Skip to main content

Full text of "An Icelandic-English dictionary, based on the ms. collections of the late Richard Cleasby. Enl. and completed by Gudbrand Vigfússon. With an introd. and life of Richard Cleasby by George Webbe Dasent"

See other formats

























C iT 





1 HIS work is a Dictionary of the Old Icelandic Language, or (as it may be called) 
the Classical Language of the Scandinavian race. 

The history of the preservation of this language in its ancient form is remarkable. 

The Icelandic language, in old writers also called the Norse or the Danish {Norcena 
or Donsk tunga), was spoken by the four great branches of the Scandinavian race who 
peopled the countries abutting on the Baltic, the Norsemen or Northmen, Swedes, Danes, 
and Goths (Norbmenn, Sviar, Danir, and Gautar), as well as by the inhabitants of those 
parts of Northern Russia which were then known by the name of Gardar*. 

At the beginning of the 9th century the growing population of these countries, 
together with political changes and the naturally enterprising character of the people, 
caused a great outward movement of the race. Under the leading of their chieftains 
they set forth to seek for homes in other lands ; and thus the 9th century came to be 
known by the name of the Age of the Vikings {Vikinga-Old). The stream of emigra- 
tion increased in volume, as tidings of the successes of the first adventurers reached 
the northern shores. The Swedes continued to press eastward into the countries 
beyond the Baltic, while the Danes and 'Norsemen steered boldly to the south and 
west, and chiefly to the shores of the British Isles. 

Two main currents of this emigration by sea may be traced. First, the Danish, 
which directed its course to the north-east of England, and at length occupied 
that district so completely that it received the name of the Dena-lagu. The Saxon 
Chronicle is the chief authority for this part of the subjectf ; the only old Icelandic 
works which touch on it being the Egils Saga, which says that in the reign of Athelstan 
almost every family of note in Northern England was Danish by the father's or the 
mother's side ; and the Ragnars Saga, which professes to give an historical account 
of the great Danish invasion, but is almost as mythical as the Iliad. 

The second migration was Norse. These settlers gradually peopled the coasts 
of Ireland, the Isle of Man, the Orkneys and Shetland, and the northern counties of 
Scotland, Ross, Moray, and especially Caithness. In the year 852 a.d. the Norse 
sea-king Olave the White reached Ireland with a large fleet, and founded a Norse 
principality at Dublin : the foremost man among the Norsemen in Scotland was Earl 
Sigurd, uncle of Gongu-Hrolf It is probable that to this same emigration must be 
referred the conquest and occupation of Normandy. 

* See the word Gardar in the Dictionary, 

t The Saxon Chronicle under the year 787 states that in that year Danish ships first came to England. 
The Annales Cambriae record the same fact with regard to Ireland under the year 795 : so also thp Irish Annals, 
see Dr. Todd's Introduction to ' The War of the Gaedhill with the Gaill,' p. xxxii (Rolls' Ed.) 

a 2 


With this stream of Norsemen the colonisation of Iceland also is closely connected. 
That island had already been discovered by a Viking named Naddodd, who called it 
Snowland [Sncsland) ; it was next seen by Gardar, a Swede, after whom it was named 
Gardarsholm ; and lastly, the Viking Fldki gave it the name of Iceland, from seeing the 
Isafjord covered with polar ice. But the first settlers were Ingolf, son of Orn, and his 
foster-brother Leif, who set sail about a.d. 870, and reached Iceland ; they soon however 
passed on to Ireland, whence after a few years they returned to Iceland, taking with 
them some Irish slaves. The year 874 is fixed by the chroniclers as the date of this 
final settlement. Leif was soon after murdered by his unwilling Irish colonists; Ingolf 
remained alone and is regarded as the first settler in the island. About the same 
time Harold Fair-hair had seized the throne of Norway, and, by the establishment of 
despotic power, had become unbearable to the high-spirited and independent chiefs ; 
and therefore the newly-discovered island, bleak and desolate as it was, offered a wel- 
come home to men who had hitherto lived in the possession of equal and undisputed 
rights. Again, the Norsemen in the British Isles became unsettled after the death of 
King Thorstein, Olave the White's son (the Oistin Mac Amlabh of the Irish Annals), 
in the year 874 a.d. ; and they seem from that time to have begun to migrate to Iceland. 
Conspicuous among these emigrants was Queen AuSr DjiipauSga, King Olave's widow, 
who set forth with almost all her kinsfolk and followers. It is probable that the number 
of Norsemen who sailed from Ireland to Iceland was about equal to that of those who 
had gone thither from Norway. They carried with them their families and such cultiva- 
tion as they possessed. They spoke that form of the Scandinavian tongue which prevailed 
on the western coast of Norway; and as time went on, while new dialects formed themselves 
throughout Scandinavia, in Iceland the old tongue rose to the dignity of a literary language, 
and thereby retained its original form. It has thus been preserved to our days ^''. 

The first settlers formed an independent aristocracy, or republic, which continued 
for nearly four hundred years. Up to the end of the loth century they held the heathen 
faith and practised the rites of heathen worship : Christianity was accepted as the faith 
of the island in the year 1000 a.d. Two centuries and a half after this change of faith 
(a.d. 1262) the Icelanders made willing submission to the king of Norway, that is, as 
has been said, about four hundred years after the first discovery of the island. 

It was during this period that the Laws and Sagas of Iceland were written. Some 
idea of the extent and variety of this literature may be formed from the compendious 
account which is subjoined to this Preface. Tales of an historical and mythological 
character were committed to writing, being for the most part narratives of the feats of 
heroes abroad and at home, and belonging to the times before the year 1030 a.d., which 
may fairly be called the patriarchal age of Icelandic history ; and in these tales, with 
poems, laws, and documents of various kinds, the old Scandinavian tongue, as spoken and 
written by the Icelanders in the period ranging from 900 to 1262 a.d., has been handed 

* See the Landnama, the Laxdsela Saga, and the Irish Annals ; and, for details, Mr. Dasent's Paper in the 
Oxford Essays for 1858, pp. 176 sqq., and his Introduction to 'The Story of Burnt Njal,' Edinburgh 1861. 



^jdown to us in a form which may justly be called classical. In Sweden and Norway the 
)ld Scandinavian tongue is preserved in writing only on the scanty Runic monuments. 
The earliest Danish and Swedish written laws are believed not to be earlier than the 
middle and end of the 13th century, by which time the common language in these lands 
had already undergone great changes, although the modern Danish and Swedish were 
not yet formed. In Norway, however, a considerable literature of the 13th century- 
survives ; and the old language lasted longer there than in the sister countries. This 
literature consists of laws, diplomas, homilies, and translations of French romances ; 
and these works are quoted in this Dictionary together with the Icelandic. These 
documents belong to the period embraced by the reign of King Hakon, a.d. 12 16-1263 J 
but, though valuable, they do not make an original literature. Only in Iceland did 
a living literature spring up and flourish ; there alone the language has been handed 
down to us with unbroken tradition and monuments, from the first settlement of the 
island to the present day. 

It is believed that the present Dictionary will furnish not only a complete glossary 
of the words used in this old classical literature, but also a full account of the forms and 
inflexions of the verbs, with copious citations of passages in which each word occurs, 
with references carefully verified, and explanations given whenever they seem to be 
required ; and, at the same time, though the Dictionary is mainly intended for the 
old authors, both in prose and poetry, it endeavours to embrace an account of the 
whole language, old and new. 

A few words must be added to explain the origin and history of the work. 

Many years ago, Richard Cleasby projected a General Dictionary of the Old 
Scandinavian Language; and in 1840 he left England to settle in Copenhagen, the 
chief seat and centre of Scandinavian learning and the home of the best collection 
of Icelandic MSS,, for the purpose of preparing himself for his work and of obtaining 
the assistance of Icelandic students in collecting materials ; among these Mr. Konrad 
Gislason s name ought especially to be mentioned. Mr. Cleasby was a man of inde- 
pendent means, an excellent scholar, held in high esteem by foreign scholars, devoted to 
his work, and shunning no labour to make it perfect. He reserved for himself the 
old prose literature ; while Dr. Egilsson was engaged on the poetical vocabulary, towards 
the expenses of which Mr. Cleasby promised to contribute, so that he may be said 
to have been the chief promoter of that work also. The MS. of the Poetical Dic- 
tionary was ready for publication in the year 1846. In the following year Mr. Cleasby 
caused five words — bragb, btia, at (conjunction), af (preposition), and ok (conjunction) 
— to be set up in type as specimens of the projected Prose Dictionary. These 
he sent to several foreign friends, and among others to Jacob Grimm, who returned 
a most kind and friendly answer, warmly approving of the plan as indicated in the 
specimens, and adding many good wishes that Mr. Cleasby might have health and 
life to complete the work. Unhappily these wishes were not to be realised. In the 
-^^ b 


autumn of the same year he was taken ill, but was in a fair way to recovery, when; 
by resuming work too soon, he suffered a relapse. His illness took the form of typhus 
fever, and he died insensible, without being able to make any arrangements respecting 
his papers and collections. 

Mr. Cleasby's heirs, anxious that his labours should not be thrown away, paid a 
considerable sum of money to certain persons in Copenhagen, for the purpose of com- 
pleting the book. But in 1854 came a demand for more money; and as it seemed 
doubtful whether the work was likely to be finished in any reasonable time, and on 
any reasonable terms, it was determined that the whole of the MSS. should be sent 
to England. It seems, however, that none of Mr. Cleasby's original slips were Included 
in the papers sent. These papers consist of rough transcripts, made after Mr. Cleasby's 
death by various students in Copenhagen, whereas his original papers have not to 
this day come over to England. 

It is clear, from an examination of these transcripts, that scarcely any part of the 
Dictionary, with the exception of the words sent to Grimm, had been completed during 
Mr. Cleasby's lifetime or by him. The letters D, F, J, K, N, O, P, S, U, V, and H 
(partially), were worked out after his death by the Copenhagen editors, but in such 
a manner that it would have been much better to have had Mr. Cleasby's papers 
in their original form. In his collections he appears to have been accustomed to 
write out in full the references taken from MSS., while he made but a brief note by 
page or otherwise of words drawn from printed books. This he probably did, both 
to save labour and also because he may have looked forward to being able to complete 
his book In England, where the printed editions, but not the MSS., would have been 
within his reach. The editors have simply copied out these references, adding and 
explaining little or nothing. 

The MSS. In this state were placed at the disposal of the well-known Icelandic 
scholar, Mr. G. Webbe Dasent, and In the year 1855 he proposed to the Delegates 
of the Clarendon Press at Oxford to undertake the publication of the Dictionary under 
the belief that the collections left by Mr. Cleasby would not require much revision 
to fit them for publication. A specimen was set up in type, and Mr. Dasent himself 
undertook to see the book through the Press. 

The matter, however, remained In abeyance till the year 1864, when Mr. Dasent 
a^ain brought it before the Delegates. They, having taken Into consideration the great 
value of a complete and accurate Dictionary of the old classical Scandinavian language, 
and the great Interest this language has for students of Old English, were persuaded 
to renew their engagement with Mr. Dasent and to undertake the publication of 
the work. Mr. Dasent consented, as before, to revise the proof-sheets, to correct the 
English explanations and translations, and to add parallel words and usages from the 
Old English and Scottish dialects. He also stated to the Delegates that the papers 
were left In an Imperfect state, and asked them to grant a sum of money, for the 


purpose of securing the services of an Icelandic scholar in completing the work. This 
was also agreed to; and Mr. Dasent, in the course of the same year, secured the 
services of Mr. Gudbrand Vigfusson, a born Icelander, already well known for his 
learning, and for his labours in the field of his native literature. 

Mr. Vigfusson's report of the papers handed over by Mr. Cleasby's heirs shews 
that they contained copious materials for a Dictionary, but required much labour and 
research to work them into a form fit for publication. Mr. Cleasby's were the first 
large and comprehensive collections ever made, and are particularly valuable in that 
they were all taken from the documents themselves. The words of varied construction, 
such as the chief Verbs and Prepositions, are very rich, and taken from the best writers. 
But the words relating to Antiquities are left in a meagre condition ; and there are 
many omissions of a kind which shew that Mr. Cleasby kept much of the matter in 
his head, and intended carefully to revise the whole. He intended no doubt to have 
worked out every word with the same conscientious accuracy which is shewn in the 
completed articles, — a task which would have occupied years of labour; and had life 
been granted him, it is certain he would have fulfilled this self-imposed task well and 
thoroughly. These circumstances have rendered the business of completing the book 
very arduous, and must account in a great measure for the delay which has occurred 
in the publication of even a part of the work. 

Unfortunately also, Mr. Dasent's incessant and various occupations have prevented 
him from carrying his promised supervision beyond the first two sheets. The task 
of revising the English part of the work has fallen into hands far less competent, not 
only in respect to knowledge of the Scandinavian language and literature, but also in 
respect to acquaintance with those archaic and provincial dialects of the British Isles, 
which have special affinities to the Scandinavian tongue. 

The Delegates however have reason to hope that a fuller account of Mr. Cleasby's 
life and labours, as well as a general introduction to the whole work, will be written 
by Mr. Dasent and prefixed to the Dictionary when it is completed. 

Mr. Vigfusson takes this opportunity of acknowledging the help and advice he has 
received from the officials at the British Museum and the Bodleian Library, and parti- 
cularly to express his many obligations to the Rev. H. O. Coxe, librarian of the Bodleian. 
He also desires to render his personal thanks to the following Icelandic scholars, — 
Mr. Dasent, Dr. John Carlyle, Prof Konrad Maurer of Munich, Prof. C. R. linger 
of Christiania, and last, not least, to his friend and countryman Mr. Jon Sigurdsson of 

H. G. L. 

Oxford, June lo, 1869. 

b 2 

The sources for the Icelandic part of this work are the following. 

1. Mr. Cleasby's collections, which have in words, phrases, and references supplied about one-half of the 

materials for the present work. 

2. The Lexicon Poeticum, by Dr. Sveinbjorn Egilsson, born 1791, died 1852, a most excellent work, which 

has served as a chief guide in references from the old poetical language. 

3. Fritzner's Dictionary, by Johan Fritzner, a Norse clergyman, begun shortly after the year 1850, and 

completed in 1867. It is a very rich and good collection, entirely independent of Mr. Cleasby, 
and has afforded much valuable assistance throughout. 

4. Bjorn Halldorsson's Dictionary, Icelandic and Latin. The author, an excellent Icelandic clergyman, was 

born about 1715, and died 1794, and his work was published in 1814 by Rask, who also translated 
the original renderings into Danish : it is well known from the fact that Grimm in his Grammar has 
taken from it almost all his collection of the vocabulary of the Icelandic language. 

5. Alt-Nordisches Glossar, by Theodor Mobius, 1866, a limited but independent collection, which has afforded 

many happy references. 

6. The Dictionary published in Copenhagen in i860 (Old-Nordisk Ordbog). This book has evidently been 

compiled from Cleasby's papers in Copenhagen : it omits all references. It has been of some use, 
as it has here and there shewn where words have been omitted in the transcripts now at Oxford. 

7. Earlier Glossaries : a. Specimen Lexici Islandici, by MagnCis Olafsson, an Icelandic clergyman, died 

1636, published under the name Specimen Lexici Runici in 1650 by the Danish scholar Ole Worm, 
who also wrote it in the Runic character. This is the first Icelandic Glossary alphabetically 
arranged, and contains from 1200 to 1500 words with references. Hence the word ' Runick,' as 
applied to Icelandic, in Hickes and Johnson. p. Lexicon Islandicum, by Gudmundus Andreae, 
an Icelander, died 1654, published by Resen in 1683; it derives all words from Hebrew: not very 
interesting and without references. y- Monosyllaba Islandica, by Rugman, an Icelander, 1676; 
it contains about 1400 such words. 8. Index Linguae Veteris Scytho-Scandicae sive Gothicae, 
by Olaf Verelius, a Swedish scholar, died 1682, published by Rudbeck in 169 1; a fairly done 
work, containing about ij2,ooo words with references from MSS. e. Lexicon Islandicum, a large 

collection made by Jon Olafsson, born 1705, died 1779; it has not been pubHshed but is preserved 
in MS. in Copenhagen and has therefore not been within reach, but illustrations from it are now and 
then given from memory. \. Skyringar, by Pal Vidalin, died 1727; a commentary on obsolete 
law terms, published at Reykjavik in 1854. 

8. Indexes along with Editions, etc., e.g. the 12th volume of Fornmanna Sbgur: Lexicon Mythologicum, 

by Finn Magnusen, affixed to the large edition of Saemundar Edda: Indexes to Njala, Gragas, 
Annalar, etc. : Indexes along with Chrestomathies, e. g. Dieterich, a German scholar ; as also 
Dieterich's Runic Glossary (Runen-schatz), 1844: Physical Index in the Itinerary or Travels of 
Eggert Olafsson, Copenhagen 1772 : Index on Medical Terms in Felags-rit, 1789, 1790: Botanical 
Index in Hjaltalin's Icelandic Botany, 1830: Indexes of Proper Names in Landnama, 1843; i^i 
Fornmanna Sogur, vol. xii, and Flateyjar-bok, vol. iii; in Munch's Beskrivelse over Norge 
(Geography of Norway), 1849. 

9. Mr. Vigfusson's own collections and such additions and illustrations as he has been enabled to make 

through his knowledge of his own mother-tongue. 

The sources for the etymological part are chiefly the following. 

Jacob Grimm, Deutsche Grammatik, a work which embraces all Teutonic languages. 

For Gothic, the Glossary to Ulfilas, by Gabelenz and Loebe, 1843. 

For Anglo-Saxon, Dr. Bosworth's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary; as also Grein's Poetical Glossary (Sprach- 
schatz), 1 86 1 and 1864. 

For Early English, the Ormulum, an old gospel paraphrase by Orm or Ormin (a Scandinavian name), 
published by Dr. White in 1852; it affords many illustrations of Scandinavian words, but it is 
chiefly curious for philological purposes because of the careful distinction it makes between short 
and long vowels. 

For Northern English and Scottish, Jamieson's Dictionary. 

For Old Saxon, Schmcller's Glossary to Heliand, an Old Saxoij gospel hafmony, 1840. 

For Old and Middle High German, Graff's Sprach-sehatz, and Mittelhoch-Ceutsches Worierbuch, 1854 sqq. 


N.B. — The authors of most of the Icelandic Sagas are. unknown; the works are therefore 
cited, not the authors, even where they are known. 

A. POETRY. — KviSa generally denotes a narrative poem ; mdl a poem in dialogue or didactic ; lj68, scingr a lay, song ; tal a genealogical, 

drapa a laudatory heroic poem ; rima a rhyme or rhapsody. 

I, Mythical Poems : — VOlu-spd, Hava-mdl (mythical-didactic), Giimnis-md,!, Vaf J>ni5ni8-m&l, Skimia-m&l, Alvis-m&l, 

Loka-senna, Harbar38-lj63, Vegtams-kviSa, J>ryTns-kvi3a, Htmis-kviSa, Hyndlu-lj63, Forspjalls-ljdcJ 
(mod.) 2. Poems in the form of a 'drapa,' but upon mythical subjects: — Haustldng, Hus-dr^pa, J>6r8-dr4pa, 


II. Heroical :— Fdfnis-mal, Sigrdrffu-m&l, HamSis-mdl, Sigur3ar-kvi3a (in three poems), Gu3runar-kvi3a (in three poems), 

Brynliildar-kviSa, Atla-kvi3a, Atla-mdl, V61uiidar-kvi3a, Bigs-mdl, Helga-kviQa Hj6rvar3s-sonar, Helga- 
kviSa Hundings-bana (in two poems), HelreiS Brynhildar, Oddrunar-grd,tr, Gu3runar-hefna, Grotta-sdngr, 
Gr6-galdr, FjSlsvinns-mil, Ynglinga-tal, Haleygja-tal, Bjarka-md.1, Getspeki Hei3rek8, and other poems in 
Hervarar Saga, Darra3ar-lj63. Most of these poems (in I. II) are contained in the old collection commonly called Ssemundar 
Edda : the various editions differ in the distribution of the verses ; in this Dictionary references are made to the edition of 
Mobius, Leipzig i860; that of Sophus Bugge, Christiania 1867, has now superseded all former editions, and is cited in 
special instances. 
III. Historical : — H6fu3-lausn, Sona-torrek, Arinbjarnar-drfipa (all published in the Egils Saga), Hakonar-m&l (published in 
Hkr. i), Vell-ekla, Darra3ar-lj63, Kekstefja. 2. Poems later than the middle of the 1 2th century : — Krdku-mdl (published 
in Fas. i), Hugsvinns-mdl (paraphrase of Cato's Disticha), S61ar-lj63 (published along with Saemundar Edda), H4tta-tal 
(published along with the Edda), Jomsvikinga-drapa, Islendinga-dripa, Merlinus-spd (an Icelandic metrical paraphrase 
of Geoffrey of Monmouth), M;d.lshL^tta-kv£B3i (collection of proverbs in a MS. Cod. Reg. of Edda), Konxinga-tal (published 
in Flateyjar-bok ii. 520 sqq.), Placidus-dr^pa, Harm-s61, Ijei3ar-visan, Liknar-braut (religious poems, edited by 
Dr. Egilsson, published 1833 and 1844), Geisli (published in Fb. i. beginning), Gu3inundar-drd,pa (published in Bs. ii. 187 sqq.), 
Ijilja or the Lily (published in^.E. ii. 398 sqq.), both poems of the 14th century. 3. Olafs-rima (published in Fb. i. 8 

sqq.), Skald-Helga-rimur (published in Groul. Hist. Mind, ii), J>rymlur, VOlsungs-rimur (edited by Mobius), Skida- 
rfma (a satirical poem of the 14th or 15th century), etc. 
IV. Poets cited : — Bragi (9th century) ; Hornklofi, f>j6361fr Hvinverski (9th or 10th century) ; Egill, Kormakr, Eyvindp 
Skftlda-spillir (all of the loth century) ; Hallfre3r (born 968, died 1008) ; Sighvatr, Arnorr (both of the iith century) ; 
Einarr Skulason (12th century), etc. 

B. LAWS. — The Icelanders and Norsemen first began to write their laws at the end of the nth and the beginning of the 12th century; 

before that time all laws were oral. 

I. Laws of the Icelandic Commonwealth : — Grdgds (vide that word), a collection of the laws of the Commonwealth, published 

in two volumes by the Arna-Magnaean Legate, Copenhagen 1829. Parts or sections of the law are, Kristinna-laga-Jjdttr, 
f)ingskapa-J)attr, Vig-sl63i, Bauga-tal, Tfundar-lSg, Landbrig3a-t)fittr, Arfa-Ji^ttr, Omaga-bdlkr, Festa-t)fi,ttr, 
Ij6grettu-J)^ttr, Ij6gs6guinanns-J)4ttr, etc. These laws are chiefly contained in two private collections or MSS. of the 12th 
century, called Konungs-bok (marked Grag. Kb.) and Sta3arh.61s-b6k (marked Grag. Sb.) ; the new edition (Copenhagen 
1853) is a copy of the Konungs-bok; but the Arna-Magn. edition, which is cited in this Dictionary, is a compilation from both 
MSS., having however Sta6arh61s-b6k as its groundwork. The Kristin-rettr f>orldks ok Ketils (K. |). K.) is cited from a 
separate edition (Copenhagen 1775). 

II. Laws of Norway contained in a collection in three volumes, called Norges Gamle Love (published by Munch and Keyser, 

Christiania 1846, 1847). The 1st vol. is most frequently cited, and contains the laws of Norway previous to A. D. 1263 ; the 
3rd vol. contains B^ttar-bsetr or Royal Writs, cited by the number. The GiiLaJ)ings-16g or Lands-16g, = the Code of 
King Magnus (died 1281), is contained in the 2nd vol. of this collection, but is cited from a separate edition (Copenhagen iSl?)- 

III. Icelandic Laws, given after the union with Norway: — Kristin-r6ttr Ama biskups (published at Copenhagen in I777)j 

J£rn-si3a (Copenhagen 1847), the Law of Iceland from A. D. 1273-1280; J6ns-b6k (Holum 1709) is the Icelandic Code of 
Laws of A. D. 1280 (still in use in Iceland), 


I, Edda or Snorra Edda: — In this Dictionary only the prose work of Snorri Sturluson (born 1 1 78, died 1241) is cited under this 
name ; the poems of the so-called Stemundar Edda are all cited separately by their names (vide A). The Edda consists of three 
parts, the Gylfa-ginning or Mythical Tales (pp. 1-44), Skaldskapar-mdl or the Poetical Arts and Diction (pp. 45-110), 
Hdtta-tal (marked Edda Ht.) = a poem on the metres, and lastly, J>ulur or Rhymed Glossary of Synonymes (marked Edda Gl.) 
The edition cited is that of Dr. Egilsson, Reykjavik (1848) in one vol.; the Arna-Magn. (1848 sqq.) in two vols, (the third is 
still in the press) is now and then referred to. The Edda is chiefly preserved in three vellum MSS., the Konungs-bok (Kb.), the 
Orms-bok (Ob.), and the Uppsala-bok (Ub.), which is published in the Arna-Magn. Ed. ii. 250-396. 2. The prose parts 

of the Ssemundar Edda (here marked Saem.) 

II. Mythical Sagas or Histories : — Fornaldar S6gur, a collection published in three volumes by Rafn, Copenhagen 1829, 1830 : the 

1st vol. contains Hrolfs Saga Kraka (pp. 1-109), Volsvmga Saga (pp. 115-234, again published by Bugge, Christiania 1865), 
Bagnars Saga (pp. 235-299 and 345-360), Sogu-brot or Skjoldunga Saga (a fragment, pp. 363-368), Hervarar Saga 
(pp. 411-533), Norna-Gests Saga (pp. 319-342): the 2nd vol. contains Hdlfs Saga (pp. 25-60), Fri3l)j6fs Saga 
(pp. 63-100 and 488-503), Orvar-Odds Saga (almost wholly fabulous) : the 3rd vol., Gautreks Saga (pp. 1-53) : the rest 
are mere fables, and belong to G below. Heinings-J)attr, from the Flateyjar-bok, 3rd vol., partly cited from MSS. ; this tale 
contains a myth parallel to that of William Tell. 2. Ynglinga Saga by Snorri Sturluson, containing lives of the mythical 

kings of Sweden from Odin down to the historical time, cited from Heimskringla, 1st vol. 

D. fSLENDINGA SOGUR OR HISTORIES referring to the ICELANDIC COMMONWEALTH and the time following the union with 

I. Sagas or Histories of the General History of Iceland : — Landndma or Landnfima-bok, a History of the Discovery and 
Settlement of Iceland, originally written by Ari Fr66i (born 1067, died 1148), but worked out into its present form by Sturla 
J>6r8arson (born J 2 14, died 1284); this important work is cited from the Copenhagen Ed. of 1843, where the figures are 


separated with a (•) ; the first figure marks ' a part' ({tattr), the second a chapter. Landnama (Hb.) denotes the text of the 
vellum MS. Hauks-b6k. Landn4ma Mantissa means an appendix affixed to the book in the printed editions. Islendinga-bdk 
by Ari Fr68i, from the Ed. of 1843 (published along with Landnama). Kristni Saga (Introduction of Christianity), cited 
from Biskupa Sogur, vide below. Sttirlunga Saga or fslendinga Saga bin mikla by Sturla |>6r5arson, relates the history 
of Iceland, especially of the 13th century up to the union with Norway, cited from the Ed. of 1817-1820, in four volumes; the 
last volume however, containing the Arna biskups Saga, is quoted from the Biskupa Sogur below. The chjef MS. of this work 
is in the British Museum, 11,137 ' the letter C after the figures denotes the vellum MS. Afna-Magn. X23, fasc, A. 

II. Sagas or Lives of Men or Families referring to the Icelandic ' Saga time,' i. e. the loth century down to about A. D. 1030 or 

1050, properly called fslendinga Sogur. 1. The Larger Sagas :— Njala or Nj&ls Saga, published at Copenhagen in 1772 ; 

the Latin translation by Johnsonius, Copenhagen 1809 with Icelandic various readings, is cited now and then; cp. Burnt Njal 
by Mr. Dasent. Laxdeela Saga, Copenhagen 1826; the later part of Laxdaela also exists in a better form in a vellum MS. 
Arna-Magn. 309, but is not as yet published. Egils Saga or Egla, Copenhagen 1809. Eyrbyggja Saga or Eyrbyggja, 
Ed. 1787, and Leipzig 1864, where the pages of the old Ed. are marked in the margin. 2. The Smaller Sagas: — 

Ijjdsvetniaga Saga, Valla-Ljots Saga, Svarfdsela Saga, Beykdaela Saga, Viga-Glums Saga, all iive cited from the 
octavo volume called IslendingaScigur, 2nd vol., Copenhagen 1 830: HarSar Saga(pp. i-ii8),H8ensa-J>6ris Saga(pp. 121-186), 
Gunnlaugs Saga (pp. 189-276), HeiSarviga Saga (pp. 320-392), all four cited from the collection called fslendinga Sogur, 
2nd vol., Copenhagen 1847: Gisla Saga Surssonar, Bjarnar Saga Hitdaela-kappa, Hrafnkels Saga, Droplaugar- 
Sona Saga, Vdpnflrdinga Saga, |)orsteins Saga hvita, J>orsteins-J)4ttr Stangar-boggs, all seven cited from the small 
editions, 1847, 1848 ; the chapters in Gisla Saga, when quoted, refer to the old edition, Holum 1756 : Kormaks Saga, edited 
separately, Copenhagen 1832 : Vatnsdsela Saga (pp. 1-80) , Floamanna Saga (pp. 1 1 7-161), HallfreSar Saga (pp. 83-1 15), 
all these three Sagas are published and cited from a collection called Forn-sogur, Leipzig i860: Bandamanna Saga, 
H&varfiar Saga, Grettis Saga (an A after the figures denotes the vellum MS. Arna-Magn. 556 A), 6lkofra-J)dttr, all these 
four Sagas are cited from the quarto volume Margfro&ir Sogu-^aettir, Holum 1756 (of Grettis Saga a new edition appeared in 
1853, and of Havar&ar Saga in i860; of Bandamanna Saga an earlier and better text is preserved in a vellum MS. 2845 Royal 
Libr. Copenhagen, cited Band. (MS.), but is not published) : Jjorfinns Saga Karls-efnis, cited from Gronland's Historiske 
Mindesmserker i. 352-442, a part is also published in Antiquitates Americanae : f)orsteins Saga Sf3u-Hallssonar, cited 
from Analecta, by Miibius, Leipzig i860, pp. 169-186 : Gull-J>6ris Saga by Maurer, Leipzig 1857, cited by the pages of 
the MS. which are marked in the margin of the Ed. : Fostbrseflra Saga, Ed. 1822, new Ed. 1852 : Njar3vikinga Saga 
or Gunnars-J)attr J>i3randa-bana, published at the end of Laxdaela, pp. 363-384: J>orvalds Saga Vi3f6rla, published in 
Biskupa Sogur i. 33-50. Many of these Sagas were undoubtedly written in the 12th century, although preserved in later MSS. ; 
some, although old, have been worked out into their present shape by historians of the 13th century (e.g. Eyrbyggja, Laxdaela, 
and Njala); some few of them have only reached us in the more modern and artifi^al style of the 13th or 14th century. 

III. Sagas or Lives of the Icelandic Bishops from A.D. 1056-1330, collected and edited under the title of Biskupa Sogur: — 

Vol. i, Copenhagen 1858, contains Kristni Saga, pp. 1-32, vide above; Hungr-vaka or Lives of the First Five Bishops of 
Skalholt, pp. 59-86; fjorlaks Saga, pp. 89-124, 263-332; Jons Saga, pp. 151-260; Pdls Saga, pp. 127-148; G-u3- 
mundar Saga, pp. 407-618 ; Arna Saga, pp. 679-786 (bishop Arne died 1298) ; Laurentius Saga by Einar Hafli6ason, 
the last Icelandic historian of the olden time, born 1307, died 1393, pp. 789-914 (bishop Laurentius died 1330); Kafns Saga 
and Arons Saga are printed as an appendix, vol. i, pp. 639-676, 619-638. Vol. ii, pp. 1-230, contains another recension of 
GuSmundar Saga, written by Abbot Arngrim, who died 1361 : the following pages (ii. 230 sqq.) are lives of the bishops of the 
Reformation period. 

IV. Annals : — f slenzkir Anndlar or Annals of Iceland, containing Konungs-ann^ll or Ann. Regii, an important vellum in Gamle 

Kongel. Saml., 2087, 4to, published in Langebek's Script, rerr. Dan. vol.iii; cp. also the Hauks-anndill, Hola-anndll, Flateyjar- 
anndll, LOgmanns-anndll, etc. A collection of Annals embracing the time from the settlement of Iceland up to A. D. 1430 
was published at Copenhagen in 1847, and is cited by years. 

V. Skrok-Sogur or Fabulous Sagas: — Bd,r3ar Saga, from Ed. Holum 1756, new Ed. i860; Viglundar Saga, Ed. 1756, new Ed. 
i860; J>6r3ar Saga hre3u, Ed. 1756, new Ed. 1848, and i860 (partly); Kjalnesinga Saga, cited from fslendinga Sogur, 
Ed. 1847; Kroka-Refs Saga, Ed. 1 756 ; Finnboga Saga, Ed. 1812, along with the old Ed. of Vatnsdaela : J>orsteins-t)attr 
uxafots, Orms-J)&ttr Storolfssonar, J>orleifs-t>^ttr Jarlaskd,lds, all three in Fb. i. and in Fms. iii : Brandkrossa-J)^ttr, 
Ed. 1847 : Bolla-J)dttr, published along with the Laxdaela: Stjornu-Odda Dramnr, Ed. 1780, new Ed. i860. 


I. Sagas or Lives of the Kings of Norway and Denmark, contained in a great collection published in twelve volumes, Copenhagen 
1825-1837, under the title of Fornmanna S6giir : — Vols, i-v contain the lives of the kings of Norway from the end of the 
9th century to A.D. 1030 : vol. vi contains Magnus Saga G63a and Haraldar Saga Har3rd,3a (died 1066) : vol. vii goes 
down to A.D. 1176; the best text of both vols, vi and vii are contained in a great Icelandic MS. called Hulda (cited now and 
then): vol. viii contains the Sverris Saga by Karl Aboti (Abbot Carle), who died 1213; the king Sverrir died 1202,: 
vol. ix, pp. 229-535, and vol. x, pp. 1-154, contain Hikonar Saga by Sturla f)6r6arson, king Hacon died 1263 : vol. xi 
contains the lives of the kings of Denmark, viz. Jomsvikinga Saga (pp. 1-162, a shorter recension of the Saga is preserved 
in an Icelandic MS. at Stockholm, and cited from the Ed. 1824) ; Knjrtlinga Saga (pp. 179-402) = lives of the Danish kings 
from king Canute down to the end of the 12th century: in the 10th vol. there are besides, Agrip (pp. 377-421), a com- 
pendium of the lives of the kings of Norway; Olafs Saga Tryggvasonar by Oddr Munkr, who lived in the 12th century 
(pp. 216-376), another recension of the same work is edited by Munch, Christiania 1853 (=*nd here marked 0. T.) : vol. xii 
contains registers, etc. Heims-kringla, vols, i-iii, cited from the folio edition, Copenhagen 1 777-1783, contains the lives of 
the kings of Norway in a text mostly identical with Fornmanna SiJgur vols, i-vii, and is therefore sparingly cited ; but the 
Heimskringla alone gives the Ynglinga Saga, vide C. II : a new edition by Unger has been published, Christiania 1868. Codex 
Frisianus, a vellum MS. of the Heimskringla, fasc. i, Christiania 1869. Olafs Saga Helga by Snorri Sturluson, who died 
1241, cited O. H., Christiania 1853, is identical with Fornmanna Siigur vols, iv, v, and Heimskringla vol. ii, but contains the best 
text of this Saga. Fagrskinna, Christiania 1847, contains a short history of the kings of Norway down to the end of the 12th 
century. _ Morkinskinna, an old vellum containing the lives of king Harald HarSrsiai and the following kings, by C. R. Unger, 
Christiania 1867. Ingvars Saga by Brocman, Stockholm 1762. Eymundar Saga, cited from Fb. ii. and Fms. v ; the Saga 
is given in Antiquites Russes. (3lafs Saga Helga (O. H. L.), a legendary life of St. Olave, Christiania 1849. Flateyjar-b6k, 
edited in three volumes, Christiania 1860-1868, contains the text of Fornmanna Sogur, besides many other things, and is often 
cited (Fb.) Here may also be mentioned Skdlda-tal or Catalogue of Ancient Poets and Kings, published by MiJbius in his 
Catalogus, Leipzig 1856; but again edited by Jon Sigurdsson in Edda iii. pp. 251-286 (still in the press). 
II. Sagas referring to other countries : — Orkneyinga Saga, also called Jarla Saga, the Lives of the Earls of Orkney from the earliest 
time down to the end of the 12th century, cited from the new edition of Mr. Dasent, not yet issued, the old Ed. A.D. 1780; 
the whole Saga is given in the Flateyjar-bok. Magnus Saga Eyja-jarls, the Life of St.Magnus, Ed. 1780. Fsereyinga 
Saga, the History of the Faro Islands, Copenhagen 1832, from the Flateyjar-b6k. Gr8enlendinga-J)^ttr or Einars-J)d,ttr 



Solcka-Bonar, cited from Flateyjar-b6k iii. 445-454. J4tvar8ar Saga, the Life of Edward the Confessor, Ed. 1852, also 
contained in Flateyjar-bok iii. 463-472. Osvalds Saga, the Life of King Oswald, Ed. 1854. Thomas Saga Erkibiskups, 
the Life of Thomas a Becket, cited from a MS. 531 1 iu the British Museum, a transcript of an Icelandic vellum MS. called 
Thomas-skinna ; another recension of this Saga is in an Icelandic MS. at Stockholm : it is now in the press under the care of 
Unger, Christiania, whose edition is now and then cited (Thom. Ed.), vide e. g. gjafmildi. B6inveiga SOgur, edited in 
Prover, pp. 108-386, is a paraphrase of Sallust's Bellum Jugurt. and Lucan's Pharsalia. Veraldar Saga, a short Universal 
History, ' Sex Aetates Mundi,' cited from Prover, pp. 64-103. We may also here record the f>orfinns Saga (vide above, D. II. 2) 
and ■Vinlands-J)4ttr, from Flateyjar-bok vol. i, wrongly inserted in the editions of the Heimskringla vol. i, published by Rafh 
in Antiqmtates Americanae, Copenhagen, pp. 7-78 : these two Sagas refer to the discovery of America at the end of the 
loth and the beginning of the lith centuries. 


I. Stjorn or a Biblical Paraphrase of the Historical Books of the Old Testament by bishop Brand (died 1264), edited by Unger, 
Christiania 1862 ; also sometimes called GySinga S6giir. The first part, pp. I-319, is a scholastic compilation from Genesis, 
Exodus, Petrus Comestor, and the Speculum Historiale, and was composed about A.D. 1 300, but the whole work is now called 
by the name of Stjorn. 
II. Homilies, etc. — The Homilies and Sermons of St. Gregorys marked Greg. Homiliu-b6k or Book of Homilies, by Unger, 
Christiania 1864, marked Horn. ; the ligures refer to the pages of the MS. Arna-Magn. 619, which are marked in the edition : 
another old vellum MS. of Homilies at Stockholm (marked Hom. St.) is not published. Elucidarius, Ed. in Ann. for Nord. 
Oldk. 1858 ; the figures mark the pages of the MS. noted in the edition. 
III. Helgra-manna Sogur or Lives of Saints, etc. : — Barlaams Saga (by Joh. Damasc), Unger's Ed., Christiania 185 1 : Clemens 
Saga (Clement Alexandr.) : Martinus Saga (St. Martin of Tours), from vellum MS. Arna-Magn. 645 : Blasius Saga 
(St. Blaise), from vellum MS. Arna-Magn. 623 : Mariu Saga (Virgin Mary), from MS. Arna-Magn. 656 A. and other MSS., is 
now edited by C. R. Unger, Christiania, and often cited both in the Grammar and Dictionary: Nidrstigningar Saga or 
History of the Descent to Hell, a rendering of the later part of the Apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus, from MSS. Arna-Magn. 
645, pp. 102-110, and 623, pp. i-io : Andreas Saga, MS. Arna-Magn. 625 : Johannes Paga baptistae, MS. Arna-Magn. 
623: Postula S6gur, from various MSS., Arna-Magn. 645, 656 C, etc.; a printed copy (Vi3cy 1836) is now and then used: 
Theophilus, edited by Mr. Dasent, 1842, now again published as part of the Mar. Saga. Antonius Saga, Augustinus 
8aga, Pdls Saga Postula, cited from Arna-Magn. 234 fol. Many other small legendary stories are besides cited (without 
name) from the Arna-Magn. MSS. nos. 656, 655 (the Roman numerals denote parts or fasciculi), 623, 645, 677. Many of 
these tales and homilies are preserved in very old MSS., and belong to the earliest stage of Icelandic literature. 

O. ROMANCES OR FABLES, rendered mostly from French and Latin. 

I. Historical Romances : — Alexanders Saga (from the Alexandreis of Philip Gautier), by Unger, Christiania 1848 : Karla-Magnils 
Saga (Charlemagne), by Unger, Christiania i860 : |>iflreks Saga af Bern (Dieterich), by Unger, Christiania 1853 : Breta- 
S6gur, the first part also called Trojvimanna S6gur, chiefly founded upon Geoffrey of Monmouth's Hist. Brit, and Dares 
Phrygius, edited in Ann. for Nord. Oldk., Copenhagen 1848, 1849. 
II. Mythical : — Artus-kappa S6gur, containing Parcevals Saga, Ivents Saga, Valvents Saga, MSttuls Saga, Erreks 
Saga, cited from MS. 4859 in the British Museum : Elis Saga, Bserings Saga, Flovent Saga, Magus Saga, all four cited 
from vellum MS. Arna-Magn. 580; the last is also at times quoted from an edition: Tristams Saga, in MS. Arna-Magn. 
443, but only cited from Fritzner's Dictionary : Mirmants Saga, cited from MS. 4859 iu the British Museum : Bevus 
Saga; Clarus Saga. p. Strengleikar or Lays of the Britons, edited by Unger, Christiania 1850. 

III. Lyga-Sogur or Stories fabricated in Iceland : — The greater part of Fornaldar Sogur, 2nd and 3rd vols., vide above ; f>jalar- 
Jons Saga, Konrdfls Saga Keisara Sonar, and many others. 


I, Philological: — Skdlda, a collection of three or four Icelandic philological treatises of the 12th to the 14th century, preserved in 
one of the MSS. of the Edda (Orms-bok), and therefore usually published as an appendix to that book, and in many modern 
works quoted under the name of Edda ; it is here cited under the name of Skalda. SkiUda is a traditionary name in Iceland, 
although it is sometimes applied to the Skaldskapar-mal, vide C ; the earliest and by far the most interesting — perhaps the earliest 
philological treatise in any Teutonic language — is that by Thorodd; it is contained in p. 160, 1. 27 to p. 169, 1. 18 in the edition 
of Dr. Egilsson, Reykjavik 1849 (where these treatises are published under the name of Ritgjor3ir Tilheyrandi Snorra Edda), but 
in the Ed. Arna-Magn. (Copenhagen 1852) ii. 10-43; the second treatise, probably from the later part of the 12th century, 
pp. 169-173, Ed. Arna-Magn. ii. 44-60; the third treatise, an imitation of Donatus and Priscian, pp. 173-200, is written by 
• ' Olafr Hvita-skald (died 1259), cp. Ed. Arna-Magn. ii. 62-189 ; the fourth treatise, pp. 200-212, is simply a continuation of the 

third. 2. The Skaldskapar-mal of Snorri, the rhymed glossaries, and the metrical poem Hatta-tal with the commentary in 

prose (vide C), may be reckoned in this class. 

II. Skugg-sja or Konungs Skugg-sjd, i. e. Speculum Regale, a didactic scholastic work ; the Copenhagen Ed. of 1768 is cited here ; 
a new edition appeared at Christiania in 1848. Anecdoton, a polemical treatise on ecclesiastical matters, published by 
WerlauiT, Copenhagen 1815, and again in 1848, along with the Skugg-sja. 

III. Arithmetical : — Kim-begla, a large collection of arithmetical treatises, etc., published at Copenhagen in 1780 ; the name Rimbegla, 

however, refers properly only to the first part, viz. pp. 1-114 in this edition : this treatise is preserved in an Icelandic MS. of the 
I2th century (no. 1812 Royal Libr. Copenhagen), and is so called by the author, whose name is unknown. Algorismus, a 
treatise on Arithmetic by Hauk Erlendsson (died 1334), contained in the vellum MS. Hauks-bok, and edited by Munch in Ann. 
for Nord. Oldk., Copenhagen 1848, pp. 353-375. 

IV. Geographical : — A small collection is published under the title of Symbolae ad Geographiam Medii aevi, edited by Werlauff 

in 182 1, especially containing a geographical sketch by the Icelandic abbot Nicholas (died 1161), called LeiSarvisir og Borga-skipan : 
some things are also published in Antiquites Russes and Orientales, 1852 ; various fragments of this kind are contained in the 
Hauks-bok. Some parts of the rhymed glossary in the Edda (C. I), e.g. names of rivers, islands, etc., belong to this class. 

v. Medical: — Leekninga-bok, a MS. in the Ama-Magn. collection 434, i2mo; a small part pubhshed in Prover, pp. 471-474. The 
chief source for medical citations, however, is a list of Icelandic names of diseases contained in the 9th andioth volumes of Felags-rit, 
1789 and 1790, written by Svein Palsson (died 1840), and drawn from various old treatises on medical matters. 


I. Icelandic : — Historia Ecolesiastica Islandiae by bishop Finn Jonsson, Finnus Johannaeus, published in four volumes, Copenhagen 
1772-1778, contains a great number of writs and deeds referring to Icelandic church-history, which are cited in this Dictionary as 
far as down to A.D. 1400: Diplomatarium Islandicum by Jon Sigurdssoii, Copenhagen 1857 sqq., contains deeds and Libri 
Datici of the churches down to the union with Norway (about A. D. 1 263), but is not finished : deeds of the 14th century are therefore 


cited from MSS. in the Arna-Magn. collection marked Dipl., the Roman numerals denoting fasciculi : there are also cited collections 
of Libri Datici of the 14th century, viz. P6trs-mdldagi, AuSunnar-mdldagi, Jons-mdldagi, and "Vilkins-m&ldagi, all 
bearing the name of the bishops of the 14th century who made the collection, and cited from MSS. in the Arna-Magn. 
II. Norse: — Diplomatarium TTorvagicum, in many volumes, by Unger and Lange, Christiania 1849 sqq. ; but as the language of 
Norway was no longer in a pure state in the 14th and 15th centuries, this large collection is sparingly cited: BjSrgynjar 
Kalfskinn, Boldts Jordebog, and Munkalif are all registers of properties of the Norse cloister, rarely cited. 


I. Gothic Runes, called by some Old Scandinavian Bunes ; they are identical with the Anglo-Saxon Runes, but older, and are 
found only on the very oldest monuments: — The Golden Horn, dug up in Schleswig A.D, 1734, contains an inscription 
probably of the 3rd or 4th century, explained by Munch and finally by Bugge ; The Bunic Stone at Tune in Norway, edited 
and explained by" Munch, Christiania 1857, specially cited now and then in the introductions to the letters. 
II. Common Scandinavian Runic Inscriptions : — The Swedish Stones, collected in Bautil, vide s. v. bautasteinn ; the figures mark 
the number: Brocman's treatise upon the Runes at the end of Ingvars Saga, Stockholm 1762. 2. The Danish Ruiuc 

Stones, edited by Thorsen, De Danske Eune-Mindes-mserker, Copenhagen 1864; Rafn's collection, Copenhagen 1856. 
The Manx Stones are edited by Munch along with his edition of the Chronicon Manniae. 

^er As to the authorship of these works, we can only briefly note that most of them are Icelandic, but parts Norwegian or Norse. Parts 
of A, the whole of B. II, and part of B. Ill are Norse ; F and G are partly Norse and partly Icelandic ; H. II and J. II are Norse ; K Scandi- 
navian ; the rest Icelandic. Some few MSS. under the other letters are Norse, e. g. Fagrskinna ; but the works are undoubtedly of Icelandic 
origin. Again, many of the Norse laws are preserved in Icelandic MSS., and only one of the many MSS. of the Skugg-sja is Norse. 

BY MODERN WORKS are understood the works from the Reformation to the present time, as opposed to the old literature, which may 
be said to end about A.D. 1400; the following 100 or 150 years are almost blank, at least as far as prose is concerned. The first 
specimen of modern Icelandic Hterature is the translation of the New Testament, A.D. 1540, then the rendering of hymns and 
psalms into Icelandic, and the version of the whole Bible: the middle and latter part of the i6th century was entirely taken up 
with these subjects. A fresh historical literature, annals and the like, first dawns at the end of that century. The 1 7th century is 
especially rich in religious poetry ; the Sermons of Jon Vidalin belong to the beginning of the l8th ; essays of an economical or 
political character begin at the middle or end of that century, and periodicals from A. D. 1 780. As for this Dictionary, it may be 
briefly stated that, as to the old literature, every passage is as far as possible given with references ; while words and phrases from 
the living Icelandic tongue, popular sayings, etc. are freely given, but generally without references. No Icelandic Dictionary can be 
said to be complete that does not pay attention to the present language : the old literature, however rich, does not give the whole 
language, but must be supplemented and illustrated by the living tongue. The differences in grammar are slight, and the transition 
of forms regular and gradual, so the change is mostly visible in the vocabulary. But it should be noted that when a word or 
phrase is given without reference, this means that no ancient reference was at hand : but it does not follow that it is modem ; this 
can only be seen from the bearing of the word, e. g. whether it conveys a notion known to the ancients or not. Of modern works 
.cited the following may be noted : 

I. In Poetry, first, the flower of Icelandic poetry, old as well as modern, the Passiu-S&lmar or Fifty Passion Hymns by Hallgrim 
Petrsson (born 1614, died 1674), finished 1660, published 1666, and since that time reprinted in thirty editions ; the former figure 
marks the hymn, the latter the verse. The Hymns and Psalms of the Reformation are now and then cited from the Hymn-book 
of 1619 (called Hola-bok, cited by its leaves), or the collection of 1742. 2. Of secular poems, Bunadar-b&lkr (marked 

Bb.), composed 1764, by Eggert 6lafsson (born 1726, died 1768) ; this poem has always been a great favourite with the people in 
Iceland: the first figure marks the divisions of the poem. A small collection, A.D. 1852, called Sn6t, containing small but 
choice poems of different poets. p. Of rimur or modern rhapsodies, the iJlfars-rlmur are cited as the choicest specimen, 
composed by |)orlak Gudbrandsson, who died in 1707; Tima-rima, a satirical poem of the beginning of the 1 8th century; 
Ntiina-rimiir by Sigurd Breidfjord. y Njola, a philosophical poem by Bjorn Gunnlaugsson, published 1844; Hustafla, a 

pedagogical poem by Jon Magnusson (born 1601), cited from the Ed. of 1774. 8. The Ballads or FornkvaeSi, 1854 sq., 

vide s. V. danz. «. Ditties and Songs, never published, but all the better recollected, — the choicest among them are those 

attributed to Pal Vidalin (born 1666, died 1727), etc. etc. 3. The chief Poets are: — Hallgrimr Petrsson; Stefan Olafsson 

(died 1688) ; Eggert Olafsson; Jon {jorlaksson (born 1744, died 1819), his poems are collected in two volumes, 1842 ; Benedikt 
Grondal (born 1762, died 1825), his poems in a small collection, 1833; Sigurdr Petrsson (died 1827), his poems collected in 
1844; Bjarni Thorarinsson (born 1787, died 1841), his poems published 1847 ; Jonas Hallgrimsson (born 1807, died 1846), his 
poems published 1847; SigurSr Breidfjord (died 1846). 

II. In Prose we must first mention, 1. mfia Testamenti, the New Testament, cited from the text of 1644, in Edd. of 1807 

and 1813 (in no case is the new version, London 1866, cited, it being merely a paraphrase, and inaccurate) ; the text of 1644 here 
cited is mainly founded on the original version of 1540, which has been duly reckoned among the noblest specimens of Icelandic 
prose, especially in the Gospels; it is therefore frequently cited. Gamla Testamenti, the Old Testament, is cited more 
sparingly. The earliest edition of the Bible (Holum 1584) is called GuSbrands-Biblia, i.e. the Bible of bishop Gudbrand; the 
next edition (Hdlum 1644) '* called f>orldks-Biblia, i.e. the Bible of bishop Thorlak, and is a slightly emended text of that 
of bishop Gudbrand. The fjorlaks-Biblia may be called the Icelandic textus receptus ; the edition of 1 746, called "Waisenhiis- 
Biblia, is a reprint of it; as is also the edition of the British and Foreign Bible Society, 181 3. Whenever the Old Testament 
is cited (and when Stjorn is not meant), the reference is to one of these three editions of the same version. p. Next 

we have to notice the Sermons of bishop Jon Vidalin (born 1666, died 1720), called J6ns-b6k (not the Jons-bok above 
mentioned, B. Ill) or Vidalins Postilla, a highly esteemed work ; the first edition is of 1 718, and ten or eleven editions have 
since been published : perhaps no Icelandic book is so stocked with popular sayings and phrases of every kind. 2. Of secular 

literature we have first to mention fslenzkar f)j63s6gur or Icelandic Stories and Legends by Jon Arnason, Leipzig 1862, 1864, 
in two volumes ; some of them rendered into English by Messrs. Powell and Magnusson ; the Icelandic text, however, is always 
cited. p. Kv61dv6kur, a popular book for children, in two vols. 1794 and 1796, by Hannes Finnsson. y. The publications 
of the Icelandic Literary Society, B6kmenta-f61ag, founded A.D. 1816: Arbsekr or Annals of Iceland by Jon Espolin (died 
1836), published 1821 sqq. : Safn or Contributions towards the History of Iceland, etc. etc. S. Piltr eg StiUka, a novel, 

1850. «. The beautiful translation of the Odyssey by Sveinbjorn Egilsson, published under the name of Cdysseifs-kvseOi, in 
small parts, to serve as school books during the years 18 29 -1844. {. Periodicals : — F61ags-rit, a periodical in fifteen volumes, 
1780-1795, contains much that is valuable in Icelandic philology ; cp. also Nf F61ags-rit, a periodical of 1841 sqq. Apmann 
& AlJ>ingi, a periodical of 1 829-1832. J>j636Ifr, a newspaper, Reykjavik 1848-1869. 

Ample thanks are due to the excellent reader at the Clarendon Press, Mr. Pembrey, for his watchful attention to consistency in spelling 
and accuracy in punctuation, especially in the Icelandic part of this Dictionary. 

G. V. 


N. B. — The letters between ( ) refer to the Classification of Works and Authors, 

A. A. = Antiquitates Americanae. 

(E. II.) 
Ad. = Arinbjarnar-drdpa. (A. III.) 
Akv. = Atla-kvida. (A. II.) 
Al. = Alexanders Saga. (G. I.) 
Alg. = Algorismus. (H. III.) 
AIni.= Alvis-miil. (A. I.) 
Am. = Atla-mal. (A. II.) 
Anal. = Analecta. (D. II.) 
Andr. = Andreas Saga. (F. III.) 
Anecd. = Anecdoton. (H. II.) 
Ann.= fslenzkir Annular. (D. IV.) 
Ant. S. = Antonius Saga. (F. III.) 
Arna-Magn. or A. M. = Arna-Mag- 

Arons S. = Arons Saga. (D. III.) 
Art. = Artus-kappa Sogur. (G. II.) 
Aug. = Augustinus Saga. (F. III.) 

A. {>. = Arta-t)attr. (B. I.) 
Agr. = Agrip. (E.I.) 

Am. = Au6unnar-maIdagi. (J. I.) 
Arna S. = Arna Saga. (D. III.) 
Band. = Banda-mannaSaga.(D. II.) 
Barl. = Barlaams Saga. (F. III.) 
Baut. = Bautil. (K. II.) 
Barft. = Biiraar Saga. (D. V.) 
Bb. = BiinaOar-balkr. 
Bev. = Bevus Saga. (G. II.) 
Bjarn. = Bjarnar Saga. (D. II.) 
Bjarni = Bjarni Thorarinson. 
Bj()rn=:Bjoni Halldorsson. 

B. K. = Bjijrgyajar Kalfskinn. (J. 

Bkv. .= Brynhildar-kviSa. (A. II.) 
Bias. = Blasius Saga. (F. III.) 
Bin. = Biarka-nicil. (A. II.) 
BoIdt = Boldt. (J. II.) 
Boll. = Bolla-J)attr. (D. V.) 
Brandkr. = Brandkrossa-Jxittr. (D. 

Bret. = Brcta Sogur. (G. I.) 
Brocm. =- Brocman. (K. II.) 
Bs. = Biskupa Sogur. (D. III.) 
Bt. = Bauga-tal. (B.I.) 
Baer. = Baerings Saga. (G. II.) 
Clar. = ClarusSaga. (G. II.) 
Clem. = Clements Saga. (F. III.) 
Darr. = Darra5ar-lj6a. (A. III.) 
D. I. = Diplomatarium Islandicum. 

(J. I-) 
Dipl. = Diplomatarium. (J.I.) 
D. N. = Diplomatarium Norvagi- 

cum. (J. II.) 
Dropl. = Droplaugar-sona Saga. 

(D. II.) 
Eb. = Eyrbvggja Saga, (D. II.) 
Edda = Edda. (C.I.) 
Eg. = EgilsSaga. (D. II.) 
El.=ElisSaga. (G. II.) 
Eluc. = Elucidarium. (F. II.) 
Em. = Eiriks-mal. (A. III.) 
Esp. = Esp61in Arbaekr Islands. 
Fagrsk. = Fagrskinna. (E.I.) 
Fas. = Fornaldar Sogur. (C. II.) 
Fb. = Flateyjar-bok. (E. I.) 
Fbr. = F6stbra;6ra Saga. (D. II.) 
Fel. = Felags-rit. 

Finnb. = Finnboga Saga. (D.V.) 
Fkv. = Forn-kvaeSi. 
Floam.S. = Floamanna Saga. (E. I.) 
Flov. = Flovents Saga. (G. II.) 
Fm. = Fafnis-mal. (A. II.) 
Fms. = Fornmanna Sogur. (E. I.) 
Fr. = Fritzner's Dictionary, 1867. 
Frump. = Frumpartar. 
Fs. = Forn-scigur. (D. II.) ■ 
Fstn. = Fjolsvinns-mal. (A. II.) 
Fspl. = ForspjalIs-Ij66. (A. I.) 

F.{>. = Festa-J)attr. (B.I.) 
Faer. = Faereyinga Saga. (E. II.) 
Gautr. = Gautreks Saga. (C. II.) 
Gg. = Gr6galdr. (A. II.) 
Gh. = Gu8runar-hefna. (A. II.) 
Gisl. = Gisla Saga. (D. II.) 
Gkv. = Gu6runar-kvi6a. (A. II.) 
Glum. = Viga-Glums Saga. (D. II.) 
Gm. = Grimnis-mal. (A. I.) 
Grag. = Gragas. (B.I.) 
Greg. = Gregory. (F. II.) 
Grett. = Grettis Saga. (D. II.) 
Grond. = Benedikt Grondal. 
Gronl. Hist. Mind. = Griinlands 

Historiskc Mindes-mxrker. 
Gs. = Grotta-songr. (A. II.) 
Gsp. = Getspeki Hei6reks. (A. II.) 
Gu6m.S. = GuSmundarSaga. (D. 

GuUJ). = Gull-|j6ris Saga. (D. II.) 
Gylfag. = Gylfa-ginning. (C. I.) 
Gt)l. = Gulatiings-10g. (B. II.) 
Hallfr. S. = HalirreSar Saga. (D. II.) 
Hallgr. = Hallgrimr Pctrsson. 
H. Ann. = Hauks-annall. (D. IV.) 
Kara. S. = Hardar Saga. (D. II.) 
Har. S. Hard. = Haralds Saga Har6- 

ra3a. (E. I.) 
Haustl. = Haustlong. (A. I.) 
Hak. S. = Hakonar Saga. (E. I.) 
Halfs S. = Halfs Saga. (C. II.) 
Hav. = Havar6ar Saga. (D. II.) 
Hb. = Hauks-b6k. (H. IV.) 
Hbl. = Harbar5s-lj6a. (A.I.) 
Hd. = Hus-drapa. (A.I.) 
Hdl. = Hyndlu-Ij66. (A. II.) 
H5m. = Ham6is-mal. (A. II.) 
H. E. = Historia Ecclesiastica Is- 

landiae. (J. I.) 
Hei&arv. S. or HeiS. S. = Hei5ar- 

viga Saga. (D. II.) 
HeIr. = HelreiaBrynhiIdar. (A. II.) 
Hem. = Hemings-t)attr. (C. II.) 
Hervar. S. = Hervarar Saga. (C. II.) 
Hkm. = Hakonar-mal. (A. III.) 
Hkr. = Heimskringla. (E. I.) 
Hkv. = Helga-kviaa Hundings- 

bana. (A. II.) 
Hkv. Hjorv. = Helga-kviSa Hjiir- 

varBssonar. (A. II.) 
Hlt. = Haleygja-tal. (A. II.) 
Hm. = Hava-mal. (A. I.) 
Hom. = Homiliu-bok. (F. II.) 
Hrafn. -^ Hrafnkels Saga. (D. II.) 
HrolfsKr. S. = Hr61fs Saga Kraka. 

(C. II.) 
Hs. = Harm-sol. (A. III.) 
Hsm. = Hugsvinns-mal. (A. III.) 
Ht. = Hatta-tal. (C.I.) 
Hung, or Hv. = Hungr-vaka. (D. 

Hiist. = Hiis-tafla. 
Hym. = Hymis-kviaa. (A. I.) 
Haensa^. = Hxnsa-f)6ris Saga. (D. 

Hofuai. = Hofuaiausn. (A. III.) 
Itin. = Itinerarium or Travels of 

Eggert (5lafsson, 1772. 
Ivar Aasen = Ivar Aasen's Dic- 
tionary, 1850. 
lb. = Islendinga-b6k. (D.I.) 
Id. = Islendinga-drapa. (A. III.) 
Ingv. = Ingvars Saga. (E. I.) 
Isl. f>j6as. = Islenzkar J>j6asogur. 
Jatv. = Jatvardar Saga. (E. II.) 
Jb. = J6ns-b6k. (B. HI.) 
Jd.=:Jomsvikinga-drapa. (A, III.) 

Jm. = J6ns-maldagi. (J.I.> 
J6h. = Johannes Saga. (B". ill.) 
Jomsv. S. or Jv. = Jomsvikinga 

Saga. (E.I.) 
Jonas = Jonas Hallgrimsson. 
Jons S. = Jons Saga. (D. III.) 
Jon {>orl. = Jon J>orlaksson. 
Js.=Jarnsiaa. (B. III.) 
Karl. = Karla-magniis Saga. (G. I.) 
K. A. = Kristinn-r^ttr Arna bis- 

kups. (B. III.) 
Kb. = Konungs-bok. (B.I, C.I, etc.) 
Kjaln. S. = Kjalnesinga Saga. (D. 

Km. = Kraku-mal. (A. III.) 
Knytl. = Knytlinga Saga. (E.I.) 
Konr. = Konnias Saga. (G. III.) 
Korm. = Kormaks Saga. (D. II.) 
Kristni S. or Kr. S. = Kristui Saga. 

(D. I. III.) 
Kr6k. = Kr6kaRefsSaga. (D.V.) 
K. |). K. = Kristinn-rettr J>orlaks 

ok Ketils = Kristinna-laga-J)attr. 

(B. I.) 
Landn. = Landndma. (D.I.) 
Laur. S. = Laurentius Saga. (D.III.) 
Ld. = LaxdaEla Saga. (D. II.) 
Lex. Mythol. = Lexicon Mytholo- 

L( :\. Poet. = Lexicon Poeticum by 

bveinbjorn Egilsson, i860. 
Lex. Run. = Lexicon Runicum. 
Lil. = Lilja. (A. III.) 
Ls. = Loka-senna. (A. I.) 
Lv. = Ljosvetninga Saga. (D. II.) 
Loekn. = Laekninga-bok. (H. V.) 
Mag. = Magus Saga. (G. II.) 
Magn.=MagnusSagajarls. (E.II.) 
Magn. S. Goda = Magnus Saga 

Goda. (E.I.) 
Mar. = Mariu Saga. (F. III.) 
Mart. = Martinus Saga. (F. III.) 
Merl. = MerlinusSpa. (A. III.) 
Mirm. = Mirmants Saga. (G. II.) 
M. K. = Munkalif. (J. II.) 
Mkv. = Malshatta-kvxai. (A. III.) 
Mork, = Morkinskinna. (E.I.) 
Mott. = Mottuls Saga. (G. I.) 
N. G. L. = Norges GamIe Love. 

(B.II.) ' 
Niarst. = NiSrstigningar Saga. (F. 

Nj. = Njala. (D. II.) 
Njara. = Njaravikinga Saga. (D. 

II.) , 
Nj61a = Nj6Ia, the poem. 
Norge's Beskriv. = Beskrivelse 

Noma G. S. = Norna-Gests Saga. 

(C. II.) 
N. T. = New Testament. 
Ny Fol. = Ny Felags-rit. 
Ob. = Orms-bok. (C.I.) 
Odd. or S. Odd. = Stjornu-Odda 

draumr. (D. V.) 
Og. = Oddninar-gratr. (A. II.) 
O. H. L. = Olafs Saga Helga Le- 

gendaria. (E. I.) 
Or. = 01afs-rima. (A. III.) 
Orkn. = Orkneyinga Saga. (E. II.) 
db. = dmaga-balkr. (B.I.) 
0. H. = dlafs Saga Helga. (E. I.) 
Osv. = 0svalds Saga. (E.II.) 
0. T. = (5lafs Saga Trvggvasonar. 

(E. I.) 
Pass. = Passiu-Salmar. 
Pals S. = Pals Saga. (D.III.) 

Pd. = Placidus-drapa, (A. III.) 
Pm. = Potrs-miildagi. (J.I.) 
Post. = Postula Sogur. (F. III.) 
Rafns. S. = Rafns Saga. (D. III.) 
Ragn. S. = Ragnars Saga. (C. II.) 
Rb. = Rimbegla. (H. III.) 
Rd. = ReykdsEla Saga. (D. II.) 
Rdtt. = R(5ttarba;tr. (B.II.) 
Rm. = Rigsmal. (A. II.) 
Rom. = Romverja Saga. (E. II.) 
Safn = Safn til Stigu Islands. 
Sb. = Staaarh61s-b6k. (B.I.) 
Sd. = Svarfd:Ela Saga. (D. II.) 
Sdm. = Sigrdrifu-nial. (A. II.) 
Sig. Breiaf. = Sigurdr Breiafj6r8. 
Sig. Pet. = Sigurdr Petrsson. 
Skalda = Skalda. (H.I.) 
Skald H. = Skald Helga-rimur. (A. 

Skjold. = Skjoldunga Saga. (C. II.) 
Skm. = Skirnis-mal. (A. I.) 
Sks. = Konungs Skugg-sja. (H.II.) 
Sksm. = Skiildskapar-mal. (C. I.) 
Skv. = Siguraar-kviSa. (A. II.) 
SI. or S61. = S61arlj6a. (A. HI.) 
Snot = Snot, poems. 
Stef. 61. = Stefan Olafsson. 
Stell. = Stellu-rimur. 
Stj. = Stj6rn. (F.I.) 
Stor. = Sona-torrek. (A. III.) 
Str. = Strengleikar. (G. II.) 
Sturl. = Sturlunga Saga. (D. I.) 
Sverr. S. = Sverris Saga. (E. I.) 
Symb. = Symbolae. (H. IV.) 
SaEm. = SxmundarEdda. (A, C.I.) 
Th. = Theophilus. (F. III.) 
Thoni. = Thomas Saga. (E. II.) 
Tl. = Tiundar-log. (B.I.) 
Tristr. = Tristrams Saga. (G. II.) 
Ub. = Uppsala-b6k. (C.I.) 
tjlf. = iJlfars-rimur. 
Valla L. = Valla Ljots Saga. (D. II.) 
Vapn. = VapnfiraingaSaga. (D.II.) 
Vd.=VatnsdaEla Saga. (D.II.) 
Ver. = Veraldar Saga. (E.II.) 
Verel. = Verelius, Index. 
Vh. = Vatnshyrna MS. 
Vidal. = Vidalins-Postilla. 
Vidal. Skyr. = Vidalin Skyringar. 
Vigl. = Vig!undar Saga. (D.V.) 
Vinl. J). = Vinlands-t)attr. (E. II.) 
Vkv. = Volundar-kviSa. (A. II.) 
Vm. = Vilkins-maldagi. (J.I.) 
Vsl. = Vigsl6ai. (B.I.) 
Vsp. = V6Iuspa. (A.I.) 
Vtkv. = Vegtams-kviaa. (A.I.) 
VJ)m. = Vaf {)ruanis-mal. (A. I.) 
Vols. S. = Volsunga Saga. (C. II.) 
Yngl. S. = Ynglinga Saga. (C. II.) 
ft. = Ynglinga-tal. (A. II.) 
J)d. = |j6rs-drapa. (A. I.) 
f>iar. = |)iareks Saga. (G. I.) 
|>jal. = ^jalar-J6ns Saga. (G. III.) 
{)kv. = J>ryms-kviaa. (A. I.) 
Jjorf. Karl. = fjorfinns Saga Karls- 

efnis. (D.II.) 
{>orl. S. = |)orlaks Saga. (D. III.) 
|)orst. hv. = {>orsteins-{)attr hvita. 

(D. II.) 
{jorst. Siau H. = |>orsteins Saga 

Siau Hallssonar. (D. II.) 
|)orst. S., St. = |)orsteins-J)attr 

Stangarhiiggs. (D. II.) 
Jjorst. ux. = Jjorsteins-fiattr uxa- 

fots. (D.V.) 
{)6ra. = |j6raar Saga hreau. (D.V.) 
|>. {>. = f ingskapa-J)attr. (B. I.) 
Oik. = Olkofra-j)attr. (D. II.) 




absol. = absolute, abso- 

ace. = accusative. 

act. = active. 

A. D. = Anno Domini. 

adj. = adjective. 

adv. = adverb. 

vlverb. = adverbially. 

allit. = alliteration, al- 

anatom. = anatomi- 

OTT. X«7. = owaf A.€7o- 


A. S. = Anglo-Saxon. 

astron. = astronomy, 

begin. = beginning. 

Bodl. = Bodleian. 

Bohem. = Bohemian. 

botan. = botanically. 

Brit. Mus. = British 

ch. = chapter. 

class. = classical. 

Cod. or Cd. = Codex. 

cognom. = cognomen. 

collect. = collective. 


corapd,compds = com- 
pound, compounds. 

conj. = conjunction. 

(jontr. = contracted. 

corresp. = correspond- 

cp. = compare. 

Dan. = Danish. 

dat. = dative. 

decl. = declined. 

def. = definite. 

defect. = defective. 

dep. = deponent. 

De Professer = DeHerr 
Professer by August 
Corrodi, in the Zii- 
rich idiom. 

deriv. = derived. 

diet. = dictionary. 

dimin. = diminutive. 

dissyl. = dissyllabic. 

D. R. A. = Deutsche 
Rechts - alterthiimer 
by Grimm. 

dub. = dubious, 
eccl. = ecclesiastical. 
Ed., Edd. = edition, 
editions, edited. 

E. Engl. Spec. ■= Early 
English Specimens. 

e.g. = exempli gratia. 

ellipt. = elliptical, ellip- 

Engl. = English. 

esp. = especially. 

etc. = et cetera. 

etym. = etymology. 

f. or fem. = feminine. 

Fin. = Finnish. 

for. = foreign. 

Fr. = French in ety- 

Frank. = Frankish. 

freq. = frequent, fre- 

Fris. = Frisian. 

Gael. = Gaelic. 

gen. = genitive. 

gener. = generally. 

Germ. = German. 

gl. or gloss. = glossary. 

Goth. = Gothic. 

Gr. = Greek. 

gramm. = grammar. 

Havn. = Havniensis. 

Hel. = Heliand. 

Icel. = Iceland, Ice- 
lander, Icelanders, 

id. = idem, referring to 
the passage quoted. 

id. — idem, referring to 
the translation. 

i. e. = id est. 

imperat. = imperative. 

impers. = impersonal. 

indecl. = indeclinable. 

indef. = indefinite. 

indie. = indicative. 

infin. = infinitive. 

inflex. = inflexive. 

intens. = intensive. 

intrans. = intransitive. 

irreg. = irregular. 

Ital. = Italian. 

1. = line. 

L. = Linnaeus. 

Lat. = Latin. 

I.e. = loco citato. 

lit. = literally. 

Lith. — Lithuanian. 

Litt. = Littonian. 

loc. = local, locally. 

m. or masc. = mascu- 

medic. = medicine, me- 

metaph. = metaphori- 
cal, metaphorically. 

metath. = metathesis. 

meton. = metonomy, 

metric. = metrically. 

mid. H. G. = middle 
High German. 

mid. Lat. = middle 

milit. = military. 

M. Lat. = Mediaeval 

mod. = modern. 

monosyl. = monosylla- 

MS., MSS. = manu- 
script, manuscripts. 

mythol. = mythology, 

n. or neut. = neuter. 

naut. = nautical. 

navig. = navigation. 

neg. = negative. 

N.H.G.=New High 

no. = number. 

nom. = nominative. 

North. E. = Northern 

Norweg. = Norwegian. 

obsol. = obsolete. 

O. H. G. = Old High 

opp. = opposed. 

Ormul. or Orm. = 0r- 

part. = participle. 

partic. = particularly. 

pass. = passive. 

perh. = perhaps. 

pers. = person. 

pi. or plur. = plural. 

poet. = poetically. 

Pol. = Polish. 

posit. = positive. 

pr. or prop. = proper, 

pref. = preface. 

prep., prepp. = preposi- 
tion, prepositions. 

pres. = present. 

pret. = preterite. 

priv. = privative. 

pr. n. = proper name. 

prob. = probably. 

pron. = pronoun. 

proncd. = pronounced. 

proverb. =proverbially. 

pro vine. = provincial. 

qs. = quasi. 

q. v. = quod vide. 

R. = Rimur. 

recipr. = reciprocally. 

redupl. = reduplicative. 

reflex. = reflexive. 

relat. = relative. 

S. = Saga. 

s. a, = sub anno. 

Sansk. = Sanskrit. 

Scandin. = Scandina- 
via, Scandinavian. 

Scot. = Scottish. 

signif. — signification. 

sing. = singular. 

Slav. = Slavonic, 

Span. = Spanish. 

spec. = specially. 

sq., sqq. = following. 

subj. = subjunctive. 

subst. = substantive. 

suff. = suffix. 

sup. = supine. 

superl. = superlative. 

s. V. = sub voce. 

Swed. = Swedish. 

temp. = temporal. 

termin. = termination. 

Teut. = Teutonic. 

theol. = theological, 

trans. = transitive. 

transl. = translation. 

trisyl. = trisyllabic. 

Ulf. = Ulfilas. 

uncert. = uncertain. 

unclass. = unclassical. 

Ups. De la Gard. = De 
la Garde's collection 
of Icel. MSS. in Up- 

V. = vide. 

viz. = namely. 

V. 1. = varia lectio. 

Wolf. =Wolfenbuttel 


SIGNS, Etc. 

= , equal or equivalent to, the same as. 

[ ] , between these brackets stand etymological remarks and comparisons with cognate languages. 

Words in capital letters are root words or important words. 

The word Norse is generally used in a peculiar sense, namely, to mark the old Norwegian idiom (or MS.) as opposed to Icelandic proper. 

Historical references referring to religion, customs, life, etc. are given in chapters, and under the special name of the Saga or work cited, vide 
e. g. sub voce draumr and drapa ; the condition of the editions has, however, made it impossible to follow this rule throughout. 
Philological references are given in pages. 

In nouns the genitive termination is placed between the noun and gender, e. g. alda, u, = alda, gen. bldu ; biira, u, = bara, gen. baru, etc. ; bati, 
a, = bati, gen. bata ; bogi, a, = bogi, gen. boga, etc. So also s, ar, jar, e. g. bekkr, s, = bekkr, gen. bekks ; bekkr, jar, = bekkr, gen, 
bekkjar; belgr, jar, = belgr, gen, belgjar ; borg, ar, = borg, gen. borgar, etc. 

Compounds of nouns formed from the genitive of the noun are regarded as double words, and printed at the end of the head noun in the 
same paragraph, vide e. g. bekkr, bok, etc. 

As to the marking of verbs the following is to be noticed : — a8, or d, 8, t, tt, following immediately after a verb, are the preterite 
inflexions which characterise the verb ; aft indicates a trisyllabic preterite with a& as its characteristic, e. g. baka, a8, that is to say, 
infin. baka, pret. bakaSi, sup. baka&, pres. baka : whereas d, 8, t, dd, tt, indicate a dissyllabic preterite, having the dental as charac- 
teristic, e. g. brenna, d, that is to say, infin. brenna, pret. brenndi, sup. brennt, pres. brenni ; fseSa, dd, that is to say, infin. fseSa, pret. 
faeddi, etc.; bsta, tt, = baEtta, pret. baetti, etc.; bsgja, 8, = baEgja, pret. baegdi, etc. Where the verb is somewhat irregular, the form is 
given in full, e. g. berja, pret. bar8i. All verbs in this Dictionary not marked as above stated are strong, and the tenses are given in 
extenso. The notation as above stated is adopted from Unger's Glossaries to his editions of Sagas, and has been lately used in Fritzner's 

The simple and accented vowels are separated ; thus a and a, i and i, o and 6, u and li, y and y stand each by themselves ; an exception, 
however, is made with e, because it is rare and peculiar in pronunciation. Ang, ing, ung, yn^ are given with the simple unaccented 
vowels, though they are frequently in the editions spelt with an acute ('). 



1 HE Icelandic alphabet (stafrof ) in popular use as taught to children 
consists of the following letters (stafir) : — 

a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, k, 1, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, 
t, u (v), X, y, z, J), ae, 6, 

the names of which may be learnt from two stanzas by Gunnar 
Palsson in the Bama-gull : — 

A , be, ce, de, e, eff, ge, 
eptir kemur hd, i, kci, 

ell, emm, etin, 6, einnig pe, 
stla eg qu J)ar standi hja. 

Err, ess, te, u eru par naest, 
ex, ;}, zeta, porn, ce, i), — 

allt stafrofiS er svo laest 
i erendin {)essi litil tvo. 

The vowels are pronounced long. This alphabet was, with some 
additions, adopted from the Latin, and the p was added at the 
end; and so late as the 17th century (in the Glossary of Magnus 
(3lafsson, who died 1636, and in the Icel. Grammar of Runolf 
Jonsson, who died 1654), ^^^ alphabet ends with p, <e and being 
attached to a and o ; Runolf calls the b ' o hrevissimutn.' At a later 
time CE and b were detached from a 0, and put at the end ; but 
not both of them at the same time, as Bjdrn Halldorsson ends his 
Dictionary with <e. Gunnar Palsson, who wrote the first popular abc, 
seems to be the man who, by his memorial stanzas, settled the alpha- 
bet as it is now taught. The division into mutes, liquids, etc. is too 
well known to be repeated. Neither are we here concerned with the 
Runic alphabet ; there can be little doubt that this too was rudely 
imitated from the Greek or Latin, perhaps from coins : Roman coins 
of the 2nd and 3rd centuries of our era have been dug up in Scandi- 
navian cairns and fens : foreign coined money was centuries in advance 
of books, and in barbarous countries shewed the way to the art of 

The vowels (hlj6&-stafir or less properly raddar-stafir) are, 1. 

simple (short) — a, e, i, o, u,y, b. 2. diphthongal, either marked 

with the acute ('), a, e, i, 6, u, y, or double letters, mi, ei, ey, <b (ce). 
Thus in written Icel. all the vowels together are, a d,e 6, i i, o 6, u u, 
y y, ce, b, the diphthongs a?/, ei, ey being included under a and e 
respectively. In this Dictionary the simple and acute vowels are 
treated under one head, but separately one after another; e.g. A in 
pp. 2-36, A in pp. 36-48 ; these letters are widely different from 
one another both as to sound and etymology ; a and a, o and 6, 
i and i, for instance, being no more akin than a and ei, o and au, etc. ; 
and therefore great confusion would arise from mixing them together. 
The long vowels are chiefly due to contraction or absorption of con- 
sonants, which in Icel. has been carried farther than in any other 
Teutonic language, e.g. ar, atom, and a,T, year ; v'm, friend, and vin, 
wine; dyr, door, and dyr, deer ; (ullr, full, and full, foul ; gob, god, 
and g68r, good, etc. 

To the consonants (samhlj66endr) were added in olden times the d 
(e8), p (J)orn) ; and iu modern times j, about the end of the last 
century; so that in Icel. writing all the consonants are, b, c, dd,f, 
g, b,j, k, I, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, x, z, p, ( = twenty-one) ; and this 
brings the whole alphabet to thirty-six letters : — 

a a, b, c, d 3, e 6, f, g, h, i 1, j, k, 1, m, n, o 6, 
p, q, r, s, t, u li, v, x, y y, z, J), se (ce), 6, 

from which number we may subtract c, q as little in use, x, z as com- 
pound letters, 6 as subordinate to d, ce and ce are treated as one letter, 
and thirty remain ; au, ei, ey go along with a and e, each in its due 
place, as zlsoja,jd,j6,jb,jtl. 

There is a curious division of the alphabet by an old Icel. gram- 
marian of the latter part of the 12th century (Skalda 169-173). He 
draws five concentric circles : in the centre he places what he calls the 
h6fu8-stafir (' head-staves,' initial letters), viz. h, q, v, p, which in Icel. 
can only stand at the beginning of a syllable : in the next ring the 
mal-stafir {^speech-staves' or common consonants), twelve in number, 
which can stand both as final and initial : in the third ring the 
hlj69-stafir (' voice-staves,'' vowels, still so called in Icel.), twelve in 
number, among which he distinguishes between six simple and six 
long vowels, the latter marked as at present with ' ; with them also he 
counts the limingar (' clusters,' double vowels), ce, 00, cu, and lausa-klofar 

{split letters), ei, ey, as well as ia, to, iu ; the vowel i he calls skiptingr 
(a changeling) from its being sometimes a vowel, sometimes a conso- 
nant : in the fourth ring are the capitals, which in MSS. are made to 
serve for double consonants (e. g. kroS = kross) : lastly, in the fifth 
ring, the undir-stafir (' under-staves,' sub-letUrs), 6, x, z, which in Icel. 
can only be used as final. 

Thorodd ({joroddr Gamlason, called Riinameistari or Rune-master) 
is the oldest Icel. grammarian, and lived in the beginning of the 1 2th 
century ; for a curious account of this remarkable man, a builder by 
profession, see Bs. i. 235. He makes thirty-six vowels, nine of which 
seem to be nasal, caused by the frequent dropping and agglutination 
of n (in the infinitives, the weak nouns, etc.) ' These letters were 
lost before writing began, but left a nasal sound so late as the begin- 
ning of the 1 2th century. To the five Latin vowel characters he adds 
cO, •&, 0, y. These nine vowels as well as the nasals he then doubles 
by marking the long with an acute ('), and so they make thirty-six. 
In writing and printing, oO, x, a are out of use, but occur frequently 
in MSS. 

Icel. prose literature extends over nearly eight centuries, and in the 
course of that time the language lost some of its rich vowel system ; 
besides the nasals we are able to trace seven distinct vowels as lost. 
Four of them were lost at a very early time, perhaps in the 12th 
century, viz. cO the umlaut of a (see p. i, B. 5) ; or a», a vowel change 
of 6 ; and the double e and b sound (see introduction to letter E) ; all 
these four letters were lost about the same time, and so early that few 
MSS. use them ; they are not noticed in this Dictionary, except now 
and then for etymological purposes. Some three or four centuries 
later, three other vowels vanished, viz. the y sound in all the three 
letters y, y, ey, which became respectively = i, i, ei ; but the former 
are still preserved in writing and printing. The MSS. down to the 
Reformation make in most cases a sharp distinction between the i 
andj* sound, as also the poets; yet one very ancient MS. of the 12th 
century (Arna-Magn. 623, see Frump, pp. 42-48) is remarkable for 
its confounding both letters. The same confusion is observable in 
Anglo-Saxon; whereas in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, the dis- 
tinction of i and y is still strictly kept up. As for Icel. we suspect 
that the change began in some remote district at an early time, until 
many centuries later it was suddenly adopted throughout the whole 

The Icel. is not, in its pronunciation, a strongly accented language, 
(the acutes, as stated above, are marks of diphthongs, not of accent,) 
and is in this respect nearest in sound to the French. In modulation 
the Icel. is in the main trochaic (- ^ | - u), and arsis and thesis follow 
alternately one after another : secondly, all root syllables are accentu- 
ated, but inflexive syllables have no accent, e. g. barna, handa, b66a, 
har6an, fagra; in bisyllabic compounds both the root syllables are 
accentuated, but Ae second with only a half accent, which we mark 
by -, e.g. sam-band, hiig-bo5, as also in strong inflexions hke -andi, 
-astr, e. g. eigandi, har6a5tan : if one of the words which form a com- 
pound falls in the third syllable it is accentuated, e. g. bama-giill, bama- 
gulli, handa-verk (but hand-verk), because in this case the arsis falls 
on the third syllable which is a root : in trisyllabic words with bisyllabic 
inflexion the^ third syllable is sounded -, e. g. lausnarinn, hiigg- 
iinar, syngaSist, sannleikann, hentugast, truar-innar {fidei), na&ar- 
innar, hof6ing-janna, and that even though the second syllable is a 
root syllable, e. g. uppvakna3r, afsokiin : words like blcssunar|innar, 
miskunar|innar, drottninga.r|innar, etc. are dactylic. Root and in- 
flexion on the one hand and the trochaic flow on the other are felt 
all along, mutually resisting or aiding one another as to the measure 
of a syllable ; accordingly, whenever the arsis falls on v.. it becomes 
^, if on ^ it becomes -. In the best Icel. poets half-accentuated syl- 
lables may form full rhyme, by a poetical licence ; thus, in the Passiu- 
Salmar more than eight score, and in BunaSar-balkr more than two 
score of such rhymes are found, e. g. 

Mig hefir Ijiifur Lausnarinn 
leitt inn i naftar grasgarS sinn. 
Huggun er manni monnum a8 
miskun Gu8s hefir svo tilskikkaS. 
I8ranin bli8kar aptur Gu8 
ei ver&ur syndin tilreiknuS. 

Bsenarlaus aldrei byrju8 se 
burtfcir af J)inu heimile. 
{>u veizt ei hvern J)u hittir J)ar 
heldur en |)essir Gy8ingar. 
{)vi hjarta8 mitt er helminga8, 
hlakka eg til ad finna {)a8. 




A. STRONG NOUNS, i. e. the more complex kind of Declension in which the gen. sing, ends in a Consonant. 



rst Declension, gen. sing, -s, nom. pi. -ar. 


































2nd Declension, gen. sing, -ar, nom, pi, -ir. 

fund-r bekk-r kott-r 

fund-ar bekk-jar katt-ar 







3rd Declension, nom. pi. -r. 









1st Declension, gen. sing, -ar, nom. pi, -ir. 



































1st Declension, gen, sing, -s. 


2nd Declension, gen. sing, and nom, pi. -ar. 



















































3nd Declension. 





3rd Declension, nom. pi. -r. 

















B. WEAK NOUNS, i. e. the simpler kind of Declension in which the gen. sing, ends in a Vowel. 









Dat. I 



Acc, J 




















ell-i (unchanged) 

no plur. 




aug-a (unchanged) 



Strong Nouns. — Masculine. 

Bemarks on the 1st Declension : I. heimr : words 

of this form are found almost in every column of the Dictionary, 
and are therefore usually only marked ' m.' 2. about half a 

score of masculines have a characteristic v, which appears before a 
vowel, hiir-r, hjor-r, bor-r (poet.), song-r, mii-r, sae-r, snja-r (sj6-r, 
snjo-r), sor-var (poet., pi.) ; in dat. sing, hor-vi, . . . s6ng-vi, ma-vi, 
sae-vi, snja-vi ; in pi. hiir-var, siing-var, snjo-var. The dat. in -vi is now 
obsolete, but the pi. is still used. 3. remarks on the inflexion, o. 

the nominative : -r assimilates with the final radicals /, n, s : in words 
with long root vowel, al-1, gal-1, hval-1, hol-l, kj61-l, stol-l, fil-1, hael-1, 
J)raEl-l, flein-n, stein-n, svein-n, bnin-n, diin-n, hiin-n, as-s, bas-s, las-s, 
haus-s, hiiaus-s, meis-s, is-s, 6s-s, etc. In mod. ufage the inflex. -s in 
lis-s . . . 6s-s is dropped, as is the -r after a radical r, in ar-r, aur-r, 
hver-r, her-r, geir-r, leir-r, hor-r, mor-r, |>6r-r, hamar-r, and thus the 
nom. becomes like the acc, as, bas, . . . ar, hver, hamar, etc. : — the r 
is dropped, in words like afl, gafl, skafl, nagl, vagi, fugl, karl, jarl, jaxl, 
lax, hrafn, stafn, ofn, stofn, ]porn, vagn, svefn, J)egn, geisl, gisl, hals, 
fress, sess, foss, koss, kross, furs, dans, fans, angr, klungr, hungr, akr, 
hafr, sigr, otr, liiar, hrdar, nadr, nykr, vear (wether), vikr, gr6ar, aldr, 
Baldr, galdr, oldr, meldr, arSr, hl4tr, bolstr, austr, lestr, bakstr, mokstr, 

apaldr. p. the genitive ; graut-r, skog-r, hofund-r have -ar in gen. as 
the 2nd declension. y. the dative ; some words of this declension drop 
the -i, but it is difficult to draw an exact line, as this use is rather a 
licence than a law : — all the words in -leik-r, kaer-leik (cbaritati), inh- 
leik (venustati), sann-leik (veritati); as also leik-r, fil-l, kil-1, skril-1, 
(dat. fil, kil, skril), hrepp-r, lepp-r : words with long root vowel and a 
final p or /, hof-r, hop-r, s6p-r : words with ei as root vowel, dat. 
hleif, Hm. 51 (but hleif-i, 140); sveip, meis, sveig, dverg (but dvergi, 
"i^t. 2), strak, snap, skap, bat and bat-i (scaphae) ; |j6r, kor, flor, bor, 
hor, from {>6r-r, etc. ; daun (odori), dun, Bnin, hiin, miil, miir, diir, 
etc., for dvin-i . . , diir-i, which are obsolete ; so also buk and biik-i, duk 
and diik-i, mug and miig-i, reit and reit-i : those with a long vowel as 
final, e. g. jo, sko, na, Frcy, J)ey, from j6-r . . . J)ey-r : — in masculines with 
a characteristic v the old dat. form is -vi, whereas the mod. drops both 
letters, thus dat. miir, hor, mii, snjo, for the old mor-vi, hor-vi, ma-vi, 
snj6-vi. Nouns with the inflexive endings -itigr, -ungr seldom drop 
the i, konung-i.biining-i : words with a radical r never, e. g. galdr-i, aldr-i, 
not aldr, galdr : the proper names of this declension very seldom drop 
it, e. g. {>orleif-i, Jjorlak-i, |>orleik-i : dag-r, dat, deg-i, but as pr, name 
Dag, In old writers many of these apocopate forms begin to appear, 
e, g, {>6r-i (the god) is only found in a single instance used by a poet 
of the 8th century ; yet the decay of the dat, inflexion is a little 



increasing, thoogh the use, ancient and modern, is in the main still the 
same. II. himinn : the contraction in dat. sing, and plur. 

is to be noted, and the assimilation in nom. ; hereto belong all masc. 
with inflex. -inn, -unn, -arr, -urr, -ill, -ull : 1. -nn, aptan-n, 

arin-n, drottin-n, himin-n, O&in-n, morgin-n. 2. -arr, hamar-r, 

kamar-r, humar-r, jaSar-r, nafar-r, etc. : pr. names in -arr (the -ar in 
these is etymologically different) are not contracted, e.g. Einar-r, dat. 
Einar-i. 3. -urr, fjotur-r, totur-r, jcifur-r ; but not so the pr. 

names, e. g. Gizur-r, dat. Gizur-i. 4. -//, bagal-1, ka&al-l, va6al-l, 

bidil-1, ketil-1 (q. v.), lykil-1, jokul-1, ro8ul-I, sto3ul-l, sodul-1, mondul-1, 
(ingul-l, J)ongul-l, etc. : even the pr. names are contracted, e. g. Egil-1, 
dat. Agli ; Ketil-1, dat. Katli. III. Iseknir : hereto belong only a 

score of common words used in prose writing, baetir, ein-ir, elr-ir, eud-ir, 
eyr-ir, fell-ir, hell-ir, hers-ir, hirft-ir, kses-ir, kyll-ir, lutt-ir, Isekn-ir, miss-ir, 
m«l-ir, moen-ir, nenn-ir, reyn-ir, skelm-ir, steyp-ir, verm-ir, vi6-ir, vis-ir, 
l>err-ir : pr. names as, Grett-ir, Brest-ir, Bein-ir, Styrm-ir, Sverr-ir, Jjor- 
ir, JEg-'iT : local names, Geys-ir, Keil-ir. 2. a great many (more than 
a hundred) poet, and obsolete words. <JB» In mod. usage the declension 
of these words is altered and the r is kept throughout, whereby nom. 
dat. ace. sing, become alike, hell-ir, gen. helli-rs, dat. ace. hell-ir, pi. 
hcll-rar,hell-ra, hell-rum, or laekn-irar, Isekn-ira, laekn-irum : — the words 
with an inflex. -ari were originally, as shewn by Gothic bocar-eis, of 
this declension, but now they are all weak masc, and the sole instances 
left on record of the old inflexion are the gen. miitar-is by Sighvat, 
and vartar-is, Landn. 197 (v. 1. 18) in a verse of the loth century. 

Bemarks on the 2nd Declension : the words belonging 
hereto are far less in number than those of the 1st, perhaps seven score 
of simple nouns or thereabout, but they are often irregular, we shall 
therefore try to give a list of them ; their marks, besides the plur. -ir, 
are the freq. dropping of the dat. sing. -/, the ace. plur. -u, and the 
characteristic i: I. fundr: skri6-r, stuld-r, sull-r, sult-r, 

veg-r, fri3-r, kvi6-r (a womb), feld-r, ver6-r, brest-r, gest-r, rett-r, 
kost-r, burd-r, skur8-r, J)ur&-r, fund-r, mund-r, gris-s,nu-r: — inflex. -aJr, 
"udr, buna5-r, fognu6-r, hagna3-r, jofnu6-r, getna6-r, soknu3-r, dug- 
na8-r, J)rifna8-r, skilna8-r, etc.: — sta8-r, brag-r, mat-r, sal-r, ham-r, 
svan-r, val-r, sau8-r, 68-r, snu8-r, {)r6tt-r, bol-r, dug-r, hug-r, bug-r, 
grun-r, mun-r, hlut-r, skut-r, vin-r, grip-r, glcep-r, ly'8-r, — in these words 
the dat. -i is dropped, as also in compd nouns in -skap-r, gleSskap-r, 
fiflskap-r, etc. : — pr. names in -rdr, -ndr, -kon have also -ar in gen., 
Bar8-r,|>6r3-r,Sigur8-r,{)rand-r,Eyvind-r,Geirro8-r, Sigro8-r, Hii-kon, 
etc. : — in pi., pr. names of some people (countries or counties), Danir, 
Frisir, Valir, Indir, Vindir, Lappir, Grikkir, Tyrkir, Kyrjalir, Kvenir, 
Serkir, Vanir (the gods) : Eg8ir, Eynir, Haleygir, Mcerir, Sygnir, {>ilir, 
|>rcendir (in Norway) : -dcelir, Lax-doelir, Vatns-doelir, etc. ^S" Irregu- 
larities ; some of the words above have -s in gen. sing, like those of the 
1st declension, e.g. hal-r, val-r, ham-r, svan-r, bol-r, dug-r, grun-r, 
brest-r, gest-r, gris-s, glcep-r, 13^8-r, nu-r : — dal-r, hval-r, staf-r, mar-r, 
hver-r, ref-r, sel-r, mel-r have now usually -ir in pi., but in olden times 
they had -ar, and belonged to the 1st declension; they also drop the 
-I in dat. sing. II. bekkr : with characteristic^', which appears 

before a vowel in a score and a half of words ; be8-r, vef-r, bekk-r, 
hrekk-r, stekk-r, flekk-r, leyg-r, eyk-r, reyk-r, legg-r, vegg-r, belg-r, elg-r, 
merg-r, streng-r, J)veng-r, hrygg-r, drykk-r, hlykk-r, byl-r, hyl-r, ryf-r, 
byr-r, hyr-r, styr-r, Icek-r, boe-r. 2. dreng-r, segg-r, stegg-r, etc. 

have -s in gen. sing, f^ Almost all those above (with characteristic^') 
also drop, the dat. -i in sing. 3. with characteristic v ; sj6-r, gen. 

sjo-var, pi. sj6-ir. III. k6ttr : with an old ace. pi. in -u, 

prob. caused by a characteristic u (cp. the Goth, aims, qvipus, tigus, 
vabstus, valus), three score words : 1. with a plain root vowel ; 

kvid-r {dictum), kvist-r, kvitt-r, li8-r, lim-r, lit-r, si8-r, smi8-r, stig-r, 
tig-r, vi8-r, rettr (a fold), bur-r ; most of these words drop the -i in 
dat. (Ii3, lim, lit, si8, smi8, stig). 2. with a change in the root 

vowel, — b, a, e, liig-r, mog-r, v61-r, voll-r, vond-r, vor8-r, mor8-r, 
sv6r8-r, biill-r, bork-r, knorr, gropt-r, orn, fliit-r, hott-r, knott-r, 
kott-r, v6tt-r, kost-r, viixt-r, 16st-r, mokk-r, Ho8-r, H6r8-r, Snort-r, 
spol-r (vide bring-spelir) : — jb, ja, i, bjiJrn, fjorS-r, hjort-r, kjiil-r, 
mjo8-r, skjiild-r, Njor8-r (the god) : — a, a, ar-r, as-s, dratt-r, hatt-r, 
matt-r, slatt-r, J)ra8-r, span-n, balk-r : — 6, ce, bog-r : — o, y, son-r : 
the ace. pi. -u has been changed into -/, first, in jirr, ass, making aru, 
asu, which changed to aeri, aesi, a change which took place very early, 
and later in other words, which have now all got a regular ace. in -i 
(limi, fir3i, ketti, hetti, syni, etc.) ; syni for sonu occurs even in old 
MSS. ^" To bjorn (p. 66) add that when used as a pr. name it has 
in mod. usage a gen., Bjiirn-s, not Bjarnar (e. g. SigurSr Bjornsson). 

Bemarks on the 3rd Declension : I. ordinary sub- 

stantives, 1. gen. -ar, mana8-r, pi. -r, mod. -I'r; fot-r, q. v. ; vetr, 

fingr, q. V. 2. gen. -s, ma8-r, gen. mann-s, pi. menn (me8-r) ; 

nagl, gen. nagl-s, pi. negl. , II. eigendr : the plur. of parti- 

ciples, when used as subst., as gr4tend-r, fagnend-r, gefend-r : hereto 
belong the plur. of bondi, frsendi, fjandi, q. v. Ill, the plur. 

of fadir, bro8ir ma^ also be reckoned in this declension. 

#S* The Icel. is the only one of all Teutonic languages, except 
Gothic, that has preserved (up to the present day) the masc. inflexive 
-r (Goth, -s) ; even in the earliest Anglo-Saxon it is dropped, and the 
nom. sing, represents the naked root in the masculines as well as In 
the feminines and neuters. 


Bemarks on the Ist Declension: I. tid: almost 

in every column or page of the Dictionary, and simply marked 
' f.' II. hOfn: about four score words, with a in the root 

vowel changed into b, caused by a hidden characteristic w, which 
appears in dat. sing, of a few of them : 1. fonn, cinn, btinn, hogid, 

hriinn, hviinn, sponn, cign, Icign, sogn, J)<)gn, driifn, hiifn, kiirf, miirk 
{sylva), iJrk, Jiokk, Hlokk, viJmb, fonib, skomm, viJmm, kliipp, 
lopp, iJsp, viist, oxl, mjolt, bjorg, bjork, tjiirn, GjiJll (mythol.), liift, 
tro8, siig, kor, krcim, mcil ; and in mod. usage, diigg. logg, tix, 
kvorn (kvern), q. v. 2. with -u in dat. sing. ; riidd, riind, striind, 

iind (anima), jor8, hj6r8, htill, ^iiU, mjoU, miJrk {sylva), stong, tiing, 
rcist. 3. -r in nom. pi. ; iJnd (n duck), miirk {mnrca), bond (dat. 

hendi), riing, tiinn. 4. the following had in olden times -ar in 

plur. and thus belonged to the 2nd declension, but changed into -ir at 
an early date, so that this is the usual form in Editions of Sagas and the 
sole form in mod. usage, — o. with a single final, rod, dtif, griif, gjof, 
nof, tof, fjo3r, spjcir, sok, viik, dviil, fjiil, kvcil, lom, griin, nitin, ^on, 
fiir, skor, kcis, nos, hvot. p. with double final, viirr, {liJrf, gjor8, 
giirn. g5y" It is likely that at earlier times many more of these 
words had the plur. -ar and dat. -u ; the -ar remained longest in 
those with a single final, and the dat. -it in those having dd, nd, II, ng 
as final ; dat. sak-u {culpae) occurs on Runic stones, and gjaf-u, dval-u, 
etc. may also be supposed. III. sol : with a characteristic 

w, which appears sometimes in dat. sing, alone, sometimes in both 
dat. and ace. : 1. only in dat. in sal, van, sol, braut, laut, |)raut, 

fold, mold, J)j68, grund, lund, mund, stund, und, ull, hur8, ur8, diigg 
(irreg.), riidd, etc. (above) ; nott, night, in plur. naet-r (3rd declension) ; 
ey dat. ey-ju, and egg dat. egg-ju belong to the 2nd declension : 
mae-r, dat. mey-ju ; even riiddu (yocem). Pass. 19. 9, but that is a poet, 
licence. 2. fem. pr. names ending in -bjorg, -laug, -run, -«>', -ey, 

-leif, Ingi-bj(3rg, Gu8-bjorg, |>or-bjiirg, Vil-borg, As-laug, Gu8-laug, 
Gu8-run, Sig-riin, Sig-ny, As-ny (gen. -ny'jar), fjor-ey, Gu8-leif, Ingi- 
leif ; in names of foreign origin, Kristin, Katrin, Elin ; in all the pr. 
names the -« fixedly remains (in the appellatives it is often dropped), 
and this not only in dat. but as a common case for dat. and ace. 3. 

feminines with the inflexive -ing, foe8-ing, eld-ing, drottn-ing, kerl-ing, 
kenn-ing, {)ekk-ing, vir3-ing, send-ing, bygg-ing, uppstign-ing, sse-ing, 
etc., so many that it would be in vain to try to record them all ; they 
have -ar in plur. and thus belong to the 2nd declension : in mod. usage 
many of them have the -u in common for dat. and ace, thus drottning-u 
= reginae and reginam, kenning-u = doctrinae and doclrinam, foe8ing-u 
= nativitatem and tiativitati, but this is very rare in old writers, yet 
drottningu reginam (ace). Mar. 232, 304. p. in -ung, djiirf-ung, 

hiirm-ung, laun-ung, etc., but only in dat. ; they have also -ar in plur. 

Bemarks on the 2nd Declension : I. n6.1 : 1. the 

feminines in -ing, -ung, vide above. 2. over two score simple 

nouns, ar, al, nal, skal, tag, flaug, laug, rauf, dreif, kleif, veig, geil, 
seil, hlein, rein, v^l, hei8, rim, sin, hlif, smiS, flik, kvi, for, brii 
(q. v.), riin, lend, kvern, iix (the old form), alin: — with radical r, 
gymbr, lifr, vinstr, vigr : — only in plur., leif-ar, hroer-ar, ger8-ar, herS- 
ar, iifg-ar, aes-ar, hreys-ar, sli8r-ar, gjolln-ar, mei8m-ar (poiJt.) : hetero- 
gene are, lim-ar, tal-ar (lim, tal in sing, are neut.): heteroclyte are, 
lyg-ar, gorsim-ar (sing, indecl. weak fem.) 3. add the words rii8, 

diif, etc. above recorded (1st declension II. 4). II. fit: over 

a score of words, with characteristic _;', which appears before a vowel, 
hel, skel, ben, eng, egg, dregg, ey, des, fles, il, vin (only in local names, 
e.g. Bjiirg-vin), fit, klyf, lyf, nyt, dys, nau8syn, Frigg (the goddess), 
fiski (q. v.), mae-r (q. v.), pi. mey-jar : — only in plur., ref-iar, sif-jar, 
skef-jar, men-jar, skyn-jar, hre8-iar. 2. with characteristic v, or, 

gen. sing. nom. plur. iir-var, stii8, bii3, diigg, gen. stii3-var, b68-var, 
diigg-var; only in plur., giit-var (obsolete). g»^ Heterogene are the 
local names in Norway ; in fem. plur., Holt-ar, Hiis-ar, Hiis-ar, Torg- 
ar, Tiin-ar, f)orp-ar, Nes-jar (holt, hus, hris, torg, tiin, J)orp, nes are 
all neut. appellatives), L6-ar, Les-jar, Vag-ar, Vin-jar, Kvild-ar, etc., 
see Munch's pref. (p. x) to Norge's Beskriv. III. heifir : 

feminines with an inflex. -r in nom. and characteristic i, which has 
caused a vowel change in most of them, and which appears in dat. ace. 
sing. : 1. about a score of appellatives ; hei8-r, vei8-r, Hlei8-r, 

erm-r, helg-r (a holiday), eyr-r, mer-r, rey8-r, bni8-r, byr8-r, fyll-r, 
flceS-r, aE8-r {an eider-duck), se8-r {vena), my'r-r, v«tt-r, iix (qs. iix-r) ; 
ky-r, ae-r, sy-r (q. v.), all three contr, in dat. and plur. ; the obsolete 
l>y'-r. ryg-r, gy'g-r (pi. J)y'-jar, ryg-jar, gy'g-jar) :— in mod. usage the -r 
has changed into -/, in hei8-i, vei3-i, erm-J, eyr-i, mer-i, byr8-i, fyll-i. 



floe8-i, ox-i ; otherwise they retain the full declension and must not 
be confounded with the indeclinable weak feminines gle5-i, ell-i, etc. 
In the west of Icel. the -r is still in use in floe8-r, vei&-r, rey&-r 
(steypi-rey8-r), and all over Icel. in ky-r, ae-r ; as also in bru8-r, only 
here the -r is kept through all cases, so that the word has an indeclin- 
able sing., cp. the use of this word in Isl. J>j63s. i. 340, 341 (omitted 
s. V. p. 84). 2. a great many fern. pr. names : simple, Au5-r, Frl6-r, 

GerS-r, Hild-r, {>ru3-r, Unn-r, UrS-r (mythol.) : compds, Sigri6-r, 
Astri6-r, Gu5ri6-r, Jjuri6-r, Ragnhei8-r, Alfhei8-r, Hallger8-r, Ingi- 
ger&-r, Valger8-r, J>orger8-r, Gunnhild-r, Ragnhild-r, Ingveld-r, |>6r- 
hild-r, H61mfri8-r, etc.: those in -uSr, qs. -unnr, Steinun-n, Ingun-n, 
I8un-n, {>6run-n: in -dis, As-dis, Her-dis, Vig-dis, |)6r-dis, Alf-dis, 
dat. ace. disi (omitted s. v. p. 100), and by way of analogy the foreign 
abbadis (a66ess), as if compounded with dis; foreign pr. names, Margr^t, 
Elizabet, etc. : in pr. names the inflexive -r is in full use over Icel., 
so that Baugei8, Randi8, etc. in old MSS. are only Norwegianisms. 
۩* The Icel. feminines in -r answer to Gothic -zs, and are different 
from the Gothic feminines in -s, such as anst-s, alps ; of these latter 
the Icel. nau8-r {need, decl. as ti3) is the sole remnant. It is worth 
noticing that the Icel. feminine proper names have preserved and repre- 
sent the oldest and fullest declension of feminines. 

Bemaxks on the 3rd Declension, which contains about two 
score words : 1. eik, steik, geit, greip, grind, gnit, kinn, kind (in 

mod. usage), flik, spik, tik, vik, rit, mjolk, kverk (but in mod. usage 
kverk-ar). 2. with changed vowel, bok, brok, gl68, n6t, rot, gat, 

natt, tonn, hond, ond {anas) ,m'6xk, flo, klo, 16, ro, ta, gas, lus, miis, briin, 
sto8, hnot ; plur. boek-r, gloe3-r, gaet-r, naet-r, tenn-r, hend-r, end-r, floe-r, 
tsE-r, gaes-s, mys-s, bryn-n, ste8-r, hnet-r (but in present use, sto3-ir, 
hnot-ir). ^gr" A very few of these words have also -r in nom. sing., 
viz. mjolk, mork, natt, vik; bcek-r from b6k also occurs, though 
seldom ; rist-r from rist, Pass. 33. 4, is poiit. 3. to this class we 

may refer the plur. dyr-r (q. v.), gen. dura ; the latter r is inflexive, and 
the form analogous to ky-r from kii ; the plur. ky-r, ae-r (q. v.) 4. 

to this declension may als« be referred the plur. of dottir, systir, m68ir, 
although the r is here radical. ^' The monosyllabic feminines 
with a iinal long vowel are contracted, a, bra, gja, Gna, Ija, la, kra, 
ra, sla, skra, spa, J)ra ; as to the declension of these words vide a, p. 48, 
and bra, p. 77 ; 16, Ey-gl6, sl6, st6, J)r6, dat. 16-m . . . ; asja (q. v.) 
has no r in gen., nor trii, fni (q. v.) The root vowel of these words 
is not changed, and accordingly they are classed with the 1st declen- 
sion of feminines, but in a contracted form. 


Kemarks on the Ist Declension : I. skip : forms like 

this are regular, and occur throughout the book, simply marked 
' n.' II. barn : to this belong neuters with a as root vowel, 

which in plur. becomes o; a change due to a lost characteristic vowel in 
neut. plur., answering to -a in Goth., -u in A. S. (cp. Lat. cornu) : as a 
radical a is the only vowel which is affected by an inflexive u,the remains 
of this inflexion are only found in the words with that root vowel ; these 
words are many : 1. single words, ba8, bla3, va8, haf, vaf, flag, drag, 
bak, flak, rak, tak, pak, skjal, far, skar, svar, glas, fat, gat, afl, tail, fall, 
fjall, kail, band, grand, bar8, skar8, bjarg, bragS, flag3, nafn, safn, gagl, 
hagl, tagl, agn, gagn, hald, vald, magn, lamb, mark, rann, happ, hapt, 
skapt, hlass, gjald, spjall, spjald, tjald, hvarf, starf, barn, kast, ax, fax, sax, 
vatn : — only in plur., log, glop, skop, rok : many have no plur. 2. 

with an inflexive -ad, -al, etc., changed into n, her-a8, hundr-a8, for-a3, 
68-al, plur. her-u&, hundr-u8, 68-ul : sum-ar (prop, a masc), plur. 
sum-ur : gaman, dat. contr. gamni : h6fu8, dat. h6f8i. III. 

nes : to this belong more than a score of words, with characteristic 7, 
ge8, ve8, nef, stef, egg, hregg, skegg, el, sel, ben, fen, gren, men, ber, 
sker, nes, flet, net, fley, grey, hey, ki8, rif, gil, J)il, fyl, kyn, ny. IV. 

hdgg : to this belong a score of words, with characteristic v, hogg, 
skrcik, kjot, bol, 61, fol, mjol, fjor, smjor, bygg, glygg, lyng, frae, Ix, 
hrae, hey : only plur. sol. ^j* The dat. hogg-vi, kj6t-vi, bol-vi, smj6r-vi, 
bygg-vi, frae-vi, hey-vi, etc. began to be uncommon even in old writers 
and are in mod. usage sounded hogg-i, skrok-i, kj6t-i, etc., whereas in 
plur. the V still remains, e. g. solva-fjara. For f6, kne, tre, see these 

Hemarks on the 2nd Declension, containing bisyllabic deri- 
vative words with characteristic i. Most of these words are derivative 
and with a changed vowel wherever possible. A great number are 
declined like klae8-i, so that it is difficult to give a complete list of them, 
e. g. frelsi (by misprint called fem., p. 172) ; in the Dictionary they are 
simply marked 'n.' II. rfki: to this belong those with a final 

g, h, which have j (the characteristic i) in gen. and dat. plur., e. g. 
fylki, riki, siki, vigi, laegi, and many others. 

Weak Nouns. — Masculine. 
The original characteristic of weak nouns in- Teutonic languages is 

the inflexive -n, of which in Icel. the sole remnant is the gen. plur. of" 
the feminines and neuters. 

Bemarks on this Declension : I. tlmi : forms like 

this occur almost in every page of the Dictionary, and are simply 
marked ' a, m.' II. stedi : to this belong only a few primitive 

words with characteristic^*, as a8il-i, bryt-i, ste3-i, vil-i, ni8-i ; the poet, 
and obsolete skyt-i, tygg-i ; poet. pr. names, Bel-i, I8-i, Skyl-i, |>ri8-i, 
Vig-i ; compds in -skegg-i, eyjar-skeggjar ; names of people in -ver-jar, 
Gaulver-jar, Oddaver-jar, and in mod. usage, |>j68ver-jar, Spanver-jar, 
etc., cp. -varii in old Teutonic names in Latin writers : — compds in -ingi, 
h6f8ing-i, hei8ing-i, kunning-i, foe&ing-i, banding-i, leysing-i, auming-i, 
raening-i,Vaering-i,Skraeling-i,etc.,pl.h6f8ing-jar, etc.: m-yrkioi-virki, 
ein-virki, spell-virki, etc., pi. einvirk-jar, Tyrki {a Turk, mod.), etc. : — 
for le, gen. Ija (lea), and kle, gen. klea, see these words. There is 
a curious inflexive -n left in pi. of the obsolete poet, words, brag-nar, 
gum-nar, got-nar, from bragi, goti, gumi. ^- Some masculines have 
a double declension, both strong and weak, hug-r and hug-i, hlut-r 
and hlut-i, h61m-r and h61m-i, stall-r and stall-i, munn-r and munn-i, 
gar3-r and gar8-i, odd-r and odd-i, ai3-r and ni8-i, drang-r and drang-i, 
hnn-r and linn-i, likam-r and likam-i, glugg-r and glugg-i, -ingr and 
-ingi ; all derivative words in -leikr have both forms, -letk-r and -leik-i; 
cp. also pr. names as Orn and Arn-i, Bjorn and Bjarn-i, Finn-r and 
Finn-i, Odd-r and Odd-i, Gisl and Gisl-i, Geir-r and Geir-i, etc. 


Kemarks on the Ist Declension: I. tunga: this 

form, marked ' u, f.' in the Dictionary, contains many hundreds of 
appellatives, and several pr. names, Halla, Asa, {)6ra, Hall-dora, etc. : 
frii (q. V.) is contracted ; so also trii-a, gen. tru ; the pr. names Gr6-a, 
G6-a, gen. Gr6, G6. II. alda: to this belong all the 

feminines with a as root vowel, cp. introduction to letter A : v61v-a, 
a sibyl, gen. v61-u, pi. v61-ur. ^j- Only a few of the words of this 
declension (little more than a score, or about two or three per cent, of 
the whole) form a gen. plur. ; these are esp. the following, vaka, vika, 
klukka, ekkja, rekkja, kirkja (gen. ekk-na . . . kirk-na), stiilka, tala, 
vala, sala (salna. Mar. passim), kiila, sula, gata, gata, sata, varta, diifa, 
J)ufa, rjiipa, rima, visa, hosa, messa, kelda, skylda ; kona has kven-na ; 
the nom. of stjarna {a star) and skepna {a creature) may also serve for 
gen. plur., skaparinn stjarna, creator stellarum, in a hymn : in some 
few cases the gen. plur. is formed by adding the article to the nom. 
sing., thus gy8ja-nna {dearum), gryfja-nna {fovearum) : in many 
cases the gen. sing, is used collectively, thus Icel. say, oldu-gangr, 
impetus undarum, — the words denoting wave, alda, bara, bylgja, are 
all of this declension, and none of them have a proper gen. plur. ; 
bylg-na is found (bylgna-gangr. Mar. 269), but ald-na, bar-na are 
impossible forms, one might perhaps say alda-nna, bylgja-nna ; sogu- 
b6k, liher historiarum ; the gen. sagn-a, bistoriarum (sagna-ritari), 
is rarely used and is borrowed from sogn. Sometimes this deficiency 
may become puzzling, chiefly in translating Latin into Icel. ; in original 
writers it is not felt. In olden times the number of those words that 
allowed of a gen. was still more hmited. 

Bemarks on the Indeclinable Feminine : — with perhaps the 
sole exception of aevi {life) and elli {age) all the words of this declen- 
sion are derivatives from adjectives and formed by a change of vowel, 
whenever the root vowel of the adjective is changeable ; almost all 
these words are abstract (denoting quality), and so have no plural ; forms 
like gle8i-r {ludi) or aefi-r {vitae) are quite exceptional and ungramma- 
tical : 1. single nouns, about two score of words; gle8i,helgi (Ao//- 

ness), ergi, leti, gremi, helti, speki, hugrekki, froe8i, mce8i, oe8i {fury), 
haesi, kaeti, reiSi, feiti, bley3i, hreysti, veyki, hareysti, fylli, hylli, fy^si, 
syki, birti, snilli, girni, teiti, hviti, orvi, mildi, blindi, atgorvi, hnoggvi, 
myki: lygi and gorsimi in sing., but heteroclite in plur. 2. 

derivatives ; -semi from adj. -samr, skyn-semi (very many) : compds 
in -frcedi, -speki, but if prefixed as a double compd they take s, 
thus e. g. froe8i-b6k, but gu8froe8is-b6k ; skynsemi {rationis), but 
skynsemis-trii {Jides rationis, i. e. rationalismus) : -ni from adjec- 
tives in -inn, e. g. hei8-ni, Krist-ni, hly8-ni, and many others : -skygni, 
-sjni, e.g. glam-skygni, viS-s^ni: -gi from adj. -igr, e.g. grse8-gi, 
kyn-gi ; -ydgi, har8-y8gi, etc. : -gli from adj. -gtdl, sann-sogli {vera- 
citas) from sann-sogull {verax) : in -andi only a few, kve8-andi, hyggj- 
andi, afr-endi, Ver8-andi (the Norn) : in local names, Skdni, Erri, Ylfi 
(islands) : Ska8i (the goddess) is declined as masc. 


Bemarks on this Declension : it contains, 1. six words 

denoting parts of the body, auga, eyra, hjarta, lunga, nyra, eista. 2. 
a few appellatives, almost obsolete, none of which form a gen. plur., 
bjiiga, okla, sima, leika, hno8a, viSbeina, vetta (in ekki vetta, no wigbt; 
hvat-vetna, every wight). 




A. STRONG DECLENSION, as in Substantives, used of Adjectives, both positive and superlative, when indefinite. 






























in all genders 



in all genders 






























in all genders 



in all genders 
























in all genders 


in all genders 


The Article. 





















in all genders 


in all genders 






ha-vum in all genders 

ha-va ha-var 


















n all genders 


Participial Adjectives in -inn. 







in all genders 
in all genders 






B. WEAK DECLENSION, used of Adjectives, both posit, and superl., when indef. ; and general in compar. and part. act. sing. 



Positive (definite). 

Comparative (def. 

and indef.) 














