withdrew, and we asked 
" who he was, to which Dik aWinn replied : * That boy is a native of Jasim (4) 
" and be says that be belongs to the tribe of Tai ; be is surnamed AbiJt Tam- 
" mam, and his name is Habib Ihn Aus; he possesses instruction, intelligence, 
" and great natural abilities.' " Az-Zubaidi says also that Dik al-Jinn out- 
lived Abu Tammam and composed an elegy on his death. The birth of Dik al- 
Jinn took place A. H. 161 (A. D. 777-8), and his death in the reign of al-Mu- 
Uwakkil, A.H. 235 (A.D. 849-50) or 236; he was then aged upwards of 
seventy years.^ — ^When Abii Nuwas passed through Emessa on bis way to Egypt, 
where he intended reciting to al-Khasib (5) some poems which he had composed 
in his honour, Dik al-Jinn heard of his arrival and concealed himself through 
the apprehension of betraying to him his own relative inferiority as a poet. He 
was at home when Ahii r^uwas knocked at the door uid asked admission, but 
the maid answered that her master was not within. Abii Nuwas immediately 
perceived tlic motive which prevented him from appearing, and said to her : 
" Tell him to come forth, for he has thrown the people of Irak into ecstasy 
" with this verse of his : 

* A rosy liquor, received fi^m the hand of a gazelle-like nymph, who seemed to have 
' extracted it from her cheeks and then passed it round.' " 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 135 

'Vhen Dik aUJinn heard the message, he weut forth to meet Abu Nuwas and 
received him as his guest.' — -This verse is taken from Uie following piece : 

Fear no reproach (6), but bring here the wine; let water remove its intoxicating qua- 4 
lities, and let our morning draughts be protracted till the hour comes for passing round 
the evening cup. Dispel every care from one who is burdened with afQiction ; at the 
very mention of that wine, the eyes shrink from its brightness. Arise I bear it quickly 
round in a cup of no puny size! nay, pour it out in all its strength and purity. She 
rose with a glass, brilliant and sparkling so as nearly to burn ter hand; she must 
have taken the refulgence of her own bright forehead or of the sun to form therewith 
that dazzling goblet. Throughout that day our hands shed the blood of the wine- 
cup (7), but the wine revenged itself upon our legs; a rosy liquor, received from the 
hand of a gazelle-like nymph, who seemed to have extracted it from her cheeks and 
then passed it round. 

It is mentioned by al-Jihshiari (8) in his History "of the Vizirs that the Habib 
Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Raghban of the genealogy given above, was a kdtib under 
the khalif al-Mansur, and the president of the Donation OITice (9); he was still 
living, by that writer's account, in the year 143 (A. D. 760-1). He adds that 
Dik al-Jinn the poet was one of his descendants, and that the Mosque of Ibn 
Raghban at Baghdad was named after him. This Habib, says he again, was a 
mawh to Habib Ibn Masiama al-Fihri. I may here add some remarks : Hahib 
Tbn Masiama al-Fibri (of the tribe of Koraith) was one of Moawia's favourite 
ot&cers, having rendered him signal service at the battle of Siffin. Moawia, 
when bis authority was (irmly established, dispatched Habib on a mission of im- 
portance, and when the latter was leaving the palace, he was met by al-Hasan, 
^e son of (the &/ia/i/')Ali, who said to him : " It may be, Habib! that the Jour- 
'^ ney you are about to undertake is an act of rebellion against God." — "By 
*' no means," retorted Habib; *'l am not going to join your father." — "Say, 
" rather," replied at-Hasan, " that you conform to Moawia's humours because 
* * i»e enjoys prosperity ; but the more he has exalted you in the world, the 
tt*ore he has weakened your religious principles; and tliough you act foully, 
you should at least speak fairly; then we might apply to you these words of 
*iod's : And others acknowledge tkdr crimes, who had mixed a good with an evil 
*^e€d (1 0) ; but, unfortunately, you are as those of whom God said : Say rather, 
' that their KnftU deeds have choked up their hearts P' (1 1 ). This Habib bore the 
*"*Tlame of AbA Abd ar-Rahman ; he was appointed governor of Armenia bv 
SHoa-wia, and he died there A, H. 42 (A. D. 662-3}, before reaching his fiftieth 



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136 16N KHALLIKAN'S 

year. — Dik al-Jinn had a slave-girl called Dunya, of whom he was passionately 
fond, but having suspected her of improper conduct with Wasif, his slave-boy, 
he put her to deatli ,: an act of which he afterwards repented. He then com- 
posed numerous poems expressive of the love he bore her, and one of these 
pieces is as follows : 

bunch of dates I destruction has fallen upon thee (12), With thy blood I have 
watered the earth, yet how often did my Hps absorb from thine the draught of love. 
1 gave my sword power over the circuit of her neck (13), and my tears now flow upon 
her cheeks. By the merits of her sandals I declare that nothing ever trod on the 
sands, dearer to me than her sandals. 1 did not slay her [through inseruibilily], for 
I could never avoid weeping when the dust fell upon her face {ik) ; but I was unwilling 
that another should love her, and I could not bear that the boy should cast his eyes 
on her. 

In another of those pieces he says : 

She visited my couch after her burial, and 1 bestowed lengthened kisses on Uiat 
neck which was adorned by its grace alone. And 1 said: "Joy of my eyes! thou 
" hast been sent to me at last 1 but how was (hat possiUe, since the way from the tomb 
" is ever closed?" She answered: "There my bones are deposited, the sport of 
O " wonns and the other ofispringof the earth, but this is my spirit come to visit thee; 
" such are the visits paid by those who are entombed." 

The following verses also were composed by him on her ; but some say that 
she herself made them on the death of her son Raghhan : 

thou ibr whom I should sacrifice my lather's life I 1 have abandoned thee in the 
wide desert and shrouded thy face with the dust of the earth ! thou whom, after all 
my care, 1 have given over to corruption, and left there, to support my absence either 
with impatience or inditference ! were 1 able to look on and watch the progress of 
corruption, I should have left thy face uncovered, not entombed. 

His writings abound with One ideas. — We have spoken of Salamijja in the 
life of al-Mahdi Obaid Allah. 



(1) IMal-Jinn inesDs the cock of the genii; he vat to called, according to AbA '1-Fanj al-Ispahini, b«- 
caiue he was very ugly and had green tjes.—[!tfir<tat ai-ZamAn, No. 640, fol.223.) 

(S) Habtb Ibn Maslima was ippoioted to the goverDmeot of Kinnisrln (near Aleppo) by AbO Olialda the 
Moriim conqueror of Syria. Thii w» in A. H. 15 (A.D. 630-7].— See Preytag'i Hiit. Battbi, and Price's Jt.- 
iroipscl, vot. I. page 84. 

(.3) From ihe eitracU given farther on, it would appear thai Ibn Khallikln was not hard to be pleased. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 137 

(4) See vol. 1. ptge SBS. 

<S) See vol. 1. page 382. 

(fl) The right reading ie Jj Jj». 

(7) Lilerally ; We passed tbai itj wiih the brealli (or life} of the cup panting b; our hands. 

[8} " Aba Abd Allah Mnbamnud Ibn AbdfU aWihibltrl; a katib, an hiitorian, and a miter of epiitlei. 
" He ii Ibe author of a hisiarj of the Tlzin. a work eDtitled Jfbdn at-Shier {th» batanee for poetry).' 
The author of the FikrUi from which we eitricl this short notice (see fol. 174) wrote A. H. 377. AWih- 
Shl4ri was probably still living when these lines were penned. Hadji Khalifa laji that he was a native of 
KAfa [see hi« bibliographical dlctioDary under the word lUHilin], but he appeart not to have known tbe dale 
of his death. 

i9) The Hoslim troops when in actual service received pay, but under the title of a donation; It «as fur- 
nitbed to them, at regular intervals, by the Donation Offic* (Ditodn at-AtA). 

(10) Koran, surat 9, verse 103. 

ill] EoroD, surat 83, verse It. 

(13) Literally: spatheof thedate-treel death hat climbed up to thee and gathered for thee with its hands 
the frait of dettraction. 

(13) The autograph hasl^lL^, 

(14) Her face was so delicate that an atom of duit would have hurt her. 



ABU 'L-KASIM AD-DARIKI. 

MA '1-Kasim Abd al-Aziz Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Aziz 
ad-Daraki ranks among the greatest of the ShIiGte doctors ; and his father was 
held to be the chief traditionist of Ispahan for the age in which he lived. Abu 
'I-msm settled at Naisapur, A. H. 353 (A. D. 964), and during some years he 
professed the science of jurisprudence in that city, after which he removed to 
Baghdad, where he continued to reside tilt his death. He studied the law 
under Abu Isbak al-Marwazi (voK /. page7)y and was Abu Hamid al-Isf^raini's 
master in that science after the death of Abu '1-Hasan Ibn al-Marzub^n. Most 
of the ihaikhs at Baghdad, and a number of persons from other countries, 
attended his lessons. On his first arrival there, he commenced by teaching 
in the Mosque of Dalaj Ibn Ahmad (1), situated in the street of Abu Khalaf, in 
the Grant of ar-Rabi (2) ; he opened a class also in the great mosque for the 
discussion of points of law and the instruction of pupils who aspired to the rank 
of mufti. The place of head-professor of the Shafite doctrines at Baghdad then 

VOL. II. 18 



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138 ntN KHALLIKAN'S 

devolved to him, and great numbers pursued their studies in a most successful 
manner under his tuition. In developing the principles of Shafite jurispru- 
dence, he followed, iu some cases, a system peculiar to himself, and which 
attested, by its excellence, the soundness of his information. He was sus- 
pected, however, of holding Motazilite opinions, (bttt) the $haHA Abd Hamid 
al-Isfaraini declared that he never saw an abler doctor of the law. Ad-Da- 
raki learned the Traditions from his maternal grandfather al-Hasan Ibu Muham- 
mad ad-Daraki. When consulted on a* point of law, he always todt a long 
time to reflect before giving an opinion; and it sometimes happened that his 
decisions were completely opposed to those of the two mdmi, as-Shifi and Abli 
Hanifa. When observations were made to him on this subject, he used to an- 
swer by citing an appropriate Tradition and tracing it up to the Prophet, after 
which he would observe that it was better to follow the Traditions than the 
opinions enounced by either of the two imdmu. He died at Baghdad on Friday, 
the 13th of ShawwM, A. H. 375 (Feb. A. D. 986), aged upwaitls of seventy 
years. Some say, but erroneously, that his death occurred in the month of 
Zu '1-Kaada. His exactitude as a traditionist is universally admitted, and his 
authority as a doctor is held to be of the highest order. — According to as- 
Samilni, DdraM means befongmg to Ddrak; this place I believe to be one of the 
villages in the neighbourhood of Ispahan. The same author calls him Abd al- 
Aziz Ibn al-Hasan Ihn Ahmad ad-D&raki ; whether he be right or not, God best 
knows! 



(1) TUb motqae wu prolMblT founded bj Dalaj, wbo, u bu beeo tlrud^r Dotieed, vol. I. poft 9, i 
mnarktble for his weiltb and charily. 

(2) See vol. I. page K3S. 



IBN NUBATA THE POET. 



The poet AbA Nasr Abd al-Aziz, sumamed Ibn Nubala, drew his descent 
from the tribe of Saad, a branch of that of Tamim; his genealogy, which we 
give here, will render this evident: his father Omar was the son of Muhammad 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 139 

Ibn Ahmad Ibn Nubata Ibn Ilumaid Ibn Nubata Ibn aWHajjaj Ibn Matar Ibn 
Khalid Ibn Amr Ibn Razah Ibn Riah Ibn Saad Ibn Tbujair Ibn Rabia Ibn Kaab 
Ibn Saad Ibn Zaid Manit Ibn Tamim Ibn Murr: the remainder of the genealogy 
is well known (1). This able poet, whose compositions display the combined 
excellencies of style and thought, went from country to country for the pur- 410 
pose of reciting to princes, vizirs, and other great men, the poems which he had 
composed in their praise. Some brilliant kastdaa and exquisite eulogiums 
addressed by him to Saif ad-Dawlat Ibn Hamdan are still preserved, and one of 
these pieces we shall give here : it was written by him in a letter to that prince, 
who had just made him a present of a black horse with a white forehead and 
legs: 

prince 1 thou whose generous qualities are the offspring of thy natural disposition, 
and whose pleasing aspect is tlie emblem of thy mind ; I have received the present which 
yoQ sent me, a noble steed whose portly neck seems to unite the heavens to the earth 
on which he treads. Hast thou then conferred a government apon me (2), since thou 
sendest me a spear to which a flowing mane serves as a banner (3). We take possession 
of what thou hast conferred and find it to be a horse whose forehead and legs are 
marked with white, and whose body is so black, that a single drop extracted From 
that colour would suffice to form night's darkest shades ((p). It would seem that the 
morning had struck him on the forehead (and Ihw made it wHtt), for which reason he 
took his revenge by wading into the entrails [rtgiom] of the morning, [atid that vhittning 
his legs]. He paces slowly, yet one of his names is Lightning ; he wears a veil [having 
hi* face covered tcith white, at if lo conceal it], and yet beauty itself would be his only rival. 
Had the sun and the moon a portion only of his ardour, it would be impossible to with- 
stand (3) their heat. The eye cannot follow his movements, nnless yon [r«i» him in and ) 
restrain his impetuosity. The glances of the eye cannot seize all his perfections, unless 
the eye be lead away captive by his beauty [and be tkui enabled to follow Attn) (6). 

In describing thus the whiteness of his horse's forehead and legs, the poet 
had an inspiration of great originality ; and I do not think that a similar train 
of thought was ever expressed before. He composed also a long kattda rhyming 
in L and conlaining the praises of Saif ad-Dawlat ; from it we extract these 

verses : 

You have showered down gifts upon me till 1 felt them irks<Hne, and was almost 
tempted to extol the passion of avarice (in a patron). If you still wish to bestow favours 
upon me, give me also the desire to obtain them, or else bestow them not. Your gene- 
rosity has left me nonght to wish for; and you are the cause that I live in the world 
devoid of hope. 

In the first verse of this extract, the poet comes near to the idea expressed by 
al-Bohtori in the following lines : 



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IM) IBN KUALLIKAN'S 

I left yon from a feeling of estrangement which nothing can efface ; your generosity 
put me to the blush, and your favours cast a shade over the sunshine of our friendship. 
By the abundance of your gifts you repelled me from yon, so that 1 fear ve shall never 
meet again. How strange that presents should cause a rupture of friendship, and that 
marks of kindness should be felt as an insnil. 

A similar idea is also expressed in a poem addressed by Dibil Ibn Aii '1-Khuzai 
to al-Muttaiib Ibn Abd Allah al-Khuzai, the emir of Egypt; the verses to which 
we allude begin thus : 

O fbr the days I passed with a1-Mnt(alib I 

Having already given them in the life of Dibil (vol. I. page 509), We shall not 
repeat them here. It is now a hacknied thought, having passed from one poet 
to another, and being frequently employed by them all; some of them spread- 
ing it out, and others expressing it with concision : thus I met with it in a piece 
of verse composed by Ali Ibn Jabata al-Akawwak (a poet whose life we shall 
give), and addressed by him in a letter to Abii Dolaf al-Ijli (7) ; I should give 
the piece here were it not so long. With what grace has Abu '1-Ala 'l-Maarri 
expressed the same thought in tliis line : . 

Did you moderate your kindness, I should visit you ; but the sweetest water is repul- 
sive, if its coolness be too great. 

Let us return to our subject : Ibn Nubata's poetry Gils a lai^e volume, and the 
greater part of his verses is good. He at one time went to Rai and recited to 
411 AbA 't-Fadl Muhammad Ibn al-Amid some koitdas which he had composed in 
his praise ; he had also a conversation with him, the particulars of winch we shall 
relate in the life of the latter. He was bom A. H. 327 (A. D. 938-9), and he 
died at Baghdad on Sunday, the 3rd of Shawwal, A. H. 405 (March, A.D. 1 01 5), 
shortly after sunrise. His interment took place before the hour of noon, in 
tiie Kbaizuran cemetery, situated on the east bank of the Tigris. — The following 
anecdote was related by Abu Ghalib Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Sahl : " I went 
" to visit Abi!i '1-Hasan Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Nasr al-Baghdadi, the author 
" of the Epistles and of the work called al-Mufdwida (convenation) ;"— this Ahii 
'1-Hasan was the brolher of the MaUkite kadi Abd al-Wahhab, and we shall 
speak of him again in the life of the latter ; — ' * he was then at Wasit and in his 
" last illness. I sat with him for some time, but, as he felt a diarrhea coming 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 141 

" on, I rose to withdrew, on wliicli he repeated to me this verse, by Abu Nasr 
" Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Nubdta) •■ 

' Let your eyes enjoy a parting look at (he friend whom you are about to leave; for 
* I do Dot think that I shall ever see yon again in the valley {viktre tee met to often].' 

" He then said : ' I went to see Abil Nasr himself the very day on which he 
" died, and be recited to me this verse as I was taking leave of him; and on 
*' my way home I was informed of his death.' On the night of that day 
" Abu 't-Hasan himself expired." We shall give the date of his death in the 
life of Abd al-Wahhab. It is related by Abu AH Muhammad Ibn Washah Ibn 
Abd Allah that he heard Abii Nasr say : "I was one day making the siesta in 
'* the vestibule of my house, when a person knocked at the door. 'Who is 
"there?' said I. — 'A native of the Elast,' was the answer. — 'What is your 
" business?'— 'Are you not the author of this verse: 

' He who dies not by Ihe sword must die some other way ; (he modes of death are 
' various, but that evil still remains the same V 

" To this 1 answered that I was the author. — ' Will you allow me then to repeat 
'* it as having been authorised to do so by yourself?' — ' Certainly.' The 
*' person then went away. Towards the end of the same day, I heard anothei- 
" knock at the door, and on asking who was there, I received this answer : ' An 
*' inhabitant of Tahart, in the West country (8).' — ' What is your business?' — 
" * Are you the author of this verse : 

' He who dies not by Ihe sword, etc. ? ' 

" — * 1 am he.' — * Will you allow me then to repeat it as having been authorised 
*' to do so by yourself?' — * Certainly.' I was dius much astonished to find that 
*' this verse had reached the East and the West." 



(1) See Eldihoro'i Mommenta BUt. Arab, tab- V. 

(2) The (rue readiDg U IxJj ; al) (he raanuKripu are vrong eicept the aoiogra^. 

(3) It it peihapi oeeesurj to abaerre that when a prince coDferred a tnilitary command upon one of fan 
lubjecta, be gave him a Btandard formed of a ipesT with a cravat or Dag tied around the bead of it. The 
poet here compares bu borae to a ipear on account of bia erect and loft; Rtatnre; the knotted bamter ia T^• 
presented by the nune. 



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Ui IBN KHALLIKA!rS 

{*) I bive enduvovred. bj a long ptrtpkraie, to npnu the thooght eoDUiMd in ihla Tcne. Tbe word 
rpndered bj tc« ftotit taken potuuion U Jj^, whidi bu been incorrectlT given in all tbe nunuicriptt, 
with the eiception of the BUtograiA. lu literal neuiing ii: vt dtimoimt, n <o< ttop at our joumtji'i end, 

(S] Here •gain all the manuacriptf are wrong eic«pt the autograph. For ^\SU> we nuM read ^^^.. 
The copflats did Dot undenttDd what Ihej wen writing. 

(«) Such is the meaning of the original venei. whidi are at dIfBcull to tnnilale aa lo andentaod. 

(7J The life of AbQ DoUf will be foniid in the 6nt lolunw. 

(8) See Tol. I. page KM. 



IBN MUGHALUS AL-AM)ALUSI. 



Abu Muhammad Abd al-Aziz Ibn Ahmad Ibn as-Sid Ibn Mughallis al- 

Kaisi al-Andalusi (a member of tbe tribe of Kais and a native of Spam) was a highly 

distinguished philologer and grammarian. Having left Spain, be settled in 

Egypt, where he pursued his literary studies under the tuition of AbA YakiU) 

Yusuf Ihn Yakub an-Najirmi (1) ; he took lessons also from AbA 'UAla Said ar- 

the author of the Ftufls (tee vol. I. page 632). At Baghdad, he increased 

:k of information and contributed to that of otikers. There exists sc«ue 

Detry of his composition, such as the following piece : 

rier eyes are languishing, but not with sickness (2}, yet my heart is sick {of love] for 
her. She has accustomed my eyes to sleeplessness by drawing From them a gush of 
tears which prevents them from closingi She paid me a visit, not through love, but to 
let me perceive her dislike. 

41S He composed a great quantity of verses. Abu 't-Tahir Ibn Khalaf, the autlior 
of the Onwdn (see vol. I. page 218), maintained a contest with him for supe- 
liority, and the kaitdat in which they strived to surpass each other are still pre- 
served in the volumes containing their poetical works. To avoid prolixity, we 
shall not give any passages from them. He died at Old Cairo on Wednesday, 
the 24lh of the fu^t Jumada, A.H. 427 (March, A.D. 1036); the funeral service 
was said over him, in tbe Musalla of as-Sadafi, by the tkaU^ AbA 'l-Hasan 
Ah Ibn Ibrahim al-Haufi (3), the author of the Tafitr, or commentary on the 
Koran; be was interred near tbe Banu Ishak. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DKTIONARY. 



(1) HU lib ta given bj Ibn KhalUkln. 

(3) 3m to). I. pige 38, note (3). 

[3) Hit life will be found farther on. 



ABD AS-SAMAD IBN AU AL-HASHIMI. 

Abu Muhammad Abd is-Samad al-Hashimi (a dexcendant from Hdshifn, Mu- 
hammad's great-grcmdfather), was the boh of Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Abbas Iha 
Abd al-Muttalib. The kd^ Abu '1-Faraj Ibn al-Jauzi meDtioos, in his work 
entitled ShuxHr al-OkM, some strange particularities relative to this person. 
" He was bora," says he, " A.H. 104 (A.D. 722-3), and bis brother Muhammad 
" Ibn AU, the father of (the ^Ufi) as-Saflah and al-Manaur, came into the world 
" A.H. 60 (A.D. 679-80); there was thus an interval of forty-four years between 
" the births of each. Abd as-Samad died A. H. 185 (A. D. 801), and Muham- 
" mad, A. H. 126 (A. D. 743-4); their deaths were thus separated by a period 
" of fifty-nine years. In the year 50 (A. D. 670-1), Yazid the sonof Moawia 
" made the pilgrimage, and in the year 1 50 (A. D. 767-8) Abd as-Samad led the 
*' pilgrim caravan to Mekka, yet they were both in the same degree of descent 
" from Abd Manaf; Yazid being the son of Moawia, the son of Abii Sofyan 
*' Sakhr, the son of Harb, the son of Omaiya, the son of Abd Shams, the son 
'* of Abd Manaf ; and Abd aa-Samad being the son of Ali, the son of Abd Allah, 
" the son of al-Abbas, the son of al-Muttalib, tlie son of Hashim, the son of Abd 
'* Manaf : whence it appears that in their respective genealogies five links inter- 
*' vened between each of them and Abd Manaf. Abd as-Samad witnessed the 
" reigns of as-Saflah and al-Mansur, who were both the sons of his brother; 
" he then hved to see the reign of al-Mahdi^ to whose lather he was paternal 
*' uncle; then the reign of al-Hadi, whose grajodfather was bis nephew; and he 
" died in the reign of ar-Rashid. He said one day to this last khalif : * Com-. 
*' loander of the faithful 1 in this assembly there are a commander of the faith- 
" ful, a commander of the faithful's paternal uncle^ the paternal uncle of i^ 
" commander of the faithful's paternal uncle, and the paternal uncle of one 
" was a paternal uncle to a paternal uncle of a commander of the faithful.' 



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liV IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

*' And this was the fact, for SulaimSn, the eon of Abii Jaafar (airMansAr) was 
** iincte to ar-Rashid, and al-Abbas was uncle to Sulaiman and Abd as-Samad 
" was uncle to al-Abbas. He died without having cast his first teeth, and 
" those of the lower jaw were united into one mass." — It is stated by Ibn 
Jarir at-Tabari, in bis History, that Abd as-Samad was bom in the month of 
Rajab, A. H. 106 (Nov .-Dec. A. D. 724), and that he died in the month of the 
latter Jumada, A. H. 175 (October, A. D. 791); another historian says that his 
death took place at Baghdad, and some persons place his birth in A. H. 109, or 
105, at al-Humaima (1), a town situated in the countiy called the Balka. His 
mother was the Katira in whose praise Obaid Allah Ibn Kais ar-Rukaiyat (2) 
composed his kadda, which begins thus ; 

The sight of Kathira renews his joy (3). 

Abd as-Samad became blind towards the end of his life. We shall give the life 
of his father Ali and his brother Muhammad. 



(1) Thu is probabi]' the Amaimt otBcrghaui't map of Syria; it ii plaud at aboat tventy-fiTe milet to the 
non)i-«a8l of Akaba, and ihoul forty to the south of Petra. 

(2) See page K of this volume, note (14) . 

(3) HiIb hemiitidi is incorrectly given in all the manuscript* eiccpl the autograph. The true reading it: 



IBN BABAK THE POET. 



Abu '1-Kasim Abd as-Samad Ibn Mansur Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Babak was a 
poet noted for the quantity and the excellence of his productions, i have seen 
his collected poetical works in three volumes. The cast of his poetry is pecu- 
liarly pleasing, and the eulogistic pieces addressed by him to the great men of 
the numerous countries which he visited were retributed in the most generous 
manner. The following passages may give an idea of his style : 

S A graceful nymph, gifted by nature with tiie sweetest charms, came to visit me with 

trembling steps, whilst the Pleiades were rising and still hesitating in their career. As 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. lU 

she dispelled the shades of night [vilh the light of htr beauty), I exclaimed : "la it the 
" eye of the morniag which openetii, or a sunbeam darting through the cloud?" She 
drew near, glancing magic from her eyes, and trembling like a gazelle which crops its 
food ID the lonely desert. During the darkness of that night,, which spread over us the 
softest folds of lis mantle, we partook of the purple liquor till the constellation of the 
Eagle began to sink towards the horizon. We shared a wine which bore on its surface 
bubbles like die drops from a lover's wounded heart, or like the tears from a love-stmck 
suitor's eyes. When we miied it with water (1), it rose in revolving circlets, which 
trembled like the eyes of a virgin when the veil which conceals her features is torn away. 
That liquor is accustomed to take away the reason, and it seems to hold mastery over the 
thoughts deposited (2) in men's hearts. We passed the night in secret joy ; our mutual 
love stood revealed and our long-hidden passion was disclosed. But towards the 
hour in which the kata (3) that has outstripped its fellows returns R'om the spring where 
it took its morning draught,— «t the time in which the plaintive doves take refuge in the 
branches, — she withdrew, vanquished by wine, and as her Altering tongue refused its 
office, she bade me adieu with her hand. 

My dearest friends I mix for us a cup of wine, and let its brightness dispel the shades 
of night ^m around us. Let the bubbles spark on its surfece, so that I tremble lest 
they bum my companion when he intends to drink. And then let none deny that ibe 
gnu has set in my Mend's mouth, for the radiance of his cheeks will give them the lie. 

One of his kastdas contains a remarkably tender verse ; it is this : 

The zephyr swept by me, and sighed so tenderly, that it seemed to have heard me 
as I complained of my sufTerings. 

This poet died at Baghdad, A.H. 410 (A.D. 1019-20). 



(1) The autograph bu ^.l^^^— , and (he other manuacdpu sj:.»=t— , whtn poured out. 

(S) For JU,j read wbj. 

(3) The kala it a mrt of grouM which frequenU the desert. Every night the; Dy to the nearest lource, 
which it often at a great dittaoce, and fill their crops with vater which tlie; bring back early in the morning 
to their yonng. In many Arabic proverbi, allusioD it made to the habiti of tbia bird; aee M. de Sacy't Chm- 
lomathie. Ull. p. 368, and t. III. 416. tW7. Dr. Riusel gWesadescriplioo of il in the Hiilory of Aleppo ; it 
I* the tetrao alehata of LinnKUt. 



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IBN KHALLIKAK'S 



ABU 'L-MAHASIN AR-RUYANI. 



\hA 'l-Mahasin Abd al-Wahid Ibn Ismail Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad ar- 
Ruyani, a ShaGte jurisconsult, was one of the most eminent men of his age as 
a d<^matic theologian, a coiitrovertist, and a teacher of the doctrines peculiar to 
his sect. He took lessons from Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Bayan [Ibn Mu- 
hammad] al-Kazruni (vol. I. page 377), and from Abd 'l-Husain Abd al-Ghafir 
Ibn Muhammad al-Farisi at Maiyafarikin ; the traditional knowledge which he 
had received was transmitted through Zahir Ibn Tahir as-Shahharai (1) and 
others to the following generation. The highest respect and veneration were 
shown to him in the country (where the Selj'&h ruled), and the vizir Nizam al- 
Mulk honoured him with special favour on account of his eminent merit. Afler 
residing for some time in Bokhara, he proceeded to Ghazna and Naisapur, where 
he frequented the society of the learned, and attended the coofereoces presided 
by Nasir al-Marwazi ($ee vol.I. p. 606). He then drew up a taaiika (2) composed 
of the observations made by that doctor, and he learned Traditions also. A col- 
lege was founded by him at Amul in Tabaristan, and he subsequently proceeded 
to Rai, where he Glled the functions of a professor. From thence he went (o 
Ispahan and made dictations (3) in the principal mosque. Some instructive 
works were composed by him, such as the Bakr al-MazbtA (ocean of the doctrine^, 
one of the most voluminous treatises which the Shafites possess on their juris- 
prudence ; the Mandiitf or optniom pronounced by the imam as-Shaii on points 
of law ; the Kd^ (mfficimt) (4), and the Hilyat aUMUmin (orjummt of the true 
bdiecer) (5) : he wrote also some treatises on dogmatic theology and on contro- 
versy. It is related that he used to say : " Were all as-Shafl's works burned, 1 
414 " could dictate them from memory." The kadi and hdfiz Ahu Muhammad Abd 
Allah Ibn Yusuf (6) makes mention of him in his Tabakdt, or chronolo^cal bio- 
graphy, of the ShaGte imams : " Abu 'l-Mahasin ar-Ri^yani," says he, " ihe 
" pearl of the age and the imam of jurisprudence." Notice is taken of him also 
by Abu Zakariya Yahya Ibn Manda (7). He taught the Traditions in diOerent 
countries, and gave them on the authority of an immense number of persons 
from whom he had received them. * His birth took place in the month of Zu '1- 
Hijja, A.H. 415(February, A.D. 1025). The ftd^z Abu Tahir as-Silafi (vol.I. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 147 

page 86) says : " We received iDtetligence that Abu i-Mahasin ar-Ruyani was 
" murdered at Amul in the month of Muharram, A. H. 502 (August-Sept. 
" A.D.H08), as he had just finished oae of his dictations ; he fell a victim to the 
" irritated spirit of sectarian fanaticism." It is mentioned too byMamar Ibn 
Abd al-Wahid Ibn Fakhir (8), in the list of deaths extracted by him from Abu 
Saad as-Samani's (9) work, that ar-Ruyani was slain by heretics (truMhid) at 
Amul, and in the mosque^ on Friday, the 1 1 th of Muharram in the above-men- 
tioned year. — R(^dm means belonging to itllj/iln, a city in Tabarist^ which has 
produced many learned men. — Amul is a city in the same region; we have 
already spoken of it (vol. I. page 6U7). 



(1) Such ii the true orthography of thit Dame ; not ShahAtiU. aa in val. I. page 192. 

&i Se« page 28 of this volume. 

(3) See vol. I. pages 39 and 212, note (t). 

(4} This is a irMtlte on Shaite jUTispradwca. 

(B) This is also a work on jurispnideBoe. 

(6) The kidi Abb Muhammad Ahd Allah Ibn Yiuuf al-Jurjtni was a hifiz and a jurisconsDlt. He drew up 
a irotk on the merits of as-Sh&fl, and another on Ihe merits of the imim Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. He composed 
also a Toliaidl of Sbafite doctors. Boro al JurjAn. A.B. 40B (A.D. 1018-9); died in ZO '1-Kaada, A.H. 4M 
(OCI.-NO*. 1096).— (Tat. at-SMf.) 

(!) Hii life ia given by our author. 

(S) The hdfif Aba Ahmad Hamar Ibn Abd al-Wlhid Ihn Fikhjr drew his descent from (be Uibe of Koraish 
and was a native of Ispahln. He was learned in the Traditions, and obtained great distinction as a preacher. 
His virtuous conduct procured him the utmost respect aod consldentioi]. He died at ibe age of seventy, on a 
journey to Hijti, A.H. 064 (A.D. 1168-9).— (JVujilm. Al-Ttfi.)— This is certainly ihe same Wfli who is called 
Mamar at-SamAni Abd al'Wihid, in the Tabakat at-HuffdM ; HS. of the Ducal Library at Goiba, of which 
we poaaeas an edition lithogv^ed by H. P. WOstenbid, The eitreme incorrectness of this work for die names, 
the dales, and the bcls, reduces its authority to a very low standard. 

(9) The true reading is j I JiaUs^. 



AL-BABBAGHA. 

Abii 'l-Faraj Abd al-Wiihid Ibn Nasr Um Muhamnad aHUakhnimi (« member 
of the Ir^e of Mukhz^) is the poet who is generally known fay the samme of 



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IbS IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

al-Babbagha. Ath-Thaalibi says in his Yatitna that he was a native of Nisibin. 
and speaks of his talents in the highest terms ; he gives also a number of epis- 
ties and pieces of verse composed by him, and inserts (the poetical cotretpm- 
dence) which passed between him and Abii Ishak as-Sabi, with other circum- 
stances too long to relate (1). The following are specimens of his poetry : 

you who reign over my hearti my soul [it departing and) biddeth you adieu: it 
found not patience to console it (for your cruelly]; nay, it (became imentibU and] ceased 
to feel the anguish (of tmrequiled love). It vas once my hope long to enjoy the breath 
of life, but now, since you abandon me, that hope subsists no more. Hay God inflict 
on me no longer 'die pains of existence! When you are absent, I can find no happi- 
ness in life. 

Thy image which 1 see so often in my dreams knows better than thyself how mach I 
love thee, and feels more compassion for thy afflicted suitor than thou dost. When thy 
cruelty drove sleep from my eyes, that image would have visited my waking hours, could 
it possibly have done so. 

1 remember a graceful maid whose countenance was clothed in a robe of beauty and 
encircled with a broidery of ringlets. When I called upon my heart for strength to 
endure the pains her cruelty inflicted, that heart became her ally. So perfect are 
the charms of her Eace, that the ihoon seems to bave borrowed all her radiance there. 
When my heart urges me lo fly firom her tyranny, love says : " Nought can avail against 
"her; try and soothe her by submission (2)." 

In one of his comparisons he employs the following original idea : 

- The hoofs of his rapid steeds stamp on the very rock the image of a crescent. The 
eye of the sun was dazzled (by their ipeed), and the dust which Ihey raised seemed ap- 
plied to it as a collyrium. 

418 Speaking of Said ad-Dawlat (3) the (gfrcBd)son of Saif ad-Dawlat Ibn Hamdan, 
he says: 

The cloud of his generosity overshadowed mankind ; and its lightnings, the breboders 
of a grafefnl shower, never deluded our hopes. His beneficence wia no trickling 
streamlet; he bestowed (ill nothing more remained for him to give, or for mortals to 
desire. 

In the life of Abii Nasr Ibn Nubata (page 139) we have already given some 
passages containing a similar thought. The greater part of al-Babbagha's poetry 
is characterised by the excellence (of iu style) and the beauty of its ideas. He 
had been for some time in the service of Saif ad-Dawlat Ibn Hamdan, but, on 
that [vince's death, he travelled from one country to another, and at length 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. H9 

died on Satuixky, the 29th Shaaban, A. H. 398 (May, A. D. 1 008). It is slated 
however by the Khatib ($eevol. I. p. 75), in his History, that he died on the 
eve of Satunlay, the 26th of Shaaban, A. H. 398. Ath-Thaalibi says : '« I 
*' heard the emir Abu 'I-Fadi al-Mikali relate that, on returning from the pil- 
" grimage in the year 390, he entered Baghdad and met there Abd '1-Faraj 
" al-Babbagha, who was then far advanced in age, his body enfeebled by years, 
*' but hjs mind still possessing its usual vigour and elegance." — He was sur- 
named Babbagha (parrot) for the fluency of his language, or, as some say, for 
an impediment in his speech which made him lisp : I met with a note in the 
handwriting of Ihn Jinni the grammarian, in which it is stated that this name 
is to be written Faffaglia, but God best knowelh which is the right orthogra- 
phy (4). 



(1] Tho life of al-Babbtghs, wme fragmenli of h[i poeiry, and t part of fail corrHpondence with Abd 
labak, ntracted tmm the Tattma, were pnbliibed at Leiptic, 1838, bj Ph. WotlT. 

(3) The autograph give* the true reading, which ii o.lj.9 tju>. In the prioied edition aad the other maou- 
•eiipU. the reiding ii decidedly bad, at it eoniains a fault agafoit protody. 

(3) The historj of Said ad-Dawlal, eitracled from KamU ad-dln's Hiator; of Aleppo, bai been publiihed in 
Arabic by profeHor Frejtag at the end of fail edttioD of Lokmln'* Fables. Bonn, 1SS3. 

(4) Babbagha, the Arabic name for the green parrot, i> evidendy the Mme word a* the Spanish and Por- 
luguese papagayo (parrot], the Gennin papagty, the Italian pappagalto, the old French papegai, and the 
English pqpftyay,- a> there is do p in the Arabic alphabet, a b or an /are equally used to replace it. Thit 
word is not originally Arabic; it belongs pertiaps t« tone Indian dialect. 



ABU MANSUR AL-BAGHDADI. 



The ustad (moiter) Abu Manstir Abd al-Kahir Ibn Taliir Ibn Muhammad ai- 
Baghd&di (a native of Baghdad), a dogmatic theologian and a member of the sect 
of as-ShaH, was welt acquainted with the belles-lettres, and versed in a great 
number of odier sciences, particularly arithmetic; of the last be was a complete 
master and wrote on it some instructive works, one of which bears the title of 
at-T<dmUa (tiie completion). He possessed great skill in the art of calculating the 
shares to which the different heirs of an inheritance are entitled, and he com- 



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150 IBN KHALLIRAN'S 

posed also a great quantity of poetry. The hdfiz Abd al^h^Gr al-Floisi men- 
tions him in the SUUc, or continuation of the History of Naiftapdr, and says : 
" He came to Naisapur with his father, and possessed great riches, which he 
" spent on the learned (tn the law) and cm the Traditionists : he never made 
" of his information a source of proGt. He composed treatises on different 
'* sciences and surpassed his contemporaries in every branch of learning, seven- 
' ' teen of which he taught publicly. He studied jurisprudence under Abu Isbak 
" as-5hirezi, and, on that doctor's death, he filled his place as a {wofessor in 
*' the mosque of Akil ; during some years he gave lessons there, which were assi- 
*' duously attended by doctors of the greatest eminence; amongst his pupils 
" were Nasir al-Marwazi and Zain al-Isl^ al-Kushairi." He died in the city 
of Isfarain, A. H. 429 (A. D. 1037-8), and was mterred beside the grave of his 
master Abu Ishak. 



ABU 'N-NAJIB A&SUHRAWARBI. 

AbA'n>Najlb.Abd al-K^ir as-Suhrawardi, surnamed Dia ad-din (tplendour of 
reUgwri), was a descendant of the khalif AhA Bakr; his father Abd Allah being 
the son of Muhammad Ibn Anunuya Abd Allah Ibn Saad Ibn al-Husain Ihn al- 
Kasim Ibn Alkama Ibn an-Nadr Ihn Muaz Ibn Abd ai^Hahnmn Ibn al-Kasim Ibn 
Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr as-Siddlk. But Ibn au-Najj&r says in his History of 
Baghdad: " I give here the genealogy of the s/uttJ^ Abu 'n-Najib as I found it 
" in his own handwriting: Abd at-Kahir Ibn Ahd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn 
" Amrauya Abd Allah Ibn Saad Ibn al-Husain Ibn al-Kasim Ibn an^adr Ibn 
416 " al-Kasim Ibn Saad (1) Ibn an-Nadr Ibn Abd ar-JUhman Ibn al-IUsim Ibn 
" Muhammad IIhi Abi Bakr as-Siddik." This list must be more coirect than 
the former, since it was written out by AbA 'n-Najib himself. — Ahii 'n-Najib, 
the first teacher of his age in Irak, was bora at Suhraward on or about the 
year 490 (A. D. 1097). He went to Baghdad and studied jiuisprudence at the 
iVtalflWfa College under Asaad al-Mibani (see vol. I. page 189) and other mas- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICHONABY. 151 

ters ; he then walked in the path of SuGsm, and, having conceived a strong 
passion for retirement and an aversion for worldly concerns, he abstained, 
for a long period of time, from all intercourse with mankind, and sedulously 
devoted his efforts to the task of (Staining the divine favour. He afterwards 
retnrned to the world and converted great numbers from their evil courses by 
his exhortations and admonitions. A convent was built by him on the west 
bank of the Tigris at Baghdad, in which he lodged a number of holy men who 
were bis disciples. He was then induced to give lessons in the Nizdmiya Col- 
lege, and, during the period of his professorship, tlie effects of the divine 
grace with which he was favoured were manifested in the rapid progress of 
his pupils. His appointment took place on the 27th of Muharram, A. H. 54.5 
(May, A. D. 1150), and his removal from dfice in the month of Rajah, 547. 
The Mfis AbA 's-Saad as-Samani has handed down some Traditions on his au- 
thority, and he mentions him also in his work (the tupphment to the Hittory of 
Baghdad). AbA 'n-Najib set out on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and on his 
arrival at Mosul, A. H. 557 (A. D. 1162), he gave pious exhortations at sittings 
held by him in the Old Mosque; he then proceeded to Syria, hut on reaching 
Damascus, he was prevented from visiting the holy city by the rupture of the 
mtce which bad been concluded between the Moslims and the Franks, whose 
projects may God fmsu-ate ! On his arrival at Damascus, a most honourable 
reception was granted to him hy al-Malik al-Aadil Nur ad-^ln Mahmikl, the 
sovereign of Syria. He there held regular assemblies at which he preached, 
but, after a short stay, he returned to Baghdad, in which city he died, on Fri- 
day, the 17th of the latter Jumada, A. H. 563 (March, A. D. 1168), at the hour 
of evening prayers. Early the next morning, he was interred in the convent 
founded by himself. His birth was on or about the year 490 (A. D. 1097), ac- 
cording to the statement of Shihab ad-din, his brother's son. His nephew Shi- 
hab ad-din Abu Hafs Omar as-Suhrawardi shall be spoken of in another jArt 
of this work.— SuhratBordi means belonging to Sufcrotoard, which is a village near 
Zanjan in Persian Irak. 

tl) Thit Hnk of bk gtoeiiogj is given in Ibe autoeraidi. 



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ABU 'L-KASIM AL-KUSHAIRI. 



Abit '1-Kasim Abd al-Karim Ibn Haw&zin Ibn Abd al-Malik Ibn Talha Ibn 
Muhammad al-Ku&hairi, a doctor of the sect of as-Shafi, was one of the mo^ 
learned men of the age in the science of jurisprudence, koranic exegesis, the 
Traditions, dogmatic theology, the belles-lettres, and poetry ; he possessed also 
great skill in penmanship and a profound knowledge of Sufism, to the prac- 
tices of which he united a perfect acquaintance with the law. He drew his 
descent from one of the Arabs who settled in Khorasan (on the fint eotufuett of 
that country by the Moslimg), and his family inhabited a place there called Ustuwa. 
At an early age he lost his father, and his youth was devoted to the study of 
CArt^) literature. He possessed a village in the neighbourhood of Ustuwa, and, 
as it was oppressed by excessive taxation, he resolved on proceeding to Naisapur 
that he might acquire a knowledge of arithmetic sufficient to qualify him as an 
assessor, and thus enable him to protect his village from the rapacity of the 
revenue officers. On arriving in that city, he happened to attend an assembly 
preskled by the ihaikh Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn Ali ad-Dakkak, who was the great 
master (of S&fam) in that age ; the discourse which he heard excited his admf- 
ration, and left so deep an impression on bis mind, that be abandoned bis former 
|HX)ject and entered as a candidate on the path of SuGsm. Ad-Dakkak, reniark- 
ing in his countenance the indications of a noble character, received him with 
kindness and admitted him (into the ordm"); he then excited his generous ambi- 
tion and advised him to cultivate the science (of the law). Abu Kasim was thus 
induced to attend the lessons of AbA Bakr Muhammad Ibn Bakr at-Tusi (1), 
under whom he pursued the study of jurisprudence till he had noted down the 
whole course as delivered by that teacher. His next master was Abu Bakr Ibn 
Fiirak (2), tmder whom he studied with great assiduity till he. mastered the sci- 
ence of dermatic theology. He then went to the course held by Abu Ishak 
417 aMsfariini, and during the first days he remained seated as a simple auditor, till 
Abu Ishak at length told him that the science which be taught could not be 
learned by mere Usteuing, and that it was absolutely necessary to take it down 
in writing. Upon this, Abi^ i-Kasim repeated to bim the whole of the lectures 
which he had heard on the preceding days. Abu Ishak was struck with admi- 



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BlOtiRAPmCAL mcnONAHY. 1«3 

ration at a circumstance so extraordinary, and fully appreciating his pupil's great 
abilities, he treated him with marked honour and said : *' It is not necessary 
" that you should attend my lectures; alt you have to do is to read my works." 
Abu 'UKasim then continued his studies at home, and having acquired a com- 
plete acquaintance with the systems of doctrine peculiar to the two professors, 
Ibn Furak and Ibn Ishak, he perused the books composed by the kadi Abu 
Bakr al-Bakillani (3). During this time he regularly followed the sittings held 
by ad-Dakkak and obtained from him his daughter in marriage, aldiough she had 
many relations entitled to her hand. On the death of his father-in-law, he ad- 
vanced in the career of Sufism by devoting his efforts to the attainment of spiritual 
perfection, and to the deliva'anoe of his heart from the consciousness of indivi- 
duality (4). About this time he began to compose his works, and before the 
year 410 (A. D. 1019) he finished bis great commentary on the Koran, entitled 
at-Taitir /i Ilm it-Tafttr (the science of the koranic e3!egeii$ made eoitf), which is one 
of the best works on the subject (5); another of his productions is a treatise on 
Ae Men of the Path (tee vol. I. p. 259). In making the pilgrimage to Mekka, he 
met in the caravan, with the iftai/cA Abu Muhammad al-Juwaini, tlie father of die 
' Imam al-Haramain (vol. //. p.27), Ahmad Ibn al-Husain al-Baihaki (ml. I. p. 57), 
and a number of other eminent men, from whom he learned the Traditions 
both at Baghdad and in the province of Hijaz. He was an expert horseman and 
well skilled in the use of arms. By the excellence of bis sermons and exhorta- 
tions, he held the first rank as a preacher, and in the year 437 (A.D. 1045-6} he 
<^ned a <jass wherein he taught the Traditions. Abik 'l-Hasan Ali 'l-B4kharzi 
mentions him with high commendation in the Dwnyat al-Kasr, and says that had 
he struck a rock with the whip (6) of his admonition, it would have melted ; and 
if Satan bad attended at his exhortations, he would have been converted to God. 
The Khatib (vol. I. page 75) speaks of him in these terms in his History of 
Baghdad : " He came to us (at Baghdad) in the year 448 and taught the Tra- 
** ditions, which we wrote down under his dictation. As a traditionist be was a 
" trustworthy authority. He used also to relate anecdotes (7); he preached with 
"great el^mce and his arguments were most power5it (8). In dogmatic 
" theology he followed the princi[des of al-Ashari, and in the developments of 
" the law he held the doctrines of the Shafites." Abd al-Ghafir al-Farisi notices 
him also in bis History, and it is related by Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn al- 



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15i IBN KHALLDUN'S 

Fadl al-Farawi (9), that he heard Abd al-Karim al-Kusbairi recite Uie following 

verses of his- own composing : ' 

God's blessiog on the hour in which we were alone and when I saw your face 1 
A smile then mantled on the mouth of love, in the garden of familiarity. We passed 
a time of pleasure for onr eyes, bat (he next morning their lids were moist with tears. 

It is mentioned by the shaikh Abfl '1-Fath Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn AU 
al-Farawi the preacher, that Abii 'l-Kasim al-Kushairi frequently recited these 
verses, composed by one of the brethren: 

Had you been wKh u» at the moment of our separation and witnessed our repeated 
adieus, you would have learned that there is a discourse in tears, and that tears are a 
part of discourse. 

These lines are by Zu l-Kamain Ibn Hamdan, of whom we have already 
spoken (twi. /. page5iA). — Abd al-Karim al-Kushairi was bom in the month 
' of the Brst Rabi, A.H. 376 (July-August, A.D. 986); he died at Naisapur on the 
morning of Sunday, the 16th of the latter Rabi, A. H. 465 (December, A.D. 
1 072), before the hour of sunrise. He was buried in the Madrasa, at the foot 
of the grave in which his master Abu AU 'd-Dakkak was interred. — I met in his 
work entitled ar-Risdla (1 0) with two verses which pleased me so much, that I 
am induced to give them here : 

Some may taste of consolation after having long suffered (he pains of love; but in 
my passion for Laila, I shall never taste of consolation. And yet all (hat I ever ob- 
tained from her intercourse were hopes never fulfilled and transitory as the flash (11) of 
the thunder^sloud. 

His son Abii Nasr Abd ar-Rahim was an eminent imam and resembled bis 
father in the sciences which he cultivated and in holding, like him, assemblies 
at which he preached. He afterwards followed with great assiduity the lessons 
of the Imam al-Haramain, till he acquired a pei^ect knowledge of that juriscon- 
sult's manner of treating the Shafite doctrines and discussing controverted points. 
He then set out to make the pilgrimage, and, on arriving at Baghdad, he held 
il8 regular assemhhes, at which he gave exhortations with a most impressive effect. 
The shaUih Abu Ishak as-Shirazi attended at these assemblies, and the learned 
men of Baf^dad unanimously agreed that they had never beard a preacher like 
him. He pronounced his admonitory discourses in the Nizdmrya College and in 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. ISS 

the monastery of the chief of the Sfifis (shaUdt as-^fmyHJth)} but his zealous at- 
tachment for the doctrines of al-Ashari led him into a controversy with the Han- 
balites on points of faith. This caused a riot, in which a number of lives were 
lost on both sides, and one of Nizam al-Mulk's sons was obliged to ride out and 
allay the tumult. When intelligence of this event reached Nizam al-Mulk, who 
was then in Ispahan, he sent for Abu Nasr, and having shown him every mark 
of respect, he gave him an escort of honour to Naisapur. On arriving there, 
Abu Nasr resumed his lessons and exhortations, and continued to fill that duty till 
nearly the last moment of his life. About a month before he died, he was struck 
with a weakness in his limbs, and he expired at Naisapur, on the forenoon of 
Friday, the 28th of the latter Jumada, A. H. 514 (S.ept., A. D. 1120.) He was 
interred in the funeral chapel which is called the Kushairite Mausoleum. — He 
knew by heart a great number of poetical pieces and anecdotes, and the follow- 
ing lines, which I met in some composition or other, and afterwards in as-Sama- 
ni's work, the Zail, were composed by himself : 

My heart abandons me to serve yon, and lime endeavonrs (, ^t in vain, to make nu 
forget] yon. Fate decided that we should separate, and what can control its decrees? 
t}od alone knoweUi the depth of my affliction when obliged now to quit yon for ever t 

The shaikh Abu Ali 'd-Dakkak died A. H. 412 (A. D. 1 021 ).— ifushmri means 
daemded from Kushair Ibn Kaab,the progenitor of a great (vlrafcwn) tribe. — Uttuwa 
near Naisapur, is a district covered with villages, which has produced a number 
of learned men. 



(1) Aba Bakr MuhimDUd Ibn Bakr— not Ibn Abi Bakr u in rotxt of the MSS.— HirDamed (l-TOti ai^ 
Nmklai, a doctor ot the tecl of as-Sbitl, ttndied juriiprudeitee Id MaUapOr uader al-BUsarjiu. He wm 
pjoni, leariMd, modesi, aod iadllterent to voridlj honoura. He died at Naukln, A. H. 420 (A. D. 1029).— 
{Tab. M-Shif.)—!^, a city in Khorlatn, wa* eompofed of two towns, TlUrtn and NauUn. 

(2) Bit life wilt be found in iUk Tolumc 

(3) The life of thia doctor will be found farther od. 

(4) I have here parapbraaed the lecbnical eipresaiona mujdiiida (effort) and tajtid {the itr^ping off}. 
According to ibe Sftfis, the anion of die xnil with divinitj ii not powible iHl the creature baa loM the con- 
adoiuneu of his own individuality. 

(5) In the life of hii grandson Abd al-Ghlfir al-Flriu, another commentorj of bia on the Koran U noticed 
by Ibn Khallihtn. 

(S) The autof^ph hai Ly-i. 



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156 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

(7) The aalognph bu ijij ^IS^ (j^.- mVJ* 
(S) UUrallr: Hit demoiutralion w» fine. 
(4) Hii life will be found in Uiu volume. 

(10) Thii Ritdla if I celebrated tpitlU or treatUa on Stlfi«n. 

(11) Hervigain all the manutcripU eieept tbe anlograph are wrong. The right reading ii liiw'. 



ABU SAAD AS-SAMANI. 



The hdfiz Abu Saad Abd al-Karim as-Samani, surnamed Taj al-Islam (the 
crown of hlamism), was a doctor of the sect of as-Shafi and a native of Marw. 
He belonged by birth to (he tribe of Taiuim and his genealogy {though incomplete) 
is as follows : Abd al-Karim Ibn Abi Bakr Muhammad Ibn Abi '1-Muzaffar al- 
Mansur Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Jabbar Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn 
Jaafar Ibn Ahmad Ibn Abd al-Jabbar Ibn al-FadI Ibn ar-Rabi Ibn Muslim Ibn 
Abd Allah Ibn Abd al-Mujib at-Taqiimi. — The ska^h Izz ad-din AU Ibn al- 
Athir (1 ) speaks of him in these terms, towards the commencement of his MtMi- 
tonr (or abridgmmt of ai-Samdni's work, the Ansab) : ** Abu Saad was the middle 
'* pearl of the collar of the Samani family; their vigilant eye and their helping 
" hand ; when he became the head of the famdy, he rendered its influence com- 
'* plete. To acquire knowledge and learn the Traditions, he journeyed to (he 
" East and to the West, to the North and to the South. He travelled to Trans- 
*' oxiana and visited repeatedly all the cities of Kliorasan ; he went also to Ku- 
" mas, Rai, Ispahan, Ramadan, the two Iraks, HJj^, Mosul, Mesopotamia, 
" Syria, and other places too numerous to be mentioned and too difRcutt to be 
" enumerated ; he there met the men of learning, received from them informa- 
" tion, frequented (heir society, obtained Traditions from them, and took for 
" model their virtuous deeds and praiseworthy conduct. The number of his 
" teachers surpassed four thousand." — During one of his dictations, or extem- 
pore lectures (2), he related as foUows: " Abii Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn 
" Muhammad Ibn Ghalib al-Jili, a jurisconsult who had settled at al-Anbar, 
*' recited to me these lines on bidding me adieu : 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICnONABY. 1S7 

' When we went forth to bid them adieu. Uieywept pearls (feon) and we wept rubies 4 19 
' [blood]. They banded roand to us the cups of separation, and it will be long before 
' we recover from the effects of that draught. They departed, and I sent after them a 
' torrent of my tears ; on which they eiclaimed : *' We shall be drowned 1" and 1 cried 
' out: " 1 shall be burned (with grief) 1" ' 

He composed some most instructive and excellent works, such as the Si^le- 
ment, in fifteen volumes, to the Khatib's History of Baghdad ; the History of the 
dty of Marw, forming upwards of twenty volun\es ; the Atudh {es^UmaUon of 
patronymics and other relative adjectives), in eight volumes. This last is the work 
which Izz ad-din Ibn al-Athir corrected and reduced to three volumes; the 
abridgment is in every person's hands, but the origioal is. very scarce. — Abu 
Saad as-Samani says in the biographical notice which he gives of his father : " Id 
" the year 497 (A. D. 1103-4) my parent made the pilgrimage, and, on his 
" return to Baghdad, he learned Traditions from a number of teachers. He 
" then gave pubHc exhortations in the Nizdmiya College, instructed pupils in the 
" Traditions (3) and collected books. When some time had thus elapsed, he 
'* travelled to Ispahan and received oral information from a great many persons ; 
" be then returned to Khorasan and continued to reside at Marw till the year 
" 509, when he went to Naisapur. He took me and my brother with him, 
" and we learned Traditions from Abi^ Bakr Abd al-Ghaf(lr Ibn Muhammad as- 
" Shiniwi (4) and other masters. He subsequently returned to Marw, where he 
" was overtaken by death at the early age of forty-three years (5)." — Ahii Saad 
was bom at Marw on Monday, the 21st of Shaban, A. H. 506 (February, A. D. 
1113), and he died in the same city, on the night preceding the first day of the 
first month of Rabi, A. H. 562 (December, A. D. 1116). His father Muham- 
mad was an imam (6), a man of talent, a skilful investigator of the truth, 
a traditionist, a doctor of the sect of as-Sbafi, and a hdjiz. His /mid (dic- 
tatim) is a work of an entirely original cast, containing observations on the texts 
and imddt (7) (of the Traditions) with elucidations to clear up the doubtful 
points. He wrote many other works besides, and composed some pretty poetry, 
ffhich be destroyed (8) a little before his death. He was bom in the roondi of 
the first Jumada, A.H. 466 (January, A.D. 1074), and he died attheendof 
public prayers, on Friday, the 2nd of Safar, A.H. 510 (June, A.D. 1116). 
The next day, Saturday, he was interred near the grave of bis fadier, Abik '1- 
Muzaflar, in the Safhawan, which is one of the cemeteries at Marw. — Abil Saad's 



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1S8 IBN KUALLIKAN'S 

grandfather al-Maosur was incontrovertibty the greatest Jnuim of the age in 
which he lived ; this is a point on which his supporters and his adversaries both 
agreed. He followed the doctrines of Abu Hanifa and was looked up to with de- 
ference by the other imams of that sect ; but, in the year 462, when he was making 
the pilgrimage, a circumstance fell under his obserration in the province of Hijaz, 
which obliged him to pass over to the sect of as-Shafi. On his return to Marw, 
he underwent violent persecutions on this account, and had much to suffer from 
the spirit of party -zeal ; but be supported these trials with great firmness and 
became the chief imam of the Shafites. In the fulBlment of this odice, he acted 
as a professor and a mufti, and drew up a great number of treatises on the doc- 
trines of the imam as-Shafi and on other branches of knowledge. Of these works 
the most remarkable are : the Minhdj Akl w-Swnna (path of the Surmites); the /«(t- 
sdr (vindicaHon) ; a Refutation of the Principles held by the Kadarites (the partiiam 
ofman'g /rce-M)iH),etc. In another work, the Kawdti (decinve arguments), he treats 
of the dogmas of Islamism, and in his Burh^, or ftroof {contairmg a defence of 
the Shafite doctrines) he discusses nearly one thousand points of controversy. 
His Awsat, or medium, and his htildm, or eradication of errort, are refutations of 
Abu Zaid ad-Dabusi's compilation, entitled al-Axrdr ((. //. p. 28). He wrote 
also a valuable commentary on the Koran, and he formed a collection of one 
thousand Traditions received by him frcnn one hundred masters, and which he 
illustrated with great ability in discourses affixed to them. He was hi^ly cele- 
brated also for the excellence of his sermons. His birth took place in the 
month of Zu'1-Hiija, A. H. 426 (October, A. D. 1035), and his death in the 
month of the first Rabi, A. Hi 489 (March, A. D. t096), at Marw. This family 
/liiO produced a great number of other persons remarkable for learning and the e%.- 
ahed posts which they filled. — Sam^i means hdonging to Samdn, a branch of 
the tribe of Tamim. I have heard some learned men observe that this name 
may be also pronounced Simdn. — Abii Saad Abd al-Karim had a son named AhA 
'1-Muzafiar Abd ar^Rahim whom, when yet a hoy, he took with him to learn 
Traditions from his father (AH Bakr Muhammad); he then travelled with him 
through Khor^san and Transoxiana, for the purpose of letting him hear the 
Traditions delivered by all the great masters in these countries, and of obtaining 
(them in) written copies. He drew up also, for bis son's use, a Mojam, or biogra- 
phical dictionary of his own masters, in eighteen volumes, and an Atodla, or col- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 159 

lection of Traditions supported by the highest authority (9), in two thick volumes. 
He then made him study jurisprudence, the belles-lettres, and the Traditions, 
till he acquired considerable infonnation in these branches of learning. Abd 
ar-Rabim taught the Traditions on the authority of numerous masters (1 0), and 
students travelled from all parts to learn them from him. He was highly vene- 
rated in his native country. His birth took place at Naisapur, on the eve of 
Friday, the ITlh of Zu '1-Kaada, A. H. 537 (June, A. D. H43), and he died at 
MarwbetweenA. H. 6U(A.D. 1217) and 616 (A.D. 1220) (11). 

(1) Bis life nill be found in this volume. 

(2) The follov-ing obaervations on Ihe AmAli or dietatUmt are fujnisbed bj Hajji Kbtlifa; I shall merelj 
cop; M. de Sacf's trantlilion of the passage:—" Amali est le pluriel d'imla. Ce qu'on enieod par \h. c'est 
'' qu'un sannt est asiis, ajaot aulour de lui les disdptes tvec des encrien et du papier, lit saranl dit ee que 
" Dieu petmet qu'il Uii vieane a I'eapwit au sujet d'une science, et ses disciple* I'tarveaL II se forme de 
'' eel* uD livre qu'oo nomne imla ou amali. Voila comme avaient coutume de fUre les aDcieni, soit juris- 
" consultes, loit docleurs dans la science dei traditions, ou dans la grammaire arabe, ou dans loDle autre 
" Mienee de celles qu'iticulllraient; mait le discrAIUati soot tomb^ la science et lei Mvants, afhil ^vanouir 
" les traces de cet usage. 11 faudra un jour relonrner vers Dteu. Les savans de I'tole de* Schaftltes noninient 
" f;tt\i tcMlik."^\AMhologi« Grammatiealt, p. m. See FlOgel's Hajji Shall fa, vol.1, p. 427) 

(3) Literalli : " And Tradition) were read to him ;" that is, bis pupils read the Traditions aloud, and he 
made his obferratioDS. 

(4) The autograph has ^jh~)I. 

(5) When Ibn Khallikln inserted this extract in the margin of his vork, he marked a wrong placfl for it in 
the teit. This is a fault into which he has fallen very frequently. The passage should have come in lower 

(S) The word imim is employed here to denote one whose opinions were held to be of the highest 
auIhoTitf. 

(7) See Introduction to vol. I. page xiii. 

(8) Literally': "Which he washed." That is, he washed off the ink, that the paper might serve again. The 
writing in oriental nunuscripts is easily elbced with water ; the paper u generally very thick and glased 

|9) It may probably be remarked that I give a different signification to the word Awdla ^ Ijc from that 
adopted, after some hesilalion, by M. de Sacy, in his Abdallatif. I have followed the indications of Bajji 
Khalifa in his enumeration of the works which are so denominatod ; and must add that the title of the book 
cited by M. de Sacy in support of his opinion seems to me to be incorrectly given; J tyJI j^jLaSTis n 
most unusual eipreision, whereas LJU*Jt Jojl— it is one commonly employed when speaking of Traditions 
whidi can be traced up through an unbroken series of trustworthy Traditionists to Muhammad himself. 

(10) .juiSo'j is the right reading, 

(It) In the autograph these last words have been cut ol by the binder, so that only the vowel points and 
Ihe lops of the longer letters remain. None of my manuscripts fill up tiie blank, which, I am convinoed from 
the Inspection of the autograph, muit be read thus: 'iJ^ CUwj. 



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IBN KHALLDUN'S 



IBN HAMDIS AS-SAKALLl. 



Abu Muhammad Abd aUJabbar Ibn Ali Bakr Ibn Muhammad Ibn Hamdis al- 
Azdi (a member of the tribe of Azd) as^kalli (o native of Siolj/), and a celebrated 
poet, is spoken of in these terms by Ibn Bassam : *' He was a poet of consum- 
" mate abilities, who aimed at originality of ideas and reached his mark; who 
" expressed them in terms elegant and noble ; who had a perfect command of 
** metaphors the most appropriate, and who dived into the ocean of language for 
" the peari of novelty in thought." The original cast of his ideas is fully dis- 
played in the following piece descriptive of a rivulet : 

There is an object whose component parts are in progressive motion, and whose sur- 
face is polished by the zephyr, so that it reveals to the eye that vhich is contained in 
its bosom. The pebbles wound it vith their sharp points, and, as it passes over (hem, 
it expresses by its murmurs the pains which they inflict. It might be thought that a de- 
spairing lover (1) had put on the form of its waters, and hastened to throw himself into 
the pond which it supplies. 

In one of his kasidai be says : 

I passed Uie night in asking for another and another kiss; such are the favours for 
which I shall never cease to sue her ; and I qaendied the thirst of love at {her Upi — ) a 
source surpassing in virtues the purest water of the spring. 

In another of his katidai he begins thus : 

Arise I and let die [nuadm) wearer of the scarf hand here the cap I the harbinger of 
morning has announced to the night that its last hour [2] has come. Hast^ towards 
the pleasures which await us, and, to reach them, take for coursers the forerunners of 
enjoyment, so rapid in their speed. Hasten before the morning sun has sipped the 
dews of the night off the lips of the flowers. 

One of his original ideas is thus expressed .- 

To increase the blackness of her eyes, she has applied antimony aronnd them ; thus 
adding poison to the dart which was already sufficient to give death. 

In another poem he thus expresses his longing desire of seeing Sicily again : 

I thought of Sicily, and sadness renewed in my mind the remembrance of that 
isle. Thongh expelled from paradise, I shall always apeak of its delights. Were ny 
tears not Utter, 1 should lake them for the (cofiotu) streams which flow in that happy 
region (3). 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 161 

In the year 471 (A. D. 1 078-9) he weot to Spain and there celebrated in his 431 
verses the praises of al-Motamid Ibn Abbad, by whom he was most generously 
recompensed. When Ibn Abbad was aftenvards led into captivity and impri- 
soned at Agbmat, Ibn Hamdis heard some verses recited which that prince bad 
composed during his confinement (-4), on which he addressed him the following 
lines in reply : 

Do you despair of seeing a day the evening of which will differ from the morning ? 
Reflect that the brilliant planets themselves must [undergo vicitiituda and) pass through 
the zodiac's various signs. — ^When you left us, and bore off in your hand generosity 
itself, whilst the mountains of thy liberality were shaken to their basis (5], I raised my 
voice and exclaimed: "The hour of judgment has come I behold the firm mountains 
" pass away!" 

The idea contained in the last of these verses is nearly similar to that expressed 
by Abd Allah Ibn al-Mo(azz in the following lines; they are taken from an elegy 
composed by him od the death of the vizir Abu 'l-Kasim Obaid Allah Ibn Sulai- 
man Ibn Wahb: 

The human race remain unmoved, and yet perfection itself is dead; and the vicissi- 
tudes of time exclaim: "Where shall we find more men?" Behold kbit 'l-KAsim on his 
bier! arise, and see how mountains are removed from their places ! 

The poetical works of Ibn Hamdis have been collected into a divdn, and the 
greater portion of his poetry is very good. lie died in the isle of Maiyorka (Ma- 
jorca), A.H. 527 (A.D. 1132-3) [and was interred near the tomb of Ibn al-Lab- 
bana (6) the celebrated poet] ; some say, however, that he died at Bajaya (Bugia Mf 
North Africa). In one of bis poems, rhyming in the letter M, he speaks of his 
grey hairs and his staff; this indicates that he had then reached his eightieth 
year (7). — SakaUi means belonging to Sakalliya (Sicily), an island in (he sea of 
Maghrib, near North Africa. 



(1) The auiograph gives ihe true reading, which ii ULa.. 

(2) In the prioied Arabic t«ii. read JjJI not JaUI. 

(3) On the conqueU of Sicil; bj count Roger, a great nuraber ot ibe Hotlim inbabitaoli ibtodoned the 
iiland. Some, like Ibn Hamdig, vent to Spain, and others to Norib Africa, Egypt, or Sjrrii. The kdlib Imld 
ad-din notices in hi< Ehmida a number of literar; men «ho then left tbe country. 

(4] These verses are still extant, and may be found in Imid ad-dlo's Ehartda, HS. No.l378. 

VOL. n. 21 



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1«B mi KHALLHAICS 

(S) Literallj : " Wliilit the Radva and the Tlubtr of jouri were ihakei." Theie are tke Hme* of two cele- 
brated moantalns in Hijti.— (See Abt 'l-Fedt'i Geography, Arahic Kit, page SI.) 

(ft) Abo Babr Huhammad Ibn Im ad-Dini (a native of Dtnia), surnamed Ihn Labblna, was (he CiTOnrito 
poet and oompiDion of al-Holamid Ibn Abbtd. Numerooa eitracU from his eonposltioii) are gi«eo by the 
Uiib Intld ad-DIn in his Xhartda (MS. No. 137K, fol. 181 «( i*q.) and hj Qui KUUo in his Eat4id ot-ftfyda. 
The date of his death is not mentioDed hj eilher author. 

(7) This inference of Ibn Khallikln does not appear to he veil warranted. 



ABU TAUB AL-MAAFIRI. 



Abu Talib Abd at-Jabbar Ibn Mubammad Ibn Ali Ibn Muhammad at-Maafiri 
al-Magbribi {\) was a master of tbc first authority in the science of philology and 
in all the branches of (he belles-lettres. In his travels he visited Baghdad* 
where he continued his studies and gave lessons to a number of pupils, who ali 
pn^ted under his tuition. In the year 551 (A. D. 11 56-7) he arrived in Egypt, 
where he had for a disciple the learned shaikh Abu Muhammad Ihn Bari (see hU 
life, foge 70). He wrote a great deal, and his handwriting was very good, bul 
in the Maghrib character ; the greater part of these writings is on literature. 
I have seen a considerable quantity of them, and observed that his orthography 
was extremely correct (2). I saw the two following lines inscribed by his own 
hand on the cover of the work entitled aUMuztl ft 'l~Loghat (3) : 

I implore whatever person sees my writing to address a sincere prayer for me to Ibt 
mercifiil God, that be may be turned towards me with indulgence and grant me for- 
giveness. 

He taught the contents of the work called ai-MnsalsH with the authorisation of 
the author, Abu 't-Tahir Muhammad Ibn Ydsuf Ibn *Abd Allah at-Tamimi ; of 
this we shall speak again in the life of Abd 't-Tahir, which wilt be found among 
those of the Muhammads (4).— Abd Talib died A. H. 566 (A. D. 1 170-1) as he 
was returning from Egypt to Maghrib. — Madfhi means belonging to the tribe of 
Madfir Ibn Yafur ; this tribe is very numerous and the greater portion of it in- 
habits £^ypt- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICnONARY. 108 

(1) Al-Haghribi lignifiea naMvt of Maghrib, or (he Wat; a lenn applied not onl; (o Nortb kbiti, but 
M Spain. From llw liieoce of the SpaaUh Arab biographen, I am induced to believe that he belong to 
ibe bnner muntrj. 

(2) Thii passage may perhaps ligni^. " that his memory was very good"— a circumilaDce prored by the 
MrTcdnest of the pieces which be wrote (h>m memory. 

(3) Thia work is oot noticed by Hajji Khalifa. 

(4) TUs passage is given by two of m; HSS., but it does not eiiit in the autograph. Its place is marked 
thwe. however, by these words in red ink, JaJ^^l -— -^. '**• *" '' ' '" '*• potiaga on the fty-Uaf be 
itrtittn htrt. This flyleaf has been lost, and I suspect the aalhenticlty of the paeuge as now printed, and 
B«tt add that, une of oiy MSS. cooiain the Ufa of Abft 'l-Tlhir at-Tamlmi to which refecDce la hwe Bade. 



ABO AR-RAZZAK AS-SANANl. 



Aha Bakr Abd ar-Razzak Ibn Haimnam Ibn Nafl as-Sanani was allied, by rigbt 4fifi 
of enfranchisement, to the tribe of Himyar. Abu Saad as-Samani says of him : 
" It is stated that, after the death of the Prophet, no one had so maoy visitors from 
" distant countries as he." He taught the Traditions on the authority of Maa> 
mar Ibn Rashid, a mawla of the tribe of Azd and a native of Basra ($ee vol. I. 
p. X3X0, note), al-Auzai, Ibn Juraij, and others. The chief imams of Islaroism in 
that period cited him as their authority for some of the Traditions which they 
taught ; amongst the number were Sofyan Ibn Qyaina (who was one of his own 
masters), Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and Yahya Ibn Miiin (1). He was bom A. H. 126 
;A. D. 7A3-4), and he died in the month of Shawwal, A. H. 21 1 (January, A. D. 
827) in Yemen. — Sandni means belonging to Sanda, one of the most celebrated 
cities in Yemen. In forming this relative adjective an n is added, as in BoArilm 
derived from Babrd (2), but such cases are of rare occurrence. 



|1) The Uvea of all ibeat doctors will be tbnad in this work. 
12) Bahrt it the name of a tribe spmng fh>m Kndla. 



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IBN KHALLIKAN'S 



ABU NASR [BN AS-SABBAGH. 



Abu Nasr Abd as-Sayid Ibn Mubanimad Ibn Abd al-Wahid Ibn Ahmad Ibn 
Jaafar, generally known by the name of Ibn as-Sabbagh (tke son of the dyer), was 
thief Shafite jurisconsult of Persian and Arabian Irak. (By h« learning) lie 
equalled Abu Ishak as-Shirazi, and by his knowledge of the Shaflle doctrines 
be surpassed him. Persons came from all countries to study under him, and 
his veracity as a traditionist, his piety, and his virtuous conduct, which showed 
him to he a model set up by God to confound the perverse on the day of judg- 
' ment(l), were all equally conspicuous. His principal works are the Sbdmil 
(compreketmve), which is not only one of the best treatises possessed by the Sha- 
fites on their system of jurisprudence, but also one of the most authentic in its 
traditional contents and the most conclusive in its reasonings; — the Tazl^rat <d- 
AAlim wa 't-Tartk as-Sdlm (remembrancer of the learned and tafe path); the Odda 
'supply provided for einergencies); these two last are on the principles of jurispru- 
dence. On the opening of tiie Nizdmiya College at Baghdad, be acted as chief 
professor, but was replaced, after a lapse of twenty days, by Abii Ishak as-Shirazi ; 
he was reinstated, however, on the death of the latter. Abu '1-Hasan Muham- 
mad Ibn Hilal Ibn as-Sabi (2) says in his History : " The erection of the Nizd- 
" miya College was commenced in the month of Zu 'l-Hijja, A. H. 457 (Novem- 
" ber, A. D. 1065), and this establishment was opened on Saturday, the 10th of 
" Zu '1-Kaada, 4-59 (September, A. D. 1067). Nizam al-Mulk having given 
■ ' directions that the place of chief professor in it should be filled by Abu Ishak 
" as-Shirazi, it was settled with him that he should come forward and give 
" lessons on that day. When the people were assembled, Abu Ishak did not 
" appear, and after a fruitless search, they decided on sending for AbA Nasr 
" Ibn as-Sabbagh, who came and was installed. Abu Ishak then showed him- 
" self in the mosque where he used to teach, and by this conduct he excited the 
" manifest displeasure of his pupils, who ceased to attend his lessons and wrote 
" to him that if he did not choose to profess in the Nizdmiya, they would quit 
" him for Abu Nasr Ibn as-Sabbagh. He consented to their wishes, and on 
" Saturday, the first of Zu 'l-Hijja, Ibn as-Sabbagh was removed and Abu Ishak 
'* seated in his place. Ibn as-Sabbagh had occupied the post during twenty days." 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. Iffii 

Ibn an-Najjar says io his History of Baghdad : '* On the death of Abil Ishak, Abu. 
" Saad al-MutawalU was estaUished in the vacant place; but, in the year 476 
" (A. B. 1083-4), he was removed, and Ibn as-Sabbagh reappointed ; the latter 
" held the post till 477, when it was again conferred on Abi^ Saad, who held 
" it till his death." We have already mentioned something of this in the 
life of Abu Ishak as-Shirazi (vol. I. page 11). Ibn as-Sabbagh was bom 
at Baghdad, A. H. 400 (A. D. 1009-10), and he died in the same city, in the 
month of the first Jumada, A. H, 477 (September, A. D. 1084); or, by another 
account (given as a rectification of the preceding date), on Thursday, the 1 5th 
of Shaaban of that year. Towards the close of his life, Ibn as-Sabbagh lost his 
sight. 



(t| 1 hive here piraphrBS«d lite isord Z^. See vol. I. page fi87. 
(S) See vol. I. page 2go. 



ABD- AL-WAHHAB AL-MAUKI. 

The kadi Abu Muhammad Abd al-Wahhab Ibn Ali Ibn Nasr Ibn Ahmad Ibn 423 
al-Husain Ibn HariHn Ibn Malik Ibn Tauk ath-Thalabi, a.native of Baghdad and 
a doctor of the sect of Malik, drew his descent from Malik Ibn Tauk ath-Tha- 
labi, the lord of Rahaba (1). Hfe was an able jurisconsult, an elegant scholar, 
and a poet. He composed a treatise on the doctrines peculiar to his sect, and 
ibis work, entitled at-Talktn (tuilum), is one of the most instructive on the sub- 
ject, although it forms but a small volume. Among his other numerous 
productions, may be specified the Ma-Ana, or aid, and a commentary on the 
Ritdla (2). The Khatib (AH Bakr Ahmad al-Baghdddi) speaks of him in the his- 
tory of Baghdad, and says : " He received lessons from Abu Abd Allah Ibn al- 
** Askari, Omar Ibn Muhammad Ibn Sabannak (3), and Abu Hafs Ibn Sha- 
" bin (4). He transmitted from his masters a small portion of traditional in- 
" formation, and I wrote down (some of it) from his own lips. He was a trust- 
" worthy traditionist, and an abler jurisconsult than he was never met with 



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166 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

*' among the Malikite doctors. Id the examinalion of legal poiots.he displayed 
' ' great acutencss, and the exposition of the results to wbidi he thus attained was 
" marked by great clearness. He filled the place of kadi at Badar&ya and Baku- 
" saya (5); towards the latter period of his life he travelled to Egypt, in which 
" country he died." — Ihn Bassam speaks of him in the Dakhira in the following 
terms: " He was the last remnant of (the ilbigtrioris) men, and the {tole) tongue 
" {to set forth the doctrines of) the followers of aadogy (6) ; I met with eome 
" poetry of his containing thoughts brighter than the morning, and expresMd 
" in words sweeter than is the obtaining of success in undertakings. Baghdad 
" rejected him, as is the old established custom of cities towards their men of 
" merit; and such is the rule of conduct which Fortune follows, in erery 
** epoch, towards people of talent: be therefore hade adieu to its inhabitants, and 
" said farewell to its waters and its shades. I was told that, on the day of his 
" departure, its great men and its eminent writers (7) formed a large compuiy 
" and a numerous troop to escort him out of the city, and that be said to 
" them: ' Had I found among you a roll of bread every morning and every 
" ' evening, 1 should not have turned from your town, as I would then have 
" ' obtained all 1 wished for.' He used to express his feeliugs on this subject in 
" some verses which 1 shall give here; 

' Of all the abodes on earth, let Baghdad receive my salutation ; it is entitled to re- 
' peated salutations [of farewelti fVom me. I left it, not through hatred, and yet I knew 
' [what perversily filed) the quarters on both sides of the river. But large as it was, 1 
' could find no ease within it, and even the means of subsistence were refused me. 
' That city is like a friend whose company is anxiously desired, but whose character 
' removes bim {from our affection) and counteracts his good qnaliUes.' 

" He then set out for Egypt, and as he passed through Maarra tau-Noman 
" he met Abu 'l-Ala al-Maarri (vol. I. p. 94), who received him with hospitality, 
'* and afterwards alluded to the circumstance in one of his poems. These 
* ' are his words = 

' Ibn Nasr the Malikite visited our country on his journey, and we praised the misfor- 
' tunes which force a man to abandon bis native place and (0 travel. When he explains 
' a point of law, his reasonings give new life to MAlik, and when be utters verses, the 
' Wandering King {8} seems to revive in his person." 

" On arriving in Egypt, he bcnre the standard (of niperiority) and filled it far 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICnONARY. IffT 

** and wide (vAth ki$ renown) (9); he drew after him iu chiefs and its princes ; 
" ihtn the signal favours of fortune reached him and gifts the most desirable 
" poured like a torrent into his hands. But he had scarcely arriyed there, when 
'* he longed to eat of a particular dish, and, having partaken thereof, he died. 
'* They relate that, when he rolled in agony, his soul mounting and descending 
'* in his throat, he exclaimed: * There is no god but God! when we began to 
*' live, we died !' " — He composed some charming verses, such, fen* instance, as 
the feUowing : 

I kissed that sleepiog beauty, and she awoke, exclaiming : " Hasten to chastise the 
" tfie thief," I replied : " May my life be sacrificed for thy welfare! I am (no* a tkitf, 
" hvt) an ezlortioBer, and as such I can only be sentenced to restitution. Receive timi 
' ' (he kiss and abstain from tyranny ; if that kiss suffice thee not, I shall add a thou- 
" sand toil." She answered: " {Not I mutt have) retalialioni this, aa reason tells us, 
" is sweeter than honey to the heart of the self-avenger." The rest of that night, my 494 
right arm was the girdle which encircled her waist, and my left arm was the necklace on 
her bosom. She then said : *' Did you not declare that you abstained from all worldly 
" pleasure?" " No !" 1 replied, *' but it is from abstinence, [luch a» that,) that I ab- 
" stain I" 

Baghdad is a delightful residence for those who have money, but for the poor it is 
an abode of misery and suffering. I walked all day through its streets bewildered and 
desolate ; I was [treated uiith neglect) like a koran in the house of an atheist. 