Dat. I 
Ace. J 







Gen. I 


in all genders 


in all genders 

Ace. J 



in all genders 


in all genders 

Superlative (definite). 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 

yng-sti yng-sta yng-sta 

yng-sta yng-stu yng-sta 

yng-StU in all genders 
yng-Stum in ail genders 

C. INDECLINABLE ADJECTIVES in -a and -/, see remarks below. 










































































Bemarks on the Adjectives : I. the nom. masc. : — 

the nom. -r is dropped in fagr (qs. fagr-r), magr, dapr, apr, vakr, 
digr, vitr, bitr, itr, Hpr, snotr, forn, sykn, froekn, gjarn, frjals, \>utt, 
hvass, hress : — it is assimilated in bein-n, ein-n, hrein-n, sein-n, 
groen-n, kcen-n, -roen-n, vsen-n, br)Ti-n, fryn-n, syn-n, hal-1, heil-1, 
veil-1, sael-1, ful-1, has-s, fiis-s, laes-s, laus-s, lj6s-s, vis-s, etc. ; inflexive, 
litil-1, mikil-1, gamaI-1, vesal-1, forul-l, atal-1, spurul-1, {)6gul-l, heimil-1, 
etc. 2. the nom. fem. sing, represents the root of the adjective 

(ung, ny, ha) : — adjectives with a as root vowel change into o in 
fem. sing, and neut. plur., e.g. all-r, oil, all-t ; marg-r, morg, marg-t ; 
har&-r, hcirS, har-t ; hag-r, hog, hag-t ; fagr, fcigr, fagr-t ; stak-r, stcik, 
stak-t ; van-r, vein, van-t ; hvass, hvoss, hvas-t ; varm-r, vorm, varm-t; 
sam-r, siim, sam-t; tam-r, torn, tam-t : in the inflexive -a(jir, a is 
changed into «, aldra8-r, fem.,oldru& ; gamla3-r, fem. gomlu8 ; gamal-1, 
fem. giimul ; tala8-r, fem. toluS, etc., see introduction to letter A, p. i : 
this change is all that remains of an obsolete characteristic w, answering 
to the inflexive -k in Anglo-Saxon. 3. the nom. neut. sing, is formed 

by adding -t to the root : — after a long root vowel -tt, e. g. hd-tt, mj6-tt, 
ny-tt, gra-tt, hra-tt, sma-tt, etc. : — the t assimilates with a final 6, e. g. 
nii3-r, breid-r, bli8-r, strid-r, fr68-r, god-r, 63-r, stri3-r ; in neut., mit-t, 
breit-t, blit-t, strit-t, frot-t, got-t, 6t-t, etc. : — in long syllables with d 
or d as final, the 6 is dropped, as in har3-r, stir3-r, lynd-r, doemd-r, 
reynd-r ; in neut., har-t, stir-t, lyn-t, doem-t, reyn-t, qs. har3-t, etc. : — 
the t is dropped in such words as reist-r, bratt-r ; in neut., reist, 
bratt, etc. ; cp. the participles of the second weak conjugation : — 
in the participles and adjectives in -adr, the 6 is dropped, e. g. elska8-r 
(amatus), elska-t {amatum), but in mod. usage elska-8 ; and only the 
change of vowel marks the distinction between fem. and neut., e. g. 
tolu3 (dicta), but tala8 {dictum) : — in adjectives in -inn, the root n is 
dropped before the neutral /, hi-t, hei3i-t, komi-t, Kristi-t, qs. hin-t, 
hei3in-t, etc. 4. as to the cases, the inflexive -r in gen. and dat. 

sing. fem. and gen. pi. is assimilated into n in the words in -inn, and 
monosyllables in -nn with a long root vowel, thus, komin-na (q. v.), 
vsen-na (yenustorum), v«n-ni (yenustae, dat.), v«n-aar {ytnustae, gea.). 



etc: into / in similar words, e.g. sxl-l, heil-1, gamal-I, sjel-lar, gamal- 
lar (saell-rar, gamall-rar, etc. are faulty forms) ; mikil-li, magnae ; 
litil-li, parvae, etc. : — it is dropped in those with radical r, vitra, sapi- 
entium; fagri and fagrar, pulchrae : into s in words such as viss, e. g. 
Vissa, certorum; but in mod. usage viss-ra and viss-ri, certae ; (fag-urri, 
fag-urrar are not right, although now and then used in mod. writers) : 
— the r is doubled after a long vowel, ha-rri altae, mjo-rra tenerarum, 
at least in mod. usage ; old writers seem to have spelt and sounded 
mj6-ra, mj6-ri, etc.: — the -ar and -um are contracted after a long 
vowel, thus, bla-r caeruleas, bla-m caerulaeo. 5. contraction takes 

place, o. in a few words in -igr, -ugr, au6-igr, bl6&-igr, u5-igr, gof- 
igr, 6f-ugr, hof-igr, ofl-ugr, saur-igr, nau6-igr, m65-ugr, mal-ugr, lir-igr 
(poet.), matt-igr ; they are contracted before an inflexive vowel, au8g- 
an, au5g-ir, au6g-um, gofg-ir, u3g-ir, bl66g-ir, ofg-ir, hofg-ir . . . mattk- 
ir, etc. ; in mod. usage the root is dissyllabic and not contracted, thus, 
audugir, bl66ugir, hofugir . . . mattugir, etc. : even in old writers other 
adjectives in -igr were not contracted, e.g. hr63igr, kriiptugr, skyldugr, 
syndugr, siSugr, raSigr, — hr69igan, e. g. ra&igan (not raSgan), etc., 
both in old and mod. usage. p. in a few words in -//, gamall, vesall, 

litill, mikill, hugall, J)ogull, etc. II. Mr : to this belong over 

twenty words, with characteristic v, dygg-r, hrygg-r, stygg-r, gl6gg-r, 
hnogg-r, sniigg-r, J)rong-r, 6ng-r, dokk-r, J)j6kk-r (Jiykk-r), kvik-r, 
myrk-r, -yrk-r, rosk-r, losk-r, ol-r, fiil-r, or-r, gor-r, hos-s (obsolete), ha-r, 
mj6-r, slj6-r (sloe-r) ; the v is freq. spelt with/in the words ha-r, mj6-r, 
slj6-r, but not in the rest, see introduction to letter F. In mod. usage and 
pronunciation this v or/has been mostly lost ; Icel. say ha-an, mj6-an, 
fol-an, but it still lingers in the words ending in gg, ng, kk, rh, sk, as glogg- 
van, ong-van, {jykk-van, rosk-van, etc. are current forms. III. 

nfr: to this belong adjectives with characteristic^': only a few words re- 
main with g, k as final, fraeg-r, hoeg-r, laeg-r, sloeg-r, \>xg-T, eyg-r, fleyg-r, 
jrg-r, sek-r, rik-r, J)ekk-r, rsek-r, tcek-r ; in very old MSS. the forms fraeg- 
jan, 3^g-jan, sek-jan, rik-jan, J)ekk-jan, etc. are almost universal, but 
even in olden times the j was dropped in these words, and frseg-an, 
sek-an, rik-an, etc. are now the sole forms. This declension therefore 
is now only represented by mid-r {piedius) and by the words ending in 
a vowel, ny-r, hly-r, -sae-r ; but that in pre-historical times this de- 
clension was far more extensive is shewn by the many adjectives with 
a changed root vowel (prob. caused by a lost 7), as dyr-r, hyr-r, lynd-r, 
streym-r, vaen-n, sael-1, soet-r, skoe9-r, naem-r, hoef-r, mxr-r, kser-r, ber-r, 
J)vcr-r. IV. kominn : to this belong all participles of the 

strong verbs, and a great many adjectives ; with the exception of the 
contraction it conforms to the article. For participles of weak verbs 
of the 3rd conjugation see remarks on the verbs below. 

Bemarks on the formation of the Degrees of Compari- 
son : I. the compar. and superl. are, -ari, -astr, or -ri, -str, 
thus, kaldr, compar. kald-ari, superl. kald-astr, fem. and neut. plur. 
kold-ust ; hardr, harS-ari, harS-astr, fem. and neut. plur. h6r3-ust ; 
frj&ls, frjals-ari, frjals-astr (frjdls-ust) : in adjectives with character- 
istic 7 or V these letters reappear, gloggr, glogg-vari, glogg-vastr ; orr, 
iJr-vari, iJr-vastr ; nyr, ny-jari, ny-jastr ; or it is contracted, mjor, mjo- 
rri, mjo-str, but older are the forms mjo-vari, mjo-vastr. II. 
the compar. is assimilated in adjectives in -nn, -II, vaen-n, vaen-ni, vaen- 
str ; grcen-n, grcen-ni, grcen-str ; heil-1, heil-li, heil-str or heil-astr ; sxl-1, 
szl-li, sael-str ; svipal-1, svipul-li. III. some few adjectives form 
compar. and superl. by vowel change, ha-r, hae-ri, hae-str ; t'a-r, fae-ri, 
fse-str; lag-r, laeg-ri, laeg-str ; lang-r, leng-ri, leng-str ; (fram), frem-ri, 
frem-str; fagr, fegr-i, fegr-str; skamm-r, skem-ri, skem-str ; grann-r, 
grenn-ri, grenn-str ; stor-r, stcer-ri, stoer-str ; sma-r, smae-ri, smae-str ; 
ung-r, yng-ri, yng-str ; J)ung-r, Jiyng-ri, J)yng-str ; grunn-r, grynn-ri, 
grynn-str : in mod. usage also, full-r, fyll-ri, fyll-str ; stutt-r, stytt-ri, 
stytt-str ; J)unn-r, J)ynn-ri, J)ynn-str ; mjuk-r, myk-ri, myk-str ; 
djup-r, dyp-ri, dyp-str ; Jjrong-r, J)reyng-ri, J)reyng-str, but also ]pr6ng- 
vari, J)rong-vastr (older and better) ; svang-r, sveng-ri, sveng-str ; 
magr, megr-i, megr-str, etc. ; but in old writers we often find full- 
ari, fuU-astr, etc. IV. heterogene, as in other languages, are 
g66-r, bet-ri, bez-tr ; il!-r, ver-ri, ver-str ; marg-r, flei-ri, fle-str ; litil-1, 
min-ni, min-str ; mikil-1, mei-ri, me-str ; gamal-1, ell-ri, ell-str. V. 
forming compar. and superl. from adverbs : 1. from local adverbs 
denoting direction, austr, norSr, su3r, vestr, fram, aptr, rit, inn, of, 
ni3r, fjarr, na-; in compar. and superl., eyst-ri (aust-ari), aust-astr; 
nyr5-ri, nyr3-str ; synn-ri, synn-str; vest-ri, vest-astr ; frem-ri, frem-str ; 
ept-ri, ept-str, or apt-ari, apt-astr ; yt-ri, yt-str (yztr) ; inn-ri (iS-ri), 
inn-str; ef-ri (<)f-ri), ef-str (^Jf-str); ne6-ri, ne3-str ; fir-ri, fir-str ; nae-ri, 
nae-str. 2. temp, adverbs, si6, fyrir ; si3-ari, si6-astr ; f)'r-ri, fyr- 
str. 3. other adverbs, from heldr, sjaldan ; in compar. and superl., 
held-ri, hell-str ; sjaldn-ari, sjaldn-astr; hind-ri, hinn-str; oe6-ri, ce&-str; 
$ka-ri, ska-str : only in compar., hceg-ri, the right; vin-stri, ibe left. 

Remarks on the "Weak Declension : I. the positive 

and the superlative have both strong and weak declension, according 
as they are indefinite or definite in sense, whereas the comparative 

has in either case only a weak declension. 2. the part, aet; 

in -andi is declined as the comparative. II. the numerals 

\)Tibi, fj6r6i, fimti, sexti, etc., the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, etc.; 
have (old and mod.) only the weak declension ; J)ri6i with a cha= 
racteristicy, t)ri3-ja, plur. J)ri3-ju, fj6r3-u, fimt-u. III. changed 

in mod. usage, 1. the dat. plur. ■'um, which is almost always 

used in good old MSS., is now lost, and dat. is like nom. : thus 
Icel. say, hinum beztu monnum, betri monnum, ungu mcinnum ; in old 
usage, beztum, betrum, yngrum, (Jon |>orkelsson, Hauks-bok, 1865, 
p. 14, note 4.) The sole remnant in mod. usage of the old -um is the 
compar. fleir-um (pluribus), which is still so pronounced, and often 
used in Icel. writings. 2. the sing, has become indeclinable ; the 

gen. dat. ace. masc. sing, -a in the compar. is now obsolete; Icel. say 
yngri manns (junioris bominis) for the old yngra, dat. yngra manni, 
mod. yngri manni ; yngra mann, mod. yngri mann. 3. the part, 

act. sing. ; here also the gen. masc. sing, is altered ; vaxanda vinds 
(vindi, vind), cresceiitis venti, into vaxandi vinds : the neut. -a is also 
usually changed into -/, e.g. fall-anda forad into fall-andi forad (a 
stumbling-block) . 

Remarks on the Indeclinable Adjectives. They were ori- 
ginally regular adjectives, which, though both definite and indefinite, 
had only the weak declension ; and — perhaps in order to distinguish 
them from other adjectives in definite forms — they have lost all 
inflexion, and have no comparative or superlative ; they vary be- 
tween the forms -/' and -a, andvan-i and andvan-a, originally express- 
ing the distinction between masc, fem., and neut., but are, in 
fact, used without regard to gender, one MS. has -a, another -i, 
even in the same passage, e.g. Mar. 378 ; in mod. usage, -a is the 
current form. These indeclinable words (in the Dictionary simply 
marked ' adj.' or ' adj. indecl.') are very many, chiefly compound 
words, e. g. in «/-, ein-, half-, full-, frum-, snm-, and for the latter 
part, -vana, -gedja, -lagci, -stola, etc., e. g. af-laga, sjalf-krafa (-bjarga, 
-rfi3a), ein-hama, ein-mana, ein-staka, ein-skipa, ein-huga, sam-huga, 
sam-ra6a, or-vasa, full-ti3a, mid-aldra, gjaf-vaxta, frum-vaxta, ham- 
stola, vit-stola, 63-fluga, flaum-osa, al-verkja, al-bata, al-dau6a, al- 
eySa, a-skynja, ei3-rofa, far-flotta, 66a-mala, sundr-or&a, tvi-saga, 
hungr-mor3a, stra-dau9a, afl-vana, matt-vana, and-vana, half-vita, 
har3-brj6sta, hand-lama, fut-lama, gagn-drepa, hall-oka, las-bur8a : 
single words are few, hlessa, hissa, klumsa, reisa, hugsi, jatsi, heitsi, 
etc. In some cases it is difficult to say whether the word is to be 
taken for a substantive or indeclinable adjective, e. g. ei8-rofi or ei8- 
rofa, harm-dau3i, full-ti6i, J)ing-logi, na;sta-brae3ra. 

Remarks on the Sufllxed Article. This is characteristic of 
the Scandinavian languages, and still remains in modern Danish and 
Swedish. It forms a double declension, with substantive and adjective 
forms in the same word ; or rather it gives to a substantive the form 
of an adjective. The inflexive -ar, -ir represent different genders for 
substantive and for adjective, thus, all-ir dag-ar, omnes dies, masc, 
but all-ar stund-ir, omnes horae, fem. The same rule applies to the 
suffixed article, draumar-nir, but ti3ir-nar. The nouns of the 2nd 
strong declension are so few that they scarcely affect this rule. In 
very early times we may suppose that the Scandinavian language had 
no suffixed article ; in the oldest poems it is rarely used ; in old prose 
more rare than in modern prose ; and at the present time the article 
is less used in Ic«l. than in any other living European language, 
and is dispensed with in endless cases, where others must use it ; in 
solemn style it is used less than in conversational. II. the 

declension of the suffixed article : 1. the h is dropped throughout 

(inn, in, it). 2. the root vowel of the article is dropped, if the 

substantive ends with a vowel, and the final n + the inflexion is suffixed, 
e. g. solu-nni, tungu-nni, for the vowel of the noun has always the pre- 
ference, p. so also after the plur. -ar, -ir, -r, e. g. ti5ir-nar, draumar- 
nir, vetr-nir, foetr-nir ; but not so after -ar, -r in gen. sing., e. g. ti3ar- 
innar, fotar-ins, hafnar-innar, bokar-innar and boekr-innar, tov 0ip\ov, 
whereby a distinction is kept between gen. sing, and nom. plur., e. g. 
tiSar-innar temporis, but tiSir-nar tempora. Icel. say, m63ur-inni matri, 
systur-inni sor'y: i, d6ttur-inni_/!7!'ae, as also moSur-innar matris, systur- 
innar sororis, duttur-innar_;?/«ae; but contracted in fii&ur-num />a/ri, 
br63ur-num/ra//-i, — fo&ur-inum, br63ur-inum may occur in old writers. 
Mar., but is seldom used. -y. the masc. dat. -i is often dropped before 
the article, but kept if without the article, e. g. draum'-num, saum'- 
num, but draumi, saumi : it is difficult here to give a rule. 8. the 
ace sing. fem. is in old writers contracted in such words as, siik-na 
(causatn), iil-na (funem), etc., mod. siik-ina, al-ina, etc. €. the 

vowel of the article is also dropped in the dat. of strong masc, as 
bekkr of the 2nd declension (without -/), thus, reyk-num, bekk-num, 
not reyk-inum, bekk-inum. 3. in dat. plur. the final m of the 

noun is dropped, ti6u-num, — an older form ti5um-inum, temporihus, 
occurs in early Swedish ; this -unum is always in mod. usage sounded 
-onum (miinn-onum), as also in earlier rhyme, Pass. 9. 7. 




Personal (ist and 2nd pers.) 
without gender. 




NoM. ek 
Gen. min 
Dat. m^r 
Ace. mik 

NoM. vit 

Gen. okkar ykkar 

NoM. v^r 
Gen. var 
Ace. I 



Ijit (it) 


l)er (er) 


Personal (3rd pers .) with gen der. 



Fetn. Neut. 

hon (hun) [jat 

hen-nar J)ess 

hen-ni j)vi 

han-a |>at 

J)ei-r J)ae-r t)au 

J)ei-rra in all genders 

J)ei-m in all genders 

J)u. J)ae-r {)au 



Demonstrative (sa, the, thai; |)essi, this). 







sa (sja) 

sii (sj&) 




























In all genders 
in all genders 

\ common for both demoiutratltres 





In plural sense (' who or which of many'). 

In dual sense {'who or which of two'). 

Indefinite (one, some one). 

■ NoM. hver-r 

Gen. hver-s 

Dat. hver-jum 

Ace. hver-n 

NoM, hver-ir 

Gen. hver-ra 

Dat, hver-jum 

Ace. hver-ja 

Masc. Fern. 



in all genders 
in all genders 



hver-t and hvat 









































in all genders 


in all genders 


in all genders 


in all genders 







Numerals (itvo, both, three, four). 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 
NoM. tvei-r tvae-r tvau (tvci) 

Gen. tve-ggja in all genders 

Dat. tvei-m or tvei-mr in all genders 
Ace. tva tvse-r tvau(tvo) 

Masc. Fern. 
ba3-ir ba5-ar 

be-ggja in all genders 

bii3-um in all genders 

ba5-a ba5-ar 





J)ri-r J)rj-ar Irj-u 

J)ri-ggja in all genders 

J)ri-m or J)ri-mr in all genders 

J)rj-a J)rj-ar prj-u 




fj6r-ir fj6r-ar 

fjiig-urra in ail genders 

fjor-um in all genders 

fjor-a fj6r-ar O^g^ 

Other Pronouns : I. the demonstrative hinn, hin, hitt 

{the other one) is decHned like the article, only the neut. sing, with 
-//. II. the possessive pronouns are, 1. minn, min, mitt 

(tneus) ; J)inn, ^in, J)itt {tuus) : the reflex, sinn, sin, sitt {suus). 2. 

in dual sense ; okkar-r, okkur, okkat {noster) ; ykkar-r, ykkur, ykkat 
(yester). 3. in plur. sense ; var-r, var, var-t (noster) ; y6var-r, 

y8ur, y5ar-t (yester) ; declined as nokkurr, but contracted, e. g. y6rir. 
In mod. usage these possessives in plur. and dual sense are rare, and 
instead of them the gen. of the personal okkar, ykkar, ySar is used as 
indeclinable. III. for the pronouns sami (weak) idem, sjiilfr 

ipse, neinn (ne einn) nulhis, einhverr every one, sumr some, engi no 
one, annarr-hv4rr one of the two, alteruter, hvargi or hvarigr neither 
of the two, neuter, hvarr-tveggja or hvarr-tveggi each, uterque (the 
former part following the strong declension, the latter the weak), 
J>vilikr and slikr such, talis, hvilikr as, gualis : see the Diction- 
ary. IV. as relatives the old language has only the particles 
er and sem, see the Dictionary, pp. 131, 132. 

Hemarks : 1. personal and demonstrative ; in the mod. lan- 

guage ek etc. have become eg, mig, {)ig, sig, viS, \>ib, vor ; and hon or 
hon has become hiin : — in the neut. J)au is sounded J)aug, but seldom 
spelt so : — old writers often use sja as a common nom. for masc. and 
fern., sja ma8r, that man, and sja kona, that womati : — dat. fern. Jjessi = 
{>essari is used in old writers : — dat. sing. masc. J)eim-a = J)eim, and dat. 
sing. neut. J)vi-sa occur in old prose and poems ; in Runes, {)ansi = 
J)enna. 2. interrogative and indefinite ; remains of an older declen- 

sion are, hvat, what (still in full use) ; dat. hveim (poijt. and obsolete) ; 
hvi, why ; hve, how, mod. also hversu ; the mod. hva3a is curious, 
being indeclinable throughout: — old form nekkverr or nakkverr 
(necquerr, naquarr in the MSS.) : in mod. usage nokkurr, but con- 
tracted before a vowel, e.g. nokkr-ir, nokkr-um, etc. 

Remarks on the Numerals : I. the cardinals ; the first 

four are decHned, einn, tveir, etc.: the rest indeclinable, fimm, sex, 
sjau (mod. sjo), atta, niu, tiu, ellifu, t61f, J)rettan, fjortan, fimmtan, 
sextan, sjautjan (mod. sautjan), "atjan, nitjan, tuttugu (twenty), tuttugu 
ok einn, etc., — the decades first and then the smaller numbers : but 
with the even decades, from twenty onwards, the reverse is common 
in Icel., — einn og tuttugu [one and twenty), ... tiu og tuttugu (' ten 

and twenty'), . . . nitjan og tuttugu (' nineteen and twenty'), fjorutiu 
(forty), einn og fjorutiu (one and forty), and so on to sixty, then 
from sixty to eighty, from eighty to ' tenty' (tiu-ti)i = hundred), from 
'tenty' to a hundred (i.e. the gross hundred, 120). Icel. children in 
play, shepherds in counting their flocks, and fishermen in counting their 
catch are sure to reckon in this way. From forty and upwards the 
Danes say, tre-sinds-tyve (= three times twenty =three score) for Go, fir- 
sinds-tyve ( =four score) for 80, and halv treds ( = three score viinus 
a half score) for 50, halv fjerds (=four score minus a half score) for 
70, halv f ems (= half the fifth score, i.e. five score minus a half) for 
90 ; but not so in Sweden and Norway. The decades are in old 
writers treated as independent words, and declined, J)rir tigir, dat. J)remr 
tigum, ace. J)rja tigi, with a following genitive, e. g. fjora tigi manna 
(quadraginta ' hominum'), etc.; in mod. usage indeclinable, J)rja-tiu, 
fjiiru-tiu, fimm-tiu, sex-tiu, sjo-tiu, atta-tiu, niu-tiu, liu-tiu (' ten ten,' i.e. 
one hundred), but usually hundraS ; both hundraS (hundred) and J)usund 
(thousand) are in old writers (and freq. in mod.) declined and followed 
by a genitive, e. g. piisund manna, tveim hundruSum skipa. II. 

the ordinals ; fyrstr (q. v.), annarr (q. v.) : the rest only in the weak 
declension, \>nbi, gen. dat. ace. J)ri5ja, plur. J)ri6ju indecl. ; fj6r-5i, 
fimm-ti, set-ti, sjaun-di (mod. sj6un-di), iit-ti (mod, attun-di), niun- 
di, tiun-di, ellef-ti, tolf-ti, J)rettan-di, fj6rtan-di, . . . tuttug-asti (twen- 
tieth), pritug-asti, fertug-asti, . . . nitug-asti, hun-dra5-asti, . . . {)usund- 
asti. III. distributives from i to 4 ; ein-ir (singuli), tvenn- 

ir (bint), {)renn-ir (trini), fern-ir (quaterni), all as regular adjec- 
tives. IV. multiplicatives, either tve-nnr (duplex), J)re-nnr 
(triplex), fer-n (quadruplex) ; or with -faldr, ein-faldr, tvau-faldr (two- 
fold), J)ri-faldr, fer-faldr, . . . att-faldr, ni-faldr, ti-faldr, . . . tvitug- 
faldr, t)ritug-faldr, . . . hundra3-faldr, J)usund-faldr, all regular adjec- 
tives. V. the adjectives in -tugr and -raSr, denoting aged, 
measuring, for the decades, from twenty and upwards : o. -tugr, 
for the decades, from 20 to 70, tvi-tugr, J)ri-tugr, fer-tugr, fimm-tugr, 
sex-tugr, sjau-tugr. p. -roedr, for the decades, from 80 to 120, att- 
roe3r, ni-rceftr, ti-roe3r (centenarius), tolf-roeSr (numbering 120), hence 
tolf-roett hundra3 = i20, and ti-roett hundra3 = ioo. VI. 
numeral adverbs, tvisvar = bis, J)rysvar = tris : the rest formed by sinni 
or sinnum, times; fjorum-sinnum, /o?<r times = guater, etc. 



A. WEAK VERBS, i. e. Verbs in which the Preterite is formed by adding a Termination : characterised by the final vowel of the pres. sing. 

1st Conjugation, 

2nd Conjugation, 

3rd Conjugation, 1 

4th Conjugation, 

characteristic vowel a. 

characteristic vowel t. 

characteristic vowe 

t is suppressed. 

characteristic vowel I, 

Indic. Pres. Sing. 




dcem-i fylg-i 








dcem-ir fylg-»r 








doem-ir fylg-ir 




dug-i r 





dcem-um fylg-jum 








doem-it fylg-it 








dcem-a fylg-ja 





Pret. Sing. 




dcem-da fylg-da 








doem-dir fylg-dir 








doem-di fylg-di 









doem-dum fylg-dum 








dcem-dut fylg-dut 








doem-du fylg-du 








deem fylg 



vak (vak-i) 

dug (dug-i) 

SuBj. Pres. Sing. 




doem-a fylg-ja 








doem-ir fylg-ir 








doem-i fylg-i 









doem-im fylg-im 








doem-it fylg-it 








doem-i fylg-i 





Pret. Sing. 




doem-da fylg-da 








doem-dir fylg-dir 








doem-di fylg-di 









doem-dim fylg-dim 








dcem-dit fylg-dit 








doem-di fylg-di 








doem-a fylg-ja 





Part. Act. 



doem-andi fylg-jandi 





Part. Pass. Masc 














Neut. orl 
Supine J 



dcem-t fylg-t 





B. STRONG VERBS, i. e. Verbs 

in which the Preterite is formed by changing the Root Vowel (as found in 

the Infin.) 


St Class, 

2nd Class, 

3rd Class, 

4th Class, 



6th Class, 

change of radical e (f) into a, U, 

i into ei, i. 

jo into au, u. 

a into d. 

e into a, a 

; into a, a, 0. 

a into e; 

au into jo. 

Indic. Pres. Sing. 
























































Pret. Sing. 

































































Sub J. Pres. Sing. 
























































Pret. Sing. 

































































Part. Act. 









Part. Pass. Masc 


















Neut. or| 
Supine J 












Indic. Pre$. Sing. 


era Pret. var (vas) 
er-t var-t 

er (es) var (vas) 

er-um var-um 

er-ut v4r-ut 

er-u v4r»u 

The Verb Sotitantivk. 

Imperat. ver (ver-tu) Subj. Pres, s6 Pret. vaer-a 

s^-r vser-ir 

si vaer-i 

verit {estate) s6-m voer-im 

si-t vxr-it 

i& vser-i 

Infin. vcr-a Part. P<ks. vcr-it 

Ten Verbs with Present in Preterite Form. 

Indic. Pres. Sing. 

































mun (mon) 






























Prtt. Sing. 


as regular 

weak verbs 














Subj. Pres. Sing. 



as regular weak verbs 









Pret. Sing. 


SBtt-a knaett-a 
as regular weak verbs 









Infin. Pres. 










Part. Act. 








Part. Pass. Neut. 








Nine Verbs with the Preterite in -ra {4i). 

Indic. Pres. Sing. 











Pret. Sing. 






















Subj. Pressing. 





















Part. Pass. 



















































Pass. Neut. 

kalla-zk, lat 

i-zk, (gla8-zk 

, gefi-zk. bori-zk 

'J etc. 


































Pres. Pret. 

Sing. I. em-k-at var-k-at (vask-at) 

a. ert-at-tu vart-at-tu 

3. er-at(es-at) var-at (vas-at) 

Plur. 3. eru-t varu-t 

Pres. Pret. 

skal-k-at skyldi-t 

skalt-at-tu skyldir-a 

skal-at skyldi-t 

skulu-t skyldu-t 

Pres. Pret. 

mon-k-a mundi-t 

mont-at-tu mundir-a 

mon-at mundi-t 

monu-t mundi-t 

ver-at-tu {be not tbou !), lat-at-tu {let not tiou !), gr4t-at-tu {weep not tbou /), etc. 



C 2 





Weak Verbs. 

Hemarks on the Ist Conjugation. To this belong four or 
five hundred simple verbs, which in the Dictionary are marked ' a8,' 
i. e. pret. -aSi ; they are, I. verbs with a primitive root vowel, 

a, a, au, o, 6, u, u (except a few which are placed in the 4th conju- 
gation), e. g. tala, baga, haga, skada, baka, stama, bana, svara, rasa, 
tapa, hvata, rata, hata, glata, launa, fagna, banna, safna, anda, varna, 
starfa, stoSa, loga, loka, losa, rota, h6ta, roma, hlj63a, sopa : verbs 
with i as root vowel, esp. if before a single consonant, fri3a, skrifa, 
kvika, lima, lina, skipa, hita, kvista ; some with i, ei, leita, reika, eisa, 
geisa, smi3a, lika, etc. II. derivatives, 1. in -«a, inchoative 

verbs, daf-na, kaf-na, har6-na, vak-na, bla-na, gra-na, fit-na, hvit-na, 
vis-na, los-na, ro8-na, brot-na, bolg-na, fol-na, fii-na, dok-na, ves-na, 
tr^-na, (a hundred words or more.) 2. in -ga, from adj. -igr, 

chiefly in a causal sense, to make so and so, about a score of words, 
au3-ga, bl66-ga, m66-ga, gof-ga, hel-ga, h'f-ga, nau3-ga, saur-ga, fjol- 
ga, frj6v-ga, vin-gast, hold-gast, synd-ga, kvan-gask, hyr-ga, {)yf-ga : 
in -]<a, denoting to become or make so and so, hae-kka, lae-kka, smse- 
kka, fae-kka, grcen-ka, vaen-kast, dyp-ka, rym-ka, mjo-kka, brei6-ka, 
sein-ka, vi6-ka, min-ka, bli6-ka, {)ur-ka, i5-ka, tiS-ka, t)rael-ka, which 
follow the ist conjugation without regard to root vowel. 3. in 

-sa, iteratives, glep-sa, hrif-sa, taf-sa, hram-sa, kjam-sa, ryg-sa, king-sa, 
ving-sa, flak-sa, flang-sa, vind-sa, kal-sa ; with these may be reckoned 
hug-sa (co^z'/are), hrein-sa: (these words also are few.) 4. in -ja, 

a few words (perhaps thirty), ve6-ja, ste5-ja, stef-ja, egg-ja, gnegg-ja, 
hrekk-ja, bel-ja, em-ja, gren-ja, her-ja, i8-ja, kvi6-ja, rif-ja, gil-ja, fit-ja, 
vit-ja, klyf-ja, syf-ja, lyf-ja, byr-ja, bryn-ja, skyn-ja, syn-ja, dys-ja, 
flys-ja, bryt-ja, a-ny-ja. 5. in -va, bol-va, mol-va, got-va, or-va, 

etc., (a few words.) 6. in -la, a kind of diminutive, but rare, 

ding-la (/o dangle), hond-la {captare), hvarf-la, song-la {to sing between 
the teeth), skjat-la, vaet-la (/o drip, ooze), sving-la, trit-la, skurt-la {to 
make a slight cut), fip-la, rup-la, hnup-la, grip-la, jap-la {to clip, 
mumble with the teeth), tonn-last, gut-la, brut-la, oex-la, etc. 7. 

in -ra, klif-ra, halt-ra, hli6-ra, (a few words, some of which are con- 

Kemarks on tlie 2nd Conjugation. To this belong several 
hundred words, which in the Dictionary are marked variously ' d, 
8, dd, t, tt,' according to the final root consonant ; in words like 
foeSa, reiSa, the pret. are foed-di, reid-di ; so beita, bceta, pret. beit-ti, 
bcet-ti : the d becomes 6 after a soft root consonant or a vowel, e. g. 
rceg-ja, roeg-&i ; svcef-a, svoef-8i, etc. : it becomes / after hard con- 
sonants, or s, reis-a, reis-ti ; leys-a, leys-ti, cp. introduction to letter 
0> P- 93 (C- ni) : it is dropped and cannot be sounded in words 
like skept-a, hept-a, fr^tta, geld-a, send-a, lend-a, ert-a, pret. skept-i, 
fr6tt-i, send-i, lend-i, ert-i : in mod. usage a root d may even be changed 
into /; Icel. often say, hert-i, ent-i, lent-i, synt-i, from her8-a, end-a, 
lend-a, synd-a : in words with a double final consonant it is common to 
drop one, thus kyss-a, kys-ti ; J)err-a, J)er-8i ; but // and nn are more 
often (and properly) retained, as fell-di, fell-t, kenn-di, kenn-t, from 
fell-a, kenn-a, better than fel-di, fel-t, ken-di, ken-t. II. to 

this conjugation belong chiefly derivative verbs with a changed vowel 
in the root, e, ey, y, cb, ce, e. g. brenna {to make burn), kenna {to 
teach), gleyma, dreyma, boeta, grseta, grce8a, hysa, ly'sa, (several hun- 
dred words.) In earlier times (in Gothic) these words had 3. charac- 
teristic j and a primitive vowel, e.g. Goth, dom-jan, hatis-jan, = lce]. 
doem-a, heyr-a ; this 7 has in Icol. been preserved in verbs with a short 
root vowel and a single final consonant (see the 3rd conjugation) ; 
but in verbs with a diphthong or long vowel only if the final be^ or k, 
or if they end in a vowel, e. g. blekk-ja, drekk-ja, sekk-ja, rekk-ja, 
fekk-ja, telg-ja, velg-ja, eng-ja, deng-ja, leng-ja, feyk-ja, teyg-ja, heyg- 
ja, beyg-ja, sleik-ja, steik-ja, rik-ja, berg-ja, J)resk-ja, baeg-ja, hceg-ja, 
lag-ja, vaeg-ja, stygg-ja,dryg-ja, byrg-ja, syrg-ja, ryja.etc, (about a hun- 
dred words, see the Dictionary) : fylgja is a specimen of these verbs. 
A few verbs which now have -ja had in olden times -va, e. g. bygg-va, 
styrk-va, stygg-va, hrygg-va are older forms than bygg-ja, styrk-ja, 
hi'ygg-j*- Many verbs with i, ei as root vowel belong to this conju- 
gation, not only derivatives, as leiSa, reisa, beita, from the strong verbs 
li8a, risa, bita ; but also other words, as beina, greina, deila, glima, 
tina, nita : also verbs with i before a double consonant, as spilla, villa, 
dimma, inna, ginna, sinna, dirfa, firra, missa, hitta, flimta, skipta, 
gista, hrista, and many others. Monosyllables as mk, bra, spa, stra, 
f4 {pingere), gljd, klja, ^]k, hrja, tjti, etc. are contracted, but, in spite 
of the root vowel, belong to this conjugation. 

Kemarks on the 3rd Conjugation. To this belong about 
ninety words : 1. about fifty verbs with e (a) for the root vowel, 

gle8-ja, kve8-ja, ble3-ja, se8-ja, ske8-ja (obsolete), te8-ja, kef-ja, kref- 
ja, svef-ja, tef-ja, vef-ja, seg-ja, l)eg-ja, hrek-ja, klek-ja, rek-ja, vek-ja, 
l)ek-ja, dvel-ja, kvel-ja, sel-ja, tel-ja, vel-ja, frem-ja, grem-ja, hem-ja, 
krem-ja, lem-ja, sem-ja, tera-ja, spen-ja, t»en-ja, ven-ja, glep-ja, lep-ja, 

skep-ja, ber-ja, er-ja, fer-ja, mer-ja, ver^ja {defendere), ver-ja {induere), 
et-ja, flet-ja, hvet-ja, let-ja, met-ja, set-ja, legg-ja, pret. bag-8i (obso- 
lete, vide b«g-ja), skil-ja, J)il-ja, vil-ja. 2. about thirty verbs with y 
(u) for the root vowel, bry8-ja, gny8-ja, ry3-ja, sny&-ja (obsolete), sty8-ja, 
hygg-ja. ygg-ja, tygg-ja (mod., but old usage strong), kryf-ja, lyk-ja, 
byl-ja, dyl-ja, hyl-ja, myl-ja, ^yl-]^, glym-ja, rym-ja, ym-ja, Jprym-ja 
(obsolete), dyn-ja, dryn-ja, hryn-ja, styn-ja, smyr-ja, spyr-ja, jjyr-ja 
(obsolete), fyr-va, pret. bus-ti (obsolete), pret. J)us-ti, flyt-ja. 3. a 
few verbs with long root vowel, hey-ja,J)rey-ja, dy-ja,fly'-ja, gny-ja,kny- 
ja, hly'-ja, ly'-ja, ty'-ja, which have monosyllabic pres. indie, hey-r, dy'-r, 
fly'-r, and change even the vowel in pret., ha-8i {gessit), dii-Si, knu-&i ; 
and in mod. usage also flu-8i, hlu-8i, lu-8i, but fly-8i, etc. in old writers : 
— sel-ja and set-ja have unchanged pret. sel-di, set-ti ; skil-ja has skil-di ; 
vil-ja, vil-di, part, vil-jat ; seg-ja and t^g-J* ^ bisyllabic pres. seg-i, 
beg-i. II. special remarks : 1. the characteristic marks 
are, a. the vowel change in pret. indie, (glad-di, spur-8i). p. the 
vowel in pret. subj. (gled-di, spyr-8i). y. the monosyllabic pres. 
indie, sing. (gle&, spyr). 8. the^' as characteristic ; only fyrva, an 
obsolete word, has v. 2. a participle passive in -idr is used in 
some of these verbs by old writers, especially poets, viz. a bisyllabic 
form, as kraf-i8r, vaf-i5r, vak-i8r, tal-i8r, bar-i8r, hul-i8r, val-i8r, var- 
i8r, tam-i8r, lag-iSr, skil-i8r, pil-i&r, fern. bar-i& . . . Iag-i8, neut. bar- 
it .. . lag-it (see Lex. Poet.) : this -idr was in later times changed into 
-inn in imitation of the strong verbs, which however is only used in 
about thirty-four verbs (a third of the whole number), viz. kraf-inn, 
kaf-inn, taf-inn, vaf-inn, hrak-inn, klak-inn, rak-inn, vak-inn, {)ak-inn, 
dval-inn, kval-inn, tal-inn, val-inn, fram-inn, ham-inn, kram-inn, lam- 
inn, sam-inn, tam-inn, J)an-inn, van-inn, bar-inn, mar-inn, var-inn, skil- 
inn, kruf-inn, dul-inn, hul-inn, mul-inn, ^ul-inn, hrun-inn, kmi-inn, 
ilu-inn, lu-inn (in old writers, kny-iSr, liy'-i8r), — almost the same 
words in which the ancients had -idr : these forms begin to occur in 
MSS. of the 13th or 14th century, e.g. dulin, Fb. i. 12, Fs. 97 (Ania- 
Magn. 132); J)ilinn, Fbr. 44 new Ed.; barin, Ld. 152, (both from 
Arna-Magn. 132); as a provincialism it is still older, and frequently 
occurs in an old vellum MS. of Mar. S. (Arna-Magn. 655), Unger's 
Edit.; framinn, Mar. 449 ; laginn, 465,484, 491 ; valin, 446; skilinn, 
326; laminn, 637; samin, 491 ; vaninn, 398 ; barinn, 619; lagin, 
633- CS* This -inn must not be confounded with the participles of 
the strong conjugation ; for, a. in this weak -inn the n disappears 
in the adjectival inflexion, e. g. plur. taldir, never talnir, whereas fallinn 
makes fallnir. p. the weak nom. remains beside that in -inn, e. g. 
hul-inn and hul-dr, {)ak-inn and J)ak-tr, vak-inn and vak-tr, flu-inn and 
flu-8r. 7. the inflexive -inn can never be used in the other words of 
this conjugation, e. g. glad-dr, never gla8-inn ; spur-8r, never spur-inn ; 
skap-tr, never skap-inn. Some have no participle, as ble8ja, metja, 
bylja, glymja, etc. 

Remarks on the 4th Conjugation. To this belong only a 
few verbs (thirty or upwards), but some of them are among the chief 
verbs of the language, hafa, lafa, vaka, gana, gapa, mara, spara, stara, 
hjara, blaka, flaka, blasa, Jirasa, kiira, stiira, lifa, lo8a, J)ola, skoUa, tolla, 
{)ora, brosa, duga, luma, una, triia, grufa, ugga : in -ja, t)egja, segja, 
seja (aSi), vilja (see above) ; under this also come soekja, pret. sotti ; 
yrk-ja, pret. orti ; J)ykkja, pret. J)6tti ; a pret. {)atti from J)ekkja is 
obsolete and poet. : — and to these may be added the weak preterites 
of the verbs with strong preterite in present sense, vissi, atti, matti, 
knatti, kunni, mundi, undi, skyldi ; as also verbs such as gora, old pres. 
gor-r, mod. gori ; Ija {to lend), old pres. le-r, mod. Ijae-r ; na, pres. nai, 
mod. nae, ga, q. v. II. special remarks : 1. the character- 

istic marks are, o. the root vowel, according to which we should 
expect them to follow the 1st conjugation, whereas they all have the 
characteristic i of the second. p. in about twenty words the pret. 
subj. is formed by vowel change from pret. indie, viz. hefSi, vekti, 
sperSi, t)yldi, J)yr8i, dyg8i, tylldi, myndi, yndi, try5i, nse6i, gaeSi, seg8i, 
J)eg6i, from pret. indie. hofSu, dug8u, . . . tru8u, n45u, ga8u ; as also 
setti, maetti, knxtti, {)yrfti, kynni, from pret. indie, attu, mattu, knattu, 
J)urftu,kunnu; J)oetti,soekti,yrkti,from J)6ttu,s6ttu,orktu; keypti from 
kaupa {emere) is pret. subj. with the sense of pret. indie. •>(. some 

have part. pass, in -at {-ad) like the Ist conjugation, vak-at, spar-at (in 
old writers also spart), blak-at, blas-at, lo8-at, lif-at, toU-at, bros-at, 
dug-at, un-at, tni-at, t>ag-at (from {)egja), sag-at (from segja, instead 
of sagt) occurs in Merl. Spa; haf-at = haft, Vsp. 16; {)ol-at, J)or-at 
are now the only forms, but J)olt, J)ort also occur in old writers ; vilj-at 
from vilja, but vilt seems older, cp. also mun-at, vit-a8, kunn-at. 2. 

the sole remains of a bisyllabic imperat. in -i (answering to the 1st 
conjugation in -a) are the old imperatives vak-i I gap-i ! dug-i I lum-i ! 
ugg-i ! un-i ! see these words ; in mod. usage the sole instance left is 
{)eg-i {tace) or ^egi-3u ! Many of the rest might, but for the primitive 
root vowel, well be counted as regular verbs of the and conjugation. 
This conjugation seems to answer most nearly to the 3rd Gothic con- 
jugation of Grimm, 



Strong Verbs. 

A List of the Strong Verbs : I. to the ist class belong 

about fifty words, fiiina (fann, fundu, fundit), spinna, spinia, svimma 
(obsolete), vinna (vann, unnu, unnit), binda (batt, bundu), hrinda 
(hratt, hrundu), vinda (vatt, undu), springa (sprakk, sprungu), stinga 
(stakk, stungu), brenna, renna, drekka, bregda (bra, brug&u), bresta, 
bella, gnella, smella, skreppa, sleppa, ser8a, snerta, gnesta, delta, 
spretta, svella, vella, svelta, velta, hvcrfa, sverfa, J)verra, verpa, ver6a : 
with the root vowel e resolved into ja, gjalda (gait, guldu), gjalla, 
skjalla, bjarga, skjalfa, hjalpa (halp, hulpu, hulpinn): with characteristic 
;■ or V, hrokkva (hrokk, hrukku), kliikkva, stokkva, sokkva, sliingva, 
Jjrtingva, svelgja, tyggja, hnciggva (defect.), syngja. ^nr" All those with 
M, g, k for final have ;/ in part, pass., fundit, bundit, stungit, brunnit, 
drukkit, brug5it, {)rungit, tuggit, sungit ; they have also i for root 
vowel in infin., finna, etc., which is weakened into e in breg8a, drekka, 
brenna, renna, — brig6a, drikka, brinna, rinna are the older forms, which 
even occur in old poets : the rest have o in part., oltinn, sloppinn, 
snortinn, brostinn, dottinn, goldinn, holpinn, . . . hrokkinn, stokkinn, 
sokkinn, solginn : those with initial v drop it before u, o, y, svella, 
sullu, sylli, soUinn ; . . . ver3a, ur3u, yr8i, ordinn ; vinna, unnu, ynni, 
unninn. II. to the 2nd class belong about forty words, bi8a, 

kvi8a, li3a (pati), li8a (labi), ri3a {eqnitare), ri3a {ungere), ri3a (qs. 
vriSa, nectere),s\<b2i, skriSa, sni8a, svi8a, drifa, hrifa, klifa, rifa, svifa, \niz, 
dvina (defect.), gina, hrina, hvina, skina, gripa, svipa (defect.), fisa, risa, 
bita, drita, hnita (defect.), lita, rita, rista, skita, slita, hniga, niiga, siga, 
stiga : with characteristic 7, blik-ja, svik-ja, vik-ja. 5^" Those with 
final g have also e in pret., e.g. hneig and hne ; steig and ste ; also 
vek and veik from vikja, but these forms are later. III. to the 

3rd class belong about thirty-six words, bj68a,hnj68a,hrj68a (desolare), 
rj68a, sj68a, frjosa, gjosa, hnjosa (defect.), hrjosa (defect.), kjosa, Ijosta, 
brjota.fijota, gj6ta, hljota, hrjota (cadere), hrjota (siertere), nj6ta,skj6ta, 
|)j6ta, J)rj6ta : — those with final/,/), g, k, have/it in infin., which seems 
older, kljufa, krjufa, rjufa, drjiipa, krjupa, fljuga, Ijuga, sjiiga, smjiiga, 
fjiika, rjiika, strjiika: with eliminated J, siipa, luka (and Ijiika), hita, 
hniifa, amputare (defect.) fs* Those with final g have also an obso- 
lete pret. in (flo, 16, smo, so), but usually and in mod. usage regular, 
flaug, etc.: frjosa and kjosa have a double pret., a regular fraus, hnaus, 
and irregular frori, kori. IV. to the 4th class belong twenty- 

six words, hla8a, va8a (68, va8it), vaxa (ox, vaxit), standa (st63, 
sta8it), grafa, skafa, ala, gala, kala, mala, skapa, fara, draga, gnaga 
(defect.), aka, skaka, taka : contracted in infin., fla, sla, J)va (qs. flaga, 
slaga) : infin. with characteristic j, dey-ja, gey-ja, hef-ja, hlae-ja (hlo, 
hlogu), kleg-ja (defect.), sver-ja (sor, svarit). gia* The verbs with final 
g and k, either contracted or not, have e in part, pass., dreg-it, ek-it, 
skek-it, fleg-it, sleg-it, pveg-it, hleg-it ; deyja has da-it. V. the 

5th class falls into two divisions : 1. twenty words, kveSa, vega 

(va, vagu), fregna (fra, fragu, fregit), gefa, leka, reka (persequi), reka 
(qs. vreka, vlcisci), drepa, vera (vesa), lesa, eta, feta, freta, geta, meta : 
infin. with characteristic _/', bi8-ja, ligg-ja (la, lagu, legit), J)igg-ja (J)a, 
J)agu, J)egit), sit-ja, sja (sa, se8). 2. nine irregular words, 

all having o in part, pass., vefa (of, ofu, ofit), fela (fal, falu, folgit), 
stela (stal, stalu, stolit), nema (nam, namu, numit), bera, skera (skar, 
skaru, skorit), tro3a (tra8, traSu, tro8it), sofa (svaf, svafu, sofit), koma 
(kom, komu or kvamu, komit). In placing these words here we 
follow the preterite ; according to the participle they might be put 
in the 1st class. Grimm makes a separate class of them ; but for that 
they are too few in number and too similar in inflexion to the 1st and 
5th class. VI. the 6th class, originally reduplicated verbs, many 

of which are still such in Gothic : 1. with e in pret., falda, halda, 

falla, blanda, ganga (gekk, gengu, gengit), hanga (hekk, hengu, hangit), 
fa (fekk, fengu, fengit), rii8a, bliisa, grata, lata, heita (hot, heitinn), 
leika (lek, leikinn), biota (q. v.) 2. the verbs auka, ansa, hlaupa, 

bua (q. v.), hiiggva (hjo, hjoggu, hoggit), sp^-ja (spjo, spiiit) ; defect, 
bauta (p. 54). 

Irregular Verbs. 

Tlie Verb Substantive properly belongs to the 5th class of 
strong verbs ; older forms are, pres. es, pret. vas, vas-t, vas, infin. vesa, 
imperat. vesi, ves-tu, which forms are used in old poets and in the 
very oldest MSS. (cp. Engl, was) ; er, var, vera, etc. are the mod. 
forms ; er (swm) is mod. instead of em, which latter however is still 
used in the N. T. and often in sacred writings, hymns, etc. ; mod. 
Dan. and Swed. also have er, so that the Engl, alone have preserved 
the true old form {am) : the Engl. plur. are is not Saxon but Scandin.- 
Engl., and is not used even by Chaucer. 

Verbs with. Present in Preterite Form : the first three 
belong, although irregularly, to the 5th strong class, the next six 
(skal, . . . ami) to the 1st class, and veit to the 2nd. The plur. 2nd 
pers. munit, unnit, and 3rd pers, muna, unna, which are used in old 

writings, shew that at early times this verb began to confuse the 
preterite with the present forms ; in mod. usage this is carried farther, 
and Icel. say, eigit and eiga, megiS and mega, kunni8 and kunna, J)urfi5 
and J)urfa, viti8 and vita ; but the -u is still preserved in skulu8 and 
skulu, munu8 and munu. Icel. distinguish between munu {^iWovat) 
and muna {meminenmt). II. the infinitives skulu, munu are pro- 

perly preterite infinitive forms ; whereas in the rest of these verbs the 
-71 changed into -a, eiga, vita, etc. : another preterite infinitive (weak) 
is preserved in skyl-du and myn-du, which are the sole preterite infini- 
tive forms that have been preserved in prose, ^r In old poetry 
there are about twenty instances of an obsolete pret. infinitive, which 
conforms to 3rd pers. plur. pret. indie, just as the pres. infin. to the 3rd 
pers. plur. pres. indie. ; especially in ace. with infin., hygg J)* st68u 
{credo illos s(etisse), foru {ivisse), k6mu {venisse), fly8u {fugisse), etc., 
vide Lex. Poet., all of them obsolete and seldom used in prose, e. g. 
vildo {voluisse), Mork. 168, 1. 20 ; only skyldu, myndu are frequent 
in the Sagas and are used even to the present day. III. the 

preterites are formed by inflexion and are weak ; exceptional however 
are kunna, unna, vissa, being without d or t; in mod. usage Icel. say, 
unnti {amavit), making a regular weak preterite of it, which form occurs 
even in Fb. iii. 469 ; but we cannot say kunn-ti instead of kun-ni. 

The Verbs with the Preterite in -ra : these verbs are pro- 
perly strong verbs, and are so in kindred languages (A. S., O. H. G., 
Goth.) The pret. form is difficult to explain ; a reduplication might 
explain the verbs having initial r or is before the root vowel, roa, 
groa, frjosa, and sa (so-ri being qs. sci-si) ; and would even do for sla, 
sniia : but gmia, kjosa remain unexplained, unless we admit that 
they have been formed by analogy with the others, as also valda 
(olli, qs. vo-voli). ^S" Kjosa, frjosa usually follow the 3rd strong class 
(pret. kaus, fraus), and sla the 4th : sleri only occurs a few times 
in old writers ; sa has in mod. sense become a regular weak verb (sa, 
sa-8a, sa-8). 

General Kemarks on the Strong and the Irregular Verbs : 
these verbs all together amount to about two hundred and twenty, 
but in the course of time some of them have become weak, and 
even in old writers are so used : o. changed into the ist weak 
conjugation, bjarga, hjalpa, feta, freta, fregna, rita (from rita), blika 
(from blikja), dvina, klifa (from klifa), svipa (from svipa), gala, mala, 
aka, skapa, falda, blanda, biota, klaegja. p. into the 2nd weak conju- 
gation, snerta, slongva, J)rongva, rista, svelgja, sa {severe). y. into the 
3rd weak conjugation, fela, tyggja, jDva, — in all about twenty-six verbs. 
If we add half a score of words which are obsolete and defective, or 
were so even in olden times, there remain not quite two hundred 
strong verbs in full use. We may add fragmentary verbs, of which 
only the part. pass, remains ; and to this class we may assign 
the participial adjectives, bolginn {hiflatus), toginn {ductus, Germ. 
gezogen), dofinn, boginn, hroSinn (pictus), sno8inn, rotinn, hokinn, 
fuinn, liiinn, au8inn, snivinn {vi<p6fifvos obsolete and poet.), belonging 
chiefly to the ist and 2nd class, and perhaps many besides. Grimm 
reckons that in all the Teutonic languages together there are about 
four hundred and fifty strong verbs, whole or fragmentary ; but 
no single dialect has much more than half of that number. These 
verbs belong to the earliest formation of words ; they are decreasing, 
as no new strong verbs are ever spontaneously formed, whereas the 
old die out or gradually take the weak forms. So also wrecks of 
strong verbs are found here and there, and even modern languages 
have by chance preserved words lost elsewhere, thus vrungu {torse- 
runt) is an air. \ey. in one of the oldest Icel. poets ; but in this case 
the English supplies the loss, as wring, wrung (whence wrong, prop. 
= wry, opp. to right) are common enough. Most of the important 
words of the language belong to the strong conjugation, and many of 
them are treated at great length in the Dictionary ; whereas only a few 
of the great verbs, such as gora, hafa, belong to the weak conjugation, 
so that the strong conjugation has an importance far beyond the 
number of its verbs. II. the formation of tenses in the strong 

verbs is plain enough, o. the chief tenses, the pret. in sing, and 

plur., the infin. and part, pass., are formed by way of ablaut (see 
p. xxix), from which j3. the secondary tenses are formed by way 

of umlaut (see p. xxviii), viz. the pres. sing, indie, from infin., e. g. byd 
{jubeo) from bj68a {jubere) ; stend {sto) from standa {stare) ; el {alo) 
from ala {alere) ; grset {jleo) from grata {flere), etc. : in plur. the 
unchanged root vowel returns, bj63um (jubemus); stondum {stamus); 
olum {alimus) ; gratum {flemus). y. in the same way the pret. subj, 
is formed from pret. plur. indie, e. g. by3a {juberem) from bu3u {jttsse- 
runt) ; cela {alerem) from 61u {aluerunt); brynna {ureretn) from brunnu 
{usserunt) ; bsera {ferrem) from baru {tulerunt), etc. ^S* The character- 
isticy and v reappear in pres. indie, plur. ; thus, from sitja {sedere), pres. 
sing, sit {sedeo), but sitja {sedent); from hoggva {caedere), hogg{caedo), 
but hoggva {caedunt) : in pres. subj. thej and v are kept through the 
sing., as $\X.]3.{sedeam),'h'6ggva.{caedam), III. the weak verbs 

are formed upon a later and quite different principle, viz. by suffixing the 



auxiliary verb to do, in a (reduplicated ?) form ded or did, whence the 
mod. Engl, deed. Germ, that, Icel.ddd; thus heyT-6-a = Ibear-d or hear 
did I. This is precisely analogous to the suffixing of the article, only 
that the verbal suffixed preterite is much older (centuries older than 
Ulfilas), and is common to all Teutonic languages, ancient and modern ; 
whereas the suffixed article is of later date and is limited to the Scan- 
dinavian branch. There probably was a time when the preterite of 
weak verbs was expressed by a detached auxiliary did, as was common 
in the English of former days and still remains to a certain extent. 
The other tenses, future and pluperfect, are still expressed by auxiliaries 
(mun, skal, vil, hafa) ; ek mun ganga, ibo ; ek hefi gengit, ivi ; ek 
haf&a gengit, iveram. In mod. Icel. pres. indie, is used in future 
sense (as in Gothic and to some extent in Engl.) ; as, hanii kemr aldrei, 
be will never come ; hann kemr a morgun, be comes (i. e. will come) 
to-morrow. The auxiliary verb mun is chiefly used in writing ; in 
conversation it sounds stiff and affected : again, skal denotes necessity 
or obligation, e. g. in a reply, eg skal gera ]pzb. 

Modern Changes : generally these are very few, for special cases 
see above and the single verbs in the Dictionary. There are two things 
chiefly to be noted : 1. the ist pers. -a, in pret. indie, as well 

as in pres. and pret. subj., is changed into -i, bo8a6i = bo3a8a {nunti- 
avi), hefSi = hefSa {baberem), hafi = hafa (habeam). These mod. forms 
began to appear in MSS. even of the 13th century; but the old form 
still remains in some words in southern Icel., see the Dictionary, p. 2, 
introduction to letter A (signif. C). 2. the plur. forms of the 

subj. -im, -it, -i are in most cases changed into -um, -tit, -u, and con- 
form to the indie, thus t61u5um {loqzteremur) instead of tala&im ; 
tolum (loguamur) instead of talim ; but wherever the subj. is formed 
by vowel change it remains, thus hefSum (haberemus) instead of 
the old hefSim ; vaerum (essemtis) instead of vaerim (in indie. hofSum, 
varum) ; as also haf6i [habni), but hefSi (baberem), so that in this case 
distinction is kept up between indie, and subj. But the old subj. in- 
flexion -i is still sounded in the 2nd and 3rd pers. in many dissyllabic 
words, e.g. vaeriS (essetis), vseri (essent) are quite as freq. as vseruS, 
vseru, whereas in the 1st pers. plur. Icel. say vaerum (essemtis), never 
vserim. 3. in and pers. sing. pret. indie, of strong verbs, s has 

been inserted throughout, thus, brann-st (ussisti), fann-st {invenisti), 
kom-st (yenisti), hlj6p-st {cttc/trrisli), var-st (fuisti), bj6-st (paravisti), 
etc., whereas the ancients said brann-t, hljop-t, etc. But even the 
ancients inserted s with verbs having t as characteristic ; indeed it is 
doubtful whether braut-t (fregisti), gret-t {flevisti) ever occur in old 
writers ; in these words we meet with the s in rhymes, even in verses 
of the middle of the lith century, e. g. bratiztu vi6 bragning n^zUn, 
(5. H. 219 ; brauztv rhymes on mestiM, Fms. vi. 139 ; and so also the 
MSS., e. g. veizt (nosti) not veit-t ; Iczt (fecisti) not 16t-t, etc.* 4. in 
and pers. pres. indie, of strong verbs d is inserted in about a score of 
verbs, viz. in strong verbs and in weak of the 3rd conjugation if they 
have a final vowel or a final r, fer-5 {is), fae-r9 (capis), dey-r6 (moreris), 
hlse-r6 {rides), slae-r& (feris), Tpvx-rb {lavas), sc-tb {vides), by-r& (paras), 
sve-rft (Juras), rae-rS (remigas), gnj-rh (fricas), sny-r8 (vertis) ; weak, 
ber-8 (feris), mer-5 (contundis), ver-6 (defendis), smyr-8 (imgis), 
spyr-S (quaeris), ljxr-8 (commodas), fly-r8 (fttgis), ly-r3 (fatigas), 
tx-rb (carpis lanam), instead of fer-r, dey-r, . . . ly-r, tae-r ; but this is 
conversational and little used in writing : / is added in vil-t (vis, Engl. 
wilt), for the old vil-1 ; both forms occur in very old MSS., e. g. Villt, 
Mork. 57. 1. 15, 168. 1. 19, but vill 63. 1. 3 : er-t (es, Engl, thou art) 
is common for old and mod. 5. for the weak participle in -inn 

see p. xxiv. C«* Some MSS. (e. g. the Mar. S.) confound the 1st pers. 
with the 3rd pers. pres. indie, and say, ek segir, heyrir, tekr, elskar, 
as in mod. Swed. and Dan. ; TiAn.jeg siger, borer, tager, elsker, Swed. 
sdger, borer, taker; cp. in vulgar Engl. I says, I hears, I takes, I 
loves : this use has never prevailed in Icel., cither in speech or writing ; 
and in MSS. it is simply a kind of Norwegianism. 

Verbs with Suffix. 

The Reflexive : these verbs are used in a reflexive or reciprocal 
sense, but seldom as passive, and then in most cases only by way of 
Latinism, the passive being usually expressed by the auxiliary verb 
ver&a or vera ; thus elska (ainare), but |)au elskask, they love one 
another; unda, to breathe, but andask, to breathe 'oneself,' to die, 
expirare: the reflexive often gives a new turn to a verb, and 
makes it, so to say, individual and personal ; see the Dictionary 
passim. II. as to the form, 1. the inflexive -r (of the active 

voice) is dropped, thus, bo9a-sk, qs. bo8ar-sk (nuntiaris). 2. the 

inflexive -/ assimilates to the reflexive -s, and becomes -z, e. g. in the 
and pers. plur., elskizk (amamini), eggizk (hortamini) ; {jeim haf5i 
bo3azk (qs. bo3at-sk), as part. pass. neut. illis nuntiatnm fuit, but 
bo8a-sk (nuntiantnr). 3. -sk, qs. sik (se), is the old form, and 

kept in the oldest MSS. ; even sometimes -zp, but usually -2, -zt or 
-zst (often in MSS. of the 14th century), thus boSa-z or bo8a-zt, the 

former of which is common in MSS. ; the mod. is -st (bo8a-st), which 
form is adopted in most Editions and is also found in some old MSS., 
e. g. in one of the handwritings of Hb. (see Antiqq. Americ. facsim. 
iv). It is likely that the sound of -zp, -z, -zt, and -st was much the 
same, and that they differed only in the spelling. III. originally 

there were two suffixes, viz. -s^(i.e. sik, se) for the 2nd and 3rd pers., but 
-mk (i. e. mlk, me) for the 1st pers. plur. ; this -mk is used in many good 
old MSS. (and has generally been adopted in this Dictionary), but was, 
from some confusion with -sk, changed into -mz or -mst ; the -mk may 
be called the personal reflexive, i. e. the reflexive reflecting the speaker 
himself. It is worthy of notice that the ancients seldom used ek (/) 
along with -sk ; therefore— instead of saying ek J)ykki-sk (videor), 
J)6tti-sk (videhar), ek andask, laetsk, efask, ottask — they said, ek j)ykkju- 
mk (videor mihi), ek t)6ttu-mk (videbar miht), ek 6ndu-mk (morior), 
ek latu-mk, ek efu-mk (dubito), ek 6ttu-mk (timeo), etc. ; and ek J)yk- 
jumst, ek J)6ttumst are still in use. This usage is quite correct, and 
the later common ek {lykki-sk is in fact nonsense, being literally ego 
' sibi' videor; it no doubt arose from the fact that the sense of the 
suffix was no longer perceived. 2. we may note also the old 

poet, usage of joining the reflexive -mk to the 2nd and 3rd pers., 
but in a personal reflexive sense, as gongumk firr i\in\, flame ! begone 
from me, Gm. i ; jotna vegir st68u-mk yfir ok undir, the ways of giants 
stood over and under me, i.e. there were precipices above and below, 
see the Dictionary, article ek, B. ^' It scarcely needs remark that 
the w in this case belongs to the pronoun, not to the verbal inflexion, 
and we are to write J)ykkju-mk, not J)ykkjum-k ; the inflexive -m is 
dropped before -mk, just as -r before -sk. 

The Negative : it is obsolete and only used in poetry, in laws, 
old sayings, and the like ; from the poets about two hundred instances 
have been collected — perhaps a hundred more might be gleaned — in 
Lex. Poet. p. 2, and from prose in this Dictionary, pp. 2, 3. In 
Unger's Edition of Morkinskinna (lately published), we read mun- 
k-at, 50; mun-a, 37; er-a, 36, 52, 129, 186; vere-a (non esset), 
37 : I. this suffix is chiefly used, 1. in the verb sub- 

stantive and in the irregular verbs with pret. pres., esp. k, mun, skal, 
which four verbs include nearly half the instances : in regular strong 
verbs and some few verbs of the 3rd and 4th weak conjugation, 
hafa, lifa, gora, etc. : very seldom in the 1st or 2nd weak conju- 
gation, e.g. kallar-a (non vocas), Akv. 37; subj. sto8vi-g-a (non 
sistetn), E.m.1^1 ; and once or twice in trisyllabic tenses. 2. 

as to moods, it is freq. in indie, and imperat., but seldom in subj., 
where scarcely a score of instances are on record, e. g. verir-a, vaeri-a, 
kve8ir-a, megi-t, ver8i-t, standi-t, renni-a, biti-a, se-t (non sit), etc. ; 
and never in infin. 3. as to number and person, freq. in sing, 

through all persons ; in plur. freq. in 3rd pers., but very rare in ist and 
2nd ; forms such as vitum-a, munum-a, varum-a (nonfuimus), aettim-a 
{non haberemus), or segit-a (ne dicatis), farit-a (ne ealis), each probably 
occurs only once. 4. as to voice, it is rarely used with a re- 

flexive ; Jjottisk-a (non videbatur), komsk-a (non pervenit), kiimsk-at, 
for8umk-a (noti evitamus), each occurs about once or twice ; erumk-a 
(non est mihi), Stor. 17, Eg. 459 (in a verse). II. as to form, 

-at and -a both occur, as skal-a and skal-at, mon-a and mon-at ; 
-a is preferred when the next word begins with a consonant, -at 
when it begins with a vowel ; but they are often used indiscri- 
minately. 2. after a vowel inflexion the vowel of the suffix is 
dropped, and -t (-6, -p) remains, as attu-8, vitu-8 (nescitis), eigu-t (non 
habent), standa-t (non slant) ; yet in a few instances -a is used, but 
the hiatus sounds ill, e.g. biti-a, renni-a, skri5i-a, all from Hkv. 2. 30, 
31 ; vaeri-a, Mork. 37, Bkv. 8 ; koemi-a (non venial), Gs. 10 ; ur8u-a 
(nonflebant), Gh. 3 : — in verbs with characteristic j it appears, thus 
{)egj-at-tu (ne taceas), segj-at-tu {ne dicas), eggi-a (ne horteris), Sdm. 
32 ; teygj-at, id. ; kvelj-at (kill not). Vol. 31 ; leti-at {7ie retineat), Skv. 
3. 44 : — in verbs ending in a long vowel the a is not dropped, e. g. 
kna-at (cannot), a-at {ought not), sa-at (saw not). 3. in Ist pers. 
sing, the personal pronoun (-^ = ek) is inserted between the verb and 
suffix, a-k-at, em-k-at, etc. : if the verb ends in gg an assimilation 
takes place, hykk-at, qs. hygg-k-at (7 think not) ; likk-at, qs. ligg-k-at 
(nonjaceo): after a long vowel the k is even doubled, e.g. se-kk-at 
{7ion video), ma-kk-at (non debeo): the pronoun is even repeated, e. g. 
nui-k-at ek, sa-k-at ek, etc. : — in weak dissyllabic forms the inserted 
k becomes g, st68vi-g-a, or iterated st68vigak, bjargi-g-a, Hm. 151, 
153 ; (note also that the inflex. -a of the 1st pers. is here turned into 
-(, bjargi-g-a, not bjarga-g-a.) 4. in 2nd pers. sing, the personal 
pronoun ^u is also iterated, the latter being assimilated, er-t-at-tu for 
ert-at-Jui ; mon-t-a-ttu, but also mon-at-tu. 

The Personal: 1. for -k in the 1st pers., see s. v. ek (B), 

p. 1 24. 2. the 2nd pers. |)ii, thou, is suffixed, as -6ti, -du, -tu, or -«, 

according to the final of the verb, a. imperat. bo8a-3u, doem-du, 

gled-du, spyr-8u, vak-tu, dug-8u; brenn-du, ris-tu, bj6d-du, far-8u, 
gef-8u, ber-8u, grat-tu, hlaup-tu ; ver-tu, eig-8u, mun-tu, mun-du, 
uim-tu, vit-tu, r6-8u, gr6-3u, sa-3u, snu-6u, gnu-8u, kj6s-tu, sla-8u ; 



as also haf-8M, giir-Su, kom-dii (kon-du) come thou ! vil-tu, statt-u 
stand thou ! bitt-u bind thou ! pres. bo8ar-5u, brennr-8u, ris-tu, bybi- 
8u, . . . er-tu, att-u, kaniit-u, munt-u, veizt-u, etc.: pret. bo8a3ir-&u, ... 
dug6ir-8u, braiint-u, bautt-u (bau8st-u), reist-u, gr^tst-u, hljopt-u, 
hlj<3pst-u, etc. : subj. bo8a8ir-8u, . . . gleddir-8u, etc. : this usage is freq. 

in old prose, and already occurs in even the oldest poems, but it hat 
gained ground in mod. usage, and esp. in speech it has quite super- 
seded the detached J)u ; the vowel is ambiguous, being sometimes 
pronounced long(viltu), but usually short (viltu), in which latter case 
it has become a full suffix. 



With Degrees df Comparison : I. the neut. sing, is 

freq. used as positive, e.g. t)ung-t, heavily; skj6t-t, suddenly; flj6t-t, 
brdt-t, 6t-t, 6r-t, stor-t, har-t, mjiik-t, lj6t-t, fagr-t, etc. 2. from 

adjectives in -ligr is formed an adverb in -liga, skjot-liga, nk-Vigz, etc. : 
in a ffew cases, especially in poetry, they are contracted -la, thus skjot- 
la, 68-la, bral-la, etc. ; in prose in var-la, hardly, Lat. vix, but var-liga, 
warily ; har8-la or har-Ia, very, but har8-la, harshly ; ar-Ia, early ; but 
from var-la, har-la, ar-la no degrees of comparison are formed. 3. 

a few end \n-a,\H-z,far andwide; snemm-a, ear/y ; IW-a., ill, badly ; 
gorva, quite. 4. special forms, leng-i, Lat. diu, but lang-t, locally; 

fjar-, far; ve\,well; sjaldan, seWom; si8, late; opt, often; mjok, 
much; Utt, little; inn, m; tit, out; iram, onwards ; uptr, backwards; 
niSr, down; upp, up; heim, home: of the quarters, austr, nor3r, su9r, 
vestr. II. the formation of degrees of comparison is like that 

of the adjectives, only that the inflexive -i, -a, -r is dropped ; as 
skjot-t, conipar. skj6t-ar, superl. skjot-ast; flj6t-t, flj6t-ar, fljot-ast; 
fagr-t, fegr, fegr-st ; skj6tlig-a, skj6tlig-ar, skjotlig-ast ; vi8-a, vi8-ar, 
vi8-ast ; leng-i, leng-r, leng-st ; skamm-t, skem-r, skem-st ; (fjar), fir-r, 
fir-st; vel, bet-r (wf/t'ws), bezt ; ill-a, ver-r, ver-st ; gcirva, gor-r (more 
fully), gor-st ; sjald-an, sjaldn-ar, sjaldn-ast; snemm-a, snem-r, snem- 
st; si8-r (Jess), sizt (least), but si8-ar {later), si9-ast (latest) ; opt, opt- 
ar, opt-ast ; mjok, mei-r, me-st ; lit-t, mi8-r or minn-r (less, Lat. minus), 
minn-5t; inn, inn-ar, inn-st; lit, lit-ar, ut-ast or yzt ; upp, of-ar, ef-st ; 
niSr, ne8-ar (farther down), ne8-st ; aptr, apt-ar (farther behind), apt- 
ast or ept-st ; austr, aust-ar, aust-ast ; norSr, nor8-ar, nor6-ast or nyr8- 
st ; su8r, sunn-ar, sumi-ast, synn-st or sy8-st ; vestr, vest-ar, vest-ast : 
without positive are, ska-r (better), ska-st; hand-ar (ulterius), hand- 
ast ; held-r {rather), helzt ; fyr-r (prius), fyr-st ; hand-ar (ulterius), hand- 
ast ; superl. hinn-st (hindermost). ^- Old writers usually spell -arr, 
thus opt-arr, si8-arr, vi8-arr, etc., as also fyr-r, gor-r, in mod. usage opt-ar, 
vi8-ar, fyr, gor. 2. the full adjectival comparative is frequently 

made to serve as adverbial comparative, e.g. hse-ra, higher; Iseg-ra, 
lower ; leng-ra in local sense, but leng-r in temp, sense ; skem-ra (local), 
but skem-r (temp.) : — or both forms are used indiscriminately, as vi8-ar 
and vi6-ara, skj6t-ar and skjot-ara, har3-ar and har8-ara. 3. if 

following after the article the superlative conforms to the neut. sing, of 
the weak declension, e. g. ri8a hit harSasta, to ride one's hardest; hit 
skjotasta, fyrsta, si8asta, etc. 

"Without Degrees of Oomparison : I. adverbs with 

inflexions, 1. formed as genitive in -s, or -is, or -ar; ollungis, quite; 

einungis, only ; lok-s, at last, or loks-ins, id. ; all-s, in all : formed 
from nouns, as lei6, dagr ; heim-lei8is, homewards; stimu-leiSis, like- 
wise; k-\t\hK, onwards; rak-lei8is, s/ra;^i&^; av-degis, early in the day ; 
frarnvtB-is, furthermore ; utbyr8-is, overboard; innbyr8-is, inwardly; 
6keyp-is, gratis; erlend-is, abroad; margsinn-is, optsinn-is, many a 
titne ; umhverv-is or umberg-is, all around; jafn-fcetis, on equal 
footing; and-soelis, against the sun; for-streymis, for-brekkis, for- 
vi8ris ; tvi-vegis, twice, etc. ; — in -ar, from sta8r, allsta8-ar, every- 
where ; sumsta8-ar, somewhere ; annars-sta8-ar, elsewhere ; einhvers- 
sta8-ar, anywhere ; nokkurs-sta9-ar, id. ; marg-sta8-ar, in many places : 
from konar (generis), kitid; eins-konar, annars-konar, of another 
kind; nokkurs-konar, of any kind; alls-konar, hvers-konar, margs- 
konai-; alls-kostar = alls-konar : so, many other words, innan-huss, 
in-doors; utan-htiss, out-doors; utan-lands, abroad; and inn-fjarSa, 
innan-lands, etc. 2. the ace. sing. masc. is often used adverbially, 

as har8-an, swiftly ; bra8-an, suddenly ; riSa mikinn, to ride fast ; 
this is properly an elliptical use, a noun being understood. 3. 

in -um, properly a dative form, eink-um, especially ; fyrr-um, for- 
merly ; liing-um, all along; ti8-um, often; stund-um, sometimes; 
for8-um, o/y ore; ii\i]-v.m, eagerly; 6b-\im, rapidly ; hmb-um, bye and 
bye ; endrum og sinnum, now and then ; hoppum og glcippum, by haps 
and gaps ; smam saman, by little and little : also from nouns, hriinn- 
um and unnv6rp-um (Lat. undatim). 4. in -eg, from vegr, a 

way; thus |)ann-ig, J)ann-og, thus and thither; hinn-ig, the other way, 
hither ; hvem-ig, how ; einn-ig, also : the ancients often spell {)ann- 
og, etc. ; in mod. usage t)ann-inn, hvern-inn, einn-inn ; hins-eg-inn 

(the other way), qs. |)ann-iginn or j)ann-veginn, etc., from the noun 
along with the article : the adverbs, b&8um-egin, on both sides ; 
hvArum-egin, on what side; hinum-eginn, on the other side; ollum- 
eginn, on all sides; herna-megin, on this side; formed from dat. 
plur. and vegr, the oldest form is probably b48u-megum, both forms 
being in dat. : 65ru-visi, otherwise. 5. in -an, denoting motion 

from a place ; h^i-zn, hence ; \)zd-zn, thence ; hvib-m, whence ; si8-an, 
since; und-an, before; fram-an, q. v. ; hand-an, /rowi beyond; ne8- 
an, from beneath ; oi-zn, from above ; heim-an, /rom home; inn-an, 
from the inner part ; ut-an, from outwards; norb-zn, from the north; 
aust-an, sunn-an, vest-an, etc. : without the notion of motion, aS-an, 
shortly, a little while ago; jafn-an, ^ evenly,' frequently ; sam-an, to- 
gether, p. in -at, denoting motion to the place, hing-at or heg-at, 
hither ; J)ang-at, thither , hver-t, whither. y. terminations denoting 
rest in the place, her, here ; \)At, there; hvzr, where ; hvar-gi, nowhere ; 
heim-a., at home : old poet, forms are heSra, /bere; '^a.bra, there. 8. 
mod. forms suffixing a demonstrative particle -na, her-na, J)ar-na, tar- 
na, this here(qs. J)at J)ar-na) : in -/, framm-i (q. v.), upp-i, ni8r-i. 6. 

numeral adverbs, tvisvar, twice ; })rysvar, thrice, (spelt with y in good 
old MSS.) II. special adverbs, ar, ear/y; ar-la, /rf.; J)egar, a< 

once, hat. jam; svd, so, thus, and svo-na, id.; gaer, yesterday; J)a, 
then ; mi, now, and nii-na, just now ; naer, when ; hve-naer, id. ; enn, 
still; senn, soon; ella, else ; unz, until; ja, yes; nei, «o; aldrigi, 
never; ae, ever; xtib, id.; ei and ey, id.; si, Lat. semper, only in 
compounds and in the phrase, si og x,for ever and ever ; hvi, why ; 
hve,how; hversu, id. ; allt^nd (mod.), n/ways; avail, id.; alla-jafna, 
id.; einatt, repeatedly ; of, too; van, too little, used singly only in the 
phrase, of ok van ; samt, together; sundr, asunder; amis, amiss; ymist, 
indiscriminately ; i8ula, repeatedly, etc. 

Adverbial Prefixes : 1. in positive and intensive sense, 

especially with adjectives, al-, quite, al-, see Dictionary, p. 1 1 sqq. ; 
all-, very ; au3-, easy ; afar-, greatly ; fjol-, frequently ; of-, too 
(very freq.) ; ofr-, very, greatly : temp, si-, semper : i3-, often, again ; 
ey- or ei-, ever- ; einka-, especially ; endr-, again ; frum-, origin- 
ally. 2. in special sense, d&-, very; full-, quite; hdlf-, half; 
jafn-, equally, in many words, etc. : only as prefixes, sam-, together, 
Lat. con-, in many words ; er-, qs. el- (cp. Lat. ali-us), in er-leudr and 
compds ; and-, against ; gagn-, id. ; g6r-, quite, altogether. 3. 
in negative sense, li- or 6-, = Lat. in-, Engl, un-, in a great many words ; 
the mod. form is o'-, e. g. 6-fagr, unfair, ugly ; un~ is the etymologi- 
cally true form, which is preserved in German and English, as well as 
in mod. Danish, Swedish, and Norse ; but that the Icel., even in the 
1 2th century, had already changed u- into 6- is shewn by the spelling 
of the earliest MSS., and from the statement in Skalda by the second 
grammarian, who says that ' o- or u- changes the sense of a word, 
as in satt (sooth), or 6-satt (untrue),' Skalda 1 71 ; but in the bulk of 
MSS. of a later date, after the union with Norway, the w- prevailed, 
and was henceforth adopted in the Editions, although the Icel. people 
all along pronounced 6-, which also is the spelling in all modern books, 
and might well be adopted in Editions too : mis- (cp. Engl, amiss), 
differently, and also badly, in many compds : var-, scarcely, insuffi- 
ciently : svi-, cp. svei, p. xxviii : van-, deficiency, 'wane:' tor-,= 
Gr. Svs-, with difficulty, opp. to au8-: or-, = Lat. ex-, thus 6r-skipta 
= expers, vr-endr = exanimis, etc.: for-, in a few words, cp. p. 182. 
^° Words denoting wonder, a%ue are often used as adverbial prefixes 
in an intensive sense, as geysi-, ae8i-, undra-, fjarska-, furSn-, oskapa-, 
awfully, wonderfully ; see Dictionary. 


With dat. and ace, at, Lat. ad, only exceptionally with ace; 
d, Lat. in, Engl. o«; fjT\i,for, before; eptir, after; i,in; undir, 
under, beneath; yfir, over, above; vi3, with, = Lat. cum; me3, 
id. 2. with dat., af, off, of; tT&,from; 6r, mod. fir, Lat. ex, 

out of ; hj&, hat. juxta, = besides; m.6t, against ; gegn, «W. 3. 

with ace, gegnum, through; fram, on, onwards; upp, up; ni3r, 
down; of an, id.; um, Lat. de, per, old form of. 4. with gen., 

til, till, to; &n, without; milli or me3al, between. ^» The pre- 



positions a and i are in the MSS. usually joined to the following word, 
thus aIandi = H landi, iriki = i riki. As to the syntactic use of pre- 
positions, cUiptically and adverbially, see Dictionary. In poetry, even 
in plain popular songs, hymns, epics, etc., a preposition can be put 
after its case, e. g. birtust snjohvitum biining i, blessaQir englar lika, 
Pass. 31. lo; himnum a = u himnuni, m tbe heavens; but scarcely, 
unless before a pause at the end of a line. 


The chief of these are, ok, mod. og, attd, also ; n6, nor, Lat. neque ; 
e3a or eflr, or, Lat. aut ; ellegar, id. ; en, but, Lat. sed, autem, vera ; 
en (an), than, Lat. quam ; enda, and even, and then ; ef, //, Lat. si ; 
nema, unless, but, Lat. 7iisi; lieldr, but, Lat. sed; sem, as, Lat. ut, 
sicut; ]^, though, although, yet; ailB, because; hv&rt, whether, Lzt. 
an ; J)vi, therefore : we may here add the enclitical particle of or um 
(different from the prep, um), which is very much used in old poetry, 
and now and then in laws and very old prose, e. g. hann of sa, be 
saw ; er s^r of getr, who gets for himself, see Lex. Poet. 

Compounds of adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions are much 
used : 1. prepositions and adverbs or double prepositions ; a 

me8an, whilst, meanwhile; a undan, ahead; a eptir, behind; a milli 
and a meftal, among, between; & ofan, to boot; a samt, together; 
& moti, against; a fram, on, along; a-lengdar, afar; a si6an, 
since; a vi&, alike: auk-heldr, still more; i frk, from, cp. Swed. 
ifran; i sundr, asunder; i gegn, against; i hja, aside; i senn, in 
one; i kring, around; undir eins, at once; at auk, to boot; at ofan, 
from above; upp aptr, over again; kringum (qs. kring um), all 
around; gegn-um, all through; yfir um (proncd. ufrum), across; 
fyrrum, formerly ; framan af, in the beginning ; he6an af, henceforth ; 
J)a8an af, thenceforth ; zWt a.i, for ever ; hingib til, hitherto ; ^angaS 
til, until ; eptir a, after, (so avalt, for of allt) ; ofan a, insuper ; framan 
4, in front ; ne8an a, beneath on ; aptan a, behind on : as also, ofan i, 
down ; ne6an i, underneath, at the bottom ; framan i, in the face ; 
aptan i, in tbe rear ; framan til, until ; austan til, nor8an til, sunnan 
til, vestan til, etc.; a8 aptan, and aptan til, behind; fyrir fram, 
beforehand; fyrir litan, except, etc., see e.g. fyrir and fram: — with 
nouns, a vixl, alternately ; a laun, secretly ; a vit, towards ; a mis, 
amiss ; a braut, abroad, away ; a ska, askance ; a vi8 ok dreif, scattered 
abroad. 2. with a conjunction ; J)6 at or J)6-tt, although; sva 

at (sv4-t), so that, Lat. ut ; J)vi at, for that, because ; hvart a6, whether; 
efa8, «/; {yii en, La.t. priusquam ; kbven,id.; zt eigi, that not, lest ; 
eins og, as ; a8 eins, only, barely ; J)egar er, Lat. simul ac ; si6an er, 
Lat. postquam ; meSan er, Lat. dum ; hvart er, Lat. utrum ; hvar's, 
wheresoever; hvegi ct, whosoever : in mod. usage, {)egar a6, si5an a8, 
meftan a8, hvart a3, and many others. 3. adverbial phrases, e. g. 

aft vtirmu spori {tepido vestigio), at once; um hael, ^turning the heel,' 
in return ; af brag8i, af stundu, instantly ; aptr a bak, backwards ; um 
Icid, by tbe way; eptir a5 hyggja, apropos, and many others. 

Interjections and Exclamations. 

To denote consent, j5 jfi or ya. jfi, yea yea I 6 j&, O yes ! jaur or 
jur, bear I O. H. L. lo, 45, 69, Mirm. (jur) ; in mod. usage, jir j6r 
or jur j6r, sounded almost like the Engl, bear bear! (it is doubtful 
whether this Engl, exclamation has any connection with hear = 
audire) : — half consent, jeeja, yea yea ! — denial, nei nei, 6 nei, 6 
ekkf, ekki, O no ! — bitti nii, wait a bit! — loathing, bja, fusstim, 
tftjie ! vei, Lat. vae, Engl, woe, whence the compd svei or svei per 
(qs. se vei, woe be to thee .'), (a shepherd's shout, e. g. to a dog worrying 
the sheep), or Lat. apage ! putt (Dan. pyt, Swed. pytt), pish, pshaw ! 
Mork. 138 : l)ey J)ey> ^nsb ! — hushing to sleep, etc., dillindd, kor- 
rir6, bium bitun, bl bf (as in the rhyme, Bi, bi og blaka 1) — 116 h.6, 
bo, boa ! a shepherd's cry in gathering his flock so as to make the fells 
resound, hence the verb hoa ; trutt trutt, hott hott, hae bee ! the 
shout in driving or leading horses ; tu tu tu tu, kus kus, bds b4s ! 
in milking or driving cows into the byre ; kis kis, puss puss (to a 
cat) ; sep sep or h6p h6p (to a dog) ; rhrhrh ! in driving horses or 
cattle out of a field, imitating the sound of a rattle, called zb siga : — 
amazement, uss, sussu (qs. sva svii), sei sei, 4, eh ! — a cry of pain, 
ai ai ! which form occurs in Saem. 1 18 and |3orf. Karl. 390, v.l., whence 
the mod. m (proncd. like Engl, long i) ; this Icel. use is curious, as mod. 
Swedes, Danes, and Norsemen, as well as Germans, all say au (proncd. 
ow) ; from se comes the verb aeja, to cry; se ee, eei, heigh-ob ! avi,= 
Germ, oh web, is foreign ; — exultation, hes hae, & a, aha ! — wonder, 
delight, 6 61 — enquiry, hd, what? — chattering of the teeth from cold, 
atatata, hutututu, Orkn. 326. 2. interjections imitating the 

voice of birds or beasts, e. g. dirrindf (of the lark) ; there is a pretty 
legend about this in Isl. |>j68s. ii. 2 ; krunk krunk (of the raven) ; 
jnj4 mj6 (of the cat) ; gagg gagg (of the fox) ; kvi kvi kvi, cp. 
f^^eilt fiywiu in the bird's song in Der Machandeiboom in Griraip'j 

Miirchen ; tf ti ti, tih Till ! Bb. 3. 1 3 ; vi vi (of birds and ducks) ; 
gagga-gagg (of a gull). 

The St/FFixED Particles. 

These are suffixed to nouns and verbs, but never used separately : I. 
the nominal suffix -gi, originally a copula, akin to Lat. -que, and used 
so in some words, but chiefly used in a negative sense, see Dictionary, 
p. 199. II. the verbal negative suffix -a, -at, see p. xxvi. 

The true explanation of this particle is found in the Gothic, which 
makes frequent use of a suffixed particle -ub (esp. in verbs and also 
in pronouns), to which the particle pan is freq, added in an indefinite 
enclytical sense, almost as the Gr. U, thus vas-ub-pan, or assimi- 
lated vas-up-pan = Gr. ^v Zi; skal-up-han = 5fT ydp; stop-ub-pan 
= (laTrjKd bi ; nam-uh-pan = eXa/Se Se ; qvap-up-pan — (Ktye St ; 
vesun-uh-pan — ^ffav St ; qvepun-ub-pan = iktfov ovv ; vitum-uh- 
pan = oiSa/ifv 5e' ; vitaidedun-uh-pan = vaptriipovv Se ; bidjandans- 
up-pan = vpoatvxonivoi 5« ; and even in passages where the Gr. text 
has no particle, qvipid-uh = dirare (Mark xvi. 7). There can be 
little doubt of the identity, by way of assimilation, of the Goth, -ub or 
-up-pan and the Scandin. -a or -ap (-at). As to the sense, the difference 
is that whereas in Gothic this suffix is used indefinitely or is almost 
an affirmative copula, the Icel. is only used in a decidedly negative 
sense. But the freedom in the use of the particles is greater than 
in any other part of speech ; and the negative and affirmative fre- 
quently take the place of one another in different dialects, e. g. -gi, 
see above ; so eyvit etymologically = ow^A/, but in fact used = naught 
(the etymological notice p. 1 36 is scarcely correct) ; or, on the other 
hand, neinn or ne-einn, qs. none {n'one), but actually used = Lat. 
ullus ; nokkurr, prop, from ne and hverr, = ne-quis, but in fact used 
= aliquis; ein-gi, ein-igr are both used negatively = wone, and posi- 
tively = any; Icel. mann-gi, Lat. nemo, is etymologically identical to 
Engl, many; ei-manni, nobody, V^^m., is etymologically = Germ. ^e- 
vtand = everybody ; the particle ei- is used both in a positive and nega- 
tive sense ; vsetr, a wight, is positive, but is used negatively = naught. 
As to the form, the Icel. -a answers to Goth, -ub, the Icel. / or jj to Goth. 
p, whereas the -an is dropped. The double Goth, form -ub and 
-uh-pan (-up-pan) also explains the puzzHng Icel. double form -a and 
-ap {-at) ; the -a represents the -ub singly, the -ap the compd -ub-pan or 
-up-pan. A further proof is that neither the Goth, nor the Icel. suffix 
was used with nouns. In the 9th and loth centuries the negative 
suffixed verb appears to have still been in full use among Icelanders 
(at that time there were no books), else it could not have survived 
in laws and old saws ; there are about four or five hundred instances, 
three-fourths in poetry; it lingered on into the lith or even 12th 
century, and then became obsolete ; in Norway, Sweden, and Den- 
mark it seems to have disappeared much sooner, and has left no 
traces. From Ulf. we see that in his days the Goths used the -ub 
freely, though in a different sense. As a pronominal suffix the Gothic 
-uh seems to remain in the Icel. word peim-a, Goth, paim-ub = illi ; 
perhaps also in hvat-ta, what! Mork. 129 (exclam. indignantis) ; cp. 
also the mod. hva9-a, who ? perhaps also in end-a = ^5e ; and lastly, 
the demonstrative pronoun j)etta = Goth. ^a/-?/y& = Gr. tovto, but in 
these cases the particle has not taken the negative sense (see 
Grimm's Gr. iii. 24, 25 ; the explanation of the negative -at, as sug- 
gested in iii. 718, from vaetr, is not admissible). ^5* A different kind 
of negative is the particle ne before a verb, only in old poets, e. g. 
Vsp., sol J)at ne vissi (thrice within a single stanza) ; in A. S. and 
Early Engl, often prefixed to the verb, as nolde = n'wolde, nadde = 
n'hadde, cp. Lat. nolo, nemo; in Icel. it remained in the adj. neinn 
and nokkurr (see above), cp. also neita or nita, fiegare. In mod. 
usage eigi or ekki has replaced almost all other negative particles. 
To make it emphatic, nouns are added, ekki grand, not a grain ; ekki 
vitund, not a whit; ekki hot, qs. ekki hvat, naught ; ekki ogn, not a 
mite ; ekki augna-blik, not the twinkling ofan eye ; ekki fet, not a step : 
and borrowed from French, ekki par, ne pas. Phrases of this kind are 
of modern growth and were scarcely used by the ancients ; — ekki lyf, 
Skv. 2, is dubious, if not corrupt. In sense the Icel. enclitical particle 
of or um answers to the Goth, -ub, but is detached and placed before 
the verb or noun : this particle, although a favourite with the old 
poets (like the Homeric S' apcC), is obsolete, and in prose is only found 
now and then in the oldest writers, in laws and the like. III. 

the demonstrative suffix -na, in nii-na, J)ar-na, her-na, sva-na ; this 
-na is akin to Lat. en, ecce (qs. en-ce), and is found in A. S. eno and 
O. H. G. ino; cp. the Icel. exclamation ha-na, hana-nii ! It probably 
explains the Icel. and Scandin. demonstrative pronoun hann (be), 
hon (she), compared with Engl, be ; hann, hon being qs. ha-n, ho-n, 
be there, she there, en tile, en ilia ! cp. also gaer-na = gaer, q. v. ; J)^r- 
na, tibimet, Mork. 120. IV. a pronominal suffix -su, -sa 

occurs in hver-su, bow; J)vi-sa, dat. neut. oi^zt; J)eim-sa, dat. masc, 
frpm sa, 




Vowel Changes. 

All changes of vowels are of two kinds, simple and complex : 1. 

he simple is homogeneous and leaves the quantity of the vowel 
maltered ; a short vowel is changed into a short, a long or a diph- 
hong into a long or a diphthong ; this change is generally caused by 
:haracteristic or inflexive letters, in Icel. especially by i (j) and w 
v). 2. the complex is heterogeneous and affects the quantity of a 

'owel, which is changed from a short into a long or diphthongal vowel ; 
his change is generally produced by, a. agglutination, absorp- 

ion, or the like ; or, p. by contraction of two syllables into one 

e. g. reduplicated syllables contracted). 

The Simple Foivel Changes. 

The TJinlaut or Vowel Change was first traced out by Jacob 
jrimm in his Grammar of i8 19 and 1822 ; it is of two kinds, A. 

[he i- umlaut caused by a characteristic i ox j ; and, B. the u- 

amlaut caused by a characteristic u or v. 

A. The i- umlaut, whereby the primitive vowels 

a, a, au, 0, 6, u, u, jo, jii, (0), are changed into 

e, <E, ey, y, oe, y, y, y, (p). 
rhe primitive vowels are thus changed into mixed vowels with an «- 
sound ; short vowels change into short, and long or diphthongs into long 
3r diphthongs. All the changed vowels have an a- or u- sound blended 
with i, whence it follows that no change takes place within the i- class 
itself, and i, i, ei are unchangeable (' unumlautbar,' as Grimm says) : 
the characteristic : usually appears as_/', or has since been dropped in 
most cases ; it can only be sounded, o. in dissyllabic words with a 
short root syllable, i. e. a short vowel and a single final, thus tem-ja, ven- 
ja, but tcema, vaena ; and, p. in long syllables with g, k, or a vowel as 
final, without regard to the quantity of the root vowel, thus fylg-ja, hoeg- 
ja, scEk-ja, dey-ja : in monosyllables it is apocopated throughout, e. g. 
in nes, but nes-ja. Thousands of words are formed by way of umlaut, 
but all words thus formed are derivatives, nouns as well as verbs : I. 

roots and words formed by umlaut are, 1. verbs, the greatest part 

of the 2nd weak conjugation, such as doema, geyma, heyra, kenna, at 
least three hundred, to which add all those with inflexive -ja, in the 2nd 
and 3rd conjugations and a few of the 1st, together about two hundred 
verbs. We may take as a sample the transitive verbs which are formed 
from, the strong intransitive verbs, all following the 2nd weak conju- 
gation, and having for root vowel the pret. sing, of the strong verbs but 
with changed vowel wherever the vowel is changeable ; about forty such 
words are in use, formed from the 1st class, with pret. a, sprengja, drekk- 
ja, brenna, renna, bella, sleppa, spretta, svelta, vella, velta, hverfa, J)verra, 
skelfa, hrokkva, stokkva, sokkva : from the 2nd and 3rd classes, pret. ei, 
mi, lei3a, rei&a, dreifa, hneigja, reisa, beita, bleikja ; geysa, fleyta, hreyta, 
^eyta, dreypa, fieygja, smeygja, feykja, reykja : from the 4th class, pret. 
6, oexa, foera, gcela, kcela, soera, hlcegja : from the 5th and 6th classes, pret. 
«, a, etc., leggja, setja and sseta, svaefa ; fella, hengja, graeta, — all of them 
causal, denoting to make one do so and so, e.g. brenna (brann), to hum, 
but brenna (brenn-di), to consume by fire ; hverfa (hvarf), to disappear, 
hverfa, 6, to turn; ri6a (rei6), to ride, reiSa, dd, to carry ; bita (beit), 
to bite, beita, t, to cut, make bile; hniga (hneig), to sink, hneigja, 8, to 
make to sink ; sofa, to sleep, svaefa, 6, to lull to sleep; falla (fell), to fall, 
fella, d, to fell ; grata (grot), to greet (weep), graeta, tt, to make one greet ; 
hanga (hekk), to bang (^intrans.), hengja, d, to hang (trans.), etc. 2. 

nouns, adjectives ; those as ny-r, soet-r, counting perhaps a hundred 
words : substantives, hundreds of derivatives, e. g. the neuters in -/, as 
klaE&-i : all the weak feminines in -/, as gle3-i : the words of the 2nd 
declension of strong masc. and fern., as bekkr, fit, hei6r : the masc. in 
-ir, as laekn-ir : neuters, as nes ; — in short, all words marked as having 
characteristic i orj : in the chief declension (the 1st), hundreds of words, 
as been, prayer, from bon ; vaeta, wetness, from vatr ; or, 3. words 

with nominal inflexions ; the feminines with inflexive -d (6, t, prop, 
instead of -id), leng-d, length, from lang- ; hsE-5, height, from ha-r ; 
dyp-t, depth, from djiip- : most feminines with inflexive -ska and -sla 
(qs.-«ia,-js/a),bern-ska from barn, Islend-ska from Island, gaet-sla from 
gat : masculines in -ingr and feminines in -ing, thus England, England, 
but Englendingr, an Englishman ; laeg-ing, lowering, from lagr ; but 
not in those in -ningr, -ning, e. g. brag-ningr, drott-ning (not drcettning), 
as the « comes between the word and root vowel : masculines in -///, 
ket-ill : diminutives in -lingr, bcek-lingr, libellus, from bok ; draep-lingr, 
a ditty, from drapa, a poem. II. inflexions formed by way of 

umlaut are, 1. verbs ; in about three hundred verbs the deriva- 

tive tenses pres, indie, and pret. subj. are thus formed, vi^, all the strong 

yerbs and the weak of the 3rd and partly those of the 4th conjugation 
(see the tables and remarks on the verbs above). 2. nouns ; 

the plur. in the 3rd strong declension, b6k, boek-r ; eigandi, eigcnd-r ; 
br<S3-ir, brce8-r ; fa8-ir, fe&-r ; moft-ir, moe8-r; fot-r, foet-r ; miis, my's-s; 
gds, gaes-s, — the -r or -s being here contracted instead of -ir. 3. 

dissyllabic comparatives (and superlatives) of adjectives, in -ri, -str, 
yng-ri, yng-str ; hae-ri, hse-str, etc. 

(^ By observing the rules of the vowel change the reader will be 
enabled to follow the derivative words recurring in the Dictionary, 
e. g. glaSr and gle5i, far and faetta, au8r and eyOa, forn and fyrna, bot 
and boeta, fuUr and fylla, fuss and fysa, Ijos and ly'sa. Lastly, we have 
to notice that, 1. the ce (in MSS. spelt and o") is obsolete in Icel., 

and the changes of a and 6 are sounded both alike, thus fotr, faeti (old 
fceti); m66-ir, br65-ir, old plur. moe8-r, broe8-r; in Denmark, Sweden, 
and Norway the distinction is retained, and has to be borne in mind for 
the sake of the etymology. 2. the vowel change o into is rare and 

obsolete, and is now represented by e ; it takes place in very few words, 
e. g. the comparative and superlative from of-, 0fri, 0fstr ; nor8r, n0r8ri : 
the pres. indie. k0m-r from koma {to come), s0f-r from sofa (to sleep), 
tr08-r from troSa {to tread) ; but commonly kem-r, tre8-r, sef-r : the 
plur. of hnot (a nut), hn0t-r ; sto8 (a column), st08-r, but later hnet-r, 
ste3-r ; this change is therefore in col. I put last, between ( ), and it 
need not be heeded, and and u may be said to have the same vowel 

B. The w- umlaut, whereby the primitive vowels 
a, d, are changed into 

6 (oO), e6. 

Distinction is to be made between the change if caused by a charac- 
teristic or an inflexive w ; I. the change by a characteristic u 
takes place in the following instances, a. nouns, all masculines 
as kottr : feminines as hofn : neuters as hiigg : neuter plurals as born 
from barn : masculines as songr. p. adjectives, in fem. sing, and 
neut. plur. in words as fagr : and through all genders in adjectives as 
fol-r. y. verbs : those in -va (only a few). 2. the vowel change 
a, <6 takes place in all similar instances, e. g. hdottr {modus) ; <oss {a 
god) = ass; nJA — nkl {needle) ; mt = ar {an oar) ; mv =^ at {years) ; s<<Sr 
= sar {wounds); fd6 = fa {few), fem. and neut.; hd6 = ha {high), fem. 
and neut. ; but this change from a into J is now obsolete, and has 
been lost for about seven centuries, whereas the change from a into o 
is still in full use ; both are of common origin, and can only have 
risen together and at a time when the inflexive -u was still suffixed 
to all these words. Since that time it has been dropped in many 
cases, but the vowel change has remained, in some forms throughout 
all numbers and cases, whereas in others, as barn, hcifn, fagr, the primi- 
tive vowel recurs before inflexive -ar, -ir, and the like ; the difference 
is probably only one of time, the one being older and weak, the other 
later and stronger. (^ The words in p. i, col. 3, lines 33, 24 from 
the bottom are not quite exact, and ought to be worded thus, ' this 
vowel change seems still to have been in full use in Icel. during the 
nth and 1 2th centuries, being etc' II. the change caused by an 
inflexive -u takes place in all words, nouns and verbs, having a as root 
vowel, and -M,-2/r,-«OT for inflexion, cp. in the tables the verbs kalla, vaka, 
and such nouns as hjarta, alda. Thus in born and in born-um the case 
is different, the o in born is caused by a lost characteristic u, in born- 
um it is caused by the inflexive -um; as also in gom-ul {prised) from 
gamall. gis* The former change by a characteristic u was in olden 
times common to all Scandinavians, whereas the latter seems to be solely 
Icel. ; Swedes, Danes, and Norsemen said lond {terrae), but landum 
{terris) ; btirn, but barnum ; as also gamul {prisca), not as the Icel. 
gomul. It is to be borne in mind that a characteristic belongs to the 
root, and has a stronger hold than an inflexive vowel, so that the former 
may cause a change in the root vowel, though the latter does not. It 
is also to be noticed that the inflexive vowel was not properly u, but 
was in early times sounded and spelt o (land-om, kall-om, gam-ol). p. 
in inflexive syllables ending in a the change usually becomes u, e. g. 
hundruS, sumur, from hundra8, sumar; kollu8u, clamabant : in hard 
or strong inflexions both forms are right, as in eigiindum and eigund- 
um, hor86stum and horSustum ; in mod. usage the latter is more 
current. III. the ancients seem to have had a third kind of 
M change, viz. caused by a mixed i and «, which they spelt or ey, as 
the verbs hrokkva, diikkvan, stokkva were in MSS. sometimes spelt 
hreyqua, steyqua, deyquan, qs. hranquian ; but this was confined to a 
few words and is now obsolete. 

There is also a peculiar Kesolution of the vowels i or e mtoja 
(or _/'a). This is called 'breaking' (Grimm 'brechung'), and takes 
piace ill some infinitives of strong verbs of the ist class, gjalda, etg., 



and in several nouns, e. g. hjalp, help ; cp. also berg and bjarg, fell 
and fjall, gildi and gjald : in the feminines bjork, a birch; fjol, a deal- 
board; h]oTg,belp; t'}6m,atarn; fjiibr, a feather (hnt also Mr); gjof, 
a gift, from gefa, (ogive; gjor&, a girdle; j6r3, earth (see remarks on 
the 1st strong fem. declension) ; in the seven masc. nouns, as fj6r3r, a 
firth (see remarks on the 2nd strong masc. declension) : and in Sundry 
other nouns, jarl, an earl, hjalm-r, a helmet; jaki, ice, jokuU, an 
icicle; h]iiX2L, heart ; ]6tmm, a giant, i]'6\uxt, a fetter : in adjectives, 
as bjartr bright, but birti brightness ; sjalfr, self; jafn, even ; gjam, 
willing (and girni) ; snjallr and siiilli ; fjarr,_/hr, but firr, farther, and 
firrask, /o rti/o/rf, whence fjar-ski, q. v. ; sjMan, seldom ; fjol, Germ. 
viel, whence fjoldi, mtdtitude. gs^ These must be distinguished from 
such words as fjandi, qs. fi-andi, a fiend ; sjandi, seeing, qs. si-andi ; 
or in trjd, arborum; r}iiT,pecoris; — in all of which the^w is produced 
by contraction ; as also from 70 oipi, in bj63a, Ijos, and similar words. 

Tbe Complex and Heterogeneous Fonvel Changes. 

Absorption and Contraction. A consonant is sometimes 
absorbed by a preceding vowel, which then becomes long or diph- 
thongal : 1. absorption of nasals, o. the inflexive -n in the 
weak nouns and infinitives of verbs has been absorbed, but as all Icel. 
inflexions (of cases and tenses) have short vowels, the end syllable has 
not in this case become long, and the n has simply been dropped, leav- 
ing at first a nasal sound, which afterwards disappeared : similar is the 
contraction in the negative suffix (see p. xxvi). p. in roots, the 
Scandinavian tongue commonly contracts the particles an-, in-, un-, 
siH- {semper) into d, l, il (or d), ci ; J)a, Engl, then; mi. Germ, nun : — in 
sundry other words, esp. before s, e.g.os-s = Germ.M«s; ks-s, deus; bas-s, 
a byre; gki,agoose;, love {for ans, bans, gatts, etc.) ; fm-s, willing, 
from funs ; r4s, course, from renna, to run : vetr, winter : assimilation 
has taken place in the preterite forms, as batt bound, vatt wound, hratt 
pushed, qs. bandt, vandt, hrandt ; even ng, as in ceri, an obsolete form 
for yngri, younger (qs. ongri) ; hestr, a horse, prob. = hengistr, Dan. 
hingst ; in provinc. Dan. it is still pronounced as diphthong ^e/s/. 2. 
absorption of gutturals before /; here also the / is doubled and the vowel 
made long (by assimilation as well as absorption) in many words, e. g. 
do-ttir, a daughter, Goth, danhtar ; no-tt, night; s6-tt, sickness, cp. 
s]uk-T, sick ; (i-tta., octo, eight ; dro-tt (q. v.) ; \i6-tii, thought ; s6-tti, 
sought ({)ykkja, soekja) ; sk-tt,, peace (cp. sikn) ; dra-ttr, draught; 
slk-ttT, stroke ; mk-ttr, might; ha-ttr, »Jorfc ; xd-iix, right; sU-ilr, slight; 
6-tti, fright ; i\6-tt\, flight ; J)e-ttr and |)jokkr, tight; fre-tta and 
fregna, to ask ; vae-ttr, wight. Germ, wicht ; nita, to deny, cp. Germ. 
nicbt ; vx-tt, weight ; h\a,-tT, laughter ; slktrz., to slaughter, etc.: even 
before 6 in the feminine inflexion -ud, qs. hug&. p. at the 
end of a syllable ; na-r, a corpse, Goth, nahs, cp. Lat. nec-s, = Gr. 
viKvs; i-A-T,!,^^ paucus, Goth, fahs; {e, Goth, faihu, La.t. pecu ; n6, 
Lat. nee, ne-que; fio, though. Germ, doch ; my, a gnat, cp. Germ. 
mucke; lj6-s and Ijo-nii, light; |)j6, thigh: the strong verbal forms, 
infin., s\k, Germ, schlagen ; iik,Jlay ; \>vk, to ivash, qs. slag, flag, {)vag : 
the pret. and pres. forms, a, ought; ma, might; kna, can, from eiga, 
mega ; as also slae and slo, hlse and hl6, laugh ; va, from vega ; la, from 
liggja ; spa, to spae, but spakr, wise, cp. Lat. -spicio ; J)a, from piggja ; 
fra, from fregna ; hjo, from htiggva ; bjo and byggja ; truaan-i tiyggja ; 
triir, true, and tryggr, trusty ; Freyja and Frigg. The Scandinavian 
languages have rejected all guttural sounds, and even in writing the 
contraction is not marked, the change having taken place long before 
writing began ; whereas in Engl., although the same phonetic change 
has taken place, the old Saxon spelling is still kept, because the change 
was of much later date (15th century?), when the old sound was fixed 
in writing : but the Icel. spelling accords better with the sound. 3. 
absorption of dentals ; only in a few cases, as nal, needle, Goth, napal; 
v41, misery, A. S. vddl = begging or ambitus; hvarr {uter), from 
hvaSarr (cp. Engl, whether); hvart, whether; £j6-rir, an older form is 
preserved in the old Swed. county-name FjaQrundaland, the Fourth 
land, cp. Lat. qtiatitor : Gormr is contr. from Go6-ormr (Guthrum of 
the A. S. Chronicle) ; Hrolfr, Ralph, from Hro5ulfr, Rudolph. 4. 
absorption of the semi-consonant v and the hke, as ny-r new, stil sotd, 
Goth, savila ; and contr. in forms such as mey, maid, for mavi, 
whence Goth. mavila = mcy-la-girl; ey, for avi ; hey, hay, for havi, 
and many other words. 5. in Icel. (as in Latin) all monosyllables 
ending in a vowel are long, therefore even the names of the letters of 
the alphabet are sounded so, («, be, ce, not a, be, ce.) 

The Ablaut, or Variation of Vo'welB, as Jacob Grimm calls it. 
This variation is chiefly found in the strong verbs, esp. in the pret. tense ; 
but also in nouns and adjectives : I. in those root words whose 

strong verbs still exist, e. g. liS, troops, and leift, n way; rid, trembling, and 
Ttib, riding ; sni6 and siieiS, as//cf ; grip and grcip, q. v. ; dn{,splafh, 
and dre'il, spray ; ivif,tjirn,zndsvei{,ahelm; klif and kleif, ac/?^; ris, 
rising, and reisa, to raise ; rit, a writ, and reitr, beds, a square ; bit, a bit, 
and beit, bite, grazing; lit, a look, and leiti, a bill in tbe horizon ; blik. 

blink, and hlcikr, pale ; vik, a nook, and vik, an inlet; ro3i, ruddiness, 
inubr, red, zndi]6bT, ruddy ; Gotland Gautr, q. v.; not, nautn, wse, and 
n]6tT,amate; klofi, a cleft, andkhui, a clove; rof and rauf, an//",- rok, 
splash, and reykr (rauk), reek; flog and fiaug, flight ; sopi and saup, a 
sip; grof (graf-), a grave, and grof, a ditch; hla8 and hl66, a structure; 
gal, crowing, and gtSl, howling ; drep, a stroke, and drap, slaying ; eta, 
a manger, and at, eating; geta and gat, getting; set and sat, a seat; 
skeri, a cutter, and skari, a swathe, etc. II. in roots where 

the verb is either lost, or only found in the cognate languages or 
dialects (Goth., A. S., Engl.), the vowels a, 6, ce vary, hani, a cock, 
and hcena (hon), a hen ; ein-man, solitude, and mcena, Lat. im-minere; 
bati and bot, bettering ; dagr and doegr (dog), a day ; dalr and doeld, 
a dale ; hagr and hoegr, easy ; skaSi and skce&r (sk65), scathe; net 
and not, a net; kaf and kof, choking ; sok (sak), sake, and soekja 
(sok), to seek; kraki, a twig, and krokr, a crook; haki, a hook, 
hcekja, a crutch, and haka, a chin; sama and soema (somi), to beseem : — 
irreg. variation of o, au, do3i, torpor, and dau3r, death ; dofi, numbness, 
and daufr, deaf; fro3a and hzubr, froth ; sno3inn, shorn, and snau3r, 
poor ; baugr, a ring, bogi, a bow, and bjiigr, crooked; bloti and blautr, 
wet; losa, to loosett, and lauss, loose; lofa and leyfa (lauf), to praise ; 
togi and taug, a string ; glufa and gljufr, a chasm; guma and geyma 
(gaum), to heed; tamr, tame, and taumr, a bridle; gap, gap, and 
gaupn, q. V. : — i, ei vary, hiti, heat, and heitr, hot; digna and deigr, 
wet; sviti and sveiti, sweat; fita and ie\t\, fatness ; sill and sell, a 
string ; gil and geil, a chasm, etc. III. in many cases there is 

only one derived form, e.g. da (from deyja), a swoon; t)aga (from 
J)iggja), acceptance ; nam (from nema), seizing ; kvama (from koma), 
coming ; rei3r (from vri3a), wroth, prop, wry, distorted. It is worth 
noticing that the intermediate classes of the strong verbs (the 2nd to 
the 5th) gave rise to most words and forms, whereas in the 6th no nouns 
were formed from the preterite, very few in the ist class : — for spuni 
{spinning), bruni {burning), runi, sultr, fundr, sprunga, stunga, drykkr, 
band, hjalp {help), hvarf — nouns related to the 1st class — are partly 
irregular and not directly formed from the verb ; and faldr (a fold), 
hald, fall, bland, gangr, hangi, fang, ra,3, blastr, gralr, lat, heit, leikr, 
blot, auki, ansa, hlaup, bii, hogg — nouns related to the 6th class — seem 
to be formed, not from the pret., but from the infinitive. Many words 
throughout the language indicate ablaut and lost verbs, e. g. brei9-r, 
broad; hvitr, white; hvQ\t\, ivh eat ; deili, distinction ; hrtinn, pure ; 
heinn, straight ; leifa = Gr. AetTrtu (lifa, leif ) ; draumr, at/ream; naumr, 
tight, etc. etc. But great caution is needed here ; the form of a word 
is not sufficient to prove etymology, and in many cases the likeness is 
only apparent; thus gnaga {to gnaw) and gnogr {enough), or bak 
(back) and bok (a book) are not related, though skaSi and skce3r are. 
In respect to umlaut the mere form of the word is in most cases con- 
clusive ; but the ablaut, in many cases, requires examination, although 
hundreds of words may still be explained by it. 

^* It is interesting to compare the Latin irregular verbs with the 
strong Teutonic verbs, especially those which are etymologically 
related ; the pret. and pres. sing., Icel. and Lat., are the best tenses 
for comparison : a. pres., Icel. et and edo, sit and sedeo, les and 

lego, kem and venio, fel and se-pelio, hef and -cipio, ber and pario, 
ek and ago, mel and molo, ve5 and vddo, dreg and traho, veg and 
veho, stend and sto. p. pret., at and edi, satu and sedi, lasu and 
legi, kvamu and veni, falu and se-peli, hof and cepi, baru and peperi, 
ok and egi, mol and molui, 63 and va-si, drog and traxi (trah-si), 
vog and vexi (veh-si), stob and steti. y. Latin words with inserted 
m, n may be compared with the Icel. 2nd and 3rd classes, which are 
only two branches of the same kind of words ; the i and the inserted _;' 
in Icel. are a kind of equivalent to the inserted m, n in Latin ; thus 
Icel. brjota braut and Lat. frango fregi, rjufa rauf and rumpo rupi, 
miga meig and mingo minxi, sni3a snei3 and scindo scidi, J)j6ta J)aut 
and tundo tutiidi, strjiika strauk and stringo strinxi, bita beit and 
findo fidi : weak forms, sleikja and lingo, leifa and linquo, auka 
jok and jungo junxi ; cp. also Goth, tiuhan tauh. Germ, ziehen zog, 
and Lat. dnco duxi {duc-si) ; Icel. tja {to say) and Lat. dicere, and 
many others. 

In the Gothic the preterite is almost like the Icel., thus (compared 
with table, p. xxii), Goth, brinnan, brann, brunnum; biudan, baup, 
buptim; reisan, rais, risum ; faran, for, forum ; giban, gab, gebum 
(Goth, e answers to Icel. a) : in case of reduplication the same vowel 
is not repeated, but changed for the sake of euphony, thus gretan, 
gaigrdt ; hlaupan, hlaihlaup (not gregret or hlaublaup) ; this accounts 
tor the fact that the ablaut is heterogeneous, viz. does not change a 
into «, n into Jt, etc., as in simple absorption (see above), but into a 
different kind of vowel, e. g. fara, for ; geta, gatu ; bj65a, bau3, bu3u ; 
falla, fell, etc. This, as well as a comparison with the Latin and 
Greek irregular verbs, seems to shew that the strong verbs in the 
Teutonic languages are akin to the irregular and reduplicated in Latin ' 
and Greek, although in a contracted form. The characteristic of 
weak verbs is the formation of the preterite by inserting an auxiliary 




rerb between the root and inflexion, heyr-8-a (hear-d-I) ; the cha- 
acteristic of strong verbs is the formation of the preterite by redu- 
plication, which in most cases remains only in a contracted form, 
rhere seems to be no other way of forming the preterite. In Gothic, 
DUt of about 130 strong verbs, about 26 are still reduplicated, chiefly 
belonging to the 6th class ; some few of the others, e. g. taka, to take, 
ire reduplicated in Gothic. 

(tu" The classes have here been arranged simply according to the 
lumber of words in each; they might have been arranged as fol- 
ows: a. those in which the long vowel remains through both 
lumbers (the 4th and 6th classes). p. those in which it remains 
inly in one number, that one being short (the 2nd, 3rd, and 5th). y. 
those in which it is short in both numbers (the 1st class). That in 
the 5th class the long vowel originally belonged to both sing, and 
plur. is shewn by eta, pret. sing, at ; the short vowel in one or both 
lumbers of the preterite is probably a corruption, though old, as it 
!s so even in the Gothic. The ablaut belongs to the earliest stage of 
the language, and the long vowels thus formed are far more ancient 
than those caused by simple absorption ; centuries must have elapsed 
between the formation, for instance, of the d in kt or sat and in ass or 
itta, and long afterwards there was a distinction in the pronunciation, 
the former being pure long vowels, whereas the latter retained a nasal 
Dr guttural sound from the absorbed consonant. For the nasals see 
Lyngbye in Tidskrift for Philol., Copenhagen, vol. ii. 

In a few cases the Icel. has a long vowel, which is merely due to 
phonetic causes : I. a, 0, and u are sounded and spelt long 

jefore the double consonants If, Ik, Im, Ip, thus kalf-r, a calf; half-r, 
half; sjalf-r, self; salm-r, a psalm ; halm-r, halm or straw ; malm-r 
^Dan. and Swed. malm), metal ; lilf-r, a wolf; hjalpa, to help ; skjalfa, 
'0 shudder; alpt, a swan; golf, a floor ; tolf, twelve; alka, an auk; 
salkr, a halk ; ik\\d, a falcon ; folk, /o/i; m.]6\k, milk ; galgi, ^Z;e 
vallows; bolga, olga, etc.; so also hals, qs. hals, a neck; frjals, qs. 
TJals,_/ree. The true pronunciation only remains in skalf, skulfu, not 
ikalf, skulfu. This was in fact the first step towards absorption of 
the I as in other languages (e. g. Engl, auk, baum), but in Icel. it re- 
Tiained incomplete. In popular Norse the old simple vowels are still 
sounded (Ivar Aasen) as well as in modern Danish and Swedish, which 
shews that this change is purely Icel. and must have taken place 
ifter the separation from Norway ; yet it is old, as we see from old 
MSS., Ann. Reg. of the end of the 13th century, that at that time 
the present pronunciation was in use ; hardly any other MSS. distin- 
guish between short and long vowels. II. in ing, ung, which 
ire spelt and pronounced with a long vowel instead of a short, ing, 
ung. In this Dictionary the long vowels a and u are kept in the former 
:ase (alfr, 41mr, halmr), but in the latter case always the short, ing, ung, 
tunga, not tiinga ; angi, not angi ; as also lengi, not leingi. $^ Again, 
in a few instances a long vowel has passed into a short, viz. in the 
possessive pronoun minn {)inn sinn, neuter mitt J)itt sitt, which the 
indents wrote and pronounced minn ^inn sinn, mitt pitt sitt, cp. the 
Goth, meins, Germ, mein, etc. ; even in MSS., as the Fb. (14th cen- 
tury latter part), we find mijtt, i. e. mitt : the word illr, evil, ill, is 
usually spelt so, but is still frequently pronounced illr, illt, which is the 
true form, the long vowel being due to the contraction, cp. Germ. 
ubel, Eng\. evil ; (Icel. say mer er ilt, not illt) : drottinn, drottning, and 
drottna, instead of drottinn, drottning, and drottna ; gott for gott ; 
[the Ann. Reg. spells drottning.) The distinction (by an acute) be- 
tween a long and short vowel was a century ago resumed in Icel. 
printed books, so as to follow the present pronunciation ; and since 
etymology and comparison with foreign languages support this prac- 
tice, with the few exceptions now mentioned, it has been retained in 
modern Editions as well as in modern writing. p. the syllable 
vd is in modern usage throughout changed into vo, sva svo, tva tvo, 
vatr votr, van von, vapn vopn, etc., but the vowel change remains as 
before, e. g. vaeta wetness, vsenta to expect, etc. ; hanum (him) is 
changed into honum : ve sometimes changes into u or y, Sigur3r = 
SigvarSr, dogurSr and dagver5r, yrkja from verk : or into ce, Svenskr 
and Soenskr, Swedish; koemi and kvaemi, veniret; scefi and svaefi, 
dormiret, etc. : this and other less important vowel changes are noticed 
in the Dictionary, especially in the introduction to each letter. 

Formation by <way of Inflexions. 

Words are either formed from verbs or from nouns or roots. 