1 had some verses on my mind, the author of which I did not know ; but I 
have since found them attributed, in a number of places, to the kadi Abd al- 
Wahhab; they are as follows : 

How can we hope to quench our thirst if the seas exact water from the wellsT (10) 
How prevent the vile from attaining their ends, if the great retire frcnn the world to 
the pions solitude of the cell f The elevation of the base over the noble would be a 
great nisfbrtune. When the tow and the exalted are on an equality, 'tis then we would 
find pleasure in the society of death. 

(Ibn Bassdm) the author of the Dakhira mentions that Abd al-Wahhab held 
the olHce of kadi in the city of Isird (4 1 ), and another writer states that he 
filled that function at the towns of Badar^ya and BakusSiya in Irak. On being 
questioned concerning the time of his birth, he replied : " 1 was born at Bagh- 
" dad on Thursday, the 7th of Shawwal, A. H. 362 (July, A. D. 973)." He 
died at Old Cairo on the eve of Monday, the -lith of Safar, A.H. 422 (February, 
A.D. 1031); some say, however, that his death occurred in the month of Shaa- 



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168 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

ban of that year. He was interred in the lesser Karafa cemetery, between the 
sepulchral chapel of the imam as-Shafi and the gate of the Karafa, near the 
graves of Ibn ai-Kasim and Ashhab ; I have visited his tomb. — His father (AH 
Ibn Na$r) was one of the most eminent scriveners (1 2) of Baghdad ; His brother, 
Abu '1-Hasan Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Nasr was a learned scholar and drew up a 
work, entitled cd-Mufdwida [conversation), for the amusement of al-Malik al-Aziz 
Jalal ad-Dawlat Abu Mansur, the son of Abu Tahir, the son of Baha ad-Dawlat, 
the son of Adad ad-Dawlat (1 3) Ibn Buwaih ; in this book, which is very interest- 
ing and contains about thirty sheets (14), he relates various events of which he 
had been a witness. He composed also some epistles. His birth took place at 
Baghdad in one of the months of Jumada, A. H. 372 (A. D. 982); he died on 
Sunday, the 26th of the latter Rabi, A.H. 437 (November, A. D. 1045) atWa- 
sit, whither he had gone up from Basra. Their father Abu 'l-Hasan Ali (Ibn 
Nfw) died on Saturday, the 2nd of Ramadan, A. U. 391 (July, A. D. 1001). 



it) The cil; of Rahaba, situated on the Euphralee in lat. 34° 37*, at (he distance ot eight da;*' joumer 
from Damaacus aod of five from Aleppo, waa founded b; Mtlik Ibn Tank, one of the khalif ar-Riibld's ge- 
nerals, who v»s then governor of Mesapotamia. 

(2) 1 follow the reading of the autograph and al-VUl, where I find I)l„ J| .^ ft,, not iJL- Jl — kl ^. 
All the other HSS. and Hajji Khalifk give the latter reading. _ ^ ^ 

(3) All the MSS. eieept the autograph have J-Jw.; but that has o^gU-.. AbO 'l-Kiaim Omar Ibn 
Sabannak died A.H. 377 (A.D. 987-8).— (iVujilm.) 

{*) See Tol. I. page Ml. 

(5) It appears f^am the Martuid, that these two places were situated near an-NabrawliQ. 

(6) See vol. 1. pages 6, S34, and iivi. 

(7) LiteraU; : Its inkhorn wearers. These words s^nifjf probablj the kdlibi, or persons enplojed in the 

(8) The nanilBTing king {al-Malii ad-Dillit) ; this was a surname given to Aniro 'l-Kais, of whom Hubam- 
inad said that he was the greatest of all the poets. See mj Ditedn it'Amro 'l-SaU, page ixiv. 

|9) Literallj : And filled its land and Its sky. 

(10) This, verse probabi; means: How can we eipect a recompense for our poetical eulogiums.if the sove- 
reign exact from our patrons the little wealth whidi Ibej postess T 

(11) Isird, a cit; of Mesopotamia, is situated near the figris. at the distance of a da; and a half to the 
south of Maijlllrikln. 

(12) See vol. I. page 53, note (8). 

(131 Ibn Khallikln, in giving ibis genealogj, has forgoiteo here the name of Rakn ad-Dawlat Ibn Buwaih. 
(Ill Shettt, In Arabic Eurrita : »ee page 98, note (3). of tbis volume. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



THE HAFIZ ABD AL-GHANI IBN SAID. 



Abti Muhammad Abd al-Ghani Ibn Said Iba AH Ibn Said Ibn Bishr Ibn Mar- 
wan Ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Azdi (a member of the tribe of Azd) and a native ofE^ypt, 
was the most eminent Mfiz of the age in that country. He composed some use- 
ful works, such as a Mtishlabih an-Nisba, or treatise on those relative adjectives the 
derivation of which might be mistaken, another on those (geographical) names 
each of which designate different places [al-ifHtalif wa 'l-Mukhtalif'), etc. Great 
numbers studied under him with much profit to themselves. A close intimacy and 
friendship subsisted between him, Abu Osama Junada the philologer, and Ab4 
All aUMukri al-Antaki (a teacher of the readings of the Koran and a native of An- 
Itoc/t). These three used to meet at the library (founded by al-HAIdm)(i) and 
discuss literary subjects; but when Abd Osama and Ab6 Ail were put to deatb by 
al-Hakim the sovereign of Egypt, the hdfiz Abd aUGhani retired to a place of 4ttlS 
concealment, lest he should experience the same fate on account of his having 
frequented their society, and he did not appear in public till he received a full 
pardon. Of this we have already spoken in the life of Abu Osama (v. I. p. 337). 
Abd al-Ghani was born on the 28th of Zu '1-Hijja, A, H. 332 (August, A. D. 
944), and he died at Old Cairo on the eve of Tuesday, the seventh of Safar, 
A. H. 409 (June, A. D. 1018): he was interred, the following day, in the 
MuHUa of the Festival (2). It is stated by Abu 'l-Kasim \ahya Ihn Ali al-Ha- 
drami, sumamed Ibn at-Tahhan, in the historical work designed by him as a 
continuation to that of Ihn Yunus al-Misri (see page 93), that Abd al-Ghani Ibn 
Said was born A. H. 333 (A. D. 944-5). His father Said died A. II. 338, aged 
forty-three years. Abd al-Ghani himself mentioned that be had never received 
any traditional information from bis father, Said. 



(1) Sfevol. I. I«ge337. 

(i) The original U\t ba« J-jJ I ^-^s- 'B,-*a^ . I •"> nmble to fii ihc pretise meiDiD^ of the word g-aa. 
Id Ihis place. 



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IBN KHALLIKANS 



ABD AL-GIIAFIR AUFARISI. 



The hd^z Abil 'l-Hasao Abd al-Ghafir ll>n Ismail Iho Abd al-Gliafir Ibn Mu- 
hammad Ibn Abd al-Ghafir Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Said al-Fiirisi (na- 
tive of the province of Fan) was a traditionist and a grammarian of the highest 
rank. At the age of five years he was able to read the Koran, and could repeal 
the creed in Persian (his native language). He studied jurisprudence with great 
assiduity, during four years, under Abu '1-Maali Imam al-Hararaain, the author 
of the NiMyat ai-Matlab, which is a treatise on the doctrines of the Shafite sect 
and on points of controversy. He was a daughter's son (i ) of the imam Abu '1- 
Kasim ai-Kushairi (vol. 11. p. 152) and learned from him a great quantilv of 
Traditions, as also from his grandmother Fatima, the daughter of Abu AH ad- 
Dakkak (see page 1 52), his maternal uncles Abu Saad and Abu Said, the sons of 
Abu 'l-Kasim al-Kushairi, his own parents Abu Abd Allah Ismail and Amat ar- 
Rahim (the handmaid of the Clement;, daughter to Abd al-Karim al-Kushairi, and 
a great number of other teachers. He then left Naisapur and proceeded to 
Khowarezm, where he continued his studies under the most eminent masters 
of that country, and opened a private course for the instruction of pupils. He 
travelled from thence to Ghazna, and then to India, teaching the Traditions 
and explaining (hit grandfather's work) the Latdif aUIshdr&t (subtle indications) (2). 
On his return to Naisapur he ofTiciatcd as a preacher, and, during a number of 
years, he gave lessons every Monday evening in the mosque of Akil ; he then com- 
posed his numerous works, of which the principal are the Mufhim (eluddator), in 
which be explains the obscure points in the Sahih of Muslim ; the Stdk, or con- 
tinuation of ((he Hdkim Ibn al-Bdt's) history of Naisapur, which work he finished 
towards the end of Zu '1-Kaada, A. H. 518; the Majma 'l-Ghardib (collection of 
observations little known), in which he elucidates the rare expressions occurring 
in the Traditions ; he wrote besides many other instructive works. He was 
bom in the month of the latter Rabi, A. H. 451 (May-June, A. D. 1059), and 
he died at Naishpur, A. H. 529 (A. D. 1134-5). 

(1) The word Lw Stbt signifies a gTandson bj tbe femile line Qo..)! ^t tht ton of thi daughter, a$ 
ih« pbilologisls define it. Thus Hisan and Husaiii were (he tibti of Huhammad. A grandson by tin- mole 
line is a haftd j.>A-*. This distinction has genn'ally escaped the altenlioD of orientalists. 

(2) According to Hajji Khalifa, this is a commentary on the Koran. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



ABU 'L-WAKT AS-SIJAZI. 



Abu 'I-Wakt Abd al-Auwal Ibn Abi Abd Allah Isa Ibn Shoaib Ibn Ishak as- 
Sijazi knew by beart a great quantity of Traditions handed down from the high- 
est authorities. He lived to an advanced age, and became the link which united 
the Traditionists of the rising generation to those of the past. In the year 621 
(A. D. 1224) 1 heard al-Bokhari's Sahth explained by the $haikli Abii Jaafar Mu- 
hammad Ibn HIbat Allah Ibn al-Mukarram Ibn Abd Allah as-SuG, a man of 
holy life ; he taught this work by right of his having studied it at the Nizdmiya 
College, under the tuition of this Abu '1-Wakt, in the year 553. [Abu 'i-Wakl 
had learned it in the month of Zu 'l-Kaada, A. H. 465 (July, A. D. 1073), from 
Abu '1-Hasan Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muzaffar ad-Dawudi, who 
taught it with the authorisation of Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad Ibn 
Hammuya as-Sarakhsi, under whom he studied it in the month of Safar, A.H. 381 
(April-May, A.D. 991 ). Ibn Hammuya had been authorised to teach it by his own 
master Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Yusuf Ibn Matar al-Ferbari, in A.H. 316 
(A.D. 928); and al-Ferbari taught it with the permission of the author al-Buk- 
hari, under whose tuition be had read it twice; the Crst lime in A.H. 248 (A.D. 
862-3), and the second in 252 (A. D. 866)]. (1 ) — Ahu 'I-Wakt led a Hfe of holi- 
ness and passed most of his time in the practice of piety. He was born in the 426 
month of Zu '1-Kaada, A. H. 458 (October, A. D. 1066), at Herat, where his 
father had settled, and he died on the eve of Sunday, the 6th of Zu '1-Kaada, 
A.H. 553 (November, A. D. 1158), at Baghdad, where he had arrived on Tues- 
day, the 21st of Shawwal, A. H. 552, and taken up his abode in l\ie Ribal of 
Fairuz. He died in that convent, and prayers were said over him there; but 
afterwards, the funeral service was celebrated in the presence of a great con- 
course of people, at the principal mosque, by the shaikh Abd al-Kadir al-Jili (2). 
He was interred in the Shunizi Cemetery under the same seat {dakka) in which 
the body of the celebrated ascetic Ruwaim (3) was deposited. Abii '1-Wakt 
commenced learning the Traditions somewhat later than the year 460 (A. H. 
1067-8), and he was the sole survivor of those who taught Traditions on the 
authority of ad-Dawudi. — His father died between the years 510 and 520 of 
the Hijra. — Sijazi means belonging to Sijiitdn, as has been already observed ; 



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172 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

this relative adjective is form«d irregularly (4). — My master Abu Jaafar Mu- 
hammad Ibn Hibat Allah Ibn al-Mukarram as-Sufi was born on tbe ere of the 
27th of Ramadan, A. H. 538 (April, A.D. 1144); he died at Baghdad on the 
eve of the 5th (5) of Muharram, A. H. 621 TJacuary, 1224). He was buried in 
the Shi^nizi Cemetery. 



(1) This passage is written in Ihe margin of th« autofraph. Tbe OTiglnal ten will be found in the gppen- 
dii to Ihe Arabic edition. 

[2] AbA Huhammad Abd al-Kidir Ibn Abi Sllih MOsa Ibn Abi Abd Allab Abd Allah Ibn Yabji Ibn Ho- 
hammad Ibn Dlwtld Ibn HQsa Ibn Abd Allah Ibn HQsa Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Hasan Ibn al-Hasin Ibn All 
Ibn Abi Tllib al-Jlli, Burnamed Hubi ad-dIn [reviver of Teligton), was one of the most eminent SAfi doclon. 
Bf his self-mortiflcaiion, hii piety, and his application to contemplative devotion, he attained the highest de- 
gree of holiness, and often received special proofs of God's favouT, the veils which concealed the Trvik, or 
Divine presence, having been frequently withdrawn lo gite him a glimpse of the Being who is the source of all 
happiness and tbe sole object worth; of love. Al-Yifl devotes eleven pages of the Mirdai al-Jtndn lo the 
enumeration of his eicellencies, and Infonns us that in another «ork, the JYiuAr al-Mak^ifi, he has 
mentioned some of the Innumerable miraculous acts which this saint performed by a concession of Ibe Divine 
grace. Abd al-Rldir wis bom at J1I, which is a collection of villages beyond Taberistlin. This place is called 
also K11, KtUn, and JlUn, whence the surnames of Illi, Kill, JlUnl, and Kllknl, which are given to him by 
different writers. It may here be observed thai there was a village bearing the name of Kll, and lying on 
the bank of the Tigris at ■ day's journey from Baghdad, on Ibe road to Wisit; Ibis place was also called Jll. 
Hence originated the terms Jil at-AjAm (Periian Jll ) lo mark Ihe place of Abd al-KAdir's birib, and JU at- 
Ir/Uc lo designate this latter place. Another Jll existed near al-Madlto. Abd al-Kldir's mother bore tbe name 
orOmmal-KhairFilima;she>naia woman of holy life and the daughter of a man celebrated for his piety and 
hii progress in SdBsm, Abd Abd Allah Riik Allah Ibn Abd al-Wahhlb as-Stlmli ^io>^^l. Abd al-Ktdir 
was born A. H. 471 (A. D. 1078-9); he went to Baghdad in 488 (A. D. 1095], and died in that city (where 
he held the place of guardian of Aba Hanlh's lomb), A.H. 661 (A D. 116»-«). The order of dervisbes called 
after him Ihe Kadris, acknowledges him as its founder. 

(3) Ab& Muhammad or Abfl 'l-Hasan Buwaim Ibn Ahmad Ibn Zaid Ibn Ruwaim, an eminent Sttd and a 
native of Baghdad, was a disciple of al-Junaid. He was also distinguished as a Adjti, a korao-reader (ac- 
cording u> tbe system of NAfl), and a doctor of the law, in which he was a Zlhlrite, or follower of ibe 
iaim DlwOd al-IspabAni. Uis master al-Junaid esteemed him highly, and used to say of him. alluding t« 
their application to spiritual eiercises; "Buwaim was busy when at leisure, but we Others were leisurely in our 
" business." j^j*i-> (jt^j^ ^J ^j^ Jj*^ H.iy "* ■*'*** '^ Baghdad, A. H. 303 (A. D. W8-«.) 
-(At-YAfl.— Ad-Dahabi.) 

(4) The regular form would be Sijiildnt. 
^6) Read -.Ul. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICnONARY. 173 

IBN KULAIB AI^HARRANI. 

Abu '1-Faraj Abd al-Munim Ibn Abi I-Fath Abd al-Wabbab Ibn Saad Ibti 
Sadaka Ibn al-Hasin (1) Ibn Kulaib al-Harrani, sumamed Shams ad-din (the 
sun of religion}, was a mercbant and a member of tbe sect of Ahmad Ibn Ilanbal . 
His family belonged to Harran, but he himself was born in Baghdad and made 
his residence in that city. As he knew a quantity of Traditions supported by 
the highest authorities, persons came from all parts to learn them from him, 
and he became the link which connected the rising generation of Traditionisls 
with the past. By his extensive acquirements in the Traditions, and by the 
number of masters from whom he had received them, he surpassed all his con- 
temporaries. He was born in the month of Safar, A. H. 505 (August-Sept., 
A. D. 11H), and he died at Baghdad on the eve of Monday, the 27th of the 6rst 
Rabi, A. H. 596 (January, A.D. 1200). The next morning, he was buried near 
the spot where his father and family were interred, in the cemetery called after 
Ahmad Ibn Haubal, and situated at the Harb Gate. He preserved the vigour 
of his mind and all his bodily faculties till the last. In the course of his life he 
bad no less than one hundred and forty-eight concubines. 

(1) Thit name it lo indiMincUr written in the autognpb, that it It illegible. 



THE KATIB ABD AL-HAMID. 

Abi^ Ghalib Abd al-Hamid Ibn Yahya Ibn Saad, a mawla to tbe tribe of Aamir 
Ibo Luwai Ihn Ghalib, was a kdUb so highly celebrated for the elegance of his 
style that his talent became proverbial: "Epistolary writing," it was said, "began 
" with Abd al-Hamid and Boisbed with Ihn al-Amid." It was not only as a kdtib 
that he possessed abilities ; he was also a perfect master of the belles-lettres and 
of all the branches of science. Syria was bis native place, but when he com- 
menced life as a boys' teacher, he travelled from one country to another. — 



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17^ IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

Writers of epistles copied his style and followed closely in his footsteps; and it 
was he who first smoothed the way to the introduction of eloquence into letter- 
writing. His collected epistles fill nearly one thousand leaves (two thousand 
pages). It was also he who first lengthened the epistle and employed compli- 
mentary eulogiums in certain parts of it^ which improvement was adopted by 
his successors. He was kdtibf or secretary, to Marwan Ibn Muhammad al-Jaadi, 
the last of the Omaiyide sovereigns. Mai-wan one day received from a pro- 
vincial administrator the present of a black slave ; displeased with the exiguity 
of the gift, this prince ordered his secretary to write a short letter to that adnUl, 
blaming him for his conduct, and Abu Ghalib wrote these words : *' Hadst thou 
" found a worse colour than black and a number less than unity, thou wouldst 
" have sent them. Adieu!" A saying of his was : *'The pen is a tree the 
427 *' fruits of which are words, and reflexion is a sea the pearls of which are wis- 
" dom." Ibrahim Ibn al-Abbas as-Sdli once said of him, on hearing his name 
mentioned : ' ' Language was his element ; I never wished to possess the language 
" of any kdtib so ardently as I wished for his." In one of his epistles Abu Gha- 
lib says: " Maukind are of various classes and different characters; some arc 
** precious jewels, not to be sold for any price ; and others so liable to be sus- 
" pected, that no one would buy them (1)." A letter in which he recommends 
the bearer to a man in power is thus worded : "The person who delivers you 
" this letter has the same right to your benevolence as to mine; having judged 
' ' vou the only one on whom to place his hopes, and me the only one to assist him 
" in his project; I here fulfil his wish, do you reahse his expectations." He 
said also : " The best style is that whereof the words are exalted and the 
" thoughts original (2)." The following verse was often repeated by him : 

Whea kdtibt are insulted (3), their inkhorns become bows, and their pens, arrows. 

He accompanied Marwan Ibn al-Hakam in his last campaign and was preseni 
'at all his battles; of these events we have taken some notice in the life of Abu 
Muslim (see page 1 05). It is related that when Marwan was reduced to the con- 
viction that his power was drawing to an end, he said to Abu Ghalib : " It is 
" necessary for me that you side with the enemy and appear to desert me; their 
" admiration for you as a learned scholar and the necessity which they lie under 
" of having a kdtib like you, will induce them to place confidence in you. 



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BIOGRAPmCAL DICTIONARY. 175 

" Then you may perhaps be able to do me service whilst I yet live; and, in case 
" of my death, you will certainly be the means of protecting my harem from 
" dishonour." To this, Abu Ghalib replied : *' The course which you advise 
" me to take is the most advantageous one for you, and the most dishonourable 
'* for me; my opinion is, that we must bear with patience till Almighty God 
" favour us with success; and if he do not, let us die together." He then 
recited this line : 

1 am to conceal fidelity in my heart and bear the exterior of a traitor; but where 
shall 1 find an excuse {k) sufficiently clear to satisfy all men. 

The foregoing anecdote is related by Abu '1-Hasan al-MasOdi in his MuHlj ad- 
bahab (rheadows of gold). Abii Ghalib Abd al-Hamid was then slain with Marwan 
on Monday, the 1 3th of Zfl '1-IIijja, A.H. 1 32 (July, A.D. 750) (see j?.1 05), at Busir, 
a village in the province of al-Faiyum, in Egypt, — I find among my rough notes 
the following passage in my own handwriting : '* On the death of Marwan Ibn 
" Muhammad the Omaiyide, Abd al-Hamid sought for concealment in Mesopo- 
" tamia, but, being betrayed, he was arrested and sent by Abii 'l-Abbas" — the 
khaUf as-Saflah, I should think — *' to Abd al-Jabbar Ihn Abd ar-Rahman, the 
" commander of the police guards, who caused a tray to be heated in the fire and 
*' then placed on the prisoner's head till he expired. Abd al-Hamid was a native 
" of al-Anbar, but he dwelt at ar-Rakka. His master in penmanship was 
" Salim, the matvla of Hisham Ibn Abd al-Malik." — His son Ismail was an able 
kdHb and is counted amongst the most famous of them. — Yakub Ibn Dawud, the 
vizir to al'Mahdi, and whose life we intend to give, was at first a kdtib in Abd al- 
Hamid's office and under his orders; it was from him lie learned his business. — 
When Marwan was flying before the army of his adversary, he reached Busir 
and asked what was the name of the place. On being informed that it was 
B&siry be said : " Ila 'llah U-Mastr (it w now that toe muit appearbefore Godty (5) 
He was slain in that place, as is well known, — Ibrahim Ibn Jabata related as 
follows: "The Mtib Abd al-Hamid perceived me writing a very bad hand, on 
" which he said to me ; 'Do you wish your writing to be goodr' — ' Yes,' I 
" replied. — * Then,' said he, ' let the stem of your reed-pen be long and thick, 
" let its point be fine, and cut it sloping towards the right band.' — 1 followed 
" his advice, and my writing became good." 



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176 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

(1) At die merit of thii p«Mage contiati priacipallj in alUteratioD and paraUelum, il diuppean in llie 
tranilatiOD. None of Ibe mamiKripb, eicepl the aulognfih, givM ibe teit of it corrMtl; ; nearly efNj 
word i« more or less altered. In the printed text read pU^ and ^'•^z 

(2) Literallf : The vordt of vhich are itallioni, and the Ihoughti virgint. 

0) For.^ read ^j~'> ^" ^^^ manuscript* eicept the autograph are vrong. 

|J) Here again all Ihe maniiscrlpts, including those of al-Mas&di (who gives the passage), are in the wrong. 
For jjjo read ,jjo. 

(C!) SAtiT sounds somewhat like Sa$ Sir, which words mean calamity in tht retult. Harwln angored 
evil from the name. 



ABD AL-MUHSIN IBN GHALBUN AS^URI. 

430 Abu Muhammad Abd al-Muhsio Ibn Muhammad Ibo Ahmad Ibn Ghalib Ibo 

Ghalbun as-Suri (a native of Tyre) was a good poet, a talented scholar, and one of 
the ornaments of Syria. His verses, equally remarkable for elegance of style, 
beauty of thought, charm of expression, and pleasing regularity of imagery, 
form a diwdn of masterpieces. One of his poems contains the following fine 



Is it to punish [my iruUtcretion) or to compel me to pay a tribute (of admtVafion] that 
the image of her charms never leaves my sight (Ij. Her glances and her stature possess 
the qualities of the sword and of the spear [iharpnett and ikadertMM]. The water of 
youth is in her fece, mixed with the 6re [earnalion] of her cheeks. One morning she 
came to me and said: "Take your choice — my aversion or my absence; I can offer no 
" other conditions." I replicHl, whilst my tears flowed in a torrent, like tiie rushing 
of the pilgrims through the pass of al-Mdzamain (2): " Do not so; if the time for your 
" aversion or absence come, my death comes also I" In pronouncing these words I 
seemed to have given her the order to retire, for she arose and hastened to leave me. 
She then set out with the caravan — may their camels be overwhelmed with fiitigue 
wherever they first alight I {then I may be able to overtake lAem.) The vicissitudes of 
fortune showed me my life under two aspects; I marked my days with black, and I 
passed them in lingering agony ; each day was for me equal to two nights of afHiction. 
Who then can make me understand the difference between gold and silver? both are 
to me unknown, bo long is it since I saw them, whilst I sought my livelihood by my 
poetic talent, the worst of menial IradesI Such was my case till Ali Ibn al-Husain came 
{to my atBiitance], and to-day {for lustre and txaltation) poetry holds the third rank, 
being only surpassed by Sinus and CanopuS'(3]. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 177 

The kastda from which these verses are taken was composed hy Abd al-Muh- 
sin on AH Ibn al-Hiisain, the father of the vizir Ahu '1-Kasim Ibn al-Maghnhi. 
Respecting this piece, which Is of considerable length and great merit, the fol- 
lowing curious anecdote is told : There was in the city of Askalon a man of high 
rank, called Zu '1-Mankabatain (the possessor of the hco merits), to whom a certain 
poet went one day and recited this piece in his praise ; on coming to that pai-t 
of it where the eulogium is generally introduced, he added : 

You are the possessor of every merit; why then confine yourself to two? 

The rdis listened with attention to the verses, and expressed his admiration, 
after which he gave a considerable reward to the poet ; but when the latlei- 
withdrew, one of the persons present observed to him, that the poem he had 
just heard was by Abd al-Muhsin. — '* 1 am aware of that," replied the rdis, 
" and I know it by heart." He then recited it, on which the other said to him : 
" What induced you then to treat that fellow with so much attention and 
" reward him so generously?" To this the rdis answered : "I did it solely on 
" account of that verst which he inserted in the poem, namely : You are thepoi- 
" setsor of every merit, etc. ; it is not Abd al-Muhsin's, and I am perfectly con- 
" vinced that it could have been made on me only, and it is really very fine." — 
We shall now give another passage of Abd al-Muhsin's poetry, but must observe 
that ath-Thaalibi, in his continuation of tlic Yattma, attributes it to Ahii '1-Faraj 
Ibn Abi Hasin AH Ibn Abd al-MaHk, a native of Rakka^^), and whose father had 488 
been kadi of Aleppo ; hut as these very verses are to be found in Abd al-Muh- 
sin's diwdn, and as ath-Thaalibi sometimes falls into mistakes, attributing pieces 
to the wrong author, this may perhaps be one of his blunders ; tlie lines are as 
follow (5) : 

I stopped at [an avaricious] friend's, who suffered as much from my visit as I did firom 
hunger; and I passed the night with him as a guest; such was the decree of fate, so ^ 
often unjust to the man of noble mind. His reason was troubled by the uneasiness my 
presence caused him, and he had not well recovered, when he addressed me in these 
terms : " Why do yon ti"avel abroad?" To which I answered: " The Prophet, whose 
" words always fiimish good counsel and lead to prosperity, has said: ' Travel; you 
" itill get rich.' " To this my host replied: " But he ended his saying thus : fait; you 
" will enjoy good health." 

VOL II. 33 



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^^Q IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

The two verses which follow are altribuled to him by the author of iho 

Yalima : 

Your generosity has planted a garden of gratitude in my heart ; bul that garden now 
suffers from drought ; let him who planted it give it water. Hasten to revive Jt whilst 
life lingers in its branches ; once tiie shrub is dried up, its verdure cannot be re- 
stored. 

Happening to pass one day near the tomb of a friend, lie recited these lines : 

On passing by Ihy tomb, I marvelled how my steps had been so well directed towards 
it. It may seem to dice that 1 have at length forgotten our mutual acquaintance; ah! 
how true the words of those who say: "The dead have no friends." 

When his mother died he was deeply afflicted, and, on her burial, he pro- 
nounced these verses : 

[The ob}tcl of my afffftion m now depoiited a*] a pledge underneath the stones in the 
sandy desert. She is goncl and the ties which held me to her have been broken. 1 
used to weep when she complained of her sufFerings ; but now I weep because she com- 
plains no longer. 

This idea is taken from al-Mutanabbi, who says : 

I complain because I no longer feel the pains of sickness ; I suffered from them once, 
but then I had my limbs. 

(6) The same thought is thus expressed in a verse of a long kasida composed 
by Abii Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad, a native of Aleppo, and gene- 
rally known by the name of Ibn Siniin al-Khalaji (7) : 

Others weep over the ruins of the dwellings where their friends once resided ! thai 
I had such a motive to shed tears 1 

The merits of Abd al-Muhsin are great and numerous; but I am obliged to be 
concise. He died on Sunday, the 9lh of Shawwal, A. H. 419 (October, A. D. 
1028), aged eighty years, or perhaps somewhat more. 



(1) As il i« impouible to translate this piece liicnlly, 1 bays merelif endeavoured lo eipreu the thoughti 
IS dotelf IB the dilTereDt gepius ot the two languagea would permit. 

(2) Burckhardt mj» in huTravtU in Arabia, vol. H. p. B6: "The Hadj {body of pilgrim*) fusei •' • 
" quick pace in the greateM disorder, amidai a dcareaiag clamour, through the pass of MaioumeyD, le*dine 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 179 

" loMeidelfe ( If uidolifa), where all alighted, after a two hours' march."— In place of i^jV^ •J>^> '^ 
Ibe priDied text aad Ihe HSS. have it, the autograph hean ^JUaj) I ^^^ ; >be verse would Ifaen tigaitj : 
" I replied, whiUl m; tean flowed in torrenic dowD mj cheeks." This readiog va» felt h; the copjuto to be 
inadmiBsible on account of the recurrence of the word .Ck^ .M at the end of two vw»e» coming very clofc 
to each other; this is contrary to the rule by which verses ending »Uh the same word must be separated by at 
least sii others. The corrected reading seems to be perfectly warranted. 

(3) It is thus 1 render the word ^^o jiiJ ! ; which is the true reading, aod found in the auOgraph alone; 
This makes another correction necessary in the same verse : Ijl^ a word pointed varioudy in the HSS. must 
be replaced by dJtjU. For the neit word JWh I am inclined to adopt J'.^ ; in the autograph it may 
be read either way. Ai a later period Ibn Khalliktn inserted in the margin an additional line at the end of 
this piece ; it is more or less corrupted in the few manuscripts which reproduce it, and I now give it here cor- 
rectly after the autograph: ^^_j w-J^ ^^ i-ti^*'*" *a.-J-' 5*=!) ,_?*-=' "^' '" of celcbradng his 
" fclorj enriches and causes lo Oourish those who avoid liei and falsehood." II may be observed that I read 
^j^Ul in this verse. 

(i) The Tailma furnishes very little information respecting Ali Ibo Abd al-Halik ar-Rakki, but it appears 
from tiiU work, thai he lived at Aleppo in Ihe reign of Saif ad-Da«lat Ibn HamdAn. and Dui he addrtsMd 
aome kiutda* to AbD Fails [vol. I. p. 366). who replied to Ihem in Ihe same manner. 

SS) In the jvinted teit, the words tij must be suppressed. 

(6) I suspect the authenticity of Ihe passage uhich follows; it is written in the margiu of Ihe autograph, but 
in Ihe handwriting of ■ person who, if we may judge from the general character of his additions, does not 
seem to be very eiact in his quotations. 

(71 Ibn Siiiln al-Khaflji, a poet and an elegant scholar, made his literary studies under Ab& 'l-AU al- 
Maarri and other masters, and obtained also a considerable reputation as a tradilionist. He died at Ihe 
castle of Baarin ,.,l,frl}, in the province of Aleppo, A.H. 4fi6 (A,D.1073-*) — (Jn-JViyAm ax-Zahira) 



AL-HAFIZ AU)BAID!. 

Abu 'l-Maimiin Abd al-Hamid, sumamed al-Hafiz (the gttardian), was tbe sou 
of Mubammad Ibn al-Mustansir Ihn az-Zabir Ibn al-llakim Ibn al-Aziz Ibn al- 
Moizz Ibn al-Mansur Ibn al-Kaim Ibn al-Mahdi Obaid Allah : we have already 
spoken ef al-Mahdi and some of his descendants. Al-Hafiz received the oalh of 
fidelity from llie people of Cairo as regent and immediate successor to the throne, 
on the same day in which his cousin al-Aamir was murdered, and be engaged 
4o act in that capacity till the delivery of the female whom al-Aamir had lefi 



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180 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

430 in a 3late of pregnancy. Of this last circumstance we sliall again speak towards 
the end of this article. On the same morning, the vizir Abu Ali Ahmad, the 
son of al-Afdal Shahanshiili, the son of Amir al-Juyush Badr al-Jamali (1), 
received from the troops the oath of allegiance to himself, and having proceeded 
to the palace, he put al-HaGz into conGnement, took all the authority into his 
own hands and governed most equitably. He restored to the former possessors 
the sums which Iiad been extorted from them, and having made open profession 
of his faith as a follower of the twelve imams, he rejected the pretensions main- 
tained by al-Hafiz and the Obaidite family, and caused public prayers to be 
otfered up from the pulpits for the Kdim, him who u to rise up at the end of time, 
and whom, in their mistaken belief, tliey designate as the expected imdm (al- 
Imdm al-Muntazir) (2). By his orders, al-Kaim's name was inscribed on the 
coinage, and the words hasten to the excellent wjorft' were omitted in the izdn, 
or call to prayer. Things continued in this state, till an officer of the court 
attacked and slew bim in the Great Garden (aUBmldn ai-Kabir}, outside of 
Cairo. This event happened on the ISth of Muharram, A. H. 526 (December, 
A. D. 1131), and was the result of a plot devised by al-Hafiz. The troops 
immediately hastened to deliver the prince, and having proclaimed him sove- 
reign under the title of al-Hafiz, public prayers were offered up for Iiim from all 
tlie pulpits of the kingdom. AI-HaGz was born at Askaton, in the month of 
Muharram, A. H. 467 (September, A. D. 1074), and was proclaimed regent on 
the day in which al-Aamir was murdered. (See his life in this work.) On the 
death of Ahmad Ibn al-Afdal he received the oath of allegiance as sovereign, 
and he died towards the close of Sunday eve, the 5th of the latter Jumada, A. H. 
544 (October, A. D. 11 49) ; some say, 543. According to another statement, 
his birtb took place on the 13th of Ramadan, A. H. 468. The reason of his 
being born at Askaton was this : During the severe dearth which afflicted Egypt 
under the reign of his grandfather al-Mustansir, (and of whicli we shall men- 
tion some particulars in our life of that prince,) bis father left the country and 
retired to Askalon, where he awaited the cessation of the famine and the return 
of abundance,; and it was whilst he resided there tliat at-Hafiz was bom. This 
we give on the authority of our master Izr ad-din Ibn al-Athir, who states it as a 
fact in his great historical work. — ^Al-Hafiz and al-Aadid were the only two so- 
vereigns of that dynasty whose fathers had not reigned before them. (Ofal- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DIOIONARY. 181 

Aadid we have already spoken, p. 72). As for al-Hiifiz, his accession to the 
supreme power resulted from the circumstances which we shall here relate .- 
al-Aamir died without male children, but left a wife in a state of pregnancy; 
this caused great agitation among the people of' Egypt, and they said : "No 
" imam of this family dies without leaving a male child, to whom he transmits 
'* the imSmate by a special declaration; (what k to be done now ?)" But a decla- 
ration to that effect had already been made by him in favour of the child still in 
the womb, wliich however liappened to be a girl. Then occurred the events of 
which we have already noticed where we relate what passed between al-Hafiz and 
Ahmad Jbn al-Afdal. AI-HaGz was therefore declared regent, but, for the reason 
just stated, the absolute authority attached to the imamate was withheld from him, 
as t^iey had resolved on waiting till the child was born. — Al-Ha6z was subject 
to violent attacks of cholic, and it was for him that Shirmah ihe Dailamite, or 
Musa an-Nasrani (Moses Ike Christian) as some say, made the instrument called 
the drum of the cholic, which was preserved in the treasury of this dynasty till 
the accession of SalSh ad-din, who ordered it to be broken. The history of 
this drum is well known. 1 was informed by the grandson of the Shirmah above 
mentioned, that his grandfather had formed it out of the seven metals, which 
he combined (succe$mely) together at the moments in which each of the seven 
planets reached its point of culmination. The nature of this drum was such 
that when any person beat it, wind escaped from his body through the natural 
vent; it was this which rendered it so serviceable in cases of cholic (3). 



(!) See vol. I. page 614. 

(1] Thu wu equivalent lo a declaration that ihe Fatimilet were not (be tnie Imimg, and had do right to the 
throne. He inleaded to eitablish his own sovere^tj a> proieciOT ot the empire till the coming of the Ex- 
paeUd Imim. See farther detailt in the Extraiti du Kamtl AUewaryhk, publiafaed h; the Aeadimie det 
Itueriptioni, page 393. 

(3) It it related b; a grare hixorian, Sibt Ibo al-Jauii, cited hj Abti '1-Haht«in in his Nujdm, that one of 
Salib ad-^ln's Kurdish loldJen, not being aware of the effecla which thii drum produced, began lo beat it, 
but immediaielj eipnieaced iu ioIlueDce lo sucfa a degree, that he broke it to pieeet in a &l of indignation. 



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IBN KHALLIKAN'S 



ABD AI^MUMIN AL-KUMI. 



AbA Muhammad Abd al-MuraJn Ibn AH al-Kaisi (1) al-Kumi was the sove- 
reigD indebted for bis aulhorily to the exertions of Muhammad Ibn Tumart, 
better known by the name of the Mabdi. AM al-Mumin's father, a man of 
eonsummate prudence and gravity, held an eminent rank in the tribe of Ku- 
miya, and sold earthen vessels of his own manufacture. It is related that as he 
was one day engaged at bis usual work, with bis child Abd al-Mumin sleeping 
near him, he heard a bumming in the air, and on looking up, saw a swarm of 
bees like a dark cloud which descended towards the house and settled on Abd 
431 al-Mumin, so as to cover him entirely, but without awakening him. His mother 
screamed with terror at the sight, hut the father told her that the chikl was in 
no danger. "I only wonder," said he, "what this may portend." He then 
washed the clay off his hands, and having dressed' himself, he wailed to see 
what the bees would do. They at length ilew away, and the child awoke un- 
harmed ; not the least trace of hurt appeared on his body, although his mother 
examined him carefully, neither did he utter the slightest complaint. There was 
a man in the neighbourhood noted as a diviner, and to him the father went and 
related what had occurred. "This boy," said the diviner, "will soon come to 
" something great ; the people of Maghrib will he all united in obedience unto 
" him." The subsequent history of Abu al-Mumin is well known (2). I read 
in a history of Maghrib that Ihn Tumart had got into his possession the hook 
called al-Jafr (3), and that it contained an indication of all that he was to accom- 
plish, of the history of Abd al-Mumin, of his personal appearance, and of his 
very name. A considerable time, says this author, was passed by Ibn Tumart 
till be at length found Abd al-Mumin, who was still a hoy ; and thenceforward 
he treated liim with marked honour and placed him at the head of his disciples. 
He then communicated to him the secret (of his destiny) and proceeded with him 
to the city of Morocco, which was at that time under the rule of Abu 'I-Hasan 
Ali Ibn Yusuf Ibn Tashifin, the king of the aUMulcUhtham&m (4); it would be 
loo long to relate what passed between that prince and him ; we shall merely 
slate that the former cxjielled him from the city, on which he proceeded to the 
mountains, where he levied troops and gained over to his cause the tribe of 



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BIOCRAPHICAL DICTIONARV 183 

MaBmuda. We shall only state in a summary manner, that the Mahdi did not 
make any conquests, but that it was by means of the troops which he had raised, 
and of the system which he had organised, that his successor Abd al-Mumin ef- 
fected the conquest of that country. — Ibn Tumart was always predicting the 
noble quaUties which his disciple was to display, and, every time he saw him, be 
recited these verses : 

You possess in perfection all tlie qualities with which thou hast been favoured ; and 
hence proceed joy and happiness for us all. Thine is the smilinj; mouth, the liberal 
hand, the noble soul, and the open countenance. 

I have found these verses attributed to Abu 's-Sbis al-Khuzai, the celebrated 
poet (5). — The Mahdi Ibn Tumart used also to say to his disciples: "Your 
" comrade will be the conqueror of kingdoms." It is not true that be nomi- 
nated Abd al'Mumin as his successor ; but bis disciples judged that the prefer- 
ence which their master showed him was a sufficient intimation of his intention, 
and they acknowledged him for their chief. It was thus that the autliority of 
Abd al-Mumin was established. The first city which he took was Oran, then 
Tilimsen, then Fez, then Sal^, and then Ceuta ; after these conquests he pro- 
ceeded to Morocco, which lie besieged eleven montlis, and carried towards the 
beginning of A.H. 542 (G). Having thus grounded his power, he extended his 
domination over al-Maghrib al-Aksa, al-Magbrib al-Adna, the other provinces of 
North Africa, and tl|e greater portion of Spain. He then received the title of 
Amir al-Muminin, and the poets celebrated his glory in eulogistic poems of the 
greatest beauty. The kdtib imad ad-din mentions in his Khartda that Ahu Abd 
Allah Muhammad Ibn Abi 'l-Abbas, a jurisconsult of Tifash (7), addressed him 
in a katida beginning thus: 

Never was a braver deportment seen among the hostile swords and spears than that 
of the khalif Abd al-MAmin, the son of Alt. 

On hearing this verse, the prince motioned to him that what he had said was 
quite sufficient, and he ordered him a reward of one thousand gold pieces. 
When Abd al-Mumin had estabUshed his authority on a solid basis, and had 
attained an advanced age, he left Morocco and entered Salt^, where a violent 
attack of sickness carried him off. He expired on one of the last ten days (the 



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184 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

27th) or the month of the latter Jumada, A. H. 558 (June, A. D. 1163), after a 
reign of thirty-tliree years and some months. It is said that his body was taken 
to Tinmalil (8), the place mentioned in the Ufe of the Mahdi Muhammad Ibn Tu- 
mart, and there interred. Towards the latter period of his life, he was an aged 
man with hair completely white. I copy the following passage from an historical 
work containing an account of his life with a description of his person ; it is the 
author who speaks; "I saw ao aged man of upright stature, with a large head, 
45a " dark-blue eyes, a bushy beard, callous hands, tall even when seated, with 
" teeth of the purest white, and a mole on his right cheek." . The year of his 
birth is uncertain ; some say A. H. 500 (A. D. 1 1 06-7), and others, A. H. 490. 
He nominated as successor to the throne his son Ab6 Abd Allah Muhammad, 
but the authority of this prince was soon shaken, and himself deposed in the 
montli of Shaaban, in the first year of his reign (9). His brother Yiisuf (whose 
life shall be given in this life) was then proclaimed sovereign.— A'-dmi means be- 
longing to K&miya, a small tribe established on the sea-coast in the province of 
Tilimsen. Abd al-Miimin was born at Tajira, a village in that region. — As for 
the book called the Jafr, it is spoken of by Ibn Kutaiha towards the beginning 
of his work entitled Ikhtildf ^Hadilhf where he concludes a long dissertation 
with these words: "And something stranger than the foregoing mode of inter- 
'* preting is that followed by the Rafidites (10) in their interpretation of the 
" Koran and their pretended knowledge of its hidden meaning, conveyed to 
" them bv the Jafr, a work mentioned in these verses by Saad Ibn Harun al-Ijli, 
"the chief of the Zaidites (H ) : 

' Behold the Rafidites torn by dissensions, yet all holding shocking opinions respecting 
' Jaai^r (12). Some call him an imAm, and others the Immaculate Prophet ; but what 
' causes my inexpressible astonishment is their volume {jild) the Jafr! — I renounce 
' before God to all the followers of the Jafr.' " (13). 

There are many more verses in the same piece, but 1 confine my quotation to 
these, because they make mention of the Jafry and that is all I require. After 
giving the whole piece, Ibn Kutaiba continues tlius : " This is the jild (volume 
" or skin) of tne Jafr, in which they pretend that the Imam wrote whatever was 
" requisite for them to know, and every thing which is to happen till the day 
" of judgment; but God knoweth best (if its contents be true)." I must add that 
by the Im&m they mean Jaafar as-Sadik (14). him of whom we have already 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 185 

spoken (vol. I. p. 300 j. Abu '1-Ala al-Maarri alludes to the Jafr in the follow- 
ing lines, taken from one of his poems ; 

They wonder at the fomily of the Prophet, because they got their knowledge from the 
skin of a kid {jafr] ; yet the mirror of the astrologer, small though it be, shows him all 
the inhabited regions of the world and the deserts. 

The word jafr signiGes a four months' kid, at which age its sides swell out 
(jafara) and it quits the dam. The feminine of this word has a final h (a). In 
that lime it was their custom to write on skins, (blade-)hones, potsherds, and all 
things of that sort. 



(1) Abd al-Hdroio bora the turnaoie of al-Ktisi (dttwndanl from Sait Ihn Ghaildn. or Kais Ailln, Ibn 
WiKtr Ibn Kaad Ibn Adnin), because the Bertwr Ulbe (o whicti he ttelonged claimed iu descent (hiro [he 
great Arabic item of Adoln. 

(3] See Aba 'l-Fedi, t. III. p. 399, and the Portuguese IraiulalioD of Ibn Abd al-Htllni'i KartAi, publiabed 
at Lisbon in 182S under the title of Biitoria doi Sabiranoi ttohametanoi que refnardo na Mauritania. 
Hf edition of Ibn Khaldftn'a hislorj of (he Berbers will contain full information respeciing the origin, organi- 
sation, and hislor; of the Huwahbid djnisties. See also the Extrailt du Kamel Altevarykh, published bf 
the AeatUmia dai Intcriptiont, p. 331. 

[3] Of Ibis book Ibo Khallikin will speak farther on. 

(4) Tbej were called al'Hulathtkam^, because Ihey used to wear a liiMm, or bandage, across the lower 
part of their face, as is still the custom in the deserts from which Ihe; originally came. This is the same 
race which is called the Ahiwravitet {al-Murdbiiitn), or Atmorave* b; European writers. 

(6) See vol. I. page SIO. 

(Ol According to Ibn KhatdCin and Ibn Abd al-Hallm, the city of Morocco was taken in the month of Shaw- 
wll, A.H. S41 (March, A. D. 1147). 

(7) The kdlib gives do further informatioo respecling this poet, but the anecdote is mentioned by ditTerent 
historians. Ttfish, the andent Tipaia, lies about forty miles lo the south of Bona, in North Aiilca. 

(8) Ibn KhalliklD writes this name Tin Mall. 1 follow the African historians. This stronghold was situated 
(0 tbe east of iMorocco io the heart of Mount Atlas. 

|9) Further particulars respecting AbH Abd Allah Muhammad's reign will be found in the life of hu brother 
YfUuf Ibn Abd al-Mdmin. 

(10) The word SAfidi signifies literally, heretic t it is applied to designate the different Shlitt sects. 

(It) The Zaidiles acknowledged for Imdm Zaid, the son of Ali, the son of Husain, the son of Ali Ibn Abi 
Tllih. 

(11) iaittt the son of Muhammad the son of Ali al-Blkir was considered by one of tbe SUle seels as the true 

(13) These verses would not lead the reader to suppose that the author himself was a partisan of Jaafar, as 

tbn Khalddn, who calls him HarAn Ibn Said al'ljli has explicitly stated. See an eitraci from his Prolegimtna 

VOL. II. 2b 



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186 IBN EHALLIKAN'S 

ia H. de Stcy't Chrutomathie, tom. II. p. 300. I cannot dUeover an; mention of Said Ibn Harbn in ai-Slub- 
resUni, but feel conTinced, from the eumiaation of the Torset quoted hae at his, tlut Ibn KbaldOn is mis- 
taken. D'Herbelot has some obseiralioDS on the jafr vorlhf of notice. See Bib. Oritnt. Grfr u Giiue. 
{U) Read ^'jLJI in the printed lett. 



ABU 'l^KASIM AL-ANMATI. 



Aht 't-Kasim Othm^n Ibn Said Ibn Bashshar al-Anmati, surnamed also a1- 
Ahwal (the $quinter\ an eminent doctor of the Shafite sect, studied jurispru- 
dence under al-Muzani (vol. I. p. 200), and ar^Kabi Ibn Sulaiman al-Muradi 
(vol. /. p. 519). Amongst his own disciples, be counted Abi^ 'l-Abbas Ibn 
Suraij (vol- I. p. 46). It was through him that the people of Baghdad were 
inspired with such ardour as they then showed to procure and learn by heart 
the writings of as-Shafi. He states thai he heard al-Muzani (1) say : "For the 
" last fifty years I have read the treatise (on jurisprudmce) transmitted down 
" from as-Sbafi, and I do not recollect having read it a single time without 
" deriving from it a great quantity of information which I did not possess be- 
" fore." Al-Anmati died at Baghdad in the month of Sbawwal, A. H. 288 
(Sept.-Oct. A. D. 901). — Abii Hafs Omar Ibn AU al-Mutawwii (2) mentions an 
Abu '1-Kasim Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Bashshar al-Anmati (a relation of the 
preceding) in his work entitled IRtdb al-MuzhtA ft Zikri Ayimmat U~Mazhab (the 
book with the gilt ease, amtaining an account of the great doctors of the (Shafite) 
iS sect').—Anmdli means o maker and teller ofanmdt. or bed furniture, sucli as rugs, 
mats, pillows, etc. It is the people of Egypt who call them by this name and 
who give to the seller of such wares the appellation of AnmdH. 



(I) Read cij^^ ■■> ^< printed Arabic leit. 

(3) It appears from Hajji Khalifa that al-Hulaw1i lived before the time of Abd VTaijib SabI ts-SolAki, 
for he stales in hi* bibliofraphf that the former was the first who composed a Tabakdl of halite doctor*, 
and (s-Soldki the second. The life of aa-SolQki is given in the first TOlnme of ibis work. p. 606. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



DIA AD-DIN AL-HADBAN!. 



Abik Amr Othman Ibn Isa Ibn Dirbas Ibn Fir Ibn Jabm Ibn Abdus al-Had- 
bani (1) al-Marani, surnamed Dia ad-din (splendour of religion}, was one of ibe 
most learned doctors of tbe age in Shafite jurisprudence. He was a brother 
of the kadi Sadr ad-dia Abu '1-Kasim Abd al-Malilt, /id/Etm (2) of Egypt, and 
acted as his deputy at Cairo. When a boy, he studied in Arbela under the 
shaikh al-Khidr Ibn Akil, (vol. I. p. 488); after which be went to Damascus, 
where he put Iiimself under the tuition of Abd Allah Ibn Abi Usrun (vol.11, p. 32), 
and acquired a profound knowledge of tbe general principles of jurisprudence and 
of Shaiitc law. Tbe Orst satisfactory commentary ever composed on Abu Ishak 
as-Shirazi's Muhaddab was written by him ; it forms nearly twenty volumes, but 
remains incomplete, as the autlior only went as far as the chapter on evidence, 
which, with the remaining chapters, be left uncommented : this work he entitled 
al-Istiksa li Mazdhib UrFokahd (diligmi examination of the different systems established 
by the jurisconsults). He composed also, amongst other works, a full commen- 
tary, in two volumes, on Abu Ishak as-Shirazi's treatise on tbe general principles 
of jurisprudence, tbe Luma. (Some years) previously to tbe death of the kadi 
Sadr ad-din, an event which occurred on the eve of Wednesday, the 5th of 
Rajab, A'. H. 605 (January, A. D. 1209), he was removed from the place of 
deputy-h(tfetm and appointed to fill the post of professor in a college founded for 
him in the Castle of Cairo by the emir Jamal ad-din Khushtorin (3) al-Hakkari. 
He held this post during the remainder of his life, and expired at Cairo on the 
12th of Zfi '1-Kaada, A. H. 602 (June, A. D. 1206), aged nearly ninety years. 
He was interred in the lesser Karafa Cemetery. Tbe kadi Sadr ad-din was bu- 
ried in the mausoleum bearing his name and situated in tbe same cemetery. 
When this kMi was asked the date of his birth, he indicated tbe end of the 
year 514 (A. D. 1 1 23), or the beginning of 5J 7, being in doubt respecting the 
precise epoch (-i). — Mdrdni means belonging to the Ban-& Mdrdai, a tribe inha- 
biting the Muruj (meadows) below Mosul (5). 



(1) The orlhagriphy of this name ia fixed bj al-YUI, but its signilication is Dot givcD there nor it 
the other works consuliecl by nie. The lulhor of the Tabakdt al Fokaha uys ihtt he was a Kurd. 



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188 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

^ This of6ce appears to have been Ihe same as thai of graod kldi [Kddi 'l-Kuddi), but nith this addi- 
tional privilege that Ihe person who filled it poseessed uncontrolled eiecutive power as redruter of gTiex:~ 
tmcei. [Set vol. I. p. M6.) 

(3) This Dame is wrilten in Ihe autograph ■* .";'•-;. It is so incorrectly transcribed in all the oiber 
MSS., that I w«s unable (o Hi its true ordiograpb;. 

(4) The autograph coDtains the rollowing mar^nal note: " Tbft sultan Sallh ad-dln eotrusied biro with the 
" kndiship of [all] Egypt, aher he had acted as kidi of ai-Gharbija, one of the provinces in that country. 
■■ This nomination look place on the 22nd of the latter Jum&da, A. H. 666; some say 669." This passage is 
lo be found in some of the other HSS.. but Ihe dale which they give is 566, which I knew, from Ibn Hnjr's 
KOdit of Egypt, lo be false. This led me to suppress the passage in the Arabic teil, but it shall be given 
in the appendii. 

(5) The JTunt; of Mosul, called also Marj Ahi Obaida, lies lo Ihe east of Ihe city. It is a low ground, 
surrounded by hills and covered with meadows and villages.— [Afardtid.) 



TAKI AD-DIN IBN AS-SALAH. 



Abu Amr Othman Ibn AM ar-Rahman Ibn Othman Ibn Miisa Ibn Abi 'n- 
Nasr an-Naari al-Kurdi as-Shahrozuri (a descendant of Ab'd Nasr the Kurd and a 
twitive of ShahrozAr) was a jurisconsult of the sect of aB-Shafi. He bore the 
surname of Taki ad-din (pious in religion) and was generally known by the 
name of Ibn as-Salah as-Sharakhani. This doctor was one of the most eminent 
men of his time by bis deep acquaintance with the sciences of Koranic interpre- 
tation, Traditions, jurisprudence, name* of men (or biography of Traditionists), 
and every branch of knowledge connected with the Traditions and with the 
oral transmission of philological learning. He possessed also a considerable de- 
gree of information in many other departments of science. His fatwas, or legal 
opinions, were considered of great validity, and he was one of the masters from 
whose tuition I derived great profit. He made his first studies in juris[ftiidence 
under his father as-Salah (1), who was one of the most distinguished sbaHAs 
among the Kurds ; he was then taken by his parent to Mosul, where he studied 
for some time, and I have been told that he had repeatedly gone over the whole 
of (Aba, hhdk as-Shtrdzi'i) Muhaddab with his masters, before his mustaches were 
grown. He was then employed at Mosul as an under-tutor by tbe learned. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 189 

shaildt laisd ad-din Abii Hamid Ibn Yunus. After a short stay in that city, he 434 
travelled to Khorasan, where he remained for some time, occupied in acquiring 
a knowledge of the Traditions extant in that country; he then returned to Syria 
and was appointed professor in the Ndxiriya College at Jerusalem, founded hy 
al-Malik an-Nasir Salah ad-<lin. During his residence in that city he successfully 
directed numerous pupils in their studies, and he afterwards removed to Damas- 
cus, where he obtained the professorship in the_ college, called the Rawdhiy,a 
after its founder az-Zaki Abu '1-Kasim Hihat Allah ]bn Ahd al-Wahid Ibn 
Rawaha al-Hamawi (native of Ham&t), the same person who founded the Rawd- • 
hiya College at Aleppo. "When the Ddr al-Hadith (or school for teaching the 
Traditwns) was erected at Damascus by al-Malik al-Ashraf, the son of al-Malik 
al-Aadil Ibn Aiyub, he was nominated to that professorship and taught the Tra- 
ditions to numbers of pupils ; he subsequently became professor in the Mcdroia 
5i« as-Shdm, a college within the city walls, founded by Silt as-Sham Zaman 
Khatun, the daughter of Aiyub and the uterine sister of Shams ad-DawIat Turan 
Shah. It lies to the south of (the hospital founded by N&r ad-dtn and named after 
htm) al-Bimaristan an-74uri. Sitt as-Sham erected also tlie college outside Da- 
mascus which contains her tomb, the tomb of lier brother, and that of her hus- 
band Nasir ad-din, the son of Asad ad-din Sbirkuh, and sovereign of Emessa (2' . 
Ibn as-Salah held simultaneously those three places and fdled with strict punc- 
tuality his duties in each, never interrupting the regular course of his lectures 
unless forced to do so by unavoidable circumstances; he was (indeed) firmly 
grounded in learning and piety. I went to him in the beginning of the month 
of Shawwal, A. H. 632 (end of June, A. D. 1235), and resided with him at Da- 
mascus for a year, which time I passed in close study. He composed an in- 
structive work on the sciences connected with the Traditions, and another on the 
rites of the Pilgrimage, in which he treated the subject at length, and inserted . 
many observations useful and requisite to be known. His IshkdMt is an eluci- 
dation of the obscurities in (Ab'& Hdmd al-Gbazzdli's treatise on jvrisprudemce, the) 
WasX,t, and his fatwdt also have been collected by one of his pupils and form a 
volume. He continued till the last to lead a righteous life, passed in piety, ap- 
plication to study and assiduity in teaching. His death took place at Damascus 
on Wednesday morning, the 25th of the latter Rahi, A. H. 643 (September, 
A. D. 1 245) ,- on the afternoon of the same day, the funeral service was said over 



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190 IBN KUALLIKAN'S 

him, and he was interred in the cemetery of the Suiis, outside the gale of Nasr. 
He was born A. H. 577 (A. D. H8i-2) at Sarakhan.— His father as-Salah died 
at Aleppo on the eve of Thursday, the 27th of Zu 'l-Kaada, A. H. 618 (Jan. 
A. D. 1222), and was buried at a place called al-Jebul (3), outside the gate of 
Arbain (U), in the tomb of the shaikh Ali Ibn Muhammad al-Farisi (5). His 
birth is placed by approximation in the year 539 (A. D. 1144), as be did not 
himself know the exact date. He held the professorship ii^ the Asadiya College, 
founded at Aleppo by Asad ad-din Shirkuh; before his nomination he had stu- 
died at Baghdad, and taken lessons from Sharaf ad-din Ibn Abi Usrun (page 32). 
— Sharakhdn is a village in the province of Arbela, near Shahrozur. — Az-Zaki 
Ibn Rawaha died at Damascus on Tuesday, the 7th of Rajah, A. H. 622 (July, 
A.D.1225), and was buried in the cemetery of the Sufis. It is stated by Shihab 
ad-din Abd ar-Rahman Ahii Shama (6), in his Annals, that Ibn Rawaha died 
A. H. 623.— Siti as-Sham, the daughter of Aiyub, died on Friday, the 16th of 
Zii'l-Kaada, A. H. 616 (January, A. D. 1220). 



(1) Prom this it apptan that bifl father Abd ir-Rahmin bore the title of Salih ad-din. 

(2) See vol.1, pages 28S and 267. 

(3) [ have printed Ibis D»ine J.^', but the autograph has J_^l,an unpronounceable word. Il is true 
tbai the whole of this passage is io the margin of the auiograpb and not in the author's handwriting; it mnsi 
have been inserted however with his auihorisalion. There eiists a village called al-JthbiH J^^l at the 
distance of eighteen or twenty tniles fiiim Aleppo, but il lie* to the south-east of the city, whereas the gate 
of Arbtin is on the north side of 11. 

(4) Jo the Arabic text I have printed at-Arbain on the authorit} of some of mjMSS. and on that of Russet. 
See Bittmy of AUppo, vol. I. p. 13, note. 

(9) In the autograph this name is so indistinclli nrillen, that il may be read al-Fdti ^.^UJI. 

[6) The ihaikh and imdm AbA 'l-KJIsim Abd ar-Rabman Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Othntn, surnaroed 
Shih&b ad-dIn (flambeaa of religion), was a jurisconsult, a grammarian, a teacher of the reading* of the 
Koran, an historian, and a Iradilionist, He was generally known by the name of Abb ShSma because he had 
a large male on the left temple. He was bom at Damascus in one of tbe months of Rabl, A. H. 599 (end of 
A. D. 1203) ; before iiiaining the age of ten years be bad mastered all the Koran, and at the age of sixteen 
be had acquired a perfect acquaintance witb the art of koran-reading, under as-Sakhiwi {$ee hit life in ihit 
volume). One of his masters was Ibn as-Salih. Ad-Dababi says that he wrote a great deal on different 
branches of science, and that he possessed great abilities as a doctor, a professor, and a mufti. He died at 
Damascus in the monlb of Ramaditn. A. H. 665 (June, A. D. 1267). His principal works are a commentary 
on the SMtibiya {tee the life of Ibn Firro in thit volume) ; two abridgments of the history of Damascus, the 
Brst in. fifteen volumes, and the second in five; a commentary on as-SakhJwi's katldai in honour of the Pro- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. Idl 

phei ; the Kina m-Baitdataln or Ttco Gardnu, eonUining the hblorj of Ktt aiNUn and Salih adrdln (a 
copy of vhicb {mportanl work is in the Bib.duRoi); a WDUnuatlon of the preceding; a treatise on dogmaiie 
theology; an introduction to grammar; a versi Bed edition of ai-ZamaUisharl't Mufatsal, etc. He left roany 
other vorlu, but anGnialied.— (fab. at-ShAf\yin.) 



IBN JINNI. 

Abu '1-Fath OthmaQ Ibn Jinni, a native of Mosul, was one of the great mas- 43S 
ters in the science of grammar. He studied the belles-lettres under Abii Ali 'I- 
Farisi {vol. I. p. 379), and, on quitting him, he commenced as teacher in Mosul. 
His former master, happening to pass through the city, saw him surrounded bv 
pupils at.their lessons, on which he said to him : ** You are rotten before you 
*' are ripe (1)." On hearing these words he abandoned his class, and became 
the assiduous disciple of Abu Ali till he acquired a perfect knowledge of the 
science. His father Jinni was a Greek slave belonging to Sulaiman Ihn Fahd 
Ibn Ahmad al-Azdi, a native of Mosul, and to this circumstance he alludes in 
the following passage from one of his poems : 

Were t sprung from nothing, my learning would be a title of nobility. But 1 come 
of princes powerful and noble, Ctesars, whose voice silenced the threats of adversiti'. 
For them the Prophet prayed (2), and the prayer of a prophet is glory sufficient. 

He composed some fine poetry. The following lines of his indicate that h(^ 
had only one eye, which is said to have been really the case ; but some attribute 
them to Abu Mansiir ad-Dailam! : 

Thy rigonr towards me who have committed no fault denotes an evil intention. 
I swear by thy life I that I wept till I felt a^id for my single eye. And yet were it not 
thai I should never see thee again, it would be no advantage for me to preserve my sight. 

I saw a kattda of his, in which he laments the death of al-Mutanabbi, and 1 
would give it here were it not so long. — As for Abii Mansur ad-Dailami, better 
known as Abu 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Mansdr, he was the son of a soldier in the ser- 
vice of Saif ad-Dawlat Ibn Hamdan, and was a good but licentious poet. He 



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192 IBN KHALLIKANS 

also had but one eye, and on this defect he composed some fine verses, such as 
these ; 

O you have no witnesses to prove that you were in love 1 know that mine are my eyes, 
with which I wept till one of them was lost. And yet how strange it is, that the eye 
which I have still remaining, abstains [3). 

He made also the roltowing ingeniously turned verse on a handsome boy who 
had but one eye : 

He has one eye which strikes all eyes (mlh admiralUm], and another which was 
struck by (mtf) eyes. 

Ibn Jinni composed a number of instructive works on the science of grammar, 
namely : the KilSh al-Kba$dU (on the principles of grammar) ; the Sirr m-Sandat 
(secret of tke art) ; the Mwmf (impartial}, intended to elucidate Abu Othman al- 
Mazini's (vol. I. p. 264) treatise on the declensions and conjugations ; the TalHn 
(instruction) ; the Tadkub (mutual succession) ; the Kd/i (sufficient), being a com- 
mentary on al-Akhfah's treatise on rhyme (vol. I. p. 573) \ a work on the gen- 
ders ; a treatise on the nouns ending with a short elif and those ending with a 
long one ; the TawAm (completion), being a commentary on the poems of the Hu- 
daiUtes ; the Manhaj (highway), treating of the derivation of lliose proper names 
which occur in the Hamdsa; a concise treatise on prosody ; another on rhyme ; 
al-Masdil al-Khdtiriydt (questioru incid&itally suggested) ; alrTazkira tal'Isbahdmya 
(memorial of Ispakdn) ; extracts from Abii Ali '1-Farisi's Tazkira, selected and 
put in order; the Muktadib (rough draught), treating of the concave verbs ; the 
Luma (flaskes); the Tanbih (warning); the Muhaddab (regularly draivn up); the 
Tabsira (elumdation); etc. It is said that the shaildi Abu Ishak as-Shirazi bor- 
rowed from him the titles of his own works, for he also composed a Muhaddab 
and a Tanbih, but on jurisprudence, and a Luma and a Tabsira on the principles 
of jurisprudence. Another work of Ibn Jinni's is the Fasr (disclosure) (A), form- 
ing a commentary on the Diwdn of al-Mutanabbi, which work he had read 
through under the tuition of the author. In this commentary I read the fol- 
lowing passage : "A person once asked al-Mutanabbi why, in his verse, Bdd^ 
436 " hawdka sabarta am km tasbird (suffer as you may, with firmness or with impa- 
" timce, you cannot conceal your hve}, he wrote the word tasbird L-ai' with a 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 193 

" Bnal elif, notwithsUnding the presence of the apocopating particle km, which 
" required tasbirj^. To this he answered: 'Were Abi 'l-Fath here' — mean- 
" ing me — ' be would tell you the reason.' " — The elif replaces here the simple 
corroborative ndn; the original form of the word is tasbiran .\jy^', but when 
this n&n is followed by a full stop, an elif is put in its place ; it is thus that 
al-Aasha says : Adore not Satan, adore God ; (la tdbudi 'i-Shaitdna wa 'Ualta 
fdbudd) )ji-tlj; here the original form of the word is fdbudan ^jJ^, but the 
subsequent stop brings in the elif I to replace the ndn. Ibn Jinni was born at 
Mosul some time before A. H. 330 (A.D. 9M); he died at Baghdad on Friday, 
the 27th of Safar, A. H. 392 (January, A. D. 1002). 



(1) Such app«an Ut be the meaning of ihe Eipreftion -.-rn tJl^JI. -J! vi'j, which signilies lilerally : You 
gire out must aUhough you are tp unripe grape. 

(3) Thia roaj be an ■IJuiion Id the utltfaction eipretaed by MuhamoMd on leiraing how bvourabl; his 
letter, in which he iaviied iha emperor Heracliui to embrace lalaroiim, bad been received b; that priDC«. 
Or perhapa it ma; refer to the livelj iaiereal which Muhammad toolt in the triumph of the Greeks over the 
Peraiam; an event which the Hoilimi pretend wai foretold in the Koran many years before. Sec Sural 30. 

(3) It abstained f^om the pleasure of seeing the beloved, lest her channa should have deprived it of sight. 

(4) The title of this work ia written dilTerently in each of Ihe HSS. 1 discovered It at length in the Ffh- 
Titt, and the autograph gives it with Ihe vcwel polnta. 



ABU AMR IBN AL-HAJIB. 

Abd Amr Othmiin Ibn Omar Ibn Abi Bakr (1), sumamed Jamal ad-din 
(beauty of reHgvm^, and generally known by the appellation of Ibn aUHajib (the 
ton of the chamberlain) f was a jurisconsult of the sect of Malik. His father was 
a Kurd and served the emir Izz ad-din Musak as-Salafai in the capacity of a 
chamberlain. His son Abu Amr was yet a boy when he studied the Koran at 
Cairo ; he then applied himself successively to Malikite jurisprudence, Arabic 
grammar, and the reading$ of the Koran, sciences in all the branches of which 
he acquired a consummate knowledge and attained distinction. He then pro- 
ceeded to Damascus, where he opened a class in that comer of the Great Mosque 
VOL. II. 2S 



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19^ IBN KHALUKAN'S 

which is appropriated to the Malikites. Multitudes attended his lessoos, and 
nothing could abate his zeal as a professor. He was deeply versed in a great 
number of sciences, but grammar became his favourite study. His (prvic^) 
works are an abridgment of the Malikite doctrines, a short introduction to 
grammar, entitled the Kd^ya (sufficient), and a treatise of a similar kind on the 
grammatical inflexions, entitled at-Shdfiya ($atufactory') ; to illustrate each of 
these works, he composed a commentary. He wrote also on the principles of 
jurisprudence, and all his productions are highly elegant and instructive. He 
contradicted the grammarians on some particular points and quoted, to confute 
them and bring their rules into doubt, examples (from ancient authors) extremely 
difficult to solve : he was (indeed) gifted with great penetration. Having left 
Damascus, he returned to Cairo, where he settled, and had crowds of pupils 
who assiduously attended his lessons. (Whai I was a kddi there) he came before 
me i-epeatedly to give evidence, and I then questioned him on obscure points of 
grammar, to which he made most satisfactory replies, with great sedateness of 
manner and complete self-possession. One of the questions which I proposed 
to hint' was relative to the incidental conditional phrase employed in another 
phrase of the same kind, as it occurs in this expression : in akalH in sharabti /adnJt 
tdliku (wife! if you eat (if you drmk), you are div<yreed by the fact! (2) and I asked 
him how it could be shown that, in this phrase, the priority of the act of drink- 
ing to that of eating is implicitly declared ; and that such is the case is proved 
by the fact that the divorce then takes place (by law), whereas had she eaten 
first and drunk afterwards, she would not have been divorced. I consulted him 
also on this verse of al-Mutanabbi's : 

I endeavoured to support my woes till I could endure them no longer (idta tnuita- 
bart\, and 1 feced every danger till no more remained for me to face [lAta rnvktahamt]. 

Respecting this verse, 1 asked him what was the reason that mustabar and 
muktaham were here in the genitive, although Idta is not one of those parts of 
speech which haive the power of governing a noun in that case? On both these 
questions he spoke at some length and gave an excellent solution to each ; and 
were his answers not so long, 1 would give them here (3). Ibn al-Hajib aftei^ 
wards removed to Alexandria with the intention of taking up his residence there, 
but he had not been long in that city, when he died. This event took place 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 195 

after sunrise on Thursday, the 26th of Shawwal, A. H. 646 (February. A. D. 
1249), and he was buried outside the gate which opens towards the sea (Bab al- 
BeJtr). His birth look place towards the end of the year 570 (A. D. H75) at 
Asna, a small village in the dependencies of al-Kusiya, which place is situated in 
Upper Said, a province of Egypt. 



tl) Tbe following paeuge ii wrilten in the DMi^D of (he autograph : ^jr^^lajt J ^J^l — iy ^t 
■' Ibo YqdOs ad Duwanl al-Miiri [nativt of Egypt)." Ad-Duicani probablj ugoiflH belonging to Dmtn 
^ji or rovln, a town in Armenia— II maj Iwvever mean belonging lo />un<U rVjJ, ■ village near 
Nahlwend, or lo Din, a village near Dinawir. 

(2) This phrase ligniGet: Wife I if j/ou eat vihan driiMng, you are divorced. The aoluiioQ of aameroua 
qnettioD* (imilar lo Ibis li given in Ibe Fatava Atemgirt, vol. I. p.ST9 et $eq. 

(3) The commeDlaiort on al-Hutanabbi mj thai in the eipreHion liUa tnmtabari Ihe noun _,^ ij under- 
Blood, it i) therefore equivalent to »k^a< ijf^ •Jl.'^. 



AL-MALIK AUAZIZ THE SON OF SALAH AD-DIN. 

Ab& '1-Fath Othman, surnamed al-Malik al-Aziz Imad ad-din [the miglOifAiJ 
prince, column of the faith), acted as viceroy of Egypt during the absence of his 
father, the sultan Salah ad-din Yusuf Ibn Aiyilb, in Syria. On the demise of his 
father at Damascus, he look possession of the supreme power with the unani- 
mous consent of the great military ollicers of the empire. This is an event so 
well known that any relation of it is unnecessary (1 }. His conduct as a sovereign 
was marked by such piety, virtue, magnanimity, and beoeBcence, as entitled 
him to the reputation of sanctity. He learned Traditions at Alexandria from 
the Mt^z as-Sitafi (col. /. p. 86) and the jurisconsult Abu 't-T&hir Ibn Auf 
az-Zuhri (2) ; at Cairo he received lessons from the learned grammarian Abu 
Muhammad II»i Ban (vol. 11. p. 70), and other eminent masters. It is said that 
his father preferred him to all his other ctuldreD. Al-Malik al-Aziz was in Syria 
when his son aWMalik al-Mansur Nasir ad-din Muhammad came into the world ; 
and the letter of congratulation which al-K&di al-Fadil (vol. U. p. m) wrote 



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196 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

to him from Cairo, announcing the happy event, was worded in (hese terms : 
" The humble servant of our master al-Malik an-Nasir kisses the ground before 
" him, and prays God to preserve his well directed and exemplary life! may 
" He increase his happiness for the happiness of others ! may the number of his 
" friends, servants, and followers be multiplied so that his authority have 
" therein an arm of might! may God so augment the abundance of his off- 
" spring that it may be said : There is Ike Adam of kings, and these are his sons! 
" His servant now informs him that the Almighty, to whom all dominion be- 
" longcth, hath favoured him, al-Malik al-Aziz, (may his arms be triumphant!^! 
'* with a signal blessing, a young prince, pure and holy, sprung from a gene- 
" rous stork the branches of which are engrafted one on the other, and pro- 
" duced by a noble family of which the princes are nearly equal to the angels 
" of heaven, and of which the slaves are sovereigns on this earth." Al-Malik 
al-Aziz was bom at Cairo on the 8th of the first Jumada, A. H. 567 (January, 
A. D. 1172). (His death was the rettdt of an accident ;) hatv'mg gone to (the pro- 
vince of) al-Faiyum, he rode out to hunt, and as he was gallopping full speed 
after a beast of chase, his horse fell with him, and the injury which he sustained 
brought on a fever : he was borne in that state to Cairo, and he died there on 
the seventh hour of the night preceding Wednesday, the 2')st of Muharram, 
A. H. 595 (November, A. D. 1 198). This event was announced to his uncle al- 
Malik al-Aadil in a letter of consolation addressed to him by al-Kadi 'l-Fadil, 
and a passage of which we shall transcribe here : " And we now say, in bid- 
" ding farewell to the blessing of al-Malik al-Aziz's existence : There is no power 
" and no might hu in Godf the words of those who endure with resignation ; — 
*' and we say moreover, inasmuch as a blessing still subsisteth among us bv 
" the existence of al-Malik al-Aadil : Praise be to God, the lord of ail creature! 
" the words of those who utter thanksgiving. — From this unfortunate event 
" has resulted that every heart is broken, and that the extreme of afHiction is 
" drawn (down upon vs); an occurrence such as this is for every individual (and 
" especially for those who resemble your humble servant,) one of death's most 
** effective admonitions, — and how much the more effective when exempUfied 
*' in the fate of a youthful kmg! May the mercy and blessing of God be shed 
" over his countenance ; and may the Divine favour make easy for him the path 
*' to paradise! 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 197 

" And when the beauty of other counlenances is effeced {by death), may the earth ab- 
" stain from obliterating the beauty of his. 

*' Thy humble servant, whilst he thus traces these lines in respectful duty, is 
" undergoing the combined sulTerings of mind and body; having pains in (he 
*' limbs, and sadness parching the heart ! he is the more afflicted by the loss of 
*' such a master, as it was not long since that he saw the father of that master 
'* among the living ; each day his grief has been renewed, and the first wound 
" was scarcely healed when It was opened by a second ! May God not deprive 
'* the Moslims of the consolation which they find in the existence of their 
" sultan at-Malik al-Aadil ! inasmuch as he hath not refused to them a befitting 
'* model of patience in the conduct of their blessed Prophet." — Al-Malik 
al-Aziz was buried in the lesser Karafa, in the sepulchral chapel erected over 
the grave of the imam as-Shafi. His tomb is a conspicuous object in that 
cemetery. 



(1) S«c AbO'l-Pedti Annali: torn. IV. p. 133 «f leq- 

(2l AbO'l-Tkbir Ismail Ibn Hikkl Ibn Iiroall Ibo Im Ibn kUt ai-Zuhri al-Kara>bi al-likaadBrini (a member 
of the tribt of Zuhra, which U a branch of that of Suraith and a native of Alexandria), luroamed (ilto 
Sadr al-liUm (centre of Itlamitm),-tiM a doctor of the sect of Mtilik and a mufti at thebigheat coDBideratloi]. 
H« itudied jurisprudence uoder AbO Bakr at-Tortflshi, and he learned TraditioDS from him, AbO Abd AlUb 
Mubaromad IbD Ahmad ar-Rlii, and others. The Ad/fi as-Silafi look notes at bis lectures and gave Traditions 
on bis authority. He was esteemed one of the most learned doctors of his sect, and the sullaa Stiih ad-dIn 
studied Mllik's treatise on juris prudence, Ibe Mutnatta, under him. He composed a number of works and 
educated many disciple*. This doctor was highly respected for bis piety and morti6ed life. He was born A.H. 
JK( (A. D. 1092], and he died in the month of Shaabin, A.H. XSt (November, A. D. 11SB].— (At-SoyOU's 
Bum al-MuMdira : MS. etf2, fol. liS. Ad-Dahabi's ^nntili; HS.7»3,rol.l Al-Vifi's Annals; MS. 6it.) 



THE SHAIKH ADI !BN MUSAFIR AL-HAKRARl. 

The i/iaiJth Adi Ibn Musafir ai-Hakkari was an ascetic, celebrated for the holi- 
ness of his life, and the founder of a religious order called after him ai-Ada'vm. 
His reputation spread to distant countries and the number of his followers in- 458 



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198 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

creased to an immense multitude. Their belief in his sanctity was so excessive 
that, in saying tlieir prayers they took him for their kibla (1) and imagined that, 
for the next life, they would have in him their most precious treasure and their 
best support. Before this, he had followed as a disciple a great number of emi- 
nent ghaikhs and men remarkable for their holiness ; he then retired from the 
world and fixed his residence in the mountain of the Hakkari tribe, near MoBul, 
where he built a cell (or monosterj/) and gained the favour of the people in that 
country to a degree unexampled in the history of the anchorites. It is said that 
the place of his birth was a village called Bait Far, situated in the province of 
Baalbek, and that the house in which he was born is still visited (as a place of 
satictity. He died A.H. 557 (A. D. 1162}, or, as some say, A.H. 555, in the town 
wliere he resided, [in the Hakkari country,] and was interred in the monastery 
which he had erected. His tomb is much frequented, being considered by bis 
followers as one of the most sacred spots to which a pilgrimage can be made. 
His descendants continue to wear the same distinctive attire as he did and to 
walk in his footsteps ; the confidence placed in their merits is equal to that for- 
merly shown to their ancestor, and like him they are treated with profound 
respect. Abu '1-Barakat fbn al-MustawG (2) notices the sha^h Adi in his his- 
tory of Arbela, and places him in the list of those persons who visited that city. 
MuzafTar ad-din, the sovereign of Arbela, said that, when a boy, he saw the 
shaikh Adi at Mosul : according to him, be was a man of middle size and tawny 
complexion ; he related also many circumstances indicative of his great sanctity 
The sha^h died at the age of ninety years. 



(1) S«e vol. I. pige 37. nole (3). 
{i) Hii life it gfren in this volume. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



ORWA IBN AZ-ZUBAIR. 



Abu Abd Allah Orwa Ibn az-Zubair, surnamed al-KurasIii al-Asadi (a descend- 
ant of A$ad and a member of the tribe ofKoraish), was one of the seven great juris- 
consults of Medina (we have already noticed five of them in this work under 
the proper heads). His father az-Zubair Ibn al-Awwam was one of the ten 
companions to whom Muhammad declared that they should enter paradise. 
Az-Zubair was the son of al-Awwam Ibn Khuwailid Ibn Asad Ibn Abd al-Ozza 
Ibn Kusai Ibo Kilab (the rest of the genealogy is well known) (1\ and of 
Safiya, the paternal aunt of the Prophet. The mother of Orwa was Asma the 
daughter of Abu Bakr as-Siddik ; the same who was surnamed Zdt an-Nitd- 
kain (the wearer of the .two girdlet) (2\ and designated as one of the old women 
of paradise (3). Orwa was the uterine brother of Abd Allah Ibn az-Zubair; the 
third brother, Musiib, being born of another woman. He has handed down a 
particular manner of reading certain words (huHif) of the Koran, and he 
received Traditions from his maternal aunt, A^isha, the Mother of the faithful. 
Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri and others (4j have given Traditions on his authority. 
Orwa vas a man of learning and holy life ,- when in Syria with al-Walid Ibn 
Abd al-Malik, a mortification settled in his foot and he was obliged to have it 
amputated. The operation was performed in the room where al-Walld was 
sitting, but as his attention was engaged by persons who were conversing with 
him, and as Orwa made not tlie sli^test movement, he was not aware what was 
doing till he perceived the smell caused by the hot iron which had been applied 
to the wound (5). This fact is mentioned by Ibn Kutaiba in his Kitdb al-Madrif. 
That same night, Orwa did not omit reciting his usual task of prayers. It is 
related that when he was making this visit (to Syria), his son Muhammad died, 
and that, OQ his return to Medina, he merely said : ' ' We have had sufferings in 
'* oiu* journey." He survived the amputation of his foot eight years. (6) On 
the death of his brother Abd Allah, he went to Abd at-Malik Ibn Marw^n and 
said to him one day : '* I wish you to give me the sword which belonged to my 
'* brother Abd Allah." — "It is (in (he armoury}," answered the khalif, "with 
" the other swords, and 1 should not know it amongst them." — " Let them be 
" brought here," replied Orwa, " and 1 will point it out." By Abd al-Malik's 



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200 IBN KHALLIKANS 

orders the swords were brought in, and Orwa selected from among them one 
very much hacked on the edge. '* Bid you know it before ?" said the prince. — 
" No," rcphed the other. — "How then have you recognised it?" — " By these 
' ' words of the poet an-Nabigha : 

" Their only bull lies in their swords, which are broken-edged with striking hostile 
" squadrons " 

It was this Orwa who dug the well at Medina which bears his name; none 
430 of the other wells in the city furnish better water than it does. He was bom 
A.H. 22(A.D. 642-3); but some say A. H. 26. He died A.H. 93 (A.D. 711-2), 
or A. H. 94, at Fura (7), a village belonging to him and situated near Medina. 
Fura was also the place of his interment, according to (Muhammad) Ibn Saad. 
The year 94 was called the year of the juriseontulU (8). We shall speak of his 
son Hisham. — The following anecdote is related by (AMi. Abd ar-Rahndn Mu- 
hammad) al-Otbi : Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwan, Abd Allah Ibn az-Zubair, and 
his two brothers Musab and Orwa were assembled together within the pre- 
cincts of the Sacred Temple (at Mekha) at the time in which they acknow- 
ledged the authority of Moawia Ibn Abi Sofyan (9), when one of them ex- 
claimed: "Come, let us each make a wish (10)." On this Abd Allah Ibn 
az-Zubair said : " My wish is to possess the two Holy Cities and obtain the kha- 
" lifale." — " Mine," said Musab, " is to possess the two Iraks and to have for 
" wives the two pearls of the tribe of Kuraish, Sukaina the daughter of al- 
Husain (11) and Aiisha the daughter of Talba (12)." — " My wish," said Abd 
al-Malik, "is to possess all the earth and succeed to Moawia." — Orwa then 
said : "I care not for those things which you desire; my wish is self-mortili- 
" cation in this life, the possession of paradise in the next, and the honour 
" of being one of those whose authority will be cited as transmitters of the 
" science of the law." The vicissitudes of time effected at length the fulfilment 
of their wishes ; and Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwan used to say : " If any one has a 
" desire to see a man (who mil be) one of the inhabitants of paradise, let him 
" look at Orwa Ibn az-Zubair." 



(1) Kilib waa the ton of Murra Ibn Kaib Ibn Luwai Ibn Ghalili tbn Fihr Kuraiih. 

(2> Atroa wh called Zdl an-JVffdfcam from her haTing torn ber girdle in two that ihe mighl lie up, »iib 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 201 

the pieces, ibe bag or proTuioni and the «ai«r-4kin whicb Holumnitd and Abb Bakr were ukiog with Ibem 
when they Qed from Mekka lo Medina. Her death occarrod A. H. 73 (A. D. 692-3).- (Al-Vin. Hatlbew's 
Hfithkdl. vol. II. p. in. MS. SSS, rol. 13.) 

(3) I have not been able to ditcover Ibe origin of thii appellatioD. 

(4) Bead in the prioled teit! aytdj ^?j»vJI <— 'U-i- (V'- ''*« *'"'*' reading, although borne out by 
maniucripu of good repute, u evidently iocorrect. 

(S^ In eastern couDlries the ttamp of tbe amputated limb ii teared with a hot iron or plunged into boiling 
pitch, io order to stop the bernorrhage. 

(6) Here a note in the autograph refers the copjiits to a lakhr^ja, {extTact or fty-ltaf), coatainiDg probably 
lome addiUooal informatioD. Tbia Qy-leaf rautt have been lost, at an early period, since its contents have not 
been inserted in any of the subsequent manuscripts. 

(7) The author of the Hartsid says: Fura, pronounced by some Furua, is the name of ■ village in the 
canioD of ar-Rabada, and on the road leading to Hekka. It lies al the distance of eight posts iji from Medina. 
OT.it isM)d,four days' journey.— He saysof ar-Rabada gjjj)1 ibatitis a village three miles JL^I from Medina. 
—Here for JU-t mtlei, we must perhaps read JUt nighti. 

(8) See vol.1, page 263. 

(9, The precise period of this event is uncerialD. 

(10) It is supposed by Moilimg that tbe wishes nude in the temple of Mekka are generally fulfilled. 

(11] See vol. I. page Ml. 

(12) Aliiha was the daughter of Taiha Ibn Obaid Allah al-Taimi and of Umm Kulthtim. the daughter of 
the khalif Abfl Bakr. On her marriage with Muslb Ibn ai-Zubair, her husband settled on her a dowry of 
one hundred thousand dinars. She died A.H. 133 (A. D. 740-1).— (iVujtIm.) 



RUKN AD-DIN AT-TAWUSI. 

Abu 'I-Fadi al-traki Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Iraki al-Kazwini, surnamed Rukn 
ad-din (column of the faith), and generally known by the appellation of at-Tawiisi, 
was an imam of great abilities and a controvertist of the highest talent. He 
studied controversy under the Hanifite doctor Rida ad-din an-Naisapuri (1 \ 
the author of the Tartkat fi 'l-Kkildf (system of amlroversy), and attained great 
skill in this science. He drew up on it three Tdltkas, one of them an 
abridgment, the other a Medium treatise, and the third a full exposition. Stu- 
dents flocked to Hamadan from countries far and near, that they might place 
themselves under the tuition of such a master, and it was by them that his 
Tdlikat were put down in writing. A college called tbe Hdjibiya was built for 



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aOS IBN KHALLIKAN'3 

him at Hamadan by the hdjibj or chamberlain, Jamal ad-din (2). His Medium 
treatise is better than the two others, because he displays in it more legal 
knowledge and furnishes more abundant infonnation ; at the present day, this 
work is more generally studied than any other on the same subject. The 
reputation of the author spread abroad, and his systems of controversy were in- 
troduced into distant countries. He died at Hamadan on the 14th of the latter 
Jumada, A. H. 600 (February, A. D. 1204).— 1 do not know, neither does as- 
Samani mention, the derivation of the word Tdtuilst; but I have heard a num- 
ber of jurisconsults, who were bis fellow-countrymen, say that this surname is 
borne by a great many persons in Kazwin, and that they all claim to be 
descended from the tdbt Tawus !bn Kaisan (vol. I. p. 642); at-Tawusi may 
perhaps be one of those. 



(1) It >ppetr« from ihe Tabakdt at-Hanafiya that Rida id-dln iD-Nautpdri compofed two worki, the 
Tarika fi 'l-KhildfaaA the Makdrim al-AkhlOk. Hajji Khilifa noticea tfaem both, but furouhe* no infonN- 
lion reipecliog their aulbor. [ do not think that Ihlt doctor ira« the Mine penon a* the Mnwaijad an-Naisl- 
pQri luroamed Bids ad-din, whoae life ii given bj Ibn Khalliktn. 

(21 Hamadin ceased to be the capital of Irtk on the hll of Ibe Seljuk dynasty there, A. H. WO. It nai 
most probably before that year that the chamberlaiD Jamil id-4\a built the college in queitioD. He mutt 
therefore have been in the service of the sullan Arelln, who died A. H. SJi, or of his ion Toghrul. vbo fell in 
the bailie with Tulcush KhAn, sulUn of Khowlreim, A. H. S90 



SHAIZALA. 



Abu 't-Maali Azizi Ibn Abd al-Malik Ibn Mansur al-Jili (1 ), generally known I>y 
the name of Shaizala, was an able doctor of the sect of as-Shafi and an eminent 
preacher; highly distinguished by the elegance of his language, the unction of 
his style, and his well-stored memory. He drew up some works on jurispru- 
dence, the principles of the Moslim religion, and pulpit oratory ; he collected 
also a great quantity of poetry composed by the Arabs of the desert. The place 
of kadi in the suburb of al-Azaj at Baghdad was filled by him for some time, 
and he was remarkable for the perspicacity of bis judgment. He had learned 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAHY. 303 

a great quantity of Traditions from many masters, and he professed opeoly the 
doctrines of al-Ashari. One of his sayings was tliis : " It was said to Moses ; WO 
'* Thou tkalt not tee me (2), because he was told to look at the mountain and 
" did so. Then it was said to him : ihou who teekett to tee ta, why look at any 
" thing else ?" He recited, on this idea also, the following verses : 

O you who pretend, in word, to be a sincere friend and brother; did you say the 
tnith, you would not look at any other but me t You hare walked the path of one who 
loved me, but you chose another object for die sincerity of your attachment; shame I 
how can a heart love equally two persons? 

Shaizala died at Baghdad on Friday, the 17th of Safar, A. H. 494 (December, 
A. D, 1100), and was interred outside the Abrez Gate, opposite the tomb of 
Abu Isbak as-Shirazi. — Shaizala was a surname which he received, but its sig- 
nification is unknown to me. 



;i) S«e vol. II. page 172, noie [%). 
{tl Konn, sural 7, veiw 139. 



ATA IBN ABl RABAH. 

Abu Muhammad Ata Ibn Abi Rabah Aslam (or Salim) Ibn Safwan was a 
mulatto, born at al-Janad, and a mawla to the Fihr family of Mekka, or to the 
family of Jumah : some, however, consider him as a mawla to Abu Maisara 
al-Fihri. He held a high rank at Mekka as a jurisconsult, a tdbi, and a devout 
ascetic, and he derived (/t« knowledge of the law and the Traditions) from the lips 
of JSbir Ibn Abd Allah al-AnsJri (1), Abd Allah Ibn Abbas (vol. I. p. 89), Abd 
Allah Ibn az-Zubalr, and many others of Muhammad's companions. His own 
authority as a traditionist was cited by Amr Ibn Dinar (vol. I. page 580), az- 
Zubri (2). Katada (3), Malik Ibn Dinar (4), al-Aamash (vol. I. p. 587), al-Auzai 
(ml. II. p. 84), and a great number of others who had heard him teach. The 
olTice o[ mafli at Mekka devolved to him and,to Miijahid (vol. I. p. 568, n. 8), 



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20& IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

and was filled by them whilst they lived. Katida declared him to be the most 
learned of all men in the rites of (he pilgrimage, and Ibrahim Ibn Omar Ibn 
Kaisansaid: "I remember that, in the time of the Omaiyides, a crier was 
*' ordered by them to proclaim to the pilgrims that no one should apply for 
" fatwas to any person but Ata Ibn Abi Rabah." It is to him that the poet 
alludes in these lines : 

Ask the mufti of Hekka if it be a crime in him whose heart is iQflamed with love, to 
visit the object of his passion and clasp her in his armsT — The mu/ilt replied: "God 
" forbid that piety should reiiise to bleeding hearts the means of closing (heir wounds, " 

When these two verses were repeated to him, he exclaimed (with great sim- 
plicity}: " By Allah ! I never said any such thing." (5) It has been handed 
down by doctors of our sect ((he Shdfite) that Ata held it lawful to have com- 
merce with female slaves when their masters authorised it ; and Abu 'l-Futuh 
al-Ijli (vol. J. p. 1 91 ) inserts the following observation on this subject in his 
elucidation of the obscure passages in the Wadt and the Wajtz, where he 
explains the third chapter of the section on deposits: *' It is related that Ata 
" sent his female slaves to his guests." But in my opinion this is highly im- 
probable, for even were it considered lawful, jealousy and manly feelings 
would prevent it; and how could an illustrious imam like him be even sus^ 
pected of such a thing: my only motive for speaking of it here is the singu- 
larity of the doctrine itself. — Ata was black in colour, blind of an eye, flat- 
nosed, having the use of only one arm, lame of a leg, and woolly-haired j when 
advanced in life he lost the use of his sight. Sulaiman Ibn Rafi said : '* I 
*', went into the Sacred Mosque and saw all the people assembled around some 
" person, and on looking to see who it was, behold ! there was A(a sitting on 
" the ground and looking like a black crow." He died A.H. 115 (A.D. 733-4); 
some say 114, at the age of eighty-eight years. It is related, however, by Ibn 
Abi Laila (6) that Ata performed the pilgrimage seventy times and lived to the 
441 age of one hundred. — Al-Janad is the name of a well known town in Yemen, 
which has produced many learned men. 



(1) A.M Abd illah JIbir Ibn Abd Allah as-Salami al-Aourl (a mtmber of the trib« of Salima and one 
vf tha Anatri) embraced Iftlamism one year before the Gnt pact made with Huhammad at ai-Akalu {AbutfeAa 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 205 

.^Innate*, lom.i. p.BSj.aDd «u prewDi at the aecond. He died A.U. 78 (A.D. 697-4), iged ninetf-four jeiri, 
— (JVtaflm. Siar tu-Salaf.) 

(2) The life of »-Zuhri will be found amongtt ihoac of ihe Muhammads. 

(3) The lire of K«Uda i« given by Ibn KtialUkln. 

(4) Hia life vill be found in ihia work. 

(5) In the autograph the word ^^^jb' ii wrUlen with a domma on the lait letter, which indicalet it to be 
in the nomiDatire case- Were thia reading admitted, the verce would aignlfr: " God forbid that the closing 
" up of the wound* in bleeding hearts should dewroy piety ;" and Ihe point of (he anecdote would be lost. 

(6) This ii the Hubaramad Ibn Abi Laila whose life will be found further on. He must not be confounded 
with the Abd ar-RabnitD Ibn Abi Liila whose life Jibs been given page M of this volume, and «ho was bis 
father. 



AL-MUKANNA AL-KHORASANI. 

AUMukanoa al-Khorasani (the veiled impostor o/" Kkorasdn), whose real name 
was Ala, but whose father's name is unknown to me, began his life as a fuller 
at Marw. Having acquired some knowledge of (natural) magic and incanta- 
tions, he pretended to be animated by the divinity, which had passed to him by 
transmigration, and he said to his partisans and followers: " Almighty God 
'* entered into the figure of Adam, and it was for that reason that he told ihe 
" angels to adore Adam, and they adored him except Iblti, who proudly refused (I), 
" and who thus justly merited the divine wrath. From the figure of Adam. 
*' God passed into that of Noah, and from Noah to each of the prophets suc- 
" cessiveiy, and of the sages, till he appeared in the figure of Abii Muslim al- 
" Khoras&ni (vol. II. p. 100), from whom he passed into me." His assertions 
having obtained belief with some people, they adored him and look up arms in 
his defence, notwithstanding the horrible extravagance of his pretensions and 
(he deformity of his person. He was low in stature, ill made, blind of an eye, 
and a stutterer ; he never let his face be seen, but always veUed it with a mask 
of gold, and it was from this circumstance that he received his name. The 
influence which he exercised over the minds of his followers was acquired by 
the delusive miracles which he wrought in their sight by means of magic and 
incantations. One of the deceptions which he exhibited to them was the image 



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206 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

o[' a moon, which rose so as to be visible to the distance of a two months' 
journey, after which it set ; and he thus inspired them with the Grmest belief 
in his words. It is to this moon that Abu 'l-Ala at-Maarri (vol. I. p. 94) 
alludes in the following line : 

Awake {from tlu dehuiont of love) I that fiill moon (2) whose head is shrouded in a 
veil is a false and delusive object, like the mooD of the veiled impostor. 

This verse forms part of a long kasida. Abu 'l-Kasim Hibat Allah Ibn Sina 
al-Mulk, another poet whose life we shall give in this work, speaks of this moon 
also in a long poem of his, where he says : 

Beware I the veiled [impoitmr'i] rising moon is not more pregnant with magic than the 
glances of that turbaned moon. 

When the reputation of al-Mukanna's conduct became public, the people 
rose up against him and laid siege to the castle which served him as a place of 
refuge. Perceiving that death was inevitable, he assembled his women and 
gave them a poisoned drink ; after which be swallowed a draught of the same 
liquor and expired. On entering the castle, the Moslims put all his followers 
to the sword. This occurred A. H. 163 (A. D. 779-80): may God's curse be 
upon himl and may God protect us from deceptions! — I never found the name 
or the situation of this castle mentioned by any person, till 1 read in Shihab ad- 
din (YdMt) al-Hamawi's (3) work', wherein he treats of the places which beai- 
the same name, that there are four places called Sandfly and that one of them, 
situated in Transoxiana, had been inhabited by al-Mukanna al-Khiiriji (the heretic 
rebel). This appears to be the castle in question. — I have since found, in the 
history of Khorasan, that it is the very one, aiKl that it is situated in the can- 
ton of Kassb (4). 



(1) Koran, aural 3, rerw 32. 

(2) [n poetrj a ftitl moon meaciB a haodsoroe face. 

(3) His life u given bj Ibo Kttalliktn. 

(J) Kassh lies in TraDMiiaoa.— I feel U oeceHBry to make in observation on tbe pais^e comuencing with 
/ Btver found the namt. It bu been added in the margin of the autograph by Ibo Khallikln himself, but 
thii last phrase. / have ttnee fotmd (n (Ae hutory of Shorat^, etc., does not eiist Id that manuscript, 
although given io others. 1 tDeretj notice the fact here, rMerving my concluiioo for anolher occasion. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 307 

IKRIMA. 

Abu Abd Allah Ikrima Ibn Abd Allah, a mawla or Abd Allah Ibn Abbas, di-ew 
his origin from the Berbers of Maghrib. He belonged first to al-lluzain Ibn 44S 
al-Hirr (1) al-Anbari, by whom he was given to Ibn Abbas, who was then go- 
vernor of Basra (2) for Ali Ibn Ali Talib. His new master took great pains in 
leaching him the Koran and the Sunna, and gave him (the) Arabic names (by 
which he woi thenceforward knotvn). Ikrima transmitted Tradilions on the au- 
thority of Ibn Abbas, Abd Allah Ibn Omar (vol. I. p. 567), Abd Allah Ibn Amr 
Ibn al-Aasi (3), Abu Iluraira (volt. p. 570), Abii Said al-Khudri (4), al-Hasan 
Ibn Ali Ibn Abi Talib, and Aaisha. He was one of the principal tdbis and juris- 
consults of Mekka, (but) he was constantly removing from one town to another. 
It is related that Ibn Abbas himself had ordered him to go forth and give 
fatwai to the people. Said Ibn Jubair (vol. I. p. 564) having been asked if he 
knew of any person more learned than himself, answered : " Ikrima." The 
Khfirijite opinions held by Ikrima exposed him to the animadversion of ihe 
public. He taught Traditions (as has been jvst said) on the authority of a 
number of Muhammad's companions, and Traditions were given on his autho- 
rity by az-Zubri, Amr Ibn Dinar (vol. 1. p. 580), as-Shabi (vol. II. p. 4}, Abii 
Isbak as-Sabii (5), and others. His master Ibn Abb^ died without giving him 
his liberty, and AU, the son of Ibn Abbas, sold him to Khalid Ibn Yazid Ibn 
Moawia for four thousand dinars, but Ikrima went to him and said : " There is 
" no good in you ; you have sold your father's learning for four thousand 
" dinars." On this Ali obtained Khalid's consent to annul the bargain, and 
granted^ Ikrima his liberty. Abd Allah Ibn al-Harith relates as follows: "I 
" went to visit Ali the son of Abd Allah Ibn Abb^s, and 1 saw Ikrima tied up 
'* at the door of a privy, on which I said : * Is it thus that you treat your slave?' 
" To which he replied : ' Know that that fellow has told lies of my father.' " 
Ikrimadied A.H. 107 (A.D. 725-6); others say 106, or 105, or 115; he was 
then aged eighty or eighty-four years. Muhammad Ibn Saad (6) relates th<' 
following circumstances on the authority of al-W&kidi (7), who states that hr 
learned them from Khalid Ibn al-Kasim al-Bayadi : " Ikrima and the poet Ku- 
** thayir, the lover of Azza, died in the year 105 and on the same day ; in the 



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208 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

" afternoon, funeral prayers were said over them at the usual place; I was pre- 
" sent at the ceremony, and the people said : ' Our most learned jurisconsult 
" and our best poet are dead.' " They both died at Medina, but some state, 
erroneously however, that Ikrima's death took place at al-Kairawan. Ikrima 
was much addicted to travelling in distant countries, and he visited, amongst 
otiiei' places, Khorasan, Ispahan, and Egypt. — The primitive signification of 
the word Ikrima is a hen~pigeon, but it was subsequently employed as a proper 
name for persons. — Omfira Ibn Hamza, the mawla of al-Mansur, so noted for 
his vanity (8), was descended from Ikrima ; according to the Khatib (vol. I. 
p. 75), he was the son of Ikrima's daughter ^9\ 

il) The autograph huls^t. 

(2) See vol. I. page 665, and note. 

(3| Abd Allah the ton of Amr Ibn al-Atii embraced lilimitm previouily to hi* father't convenion, and ob- 
tained pennission from the Prophet to write to hii pareot and infora him of the doctrine! of hi* new fiilh. 
He HIS only thirteen year* jounger than hi* father, aad he often reproached him for his turbulent and tedi- 
tious conduct. Bj hi* profound derotion and learning he obtained general respect, and he died A. H. 1i 
(A. D. Sftt-3], at tbe age of leventj-two feari. The place of hi* death i* not knovn with ceriaintj; aome au- 
thoritle* ttj Syria, and other*, Egypt or Hekka or Ttif.— (TalMA MS. No. 361, fol. 40.) 

«4) Abo Said Saad Ibn Malik Ibn Sintn Ibn Thalab al-Khudri {of IA« Mb* of Ehudra) wa* one of Muham- 
*' ad' icomptnioni and an ontdr of the third clau. At the age of thirteen jeart he took up arm* for the 
Propi'iet and accompanied hi* father to Ohod. When the Hoslim troop* were pa*>ed in review before the. battle, 
he «at found to be too young and tent back. The father fell at Ohod, and the fon alXerward* accompa- 
nied the Prophet in twelve of his eipedilioDi. He died at Medina, A. H.74 |A.D. 093-4}, and was interred in 
the BakI cemetery.— (JViff Am. Sfar at-Salaf. TalUh.) 

{6) The life of aa-Sabli b given in thi* volume. 

(A) The \\(e of Muhammad Ibn Said will be found in Uii* work. 

(7) The life of al-Wtkidi will be found further on. 

(8) Omira Ibn Hamza Ibn Mlllk Ibn Taild Ibn Abd Allah, a laaicta to al-Abbt* Ibn Abd al-Malik, wa* ■ 
kdiib in the service of the khalif al-HaniOr, who entrusted him itiUi the receiverihip of the revenues of Baira. 
Hi* style wa* remarkable for purity and elegance, and his liberality unbounded. He carried his vanity, how 
ever, to so great an ettreroe, that it wa* proverbially taid : " Such a one i* vainer than Omira Ibn Hamia." 
Some persons obtained from him a gift of one hundred thou*and dirhims, and when he was informed by his 
chamberlain that they had come to thank him for hi* generosity, he answered : " Tell them that I have deli- 
*' vered them from the opprobrium of poverty, and shall not impose upon them the burden of gratitude." 
Kumerou* other anecdotes are related of his eiceuive vanity. A palace In Baghdad called the hotel of Omlra 
(ddr Omdra) was so called after him. He died A. H. 199 (A.D. 814-5}.— (J6rid(red fltitory of Baghdad by 
the Khatib, No. 034, fol- 6 et 140. An-Nujitm az-Zdhira, in anno.) Some anecdotes respecting him will he 
found in thi* work. 

(9) Bead jj^ 'Lj\ ^Jl\. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



ZAIN AL-AABIDIN. 



Ab6 '1-Hasan Ali, the sod of al-Husain, the son of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, is gene- 
rally known by the appellation of Zain al-Aabidin (the ornament of the adorers), 
but was sometimes designated as Ali the Less. As none of the other children of 
al-Husain left issue, all his descendants are sprung from this son. Zain al- 
Aabidin is one of the twelve imams, and ranks among the principal Tdbi». 
It was observed by az-Zuhri that he never met a member of the tribe of Koraish 
possessing nobler qualities than he. His mother Sulafa was daughter to Yez- 
deg;ird, the last of the kings of Persia, and she was aunt to the mother of Yazid 
Ibn al-Walld the Omaiyide, sumamed an-Nakis. When Kutaiba Ibn Muslim 
al-Bahili, the lieutenant-governor of Khoras^n, had overthrown the royal dynasty 
of Persia and slain Fairuz the son of Yezdegird, he sent the two daughters of 
the latter to al-Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf ath-Thakafi (vol. I. p. 356), who was then 
governor of Irak and Khoras&n. Al-Hajj&j kept one of them for himself and 
sent the other, whose name was Shah Farid, to al-Walid Ibn Abd al-Malik, 44s 
and she bore him his son Yazid, who was afterwards surnamed an-Nakis 
(the dimitmher), because he diminished the donations, or pay, granted to the 
ti-oops. Zain al-Aabidin was also called Ibn abKhiaratain (the son of the ttoo 
preferred one$)f because the Prophet had said : " Of all the human race, 
'* Almighty God has preferred two (familiet); the tribe of Kuraish amongst 
** the Arabs, and the Persians amongst the foreign nations." Abu '1-Kastm 
az-Zamakshari relates the following circumstance in his work entitled Rabt 
al-Abrdr : *' Amongst the number of the Persian captives brought to Me- 
" dina by the Companions, in the khalifate of Omar Ibn al-Kbattab, were 
" three daughters of Yezdegird. When tbey had sold the other prisoners, 
*'Omar ordered them to sell the daughters of Yezdegird also, but Ali said: 
" * The daughters of kings are not to be treated as those of the common 
" people.' — 'And what must be done with them?' said Omar. — Ali replied: 
" ' Let a price be set upon them, to be paid by him who wishes to possess 
" them.' This proposal having received Omar's consent, Ali bought them all, 
'• and gave one of them to Abd Allah Ibn Omar, another to his own son al- 
'* Husain, and the third to his ward Muhammad, the son of AbA Bakr as-Sid- 
voL. II. 27 



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210 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

" dik. AM Allah's concubine bore him a sod named Salim, al-llusain's bore 
" Zain aUAabidin, and Muhammad's bore al-Kasim. These three children 
" were cousins by the mothers' side, and their mothers were daughters to Yez- 
"degird(l)." — Al-Mubarrad gives the following anecdote in his ^rJmi/: "A 
" man of the tribe of Kuraish, whose name was not mentioned to me, made a 
" relation which I here give: — I used to sit in company with Said Ibn al- 
'* Musaiyab (vol. I. p. 568}, and he asked me one day who were my maternal 
" uncles? to which I replied that my mother was a slave-girl. It seemed lo 
*' me that this answer diminished his regard for me, but 1 waited for some time, 
" andSalim,thesonofAbd Allah, thesonofOmarlbnal-Khaltabentered. When 
" he withdrew, I said ; ' Pray, sir, who is that ?' — ' Good God !' exclaimed he, 
" ' how is it possible that you do not know so eminent a person of your own 
'* tribe? why, that is Salim, the son of Abd Allah, the son of Omar Ibn al-Khat- 
" tab.' — ' And who,' said I, ' was his mother?' — ' A slave-girl,' was his reply. 
" Then came in Kasim, the son of Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr, who sat down for 
*' some time and then retired. * Pray, sir,' said I, 'who is that?' — *How!' 
" exclaimed he, ' you do not know so eminent a person of your own family? 
" how very strange! why, that is al-Kasim the son of Muhammad Ibn Abi 
"Bakr as-Siddik.' — 'And who,' said I, ' was his mother?' — '.\ slave girl.' 
" I waited yet longer, and Ali, the son of al-Husain, the son of Ali Ibn Talib en- 
" tered. When he went away, I said to Ibn al-Musaiyab ; * Pray, sir, who is 
" that ?' — ' That is a person,' replied he, ' whom it is impossible for a Muslim 
" not to know; that is Ali, the son of al-Husain, the son of Ali Ibn Abi Talib!' 
" — ' Who was his mother?' said I. — ' A slave-girl !' he replied. On this I 
" addressed him in these terms : ' I remarked, sir, that your regard for me was 
** lessened when you learned that my mother was a slave-girl ; but do not these 
" persons resemble me in the same respect ?' From that moment I acquired 
" increased favour in the sight of al-Musaiyab." — The people of Medina had a 
dislike to taking concubines, but their feelings on this point were completely 
changed when Ali, the son of al-Husain, al-Kasim the son of Muhammad, and 
Salim the son of Abd Allah grew up and surpassed every person in the city by 
their piety and their knowledge of the law. — Ibn Kutaiba mentions, in his Kildb 
al-MoArif, that Zain al-Aabidin's mother was a native of Sind and that her name 
was Sulafa; others however call her Ghazala, and God knows best which is right. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 211 

— Zain al'Aabidin was most attentive to his mother, and it was said lo him : 
"■ You are certainly a most dutiful son, but why do we not see you eat out of 
"the same dish with herV" To which he replied: "Because I should be 
" afraid that in stretching forth my hand to take a morsel, that morsel might 
" be one on which she had already cast her eyes; and 1 should have tlius com- 
" milled an unduliful act." The slory of Abu 'l-Mikhassh with his son (2) is 
quite the contrary of the foregoing, for he said : " 1 had a daughter who sat at 
" table with me, and put forth a hand like a bimch of dates, joined to an arm 
" (long and white) like the crown-bud of the palm-tree, and she never cast her 
" eyes on a good morsel without offering it to me. I found a husband for her, 
" and 1 had after that a son who sat with me at table, and put forth a hand 
" (broad and blaek) like the scale (3) of a palm-tree, joined to an arm like the 
" cross post of a tent-frame; and, by Allah ! be never cast his eyes on a nice 
" bit, but his hand had already seized it." — Ibn Kutaiba says in his Kitdb al- 
MadnfihAl on the death of Zain al-Aabidin's father, his mother married Zu- 
baid (4), his father's mawh, and he Iiimself enfranchised one of his slave^rls 
and married her. This conduct drew upon bim a letter of reproaches from 
Ahd al-Malik Ibn Marwan, but he replied to it in these words : " Ve ham in the 444 
" apottle of God an excellent example (5), and he manumitted and married SaGya 
" the daughter of Huaiya Ibn Akhtah; he manumitted also Zaid Ihn Haritha 
" and gave him in marriage Zainah Bint Jahsh, the daughter of his paternal 
" aunt." — ^The merits and excellencies of Zain aUA&bidln are beyond enume- 
ration. He was bom on a Friday, in one of the months of A. H. 38 (A. D. 
658-9) ; he died at Medina, A. H. 94 (A. D. T12-3), some say 96 [or 92], and 
was interred in the cemetery of al-Baki, in the tomb of his uncle al-Hasan Ibn 
Ali. The mausoleum in which they are deposited contains also the tomb of 
al-Abbas. 

(I) Tfaii it in coDtradiction with Ibn Khallikln's own gtatemeal. 
(!) Bead iwl *^ ^==*'l ^'. 

(3) What ii meant bj the $ettU of the palm-tree is the broad etcmceDce od the trunk to wbich the stero 
ot (he leaf wai attached, and which remains when the leaf falU off. 

(4) Read in Ibe printed (eit JkoVj. 
(B) Koran, nirat 33, Tme tl. 



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IBN KUALLIKAN'S 



ALI AR-RroA. 



AbA '1-Hasan AH ar-Rida(l), the son of Musa al-Kazim, the son of Jaafar 
as-Sadik, the son of Muhammad al-Baktr, the son of Ali Zain al-Aabidin, him 
whose life has been just given, is considered by (that sect of the Shtite* called) 
the Imamites as one of the twelve imams. AI-MamAn married him to his 
daughter 0mm Habib, and having nominated him successor to the khalifate, 
he caused his name to be inscribed (as such) on the gold and silver coinage. In 
executing this resolution, al-Mamun proceeded in the following manner : When 
in the city of Marw, he had a census taken of all the male and female descend- 
ants of al-Abbas, and found that their number was thirty-three thousand, old 
and young (2). He then sent for Ali (ar-Birfo), and having granted him a most 
honourable reception, he convoked the principal ofQcers of the empire and in- 
formed them that, after examining throughout the descendants of al-Abbas and 
those of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, he did not find amongst them a more excellent 
person than Ali (ar-Bida), nor one better entitled to the empire. He then de- 
clared him his successor, and ordered the black standards and livery (of the Abbd- 
tide$) to he suppressed. When intelUgence of these proceedings reached those 
descendants of al-Abbas who were in Irak, they felt that resolute measures 
were necessary to prevent the supreme authority from passing out of the hands 
of their family, and they in consequeRce pronounced the deposition of al-Ma- 
mun and took the oath of fealty to his uncle, Ibrahim Ibn al-Mahdi, whom they 
declared khalif. This event took place on Thursday, the 5th of Muharram, 
A. H. 202 (25th July, A.D. 817); some say, however, that it occurred in A. H. 
203. It would be too long to relate the particulars of this event, the results of 
which are well known ; we have besides given a summary sketch of them in the 
life of Ibrahim Ibn al-Mahdi (vol. I. p. 17). Ali ar-Rida was bom at Medina, 
on a Friday, in the year 153 (A. D. 770), hut this is contradicted by other 
statements, which place his birth in A. H. 151, on the 7th or 8th of Shawwal, 
or on the 6th of that month. He died in the city of Tus on the last day of 
Safar, A. H. 202 (September, A. D. 817), or, according to others, on the 5th of 
Zu 'l-Hijja, or the 13th of Zu '1-Kaada, A. H. 203 (May, A.D. 819). Al- 
Mamiin said the funeral service over him and had him buried near the tomb of 



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BIOGBAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 218 

his own father ar-Rashid. His death was caused hy eating too many grapes ; 
hut some attrihute it to a slow potsoD. It is of him that Abu Nuwas speaks 
in the following lines : 

People said (o me : " You are the ablest of all men in the various styles of noble 
" discourse; your eulogies, expressed in admirable verse, are a blossom filling the 
" hand of him who culls it with a fruit of pearls. Why then have you neglected to ce- 
" lebrale (he son of MAsa and extol the noble qualities united in his person 1" Hy. 
answer was: " 1 am unable to utter praises suited to the merits of an imAm to whose 
" ftther [the angel) Gabriel acted as a servant (3)." 

He composed these verses because one of his companions had said to him : *' I 
'* never saw a more shameless fellow than you; there is not a sort of wine nor 
'* beast of chase but you have made some verses on it; and here is Ali Ibn Musa 
" ar-Rida, liviog in your own time, and yet you have never noticed him." To 
this Abii Nuwas replied: "By Allah! my silence has no other motive thaD44it 
*' the respect I bear him; it beGts not a person of my rank to compose verses on 
" a man like him." Some time after this, he recited the piece here given. 
The following lines were pronounced by him also in praise of ar-Rida, (4) (and 
mention is made of the circumstance (by Ibn cd-Jauzi) in the Shuzilr al-OkM 
under the year 201 or 202.) 

The immaculate {deteendants of AU,) the pure of heart 1 whenever their name is pro- 
nounced, benedictions accompany it. He whose descent you cannot trace up to Ali, 
has no title to boast of ancient ancestry. When God created and established the 
world, he made you pure, O mortals 1 and chose you for his own ; but you {totu of AH!] 
are the noblest of mankind ; it is you who possess the knowledge of (God'i) book and of 
the meaning conveyed by its lurali (5). 

Al-Mami)n said one day to Ali Ibn Miisa : ** What do your brethren say of 
"our grandfather al-Abbas Ibn Abd al-Multalib?" — "That," replied Ali, 
" which they ought to say of -a man (lo highly favoured) that, when God imposed 
" on his creatures obedience to the Prophet, He prescribed to the Prophet the 
*' duty of obedience towards him (6)." On receiving this answer, al-Mamiin 
ordered him a present of one million of dirhims. His brother Zaid Ibn Mtisa 
having revolted at Basra against al-Mam6n and given the inhabitants a prey to 
violence and rapine, this khalif sent Ali Ibn Miisa to turn him from his evil 
courses. On meeting him AU said: "Woe be to thee, O Zaid! thou bast 
" treated the Moslims of Basra most cruelly, and yet thou callest thyself a son 



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'* of Fatima, the daughter of the Prophet. By Allah! the Prophet himseir is 
" thy greatest foe. Know that he who pretends to derive honourable qualities 
" from God's Prophet, should manifest the same to others (7)." When this 
discourse was related to al-Mamun, he burst into tears and exclaimed : " It is 
" thus that all the members of the Prophet's family should be!" The last 
words of All Ibn Musa's reprimand convey an idea which he had borrowed from 
a saying of Zain al-Aabidin's (him whose life has been just given). That imam 
always travelled incognito, and when asked his motive, he replied: " 1 detest 
" assuming the qualities to which my descent from the Prophet entitles me, 
" when I cannot manifest them to others." 



(1) Ar-Rida lignifle* Iht aereptad, Ike phaiing. Thil (nrname wu given to him bj aHHtmOu on nomi- 
nating biin luccessor U tlie empire. AbA 'l-FedA layi that the full title wa*: ar-Rida mm Aal Muham- 
mad, vhich Reiake hu rendered by communtbiit voli* tltttui Kir de gtntiHIatt MuHammedii, but I belieie 
it to mean acceptiiiimuM optuj Deum vir de genlititata itvhammeiUi. 

(3) Thil (eeins to be an eiagferation. 

(3) The poet meant the imtm'i forefather Hubanunad, to whom Gabriel wai Knt with the different pau^et 
of the Koran. 

(4) The phrase which follovi ii written in the margin of the autograph, but hat heen acored out. 

(5) Some of the Shtite sects beliere that every vene of the Koran bai not only a literal, but a hidden 
meaning; which lait ii known to their Imin atone. 

(6) Thif precept i» not in Uie Koran. The author of tiie Majmd aUAhbdb {MS. fond) Sl.GeniMiD,No.l91) 
itatet, In hit life of al-Abbts, that the Prophet treated bim with the deference and reaped due to a parent. 

1,7) Literally: "He that takes hj the Prophet ihould give bybim." 



ABU 'L-HASAN Alr-ASKARI. 



AbA 'l-Hasan Ali al-Askari, surnamed al-Hadi (the director), and held by the 
imdmite Shiites as one of the twelve imims, was the son of Muhammad aUlawad 
and the grandson of Ali ar-Rida; having just given the life of the latter, it is 
unnecessary for us to trace up the genealogy farther (at it wUl be found there). 
Secret information having been given to al-Mutawakkil that this imam had a 
quantity of arms, IkmJls, and other objects for the use of his followers concealed 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 215 

in his house, and being induced by malicious reports to believe that he aspired 
10 the empire, he sent one night some soldiers of the Turkish guard to break 
in on him when he least expected such a visit. They found bim quite alone 
and locked up in his room, clothed in a hair-shirt, his head covered with a 
woollen cloak, and turned with his face in the direction of Mekka ; chanting, 
in this attitude, some verses of the Koran expressive of God's promises and 
threats, and having no other carpet between him and the earth than sand and 
gravel. He was carried off in that attire and brought, in the depth of the 
night, before al-Mutawakkil, who was then engaged in drinking wine. On 
seeing him, the khalif received him with respect, and being informed that no- 
thing had been found in his house to justify the suspicions cast upon htm, he 
seated him by his side and offered him the goblet which he held in his hand. 
*' Commander of the faithful !" said Abu '1-Hasan, " a liquor such as that was 
" never yet combined with my flesh and blood; dispense me therefore from 
*' taking it." The khalif acceded to his request and then asked him to repeat 
some verses which might amuse him. Abu 'l-Hasan replied that he knew by 
heart very little poetry; hut al-Mutawakkil having insisted, he recited these 
lines : 

They passed the night on the summits of the mountains* protected by valiant warriors, 
but their place of refuge availed them not. After all their pomp and power, they had 4i6 
to descend from their loFly fortresses to the custody of the tomb. what a dreadful 
change ! Their graves had already received them when a voice was heard esclaiming : 
" Where are the thrones, the crowns, and the robes of state? where are now the faces once 
" so delicate, which were shaded by veils and protected by the curtains of the audience- 
" hall (1)?" — To this demand, the tomb gave answer sufficient: "The worms," it said, 
" are now revelling upon those faces; long had these men been eating and drinking, 
" but now they are eaten in their turn." 

Every person present was filled with apprehension for Abil 'l-Hasan Ali's safety ; 
they feared that al-Mutawakkil, in the first burst of indignation, would have 
vented liis wrath upon him; but they perceived the khalif weeping bitterlv, the 
tears trickling down his beard, and all the assembly wept with him. Al-Muta- 
wakkil then ordered the wine to be removed, after which he said : '* Tell me ! 
*' Abii 'l-Hasan! are you in debt?" — "Yes," replied the other, "I owe four 
" thousand dinars." The khalif ordered that sum to be given him, and sent him 
home with marks of the highest respect. — Abu 'l-Hasan was born at Medina, A.H. 



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216 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

21 4, on Sunday, the 1 3th of Rajab (Sept. A. D. 829); others say od the day of 
Arafa (the 9th of ZA 'l-Hijja"/, some persona again place his birth in the year 213. 
Al-Mutawakkil was at length induced, by the numerous unravourable accounts 
which he received of Abil 'l-Hasan's conduct, to have him taken from Medina 
and sent to Sarr-man-raa. This town was also called al-Atkar (the army), be- 
cause al-Molasim, the prince who built it, removed his army (from Baghdad) to 
that station. It was on account of his residence there that Abu '1-Hasan was 
sumamed al-Ashari. He passed twenty years and nine months al that place, 
and he died there on Monday, the 2Ath of the latter Jumada, A.H. 254 (June, 
A. D. 868). Others place his death on the 25th or on the 4th of that month ; 
some again say that he died on the 3rd of Rajah of the year just mentioned. 
He was interred in the house where he dwelt. 



(1) When the Mvereign gave audience, une or more curlains were tlinji drawn between bim aDil ihr 
public. Id old limei, the number of eurltint wat teren, and tbej were placed at lome diitanee from each 



AU IBN ABD ALLAH IBN AL-ABBAS. 

Abu Muhammad Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn aUAbbas Ibn Abd al-Muttalib Ibn 
Hashim al-Hashirai, grandfather to the khalifa as-Saflah and al-Mansur, was 
the youngest son of his father. Distinguished for the eminence of his rank, 
the nobleness of his descent, and his talent as an elegant speaker, he was equally 
conspicuous for his beauty, wherein he surpassed every other member of the 
tribe of Koraish. "He possessed five hundred olive-trees, and he said every 
" day a prayer of two rakai at the foot of each : he was called ZA 'th-Tfui' 
" ^ndt." — So says al-Mubarrad in his KdmU, but the hdfiz Abu 'l-Faraj Ibn al- 
Jauzi states, in bis Kitdb al-Alkdh^ that the person who bore this surname was 
Ali Ibn al-Husain (Zain al-Aabidin) and that he was so denominated because he 
prayed one thousand rakai every day, so that callogities (tkafindl) were formed on 
his knees like those on the limbs of camels. — It is related that Ali Ibn Abi Talib 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICnONARY. 217 

missed Ibn Abbas one (iay at the prayer of noon and asked the persons present 
what could be his motive for staying away ; they replied that a son was bom to 
him, and when the prayer was over, Ali said : ** Let us go and see him." On 
entei'ing, he congratulated Ibn Abb&s and then said : *' I ttiank the Giver and 
" mayest thou find a blessing in the gift! what name has he received from you ?" 
— "Would it be right for me," replied Ibn Abbas, "to give him a name and not 
" wait till ihou shouldst do it ?" Ali tlien told them to bring the child, and 
having taken it in his arm, he chewed a date and rubbed the roof of its mouth 
with it (\); he then handed it to the father, saying : "Here! take it, AbA 'l-Am- 
" lak (2); I give it Ali for a name and AbH, 'l-Ha$an for a surname." — ^Wheo 
Moawia got possession of the khalifate, he said to Ibn Abbas : " None of your 
" family should bear the same name and surname as that man ; 1 shall call the 
" child AM Muhammad." — This appellation then became current as his sur- 
name.^ — It is al-Mubarrad who relates this anecdote in his Kdmil, but the hdfiz 
Abu Noaim says in his Hikjat al-Awlid: "When Ali Ibn Abd Allah went to see 
" Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwan, that khalif said to him : * Change thy name and 
" thy surname, for I cannot bear to hear them pronounced.' The other re- 
" plied : 'As for the name, no; but as for the surname, give me that of Abti 
" Muhammad.' It was thus that his surname was changed." — I must observe 
that Abd al-Malik's motive in speaking so was the hatred which he bore to Alj 
Ibn Abi Talib, and this was so excessive that he could not endure to bear his 447 
name and surname pronounced. Al-Wakidi says that Abu Muhammad was 
bom on the night in which Ali was murdered (a statement in contradiction to that 
made by al-Mubarrad), and God alone knoweth the truth. — Al-Mubarrad says 
also (3) : " Ali (Ibn Abd AUah) was flogged twice, and, each time, by the order 
"of al-Walid Ibn Abd al-Malik. The first time was for having married Lu- 
" b5ba (4), the daughter of Abd Allah Ibn Jaafar Ibn Abi Talib. She had been 
" already married to Abd Malik, but one day he took a bite out of an apple and 
" handed hep the rest. Now, as he had a bad breath, she called for a knife, 
" and being asked by him what she wanted to do with it, she replied : ' To cut 
" off the part of the apple which is spoiled.' He immediately divorced her, and 
" she was taken in marriage by this Ali Ibn Abd Allah. In consequence of this, 
" al-Walid flogged him, saying: 'Ah ! you mean to degrade the khalifs by 
" marrying their mothers.' (For it was a motive of this kind which led Mar- 
voL. II. 28 



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218 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

" w&n Ibn al-Hakam (al-Waltd'$ gTandfatker) to marry die mother of Khalid, 
'* the son of Yazi<I, ibe son of Moawia.) Ali Ibn Abd Allah replied: * My 
" intention was to quit this town; and, as I am her cousin, I married her to be 
" her protector.' " — Others say that Abd al-Malik married Labbana, the daugh- 
ter of Abd Allah Ibn Jaafar, and as he had a bad breath, she suggested to him 
the propriety of using a tooth-brush. He took her advice, but divorced her. 
She then became the wife of Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Abbas, who was bald and 
always wore a skull-cap ; Abd al-Malik then sent a girl to pull off his cap un- 
awares and thus expose his baldness to Lubbana, with whom he was sitting. 
On this Lubbana said: "I like a bald Hashimile better than a foul-breathed 
" Omaiyide." — Relative to the second flogging which Ali Ibn Abd Allah re- 
ceived, we shall give a relation of it furnished by Abik Abd Allah Muhammad 
Ibn Shujaa, and which was headed with the names of the persons through whom 
it had successively passed down till he received it; the narrator says ; ** I one 
" day saw Ali Ibn Abd Allah flogged with a whip, and paraded about on a camel, 
" with his face towards the tail,whilst a crier proclaimed : ' This is Ah Iba Abd 
" Allah the Liar.' On this, Iwenlup to him and said: 'What is the reason of 
" their calling you a liarV and he answered : 'They were told that I had de- 
" dared that the sovereign authority would be exercised later by my two sons ; 
" and, by Allah ! their descendants shall continue to hold it till they be mas- 
" tered by their own slaves; a small-eyed race, with broad faces like doubly- 
" strengthened shields (5).' " Ibn al-KaIbi says, in his Jamharat an-Nitab, that 
the person who presided at the flogging of Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Abbas was 
Kulthum Ibn lytid Ibn Wahwah Ibn Kushair Ibn al-Aawar Ibn Kushair, the 
commander of the khalif al-Walid Ihu Abd al-Malik's police guards : he after- 
wards governed North Africa in the name of Hisham Ibn Abd al-Malik, and he 
was slain in that province (6). — Another author mentions that Kulthtim was slain 
in the month of Zii 'l-Hijja,A.H.i23(0ct.-Nov.A.D.741}.— "Ali Ibn Abd Alhih," 
says a narrator, "went with his two grandsons, the (future) khalifs as-Saflah and 
" al-Mansur, into the presence of Sulaiman Ibn Abd al-Malik" — this is a mis- 
uke ; it was with Hisham Ibn Abd al-Malik that the circumstance occurred — 
" and that khalif made room for him on his throne, showed him great kindness 
*' and asked him what he required. Ah answered ; ' I am thirty thousand dir- 
" hims in debt;' on which the khalif gave orders to pay the sum for him. He 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 219 

" ihen said : * You will recommend ihat my two boys be well treated.' The 
" khalif gave orders to that effect, and Ali thanked him and said : * \ou and 
" they are relations by blood.' When Ali turned to withdraw, Hisham said to 
" the company: 'That ibaihh has grown old and has fallen into dotage; he says 
" that the authority which we exercise will pass into the hands of his children.' 
" Those words were overheard by Ali, who exclaimed : * And so it shall be, by 
" Allah! these two shall reign.' " — Ali was held in the highest respect by the 
people of Hijaz : Hisham Ibn Sulaiman al-Makhzuni related on this subject 
as follows : " Whenever Ali Ibn Abd Allah came to Mekka to perform the pil- 
" grimage or to visit the temple, the Koraish suspended the assemblies which 
" they held in the Sacred Mosque and deserted the places where public lessons 
" were usually given, for the purpose of keeping him company and giving him a 
" mark of the profound respect and veneration which they bore him : when he 
" sat down, they sat down ; when he stood up, they stood up ; and when he 
" walked, they all crowded around him and walked with him. This they conti- 
" nued to do till he left the Sacred Territory." He was of a fair complexion, 
large in body, and wore a long beard. His feet were so large, that he could 44H 
find no shoes or boots to fit him, unless they were made on purpose by his 
orders. He was so extremely tall, that when he performed the circuits around 
the Temple on foot, with the rest of the people about him, he seemed to be on 
horseback. Yet, tall as he was, he only came up to the elbow of his father Abd 
Allah, and he only came up to the elbow of his father al-Abbas, whose stature 
was surpassed, in an equal degree, by that of his father Abd al-Muttalib (7). 
An old woman who saw Ali Ibn Abd Allah making the circuits around the 
Kaaba and surpassing in height every person there, asked who he was, and being 
informed that he was Ali Ibn Allah, tlie grandson of al-Abbas, she exclaimed : 
"•There is no god but God ! people would doubt my memory, were I to say that 
"I saw al-Abl)as going round this sacred House, and that he looked like a 
"white tent (8)." All this is mentioned by al-Mubarrad in his Kdmil; he 
states also that al-Abbas had a powerful voice, and that, one morning at day- 
break, a hostile troop having come down upon them, he cried out as loud as he 
could, "The enemy ! to arms I" and that every pregnant female who heard him 
miscarried (9). Abu Bakr al-Hazimi (10) says in his (geographical) work con- 
taining the list of those names which are borne by more than one place, under 



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390 IBN KUALLIKAN'S 

the letter ghain, where he notices two places called al-Okdba: " Al-Abb4s Ibn 
" Abd al-Muttalib would stand on Sala, a hill near Medina, and call to his slare- 
~' ' boys at al-Ghaba, loud enough to be heard by them. This he did towards 
" the end of the night ; and there are eight miles between Sala and al-Ghaba." 
— Ali Ibn Abd Allah died at as-Sharat, A.H. 117 (A.D. 735), aged eighty years. 
He was bom, according to al-Wiikidi, on the night in which Ali Ibn Abi Talib 
was murdered; namely, the eve of Friday, the i7th of Ramadlin, A. H. 40 
(January, A. D. 661 ) ; but other dates are assigned to his birth. (He $ays also 
that) Ali Ibn Abd Allah died A. H. 118. Another historian places his death in 
the month of Zu 'l-Kaada; Khalifa Ibn Khaiyat, in A. H. 114, and a fourth, in 
A. H. 119. He wore his hair dyed black, and his son Muhammad, the father of 
as-Saffah and al-Mansir, dyed his red, so that the persons who did not know 
them, mistook one for the other. — As-Shardt is a place in Syria, on the road 
leading from Damascus to Medina ; it is situated near as-Shaubek, in the pro- 
vince of al-Balka (1 1 ), In the environs lies the village called al-Humaima, which 
was the property of this Ali and of his children during the reign of the Omaiyide 
dynasty : as-Sadah and al-Mansiir were bom and brought up there ; they pro- 
ceeded from thence to Kufa, where, as is well known, as-Safiah was proclaimed 
khalif. — We shall give the life of Muhammad, the son of Ali Ibn Abd Allah. — 
At-Tahari says, in his History, that al-Walid Ibn Abd aUMalik Ibn Marwan re- 
moved -Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Abbas from Damascus and assigned him al- 
Humaima as a residence, in A.H. 95 (A.D. 713-4). His descendants continued 
to dwell there till the fall of the Omaiyides, and he had upwards of twenty 
male children born to him in that place. 



[I) Mubaramad did ibe Mme with Abd Allah Ibo ai-Zubair, and ibe ciisUlm vu kept up by pioui M«wlims. 
{2) Thii it tbe fini time I Bnd ihii lurnanie giveo to Ibn Abbis. 

(3) It ml]' be remarked thai, throughoul this article, the oumerous eilracls from al-Hiibarrad'( Kdmil are 
eiiber aiily fables, or elte to coDiradiction witb the Blalements of otber authors. 
H) The autograph has uU. 

(5) This propbecj v»s probablj lupposed to designate Ibe Turbiih troopi in tbe aerrice of the klialiff. 

(6) See the eitract from an-Nu«airi given bj me in tbe /oumal Atialiqua for November, 1841. 

(7) Ibn Khallikan baa borrowed thii absurd lie ttota al-Mubamd. It may, however, be founded on fact, 
ai each of (beae perions might have been only a boy when aeen at tbe aide of his father. ' 

(8) It must be recollected that the ihrdm, or cloak, wora by tbe pilgrims when they perform the circuits 
round the Kaaba, is of white wool. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 2S1 

(0) Thii mij be true, bul it wm rttber throogh fur of the BDemj ibtn from the loudneu of ■1-Abbli'> 

(10) Bii life ii given bj Ibo KhallikAn. 

(11) In Berghaut' map of S^ria. at-Shardt or Schtra, u he «Ti(e< it, ii placed between Akiba and Petri, 
in lal. 38° 8^, and long. 33° X E. from Parif. 



THE KADI ABU 'L-HASAN ALJURJANL 

The kadi Abu 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Abd al-Aziz aUJurjani was a doctor of the seel 
of as-Shafi, an elegant scholar and a poet. The ihaikh Abu Ishak as-Shirazi 
mentions him in the Tabakdl d-Fokdha (biographical dictionary of juriscomulU}, 
and remarks that his poetical works have been collected into a diwdn. It was 
the kadi 'l-Juijani who composed these lines : 

They said to me: "You are fell of backwardnesa;" {why not celebrate the praiiet of 
the great f] They might have seen, however, that I was a man who shuDoed a station 
in which dishonour had been his lot. 

The piece which contains this verse is of great length, and so well known 
that it is needless to give it here. — Ath-Tbaalibi speaks of him in these terms in 
the ycAima : " He was the pearl of the age, the wonder of the world, the pupil 419 
" of the eye of science, the pinnacle of the diadem of the belles-lettres, and the 
** cavalier of the army of poetry. To a penmanship tike that of Ibn Mukla, he 
<* united the prose-style of al-Jahiz and the poetic talent of al-Bohtori. In his 
*' youth he acted as the lieutenant of al-Khidr (1), journeying throughout the 
" earth and travelling to the provinces of Irak, Syria, and elsewhere; during 
" which expeditions he acquired such a stock of varied information and instnic- 
" tion, as rendered him a beacon in the regions of science, and in learning, 
" perfection itself." He then gives numerous extracts from his poetry, and, 
" amongst others, the following lines : 

Thy lover is loiwented by his passion ; let him experience thy kindness ; be not cruel, 
but appreciate his merit, for he is the last {and mod patient) of Ihy lovers. 



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222 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

A distich expressing a similar thought was recited to me by my friend Husam 
ad-din Isa Ibn Sinjar aMIajiri, of whom I shall again speak, ll was composed 
by himself and runs as foUows : 

thou for whose cheeks I should give my eyes ; none (of thy lovert) have kept their 
plighted foith but me; Jet me implore tiiee to show me a moment's kindness; I am the 
last {and mott patient) of them all. 

The following verses are by al-JurJani : 

They told me to employ hutnility as a step to wealth, but they knew not that abasement 
is {as bad as) poverty. There are two things which prohibit me from riches ; my honest 
pride and fortune's unkindness. When 1 am told that wealth is within my reach, I look 
and perceive that, before I attain it, i must pass through stations worse than poverty 
itself 

By the same : 

They told me to roam through <he earth, and that the means of livelihood are always 
ample. I replied : They are ample, but to reach them is difficult. If I have not in the 
world a generous patron to assist me or a profession to support me, where shall 1 find a 
means of livelihood ? 

In an address to the Sdkib Ibn Abbad (vol. I. p. 212), he says : 

Let us not blame the {poetic) ideas which you rejected, if they prodoce no effect 
when brought together. All originality of thought was engrossed by the promptness of 
your genius, and the rarest terms, the most Reeling modes of expression, became fomi- 
liar to your mind. So, when we aim at originality, we can only find ideas stolen from 
you and repeated to satiety. 

A piece addressed by him to the vizir, in which he felicitates him on his 
restoration to health, contains this passage : 

Must every day renew our fears for the cessation of noble deeds ? — deeds which cause 
all noble hearts to vibrate with sympathy 1 Thy body received a share of every per- 
fection; how then did sickness fell to iU lot? When the soul of the vizir is afflicted, 
the souls and hearts which hold their life from his are filled with anguish. By Allah I 
1 shall never look with pleasure on a beloved face whilst the face of the vizir is ema- 
ciated by sickness. I mistake; that cxtennation results from his ardent soul inciting 
him to noble deeds. Cease then fo grieve because that sky is overcast; it will soon 
begin to shed {refreiking) showers. 

4JiO By the same : 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 223 

1 never enjoyed Ihe pleasure of eiistence except when at home, with a book for my 
companion. Nothing is dearer to me than science, and I desire no other society. Inter- 
course with mankind is a degradation and the only one ; avoid the world, and live in 
honour and aathority. 

By the same : 

Alas ! what means this separation ? why those journeyings forth and departures with- 
out end ? When these dear friends have left me, let me die ; I shall then have obtained 
my lasl remaining wish. 

He composed a great quantity of poetry, all in a simple style, and he wrote a 
■work entitled al-W<adta, etc. (mediation betwem ahMutanabbi and hti adversariei, 
in which he displayed great abilities, vast learning, and extensive inrormation. 
The Hdkim Abu Ahd Allah Ibn al-Bai states, in his history of the eminent men 
of Naisapiir, that he 9ied in that city on the last day of Safar, A. H. 366 (Octo- 
ber, A. D. 976), at the age of seventy-six years. The following relation is fur- 
nished by another historian : " He (al-Jurjdni) was a man of strict veracity, and 
** his conduct as a kadi was most commendable; when he arrived at Naisapur 
" with his brother Muhammad, in the year 337 (A. D. 948-9), he had not 
*' reached the age of puberty. They both took lessons from the different 
*' masters there, and he died, in the post of grand-kiidi, at Rai, A. H. 392 
'* (A. D. 1001-2). His body was transported to Jurjan and there interred." 
The statement of the Hdkim is however the most authentic and the truest. — 
Jurjdn is the name of a great city in the province of Mazendentn. 



(1) The palritrcha tl-Khidr and Eliaa are the proleclors af travellen; llie Rrel is coDSlantIf journejing 
thraugbout the eartli for that purpose, and the latter throughout the tea. They are the gnardiiDs and 
eKorieri of Ihe pilgrims on the waj to Mekka and back again.— (See H. Heiiigud'i Monument arabti, ptr- 
tant It turet, to). I. p. 170.) 



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IBN AL-MARZUBAN. 



Abd 'l-Hasao All Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Marzuban, the ShaGte doctor, was a na- 
tive or Baghdad. His talents as a jurisconsult and his profound piety ranked 
him as one of the most illustrious (1) among the learned. He studied Jurispru- 
dence under Abd '1-Husain Ibn al-Kattan (2), and gave lessons in the same sci- 
ence to Abu Hamid al-fsfaraini, on the first arrival of the latter at Baghdad. It 
is related that he used to say : " I do not know any person who can complain Of 
" being wronged by me ;" he was a jurisconsult, however, and well knew that 
speaking ill of any person in his absence is a wrong done to him (3). He filled 
the post of professor at Baghdad, and had a peculiar manner of settii^ forth the 
system of as-Shafi's doctrine. He died in the month of Rajah, A. H. 366 (Feb. 
March, A. D. 977). — Marzubdn is a Persian word meaning ma$ter (or lord) of 
the froraier ; vMirz signifies frontier (4), and bdn, master. This was originally a 
title given to those who were next in rank to the king. 



[1) The autogripb has lia^ • the other fifSS. are wrong. 
(£) See hia life, vol. 1. page SI. 

(3) 1 do Dot undentand lhi« obierratioD, unleu it signi^ (bal he never spoke ill of any perwn.— 1 find 
my coDJecture confinned bj al-Ylft, who sayi: Jlijl «]U^ ^ *'-Ji*J' '^' tj.at v_„jjtj J jjl oUju. 

(4) Tbe word mori is the Mme as the English word marehtt. ATartubdn is equifaleni to lord of the 
tnarehti, lord marcA«r, or tnargui*. 



AUMAWARDl. 



Abu 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib, a native of Basra and generally 
known by the surname of al-Mawardi, was one of the most distinguished and 
eminent jurisconsults of the ShaBte sect. He studied law at Basra under Abii 
'l-Kasim as-Saimari (i;, and then at Baghdad under Abd Hamid al-IsfarSini. 
The knowledge which he had acquired, from oral transmission, of the doctrines 



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BIOGHAPHICAL DICTIONABY 225 

of his sect was mosl extensive (*i;, and it is impossible to read the Hdwi (or 
comprehermve), a work composed by him on that subject, without acknowledging 
his profound learning and perfect acquaintance with the whole system of Shafite 
jurisprudence. The office of kadi in a great number of towns was (succ^mely) 
conferi-ed upon him, and he (at lengtK} took up his residence at Baghdad, in 
the darb (3), or street, of az-Zafaran (4). Ahil Bakr al-Khatib, the author 
of the History of Baghdad, gives some traditional information on his au- 
thority and remarks that he held the highest character for veracity. Besides 
the Hdici, he composed many other works, of which we may mention his Ex- 
planation of the Koran, another treatise (on the same subject) entitled ati^Nukat 
tea 'l-Oy&n (5); the Adab ad-Dtn wa 'd-Dunya (instructiom for thU world and the 
next) ; the al-Ahhdm as-Sullaniya {slatuta sultanica; -'Gj ; the KdnUn al-Wizdra (orga- 4tS* 
msaivm and functiom of the vizvrate); the Sidsa talrMulk (admitmtratxon of the slate); 
and the Iknda fi 'l-Mazhab {institutw satisfaciens, de doctrind sectw Sha(it«), which 
last is an abridged treatise. He drew up some other works on the fundamentals 
of jurisprudence and on literature, and he contributed greatly by his labours to 
the general stock of information (7). It is said that, whilst he lived, he did not 
publish any of his works, but put them all up together in a (safe) place, and (hat, 
on the approacli of death, he said to a person who possessed his confidence : 
" The hooks in such a place were composed by me, but I abstained from pub- 
*' lishing them, because I suspected that, although my intention in writing them 
" was to work in God's service, that feeling, instead of being pure, was sullied 
" by baser motives. Therefore, when you pei-ceive me on the point of death 
" and falling into agony, take my hand in yours, and if I press it, you will 
" know thereby that none of these works has been accepted from me; in this 
*' case, you must uke them all and throw them by night into the Tigris; but 
" if I open my hand and close it not, that is the sign of their having been ac- 
" cepted, and that my hope in the admission of my intention as sincere and 
*' pure has been fulfilled." — "When al-Mawardi's death drew near," said that 
person, " I took him by the hand and he opened it without closing it on mine 
" whence I knew that his labours had been accepied, and I then published his 
'* works." — Towards the beginning of the History of Baghdad, the Khatib has 
'* the following passage : " Al-Mawardi told me that he was in Baghdad when 
" bis brother wrote him these lines fi-om Basia ; 



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2% IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

' I have long desired to visit Baghdad and enjoy the sweetness of its air [hawd], but 
' f^te refused ray wish 1 How then can 1 support my absence from it now, since it pos- 
' sesses sweetness of air (haicd) and the dearest object of my love [hatea) (8) T* 

" Abu '1-Izz Ahmad Ibn Obaid Allah Ibn Kadish relates as follows ; ' Abu '1- 
" * Husain al-Mawardi repeated to me the following lines as haviug been recited 
" ' to him at Basra by their author, the kdtib Abii '1-Khair of Wasit .- 

' The pen of destiny traces future events ; 'lis therefore all the same to labour or (o 
' repose. 'Tta folly in you to toil for subsistence ; the child in the womb receives its fiill 
* provision I' " 

It is related that, on his return from Baghdad to Basra, al-Mawardi recited 
these words of al-Ahbas Ibn al-Ahnaf 's : 

1 dwelt in it lor a tine with dislike; but when accustmned to it, I left it against my 
will. It was not that the place pleased me, but it embittered my life lo quit those I 
loved. I departed from it, tiiough its aspect gave pleasure to my eyes ; bat I left my heart 
as a hostage behind me. 

His reason for reciting these verses was, that be belonged to Basra and had no 
wish to leave it ; wherefore he went to Baghdad against bis will : after some 
time, he became reconciled to the place and forgot Basra, so that it gave him 
great pain to quit it. As-Samani attributes the Foregoing tines to Abi^ Muham- 
mad al-Muzaui, an inhabitant of Transoxiana. Al-Mawardi died at Baghdad on 
Tuesday, the 30th of the first Rabi, A. H. 450 (May A. D. 1058), aged eighty- 
six years ; he was interred the next morning in the cemetery at the Gate of 
Harb. — As-Samani says that Mdwardi means a seller of tndward, or roBe-toater. 



(1) Aba ')-IUiifii Abd al-Wthid Ibn «l-HuMin Ibn Muhammad sa-Saimari wu one of the idmI emiDeot 
hnlDU of the Shiflta Kct. He undled nnder AbO Himid al-Harwurfldl and AM 't-Fairld al-BHri. Having 
•cquind a profound acquaintioce with the Bjstem of ShaGte JuruprudeDCe, he gave Ibhodi which were at- 
tended bj pupiU from all parta of the world. He compoied a number of eicellenl worki on the doctrines 
of hia lect, and one of them, the Iddli, or elueiilafion, forms Gve volume*. His other work* are the Ktfdya 
(nt/fiehnes), an abridged treaitae whteb wu commeDted bj him in another work enlitied the Inhid, It it 
here neceuar} lo rranark that Ab(t Bakr al-BaidIwi compoaed anolher commeulary on the Eifdya, eatltled 
alM the IriMd. The preciae jear of AbD 'l-Uiim aa^aimari'i death is not known, but ad-Dahabi Mji in 
his T4Hkk aU-I$Utm that hewai itUl alive and at Basra in A.H. 402 (A.D. 1014^].-5atnuirf ia derired tiom 
Satmara, the name of a river near Basra, the banks of which are covered with Tillages.— (rob. atSMf.) 

{3) The original merely saji: "He wu kAfii to the doctrine." 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICHONARY. ttf 

(3) In the priDUd Arabic Uit, for wi^ re«d <~^ji. 
{i] See vol. I. page 373. 

{S) nit title may be rendered by pun«(ii it onili or lepida dicta el fotxiei. 

(S) This li a moil 1e«rn«d aod perfectly sptematic treatiie on the political and rel^ioni organiaation of (ha 
MmUdi Hate. 

(7) Literallj: And the public proGted by him. 

(8) Literally: Since it nDilei in itielf the ivo hmeat, one of them having a long final d end the other a 



ABU L-HASAN AL-ASHARI. 

AbA 'l-Hasan Ali al-Ashari drew his descent from Ibn Abi Miksa, one of the 
Prophet's companions ; he was the son of Ismail Ibn Abi Bisbr Ishak Ibn Salim Ibn 
Ismail Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Mdsa Ibn Bilal Ibn Abi Burda Aamir Max Abi Musa. 
This able dogmatic theologian and defender of the ttamUe doctrines was the founder 4ttS 
of the sect called the Asharites, and his celebrity is sufficiently great to dispense 
us from making a long article on him. The kadi Abu Bakr al-Bakillani was 
the great champion and supporter of his peculiar doctrines (1). Ahik 'l-Hasan 
al-Ashari used to attend, every Friday, the lessons given in the mosque of al- 
Mansi^r at Baghdad, by the Sbafite doctor AbA Ishak al-Marwazi ; and he would 
then take his place amongst the other pupils. He was born in Basra, A. H. 270 
(A. D. 883-4) ; some say 260 ; and he died at Baghdad between A. H. 330 and 
'iUO (A. D. 941-952); it is stated however by Ibn al-Hamadani (2), in his conti- 
nuation of at-Tabari's History, that al-Ashari died A. H. 330, and another ac- 
count refers his death to the year 324. He was interred between the subarb of 
al-Karkh and the Basra Gate. Mention has been already made of Ins ancestor 
Abu Burda (page 2 of this volume). — *' Ashari means descended from Aghar; the 
" real name of Ashar was Nabt, the son of Odad Ibn Zaid Ibn Yashjnb : he was 
*' surnamed Atkar {the hairy) because be came into the wotU with hair on his 
" body." Such are the words of as-Samani. — ^Tbe Mf,z Abfl 'UKasim Ibn AsS- 
kir has written a volume on the merits of al-Ashari. — (3) Abu 'l-Hasan al-Ashari 
was at first a Motazilite, but he then made a public renunciation of his belief io 
man's free-will (odj), and of the opinion that the Koran was created. Iliis 



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328 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

occurred in the great mosque of Basra, on a Friday; he was sitting in the chair 
from which he taught, when he cried out as loud as he could : '* They who 
*' know me, know whom I am ; as for those who do not know me, I shall tell 
'* them: I am Ali Ibn Ismail al-Ashari, and I used to hold that the Koran was 
*' created, that the eyes (of mm) shall not see God, and that we ourselves are 
" the authors of our evil deeds (/i) ; now, I have returned to the truth ; I i-e- 
*' nounce these opinions and 1 take tlie engagement to refute the Motazilites 
" and expose their infamy and turpitude." He was strongly inclined to gaiety 
and humour. His works are the Luma (flashes'), the MHjaz (abridgmmt), the 
/(Wh al-Bicrhdn (elucidation of the work called the Burhan) ; the Tafnytn (illustror 
turn) treating of the dogmas of religion : the Kitdb as-Sharh wa 't-Tafstl (explanation 
and «g>o«(ton" , being a refutation of the people of falsehood and error (the Mota- 
zHkes). He is also the author of the treatises containing the refutation of 
the Muldhida {impious) belonging to the various Motazilite, BJkfidite, Jahmite, 
Kharijite, and other heretic sects. He was interred in the MashrA 'z-Zawdya 
(street of the cells) ; his sepulchral monument has a mosque at one side and lies 
near a bath : it is situated on the left hand, when going from the bazar to the 
Tigris. Al-Ashari supported himself on the produce of a landed estate which 
his ancestor Bilal Ibn Abi Burda had erected into a wakf, for the support of his 
descendants (5); and his daily expense was seventeen dirhims. The foregoing 
observations are taken from the Klialtb. Abu'Bakr as-Sirafi (6) said: "The 
" Motazilites went with their heads up till such time as God produced al-Ashari 
'* to the world." Al-Ashari's works are fiftv-five in number. 



II) The doctrine* of al-A*hari are Ml torlh bj as-ShihraiUni ; see page ftS of the printed Arable teit. 
(3) See Tol. 1. pagM 290 and 400. 

(3) What follow) eiisl« no longer ia the autagrapb, but these words io red iok ia^^sOI La'^a (AdAvna 
'(-rotArija) indicate sufGcienily that the contents of a llj-leaf, dow lost, were to be inserted here It for- 
luntiel; happeas Ibat the whole passage is preserved in two of mf nianuBcript). 

(4) See Pocock's Speeimtn, page 234, and Dr. Curelon's Shakrtutdni, page 30. 

(5) Bj the Hoslim law, a man maj settle the (neomt of hi« lands and tenements on his desceodants Io the 
last generation. He has only to convert his property into a wakf (by nuking it over to a charitable esia- 
blisfament), with the reaervation Uul the annual income is U> be applied to that purpose. On the failure of 
descendants, the income reverts to the estahlishment. 

Ifl^ The life of Abo B«kr Muhammad as-Slrati will be found in this work. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



AL-KIYA AL-HARRASI. 



Abii '1-Hasan Ali Ibii Muhammad Ibn Ali at-Tabari (a native of Taberittdir, 
and generally known by the appellation of al-Kiya at-Harrasi, was a doctor of the 
sect of as-Shafi. On leaving his native place, he proceeded to Naisapur and 
studied jurisprudence under the Imam al-Haramain till he excelled in that sci- 
ence. His countenance was handsome, his voice clear and loud, his style ele- 
gant, and his language agreeable. From Naisapur he removed to Baihak, where 
he taught publicly for some time and then went to Irak, where he was appointed 
head-professor at the Nizdmiya college of Baghdad. This place he continued to 
hold till his death. In the Sidk, or continuation of the History of Naisapiir, 
the hdjiz Abd al-Ghafir al-Farisi (see page 170) speaks of him in these terms : 
" He was one of the Imam al-Haramain's principal under-tutors (1) ; a second 
" Abu.Hamid al-Ghazzali; nay, more profound in learning, more holy in Ufe, 
" more pleasing in voice, and more agreeable in countenance." After his arrival 
in Baghdad, al-Kiya al-Harrasi was attached to the service of Majd al-Mulk Bark- 
yaritk, the son of the Seljiik sultan Malak Shah (voL I. p. 251), and was raised 
by his favour to wealth and honour. Under that dynasty, he filled the duties of 433 
chief kadi. He possessed great information in the science of the Traditions, and 
he used to cite them with success in bis discussions and conferences. On this 
subject, one of his sayings was : *' When the horseman of the Traditions gallops 
" about in the hippodrome of contestation, the heads of analogical deductions 
*' are struck olT and given to the winds (2)." The following relation was made 
by the hdfiz Abd 't-Tahir (3) as-Silati : "When I was in Baghdad, in the year 
" 495, I asked a fatwa (legal opinion) from our master Abii 'I-Hasan on a point 
" which I had ar^^ued with the jurisconsults in the Nizdmiya College ; the 
" question I proposed to him was expressed in these terms: 'What does the 
" imam ("whom God may favour!) say of this: a man willed one-third of his 
" property to the learned and to the jurisconsults; are the writers of the Tra- 
" ditions included in the legacy or not?' Under this question the $haikh wrote 
' ' as follows : ' They are ; and why should they not '.' has not the Prophet said : 
" ' He who, for the advantage of my people, pretervei forty Traditiom relating 
" ' to tkar religion, ihaU be raited up by God, on the day of the rewHTPchon, a» a 



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330 UN KUALLIKANS 

" ' juritcofuvit and a learned man (4)." — AI-Kiya's opinion having been asked 
respecting ((Ae legaUty of cumng) Yazid the son of Moawia, he returned the ToJ- 
lowing answer : "He was not one of the Companions, for he was born in the 
" day^s of Omar Ibn al-Khattab (5). As for the opinion of the eaHy imams on 
" this subject, we shall state that Ahmad (Ibn Hanfral) has ex]H-essed himself 
** twice on it; once he said that the curse might be implied, and another time 
" that it should be openly expressed. Malik has delivered two similar opi- 
" nions, and AbA Hanifa also; but I hold one only — that it ^ould be openly 
" expressed. And why should it not? Was not Yazid a player a nerd (G), a 
'* hunter with trained leopards, and an inveterate wine-bibber, on which subject 
" his poetry is sulBciently known. One of these pieces ran as follows : 

' Whea the wine-cup assembled my companions, and the musician sang to excite the 
' joys of love, I bade them take a fiiU share of pleasures and delight, for even the things 
' which last the longest must have an end.' " 

He continued his answer in the same strain, and wrote on the back of the 
leaf (7) : *' Had 1 space enough left, I should slack the rein in exposing the 
*' infamies of this man. Signed, AH Ibn Muhammad." The imam Abijl HamkI 
al-Ghazzali was once consulted on the same subject, and he gave an opinion alto- 
gether contrary to the foregoing. The questioDs proposed to him were these : 
" Should a person who openly cursed Yazid be considered as a reprobate, or 
' ' should he be treated with indulgence ? Had Yazid the intention of slaying al- 
" Husain, or was it done in self-defence? Is it permitted to say God have mercy 
' ' on him when speaking of Yazid, or is it better to suppress the prayer ? May 
*' the mufti be rewarded with the divine favour for dissipating our doubts!" 
His answer was as follows : " It is absolutely forbidden to curse a Moslim, and 
" he who curses a Moslim is himself the accursed; the blessed Prophet having 
" said : The Moslim it not a cuner. And how should it be allowable to curse a 
" Moslim, when it is not permitted to curse the beasts of the lield ? The pro- 
" hihitionfrom dohig so has been transmitted down to us; and moreover, the 
' ' digmty of a MosUm u greater than the dignity of the Kaaba, according to the posi- 
" tive declaration of the blessed Prophet. Now, it is certain that Yazid was a 
" Moslim, but it is not certain that he slew al-Husain, or that he ordered or 
'* consented to his death; and as long as these circumstances remain undecided. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 331 

' it is not allowable to believe that he acted so. Besides, it is forbidden to think 

* ill of a Moelim, since Almighty God has said : Be not ready to entertain tmfa- 

* vourable opimom (of another), for tometimes those opimom are a crime (8), and 
' the blessed Prophet has declared that the blood, the wealth, and the reputatiott 
' of the Moilm are sacred, and of him no ill should be thought. Moreover, if any 
' person assert that Yazid ordered al-Husain's death or consented to it, he gives 
' thereby an evident proof of his estrone folly ; for, were he to endeavour to 

* discover the true cireumstances of the death of such great men, vizirs, and 

* sultans as perished in bis own time — were he to essay to find out who ordered 

* the deed to be committed, who consented to it, and who disapproved of it, 

* be would not succeed, — not even if the murder were perpetrated in his neigb- 
' bouriiood and in bis presence. How then could he pretend to know the pai- 
' ticulars of a similar occurrence which took place in a distant country and in a 

' by-gone age ? And how can be know the truth (of Yaztd's conduct)^ now 484 
' that nearly four hundred years have elapsed, and that the crime was com- 

* mitled in a piAce far remote V It must be considered also that this event was 

* taken up by party-spirit, and that (false) statements respecting it abounded on 
' all sides ; the true circumstances of it cannot therefore be known ; and such 

* being the case, it is incumbent on us to think well of every Moslim who can 
' possibly deserve it. To this we shall add some ohservations : suppose that 
' ibere be positive proof of one Moslim 's having murdered another, the doctrine 
' of the ortbodox jurisconsults (9) is, that the murderer is not an inGdel, because 
' the act itself is not an act of infidelity, hut of disobedience (towards God). 
' It may also happen that the murderer repent before be dies. And if an infidel 
' be converted from bis infidelity, it is not allowable to curse him ; bow much 
' the less then is it allowable to curse him who repents of having committed 
' murder ? Besides, bow can it be known that the murderer of al-Husain died 
' unrepenting? and He (God) accepteth the r^entance of hii creatures (i 0). Where- 

* fore, in as much as it is not lawful to curse a Moslim after his death, be who 
' curses him is a reprobate and disobedient to God. Suppose even that it were 
' permitted to curse him, the abstaining therefrom would he no crime, accord- 
' ing to the unanimous opinion of the imams ; nay, the man who never once, 

* during the course of bis existence, cursed Satan, will not be asked on the day 

* of Judgment why be cursed bim not. And as for him who cursed Satan, he 



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232 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

" shall be asked his motives for so doing, and how he knew that Satan was re- 
" jected and accursed. The accursed are those who are far removed fixmo Al- 
" mighty God, but who those may be is a mystery, except in the case of such per- 
" sons asdic infidels; for we know by the divine law that they are accursed. As 
" for the invoking of the divine mercy on Yazid, it is allowable, nay, acceptable 
" (in the sight of God}, - nay, it is included in these words which we utter in 
" every prayer: God! pardon the men and the women who believe; for Yazid 
'* was a believer. God knows if my opinion be right. Signed : al-Ghazzali." — 
Al-Kiya al-Harrasi was bom in the month of Zu 'l-Kaada, A. H. 450 (Dec.-Jan. 
A.D. 1058-9); he died at Baghdad on the afternoon of Thursday, the 1st of Mu- 
harram, A. H. 504 (July, A.D. 1110), and was buried in the funeral chapel 
erected over the tomb of the shaikh Abu Ishak as-Shirazi. The iAat/c/iAbu Talib 
az-Zainabi (1 1 ) and the kddi 'l-Kuddt Abii 'l-Hasan Ihn ad-Damaghani, who were 
the chiefs of the Hanifile seel at that time, attended his funeral notwithstanding 
the coldness which had subsisted between them and him ; one of ihem stood at 
the head of the corpse, tlie other at the foot, and Ibn ad-Damaghani recited 
this appropriate verse : 

The waitings and lamentations of the Female mourners are useless I like words 
uttered yestereven, thou existest for us no longer. 

The following verse was then pronounced by az-Zainabi ; 

Women are sterile and have produced none like him; nay, they will never produce 
his equal. 