A. From verbs: I. from the ist weak conjugation 

feminines are formed by adding -« to the infinitive, bo8a-n, announce- 
ment; skipa-n, order; hugga-n, comfort; skapa-n, creation; i&ra-n, 
repentance; h.e\ga.-n, hallowing ; vitTi-ti, vision ; hrndTH-n, hindrance ; 
talma-n, irf. ; jiita-n, confession ;' neita-n, denial ; hugsa.-n, thinking ; 
hegba-n, conduct ; h\ess3.-n, blessing ; bolvz-n, cursing ; undra-n, admir- 
ation ; eh-n, doubting ; i']ij\g3i-n, multiplication ; \ifgz-n, calling to life ; 
ho\dgn-a, incarnation; zth-n, opinion; pr4dika-n, a sermon ; prenta-n. 

printing ; menta-n, breeding ; tapa-n, perdition ; kalla-n, vocation ; 
vara-n, admonition ; sva.h-n, refreshing ; \2ngi-n, desire ; hreinsa-n, 
purification ; saurga-n, pollution ; byrja-n, beginning ; dy'rka-n, v/or- 
ship; hcUi-n, bettering ; lotm-n, rotting, decomposition; visna-n and 
{6\nz-n, withering ; hnigna-n, decay; una-n, c*arm (4th conjugation), 
etc. (^- In mod. usage the -an is often changed into -un, thus kollun 
and kalian, i8run and i8ran, byrjun and byrjan, the later form being even 
the more usual. This change freq. occurs even in very old MSS., e. g, 
skemton, Mork. 72, 168; etlon, dmse, 10, 34; vingon, friendship, 
166,178; eptir-leiton, see^m^, i68; flimton, rm/mg-, 28. II. 

from the 2nd weak conjugation feminines are formed in -ing, which 
is added to the root, doem-ing, judgment, damnation ; fylk-ing, a 
rank or host; \eys-ing, loosening ; l:enn-ing, doctrine ; lik-ing, /«*e- 
ness, parable ; virfl-ing, esteem ; hegn-ing and hirt-ing, chastisement ; 
birt-ing, brightening, publication; J)ekk-ing, knowledge; Iseg-ing, 
humiliation ; melt-ing, digestion ; send-ing, despatch ; legg-ing, lay- 
ing ; heist-mg, temptation ; {yW-hig, fulfilment ; hygg-ing, building ,' 
rign-ing, pouring -with rain; foea-ing, birth; laer-ing, teaching; 
soem-ing, beseeming; groeS-ing, healing; upp-froe9-ing, information; 
tsel-ing and ginn-ing, deception ; a8greiii-ing, distinction ; menn-ing, 
manliness; hring-ing, pealing; deil-ing, division; beyg-ing and 
bntig-ing, injlexion ; hend-ing, beckoning ; lend-'mg, alighting ; end- 
ing, finishing ; gevb-ing, hedging ; eld-ing, lighting; dn-ing, fulfil- 
ment ; J)reyng-ing, pressing ; and a great many others : a few, as kerl- 
ing a carling, J)renn-ing trinity, ein-ing unity, are formed from nouns, 
as are also the masculines in -ingr ; Isekn-ing, healing, from laekna, 
a&, is irregular or refers to a lost strong verb. ^^ The feminines 
in -an and -ing are counted by hundreds. III. from the 3rd 

weak conjugation and from the strong verbs, feminines are formed in 
-ning : — from the 3rd weak, gla8-ning, gladdening ; kva5-ning, greet- 
ing; szh-mng, filling ; \ai-nmg, entanglement ; hxzk-nmg, tossing ; 
vak-ning, awakening ; tal-ning, counting ; sam-ning, agreement ; tam- 
ning, taming; ar-ning, tilling; far-ning, passage; var-ning, ware; 
hvAi-mng, exhortation ; set-ning, a position, thesis; \zg-n\ng, laying 
down; s^\\-n\ng, understanding , discerning ; Tub-nmg, clearing ; stub- 
ning, upholding ; smm-ning, smearing, anointing; $pm-nmg, speering, 
asking ; flut-ning, carrying ; a-ning, baiting (seja), etc. p. from the 
strong verbs, rit-ning, writing ; lot-ning, ' lonting,' veneration (liita) ; 
get-ning, begetting ; kos-ning, election ; so5-ning, cooking ; les-ning, 
gleaning; rkb-ning, rebuke {T&bz) ; frk-drag-n'mg, subtraction ; upp- 
al-ning, breeding; hlut-tek-uing, partaking ; haf-ning, elevation (hefja); 
upp-stig-ning, ascension (stiga) ; snii-ning, turning (sniia) ; mi-ning, 
rubbing (gniia) : bii-ningr, dress (biia), is masc. : gor-ning, a deed (gora), 
shews that this word has had a strong inflexion : j4t-ning, confession 
(jata, tt), is irregular from the 3rd weak conjugation : drott-ning, a 
7nistress, a qneen, is formed from drottinn, a lord, ^j- This « is 
undoubtedly a remnant of the part. pass. In the case of the 3rd 
weak conjugation, this formation is an evidence that the participles 
in -inn were of early growth ; it is curious that feminines in -ning 
were formed even from verbs in which that participle is not used, e. g. 
gla6-ning, from gle6ja, see p. xxiv. Some of the above words are 
in modern usage also masculine, e. g. barning and barningr, skilning 
and skilningr, gorning and gorningr ; but the feminine is older and 
more correct. 2. a few masculines in -na6r are also formed 

from the same verbs, e. g. J)rif--na8r, thrift ({)rifa) ; snu-na5r, profit 
(smia) ; bii-naSr, husbandry (biia) ; met-na8r, ambition (meta) ; 
get-naSr, begetting (geta) ; skap-na8r, siS-a/ie (skapa); skil-nafir, de- 
parting (skilja) : from other verbs, her-na3r, harrying, freebooting 
(herja) ; as also kost-naSr, cost (kosta) ; spar-na6r, saving (spara) ; 
tru-na8r, <n«if (trua) ; te-na8r, M/i (toeja) ; fe-nabr, cattle ; dug-na8r, 
energy (duga) ; lif-na8r, living (lifa) : una8r, delight (una) ; verk-na8r, 
working {yrk]a.} ; {6gn-ubT,joy ; ]o(n-ubT, equity ; hagn-zbr, comfort ; 
sokn-u8r, sorrow (for a lost thing) ; s6fn-u3r, congregation ; v6rn-u8r, 
caution ; arn-a8r, intercession ; |)j6f-na3r, theft ; (m4n-u8r, a month, is 
different.) ^f Altogether different are the old words, hol-8r a hero, from- 
u8r a promoter, grondu8r a destroyer; mj6t-u8r, A. S. meotod — ruler ; 
these words are very few, mostly poetical, and are used in an active 
sense, (see Grimm's Gr.iii. 241.) IV. feminines in -sla are formed 

from the 2nd weak conjugation, skir-sla, ordeal; geym-sla, keeping ; 
fce8-sla,/ooc?; kenn-sh, teaching; frceb-sh, information; eyb-s\a, spend- 
ing ; vig-sla, inauguration ; veyn-sla., experience ; gxt-sh, guardiftg, 
keeping; gre'ib-sVi, payme7it ; veit-sla, banquet; hrxb-sla, fright; foer- 
sh, shifting; neyt-sh, taking food ; boen-heyr-sla, ^ra«/; rei8-sla, lei8- 
sla, her3-sla, hir8-sla, etc. ; often spelt with z, veizla, etc. V. 

the monosyllabic feminines in -n are chiefly formed from the roots of 
verbs, not from the infinitive ; heyr-n, bearing ; spur-n, speering, news; 
skir-n, baptism ; eig-n, owning, possession ; s6g-n, a saw, saying, tale ; 
'^og-n, silence ; vor-n, defence ; stj6r-n, sway ; s6k-n, prosecution ; fys-n, 
desire; aub-n, voidness ; Kr-n, offerings ; heg-n, news; ib-n, activity ; 
n]6s-n, espying ; lans-n,freedom ; lam-n, liberality ; gaup-n, a gowpen ; 
s]6-n and sj-n, sight; ^]k-n, oppression; smk-n,disgrace ; bos-ti, begging ; 



lik-n, healing, mercy; og-n, awe, etc., but not very many; a few 
are from adjectives, as feik-n immensity, tig-n lordship, from feikinn 
immense, tiginn lordly : au5-na luck, stjar-na a star. VI. mascu- 

lines in -dr {-tr) : 1. with a radical r; al-dr, age (ala) ; gal-dr, 

spell (gala); hjal-dr, sound, battle (hjala) ; hh'i-tr, laughter; la-tr, 
litter (liggja) ; ar-Sr, a plough (erja) ; gr6-&r, growth (groa) ; r6-6r, 
rowing (roa) ; les-tr, gleaning, reading (lesa). 2. with in- 

flexive r; stul-8r, the/t {steh) ; bur-8r, birth (herz) ; skur-6r, a cut 
(skera) ; vor-5r, a warder (verja) ; J)ur-6r, wane (f)verra) ; griif-tr, 
digging, burial (grafa) ; vox-tr, growth (vaxa) ; fnn-di, Jinding ; kos-tr, 
ciose (kjosa) ; md-ttv, might ; J)va-ttr, n wash; dra-ttr, a draught; 
sla-ttr (cp. Engl, slaughter), mowing; ha-ttr, mode (haga) ; snii-Sr 
(snui), a twirl; hla.s-U, a blast : 6-tii, awe (og) ; fio-ni, /light {Ry']a) ; 
f)6-tti, conceit (J)ykkja) ; skjalf-ti, trembling: cp. also kul-5i, cold; 
fj61-3i, multitude; van-8i, custom; — which however are not formed 
from verbs. VII. in -st, -sir, masc, fem., and neut. ; bak-str, 

baking; rak-str, raking; rek-str, a drove; J)or-sti, thirst (purr); 
trau-st, trust (from triia) ; fre-st, delay (from firra) ; ri-st, step, cp. Engl. 
wrist; and rei-str, a serpent, poijt. (from vri3a, to writhe) ; ba-st (from 
binda) ; flau-st (from fljota), etc. 
B. From nouns and roots. 
Masculines : I. with inflexive n, r, I, 1. in -inn, 

'Unn, a few words; zpt-a.nn, evening ; jot-unn, a giant; him-inn, heaven; 
drott-inn, a /orrf; morg-inn, worww^; ar-inn, hearth : in pr. names, 
03-inn, Jjra-inn, etc.; Au3-unn. 2. in -7trr,-arr; i}6t-nrT, a fetter; 

Y\b-MrT, wood-grouse; jof-urr, cp. Germ.cier; tcit-urr, /«//«rs ; kog-urr 
and kong-urr, texture; ja3-arr, a rim; ham-arr, a hammer; hum-arr, 
a lobster ; nzi-Tur, a gimlet ; goll-urr, q. v.; gag-arr, q. v. ; sum-arr, sww- (obsolete as inasc.) : in pr. names, Hjalm-arr, Ein-arr, B63v-arr, 
Stein-arr, Ott-arr, Gunn-arr, Iv-arr, Agn-arr, Yngv-arr, Ragn-arr, Giz- 
urr, Vi5-arr, Ulf-arr, etc. are of a different kind, viz. the latter part = 
-bari or -here or -hard, thus Gunnzn = Gundehere ; EmaLir =Einhard. 
^T The pr. names in -an are chiefly of Gaelic origin, thus Bek-an, 
Kjart-an, Kalm-an, Kvar-an, Hnok-an, Kjar-an, Ky'l-an, Feil-an, 
Bjol-an, Duf-an, Ko3r-an, Kamb-an, Lun-an, Trost-an, etc., see 
Landn. 3. in -ull, -ill; jok-ull, an icicle; kogg-ull, articulus ; 

Tod-\i\\,anedge; s6b-n\\, a saddle ; mond-u\l,axle-tree; skok-ull,as^q/I?; 
J)(3ng-ull, a stalk of seaweed ; ong-ull, a hook ; ri3-ull, a detachment of 
troops; bit-ull, a mouth-piece ; tig-ull, a brick, a square; seg-ull, a 
magnet; stop-ull, a steeple; fer-ill, a track ; snig-ill, a snail ; lyk-ill, 
n key; J)ist-ill, thistle; {\{-\\\, dandelion ; bi3-ill, a wooer; ket-ill, a 
kettle; re(-\\\, tapestry ; hnyk-ill, a c/fw; skut-ill, a iar^oo?J ; dras-ill, 
a charger, horse; heh-i\l, a herb ; smyr-iU, a hawk; dep-ill, a Wo/; hef-ill, 
brails; hviri-\\\, the crown of the head : ioxc\g\\,tng-i\\, an angel; kynd- 
ill, a candle. 5i>" Many of these were originally diminutives, but 
most of them have lost that sense, as jcikull from jaki. p. in -all; 
ka3-all, a chain; va3-all, shallow water ; kap-all, a horse. II. 

a few diminutives in -lingr ; ket-lingr, a kitten; ki3-lingr, a kidling ; 
yrm-lingr, L^t. vermicula; boek-lingr, Lzt. libellns ; ung-lingr, ay ou?ig- 
ling, youth. HI. in -tmgr a.nd -ingr, -lingr : 1. patronymic 

in plur. ; Nifl-ungar, Germ. Niebelung ; Vcils-ungar, Skjcild-ungar, 
Skan-ungar, Kufl-ungar ; Gy6-ingar, j'ews ; Yng-lingar, Knyt-lingar: in 
-/en</j>/^r,Grcen-lendingar,etc.: in -^/fro/n^ar, Vest-fir3ingar; Vik-ingar, 
Vikings, etc. 2. in many potit. words ; siklingr, o91ingi , an ethel- 

ing; mildingr; hildingr: in pr. names, ErI-ingr, Haer-ingr, etc. 3. 

other words; kon-ungr, a king ; sit"]-ungi, a kins7nan {po'6t.) ; broe3r- 
ungr and systr-ungr, a cousin ; na-ungr, a neighbour (eccl.) ; helm-ingr, 
a half; fj6ra-ungr, the fourth part, a farthing ; fimt-ungr, the fifth part ; 
sctt-ungr, the sixth part ; att-ungr, the eighth part ; vetr-ungr and geml- 
ingr, a yearling ; hofr-ungr, a dolphin ; old-ungr, an elder ; bun-ingr, 
dress; giirn-iugr, a deed ; skiifn-ungT, a shin-bone ; gdr-ungr, a jester ; 
spek-ingr, a philosopher ; vitr-ingr, a wise man ; J)uml-ungr, an inch ; 
graft-ungr, a bull: of boats, sexoer-ingr, six-oared; attoer-ingr, eight- 
oared; ttincKi-ingr, ten-oared; hyrb-ingr, a ship of burden. IV. 
in -ingi; hofb-ingi, a captain ; xit-ingi, a kinsman ; heib-ingi, a heathen ; 
ha.nd-ingi, a prisoner ; fceb-ingi, a native ; \eys-ingi,a free man; raen- 
ingi, a robber; morS-ingi, a tnurderer ; let-ingi, a lazy man; aum- 
ingi, a poor ivretch ; ccr-iugi, a springal ; f,x,\-ingi, an epicurean ; Skr«l- 
ingi, an Esquimaux ; kunn-ingi, a friend ; loem-ingi, a 6/rrf. V. 
in -undr; hiif-undT, an author ; vol-undr, q. v. ; vis-undr, a 6«son : in 
-u«/ (obsolete), arf-uni, an heir; sif-uni, Goih. siponeis, a disciple; 
beim-uni, etc.. Lex. Poet. VI. in -ari, especially words such as 
dom-ari, a doomster, judge ; les-ari, a reader; skrif-ari, rit-ari, a writer ; 
iki^-zii, creator ; skiT-zri, baptist ; gjzf-mi, giver ; giceb-zri, healer ; 
La\xsn-ari,Vte\s-an, Redeemer ; Kcis-avi, Kaiser ; miit-ari (poet.) ; vart- 
ari; ridd-ari, a ^;n^'Z)/; staW-ari, stabularius ; kvaUzvi, tormenter : — 
there are few of these words in old writers, but they have increased, 
especially in nouns denoting business, leik-ari, a jester ; sko-ari, a shoe- 
maker; vef-ari, a weaver; preiit-ari, a printer; songv-ari, a singer, 
musician ; skinn-ari, sut-ari, bak-ari, fi61-ari, J)6f-ari, hatt-ari ; roea-ari, 
on oarsman, — some of which occur in olden times : foreign, kjall-ari, 

a cellar; salt-ari, a psalter: in ^ali, -U, a few words, a6i-li ; rang-ali, a 
lobby; ikzxk-d.\i, tumtdt ; Uf-ali, trouble ; sz(-z]i, a sable ; kast-ali, 
a castle : in -aldi, glop-aldi, digr-aldi, Tas-aldi, J)umb-aldi, leggj-aldi, 
him-aldi, ribb-aldi, a very few words. VII. in -andi, active 

participles; veg-andi, a slayer ; bu-andi or bon-di (hiis-bo-ndi, Engl. 
husband); f]a-ndi, a/oe; hx-ndi, a kinsman ; and numberless parti- 
ciples when used as substantives, e.g. grat-andi, weeper; eig-andi, 
owner; fagn-endr, heyr-andi, etc. VIII. in -sz; vzn-si, dis- 

grace; of-si, passion ; gzl-si, gaiety. 

Feminines : I. in -d, -6, or -/, formed chiefly from adjec- 

tives, and feminine also in cognate languages (e. g. old Germ, -ida) ; a 
vowel change takes place wherever the root vowel is changeable ; the 
d, d, and t are phonetical changes depending on the final letter. In this 
way a great many feminines (more than a hundred) are formed, hse-ft, 
height; dyp-b, depth ; vid-d, width; hrcid-d, breadth ; hng-d, length ; 
fae-d, fewness; mcrg-3, multitude; stcer-6, size; t)yk-t, thickness; 
'^yng-d, heaviness ; eif-b, inheritance ; grim-d, ferocity ; heW-d, whole- 
ness ; helf-t, a half; deil-d, a share; grein-d, distinction; frem-d, 
q. V. ; scem-d, hotiour ; eilif-6, eternity; try g-b, fidelity ; hryg-3, 
sorrow; sek-t, guilt; spek-t, wisdom; nek-t, tiakedness; hefn-d, 
revenge; nefn-d, a committee; vern-d, protection ; gren-d, vicinity ; 
vi\-d, willingness ; girn-d, desire ; did-b, daring ; dyt-b, glory ; \yg-b, 
a lie; kyi-b,calmfiess; hvil-d,re5/; rcyn-d, experience ; ^ym-d, misery ; 
deyf-8, numbness; leyn-d, secrecy; hxg-b, fame ; gnoeg-3, wealth; 
hceg-&, ease ; V9eg-6, mercy ; m£eg-6, affinity ; vinsael-d, popularity ; 
vaen-d, expectation; fegr-5, beauty; megr-3, meagreness; feig-3, 
feyness; n\yk-b, i7ieekness : all in -sew-rf, skyn-sem-d, reason ; una8- 
sem-d, delight; and many others formed from nouns and adjec- 
tives indiscriminately, g^"* Of a different kind are hul-d, mystery ; 
skul-d, debt; afun-d, envy; nan-d, neighbourhood ; vis-t, abiding; fret-t, 
news; dyg-b, virtue ; gnot-t, abundatice ; s6t-t, sickness ; sxt-t, settle- 
ment : and still more nat-t, night; rod-d, voice; and similar words, 
which can be seen if compared with kindred languages (Germ., 
Saxon). II. in -ska, prop, -iska, and thus causing umlaut ; bern- 

iki, childhood ; mx\-skz, eloquence ; gce6-ska, ^race ; gxx-ski, spite ; 
g\eym-skz,forgetfulness ; iyrn-skz, age, decay ; vii-skz, wisdom; nienn- 
ska, manhoodiznd in compds, ragmenn-ska, cowardice ; karlmenn-ska, 
valorir ; gob-vatnnskdi, ge}itleness ; ill-mennska, cn/eZ/y; n-vn., sloth ; 
var-m., 7?jea««ess, etc.) ; heim-ska, /oo//sA«ess; el-ska, /ove ; il-ska and 
\a.nd-sk?i, evil passioji ; cer-ska, youth ; fifl-ska,/o//y ; dxl-skz, liberty ; 
ti6-ska and ly6-ska, usage, custom ; koen-ska, craft : in names of people 
or their tongues. En-ska, English; Scen-ska, Swedish; Grik-ska, 
Greek ; Ir-ska, Irish : irreg. and without umlaut, in Val-ska, Welsh ; 
Dan-ska, Danish; and mod. as in Ital-ska, Italian; Span-ska, 
Spanish: in -eskja or -neskja, inserting «, forn-eskja, antiquity; 
vitn-eskja, knowledge; flat-neskja, Jlaf land, plain, level ; mann- 
eskja, a man (mod.) ; harS-neskja, harshness, harness. III. 

indecl. fem. in -/, -gi, -ni, formed from adjectives ; hixb-i anger, from 
bra3r 7^0/; mce6-i from m63r; hreyst-i iin/oi/r, from hraustr; helt-i 
lameness, from haltr lame, etc., see p. xviii. IV. in -osta 

{-usta), a few words ; orr-osta,_;?^7>/ (cp. Germ, ernsi) ; fulln-usta,/«/;f/- 
ment ; holl-usta, io^wa^e; kmm-ustz, knowledge [Germ, kunst) ; \>]6n- 
nstz, service {Gevm.dienst); {6r-ostz, headship ; unn-ustz, a spo?ise, (unn- 
usti,m. a Zorer.) V. in-o«a, afew words; vib-iitta, abroad; kunn- 

atta, knowledge; bar-atta, battle; veSr-atta, weather, temperature, (for- 
atta, q. v., is different.) VI. in -ung; hcirm-ung, vexation ; laun- 

nwg, secrecy; IzMi-ung, looseness; nzub-ung, constraint ; hiib-ung, indig- 
nity; sundr-ung, scattering; verS-ung (poet.) , king's hojisehold. VII. 
in -7t7id, a few words ; J)us-und, thousand; hor-und, Lat. C7ttis ; teg-und, 
species, kind; of-und, spite; vit-und, knowledge ; ti-und, teind, tithe; 
att-und, the eighth part, fja3r-und (obsolete) : in local names, as Sol-und, 
Borg-und {B7irgundy), Eik-und ; J)us-und and hor-und are also used as 
neut. 2. in -ynja, Lat. -ina, a very few words ; as-ynja, a goddess ; 

for-ynja, an ogre; lilf-ynja and varg-ynja, a she-wolf, bip-ina : mod. 
-i7ina, keisara-inna, is scarcely used, and is borrowed through Dan. 
from Germ, and cannot therefore be called Icel. VIII. special ; 

in -ingja, ham-ingja, hick : in -sa, heil-sa, health. IX. a kind 

of diminutive; in -la, hris-la, a little twig; hynd-la, Lat. ca/iic7ila 
(Mar. 494, v.l.) ; tvsevet-la, a ewe two years old: in -ka, stiil-ka, qs. 
staul-ka (from stauli), a girl. ^a» Diflerent are hal-ka, slippi/iess ; 
hla-ka, thaw; har-ka, hardness: as also -ga in moc3-gur, mother and 
da7ighter. 2. in a few names of mares ; Miis-ka, a 7nouse-grey mare; 
Briin-ka, Wac^; Rau&-ka, rec?; 'L]6s-kz, light : in -«a (and -«z masc), 
also of horses, Skj6-na and Skj6-ni, pie-bald; Gra-na and Gra-ni, 
grey : in -lin, cp. Germ, -lein, of cows, Hringa-lin, Randa-lin, etc. 

Neuters : I. the derivated neuters in -i (see p. xviii) ; they 

are formed from adjectives or from roots of words, as -leysi wa/it, 
from -lauss; felzuss penniless, whence feleysi ' pe)i7tilessness ;' riki might, 
kingdotn, from rikr mighty ; \yt\fa7ilt, from Ijotr ugly ; oeSi madness, 
from 69r mad; gce&i goods, from g68r good; ire\s\freedo7n, from frjals 
free ; agseti goodness, from iigaetr good. They sometimes have a coU 




active sense ; and in compounds any word may become neuter, regard- 
less of its gender when simple, e. g. -berni from barn, a bairn ; -menni 
"rem ma8r(st6r-menni,ung-menni, g63-menni,ill-menni) ; -gresi from 
^ras, (ill-gresi weeds, bl6m-gresi_/?oii'ers) ; -neyti from nautr, (foru-neyti, 
fellowship) ; al-pingi, but J)ing ; vald and veldi,/)ow/«r ; nafn and -nefni, 
1 7iame ; stafn and stefni, n stem ; band and -bendi, a string ; gar9r and 
•ger6i, a fence; bol and -boeli, a den; land and -lendi ; sa5 and sae&i, 
\eed; lund and -lyndi, temper ; or6 and -yr6i, a word; fugl and -fygli, 
% fowl ; munnr and -mynni, mouth; heisi a necktie, from hdls a 
'leck ; vaetti /esft>no«>', from vuttr a witness; hall-xri a bad season, 
famine, from ar a year; e&li and a3al, nature; — indeed any word 
may thus be changed into neuter. 2. in -endi ; eyr-endi, 

?rrand ; kvik-endi, a creature; heil-indi, health; vael-indi, gullet; 
:hiefly only in plur., zs vis-'mdi, science ; hygg-endi, good sense; sann- 
Indi, truth ; tib-indi, tidings ; Mk-'mdi, likelihood ; hlunn-endi, c«(fo«/- 
ments; dyr-endi, costly things;'mdi, injustice ; Tott-'mdi, rights ; 
\eib-'md\, tediousness ; ha.Tb-indi, a bad season ; siir-indi, sorewess; klok- 
endi, shrewdness; fri3-endi, _/?«e things: in -erni, denoting ^m, cp. 
U\{.faprein = TrdTpa and 701'fr*, breprahans = d5e\(poi, whence Engl. 
brethren, cp. also Lat. -ernitas; fa9-erni, br63-erni, m6&-erni, father- 
hood, etc. ; \ij6b-eTm, nationality (mod.) • lund-erni, te7nper ; lif-erni, 
:onduct of life ; besides sal-erni, si6-erni (q.v.): in -el si, a very few 
words, reyk-elsi, incense; fang-elsi; a prison; hrokk-elsi, a stone grig, 
is prob. different: in -ildi, fifr-ildi, a butterfly ; {)ykk-ildi, callousness : 
in -di, el-di, q. v. (ala) ; upp-el-di, educatioti : in -in, bynd-in, a sheaf; 
i\d-\n, fruit : in -///, heim-ili, home. II. in -si (-sli); brig-sl, 

rebuke; kyn-sl, prodigy ; smyx-s\, ointment ; \iyng-s\, heavi?iess ; boeg-sl, 
fins, (bogr, a bow) ; eym-sl, sore?iess; oexl (qs. cek-sl, from vaxa), excres- 
cence; skrim-sl, a monster; oer-sl, mad pranks, (oerr, mad); bei-sl, a 
bridle; J)yrm-sl, /nercy; renn-sU, a watercourse. 2. in-s«; hcen- 

in, poultry; rxk-sn, rags; fylg-sni, q. v. III. in -aZ, etc. ; 63- 

il, a feud; me3-al, medicine (mod.); a3-al, nature: in -an, gam-an, 
'<oy ; and a few other words but little used, e. g. 6-ar-an, a bad season ; 
My i]-An, poison ; 6-kt-zn, offal of food : in -in, -n, nld-in, fruit ; meg- 
in, main power; reg-in, gods; meg-n, power ; reg-n, rain; vat-n, 
water: in -gin, kb-g\n, father and daughter; syst-kin, brother and 
sister; mcE3-gin, mother and daughter: in -ad, her-a3, a county; 
hundr-a3, hundred; for-a3, q.v.; h6f-u3, a head: in -aid, kaf-ald, 
snow; fol-ald, a/oa/; ker-ald, a /«6 ; haf-ald, q. v. ; gim-ald, «« o/i«j- 
ing; eisk-ald (poet.), i&ear/; rek-ald, o htcc^ : in -ar«, is-arn (poet.), 
iron; ak-arn, an acorn; fo-arn, a crop; und-arn, afternoon: in -/, 
hos-t, frost, from frjosa: in -ang, hun-ang, honey. 

The following are to be regarded in the light of compds : I. 

masculines in -leikr and -leiki; kaer-leikr, love; sann-leikr, truth; 
heilag-leiki, holiness, (many words) : in -ddmr, -dcemi (n.), Engl, -dam. 
Germ, -thum, helgi-domr, holidom; Kristin-domr, Christendom; hei3in- 
domr, heathendom; mann-domr, manhood; laer-domr, learning; vis- 
domr, wisdom; konung-domr, kingdom; jarl-domr, earldom, etc.: 
in -skapr. Germ, -schaft, vin-skzpr, friendship; fjand-skapr, enmity; 
{6\ag-sk?ipT, fellowship ; skald-skapr, /»oe/ry ; fifl-skapr, /oZ/y; grey- 
skapr, meanness; grei3-skapr, readiness, etc. (several words) : in 
-angr, leid-angr, levy; far-angr, baggage, etc. II. feminines 

in -lid and -ydgi, contr. from hygS, cp. A. S. hygd; denoting tem- 
per, mind, 61-u3, sincerity; ill-iid, spite; var-u3, heedfidness ; ast-u3, 
love ; mann-u3, humanity ; har3-i'i3, hardness ; grimm-u3, cruelty ; 
gx\inn--^bgi, shallow mind, gullibility ; har3-y3gi, etc. : different are 
misk-unn, mercy ; vark-unn, excuse (from unna, cp. afund, envy) : in 
-semi from -samr, miskun-semi, mercy, etc. III. neuters in 

-cefi; z\ib-ce&, riches ; or-cefi, wilderness (only in plm.): in -ord, akin 
to A.S. wyrth== weird = fate, gob-orb, priesthood; met-or8, dignity; 
g]?Li-oxb, marriage; vit-orb, intelligence ; han-orb, deatbweird ; b6n-or3, 
courting; lof-ord and heit-or3, />ro7?»'se; vktt-oxb, testimony ; leg-or3, 
q. v., in many of which it is simply derived from or3 = tvord : in -IcBti, 
from adjectives in -Idtr, r^tt-laeti, righteousness ; or-lxti, liberality, etc. 
jfS" Masculines in -tfa^Z ; bar-dagi, 6a///e; ein-digi, term ; mal-dagi, a 
deed; skil-dagi, condition: feminine pr. names in -unnr,-ny, Stein- 
unnr, Ing-unn, Jjor-unn, Sae-unn, etc. ; Sig-ny, As-ny, |>6r-ny, etc. : in 
-heidr or -eidr, -ridr, Ragn-ei3r, Sig-ri3r: masculine pr. names in 
-mundr, -ndr, -dr, Gu3-mundr, |>ra-ndr, Eyv-indr, On-undr, Bar-3r 
(qs. Bar-ro3r), f)6r-3r (qs. poT-iobr), and many others. 

Adjectives. — They are either simple, as fag-r, g66-r, soet-r, or formed 
by inflexion : I. in -ligr, Engl, -ly. Germ, -lich, in mod. usage 

spelt and pronounced -ligr, counted by hundreds, a. twofold adjec- 
tives, e.g. sein-ligr (seinn, slow, and -ligr); eilif-ligr, eternal; sael-ligr 
(saell) ; grimm-ligr (grimmr), vitr-ligr, fagr-ligr, har3-ligr, fram-ligr, 
spak-ligr, fr63-ligr, kat-ligr, hag-ligr, rang-ligr, hrein-ligr, g63-ligr, feig- 
ligr,hlj63-ligr(hlj63r,s//w/),vaEn-ligr,J)ung-ligr; veik-ligr,weaWy; ung- 
ligr, heil-ligr ; min-ligr, like myself, etc. p. with a binding vowel / 
or u, most of which seem to be fcwmed from verbs ; vir3u-ligr, worthy 
(vir3a) ; matu-ligr, deserved; kostu-Iigr, costly (kosta) ; skipu-ligr, 
orderly (skipa) ; tigu-Jigr, magnificent; riku-ligr, rich, opulent; risu-ligr, 

elevated, grand ; — often in mod. usage Spelt with ug, vir8ug-ligr, rikug- 
ligr, etc. : with i, scemi-ligr, seeming (soema) ; oeski-ligr, desirable 
(oeskja) ; hse3i-ligr, ridiculous (hae8a) ; cesi-ligr, violent (oesa) ; J)segi* 
ligr, agreeable (^aegja) ; drengi-ligr, bold; senni-\igT, probable (sanna) ; 
skyndi-ligr, sudden (skynda) ; neti-ligr, eatable (eta) ; hoefi-ligr, proper 
(hoefa) ; hyggi-ligr,/>rK£/e«/(hyggja) ; skemti-ligr,amKS««^(skcmta) ; 
girni-ligr and fysi-ligr, desirable (fysa) ; glaesi-ligr, splendid (glaesa) ; 
leyni-ligr, a secret (leyna) ; heyri-ligr (heyra) ; ey8i-ligr, empty (ey8a) ; 
heppi-ligr, /j/ci^",- gxti-ligr, crtj///oi« (gaeta) ; illi-ligr, «7/-/oo/i'x«^. y. 
formed from nouns ; dyrd-ligr,^/or/ows,- And-Mgx, spiritual ; hold-ligr, 
carnal; likam-ligr, bodily; verald-ligr, worldly; Gu8-ligr, godly; 
dig-\igx, daily ; ii.x-\igx, yearly ; stund-Vigx, temporary ; sib-ligr, well- 
bred ; mznn-ligr, manly ; gxin-Vigr, lucky ; elli-ligr, rr^ecf; Jirek-ligr, 
stout; undar-ligr, wonderful; vig-ligr, martial; grdt-ligr, wailing; 
hloeg-ligr, laughable; kvenn-Iigr, womanlike; karlmann-ligr, manly; 
hof-ligr, moderate; hegom-ligr, vain: inserting s, yndis-ligr, charm- 
ing. 8. with double inflexion ; heilag-ligr, holy ; vesal-ligr, wretched; 
mikil-ligr,^ra«rf; gamal-ligr,oW-/ooA'j«o-; froekn-ligr,i'a//a«/; a3-daan- 
ligx, wonderful; ymis-ligx, various; heimol-iigx, intimate. II. par- 

ticipial adjectives : 1. as from strong verbs, a. participles of strong 
verbs, in -inn. p. participial adjectives from lost verbs ; bog-inn, 
bowed; tog-inn, stretched ; hxokk-inn, curled ; xot-inn, rotten; hok-inn, 
stooping; lo8-inn, shaggy; las-inn, dilapidated; snoO-inn, shorn; fu- 
inn, rotten; bolg-inn, bulged, swoln; lu-inn, weary ; solg-inn, gloat- 
ing, y. sundry adjectives formed from verbs with a radical n; hei8- 
inn, heathen; Kxist-inn,Christian; tig-inn, noble; feg-inn, fain; eig-inn, 
own; oix-inn, ample ; yfx-inn, id.; op-inn, open. 8. with a single m; 
jaf-n,et/e«; iox-n, old; g]zx-n, willing; ixxzk-n, valiant; syk-n, sackless ; 
grcen-n, green (from groa). €. many adjectives denoting apt, given to, 
or the like ; ib-inn, busy, sedulous ; hxb-inn, mocking ; hroes-inn, con- 
ceited; xo^b-inn, talkative; kost-gxf-inn, painstaking ; hygg-inn, prudent ; 
gxt-inn, watchful; skxyt-inn, funny ; hlyb-inn, obedient; \yg-\nn, menda- 
cious; g\cym-inn, forgetful ; skreit-inn, untruthful; hxeyt-inn, fickle, 
shifty; t'eim-inn, shy ; kim-inn, ironical ; gxett-inn,frowning ; bell-inn, 
trickifig; xyn-inn, prying ; ii6tt-inn, enguiring ; hitt-inn, hitting ; styrf- 
inn, peevish; s\ys-inn, hapless ; hepp-inn, happy, lucky ; ui-inn, rough ; 
glim-inn, a nimble wrestler ; send-inn, sandy, etc. 2. as from 

weak verbs: in -adr ; participles, tal-aSr, bo3-a3r, kall-aSr, etc.: 
participial, aldr-a3r, aged; gaml-a8r, doted; vilj-a3r, willing; bless- 
a8r, blessed ; b61v-a3r, cursed ; hug-a3r, daring ; olv-a3r, tipsy : in -Sr, 
haer-Sr, hoary; laer-Br, learned; reyn-dr, experienced; eyg-8r, eyed; 
grein-dr, clever, discerning : different is kal-dr, cold, etc. 3. parti- 

ciples in -andi ; les-andi, able to read : often in a gerundial sense, 6^61- 
andi, intolerable; ohaf-andi, unfit; over-andi ; oger-andi, impossible, 
etc. : from those in -andi come the Engl, words in -ing, d being changed 
into g. III. in -igr, -ugr, -agr ; in Goth. etc. all three forms are • 

used indiscriminately ; in Icel. the ancients prefer -igr, the modern -w^r ,• 
(-a^r remains only in heil-agr, holy, from heil-1) ; Tunb-igx, wealthy ; 
matt-igr, mighty; bl68-igr, bloody; nau8-igr, unwilling; m68-igr, 
moody; goi-Mgx, noble; bf-ugr, backward, inverse; hof-ngx, heavy; kunn- 
igx, known; J)r6tt-ugr and ofl-ugr, s/ro«^; oxb-ugx, arduus ; gra8-igr, 
greedy; vit-ugr, witty, clever; si3-ugr, well-bred; sto3-ugr, steady; 
synd-ugr, sinful; ver8-ugr, worthy; minn-ugr, mindful; skyld-ugr, 
dutiful; heipt-igr, hating; kropt-ugr, powerful; ra3-ugr, ready, 
sagacious ; slott-ugr, wily ; leir-ugr, clayey ; mold-ugr and ryk-ugr, 
dusty; snj6-ugr, snowy; hr63-ugr, exultant: in -udigr, -minded; 
gximm-ubigx, fierce, etc. 2. simple forms, mostly poet., as spar-kar, 

prophecying ; mein-gir, moaning, Lex. Poet. IV. in -ottr, O. H. G. 

-oht, A. S. -iht. Germ, -icht; denoting colour, shape, etc. ; dumb-ottr, 
dusky; sk]-6ttx, chequered; fxekn-ottx, f reckly ; xond-ottx, striped; flekk- 
ottr, q.v.; skjold-ottr ; hxdnd-6ttx, brindled; drofn-ottr, q.v.; bild-ottr, 
sokk-ottr, bles-ottr, gols-ottr, bleikal-ottr, moal-ottr, vind-ottr, etc., all of 
colour: of shape, or, as Lat.-os?«, denoting a// oi/er, covered with; knott- 
6ttr, ball-shaped ; tind-ottr, with peaks; h'dx-ottx, waved ; kringl-ottr, 
round; hnoll-ottr, boll-ottr, ball-formed; hlykkj-ottr, crooked; got-ottr, 
fill of holes, ragged; sk611-6ttr,6aW; koll-6ttr,i&w??zWe(cow); hruf-ottr, 
rugged; hny'fl-ottr, etc. ; = Lat. -osus, hrukk-ottr, rugosus; bylj-ottr, 
gusty; xe{']-6ttx, crafty ; go\dr-6ttx, a wily wizard; skei}-6ttx, full of 
skerries; gox-ottx, poisoned; kyist-6ttx, knotty ; sok-6tt, having many 
enemies, etc. etc. : — a rich harvest of such words is found in Hjaltalin's 
Icel. Botany, rendering the Lat. technical terms in -osus. V. in 

-all,-ull,-ill ; lit-i\l, little ; mik-iW, great, muckle ; gam-all, oW; ves-all, 
poor : as a kind of iterative adjective, denoting frequency or tendency, 
hverf-ull, shifty, changeable; svik-all, /a/se; gjof-ull, open-handed; 
]p3g-al\, taciturn ; spux-ull, speer if ig, curious ; stop-M, shifting ; for-ull, 
vagrant; smug-all, penetrating ; ror-ull, stumbling, tottering (of a 
horse); zt-n\\, fierce ; hvik-nU, wavering ; gong-uU and reik-all, ram- 
bling; hug-all, minding, observing; ris-ull, early rising; scig-ull, tell- 
ing tales ; svip-all, shifty ; (these words are not very numerous.) giy In 
mod. usage -z<//; J)og-ull = J)ag-all ; ot-xi\\,pert: but -a// is kept in gam- 
all, ves-all, VI. in -samr ; hof-samr, thrifty ; skyn-samr, clever. 



intelligent; feng-samr, q. V. ; lan-simr, lucky; sib-SAmr, upright, honest; 
friS-samr, peaceful ; Hkn-samr and miskun-samr, merciful ; ro-samr, 
calm; gTun-simv, suspicious; i6ju-samr, 6««y; atorku-samr, starf-samr, 
bard-working ; voikun-simi, forbearing ; rcik-samr, officious ; gaman- 
samr, merry ; ar8-samr, profitable ; and many others. VII. in 

-skr. Germ, -scb, Engl, -isb; bern-skr, childish; m«l-skr, eloquent; 
^T]6t-skT, stubborn; ni-ikr , stittgy ; bei-skr,6««er; dael-skr, eas^/; fifl-skr, 
foolish; heim-skr, 5i7/y; brei-skr, 6nVrfe; va-skr, kar-skr, hor-skr, ro- 
skr, vigorous ; {ri-skT, fresh : esp. in names of nations, Dan-skr, Danish; 
Scen-skr, Swedish ; En-skr, English ; Ir-skr, Irish ; Skot-skr, Scottish ; 
Val-skr, Welsh ; Gri-skr, Greek ; Finn-skr, Finnish ; Ger-skr, Russian ; 
Bret-skr, British (i. e. Welsh) ; Gaut-skr, Gautish : in -eyskr, Suftr- 
eyskr, Orkn-eyskr, Faer-eyskr, from Sudor, the Orkneys, the Faroes : in 
-lend-skr, -lenzkr {-land), Is-lenzkr, Icelandic; Groen-lenzkr, Green- 
landisb (but Gren-skr of the county in Norway) : in -dcel-skr (dalr) : 
in -ver-skr (-verjar), Vik-verskr, |}j66-verskr (German), Rom-verskr 
(Roman), formed from Vik-verjar, ^j66-verjar, Rom-verjar (Romans) : 
in -neskr, Sax-neskr, Saxon ; Got-neskr, Gothic ; Frakk-neskr, Frank- 
iab or French : — this n belongs to the noun, cp. Saxon, Gotnar, Lat. 
Gothones : hence the mod. names (formed by a false analogy, since the 
noun has no n), Russ-neskr, Russian; Pruss-neskr, Prussian, etc.: 
in appellatives, him-neskr, heavenly (himinn) ; jarS-neskr, earthly 
(irreg.) VIII. in-a««; cp. Goth. -««; O. H.G. -w; A. S. 

-en ; in five words, esp. denoting the quarters of heaven, austr-oenn, 
eastern ; nor-oenn, northern, Norse; su8r-cenn, southern, Scot. southron; 
vestr-cenn, western: also aldr-cenn, aged; — in all these words the r 
seems to belong to the root : ut-rcenn, haf-roenn, blowing from the 
sea, are mod. words formed by analogy : ein-roenn, peculiar, odd, is 
qs. ein-rynn ; but how can we explain fjall-rcenn in Kristni S. ch. 6 in 
a verse of the year 998, unless this too is due to a false analogy ? IX. 
adjectives in -Idtr, -mannered; dramb-latr, st(5r-latr ; mikil-latr,/>roMC?; 
litil-latr, bumble; vand-latr, zealous; rett-latr, righteous; dr-latr, 
liberal; fa-latr, silent, cold; {)akk-latr, thankful, etc.: in -leitr, 
-faced, looking, fol-leitr, pale ; pykk-leitr, etc. : in -eygr, -eyed, fagr- 
eygr, fair-eyed, etc. : in -lyndr, -mooded, tempered, god-lyndr, gentle; 
i\l-[yndT, pettish ; gxk-lyndr, spiteful ; fjol-lyndr,_;fc^/e; fa-lyndr, weZaw- 
choly; fljot-lyndr, hot-tempered; 6r-lyndr, liberal, etc. : in -kdrr, var- 
karr, cautious; laun-karr, lurking: in -roedr, att-roeSr, ni-roe6r, ti- 
rce3r, t61f-roe5r (see p. xxi), prob. akin to Goth, ga-rapj an — nume- 
rare ; cp. also r68, a row : — these with several others may be regarded 
as compounds. 

Verbs. — The 1st and 4th weak conjugations, as also the strong, 
consist of primitive words ; the 2nd and 3rd weak consist of deriva- 
tives from nouns, adjectives, and preterites of strong verbs (see the 
remarks on the umlaut) ; the exceptions are the verbs of the 1st with 
inflexive syllables. Inflexions : I. in -na, denoting to become, 

grow so and so; these words seem originally to be formed from 
strong participles or adjectives in -inn, whence the n in the inflexion ; 
and so they may serve as guides in tracing lost strong verbal in- 
flexions : 1. where a participle or adjective in -inn exists ; 
roS-na, to blush (ro6inn) ; vis-na, to wither (visinn) ; sof-na, to go to 
sleep (sofinn) ; dof-na, to get benumbed (dofinn) ; vak-na, to awake 
(vakinn) ; bog-na, to be bowed (boginn) ; klok-na, to be softened ; 
drukk-na, to drown (drukkinn) ; ^rot-na, to come to an end (^rotinn) ; 
stork-na, to be curdled (storkinn) ; brot-na, to break (brotinn ) ; rot-na, 
to rot (rotinn) ; so9-na, to be cooked (so5-inn) ; hlot-nast, to fall to 
one's lot (hlotinn) ; skri6-na, to slip (skri6inu) ; sviS-na, to be singed 
(sviftinn) ; blik-na, to turn pale (blikja) ; slit-na, to be torn (slitinn) ; 
rif-na, to be rent (rifinn) ; vik-na, to give way (vikinn) ; huip-na, to 
ji/a«7 (hnip-inn) ; fii-na, ^o ro/ (fiiinn) ; bra6-na, i0 7ne//(bra9inn); tog- 
na, to become leaky (toginn) ; bolg-na, to bulge, swell (bolginn) ; hnig- 
na, to decay (hniginn) ; gis-na, to be ' geizened' (gisinn) ; las-na, to decay 
(lasinn) ; sl6k-na, to be quenched; hang-na, to become hanginn. p. 
where a lost participle can be suggested ; J)ag-na, to become silent ; gliip- 
na, q. v. ; kvik-na, to be engendered ; hit-na, to become hot; fit-na, to 
grow fat; d\g-nz, to get wet ; gli6-na,q.v.; do6-na,q.v.; los-na,/o^e/ 
loose; stik-na, to be roasted; J)or-na, to be dry (J)urr, Jjorrinn); lif-na, to 
become alive; J)i3-na, hla-na, and J)a-na, to thaw; kaf-na, to be choked; 
hja6-na, to wane. 2. formed from plain adjectives, perhaps by way 
of analogy to the above; haib-nn, to bar den, grow hard {harbr); stirS- 
na (stir6r, stiffs) ; J)ykk-na (l)ykkr, stout) ; sort-na, to become black 
(svartr) ; hlj6&-na, to become silent (hlj66r) ; fol-na, to grow pale (folr) ; 
gul-na, to grow yellow (gulr) ; ves-na, to grow worse (verri) ; bat-na, 
to grow better (bati) ; bla-na, to grow bbie (blar) ; gra-na (grar, grey) ; 
dokk-na, to darken (dtikkr, black) ; vcik-na, to get wet (viikvi); sur-na, 
to get sour (surr) ; hvit-na, to whiten (hvitr) ; sar-na, to smart (sarr); 
volg-na (volgr, lukewarm) ; gla6-na, to be gladdened (glaSr) ; meyr-na 
(meyrr. Germ, murbe) ; hly-na, to get warm (hlyr) ; tre-na, to dry (\.r&, a 
log) ; re-na, to sink, dwindle ; gild-na (gildr, stout) ^ 3. the sense is 
different in such words as sam-na, to collect (saman) ; gam-na (gaman) ; 
fag-na. /o r^/oice (feg-inn) ; sak-na, /o wiss ; Qn^-aa, to gain ; tig-na, 

to honour (tiginn) : as also Krist-na,/o Christianize (Kristinn) ; dr6tt-na, 
to rule (drottinn) ; var-na, to shun; spyr-na, to spurn, etc. II. 

in -^a, from adjectives in -igr ; au8-ga, /o enrich (nubigr) ; hel-ga, 
to hallow (heilagr) ; ra6-gast, to take counsel, see p. xxiv. 2. in 

-ka, formed from adjectives, to become (and to make) so and so ; hsek- 
ka, to heighten; laek-ka, to lower; faek-ka, to become few; dyp-ka, to 
deepen; mm-k.^^, to lessen ; smxk-kn, to become smaller ; stoek-ka, io 
become larger ; hrcib-kcL, to become broad ; vib-ka,, to widen ; mj6k-ka, 
to make narrow; si9-ka, to become 'sid;' sein-ka, to make slow, etc., 
see p. xxiv ; some of these are also intrans., e. g. min-ka, to lessen and 
to become less. III. in -sa and -ra, a kind of iterative verb 

mentioned in p. xxiv. IV. in -la, id. 

Pinal Kemarks on the Formation of Words. From the 
roots fresh words branch out by means of prefixed or suffixed syllables ; 
the ablaut is probably due to a prefix (reduplication), the umlaut to a 
lost inflexion ; root vowels seem not to change of themselves, but 
from some outward cause. Ablaut, umlaut, and inflexions are the 
three chief agents in forming words. All three degrees of formation 
may be found in a single word ; e. g. kann (knew) is a strong preterite, 
formed by way of ablaut ; whence kenna, to teach, by umlaut ; whence 
kenn-sla, teaching, by inflexion : or to take another example,— from 
heil-1, whole, comes heil-agr, holy, whence hel-ga, to sanctify, whence 
helgan (i. e. hel-g-a-n), where we have ablaut + threefold inflexion : 
so also from son atonement, sacrifice (in sonar-goltr, sonar-dreyri, 
sacrificial blood. Germ, suhne), is formed syn-9 (in old MSS. spelt 
syn-J)), a siti, a thing to be atoned for, whence synd-ugr sinful, whence 
syndg-a to si?i, whence syndga-n (syn-d-g-a-n) sinfulness. Yet beyond 
son with its long vowel, as well as heill with its diphthong, lie primitive 
words whence son and heill were formed by means of ablaut, and so in 
many other cases. The growth of words is slow, and between the first 
and last of these formations centuries elapsed ; — son is a heathen 
word, synd and derivatives are Christian ; heill, heilagr, and helga are 
heathen, whereas helgan is Christian. Many of the inflexions are the 
latest, and from them were formed fresh words to express ideas un- 
known in heathen times : such especially are most of the feminines 
in -n and -ing (from verbs) of late growth, and but few of them 
perhaps known to the men of the loth century (the Saga time) ; 
some of the new words displaced older, e.g. hugga-n, comfort; 
but likn is older : again, the umlaut belongs to the early, the ablaut 
to the earliest stage of the language, — domr (doom), doema (deem), 
daeming (deeming, damnation), represent the three steps. In some 
instances the succession is different, and an inflexion comes between 
ablaut and umlaut, thus J)urr dry, t)or-sti thirst, whence J)yr-str thirsty ; 
groa to grow, gro-Sr growth, whence grceSa to heal, whence groe3-sla 
healing; and many others. 

Pet Names. 

These are diminutives, and in compound names are chiefly formed 
by a sort of contraction and by changing a strong declension into 
a weak (usually in the latter, but sometimes in the former part of 
the name), or by adding -si, -ka, or the like : I. girls ; Sigga 

from Sig-riSr ; Gunna from Gu6-run ; Inga from Ing-unn, Ing-veldr ; 
Imba from Ingi-bjorg; Gudda from Gud-ri6r; Manga from Mar- 
gret ; Valka from Val-ger3r ; Ranka from Ragn-ei&r and Ragn-hildr ; 
Joka from Jo-hanna ; Tobba from {jor-bj org; Sissa from Sig-t)ru6r; 
Kata (Engl. Kate) from Katrin; Kitta from Kristin; Asta from 
As-tri8r; |>ura from J)ur-i9r ; Dora from Hall-dora, etc. ; Disa from 
Val-dis, Vig-dis, Her-dis, etc. ; Geira from Geir-laug ; Fri6a from 
H61m-fri6r, etc. ; f>ruda from Jar-J)ru6r, Sig-J)ru8r ; Lauga from Gu3- 
laug ; Asa from As-laug. II. boys ; Siggi from Sig-ur3r ; Gvendr 

from Gu3-mundr ; Simbi from Sig-mundr ; Brynki from Bryn-jolfr ; 
Steinki from Stein-grimr; Mangi from Magnus; Riinki from Rtin-olfr; 
Sveinki from Sveinn ; Sebbi from Sig-bjurn, Svein-bjorn (rare) ; Erli from 
Erl-indr (Erlingr) ; Gutti fromGuthormr,or rarely Gu3-brandr, — mi skal 
hann Gutti (Guddi?) setja ofan, Safn ii.128 ; Kobbi from Jakob ; Valdi 
from f>or-valdr ; Mundi or Asi from As-mundr, etc. ; Laki from J>or- 
lakr ; Leifi from |>or-leifr ; Lafi from Olafr ; Eyvi from Eyj-olfr ; Keli 
from |>or-kell ; Laugi from Gunn-laugr ; Tumi (Engl. Tommy) from 
Thomas occurs in Icel. as an independent name about the middle of 
the 1 2th century (Sturl.), and was probably borrowed from the English ; 
Fiisi fromVig-fiis; Grimsi from Grimr ; Jonsi {lomjon (Engl. Johnny); 
Bjorsi from Bjorn; Bensi from Benedikt. These names, and others 
similar to them, are not of yesterday, but can be traced back even to 
the heathen time ; many of the old names with weak declension in 
-i and -a were probably originally pet names, e. g. Bjarni from Bjorn ; 
Arni (Arne) from Orn ; Bersi from Bjorn ; Karli (Engl. Charley) from 
Karl ; Jora from J6rei3r ; Ragna from compounds in Ragn-, Ragn-ei3r ; 
Ingi and Inga from compounds in Ing-; Goddi (Laxd., cp. Germ. 
Gotze) probably from compounds in Go3- (Gu3mundr) as the present 
Gudda of girls ; Boddi (a name of the 8th century) from those in Bo3« 



(A. S. Beadu-) ; Da6i (occurs in an Icel. colonist family from the Bri- 
tish Isles in the loth century) probably from Davift (Davy); Sebbi 
and Ubbi occur on Swedish Runic stones ; Helgi (old form Holgi) from 
1 l;i-leygr, Nj. ch. 94. Only a few instances in the Sagas bear directly 
11 this subject; one is the dream of earl Hakon (year 994) of his 
MHi Erling's death; ' nu er Ulli dau6r,' qs. Erli or Erlingr; cp. also 
the name of Snorri Go5i from Snerrir, Eb. ch. 12. ^»» Of a similar 
kind are At-li, Goth, att-ila. Lit. paterciilus ; Gam-li. 

Compound Words. 

Of these the Dictionary gives the best account ; when the former 
part is an uninflected root word a hyphen is usually printed between 
the component parts, with a few exceptions, such as words com- 
pounded with particles like afar-, all-, fjiil-, full-, gagn-, etc.; and 
some other words, as fe-, go&-, gull-, etc. Again, the Icel. has an 
almost unlimited stock of compound words formed by means of the 
genitive. Many of these are used both as compounds and as two 
separate words, and are therefore given under the head of the prin- 
cipal word, e. g. barn with barns- and barna- ; in these cases it depends 
upon the genitive whether the alphabetical order is preserved or not ; 
this is mostly the case in words like batr, bats-borS, but not so in 
beSr, gen. bejjar-; or in beini, beina-; baula, baulu-. As compounds 
are made from both gen. plur. and sing, they are sometimes double, 
e. g. under the head barn, both barns- and barna-. But chiefly are to 
be noticed words with the ti- umlaut, because a is the first and b the 
last letter in the alphabet ; thus e. g. foSur- is the compound form of 
faftir {father), and would if simple stand at the end of the letter, 
whereas now it stands near the beginning, s. v. faSir ; as also bjarnar- 

under bjom ; bjarkar- under bjork ; still greater is the leap in com- 
pounds from words such as alda, a wave, gen. iildu- (p. 11) ; so also the 
compounds from old {age), tJnd {soul), iirk {arch), om {eagle), oxi 
{shoulder), which are aldar-, andar-, arkar-, amar-, axlar- ; but these 
words are few. Icel. printing, in editions of Sagas as well as in modern 
books, has no fixed rule as to the spelling of such compound words, 
and often connects them in hundreds of cases where they are evidently 
separate; in old writers, e.g. in Mar. S., musterisferft, ^owrwey '" /^« 
temple,!^; freistnistormr, storm of temptation, ^a; uppstigningar- 
sta6r, place of ascension, 588 ; snubbanarorSum, snubbing language, 
567; uppsprettubrunnr, 27; stjornubokarmenn, astronomers, 30; 
spektarJ)ogn, silence of wisdom, id.; umskurSarskirn, baptism of cir- 
cumcision, 35 ; Austrvegskonungar, the kings of the East, id. ; vistar- 
veizluna, giving shelter, Mork. 67, etc. ; and in mod. writers, e. g. in 
the 4th hymn of the Passiu-Salmar, truarsjonin, the eye of faith; 
dreyralsekir, brooks of blood; lausnargjald, ''lease-gild,' ransom; lifs- 
seSarnar, life veins; Arkargluggi, window of the Ark; hrygftarskuggi, 
the shadow of sorrow; solarbjarmi, the brightness of the sun; hrygft- 
armyrkr, the darkness of grief ; svalavatn, the refreshing water; 
reiSisproti, wrath's rod; svalalind, a refreshing well; hjartabl6&, 
heart's blood, all spelt as one word, even without a hyphen between 
them. Again, the old MSS. separate too much, or rather keep no 
rule whatever. We have not thought of giving a full list of these and 
similar words, for this would be impossible. From such words as 
maSr, barn, fotr, hond, etc. hundreds of similar compounds may easily 
be formed, most of which are in a grammatical sense rather sentences 
than single words ; but many are given, especially from old writers. 
For a native these things are of little moment ; but for the sake of 
lexicography a more distinct and regular spelling is much needed. 


A regular spelling has been adopted in most editions during the 
last hundred years — before that time few editions had been issued ; 
this spelling was fixed by Icel. scholars of that time, and was chiefly 
founded upon the average spelling in the vellums, partly upon a few 
noted MSS. (e.g. the Arna-Magn. 132 folio, and 66 folio), and with 
reference to the living Icel. language. But of late many of the 
oldest MSS. and fragments have been carefully and exactly printed. 
A few hints are therefore needed to guide the reader how in these 
cases to use the Dictionary, which in the main holds to the normal 
spelling. The spelling varies much, not only in MSS. of different 
times, but in the same MS. ; very few of them follow any fixed plan, 
and the same word is difterently spelt even in the same line ; yet in 
many particular instances the spelling is instructive, and even more 
correct than the accepted orthography, and must not be left out of 
sight by those who study the growth and history of the language. 

A. In inflexions : I. vowels : — the MSS. use o and w as 
well as e and i indiscriminately in declensions of nouns and verbs, the 
oldest almost always and e, as tungor, tongues ; oldor, waves ; timom, 
times; bo5o3ot, kolloSom, gor3osk, etc. : e, i, as time, a time; elle, age ; 
fuber, father ; timenn, the time ; bo8a&er, fylger, etc. : most MSS. (the 
later) prefer «, and so it has come into the normal spelling ; for the use 
of e, see introduction to that letter (signif. B), p. 1 14 : in inflexions, -oil, 
-orr, -odr, -osta, -on, instead of-ull, -urr, -u6r, -usta, -un (see pp. xxxii, 
xxxiii); as also in dat. pi. with the article, timonom, hondonom; the 
pret.toloS, tfic^a; kollo3, i/oca/a; V.o\\ohova.,vocavimus : aXso -endi,-enn, 
-ell, instead oi-indi, -inn, -ill. II. consonants : — the reflex, is in 
very old MSS. spelt -sc {-zc or -sp), but in the usual way -z, -zt, -szt. 

B. In root syllables : I. vowels: 1. long and short 
vowels are usually not distinguished, except in very few MSS., e. g. 
Ann. Reg., which MS. is of a like interest for Icel. in this respect, as 
the Ormulum for Early English. Later MSS. began to distinguish by 
doubling the long vowels, aa = d,ij = i,oo — 6,w='U, but mostly with- 
out a fixed rule ; this way of spelling has remained in English, e. g. 
Engl. /oo/= Icel. fot, blood =\i\6i) . At last the marking the long vowels 
with an accent was resumed, as taught by Thorodd. 2. of 
special letters, a. the spelling of b varies very much ; the ancients 
had a double b sound (0 and co), but both were soon confounded, and 
b was spelt indiscriminately in a sixfold or eightfold fashion, o, aj, au, av, 
<o, <j) (born, byrn, baurn, bavrn, b<om, b<)rn), and was thus confounded 
with several vowels, e. g. with the diphthong av, the o and 6, the <b and 
o», e. g. rub may be = rau3 red or ro6 a row, log may be log a lowe or 
log laws, lavg may be laug a bath or log laws, hdoU may be haell a heel 
or holl a hall, etc. ; in print was used for about two hundred years, 
till at the beginning of this century it was replaced by the present o, 
which was probably borrowed from the German. p. the e and a 

were confounded, and in some few MSS. it is almost a rule, as the 
Mork., the Njala (Arna-Magn. 468), the Kb. of Saem., and the frag- 
ment Arna-Magn. 748, cp. e. g. the print of Baldrs Draumar in Sxm. 
Edda by Mobius, pp. 255, 256; thus teki = toeki, seti = saEti, re3ur = 
roe6ur, beta = bcEta, be = boe {a house), sekia = scekja, fela = foela, mela 
= maela, and vice versS; g, <£, instead oi e, sgtti = setti, selli = elli, see 
introduction to letter E, p. 1 1 3 ; cei-— ei freq. In the east of Icel. the 
<2 and as were, up to the beginning of the i8th century, sounded not = 
Engl, long i as they are at present, but as Germ, e or a, Engl, o, with 
a protracted sound : many puns referring to this provincialism are 
recorded by Jon Olafsson, e. g. the ditty, mer sti merin ( = maerin) Ijosa 
i minni er, — the pun is in merr = a mare and maer = a maid being 
sounded alike ; Hann Bersi minn i Be ! Hun er gengin a reSur med 
honum, see Jon Olafsson, Essay on Icel. Orthography of the year 1756 
(in MS.) The poet Stefan Olafsson, a native of the east of Icel. (died 
1688), still rhymes bre^r (i. e. braekr) and \ekr { = stillai). It is likely 
that the MSS. above named were written, if not composed, in the 
east of Icel. In still earlier times this pronunciation was no doubt 
universal, but not so six or seven hundred years ago. y- ^^^ 

Icel. (see p. xxix) confounded the two sounds cb (g) and ce (<o) ; yet for 
a long time afterwards both characters g and <o were still used, but 
upside down, without any regard to etymology, till at last the Roman ce 
took the place in writing of both g and eO. 8. the ti and v were used 
indiscriminately, e. g. tvngv = tungu, bvndv = bundu ; and, on the other 
hand, ualld = valid, uera = vera, uit = vit, etc. «. the i served for i 
andj (ior3 = j6r6) : ja is especially in very old MSS. often spelt ea, earn 
= jarn (cp. Thorodd in Skalda) : in old poems thej always serves as 4 
vowel in alUteration, which in mod. usage sounds harsh, though it may 
be used ; but ia, to, etc. were, on the other hand, one syllable, and old 
grammarians speak of z as a ' changeling,' being sometimes a vowel and 
sometimes a consonant : it is likely that the pronunciation was similar 
to ea in Engl, tears, fear, whereas in mod. Icel. usages before a vowel 
is sounded as Engl._>' before a vowel. ?. in Norse MSS. ey is usually 
spelt (fiy, h^yra., 0yra, = heyra, eyra, and is sounded thus in mod. Norse 
dialects. i). many old Icel. MSS. confound^" and i in a few words and 
forms, especially in the prepositions firir, ifir, = fyrir, yfir; the verbs skildi, 
mindi (subj.), t)ikkir, = skyldi, myndi, J)ykkir ; minni = mynni {ostium) 
and minnask = mynnask, ' to mouth,' to kiss ; kirkja = kyrkja, cp. Scot. 
kirk; before ngv, as singva = syngja to sing, Ingvi=Yngvi, lingva = 
lyngva, etc. : mikill and mykill, mickle, much : the inflex. -indi and 
-yndi. 6. the ey is used in some few MSS. instead of in such words 
as seynir, seyni, = synir, syni ; geyrva = g0rva. i. the o instead of 
the later m in a few words, but only in very old MSS., as god = gu&, goU 
= gull, fogl = fugl, oxi = uxi, mon (the verb) = mun, cp. Engl. God, gold, 
fowl, ox. K. the and ce are in very old MSS. spelt to, e. g. keomr 



= k0mr (i. e. kemr), feo3a = foe3a. II. consonants : 1. a 

radical / is almost always doubled before the dentals d or t without 
regard to etymology ; the MSS. thus spell holld flesh, molld mould, 
valid power, skalld poet, hallda to bold, hollt a bolt, kallt cold; but 
not so if the d is inflexive and soft, e. g. skyl-8i, J)ol-3i, val-6i, hul-8i, 
etc., from skulu, J)ola, velja, hylja ; as also gal-6r from gala, kul-3i 
from kul, skul-& from skulu a debt, etc. This was no doubt due to 
the / having in the former case been pronounced aspirate (as it still 
is), similar to Welsh //, the / in hollt being sounded exactly as bl 
at the beginning of syllables. p. the z instead of s was almost 
always used after the double consonants (with a dental sound), //, tin, 
nd. Id, dd, tt. It, nt, rd, and t, e. g. in the genitives gullz, munnz, 
sandz, valdz, oddz, hattz, hoUtz or hollz, fantz, gar8z, knutz or 
kniiz, as also in botz, vaz or vatz, from gull, munnr, . . . knutr, botn, 
vatn ; in the common spelling gulls, munns, etc. : again, guls from 
gulr, dais from dalr, etc. This is not a mere variation of spelling ; the 
sibilant in the former cases was no doubt sounded as Engl, z, viz. with a 
lisping sound ; the z sound is now lost in Icel., and s is spelt wherever it 
is etymologically required. y- the j; instead oid{i) was used through- 
out as final (inlaut, auslaut) in very old MSS., in later j!) and d indiscri- 
minately, e. g. guj), orj), secj), dypj), = gu8, or5, sekt, dypt (qs. sek5, 
dyp8) ; as also in inflexions, tocoj), vitoj), scoloj), hafij), = tokut, vitu8, 
skulut, hafit ; in modern and better spelling t6ku&, vitu3, skulu3, hafi5, 
etc., see introduction to letter D (signif. B), p. 93. 8. the qu = /iv 

in imitating Latin MSS., e.g. quama, necquerr, qui5r, quiquan, qu0qua, 
= kvama, nekkverr, kvi8r, kvikvan, kveykja, (kv very seldom occurs 
in good old MSS.) ; perhaps the qu had a peculiar sound, Hke that 
of the English queen; in mod. Icel. pronunciation there is only a 
single ^ sound throughout : for the use of c, see Dictionary, p. 93. 2. 

Norwegianisms, a. the spelling with v before u in verbal forms, as 
vultu, vur3u, vorSinn, from velta, ver8a, = ultu, urfiu, orftinn; these 
neither occur in very old MSS. nor in alliteration in old poets nor in 
mod. pronunciation. p. the dropping of b before the liquids /, «, r, 
and writing lutr, not, ringr, instead of hlutr a lot, hnot a nut, hringr 
a ring; this dropping of the b seems to have come into fashion 
with Icel. writers and transcribers after the union with Norway ; but 
as early as the 15th century MSS. had resumed the old correct form, 
which had never been lost, and which has been preserved in speech 
as well as writing up to the present day, Icelanders being now the only 
people of all the Teutonic races who have preserved this sound ; but 
it is curious that the Icel. transcribers, having the b sound in their ears, 
frequently blundered, and br, bn occur now and then, which never 
happens with Norse transcribers ; there is, for example, no need of 
any stronger evidence that Hauk Erlendsson (the writer of the vellum 
Hauks-b6k) was a native Icelander, than that, although he tries to spell 
in the Norse way, the b creeps in, see, for instance, facsimile I in Landn, 
(fsl. i, Ed. 1843), where 1. 1 1 hrafnkels, but 1. 12 rafnkels. 3. for 

many special usages see the introduction to each letter. 


Ilun6lfr J6nsson (died 1654); he wrote in Latin the first Icelandic Grammar, Grammattcae Islandicae Ruditnenla, Copenhagen 1651 : it 
was repubhshed by Hickes at Oxford in 1688, but with many misprints, and in his Thesaurus in 1703 : Hickes also made the index 
of the words occurring in the book. This Grammar is formed upon the Latin principle, and is a useful book ; the author was an 
Icelandic schoolman, rector of the College at Holar in Iceland, and a learned man. 

J6n Magmisson (born 1664, died 1739, a brother to Ami Magniisson); his Grammatica Islandica (also in Latin) was never published, 
but exists at Copenhagen in the author's autograph ; it is less interesting than the above. 

Bask (Rasmus Kristian), the famous Danish linguist (bom 1787, died 1832), wrote three Icelandic Grammars: — 

a. Veiledning til det Islandske Sprog, Copenhagen l8n (in Danish). 

p. Anvisning til Isldndskan, written in Swedish and published at Stockholm in 1818; this is the best of the three which Rask wrote, 
and it was rendered into English by Mr. Dasent in 1843. 

•)/. Kortfattet Veiledning til det Old-nordiske eller Gamle Islandske Sprog, Copenhagen 1832 (in Danish), rendered into English 
by B. Thorpe. 

Orimm, Jacob (born 1785, died 1863), in his Deutsche Grammatik, first in 1819 in one volume, but recast in the great Teutonic 
Grammar of 1822 sqq. ; the Icelandic paradigms are contained in vol. i, — the nouns, pp. 650-665 ; the adjectives, pp. 736-743; 
the verbs, pp. 911-928 ; the formation of words etc. in the following volumes (ii-iv). The work of Grimm is rightly regarded as 
the key-stone for the knowledge of Teutonic languages. 

linger, C. B. (and P. A. Munch), Det Norske Sprogs Grammatik, Christiania 1847, chiefly founded on Grimm's work. 

Halld6r PriSriksson, fslenzk Mdlmynda-lysing, Reykjavik 1861; a small book, but curious as being the only Icelandic Grammar 
written in Icelandic. 

Grammatical Essays on the sPEttma op MSS. : a. Frumpartar fslenzkrar Tungu by Konrad GIslason, Copenhagen 1846. p. The 
Prefaces to the various Editions, especially in those edited within the last twenty years. 


Including the Strong Verbs, the Irregular Verbs, and the Verbs of the 3rd and 4th Conjugation, cp. the 
Paradigms, Gramm. pp. xxii-xxv. They contain almost all the chief Verbs in the language, as well as all the 
Defective and Obsolete Verbs. The vowel changes (ablaut) in the Preterite and Participle forms are the most 
important to bear in mind ; those of the Present and Subjunctive (umlaut) are secondary. The chief Verbs 
are here marked with capitals or thick type. 


aka {to drive) 

ala {to feed, beget) 

auka {to eke, augment) 

ausa {to sprinkle) 

(bauta, to beat) defect. 

belgja {to swell) defect. 

bella {to bit) defect. 

BEBA {to bear) 

berja {to beat) 

bidja {to beg) 

binda {to bind) 

bi3a {to bide, wait) 

bita {to bite) 

bjarga {to save) 

bjofla {to bid) 

(bjiiga, to bend) defect. 

blanda {to blend) 

bldsa {to blow) 

ble8ja {to lop) defect. 

blikja {to blink) defect. 

bl6ta {to worship, sacrifice) 

B BEGS A {to move, draw) 
brenna {to burn) 
bresta {to break) 
brjota {to break) 
brosa {to smile) 
brugga {to brew) defect. 
B'O'A {to abide, make ready) 
f bylja {to resound) defect, 
bysja {to gush) defect, 
delta {to drop) 
deyja {to die) 
DRAG- A {to draw) 
drekka {to drink) 
drepa {to smite, kill) 
drifa {to drive like spray) 
drita {cacare) 
drJTipa {to drip) 
driipa {to droop) 
drynja {to roar) 
duga {to help) 
dvelja {to dwell, delay) 
dylja {to conceal) 
dynja {to pair) 
dyja {to shake) 
EIGA {to own) 
erja {to ear, plough) 
eta {to eat) 
etja (to goad) 
falda {to fold, hood) 
PALL A {to fall) 
FAB, A {to fare, go) 
FA. {to fetch) 
fa {to polish) 
fela {to hide) 
ferja (to ferry) 
feta {to step) defect, 
FINNA {to find) 
fisa {pedere) defect. 
fjuka {to be driven by the wind) 
flaka {to gape) 
fla {to flay) 
fletja {to slit) 
flj6ta {to float) 




2nd Pers. 


Subj. Prel. 
























ey$i, jysi 









baru & hJiTU 








barar, bart 





































































































































































dvaiar, dvoia, dvalt 





duiar, dult 








a, att 



attu & dOttu 


attr, att, atzk 











atu & dotu 






























fam & fooni 












falu «fe fdolu 

































flatU, flott, flatt 














2nd Pers. 


Subj. Pret. 


fljiiga {to fly) 



flaug & flo 




flytja {to flit) 





fluttr, ilutzk 

fLfZB. {to flee) 



flo & flyfti 



flyi8r, fitiinn 

fregna {to ask, hear) 




fr4gu & frdogu 



fremja {to further) 






fram8r, fromd 

freta {pedere) defect. 


frja {to love) defect. 


frjosa {to freeze) 





frysi & freri 

frosinn & frorinn 

fryja {to challenge) 




fyrva {to ebb) defect. 

furSi (G 

rag. ii. 187) 

gala {to crow) 







gana {to rush) 




GANGtA {to go) 








gapa {to gape) 



ga {to heed, mark) 





GEFA {to give) 







geta {to get, guess) 




gatu & gootu 


geti8 & geta8 

geyja {to bark) 





gina (to gape) 






gjalda {to pay) 








gjalla {to yell) 







gj6sa {to gush) 







gjota {to cast young) 






gle6ja {to gladden) 






gladdr, glodd, glatt 

glepja {to confound) 






glap5r " 

glotta {to grin) 




glymja {to clash) 




gnaga {to gnaw) defect. 



gnapa {to jut out) 




gnella {to yell) defect. 



gnesta {to crack) 




gniia {to rub) 



gnori & 




gny6ja {to mnrmur) defect. 


gnya {to sound) defect. 



grafa {to grave, dig) 








grdta {to greet, weep) 








gremja {to anger, provt^e) 





gripa {to grasp) 







groa {to grow) 



grori & 




griifa (to grovel) 




gyggva {to quail) defect. 



GOKA, gj6ra, gera {to do) 

gorr & 


gorSi, gj6r8i,& ger8i 


gorr, gfirt, gorzk 

HAFA (to have) 






haf8r, hof8, haft 

HALDA (to hold) 








hanga {to hang) . 








ha (to vex) 





HEFJA (to lift, heave, begin) 








HEITA (to be called, promise) 

heit & heiti 






hemja (to hem, restrain) 




lieyja (to perform) 





hjalpa (to help) 







lilaSa (to build up) 








Maupa (to leap) 






hlypi, hloepi 


Mjota {to get allotted, must) 








hlynija {to dash) 



hlyja (to shelter) 




lilseja {to laugh) 








hnlga (to sink) 







hnipa (to droop, crouch) defect. 


hnita (to strike against) defect. 




hnj68a (to rivet) 






hnjosa (to sneeze) 



hnufa (to chop) defect. 


hnoggva (to humble) 




horfa (to look) 





hrekja (to toss) 






hrinda (to push) 







hrifa (to grapple) 







hrina {to squeal) 






hrj63a (to rid, clear) 








hrjosa (to shudder) 




hrjota (to rebound) 








hrymja {to weaken) 


hrynja {to fall into ruin) 





hrSkkva {to recoil) 







hverfa {to rotate) 







hvetja {to whet) 






hvattr, hvott, hvatt 

hvina (to whistle) 





h-yggja (to think) 





hugt, hugzt 

hylja (to hide) 





hul8r, hult 






Pret. 2nd Pers 

. Plur. 

Subj. Pret. 


hOggva {to hew) 








kala {to cool, freeze) 






kaupa (/o chaffer, buy) 




keyptr, keypzk 

kefja {to submerge) 





kjdsa {to choose) 



kjuri & kaus 

kuru & kusu 


kjorinn & koiinu 

kla {to claw, scratch) 





klekja {to hatch) 






klifa {to climb) 





kljufa {to cleave) 







klyfja {to split) 



klokkva {to sob) defect. 



(knega, to be able) defect. 

kna, kiiatt 





knyja {to knock) 





Kb MA {to come) 

k^mr&kemr komutn 

kom, komt 

komu, kvamu 

kcemi, kvacmi 


krefja {to crave) 






krafdr, krofj 

krei^a {to squeeze) 






kram&r, krumS 

kreppa {to clench) defect. 


krjiipa {to creep) 



kraup, k 





kryfja {to embowel) 






krysja {to crouch) 


krytja {to murmur) 


kr/ja {to swarm) 




KUNNA {to know, be able) 

kann, kannt 





KVEDA {to say) 




kva8u & k68u 



kveSja {to call on, request) 






kvaddr, kvodd 

kvelja {to torment) 






kval6r, kviild 

lafa {to dangle) 







LATA {to let) 


latum & IdOtum 






LEGGJA {to lay) 






lag8r, 16g8, iagt 

leika {to play) 







leka {to leak) 







lemja {to thrash) 






lam8r, loni8 

lepja {to lap) 






lesa {to gather, to read) 







letja {to hold bach) 






lattr, Icitt 

LIFA {to live) 






lilGGJA {to lie) 





lagu & ld(5gu 



Iif DA {to glide) 







llta {to look) 







lj& (to lend) 






Ijdsta {to strike) 







Ijiiga {to lie) 








io6a {to stick to) 




luma {to keep) 




liika {to shut, end) 








iTita (to lout, stoop) 








lykja (to lock) 





luk8r, lukt, iukzk 

ly'ja (to beat soft) 






mala {to grind) 







mara (to be water-logged) 






ma (to blot) 



ma3r, mazt 

MEGA {may, to have might) 

ma, matt 






merja (to crush) 





mariSr, marinu 

meta (to tax) 




matu & mdOtu 



metja (to eat, consume) defect. 


miga {mingere) 







muna (to remember) 

man, mant 





MUNTT and monu {will, shall) 

man, mant 

munu, monu 

mundi & 


mondi &myndi 

mylja (to crush) 



m618i, myl8i 

muI8r, mulinii 

mygja (to destroy) defect. 



mi {to reach) 




na8, nazk 

NEMA (to take, learn) 







njota (to enjoy) 








RADA {to advise, rule) 








reka {to drive) 





raku & Tooku 



rekja (to unfold) 






rakSr, rokt, rakzt 

renna {to run, flow) • 







rfSa (to ride, swing) 







riSa (to writhe, knit) 







rffa (to rive, tear) 







rlsa (to rise) 







rlsta (to slash) 







rita (to trench, to write) 







rj6da (to redden) 








rjota (to roar, snore) 








rjiifa (to dissolve) 








rjiika (to reek, steam) 








roa (to row) 


rom & roum 

rori & reri 

rori & reri 


ry3ja (to rid, clear away) 






ruddr, rutt, ruzt 

rymja (to roar) 











2nd Pers. 


Subj. Pret. 


ryja (to plucli) 





sama {to beseem) 






Bit, (to sow) 

saer & sair 

sori & 





se8ja (to satiate) 






saddr, sodd, satt 

SEGJA (to say) 






sag8r, s6g3, sagt 

selja {to sell) , 





seldr, selt 

semja (to compose) 






sam3r, som6 

ser&a (stuprare) defect. 



SETJA (to set) 





settr, sezk 

SITJA {to sit) 





satu & SdOtu 



si8a {to work a charm) 





siga {to sink) 


seig & seg 




SJi. {to see) 


sjam & sjdom 



sa & SaO 


senn (se3r), sesk 

sj6da (to cook) 








sjuga & suga {to suck) 




so sott 




skafa {to scrape) 







skafinn ^ 

skaga {to jut out) 






skaka {to shake) 








skapa {to shape, make) 





ske6]a (to hurt) 



skaddr, skodd, skatt 

skepja {to shape) 



skera {to cut) 




skaru & skd6ru 



SKIL JA {to separate, understand) 





skiiar, skilt, skilzk 

skina {to shine) 







skita {cacare) 





skjalla {to clash) 







skjdlfa (to shiver) 








skjdta {to shoot) 








skolla (to dangle) 




skorta {to lack) 





skreppa {to slip) 







skrida (to creep) 







SKULU (shall) 

skal, skall 




sl4 (to smite) 


slam & sldom 






sleppa (to slip) - 







sllta (to slit) 







slyngva and slimgva (to sling) 






slSkkva {to extinguish) defect. 



smella {to smack) defect. 



smjuga (to creep through) 



smaug & smo 




smyrja (to anoint) 






snerta (to touch) 







sniSa {to slice) 







snjoa {to snow) defect. 



sniia {to turn) 



snori & 





snyfija {to snuff) defect. 


sofa {to sleep) 

sofr & sefr sofum 



svafu & sofu 



s6a {to sacrifice) defect. 


spara {to spare) 







sp4 {to spae, prophesy) 




spenja {to decoy) 






spaniS, sponft 

sperna {to spurn) defect. 


spinna (to spin) 







spretta (to spirt, spring) 







springa (to spring, crack) 







spyrja {to speer, ask) 





spurSr, spurt, sparzt 

spyja (to spew) 








STANDA (to stand) 








stara (to stare) 







steSja {to steady, stop) defect. 



staddr, stodd, statt 

stela (to steal) 




stalu & stdoiu 



stinga {to stick) 







stiga {to step) 






stra {to strew) 




strjuka {to strike) 








stiipa (to stoop) defect. 

stop6ir (?) 

stiira {to mope) defect. 



styftja (to prop) 





studdr, stutt, stuzt 

stynja (to groan) 






stdkkva (to leap) 







stipa (to sip) 








svedja {to glance off) 




svefja (to soothe) 




svelgja (to swallow) 








svelja (to swell) 




svella (to swell) 







svelta {to starve, die) 







sverfa {to file) 







sverja {to swear) 








svimma {to swim) 












2nd Pers. 


Suhj. Pret. 


svi3a (/o singe) 







svifa {to rove, drift) 






svfkja {to betray) 








svipa {to swoop) defect. 



svipinn (?) 

syngja {to sing) 








syja {to sew) defect. 

s^5i or 



SCEKJA {to seek) 





sottr, sotzk 

s6kkva {to sink) 







TAKA. {to take) 








te6ja {to dung) 





tefja {to delay) 






tafSr, tofS 

telja {to tell, count) 






taldr, tijld, talt 

temja {to tame) 






tam8r, toni8 

tji {to shew) 




(tjiiga, to draw) defect. 


tolla {to hang fast) 




treSja {to tread) 

tre8 & Xx^bx 



traddr, triidd 

trefja {to tear) 




trega {to grieve) 




troda {to tread) 

triiSr & tredr 


traSu & trcoSu 



triia {to trow) 





tyggja {to chew) 



togg&toggt tugai 




tfia, tceja, tjd {to avail, grant) 


ty8i & toe8i 

"gga (to fear) 





una {to rest) 





unna (/o ^ran<, love) 

ann, aunt 




unnat, mint 

va3a (/o wade) 








vaka (/o wa^e, 6e awake) 







valda {to wield, rule) 



voldi & olli 

ylli & voldi 


vara (/o be aware of) 




vaxa (^0 wax) 








vefa (<o weave) 


vaf iSc (J 

f oft 


vaefi, oefi 


vefja (/o wrap) 






vafSr, vof8 

vega (/o weigh, fight) 




vagu & VdOgii 



vekja (/o wa^g, rouse from sleep) 






vak8r, vokt 

velja (/o choose) 






val8r, vol8 

vella (/o 6o«7) 






velta (/o ro//) 







venja {to accustom to) 





van8r, von8 

VEBA & vesa {to be) 

\ em & ert 
( es, er 


var & 

vart & 

varu & vaoru 


(pres. subj. se, 

s^r, sem, se8) 

VERDA {to become) 







verja {to defend, clothe) 






verpa {to warp, throw) 







VIIi JA {to ivill) 

vil & vilja 





vinda {to wind wrong) 







vinna {to work) 







VITA {to wit, know) 

veit, veizt 





vfkja {to move) 







(vringa = to wring) defect. 

ving = vri 

ng (?), Grett. 

(in a verse) 


ymja {to hem) 



yrkja {to work, compose) 




ortr, ort, orzk 

yja {to swarm) defect. 


{)efja {to thicken) defect. 


J)egja {to be silent) 







J)ekja {to thatch) • 






J)ak8r, J)6k8, J)akinii 

J)ekkja {to know) defect. 

patti & 


J)enja {to stretch) 






J)an8r, J)on8 

t)eyja {to thaw) defect. 


})iggja {to receive) 





pagu & t)<ogu 



J)ilja {to board) 



\>ibz {to melt) defect. 

J)i8inn • 

J)ja {to coerce) 



J)ja8r, J)jad, {)jazk 

t)j6ta {to whistle) 








J)ola {to thole, bear) 



|)ol8i, l)yldi 

|)olt, J)oIat 

{)ora {to dare) 



{)ordi, J)yr8i 

|)orat, {)ort 

{)rasa {to talk big) defect. 


|)ra {to long) 




I>rifa {to seize) 







J>rj6ta {to cease) 



({)rutu) • 



J)ruma {to sit fast) 



|)rongva, t)ryngja {to press, throng) 






{>URFA {to need) 

t)arf,J)arft J)urfu 



^urfat (Jiurt) 

J)V& {to wash) 








Jjverra {to wane) 






f)YKKJA {to think, seem) 




J)6tt, {)6tzk 

^ylja {to recite) 





j)yrja {to rush) defect. 



jjysja {to rush) defect. 



seja {to bail) 

ae & ai 



3,8 & ait 




ann, annt, from unna. 
arfti, from erja. 
atti, from etja. 
fi, att, from eiga. 
afti, ait, from aeja. 
at, azt, atu, from eta. 
ba3, ba3u, from biSja. 
bar, baru, from bera. 
barSi, from berja. 
barg, from bjarga. 
batt, batzt, from binda. 
bau8, bautt, from bj63a. 
beSi6, from biSja & bi8a. 
beid, bi6u, from biSa. 
beit, bitu, from bita. 
bergr, from bjarga. 
bittu, from binda. 
bjo, bjoggu, bjuggu, from 

blend, from blanda. 
bles, from blasa. 
blet, blett, from biota and 

blaes, from blasa. 
boSinn, bu&u, from bjo&a. 
borginn, from bjarga. 
borinn, from bera. 
brann, from brenna. 
brast, brustu, from bresta. 
braut, brotinn, from brjota. 
bra, bryg&i, from breg5a. 
brostinn, brysti, from 

brugSinn, from bregSa. 
brunninn, from brenna. 
bryt, bryti, from brjota. 
bundinn, from binda. 
byndi, from binda. 
byrgi, from bjarga. 
by, from bua. 
byft, hybi, from bj63a. 
bae3i, from bidja. 
bseri, from bera. 
datt, dottinn, from delta, 
dainn, from deyja. 
do, doei, from deyja. 
drakk, from drekka. 
drap, drapu, from drepa. 
draup, dropi5, from drjiipa. 
dreg, from draga. 
dreginn, from draga. 
dreif, drifinn, from drifa. 
dro, drogu, from draga. 
drukkinn, from drekka. 
drundi, from drynja. 
drykki, from drekka. 
dryp, from drjupa. 
droegi, from draga. 
dulSi, dult, from dylja. 
dunSi, from dynja. 
duttu, from detta. 
du8i, from dyja. 
dvaldi, dvaliS, from dvelja. 
dyg3i, from duga. 
dytti, from detta. 
doei, from deyja. 
ek, from aka. 
el, from ala. 
em, er, eru, from vera, 
eyk, from auka. 
eys, from ausa. 
fal, falu, from fela. 
fann, from finna. 
fat, fatu, from feta. 
fauk, from fjuka. 

fekk, fenginn, from fa. 
feld, from falda. 
fell, from falla. 
fell, from falla. 
ferr, from fara. 
fi6r = finnr, from finna. 
flatti, from fletja. 
flaug, flo, from fljiiga. 
flaut, flutu, from fljota. 
floginn, from fljiiga. 
flotinn, from fljota. 
flo, fliiinn, from flyja. 
flo, flogu, fleginn, from fla. 
flutti, from flytja. 
flyg, flygi, from fljiiga. 
fly't, flyti, from fljota. 
flse, from fla. 
flcegi, from fla. 
fokinn, from fjiika. 
folginn, from fela, 
for, foru, from fara. 
fram5i, from fremja. 
fraus, frusu, frosinn, fror- 

inn, from frjosa. 
fra, fnigu, from fregna. 
frys, frysi, from frjosa. 
fromd, from fremja. 
fundinn, from Anna, 
fyndi, from finna. 
fyk, fyki, from fjuka. 
fae, from fa. 
foeli, from fela. 
gaf, gafu, from gefa. 
gakk, from ganga. 
gall, from gjalJa. 
gait, from gjalda. 
gat, gatu, from geta. 
gaus, gusu, from gjosa. 
gaut, gotinn, from gjota. 
gein, ginu, from gina. 
gekk, gengu, gengit, from 

geld, from gjalda. 
gellr, from gjalla. 
geng, from ganga. 
gladdi, glatt, from gleSja. 

glap6i, from glepja. 

gluniQi, from glymja. 

glodd, from gle6ja. 

gnast, gnustu, from gnesta. 

gny, from gniia. 

gnyr, from gmia. 

gnori, gneri, from gmia. 

goldinn,guldu,from gjalda. 

goUid, gullu, from gjalla. 

gosi&, gusu, from gjosa. 

gotinn, gutu, from gjota. 

go, from geyja. 

gol, from gala. 

gramfti, from gremja. 

gref, from grafa. 

gret, graet, from grata. 

grof, from grafa. 

groe, from groa. 

groefi, from grafa. 

grajt, from grata 

grori,greri, groe, from gr6a. 

gyldi, from gjalda. 

gylli, from gjalla. 

gyss, gysi, from gjosa. 

gaeSi, from ga. 

gaefi, from gefa. 

gceli, from gala. 

gjEti, from geta. 

gora, gjora, =gera. 

I. Verbal Forms. 

halp, from hjalpa. 
ham3i, from hemja. 
ha&i, hai6, from heyja. 
hefi, hef6i, from hafa. 
hekk, hengu, from hanga. 
held, from halda. 
helpr, from hjalpa. 
h^lt (held), from halda. 
het, from heita. 
hjo, hjoggu, htiggvinn, 

from hoggva. 
hlaut, hlutu, from hijota. 
hle6, from hla6a. 
hlegiS, from hlaeja. 
hleyp, from hlaupa. 
hljop, hlypi, hloepi, hlupu, 

from hlaupa. 
hlotinn, from hijota. 
hlo, hlogu, from hlseja. 
hl69, from hlaSa. 
hlyt, from hijota. 
hnau3, hnoSinn, from 

hnaus, from hnjosa. 
hneig, hne, hniginn, from 

hneit, hnitu, from hnita. 
hnugginn, from hnoggva. 
hnys, from hnjosa. 
holpinn, from hjalpa. 
horfinn, from hverfa. 
hof, from hefja. 
hrak&i, from hrekja. 
hratt, hritt, from hrinda. 
hrau5, from hrj66a. 
hraut, hrutu, hrotiS, from 

hreif, hrifinn, from hrifa. 
hrein, from hrina. 
hro5inn, from hrj66a. 
hrokkiS, hrukku, from 

hrundi, from hrynja. 
hrundinn, from hrinda. 
hryndi, from hrinda. 
hry&, from hrjoSa. 
hry's, from hrjosa. 
hug3i, from hyggja. 
hul&i, hult, from hylja. 
hulpu, hylpi, from hjalpa. 
hurfu, hyrfi, from hverfa. 
hvatti, from hvelja. 
hvein, from hvi'na. 
hvott, from hvetja. 
hcefi, from hefja. 
h6f6, from hafa. 
jok, jyki, from auka. 
jos, jysi, from ausa. 
kafdi, from kefja. 
kann, from kunna. 
kaus, from kjosa. 
kell, from kala. 
kemr, kij)mr, from koma. 
keypti, from kaupa. 
kjori, keyri, from kjosa. 
klak&i, from klekja. 
klauf, klufu, klofinn, from 

kleif, klifu, from klifa. 
klo, kleginn, from kla. 
klyf, klyfi, from kljiifa. 
kna, knatti, from (knega). 
knu8i,knuinn, from knjfja. 
kosinn, from kjosa. 
k68u, from kveSa. 

kol, from kala. 
komu, from koma. 
kraf3i, from krefja. 
kramSi, from kremja. 
kraup, krupu, kropinn, 

from krjupa. 
kruffti, from kryfja. 
kryp, krypi, from krjupa. 
kvaS, kvaSu, from kveSa. 
kvaddi, kvatt, from kveSja. 
kval5i, from kvelja. 
kvamu, kvaemi, kcemi, 

from koma. 
kvodd, from kve3ja. 
kvol5, from kvelja. 
kynni, from kunna. 
kys, ky'si, from kjosa. 
koeli, from kala. 
Iag8i, lagt, from leggja. 
lak, laku, from leka. 
lamdi, from lemja. 
Iap3i, from lepja. 
las, lasu, from lesa. 
latti, from letja. 
laug, from Ijiiga. 
lauk, from luka. 
laust, from Ijosta. 
laut, from luta. 
la, latt, lagu, leginn, from 

le, le3i, from Ija. 
lek, from leika. 
leiS, liSinn, from li6a. 
leit, litu, litinn, from lita. 
loginn, from Ijiiga. 
lokinn, luku, from luka. 
lostinn, lustu, from Ijdsta. 
lotinn, lutu, from Iiita. 
16, lott, from Ijiiga. 
Iuk8i, from lykja. 
liiinn, from lyja. 
lyg, lygi, from Ijfiga. 
lyk, lyki, from liika. 
lyt, lyti, from luta. 
laegi, from liggja. 
laeki, from leka. 
IsEt, from lata. 
16g8, from leggja. 
man, from muna, munu. 
marSi, from merja. 
mat, matu, from nteta. 
ma, matti, maetti, from 

meig, from miga. 
mol, from mala. 
mul3i, from mylja. 
myndi, or mondi, from 

moeli, from mala, 
maetti, from mega, 
nam, namu, from nema. 
naut, nutu, notinn, nyt, 

from njota. 
numinn, from nema. 
naemi, from nema. 
ofinn, from vefa. 
olli, from valda. 
ollinn, from vella. 
oltinn, from velta. 
or&inn, from ver8a. 
orpinn, from verpa. 
orti, ort, from yrkja. 
68, 68u, from va8a. 
of, 6fu, from vefa. 
ok, from aka. 

61, from a!a. 
6ru, from vera, 
ox, 6xu, from vaxa. 
rak, raku, from reka. 
rak8i, from rekja. 
rann, from renna. 
rau8, ru8u, from rj68a. 
rauf, rufu, from rjiifa. 
rauk, ruku, from rjiika. 
raut, rutu, from rjota. 
re8, re8u, from ra8a. 
reiS, ri8inn, from ri8a. 
reif, rifinn, from rifa. 
reis, risinn, from risa. 
reist, rislu, from rista. 
reit, ritinn, from rita. 
ro, i. e. ero, from vera. 
ro8inn, from rj68a. 
rofinn, from rjiifa. 
rokinn, from rjiika. 
ruddi, rutt, from rySja. 
runninn, from renna. 
ry8, ry8i, from rjoSa. 
ry'f, ryfi, from rjiifa. 
ryk, ryki, from rjiika. 
rce, from roa. 
rae8, from ra8a. 
rori, reri, from roa. 
saddi, from se8ja. 
sag8i, sagt, from segja. 
sam3i, from semja. 
sar3, from ser8a. 
sat, satu, from sitja. 
sau8, from sj68a. 
saug & s6, from sjiiga. 
saung, from syngja. 
saup, from supa. 
sa, salt, from sja. 
se, ser, sem, se8, from vera. 
s6, se8u, senn, from sja. 
se8u, from syja. 
sef, sof, from sofa, 
seig & seg, sigu, from siga. 
seri, sori, from sa. 
seti3, from sitja. 
skaddi, from skeSja. 
skal, skalt, from skulu. 
skalf, from skjalfa. 
skall, from skjalla. 
skap8i, from skepja. 
skar, skaru, from skera. 
skaut, from skjota. 
skef, from skafa. 
skein, skinu, skininn, from 

skek, from skaka. 
skekinn, from skaka. 
skelf, from skjalfa. 
skellr, from skjalla. 
skorinn, from skera. 
skotinn, from skjota. 
skof, sk6fu, from skafa. 
skok, from skaka. 
sk6p, from skapa. 
skrapp, skruppu, skropp- 

inn, from skreppa. 
skrei8, skri8u, from skri8a. 
skulfu, skolfiS, from skjalfa. 
skuUu, skoUiS, from 

skutu, skyti, from skjota. 
skyI8i, from skulu. 
skylli, from skjalla. 
skodd, from ske8ja. 
slapp, sluppu, from sleppa. 




aing, slungu, from slong- 


1 ginn, from s\&. 

I it, slitu, slitinn, from 


■ppinn, from sleppa. 

', slogu, from sla. 

I , from sli'i. 

i.ill, from smella. 

iiaug, smo, smoginn, from 


iiurSi, from smyrja. 

ivg, from smjiiga. 

irt, snurtu, snyrti, snort- 
inn, from snerta. 

iviS, sni&inii, from sni8a. 

v, from smia. 

■ iri, sneri, from sniia. 

v^inn, from si66a. 

innn, from sjiiga. 

kkinn, from sokkva. 

igimi, from svelgja. 

niun, from svella. 

Uinn, from svelta. 

pinn, from supa. 
.irSinn, from serSa. 
>orfinii, from sverfa. 
x'r, soru, from sverja. 
Hitti, sott, from scekja. 
>pan6i, from spenja. 
spann, from spinna. 
spjo, from spyja. 

rakk, sprungu, sprung- 
inn, from springa. 
pratt, spruttu, sprottinn, 

from spretta. 
-jiunninn, Irom spiima. ■ 

spurfti, spurt, from spyrja. 
spon6, from spenja. 
sta&iS, from standa. 
stakk, from stinga. 
stal, stalu, from stela, 
stcig, ste, stigu, from stiga. 
steiid, from standa. 
stikk, from stinga. 
stokkinn, from stokkva. 
stolinn, from stela. 
stoS, stoSu, from stauda. 
strauk, struku, strokinn, 

from strjuka. 
stnddi, stutt, from stySja. 
stukku, from stokkva. 
stunSi, from stynja. 
stoe6i, from standa. 
stasli, from stela, 
stodd, from ste5ja. 
su&u, from sj69a. 
sugu, from suga. 
sukku, from sokkva. 
sulgu, from svelgja. 
sullu, from svella. 
sultu, from svelta. 
summu, from svimma. 
sunginn, sungu, from 

supu, sypi, from siipa. 
surfu, from sverfa. 
svaf, svafu, svaefi, from sofa, 
svalg, from svelgja. 
svalt, from svelta. 
svamm, from svimma. 
svarf, surfu, from sverfa. 
svarinn, from sverja. 
svei6, svi5inn, from svi&a. 

sveik, sviku, from svikja. 

sykki, from sokkva. 

sylgi, from svelgja. 

syS, sy6i, from sjd8a. 

sy'g, sygi, from sjiiga. 

syp, sypi, from siipa. 

saei, from sja. 

soeri, from sverja. 

saeti, from sitja. 

sodd, from seSja. 

siibr, from syja. 

s6g8, from segja. 

sori, from sii. 

taddi, from tedja. 

tafSi, from tefja, 

tal&i, from telja. 

tamdi, from temja. 

t6, te&r, from tja. 

tra3, tra8u, trseSi, from 

tre&, from tro6a. 
trySi, from triia. 
trodd, from tre8ja. 
toeki, from taka. 
tofS, from tefja. 
togg, tug8i, tugginn, from 


told, from telja. 

uUu, from velta. 

ultu, from velta. 

um5i, from ymja. 

undu, undinn, from vinda. 

unnu, unninn, from vinna. 

ur8u, from ver6a. 

urpu, from verpa. 

uxu, from vaxa. 

vaf, from vefa. 

vaf9i, from vefja. 

vakfti, from vekja. 

valSi, from velja. 

vail, from vella. 

valt, from velta. 

vanSi, from venja. 

vann, from vinna. 

var, varu, from vera. 

var8, from ver8a. 

varSi, from verja. 

varp, from verpa, 

vatt, from vinda. 

va, vatt, vdgu, from vega. 

ve5, from va5a. 

veik, vikinn, from vikja. 

veit, vitu, veizt, from vita. 

veld, from valda, 

vex, from vaxa. 

vi6r = vinnr, from vinna. 

vittu, from vinda. 

voldi, from valda. 

vaeri, from vera. 

vof6, from vefja. 

v6k8, from vekja. 

yond, from venja. 

yggi, from ugga. 

yki, from auka. 

ylli, from valda. 

ylti, from velta. 

ynfti, from una. 

yndi, from vinda. 

ynni, from unna & vinaa. 

yr6i, from verSa. 

yrpi, from verpa. 

yxi, from vaxa. 

J)ag6i, from J)egja. 

J)ak&j, from t)ekja. 

J)an8i, from ^enja. 
J)arf, J)arft, from {>urfa. 
J)aut, from {)j6ta. 
Ilk, J>, from l^iggja. 
J)orrinn, from ^verra. 
j)Otinn, from })j6ta. 
|)6, \>6gM, from J)v4. 
{)6tti, f (^tt, from J)ykkja. 
J)raut, {)rotinn, from |)rj6ta. 
j)reif, ^rifu, from |)rifa. 
j)ryt, from J)rj6ta. 
\i\i\bi, from Jjylja. 
J)urru, from {)verra. 
{justi, from ^ysja. 
^varr, {)urru, ^yrri, {)orr- 

inn, from |)verra. 
{)veginn, from ^vk. 
^vx, from \>va. 
{)yl8i, {)615i, from J)oIa. 
{jyrfti, J)6r8i, from J)ora. 
jjyrfti, from ])urfa. 
{)yrri, from {)verra. 
t)yti, from J)j6ta. 
J)y't, from {)j6ta. 
tsegi, from t)iggja. 
J)oetti, from |)ykkja. 
J)ok5, from j)ekja. 
{>6nd, from {>enja. 
ce6i, from va6a. 
oeki, from aka. 
oeli, from ala. 
aeti, from eta. 
aetti, from eiga. 
or&u, from erja. 
ottu, from etja. 
cOttu = Attu, from eiga. 
<otu = atu, from eta. 

II. Nominal For 7ns. 

..5rir, from annarr, other. 
\^li, from Egill. 

-liar, from ogn, chaff. 

lar, from old, age. 

uar, from oln or alin, ell. 

-liar, from iind, breath, duck. 
..iinar, from onn, labour. 

rSar, from or8, tilling. 
irkar, from ork, chest. 
arnar, from orn, eagle. 
aspar, from osp, asp. 
aungan, aungva, etc., from eingi, 

aurar, from eyrir, ounce. 
axar, from ox, axe. 
axlar, from oxl, shoulder. 
a & ana, from a, river. 
a, from ser, ewe. 
ar, from a, river. 
ballar, from bollr, ball. 
barkar, from borkr, bark. 
beggja, from ba8ir, both. 
birni, bjarnar, from bjijrn, hear. 
bjargar, from bjorg, help. 
bjorg, from bjarg, rock. 
bjort, from bjartr, bright. 
blitt, from blar, bhie. 
blint, from blindr, blind. 
blo8, from blaS, blade, leaf. 
botz, from botn, bottom. 
breitt, from breiSr, broad. 
brynn, from briin, brotv. 
br^r, from brii, bridge. 
broeSr, from br65ir, brother. 
broekr, from brok, breeches. 
brog3, from brag6, exploit. 
brott, from brattr, steep. 

bviendr, from buandi,/raMW«rt. 

baedi, from baSir, both. 

boegi, from bogr, bow. 

boejar, byjar, from beer, byr, town. 

boekr, from bok, 600^. 

baelki, from balkr, built, partition. 

boendr, from hondi, franklin. 

boetr, from bot, remedy. 

bok, from bak, back. 

bond, from band, bond. 

hotb, from bar3, brim. 

born, from barn, bairn, child. 

degi, from dagr, day. 

djorf, from djarfr, daring. 

draetti, from drattr, pulling. 

dura, from dyrr, door. 

dvalar, from dvol, delay. 

dypri, from djupr, deep. 

dcetr, from dottir, daughter. 

diigum, from dagr, day. 

dogurSr = dagver&r, dinner. 

dolum, from dalr, dale. 

Dcinum, from Danir, Danes. 

dopr, from dapr, dismal. 

eitt, from einn, one. 

elptr, from alpt, swan. 

endr, from ond, diick. 

erni, from orn, eagle. 

eyjar, from ey, island. 

fanna, from fSnn, snow. 

farar, from for, journey. 

fatt, from far,/eM/. 

fedr, from {zb'n, father. 

fegri, fegrstr, from fagr,/a/>. 

firfti, from fjor3r,^r/i&. 

firri, firstr, from fjarr, /ar. 

fja8rar, from fjo&r, feather. 

fjalar, from fjiil, deal. 

fjar6ar, from fjor6r,jffr/i&. 

fjar, from f^, cattle. 

fjogur, from i]6rir,four. 

fjoU, from fjall./e//. 

flatar, fleti, from Roti, flat. 

fleer, from Ho, flea. 

flot, from Hiitr, fiat. 

fremri, fremstr, fr. him, forward. 

fritt, from fri6r, handsome. 

fyllri, fyllstr, from fullr,/«//, 

faeri, faestr, from ikT,few, 

foetr, from fotr, /oo/, 

foSur, from hb'iT, father. 

fognu3r = fagnaftr, joy. 

fogr, from fagr,/ajr. 

foil, from fall, /a//, 

for, from hr, footprint. 

fost, from fastr,_;?rw. 

fot, from fat, garment. 

galtar, gelti, from goltr, hog. 

garnir, from gom, gut. 

gjafar, from gjof, gift. 

gjar6ar, from gjcirS, girdle. 

gjold, from gjald, payment. 

gjorn, from gjarn, willing, 

glatt, from glaSr, glad. 

gloeSr, from gl66, embers. 

gloft, from gla3r, glad. 

gott, from goSr, good. 

grafar, from grof, grave. 

graftar, grefti,-from groftr, digging. 

gratt, from grar, gray. 

grynnri, grynnstr, from grunnr, 

gros, from gras, grass. 
gaess, from g4s, goose. 

gomul, from gamall, old. 
gotu, from gata, path. 
Ha8ar, Hedi, from Ho3r. 
hafnar, from hofn, haven. 
hallar, from holl, hall. 
bandar, from bond, hand. 
HarSar, HerSi, from Hor3r. 
hattar, hetti, from hottr, hood. 
hatt, from har, high. 
heiliig, from heilagr, holy. 
helgan, helgari, from heilagr, holy. 
hendi, hendr, from bond, hand. 
himni, from himinn, heaven. 
hirti, from hjortr, hart. 
hitt, from hinn, the. 
hjardar, from hjord, herd. 
hjortu, from hjarta, heart. 
hlytt, from hly'r, warm. 
hnotr, hnetr, from hnot, nut. 
hratt, from hrar, raw. 
hundru3, from huudrad, hundred. 
hvannar, from hvonn, angelica. 
hvoss, from hvass, sharp. 
hvot, from hvatr, vigorous. 
haeri, haestr, from har, high. 
haetti, from haltr, mode. 
hof, from haf, sea. 
h6f5i, from hofud, head. 
hog, from hagr, handy. 
holl, from hallr, slant. 
holt, from haltr, lame. 
hopt, from hapt, bond. 
hord, from harSr, hard. 
jar3ar, from jorS, earth. 
jofn, jomn, from jafn, jamn, even. 
karar, from kor, bed of a bed- 
ridden person. 



kastar, kesti, from kcistr, pile. 

katli, from ketill, ketfle. 

kattar, ketti, from kottr, cat. 

kill, from kjolr, keel. 

klja, from kle, weaver's weight. 

knarrar, knerri, from kniirr, ship. 

knjit, knjam, from kne, knee, 

kramar, from krom, wasting sick- 

ku, from kyr, cow. 

kvalar, from kviil, torment. 

kvenna, from kona, woman. 

koku, from kaka, cake. 

kold, from kaldr, cold. 

kiill, from kail, call. 

kolluS, from kalla&r, called. 

laSar, from lo6, bidding. 

laga, from log, law. 

lagar, legi, from logr, water. 

lanz, from land, land. 

lasta, lesti, from lostr, fault. 

latum, from laeti, manners. 

ieitt, from leiftr, loathed. 

litia, from litill, little. 

Ija, from 1^, scythe. . 

lukli, from lykill, key. 

lyss, from lus, louse. 

laegri, laegstr, from lagr, low. 

loer, from 16, lark. 

lomb, from lamb, lamb. 

Icind, from land, land. 

long, from langr, long. 

magar, megi, from mogr, son. 

malar, from miil, gravel. 

manar, from mon, mane. 

manna, manni, mannr, from maSr, 

mar9ar, merdi.from morbT, marten. 

markar, from mork, mark, march. 

mart, from margr, many. 

mattkan, from mattigr, mighty. 

megri, from magr, meager. 

menn, meSr, from ma9r, man. 

merkr, from mork, mark. 

mey, mej'jar, from maer, maid. 

mi&i, from mjo6r, mead. 

mikit, from mikill, mickle. 

mitt, from minn, mine. 

mitt, from mi6r, middle. 

mjaftar, from mjo6r, mead. 

mjallar, from mjcill, snow. 

mjott, from mjor, slim. 

morni, from morginn, morning. 

m6no8r=:ma.nu5r, month. 

mu6r = munnr, mouth. 

mykill = mikill, mickle. 

myss, from miis, mouse. 

moe8r, from moftir, mother. 

maetti, from mattr, might. 

m69ru, from maftra, madder. 

mogn, from magn, might. 

mogr, from magr, meagre. 

morg, from margr, many. 

mork, from mark, march, border. 

mool, from mal, speech. 

nasar, from niis, nostril. 

nanari, from nainn, near. 

nattar, from n6tt, night. 

negl, from nagl, nail. 

Nir8i, NjarSar, from Nj6r8r. 

nytt, from ny'r, new. 

naetr, from nott, night. 

noetr, from not, net. 

niifn, nomn, from nafn, namn, 

n6r8ri,ner8ri, = nyr5ri,wore«or//&. 
orz, from or8, word. 
ott, from 68r, enraged. 
raSar, from ro8, row, series. 
raddar, from rodd, voice. 
randar, from rond, stripe. 
rastar, from rost, mile. 
rott, from r6r, resting. 
rcer, from ro, nail. 
roetr, from r6t, root. 
rom, from rammr, strong, bitter. 
rong, from rangr, wrong. 
ronn, from rann, house. 
TdO = ra, nook, yard. 
sa3r = sannr, sooth. 
sagar, from sog, saw, (to saw.) 
sagnar, from sogn, saw, {to say.) 
sakar, from siik, sake. 
sannz, from sandr, sand. 
satt, from sannr, sooth. 
sitt, from sinn, suus. 
sitt, from si8r, long. 
skatt, from skar, open. 
skemri, skemstr, from skammr, 

skildi, from skjoldr, shield. 
skiiar, from skor, shoe. 
skomm, from skammr, short. 
skopt, from skapt, shaft, handle. 
sk6pu8, from skapaSr, shaped. 
sk6r8, from skarS, cleft. 
slaett, from slaer, blunt. 
slaetti, from slattr, smiting. 
smaeri, smaestr, from smar, small. 
snaEr = snj6r, snow. 
spalar, speli, from spolr, rail. 
spjold, from spjald, tablet. 
spjoll, from spjall, spell. 
spaeni, from spann, chip. 
spok, from spakr, wise. 
stangar, stengr, from stong, pole. 
steSja, from ste8i, stithy. 
strandar, strendr, from strond, 

styttri, styztr, from stuttr, short. 
stoeri, stoerstr, from storr, great, 
stobi, steSr, from sto8, pillar. 
sumur, from sumar, summer. 
su, from sa, that. 

sii, from sy'r, sow. 

svar8ar,sver8i,from svor8r, sword. 

sveppi, from svoppr, mushroom. 

svi8r = svinnr, wise. 

svor, from svar, answer. 

syni, s(j>m, from sonr, son. 

saett, from saer, seeing. 

saevar, from saer, sea. 

sogu, from saga, story. 

solt, from saltr, salt. 

solu, from sala, sale. 

som, from samr, same. 

sonn, from sannr, true. 

SOX, from sax, sword. 

Sadr = sar, sore, wound. 

tafar, from tof, delay. 

tangar, from tong, tongs. 

tennr, te8r, tanna, from tonn, 

tjarnar, from tjorn, tarn. 
tra5ar, from tr68, enclosure. 
trja, trjam, from tre, tree. 
trutt, from triir, true. 
tugli, from tygill, strap. 
tveggja, from tveir, two. 
tvaer, tva, tvau, from tveir, two. 
taer, from ta, toe. 
to3u, from ta8a, hay. 
tofl, from tail, same. 
tolu, from tala, speech, tale. 
t61u8, from tala8r, told, spoken. 
torn, from tamr, tame. 
t6pu8, from tapaSr, lost. 
tosku, from taska, hag. 
to6r = tar, tears. 
vakar, from vok, hole. 
valar, veli, from voir, stick. 
vallar, velli, from v611r,^eW. 
vambar, from vomb, wotnb. 
vamma, from vomm,/aj///. 
vandar, vendi, from vondr, wand. 
vant, from vandr, difficult. 
var8ar, ver8i, from vorSr, ward. 
varnar, from vorn, defence. 
varrar, from vorr, lip. 
varrar, verri, from vorr, pnill. 
vattar, vetti, from vottr, glove. 
vatz, from vatn, water. 
vaxtar, vexti, from voxtr, growth. 
vand, from vandr, bad. 
veraldar, from verold, world. 
vesol, from vesall, wretched. 
vilja, from vili, will. 
vinz, from vindr, wind. 
vitt, from viSr, wide. 
v68, from va.b,ford. 
voknud, from vaknaSr, awake. 
voku, from vaka, waking. 
void, from vald, power. 
volu, from vala, knuckle. 
von, from vanr, want. 
vond, from vandr, difficult. 

vor, from varr, ware. 

vorSu, from var8a, beacon. 

vorm, from varmr, warm. 

vortu, from varta, wart. 

voru, from vara, wares. 

vcisk, from vaskr, valiant. 

votn, from vatn, water. 

Vd6n = va,n, hope. 

VdOpn = vapn, weapon. 

yngri, yngstr, from ungr, young. 

yxn, from uxi, ox. 

J)agnar, from J)6gn, silence. 

|)akkar, from {)okk, thanks. 

pau, J)aEr, from {)eir, they. 

J)elli, from J)ollr, younger. 

J)itt, from J)inn, thine. 

{)ramar, {)remi, from J)r6mr, rim, 

J)rastar, J)resti, from {)rostr, thrush. 
|)riggja, from J)rir, three. 
J)rjar, {irju, from {)rir, three. 
J)rae8i, from J)ra8r, thread. 
{)vaetti, from J)vattr, wash. 
J)yngri,|)yngstr, from ^ungT,heavy. 
J)ynnri, J)ynnstr, from J)unnr, thin. 
J)aetti, from J)attr, strand. 
J)6k, from J)ak, thatch. 
aerir, from arr, messenger. 
aesir, from ass, god. 
681i, from 68al, property. 
o8rum, from annarr, other. 
68u, from a8a, shell. 
ofl, from afl, strength. 
ogn, from agn, bait. 
okrum, from akr, acre. 
61dru8, from aldra8r, aged. 
oldrum, from aldr, eld, age. 
oldur, from alda, wave. 
ommu, from amma, grandmother. 
6ndu8, from andaSr, dear. 
6ndur8r = ondverSr, opposed. 
ongan, ongir, from einginn, none. 
onnur, from annarr, other. 
opnum, from aptan, evening. 
6r81a, or31um, from 6ba.l, property. 
org, from argr, mean. 
orm, from armr, poor. 
ormum, from armr, arm. 
ornum, from arinn, hearth. 
orvar, from or, arrow. 
osku, from aska, ashes. 
osnu, from asna, she-ass. 
otul, from atall, dire. 
ox, from ax, ear of com. 
d6 = a, river. 
06 = a, from aer, ewe. 
ool = al, strap. 
d6r = ar, oar. 
dC)r = ar, years. 
<orr = arr, messenger. 
dOSs = ass, god. 
d6st = ast, love. 



The Dictionary projected by the late Richard Cleasby, and completed, remodelled, 
and extended by Gudbrand Vigfusson, is now printed and published by the Delegates 
of the Clarendon Press, and it only remains to point out briefly the advantages which 
philology in general and English philology in particular will derive from a work on 
which so much money and such persistent labour have been expended. And first 
let it be said that the Delegates have well appreciated the importance of the object 
by undertaking such a work. It is peculiarly fitting that a great Icelandic Dictionary 
should be printed in England, and that the vocabulary of that noble tongue should 
be rendered and explained in English. It is well known that the Icelandic language, 
which has been preserved almost incorrupt in that remarkable island, has remained 
for many centuries the depository of literary treasures the common property of all the 
Scandinavian and Teutonic races, which would otherwise have perished, as they have 
perished in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Germany, and England. There was a time 
when all these countries had a common mythology, when the royal race in each of 
them traced its descent in varying genealogies up to Odin and the gods of Asgard. 
Of that mythology, which may hold its own against any other that the world has 
seen, all memory, as a systematic whole, has vanished from the medieval literature 
of Teutonic Europe. With the introduction of Christianity the ancient gods had 
been deposed and their places assigned to devils and witches. Here and there 
a tradition, a popular tale, or a superstition bore testimony to what had been lost ; 
and though in this century the skill and wisdom of the Grimms and their school 
have shewn the world what power of restoration and reconstruction abides in intel- 
ligent scholarship and laborious research, even the genius of the great master of 
that school of criticism would have lost nine-tenths of its power had not faithful 
Iceland preserved through the dark ages the two Eddas, which present to us in 
features which cannot be mistaken, and in words which cannot die, the very form 
and fashion of that wondrous edifice of mythology which our forefathers in the dawn 
of time imagined to themselves as the temple at once of their gods and of the worship 
due to them from all mankind on this middle earth. For man, according to their 
system of belief, could have no existence but for those gqod and stalwart divinities, 
who, frpm their abode in Asgard, were ever watchful to protect him and crush the 
common foes of both, the loathly race of giants, or, in other words, the chaotic 
natural powers. Any one, therefore, that desires to see what manner of men his 
forefathers were in their relation to the gods, how they conceived their theogony, how 
they imagined and constructed their cosmogony, must betake himself to the Eddas 
as illustrated by the Sagas, and he will there find ample details on all those points, 



while the Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic literatures only throw out vague hints and allu- 
sions. As we read Beowulf and the Traveller's Song, for instance, we meet at every 
step references to mythological stories and mythical events which «vould be utterly unin- 
telligible were it not for the full light thrown upon them by the Icelandic literature. 

But it is not in mythology alone that the Icelandic affords us help and sheds 1 
a flood of light on ways which would otherwise be obscure and darksome. From 
the Sagas we learn literally how our ancestors lived and moved and had their being. 
And here let us point out that there are Sagas of all kinds. There are the mythical 
Sagas, which deal of heroes, half gods and half men, who lived in the times when the 
belief in the preternatural prevailed, and when the human was eked out with the divine 
whenever man fell short of the occasion. These, too, next to the Eddas, are valuable 
helps by which to reconstruct that old mythological edifice, but they are not by any 
means the most interesting histories of their kind. Then there are the so-called 
historical Sagas, lives, for the most part, of the Kings of Denmark or of Norway, 
which sometimes exist in several recensions, the most famous of all being the Heims- 
kringla, ascribed to Snorri Sturluson, who seems to have aimed at a critical arrange- 
ment of the whole series. Such- Sagas as these, written at various periods by 
scribes more or less fitted for the task they had undertaken, are ' evidently of very 
varying authority, the most authentic of them being beyond doubt the Saga of 
Swerrir, King of Norway, who flourished at the end of the 12th century. In its 
way it is equal to Thucydides, and of it it may be said that the king was lucky in 
finding such an historian, and the writer in finding such a king to chronicle. These 
are still more valuable than the mythical Sagas, inasmuch as they are more full of 
the blood and stronger with the bone and sinew of daily life. With the exception 
of some incredible traits and occasional legends and superstitions inseparable from 
the age which produced them, the Sagas of the Kings of Norway give a faithful 
representation of the kings and earls of the time, as they ruled the Scandinavian 
lands and lived as lords over their subjects, who, on their side, possessed rights 
of which no king or noble could deprive them. These stories are filled with 
adventures and expeditions, such as that of Harold Hardrada against England, or 
of Magnus Barelegs against Scotland and Ireland, when they called out their levies 
and sailed with twenty or thirty thousand men at their back, to harry and plunder 
in the regions of the West. Not unlike these expeditions were those undertaken 
to the East as Crusaders by King Sigurd of Norway and Earl Rognvald of Orkney, 
the accounts of which are full of daring deeds on sea and land. And yet, although 
these Sagas are filled with the might and glory of kings and jarls, they are thickly 
sown with the brave deeds and outspoken utterances of sturdy freemen, and of those 
allodial owners of land which belonged to them in their own right, who did not scruple, 
if the king wronged them, to resist him, and even to defy him to the death. Such 
a man was Sveinki Steinarsson, who would only answer the messengers of King 
Magnus Barelegs in biting proverbs when they came to demand his submission, and 
at last made them fly home in deep disgrace. 


Besides these tnere is still another series of Sagas. Those relating to events in 
ilie lives of Icelanders at home and abroad. These are the most interesting, because 

ey are the most truthful of all. The Sagas of gods and heroes are mythical, 
. i together out of our horizon, and deal with supernatural beings which do not breathe 
our common air. In those elevated mythological regions respiration is impeded, and 
we only half live ; the gods and heroes have it too much their own way, and we are 

nazed rather than sympathetic. In the lives of the kings, again, it requires an effort 
of the imagination to raise ourselves to the level of their daily life, rough and rude as 

often was. We are more at our ease than when we are witnesses of the wanderings 
of Odin and the feats of Thor, but still we are not quite at our ease, and feel as 
many a stranger must have felt in the halls of Harold Hardrada and Magnus Barelegs. 
It is with the every-day life of the Icelanders that we feel ourselves thoroughly at 
home. In the hall of the gallant Gunnar at Lithend, or with the peaceful and law-skilled 
Xjal at Bergthorshvol, we meet men who think and act as men of noble minds and 

ntle hearts have ever acted, and will never cease to act so long as human nature 
remains the same. Gisli the generous outlaw and Snorri the worldly-wise priest, Mord 
Valgardson the wily traitor and Hallgerda the overbearing hateful wife, are characters 
true for all time, whose works and ways are but eminent examples of our common 
humanity, and at once arouse our sympathy or our antipathy. It is this great store 
of Sagas relating to daily life in an age eminently poetic and attractive that forms 
the wealth of the medieval vernacular literature of Iceland. It may be said to begin 
with Landndma, the Doomsday-Book of the colonisation of Iceland in the 9th century, 
and it extends down to the Sturlunga Saga in the 14th century, ending with that, 
perhaps the most interesting of all the Sagas, and thus bringing down the domestic 
history of the island to *^ the day when ft lost its independence. No other country in 
Europe possesses an ancient vernacular literature to be compared with this ; and if to 
this be added the translations and adaptations from the cycle of Romance literature, 
and the homilies and works of religious edification, as well as those on physical and 
moral science, of which Iceland possesses her full share, we shall see that, whether in a 
literary or in a philological point of view, no literature in Europe in the Middle Ages 
can compete in interest with that of Iceland. It is not certainly in forma pauperis 
that she appears at the bar of the tribunal of learning. 

Nor should it be forgotten that the early customs and laws of Iceland are of great 
importance for England. While our jurists have wearied themselves in tracing at home 
the origin of many of the institutions now peculiar to England, and while our legal anti- 
quaries have fathered trial by jury, the bulwark of Englishmen's rights, on King Alfred, 
the source of that mode of trial, as well as of our special demurrers and other sub-, 
tleties of pleading, is to be found in Iceland, where, as early as the loth century, 
a form of trial almost exactly answering to that in which our juries de vicineto played 
a part in the 13th century, may be seen in full vigour as described in the famous 
trial of the Burners in Njala. 

There can be little doubt that this form of trial and these legal subtleties are 

e 2 


due in great part to a Northern influence in the Danelagh, or Scandinavianized 
portion of England, which at the time of the Conquest may be roughly reckoned at 
half the kingdom. It may be objected indeed that these institutions came in with the 
Normans ; but unfortunately for this theory, the form of trial prevalent in Normandy 
was not, as in Iceland, trial by jury, but that by compurgation, or witnesses brought 
forward by the accused to swear that he did not do or was not capable of doing the 
deed laid at his door. And it is very remarkable that this trial by compurgation was 
also that common in Norway itself, as well as in all the Teutonic races ; thus it existed 
in England among the Anglo-Saxons, and it came from Norway into Normandy along 
with the followers of Rollo, and thence it went with them into England. But in the 
Danelagh it found the form of trial peculiar to Iceland, and which had been developed 
in that island alone. This was a process not in general by compurgation, but before 
judges by witnesses to the fact, who made up the well-known kviSr of the Sagas. After 
the Conquest, in that general scramble of tongues and local institutions which took place 
among the native populations which the Normans, had subdued, this form of trial held 
its own in the Danelagh, and ultimately asserted its supremacy over the compurgations 
both of the Saxons and the Normans, and thus we find it formally recognised as the 
law of the land at the end of the 13th century. * From the analogy of the Icelandic 
customs,' says Mr. Vigfusson under the word kvi^r, ' it can be inferred with certainty 
that along with the invasions of the Danes and Norsemen, the judgment by verdict 
was also transplanted to English ground ; for the settlers of England were kith and 
kin to those of Iceland, carrying with them the same laws and customs.' The difference 
between the Scandinavian lands and England being that while the institution was never 
developed in Norway, and only struck faint root in the ' Sandema?id' and ' namd' of 
the Danish and Swedish laws, and while it languished and dfed out in Iceland itself 
with the fall of the Commonwealth towards the end of the 13th century, it grew more 
and more naturalised in England under the rule of the Normans, supplanting all other 
forms of trial between man and man, until England came to be considered the ' classical 
land of trial by jury.' 

From whatever point of view, therefore, we consider the relations which exist 
between England and Iceland, whether from that of primaeval affinity and a com- 
munity of race, religion, and law, or from that of connexion by commerce, immigra- 
tion, or conquest, we shall find the two languages and peoples so closely bound 
together, that whatever throws light on the beliefs, institutions, and customs of the one, 
must necessarily illustrate and explain those of the other. Nor should it be forgotten 
that in the loth and nth centuries the Icelanders were foremost in the history of the 
time. They were at once the most learned and the boldest and most adventurous 
of men. From Iceland they pushed on to Greenland and America, and their ships 
swarmed in commerce or in viking voyages on all the seas. At the courts of kings 
and earls, whether Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, or Anglo-Saxon, they were welcome 
guests, for though none were more dreaded as foes, none were more greeted as friends 
for their gifts of wit and song. Thus we find Egil Skallagrimsson playing a great part, 


both as a warrior and a skald, at the court of the Anglo-Saxon King Athelstane, whose 
relations with the mighty King Harold Fair-hair, the founder of the Norwegian 
monarchy, was such that he fostered his son Hacon the Good, who thenceforth was 
known in the history of the North as Hacon Athelstane's foster-child. But where 
such mighty men as Egil came we may be sure that many others of lesser mark 
followed, and that when Eric Bloodyaxe held the North of England as a fief from 
Athelstane, he had many Icelanders in his train. As time wore on, and the Danish 
invasions under Sweyn and Canute followed, there was a still further infusion of 
Northern life into the North of England, until, as we have seen before, the Dane- 
lagh, or that portion of England in which the Northmen lived, as they lived at 
home, under their own laws and customs, stretched itself over half the kingdom. 
We have already seen something of the effect which these had on the laws of England, 
and how trial by jury first rose in the Danelagh, and then spread over the whole land ; 
but the presence of the Northern element in the country shewed itself in other ways 
besides those of law. The language of the North of England, and especially the dialect 
called Lowland Scotch, was full, and to this day is full, of words and expressions 
which can only be explained by the help of the Icelandic as the representative of 
the old Northern language spoken by the Scandinavian settlers in England. When 
the Streoneshalch of the Anglo-Saxons was called Whitby by the Danish invaders, 
and when Northworthige became Deoraby, our Derby, the new names were full of 
meaning to the Danes and meaningless to the old possessors. ' The town on the 
white cliff' was a name that spoke at once to Scandinavian sea-rovers as they neared 
that part of the Yorkshire coast to which they gave the name of Kliflbnd or Cleve- 
land ; and in the case of Derby, ' the town of deer,' the town near the wooded hills full 
of beasts and game, spoke more forcibly to the feelings of a race that equalled the Anglo- 
Saxons in their love of vert and venison than the old name ; derived from the position 
of the town towards the North. It is scarcely necessary to repeat the fact, now so 
well known, that this final by of names of places in England is the invariable sign of 
Scandinavian settlement and possession. It was a local termination unknown to the 
Anglo-Saxons, but so common among one of the Northern races, that the towns and 
places to which they gave it may be traced by hundreds on the map of England. 
Rugby is about the farthest south that we find it ; but Tenby in South Wales shews 
that when the Northmen settled on the remotest parts of the sea-coast they left their 
mark there as well as in the very heart of the country. 

Besides these names of places, very many modern English words shew early 
Northern influence ; and even in Anglo-Saxon times the language was so blended 
with Scandinavian words that there were often double expressions for the same thing. 
One of the most common of these is egg, not originally an Anglo-Saxon, but a pure 
Scandinavian form, which, existing at first side by side with its old English equivalent, 
has at last thrown it entirely out, much in the same way as in certain counties the 
English rat has been eradicated by its Norwegian cousin. The story told by Caxton in 
his Eneydos throws light on the gradual progress of this word south. A traveller was 


at an inn at one of the Forelands, probably the South, in Kent, and asked for eggs, 
but was answered by the landlady that she knew no French ; and it then came out 
that what he in London called eggs, she in Kent called 'eyrenl for in that part of 
England the old Anglo-Saxon word still lingered. Like traces of Scandinavian influ- 
ence may be found in the form are of the verb substantive, which, in the three persons 
of the present plural, has expelled the old Anglo-Saxon ' syndonl a form akin to the 
German ' seyn! But perhaps the most remarkable instances of the displacement of old 
Anglo-Saxon words by their Scandinavian equivalents are 'law', which, even in the time of 
Edgar, had begun to throw out the old Anglo-Saxon 'csw' and ''doinl and the two verbs to 
'take' and to 'calll which are now in every man's mouth, but which long sounded strange 
to English ears. For ages the Anglo-Saxon forms ' clepe' and ' nim held their own, but 
now the first is only just understood in archaic poetry, while the last is utterly obsolete. 
The same maybe asserted of 'cast', 'samel 'skill! 'skin,' 'score,' and numberless others. 

Enough has now been said to shew both the general and particular importance 
of the study of Icelandic for English philologists. Mythology, laws, customs, litera- 
ture, the names of places, and even the every-day vocabulary of life cannot be 
thoroughly understood except by comparison with those of the North as preserved 
in the language and literature of Iceland. For the interest of English therefore the 
projection and publication of an Icelandic-English Dictionary on a large scale needs 
no justification, for it is simply the greatest help to English philology that has ever 
been undertaken and completed. When we possess an Anglo-Saxon Dictionary of 
the same proportions and authority we shall be better able to say what the Anglo- 
Saxon language really was in its earliest stage, what it afterwards became when 
a great infusion of Scandinavian words was thrown into it, and what it was as it 
degenerated into semi-Saxon after the Conquest. But while it is so important for 
England that she should possess this Icelandic-English Dictionary, it may easily be 
shewn that it is no less advantageous for the world at large that English should be 
the language into which the Icelandic is rendered and explained. It would, for 
instance, be little gain to the literary world if there had been an Icelandic-Danish 
or Icelandic-Norse or Icelandic-Swedish Dictionary. In any of those cases the lan- 
guage of a small people would have been the exponent of a language and literature 
which for its beauty and richness is worthy of being known to the greatest possible 
number of readers. From this point of view no language, not even German itself, 
could supply the place of English, which is already the mother-tongue of half the 
civilised earth, and in days to come will fill a still ampler space on the surface of the 
globe. In India, Australia, and, though last not least, America ; wherever the English 
tongue is spoken and the Anglo-Saxon race has taken its stubborn root, it will be 
possible for scholars to avail themselves of this great treasure — ^a Thesaurus in every 
sense of the word, which, had it been explained and rendered in a Scandinavian 
tongue, would have remained to all but a few a sealed book. 

Nor let it be for a moment supposed that any of the dialects we have named 
lie in reality any closer to the Icelandic than the English itself. No philologer would 


deny for an instant the importance of the labours of scholars in both the modern 
Danish and Norwegian ; but those languages as vehicles of expression have suffered 
so much from the infusion of German words and from the adoption and assimilation 
of German forms and phrases, that it is often far more difficult to give the meaning 
of an Icelandic word or phrase in them than in English. The Swedish has remained 
more faithful to her old form of speech so far as the vocabulary is concerned, and her 
literature is the noblest of all the sister languages. Tegner and Geijer are names in 
poetry and history of European importance ; but with all the richness of* her store of 
words, from immemorial time Sweden has held herself aloof from the rest of the Scan- 
dinavian tongues and has remained distant, though closely cognate. Of all the kindred 
tongues, English, and that form of English which is called Lowland Scotch, has remained 
nearest in form, feeling, and often in vocabulary to the Icelandic. As for German and 
French, with all their richness and facility, they cannot dispute the claims of English in 
this particular respect ; and this no doubt is owing, besides the natural and spiritual 
affinity existing between English and Icelandic, to the flexibility of the former tongue, 
which enables her to make foreign words more thoroughly her own than any other 
language. The Danish, the Swedish, and the German, if we may be allowed the expres- 
sion, swallow many foreign words, but they seem to want the power to digest and 
assimilate them. They remain, so to speak, sticking in their throats for ages, while the 
English has long since made them part and parcel of her own flesh and blood. The 
courage of the Delegates of the Oxford Press in undertaking this work, and the care 
and time bestowed on printing it, will meet with their reward in the undoubted fact that 
they have not only given to the world one of the greatest helps to comparative philology 
that has ever appeared, but that this Dictionary is peculiarly a work to be published 
in England and by a great English University. Oxford now possesses a work on 
Northern philology which may be matched with the labours of Rask and Petersen in 
Denmark, with those of Munch and Keyser and Unger and Aasen in Norway, with 
those of Schlyter, the Nestor of Early Northern Jurisprudence, and Klemming in 
Sweden, and with those of Maurer, Juris Islandici peritissimus, in Germany ; and in 
this Dictionary she holds out a sure light to every student of Northern literature. 

After these general remarks we proceed to consider this particular Dictionary, and 
to shew that it is worthy of being the interpreter of a language so rich, and of a literature 
so noble. It is no less strange than true that, till very recent times, never was language 
worse off for helps and appliances by which it might be learnt than this very Icelandic. 
The works of earlier scholars, among the chief of which are the Glossary of Junius, the 
Thesaurus of Hickes, and Yhr^s Lexicon Suio-Gotkicum, were so antiquated and imperfect 
as rather to mislead than assist the student. As to more modern works, any one who 
has had to learn Icelandic by the feeble light afl'orded by Bjorn Halldorsson's Lexicon, 
published in two volumes at Copenhagen in 1814, or aided by the various Glossaries 
annexed to Editions of the 5agas, will feel, when he consults this Oxford Dictionary, 
that the days before its appearance were indeed the dark ages of Icelandic philology, 
and be ever grateful to the Delegates of the University Press for undertaking and 


publishing this sure guide. The history of the book, for books have histories just aS 
much as men, has already been partly told in the Preface. Projected by Richard Cleasby, 
whose name should never be mentioned by Icelandic scholars without pious respect, 
it was supposed to be about to be published, when death cut short his days and arrested 
the progress of the work, which scholars like Grimm and Schmeller anxiously expected. 
No one perhaps, both by his knowledge of the Teutonic dialects and by his inde- I 
fatigable love of his subject, was better fitted than Richard Cleasby to carry out his ■ 
great plan of printing a Dictionary of the Icelandic language, as exhibited by quota- 
tions drawn from the prose literature of Iceland in that golden age which ended with 
the 14th century. At the same time Dr. Egilsson was busy with his Dictionary of the 
Poetic Diction of Iceland, so that between these two works no want or desire of the 
philologist would have been left unsupplied. Dr. Egilsson's work has been published 
for many years, but the Dictionary which Cleasby projected has only just seen the light. 
It is due in this place to declare that the heirs of the deceased, when the hand and head 
which should have superintended the completion of his work were cold in death, were 
equal to the emergency. They determined that the work should not be abandoned, and 
advanced a large sum of money for its completion. It has already been mentioned 
in the Preface that when the MS. was transmitted to England it was found to be in 
such an unsatisfactory condition that in the end it had to be entirely rewritten and 
remodelled. This most responsible duty was ultimately undertaken in the year 1866 
by Mr. Gudbrand Vigfusson, then one of the first, as he is now undoubtedly the first, 
of Icelandic philologers. 

Many years after the transmission of the MS., and when the first part of the 
Dictionary had been published and the second and third were far advanced towards 
completion, Mr. Cleasby's own materials were returned from Copenhagen and handed 
over to the writer. Acting on his own discretion, he determined that it would be 
most unfair to Mr. Vigfusson to interrupt him by new matter, which might have 
been of great assistance at an earlier period, but which could only have been an 
encumbrance to him when his labours were drawing to an end. Two boxes, which 
contained what may be called Mr. Cleasby's literary remains, were left unopened till the 
Dictionary was completed and the last sheet had gone to press. On the 25th of 
August last they were opened by Dr. Dasent and Mr. Vigfusson, and were found to 
contain three volumes in folio ; in one of which were entered, in Mr. Cleasby's own 
hand, the principal verbs of the language, 112 in number, and filling 500 written 
pages*"'. In a second volume, 84 nouns, particles, and pronouns are contained, filling 

* These verbs are auka, setla, bei^a, beita, bera, bi^ja, binda, blta, bjd^a, blanda, bliJsa, bseta, bregma, 
brjota, byggja, bua, deila, draga, drepa, dvelja, eiga, ey«a, falla, fara, f^, fela, fella, festa, faera, ganga, gbra, gefa, geta, 
grei^a, greina, hafa, halda, hefja, hefna, hrifa, kalla, kaupa, kenna, kjdsa, koma, kunna, kve^a, kve^ja, lata, leggja, 
lei^a, leika, leita, li^a, Ifta, Ijosta, liika, lysa, msela, mega, munu, nema, ra^a, rei^a, reka, rekja, renna, renna 
(trans.), reyna, ri^a, roa, ry^ja, segja, selja, semja, setja, sitja, sj^, skera, slcilja, skipa, skipta, skjdta, skora, sl^, 
sHta, snua, ssekja, spenna, spretta, standa, stilla, stinga, stiga, taka, tala, tj^ (tseja, tyja), {(ykkja, var^a, vaxa, vega,' 
veita, vera, ver^a, verja, verpa, vilja, vinna, vita, vikja. 


230 written pages*. In the third volume were entered the prepositions to the number 
of 44, filling 160 written pages f; added to which it appears, from pencil marks and notes, 
that it was the intention of the writer to enter into the volume several important 
verbs and substantives not to be found in the first volume. These three volumes are 
estimated by Mr. Vigfusson to contain about 15,000 quotations, written out at length 
and posted most methodically and neatly, like entries in a ledger, the references 
being double to book and chapter, and page and line. These volumes are written 
in a bold running hand, and the correctness of the spelling and accentuation of 
Icelandic words shews the writer's thorough mastery over the language. Besides 
the beautiful writing in ink, there are frequent pencil marks and marginal notes in 
a fine English hand. These notes often contain valuable remarks, though all in 
a rough state, and affording rather hints and suggestions as to the plan of the 
Glossary. Besides, there are frequent renderings of Icelandic words into Latin as 
well as English. It has been a pious duty to print specimens of these remarks on 
pp. cv-cviii, where will be found Cleasby's entries under the word mdl, to which 
has been added, for purposes of comparison, the same word as it appeared in the 
Copenhagen transcripts based on these very materials of the lamented philologer|. 

The remainder of the Cleasby collections in the boxes consisted of slips, on 
each of which was entered a single Icelandic word, followed by quotations and 
references, for the most part in a very elementary state. About half the writing on 
these slips is that of Cleasby, who seems to have extended and completed the work 
first begun in rough by his amanuenses. In one respect these slips, rude and incom- 
plete as they are, contrast very favourably with the Copenhagen transcripts. The 
quotations in them are written out in full, and the references are to chapter, page, 

* These words are the nouns alin, brag^, bor^, braut, dagr, efni, eyrir, fall, fang, fotr, for, gar^r, grein, gripr, 
hlutr, hugr, hundra^, hiis, hofu^, hond, kostr, lag, lei^, ma%r, mbrk, m^l, m^na'^r, megin, munr, nott, or^, 
penningr, ra^, sok, sta^r, stafr, stokkr, stund, {)ing, van, vegr, vi^r, orendi, ortug : and the pronouns, adverbs, 
particles, and adjectives — at, ert = er, en or enn (conj.), her, heldr, ok, nema, sva, ]par, \k, Y>, j^dtt, upp, uppi; 
allr, annarr, einn, eingi, hann, hinn, hv£rr, hv^rrtveggja, hverr, hvarrgi, hverrgi, nakkvarr ( =nekkverr), sa, sem, 
s^r-hverr, J)essi ; far, fullr, go^r, har^r, hdr, lllr, lauss, litill, mikill, viss. 

t These prepositions are af, at, H, an, eptir, fjarr fjarri, fra, fyrir, gagnvart, gegn, gegnum, handa, hj^, 
1, innan, kring, me^, me^al, megin, mi^il, milli millim, mot, moti mots, naer ngerri, of, or or or, sakar sokum, til, 
um, um-fram, um-hverfis, undan, undir, upp-^, uppi, ur, titan, yfir, vegna, vi^, — about 44 in 160 written pages. 
From pencil marks it is clear that Cleasby intended to insert the verbs bi^a, finna, flytja, hlaupa, hoggva, kasta, 
kosta, leysa, leita, skulu ; as also the words land, li^, mjok. Of this volume Cleasby left a foul copy also in his 
own hand, being a rough outline, while the fair copy contains a more careful, though still very elementary, 
arrangement of his materials. All these words are entered in no order, but evidently just "as each word occurred 
to him ; but on the fly-leaves Mr. Cleasby has drawn up an alphabetical list of the words contained in each 
volume. From this we are enabled to see the alphabetical order he intended to follow in the Dictionary. He 
distinguishes short and long vowels as in this present Dictionary : but, besides, he puts '6 after a (thus divorcing 
a and ^), thus, a, a, '6, b, c . . .\ p hs: places after / (as in Icelandic-German Glossaries) ; and (b and (s he 
inserts respectively under a and 0, as ae, oe. — G. V. 

X In the Copenhagen transcripts important words have been omitted, no doubt from carelessness: thus 
there is no verb luka and no preposition milli ; luka is in Cleasby's volume represented by 60 references, in the 
present Dictionary there are some 65, of course only partly the same as in Cleasby. — G. V. 


and line. In another particular, the care taken by Cleasby in quotation and reference 
was remarkable, In cases where several Sagas are contained in one volume; such, 
for instance, as the Islendlnga Sogur (of 1830), he is not content to quote the collective 
volume, but Invariably specifies the particular Saga from which the quotation Is made. 
If this excellent rule had been observed in the Copenhagen transcripts, immense 
labour would have been spared to Mr. Vigfusspn, who has returned to Cleasby's 
method, though in ignorance that he was pursuing the plan of the originator of the 
Dictionary. The references and quotations In these slips may be roughly estimated 
at 50,000. They contain the rest of the Icelandic vocables, the 240 words already 
mentioned as entered In the three volumes being omitted. 

Even from a glance at these, his own materials, Cleasby stands out as a clear- 
sighted ready worker. Some time before his death he had printed a specimen of his 
Glossary, a portion of which will be found appended to the Memoir which follows this 
Introduction. So far as we can judge from these materials, it is plain that he intended 
to complete the work on the same scale ; and It is very satisfactory to see that in one or 
two cases of doubtful etymology his views as now revealed are Identical with those of the 
philologer to whom the laborious task of restoring order to his collections has devolved'"". 
Such is the nature of the literary remains of Cleasby now restored to his native land, 

* Thus, on the slip which contains the Icelandic word rost, a mile, he has entered in pencil * rest,' shewing 
that he was aware of the identity between the Icelandic and the English words, though their modern senses are 
different. So again, under the word eingi, he has drawn up in parallel columns the various forms of the word, 
thus striving to arrange them methodically. Under pessi Cleasby notes a Runic form, but adds in pencil that 
such forms are 'not otherwise included in this Dictionary;' and then he adds 'it would appear as if the 
lengthened form (^essari etc.) arose from a desire to avoid so many cases terminating in J>essi, ^essa, etc. ; 
perhaps annarr was taken as a model for the new form.' His subdivisions are very precise, though perhaps 
a little too formal and old-fashioned; thus he draws up the verbs in aciivae zxid passivae formae, having pro- 
bably adopted the expression from German Dictionaries. * Tropical' is the term he uses for the 'metaphorical' 
of the present Dictionary, in which the example set by Liddell and Scott has been followed. Under go^i, 
lei^, ^ing, Cleasby has begun collecting a few historical names; thus we notice, — under lei^, Hvamms-lei^, 
pver^r-lei^. Band.: under ^ing, Borgundar- or Borgar-]>ing, Fms. vi. 233; Ho'rnboru-^ing, ix. 269; Rauma- 
J)ing, 247, Ann. 12 14 (in Norway); Lambaness-^ing, Dropl. (in Iceland). 

The word eyrendi or 0rendi, an errand, Mr. Cleasby has arranged as follows: — ' 1. intervallum respirandi, 
2. siropha, 3. oratio, 4. negoiium! But in an inserted slip of paper he has reconsidered the matter. ' This word,' 
he says, ' in its present form appears derived from br = Sr = out of, and bnd, andi = breath, in the same manner as 
the adjective or-endr = exanimatus (sic), with which may be compared i-endr = alive, which likewise well accords 
with the signification No. i. Nos. 2 and 3 might also perhaps be possibly explained as extension of the same 
signification, though they may also belong to what follows. But,' Mr. Cleasby adds, ' its more frequent use in the 
signification of affair or business, an errand (^o. 4), and especially the passage 677. 35^ [see ^rr, line 8], leave 
no doubt also of its original connection with drr, a messenger, G. aims, A. S. cerend, O. H. G. arunti, which the 
frequent use of -indi rather than -endi also favours. It is not improbable that originally there were two distinct 
words, which later, after a correct feeling of their origin had been lost, became confounded.' He then says, 
' ^rendi as head- form, and all to be altered ; drr probably lengthened from arr, Goth, airus, cBendi, arunti.' 
Whence it appears that Cleasby intended to arrange the etymology of the word afresh, and in the same way as it 
now stands in this Dictionary. Eyrendi, qs. or-endi, out of breath, is an old popular, home-made Icelandic 
etymology, which probably originated from the well-known passage in the Edda of Thor's drinking the sea dry 
until he became short of his 'eyrendi.' But nevertheless it is only a false etymology, as is borne out by com- 
parison with the form the word takes in the sister languages (A. S., O. H. G.) To put ' intervallum respirandi' 


together with many valuable works from his library, nearly twenty years after his 
Dictionary was said to have been completed. Better far would it have been had they 
been restored on his death. As it was, a hard fate neither permitted him to com- 
plete worthily the great work which he had sketched out in these volumes, nor suffered 
the threads which had fallen from his hands to be taken up by those who were com- 
petent to unravel them till many years after his decease. 

I From the thankless task of contemplating the short-comings of others, it is 

grateful to turn to the part which Mr. Vigfusson has had in this undertaking. 
With the most praiseworthy determination, neither turning to the right nor to the 
left, he has pursued his course and fulfilled his task unflinchingly for seven years, 
during which he has resided in Oxford. Those only who, like the writer, were 
acquainted with the Cleasby transcripts as they came from Copenhagen, can tell how 
far more meritorious and scientific the printed Dictionary is than those undigested 
collections. Mr. Vigfusson might have been contented with restoring order and in 
imparting life and spirit into the rude mass which had been handed over to him ; but in 
reality he did much more. He has embodied into the work the materials to be found 
in the Poetic Dictionary of Dr. Egilsson, and he has also largely availed himself of 
the quotations and references in the excellent Icelandic -Norse Dictionary of Fritzner, 
as well as the greater part of the Glossary of Mobius. Added to which he has 
sought words and phrases and proverbs from very many glossaries too numerous to 
mention. The result has been that as the Oxford Dictionary now appears, about 
one-third of the references has been derived from the Cleasby transcripts, which were 
originally meant to illustrate, as we have already said, the golden age of prose Icelandic 
literature. Thus it is that we find copious quotations in them from sjich classical works 
as Njala, Gragds, and the Laxdaela and Egils Sagas. Besides these, the following list 
will pretty nearly exhaust the works quoted in the Cleasby collections, and from these 
the quotations were less copious : — the Hei^arviga Saga, Hrafnkels Saga, V^pnfirSinga 
Saga, Ljosvetninga Saga, Viga-Gliims Saga, Glsla Saga, FostbrseSra Saga, Bjarnar 
Saga Hitdaela-kappa, Gunnlaugs Saga, Bandamanna Saga, Grettis Saga, the Sturlunga, 
Arna Biskups Saga, and the Sagas of some other Bishops extending to about 
one-third of the first volume of the Biskupa Sogur. So far as the Laws are con- 
cerned, besides the Gragas, quotations are made from the first and part of the second 
volume of Norges Gamle Love and the two Kristinrettir. Besides the domestic Sagas 
of Iceland mentioned above, quotations and references were made from and to the 
Fornmanna Sogur, the Fornaldar Sogur, and from the Skuggsja, the Snorra Edda, and 
the Saemunds Edda and Skalda, so far as the prose diction was concerned. In addition 
to these, copious use was made of some moral and biblical treatises and paraphrases, 
such as Stj6rn and the Homilies, now printed, but then quoted from the MSS. 226, 619, 

as the head sense is to take the word by the wrong end. In Iceland all notion of the true origin of eyrendi 
became lost; arr, a messenger, being an obsolete poetical word, unknown except in the bad sense of an imp, 
devil, evil spirit, — a remnant, we believe, of Biblical sentences like Matth. xxv. 41, where, in the Icelandic version, 
drr happens to be used, whence the bad sense clung to the word even when detached and alone. — G. V. 


and 677 in the Arna-Magnaean collection, as well as the Sagas and legends contained 
in the MSS. Nos. 623, 645, 655, and 656 in that collection*. In what may be called the 
translations and adaptations from the Romance cycle, references and quotations were 
made from the Alexanders Saga and the Strengleikar, as well as from the Flovents 
Saga, the Elis Saga, the Bserings Saga, under the common head of Arn. M. 580, a MS. 
which has not as yet been printed. These, with a few Deeds out of Finn Jonsson's 
Historia Ecclesiastica, vol. i. and ii. reaching down to the year 1400, and some of the 
Maldagar or Agreements of various monasteries in Iceland, complete the list of works 
made use of in Cleasby's own materials and in the transcripts made from them at 
Copenhagen after his death. 

That they were quotations from a great body of works belonging to the best 
age of Icelandic literature cannot be contested, but it is also undeniable that a mass 
of works of the greatest importance to the philology of the language were entirely 
omitted. It must ever be remembered that a Dictionary has to deal with words, 
and not with literature, except as affording a matrix, so to speak, from which words 
may be extracted. A very ignoble author may thus afford a very precious word ; 
and a Dictionary, in the true sense of the word, must open her doors to all her 
children of whatever age, whether of high or low degree, alike. Based on this 
principle, we find that this Dictionary, besides embodying the whole vocabulary Of 
the poetic language, includes not only very many words contained in the modern 
language of Iceland, but also numberless quotations from Sagas and writings alto- 
gether ignored in the Cleasby transcripts. Not to speak of particular MSS., such 
as the Codex Regius, the Flateyjarb6k, and Morkinskinna, we shall find a whole host 
of works quoted, ^o which reference is never made in Cleasby's collections. Such are 
the Barlaams Saga, the Legendary Olafs Saga, the Fagrskinna, the Tristrams Saga, the 
R6mverja Saga, the Parcevals Saga, the Ivents Saga, the Thomas Saga Erkibiskups, 
the Jatvardar Saga, the Karlamagniis Saga, the Pi^reks Saga, the Saga of f'orstein the 
son of Sidu-Hall, and several others. Besides these, the end of the second volume and 
the whole of the third volume of Norges Gamle Love, the Diplomatarium No'rvagicum, 
the remaining Sagas of the Bishops, and the Runic Inscriptions have been left unnoticed 
in the Cleasby transcripts. If we add to this that the quotations from such standard 
works as Landnama, Eyrbyggja, Vatnsdsela, the Fldamanna Saga, the Rafns Saga, the 
Laurentius Saga, the Arons Saga, the Kristni Saga, the Islendingab6k, the Orkneyinga 
Saga, the Mariu Saga, and many others were very scanty and imperfect, — and if we con- 
sider that no extracts were made from the ancient poetical literature, not even from the 
rhymed names of trees, fishes, birds, and nautical words, etc., in the Edda (Edda Gl.) ; 
that there were no quotations from any prose work after a. d. 1400 or 1350; nor from 
any work of the time of the Reformation downwards ; and that no regard was had to 
the modern living language, which in every nation remains a true Lexicographical Cor- 
nucopia, — we must confess that a large field of unexplored country remained to cover. 

* Nearly all these vellum fragments — in Cleasby's life -time mere black and torn shreds — have now been 
published in the Marlu Sogur and the Postula Sogur by the learned industry of C. R. Unger in Christiania. 


But besides this extended field of reference and quotation, Mr. Vigfusson has 
done much more than improve and arrange the Cleasby transcripts. So far as can 
be ascertained from the printed specimen, it was Cleasby's intention to pay particular 
attention to the etymology of the Icelandic language, and this intention has been 
followed in the new Dictionary, though there was scarcely a trace of etymology in 
the transcripts. At the head of the account of each word its etymology and affiliation 
with other tongues are given, and this information will be found to be both ample 
and reliable. There may be, as there must always be, differences of opinion as to 
the etymology of certain words — for the region of etymology contains some of the 
darkest paths to be found in the realm of philology. But in every case the 
etymologies here given are scientific and reasonable, which cannot be said of most 
Dictionaries. In a word, they are free from that wildness and extravagance which 
have so often brought this branch of philology into disrepute, and on the whole 
are stamped with a modesty and forbearance which speak loudly for the good sense 
and discretion of their author. Under another point of view this Dictionary presents 
a feature never seen, or at least far less prominently seen in other Dictionaries. 
This feature may be called the literary life of important Icelandic words. It con- 
tains an exhaustive collection of Icelandic proverbs, which are, as it were, the marrow 
of the language; and whenever a word occurs which has played a great part in the 
laws or literature or history of the Northern races, the fullest account of it is given. 
If the reader will refer to such natural words as ' Nott,' * Sol,' and * Sumar,' such law 
terms as ' Lyritr,' ' M^l,' ' Mot,' and ' ?ing,' such mythological compounds as * Miispell ' 
and ' Ragna-rok,' such religious and social words as ' Baugr,' ' Bauta-steinn,' ' Go^i,' and 
* LogmaSr,' and to words of reckoning, such as ' Fimmt,' 'Tigr,' ' HundraS,' and 
' l^iisund,' he will find not only an exact etymological account of each, but a whole 
history of the word in the various relations which it bore to the development of religious, 
social, and political feeling in the Icelandic Commonwealth. These instances have been 
taken almost at random, but what is true of them is true also of hundreds of words in 
this Dictionary, which in this characteristic is matchless of its kind. 

And now nearly all has been said that could be said of the origin, progress, 
and completion of this Icelandic Dictionary. The writer, who has watched over it, 
so to speak, from its birth, and who has been, as it were, a second father to it 
ever since the untimely death of its natural parent, cannot but feel a glow of exulta- 
tion as he beholds it issuing from the press in all the maturity and fulness which 
it at one time seemed hopeless that it could ever assume. In it the English student 
now possesses a key to that rich store of knowledge which the early literature of 
Iceland possesses. He may read the Eddas and the Sagas, which contain sources of 
delight and treasures of learning such as no other language but that of Iceland can 
furnish. But when he wanders through these fresh pastures, and his heart warms as he 
reads the mighty deeds of the gods and heroes, of the kings and earls and simple 
yeomen of the North, let him not forget to honour those to whom honour is due. The 
time and trouble bestowed upon this work would have been of little avail had it not 


found a hearty welcome from the Delegates of the Oxford Press. To those Dele- 
gates past and present, to the Bishop of Chester and Dean of Christ Church in par- 
ticular, the thanks of all lovers of Northern learning are due for having so generously 
fostered this Icelandic Dictionary, and made it a child of this famous University. 

To no one has the Dictionary been more indebted than to the Dean of Christ 
Church, so far as advice with respect to the English is concerned ; but this acknowledgment 
really represents very feebly the services rendered by Dr. Liddell to the work. From the 
very first, not only did its general superintendence devolve on him, but for the whole 
time during which it was passing through the press, his assistance was invaluable, in cor- 
recting the English, in adding to the philological character of the work, and in suggesting 
alterations and improvements. In the autumn of 1870, indeed when the serious respon- 
sibilities of the Vice-Chancellorship were added to his other duties. Dr. Liddell was unable 
to bestow so much time on this labour ; it then fell to Mr. Kitchin, who had also revised the 
sheets from the beginning, to supply his place, but to the very last every sheet as it 
was printed was first submitted to the Dean, then passed on with his suggestions 
to Mr. Kitchin, and finally settled by him with Mr. Vigfusson. For such constant 
and laborious care the thanks of all Icelandic scholars are due to Dr. Liddell and 
Mr. Kitchin, as without their supervision and advice the English portion of the work 
could not have attained its present excellence. In another point too the experience of 
the Dean of Christ Church was specially valuable; this was in the arrangement and 
simplification of what may be called the mechanical part of the Dictionary. The eye 
and hand so practised by the toil of preparing successive editions of Liddell and 
Scott's Greek Dictionary stood this Icelandic follower in good stead ; and it may be 
affirmed without fear of contradiction that in no city or university in the world has the 
art and science of printing and publishing a Dictionary with the utmost economy of 
space, and at the same time with such distinct and beautiful typography, been carried 
to a greater pitch of perfection than at the University Press in Oxford. 

To another well-known name in Oxford Mr. Vigfusson has been indebted for 
much valuable information and assistance. The Icelandic language is full of seafaring 
terms, as befits the speech of those hardy seamen who swarmed in early times on every 
sea in Europe. Throughout the whole literature it may be said that there is a whole- 
some smack of the salt sea, and mast and sail and rope and pump fill many a page in the 
Sagas of the North. When these sea terms had to be rendered into English there was 
but one in Oxford to whom Mr. Vigfusson could betake himself This was Dr. Henry 
Acland, whose knowledge of the seafaring terms of England is as exact as his medical 
skill. To him, to Mr. Kitchin, to Mr. Coxe, and to many others in Oxford, Mr. Vigfusson 
desires through the writer to express his thanks for the help rendered on these and many 
other points, as well as for the uniform kindness with which they welcomed the stranger 
to Oxford, and relieved to the utmost of their power the monotony inevitably attending 
the execution of such work as that in which he was engaged. It will be a recompense to 
him for the labour which he has bestowed on this Dictionary, if it should be the means 
of attracting the attention of students in England to the literature of Iceland. Nor, 


though the wealth of the language lies in the early Sagas, is it to be supposed that the 
Icelandic of later days is not worthy of being known. In no portion of the world, 
in proportion to its population, has there been such continuous literary life as in that 
distant isle. Still more would he feel himself rewarded if his labours should be the 
means of restoring her Old Bible to Iceland. It would be for the good of all, and 
even for the beginner in Icelandic if he could find a sure stay to his first footsteps 
in the grand old Icelandic translation of the Bible by Bishop Gudbrand of the year 
1584, which may compare with our own Authorised Version for purity and strength; 
but this version has, most unhappily for Iceland, been replaced in recent years by 
a paraphrastic translation, which it should be the aim of all true friends of piety and 
learning to discourage and disclaim. Were that pure and faithful version restored 
to its rightful position, the first footsteps of the student would be far more sure, and, 
strengthened by that literal translation, he might proceed to the Sagas and the Eddas, 
when he will certainly not regret the time and trouble spent in learning the language, 
especially when the time has been shortened and the labour lightened by the help of 
this Dictionary. 

Nor, finally, should it be forgotten that even without its aid many Englishmen 
have become students of Icelandic. The late Sir Edmund Head, too early lost to these 
and other studies, Mr. Garnett of the British Museum, and Principal Barclay of Glasgow, 
were all of thern in their day sound scholars in the language ; Dr. Carlyle, in Edinburgh, 
is also well acquainted with Icelandic ; and here in Oxford it will be enough to mention 
one living instance in the Right Hon. Robert Lowe, who, instead of burning his books, 
like too many of his contemporaries, when he turned his mind to politics, found time 
to enter into new fields of learning, and to possess them. To few Englishmen has it 
been granted to attain to such mastery both over the language of Iceland and the spirit 
of her people and literature. Nor can this Introduction be more fitly closed than by 
quoting an epigram by that skilful hand, and repeating in this University the greeting 
with which he addresses that island so smitten with snow-storms, so veiled in mist, so 
seamed with volcanic fire, so shaken by earthquakes as never Delos was shaken ; 
and yet, in spite of all this, so mighty in the indomitable spirit of her sons, so subtle 
and far-sighted in her laws, and so free and independent for centuries against the tyranny 
of Norwegian kings : — 

Xaipe Kot kv i/e(f)iXT)(n kuI kv vK^dS^crcn ^apecais 

Kal TTvpl Kai (Teia-jJL0i9 vrjae o-aXivo/xii/T]' 
iuOdSe yap ^aa-iXfjos vTrip^iov v^piv dXv^as 

Srjixos ^Yirep^opecov^ ttovtov kir ka-^aTifj^ 
avrdpKrj ^LOTOv Oeicov r epeOiarfiaTa Movcrcou 

Kal Oiafjioijs dyj/fjs evpev eXev6epLrj9. 


October 15, 1873. 


Richard Cleasby was born on the 30th of November in the year 1797; the son 
of Stephen Cleasby of Craig House in Westmoreland, descended from a Yorkshire 
family of that name, derived from a village in that county, the by in the termination 
of which is a sure proof of original Scandinavian extraction. His mother was a 
daughter of George John of Penzance ; and during the latter portion of their lives 
his parents lived at No. 3, Cornwall Terrace, Regent's Park, London. Mr. Stephen 
Cleasby was in business in the City as a Russia broker, and was altogether in affluent 
circumstances. He had one daughter, Mary, afterwards Mrs. Jones ; and three sons : 
Richard, the eldest ; Anthony, of Trinity College, Cambridge, who was Third Wrangler, 
and in the First Class of the Classical Tripos in 1827, now Sir Anthony Cleasby, and 
one of the Barons of the Court of Exchequer ; Stephen, a third brother, who came 
between the two, died in November, 1835, and the intelligence of his death called forth 
a remarkable letter from Richard to Anthony in December of that year. It seems 
to have been the determination of Mr. Stephen Cleasby that his eldest son should 
be associated with him in pursuits in which he took a just pride ; and so it was that 
Richard Cleasby was neither at a Public School nor one of the Universities ; but, after 
a sound classical education at a school in the neighbourhood of London, where he 
gained a love of learning which was the foundation of that philological knowledge for 
which he was afterwards so well known, he entered his father's counting-house at the 
early age of fifteen, and for a while seemed entirely devoted to commercial pursuits. 
The regular and industrious habits engrafted in him and both his brothers by the 
example of the father, whom they all loved and respected, coupled with great natural 
ability, would have made success certain in any sphere of life ; but of him it may be 
said, that while his hand was on the desk in the City, his heart was away among his 
books in his library at home ; his tastes for literary and philological knowledge grew 
with his growth and strengthened with his strength, until, as the drudgery of the 
merchant's office became irksome to him, he gave up business in the year 1824, and 
obtained his father's consent to reside abroad on an ample allowance, that he might 
devote himself entirely to his literary labours. One great advantage he had over many 
scholars. They are often tied and tethered, as it were, to one field, through want of 
means to change their abode, and so are apt to grow one-sided and undeveloped in all 
aspects but one. The case of Richard Cleasby was altogether different. He had both 
the power to roam, and the will to make his flitting from one city or country to another 
a means, not of idle amusement, but of advancement in sound learning and fruitful 
study. He was not one of those butterflies which pass from flower to flower, and gain 
nothing at the end of the day but death ; but rather like the bee, which seems to spend 
its time in the same way, and yet returns to the hive laden with honey. Thus, shortly 
after leaving England, Richard Cleasby took up his residence at Geneva, where he 



stayed a while to practise himself in French, and then crossed the Alps into Italy, 
where he settled down at Florence, and spent more than two years in the study of 
the ancient languages, and of Italian, in which he acquired such mastery as both to 
speak and write it with fluency and elegance, as draughts of letters in Italian still 
remaining among his correspondence abundantly testify. About the year 1830 he 
recrossed the Alps, and established himself at Munich, where he worked indefatigably 
both at philology and philosophy under Schelling, then the great master of the tran- 
scendental school, who had caught the torch of thought as it fell from the dying 
hand of* Kant. In philology, Massmann and Schmeller, well known as the author 
of the Dictionary on the Dialects of Bavaria, were his teachers; but in the first 
period of his residence at Munich, philosophy rather than philology seems to have been 
the object which he had in view, and the earlier volumes of the copious Diaries which he 
kept from this time to his death, and which are now before the writer of this notice, are 
full of notes of Schelling's lectures, who possessed a greater power of fascinating his 
pupils even than his great rival, Hegel himself. But though he worked faithfully and 
laboriously at his philosophy, that regular practical mind was not one to sink itself 
altogether in cobweb speculations on German metaphysics. Philology afforded 
him a firmer footing, and, having once taken his stand on that rock of learning, he 
clung to it to the end. For several years he remained abroad, deaf to the entreaties 
of his friends to return home, pursuing his favourite study in all parts of Germany, 
which he visited now on foot, and now on horseback, until there was no district to which 
he had not penetrated, and no dialect over which he had not attained a mastery. His 
acquirements in this respect were well know^n to the great German scholars, now dead 
and gone. Schmeller, his old teacher, had the greatest respect for his judgment, as 
is shewn by his letters among Richard Cleasby's correspondence ; and Jacob Grimm 
told the writer, in the year 1 844, that no one knew the dialects of Germany, as a whole, 
more profoundly than Cleasby. * Some of us,' he said, ' know one or two dialects better, 
but Richard Cleasby knows them all, as his leisure and means have allowed him to 
traverse the country in every direction and make them his own.' 

But though thus laborious in the pursuit of knowledge, it must not be supposed 
that Richard Cleasby was a mere bookworm. The same Diaries which attest his 
unwearying efforts to acquire knowledge are filled with passages which prove his keen 
enjoyment of society and his delight in the natural beauties of the countries in which 
he was from time to time a sojourner. He was never so happy as when, after months 
of patient study, he broke away with some congenial companion from Leipzig or 
Dresden, or from Munich, the capital of his choice, to take a pedestrian tour in Saxon 
Switzerland or in the Bavarian Tyrol. In later years, after he had settled down in 
Denmark, he sought relaxation from his philological labours in the smiling neighbour- 
hood of Copenhagen, and, as he is careful to note the fall of the first winter's snow and 
the pinching cold of Yule, so in the early spring the first chirping of the chafifinch and 
the coming of the welcome swallow are not lost upon him. With literary men his 
acquaintance both in Germany and the North was most extensive, and it may safely 



sal that there was no learned man in either country whom he had not seen and 
">w. Most of his friends, both at home and abroad, have now ceased to Hve, but 
1, 1 England, it will be sufficient to mention the names of Sir John Shaw Lefevre 
] lenry Reeve to prove that, though he was best known to foreigners, there were 

r vmting those among his own countrymen who yet survive to appreciate his worth. 
\v lid take volumes to exhaust the notices of men and manners and science that 

-h be drawn from twelve thick volumes of Diaries ; but the following extracts from 
n and from his letters will at once present a sketch of Richard Cleasby's life, 

d iiew what manner of man he was. The first years of his foreign pilgrimage must 
nssed over lightly. Thus, though in the years 1824, 1825, and 1826 he was in 

il and Switzerland, we only pause at the 21st of March in the last year to note his 

KG on entering Rome : 

[ entered the city standing, and with my head uncovered, a feeble tribute to the memory of 
rcat writers and men of all descriptions whom she nursed. I had Byron in my hand, and felt 
' ;rce of his beautiful line — 

" Oh Rome, my country, city of the soul ! " ' 

On the 1 8th of May he makes the following entry : 

Wrote a very long letter to my father in answer to his, telling him that, as far as my present 

Iiligs went, I had no idea of returning to business ; that I was in a few days about to leave 
omce for Carlsbad by the Tyrol .... and that I should require a letter either on Dresden or 
This is the first mention of his many visits to Carlsbad, rendered necessary by 
lomatism and an affection of the liver, which seemed to yield to no other treatment. 

On the 7th of June we find him for the first time at Munich, and on the i6th at 
aisbad, consulting Dr. Leo, and confessing that the place would be much more 
i^seable if he could speak German. On the 22nd of July he left Carlsbad 'without 
jret,' and went by way of Prague to Dresden, where he paid due homage to the 
icures, of which he seems to have been an excellent judge. On the 12th of August 
ideft Dresden for Berlin, arriving on the 13th. He did not make a very long stay ia 
Prussian capital, for on the 19th he was at Leipzig, and on the 21st attended 
icture in Latin on Theocritus, by Hermann, the famous Greek Professor, of whom 
11 entry in the Diary gives us the following glimpse : 

' Hermann lectured in Latin, in which language indeed almost the whole business of the 
iversity of Leipzig is carried on. . . . There were about 70 young men present, a sadly raffish- 
icing set ; Hermann himself, with a stand-up collar, blue coat, and woollen winter-looking 
stcoat, had all the appearance of a little mechanic — a man one would expect to see at a turning- 

On the 22nd he left for Dresden, where he determined to learn German, and for 

it purpose settled at Tharandt, about ten miles from the capital, in the house of the 

rgyman, a charming man named Prietsch. This was on the 29th of August, where he 

lyed, delighted with his master and the neighbourhood, till the 30th of February, 

men a letter from Florence induced him to recross the Alps. At Florence he stayed 

1 the 5th of April, 1827; receiving there the news of his brother Anthony's success 



stayed a while to practise himself in French, and then crossed the Alps into Italy, 
where he settled down at Florence, and spent more than two years in the study of 
the ancient languages, and of Italian, in which he acquired such mastery as both to 
speak and write it with fluency and elegance, as draughts of letters in Italian still 
remaining among his correspondence abundantly testify. About the year 1830 he 
recrossed the Alps, and established himself at Munich, where he worked indefatigably 
both at philology and philosophy under Schelling, then the great master of the tran- 
scendental school, who had caught the torch of thought as it fell from the dying 
hand of* Kant. In philology, Massmann and Schmeller, well known as the author 
of the Dictionary on the Dialects of Bavaria, were his teachers ; but in the first 
period of his residence at Munich, philosophy rather than philology seems to have been 
the object which he had in view, and the earlier volumes of the copious Diaries which he 
kept from this time to his death, and which are now before the writer of this notice, are 
full of notes of Schelling's lectures, who possessed a greater power of fascinating his 
pupils even than his great rival, Hegel himself. But though he worked faithfully and 
laboriously at his philosophy, that regular practical mind was not one to sink itself 
altogether in cobweb speculations on German metaphysics. Philology afforded 
him a firmer footing, and, having once taken his stand on that rock of learning, he 
clung to it to the end. For several years he remained abroad, deaf to the entreaties 
of his friends to return home, pursuing his favourite study in all parts of Germany, 
which he visited now on foot, and now on horseback, until there was no district to which 
he had not penetrated, and no dialect over which he had not attained a mastery. His 
acquirements in this respect were well known to the great German scholars, now dead 
and gone. Schmeller, his old teacher, had the greatest respect for his judgment, as 
is shewn by his letters among Richard Cleasby's correspondence ; and Jacob Grimm 
told the writer, in the year 1 844, that no one knew the dialects of Germany, as a whole, 
more profoundly than Cleasby. ' Some of us,' he said, ' know one or two dialects better, 
but Richard Cleasby knows them all, as his leisure and means have allowed him to 
traverse the country in every direction and make them his own.' 

But though thus laborious in the pursuit of knowledge, it must not be supposed 
that Richard Cleasby was a mere bookworm. The same Diaries which attest his 
unwearying efforts to acquire knowledge are filled with passages which prove his keen 
enjoyment of society and his delight in the natural beauties of the countries in which 
he was from time to time a sojourner. He was never so happy as when, after months 
of patient study, he broke away with some congenial companion from Leipzig or 
Dresden, or from Munich, the capital of his choice, to take a pedestrian tour in Saxon 
Switzerland or in the Bavarian Tyrol. In later years, after he had settled down in 
Denmark, he sought relaxation from his philological labours in the smiling neighbour- 
hood of Copenhagen, and, as he is careful to note the fall of the first winter's snow and 
the pinching cold of Yule, so in the early spring the first chirping of the chaffinch and 
the coming of the welcome swallow are not lost upon him. With literary men his 
acquaintance both in Germany and the North was most extensive, and it may safely 

1824-27. RICHARD CLEASBY. 1 


be said that there was no learned man in either country whom he had not seen and 
known. Most of his friends, both at home and abroad, have now ceased to Hve, but 
still, in England, it will be sufficient to mention the names of Sir John Shaw Lefevre 
and Henry Reeve to prove that, though he was best known to foreigners, there were 
not wanting those among his own countrymen who yet survive to appreciate his worth. 
It would take volumes to exhaust the notices of men and manners and science that 
might be drawn from twelve thick volumes of Diaries ; but the following extracts from 
them and from his letters will at once present a sketch of Richard Cleasby's life, 
and shew what manner of man he was. The first years of his foreign pilgrimage must 
be passed over lightly. Thus, though in the years 1824, 1825, and 1826 he was in 
Italy and Switzerland, we only pause at the 21st of March in the last year to note his 
words on entering Rome : 

' I entered the city standing, and with my head uncovered, a feeble tribute to the memory of 
the great writers and men of all descriptions whom she nursed. I had Byron in my hand, and felt 
the force of his beautiful line — 

" Oh Rome, my country, city of the soul ! " ' 

On the 1 8th of May he makes the following entry : 

' Wrote a very long letter to my father in answer to his, telling him that, as far as my present 
feelings went, I had no idea of returning to business ; that I was in a few days about to leave 
Florence for Carlsbad by the Tyrol .... and that I should require a letter either on Dresden or 

This is the first mention of his many visits to Carlsbad, rendered necessary by 
rheumatism and an affection of the liver, which seemed to yield to no other treatment. 

On the 7th of June we find him for the first time at Munich, and on the i6th at 

Carlsbad, consulting Dr. Leo, and confessing that the place would be much more 

agreeable if he could speak German. On the 22nd of July he left Carlsbad 'without 

regret,' and went by way of Prague to Dresden, where he paid due homage to the 

pictures, of which he seems to have been an excellent judge. On the 12th of August 

he left Dresden for Berlin, arriving on the 13th. He did not make a very long stay ia 

the Prussian capital, for on the 19th he was at Leipzig, and on the 21st attended 

a lecture in Latin on Theocritus, by Hermann, the famous Greek Professor, of whom 

an entry in the Diary gives us the following glimpse : 

' Hermann lectured in Latin, in which language indeed almost the whole business of the 
University of Leipzig is carried on. . . . There were about 70 young men present, a sadly raffish- 
looking set ; Hermann himself, with a stand-up collar, blue coat, and woollen winter-looking 
waistcoat, had all the appearance of a little mechanic — a man one would expect to see at a turning- 

On the 22nd he left for Dresden, where he determined to learn German, and for 
that purpose settled at Tharandt, about ten miles from the capital, in the house of the 
clergyman, a charming man named Prietsch. This was on the 29th of August, where he 
stayed, delighted with his master and the neighbourhood, till the 30th of February, 
when a letter from Florence induced him to recross the Alps. At Florence he stayed 
till the 5th of April, 1827; receiving there the news of his brother Anthony's succes!^ 


Ixiv RICHARD CLEASBY. 1827-29. 

at Cambridge, and also a letter as to his mother's health, which induced him to return 
at once to England. With all his generosity, of which these Diaries contain many 
proofs, he was not the man to submit to imposition, and in this journey at Dijon he 
makes the following entry : 

' Had the clerk of the diligence up before the Judge de Paix, and, for insolence relative to the 
mistake with my portmanteau, made him pay the expenses of my detention here, 24 francs ; got 
my portmanteau and went to Paris by diligence.' 

On arriving in London he found that his return had been caused by a false alarm. 
After spending two months in London, and seeing in particular the Stafford and 
Grosvenor galleries, Cleasby took 'a very feehng parting from his parents, and left 
London for Liverpool and Dublin.' Passengers who now cross from Liverpool to 
Dublin and find the voyage long, may be consoled at finding that it then took 56 houi:s 
to make the passage. On the 1 5th of August he left Dublin for Bordeaux, where he 
arrived on the 19th. On the morning of the 20th he notes : 

* The moment I went out I felt enamoured with the fine Southern climate. Oh, such a change 
from Albion's and Erin's shores ! ' 

From Bordeaux he made his way back to Italy, visiting Naples and the South, 
returning to Rome for the winter. There he stayed till the i8th of March, 1828, on 
which day he notes : 

' I left Rome with Dr. Bromfield in the carriage of a vetturino, in which were an actress, a 
dancer, a Bolognese mezzo-litterato, two canaries, a parcel, and at times a poodle-dog, though he 
was in general outside ; and proceeded to Ronciglione, where we slept, and ought to have supped, 
if there had been anything to eat.' 

He was now on his way to Vienna, vi4 Trieste, seeing Pola and its amphitheatre 
on the road. On the 12th of April he was in Vienna, and on the 22nd he left it for 
Dresden, where he arrived on the 24th, and went immediately to his old quarters with 
the clergyman at Tharandt ; but after staying there not quite a month, he was seized 
with a complicated attack of liver and rheumatism, which reduced him *to an almost 
total privation of the use of his limbs, being unable to walk without a stick, in much 
pain and scarcely able to stand upright.' In this condition it was not wonderful that 
* Carlsbad was considered essential to his recovery,' and that we find him there again 
on the I St of June. On the 7th of July he left that bath, and after staying till the 
30th of July in Dresden, diligently learning German, in which he now became proficient, 
he started for home on that day, reaching London on the 1 2th of October. 

The object of this visit to England was to pass the winter in Edinburgh in the 
study of Scotch metaphysics. There he attended Sir William Hamilton's lectures, as 
well as those of Professor Wilson, Dr. Chalmers, and Professors Pillans, Leslie, and 
Ritchie. The first he considered not a very pleasing lecturer, though a man of great 
erudition and information. Dr. Chalmers reminded him of the pictures of Luther, and 
his vast powers of eloquence and argument quite enchanted him. With all these, as well 
as with Jeffrey, Cleasby became intimate. On the ist of April, 1829, his work in Edin- 
burgh was at an end, and he thus sums up his experiences : 

i829, 30. RICHARD GLEASBY. Ixv 

* I cannot take leave of Edinburgh without the expression of my extreme satisfaction as to the 
manner in which I have passed this winter. My leading object was to attend the Moral Philosophy 
Class and get some insight into the Scotch philosophy and metaphysics. Wilson, though a clever 
and amiable man, is not, I think, exactly calculated for the Chair he fills. He has a great deal of 
talent, but it is of a poetical cast ; his imagination seems to hold the reins. I cannot, however, but 
say that he made from time to time some very good and genuine observations displaying con- 
siderable insight into human nature, especially as to the passions. His appearance is very 
commanding, and the index of his mind ; it resembles much more an Apollo than a Socrates. . . . 
As to Wilson's political economy, I regret to say he had neglected to get up the subject ; and 
certainly, upon the whole, cut but a poor figure, often coming before us quite unprepared. . . . 
Chalmers and Leslie seem to be the great lights. ... I consider Edinburgh a most desirable 
residence ; it has almost all the advantages of a capital without the follies and excesses.' 

On the 2nd of April he left Edinburgh with his friend Forbes, a son of Lord 

Medwyn, on a visit to Abbotsford. He was delighted, as so many were, with 

Sir Walter Scott, and left him on the 4th, copying, before he went, the following epitaph 

in Melrose Churchyard : 

' The earth goeth on the earth glistering like gold, 
The earth goeth to the earth sooner than it wold ; 
The earth buildeth on the earth castles and towers, 
The earth sayeth to the earth, all shall be ours.' 

On the nth of April he was at his father's house in Cornwall Terrace, Regent's 
Park, having taken a peep at the family property in Westmoreland on his way south. 

Fortified with his Scotch metaphysics, he was now ready to face German philo- 
sophy. On the 25th of April he left London, and on the 8th of May was back at 
Dresden and Tharandt. After studying steadily till the middle of August, on the 
2 1 St of that month he started on a tour in Poland, from which he returned on the 
1 6th of September, highly pleased with his journey, but still more delighted to be back 
* in delightful Saxony.' In Dresden he remained till the year was out, entering in his 
Diary on the 31st of December the following note : 

' Since my return from Poland I have been diligently occupied in the study of history, 
especially German.' 

The years 1830, 1831, and 1832 were spent for the most part by Cleasby in 
Germany in the earnest pursuit of knowledge. At Dresden he remained during the 
early part of 1830, continuing his German studies, with occasional outbreaks for re- 
creation. Thus, on the 8th of March, he sets out for a pedestrian tour to Leipzig, 
distant about 55 English miles, which he and his friends accomplished in two days. 
On the nth he attended a lecture in philosophy by Professor Krug, and 

* Was not a, little surprised to see him mount the desk in regular cavalry spurs, which rang so 
as he came in that I thought a dragoon had entered the room. He is a man, I suppose, towards 
60 years old, his physiognomy serious, his delivery clear and impressive, perhaps a little too 
mannered. At eleven o'clock I heard the animated little Greek professor Hermann, likewise 
towards 60 years old, who also lectured in spurs and a drab great-coat. He speaks an easy clear 
Latin. The Agememnon of ^schylus was the subject, and he appeared to illustrate it ably. I 
heard Wachsmuth on Universal History, a man 40 or 45 years old : he maintained a constant smile, 
almost a laugh, was full of wit in his remarks, and so restless that he could scarcely remain a 

Ixiv RICHARD CLEASBY. 1827-29. 

at Cambridge, and also a letter as to his mother's health, which induced him to return 
at once to England. With all his generosity, of which these Diaries contain many 
proofs, he was not the man to submit to imposition, and in this journey at Dijon he 
makes the following entry : 

' Had the clerk of the diligence up before the Judge de Paix, and, for insolence relative to the 
mistake with my portmanteau, made him pay the expenses of my detention here, 24 francs ; got 
my portmanteau and went to Paris by diligence.' 

On arriving in London he found that his return had been caused by a false alarm. 
After spending two months in London, and seeing in particular the Stafford and 
Grosvenor galleries, Cleasby took 'a very feeHng parting from his parents, and left 
London for Liverpool and Dublin.' Passengers who now cross from Liverpool to 
Dublin and find the voyage long, may be consoled at finding that it then took 56 hours 
to make the passage. On the 1 5th of August he left Dublin for Bordeaux, where he 
arrived on the 19th. On the morning of the 20th he notes : 

* The moment I went out I felt enamoured with the fine Southern climate. Oh, such a change 
from Albion's and Erin's shores ! ' 

From Bordeaux he made his way back to Italy, visiting Naples and the South, 
returning to Rome for the winter. There he stayed till the i8th of March, 1828, on 
which day he notes : 

' I left Rome with Dr. Bromfield in the carriage of a vetturino, in which were an actress, a 
dancer, a Bolognese mezzo-litterato, two canaries, a parcel, and at times a poodle-dog, though he 
was in general outside ; and proceeded to Ronciglione, where we slept, and ought to have supped, 
if there had been anything to eat.' 

He was now on his way to Vienna, vi4 Trieste, seeing Pola and its amphitheatre 
on the road. On the 12th of April he was in Vienna, and on the 22nd he left it for 
Dresden, where he arrived on the 24th, and went immediately to his old quarters with 
the clergyman at Tharandt ; but after staying there not quite a month, he was seized 
with a complicated attack of liver and rheumatism, which reduced him 'to an almost 
total privation of the use of his limbs, being unable to walk without a stick, in much 
pain and scarcely able to stand upright.' In this condition it was not wonderful that 
* Carlsbad was considered essential to his recovery,' and that we find him there again 
on the I St of June. On the 7th of July he left that bath, and after staying till the 
30th of July in Dresden, diligently learning German, in which he now became proficient, 
he started for home on that day, reaching London on the 1 2th of October. 

The -object of this visit to England was to pass the winter in Edinburgh in the 
study of Scotch metaphysics. There he attended Sir William Hamilton's lectures, as 
well as those of Professor Wilson, Dr. Chalmers, and Professors Pillans, Leslie, and 
Ritchie. The first he considered not a very pleasing lecturer, though a man of great 
erudition and information. Dr. Chalmers reminded him of the pictures of Luther, and 
his vast powers of eloquence and argument quite enchanted him. With all these, as well 
as with Jeffrey, Cleasby became intimate. On the ist of April, 1829, his work in Edin- 
burgh was at an end, and he thus sums up his experiences : 

i829, 30. RICHARD CLEASBY. Ixv 

* I cannot take leave of Edinburgh without the expression of my extreme satisfaction as to the 
manner in which I have passed this winter. My leading object was to attend the Moral Philosophy 
Class and get some insight into the Scotch philosophy and metaphysics. Wilson, though a clever 
and amiable man, is not, I think, exactly calculated for the Chair he fills. He has a great deal of 
talent, but it is of a poetical cast ; his imagination seems to hold the reins. I cannot, however, but 
say that he made from time to time some very good and genuine observations displaying con- 
siderable insight into human nature, especially as to the passions. His appearance is very 
commanding, and the index of his mind ; it resembles much more an Apollo than a Socrates. . . . 
As to Wilson's political economy, I regret to say he had neglected to get up the subject ; and 
certainly, upon the whole, cut but a poor figure, often coming before us quite unprepared. . . . 
Chalmers and Leslie seem to be the great lights. ... I consider Edinburgh a most desirable 
residence ; it has almost all the advantages of a capital without the follies and excesses.' 

On the 2nd of April he left Edinburgh with his friend Forbes, a son of Lord 

Medwyn, on a visit to Abbotsford. He was delighted, as so many were, with 

Sir Walter Scott, and left him on the 4th, copying, before he went, the following epitaph 

in Melrose Churchyard : 

' The earth goeth on the earth glistering like gold, 

The earth goeth to the earth sooner than it wold ; 

The earth buildeth on the earth castles and towers, 

The earth sayeth to the earth, all shall be ours.' 

On the nth of April he was at his father's house in Cornwall Terrace, Regent's 
Park, having taken a peep at the family property in Westmoreland on his way south. 

Fortified with his Scotch metaphysics, he was now ready to face German philo- 
sophy. On the 25th of April he left London, and on the 8th of May was back at 
Dresden and Tharandt. After studying steadily till the middle of August, on the 
2 1 St of that month he started on a tour in Poland, from which he returned on the 
1 6th of September, highly pleased with his journey, but still more delighted to be back 
' in delightful Saxony.' In Dresden he remained till the year was out, entering in his 
Diary on the 31st of December the following note : 

' Since my return from Poland I have been diligently occupied in the study of history, 
especially German.' 

The years 1830, 1831, and 1832 were spent for the most part by Cleasby in 
Germany in the earnest pursuit of knowledge. At Dresden he remained during the 
early part of 1830, continuing his German studies, with occasional outbreaks for re- 
creation. Thus, on the 8th of March, he sets out for a pedestrian tour to Leipzig, 
distant about 55 English miles, which he and his friends accomplished in two days. 
On the nth he attended a lecture in philosophy by Professor Krug, and 

* Was not a little surprised to see him mount the desk in regular cavalry spurs, which rang so 
as he came in that I thought a dragoon had entered the room. He is a man, I suppose, towards 
60 years old, his physiognomy serious, his delivery clear and impressive, perhaps a little too 
mannered. At eleven o'clock I heard the animated little Greek professor Hermann, likewise 
towards 60 years old, who also lectured in spurs and a drab great-coat. He speaks an easy clear 
Latin, The Agememnon of ^schylus was the subject, and he appeared to illustrate it ably. I 
heard Wachsmuth on Universal History, a man 40 or 45 years old : he maintained a constant smile, 
almost a laugh, was full of wit in his remarks, and so restless that he could scarcely remain a 


minute in the same position. Had his French pronunciation been more perfect I should rather 
have taken him for a Frenchman than a German. After that I went and saw the " Convict," as it is 
called ; this is an immense old hall, in which 300 or 400 poor hungry students, mostly theologians, 
are fed twice a day at Government cost ; mid-day they get meat and vegetables, in the evening a 
soup, and what they call a " brei," i. e. a sort of porridge, and each a loaf about the size of an 
English twopenny loaf.' 

On the 15th of March he was back at Dresden, by Eilwagen, v^here he resumed 
his studies. On the 5th of May his friend Professor Chalybseus took him to see Tieck 
and to hear him read, as he was in the habit of doing every Sunday evening to a select 
circle of twenty or thirty persons. On the 15th he set off with the same friend for a 
pedestrian tour in Saxon Switzerland, and on the 1 7th he quitted Dresden with much 
regret. He was now on his way home again, passing by Cassell, Gottingen, Brunswick, 
Hamburg, Bremen, and Holland, taking the steamer for London at Rotterdam, and 
arriving on the 14th of June. In England Cleasby stayed till the outbreak of the 
French Revolution in that year; as soon as it was thought safe to visit France, he 
crossed on the 17th of August from Brighton to Dieppe, and made his way by Rouen 
to Paris. There he was surprised to see no traces of any recent tumult or excitement. 
The only thing unusual which he seems to have remarked was the utter absence of 
priests in the streets. On the 1 7th of August he left Paris for Nancy and Strasburg, 
and, crossing the Rhine, arrived at Leipzig on the 4th of September, just in time to see 
a little riot in the streets, in which, while the troops remained inactive, the populace 
entered the houses of obnoxious persons and destroyed their furniture. On the 5th 
Cleasby notes : 

' The police establishment ceased yesterday to exist, and all military interference seems to be 

On the 6th he left Leipzig, and travelled to Munich by way of Baireuth and 
Nuremberg, and on the 12th he reached the Bavarian capital, which ever after he 
considered his head-quarters in Germany, and to which, in his latest years, he fondly 
imagined that he should return after he had finished his labours in the North. His 
first friend in Munich was the eccentric Hoffmann, who shewed him all the lions which 
he had not already seen, and introduced him to many literary men. By this time 
Cleasby was a very good German scholar, and he began at once to attend Schelling's 
lectures on Philosophy, and to study Old German under Massmann and Schmeller, 
with the last of whom he contracted a lasting friendship. On the i6th of November 
he notes : 

' I heard yesterday Professor Schelling deliver his introductory lecture to the course he intends 
reading this season on the Philosophy of Mythology, in which he expressed the deepest regret at 
the declining state of the Gymnasia, i. e. the schools where the youths are prepared for the 
universities. ... He received a treble " Lebe Hoch " on appearing, and was much moved in reading 
the first part of his lecture.' 

On the 29th of December he writes : 

' There had been a little row with a few tipsy students on Christmas Eve, which the Govern- 
ment foolishly made a great fuss about, and pretended to see in it a Revolution, so that the military 


I ve been ordered out, and the National Guard placed on duty at once. Several people were hacked 
!)out by the Cuirassiers, and the University ordered to be closed for two months; however, this 
as been countermanded. The absurd conduct of the King and Government on this occasion is 
nough to make any one desire a change in the order of things.' 

On the 5th of January, 1 831, he notes : 

• I dined with a large party of Professors, who met to-day and celebrated Schelling's birthday, 
)ut " Deutscher Ernst " was too leading an ingredient in the assembly, and it went off heavily. He 
s 56 years old.' 

On the 3rd of March the first mention occurs of Schmeller's name : ' Walked with 
Schmeller to Hesloe, and dined there.' On the ist of May he does not omit to 
ncntion the annual festival of tapping the ' Bock' beer, which he found admirable at 
he price of a penny a pint. On the 2nd he notes : 

* Schelling commenced his lectures for the summer half-year, continuing the Philosophy of 

\l)^thology. Oken did the same, but said, as only 4 or 5 had inscribed their names, he should not 

oatinue to lecture unless all those present, about 30 or 40, did the same ; the subject is Natural 

1 i story. The students here, many from poverty, many from shabbiness, are excessively shy about 

raying the fees,' 

Later on in his Diaries he mentions the fact that he found Ranke and other 

professors at Berlin lecturing to very scanty classes. 

On the 8th of May he notes that his physician, Dr. Walther, had recommended a 

lew cure for his old ailments : this was a Kr'duter-Kur , or herbal course of medicine, 

iccording to which he would have to drink, every morning before breakfast, half a pint 

of a decoction of dandelion and other herbs. But the end of this Krduter-Kur and of 

the many Trauben and Molken-Kurs which he underwent was that he was ordered again 

to Carlsbad, where we find him drinking the waters on the 12th of June, on which 

occasion Cleasby notes : ' Found there were 13 English here.' On the i8th of July he 

left Carlsbad, and was back at Munich on the 24th, whence he wrote to his father, 

telling him that he had made up his mind to go to Greece with Thiersch ; for then all 

the world in Bavaria, it must be remembered, were mad to go with King Otho to his 

new kingdom. But preparatory to this expedition, which, had it been carried out, 

might have changed the whole tenor of his life, Cleasby set off on the 20th of August 

with Constantin Hofler, a young German, for the Tyrol, Switzerland, and Upper Italy. 

The reason why the trip to Greece was abandoned is given in the following letter to 

his mother : 

'Zurich, Sept. i^th, 1831. — My dear mother, I wrote my dear father at the beginning of the 
month from Tyrol, expressive of my disappointment at being prevented visiting Greece, from the 
numerous difficulties of quarantine etc. occasioned by cholera morbus in the north and south, and 
plague in the east. ... It was, notwithstanding, with great reluctance that I relinquished my plan 
. . . ., for I confess that after the manner in which my life has been employed for some time past, 
I look upon a visit to classical Greece as a great desideratum. We bachelors with a literary turn 
of mind are in our way like the good folks in the City, — the more we have, the more we want ; but 
still the circle of my perambulations is nearly completed, and I look forward to setting myself down 
permanently by your side at no very distant period, but wish, if possible, not to have to come home 
in the mean time, in order to avoid those terrible parting scenes which have been more than once 
so painful.' 

Ixviii RICHARD CLEASBY. 1831-33 


Then he goes on to describe how he had consoled his disappointment at not seeing 
Greece by a tour through the Tyrol, Switzerland, and the Italian Lakes, and says his L 
address till further advices will still be Munich. 

On the 27th of October he returned to his old quarters in that city, and on the 

I St of November dined with Dr. Martins, Professor of Botany, where he 

* Heard the famous amateur piano-player, Mendelsohn, quite a young man .... he executed 
some sonatas of Beethoven in a style perfectly wonderful.' 

On the 2nd he resumed his Greek with Joseph Miiller, and on the 22nd of 

November he notes : 

' We began to-day with Professor Schmeller to read the Anglo-Saxon version of the Gospel of 
St. Matthew belonging to the 7th century, to be continued every Wednesday.' 

At Munich he remained hard at work till the 23rd of April, 1832, when he started 

with Louis Halm for a pedestrian tour to Gastein and Salzburg, returning on the 9th of 

May, and almost immediately set off for England, vi^ Frankfort and the Rhine, where 

we find him, in London, on the 20th of that month. Nothing particular occurred on 

this visit to England, except that his horrible Krauter-Kur followed him home, for we 

find him taking every morning half a pint of a mixture of dandelion, ground-ivy, and 

white horehound, prepared by a herbalist In Covent Garden. At the same time he 

procured from Dr. Bandinel, of the Bodleian Library, a copy of the Anno Lied for his 

friend Baron Lassberg. On the 4th of June he was off again for Germany, and on the 

24th of the month was back at the everlasting Carlsbad drinking the Sprtidel. On the 

29th of July his cure was over, and he was at Munich attending Schelling's lectures. 

On the 1 5th of August Cleasby notes : 

' Schelling closed his lectures on the Philosophy of Revelation, completing, with his Philosophy 
of Mythology, an entire and perfect course. I gave a crown dollar (4$-. 6d?.) towards a serenade for 
him this evening.' 

On the 30th of the month Cleasby set off for a lengthened tour in the Austrian 

Tyrol, Styria, and the Upper Engadine, from whence he returned on the 5th of October. 

Philosophy rather than Philology seems still his favourite study ; his Diary is full of 

Schelling's lectures, and on the 29th of November he writes : 

^Schelling told me to-day, that during the troubles of the war in Germany, when there was 
scarcely any telling what might be the result, he had formed a plan for going to England to give 
instruction in the Latin language, having excogitated a method by which to teach it in half the 
usual time.' 

On the 6th of December he notes : 

' Otto, the second son of the King of Bavaria, King of Greece, left Munich this morning to take 
possession of his new kingdom.' 

In Munich Cleasby remained till the year turned and spring came again, and on the 
22nd of April, 1833, he set off on a lengthened tour through Austria and Hungary, in 
which latter country he was treated with marked distinction by Graf Mailath and 
Pyrker the Archbishop of Erlau. Having covered an immensity of ground, he was 
back at Munich on the 26th of May. On the 8th of June he wrote to his father, saying 



that he should return to England by way of Carlsbad, Dresden, Berlin, Westphalia, and 
Holland. The loth of that month was a day of leave-taking at Munich, where Cleasby 
had now concluded the studies which he deemed necessary to repair a neglected edu- 
cation. On that day he dined with his friend Martins — 

' Whose general kindness, together with the agreeable society of his excellent wife and three 
charming little daughters, have had a great share in causing me to leave Munich with so much 
regret. My excellent friend Schmeller was likewise there, a sterling character of a sort at present 
fare in the extreme.' 

On the 19th he was again at Carlsbad, drinking steadily. There, on the 8th of 

July, he notes : 

' I received a packet from Andreas Schmeller of Munich, containing, as a present, his Mund- 
arten Baierns, and other works.' 

It was at this visit that he made the acquaintance of Bishop Tegner, who talked 
philosophy with him, and urged him to visit Sweden, and especially Vexio, where his 
see was. It is evident also, from later letters to Schmeller, that the two friends had 
discussed this Scandinavian expedition, which, besides visiting Tegner, had in view 
the famous Codex Argenteus at Upsala. On the 6th of August Cleasby reached 
Berlin, and presented letters of introduction to Von Raumer, Professor Ehrenberg, 
Graff the Old German philologer, Lachmann, and Boeckh. On the 7th he heard 
Lachmann lecture on the Niebelungen at 8 a.m. ; at 11, Ranke, Professor of History, 
the class consisting of only four persons besides himself. By all these celebrities, and 
especially by Ehrenberg, Graff, and Ranke, Cleasby was courteously received and hos- 
pitably entertained, and on the 1 6th left for Magdeburg, taking with him the impression 
that Berlin and her inhabitants, as compared with Munich and South Germany, might 
be described as ' vornehm und traurig.' From Magdeburg he passed into the Hartz 
country, and on the 22nd ascended the Brocken. On Sunday the 25th he was at Got- 
tingen, where he found the students ' very rough and unpolished in their manners,' and 
the University much reduced in number, having sunk from 1500 to 850, chiefly in con- 
sequence of the political troubles of 1831. Here comes a very interesting entry in the 
Diary : 

* I presented Schmeller's letter to Jacob Grimm, the librarian, and was received in the most 
friendly manner. He seems an excellently amiable, mild, good creature, perfectly wrapped up in his 
grammatical enquiries. He invited me to pass the evening with "him and his brother William, who 
is married, and an uncommonly animated jovial fellow. They both live in the same house, and in 
such harmony and community that one might almost imagine the children were common property. 
William read us a sort of farce written in the Frankfort dialect, depicting the "malheurs" of a 
rich Frankfort tradesman on a holiday jaunt on Sunday. It was very droll, and he read it 

On the 27th Cleasby left Gottingen, making his way through Westphalia to the 

Rhine. At Bonn he called one morning on A. W. Schlegel, and found he was in his 

bath. In the afternoon he called again, and observed — 

' A great effeminacy of manner about him. He is a vast crier out against the system of the 
English Universities, seemed dissatisfied that the geologist Buckland and the like should be D.D.'s 
in holy orders, and that on the other hand a good classic and a tory was all that was required of a 

Ixx RICHARD CLEASBY. 1833,34. 

bishop ; then found fault with the fixed salaries of professors, when all got alike, whether superior 
or not ; and said professors were like players, the best went where they got the most money.' 

On the 1 8th of September Cleasby crossed from Ostend to Dover, and arrived in 
London the following day, where he made the following entries in his Diary : 

* Sept. i()th, 1833. — After returning yesterday evening from the Continent with a view to make 
some lengthened stay in England after my long peregrinations^ I got on to the coach this morning 
at Dover, about 8 o'clock, for London, and arrived about 5 P.M. in Cornwall Terrace, where I found 
my father, mother, and sister in excellent health. Stephen came from the City later in the evening 
in his accustomed steadiness of garb, and Anthony was in Yorkshire occupied as a revising barrister. 
I cannot say that I approached without some misgivings the over-grown Metropolis, — the head and 
centre of all ceaseless toiling after wealth and endless striving after rank and consequence, the 
matchless emporium of smoke and fog, — for after the many quiet winters passed in philosophical 
research, and the tranquillity of literary pursuit in the less aspiring circles of German capitals, 
I feared that the rush and bustle and ambitious contendings of the great city would be sadly at 
variance with the tendency of my feelings and the whole tenor of my mind.' 

'Oct. \2th, 1833. — Paid Mr. Henry Reeve a visit at No. 3, Well Walk, Hampstead, and pre- 
sented him with a Bocksbeutel tobacco-bag. I bought for him in Pesth two Debrecziner pipes, 
for which he paid me my disbursement of five shillings.' 

* March 1st, 1834. — Dined with Reeve at Hampstead,' and on the 4th 'wrote to Schmeller, and 
begged Martius would remember me to Schelling, and say I should have long ago written him if 
" Herr Reeve mir nicht gesagt hatte, er stande mit ihm in Briefwechsel und hatte ihm iiber den 
hiesigen Standpunkt der Philosophie benachrichtiget ; ich kann nicht sagen, dass die Deutsche 
Schule sehr schnellen Fortschritt macht. Die Englander begeben sich in das Transcendentale 
erstaunlich langsam." ' 

On the 22nd of March, 1834, he is in Oxford, on which day he says, 

* I accompanied Mr. Thorpe (Benjamin), the Anglo-Saxon scholar, to the Clarendon Press, 
which is an enormous building, where various works in Greek, Latin, and English were in course of 
printing by hand-presses, there being no machines at present ; but what most surprised me was the 
enormous room, I think above 200 feet long, in which nothing but Bibles and Prayer Books are 
printed : there seemed to be 70 or 80 men or more hard at work, and yet all they could do from 
morning till night is scarcely capable of meeting the demand.' 

As yet he knows nothing of Icelandic, and is uncertain whether he will go to 
the North. Thorpe begs him if he went to Denmark to bring him a copy of ' Hervara 
Saga, edit. Rafen! 

On the 31st of March, 1834, he wrote a long letter in German to his friend 

Schmeller in Munich, giving an account of the collation of certain Latin MSS. in 

Oxford. In it he says : 

'Vielleicht kann ich diesen FriihHng die Wahlfahrt nach Scandinavien nicht machen ; dann 
komme ich wahrscheinlich nach Carlsbad.' 

However, this doubt was solved in the affirmative, for on the 14th of May he left 
London by steamer for Hamburg, and on the 21st he paid his first visit to Copenhagen 
by steamer from Travemlinde through the Danish Isles, and is ' much struck by the 
width of the streets and spaciousness of the large open squares and the general large 
scale of the houses.' Here his banker, Herr Brandt, 

'Informed' him 'on the 23rd that such was the abundance of wheat from the total absence of 
export that the price had fallen below that of rye, so that the common people were beginning to ask 



after wheaten bread . . . . ; had not the Russian corn crops failed last season there is no saying what 
would have been the price of grain.' 

On the 24th of May he set off for Elsinore, where he makes the following entry in 
his Diary, shewing how much he had yet to learn in Northern philology : 

•Helsing-oer from the corner of land being in the shape of an ear ; thus, formerly the Sound 
•was called Ore-sund.' 

Thence he crossed to Helsingborg in twenty-six minutes, and, landing in Sweden, 
at once fell into the agonies of their paper money : 

*Got 100 dollar note, about ;^8, changed into smaller money, for which I got a bundle of 
Shabby rags fitter in bulk to put under one's arm than into one's pocket.' 

The cheapness of Swedish posting was, however, much to his mind, and with 

great courage he made his way to Stockholm posting, though quite ignorant of the 

language, and finding no one who could speak German. At Vexio he stopped to 

respond to the invitation of Tegner, the great Swedish poet, whom he had met at 

Carlsbad the year before, and who had warmly besought him to visit him at his 

episcopal residence ; but to his disappointment he adds, 

' I found him so depressed in spirits and suffering in body that he seemed to have forgotten 
all his promises about Schelling's philosophy, etc., complained of being too unwell to attend the 
Diet at Stockholm, where he ought to have been, and let me leave Vexio without paying me any 
other attention than giving me a cup of coffee and giving me one of the teachers of the gymnasium 
as an interpreter.' 

At Stockholm Cleasby arrived on this his first visit on the 30th of May, and was 
much struck, as every one must be, with the beauty of the city and its lovely * Djur- 
gard,' or park. After making several acquaintances, whom after intimacy ripened into 
friends, he left on the 8th for Upsala, and admired the quaint old wooden town, the 
grand cathedral, and the library. In it was contained the great object of his admira- 
tion, the Gothic Gospels of Ulphilas, with which he was to be better acquainted in 
later years. In this his first visit he remarks that Professor Schroder, the chief 
•librarian, though he received him with remarkable civility and attention, could not 
conceal his anxiety when his visitor took the Codex Argenteus in his hand. On this 
occasion there was no question of a collation of the manuscript. In fact, it appears 
from sundry entries in the Diary as to linseed, rape, corn, etc., that this Northern visit 
of Cleasby was as much commercial as literary. After visiting the iron districts, Cleasby 
returned to Stockholm and crossed the country to Norway, starting from Stockholm on 
the 1 8th of June, and reaching the Norwegian capital on the 23rd, and finding, as he 
crossed the frontier, how very much dearer posting was in the one country than in the 
other. After seeing a little of the country round Christiania, Cleasby went by steamer 
to Gottenburg, which he reached on the ist of July, and having made some commercial 
enquiries, and seen a little of the neighbourhood, he returned to Copenhagen on the 
loth of that month. Here he notes : 

'After seeing the, other Northern capitals I was struck with surprise at seeing Copenhagen 
again, which has all the solidity and traffic and shop conveniences of the largest German capitals, 
and is, I think, more varied and picturesque than most of them.' 

Ixxii RICHARD CLEASBY. 1834,35. 

On the 1 2th of July he took his first lesson in Danish, and set himself seriously to 
work to'-acquire the language, as well as to drink the imitation Carlsbad waters, which 
were now so necessary to his existence. 

At Copenhagen or in its neighbourhood Cleasby remained for nearly a year, only 
leaving it for a month in the autumn to take a grape-cure on the Rhine ; on the return 
from which he visited the Grimms at Cassel, when Jacob gave him a letter of intro- 
duction to Finn Magnusen, which he delivered on the 27th of October, making the 
following entry : 

' I delivered Grimm's parcel to Finn Magnusen, whom I found in a very brown-studious 
looking room and mood ; but he was very obliging. He has all the appearance of a dry 
" Gelehrter." ' 

On the 24th of November Cleasby moved from the Hotel Royale, where he had 
hitherto stayed, into lodgings in the Kongens Nytorv. On the 12th of December he 
dined with Ohlenschlager, ' who,' he says, ' at my instigation, and with some assistance 
from me in English, translated part of Moore's Lallah Rookh.' On a former occasion, 
in making the poet's acquaintance, Cleasby says of him : 

' Ohlenschlager is an exceedingly jovial, open-hearted man, but with more of the sensualist in 
his look than of the poet of deep feeling. His conversation is light, and even almost flimsy at 

times He related to me that he had applied to Sir Walter Scott about publishing one of his 

romances in England, which had been very well received in Denmark and Germany, and wished to 
have ;^ioo for the copyright; but Sir Walter wrote back to say there was no entrepreneurs for 
foreign novels. It was before Sir Walter's misfortunes, and Ohlenschlager seemed to think he 
ought to have sent him the ^100, as a sum of no kind of consequence to him and of much assist- 
ance to a fellow-poet. Such is the generous open nature of Ohlenschlager's disposition, that I doubt 
not he would have done it under similar circumstances ; but in this he belongs no doubt to the few, 
and not to the many.' 

On the 25th of February, 1835, Cleasby looked out for lodgings for a month or so 

at Roeskilde, ' in order to read in quietude,' and, having found them, went thither on the 

3rd of March. On the 2nd occurs the first mention of Rafn's name in the Diary, thus : 

' Paid Mr. Rafn, the Secretary of the Nordiske Oldskrift Selskab, the fee on becoming a 
member, being 25 specie dollars. I was elected on the 31st of January. Rafn and Finn Mag- 
nusen were proposer and seconder.' 

On the 3rd of April he returned from Roeskilde, and on the 23rd started for Lund 
in Scania, in Sweden, at which University he spent about a month learning Swedish, as 
he had already learnt Danish, and becoming intimate with the Professors Reuterdahl, 
Agardh, and, though last not least, Nilson, so well known for his geological and ethno- 
logical writings. On the loth of June Cleasby left Copenhagen for his annual visit to 
Carlsbad, by way of Stettin, Berlin, and Dresden, reaching it on the 15th, He had not 
intended to return home this year, but at the close of his cure he received such an 
alarming letter from his brother Anthony as to his brother Stephen's health that he 
came home immediately, arriving in London on the 22nd of July. His brother was 
then at Malvern, being threatened with consumption. He found him better than he 
had expected, and, after staying in England till the 25th of September, left for Germany 
and Dresden, where he arrived on the 5th of October, and he went into lodgings 

1835-37- RICHARD CLEASBY. Ixxiii 

for the winter. Early in November he heard of his brother Stephen's death, which is 

thus commemorated in his Diary : 

' November id^th. — This is the severest day with which it has as yet pleased Providence to visit 
me. I lost my dear and much-loved brother Stephen. He died at- Cheltenham between 7 and 
8 A.M. Mtiltis ille bonis ^ etc! 

Further on he describes this bereavement as 

• A loss quite irreparable ; a rapid decline tore him away from us, a visitor which all former 
circumstances of his life and of the family never led us to dream of. He himself has made a 
change for the better ; it is his mourning relations who suffer. He was in his thirty-seventh 
year.' , 

Later, on the 15th of December, Cleasby wrote a long letter to his brother 
Anthony, in which he says : 

' The loss of such a brother cannot be repaired, but we must seek by all possible unity and 
mutual approximation in desire and deed, and by clinging closely to each other, to close up as 
far as possible the cruel gap which the envious Giant has made in our ranks; not unreminded 
by what has happened of the uncertainty of the period during which it may be granted to us 
to range in the already diminished space of fraternal love and friendship.' 

Whether it were that the death of.his brother gave his mind a more. serious turn, 

it is plain from the Diary that Richard Cleasby studied divinity and associated with 

clergymen during this winter. His friends, the Hof-Prediger Franke and the Ober- 

Hof-Prediger Ammon, were those whose society he most sought in Dresden ; nor did 

he forget to visit his old friend Pastor Prietsch at Tharandt. On the 3rd of January, 

1836, he left Dresden for Leipzig, where he had many friends; but the religious turn 

of his mind is best shewn by the following little entry on the nth of January : 

'Took a young man of the name of Stegman to assist me in an attentive reading of the 

Old Professor Hermann was still alive, and Cleasby gave him a memorandum 
which Thiersch had left with him at Munich in 1833. At Leipzig he stayed 
engaged in his theological studies till the i8th of May, when he went leisurely home 
by Jena, the Odenwald, Heidelberg, the Rhine, and the Moselle. Treves and Luxem- 
burg were duly visited, and on the 8th of June he crossed to Dover. In the winter 
his brother Anthony had married Miss Fawkes. On the 3rd of July is the following 
entry : 

' Dr. Lappenberg of Hamburgh, Bronsted of Copenhagen, and the Librarian Falkenstein of 
Dresden dined with us, and met Reeve.' 

On the 27th of August Cleasby left Dover for Ostend. On the 19th of September 
we find him at Munich : 

' This town, to which so many agreeable recollections are attached, as well as regards the 
acquisition of knowledge as that of sincere friends.' 

Here he went into lodgings in the house of his friend Professor Martins, and 
on the 14th of October began reading Moeso-Gothic with his friend Professor Schmeller. 
At Munich he remained till May, 1837, hard at work; and early in that month took a 
tour in the Bavarian Tyrol, during which he stayed at Kreuth to take a whey (molken) 

Ixxiv RICHARD CLEASBY. 1837-39. 

cure. On the 3rd of July he returned to Munich, 'very well satisfied with the effects 
of the molken/ On the 2nd of September he set off with his friend Schmeller on 
a tour through Switzerland, returning on the 24th of the month, and making good use 
of the journey in studying the dialects. He now resumed his Old German and Philo- 
logical studies, but a' report of his mother's ill-health took him to England for a 
fortnight. He found his mother better than he expected, and on the 5th of December 
he was back at Munich. The winter of 1837-38 now passed away, and the spring 
found him still at work. We only pause to note that on the 27th of January, 1838, 
he writes, ' Was at a ball at Staatsrath Maurer's,' Konrad Maurer's father, and 
Schmeller's trusty friend. Then he again drinks the molken at Kreuth, climbs the 
Bavarian hills, and returns to England in July. On the ii3th he was present at a 
dinner in Guildhall, to congratulate the Queen on her coronation. There he sees 

' The Duke de Nemours, a nice, amiable-looking, blonde youth ; Soult, a broad, tough-looking 
warrior, a good deal knocked about, but still hale and firm. Sebastiani's countenance is 
intelligent. Esterhazy, Schwartzenberg, Stroganoff, Putbus, Spanish and Portuguese grandees, 
etc., excited less interest, but the splendid diamonds on the sabre of the first-mentioned could 
not escape notice. Wellington, Peel, Melbourne, Sir J. Graham, Stanley, little Lord John Russell, 
and the massive pair, O'Connell and Hume, with numerous other contrasts, sat peaceably and 
apparently well-pleased side by side.' 

After a visit to the patrimonial acres in Westmoreland he departed for Germany 
on the 25th of August, and reached Munich by way of Augsburg and Nuremberg, 
carrying with him some facsimiles of Old German MSS. for his friend Schmeller. He 
still takes lessons in Greek and German philology. In these studies he again passed 
the winter of 1838-39. 

On the 1 3th of February he wrote to his father to say that he thought of leaving 

Munich about the end of the month by Leipzig to Hamburg, and thence to Denmark 

and St. Petersburg. On the ist of March, 1839, stands an entry like many others in 

these volumes : 

' Made Joseph Miiller, Orientalist, a present of a hundred gulden, to forward the publication 
of a work he is preparing for the press.' 

Now he buys a britschka for his journey, and extra strong shoes and boots^ 
acquires statistical works on Russia, packs up his books and sends them to Gotta to 
take care of, and departs on the 2nd on his travels. At Leipzig, on the 6th of March, 
he gave Dr. Cruzius a hundred dollars, fifty in his own name, and fifty in that of 
his friend Vipan, 

'For the five exiled Gottingen professors. Two of the seven, Ewald and Gervinus, forego 
their shares.' 

Three of the five were his friends Dahlmann and Jacob and William Grimm. 
At Halle, of which he says, ' A more narrow-cornering, dirty, wretched-built town 
I scarcely recollect,' he saw Professor Leo, 

'Who, though terribly pugnacious and bitterly persecuting with his pen, is a lively and 
very agreeable person in conversation. We immediately got on to the subject of his Anglo- 
Saxon Lesebuch, when he quite agreed to my suggestions as to certain passages.' 


On the 8th he was at Berlin, struck more than ever with its imposing appearance — 
* Munich is quite a village to it.' His friend Raumer was in Italy, but he saw Graff, 
and found him, * as usual, complaining, but he brightened up when I talked of con- 
sulting him as to some passages in Ottfried's Christ' Then follows the discussion, 
at the end of which Graff remarked that the passages were the more' difficult because 
they were nearly all of them dVal Xey6/xem. On the 12th he reached Hamburg, and, 
after seeing Lappenberg, went on slowly to Copenhagen, lingering in Schleswig and 
Jutland more than a month, and accurately observing the dialects and the people. 
On the 4th of May he reached the Danish capital, and called on his friends. On 
the 6th he went with Professor Thiele to the Museum of Sculpture and saw Thor- 
waldsen, who had been absent in Italy on his former visits : 

'Among the sculptures there is his own bust, by himself, some twenty years younger, a 
magnificent countenance. On expressing my strong desire to see him, Thiele was so kind as 
to go in to him and announce me, though he had let his servant know he was not very well 
this morning ; and I believe I should not have seen him but for my being able to speak Danish, 
for immediately on my going in he received me most cordially, and his first words were, 
" J^g horer at de taler Dansk.'^ I passed about three-quarters of an hour with him alone, and I 
never recollect having more enjoyment in the same time. There is earnestness and great depth 
of expression in his countenance, with great placidness and serenity. He talked little, but moved 
slowly about in his silk dressing-gown, letting fall every now and then a remark either voluntarily 
or in answer to some observation of mine upon a picture or a piece of sculpture. He seemed, 
as far as I could judge, to be very favourably impressed as to England, and dwelt especially 
upon the merits of one or two pictures he has, painted by Englishmen. ... He said he wished 
to see England, but feared, from the great number of very kind friends he had there, he should 
be detained too long, and his years reminded him that his time was growing short. I saw 
in his studio numerous works, partly now in execution, especially reliefs of the " Triumph of 
Alexander," and a colossal and most noble figure, just modelled, representing Ocean, which is to 
form part of a group. ... I left him with the impression of having been in the company of a 
great man. There is something half sacred about his still, pensive manner, with his white hair 
and figure a little bent forward.' 

Cleasby had now made up his mind more clearly as to his Northern journey. On 
the same day he wrote to his father that he was going first to Stockholm, and then to 
Upsala, to stay there fourteen da}%. After that he should go to Petersburg, by way 
of Riga and Reval. On the 7th of May he left Copenhagen by steamer for Malmoe in 
Scania. From Malmoe he posted in his carriage to Calmar, and thence to Stockholm, 
which he reached on the i6th. Cleasby was now better fitted to enjoy Sweden than on 
his former visit in 1834. He knew the language, and had letters to many literary men 
from his friends in Copenhagen. Dr. Hildebrand, the archivarius and great Anglo-Saxon 
numismatist, took him to the Library, and put him in the way of obtaining some facsimiles 
and transcripts from Icelandic Sagas of the Romance cycle for Lady Charlotte Guest. 
Having put this in train, Cleasby turned to the main object of his visit — the inspection 
and collation of the Codex Argenteus at Upsala. He was fortunate in finding his friend 
Dr. Reuterdahl, of Lund, in Stockholm, who gave him a letter to the chief librarian 
Schroder, a man who was known, for his difficulty of access, by the nickname of * Inga- 
lunda ;' * Certainly not,' or ' Not by any means,' that being the word with which he usually 


met applicants who desired to avail themselves of the literary treasures under his care. 
Fortified with this letter, Cleasby presented himself at Upsala on the 19th of May, and 
saw Schroder, whom he calls 'an obliging, friendly man.' He made no objection to the 
collation of the MS. with Gabelentz and Lobe's edition, and, while he went to Stock- 
holm, confided Cleasby to the care of the under-librarian Afzelius, with whom he spent 
the morning of the 20th in trying to find his ^ 

' Colleague Fant, who was said to have the key of the glass case in which the Codex Argen- 
teus is kept. It looked as if I should have to wait Schroder's return from Stockholm.' 

So the 20th was lost, but on the 21st Cleasby notes : 

* This morning I was rejoiced to find that the valuable key was found. ... I accordingly 
accompanied Afzelius to the Library, but partly because it was more convenient for him to sit at 
home than come to the Library and sit there while I was at work, and partly, as he said, because he 
could there ask me questions as to English, which language he was reading and desirous of my 
help, he determined upon taking out the Codex and carrying it to his house, where I was to have 
leave to work before and after noon; and indeed I began at 10 o'clock A.M. and remained till 
1 o'clock, and then went again at 4 and remained till 7.' 

Next day, and every day, he worked at the Codex, but on the 22nd he saw Geijer 
the historian, who had been absent on his former visit ; and this is his account of a 
very remarkable man : 

' Passed the evening with Geijer, who speaks a little English. There is nothing striking in his 
outward appearance or manner ; nor is he especially conversant, though, after being with him a 
time, he becomes more so ; but there is a good deal of inward thought in him, and perceptible in 
his countenance.' 

At Upsala he also saw Tullberg, a young Sanskrit Professor. He complained of 

the little interest taken in Sanskrit by the students, but this, he added, 

' Was less to be wondered at, for he had seen Bopp with not more than half-a-dozen hearers at 
Berlin, Rosen with only four or five in London, and Wilson with not more in Oxford.' 

On the 28th Cleasby notes : 

' Spent the evening with Geijer ; as pleasant a one as I ever passed. He was in good humour, 
and communicative, which is not always the case, and is a man decidedly of the first order. On 
my departure he presented me with a monthly periodical, which he edits, containing a notice of 
Lockhart's Life of Walter Scott, and I think there has scarcely anywhere been set a more inter- 
esting and touching monument to the memory of this good and great man. . . . Besides being 
perhaps the first historian of the day, Geijer is a poet of a very high order, and a musical com- 
poser of great merit.' 

On the 1st of June Cleasby's labours on the Codex Argenteus were concluded for 
the present, and he speaks in high praise of the text as he found it in the edition of 
Gabelentz and Lobe, though it is now superseded by Professor Upstrom's splendid 
facsimile edition. On the same day he received a number of letters of introduction from 
his father to influential persons in Russia. On his return to Stockholm he saw the 
magnificent collection of Northern antiquities in the royal palace, and especially the 
Anglo-Saxon coins and those some of the rarest ; a proof, if any were wanting, that 
among the Northern Vikings there must have been many Swedes who, on their return 
from the West, buried their treasure in the earth. 



On the 4th of June Cleasby left Stockholm for Finnlandand Russia, on which 
journey we forbear to dwell, except to say that wherever he went he saw everything and 
(Very person of any importance to whom he could get access. On the 19th of July he 
returned to Stockholm. There he found the facsimiles for Lady Charlotte Guest were 
ready ; and having inspected the Icelandic MSS. in the Royal Library, and made the 
acquaintance of Mr. George Stephens, the translator of Frithiof 's Saga, then resident in 
Stockholm and an ardent collector of popular tales, but now Professor at Copenhagen, 
and a great authority on Runes, one of the most obliging and learned of men, he hired 
a servant for a journey to Norway, and set out on his expedition by way of Upsala. 
His object was, as we know, to complete his collation of the Codex Argenteus — but 
alas ! the fates were against him, as the following entry in his Diary shews : 

' July 29//^, 1839. — I 1^^^ Stockholm for Upsala. The librarian, Schroder, was not there, — the 
second one, Afzelius, took me to the library, but could not find the key, precisely as on the last 
occasion, and I am inclined to think the reason was that he would not find it, which prevented 
my looking at the first 16 pages of the Codex Argenteus, which I wished to do, to see the state 
of the leaves, and also p. 118, to see how the Latin Gloss was written at the beginning of Luke's 

Thence he passed through the Swedish mining districts, and, passing on to Dale- 
carlia, was delighted, as all must be, with the primitive people who dwell along the banks 
of the two Dal Elvs and round the shores of the lovely Siljan Lake. Crossing the 
fells called the Kjolen or Keel, he came down by Veradal on Drontheim, very nearly by 
the same route which St. Olaf took when he went to meet his death at Sticklastad. 
At Drontheim he passed several pleasant days with Rector Bugge, and left it on the 
loth of August for the South, crossing the Dovre Fjeld, and then turning up by 
Romsdale and Gudbrandsdale to Christiania, which he reached on the i6th, and thought 
not to be compared to Drontheim. Having renewed his acquaintance with Keyser, 
Professor of History in the University there, he left Christiania on the i8th for 
Gottenburg, by way of Drammen, following the route which he had taken in 1834. 
On the 23rd he reached Copenhagen, and thus reviews his Swedish and Russian tour : 

' I thus finished, very much to my satisfaction, a most agreeable and, at the same time, instruc- 
tive tour, in which I learned much as to the state of the countries I visited, which, doubtless, is not 
to be acquired from books. I was everywhere received with great kindness, and all facilities were 
given me for the attainment of the objects I had in view, with the sole exception of Petersburg, 
where I cannot but allow that the literary introductions I had were but coldly responded to.' 

After a little tour among the smaller Danish Isles, during which he was amazed 
at the prosperity and ease of the peasantry, he left Copenhagen on the 9th of September 
for England, meaning to go by steamer from Hamburg, but the vessel having broken 
down at the mouth of the Elbe, he left her, and went home by Lower Germany and 
Friesland, and embarked at Ostend on the 13th of that month for London. His return 
had been hastened by the intelligence of his father's failing health ; but this, it seems, 
was a false alarm. After seeing friends, writing to Dr. Bowring, and giving him an 
account of the Romance literature in Icelandic in the Royal Library at Stockholm, and 
enclosing the facsimiles which Lady Charlotte Guest was anxious to have for her edition 


Ixxviii RICHARD CLEASBY. 1839. 

of the Mabinoglon, he sailed on the i6th of October for Rotterdam, and, making the 
acquaintance of Dr. Bosworth, then chaplain in that city, and editor of an Anglo-Saxon 
Dictionary, he returned through Holland and Friesland, stopping on his way at 
Deventer to see the great Frisian scholar, Dr. Halbertsma : 

' A somewhat rigid-looking man, who seemed, in silence, keeping his wife — quite a model of a 

Dutch frow — and his two children company We talked upon Frisian He is about a work on 

the language, a complete Dictionary, which I encouraged him to make haste with. He has no 
doubt collected such stores as no other man possesses ; but I am in general a little afraid of the 
speculative nature of his philology, for on my asking him what he considered was the derivation of 
the name of the Frisians, he said it was the same word as Persians, — the^ becomes/, etc., etc., but 
I asked him for some connecting links.' 

Stopping at Hamburg to see Lappenberg the historian, and at Kiel to have 
a chat with his good friend Chalybaeus, who had taught him Speculative Theology 
at Dresden, and was now professor in the same branch of study in the Holstein 
University, he passed on by Eckernforde and Schleswig into that land of the Angeln 
of which so much was heard in the Schleswig- Holstein controversy, which in those 
happy days had hardly begun to lift its horrid head. At Gelting, in the heart of that 
distrfct, Cleasby stayed a few days, and made up his mind that 

' The basis of the population of Angeln is Danish, mixed, no doubt, a great deal with German 

settlers, but whose language was obliged to give way to the predominant one ; the names of the 

towns, localities, and inhabitants seem a sufficient proof of this, and I am much inclined to doubt 
whether the name of the country, " Angle," has anything to do with the Angles who went over to 
England with the Saxons, and who sat at the mouth of the Saal or the Elbe, according to the 
testimony of Ptolemy.' 

On the 29th of October he was back at Copenhagen, and was busy greeting his 
old friends in that capital, among whom were Professor Molbech, Finn Magnusen, 
Ohlenschlager the poet, Bronsted, and Rafn. 

Now his Diary is full of his arrangements for taking lodgings, hiring and buying 

furniture, preparatory to a lengthened stay in Copenhagen. He was gradually settling 

down more and more to Northern studies. Just about this time the old King of 

Denmark, Frederick VI, died after a long reign, and was succeeded by his son, 

Christian VIII; but Cleasby is more occupied with his books than the royal death 

and funeral, on which occasion the population of Copenhagen * evinced a curiosity and 

love of sight-seeing ' which * astonished ' him : 

' I took the Danes,' he says, ' for a more staid and solid people ; high and low, lords and ser- 
vants, cookmaids and .shoeblacks, all have been up to see these sights — that is, the lying-in-state.' 

But Cleasby cares for none of these things. On the 5th of November, nearly a 
month before the old king died, comes the following entry in his Diary : — * 4 degrees 
heat,' — he was always most exact in noting the state of the weather, — ' began to read 
Icelandic — Saemund's Edda — with a native Icelander, Giselsen.' This is the first 
mention of Konrad Gislason, and for some time longer he is to Cleasby in his Diaries 
•Giselsen,' and not Gislason. With him' he reads four times a week. But he was 
soon to feel that reading Icelandic in those days was to read a language without a 


I )ictionary, for that of Bjorn Haldorsen was little help. On the loth of January, 1840, 
tomes this entry : — * Talked with Rafn about editing an Icelandic Dictionary.' And 
oil the 1 2th of February we find him writing to his friend Kemble, the well-known 
Anglo-Saxon scholar: 

' I am up to my chin in Islandicis, and doing what I can to promote the preparation of a 
od sound old Northern Lexicon, and so get this, for so late in the 19th century, unaccountable 
and most scandalous blank filled up in this grand branch of Teutonic development; but there are 
many difficulties.' 

And to Arfwedson, the librarian at Stockholm, on the 26th of February in Danish, 

\\ hich he wrote fluently, if not always correctly : 

' J eg har tilbragt vinteren her totus in Islandicis og havde naesten i sinn at tage op til dem 
en i sommer.' 

On the 1 8th of April stands, 'Bought four reams of paper, 5 dalers per ream.' And on the 
-,ih, ' Sent three reams of paper to Konrad Giselsen in preparation for the Dictionary of the 
Icelandic Language I intend to edit' And on the 22nd, 'Paid Konrad Giselsen this day 8 daler 
for instruction this month, and 50 daler for work to be undertaken by him, exclusively for me, 
relative to an Icelandic Dictionary I intend to publish. The 50 daler are regarded as a payment 
at the rate of 50 daler per month, from this day till the ist of June, and he gave me an acknow- 
ledgment in writing.' 

And accordingly we find among Cleasby's papers the following : 

'Jeg har faaet i dag Kjobenhavn den 22 April 1840 af Herr Richard Cleasby Halvtresindstyve 
Kigsbank Daler Dansk, som belonning indtil den forste dag of naestkommende Juni, for et Arbed 
jeg har paataget mig at udraette udelukkende for bans Brug, angaaende en Ord-bog han agter at 
give ud paa Islandsk og et eller flere andre sprog. — KONRAD GiSLASON.' 

After which entry follow similar acknowledgments from Mr. Gislason and Cleasby's 
other Icelandic amanuenses, down to that sad entry of the 6th of September, 1847, 
when he paid Mr. Fridriksson 20 dollars. 

Having started his amanuensis, Cleasby left for home on the same day for a 

month, again passing through Hanover and Holland, and taking the steamer from 

Antwerp to London, where he arrived on the 4th of May, and found all well at 

home. On his way he had met his father, and assisted him on some business matters 

which had rendered his presence in Antwerp necessary. After visiting friends, and 

especially Kemble, then settled at Addlestone, under the Hog's Back, Cleasby left for 

Copenhagen on the 24th of May, loaded as usual with letters from his literary friends in 

England to scholars abroad. He again took the route by Rotterdam and Lower 

Germany, and reached Hamburgh on the 29th, whence he wrote the following letter 

to his old friend Schmeller, on the subject of his Icelandic undertaking : 

' Bei meiner Riickkehr (nach Copenhagen) wand ich mich mit vielem Fleiss dem Islandischen 
zu, und fand bald den grossen Mangel der ohne Zweifel die Hauptursache ist des versaumten 
Studiums dieser herrlichen Sprache, namlich der Mangel an Hiilfsmitteln, und besonders an einem 
brauchbaren Lexicon ; denn Bjorn Haldorson's ist so gut wie keiner. Da ich nun mich iiber die 
Aussicht fiir die Zukunft erkundigte, fand ich, dass zwei Manner in Iceland hatten seit 20 Jahren, 
der eine an ein poetisches, der andere an ein prosaisches Worterbuch gearbeitet ; und begierig unge- 
fahr den Zustand ihrer Arbeit zu kennen, Hess ich nach Iceland schreiben, und erfuhr, dass das 
poetische Werk so vorwarts geschritten war, dass die letzte Revision und das Fertigmachen zum 



Druck in ungefahr einem Jahr gcschehen konnten, falls der Verfasser nicht zu sehr mit anderer 
Arbeit pressirt wurde, welches ich auch erfuhr wie ich friiher in Correspondenz mit der "Old 
Nordisches Selskabet " — unter uns gesagt fur ihren wahren Zweck auf das anpassendste constituirt I 
und administrirt was sich nur denken kann — gewesen war. Da ich nun nicht wiinschte diesem zu 
nahe zu treten, so besuchte ich den Secretair Rafn, und durch dringende Zumuthung und das 
Versprechen von Unterstiitzung wenn nothwendig, bewog ich ihn an den Verfasser zu schreiben ihm 
ein passendes Honorar anzubieten, und den Druck des Werkes entweder fiir die Gesellschaft allein 
Oder in Verbindung mit mir zu ubernehmen ; so dass ich hoffe, dass wir bald um diese ohne Zweifel 
treffliche Arbeit werden reicher werden, was, wenn ich nicht sehr entschieden dazwischen getreten 
ware, ware Gott weiss wie lange unvollendet geblieben. 

' Was das prosaische Werk angeht ^, so scheint es als eine Art Thesaurus angelegt zu sein, von 
grossem Umfang, umfassend alte und neue Sprach-Dialecte, Redensarten, u. s. w. ; aber ohne alle 
Ansicht der Vollendung in der Lebenszeit des Verfassers, der schon etwas bei Jahren ist, und ein 
bischen der Sache miide zu sein scheint, und es nicht unwahrscheinlich erst in seinem Testament 
jemanden zur Ausgabe iibermachen wird. Diese aber ist eine so weite Aussicht, und die Sache 
scheint mir so dringend Noth zu thun, dass ich mich beinahe entschlossen habe mich selbst an ein pro- 
saisches Lexicon zu machen ; nicht Thesaurus-artig, aber von brauchbarem Umfange, und die alte 
Skandinavische Sprache umfassend von den friihesten Denkmalern bis ungefahr zum a.d. 1400, mit 
Englischer Ubersetzung ; ein Werk dessen Schwierigkeiten, wenn ordentlich vollfuhrt und dem 
jetzigen philologischen Standpunkt entsprechend, mir nicht verborgen ist ; aber mit redlichen Willen 
und fleissiger Arbeit ich doch denke in ungefahr 3 Jahren zu Stande gebracht werden konnte ; und 
es wiirde mir eine grosse Befriedigung gewahren, wenn ich fiir die vielen, sehr vielen, lehrreichen, 
beherzigenden, angenehmen Stunden die ich, und besonders in Miinchen, zugebracht habe in dem 
Studium der Germanischen Sprachkunde, dadurch meine Dankbarkeit an den Tag zu legen, dass 
ich eben diesem Studium einen griindlichen und niitzlichen Beitrag brachte, und einen Mangel 
abhulfe der gewiss mit jedem Jahr muss mehr und mehr gefiihlt werden, und ich bitte Sie, sagen 
Sie mir in einem recht baldigen Briefe ihre Meinung iiber dieses m,ein Beginnen.' 

On the ist of June he was back at Copenhagen, and 

* Found Giselsen employed with his friend in writing out Icelandic words for my Dic- 
tionary, but not much above half way through the alphabet, he having found the job much longer 
than he expected.' 

On the 3rd of that month he 

'Went into splendidly roomy lodgings, No. 14, Gammel Strand, .... three fine front rooms, a 
back room and entrance hall, furnished, and with attendance, for 22 dollars a month.' And on the 
4th he * bought two reams more of paper for 10 dollars, and sent them to Giselsen.' And, again, 
on the 22nd, 'bought another ream of paper, and paid 5 dollars 3 marks for it, and sent it to 

On the 24th he wrote as follows to Kemble : 

' Finn Magnusen has read your treatise on Anglo-Saxon Runes, and trembled ; he says you 
have been sadly hard upon him ; I told him you were an earnest " Forscher" I am hard at work 
upon the foundations of the edifice I told you at Addlestone I had an intention of rearing. I find 
them, I rather regret to say, covering a good deal more ground than I expected, but hope they will 
prove all the better for the superstructure ; every day convinces me more and more that " Zeit und 
Muth" on a large scale, will be among the leadingly necessary implements.' 

On the same day he wrote thus to Mr. John Shaw Lefevre : 

* My dear Sir, — The making your personal acquaintance during my last stay in London was a 
. source of great gratification to me ; to find a man like yourself, under so heavy a weight of public 

* This refers to the Lexicographical collection of the late Dr. Hallgrim Scheving, of Bessestad in Iceland. 




iMisiness, seeking recreation in the extension of the wide range of your knowledge, is not less 
.ittractive than rare, and truly encouraging. The circumstance of your having directed your 
attention to these parts made it the more interesting to me, for a native partiality for the 
Scandinavian North, — a sort, as it were, of veneration for the primitivi Penates, — has induced me 
l<! devote much time to its vulgar, as well as its more archaic literature, and which will, I hope, end 
enabling me to facilitate to my countrymen the acquirement of the knowledge of a great store of 
interesting matter — interesting not only in itself, but also as intimately bound up with the early 
manners, institutions, and destinies of our own ancestry.' 

On the same day we find the following entry : * Received a most agreeable letter 
from my valued friend Schmeller in Munich.' This was in answer to his letter of the 
29th of May, and the following is an extract from it : 

' Wie sehr uns alle das was Sie zum Besten der Nordischen Sprachkunde zu thun im Begrifife 
sind, erfreue, brauche ich Ihnen nicht erst zu sagen. Dacht' ich doch oft wie Schade es ware, wenn 
so viel beharrlicher, griindlicher, wahrhaft ausserordentlicher Fleiss, auf diesen noch so vernachliis- 
sigten Theil des Sprachstudiums, verwendet, nicht auch zur Hiilfe, zum Segen fiir andere ausschla- 
gen sollte. Schon die edelmiithige Dazwischenkunft durch die Sie die endliche Herausgabe des 
poetischen Worterbuchs fordern, wird Ihnen den bleibenden Dank aller Freunde der Germanischen 
Zunge sichern, Noch weit mehr aber wird dieses der Fall seyn, wenn Sie dem tagtaglich bitterer 
gefiihlten Bediirfnissen nach einem wahrhaft brauchbaren prosaischen Handlexicon der alteren Nord- 
sprache entgegen zu kommen, Ihre eigene Kraft und Miihe daran setzen. Die Aufgabe ist freylich 
kein Kinderspiel. Es wollen dazu nicht bios alle bereits vorhandenen Vorarbeiten, sondern auch 
samtliche sowohl gedruckte als handschriftliche Literaturstiicke durchgelesen und methodisch ex- 
cerpiert seyn. Hiefur aber werden Sie hiilfreiche Amanuensen finden. Einem klaren, umsichtigen, 
ausharrenden Geiste wird keine Aufgabe zu schwer. Sollten mehr als die drei Jahre dariiber 
hingehen, so wiirde mich die Liebe zu demselben Zweig des Wissens dafiir trosten miissen, so lange 
ohne das hertzlich gewunschte Wiedersehen zu seyn. 

' Bleiben Sie eingedenk 
* Ihres 
'J. A. Schmeller.' 

On the 3rd of July he enters : 

' Yesterday Etatsraad Rafn brought me from Egilsson in Iceland a specimen of his poetical 
Icelandic Dictionary, which had been from negligence lying at the Icelandic merchant Knutsen's 14 
days. . . . As a ship was to sail again for Iceland to-morrow morning, by which it was to be 
returned to Egilsson, I had only an hour or two to look through it. I told Rafn I thought the work 
upon the whole good, but that it appeared to me much too prolix, there being also an immense 
number of prose words. I therefore recommended his writing back, that (ist)he should leave out 
all the prose words which occurred with no other meaning than what they have in prose : (2nd) 
that he should not give more than one citation in full for one meaning of a word, but at all events 
only mention the place where it besides occurred in that sense : (3rd) that he should not regard the 
modern language as his norm, which he seemed to have done at the beginning of letters, giving a 
list of how the words were written or pronounced, hodiernis vocabulis. If this was done it might 
shorten the work a third.' 

On the 31st of July we find him paying Gislason 40 dollars 'for his labours for the 
month of July relating to the Icelandic Dictionary which I propose editing ;' and a day or 
two afterwards he writes to his sister that he thinks of leaving Copenhagen for Carlsbad 
on the 17th of August, and being back about the end of September. On the i8th of 
August he started for a little walking excursion with a young Icelandic ' Candidat Juris,* 
Pjeturson, taking with them the Hrafnkels Saga to read on the way — the first mention 
of Pjeturson, one of his amanuenses, whom he took the next year with him to Germany 

Ixxxli RICHARD CLEASBY. ^ 1840. 

and England, and with whom he was in constant communication for some years. Al 
this time the Dictionary was progressing, and on the nth of August he ' paid the book- 
binder Lerche 3 dollars i mark and 8 sk. for bookbinding and pasteboard cases for 
letters for my Icelandic Dictionary.' On the 1 7th he paid Gislason 40 dollars * as re- 
muneration for the month of August,' and left for Carlsbad by the steamer for Trave- 
miinde. He took the way by Schwerin, Perleburg, and Spandau to Berlin, which he 
reached on the 20th, and called on Lachmann and Graff, to consult with them as to 
his Dictionary, finding the latter ill in bed, and then set off for Leipzig, where he arrived 
on the 2 1st, and on the 22nd was at Carlsbad, where he began drinking and bathing 
with great assiduity, swallowing as much as three glasses of the Miihlbrunn and eight 
of the Spriidel a day, and amusing himself with translating the Hrafnkels Saga into 
English. Here he notes that on the 28th of August he received a letter from Schmeller, 
and on the loth of September was gladdened by * a visit from my good friend Schmeller 
from Munich, whom I was glad to see again in good health and spirits, with a scarcely 
perceptible alteration externally, and none internally ; the subject of the Icelandic Dic- 
tionary was, of course, largely discussed, and we walked after dinner to Eich.' 

The next two days were occupied in shewing Schmeller the lions of the place and 
neighbourhood, and here he notes : 

' It was interesting too with Schmeller to remark his attention to dialects in any villages we 
passed through yesterday or to-day^ and the result was that quite up to and in Carlsbad, and I 
suppose one may say the whole valley of the Eger up to the Saxon border, the dialect is decidedly 
that of the Upper Palatinate (Ober-Pfalz) and not Saxon.' 

On the 1 2th Schmeller departed for Toeplitz, and on the 23rd Cleasby took leave 
of his English friends at that bath, among whom were Mr. Senior and Mr. Charles 
Villiers ' of Corn-Law fame,' and left Carlsbad, which he had often before visited, with 
the following remarks : 

' I cannot notice my departure from Carlsbad without saying that, upon the whole, I was more 
delighted with the various beauties of its environs than on any former occasion ; nor was I other- 
wise than satisfied with the immediate operation of the waters — God give that the permanent etfect 
may not be less beneficial.' 

On the 24th he wrote in German from Leipzig to Gislason at Copenhagen, telling 
him that he should be home in about eight days, and nothing doubting that he had 
been 'recht fleissig.' As for himself, he had not been 'unthatig,' 'und sehe mit 
grossem Vergntigen einem arbeitsamen Winter entgegen.' On the 26th he was at 
Cassell, where the brothers Grimm then were, having, as is well known, been expelled 
for their political opinions, by the King of Hanover, from Gottingen. Here he 
tells us : 

*I immediately paid Jacob Grimm a visit, whom I rejoiced to find looking, as I thought, 
younger and better than when I saw him six years ago ; he received me most cordially : and in the 
afternoon I went again and passed two or three hours with him, discussing various points as to the 
old Scandinavian language.' 

On the 27th he writes : 

*I passed the forenoon with Jacob Grimm, entering widely into detail as to a variety of 

1840. RICHARD CLEASBY. Ixxxiii 

orthographical points relating to the old Scandinavian language, and found him most amiably 
communicative. In the afternoon I returned and took a walk with him, and enjoyed from an 
eminence on the brink of the town a beautiful prospect.' 

On the 28th he says : 

' Passed the forenoon again with Jacob Grimm, and dined with, I suppose I must say, William 
Grimm, as he is the married man with the family to whom the manage more especially belongs, 
though Jacob lives with them.' 

And on the 29th : 

' I had again the satisfaction of passing my forenoon with J. Grimm, and witnessing his acute- 
ness, his fulness of candour, and voidness of all pedantry and pretentiousness. I shewed him what 
I had done at Upsala touching the Codex Argenteus, with which he seemed much pleased, and 
noted some points. ... I took tea with the Grimms in the evening, and, after a couple of hours' 
chat, left them reluctantly at 9 o'clock. Nothing can be more delightful than the truly 
fraternal relation in which these brothers live to one another; one soul seems to animate them 
both, although their individual characters appear to me not a little subjectively different. All 
their concerns seem to be mutual, one can scarcely perceive to which of them the mhiage, the wife^ 
the children, belong ; indeed she, when speaking of them both, makes use of the expression " meine 
Mdnnerl'' which in truth, in a circle where there could be a shadow of doubt as to its purity, would 
sound somewhat equivocal. Jacob seems to have got over the Gottingen affair better than his 
brother ; he is more hasty, but once fairly expectorated, is more easily reconciled again ; it seems 
to prey more on William, who altogether seems to me to have less elasticity, less vigour of 
character ; he broods more over it ; indeed, though doubtless an excellently sterling man, yet there 
seems to me a little more sarcasm and more form about him than about his brother, in whom there 
is really something of infantine simplicity of manner. I do not know that I ever passed three or 
four days more to my mind than those at Cassell, where so much of the instructive was mixed with 
the agreeable.' 

On the 6th of October he was back at Copenhagen, returning by Hanover, Ham- 
burg, and Kiel ; and the day after his return there is the usual entry : 
* Paid K. Gislason 40 dollars as remuneration for the month of September.' 

On the 14th of October we find the following entry : 

'A meeting took place this evening at Etatsraad Rafn^s rooms, at 7 o'clock, and ended at 
10 o'clock, where himself, Etatsraad Finn Magnusen, Registrator Petersen, the two Arna Magnaean 
stipendiaries Sivertsen and Gislason, and myself were present, to discuss the orthographical rules to 
be observed in the edition of the Islendinga Sogur about to be published by the Old Nordisk 
Selskabet, wherein it was agreed to adhere to the orthography observed by Rask in the 7th vol. 
of the Fornmanna Sogur, excepting that, — ist, that the circumflex " over the class of words hanum, 
vapn, varum, sva, etc., should be exchanged for an acute accent, the same as that used for the 
long a in general ; 2nd, that the two diphthongs a and oe should be distinguished from one another ; 
3rd, that where the root has a double consonant this should always be written, even where a third 
consonant follows — as " brennda " from at brenna, not " brenda," and " allt " from allr, not " alt," 
etc. ; 4th, that the acute accent shall be discontinued over the a, ?', and u in -ang, -ing, and -ung.' 