I do not know for what reason he received the name of al-Kiya which is a 
Persian word signifying o man of rank and injluence.—Tbehdfiz Ibn Asakir states, 
in his great historical work, that tlie celebrated poet Abd Ishak Ibrahim al- 
Gha/zi (vol. I. p. 38) passed some time under al-Kiya's tuition at the Nizdmiya 
college, and that he composed the following extempore lines on his death . 

Behold the work of Fate, which spareth none and letleth none escape) Mankind has 
no place of refuge from Fate's decrees. Were exalted station a protection against its 
attacks, no eclipse would ever obscure the brightness of the sun and moon. Ask the 
dastard who lives in apprehension of death, if precaution ever availed against HI 
Islamism weeps the absence of its son, and sheds floods of tears, compared to which 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICnONARY. 233 

the rain would be found less copious. Behold that learned divine who used to receive 
us with an open and smiling countenance; with that look of pleasure which, to a 
visitor, was the best of welcomes. Death may tread him under foot, but his vast AAA 
learning has spread abroad to distant climes. thou who wert the pillar of the faith I 
may the clouds of heaven shed a copious shower, each morning, on thy tomb. Thou 
hast left us in affliction, and the news of this misfortune has reached all mankind — has 
the news of their desolation at length reached thee7 "Hiy instructive lessons gave new 
lii« to (as-ShAfi) Ibn Mrts, and at [the beauty of] their composition, intelligence and 
reflexion stood amazed. He who was so fortunate as to note them down, possesses 
now a flambeau of unfading brightness. The obscurities of jurisprudence, elucidated 
by thy words, are like the foreheads of brown horses marked with a white star. Did I 
know thy equal, I should invoke him and exclaim: "The age is impoverished and 
" requires succour from thy riches (12)." 



(1) The Arabic word it Jljl> muld; it correspond* in loroe decree to the French ripitittuT. The mutdi 
were chosen bj the professor amoog his roosl idvanced scholars, and their duty wts to inslruci the junior 
pupils aud make them repeal their lesson lill they knew it brheirl. See M.de Sacy's Abd Allatif, p.4S9. 

(2) He means to say thai a legal opinion formed from analoKJcal deductions must yield to the luthoriiy of 
■ genuine Tradition. See Inlroduclian to vol. I. page iivi. 

(3) The nimtme of Aba 'i-Tdhir may be written indilTerenily with or without the article. 

(4) See MttLbew's MUhkdt. vol. I. p. 6S. 

(5) Muhammad gave repeated injunctions that no person should curse or speak ill of his companions. 
See Mi$Midt. vol. II. p. 747 »l leq 

[6] A sort of backgammon. See Hyde's Biitoria NerdUudii in his treatise de LadU OTientalibtit. 
l7) This is not usual in falvrai or in letters. 
t8) Koran, sural 49, verse 12. 

(9) Literally: Of the people of the truth. 

(10) Koran, surat 9, verse lOS. 

(11} Abd TAlib al'Uusain ai-Zainabi, the UaDifite doctor, surnamed NUr al-Huda {tight of the 'UrecHon). 
died A.H. 812 [A.D. UiS^.—iAl-THfi.) 

(12) In this verse I follow the printed ten and Uie later HSS., but the autograph has el, J:, not jy. 
If this reading be adopted, the sense is: "Our age requires a man like him." 



THE HAFIZ ABU L-HASAN AL-MAKDISl. 

Abu 'I'Hasan Ali, the son of al-Anjab AbA 'l-Makarim al-Muraddal Ibn Abi 
't Hasan Ali Ibn Abi '1-Gbaith Mufarrij Ibn Hatim Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Jaafar Ibn 
Ibrahim Ibn al-Hasan al-Lakhmi al-Makdisi (a memb<n- of the tribe of Lakhm and 
VOL. 11. 30 



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234 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

sprung from a family belonging to Jermaletn), was an eminent doctor of ihe 
Malikite seel, and a hdfiz of the liighesl reputation for his learning in the Tradi- 
tions and the sciences connected with them. Alexandria was the place of his 
hirth and residence. When the hd^z as-Silafi settled in that city, Ahu 'l-Hasan 
al-Makdisi became his disciple and profiled greatly under his tuition; such was 
also the case with our learned master Zaki ad-din Abd al-Azim al-Mundiri 
'vol. I. p. 89), who completed his education under the same Mfiz. Al-Mun- 
diri s|M)ke of his condisciple as a person of great talent and holiness of life; 
he recited to me numerous pieces of verse composed by him, such as those 
which follow : 

I have now passed my sixtieth year, and must declare that the happiest of my days 
were mixed with affliction. Visitors ask me how I am? — Judge what is the state of 
him who has settled in (a ipot lehieh ii alwayi) a field of battle I 

O my soul 1 hold finn by the doctrines transmitted from the best of prophets, from 
his companions and his TAbU. When thou hast used thy efforts in propagating his 
religion, thou mayest perhaps be perfumed with the sweet odour of that pious work. 
To-morrow, on the day of reckoning, when the fires of hell shall rage intensely, fear 
lest Uiou becomes! a prisoner there. 

There are three £'s which torment us, bakk (bugt), bvrgulk {jleat], ind bargkatk (gnau); 
the three fiercest species of created beings, and I know not which is Ihe worst. 

There was a maid with rosy lips, whose kiss gave new life to him whom she saluted; 
wine mixed with musk seemed to be contained within them. 1 tasted not her lips, but 
I state the fact on good authority ; I learned it from the toothpick which had been with 
herself. 

4S6 This is now a common idea, having been rendered familiar to us by the verses 
of the ancients and the modems. It is thus that fiashshar Ibn Burd says in one 
his pieces : 

thou whose lips are the sweetest in the worid I not that I have made the lest, but 
the evidence of the toothpicks suffices. 

And al-Ab)wardi gays in one of his poems : 

Her companions told me that they learned from Ihe toothpick of anU-wood that her 
lips were sweet. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. ^35 

The kdfiz al-Makdisi was deputy-Adftim (i) at Alexandria, and professed in 
that city at the college which bears his name; he tlien removed to Cairo and 
continued, till his death, to fill the place of professor in the Sdhibiya college, 
founded by the vizir SaG 'd-din Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn AH, better 
known by the surname of Ibn Shukr (2). He was bom at Alexandria on the 
eve of Saturday, the 24th of Zu '1-Kaada, A.H. 544 (March, A.D. 1150), and. he 
died at Cairo on Friday, the first of Shaaban, A.H. 611 (December, A.D. 1214). 
— His father al-Kadi 'l-Anjab (Ike most nobk kddi) Abu '1-Makarim al-Mu- 
faddaldied in the month of Rajab, A.H. 584 (Aug.-Scpl. A.D. 1188); he was 
bom A. H. 503 (A.D. 1109-10). — Makdisi means belonging to Bait al-MakdU (the 
Home of the Holy Place, or Jermalan). 

(1) See pige ISS of Ibis volume, note i2>. 

(2) Sec vol. 1. page 196, note (16). 



SAIF AD-DIN AL-AAMIDI. 

Abu 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Abi Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Salim ath-Thalabi (member 
of the tribe of Thdlaba and) surnanied Saif ad-din (sivord of the faith) al-Aamidi, 
was a dogmatic theologian. On commencing his studies, he went down to Bagh- 
dad, and as he belonged to the sect of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, he put himself under 
ihc tuition of the Hanbalitc doctor Ibn al-Manni Abu 'l-Fath Nasr Ibn Fityan; 
but, after some time, he passed over to the sect of asShafi and attended the 
lessons of the shaikh Abu '1-Kasim Ibn Fadlan (1), under whose direction he 
studied controversy and rose to distinction by his acquirements in that science. 
Having committed to memory the Tartka, or system of controversy, composed 
by the Sharif (2) and the Zawdid, or appendix to the contraversial treatise of 
Asaad al-Mihani (3) (see vol. I. p. 1 89), he passed into Syria and studied the intel- 
lectual sciences with such success, that he was pronounced to be the most 
learned person of the age in these branches of knowledge. He tlien removed (o 
Egypt and occupied the post of under-tutor in the college situated in the lesser 



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236 IBN KHALUKANS 

Karafa cemetery, neai' the lomb of the imam as-Shali. He then became pro- 
fessor ill the mosque at Cairo, called tU-Jdmt as-Zd^ri, aod his increased repu- 
tation attracted numerous pupils. The successful results of his tuition excited 
at length the jealousy of some native jurisconsults, who formed a party against 
him, and accused him of heterodoxy, laxity of moral principle, atheism, and 
attachment to the doctrines of the (ancient fireek) philosophers and sages. They 
tiien drew up a complaint in which they denounced him guilty of these crimes, 
and affixed to it their signatures with the declaration that he deserved the punish- 
ment of death. 1 have been informed by one of those doctors, who was a man of 
intelligence and instruction, that, on remarking the excessive animosity by 
which the cabal was actuated, he inscribed the following verse with his signa- 
ture on the document, when it was brought to him that he might insert in it 
a declaration similar to that of the others : 

" They envied the man because they could not equal hiin in merit; such are his loes 
" and a 



When Saif ad-din perceived his enemies combined against him and discovered 
487 their projects, he withdrew secretly from the coimtry and proceeded to Syria. 
He then settled in the city of Hamat and composed a number of instructive 
works on dogmatic theology, the fundamentals of jurisprudence, logic, philoso- 
phy, and controversy. Of these we shall indicate the Abkdr al-Afkdr (original 
ideas) on scholastic theology ; an abridgment of the same, entitled Afandih al- 
Kardih (borrowings from natural genius) ; the Rum^z aZ-Aun-flz (indicatiom of hidden 
treasures); the Dakdik ai-Hakdik (subtilia veritatum} ; the Lub^ ai-Albdb (core of 
the hearts) ; the Muntiha as-S&l (results of inquiry), being a treatise on the funda- 
mentals (of faith and jurisprudeme). He composed also a system of contro- 
- versy (4), an abridgment of the same, and a commentary on the Sharif s Jadi, 
or treatise on dialectics. The number of his works amounted to about twenty. 
Having removed to Damascus, be obtained the professorship in the Aztziya col- 
lege, but after a lapse of some time he w,as deprived of his place, on account of 
some suspicions which had been cast upon him. From tliat period till his 
death, he remained unoccupied and confined himself to his house. He died on 
the 3rd of Safar, A. H. 631 ''November, A.D. 1233;, and was buried at the 
foot of Mount Kasiyiin. His birth took place A. H. 551 (A. D. H56).— 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



Aamidi moans belonghig to Aamtd, a lai^e city in Diar Bakr, near the couatrv of 
Rum (Asia Mmor). — Abu 'l-Fath Nasr Ibn Fityan Ibn al-Maiini was a doctor of 
the law and a iraditionlst. He instructed numerous disciples. Born A. H. 
501 (A.D. i 107-8); died, 5th Ramadan, 583 (November, A.D. 1187). 



(1) Abo 't-Ktaim Yahya Ibn Ali ibn al-Fadl Ibn HUmi Allib, lurnamed Ibn t'adllii and Jamil ad-dIn 
{beatily of religion], vas a learned doclor of Ibe KCt of at-Shlfl. He Itudied juriipTudence at Baghdad, hit 
natiTe plac«, under Abfl ManiAr ar-Raiiliz, and al .NaiEipbr under Ali Ibn Huhammad IbD Yahja, a disciple 
oral-GhiiiAli. He professed al Baghdad, and was considered u one of Ihe first masters in the science of juris- 
prudence, dogmatic theology, controversy, and dialectics. Bom A.H. HIS [A.D. 1121-2); died in the month 
of Shaabkn, A. H. 30H [June, A. D. 1199.)— [rab. at-Shif.) 

(2) This ToTlkaii designated farther on as the/udJ,' il aeems lo have been a treatise on points of law eon- 
iroierted between the orthodoi sects. The author, who is here denominated tbe Shaiif, is UDkoown (o me, 
and has not been noticed b; Hajji Khalifa. The whole passage of Ibn Khalliktn has been repealed, without 
any observation, in Ihe Tabatdl ai-SkUf'.yin and by al-Yill in hii Annali. 

(3) Read ^ju^l in the printed text, not ^jL^jJ!. 

(4) By *\itt»m of controwrty is meant a general view of al) the points on which the oribodoi sects dis- 
agree ; with the arguments in favour of the opinions held by U)e sect to which the author belongs. 



AL-KISAI. 

AbA 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Hamza Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Bahman Ibn Fairuz, sur> 
named al-Kisai, a mawla to the tribe of Asad and a native of Kufa, was one of 
the seven readers of the Koran. In grammar, philology, and tbe koranic read- 
ings he displayed abilities of the highest order, but in poetry his skill was so 
inferior that it was currently said: "Amongst all the learned in grammar, 
*' there is not one who knows less of poetry than al-Kisai." He was tutor to 
al-Amin tbe son of Harun ar-Kasbid and instructed him in the belles-lettres. 
Having neither wife nor slave-girl, be addressed some verses to ar-Rashid, com- 
plaining of his celibacy (1), and that khalif ordered bim a present of ten thou- 
sand pieces of silver, a beautiful slave^irl with all her attire, a eunuch, and a 
horse completely harnessed. Being one day in company with Muhammad Ibn 
al-Hasan, the Hanifite jurisconsult, at an assembly held bv ar-Rashid, he re- 



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238 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

marked that a person versed in one science could find his way in all the others, 
on which Muhammad said to him : ** What is then your opinion of a man who, 
" in making tlie satisfactory prostrations which some neglect or Jrregularilv 
" in the prescribed prayers rendered necessary, again commits an irregularitv ? 
" must he renew his prostrations.-'" To lliis he replied in the negative ^2), and 
gave for reason that a noun which has already assumed the diminutive form 
cannot he diminished again, — It is thus that I found this anecdote relaled in a 
number of places, but the Khattb says, in his History of Baghdad, that the con- 
versation took place between Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan and al-Farra (3', who 
4S8 were sisters' sons.) — Muhammad then asked him if the sentence of divorce joined 
to the condition of possession was valid ? Al-Kisai answered that it was not, and 
gave for reason that the torrent does not precede the rain (4). He had some con- 
ferences and discussions with Sibawaih and Abu Muhammad al-Yazidi, of which 
we shall take further notice in the lives of these two grammarians. The 
traditional knowledge handed down by al-Kisai was received by him from Abu 
Bakr Ibn Aivash (vol. I. p. 553), Hamza az-Zaiyat (vol. I. p. 478), Ibn Oyaina 
'vol. /. p. 578;, and others ; among the persons who transmitted the information 
furnished by al-Kisai were al-Farra and Abu Obaid al-Kiisim Ibn Sallam. 
Al-Kisai died A. H. 189 (A. D. 804-5) at Rai, to which city he had accompa- 
nied Harun ar-Rashid. As-Samani obsei^es that the death of Muhammad Ibn 
al-Hasan occurred on the same day and at tiie same place, but Ibn al-Jauzi re- 
marks, in his Shuz&r al-OkM, that he (the latter) died at Zanbawaih, a village in 
the canton of Rai. As-Samani states again that al-Kisai died atTus in A. H. 182 
(A. D. 798-9), or 183. God knows best the truth ! It is related that ar-Rashid 
said on this occasion: " The sciences of jurisprudence and grammar have been 
" interred at Rai." — Kisdi means a wearer of a kisd or cloak: he received this 
name because, on his arrival at Kufa, he went muflled up in a cloak to Hamza 
Ibn Ilabib az-Zaiyat, who (being then engaged in giving lessons to his pupils) asked 
which of tliem wished to read ? To this one of them replied : " He with 
" the cloak (al-Kisdi)." Others state that he was so called because he had used 
a cloak instead of an ihrdm when performing the pilgrimage. 



(1) Ibn KbillikAn gives the verses, but they urinot be transla(«d. Tbf]r form ■ 
which dcsigniles the aUribuie of Priipui. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONABV. 239 

(2) This is conformable to the law which lay*; s_^. "^ j^— )! iysr— Jjj_JI Jj=^ 

(3i The lives of the grannnarian Abil Zakarijrl Yahya al-Farrl and of the jurisconsult Muhammad Ibii 
nt-IIasin will be found in this work. 

(t) The lentence of divorce joined to the condition of poiieition {liiHk at-taldk balmllk) is when ■ man 
says to • womao who Is not his wife : If I marry Ihee, thou art divorced, or when he M;*: Svtry woman 
whom I may marry it divorced. The HaniBte doctors admil the validity of the divorce in this case, and 
consider it as immediately effected by the act of marriage. The Shafites deny lis validity. AI-Kisai denied 
it also on the principle that the torrent doet not precede the rain, or, in other words, that the consequence 
canooi precede the antecedent. The eipression he makes use of was proverbial among the Arabs of the desert, 
and well known also to ev^ry philologer and grammarian. It is to be found in Freytag's Meidani, vol. 1. 
page 613. under another form, namely, i) &J» [i— precettit ptuvia ejui (orrenlem ej'tu . 

The milk or pos»wt<on is effected by the act of marriage ,^OJJ w~— <-i*)^' ""^ Uie married nun is 

the matik or ffonsiior. The persons who lake an interest in this question will find the requisite information 
in D'Ohsson's Tableau g4n(ral dt Vempire othoman, torn V. p. 208, and Hamilton's ffi'ddt/a, vol. I. The 
following extracts from works of high authority are relative to this question ; but as their technicality renders 
a literal translation eitremely difficult, i prefer giving them in the ordinal language. 

, ^jaji Jl liu^if jj/if.iaji _._ Jl ij\^% ^a ji 

— (FuMwa AlmgiTi, vol. T. p. BM.) ^ 

^j_l_ll 1^ J-aJI,l jiU; ^_>U ^JUl; ^Ij Jiblill ^ -^>1 Ij^ j.\ J^ 
Ijajyil lyl Jf ,1 j)'i c-;'i -^^^ly ^^ ir:^?'^ Jji. ^^ .ij^j u^-^ j\ |„e jl 
•Jl >lOU Jjij_;»j4i Hij^l ^ JJ j=. -juili ^^CCJ^ J, jJ Jji, jl ^U= ^ 
if,^J, ^|^,I^H»^ SyijliyjISl^J ^^^jl^j^^lil JpJIjI JiSiJI pl.^ 

. Idt. ^1 jl jiSUI f>. ■^ "I J^lj ^UJI 

— (al-jruiln af.5Unlnfva. MS. >a.3«0, fol.lM.) 



AD-DARAKUTNI. 



Abu 'l-HasaD AH Ibn Omar Iba Ahmad Ibn Mahdi, a M^z of great teaming 
and celebrity, and a jurisconsult of the sect of a&^hafi, was a native of Baghdad. 



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21^0 IBN KIIALLIKAN S 

He acquired his knowledge of the law from Abu Said ai-lslakhri the Shafitc 
doctor (vol. I. p. 37A) ; but this statement is contradicted by some, who pretend 
that one of Abu Said's disciples was his master in that science. He learned the 
reading of the Koran, by audition atd rq>etiUon (V, under Muhammad Ihn al- 
Hasan an-Nakkash, Ali Ibn Said al-Kazzaz, Muhammad Ibn al-Hiisain al-Tabari, 
and other eminent teachers of the same period. When a mere boy, he began 
to learn Traditions from Ahu Bakr Ibn Mujahid 'vol. I. p. 27}, and having at 
length come to be considered as the sole imam (or first tnaster^ of the age in 
that science, none of bis contemporaries ever disputed bis title. Towards the 
end of his life, he commenced teaching the koran readings at Baghdad. He 
was well informed on the points wherein the doctors of the diffei-ent sects dis- 
agree, and he knew by heart many of the diwdm, or collected poetical works, 
of the desert Arabs. As one of these diicdnt consisted of the poems composed 
by as-Saiyid al-Himyari (2), he was held by some for a follower ol the Shiite 
doctrines. Traditional information was given on his authority by Abii Noaim 
(v. I. p. 7 U) il\e author of the Hilyat al'AwMy»nd by many other persons. In the 
year 376 (A.D. 086-7} he gave evidence as a witness before (he kadi Ibn Maruf 
(vol. I. p. 379), an act of which he afterwards repented, " because," said be, 
" the statements which I furnished relative to the blessed Prophet were ad- 
" mitted on my own authority as exact, whereas my declaration in a court of 
"justice is not receivable unless corroborated by that of another person (3}." 
Amongst the works composed by him are a Sunan, or collection of Traditions, 
and a Mukhtalifwa M(itali({U). He was induced to leave Baghdad and travel to 
Egypt by the intelligence which he receivetl that Abu '1-Fadl Jaafar Ibn Ilinzaba 
(vol. I. p. 319), the vizir of Kafur, had the intention of composing a Musnad (5). 
As he wished to assist in that work, he undertook the journey and remained with 
the vizir for some time, during which he received from him marks of the 
highest honour, with a liberal subvention for bis expenses, and an abundance 
of presents. He thus, by the favour of Ibn Hinzaba, became possessor of a lai^c 
fortune, and he remained with him tilt the completion of the work. During 
tliat period, he and the hd^z Abd al-Ghani Ibn Said (vol. II. p. 169) contributed 
their joint efforts to the task of extracting (the materials of) the IHu$nad ( from 
variom sources} and writing them out. Abd al-Ghani used to sav : *' The jwr- 
" sons who discotirsed the liest of all on the Traditions of the Prophet were 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 241 

"three in number; Ali Ibn al-Madini (6) in his age, Musa Ibn Harun (7) in 
" hia, and ad-Darakutni in ours." — One of ad-Darakutni's pupils having ii}!) 
asked him if he ever saw a person equal to himself (m learning}, he returned no 
direct answer, but merely observed that God had said : Justify not yourselves (8). 
The other insisted notwithstanding, and ad-Darakutni at length replied : '* If 
" you mean in a single science, I have seen (persons) more able than myself ; 
" but if you mean in all the branches of knowledge which 1 possess, why then 
" I never met my equal." He was versed in a great variety of sciences, and 
was a master of the highest rank in those connected with the Koran. His birth 
took place in the month ofZu '1-Kaada, 306 (April, A. D. 9)9), and his deatli 
occurred at Baghdad on Wednesday the 8th (some say the 2nd) of Zu 'l-Kaada, 
A. H. 385 (December, A.' D. 995). Some place his death in the month of Zu 'I- 
Hijja. The funeral service was said over him by Abu H^mid al-lsfaraini (vol. I. 
p. 53), and he was buried in the cemetery at the Convent Gate (Bdb adnDair), 
near the tomb of Maruf al-Karkhi (9). — Ddrakutni means belonging to Ddr al- 
Ktitn (cottor^bouse'}, an extensive quarter of Baghdad. 



|1) See the observaUons in vol.l. p. 675, note (o p.S68. 

(3) I ini indebted lo M.CauMin de Perceval for tbe following note on as-Saijid al-Uimjari : 
E«sejid il-Hiroyari, doni le prjnom titit Abou Htchim cl le vifriuble nam Jimall, Hut Bis de Hobim- 
med flls de Yriiyd Gls de Rabii, etc. Son grand-pAre Y^yd avail composd dea Mitres conire ZjkA (Ibn 
Abibi) el ses (ill, el fut pour ccla jeit en prison et lounnente par Obajdallah filj dc Zjtd. Let troii poflei 
irabet qui ODi foil le plug de vers sont B^hftr, Aliou 'l-Alahiyya el Esieyid; personne o'a pu recueillir toulei 
lean poteie*. Quant a Eieyid, >es vers sont lombti dans I'oubli, malgr^ leur nombre et leur in^riie, parce- 
qn'ila sont remplis d'atuques contre les compagnons du Prophiie, contre Abou Beer, Onar, Othman, et Mintre 
Aiechaetautret ^uaeideMahomei. Lesp^e et ni^d'E«sej)ddtaientdelasecich4r<tiquede«£b(uJAflA<ulj t, 
lui il ^tail de la secie cbiiie des K^uilni aJL^, ^Ceite secte, luivanl Ibn Khaldoun, Unit ion nom de 
■on fondateur Etiudn.) 11 admetlait I'imlmai de Hobimmad Ibn al-Hmcfiya [hU life it given by Ibn BhaUi- 
Mr) ei profeiult I'opiDkin du reuur XaA.j3b J^., c'«>t-a-dire qu'il croyail que Mohammed Ibn el-Hanc- 
fiya n'ttait poiut mart et qu'il reviendrait un jour. Essejid a fail beaucoupde poteiei en I'hanneur de» Hache- 
miies, parliculiereroent des AUdes, el conire leurs adver*aire«, Lorsque les Omejjades fureot renvers^s, il 
compllmeDia Abou 'l-Abbti SeOih, qui, pour le recoropenser de its vers, lui dit de demander ce qu'il vou- 
drait. Etseyid demanda pour Souleymlin GIs de Uabtb le gouvemement d'el-Ahniii, qui lui l\it accords. Lc 
cadi de Basra, Sewwlr fill d'Abdallab. ayant un jour reflisri d'admeltre son temolgnageen justice, Esseyid lui 
toivit uoe letlre od il le baffouait et alia euniite reciter au califc Hansour une utb-e TirulenU conire ce 
magisirai; celuv<i vim ■ I'lnstant te plaindre. Mansour lui dii en rianl: "Ne sais-tu pii qu'Eyas fils de 
" Molvia retut le t^moignage de Faraidak ; pourquoi bicsser un homme qui a une langue comme cellc 
" d'Esseyidf Enanlle le calife ordonoa h Esseyid de faire »a paii avec le cadi. Mail I'inimiti^ du poCte et 
VOL II. 3J 



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2V2 IBN KHALLIKANS 

du juge cODiioui, et ill cberchai«ni a te Duire rA;iproqu«inent. EtMjid ajaDt dit nn jour 4U nltfe que 
SevKit roulail luborDSr Ae$ t^moiDS pour le coadamner cororae coupable de vol, MioMur lit venir le cadi 
" el luidil: "Je I'flte a regard d'Esiejid tea foncliOMde juge." Eiuyid mounil a Wiiil, lea uni diaenl hhij 
le ligne de Hansour, d'auires sous celui de HarouD —[According lo AM 'I HaUiio, In hit It^itm. ItaU poM 
died A.H. 171(A.D. 787-8].) 

(3) In all civil and criminal cauaei, generally (peaking, the evidence of two wiuteuet i* requisite to eiU- 
blish the proof of a fact. In civil roatteri, vtitoesses may, if Ibey like, nilhhotd their evidence. 

(4) This is a treatise on auch tradiltonisU at might be confounded niib other* from the aimilarily of their 
namei. 

(5) See vol. I. page 323, note (7). 

(ft) Abb '1-Hiaan Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Jaafar Ibn Najlh Ibn al-Hadtnl, a maicla lo the tribe of Satd, 
a hdfix of the highest eminence, and one of (be great iin&ma of Itlamlsm, vaa a native of Bairi. His ac- 
quirements in the Traditions were most extensive, and be displayed great peoetratioD In appretiaiiDg their 
authenticity and the credibility of ibe penons by whom they bad been transnilted down Jj juil)) j r- f?" ' 
JLJIj, He composed nearly two hundred works OD tbe subject, and his autborily was cited by al- 
Bukhlri, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, AbA DA»'ltd, an-NisJii, Ibn Mija, at-Termedi, and others. Hit conduct and 
demeanour were modelled on (hat of the early Moalims, and hit actions, words, dreai, manner of sitting, and 
general behaviour were noted down, by the learned docton of that time, aa worthy of imitation. He received 
his traditional knowledge from bis own father, who was alto a celebrated Iradillonitt, and from Hammld Ibn 
Zaid, Sofytn Ibn Oyaina, Hushaim, and others. AI-Bukhtrl said of him: "1 was never sensible of my iufe- 
" riority but in the presence of Ali Ibn al-MadlDi:" and Ibn Oyaina declared that were it not on Ibn al-H^ 
dini's account, he would never have given lessons -_; ..|i-. I -_ He was bom A. H. 101 (A. D. TTT-Si, and 
he died in (he monlh of ZA 'l-Kaadi, A. H. 334 (May-June, A. H. 849). — (Oyltn at-TaiodrUA. An-Nujim az- 
Zakira. Tabakat al-Fokatid. Abfk 'l-Fedi's Annali; and Reiske'a note.) 

(7) The Ad/Ii Abd Imrtn M&sa Ibn HlrAn was a native of Baghdad. He bore tbe reputation of being the 
lirslimtm of tbe age in the science of Tradition a. He died A.H. 394 A D. M6-7).— (Al-Ttll.) 

(8) Koran, surat S3, verse 33. 

(V) The life of MlrOf it given by Ibn Kballiktn. 



AR-RUMMAM. 

Abil 'l-Hasan AU Ibn Isa Ibn Ali Ibn Abd Allah ar-Rummani was a cele- 
brated and learned imdm in the sciences of grammar and scholastic theology. 
He is also the author of an interpretation of tbe Koran. His masters in general 
literature were Abu Bakr Ibn Duraid and Abil Bakr (Muhammad) Ibn as-Sarraj ; 
and some of the information which he acquired was transmitted down from him 
by Abu'l-Kasim (J/tt/iommad)at-Tanukhi(1), Abu Muhammad al-Jauhari, and 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 2V3 

others. He was bora at Baghdad, A. H. 296 (A. D. 908-9), and he died on the 
eve of Sunday, the 11th of the first Jumada, A. H. 384 (June, A. D. 994); 
according to anolher statement, he died A. H. 382. His family belonged lo Sarr- 
man-raa. — Rummdni may here possibly signify a seller of Rummdn or pomegra- 
nales, but it may also serve to designate a native of Kasr ar-Rummdn, a well- 
known castle at Wasit. A great number of persons have received tliis surname 
for one or the other reason, but which of these it was that procured it for Abil 
'l-Hasan is not specified by as-Samani. 

[1) The lives of the three personi jual mentioned are given by Ibn Khallikin. 



ABU 'L-HASAN AL-HAUFI. 



AbA 'l-Hasaa Ali Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Said Ibn Yusuf al-Haufi was a learaed 
grammarian and an able expositor of the Koran, oii which last subject he left 
an excellent work. He directed the studies of numerous pupils with great suc- 
cess, and I have remarked, in many books on philological subjects, certificates 
in his own handwriting to prove that the possessors of these books had read 
them under bis tuition ; in this he followed the general custom of teachers. He 
died on Saturday morning, the ^ si of Zu "l-Hijja, A. H. 430 (Aug. A. D. 1 039).— 
Relative to Hauf, from which the surname of Haufi is derived, as-Samini says : 
'* I imagined that it was a village in Egypt, till 1 saw in al-Bukhari's historical 
'* work that it is situated in Om&n. Abu 'l-Hasan at-Haufi drew his origin from 
" tliis place : he possessed a great portion of the works composed by Abu Jaafar 
" an-Nahhas (vol. I. p. 81)." On this I must observe that Hauf is not, as he 
supposes, a viUage in Egypt, but a well-known tract of country in the province 
of Sfaarkiya, the capital of which is Bilhais : they give the name of Hauf to all the 
Rif, or cultivated part (1), of that country, but I do not know of any village 
there so called. Abil 'l-Hasan belonged to the Hauf in Egypt. — The preceding 
article bad been finished some time when I met with a notice containing the parti- 
culars of al-Haufi's life. From this it appears that he belonged to a village called 



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2U IBN KHALUKAN'S 

Shubra 'n-NRkhla (2), in the province of Sharkiya ; he then went lo Old Cairo 
460(Jftsr;, where he studied under Abu Bakr al-Adfuwi, and met with a pumber 
of learned Maghribins, from whom he derived considerable information ; he then 
commenced as a professor of grammar, and composed a lai^ work on that sci- 
ence, and another, in ten volumes, containing the grammatical analysb of the 
Koran. A great number of his treatises are still studied. 



(1) The difficulty of reconciling the »ccounli, giren bj Arabic gmgrapbera, of the Sauf and the Bif wai 
first pointed out bj M. de Sacj Id hi* AbdrAllatif. H. Qualremere has some obtervationi on the subject in hii 
Rtehtrchei »ur VEgypit, p 179. «( *eq. The soluilon of the difficulty it due to H. Reinaud. See bii 
iraDsladon of Abb "l-Fedi"* Geography, page HI, note. 

(2) In the place of ili^'l the autograph hai a word whlcb may be read *^«-U5 or i*a:*^'. 



AL-AKHFASH AL-ASGHAR. 

Ab6 '1-Hasan AH Ibn Sulaiman Ibn at-FadI, better known by the appellation 
of al-Akhfash al-Asghar {al-Akhfash the (est), was a learned grammarian. The 
information which he communicated to his pupils was given by him on the au- 
thority of al-Mubarrad, Thalab, and other great masters ; his own authority was 
cited by al-Marzubani, Ab6 '1-Faraj al-Moafa at-Jariri (1 ), and others. His cha- 
racter as a trustworthy transmitter of traditional knowledge is well established. 
He must not be confounded with al-Akhfash al-Akbar, or with al-Akhfash al- 
Ausat (vol. I. p. 572) : al-Akhfash al-Akhar, whose real names were AbA 'I- 
Khattab Abd al-Hamid Ibn Abd al-Majid, was a native of Hajar and Ammola to 
one of the tribes inhabiting that region. He was a grammarian, a phitologer, 
and a transmitter of expressions peculiar to the Arabs of the desert, some of 
which were made known, for the first time, by himself. Sibawaih, Abu Obaida, 
and other eminent scholars of the same period, received a portion of their 
information from him. As 1 was unable to discover the date of his death, I 
could not devote a special article to him in this work (2). As for al-Akhfash 



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BIOGltAPUICAL DICTIONARY. 2W 

al-Ausal, whose name was Said Ibii Masada, and who had been a pupil of Siba- 
waih, he has been already noticed (vol. 1. p. 572). — Al-Akhfasli al-Asghar and 
the poet Ibn ar-Rumi were at enmity with each other, and as the latter was very 
superstitious, al-Akhrash used to go to his door, early in the morning, and pro- 
nounce words of ill omen : this prevented Ibn ar Rumi from stirring out during 
that day. Being provoked at length by this annoyance, the poet attacked his 
enemy in a number of satires, which are still extant in the collection of his 
works;, but al-Akhfash got them off by heart and cited them with approbation 
in bis lessons ; testifying at the same time how proud he was of tlie honour done 
lo him by Ibn ar-Rumi in satirizing bim. When this came to the ears of the 
poet, be discontinued his attacks. " The stock of poetry," says al-Marzubani, 
" which al-Akhfash knew by heart and taught with the autborisalion of bis 
" preceptors, was very limited; this was also the case with his grammatical 
" information. He never drew up a single work, nor pronounced a line of 
" poetry composed by himself; and when questioned on a point of grammar, 
" he would lose patience and dismiss the applicant with an abrupt refusal." He 
died suddenly at Baghdad, in the month of Zu 'l-Kaada, A. H. 315 (Dec. -Jan. 
A. D. 927-8) ; others say, in the month of Shaaban of that year, or in the year 
316. He was interred in the cemetery at the bridge of Baradan. In the year 
287 (A. D. 900) he visited Egypt, and in 306 (A. D. 918-9) he proceeded from 
that country to Aleppo. — Akhfatb means having little eyei and a bad $ight. — 
Baraddn is the name of a village in the dependencies of Baghdad ; it has pro- 
duced a number of learned men and other remarkable persons.— ** This al- 
" Akhfash," says Abu 'l-Hasan Thabit Ibn Sinan (vol. I. p. 289), ** used to pay 
" assiduous court to Abii AH Ibn Mukia (3), by whom he was treated with 
" great attention and kindness. He one day complained to him of the extreme 
" indigence to which be was reduced, and requested him to acquaint the vizir 
" Abu 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Isa with his situation, and pray him to inscribe his 
" name on the list of literary men who received pensions. Abu Ali spoke to 
*' the vizir on the subject, informing him that al-Akhfash was in very reduced 
" circumstances and had hardly any means of existence ; for which reason he 
" begged of him to settle a pension on him as on tlie other literary men of the 
" time. To this the vizir gave a positive refusal expressed in the rudest man- 
" ner, and that in the presence of a large company. Abu Ali felt so highly 



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246 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

" offended at the vizir's conduct that }ie i-elii-ed from the assembly and went 
" home, repealing of having asked any thing from him. As for al-Akhfash, 
" he remained in his former slate and became quite dispirited. His misery at 
" length reached to such a pitch, that he was obliged by hunger to eal raw beet- 
*' roots. It is said that he died suddenly of a spasm of the heart." 



il) The lives of these two persons are givea b; Ibn Kballiktn, 
(2) See the author's observilioas in the preface, vol. I. p. 3, 
l3) The life of Ibn Mukia h given by Ibn Khallikin. 



AL-WAHIDI. 

I Abu 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Mattuya al-Wiihidi 
at-Mattuwi, the author of the celebrated commentaries (on the Koran), was the 
lirst master of his time in the sciences of grammar and koranic exegesis. The 
divine grace which attended him is manifest in bis works ; ihey were universallv 
considered as excellent, and were frequently cited by professors in their lessons. 
Three of them, the Bcutt (in extenso), the Wastl (medium), and the Wajiz (com- 
pendium), are on the interpretation of the Koran, and their lilies have been 
adopted by Abi^ Hamid al-Gbazzali for three of his own works. He coni)K>sed 
also a treatise on the motives for which the different portions of the Koran were 
revealed ; a work called the Takkbtr (indication) (i ), containing an explanation of 
the (ninety-nine) excellent names given to God ; a full commentary on the poems 
of al-Mutanabbi, surpassing in excellence all the numerous works on the same 
subject, and containing many curious observations : it is thus that after explain- 
ing the following verse : 

When noble deeds, swords, spears, the daughters oF AuwaJ — all are assemblod to- 
gether, — 

He adds : " Amcaj was a stallion of noble race, belonging to the tribe of Hilal 
'* Ibn Aamir. The owner was once asked what was the greatest degree of speed 



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blOGRAPMICAL DICTIONARY ■V-^^ 

" which he ever remarked in him, and he i-eplied ; ' I was riding him and iosl 
'* ' my way in the desert, but, seeing a floek of katoi (2) going in quest of 
" ' water, I followed them with a tight rein, and we all arrived at the spring in 
" * a single heat.' This was a most extraordinary thing, for katas are very swift 
" of fliglit, and when they make towards a watering-ptaee, llieir speed is much 
" greater than ordinaiT. This, however, was not sudicient for the Ai-ab in his 
" description, and he added thai he kept in his horse with a light rein; had 
" he not done so, he would have outstnpped the hatas ; winch is a fine specimen 
" of amplification. The hoi-se was named Autcaj (the twisted) for this reason : 
" when he was a foal, a hostile iroop came down to attack the tribe, on which 
" they took to flight, and as the little animal had not sufficient strength to keep 
" up with them, they pnl him into a sack and carried him off. His back got a 
" twist fiom this treatment, and he was therefore called Aiiwaj" — The verse 
just cited is taken from the poem in which the author laments the death of Falik 
al-Majniiu (3). — Al-Wahidi was a pupil of ath-Thalabi, the author of the cele- 
brated commentary on the Koran (vol. I. p. 60); he learned from Iiim the sci- 
ence of koranic interpretation, and ended by surpassing liim. He died of a 
lingering disease in (he month of the latter Jumada, A. H. 468 (Jan.-Feh. A. D. 
1076), at Naisapur. — MattAwi means descended from MattAya. — I do not know 
the origin of the I'elative adjective Wdhidi, neither does as-Samani mention it. — 
I have since discovered that Abu Ahmad al-Askari (vol. I. p. 382) derives it 
from al~WdJiid, the name of a gierson who was the son of ad-Din Ihn Mahra (A\ 



(1) In ihe antogriph Ihit tiile i« UTitleo Tahblr {embtllishment) . 
(2 S«e page US of ihii volume, Doie (3). 

(3) HU life is given by Ibn Khsllikln, and the poem will be found in M. Grangeret de Lagrange's Anthn- 
logit Arahe. 

(4) nig Mahra may perhaps be (he »on of Kudia, noticed by Ibn Kntaiba. Eicbbom's Momimenla Hilt. 
Ar. tab XI 



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2'^8 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

IBN MAKULA. 

The emir Abu Nasr Ali, sumamed Saad al-Mulk (the good fortune of the king- 
dom), and generally known by the name of Ibn Makula, was the son of Hibat 
Allah Ibn Ali Ibn Jaafar Ibn Allakan Ibn Muhammad Ibn Dulaf Ibo Abi Dulaf 
ai-Kasim Ibn Isa al-ljli : ibe remainder of the genealogy is given in the life of his 
ancestor Abu Dulaf al-Kasim. His family belonged to JarbazakSn, a place near 
Ispahan, and his father Abu 'l-Kasim Hibat Allah was vizir (o the imam (khalif) 
al-Kiiim biamr lllah. His paternal uncle Abu Abd Allah at-Hasan Ibn Ali, who 
filled the place of kadi at Baghdad, had learned a great quantity of Traditions ; 
he composed also some instructive works, after studying under the most eminent 
masters in Irak, Khorasan, Syria, and other countries, — Abu Nasr (Ibn lHakUla), 
a man celebrated for his talents and learning, was sedulously and success- 
fully devoted to the research of such proper names, as were uncertain in their 
meaning and derivation (1). — The Khatib Abu Bakr, author of the History of ■ 
Baghdad, had taken the Mukhtalif v;a MUtalif of ad-Darakuini (seepage 340), and 
Wi the Mushtabih an-Nisba of the hdfiz Abd al-Ghani (vol. II. p. i 69) and combined 
them together, with some additions of his own; forming thus a new work to 
which he gave the title of al-Mutanif Takmila tal-Mukhlalif (the recommenced, 
being the completion of the Mukhtalif). The emir Abii Nasr augmented this Tah- 
mila with the names which he had discovered, and made it into a new work 
under the title of al-Ikmdi (the completion). This last is extremely useful for 
fixing the orthography and pronunciation of proper names, and clearing up 
the uncertainties which may subsist on these points : it is the standard autlio- 
ritv of the persons engaged in this study and of the traditionists, in as much 
as it surpasses all similar productions by its intrinsic excellence. A sup- 
plement, composed with no inferior talent, was added to it afterwards by Ibn 
Nukta, (a tradilionist) whose Ufe shall be given in this work. The talent dis- 
played by the emir Ibn Makula in his Ikmdl is quite sulTicient for his reputation; 
it is a monument of the extensive acquirements, solid learning, and correct in- 
formation of tlie author. The following lines are attributed to him : 

Strike thy tent and quit the land where thou art despised; avoid humiliation; humi- 
liation should always be avoided. Depart ^m the place where thy merit is not ac- 
knowledged ; the aloes-wood is employed for common uses in its native land (2j 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. ik9 

He was born at Okbara on the 5th of Shaaban, A. H. 421 (August, A. D. 
1 030), and he was murdered at Jurjan by his servants between the years 470 
and 480. Ibn aWauzi mentions, in his Kitdb al-Muntazim, that he was killed in 
A. H. 475 (A. D. 1082-3), or in 487, according to some. Another authorilv 
gives 479 as the year, and Khorasan as the place of his death ; hut al-Ahwsiz is 
also indicated as the country where he met with his fate. Al-Humaidi (3) 
says : *' He set out for Khorasan with some yo'^^g Turkish slaves who belonged 
" to him; but they murdered him at Jurjan and fled with his money. The 
'* crime remained unpunished." The poet Surr-Durr (whose life we shall give) 
celebrated the praises of Ibn Makula, and this eulogium is still extant in his 
collected poetical works. — The meaning of the word M^Ala is unknovra to me ; 
and 1 am unable to say whether the title of emir was given to him because he 
was realty one, or because he was a descendant of (the emir) Abvi Dulafal-ljli. — 
Of Okbara I have already spoken in the life of Abu 'l-Baka (vol. II. p. 66). 



(1) The aulofriph has J'^^ U-.^^ ^-1.0 1 JbUJ^ 

[2] Litenllj: The gre^n ■loes-wood in its localities is [oi common) 

i3 The life of Abd Abd Allah al-Hiiniaidi is given in Utit work 



ABU L-FARAJ AL-ISPAHANI. 

Abii 'l-Faraj Ali, the kdtib and author of the Kitdb al~Aghdni (1), was a mem- 
hei' of the tribe of Koraish and a descendant of Marwan Ibn Muhamniad, the 
last of the Omaiyide khalifs. His genealogy is thus given : Abd 'l-Faraj Ali Ibn 
al-Husain Ibn Muhammad Ihn Ahmad Ibn al-Haitham Ibn Abd ar-Rahman Ibn 
Marwan Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Marwiin Ibn Muhammad Ibn Mai-wan Ibn al-Hakam 
Ibn Abi '1-Aasi Ibn Omaiya Ibn Abd Shams Ibn Abd Manaf. His family inha- 
bited Ispahan, but he passed bis early youth in Baghdad, and became the most 
distinguished scholar and most eminent author of that city. It would be too 
long to enumerate the learned men from whom he received and transmitted 
VOL. II. 32 



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250 IBN KHALLIKANS 

down his inrormation. He was well acquainted with the day$ (or contests) of the 
Arabs, their genealogy and history. " Amongst the persons whom we met 
" with," says at-Tanikkhi (2), "and who professed Shiite opinions, was Abii '1- 
" Faraj aMspahani. 1 never found a person knowing by heart such a quantity 
" as he did of poems, songs, historical relations, anecdotes of ancient times, au- 
" thentic narratives (3 ,\ and genealogies; besides which he possessed information 
" in other sciences, such as philology, grammar, story-telling, biography, and 
" the history of the Mosiim conquests ; he was acquainted also with the branches 
" ot knowledge requisite for a boon-companion, such as falconry, farriery, the 
" preparation of beverages, a smattering of medicine and aatroiogy, etc." His 
verses combine the learning of the scholar with the grace and elegance of the 
poet ; his other works are excellent, and one of them, the Kitdh al-Aghdni ^book 
4C5 of tongi) (A), is unanimously considered as unequalled. It is said that he was 
fifty years in compiling it, and that he took it to Saif ad-Dawlat Ibn Hamdan, 
who remunerated him with one thousand pieces of gold, regretting at the same 
time his inability to offer a more adequate recompense. It is related that when 
the Sdhib Ibn Abbad (vol. I. p. 212) was travelling or changing residence, he 
took with him for perusal thirty camel-loads of books on literary subjects; bul, 
on receiving the Kitdb alrAghdniy he found he could dispense with all the others 
and took it alone. The other works of Abu '1-Faraj are : the Kitdb al-Kiydn 
(hktory of female mmiciam) ; the Kitdb al-Imd it-Shawder (lnsto)'y of the female 
slaves who were poets) ; the Kitdb ad-Diydrdt (book of monasteries) (5) ; the Kitdb 
Ddwd lil-Tijdr (on the mercantile profession) (6); a collection of songs without note 
or comment; the Adventures of Jahza tal-Barmaki (vol. I. p. 118); the Kitdb 
MakdtU it-Tdlibiytn (account of the tragical fdte of Ali Ibn Abi Tdlib's descendants); 
the Kitdb ol-HdnM {book of taverns- (7); and the Addb al-Gkurabd (manners or 
literary Jiwdies of foreigners). A number of works composed by him for the 
Omaiyidet of Spain are still extant in that country ; he forwarded (hem pri- 
vately to these princes, and the marks of their beneQcence were transmitted to 
him in tiie same manner. Amongst these works were the following : Genealogy 
of the descendants of Abd Shams; Battle-days of the Arabs, containing an 
account of one thousand seven hundred combats; the Kitdb atrTaadil wa 'i- 
Misdf (impartiai examinatum and appremation of the noble deeds and the opprobriom 
actions of the Arabs) -, the Jamhara tan-Nisab (co}nprehermv6 genealogical treatise) ; 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 251 

the Genealogy of the descendanis of Shaiban ; the GeDealogy of the Muliallabite 
family; the Genealogy of the descendants of Taghlab ; the Genealogy of the 
descendants of Kilab; History of the slave-boys who were good singers, etc. 
Abu 'l-Faraj was exclusively attached to the vizir al-Muhallabi, and he composed 
some pieces of poetry in his praise, one of which is as follows : 

When we sought for means of subsistence and took shelter under his protection, he 
gave relief yet spared our feelings; he was beneficent, yet vaunted not the greatness 
of his favours. We went to him poor, and he restored us to wealth ; we had recourse 
to his liberality in our distress, and he placed us in the midst of abundance. 

A Greek concubine belonging to the vizir having been delivered of a son, the 
poet congratulated him on the happy event in the following lines, forming part 
of a kastda: 

Receive a pledge of happiness in the birth of that infont, which heaven has sent thee 
as a blessing I The moon, pervading with its lustre the depths of night, is but an em- 
blem of its beauty. Blessed be the propitious hour in which a virtuous mother, a 
daughter of the Asfars (8), brooght it forth 1 It rejoiceth in its exaltation on the two 
highest pinnacles of mortal glory ! sprung, as it is, from the united stocks of the Mu- 
hallabs and the Cesars. The sun of the morning was in conjunction with the moon 
of the night, and their union has produced Jupiter (9). 

The following lines were written by liim to a man of rank who was suflering 
from sickness (10) : 

O Aba Muhammad t thou so worthy of praise! O thou who art so fair [hasan] in thy 
noble deeds and thy generosity I O swollen sea of liberality I Mayest thou be pre- 
served from sick-bed visitors, from the remedies of illness and from the approach of 
pain (11)1 

He composed a great deal of poetry, and his talents have rendered him ilhis- 
trious. His birth took place, A.H. 284 (A.D. 897-8), the year in which tlie 
poet al-Bohtori died; he expired at Baghdad on Wednesday, the 14th of Zu '1- 
Hijja, A. H. 356 (November, A. D. 967); some say, but erroneourfy, that he 
died A. H. 357. Previously to his death, his intellect became disordered. Two 
men of great learning and three powerful princes died in the year 356 ; 
namely : this Abu 'l-Faraj, Abu Ali '1-Kali, Saif ad-Dawlat Ibn Hamdan, Moizz 
ad-Dawlat Ibn Buwaih, and Kafur al-lkhshidi; (see their lives in this work.; 



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252 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

(1) A coniiderable poriion of Ibis iriicle baa alretd; ■ppetrcd in a French translation. See M. Qualn- 
mire's MimoiTe lur le Sitab al-AgHni in Ibe Jourtxal Atiatiqut Tor November, 1S38. It ma; be remarked 
tbal in rendering cerialn eipresiions and panages, I have occasionallj differed (torn tbat learned Mholar. 

(2) Abo 'l-Klsiro Ali at-TanAkhi and hia sod AbA All al-Hubassin were both i^ontemporaries of AbA 'I- 
Faraj ; It b therefore diflicull to mj wbkh of (hem u the person cited bere by Ibn Khallikln. Their lives 
are given in this work. 

(3] Literally: Narratives ititb their finadi.— See Introduction to vol.1, p. iiii- 

(4) A complete edition of this imporlanl «ork, teit and Latin translation, has been undertaken by professor 
Koaegarten. The three first parts have appeared under the title of Alii Itpahanentit Hber CanHlmomm 
magma. 

(9) Thiv was a collection of the best poems inspired by the view uf Christian monasteries and the aspect of 
monastic life. It was a very common subject with tbe Moslim poets of the third and fourth century of the 
Hijra. See the life of as-Shlbushti in Ibis volume 

(fi) Literally : On the merchants' calling. 

(7) Probably a collection of tavern anecdotes and verses in praiie of wine. 

(8) For the origin of the denomination Atfar and BanQ 'l-Asftr given to tbe Romani by Arabic writers, see 
M.de Sacy'i note in the Journal J$ialique for January, 1B36. 

(9) To render this verse intelligible, it should be paraphrased thus : Thou, viiir I whose glory is resplen- 
dent as tbe midday sun, wast joined to a maiden whose beauty equalled the lustre of tbe moon, and this 
union has produced a child, who, like tbe planet Jupiter, announces b; his presence happiness and joy. 

(10) The poet has skilfully indicated in his verses that this person's eame was AbA Muhammad al-Hasan. 
(111 The merit of this last vwse consists in the curious example of alliteration which it offers in the ori- 
ginal ten. 



IBN ASAKIR TIIE HAFIZ. 



The hdfiz Abu 'l-Kasim All Ibn Abi Muhammad al-Hasan Ibn HJbat Allah 
Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Husain, generally known by the appellation of Ibn Asakir 
464 and surnamed Thikat ad-din (nncere in faith), was a native of Damascus and 
chief traditionist of Syria in that age. He ranked also among the most eminent 
jurisconsults of the sect of as-Shati, but, having made of the Traditions his 
. favourite study, he acquired in that science a degree of su[)eriority which no 
other had ever attained, and it was to his proficiency therein that lie was indebted 
for his reputation. His zeal in this pursuit and his desire of communicating 
personally with the teachers of the Traditions led him to visit distant countries 
and travel to and fro through various regions, in company with the hdfiz Ahu 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 203 

Siiad Abd al-Kariin as-Samani. In committing to memory the text of each 
Tradition, he never neglected learning by heart the imdd (i) from which it de- 
rived its authority; he was, indeed, a pious and conscientious hdfiz. In the 
year 520 (A. D. 1126) he heard the disciples of al-Barmaki, at-Tanukhi (2), and 
al-Jauhari (3) deliver Traditions at Baghdad; after which he proceeded to Kho- 
rasan and visited Naisapilr, Herat, Ispahan, and Persian Irak; at that time, he 
made his extracts from different authors and composed his own instructive works. 
He discussed with great eloquence the traditional lorormation which he liad 
collected, and he displayed a most happy talent in compiling and drawing up the 
materials of his works. He composed a great (biographical) history of Damascus 
in eighty volumes, containing most curious information, and written on the 
plan of (the Khattb's) History of Baghdad. 1 was one day with my master Abd 
at-Azim al-Mundlri, the chief b^^s of Egypt, (may God prolong his days for our 
instruction!) (4) and the conversation happening to fall on this history, he 
brought me out a volume of it, and spoke longly on its merits and excellence : 
" I cannot but think," said he, "that the author must have made the resolution 
" of composing this history on the very day in which his Intelligence could form 
" a reasonable conception, and that he began from that moment to collect the 
" materials ; for the ordinary life of a man, passed in study and devoted to the 
" subject, would be insufficient for the task of assembUng so much information 
" as that book contains." This observation is perfectly true, and its correcl- 
ness will be admitted by every person who examines the work; for how could 
any man fmd time enough to compose one like it? and it must be also taken Into 
consideration that the published text consists of passages selected, after verifi- 
cation, from an immense mass of written notes. He composed some other good 
and instructive works, and a considerable quantity of poetry (5), of which we 
may give the following passage : 

Ilie science of Traditions forms an important part of knowledge, and its fairest 
branch is that of well-authenticated statements. But the moat useful, in my opinion, 
and the finest consists in instructive information conveyed by (6) dictation. You will 
find that nothing gives more certitude to science than its utterance fnim the lips of men. 
Be ardent, then, my friend! in its acquisition, and receive it with untiring zeal from 
the mouths of men.' Take it not from books, or the faults of the copyists will over- 
whelm yoM with vexation. 

The following piece also is allributcd to him : 



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231 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

Alas, my heart 1 grey hairs have come I what mean thy youthful passions and (hose 
verses expressive of thy love? My youth has fled ; it seems as if that time had never 
been 1 Hoary age has come ; 1 feel as if it had always been my companion I Preoccu- 
pied by my thoughts, the strokes of fate fell upon me unawares. O (hat I knew with 
whom I shall be (elassed on the day of judgnifni), and what may be the lot which God 
will declare to be mine for all eternity. 

In the (original Arabic) of this last piece, the poet imposed on himself (he 
unnecessarv obHgation of making the two last syllables of each verse rhyme to- 
gether. The second verse is taken, with very shght alteration, as may he seen, 
from a poem of All Ibn Jabala al-Akawwak (7), where he says : 

Vouth, as if it had never been ; and hoary age as if it had never ceased to be. 

The hd^z Ihn Asakir was born on tlie first of Muharram, A. H. U99 (Sept. 
A. D. 11 05), and he died at Damascus on the eve of Monday, the 21 st of Rajah, 
A.H. 571 (February, A.D. 1 176). He was buried in the cemetery at the Lesser 
Gale (at-Bdb as-Saghtr), near the spot where his father and otiier members of his 
family were interred. Funeral prayers were said over him by the $haikk Kuth 
ad-dIn (MasHd) an-Naisapuri (8), and the sultan Salah ad-din was present at the 
ceremony. — His son Abu Muhammad al-Kasim, surnamed Baha ad-dia (tplen- 
dour of religion), wlio was also a bdfiz, died at Damascus on the 9th of Safar, 
A.H. 600 (Oct. A.D. 1203), and was buried the same day outside the gate called 
Bab an-Nasr. His birth took place in that city on the eve of the 1 5th ol the 
latter Jumada, A.H. 527 (April, A.D. 1 133). — His brother Hihat Allah Ihn al- 
Hasan Ibn Hibat Allah, surnamed Sain ad-din (cMlodiem fidem), was a learned 
jurisconsult and traditionist ; he died at Damascus on Sunday, the 23rd of 
Shaaban, A. H. 563 (June, A.D. 1168), and was buried, the next morning, at 
the Lesser-Gate Cemetery. According lo (he statement of his brother (he hd/is, 
he was born on one of (he first ten days of the month of Rajab, A. H. 488 (July, 
A. D. 1095); he went to Baghdad, A. 11. 520 (A. D. 1 126), and after studying 
under Asaad al-Mihani (vol. I. p. 189) and Ibn Barhan (vol. I. p. 80), he 
relumed lo Damascus and gave lessons in the western Maksiira (0) of the Great 
Mosque. He gave also opinions, as a imifli, on points of law, and taught the 
Traditions. 



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BIOGKAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 255 

tl] Sec vol. I. [Dtroduciioii, p. iiii. 

'2) The life of Abd 'l-Kiiim All ■l-TinAfchi will he found in Ihis volume. 

i3i .\bO Mubammad al-Ha»an Ibn Ali Ibii al-HiMn Ibn Muhammad, surnameii al-Jauhnri, uan the tirst 
A<t|t: .'Ju-> of ihe age in Irak, and rotided in Shirli, but removed aflervards lo Baghdad. Bom A. II. 3IH 
(A.D. 974-0); died A.H. «< (A.)). 1062.1- f/ttjim.) 

H) llie autograph which contains this passage was nhtlen at Cairo, A. H. ASS. Abd al-Ailm al-Mundiri 
died the ensuing year. See vol. I. p SO. 

(Bl The le« has « (_,'j "^ j^t liWrally, in French ; pat mal de t'^rj. 

{A) The autt^aph has ^ not j. 

i7' The life of al-Akawvak k given in this work. 

[Hi Hit life is given b; our author. 

|9) Cverj great mosque has a lai^e pew {makr&ra) on the led side of the mihrAb for the chsuniers, and 
another on the right side for the sultan, if it be an imperial njosque. It niu.«l liave been in the sullan'i 
MaksClra, that Hlbat Allah gave his lessons. 



AS-SI.MSIMANI. 

Abu '1-llasan Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Abd al-Ghaflar as-Siuisimani was cele- 
brated for his abilities as a philologer, and the books on literary subjects which 
contain notes in his handwriting are sought after ^nth avidity. All I know 
respecting his personal Iiistory is, that he received lessons from Abii Bakr Ibn 
Sbadan and Abu 'l-Fadl Ibn al-Mamt'm. His veracity as a transmitter of 
traditional information was generally acknowledged. — The Khalib mentions 
him in the History of Baghdad and says : "I took notes when he dictated bis 
" lessons; he wrote a great deal, and his penmanship was extrcmelv elegant and 
" correct. He commenced his career as a professor at Baghdad by transmittin;; 
" orally to his pupils the pieces of general literature which he bad received in 
" the same manner from bis own masters, and by instructing them in a portion 
" of the same science whicb bad been already committed to writing (1;. The 
'* greater part of his books were written out by himself, and, on bis death, they 
" came into the possession of the learned scholar Ibn Dinar al-Wasiti, but 
" most of them ivere destroyed by an inundation." He died on Wednesday, the 
4th of Muharram, A. H. ^^X^ (March, A. D. 1024).— I did not know the origin 
of the surname ^minmdni, (ill I found the following passage in al-IIariri's Jiwra 



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236 IBN KHALLIKANS 

tal-Gkaicdu : "When they (the vulgar) wish to employ the relalive adjecdves 
" derived from fdkiha (fntit}, bdlaild (greens), and smsim (sesame), they say 
" fakihdni fruiterer), baHUdni (greengrocer^ and timsimdiii (seller of «eiome) ; but 
" they ai-e wrang." — He then points out the nature of the fault, and con- 
tinues: "The proper form of locution is simsimi, to designate a seller of sesame;" 
he then adds further observations with which he concludes his dissertation. 
When I met this passage, 1 became aware that Abu 'l-Hasan's surname Sinmmdni 
was derived from MWisim, and that it was a word employed conventionally by the 
vulgar. 

H; The Arabic Mys timplj: by relating, ind by leaching lo read lileralUTC. 



THE SHARIF AL-MURTADA. 

The shartf Abu 'l-Kasun Ali, surnamcd al-Murlada (gratum habitm), and 
naktb, or chief, of that class of Moslims who drew their descent from Ali Ibn 
Ahi Talib, was the brother of the sharif ar-Rida, whose life we shall give, and 
the son of at-Tahir Zu '1-Manakib, the son of Abu Ahmad aUHusain, the son of 
Musa, the son of Muhammad, the son of Ibrahim, tlie son of Miisa al-Kazim, 
tlie son of Jaafar as-Sadik, the son of Muhammad al-Bakir, the son of All Zain 
al-Aabidin, the son of al-Husain, the son of Ali, the son of Ahi Talib. He pos- 
sessed the highest abilities in scholastic theology, general literature, and poetry, 
and is author of some works on the system of doctrine held by the Shiites ; he 
composed also a discourse on the fundamentals of the Moslim religion, and a great 
quantity of poetry, which has been collected into a diwdn. In describing the 
tdif, or image of the beloved seen by the lover in his dreams (1), he displays 
great talent, and he recurs to the subject very frequently. It is a controverted 
point whether the book entitled Nahj al-Baldgha (highroad of preciium in dw- 
course), and containing a collection of sayings by the imam AU Ibn Abi Talib, was 
B compiled by al-Murtada or by his brother ar-Rida: it has been even staled that 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 257 

these sayings were never uttered by Aii, and that the person who collected them 
and attributed them to that imam was himself the author of them: of this God 
is the best judge ! He wrote also a work under the title of alrGkurar «o 'drDurar 
{stars and pearls), consisting of discourses which he had pronounced at assemblies 
presided by himself; they embrace a variety of subjects connected with general 
literature, and contain observations on points of grammar, philology, etc. It is 
an instructive work and indicates not only the great talent of the author, but his 
extensive information in the sciences. Ibn Bassam speaks of him towards the 
end of the Dakldra ; " This tkarif" says he, " was generally considered as the 
" greatest imam of Irak; to him the learned of that country had recourse, and 
" from him its great men received instruction. He was the master of its schools, 
*' and the possessor of the rare (infoTTtuition) and the familiar (knowledge) there 
'* subsisting. He was one of those whose reputation spread abroad, whose name 
" gained publicity for his verses, whose virtues and deeds found praise in the 
" sight of God. Add to this, his compositions on religious subjects and his 
' ' works on the principles of Moslim science ; treatises which declare him a 
" branch of that (noble) stem and a member of that illustrious (famUy, the) 
" house (of Ali)" He gives also some pieces of verse by al-Murtada, one of 
which is as follows : 

She granted me fevours vith reluctance in my waking hours, bat when I slept, she 
bestowed them in abundance (2). Then we met, and I enjoyed my wishes; it was 
happiness unalloyed, had it not been all a dream. Since night is then the time of 
lovers' meetings, night is surely better than day (3). 

This thought is borrowed from the lines of Abu Tanunam at-Tai, in which 
he says : 

My imagination called on her to visit my sleeping hours, and she came in secret and 
unseen. what a meeting is that wherein the souls enjoy delight whilst the bodies are 
not aware 1 Such interviews as these have for us but one defect — we are then under 
the influence of a dream. 

Another of al-Murtada's pieces is the following : 

My two dearest friends I chief ornaments of the tribe of Kais I love subdues man's 
character to mildness. Let me turn my thoughts towards you, so that I may for a mo- 
ment forget my cares ; 'tis thus you will delist me : and let me quench my thirst with 
repeated draughts fnm the cup which my tears have filled. Let sleep not approach 
my eyelids ; 1 bestow it upon lovers [who rtquire it). 

VOL. II. 33 



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258 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

When these Unei came to the knowledge of the poet al-Busnwi, he obsorved 

that al-Murtada bestowed what he did not possess oa persons who would not 

receive it (4). — He says io another piece : 

When a distant journey willed that we should separata, that moment discovered 
whose love was sincere and whose affected ; and on the evening of the caravan's depart 
tore, I seemed, from my restless af^tation, like a man distracted. 

The idea expressed in the first of these verses is taken from a poem rhyming 
in K, which was composed by al-Mulanabbi in praise of Adud ad-Dawlat Ibn 
Buwaih. As the poet was then on the point of leaving the court of the prince 
and proceeding from Shir^z to Irak, he addressed him this poem as a farewell. 
It was in this journey that al-Mutanahbi lost his life, as we have already observed 
(vol. I. p. 1 05). The following is the passage to which we allude : 

Amongst the lovers was one distinguished by the ardoar of his passion and another 
who pretended to partake therein; but when the visages were drowned in tears, he that 
really wept was easily distingui^ed from the pretender. 

407 I extract the following verses from the Jindn al-Jandn, in which they are given 
as aUMurtadi's by the kadi ai^Rashid Ahmad Ibn az^Zubair, the author of that 
work (vol. I. p. 1 43) ; 

I and those who blamed me for loving are at daggers-drawing : 1 am a KMrijiU (5) 
in love (and hold thai) none but the fairest have a right to power. 

The same writer attributes to him also the lines which follow : 

Mistress of my heart I full-moon (o/'&raufy) resplendent in the darkest shades of night! 
take me by the hand and draw me from the abyss into which I have (alien. The mi- 
racles wrought by thy beauty never cease; like the sea, «e may speak (6) of its marvels 
without restraint. I conjure thee, in the name of Him who formed thy cheeks and gave 
them sovereign power over our hearts, to stretch forth thy dear hands, as I do mine, 
and pray that I may be delivered from the passion which thou hast awakened in my 
bosom. 

He gives also as al-Murtadi's the following verses : 

Bear from me this message to one whose cheeks have been wounded by [our indit- 
ereet) glances (and are luffiued mih bltttha): "Let those features, wounded as they are, 
" beam kindness upon me. O thou whose eyes are languishing, but not from feeble 
" health 1 blame me not if 1 die of the malady which they have caused. I have adven- 
" tured into (the ocean of) thy love, with a heart which has embarked on the same sea, 
" to reach thee or to perish (7)." 



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BIOGBAPIIICAL DICTIONAKY. 259 

The following anecdote is related by the khattb AbA ZakariyJ Yahya at-Ta- 
brlii, the philologer : "Abil 'l-Hasan AH Ibn Ahmad Ibo Ali Ibn SalUk al-Fali, 
" a man well-versed io the belles-lettres, possessed an extremely correct copy of 
" Ibn Duraid's Jamkara, which poverty compelled him to sell. It was bought 
'* by the shatif al-Murtada for sixty dinars (8), and on turning over the leaves, 
" he found in it the following lines in the handwriting of al-Fali, the person who 
"sold it: 

' It vas my companion for twenty years, and yet I sold iti my sorrov and r^ret will 
' long endure under that privation. 1 could never have thought that I should have sold 
' it, even had my debts retained me for ever in prison. But I was constrained to it by 
' misery and poverty and the state of my children, over whom I wept in sadness. Un- 
' able to suppress my gushing tears, I said [to my tn/e) like one heart-broken (9) and 
' afflicted : ' O 0mm MAlik 1 necessity forces the most precious objects from even the 
' miser's hands.' ' " 

This (U-Fdli drew his surname from Fdla, a town in Khuzestan near Aidaj (1 0). 
He had been a long time an inhabitant of Basra and had studied there under Abu 
Amr Ibn Abd al-W&hid al-Hashimi and other eminent masters of the epoch ; 
he then removed to Baghdad, where he settled and taught the Traditions. — His 
grandfather's name is to be pronounced Sallak, but, in another place, I found it 
written Si/A.-— Al-Murtada was equally distinguished for the elegance of his 
genius and for his virtues. He was born A. H. 355 (A. D. 965-6), and he died 
at Baghdad on Sunday, the 35th of the first Rabi, A. H. 436 (Sept. A. D. 1044). 
He was interred in (the court of) his house on the evening of the same day. — 
Abu 'l-Hasan al-Fali died on the eve of Friday, the 8th of Zu 'l-Kaada, A. H. 448 468 
(January, A. D. 1057), and was buried in the cemetery at the Jami (or moique) 
of al-Mansur. He was an elegant scholar and a poet. Some historical relations 
are given on his authoiity by the khattb Abd Bakr in his History of Baghdad, 
by Abii 'l-Husain [Ibn] at-Tuyuri, and others. 



(It See Tol. I. Introduction, ptge iiivi. 

9) For 'ijJ^ read o rr^- ~ '''''" poet'i meaning in thii piece will be better nndentood on ■ penual of 
tbe obtervationt relative to Ibe I'Mf alSMAl, inierud in the InirodDction to vol. I. p. iu*i. 

(3) The Arabic wordi sigDlfj also : " Evil fortane is better Itun good." The point of the venM liet to thit 
doable meaning which allowa the pact to advance a paradoi unexpectedly. 

(4) He meana that al-Hurtada'a alTection for hit abaent frienda put iteep out of fail power, and tfait true 



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260 IBT4 KHALUKAN'S 

loT«n had DOLhing lo do with aleep. Bot il-Bunawi ihould have ra»llMted that everj lover dMire* ileq), 
M) that he maj dream of hii miatreu. 

(5) Shdrijite signfBet htrtlie and exttrtoritt. The poet employa thii equiTocal word detignedl;, but hii 
real meantog i$% "I love her for her body, not for her mind." See a limiUr quibble In the life of Ibn 
Haim ai-Zlblrii page 269 of this volume. 

(0) Lliertll J : Like the tea, the hiitoir of which baa no boundi. If, in place of w A^ , the reading 
t.^J.at be adopted, the aense la: Speak of 11 without reitraint. 

(7) The worda Ul^ Ul ligmfi " either one waf or the other;" that ii, "Iihall riak the alternative. " 

(8) Twentj-flve or thirty pound) aterling, at the loweal evaluation. 
(0) Literally: Branded on the heart, or heart-ivrwd. 

(10) The town of Aidoj liei, or lay, at four day«' joumey out of Aakar Hnfaram. 



AL-KHILAI. 



The kadi '1-Abu '1-Husain (1) AU Ibn al-Hasan Ibn at-Husain Ibn Muhammad, 
sumamed al-Kbilai, and the author of the (work on the TradUiora, called after km) 
(d-KhMiydtf was a follower of the sect of as-Shafi and an inhabitant of E^pt, 
but his family belonged to Mosul. He studied under Abu 'l-Hasan al-Haufi 
(voin.p.2AS), Aha Muhammad Ibn an-Nahhas, Abu '1-Fath al-Addas, Abu 
Saad al-Malint (2), Abu 't-Kasim al-Ahwazi, and other masters. The kadi lyad 
al-Yahsubi (3) relates as follows: "1 asked Abu Ali as-Sadafi respecting al- 
" Khilat whom he had met with in his journey to the East (A\ and he 
"replied: 'He was a jurisconsult and composed some good works; having 
" ' been appointed kadi, he Glled the duties of this oflice for one day only, and 
" < obtained permission to resign; he then retired into a hermitage in the Ka- 
" ' rafa. On the death of al-Habbal (5) he became chief traditionist (6) of 
" ' Egypt.' " Mention is made of him also by the k&di Abu Bakr Ibn al- 
Arabi (7), who says: "This ihoiiWi lived, retired from the world, in the Karafa; 
" He was the sole transmitter of certain Traditions founded on the highest au- 
" thority, and also the sole possessor of some curious and useful information on 
" a variety of points. Al-Humaidi (8) gave Traditions ou his authority and 
" designated him by the surname of al-Kardfi." Anotlier writer says: "A1-. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 261 

" Kbilui held the post of kadi at Famiya, and Abu Nasr Ahmad Ibn al-Hasan 
" as-Shlrazi selected some portions of the information which he had heard at 
*< his lectures (and taught them to otheri). The last survivor of those who irans- 
" mitted the same informatioD on Abu Nasr's authority was Abu Rifaa. 1 oh- 
" tained from these notes the knowledge of a fact which was thus handed down 
" by al-Asmai : * The seal of AbA Amr Ibn al-Ala bore the following ioscrip- 
*' * tion: 

* The man whose worldly prospects are his chief concero, clings lo a rope that will 
' snT«ly foil him. 

" ' 1 asked Abii Amr about it, and he told me that as he was one day, at dood, 
" ' taking a walk round his farm, he heard a voice reciting this verse, but 
" ' could see no person. He then had it engraved on his ring.' " AbA 'I- 
Abbas Thidab attributes the verse to Hani Ihn Tauba Ibn Suhaim Ibn Murra, 
generally known by the surname of as-Sbuwaier al-Hanafi. — ^The hdfiz AbA Ta- 
hir as-Silafi says : ** When Abu '1-Husain al-Khilai was teaching the Traditions, 
" be concluded the sitting with the following prayer: '0 God! complete the 
" ' favours which thou hast granted ; take not away the graces which thou hast 
'< ' bestowed; discover not the faults over which thou hast cast a veil, and 
" ' pardon those which thou hast rendered public' " Al-Khilai was bom at 
Misr (Old Cairo) in the month of Muharram, A. H. A05 (July, A. D. 1 01 4), and 
be died there on Saturday, the 18th of Zu 'l-Hijja, A. H. 492 (December, A. D. 
1090); others say that bis death took place on the 26th of the month. — His 
father died in the month of Shawwal, A. H. 448 (December, A. D. 1056).— 
JTnttii is derived from khild (peliuei); Abu 'l-Husain was so sumamed because 
he sold pelisses to the princes of Misr. — The Kardfat are two in number, the 
Greater and the Less; the former lies outside Misr (Old Cairo), and the latter 
outside Cairo; this last contains the tomb of the imam as-Shafi. — The BanH 
Kardfa, a branch of the tribe of al-Maafir Ibn Yafur had settled in these two 
places which were therefore named after them. — Fdmiya, or, as it is some- 
times written, Afdmya is the name of a castle and canton in the province of 
Aleppo (9). 

(11 In the autograph this aanM wai originallr milteD at-Ba$an: bat In rauodelliDg the article, the author 
rabitituled al-Hiuain. Towards the end, he hu left the name aacorrecled. 



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i6i IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

(3) According lo tbe iVtgilm, ■ Adjti and Sifi wboM ume nat AbO Sud Abitud Iba HuhauMd al- 
Mtllnl and who had travelled ihrough dilTerent couniriea, died A. H. 412 (A. D. iOU-i.) — MdUn* bmm 
nalim of MdHn, a collection of rillaget to called in Ihe neighbourhood of Uerlt. 

(9j Hii life will be fouDd in this volume. 

(4) It is neceiMrf to observe that Ihe ktdi Iftd wai a native of Onia in N«nfa AMn. 

(5) Abo lahik Ibrahim Ibn Said aa-Nomlni, lumaraed al-Habiil [tht rope-maitr), wai a kdftt of great 
learning and eminence. After travelling through various countries and receiving traditional information from 
a great number of roasters, he proceeded lo Egypt, where he settled, and died A.H. 483 (A.D. 1D89-W!. ai lb* 
age of ninel; Jem.—{JV^jitm.) 

(A) The original manuscript has jj,_, which ii here a noun in ihe accusative case. 

(7) His life will be found in this work. 

(8) The life of al-Humaidi ii given in Uiis work. 

(V) Ftmia, Ihe Apamea of the aocienti, is placed, in Brockbaus' map of Sfria, in lal. SB* IS', and Iwtf. 
34° 12' E. from Paris 



AS-SHABUSHTL. 

The katib AbA 'l-Husain (1) AH Iba Muhammad as-Shabushti, an elegant 
scholar and a man of talent, was attached to the service of al-Aziz Ibn al-Moizz 
469 the Obaidite (Fatimite), sovereign of Eg^pt, as private Ubrarian and reader (defter 
kkudn) ; and his agreeable conversation and pleasing manners rendered him the 
companion of his master's social and convivial parties. He wrote some good 
works, one of which, entitled Kitdb ad'Didrdt (book of convenU), contains tlie 
indication of every convent in Irak, Mosul, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, with 
all tbe poems composed on each of them and an account of what passed in them. 
This book is drawn upon the plan of the similar works, bearing the same title, 
which were composed by the two Kh&lidites (2) and by Abil '1-Faraj al-Ispahani : 
a great number of books have been written on this subject. His other works are 
the Kitdb d-Yusr baad al-Osr (ea$e after pain); the Mar&t%b cd-FokahA (claasifted litt 
of juritcomuUs); the KiWi atrTauktfwa ^t-Takhwtf (attention arretted and apprehen- 
sion impired^, and a number of letters and epistolary essays, containing passages 
of poetry and moral maxims. He composed also some treatises on literary and 
other subjects. His death took place A. H. 390 (A. D. 1000), or, according to 
the emir al-Mukhtar al-Musabbihi, in 388; another author names the day, 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 263 

which was Tuesday eve, the 1 5(h of Safar. He died io Old Cairo. — I repeatedlv 
made researches to discover the origin of the surname Shdbuthtif but all my pains 
were fruitless, till I found, some years afterwards, in Abu Ishak as-Sabi's work, 
the Tdji (gee vol. I. p. 31), that the chamberlain to the Dailamite prince Wash- 
maguir Ibn Ziar was called as-Sb^hushti, and that he was killed, near Ispahan, 
A. H. 326 (A. B, 937-8). It appears therefore (hat this is a Dailamite name, 
and that it resembles a relative adjective in no other point but its form. It is 
possible that the kdtib Abiu 'l-Husain may have beeu a descendant of (his person, 
and was therefore designated by the appellation of SlUUnahU, which patronymic 
be transmitted to bis descendants. — ^Tbe Washmaguir just mentioned was the 
father of the emir Kahus, whose life will be found farther on. 



(1) I folloir ibe aiiiognpb for the orihognphy of Ihii bum. 

(2) The tao KhAlilitei, whoie namei were Aba B«kr Muhammad ind AJ>A OlhmlD Saad, were poeis 
blgfalj distingubhed by S«if ad-Dawlat Ibn Hamdln, sovereign of Aleppo. Farther DOtice shall be taken of 
thetn ID aoolber part of Ihii work. Se« also toI. I. p. 6B7. 



IBN AL-KABISI. 

Abu 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Khalaf al-Maa6ri al-Karawi (a member 
of (Ae tr^e of Madfir, a native of Kairawdn), and generally known by the appella- 
tion of Ibn al-KSibisi (ion of the fuUive of Kdbi$)t was a master of high authority 
in the science of the Traditions, their imddi (1), and every thing connected with 
iJiem ; and great reliance was placed on bis veracity. He composed a work en- 
titled t^Mulakhkhat (choien telethon), containing all those Traditions, supported by 
an unbroken chain of authorilies, which are contained in Ibn Kasim's edition of 
Malik's MuwcUta (2). This treatise, though short, is one of the best on the sub- 
ject. Ibn al-K4bisi was bom on Monday, the 7th of Rajab, A. H. 334 (June, 
A. D. 936); he set out for the East on Saturday, the 10th of Ramadan, A. H. 
353 (October, A. D. 963), and in A. H. 353, he made the pilgrimage to Mekka, 
where he heard al-Bukhari's SaMh explained by Abu Zaid (3). He then re- 



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m\ IBN RHALLIKAN'S 

turned to Kairawan, where he arrived on Wednesday morning, the 1st or 2nd of 
Shaaban, A. H. 357. This we give on the authority of AbA Abd Allah Malik 
Ibn Wuhaib (4). It is related by the hdfiz as-Silafi, in his work the Mojam (M- 
Safar (5), that a person said at an assembly presided by Ibn al-Kabisi at Kaira- 
wan : " Al-Mutanabbi has expressed the following thought with no inferior 
" talent : 

' Our heart is required to forget thee, bul nature resists the efforts of him who would 
' change its ways.' " 

On this, Ihn al-Kabisi replied : " I pity your intelligence! what has prevented 
'* you from recollecting these words of God (where the thought m exjpressed much 
' ' better) : * No change (can be wrought) on what God has created ; that it (a prin- 
" ^ cip\e of) the right religion: but the greai^ part of manHnd know it not (B).'" Ihn 
al-Kabisi died on the eve of Wednesday, the 3rd of the latter Rabi, A. H. 403 
470 (October, A. D. 1 01 2), and was interred on the afternoon of the following day at 
Kairawan. A multitude of people passed the night at his tomb; tents were 
erected in the neighbourhood, and poets came forward, reciting elegies on his 
death. — ^When far advanced in age, he used to repeat the following verse of az- 
Zuhair Ihn Abi Sulma's (the author of the Muallaka) : 

I suffer the affliclions of eiistence ; bat know that he who has lired eighty years must 
undergo afBictions. 

— Kdbin means belonging to Kdbis, which is a city in the province of Africa, near 
al-Mahdiya. When it fell into the possession of Tamim Ibn al-Moizz Ibn B4dis 
(vol. I. p. 281), Abi Muhammad, the khattb, or preacher, of Sfisa, pronounced a 
long ka^a, which began thus : 

Fortune, though called the downing, smiled (upon thee) when the vigour of thy reso- 
lution forced KSbis to open it$ gates. Thou hast espoused it, a virgin fortress, and the 
dowry it received consisted in spears, swords, and horsemen. It was the will of God 
that thou shouldst gather the fruit of the tree which had been planted by thy father (7). 
He that presses his suit with the point of the spear obtains stately castles (8) for brides. 



(1) See vol. I. iDiroduclion, page uii. 

(2) See vol. 11. page 86. 