On the 1 6th of the same month he writes in Danish to Finn Magnusen, as head of 

the Arna Magnsean Commission : 

' Jeg har alrede opholdt mig i nogen Tid i Kjobenhavn og have i Sind at blive her endnu i laengere 
Tid, for at kunne affatte en Ordbog i det gamle islandske Sprog. For ret at kunne udfore dette Arbed, 
er det mig magtpaaliggende med Hensyn isaer til Retskrivning at have Membraner ved Haanden 
til fornodent Eftersyn. Jeg tager mig derfor den aerbodige Frihed at bede de^ Kongelige Com- 

Ixxxiv RICHARD CLEASBY. 1840,41. 

mission om gunstig Tilladelse til at erholde til Laans og Afbenyttelse i Huset af de Arna Magnaeanske 
Membraner fra en til to ad Gangen, da jeg skal vaere ansvarlig for samme (og) drage den yderstc 
Omhue for deres vedborlige Conservation medens de ere i min Vserge.' 

The purport of this letter being to obtain from the Commission the loan, in his 
lodgings, of certain MSS. in that splendid collection, which he proposed to borrow two 
or three at a time. It need scarcely be said that the Commission complied with the 
foreigner's request with a liberality which, alas ! seldom or never has its parallel in 
English libraries. 

On the 9th of November he writes : ' P. G. Thorsen, under-librarian of the Uni- 
versity Library, drank tea with me : a nice unassuming young man.' This is the 
Thorsen now so well known as the writer on Runic stones. On the 30th he paid 
Gislason 40 dollars for the month of November, and ' the carpenter Mohring for a 
polished wooden stand for the boxes containing my Icelandic Alphabet, 8 dollars.' 

On the 22nd of December we find the following entry: ' Thank God the shortest 
day is past. Took Gislason and his friend Petersen to dine with me at the Skydeban, 
and we drank a toast to Balder and one to Iceland's prosperity.' 

Oh the 31st of December he paid Gislason 40 dollars for the month of December. 

The winter of 1841 was very cold in the North; the Sound was frozen over, so 

that sledges came over from Sweden. On the 1 3th of February Cleasby writes : 

' Yesterday evening a movement took place in the ice in the Sound, so that to-day a ship or 
two came up to Copenhagen — after its having been firmly frozen over between five and six weeks.' 

A few days before he had remarked ' the first solitary song of a chaffinch.' On 
the 1 8th of March Cleasby received a polite letter from the Arna Magnsean Com- 
mission, accompanied by a present of several works printed at their expense. 

' The signatures to the letter were Orsted, Wehrlauff, Engletoft, F. Magnusen, Rafn, and 
Kolderup Rosenvinge, all of whom I thanked.' 

On the 2 1 St he writes: 'Dined with Kolderup Rosenvinge; met the Stifts-Probst Tryge and 
the young Professor of Philosophy, Martensen, and had a famous dose of philosopho-theological 
discussion interestingly conducted. The Probst rather accusing Protestantism of a degree of one- 
sidedness, and thinking that there were points in Catholicismus which it might adopt ; and that 
perhaps a sort of union might be accomplished. The philosopher, on the contrary, arguing correctly 
that irenical attempts were altogether vain with the Catholic Church.' 

During these months the payments of 40 dollars to Gislason continue, and on the 
29th Cleasby writes : 

' On the evening of the 29th of March, in consequence of a note from Etatsraad Rafn of the 
25th inst., a meeting took place at his dwelling, consisting of the same persons as that on the 14th 
of October, which see ; viz. Finn Magnusen, Professor Petersen, Gislason, Sivertsen, Rafn, and 
myself, on the subject of the orthography to be used in the edition of Islendinga Saga about to be 
edited by the Old Nordisk Selskabet. The letter from Rafn was accompanied with two proof- 
sheets of Ari Frodi's Islendinga-book, and the commencement of the Landnama-book, to my utter 
astonishment printed totally at variance with the agreement which had been entered into at the 
meeting of the 14th of October ; the Islendinga-book especially, after no kind of system whatever, 
with the retention of certain forms and rejection of others of the MS., of the most capricious nature ; 
which is the more blameworthy, as a precise copy of this MS. is to be given which will satisfy 
every want of learned research ; and the other might have been printed in conformity with the rest 


the series, for the better understanding of the other class of readers. But even in the Landnama- 
)ok the circumflex over words like hanum, var, vapn^ etc., is retained ; the accent also over ang, ing^ 
.iiid ung, and with the greatest difficulty the separation of ^ and ce has been retained ; but it appears 
uncertain if it will be done in future volumes. I, at the meeting, expressed my greatest dissatis- 
faction at this variance from the agreement entered into, and Petersen, Gislason and myself, and 
V. Magnusen after hearing my grounds, decidedly acquiesced in the abolition of the circumflex over 
/.'dmim, vdr, svd, and the like ; also that of the ' over ang, wg, and tmg, and in the separation of (S 
Mid or. Sivertsen was almost silent on the subject, but, even reckoning him with Rafn, we were four* 

;ainst two ; notwithstanding which Rafn has refused to make any alteration. As to cs and ce, he 
-cemed at one time to admit the chief objection to separating them was their incapacity to correctly 
distinguish them, and indeed shewed throughout the whole argument the greatest ignorance of the 
nrst principles of the language.' 

On the 2 7th of April he wrote thus to Kemble : 

' I have been toiling very hard in the Icelandic field all this winter, and am not a little 
exhausted. The further I get from the beginning the further I seem to be from the end ; but 
ill time I suppose the perspective will change. I expect to leave this in a fortnight or three weeks 
for Germany, and shall, I think, very likely be in England towards the beginning of July.' 

On the same day he wrote to Mr. John Shaw Lefevre : 

* As to the Icelandic Opus, I have been toiling incessantly since I wrote you last, grubbing 
away at the foundations ; but it is a slow operation ; indeed the further I get from the beginning 
the more I think the end seems to recede ; a quality which, at ten or twelve years of age, one 
would doubtless have hailed with joy in a plum-cake, but which in a pursuit like the one in question 
is not so attractive ; one is involuntarily reminded of the Will o' the Wisp. To judge from the 
basement, of which portions here and there are beginning to be visible above the ground, I fear 
the edifice in point of extent much exceeds what I at first expected.' 

Then, passing to poHtics, that being the time of the Turco-Egyptian quarrel with 
France, he says : 

' Denmark partakes, with the whole world besides, of that disquieting sensation of envy occasioned 
by the unrivalled position England occupies, her gigantic power, and her unexampled successes ; 
the radiance which surrounds her is too bright for a weak vision ; eyes of such a class are unable to 
even gaze at it without smarting, and this annoys their possessor. I cannot, however, doubt that 
every sensible and impartial man must be rejoiced at the result of the whole affair — a bold and 
straightforward, decided course crowned with success — veering and truckling and cunning by- views 
completely put to the rout ! If the French would however but have seen their error, and acknow- 
ledged it, and profited by it for the future, the injury sustained by them would have been 
comparatively trifling ; but instead of this they seek to mask the truth, and attempt to glory in 
their error ; still further deceiving themselves with, as it were, the celebration of a sort of triumph in 
their fortification of Paris ; a measure which I regard as the commencement of a new epoch for that 
unstable nation, and one decidedly of " decadence." The Icelandic labours have exhausted me not 
a little, and I am looking to my departure from this place in two or three weeks for Germany.' 

On the 4th of May he notes : 

' Paid N. C. Moller for bookbinding nine dollars ; seven dollars of it for the two books for my 
Icelandic Dictionary.' 

On the loth he says : 

' Universal fast-day. The only day in the year that one has no new bread ; the bakers getting 
a night's rest.' 

On the 1 7th of May he left Copenhagen for Lubeck, but before he went he sent 

Ixxxvi • . RICHARD CLEASBY. 1841 

* the cases in which my Dictionary-papers stand to Serena d' Acqueria,' an intimate 

On this occasion Cleasby took with him as his companion a young Icelander, 
Brynjolfr Pjeturson, whom he occasionally calls Petersen in the Danish form, a law- 
student, and clerk in the Chamber of Accounts, in whom he seems to have taken 
great interest, and to whom he did the honours, and shewed the lions of Germany 
*and England. The travellers we need scarcely say were bound for Carlsbad, and 
took the route by Dessau, Halle, Leipzig, and Dresden, staying in each sufficient 
time to examine and admire their natural and artistic beauties. On the 26th of 
May they reached Carlsbad, where the cure as usual consisted in bathing and drinking 
for a month or more. In the midst of it, on the 12th of June, Cleasby wrote to his 
father to say that he should ' come home about that day month, and bring a young 
Icelander with him, but not remain more than a fortnight.' On the ist of July the 
travellers left Carlsbad, Cleasby for Toeplitz, to remain three weeks, and take twenty 
baths in the Neu-Bad, and then to pay a visit to his friend Count Thun-Hohenstein, 
at his magnificent seat at Tetschen, while the Icelander went on to Prague. Both these 
objects having been accomplished, they met again at Prague, where Cleasby, by the 
introduction of Count Thun, made the acquaintance of the Sclavonic historians Palacsky 
and Saffaric, who received him most kindly and imparted very valuable statistics as 
to the various Sclavonic nationalities and their languages. Before he left Toeplitz, as 
he was wandering through Prince Clary's woods, he came upon some of that grand 
seigneur's foresters, who told him an anecdote which illustrates very well the relation 
then existing between landlord and peasant : 

' Prince Clary had,' he says, ' in the heat of sport trespassed with his dogs on a piece of 
oats belonging to one of the peasants here, which the peasant warmly resented ; and though the 
Prince immediately expressed his readiness to make the damage good, and even more, still 
continued turbulent and offensive ; upon which one of these foresters, to use his own term, " hat 
ihn ordenilich geblescht," a provincialism expressing about the same as gepriigelt ; and the other 
related how the peasant was for two days hardly able to move from the damage he received ; he 
added further, " it was not to be supposed that the Prince would have his sport spoilt for a little bit, 
of oats." ' 

From Prague Cleasby and Pjeturson went to Frankfort, and going down the 
Rhine to Rotterdam, took the steamer for London, which they reached on the 5th of 
August. While he had been absent his only sister, Mary, had been married to 
Mr. Jones of the Crown Office. 

On the 1 3th of August we find the following entry : 

' Dined at Dolly's with Pjeturson, whose praise of the beefsteak was unbounded.' 
And on the 22nd : j 

'Walked with Pjeturson over Primrose Hill, up on to Hampstead Heath. He was charmed 
with the situation and views.' 

On another day he took his Icelandic friend a walk round part of Streatham by 
Beulah Spa, and through Norwood home again to Brixton Hill — 'a most charming 

!84i. • RICHARD CLEASBY. Ixxxvii 

ramble;' and on another by steamer up to Richmond, and then ascended the hill, 
ihoiigh they were disappointed in the view owing to the clouds and rain. 

On the 8th of September the two friends set off by Great Western Railway to 
Oxford, or rather to Steventon, accomplishing the remaining lo miles by coach. They 
were up betimes, starting at 6 a.m., and reaching the University by a quarter past 9. 
There they saw the Bodleian, the fine hall at Christ Church, and many gardens. 

'Nothing struck us upon the whole more than the back of Magdalen College, the beautiful 
^reen open space between a newly-erected Gothic side and an elder one in plain modern style, with 
tlie park on one side abounding in the grandest elms and plenty of deer, and the walks and meadows 
<n\ the other.' 

The same day they left by coach for Cheltenham, and on the following returned by 
rail from Birmingham to London. 

The next ten days of September were devoted to shewing Pjeturson the wonders 
of London, and among others the British Museum, where, among the Icelandic MSS., 
he notes No. 11,127 ^^ the Additional MSS., 'a very middling copy of Sturlunga;' but 
this is a mistake, as the MS. in question contains the best text of the Saga known. On 
the 22nd Cleasby saw Pjeturson safe on board the * Countess of Lonsdale' steamer for 
Hamburg, and on taking leave of him says he was 

' In all respects satisfied with his conduct during the whole of his sojourn both abroad 
and at home in my company, in which time he sorted the whole of the words which I wrote 
into the two large volumes for the Icelandic Dictionary, and also carefully went through Njdll and 
took a list of all the words contained therein.' 

On the 22nd he ' penned a circular for his father, to be sent round to his connexion, 
informing them of his intending to retire from' business on the 29th inst.' On the 
6th of October comes the following entry : 

' Visited Copeland,' the famous surgeon, * who, after my laying open to him my complaint, told 
me what I knew and had long felt, that my nervous system was in a very deranged state, and that it 
would take a long course of medicine to get it right again ; and began by ordering me sarsaparilla 
twice a day, with a little potash and manna.' 

On the 1 5th he saw Copeland again, who now ordered him blue-pill and colocynth, 
and on the 26th calomel and senna and magnesia. But these were minor evils. On 
the 28th his mother was seized with paralysis, which deprived her of speech, and 
though she rallied a little and lingered through the month of November, she died 
on the 8th of December, surrounded by her family, by whom she was most tenderly 

' We all deplored in tears the loss of an excellent wife, a most affectionate mother, and a good, 
kind, and upright woman. She was born,' he adds, ' on the 25th of July, 1768, and therefore in her 
74th year.' 

On the 14th she was buried in the burial-ground of the old church of St. Maryle- 

* Where,' says her, son, * my poor mother's remains were placed upon those of my brother 
Stephen, who had been deposited there in 1835 in a dry vault which runs under the street. In 
addition to my present severe bereavement, I was not a little affected at seeing for the first time 

Ixxxviii RICHARD CLEASBY. -1841,424 

the coffin of my lamented brother, who was so cruelly snatched away from us in the very prime 
of life.' 

All this time Copeland was treating him, and at last, seeing his prescriptions did 

little good, advised him to consult a physician. This he accordingly did, and called in 

Dr. Seymour, who agreed with Copeland that ' a singing in his head and a numbness in 

his left leg would end in paralysis,' but completely differed with him as to the means to 

be taken to arrest the evil. 

' He said immedia^te bleeding was necessary, and ordered me to lose 12 or 14 oz. pf blood from 
the arm ; placed in prospect my losing some more by cupping next week, and gave hopes of a final 
complete recovery. I was bled, and lost about 19 oz. from the right arm.' 

After such drastic treatment it is not surprising that Cleasby's entries in his 
Diaries for the rest of December, 1841, and the first ten days of January, 1842, are 
limited to notices of the weather and the frost, which was very hard for England. On 
the loth of that month he wrote to Pjeturson, announcing his mother's death and the 
probability of his longer stay in England. As to Icelandic, he writes : 

' Hvad De sige med Hensyn til Sivertsens Reise til Sverge er meget tilfredsstillende, thi hvis 
Byttet er ikke saa stort dog er det af megen Vigtighed at vide at man har, hvad der kan haves ; om 
de to fortrinlige Codices of Riddersagaerne i Stockholm viste Jeg alrede, thi da jeg ophold mig i 
denne By i 1839, lod jeg gjore nogle Fac-similes derfra for en Dame i Wallis der udgiver visse 
Keltiske Sagaer som behandle de samme gjenstande ; fra den vigtige Pergament Codex imperial 
Octav angaaende gudelige Ting og deslige haaber jeg i det mindste nogen Berigelse for Sproget, og 
vist ikke liden Fornoielse vil det skaffe mig at naermere omtale og undersoge disse Ting med vor 
Ven Gislason og Dem. Det glaedede mig meget at hore so gode Efterretninger om Gislasons 
Helbred og saa at han var beskaeftigt ved at conferere Haandskrifterne af Snorro ; denne Anmodning 
paa Selskabets Side viser dets Onske at den nye Udgave skal node en udvalgt Text ; der er blott 
tilbage at onske at det vilde hore paa ham ved Hensyn til Orthographien ; naar han er faerdig 
dermed, i Fald der ikke proponeres ham noget andet umittelbart Arbeide, (sic) vil det vaere mig kjaert 
at han igjen tager fat paa Laesning of nogle utrykkede Haandskrifter som Gretli, visse Maldagar etc. 
hvilke vi omtalte forend jeg forlod Kjobenhavn, og jeg bede Dem at berette mig om naar han taenker 
omtrent at vaere i Stand til at begynde, og jeg vil arrangere Penge-remiser igjennem Brandt eller 
noget andet Hus indtil jeg selv viser mig igjen i Kjobenhavn i Foraaret.' 

After this letter, shewing the liveliest interest in Icelandic study, it is sad to read 
that on the 24th of January Dr. Seymour ordered him to be cupped. ' Mr. Watkins, 
of Saville Row, took 1 5 oz. of blood from the back of my neck, at half-past 9 o'clock 
P.M.' A little later Copeland calls and orders his left leg to be bandaged with ' eight 
yards of middle-breadth stocking-roller.' 

On the 1 6th of February it is a relief to find Cleasby leaving London to visit his 
friend Robertson, Rector of Shorwell in the Isle of Wight. On the 28th he returns 
to town, delighted with his excursion, and writes as follows to Pjeturson : 

' Det glaedede mig at hore at vor Ven Gislason for faerdig med Snorro, og som jeg anseef 
det for bans Fordeel at han beskaeftiges paa Regjerings vei, finder jeg mig gjserne i det Tab 
af en Deel af hans Tienster, og dess lettere som De tilbyder Deres, og siger at De vil gaae ham^ 
til Haande og anvende nogle Timer dagligen ; og jeg svarer ikke andet end at jeg onsker at 
De ville begge begynde saa umittelbart som det er Dem behageligt, vaelgende af de Haandskrifter som 
jeg njEvnde i mit sidste (brev) i saadan Orden son det kan synes Dem raadligst; paa Excerpten-maade 



1 an det ikke vaere nodvendigt at jeg siger Dem noget, ti Dc kcnne desangaaende noiaktigt min 
i'l.m og mine Onske. Jeg haaber inden omtrent en Maaned at vore i Stand til at skrive og sige 
I )cm tcmmeligt bestemt Tiden naar De kan vente at see mig igjen ibland mine Danskc Vcnner. 
hi; bar beskzeftiget mig meget, saa meget som Helbreden hartilladt det, med Snorro og Fornmanna- 
L^^ur ogsaa med Islendinga (sogur) og Vatnsdaela og jeg haaber forend jeg tager bort igjen jeg 
jbkal have sorgfaltigt gjennemgaaet en anseelig Portion.' 

We now find him, in better health, dining with Henry Reeve at i6 Chester Square, 
and running down to see Kemble at Addlestone. On the 5th of April he set off with 
his father on an expedition to look at the family property in Westmoreland, which, what 
with leases and repairs and tythe squabbles, seems to have been a perpetual trouble. 
While Richard Cleasby was enquiring into all these things and struggling to reduce 
them to order, his father spent the morning of the 1 3th of April 

' Searching the registers at the clergyman's, the result of which was its appearing probable 
that our family came over to Stainmoor from Yorkshire somewhat before the middle of the 
seventeenth century.' 

On the same day they left Westmoreland to return home, starting from Brough 
in a post-chaise, and ' crossing bleak Stainmoor, with a shower of hail to conduct us 
out of Westmoreland.' That night they got to Barnard's Castle, and the next day, 
about four miles from Darlington, on the Yorkshire side of the Tees, ' saw the little 
village of Cleasby, with its beautiful land running down to the river.' 

On the 15th of April they were back in town again. For the next few days he 

buys presents of cutlery and creature comforts for his friends at Copenhagen, and 

on the 23rd he embarked in the 'Neptune' for Hamburg. In that city he stayed 

a day, leaving it on the 24th, and reaching Copenhagen on the 27th. As soon as 

he returned he resumed his labour at the Dictionary, and his two amanuenses are 

now Pjeturson and Gislason, who each receive twenty dollars a month for four hours' 

work a-day. On the 3rd of May he begins taking his 'juice of spring herbs' again ; 

and on the i8th left Copenhagen for Germany, making before leaving the following 

entry in his Diary : 

' Left Copenhagen. Left with Gislason Preposition-book, also Verb-book ; also the two books, 
one of Njall etc. begun by Pjeturson, the other my own extracts * ; also fourteen bundles, A to G 
of the slips with words upon them ; also paid him twenty dollars for this month of May, and was 
not a little surprised, when offering to pay him for June, to find that he talked of going to Sweden 
for the summer, which, and his remaining silent upon up to this moment, appeared very strange, and 
quite contrary to what I thought was understood between us. ... I sent to Captain Roder a 
deal case containing my two folio books containing Skeleton of the Icelandic Dictionary f.' 

He was now bound for Marienbad, as a change from Carlsbad. On the 25th of 
May he reached his 'beloved Munich,' and immediately called on the Martius's, 'my 
cherished friends, whom I found in even increased domestic felicity, from the delightful 
promise with which the daughters have grown or are growing up.' Next he called 

* These two books have not as yet been returned from Copenhagen. 

t These two ' skeleton books ' are probably the same as those which Cleasby elsewhere] calls ' control 
books;' they have not been returned from Copenhagen. 



on Schmeller and Professor Joseph Miiller, who told him all that had passed since 
he was last there ; * almost all, I regret to say, of a most discouraging nature ; especially 
the arbitrary conduct of the king as respects the *' Academie der Wissenschaften," in 
arrogating to himself the appointment of the President, who had hitherto always been 
chosen by the Society; and other acts of violence.' He called on his old friend, Minist- 
Rath Holler, 'who almost shed tears at seeing me.' Accompanied by Schmeller he 
then saw the new Library, and was shocked to find it built mostly of fir, and about 
to be heated by hot air. On the 28th he left Munich for Ratisbon, ' pleased in the 
extreme with his very hearty reception by his old friends,' and ' longing for the time 
when the situation of his 'Scandinavian labours will allow of his 'transplanting his 
head-quarters to Munich : though,' he adds, * the clearness and intenseness of the light 
of the Munich atmosphere has always struck me, yet I think I never remarked it 
so strongly, compared with other places where I have resided, as during this visit.' 
Not for him clearly was Munich, even under the ' violent' Ludwig, what it was to 
Gustavus Adolphus — 'a golden saddle on an ass's back.' 

On the 30th he reached Marienbad, just across the Austrian frontier. There 
for a month he drinks the Kreutz-Brunn, and bathes in the Schlammbad, that is to 
say, ' in a bath of turf or peat, of about hasty-pudding consistency, at a heat of from 
twenty-eight to. twenty-nine degrees, in which one remains half an hour ; and then, 
to cleanse oneself, enters a simple water-bath for about ten minutes.' In these 
pursuits he remained till the 30th of June, when he left Marienbad, ' upon the whole 
very well pleased with ' his ' residence there.' During his stay he found time to think 
of Icelandic, and to write the following letter to Pjeturson : 

' 1842, June loth. — J eg bad Gislason, i Tilfaeldet at han skulde komme til at reise at over- 
levere Dem de Verb & Praeposition-Register saa vel som de to Lister af excerpirte Ord hvilke jeg 
efterlod med ham, at bede Dem at fortsaette Laesning hvor harm skulde have ophort ; ok Hensynet 
med dette Brev er at forandre denne Bestemmelse og tilkjendegive Dem mit Onske at De saa 
snart som De faae det skal begynde at laese de to Binde af Sturlunga og fortsaette denne Laesning 
med Anvendelsen af saa megen Tid som De kann disponere over indtil min Tilbagekomst, hvilken 
vill finde Sted i den forste Haelfte af naeste Maaned. De ere allerede tilstraekkeligt i Besiddelsen 
af min Plan med Hensyn til den Maade paa hvilken denne Laesning skal udfores og jeg bedei 
Dem at anvende stor Precision og ikke overgaa Ord som er ikke endnu tagne : hvor de i d 
trykte Bind finde steder over deres Rigtighed de tvivle, kann De gjore en liden Bemaerkning, 
og saa kann jeg sammenligne dem med Haandskriftene i Kjobenhavn ; i det Tilfaelde Gislason er 
bleven i Byen vaer saa god at sige ham, at jeg onsker Sturlunga laest for (fra?) de Haandskrifter 
om hvilke vi talte, jeg haaber siltigst mitte (sic) naesten Maaneds (sic) at traeffe dem vel og munter 
i Kjobenhavn og forbliver imidlertid, deres hengivne Ven 

•Richard Cleasby.' 

On leaving Marienbad he went to Leipzig, and thence to Berlin, which he reached 
on the 2nd of July. He called immediately on Jacob Grimm, who gave him letters to 
Kosegarten in Greifswald, and to Professor Hegel, son of the {:)hilosopher, in Rostock. 
After a chat with Raumer, he called on his old instructor Schelling, who had been called 
to Berlin by the king, ' whom,' Cleasby says, ' I found looking on the whole lively and 
well. He said he had every reason to be satisfied here, but still I thought did not 



em able altogether to relinquish the idea of returning to Munich, and I thought this 
seemed still more the case with his wife and daughters.' On the 3rd he left Berlin for 
the Mark and Pomerania, visiting Greifswald and Stralsund, with both of which he was 
nnich pleased. At the latter he saw outside the Rathhaus door 'a flat stone in form of 
a grave-stone, on which Charles XII slept during the siege of Stralsund in 171 5; a 
luird bed enough.' On the 8th of July he left for Ystad in Sweden by steamer, and 
in fifteen hours from Stralsund was back in Copenhagen, where he found, to his great 
satisfaction, that Gislason had remained working during his absence, and not gone to 
Sweden at all. The next day he paid him 40 dollars for the month of June. He now 
took lodgings for the winter at No. 52, Vesterbro, opposite the entrance to Fredberg's 
AUee, from July to the Flitting Day in April, for eight guineas, and settled down to work. 
On the 6th of September he determined to explore Jutland thoroughly, and started 
laden with letters of recommendation to various residents in that interesting part of 
Denmark. Before he left he notes that he 'left Pjeturson in charge of his 'rooms, 
52 Vesterbro, giving him permission to use' his 'bed and remain there till' his ' return. 
I also,' he adds, ' gave Gislason leave to take out his bed and be there if he chose.* 
On the 26th of September he returned to Copenhagen, ' delighted with ' his ' little tour, 
having most satisfactorily attained the object for which it was undertaken.' He found 
his lodgings as he had left them, his Icelandic secretaries not having made use of his 
permission to be there. Awaiting him was a letter from Mr. John Shaw Lefevre, 
relating to a proposition of Laing, the Swedish and Norwegian traveller, to publish a 
work on the Sagas ; which he answered on the 28th as follows : 

' I did not receive your letter of the 1st Inst, till yesterday, on my return from a three weeks' 
excursion into the provinces, and cannot allow a day to pass without thanking you for your kind- 
ness in thinking of me and my labours, and for your desire that the latter should not be interfered 
with by another and later hand ; and I will in return proceed to state, without further preface, 
according to your request, the more especial field of my Northern toils. My first object is to publish 
a Lexicon of the ancient Scandinavian language, as preserved to us chiefly in Icelandic, but also in 
small part in Norwegian remains, with an English and Latin translation. Not an inconsiderable 
part of these remains have been printed and published, but generally not satisfactorily, and with a 
very uncritical treatment of the text, especially when regard is had to the position which this branch 
of philological study now occupies ; a considerable portion exists only in MSS., and it is my inten- 
tion to embrace all we possess, from the earliest documents down to about the close of the 14th or 
beginning of the 15th century, about which period the language ceases to retain its ancient form 
and texture, influenced by the modern Danish and Norwegian dialects, which, as well as Swedish — 
though no doubt each had from olden time some dialectical peculiarities of its own — had long been 
more and more separating themselves from the common stock and forming a character proper to 
themselves. This period will embrace the Laws, Civil and Ecclesiastical, Snorro's History, the 
whole of the Sagas not of later origin than the said period, a considerable collection of legends, a 
number of writings of religious or ascetic character, the Younger Edda, some treatises of calendaric 
(sic) character, and a few pieces on other subjects. The very extensive and careful study necessary 
to such a compilation can scarcely have failed to make me intimately acquainted with the whole 
Saga-world, and a future translation of some of them, not without commentary, has not been foreign 
to my intentions ; indeed, I did think of giving two or three smaller ones last year, and commenced 
with the translation of one, but found the Lexicon extending into a work of such circumference, 
that I saw, if I divided my strength, no moderate term would see it finished. Having said thus 

xcii RICHARD CLEASBY. 1842,4: 

much, I cannot but add that I reserve to myself the liberty of dealing with the whole subject, botl 
as regards remarks and translation — anything I did in the latter I should especially be desirous 
accompanying with a critically correct text as far as existing documents allow — in such a manner 
as may most accord with the future course of my studies ; but I cannot at the same time for a 
moment on this account seek to interfere with Mr. Laing's entering the field, which is an open and 
public one, and elucidating the theme after his own views, which may possibly in some respects 
differ from mine, and may probably cast a new and valuable light on the subject, since he has been 
so successful in his treatment of modern Norway and Sweden.' 

Truly an admirable letter. As for Mr. Laing's venture on the Sagas, it only came 
to translating the Heimskringla from the Norwegian translation of Aall. With all his 
merits, Mr. Laing was no Icelandic scholar, and though Cleasby was, we know that his 
whole undivided strength was unequal during his lifetime to finish his Dictionary. 

For some reason, Cleasby on the 15th of October relet his lodgings in Vesterbro, 
and moved into others, 4, Gammel Strand, where he remained the winter over, workirtg 
away at the Dictionary with his two secretaries, taking walks with them and other of 
his friends in the hours of relaxation, and very often asking them out to dine with him 
in the suburbs. It was about this time that Gislason's eyes began to fail. On the 
26th of November Cleasby wrote to his father to say that * the hard weather, and my 
leading amanuensis being threatened with blindness and not able to write so much, 
threw more labour on me, and made it difficult for me to fix the time of my return.' 
As yet, however, Gislason worked on with Pjeturson, and the monthly payments of 
20 dollars each continue. On the 8th of December we find the following entry, 
enclosed in deep black lines : ' Anniversary of a day of severe bereavement.' On that 
day, the year before, he had lost his mother. On the 22nd, the day after the shortest 
day, he enters, ' Took my two amanuenses, Gislason and Pjeturson, to dine at Fredericks- 
berg, and drank Balder's health in commemoration of the recommencement of the 
reign of light.' On the 3TSt comes the usual entry of 20 dollars each to those two 

On the 2nd of January, 1843, ^^ P^i^ Moller, the stationer, six dollars four 
marks for 'a book for inserting substantives' and 'cut slips of paper,' and on the 
nth, 'to the same for a book for the words u — jafn, all, at, n;^;' but, strange to say, 
he has omitted to enter the amount. On the 27th he notes : ' The half-yearly meeting 
of the Nordisk Oldskrift Selskab : the Crown Prince' — the late King of Denmark — ' pre- 
sided, and cut a much better figure than I expected from what general report says 
of him. He took a good deal of interest in the thing, and was sometimes smart' 
Shortly before this he had written to his brother Anthony that he could not come horne 
for the Athenaeum election, but hoped he should be elected ; and on the 2 7th he heard 
from him that his election had taken place. On the loth of March he enters : ' My 
amanuensis Gislason entered the Fredericks Hospital to-day, to put himself under 
the care of Dr. Moller for his eyes.' On the 8th of April he lent Pjeturson 50 dollars. 
It had been very cold that year, and it was not till the 26th of April that he notes 
the coming of the first swallow. On the ist of May he paid Gislason 20 dollars 
^or this month of May, previous to his departure ; and on the 3rd left two cases at 



the University Library, one with slips, and the other with some slips and the verb, 
preposition, and substantive-books. 'Paid Pjeturson lo dollars further in addition 
to the 50 he received of me as loan, which is considered as payment for his labours 
for April, May, and June. I also gave him 20 dollars, which he was to convey to 
Gislason, not as payment for June labours, but, as I told him, together with the 
20 dollars he received on the ist instant, he was to apply as he pleased, without regard 
to any occupation for me, but for the improvement of his health.' On the evening 
of the same day he started for Malmoe and Travemtinde, whence he went to Berlin 
via Rostock, delivering his letter to Professor Hegel, whom he describes as ' a very 
agreeable and obliging young man,' and admiring the memorial to Marshal Blucher. 
At Berlin, which he reached on the 8th of May, he paid the Grimms a visit, and 
' was sorry to find Jacob so unwell from the remains of the gripjpe, as to be forbid 
to speak or lecture for the present.' On leaving Berlin he again passed through Hialle, 
the town of his detestation, at which, as usual, he flings a stone in passing : ' Halle 
has always appeared to me the ugliest, least liveable town I know, and appeared so 
this time in an almost increased degree.' On the nth of May he reached Marienbad, 
and for a month was immersed in Schlammbiider and drenched with Kreutz-Brimn ; 
but on the 20th, after seven glasses of Kreutz-Brunn, comes an ominous entry : ' I 
have been plagued with a rather severe catarrh since my arrival, which has prevented 
my following up my Schlamm Baths.' On the 28th he had a letter from his father 
complaining of illness. On the 8th of June he wrote to him to say he should not 
be home before the autumn. On the nth of June he left Marienbad for the North, 
taking a round by Coburg and Magdeburg, from which city he descended the Elbe 
to Hamburg. There, as usual, he saw Lappenberg, and thence returned to Copenhagen 
by way of the west coast of Holstein and Schleswig. On the 26th of June he had 
made his way round to Flensburg, where He took steamer for Copenhagen, and arrived 
on the morning of the 2 7th. * On my arrival,' he says, ' I found Gislason still in 
the same state as to his eyes, and that Pjeturson, pressed by office business, had 
made much less progress in Sturlunga than I expected.' In the Danish capital Cleasby 
stayed till the 4th of September, superintending the progress of his Dictionary, which 
always slackened when he left it to others. As Gislason's eyes were still bad, we 
find the following entry on the 31st of August: * Paid Gislason 20 dollars for this 
month, and paid to a friend of his, B. Thorlacius, who read aloud to him, for the 
months of July and August, 40 dollars ; together 60 dollars.' On the 4th of September 
he wrote to Anthony, ' and told him I was but poorly, going to Sweden, and should 
endeavour wtien I came home to make some stay.' On the 5th he left for Sweden, 
his object being to collate the Icelandic MSS. in that country. On this occasion 
he posted up the country, only taking the steamer at Norrkoping for Stockholm, 
where he arrived on the loth of September. On the nth he went to his friends 
Hildebrand and Arfwedson, now chief-librarian, who at once put him in the way to effect 
his object. For several days he worked in the Royal Library from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m., 
passing the rest of the day in admiring Stockholm, and, above all, its beautiful Djurgard; 





On the 15th he went to Upsala, to see his old friend Schroder, and inspected this time, 
not the Codex Argenteus, but the Icelandic MSS. in that library, of which, as well 
as those in the Royal Library at Stockholm, there are many pages of collation and 
comment in the Diary. On the i6th he enters : * I passed the evening with Geijer, 
and find, though age has in the last four years made considerable external impression, 
yet his mind is as fresh and genial as even' On the i8th he was back at Stockholm, 
and ' went to the library, and saw a very curious little Erse MS., of a few pages only, 
which Sir W. Betham has pronounced to be poetry, and of the 8th century. There 
is a curious Old English medical MS. of the T4th century, also one of the court rolls 
and records of the reign of Edward the Third, and a beautifully-written and preserved 
MS. on parchment, in Old French, being a History of the World ... in which the 
Anglo-Saxon-English kings are treated very fully, and no doubt a work of English 
birth. Mr. Stephens has had the merit of discovering these objects. Drank tea and 
passed the evening with Mr. Hildebrand, the best specimen of the Swedish " Gelehrte" 
I have seen ; really a sound, serious person, and zealous in his department. Mr. Stephens 
gave me a memorandum, begging me to make inquiry among Icelanders at Copenhagen 
as to any Folk-Sagor, Barn-Sagor, Folk-Visor, Barn-Visor, Vagg-Visor, and Folk-Gator, 
etc. ; and of any with melodies ; also as to Danska and Norrska Folk-Visor and Folk- 
Sagor from 1500 to 1800.' 

After making the acquaintance of Dr. Retzius, the ethnologist, and seeing his 
collection of skulls, Cleasby left Stockholm on the 21st of September, and reached 
Calmar by steamer on the 22nd. Thence he posted to Malmoe, stopping at a 
parsonage called Hoby on the way, to inspect the celebrated stone called ' Runamo,' 
on which Finn Magnusen had read many Runes which no one else could decipher : 
Nilson of Lund and Berzelius, as ' Naturforskare,' having, on the other hand, declared 
the marks on the trapp rock to be the work of nature. After this inspection Cleasby 
was not disposed to offer any decided opinion upon so short a survey, and left the 
spot admiring Finn Magnusen's ' extreme boldness in making out of them a long 
Runic inscription.' Before leaving the parsonage Cleasby heard a piece of superstition 
which shewed the state of mind of the middling agricultural class. ' A bonde (farmer) 
came to arrange for the clergyman's marrying him, and after all was settled, hastened 
back to remind him on no account to publish the banns when the moon was on the 
wane, but when it was increasing, — the expressions he made use of were '' ny'' and 
''neSany At Lund Cleasby stopped to inspect some Icelandic MSS. which Professor 
Schlyter, the veteran editor of the Ancient Laws of Sweden, had borrowed from the 
Royal Library at Stockholm, and found very few of them of such an age and character 
as to be worthy his attention ; besides which they had been fully collated by Professor 
Keyser. On the 27th of September he crossed from Malmoe to Copenhagen in two 
hours, where he found all in statu quo, ' pleased to get back again to the seat of my 
labours, but at the same time satisfied to the last degree with my three weeks' trip.' 

Cleasby now settled down to work, and it appears from a letter to his father, 
written on the i8th of December, that he did -not intend to return home before the 



(Idle of March, 1844. In the meantime he had gone on swimmingly with his 
dictionary, and as Gislason's health was still weak and Pjeturson's not much better, 
11 the 4th of November a young man of the name of Brynjolfr Snorrason, an 
lander, was engaged to assist; and after that the payments of 20 dollars are 
iilarly made monthly to the three amanuenses. So the year passed on, and on 
iic 22nd of December we have the usual entry, 'Took Gislason and Pjeturson to 
line with me at Fredericksberg, and drank Balder's health in commemoration of 
he reign of darkness having again given way to that of light;' but on the 25th 
le received an unwelcome letter from Anthony, stating that his father's health 
vas precarious ; and on the 29th another, speaking so unfavourably of his state 
hat Cleasby determined to leave for London immediately. He was just in time 
o catch the last steamer of the season for Kiel, and departed that day, having first 
)acked up all his papers and sent most of them to the University Library, and the 
wo control books and remaining slips to his friend Capt. Roder. Before he went he 
)aid up his amanuenses for December, and two of them in advance for January. On 
he 6th of January, 1844, he reached London, — having travelled extra post through Lower 
jermany, and by rail from Cologne, — where he happily found his father much better than 
le had been or than he expected to find him. On the 27th of the month he wrote to 
J'jeturson, telling him that though he found his father better, his health was so weak that 
le might have to stay a month or two in England. He hoped, however, to return to 
openhagen, ' Saa snart vi skrive Martz,' and to be ready to set to work again. In the 
neantime he hoped both Pjeturson's and Gislason's health would mend, and that they 
vould be prepared to work during the coming spring and summer. As for himself, he 
vas doing what little work he could in London. Soon after this letter his father's health 
;omewhat mended, and Cleasby determined to return to Copenhagen for a while. On 
he 5th of March, ' after taking an affectionate leave of my dear father, who, though very 
veak, appeared a good deal better than he had been, and after having received assur- 
nces from Dr. Arnott that there was no danger at present,' Cleasby started for Dover, 
md took the steamer for Ostend. In spite of the ice, which was thick on the Belts, he 
■cached Copenhagen on the 15th, and immediately pays his amanuenses as usual. On 
he 28th he wrote to his father to say that he should be back by the middle of April. 
)n the 29th he enters : ' Thorwaldsen died suddenly this evening at the theatre during the 
)verture ;' and on the 30th, ' Thorwaldsen's funeral took place to-day. The king, queen, 
nd whole royal family attended at the service, and 7000 or 8000 persons at least 
bllowed in the procession. That may be said of him which can be said of few, that he 
las not left his like behind him.' 

All this time the winter had been very severe, and it was not till the 9th of April 

hat the ice which filled up the harbour of Copenhagen moved off. On the 15th 

~^leasby wrote to his father that he should leave on the 22 nd. On the i6th he writes : 

Rafn sent me the first part of ^ to f of Egilsson's MSS. of the Poetic Dictionary, 699 

>ides in 4to;' and on the 20th, 'had a conversation with Rafn to-day concerning 

gilsson's Poetic Dictionary, and told him I thought 500 or 600 dollars would be fair 

h 2 

xcvi RICHARD CLEASBY. 1844. 

honor ar, for the work, and that I had no objection to go as far as 300 dollars towardsl 
its coming out, provided it was printed in connexion with mine, and so reduced that the 
two together should form a key to the whole [language ?], and words partly prosal with- , 
out poetical signification be not taken up in his,' 

On the 22nd he paid up his three amanuenses; Gislason 20 dollars, Snorrason 
the same, and Pjeturson 10, 'for what little he has done this month; leaving 
12 packets of slips, %, i, and / inclusive, with Snorrason for him to work upon 
during my absence, with various MSS. ;' and departed for Kiel and England, which 
he reached on the ist of May, only to find his father very poorly. In truth it 
was now plain that the poor old man's days were numbered ; a chronic disease 
of the bladder had got so inveterate that surgical skill could only prolong but not 
save his life. With the exception of a flying visit to Copenhagen, which began 
on the 26th of June and ended on the 8th of July, Cleasby stayed with his father 
to the last. Before he left London he wrote to Pjeturson on the 9th of June to 
say that he was coming for a few days, and in the meantime begged him to look after 
Snorrason and see how he was getting on in his work, and to write at once to say how 
he himself was, and whether Gislason was in Copenhagen. As Sir Benjamin Brodie on 
the 9th of June said that his father was in no immediate danger, the flying visit took 
place, as has been said. During the five days he was in Copenhagen he paid up his 
amanuenses and settled his accounts. On the 4th of July he writes : ' I leave behind in 
Copenhagen 22 packets of slips in the care of Pjeturson and Snorrason, viz. 5 packets 
of H ; I of I, I, J ; 3 of K ; 2 of L ; 2 of M ; i of N ; i of O, 6, GE, and P ; i of R ; and 
6 of S.' At the same time he wrote full instructions to his two amanuenses ; Gislason's 
name is now wanting, and is explained by the following entry of the same day : ' I gave- 
Pjeturson 60 dollars to be sent to Gislason to the Bath Kreischa, if he thought fit, in; 
order that he might have the full benefit of September there if his own means would nott 
carry him so far. I also gave Pjeturson for himself in advance, for work that might bef 
done in my absence, 20 dollars ; and paid Pjeturson, for Snorrason, 20 dollars in advance.'* 
On the same day he left Copenhagen, and, as has been said, was back in London| 
on the 8th, finding his father ' a shade better.' 

All that month the old man lingered, and it was not till the 31st of August that he-^, 
sank under his disease. His deathbed, like that of his wife, was cheered by the tender-< 
ness of his children. After the last scene, Richard Cleasby lay down for an hour or, 
two, and on returning to his father's room ' found him stretched out upon the bed in, 
which he died, covered over with a white sheet, with a little bunch of flowering sprigs : 
of jasmine placed on his chest, gathered out. of the litde garden at the back of the,- 
house.' On the 7th he writes : * The last ceremony was this day performed over my' 
poor father's remains in the burial-ground of Paddington. The coffin was placed on- 
that of my mother, who herself lies upon that of poor Stephen, in one of the vaults^ 
Then a last adieu was said to our much-lamented parent.' -t 

On the 4th of September, as soon as the first shock was over, Cleasby had written,, 
as follows to Pjeturson : ! 


' Deres gode Bref af a/ ult. fand mig i den dybeste Bedrovelse, ti min kjaere Faders lange Lidelser 
t.j^ en Ende den 31 Aug., kl. 5, formiddag, til hvilken Tid det behagede Forsynet at berove mig 
Diiii naermeste Slsegtning og ielteste (sic) og beste Vcn ! jeg maa soge Understottelsc under dette 
li uirde Slag i den trostende Tanke at jeg ved min Naervaerclse og uafladelige Opmaerksomheder 
hidrog alt mueligt til at lindre den tunge Prove hann gik igjennem, og i den kjaerlige Medlidelse 
Condolence of mine Venner ; Gud alene er den som vced hvad er det Beste ! 

' Det bar gjort mig meget ondt at hore saa daarlige Efterretninger om Snorrason, alligevel er 
(K t ikke meget andet end hvad vi var besorget om forleden Host, naar De huske, en Reise op til 
Island var anseet som nodvendigt for Ham, indtil i Vinterens Lob hann blev saa hurtigt ok uvaentet 
l)cdrei jeg haaber dog hann vil komme sig snarere end De synes formode. Den andre (sic) unge 
A lands Indvielse bliver om saa nodvendigere. 

* Saa snart visse AfTairer ere arrangerede, hvilke vil nodvendigt kraeve min forste Opmaerksom- 
hcd har jeg i sind at reise til Kjobenhavn og haaber ved min Ankomst at hore bedre Efterretning 
oin Gislasons Oien hvilket jeg taenker vil sandsynligt folge en bedre Tilstand af den almindelige 
Sundhed ; det vil vaere ijieget vigtigt at hann yde den Tjeneste hann kann i den kommende Vinter. 
. . . Haabende inden temmelig kort Tid at see Dem igjen jeg forbliver Deres hengivne 

' R. Cleasby.' 

The death of his father plunged Cleasby into business, and it was some time before 
he could think of his Icelandic Dictionary in the pressure of family affairs. He had to 
o o hither and thither, to Brighton and to Westmoreland, where, as far as we can discern, 
the family property came to him ; and what with executorships and business letters, 
it was long before he could see his way. It is amusing, however, to see how strong his 
water-drinking propensity was, for on his return from Westmoreland, in September 1 844, 
we find him stopping at Harrogate to drink its abominable sulphur spring, which he 
confesses did him little good. At last, on the 2nd of October, he broke away from 
London, laden with presents for his Copenhagen friends, in which city he arrived on the 
7th. There he ' found all in order at ' his ' lodgings, 159 Gammel Strand, but that 
unfortunately very little had been done in the Icelandic, Snorrason having been ill 
again, and Pjeturson had very little time ; Gislason not yet returned from his water- 
cure.' Under these circumstances it was necessary to engage other assistance, and so 
on the 23rd of November we find this entry : ' Snorrason left off to-day writing into the 
slips, and it was agreed that the money he had had, 40 dollars in June and August, 
should be considered as his payment up to this time.' On the 25th of the same month 
we read, * An Icelander, Fridriksson — who had for Gislason written out the words out 
of the Collection of Fragments, No. 655, and assisted Snorrason latterly in writing them 
into the slips — came to-day and began to write them on in my rooms, commencing 
with S.' 

So the year came to an end, which, if it brought him an increase of means, added 
much to the burden of his correspondence. His Diaries are now full of notices on 
letters of business, and his time for Icelandic must have been much straitened. Still 
he went bravely on, and his new amanuensis seems to be the best he had. This 
year the 22nd of December passes over without that annual party to drink ' Balder's 
health.' The night was now drawing near from which there was to be no return 
of light. Before the year was out he was called home by business, and on the 
-28th of December he paid up Fridriksson, Pjeturson, and Thorlacius, set them 



worlc to do, left some of his MS. of the Dictionary in Copenhagen, and had some^ 
sent to him in England. On the 3rd of January, 1845, he was again in London, and 
for the next three months entirely engrossed by business. The winter of 1845 was 
unusually prolonged both in the North and in England, and so late as the i8th of 
March Cleasby noticed persons skating on the water in the Regent's Park, before the 
house in Cornwall Terrace. Shortly after, the house having been sold, he is busy 
moving his father's wine and chattels to No. 5, Harley Place, Harley Street, as to which 
he notes on the 28th of March : ' After having had two or three days of dislocation and 
transportation of chattels, once in a man's life is often enough to move.' Poor man, 
that was his first and last moving in England ! 

On the 2nd of April he embarked for Hamburg, and on the 8th reached 
Copenhagen. As soon as he arrived Thorlacius and Snorrason came to work 
again, and Gislason and Pjeturson also assisted. On the loth of June he set off 
for an excursion to Danzig, embarking first for Stettin. Having seen Danzig and 
Marienburg, with its grand old castle of the Deutscher Ritter, he returned by way 
of Berlin, where he saw the two Grimms, ' who were both brisk and well, and seem 
satisfied with Berlin. In the evening,' he writes, * I went to Professor Ehrenberg's, 
where Berzelius from Stockholm was one of the guests ; altogether an agreeable 
assembly of " Gelehrte." I called also on Schelling, who, though 70 years of age, 
seemed little altered.' On the 21st of June he was back at Copenhagen in time to 
witness the arrival of the Swedish and Norwegian students, who visited Denmark in 
a body, and amused the inhabitants with demonstrations in favour of an United 

On the 4th of July, 1845, he says: 'I was weighed at Tivoli, a place of entertainment just 
outside the gates of Copenhagen, and found to be equal to 148 lbs. Danish weight, which is 
somewhat heavier than English ; I think about 1 1 st. 8 lb. English.' On the 8th of August 
he 'accompanied Christian Lange, a Norwegian, who is here taking copies of old Norwegian 
diplomas, to the Office of the Archives, where he shewed me a large number of the first and 
some of the second half of the fourteenth century, which he had copied, which were in great 
part in perfectly pure old language, like Gula-pings Log or Skuggsja, the orthography of the 
vowels, as usual, very varied.' 

On the 15th he paid Fridriksson twenty dollars 'for work from the 15th of 
June till this day;' on the 22nd he paid Thorlacius the same sum for the same 
purpose; and on the 25th 'made Dr. Egilsson's acquaintance ; he called on me to-day.' 
On the 28th he left Copenhagen and went by steam to Kiel, and embarked at Ham- 
burg, arriving in London on the 31st of August, the anniversary of his father's 
death, which he enters in his Diary as an ' anniversary of a day of severe bereavement,' 
and surrounds it with deep black lines. 

He had now, as we have seen, sold the old house in Cornwall Terrace and taken 
5 Harley Place, at the top of Harley Street, into which his books and effects had been 
moved. He notes on the nth September that he 'found all in very nice order 

After travelling in England, partly for business and partly for pleasure, he left 



I'^ngland again in September, and returned to Copenhagen on the 12th of October, 
having passed some days in Schleswig, where he observes : 

' Heard throughout Schleswig that the Dano-German question as to language has rather 
increased than diminished in heat and difficulty of solution.' 

He was now living at 159 Gammel Strand, where he 'found all in order to 
receive him.' On this occasion he returned loaded with creature comforts for his 
Danish friends, and on the loth of October he distributed to them; but finding that 
the authorities of the town had overcharged him for the tax on his horse, he 

' Wrote to the magistracy on the 14th, begging them to rectify their demand for tax 
11 my horse from ten dollars, yearly charge as a foreign horse, to two dollars, the proper tax 
lor a Danish one, which he is.' 

On the 1 6th he was delighted at hearing Jenny Lind for the first time; and, after 
expressing his admiration in warm terms, he adds : 

' Such was the rage to get a seat in the theatre to hear her, that people stood last week in 
the most horrid storm and rain all the night through, from the time of the theatrical performance 
closing at ten o'clock at night till eleven o'clock the next morning, when the doors were opened 
again for the disposal of tickets. Those costing a dollar were easily sold at five or six dollars !!' 

For the rest of the year 1845 he worked steadily on with his amanuenses, paying 
them regularly for their work. On the very last day of the year he dined with his 
friend Ellis, the English clergyman, and on his way back ' heard everywhere the firing 
which here begins on New- Year's Eve as soon as it gets dark. It is a sort of com- 
pliment in this country to fire off a pistol or two before folks' windows ! Every land 
has its customs!' With January, 1846, his health seemed to fail him, and he went 
to consult a Dr. Bendz, who prescribed leeches and herb-tea and physic, and advised him 
not to drink too much cold water in the morning; and for some time after this the 
recurrence of the name of Bendz in the Diary shews that Cleasby was still in his 
hands. On the 6th of April he left for England, having paid Fridriksson 20 dollars 
' for work to be done for me, of which I gave him particulars, during my absence.' 
On the 9th he reached London, and was soon deep in business. On the 14th, however, 
he 'had a visit from Sir Benjamin Brodie, before whom I laid my complaints of the 
three past months,' and accordingly had to take blue-pill and senna. His property 
at Brighton and in Westmoreland, besides some house-property at Chelsea, were an 
endless trouble to him. After struggling with his tenants and agents for the rest of 
that month and all the next, he left Dover for Ostend on the 31st of May, on his 
way to Marienbad, which he reached on the 5th of June. There it is the same old 
story of Kreutz-Brunn and Schlammbader for a month. On the 8th of July he left it, 
and went by way of Magdeburg to Wolfenbiittel, to inspect the Icelandic MSS. there, 
which he collated. Thence he returned to England, reaching it on the 15th of the 
month. As soon as he got back he rushed down to Brighton, on hearing that his 
next-door neighbour was building up a wall behind his premises. On the 27th of July, 
1 846, he writes : 

' Went to Brown, Great Russell Street ; ordered finally a slab to be erected to my father's 

c RICHARD CLEASBY. ' 1846,47. 

memory, to cost ^23, and ;^i per 100 for the letters the inscription may contain. Told him to] 
chalk the plan in Marylebone Church, which he said he would do, and apply to my sister for the , 
inscription etc. when wanted.' 

After this came letter on letter on business, but on the 28th he left for Hamburg, 
and reached Copenhagen on the ist of August. On the loth he took part in a ' Gilde,' 
or banquet, given to his old friend Geijer, * and was sorry to see him both mentally 
and bodily sadly altered since' his 'visit to Upsala in September 1843.' On the 9th 
of September he wrote to the Manager of the Hotel d'Angleterre at Frankfort-on- 
the-Maine to keep a room ready for him on the 24th ; and on the 1 7th he set 
off to be present at the meeting of Germanische Sprack tend Geschickts - Forscker, 
which was to be held at Frankfort. On the 25th he reached that city, having done 
a little grape-cure by the way, and soon found out the Grimms. He was most 
cordially received, and Invited to the meeting, attended by about 150 professors and 
jurists and as many spectators. There he met most of his old friends, Schmeller, 
Massmann, Dahlmann, Pertz, and others, of whom Dahlmann read a paper in his section, 
'shewing that the English jury is of Scandinavian, and not of Anglo-Saxon origin.' 
The meeting was followed by a dinner, of which Cleasby tells that * it was bad, noisy, 
and cold; but, worst of all, that froward Professor Massmann must needs propose 
my health after some few others had been given, but when no mention had yet been 
made of names like Grimm and Schmeller. It annoyed me exceedingly ; however, there 
was nothing left for it but to return thanks, and I did so ; ending with proposing the 
health of the Grimms, the heroes of modern Sprack-Forsckmig — which was upon the 
whole, perhaps, getting out of it as well as I could.' When the sittings of the sections 
were over, on the 28th Cleasby says : ' Saw the two Grimms this morning, and con- 
versed with them on various points as to the Dictionary, and shall note some of their 
remarks.' On the same day he had ' a final hour-and-a-half's conversation with Schmeller,' 
and * shewed him part of my substantive etc. book of the Dictionary.' The same night 
Cleasby left Frankfort, and returned to Copenhagen, reaching It on the 4th of October. 

After his return he worked on steadily with his Dictionary; but he now has 'a 
spasmodic cough,' for which he called In Bendz, who gave him a ' tinctura 'pectoralis 
and some herb-tea.' At the end of November Bendz was called in again, to attend 
him for a carbuncle, which kept him in-doors for some days, and led to six visits from 
the doctor; and so, with failing health but still full of work, the year 1846 came 
to an end. 

The first days of January, 1847, ^1*^ filled with letters written to England on 
business and family matters. On the 28th he notes: 'At a meeting of the Society 
of Northern Antiquaries this evening the subject of Egllsson's Poetic Lexicon was 
brought under discussion. It was stated that I had given 150 dollars towards the 
^honorar. and the Society 150 dollars, and that 800 dollars had been regarded as 
.what he — Egllsson — should have. Some members found that too little, and the Society 
agreed to pay him 500 dollars, at 100 dollars per annum. Finn Magnusen moved 
that the thanks of the Society should be publicly given to me for forwarding the 



work ; and all persons turned towards me to thank me/ Then come entries of business 
1( Iters till the 31st of March, when Cleasby wrote to his sister to say that he should 
1 )C home between the 8th and the 20th of April. Accordingly he paid up his amanu- 
( nses and his doctor, and to Professor Rafn 100 dollars more in addition to the 150 
In; had already paid towards Egilsson*s Dictionary. On the 8th of April he writes: 
' Before leaving ordered my box of slips and that containing the two "control books" 
U) be sent to Captain Roder^s, and left 20 dollars with Fridriksson for this month, 
and left him a variety of things to be done in my absence.' On the 15th he returned 
to England, and was soon as much occupied as ever with business. He had, however, 
taken a specimen of his Dictionary with him ; and on the loth of May he writes : ' Took 
back to-day to Taylor's the proof of the first four pages of my Icelandic Prose Dic- 
tionary, which I had set up on trial *. There was, unluckily, a great deal to correct, 
their not understanding the language making it impossible to know where words ought 
to be divided at the end of a line ; and not being used to my writing also no doubt 
does something.' On the 1 2th he went down to consult his friend Kemble at his cottage 
near Rickmansworth, who 'expressed himself highly pleased at the appearance of the 
l)roof.' On the i6th he was off to Germany, to try a new bath. This time it was 
towards Homburg, then only a rising watering-place, that he turned his steps. He 
had better have returned to Carlsbad or Marienbad, for his cure at Homburg did 
him little good, though he left it delighted with the scenery. On the i6th of June 
he returned to England for his last visit. On the 17th he wrote to Copenhagen, to 
announce his speedy return, and in particular to Fridriksson, stating that he should 
l)c back at the end of the month, and that he hoped he would have got a good deal 
of the work ready which he left him in April, and be ready ' til videre Anvendelse 
af Flid ; ' and to tell Gislason of the time of his return, and to greet him and 
Pjeturson heartily. On the 19th he paid Messrs. Taylor £$ iSs. for the six sides 
of the Icelandic Dictionary printed as an ' ensample.' During the few next days he 
packed up his deeds and effects, and left them in safe custody till his return — which 
was never to happen ; and on the 23rd set off in the steamer ' Wilberforce' for Hamburg. 
On the 26th he reached Copenhagen, and drove at once to No. 40B, Gamle Kongens 
Gade, 2 Sal., which he had taken in April for the three months ending October ist, 
paying for them 75 dollars in advance. He came out as usual bringing presents 
to his friends, and, amongst others, to Mr. Ellis, the British Chaplain, with whom 
he was very intimate. In stopping at Hamburg he had enclosed proofs of the 
specimen of the Dictionary both to Jacob Grimm and Schmeller ; but he now found 
on reaching Copenhagen that he had brought none of the second and third sheets for 
himself. He therefore wrote on the 27th of June to Grimm, begging him to be good 
enough to send him the two sheets ' containing the end of ^ and a^ — bragd^ bua, and ok.' 
Cleasby seems to have spent the month of July hopefully enough, in riding and walking 
with his friends in the beautiful neighbourhood of the Danish capital ; and on the 7th 

* A specimen of these is printed at the end of this Memoir. 


he writes to Thorpe to say that N. M. Petersen the historian was quite willing that 
he — Thorpe — should translate one of his works into English; and he pays his 
amanuenses regularly and keeps them to work. On the 28th of July he received the 
following charming letter from Jacob Grimm as to his Dictionary, on returning the 
proofs as desired : 

'Wie werden Sie, verehrter Freund, mein langes Schweigen auf ihre giitige Mittheilung 
sich erklart haben ? Es hat folgende leidige Ursache : Bald nachdem Ihr erster Brief eingetrofifen 
war, gerieth unser ganzes Haus in die .lebhafteste Unruhe, aus der es sich noch nicht erholt hat. 
Meine gute Schwagerin, die Sie, so viel ich weiss, personlich kennen, war nach Jena gereist, um 
einen dortigen Arzt fiir die krankelnde Tochter zu gebrauchen. Nun aber erkrankte sie selbst 
aufs gefahrlichste. Nachdem wir einige Tage in Angst geschwebt hatten, reiste mein Bruder auch 
fort, um ihr beizustehen. Die Gefahr scheint zwar verschwunden, aber wir miissen doch noch 
in bestandiger Sorge sein. 

' In solcher lage verliert man alle Arbeitsfahigkeit, und thut nur noch einzelne Geschafte 
mechanisch ab. Jetzt, beim genauen Wiederlesen Ihres zweiten Briefes, sehe ich, dass Ihnen an 
schnelle Riicksendung der Druckbogen gelegen war, und erschrecke sie versaumt zu haben. 
Also folgen die Bogen nunmehr augenblicklich, ohne dass ich Zeit oder rechten Sinn dafiir hatte, 
mich iiber Ihre schone Arbeit im einzelnen auszulassen. Mein Trost ist, dass Sie keines Raths 
von anderen bediirfen ; alles innere und aussere scheint aufs beste bedacht und gerathen. Der 
Himmel lasse Ihnen alles gelingen. — Ihr herzlich ergebener Freund, 

'Berlin, 22 Juli, 1847.' 'J--^^. Grimm.' 

But on the ist of August a change took place. On that day he writes : * Dr. 
Bendz stethoscoped me to-day, my cough, hoarseness, etc. continuing ; pronounced lungs 
sound, but said my chest was weak ; prescribed a large plaster called Manus Dei, and 
a draft of senega, to take a table-spoonful four times a day.' On the 2nd he notes, 
* put on the plaster this evening before going to bed.' He still, however, works some 
hours every day, and takes little excursions into the country. On the 24th of August 
he enters the arrival of a man now very distinguished in the North : ' Unger from 
Christiania drank tea with me.' 

After this he is full of home business again, and writes a letter to Anthony on 
the 30th, enclosing letters to his agents, and at the end, ' Said I was a little better ; I 
the monster plaster had stilled but not taken away the cough, and especially worked well 
with the nightly perspiration, which had become only occasional and not so violent.' 
On the same day he notes : ' Paid Gislason 10 dollars, with 20 last month equals 
30 for two months.' On the 2nd of September he paid Fridriksson ' 10 dollars 
on account for this month.' On the 4th he enters : ' Received as a present by 
Mr. C. R. Unger, from him and the other editor, Mr. C. Lange, Diplomatarium 
Norvegicum, ist vol. Christiania, 1847. 4to.' On the 5th he received his last letter 
of business from his agent in England ; and on the 6th stands the last entry in these 
Diaries : ' Paid Fridriksson remaining 10 dollars, making 20 for this month. Answered 
Miles' — the agent's — letter of 28th ult. as at back of same.' So end his Diaries : the 
little that is left to tell of his life must be drawn from the letters of his friend Mr. Ellis, 
the English chaplain, to his sorrowing family. 

But indeed there is little more to tell. On the 7th of September, having been, 



as has been shewn, under medical care for an affection of the chest, he was seized with 
a slight fever, at first supposed to be of a rheumatic character, but which towards the 
end of the month rapidly passed into a low typhoid type. On Monday, the 27th, 
though confined to his bed, he 'dictated in a firm voice and collected manner' a 
letter to his brother, in which he said that he was in no danger, but that time was 
needful for his recovery. Complaints were made of his treatment; but upon this 
subject it is now needless to enter. It is enough to say that he grew rapidly worse 
and never rallied. On Wednesday, the 6th of October, at 10 a.m., he had finished his 
mortal course. His relations had no opportunity of being with him in his last moments, 
for they never heard of his danger till they received the intelligence of his death. On 
the 14th of October his remains were deposited in a vault below the church of St. 
Peter, where they still remain. 

So passed away the spirit of Richard Cleasby, one of the most indefatigable 
students that ever lived. If he were fortunate in the circumstances of his life, he was 
surely most unhappy in his death, — snatched away just as the mechanical part of his 
labours was drawing to a close, but before he could bring his philological power to bear 
upon the mass of materials which he had collected. His methodical and yet poetic 
mind, his far-sighted and yej; microscopic eye, will no longer note day by day the 
last penny of his expenses and the very spot where he took his friends to dine, 
side by side with entries full of a lively interest in philology, literature, and art, and 
of delight at the smiling face of nature as she revives at the soft breath of spring. 
For him the first chaffinch will chirp in vain, the earliest swallow twitter, and the 
beech and willow burst out into tender green. He is gone like Balder to the 
realm of night, never to return. It is poor compensation for the cessation of an 
existence so full of spirit and work to reflect that at the same time came rest and 
peace ; that all that weary trouble which wealth brought with it was over for ever ; 
that no letters on business from London or Westmoreland would now pursue him ; 
that his life-long chase after health at German Baths was at an end ; and that as he 
passed from city to city surgeons and physicians would no longer torture and torment 
him. These were but accidents, and, though troublesome, Richard Cleasby bore them 
like a man, in the firm faith that the task which he had set himself to do would still 
be fulfilled. It has been at last fulfilled, but not in the way which either Cleasby or 
his heirs at first proposed. As soon as the first shock caused by his unlooked-for death 
had passed over, the question arose, what was to be done with the Dictionary, which 
it was well known he had been on the very eve of publishing ? The greatest interest 
in the subject was naturally shewn in Copenhagen, and Mr. Anthony Cleasby received 
a message from the Crown Prince, as President of the Society of Northern Antiquaries, 
expressing his 'deeply-felt sympathy at his decease, and' his 'desire that the work might 
be completed to which he had devoted himself with such zeal and perseverance for 
so many years,' After mature deliberation it was resolved that the MS. should be 
completed at Copenhagen, under the care of a committee of three — two of whom were 
M. Krieger, the well-known statesman and antagonist of Prince Bismark; and M. Konrad 



Gislason, Cleasby's chief amanuensis, on whom devolved the literary direction of the 
work. For this purpose the heirs of Richard Cleasby devoted several hundred pounds 
to erect what they naturally regarded as the best monument to his memory. In 
the meantime the writer had succeeded in interesting the Delegates of the Oxford 
University Press in favour of the work, which, when completed, was to be edited by 
him and printed at the expense of the University. But when the MS. of the Dictionary 
was forwarded after several years from Copenhagen, so far was it from being in a 
fit state for publication, that, after struggling with it for some years, he found it necessary 
to call in other assistance to complete the work. This he was fortunate enough to 
find in Mr. Gudbrand Vigfusson, then one of the Stipendiaries in the Arna Magnaean 
Library at Copenhagen, an institution which has done so much for Icelandic scholarship. 
After inspecting the materials placed at his disposal, Mr. Vigfusson found them so 
crude and in such an unsatisfactory state, that he resolved on rewriting and remodelling 
the whole. This Herculean task he has now completed, and in so doing has raised 
a monument to his own scholarship as well as one to the memory of Richard Cleasby. 
It is needless to say more of these Copenhagen transcripts in this place. Their nature 
has been sufficiently explained and exposed in the Introduction. It is enough here 
to point at them and pass by. The Dictionary as it now stands is far more the work 
of Vigfusson than of Cleasby; but if the dead take heed of aught here below, it 
must be a consolation to the spirit of Richard Cleasby to know that the work which 
he so boldly projected has at last been worthily completed, though by other hands; 
and if there be speech or language in those mansions, the solemn words of Hdvamal 
will ring through them : 

' Deyr f6, deyja fraendr ; 
Deyr sjalfr it sama ; 
En orS-sti'rr deyr aldregi 
Hveim s6r g6^an getr.' 



s, pi. n., pi. m<oI, Gr. ^J). 30, i. 83" Cod. B, lb. 41. ii. 318"* 

\, Isl. S. i. 374*; mol, Norske Love 335^. Two leading signi- 

;s characterise this word, each of which present a number of 

isions. 1. speech, cp. msela, to speak. 2. measure, cp. mxla, 


I. Leading signification. 

a.—factiUas voces articulatas proferendi, loqtiela, a speech. Bors synir 
ku upp trein, skopuSu af menn, . . . gaf hinn fyrsti ond ok Jif . . . ^riSi 

■ 11. malit ok heyrn ok sjon, Sn. E. gg. c. 9. 10'*. aldri hrseSumsk ek 

i5 er J)U gofgar, J)viat J)au hafa ekki mal, Fms. i. 97'". J)rongdi 
ittarfari konungsins, at hann missti malsins, x. 148". {)a spur6i 
jiuingrinn ef Sigvaldi hefSi mal sitt, xi. 102'^'. hefi ek marga vega 
itaS mala vi8 hana ok hefi ek aldri fengit or6 af henni, Laxd. c. 12. 
o'". Jieir gl6tu8u einnar tungu niali er for6um vildu stopul smi&a 
gi'gn Gu8i {speech in one language). No. 677. 19'*. fieir menn er a 
hands h6fu8 ok hafa gau8 fyrir mal {latrattis pro loquela), Rimb. 
i. 3y. 347*. J)eir hafa eigi manns rodd ne mal, voice or speech, Rimb. 
i. 45. 348^*. honocentaurus hefir tvenn m*ol, voices, organs, manners 
^ sj'eech, 673. A. 47^ 

b. — sermo, oratio, verba, hvart eru J)eir Steinarr ok Onundr h^r, sva at 

eir iiiegi skilja mal mitt, Eg. c. 86. 735*. hvart er Flosi sva naer, at hann 

legi heyra mal mitt, Nj. 129. 200''. ver eigi naer honum en mal nemi, 

ins. iv. 28*". J)er er mikit fyrir mali, v. 325''. var hann snjallr i 

ali ok talaSr vel a Jiingi, ix. 535''. skilr J)u nokkut her manna mal? 

Limindis egir : eigi heldr enn fugla kli5. Fas. ii. 512^". sumiim gefsk 

i;ila ^y&ing, No. 677. 20^. skaldskapr var honum sva tiltaekr sem 

ana maelti af tungu fram sem annat mal, other speech, i. e. prose, Fms. 

/. 374^, cf. 91, var. 5. engi var sva vitr hja, at snjallara mal {sermo, 

ratio) myndi fram bera, Fms. vii. 158'^°. eigi man ]pat sva skjott radask, 

■gir Jjorsteinn ok tok annat mal, Gunnl. c. 5. 70^. engi haf&i hon or& 

in I'yrr en Gestr lauk sinu maii, Laxd. c. 33. 130''. ok er Olafr lauk 

luu mali, pa, var g68r romr gerr, 27. 106'". en er hann haf8i petta 

■i.elt fylldisk J)egar mal bans, was fulfilled, came to pass, MS. 623. 42*. 

lau eru upphcif af mali minu (of a sermon), Isl. S. i. 385*^ bar Gi^urr 

lar .1 mikit mal, at hann mundi J)vi auSveldliga a lei3 koma, bisisted 

niicb, Fms. X. 93"*. fi^rfu J)er firi J)vi at . . . syna fyrir nier 611 J)au mal 

'k athsefi er hafa J)arf fyrir konungi, expressions, modes of expressions, 

ks. 301^ — Cod. 61*. 29 : pi., ^4 svarar drottinn var me8 malum David 

iropheta, in the words of David, No. 619. 31^. In specie, colloquium, 

egar er J)eir fundu menn at mali, Fms. i. 204^ mselti hann jafnan fyrst 

i<5 NorBmenn ef {jeir vildu hafa mal bans, audients hos ham, -paven, vii. 

141 '. Olvir hnufa var me8 konungi ok kom opt a mal vi3 konung, Eg. 

14. 106^. hann lag8isk niSr ok skaut fyrir loku, engi J)or5i at krefja 

aaim mals, 81. 6oi^^ {)6rdis gekk til mals vi8 Egil, 89. 764^^. si8an 

;ttiu J)au maliiiu (var. talinu), Nj. c. 6. lO^ ^egar er hvarir na mali 

ra st68 Atli upp ok maelti, 5. 8'*. In specie, responsum, hann 

v; J)a mals um vi8 Asger8i, hverju Jjat gegiidi. Eg. c. 83. 703''. 

iionnum {likkir hun svara furSu storliga ok spyrja hana mals um, 

til svor J)essi skulu koma, S. i. Har. Harf. 3. 77*, cf. Fms. i. 3*. 

hann mal af J)eim, ok spurSu J)au hversu bardaginn hef8i gengit, 

ii. 525^^. Sermonis argumentum, judicium (de aliqua re) verbis 

'um, t)at var mal manna at henni hafi allt verit ilia gefit, J)at er etc., 

. 154. 268'^ {jat var mal manna um J)a fjorolf ok Bar8, at t)eir 

tc, Eg. c. 8. 39*^ t)at er mal manna at eigi hali meiri skcirungr 

;it i Noregi, Fms. vii. 150''. ok hofSu menn at mali, at {)at sumar 

i)ti)u Marcus-menn byr hvert er J)eir vildu, SOi*- allir menn hijfdu a 

i;iili er (3laf sa, hversu friSr ma8r hann var, Laxd. c. 22. 88^*. Nar- 

■•■:ti'>, mi er })ar til mals at taka er |)orkell Eyjolfsson sitr i biii sinu, 

iN<]. c. 74. 314^'. jarlarnir Urgu-J)rj(kr ok Brimeskjarr er fyrr var 

■ 111') i J)essu mali, Fms. xi. 41^. Proverbium, saying, J)at er fornt mal, 
i ! ■.sna skal at betr verSi, Fms. x. 261*. Runce incises vel sententiceJ 

hafSi kroka-spjot i hendi haugtekit ok mal 1, (the runes were 

legible? or of important signification?), Laxd. car. 78". nu eru tekin 
GrasiSu brot, ok gcirir {>orgrimr {)ar af spjot . . . mal v6ru f, ok foert f 
hepti spannar-langt, (i.e. faert spjot i hepti), Gisl. Cod. 1 13*, cf. mala 
sax, Fas. i. 514'*. Unus integer sensus, logice — a complete period, her 
er mAl fullt i hverju visu-or8i, Sn. E. brh. 86. 234*. h6r er tvau mill full 
kumin i hverju visu-or8i, 85. 233'''*. ok er sa visu-helmingr ei elligar 
rdttr at mali, 91. 235". The mode {either with an usual or artificial 

term) of appellation in poetry (as, for instance, that a man be called 
' ma8r,' or be called ' skjald-tre,' or the like) ; tvenn eru kyn })au er 
greina skaldskap allan : hver tvenn ? mal ok haettir, hvert maltak er 
haft til skaldskapar? J)renn er etc., Sn. E. skm. i. 93''. {)a J)ykkja 
nygiirvingar vel kve8nar ef J)at mal er upp er tekit haldi of alia visu- 
leng8, Sn. E. brh. 82. 230". J)eir amaeltu skaldskapnum Sighvats, ok 
koUuSu at hann hefSi eigi r^tt ort at mali, Fms. v. 209^ cf. bragar-mal, 
Sn. brh. 84. 232 (a poetical . . .). Lingua, idioma, er J)u lastr eigi 

{)urfa i varu mali J)essa niu raddar-stafi, Sn. E. lat. c. 3. 277'''*. msel J)u 
mi vi8 mik girzkt mal. No. 677. 75'''. Haraldi var mjok stirt um nor- 
rcent mal, Fms. vii. 165*. Postulatum, demand, assertion, Hakon 
konungr haf3i skra lati8 allar Eyjar fyrir vestan Skotland {)aEr sem hann 
kalladi s^r, en Skota-konungr haf8i nefiit J)aer sem hann vildi eigi lausar 
lata, ... en um aSra hluti var skamt milli mals konunga, en ^6 gekk 
eigi saettin saman, Fms. x. 132'. (ok mi81um sva mal a midli J)eirra) at 
hvarir tveggju hafi nakkvat sins mals, Isl. S. i. 12^". hann festi jarnburft 
at sva skyldi sanna mal bans, Fms. vii. 230'*. hefir hann i marga staSi 
mikit til sins mals, 221*". hafa her hvarir tveggju mikit til sins mals, 
Nj. c. 56. 88^. J)a skal sa J)eirra hafa sitt mal er ei8 vill at vinna, Gr. i. 
Kb. 3. 393*. J)eir skulu domendr sitt mal hafa er fleiri eru saman J)ar, 
29. 430". Gunnlaugr skal fyrr flytja fyrir, {)viat hanum eirir verr ef 
hann hefir eigi sitt mal, Gunnl. 9. iio'^. {)essi eru fiau daemi er syna 
hit sama mal, (i. e. at gu8 g6r8i brig8 a skipa8um domi), Sks. Cod. 
Ii8». 17. Pactum, slipulatio, agreement, stipulation, condition, enda 
a J)at at halda med J)eim . . . nema J)au vili annat mal a gora, Gr. i. f J). 
23. 336^*; and 22. 335*. mi bregSr hann (gri8ma8r) mali, vi8 fieiri 
menn, i. {)^. 56. 148^^ en ek skal lauss allra mala ef hann kemr eigi {)a 
ut, Gunnl. c. 5. So'', cf. 9. n6". Effatum, mandatum, sa er . . . fyr- 
litr m,a\ Gu8s ok seining laga. No. 677^*. sa er elskar mik mun halda 
mal min, 1 7^*. Diversce formulcs processuaricB, . . . decisio, effatum etc., 
enda er eigi heimting til malsins, Gr. i. Kb. c. 81. 497**. skulut mal 
bans standask um pa sok, Gr. i. \ip. c. 2 1 . 64'*. enda er sva sem {)eir 
maeli eigi J)eim malum, nema Jjeir vinni ei8a at, ii. lb. 46. 342^, cf. 21. 
25. skulu J)eirra manna mal standask . . . hvar J>ess er J)eir taka eigi af 
alj)ingis-mali, Gr. i. umb. 31. 296^*. enn er sa hlutr i logum er J)u hefir 
eigi kennt m6r, Jpat er at festa nier konu, J>orsteinn segir : J)at er litid 
mal, ok kendi honum atferli, Gunnl. c. 4. 54'. hann skal segja i annat 
sinn fram sokina, ok fara sva ollu mali um, sem hann hafi a8r ekki um 
maelt, Gr. i. pp. c. 12. 40^^*. kveSr Ottarr jarl J)ings, ok maelti pe'nw 
malum a {)inginu, at Hakon jarl skyldi heita vargr i veum, Fms. xi. 40^. 
ef hann kve6r sva at, ok haf8i i mali sinu ' heilt ra8 ok heimilt,' en eigi 
ella, Gr. i. fj). 7. 317'^ 

Negotium, res, status. 1. negotium et res simili sensu, {>6r61fr 

ba8 Olvi byrja mal sitt. Eg. c. 16. 62^*. Svertingr gekk a konungs fund 
ok flutti mal sitt, Laxd. 41. 180^*. hann fann pafann, ok tok hann J)ar 
lausn af honum allra sinna mala (of all he had committed), Orkn, 21. 
86. ok muntii mi ver8a m^r at triia til malanna J)inna allra, Fms. xi. 
104^*, cf. Nj. c. 6. ro". sitr hann J)ar mi at malum sinum vi8 vegsemd, 
xi. 4*. vit leitu8um ekki fyrst J)essa mala vi8 Brynjolf, E. c. 9. 40*. 
{)ikki mer mi vandask malit er ek hefi a8r ra8it bru81aup mitt, Nj. 2. 
4^*. takit er mi hofSingja J)ann er ySr pikkn bezt til fallinn, J)vi at ein- 
hverr mun J)urfa at vera fyrir mdlinn, 124. 19a''. ef nia8r handsalar 
mainii satt ... ok skilja J)eir J)at mal eigi gorr enn sva (the matter, affair, 
almost stipulation), Gr. i. pp. 50. 136'. vii ek {ivi heita, at eiga sidan 
allt mitt mal undir y8r f6stbroe8rum. Fas. 2. 532'^. en {)essi ma8r er 



keisari haf3i verit gjorSi slikt af sinu mali sem hafSi hann aSr raedt, 
Fms. vi. 73, var. 3 (^of sin Sag). {)vi hverr hann vill leggjask i at i8ka 
J)etta mai, {)a hlytr hann etc. (huic materia incumbere), Rimb. ii. 90. 
312'. eingi maSr a annat inal at deila i kirkju nema biSja fyrir ser ok 
oUu Kristnu folki, No. 619. 34^. Negotium nuptiale, Austma3rinn 
heldr nu a malinu vi3 bonda, sva at Flosi var hja, Nj. c. 149. 259'". en er 
J)etta m41 var vi& Jorunni roedt, J)a svarar hiin etc., Laxd. c. 9. 22''. ek 
skal fara a fund Burizlafs konungs ok vitja malanna fyrir bond okkra 
beggja, Fms. xi. 104'°. {)6 16zk hann enn tala niundu malit fyrir hans 
bond. Fas. i. 364*. en sva er mal meS vexti at fatt hefir verit etc., Lvs. 
c. 14. 43*. sva er mal me6 grenni, at etc. (of tenderness), Fas. iii. 59*". 
The use below carried further and generalized ? mun honum J)6 eigi 
miklu J)ikkja launadr uxinn ... at ek hitta hann ef honnm {jikkir mali 
skipta, Eg. c. 87. 742**- hann kveftsk ok engu mali J)ikkja skipta, 
HeiSv. C.I. 282^'. J)6tti henni allmiklu mali skipta, S. ii. 61. Helg. 
c. 31. 33*. um J)a hluti er mer J)ikkja miklu mali skipta, Fms. xi. 
213'*. ef hanum Jjoetti mali var8a, VV, 12. 260^ ef y5r Jjoetti nokkuru 
mali var&a um hans vinattu, S. ii. <3\. Helg. c. 135. 229^. en {)a skiptir 
eigi mali hver gogn J)a fara a lengr, Gr. i. J)J). 13. 43*. um t)at er J)u 
kvaddir J)ess kviSar er eigi atti mali at skipta um vig Au961fs, Nj. c. 56. 
87^. 2. res, status, la ek J)a i voggu er J)aer (sc. vcilvur) skyldu 

tala um mitt mal, Fas. i. 340". faSir minn for vestr til Irlands, ok er 
J)at vitaS hver stortiSendi gerSusk um hans mal, Fms. vii. 124^'. vit 
forum kynliga me3 okkr um malin segir Hrappr, Nj. c. 87. 130^*. allt 
var {)at annat mal segir Hallr, er varut J)a vi'grei3ir, hafit er mi of 
mikit at gert, Nj. 147. 256^. ekki eru J)au efni um vart mal, Jjviat ek se 
at bo3ar eru a bae3i bor9, Laxd. c. 21. 76^ en fio skalt J)u sva um 
{)itt mal hugsa, ef {)etta berr saman, at etc., Nj. c. 55. 85^'. em ek J)a. 
J)egar skildr vi6 J)in mal . . . kvad hann at heimilu skiljask vi3 sin mal ef 
hann ryfi saettina {partes), Fms. xi. 396. 19 seqq. {)eir foru a konungs 
fund, ok toluQu mal Islendinga {cause, part), Fms. x. 296. 29. er mal 
hans stendr i sva miklum haska, No. 655. xxxii. i''. Causa, lis, actio, 
ct fortasse, injuria delictum saepius usurpatur promiscue cum ' sok.' sokn 
skal fara fyrr fram hvers mals enn vorn, Gr. i. J)J). 18. 59^. ek . . . seg 
{)at Gu3i, at ek mun sva foera mal 611 fram her at feransdomi etc., 48. 
I35\ cf. Nj. 64. 99'' ubi = sok 1. 5 ; et Gr. i. fj). 46. 361*1. ^k skal 
{)eim er med mal ferr . . . rett at taka til soknar etc., Kb. 72. 490"*, cf. 
f J). 134. 348". har3ra3r vi3 livini sina enn tillaga g63r hinna stoerri 

mala, NJ. c. i. 2^'^. Gunnarr scekir mal J)etta a J)ingi, hann kvaddi 
bua til mals, 24.. 361", cf. Gr. i. umb. 32. 297'^. Rutr nefndi vatta ok 
sag3i unytt malit, Nj. 24. 36'*. Njall . . . kve3sk borgit munu geta 
malinu ok scikinni, (as well the form as the action itself), 36'*. J)eir 
vani . . . lagamenn miklir . . . t)eir veittu Gizuri hvita at hverju mali, c. 56. 
86", J)eir . . . letu {)at standa fyrir kvi3bur3i um mal Au3ulfs at a3ili 
var 1 Noregi, 87'^ ef sa madr andask er sok hefir selda eda til buna, 
J)a er hann er adili, ok pa hverfr mal ^zt undir hans erfingja, Gr. i. JjJ). 
55. 142*. sa ri3r sidast, segir Kari, at ek vil eigi drepa . . . hanum hefir 
farit J)6 bezt i malum varum ^dr, Nj. c. 146. 254'^. ok hefir sa sok er 

hann hefir mal 4 hondum, Gr. i. {){>. 10. 38'. veit hann vanir leyndni . 
mala me3 {)eim . . . eru eigi J)a sakarnar settri enn a3r, fj). 47. S^flH 
J)riggja alj)inga mal eru t)etta allt, Gr. i. f J). 32. 346'^ ef hann vilfll 
ens meira mals fcera, ok skal hann stefna, etc., Gr. i. Kb. 29. 430" 
sama mal a br63ir samnicedr, G{)1. m. eb. 7. 240. ok ef kona a Jjani 
hluta mals, Krr. 9. 17. 124. Fere insimulatio, reatus, stefndi SigurJi 
konungr J)a ping, ... ok bad Sigur3 Hranason svara par malum fyrir sik, 
Fms. vii. 130'^ ok mun pa verda svarat mali pvi, Nj. c. 64. 99*, 
Njall . . . spur3i alia hina beztu menn . . . hvert mal peim poetti Gunnarr 
eiga a peim nofnum fyrir fjorradin, c. 70. 105^*. pa eru peir var3ir 
mali ef peir fa pann bjargkviS, Gr. i. pp. 16. 54^. versk hann pa miUimi. 
fp. 7. 317^*. en pau ur malinu ef f)6r61fr hittisk ei par, Laxd. c. 15, 
44-'*. ?en um xii mana3i stendr peirra mal, Gr. i. pp. 55- 143'-. 
compounds, lis, Vestfjar3a-mal, = process tilhorende Vestfir3ir, Stu. A B. 
c. 53. ii. 81^". Boejarhogna-mal, angaaende Baejarhogni, Gu3m. 19''-*. 
Ashildar-mal, angaaends Ashildr, 103^*. XL. marka-mal, Gpl. 185". 

II. Leading signification. 

a. — mensura, fimm alna er hatt mal hans, Fms. vi. 429^*. at peir 
hafi jammiklir menn verit pa er peir gengu undir mal, Laxd. c. 41. 
I78i*and Fms. ii. 79'*. hann lag3i mal vi3 oil en stoerstu tre, baeS. 
bita ok staflaegjur etc., Laxd. c. 74. 316'^. ef malit gengi saman 

pa er optarr vseri reynt etc., Korm. c. 3. 8. hann lypttr honum 6r 
s631inum ok kastar honum mals-leng3 fra ser a leik-voUinn sva at 1 
sundr ganga iii rifin i hanum. No. 580*. 71 7- Tempus {facere alt- 
quid), time, fitting time, point of time, period (mael or mel), en hus- 
bondi sa sveri um, er hann haf3i inni sitt, at hann var par pa n6tt ok li 
pvi mali, Norske love 309^^ skipverjum potti mal or hafi, er a li6i; 
var mjok sumarit, LN B. p. iii. c. 12. 156^' ( = Isl. S''. i. 206^*). fara 
si3an ni3r priSja sinni, par til er Kjartani pikkir allt mal upp, S. i. 01 
Tryggv. 88. 297^. par til er Njall talar at monnum vaeri niiil at lysri 
sokum sinum, Nj. c. 97. 149^'. pa minnti biskup konung a, at ma! 
vaeri at ganga at sofa, Fms. ii. . , . 138*^. ok er mal at ver farim tii 
Austreyjar, it is high time, Faer. c. 55. 255. mal er at leita at hestum 
varum, Kor. c. 19. 182. konungr spurdi ef pegar vaeri mal at rida, Fms. 
ii. 139". ok er allt mal at aettvig pessi takisk af, Laxd. c. 59. 258-. 
? pa metask kvi3r peirra sem pa at i mal yr3i borinn kviSrinn {iti dtu 
time? or=i dom ?), Gr. i. pp, c. 16. 54^^. 2, tempus prandend: 

et ccenandi ? {morning and evening meal-time), ef hanum er eigi dcild: 
matr at malum, Gr. i. pp. 56. 194*. ok ala pa hvara tveggju i eitt ma 
ef riimheilagt er (cf. 1. 23 i tvo mal), Gr. i. umb. 30. 293^^. Cod. A. ei. 
sty'rimenn skulu fceSa pa i tvau mal, (Cod. B.) Gr. ii. Skmf. 2. 400-'. 
ok oxa parf hann (sc. ormrinn) i mal. Fas. i. 238''. biskups efni vildi 
ok lata gefa fatoekum monnum mat i tvo mal, Stu. p. 3. c. 13. i». 216". 
pat er ok mitt ra3, p6 pat se at fyrra mali, at menn snaedi nokkut ok 
drekki, though before the meal {meal)-time, Fms. viii. 381, var. 18 (al. 
var. i fyrra lagi). 

b. — quarta pars anni, i misseri eru mal tvau, en i mali eru manuSir 
prir, Rb. i. c. 3. 6". manu3r iii. Ann. No. 415. ^. 

(Finis, being altogether about 180 references in seven somewhat closely-written pages in Mr. Cleasby's volume.) 

{^Transmitted to England in 18 54, /rom which Mr. Vig/usson had to work). 

mdl, n.. A) speech, 1) speech, power of expressing thoughts by words : 

Sn Fms. i 97, x 148. Rb. 347, 348. jieir glotuau einnar tungu mah 

{speech in one language), er for3um vildu stopul snii3a i gegn gu3i, 677 
p. 19. — b) voice, organ of speech: Honocentaurus hefir tvenn m. {tvr. 
mol), 673 p. 47. — c) language, tongue, idiom: Fms. vii 165. Mael pti 
vi3 mik gerzkt m., 677 p. 75. Sn. 161. Sumum (gefsk) mala py3ing, 
677 P- 20. — 2) speech, talk, verbal utterance: Eg. 735. Nj. 200. Fms. 
iv 28, 374 (lit. other speech = prose), vii 158, ix 535. Fas. ii 512. Ld. 
106,130. En er hann hafSi petta maelt, fylldisk m. hans, 623 p. 43. 
{>4 svarar drottinn viirr me3 malum Davids propheta {in the words of 
David), 619 p. 31. (hann) bar mikit m. a, at {he) insisted much : Fms. 
X 93. — b) expression, mode of expression, form of a language { = Lat. 
effatvm): Sks. 301. Grag. i 40, 317. Fms. xi 40. — c) colloquy, dis- 
course : Nj. 10. Eg. 106, 601, 764. Fms. i 204. Ef peir vildu hafa hans 
m. if they wished bis audience: Fms. vii 241. — Espec, answer, reply: 
Eg. 703. Hkr. i 77. Fas. iii 525. — 3) anything told, spoken, or written: 

{>at var m. manna it was told, Nj. 268. Eg. 29. Fms. vii 150. hafa' 
(a) mali to speak of, make mention of: Fms. vii 301. Ld. 88. — narratia: 
relation: Ld. 314. Fms. xi 41. — b) appointment,judgment, decision: Griid 
i 69, 296, ii 342. — c) assertion, demand: Isl. i 12. Fms. vii 221, 23c 
Nj. 58. Grag. i 393. Isl. ii 237. — d) agreement, stipulation, condition. 
Grag. i 148, 336. isl. ii 217. — e) command, commandment . . .: Sa er , 
litr . . . m. gu3s ok setning laga, 677 p. i. Sa er elskar mik mun halda I 
m. min, 677 p. 17. — f) proverb, saying: Fms. x 261. — g) a comphlt 
period : Sn. 124, 125. — h) the mode of appellation {either with an vsv-.- 
or artificial term) in poetry: Sn. 49, 123. Fms. v 209. — i) en"--"' 
Runes or Runic words : Ld. 78. NO. viii 18. — B) something to be ?). 
or transacted, i) business, affair : Engi ma3r ea annat m. at 
kirkju, nema bi3ja fyrir s6r ok ollu kristnu folki, 619 p. 34. Eg. 62, 40. j 
Ld. 180. Fms. xi 104. Fas. ii 532. Nj. 192. — Espec, affair, business of \ 
courtship : Nj. 259. Ld. 22. Fas. i 364. Fms. xi 104.— b) matter, affair 
Nj. 4. Rb. 312. Grag. i 136 {stipulation?).— sv& er m. me3 vexti // 



r is this, of that condition : I. 43. Fas. iii 59. — var pat annat m. it 
another affair : Nj. 256. — e-t skiptir (varSar) mali (miklu, litlu or 
like) a thing is of importance: Eg. 742. Hkr. ii 32, 207. Fnis. xi 
. 1. 260. — skiptir {)a eigi mali then it is indifferent: Grag. i 43. — 
i eigi mali at skipta a thing is not relating to : Nj. 87. — c) state, 
tmstance, condition: Fas. i 340. Fms. vii 124. Ld. 76. Nj. 85. En 
ans stendr i sva mikluin haska, 655 xxxii p. I. — d) cause: Fms. x 
xi 396. Grag. i 143. — 2) cause, process, action: Grag. i 38, 59, 
362. Nj. 2, 36, 86, 87, 254. — the form of an action: Nj. 36. — b) 
/ right, right of inheritance : GJ)1. 240. — c) charge, indictment, com- 
it, accusation: Grag. i 54, 317. Nj. 99. Ld. 44. Fms. vii 130. — 

guilt ( = Lat. reatus) : Grug. i 430. Nj. 105. — C) measure, 1) of local 
character, a) measure, dimension (height, longitude) : Korm. 8. Fms. 
vi 429. — b) measure, that by which anything is nuasured : Ld. 178, 
2,16.— Also it seems to have been used in notion of a certain measure; 
cfr. malslengd. — 2) of temporal character, a) time, period, point of time : 
Ngl. i 309, 240.— b) time, fitting time: Isl. i 206. Nj. 149. Fms. ii 138, 
139. t)at trm.,zi it is high time: FaEr.25£. Korm.182.Ld. 258— c) nUal 
{morning and evening with regard to milking of cattle, sheep, twice a 
day): Grag. ii 230, 231. Cf. i II, B, i, «.— d) meal time (also with 
regard to morning and evening) : Grag. i 149.-31 fyrra mali before the 
usual (meal) time: Fms. viii 381 (var.).—t) quarter (of a year): Rb. 6. 

J.B, — This word is (with very few exceptions) a fair specimen of the Copenhagen transcripts for the whole of the letters A B, E G, L M, 
R, T, p, JE, 6, and for the half or two-thirds of H. See the Preface, p. vi.— G. V. 


It leaving out all references, only shewing the frame-work or model on which Mr. Cleasby worked out his verbs, 
[le references given by Mr. Cleasby are about no. 

, — fsE, fongum* (sic), fekk, fengum, fenginn, v. a. et n. 

Forma activa — sensus activus. 

to get, receive, obtain, take, procure, as well willingly as without 


to get, receive, take, willingly as something desired, accipere, nan- 

cum ace. : at ek munda litid braud fa e3r anaan mat, Fms. x. 

(References follow.) 
im genitive : 

■ir bor6usk vi8 lands-menn ok fengu J)ar fjar mikils, Nj. 89. 137'*. 
ildr konungr f^kk J)eirrar konu er Ragnhildr het, Fms. i. 4'^ Nj. 
24". (More references follow.) 

to get, receive, without one's consent, or something disagreeable, 
ished, or which comes upon a person. (References follow.) 

3. with the signification to procure, provide. (References follow.) 

This verb is also used in the signification ' to be able ' to accomplish 
(posse), in connexion with the participle preterite ... fa e-n veiddan . . . 

with the participle omitted. (References follow.) 

(absolute) without subject, i. e. ' madr ' understood, vapn sva g68 at 
eigi fser onnur slik, Nj. 30. 44'. 

B. sensus neuter, 
impersonal. (References.) 

C. sensus activa (sic), with the signification to deliver, make over, 
give, etc., tradere. (References.) 

II. Forma passiva. i. recipr. signification (references). 2. reflect. 
signification (references). 3. passive signification (references). 4. par- 
ticiple adjective (references). 

* Thus by a slip of the pen for fam, mod. fauin. 



. conj. (G. {)atei. A. S. J)SEt. Ohg. daz). It is also sometimes found 
ood MSS. written a&. — ut, quod, and as relative pron. qui, quae, 

that, to. 

of consecutive character — that, hann var sva mikill lagama5r at 
r ^ottu logligir domar nema hann vseri i. Nj . i , i . harit . . . sva mikit 
It tok ofan a belti. I, 2^^. sva kom of siSir J)vi mali, at Sigvaldi 
undan. Fms. xi. 95. — also without a preceding sva. Baringr var 
:inn eptir hanum, at hann komst fyrr i borgina en hann fengi nu,6 
im. 580 a. 15^*. so that he got into, C/e. skyrtunnar dugnaSr 
i konungssynni, at hann sakaSi ekki. Fas. iii. 441. 

where design, intention is expressed — that = in order that, frest {)U 
mdan valdi Serkja at oil veraldarbyggSin viti at \)u einn er drottinn. 
1-37- {)eir...skaru fyrir pa melinn, at {)eir daei eigi af sulti. Nj. 

265. fyrsti lutr bokarinnar er Kristind6ms-b61kr, at menn skill 
iliga tni vera grundvoU ok upphaf allra go&a verka. Gul. M. 

connecting two propositions — that, fiat var einhverju sinni, at 
culdr haf6i vinabo8. Nj. I, 2. J)at var a palmdrottinsdag at Olafr 

ngr gekk liti um straeti. Fms. ii. 244. vilda ek at J)u re5iz austr 
rdu. Nj. 38, 57. ef sva kann at verSa, ad J)eir lati siga ok renni 

1. Fms. xi. 94. — used in connexion — a. with J)6, signifying toge- 

although. — svarar hann {)6 rett at hann svari sva. Grag. {)s. 
23. J)6 er rett at nyta hann, at hann se fyrir skorinn. 


Krist. g. 32, 134. gef J)ii mer, po at geta son. Stj. 
315. {)6 at nokkururrf monnum synist {)etta med freku sett...J)avilj 
um ver gjarna ei6a vinna. Fms. vi. 21. — also without {jii, in the same 
signification, eigi mundi hon pk meirr hvata gongunni, at hon hraeddiz 
bana sinn. Sn. Ed. 99. 12. 12^^ — b. with J)vi, signifying together, be- 
cause. — J)vi t)egi ek, at ek undrumst hvfe mikil ognarraust, &c. Fms. iii. 
201. J)vi er Jessa getit at fjat J)6tti vera rausn mikil. Laxd. 19, 68*. 
J)vi at allir voru gerviligir synir hans. id. J)vi at af ijirottum ver3r ma8r 
fr68r. Skuggs. 243 b. 3*. 20. — but as p6 and J)vi (which see) are often 
used alone in this signification, without at, this latter has something of a 
superfluous character; this is much more decidedly the case in — c. of 
modern appearance after ef. ef at Jni laggr hint J)inn vi6 Jietta. Lj(')sv. 
14, 45. — also in relative propositions, see B. 4. — d. it is used elliptically 
at the beginning of a proposition in forensic language, a preceding phrase 
or formula being left out, or to be understood, as, it is decreed, the law 
ordains, or the like. — at J)eir skulu me8 vattorS J)a sok scekja. Grag. {)s. 
22. i. 65^". ef sok kcimr a hendr Jjeim manni er i dom er nefndr, at 
hanum er rhtt hvart sem hann vill, at verja sok J)a e3a, &c. 21, 64^. 28, 
79*'. 38, 106^. — e. used also with a pret. participle, where the personal 
pron. and auxiliary verb are left out. — mi hefi ek gort sem {)u beiddist, 
at lokit upp me5 (noccorum) nokkurum orOum fyrir f)fer hvi ormrinn 
maelti. Skuggs. 243 b. 109 a'^ i. e. at ek hefi lokit upp. \>{i hafa t)eir 
me6 {)essu efni sky'ringar gorvar, at hugleitt hverr grundvollr e3a hvert 
efni hefir, &c. id. 113a. 2. i.e. at J)eir hafa hugleitt. nu hefir gu6 




|)at hefnt er hann hefir heitit pfer, at sent i hendr fier livin J)inn. id. 
147 a. b. /. e. at hann hefir sent. 

4. used before an infinitive — to. mikit mant J)u J)urfa fram at leggja 
me3 honum. Nj. 2, 3". hafa J)eir J)6 yrit at vinna. Fms. xi. 95^'. ok 
var6 nu vi6 a& snuast ok veita vorn. 96^. after certain verbs, as kunna, 
lata, mega, munu, skulu, {)ykkja, vilja ; when used as incomplete ones 
before the infinitive of another verb, it is left out before this infinitive. 
{)eir er mildh'ga kunnu styra gu&s hj6r3. 619. 37'®. sva hygginn at 
hann kunni fyrir sokum ra&a. Grag. vs. 37. ii. 75^^'. Gunnarr mun af 
|)vi lata vaxa 6J)okka vi8 {jik. Nj. 71. 107^ J)eir Hvamverjar letu fara 
ordum, at, &c. Laxd. 16. 50'''. let hun {)ar fjandskap i moti koma. 
16. 50'*. litlar sogur megu ganga fra hesti minuni. Nj. 58. 90'''. i 
alluni lutum J)eim er J)ry5a ma g65an hofSingja. Fms. x. 230. J)ar man 
vera Gunnarr fraendi J)inn. Nj. 54, 85. J)at mundi jorunn systir min 
aetla. 180^^. ek veit {jann mann er kunna man. Gu3m. 13''". mi skalt 
J)ii deyja. Nj. 42, 64. skyldi Unnr sitja |)rja vetr i festum. 2, 4^*. 
Sveinn...J)ikki J)at tja at hann for eigi haldit tign sinni. Fms. xi. 86'. 
fyrir sakastaSi J)a er hann J)6tti a eiga. Nj. 106, 166. hann J)ottiz jata 
{)vi. Nj. 81, 121. mi vil ek spyrja ydr hvat phr skp. 23. 35. GuSriin 
kvaSst vildu vita hvat pen vildu at hafast. Laxd. 48, 216. — /3. It is also 
sometimes the case with eiga and ganga. mo3ur sina a ma9r fyrst fram 
fcera. Grag. ii. i. i. 232*. J)a a J)ann kvi& enskis meta — J)S. 18. i. 59'*. 
but 1. 26. a J)at enskis at meta, er konungr var sofa genginn, var 
sveinninn eptir i hoUinni. Fms. vi. 6. and on the whole not uncommon in 
both constructions. — y. %oitb the verbs hijota and ver5a, when used in the 
signification, must, and placed after the infinitive of the other verb (when 
placed before it, ^t is retained : see hijota and verSa) — her mantu vera 
hijota. Nj. 86, 129. en fara hlytr \>u me3 mer til Jomsborgar. Fms. i. 
159^*. Jjat munu {)eir ok vita verSa. Fostb. 9, 32. en vita ver3 ek, 
hvar til t)etta heyrir. Fms. ii. 146*^. but cases also occur where ver3a is 
placed first. \)6 ver5r ma5r eptir mann lifa. Fas. ii. 552. hann man 
ver3a soekja. Fms. viii. 19. — b. as an exception it is sometimes found 
retained, ok ef sva kann at verda. Fms. xi. 94. hvart sem hann vill 


at verja sok J)a, e3a, &c. Grag. {)S. 21, i. 64. fyrr viljum ver (inga 
koronu at bera, en nokkut ofrelsi a oss at taka. Fms. x. 12. — c. it is also 
occasionally left out where it should be used. J)essa hati6 liigtaka, 'pk er 
gud gefr oss, finnast a prestastefnu. Dipl. ii. 14'". tak log af laeknis- 
grasi...ok gef hanum drekka. 655. xxx. i*. — 2. it sometimes expresses' 
intention, design — to = in order to. Oxurr bau3 t)eim inn i biiSina at 
drekka. Nj. 2,4. J)enna myrginn gekk Kolr...i borg at kaupa silfr. 
158, 280. (hann) sendi riddara sina me& J)eim at vorveita ( = var8-' 
veita) J)aEr. 623, 45^. 

B. used relatively — as the indecl. relat. pron. er is sometimes used for. 
at, ive also find at sometimes used far er. *: 

1. causative — sirice, because, hann skal...maEla sva: at ek fceri y8r: 
{sc. omaga) at J)fer erut 1 einuni hrepp allir. Grag. li. 8. i. 260'^. as, in 
that, because you all inhabit the same district, eigi er kynligt at Skarp- 
heSinn se hraustr, at J)at er mselt at fj6r6ungi breg6i til fostrs. Nj. 42, 
64. since it is said — these approach nearly to at = {)vi at, with J)vi 
left out. 

2. temporal — as, when, jafnan er mer J)a verra i hug er ek ferr a 
braut J)a8an, enn ^a at ek kem. Gretl. Cod. 165*'. sem ek kva6 \)k at 
ek lysta. Nj. 142, 233. J)ar til at ver vitum hvart fundr varr mun verda, 
ok bonda. Fms. v. 53. ' 

3. as a relative pronoun — who, which, en engi mun sa, at minnisa- 
mara mun vera um penna atbur8...enn mer. Laxd. 55, 242. GuSriin er 
komin gegnt rekkju Jjeirri, at Kjartan var vanr at liggja i. 46, 202. 
svh mikil sem J)au bl6tnaut at stcerst ver9a. Fms. ii. 214. 

4. used superfiuously in relative propositions. me8 fullkommun avexti 
...hverr at ^ekkr ok J)aegiligr mun ver6a hinum hasstum himnakonungi. 
Fms. V. 159. Olafr konungr spur5i Onund konung hvern styrk at hann 
mundi fa honum. 44. allir kirkjus6knarmenn, J)eir sem at foerir eru til, 
skulu koma til soknarkirkju. Hist. ii. 82. ek undrumst hve mikil 
ognarraust at liggr i ^er. Fms. iii. 201. mi mun ek segja, y6r |)vi at ek 
em Nornagestr kallaSr. Fas. i. 340''. wherefore I am. 

<^ in attu, which see — enclitically for at Jju, Fms. xi. 66-81. 


A is the first letter in all the alphabets of Phenician extraction. The 
Runic alphabet, being confused and arbitrary, makes the sole exception 
to this rule. 

A. Pronunciation : it is either simple (a) or diphthongal («'). The 
simple a is pronounced long or short ; when long it is sounded like the 
long Italian a as in padre, or as in Engl, father ; when short, like the short 
Italian a as in cambio, or as in Engl, marry. The a — though in grammars 
commonly called a long vowel — is phonetically diphthongal (o + w), and 
sounds like Engl, ou or oui : Engl, thou and Icel. pd, now and nd, have 
almost the same sound. Again a and d have, like all other vowels, diph- 
thongs or simple, a deep, full chest-sound if followed by a single consonant, 
or by more than one weak consonant (a liquid followed by a media). 
They sound short if followed by two or more strong consonants (a double 
mute or liquid) : thus the a and a sound long in tal, sermo; sat, sedebat; 
man, mancipium ; tal, dohts ; ar, remits ; sat, sessio ; hatr, odium ; har5r, 
durus; ki\dT,frigidus; v^ndr, difficilis; t^mdr, domitus, etc. But short 
in h^tt, pileum ; hitt,modum; m^nn, homitiem ; h^nn, interdictum ; hall, 
Jubricus ; \i&\U frigidum ; x^mX, acidum ; h^ri, durum; \^nt, assuetum, 
etc. ; the consonants shortening the sound of the preceding vowel. The 
a is also short in all endings, verbal or nominal, talS, talSr, tal3Sii, dixi; 
taiast, dicitur; vakS, vigilia; fagran, pidchrum, etc. Etymologically a 
distinction must be made between the primitive d, as in satu (sedebant), 
atu (edebant), gatu (poterant), and the d produced by suppressing 
consonants ; either nasals, as in a, ast, ass, bass, gas, = an, anst, 
ans, bans, gans; or gutturals, h, g, k, as in a (^aqua), sa (yidebat), la 
{jacebat), ma (debet), natt (nox), drattr (tractus), and a great many 
others ; or labials, v, /, as in a = af, air = afr, har but hafan ; or dentals, 
as in nal (acus) [Goth, nepla, Engl, needle^, val (ambitus, mendicitas) 
[A.S. vddl], etc. In very early times there was no doubt an audible 
distinction between these two kinds of a, which however is not observed 
even by the earliest poets, those of the lOth century. The marking of 
the diphthongal vowels with an acute accent is due to the Icelandic 
philologist Thorodd (circa 1080-1140), and was probably an imitation 
of Anglo-Saxon. The circumflex, applied by Jacob Grimm, is unknown 
to Icel. authors of whatever age. Thorodd, in his treatise on the vowels 
(Sk41da, pp. 160 sqq.), distinguishes between three kinds of vowels, viz. 
short, long (i.e. diphthongal), and nasal. The long ones he proposes 
to mark with an acute ('); the nasals by a dot above the line (•). The 
vowels of his alphabet are thirty-six in number. According to his rule we 
should have to write, af (e*), at (est/5), a (in). No doubt the a was also 
nasal in the verbs and the weak nouns, koma ( = koman), auga (gen.); 
and also when followed by an «, e. g. vanr {assuefacttis). The distinctive 
marking of the nasals never came into practice, and their proper sound 
also disappeared ; neither is this distinction observed by the poets in their 
rhymes. The marking of the diphthongal vowels — either the primitive 
vowels or those formed by agglutination — by an acute accent, according 
to the rule of Thorodd, is indeed used in a very few old Icel. parchment 
fragments of the 12th century. The only MS. of any considerable length 
which strictly observes this distinction is the Ann. Reg. Isl. 2087. 4*>. 
Royal Libr. Copenhagen, written in Icel. at the end of the 13th century. 
In the great bulk of MSB. both kinds of vowels are treated alike, as 
in Latin. About the middle of the 14th century the doubling of vowels, 
especially that of aa (fl^) = d, came into use, and was employed through 
more than three centuries, until about 177° '^he Icelanders resumed the 
spelling of Thorodd, marking diphthongal vowels by an acute accent, 
but following the rules of modem pronunciation. The diphthong au — 
in Norse freq. spelt ou — has at present in Icel. a peculiar sound, answering 
to dti or eu in German, and nearly to Engl. oi. The Norse pronunciation 
is different and perhaps more genuine. 

B. Changes. I. a changes into e, a into ce: this change — 
a part of a more general transformation, by Grimm termed umlaut, 
* vowel-change' — is common to all the Teutonic idioms, except the 
Gothic (v. letter E and JE). II. a changes into o (co), & into eo; 
this transformation is peculiar to the Scandinavian branch, esp. the 
Icelandic idiom, where it is carried on to the fullest extent — in old 
Swedish and Danish its use was scanty and limited. It takes 

place, 1. in monosyllabic nouns with a for their radical vowel, a. 

feminines, old, periodus; iind, anima; ork, area; for, iter; hiill, aula; 
hond, manus ; sok, causa, etc. p. adjectives in fern. sing, and in neut. 
pi., 611, /o/a; fogr, pulchra ; h6Tb,dura; h<j\t,clauda; siinn, vera; from 
allr, etc. y. in plur. neut., bond, vinculo; biirn, rticva; lond, terrae ; 
from band, etc. 8. in singular masculines with a suppressed u in 
the root, hjcirtr, cervus; fjorSr, sinus; bjorn, ursus; 6rn, aquila, 
etc. 2. in dissyllables a radical a, when followed by a final u {-u, 

-ur, -um, etc.), in Icel. constantly changes into o, — ollum, cunctis; 
monnum, bominibus; ktiUum, vocamus ; vokum, vigiliis and vigilamus; 
vokur, vigiliae, etc. Danes and Swedes here retained the a; so did a 
great part of Norway. The change only prevailed in the west of 
Norway and the whole of Iceland. Some Norse MSS. therefore con- 
stantly keep a in those cases, e. g. Cd. Ups. De la Gard. 8 (Ed. C. R. 
Unger, 1849), which spells allum, cunctis; hafuS, caput; jafur, rex; 
andverSr, adversus; afund, invidia, etc. (v. Pref. viii.) Other Norse MSS. 
spell a and o promiscuously ; allum or ollum, kallum or kollum. In Icel. 
this change prevailed about the year looo. Even at the end of the loth 
century we still frequently meet with rhymes such as bar3 — jar5u, J)ang — 
langu, etc. 3. a in inflexions, in penultimate syllables, if followed by 

u, changes into u (or o) ; thus keisurum, caesaribus; vitrurum, sapienti- 
oribus; horSurum, durioribus; h6r6ustum, durissimis: pret. pi., skopuSu, 
creabant; tiSWAn, dicebant ; orrusia, pugnam. In part. pass. fem. sing, and 
neut. pi., skopud, creata ; toIu&, dicta ; tijpub, perdita. Neut. pi. in words, 
as sumur, aestates; herub, pagi. This change is peculiar to Iceland, and is 
altogether strange to Norse MSS., where we constantly find such forms 
as setla6u, putabant; gnagaSu, mordebant ; auka9u, augebant; skapad, 
creata; kallaS, dicta; skaparum, tapa6um, agaetastum, harftarum, skin- 
andum ; kunnastu, artem, etc. This difference, as it frequently oc- 
curred at early times, soon gave the Icel. idiom a peculiar and strange 
sound, — amarunt would, in Icelandic, be omurunt. Norse phrases — as 
meS bsenum ok fastu (fiistu) haf^u (hofSu) me3 ser vaxljos, ok dyrkaSu 
(dy'rku5u) J)a hselgu hati3 me& fastu (fostu) ok vaktu (vijktu) ^ar um 
nottina meS margum (morgum) a6rum (66rum) vanfaerum mannum 
(monnum), O. H. L. 87 — sound uncouth and strange to Icel. ears ; 
and so no doubt did the Icel. vowel transformations to Norse 
ears. 4. endings in -an, -all, e. g. feminines in -an, as hugsan, 

setlan, iSran, frequently change into -un, — hugsun, aetlun, i8run, and are 
now always used so : gamall, vetus, f. gomul ; einsamall, solus, f. ein- 
somul. In modern Norse, gomol, eismol (Ivar Aasen) ; atall, atrox ; 
otull, strenuus; svikall, perfidus, and svikull ; J)rifna8r, mundities, and 
J)rifnu8r, etc. 5. in the cases correlative to II. 1, 2, the d in its 

turn changes into a vowel, by Thorodd marked J; this vowel change 
seems to have been settled about the beginning of the nth century, and 
prevailed in Iceland during the 12th, being constantly employed in MSS. 
of that time ; about the end of that century, however, and the beginning 
of the next, it fell off, and at last became extinct. Its phonetical value, 
therefore, cannot now be precisely stated : it no doubt had an interme- 
diate sound between a and 6, such as o (co) has between a and o. Thorodd 
proposed to mark the short 'umlaut' b hy ,c; and the vowel change of a 
by oo (in the MSS. however commonly written p). Instances : fem., 
eo, amnis ; eost, amor ; c6\, funis ; eor, remits ; leog, lignum ; skr<<5, libel- 
lus; S(i6n,pax; Sc6l, anima; iiool, acus; Vcon, spes: masc, hrfjttr, modus; 
^vJbT,filum; ^tXr, funis; meJttr, ws; ass, deus; con, nuntius : neut. 
pi., ScOT, vulnera; trfJr, daKpva; md&\, dicta; Xdob, consilia; vrf5r, vera: 
adj. fem. and neut., kdJt, Iceta; id6,pauca; sma6,parva; hJ, alta; frf>m, 
paucis ; hoom, altis : verbs, ScO, videbant (but sa, videbat) ; g<otu, capie- 
bant; ootu, edebant (but at, edebat), etc.: v. Frump. 26-28: e.g. sar 
(vulnus) veitti ma8r m^r eitt (unum), s«or miirg (multa vulnera) veitta 
ek hanum, Skalda (Thorodd), 162; d>l ( = 61, cerevisia) er drykkr, ,61 er 
band (vinculum), id. 163; tungan er malinu Voon ( = v6n, assuefacta), en 
at t6nnunum er bitsins v<on (morsus exspectatio), id. : frequently in the 
Gragas, lysa sar sitt (vulnus) e8r sA (vulnera) ef fleiri eru, Kb. i. 151 ; 
Scor en minni (vulnera leviora), 170; en meire s«or (graviora), 174; 
si6an essA e8a ben voru lyst, 175 ; engi Soor (nulla vulnera), itOi, and 
xab, 176, 177 ; mal, ii. 51 ; v»or, 158, etc 



C. Other Changes: — in modem Icel. the old syllabic vd has 
changed into vo; v6 of the 14th century being an intermediate form : thus 
von, spes; votr, madidus; vor, ver ; vorr, noster ; vo3i, periculum; koma, 
adventus ; voru, erant, etc. : so also the a in the dat. hanum, illi, now 
honum, which is also employed in the editions of old writings ; komu = 
kvamu = kv(jmu, veniebant, etc. In Norway a was often changed into ce 
in the pronominal and adverbial forms ; as haena, illam ; \xx, ^aenn, J)aet, 
ibi, ilium, ilhid; hence originate the mod. Dan. hende, der, den, del; 
in some Norse dialects even still dar, dat. The short a in endings 
in mod. Dan. changed into e (ce), e. g. komme, uge, talede, Icel. koma, 
vika ; whereas the Swedes still preserve the simple a, which makes their 
language more euphonious than the mod. Dan. In most districts of Icel. 
an a before ng, nk, has changed into i., thus langr (longits), strangr 
(durus), krankr {aegrotus) are spelt langr, krankr, etc. In the west 
of Iceland however we still say langr, strangr, etc., which is the pure old 
form. The -a becomes long when followed by If, bn, Ip, thus alfr, genius; 
alpt, cy^raws ; halCr, dimidius ; kalfr, w'/?//?« ; sjalfr, ipse; this is very old : 
the fem. hoolf, dimidia, which occurs in the 1 2th century, points to 
an a, not a; jd=ja in hjalpa, skjalfa, etc. The lengthening before Im 
is later, — almr, ulmns; halmr, calamus; salmr, psalmus; hjalmr, ga- 
lea ; malmr, metallum, etc. In all these cases the a is not etymological. 
Also before In in the plur. of alin, alnar not alnar: Ik, alka = alka, alca; 
balkr = balkr ; falki = falki, /a/co ; hals = hals; frjals = frjals ; jarn = jarn; 
skald = skald ; v. those words ; aarni, dat. of arinn, v. that word : the 
proper name Arni, properly Ami : abbati, abbas, aboti : Adam, on the 
contrary, changed into Adam ; Maria into Maria, Mary. The old spell- 
ing is still kept in mariatla, motacilla pectore albo, etc. In the 1st pers. 
pret. indie, and in the pres. and pret. conj. we have a changed into i, e.g. 
tala8a to tala&i, locuttis stim ; sagSa, dixi, vilda, vohii, hafSa, habui, to 
sag&i, vildi, haf9i : in the 1st pers. pres. and pret. conj., hef6a, haberem, 
hafa, babeam, to hefSi, hafi. These forms occur as early as the begin- 
ning of the 13th century (e. g. in the Hulda, Cd. A. M. 66, fol. = Fms. 
vi. and vii). ■• In the south of Iceland however (Reykjavik, the Ames 
and Gullbringusysla) the old forms are still frequently heard in bisyllabic 
preterites, esp. ek vilda, sagSa, haf5a, and are also employed in writing 
by natives of those districts. 

D. a answers to Goth, a; A. S. ea (a, a) ; allr, totus; Goth, alls; 
A. S. eall : the primitive & to Goth, e, satu, Goth, setun, sedebani; grata, 
gretan, lacrymari ; lata, Ictan; vapn,vepn, arwa; vagr, v(igs,Jluctiis. The 
Icel. secondary &, on the contrary, must in the kindred Teutonic idioms be 
sought for under a vowel plus a consonant, such as an, ah, or the like. 
A. S. (E commonly answers to Icel. d., lata, A. S. l<stan ; da3, A. S. d(£& ; J)ra6r, 
A.S. \>r(E^, Engl, thread; m41 (Kaipos), A. S. mcel, cp. Engl. meal. The 
A. S. a, on the contrary, etymologically answers to Icel. ei. The diphthong 
au answers to Goth, au, A. S. ed, — rau6r, Goth, rauds, A. S. rea%, Engl. 
red. In English the a seems at very early times to have assumed its 
present ambiguous sound ; this we may infer from A. S. words introduced 
into Icelandic. The river Thames in Icel. is spelt, as it is still pronounced 
in England, as Tems, which form occurs in a poem of the year 1016. 

E. The Runic character for a was in the Gothic and Anglo-Saxon 
Runes (so termed by P. A. Munch) |^ [A. S. p'] ; so in the Golden 
horn, on the stone in Thune in Norway (Ed. by P. A. Munch, 1857), 
and in the Bracteats. The Saxons called it 8s = ass, deus. In the 
Runes it was the fourth letter in the first group (fu{)ork). The Scandi- 
navians in their Runes used this character for o, and calied it oss, 
ostium, probably misled by the A. S. pronunciation of the homely word 
6ss. This character, however, occurs only a few times in the common 
Runes, which in its stead used the A. S. Rune j, ger, annona, which is 
the fourth Rune in the second group (hnias, A.S. hnijs), called according 
to the northern pronunciation dr, annona: this letter, -| or -f*, has the 
form, as well as the name and place, of the A. S.j, <|>. 