(3) The full name oF thii AbQ Zaid is Muhammad Ibn Ahmad al-Mar«aii al-Flibloi. His life U 
bj IbD Kballik&n. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 265 

(i) Rfad <_^.»j in the printed MiL AbO AM Allah Mlltk Ibn Wahib, a native or Spain and one of Ibt 
viiirs In the service of Ali Ibn Ytuuf Ibn Tlifailla, the emperor of Morocco, wn a member of tbe committee 
of doctors appointed by thai prince to eiaroine the Mahdi Ibn Tflniart, and ibe onl; man among them who 
peneiraied Inio his projects. He is tbe author of a work entitled Eirdda lad'Dahab [graim of gold), con- 
taining aceooDti of the moat deiplcable characlera among tbe Arabs both l>efora and afl^ IslamiHn. Tbii 
Ireatiae, said lo be verf curious, was leea bj the Shaikh Hubi ad-dIn Abd al-Wtbid in the library belonging 
to the Abd al-Mbmin familj. He remarked also a copy of Ptolemy's Almagttt in the handwriting of Ibn 
Wahlb.— (P. 183 of Abd al-Wthid al-Marrakshi'a Kitdl al-Mojib, MS. of ^le Leyden Library, Cat. No. 1798. 
H. Weyer has given a not'ce on thli MS. in the Pro/8;om«na ad »d. Ibn JbiMnf. p.B.) 

(5) Tbit was probably a series of biographical notices on Ihe doctors and other learned men with whom 
as^ilafi became acquainted in bis traTels, or Tnm whom he took lessons. 

(8) Koran; lorat 30, verse 29. 

(7) This li perhaps an allusion to die etnbelliihmenti which Klibli received (him al-Moiii. 

(8) Tbe words here rendered f(ai«Jy eaitUt ilgniiy alto faiT ladlu df tiling tn eaillet. In the original 
Arabic, tbe double meaning of these words helps out the metaphor. 



IBN AL-KATTAA. 

The philologer Abii 'I-Kasim Ali, surnamed Ibn al-Kattaa, a member of the 
tribe of Saad, a Sicilian by birth, but an Egyptian by resilience and death, was 
(he son of Ali Ibn Jaafar Ibn AH Ibn Muhammad Ihn Abd Allah Ibn al-Husain 
Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ihn Ziadat Allah Ihn Muhammad Ibn al-Aghlab as- 
Saadi Ibn Ibrahim Ibn at-Aghlab Ibn Salam Ibn Ikal Ibn Khafaja Ibn Abd Allah 
Ibn Abbad Ibn Mahrath Ibn Saad Ibn Har^m (1) Ibn Saad Ibn M4hk Ibn Saad 
Ibn Zaid Manat Ibn Tamim Ibn Murr Ibn Udd Ibn Tabikha Ibn al-Yas Ibn Modar 
Ibn Nizar Ibn Maadd Ibn Adnan (2). Such is the genealogy which I found in my 
own handwriting among my rough notes, but 1 do not know from what source I 
drew it, and there exists another list copied from the handwriting of Ibn al-Kattaa 
himself; it is as follows : Ali the son of Jaafar Ibn AU Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abd 
Allah Ibn al-Husain as-Saadi as-Shantarini (belongijig to Santarem), a descendant 
of the tribe of Saad Ibn Zaid Manat Ibn Tamim. I am unable to say which is 
the more correct. — Ibn al-Kattaa held a high rank by his acquirements in litera- 
ture, and especially in philology. He composed some instructive works, such as 
the Book of Verbs, which is admirably executed and surpasses the former work, 
that of Ihn al-Kutiya (3), on the same subject. Another work of his, contain- 

TOL. II 3k 



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966 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

ing a most complete collectioD of the Formt of Nount, remains a proof of his 
extensive iDfonnation. He wrote also a good and elegant treatise on prosody ; a 
work containing extracts from the productions of the poets who were natives of 
the Island (U), and entided ad-Durra tal-Khatira (the prectous pearl}; and the Lu- 
mah al-Mulak, or glitr^ies at beautiety containing a collection of (mtice$ on) many 
of the poets of Spain. He was born in Sicily on the 10th of Safar, A. H. 433 
(October, A. D. 1041), and he studied the belles-lettres under the most eminent 
masters in that island, such as Ibn al-Barr the philologer and others. He ac- 
quired also a complete mastery of grammar. When Sicily was on the point of 
falling into the possession of the (Nomum) Franks, he left the country, and in 
A . H. 500 (A. D. 1 1 06-7) he arrived in Egypt, where he was received with every 
mark of honour. As an oral transmitter of pieces of literature preserved bv 
tradition, he was accused of incorrectness and carelessness. In the year 446 he 
began to compose verses, of which the following may serve as specimens. — On a 
young female who had an impediment in her speech : 

Behold a gazelle whose tongue is knotted, but yet undoes my knots [dissohes mif farctt) 
I and weakens my fortitude. Those who knew not her worth reproached me for loving 
her, but 1 said to them: "Have yon never heard of the [tHckantmentt tprought by) 
" breathing on knots?" (5). 

From one of his ka$tdas : 

Consume not thy life in the pursuits of love ; let not [ihe cruelty of) S6da or [of) NOm 
afflict (hee any longer. Lament not over the mined cottage on the edge of the desert, 
where Maiya (6) once resided ; and shed not the drops of thy eyelids over mouldering 
walls (7). The true object of man's life is to obtain one necessary thing (8), bnl {the me- 
mory of hi)) culpable discourses and conduct subsists after him (9). 

A great deal of poetry was composed by him. He died at Old Cairo in the 
month of Safar, A. H. 515 (April-May, A.D. H21). 



(1) The autograph hai ^U^. 

(2) We hav« here an instance ot (he uiilit} which may somciiroei be derived from the long genetlogict 
given by Ibn KhalKkln. Had he curtailed this liit, we should not have known the ancestry of the Aghlablte 
family (nd the \lakt of (heir genealogical chain up to Adnln. 

(3) His life will be found in (bit volume. 

(4) T do not know whether Spain or Sicily be meant by tht Utand in tfaii caie, but it is generally the former 
which is so designated. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 

(S) Xo illusioD to a verse of ih« Koran, sunt 113. 

($) Sdda, Mm, Bod Hai;a are namei of females, ind oc«ur frequcailf in poems. 

[7] This verse is not given in the auiograph. 

(8) Salvation is probably meant. 

(9) 1 omil translating the piece which follows, for motives already slated. In the second n 
upon the word aj^^ which is a proper name, and Ofti^ which signifle) btiming eoali. 



IBN HAZM AR-ZAHIRI. 

Abu Muhammad Ali (generally known 6(/ the ^pellation of Ibn Hazm az-Z6r 
hiri) was the son of Ahmad Ibn Said IbD Hazm Ibn Ghalib Ibn Salih Ibn Kha- 
laf Ibn Maadan Ibn Sofyan Ibu Yazid. His ancestor Yazid was a mawh to 
Yazid Ibn Abi Sofyan Sakhr Ibn Harb Ibn Omaiya Ibn Abd Shams the Omai- 
yide, and the first of the family who embraced Islamism. They were originally 
from Persia, and Khalaf was the first of bis forefathers who went to Spain. Ibn 
Hazm was born in the eastern quarter of Cordova (1), on Wednesday morning, 
before sunrise, the 30th of Ramadan, A. H. 384 (November, A. D. 994). He 
was a learned Mfiz, versed in all the sciences connected with the Traditions and 
in their application to jurisprudence; he possessed also great skill in deducing 
from them and from the Koran the solution of questions touching the secondary 
principles of the law. He had been at first a follower of the Shafite sect, but 
abandoned it for that of the Zdhirites (2). His knowledge was of the most varied 
kind, and although he, as bis father before him, had held an exalted post in the 
vizirale and the administration of the empire, he manifested the utmost indif- 
ference to worldly advantages. His profound humility equalled the greatness 
of his talents; the number of works composed by him was very considerable; 
and, possessing a large collection of books, formed by himself, on the Tradi- 
tions, traditional information, and original subjects, he had also a memory richly 
stocked with such information as could only be supplied by oral transmission. 
He composed a work on the application of the Traditions to jurisprudence, and 
entitled Kitdb al-Isdl ila fahmi Kitdb il-KhistU, etc. (guidance to the tmderstnnding of 



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268 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

the book called al-Khisal}, being a collection of laws on the duties of Moslims, on 
what is lawful and what unlawful, on the Surma, on the Jjmd (3), and containing, 
besides, the opinions of the companions, of the Tdbif, and of the imdnu of Isla- 
mism their successors, on questions relating to jurisprudence and the rites of 
the pilgrimage. This is an extensive compilation, and contains the ai^uments 
employed by the different orthodox sects for and against the points in which 
they disagree. His Kildb al-IkMm li UtM il-Akkdm (4) is a treatise drawn up 
with great care, containing the proofs (on which the author founded hit prindplet] . 
Ills other works are, the KiUUf oI-Fofl (a dutinctive view of religions, and of the 
philosophical and religious seels) ; a treatise on the Ijmd ; Questions on points in 
the different sections of jurisprudence ; the MariUib al-OlUm, being a ctassiHca- 
tion of the sciences, an indication of the manner in which they are to be stu- 
472 diod, and an exposition of their mutual connection ; the Iz/idr Tabdtl U-YahAd 
wa 'n-Naidra (exposure of the alterations made by the Jews and the Christiaru in the 
Pentateuch and the Gospel, and indication' of those possages stUl extant tcith them 
whiah tkey cannot explain away) (5) ; he was the first who ever treated this subject. 
His other works are, the Takrib, etc. (study made easy), being an introduclion to 
logic, written in the plainest language, and illustrated by examples drawn fnMU 
the science of jurisprudence ; this treatise is drawn up on an original plan, as it 
was the author's intention to make known the real nature of the science and re- 
move the prejudices which were entertained against it as a futile study (6). 
" His master in logic was a native of Cordova named Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan 
" al-Madhiji, generally known by the name of Ibn aUKattani (7), who was a 
" good scholar, a poet, a physician, and the author of some treatises on medj- 
"cine and the belles-lettres. He died later than A.;^H. 400 (A. D. 1009)." 
Such are the observations given, on the authority of Abu Abd Allah al-Humaidi, 
by Ibn Makula in his Ikmdl (8), under the head of (U-Kattdni, where he notices 
two persons of (he name. A little volume of Ibn Hazm's, entitled Nukat d- 
Ar&s (9), furnishes much information and contains a great quantity of curious 
and interesting matter. Ibn Bashkuwat speaks of him in these terms : " Of all 
" the natives of Spain, Ibn Ilazm was the most eminent by the universality and 
" the depth of his learning in the sciences cultivated by the Moslims; add to 
'* this his profound acquaintance with the (Arabic) tongue, and his vast abilities 
*< as an elegant writer, a poet, a biographer, and an historian. It was slated 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 269 

'* by his son Abi^ Rali al-FadI that he possessed about four hundred volumes, 

" containing nearly eighty thousand leaves, which had been composed and 

" written out by his father," — "We never saw his Uke," says the hdfiz AbA Abd 

Allah al-Humaidi, *' for penetration, promptitude in learning by heart, noble- 

" ness of character and piety. 1 never met a person who could extemporise 

** poetry more rapidly than he. — He recited to me the following verses as his 

" own : 

' Thoagh DOW on a distant journey and absent ^om thee in body, my sodI abideth near 
' (hee for ever ; nay, a faint image (of ihyulf] slill fleets before the sense of sight, 
' and [my] eyes, struck by that aspect, pour forth a stream of tears.' " 

Ibn Hazm has thus again expressed the same thought : 

My brother said : " Thou art afflicted because thou shalt be absent from us in body, '• 
'* but thy soul will never leave us." I replied : "The sense of sight alone is worthy 
" of trust, and therefore one Mend always desires the sight of another." 

In one of his pieces he says : 

A severe censor blamed me on account of one whose beauty had made me captive, 
and he long reproached me for my love: "How," said he, "can you have fallen a victim 
" to the beauty of the only {female) face you ever saw, and yet you know not how her 
" body may be?" I answered; "The excess of thy blame proceeds from injustice; and, 
" if 1 pleased, I could make a long defiance; seest thou not that I am a ZAhirite (exle- 
" rioritt], and place my trust in what is visible, till forther proof be given V 

The following verses are given as his by the hdfiz al-Humaidi : 

We remained a moment together and then departed, but a moment's interview can 
give no solace to the heart inflamed with passionate desire. The coming of lovers toge- 
ther seemeth not a meeting, if their reunion is again to be dissolved by separation. 

AI-Humaidi mentions also that the following lines were recited to him by lltn 
Hazm, as having been composed by Abd al-Malik Ihn Jahwar (1 0) : 

Though persons of genius may be dwelling far apart, tiieir souls can still hold con- 
verse. How often have pen and paper enabled the hearts of separated lovers to meet 473 



Ibn Hazm had arguments and discussions with AbCi '1-Walid al-Baji (vol. /. 
p. 593), too long to be explained here. He was so ardent in his attacks against 



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370 IBN KUALLIKAK'S 

the learned men who preceded him, that hardly a single one could escape the 
virulence of his tongue. By this conduct he estranged the hearts of his contem- 
poraries and became an object of hostility to the jurisconsults of the epoch. 
These persons, animated by their enmity, concurred in refuting his opi- 
nions, exposing them as false, treating him as a reprobate, cautioning their 
rulers against the dangers of his pitweedings, and forbidding the public to have 
any intercourse with him or to listen to his lessons. In consequence of this, the 
sovereigns of the different (Spanish') provinces expelled him from their states, and 
he was driven to the open country near Labia (Ntebla), where he breathed his 
last on Sunday afternoon, the 27th of Shaaban, A. H. 456 (August, A.D. 1064); 
mme say, however, that be died at Manta Lisham, a village of which he was the 
|TOSsessor. It was of him that Abu '1-Abhas Ibn al-Arif (vol. I. p. 1 50) said : 
" The tongue of Ibn Hazm and the sword of al-Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf were brothers." 
His reason for making this remark was the frequency of Ibn Hazm's attacks 
upon the imams (11). — His father Abu Omar Ahmad was a vizir under (the hdjtb 
nl-MamUr, the foundei' of) the Aamirite dynasty, an accomplished scholar, an ele- 
gant writer, a man of learning and holy life. He died in the month of Zu '1- 
Kaada, A. H. 402 (June, A.D. 1012). The following verse is mentioned by 
Abu Muhammad Ibji Hazm as forming part of the admonitions addressed to him 
liy his father the vizir : 

If you wish to pass your life in wealth, adopt such a mode of life as will not cause you 
discontent if reduced to an inferior station. 

Al-Humaidi (1 2) relates the following anecdote in his Jadwa tai-Muktabis : The 
vizir Abu Omar Ahmad was sitting at a public audience given by his master al- 
Mansur Ahu Aamir Muhammad Ibn Abi Aamir, when a supplication was pre- 
sented to him by a woman in favour of her son who had incurred al-Mansiir's 
anger by some heinous crime which he had committed, and was then de- 
tained in prison by his order. The perusal of the paper excited al-Mansur's 
wrath to an extreme, and he exclaimed : " By Allah ! thou has reminded me of 
" him." He then took a pen with the intention of writing on the document 
the word yuslab (lei him be crucified), after which he handed the paper to the 
^tzir, who immediately drew up a regular order conformable to the decision, 
and addressed to the commander of the ihorla, or police guards. " What have 



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BIOr.RAPHlCAL DICTIONARY. 271 

** you written there ? ' said al-Mansflr to him. " An order for his liherty," re- 
plied Abu Omar. — *' And who directed you to do so?" exclaimed al-Mansurin a 
passion. The vizir handed him the suppHcation on which al-Mansiir had written 
bv mistake the word yullak (let him be $et free). '* By Allah 1" said al-Mansur, on 
seeing it, "I meant to write let him be trucified." He then struck out the woi-d 
with the intention of writing yMlab, but he again traced the word yiUlak. The 
vizir then took the paper, and was drawing up an order for the prisoner's libe- 
ration, when al-Mansur remarked it, and exclaimed, in a more violent passion 
than at Grst: "Who bid you do so?" The vizir showed him the decision In 
his own handwriting, and the prince eflaced it, but again committed the same 
mistake. The vizir then commenced a new order of liberation addressed to the 
wMi, or commander, and al-Mansur, who observed him, flew into a greater 
rage than ever. Abu Omar Iben showed him the paper on which, for the third 
time, he had written yutlak. Struck with the singularity of the circumstance, 
al-Mansi^r exclaimed: "Be it so! let him be set at liberty in spite of me; for 
" when God wills that a man should be set free, I cannot prevent it." — Ahu 
Muhammad (Ibn Hazm) had a son, gifted with a noble character and great talents, 
whose name was Ab6 Rafi al-FadI ; he was employed in the service of al-Mola- 
mid Ibn Abbad, the sovereign of Seville and other cities of Spain. It happened 
that the suspicions and anger of al-Motamid were excited against one of his 
uncles, AbOi Talib Abd al-Jabbar Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Abbad, and he 
thought of putting him to death. The vizirs were therefore called in, and he 
said to them : " Does any of you know if there was ever a khalif or a prince who 
" put his uncle to death for conspiracy against bim?" On this Abd Rafi stepped 
forward and said : "May God's assistance never fail you ! we know of none who 
" ever did so, hut we know of one who pardoned his uncle who had revolted 
" against him, al-Mamdn, namely, who forgave Ibrahim Ibn al-Mahdi" (vol. I. 
p. 16). When al-Molamid heard these words, he kissed the speaker between 471 
the eyes and gave him thanks, after which he sent for his uncle and treated him 
with alBdiility and kindness. Ahii Rafi was slain at the battle of az-Zallaka, on 
Friday, the 15tb of Rajah, A. H. 479 (October, A. D. 1086). We have given 
a full account of this engagement in the life of Yusuf Ibn Tashifm. — Labia 
(Nidtld) is a town in Spain. — Manta Ihham is a village in the dependencies of 
Labia ; it belonged (o Ibn Hazm and he visited it from time to time. 



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272 IBN KHALLIKANS 

(1) He mean* the luburb on the left bank of (he Guidalquivir. 

(2) Tbe MCI of the Zahiriltt, or exurioriMti. wm founded b; DlvAd Ibn Ali tl-l^cbtDi (m« vol. /. 
p. tMl]. They were so denominited because the; understood ihe words of the Koran in their plain literal 
MDse, and rejected (he (dwtl, or allegorical inlerprelatioD to which olber sects bare recourse in eerUia casci. 
The; differed completelj from the Hanifite seel in rejecting the kid* {lee vol. I. Introi. p. ufi and ]i.B34). 

(3) See vol. I. page S34. 

(4) It would appear tirotn the title that this work treated of judicial astrology. 

(3) He meant Ihe teits in which the Moslinu pretend that the mission of Muhammad ii foretold. 

(6) The autograph gives the true reading ^j3jiiK*^\. 

(7) Read here and lower down JliwI. 

(8) See vol. II. page 248. 

(») This title maj signify bridegToom-^r perhaps bndat—anecdotti. 

(10) AbCl Marwtn Ahd el-Malik Ibn iahwar, an eminent virir, a kitib, a poet, and ao accomplished scholar, 
lived in the reign of Abd ar-Rahmia an-Nlair, the Omaiyide. Tbii prince died A. H. 3S0 [A. D. Mt).— 
[Bughj/a tal-Sfuttamii.) 

(11) See vol. I. page ISO. 

(12) Kis life is given by our author. 



IBN SIDA. 

The hdfiz Abu '1-Hasan Ali IBd Ismail, surnamed Ibn Sida, and a native of 
Murcia, was highly distinguished by his learning in philology and grammar, and 
by his acquirements in such portions of these sciences as were preserved by oral 
transmission. On this matter he composed some works, one of which, the 
Mtfkkam (fixed), is very voluminous and contains inrormation on the various 
branches of philology. Another extensive work of his on the same subject is 
entitled al-Mukhasm (the spedfer'j. He composed also a commentary, in six vo- 
lumes, on the Hamdsa, entitled Kitdb al-Antk (1 ), and a number of other instruc- 
live treatises. Ibn Sida was a blind man, as his father also; he made his first 
studies in philology under his father, who was well versed in that science, and 
he then received lessons from Said al-Baghdadi (vol. I. page 632) and Ali Ibn 
Omar at-Talamanki. The latter reverts to this circumstance in the following 
anecdote : " When I went to Murcia, the inhabitants requested me most ear- 
' ' nestly to explain the Gbarib al-Musannaf(2), on which I told them to look for 
" a person to read the book to them, and that I would follow him in. my own 



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BlOtiRAPinCAL DICTIONARY. 273 

'* copy of it. Od this, they brought me a bhnd man, called Ibn Sida, who 
*' repeated its contents from the beginning to the end, and I was much struck at 
*' the excellence of his memory." Ibn Sida possessed considerable abilities as a 
poet. He died at Denia on Sunday evening, the 25th of the latter Rabi, A. H. 
458 (March, A. D. 1 066), at the age of about sixty years. I read on the cover of 
a copy of the Muhkatn a note written by some learned native of Spain, in which 
it is said that Ibn Sida was in good health previously to the morning prayer of 
the Friday (before hit death), and that he continued so till the hour of evening 
prayer, when he entered the wateiH:loset and came out with his tongue para- 
lyzed, and unable to utter a word ; he remained in that state till the afternoon of 
the Sunday above mentioned, when he died. Some place his death in the year 
M8 (A.D. 1056), but the former date is more authentic and is generally 
admitted. Mureia is a city in the east of Spain. — TalamanH means belonging to 
TaUtmanka (Salamanca?),vhicli is a city in the west of Spain. — Dmm is a city in 
the east of the same country. 



(1) Thif title mnnt liber pulehri, which mBj perhapt signify Ihre dti bel ttpril. 

<2) Hajji Kbalih DOtic«* two worlii beiring thii till« ; on« bj Aba Amr ai-Shiibtni [im Ibn Shaliaan, 
vol. /. p. 182), and the other bj AbO Obtid al-Kliim Ibo Salllm, a learned icholar whose life will be found 
in thit diclionarj. 



ABU 'L-HASAN AL-HUSRI. 



Abu '1-Hasan Ali Ibn Abd al-Ghani al-Husri al-Fihri (a member of the tribe of 
Koraish), and a native of Kairawan,was a poet of celebrity, and, although afflicted 
with blindness, a teacher of the Koran-readings. Ibn Bassam, the author of the 
DakHra, speaks of him in these terms : " He was a sea of eloquence, the master 47» 
" of his art and the chief of the company (of poets). He proceeded (o Spain to- 
'* wards the middle of the fifth century of the Hijra, on the ruin of Kairawan (1 ), 
'* the place of his abode. In those days polite literature was highly encouraged 
" and sedulously cultivated in our country; lie was therefore caressed bv the 
VOL. II. 35 



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27V IBN KHALUKAN'S 

'< provincial sovereigns, as the meadows are caressed by the zephyr; they were 
" all desirous of possessing him, as bouses are desirous of posseasing inhabitants; 
'' although, as 1 have been informed, he was of a disagreeable character, noto- 
** rious for his evil tongue, and as keen for satire as a thirsty man for water. 
" They give in, however, (o his humour, and supported with patience the fre- 
*' quency of his caprices and the rarity of his aSable moments (2). When those 
*' sovereigns *ere deprived of their possessions {by YUaaf Ibn Tdshiftn) he settled 
" at Tanger, much reduced in circumstances and relapsed into (the former n»- 
" ro$enei$ of) his character." Abu '1-Hasan, the subject of this article, was con- 
sin by the mother's side to Abii Ishak al-Husri (vol. /. p. 34), the author of the 
Zdtr lU'Addb. Ibn Bashkuwal makes mention of him in the SHai, and al-Hu- 
maidi says that he was well acquainted with the readisigt of the Koran and the 
mode by which each of them had been transmitted down ; that he gave public 
lessons in KoraH'Teading at Ceuta and elsewhere, and that he composed a katSda 
in two hundred and ninety verses, setting forth the points peculiar to Nafi's sys- 
tem of Koran-reading. His collected poetical works are still extant, and one of 
his pieces is the widely diffused kasida which begins thus : 

night of the afflicted lover 1 when will Ihy morning arrive? is it deferred to the day 
of judgmentT The friends who passed the evening in conversation are now asle^, but 
he, separated from his beloved, is kept awake by the visits of grief. 

This poem is so well known that it is unnecessary to insert it ; and a coun- 
terpart of it, in the same rhyme and measure, has been composed by my friend 
Najm ad-din Musa al-Kamrawi (3) (he jurisconsuh, in which he says : 

Bear to my beloved (his message: " The friends of him whom thou haSt reduced to 
" sickness are weary of visiting his couch, and those who envied thy captive lover now 
" deplore his misery. Thy cruelty has left him only that breath of life which each sigh 
" raises from his breast. HArilt [4) himself acknowledges that the power of magic is 
" derived solely from thy eyes [5]. When thou sheathest thy glances in thy eyelids, they 
" inflict deadly wounds : what must they be when thon drawest them from their scab- 
" bards 1 How often has thy cheek been smoothed to an expresson of benignity, whilst 
" thy eyebrow formed an arch above it. My heart acknowledged no other power but 
" thine ; why then (6) condemn it eternally to the flames of separation ?" 

The lines which follow are by al-Husri ; 

When she offered me the cup of welcome on which her lips had impressed a seal of 
musk, 1 said to her: "Was this ruby liquor extracted from thy cheeks?" — "No," she 
replied; "When was wine ever extracted from the rose?" 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 275 

At the time in which he resided at Tanger, he sent his servant-boy to al-Mota- 
mid Ibd Abbad, the sovereign of Seville, which city was called Hims (EmestO) by 
the people of that country ; he then waited in fruitless expectation of the boy's 
return, and having been informed that al-Motamid took no notice of him, he 
composed these lines i 

Awake the drowsy caravan and reproach Foriunewith her cruelly ! Hims is a paradise, 
and it said to my boy: " Thou shall not return from this I" May God have mercy on 
my boy t he has died of banger in paradise I 

In the original Arabic, the poet makes each of these verses end in a double 
rhyme, although the rules of prosody by no means placed him under such a 
restraint. — The following relation was delivered by Taj al-Ola Abu Zaid, sur- 
named an-Nassaba (the genealogist): "I was told by Abi 'l-Asbagh Nubala Ibn 
" al-Asbagh Ibn Zaid Ibn Muhammad al-Haritbi al-Andalusi that he beard his 
'* grandfather Zaid Ibn Muhammad relate as follows: Al-Motamid Ibn Abbad, 476 
" the sovereign of Seville, sent five hundred pieces of gold to Abii 'I- Arab az- 
" Zubairi with the order to come to him, and employ the sum for his travelling 
" expenses." — Abii 'l-Arab was then in Sicily, his native country. His names 
were Abu 'l-Arab Musab Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abi 'l-Furat al-Korashi (of the 
tribe of Kwaish) az-Zubairi as-Sakalli (naMve of Sicily'}, the poet. — * ' He sent also 
" a similar sum to Abii '1-Hasan al-Husri, who was then at Kairawan. In reply 
*' to his invitation, Abu 'l-Arab wrote him these verses : 

•Wonder not at my head, how grief has turned it grey; but wonder that Ihe pupils 
' of my eyes are not turned grey {and blinded mik aetjring) . The sea is in the power of 
' the Chrislians (Jtiltn), and no ship can sail 00 it widiout danger, but the land belongs 
' to the Arabs (7).' 

" As for al-Husri, he replied in these terms: 

' You order me to take ship and cross the sea ; make that proposal to some other, 
< and blessings be upon you I You are not a Noah to save me in his ark, nor a Messiah 
' with whom 1 may walk upon the waters.' 

" Some time after, he went to Spain and sung the praises of al-Motamid and 
" other princes." He died at Tanger, A. H. A88 (A. D. 1095). The birth of 
aUKamrawi (the person incidmlally mmHoned in thit article) may he placed, by ap- 
proximation, in A. H. 591 (A.D. 1194-5); he died towards the end of the month 



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276 IBN KUALLIKAN'S 

of Safar, A. H. 651 (April, A. D. 1253), on his return from Yemen, at a place 
called Ras ad-Dawair, situated between Aidab and Sawakin, on the coast of the 
Sea of Aidab (the Red Sea). Kcanrdwi means belonging to Kamrd, which is a 
landed estate in the province of Sarkhad, in Syria. — Of Husri we have already 
spoken (vol. I. p. 34). — Tanja (Tanger) is a town in the West Country (al-Gkarb}, 
at two days' journey from Sibta (Ceuta), another town in the same region. — 
Ahu *1-Arab az-Zubairi was bom in Sicily, A. H. 423 (A. D. 1 032) ; on its con- 
quest by the (Norman) Christians (Mm) in A. H. 464 (A. D. 1072}, he emi- 
grated to Spain and sought the protection of al-Motamid Ibn Abbad. "I have 
" been informed," says Ibn as-SairaG (8). *' that he was still alive, in Spain, in 
" A.H. 507 (A. D. 11134)." 



(1) In AH. 449 (A,D. 10S7-8), Kairawln fell inio the power of the nomadic Arabs «ho had left I'pper 
Egjpl a few jeara before. See Aba 't-Fedt't AnnaU, jur 442 ; and mf edition of Ibu KhatddD's Bittory of 
tkt Strben, in Arabic, page 17. 

(3) Literail^: The interrtli of hi* drought and the rarilj of hia rain. 

(3) Farther oolice will l»e taLen of al-Kamrlwi lowardt Ibe end of the article. 

(4) See Tol. I. page 670, doi« (2]. 

(5) ^n'lp, the root of the word ^,f*i*i is not to be found in the dictlonarieg. The reading in Uie printed 
teit might be auppoaed to be ineiaci, were it not conGrmed bj the autograph. From ila being here em- 
ployed coDjointly wilb the verb jJU.1 it muit hare the signi6cation of fo attrtbut* the oHgtn of a perton or 
thing to... 

(6) Read Jj in the printed teit. 

(7) He probabi]' meiDi to justify his non-eompliance with al-Uolamid'i withet, by making a pun on h 
own name, and giving him to understand that the Arab prefers remaining on ferra /irma. 

(9) The ftd/li Abo 'l-IUsim Ali Ibn Hunjib Ibn Suiiimin Rt-SairaH [^f>^\ ) was a native of Egypt, and 
composed a history of the vitirs, ft'cquenlly cited by Ibn Khallikln. Ue roust Itave written later than A.H. 
IH7,*inc< be mentioni in hia worli that Abft'1-Arab was Hill alive in that year. 



IBN KHARUF. 

Abii Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali al-Hadrami, a native of Seville, in 
Spain, and generally known by the name of Ibn Khariir, possessed high abilities 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 277 

as a grammarian. The works which he composed on this subject afFord a ics- 
limoDyof his great talents and extensive information ^ such ai-c his excellent 
commentary on Sibawaih's Kitdb, and his able elucidation of Abii '1-Kasim az- 
Zajjaji's treatise, the Jumal (1). The master under whom he completed his 
studies was a native of Spain, surnamed al-Khidabb (2) Ihn Tahir. He died at 
Seville, A. H. 6'tO(A.D. 1213-4); some say A. H. 609. — Hadrami means native 
of Hadramaut. — He must not be confounded with another Ihn Kharuf, who was 
a poet, and addressed an epistle to Baha ad-dln Ibn Shaddad, in which he alludes 
to the resemblance of the names. This epistle will be noticed in the life of 
Ihn Shaddad. 



(1) See Tol. II. p*ge03. 

(2) The Rulograph has ..I^Jf'l ; Ihis word signiBes itoat, able-bodttd. 



AR-RABAI THE GRAMMARIAN. 

Abu '1-Hasan Ali Ibn Isa Ibn al-Faraj Ibn Salih ar-Rabai al-Baghdadi, a native 
of Shiraz, but settled at Baghdad, and a grammarian of the first rank by his per- 477 
feet knowledge of the science, is author of a good commentary on Abu Ali 'l-Fa- 
risi's Iddh (vol I. p. 379). He studied at Baghdad under as-Sirafi («. /. p. 377), 
and then proceeded to Shiraz, where he passed twenty years under the tuition of 
Abu Ali 'l-Farisi, after which he returned to the former city. Abii Ali once 
said : "Tell Ali al-Baghdadi that, if he were to travel from the East to the West, 
" he would not meet with an abler grammarian than himself." He observed 
also, when his pupil was quitting him, that there did not remain a single point 
on which he would need to ask information. Ar-Rabai composed a number of 
works on grammar, one of which was a commentary on al-Jarmi's Abridgment 
(vol. I. p. 630). The number of pupils who profited by his lessons was very 
great. Ibn al-Anbari mentions him in the Tahakdt al-Vdabd. He was bom, 
A. H. 328 (A. D. 939-40), and he died at Baghdad on the eve of Saturday, (he 



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278 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

20lh of Muharram, A. H. 420 (February, A. D. 1029). — Rabdi maios Amended 
from Rabta, but I do not know whether it be Rabia, the son of Nizir (1), who 
was his ancestor, or some other person of the name ; for there were many Rabias 
whose descendants all bore the surname of Rabai. 

(I) See Eichhoto's Kmumtnta, Ub I. 



AL-FASIHI. 

The grammarian Abd '1-Hasan Ali Ibn Abi Zaid Muhammad Ibn Ali al-Isti- 
rabadi, better known by the appellation of al-Fasihi, studied grammar with such 
success under Abd al-Kahir al-Jurjaiii, the author of the Lesser /umaJ (1 ), that 
he became the most learned man of the age in that science. Having proceeded 
to Baghdad, he settled there and taught grammar, for some time, in the Nizd- 
miya College. He transcribed a great number of books on general hterature, 
and was a most correct copyist. Amongst the numerous pupib who pursued 
their studies under him was Malik an-Nuhat Ibn Safi (vol. I. p. 389), and some 
traditional information was delivered on his authority by the hd^z as^itati (vol. 1. 
p.86). **lwas sitting with him at Baghdad," says thishd/lz, "and I questioned 
" him on some points of grammar, to which he replied by citing the following 
*' verses which, were composed by a grammarian : 

Know that grammar is a disastrons study, and drives prosperity out of doors. Better 
than grammar aad Ha professors is a slice of bread seasoned with olive oil. 

Al-Fasihi died at Baghdad on Wednesday, the 13th of Zu 't-Hijja, A. H. 516 
(February, A. D. 11 23). — He may have received the surname of Fa^hi because 
(he made apartimlar study of Thalab's work, the Fasth (vol. I. p. 84), but of this 
I have no certainty. — litirdbddi means belongirtg to Istirdbdd, a village in the pro- 
vince of Mazandaran^ situated between Sana and Jurjan. 

(I) See vol. 1. p. 074; note to p. 390. The Greater Jumat wu composed bj Abd 'f-Klsiro u-Zajjiji; sec 
Tal.ll. pM. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



IBN AL-ASSAR. 



The phitologer Abu 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Abi '1-Husain Abd ai'-Rahim Ibn at- 
Hasan Ibn Abd al-Malik Ibn Ibrahim a&-Sutami (o member of the tribe of 5ulatm;, 
suraamed Muhaddab ad-din, and generally known by the name of Ibn al-Assnr 
(son of the oil-preu mm), was a native of Baghdad by birth and by residence, 
but his family belonged to the town of ar-Rakka (in Metopotamid). He held a 
high reputation as an accomplished scholar, and he possessed (by heart) some of 
the rarest (jneces of ancient Arabic litertUure). His masters in that science were 
the Sharif Ahu 's^aadat Ibn as-Shajari and Abu Mansur al-Jawaliki (1}, under 
whose tuition he attained great proGciency. He then gave lessons for some time, 
after which he went to Egypt, where he met Abu Muhammad Ibn Bari (vol. II. 
p. 70) and al-Muwaffak (Y^) Ibn al-Khallal, the secretary of state (2). He 
knew by heart and understood perfectly the poems of al-Mutanabbi, and he ex- 
plaiued them to numerous pupils in Irak, Syria, and Egypt. A great quantity 47IB 
of books, treating of philology or containing poems by the Arabs of the deserl, 
was transcribed by him, but faults are occasionally observable in these copies, 
notwithstanding all his care and attention. It is said that his genius was not of 
the brightest c»xler, and that he evinced less talent as a grammarian than as a 
philolt^er. The style of his penmanship was remarkable for elegance, and 
(booh in) bis handwriting are iu great request and bear high prices. He was 
a curious collector .of receipts and other scraps of information, and it was his 
custom to write them down in his books. 1 met with a number of persons who 
saw him and studied under him. He was Ixnm A. H. 508 (A. D. 1114-5), and 
he died at Baghdad, A. H. 576, on Sunday, the 3rd of Muharram (May, A. D. 
1180), just as tlie afternoon prayer was ended. The next day, he was interred 
in the ShAnizi cemetery, close to his father's grave. 



to See Tol. II. page M, noi« (1). 

(i) Hit rife is giren by Ibn Khallikln. 



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IBN KHALLiKAN'S 



SHUMAIM AL-HILLI. 



Abii 'l-Hasan AH Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Antar Ibn Thabit al-Ililli (native of Hilla 
inlr^\ surnamed Muhaddab ad-din, and generally known by the appellation 
of Shumaim, was an eminent scholar, deeply versed in grammar, philology, and 
llie poems of llie desert Arabs ; he composed also in verse with great elegance. 
His first studies were made at Baghdad under Ibn al-Khashshab (vol. II. p. 66) 
and other eminent scholars of that period ; he then visited Diar Bakr and Syria, 
celebrating in his poems the praises of the great and obtaining gifts from them 
ill return. He finally settled at Mosul. A number of works were written by 
him, and he drew up, out of bis own poetry, a book in ten sections, which he 
named the Ham&sa, in imitation of Abu Tammam's compilation hearing the same 
title. He was possessed of great talents, but he had an evil tongue and was con- 
tinually attacking (he character of others, without acknowledging or respecting 
merit where it really existed. Abu '1-Barakat Ibn al-Mustaufi has given him a 
place in his History of Arbela, and commences his notice with a series of anec- 
dotes respecting hira, and which would imply that he had but little religion, that 
he neglected the prescribed prayers, impugned the sacred Koran and laughed at 
the public. He gives also some fragments of his poetry, which certainly betray 
a malignant disposition. " He was once asked," says Ibn al-MustauG, ** why he 
" had obtained the surname of Shumaim (1), and he returned this answer : * At 
" * one lime I used to eat every day a quantity of clay (2), and, when I passed it, 
" ' I would examine if it had any odour, but could perceive none. It was for 
*' ' this reason I received the name of Shumaim.' " He died at Mosul on the 
eve of Wednesday, the 28th of the latter Rabi, A. H. 601 (December, A. D. 
1204-}, and was interred in the cemetery which is called after al-Muafa Ibn 
Iniran (3). The word j/iumotm is derived from the root shamm (io smell). 



(11 Tbi« vord Memt to ligniff litth imelitr. 

(2) Retd ^^~UI in the printed teit. 

(3) See Tol. I. page 2B9, note (7). 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAKY. 



ALAM AD-DIN AS-SAKHAWI. 



Abu 'l-Hasan AH Ibn Muhammad Ibo Abd as-Samad Ibn Abd al-Ahad Ibn 
Abd al-Gh4Iib al-Hamdani (a member of the tribe of Hamddn) as-Sakhawi, sup- 
named Alam ad-din (beacon of religion), was a native of Egypt, a teacher of the 
Koran-^eadingiy aud a grammarian. He studied at Cairo under tlie iha^k AbA 
Muhammad al-Kasim as-Sh3itibi (who$e life wHl be found farther on), and he ac- 
quired under his tuition a sound knowledge of the Koran-reading$, grammar, and 
philology ; another of his masters there, was Abu '1-Jaud Ghialh Ibn Faris Ibn 
Makki (1), a teacher of these readingi. At Alexandria he took lessons from as- 
SilaG (vol I. p. 86) and Ibn Auf (vol. II. p. 197, note (2) ), and at Old Cairo 
from al-Busiri (2) and Ibn Yasin (3). He then proceeded to Damascus, where he 
surpassed all the teamed men who cultivated the sciences which were the sub- 
ject of his own studies ; and, witlt the rapid progress of his reputation, he ac- 
quired a most exalted place in public opinion. He composed a commentary, in 
four volumes, on az-Zamakhshari's Mufatsal and another on the Shdlibiyan Ka- 
ttda, which poem he had studied under the author (4). He left also some ser- 
mons (^tbat) and poems. The highest respect was shown to him during his 
life, and when I was at Damascus, 1 saw the people crowding round him in the 
great mosque, for the purpose of reading the Koran under his tuition, and they 
they had to wait a considerable time till their jturn came. I more than once 
saw him riding up to the Mountain of the Saints Jabal at-Sdlihiyin) (5), accom- 470 
panied by two or three persons, all reading their lessons to him at the same time, 
and each in a different part of the book, whilst he made his observations 6rst to 
one and tlien to another. He continued in the assiduous discharge of bis duty 
to the last, and he died on the eve of Sunday, the 12th of the latter Jumada, 
A.H. 643 (November, A. D. 1245); he had then passed his ninetieth year. 
When his death drow near, he recited these verses, composed by himself: 

They said that on to-morrow I should arrive at the grounds reserred by the tribe (6) ; 
that the caravan wonid stop at their place of dwelling; and that all who obeyed Iheni 
would receive a welcome to rejoice them. I replied: "I am culpable towards them ; 
" what pretext can I allege in my excuse? how shall I dare (o meet IfaemT" They an- 
swered : " Is it not their nature to show forgiveness, and especially to those who placed 
" in them their hope?" 



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282 IBN KUALUKAN'S 

I have since discovered that he was born A. H. 558 (A. D. 1 163'', at Sakha. 
— ^oAhiitn means belonging to Sakha, which is a village in Gharbiya, a province 
of Egypt. S<Aham would be the regular fonn, but all agree in employing the 
worU SakkAwi. 



(t) AbA '[-lind Ghlttfa Ibn Firii al-Likhmi al-Mundiri (a mtmber of tkt Mb* of Lakhm and dacmdtJ 
froa% tht reycl famHj/ of (A* M tm M rttti), wm ■ nttife of Egypt, in eminent letcher of the ionn-rtaditmi, 
( calcuUUM- of inheriiMM-fhirei, and ■ gnnuMriui. He died A. H. 606 (A. D. lMft-9).— [ffMM al-Kntd- 

(2) The life of il-BOdrJ i( giTCD bj Ibo Kballlhln. 

(3) The imtm Abd 'l-HaMn Ali Ibn AU Ibn Abd Allah Ibn riiln, a member of Ibe tribe of KiDtna. a native 
of AikaloD and u inhibiust of Egypt, wai eelebraled ai a manor of the KorwHTcotUnf t and m ■ gnm m t 
rian. He Uadied the reading* under AbA 'i-Iaad GhUth {tta noU (1) ), and grammar under Ibn Bari (v. It. 
p.lQ). U WM in the motque called the lAml il-Ailli at Old Cairo, ihtt Ibn Ytdn gare hit leuoui. He died 
in the monA of Zb'l-Kuda, A.H. 69S (June, A.D. 1S30>.— (fftitn al-Muhadtra.) 

(4) The ShMMfO li • poem in wUck Ibe different ijUemi of Koran-rMiUnf are iet forth. The liOi of Ae 
■alitor, li-Ufim Ibn Firro, it given bj Ibn KhtlUUn. 

(5) Thia mounUin, which it alto called Jabal ai-SaUhisa, lirt two milct DoMh of Dimatcut. II it about 
one IhonMod Englbh feel above the level of the cilj. 

{«) See vol. I. page IS, note (13). 



IBN AL-BAWWAB THE KATIB. 

Abu Hasan Ali Ibn Hilal, generally known by the appellation of Ibn al-Baw- 
vkhf was a celdirated kdtibf possessing a skill in penmanship to which no per- 
son ever attained in ancient or modern times. It was Abu AH Ibn MiUila who 
first took the present system (of wrUtm ekaraeleri) from the (ttyU of) writing 
employed by the people of Kufa, and brought it out under its actual form. He 
had tlierefore the merit of priority, and it may be added that his handwriting 
was very elegant ; but to Ibn al-Bawwab pertains the honour of rendering the 
character more regular and simple, and of clothing it in grace and beauty (1). 
[But it is said that the author of the written character (called) alrMans^b (2) was 
not Abu Ali, but his brother Abu Abd Allah al-Hasan, of whom mention is 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 283 

made in the life of ALu AH ; it will be found among those of the perscuis whose 
names were Muhammad. When Abu Obaid aInBakri (3), the native of Spain 
and the author of the works (which are $o well known), cast his eyes on the 
handwriting of Ibu Mukta, he recited this line : 

When a man feeds his eyes {mwkla) with the sight of Ibn Mukla's handwriting, all 
the members of his body vould like to be eyes.] 

It is agreed by all that Abu '1-Hasan (Jbn al-Bawwdb) stood apart (in hw 
n^fenority); it is his system which is yet followed (4), but none have ever reached 
or pretended to reach his pitch of excellence, and yet there are people in the 
world who lay claim to (talents) which they do not possess. We may add, that 
for a person to maintain such a pretension is a thing which we never saw nor 
heard of; all agree that he surpassed competition and that he never had a rival. 
He was called also Ibn as-Sitri (the ton of the curtain-man), because his father 
was a bawwdh (porter or uther), whose duty it is to stay by the curtain (tUr) 
which is drawn across the door-way (of the hall of audience), [His master in 
writing was Ibn Asad the celebrated kdtib, whose names are AbA Abd Allah 
Muhammad Ibn Asad Ibn AH Ibn Said al-Kari (the korafHreader) al-K&tib (the 
penman) al-Bazzaz (the linen-merchant) al-Bagbdadi (native of Baghdad). The 
traditional information which he possessed was received by him from the lips 
of Abii Bakr Ahmad Ibn Sulaiman an-Najjad (5), AU Ibn Muhammad Ibn az- 
Zubair al-KAG, Jaafar al-Kbuldi, Abd al-Malik Ibn al-Hasan as-Sakati, and 
others of tlie same standing ; he was himself considered as a trustworthy (trcms- 
mitter of such information). — Muhammad Ibn Asad died on Sunday, the 2nd of 
Muharram, A.H. 410 (May, A.D. 1019), and was interred in the Shunizi Ceme- 
tery.] Ibn aI-Baww4b died at Baghdad on Thursday, the second of the first Ju- 
mada, A.H. 423 (April, A.D. 1032); some say, A.H. 413. He was interred 480 
near the grave of Ahmad Ibn al-Haobal. The two verses which follow were 
recited to me by one of our learned men, and he informed me at the same time 
they were composed as an elegy on Ibn al-Bawwab's death ; 

Thy loss was felt by the writers of fbimer times, and each successive day jnstifies their 
grief. The ink-bottles are therefDre black with sorrow, and the pens ire rent thraagh 
affliction. 

The idea contained in these verses is very fine. — When I was at Aleppo, a 



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384 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

jurisconsult asked me the meuung of the following verse, which is contained in 

a poem composed by a modern, wherein he describes a letter : 

'Twas a letter like a meadow enamelled with Bowers; its lines were traced by the 
hand of ibn Uilll, and its contents taken from the lips of Ibn HilAI. 

I answered him that the poet's meaning was, that its writing equalled in beauty 
the penmanship of Ibn al-Bawwab, and that in elegance of style it resembled the 
epistles of as-Sabi. We have already mentioned (vol. I. f- 31) that the latter 
was an Ibn Hital (ion of HUdl). I then asked the jurisconsult what was the rest 
of the piece, and he repeated it to me, as follows : 

When I received thy letter adorned with the jewels of lawAil magic^thal of style: 
— it seemed to me like a mansion peopled with every excellence, and I contemplated it 
(with tadiutt) as I would a dwelling where my friends resided do longer. Tears trickled 
^m my eyes ; I impressed repeated kisses on the paper, and asked of the characters 
traced upon it an answer to my hopes (6). I pondered over it (7) till I thought its 
words were the stars of night, or strings of pearls. 'Twas a letter like a meadow ena- 
melled with Rowers ; its lines were traced by the hand of Ibn Uilftl, and its contents 
taken from the lips of Ibn Uil&l. 

Relative to the art of writing, (it ii taid ) that Ismail (the patriarch) was the first 
who wrote in Arabic ; but what the learned hold to be the truth is, that Muramir 
Ibn Marwa, a native of al-Anbar, was the first who did so. It is said that he 
belonged to the tribe of Murra (8). And from al-Anbar the art of writing spread 
through the people. Al-Asmai states that it was related of the tribe of Korai^ 
that, on being asked whence they had received the art of writing, they answered : 
from Hira. The same question, says he, was then addressed to the inhabit- 
ants of Hira, and they replied: from al-Anb^. [It is related by Ibn al-Kalbi 
and al-Haitbam Ibn Adi (9) that the person who introduced the art of writing 
fi-om Hira to Hijaz was Harb the son of Omaiya, the son of Abd Shams, the son 
of Abd Manaf, of the tribe of Koraish. He had visited Hira and brought back 
with him this art to Mekka. The two hdfiz just mentioned relate also that Abu 
Sofyan, the son of Harb, was asked from whom his father had learned the art 
of writing, and he answered : "From Aslam Ibq Sidra," and he (Harb) stated 
that he had addressed the same question to Aslam, and that he replied : " From 
" its inventor, Muramir Ibn Murra." It hence appears that this (art of Arabic) 
writing came into existence at but a very short time before Islamism. (The tribe 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 285 

of) Himyar had a sort o( writing called aUMumad, the letters of which were sepa- 
rated, not joined tc^ther (1 0) ; they prevented the common people from learning 
it, and none dared to employ it without their pennission. Then came the reli- 
gion of Islamism, and there was not, in al! Yemen, a person who could read or 
write. The systems of writing among the nations of the east and west amount 
to twelve; the Arabic, the Himyarite, the Ionian (or Greek}, the Persian, the 
Syrian, the Hebrew, the Roman, the Coptic, the Berber, the Andalusian (11), 
the Indian, and the Chinese. Of these five are extinct, their usage having 
ceased, and the persons who knew them being no longer in existence ; the Him- 
yarite, namely, and the Ionian, and the Coptic, and the Berber (12), and the 
Andalusian. Three stilt exist in the countries where they are employed, hut no 
one in the land of Islamism is acquainted with them : these are the Roman, the 4^' 
Indian, and the Chinese ; the remaining four, namely, the Arabic, the Persian, 
the Syrian, and the Hebrew, are employed in Islamic countries.] 



(I) Throughout Ihii article I iball indicate the auihor'a later idditioni hj placing them between crotchets. 

(5) Some observation! on the character called at-Kkatt at-Hantltb will be found subjoiued to the notice 
on al'Hublrak Ihu il-Hublrak. Thia aotiee form* one of Ihe notea which aceompaoj the life of Aba 'l-Fadlll 
All Ibn al'Aamidi. 

(3) See vol. I. page 319. 

(4) Lilerallj : It ii on fall loom the; weave. 

(B) Abo Bakr Ahmad Ibn SuUimIn, lumamed an-Najjtd, wat an emiaent doctor of the Mct of Ibn Hanbal 
and* native of Baghdad. He studied under a great nnmber of maiiera diitingulthed for their learning, and 
then opened two claiws in the Hoique of al-Manidr, in one of which he gave hii opinioni on point* of law 
Lr i l\ md in the other he nude diciatiooB (lee vol. //. p. 1S9). Theoe clutei were held on Fridayi, before the 
hour of prayer. He compoied a great work on the Sunan, or written colleciioni of the Traditioni, and an- 
other in which be discuiaed and defended the doctrinet peculiar lo hii tect ^^^1 ^J, \j\jS'. He failed 
during the wbole course of the jrear, and ol night he eat a liogle cake, a small morsel of which he put aside : 
eterj Friday, he look no other food than seven of these morsels. Hisbirlli is placed in A.H. U3(A.D 867). 
and his death in the month of Zfl '1-Hijja, A.H. 347 (Feb .-Mar. A.D. «S9).— ;Ad-Dihabi's Tdrtkh at-hUm.] 

(6) Literilly; "I asked of its traces to answer m; question;" an eipreuion which, in Arabic, Is just u 
applicabia to a letter as to a deserted dwelling. See lotrodaciloD lo vol. t. p. uxfr. 

(7) Liiertllj: I hovered round it. 

l8) See Eichhorn'i ifonununta Bitt.Arab. tab. III. 

IV) The live* of these two Ad/ti are given by Ibn Khallikln. 

tM) In this important passage the aiitogn|di manuscript concun with the priotod leil. 

(II) Probably the Celtiherian 

(IS) Read M>J^t in the printed Ml. 



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SHAIKH AL-ISLAM AI^HAKKARl. 



Abu 'I-Hasan Ali Ibn Ahmad Ibn Yusuf Ibn Jaafar Ibn Arafa al-Hakkiri, sur- 
iiamed Shaikh <U-I$ldm (the ihaikh of Islamum}, drew his descent from Otha the 
SOD of Abu Sofyan SaUir Ibn Haritt Ibo Omaiya. He was a man of great virtue 
and piety, and had travelled through many countries for the purpose of gather- 
ing Traditions from the lips of ihaikfu and other learned men. Having returned 
to his native place, he renounced the world and gained (by his character) the re- 
spect and confidence of the people. In one of his journeys he saw Abu 'l-Ala 
al-Maarri and took lessons from him. When they separated, he was asked by 
one of liis companions what he thought of that poet's conduct and religious be- 
lief; to which he replied that Abfk 'l-Ala was a Moslim (1 ). I have been informed 
that a man in high rank said to al-Hakkari : ''Are you Sfiatlth a{-/sMm ^' and 
that he replied : " No, but I am A$haikh in Islamism." A number of his sons 
and grandchildren were jurisconsults or emirs, and rose to high favour in the 
service of different princes. He was born A.H. 409 (A. D. 1018-9), and he died 
on the 1st of Muharram, A.H. 486 (February, A. D. 1093). — Hakkdri means 
belonging to the Kurdish tribe of Hakkdr. which possesses numerous fortresses, 
castles, and villages in the country to the east of Mosul. 

(IJ »ee vo). I. page «8, note (10). 



ALI AL-HARAWI AS-SAIH. 



The celebrated U'aveller (1 ) Abii 'I-Hasan AU Ibn Abi Bakr Ali, sumamed al- 
Uarawi because his family belonged to Herat, was bom at Mosul and settled at 
length at Aleppo. He visited numerous regions, made frequent pilgrimages (2), 
and covered the face of the earth with hb peregrinations. There was neither 
sea nor land, plain nor mountain, to which access could be obtained, which he 
had not seen ; and in every place to which he went, he wrote his name upon the 



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BIOGBAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 28T 

walls, as I myself have observed in all the cities which I visited, and their num- 
ber is certainly very great. To this he was indebted for his reputation, and his 
name as a traveller became proverbial. I saw two verses composed by one of 
our contemporaries, Jaafar Ibn Shams aMUiilafa (vol. I. p. 328), on a pertina- 
cious writer of begging-poems, and containing an allusion to the circumetanoe 
just mentioned ; they ran as follows : 

These lying sheets are in the house of every man, and though the rhyme may differ, 
the meaning is always the same. The earth, both hill and plain, is filled with them, as 
with the scribblings oF the vagabond at-Harawi. 

Al-Hasan was not, however, devoid of talent; and, by the skill which hv 
possessed in natural magic (3), he obtained the favour of the lord of Aleppo, 
al-Malik az-Zahir, the son of the sultan Salah ad-dln. That prince lodged him 
in his palace, and having conceived a great regard for him, he founded a college 
outside Aleppo and placed it under the direction of his favourite. This esta- 
blishment now encloses a mausoleum erected over the grave of al-Harawi. It 
contains a number of rooms fdled with books, and an appropriate inscription 
has been placed by him on the door of each. I remarked that he had even 
written the following inscription on the door of the wateiwiloset : Bait. al-Mdl ^ 
Bait U-Md (4). I saw also in the mausoleum a branch of a tree hung at the head 
of his tomb ; this branch or rod bad naturally assumed the form of a hoop, (tAe 
md$ being eof^letely united) without the assistance of human art; it is a very 
curious object, and is said to have been discovered by him in one of his jour- 
neys. His last injunctions were that it should be suspended in that place to ex- 
cite the astonishment of spectators. He composed the following works : Kitdb 
ai-Iihdr^ ^ Mdrifa tiz-Zidrdt (indicatioru to make known the places of pilgrimage) ; 
Kit^ al-KhiUab aUHwrawiya (book of Mwtbat, or sermons, by al-Haram), etc. 
1 saw two verses inscribed in a fair hand on the wall of the room in the college 
where he gave his lessons; they appear to have been written by some well-edu- 
cated person, who had stO[^>ed there on his way to Egypt, and their merit in- 
duces me to insert them here : 

Hay the merc^ of God be shows to him who offers up a prayer for the welbre of people 
who stopped here, on their way to Egypt When they halted at this place, their cheeks 
were pale [mth fatigue] ; but when the hour of departure drew near, ttiey were red with 
weeping. 



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288 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

Al-Harawi died in the above-meotioQed college between the f 0th and the 20th 
of the month of Ramadan, A.U. 611 (January, A. D. 1215). He was huried 
in the mausoleum of which we have spoken. — Harawi means belonging to 
Herdt, which is one of the four capitals of KhoHis^n ; the others are Naisapur, 
Batkh, and Marw. This extensive kingdom contains a number of other great 
cities, hnt none of them equal to these. Herat was built by Alexander zA 'I- 
Kamain on his expedition to the East (5). 



(1) The word here rendered bj travtlltr u Sdih, which >ignlSe> a rambltr, a vrandartr. 

1,2] TheM pilgrimagei were made Co tombs of iainti and other holy place*. 

{3) By nAtunl magic, or itmyi aa the Arabi call it, ii meant leserdemain and phintasmagoria. 

(4) Lllerall;: The public treiiury io the water-cloMt. I ackDowledge my iDabiUt; to diacover the wii oT 
tbia inscription. 

IS] Hertl appean to be the Aria of the Greeks. Aleuoder the Great founded a eitj there, which was called 
Alexandria attw bim. 



IZZ AIV-DIN IBN Al^ATHIR AL-JAZARI. 

Abu '1-Hasan Ali Ibn Abi 'l-Karam Muhammad !bn Muhammad Ibn Abd al- 

Karim Ibn Abd al-Wahid as-Shaibani (a member of the tribe of Shaibdn), generally 
known by the appellatiou of Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari and surnamed Izz ad-din 
(majesty of religion), was born at al-Jazira, and his lirst years were spent in that 
place. Having accompanied his two brothers and his father to Mosul, he took 
lessons in that city from the kkatib Abu 'I-Fadi Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad at-TAsi 
Ca native of TAa) and from other eminent masters of that epoch. He went to 
Baghdad repeatedly, either as a pilgrim (to Mekka) or as an envoy from the go- 
vernor of Mosul ; and, during these visits, he received lessons from AbA 'l-Kasim 
Yaish Ibn Sadaka the ShaBte doctor, Abu Ahmad Abd al-Wahhab Ibn Ali the 
S&fi, and other learned men. Having then proceeded to Syria and Jerusa- 
lem, he pursued his studies under different masters, after which he returned to 
Mosul, where he confined himself within doors, and devoted all his moments to 
sludv and to the composition of his works. His house then became a centre of 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 289 

union for the learned men of the city and for strangers. His knowledge of 
the Traditions and his acquaintance with that science in jts various branches 
placed him in the first rank, and his learning as an historian of the ancients and 
modems was not less extensive; he was perfectly familiar with the genealogy of 
the Arabs, their adventures, combats, and history; whilst his great work, the 
Kdmil, or complete, embracing the history of the world from the earliest period 
to the year 628 of the Hijra, merits its reputation as one of the best productions 
of the kind. He composed also an abridgment, in three volumes, of Abil 's- 
Saad as-Samani's AmiU) (1), in which he points out the errors of that author and 
repairs bis omissions. It is an extremely useful book and is now very common ; 
hut the orifpnal work, forming eight volumes, is so extremely rare that I never 
saw it but once, and that was at Aleppo ; it has never reached Egypt, where its 
contents are only known by the abridgment. Another of Ibn al-Athir's works 
is the Akhbdr ai-Saltdba (hiitory of the moil eminent among the Compamom of Mu- 
hammad}, in six volumes. On my arrival at Aleppo, towards the close of the 
year 626 (November, A. D. 1229), Ibn al-Athir was receiving the kindest atten- 
tion and every mark of esteem and honour from the Tawashi (eunuch) Shihab 
ad-din Toghril, the atdbek, or guardian, of the prince of Aleppo, al-Malik a!-Azi/, 
the son of al-Malik az-Zahir, and was living with him as a guest. I then met 
him fraquenlly, and found him to be a man of the highest accomplishments and 
the most excellent qualities, but extremely modest. I was his constant visitor, 
and, as a close intimacy had subsisted between him and my lamented father, be 4R5 
received me with the utmost regard and kindness. He afterwards made a jour- 
ney to Damascus, A.H. 627 (A. D. 1229-30), and, on his return to Aleppo in the. 
following year, I continued to cultivate his society with unceasing assiduity, but, 
after a short stay, he removed to Mosul. Ibn al-Athir was born on the Ath of 
the first Jumada, A.H. 555 (May, A.D. 1160), at Jazira tibnt Omar, the native 
place of his family; and he died at Mosul, in the month of Shaaban, A. H. 630 
iMay-June, A. D. 1233). I shall take occasion to speak again of his brothel's 
Majd ad-din al-Mubarak and Dia ad-din Nasr Allah.- — The Jazira, or isle above- 
mentioned, is generally considered to be the same which is called Jazira Itbni 
Omar (the iile of the son of Omar), but I do not know who this Ibn Omar was ; 
some, it is true, say that it was so called after Ydsuf Ibn Omar ath-Thakafi, the 
omir of the two Iraks.— I have since discovered the true reason, namely, this 
VOL. II. 37 



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290 IBN KUALUKAN'S 

town was built by Abd al-Aziz Ibn Omar, a native of Barkaid in tbe province 
of Mosul, and was therefore called after him. In some historical works I find it 
named Jaztra Ubnai Omar A^ wa Kdmil {the iaitrnd of the two tont of Omar, AUs 
and Kdmil), but who these were I know not. — I have since read in Ibn al-Mus- 
laufi's History (of Arbela), where be gives the life of al-Mubarak, the brother of 
this Abd 'l-Hasan Ibn al-Athir, that be belonged to tbe Island of Ai^s and Kamil, 
the sons of Omar (Ibnai Omar) Ibn Aus al-Taghlibi (2). 



(IJ S«e f»$e IS7 of ihii volnme. 

(2) Read ^JLiL^M Id (be ptinicd t«it. 



Al^AKAWWAK. 



Abu 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Jabala Ibn Muslim Ibn Abd ar-Rahman, generally 
known by tbe appellation of al-Akawwak, was a poet of eminent abilities. Al- 
Jahiz (1 ) declares that, for reciting poetry (extempore), he was the most admirable 
of God's creatures, and that he never saw his equal among the Arabs of the 
desert or those of the towns. He belonged to the class of mawlat, and was bom 
blind; his complexion was black and his skin spotted with leprosy. A well 
known piece of bis is that which follows : 

For her who came in disguise to see me, and whom every object filled with appre^ 
hension, I would sacrifice my fether's lifel But that visitor was betrayed by her beauty; 
how could the night conceal the (refulgence of luch a) rising moon ? She awaited the mo- 
ment when the spies forgot their duty ; she watched the people at their evening con- 
versations, till they yielded to sleep; and then she faced every danger to visit me; but 
no sooner had she offered the salutation of meeting, than she bid me ferewell. 

He composed a number of splendid eulogiums on AbOi Dulaf al-Kasim Ibn Isa 
al-ljli (2) and on AbA Ghanim Humaid Ibn Abd al-Hamid at-Tiisi (3). One of 
bis finest kattdas on Abu Dulaf begins thus : 

He {Ikepoet} repelled irom his bosom the approaches of wanton folly ; he turned from 
his errors, though pleasure was his occupation. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 29i 

In thai |>art of the poem where the eulogium is inti'oduced, he says : 

Let AbA Dulaf be marching against the foe, or enjoying repose at home, his presence 
(« for ui) the world. If Abil Duiaf turn away {from «*), the world (anrf Fortune turn 
from ui, (o) follow in hia steps. Every Arab upon earth, both the dwellers in the desert 
and those who sojourn in (owns, must borrow from him their noble qualities (o fiomi 
therewith a raiment, on the day in which they enter the lists of glory. 

It is a loQg poem of fifty-eight verses, and so beautiful that 1 should insert 
it here, did I not wish to avoid prolixity. Sharaf ad-din Ibn Onain, a poet 484 
whose life shall he given in this work, and an excellent judge of poetry, wns 
once asked which merited preference, the katida of al-Akawwak or the charm- 
ing poem composed by Abd Nuwas in the same rhyme and measure, and which 
begins thus : 

O thou who sufferest from the visits of adversity (4), thou cansl no longer pretend to 
the love of Laila or of Samara. 

Ibn Onain abstained from giving a direct answer to this question and merely 
said: "To judge between these two poems would require a person equal in talent 
" to the poets who composed them." I read some observations written by Abu 
'I-Abh3s at-Mubarrad on this kastda of Abii Nuwas, wherein he says, after in- 
-serling the piece : *' I do not think that any poet, either of the times before or 
" after Islamism, ever reached such a pitch of elegance and majesty, much less 
" that he surpassed it." It is related that al-Akawwak, after he had celebrated 
the noble qualities of Abu Dulaf in this poem, composed another in praise of 
lliimaid Ibn Abd al-Hamid, who said to him : " What is it possible for you now 
*' lo say of me? what merit do you leave for me to claim as mine? you who have 
" spoken of Abii Dulaf in these terms : The presence of AbA Dulaf is for u$ the 
" icorld; ifAb4 Dulaf turn away, the world follows in his steps}" To this the poet 
I'eplied: " May God direct the emir!' I can say of you something better than 
" that." He then recited these verses : 

Humaid and his vast beneficence are ( for m) the world. If Humaid turn away from 
us, adieu lo Ihe world ! 

On hearing these lines, Humaid smiled, but i-cmained silent, whilst every per- 
son of the assembly who kuew what good poetry was, declai-ed them finer than 
tho!f>e on Abd Dulaf Humaid then bestowed an ample reward on the author. 



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293 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

The narration which follows is made by Ibn al-Motazz in his Tabakdt as-Shu- 
ard (5) : " When al-Mamun was told of this ka$ida, his wrath was excessive, and 
" he ordered the poet to be sought for and brought before him. As al-Akawwak 
'* was then residing on the mountain, they were unable to find him, and when 
" the inielligence reached him, he fled to Mesopotamia. Written orders to ar- 
" rest him being now dispatched in every direction, his apprehensions led him 
" to Oy from Mesopotamia, and be had got into the region called as-Shamat (6), 
" ^en he was discovered and taken prisoner. Having bound him in chains, 
'* they took him before al-MamAn, who exclaimed, on seeing him : * Son of a 
" * prostitute! it was you who said in a poem addressed to al-Kasim Ibn Isa: 
'* * Every Arab upon earth, etc' — He here repeated the two verses. — ' You have 
" ' thus placed me among those who must borrow from him their noble qualities 
" ' and their titles to glory !' — ' Commander of the faithful!' replied al-Akaw- 
" wak, ' you belong to a family with which no other can be put in comparison ; 
" ' God chose yours as his own from amongst the human race, and gave it 
" ' the sacred book, and supreme authority, and a vast empire. But what 1 
" ' said was solely applied to those who were on an equality with al-Kasim Ibn 
*' * Isa.' — * By Allah !' exclaimed al-Mamun, ' you made no exceptions, but in- 
" ' eluded us in the ntimber, however I shall not spill your blood on account 
" ' of these lines, but I shall order your death for the impiety of your verses, 
*' * in which you assimilate a vile and miserable creature to the Almighty and 
" ' represent him as the partner of his power : you have said : 

" The evenla of each day are accomplished under (hy control, and fortune is directed 
" by thee in her changes. A look of thine vas never cast on mortal, but he received a 
" lasting fevonr or a certain death (7). — 

" ' But it is God alone who can do so ; pluck out his tongue by the root!' 
" The order was immediately executed, and al-Akawwak thus perished. This 
" event took place at Baghdad, A. H. 213 (A. D. 828-d;; he was bom A. H. 160 
'< (A. D. 776-7). It is said that he lost his sight hy the small-pox at the age of 
" seven years, hut this is in contradiction with what has been stated previously." 
Such are tlie terms in which Ibn al-Motazz speaks respecting this kadda, and a 
48tt similar account is also given by Abii 'l-Faraj in his Kitdb airAghdm. I met these 
two verses accompanied by another in Abii Abd Allah Ibn al~Munajjim's Kitdb 



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BiOGBAPUICAL DICTIONARY. 293 

al BdH (B), a work containing a history of the later poets, but he attributes them 
lo Kbalaf Ibn Marwan, a maicla of AH Ibn Raita ; the third verse is as follows : 

When thou visilest wilh thy wrath, thy sword relams well pleased; and when thou 
smilest, the eyes oF {thy) riches melt into tears. 

In one of his eulogiums on Humaid, he says : 

Humaid provides nourishment for all who inhabit (he world, and they have thus be- 
come his femily. It would seem as if his forefolher Adam had enjoined him to feed 
the human race, and he therefore gives them iiood. 

In another of his pieces he says : 

The Tigris quenches the people's thirst, and you, AbA Ghdnim, furnish them with 
food. The people are the body, the (khaltf) im&m of the true direction is the head, and 
you are the eye of the head. 

Humaid died on the festival of the fast-breaking (ist of Shawwdl), A. H. 210 
(January, A. D. 826), and his loss was deplored by our poet in a kasida, of 
which one of the verses was : 

We also have received that moral lesson which others received before us {in the death 
of the great aitd good ) ; but alas! we have no room left for patience under grief. 

Abu 'I-Atahiya (9) also lamented the death of Humaid in these lines : 

O AbA Gh&nim I vast was the court of thy (hotpitabU) dwelling, and numerous are 
the {grateful] visitors who now surround thy lofty tomb 1 But a tomb frequented by 
visitors availeth not the person whose body lies mouldering within it. 

Numerous anecdotes are related of al-Akawwak, but we must confine oui-selves 
to the above. — The word akaicwak means a fat and thort man, but stotU. — The 
date which we have here given of Humaid at-TAsi's death is that mentioned by 
at-Tabari in his history, and I am strongly inclined to believe that he breathed 
his last at Famm as-Salh, to which place he bad accompanied al-Mam)\n when 
that khalif went to consummate his marriage with B6ran (vol. I. p. 269). 



(1) The life of il-Jlhii U giien in Ihii Tolume. 

<2) Hu life will be fouod in this work. 

{3} See vol. I. p«ge 271, titiere hii name is inconecilj wrilleu Mamld. 



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29V IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

(4) The auUigrtph hai ojfte. 

(5) See page 43 of tbi> volume. 

;6) The author of Ac KilAb aMtd {>ee Ibn Khallikio, vol. I. p. 92), state* that Sham, or Sjria, is divided 
iiiio five Sftdmdi, or Sjrias; the indication of theie province* Is given bi Iba il-Wardi. See Exeerptvm ex 
Ibn at-»'ardi, page 170, in Koebler's Abulfedm Tabula SyHa. 

(T) One of the highest euloglums vhich an Arabian poet could betlov on a patron was. that he did good to 
Triendi and evil to foes. The Hosliroi give similar characteri»tics to th# Divinity ; In the list of the ninety-nine 
holy name*, or attrihutts, ne find bim styled a^li the mefiil, and ,l« the hurtful. 

(8) The life of Akft Abd Allah HarAn Ibn al-Hunajjim will be found in this work. 

(0) His life is given in vol. 1. page 202. 



ALI IBN AL-JAHM. 



Abu '[-Hasan Ali Ibn al-Jahin, a poet of well-deacrved celebrity, drew his des- 
cent from Sama Ibn Luwai of the tribe of Koraish, and bore the surname of as- 
Sami for that reason. His genealogy is thus set forlli by the Kbalib (1), in the 
History of Baghdad, when giving the life of al-Jahm, Ahu 'l-Hasan's father : Ali 
Ihn al-Jahm Ibn Badr Ibn aWahm Ibn Masiid Ibn Asid Ibn Ozaina Ibn Karrar (2) 
Ibn Kaab Ihn Jabir Ibn Malik Ibn Otba Ibn Jahir Ibn al-Harith Ihn Katan Ibn 
Mudlij (3) Ibn KaUn Ibn Ahram (4) Ibn Dohl Ibn Amr Ibn Malik Ibn Obaida 
Ihn at-Harith Ibn Siima Ibn Luwai Ihn Ghilih. The same historian has an article 
on Ali, the son of al-Jahm, in which he says : *' His collected poetical works are 
" well known ; he was a good poet, skilled In all the branches of the art, and a 
*' favourite with (the khalif) Jaafar al-Mutawakkil ; he was not less conspicuous 
'* for his piety than for his talents." His enmity to Ali Ibn Ab! Talib and his 
ostentatious display of attachment to the Swmite doctrines (jnay detract m $ome 
degree from his character), but, as a poet, he certainly possessed a natural genius 
and great abilities, whilst his style and expression were remarkable for sweetness, 
488 He was one of those who passed (icith al-Mdmiln) from Khorasan to Irak, but in 
the year 232 (A. D. 846-7), or, by another account, in 239, be was sent back agaiti 
by al-Mutawakkil whom he had attacked in a satire. The khalif wrote at the 
same time to Tahir Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Tahir (5\ directing him to lie up Ali Ihn 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 29S 

al-Jalim on a cross the moment he arrived, and keep him in that position for ihc 
space of a day. When Ali reached Shadiyakh in the dependencies of Naisapiir, 
he was imprisoned by Tahir, and afterwards brought forth and exposed naked 
on a cross during an entire day. In allusion to this circumstance Ali pro- 
nounced the following verses ; 

It was not a person of inferior merit or a man unknown whom they crucified on Mon- 
day morning at ShAdiyAkh. They had their hearts' content in that exposition; but. 
thanks be to God I their victim was a man of honour and noble soul (6). 

The piece contains many more verses, but it is loo well known to require in- 
sertion here. — -The poet then returned to Irak and proceeded from thence to 
Syria. Some time afterwards, (the khalif) al-Mustain received a letter from ihc 
master of the post-horse establishment at Aleppo, informing him that Ah Ibii 
al-Jahm had set out from that city for Irak in company with some other persons, 
and that they had sustained a desperate conflict with some horsemen of ihc tribi- 
of Kalb, by whom they were attacked on the way. When succour came up, 
Ali was found wounded and at hia last gasp, but he was able to pronounce these 
words ; 

Has fresh darkness been added to the night? or has the morning been removed fn>m 
its station (7) I I thought of (he people at Dujail I but 0, how for am I from Dujail I 

It must be here remarked that his place of residence in Baghdad was in (he 
Shdri, or street, of Dujail. The above-mentioned letter was received in the month 
of Shaahan, A.H. 249 (Sept.-Oct. A.D. 863), and that suffices to mark the epoch 
of his death. When his body was stripped, a paper was found on it containing 
■he following verses : 

Hay the mercy of God be on the stranger in a distant land I what a misfortune has 
he brought upon himself I He has left his friends, and neither he nor they shall again 
enjoy the pleasures of life. 

A close friendship subsisted between him and Abu Tammam, and the latter 

addressed him some farewell lines beginning thus : 

It is to^ay the departure of one whose acquaintance was an honour; and for to-mor- 
row are reserved the tears which flow not now. 



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396 IBM KHALLIRANS 

Alt Ibn al-Jafam's collected poetical works form a small volume; they contaJD 
this fine thought: 

An afflictioD not to be equalled is the enmity of a man without honour or religion. He 
freely abandons you his own reputation, and attacks yours which you so carefully pre- 
serve. 

These verses were directed by him against Marwan Ibn Abi Hafsa '8\ who had 
composed on him the following epigram : 

Jahm Ibn Badr was surely not a poet, and yet this son of his pretends to make verses. 
It is true, my fether was a neighbour to his mother; and when AM claims to be a poet, 
he makes me suspect something. 

This idea was taken from Kuthaiyir, the lover of Azza (9), who, having one 
time recited some verses to the poet al-Farazdak by whom they were approved, 
was then addressed by him in these terms: "Tell me, Abii Sakhr! did your 
" mother ever go to Basra?" — "No," replied Kuthayir, "but my father did 
" frequently (10)." When Ibn al-Jahm was in prison, he composed the well- 
known verses which begin thus : 

" Thou art now in prison I" said they, but I answered : " The prison harms not my 
" body; where is the sword which has not been contined in a scabbard?" 

This is the best piece ever written on such a subject, and I would give it all 
hei-e were it not so long. The lines which follow are also of his composition : 

7 O [cruel fair !) thou who rejoicest in the torments 1 endure ! thou art as a king, acting 

like a tyrant because he has the power. Were it not for love, I should match thee (in 
haa^ktituM) ; but if ever I recover from that passion, thou shalt experience more than 
(hou etpectesl t 

— Sdmi means descended from Sdma, the son of Luwai : many persons write thi^ 
name Shami, hut they are mistaken.— Du/oil, the diminutive form of the word 
Dijla (Tigris^, is the name given to a canal situated higher up the river than 
Baghdad. It derives its waters from the Tigris and branches off From it on the 
west bank, opposite to ai-Kadisiya, between Tikrit and Baghdad ; a number of 
towns and villages are situated on its banks. It must not be confounded with 
the Dujail (in the province) of al-Ahwaz, which also waters a number of towns 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 397 

and villages, but flows from the neighbourhood of Ispahan ; this last was dug by 
Ardashir Ibn Babek Ibn Sasan, the first of the (Satcmiiie) monarchs of Persia. 



(1) SeeYol. I. page 78. 
[3) The inhtgraph hai ,12', 
(3) The autograph haa ^•^■ 
(41 Hen ihe autograph bu fj^^. 

(5) Tbii Tihir aucceeded hia falber AM Allah, at gOTeroor of Khorlsin, io A. H. 330. 

(6) Such I believe to be ibe meaniog or (hi* vene. Id which the worda U -^ and M i-tt* must be lubatt- 
lut«d for Mji, and ^iluk:'. I cooiider *^^ J> and ^,jj_o J.* as equivalent lo ^ J) ,3J and 
^j,^ JJ. 

(7) Literallj; Uu the lorrent carried off the morniDg. 
(») See H.de Sacj'i CkrtitomathU. torn. in. p.S18. 
(«) See Tol.l. page 333. 

{10} Ii muat he obiened that Baara waa al-Faraidak'a native place. 



IBN AR-RUMI. 



Abii 'I-Hasan AH, surnamed Ibn aivRumi (the son of the CArM(wn),wa8 the son 
of al-Abbas, the son of Juraij, or of Jurjis (Georgius) as some say, and a mawla 
to Obaid Allah Ibn Isa Ibn Jaafar Ibn al-Mansur Ibn Muhammad Ibn AH Ibn 
Abd Allah Ibn al-Abbas Ibn Abd al-Muttalib. This celebrated poet, whose 
verses are so admirable for beauty of expression and originality of thought, was 
a diver (it rmght be $aid) for novel ideas, bringing them forth from their secret 
recesses and produciag them to the best advantage. Every thought which he 
treated was developed to the utmost, and not a shade of it was left by him un- 
noticed. His poems, which were transmitted down orally by al-Mutanabbi, who 
learned them from himself, were devoid of order till AbA Bakr as-Siili under- 
took the task of arranging them according to the letters in which they rhymed ; 
and Abu 't-Taiyib, the book-copyist of Ibn Abdus(l), collected them again from 
all the copies then existing, both those containing the poems arranged by the 



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298 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

letter of the rhyme aiid those where they were given indiscriminalely, and he 
augmented the whole by the addition of about one thousand verses. Ibn ar- 
Humi composed not only long kasidas, but short pieces also of admirable beauty, 
and he has employed in some of ihem every tone which satire or praise can as- 
sume. It is thus that he says : 

Those generous men bestowed without rebuking, or, iF they rebuked, they deferral 
not their gifts. How many there are, possessing great wealth yet avaricious; whilst 
others make presents, although obliged to borrow. 

In the following lines he expresses a ihoughl which, be says, bad never oc- 
curred to any poet before him : 

Your counsels and your faces and your swords shine like stars when misfortune sheds 
darkness around. They are signals of guidance, and beacons to dispel the shades of 
night, when the results of oar enterprises are merely objects of conjecture. 

Another singular idea of his is expressed thus : 

When a man praises another to obtain his gifls and lengthens his eulogium, his inten- 
tions are saUrical. Had he not judged the water to be low in the well, he would nol 
have taken so long a rope to draw it up. 

In the following lines he blames the custom of dyeing tbc bair black ; and, ac- 
cording to Ahii '1-Husain Jaafar Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali al-Hamdani, they con- 
lain an idea never expressed before : 

When a man's hair continues black, though his youth is worn out, that dark tint will 
be thought artificial. Uow then can an old man expect that the factitious blackness of 
his hair should be considered natural , or that he himself should be taken for a youth ? 

488 He once asked a man of rank to render him a serviw, and although he did nol 
expect any good of him, his request was granted ; on this occasion he expressed 
his feelings in these lines : 

I once asked a service of you, and you granted it generously, though I imagined that 
you would not. By this favour you impose on me the duty of gratitude, and that is more 
painful for me than to undergo a refusal from you. I never thought that, throughout all 
the vicissitudes of time, t should see a favour asked of a man like you. I'hough what 
I have received from you gives me pleasure, yet to think that it is on such men as you 
that hopes are to be placed, gives me pain. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 299 

These verses are attributed to Ibn Waki at-Tinnisi (wl. I. p. 396). To avoid 
lengthening this article we shall mereW state that his poetical works abound with 
Ijeauties. His birth took place at Baghdad on a Wednesday morning after sun- 
rise, which was the 2nd day of the month of Rajab, A. H. 221 (June, A. D. 836).- 
the house in which he was bom is situated in the place which bears the (wo 
names of al-Akikiya (2), and the street of al-Khaialiya (Darb al-Khalaliya^ ; this 
house lies opposite to the palace (kasr) of Isa Ibn Jaafar, grandson of aHWansur. 
— In one of his journeys he composed these Hnes on Baghdad : 

Id Ibat city, youtii and its passions were my consorts, and there I wore the robe of life 
in its newness. When I call up its image to my mind, I see therein the youlhful bean- 
ties whom I once loved, and their slender waists gracefully bending (3). 

He died at Baghdad on Wednesday, the 28th of the first Jumada, A. H. 283 
:'July, A. D. 896); some however placed his death in 284 or 276. He was in- 
terred in the cemetery at the Garden Gate (Bd6 al-Btistdn\ The cause of his 
death is tlms related : Al-Kasim Ibn Obaid Allah Ibn Sulaiman Ibn Wahb, the 
vizir of the imam (khalifj al-Motadid dreaded incurring the satirical attacks of 
Ibn ar-Rumi and the outbursts of bis malignant tongue; he therefore suborned 
a person called) Ibn Firas (4), who gave him a poisoned biscuit, whilst he was 
sitting in company with the vizir. When Ibn ar-Rumi had eaten it, he per- 
ceived ihat he was poisoned, and rose to withdraw, on which the vizir said 
to him : "Where are you going?" — "To the place," replied Ibn ar-Rumi, 
"where yon sent me." — "Well," observed (he vizir, " you will present mv 
" respects to my father." — "I am not taking (he road to hell;" retorted the poet. 
He then retired to his house and died some days afterwards. The physician who 
attended him administered medicines to counteract the effects of (he poison, but 
it was reported that he employed by mistake a wrong drug. It is related by 
Ibrahim Ibn Muhammad Niftawaih (vol. I. p. 26) that he saw Ibn ar-RiJmi at 
the point of death and asked him bow he was, and that the poet answered by re- 
citing these verses: 

The physician has made a mistake to my cost, — a mistake like that of the man who 
went down into the well for water and could not get up again. People will say it was a 
blunder of the doctor's, but doctors' blunders are strokes well aimed by fate. 

The relation which follows was made by the poet Ahu Othman an-Najim : " I 



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300 IBN KHALLIKANS 

" went to see Ibn ar-Rumi in his illness, and I found him at the last extremity ; 

" on rising to take leave of him, be said to me : 

' AbA Othmftn I yoo deserve the praises of your people, and your bene6cence is readier 
' for your friends than your reproaches. Behold thy broUier and take thy fill of (he 
' sight; for 1 am thinking that he shall not see you again, nor you bim, once this day is 
' past.' " 

The vizir Ibn Obaid Ailah was a man greatly feared, and always displaying an 
excessive propensity to bloodshed; high and low were in dread of him, for be 
never discovered a man to be rich without making him sutler for il. He died 
^89 on the eve of Wednesday, the 10th of the latter Rabi, A. H. 291 (March, A. D. 
00'^), in the kbalifate of al-MuktaC (billtJi), being then somewhat more than 
thirty years of age. The following verses were made on bis death by Abd Allah 
Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Saad : 

We lasted of joy on the evening of the vizir's death, and we shall continue to taste of 
it for three evenings longer (5). May God grant no mercy to his bones and no blessing 
to his heir. 

This vizir had a brother named Abu Muhammad al-Hasan, whom he and his 
father outlived, and some verses (which we thall give lower down) were composed 
on this event by Abii '1-Haritb an-Naufali, or rather by al-Bassami, a poet whose 
life will be found immediately id'ter this. — I have since read in as-Samani's Zail 
(supplement), where he gives the life of the chamberlain (al-bawwdb) Ali Ibn Mu- 
kallad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Karama, that Abu 'l-Harith an-Naufali said: "I de- 
" tested al-Kasim Ibn Obaid Allah for an injustice which he had done me, and, 
" on the death of his brother al-Hasan, I composed tliese verses and placed 
'* them in the mouth of Ibn Bassam al-Bassami." Before this passage, as-Sa- 
mani inserts these words : " Abii Bakr as-Silli (6), who was so remarkable for 
" his social talents, mentions that he had seen Abu 'I-Harith and that he was a 
" man of veracity." — The verses are: 

Say to the father of al-Kftsim, now suffering under his loss: "Fortune has shown thee 
*' strange events; thou losesta son who was an ornament to the world, and another sur- 
" vives, filled with turpitude and vices. The life of this one is as bad as the death of 
" thai; in neither case hast thou escaped misfortune." 

The following verses were composed also on (he same subject by a poet whom 
1 have since discovered to be this same Abu 'l-Harith .- 



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BIOGBAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 301 

Speak lo the fattier of al-Kdaim, now suffering under his loss, and exclaim aloud : " O 
' ' thou who hast met a double misfortune I thou hast lost a son who was an ornament, but 
" turpitude survives (m tAe other), and what turpitude I The life of this one is as the 
" death of that : strike thy head with (hy hands (in detpair]." 



(i) This Ibn AbdAs b probabl; ihe urae who bore the lurname of al-Jibthliri. See vol. II. p. 137. Tbe 
author of the Fihriii roahei roeDtion aUo of an All tbn Muhammad Ibn AbdOs. a gramraaritn and a native 
orKOra, vho composed lome worka on poetrf, prosodj, and grammar. [FihrUi, fol.120.^ A third Ibn AbdOs 
nai a Koran-reader (lee vol. I. p. 28); and a fourth wu concerned in Ibn as-Sbalroaghlni's affair {set vo). I. 
page ^37\ 

(2) In the autograph tbii name is written UutiJI, 

(3) Literally: I see it, and over it waring the branches of youth. 
(4] The autograph has (-'K?. 

(5} It is poMibie that I may hare mistaken the meaning of this verse. 
(6) The life of AbQ Bakr Hubaramad as-SAti will be found in this nork. 



Al^BASSAMl THE POET. 



Abu '1-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Nasr Ibn Mansur Ibn Bassam, generally 
known bythe surnameof a!-Bassiimi, wasapoet of great celebrity(l). Hismothei' 
Umama was daughter to Hamdun an-Nadim (2). His (poetry) was transmitted 
down orally by Ahii Bakr as-Siili, Abu Sahl Ibn Ziad, and others who had learned 
portions of it by heart. The elegance of his verses and the subtilty of his ge- 
nius entitled him to an eminent rank amongst the poets, but he was particularly 
noted for the keenness of his tongue and his natural turn for satire : none indeed 
could escape him; princes and vizirs, high and low, nay even his own father, 
brothers, and other members of the family had to suffer from his attacks. To 
his father he addressed the following lines : 

Were you to live the lives of twenty eagles, do you think I could die and let you sur- 
vive 7 If I outlive you a single day, I shall show my grief by rending the bosom of — thy 
purse. 

In another of his pieces he says : 



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302 IBN KUALLIKAN'S 

When greyiiess cast a veil over my head, I abandoned the pursuit of vain amusements 
and of love. for the days of my youth and their pleasures 1 O that the days of youth 
could be retrieved with money ! Renounce all amorous follies, O my heart 1 and forget 
the passion which warmed thee; now, that grey hairs are come, thou art good for no- 
t thing! Cast a parting look on the world; the time for journeying forth approaches and 
ihe hour of farewell is come. Misfortunes keep guard over man ; and, after his misfor- 
tunes, he leaves only a transient reputation behind. 

He once asked (he vizir Urn al-Marzuban (3} for the present of a hoi'sc, but was 
R'fused, on which he pronoimced these lines : 

Your avarice refused me a vile broken-down horse, and you shall never see me ask for 
him again. Vou may say that you reserve him for your own use, but that which you 
ride was never created by God to be reserved [h). 

The following verses were composed by him on the kdtib Asad Ibn Jahwar : 

Curses light on Fortune 1 she has brought strange things to pass I and having effoced 
the last vestiges of polite learning and refined (aste, she gives us k&tibs whom 1 should 
send back to school, could 1 lay my hands on them. Behold an example of this in Asad 
Ibn Jahwar who assumes (he air of an able kdlib. 

In another piece be says : 

When at Sarat(3),we purloined some nights [of yUasure) from the vigilance of adverse 
fortune, and they now sen-e as dates in the sad pages of our life (6], and as titles an- 
nouncing (iiture joys and hopes to be fulfilled. 

His father Muhammad Ibn Nasr enjoyed a large fortune and lived in a style of 
princely magnificence (7) ; he was remarkable for his manly and geneTOus cha- 
racter, the elegance of his person, the delicacy of his table, the splendour of his 
dress, and the richness of the furniture which embellished his palace. — It is 
related that the vizir al-Kasim Ibn Obaid Allah went one day to al-Moladid, 
whom he found playing at chess, and overheard him repeating this verse : 

The life of this one is as the death of that; in neither case hast thou escaped mis- 
fortune. 

See col. II. p. 300;. The khalif then raised his eyes, and perceiving, with some 
confusion, that al-Kasim was present, he said to him : " Kasim ! cut Ibn Bas- 
" sam's tongue off, so that it wound you no more (8)." Al-Kasim immediately 
hastened away to cut out the poet's tongue, but al-Moladid, Iwing informed of 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 303 

his iiilention, called him back and said : " Do him no harm, but cut his tongue 
" off by showing him kindness and giving him some lucrative employmeiU." 
In consequence of this order, al-Kasim appointed him director or the post-borse 
eslablishment in al-Awasim and the Jund of Kinnisrin, and receiver-general nl' 
the tolls arising from the bridges of these districts. Ibn Bassaiii died in tho 
month of Safar. A.H. 302 (Aug.-Sept. A.D. 914); some say, A. H. 303. He 
was then aged upwards of seventy. — The praises of his grandfather Nasr Ibn 
Mansur were celebrated by (the poet) Abu Tammam. — Al-Aicdsim is a large dis- 
trict in Syria, and its capital is Antioch. Abu '1-Ala al-Maarri mentions it in 
this verse : 

When Baghdad and its people ask concerning me, 1 ask concerning the people nr ,-il- 
AwAsim. 

The poet expressed himself thus because his native place, Maarra lan-JNoman, 
lay in the territory of al-Awasim. At-Tabari mentions in his history that, in 
the year 170 (A. D. 786-7), Harun ar-Rashid constituted all the (northern) fron- 
tier of Mesopotamia and Kinnisrin into a separate district, under the name of 
al-Awasim ((Ac protecting fortresses). — When al-Mutawakkil destroyed the tomb 
of al-Husain, tlie son of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, in A. II. 236 (A. D. S.'jO-I), al-Bas- 
sami composed the following verses on the occasion : 

IftheOmaiyides impiously murdered the son of the Prophet's daiidhtcr, iheir descend- 
ants have committed as foul a deed — behold the tomb of a)-Husain reduced to ruins! 
They regretted to have borne no share in his murder, and they therefore 'nreaked their 
hatred on his ashes. 

This tomb, with the adjoining edifices and dependencies!, was razed to tlie 4U1 
foundations by al-Mulawakkil, through detestation for the memory of Ali and 
his sons al-Hasan and al-Husain ; he even ordered the spot on which the tomb 
was erected to be sown with grain and irrigated, and no person was permitted 
to visit it. This is stated as a fact by historians, but whether it l>c true or not is 
known to God alone. — Ibn Bassam composed some works, such as a history of 
Omar Ibn Abi Rabia (0;, which is the fullest and most satisfactory treatise ever 
written on the subject; the History of al-Ahwas (10); the Mmidkuldt as-Shunrd 
(cmtradiclioiu of the poeti) ; an edition of his own epistles, etc. 



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304 IBN KHALLIKANS 

1 1 ) Tbia Akd '1-Huin Ali Ibn Baislro is erroneouily considered by Hajji Kbilif* ai the aalhor of the work 
mliltcd ad-DakMra fi MaMiin Akl it-Jailra {Ihe Ireattin, on tht txceUentiu of the peopit of the Itland). 
by ntiich island is meant tbe Spanitb peninsula. Tills roisliLe has not esciped the notice of H. de Sacy; 
■ec his Anthologte GrammaMcale, p. 445. It tppears from some of the eiiracta giTen rrora the Dakhlra b; 
Ibn Khalliktn and from the declaraUon of al>Malikari (lee HS. No. 704, fol. 104), thai AbO 'l-Hasan All Ibn 
Bassjtm is-SbantarIni (na(iv« of Santarem;, the author of the Dakhlra, lived in (he liith century of ibe Hijn 
and that he was a contemporary of al-Fath Ibn Khlkln, the author of the Katdid al Ikiyan, M.dc Gayangos 
stales, I knoiT not on vhat autborlly, that Ibn Baastni died A.H. 542 (A.D. 1147-8). See his Mohammedan 
Dynatliat in Spain, vol.], p. 370; where he announces also that be will treat more al length about him 
nnd his wri^ngs. I have made many but fruitless searches to find some account of bim, and am much sui^ 
prised ai the silence of al-Makbari, Ibn Bashkuwll, Abfl 'I-Mab4iin, Ibn Khtkln. Imfkd ad-dtn, and other 
authors, on the subject. 

(2) "The kdlib KamdAn Ibn Umatl Ihn DiwAd was the Orst of bis family wbo followed Ibe profession of * 
•' nadim, or boon companion. His son Abmad Ibn HaradAn vas an oral transmitter of poetry and historical 
" narrations."— (FiVkrut, No. 874, foLlOS.) 

(3j It appears fl-om al-MakIn [Elmaein) ibat Ibn at-Manubln vas chamberlain to the khatif al-Mnlavakkil- 
— (See HUtoTia Sarat$nica, page IBl.) 

(4) This is the more obvious meaning; but anoiher is intended, namely: nothing which God has created can 
remain pure if jou touch it. 

(5) As-Sarll is Ibe name of one of those canals or rivers which united the Euphrates and Tigris. 

(6) Literally: As a dale to the nights. 

1 7) The autograph has_«|^l not ^^t, 

(B) Literally: Cut his tongue off from you. An anecdote similar lo this is related of Muhammad andial- 
Ahbis Ibn Mirdis. 

(fl) The life of Omar Ibn Abi Rabia is given by Ibn Khallikln. 

(10) Al-Ah«aslbn Jaafar.lbechief of the tribei descended from Uawtiin, is principally known for tbe active 
pari which he look in Ibe celebrated combat of Shib Jabala.— (See Rasmussen's Viit. Arab. (in(eisIom.p.7l, 
and Fresnel's Primitrt Utire lur I'kittoire dttArabtt avant r/sJainliiRa, p.47.) 



AL-KADI T-TANUKHI. 



The kadi Abii 'l-Rasim Ali at-Tanukhi (1 ) was a native of Antioch and drew his 
descent from Kudaa by the following line : his father Muhammad was the son 
of Abu 'l-Fahm Dawud Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Tamim Ibn Jabir Ibn Hani Ibn Zaid 
Ibn Obaid Ibn Malik Ibn Murit Ibn Sarh Ibn Nizar Ibn Amr Ibn al-Harith Ibn 
Subh Ibn Amr Ibn al-Harith — this last was one of the ancient kings of the tribe 
of Taniikh)— Ibn Fahm Ibn Taim Allah Ibn Asad Ibn Wabara Ibn Taghlib Ibn 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 305 

Hulwan Ibn Imran Ibn al-Haf Ibn Kudaa. Abu 'l-Kasim at-TanAkhi was 
deeply learned in tbe doctrines of tlie Motaielites and in astrology. Ath-Thaalibi 
speaks of bim in these terms : " He ranked among tbe men tbe most distinguished 
" for their learning (in the law) and their acquaintance with general literature; 
" his noble character and excellent qualities placed bim in a class apart, and the 
" following description, which I read in a chapter of the Sdhib Ibn Abbad's 
'* works might be applied to him wilh justice : ' If you desire it, ! shall be (seri- 
" ' otM (u) the rosary of a devotee ; and, if you like, 1 shall be (ticeet ai) the apple 
" * of Fatik (2) ; if you require it, I shall be (grave as) the frock of a monk, or, 
" * if you prefer it, I shall be (exhilarating as) the choicest wine of the drinker.' 
" He filled the place of kadi at Basra and al-Abw3iz for some years, and, on 
" his removal from that office, he proceeded to tlie court of Saif ad-Dawlat Ibn 
" Ilamdan as a visitor and eulogist. That prince gave him an honourable 
*' reception, and having granted him a considerable sum for his support, he 
'* wrote to the court of Baghdad requesting the kadi's reinstatement. Ahu 'I- 
" Kasim then obtained an increase of salary and high preferment ; the vizir al- 
" Muhallabi and other powerful men of Irak look bim into favour and became 
" (be ardent partisans of one whom they considered as the standard of elegant 
*' taste and the sweetest flower of their convivial meetings. He was one of the 
' ' band of kadis and jurisconsults who formed the vizir al-Muballabi's social par- 
" ties which met on two evenings of each week ; all reserve was then discarded, 
" and they freely indulged in tbe pleasures of the table and gave loose to gaiety. 
" Such were the kadi AbA Bakr Ibn Kuraiya, Ibn Maruf (3), Ahu 'l-Kasim 
" at-Tanukbi, and others, not one of whom but had a long grey heard; and this 
" was also the case with al-Muballabi himself. At these meetings, when once a 
" perfect familiarity was established and sociability prevailed, their ears were 
" gratified with tbe charms of music, and, yielding to the excitement of gaiety, 
' ' they divested themselves of the robe of gravity to indulge in wine ; then, as they 
" passed through all tbe degrees of enjoyment, from hilarity to extravagance, 
" a golden cup, weighing one thousand mithkaU (4), and filled with tbe delicious 
" liquor of Kulrubbul (5} or of Okbara (6), was placed in the hand of each ; in 
'* th^se they dipped, or rather steeped their beards, till the contents were nearly 
"all absorbed, and they (hen sprinkled each other hy shaking off the drops. 
" During this, they danced about in variegated dresses and in necklaces formed 

VOL. II: 39 



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8M IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

" of white violets and the odoriferous seeds of the gum-acacia (7). The next 
" morning, their habitual gravity and guarded conduct were resumed with the 
" emblems of their judicial functions and the reserved deportment of venerable 
" doctors." Ath-Thaalibi then gives numerous passages of his poetry, and 
from these we select the following : 

A. liquor composed of snobeams (8) is presented in a vase formed of the light of day > 

or of air, were it not solid — or else of water, were it not devoid of fluidify. When the page 

who bears it round to the right or to (he left, leans forward to pour forth its contents, 

2 he seems to be clothed in a jasmine [white) robe, with one single sleeve of (a red rolovr 

tike) the pomegranate blossom. 

How highly should I prize thy beauty, did thy kindness towards me correspond to it I 
Hiou art a foil moon ; but, alas I the sky in which thon risest is not the sky of love. 

Youth to which hoary age succeeds not, such is thy friendship ; an evil for which 
there is no physician, such is thy hatred. A portion of every soul seems combined in 
thine, and Uiou art therefore a friend to every soul. 

AUMasudi states, in his MwHj ad-Dahab, that Abu 'l-Kasim at-Taniiki com- 
posed a kaitda in imitation of Ihn Duraid's Mahi^ra, and he then quotes some 
lines from it in praise of TanAkh and Kudaa, the tribe to which the author he- 
longed. Another writer relates the following anecdote which he had received 
from Abu Muhammad al-Hasan Ihn Askar, a Sfljf, and a native of Wasit : " In 
" the year 521 (A. D. 1 1 27) 1 happened to be at Baghdad, and was sitting on the 
" stone seat of the Abraz Gate for recreation, when three females came and sat 
" down beside me. I immediately recited the following verse, meaning to apply 
" it to them : 

" Air, were it not solid; water, were it not devoid of fluidity. 

" One of them then asked me if 1 knew the rest of the piece, and 1 replied 
" that I knew that verse only. On this she said : ' If any one were to recite to 
" ' you the lines which precede, and those which terminate the piece, what 
" ' would you give that person?' I replied that I had nothing to give, but that 
** I would kiss the person on the mouth. She then recited to me the verses 
" already mention^, but after the first she introduced these : 

" When you consider it and its contents, you have before your eyes a white flower 
" enclosing a fire. One is the extreme of whiteness, and the odier of redness. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICnONAKY. 307 

' ' When I bad got the verses by heart, she said in jesting : ' Where is your 
" * promise?' meaning the kiss."— The Khatib states that Abd i-Kasim at-Ta- 
nukhi was born at Antioch on Sunday, the 25th of Zu '1-Hijja, A. H. 278 (March, 
A. D. 892) ; that he went lo Baghdad, where he learned Traditions and studied 
Hanifite jurispradcnce, and that he died at Basra on Tuesday, the 7th of the 
first Rabi, A. H. 342 (July, A. D. 953). He was interred the next morning in 
a mausoleum, situated in the street of al-Mirbad, which was bought for him (9). 
Mention shall be made of his son al-Muhassin in the letter M. Both of them have 
left a diwdrif or collection of poetry. 



(1) It bai been alrudy obKned bj our lutfaor, vol. I. p. 97, that TantUtA vii a generil dmiomioitioD for 
iboM tribu TFhich bad *eiLled at Bahrain. 

(2) Thii ii probabl J an alluiion to an apple of amber on which the name of Fttik wai engraved, and whkb 
bad been preHoted to the poet al-Hutaaabbi bj the direction of thai emir. A celebrated poem, compoiea bj 
al-Huiaaahbi on thi« occation, will be found in H.Grangerei de Lagrange'i Anthologie arabe. 

(3] See vol. 1. p. 37«.— The life of Ibn Kuraija ii glTeD bj Ibn Kfaalllktn. 
(4] The cap muil therefore have weighed from lii to mtm poundi. 

(5) The Tillage of Kutnibbul, so celebrated for the excellence of itt wine, la; between Baghdad and Okbara. 
It wu much frequented by tbe people of the former citj in their ptriiet of pleuure and debauch. 

(6) SeeTol.II. pageM. 

(7) Thii paiuge may perbapt have lome other metDing, whicb 1 am unable to diacoTer. 

(8) In this piece the poet inienda to describe a large white vase eoataining red wine. 
(9 The autograph has: Jj~Jt ^ j^. 



AN-NASHI 'U-ASGHAR. 



Abu i-Hasan Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Wasif al-HalU, surnamed an-Nashi al- 
Asghar (or the let*), was a poet of merited celebrity for his talents, and the author 
of numerous kattdai on the family of the Prophet. He displayed also great abi- 
lities in scholastic theology, which science he had learned from Abu Sahl Ismail 
Ibn Ali Ibn Nubakht, and be held an eminent rank among the Shtites. Nu- 
merous works were composed by him. His grandfather Wasif was a slave, and 
his father Abd Allah a druggist. The surname of al-Halid was given to him 



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308 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

485 because he made trinkets (hilya) of brass. Abu Bakr aUKhuwareznii stales that 
the following charming verses, composed by an-Nashi al-Asghar, were recited to 
him at Aleppo by their author : 

When 1 rebuked my friend {wkomvnrtquiud lore had rendered} weary of the world (1), 
1 might as well have written on water. Had he even renounced his passion after my 
reprimand, that love which was at first a spontaneous movement would have still re- 
mained a duty (2). 

In the year 325 (A. D. 936-7J be went to Kufa and taught his own poetry in 
the great mosque ; al-Mutanabbi, who was then a boy, attended his lessons and 
look them down in writing. The following passage from one of an-Nashi's fto- 
xtdm was written down by al-Mutanabbi under the author's dictation : 

As a secret thought is the point of his spear, it is always buried deep in the heart <3). 
His sword is like Ihe pact made with Aim at Ghadlr Khumm (4); the necks of mankind are 
formed to receive it (5). 

The same thought has been thus versified by al-Mutanabbi : 

In the tumult of battle Ihe enemy's heads are as eyes, and thy sword then seems lohavc 
been formed out of sleep (6). lliy lances also arc made of thoughts, for it is into Ihe 
hearts alone that they enter. 

An-Nashi had visited the court of Saif ad-Dawlat Ibn llamd:m at Aleppo, and 
that prince overwhelmed him with the marks of his generosity. When he de- 
cided on taking his departure, he addressed the following farewell lines to his 
patron : 

I bid forewell, bat that reluctantly ; and, forced by fate, I make a sacrifice to which I 
should never hare willingly consented. I depart in grief, which is now the only compa- 
nion of my doul ; if indeed t can depart and not leave my soul beliind. Vou removed 
from me a weight of misery in loading me with lavours and with honours; and theso 
we refer to God alone for retribution. May He protect you whose religion is protected 
by thy sword ! May He conduct you to a garden of happy life, ever green and ever flou- 
rishing. 

Tlie lines which follow are attributed to him by ath-Thaalibi, but in a sub- 
quent part of this writer's work, he gives them as the production of Abu Mu- 
hammad Ibn al-Munajjim (7) : 

If you cannot attain the honours which are coveted by noble minds, cease your efixtris 
and seek a foreign land. How often has a life of ease become irksome ! and how oflcn 
have fatigues and toils yielded repose 1 



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BIOGHAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 309 

This piece also is hy an-Nashi : 

If the feelings of a friend be alienated from me wrongftilly (8), I try to give him rea- 
sons to justify his condnct ; I expostulate not, lest I should irritate him more, and I make 
him feel that my silence is a reproach sufficient. And if I am tormented by an ignorant 
pretender to knowledge, ever ready to assert the wrong for the right, I honour him with 
my silence, for silence often answers for an answer. 

His poetrT contains a number of fine thoughts. He died A. H. 366 (A. D. 
976-7), hut some say that he expii-ed on Wednesday, the 5th of Safar, A. H. 365 
(October, A.D. 975), at Baghdad. His birth took place, A.H. 274 (A.D. 884-5;. 



(1) For siJj^l read jjUl. 

(3) The poet meing u> tnj that the retl merit of die lad; would be acknowledged even on cool refleeiioii. 

(3) Literally: It haa do depiriare rrom the heart*. The verses are in praise of All Ibn Ttlib, a« is proved 
by the firal hemiatidi of the second verse, which ia vriiten thus in ihe aulograph and in one of mj' own ron- 
ouscripls: ^s^ iT*,^ i>,U«j. 

(i) See vol. I. page 16S, note (8). 

(Si Id Arabic, Ibe idea of being bound by a pact ii eipressed thus : They have placed the pact of the other 
party as a collar around their Decks, •^^^■^ IjjJi^'. 

(6) That is: Thy sword falls upoD the foeman's head as naturally as sleep upon the eye. 

(7) Ath-Thallibi mentions at least four different persons bearing the name of Ibn al-Munajjiro ; ^ey all 
composed verses and Oourished, it nould appear, in the lime of Saif ad-Dawlai. They were distinguished by 
the additional suniameB of AbO Muhammad, AbO 'l-Fatb, Abd 'l-Hasan Bibek IbD Ali, Abb Isa, iDd Hib<it 
Allah. Ibn Kballiktn gives the lives of two others a few p^es farther on. 

(8) The autograph has Lts^. 



AZ-ZAHl THE POET. 

AbA 'l-Kasim Ali Iba Ishak Ihn Klialaf, generally known by the surname of 404 
az-Zahi, was a celebrated poet and a native of Baghdad. He excelled in descrip- 
tion, and his productions abound with beauties. The Khatib speaks of him in 
the History of Baghdad, and, after mentioning that his poetry offers many fine 
examples of simile and other figures of rhetoric, he states his belief that his po- 
etical compositions are not numerous, and he then gives us to understand that 



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310 IBN KHALLIKANS 

he was a seller of cottons and kept a shop ia the Grant of ar-Rabi (1). Amid 
ad-Dawlat Abu Saad Ibn Abd ar-Rahim (2) gives him a place in bis Tabakdt (u- 
Shuardf and says : "He was born on Monday, the 19th of Safar, A. H. 318 
*' (March, A. D. 930); he died at Baghdad on Wednesday, the 19th of the latter 
" Jumada, A. H. 352 (July, A.D. 963), and was buried in the cemetery of the 
" Koraish. His poetical works fill four volumes, and the greater part are in 
" honour of the family of Muhammad, or in praise of Saif ad-Dawlat, the vizir 
" al-Muballabi, and other great men of the epoch," He adds that az-Z4hi com- 
posed pieces in all the various styles of poetry, and quotes the following lines as 
his : 

Thy aversion for my love has torn the veil off my passion, and my tears serve only 
to expose me more. I did not reject the control of prudence, till I saw the beauty of 
the ringlets which adorned thy cheeks. Yet ! oiteD before saw handsome faces, but, (o 
my misfortuDe, my choice fell on thine. 

In describing the violet, az-Zahi employs the following comparison : 

Azure flowers from the garden, surpassing the sapphire in colour and borne on stems 
too feeble to support them (3) ; they appear like the flrst flame given out by a match tip- 
ped with sulphur. 

By the same : 

A wine so transparent in the cup that it resembles the light which dawns over the do- 
main of man. It is so clear [k) and limpid in the glass that it appears not, and the vase 
which contains it seems to be empty. 

The following is one of the beautiful passages offered by his poems -■ 

Fair ladies, the glances of whose eyes are such, that they seem lo brandish swords and 
unsheath daggers. They accosted me one day in the recess of the valley, and they de- 
luded my heart, which was delnding itself with assumed insensibility. When they un- 
veiled, they were full moons ; when they drew their veil, they were crescents ; when they 
moved with dignity, their waists were pliant wands ; and when Ihey turned their heads, 
thev displayed the lender looks of the gazelle. From their necks encircled with pearls, 
their heads seemed to rise like stars ; they were formed lo do harm to our hearts (5). 

This mode of enumerating female charms has been often employed by poets, 
but was never given under so admirable a form as this. Al-Mutanabbi has said 

on the subject : 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 311 

In her aspect, a moon ; in her movements, a branch of willow ; in odour, ambergris ; 
in looks, a gazelle. 

And ath-Thaalibi quotes the following description of a musician by a contem- 
porary poet, which is in the same style : 

1 devote my life for thee, U most charming of mortals and fittest object of a lover's at- 
tachment I Thy countenance Is, by its beauty, the solace of our eyes ; and thy voice, by 
its sweetness, the delight of our ears. When ladies asked me to describe thee, I told 
them the strangest tale : " In looks," said I, " she is a gazelle, in song a nightingale, in 
" coantenance an anemone, and in graceful port a wand." ^d<^ 

To avoid lengthening this notice, we shall abstain from giving other examples 
of the same kind (6). — " ZtUii," says as-Samani, " is a relative adjective derived 
" from (Zdh) the name of a village in the dependencies of NaisSpiir, to which 
" place a number of persons are indebted for their surname." He then add» -. 
" But as for Ahik 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Ishak Ibn Khalaf al-Baghdadi, who was sur- 
" named az-Zahi, I cannot say whether he derived that appellation from the 
" village of which we are speaking or not; all I know of him is, that he was a 
*' native of Baghdad and a good poet." 



(1) See Tol. I. iMge SM. 

(S) AecordiDg to Hajji Khalib, in his bibliographiul dicliauirf under the bead of TabakAi at-Shuafil, n 
work bearing thii title wai compowd b; tbe vliir Abb Said Muhammad Ibn al-Huuin Ibd Abd ar-Rabliii, 
who died A.H. 338. Thb date caoDot be eiact, for an extract from that viiir'i work, quoted b; Ibn KhalliliJIti 
in the life of Ibn NObakbC (page 3111 of this volume, prates that he wrote subseqnentlj to A.H. 431. Abfl'l- 
NahUin ii more satisfactory; he says in the IftyOm, ander the jear 430: "Id this jear died Aba Said Mu- 
" bammad Ibn tt-Hiualn Ibn Ali Ibo Abd ar-Bablm, viiir to laltl ad-Davlal Ibn Bawaih. HiTiog lost heavy 
" sviM b; the euctions of the Turkish troops, be was placed under the necessity of quilting Baghdad 
" and seeking concealment in Jaiirt tibni Omar, where he remained till his death, which occurred in ihr 
" month of ZQ 'l-Kaada (April-Hay, A.D. 1048^."— Ibn Khallik&n write* hb surname Abb Saad, and as surh 
I hare printed it in the life of Bishr Ibn Ghaitth al-Hartai, vbere we And atlribuled to him another work, 
entitled (on-ffutaf via 't-Turaf). In all the other woiki which I have examined, his stirname is written Abo 
SiOd. For the turbulent conduct of tbe Turkish troops under Jalll ad-Dawlai, see Ab& 'I-FedA's Annals, 
year 49S, and Wilken's edition of Mirkhond's Hiitory of the Buides, page 9B. 

(3) Read in tbe printed teit ^ji»^. 

(4) The autograph has ij.^]. 

(5) Literally: As detriment* to tbe heart's core. 

(Q) Before this, in the Arabic text, a piece of two verses Is inserted, which the author had added at a \Mec 
period. They are not fit for translation. 



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IBN KHALLIKAN'S 



IBN AL-MUN\JJIM AN-NADIM. 



Abu 'l-Hasan Ali Il>n Yahya Ibn Abi MansOr al-Munajjim was (he boon com- 
panion (nadim) of al-Mulawakkil and a ineml>er of bis intimate society. On the 
death of his patron, he continued in the highest favour with the khalifs who suc- 
cL'oded ; being permitted to sit in their presence when they gave audience from 
I lie throne, and enjoying their confidence to such a degree that they entrusted 
him with the knowledge of all their secret intentions and proceedings. The 
favour in which they held him, high as it was, continued without intermission 
to the last. Before his connection with the khalifs, he had placed himself under 
ihe patronage of Muhammad Ibn Ishak Ibn Ibrahim a1-Musabi(1}; be then l>ecamc 
acquainted with al-Fath Ibn Khakan (2,\ for whose use he formed a library con- 
sisting chiefly of philosophical treatises ; and he augmented Uiat vizir's collec- 
tion of books manifold by the immense number of works which he had copied for 
the expi-ess purpose, and none of which existed therein before. He knew by 
heart and could repeat correctly a great quantity of ancient poems and historical 
narrations, but his skill lay principally in vocal music, (and the airs which he sung 
Here) obtained by him from Ishak Ibn Ibrahim al-Mausili (vol. I. p. 183), with 
whom he had been personally acquainted. He is the author of some works, 
such as an account of the antcislamic and the Moshm poets, a life of Ishak Ibn 
Ihrahim al-Mausill, a treatise on boiled wine (3), etc. That he had a talent for 
poetry is proved by the following vei'ses of his on the laifal-khidl (Jt) : 

Dearer to me, by Allah I than my lather, is that object which appeared (o me in the 
darkness, like the smile of Uie glimmering morn. Its aspect increased my passion and 
tilled my heart with flames. >Vho can cure a heart smitten and enamoured, which beats 
yet stronger the more I strive to calm it? The image of my beloved made me a visit (in 
my linam], but that has only served (5) to destroy my repose forever. 

Some other elegant passages in verse composed by the lyadim are still extant. 
(le lived long enough to pay his court to al-Motamid, and he died in the latter 
|>art of that khalifs reign. It was at Sarra-man-raa that he breathed his last, 
A. H. 275 (A. D. 888-9\ He left a number of sons, all of them distinguished 
for their honourable character and convivial talents : notices of some of them 
will be found in this work under the proper heads. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 318 

(1) Huhammad Ibn Isluk •l-Mu»tbi «a» goTenrar of die province of Fare. 

(2) His life ia given b; Ibn Khaltiktn. 

(3) See Tol. II. page 46, note iQ). 

(4) See «o). 1. Introd. page iiivi. 

(5) I read .dljfarjtj inlbeaecoDd hemittich; the luMgrapb haa Jjlj; batlhe meaaureorihe verie dors 
not aeem to allow ibii reading. 



IBN AL-MUNAJJIM THE POET. 

Abu 'l-Hasan AH Ibn Abi Abd Allah Har6n Ibn Ali Ibn Yahya Ibn Abi Man- 
sur al-Munajjim, the celebrated poet, belonged to a family which produced many 4l>6 
elegant scholars, men of refined taste, whose agreeable qualities rendered them 
the companioDS of khalifs and vizirs in their parties of pleasure. The Sdhib Iba 
Abbad admitted bim into his society, and composed the following verses in his 
honour: 

The descendants of al-Munajjim are gifted wi(h a vivid intellect, and their literar)' 
talents are conspicuous in Persian and in Arabic. 1 persevered in praising them and 
extolling their merit, till 1 was accused for excessive partiality. 

Among the number of charming verses composed by Ahu 'l-Hasan Ibn al- 
IVlunajjim are some which have been set to music. One of his pieces is as 
follows : 

Motives for afTection subsist between Ifaee and me; and the relationship which we bear 
each other is that of love (1). [Sighing for thee,) 1 blame time for its delay, and my re- 
proaches shall long continue, unless they effect an amendment by which that delay may 
be annulled. thou who refusest me thy presence and thy letters I tell me if I am to 
hope that this double privation may cease? Were it not for the allurements of hope, a 
heart arrayed in the garb of suffering had been broken on thy account. But let ns nol 
despair of divine fovour; the separated are sometimes reunited, and the absent may 
perhaps return again. 

Hf addressed the following tines to Ibn al-Khuwarezmi, who had hurt his 
foot by a fall ; 

How could a stumble hurt the man who, in affaire of importance, never made a false 
step but he recovered from itT How could harm reach a foot which always Irod in the 
path of honour (2)? 

VOL. II. Ml 



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8ti IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

He composed a great deal of poetry, and numerous amusing anecdotes are 
told of him. His other works are, a treatise on the month of Ramadan, drawn 
up by him for the khalif ar-R^di ; the Kildb an^Ntr&z tea 'l-Mihrigdn (book of the 
vernal and autumnal equinoxe$) ; a refutation of al-Khalil (Ibn Ahmad's) system of 
prosody ; a work commencing with the genealogy of his own family, undertaken 
at the request of the vizir al-Muhallahi, but left unfinished ; an essay on the dif- 
ference between the style of Ibrahim Ibn al-Mahdi and thai of Ishak al-Mausili 
in the art of vocal music; the Kitdb al-Lafz al-Muktl, etc. (the comprehensive 
declaration, being a refutation of the assertiom made by al-LaHt) (3); this is an 
answer to Abu 'l-Faraj al-Ispahani's work, entitled al-Fark wa 'l-Mtydr bain al- 
AughAd wa 'l-Akrdr (difference between the noble and the rabble ajid aj^eciation of 
their relative worth\ This Ihn al-Munajjim was son to the author of the Kitdb al- 
Bdri (U), a work containing a choice of extracts from the productions of the later 
poets, and grandson to the Abu '1-Hasan Ibn al-Munajjim of whom an account 
has been given in the preceding article. His birth took place on the 9th of 
Safar, A . H. 276 (June, A. D. 889} ; some say In 277 ; he died on Wednesday, 
the 16th of the latter Jumada, A. H. 352 (July. A. D. 963> He persevered till 
(he end of his life in the custom of wearing his hair dyed (5). 



(1) This vene ii nol giren in the ■utograpb. 

(2) Literallj: Which never trod but lovard* an honourable station. 

(3) The word Lokll signlties a foundling. It does not appear nhj ihlt appellatioa sbould have been givpn 
to the author of the Eitdb at-AghUni. 

(4) The life of Htriln Ibn All il-HuDajjim fi ginn In this dictionary. 
(5] See vol. I. page K, note ^3]. 



ABU L-FATH AL-BUSTl. 



Ab6 '1-Fath Ali Ibn Muhammad al-Busti, a kdUb and a poet of great celebrity, 
•9IBS ihe author o( (the work entitled): at-Tarikata}rAnikafi't-Tajnts(i), a}-Ani$ al- 
Badt at-Td^ {the pieamg path, designed a$ a treatiie on paronomatia emd as a delight- 



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BIOGHAPHICAL DICTIONAKY. 315 

fvl wmpanion by the solidity of the principles which it lays dotcn) (2). As specimens 
of Uie elegance which he attained (in expression and thought'^, we shall quote the 
following phrases : *' He that does good to the man that wrongs him confounds 
" the man that is jealous of him." — " He who yields to his anger loses his civi- 
*' Hty." — ** The fashions of lords are lords of the fashions." — "A sign of your 
•' good fortune is your keeping within hounds." — "Bribes are the means of 
" success." — '*The most foolish of men is he who Is scornful to his brethren 
*' and presumptuous towards his sovereign." — "The mind is a sun, and the un- 
" derstanding its rays." — "Fate mocks at wishes." — "Definition of temperance : 
*' Tobe content with a strict sufliciency." — "There is no mending a torn dam." 
We shall here give some striking passages from his poetry ; 

When he flourishes his pen on going to use it, he makes you forget the bravest warrior 497 
that ever flourished a spear .3] . When he rests his fingers upon the paper, all the writers 
in the world confess themselves his slaves [U]. 

Some men clothe themselves in silk, whilst a wretched body is concealed beneath, li 
is thus that people paint their cheeks when sufFering from a tumoar in the lungs. 

When you try to amuse people in talking of past events and those which are to come, 
avoid repetitions, for their minds are placed in hostility to repetitions (S). 

Endure thy brother's temper, be it what it may; you cannol hope to amend it. 
How conld yon expect to succeed, since bis body contains four humours placed in it by 
nature? 

That part of his poetry composed in the alliterative style called tajnts is very 
copious. Hediedat Bukhara, A.H. 400 (A. D. H09-10); some say A. H. 401 . 
—We have given the explanation of the word Busti (vol. I. p. 477_). 1 read, at 
the beginning of his collected poetical works, that he bore the names of Abii '1- 
Fath All Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Husain Ibn Yusuf Ibn Muhammad !bn Ahd 
al-Aziz, and this may, perhaps, have been the case. 



(1) The lulograph hag --jLT^t j. 

(2) I follow Ihe autboril; of AbO '1-Fedl (see AiinaU, year 400: in Uking Tarika, as here itteuiioDed, for 
ibc tillc of ■ book, b]ii muti acknowledge having doubts on ihe tubject, as no such wark is noticed bj Hojji 
Kballfa. II it be reallj a title, some quibble is intended bj ibe words Tojnlt and TMt, one of whieh is a 
term of rhetoric and Ihe oiber of prosody. It strikes me however ibat the whole pastagF miy apply to ihc 



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316 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

man himseir, as it might be reodered ihoi : "A poet of gTMl celebriljr, wai noled for Ihe pletEiog wij in 
" nhich he employed paronomuus (ar alli(«ratior), aod wu a delightful companion by the solidity of Ibe 
" principle! which he laid down." 

(3) Far iLtj read il>l«. Both words are identic in lignifieation. 

(4] As tbe«e venes abound in the figure of Arabic rhetoric called tiynl*, or olUltrotfon, their merit is lost 
in Ibe translation. 

(S) In Ihe original Arabic these verses offer another curious example of iqjiat. 



AT-TIHAMI THE POET. 



Abu '1-Hasan A)i Ibn Muhammad at-Tih&mi, a cetebrated poet, is spoken of 
in these terms by Ibn Bassam in his Dakhtra: ** He was renowned for his abi- 
" Uties and possessed a cutting tongue ; between him and all the varied modes 
" of expression the path was Free; his poetry indicated as clearly {the taienU] 
" whidi had fallen to his lot, as the coolness of the zephyr denotes the presence 
" of the morn, and it disclosed his exalied station in science as plainly as the 
" tear reveals the secret of love." His collected poetical works form a small vo- 
lume, but the greater portion of the pieces is exquisite; one of his most grace- 
ful passages is contained in a long kmida, composed in praise of the vizir Abii 
'UKasim Ibn aUMaghribi (1), where he says: 

When (he lips of the flowers on the hills and those of our (mortal) beauties were 
smiling, I asked my friend which were the fairest to the sight: "I know not," said he; 
" xll of them are anthemis blossoms (2)." 

A similar thouglit is expressed in the following lines, attributed to {Hibat AUahj 
Ibn Sana '1-Mulk, a poet whose life will be found in this work : 

I hesitated, thinking the teeth [of my beloved) Sulalma lo be anthemis buds, and taking 
these for teeth. 1 therefore kissed them all, to dispel my doubts ; and every person who 
feels earnest {imuckmatteri) would do the same. 

In one of his eulogistic passages he has surpassed all competition, where he 

says : 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 317 

His gifts are ample; yet he thinks them small, though the copious rains of autamu are 
shamed {by their abundance). Compared with the beneficence which he sheds around, 
(he swollen cloud would be called a vapour, and oceans, rivulets. 

He composed a most beautiful elegy ou the loss of his son, who died a hoy; 4»B 
and I am only prevented from giving it hei'e because people say that it brings 111 
luck; but as two of the verses, descriptive of envious men, contain an unusual 
(but elegant) idea; 1 shall insert them : 

I pity those who envy me, because hatred barns within dieir bosoms. They see God's 
kindness towards me, and thus their eyes are in paradise whilst their hearts are in hell. 

In the same piece he thus expresses his contempt for the world : 

It is composed of turbid elements, yet you hope to find it free from dregs and lees 1 He 
who requires of time what is contrary to its nature, is as the man who seeks in water for 
a brand of fire. He who expects what is impossible, builds his hopes on the brink of a 
tottering sand-bank. 

In this piece also he says : 

I reside in the vicinity of foes, but he [Khom I have toil) sojourns near his lord ; how 
different that neighbourhood from mine 1 The parching heat which consumes my heart 
has changed my hair to grey, and this light colour is the flame of that inward fire. 

The idea expressed in the last verse is taken from a piece by Abii Nasr Said 
Ibn as-Shah, where he says : 

" Thy cheeks," said she, " are darkened with hair, and that spoils the iairest faces." 
I repli^ : " Thon hast kindled a fire in my heart, and the smoke has settled on my 
" cheeks." 

The following verses belong to one of his long ktutdas : 

How often have I warned yon against the land of Hijftc, for its gazelles {maidem) arp 
accustomed to make its lions [heroei] their prey. You wished to pursue the hinds (3) of 
HijAz ; but, unbvoored by fate, 'twas you who became their prey. 

One of his best-known pieces is this: 

In the company of noble-oiinded men there is always room for another ; friendship, it 
is true, renders difficulties easy. A house may be too small for eight persons, yet friend- 
ship will make it hold a ninth. 



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318 IBN KMALUKAN'S 

A fine ^ei'se from one of his kattdas is the following : 

If Time, who is the fother of mortals, treats you ill, reproach not then his children 
when they do the same. 

" At-Tihami arrived secretly in Egypl with a great number of letters which 
" he was bearing to the Banii Kurra from Hassan Ibn Mufarrij (4) Ibn Daghfal 
" al-Badawi (5); and being arrested, he represented himself as a member of the 
" tribe of Tamim. On a closer examination, he was discovered to be at-Tihami 
" the poet, and they cast him into the prison of Cairo called Khazdna tal-BunM. 
" This occurred on the 25th of the latter Rabi, A. H. 416 (June, A. D. 1025). 
" On the 9th of the first Jumada in the same year, he was put to death secretly, 
" in the place where he was confined. He was of a tawny complexion." I 
extracted the foregoing passage from an historical work by a native of Egypt, in 
which he gives an account, day by day, of the events which passed in that coun- 
try. I have seen only one volume of it, and do not know how many it oon- 
9 sisted of. — Some time after al-Tihami's death, he was seen in a dream (6) by 
one of his friends, who asked him how God had treated him? to which he 
replied: "He has pardoned me." — "For which of your deeds?" said the friend. 
— " For having said in an elegy on the death of a little boy of mine : 

' 1 reside in the vicinity of foes, but he sojourns near his Lord ; how different that 
' neighbonriiood from mine I' " 

— Tikdmi is the relative adjective derived from Tihdma, a name given lo Mekka. 
It is for this reason that the blessed Prophet was surnamed at-Tibdmi. The same 
name is also given to the mountains and other regions which form the exten- 
sive province between Hijaz and the frontiers of Yemen. I do not know whetlier 
il was from the city or from the province that the poet took his surname. 



(1) See vol. I. pige 460. 

(3) The nower at the aatherait being while, Arabic poets compare ladies' teelh lo il. 

(3) For Aa-j ^ read \^ •Xf^. 

(4) I follow the orlhograph; of Ihe autograph. 

(S] The Arabic tribe of the Band Korra iDhabited the proTioce of Barka and took up ariDi for Xht Hak«a 
the Omaijide, wtien be altempied to eipel the Falimiles from Eg;pi. See in account of this reroli In M. di- 
Sacy's Expoti de ('Ai»(oire rfe» Drutet. lom, I. p. cccivii el teq. II was iheir former hoiiilitj' lo al-HAkim 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 310 

which D0« induced Hauln Ibn Huhrrij, the chief of the tribe of Tai, to court iheir •lliance against thai 
khalif'i lOD, ai-Ubir; ai^Tihtmi wai the lecrel agent in Ihia affair, which lolall; failed. Hiuln bad already 
rerolted against al-Htkiro »ome jean before. See Druitt. p.cecl- 
(61 SecTOl.I. p.M, noIe(7i. 



IBN NUBAKHT THE POET. 

Abu 'l-Hasan Aii Ibn Abmad Ibn Nubakht, a good poel, but unkindly used 
by fortune, led a life of uninLerrupted misery and privation, and died at Misr in 
the month of Sbaaban, A.H. 'f1 6 (October, A.D. 1025). He was interred at Ihi* 
expense of the kdiib and poet Wali ad-Dawlat Abu Muhammad Ahmad Ibn Ali, 
sumamed Ibn Khairan, who was recorder of the diplomas and commissions issued 
by az-Zahir Ibn al-Hakim, sovereign of Egypt. He also left a small volume oC 
poetry, in which are found these well-known lines : 

Vou listen to slanderers traducing me, and you hold me in such slight esteem that you 
contradict not their false reports. Bnl were thy image to visit me In the sweetest of 
dreams and slander thee, I should even renounce sleep ! 

I mention Ibn Khairan here, without allotting him a separate article, because 
the date of his death is unknown to me, and in this work 1 confuied uiy notice 
to persons the lime of whose decease is ascertained. — ! have since discovered an 
account of his life, with some extracts from his poetry, in the TabaMt m-Shuar(} 
of the vizir Abu Saad Amid ad-Dawlat (I) : '* He was a handsome young man," 
says this writer, " and intelligence of his death was brought to us in the month 
** of Ramadan, A. H. 431 (May-June, A, D. 1040)." I became acquainted with 
this passage when at Cairo, towards the end of the year 674 (A.D. 1276 . 

(1) See Dole (3). page 311 of Ibit volume. 



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IBN KHALLIKANS 



SARI AD-DILA. 



Ahu 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Abd al-Wahid, a jurisconsult of Baghdad and a poet of 
considerable reputation, was generally known by the appellations of Sari ad-Dila 
(Ike slain by blandiihmenls), Katil al-Ghawaslii (the victim of sudden misfortuneg}, 
and Zu 'I'-Hakaatain (the afflicted with double madnm) (1). Ar-Rashid Abu '1- 
Husain Ahmad Ibn az-Zubair, the same whose life has been given (vol. I. pA 'i3), 
names bim in the Kildb al-Jindn, and then says : *' In poetry he trod (be same 
" path as Abu 'r-Rakamak (vol. I. p. 1 16), and a humorous kaatda was com- 
" posed by bim, the concluding verse of which is such tliat, if he had never 
" made another on the same subject, it would have sufficed to place bim in tht; 
^' bighest^ degree of eminence and obtain for bim the palm of victory. It is tbc 
" following; 

' He who has missed acquiring either knowledge or riches is on a level with the dogs.' 

itOO " He came to i^ypt, A. H. 412 (A. D. 1021-2), and celebrated the praises of 
*' (the khalif) az-Zabir )i-Izaz din lUah." I read, in a copy of his collected 
poetical works, that his (Sart adrDild's) names were Abu 'l-Hasan Muhammad Ibn 
Abd al-Wahid al-Kassar al-Basri (the fuller of Basra); God best knows which of 
us is right! This poet died suddenly, A.H. 412 (A.D. 1021-2), of an obstruction 
of the windpipe, which took him at the house of the Sharif al-Bat'hai (2). 1 am 
inclined to think that this occurred at Misr (Old Cairo}, for I took the date of his 
death from the diary of which 1 have spoken in the life of al-Tibami (seep. 318). 
My opinion is confirmed also by Ibn az-Zubair's statement that he came to E^pl 
in that very year. It was of him that Abu 'I-Alii says in one of his poems : 

Thou wast called Sdri [the vanqvhher), but this word underwent the intensiUve permu- 
tation and assumed the form of fail [3). 

In the piece from which this line is taken, Abu 'l-Ala excuses himself for not 
furnishing Sari ad-Dila with wine and other requisites for a social party, but 
informs bim that he has sent him a small sum to defray the expenses. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 321 

(1) Theie vere probably admired eipntitons wfaidi Bnt occurred In fab venct and were then applied to 
him b; the public u rarnamei. For a timilar reaaon the poet Mnilim Ibu al-Waltd wu lumiiDed the wm- 
tpitthtd by the fair. See Tol.l. of thit work, p. SB, note (3]. 

(2) ll muit be remarked here that Ibn KhaUifcln ii mlsuken in nippoiing thU lene to hare been addreued 
lo the poel Sari adh-DilA, for it tppeari Grom the teit of Abd '1-JJi'i poem, and from the commentary, that 
ihe person to whom he wrote )>on the inmame of Sari al-Bain. ks for the vene itself, it cootalni an allu- 
liOD which can be best understood by persona acqaalnled with the oatiTe system of Arabic grammar. The 
metning is eqnitalent to tbis; "Tou were called the vanguUher ^c- .Ue idri) because your amnsing con- 
" rertation Tauiuidied the pains of abienee (^t^Jt albtUn) felt by diMonsolate loTen. But that name 
" astomed the iotensitive form, characterised, in gratnmar, by the type'/Mf ( J.^], "id ft thus became sort 
" 'p^y^ *l** fff*"* vanquisher}." It must be observed that tari signifies both vanquUher and vanquUhed : 
Abfi '1- All lakes it here in the farmer meaning, but the commentary on his works informs us that it was a mere 
licence OD his part.since the name Sari ot-fafn, when applied to this particular indiTidual.nMani vanquUhed 
by [the paint of) abitnet. 



SURR-DURR. 



The rdii and Mtib (1 ) Abu Mansur AH Ibn at-Hasan Ibn Ali Ibn al-Fadl, gene- 
rally known by surname of Suir^Durr, was one of the most eminent poets of 
his time. He combined in bis compositions excellence of expression with beauty 
of thought, and his verses hear the stamp of grace and brilliancy. His collected 
poetical works form a small volume, and how exquisitely has he said in one of 
these Jbuidof : 

We aak how are the ferns of Najd (2) , but the willow of the sands [3] knows best what 
we mean. The mask is now thrown off, and we care no longer whether we name thee 
openly or designate thee by a surname ((►). Nay, were 1 to exclaim : Snlaima 1 people 
would tell me that I only mean Lnbaina. How dear to me is thy image, visiting my 
dreams and pouring forth illusions and false happiness from the cup of sleep. Through- 
out the night my eyelids were iu steed ; why then should it complain to thee of fatigue 
and pain (5). Thus.by night we seemed never lo have parted, and by day never to have 
met. 

In describing his grey hairs he says : 

I weep not the departure of my youth, but I weep because my appointed time draws 
near. Hair are the leaves of the human tree, and when they wither, the branches arc 
soon dried up. 

VOL. II. '^1 



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3S9 DN KHALUKAN'S 

Speaking of a dark-complexioned girl, he has the following pretty thought : 

1 loved her for her darkness and smoothness ; the dark spot of my heart (6) was an 
image of her coloar. It was only lo resemble her that the full moon ever consented to 
suffer an eclipse. It is in honour of her that the epochs of time are dated by nights (7). 

His father's avarice procured him the nickname of Surr-Baar (bag of dung), 
but the son, having unexpectedly displayed a superior talent for poetry, re- 
ceived the surname of Surr-Durr (bag of pearls). A poet of that age, and whose 
life vie shall give, Abd Jaafar Masitd al-BayAd^ attacked him in these lines : 

I For his avarice your lather was named Bag of Dung ; but yon ungratehlly scatter 

abroad what he treasured up, and call it poetry. 

I must say, however, that this satirist is unjust, for Surr-Durr's poetry is 
charming; hut an enemy cares not what he says. Surr-Durr lost his life acci- 
dentally A. H. A65 (A. D. 1072-3) ; a pitfall for taking lions had been dug at a 
village on the road to Khorasan, and into this he fell. He was bom somewhat 
earlier than the year 400 (A. D. 1 009). We shall speak of him again in the life 
of the vizir Fakhr ad-Dawlat Muhammad Ibn Jahlr. 



(1) From the title* of rdit and kdtib I should infer that Surr-Durr held a high place in the civif servire. 

(3) The province of Najd 1b the Arcadia of the Arabic poela. Ab the nomadic Arabs employed a apecies a[ 
fern In cfiveiiag their hnia and cloainf the chinks, (he word it often used by the poets lo designate the dwell- 
ings of a ftiendlj tribe and also those who reside in them. 

(3) The tcUlow of tKe tandi; a ilender-waisted Arab maiden liTing with her tribe in the deiert. 

(4) LoTers made it a point of discretion not lo tell who iheir mistress wm. 

(B) " Cetle image iUil eentie venir de la pan de la mallresae ponr avoir des aouvelles de I'aoiant." Notice 
on the Taif at-Khi&l, inserted bj me io the lowmal Afiatiqvie for April, 1838. 

(6) The Hotlinu wppoie that there is a black spot or luiin In ilw centre of the heart,— tb« sign, it seems, 
of original tin. 

(7) In Arabk dates it is not the daj, but the nigbt of the month which is assigned. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



AL-BAKHARZI. 



Abd '1-Hasan AU Ibn al-Hasan IbD Ali Ibo Abi 't-Taiyib al-B^tharzi, an illus- 
trious poet, was tbe pearl of bis age for talent and genius, and bore away the 
palm in prose and verse. When a young man, be studied tbe Shafite system of 
jurisprudence, and attended with assiduity tbe lectures of Abu Muhammad al- 
Juwaini, the father of the Imam al-4Iaramain ; he next cultivated the art of 
penmanship, and obtained occasional employment in the office of tbe secretary 
of state. He passed bis hfe in an alternation of riches and poverty, and expe- 
rienced surprising vicissitudes of fortune in bis travels and sojoumings. His 
taste for literature having prevailed over bis inclination for the law, be 
gained tbe reputation of an elegant scholar, and devoted bis time to the double 
task of learning Traditions respecting the Prophet and of composing verses. He 
drew up a continuation to atb-Thaalibi's Yattma tad-Dahr, and entitled it Dttmyat 
tat-Katr wa Otra tahi il-Agr (statue of the palace, and the essence eatracted from our 
contemporaries). This work, which includes a great number (of poets), received 
a supplement, entitled Wishdh ad-Dumya (girdle of the statue), from the pen of 
Abu 'l-Hasan Ah Ibn Zaid al-Baibaki: it is thus that as-Samani gives tbe au- 
thor's name in his treatise, tbe Zail, or Supplement (1), but Imad ad-din, in bis 
Khartda, calls bim Sharaf ad-din Abu 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn al-Hasan al-Baibaki. 
The latter writer gives also some extracts from his ptoems (2). The diwdn, or 
collection of al-Bakbarzi's poetical works, forms a lai^e volume, and tbe majority 
of the pieces is very good. An original idea of his is tbe following : 

I coaplaia of the wounds {ii^icted cm my ktart] by those cheeks which are eocircled by 
scorpions [ringlet*) (3). I, who have a father liviug, weep for the pearls of thy mouth ; 
how then can it, which is an orphan [an exqaUite object] , be always smiting T 

Describing an intense frost, be says: 

How many have been the true believers who, lorn by the claws of winter, envied the 
inhabitants of hell I Behold the water-fowl in their nestling-places, ready to prefer the 
beat of the fire and the spit I If you throw up into tbe air the drops wlrich remain in 
your wine-cup, they will return to you hardened into beads of cornelian. you that 
possess the two woods (i} I neglect them not, but let music strike up from one and flame 
from the other (5). 



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324 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

Ooe of his pieces contains the following passage : 

O Thou who hast disclosed the brightness of morning from the pearly teeth [of my be- 

S Umed), and caused the night to dwell in her ringlets! Thou hast made me the slave of 

an idol formed by thyself; by it thou hast tempted me, and long hast thou excited my 

sadness I No wonder that the fire of passion consumeth my heart ; (A«II-)fire is the meet 

desert of him who serveth idols. 

Al-Bakharzi was murdered at B^harz, whilst engaged in a party of pleasure ; 
this occurred in the month of ZA 'l-Kaada,A.H. 467 (June-July, A.D. 1075), and 
the crime remained unpunished. — Bdhharz is the name of a tract of country near 
Nais^pur, including a number of villages and grounds under cultivation ; it has 
produced many eminent men. 



<1) 3«evol. II. page in. 

(S) IbD KhalliktD quotes here two versei ■■ a ipecimen. They both floub with the ume word lo which a 
dilTereDi meaoiDB u given in each caw, but their proranitj and indecence repel tranilation. 

(3) See Tol.I. Introdnclion, page luvl. 

(4) Bj the (wo uDod) be nieaiii firewood and a lute, which in AraMc is called the »ood (ol-fld) ; whence the 
European name. 

(5) Literally; Strike a wood and burn a wood {harrik Man wa harriB Man). 



IBN AFLAH THE POET. 



Abii 'l-Kasim AH Ibn Aflah al-Absi, surnamed Jamal at-Mulk (tiie beauty of the 
Hngdom), was a poet of considerable reputation, fully justified by the elegance of 
his genius, the beauty of his eulogiums, and the number of his satires. He cele- 
brated the piaises not only of the khalifs, but of the persons holding a subordi- 
nate rank; and having travelled to the different provinces of the empire, he 
visited the princes and the men in high station (obtaining solid tokens of their $atii- 
faction in return for his panegyrics). I have seen the diwSn, or collection, of his 
poetical works ; it is a middle-sized volume, drawn up by himself and accom- 
panied by an introduction and a postscript of his own composition. He there 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 3S5 

mentions the precise number which it contains of verses having the same rhyme, 
and the whole is digested with much care fuid attention. I extracted from it the 
following lines in which he addresses his beloved : 

tbou who knowest not the force of that love which torments me — who conceivest not 
my fraitless pains and sttfFerings I Thou showest eqaal indiRerence towards the lover 
captivated by thy charms (1), and him whose heart is free from thy power and without a 
wound. Had I known that thy character was such, I had not rejected my friend's ad- 
vice when he warned me against thee. It was never my intention to forget thee, till 
forced thereto by the excess of thy cruelty. 

On a girl who was far from being handsome : 

It was not because I disliked the handsome and preferred the ugly that I loved her with 
a passion so fantastic ; but I was too jealous to love a foir one, seeing (hat all men love 
the fair. 

tbn al-Motazz (vol. II. p. 41 ) has the following lines on a similar subject : 

Hy heart leans from this one to that one, and sees nothing to dislike; it is passionate 
for beauty, as it should be ; but it pities her bereft of charms, and loves her (2). 

On a ^I who was lame, by Ibn Aflah : 

How dearly I cherish her whom I perceive there wavering in her gait t what stiffness, 
yetvhat freedom in her movements (3)1 Her beauty raises envy, and they say she halts ; 
but handsome persons are always envied. She is a branch [of mltoa], and the beauty 
of a tender branch is in its bending. 

The following lines were addressed by him to a great man whose porter had 
refused him admittance : 

1 am grateful to your porter for refusing to admit me, and 1 leave to others whom 
he has repulsed the task of abusing him. For he has rendered me a service which 
merits my highest praise ; he saved me from a rude reception and from your inordinate it05 
pride. 

His compositions abound with striking passages. He died at Baghdad on 
Thur8day,thesecondof ShaabSn, A.H. 535(March,A.D. 1U1),aged sixty-four 
years, three months ,and fourteen days. Some place his death a year, or two years, 
later. He was interred on the west side (of the Tigrit), in the Koraish cemetery. — 



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396 1BN KHALLlKAN-8 

Aim (^_ff^) means b^ongmg to Abi; a number of tribes bear this name, and I 
know not to which of them Ibn Aflah belonged. This surname is sometimes 
confounded with that of Arm (,_5-**), derived from Ant, which is also the name 
of a tribe. 



(1) The autograph has ,iG instead uf Jj 

(3) Here the following puMge bta been inserted in the dui^d of the mtograph: "And 
" which is currently known is the following, from one of his poems: 

" On the day in vhich we parted at the tamarisks of Mint, onr separation was without o 

'^^ i^^y J^ (J* ij'^ '*—'■"' «?. '-^^ 

(3) Literally : And ftom her fleiibility she is untied and knotted. 



IBN MUS'HIR ALJtfAUSIU. 

Abu l-Hasan AU Ibn Abi 'l-Wafa Saad Ibn Abi '1-Hasan Ali Ibn Abd al-Wahid 
Ibn Abd al-Kahir Ibn Ahmad Ibn Mus'hir al-Mausili (native of Motul), sumamed 
Muhaddab ad-din, was an excellent poet and held a high rank, under govern- 
ment, having successively filled the greater part of the places connected with the 
administration of Mosul. He composed panegyrics on the khalifs, the princes, 
and the emirs. I met with the collection of his poetical works forming two vo- 
lumes, and in il he mentions that he was born at the town of Aamid. A fine 
passage from his poetry is the following, in which he describes a panther : 

WbeD the sun was styled al^Ghatdla {the gaxelU), he tn-ibed this panther vith a 
body (1) of the same coloar u his light ; and the roei of the deaert gave him ipota ftom 
the pupils of their eyes, to induce him to live in peace (2) with them and spare their 
lives. And yet, quiet as he is, they never appear in his sight without trembling. 

The idea of these verses is taken from a ka^da composed by the emir Abu 
Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Ahmad as-Sarraj as-Siiri, a contemporary poet. 
The passage to which we allude is the following : 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 397 

His clawB are roQgh, and he bears in bis moalh and paws the qualities of tfae swonl 
and the pliant spear. The night and the day rivalled in adorning him ; they arrayed 
him in a garment spotted irith eyes, and the son, since the time he vas named the gaielle. 
never appears in his sight without apprehension. 

The following verses were addressed by Ibn Mus'hir to a person of rank ; 

When you complain in anguish, all on earth complain, and the suffering is general 
from East to West; for you are a heart to the body of the epoch, and the body cannot 
be well when the heart is sick. 

The fcdlowing relation of a very singular coincidence is given by as-Samani un 
the authority of Ah& '1-Fath Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Abi '1-Ghanaim Muhammad 
Ibn Ahmad Ibn Ali Ibn Abd al-Ghaflar, generally known by the name of Ibn al- 
Ukhwat al-Baii, who was an accomplished scholar and a kd^. "I saw in a 
" dream," said Abft 'l-Fath, *' a person who recited these verses : 

* And stranger still than my patience (wider a^ictum) was to see the camel depart with 
' thy well-girthed litter, and able to support its burden ; and 1 bear enclosed within 
' my curbed ribs to ardent passion unabatiog, and an assumed patience completely 
' broken.' 

<* On awaking 1 made it my business to inquire respecting the author of these tt04 
" verses, but could 6nd no person capable of giving me that information ; it 
** happened, however, that some years afterwards, Abu 'l-Hasan Ibn Mus'hir 
'* stopped at my house as a guest, and one evening, our conversation fell on the 
" subject of dreams. I then related to him the dream which I had, and repeated 
" the verses : ' By Allah V exclaimed he, * these verses belong to a piece of my 
*< composition." He then proceeded to recite me this passage from one of his 
" haiidat: 

' When the tongue of tears declares the secret of love, the feelings enclosed within 

* the bosom are concealed no longer. On the evening she bade me farewell, ! knew 
' not, by Allah t whether the doves of the valley were cooing with sorrow or with joy. 

* I think of tbee and reproach the active camels for our separation ; 1 ask every wind 
' vbich blows to tell me how thou art, and I bear enclosed within my curbed ribs an 
' ardent passion nnabating, and an assumed patience completely broken.' 

*' We were much struck with the coincidence, and the rest of our night was 
" passed in literary discnsaicHis.''-^ ibn Mus'hir died towards the end of the 



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338 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

monthofSafar, A.H. 543 (July, A.D. H48). The feUifc Imid ad-dio, howewr, 

mentions in his ATwrWo that his death occurred in the year 546. 



(1) The auiogrtpb bu l.u< 
(3) RHd l^l—J. 



IBN A&SAATI. 



Abii 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Rustum Ibn HardAz, surnamed Baha ad-din (iplendour 
of religion), and generally known by the appellation of Ibn as-Sa&ti (1), was one 
of the leaders in the band of the modern poets. He left two diwdtUf or collections 
of his poems, one in two volumes, filled with pieces of the highest excellence, 
and the other forming a small volume and entitled MukaUaM an-Ntl (the erotting- 
pUum of the Nile). From the latter I extract the following passage : 

O the happy day and nigbt we passed at SuyAt t time, in its blind vicissitudes, will 
never again bring about the like. The night was id its youth, yet its head vas hoary in 
the moonlight ; the dew-drops were strung on the branches, like orient pearls, and fell 
to the gronnd when touched by the zephyr. The birds chanted; the lake was their 
book, the breeze wrote the lines, and the cloud-drops pointed the letters. 

The metaphor is here perfectly wrought out in every point. — I shall now give 
another extract from the same work : 

We landed at a meadow clothing the ru|;ged soil with herbage, and offering pasture 
to our eyes and to our souls. Reclining in the shade, I admired the beauties of the 
place, whilst the perfumes were borne around on the breath of the flowers, and my com- 
panion swore [2) (hat the (clear) sky was of amber, the [blooming) groves, of jewels, and 
the [imoolA] meadow, of silk. The {red) anemonies smiled, and the [akite] anthemis blos- 
som wished to kiss them, although the narcissus was looking on. That seemed a cheek, 
this a mouth (3) striving to press it, and there were the eyes (4) always watching them. 

The poetry of Ibn as-Saati ahounds with charming ideas, i learned from his 
son, at Cairo, that he died in that city on Thursday, the 23rd of Ramadan, A.H. 
604 (April, A. D, 1028), at the age of fifty-one years, six months, and twelve 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 329 

days, and that he was buried at the foot of Mount Mukattam. 1 have read a 
note on him, in the handwriting of some learned ibaikh, wherein the date of the 
death corresponds with that given here, but he says that he lived forty-eight 
years, seven months, and twelve days, and that he was born at Damascus. God S 
best knows which statement is true. — iSuj/fll is a town in Upper Egypt (Said ) ; 
some pronounce this name Viy&t. 



(1) Ibo as-SaIti BigDiBei ton of the cloekmaker. or (on of the dialitt. 
(8} Read ^_^^'.. 

(3) The Aower of the anthemis ii often compared to the Diouth, became il u «bi(e, ai the l«eth are. 

(4) Sm the obKnalions on the nareitwi, in vol. I. Introd. p. iixvL 



IBN AL-AAMIDI THE KADI. 

Abu 'l-Fadltil Ali Ihn Abi 'l-MuzafTar Y6suf Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn 
Obaid Allah Ihn al-Husain Ibn Ahmad Ibn Jaafar al-Alimidi was bom at Wasit 
of a family which came originally from Aamid and was noted, at the former 
place, for producing transmitters of traditional knowledge and men of piety and 
integrity. Having proceeded to Baghdad, he there devoted some time to the 
study of the Shafite system of jurisprudence under the tuition of the thaikh 
Abd Talib al-Mubarak Ibn al-Mubarak (1 ), the disciple of Ibn al-Khall (2\ and 
then under Abii '1-Kasim Yaish Ibn Sadaka al-Furati. He assisted the latter 
in the capacity of a mutd (repeater), and repeated, in his name, the lessons 
which he had received from him, to a class held in the Thikatiya college (3), al 
the Gate of al-Azaj. He displayed great elegance of language in the discussion 
of doubtful points, and he knew by heart a considerable quantity of Traditions 
which he had learned from the lips of numerous teachers at Baghdad and other 
cities. In the year 604, towards the end of the month of Safar (September, 
A. D. 1027), he was appointed to the place of kadi at WSsit; he arrived there 
in the following month, and was then entrusted with the additional duty of con- 
t rolling the administration of the cantons which form the dependencies of that 
VOL. II. hi 



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3S0 IBN KUALUKAN'S 

cily. He was a skilful arithmeliciaD and a good poet, having composed these 

charming verses, which are now so widely circulated : 

Admire that passionate lover I he recals to mind the well protected park (i) and sighs 
aloud; he hears the call of lore and stops bewildered. The nightingales awaken Ihe 
trouble of his heart, and his pains, now redoubled, drive all prudence from his mind (5). 
An ardent passion excites bis complaints ; sadness moves him to tears ; his old affections 
awake, but these were never dormant. His friends say that his fortitude has foiled ; but 
Ihe very mountain of Yalamlam [6] would groan, or sink oppressed, under such a weight 
of love. Think not that compulsion will lead him to forget her ; willingly he accepted 
the burden of love ; how then could he cast it off against his will? — OOtba, faultless 
in thy charms I be indulgent, be kind, fbr thy lover's sickness has reached its height. 
By thee the willow of the hill was taught to wave its branches with grace, when thy 
form, robed in beauty, first appeared before it. Thou hast lent thy tender glances to 
the gazelles of the desert, and therefore the fairest object to be seen is the eye of the 
antelope. Sick with the pains of love, bereft of sleep and confounded, I should never 
have outlived my nights, unless revived by the appearance of thy fovour, deceitful as it 
was (7). These four shall witness the sincerity of my attachment : tears, melancholy, a 
mind deranged, and care, my constant visitor; could Vazbul feel this last, it would 
become like as-Suha (8). Some reproach me for loving thee, but I am not to be re- 
claimed ; others bid me forbear, but I heed them not. They tell thee that I desire thee 
for thy beauty; how very strange 1 and where is the beauty which is not an object of 
desire? For thee 1 am the most loving of lovers; none, I know, are like me (tn (tn- 
emty) or like thee in beauty. 

He has left other poems equally remarkable for tenderness of sentiment, i 
have given the foregoing verses as his, because I found them attributed to him ; 
806 but am unable to verify the fact. I have discovered, however, in my rough notes, 
that a person called Ibn at-Aamidi the poet died A.H. 551 (A.D. 1156-7), and that 
he was a contemporary of al-Ghazzi (vol. I. p. 38) and al-Arrajani (vol. I. p. i 34;, 
but 1 am unable to determine his real name and patronymic so as to identify him. 
The author whom I copied merely says that he was a native of an-Nil, the village 
in Irak so called, and that he died, aged upwards of ninety years. It is therefore 
possible that he may be the author of the piece inserted above, but it is equally 
possible that it may have been composed by him whose life is here given ; I am 
inclined, however, to adopt the former opinion, because Abu 'l-Fadail Ibn al-Aa- 
midi, the kadi of Wasit was a jurisconsult, and the other is designated as a poet. — 
Abi 'l-Fadail was bom at Wasit, on the 25thof Zu 'l-Hijja, A.H. 559 (November, 
A.D. 11 64), and he died in the same city on the eve of Monday, the 3rd of the 
1st Rabi, A. H. 608 (August, A. D. 1211). The funeral prayer was said over 
him the next morning, and he was interred outside the city, near the graves of 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONABY. 331 

his rather and family. — We have already stated (vol. 11. p. 237) that Admdi 
means b^onging to Admid. 



(1) AbflTlIil) al-Mubaiik rbn al-HubliTak al-Karkhl (a naUve of Earkh) laftatTatty known as theDitcipte 
of tbn al-Ehall, under whose tuition he had itndied the doctiinei of the Shaflte seti. He wrote so well ibai 
fpedet of character which ia called al-Khatt al-M<mx&b, and of vhieh mentioa U made in ihe life of Ibii 
al-BavwIb, that he wai contidered to be a better penman than that celebrated kAtib. It wat particularly in 
the two wrta of hand called TtmAr j'-*^ and Thvlvth ^.^^ that he fbllj displayed hli Ulenu ; bat be 
wai M> jealoui of his skill that, in giving fahuai U> persona who asked them with the hopes of thus oblaining 
ipeciffleni of hii writing, he broke the point of the peo before using it. In A. H. HSl (A. D. llBtMl), he suc- 
ceeded AbO '1-Khair al-KuwInl as professor al the f/iiAmiya college, and iDstrucled nuniNous pupils id JDris- 
pmdeDce. It is said thai when be commeDced hu career, be used to pliy on the luie, and considered such an 
amuMnwnt as blameless, but he afterwards renounced It, on perceiving that he had become proverbially known 
as a good luie-plajer. He then cultivated the art of penmanship till he surpassed Ibn al-Bawwlb, but bav' 
ing concaved a dislike for such an occupation, he deroted the rest of his days la study. He died in the month 
of Za '1-Kaada, A H 589 (December, A.D. 1189), aged eighty-two years.— (rafiokdtas-SAd/lytn.) 

I shall now otter some observations suggested by the words al-Khatt al-ManiAb which occur in this notice. 
That no nncerlainty may remain on the point of their t>eing here used to designate ■ particular spedes of 
written character, I shall reproduce the original leit: 

" And he wrote the mansflb writing till it was said of him that he surpassed Ibn al-BiwwAb in that art." 
In Ibn Khallikln's life of Ibn al-Bawwtb {vol.11. p.Wi\ we read these tinea: 

"Audit Is said that the author [or inventor) of the nwinsAb writing was not Ute Abtl Ali ahove-iDenlioned." 
Ad-Dababi says In his rdrUA at-lsldffl, MS. No. eW, fbHol41 carw; In his article on Ibn Hukia: 

" Abtt Ali Hnbammad Ibn Ali Ibn al-Qasaa Ibn HukIa tbe vlilr, dte autbor of the mant&b writing." 

In Abb 'l-Hablnn's JVujAm, year 423, we Bnd Ibn al-Bawwtb styled "the author of the excellent moMOb 

" writing" ^^'.ftJt 1 ■jm.^aM Ju^l <._..saiL.B, He then adds : " He surpassed all his contemporaries in 

" the mantAb writing, so that bis renown spread east and west." He employs again the Mme term when 
speaking of Ibn Mukla. 

It appears tnm theie passages that there eiialed a particular species of writing called, for what reason 1 can- 
not discover, al-MantHb. Ibn Khallikln and other hislwians say that Ibn al-Bawwlb drew it from the style 
of writing used h; the people of KOfa, and the perfection to which he brought it is universally attested by them. 
But there is nothing in Ibn Khallikln's statement which can lead ni to suppose that this improved character is 
the same as that which is now called ne$khi and generally employed in Arabic manascripis. He says, it b 
true, that it is AbO 'l-Hasan Ibn al-Bawwth's systent which is still folloved, at as the original teit bas it, it 
it on hU loom thty weave, i. e. theg take him for a nwdtl. But it cannot be logically concluded from these 
words that the tuikhi did not eiiit before his time, or that later penmen look him for their model when wrii- 
ing in the netkht okaraettr; neither can it be deduced therefVom thai the learned Moslims suppose the KOfie 



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332 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

u> have been in general uge till the lime of Ibn Hukla. Hajji KluUh ujs poiitiTal} in Ui Bibliographical 
Diclioniry, artieU Ls^l Jc, tbst, under the Omaijidei, (he different ttj\et of writing, or pens j^I, <iit 
they are called, bad been already brought into eiiitence. The psiMge will be found in ibe tbird volume of 
(he edition of that work pablisbed by profeaior FlOgel. 

I have iniieted particularly on tbew points, because tbe Arabic scholars of Europe generally concluded from 
Ibn Rhallikin's words that Ibn Hukla invented the ne*khi, and, ibal before bit time (be died A. B. 338i, Uie 
KOfic was the sole character employed. Tbis opinion was completely overturned by the discovery whicb H. de 
Secy made of some passports, in Arabic, drawn up in the second century of the Hijra, and of a letter dated 
A.U. 40; all written in what is called the n«jUi band. The consequence was, that the authoriiy of Ibn Khal- 
liktn and all other Arabic writers who speak of Ibn Mukla's improvement appeared lo have iust«ined a severe 
shock; whereas a more attentive eiamination of their words would have completely justified their stAlement. 
—I think il necessary lo add that oriental scholars have generalty given too great an eitension lo the signification 
of the word n«sfcA<. With them, the characters called Thuluth, Rihdn, Rilula, etc. are all netkhi; but 
Ibis is an error : the n«sJIA< being itself a particular character (particular in iis dimension, not in its form] ; 
and yet, on this very error, they have founded tbeir reasonings wben endeavouring to trace tbe varialionii 
which the Arabic written character has undergone, 

(3) The life of Ibn al-Khall is given by Ibn Khalliktn , 

(3) Tbis college was founded by Thikatad-Dawlatal-Aubiri. See vol.1, p. 629. 

(4) See vol. 1. page 123, note (13). ^ 

(5) In this verse we must read ^i£) in Ibe first form. 

(ff) Tbe MarOHd places Yalamlam st a two or three days' journey ftom Tlif. 

(7) The word J'^J signifies prtttimp Hon, Aauteur, and coquetry. Il bears here the last meaning. 

(8) Yaibul il the name of a mountain in Najd, and at-Suha ibal of a very small star in the Greater Bear. 



!MAD AD-DAWLAT IBN BUWAIH. 

[mdd ad-Dawlat (the column of tbe sUUe) Abu 'l-Hasaii AH Ibn Buwaih Ibn 
Fannakhosnl ad-Dailami was sovereign of Persia. The remainder of his genea> 
logy has been already given (1). This was the first of the Buwaih family who 
came to the throne. His father was a fisherman, and had no other means of 
support ; he had two brothers, both younger than himself, Rukn ad-Dawlat al- 
Hasan, father to Adud (2) ad-Dawlat, and Moizz ad-Dawlat. All of ihem reigned, 
but Imad ad-Dawlat was the author of their fortune and their wide renown. 
Persian and Arabian Irak, al-Ahwaz and the province of Fars acknowledged 
their authority, and their administration was sucecsafully devoted to the welfare 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 333 

of their subjects. Alter them, Adud ad-Dawlat, the son of Rukn ad-Dawlat, 
exercised the supreme power, and, uader him, the bounds of the empire 
formed by his predecessors received a wide extension. Were I not apprehen- 
sive of lengthening this article too much, 1 should relate how Imad ad>Dawlat 
obtained the throne, and trace his history from the commencement (3). Abu 
Muhammad Harun Ibn al-Abbas al-Mamitni (4) says in his History : ** Amongst 
^ the strange events which happened to Imad ad-Dawlat and contributed to the 
establishment of his authority was the following : When he took Shiran, in 
the beginning of his reign, his followers assembled and required money from 
' him, but he had not the means of satisfying tlieir demands. Overcome with 
' anxiety at the prospect of the speedy ruin with which his entcrprizes were 
threatened, he remained alone in the council-chamber, that he might reflect 

* upon his situation and devise some remedy for the danger. Having thrown 
' himself on his back, he continued to ruminate over his misfortune, when he 
' perceived a serpent come forth from a hole in the ceiling and creep into 

another. Fearing that it might drop down on him, he called in the tent- 

* pitchers and told them to bring a ladder and catch the reptile, (hi climbing 
up to look for the serpent, they discovered a room between the ceiling and the 
roof, and informed him of the circumstance. He ordered them to open it, 

' and within was found a number of chests filled with money and merchandise 

' to the amount of five hundred thousand dinars. Elated at the sight of the 

' money which had now been brought down to him, be distributed it (o his 

soldiers and thus retrieved bis affairs, which were on the brink of ruin. He 

then caused a dress to be cut out for his own use, and having inquired for a 

skilful tailor to make it up, they told him of a person who had served the 

' former governor of the town in that capacity. In pursuance of his orders, 

' this man was brought to him; and the fellow, happening to be deaf, imagined 

' that secret information had been lodged against him for retaining in his pos- 

' session some property which his former master had confided to his care. 