-A or -AT or -T, a negative sufBx to verbs, peculiar to Iceland and 
a part, at least, of Norway. Occurs frequently in old Icelandic poetry 
and laws, so as almost to form a complete negative voice. In the ist 
pers. a personal pronoun k (g) = ek is inserted before the negative suffix, in 
the 2nd pers. a / or tt. As a rule the pron. is thus repeated ; ma-k-at-ek, 
MOW possum ; se-k-at-ek, non video ; hef-k-at-ek, non habeo ; skal-k-at-ek ; 
vil-k-at-ek, nolo ; mon-k-at-ek, non ero, etc. : 2nd pers. skal-t-at-tu ; 
mon-t-at-tu ; gaf-t-at-tu, non dabas : and after a long vowel a tt, matt-at- 
tu, satt-at-tu ; so almost invariably in all monosyllabic verbal forms ; but 
not so in bisyllabic ones, mattir-a-J)u, non poteras : yet in some instances 
in the ist pers. a pronominal g is inserted, e.g. bjargi-g-a-k, verbally 
servem ego non ego ; hoggvi-g-a-k, ?ton caedam ; sto3vi-g-a-k, qvin 
sistam; vildi-g-a-k, nolui; haf6i-g-a-k, non habui; matti-g-a-k, non 
potui; gordi-g-a-k, 7ton feci : if the verb has gg as final radical con- 
sonants, they change into hk, e. g. J)ikk-at-ek = {)igg-k-at-ek, nolo 


^ accipere. In the 3rd pers. a and at or t are used indifferently, t being 
particularly suffixed to bisyllabic verbal flexions ending in a vowel, in 
order to avoid an hiatus, — skal-at or skal-a, non erit; but skolo-t, non 
sunto : forms with an hiatus, however, occur, — biti-a, non mordat ; renni-a, 
ne currat; skri3i-a, id.; leti-a, ne retardet; vaeri-a, ne esset; ur6u-a, 
non erant; but biti-t, renni-t, skri6i-t, ur6u-t are more current forms: 
V. Lex. Poet. The negative suffix is almost peculiar to indie, conj., 
and imperat. moods ; the neg. infin. hardly occurs. Nothing analogous to 
this form is to be found in any South-Teutonic idiom ; neither do there 
remain any traces of its having been used in Sweden or Denmark. 
A single exception is the Runic verse on a stone monument in Oland, 
an old Danish province, now Swedish, where however the inscriptions 
may proceed from a Norse or Icel. hand. The Runic inscriptions run 
thus, sa'r aigi flo, ivho did not fly, old Icel. 'flo-at,' Baut. 11 69. Neither 
does it occur in any Norse prose monuments (laws) : but its use may yet be 
inferred from its occurrence in Norse poets of the loth century, e. g. the 
poets Eyvind and Thiodolf; some of which instances, however, may 
be due to their being transmitted through Icel. oral tradition. In 
Bragi Gamli (9th century) it occurs twice or thrice ; in the Haustlong 
four times, in Ynglingatal four times, in Hakonarmal once (aU Norse poems 
of the loth century). In Icel. the suffixed negation was in full force 
through the whole of the loth century. A slight difference in idioms, 
however, may be observed : Voluspa, e. g., prefers the negation by ni 
(using vas-at only once, verse 3). In the old Havamal the suffix 
abounds (being used thirty-five times), see the verses 6, 10, il, 18, 
26, 29, 30, 34, 37-39, 49, 51, 52, 68, 74, 88, Ii3-ii5> 126-128, 130, 
134, 136, 147, 149, 151, 153, 159. In Skirnismal, Harbar3slj6&, 
Lokasenna— all these poems probably composed by the same author, 
and not before the loth century — about thirty times, viz. Hbl. 3, 4, 
8, 14, 26, 35, 56; Skm. 5, 18, 22; Ls. 15, 16, 18, 25, 28, 30, 36, 42, 
47, 49, 56, 60, 62. Egil (born circa 900, died circa 990) abounds in the 
use of the suffixed neg. (he most commonly avails himself of -at, -gi, or 
ne); so, too, does Hallfred (born circa 968, died 1008), Einar Skalaglam 
in Vellekla (circa 940-995), and Thorarin in the MahliSingavisur (com- 
posed in the year 981) ; and in the few epigrams relating to the introduc- 
tion of Christianity in Icel. (995-1000) there occur mon-k-a5-ek, tek- 
k-at-ek, vil-k-at-ek, hlif6i-t, mon-a, es-a; cp. the Kristni S. and Njala, 
From this time, however, its use becomes more rare. Sighvat (born circa 
995, died 1040) still makes a frequent but not exclusive use of it. Sub- 
sequent poets use it now and then as an epic form, until it disappeared 
almost entirely in poetry at the middle or end of the 13th century. 
In the S61arlj63 there is not a single instance. The verses of some of our 
Sagas are probably later than the Sagas themselves; the greatest part 
of the V61sungakvi3ur are scarcely older than the nth century. In all 
these -at and conj. eigi are used indifferently. In prose the laws continued 
to employ the old forms long after they were abolished in common prose. 
The suffixed verbal negation was used, a. in the delivering of the oath 
in the Icel. Courts, esp. the Fifth Court, instituted about the year 1004; and 
it seems to have been used through the whole of the Icel. Commonwealth 
(till the year 1272). The oath of the Fifth (High) Court, as preserved in 
the Gragas, runs in the f st pers., hefca ek f6 borit i dom {)enna til lifts m^r 
um scik J)essa, ok ek monka bjoSa, hefka ek fundit, ok monka ek finnaj 
hvarki til laga no 61aga, p. 79; and again p. 81, only different as to ek 
hefka, ek monka (new Ed.) : 3rd pers., hefirat hann fe borit i dom pennJ 
ok monat hann bj63a, ok hefirat hann fundit, ok monatJijjBn finna, 
80, 81 ; cp. also 82, and Nj. 1. c. ch. 145, where it is interesting to 
observe that the author confounds the ist and 3rd persons, a sign of 
decay in grammatical form. p. the Speaker (16gs6guma5r), in publicly 
reciting and explaining the law, and speaking in the name of the law» 
from the Hill of Laws (logberg), frequently employed the old form, esp» 
in the legal words of command es and skal (yet seldom in plur.) : erat 
in the dictatorial phrases, erat skyldr (skylt), non esto obligatus ; erat land- 
eigandi skyldr, Grag. (Kb.) i. 17 ; erat hinn skyldr, 21 ; yngri ma6r era 
skyldr at fasta, 35 ; enda erat honum J)a skylt at . . . , 48 ; erat J>at sakar 
spell, 127 ; era hinn J)a skyldr at lysa, 154 ; erat hann framar skyldr «ak- 
ra6a, 216; ok erat hann skyldr at abyrgjask Jiat fe, 238; ok erat hanii 
skyldr, id. ; ok erat sakar aSili ella skyldr, ii. 74 ; erat hinn skyldr vi& at 
taka, 142 ; erat manni skylt at taka bufe, 143 ; enda erat heimting til 
fjar J)ess, 169 ; era hann J)a skyldr at taka vi6 i 66ru f^ nema hann vili» 
209 ; ok erat J)eim skylt at tiunda fe sitt, 2 1 1 ; ok erat hann skyldr at 
gjalda tiund af J)vi, 212 ; erat kirkjudrottinn J)a skyldr, 228 ; ef hand 
erat landeigandi, i. 136. Skalat: skalat madr eiga fe uborit, i. 23; 
skalat honum J)at ver3a optar en um sinn, 55; skalat ma3r ry3ja vi8 
sjalfan sik, 62 ; skalat hann Jjat sva dvelja, 68 ; skalat hann til vefangs 
ganga, 71 ; skalat a6ilja i stefnuvaetti hafa, 127; ok skala hann gjalda 
fyrir J)at, 135; ok skalat hann me9 sok fara, 171 ; enda skalat hann 
fleirum baugum boeta, 199; skalat hann skilja felagit, 240 ; skalat hann 
meiri skuld eiga en, ii. 4 ; skalat {)eim me3an a brott skipta, 5 ; skalat 
hann logvillr ver3a, sva, 34 ; skalat hon at heldr varSveita J)at fe, 59 ; 
skalat enn sami ma6r J)ar lengr vera, 71 ; ok skala honum boeta J)at, 79; 
skalat fyl telja, S9 ; skalat hann banna -fiskfiir, 1 23 f skalat hann loga 



j.vf i'l cngi veg, 158; skalat drepa |)ii menn, 167; skalat svA skipta 
niicldi, 173; skalat inaftr rci6ast vi9 fjurSuugi visu, 183. Plur. : 
■ lilt nieim andvitni bera ok h6r A Jjingi, i. 68; skolut mal haiis 
idast, 71 ; skolut J)eir faeri til vefangs ganga en, 75, etc. etc. Other 
uices are rare: tekrat |)ar fe er cigi cr til (a proverb), i. 9; ok um 
i< iiiit J)at til sakbota, ok of telrat J)i'v til sakbota {it does not count), 178 ; 
Lt lianii villat {will not) lysa sar sitt, 51 ; ok rseftrat hann iiSruni nionnum 
a hcndr ]panu liinaga, 248 ; raedrat sd sinum oniogutn a hendr, ii. 18 ; verSrat 
lioiium at sakarspelli and verSrat honum J)at at s., i. 63 ; verSrat honuni 
J .It at sakarvorn, 149 ; komrat hann ()6ru vi6, ii. 141 ; J)arfat hann bi6a til 
jicss, i. 70 ; ok skilrat hann fra a5ra aura, ii. 141, i. 136. Reflexive form : 
kiiniskat hann til heimtingar uni J)at fe, be loses the claim to the money, ii. 
180, etc. All these instances are taken from the Kb. (Ed. 1 853). Remarkable 
is ;ilso the ambiguity in the oath of Glum (see Sir Edm. Head, Viga-Glum, 
pp. 102, 103, note. I.e.), who, instead of the plain common formal oath — 
\ :isk-at-ek t)ar, vak-at-ek fiar, rau6k-at-ek J)ar odd ok egg — said, vask 
.11 {jar, vuk at J)ar, rau5k at J)ar. He inverted the sense by dropping the 
iiitcrinediate pronominal ek between the verb and })ar, and pronouncing 
- ' instead of - u. It further occurs in some few proverbs : varat af 
vniu, sleikSi um pvoru, Fs. 159; veldrat sa er varir, Nj. 61 (now com- 
iiKinly ekki veldr sa er v., so in Grett.); erat hera at borgnara t)6tt hoena 
Imi skjiild, Fms. vii. 116 ; era hlums vant kva6 refr, dro horpu a isi, 19: 
al^o in some phrases, referred to as verba ipsissima from the heathen age — vinum lift Ingimundar, Fs. 39; erat sja draumr minni, Ld. 128. 
'J'horodd employs it twice or thrice: ^y'l at ek sekk-a |)ess meiri J)orf, 
because I do not see any more reason for this, Skulda 167; kannka ek 
til [jess meiri ra3 en litil, / do not hiow, id.; mona (will not) min mona 
{my mammy) v'lb mik gcira verst hjona, 163. In sacred translations of the 
12th century it occurs now and then. In the Homilies and Dialogues 
ot (iregory the Great : monatJ)u i J)vi fl66i ver&a, thou shalt not; esa J)at 
uiidarligt \i6tt, it is not to be wondered at; hann mattia sofna, he could not 
sleep; moncaj) ek banna, I shall not mind, Greg. 5^' 53 ; vasat kail heyrt a 
stra;tuni, was not. Post. 645. 84; mi mona fri&ir menn her koma, NiSrst. 
623. 7- In later writers as an archaism; a few times in the Al. (MS. 
A. M. 519), 3, 5, 6, 44, 108 ; and about as many times in the MS. Eir- 
spcnnill (A. M. 47, fol.) [Etymon uncertain; that at is the right form 
may be inferred from the assimilation in at-tu, and the anastrophe in /, 
though the reason for the frequent dropping of the t is still unexplained. 
The coincidence with the Scottish dinna, canna is quite accidental.] 
abbadis, f. abbess, Hkr. iii. 398, Fms. vii. 239, GJ)1. 365. 
abbast, a8, dep. ( = amast), to be incensed at, vex, molest; a-vi6 e-t, 
Ckin. 50, Fms. vii. 166; a-uppa e-t, Nj. 194. 

abbindi = af-bindi, n. tenesmus, Hm. 140; cp. F^l. ix. 185, where it is 
spelt afbendi. 
AD = at, v. that word. a3- in compds, v. at-. -a3, suff. neg., v. -a. 
ADA, u, f. (and compd 63u-skel, f.) a. mytulus testa planiuscula, 
a shell. p. fem. pr. n., Edda. 

ADAL, [O. H. G. adal, genus; cp. also A. S. ^Sele, nobilis; Old Engl. 
and Scot, ethel ; Germ, edel ; e61a- and e6al- came from mod. Dan. into Icel. 
a9all, nobility. It does not occur in old writings in this sense.] I. n. 
nature, disposition, inborn native quality, used only in poetry ; j69s a., 
cbildish,'ft. 13 ; osnotrs a.b^\, foolish, insipid, Hm. 106 ; args a., dastardly, 
Ls. 23, 24 ; drengs a., noble. Km. 23 ; odyggs a., bad, Hsm. 19. 2. in 
the sense of offspring; a5ul Njar6ar (where it is n. pi.?), the gods, the 
offspring of Njord, Hallfred in a poem, vide Fs. 59. II. used in a 
■'ii-at many compds, chief-, head-. a3al-akkeri, n. sheet-anchor, Fms. 
-X. 1 30 : p. metaph., Bs. i. 756. a3al-bj6rr, s, \i\.prime beaver skin, 
Eb. (in a verse). a3al-boriim, part., v. oSalborinn. a3al-b61, n. 
a manor-house, farm inhabited by its master, opp. to tenant farms, Grag. 
(Kb.) ii. 150; also the name of a farm, Hrafn. 4. a3al-festr, f., v. 
ala6sfestr. a3al-fylking, f. main force, main body, Hkr. ii. 361. 
a3al-haf, n. the main, Fms. iv. 177. a3al-hend.a, u, f., v. alhenda. 
a3al-]ieiiding, f. full, complete rhymes, such as all — hall, opp. to skot- 
hending, q. v., Edda (Ht.) a3al-liendr, adj. verse in full rhyme, Edda, 
id. . a3al-kelda, u, f. chief well, Karl. 442. a3al-kirkja, ju, f. chief 
part of a church, viz. choir and nave, opp. to forkirkja, Sturl. ii. 59. 
adalliga, adv. completely, thoroughly; a. dau9r, quite dead, 656 C. 31, 
Fms. ii. 313 ; a. gamall, quite old, iii. 171. a3al-mein, n. great pain, 
Fms. vi. (in a verse). a3al-inerki, n. the head-standard, Pr. 1 7 7. a3al- 
ritning, f. chief writing, Sks. 13. a3al-skali, a, m. the chief apart- 
ment of a skali, the hall, as distinguished from a forhiis, Eb. 43. a3al- 
tr^, n. trtmli of a tree ; eigi munu kvistir betri en a. (a proverb), Fms. iv. 
33. a3al-troU, n. downright ogre. Fas. iii. 179. a3al-tiilkr, s, m. 
chief advocate, Bs. i. 445. a3al-tupt, f. esp. in pi. ir = 66als-toptir, 
the ground on which a manor-house is built, toft of an allodial farm 
(Norse), flytja hiis af a5alt6ptum, remove it, N. G.L. i. 379. 
a3ild, older form a3ll3, pi. ir, f. [root adal], v. the following word 
adili. It doubtless originally meant chiefdom, headship, but it only 
occurs in the limited legal sense of xhief-prosecutorship or defendantship, 
and this only, as it seems, in Icel. not in Norse law. It is a standing 
Vord in the loel, codeg and histories of the Commonwealth. It became 
■■"•''■ • ' •■ ■" ^ 

obsolete after the year 1272, and does not occur in the codes Jb. or Js. 
In early times there were no public prosecutions or lawsuits; the aSild 
devolved together with the erfS {heirship) on the principal male heir, 
if of age ; erfft and adild go together, the first as a right, the last as aa 
incumbent duty, like an English trusteeship ; til erfftar ok adildar, Eb. 
ch. 38. In the year 993 a law was passed to the effect that male heirs 
under sixteen years of age should be exempted from a8ild, neither should 
heiresses ever be aSili. In such cases the aftiid devolved on the next 
male heir above sixteen years of age, who then got a fee for executing 
this duty, Bs. i. 675. The aSild also could be undertaken by a delegate, 
called at fara me6 handselda siik, siik handscld, viirn handseld, fara mc& 
sok, carry on a suit, etc., v. Gragas Vs. ch.35, (of aSild in a case of man- 
slaughter,) and in many other places ; Eb. ch. 38, Bs. i. 675 (Rs. in fine), 
Bjarn. (in fine), Njala, and many others : v. Dasent, Introd. to Burnt Njal. 
compd: a3il3ar-ina3r, m. =a8ili, Sturl. iii. 240, Orkn. 212. 

a3ili, ja, m. the chief-defendant or prosecutor in an Icel. lawsuit in the 
time of the Commonwealth. It seems to have meant originally head, 
chieftain, princeps. A standing word in the Gragas and the Sagas. As to 
the form, the older one is that which preserves the j in the terminations, 
gen. dat. ace. a8ilja, plur. -jar, ace. -ja, dat. -jum. The GragAs constantly 
employs this forni. The Njala and some of the Sagas drop the_/ and write 
a5ila etc. In the Gragas aSilja seems to occur as an indecl. word — at 
least four times in the Kb. — used as nom. pi. : but as -ar in old MSB. is 
frequently marked by a single ' a' with a little stroke (a), this may be a 
misinterpretation. The indeclinable form occurs in the Kb. (f>. |).) 25 
and 109 (only preserved in the Kb.); Kb. 147, 170 has a8ilja, where the 
Sb. has in both passages aSiljar : cp. however gu&sifja and -braeftra. There 
is a distinction between a s6knar-a3ili or sakar-a8ili, /»roiec«/or, and avarnar- 
a8ili, defendant. Either with gen. or prep, at, varnar-a., s6knar-a., sakar-a, ; 
or inversely, a. sakar, a. vamar, a. frumsakar, Kb. 42, 124; a. mals, 126; 
a. vigsakar, in a case of manslaughter, 167; or vigsakar a. (often); 
a. fesakar, in a lawsuit about compensation, 123; a. legorftssakar, case of 
legor6, 194 : with at, varnir J^aer er hann er aSili at, i 75 ; a5ili at legorSs 
sekt, App. iv. 46, Gr4g. Kb. 15, 211 ; cp. also § 58, p. 103: hann er 
a3ili at sok, bae6i saekjandi ok seljandi, chief-plaintiff, either for carrying 
it on himself or by a delegate, Kb. 208. In the case of a delegate being 
the a6ili, the challenge of jurors and judges on account of relationship was 
to be made in respect to the chief a8ili, not the delegate, Kb. 127. 

AF, prep, often used ellipticaDy by dropping the case, or even merely 
adverbially, [Ulf. af; A. S. and Engl, of, off; Hel. ab ; Germ, ab ; Gr. wno ; 
Lat. a, ab.'\ With dat. denoting a motion a loco ; one of the three prepp. 
af, 6r,frd, corresponding to those i?i loco — a, i, vid, and adlocum — a, i, at. 
It in general corresponds to the prepp. in loco — a, or in locum — til, whilst or 
answers more to i ; -but it also frequently corresponds to yfir, um or i. It 
ranges between or and/ra, generally denoting the idea /row the surface of, 
while or mezns from the inner part, zndfrdfro7n the outer part or border. 
The motion from a hill, plain, open place is thus denoted by af; by or that 
from an enclosed space, depth, cavity, thus af f jalli, but or of a valley, dale ; 
a/"Englandi, but or Daiimork, as mork implies the notion of a deep wood, 
forest. The wind blows «/landi, but a ship sets sa.i\ frd landi ; frd landi also 
means a distance from: afhendi, of z glove, ring ; orhendi, of whatever has 
been kept in the hand (correl. to d hendi and i hendi). On the other hand 
af is more general, whilst /ra and or are of a more special character; frd 
denoting a departure, or an impulse or force ; a member goes home af t)ingi, 
whereas or may denote an inmate of a district, or convey the notion of seces- 
sion or exclusion from, Eb. 105 new Ed. ; the traveller goes af landi, the 
exile or landi: taka e-t afe-m is to take a thing out of one's hand, that 
of taka frd e-m to remove out of one's sight, etc. In general af answers 
to Engl, of, off, or to out of, and frd to fro77i : the Lat. prepp. ab, de, 
and ex do not exactly correspond to the Icelandic, yet as a rule or may 
answer to ex, n/sometimes to ab, sometimes to de. Of, off, from among; 
with, by; on accomit of, by means of, because of, concerni?ig, in respect of 

A. Loc. I. WITH MOTION, off,from : 1. prop, corresp. 

to &, a. konungr dro gullhring af hendi ser (but a hendi), Ld. 32 ; 

Hoskuldr Isetr bera farm af skipi, imload the ship (but bera farm a skip), 
id. ; var tekit af hestum {)eirra, they were unsaddled, Nj, 4 ; Gunnarr haf&i 
farit heiman af bae sinum, he was away from home, 82; Gunnarr hljop af 
hesti sinum, jumped off his horse (but hi. d hest), 83; hlaupa, stokkva af 
baki, id., 112, 264; Gunnarr sky'tr til bans af boganum, from the bow, 
where af has a slight notion of instrumentality, 96 ; flyja af fundinum, to fly 
from off the battle-field, 102; ri6a af |)rihyrningshalsum, 206; ut af 
Langaholti, Eg. 744 ; sunnan or Danmork ok af Saxlandi, 560 ; ganga af 
motinu, to go from the meeting, Fms. vii. 130 ; af {)eirra fundi reis Maria upp 
ok for, 625. 85 ; Flosi kasta6i af ser skikkjunni, threw his cloak off him 
(butkasta d sik),Nj. 176; taka Hrungnis fot afhonum, of a load, burden, 
Edda 58 ; land J)at er hann fiskSi af,from which he setofftofish,Grkg.\.is^i, 
is irregular, /r« would suit better; slita af baki e-s,from off one's back, 
ii. 9 ; bera af bordi, to clear the table, Nj. 75. p. where it more nearly 

answers to i; J)eir koma af hafi, of sailors coming in (but leggja % haf), 
Nj. 128 ; fara til Noregs af Orkneyjum (but * or til O.), 131 ; {)eim Agli 
forst vel ok komu af hafi i BorgarfiorS, Eg. 392 ; hann var utlagi {ovt- 
■' ■ • ^ .■■■•... B 2 ■ ■ ' - 



lowed) af Norcgi, where or would be more regular, 344 ; af Islandi, of a 
traveller, Fms. x. 3 ; biia her af bii&um rikjunuin, to take a levy from, 5 1 ; 
hinir beztu baendr or Nor61endingafj6r6ungi ok af Suiuileudingafj6r6ungi, 
the most eminent Southerners and Northerners, 113; Gizzurr g»5kk af 
litsuSri at ger&inu, /row south-west. Stud. ii. 219; prestar af hvaru- 
tveggja biskupsdaemi, /rofn either diocess, Dipl. ii. 1 1 ; verSa tekinn af 
heimi, to be taken out of the world, 623. 2i; gruflar hon af laeknum, 
scrambles out 0/ the brook, Isl. ii. 340; Egill kneyfSi af horninu i einum 
drykk, drained off the horn at one draught, literally squeezed every drop 
outofit. Eg. 557; brottu af herbuSunum, Fms. x. 343. -y- of things more 
or less surrounding the subject, corresp. to yjir or urn; lata ^eir '^tgzx 
af ser tjoldin, break off, take down the tents in preparing for battle, Eg. 
a6i ; kyrtillinn rifnaSi af honum, his coat burst, caused by the swollen 
body, 602 ; hann hafdi leyst af ser skua sina, he untied his shoes (but 
binda d sik), 716; Steinarr vildi slita hann af ser, throw him off, of one 
clinging to one's body, 747 ; tok Gisli Jja af ser vapnin, took off his 
arms, Fms. vii. 39. Of putting off clothes; fara af kapu, Nj. 143; 
far {)u eigi af brynjunni, Bs. i. 541 ; J)a xtladi SigurSr at fara af bryn- 
junni, id. ; J)a var SkarphoQinn flettr af kltedunum, Nj. 209 : now 
more usually fara or klae6um, fotum, exuere, to undress. 8. con- 

nected with lit; fiistudaginn for lit herrinn af borginni, marched out of the 
town, Nj. 274 ; ganga lit af kirkjunni, to go out of the church, now tit ur, 
Fms. vii. 107: drekki hann af J)eirri jor5unni, of something impregnated 
with the earth, Lxkn. 402. «. more closely corresponding Xofrd, being 
in such cases a Latinism (now _/ra) ; bref af pafa, a pope's bull, Fms. x. 6 ; 
rit af hanum, letter from him, 623. 52 ; bref af Magnusi konungi, a letter 
from king Magnus, Bs. i. 7 1 2 ; fariS {)er a brautu af mer i eilifan eld, Horn. 
143 ; brott af drottins augliti, Stj. 43. f. denoting an uninterrupted 
continuity, in such phrases as land af landi, from land to land. Eg. 343, Fas. 
ii- 539 ; skip af skipi,yrow ship to ship, Fms. v. 10 ; brann hvat af o6ru, one 
after another, of an increasing fire, destroying everything, i. 128 ; brandr 
af brandi brenn, funi kveykist af funa, one from another, Hm. 56 ; hverr 
af o6rum, one after another, in succession, also hverr at 66rum, Eb. 272, 
a8o (where at in both passages). 2. metaph., at ganga af e-m 

dau6um, to go from, leave one dead on the spot, of two combatants ; 
en hann segiz bani bins ef hann gekk af dau6um manni, Grag. ii. 88, 
Hkr. i.327; undr {)ykir mor er broQir J)inn vildi eigi taka af J)er starf 
J)etta, would not take this toil from thee, Nj. 77 ; J)egnar hans gliiddust 
af honum, were fain of him, Fms. x. 380 ; at koma |)eim manni af ser er 
settr var a fe hans, to get rid of, Ld. 5a ; vii ek J)ii vinnir af per skuldina, 
work off the debt, Njar6. .^66; reka af ser, to repel, Sturl. ii. 219; hann 
d J)a sonu er aldri munu af oss ganga, who will never leave us, whom we 
shall never get rid of. Fas. i. 280; leysa e-n af e-u, to relieve, 64; 
taka e-n af lifi, to kill. Eg. 48, 416, Nj. 126; af lifdogum, Fms. vii. 204; 
ek mun na lijgum af J)vi mali, get the benefit of the law in this case. 
Eg. 468; muntu enga ssett af mer fa, no peace at my hand, 414; risa 
af dau5a, to rise from death, Fms. ii. 142 ; gu6 bxtti honum J)6 af J)essi 
sott, healed him of this sickness, ix. 390 ; vakna af sy'n, draumi, svefni, 
to awaken from a vision, dream, sleep, 655 xxxii. i, Gisl. 34, Eb. 193, 
Fas. i. 41. Rather with the notion out of, in the phrase af ser etc., 
e.g. syna e-t af ser, to shew, exhibit a disposition for or against, Ld. 18 ; 
gera mikit af ser, to shew great prowess, Isl. ii. 368 ; ef J)u gerir eigi meira 
af J)er um a&ra leika, unless you make more of thyself, Edda 3 2 ; Svip- 
dagr haf&i mikit af ser gtrt, fought bravely. Fas. i. 41 ; goSr (illr) af ser, 
good (bad) of oneself, by nature; mikill af sjalfum ser, proud, bold, 
stout, Nj. 15; agatastr ma5r af sjalfum ser, the greatest hero, Bret.: 
goftr af ser, excellent, Hrafn. 7 ; but, on the contrary, af ser kominn, 
ruinous, in decay; this phrase is used of old houses or buildings, as 
in Bs. 1.488 = Sturl. I.e.; af ser kominn af maeSi can also be said of a 
man fallen off from what he used to be ; kominn af fotum fram, off his 
legs from age, Sturl. i. 223, Korm. 154 (in a verse). II. with- 

out MOTION : 1. denoting direction from, but at the same time 

continuous connection with an object from which an act or thing pro- 
ceeds, /row; tengja skip hvart fram af stafni annars, to tie the ships in a 
line, stem to stern, Fms. i. 157, xi. iii ; sva at J)eir toku lit af borSum, 
mtted out of the boards, of rafters or poles, iv. 49 ; stjarna ok af sem 
skaft, of a comet, ix. 482 ; liika upp af hrossi, to open a gate from off a 
horse, Grag. ii. 264; hon svarar af sinu saeti sem silpt af baru. Fas. i. 
186 ; |)ar er sja matti utan af firSi, af J)j631ei3, that might be seen from 
the fareway on the sea when sailing in the firth, Hkr. ii. 64 ; J)a mun 
hringt af (better at) Burakirkju, of bells rung at the church, Fms. xi. 160 ; 
gengr ][)ar af MeSalfellsstrcind, projects from, juts out, of a promontory, 
Ld. 10. 2. denoting direction alone ; upp af vikinni st66 borg mikil, 

a burg inland from the inlet. Eg. 161; lokrekkja innar af seti, a shut bed 
inward from the benches in the hall, Isl. ii. 262 ; kapella upp af konungs 
herbergjum, upwards from, Fms. x. 153; vindr st66 af landi, the windstood 
off the land, Bar6. 166. p. metaph., standa af e-u, vide VL 4. -y. 

ellipt., halladi af norSr, of the channel, north of a spot. Boll. 348 ; also, 
austr af, su3r af, vestr af, etc. 3. denoting absence; {)ingheyendr 

skulu eigi vera um nott af J)ingi (away from the meeting), e&r lengr, 
\>a, eru J)eir af fingi {awa^r from the meeting) ef Jieir eru or (^out of) 

J)ingmarki, Grag. i. 25 ; vera um nott af varj)ingi, 1 15 ; me5an hann er 
af landi he6an, abroad, 150. p. metaph., gud hvildi af iillum verkum 
sinum a sjaunda degi, rested from his labours, Ver. 3. 4. denoting 

distance ; J)at er komit af {)j6Slei6, out of the high road, remote. Eg. 369 ; 
af J)j66braut, Grag. ii. 264, i. 15 ; Otradalr (a farm) var mjok af vegi,far 
out of the way, Hav. 53. 

B. Temp, past, from, out of, beyond: 1. of a person's age, 

in the sense of having past a period of life; af omaga aldri, of age, able 
to support oneself, Grag. i. 243 ; af aeskualdri, stricken in years, having 
past the prime of life. Eg. 202 ; litid af barnsaldri, still a child, Ld. 74; 
ek em mi af lettasta skeiSi, no longer in the prime of life, Hav. 
40. 2. of a part or period o( time, past ; eigi si6ar en nott er af 

^ingi, a night of the session past, Grag. i. loi ; fia er sjau vikur eru af 
sumri, seven weeks past of the summer, 182 ; tiu vikur af sumri, lb. 10; 
var mikit af nott, much of the night was past, Hav. 41 ; mikid af vetri, 
mtich of the winter was past. Fas. ii. 186 ; ]f)riSjungr af nott, a third of the 
night past, Fms. x. 160 ; stund af degi, etc. ; tveir mano3r af sumri, Gpl. 
103. 3. in adverbial phrases such as, af stundu, soon; af bragjij 

at once; af tomi, at leisure, at ease; af nyju, again; af skyndingu, 
speedily ; af braSungu, in a hurry, etc. 

iC. In various other relations : I. denoting the passage or 

transition of an object, concrete or abstract, of, from. 1. where a 

thing is received, derived from, conferred by a person or object ; {)iggia 
lid af e-m, to derive help from, Edda 26 ; taka traust af e-m, to receive sup- 
port, comfort from, Fms. xi. 243 ; taka mala af e-m, to be in one's pay, of 
a soldier, Eg. 266 ; halda land af e-m, to hold land of any one, 282 ; ver8a 
viss af e-m, to get information from, 57, Nj. 130 ; taka vid stik af manni 
(a law term), to undertake a case, suit, Grag. i. 142 ; hafa umboS af e-m, 
to be another's deputy, ii. 374 ; vera go&s (ills) maklegr af e-m, to deserve 
good (bad) of, Vd. 88 (old Ed., the new reads fra), Fs. 45 ; afla matar 
af eyjum, to derive supplies front, Eb. 12. 2. where an object is 

taken by force : a. prop, out of a person's hand ; J)u skalt hnykkja 
smiSit af honum, wrest it out of his hand, Nj. 32 ; cp. taka, J)rifa, svipta 
e-u (e-t) af e-m, to wrest from. p. metaph. of a person's deprival of 

anything in general ; hann tok af J)er koimna, carried thy wife off, Nj. 
33 ; tok Gunnarr af J)er sa&land {)itt, robbed thee of seedland, 103 ; taka af 
honum tignina, to depose, degrade him. Eg. 271 ; vinna e-t af e-m, to carry 
off by force of arms, conquer, Fms. iii. 29 ; drepa menn af e-m, for one,' 
slay one's man. Eg. 417 ; fell J)ar lid mart af Eyvindi, many of Eyvind'S 
people fell then, 261. y. in such phrases as, hyggja af e-u (v. afhuga), 
hugsa af e-u, to forget; hyggja af harmi ; sja af e-u, to lose, miss; var sv4 
astii&igt me3 {)eim, at hvargi fiottist mega af o6rum sjA, neither oj 
them could take his eyes off the other, Sturl. i. 194 ; sva er morg vi3 ver 
sinn vaer, at varla um ser hon af honum naer, Skalda 163. 3. de- 

noting /or/e/rt/re ; J)a eru J)eir utlagir, ok af go3or3i sinu, have forfeited 
their priesthood, Grag. i. 24 ; telja hann af raSunum fjar sins alls, to 
oust one, on account of idiocy or madness, 176; ver3a af kaupi, to bt 
off the bargain, Edda 26; J)a skalt {)u af allri fjarheimtunni, /or/ej7 a/i 
the claim, Nj. 15 ; ek skal stefna J)er af konunni, summon thee to for- 
feit, a case of divorce, id. ; ella er hann af rettarfari um hana, has for- 
feited the suit, Grag. i. 381. p. ellipt., af ferr eindagi ef, is forfeited, 
Grag. i. 140. II. denoting relation of a part to a whole, off, 
of, Lat. de ; hoggva bond, hofuS, fot af e-um, to cut one's hand, head, foot 
off, Nj. 97, 92, Bs. i. 674 ; hoggva spjot af skapti, to sever the blade from 
the shaft, 264 ; hann let J)a ekki hafa af foSurarfi sinum, nothing oj 
their patrimony. Eg. 25 ; vii ek at J)u takir sHkt sem J)er likar af varningi, 
take what you like of the stores, Nj. 4 ; at J)u eignist slikt af fe okkru 
sem J)u vill, 94. p. ellipt., en mi hofum ver kjiirit, en J)at er af kross- 
inum, a slice of, Fms. vii. 89 ; {j6r3r gaf Skolm fraenda sinum af landnami 
sinu, a part of, Landn. 21 1 ; haf3i hann J)at af hans eigu er hann vildi, 
Sturl. ii. 169; par la forkr einn ok brotiS af endanum, the point broken 
off, Hav. 24, Sturl. i. 169. y. absol. off; belt hann hiindina af, pat 
sem mi heitir lilfliSr, bit the band off, Edda 1 7 ; fauk af hofu6it, the bead 
flew off, Nj.97; jafnt er sem per synist, af er fotrinn, the foot is off, 
id. ; af bae3i eyru, both ears off, Vm. 29. 2. with the notion 0/"= 
among; mestr skorungr af konum a Nor5rl6ndum, the greatest heroine, 
in the North, Fms. i. 1 16 ; hinn efniligasti ma3r af ungum monnum 1 Aust- 
fjorftum, the most hopeful of youths in the Eastfirths, Njar6. 364 ; af 
(among) tillum hirSmonnum virSi konungr mest skald sin. Eg. 27 ; ef hann 
vildi nokkura kaupa af pessum konum, Ld. 30 ; or liggr par liti a vegginum, 
ok er su af peirra orum, one of their own arrows, Nj. 115. p. from, 
among, belonging to; gu3 kaus hana af oUum konum ser til m68ur, 
of the Virgin Mary, Mar. A. i. 27. y. metaph., kunna mikit (litid) af 
e-u, to know much, little of, Bragi kann mest af skaldskap, is more cunning 
of poetry than any one else, Edda 1 7. 8. absol. out of, before, in prefer* 
ence to all others ; Gunnarr bau8 per g68 bo8, en pii vildir eingi af taki^ 
you would choose none of them, Nj. 77 ; ra8a e-t af, to decide ; p6 mun fa8ir 
minn mestu af ra3a, all depends upon him, Ld. 2 2 ; konungr kve8st pvi 
TnunduhddT zf tru^, preferred believing that of the two, Eg. l)^ ; var honum 
ekki vildara af van, he could expect nothing better, 364. 3. with thel 
i additional sense of instrumentality, wilb ; ferma skip af e-u, to freight a sbipi 


It/ilh, Eg. 364; hlaSa miirg skip af komi, load many ships with corn,' 
Knis. xi. 8 ; klyfja tva hesta af mat, Nj. 74 ; var vdgrinii skipaSr af 
lierskipuni, the bay was covered with war ships, 1 34 ; fylla ker af glodum, 
f// // with embers, Stj. 319; fylla heimiiin af sinu kyni, to fill the 
world with his offspring, Ver. 3. III. denoting the substance of 

kvhich a thing is made, of; used indifferently with or, though vr be more 
frequent ; J)eir gerSu af honum jtir&ina, af bl63i hans saeinn ok votnin, 
of the creation of the world from the corpse of the giant Ymir ; the poem 
Gm. 40, 41, constantly uses or in this sense, just as in modem Icelandic, 
Edda 5 ; sva skildu ^eir, at allir hlutir vaeri smidadir af nokkru efni, 
147 (pref.); hiisit var gert af timbrstokkum, built of trunks of timber. Eg. 
233; hjoltin voru afguUi, of gold, golden, Fms. i. 17; af osti, of cheese, 
but in the verse 1. c. or osti, Fms. vi. 253 ; Hnklaefti af Icrepti, linen, Sks. 
287. 2. metaph. in the phrases, gora e-t af e-u {to dispose of), 

irerfta zi (become of), hvat hefir J)u giirt af Gunnari, what bast thou done 
with Gunnar? NjarS. 376; hvat af motrinum er or&it, what has become 
^fit? of a lost thing, Ld. 208 ; hverfr Ospakr u hurt, sva eigi vita menn 
hvat af honum er ordit, what has become of him? Band. 5. IV. de- 

noting parentage, descent, origin, domicile, abode : 1. parentage, of, 

^rom, used indifferently with/m; ok eru af J)eim komnir Gilsbekkingar, 
ieseendfrom them, but a little below — fra honum eru komnir Sturlungar, 
£b. 338, cp. afkvaemi ; af aett Hor&akara, Fms. i. 287 ; kominn af Troj- 
imonnum, xi. 416 ; af Asa-aett (Kb. wrongly at), Edda I. p. metaph., 
irera af Gu6i (theol.), of God, = righteous, 686 B. 9 ; illr avoxtr af illri 
■6t, Fms. ii. 48 ; Asia er koUuS af nafni nokkurar konu, derives her name 
'irom, Stj. 67 ; af honum er bragr kalladr skaldskapr, called after his name, 
Sdda 17. 2. of domicile; af danskri tungu, of Danish or Scandi- 

tavian origin, speaking the Danish tongue, Grag. ii. 73 ; hvaftan af 
(indum, whence, native of what country ? Isl. p. especially denoting 

I man's abode, and answering to a and i, the name of the farm (or 
M)untry) being added to proper names, (as in Scotland,) to distinguish 
)ersons of the same name; Hallr af Si8u, Nj. 189 ; Erlingr af Straumey, 
»73 ; AstriSr af Djuparbakka, 39 ; Guunarr af HliSarenda (more usual 
r4); Jjorir haklangr konungr af OgSum, king of Agdir, Eg. 35, etc.; 
f, 6t and fra. V. denoting a person with whom an act, feeling, 

:tc. originates, for the most part with a periphrastic passive : 1. by, 

he Old Engl, of; as, ek em sendr hinga6 af StarkaSi ok sonum hans, 
ent hither by, Nj. 94 ; inna e-t af hendi, to perform, 257 ; \i6 at al{)y6a 
'seri skirS af kennimcinnum, baptized of, Fms. ii. 158; meira vir&r af 
nonnum, higher esteemed, Ld. 158; astsaell af landsmonnum, beloved, lb. 
[6; vinsaell af monnum, Nj. 102; i allg66u yfirlaeti af Jjeim fe6gum, 
hospitably treated by them. Eg. 170; var J)a nokkut drukkiS af alj)j63, 
here was somewhat hard drinking of the people. Stud. iii. 329; mun 
rat ekki upp tekiS af Jieim scikudolgum minum, they will not clutch 
tt that, Nj. 257; ef sva. vaeri i hendr {)cr buit af m(ir, if I had so made 
'verything ready to thy hands, Ld. 130; J)a var3 farsett um af fo6ur 
lans, his father said little about it, Fms. ii. 154. 2. it is now also 

ometimes used as a periphrase of a nom., e. g. rita&, J)ytt af e-m, 
oriUen, translated, edited by, but such phrases scarcely occur in old 
vriters. VI. denoting cause, ground, reason : 1, origin- 

iHng from, on account of, by reason of; af fraeiidsemis sokum, for 
rittsbip's sake, Grag. ii. 72 ; omali af averkum, speechless from wounds, 
[7; af manna voldum, by violence, not by natural accident, of a 
:rime, Nj. 76 ; af fortolum Halls, through his pleading, 255 ; af 
LStsxld hans ok af tcilum J)eirra Saemundar, by his poptdarity and the 
'loquence of S., lb. 16; af ra&um Haralds konungs, by his contriving, 
!<andii. 157; libyg&r af frosti ok kulda, because of frost and cold, Hkr. 
. 5. p. adverbially, af J)vi, therefore, Nj. 78 ; af hvi, whyf 686 

^. 9 ; J)a. verSr bondi heiftinn af barni sinu, viz. if he does not cause his 
:hild to be christened, K.Jj.K. 20. 2. denoting instrumentality, by 

neans of; af sinu fe, by one's own means, Grag. i. 293 ; framfaera e-n af 
■erkum sinum, by means of one's own labour, K.J>.K. 42 ; draga saman 
iu6 af sokum, ok vaelum ok kaupum, make money by, 623. i ; af sinum 
cosbiadi, at his own expense, Hkr. i. 217. p. absol., hiin fellir a mik 

Iropa sva heita at ek brenn af 611, Ld. 328 ; hann fekk af hina mestu 
aemd, derived great honour from it, Nj. 88; elli sotti a hendr honum 
iVa at hann lag6ist i rekkju af, he grew bedridden from age, Ld.54; komast 
indan af hlaupi, escape by running, Fms. viii. 58 ; spinna garn af rokki, 
pin off a wheel (now, spinna a rokk), from a notion of instrumentality, 
»r because of the thread being spun out(?), Eb. 92. 3. denoting 

jroceeding, originating from ; lysti af hiindum hennar, her hands spread 
leams of light, Edda 2 2 ; allir heimar lystust {were illuminated) af henni, 
d. ; en er lysti af degi, when the day broke forth, Fms. ii. 16; litt var 
y'st af degi, the day was just beginning to break, Ld. 46 ; pa tok at myrkja 
- if nott, the 'mirk-time' of night began to set in. Eg. 230; tok ])a briitt 
It myrkva af nott, the night grew dark, Hkr. ii. 230. 4. metaph., 

•tanda, leiSa, hljotast af, to be caused by, result from ; opt hlytst illt af 
■cvenna hjali, great mischief is wrought by women's gossip (a proverb), 
jisl. 15, 98 ; at af J)eim mundi mikit mein ok uhapp standa, be caused by, 
Sdda 18 ; kenna kulda af ra8um e-s, to feel sore from, Eb. 42 ; J)6 mun 
\i'T hljotast af margs mant\s bani, Nj. 90, Q, in adverbial phrases, 

denoting state of mind; af mikilli ae&i, tn fury, Nj. 116; af m6b, in 
great emotion, F'ms. xi. 221 ; af ahyggju, with concern, i. 186 ; af letta, 
frankly, iii. 91 ; af viti, collectedly, Griig. ii. 27 ; af heilu, sincerely. Eg. 
46 ; af fari, in rage ; af aeSru, timidly, Nj. (in a verse) ; af setning, com- 
posedly, in tune, Fms. iii. 187 ; af mikilli fraegS, gallantly. Fas. i. 261 ; 
af ollu afli, with all might, Grag. ii. 41 ; af riki, violently, Fbr. (in a verse) ; 
af triinaSi, confidently, Grag. i. 400. VII. denoting regard to, 

of, concerning, in respect of, as regards : 1. with verbs, denoting 

to tell of, be informed, inquire about, Lat. de ; Dioscorides segir af grasi 
J)vi, speaks of, 655 xxx. «; ; er menn spurSu af landinu, inquired about it, 
Landn. 30; hafa njosn af e-u, Nj. 104; er J)at skjotast J)ar af at segja. 
Eg. 546, Band. 8. p. absol., hann mun spyrja, hvart pir se nokkut 

af kunnigt hversu for me6 okkr, whether you know anything about, 
how, Nj. 33 ; halda skola af, to hold a school in a science, 656 A. i. 
19 (sounds like a Latinism) ; en ek gerSa J)ik sem mestan mann af 
iiilu, in respect of all, that you should get all the honour of it, Nj. 
78, 2. with adjectives such as mildr, illr, goSr af e-u, denoting 

disposition or character in respect to; allra manna mildastr af fe, very 
liberal, open-handed, Fms. vii. 197 ; mildr af gulli, i. 33 ; g63r af griftum, 
merciful, Al. 33 ; illr af mat en mildr af gulli, Fms. i. 53 ; fastr af drykk, 
close, stingy in regard to, Sturl. ii. 125 ; gat J)ess Hildigunnr at J)u mundir 
g68r af hestinum, that you would be good about the horse, Nj.90, cp. au6igr 
at, v. at, which corresponds to the above phrases ; cp. also the phrase 
af s^r above, p. 4, col.i, 11. 50 sqq. VIII. periphrasis of a genitive 

(rare); provincialis af (ilium Predikaraklaustrum, Fms. x.76; vera af hinum 
mesta fjandskap, to breathe deep hatred to, he on bad terms with, ix. 220 ; 
af hendi, af halfu e-s, on one's behalf, v. those words. IX. in 

adverbial phrases; as, af launungu, secretly; af hljoSi, silently; v. those 
words. p. also used absolutely with a verb, almost adverbially, 
nearly in the signification off, away ; hann ba& ^a, roa af fjorSinn, pass 
the firth swiftly by rowing, row the firth off, Fms. ix. 502 ; var J)a af 
farit J)at sem skerjottast var, was past, sailed past, Ld. 142 ; ok er J)eir 
hofdu af fjorSung, past one fourth of the way, Dropl. 10 : skina af, to clear 
up, of the sky, Eb. 152 ; hence in common language, skina af ser, when 
the sun breaks forth : sofa af nottina, to sleep it away, Fms. ii. 98 ; lei6 af 
nottin, the night past away, Nj. 53 ; dvelja af stundir, to kill the time. Band. 
8 ; drepa af, to kill ; lata af, to slaughter, kill off. y. in exclamations ; af 
tjoldin, off with the awnings, Bs. i.420, Fms. ix.49. 8. in the phrases, 
J)ar af, thence; her af, hence, Fms. ii. 102; af fram, straight on, Nj. 144 ; 
now, a fram, on, advance. X. it often refers to a whole sentence 

or to an adverb, not only like other prepp. to her, hvar, J)ar, but also re- 
dundantly tOjhvaSan, he&an, J)a&an, whence, hence, thence. 2. the 
preposition may sometimes be repeated, once elliptically or adverbially, 
and once properly, e. g. en er af var borit af borSinu, the cloth was taken 
off from the table, Nj. 1 76 ; Gu6 J)errir af {off, away) hvert tar af {from) 
augum heilagra manna, God wipes off every tear from the eyes of his 
saints, 655 xx. vii. 1 7 ; skal J)6 fyrst baetr af liika af fe veganda, pay off, 
from, G^l. 160, the last a/ may be omitted — var J)a af bori6 borSinu — 
and the prep, thus be separated from its case, or it may refer to some 
of the indecl. relatives er or sem, the prep, hvar, her, f)ar being placed 
behind them without a case, and referring to the preceding relative, e.g. 
OSS er J)ar mikit af sagt au& J)eim, we have been told much about these 
riches. Band. 24 ; er {)at skjotast J)ar af at segja, in short, shortly. Eg. 546 ; 
J)aSan af veit ek, thence I infer, know, Fms. i. 97. XI. it is 
moreover connected with a great many verbs besides those mentioned 
above, e. g. bera af, to excel, whence afbragd, afbrig8i ; draga af, to detract, 
deduct, hence afdrattr ; veita ekki af, to be hard with ; ganga af, to be left, 
hence afgangr; standast af um e-t, to stand, how matters stand; sem af 
tekr, at a furious rate; vita af, to be conscious, knovj about (vide VII). 

D. As a prefix to compounds distinction is to be made be- 
tween : I. af privativtun, denoting diminution, want, deduction, 
loss, separation, negation of, etc., answering indifferently to Lat. ab-, de-, 
ex-, dis-, and rarely to re- and se-, v. the following compds, such as 
segja, dicere, but afsegja, negare; rxkja, colere, but afraekja, ttegligere ; 
aflaga, contra legem ; skapligr, norinalis, afskapligr, deformis ; afvik, 
recessus ; afhus, afhellir, afdalr, etc. II. af intensivtun, ety- 
mologically different, and akin to of, afr-, e.g. afdrykkja = ofdrykkja, 
inebrietas; afbrydi, jealously; afbendi, tenesmus; afglapi, vir fatuus, 
etc. etc. Both the privative and the intensive af may be con- 
tracted into o, esp. before a labial /, m, v, e. g. a fram = af fram ; 
abry&i = af bry&i ; avoxtr = afvoxtr ; aburSr = af burSr ; avita = afvita (?). 
In some cases dubious. With extenuated and changed vowel ; auvir5iligr 
or 6vir6iligr, depreciated, = afv- etc., v. those words. 

afa, u, f. overbearing. Am. i, Ls. 3, Bk. 2, 3i, = afaryr8i. 

afar- and avar- [cp. Ulf. afar = ynTo., oiriao); Germ, aber, esp. in com- 
pounds : v. Grimm Gr. ii. 709], only used as a prefix in compounds, very 
much, very. Now often pronounced aefar, which form occurs esp. in MSS. of 
the 14th and 15th centuries, e.g. Fms. i. 150, xi. 249, Isl. ii. 131 ; cp. also 
sefr, adj. iracundus. compds : afar-audigr, adj. very rich. Lex. Poet. 
afar-breiSr, adj. very broad, Edda 10. afar-fagr, adj. very fair, Edda 
(Ub.)36o. afar-hreiiux, adj. vfr>c/ean, Lex. Poet, afar-illa, adv.vfry 



badly, Hkr. i. 226. afar-kaup, n. hard bargain, Sturl. (in a verse), 

afar-kostir, m. pi. hard condition, Eg. 14, 353, Hkr. i. 144, Ld. 222. 
afarkosta-laust, n. adj. on fair terms, Jb. 361, Sturl. ii. 79. afar- 

ligr, adj. immense, huge, Nj. 183, v. 1. afar-litill, adj. very small, 

Merl. 2. 46. afar-menni, n. an overpowering man, Orkii. 256 old 

Ed., Landn. 124, Isl. ii. 190. afar-or3, n. overbearing words, Bs, ii. 9. 
afar-st6rr, adj. big. Lex. Poet. afar-ssetr, adj. very sweet, Sks. 534. 
afar-u3igr, adj. [hug3], overbearing, of violent temper. Fins. vii. 20. 
afar-vel, adv. very well, Hkr. i. 204, Isl. ii. 140; cp. ofa. afar-yrdi, 
ii. = afarorS, Orkn. 274. afar-J)iingr, adj. heavy, Edda (Ht.) 46. 

af-au3it, part. pass. ; ver5a a. e-s, to fail, have bad luck, Gisl. 61. 

af-dt = ofat, over-eating, gluttony, gormandizing. 

af-blomgadr, part. pass. ' off-bloomed,' deflowered, 655 xxxii. 3. 

af-bo3, n. threats, high words, Fms. x. 199 ; ofbo&, n., is used oi panic, 
fear, agony, and as a prefix in compds of bo6s = exceedingly. So i\o\f the 
modem verb ofbjoSa, mostly used impers., e-m ofby&r, to be shocked at, etc. 

af-bragd, n. used of persons, a superior, excellent person ; hann var a. i 
vizku sinni, wonderfully clever, Fms. x. 397; a. annarra manna, man of 
mark, vi. 144. 2. gen. afbragfts is now frequently used as a prefix 

to nouns to express something surpassing — a. fagr, g66r, fri6r, etc. — a. 
vxnWikr, surpassing beauty, St], ig^. compd : afbragSs-maSr, m. 

a great man, Fms. x. 293 (where spelt abb-). 

afbragSliga, adv. surpassingly, Fas. i. 220. 

afbragSligr, adj. surpassing, Eb. 256, Fms. ix. 535, x. 230 (where 
spelt abb-), xi. 335. 

af-brig3 and rarely afbrigSi, n. — the compound afbrig3ar-tr^ points 
to a fem. — deviation, transgression, offence, (cp. breg6a af, to deviate from,) 
esp. in pi., {)eir soku6u hann um nokkuS afbrig5 J)inga sinna, Post. 645. 
97 ; saettarof ok afbrig5 vi6 gu5, trespasses, 671. i ; afbrigS, wrongs, Ld. 
66 ; i afbrigSum bo&or6a Gu3s, transgressiofis against the commandments 
of God, 671.3; |>6r5r afsakar sik um 611 afbrigSi viS J)ik, for having 
wronged tbee,StnTl.n. I ;i2, Fms. vii. 24, Isl. ii. 201. compd: afbrigSar- 
tr6, n. tree of transgression, NiSrst. 623. 7. 

af-brot, n. pi. trespasses, sin, K. A. 36, Fms. xi. 443 ; very frequent in 
religious writings after the Reformation. 

af-brug3ning, f. deviation from, 656 B. 'j. 

af-bru3igr and 6bru3igr, zA]. jealoiis, Str. 5, 75 ; v. the following. 

af-br^3a, dd, [af- intens. and bru5r, sponsa\ to be jealous, also contracted 
dbr^3a; J)eir vandlaeta ok afbry3a sem karldyrin eru borin, Stj. 94. 

af-br^3i and contr. d,bry3i, n. (now ohso\.) jealousy ; en er Sisinnus sa 
Clemens pafa standa hja konu sinni, J)a viltist hugr hans mjok af mikilli 
ilsku ok afbry6i, Clem. 41,42, Fms. i. 9, Yt. Il; in all the«e places spelt 
with af-, but abry'&i is more common, and occurs Hkr. i. 1 1 1 ; in the poem 
Gkv. 1. 10 — hon aegSi mer af abry6i — it is used of the jealousy of a wife 
to her husband. 

af-btir3r, m. (also spelt abb-), odds, balance, bias, S7(ccess (cp. bera af, 
to prevail) ; kva6 honum eigi annat vsenna til afburSar, in order to get the 
better of it, Sd.i66; sa hann at engi var5 afbur6rinn, they fought 'aequo 
Marte,' Sturl. ii. 74 ; hann aetla5i ser afburS, he meant to keep the odds in his 
own band, Isl. ii. 450 ; skal mi fara i haustviking, ok vilda ek, at hon yr6i 
eigi me8 minnum afburSum, less glorious, Orkn. 464. II. gen. 

sing, and pi. afbtir3ar-, a-, freq. used as a prefix in some compds with 
the notion of gloriously, with distinction. afbur3ar-digr, adj. very 
thick, J)i&r. 24. afbtir3a-fr8eknligr, adj. very gallant, Isl. ii. 369. af- 
burSar-jdra, n. excellent iron, Fms. x. 173. afbur3ar-ma3r, m. a 
man of mark, Rb. 316, Orkn. 474, Grett. 133, Finnb. 318. afbur3ar- 
mikill, adj. conspicuous, Fms. v. 181. afburSar-skip, n. a fine ship. 
Fas. iii. 106. afbur3ar-vel, adv. very well, Hkr. ii. 265, Fms. ix. 
515. afbur3ar-V8enn, adj. very fine. Fas. i. 182. 

af-bu3, f. an 'off-booth,' side-booth, apartment, Korm. 116. 

af-dalr, m. an ' off-dale,' remote valley ; freq. in tales and rhymes of 
hidden valleys, esp. in pi., e. g. Hva& het hundr karls er i afdolum bjo, in a 
nursery rhyme, K. f). K. 38, Fms. v. 183. 

af-deilingr, m. part, portion, share, Bs. i. 881. 

af-drattr, m. [draga af, to detract^ diminution, deduction, Ann. 1358 
(of duties, fines), Dipl. i. 7, Jm. 135 =cos?s. p. in arithmetic, subtrac- 
tion, Alg. 358, now fradragning. 

af-drif, n. pi. [drifa], destiny, fate; bam likligt til storra afdrifa, a bairn 
likely to grow into a great man, Fms. iii. 112 (of an exposed child) ; Jiykir 
m(5r litil okkur a. ver8a munu, inglorious life, Faer. 53. It is now also 
used o{ final fate, end. 2. offspring, Stj. 191. 

af-drykkja, u, f. over-drinking, driinkenness, = ofdrykkja. [af- intens.] 

af-eggja, a6, to dissuade, (as we might say ' to egg off), Fms. ix. 352. 

af-eira, 6, to curtail, deprive of, with dat. of the thing ; a. pa sinni saemd, 
to disgrace them, Bxr. 3 ; riddaradumi, to degrade from knighthood, 4. 

af-eista, t, to castrate, Bs. ii. 118. 

af-ejrringr, animal, sheep with cro/»/>crf ears, Bs.i. 7 23, Sturl. iii. 47 ; 

also afejrra, b, to cut the ears off, and afeyrt, n. adj. a mark on sheep. 
af-faU, n. diminution, discount, falling off, in the phrase, selja e-t meS 

affollum, to sell at a discount, Sd. 189. 
af-fangadagr, v. atfangadagr, day preceding a feast. 

af-fara, v. aftor. 

af-fari, adj. who deviates, trespasses, Fms. viii. 237, v. 1. 

af-fe3rast, a9, dep. to fall short of his father, to degenerate, Fms. xi. 413. 

af-feldr, m. the spoon ofHela, Edda 231. 

af-ferma, d and 6, [farmr], to unload a ship, Fas. ii. 448. 

af-flutning, f. and afflutningr, m. disparaging, depreciation, Bs. i. 714. 

af-flytja, fiutta, to disparage, Fms. x. 41, Grett. 100 A. 

af-for, ar, f. departure, in the following compds : affara-dagr an(i 
aflfarar-dagr, m. the last day of a feast, esp. of Yule or the like ; a. j^lar 
Twelfth-night, opp. to affanga-dagr = at-fangadagr, Christmas Eve, Hkr 
iii. 304, Fbr. 139, Fms. vii. 272 ; a. veizlunnar, Bs. i. 287, Fms. iii. 121 
aflfara-kveld, n. the last evening of a feast, Fms. xi. 424. 

af-gamall, adj. [af- intens.?], very old, decrepid from age, Nj. 190 ; a 
karl, Fms. ii. 182, Sks. 92. 

af-ganga, u, f. surplus, Fms. iii. 208, v. 1. II. deviation, digres 

sion, Skalda 203. compd : afgongu-dagr, m. = affaradagr, day q 

departure. Fas. iii. 600. 

af-gangr, s, m. surplus, store, Ver. 17, Dipl. v. 10, Fms. iv. 236 
K. f>. K. 163, in the phrase, me5 afgongum, to spare, Fms. iii. loiS 
afgangs, gen. used adverbially, over, to spare, 1. c, v. 1. II. deceau 

death [ganga af, to die]. Fas. iii. 596. 

af-gelja, u, f. [gala, cp. hegilja], chattering, Edda 1 10. 

af-gipt, f. [gefa af], tribute, K. A. 170. II. indulgence, abso, 

lution, Bs. i. 712, H. E. i. 523, Dipl. i. 5. compds : afgiptar-br6i 

n. letter of indulgence, Bs. i. 699. afgiptar-f6, n. a Norse law term 
escheatahle property, N.G. L. i. 324. 

af-gjald, n. tribute, Vm. 78 (freq.) 

af-gjam, adj. eager to be off, flying away, in the proverb, afgjarnt veriS 
ofundarfe. Fas. ii. 332 ; cp. afsaell. 

af-gj6f, f. = afgipt, K. A. 170, 174, H.E. 1.430. 

af-glapa, a9, [cp. glepja], an Icel. law term, to disturb or break the peat 
of a court or public meeting, by violence, crowding, shouting, brawling, f, 
the like ; ef menn tro9ast sva mjok at logr^ttu fyrir iinnkost, e6r gora ] 
hrang pat edr hareysti, at fyrir pvi afglapast mal manna, ok var9ar \ 
f]6rbaugsgar6, Grag. i. 5 ; ef varying ver3r afglapat, at eigi megu m> 
lukast, 105 ; ef menn afglapa g6r3 allir peir er til voru teknir, i. 495. 

af-glapan and afglopun, f. [v. the preceding word], used of rioting c 
brawling in a court or at a meeting, to break the law or the peace ; it 
also used of any illegal steps to stop the course of law, so that the plea- 
ings are interrupted, and there is a flaw in the procedure, v. pingsafglopi- 
frequent in the Gragas and the Sagas ; it was liable to the lesser outlaw; 
V. above : bribery and false witness seem to be counted as pingsafglopi; 
in Nj. 150, and were to be challenged to the High Court, Lv. 12, ,3 
Nj., Grag., esp. in the {>. |>- etc. : v. Dasent, Introd. to Burnt Njal. 

af-glapi, a, m. an oaf, fool, simpleton, Fms. i. 156, Ld. 34, Sd. 14, 
compd : afglapa-or3, n. words of a fool, in the proverb, limaet eru afglap; 
orS, ' a fool's word is nothing worth' — now umaet eru omagaorS — Boll. 352 

af-greizla, u, i. payment, contribution, Vm. 141. 

af-gu3liga, adv. imgodly, N. G. L. i. 376, v. 1. = 6gu61iga. 

af-g8ezla, u, f. taking care of, H. E. i. 396, uncert. read. 

af-g5ra, b,to offend, do amiss, transgress, Nj.254, Fms. vii. 104, viii. 301 

af-g6r3, f. transgression, offence, mostly in pi., trespasses in a religioi 
sense, Sks. 601, Hkr. iii. 225. 

af-g6rvi, v. atgiirfi. 

af-ballinn, false read. = ofjarlar, Vail. L. 206, v. 1. 

af-h.allr, adj. sloping downward. Eg. 277. 

af-liaugr, m. a side-mound, Isl. ii. 46. 

af-hef3, f. [hef9, possessio], ousting, D.N. iv. 881, 

af-hegna, d, to enclose, hedge, D. N. iii. 774. 

af-heima, gen. pi. n. [heima], fro77i home, out of doors, abroad; fit 
til afheima, to go abroad, opp. to at heimili, at hoine, N. G. L. i. 158, 

af-helgast, a6, dep. to become unholy, to be profaned, Sks. 782 B. 

af-heUir, m. side-cave, Fms. iii. 570, Fas. ii. 152, Brandkr. 62. 

af-henda, d and t, to hand over, Lv. 6, Dipl. ii. 14, 16 ; a. skuld, tofi 
a debt, V4pn. 41 ; a. heit, to pay a vow, Bs. i. 121. 

af-h.ending, ■ f. a metrical term, a subdivision of the samhenda, wfe 
the final assonance of a verse is repeated in the next one, e. g. seini^reci 
gefr seima | seimorx . . . , Edda (Ht. 47 and 24). In mod. Icel. mefti 
afhenda is quite different, viz. a short metre in only two lines. 

af-bendis, adv. off one's hand, N. G. L. i. 180. 

af-hendr, adj. out of one's hand, in the phrase, segja e-n ser afhendl 
to give one up, of a client or the like ; leitt er mer at segja pik afhendK 
pvi at pat hefi ek aldri gert ef ek hefi vi9 manni tekit, Fs. 34, Fms. I 
51 (of the poet Hallfred and king Olaf). II. n. afhent imp* 

e-m er e-t afhent, unfit for, unable to, Fms. viii. 21. 

af-beyranidi, part. act. 07tt of hearing, absent, Grag. ii. 143 

af-heyris, adv. 07it of hearing, opp. to aheyris, Bs. i. 'J'ji. 

af-hla3ning, f. 7mloading, N.G. L. i. 410. 

af-hlaup, n. S7trplus, Fms. iv. 336; til afhlaups, to spare, Alg. 
compd : afhlaups-kom, n. sTtrplus corn, Gpl. 352. 

af-hlutr, m. share ofa thine;, v. fjur-afhlutr. 



af-UySast, dd, to disobey, D.N. ii. 173. 

uf-lirapi, a, m. offscourings, outcasts, (an an. \(y., — aflirak being now 

: ok ixbi haun ser einum & hendr af hrapa hans, Grdg. i. 294 (of the 

juences of harbouring a vagabond), 
al-hrofl, n. destruction, v. afra&, Fas. iii. 169. 
af-huga, adj. ind. averse, having turned one's mind from ; verfla a. e-u or 

5 e-t, to forget, mind no more, Isl. ii. 274, Stj. 202,Fs. 47, Bs. i. 78, 655 xi. 3. 
af-hugast, a5, dep. gov. dat. to forget, Fms. viii. 252; part, afhugaftr 

6 t;-t = afhuga, having put it out of one's mind, ii. 336. 
af-hiis, n. out-house, side-apartment, Eb. 10. 

af-h.varf, n. [hverfa], a diversion, turning aside, Hm. 33, in which pas- 
age it is opp. to gagnvegr, the straight path, Ld. 204. 
af-h^3a, dd, to scourge thoroughly, 'hide,' Grett. 135, Sturl. iii. 295. 
af-h6f5a, a&, to behead, Fms. i. 217, Stj. 464. 

af-h6gg, n. a law term, 'off-hewing,' mutilation, maiining, N. G. L. i. 
70, Bs. i. 675, H.E. i. 237. II. chips, splinters, Fms. ii. 290. 

AFI, a, m. [cp. Lat. avus, Ulf. avd^nafifia, and aba = d.fqp, w'r], 
randfather: it is now frequent, but occurs very rarely in old writers, 
/ho almost always use m66urfa8ir or fo3urfa6ir. Yet it occurs in the 
oem Rm. 16 — afi ok amma — and VJ)m. 29, where it = fo6urfa6ir. It 
> curious to observe that in the poem Skm. — whence it is again transferred 
ito the Grogaldr — it is used in the sense of a boy or a son ; cp. as an 
lustration of this use the Norse phrase — D. N. iv. 848 — afi eptir afa == 
on after father, man after matt in uninterrupted succession, in accord- 
nce to the Gothic aba; Edda 108, Fms. iv. 288, vi. 346, xi. 6. We 
Iso say lang-afi, great-grandfather, and langamma, great-grandmother. 
OMPD : afa-systir, f. great aunt, Landn. 317. 
af-kaup, n. bad bargain, Fms. v. 255. 
af-k£raligr, v. afkarligr. 

af-karligr, adj. = afkarr. Lex. Poet.; now freq. afkdralegr, adj. and 
lega, adv. of manners, odd, like a madman. 

af-kdrr, adj. [af- intens. ; karr does not occur ; cp. the modern kari, 
: gale, tempest, (poet.)], strange, prodigious; er her nokkut afkart 
uni, of a giant pulling a bear out of his den by the ears. Fas. ii. 237 ; 
I occurs repeatedly in Lex. Poet. = very strong, remarkable ; afkarr songr, 
Uscordant song, of shouting, Akv. 38 ; cp. launkarr. 
af-kleyfi, n. in the compd af kleyfls-orS, n. a metric, term, a superfluous 
vord, syllable, in a verse, an enclitic syllable preceding the hofu6stafr in a 
'erse. compd : afkleyfls-samstafa, u, f. syllaba hypermetra, Edda (Ht,) 


af-kl8e3a, dd, to undress, Stj. 194. p. reflex, to undress oneself. Eg. 
.20, Fms. x. 294. 

af-komandi, part, descendant, Hkr. iii. 170. 

af-kvsemi, n. [kvdm], 'off-coming,' offspring, in a collect, sense, Fms. 
. 212, Hkr. i. 325, Orkn. 142, Stj. 39. compd : afkvaeniis-inadr, 

n. descendant, Stj. 39, 160. 

af-kymi, a, m. nook, Isl. ii. 471 (paper MS.) ; kymi, id., is now freq. 
AFL, s, m. hearth of a forge, Edda 69, 70, Stj. 312, Fms. viii. 8 ; in 
•"f.G.L. i. 328 it seems to mean hearth (in general). 
afi, ni. [Grimm mentions an O. H. G. aval; abal is a dub. aw. \ey. in A. S. 
)oetry, Ormul. avelt], strength, esp. physical /orce; afreksmaSr at afli ok 
iraedi. Eg. i; styrkr at afli, Fms. i. 19; ramr at afli, 155; fullkominn 
.t afli ok hyggju, bodily and mental vigour, Ld. 256; stillt J)u f>6 
'el aflinu, at |)u verSir eigi kendr, Nj. 32 ; hafa afl til e-s, be a match 
or, be able to do, GJil. 41 1. p. virttte; afl dauftfaerandi grasa, virtue 
f poisonous herbs, 623. 26. 2. metaph. strength, power, might, 

rh. 19. 3. a law term, /orce, validity; daemdu ver J)etta bo6 Bjarna 

ilogligt ok ekki afl hafa, void, Dipl. iii. 3. 4. a law term, 

najority, odds, in the phrase, ok skal afl ra6a, plurima vota valeant; 
:f gerSarmenn (umpires) verSa eigi asattir ok skal a. ra6a, Grag. i. 493; 
ni ver5a fj6r6ungsmenn eigi asattir, J)a skal afl ra8a me6 J)eim, i. i, 
-p. 44, 531 (where it is used of a jury) ; en ef J)eir ver3a eigi asattir er 1 
ogrettu sitja hvat J)eir vilja lofa eSr i log lei6a, J)a skolu J)eir rySja 
ogrettu (viz. divide) ok skal ra6a a. me6 J)eim, Nj. 150. 5. force, 

liolence; taka me& afli, Stj. 430; bj66a e-m afl, Bs. ii. 106. compds : 

ifls-muiir, m. odds, superiority of strength, esp. in the phrase, kenna 
ifismunar, where there is a short struggle, the one being soon overcome, 
b. 182, Eg. 508, Hkr. i. 286 : p. kenna aflsmuna = kosta afls, to exert 
meself to the utmost; var6 hann at kenna a. {to exert the whole of his 
•trength) a6r hann kaemi honum undir, Eb. 172. afls-raun = aflraun. 
AFLA, a5, [cp. Swed. afvel, breed, stock: Dan. zvling, farming ; avls- 
^aard, fartn ; faareavl, qvaegavl, breed of sheep or cattle. In Norse (mod.) 
ivle is to harvest; Swed. afla, to beget. In the Icel. verb afla the idea of 
Woducing or gathering prevails, whereas the nouns branch off; the 
weak afli chiefly denotes produce, m^ans, stores, resources, troops, forces ; 
the strong one — afl — force alone. Yet such phrases as ramr at afli indi- 
cate something besides the mere notion of strength. In the mod. Scandin. 
idioms — Dan., Swed., Norse — there ar-e no traces left of the idea of 'force ;' 
cp. the Lat. opes and copiae. The Icel, spelling and pronunciation with hi 
(abl) is modern, perhaps from the time of the Reformation : cp. the words 
efla etc. with a changed vowel. The root is 0P-, as shewn in Lat. ope, 

' ^pes, the o being changed into a ?]. 1. with gen. of the thing, to gain, 

acquire, earn, procure ; vandara at gaeta fengins fjar en afla {)ess (a proverb); 
J)a bjoggu t)eir skip ok ciflu&u manna til, got men to man it. Eg. 1 70. p. 
the phrase, afla ser fjar ok fraegSar, to earn fame and wealth, of young 
heroes going sea-roving ; foru um sumarit i vikhig ok tifluSu si'r fj4r. 
Eg. 4 ; afla ser fjar ok frama, Fs. 5 ; fjar ok virftingar, id. ; hann hafSi aflat 
ser fjar {made money) i holmgiingum. Eg. 49 ; afladi |)essi bardagi honum 
mikillar fraegSar, brought him great fame, Fms. ii. 307 ; kom honum 
i hug, at honum mundi mikillar framkvaemdar afla, bring him great ad- 
vantage, Eb. 112. 2. as a law term, to cause, inflict a wound; ef 
ma5r aflar einum bl68s e8r bens af heiptugri hendi, N. G. L. i. 38 7. II. 
with ace, mostly in unclassical writers, but now rare, to earn; aflafti hann 
J)ar fe mikit, Fms. vii. 80 ; aflandi {)ann thesaur er, 655 xxxii. i ; hafit dr 
ok mikit i aflat, Al. 159; mun ek til hafa atferS ok eljun at afla mer 
annan vi8, to contrive, Ld. 318, where, however, the excellent vellum 
MS. A.M.309,4to, has gen. — annars vi5ar — more classically, as the Saga 
in other passages uses the gen., e. g. afla ser manna ok hrossa, to procure 
horses and men, 1. c. little below. p. reflex., e-m aflask e-t, gains, 
Fb. 163. Y. absol., njot sem J)u hefir aflat, of ill-earned means, 
Nj.37. 8. part, aflandi, Njar8. 366. 2. now used absol. /oj(?s2>, 
always with ace. ; a standing phrase in Icel., the ace. only being used in 
that particular connection. III. with dat. in the sense of to 
perform, manage, he able to; hann aflaSi bratt mikilli vinnu, ok var 
hagr vel, Fms. i. 289 ; fyr mun hann {)vi afla en ek fara honum hcifud 
mitt, it will sooner happen, Fms. iv. 291, where the Hkr. reads orka ; bau8 
lit leiSangri, sem honum J)6tti landit mestu mega afla, to the utmost that 
the country cotdd produce, F"ms. x. 118; ekki aflar hann J)vi at standa i 
moti y8r, he is not man enough to stand against you. Fas. iii. 138. 

af-lag, n. [leggja afj, gen. aflags. I. used as adv. = afgangs, 

sparingly. Fas. iii. 477. In modern Icel. hafa afliigum or aflcigu, to have to 
spare. II. slaughtering of cattle, killing off; leggja af margan 

funa8 . . . minti biskup enn a um afliigin, the slaughtering, Bs. i. 913. 

af-laga, adv. unlawfully, Grag. i. 473, ii. 367, GJ)1. 294, 432, 473, 
Hkr. ii. 246, Al. 153 ; ganga a., Stj. 430. 2. now used in the sense 

to be out of joint, things going wrong. 

af-lagliga, adv. = aflogliga, 655 xxxii. 4. 

aflan and oflun, f. gain, acquisition, Hkr. ii. 218, Sks. 233. compd : 
6fl.unar-madr, m. a good steward, Sturl. iii. 130. 

af-langr, adj. oblong, Ann. year I414; formed from the Lat. (?), now 

af-lausu, f., Lat. absolutio. 1. some small release, ransom, com- 

pensation, Sturl. iii. 142, 239 ; gjora a. um e-t, to relieve, release oneself in 
regard to a thing ; Olafr konungr maelti, ' Framar hefir ^li ^k gert um 
vigin a Graenlandi, en fiskimaSrinn kallar a. vera fiskinnar ; J)vi at hann 
kallast leysa sik, ef hann dregr fisk fyrir sik, enn annan fyrir skip sitt, 
{)ri8ja fyrir ongul, fjorSa fyrir va8,' king Olaf said, ' Thou hast done more 
then in the matter of manslayings in Greenland, than tvhat the fisherman 
calls the ransom of his fishing ; for he says that he has freed himself {of 
his fishing), if he draws {up) a fish for himself, but another for his boat, 
a third for his angle, a fourth for his line,' (this way of reckoning their 
catch is still common with fishermen in many parts of England and Scot- 
land), Fbr. 154: cp. a stanza in a Scottish ballad, 'I launched my boat 
in Largo Bay, | And fishes caught I three ; | One for wad and one for 
hook, I And one was left for me.' 2. eccles. = absolution, K. A. 226, 

Hom. 137, Grett. 162, Fms. x. 18. 

af-l^t, n. leaving off, relinquishing ; a. synda, Stj. 567, Sks. 612 B ; an 
aflati, used adverb, incessantly, 625, p. 77, Th. 20. p. remission, par- 
don; aflat misgorninga, Hom. 160 ; a. synda, 159. compd: afldts- 
korn, n. surplus corn, store corn, GJ)1. 352, v. 1. aflaupskorn. 

af-Mtr, adj. negligent, lazy, Hom. 152. 

af-lei3ing, f. 'off-leading:' 1. now generally used in the pi. 

consequences, result; 2. in old writers, on the contrary, it seldom 

occurs, and then in a peculiar sense. So Sturl. iii. 128, goSar afleiSingar 
eru me8 e-m, they are on good terms, things go on pretty well between 
them. 3. metric, continuation; her er hinn fyrri visuhelmingr 

leiddr af J)eirri visu, er a8r var kve8in ok fylgir J)at malsorS, er afleiSing 
{continuation) er kolluS, Edda (Ht.) 126. 

af-lei3ingr, s, m., skilja goSan aflei8ing, used adverb, to part on friendly 
terms, Sturl. iii. 134 : cp. the preceding word, 128 ; both passages are taken 
from the J)orgi]s S. Skar8a, to which the phrase seems to be peculiar. 

af-lei3is, adv. 1. loc. astray, out of the path, Sd. 146, 655 

xvii. 4. 2. metaph., faera a., to pervert, Stj. 227, 519 ; Jjeir lugu a 

okkr, en J)U ixvh'n: or8 J)eirra a., you perverted their words, Bs. i. 7, Gliim^ 
327 ; Smia e-m a., to seduce, Andr. 625. 75. p. impers., e-u ^okar a., 
turfis out wrong, Bs. i. 340. 

af-leifar, f. pi. scraps, remnants, leavings, Stj. 383, Bs. i. 237; f. 
bxisafleifar, Grag. i. 299. 

af-leitinn, adj. = afleitr, of odd appearance. Fas. ii. 329. 

af-leitliga, a.dY. perversely, Stj. 55 ; ilia ok a., 173. 

af-leitligr, adj. = afleitr, /erf erse, deformed, Stj. 274, Al. 96. 

af-leitr, adj. [lita, cp. also -leitr in compounds], strange, hideous; neut., 



hversu afleitt (how disgusting) oss virSist uni Jjeirra hattu, Hks. iii.435 ; 
hversu afleitir (stupid) oss synast Jjeirra haettir, Fnis. vii. 296, 1. c. ; ^eir 
fyrirlita ok halda alia sau6ahir&a sem afleita, odd, peculiar, Stj. 293 ; 
afleitt e8r eligt, vile, i Sam. xv. 9. p. abandoned, the /ace turned from, 
deserted by, with dat. ; afleita hamingjunni, luckless, Stj. 421. Ruth i. 12. 

af-lendis, adv. = erlendis, abroad, N.G. L. i. 244. 

af-lendr, zd], far from land, in open sea, Bs. ii. 47. 

af-letja, latti, to dissuade: a. with infin., Bs. i. 39. p. with ace, 
aflatti harm nijok fyrir scr fer6ina, Fms. ix, 437. y. or with an ace. 
of the person and gen. of the thing ; a. e-n e-s, v. letja. 

af-16tta, tt, to cease, Fr. 

af-l^ttr, prompt, ready, v. oflettr. 

afl-f&tt, n. adj. short 0/ strength; ver3a a., to fail in strength, Fms. i. 

55. »'• 150- 

afl-gr6f, f. [afl, m.], hole below the forge, cinder-pit, or a water-pit 
wherein to cool the iron (?) ; cp. Vkv. 22, Jjiftr. 72. 

afl-hella, u, f. hearth-stone in a forge ; er hann haf8i J)au (viz. the 
bones) niSrgrafit undir sina aflhellu, {jidr. 95. 

afli, a, m. I. means, acquisition, gain, produce, stores, fruits ; 

afli ok herfang, Fms. ii. io6 ; haf6i {)6rir einn forrad J)ess liSs ok sva 
afla J)ess alls er verSr i ferSinni, iv. 297 ; eignir . . . nie6 oUum afla ok 
avexti, increase and interest, K. A. 54. 2. now used, a. partic. 

of fishing stores, fishing, and p. gener. of provisions and stores of any 

kind. II. metaph. : 1. might, power ; hafa afla til eingis, 

have might or rneansfor nothing, be unable to do anything, to be power- 
less, Nj. 27. 2. forces, troops, body, Lat. copiae, opes; Asgrimr 
sagSi {)at mikinn afla, great support, Nj. 210; en {)at sy'nist mer J)6 
raSligast at bi5ja ser li3s, J)viat })eir draga afla at y6r, they gather forces 
against you, 222; munu ver skjott eiga af honum van hins mesta 
\ifriSar ef hann faer nokkurn afla, troops, resources, Fms. i. 188 ; at herja 
a J)a feSga me& allmikinn afla, strong body, 184; ok er hirS Sverris 
konungs six, at aflinn Magmiss konungs (the main body) fly'8i allr, viii. 
119. coMPDS : afla-br6g3, n. pi. [bragS], stores offish, A. A. 276. 
afla-fitt, n. adj. = aflfatt, Fms. iii. 133. afla-fe, n. acquired property, 
N.G.L. i. 448. afla-litill, adj. having little power, Finnb. 320 (compar. 
aflaminni). afla-maflr, m.pmverful, strong, Lv. 1 2, 109. afla-mikill, 
adj. opp. to aflalitill, powerful, strong, Ld. ; har3gj6rr ok aflamikill, Bs. i. 
635 ; var Saemundr aflamestr, the strongest in men, Sturl. ii. 44 : p. 
( = aflmikill), used of physical strength, Stj. Judg. iii. 29 ; verSa menn eigi 
asattir hvarr sterkari er, en J)6 setla flestir Gisla aflameira ( = aflmeira), 
Gisl. 26. afla-munr, m. odds, Sturl. ; at etja vi6 aflamuninn, to fight 
against odds, Al. no. afla-skortr, m. shortcoming in power, opp. 
to aflamunr, Bs. i. 525. afla-stund, {.fishing season, Bs. ii. 179. 

af-lima, adj. ind., ver5a e-m a., to be cut off, separated from. Post. 95, 
Am. 26. 

af-lima, a5, /o ' off-limb,' to dismember, maim, mutilate, Js. 3 7, Ann. 1342. 

af-liman, f. ' off-limbing,' mutilation, Bs. ii. 75. 

afl-lauss, adj. weak, strengthless, a medical term, palsied, paralytic, 
Bs. i. 351. 

afl-leysi, n. palsy, v. Fel. ix. 

afl-litill, adj. weak, Fms. ii. 201, vii. 208. 

afl-mikill, adj. of great strength, Sturl. i. 23, Fms. i. 261. 

af-lofa, zb, to refuse, Fr. 

a,fl-raun, f. trial (proof) of strength ; in plur. bodily exercises ; Skall?.- 
grimr hendi mikit gaman at aflraunum ok leikum. Eg. 187; er J)at 
flestra manna setlan, at Grettir hafi verit sterkastr herlandsmanna, si5an 
teir 91'.'"'' °^ fjoralfr 16g5u af aflraunir, Grett. 133; J)6tti J)etta mikil a., 
Fms. iii. 210, Finnb. 374: cp. afisraun. 

afl-skortr, m. failing of strength, Fms. ii. 149. 

aflugp:, adj. strong, v. oflugr. 

afl-vani, adj. ind. deficient in strength; ver3a a., to succumb; taka J)eir 
fang, ok verar Gunnarr mjok a., Fms. ii. 75 (in wrestling) ; enda varS hann 
a. fyrir li3s sakir, was overpowered, got the worst of it, Isl. ii. 172; 
Eustachius sa sik aflvani (ace.) 1 moti J)eim, 655 x. p. 2. 

afl-v03vi, a, m. [vodvi, a muscle], the biceps muscle, Sturl. 51, Ld. 220, 
Fas. ii. 344. 

af-lttgliga, adv. = aflaga, unlawfully, D.N. i. 80, Stj. 154, 

af-md, a, to ' mow off,' to blot out, destroy, Fms. ii. 238, Stj. 208, 346. 

af-mdn, f. [af, md], degradation, shame, v. the following. 

af-mdna, ad, = afmii, to degrade, pollute. 

af-mdna3r, part, polluted, defiled, Rb. 332. 

af-mynda, ad, to deform ; dep. afmyndask, to be deformed, Fas. I. 425 
(paper MS.) ; the word is now very freq. 

af-moe3ing, f. [m6air], right of weaning lambs, by taking them from the 
mother; kirkja a lamba a. (perhaps v/rongly for afmaearing) 1 Miilvikr- 
hiifSa, Vm. 164. 

af-ndm, n. gener. taking away, removal, Stj. 2 Sam. iv. 11. p. esp. 
in the phrase, at afuami, of something reserved, before the division of 
spoil, property, or inheritance ; now, taka af oskiptu, Dan. forlods, 
Grkg. i. 330, 336, Jb. 289 (Ed. af ndmi) ; konungr skildi hafa ur 
hlutskipti tn^jung vifl li3smenn, en umfram at afnumi bjorskinn oil ok 


safala, Eg. 57. 2. metaph. privation, loss; ok hann verSr at skaSa 

Jjeim miJnnum nokkrum, er oss mun J)ykkja a. i. Eg. 114, Fms. vii. 
244. COMPDS : afndms-f^, n. a law term, share, which is reserved before 
the division of property, spoil, inheritance, or the like. Eg. 240, Fms. iv. 
28. afndins-griprj m. something reserved or set aside, Fms. x. 214. 

af-nefja, aa, to cut off one's nose, Str. 35. 

af-neita, ad and tt, and afnita, tt, now always afneita, aa, to deny, 
re/use; with dat., hefir afneitaa tiltekinni trii, Fms. iii. 166; eigi vii ek 
J)vi afneita, refuse, Fs. 11 ; ek afneitta eigi bans orasending, Stj. i Kings 
XX. 7 ; en er hann afneitti eigi mea ollu (refused not), pa baau peir harm 
J)vi meir, Grett. 146. 2. absol. afnita; en ^ar es Jcikull br66ir 

minn laust J)ik hcigg, J)at skaltii hafa botalaust, J)vi at |)U afnittir \k er 
J)er voru bo&nar, Fs. 57. 

af-neiting, f. denial, renunciation, Th. 17. 

af-neyzla, u, f. use, consumption; a. skogarins, Fs. 1 25, Nj. 78 ; a. fjar 
(pi.), Jb. 404 A, B (Ed. ofneyzlur). 

afr, V. afr, buttermilk. 

af-ra3, afrdS, afro3, and afhro3, n. (Fas. iii. 169), [cp. Swed. 
afrad; from roa, rud, fundus, ager{^)~\. I. prop, a Norse and 

Swedish law term, tribute, ground tax, payable to the king ; a. ok landaur; 
N.G.L. i. 257, D.N. iii. 408. So also in Vsp. 27, hvart skyldu sk; 
a. gjalda, where it is opp. to gildi, league. II. metaph. los\ 

damage, 1. in the phrase, gjalda a., to pay a heavy fine, suffer a great 

loss; en J)at a. munu ver gjalda, at margir munu eigi kunna fra at segja 
hvarir sigrast, there will be so heavy a loss in men, such a havoc in killed, 
Nj. 197 (where most MSS. read afroa, some afraa, Ed. afraua) ; tolu6u 
J)eir opt um malaferlin, sagBi Flosi, at {)eir hefBi mikit a. goldit J)egar, 
254 (MSS. afraa, afroa, and afhrod) ; Lytingr mun J)ykjast aar mikit a. 
goldit hafa i lati braeara sinna, 155 (MSS. afraa, afroa, and afhrod), Fms. 
X. 324. 2. in the phrase, gora mikit a., to make a great havoc; 

gorai hann mikit afhroa i sinni vorn,^re«/s/aMg-^/er, Fas. iii.169: cp.Lex. 
Poet. 3. advice, Vtkv. 5 ; the verse is spurious and the meaning false. 

afra3s-kollr, m. cognom., Germ. ' steuerkopf,' cp. nefgildi, Engl, poll- 
tax, V. the preceding. 

af-reizla, u, f. = afgreizla, outlay, payment. Am. 13. 

af-rek, n. [af- intens.], a deed of prowess, a deed of derring do ; margir 
lofuau mjok afrek Egils, ok sigr J)ann sem hann vann, Fms. xi. 234; 
vinna afrek, Fs. 6 ; ekki a. gerSi hann meira i Noregi, Fagrsk. 94 ; hann 
l(5t ok giira J)ar i Niaarosi naust baeai morg, ok sva stur, at afrek var i, 
grand, magnificent, Hkr. iii. 268. compds : afreks-gripr, n. a 

splendid object, a thing of price, Ld. 144. afreks-ina3r, m. a valiant 
man ; a. at afli ok araeai. Eg. i ; en J)at hefi ek spurt, at h.\rb bans er 
skipua afreksmonnum einum, heroes, 19, 84; a. um voxt ear afl, Isl. ii. 
190. afreks-verk, n. valiant deed, Fser. 51, Al. 30. 

af-reka, aa, to achieve, perform; munu J)cr mikit afreka, Lv. 33 ; hvat 
J)eir hofau afrekat, Fas. iii. 221 ; a. vel, to succeed, Btira. 175. 

af-remma, u, f. [ramr], restriction, encumbrance, obligation; su er a. 
mear Jjessum tillogum, at prestr skal vera at heimilishiisi ok s)Tiga 
allar heimilistiair, Am. 37. 

afrendi, f. [afrendr], strength, prowess, valour, Hym. 28. 

afrendr, adj. [frequently or almost constantly spelt afreyndr, as if 
from 'af-' intens. and ' raun,' of great prowess; but the derivation from 
' afr- = afar-' and ' -endi or -indi' is better]. I. in the phrase, a. at 

adi, very strong, valiant,Fms. ii. 87, Finnb. 254; compar. afrendari,Fms.x. 
32 1 , Fs. 33, 48 (where the MS. 'Vh. spells afreyndr, so also does the Fb. i. 341, 
etc.) II. absol. without adding at afli, Lv.ioi (where written afreyndr). 

af-r^ttr, m. and afrett, f. (now always f. ; cp. rett), [probably akin to 
reka, viz. afrekt, contr. afrott], compascuum, common pasture; it is now 
prop, used of mountain pastures, whither the cattle (sheep) are driven in 
the summer in order to graze during July and August, and again col- 
lected and driven down in the autumn (Sept.) ; in Norway called almen- 
ningr. I. masc, thus defined, en J)at er afrettr, er ij menn eigu 

saman ear fieiri, hverngi hlut sem hverr J)eirra a 1, Grag. ii. 303, 330 ; 
i afrett J)ann, er, i. 397, ii. 303; afrettu, ace. pi., ii. 301, Jb. 198 A, 
K. fj. K. 90, Oik. 37; halfan afrett, Vm. 29. II. f. afrettinni (dat.), 

Grag. (Kb.) ii. 301, 325 A; gen. afrettar (gender uncert.), 303 A; afrtJttin, 
id.. Cod. A ; afrett (dat. f. ?), Isl. ii. 330, Hav. 39 ; afrettum, dat. pi. (gen- 
der uncert.). Boll. 336. compds : afrettar- domr, m. court held for 
deciding causes concerning common pasture, Grag. ii. 323. afr§tta- 
menn, m. pi. owners or partners in common pasture, Grag. ii. 331. 

af-ro3, V. afraa. 

af-rog, n. excuse, justification, Str. 71. 

af-ru3ningr, m. [rydja], clearing off, defence, repeal, Pr. 425. 

af-rtmi, a, m. [runi, renna], deviation; metsiph. sin, trespasses ; unibot 
ok iaran afruna (gen.), 125. 174; idrun fyrir gorva afruna (ace. pi.), id.; 
tiirfelling er hann hefir fyrir afruna Jja, er veraa i J)essa heims hfi, id. 
184. p. injury, offence, D. N. iii. 367 (Fr.) 

afr-yT3i, n. = afaryrai, insolent words. 

af-r8e3i, n. [af- intens. and rad], absolute rule, D. N. ii. 336 several 
times (Fr.) 

af-reekja, t and 5, to neglect, contemn, H. E. i, 257 ; reflex. afr«kjast, in 



If signification, o. with dat., a. logunum, to break, neglect the law, 
. ^. p. with ace. (now always so), a. sitt hofu<^merki, Karl. 189, y. 
Icert. dat. or ace, a. Gu8s hlydni, Edda (pref.) 144, Stj. 241. 8. with at 
(I a following infin., GJ)1. 183 ; konungar afraektust at sitja at Uppsiilum, 
'; Hkr. ii. 97. «. absol., Fms. vii. 221, 188, GJ)1. 506. 
- ika, a9, to excuse, exculpate, K. A. 230, Stj. 37. p. pass, afsak- 
f, to be {stand) excused, K. A. 226, Stj. 125. 

[f-sakan and afs6k\ui, f. a ' begging off,' excuse, exculpation, K. A. 
8, Stj. 152. coMPD : afsakanar-ord, n. pi. excuses, Stj. 
if-saki, a, m. excuse, 623. 60. 

f-sanna, a&, to refute, prove to be false {' unsootb'), 655 xvii. I, 
f-si5, n. seed-corn, N. G. L. i. 240. 

f-segja, sag6i, to resign, renounce; a. ser e-t, Barl. 210. Now used 
the sense of to refuse, deny. 

f-setja, setti, to depose, put down, v. the following, 
f-setning, f. and afsetningr, m. deposition, {off-setting, cp. Scot. ' aff- 
,' Jam., which means dismissal, the act of putting away), H.E.u.'ji^,C)2^. 
f-8i3a, adj. ini immoral, of loose manners, Griig. i. 138. 
f-sifja, ad, [sifjar], a law term, to cut off from one's 'sib,' alienate 
im one's family, renounce ; gefa mii ma3r vingjafir at ser lifanda, hest 
a yxn, vapn e3a J)vilika gripi, ok afsifjar (Cod. A reads afsitjar, but 
ubtless wrongly) hann ser \>6 at sex skynsiimum monnuni fiyki eigi 
"svik gor vi& erfingja, Jb. 163, D.N. i. 141, Pa! Vidal. p. 84. The 
)rd appears to be a Norse law term, and does not occur in the laws of 
2 Icel. Commonwealth, but came into use with the code Jb. 
f-8l3a, adv. aside, apart, Krok. 56. 

f-skapligr, adj. [skapligr], misshapen, monstrous, huge, shocking; 
afelli, shocking accident, Stj. 90; herfiligr ok a., 655 xiii. A. i ; a. ok 
lannligt, Stj. 272 ; a. limenska, Fms. ii. 225, K. A. (App.) 230. 
f-skei3is, adv. astray, H.E. i. 252, 655 xi. 3, Horn. 99. 
f-skipan, f. deposition, dismissal, D.N. (Fr.) 

f-skipta, adj. ind. cut off, from an inheritance or the like, Lat. expers; 
the phrase, vera gorr a., to be wronged, Hrafn. 14. 
f-skipti, n. pi. dealing with, intercourse, (cp. the phrase, skipta ser af 

1, to meddle with, care about) ; ok eingi a. veita heiSnum go6um, Fms.ii. 
; ef hann veitir ser engi a., does not deal with, Griig. ii. 1 2 1 . compds : 
Hkipta-lauss, adj. heedless, careless, having nothing to do with, Fb. i. 

2, afskipta-litill, adj. caring little about, Fms. vii. 181, Orkn. 142. 
Iskipta-samr, adj. tneddling, partaking, v. uafskiptasamr. 
f-skiptinn, adj. meddling, partaking, Ld. 66. 

f-skiptr, part. = afskipta, wronged, cheated. Fas. iii. 619. Metaph. 

Id of, having no interest in, Stj. 155, I95. 

f-skirrandi, participial noun, [skirrast], an offscouring, outcast; lei5i 

r J)enna a. ut or borginni, 656 C. 33. 

f-skrd.inliga, adv. hideously, Horn. 155. 

f-skr&mligr, adj. [af- intens.; skramr means a giant; skrimsl, a mon- 

•r; cp. Engl, to scream'\, hideous, monstrous; a. illvirki, a sacrilege, 

; A. 222 : also spelt askramligr and askramliga, Al. 142, Horn. 155. 

f-skrsemi, n. a monster, v. the following. 

'f-skrsemiliga, adv. hideously : a. of a scream ; ])a let lit a stoSli a., 

'Med piteously, of a ghost, Hkr. ii. 3 1 2, Eb. 320, of the bellowing of 

iiad bull. p. of a monstrous shape ; {)raellinn (of a ghost) retti inn 

|fu8it, ok syndist honum a. mikit, Grett. 83 new Ed. y. metaph., 

!:ast a., to be shocked at, Stj. 10 1. 

f-skur3r, ar, m. a chip, lappet, Dipl. iii. 3. 

f-skyld, f. a law term, due, obligation, encumbrance, several times in 

5 Cartularies and deeds of gift, in the phrase, sii er a. J)essa fjar, D. I. i. 

3, etc. ; me6 J)essi a. fara J)essir fjarhlutir, 282, Vm. 108 : cp. the still 
3re freq. phrase, sii er afvinna, cp. afvinna. 

f-sni3, n. a lappet, snip, Pr. 412. 

if-sni3ning, f. snipping off. afsniSningar-jSrn, n. a chopper, Fr. 

f-sni3is, adv. cut through, across, Bs. i. 388. 

.f-spraki, a, m. [cp. A.S. sprecan; Germ, sprecheri], rumour, hearsay; 

ikon jarl hafSi fengit afspraka nokkurn (perh. better in two words), 

IS. i. 187. 

.f-springr, m., Al. 11, Hkr. iii. 277, Edda (pref.) 146, and various 

her forms; afsprengr, m. and afspringi, n., GJ)1. 47, Fms. viii. 237, 

s. 46 B, Stj. 63, Orkn. 176 ; the form now usual is afsprengi, n., Fms. 

217, Fas. ii. 391, Bret. 112. 1. gener. offspring, progeny, v. the 

otations above. 2. in pi. used of the produce of the earth, Sks. 48 B 

ire). 3. metaph.: o. a band, a detached part of a body; 

ttist Hrafn {)egar vita, at J)essi a. mundi vera af ferS J)eirra J>orgils, that 

s detachment must be from the host of Thorgils and his followers, Sturl. 

• 274. p. a branch, ramification; ok er mikil van, at J)ar ver6i 

kkurr a. {offshoot) af J)essum ofriSi a Limafir5i, Fms. xi. 13. y. 

mour, «o</ee, = afspraki ; fa nokkurn a. um e-t, Fms. viii. 160. 

.f-spurn, f. a ' speering of,' news, notice, Fms. i. 187, 

f-8p;^tr, part, spit out of, deprived of, Anecd. 42. 

f-standa, st65, [Germ, abstehen], to cede, part with, Sturl. i. 164, 

1. miSla, Fms. iii. 208. 

if-8tigr, s, m. by-path, Fs. 5, F»r. I02, r 

af-stlifa, a8, or afstffa, 5, to lop, prune, of trees ; a, vi3, N. G. L. i. 
350, Lex. Poet., v. stiifr. 

af-stuka, u, f. side-nook, 655 xxxii. 4; a side-room in a temple. Fas. 
iii. 213 ; now stiika is almost always used of a sacristy. 

af-svar, n. refusal, in pi. in the phrase, veita e-u afsviJr, to refuse, 
Ld. 114, Fas. i. 444, Fbr. 1 20. 

af-svara, a3, to deny, refuse. Fas. i. 528 ; with dat. of pars, and thing, 
Sturl. iii. 180. 

af-sviptr, part, stripped; with dat., afsviptr |)inni asjonu, cut off from 
thy countenance, Stj. 228. Gen. xlviii. 11, Sks. 342, H. E. i. 457. 

af-s^is, adv. out of sight, Vtns. viii. 344. 

af-s8Bll, adj. luckless, in the proverb, a. verfir annars glys jafnan, (another 
version of the proverb is quoted s. v. afgjarn), coveted wealth, which is 
eagerly looked for by another, is luckless, difficult to keep safe, Stj. 78. 

af-tak, n. 1. gener. taking away, B. K. 108. 2. 'taking 

off' {Shaksi).), slaying, executing ; hvat hann vill bjoSa fyrir a. Geirsteins, 
compensation for the slaughter of G., Fms. vii. 360 ; en a. hans {slaying) 
segja eigi allir einum hajtti, x. 390 ; me6 aftaki Clafs, by slaying him, 
195 ; um manna aftok, executions, GJ)1. 137 : cp. aftaka, and taka af, to 
execute, behead. 3. in pi. commonly used of, a. JIat denial, in 

such phrases as, hafa aftok um e-t, to deny flatly. In some compds this 
signification can be traced, as in aftaka-minni, Fms. i. 139. p. it is also 
now used in many compds of whatever is excessive, above all measitre, 
e.g. aftaka-veSr, a hurricane. compds: aftaks-skj61dr, m. a huge 

shield. Fas. i. 415. aftaka-maSr, m. a detertnined, obstinate person ; 
hon var a. mikill um {)etta mal, he was very stubborn in this case, Hkr. ii. 74. 
aftaka-minni, adj. compar. less obstinate, more pliable; st63 konungr i 
fyrstu fast a moti, en drottning var allt aftakaminni, the king at first stood 
fast against it, but the queen was all along less stubborn, Fms. i. 139. 

af-taka, u, f. = aftak : 1. gener. loss, privation ; a. ok missa, of a 

personal loss by death, Edda 37. 2. death by violent means, slaughter; 

til aftiiku manna e6r fe upp at Xzkz, for the cutting off of men or the con- 
fiscation of their goods. Eg. 73> 252 ; hann haf3i verit at aftijku fjorkels 
f6stra, Fms. vii. 201, Orkn. 22 old Ed. Formerly there were no public 
executions in Icel., except the stoning of wizards or witches, Ld. ch. 98, 
Eb. ch. 20, Vd. ch. 26 ; and the hanging of thieves, Fbr. ch. 19, Eb. 1. c. 
Now, however, used in the sense of public execution, and in various 
compds, e.g. aft6ku-sta3r, m. place of execution, etc. 

af-tekja, u, f. dues, collections, revenues, or the like ; til forrae3is ok 
allra aftekna (gen. pi.), Bs. i. 692 ; abii6 ok a. sta6anna, 7-evenue, 752. 

af-tekning, f. taking away, a grammatical term, an apostrophe, 
Skalda 182. 

af-tekt, f. = aftekja, Fms. v. 274, xi. 44I, Bs. i. 68. 

af-telja, tal3i, to dissuade, Fms. x. 27. 

af-tigna, a9, now antigna, v. andtigna, to disgrace, Sks. 225. 

af-trii, f. unbelief, heresy, Orkn. 1 88. 

af-triiast, a3, dep. to fall into unbelief, Bs. ii. 181. 

af-tsekiligt, n. adj. advisable, feasible, [cp. taka e-t af, to decide for'], 
Fms. viii. 348. 

af-tflekt, n. adj. blamable; er J)at ok aetlun min at fatt muni vera 
aftsekt um y8ra skapsmuni, / 'ettle' that there will be little blameworthy 
about your turn of mind, Fms. v. 341, 

af-t88nia, 6, to ' toom' off, to empty, Fr. 

afugr, backwards, going the wrong way, v. iifugr. 

afund, envy, v. ofund. 

af-tindinn, adj. cross, uncivil. 

afusa, gratitude, pleasure, v. aufusa. 

af-vega, adv. [afvegar, Bs. ii. 92], off the way, astray, Sd. 149. Metaph, 
in moral sense ; leiSa a., to mislead; ganga a., to go astray. 

af-vega3r, part, misled. Mar. 

af-vegis = afvega, astray, Skalda 203. 

af-velta, adj. [the Scot, awald or await], cast, used of cattle, sheep, 
or horses that have fallen on the back and are unable to rise, Hav. 44. 

af-vensla, u, f. expenses, outlay; aubrxbi {means) mbu bratt eigi mikil, 
en afvenslur {»6ttu varla me6 mikilli stillingu, Bs. i. 136. 

af-vik, n. a creek, recess, Stj. 195 ; metaph. a hiding-place, f>ibr. 137. 

af-vikinn, part, secluded, retired; a. sta5r = afvik. 

af-vinna, u, f. encumbrance, due, fees, outgoings, = afskyld. Freq. in 
deeds of gift, e.g. D. I. i. 203, 266 ; J)a lagu ongar gjafir til sta3arins, en a. 
var3 ongu minni, then no gifts came in to the see, but the outlay was in 
nothing less, Bs. i. 84 ; J)a gor&ust fjarhagir lihaegir i SkAlahoIti, ur3u 
afvinnur miklar {great outgoings) en tillcig {incomings) eingin, Bs. i. 99. 

af-vir3a, 6 and t, to despise, Barl. several times. 

af-vir3iligr, adj. worthless, poor, despicable, Barl. 7S> I54> v. auvir3iligr 
and au5v., which are the Icel. forms. 

af-vir5ing, f., contr. d,vir3ing, disrepute, disgrace, fault, Bs. ii. 187. 

af-V8enn, adj. unexpected. Fas. ii. 552. 

af-v6xtr, m. ' off-wax,' i. e. decrease, N. G. L. i. 214 ; opp. to avoxtr, 

af-J)erra, 3, and mod. a3, to wipe off; metaph. to expunge, Stj. 142. 

af-J)Okka, a&, in the phrase, a. e-t fyrir e-m, to throw discredit on, 
run down, set against, Fms. ii. 145 ; hann atti fdtt vi3 jarl, en affjokkaSi 



heldr fyrir peim fyrir 68rum monnum, be had little to do with the earl, 
but rather ran them, down before other men, Orkn. 378. 

af-l)vfi.ttr, m. a washing off, ablution, Fr. 

af-seta, u, f. [af and eta], prop, a voracious beast, a glutton, a great 
bully; 6r langfeSgar erut garpar miklir ok afaetor, Fms. xi. ill ; sterkir 
menn ok afetur niiklar, iii. 143. It is perhaps identical with the present 
ofeti, n. a vile thing, offscouring. 

AGG, n. brawl, strife, now freq. 

AGI, a, m. [A.S. oga; Dan. ave; Engl, awe: cp. Ulf. a^/s, n., and 
perh. ayos or a-fos], gener. awe, terror ; J)a, skelfr j6r& oil i aga miklum, 
then all the earth quakes in great awe, Horn. lOO ; agi ok otti, awe and 
terror, Fms. vi. 442. p. metaph. turbulence, uproar, disorder, esp. in 

the phrase, agi ok ufri6r, uproar and war, Fms. ii. 24I, vi. 298, 430 y. 
awe, respect; var eigi sa aunarr konungr, er monnum staeSi af jafnmikill agi 
af fyrir vizku sakir, there was not another king who inspired his men with so 
jnuch awe for bis wits' sake, Fms. x. 406 ; Gu&s a.., fear of God, Sks. 354, 
667. 8. discipline, constraint, now freq. in this sense ; i seskunni meSan 
hann er undir aga, Sks. 26. II. moisture, wet, now freq., cp. vatn- 

sagi. Also a verb aga, a6, to chastise, is now freq. compds: aga-sam- 
ligr, adj. unruly, Fms. vii. 274. aga-samr, adj. turbulent, in uproar; 
agasamt mun J)a ver5a i hera&inu, ef allir Jjorlaks synir eru drepnir, there 
will be uproar in the district if all Tborlak's sons are slain, Eb. 230. 

AGN, n. bait, Barl. 123, NiSrst. 623. 3. There is now in many 
cases a distinction between agn, bait for foxes and land animals, and 
beita, bait for fish; but in the poem Hym. 18, 22, at least, agn is used of 
fishing ; ganga a agnid is to nibble or take the bait : cp. egna. 

agn-hald, n. a barb of a book. 

agn-sax, n. fishing knife, with which bait for fish is cut, Edda 36, 
Nj. 19 (arnsax is a false reading). Fas. i. 489. 

agn-ui, a, m. the barb of a hook for keeping on the agn ; skal a. vera a 
hverjum {)orni, Sks. 419 (B. reads agnor). 

agn-6r, f. a barbed hook, Sks. 89 new Ed. 

AKA, ok, oku, ekit ; pres. ek. It also occurs in a weak form, a6, 
Fagrsk. 104, which form is now perhaps the most common. [Neither 
Ulf. nor Hel. use this word, which appears also to be alien to the South- 
Teut. idioms. The Germans say fahren ; the English to drive, carry ; 
cp. Engl. _yo^e. In Latin, however, agere; Gr. ayuv.^^ Gener. to move, 
drive, transport, carry : 1. to drive in harness in a sledge or other 

vehicle (where the vehicle is in dat.), as also the animal driven ; bryggjur 
sva brei6ar, at aka mdtti vognum k vixl, ' briggs' (i.e. wharfs or piers, cp. 
' Filey Brigg') so broad, that wains might meet and pass each other, Hkr. 
ii. 1 1 ; gott er heilum vagni heim at aka, 'tis good to drive home with a 
whole wain, to get home safe and sound, cp. Horace solve senescentem, 
Orkn. 464, Al. 61 ; |>6rr a hafra tva, ok rei5 {)a er hann ekr, in which he 
drives, Edda 14, Ob. adds i (viz. rei& J)4 er h. ekr i), which may be the 
genuine reading. p. with the prep, i ; Freyr ok ok i kerru me5 gelti, 
Edda 38. -y- absol. to drive, i. e. travel by driving ; J)eir oku upp a land. 
Eg. 543 ; f6ni J)eir 1 sleSann ok oku nottina alia, drove the whole night, 
Fms. iv. 317. With the road taken in ace. ; aka lirgar brantir, Rm. 36 ; 
budu hennar ok heim oku (dat. henni being understood), carrying a bride 
home, 37. 20. II. to carry or cart a load, (to lead, in the north of 

England) : — in Iceland, where vehicles are rare, it may perhaps now and 
then be used of carrying on horseback. The load carried is commonly 
in dat. or ace. : a. ace. : aka saman hey, to cart hay, Eb. 150 ; saman 
6k hann heyit, Isl. ii. 330 ; hann ok saman alia to6u sina, Landn. 94 ; J)a 
tekr GisU eyki tva, ok ekr fe sitt til skogar, Gisl. 1 21 ; but absol., ok ekr 
til skogar meS fjarhlut sinn, 1. c. 36 ; J)a 16t konungr aka til haugsins vist 
ok drykk, then the king let meat and drink be carted to the ' how' (barrow), 
Fms. X. 186; vill hann hiisit or sta6 faera, ok vill hann aka J)at, carry it 
away, Grag. ii. 257; likin varu ekin i sleSa, carried in a sledge, Bs. i. 
144. p. dat. more freq., as now; hann ok heyjum sinum a oxnum, 

carried bis bay on oxen, Fbr. 43 new Ed. ; einn ok skarni a hola, carted 
dung alone on the fields, Nj. 67, Rd. 277. y. with the animals in dat., 
{jorolfr let aka {)rennum eykjum um daginn, with three yoke of oxen, Eb. 1 5 2 ; 
or with the prep, a, ri6r ^6r3r hesti peim er hann haf3i ekit a um aptaninn, 
Isl. ii. 331, Fbr. 43 ; ef ma6r ekr e6r berr klyfjar a, leads or carries on 
packsaddles, Grag. i. 441. 8. absol., {)at mun ek til finna, at hann ok 
eigi i skegg ser, that he did not cart it on his own beard, Nj. 67. «. 

^zTt.,ek'mnnxi, a yoked, tamed ox, Vm. 152. III. used by sailors, 

in the phrase, aka segli, to trim the sail; aka seglum at endiltingum 
skipum, Fms. vii. 94 ; ba5 hann J)a aka skjott seglunum, ok vikja ut i 
sund nokkut, 13 1. In mod. Icel. metaph., aka seglum eptir vindi, to set 
one's sail after (with) the wind, to act according to circumstances ; cp. 
aktaumar. IV. metaph. in a great many proverbs and phrases, e. g. 

aka heilum vagni heim, v. above ; aka hoUu fyrir e-m, to get the worst of 
it, Ld. 206 ; aka undan (milit.), to retire, retreat slowly in a battle ; oku J)eir 
Erlingr undan ofan meS garSinum, Fms. vii. 317; akast undan (reflex.), id., 
278; J)eir oku&ust undan ok t6ku a skogana, they took to the woods, Fagrsk. 
1 74 (where the weak form is used) ; sumir NorSmenn oku undan a haeli 
ofan me6 sj6num, x. 139 : aka e-m 4 bug, the figure probably taken from 
the ranks in a battle, to make one give way, repel, en ef Ammonite aka^ akr-tfund, f. tithe paid on arable land (Norse), N.G. L. i. 391 

^6ra,bug,if they be too strong for thee, St]. ^12. 2Sam.x. ii,Mkv. 7;i 
metaph., aka bug a e-n, id.; mun oss {)at til Birkibeinum, at J)eir aki a os 
engan bug, to stand firm, with unbroken ranks, Fms. viii. 412. 
used impers., e-m a ekki or a3 aka, of one who has always bad luck, pro 
bably ellipt., or steini or the like being understood ; cp. Gisl. 54, the phrase 
J)ykir ekki or steini hefja, in the same sense, the figure being taken from : 
stone clogging the wheels ; ok hann af ser fjotrinum, threw it off by rubbing 
Fas. ii. 573 ; Jja ekr Oddr s6r J)ar at, creeps, rolls himself thither, of a fet 
tered prisoner, id. ; the mod. phrase, a6 aka ser, is to shrug the shoulders as 
mark of displeasure : aka 6r ongum, ex angustiis, to clear one's way, get at 
of a scrape, Bjarn. 52 ; aka 1 moinn, to strive against, a cant phrase. Im 
pers. in the phrase, e-m verBr nxr ekit, is almost run over, has a narrm 
escape, var5 honum sva naer ekit at hann hleypti inn i kirkju, he was so bar 
driven that he ran into the church, Fms. ix, 485 ; hart ekr at e-m, to 
great straits, ok er {jorri kemr, J)a ekr hart at monnum, they were presse 
hard, Isl. ii. 132 ; ekr nu mjok at, / am hard pressed, Gisl. 52 ; er honur 
J)6tti at s^r aka, when death drew near, of a dying man, Grett. 119 i> 
Reflex,, e-m ekst e-t i tauma, to be thwarted in a thin^ where the figur 
is taken from trimming the sail when the sheet is foul, Fms. xi. 121. I 
later Icelandic there is a verb akka, a6, to heap together, a. e-u samai 
no doubt a corruption from aka with a double radical consonant, a car 
word. Aka is at present a rare word, and is, at least in common speed 
used in a weak form, akar instead of ekr ; akaSi = ok ; akat = ekit. 

AKAKN, n. \lJ\f. akran = Kapnos ; Engl, acorn; Germ, ecker ; Dai 
agern'\, acorn, Edda 30 and Gl. 

ak-braut, n. carriage road, Hkr. ii. 253, Faer, 102, vide Fb. i. 144, 

ak-fseri, n. driving gear, carriage and harness, Fms. iii. 206, Nj. 153. 

AKKSRI, n. [no doubt, like Engl, atichor, of foreign origin ; cp. G 
dyKvpa ; Lat. ancora. It occurs, however, in a verse as early as the yes 
996], ankeri, Lv. 99, is a corrupt form from a paper MS., so is also atker 
Hkr. i. 31 1 ; Hggja um akkeri, to lie at anchor, Fbr. 52 ; leggjast um a., 
cast anchor, Fms. iv. 301 ; heimta upp a., to weigh anchor, 302 ; a. hri 
vi6, the anchor holds, Ld. 21, Grag. ii. 397, Jb. 397, Eg. 129, Fms. vi 
264, ix. 44, X. 136, Hkr. i. 311, Lv. 99, Fas. i. 511, 515. Metaph.,; 
vanar, anchor of hope, 677.17. compds: akkeris-fleinn, m. tl 

fluke, palm of an anchor, Fms. ix. 387, Orkn. 362. akkeris-lausi 

adj. without an anchor, Ann. 1 347. akkeris-lsBgi, n. anchorag 

Jb. 396. akkeris-s4t, f. id., Grag. ii. 402, 408. akkeris-stokki 
m. an atichor-stock, Orkn. 362. akkeris-strengr, m. an anchor-rop 
cable, Fms. ii. 10. akkeris-sseti, n. anchorage, Jb. 397 B. 

AKKOBDA, a5, [for. word], to accord, Rb. 446. 

AKR, rs, pi. rar, [Ulf. airs; A.S.cBcer; Engl, acre; Germ, acker 
Lat. ager ; Gr. dypos], arable land, groimd for tillage: a. opp. 1 

engi, a meadow; cp. the law term, J)ar er hvarki se a. ne engi, Grag. 
123, Hrafn. 21. p. opp. to tiin, the ^ town' or enclosed homefiela 

bleikir akrar en slegin tun, the corn-fields are white to harvest and tl 
'town,' i. e. the ' infield,' is mown, Nj. 112 ; helgi tuns ok akra ok engj; 
Bs. i. 719 ; te5ja akra, Rm. 12. 2. metaph. the crop; J)eir hiifSu ni8 

broti& akra hans alia, destroyed all the crop in the fields, Fms. v. 50 ; 
er hann ob rugakrinn fuUvaxinn, J)a tok doggskorinn a sver&inu akrir 
uppstandanda, and when he (Sigurd Fafnir's bane) strode through tl 
full-waxen rye-field, the tip of his sword's sheath just touched the upstani 
ing ears, Fas. i. 173; sa hinn g66i akr (crop) er upp rann af ^tini him 
g66u jor&, Hom. 68. P. name of several farms. compds : akrj 

dvoxtr, m. produce of the fields, Ver. i. akra-ger3i, n. a 'fieli 
garth,' enclosure of arable land, N.G.L. i. 22. akra-karl, m. cognon 
'Acre-carle,' Lv. 40. akra-spillir, m. cognom. destroyer of field 
Glum. 333, Fas. ii. 362, better askaspillir, q. v. 

akr-dai, n. (?), wild gourds; veit ek eigi hvat J)at heitir (adds tij 
translator) J)at var J)vi likast sem a., Stj. 615. 2 Kings iv. 39. 

akr-deili, n. a plot of arable land, D. N. ii. 123 (Fr.) 

akr-ger3i, n. enclosttre of arable land, Fms. vii. 178. 

akr-g6r3, f. agriculture, akrg6r3ar-ina3r, m. ploughman, Nj. 54, 

akr-lisena, u, f.a J/JeW-AeWj'yj/az'/, opp. to hei3arha;na or lynghaens, Stj .29 

akri, a, m. a bird, Edda (Gl.) 

akr-karl, m. a 'field-carle,' ploughman or reaper, Stj. 2 73, 441, El. 4, 19 

akr-kdl, n. 'Jield-kale,' potherbs, Stj. 615. 2 Kings iv. 39. 

akr-land, n. land for tillage, Grag. ii. 258, D.I. i. 268, Bs. i. 34! 
Fms. iii. 18. akrlands-deild, f. division of a field, Grag. ii. 260. 

akr-lengd, f. a field's length (now in Icel. tunlengd, i. e. a short di 
tance) ; sva at a. var i milli J)eirra, so that there was a field's length betwet 
them, Bev. 14 (Norse). 

akr-ina3r, m. ploughman, tiller of ground, Fms. vi. 187. 

akr-neyttr, part, used as arable land, tilled, Sks. 630, v. 1. 

akr-pl6gsma3r, m. ploughman, Stj. 255. 

akr-rein, f. a strip of arable land, D.N. ii. 561. 

akr-skipti, n. a division of afield, Fms. xi.441. 

akr-skur3r, ar, m. reaping. akrskur3ar-raa3r, m. a reaper. Si 
Ruth ii. 2 1 (young men). 

akr-stira, u, f.field-sorrel, Hom. 82, 83. 



akr-verk, n. field-work, harvest-worJi, Bret. 6, Fms. vi. 187, Stj. Ruth ii.' 
ikrverks-madr, ni. ploughman, tiller of the ground, Ver. 5. Gen. iv. 2. 

ak-st611, m. probably a chair on wheels or castors; Ketilbjorn sat a akstdli 
njiik vi& pall, in the banquet at Flugumyri in the year 1 253, Sturl. iii. 182. 

AKTA, a&, [for. word, which therefore does not observe the contrac- 
tion into a, which is the rule with genuine words ; it appears esp. in 
.■ccl. writers and annalists at the end of the 13th and 14th centuries, 
Arna b. S., K. A., Stj., the Norse GJ)1., etc. : cp. A. S. eabtan ; Hel. 
ihton, censere, considerare ; Germ, acbten ; mid. Lat. actare, determi- 
nare et actare, Du Cange in a letter of the year 1284.] I. to 

number, tax, value, take a census; akta frilkift, Stj. 2 Sam. xxiv. 10; 
f6ru \)e'iT vi3a um land ok oktuftu visaeyri konungs, taxed, Bs. i. 707 ; 
nu byggir ma8r dyrra en vandi hefir a verit, akti (tax) J)vi fremr dyrra ok 
fremr til leidangrs ok landvarnar, he shall be taxed in due proportion, 
Gt'- 337- 2- ^° examine, enquire; akti8 inniliga oil J)au leyni sem 

hann ma i felast, to take diligent heed of all the lurking-places, Stj. 479. 
I Sam. xxiii. 23 ; aktift ^6 khr, and look, that, id. 2 Kings x. 23 ; hann 
akta6i eptir {looked after) um eignir staSarins, Bs. i. 778. 3. to 

devote attention to, study ; hann aktaSi mjok bokligar listir, Bs. i. 666, 
680. II. a law term, esp. in the Arna b. S., to debate, discuss ift 

parliament; mi er J)etta var aktaQ (debated) gengu menn til liigr^ttu, Bs. i. 
719 ; var ^a. gengit til logrdttu, ok lesit br6f konungs ok drottningar ok 
akta& (stated) af leikmanna hendi hversu prestar hiifdu af st63um gengit, 
735 ; liigbok oktud 6, alj)ingi, the code of law debated at the althing, 
H. Ann. 419. 19. Now only used in the sense of to care for, feel respect 
for, but a rare and unclassical Danism. 

ak-tamr, adj. tame under the yoke ; griSungr a., Grdg. ii. 122. 

aktan, f. [Germ, achtung], heed, consideration, H.E. i. 410. 

ak-taumr, m. esp. in pi. ar, lifies (taumar) to trim (aka) the sail, dis- 
tinguished from hofu6bendur, the stays of the mast, perhaps the braces of 
a sail (used by Egilsson to transl. {nrtpai in Od. 5. 260), {jorarinn styr&i 
ok haf^i aktaumana um herdar ser, j)viat J)rongt var a skipinu, had the 
braces round his shoulders, because the boat was blocked up with goods, Ld. 
56; the phrase, sitja 1 aktaumum, to manage the sail; ef ek sigh me& 
landi fram, ok sit ek i aktaumum, J)a skal engi sriekkja tvitugsessa sigla 
fjrrir mer, e6a ek vilja svipta (reef the sail) fyr en J)eir, Fms. v. 337 ; reiSi 
slitna8i, sva at hxbi g6kk 1 sundr hofiiSbendur ok aktaumar. Fas. iii. 118 ; 
reki segl ofan,en a.allir slitni, 204; slitnu9u hofuSbendur ok aktaumar, Baer. 
5, Edda (Gl.) That the braces were generally two may be inferred from 
the words vi8 aktaum hvarntveggja half mork, N. G. L. i. 199. 2. 

metaph., sitja i aktaumum, to have the whole management of a thing; 
mun ydr J)at eigi greitt ganga ef J)er erut einir i aktaumum, if you are 
alone in the management of it, Isl. ii. 49 ; einir um hituna is now used in 
the same sense. (The Engl, yoke-lines, as aktaumar is sometimes inter- 
preted (as in the Lat. transl. of the Ld.), are now called stjorntaumar. 
Aktaumr is obsolete. See ' Stones of Scotland,' tab. liv. sqq.) 

AIj- [A.S. eal-; Engl, all, al-; Germ, all-], a prefix to a great many 
nouns and participles, but only a few verbs, denoting thoroughly, quite, 
perfectly, completely, answering to Lat. omni- and Gr. nav- or wavro-. If 
followed by z u or v it sometimes changes into ii/, e.g. oliiS, benignitas; 
olvaerS, laetitia : olteiti, hilaritas, is irregular, instead of alteiti. The 
prefixed particle al- differs from all-, which answers to hzt. per-, A.S. 
call-, Engl, very ; v. the following compds. 

AIiA, 61, olu, ali8 ; pres. el, [Ulf. a single time uses the partic. alans = 
kvrpt<p6(i(vos, and twice a weak verb alij)s = ainvros, a fading. The 
word seems alien to other Teut. idioms, but in Lat. we find alere; cp. the 
Shetland word alie, to nourish?^ Gener. to give birth to, nourish, support, 
etc. I. to bear, esp. of the mother ; but also of both parents ; rarely 

of the father alone, to beget: born olu pau, they begat children, Rm. 12 ; J)at 
bam er fiau ala skal eigi arf taka, Grag. i. 178 : of the father alone, enda 
eru born J)au eigi arfgeng, er hann elr vi8 J)eirri konu, which he begets by 
that woman, 181 ; but esp. of the mother, to bear, give birth to; job 61 
Amma, Rm. 7; |)6ra 61 barn um sumarit. Eg. 166, Fms. iv.32, i. 14; hon far 
eigi alit barnit. Fas. i. 118. p. metaph. to produce, give rise to; en mi 
elr hverr J)essara stafa niu annan staf undir ser, Skalda 162. 2. pass. 

to be born, begotten ; born J)au 611 er alin eru fyrir j61, who are born, N.G.L. 
'• 377 ! the phrase, alnir ok libornir, born and unborn, present and future 
generations, has now become aldir ok obornir ; eigu J)au bom er J)ar alask 
(who are born there) at taka arf lit hingat, Grag. i. 181; barn hvert skal 
faera til kirkju sem alit er, every child that is born, K.f>.K. i ; ef barn elsk 
sva naer paskum, is born, 16. p. of animals (rarely), Justus heitir fora8, 
J)at elsk (is engendered) i kvi6i eins dyrs, 655 xxx. 4. II. to 

nourish, support, Lat. alere : 1. esp. to bring up, of children ; the 

Christian Jus Eccl., in opposition to the heathen custom of exposing chil- 
dren, begins with the words, ala skal barn hvert er borit verSr, every child 
that is born shall be brought up, K. A. ch. I . p. adding the particle upp ; 
skal eigi upp ala, heldr skal lit bera bam {)etta, this bairn shall not be brought 
up, but rather be borne out (i. e. exposed to perish), Finnb. 112. 2. 

to feed, give food to, harbour, entertain ; ala gest ok ganganda, ^<es^s ; 
ala J)urfamenn, the poor, D.L in deeds of gift ; en sa ma6r er Jiar byr skal ala 

menn alia ^a, er hann hyggr til g63s at alnir s6, be shall harbour them, D.L , 

i. 169 ; ala hvern at 6sekju er vill,/o harbour, 300; Gu8 elr gesti (a proverb), 
God pays for the guests, Bs. i. 247; sott elr sjukan,/«;fr is the food of the 
sick; utanhrepps gongunienn skal enga ala, ok eigi gefa mat, hvarki meira 
n6 miima, gangrels of an outlying district shall none of them be harboured, 
nor have meat given them, neither more nor less, GrAg. i. 293, 1 1 7. p. 
of animals, to nourish, breed; eiini smasau8 er hann 61 heima i hiisi sinu, 
one pet lamb which he had reared at home in his own bouse, Stj. 516; 
segir allaliligan, ok kva8 verSa mundu agaeta naut ef upp vseri alinn, of a 
live calf, Eb. 318. 2. pass, to be brought up, educated; olusk (grew 

up) i sett J)ar, aestir kappar (or were born), Hdl. 18 ; alask upp, to be brought 
up ; hence uppeldi, n. III. metaph. in such phrases as, ala aldr 

sinn, vitam degere, to pass one's days, Bdr8. 165 : the phrase, ala e-t eptir 
e-m, to give one encouragement in a thing, bring one up in, esp. in a bad 
sense; 61 hann eptir engum manni 6da8ir, Joh. 625.93: ala a mdl, to 
persist in, urge on a thing; karl elr a mali8 (begs bard) at Gunnar mundi 
til bans fara, Sd. 172, Isl. ii. 133, 163 : — the present phrase is, a8 ala e-t 

vi8 e-n, to bear a grudge against ; and in a negative sense, ala ekki, 

to let bygones be bygones: ala 6nn fyrir, to provide for : a. ofiind, sorg, 
um e-t, to grudge, feel pang (poet.), etc. 

alaSs-festr, ar, f. [obsolete aladr, alimentum, "^t. 13, v.l.], alaw term in 
the Icel. Commonwealth, viz. the eighth part of the sum fjorbaugr (life- 
money), amotinting to an ounce, a fee to be paid by a convict in the Court 
of Execution (feransd6mr) ; if a convict, liable to the lesser outlawry, 
failed in paying oft" the alaSsfestr, he thereby became a complete outlaw, 
lialandi ; hence the name life-money or blood-money. It is thus defined : 
J)ar skal gjaldast mork logaura at f6ransd6mi, go8a |)eim er feransd6minn 
nefndi; J)at fe heitir fjorbaugr, en einn eyrir (ounce) J>ess fjar heitir a. ef 
J)at fe (the ala8sf. or the whole fjorb.?) gelzt eigi, \>a, ver8i hann skogar- 
maSr uaell, Grag. i. 88 ; mi gelzt fjorbaugr ok a. J)a skal daema sva sek8arfe 
bans sem sk6garmanns, 132: Njala uses the less classic form, a3alfestr 
(per metath.), Nj. 240 ; cp. Johnsonius (Lat. transl.), p. 529, note 8. 

al-ati3n, f. devastation, pibr. 233. 

al-au3r, adj. altogether waste, Bret. 1 68. 

al-bata and al-bati, adj. ind. completely cured, quite well, Isl. ii. 469. 

al-berr, adj., now allsberr, quite bare, stark-naked, metaph. manifest, 
Sturl. iii. 118. 

al-bitinn, adj. part, bitten all over, Rd. 298. 

al-bjartr, adj. quite bright, brilliant, Eluc. 10, Fas. i. 663. 

al-blindr, adj. stone-blind. Post. 745. 87. 

al-bl63ugr, adj. all-bloody, Nj. 62, Fms. i. 121, Isl. ii. 271. 

al-bogi = alnbogi, elbow, v. olnbogi and olbogi. 

al-brei3r, adj. of the frdl breadth of stuff; a. lerept, Jb. 348. 

al-brotinn, adj. part, all-broken, shattered, Fms. ii. 246. 

al-bryTija3r, part, cased in mail, Hkr. ii. 26, Fms. vii. 45, Fas. i. 91. 

al-biia, bj6, to fit out, furnish or equip completely, at albua kirkju, 
N. G. L. i. 387 ; but spec, in part, albtiinn, completely equipped, esp. of 
ships hound for sea [where bound is a cormption of boun, the old English 
and Scottish equivalent of buinn. Thus a ship is hound for sea or outward 
bound or homeward boimd, when she is completely fitted and furnished 
for either voyage ; windbound is a different word, where bound is the 
past part, of bind. Agaui, a bride is bo7m when she has her wedding 
dress on ; v. below, bua and buask, which last answers to busk'] : mi by'st 
hann lit til Islands, ok er J)eir v6ru albunir, Nj. 10 ; ok er Bjom var a. 
ok byrr rann a, Eg. 158, 194: a. sem til bardaga, all-armed for the battle, 
Fms. xi. 22. p. in the phrase, a. e-s, quite ready, willing to do a 

thing; hann kvadst {jess a., Nj. 100, Eg. 74 : also with infin., a. at ganga 
he8an, ready to part, Fms. vii. 243. 

al-biiinn, ready, v. the preceding word. 

al-byg3r, part, completely inhabited, taken into possession, esp. used of the 
colonisation of Iceland ; |>orbjom surr kom lit at albygSu landi, after the 
colonisation was finished, Landn. 142, several times, Hrafn. .S, Eg. 191, etc. 

ALDA, u, f. a wave, freq. as a synonyme to bylgja, bara, etc. ; it is 
esp. used of rollers, thus undiralda means the rollers in open sea in calm 
weather, Edda (Gl.) 2. metaph. in the phrase, skil ek, hva8an a. 

sja rennr undan (whence this wave rolls), hafa mer J)a8an jafiian kold 
raS komi3, veit ek at {)etta eru raS Snorra go3a, of deep, well-planned 
schemes, Ld. 284. Now used in many compds : oldu-gangr, m. unruly 
sea; oldu-stokkr, m. bulwarks of a ship, etc. 

alda- and aldar-, v. old, time, period; (poet. = people.) 

al-daTi3i and aldau3a, adj. ind. dead and gone, extinct, of families, 
races, esp. in the iieg. phrase, vera enn ekki a., to be still in full vigour; 
ok 6ru (vkra) eigi J)eir a., Isl. ii. 310 ; eptir dau8a Haralds var a. hin forna 
gett Danakonunga, died out with king H., Fms. xi. 206 ; aldau8a eru J)& 
Mosfellingar ef er Sigfiissynir skulu8 raena J)a, Nj. 73 ; ella eru mjok a. 
vdrir foreldrar, Fms. vi. 37 ; opt finn ek J)at, at mer er a. Magnus 
konungr, / often feel that for me king M. is dead and gone, Hkr. iii. 107. 
coMPD : aldau3a-arfr, m. a law term, an inheritance to which there is 
no heir alive, G{)1. 282, N.G. L. i. 49 ; cp. Hkv. Hjorv. 1 1, where aldau8ra- 
arfr is a mis-reading ; the meaning of the passage hyggsk a. ra8a is, that 
he would destroy them to the last man. 

ALDIN, n., dat. aldini, [Dan. olden ; a Scandinavian radical word (?) 



not found in Ulf.], gtncr . fruit of trees, including apples, nuts, acorns, and' 
sometimes berries ; gras ok aldin ok jar8ar livcixtr allr, herbs, fruits, and 
earth's produce, K. {>. K. 138; korni ok ollu aldini (dat.), K. A. 178; 
J)a. ver8r J)egar eitr i (illu aldini a {>vi tre, Rb. 358. It originally meant 
wild fruits, nuts and acorns ; hafSi hann enga aSra faeSu en aldin skogar 
ok vatn, Horn, 105 ; af korninu vex rot, en viindr af rotinni, en af vendi 
a., 677. 14 ; lesa a., to gather nuts, acorns, Dropl. 5 ; liskapligt er at taka 
a. af tr^nu fyr en fullvaxi5 er, unripe fruit, Al. 18; epli stor ok fik- 
tr^s aldin, great apples and the fruit of Jig-trees, Stj. 325. Numb. xiii. 
23- P- of garden fruit; allt J)at a. er menn vcrja meS gorSum e8r 
gaezlu, GJ)1. 544 ; akr einn harla g68r Id til kirkjunnar, ox J)ar it bezta 
aldini, the Jinest fruits, Fms. xi. 440. y. metaph., blezaft se a. kviSar 

J)ins, the fruit of thy womb, Horn. 30. Luke i. 42. compd : aldins- 

garSr, m. a fruit-garden, orchard, GJ)1. 543. 

aldin-berandi, part, bearing fruit, Sks. 630. 

aldin-falda, u, f. a lady with an old-fashioned head-dress, Rm. 2. 

aldin-gardr, m. garden, orchard, Lat. hortus; vingarSa, akra ok 
aldingarSa, Stj. 441. 1 Sam. viii. 14, where aldingarSa answers to olive- 
yards, Fms. iii. 194. 

aldini, /n</V, v. aldin. 

aldin-lauss, adj. without fruit, sterile, barren; a. tre, Greg. 48. 

aldinn, adj. [Engl, old; Germ, alt; Ulf. alpeis ==^ apxaios]. In Icel. 
only po(3t. The Scandinavians say gamall in the posit., but in compar. and 
superl. ellri, elztr, from another root aid: it very seldom appears in prose 
authors : v. Lex. Poijt. ; Sks. 630 ; cp. aldraenn. 

aldin-skdgr, ar, m. wood of fruit-trees, Stj. Judg. xv. 5, where vin- 
garftar, olivatre ok aldinskogar answer to the Engl, vineyards and olives. 

aldin-tr6, n. fruit-tree, Stj. 68. 

aldin-viflr, ar, m. fruit-trees, a poet, paraphrase, Fms. ix. 265, Sks. 105. 

ALDR, rs, pi. rar, m. [Ulf. alps = aiwv or Lat. aevutn; Engl, old; 
Germ, alter^, age, life, period, old age, everlasting time. 1. age, life- 

time, Lat. vita, aetas ; hniginn at aldri, stricken in years. Eg. 187 ; hniginn 
a aldr, advanced in years, Orkn. 216; ungr at aldri, in youth, Fms. iii. 
90; a lettasta aldri, in the prime of life, v. 71 ; a gamals aldri, old, iii. 
71 ; a tvitugs, J)ritugs aldri, etc. ; half^ritugr at aldri, twenty-five years 
of age. Eg. 84 ; vera sva aldrs kominn, at that titne of life, Fs. 4 ; hafa 
aldr til e-s, to he so old, be of age, Fms. i. 30 ; ala aldr, to live, v. ala, Fs. 
146 ; allan aldr, during the whole of one's life, Ver. 45 ; lifa langan a., to 
enjoy a long life, Nj. 252. 2. old age, senectus ; aldri orpinn, de- 

crepid, lit. overwhelmed by age, Fms. iv. 233, xi. 21 ; vera vi8 aldr, to be 
advanced in years. 3. manns aldr is now Mied.= generation; lifa 

marga manns aldra, to outlive many generations : sometimes denoting a 
period of thirty to thirty-three years. 4. seculum, aevum, an age, 

period; the time from the creation of the world is divided into six such 
ages (aldrar) in Rb. 134: cp. old. 5. eternity; in the phrase, um 

aldr, /or ever and ever ; mun ek engan mann um aldr (tio man ever) virfta 
framar en Eystein konung, me8an ek lifi, as long as I live, Fms. vii. 147, 
Th. 25 ; af aldri, from times of yore, D.N. ii. 501 ; um aldr ok aefi, for 
ever and ever, GJ)1. 251, N. G. L. i. 41. 

aldraSr, adj. elderly, Fms. i. 70, 655 xiv. B. I ; oldru5 kona, Greg. 27, 

aldr-bot, {.fame, honour. Lex. PoiJt. 

aldr-dagar, m. pi. everlasting life; um ^.,for ever and ever, Vsp. 63. 

aldr-fremd, f. everlasting honour, Eluc. 5 1 . 

aldri qs. aldri-gi, [dat. from aldr and the negative nominal suffix 
-gi ; Dan. aldrig'], with dropped neg. suffix ; the modern form is aldrei ; 
unusual Norse forms, with an n or t paragogical, aldregin, aldregit : 
aldregin, N.G. L. i. 8, Sks. 192, 202 B, Hom. ii. 150, Stj. 62 (in MS. 
A.M. 227. Ed. aldri), O.H.L. 17, 79, and several times; aldregit, N.G. L. 
i. 356. The mod. Icel. form with ei indicates a contraction ; the old aldri 
no doubt was sounded as aldri with a final diphthong, which was later (in 
the 15th century) changed into ei. The contr. form aldri occurs over and 
over again in the Sagas, the complete aldregi or aldrigi is more rare, but 
occurs in Grag. i. 220 A, 321 A, ii. 167, etc.; aldrei appears now and then 
in the Edd. and in MSS. of the 15th century, but hardly earlier. I. 

never, nunquam: 1. temp., mun J)ik a. konur skorta, Isl. ii. 250; 

koma aldregi til Noregs sidan, Nj. 9 ; ver6r henni Jiat aldregi rett, Grag. 
ii. 214; ella Hggr feit aldregi, in nowise, i. 220; sii scik fyrnist aldregi, 
361 ; ok skal aldregi i land koma si&an, ii. 167. 2. loc. (rare), 

mork var sva J)ykk upp fra tungunni at aldri {nowhere') var rj63r i ( = 
hvergi), Sd. 170. II. ever, unquam, after a preceding negative, 

appears twice in the Vols. kviSur ; en Atli kve6st eigi vilja mund aldregi 
(eigi aldregi = never), Og. 23 ; hndkat ek af J)vi til hjalpar J)er, at {)u vserir 
J)ess ver5 aldregi (now, nokkurn tima), not that thou ever hadst deserved it, 
II. p. following a comparative, without the strict notion of negation ; 
verr en a. fyr, worse than ever before, Stj. 404 ; framar en a. fyr, 1. c. Cod. A ; 
meiri vesold en aBr hafSi hann aldregi J)olat, ^rea/er 7nisery than be ever be- 
fore had undergone, Barl. 1 96. III. aldr' = aldri = semper ; aldr' hefi 
ek frett ..., I have always heard tell that . . . , in a verse in Orkn. 304. 

aldr-lag, n. laying down of life, death, destruction, a poet, word, in 
the phrase, ver5a e-m at aldrlagi, to bring to one's life's end, Fms, viii. 
J08, Al. 106 ; esp. in pi. aldrlog, etdtium, Bret, 5^, 66, 67. 

aldr-lok, n. pi. close of life, death, Hkv. 2. 10. 

aldr-mdli, a, m. tenure for lijh, D. N., unknown in Icel., Dan. livsfceste. 

aldr-nari, a, m. [A. S. ealdornere, nutritor wVae], poiit. name oi Jire, 
Vsp. 57, Edda (Gl.) 

aldr-ninar, f. pi. life-runes, charms for preserving life, Rm. 40. 

aldr-sattr, adj. on terms of peace for ever, D. N. in a law phrase, a. ok 
aefinsattr, Fr. 

aldr-slit, n. pi. death, in the phrase, til aldrslita, ad urnam, Sturl. iii. 


aldr-stamr (perh. aldrscamr), adj.=/ey, only in Akv. 42. 

aldr-tili, a, m. [cp. as to the last part. Germ, ziel], death, loss oj 
life, exitium ; rather poet. ; or in prose only used in emphatic phrases ; 
hefir J)6 lokit sumum st66um me8 aldrtila, has ended fatally, Fms. viii. 
153 ; setla ek J)aEr lyktir munu a ver8a, at ver munim a. hijota af })eini 
konungi, he will prove fatal to our family. Eg. 19 ; mun ek J)anga8 s«kja 
heldr yndi en a. (an alliterative phrase), Bret. 36 ; lidaemi ok a., 38 : — the 
words. Acts ix. !,'■ breathing out threatenings and slaughter,' are in the 
Icel. translation of the year 1540 rendered ' Saul bles ogn og aldrtila.' 

aldr-tj6n, n. loss of life, Lex. Poet. 

aldr-tregi, a, m. deadly sorrow; etr ser aldrtrega, Hm. 19. 

ald-r8enn, adj. elderly, aged (rare). Lex. Poet. ; hinn aldraeni maSr, 
Fms. vi. 65, but a little below aldra6r; a. kona, Bs. i. 201, v. 1. oldrud. 

aldur-ina3r, m. alderman [A. S. ealdorman'], Pd. 13. 

al-dyggiliga, adv. truly, with perfect fidelity, Hom. 135, 

al-dyggr, zd]. faithful, Barl. 5. 

al-dseli, adj. very easy to treat, Jv. 24, Mag. 115. 

al-dsell, adj. easy to deal with, gentle, Grett. 108 ; A and B daell. 

al-eiga, u, f. a person's entire property, GJ)1. 543, Hkr. ii. 344, iii. 14T, 
Bs. ii. 66. COMPD : aleigu-mdl, n. a suit involving a person's whole 

property, GJ)1. 550: — so also aleigu-s6k, f., Hkr. ii. 163. 

al-ey3a, u, f. devastation, esp. by fire and sword ; gora aley3u, to turn 
into a wilderness, Fms. xi. 42, Hkr. iii. 141. 

al-ey3a, adj. ind. altogether waste, empty, void of people ; a. af miinnum, 
Hkr. i. 98, ii. 197 ; brennir ok giirir a. landit, burns and makes the land 
an titter waste, Hkr. i. 39 ; sumir lagu liti a fjoUum, svil at a. v6ru ba:irnir 
eptir, so7ne lay out on the fells, so that the dwellings were utterly empty 
and wasted behind them, Sturl. iii. 75. 

al-ey6a, dd, to devastate, Karl. 370. 

al-fa3ir, m. father of all, a name of Odin, v. alfoSur. 

al-far, n., better difar [all], channel, B. K. 119. 

al-fari, adj. ind., now alfarinn; in phrases like fara, koma alfari, to start, 
set off for good and all, Fms. iii. 92, Bret. 80, Fas. i. 249 ; ri6a 1 brott a., 
Nj. 112, Bs. i. 481 ; koma til skips a., Grag. ii. 75. [Probably an obso- 
lete dat. from alfar.] 

al-farinn, adj. part, worn out, very far gone, Stj. 201, of the kine of 
Pharaoh, ^ ill-favoured and lean-fleshed,' Gen. xli. 3. p. now = alfari. 

al-feginn, adj. very glad {'fain'). Lex. PoiJt. 

al-feigr, adj. very 'fey,' i.e. in extravagant spirits, in the frame of mind 
which betokens speedy death, a. augu. Eg. in a verse. 

alfr, alfheimr, etc., elves etc., v. alfr etc. 

al-framr, adj. (poiit.) excellent. Lex. Poet. 

al-fri3r, adj. very fair. Lex. Poet, 

al-frjdls, adj. quite free, Sks. 621. 

al-frj6va3r, part, in full flower. Lex. PoiJt. 

alft, f. stvan, v. dipt. 

al-fullr, adj. quite full, Greg. 26. 

al-fuinn, adj. quite rotten, Fms. vi. 164. 

al-fserr, adj. quite fit, quite good, Vm. 177, v. cilforr. 

al-feert, n. of weather, _;?/ /or travelling, Sd. = fiert. 

al-f63r, m. father of all, the name of Odin as the supreme god in Scan- 
dinavian mythology, Edda i. 37 (Ed. Havn.) Now used (theol.) of God. 

al-gangsi and algangsa, adj. ind. quite common, current, Sks. 199, 
208 B. 

al-geldr, adj. part, qvite gelded, of cattle, Grag. i. 503. p. now 

also=:^m>j«- no milk. 

al-gildi, n. a law term, full value, GJ)1. 392. compd : algildis-vitni* 
n. a law term, laivfid testimony, competent witness; defin., N.G.L. i. 211. 

al-gildr, adj. offidl value, in a verse in Fs. 94 ; now common, opp. to 
hdlfgildr, of half value, or ogildr, valueless. 

al-gjafi, prob. a false reading, N. G. L. i. 347 = frjdlsgjafi. 

al-gjafta, adj. ind. stall-fed, of cattle, Isl. ii. 38. 

al-gleymingr, m. [glaumr], great glee, great mirth, in the phrase, sld 
a algleyming, to be in great glee, to be very merry, Sturl. iii. 123. The 
Icel. now say, zb komast i algleyming, to run high, to the highest point. 

al-g63r, adj. />er/ec//y^oorf, now used of God. p. albeztr kostr, iy 
far the best match (Germ, allerbester), Ld. 88. 

al-grdr, adj. quite grey, f)orf. Karl. 424. 

al-gr6inn, adj. ^zn. perfectly healed, Eluc. 57. 

al-grsenn, adj. quite green, flourishing. Lex. Poet. 

al-gullinn, adj. (poet.) all-golden, Hym. 8, 
^ al-gyldr, adj. all-gilt, Vm. 52. 



al-gora, 8, to JInisb, of buildings, Hkr. iii. l8o, Ld. 114. Mctaph. to 
fulfil, Fms. iii. 49, Horn. 8, Stj. 18. Reflex, to become completed. Post. 
656 B. II. Part, algdrr, perfect; perfectam fortitudinem is rendered by 
algorvan styrkleik, thorough strength, Fms. viii. (pref.), i. 96, Sks. 44, 
274, Stj. 563, 1 14 ; hi6 algorvasta, 677. 7. 

al-g6rlega, adv. altogether, quite, Yms. ii. 42, Greg. 34, etc. 

al-g6rleikr, now algdrlegleikr, s, m. (thcol.) perfecttiess, perfection, 
Stj. 21, Fms. X. 337, Rb. 316. 

al-gdrr, adj. ^d.n. perfect, finished, v. algora. 

al-gdrvi, f. I. perfection, maturity, Stj. 376, Horn. 25. II. 

full dress [v. giirvi, dress'], Sks. 298. 

al-heidinn, adj. altogether heathen; landit {Iceland) var a. user hundr- 
a5i vetra, the land was utterly heathen tiear a hundred (i. e. one hundred 
and twenty) winters, Landn. 322. 

al-heilagr, adj. all-hallowed, N. G. L. i. 141. 

al-heill, adj. 1. completely whole, entire, Lat. integer, Stj. 439. 

1 Sam. vii. 9 {wholly), Sks. 604, translation from Lat. individua. 2. 

perfectly healthy, safe and sound, Fms. xi. 38, ii. 232, Magn. 516. 

al-lieilsa, u, f. complete restoration to health, 15s. i. 313, v.l. 

al-henda, u, f. a metrical term, a subdivision of drottkvaett, a metre 
having two rhymed couplets in every line ; if one of these be half rhyme it 
is called a. hin minni {tht minor alhenda), if both be full rhymes it is a. 
meiri {complete alhenda), Edda (Ht.) 132, Sturl. ii. 56 : thus bard-mxAz 
vard Skuli is a complete alhenda. 

al-hending, f. = alhenda. 

al-hendr, adj. used of a metre in alhenda, Edda 133; drapa alhend, 
Sturl. ii. 56. 

al-hnepptr, adj. part, (metric.) an apocopate (hneppt) species of the 
metre drottkvaett with masculine rhymes, v. hnept and halfhnept. Thus 
defined, Edda (Ht.), verse 78 ; it is called alhneppt, where all the rhymes 
are masculine ; but halfhneppt, where feminines and masculines are used 

al-hreinn, adj. quite pure, clean, Hom. 107. 

al-huga and dlh.uga or oluga, by eliding the b and changing the 
vowel through the following u, adj. ind. [hugr], whole-hearted, in fidl 
earnest, Sturl. iii. 272, v. 1. ; olhuga <ost, sincere love, Greg. 17. 

al-hugat, alugat, or alogat, n. part, in real earnest, whole-hearted, 
having made one's tnind up; ef J)(5r er J)at alhugat, if thou be in earnest, 
Nj. 49 ; fo6ur bans var alogat at drepa David, bis father's heart was set 
on slaying David, Stj. 473. i Sam. xx. 33. p. used substantively, 

serious matters; blanda hegoma vi6 alhugat (now alvara), to blend trifies 
with serious things. y. adverb, steadfastly, earnestly ; iSrast a., to repent 
sincerely, Hom. 166; en ef \>u ser at alogat {really) tekr fe J)itt at vaxa, 
Sks. 34, 339 ; J)a er hann alogat tisekr, really guiltless, 6'j'j. 9. 

al-hugi and alogi, a, m. earnest; J)etta er a. minn en engi hegomi, 7 
am in full earnest, Isl. ii. 214; hvart er ^essa leita6 me& alhuga, in 
earnest, Eb. 130; er hitt heldr a. minn, / am determined, Fms. ii. 94; 
meft enum mesta alhuga, with the most steadfast will, Hkr. i. 258, Fms. 
viii. 186, Bs. i. 732. 

al-hugligr, adj. sincere ; ekki J)6tti m^r <3lafr fraendi y4rr a., metbougbt 
lour kinsman Olafwas not quite sincere, Sturl. i. 81. 

al-hungra3r, adj. part, very much an-hungered, Barl. 200. 

al-husa, a8, to ' bouse,' roof in, Fms. x. 153. 

al-hvitr, adj. quite white, Fms. xi. 16, Stj. 260. 

al-h^sa, t, = alhiisa. Part. alh.:^st, when all the buildings are finished, 
in a complete state, Sturl. i. 68. 

al-h^si, n. farm-btiildings, homestead, Gisl. 38, Bs. i. I44, Fas. iii. 15. 

al-h.8eg3, f. perfect ease, Sturl. i. 56, v. 1. and dub. 
i al-heegr, adj. perfectly easy, smooth; a. tungubrag3, a smooth, glib 
Itongue, Skdlda 170, Fas. ii. 65. 

I ali-, used of household or tame animals in some compds : ali-bj6m, m. 
a tame bear, Gr4g. ii. 118, cp. Fms. vi. 297-307, Bs. i. 61. ali-d^, 
n. a domestic animal, cattle; alidy'r J)at sem ver kollum biismala, house- 
lamb, Stj. 18, Finnb. 226, of a tame bear. ali-fe, n.fatlings, Matth. 
xxii. 4, in the transl. of 1540. ali-fiskr, m. fish fattened in a stew or 
pond, in the local name Alifiskalsekr, m. the brook of fattened trout, GJ)1. 
ali-fugl and -fogl, m. tame fowl, Stj. 560, ^i6r. 79 ; oxn min ok 
alifoglar, Greg. 43. Matth. I.e. ali-gas, f. a fattened goose, Fms. vi. 

347. ali-karl, m. a nickname, cp. in familiar language fat carle, 

Sturl. i. 123. ali-saudr, m. a pet sheep, Stj. 516. 2 Sam. xii. 3. 

ALIN, f. A dissyllabic form alun appears in old poetry, v. Lex. Poet. 
In early prose writers a monosyllabic form 61n prevails in nom. dat. ace. 
.sing., D. L i. 310. 1. 22 (MS. of the year 1275), 314. 1. 16 (MS. year 
^250)1311,312.1. 16, 313.1. 7,89. 1. 1., a. the old, ainar ; p. 
the later, alnir : the former in -ar, in D. I. i. 309 (a MS. of the year 1 2 75), 
310-312 (MS. year 1370), 313, 316. 1. 19, 318. 1. 15. The pi. in -ir, 
D. L i. 89 sqq., in MSS. of the 13th and 14th centuries. In the con- 
tracted form aln- the simple radical vowel soon became a diphthongal d, 
viz. alnar, alnir, alnum, alna, and is -at present so spelt and pronounced. 
We find an acute accent indeed in alna (gen. pi.), D. I. i. 313. 1. 25 (MS. 
year 1375), and dinar, id. 1. 7 ; dlnom, 1» a8 ; olnum with changed vowel, 

N. G. L. i. 323 (in an Icel. transcript). The present declension is, nom. 
ace. alin, gen. alnar ; pi. nom. ace. alnir, gen. alna, dat. alnum. I. 

properly the arm from the elbow to the end of the middle finger [Gr. wXtvrf, 
Lat. ulna, cp. A.S. el-boga, Engl, el-bow, etc.] ; almost obsolete, but still 
found in the words iilbogi qs.oln-bogi, ^ elbow,' and iilf-li8r,prop.uln-or iiln- 
liftr, wrist, commonly pronounced unl-li6r [false etymol., v. Edda, p. 17] ; 
cp. Isl. {>j68s. ii. 19, where tungl {lund) and unl- rhyme. Freq. in poetry in 
such compounds as alun-leygr, -brandr, iilun-grjot, alnar-gim, alin-leygr, the 
standing poet, name of gold and gems being ignis or lapis cubiti. II. 

mostly metaph. : 1. an ell, [Ulf. aleina ; A. S. eln ; Engl, ell ; O. H. G. 

elina ; Dan. alen ; Lat. ulna, cp. cubituni] ; the finger, arm, foot were 
the original standards for measure. The primitive ell measured the length 
from the elbow to the point of the second finger, and answered to about 
half a yard Engl. = 18 inches. The Icel. ell before the year 1 200 measured 
just half a yard. About this year, by a law of bishop Paul, the ell was 
doubled into a stika, a stika being precisely = two ells = an Engl, ell of 
that time. To prevent the use of bad measure, a just and lawful stika 
(yard) was marked on the walls of the churches, esp. that at Thingvellir, 
as an authorised standard. Pals S. ch.9, Bs. i. 135, D.I.i. 309, 316, Jb. Kb. 
26 ; ensk lerept tveggja alna, English linen of two ells measttre, id.; J)at er 
maelt, at at graftar kirkju hverri skal maela stiku lengd, J)a er r6tt se at hafa 
til alna mils, ok megi menn |)ar til ganga ef a skilr um alnar, 309. During 
the whole of the 15th century the Icel. trade was mainly in British hands ; 
thus the Engl, double ell probably prevailed till the end of the 15th or be- 
ginning of the 1 6th century. The Hanse Towns ell= 21-^15- inches was 
then introduced, and abolished in the year 1776, when the Dan. ell= 24 
inches came into use. At present the Hanse Towns ell is called Islenzk 
alin {Icel. ell), and the original half-yard ell is quite obsolete ; cp. Jon Sigur8s- 
son in D. I. i. 306-308, and Pal Vidal. s. v. alin. 2. a unit of value, 

viz. an ell (half-yard measure) of woollen stuff (va6mal) ; the vaSmal (Hal- 
liwell wadmal, Engl, woadmal, Orkn. and Shetl. wadmaal and vadmel) 
was in Icel. the common medium of payment, whence an ell became the 
standard unit of value or property, whether in land or chattels ; 120 ells 
make a hundred, v. that word. In D.I. i. 316 we are told that, about 
the year 1 200, three ells were equal in value to one ounce of ordinary 
silver, whence the expression J)riggja alna eyrir (a common phrase during 
the 13th century). The value of the ell of va5mal, however, varied 
greatly; during the llth and 12th centuries six ells made an ounce, D.I. 
i. 88. In Norway we find mentioned niu, ellifu alna aurar (nine, eleven 
ells to an ounce). In Grag. (Kb.) ii. 192, § 245, it is said that, about the 
year looo, four ells in Icel. made an ounce, and so on ; vide Dasent, 
Essay in 2nd vol. of Burnt Njal., and Pal Vidal. s. v. alin. compds: 
dlnar-borS, n. a board an ell long, N. G. L. i. lOO. alnar-breiSr, 
adj. an ell broad. Fas. ii. llS. alnar-kefli, n. a stafi an ell long, 
Grag. ii. 339, Ld. 318. dlnar-langr, adj. ell-long, Grag. ii. 359. 

d.lnar-tiund, f. tithe of the value of an ell, K. A. 100. &lnar-vir8i, 
n. equal in value to an ell, K. A. 194. dliia>B5k, f. action for bad 

measure, Grag. i. 472. 

al-jafn, adj. quite equal, 6'j'j. 12, 655 A. 3. 

al-jd.ma3r, adj. part, shod all round, shod on all four feet, Mag. 5. 

alka, alca, the awk, v. alka. 

al-keypt, n. part, dearly bought, in a metaph. sense, Fms. ix. 302, Eb. 
266, Glum. 365, = fullkeypt. 

al-kirkja, u, f. a parish church, Pm. 41. 

al-kl8e3na3r, m. a full suit of clothes,!^]. 73, Eg. 518, Bs. i.655,876. 

al-kristinn, adj. completely christianised, Fms. i. 279, Hkr. i. 259. 

al-kri8tna3r, part, id., Hkr. ii. 178, Fms. x. 273. 

al-kunna, adj. ind. a. of a thing or event, notorious, universally 

known; sem a. er orSit, Fms. xi. 201 ; en sem vinatta J)eirra gor&ist a., 
but when their friendship was noised abroad, Uki. ii. 281. p. ofaperson, 
knowing, fully informed ; unz a., until I know the whole, Vtkv. 8, 10, 12. 

al-kunnigr, adj. notorious, Hkr. iii. 26, Stj. Gen. iv. 10, 655 xxxi. i, 
Fms. vii. 5, Hkr. ii. 328. 

al-ktmnr, adj. id., Fms. v. 40. 

al-kyxra, adj. ind. completely calm, tranquil, Fms. xi. 72. 

A-LL- may in old writers be prefixed to almost every adjective and 
adverb in an intensive sense, like Engl, very, Lat. per-, Gr. 81a-, ^a-. 
In common talk and modern writings it is rare (except after a nega- 
tive), and denotes something below the average, viz. tolerably, pretty 
well, not very well; but in the Sagas, something capital, exceeding. 
In high style it may perhaps be used in the old sense, e. g. allfagrt Ijos 
OSS birtist bratt, a transl. of the Ambrosian hymn, Aurora lucis rutilat. 
The instances in old writers are nearly endless, e. g. all-annt, n. adj. 
very eager, Fms. ii. 41 ; ironically, 150. all-apr, adj. very sore, 

very harsh, v. apr. all-au3s6ttligt, n. adj. very easy, Fs. 40. aJl- 
au3veldliga, adv. very easily, Fms. iv. 129. all-au3veldligr, adj. 

very easy, Fms. v. 331. all-au3veldr, adj. id., Fbr. 158: neut. as 

adv., Hkr. ii. 76. all-igsetr, adj. very famous, Fms. ii. 76. all- 

^byggjusamliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very careful, Fms. vi. 184. all- 
dkafliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very hot, impetuous, Hkr. i. 234, ii. 32. 
all-dkaft, adj. wry fast, Nj. 1 96. all-^reediliga, adv. very likely, Far. 



183. all-fir8B3islitill, adj. very timid, Fms. vi. 217. all-£stu3ligt, 
n. adj. very hearty, intimate, Fms. ii. 20. all-banveenn, adj. very 
likely to prove mortal, Orkn. 148. all-beinn, adj. very hospitable, 

Fms. ii. 84, Eb. 2S6: neut. as adv., Far. 259. all-beiskr, adj. very 

harsh, bitter, Sturl. iii. 167. all-bert, n. adj. very manifest. Lex. 

Poet. all-bitr, adj. very biting, sharp, Sks. 548. all-bitrligr, adj. 
of a very sharp appearance, Vigl. 20. all-bjartr, adj. very bright, 

Fms. viii. 361. all-bjugr, adj. very much bent, curved, Olkofr. 39. 

all-bldr, adj. very blue, Gliim. 394. all-bli3liga, adv. and -ligr, 
adj. very blithely, kindly, Faer. 132. all-bli3r, adj. very mild, amia- 
ble, Sd. 158, Fms. i. 202. all-bra3g6rr, adj. very soon mature, Eb. 
16. all-brd3liga, adv. and -ligr, adj. wry i&as///y, Orkn. 72. all- 
brdidr, adj. very hot-headed, Njar6. 370 : neut. as adv. very soon, Fms. 
xi. 51 : dat. pi. all-br^3iun, as adv. very suddenly, 139. all-bros- 

ligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very funny, laughable, Fms. iii. 1 13. all- 

dasigr, adj. very sltdggish. Lex. PoiJt. all-digr, adj, very big, stout; 
meUph. puffed up, Nj. 236. all-djarfliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very 
boldly, Fms. ii. 313, Orkn. 102. all-djupsettr, adj. very deep, 

thoughtfid, Bret. 158. all-drengiliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very bold, 
gallant, Lv. no. all-drsemt, n. adj. very boastfidly, from dramb, 
superbia, (the modern word is draemt = slowly, sluggishly) ; J)eir letu a. yfir 
scr, boasted, Sturl. ii. 56. MS. Mus. Brit. II27; Cod. A. M. has allvajnt, 
prob. wrongly. all-dyggr, adj. very doughty, Lex. Poet. all- 

d^r, adj. very dear, Fms. iii. 159. all-eiguligr, adj. very worth 

having, Sd. 146. all-eina (theol.), a Gu& alleina (a hymn), alone: 
Hkr. iii. 339 (in a spurious chapter). all-einar3liga, adv. and -ligr, 
adj. very sincere, candid, open, Ld. 334. all-eldiligr and -elliligr, 
adj. of a very aged appearance, Fms. iii. 125. all-fagr, adj. very bright, 
fair, Orkn. 296 old Ed. : neut. as adv. very fairly, Sturl. i. 72. all-fast, 
n. adj. very firmly, steadfastly, Eb. 290, Faer. 259. all-fastor3r, adj. 
very 'wordfast,'' very true to his word, Fms. vii. 120. all-falatr, adj. 

very taciturn, close. Fas. iii. 408. all-faliga, adv. on very cold terms, 
Sturl. iii. 298. aU-f^m^ligr, adj. very close, of very few words, Fms. 
iii. 85, iv. 366. all-f&mennr, ^.d]. followed by very few people, Sturl. 
ii. 122, Magn. 386. all-far, adj. very few. Eg. 512, Ld. 272, Isl. ii. 

356: neut. on very cold terms, Fms. xi. 55. all-f£r8e3iim, adj. of 

very few words, Fms. iv. 312. all-feginn, adj. very '■fain,' glad. Eg. 
240, Ld. 330. all-feginsamliga, adv. very 'fain,' gladly, 'Eg. 27. 

all-feiglig^r, adj. havi?ig the mark of death very plaui on one's face, v. 
feigr, Sturl. iii. 234. all-feitr, adj. very fat, Fms. x. 303, all- 

ferliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very rudely, Fms. iv. 263. all-f^mikill, 
adj. very costly, Ld. 298. all-fjarri, adv. very far, far from, metaph., 
Hkr. ii. 246 ; eigi a., not improper, Fbr. 15. all-fjartekit, part, very 
far-fetched, Skalda 166. all-fj61gan, adj. ace. very numerous (does 

not exist in nom.), Sks. 138 A. all-fjolkunnigr, adj. very deeply 
versed in sorcery, Fms. ii. 17:;, Fas. i. 412. all-f jolmeSr and -mennr, 
id']. followed, attended by very many people, much frequented. Eg. 724, 188, 
Hkr. i. 215: n. sing, in very great numbers, Fms. i. ^6. all-fjolrsett, 
n. adj. very heedful, much talked of, Nj. 109. all-forsj^ll, adj. very 

prudent, Horn. 115. all-framr, adj. very famous. Lex. Poet. ; very far 
forward, Grett.i6i A. all-frekliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very daringly, 
impudently. Fas. i. 24. all-frekr, adj. too eager, too daring, Fms. vii. 

164. aXl-fTiSii^B,, zAv. in very great peace, Ltx.'Poei. all-fri3r, 
adj. very beautiful. Eg. 23, Hkr. i. 225, ii. 354, Fms. i. 2. all-frjdls, 
adj. very free, independent, v. alfrjals. all-fr63ligr, adj. and -liga, 

adv. very wise, learned, Sks. 306 B. aU-fr63r, adj. very learned, Sks. 
30. all-frsegr, adj. very famous, Fms. ii. 324, Hkr. i. 232, ii. 187, 

Ld. 122. all-frsekiliga, adv. and -ligr, adj., and all-frsekn, adj. and 
-liga, adv. very bold, boldly, Isl. ii. 267, Hkr. i. 239, Fms. i. 121. all- 
fuss, adj. and -liga, adv. very eager, eagerly. Eg. 488, Fms. xi. 89. 
all-f:^siligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very desirable. Eg. 19, 46S. all- 

folr, adj. very pale. Lex. Poet. aU-gagnsamr, adj. very profitable, 

gainful, Isl. ii. 56. all-gamall, adj. very old, Hkr. i. 34. all- 

gegniliga and -gegnliga, adv. very fittingly, Sturl. ii. 63. all- 

gemsmikill, adj. very wanton, frolicsome, Sturl. ii. 57. all-gerla 
and -gorvUigr, v. -gorla, -gorviligr. all-gestrisinn, adj. very hos- 

pitable, Huv. 40. all-geysilegr, adj. and -liga, adv. very impetuous, 
Fms. X. 81. all-gildliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. with a very grand air, 
Grett. 121. all-gildr, adj. very grand. Lex. Poiit. all-giptusam- 
liga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very lucky, Fms. x. 53. all-gla3liga, adv. 
and -ligr, adj. very joyfully , joyful, Fms. iii. 143, Lv. 55. all-gla3r, 
adj. very joyful. Eg. 163, Ld. 176. all-gleymr, adj. very gleeful, 

mirthful, in high spirits, [glaumr], ver3a a. vi& e-t, Sturl. iii. 152, Eb. 36. 
all-glsBsiliga, adj. and -ligr, adv. very shiny, Eb. 34, Fas. iii. 626, Fms. 
ix. 430. all-gl6ggS8er, adj. very transparent, clearly visible, metaph., 
J>orf. Karl. 380. all-gloggt, n. adj. very exactly, Hkr. iii. 253, Fas. 

iii. 13. all-g63inannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very kindly, kind, 

Mag. 6. aU-g63r, adj. very good, Nj. 222, Eg. 36, 198. all- 

grei3liga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very easy, easily, Eb. 268 : neut. as adv., Eb. 
Lc. aU-grimmliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very grimly, fiercely. Fas. iii. 
414. all-griminr, adj. very cruel, fierce, Hkr. iii. 167. all-gruu- 

'samliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very suspiciously, Isl. ii. 364. aH 

g6fugr, adj. very distinguished. Eg. 598, Bs. i. 60. all-gorla, adf 
very clearly, precisely, Hkr. iii. 133, Fms. xi. 15. all-gorviligr, adj 
very stout, manly, Fms. ii. 28. all-liagstae3r, adj. with a very fair wind 
Sturl. iii. 109. all-har3ligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very hard, stern, Fa» 
i. 382. all-h.ar3r, adj. very bard, stern, Fms. i. 177 : n. sing, severely 
Nj. 165, Grag. i. 261. all-Mskasamligr, adj. and -liga, adv. ver 

hazardous, Fms. v. 1 35. all-liei3inn, a.d'}. quite heathen, Fs. 89 (in a verse) 
all-heilagr, adj. very sacred. Lex. Poet. all-heimskliga, adv. am 

-ligr, adj. very foolish, frantic, Hkr. ii. 190, Fas. iii. 293. all-heimskr 
adj. very silly, sttipid. Eg. 376, Grett. 159. all-beppinn, adj. ver 

lucky, happy. Lex. Poet. all-lier3iinikill, adj. very broad-shouldered 
Eg- 3°5' aU-hennannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very martial, Fmj 

xi. 233. all-bjaldijugr, adj. very gossipping, chattering, Lv. 57 

neut. as adv., Vapn. 10. all-bogliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very gently 
Fms. xi. 240, vi. 274. all-holeitr and -Mleitr, adj. very sublime 
Hom. 23. all-bor and -bdr, adj. very high, tall, v. -har. all 

bratt, n. adj. in all speed. Lex. Poet. all-hraustliga, adv. and -ligr 
adj. very bravely, Fms. viii. 289, Eb. 34. all-hraustr, adj. very valia 
Fms. viii. 267. all-breystimannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. vt,^ 
valiantly, Fms. xi. 95. all-hrumliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very in 

firmly from age. Fas. ii. 91. all-brseddr, adj. very much afraid, Fbi 
94. all-hi8B3irm, adj. very timid, Fms. vi. 155. all-hugsjiikr 
adj. very grieved, heart-sick, Hkr. i. 243, Fms. vi. 133. all-hvass 

adj. of the wind, blowing very sharp, Fms. ix. 20, Lex. Poet. all-hyggi 
ligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very carefully. Fas. iii. 610. all-h^rliga 

adv. and -ligr, adj. very blandly, with a very bright face. Fas. iii. 63'' 
all-li8e3iligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very ridiculous, Finnb. 312. all 

bseldreginn, adj. walking very tnuch on one's heels, dragging the heet 
very much in walking, of an aged or beggarly person, Band. 9. all 
hcegliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very softly, meekly, Fms. xi. 389. all 
hoelinn, adj. very bragging, Lex. Poiit. all-i3inri, adj. very diligei, 
laborious, Bs. i. 278. all-ilia, adv. and -illr, adj. very badly, ba 
wicked, Nj. 242, cp. ilia ; ill-willed. Eg. 542: compar., vera allver um, to 
worse off, Nj. 221 (Ed. allvant); angry, Lv. 145 ; disgraceful. Eg. 23; 
unfortunate, Sturl. ii. 47. all-jafniyndr, adj. very calm, even-tei 

pered, Frns. vi. 287. all-kaldr, adj. very coW, Vapn. 21. all 

kappsamliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. with very much zeal, liberally, Hki 
i. 271 ; veita a., of hospitality, Ld. 292 ; maela a., frankly, peremptorih 
296. all-kappsamr, adj. very eager, vehement. Eg. 187. all 
karlmannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very manfully, Fms. x. 141. all 
kaupmannliga, adv. in a very businesslike, tradesmanlike way, Fms. v 
255. all-katligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very /7/«ray, Grett. 112. all 
kd,tr, adj. very joyful, Nj. 18, Eg. 44, 332. all-keppinn, ac^. ver 

snappish. Lex. Poet. all-kerskiligr and -keskiligr, adj. and -liga 
adv. very sarcastic, biting, Sturl. ii. 196. all-klokr, adj. very shrewa 
Hkr. iii. 317. all-kndliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very stoutly, vigorously 
Rd. 312. all-kostgseflliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very earnestly, in 1 

very painstaking way, Stj. all-kostigr, adj. very excellent. Lex. Poi-i 
all-kvikldtr, adj. very quick, lively, Ld. 2 70. all-kynliga, adv. an 

-ligr, adj. very strangely, strange, Isl. ii. 58, Fms. ii. 227, Grett. i6c 
all-kyrrligr, adj. very quiet, tranquil, Hav. 49. all-kaerr, adj. ver 
dear, beloved. Eg. 139, Fms. i. 48 ; very fond of, Hkr. i. 194 : neut., Ft 
116, of mutual love. all-langr, adj. very /o«^, Hav. 49. all 

laust, n. adj. very loosely, Fms. xi. 103. all-ld,gr, adj. very low, shor 
of stature, Fbr. 68. all-lengi, adv. very long, K. Jj. K. 158. all 
l^ttbrunn, adj. of very brightened, cheerful countenance, Ld. 94. all 
l^ttiliga, adv. very lightly. Fas. iii. 612. all-16ttm8elt, n. adj., ver 
a. um e-t, to speak in a very lively way, Fms. iv. 261. all-16ttr, ad 
very light (in weight). Fas. iii. 487. all-lfkliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. i 
very agreeable, courteous terms. Fas. i. 84. all-likligr, adj. very likeh 
Fas. ii. 247, Sks. 669. all-likr, adj. very like. Fas. iii. 579, Sd. i6c 
Korm. 142. all-iltiKjSrligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very puny, prop, hai 
ing little life in one, Hav. 54. all-litill, adj. very little, Faer. 268 : 1 
sing. all-Htt, as adv. very little, Nj. 108, 1 30, Korm. 1 72; poorly, Grett. 1 1 '■ 
all-lyginn, adj. very given to lying, Fbr. 157. all-makligr, adj. an 
-liga, adv. very deserving, fitting, Sturl. iii. 127, Bjarn. 22. all-mann 
f d-tt, n. adj . with very few people, Gisl. 3 1 . all-mannhsettr, adj . very dan 
gerous. Fas. iii. 34. all-maiinsk8B3r, adj. very full of manskathe . ver 
murderous, Fms.ii. 51 2. all-mannvaenligr, adj. a very promising man 
Fms. iv. 254. all-mannv8Bnn, adj. a man of very great promise, Hkr. i 
182. all-margliga, adv.i/er>'q^ai/)', Sturl. iii.27. all-margmselti 
part, very talkative, Sturl. ii. 179. all-margr, adj. very mimerous, y 
very many, Nj. 32, Grag. ii. 1 76, Sks. 328, GJ)1. 329. all-margrsett, i 
adj. part, very much spoken of, Fms. viii. 275. all-mdlugr, adj. vei\ 
loquacious, Hkr. iii. 152, 655 xi. 2. all-indttfarinn, adj. very muc 
worn out, with very little strength left. Fas. ii. 356. all-mdttlitLU 

adj. very weak, Fms. i. 1 59. all-meginlauss, adj. very void ofstrengtl 
Fms. xi. T03. all-mikilfengligr, adj. very high and mighty, very irn 
posing, Fs. all-mikill, adj. very great, Isl. ii. 269, Nj. 193, Eg. 2(; 

,39 : neut. as adv. greatly, Fms. i,. 24, vii, ilo.. aJl-miiilmaanliga 



iv. very nobly, Sturl. i. 33. all-misjafn, adj. very variously, un- 

ivourahly, in such phrases as, niaela a. uni c-t, there were very different 
Tories about the matter, leggja a. til, ganga a. imdir, taka a. a. Kg. 242, 
Ikr. ii. 122, Fms. i. 86, vii. 110, Ld. 166. all-mj6r, adj. very slim, 
'ender, narrow, Hkr. iii. 117, GJ)1. 173. all-mjOk, adv. very much, 

Ij. 134, Ld. 196, Eg. 19 ; fellu ^a a. nienn, in very great numbers, Fms. 
173. all-myrkr, adj. very dark, Fnis. ix. 23. all-maediliga, 

dv. with very great effort, heavily, Fms. ix. 16. all-naufligr, adj. 

lid -liga, adv. very reluctant, unwilling, Grett. 153; a. staddr, danger- 
udy, Fms. v. 212. all-n&inn, adj. very near, nearly related, Sks. 

30. all-ndttf6rull, adj. very tnuch given to wandering by night, 
,ex. Poiit. all-nlflskdrr, adj. of a poet, given to mocking, satirical 

erse, [niS and skald (?)], Fms. ii. 7. all-n6g, adv. very abundantly, 
d. 182. all-nsBr, adv. very near, Fms. vii. 289; metaph., lagfti a. 

t, pretty nearly, well-nigh, Fs., Sks. 684 B. all-nserri, adv. very near, 
d. 202, Fas. iii. 339. all-opt, adv. very often, Anecd. 38, G^l. 169. 
ll-orflMtt, n. adj. in the phrase, gcira a. um, to be very short of words 
s <o, Bjam. 31. aU-6gurligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very frightful, 

dda 41. all-61inliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very furiously. Fas. iii. 
46, BarS. 177. all-ottalaust, n. adj. with very little to fear. Eg. 

71, V. 1. all-ramskipaSr, adj. part, very strongly manned, Fms. iii. 
3. all-rauSr, adj. very red, Ld. 182. all-rd3ligr, adj. very ex- 
edient, advisable, Grett. 145. all-rei3iligr, adj. looking very wrath- 
•d, Fms. iv. 161. all-reiflr, adj. fery tvroth, angry, Edda 57, Nj. 135, 
g. 139. aU-rfkmannligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very grand, pomp- 

us, magnificent, Fms. i. 2 1 3. all-rikr, adj. very powerful, Fms. i. 1 1 5. 
11-r^liga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very feebly, puny, Fbr. 28. all-rosk- 
ga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very smart, brisk, Fms. viii. 317. all-sann- 
gr, adj. and -liga, adv. very likely, ^ soothlike,' Fms. iv. 270. all- 

littgjarnliga, adv and -ligr, adj. very placable, of mild disposition, 
url. iii. 288. all-seinn, adj. very slow, Bs. i. 192: neut. as adv. 
'ou'ly, Grett. 15 1 A. all-sigrssell, adj. very victorious, having very 
')od luck in war, Hkr. i. 28. all-skammr, adj. very short, very scant, 
■ ]. 264 : neut. substantively, a very short way, Finnb. 324 ; short distance, 
nis. iv. 329. all-skapliga, adv. very fittingly, properly, Grett. 120. 
ll-skapvserr, adj. of a very gentle, meek disposition, Sturl. all-skap- 
ungt, n. adj., vera a., to be in a very gloomy, depressed state of mind, 
ins. iv. 26. all-skarpr, adj. very sharp. Lex. Poijt. all-skeinu- 
eettr, adj. very dangerous, vulnerable, Sturl. ii. 139. all-skemti- 

gr, adj. very amusing, Sturl. ii. 77. all-skillitill, adj. very slow- 
•ffc!, dull, Sturl. i. 89. all-skjallkaenliga, adv. [skjalla, to flatter'], 
inxingly, Grett. 131 A. all-skjott, n. adj. as adv. very soon, 

./>. all-skrautligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very smart, splendid, 
as. n. 366, Mag. II. all-skygn, adj. very sharp-sighted, Hrafn. 33. 

U-skyldr, adj. bound to, very obligatory; n&xt. — bonnden duty, Sks. 
84; deserved, GJ)1. 61 : p. nearly related, near akin, Fms. xi. 75. 
11-skyndiliga, adv. very quickly. Bias. 40. all-skynsamliga, adv. 
ery judiciously, Sturl. iii. 161. all-skyrugr, adj. all curd-besprent, 

irett. 107 A. all-skoruliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very frankly, 

oldly, dignified, Sturl. iii. 39, Fms. ix. 5, Ld. 94 C, 226, Bs. i. all- 
Ij&liga, adv. very slotvly, sluggishly, Grett. loi A. all-smdr, adj. 
ery sfnall, Fms. v. 55, xi. 61. all-snarpliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. 

ery sharply, smartly, Fms. viii. 346. all-snarpr, adj. very sharp, 

ms. i. 38, Nj. 246. all-snemma, adv. very early, Fms. ii. 223. 

ll-snjallr, adj. very shrewd, clever, Fms. viii. 367. all-snuSula, 
dv. very quickly. Lex. Poet. all-sneefr, adj. very brisk, id. all- 

nSfurmannligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very brisk and energetic looking, 
r a man, Fms. xi. 79. all-spakliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very mildly, 
loderately, wisely, Hkr. ii. 41. all-spakr, adj. very gentle, wise, 

ms. vi. 298. all-stars:^n, adj. who stares very hard at a thing, 

taking fixedly upon, Fms. vi. 203. all-sterkliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. 
ery briskly, strongly, Ld. 158, Fas. iii. 612. all-sterkr, adj. very 

frong, Hkr. i. 238, Eg. 285; Isl. ii. 461 {very veheiiient) ; as a pr. name, 
ms. iii. 183. all-stilliliga, adv. very calmly, in a very composed 

lanner, Ld. 318. all-stir3r, adj. very stiff, Hav. 46. all-stor- 

oggr, adj. dealing very hard blows, Fms. i. 171. all-st6rliga, adv. 
ery haughtily, Hkr. ii. 63, Ld. 168. all-stormaniiliga, adv. and 

ligr, adj. very munificently, nobly. Fas. iii. 45 ; haughtily, Sd. 146. all- 
t6rorSr, adj. using very big words. Eg. 340, Ld. 38 {very boisterous). 
ll-storr, a.d]. very great, metaph. big, puffed up, Ld.3 1 8 ; dat. all-storum, 
s adv. very largely, Edda 32. all-strangr, adj. very rapid. Lex. 
'oot. aU-styggr, adj. very ill-humoured, cross, Grett. 103 A. all- 
tyrkliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very stoutly, Stj. 402. all-styrkr, adj. 
ery strong, Fms. i. 177. all-svangr, adj. very hungry. Lex. Poet, 
ll-svinnliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very wisely, prtidently, wise. Fas. i. 
5. ii. 266. all-ssettfuss, adj. very placable, peace-loving, very will- 
ig to accept an atonement, Sturl. iii. 19. all-scemiliga, adv. and 

ligr, adj. very seemly, decorous, honourable, Hkr. i. 215, Isl. ii. 163. 
11-tiginn, adj. very princely. Lex. Poet. all-tillitsamr, adj. very 
'idulgent, lenient, JjorS. 12. all-tidrsett, n. adj. very much talked of, 
lucb spoken af^ Eg._99, Sturl. i. 199. all-tiflvirkr» adj. very qrdck at 

work, Fms. xi. 377, all-torfyndr, adj. very hard to find, Fms. vii. 
356. all-torfeert, n. adj. very hard to pass, cross. Eg. 546. all- 

tors6tt, n. adj. part, very difficult to reach. Eg. 546. all-tortryggi- 
liga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very suspiciously, Sturl. ii. 47. aU-torveld- 
ligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very difficult, Str. all-trau3r, adj. very 
slow, unwilling, Fms. xi. 39. all-tregr, adj. very tardy, Faer. II4, 
Barft. 178. all-trtir, adj. very true, Fms. vi. 377. all-tryggr, 

adj. very trusty, Hkr. iii. 167. all-tvitugr, false reading, instead of eigi 
alls t., not quite twenty, Sturl. i. 181. all-tindarligr, adj. and -liga, 
adv. very odd, wonderful, Fms. ii. 150. all-ungr, adj. very young. 
Eg. 268, Fms. i. 14, Ld. 274. all-iibeinskeyttr, adj. shooting very 
badly, Fms. ii. 103. all-libli3r, adj. very harsh, unkind. Fas. ii. 

all-ubragdligr, adj. very ill-looking, Sturl. iii. 234. all-ildaell, adj. 
very spiteful, untractable, Sturl. i. 99. all-ufagr, adj. very ugly, metaph., 
Fms. iii. 154. all-ufimliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very awkwardly. Fas. 
ii. 543. all-uframliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very backward, shy, timid, 
Fbr. 38 C. all-ufri3r, adj. i/ery M^/y, Fms. xi. 227. all-Tifr^nn, 
adj. very sullen, 'frowning,' sour. Eg. 525. all-TofrsBgr, adj. very in- 
glorious, Fms. iv. 259. allriaglaSr, adj. very gloomy, sad, Hkr. iii. 
379. all-ulieegr, adj. very difficult. Eg. 227. all-uhofSingligr, 
adj. very low-looking, very plebeian, Finnb. 222. all-uk&tr, adj. very 
sorrowful, Edda 35, Eg. 223, Fms. i. 37. all-Tikn6r, adj. very weak 
of frame, Grett. 119 A, very badly knit; Bs. i. 461 (of boys). all- 
ukontmgligr, adj. very unkingly, Fms. viii. 158. all-iakuiiiiigr, adj. 
quite unknown, Isl. ii. 412. all-ulifligr, adj. very unlikely to live, Hkr. 
ii. 200. all-ulikliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very unlikely, Gisl. 24, Sd. 
123, Finnb. 310. all-ulikr, adj. very unlike, Gliim. 364. all- 
■dlyginn, adj. not at all given to lie, truthful, Fbr. 157. all-uindttu- 
liga, adv. and -ligr, adj. weakly, very weak, tender, Fms. iv. 318. all- 
uraSinn, adj. part, very 'unready' (cp. Ethelred the 'unready'), u7ide- 
cided, Lv.g. all-ur&dliga, adv. very unadvisedly, rashly, Odd. 12 
old Ed. all-usannligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very untruthful, unjust; 
also, unlikely, Fms. vii. 141. all-us&ttfuss, adj. very implacable, un- 
willing to come to terms, Sturl. iii. 275. all-uskyldr, adj. very strange 
to, not at all bound to.... Eg. 10. all-iispakr, adj. very unruly, 
Sturl. ii. 61., adj. very uncomfortable, of weather, cold and 
rainy, Bs. i. 509. all-iis^n, adj. very uncertain, doubtful. Glum. 
358, Sturl. i. 105. all-usseligr, adj. of very poor, wretched appearance, 
NiSrst. 109. all-Tivinsaell, adj. very unpoptilar, Fms. iv. 369, Fas. iii. 
520. all-uvisliga, adv. very unwisely, Ni8rst. 6. all-iivsenliga, 
adv. and -ligr, adj. of very unfavourable prospect. Fas. ii. 266 ; n. adj. very 
unpromising, Grett. I48 A. all-uvsenn, adj. very ugly. Fas. i. 234; 
very unpromising, unfavourable, Isl. ii. 225 : neut. as adv. unfavourably, 
Fms. xi. 134. all-uj)arfr, adj. very unthrifty, very unprofitable, some- 
thing that had better be prevented. Eg. 576, Hkr. ii. 245. all-vand- 
litr, adj. very difficult, hard to please, Fms. vi. 387. all-vandliga, 
adv. with very great pains, exactly, carefully, Sks. 658 B. all-vant, n. 
adj., vera a. um e-t, to be in a very great strait, Nj. 221. all-varfaerr, 
adj. very careful, solicitous. Eg. 63. all-vaskligr, adj. and -liga, adv. 
very brisk, smart, gallant, Hkr. i. 104 ; compar.v.alvaskhgr. all-vaskr, 
adj. very brisk, gallant, Fms. viii. 226. all-vdndr, adj. very bad, of 
clothes, much worn, Pm. Ii. all-vd.pndjarfr, adj. very bold, daring 
in arms, Hkr. iii. 63. all-ve3rliti5, n. adj. very calm, with little 
wind, Fms. vi. 360. all-vegliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very grand, 

princely, nobly, Fms. i. 20, Eg. 332, Hkr. i. 15. all-vel, adv. very well, 
Nj. 12, Eg. 78, 198; compar. albetr, V. alvel. all-vesall, adj. r«7/z///_y, 
wretched, Nj. 97. all-vesalliga, adv. very wretchedly , Oik. 35. aU- 
vesalmannliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. id., Isl. ii. 416. all-vessell, adj. 
very miserable, base, vile, Nj. 97. all-vingjarnliga, adv. and -ligr, 
adj. very friendly, amicable, Sturl. ii. 168. aU-vingott, n. adj. on- 

very friendly terms, Fbr. 129. all-vinssell, adj. very popular, used of 
a man blessed with many friends, Fms. i. 184, ii. 44, Orkn. 104 old Ed. 
all-vir3uligr, adj. and -liga, adv. very worthy, dignified, Fms. x. 84, 
Bs. i. 83. all-vitr, adj. very wise, Sks. 29 B (superl.) all-vitrliga, 
adv. very wisely. Fas. ii. 66. all-vi3a and all-vitt, n. adj. very widely, 
Hkr. iii. 141, Lex. Poet. all-vigliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. in a very 
warlike manner, Fms. ix. 488, Fas. ii. 112. all-vigmannliga, adv. 
very martially. Fas. iii. 150. all-vigin63r, adj. quite wearied out with 

fighting, Introd. to HelgakviSa (Saem.) all-viss, adj. very wise, sure, 
Sks. 520, Lex. Poet. : neut. to a dead certainty, Lex. Poet. all-vsen- 
liga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very promising, handsome, Ghim. 349, Fms. v. 
260, Fbr. 114. all-vsenn, adj. id., Clem. 24, Bs. i. 340 : neut., J)ykja 
a. um, to be in high spirits, Isl. ii. 361 ; make much of, Fms. ii. 76 ; as adv. 

favourably, Fms. iv. 19a. all-vorpuligr, adj. of a very stout, stately 

frame, Hkr. ii. 254. all-v6xtuligr, adj. very tall, of large growth. 
Fas. iii. 627. all-{)akkligr, zd]. very pretty, — ^lekkiligT, Lex. Poet. 
all-J)akksainliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very thaiikfully, Fms. i. 120, Ld. 
298. all-J)arfliga, adv. very thriftily, very pressingly ; biSja a., to beg 

very hard, Edda 45. all-J)arfr, adj. very thrifty. Lex. Poet. all- 
J)ettr, adj. very crowded, cp. Lex. Poet. all-l)rekligr, adj. of a very 

^robust frame, Hkr. ii, a. , all-J)r6ngr, ^dj. as ueut. in. 0. very great 



crowd, Edda 24. all-J)Ungliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. very hard, unwill- 
ing, reluctant, Sturl. ii. 120 ; taka a. a e-m, to be very hard upon, Mag. I. 
all-l)ungr, adj. very unfavourable, Hkr. ii. 358 ; hostile, badly disposed 
towards, Eb. 108, Eg. 332 ; J)ykja a., to dislike, Fnis. viii. 44I ; a. or8, to 
blame, Sturl. ii. 62. all-J)ykkr, adj. very thick, Fas. i. 339: n. sing. 
as adv. thickly, Fms. vii. 70 (of great numbers slain on the battle-field). 
all-sefr, adj. very furious, wrath, Isl. ii. 258, Lv. 60, Fas. i. 404. all- 
eegiligr, adj. very terrible. Drop!. 18. all-sestr, adj. very incited, 
vehement, Nj. 231. all-6ror3r, adj. very quick-tongued, frank, out- 
spoken. Eg. 340. all-6ruggliga, adv. very steadfastly, very firmly, 
Grett. 153 A. all-6ruggr, adj, very unflinching, Bs. i. 624. 

all-fodr, m. father of all, Edda 2, 6, 13 (a name of Odin), v. alfciSr. 

al-lj6ss, adj. quite light; dagr a., broad daylight. Eg. 219; n. sing., 
vera alljost, in broad daylight, Grett. 95 A, 112 A, Fms. ix. 35, Sturl. 
ii. 108 ; metaph. qtiite clear, Sks. 490. 

al-lo3inn, adj. very hairy, shaggy all over, Fms. iii. 125. 

al-lokit, n. part., a. allri van, when all hope is gone, Bs. i. 198. 

ALXjB, till, allt, and alt, adj. [Ulf. alls = 7rds, anas, 6\os ; A.S. eall ; 
Engl, and Germ. all]. 

A. In sing, as adj. or substantively, cunctus, totus, omnis: I. 

all, entire, the whole ; hon a allan arf eptir mik, she has all my heritage 
after me, Nj. 3 ; um alia fiingsafgliipun, every kind of J)., 150 ; gaf hann 
{)at allt, all, loi ; at oUum hluta, in totum, Grag. i. 245 ; allr heilagr domr, 
the whole body of Christians, ii. 165 ; a ollu fivi mali, Fms. vii. 311; allu 
folki, the whole people, x. 273 ; hvitr allr, white all over, 655 xxxii. 21 ; 
bii allt, the whole estate, Grag. i. 244 ; fyrir allt dagsljos, before any dawn 
of light, Horn. 41 : with the addition of saman = airas, — Icel. now in fem. 
sing, and n. pi. say till somun, and even n. sing, allt samant ; in old writers 
saman is indecl., — the whole. Germ. sdtn7ntlich, zusammen ; allt saman feit, 
the whole amount, entire, Grag. ii. 148 ; {)enna herna5 allan saman, all 
together, Fms. i. 144 ; fyrir allan saman 6jafna& Jiann, Sd. 157. Metaph. 
in the phrase, at vera ekki allr J)ar sem hann er senn (seSr), of persons of 
deep, shrewd characters, not to be seen through, but also with a feeling 
of something 'uncanny' about them, Fms. xi. 157 (a familiar phrase); 
ekki er 611 nott liti enn, sag6i draugrinn, the night is not all over yet, said 
the ghost, 'the Ides are not past' (a proverb), v. Isl. JjjoOs. 2. all, 

entire, full; allan halfan manu&, for the entire fortnight, Nj. 7 ; {jar til 
er Kjartani ])ykir allt mal upp, ufitil Kjartan thought it was high time, 
of one nearly (or) well-nigh drowned, Hkr. i. 286. II. metaph. 

past, gone, dead, extinct; perh. ellipt., vera allr i brottu, quite gone, 
Eb. 112 new Ed.; var Hrappr J)a allr 1 brottu, Nj. 132; then by an 
ellipsis of 'brottu,' or the like, allr s\m^\y =past, gone: a. past, of 
time ; seg J)ii sva fremi fra {)vi er J)essi dagr er allr, when this day is past, 
Nj. 96, Fms. ii. 38, 301 ; var J)a 611 J)eirra vinatta, their friendship was all 
gone, Fms. ix. 428 ; allt er mi mitt megin, my strength is gone, exhausted, 
Str. p. dead; {ja er Geirmundr var allr, gone, dead, Landn. (Hb.) 124 ; 
siz Gunnarr at Hlidarenda var allr, si>ice G. of Lithend was dead and 
gone (v. 1. to lezt), Nj. 142 ; sem faSir J)eirra vaeri allr, after his death, Stj. 
127 ; J)a er Noi var allr, 66 ; en sem hann var allr, 100 ; eptir J)at er Sara 
var 611, after all Sara's days were over, 139, 140, 405; a vegum allr 
hygg ek at at ek verda munu, that I shall perish on the way, Gg. verse 
5 ; me6 ^v\ at J)u ert gamlaSr mjok, J)a munu ^eir eigi lit koma fyr en J)u 
ert allr, Hav. 57 ; still freq. in Swed., e.g. blifwa all af bekumring, be worn 
out with sorrow ; vinet blev z\t,fell short; tiden er 2\\,past. III. used 

almost adverbially, when it may be translated by all, quite, just, e?itirely; 
klofnafti hann allr i sundr, was all cloven asunder, Nj. 205 ; er sa mi allr 
einn i J)inu liSi er mi hefir eigi h6fu5s, ok hinn, er {)a. eggiaSi hins versta 
verks er eigi var frani komit, where it seems, however, rather to mean one 
and the savie ... or the very same .. ., thus, and he is 7iow o?te and the same 
man in thy band, who has now lost his head, and he who then egged thee 
on to the worst work when it was still undone, or the very same . . . who, 
Nj. 213 ; vii ek at su gorS haldist 611, in all its parts, 256 ; kvaSu Orn 
allan villast, that he was all bewildered, Ld. 74. IV. neut. sing, 

used as a subst. in the sense of all, everything, in every respect; ok for 
sva me6 611u, sem . . ., acted in everything as . . ., Nj. 14, Ld. 54 ; ok 
lat sem \>u J)ykist {)ar allt eiga, that you depend upon him in all, Fms. xi. 
113 ; eigi er enn {jeirra allt, they have not yet altogether won the game, 
Nj. 335 : i alls vesold, in all misery, Ver. 4; alls mest, most of all, espe- 
cially, Fms. ii. 137 C, Fs. 89 (in a verse) ; in mod. usage, allra mest, cp. 
below. The neut. with a gen. ; allt missera, all the year round, Hom. 
73 ; allt annars, all the rest, Grag. ii. 141 ; at ollu annars, in all other 
respects, K. |>. K. 98 ; J)a var allt (all, everybody) viS J)a hrtett. Fas. i. 
338. In the phrases, at ollu, in all respects, Fms. i. 21, Grag. i. 431 ; 
ef hann 4 eigi at ollu framfaershma, if he be not the sole supporter, 275 : 
ureyndr at ollu, untried in every way, Nj. 90 ; cp. Engl, not at all, prop. 
not in every respect, analogous to never, prop, not always : fyrir alls sakir, 
in every respect, Gnig. ii. 47, Fas. i. 252 : 1 611u, in everything, Nj. 90, 
228: me8 611u, wholly, quite, dau5r me5 ollu, quite dead, 153; neita 
me8 ollu, to refuse outright, Fms. i. 35, 232, Boll. 342 : um allt, in respect 
of everything, Nj. 89; hence comes the adverb avalt, ever = o{ allt 

allt, prop, in every respect, v. avalt. V. the neut. sing, allt is uscd^tbe Lord of Hosts. It is esp. used as an adv. in some political and 

as an adv., right up to, as far as, all the way ; Brynjolfr gengr allt at 1 
close to him, Nj. 58; komu allt at baenum, 79; allt at bii&ardyrunumj 
right up to the very door of the booth, 247 ; allt nor9r um Sta8, all along 
north, round Cape Stad, Fms. vii. 7; su6r allt 1 Englands haf, iv. 329; 
verit allt lit i Miklagar3, as far out as Constantinople, ii. 7, iv. 250, 25; 
allt ii klofa, Bar9. 171. 2. everywhere, in all places; at riki Eireks 

konungs mundi allt yfir standa i Eyjunum, might stretch over the whole 0/ 
the Islands, Eg. 405 ; Sigr63r var konungr allt um Jjraendalog, over all 
Drontheim, Fms. i. 19 ; bjoggu par allt fyrir J)ingmenn Runolfs go8a, the 
liegemen of R. the priest were in every house, ii. 234 ( = i hverju hiisi, Bs. i. 
20) ; allt nordr um Rogaland, all the way north over the whole of R., Fms. 
iv. 251 ; voru svirar allt gulli biinir, all overlaid with gold, vi. 308 ; hafid 
sva allt kesjurnar fyrir, at ekki megi & ganga, hold your spears every- 
where (all along the line) straight before you, that they (the enemy) may ml 
come up to you, 413 ; allt undir innviSuna ok stafnana, vii. 82. 3, 

nearly = Lat. jam, soon, already ; voru allt komin fyrir hann br6f, warrants 
of arrest were already in his way, Fms. vii. 207 ; var allt skipat liSinu til 
fylkingar, the troops were at once drawn up in array, 295 ; en allt hug&um 
ver {still we thought) at fara me3 spekt um J)essi heru3. Boll. 346. 4. 

temp, all through, until; allt til J6nsv6ku, Ann. 1295 ; allt um daga Hak- 
onar konungs, all through the reign of king Hacon, Bs. i. 731' 5. in 

phrases such as, allt at einu, all one, all in the same way, Fms. i. 113. In 
Icel. at present allt a5 einu means all the same : allt eins, nevertheless ; ek 
sella J)6 utan a. eins, Isl. ii. 216 ; hann neitaSi allt eins at . . ., refused all 
the same, Dipl. iii. 13; allt eins hraustliga, not the less manly, Fms. xi. 443. 
The mod. Icel. use is a little different, namely = as, in similes =yW as; 
allt eins og bl6mstri6 eina (a simile), _;ms/ as the flower, the initial words 
of the famous hymn by Hallgrim. 6. by adding ' of =far too . . ., 

miich too . . ., Karl. 301 (now freq.) 7. with a comparative, much, 

far, Fms. vi. 45 (freq.) VI. neut. gen. alls [cp. Ulf. allis= o\ws; 

A.S. ealles], used as an adv., esp. before a negative (ekki, hvergi), noi 
a bit, not at all, no how, by no means ; J)eir ug6u alls ekki at ser, they 
were not a bit afraid, Nj. 252 ; hraeSumst ver hann mi alls ekki, we do 
not care a bit for him, 260; a h61mg6ngu er vandi en alls ekki {nom 
at all) a einvigi, Korm. 84 ; en junkherra Eirikr J)6ttist ekki hafa, ok 
kalla9i sik Eirik alls ekki (cp. Engl, lackland), Fms. x. 160; alls hvergi 
skal sok koma undir enn {)ri6ja mann, no how, in no case, by no means, 
Grag. i. 144: sometimes without a negative following it; aer alls geldar, 
ewes qinte barren, Grag. i. 502 ; hafrar alls geldir, id. ; alls vesall, alto- 
gether wretched, Nj. 124; alls mjok staerist hann mi, very much, Stj.; a, 
mest, especially, Fs. 89, Fms. ii. 137. In connection with numbers, in all, 
in the whole; tolf voru fiau alls a skipi, twelve were they all told in the 
ship, Ld. 142 ; tiu Islenzkir menn alls, 164; alls forust niu menu, the 
slain were nine in all, Isl. ii. 385 ; ver8a alls sarir J)rir e6a fleiri, Grag. ii. 
10; alls manu6, a full month, i. 163 ; Jieir ala eitt bam alls a aefi sinni, 
Rb. 346. p. with addition of ' til' or 'of =/ar/oo nn/ci; allsoflengi, 
far too long a time, Fms. i. 140 ; hefnd alls til litil, much too little, vi. 35. 

B. In pi. allir, allar, 611, as adj. or substantively : 1. used absol. 
all; {)eir gengu lit allir, all men, altogether, Nj.80; Siftan bjoggust J)eii 
heiman allir, 212; Gunnarr rei6 ok {)eir allir, 48 ; hvikit {)er allir, 78, 
etc. 2. as adj., alia h6f6ingja, all the chiefs, Nj. 213 ; or 611um fj6r8- 
ungum a landinu, all the quarters of the land, 222 ; at vitni gu5s ok allra 
heilagra manna, all the saints, Grag. ii. 22 ; i allum orrostum, in all the 
battles, Fms. x. 273; Josep ok allir bans ellifu braeSr, Stj., etc. 3. by 
adding a5rir, flestir, etc. ; allir a9rir, all other, every one else, Nj. 89, Fms. 
xi. 135 : flestir allir, nearly all, the greatest part of, v. flestr ; in mod. use 
flestallir, flest being indecl. : allir saman, altogether, Nj. 80. 4. 
adverb., Gregorius hafdi eigi 611 f)6gr hundruS, ttot all, not quite, four 
hundred, Fms. vii. 255. 5. used ellipt., allir (everybody) vildu leit.) 
{)er vegs, Nj. 78. 6. gen. pi. allra, when followed by superl. neut 
adj. or adv., of all things, all the more; en mi {jyki mer pat allra synst 
er . . ., all the more likely, as . . ., Ld. 34 ; allra helzt er peir heyra, par- 
ticularly now when they hear, Fms. ix. 330 ; allra helzt ef hann fellr meir 
all the rather, if. . ., Grag. ii. 8 ; allra sizt, least of all, 686 B. 2 ; ba 
sii kemr til pess allra mest, especially, Hom. 149 : very freq. at present ; 
Icel., and used nearly as Engl, very, e.g. allra bezt, the very best; a. haest, 
ne5st, fyrst, the very highest, lowest, foremost, etc. 

C. alls is used as a prefix to several nouns in the gen., in order tc 
express something common, general, universal. compds : aUs-endis 
or alls-hendis, adv. — scarcely to be derived from 'bond' — in every 
respect, quite, thoroughly, used almost exclusively in connection with aj 
preceding negative, eigi, eingi, or the like, and giving additional force tc 
the negation ; er pat hugboS mitt, at ver berim eigi a. gaefu til um viii 
skipti, it is my foreboding, that we shall not carry luck with tis to thi 
very end of our dealings, Ld. 160; eigi til allsendis, id.. Eg. 75 ; pat ei 
reynt at eingi maSr heldr sinum prifnadi til allsendis, it is proved that nc 
man holds his thriving thoroughly, Fms. i. 295. alls-Mttar, adv. 
[hattr], of every sort, kind; a. kurteysi, thoroughly good 7nanners, Fms. 
i. 17 (freq.) alls-herjar, an old, obsolete gen. from herr; Drottim 
Sabaoth is in the Icel. transl. of the Bible rendered by Drottinn Allsherjar 



rms, denoting something general, public, common. allsherjar-buS, 
the booth in the parliament (alj)ingi) belonging to the allsherjargo&i. 
; site is fixed, Sturl. ii. 44, 126 (referring to events in the year 1215). 
Isherjar-domr, m. a doom of the supreme court, a lawful public sen- 
ice, judgfnent of the full court; J)er rufu6 allsherjardom, violated lawftd 
Igrnent, the law of the land, Fms. iv. 205. allshei^ar-f6, n. public 
operty, a domain, lb. ch. 3, viz. the ground of the Icel. aij)ingi. alls- 
rjar-go3i, a, m. (v. go&i), the supreme priest, pontifex maximus. As 
; al{)ingi (q. v.) was within the jurisdiction of the great temple (hof) 
Kjalarnes, the keeper or priest of that temple — the descendant of its 
inder Thorstcin Ingolfsson — had the title of supreme priest, and opened 
,' aljjingi during the heathen age. At the introduction of Christianity 
is office remained with the supreme priest, who retained his name ; and 
, and not the bishop of Skalholt, opened the alj)ing every year; 
rsteinn Ingolfsson let setja fyrstr manna {)ing a Kjalarnesi aSr al{)ingi 
r sett, ok fylgir J)ar enn {still, viz. in the 13th century) sokum J)ess J)vi 
3or5i (viz. the priesthood of Kjalarnes, aliter allsherjar goSorS) alj)ingis 
Igun, Landn. 336 (the text as found in the Melabok), Landn. 39, {>6r6. 
(Ed. i860), and Landn. Mantissa. allsher jar-lid, n. public troops, 
my (Norse), Fms. x. 411, allsherjar-lySr, pi. ir, m. the people, 

nmonalty, Hkr. iii. 194. allsherjar -16g, n. ^\. public law, statute 

u of the land, in the phrase, at alj)ingis miili ok allsherjar logum, Nj. 
, 87. allsherjar-J)ing, n. general assembly, Fms. i. 224. In Icel. 
present allsherjar- is prefixed to a great many other words in order to 
jress what is public, general, universal. alls-konar [Old Engl.alkyn'], 
)p. an obsolete gen. from a masc. konr : o. as adj. ind. of every 

d; a. fanga, Eg. 65 ; a. ar, good season in all respects, Hkr. i. 1 5 : p. 
d simply as adv. ; hinn agaetasti a., in every respect, Fms. xi. 157 (rare). 
s-kostar, adv. [kostr], in all respects, quite, altogether; a. ilia, bad 
Icr, Ld. 232 ; J)ykjast mi a. hafa unninn mikinn sigr {a full victory), 
i. 147; frjals ok a. geymandi, to be observed in every respect, 
.'.. ^o; hann lofa3i a., made a full allowance, Bs. i. alls-kyns, 
. [kyn] = allskonar, Fms. x. 380. 11. 2, 25, where it is spelt alls- 
is. alls-sta3ar, adv. [staOr], freq. alstaSar or allsta3ar in a 
jle word, everywhere, ubique ; cp. margstaSar, in many places; sum- 
Jar, «'« some places; einhversstaSar, somewhere; nokkurssta&ar, any- 
'ire; allsta6ar ^arsem, Fms. ii. 81, x. 182. Metaph. in every way (rare); 
nun ek gera at {jinu skapi, nema J)ar, in everything, except that . . ., Nj. 
alls-valdandi, part. [A.S. ealwalda'], ' all-ivielding,' of God, 
Ynighty, Dipl. iv. 8, Fms. i. 121, Bs. several times. allra-h.aiida 
kllskonar, a mod. word. allra-heilagra in compds, a. messa, -dagr, 
rkja, All-Saints' -day, -church, Bs., K. A., Fms., etc. 
LLS and als, conj. [Ulf. allis=yap; Engl, as, contT. — als ; cp. the 
isecutive als in Grimm D. W. sub voce, col. 257 sqq.], as, while, since; 
f!]. in Lex. Poet, in old poets, less freq. in old prose writers, rare in the 
f sics of the 13th century : used four times in the treatise of Thorodd, — 
i liana sjalfr er hebreskr stafr, Skalda 167 ; alls v6t erum einnar tungu, 
]( ; alls engi grein er enn a gor, 162 ; alls J)eir hiifSu a3r allir eitt hlj66, 
-and as often in the old HeiSarv. S. — alls J)ii ert g63r drengr kall- 
, Isl. ii. 366 ; alls Bar3i var eigi bitr a febaetr, 386 ; alls J)u rekr 
erendi, 483 ; alls {)u hefir \>6 her til nokkorar asja aetla3, Ld. 42 ; alls 
r mattu ekki sinum vilja fram koma, Boll. 348 ; alls hann triiir mer 
Fs. (Hallfr. S.) 90 : alls ^u hefir J)6 a3r giptu til min sott, Fms. v. 254 ; 
{)eir hof3u fritt lid, viii. 362 . With the addition of 'er' (at); en 
alls er J)u ert sva J)rahaldr a J)inu m^li, Fms. i. 305 ; alls ef ek reyni, 
..,asl...,u. 262, (Grag. i. 142 is a false reading = allt), Fas. ii. 283 : 
h addition of ' J)6,' alls \>6 hefir J)etta med meirum fadaemum gengiS, 
Jr en hvert annara, ^a, vil ek . . . , but considering that .. ., Band. 32 new 
; cp. Lex. Poet. 

l-ti3, adv. at all times. Fas. i. 505 (paper MS.), freq. in mod. use. 
-liisigr, adj. all-lousy, Fbr. 156. 

\-'VBl6.,n.absolute power. allvalds-komiiigr,m . sovereign,Yms.x.^*]?i . 
1-valdr, pi. ar, m. = alvaldr (poet, word), sovereign king. Lex. Poet., 
432 ; heilir allvaldar ba3ir, a poetical salute, Fms. vi. 195 ; mikil er 
I aun (a proverb), 'tis hard to strive against the powerful, Lv. III. 
lyngis, quite, altogether, v. oUungis. 

-manna-, gen. pi. from an obsolete almenn [cp. Alemanni], a prefix 

ome nouns, denoting general, common, universal, Ad. 21. Freq. now 

eel., e. g. almanna-romr, m. public opinion, in the proverb, sjaldan lygr 

vox populi vox Dei. compds : almanna-bygS, f. an inhabited 

ntry. Fas. iii. 3. almanna-gj£, f. local name of the great lava rift 

c to the al{)ing, where all the people met; vide Nj. 244, Sturl. i. 206, 

almanna-leifl, f. a public road, Lv. 29. almanna-lof, n. 

f all, Nj. 251. almanna-skript, f. general confession, Hom. 

almanna-stofa, u, f. the common hall, a large room in the Icel. 

s of the I2th and 13th centuries ; opp. to litla stofa, Sturl. ii. 153, 

■ 1^4, 198; it seems to be identical with skali. almanna-tal, n. 

c i.mon reckoning, lb. 18 : p. (Norse), general censjts, with a view to 

Eving a levy, N.G.L. i. 98 ; Fr. = almanna{)ing. almanna-vegr, 

ri t high road, Nj. 261, Fms. ii. 99, = J)j63vegr, J)j(331ei3. almanna- 

1 %, n. (Norse), a public meeting, — aiding, Fr, 

al-mittigr, adj. [A.S. ealmeathig; Hcl. ala-; Germ, allmiichtig'], 
almighty, seems to be a Christian (ecd.) word, translated from the Latin 
omnipotens; but the phrase 'hinn almattki liss' in th» heathen oath (used 
of Thor) implies its use in very early times. The old form is contracted 
before -ir, -ar, -an, -um, etc., and changes g into k; almattkan, -kir, -kum 
(now almattugan, -ugir, -ugum, through all cases), v. mattigr : used of 
God, Fms. i. 231, Eluc. 10, Sks. 305, etc. : heathen use, Landn. 258, cp. 

P- 33.5- 

al-mdttr, ar, m., dat. -msetti, almightiness, omnipotence (eccl.), of 
God, 671. 3 ; sinn almcDtt (ace), Isl. i. (Hom.) 386, Fms. J. 236, 655 vi. 

2 ; vide almaetti, n. 

al-menni, n. the people, public, Fr. (Norse). 

al-menniliga, adv. generally, H. E. i. 465, K. A. 80. 

al-menniligr, adj. [Germ, allgemein], general, common, rare in old 
writers, Stj. ; a. (catholic) tni, Mar. 656 B. 8, 623. 18 ; a. Jiing, concilium 
oecumenicum, Rb. 338 ; a. Kristni, 390, 208, GJ)1., etc, Freq. in mod. Icel., 
= common, good, real. 

al-menning, f. and almenningr, m. I. in Icel. almost always 

fem. in the sense oi fundus communis, ager compascuus, common land, 
belonging to a whole ' fj6r3ungr' (quarter) of the country, and thus wider 
than the mod. ' afr6tt.' It still remains in the local name of the deserts 
round Cape Horn at the north-west point of Icel., cp. Fbr. and Landn. 
124; cp. also the passage in lb. ch. 3. The word is now seldom used 
except of wastes belonging to nobody : {)at er almenning er fjordungs 
menn eigu allir saman, Grag. ii. 392-394, Js. 107, lb. ch. 3, Grag. ii. 
345> 352, 359, 385, K. {>.K. 26, Fbr. 41, Landn. 124, in all those cases 
fem. II. masc. (Norse), [cp. Swed. almiinning, />a5c«?/»i, and Germ, 

almeinde, via publica or ager compascuus, Grimm R. A. p. 498], common 
or public pasture (answering nearly to the Icel. afr^tt), where cattle are 
grazed during the summer months, cp. the Norse setr, Icel. sel : rarely 
used in Icel. writers. In (3. H., ch. I14, used of Grimsey, an island off 
the north coast of Iceland, G^l. 450, Jb. 299, 31 1. 2. the high-street, 

in a Norse town, N.G.L. ii. 241. 3. the people, the public in general, 

common now in Icel. in this sense, Stj. 292, 493, Fbr. 194; almennings 
matr, common food, Bs. ii. 5, 179. 4. a levy, conscription ; fullr, allr, 

halfr a., a full, half levy of men and ships; fullr a. in Norway meant a 
levy of one in every seven male adults, N. G. L. ii. 199, Fms. iv. 142, i. 
165, D.I. i. 66 (of the milit. duties of Icelanders when residing in Norway). 
Metaph. (as a phrase) in Nj. 207, of raising the country, the institution 
being unknown in the Icel. Commonwealth. compds : almennings- 
br^f, n. a proclamation, Sturl. iii. 29. almenrdngs-drykkja, u, f. 

a public banquet, Bs. i. 108. almennings-far, n. a public ferry, GJ)1. 
415. almennings-mork, f. a /kW/c /ores/, GJ)1. 454. almenn- 
ings-strseti, n. a public street, Grett. 1 58 A. almennings-tollr, m. a 
pitblic toll, tax, 1 26 C. 1 73 (?). almennings-vegr, m. a public way. 

al-mennr, adj. common, public, Grett. 115, where MSS. A and B have 
almaelt. Now freq. 

ALMH, elm-tree, v. almr. 

almusa, u, f. = olmusa, aZms, [Scot, almous. Germ. aZmosen,(«A.«7;/xo<rwi;.)] 

al-miigi, a, and almugr, s, m., at present the first form is always 
used [cp. miigi and miigr, Dan. almue, plebs], prop, the commons, people ; 
konungrinn ok almuginn, kirig and commons, Stj. ; eigi vissi almuginn 
(people in general) hvat fram for 1 sottinni, Bs. i. 74 ; almiigrinn (the 
people) geystist, Bret. 37, 94 ; allvinsaelir vi3 almiigann, having very many 
friends amotig the commonalty, Fms. i. 184. p. now in lce^.= plebs, 
the masses, opp. to the higher classes ; so in many compds, e. g. almuga- 
nia3r, m,, almiaga-legr, adj., etc. 

al-maeli, n. what all people say, a common saying, general report; J)at er 
a. at ... , all people say, agree that . . ., Fms. xi. 326, Hkr. iii. 398 ; J)at voru 
almseli um dalinn, at .... Sd. 155, Ld. 332. p. a saying, proverb ; {)at 
er a. (common saying) at menn sj63i {)au ra3, er Jieir hafa lengi i hug 
ser, Hom. 83 ; J)6tt almaelit sanna3ist, at m63urbraedrum verdi menu 
likastir, though the saying proved sooth, that men are likest to their uncles 
by the mother's side, Isl. ii. 29. 

al-masltr, adj. part, spoken by all, what all say; esp. in the phrase, 
almselt ti3indi, news; spyrjast almxltra ti3inda, what news? Nj. 227, Ld. 
80, Fms. xi. 118 (a standing phrase). p. of a child that has learnt to 

talk; en J)a er sveinninn var tvaevetr, J)a rann hann einn saman ok var a. 
sem fjiigra vetra gomul biirn, but when the boy was tivo years old, then be 
ran alone and could say everything as well as bairns of four years, Ld. 34, 
(altalandi is the word now used.) 

al-msetti, n. omnipotence, Skalda 161 ; esp. theol., now more freq. than 
the masc. almattr. 

al-naktr, adj. part, quite naked, Rd. 295 ; now alnakinn. 

aln-bogi, a, m. = olbogi, elbow, Edda 1 10. 

al-n^, adj. quite new, Fms. viii. 61, Grag. i. 491. 

al-Oga3r, adj. quite in ear««s/, = alhugadr. 

ALPT, sivan, v. alpt. 

ALU, s, m. pi. ir, awl, Edda 71. p. in the phrase, ' leika a als oddi,* 
skjalfa fiutti hiisit, sem a als oddi li'ki (MS. allsoUa), the house quivered, 
as if it were balanced on the point of an awl, Fas. i. 89 ; the Icel. now use 




the phrase, a3 leika s'l als oddi, of the excitement produced by joy, to he 
merry, in high spirits, full of life and vigour, (cp. the Engl, to be On pins 
and needles.) * 

al-rau3r, adj. quite red, Rd. 298. 

al-r&Sinn, adj. part, quite determined, Fnis. viii. 145. ., 
al-rinn, adj. utterly plundered ; J)eir munu gorvir fyrst ahanir er nsestir 
em, tsl. ii. 93 (dub.) 
al-rejmdr, ^2ltI. fully proved, Fms, xi.441, Mirm. 74. 
alri, elder-tree, v. elri. 

.al-roskinn, adj. quite grown tip, Fms. i. 5, Ld. 256. 
al-rotinn, adj. all rotten, Stj. Exod. xvi. 20. 

al-rsemdr, adj. part. a. neut. rumoured of all, of bad news ; a. 

er, all people say, Nj. 76, Fms. vii. 1 13, Stj. p. in mod. Icel. both masc. 
and fern, in a bad sense, e. g. a. ]pj6fr, a noted thief. 
al-sag3r, adj. part, spoken of by all, Fms. ii. 50. 

al-satt, f. in the phrases, sattr alsattum, completely reconciled, atoned 
with a full atonement, Dipl. ii. 1 1 ; saettast alsattum, Grag. ii. 141. 
al-sdttr, ^6^]. fully reconciled, Nj. 120, Boll. 362. 

al-sekr, adj. a law term, an utter felon, an outlaw of the greater degree, 
= sk6garmaar, opp. to fj6rbaugsma3r, Nj. 240, Hrafn. 18, Grag. i. 463. 
al-si3a, adj. ind. [si6r,/a//A], en er Kristni var a., but when the Christian 
faith was universally accepted, Hkr. ii. 97 ; en J)6 Kristnin vxri mi a. J)a 
. . ., Grett. 150 (the old Ed. wrongly a landi). 

al-skipaSr, adj. part. fully manned: a. of a ship; skiita, tvitug- 

sessa, langskip a., Nj. 280, Eg. 13, Fms. iv. 70, Hkr. i. 176. p. a law 
term, bekkr, pallr a., full court, Grag. i. 7. 7. of a bench in a banquet- 
hall, quite full. Eg. 43. 

al-skjalda5r, adj. part, lined, covered with shields: a. of ships 
lined with shields along the bulwarks from stem to stem, as a ship of war, 
Landn. 156, Sturl. iii. 61. p. of troops in full armour, Sturl. ii. 47. 
al-skrifa3r, adj. part, written all over, of vellum, Th. 76. 
al-skyldr, adj. quite binding, Sks. 636. 
al-slitinn, adj. part, quite ragged, worn out, Vm. 161. 
al-slikr, adj. quite the same, Fms. iv. 157. 
al-sini3a3r, part, completely built, Fms. xi. 436. 
al-snotr, adj. all-wise, Hm. 54 : very clever, Jikv. 26, 28. 
al-spakr, adj. all-wise, cognom., Eg. 466. 
al-sta3ar, everywhere, v. alls-sta8ar, sub allr. 

al-styf3r, part, a metre in masculine rhymes (styfa), Edda (Ht.) 134. 
Masculine final rhymes are called styft. 

al-st^fingr, m. an animal with close-cropped ears; he who marked 
sheep in this way was liable to the lesser outlawry, unless it were publicly 
announced in the logretta, Grag. i. 426. 
al-svartr, adj. quite black, Nj. 80. 
al-sveittr, adj. all-sweaty, Al. 22. 

al-sveitugr, adj. reeking with sweat, now kofsveittr, Gisl. 137. 
al-sykn, adj. a law term, altogether free, released from all punishment, 
Grag. ii. 160. 
al-s^kna, u, f. complete immunity from punishment, pardon, Grag. i. 359. 
al-ssett, f. complete reconciliation, Nj. loi, Js. 40, B.K. 126. 
ALTARI, n. and rarely altara, n. or altari, a, m. ; mod. heteroclite 
altari, n. pi. olturu ; the forms -eri, -era [altare] also appear : — an altar, a Chris- 
tian word, the altar in heathen temples being called 'stallr,' Nj. 279, K. A. 
a8, 208, Stj. freq.; altaris, 625. 84 ; altari ^in, 655 xxiii. 2 ; altari (nom. 
pi.), xiv B. 2, Pm. 47 : masc, altara (ace.) fim alna langan . . ., but ^at 
(neut.) skal me6 eiri biia, a little below, altarans (gen.), altarann (nom. 
sing.), altaris (gen. neut.), altarit (neut. nom.), Stj. 307, 308, indifferently 
neut. or masc, Symb. 24; alteri, 1812. 17; altera (dat. neut.), 655 iii. 
2, 623. 54. coMPDs : altaris-blsDJa, u, f. an altar-cloth. Am. 33, Vm. 
37, B. K. 83 ; altara-blaeja, D. I. i. 404. altaris-bok, f. an altar-book, 
Vm. 6, Dipl. v. 18. altaris-brfk, f. an altar-piece, Vm. 12. altaris- 
buna3r, m. altar-furniture, H.E. i. 489. altaris-dagr, m. anniver- 
sary of the foundation of an altar, H. E. i. 310. altaris-dukr, m. an 
altar-cloth, Vm. r, D.I. i. 244. altaris-forn, f. a victim o^ered on 
an altar. Mart. 122. altaris-golf, n. the floor round an altar, N.G.L. 
i. 160. altaris-hom, n. the horn of an altar, Fms. xi. 444. altaris- 
htis, n. a chapel, Bs. ii. 80. altaris-klsedi, n. an altar-cloth, Hkr. iii. 
81, D. I. i. 266 ; altara-, Fms. iii. 28, Vm. i. altaris-likneski, n. a« 
image placed on an altar,'Pm.6i. altaris-messa, u, f. 7nass at an altar, 
Bs. ii. 81. &\taTis-p\&ta,u,{. a candlestick, Pm.g^. altaris-skra, 
f. an altar-book, Pm. 109. altaris-sta3r, m. the place where an altar 
stands. Eg. 768. altaris-steinn, m. an altar-slab, D.I. i. 266, 443, 
K. A. 28, Vm. 31, Am. 55, Pm. 106. altaris-stika, u, f. a candlestick 
for an altar, Vm. 3. altaris-J)j6nusta, u, f. altar-service, 655 xxxii. i . 
al-tiliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. civilly, Bs. i. 812. 
altingis = al^ingis, adv. [{)ing, res'], quite, altogether ^Vm. 24. 
al-tjalda3r, adj. part, hutig with tapestry all round, Fms. xi. 17, Sturl. 
iii. 193, Hav. 52. 
al-uga3r, sincere, v. alhugaSr. 
al-ti3, f. and in old writers almost constantly 61u3 (with changed 

sincerity, freq. in mod. Icel. in this sense. But in old writers prop, usei 
of hospitality, in such phrases as, taka viS e-m me8 6., to give a hearty re 
ception to, Ld. 196, Faer. 156, Fs. 15 ; veita me8 o., to give hospitable treat 
ment, Fms. vi. 1 20. p. affection ; hann gaf mer hringinn me8 mikilli o 
Fms. ii. 1 7 1 ; sakir gaezku J)eirrar ok aliiSar (affectioti) er Gu6 haf3i viS Abra 
ham, /or the sake of that kindness and love which God had toward Abra 
ham,Yer. 78; BjiJrn spyr ti6inda heldr tomliga af engri a., coolly, Bjarr 
53. Mod. also alu3liga, adv. heartily; alu3ligr, adj. kind, hearty 
COMPDS : alu3ar-ina3r, m. devoted friend, Fms. vi. 34. alilSar 

vinr, m. sincere friend, Hkr. ii. 210, Ver. 15 ; 61u8arvinr, Fms. iv. 387. 
al-valdr, almighty; alvald, omnipotence; v. allv-. 
al-vara, u, f. [appears neitKer in Engl, nor Germ. ; Dan. alvor']. ] 

seriousness, earnestness; Gunnarr segir s6t J)at alvoru, Nj. 49, Jjorst. Stanj 
50; ahyggjusamliga ok me8 mikilli a., with much earnestness, Fms. i. 141 
taka e-t fyrir a., to take it in earnest, x. 77 ; vissa ek eigi at J)er var 
vi6 at taka, that you were in earnest. Band; 3. 2. affection = a\u 

(not used at present in that sense) ; hverigir logSu fulla alvoru til annarr; 
Bs. i. 288 ; elskulig a. til e-s, hearty love, Fms. iii. 63 ; me3 alvoru 
bli&u, 144 ; er oil hans a. (inclination) til Olafs konungs, vi. 3a. compdi 
alv5ru-liga, adv. earnestly, Fms. ii. 21 1. alvoru-ligr, adj. earnes 
devoted; a. vinatta, Fms. ii. 144. alvSru-samligr, adj. earnest loo) 
ing, devoted; a. J)j6nosta, Fms. i. 261. 

al-varliga, adv. (-ligr, adj.), seriously, earnestly, 655 xxxii. 21. 
intimately, devotedly ; fagna e-m a., to receive heartily, Grett. 98 A 
al-vaskligr, m. brisk, martial, Ld. 196, (Ed. allvaskligr.) 
al-vaxinn, adj. part, quite grown up, Ld. 132. 
al-v&pna3r, adj. part, in full armour. Eg. 422, 460, Fms. i. 81. 
al-vdtr, adj. thoroughly wet, Fser. 184, Fbr. 23, K. |). K. 10. 
al-vel = allvell, adv. very well ; albetr at ser, of much better appearanc 
Ld. 332, Glum. 353 : so the vellum MS. A.M. 132 in both these passages 
al-vepni = alvaepni,y7//Z armour. 

al-verki and alverkja, adj. ind. aching, feeling pains all over t 
body [cp. the Scot, wark and werk and the provincial Engl, wark in tl 
sense of ache, racking pain"], Fms. v. 223, Bs. i. 615. 

al-virkr and alyrkr, adj. [verk], a. dagr, a working day, opp. to a ho 
day, N. G. L. i. 429, 153 ; cp. virkr. 
al-vista, adj. ind. paralysed, Fel. ix. 186. 

al-vitr, adj. all-wise, now partic. used of God, Clem. 33 ; superl. alvif 
astr, of greatest wisdom, used of a man of science, Sturl. i. 167. MS. Br 
Mus. 1 1 27. 
al-vsenn, ad], fair. 

al-vsepni, n. [vapn], complete arms; hafa a.,^o be in full armotir, ful 
armed, Nj. 93, 107, Eg. 46, 74, 88 ; me& z., fully armed, lb. ch. 7. 

al-vser3, f., almost constantly 61v8er3 (the change of vowel being cauS' 
by the following v), Bs. i. 593. 1. 19, even spelt olbaerS, probably akin wi 
alvara ; hospitality, hearty reception, good treatment; taka vi6 e-m me6 i 
Fms. xi. 52, 27, Fas. iii. 79 ; var J)ar uppi oil 6. af Grims hendi, i. 17: 
bj65a honum me8 allri 6., kindness, hospitality, W. t^io; cp. also Bs. 
1. c, where full er olbaerS ollum means there is open house; the word 
now obsolete. 
al-vserliga and 6lv8Drliga, adv. hospitably, tsl. ii. 348. 
al-yrkr, adj., a. dagr, a working day, v. alvirkr. 
al-J)akinn, adj. part, thatched all over, Fms. i. 89 ; older form -i8r. 
al-J)i]ja3r, adj. part., old form -J)il3r, completely wainscotted, Sturl, i 
193 : the vellum MS. has -J)il5ir, the Ed. -J)ilja6ir. 
al-J)ingi, n. [t)ing], mod. form alj)ing, by dropping the inflective 
the gen., however, still remains unchanged, alj)ingis. The parliament 
general asseinbly of the Icel. Commonwealth, invested with the suprei 
legislative and judicial power, consisting of the legislative logretta (q. v 
and the courts, v. domr, fimtardomr, fjorSungsdomar ; v. also go 
go8or8, logsogumaSr, logsaga, logberg, and many other words referring 
the constitution and functions of the al^ingi. It was founded by Ulfl; 
about A.D. 930, lb. ch. 3 ; and reformed by Thord Gellir A.D. 964, w 
instituted the courts and carried out the political divisions of Icel. ir 
go5or8, fjorSungar, and J)ing, ch. 5. In the years 1272 and 1281 t 
alj)ing, to some extent, changed its old forms, in order to comply w» 
the new state of things. In the year 1800 it was abolished altogeth 
A kind of parliament, under the old name aljiingi, was again establish 
in the year 1843, and sat at Reykjavik. Before the year 930 a gene 
assembly was held in Kjalarnes, whence it was removed under the uas 
of alj)ingi to the river Oxara, near to the mountain Armannsfell. T 
much-debated passage in HaensaJ). S. ch. 14 — en {)ingit var J)a utt 
Armannsfelli — therefore simply means that the events referred to hi 
pened after the removal of the KjalarnesJ)ing. The parliament at fi 
met on the Thursday beginning the tenth week of the summer, whf 
fell between the nth and the 17th of June; by a law of the year 9 
its opening was deferred to the next following Thursday, between 1 
1 8th 'and 24th of June, old style; after the union with Norway, 
after A.D. 1272 or 1281, the time of meeting was further deferredi 
June 29 ; July 2 (Vis. B. V. M.) is hence called {ling-Mariumessa. 1 

'vowel), aly3, Clem. 43, [a contracted form from al-hugd, -hugr],a^c;;ow, I parliament lasted for a fortnight; the last day ot the session, cAB 



ilak, because the weapons having been laid aside during the session 
again taken (cp. Kngl. wapentake), thus fell on the first or second 
Wednesday in July. As to the rules of the al{)ingi, vide esp. the first chapter 
if the f).{j. Grag. (Kb.) i. p. 38 sqq. The most eventful years in the history 
if the alj)ingi are, A. D. 930 (foundation), 964 (reform), 1000 (introduction 
af Christianity), 1004 (institution of the Fifth Court), 1024 (repudiation 
)f the attempt of the king of Norway to annex Iceland), 1096 (introduc- 
tion of tithes), 1 1 17 (first codification of laws), 1 262-1 264 (submission to 
[he king of Norway), 1272 and 1281 (new codes introduced). In the year 
1238 there was no alj)ing held because of civil disturbances, eytt alj)ingi 
)k {x'jttu J)at lidsemi, Ann.s.a., Gr4g. (p. p.) Islend. b6k, Kristni S., Njala, 
^turl., Arna b. S., O. H. (1853), ch. 1 14; of modern writers, vide esp. 
Maurer, Entsteh. des Isl. Staates; Dasent, Iiitrod. to Burnt Njal ; some 
jf the Introductions by Jon Sigur8sson in D.I., esp. that to the Gamli 
jiittniaii of the year 1 262. compds : alj)ingi8-d6nir, m. the court of 
ustice in the a., Grag. i. 87, 130. alj)ingis-f6r, f. a journey to the 

I., Js. 6. alj)ingis-helgun, f. hallowing, inauguration of the a., cp. 
lUsherjar go6i, Landn. 336. alJ)ingis-lof, n. permission, leave given 
iy parliament; ef . . . ssttist k vig fyrir a. fram, against the rules of the 

unlawfully, Grag. ii. 173. alt>ingis-inal, n. parliamentary rules, 
Proceedings of parliament; ef J)eir taka eigi af alj)ingismali, do not in- 
"ringe the parliamentary rules, Grag. i. 103 : in the legal phrase, at 
JJ)ingismali r^ttu ok allsherjar logum, where the first rather denotes the 
orm, the last the substance of the law. alj)ingis-nefna, u, f. nomi- 
lation to the legislative body and the courts, including domnefna and 
ijgrettuskipan, Grag. i, 5 ; cp. lb. ch. 5. alj)ingis-rei3, f. a journey 
the a., Nj. 100, Grag. ii. 78. alj)ingis-sdtt, f. an agreement entered 
nto at the a. alj)ingissd,ttar-hald, n. the keeping of such an agree- 
ment, Gnig. i. 217, Sturl.i. 66. alj)mgis-sekt, f. a conviction in the 
ourts. alj)ingissektar-hald, n., Sturl. i. 66 (seems to be a false 
eading) ; v. the preceding word. 

al-^ingis = olliingis or iildungis, quite, altogether, D.N. (not Icel.) 
al-l)j69, f. rare and obsolete = alj)y'&a, the commons. Ad. verse 17, 
onatorr. 9, 15 ; a. manna, Sturl. iii. 229, 125, Fms. vii. 240. 
'al-J)ykkr, adj. quite thick, foggy, Stj. I Kings xviii. 45. 
al-J)^6a, u, f. the public, people ; sva at a. vissi, Sd. 167 ; sag5i {)ii allri 
l{i\'Ju, told all people. Eg. 271. p. people assembled in a body; er J)at 
.fuarsta6r minn til allrar alj)y6u, all the assembled comtnons, Nj. 189, 
nis. i. 33. Y- 1 alj)y6u lifi, in common life, 655 xxi. 3. With gen., a. 
uiiiiKi = oil a., everybody, the overwhelming majority, bulk of people assem- 
'fi!. Eg. 193, where it is used of the household; a. manna var a brott 
iriii, nearly all people had left, 220 ; a, manna ger6u (pi.) g66an rom at 
1:1 !i bans, the whole meeting cheered his speech, Fms. vii. 242. It is 
>w almost solely used of the tommon people, allt folk, bjeSi rika menn 
teal thy) ok al^y8u, Fms. v. 113 ; cp. alj)y6is-f61k. compds : alt>y3u- 
rykkja, u, f. a common banquet, Sturl. ii. 245. alj)y9u-lei3, f. a 
"A mad. Eg. 579, Bjam. 49. alJ)^3u-lof, n. popularity, general 

. Hkr. iii. 31. alj)'^3u-nia5r, m. a working man,Yd.i'j2 old Ed., 
iy instead of alj)y6a manna, Fs. 67. alj)^3u-indl, n. common, 
■•itral report, J)at er a. at, Hkr. iii. 34. all)^3u-skap, n., in the 
lira^c, vera ekki vi& a., to be unpopular, livinsEell ok litt vi& a., Fs. 63. 
ilj)y9u-ta], n. reckoning, common calculation, lb. ch. 7, Rb. 18. al- 
y9u-v£pn, n. common weapons. Fas. iii. 620. alj)^3ii-vegr, m. 

' public road, Sturl. i. 36, Hkr. iii. 54. alj)y3u-vir3mg, f. public 
inlan, cojtsensus popularis, Bs. i. 158. alj>y3u-'vitni, n. universal tes- 
;n<my, Sks. 12. alJ)^3u-J)yss, m. a general tumult, Bs. i.46, Hom.46. 
al-J)y3ask, dd, dep. in the phrase, a. til e-s, to incline towards, attach 
leselfto, Fms. vi. 135. 

il-l)y3i, n. = alj)y6a, and alj)f3is-f61k, id., Bs. i. 805. 
:il-J>^3ligr, adj. common, general; a. ma5r = menskr ma6r, a common 
an, Fas. ii. 251 ; i alj)y81igri rae8u, common parlance, Skalda 185; hitt 
eri al{)y51egra (more plain), at segja, 208 ; a. fyrir sakir si8fer8is, of plain 
anners, Finnb. 298. 

il-J)8egr, adj. [l)iggja], quite acceptable, pleasant to, Hom. 75. 
xl-sestr, adj. part, excited, stirred up, Sks. 230. 

A.MA, a5, to vex, annoy, molest; with dat. of the person, eigi skuluS J)er 
Ruth, Stj. 423, Fms. i. 244. p. dep. (more freq.), amast vi6 e-n, to 
inoy, molest, in order to get rid of one, Landn. 66, Nj. 130, 199, v. I.; 
nu6ust liSsmenn Htt vi6 hana, Fms. v. 305, vii. 166, Fs. 32 ; at hann 
'"•"^i eigi a. vi8 (object to) hygb bans, Sd. 139: absol. ^o dislike, 'N], 
ami, a, m. vexation, annoyance, is now used in the phrase, a5 vera 

-il ama, to become a cause of vexation to : ama-samr, adj. and ama- 
)ini, f. bad humour ; cp. also iimurligr, distressing ; amatligr, loathsome. 
imallera, a&, to enamel (Ft. word emailler), Fms. xi. 427, Vm. 152, 

imathysti, a, m. amethyst (for. word), Str. 

imatligr or fim^tligr, adj. loathsome, hideous (freq, at the present 
y), Hkv. I. 38. 

imban, f., ambana, a&, and ambun, ambuna, recompense (Norse) ; 
ombun, ombuna. 
A-MBATT, pi. ir, f. [cp. Uif. andtahts=dtdKovos, {nrrjpfTris ; A.S., 

ambight; Hel. ambaht, servitium ; O. H. G. ampahl; hence the mod. Germ. 
amt, Dan. embede, Icel. embcetti; the mod. Rom. ambassador, ambassade 
are of the same stock ; Ital. ambasciadore, nuntius ; cp. Caes. Bell. Gall. 6. 
15 — circum se ambactos clientesque hahent, v. Diez on this root. The 
Icel. am- is an assimilated form from and-"], a bondwoman, handmaid; 
{jraell eSr a., Grag. ii. 152, 156 (where the older form amb6tt), N. G. L. 
i. 76 ; konungs a., freq. of a royal concubine, Fms. i. 14, Fagrsk. ch. ai : 
cp. embsetta and embjetti. Cp. also mod. ambaga, u, f. an awkward 
person; ambdguligr, adj. and ambdgu-skapr, m. clumsy manners, 
perh. all of them related to ambott. compds : ainbd,ttar-bam, n. 
childofan a., Fms. i. 72. ambdttar-d6ttir, f. daughter of an a., Eg. 
345. ambdttarligr, adj. vile, like an a., Fas. i. 244. amb&ttar- 

m6t, n. expression of an a. , Fas. i. 147. amb&ttar-BOnr, m. son of an 
a., Gr/ig. i. 363, Ld. 70, 98. ambd,tta-fang, n. a term of contempt, 
a woman's tussle, as it were between two bondswomen, Sd. i6a (of 

ainb-h6f3i, a, m. a nickname of uncertain signification, Egilsson sup- 
poses that of bi-ceps : most probably amb- denotes some animal ; cp. 
Hjart-h()f8i, Hart-head, and Orkn-h6f8i, Seal-bead, Sturl. i. 35 (in a verse). 
amboS, n. utensils, v. andbod. 

AMLODI, a, m. 1. the true name of the mythical prince of 

Denmark, Amlethus of Saxo, Hamlet of Shakespeare. 2. now used 

metaph. of an imbecile, weak person, one of weak bodily frame, wanting 
in strength or briskness, unable to do his work, not up to the mark. 
It is used in phrases such as, J)u ert mesti AniloSi, what a great A . you are, 
i.e. poor, weak fellow. In a poem of the loth century (Edda 67), the sea- 
shore is called the flour-bin of Amlode (meldr-li8 Aml68a, navis farinae 
Amlodii), the sand being the flour, the sea the mill: which recals the 
words of Hamlet in Saxo, — ' sabulum perinde ac farra aspicere jussus 
eadem albicantibus maris procellis permolita esse respondit.' From this 
poem it may be inferred that in the loth century the tale of Hamlet was 
told in Icel., and in a shape much like that given it by Saxo about 250 
years later. Did not Saxo (as he mentions in his preface) write his story 
from the oral tradition of Icelanders? In Iceland this tale was lost, together 
with the Skjiildunga Saga. The Icel. Ambales Saga MS. in the Brit. Mus. 
is a modern composition of the 17th century. compds now in freq. 

use : aml63aligr, adj. imbecile; ainl63a-skapr, m., or ainl63a-h4ttr, 
imbecility ; also ainl63ast, dep. Torfaeus, in his Series Reg. Dan. p. 302, 
quotes an old Swedish rhyme running thus : ' Tha slog konungen handom 
samman | och log fast och gorde afl^ gamman | rett some han vore en 
Amblode | then sig intet godt forstode,' where it means a fool, simpleton, 
denoting a mental imbecility. [Perhaps the A.S. homola is cognate; 
thus in the Laws of King Alfred, ' Gif he hine on bismor to homolan 
bescire,' if he in mockery shave his (a churl's) bead like a fool, which 
Lambarde renders morionis in morem : see Thorpe's Anc. Laws ii. Gloss. 
sub voce, and cp. the quotation from Weber's Metrical Romances ii. 340.] 
AMMA, u, f. [cp. afi], grandmother ; now in freq. use, but rarely in 
the Sagas, which use fo8ur-m68ir and m68ur-m68ir, Hym. 7, Rm. 16, 
Edda 109, Nj. 119, Ld. 328. In compds, 6mmu.-br63ir, ommu- 
systir, etc. ; lang-amraa, u, f. is a great-grandmother. [In Germ^ 
amme means a nurse.'\ 

ampli, a, m. and hSmpull, s, m. [ampulla], a jug, Vm. 6, 47, Dipl. iii. 4, 
B.K. 31. coMPD : ompuls-brot, n. rt/ofoi&errf, Pm. 93. 
amra, a8, to bowl piteously, Fs. 45 (of cats) ; cp. omurligr, piteous, and 
omruligr, adj. id. 

amstr, n. [cp. Germ. amsteig=palearium'], a rick, Orkn. 448, an ait, 
key. : amstr now means toil : cp. amstrast, a8, to toil. 

AN, conj. than, Lat. quam, is the old form, and constantly ilsed in 
MSS. of the 1 2th century, instead of ' en' or ' enn,' q. v. 
ANA, a8, to rush on, now freq. 

AND-, a prefixed prep. [Ulf. uses a separate prep, and; A.S. and-; 
Germ, ant-, ent-, empf- ; it exists' in Engl, in an-swer; Lat. ante-; Gr. 
avri-'\, denoting whatever is opposite, against, towards, and metaph. 
hostile, adverse ; freq. spelt and pronounced an- or ann- ; it is used in a 
great many compds, v. below. If followed by v, the a changes into o, 
e. g. 6ndver8r, adversus; in andvir8i,/in2e, however, the a is unchanged. 

ANDA, a8, [Ulf. has us-anan = iiarvtiv ; cp. Gr. avf/ws, wind, and 
Lat. animus, ajiima, spirit, breath : the Germans say geist, spirit, and 
athmen, spirare : Ulf. translates m/evpa by ahma, vovs by aha; Hel. 
spiritus by gest and athom, whence Germ, athmen : cp. Swed. and, Snde, 
spiritus, spirare.'] I, act. to breathe, and of the wind, to waft; 

meSan \ien megu anda ok upp standa, Bs. i. 224, Karl. 95 ; |>6r8r andar 
mi handan, Sturl. i. 21 (in a verse). II. dep. andast, to breathe 

one's last, expire ; MorSr Gigja tok sott ok andaSist, Fiddle Mord ' took 
sick' and breathed his last, Nj. 29 ; en ef sva ferr at ek ondumk, but if it 
fares so that I die. Eg. 127 ; \>zt hefir andast fa8ir minn. Fas. iii. 619. 
Part. andaSr, dead; hon var ^a onduS, had breathed ber last, Ld. 16; 
jarlinn vai J)a a., Fms. i. 149- 

anda- and andar-, the compds belonging to ond, anima, and iind, a 
duck, V. sub voce ond. 
and-bld£inn, adj. part, [ond], inflated, Sk41da 169. 