< Impressed with this beUef, he swore, when spoken to by the prince, that he 

* had only twelve chests in his house, and did not know what they contained. 

' Surprised at such an answer, Irakd ad-Dawlat sent for the chests, which S07 
' were discovered to be filled with money and dresses to an immense amount. 

* These occurrences were most striking proofs of the good fortune which 



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33b IBN KHALURAN'S 

*< attended him, and from that moment his success was assured, and the fouo- 
" datious of his power solidly grounded." He died at Shiraz on Sunday, the 
16thof thefirstJumida, A.H. 338(Nov. A. D. 949); some say A. H. 339(5}. 
He was buried at the seat of the empire. His reign lasted sixteen years, and his 
life fifty-seven. He left no issue. In his last illness, he received the vish of his 
brother Rukn ad-Dawlat, and in consequence of the agreement wliictv they then 
made, the province of Fars was given to Adud ad-Dawlat (6). 



(1) See Tol. I. page IStt, and the additioDBl note, pa^e tt73. 

(3) Here the autograph writes this word X^sb, Hitherto, in Ihii Iranilation, il bat been traDacribed Adad. 
Ibn EhalliUn firea a notice on Rukn ad-Sawlat; fee vol.1, p. 407. 

(3) What follows here waa added bj the author at a laler period, la the •ntograph it it vriuen Id the 

(4) Aba Hnbammad Harftn Ibn al-Abbii, Humamed al-HlmltDi became he drew hi* descent troni ihe 
khalit al-HtroOn, waa ■ native of Baghdad, and died A. H. S73 (A. D. 11T7.8|. Be h the author of a hiatorj 
of Uie ruleri of Ehorlatn, a work often cited by Ibn KhalUUn; and a eommeBttrr ea al-Harlrl'c JfaMatdt. 
— (Ai-Tin. Aba 't-lUhlsin, in hia iVti;<lm.) 

(5) Here the autograph liaa the following additional note: "And it ia said that be comrnvnced hii reign in 
" the latter lumAda, A. H. 33a [Maf-Iune. A.D. 9S4)." 

(6) Fuller information on the Bdidef will be obtained from the woA entitled S—ekiehU dtr DyiMiIf* 
Sujah naek MireAonil; Ton F. Wilken, Berlin, 183D, 4to ; in Pertian and German. 



SAIF AD-DAWLAT IBN HAMDAN. 

Abu 'l-Hasan Ali, surnamed Saif ad-Dawlat (ihe sword of the empire), was the 
son of Ahd Allah Ibn Hamdan. The remainder of hjs genealogy having been 
already given in the life of his brother Nasir ad-Dawlat (tjol. /. p. 404), it is 
needless to repeat it. Ath-Thaalibi describes him thus in his YcUtma: "The 
*' sons of Hamdan were princes whose faces were formed for beauty; whose 
" tongues, for eloquence; whose hands, for Hherality; and whose minds, for pre- 
*' eminence; Saif ad-Dawlat was renowned as their chief and the middle pearl 
" of their necklace (1). His court waa the attraction of visitors, the point where 
" (the tun of) beneficence rose, the kihla to which the hopes (of the needy) were 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 335 

" turned, the spot where the caravans discharged their loads {of travellen), the 
" place of concourse for literary men, and the list where poets contended. It is 
" said that never at thedoor of any other prince, except the khalifs, were assem- 
" bled so many masters in the poetic art, stars of the age. But sovereignty is 
" the mart to wjiich such wares are brought as can be best disposed of there. 
" Saif ad-Dawlat was an accomplished scholar, a poet, and a lover of good 
*' poetry, in which he took the greatest delight. A collection of ten thousand 
" verses, selected from the panegyrics composed on him, was formed by the 
" MlQ) AbA Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad al-Faiyad (2) and by Abii '1- 
'* Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad as-Shimshati." The following admirable descrip- 
tion of the rainbow is due to Saif ad-Dawlat ; some, it is true, attribute it to 
Abti 's-Sakr al-Kabisi, but ath-Thaalibi declares it, in the yaiima, to be the 
production of this prince : 

1 called the handsome cnpbearer to ponr me oat the morning draught, and he arose 
with slumber on his eyelids. He passed round the wine-cups {wixieh >Aone) like stars, 
Sonne desdending towards us, and others just drained off (3). The hands of the southern 
breeze spread dark mantles over Uic sky, their trains sweeping the ground (&), and em- 
broidered by the rainbow with yellow upon red, joined to green overlaid with white; 
like maidens who approach, arrayed in gowns of different colours, and each of which is 
shorter than the next. 

This piece offers one of those princely comparisons which could hardly occur 
to a plebeian. The idea expressed in the last verse was afterwards borrowed by 
AbiJ Ali al-Faraj Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Ukhwat, a preceptor and a native of 
Baghdad, who thus describes a black horse having the forehead and legs 
white : 

He is arrayed in light and darkness, as in two mantles ; one he has let down, and the 
oUier he wears tucked np. 

This verse is attributed by some to Abd as-Samad Ibn al-Muaddal (Ti \ — Saif 
ad-Dawlat possessed a most beautiful slave-girl, the daughter of a Greek prince ; 
and the jealousy of his other concubines was excited by the favour which she 808 
enjoyed and the place which she held in his heart. They thei-efore resolved to 
avenge themselves on her by poison or other means. The prince was informed 
of their intentions, and being apprehensive for her safety, be removed her to a 
castle where she might be secure from danf^r, and pronounced these lines : 



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336 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

JeaUnu eyes observed me on acconnt of thee; I trembled and have never since been 
free from apprehension. 1 saw the enemy betray the excess of envy; dearest of all 1 
possess (6) I I therefore wished thee for away, our mutual love still subsisting. Thus 
absence is sometimes caused through fear of absence, and separation through dread of 
separation. 

I have seen these identical verses in the collected poetical works of Abd al- 
Muhsin as-Sdri (vol. II. p. 176), and am unable to decide which of the two was 
the author of them. Saif ad-Dawlat says in another of his pieces : 

I kissed her in trembling, like the timorous bird taking a hurried drink. It saw water 
and desired it, but it feared die consequences of desire. It seized the moment and 
drew near, but found no pleasure in the draught. 

It is related that, one day, being in company with his hnon companions, and 
his own nephew Abu Faras (vol. I. p. 366) among the number, he challenged 
them to compose a second couplet to a verse which he was about to recite them, 
hut observed that the only person capable of doing it was Au lordlhip, meaning 
Ahii Faras. He then pronounced the following lines : 

Vou are mistress of my body and hast caused it to languish ; but how can yon lawfiilly 
shed my blood 7 

Here AhA Faras recited extempore : 

She replied: "If sovereign power be mine, my authority extends over every thing." 

Saif ad-Dawlat was so highly pleased with the impromptu, that he bestowed 
on the author a landed estate in the province of Manbaj, producing a yearly 
income of two thousand pieces of gold. Another of Saif ad-Dawlat's pieces is 
the following ; 

She accused me wrongfully, for the crime was hers; she blamed me unjustly, bat on 
her side lay (he feult. When a master is weary of the slave who serves him, he finds 
him in fiiult where no fault existed. She turned from me disdainfully when mistress of 
my heart ; why was she not cruel whilst my heart was still my own T 

The following distich, reproducing the idea expressed in this last line, was 
recited to me by Ibrahim Aidmor, the itl/t dervish : 

In the valley (icWe loveri meet] they plighted ns their foith,and yet, without crime or 
fault of ours, they broke their vows. They shunned me and reproached me, though I 
loved them ; why did they not spurn me when my heart was still my own 7 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 337 

It is related that Saif ad-Dawlat was one day giving audience in the city of 
Aleppo, and poets were reciting verses in his praise, when an Arab of the 
desei-t, in squalid attire, stepped forward and repeated these lines : 

Thou art the exalted, for this is Aleppo I my means are spent, bat I have reached my 
journey's end. This is the glory of all other cities, and thou, emir 1 art the ornament 
whereby the Arabs surpass the rest of men. Fortune, thy slave, hasvronged us; and 
to thee we have recourse against thy slave's injastice. 

** By Allah !" exclaimed the prince, " thou hast done it admirably." He then 309 
ordered him a present of two hundred gold pieces. — Abu '1-Kasim Othman Ibn 
Muhammad, a native of Irak and kadi of Ain Zerba (7), relates as follows : " I 
" was at an audience given by Saif ad-Dawlat at Aleppo, when the kadi Abu 
" Nasr Muhammad Ibn Muhammad an-Naisapuri {native of NaisdpUr) went up 
" to him, and having drawn an empty purse and a roll of paper out of his 
*' sleeve, he asked and obtained permission to recite a poem which was written 
" on the paper. He then commenced his kasida^ the first line of which was : 

' Thy wonted generosity is still the same ; thy power is nncontrolled, and thy servant 
' stands in need of one thousand pieces of silver. ' 

" When the poet had finished, Saif ad-Dawlat burst into a fit of laughter and 
" ordered him a thousand pieces of gold, which were immediately put into the 
" purse he had brought with him." — AbA Bakr Muhammad and Abu Othman 
Said, the sons of Hashim, and generally known as the tv)o Khdltditet, were in 
hi|^ repute as poets. Abii Bakr was the elder. They went to the court of Saif 
ad-Dawlat, and having recited to him the panegyrics which they had composed, 
they were lodged by him and treated in a manner suitable to their desert. He 
one time sent them a present oT a male and a female slave, each of them bearing 
a purse of money and a portmanteau filled with clothes of Egyptian workman- 
ship. One of these poets recited to the prince, on this occasion, a long kaitda, in 
which was this passage : 

Had thy wealth not been consecrated to deeds of beneficence, the gratitude of mor- 
tals had not been universal as it is, Thou hast bestowed on us a sun and a moon {of 
beauty) by whose lustre the darkness [of mitforlwu) which overshadowed us [8) has been 
enlightened. A fawn has come to us, in beauty a Joseph ; and a gazelle, in radiance a 
a Balkis (9). Not content with bestowing two such gifts, thou bast sent us money ; nay, 
the sum is large. The girl came bearing a purse, and on the boy's shoulder was a 

VOL. II. ^3 



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338 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

sack. Thou hast given as also clolbes vrongtit with all die art oFMiBT and embellisbed 

by the workmansbip of Tinnts (10). We thua possess, fromth; generosity, meat, drink, 
clothing, and a bedfellow. 

On hearing these verses, Saif ad-DawIal observed that they were very good, 
only that the last word was not fit to he uttered in the hearing of princes (H }. 
Numerous are the anecdotes related of Saif ad-Dawlat with his poets, particularly 
al-Mutanabbi (vol. 1. p. 102) as-Sari ar^Raffi (vol. I. p. 557\ an-Nami (vol. I. 
p. 1 10), al-Babbagha (vol. II. p. 147), al-Wawa (12), and others of that band, 
too numerous to be mentioned. He was born on Sunday the 1 7th of Zu 'l-Hijja, 
A.H. 303 (June, A.D. 916), some say A. H. 301 — and he expired at Aleppo on 
the sixth hour of Friday — others say the fourth — the 24th of the month of Safar, 
A. H. 356 (February, A. D. 967). His body was transported to Maiyafarikin 
and interred in the mausoleum erected over the grave of his mother, and situ- 
ated within the city walls. He died of a retention of urine. The dust which 
settled on his clothes in his campaigns was shaken off and carefully collected by 
his orders; it was then formed into a brick about as large as the hand, and 
this, by his dying injunctions, was placed under his head in the tomb. It was 
in the year 333 (A. D. 944-5) thjat he got possession of Aleppo, having wrung 
it from the hands of Ahmad Ibn Said at-Kilabi, a partisan of al-Ikhfihid (13). I 
have read, in the history of Aleppo, that the first of the Hamdan family who 
ruled in that city was al-Husain Ibn Said, brother of Abu Faras (vol. I. p. 366^, 
who had gotten it into bis possession in the month of Rajah, A. H. 332 (March, 
A. D. 944). (AlrBusain) was renowned for bravery, and it is of him that Jbn 
al-Munajjim (1 4) said : 

On seeing him advance, the foes exclaim: "Are not those the fates which march 
' ' under that man's standard ?" 

810 He died at Mosul on Monday, the 16th of the latter Jumada, A. H. 338 (Dei-. 
A . D. 949), and was interred in the mosque which he bad erected at ad-Dair al- 
Aala (the Upper Convent}. This I supposed to be the same as the Dair Said (Con- 
vent of Satd), outside Mosul, and so called after him ; hut I have since i-ead in 
the KUdb ad-Diara (book ofconvmU) that the latter was named after the Omaiyide 
prince Said Ibn Abd al-Malik Ibn MarwAn. — Saif ad-Dawlat, before taking 
Aleppo,was master of Wasit and that neighbourhood; he then underwent various 
vicissitudes and passed into Syria, where he got possession of Damascus and most 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONART. 389 

of the cities in that country, and of Mesopotamia besides. His namerous cam- 
paigns against the Greeks are well known, and most of his battles have been cele- 
brated by al'Mutanabbi in hia fcoiWa*.— He was succeeded by his son Saad ad- 
Dawlat (good [mime of the empire) Abit '1-Maali Sharif, who reigned a long time. 
This prince had an attack of cholera, which brought him to the brink of death. 
On the third day of his convalescence, he had intercourse with one of his slave- 
girls, but the result was that he fell to the ground, having lost the power of his 
right side. The physician who was called in, ordered perfumes of aloes-wood 
and ambei^ris to be burned (15) near him, and this recovered him a little. He 
then asked to feel his pulse, and the patient held out his left hand. *' It is the 
right which I want," said the doctor.—" I have left it (in a tUiie)" replied the 
other, "((Aa( it is) no longer a right hand for me; it swore (to mve me) and 
" deceived (me, and I have therefore punished it) (16)." He expired on the eve 
of Sunday, the 2oth of RamadSn, A. H. 391 (December, A. D. 991), aged forty 
years, six months, and ten days. He was succeeded by his son Abu '1-Fadail 
Saad, the date of whose death I have not discOTcred (17). With the termina- 
tion of AbA 'l-Fadail'B existence, the empire founded by Saif ad-Dawlat came 
also to an end (18). — Ahu Ali Ibn al-Ukhwat, the penon mentioned in this 
article, died on Friday, the 14th of the latter Jumida, A. H. 546 (September, 
A. D. 11 51 ). He was a good poet. 

(11 I translate Ittwallj. He mesni to mj that the memben of thii hmlly were like a DecklMC of pearH 
•dorafng the Mate, and that Salf ad-OawUt wat the middte or lai^eit pewt. 

(2) The autborof the rollma iaj» that Ibo al-Faijid waaSaif lA-DawUl'i £aToril«Mtrt, or secrewrj. 

(3) There ii here a plaj upon word* and a double meantaf which cannot be rendered. The last word of the 
vene Ca written j^ik' in the anlograpb. 

(4) He meani dark clontb the edge* of which are dlMolving Into a traH of rain. 

(5) SmtoI.!. page 884, note (^. 

(9) The Inie reMliiig ii jJj\\j, Th« blM one it given io all the other nuniuacripu, and Dr. Carlile haa 
reprednced it in hii Sp*eiianu o/ JraMon poalry, where he hai iuert«d the tame piece, 

(7) Aia Zarba It situated to Ibe north of Ibe Gulf of ScanderdD, In lat. Vl" lO. 

(8) The autograph, the other MSS . and the printed teit hare U jJ ; but gninmar and tense require 

(») nw fl« lorei of JoMpfa and ZuWkha, and of king Sclotnm and Balkla. I tfttt f D'a«fcd«t'» Btblio- 
Ihiqut orUntalt, 

(10) " Plain cloaki. nude of dolb dyedat TinoU, wld for oneor two hundred piece* of goW. If embroidered 
" in gold, their price might amount to one thouMnd piecoa."— (il-Idrlai, In his Ceo^op^V-) 



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3UI IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

(11) JfanMA, Ihe Arabic word, NgniBM initui apta, eontruMui idonra. 

(13] Aba VFaraj MuhamitMd Ibn Ahmad il-^haMtni ad-Dimi>hki {a nativt ofDamateu*), turnamed al- 
Wiwi, was ODe of Saif ad-Dawtat'H companiooR. He lung wilh great Utie and wat a good poet. Numeroa^ 
ntracU tirom hij piecei are given bj ath-ThaUibt In hli Tattma, but the date of hi* death ii DOt menlioBed. 

(13) The life of HuhamaMd Ibn Togbj, lanumed al-lkbihld, is giten b; Ibn KhaUiklo. 

(14) 3e« page 309, note (7), of IbU Tolume. 

(15) Here the aulographfaaA^s^., but Ihe true reading » eerliinl; jf^. at in the printed teil. 

(16) in Tendering tfaii pauage, 1 ma; perfaap* Imyc miiuiident4x>d the original Arabic. 

(17) HediedinlbemonthofSafar, A.H. 39S [D«c -Ian. A. D. 1001-2].— (Ibn al-Adim.) 

(18) For the hii lorj of Saif id-IUwIai, conault the eitraet ^m Ibn al-Adtm'i Hiitor; of Aleppo, publiihrd 
b; profeuor Frejtag under the title of S§Ueta «x hUtortd Bahbt. Parii, IBIV; in Arabic and Utin. 



AZ-ZAHIR AL-OBAIDI. 



AbA Hashim Ali, the (Obaidite or Fatimite) sovereign of Egypt and surnamed 
az-Zahir IMzaz Din iUah (the attiiter in exalting God's religion), was the son of al- 
Hakim Ihn al-Aziz Ibn al-Moizz Ibn al-Mansur Ibn al-Kaim Ibn al-Mahdi Obaid 
Allah. We have already noticed some of the princes of this dynasty. His reign 
commenced some time after the disappearance of his father, which event occur- 
red on the 27th of Shawwal, A.H. A\ i (February, A. D. 1 021 ), as we shall state 
in his life. The people expected that he would appear again, but, on tracing 
his footsteps, they came to the conviction that he was gone for ever. On the 
Day of Sacrifice (the 1 0th of Z^ Tffijyo), in the same year, they placed his son 
az-Ztlhir on the throne. The empire (of the Fatimilm) was composed, at that 
time, of Egypt, Ifrikiya, and Syria. Salih Ibn Mirdas al-Kilabi (vol. I. p. 631 ~ 
then marched against Aleppo, which he besieged and wrested from the hands of 
Murlada 'd-Dawlat Ibn Ltlklit al-Jarrahi, formerly a slave (ghuldm) of Ahik 'I- 
Fadail Ibn Sharif Ibn Saif ad-Dawlat al-Hamdani (vol. II. p. 339), and now 
governing that city as lieutenant to az-Zahir. All the neighbouring country then 
submitted to Ibn Mirdas, and Hassan Ibn Mufarrij Ibn Daghfal al-6adawi (chief 
of theBedwin Arabs and) lord of Ramla (1), having conquered the greater part 
of Syria, the power of az-ZMiir was humbled, and a number of events succeeded, 
too long to relate. This prince took for vizir Najib ad-Dawlat (optimtu mperii) 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 341 

Abu '1-Kasim Ali Ibn Ahmad al-Jarjarai, him whose arms had been cut off at thf 
elbows by al-Hakim in the month of the latter Rabi, A. H. 404. This punish- 
ment was inflicted on him at the gate of Cairo called Bab al-Kasr al-Bahri (the 
Ccutle Gate ontkeroad to the river), after which he was carried home. He held, 
at that time, the direction of one of the gOTemment offices, but being discovered 
in peculation, he incurred the punishment just mentioned. In the year 40{l 
(A. D. 1018-9), he was appointed director of the pension-office (Diwdn an-Nafa- 
kdf), and, in A. H. 418, nominated vizir to az-Zahir. Previously to this, he 
had held different posts under government, in Upper and Lower E^ypt. When 
raised to the dignity of vizir, he authonsed the kadi Abu Abd Allah aUKudai,Bl| 
author of the book called cu-Skibdb (2), to write his aldma (3). It consisted of 
these words : ai-Hamdu UUahi Shah-mi It NimtUib (Priate be to God in gratitude 
for hi* bounty). Al-Jarjarai affected a rigid purity of conduct, strict integrity, 
and an extreme precaution in avoiding sin ; to this Jasus al-Fulk (4) alluded 
in the following verses : 

Fool tbat Ihoa artl listen and make aasvert leave that feigned stupidity. Dost thou 
set thyself up for an honest man ? Well 1 let us suppose thy words to be true, and (ell 
us if it was for honesty and piety that (hy arms were cutofFat the elbows? 

Jarjardi means belonging to Jarjardyd, a village in Irak. — Az-Zahir was born at 
Cairo, on Wednesday, the 10th of RamadSin, A. H. 395 (June, A. D. 1005); 
he died towards the end of Saturday night, the 15th Shaaban, A. H. 427 (June, 
A. D. 1 036). I was told that he breathed his last in the Garden of the Strand 
{Bmtdn ad-Dakkd)f situated in al-Maks (5) at a place called the Strand (ad- 
Po/cJfco).— Al-Jarjarai died on the 7th of Ramadan, A. H. 436 (March, A.D. 1045). 
He held the vizirat under az-Z&hir and al-Mustansir, that prince's son, for the 
space of seventeen years, eight months, and eighteen days. 



(1) See vol.1, page 4S2, where hu fiilber'i name ii incoTrectly vritten Jfu/V<t. 

(2) The life of al-Kudil it giTen in Ihii work. 

(3) The wordt forming the aldma, or mart, were wrillen on all official papen to Talidaie them. Ai Tttnis. 
when Ibn KhaldAn lield the poil of oldma writer, Ibe inscription cOD*isted of Ihete wordi : al-Hamdu Ul- 
tahi wa 'ih-thakru Ullah (ProfM be to God, and thanks bt to £o{I}.— (Autobiograpb; of Ibn Ktialdan.) 

(4) Jlsfti al-Fulk lignifiet tht explorer of Iht tphere. It ii ceruinlj a aurname, hut I have oot lieen abie 
to discover an; fnformatioo reipecllng the person who bore It. 

(5) MakiWM a vilUge near Cairo. See De Sacj's Chrtilomathit, tam.}. p. 171. 



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IBN KHALLIKAN'S 



ALl IBN MUNKID. 



Abik 'l-HassD AH Ibo Mukallad Ibn Nasr llm Munkid al-Kinlmi, surnaiDed 
Sadid al-^ulk (bene directvt in tmperto) and lord of the casUe of Sbaiiar, was a 
brave, enterprising, resolute, and generous prince. He was the firel of the 
Munkid famity who established his authority in that castle, having obtained 
possession of it in the following manner: Happening to dwell for some time at 
tlie bridge (afterwardt) called Jisr bani Munkid (bridge of the Munkid fawiHy\ 
in the neighbourhood of the castle, which was then in tike hands of the 
Greeks, he conceived hopes of getting it into his power, and, having laid siege 
(o it, the garrison surrendered on condition of receiving quarter. This occurred 
in the month of Rajab, A. H. 474 (Dec.-Jan. A. D. 108*-2). It continued in 
his possession and in that of his descendants till overturned by the earthquake 
of A.H. 552 (A.D. 11 57), when all the members of the family, and other persons 
besides, perished in the ruins. It remained uninhabited till the end of the year, 
when it was occupied by Nur ad-din Mahmud Utn Zinki, the sovereign of Syria. 
Baha ad-din Ibn Shaddad states, in his life of Saliih ad-din (1), that on the 18th 
of Shawwal, A.H. 565 (July, A. D. H70), Aleppo and many other cities suffered 
severely from an earthquake, but the reader must not suppose that this is a mis- 
take, for these were really two different events ; the first is noticed (mwewer) 
by Ibn aUJauzi in his Shuz^tr aJrOk&d and by other historians. This Sadid al- 
Mulk possessed such great influence that his favour was universally courted, 
and many of his descendants acquired renown as brave chieftains, generous 
patrons, and accomplished scholars. His own praises were celebrated by Ibn 
al-Khaiyat (see vol. I. p. 1 28), aUKbafaji (2), and other poets. He composed 
some good verses himself, such, for instance, as those which he pronounced on 
having beaten one of his young slaves in a fit of anger : 

I used him harshly ; but had my heart been master of my hands, it would have chained 
them to my neck. When I pnnrshed him, my anger was assumed; hoT great the dis- 
tance between the depth ot affection and Ae height of passion (3). 

He was particularly noted for quickness of penetration, of which the following 
anecdote is related as an example : Before he had obtained possession of Shaizar, 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONABV 3fc3 

be made frequent visits to Aleppo, which was then under the rule of Taj al-Sltt 
MalAk Mahmud Ibn Salih Ibn Mirdas. An occurrence which excited his appre- 
hensions obliged him to leave that city and proceed to Tripolis (in Syria), where 
the govemor, Jalal al-Mulk Ibn Ammar (4), lodged him in his palace. Mahmud 
Ibn Salih then directed his secretary Abu Nasr Muhammad Ibn al-Husain Ibn 
AH an-NahhUs, a native of Aleppo, to write to Sadid al-Mulk a kind and flat- 
tering letter, inviting him to return. The secretary, who was a Triend to Sadid 
al-Mulk, perceived that his master had some ill design ; so, on writing out the 
letter as he was ordered, and finishing it with the usual formula, in (^1) Ad 
Allah {if God to pleateth), he traced over the letter n of wi the sign of dupli- 
cation with the mark indicating the vowel a (thus, ^1 irma). On receiving 
the letter, Sadid al-Mulk presented it to Ibn Ammar, who was then sitting 
with some particular friends, and they all admired the elegance of its style 
and remarked the extreme desire which Mahmud manifested of enjoying his 
society. Sadid al-Mulk here observed that he saw more in the letter than 
they did, and then wrote an appropriate answer to the secretary. In this reply 
one of the phrases was: / (Ul arUl), your kuir^le servant, who am grateful 
for your Undnm ; but tinder the Grst letter he put the mark indicating the 
vowel i, and over the second the sign of duplication (thus, Ol innd). When 
Mahmud received it, the secretary remarked with pleasure this peculiarity, 
and said to those with whom he was intimate : "1 knew that what I wrote would 
" not escape Sadid a1-Mulk*s attention, and he has answered in a way that quiets 
*' my uneasiness." By the word inna the secretary intended to remind his friend 
of this passage of the Koran : Inna 'l-Mald Yikamirii,na. etc. (verily, the great men 
are deliberating concerning thee, to put thee to death) (5) ; and by the word innd, 
Sadid al-Mulk meant to answer : InTid Ian nadkhulaha abadan, etc. (ice will never 
enter therem whiltt they stay in it) (6). This was ever afterwards considered as a 
striking example of his sharpness and sagacity, and the anecdote is told in these 
very terms by Osama (vol. I. p. 177), in the collection of notes addressed bv 
him to ar-Rashid Ibn az-Zubair (vol. /. p. 143), and inserted in the life of Ibn 
an-Nahhas (the secretary above mentioned). Sadid al-Mulk Ibn Munkid died A. H. 
475 (A. D. 1 082-3). We have already spoken of his grandson Os4ma, and shall 
notice his father in the letter M. — The k&lib Imad ad-din al Ispah&ni mentions 
them all with high commendation in his Khariduy and in his Kitdb at-SaU ica 'z- 



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3U IBN KHAJLUKAN'S 

Zail, he speaks of a person who was crushed to death under the ruins of the 
castle of Shaizar, when it was oyertumed by an earthquake on Monday, the 
third of Rajah, A. H. 552 (August, A. D. H57.) {Tkii confirm the date pre- 
vioutly given.) 

(1) S«e Sehulien'i Vita »t rtt g»$ta SaUuUni, p. 36. HI* MUtioD of Btlit ad-dln'i Mil dow not gin (be 
da; of the nwDth. 

(3) S«e Tol. II. p«gef 178. 17», oote (7). 

(3) In diit vene we miut read 'ijt .,~* for ij^j 

(4) See TOl.1. pige «4, oote (1). 

(5) KoTu, rant 88, Tene IV. 
(8) Koran, nirat B, vene S7. 



AS-SULAIHI. 

Ahil i-Hasan AH Ibn Muhammad Ihn AU as-Sulaihi, the chief of the revolt 
in Yemen, was the son of a kadi in that psrovince, who professed the Sunmte 
doctrine and exercised the greatest influence over his own family and all the 
pei'sons under his jurisdiction. This kadi's favour was assiduously courted hy 
the (Fatimite) missionary Aamir Ibn Abd Aliah az-Zawwahi (1), who fre- 
quently rode to visit him on account of his power, virtue, and learning, and at 
length succeeded in gaining the conGdence of the son, who had not as yet reached 
the age of puberty, but whose looks announced him to possess a spirit of a supe- 
perior order. It is even said that the missionary had found the description of 
J^Ab-A 'l-H<uan AH ) as-Sulaibi's person in a book called Kildh os-iSwir, which was 
one of the treasures transmitted down from ancient times (2). He showed to 
tl)e boy that passage of it wherein were indicated the events of his future life 
and the illustrious rank which be was destined to obtain ; but this communica- 
tion was a secret, of which the father and the family had no suspicion. Aamir 
died soon after, leaving as-Sulaihi the depository of his books and of his know- 
ledge. Ali (tu-Sulaihi's) mind received a deep impression from the words of the 
missionary, and having devoted himself to study,he mastered, by the acuteness of 
his Intellect (3), and even before the age of puberty, those sciences which, joined 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 3Ui 

lo (he propitious aid of fortune, raised him to the summit of his utmost hopes. 
It was thus that he became a learned doctor in the system of jurisprudence 
which regulated the Imamite (Fatimte) empire, and that he obtained a deep 
insight into the science of allegorical interpretation as applied lo the Koran 
(tdvjil). He then passed fifteen years as a guide to the pilgrims on the road 
which passes through as-SaHit (4) and T&if; during this period, he often 
heard persons say to him: "We have been told that thou art to possess all 
" Yemen and become a man of note;" but these observations he received with .115 
dislike, and although a prediction to this effect had spread abroad and was con- 
tinually repeated by men of all ranks, he always contradicted those who spoke to 
bim on the subject. ' At length, iu the year 429 (A. D. 1037-8), he commenced 
his revolt by occupying the summit of Masbar (5), one of the highest mountains 
in Yemen; having then with him sixty men, all of powerful families and 
possessing numerous connexions, whom he had bound by oath, at the fair of 
Mecca, in A.H. 428, to die in defence of his cause. This mountain was crowned 
by a lofty pinnacle of difficult access, on which no edifice bad ever been 
erected ; be took possession of it by night, and before noon, the next day, he 
found himself surrounded and blockaded by twenty thousand swordsmen, all 
reviling him in the grossest terms and railing at his folly. Tbey then ofiiered 
him the alternative of coming down or being starved to death with his compa- 
nions ; but he replied that, in acting as he had done, his only motive was to pro- 
tect his own friends and themselves from danger, as he apprehended that some 
other person would occupy a position so advantageous. " Therefore," said he, 
" if you allow me, I shall guard it ; but if not, 1 shall go down to you." These 
words induced them to retire, and before a month was elapsed, he bad built a 
strong hold upon the mountain and strengthened it with fortifications. From 
that time bis power gradually increased, and his efforts were employed in gaining 
partisans for aUMustansir, the sovereign of Egypt. He was obliged, however, 
to keep these proceedings a secret, through dread of Najab, the lord of {the pro- 
ninee of) Tihama, whose favour he was obliged to cultivate, and whose power he 
appeared to acknowledge, though secretly plotting his death. In this project he 
at length succeeded, having made him a present of a handsome female slave, by 
whom he was poisoned at al-Kadra (6), in A. H. 452 (A. D. 1060-1). The fol- 
lowing year, he wrote to al-Mustansir for permission to assert openly the (Fa- 

VOL. II. W 



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DM IBN KHALUKAN'S 

Umite) claims, and, having obtained that prince's consent, he crossed and recrossed 
itie province, taking castles and subduing tbe open ccHintry. Before the expira- 
tion of A. H. 455, he was master of all Yemen, hill and dale, land and aea. An 
occurrence of this nature bad never been witneased before, either in the times 
which preceded Islamism or in those vhich followed; and (at an emmple of kit 
good fortune, it may be related) that, one day, when preaching from (he pulpit at 
al-Janad (7), be said that, on tbe same day (of the next year), he should preadi 
from the pulpit in Aden ; a city of which be bad not yet obtained possessioo. A 
person who was presmt at tbe sermon and beard these words, exclaimed in de- 
rision : " most adorable! most holy (8) !" As-Sulaibi (»tlered the man to be 
taken into custody, and on thaX day (of the next year), he preached at Aden. 
The same man was again present ; and now, after most extravagant professions 
of admiration, he took the covenant and joined the sect. From the year 455 
(A. D. 1063) his head-quarters were established at San&a, where he caused a 
number of palaces to be erected. (In hii next ei^>editiom) be took with him the 
princes whom be had dethroned and lodged them near bis own person, after 
having confided tbe command of their fortresses to other bands. Having sworn 
that no person should receive from him the government of Tihima without pre- 
viously weighing out one hundred thousand pieces of gold, that sum was paid 
down to him by his own wife Asma, in the name of her brother Asaad Ibn 
Shibab. "Where didst thou get this, mistress?" said be. '*From God," she 
replied ; " he be$taweth on hm whom he cbooteth. and wit}wut taking reektmng (9)." 
Perceiving that tbe sum came from his own treasury, he smiled, and took it, 
saying : " Here it our money rettored unto us ; and we wiU provide food for our 
" family and tdce care of our broth&r (10)." In the year 473 (A. D. 1080-1) 
as-Sulaihi resolved to make the pilgrimage, and taking with him his wife 
Asma, the daughter of Shihab, and those princes who, he apprehended, might 
revolt against him, he appointed al-Malik aUMukarram (the moit AonoroUe 
prince) Ahmad, tbe son whom he had by her, to rule as his lieutenant. He 
then set out with two thousand boi'semen, of whom one hundred and sixty 
were members of tbe Sulaib family; and, on arriving at al-Mahjam (11), he 
baited outside the town, at a farm called 0mm ad-Duhaim, or Bir Onun 
Mabad, and encamped with his troops around him and the {captioe) princes 
near him. Suddenly the alarm was given that as-Sulaihi was murdered, and 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. »7 

the people of his escort hurried in trepidation to verify the fact. He had 
fallen by the hand of Said at-Afawal (the tquinter), son to the Najah vho 
had been poisoned by the slitve^girl. Said had remaioed in concealment at 
Zabid, but then went to his brother Jaryish at Dahlak^ and informed him BI4 
of as-Solaihi's departure for Mekka : " Come," said he, *' and let us stop him 
" on the way and slay him." Jaiy^sh immediately proceeded to Zabid and 
set out from that city with his brother and seventy followers on foot and without 
arms, having no other weapons than palm-sticks, each of which was headed 
with an iron spike (12). They avoided the main road and took that which fol- 
lows the sea-shore ; their distance From al-Majham being then as much as an 
active man could accomplish in three days. Information of their departure was 
bron^ to as-Sulaihi, and he immediately sent against them five litousand Abys- 
sinian spearmen who accompanied him on foot. This troop, however, mistook 
the way, and Said with his companions came up to the bounds of the camp. 
As they had suffered from fatigue and want of provisions (so at to be hardiy reeog- 
nised), they were supposed to be some of the slaves who accompanied the army, 
hut Abd Allah, the brother of as-Sulaihi, perceived who they were, and cried 
out to him : " To horse, my lord ! by Allah ! here comes that squinting rascal, 
" Said the son of Najah !" Saying this, he mounted his own horse, but as- 
Sulaihl merely observed that he was not to die till he arrived at ad-Duhaim and 
the Well (Bir) of 0mm Mabad ; thinking that 0mm M&bad to be the female 
at whose tent the blessed Prophet bad stopped when retiring from Mecca to 
Medina. On hearing his words, one of those who accompanied him said : " De- 
** fend then thy life ! for, by Allah ! this is ad-Duhaim and here is the Well of 
'* 0mm Mabad." When as-Sulaihi heard these words, he remained thunder- 
struck, and losing all hopes of escape, he urined with affright. His head was 
cut olf on the spot with his own sword, and his brother was slain also, with all 
the other persons of his family. This occurred on the 12th of Zu '1-Kaada, 
A. H. 473 (April, A. D. 1081). Said then sent to the five thousand men 
who had been dispatched against him by as-Sulaihi, and informed them that 
(heir master was dead, but that he was one of themselves, and had only avenged 
his father's death. They immediately came up and placed themselves under 
his orders; with their assistance he attacked the troops of as-Sulaihi, and 
having slain some and made others prisoners, he put them to rout and 



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3^ IBN KHALLKAN'S 

pillaged their camp. As-Sulaihi's head was then stuck on the top of his own 
siale-urabretia, and this verse of the Koran was chanted aloud: Say, GodI tite 
potteuor of the kmgtlomt thou give$t (Ae kingdom unto whom thou wilt; aad Uunt 
takett away the kingdom from whom thou wiU. Thou exaltett whom thou wiU, and 
thou humblest whom thou will. In thy hand it good, for thou art (Umighty (13). 
Said then returned to Zabid, and obtained as a spoil the empire, of which the 
possession had been so fatal to his father. He entered the city on the 1 6th of 
Zu 'l-Kaada, the same year, and, having established his authority in the pro- 
vince of Tihama, he continued to rule till A. H. 481 (A. D. 1088-9), when he 
lost his life in a conspiracy which had been got up by al-Hurra, the widow of 
one of the Sulaihites ; but the relation of this event would lead us too far. — 
When as-Sulaihi's head was stuck on the top of his umbrella, the following 
lines were composed on the subject by the kadi al-Olhmani : 

In the morning, that umbrella was borne over him; but in the evening, it shaded a 
noble prince whose triumph it thus annoanced. If as-Sulaihi's visage was hateiiil un- 
der it, his head was a pleasing object on it. Black serpents attacked the lions of as- 
Shara (li) ; woe to the lions from the blacks I 

As-Sulaihi himself composed some good verses, such as these : 

I married our bright swords to their yellow-hafted spears ; but, instead of sweetmeats 
scattered to the guests, we scattered their heads around. Tis thus with glory; none 
espouse it but at the cost of many lives. 

The following verses also are given as his by Imad ad-din, in tlie Kharida; 
but some say that they were merely put in his mouth by some other person who 
was the real author : 

More delightful to him than the striking of the lyre is the cry, before battle, of : 
3 " Pagel bridle and saddle the steeds." 1 gallop them in the distant lands of Hadra- 
maut, and their snorting is heard from Ir&k to Maabaj (15). 

1 do not know whence the surname of SiUaiH is derived, but it seems to come, 
in this case as in others, from Sulaih, the proper name of a man. As for the 
places mentioned in this article, they are all in Yemen, and I wrote their names 
as I found them written, but had no means of verifying their orthography. The 
greater part of this notice is taken from the History of Yemen by Omara tal- 
Yamani, a poet whose life shall he given in this work. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DIGTIONAKY. 3k9 

(I) Ax-ZatcHhi ^a.tjJt, U thli oinwit written in the autograph, roeanf native o/'ai-ZoieilAi. a to«n 

(3) Id the account given b; Ibn Khaidtkii of the Snldb diouty, MS. No. UOS C, fol. 98, he designates (his 
■took u the Jafr [see page 184 of this Tolume). Hajjt Kbtlifi has the following nnintelllgible notice on the 
Sunrin his Bibliographical Dictionary: "Kitdba^Suar [book of fSgiMru) : Whether it ever existed or not: three 
" discourses b; Aristotle: and the first of Iha philosophers who explored the mysteries of the Suot (flgimi) 
" was Afritin ^^^Lil, who composed a book on the seven figure* and their mysteries, and the farly-eight 
" figwe$ containing one Ihoasand and twelve of the fixed stars." 

(3) Read UTS in Ihe Arabic teit. 

H) [t tffttn from the MarCuid that tbis place was on the road from Sania to Tllf, and situated between 
TihtoH and Najd. 

(5) This pUce is noticed by Ibn KhaldOn ; he says in geographical ooteioD the province of Yemen, HS. Ko. 
" £109 C, fol.ifawto: "BarrtfajLa. is a territory in the country of the Hamdln (irtfts); it is also the 
" name of a tribe, one of the branches of which produced a>-SuUihi. Tix fortress of Haslr, where he nude 
" bi* first appearance, is situated in the territory of Harrb." Bamu, u Niebuhr writes the name, is placed 
on bis map of Yemen in lat. IS' S N.— In Ibn Khalliklu't iotograph, tfasdr is written thus iL.^, but the 
author of the MdrAHi writes it ALl* (maiAdr), BI Id .the printed leit. 

(6) Al-Kadrt lay at about fifty miles lonth-wesi of Saoli, on the river Sfaeblm. This strMms falls into the 
Red Sea at a short distance to the north of Hudaida. 

(7) Al-Ianad lies at about ten miles E. of taai (or lUt). It is marked on the maps of NIehuhr and Berg- 
hauf, and is described by Ab& 'LPedl in his Geography. 

(8) These cpitheU are given to God alone. 
(0; Konn, aunt 3, Terse 308. 

(10) Koran, surat 13, verse 60. 

(II) Compare what follows with the relation of the same occurrences, given in vol. I. page 360. 

(13) "The ricbhave their sticks headed with silver; othertGi iron spikes to them; and thus make a formi- 
" dable weapon, which the Arabs handle with great dexterity. "— Bnrekbardt's Trawli in Arabia, vol. 11. 
page 343. 

(13) EoraD, surat 3, Terse 25. I give the entire verse, as Ibn Kballiktn merely mentions the first words of 
it, with U tte. 

(14) The ferocity of the lions which haunted ai-Shara is Arequenlly alluded to in Arabic poetry. According 
to the Jfordstd, the mounts of a».Shara if situated in the prorince of Tihtma. 

(18) Here the autograph has ^j^j uol \»j^\.— Hanbaj is situated on the Euphrates. lo the east of 



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IBN KHALLIKAN'9 



AL-AADIL IBN ASSALLAB. 



Abu 'I-Hasan Ali Ibn as-Sailar, suraamed al-Malik al-A&dil SaiF ad-din (the 
jutt prince, the tword of religion), and generally known as Ibn as-SallJlr, was vizir 
to az-Zifir, the Obaidite (Fatimite) sovereign of Egypt. I have foond stated else- 
where that his aani« was Abti MansAr Ali Ibn Isbak ; and I hare read, in a 
history of Elgypt, that he was of Kurdish origin and belonged to the tribe of 
Zarzari (1). Having been brought up in the Castle of Cairo, he successively 
occupied difierent posts imder goveroneot,- in Uf^ier Egypt and elsewhere, 
tilt he finally became vizir to az-2^f]r, in the month of Rajah, A. H. 543 
(November-December, A. D. 1148.) I have since fountf, in another work, 
that Az^Zafir, in the commencement of his reign, chose for vizir Najm ad^n 
(the ttar of religion) Ahu '1-Fath Salim IImi Miriiamaiad Iho Masai (2), (me of 
the great emirs of the empire ; but he, being vanquished by al-Aadil Ibn as- 
Sallar, crossed over to Jiza on the eve of Tuesday, the 1 4th of Ramadan, A. H. 
544 (January, A. D. 11 50), on learning that bis adversary wfo advancing from 
Alexandria, of which he was governor, with the intention of obtaining the 
vizirship. Ibn as-Sallar entered Cairo on the 15tb of the same month, and 
having taken the direction of the state into his own hande, he received the 
titles of cd-Addil (Ute jtat) and Amtr al-Juy^h (commander of the troopt). Ihn 
Masai then collected a body of Magbribins and other soldiers, but was defeated 
at a place to the south {of Cairo)j caihd Dilas (3), by the troops which aWAadil 
sent against him. His head was cut' off and bronght into Cairo on the point 
of a lance, on Thursday, the 23rd of Zu 'l-4(aada (March), in the same year. 
Al-Aadil then remained in authority till he lost his life. — This account seems 
more correct than the foregoing.— Ibn Masai was a native of Lukk, a village 
near Barka, and in its dependencies. He and his father were horse-breakers 
and falconers, and it was by means of this profession that they obtained their 
advancement. Ibn Masai held the place of vizir about fifty days. — Ibn as-Sallar 
was acute, courageous, and always inclined to favour men of talent and virtue. 
He erected a number of mosques at Cairo, and 1 saw one outside Bilbais which 
bears his name. He openly professed the Sunnite doctrines, in which he fol- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 331 

lowed the sect of as-ShaH. Whep aL-Aadil was nominated governor of Alex- 
andria, some time after the arrival of air-Hd.^ as-Silafi {ml. I. p. 86} in that 
city, he treated the learoed doctor with marked attention and honour. A 
college was then hnilt by his orders, and the professorship therein entrusted 
to a&-SilaGf hy whose name it is still known. No other Shafite college but 
that existed at Alexandria. These laudable points of character were unfor- 
tunately blemished by a violent spirit of injustice and cruelty; he punished 
severely the very slightest faults, and his tyranny may he conceived from the 
foUowing relation : Previously to his appointment as vizir, being then in the 
army, be went cue day to al-Muwafiak Abu '1-Karam Ibn M&sdm, a native 
of Tiimis, who was at that time secretary of war, and represented to bim 
that, having been obliged to defray some extraordinary expenses which he 
bad incurred during hia administration in the province of al-Gharbiya, be 
was now op{»resfied with debt. To this complaint and the long representa- 
tions which he made, Abu 't-Karam merely replied : '* By Allah ! thy discourse S16 
*' entereth not my ear,' This answer Ibn as^llar never foi^ave, and when 
elevated to the rank of vizir, he ordered strict search to be made for him. 
Abu 'l-Karam's apprehensions being thus awakened, be renuined in conceal- 
ment for some lime; but the vizir having caused a public proclamation to 
be made for his discovery, and threatening with death whoever might harbour 
him, he was expelled from the house where be had retired by the master of the 
dwelling, and he went forth dressed as a female, in a cloak and boots. Being 
soon recognized, he was arrested and taken before al-Aadil, who ordered a 
board and a long nail to be brought in. The prisoner was then placed on his 
side with the board under his ear, and the nail was hammered into the other. 
At every cry the victim uttered, al-Aadil exclaimed : *' Doth my discourse yet 
" rater thy ear or not?" The nail being at length driven out through the other 
ear, and into the board, it was riveted by bending the end. Some say that the 
body was then cut in halves by his directions (4). (In the year 503) BuUara 
the wife of Ahii '1-Futiih, the son of Yahya, the son of Tamim, the son of al- 
Moizz Ibn Badis (5), arrived in Egypt with her son Abu *I-Fadl Abbas Ibn Abi 
'l-Futuh,wbo was then a child; and al-Aadil having married her at a later period, 
she dwelt with him for some time. Abbas had afterwards a son named Nasr,who 
was brought up with bis grandmother in the palace of al-Aadil, and was treated 



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352 IBN KHALLIKANS 

hy the laller with the utmost kindness and affection. At a later period. Abbas 
was sent by al-Aadil to Syria, that he might serve in the holy war (agmntt the 
Franks), and he was accompanied by OsmSoi Ibn Munkid, the emir whose life 
has been given (vol. /. f>. 177). On arriving at Bilbais to take the command 
of the army which was to march with him, the prince began to converse 
with Osama about the delightful climate of Egypt and the beauty of the 
country which he was on the point of leaving, and that, for the sole purpose 
of encountering foes and sutTering the hardships of a military life. On this, 
Osama suggested to him ( it is said ) that he might avoid all those incon- 
veniences by killing al-Aadil and taking the office of vizir on himself. It was 
ehen settled between them that his son Nasr should do the deed when al-Aadil 
was sleeping, for he dwelt with him and would not refuse to execute his father's 
orders. The result was, that Nasr murdered him in his bed, on Thursday, the 
6tb of Muharram, A. H. 548 (April, A. D. ■( 1 53), in the palace of the vizirat at 
Cairo. To relate the particulars of this event would be too long. Some say 
that al-Aidil was killed on Saturday, the 11 th of Muharram, of that year. — Sallar 
the father of al-Aadil, was in the service of Sokm&n Ibn Ortuk, the lord of Jeru- 
salem (6), when he was deprived of that city by al-Afdal Amir al-Juyflsh, as has 
been already mentioned (vol. I. p. 160). Al-Afdal having found there a troop 
of Sokm^n's soldiers, took them into his own service, and Sallar, who was one 
of the number, having been attached to the person of his new master, mounted 
gradually into favour, and received from him the title of Saif ad-Dawlat (twort^ 
of the empire). His son al-Aadil experienced also al-Afdal's kindness, as he was 
placed by him among the boys of the chamben (Subydn al-Hujar) (7). By this 
term they designated a body of youth each of whom was provided with a horse 
and arms, and bound to execute, without hesitation, whatever order he might 
receive. This institution was similar to those of the Knights Templars (ad- 
Ddwiya) and Knights Hospitallers (al-Asbitdr). When any of the youths dis- 
tinguished himself by intelligence and courage, he was advanced to the rank of 
emir (commander). Al-Aadil surpassed his companions in these qualities, and 
possessed moreover great resolution, respect for superiors, and prudence in 
abstaining from intrigues. This induced (the kbalif) al-Hafiz (vol. 11. p. 179) 
lo give him a command, and he appointed him governor of Alexandria. He was 
then known by he nickname of Ras al-Baghl (mule-head), and his rise com- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARV. 353 

menced from that period. — This Nasr, son of Abb4s, is the same who murdered 
az-Za6r, sovereign of Egypt (vol. I. p. 222). 



(1) S«e H. OuitTcmire'* Noiiee tw 1m CurOti Id the ffoMeti et ExIraUi, Urn. XIII. ptge 318. 
13] In the into^iph, thia name ii written ihu* JL^. 

(3) Id titeitat dM pmrfnera «( dnvtllautt <U Vtgyptt, lubjolDed to H.de Sicj's trtDaUtion of AMal- 
Litir. the piMe tiHre called Daiu ij>^^ 1* indicated a* belonging to the prorince of Bahnui, See ptge 680 of 
th>t eicellent vork. We read in the MarAitd: " DiUi: aD eiteniire provioce Id the Said of Egypt {Vpptr 
" Egypt). lt( citj {whieh btari Iht tame namt) is counted as ■ dependence of the province of BahoaM." 

(4) In place of ud. the autograph hai jJLx^, that A« tA«n ilran^lnl him. This reading ii too absurd 
lo be admitted. 

(5) The Utw of the ihi^ last are given in this work. In the life of Vafaja IbD Tamlm. tbe occurrence 
here related ii again noticed iFJih additional particulars. 

(6) See vol. I. pages i«0. 172,614. 

(7) Compare ibe note (37J. page liM, vol.1: of M.de Sacj's ChrMamathit, with what follow! here. 



AL-MALIK AL-AFDAL, THE SON OF SALAH AD-DIN. 

Abu 'l-Hasao Ali, sod to the sultan Salah ad-din YAsuf Ibn AiyAb, and sur- 
named al-Malik al-Afdal (the mos( excellent prince) Ndr ad-din (the light of the 
faitk), made his studies at Alexandria under the im&m Ibn Auf az-Zuhri,and at 
Old Cairo under ihe learned grammariao Ibn Bari (1). In Syria also he received 
cerliBcales of proficiency from Abu 'l-Husain Ahmad Ibn Hamza Ibn Ali as- 
Sulami, Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Sadaka al-Harrani, and other S17 
masters, and in Egypt from Abu 'l-K&sim Hibat Allah Ibn. Ali Ibn MasM, Ab6 
Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Hamid, and others. He wrote a fair 
hand and possessed many other accomplishments. This prince was the eldest of 
Salah ad-din's sons, and his acknowledged successor. On tbe death of his father, 
al-Malik aUAfdal (the subject of this article) was then with him at Damascus, and 
took possession of that kingdom, whilst his brother al-Malik al-Aziz obtained 
that of Egypt, as has been already mentioned (vol. II. p. i 95), and their brothei' 
aUMalik az-Zahir continued to hold Aleppo. It would be too long to trace here 
VOL. II. Ut 



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SKi IBN KBALUKAN'S 

the causes of the disseoaion which sprung ap between al-Malik al-Afdal and his 
brother (a(-JtfaIift al-Aziz) ; we shall merely ;statc that it terminated hy his losiHig 
Damascus, which was besieged and taken from him by his brother and his uncle 
al-Malik al-Aadil (2). He then removed to the city of Sarkhad, which they had 
granted to him on his defeat, but he had resided there for a short time only, 
when his presence was required in Egypt, that he might aqC is<iidbek(S) to 
the young prince al-MaUk al-Maosur Muhammad, who had sncceeded to the 
government of that province on the death of his father al-Malik al-Aziz. He 
received this summons on the eve of Wednesday, the 29th of Safar, A. H. 595 
(January, A.D. 1199; tkirty-eigkt day$) after his brother's death. On his arrival, 
he walked by the side of the horse, whenever his nephew rode out ; but a 
short time after, al-Malik al-Aadil entered Egypt and took it into his own pos- 
session. Al-MaUk al'Afdal was then presented by him with the gift of some 
cities in the eastern part of the empire, but on proceeding thither, he was unable 
to obtain possession of any other except Sumaisat, where he spent the remain- 
der of his life. One of the finest passages from al-Kadi 'l-Fadil's pen is con- 
tained in a letter written during these events; he says: *' The fathers of 
" this illustrious house lived in concord, and they reigned; but the sons were 
" disunited, and they perished ! It is thus that, when a star descends towards 
'* the west, no means exist of bringing it back to the east; and when a rent 
" appears in a garment, it must end by being torn in pieces ! How can fate be 
"stopped in its progress, when its issue is predestined? What mortal can 
"contend against an adversary who has God on his side?" Al-Malik al- 
Afdal was a man of talent and information, a good penman, and gifted witb a 
noble mind ; he favoured the learned and showed them profound respect. Some 
verses composed by him are slill preserved, and amongst the pieces attributed 
to him is the following, which he is said to have addressed to the imam (tile 
khalif) an-Nasir, complaining of his uncle al-Malik al-A&dil (AM Bakr) and his 
nephew al-Malik al-Aziz (Othmdn), who had deprived him of Damascus : 

My lord I A M Bakr and his companion OMmdn have wrested away the just rights of 
AH by the sword. And yet it was he whom his father had appointed to rule over them; 
and whilst he ruled, all things went right. But they opposed him and broke the pad 
which bound them ; their guilt is mutual, and (he law is clear (V). Observe how mis- 
fortune accompanies this name ; an AH has experienced from those of modern times the 
same lieatment which (the khalif) Ali received in days of old. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 3ISS 

The aoawer which he received from the Imam am-NSsir commenced with thtse 
verses : 

Thy letter has arrived, O son of VAguf ! declariog such love [ for ui ] as proves thy un- 
sullied origin. TAey deprived Ali of his rights, because none remained in Yathrub 
{MediiKij to assist him when the Prophet was Ao more. But rejoice ; a day of reckoning 
awaits them, and thy assister will be the Imdm Aititter (an-iVdtir] . 

Al-Malik al-Afdal was born at Cairo, A. H. 566 — some say 565— on the after- 
noon of the Id aJ-Filr (5) (June, A. D. 1171), whilst his father was acting as 
vizir to the Egyptians. He died suddenly at Sumaisat, in the month of Saiar, 
A.H. 622 (Feb.-March, A.D. 1225.) His body was borne to Aleppo and inter- 
red in the mausoleum which bears his name and lies outside the city, near the 
Mash'had, or funeral chapel, of al-Harawi (6). — Sumaisdt is a fortress of Syria, SIS 
situated on the Syrian side of the Euphrates between Kalat ar-RAm and Malatiya. 
It touches the confines of Asia Minor (Bildd ar-R&m). 



il) Se« vol. II. iwgw 197 and 70. 

(3| The pBTticolan will be found io M. Reinaud'g Extraif Oet aul«uri arabw nlatif$ ouo: eroitadn. 
page 3TB. 

(3) 3«e TOl. I. page 330. 

(4) The law it, Uiat he who uaurpt the property of aDotber it bound to make iMtitaiami. 

(5) The Id aUFilr, or FettiTal of the breaking of the Fut, ii held od the fint daj of the month of 
Shawwll. 

(O) Thit maj pethapa be the mauMleum erected over the grave of the Irareller ahHarawi. See page MT 
of this volume.— Samll ad-dtn Ibo il-Adlm njs, ia hii Hlator; of Aleppo, that al-JLfdal wai buried beilde 
hi* mother, in the Ivrba, or funeral chapel, aouih of the jrafcdm. A suburb called the MakAmdt ttill eiiila 
close to Aleppo, on the touth-eaat aide. 



ABU L-HASAN ALI IBN AL-FURAT (1 ). 

Abu '1-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn MAsa Ibn al-Hasan Ibn al-Furit acl«l 
three times as ™ir to the khahf al-Muktadir billah, the son of al-Motadid biUah. 
His first appoiotment was on the 8th of the first Rabi — some say, the 23rd — 



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356 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

A.H. 296 (December, A.D. 908); aod he remained in ofTice till the 4th of Zu 't- 
Hijja, A. H. 299 (July, A. D. 912), when the khalif arrested him and seized on 
all his riches with the property contained in his palace. From that time till he 
was reinstated, the produce of his estates (to the jn^lic treatury) amounted to 
seven millions of dinars. It is said that he (toas the author of his oum misfortune, 
having) addressed a letter to the Arahs of the desert, inviting them to come and 
take Baghdad by surprise; but this accusation is by no means well established. 
His second appointment was on Monday, the 8lh of Zu '1-Hijja, A.H. 304 (June, 
A. D. 917), and, on this occasion, the khalif arrayed him in seven pelisses of 
honour, and sent to his house three hundred thousand dirhims to {be dittributed 
amongst) his pages, fifty mules to carry his baggage, twenty eunuchs, and furni- 
ture of all sorts. On that day, the quantity of wax-tights required for him was 
so great, that the price augmented by a carat of gold to each m(mn (21 ; and, as 
the weather was excessively hot, forty thousand pounds' weight of snow was 
used in cooling the liquors served to the company. He continued in place till 
Thursday, the 22nd of the first Jumada, A. H. 306 (October, A. D. 918), when 
he was arrested and detained in prison ; but was hberated on Thursday, the 
22nd of the latter Rabi, A. H. 31 1 (August, A. D. 923), and again restored to 
his post. On the day of his release from confinement, he gave vent to his ill 
humour by exacting heavy sums from different persons, and he left free career to 
the rapacity and violence of his son Abu 'l-Muhassin, who immediately put to 
death Hamid Ibn al-Abbas, his father's predecessor in the vizirship, and indulged 
in his passion for bloodshed. On the 9th of the latter Rabi, A. H. 312 (July, 
A.D. 924), the khahf again caused Ibn al-Furat to be arrested ; but some say 
that this occurred on Tuesday, the 7th of the first Rabi. He was then in pos- 
session of great wealth (upwards of ten millions of dinars), and his landed estates 
produced him a yearly revenue of one million of dinars, which sum he em- 
ployed for his ordinary expenses. Abu Bakr as-Suli relates that, having one 
day recited to the vizir a kasida in his praise, he received from him six hundred 
dinars. — Ibn al-Furat was a kdlib (3) of the highest capacity and information ; 
tlie khalif al-Motadid said (some time after his accession) to (hit vizir) Obaid Allah 
Ibn Sulaiman (4) : " 1 have received a kingdom In disorder, a country in ruin, 
" and a treasury nearly empty ; I therefore wish to be informed what may be 
"the revenues of the state, so as to regulate the expenditure accordingly." 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 357 

Obaid Allah applied to a number of the kdtib$ for an answer to this demand, but 
they all required a month to draw one up. Abu '1-Hasan Ibn al-Furat and his 
brother al-Abbas, who were at that time out of place and detained in prison, 
received intelligence of what was going forward, and, in the space of two days, 
they drew up the answer and sent it in. As Obaid Allah knew that it would be 
impossible to conceal from the khalif who were the authors of the document, 
he mentioned them to him with commendation, and they were taken into favour. 
Ihn al-Fur&t had in his palace a room for the preparation of beverages (kujra 
$hardh), to which persona of all classes sent their servant boys to bring home 
whatever sherbets, beer, and sirops they required. He pensioned five thousand 
persons chosen from among the learned, the pious, the persons of respectable 
family, and the poor; most of them received one hundred dinars a month, and 
a few only five dinars or intermediate sums. As-Suli says ; " And one merito- 
'* torious part of his conduct, wherein no one had as yet set the example, was, 
*' that when papers were received by him containing accusations against any 
*' individual, one of his pages came into the antechamber and called out : 
" * Where is such a one, the informer (meoranj the author of Ute paper)'!' When 
'' people discovered this to be his regular custom, they abstained from all such 
" secret accusations." One day, in a burst of anger, he ordered a hundred itl8 
lashes of a whip to be inflicted on a man with whom he was displeased ; he 
then sent word to give him fifty lashes only ; and then he sent again to forbid 
the flogging and to give him twenty pieces of gold. This sum made the 
poor fellow amends for his fright. — As-Suli says that, on the vizir's recovery 
from an attack of sickness, he examined the letters and written applications 
which had accumulated during the interval, and (in that tiUmg) he perused one 
thousand letters and wrote his approval or negative on one thousand memorials. 
" We then said to each other," adds as-SdIi : ' By Allah ! let no one know of 
" ' this, lest the evil eye of some jealous person light upon him.' 1 remarked," 
says the same narrator, "as a striking example of his courtly manners, that 
" when he called for the kbalif's signet in order to seal any document, he stood 
" up to receive it, denoting thereby his high respect for the khalifs dignity. — 
" I saw him one day giving a public audience for the redress of grievances, 
*' and two men who were in litigation about some shops in al-Karkh ((Ae st^urb 
" o^fiojrhfiad} having come before him, he said to one of them; 'You presented me 



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3S6 fBN KBALUKAN'S 

" ' a memorial concerning these very ahdpsin theyear2i82(.5).' He tben added: 
'* ' Yet you are loo young to have been, the pera(>n.'— •■* It. was my iather/ re- 
*' plied the man. — * That is it,' said the vizir, < mod 1 wrott my decision ori his 
" * memorial.' " When he went out, he felt mucli displeased if persons walked 
nn foot before him to testify their respect : M 1 do not require such a thing of 
** my servaats," he would exclaim; "why thin should I require it from free- 
" born men who are under no obligation to me?" This Abu 'L-Hassan Ibu al- 
Furat and his son al-Muhassiu were pat to death by Naziik, the dommaoder «f 
the poHce guards, on Monday, the 13tbof the latterKabi, A.H. 312(July, A.D. 
924) . He was born on the 23rd of the latter Rabi, \: H. 241 (SeplembeTf A. D. 
855). His son al-Muhae^n diedat the age of thirty-three, years. The followii^ 
particularity is mentioned by the S^Ub Um Abbad {teevol. I. p- 212): " Abd 
" 'l-Hasan, the son of Abu Bakr al-AUaf, he who wai so notorioas for his immo- 
" derate appetite, recited to me the poems composed by his father on the cat 
" ''tee vol. I. p. 399), and told me that, by the eat, he meant al-Mubassin ; not 
" daring, during the disflstera of the family, to lament his fate openly or pro- 
" nounce his name." We shall here insert a most extraordinary anecdote: 
'* Some time after al-Mubassiu's death, his wife wished to cel^rate the circum- 
" cision of his son, and happening to see her husband in a dream, sbe men- 
" tioned to him that she should have much difficulty in providing for the expense 
" of the ceremony; on which he told her that he had deposited a sum of ten 
" thousand dinars in the hands of a person whom he named. When she awoke, 
'* she informed the family of the circumstance, and they questioned the man, 
" who acknowledged that he hbd the money, and brou^t it all to them inune- 
" diately." — Abu 'UAbbas Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Furat, the brother of 
Abtt 't-Hasan, was the most elegant penman of the age, and surpassed them 
also by his learning in the sciences and general literature. It was on him that 
the poet al-Bohtori composed the hattda which begins thus (6) : 

I passed the sight displayiag a feeling (of grief for thy abimce) and concealing a 
feeling (of joy] for the presence of thy image, sent me by thyself [to eontoU me in my 
dreamt], 

AbA '1-Abbas died on the eve of Saturday, the 15th of Ramadan, A. H. 291 
(August, A.D. 904). Another brother of his, Abd Khattab Jaafar Ibn Muham- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL MCTIONARY. 359 

mad, was offered the place of vixir, which, on his refusal, was giveD lo his sod 
AbA 'l-Fath al-Fadl Ihu Jaafar, ao able hitib and generally known hy the name 
of Ibn Hin^aba. His molher Hinzaba was a Greek slave. Al-Moktadir hillah 
eoaferred the vizirship on him, in A ■ .H. 320, on Monday, the 28th of the latter 
Rabi (May, A.D. 932); semesay that be was invested with that dignity on the first 
of the month just mentioned. He nemained id office tUl the 25th of Shawwal, 
A. H. 320 (October, A.J). 932), the dby on which al-^uktadir was murdered. 
Al-Kahir billah was then raised to the khalifate, and as Ahu Fath Ibn Hinznba 
had retired to a ^place of concealment, the vizirship' was conferred on Muhammad 
llm All Iba Mukla the kdUb. hhu 't-Fatfa was afterwards nominated director- 
general of the goveram^it offices under liie same khalif. Al-Kalur was deposed 
and blinded with a hot iron on Wednesday, the 6th of the first Jumada, A. H. 
322 (April, A. D. 934). His successor ar-Radi billah, the son of al-Muktadir sso 
billah, conferred the government of Syria on Abii 'l-Fath Ibi Hinzaba, who pro- 
ceeded to his post, and was residing at Aleppo when the same khalif dtose him 
for vizir and signed the act of his nomination on Sunday, the 13th of Shaaban, 
A. H. 325 (June, A. D. 937). A letter was then dispatched to him, by which 
he was directed to repair to the capital, and, on Thursday the 6lh of Shawwal, 
in the same year, he arrived at Baghdad. He remained there, however, but a 
short time, as he perceived that every thing was falling into confusion. Finding 
the emir Abit Bakr Muhammad Ibn Raik master of the city (7), he had a con- 
ference with him and was induced to return to Syria by the promise that the 
revenues of that province and of Egypt would be paid into his :hands. He 
arrived there on the 13lh of the first Rabi, A.H. 326 (January, A.D. 938), and 
died at Ghazza or at Ramla. Letters were aent to Baghdad announcing this 
event, and in them it was slated that his death took place on Sunday, the 8lh of 
the fu^t Jumada, A. H. 327 (March, A. D. 939). He was born on the eve of 
Saturday, the 22nd of Shaaban j A.H. 279 (November, A.D. 892) (8). During 
bis administration in Syria, all official documents were promulgated in his name. 
Of his son, Abu 'l-Fadl Jaafar Ibn al-Fadl, we have already spoken (vol. I. 
p. 31 9), and given the dates of his birth and death. — The facts o6ntained in this 
article were extracted by me from different sources, such as the History of the 
Vizirs by the-5(JAtfc Ibn Abbad, the OiyHn at-Siar (towcet of hUtory)^ by Mu- 
hammad Ibn Abd al-Mfdik al-Hamadani (9), and the Kiidb al-Wuxard {bwfk of 



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360 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

vxziri) by Abi^ Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Ahmad al-Farisi. But noae of those 
writers allude to the affair of Abd Allah Iba at-Molazz, although it is closely 
conaected with the history of Ibn al-Furikt ; it is therefore necessary that some 
notice of this occurrence should be takeo here ; and, as the Chronkle of Abd 
Jaafar Ibn Jarir at-Tabari surpasses all other historical works in the authenticity 
of its statements, we shall merely copy what thai author says under the head of 
Variout EvenU in A. B. 296 : " The leaders {of the troops) and the hAlibs (pfficen 
of the (ivil admm$tralwn) met for the purpose of deposing the khalif al-Mukta- 
" dir, and, a discussion arising as to whom they should put in his place, they 
" agreed unanimously to fix their choice on Abd Allah Ibn al-Motazz, After 
" some contestation, he expressed his readiness to accede to their wishes, on 
" condition that there should be neither bloodshed nor war. To this they 
" replied that the sovereign power would pass into his hands without opposi- 
*' tion, and that all the soldiers, olBcers, and h&tiht under their orders, were 
" ready to acknowledge him. They then took the oath of fealty towards him as 
^' khalif. The persons at the head of this plot were Muhammad Ibn Dawdd Ibn 
" aUJarrah (1 0) and Abu '1-Muthanna Ahmad Ibn Yakub the kadi, the former of 
'* whom induced a number of the general-ofiicers to employ violent measures 
'* against al-Muktadir and al-Abbas Ibn al-Hasan" — this last was then acting as 
vizir to the khalif. — >*' Al-Abbas Ibn al-Hasan was himself engaged in the conspi- 
" racy and had gained over a number of the generals to this project of de- 
" throning al-Mukladir and taking the oath of allegiance to Abd Allah Ibn 
" al-Motazz ; and when he found that his influence over al-Muktadir was suffi- 
" ciently established, he judged it time to execute his design, but, at that 
'* moment, the other conspirators fell upon him and slew him." — At-Tabari 
means to say that they slew the vizir. — " The perpetrators of this act were al- 
" Husain Ibn Hamdan and Wasif Ibn Sawartikin. This occurred on Satur- 
" day, the 19th of the first Rabi, and, on the next morning, Sunday, the katibs, 
" generals, and kadis deposed al-Muktadir at Baghdad and took the oath of fealty 
" to Abd Allah Ibn al-Motazz, whom they then surnamed ar-Badi hiUali {the 
" pieoOTTi^ by God'i favour). The person who administered the oath to the 
'* generals in the name of Ibn al-Motazz and called them forth successively, was 
Sfii '* Muhammad Ibn Said al-Azrak, kdtib of the army (secretary -general of the war 
'* d^rtment). The same day, from morning till noon, al-Husain Ibn Hamdan 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 3S1 

*' had to sustain an obstinate combat against the pages of the palace (11). On 
*' the same day, the assembly convened by Muhammad Ibn Dawud for the pur- 
" pose of taking the oath of fealty to Ibn al-Motazz was dispersed by force. The 
<' manner in which this happened was, thai the eunuch called Munis took some 
" of the pages of the palace in $hazawdl$" — Ibis word, with the people (ofBagh- 
"■ dad), signifies boaU — '* and mounted the Tigris with them. As they passed 
" the house in which Ibn al-Motazz and Muhammad Ibn Dawud were, they 
" raised an outcry against them and shot at them with arrows. The meeting 
" was thus obliged to disperse ; the soldiers, generals, and kdtib$ who were in the 
" house took to flight, and Ibn al-Motazz fled also. Some of those who had 
" sworn him fidelity now went to al-Muktadlr, and made excuses for their con- 
'* duct by stating that they bad been forcibly prevented from joining^ him ; others 
'* concealed themselves, but were sought after and put to death. The palaces 
** belonging to Ibn Dawild were pillaged by the mob, and Ibn al-Motazz was 
" one of those made prisoners." — Such is at-Tabari's statement. — We shall 
now give some facts which we have collected from various other sources : On that 
day, Abd Allah Ibn al-Motazz had chosen Muhammad Ibn Dawdd for vizir, and 
Abu '1-Muthanna for kddi. On the failure of the enterprise, Ibn al-Motazz was 
taken prisoner, and Ibn Dawud, who was one of the most accomplished men of 
his time and had composed a number of works, such as the KitSb (drWaraJta 
(book of leaves}, containing the lives of the poets, and the Kitdb at- Wuzard (book 
ofvizirt), retired to a place of concealment, and then discovered himself to Munis, 
the eunuch just mentioned ; but \bii '1-Hasan Aii Ibn al-Furat was afraid of 
him and advised Munis to put him to death, which was done. His body was 
cast into a ditch near al-Mamilniya (12}, hut was afterwards carried home. He 
was executed in the latter Rabi of that year; his birth took place in A. H. 243 
A. D. 857-8) on the very night in which Ibrahim Ibn al- Abbas as-SA)i expired. 
Al-Muktadir was then reinstated in his former authority, and, as his vizir al- 
Abbas Ibn al-Hasan had been put to death on the day mentioned by at-Tabari, 
he raised Abu i-Hasan Ali Ibn al Furat to the vacant post. One of the first 
proofs which the new vizir gave of his generous character was this : Two large 
coffers were brought to him from the house of Ibn al-Motazz, and he said to the 
hearers: "Do you know what is in them?" — "Yesj" they replied, "they con- 
" tain lists of tbe names of such persons as took the oath of allegiance to him." 

VOL. II. ^6 



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3«2 IBN KHALUKAN'S 

— " Open them not," he exclaimed; and theo ordering a (ire to be hroughl, he 
threw the coffers into it. When they were consumed, he said : *' Had 1 opened 
** them and read what was in them, I should have alienated from me the feelings of 
* ' all the people, and given them caii&e of dreading me ; hnt, hy what I have done, 
" their hearts will be calmed and their minds set at ease." — ^We may state, as a 
circumstance connected with this biographical notice, that, when the khalif al- 
Kahir billah was deposed and deprived of his sight, he was reduced to the uet-es- 
sity of going to the Mosque of al-Mansur at Baghdad and asking charity, men- 
tioning at the same time who he was. On one of those occasions Ibn Abi Musa 
al-Hashimi rose up and gave him one thousand pieces of silver. What a lesson 
is there for reflecting men .' — We have already given a notice on Abd Allah Ibn 
al-Motazz (vol. II. p. 41 ), but the subject which we have been just treating i-eii- 
dered some repetition necessary. What follows was copied by us from the 
Kitdb aUAayiln wa 'l-Atadthil (History ofiUtutriota and remarkable mm) hy the rdti 
Abii '1-Hasan Hiliil Ibn al-Muhassin as-Sabi (13) : "The anecdote which w*- 
" here insert is given in tlie words of the kddi Abu 'l-Husain Obaid Allah ibn 
" Abbas : A man who had been a long time out of employment, and had no 
" means left for his support, forged a letter in the name of Ahii 'l-Hasan Ibn al- 
" Furat and addressed to Ibn Zanbur al-Maridani (14), the a6mU of Egypt, 
" strongly recommending the bearer to him, and requesting that be should be 
*' treated with the utmost favour and kindness. On arriving at Old Cairo, he 
*' presented this letter to Ibn Zanbur, who conceived some doubts on the sub- 
" ject, as he perceived that the address was not drawn up in the usual form (15^, 
" and that the complimentary salutation was longer than that to which his rank 
'* entitled him. He therefore gave directions that the man should be closely 
" watched, and, having made him a small present, he detained him in the house 
sail " with fair promises. He then wrote to Abu 'l-llasan Ibn al-Furat, stating that 
" he had received a letter, which he enclosed, and requesting its authenticity to 
" be conflrmcd. Ibn al-Furat read the forged tetter, and found in it thai the 
" bearer, mentioning his name, was a person of high respectability, to whom 
" the writer had deep obligations, with other similar expressions usually em- 
" ployed in filling up letters of the kind. He then passed it to bis kdtibSf and 
" informed them of the whole circumstance, expressing at the same time his 
** astonishment at the man's audacity, and asking what was to be done with 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 363 

' with him. Some of them replied that he deserved to be flogged or impri- 
' soned; others, that his thumb should' be cut oil, so as to prevent him from 
* again committing such a criole, and discourage others from imilaliug him in 
' matters of more importance. The opinion of those who were the nrast indul- 
' gent was, that Ibn Zanbur should be informed of the circumstance, and receive 
' orders to expel the fellow and frustrate his expectations. On this Ibn al-Furai 
' replied: 'How far removed you are from nobleness and goodntss! how repul- 
' * sive are such qualities to your nature ! Here is a man who employs our medi- 
' ' ation and endures the fatigues of a journey to Egypt, in hopes of furthering 
■' ' his welfare through our influence, and of procuring, through the favour oC 
'' ' Almighty God, some advantage for himself by stating that he is connected 
' 'with us; yet, according to the most indulgent among you, this man is to 
' ' receive no better treatment than to have his favorable opinion of ourself be- 
'' ' lied, and his efforts terminated in disappointment ! By Allah ! that shall never 
'' ' be !' He then took a pen out of his ink-bottle and wrote these words on the 
" foi^^ed letter : ' This is my letter, and 1 know not how you could have sus- 
' ' pccted the hearer or disappointed him; you cannot know all the persons who 
" ' have served us or placed us under obligations. This man has rendered us 
" ' services in the days of our disgrace, and what we consider a meet recompense 
" ' for his deserts would far surpass that which we have granted him in recom- 
" ' mending bim to your patronage ; aid him therefore in his pursuit, make him 
" ' an ample donation, and employ him in some lucrative occupation, so that he 
" ' may return to us with (o fortune) sufficient to prove that his expectations were 
" ' just and his reception honorable.' On that very day, he sent oif the letter to 
" Ibn Zanbur. A great length of time tlien elapsed when, one day, a man of 
" respectable appearance and elegantly dressed came into the presence of Abu 
" 'UHasan Ibn al-Furat, and, going up to him, offered up prayers for his wel- 
" fare and extolled his virtues; he then burst into tears and kissed the ground 
" before bim. ' God's blessing be on thee!" exclaimed Ibn al-Furat, 'who art 
" ' thou ?' — ' I am the author of the forged letter addressed to Ibn Zanbdr, and 
" ' which-was authenticated by thy generosity and kindness; may God reward 
*''thee!' Ibn al-Furlt smiled and said: 'How much didst thou gain by 
"'bimV' — 'The sum which I received from him and the subscriptions 
" ' which he obtained for me from the agents and other persons under his juris- 



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m IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

' ' dictioD, joiDed to the employmeDt which be gave me, have produced me 
' ' twenty ihousaDd pieces of gold.'—' Praise be to God!' replied Ibn al-Furat; 

* ' attach thyself to our person, and we shall place thee in a situation whereby 
' ' thy fortune may be increased still more.' He then put his talents to the 

* proof, and finding him an able (16) kdtib, he admitted him into his service, and 
' thus enabled him to acquire great wealtli." 



(1) Thi« life it omitled in the auU^nph. 

(3) In Hekki the iurai wis ihe twentf-rourtfa ptn of the dinAr, or gold piece; but, in Irik, it wu the 
twentieth. The dindr of that time mif be valued at fourteen ifallllngB, and the karat will be then equal to 
eigfatpence halfpenny. The monn li generally coniidered as equivalent to two poiindi tnj weight, fron 
which maj he deduced that the price of wai'JighIa augmented fonrpence farihiug a pound In congequence of 
the demand. Thif i* by no meana so great a liie in the price ti the author would hare ni to luppoie. 

(3) Throughout thii article, the word katib denote! a penon eroplojed in Ihe civil aervice. 

(J) See vol. I. page 39, note (4), and vol. II. page* 3W, 300. 

(8) Thia date ii falie ; Ibn al-Purlt Bnt eierciMd the tiinctlona of virir in the year MS, ai bii been alivady 

|6) See die Mwdn of il-6ohtori, MS. No. 1393, fol. 102, where thii poem is given. 

(7) See Abo 'l-Fedl'i AnnaU, year 334 e( $tq. 

{H) Here, in ih% Arabic teat, for ^ .^ read ijf*-^. 

(9) See vol. I. page 40S. 

(10) See vol. I. page 3B, note («}. 

(f 1) The pages of the Hoalim graadeei were slaves bought at a very early age and educated at the children 
of the family. They were especially instructed in warlike eiercltea, and usually lodged togeUitr In a sepa- 
rate eitablisfanient, where they lived under a discipline partly conventual and partly miltlary. 

(12] " The quarter of Baghdad called al-Udrntudf/a is of great length and breadth, and eitendi from the 
'■ canal (or river) al-Hualla ^JjJt to the gale of al-Aiaj."— (JfardaM al-IIUId.) 

(13] His life wUl be found in this work. 

(14) AbCi Ali al-'Husain Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rustum al-Hlridkni, generally known by the name of Ibn ZanbAt 
(not AhA Zanbflr, as the manuscripts have it throughout this article), wu a kdttb of great abilities, and had 
been employed by Hk TAIAn family. He was afterwards presented by the khalif al-Muktadlr to Ibn al- 
Furlt that his talents might be put to the proof, and this eiaminalion procured him the post of collector 
of the land-tax In Egypt. Having incurred at a later period Ihe displeasure of the khalif, he was suntmoned to 
Baghdad and fined in Ihe sum of three million sii hundred thousand pieces of gold. He then returned to 
Egypt with MCiniB the eunuch, and he died al Damascus, A.E. 314 (A.D. 936-7). He taught some Traditions 
on the authority of Abb Hafs at-Attir, and his own autbority as a iraditlonitt was cll«d by ad-Dlrakutni.— 
{An~ltt^iam) 

(IB) Here, in the Arabic text, I should prefer ^ to ^_^, but Ihe manuscript! give the latter reading. 

(16] Id place of IajJ.^ I am certain that we must read tjjj_. It is true that the manuscripts give the 
former reading, hut here, u In other places of this notice, ihey »n evidently in the wrong. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



ALI IBN YUNUS THE ASTRONOMER. 

Abd 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Abi Said Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Ahmad Ibn Ydnus Ibn 
Abd al-Aala as-Sadafi (1 ), a native of Egypt and a celebrated astronomer, is the 
author of the az-Ztj oi-HdAimt (the HaHmite tables), called also Zij Ibn Y^nm, a 
lai^ work, of whicb I have seen a copy in Four volumes (2). In this treatise he 
amply discusses the subject and indicates the application of the rules which are 
there given, whilst its correctness testifies the great care with which it was drawn 
up. 1 have seen many works containing astronomical tables, but never met 
with one so full as this. The author states that the person by whose orders he 
commenced it was al-Azlz, the father of al-Hakim, and sovereign of Egypt. He 
made astronomy his particular study, but he was well versed in other sciences 
and displayed an eminent talent for poetry. His work is so highly esteemed for 
.for correctness, that, like the Zij of Yahya Ibn Abi Mansur (3), it is taken by 
the people of Egypt as their standard authority in calculating the position of the 
heavenly bodies. (Hi$ moral character was to well eitabUthed thatj in the month 
of the first Jumada, A. H. 380 (July-Aug. A.D. 990), the kitdi Muhammad Ibn 
an-Noman (5) appointed him to act as odl (4). He left an only son, whose stu- 
pidity was so great (6) that he sold to the soap-makers all his father's books 
and works at so much a pound. Ali Ibn Yunus spent his life in making astro- 
nomical observations and calculating nativities (7), wherein he displayed une- 
qualled skill; he would even make long stations in order to get an observation 
of a star. The emir al-Mukhtltr al-Musabbihi says: "1 was told by AbA 'l-Ha- 
** san at-Tabarani, the astronomer, that he went up with Ibn Yi^nus to Mount S: 
" Mukatlam and made a station there, with the intention of taking an observa- 
' ' tion of the planet Venus ; and that, on arriving, he took off his cloak and tur- 
" ban, which he replaced by a woman's gown and hood, both of a red colour; 
" he then produced a guitar, on which he commenced playing, whilst he kept 
" perfumes burning before him : It was, says he, an astounding si^t!" The 
same writer says, in his History of Egypt : "Ibn Yunus was a careless and ab- 
" sent man; he would wind his turban-cloth around a higb^>eaked cap and 
" place his cloak over that; he was himself very tall, and when he rode out. 



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3M IBN KHALUKAN'S 

" the people used to laugh at him for his odd figure, his shabby appearance, 
*' and tattered dress. But, DOtwithstanding the strangeness of his aspect, he 
" was singularly fortunate in his astrological predicUotK, aod therein remained 
without a rival." He was versed in a great variety of sciences, and played on the 
guitar, hut merely as an amateur. The following is a passage from his poetry : 

When the breeze begins to blow, 1 charge it vith a message from a passionate lover 
to the presence of his beloved. I would sacrifice my life for her, whose aspect gives 
life to our souls and whose presence perfiimes and rejoices the world. 1 swear that 
since her departure, I left my wine-cup untouched ; it was absent from me, because she 
was absent. And what renews my passion is her image appearing in my dreams, ap- 
proaching at midnight, unseen by jealous spies (8). 

He composed a great quantity of poetry. We have ah^eady spoken of his 
father (vol. II. p. 93), and we shall give a notice on his (gr«rt-}grandfather in the 
letter Y. It is related that at one of aUHakira al-Obaidl the (Fatirmte) sovereign 
of Egypt's private parties, mention was made of Ibn Yunus and his absence of 
mind, on which this prince mentioned the following circumstance : " He came. 
" into my presence one day with his heavy shoes in hiS' hand, and, after kissing 
" the ground, he sat down and placed them hy his side; I saw both them and 
** him, for he was cfuite near me; and when he thought of retiring, he kissed 
" the ground, brought forward his shoes, put them on, and withdrew (9)." 
This anecdote seems given as a proof of his inattention and carelessness. Al- 
Musabbihi aays that he died suddenly on Monday morning, the 3rd of Shawwal, 
A. H. 399 (June, A. D. 1009). The funeral service was said over him in the 
principal mosque of Old Cairo by the k&di Malik Ibn Said Ibn Ahmad Ibn Mu- 
hammad Ibn Thawwab, and he was buried in his own dwelling, situated in the 
quarter inhabited by the furriers. 



(1) See vol. II. page 04. 

(2^ ADanaljds of the Br«t volume of (his work hat been published, by M.CauMin p4re,in the seventh volume 
of the yotieet tt Sxtrattt. He has inserted tberela the live* of Ibn YAnui, of hfs btber Abd ar-BahmlD the 
E^fplUn historiaii, aod his greal-grandfather YOnui Ibn Abd al-AU ; all eiincied from Ibn Khallilttn's worli 
and irantlaud bj himself. Some of the passages in these teils are ineorrecll; given aod others wrong 
rendered. 

(3) ^t».i,jy^j> «^t ^1.— Yah^a Ibn Abi HansOr al-MamCinl (cKent of tht khatif al-Mamltn), an astro- 
nomer of great talent, tcquired by hit tkill a high rank Id the favour of the khallf al-HtnOn. aod when that 



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BIOGRAPHICAL MCnONABY. 8«7 

toTtraign decided that obMiratioD^ ^utd be made on the Btin, he chai^ lAjt and some othen wiOi iW 
uak.aDd directed them lo ■meliorate their iDslrumeDts. Tbej in coDieqoeDce made obwrratlanf al ai-Sham- 
mltija, Dear Baghdad, aad MouDt Kiilrtin, near Damatcua, in the jean 21S (A. D. 830), 216, and 217, hui 
the death of al-HamAo, In SIB, put a «top to their operations. Yabja died in Ibe land of the Greeks (Btidd 
or-Ktm, or Aiia Mtaor). He ia the author of the aalronoaiical taUet called a%-ZaiJ al-JfumlnAln, and a 
work, apparentlf astrological, entitled iTlIdb al-Atnl ( J,>»)1).— (TdriJtA a^Bultama.) 

(4) See vol. I. page 281, note [8). 

(Sj The adl {juttice) is an officer eierciaing, with the authorisation of (he kAdi, the hinctiont of witness 
to the bond*, deeds, and conlnctt entered into bj individuals; they pot their seal to these documents, and 
«4ien a ItUgation arise* atttrvarde between the ronlraciing parties, their testimony ii required. In all the 
large ciliea the odii have offitet nhere they receive persons making contracla, and lerre u wiUessei to the 
It bole proceeding, whether it be a verbal or aitritten agreement. In the last case, it is the adl who draws up 
the deed. To be eligible to these functlont a man must not only be well aeqnainted with the laws relatire to 
coDTeoiiona and obligations, and capable of writing then out in pioper fom, bat he must also bear a high 
character for inlegritj, and be eiempl even from the sDipicioD of corraption. It is one of Ibe kitdf s duties lo 
kee p a waicfafiil eye over the conduct of these ttmctionariea. The ofBee of adl was established by Muham- 
mad himself; we read in ibe fordo, Sorat S, verse 232: "0 true believers! when yon bind yourselves one lo 
" the other in a debt for a certain lime, write it down, and let a writer write between yon according to 
" jiutie* (adl) ; and let not the writer refuse writing according to what God faaOi taught him." 

(6 ) Ihis passage eilsta no longer in the aniograph ; it was written on a Oy-leaf, which has bllen out. Here, 
for UIast*, I have no hesitation in reading IJalj*. 

(7) It Diusl be recollected Ibal, vilh the HosliniB, iBtrononiy and astrology are lynonymoua. Their moil 
learned astronomers were also their moil skilful aitrologers. They felt, probably, that truth could not make 
iia way unless protected by (iilsehood. 

(8) See vol. L p. iiivi.— H. Cauaiin bai given these verses in hii notice, but imagines that the lad relates 
lo some star or planet which was long watched Utt, but did not appear. It seemi to me, however, Ibat neither 
the grammatical coniiruction of the verae nor the genius of Arabic poetry will allow Ibb Inlerpretallon. 

[B] Common poHtenea* required thai the shoe* should have been letl ontaide the door. 



OMARA TAL-YAMANI THE JURtSCONSULT. 

The jurisconsult (al^fakth) AhA Muhammad (1) Omara tibn Abi '1-Hasan Ali 
Ibn Raidan IbD Ahmad al-Hakami al-Yamani, surnamed Najm ad-din ($tar of 
religion), bore a high reputation as a poet. I extracted the following particulars 
from one of his works: He drew his descent from Kahtan through al-Hakam Ihn 
Saad al-Ashira (2) of the tribe of Madhij, and was an inhabitant of a i-ity 



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368 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

situated in th« province of Tihama in Yemen, and called Mertan ; it lies in the 
valley of Wasaa at eleven days' distance south of Mekka. This was the place 
of his hirth and early youth. He attained the age of puberty in A. H. 529 
(A. D. 1 1 34-5), and, two years after, he proceeded to Zabld, where he took up 
his residence and studied jurisprudence during four years in one of the colleges 
(wA«A ftCMterf) there. In A.H. 549 (A.D. H54-5), he made the pilgrimage, and 
was dispatched by K&sim Ihn Hashim Ibn Faltta (3), the sovereign of Mekka, as 
his envoy to Egypt. He entered that country in the month of the first Rabi, 
A.H. 550 (May, A.D. 1155); the reigning sovereign at that time was al-Faiz, the 
son of az-Zafir, who had for vizir as-Salih Ibii Ruzzik (vol. /. p. 657). On 
his first presentation, he recited, in the presence of both, his celebrated kattda 
rhyming in m, which we here give : 

Now, that my resolves are accomplished and my anxiety is past, let praises be given 
4 to the camels for the services they rendered. I shall not deny dieir right to my grati- 
tude, and I reserve for them a recompense which will canse the bridles {of bone*) to 
envy the honour conferred on the halters [of cameh). They brought the glorious term 
of a distant journey within my sight, so that I beheld the im9m of the nations in this 
age. They went forth at eve from the Kaaba of al-Bathd and the Haram, to visit the 
Kaaba of generosity and nobleness. Did the temple know, that on leaving it, I should 
only pass from one haram (tanetuary) to another (k) ? They journeyed to the spot 
where the pavilion of the khalifate is reared aloft between the opposite qualities of 
mildness and severity. There the rank of imAm shines with holy light, to dissipate the 
hateful mists of ignorance and tyranny. There the prophetic spirit {of Muhammad ililt 
lurvivetand) shows us signs, dedaring the two great tmlhs of justice and of wisdom (5j. 
There stand the trophies of noble deeds, to teach us how to praise the double grandeur 
of might and generosity. There the tongues of glorious exploits extol the double merit 
of manly acts and generous feelings. There (he triumphant standard of true nobility is 
borne on high by the two lofty ( fetlingi) of honour and just ambition. Confident of 
obtaining salvation and the reward of my sincerity in this oath, 1 swear by al-FAiz the 
pure, that he has protected religion, the world, mankind! aided by his vizir as-SAlih, 
the dispeller of afHictiong, him who wears a raiment of honour woven by these skilful 
artisans, the sword and the pen. In his existence the times find that lustre which 
they wanted ; and, through his beneficence, they who complained of want have dis- 
appeared. His noble deeds have given him an empire which might ftirnish to the very 
Pleiads a prouder exaltation than their own. I see here such majestic dignity, that 
though awake, the aspect seems to me a dream. This is a day of my life which never 
entered into my hopes, and to which my most ardent wishes never aspired. O that the 
stars would draw near to me I I should form with them a necklace of eulogium ; for, 
in praising you, I deem words insuflicienl. Here also the vizirate offers (6) to the 
khalifate its loyal counsels on which no suspicion was ever cast. I behold those marks 
of attachment which teach us that they are bound together, not by ties of blood, but by 
mutual esteem. A khalif and his vizir, whose justice extends a protecting shade over 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 369 

and the natioDs. Compared with their generosity, the Nile's increase is but a 
diminished stream ; and might not even the copious rains be considered as vanquished ? 

This katida was highly admired by them, and procured a lai^c donation for 
the author. He remained in Egypt, in the enjoyment of ease and honours, till 
the month of Shawwal, A.H. 550 (December, A.D. H55), when he returned to 
Mekka, and, in the month of Safar, A. H. 551 (April, A.D. 1 1 56), he proceeded 
from thence to Zabid. That same year he made the pilgrimage, and was again 
sent as an envoy to Egypt by Kasim, the sovereign of Mekka. He then settled 
at Cairo and never left it after. I have read, however, in the work designed by 
him as a history of Yemen, that he left his native place in the month of Shaaban, 
A. H. 552. He belonged to the Shafite sect, and was zealously attached to the 
doctrines of the Surma ; as an accomplished scholar and a poet his talents were 
pre-eminent, and in society his conversation was most instructive. The vizir 
as-Siilih, his sons, and the rest of the family treated him with the very utmost 
favour, and although their reli^ous opinions differed from his, t}iey made him 
their constant companion on account of his Social qualities. He composed a 
great number of eulogiums on as-Salih and his sons. We have already men-S2tt 
lioned something of bim in the lives of Shawar and as-Sahh (vol. I. pp. 61 and 
659), where we have noticed also the elegy which he wrote on the death of that 
vizir. A close intimacy subsisted between him and al-Kamil, the son of Shawar, 
hut it was broken off by the latter when his father was raised to the vizirate. 
On this occasion, the poet addressed to him the following lines : 

If fortune leave thee not in peace, make war against her ; and if your nearest friends 
serve thee not, remove to a^r. Despise not the wiles of the feeble; serpents have 
been sometimes killed by the envenomed sting of the scorpion. In days of old, a 
hoopoe shook the throne of Balkis (7], and, before that, a rat destroyed the dike of 
Mftrib (8). Since life is the most precious of onr riches, spend it not without necessity. 
The vicissitudes of night and day form a field of battle where the troops of misfortune 
assail us in unwonted ways. The faithlessness of youth afflicts me not; I am accus- 
tomed to this defect in all my companions. The young man's deceit lies in his pro- 
mises and their fulfilment, and that of the sword is when its edge rebounds harmless 
off the foe. 

In this poem is contained the following passage : 

Since my mouth is the mine from which those jewels are taken, preserve it from kiss- 
ing the hands of the charitable. I have seen men banquetting at thy house, whilst I 



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870 IBN KHALLKAN-S 

had no olher companions but ibe moarners. I witfadrev when your eicellency pre- 
ferred them to me ; the lion •corns to let the foxes precede bun. Tell me how they Gil 
the place which 1 once held as thy preferred lieutenantl Those irere the nights in which 
I sung your praises to (he company, who listened in respectful silence, and nodded their 
approbation (9). 

Od the fall of the (Fatimite) dynasty and the establishment of the sultan Salah 
ad-din's authority, Omira, who was still in the country, composed some poems 
in honour of that prince and of other members of the (AiyHbite) family, all of 
which are still to be found in the collection of his poetical works. He addressed 
to Salah ad-din also a koiida, wherein he painted his situation and the misery to 
which he had been reduced. This piece, which he entitled : Sbikdya tal-MiUa- 
zallim wa Pfikdya tal-Mutadllim (complaint of the oppreued and paini of the afflicted) 
is embellished with all the graces of composition. He wrote also a long poem, 
rhyming in /, wherein he deplores the fate of the People of the Palaee (the Fatimite 
fatniiy) on the ruin of their power ; like most of his pieces, it is beautifully writ- 
ten. ' He then embarked in some proceedings connected with a conspiracy got 
up by eight of the principal officers of the city, who, being devoted partisans of 
the Egyptians (Ike Falimites)^ had conceived the design of restoring them to the 
throne. Bilt the sultan Salah ad-din discovered the plot and had them all stran- 
gled, including the jurisconsult. This execution took place at Cairo on Saturday, 
2nd of Ramadan, A.H. 569 (April, A.D. 117A); they had been arrested on Sun- 
day, the 26th of Shaaban of that year. Omara tal-Yamani left a number of 
works, and, amongst them, a history of Yemen furnishing much important 
information, and a treatise called an-Nukat al^Atriya fi Akhbdr U-Wuzard tl-Jfu- 
rn/a (contemportmi anecdotes reapeeting the vizin of Egypt) (10). The kdtib Imad 
ad-din al-Ispahani says of him in the Khartda: "His body was exposed on a cross 
*' with those of the other persons who had been accused of plotting against him" 
— meaning against the sultan Sa\hh ad-din — "and of inviting the Franks (the 
" cnaaders) by letter to come and assist in placing the son of al-Aadid on the 
" throne. But they had received among them a man belonging to the army, 
" who was not a native of Egypt, and this person went to Salah ad-din and in- 
" formed him of what was going on. The prince had them brought before him, 
" and they sought not to deny the accusation, neither did they consider their 
" conduct as a thing to he denied; he therefore cut short the path of Omara's 
"life and replaced bis flourishing existence by destruction. This affitir was 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 3T1 

'* marked by some peculiar circumstances; the first, that he was accused of com- 
" posing a koiUa which contained this verse : 

' This religioD (Iilamitm) took its origin with a roan who aspired to be called the lord SS6 
' of nations.' 

" It is possible that this verse was attributed to him falsely, but nevertheless 
' ' the jurisconsults of Egypt declared that he merited death, and they importuned 
*' Salah ad-din to make an example of hira. The second, that he was engaged 
'* in an affair in which failure is never pardoned, neither is any respect shown to 
" a literary man, were he even the star of learning in the heavens of poetry and 
" prose (11). The third, that he had satirised an emir who counted this as one 
" of his crimes; so destruction came upon him whilst in the midst of his sins." 
Towards the end of the same article, he says: "A strange thing it was that 
" Omara, who had refused to attach himself to the doctrines of these people (the 
" FaHmitei) when they yet held their station, should have been so completely 
" blinded hy fate as to wish to take their part and restore them to power ; an un- 
" dertaking which cost him his life." Here the writer alludes to some verses 
which were addressed by as-Salih Ibn Ruzzlk to Omara, pressiog him to become a 
Shiite. They are given by Imad ad-din in the same page where he makes this 
observation (12). — Jfadhi/'i means descended fromModhij; the real name of Madhij 
was Mahk, the son of Odud Ibn Zaid Ihn Yashjuh ; he was so denominated be- 
cause he was horn at a red hill in Yemen called Madhij, but other reasons have 
also been given. 



(1) [mid id-dln givei htm the SDTDtme of AbQ Htm». 

(l>SwTol.I.pieel06. 

(3) Ibn KkflUiUn ha> fallen ialo a miiuke. This emit'i nuoe «u KItim IbD lb) PaliU. He b«caiiM 
Mvereign ofMekka on the death orhii father Ab& Fallta in A. H. S27 [A. D. 1132-3), and was murdered in 
A.H. OH (A.D. 1161) bf an Miafsla (haihUhij/a) who, accordiog to common report, had been employed bj 
al-AldJd, the wverelgo of Egjpt, to eommli that deed.— (Ibn Khaldtn; Ko. 2402 C, fol. W verio). 

(4] See ToL I. page 15, note [*). 



iJ^. 



(6) I r«ad jj^b in the autograph. 

(7) See Koran, Burat 27, and the notes of Sale in his translation. 

(8) See M. d« Sack's Mintoire ntr ihim ivitmnmtt At Vhittoirt Am Arabtt avmt JfaAomat, i 
nwrst da VAeadimii (1m In*eripti»tf, torn. 48. 



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372 IBN KHALLIKANS 

i9) Literally: TMt talk «u a aign of tbe efebrow. 

(10) A cop; of thii work, apparently corrected by Ihe author, u io Uie Bib. dti Jtot.aDcien fonda No. 810. 
H« hai iDiNted in it a number of his owd potini, and be glvei an account of hia intercourM viUi tbe liiira 
^Uivar and aa-Stlib. 

(11) k» the ityle of Imld ad-dio ia more remarkable for aounding phraiei than for lenae, It cannot be 
expected that he abould be more intelligible in Engliih than in Arabic. 

(ISj See HS. No. 1414, fol. Kl verto. Ai-SUib olltred bim a large lum to induce him (o beeoBe a 
ShHie. 



OMAR IBN ABI RABIA. 



Ahii '1-Khatt4b Omar Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Abi Rabia Ibn al-Mogbaira Ibn Abd 
Allah Ibn Omar Ibn Makhzdm Ibn Yakaza Ibn Murra al-MakhzAmi, the best 
poet ever produced by the tribe of Koraish, is celebrated for his amatory pieces, 
repartees, adventures, and disorderly life ; of these, some stories are told which 
are well known (1 ). The person whom he courted in his verses was alh-Thuraya, 
the daughter of Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Harith Ibn Omaiya al-Asghar (ihe 
kit) (2) Ibn Abd Shams Ibn Abd Manaf, a member of the Omaiyide family. As- 
Suhaili says, in his ar-itauci al-0nuf(3) that she was the daughter of Abd Allah, 
without mentioning Ali ; be then adds : " Kutaila, the daughter of an-Nadr, was 
'' her grandmother, being the wife of al-Harith Ibn Omaiya and the mother 
" of Abd Allah, the father of ath-Thuraiya." This Kutaila was the same who, 
af^r the battle of Badr, recited to the Prophet the verses rhyming in ft, when he 
had put to death her father an-Nadr ibn al-Harith Ibn Alkama Ibn Katada Ibn 
Abd Manaf Ibn Abd ad-Dar Ibn Kusai, surnamed al-Abdari (after his ancestor 
Abd ad-Ddr). Some say that an-Nadr was her brother. Amongst the verses 
which she recited were these : 

O Muhammad, son of the noblest of her race by a generous sire I it had not harmed 
thee (o pardon ; the hero, though roused to anger, sometimes pardons. An-Nadr would 
have been thy best mediator, hadst tiiou tell him {alive] ; and he vas the worthiest of 
liberty, were captives to be set free. 

On this the Prophet said : * ' Had I heard her verses before I put him to death, 
" I should not have done so." This an-Nadr bore a violent enmity lo the Pro- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 373 

j^et, but, beiDg made prisoner at the battle of Badr and taken to Medina, Mu- 
hammad ordered Ali the son of Abii T&lib, or according to another account, aU 
Mikdad Ibn al-Aswad, to execute him. He was put to death in cold blood, and 
in Muhammad's presence, at as-Safr^, a place between Medina and Badr. Ath- 
Thuraiya was renowned for her beauty, and became the wife of Suhail Ibn Abd 
ai^Rahman Ibn Auf az-Zubri, by whom she was taken to Egypt. It was on this 
occasion that Omar Ibn Abi Rabia composed the following verses in allusion to 
the well-known stars Suhail (Canopw) and ath-Thuraiya (the Pleiads), and which 
have since become proverbial : 

O thou who joioest in marriage alh-Thuraiya and Suhail, tell me, I pray thee, how tJU? 
can Ihey ever meet ? The former rises in the north-east, and the latter in the south-east ! 

It was from this ath-Thuraiya and her sister Aaisha that al-Gharid, the cele- 
brated singer (4) and the idhib of Mabad (5) received his liberty. The real 
name of al-Gbarid was Abd at-Malik and his surname Abu Zaid ; otrGharid and 
(U-Ighrid are names given to the ftower-bud of the date-tree, and he was so called 
for his fair complexion or for its freshness. — The following verses are by Omai' 
Ibn Abi Rabia : 

Greet the image of my beloved, come to visit me when slumber prostrated the noc- 
turnal conversers. It approached, in a dream, under theshadesof night; being un- 
willing to visit me by day. I exclaimed : " Why am I treated so cruelly? Before this, 
" 1 used to hear her and see her." The vision replied : " I am as thou hast known me, 
'* but the favour thou demandest is too precious to be granted (6)." 

He was bom on the night in which Omar Ibn al-Kbattab was murdered; this 
was the eve of Wednesday, the 25th of Zu '1-Hijja, A. H. 23 (November, A. D. 
644). He lost his life in A. H. 93 (A. D. 71 1 -2), at the age of seventy ; being 
then embarked on a naval expedition against the infidels, in which they de- 
stroyed his ship by fire. Al-Haitham Ibn Adi states that he died A.H. 93, aged 
eighty years. His father' Abd Allah lost his life in Sijistan, A. H. 78 (A. D. 
697-8) (7). When it was mentioned in the presence of al-Hasan al-Basri (vol. I, 
p. 370), that Omar Ibn Abi Rabia came into the world on the night in which 
Omar Ibn al-Khattab fell by the hand of a murderer, he exclaimed: "What 
" worth was removed from the world on that night, and what worthlessness was 
" brought into it !" The poet's grandfather, Abii Rabia, bore the surname of 



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374 nN KHALURAM'S 

Z6 'r-Rumbain (the bearer of tiie two lanca) ; his real name was Omar or Hu- 
daifa, but some say that he had onlji a surname. His father Abd Allah was the 
uterine brother of Abil Jahl Ibn Hish^ al-Makhzumi (8) ; their mother's name 
was Asma, the daughter of Mukharnba (9), of the tribe of MakhtAm, or, by 
another account, of the tribe of Nahsbal ; Abd AUab and Abu Jahl were also 
cousins, their fathers, Abu Rabia and Hishlim, being the sons of al-Maghaira 
Ibn Abd Allah. 



il) S«e KoMfirien's Atii lipaha»t«nii$ Idbtr Cand'Jmarum, toward* the beginDing of the work. 

(3] Thit Omafj* was detignaled u tht t«$t. to diitiognUh hln from a brother of the Nme name; it wit 
from the latter that the Omairidei drew their deaceat— (Sea Ibu Kbaldflo MS. No, 3003, 3, fol. 137, and 
Eichbora'a Monvmenia, pp. 8S, 86.) 

(3) See vol. II. page 99. 

(4) Le vMlable Dom da ce chanteur tuil Abdelmdlik ; le sobriquet de Gbtridh lui avait ili ioaat a eauM 
de la fralcheur de sod teint. II ttait alfrancbi de* acsuri Corajcbftei appeMei collectiTement El-abaUt 
tj^A-*j\ et qui ttaient Thou ray ya Ij >±)i, amante d'Omar-ibn-abl-rabia, Roudba^a lx« ,, Courajba W>i 
et Oumm-OthmlD, Biles d'Abdallab, m de Hlrilb, Bli d'Ommeyra-el-Aigbar. Gbarldh iuil Hekkois ; d'aboid 
lailleur.puii lervitevr d'lbu Souraydj, cbn lequel ses maltresses I'aTaieDt jiltei. It apprit les airs d'lbn Souraydj 
qui en ful jaloui el I'^loigna de lui. Gbarldh devini son rival et I'^gala dans le chant dea complajntes fUnibres 
_. J , ce qui porta Ibn ^urajdj i abandonner ce genre. Le pr^nom de Gbarldb dtall AJkoiiyeild- II Malt doih 
seulement cbanteur tris-dlslingud, mai* eocore bon compositeur et instrumentiste habile, tl jouail du lutb el 
du tambour de basque. II aTall en outre une figure cbarmante et un esprit dei plui agrtebles. MB, fill d'AI- 
cama, £tant gouverneur de la Mekke pour le caUfe Welld, fils d'Abdelmf lik. Gbarldh, par crainte de cet offider, 
qui Mait uiimi coDire lui de sentiments Ires-malveillants, quitia la Mekke et se rM^ia dans le Yemen. 11 j 
passa quelque temps et j mourul, sout le califat de Soulejmin, fils d'Abdelmtlik.— (A. Ciiuiin de Percival.) 

(B) The word tdhib signifies friend, companion, maitir, pupil. Its meaning here ii doubtful, as ma; be 
seen hj the folloviog note:— Gbarldh n'a (U ui le mallre ni VHiye de Mabed. II i>e paralt pas non plus qu'il 
ait tit son ami. L'eipression J^.xt ■ -f-^-f ijsi jii\ pourrait lignilier Ghartdh rival dt Uabed, matt U 
semble que ce serait faire irop d'bouneur a Gbarldh, qui est gtn^ralemeni regards comma Ir^'inKrieur a 
Mabed. Peut-£lre le sens de cetle eipression est-il sim*plement Gkar14 gui eui una avenlttri av«e Mabad. 
Je n'ai recueilli qn'ooe aeule anecdote dam laquelle Gbaridh Bgure arec Mabed. On la trouvera dans la courie 
notice qui suit: 

Abou Abbtd Habed, fils de Wahb, d'autres disenl de Cotr, M^dinois, chanteur et compositeur fameui, 
jiait, Buivant les uns, affranchi de Hoania, Bis d'Abou Sofjan ; suivanl les aulrea, affranchi de la famille de 
WlbiiBa, branobe dee Benou Makbioum. Son pire £tait noir, Ini-mAme Mail muUtre, grand de taille et 
louche. Sa Toii Hail superbe, 11 poistdait k fond I'art musical. C'ritait le prince des cbanleurs de Mediae. II 
«iait iliyt de SUb Kbalbir JU. >—^}~', de Dj^lU, et de Cachit le Penan o-.'i}! .laJui), aOnncbi 
d'Abdallab, Bit de Djafar. Ud poete a dii de Mabed: 

aThouwBTs et apr^g lui Ibn SuraTdj ont Hi d'babilei artistes, mais la palme du talent appartient a Mabed.> 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 375 

On racoDle qn'UiD Sourajdj el Ghtridb, qui Umh deut imient nee grtnde NpuialioD a la Hekke, m mirent 
un jour eo roui« pour HUiiie, dans rintcnlioD A'j montrer leur taleal da chinleurt, et d'f recueillir )e« dOD< 
det amateurs de muiique. Ed arrimit au lieu ippeU li lavotr *' ■ *jM, il< Tireot ud jeuae homme portani 
h la main un Met pour Ii chaste am otieaui. qui patta deranl eni en chantani lei ven d'Alwu Catlft: 

« Le chtieau, let palrolen et le terroir de Djemma qui lei f^pare, lont plui agrtablea k mon c<xur 
• que let portM de Djiroun,* etc. 

Snrprii de la beauty de I'air et du duniM 4e la voii du jenne bomoM, lli I'accoitirent et le pMreni de 
Ttptier M chanson. Habed, car c'dtait lui, les MtisGt,et ccntiDuaMU cbemln. Ibu Suraydj et Gbarldli reitirenl 
jtuptfaila. ■ Que dU-tu de ceUT> demands Gbarldh i sod compagnoD.— ■ SI ud jeuue chaueur de MMIne, 
■ r^ndit Ibu Soaraydj, a pu noui frapper ainsf d'ttonnemeni, que deroiu-aont atlendre dea arllUes de ceite 
• Tllle T Pour not, je relonrae i li M«kke.>— <> Et noi ausd,> ajouta Gbarldh. En elht, too* dem rcptinoi 
le chemin de la Hekke. Peudaut la premi^ raoilit de la caniire de Hahed, ion Mmolgnage Mail adinii en 
justice k M«dine, milgr^ sa profession de chauleur, i cause de la r^larlt^ de sa condulle. Mais loriqu'il 
cut M i la covr du calire WAtd fils de YiM, ei que Taisani partie de U loci^tj de ee prince, II le nit rendu 
le oompagnon it lei plaisir*. son tAnoignage ne Ait plus recn. Frapp^ d'une h<mipl«gie quelque temps avant 
H mart, Habed avalt perdu la roii. 11 mounil k Damas sous le rdgne de Wdid fill de YMd, daoi le palais 
meme de ce cilife. Lorsqu'on emporta son cercueil, Sellamat el-Coss, chanleuse esclaie du dtfuui calife 
Y^iid, tenait un boQt du brancard el chaniail ces vers d'El-AhwiB aur nn air que Habed lul arali enseiKn^ 
lui-mtnie : 

■ J'ai pasM la null dans la sonffrance,* etc. 

Le calife Wtlld et son triie Et-Gbimr, vettis seulement d'une Innlque el d'nn tDinieau, mtrchaieni de- 
rant le oercuell et le prteMirent ainii josqu'l ce qn'il ftit torii da palaif.— (A. Cutssin de Pereenl.l 

10) Liierallj; The necklace takes up the wearer too much for il lo be leU; <■ e. the vearar is loo fond of 
the necklace to lend il. This proverbial eipreialon ii quoted bj al-Maidlni. See professor Pre; tag's Mtida- 
nii Provtrbia, torn. 1. page AB2. 

[7) The Araha made an eipedilion into Khorlsln that foir. See Price's Betrotptet, vol- I. p> 4S4. 

(8) This vu die lame person bj whose advice the Heccans pronounced the sentence of deaUi againii Mu- 
hammad; be fell at the battle of Badr. 

19) Read uli-*. 



OMAR IBN SHABBA. 



AbA Zaid Omar Ibn Shabba Ibn Ablda Ibn Zaid an-Numairi, a man of exten- 
sive information and a transmitter of historical relations, anecdotes, and pieces 
of verse, was a native of Basra. Shabba was merely the surname of his father, 



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376 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

whose real name was Zaid ; some also say that his great-^randfather was called 
Raita (1), not Zaid. Omar Ibn Shabba composed a history of Basra. He taught 
Koran-reofltn^ with the authorisatiou of his master Jafaala Ibn Malik, who had 
himself been authorised to teach by al-Mufaddal (2), who had received his own 
licence from Aasim Ibn Abi 'n-Najiid (3). He attended the lectures wherein 
MahbAb Ibn al-Hasan (4) indicated the words of the Koran which may be pro- 
nounced in different manners, and be transmitted pieces of literature with the 
authorisation of his teachers Abd al-Wabhab ath-ThakiG(5) and Omar Ibn Ali (6). 
KoTin-readisu} was taught on his authority by his pupils Abd Allah Ibn Su- 
laiman, Abd Allah Ibn Omar al-Warrak, and Ahmad Ibn Faraj, and pieces 
of traditional literature were communicated by him to Abu Muhammad Ibn al- 
Jarud. Abu Hatim ar-Razi (7) being questioned concerning his merits (ai a 
trammitter of traditioned learning), declared him worthy of the highest con6dence. 
The hdfiz Ibn Maja, author of the Swum (8), and some others gave traditional 
information on his authority. We have quoted him in the life of al-Abhas Ibn 
al-Ahnaf (vol. //. p. 8). He was born on Sunday, the 1st of Rajah, A. H. 173 
(November, A. D. 789), and he died at Sarr man Raa on Monday the 33rd — 
some say Thursday the 25th — of the latter Jumada, A. H. 262 (March, A. D. 
876). According to another statement, he died in the year 263. — Nwnairi 
means de$emded from Numair Ibn A&mir Ibn Stis^a, the progenitor of a great 
Arabian tribe ; many learned men and other persons have sprung from that tribe, 
and therefore bore this surname. 



[i] The luUignph hu 4Jul., 

^2) Some ac«0UDt of al-Mufaddai i> giTen bj IbD Khalliktn in tbe life of hii 

(3) See hii life, toI. 11. page 1. 

i4) The tnlograph has ^_sx^l ^1. 

(S) Abdal-Wihhib Ibn Abd al-Hamld ath-Tbakafi (a ffl«mb«r of rht tribe of ThaUf) and a natiTC of 
Basra, traDsniiited traditional inrormiiiOD froDi Aiy&b at-SiUitijtni, Jaafat u-Sldik, Said al-Jlriri, and dudj 
other). Hi« own auUiority wag eiied b; as-shjin, Ahmad Ibn HaDbal, Ibn al-Madtni, Tabja IbD Main, and 
Mme othen. Ibn Halo declared him deeerving of the hlgheai confidence ai a Traditioniit. Tevardi the end 
uf his life be went deranged, and he died A.H. 194 <A.D. S09-10).— [Ibn al-Atblr. Ad-Dababi.) 

(U| Omar Ibn Ali Ibn AU, a naltTe of Basra and a ma»la to ibe tribe of Thiktf, gtjt Traditioni on the au- 
thoritf of alb-Tbauri, Hajj*j lbnAni,and others. His own auihorii; was cited by Ibn Haobal, Kulaiba Ibn 
Said, and some others. Be died A.H. 190 (A.D. Sa»-6).— (Ad-Dahabi.) 

i7) The hOfit Abo Hltim Muhammad ibn Idrls Ibn al-Mundlr Ibn Dtwtld, surnamed ar-Rlii because he 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 377 

wu a natiTe of Bd, and tl-Hinuli beeauM he wu matola Co Ibe tribe of HiniaU or b«cauBe he lived in the 
ilrwt of tl-HflDMU ID Rai, vu an excellent judge of the aothenticit; of Trtditioni, and held bimaelf the 
highait rank as a TradKionbt. !n the panuil of ihU branch of knowledge, he traTelled la Khorttln, the (wo 
lrlk>, Bijtz, VemeD, Syria, and Egypt. He died at Bal in the month of ShaaMn, A. H. 377 (Not.-Dcc. A. D. 
8»0).— (fl'ii^m.) 
(B) Hii life will be found in tbi« work. 



AL-KHIRAKI. 

Abu '1-Kasim Omar Ibn Abi AU al-Husain Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad al-Khiraki 
was an eminent jurisconsult of the Hanbalite sect. He composed a great number 
of works in illustration of the doctrines professed by the followers of Ahmad Ibn 
Hanbal. One of these treatises is a Mukhtatir (compendium), which still serves 
as a text-book for young students belonging to that sect; when he set out for 
Damascus from Baghdad, in consequence of the maledictions which were pro- 
nounced in the latter city against some of the early Moslims (as-Salaf) (1), he 
left this book behind him, and it was humed during his absence 2). He died 
at Damascus, A. H. 334 (A. D. 945-6). His father also was distinguished for 
his abihties, and transmitted traditional information received by him from many 
teachers. — Khiraki means a seller of rags {khirak] and cbthet. 



(1) Thia wai in A. H. 331 (A. D. 933). We learn from AbO 'l-FedJi that Ali Ibn Baltk, having conspired 
with HOnis the eunuch to depose the khalif al-Kkhir and place a son of al-Hukiafi on the throne, was 
arrested with his accomplices and put to death in that jear. But what Abtl 'l-Pedt has neglected to mention, 
was the means taken bj Ibn Ballk to effect hit design. He began by eiciting a sedition in Baghdad, and the 
fact is noticed by ad-Dahnbi [MS. No. 646, fal. 101 verso) in these terms : " In this year troubles broke out 
" because Aii Ibn Ballk and his secretary (kdtib) al-Hasan Ibn Uirtin decided on having the memory of 
" Hoawia publicly cursed from the pulpits. This produced a riot at Baghdad, and Ibn Baltk gave orders to 
" arrest the chief of the Hanbalites, AbQ Muhammad al-Barbahltri, but this doctor retired to a place of con- 
" cealment. A number of hii followers were then banished to Basra. In the meanwhile al-Kthtr took secret 
" arrangeznents against MCtnis and Ibn Mukla," etc. The Hanhslites of Baghdad were at that time no- 
torious for their bigotry and turbulence, as may be learned fWim the Annali of Ab6 'l-Fedi, years 310, 317, 
333, etc. From Ibn Ballk's first proceedings it would appear that he meant to rally the Shlites to hii cause, as 
with them the memory of Hoawia was held in detestation. It must be recollected also that the Karmati 1*m 
vol, I. p, 429) were then eitremely powerful. What may serve also to confirm my conjecture is, that the 

VOL. 11 kS 



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878 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

khalif, OD (he eiMuUon of hii nhdum, cauwd tkc Mlowlac iBKriptioM to be ybted on tbc «*(oife aIW *w 

name: U3t ^^J .Ij*t ^ Ji=JI {(A. «wv»t of 6«l-f r«i(fteii«n «« ^).-(. -■..—. 

(3) Ai llm KJMllUki ipeaki of All work ■> (Ull ««iMkig, I MMlBAe tbl al-KMraU « 



OMAR IBN ZARR. 



Abu Zarr Omar Ibn Zarr, surnaned Bl-Hamdani, was a native of Ki^fa, a ju- 
risconsult, and a narrator of historical anecdotes preserved fay tradition (1). 
Hifi descent from Hamdsin is thus set forth by Ibn al-Kalbi in his /amftdro tan- 
NktA: *' Abd Allah, tbe father of Zarr and the grandfatber of Omar, \ra6 the 
" son of Zurara Ibn Moawia Ihe Munabb^ Ibo Ghalib Ifan Waksb Ibn Kasim 
" Ibo Mauhaba Ibn Doua Ibn MalUi Ibn Moawia Ibn Saab Ibn DitmSin Ibn fiakil 
" Ibu Jushaitt Ibn Malik (this Malik is the same person who is suraamed aU 
"Kharif) Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Kathir Ibn Milik Ibn Jusham Ibn Hashid Ibn 
'* Jusham llm Haiwin Ibn Nauf Ibn Hanodaai (2)." The sanctity of Omar Ibn 
Darr's life and tbe fervour of his derotiooal exerdees obtained for him the higji- 
est respect. He ^ve Traditiona on the authority of Ata (3) and Muj^iid (4), 
and his own authority for Traditions was cited by Waki (5) and tbe people of 
Irak. The conduct of his s(m Zair towards bim was marked by the deepest 
affection (6) and dutiful reverence ; when he was on the point of death, his 
father went into the room and said : " My dear son ! in thy death I shall suffer 
*' no loss, for the only one of whom I stand in need is God." When he ex- 
pired, the father prayed over him, and buried him, and ]Nxmoanoed tbese 
words over the grave: " God is my witness, O Zarr! that my weeping on thy 
'< account prevents me from weeping for thy loss; for I know not what tbou 
*< hast said {U> thy lord) and what has been said to tboe. Almi^ty God! I 
" forgive him every renussness in his duty towards me ; let me then be res- 
*' ponsable for every act wherein he may have been remiss in his duty towards 
'* Thee ; let the recompence which I may merit be bestowed on him «Dd gnnt 
" aninoi-ease of Thy bounty tinto me, thy earnest suppliant." A person once 
said to him : " How did thy son show his duty to thee ?" to which he replied : 



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BIOGRAPHICAL MCTIONARY. tn 

'< WheD we walked together by day, he ahrdys kept behind me, and when w« 
" walked together by night, be always went before me, and he never momited 
on the roof of a house whibt I was nnder it." Many othef anecdotes of a simi- 
lar kind are related of hhn. Omar Ibo Zarr was held to be a partisan of the 
doctrines professed by the Murjites (7). He died A. H. 156 {A. D. 772-3); 
some say A.H. f 55.-*-ffaffl(J^, a word which means descended from Hamddn (8), 
must not be confoonded with Hamaddm (nofrte oftheeihfaf Hamaddn).—2tar, 
the father of Omar, was also a jurisconsult. 



(1) For ^^litlt in lh< printed leit, read ^U)l. 411 the ininuMtipti vlrich I ImTC euuined, tie Hlo- 
grtph eic«pi«d, give the [onner reading. 

(3) Read .Jji^jt in the printed teit. Theotlter erron in the graealog; u there giT«D, arectxreetMliittha 
MoalMion. The iaMrracMeaa of nwit Arabte nanuMripti, partieularlj ia prapar bmm*, readara faulu of thii 
kind uBatolMgte. 

(I) See lot. U. ff *<*■ 

(4) See Tot. i. jmge BM, d«w («). 

(5) Se« rol. I. page B74, DeW (t). 

W th*« agate Ibe mmnmrtpl copie* and the printad test are ai tault: for !5VJt *e nnil rwd li jJh 

(7) For the doctrine* of the Hurjltea.or HorgiaoB, fee Stle'i preliminary diMenrte to the Koran, and Dr. 
Curelon'i Skahmtant, page 109. 

(8) The tribe of HamdliD Inhabited Yemen and draw their doMcnt from KahUn. 



ATH-THAMANim. 



Ab6 '1-Kasim Omor ibn Thabit atb-Thainanini, surnamed also ad-Ikrtr (or 
the Uind, because he suffered from that infirmity), was a professor of grammar, and 
well acquainted with the rules of that science. He composed a foil, elegant, and 999 
excellent comfflentarf on Ibn Jinni'a fvol 11. p. 194) LamA (1), and a g;reat 
number of pupils studied with profit under hia tuition. As a grammarian he 
possessed great talent, and had Ab6 '1-F«lh Km Jinni for master; he gave lessons 
in that sdeooe to die tharif Abd Mamar Yaliya Ibn Mnbammad Ibn TabatabI 
al-Husaini. He cc^nposed also a oonimeniary tm Ibn Jinni's Tatrif (grwimtitieal 



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880 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

•inflemoni) (2). A great rivalry subsisted between him and Abu 'l-Kasim Ibn 
Barhan ; they both gave public lessous at al-Karkh, the suburb of Baghdad ; the 
course of the latter was frequented by persons of rank and respectability, whibi 
that of ath-Tliamanini was only attended by persons of the lower class. He 
died in the month of Zu '1-Kaada, A. H. 442 (March-April, A.D. 1051).— r/w- 
mdnini means belonging to Thamdntn, which is a town in the neighbourhood of 
Jazira tibn Omar and close to Mount Judi (Ararat). It was the Grst town built 
after the deluge, and it was called Thamanin (aghty) from the number of per- 
sons who came with Noah out of the ark. This town has produced many re- 
markable men. — This skariflhn Tabataba died in the month of Ramadin, A. H. 
478 (Dec.-Jan. A. D. 1085-6). 

(1) See Tol. II. page 192. 

{2) The Arabic leit ib corrupted here, and no means eiitl of reclining tt, ai the flf-leaf on whidi ihepawi^ 
waiwrilteDiD Ifae autograph MS. has disappeared. The teit of the printed edition, if literally lnn>Ut«d,iiould 
■ignifr, " He eommented the Kittb al-Luma on Ibn JinnCi Tasrlf." Thii it not nrj clear, and the reading 
ofone of mjHSS., which tor Silib at-Luma hu X<Mb oMfuItU, doea not render the aenae nwre intelligible. 
as the work called Mulik al-Muftd is, according lo Hajji Khalih, a production of atb-Thunlntu faimaelf. 
The Uue reading i» perhaps ^^^j^ I -a ^iJp*)' ■— ■'-S' s_j*^jt " And he composed on tb* r«rt^ « 
work entitled Sitdb al-Hulik." 



IBN AL-BAZRI. 

AbA 'l-Kasim Omar Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Ikrima, sumamed al- 
JazaH and generally known by the appellation of Ibn al-Bazn, was a juriscon- 
sult of the ShaBte sect, and the most eminent doctor and mufli of the town of 
Jazira tibn Omar (1) (from which place he drew kii tumarne). His first studies 
in the law were made in Jazira tibn Omar under the ihaikh Ahit '1-Ghanaim 
Muhammad Ibn al-Faraj Ibn Mansi^r Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Hasan as-Sulanu al- 
Fariki (a member of the tribe of Sulaim and a native of MaiydfdriMn), who had set- 
tled in that town. He then proceeded to Baghdad, and continued his studies 
under al-Kiya al-Harrasi (vol. //. p. 229) and Hujja tal-lslam Abu Hamid al- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 381 

Ghazzali(2}; he atlended also the lectures of the latter and of his brother 
Ahmad al-Ghazzali (vol. I. p-79\ and became the pupil of as-^hashi, the author 
of the Kildb al-Muttazhiri (3). He acquired also much information in the society 
of many other learned men whom he frequented. Having returned to Jazira, 
he opened a public course of instruction which attracted students from distant 
countries, all anxious to receive his lessons and acquire a knowledge of the sys- 
tem in which he had digested the doctrines of the sect. He composed a com- 
mentary on Abu Ishak as-Shirazi's Muhaddab (4), in which he explained the 
obscurities and the uncommon words occurring in that treatise, and iixed besides 
the pronunciation of the proper names of those persons who are mentioned in it. 
To this work, which is a simple compendium, he gave the title of al-Atdmi wa 'l- 
EitU m»n Kitdb al-Muhaddab (the names and obtcurities occurring in the Kitab al-Mu- 
haddab). In learning and piety he held a high rank, and was said to have been 
better acquainted than any other hdfis then living with the doctiines of as-Shttfi. 
His attention was chiefly directed to the study of those points wherein the Shafite 
sect differs from others, and the number of persons who enjoyed the benefit of 
his tuition was very great. (As a doctor) he bore the surnames of Zain ad-din 
Jam&l al-Islam (ornament of religion, beauty ofblamitm). He was bom A. H. 471 
(A. D. 1 078-9), and he died on the 2nd of the Grst Rabi — some say of the latter 
— A. H. 560 (January, A. D. 1165) at al-Jazira (5). Although his disciples 
were numerous, he did not leave his like in the world.— His master, Abfi '1-Gha- 
Dfhim al-Fariki died A. H. 483 (A. D. 1090-1). It was under Ibn al-Bazri that 
the doctor Isa Ibn Muhammad al-Hakkari (6) made his studies. — Bazri means a 
maker and $eller of Basr ; bavr is the name given in that country to the oil extracted 
from Unseed, and which is used by them in their lamps. 



(1) Sm toI. 11. page 38». 

(S) Tbe life of AbO HJtmid al-Ghtzitli will be found fartbet on. 

(3) Tbe life of AbO Bakr Hubanimid Xtia Abmad a>~Sfatihi, the anibOT of tbe WtthuAM, u given by Ibn 



(4) Sw Tol. I. page 9. 

(B) Bj al-Zailm b here meant Jaitra tibn Omar. 

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SHIHAB AIV-DIN AB-SUHRAWARDl. 



Abu Hafs Omar, the son of Muhammad, the sou of Abd Allah, the sod of 
Muhammad, the son of Anunityah (whose true name wm Abd Allah ,\ al Bakri as- 
Suhrawardi, sumamed Shihab ad-din ( flambeau of the faith), was a doctor of the 
ShaOte sect. As we have given the remainder of his genealogy up to Abu Bakr, 
tt50 in the life of hi& uncle, Ab6 'n-Najih Abd al-Kahir ($ee v«l. //. p. 1 50), we are 
dispensed from repeating it here. Shihab ad-din W3» a pious and holy ihaikh, 
most assiduous in his ^iritual exercises and the practice of devotion. He suc- 
cessfully goided a great number of SijB»in tlteir efforts to obtaia perfection, and 
directed them during the periodsof their retirement into solitude; indeed, lowaids 
the close of his life, be remained without an eqnal. He studied iHider his uncle, 
Abti 'n-Najib, from whom be learned SAfism and preaching ; another of his mas- 
t&^ was the shaikh Abu Muhammad Abd al-Kadir Ibn Abi Salih al-Jtti (vol. //. 
p. 172), and he went down to BMra for the purpose of seeing the xJioiiA. Abu Mu- 
hammad Ibn Abd. He met also with some other tkaOAt, and ac^wred a con- 
siderable share of informatitxi in the sciences of jurisprudenee aad controversy. 
He tlien gave lessons in literature, and held, during some years, regular assem- 
blies, at which he preached. When he becamtihehkhoftke tkaiUu (granAmatter 
of Ute- Sapi) at Baglidad, he continued the Same practice, and his exhortations bad 
a most impressive eHect. He was certainly blessed with the divine grace. A 
pers(m who attended his assemblies related to nae that Shib&b dd-din, one day, 
recited to him these words from the chair : 

Pour not out (he draught [of divine Ume) for me alone ; Thou (0 Lord) hast not accus- 
tomed me to withhold it from my companions. Thou art (truly) the generous, and it 
suits not generosity that the cup, circulating [rwatd the board), should pass by the other 
guests. 

On hearing these words, the whole assembly was seized with an ecstasy of 
divine love, and a great number of the persons present cut off their hair, and 
turned {from the world to God). He composed some fine works, the most cele- 
brated of which isiiis.Awdrifal-Madrifltbe (divine) jit/i», contitHng in the d^ent 
degreet o/" (spiritual) knowledge) (1). He is also the author of some poetry, and 
one of his pieces is the following (2) : 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 883 

The drearinres of the {kver't toUtan/) ni^bis y/as dispelled, and his turn of iiRion 
[loifft the beloved) drew near ; and my anion with thee made those jealous, who used to 
pity me formerly when suffering from thy aversion. I swear by the truth of thy exist- 
Mice that, since tho« aH aow preseat, I cam sot for »wf «f my former diuppointaients. 
Thou earnest to me who was deprived of life, and small was the price for which thou 
didsl obtain me (3). The hearts (of men) are unable to conceive thee; but, 0, the deli- 
cious source whereof 1 am allowed to drink I (/ okow that) all which ia forbidden to mor- 
tals is forbidden also to me ; but how sweet in my bosom is the love I bear thee. Love 
for thee has drenched my very bones ; what then have I to do with that which is not love T 
Bitter thirst oppresseth not the destitnte when near him are sources of the purest water. 

I saw a number of (hose who attended hia assemblies and who sat with him in 
private, whilst he directed them, as is customary with the Sufis, iu the path of 
spiritual life ; they gave me an account of the strange seasatioDS which then came 
oYer them, and of the extraordinary ecstasies which they experienced. He once 
arrived at Arbela as an envoy from the August Divan (4), and he held regular 
assemblies there, at which he preached ; but I had not the advantage of seeing 
him, as [ was then too young. He performed the pilgrimage very often, and on 
some of these occasions he made a temporary residence in the neighbourhood of 
the sacred Temple. The thatkks of that age, who were matters of the path (5), 
used to write to him from the countries where they resided, addi«ssing him 
questions drawn up in the manner of fatwa$ (or eonsuUalions onpoinU of law;, in 
which they tAed bis opinion on circumstances which concerned iheta. i was 
told that one of tikom wrote (o him as follows . " My lord ! if 1 cease to woA, 1 
" ^all remain in idleness ; and if I work, 1 am filled with aeif-satisfEbction ; which 
*' is best?" To this as-Suhrawardi wrote, in reply: "Work : and ask of Al- 
" mi^ty God to pardon thy .self-satisfaction." Numerous aueodotes of tjiis kind 
are told of him. He has inserted some chfu-ming verses in the AwArif al-Mainf, 
from which we select the following : 

I perceive in thee, (O valUy,] a perfume which I know not, and I suspect that {my usi 
Movml) LamjA has swept over thee with her train (6). 

And again: 

tf I contemplate yoa, I am all eyes ; and if I think of you, 1 am all heart. 

By his studies undo- his uncle Ab«h 'n-J!la}Ib he attained greaA, proficiency. He 
was bom at Suhraward, towards the Utter aid of Rajab, or the beginning of 



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Shaabaa (which of the two is doubtful), A. H. 539 (Jan.-Feb. A. D. 1 U5) ; and 
be died at Baghdad, on the first of Muharram, A. H. 632 (Sept. A. D. 1234). 
He was interred the next morning in the Wardiya cemetery (7). 



(1) Thi* ii one of Ihe most c«1ebrated worlu on SMim. An eieell«ot cop; of it ii pmarred in the Bib. du 
Roi, iDCien foDdi, I4o.3TB. 

{2) Theae nntt bare a mjitic import ; th« betovtd it God. 

(3) The poet mean* to mj that h« was dead bj itn, and that he becirae the fcmat or ilave of God bj r»- 
noundns the world. 

H) The goTemmeot of the libalifate at Baghdad wa« geoerallj deaignated at tb«t time by the title of the 
Auguit Divan [ad-Diwdn al-Axtx.) 

(5) See vol. I. page 259. note (3). 

(6) The merit of thii verse consists in iU mjstic signifieatioa. The shtilEh perceiTod a young noTice in SbBsm 
roaniresting an unwonted degree of eicitement ; lod he supposed that the Divittit; bad paued near him. 

(7) WoTdiya signifies rotary, rost-gardtn; it was the cemetery of the Sbfis. 



THE HAFIZ IBN DIHYA. 



The kdfiz Abu '1 Khattab Omar Ibu al-Hasan Ibn Dihya, a member of the tribe 
of Kalb, and surnamed Zu 'n-lNasabain (the posse$$or of the double pedigree], was a 
native of Valencia, in Spain. His genealogy, as I found It wrilleu by himself, with 
the indication of the proper pronunciation of the names, runs as follows : Omar 
Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Jumaiyil Ibn Farh Ibn Khalaf Ibn 
Kumis (pronounced also Kaumis) Ibn Mazlal Ihn Mallal Ibn Badr Ibn Ahmad Ibn 
Dihya (pronounced also Dahya) Ibn Khalifa Ibn Farwa al-Kalbi : Dihya al-KaIbi 
was one of Muhammad's companions (1). He mentioned also that his mother, 
Ama tar-Rahman, was the daughter of Ahu Abd Allah Ihn Ahi '1-Bassam MAsa 
Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Husain Ibn Jaafar Ibn AH Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn MAsa 
Ibn Jaafar Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn al-Husain Ibn Ali Ihn Ahi Talih. It was 
for this reason that he signed himself the possessor of the double pedigree, being 
descended from Dihya and al-Husain. Alluding also to the same circumstance, he 
wrote himself down as Sibt Abi 'l-Bassdm (the grandson by the female line of Abii 'J- 
BoMdm). — Abii '1-Khatlab Omar Ibn Dihya was a man eminent £or his learning 



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BiOGKAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 38& 

aad illustrious by his Ulents, a perfect master of the Traditions relative to the 
Prophet, and of the sciences connected with them, skilled in grammar and phi- 
lology, and well acquainted with the narrations of the battle-days of the ancient 
Arabs, and with their poems. Having made the collecting of Traditions his chief 
pursuit, he visited most of the Moslim cities in Spain for the purpose of meeting 
their men of learning and their teachers, after which he crossed the water and 
entered Morocco, where he became acquainted with the persons of talent who 
resided in that city. He then proceeded to the province of Ifriklya, and thence 
to Egypt- From tliat country he travelled to Syria, the East <' Mesopotamia), and 
Irak. At Baghdad he received Traditions from some of Ihn aUHasin's disciples, 
and at Wasit he heard others from the lips of Abu 'l-Fath Muhammad Ihn Ahmad 
al-Maidani. He then visited Persian Irak, Khorasan with its neighbouring 
provinces, and Mazandaran, for the sole purpose of collecting Traditions and 
obtaining them from the great masters in that branch of knowledge whom he met 
there. During this period, he gave lessons to others, and communicated to them 
his own information. M'hen at Ispahan he heard Ab6 Jaafar a».Saidalani 
teach Traditions, and, at Naisapur, he received some from Mansdr Ihn Abd al- 
Mun^m al-Farawi. In the year 604 (A. D. 1207-8) he arrived at Arbela, on 
his way to Khorasan, and perceiving the extreme zeal displayed by the lord of 
that city, al-Malik al Muazzam Muzaflar ad-din, the son of Zain ad-din, in his 
preparations for celebrating the festival of the Prophet's birth, he composed for 
that prince the work entitled Kitdb al-Tanwir ji Maulid aa-&rdj al-Muntr ((ft*«52 
froofc of lUummation, treating of the birth-day of the enlightening Flan^eau). In the 
letter K, under the head of K&Itub4ri, we shall give a description of this solemnity. 
In the month of the latter Jumada, A. H. 626 (May, A. D. 1229) we heard Ihn 
Dihya read this work to al-Malik al-Muazzam, in six sittings. It concluded with 
a long poem, the first verse of which was : 

Were it not for our enemies, those base informers, people had never suspected [thai 
we ictre in love-] 

There is a circumstance connected with this poem which we have noticed in the 
life of Ibn Mammati (2), and to this we refer the reader. When he finished his 
Kitdb at-Tanwtr, al-Malik al-Muazzam made him a gift of one thousand pieces of 
gold. A number of other woi-ks were composed by him. He was bom on the 

VOL. II, 49 



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386 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

first of Zu 'I-Kaada, A. H. 544 (March, A.D. 1150); and he died al Cairo, on 
Tuesday, the 1 4th of the first RabI, A. H. 633 (November, A . D. 1 235). He was 
interred al tlie foot of Mount Mukatiam, as 1 have been informed by his son : I 
was told also, by his brother's son, that he had heard his uncle more than once 
say that he was bom on the first ofZA'l-Kaada, A.H.546 (February, A.D. 11 52). 
— Balarm means beUmgmg to Balamiya (VcUeneia) which is a city in the east of 
Spain. — Abu Amr Othman Ibn al-Hasan, Ibn Dihyi's elder brother, was well 
acquainted witli the phraseology of the Desert Arabs, which he knew by heart 
and taught publicly. When the sultan al-Malik al-Kamil removed Abu 'l-Kbal' 
tib Ibn Dihya from his professorship in the Ddr alrHadith (or college of Traditions), 
which that prince had founded at Cairo, Abil Arar, the brother, was installed in 
the vacant place, and he continued to hold it till his death. He died at Cairo, on 
Tuesday, the 13th of the first Jumada, A. H. 634 (January, A.D. 1237), and was 
interred at the foot of Mount Mukattam. He left some epistles in which he 
employed obsolete expressions. 



(1) Dihya IbD Kbtllft al-Kalbi was Muhammad's eoTO} to Heraclius.— AbO '1-Fedi'i Annati, year 7. 

(2| See vol. 1. p. 1»4.— Ibn Dihja'i surname is there incorrettlj given; it muti be pronounced Ztl 'n-ffiua- 



ABU ALi AS-SHALAUBINI. 



Abv^ Ali Omar Ibn Muhammad [Ibn Omar] Ibn Abd Allah, surnamed a&-Sha- 
laubini, was a member of the tribe of Azd, and a native of Seville, in Spain. He 
held the first rank as a grammarian, and possessed in an extraordinary degree 
the faculty of recalling to mind the various rules of that science. I met a num- 
ber of his pupils, all of them men of talent, and they unanimously declared that 
the shaikh Abu Ali as-Shalaubini was in no degree inferior to the thatkh Abii Ali 
'l-Farisi (vol. I. p. 379). The terms in which they spoke of him were commen- 
datory in the highest degree ; but they observed that, with all his talent, he 
neglected his personal appearance, and was subject to absence of mind. Of this 



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BIOGHAPHICAL DICTIOHARV. 387 

they related as an example, that as he was ooe day on the bank of a river, with 
some sheets of a book in his hand, he let one of them fall into the water ; and, as 
it floated off so that he could not reach it with his hand, he took another of the 
sheets to pull it near him ; so that both sheets were spoiled. Other similar anec- 
dotes are related in proof of his absence of mind. He composed a large and 
a small commentary on al-Juzuli's Prolegomena (i), and a work on grammar, 
entitled at-Tautiya the beating out of the track). He resided at Seville, but pupils 
of his were occasionally arriving amongst us and informing us of his proceed- 
ings. On the whole, he really was, as they styled him, the last of the gramma- 
rians. He was born at Seville, A. H. 562 (A. D. 1166-7), and he died in the 
same city, in the month of the latter Rabi, some say of Safar, A. H. 645 (Au- 
gust, A.D. 1247). — Shalaubtni is derived from as-Shalaubin, which is a wordof 
the Spanish language, and means, it is said, the white and red (2). 

1} The life at al-JuiQIl wilt be found in Ibis volume. 

(2) Abo 'I'FetU Mj's, Id bla Geognph]', Ibat Shalaubtnt means belonging to Shalaubiniya {Salobretma), 
a foriress near GrtDada. He adds Ibal those persons are misitken who deriTC il rrom a word aignifjing red 
in ibe language spoken bj the (CAn'tifon) inhabitants of Spain. He here ceKainl]' alludes to the statement 
made by Ibn Khallikln in diis passage. 



IBN TABARZAD. 



Abit Hafs Omar Ibn Abi Bakr Muhammad Ibn Muammar Ibn Ahmad Ibn 
Yahya Ibn Hassan, surnamed al-Muwaddib (the precepU>r], Muwafiak ad-dio (aided 355 
m religion by God's favour}^ and generally known by the name of Ibn Tabarzad, 
was a Traditionist of great celebrity, and a native of Baghdad. He inhabited 
that quarter of the city, on the west bank of the Tigris, which is called Dar al- 
Kazz, and be was sometimes styled, for that reason, ad-Darakazzt. The Tradi- 
tions which he had received by oral transmission were remarkable as coming 
from the highest authorities, and, as he travelled through various countries 
leaching (them) to others, he became the link which connected the rising genera- 



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388 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

tion of Traditionists with (he past : he Blled the earth with the certiBcates which 
he gave to those who heard him deliver Traditions, and with the licences to teach, 
which he had granted to his disciples. He hved to so advanced an age that he 
remained without a rival, and his conduct was uniformly marked hy piety and 
virtue. He was born in the month of Zii 'I-Hijja, A. H. 516 (Fehruary, A. D. 
1 i 23), and he died at Baghdad on the afternoon of Tuesday, the 9th of Rajab, 
A. H. 607 (December, A.D. 1210). The next morning, he was interred in the 
cemetery at the Harb Gate. — Tt^arzad is (he name of a sort of sugar (sugar- 
candy}. 



AS-SHARAF IBN AL-FARID. 

Abu Hafs, surnamed also Ahil 'l-Kasim, Omar Ibn Abi 'l-Hasan Ali Ihn Mur- 
shid Ihn Ali, generally known by the appellation of Ibn al-Farid and distinguished 
by the honorary title of as-Sharaf (1), drew his descent from a family which 
inhabited Hamat, hut he himself was born in Egypt, which was also the country 
of his residence, and that of his death. In his poetical works, of which the col- 
lection forms a tbin volume, he displays a cast of style and thought which charms 
the reader by its grace and beauty, whilst their whole tenour is in accordance 
with the mystic ideas of the Sufis (2). He has composed also a kastda of about 
six hundred verses, wherein he sets forth the doctrines and adopts the technical 
language of that sect. With what elegance has he said, in one of his long 
poems: 

How welcome the fevoar which 1 never deserved : these words of one announcing de- 
liverance after despair: "To thee I bear good tidings, therefore cast off (hy covering ! 
" thou art remembered there [abovr], notwithstanding thy imperfections (3)." 

In another of his ka$tda$ he savs : 

lam always envied on &ccoant of [tht favours I rtceive from] thee; put not then an end 
to my watchfulness by the speedy visit of thy image fleeting [lowardi me whiUt I sleep) [k]. 
Ask the stars of the night if sleep has ever visited my eyelids I and how conld it visit a 
person with whom it is not acquainted 7 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 389 

He savs again in the same piece : 

Whilst the admirers of his beauty are extolling it in every style of description, time is 
spent out, and yet some of his charms remain to be described (5). 

He has left also some distichs, mawdlias (6), and enigmas (7). I am told that 
he was a most holy and virtuous man , and that he led a life of continual self-abne- 
gation. During some time, motives of devotion kept him a resident at Mekka : 
may God increase it in honour! He was a most pleasing companion, and the 
charms of his society were highly extolled. I have heen informed by one of his 
disciples, that, one day, whilst he was alone, he happened to sing the following 
verse, composed by al-Hariri, the author of the Makdmdt: 

Who is he who never wrought evil, and who possesses excellent qualities only ? 

And he heard a voice repeat these words, hut could not discover by whom 
they were uttered : 

Muhammad, the director ; upon whom Gabriel descended. 

Some of his disciples recited to me the following mawdlia of his, composed on 
a youth who followed the trade of a butcher ; it is very ingeniously done ; and I 
have not seen it in the collection of his works (8) : - 

I said to a butcher : I love you, yet you cut me to pieces and slay me. That, replied 
he, is my trade, and yet you blame me I He then bent towards me and kissed my foot to 
subjugate me; he wanted to kill me, and blew me (mckmttd me] that he might skin me. 

I have transcribed it according to their system (of pronunmtMn), as they have 
totally neglected the motions {^nal vowek) and the rules of orthography; nay 
more, they have committed faults of pronunciation; or rather, the greater part 
of it is faulty : the reader is therefore requested to withhold his blame (9). Ihn 
al-Farid relates that he composed the two following verses in his sleep : 

I swear by the reality of my love for thee and by the respect due to (me for my] digni- 354 
Bed patience {under lujfmng], that my eyes never looked on any but thee, and that 1 
never felt love for any other friend 1 

This poet was born at Cairo, on the 4th of Z\i '1-Kaada, A. H. 576 (March, 



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390 IBN KHALUKANS 

A. D. 11SI), and he died in ihe same city, on Tuesday, the 2nd of the Pirst Ju- 
m»da, A. H. 632 ( Jaoiiary, A. D. 1235). The next morning, he was interred ai 
the foot of Mount Mukatlam. — Al-Fdrid is the name given lo the person who 
draws up contracts (fur&d) for women in their dealings with men (10). 



(1} Ai-Sharafit Ihe equivalenl of SItaraf ad-din (no6 1 wi*m of religion). In guriumes fonned of ihe word 
od'dln preceded bjr a noon or id adjective, ad-dtn may be iuppressed. lo tbi* case, tbe article is genentl; 
added ic tbe preceding word. See M. de Sack's Cla-eilomalhie, una. I. p. US. 

(3) Lilerall; : Ue follows the direction of (he path of (be faklri. 

(3) The piece from which these lines are taken has been published by H. Grangeret de Lagrange in his 
Antbalogie arabe. fteapecling theie veries, a curioui anecdole is related hy the commentator, and will be 
found page 130 of M. de Lagrange's work. 

(4 1 He means to sayi I always keep awake in eipectaiion of thj visits ; oblige me not id forego my waicb- 
ftiloess, for thea, in my dreams, I should see thy image only, sent by thyself to visit me. and not see thy- 
self. See my introduction to vol. 1. p. Mivi. For the meaning of the very obscure verses cited by Ibn Khai- 
llktn in this article, I have consulted Ibn al-Firid's commenlalors and chosen the most probable of the imrroui 
interpretations which they give. 

(B) It is almost unnecessary to observe thai, in all these verses, Ihe beloved is the Divinity. 

(6) Sec vol. 1. Introduction, page iiiv. 

(7) Some of these enigmas are given by H. de Sacy in his ChreHomaihi§, and others by H. Grangerei de 
Lagrange in hit Antbotogit arabe. 

(8) Were It not for the curiosity of these veraei, which ire in vulgar Arabic. 1 should have abstained from 
translating them. 

(9) Ibn Khallikln writes: ^ii JlJ' and ^pii^jj where [ have printed ^iajiJ' and ^jLeV, which 
last words give die true reading. .Jij is for ■^^ ; .li^, or, as he writes it ,ys^, is for j^'yx^ ; Jj is 
for JU, aad ^-J for ij~^- 

(10) Fdrid is dierefore the active participle of the verb farada, aud must be pronounced wilh an i, noi 
with an a, as Ibn Kballikin stales in his autograph i most probably through inattention. Indeed, the form 
Jflj as a participle or adjective does not eiisi in Arabic, as far as I can discover, and we 6Dd In the notice 
on Ibn al-Ftrid, prefiied to the commenurj on hit works, some verses in which his name al-Fdrid is made 
lo rbyme with at-AArid, at-GMmid, and other active participles. — For further information respecting Ibn 
al-Pirid, see H. de Sacy's CkrettomathU, lorn. II., H. Grangeret de Lagrange's Anthologit arabe, and the 
Catalogui MSS.oriml. BIbl.Bodl. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 3»t 

TAKI AD-DIN OMAR, PRINCE OF HAMAT. 

Abu Said Omar, the son of Ndr ad-Daw)at Shahanshah (vol. /. p. 61 5), the sou 
of Aiyiih (vol. /. p. 243), was lord of Ham&t, and hore the surnames of al-Malik 
al-Muzaflar (the vktorious prince)^ Taki ad-din (piota in religion). His father, 
Sliahanshah, was brother to the sultan Salah ed-din. Taki ad-din Omar was 
brave and intrepid, successful in his wars, viclorions in his engagements, re- 
nowned for his conflicts with the Franks (1 ), and his glorious deeds in battle ar-e 
signalized by history. In all the various works of piety, he displayed everv 
excellence, and of these we need only mention one: the founding of the college ai 
Old Cairo, which bears the name of Manazil al-Izz (2), and which is said to have 
been previously his own place of residence. For the support of this estalilishment, 
be erected a large property into a wakf(S). The city and province of al-Faiyiini 
were held by him in fief, and he founded there two colleges, one for the Shafiles, 
and the other for the Malikites : on these also be settled large wakfs. Another col- 
lege was erected by him in the city of Edessa. He was also sovereign of the Eastern 
provinces (Me$opotamia). In his conduct towards the learned (in the law), the 
Sulis (fakirs), and the men of holy life, he manifested great heoeficence. He 
acted at one period as viceroy of Egypt, during the absence of his uncle Salah ad- 
din ; the circumstance which led to his appointment was the following: Al-Malik 
al'Aadil held the government of Egypt as lieutenant to his brother, Salah ad-din ; 
but, in the month of Rajab, A. H. 579 (Oct.-Nov., A.D. H83), that prince^ 
who was then besieging al-Karak (4), required his presence with that of the 
troops under his orders, and Taki ad-din, being sent to Egypt to replace him, 
arrived there towards the middle of the month of Shaahan. He was after- 
wards recalled to Syria by Salah ad-din, who appointed his own son al-Malik 
al-Aziz (vol. II. p. 195) to the viceroyalty of Egypt. Taki ad-din's feelings were 
so deeply hurt at this proceeding, that he resolved to go forth into Maghrib and 
conquer that country; but this project was strongly opposed by his friends, and 
he finally acceded to the request of his uncle, Salah ad-din, who had invited him 
to come and serve under him. The sultan went forth as far as Marj as-Suffar '5) 
to receive him, and they met there on the 23rd of Shaabin, A. H. 582 (Nov., 
A. D. H86). Salah ad-din derived great pleasure from the sight of his nephew, 



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392 IBN KHALLIKAN'S 

and bestowed on him the city of Hamat. Taki ad-din proceeded thither, and 
marched afterwards into the province of Khalat, with the intention of taking the 
castle of Manazgird. The siege had continued for some time, when he died on 
Friday, the I9th of Ramadan, A. H. 587 (October, A. D. 1191). This state- 
ment has lieen contradicted, however, by persons who declare that he died at 
a place between Khalat and Maiyafarikin. His body was transported to Hamat ' 
for interment. . His son, al-Malik al-Mansur ((he vidorimts prince) Nasir ad-din 
(the champion of the faith) Abu 'l-Maali Muhammad, was appointed his successor. 
This prince died at Hamat, on Monday, the 22nd of Zii 'l-Kaada, A. H. 617 
(January, A. D. 1221) (6). 



(1) In the primed (eil read ui]>L«,. Takl ad-dio particularly tignalized biroself at ihe baitle of Tiberiai 
ip A. H. SS3, nhen the ChrittiaD arm; was almost eitermlnaled. 

(3) The palace called Manliil al-In was built od the baoL of the Nile bj the mother of the khalif al-Atii 
bilUh, and lerred Ihe Falimide kbalifs as a place of recreation (nuiAo).— (Al-Makrlil's EMtat.) 

(3) See Tol. I. page 40. note (7). 

(4) See M. Reintud's ExtraiU nlatift aux Croiiodei, pp. 187 and 189. 

(5) Marj as-Suffar lies at a short distance from Damascus. 

(61 This Muhammad was the paternal grandfather of the geographer and hisioriiD, Abfl '1-Fedt. 



ABU ISHAK AS-SABII. 

Abii Ishak Omar Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Ali Ibn Ahmad Ibn Zi Yahmud Ibn as- 
Sabi, surnamed as-Sabii, was a member of the tribe of Hamdan, a native of Kufa, 
and oue of the principal TdHi, having seen AH, Ibn Abbas, Ibn Omar, and others 
of the Prophet's companions. Traditions were handed down on his authority by 
S3B al-Aamash (vol. /. p. 587), Shoba {vol. I. p. 493, note (8) ), ath-Thauri (vol. I. 
p. 576), and others; and a great quantity of traditional information was commu- 
nicated by him to his disciples. He was bom three years before the khalif Oth- 
nian's death (1), and he died A. H. 127 (A. D. 744-5); others say, 128 or 129; 
but Yahya Ihn Main (2) and al-Madaini (3) mention that his death took place in 
A. H. 132. — SabU means descended from Sabi^ who himself drew his origin from 



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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 393 

the tribe of Hamdan.— Abu Ishak as-Sabii relates as follows: "My father held me 
'* up thai I might see AU Ihn Abi Talib preach, and(/ perceived that'; his hair and 
*' his beard were white." 



(1) Othmin wu murdered in the monib of ZQ'I-Uijja, A. H.3S (June. A.D. 6M). 

(2) Hit life is given by Ibo KhsIIiktn. 

(3) See vol. I. ptge 43S. Dole (8). 



AMR IBN OBAID. 

Abi^ Othman Amr Ibn Obaid Ibn Bab, a celebrated ascetic and a scholastic 
theologian, was a mawla to the Ban6 Akil, a family which drew its descent from 
Arada Ibn Yarbu Ibn Malik. His father Bab was one of the prisoners taken at 
Kabil (1 ), a place situated in the mountains of Sind. His father acted as lieute- 
nant (2) to the 'successive) chiefs of the police guards at Basra, and the people used 
to say, when they saw his son Amr with him ; '* There goes Best-of-men, the son 
" ofWorst-of-men!" on which the father would reply; " You speak truly; this 
" is Abraham, and I am Aazar (3)." On being told that his son frequented the 
society of al-Hasan al-Basri (vol. I. p. 370), and that some good might therefore 
come of him, he exclaimed : " What good can come of my sonV his mother was 
" a captive fraudulently purloined from the commonwealth (4), and it is I who 
'* am his father." Amr was the chief of the Motazilite sect in that age ; we shall 
relate, in the life of Wasll Ibn Ata, the motive which induced him to secede, and 
the reason why his followers were named Motazilites {seceders). Amr was of a light 
complexion, a middle size, and marked between the eyes with a callosity produced 
by his frequent prostrations in prayer. AUHasao al-Basri was once asked his 
opinion i-especting him, and he replied in these terms: " You question me con- 
" ceming a man who seems to have been educated by the angels, and brought up 
" by the prophets ; if he rises to perform a task, his mind is impressed therewith 
" when he sits down ; and when he sits down with a resolution, he rises with the 
VOL. II. 50 



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39^ IBN RHALLIKAN'S 

" same: if he be ordered tx)do a work, he is the most assiduous of men thereio ; 
" and if he be prohibited from any thing, he is the most strict of men in ab- 
" staining therefrom ; I never saw an exterior so similar to the interior as his ; 
" nor an interior so similar to the exterior." Before Abu Jaafar al-Mansur's 
elevation to the khalifate, Amr Ibn Obaid had been his companion and intimate 
friend, and many anecdotes are related of their sittings and conversations : when 
al-Mansilr came to the throne, Amr went one day into his presence, and was told 
by him to draw near and sit down, after which the khalif asked to hear an exhort- 
ation from him. Amr acceded to his request, and addressed him an admoni- 
tion, in which he said, amongst other things : " The power which thou now 
" wieldest, had it remained in the hands of thy pi-edecessors, had never come 
" unto thee ; be warned then of that night which shall give birth to a day never 
" more to be followed by another night." When he rose to depart, al-Mansur 
said: *' We have ordered thee ten thousand pieces of silver." — " 1 stand not 
" in need thereof;" replied Amr. — " By Allah! thou shall take it," exclaimed 
the khalif. — " By Allah ! I shall not take it ;" answered the other. On this, al- 
Mansur's son, al-Mahdi, who happened to be present, said to Amr: "The 
" Commander of the faithful swears that a thing shall be done; and yet 
" thou art bold enough to swear that it shall not!" " Who is this youth?" 
said Amr, turning to al-Mansur. — *' He is the declared successor to the kha- 
" lifate, my son al-Mahdi;" replied the prince. — "Thou hast clothed him in 
" raiment," said Amr^ " which is not the raiment of the righteous, and thou 
" hast given him a name which he deservcth not (5), and thou hast smoothed 
" for him a path wherein the more the profit the less the heed." He then turned 
towards al-Mahdi, and addressed him thus : " Yes, I do so, son of my bro- 
" ther ! when thy father maketh an oath, thy uncle causes him to be perjured ; 
" for thy father is abler to pay the expiation of broken oaths than is thy un- 
cle (6)." Al-Mansur then asked him if there was any thing which he might 
require, and Amr made answer: " Send not for me, but wait till I come to 
'* ihee." -"In that case," said al-Mansur, "thou wilt never meet me,"— 
"That," replied Amr, "is precisely what I desire." He then withdi-ew, and 
al-Mansiir kept his eyes fixed upon him and said: 

All of yon walk with stealthy steps; all of you are in pursuit of prey ; all, except Amr 
Ibn Obaid 1 



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BIOGRAl-HICAL DICTIONARY. 995 

Amr composed some epistles and sermons; he drew up also ao explanation of 
the Koran, in the words of al -Hasan al-Basri; a refutation of the Kadarite sect; aKSO 
long discourse on the doctrine of juslice and the profession of God's unity (7); 
with other treatises besides. When his last hour drew near, he said to a friend : 
'* Death has come unto me, and 1 am not prepared to receive it." He then ex- 
claimed : " Thou knowest, Almighty God ! that whenever two things were 
" presented to my choice, one of them pleasing to thee and the other to myself, I 
" always preferred thy pleasure to my own satisfaction ; have therefore mercy 
**onme!" His hirth look place A. H. 80 (A. D. 699-700), and he died A. H. 144 
(A. D. 761-2); others say 1 42, or 143, or 148. He expired ai a place called al- 
Marran,on his return from (8)Mekka. Al-Manstkr composed the following elegy 
on his death : 

May God's blessing be on thee who art reposing in the tomb by which 1 passed, at 
Marrdn 1 a lomb containing an orthodox believer, who placed bis (aith in God and 
served him from conviction. Did time ever spare the life of a saint, he would have 
spared us that of Amr AbA Othmin. 

That a khalif should thus lament the death of a person beneath him in rank is 
a circumstance quite unparalleled. — Marrdn is a place between Mekka and Basra, 
al two days' journey from the former city. There also was interred Tamim Ibn 
Murr, the progenitor of the great and ilhisti'ious tribe of Tamim. I may remark 
here, that the name of his grandfather Bab (<— '^) is sometimes incorrectly writ- 
ten Nab (sr*^). 



(1) The iiitograph has JjlTbat I lufpeci JjB [Sdbul) \s meant. The patuge ii written io the margio of 
ihil maouccript, and in Ibn Khalliktn'a o«o hand. 

(2) Read _jliJ.. 

(3) According to the Maitim doctrine, Abratatm'i father bore ihe name of Aaiar. He and all hit people 
adored idols, and for tbia he wit reprehended bj hit sod, wbo Mid to him : Verily, I percHve that thmt and 
thy people are in a manifeit error. (Koran, turat 6. vn-ie 74.) The father of Amr Ibn Obald aeema to have 
alluded to ilkese words, and thua told indlrectl]' hii towntmen that thej were all reprobatea. 

(4) According to the Hoilim law, the boolf and alafee carried oS f^om an enem;'! country mual be delivered 
up bj the Mldiera to the chief. Hie tpoil and priaonen are then iharcdamongataimieperaoDa in theinn; after 
the reservation of tbe quint, or Bfth of the whole, for the use of the poor. The boot; obtained even bj the