C 2 



and-dyri and anndyri, n. [Lat. atrium; from ond, atrium, q.v.], a^in the phrase, a6 ver8a a,, to come to words with, Rd. 300, Ko: 

porch; hyn dro hann fram yfir dymar ok sva i anddyrit, Grett. 140, 
Nj. 140, Fms. ii. 148, Bs. i. 804. 
and-fang, n. esp. pi. [Germ, empfang], reception, hospitality, VJ)m. 8. 
and-fselur, f. pi. [ond], ' the horrors,' in the phrase, vakna me6 and- 
fselum, of one suddenly awakening from a bad dream, or from being 
frightened when asleep. Fas. iii. 256, Fel. ix. 188. 

and-fsetingr, s, m. [and-], transl. of Antipodes in Pliny, Stj. 94. Now 
used in the mod. sense of Antipodes ; also in the phrase, sofa andfaetis, or 
andfaeting, of two sleeping in a bed ' heads and heels.' 
and-hlaup, n. suffocation. Eg. 553. 

and-hvalr, s, m. balaena rostrata, now called andarnefja, u, f., Edda 
(Gl.), Sks. 123 A. 

and-hsDli, n. mofistrosity, absurdity ; medic, the heels being in the place 
of the toes, Fel. ix. 188. andhselisligr, adj. absurd. 

andi, a, m. 1. prop, breath, breathing ; af anda fisksins, Edda 

19 ; cp. hverr andalauss lifir, who lives without breathing, in the Riddles 
of Gestumblindi, Fas. i. 482 ; af anda hans, Greg. 20, Sks. 41 B ; andi er 
Ingimundar, ekki g66r a bekkinn, of foul breath, Sturl. i. 2 1 (in a verse). 2. 
a current of air ; andi handar J)innar, air caused by the waving of the 
hand, 623. 33: now freq. of a soft breeze. 3. (gramm.) aspiration; 

linr, snarpr a., Skalda 175, 179. II. metaph. and of Christian 

origin, spirit. In the Icel. translation of the N. T. andi answers to mxvixa, 
sal to ^vxh (cp- Luke i. 46, 47) ; GuS skapaSi likamann ok andann. Mar. 
656 ; taki ^er vi5 likamanum en Drottinn viS andanum, id. ; gjalda Gu3i 
sinn anda. Mar. 39 (Fr.) ; hjarta, andi ok vizka, id. In some of these cases 
it may answer to i/'vx'7» but the mod. use is more strict : as a rule there is 
a distinction between ' ond,' f anima, and ' andi,' m. animus, yet in some 
cases both are used indifferently, thus Luke xxiii. 46 is translated by ' andi,' 
yet ' ond' is more freq., Pass. 44. 21, 45. i. 2. spirit, spiritual being 

(ond is never used in this sense) ; John iv. 24, Gu6 er andi, and, tilbi6ja i 
znda,fVTrveviMaTi. 3. /i^^oZy Gj&os/, Nj. 164, Rb. 80. A.angels; 

J)esshattar eldr brennir andana, Stj. 41. 5. in a profane sense; 

alfr e6a a.. Fas. i. 313. 6. spiritual gift; i krapti ok i anda Heliae, 

Hom. 104. Luke i. 17, Sks. 565. compds : anda-gipt, f. inspiration, 
gift of the Holy Ghost, Fms. iv. 48. anda-kast, n. breathing. Fas. 
iii. 348. andaliga, adv.5p/nVwa//y, = andliga, Fms. v, 230. anda- 
ligr, adj. spiritual, = ?indi\\gr, Stj. 8, Dipl. ii. 11. 

and-kostr = annkostr, purpose. 

and-langr, m. (poet.) name of one of the heavens, Edda(Gl.) 

and-lauss, adj. [ond], breathless, lifeless, exanimis; a. hlutir, Eluc. 9. 

and-Mt, n. [ond, anima; lat, damnum], 'loss of breath,' death; J)a er 
J)u fregn a. mitt, 623. 43 ; a. Magmiss konungs, Gizurar biskups, etc., 
Bs. i. 65, 70, Eg. 119, 367. p. the last gasp, the very moment of 

death; J)a var konungr naer andlati, Hkr. i. 160; var hann pa beint i 
andlati, Fms. vi. 230 ; ok er hann fann at nser dro at andlati hans, his 
last moments drew near, viii. 446 : andlat has the notion of a quiet, 
easy death ; liflat, a violent death ; but both are only used in a dignified 
sense. compds : andld.ts-dagr, m. day of death, Bs. i. 466. and- 
Idts-dsegr, n. id., 686 B. andldts-sorg, f. grief for a death, Stj. 196. 
andld.ts-ti3, f. and -timi, a, m. time of death, Greg. 78, Stj. 9. 

andliga, adv. spiritually, Sks. 614, 649, Stj. 27, 34, Hom. 57. 

andligr, adj. [Hel. translates spiritualis by giistlic, Germ, geistlich, 
Ulf. wtvfiaTiKus by ahmeins], spiritual; in the N.T. TTy-ev/xaTiKos is 
translated by andligr, i Cor. xv. 44 : a. fagnaSr, 656 C ; a. herklae6i, 
656 A. ii. 18; a. skilning, Greg. 23; a. lif, Skalda 199; biskup hefir 
andligt vald til andligra hluta, a bishop has spiritual power in spiritual 
things (opp. to veraldligr, KofffUKos), GJ)1. 73 ; andlig skirn, Hom. 52. 

and-lit, n. and armlit, [and-, adversus, and lita ; Ulf. andavleizns = 
■npoaamov ; A. S. andvlite ; Germ, antlitz], a face, coutitenance ; a andliti 
J)eirra, 623. 61; sa ek annlit J)itt, id., Nj. 16; J)angat horfi anlit er 
hnakki skyldi, N. G. L. i. 12; Hom. 7 renders in faciem by i andliti. 
Metaph. auglit is used as more dignified ; i augliti Gu&s (not andliti), 
ivimiov rov Qeov, in the eyes or sight of God. compds : andlits- 
bjOrg, f. visor, Sks. 406. andlits-farinn, adj. in the phrase, vel 

a., affair, well-formed featt^res, better in two words (andliti farinn), 
Sturl. iii. 178 C. andlits-mein, n. cancer in the face, Sturl. ii. 185. 

andlits-sk6p, n. pi. lineaments of the face, N. G. L. i. 339 ; vel andlits 
skiipum, of well-formed features, Fms. viii. 238. 

and-marki, ann-, and an-, a, m. [and-, mark], a fault, flaw, blemish; 
okostir c9r andmarkar, Grag. i. 313 ; ef annmarkar {)eir ver6a a biifenu, 
429; J)u leyndir arunarka a honum, Nj. 8. p. metaph. in moral sense, 
trespasses; i3ran annmarka, 625.90; used as a nickname, Gisl. 32. 
compds: annmarka-fullr, adj. full of faults, Fms, vi. ilo. aiin- 
marka-lauss, a.d]. faultless, Grag. i. 287. 

and-m&ligr, adj. contentious, quarrelsome, Fms. ii. 154, Magn. 448. 

and-m83li, n. contradiction, 4. 35. 

and-nes, n. and annes, [and-, nes], a promontory or point of land, 
Hkr. i. 313, Fms. viii. 147, Far. 83. 

and-orSa, adj. ind. [cp. Ulf. andavaurd; Germ, antwort], the Icel. 
use svar or andsvar (Engl, answer) in this sense ; andorSa only appears 


no (rare). 

and-6f, n. prob. = and-J)6f, prop, a paddling with the oars, so as to 
bring the boat to lie against wind and stream. Metaph., via nokkura 
andofi, after a somewhat hard struggle, Fbr. 84. 2. a division in a 

ship, fremsta rum i skipi kallast a., Fel. ix. 3. 
and-ramr, adj. (andremina, u, f.) having foul breath, Sturl. i. 20, 
ANDKAIl, m. pi. [Ivar Aasen aander], snow shoes, in sing. prob. 
ondurr, cp. the compds 6ndor-di3 and 6ndor-go5, used of the goddess 
Ska6i, in the Edda ; found only in Norway, where the word is still in use ; 
in Icel. only remaining in the proverb snaeliga snuggir kva6u Finnar, 4ttu 
andra fala, Fms. vii. 20, of a silly act, to sell one's snow shoes just when 
it begins to snow. Prob. a Finnish word ; v. ski&. 
and-r£, f. [contr. = anddrag (?), mod. word], breath, in the phrase, £ 
somu a., at the very same breath, instantly. 

and-r63i, a, and andr63r, rs, m. the later form more freq. [and-, 
Toz], pulling against stream and wind; Einarr atti gildan andr66a, E. hada 
hard pull, Fms. vi. 379, v. 1. androSr ; roa androSa, vii. 310, (androftr, Hkr. 
iii. 440) ; {)eir toku mikinn androSa, they had a hard pull, Fms. viii. 438, 
v.l. androSr ; ok er J)a sem J)eir hafi andr65a, Greg. 31; taka andr66ra (ace. 
pL), Fms. viii. 131, Hkr. iii. 440: cp. the proverb biSendr eigu byr en 
braSir androSa, those who bide have a fair wind, those who are hasty a 
foul, festina lente, 'more haste worse speed;' the last part is omitted in 
old writers when quoting this proverb. 

and-saka, a8, (annsaka, Bret. 162), [A. S. andsiic'], to accuse, with ace, 
Al. 23 ; hann andsakafti (repritJtanded) sveinana har31iga, Sturl. iii. 123. 

and-skoti and annskoti, a, m. [and-, adversus; skjota, skoti], prop. 
an opponent, adversary, one who ' shoots from the opposite ranks ;' a. 
Iy8s vdrs ok laga varra, 655 xvi. B ; ^eh h6f5u heyrt at andskotar J)eirra 
vildi verja ])eim vigi J)ingv611inn, they had heard that their adversaries 
woidd heep them by a fight from the parliament field, lb. ch. 7 ; eigi mun 
ek vera i andskota flokki moti honum, Fms. v. 269. 2. metaph. a 

fiend, devil, transl. of Satan, now only used in that sense and in swearing; 
mi hefir a. fundit faeri a at freista y&var. Post. 656 ; far i brott a., i»to76 
Soram, 146 ; a. ok J)eir englar er eptir honum hurfu, Ver. i ; dokvir J)ik, 
anskoti (voc), 623. 31, Hom. 108, 109, K. A. 20. compd : and- 

skota-flokkr, m. a band of enemies, Fms. v. 269, Grag. ii. 19. 
and-spilli and andspjall, n. colloquy, discourse, Skm. 11, 12. 
and-spsenis, adv., a. moti e-m,just opposite, the metaph. being taken 
from a target (spann), Snot 127. 
and-stefna, d, to stem against. Fas. iii. 50 (rare), 
and-streymi, n. prop, against the tide or current; metaph. adversity, Fr. 
and-streymr, adj. running against stream ; metaph. difficult, cross; Sig- 
hvatr var heldr a. um eptirmalin, hard to come to terms with, Sturl. ii. 42 ; 
andstreym orlog, ill-fate, Al. 69 ; kva& Svein jafnan andstreyman verithafa 
J)eim fraendum, bad always set his face against, Orkn. 390. 
and-styg3, f. disgust; vera a. af e-u (now, at e-u), dislike, Rom. 265. 
and-styggilig:r, adj. odious, abominable, Hkr. iii. 273. 
and-styggr, adj. id., Hom. 102, 623. 31, Sks. 539. 
and-svar and annsvar, n. [A. S. andsvaru ; Hel. uses andvordi ai 
andvordian = respondere ; Ulf. andavaurd], an 'answer,' response, but 
old writers esp. a decision; vera skjotr i andsvorum, prompt in decu 
Fms. i. 277 ; sag3ist til hans hafa vikit um ansvarit, put the case under 
decision, vi. 354; munu vit tala fleira a6r ek veita J)vi andsvcir, beft 
decide, Ld. 80; in N. G. L. i. 86 it seems to mean protest, interventii 
used of the echo in Al. 35. compd : andsvara-madr, m. a law t( 
a respondent, defender, Jb. 30. 

and-svara and annsvara, a5, to answer; J)a annsvarar konun 
Fms. xi. 56, rare, and in a more formal sense than the simple verb 
svara. p. answer, to be responsible for ; sem ek vii a. fyrir Gu6i, as I 
will answer before God, GJ)1. 66 ; v. anza or ansa. 

and-syptir, m. [ond, anima, or and-?], sobbing, sighing, hysterical 
fit, Hom. 121; [Engl, sob ; Germ, seufzen.] 

and-S8elis, in common talk andhselis, adv. [sol], against the course of 
the sun (cp. the Scot. ' widdershins,' that is, going against the sunshine o' 
the sun's light, a direction universally considered both in England ai 
Scotland to be most unlucky; see the quot. in Jamieson sub voce), 1~ 
ii. 154, Rb. 134; esp. used of witches and 'uncanny' appearances; \ 
gekk tifugt um hiisit ok a., it went backwards about the house and again 
the sun's course, Eb. 268, Gisl. 33, cp. Fs. (Vd.) 43, 59 ; hon gekk oti: 
a. um treit, ok haf6i J)ar yfir morg riim ummaeli, Grett. 151. p. ansaci 
or andhaelis is used of everything that goes backwards, wrong, ox perversely ; 
cp. andaerr and andaeris. 

and-vaka, u, f. sleeplessness, dypvirvia, caused by care or grief, Fm- 
i. 82; mostly used in pi. p. medic, agrypnia, Fel. ix. 189, Bs. 

251. y. wakefultiess, Horn. 108. In the Mafhli6. visur, Eb. ch. 19. 
andvaka unda = a sword, the ' awakener' of wounds; (cp. vekja bl63.) 

and-vaki, adj. ind. sleepless, now andvaka; liggja a., to lie awake, A!. 
71, Barl. 10, Mag. 80. 

and-vana and andvani, adj. ind., and now andvanr, adj. I 

[and- and vanr, solitus], destitute, wanting; with gen., a. litu, hfs a., au5.^ 



: alls gamans a., Hkv. 2. 31, Viils. kviSur, Lex. Poet.; alls a. nema 
s ok vesaldar, Fms. iii. 95 ; a. heilsu, Magn. 512 ; alls a., of the beggar 
zarus, Greg. 24 ; a. J)eirrar J)j6nustu, in want of. Post. 656 B ; inargs a., 
et. 174; a. eigna varra, having lost our lands, 208. II. [pnd, 

imd], now = exanimis ; andvaua lik, a lifeless corpse. Pass. 4. 23. 
nd-var3a, a8, to band over [cp. Dan. overantvorde^, rare, Fr. 
nd-vari, a, m. I. afisb of prey, gurnard, Lat. miluus, Edda 

1.); the name of the gurnard-shaped dwarf, Edda 72 ; the owner of a 
al ring, hence called andvara-nautr : cp. Skv. 1.2, Andvari ek heiti 
. margan hefi ek fors um farit. II. in mod. usage, a soft breeze, 

d metaph. watchfulness, vigilance, in such phrases as, hafa andvara a ser, 
ss. 15.6: andvara-lauss, adj. i&eerf/ess; andvara-leysi, f. mostly in 
heol. sense, etc. compd : andvara-gestr, m. an unwelcome guest, 
the phrase, vera e-m a., Fbr. 7. 24 new Ed. (now freq.) 
nd-varp, n. the act of heaving a sob, sigh, 655 xx. 4, Sks. 39, 688. 
i<\. in theol. writers. Pass. 40. 7. 
nd-varpa, a&, to sob, sigh, breathe deeply, Fms. x, 338, Horn. 155, 

225 (freq.) 
nd-varpan, f. sobbing, Horn. 124, Stj. 149. 
ad-vegi, throne, v. ondvegi. 
ndverSr, adverse, v. ondverSr. 

ad-viflri, n. [vc6r], head wind, Fbr. 67, Eg. 87, Fms. i. 203. 
ad-vir3i, n. [ver6], worth, equivalent, value, price; Jia skal {»at kaup 
iga aptr en hinn hafi a. sitt, G{)1. 491 ; haf J)u mi allt saman, skikkjuna 

a., Lv. 50; allt a. hvalsins, the whole value of, Greg. ii. 375 ; hann 
;r t)ar a moti ofdrykkjuna ok hennar a., reward, Fms. viii. 251. 
Qd-virki and annvirki, n. [onn, labour (?) ; cp. old Germ, ant- 
'h = machind]. I. in Icel. writers esp. used of hay and hay- 

cks; ef eldr kemr i hiis manns e8r a., K. Jj. K. 78, 82 ; faera, reiSa a., 
:arry into the barn, Grdg. ii. 122, Lv. 21 1 ; nema fe gangi i akr, engi, 
lur edr a., Grag. ii. 299 ; nautafjoldi var kominn i tiin ok vildi brjota 

. . . throw down the cocks. Glum. 342, Boll. 336 ; sendi tJlfarr menn upp 

.41sinn at sja um a. sitt J)at er J)ar st66 ; cp. little below, storsaeti, large 

is, Eb. 152. II. in Norway more generally used oi crop, tillage, 

^ricultural implements; gar5 J)ann sem um a. (barley ricks f) stendr, 
III. 381 ; ef menn brenna a. manna, N.G.L. i. 244 ; a. (produce) manna 
liitki sem er, 251, Jb. 312 ; {)a skal hann J)ar etja ollu sinu a. a, 357 ; 
f arkcist, timbr, grindr, sleSa e8r onnur a., implements (some MSS. read 
! bo6), 258, V. 1. Metaph., legit hafa mer a. naer garSi, en at berjast 
V |)ik fyrir sakleysi, business more urgent than to . . ., Grett. no A. 

id-vitni, n. a law term. I. Icel. contradictory testimony, such 

t was contrary to law. Thus defined : pat er a. er menn bera gegn J)vi 
s 1 aiir er borit, vaetti i gegn kviS, e8r kvi3r i gegn vaetti, sva at eigi 
I hvarttveggja rett vera, Grdg. i. 59, 60 ; it was liable to the lesser out- 
1 rv. skolud menn a. bera ok her a J)ingi, en ef menn bera, ok var8ar 
J utleg8, enda a Jjat einskis at meta, id. ; en ef menn bera J)at a. var&ar 
J fjorbaugsgarb, ii. 272 ; bera J)etr a. gaiurmm, false witness against the 
^is, 655 xiii. B. I. II. Norse, where it appears to mean contra- 

I'.ory testimony, such as was usually admissible; ok koma eigi a. moti, 
1 G. L. ii. 89, V. 1. ; sva er ef einn ber vitni me5 manni sem engi beri, en 
t ir sem tiu, ef maSr uggir eigi a. m6ti, if one bears witness for a man it is 
ii'bough no man bore witness for him, but two are as good as ten, if a man 
t\h not fear that contradictory evidence will be brought against him, 150. 

lid-vigr, adj. in the phrase, vera e-m a., a match for . . ., as good a 

rdsman as . . .; hann var eigi meirr enn a. einum J)eirra braeSra, Fms. 

65 ; sagSi Gellir sik fleirum monnum a. en einum, Bs. i. 649. 

id-yrdi, n. pi. [v. andorSa], objection, Sks. 76. 

ad-sefa, S, [v. andof ; Ivar Aasen andova and andov], a boating term, 

'mddle against tide, current^ and wind, so as to prevent the boat from 

ting astern ; J)a fell a stormr sva mikill, at {)eir fengu eigi betr en 
had nothing better than to lay to, Sturl. ii. 121; the vellum 
. rongly andhaett. 2. metaph. in the corrupt form andaepta, 

f ■<7>/y feebly against; with dat., ekki er J)ess geti8 at |j6r3r andaepti 
Jjsari visu, Th. returned no reply to this libel, Sturl. i. 22. Now absol. 
i'speak in a disjointed way, to ejaculate; andaepti skald upp lir m68u, 
f n eru feigs giitur ; skilja skcip, skamt er a6 landi, brosir bakki mot, 

rhymed incoherent words of a poet in the act of sinking beneath 
waves, vide Espol. Isl. Arb. the year 1 823, SigurSr Brei8fjor5 in a 

m in the Smamunir. 

id-8eris, adv. [ar, remus"], crossly, perversely, a figure taken from pull- 
Lex. Poet. ; freq. in the corrupt form andhselis. 

id-serligr, adj. cross, odd. Lex. Poet. ; now andliselislegr. 

ig, n. sweet savour, fragrance ; me6 una8 ok ang, Bs. ii. 10. 

NGA, a8, [Norse aanga; Swed. anga"], to give out a sweet scent, 

ur; ilmr angar mjok saetliga, Mar. Fr. ; now freq. 

agan, f. sweet odour ; angan Friggjar, the love of Frigga, Vsp. 54 ; 

le MSS. read angantyr, the sweetheart, husband of Frigga. 

agi, a, m. [Norse angle']. I. sweet odour; J;)vilikan ilm ok 

:a sem cedrus, Stj. 73, etc. II. [cp. A. S. anga = aculeus, 

'lulus'], a spine or prickle, in the phrase, J)etta mal hefir anga, has a 

g, is not good to touch, Bs. ii. 52. Now often used in pi. and used of 

a sprout, fibre in fruits or plants; metaph. a spoilt boy is called angi, 'a 
pickle :' as to the root, cp. onguU, hamus, and the English angle : angilja, 
u, f. is, according to Bjijm, one of the bones of a fish. 

angist, f. [Lat. angustia; Fr. angoisse; Engl, anguish; Germ, angst"], 
anguish, esp. in theol. writers, Stj. 31, 51, 55, 106, 114. compds : 
angistar-dr, n. a year of misery, Stj. angistar-neyd, f. distress, Stj. 
angistar-timi, a, m. an hour of pain, Stj. 

angistast, a8 (?), dep. to be vexed, Stj. 121. 

ANGR, m. (now always n., Pass, i . 4, and so Bs. i. 1 95) ; gen. rs, [cp.Engl. 
anger, Lat. angor.] I. grief, sorrow ; jjann angr, Baer. I a ; upp a minn 

a. ok ska8a, Stj. 215; minn harm ok a., Baer. 14 ; me8 margskonar angri, 
Fms. X. 401; sorgeBra., Hav. 51; ekki angr(s), Hkv. Hjiirv. 10. II. 

in Norse local names freq. = bay, firth, e.g. Staf-angr, Har8-angr, etc. etc. 
(never in Icel.): kaupangr in Norway means a town, village, sinus mer- 
catorius, [cp. the English ' Chipping' in Chipping Norton, Chipping Ongar, 
etc., and in London, ' Cheapside,'] these places being situated at the 
bottom of the firths : fjor8r hardly ever occurs in local names in Norway, 
but always angr ; cp. the pun on angr, moeror, and angr, sinus. Fas. ii, 
91. The word is obsolete in the historical age and scarcely appears as 
a pure appellative, Edda (Gl.), Fms. xii, Munch's Map and Geogr. of 
Norway. [Root probably Lat. ang- in ango, angustus, angiportus.] 

angra, a8, to anger, grieve, vex, with ace, Fms. xi.393 ; mik hefir angra5 
hungr ok frost, Fms. ii. 59 : with dat., hvart sem mer a. reykr e8a bruni, 
Nj. 201, Stj. 21 : impers. to be grieved, a. honum mjiik. Fas. ii. 296; 
more freq. with ace, Finnb. 234, Bs. i. 289 ; mik angrar mart hvaS, 
Hallgrim. p. reflex., angrask, to be angered; a. af e-u, to take 

offence at, Bs. i. 280; vi& e-t, Fas. iii. 364. -y. part, angradr, used 
as adj. sorrowful, angry; rei8r ok a.. El. 14; pronounced angra6r, con- 
cerned; in the phrase, gtira ser angratt, um, to feel a pang, Gisl. 85. 

angran, f. sorrow. Fas. iii. 364. 

angr-fullr, 2.d].f7tll of care, Str. 55. 

angr-gapi, a, m. a rude, silly fool, [the French gobemouche], Bs. i. 806, 
Mag. 64 (Ed.) ; sem a. at svara folsku tignum monnum, Sturl. iii. 138. 

angr-lauss, zdj. free from care, Lat. securus, Hkv. 2. 45. 

angr-ligr, adj. sad, Bs. ii. 163. 

angr-lj63, n. ^\. funeral songs, dirges, neniae, Hkv. 2. 44. 

angr-ljnadi, n. [lund], concern, low spirits, Gisl. 85. 

angr-maeSask, dd, dep. to be in low spirits, Fr. 

angr-samligr, adj. and angr-samliga, adv. sorrowful, soirowfully, 
Stj. 655 xxxii. 

angr-samt, adj./?/// of grief , depressed, downcast, Stj., Barl., Vapn. 17 ; 
neut., e-m er a., to be in low spirits, Fms. viii. 29. p. troublesome, Stj. 
(of gnats). 

angr-semd and angrsemi, f. grief. Mar., Ver. 2. 

angr-vseri, f. dejection, Hkr. iii. 253; now also angr-veer, adj. dejected. 

angr-8e3i, f. moody temper, sullenness, Fr. 

an-konn, f. [and-kenna], a flaw, fa?dt, = ^nmarlii, only as gen. pi. in 
the COMPDS ankanna-fullr, adj./?/// of faults, Sks. 76 new Ed., v.l. 
ankanna-laust, n. adj. a law term, uncontested, used of an inheritance 
or possession where there is no legal claimant ; skal hann eignast a. allt 
Noregs konungs veldi, he shall hold as his own all the power of Norway's 
king without a rival, Fagrsk. 97 ; Magnus konungr hafSi ^k riki einn- 
saman ok a., i. e. there were no pretenders, Fms. x. 413. 

ann- in several compds, v. and-. 

ANNA, a8, [onn, labor; Ivar Aasen anna: the root is not found in 
Goth.] I. act. but rare ; with dat. in the sense to be able to do ; 

eg anna J)vi ekki, / cannot manage that : absol., geldingar sva holdir, at 
J)eir anni a degi ofan i Odda, ellipt. = anni at ganga, that they can walk, 
Vm. 28. II. dep. freq. : 1. with ace, a. a law term ; 

in cases involving support, to take care, provide for, to support; J)a skal 
m68irin J)au born annast, Grag. i. 240 ; a. limaga, 243, 294 ; a. sik, to 
support oneself, F'ms. vi. 204 ; limegS, Rd. 234. p. more generally to take 
care of; mal J)etta mun ek a.. Glum. 358. y. to engage in battle ; tveir 
skyldi annast einnhvern {)eirra ; J)eir Bar8i ok Steinn skyldi a. Ketil briisa, 
Isl. (Hvs.) ii. 356. 2. a. um e-t, to be busy about, trouble oneself about ; 

a. um matreiSu, to cook, Nj. 75 ; hann a. ekki um bii, Gliim. 342, 359. 

annarligr, adj. strange, alien, Stj. 188; metaph., Skalda 193. 

ANNAim, (innur, annat, adj. ; pi. aSrir ; gen. pi. annarra ; dat. sing. f. 
annarri, [Ulf. anpar ; A. S. oi)ar ; Engl, other ; Germ, andere ; Swed. 
andra and annan : in Icel. assimilated, and, if followed by an r, the nn 
changes into 6.] I. = erfpos, alter : 1. one of two, the other ; 

tveir formenn J)eirra, het annarr, the one of them, Fms. ix. 372 ; sa er af 
68rum ber, he that gets the better of it, Nj. 15 ; a. augat, Fms. ii. 61 ; a 
o5rum faeti, Bs. i. 387, Edda 42 ; annarri hendi...,en annarri, with the 
one hand . . ., with the other, Eb. 250, 238 ; a a8ra hcind, on the one side, 
Grag. i. 432, Nj. 50; a. kne, Bs. i. 680; til annarrar handar, Nj. 50; 
annarr — annarr, one— other; gullkross a oSrum en ari af gulli a o8rum, 
Fms, X. 15. Peculiar is the phrase, vi8 annan, J)ri8ja, £j6r8a . . . mann, = 
being two, three, four .. .altogether ; vi8 znnzn, oneself and one besides, 
Eb. 60 ; cp. tjie Greek: rplrop ■fjiuraXavTov, two talents and a half. Germ. 
,andertbalb. 2, secundus, a cardinal number, the second; sa ma8r 



var J)ar a. Islenzkr, Fms. xi.139; i annat sum, for the second time, 
lb. ch. I, 9; a. vetr aldrs bans, Bs. i. 415; hoggr hann i)egar annat 
(viz. hogg), a second blow. Stud. ii. 118. p. the 7text following, Lat. 

proximtis; a o6ru hausti, the next autumn, Isl. ii. 228; onnur misseri, 
the following year, Bs. i. 437, 417; a. suinar eptir, 415, Fms. i. 237. 
Metaph. the second, next in value or rank, or the like ; annat mest hof i 
Noregi, the next greatest temple, Nj. 129 ; a. mestr hofSingi, the next in 
power, Isl. ii. 202 ; fjohnennast t)ing, annat eptir brennu Nj41s, the fullest 
parliament next to that after the burning of N., 259 ; vitrastr logmanna 
annarr en Skapti, the wisest speaker next after S., Bs. i. 28 ; a. mestr maSr i 
Danmcirk, the next greatest man, Fms. xi. 51; aixnat bezt riki, v. 297; 
var annarr sterkastr er het Freysteinn, the next strongest champion, Eb. 
156 ; mestrar natturu a. en J)orsteinn, Fs. 74, Fms. iv. 58. II. = 

dWos, alius, one of many, other, both in sing, and pi. ; hon lek a golfinu vi3 
a5rar meyjar, Nj. 2 ; mart var me6 henni annara kvenna, i.e. many women 
besides, 50 ; jafnt sekr sem a9rir menn, as guilty as anybody else, Grag. i. 
432 ; einginn annarra Kmits manna, none besides, Fms. x. 192 ; ef J)eir gerSi 
lond sin helgari cnn aSrar jarSir, . . . than all other grounds, Eb. 20 ; er J>6r61fr 
hafSi tigna& uni fram adra sta6i, .. .more than any other place, id.; kalla J)4 
jorS mi eigi helgari enn a6ra, id. ; tok Bcirkr |)ann kost er hann hafSi o6rum 
aetlad, 40 ; {jorarinn vann ei8 ... ok tin menn aQrir, Th. and ten men be- 
sides, 48 ; J)eir J)6ttiist fyrir 68rum monnum, . . . over all other people, 20 ; 
g68r drengr um fram alia menn a8ra, 30 ; af eyjum ok 65ru sjofangi, other 
produce of the sea, 12 ; hann skal tva menn nefna a8ra en sik, . . . besides 
himself, Grag. i. 57; hann var cirvari af fe enn nokkurr annarr, . ..than 
anybody else, Bret. ; jafnt sem annat fiilgufe, as any other money, Grag. i. 
432. 2. other, different, in the proverb, ol er annarr ma6r, ale 

(a drunken man) is another 7nan, is not the true fnan, never mind what 
he says, Grett. 98 ; the proverb is also used reversely, 61 er innri {the inner) 
ma8r, ' in vino Veritas :' anna& er gsefa ok gorfuleiki, luck and achieve- 
ments are two things (a proverb) ; onnur var J)a aefi, viz. the reverse of what 
it is now (a proverb), Grett. 94 (in a verse); aetla ek J)ik annan mann en J)u 
segir, Fms. xi. 192 ; hafi J)(5r Danir heldr til annars goit, you deserve some- 
thing different, worse than that, id. ; var6 J)a annan veg, otherwise, Hkr. ii. 
7 ; Bjorn var6 J)ess viss at {)au h6f6u annan atriinaS, . . . different religion, 
Eb. 12. 3. like ol dXXoi, reliqiii, the rest, the remains ; J)a er eigi sagt 

hversu 66rum var skipaS, Nj. 50 ; at hond b. se fyrir innan n., en annarr 
likami bans {the rest of his body) fyrir utan, 1812. 18. III. re- 

peated in comparative clauses : annarr — aimarr, or connected with einn, 
hvarr, hverr, ymsir : gokk annarr af 69rum at biQja hann, alitis ex alio, 
one after another, Bs. i. 128 ; hverja nott aSra sem a6ra, every night in 
turn, Mag. 2 ; annat var or& Finns har8ara enn annat, every word of 
Finn was harder than that which went before it, of a climax, Fms. v. 207 : 
einn — annarr, alitis atque alius, one and another, various ; eina hluti ok 
a5ra, Stj. 81 ; einar aflei5ingar ok a&rar, Barl. 36; einir ok a8rir, various, 
Stj. 3; ef ma8r telr sva, at hann var einn e5r annarr {that he was any- 
body, this or that man, viz. if he does not give the name precisely), ok er 
hinn eigi J)d skyldr at risa or domi, Grag. i. 28 : ymsir — a8rir, in turn, 
now this, flow the other ; ymsir eiga hogg i annars gar9 (a proverb) ; heita a 
helga menn, ok nefna ymsa ok a8ra {now one, now atiother). Mar. 35 : J)agu 
J)essir riddarar veizlur ymsir at 66rum, gave banquets one to another in turn, 
id. ; faer&u ymsir a8ra ni6r, now one was under water and now the other, of 
two men struggling whilst swimming, Fms. ii. 269 : hvarr — annan, hverir — • 
a9ra, each other; maeltu hvarir vel fyrir o9rum ; hotu hvarir cSruni atforum : 
of a rapid succession, hvert vandrse9i kom a bak 69ru, misfortunes never 
come singly, but one on the bach of the other, Fr. ; vi9 Jiau ti9indi ur9u allir 
gla9ir ok sag9i hverr 69rum, one told the news to another, man to man, 
Fms. i. 21 ; Jjottust hvarirtveggju meira vald at hafa i borginni en a9rir, 655 
xvii. i; hvarirtveggja — a9rir, dAXijAots, mutually, reciprocally ; skulu mi h. 
ganga til ok veita 69rum gri9, Nj . 1 90. IV. annat, n. used as a subst. ; 

t)etta sem annat, as other things. Fas. i. 517; skaltu eigi J)ora annat, en, 
Nj. 74 ; ef eigi baeri a. til, 7inless something happened, Bs. i. 350 : at ollu 
annars, in everything else, Grag. ii. 141, K. J>. K. 98 : annars simply used 
adverb. = else = ella ; now very freq. but very rare in old writers ; stendr a. 
riki J)itt 1 mikilli haettu. Fas. i. 459, from a paper MS. and in a text most 
likely interpolated in the 1 7th century. compds : annars-konar, 

gen. as adv. of another kind, Hkr. i. 148. annars-kostar, adv. else, 

otherwise ; hvart er hann vill . . . e9r a. vill hann, either he should prefer 
...,K. A. 58. annars-staSar, adv. elsewhere, in other places; sem 
a., as in other similar cases, Grag. i. 228. annara-vegar, adv. on 
the other hand, Fms. viii. 228, those on the opposite side. annarra- 

gen. pi. is used in annarra-brseSra, -brseSri, pi. fourth cousins, Grag. 
i. 285, ii. 172; cp. D.I. i. 185; V. naesta-braE9ra = /i&/Vc? cousins, J)ri9ja- 
hrxbia. =Jifth cousijis. 

annarr-liv&rr (or in two words), adj. pron. in dual sense, [A. S. o\)ar- 
bvelSar'], Lat. alteruter, either, one of the two ; with gen., annan hvern J)eirra 
sona Skallagrims, Eg. 256 ; vaentir mik at a9ra hvara (ace. sing, fem., 
now a9ra hverja) skipan taki bratt, Fms. viii. 444. Dual, a9rir hvarir, in 
a collect, sense, either party, Sd. 138 ; neut. used as adv., anna9hvart — 
e6a, either — or (Lat. aut — aut), Fms. i. 127, Skiilda 171, Nj, 190. 

annarr-hverr, adj. pron. every other alternately; annan hvern dag, 

Fms. iv. 81, Symb. 57; annathvert or9, every other {second) word, 
33, Fas. i. 527 : at 69ruhverju, used as adv., every now and then. Eg, 
Sturl. i. 82, Hkr. ii. 292. 

annarr-tveggja and annarr-tveggi, adj. or used adverbially, [-tvi 
is a gen. form, -tveggi a nom.], plur. (dual) a9rirtveggju, dat. 
-jum ; in other cases tveggja, tveggi are indecl. : — one of twain, eiiSff 
annattveggja J)eirra, Grag. i. 236; ok er annattveggja til, at vera her 
hinn er annarr, there is choice of two, either to stay here, or . . ., Fms. •■■' 
143, N. G. L. i. 117 ; ef annarrtveggi hefir haldit 69rum, Grag. i. 29: w 
gen., a. J)eirra, either of them, 149: dual, either of two sides, en {)a 
|)eir skildir er a8rirtveggju eru lengra i burt komnir en cirdrag, but thei 
are they farted when either of the twain is come farther away than m 
arrow's flight, of combatants on the battle-field, Grag. ii. 19 : nt; 
annattveggja, used as adv.; annattveggja — e9r, either — or; a. vestna 
batna, Clem. 50. The word is rare in old writers, and is now quite uu 
of use ; as adv. anna9hvort — e9a, either — or, is used. 

annarsligr = annarligr ; annarsta3ar, elsewhere, v. annarssta9ar. 

AinrALL, s,m. [Lat. annalis\a?i annal, record, chronological register 
Bs.i.789,415.13. It sometimes, esp. in deeds, appears to mtan histories v 
general (cp. Lat. annales) ; annalar a tolf bokum norrasnir, Vm. in a d: 
of the 14th century, where it probably means Sagas: fr69ir annalar 
visindabaekr, histories, Pr. 402, Al. 29. The true old Icel. annaUsts a 
in the year 1430, and were again resumed in the middle of the l'^ 

ann-bo3, n. pi., rare in sing., proncd. amboS, [old Swed. ambud; I 
Aasen ambo', from onn, labor {^)\ agricultural implements, tools; . 
nokkur, Dipl. v. 18, Jb. 258. 

ann-fetlar, m. pi. a sword belt or shield belt, = handfetlar, Lex. Poet. 

ann-fri3r, ar, m. [onn], ^work-peace,' work-truce, commonly duri 
April and May, the time when there were to be no lawsuits (Nor^ 
N. G. L. iii. 19, 94, 95. 

ann-kostr, m., also spelt Sndkostr and onnkostr [onn], used 
in the adverbial phrase, fyrir annkost (onn-ond-kost), wilfully, on purp' 
Fms. viii. 367 ; en J)6 hafa ek fyrir iimikost (o« purpose) sva rita6, Sk;i 
164; en J)at er illvirki, er ma9r vill spilla fe manna fyrir 6., Grai 
5, 130, 416, ii. 93, 94. • 

ann-kvista, t, ( = ann-kosta?), to take care (onn) of Grag. ii. 25 
ctTT. \€7. spelt anqmsta ; the word is somewhat doubtful. | 

ann-laust, n. adj. easily, without toil. Lex. Poet. | 

ann-rikt, n. adj. and annriki, n., eiga a., to be very busy, Rd. 283. 

ann-samligr, adj. toilsome, laborious, Sks. 549, 550. 

ann-samt, n. adj. in the phrase, eiga a., to be busy, Rd. 283 : v.l. 
angrsamt, yj/ZZ of cares, Fms. viii. 29. 

ann-seni3, f. business, trouble, concern ; fa a. af e-u and bera a. f} 
e-u, to be troubled, concerned about, Bs. i. 686, 690. 

annt, n. adj. [onn], hi such phrases as, vera a. um e-t, to be busy, co' 
cerned, eager, anxious about, Hkr. i. 115; mcirgum var a. heini, w: 
were eager to get home, Fms. xi. 278 ; hvi miui honum sva a. at h' 
mik, why is he so eager? Eg. 742 ; ekki er a. um J)at, it is not press: 
Sd. 174; Hanefr kvad ser a. um daga {had so much to do) sva at h. 
matti J)a eigi at vera, Rd. 241 ; vera annt til e-s, to be in a very gr^^ 
hurry, eager for, Fms. ii. 150, 41. Compar. annara, in impers. p' 
to be more eager, Fms. ii. 38 ; mer er ekki a. at vita forlog min en 
koma, Fs. 19. Superl., vera annast til e-s, to be most eager, Fms. iii 
without prep., hvat er nu annt minum eingasyni, what hath my di 
son at heart ? Gg. 2 . 

antifona, u, f. antiphon (Gr. word), Hom. 137. 

anti-kristr, m. Anti-Christ, Hom. 132, 71. 

antvar3a, a9, to handover (Germ, word), H.E. i. 435, in a Norse deei 

anugr, adj., commonly onugr, cross, uncivil, froward; also 5nHf 
lyndi, i. freaks, ill-temper. 

anz, n. reply, now freq. in common language, v. following word. 

anza, a9, contr. form = andsvara, to pay attention to, take notice <■■ 
with dat., (J)eim) sem hon a. minnr ok vanraekir, cares less about, Stj. c 
81,195. 2. to reply, answer (now freq.); a. e-u and til es; 1 

mun fur9a, ef nokkurr a. til, where it means to reply, but without t 
notion of speaking, Fms, i. 194; Oddr anza9i ok heldr stutt, where 
seems to mean to return a greeting, but silently by signs, Fb. i. 25 
konungr a. J)vi ekki, a reply to a letter, Fms. ix. 339 ; hann sat kyrr . 
a. engu, Bar9. 180 ; Mirmant heyr9i til rae9u hennar ok a. fa, Mirm. 69. 

apa, a9, ]Y.\\^.toape; Germ, cff'en = deludere'], to mock, make spa 
of; margan hefir au9r apat (a proverb), ' atiri sacra fames,' SI. 34, « 
Hm. 74 : pass., apask at e-u, to become the fool of, SI. 62. Now, 
e-t epter, to mock or imitate as an ape: also, a. e-n litiir, to pervert on 
words ifi a mocking way. 

apaldr, rs, m. pi. rar, [O.H.G. aphaltra; A.S. apuldre; Dan. ahiu- 
Swed. apel], doubtless a southern word, the inflective syllable dr bein 
a mutilation of ' tre,' arbor, a word now almost extinct in German; 
(for a homely, common word such as ' tr^' could not have been c 
rupted in the native tongue) ; — apaldr thus, etymologically as well ■ 
properly, means an apple-tree; fruits and fruit-trees were doubtle 



orted into Scandinavia from abroad ; the word appears only iu the later 
lie poems, such as the Hkv. Hjiirv. 6; the verses in Sdni. 5 are in a dif- 
;it metre from the rest of the poem, and probably interpolated. Fas. 
o ; epli a apaldri, Sks. 106 ; tveir apaldar (with the radical r dropped), 
iii. 60; apaldrs fliir, Karl, aoo, 311: as the etymological sense in 
transmuted word soon got lost, a fresh pleonastic compound was 
e, viz. apaldrs-tro. compds : apaldrs-garflr, m. [Dan. abild- 

rd], orchard of apple-trees, {>i3r., D.N. apaldrs-klubba, u, f. 
made of an a., El. 22. apaldrs-tr6, n. apple-tree, {)i3r. 58. 
al-grdr, adj. dapple-gray, i. e. apple-gray, having the streaky colour 
n apple (cp. Fr. pomtnele), of a horse, Nj. 274, Katl. 426, Landn. 93 
ere it is used of a river horse) ; of an ox, uxi a. at ht, Ld. 120. 
?I, a, m. [A.S. apa; Erse apa; Bohem. op; Germ, ajfe ; all of 
1 dropping the initial guttural tenuis : Sanskr. i:apf\, an ape. It 
;ars in early times in the metaph. sense of a fool in the old poem Hm. 
even in a proverb ; so also in the poems Fm. 1 1 and Gm. 34, vide Lex. 
L A giant is in Edda (Gl.) called api, no doubt because of the stupid 
ire of the giants. Apavatn, a farm in Icel., probably got its name 
1 a' nickname of one of the settlers, at the end of the 9th century. 
l^m. 20 a giant is called attrunur apa, the kinsman of apes. The 
age in the Hm. verse 74 appears to be corrupt, and ought to be 
ired thus, margr verSr af aurum api, the fool of earthly things, cp. the 
age in SI. 34, margan hefir au3r apat, which is another version of the 
same proverb. It is esp. used in the connection, osvinns-api or 
Sra-api, a baboon, big fool, Gm. 1. c, Fm. 1. c. ; (the passage in Hm. 
ought perhaps to be restored to osvinns-apa or osvinnra-apa in a 
le word ; the sense is no doubt the same in all these passages.) Rare 
Id prose in the proper sense of ape, vide however 673. 55. compd : 
mynd, n.form of an ape, Th. 76. 

?LI, a, m. in Edda (Gl.), a. an ox, or p. a horse, hackney : apli 

rding to Bjorn s.v. means the embryo of animals, e. g. apla-k^lfr 

apla-lamb, n. abortive lamb or calf; apalgengr, adj. a hackney, a 

tyh goer. Bjiirn also mentions apalgryti, n. aspretum, (an unknown 

|! dubious word.) 

I pella and appellera, a&, to cite, summon to the pope (eccles. Lat.), 
i . ix. 339, 486 (v. 1.), X. 99, Bs. i. 776, K. A. 218. 
PB, adj. gen. rs (and thus not akin to api), cold, sharp, chilly; en 
sta hriS, sharp fighting, O. T. 59 ; sterkastr ok aprastr vi& at eiga, 
worst to deal with, |>i3r. 183; enda voru allopr tilbrigSin {cold, 
Ignant), 89 ; J)vi foru ver aprir, we feel sad, chilly, a verse written in 
7, Lex. Poet. : a word quite obsolete. (Bjorn however mentions it as 
'ing word.) Mod. Icel. napr, adj. nearly in the same sense, cold, 
y, of weather ; cold, spiteful, snappish, of temper : nepja, u, f. a chill, 
■ing cold: nepringr, m. id. : [are these words identical (?).] 
rligr, adj. cold, chilly, of weather; a. ve3r, Vapn. 11. MS. 
PTAN and aftan, s, m., dat. aptni, pi. aptnar, sometimes spelt apni 
apnar, [Hel. aband; Germ, abend; Engl, even, evening ; in Ulf. we 
find andanabti = Gr. oi//e, ci//ta ; Swed. afton, Dan. aften, — as it is often 
:], evening ; not very freq. in prose, where kveld is the common word, 
op. meant the time from 3 till 9 o'clock, like the Old English ' even ;' 
aptan {middle-eve) is 6 o'clock ; at 9 o'clock the night sets in, 
■ttnii'tl : a distinction is made between aptan and kveld, einn aptan at 
li, (tn afternoon when the kveld {twilight) sets in, Edda 35 : but gener. 
i:. urn aptaninn siS er myrkt var or3it, Fms. iv. 308, viii. 228, xi. 
aptni, 623. 55, Fms. viii. 201, Grag. i. 146 ; of aptna (apna), 
224; a ciptnum, Bjarn. 23; miSraptan, Hrafn. 9, Nj. 153; 
[US bi3r oframs sok, a laggard's suit bides till even (a proverb). 
tan and aftan, adv. prop. /rom behind, behind, opp. to framan ; augu 
tmakka, N. G.L. i. 339 ; a. a milli her3a, Vigl. 26 ; J)a greip hann a. 
r hendr honum {from behind). Eg. 747 ; hala sem leo, ok gadd i a., . .. 
>e tip of the tail, Al. 168 : now aptan i is opp. to framan i. II, 

a., as prep, with ace, behind, opp. to fyrir framan; ek hjo varginn 
iidr fyrir a. boguna, / hewed the wolf in sunder, just behind the 
i^rs, Nj. 9.5 ; standa fyrir a., to stand behind. Fas. ii. 516. |3. a. at, 
dat.; ganga, koma a. at 6-m, to approach from behind. 
tan-drykkja, u, f. a?i evening carouse, Pr. 419. 
tan-langt, n. adj. even-long, all the evening, Karl. 95. 
tan-sksera, u, f. twilight, Lat. crepusculum (cp. morginskaera, dawn, 
>ra), Sighvat (in a verse). 

tan-stjarna, u, f. the evening star, Al. 54, Stj. 93 ; now kveld- 

tan-86ngr, m. even-song, evening service, Fms. vii. 152, K.{).K. 58. 
tari and aptastr, compar. and superl. latter, posterior, and last, v. 
, epztr. 

tarla and aptarliga, adv. behind, far in the rear. Lex. Poiit. (freq.) 
itna, a3, to become evening; Jiartil at aptnaSi, Fms. iii. 181. Dep., 
ptnaSisk, Greg. 51 ; now kvelda. 

?TB and aftr (aptar, N. G. L. i. 347), adv., compar. aptar, superl. 
St, [Ulf. ajtra = ir6.\iv'], the spelling with p is borne out by the Gr. 
I. Loc. back, back again : 1. with motion, con- 

ed with verbs denoting to go or move, such as fara, ganga, konia, lei33, 

senda. sniia, ssekja, etc., where aptr almost answers to Lat. re-, remittere, 
reducere, reverti . . .; gefa a., reddere ; bera a., refellere ; kalla a., revo- 
care; reka a., repellere : a. hverfr lygi ^k er siinnu ma;tir (a proverb), a 
lie turns back when it meets truth, Bs. i. 639. ' aptr' implies a notion 
a loco or in locum, ' eptir' that of remaining in loco; thus skila a. mean* 
remittere; skilja eptir, relinquere; taka a., recipere, in a bad sense; taka 
eptir, animum attendere; fara a., re dire ; vera e., remanere, etc.; fara, 
sniia, koma, senda, sakja, hverfa a., Nj. 260, 281, Fms. x. 395, iv. 300, 
Edda 30, Eg. 271, Eb. 4, Fs. 6 ; feera a., to repay, N. G. L. i. 20 ; sniiast 
a., Laekn. 472. Without actual motion, — as of sounds; J)eir heyrSu a. i 
rj63rit op, they heard shouting behind them, Fms. iv. 300 ; iiti skal eigi 
prestr ganga sva langt fra kirkju at hann heyri eigi klokkur hljod 
aftar ( = aftr), be shall not go out of the sound of the bells, N. G. L. 
i. 347. p. backwards; fram ok a., to and fro (freq.); rei5 hann 
su3r aptr, rode back again, Nj. 29 ; aptr 4 bak, sttpine, bent or turned 
back. Eg. 380 ; J)eir settu hnakka a bak ser a., bent their necks backwards 
in order to be able to see, Edda 30 ; skrei3ast a. af hestinum, to slip 
down backwards from the croup of a horse, to dismount, Fs. 65. y 

connected with many verbs such as, lata, liika a., to close, shut, opp. 10 
lata, luka upp, Faer. 264, Eg. 7, Landn. 162 ; in a reverse sense to Lat. 
recludere, reserere, rescindere, resolvere. 2. without motion — aptan, 

the hind part, the back of anything ; J)at er ma&r fram {superne), en dyr a., 
the fore part a man, the hind part a beast, 673. 2 ; si3an lag3i hann at 
tennrnar a. vi3 huppinn, he caught the hip with his teeth, Vigl. 21. The 
English aft when used of a ship ; ba!3i a. ok fram, stern arid stem (of 
a ship), Fms. ix. 310 ; SigurSr sat a. a kistunni, sate aft on the stern-chest, 
vii. 201 ; a. ok frammi, of the parts of the body (of a seal), Sks. 179. 
Compar. aptarr, farther back, Fms. vi. 76. II. Temp, again, 

■n&KLV, iterum : this use of the word, general as it is at present^ 
hardly appears in old writers ; they seem to have had no special expres- 
sion for again, but instead of it said sidan, enn, or used a periphrase, a 
nyja leik, 63ru sinni, annat sinn, or some other substitute. It is, how- 
ever, very freq. in Goth. afira = 7rd\ip, Swed. ater, Dan. alter; some 
passages in the Sagas come near to the mod. use, e. g. baeta a., restituere, 
to give back (but not temp.) ; segja fri3i a., to recal, N. G. L. i. 103 ; 
hann maelti at engi mundi J)ann fald a. falda. El. 20, uncertain whether 
loc. {backward) or iterum, most likely the former. It is now used in a 
great many compounds, answering to Lat. re-, cp. also endr. 

aptra, ad, to take back, hinder, withdraw; with dat., a. fer3 sinni, tQ 
desist from, delay, Fms. x. 17 ; fjorgrimr bad {)a ni3r setjast, ok skal eigi 
bo3i a., i. e. you shall be welcome as before. Valla L. 2 1 7 ; eigi mun ek a. mer 
{hesitate) at J)essu, Grett. 116 A ; hversu |)eir optru3u ser J)a er J)eir komu 
a {lingit, how they hesitated, wavered, withdrew, Bs. i. 741, Flor. 7 : now 
a. e-u is to hinder, prohibit. 
aptran and optrun, f. a revoking, renouncing, keeping back, 655 xxvii. 
aptr-bati, adj. ind. convalescent, on the road to recovery, Al. 150, 
Korm. 220 : now used as a masc. (-bati, a, m.), vera i aptrbata, to begetting 
better. Fas. iii. 524. 
aptr-beidiligr, adj. reciprocal, Skalda 195. 

aptr-borinn, adj. part, regenerate, born again; Jiars hon aptrborin 
aldri ver3i, the sense is doubtful, it seems to mean = endrborin, regenerate ; 
it Will suit the context only if we suppose that suicides could not be born 
again; they certainly could walk again, v. aptrganga. Hogni seems to 
fear that, if she died a natural death, Brynhilda would perhaps be endrborin, 
Skv. 3. 44. 

aptr-byggi, ja, m., esp. in pi. stern-sitters (opp. to frambyggjar) in a 
ship of war, Fms. ii. 312, Hkr. iii. 243. 
aptr-dr^ttr, m. the undertow, outward suck of the tide, Barl. 130. 
aptr-drepa, u, f. relapse, shock, adversity ; niedan J)cir vissu ser cnga 
van a., Bs. i. 752, Finnb. 312. 
aptr-elding, f. = elding, dawning. Anal. 193. 
aptr-fer3 and aptr-for, f. return. Eg. 279. 
aptr-fsersla, u, f. bringing back, GJ)1. 361. 

aptr-ganga, u, f. [ganga aptr], a ghost, apparition, the French reve- 
nant; about this superstition vide Isl. f)j63s. i. 222-317, Grett. ch. 34— 
37 (the ghost Glam), Eb. ch. 34, 50-55, 63 (Thorolf Bsgifot), Ld. ch. 
17, Sd. ch. 17-22, 30 (Klaufi), Hav. 41, F16am. ch. 28, etc. etc. 
aptr-gangr, m. = aptrganga, Grett. ch. 78 new Ed. 
aptr-gjald, n. repayment, Bs. i. 734. 

aptr-hald, n. a checking, holding back. compd : aptrhalds-maSr, 
m. who impedes a thing, Bs. i. 733. 
aptr-hlaup, n. a hurling back, recoil, Fs. 158. 
aptr-hnekking, f. a bending backwards, metaph., Fms. ix. 509. 
aptr-kryggr, m. the chine, the lower part of the back, of a slaughtered 
animal, Dipl. vi. 

aptr-hvarf, n. a turning back, return, Sturl. ii, 16 ; illr aftrhvarfs, dis- 
inclined to face the enemy again, Fms. vii. 325. p. relapse, Fms. ii. 47, 
where it is used of apostasy. Since the Reformation always used by 
theologians in a good sense, repentance, turning away from sin; iSran ok 
a, are freq. used together, i3ran being repentance, the internal condition, 
aptrhvarf the movement away from sin, or the repentance put into act. 




aptr-kall, n. withdrawal, recalling, Fr. 

aptr-kast, n. a hurling back, repulse, Stj. 288. 

aptr-kemba, u, f. one whose hair is combed bach, Finiib. 2 50. 

aptr-kvdma and later form aptrkoma, u, f. return, coining back, 
Sks. 550 B ; Fms. xi. 31a, a vellum MS. of the end of the isth century, 
has aptrkoma. 

aptr-kvsemt, n. adj. return from exile, used substantively as a law 
term in the phrase, eiga (eigi) a., of a temporary or lifelong exile ; J)at 
varSar skoggang . . . eigi eigi a. nema lof biskupa ok Icigrettumanna faist 
framar, . . . not to be suffered to return from exile unless the leave of the 
bishops and the legislature be first got, Grag. i. 347 : in a gener. sense, synist 
mer scm engum varum se a., ef hans er eigi hefnt, it seems to me that not 
one of us can shew his face again, if he be not revenged, Gliim. 332. 

aptr-lausn, f. redemption, ransom, Horn. 118; a law term, right of 
redeeming, GJ)1. 304 : hence compd aptrlau8nar-j6r3, f. land which is 
redeemable, N. G. L. i. 344. 

aptr-inj6r, adj. tapering behind, Edda 40 (of the salmon's tail). 

aptr-mundr, m. [munr], in the phrase, vera a. at e-u, to want a thing 
back again. Fas. iii. 278. 

aptr-reka and aptr-reki, adj. ind. (navig.), ver5r a., to be driven back 
by stress of weather, Landn. 148, Bs. i. 76, Grag. i. 274; a. skip, Ann. 
1347, Bs. Laur. S. 

aptr-rekstr, rs, m. a driving back, repidse, Grag. ii. 230 (of cattle 

aptr-sj4, f. regret, longing, v. eptirsja. 

aptr-velting, f. recoil, rolling back, Stj. 49. 

ap-ynja, u, f. [old Swed. epin], a she-ape, Stj. 68, 95, Sks. 115. 

AH, n. (qs. ar6 ?), an atom in a sunbeam, mote, Germ. sonnenstHubchen, 
vide Vidal. Post. 276 (Ed. 1829), Njola. 

arda, u, f. medic, scabrum, a little wart. 

ardga, a9, to make upright, and arSigr, adj. erect, arduus, v. 6r9-. 

AG£>H, rs, m. [Lat. aratrum; Gael, arad; cp. erja, Ulf. arjan, arare ; 
A. S. erian ; Old Engl, ear, etc. ; in Norse ar or al is a small plough], a sort 
oi plough, probably different in size and shape from plogr, which is a later 
word, of foreign stamp, as are all that have p for their initial letter. The 
poem Rm. distinguishes between both, gora ar3r (ace.) and keyra plog, 19. 
The first colonisers of Iceland used ar6r, as shewn by Landn. 35 (relating 
events of the year 875) ; hann atti einn oxa, ok let hann J)raelana draga 
ar&rinn ; eykr fyrir plogi e9r ar8ri {plough or ard), N.G.L.ii. 115; ef ma6r 
stel jarni af arSri e&r plogi, id. ; hciggva ma mafir ser til plogs e9r ar6s (gen. 
dropping the radical r), id.; draga ar3r, Al. 52; ar6ri (dat.), Karl. 471, Mar. 
(Fr.), Stj. : um allt J)at er miklu varSar er betri sigandi ar9r en svifandi 
(emend, of Dr. Hallgrim Scheving), a proverb, better a slow but deep trench- 
ing plough than a quick and shallow one, Bs. i. 139 ; the old ar6r v/as pro- 
bably bulky and heavy. 2. metaph. in Icel. at present arSr (gen. arSs, 
ardar. Snot 90), as well as plogr, means gain, produce, profit: arflsamr, 
adj. profitable. compd : ar3s-geldingr, m. a plough-ox, Fms. vii. 2 1 . 

ar3r-f6r, f. a plough-fiirrow, trench, Stj. 593, i Kings xviii. 32. 

arSr-gangr, m. a coulter, goad, N. G. L. iii. 198. 

ar3r-j&rn, n. a cotdter, ox goad, Stj. 386, Judges iii. 31. 

ar3r-oxi, a, m. a plough-ox, Grag. i. 502, Jb. 346. 

arfa, u, f. [Ulf. arbio], an heiress, N. G. L. i. 191 (rare). 

arf-borinn, adj. part., prop, a legitimate son or datcghter, Fms. i. 86 ; 
defined, sa er a. er kominn er til alls r6ttar, N. G. L. ii. 211. Freq. spelt 
arborinn by suppressing the /(so N. G. L. ii. 50), and used in Norse law 
oi a freeman, v. the quotation above from N.G. L., which clearly shews 
the identity of the two words), i. 171 ; algildis vitni tveggja manna ar- 
borinna ok skilvaenna, ii. 211 : the alliterated phrase alnir ok arbornir 
(the phrase aldir og obomir may be a corruption from krh. ^,freeborn 
and freebred, 310. The passage in Stor. verse 2 is in Lex. Poiit. ex- 
plained by olim ablatus ; the poet probably meant to say genuine, pure, 
in a metaph. sense, of the true poetic beverage, not the adulterated one, 
mentioned in the Edda 49 ; the cup from the right cask. 

arf-gengr, adj. entitled to inherit, legitimate heir, Grag. i. 1 78, Eg. 345. 

arfl, a, m. [Ulf. arbia; O. H. G. arpis, erpo; Germ, erbe; Hel. abaro 
•=filius ; A. S. eafora, afora per metath.], an heir, heiress (and poet, a son 
in gener.) : with gen. pers., arfar veganda, his heirs, GJ)1. 131 ; J)ar nast var 
C3sk hennar a., her heiress, heir to her property, Ld. 58; Gu9ri9r ok 
|>orger5r logligir arfar {heiresses) Solva, Dipl. v. i : with gen. of the thing, 
er hann ^a a. hvarsttveggja, heir of both things, Grag. i. 221 ; a. o9ala, G^l. 
294; a. at e-u, heir to a property, Sturl. ii. 197. Not freq., erfingi being 
the common word. II. an ox, bull, Edda (Gl.), vide arfr. 

ARFI, sometimes spelt arbi, a, m. chickweed, alsine media; arfa- 
8d,ta, u, f. a weed rick, Nj. 194. 

arflngi, ja, m. an heir. Eg. (in a verse), vide erfingi. 

arf-kaup, n. sum paid for inheritance, Grag. i. 200. 

arf-lei3a, dd, to adopt as an i&«>, = settlei&a, Jb. 144 A. 

arf-lei3ing, f. adoption, Ann. 1271. 

arf-nyti, ja, m. (poet.) an heir, Eb. (in a verse), 

ABPR, s, m. [Ulf. arbi, neut. ; A. S. yrfe^ It originally meant cattle, 
fecus, pecunia, as may be inferred from the A.S. orf=pecus, cattle, and yrfe 

— opes; Uel. arf and urf; OrmuL errfe ; v. Ihre, Glossar., andGrimmR.A. 
p. 467. Edda (Gl.) also mentions an arfi or arfr, bos, v. above. I. 

inheritance, patrimony; taka arf eptir e-n, Grag. i. 170, 178; hon 4 
allan arf eptir mik, is my sole heir, Nj. 3, Eb. 162, GJ)1. 252. H. 

a bull, V. above. compds : arfs-skipti, n. and arfs-sokn, f., v. arf- 
below, GJ)1. 267, Grag. i. 170. arfa-J)dttr, m. section of law treating 
of inheritance, Grag. i. 1 70. 

arf-ran, n. injustice, cheating in matters of inheritance, Hav. 52. 

arf-rsening, f. id., Mar. 656. 

arf-rseningr, m. one stripped of his inheritance, Al. 105. 

arf-sal, n. cession of right of inheritance, Grag. i. 205, 225, 227, (cp. 
branderfS, Dzn.Jledfore, mod. Icel. profenta, and gefa profentu sina); a 
law term, to hand over one's own property to another man on condition of 
getting succour and support for life. In the time of the Commonwealth, 
arfsal had a political sense, and was a sort of ' clientela ;' the chiefs caused 
rich persons, freedmen, and monied men of low birth to bequeath them all 
their wealth, and in return supported them in lawsuits during life. Such 
is the case in Vapn. 13, Hxnsa{)6r. S. ch. 7, Eb. ch. 31 ; eptir })at hand- 
sala3i Ulfarr (a wealthy freedman) Arnkatli fe sitt allt, ok ger3ist hann 
(viz. Arnkell) ]pa, varna8arma9r {protector) tJlfars : v. also {)6r5. S., hann 
bjo a landi Skeggja ok haf9i gorzt arfsalsma9r hans {his client), i^o: it 
was humiliating ; engar matti hann (the bishop) olmusur gefa af likamlegri 
eign, heldr var hann haldinn sem arfsalsmaSr, Sturl. ii. 119. To the 
chiefs in olden times it was a source of wealth and influence, often in a 
unfair way. compds : arfsals-nia3r, m., v. above, arfsals-m^ldag 
a, m. a deed concerning arfsal, Grag. i. 227. 

arf-skipti, n. sharing o/arfr, Grag. i. 172, G\)\. 266, Fas. iii. 39. 

arf-skot, n. fraud, cheating in matters of inheritance, Eb. 178, Grag. i. 
202, 203, 267. 

arf-s6kn, f. a suit in a case ofzxh, G^l. 263. 

arf-stoll, m. an hereditary throne. Eg. (in a verse). 

arf-svik, n. p\. fraud, cheating in matters o/arfr, Eb. 1 78, G{)1. 254, 29J, 

arf-svipting, f. disinheriting, cheating in matters o/arfr, Stj. 425. 

arf-tak, n. and arf-taka, u, f. the act of receiving arfsal ; taka e-n arftaki, 
Grag. i. 267, 268, 187, 229. compd : arftoku-maSr, m. an heir, suc- 
cessor to an inheritance, Grag. i. 62, Sturl. i. 98, Fms. v. 53. 

arf-takari, a, m. and arf-taki, a, m. = arftokuma5r, Jb. 148 A, N.G.L. 
i. 234, Bad. 199. 

arf-tekinn, adj. part, taken by inheritance, Fms. xi. 306. 

arf-tekja, u, f. = arftaka, Grag. i. 219. compd : arftekju-land, n. 
land taken by inheritance, patrimony, Fms. i. 1 1 7. 

arf-taeki, n. = arftaka, Stj. 232. 

arf-tsekr, adj. = arfgengr. Eg. 343. 

arfiini, a, m. [an old obsol. form], an heir, Edda I08 and in the compd 
skaporfoni (the vowel change is caused by the following 0), legal heir, q.v. 

arf-vd,n, f. hereditary expectancy, Grag. i. 200, Jb. 177, Sturl. i. 94. 

arf-v6r3r, m. [A. S.yrfeveard; Hel. erbivard], (poet.) an heir. Lex. Poet. 

arf-J)egi, ja, m. [cp. Ulf. arbinumja'], (poet.) an heir. Id. 28. 

arga-fas, n. [argr, craven, and fas = flas by dropping the / (?) ; flas, 
means praecipitatio, and flasa, a9, precipitare, which are common won 
this etymology is confirmed by the spelling of the word in G\>\. l! 
where some of the MSS. have/aas or fias, the last is perh. a false n 
ing = fias ; fas, n. gait, manner, is a modern word : v. Pal Vidal 
Skyr. ; his etymology, however, is doubtless bad], a law term, a ft 
a coivardly assault, an aiming at one's body and drawing deadly wea^ _ 
without carrying the threat into effect, termed ' a coward's assault;' in 
Icel. it was punishable by fj6rbaugsgar6r, cp. Grag. ; ef ma9r mundar til 
manns ok stciQvar sjalfr, ok var9ar fjcirbaugsgarS, ok a hinn eigi vigt 1 
gegn {the injured party rnust not kill the offender on the spot) skal stefea 
heiman ok kve6ja til niu heimilisbiia {)ess a J)ingi er sottr er, Vsl. ch. 90- 
ef ma9r hleypr at manni, ok heldr hann ser sjalfr; J)at er a. ok er f ^ 
sektalaust {liable to no punishment, only a dishonourable act; so tl; 
Norse law), N. G. L. i. 164, GJ)!. 188. 

arga-skattr, m. an abusive word, a dog's tax, Olkofr. 36. 

arg-hola, u, f. scortum, Hb. 31 (1865). 

ARGR, adj. [Paul Diac. inertem et inutilem et vulgari verbo ' argn' 
6. 24; A.S. earg, ignavus; the Scottish arch or argh, v. Jamieson sub 
voce ; and the mod. Engl, arch, archness; Germ, arg ; Gr. dp7os], emai- 
ctdate, effeminate, an abusive term ; hefir J)u born borit, ok hug3a ek 
J)at args a6al, Ls. 24 ; mik munu aesir argan kalla, ef ek bindast la 
bni3arlini, J)kv. 17: it is more abusive than thrall, cp. the prove:'; 
Jjraellinn hefnir en argr aldri, a thrall takes revenge, but not the a., Gret: 
92 ; and, argr er sa sem engu verst (a proverb), he is truly an ' argr' wi ■ 
does fiot defend himself; argr and ragr are synonymous, vide the Grdg. 
J)au eru or6 Jprjii er skoggang var3a oil, ef ma6r kallar mann ragau e' 
stro9inn e3r sorSinn, ii. 147. 2. metaph. a wretch, craven, coward, 

org vaettr, Fas. ii. 254, Fs. 147: cp. ergi and liargr. 

arg-skapr, m. cotvardice, cowardliness, Fas. i. 487 (in a verse). 

arg-vltugr, adj. infamous, (cant.) 

ARI, a, m. [Ulf. ara; O. H.G. aro; cp. Germ. adler=edel-aro; cp. 
also the lengthened Icel. form orn, A.S. earn, Engl, earri], an eagle, rare and 



ill poetry; om is the common word; Horn. 89, Stj. 71, Al. 160. 

, ., Ciloss. Royal Libr. Old Coll. Copenh. 1813 aquila is translated by 

, . coMPD : ara-hreiSr, n. an eyrie, nest of an eagle, Fagrsk. 146. 

^1 is also a common pr. name. 
rin-domr, m.gossip,'judgtnenlat the bearth-side,'l{om.; now palldomr. 

• rin-eldr, m. hearth-fire, Lzt. focus; J)eir eru a., there are three hearths 

{ a Norse dwelling), G\)\. 376. 
jrin-elja, u, f. a concubine if kept at home, med. Lzt. focaria ; the sense 

^'ined in N. G. L. i. 356, 16 (Norse). 

rin-grreypr, adj. occurs thrice in poetry as an epithet of the benches 
I hall and of a helmet, encompassing the hearth, or shaped as an eagle's 

if, Akv. I, 3, 17. 

rin-haukr, m. a chimney-sitter, an old man ; in the phrase, attraeSr er 
k eldaskilri, an octogenarian is an a. and a poker. Lex. Run. 
rin-hella, u, f. [Norse aarhelle or aarstadhyll, the pavement around 
hearth^, hearthstone ; i a. fiar i stofunni, Bs. i. 680. Now in Icel. used 
nursery tales of treasures or the like hidden under the arinhella. 
^INN, s, m., dat. aarni= ami, Fs. 42, Rm. 2, [a word still freq. in 
nmark and in Norway; Dan. arne, arnested; Norse aarstad, Ivar 
sen : in Icel. it is very rare], a hearth, Fs. (Vd.) 42 ; kom ma6r um 
:tina ok tok glaeSr af arni, Sturl. ii. loi ; |)rja vissa ek elda {fires), 
a vissa ek arna (^hearth-stones), Gh. 10; maeli malts af arni hverjum, 
. three for each farm (cp. arineldar, G^l. 376), Hkr. ii. 384, Fms. x. 
?, V. loi. 2. as a law term, used in the phrase, fara eldi ok 

j, to remove one's homestead, fire and hearth together, Grag. ii. 253, 334 
here iarni is a corrupt reading). Now in Icel. eldsto. 3. metaph. 

elevated balcony, pavement, story, scaffold; stafir fjorir st66u upp ok 
ur upp 1 milli, ok var par a. ii, Fms. viii. 429 ; i mi5ju hiisinu var a. 
r (raised floor) ... en uppi a arninum var saeng mikil, v. 339, Karl. 
3, Stj. 308. p. of a ship, a hatchway, Edda (Gl.) compds : arins- 
m, n. chimney-piece, chimney-corner ; hann ii mold at taka sem 1 logum 
naelt, taka at arinshornum fjorum ok i ondvegis saeti, of an act of con- 
ance, N. G. L. i. 96, cp. Eb. ch. 4, Landn. 254 : arinn is symbolical of 
sacredness of home, just as stalli is of a temple, or an altar of a 
irch : the phrase, at drekka at arinshomi, Hkr. i. 43, reminds one of 
large chimney-corners in old English farms. arins-jdrn, n. iron 

\ inging to a hearth, a poker, used in ordeals (jarnbur3r) ; karlmaSr 

s 1 ganga til arinsjarns en kona til ketiltaks, the man shall betake him 

t'he poker and the woman shall grasp the kettle, N. G. L. i. 389. 
'BKA, a3, to limp, hobble, of a sluggish gait ; lata arka at au3nu, to let 

liters take their own course, slow and sure like fate, Nj.jSS). v. I., Am. 96. 
pka- or arkar-, what belongs to a chest, v. ork. 
L'ma, u, f. misery {dn. \ey.). Mart. 123 ; Martinus sii cirmu a h^ranum ; 

r V, sja aumr a e-m, to feel pity for : cp. Germ, arm (poor, wretched), 
.'m-baugr, m. an artnlet, Ls. 13. 
■m-brysti, n. [Engl, armbrust; old Dan. arburst"], a cross bow. Fas. 

i 03 (for. word). 
'm-fylking, f. a wing (armr) of an army, Fms. x. 403 ; more freq. 

I vingar armr. 
i.'mingi, ja, m., in Norse sense, a poor fellow, Hom. 1 1 7, 1 19 : in Icel. 

t retch. 
'm-leggr, jar, and s, m. the arm, lacertus ; hann fekk hvergi sveigt 

lis armleggi, Grett. 61 ; ofan eptir a. mjok at iilnboga, Sturl. i. 71, 

5 lib. 25, Stj. 265. Exod. vi. I {with a strong hand), Anecd. 4 (where it 

' pp. to handleggr, the fore arm). Sometimes armleggr and handleggr are 
d indifferently; ek mun bera {)ik a handlegg mcr, I will carry thee on my 
>i; but below, ok bar J)aer i vinstra a. ser, Grett. ch. 67, Karl. 517. 
•mliga, adv. and -ligr, zd], pitifully, Fms. iv. 56, Gkv. 3. 11. 
BMB, s, m. [Lat. artnus; Ulf. arms; Engl. ar7n; A. S. earm; 
m. arm']. 1. Lat. brachium in general, the arm from the shoulder 

the wrist ; sometimes also used partic. of the upper arm or fore arm ; 
context only can decide. It is rare in Icel. ; in prose armleggr and 
dleggr are more common ; but it is often used in dignified style or in 
etaph. sense ; undir brynstnkuna i arminn, lacertus (?), Fms. viii. 387 ; 
Ihringr a armi, in the wrist. Odd. 18 ; J)a lysti af hondum hennar 
'li lopt ok log, Edda 22, where the corresponding passage of the poem 
n. reads armar, armar lysa, her arms beamed, spread light. p. poet, 
ases ; sofa e-m ii armi, leggja arma um, to embrace, cp. Germ. U77i- 
■len ; koma a arm e-m, of a woman marrying, to come into one's em- 
ces, Fms. xi. 100, Lex. Poiit. Rings and bracelets are poet, called 
ilog, armblik, armlinnr, armsol, armsvell, the light, snake, ice of the arm. 
urist; armr solbrunninn, the sunburnt arms, Rm. 10. 2. metaph. the 

'g of a body, opp. to its centre ; armar lithafsins, the arms of the ocean 
the bays and firths, Rb. 466; armar krossins, Hom. 103; a wing 
a house or building, Sturl. ii. 50; borgar armr, the flanks of a castle, 
s. v. 280; the ends, extremities of a wave, Bs. ii. 50; the yard-arm, 
g. 6 ; esp. used of the wings of a host in battle (fylkingar armr), i 
lan arm fylkingar, Fms. i. 169, 170, vi. 406, 413, Faer. 81 ; in a sea- 
it, of the line of ships, Fms. vi. 315 ; the ends of a bed, sofa upp i 
linn, opp. to til fota ; and in many other cases. 
.BMB, adj. [Ulf. arms ; A. S. earm ; Germ, arni], never occurs in the 

sense of Lat, inops, but only metaph, (as in Goth.), viz. : 1. Norse, 

poor, in a good sense (as in Germ.) ; J)5er armu sk\uT,poor souls, Hom. 144 ; 
su, armi imbr, poor fellow, 118. 2. Icel. in a bad sense, wretched, 

wicked, nearly always used so, where armr is an abusive, aumr a benevolent 
term : used in swearing, at fara, vera, manna armastr ; J)ii maelti hann til 
Sigvalda, at hann skyldi fara m, a., Fms, xi. 141 ; en allir maeltu, at 
Egill skyldi fara allra manna a.. Eg. 699 ; enn armi Bjarngrimr, the wretch, 
scoundrel Bjarngrim, Faer. 239 ; viii van arma, the accursed witch, Fms, 
iii. 214 ; {)etta arma naut. Fas. iii. 498 ; orm vaettr, Gkv. i. 22, |jkv, 29, 
Sdm. 23, Og. 32 ; en arma kerling, the vile old witch, Grett. 154, Fas, i. 
60 ; Inn armi, in exclamations, the wretch I 

arm-skapa3r, adj. part. [A.S. earmsceapen], poor, miserable, mis- 
shapen, Hom. 114, 107 (Norse). 

arm-vitugr, adj. (in Mart. 123 spelt harmv.), charitable, compassionate; 
Gliimr er a. ok vel skapi farinn, Rd. 308 ; er hann litt a., bard-hearted, 
Sturl. iii. 209 ; a. vi& fataekja riienn, Bs. i. 356, 

ar-meeda, u, f. (qs. or-mae3a), distress, toil. Fas. i. 405, Bs, i, 849, 

arnar-, belonging to an eagle, v. orn, 

arning, f. [erja, arare], earing, tillage, ploughing, Bs, i, 350, 732, 1 7, 

am-sugr, m. (an Sir. My.) periphr. from the poem Haustlong, the 'sough* 
(Scot.) or rushing sound caused by the flight of an eagle (orn), Edda 16, 

ABB, n. [Sanskr. arus, Engl, and Scot, arr], a scar, v. orr. 

ars, m. podex, (later by metath. rass, Bs. i. 504, 1. 2, etc.), Sturl. ii, 
17, 39 C; ekki er {)at sem annarr small, engi er skaptr fyrir a, aptr 
hali, not like other cattle, having no fail, in a libel of the year 12 13, 
Sturl. ii. 17. COMPD : ars-g6rn, f. gitt of the anus, Nj. rass. 

ABTA, u, f. a bird, = Swed. arta, anas querquedula Linn., Edda (Gl.) 

articulera, a3, to articulate (Lat. word), Stj. 

asalabia, u, f. an animal, perh, the sable ; mjiikt skinn af dyri {)vi er 
a. heitir, Baer. 19, 

ASI, a, m. hurry (mod, word) ; cp, yss and os, 

ASKA, u, f. [a common Teut. word], ashes, lit. and metaph., Fms. 
i. 9, Stj. 208; mold ok aska, Nj.161, 208; dust eitt ok a., 655 xi. 3 : 
pi. oskum, Stj. 74 (transl. from Latin). compds : 6sku-baka3r, 

part, baked in ashes, Stj. 393. Judg. vii. dsku-dagr, m. Ash-Wed- 
nesday, Fms. viii : also 6sku-63insd.agr, Stj. 40. 6sku-dreifflr, 
part, besprinkled with ashes, Sturl. ii. 186. Csku-djnigja, u, f. a heap 
of ashes. Fas. iii. 217. 6sku-fall, n. a fall of ashes (from a volcano), 
Ann. 1 300. 6sku-f61r, adj. ashy-pale, pale as ashes, Mag. 4, Osku- 
haugr, m. a heap of ashes, Eb. 94. 6sku-st6, f, ash-pit. 

ask-limar, f, pi, branches ofan ash, Hkv. 2. 48. 

ask-maSr, m. [A. S. dscmen, vide Adam Brem. below], a viking, pirate, 
a cognom., Eg., Fms., Hkr. 

ASKB, s, m, [A. S. dsc, whence many Engl, local names ; Germ, esche], 
an ash,fraxinus, Edda (Gl.) ; a. ygdrasils, Edda 10, 1 1, Pr. 431. 2. 

anything made of ash : a. a spear, prop, ashen spear shaft (cp. Svpv 
fiiiXivov, tiJuixeXiijs), |)i3r. 304, Edda (Gl.) p. a small ship, a bark 
(built of ash, cp. dopv, abies) ; en J)eir sigla hurt a einum aski, Fas. ii. 
206, i. 421 : it appears only two or three times in Icel. prose writers ; 
hence may be explained the name of ascmanni, viking, pirate, in Adam 
Brem. ch. 212 [A.S. ciscmen], cp. askniaSr. y. a small vessel of wood 
(freq. in Icel., and used instead of deep plates, often with a cover (asklok) in 
carved work) ; storir askar fullir af skyri. Eg. 549, 550 ; cp. kyrnu-askr, 
skyr-askr. 8. a Norse measure for liquids, equal to four bowls, or sixteen 
justur,GJ)l. 525, N.G.L.i. 328,11. E.i. 396, Fms. vii. 203. compds: aska- 
smiSr, m. ship-wright (vide $.), Eg. 102. aska-spillir, m. a ship-spoiler, 
i. e. a pirate, a cognom., Gliim., Landn. ; v.l. akraspillir, less correctly, 

askraki, a, m. probably a Finnish word ; bjor (beaver), savala {sable) 
ok askraka (?), S07ne animal with precious fir. Eg. 57 ; an air, \ey. 

askran, f. [askrast, to shudder, Ivar Aasen], horror, v. afskr-, B. K. 107. 

ask-vi3r, ar, m, ash-tree, Str. 17. 

asna, u, f., Lat. asina, a she-ass, Stj. 183. compd : Osnuligr, adj., '6, 
steinn, 655. Matth. xviii. 6, transl, of ovinhs \ldos, the upper jnillstone. 

ASNI, a, m., Lat. asinus, an ass. Mart. 131, Fas. iii. 416, Band. 12,= 
aselhes, 1812. 16. compds: asna-ladfnQin. donkey-head, St]. asna- 
kj^lki, a, m. jawbone ofan ass, Stj., Greg. 48. 

aspiciens-bok, f. a service-book, Vm. 6, 1 1 7, 139, Am. 35, Pm,, D, I,, etc. 

aspiciens-skra, f. id., Pm. 104, 75, etc. 

ASSA, u, f. (qs. arnsa), an eagle. 

AT and a3, prep., often used ellipt. dropping the case and even merely as 
an adverb, [Lat. ad; Ulf. at = irpus and Trapa, A.S. iit; Engl, at; Hel. ad = 
apud; O.H.G. az ; lost in mod. Germ., and rare in Swed. and Dan. ; in 
more freq. use in Engl, than any other kindred language, Icel. only excepted]: 
— the mod, pronunciation and spelling is a3 (ap) ; this form is very old, 
and is found in Icel. vellum MSS. of the 12th century, e.g.ap,62^.6o; yet 
in earlier times it was sounded with a tenuis, as we may infer from rhymes, 
e. g. jiifurr hyggi at | hve ek yrkja/rt/, Egill : Sighvat also makes it rhyme 
with a /. The verse by Thorodd — J)ar vastu at er fja3r klse&i6 j)vat 
(Skiilda 162) — is hardly intelligible unless we accept the spelling with an 
aspirate (ad), and say that J)va6 is = J)va = J)va3i, lavabat; it may be that 
by the time of Thorodd and Ari the pure old pronunciation was lost, or is 




' bvat' simply the A. S. Jjvat, secutt ? The Icelanders still, however, keep 
the tenuis in compounds before a vowel, or before b, v, or the liquids /, r, 
thus — atyr8a, atorka, athiJfn, athugi, athvarf, athlaegi ; atvinna, atvik ; 
atlaga, atliftanSi (slope), atrial, atreiS, atr63r : but aBdjupr, a5finsla 
{critic), aSferd, aftkoma, aSsokn, aSsiigr (crowding), aSgaezla. In some 
words the pronunciation is irregular, e. g. atkvaeSi not aftkv- ; atburSr, 
but a8buna8r; aShjiikran not athjiikran; atgorvi not a3gorfi. At, to, 
towards; into; against; along, by; in regard to* after. 

Mostly with dat. ; rarely with ace. ; and sometimes ellipt. — by dropping 
the words 'home,' 'house,' or the like — with gen. 


A. Loc. I. WITH MOTION ; gener. the motion to the borders, 

limits of an object, and thus opp. to fra : 1. towards, against, with 

or without the notion of arrival, esp. connected with verbs denoting 
motion (verba movendi et eundi), e.g. fara, ganga, koma, liita, sniia, 
r^tta at ... ; Otkell laut at Skamkatli, O. louted (i. e. bowed down) towards 
S., Nj. 77, Fins. xi. loa ; sendima3rinn sneri (turned) hjiiltum sver5sins 
at konungi, towards the king, i. 15 ; hann sneri egginni at Asgrimi, 
turned the edge towards yl ., Nj. 2 20 ; retta e-t at e-m, to reach, hand over, 
Ld. 132 ; ganga at, to step towards, Isl. ii. 259. 2. denoting proximity, 

close up to, up to; Brynjolfr gengr . . . allt at honum, B. goes quite up to 
him, Nj. 58 ; Gunnarr kom {)angat at J)eim orunum, G. reached them even 
there with his arrows, 115; ]peir komust aldri at honum, they could never 
get near him, to close quarters, id. ; rei9 ma5r at J)eim (up to them), 274 ; 
t)eir hiifSu rakit sporin allt at (right up to) gammanum, Fms. i. 9 ; komu 
|)eir at sjo fram, came down to the sea. Bard. 180. 3. without refer- 

ence to the space traversed, to or at; koma at landi, to land, Ld. 38, Fms. 
viii. 358 ; rifta at dyrum. Boll. 344; hiaupa at e-m, to run up to, run at, 
Fms! vii. 218, viii. 358 ; af sjdfarganginum er hann gekk at landinu, of 
the surf dashing against the shore, xi. 6 ; visa olmum hundi at manni, to 
set a fierce hound at a man, Grag. ii. 118 ; leggja e-n at velli, to lay low. 
Eg. 426, Nj. 117 ; hniga at jorSu, at grasi, at moldu, to bite the dust, to 
die, Njar5. 378 ; ganga at domi, a law term, to go into court, of a plaintiff, 
defendant, or bystander, Nj. 87 (freq.) 4. denoting a motion along, 

into, upon; ganga at straeti, to walk along the street, Korm. 228, Fms. 
vii. 39 ; at isi, on the ice, Skalda 198, Fms. vii. 19, 246, viii. 168, Eb. 112 
new Ed. (a is perh. wrong) ; mattu menu ganga {)ar yfir at skipum einum, 
of ships alone used as a bridge, Fas. i. 378 ; at hof^um, at nam, to trample 
on the slain on the battle-field, Lex. Poet. ; at 4m, along the rivers ; at 
merkiosum, at the river's mouth, Grag. ii. 355 ; at endilongu baki, all 
along its back, Sks. 1 00. 5. denoting hostility, to rush at, assault; 

renna at, hiaupa at, ganga, fara, ri9a, saekja, at e-m, (v. those words), 
whence the nouns atrenna, athlaup, atgangr, atftir, atreiS, atsokn, etc. 0. 
metaph., kom at ^dm svefnhofgi, deep sleep fell on them, Nj. 104. Esp. 
of weather, in the impers. phrase, hr]9, ve8r, vind, storm gorir at e-m, 
to be overtaken by a snow storm, gale, or the like ; gorSi |)a at Jieim 
{)oku mikla, they were overtaken by a thick fog, Bar9. 171. 6. denot- 

ing around, of clothing or the like ; bregSa skikkju at hof6i ser, to wrap 
his cloak over his head, Ld. 62 ; vefja motri at hof&i s6r, to wrap a s?iood 
round her bead, 188 ; sauma at, to stick, cling close, as though sewn on; 
sauma at hondum s^r, of tight gloves, Bs. i. 453 ; kyrtill sva J)r6ngr sem 
saumaftr vaeri at honum, as though it were stitched to him, Nj. 214 ; vafit 
at vandum dreglum, tight laced with sorry tags, id. ; hosa strengd fast at 
beini, of tight hose. Eg. 602 ; hann sveipar at ser i8runum ok skyrtunni, 
be gathers up the entrails close to him and the skirt too, Gisl. 71 ; laz at 
si8u, a lace on the side, to keep the clothes tight. Eg. 602. j3. of burying ; 
bera grjot at einum, to heap stones upon the body. Eg. 719 I var giir at 
J)eim dys or grjoti, Ld. 152 ; gtira kistu at liki, to make a coffin for a body, 
Eb. 264, Landn. 56, Ld. 142. y. of summoning troops or followers; 

stefna at ser inonnum, to summon rnen to him, Nj. 104 ; stefna at sor li6i. 
Eg. 270 ; kippa miinnum at s^r, to gather men in haste, Ld. 64. 7. 

denoting a business, engagement ; ri8a at hrossum, at sau8um, to go look- 
ing after horses, watching sheep, Gliim. 362, Nj. 75 ; fara at fe, to go to seek 
for sheep, Ld. 240 ; fara at heyi, to go a-haymaking, Dropl. 10; at vei6um, 
a-hunting; at fuglum, a-fowling ; at dyrum, a-sbooting ; at liski, a-fish- 
ing; at veiftiskap, Landn. 154, Orkn.4l6(in a verse), Nj. 25 ; fara at land- 
skuldum, to go a-collecting rents. Eg. 516 ; at Finnkaupum, a-marketing 
with Finns, 41 ; at f6f6ngum, a-plundering, Fms. vii. 78 ; ganga at beina, 
to wait on guests, Nj. 50; starfa at matseld, to serve at table, Eb. 266 ; 
hitta e-n at nau&synjuin, on tnatters of business ; at mali, to speak with 
one, etc., Fms. xi. loi ; rekast at e-m, to pursue one, ix. 404; ganga 
at lifti s(5r, to go suing for help, Grag. ii. 384. p. of festivals ; sniia, fa 
at bloti, veizlu, brullaupi, to prepare for a sacrificial banquet, wedding, or 
the like, hence at-fangadagr, Eb. 6, Ld. 70 ; koma at hendi, to happen, 
befal ; ganga at sinu, to come by one's own, to take it, Ld. 208 ; Egill 
drakk hvert full er at honum kom, drained every horn that came to 
bim. Eg. 210 ; komast at keyptu, to purchase dearly, Hav. 46. 8. 

denoting imaginary motion, esp. of places, cp. Lat. spectare, vergere ad .. ., 
to look or lie towards ; horf8i botninn at hof8anum, the bight of the bay 
looked toward the headland, Fms. i. 340, Landn, 35 ; also, skeiftgata liggr 
at laeknum, leads to the brook, Isl. ii. 339 ; 6, t)ami arminn er vissi at 

^sjanum, on that wing which looked toward the sea, Fms. viii. 115; sar 
J)au er horft hof3u at Knuti konungi, xi. 309. p. even connected with 
verbs denoting motion ; Gilsareyrr gengr austan at Fljotinu, G. extends, 
projects to F.from the east, Hrafn. 25 ; hja sundi J)vi, er at gengr J)ingst6(S! 
inni, Fms. xi. 85. II. without motion ; denoting presence at, 

near, by, at the side of, in, upon; connected with verbs like sitja, standa, 
vera,..; at kirkju, at church, Fms. vii. 251, K.f>. K. 16, Ld. 328, Isl.ij] 
270, Sks. 36; vera at skala, at hiisi, to be in, at home, Landn. 154; at 
landi, Fms. i. 82 ; at skipi, on shipboard, Grag. i. 209, 215 ; at iildri, cu 
a banquet, inter pocula ; at ati, at dinner, at a feast, inter edendum, ii. 
169, 170; at samforum ok samvistum, at public meetings, id.; at dorai, 
in a court; standa (to take one's stand) nor8an, sunnan, austan, vestan at 
domi, freq. in the proceedings at trials in lawsuits, Nj. ; at J)ingi, present 
at the parliament, Grag. i. 142 ; at logbergi, on the hill of laws, 17, Nj.; 
at baki e-m, at the back of. 2. denoting presence, partaking in; 

sitja at mat, to sit at meat, Fms. i. 241 ; vera at veizlu, brullaupi, to be at a 
banquet, nuptials, Nj. 51, Ld. 70 : a law term, vera at vigi, to be an acces- 
sory in manslaying, Nj. 89, 100 ; vera at e-u simply means to be about, he 
busy in, Fms. iv. 237 ; standa at mali, to stand by one in a case, Grag. ii, 
165, Nj. 214; vera at fostri, to be fostered, Fms. i. 2 ; sitja at hegoma, 
to listen to nonsense, Ld. 322; vera at smi6, to be at one's work, 
J>6r6. 62 : now absol., vera at, to go on with, be busy at. 3. the 

law term vinna ei6 at e-u has a double meaning : o. vinna ei3 at b6k, 
at baugi, to make oath upon the book by laying the hand upon it, Landn. 
258, Grag., Nj.; cp. Vkv. 31, Gkv. 3. 3, Hkv. 2. 29, etc.: ' vi5' is 
now used in this sense. p. to confirm a fact (or the like) by an oath, 

to swear to, Grag. i. 9, 327. y. the law phrase, nefna vatta at e-u, 0/ 
summoning witnesses to a deed, fact, or the like ; nefna vatta at benjum, 
to produce evidence, witnesses as to the wounds, Nj., Grag. ; at gor5, Eg, 
738 ; at svorum, Grag. i. 19 : this summoning of witnesses served in old 
lawsuits the same purpose as modem pleadings and depositions ; every 
step in a suit to be lawful must be followed by such a summoning or 
declaration. 4. used ellipt., vera at, to be about, to be busy at; kval- 

ararnir er at v6ru at pina hann, who were tormenting him ; J)ar varstu 
zt, you were there present, Skalda 162 ; at varum {)ar, Gisl. (in a verse): 
as a law term 'vera at' means to be guilty. Glum. 388 ; vartattu at {»ar. 
Eg. (in a verse) ; hence the ambiguity of Glum's oath, vask at J)3r, I was 
there present: var J)ar at kona nokkur (was there busy) at binda s: 
manna, Fms. v. 91 ; hann var at ok smi6a3i skot, Rd. 313 ; voru Varbeli' 
at (about) at taka af, J)au log . . ., Fms. ix. 512 ; ek var at ok vafk. 
was about weaving, xi. 49 ; J)eir hof&u verit at J)rju sumur, they had be, 
busy at it for three summers, x. 186 (now very freq.) ; koma at, come in, : 
arrive unexpectedly ; Gunnarr kom at i J)vi, G. came in at that moment . 
hva&an komtii mi at, whence did you come ? Nj. 68, Fms. iii. 200. 5. 

denoting the kingdom or residence of a king or princely person ; konuii: 
at Danmcirk ok Noregi, king of. . ., Fms. i. 119, xi. 281 ; konungr, jar 
at ciUum Noregi, king, earl, over all N., lb. 3, 13, Landn. 25 ; konuii: 
at Dyflinni, king of Dublin, 25; but i or yfir Englandi, Eg. 263 : cp. tl 
phrase, sitja at landi, to reside, of a king when at home, Hkr. i. 34; ... 
Jomi, Fms. xi. 74 : used of a bishop ; biskup at Holum, bishop ofHolar, lb. 
18, 19 ; but biskup i Skalaholti, 19 : at Romi, at Rome, Fbr. 198. 6. 

in denoting a man's abode (vide p. 5, col. 1, 1. 27), the prep, 'at' is ust 
where the local name implies the notion of by the side of, and is ther.^ 
fore esp. applied to words denoting a river, brook, rock, mountain, groi 
or the like, and in some other instances, by, at, e. g. at Hofi (a tempit 
Landn. 198 ; at Borg (a castle), 67 ; at Helgafelli (a mountain), Eb. co: 
stantly so; at Mosfelli, Landn. 190; at Halsi (a bill), Fms. xi. 22; ;. 
Bjargi, Grett.90 ; Halsum, Landn. 143 ; at A (river), 296, 268 ; at Baegis 
212 ; Gilja, 332 ; Myrka, 211 ; Vatnsa, id. ; fivera, Gliim. 323 ; at Fo; 
(a 'force' or waterfall), Landn. 73 ; at Laskjamoti (waters-meeting), 33: 
at Hlidarenda (end of the lithe or bill), at Berg{)6rshvaH, Nj. ; at Luiu; 
(a grove), at Melum (sandhill), Landn. 70: the prep, 'a' is now usi 
in most of these cases, e. g. a A, a Hofi, Helgafelli, Felli, Halsi, etc. |3 
particularly, and without any regard to etymology, used of the aboo 
of kings or princes, to reside at; at Uppsiilum, at Haugi, AlreksstoSun 
at Hlo6um, Landn., Fms. y. konungr Idt kalla at stofudyrum, the kin. 
made a call at the hall door. Eg. 88 ; {)eir kollu6u at herberginu, thr 
called at the inn, Fms. ix. 475. 7. used ellipt. with a gen., esp. 

connected with such words as gista, to be a guest, lodge, dine, sup (■ 
festivals or the like) at one's home; at Mar8ar, Nj. 4 ; at bans, 74 ; {)iug- 
festi at {)ess boanda, Grag. i. 152 ; at sin, at one's own home. Eg. 371. 
K. f>. K. 62 ; hafa ndttstaS at Freyju, at the abode of goddess Freyja, Ei 
603 ; at Ranar, at Ran's, i. e. at Ran's bouse, of drowned men who belon 
to the queen of the sea. Ran, Eb. 274 ; at bins heilaga Olafs konungs, (. 
St. Olave's church, Fms. vi. 63 : cp. ad Veneris, ds KifjLwvos. 

B. Temp. I. at, denoting a point or period of time; ■■'^ 

upphafi, at first, in the beginnings Ld. 104 ; at lyktum, at siSustu, a; 
lokum, a^ last; at lesti, at last. Lex. Poet., more freq. a lesti ; at skilnaSi. 
at parting, at last. Band. 3 ; at fornu, in times of yore, formerly. Eg. 267. 
D.I. i. 635; zX. s\\m{, as yet, at present ; ztny]\i, anew, of present time; at 
<ii^i\x,for ever and ever; at skommvi, soon, shortly, Isl.ii.272, v.l. II. 



cry moment when anything happens, the beginning of a term;' 

■; the seasons of the year, months, weeks, the hours of the day; 

II, at Yule, Nj. 46; at Palmadegi, on Palm Sunday, 273; at 

., at Easter; at (3lafsvoku, on St. Olave's eve, 2gtb 0/ July, 

it vetri, at the beginning of the winter, on the day when winter 

(iriig. i. 151 ; at sumarnialum, at vetrnattum ; at TvinianaSi, 

n the Double month (August) begins, Ld. ■256, Gn'ig. i. 152 ; at 

idi, at eventide, Eg. 3; at \>vi meh, at that time; at eindaga, at 

term, 395 ; at eyk&, at 4 o'clock p. m., I98 ; at ondverSri aefi Abra- 

[ns, Ver. 11 ; at sitmi, tiow at once, Fnis. vi. 71 ; at o6ruhverju, every 

and then. p. where the point of time is marked by some event ; 
|)ingi, at the meeting of parliament (i8th to the 24th of June), Ld. 
s; at f^ransdomi, at the court of execution, Gr4g. i. 133, 133; at 
glausnum, at the close of the parliament (beginning of July), 140; at 
armiilum, e3r at eiginor&i, at betrothal or nuptials, 1 74 ; at skilnaSi, 
m they parted, Nj. 106 (above) ; at oUum minnum, at the general 
nking of the toasts. Eg. 253 ; at fjoru, at the ebb; at flae&um, atflood- 
3, Ems. viii. 306, Orkn. 428 ; at hriirum, at an inquest, Grdg. i. 50 
. ii. 141, 389) ; at sokum, at prosecutions, 30; at sinni, tiow, as yet, v. 
t word. III. elHpt., or adding ' komanda' or ' er kemr,' of the 
are time : 1. eUipt., komanda or the like being understood, 
h reference to the seasons of the year ; at sumri, at vetri, at hausti, 
vari, next summer, winter..., Isl. ii. 242; at miSju sumri, at 

at Midsummer, next year. Fas. i. 516; at miftjum vetri. Ems. iv. 
]. 2. adding 'komanda' or ' er kemr;' at ari komanda, Bar8. 

J ; at vari er kemr, Dipl. iii. 6. IV. used with an absolute 

. and with a pres. part. : 1. with pres. part. ; at morni komanda, 

the coming morrow. Ems. i. 263 ; at ser lifanda, se vivo, in his life 
e, Grag. ii. 202 ; at {)eim sofundum, illis dormientibus, Hkr. i. 234; 
jllum asjandum, in the sight of all. Ems. x. 329 ; at uvitanda konungi, 

nesciente, without bis knowledge, 227; at aheyranda hofSingjanum, 
be chief's hearing, 235. 2. of past time with a past part. (Lat. abl. 

ol.) ; at hrcejum fundnum, on the bodies being found, Grag. ii. 87 ; at 
)um domum ok fiistu J)ingi, during the session, the courts being set, i. 
|, ; at liSnum sex vlkum, after six weeks past. Band. 13; at sva biinu, 
goru, sva komnu, sva niaeltu (Lat. quibus rebus gestis, dictis, quo 
'0, dicta, etc.), v. those words; at ureyndu, without trial, without put- 
f one to the test, Ld. 76 ; at honum ondu3um, illo morttio. 3. 

pt. without ' at ;' eu j)essum hlutum fram komnum, when all this has 

1 done, Eb. 132. V. in some phrases with a slight temp, notion ; 
j6r5um gildum, the fences being strong, GJ)1. 387 ; at viirmu spori, at 
e, whilst the trail is warm ; at livorum, unawares, suddenly, Nj. 95, Ld. 
J ; at J)essu, at this cost, on that condition, Eb. 38, Nj. 55 ; at ilium 
:i, to have a narrow escape, now vi& illan leik. Ems. ix. 473 ; at J)vi, 
t granted, Grag. ii. 33 : at J)vi, at J)essu, thereafter, thereupon, Nj. 

2. denoting succession, without interruption, one after another ; 
;rr at 66rum, annarr ma&r at o5rum, aSrir at o3rum ; eina konu at 
larri. Eg. 91, Ems. ii. 236, vi. 25, Bs. i. 22, 625. 80, H. E. i. 522. 

C. Metaph. and in various cases : I. denoting a transforma- 

1 or change into, to, with the notion of destruction ; brenna at osku, 

kbldum kolum, to burn to ashes, to be quite destroyed. Ems. i. 105, 

ia 3, Sturl. ii. 51 : with the notion of transformation or transfiguration, 

such phrases as, verSa at e-u, gora e-t at e-u, to turn it into : a. by 

pell; ver6a at ormi, to become a snake. Ems. xi. 158; at flugdrekum, 

llj). 7 ; ur6u {)au bond at jarni, Edda 40. p. by a natural process it 

often be translated by an ace. or by as; gora e-n at urSarmanni, to 

ke him an outlaw. Eg. 728 ; graeSa e-n at orkumlamanni, to heal him so 

to maim him for life, of bad treatment by a leech, Eb. 244 : in the law 

ns, sar giirist at ben, a wound turning into a ben, proving to be mortal, 

ig., Nj. ; verSa at Ijugvaetti, to prove to be a false evidence, Grag. i. 44 ; 

da at saett, to turn i?ito reconciliation. Ems. i. 13 ; gora e-t at rei6i- 

lum, to take offence at, Es. 20 ; at nyjum ti6indum, to tell as news, Nj. 

; ver5a fatt at orSum, to be spari?ig of words, 18 ; kveftr (sva) at or8i, 

speak, utter, 10; ver3a at prifnaSi, to get on well. Ems. vii. 196: 

1181, at ska8a, to be a help or hurt to 07ie; at bana, to cause one's death, 

223, Eg. 21, Grag. ii. 29 : at undrum, at hiatri, to become a wonder, 

aughitig-stock, 623. 35, Eg. 553. II. denoting capacity, where 

nay be translated merely by as or for ; gefa at Jolagjof, to give for a 

rist7nas-box. Eg. 516; at gjiif, /or a present ; at erf8, at lani, launum, 

nil inheritance, a loan ; at kaupum ok solum, for buying and selling, 

223, Grag. i. 423; at solum, ii. 204; at herfangi, as spoil 

der ; at sakbotum, at ni8gjoldum, as a compensation, weregeld, 

i. 171, Hkr. ii. 168 ; taka at gislingu, to take as an hostage, Edda 

^1 e-n at vin, at ovin, to have one as friend or foe, illt er at eiga 

H'l at eingavin, 'tis ill to have a thrall for one's bosom friend (a proverb), 

I 77 ; faeda, eiga, at sonum (syni), to beget a son, Edda 8, Bs. i. 60 (but 

ta at dottur cannot be said); hafa miittul at yfirhiifn. Ems. vii. 201 ; 

3a niikkut at manni (monnum), to turn out to be a worthy man ; ver3a 

ji at manni, to turn out a worthless person, xi. 79, 268. 2. 

such phrases as, ver8a at or8um, to come to words, Nj. 26 ; var 

J: at erindum, Eg. 148 ; hafa at veizlum, to draw veizlur (dues) from, 

Ems. iv. 275, Eg. 647; gora e-t at alitum, lo take it into consideration, 
Nj.3. III. denoting belonging to, fitting, of parts of the whole 

or the like ; voru at honum (viz. the sword) hjolt gullbiiin, the sword was 
ornamented with a hilt of gold, Ld. 330 ; unig6r8 at (belonging to) sverfti, 
Es. 97 (Hs.) in a verse; en ef mor er eigi at landinu, if there be no turf 
moor belonging to the land. Grig. ii. 338: sva at eigi brotnaSi nokkuS 
at Orminum, so that no harm happened to the ship Worvi, Ems. x. 356 ; 
hvatki er mei8ir at skipinu e8r at rei8inu e8r at vi3um, damage done 
/o..., Grag. ii. 403; lesta (to injure) hiis at 14sum, vi8 e8r torfi, 
110; cf land hefir batna8 at hiisum, if the land has been bettered as to 
its buildings, 210; cp. the phrase, giira at e-u, to repair: hanila8r at 
hiindum e8r fotum, mainud as to hands or feet. Eg. 14; heill at hondum 
en hrumr at fotum, sound in band, palsied in foot. Ems. vii. 12 ; lykili at 
skra, a key belonging, Jitting, to the latch; hur8 at hiisi ; a key ' gengr 
at ' ( fits) skra ; and many other phrases. 2. denoting the part by which 

a thing is held or to which it belongs, by ; fa, taka at . . . , /o grasp by ..,; 
{)U t6kt vi& sver3i bans at hjiiltunum, ^om took it by the hilt. Ems. i. 15; 
draga lit bjorninn at hlustum, to pull out the hear by the ears, Eas. ii. 237 ; 
at fotum, by the feet. Ems. viii. 363 ; mxla {to measure) at hrygg ok at 
jaSri, by the edge or middle of the stuff, Grdg. i. 498 ; kasta e-m at 
h6f8i, headforemost, Nj. 84 ; kjosa e-n at fotum, by the feet alone, Edda 
46 ; hefja fraendsemi at brae8rum, e8a at systkynum, to reckon kinship by 
the brother's or the sister's side, Grag. i. 28; kj6sa at afli, at dlitum, by 
strength, sight, Gs. 8, belongs rather to the following. IV, 

in respect of, as regards, in regard to, as to ; auSigr at fe, wealthy 
of goods, Nj. 16, 30, 51; beztir hestar at rei3, the best racehorses, 
186; spekingr at viti, a man of great intellect, Ld. 124; vaenn (fagr) at 
aliti, fair of face, Nj. 30, Bs. i. 61 ; kvenna vaenst at asjonu ok vits- 
munum, of surpassing beauty and intellect, Ld. 122; fuUkominn at 
hyggju, 18 ; um fram a8ra menu at vinsaeldum ok harSfengi, of surpass- 
ing popularity and hardihood, Eb. 30. 2. a law term, of challenging 
jurors, judges, or the like, on account of, by reason of; ry8ja (to challenge) 
at maeg8um, gu8sifjum, fraendsemi, hrorum . . . ; at lei8arlengd, on account 
of distance, Grag. i. 30, 50, Nj. (freq.) 3. in arithm. denoting /ro- 
portion; at helmingi, J)ri8jungi, fj6r3ungi, tiunda hluta, cp. Lat. ex asse, 
quadrante, for the half, third . . .part; mdttr skal at magni (a proverb), 
might and main go together, Hkr. ii. 236 ; J)u munt vera at \)vi mikill 
fraE3inia3r a kvaE8i, in the same proportion, as great. Ems. vi. 391, iii. 
41 ; at e-s hluta, at . . . leiti, for one's part, in turn, as far as one is con- 
cerned, Grag. i. 322, Eg. 309, Ems. iii. 26 (freq.) ; at 63rum kosti, in the 
other case, otherwise (freq.) More gener., at iillu, iingu, in all (no) respects ; 
at sumu, einhverju, nokkru, partly ; at flestu, mestu, chiefly. 4. as 
a paraphrase of a genitive; fa8ir, m63ir at barni ( = barns); aSili at 
sok ( = sakar a.) ; mor8ingi at barni ( = barns), fa3erni at barni (barns) ; 
illvirki at fe manna (cp. Lat._/e/o de se), ni8rfall at scikum (saka), land- 
gangr at fiskum (fiska). Ems. iv. 274, Grag. i. 277, 416, N. G. L. i. 340, 
K.|>.K. 112, Nj. 21. 5. the phrase 'at ser,' of himself or in 
himself, either ellipt. or by adding the participle giirr, and with the 
adverbs vel, ilia, or the like ; denoting breeding, bearing, endowments, 
character . . . ; vaen kona, kurteis ok vel at s(5r, an accomplished, well-bred, 
gifted lady, Nj. i ; vitr ma3r ok vel at ser, a wise man and thorottgbly 
good in feeling and bearing, 5 ; {ni ert maSr vaskr ok vel at J)er, 49 ; 
gerr at ser, accomplished, 5 1 ; bezt at ser gorr, the finest, best bred man, 
39, Ld, 124; en J)6 er hann sva vel at ser, so generous, Nj. 77 ; J)eir 
h6f3ingjar er sva voru vel at ser, so noble-minded, 198, Ems. i. 160: the 
phrase ' at ser ' is now only used of knowledge, thus ma8r vel a8 s^r 
means clever, a man of great knowledge ; ilia a3 ser, a blockhead. 6. 
denoting relations to colour, size, value, age, and the like ; hvitr, 
svartr, grar, rau8r ... at lit, white, sivarthy, gray, red . . .of colour, Bjarn. 
55, 28, Isl. ii. 213, etc.; mikill, litill, at staerB, vexti, tall, small of 
size, etc. ; ungr, gamall, barn, at aldri, young, old, a child of age ; 
tvitugr, f)ritugr ... at aldri, twenty, thirty . . . years of age (freq.) : 
of animals ; kyr at fyrsta, o3rum . . . kalfi, a cow having calved once, 
twice . . ., Jb. 346 : value, amount, currency of money, kaupa e-t nt 
mork, at a mark, N.G. L. i. 352 ; ok er eyririnn at mork, amounts 
to a mark, of the value of money, Grag. i. 392 ; ver8r ^k at halfri 
mcirk vaSniala eyrir, amounts to a half a mark, 500. p. metaph. pf 
value, connected with verbs denoting to esteem, hold; meta, hafa, halda 
at miklu, litlu, vettugi, engu, or the like, to hold in high or low esteem, 
to care or not to care for (freq.) : geta e-s at g63u, illu, iingu, to mention 
one favourably, unfavourably, indifferently . . . (freq.), prop, in connection 
with. In many cases it may be translated by in; ekki er mark at 
draumum, there is no meaning in dreams, no heed is to he paid to dreams, 
Sturl. ii. 217; brag3 er at J)a bami8 finnr, it goes too far, when even a 
child takes offence (a proverb) ; hvat er at {)vi, what does it mean ? Nj. 1 1 ; 
hvert t)at skip er voxtr er at, atiy ship of mark, i. e. however small, Ems. 
xi. 20. V. denoting the source of a thing : 1. source of infor- 
mation, to learn, perceive, get information from; Ari nam ok marga 
frae3i at |>uri3i, learnt as her pupil, at her hands, as St. Paul at the feet 
of Gamaliel, (just as the Scotch say to speer or ask at a person) ; Ari 
nam at {>orgeiri afra8skoll, Hkr. (pref.) ; nema kuonattu at e-m, used of 



a pupil, Fms. i. 8 ; nema fraeSi at e-m, xi. 396. 2. of receiving, 

acquiring, buying, from ; l)iggja e-t at e-m, to receive a thing at his 
hands, Nj. 51 ; lif, to be pardoned, Fms. x. 173; kaupa land at e-m, to 
buy it from, Landn. 72, lb. 11, (now af is more freq. in this sense); 
geta e-t at e-m, to obtain, procure at one's hands, itnpetrare; J)eirra 
manna er J)eir megu fiat geta at, who are willing to do that, Grag. i. 
i; heimta e-t at e-m (now af), to call in, demand (a debt, money), 
279; fala e-t at e-m (now af), to chaffer for or cheapen anything, Nj. 
73; saekja e-t at e-m, to ask, seek for; saekja heilraeSi ok traust at 
e-m, 98 ; leiga e-t at e-m (now af ), to borrow, Grag. ii. 334 ; eiga e-t 
(f6, skuld) at e-m, to be owed money by any one, i. 399 : metaph. to deserve 
of one, Nj. 1 13 ; eiga mikit at e-m, to have much to do with, 138 ; hafa veg, 
virSing, styrk, at, to derive hotiour, power from, Fms. vi. 71, Eg. 44, 
Bar8. 174; gagn, to be of tise, Ld. 216; mein, talma, mischief, disad- 
vantage, 158, 216, cp. Eg. 546 ; otta, awe, Nj. 68. VI. denoting 
conformity, according to, Lat. secundum, ex, after; at fomum si5, 
Fms. i. 112 ; at sogn Ara prests, as Ari relates, on bis authority, 55 ; at 
ra&i allra vitrustu manna, at the advice of, Isl. ii. 259, Ld. 62 ; at logum, 
at landslogum, by the law of the land, Grag., Nj. ; at likindum, in all 
likelihood, Ld. 272; at skopum, in due course (poet.); at hinum sama 
haetti, in the very same manner, Grag. i. 90 ; at vanum, as was to be ex- 
pected, Nj. 255 ; at leyfi e-s, by one's leave. Eg. 35 ; lilofi, Grag. ii. 215 ; 
at osk, vilja e-s, as one likes . . . ; at mun, id. (poet.) ; at solu, happily 
(^following the course of the sun), Bs. i. 70, 137 ; at J)vi sem . . ., as to 
infer from . . ., Nj. 124 : ' fara, lata, ganga at' denotes to yield, agree to, 
to comply with, give in, Ld. 168, Eg. 18, Fms. x. 368. VII. in 
phrases nearly or quite adverbial ; groa, vera graeddr, at heilu, to be quite 
healed. Bard. 167, Eb. 148 ; bita at snoggu, to bite it bare, Fms. xi. 6 ; 
at J)urru, till it becomes dry, Eb. 276; at endilongu, all along. Fas. ii; 
vinnast at litlu, to avail little, 655 x. 14; at fullu, fully, Nj. 257, Hkr. i. 
171 ; at visu, of a surety, surely, Ld. 40; at frjalsu, yreeZy, 308 ; at liku, 
at somu, equally, all the same, Horn. 80, Nj. 267 ; at rongu, wrongly, 
686 B. 2 ; at hofi, temperately. Lex. Poet. ; at mun, at ra3i, at marki, to a 
great extent; at hringum, titterly, all round, (rare), Fms. x. 389 ; at einu, 
yet, Orkn. 358 ; sva at einu, {)vi at einu, allt at einu, yet, however, never- 
theless. VIII. connected with comparatives of adverbs and ad- 
jectives, and strengthening the sense, as in Engl. ' the,' so much the more, 
all the more; 'at' heldr tveimr, at ek munda gjarna veita y6r iillum, 
where it may be translated by so 7nuch the more to two, as I would 
willingly grant it to all of you ; hon gret at meir, she grat (wept) the 
more. Eg. 483 ; {)ykir oss at likara, all the more likely, Fms. viii. 6 ; J)ess 
at har&ari, all the harder, Sturl. iii. 202 C ; sva at hinn se bana at naer, 
Grag. ii. 1 1 7 ; at auSnara, at holpnara, the more happy, Al. 19, Grett. 1 1 6 B ; 
J)ess at meiri, Fms. v. 64 ; auvir9isma8r at meiri, Sturl. ii. 139 ; ma5r at 
vaskari, id. ; at feigri, any the more fey. Km. 2 2 ; ma6r at verri, all the worse, 
Nj. 168 ; ok er ' at' firr . . . , at ek vil miklu heldr, cp. Lat. tantum abest . . . 
ut, Eg. 60. p. following after a negation ; eigi at si6r, no less, Nj. i6o, 
Ld. 146 ; eigi ... at meiri maSr, any better. Eg. 425, 489 ; erat hera at borg- 
nara, any the better off for that, Fms. vii. 116; eigi at minni, tio less for that, 
Edda (pref.) 146 ; eigi at minna, Ld. 216, Fms. ix. 50 ; ekki at verri drengr, 

tiot a bit worse for that, Ld. 42 ; er mer ekki son minn at baettari, fiott , 

216; at eigi vissi at nser, any more, Fas. iii. 74. IX. following 

many words : 1. verbs, esp. those denoting, a. to ask, enquire, 

attend, seek, e.g. spyrja at, to speer (ask) for; leita at, to seek for; gaeta, 
geyma at, to pay attention to; huga, hyggja at; hence atspurn, to en- 
quire, a6gaezla, athugi, attention, etc. p. verbs denoting laughter, play, 
joy, game, cp. the Engl, to play at . . .,to laugh at ...; hlaeja, brosa at e-u, 
to laugh, smile at it; leika (s^r) at e-u, to play at; l)ykja gaman at, to 
enjoy ; hsefta, gcira gys at . . ., to make sport at . . . y. verbs denoting 
assistance, help ; standa, veita, vinna, hjalpa at ; hence atsto&, atvinna, 
atverk : — mode, proceeding ; fara at, to proceed, hence atfor and atferli : 
— compliance ; lata, fara at e-u, v. above : — fault ; e-t er at e-u, there is 
some fault in it, Fms. x. 418 ; skorta at e-u, to fall short of, xi. 98 : 
— care, attendance ; hjukra at, hlyja at, v. these words: — gathering, col- 
lecting; draga, reida, flytja, fa at, congerere : — engagement, arrival, etc.; 
saekja at, to attack; ganga at, vera at, to be about; koma at, ellipt. to 
arrive : gcira at, to repair : lesta at, to impair (v. above) ; finna at, to 
criticise (mod.) ; telja at, id. : bera at, to happen; kve&a at e-m, to address 
one, 625.15, (kve&a at (ellipt.) now means to pronounce, and of a child 
to utter (read) whole syllables) ; falla at, of the flood-tide (ellipt.) : 
metaph. of pains or straits surrounding one ; Jjreyngja, her6a at, to press 
hard: of frost and cold, with regard to the seasons; frjosa at, kolna at, 
to get really cold (SI. 44), as it were from the cold stiffening all things : 
also of the seasons themselves ; hausta, vetra a3, when the season really 
sets in; esp. the cold seasons, ' sumra at' cannot be used, yet we may say 
* vara a8' when the spring sets in, and the air gets mild. 8. in num- 

berless other cases which may partly be seen below. 2. connected 

ellipt. with adverbs denoting motion from a place; nor8an, austan, 
sunnan, vestan at, those from the north, east...; utan at, innan at, from 
the outside or inside. 3. with adjectives (but rarely), e.g. kaerr, elskr, 

virkr (affectionate), vandr (zealous), at e-m ; v. these words. 


Temp. : Lat. post, after, upon, esp. freq. in poetry, but rare in pr 
writers, who use eptir ; nema reisi ni6r at ni5 ( = ma8r eptir mann), in i 
cession, of erecting a monument, Hm. 71 ; in prose, at \)At,posthac, deina 
Fms. X. 323, cp. Rm., where it occurs several times, 2, 6, 9, 14, 18, 2. 
28, 30, 35 ; sonr a at taka arf at f63ur sinn, has to take the inheritam 
after his father, Grag. i. 170 new Ed. ; eiga feransdom at e-n, Grag. i. 85 
at Gamla fallinn, after the death of G., Fms. x. 38 2 ; in Edda (Gl.) 113 ougl 
to be restored, gr6t ok at 06, gulli Freyja, she grat (wept) tears of gol 
for her lost husband Od. It is doubtful if it is ever used in a purely lo' 
sense; at land, Grag. (Sb.) ii. 211, is probably corrupt ; at hond = a. htini 
Grag. (Sb.) i. 135 ; at mot = at moti, v. this word. 

^^ In compounds (v. below) at- or a5- answers in turn to Lat. ac 
or in- or con- ; atdrattr e. g. denotes collecting ; atkoma is adventus : 
may also answer to Lat. ob-, in aihrnbr — accidence, but might also b 
compared with Lat. occurrere. 

AT and a3, the mark of the infinitive [cp. Goth, du; A.S. and Eng 
to; Germ. zm]. Except in the case of a few verbs ' at' is always place 
immediately before the infinitive, so as to be almost an inseparable pai 
of the verb. I. it is used either, 1, as a simple mark of th 

infinitive, only denoting an action and independent of the subject, e. g. i 
ganga, at hlaupa, at vita, to go, to run, to know; or, 2. in an obje< 

tive sense when following such verbs as bjoda seg]a ..., to invite, con. 
mand .. .; hann bau6 J)eim at ganga, at sitja, he bade, ordered them t 
go, sit, or the like ; or as gefa and fa ; gefa e-m at drekka, at eta, to gii 
one to drink or to eat, etc. etc. p. with the additional notion of inter 
tion, esp. when following verba cogitandi ; hann aetlaSi, haf6i i hyggju a 
fara, he had it in his mind to go (where 'to go' is the real object t 
aetla3i and hafdi i hyggju). 3. answering to the Gr. iva, denotin 

intention, design, in order to ; hann gekk i borg at kaupa silfr, in orde 
to buy, Nj. 280 ; hann sendi riddara sina meS J)eim at varSveita J)aer, 62; 
45 : in order to make the phrase more plain, ' sva' and ' til' are frequentl 
added, esp. in mod. writers, 'sva at' and contr. 'svat' (the last however i 
rare), 'til at' and 'til J)ess at,' etc. II. in the earher times th 

infin., as in Greek and Lat., had no such mark; and some verbs remai 
that cannot be followed by ' at ;' these verbs are almost the same in Ice 
as in Engl. : a. the auxihary verbs vil, mun (/ze\Aw), skal ; as in Eng 
to is never used after the auxiliaries shall, will, must; ek vil gangs 
/ will go ; ek mun fara, (as in North. E.) / mun go ; ek skal gora t)at, 
shall do that, etc. p. the verbs kunna, mega, as in Engl. I can or ma 
do, I dare say ; sva hygginn at hann kunni fyrir stikum ra6a, Grag. ii. 75 
i oUu er pry3a ma g63an h6f6ingja, Nj. 90 ; vera ma, // may be ; vera kan; 
J)at, id.: kunnu, however, takes ' at' whenever it means to know, and esp. i: 
common language in phrases such as, J)a3 kann a9 vera, but vera kann J)a1 
V. above. 7. lata, biSja, as in Engl, to let, to bid; hann let (ba3) Jja fara 
he let (bade) them go. 8. {)ykkja, J)ykjast, to seem ; hann pykir vera, h 
is thought to he : reflex., hann J)ykist vera, sibi videtur : impers., mer J)yki 
vera, mihi videtur, in all cases without ' at.' So also freq. the verbs hugsa 
hyggja, aetla, halda, to think, when denoting merely the act of thinking 
but if there be any notion of intention or purpose, they assume the ' at ; 
thus hann aetla5i, hug9i, ^k vera goOa menu, he thought them to be, ace. c 
inf. ; but aetlaSi at fara, meant to go, etc. «. the verbs denoting /. 
see, hear; sja, lita, horfa a . . . (videre) ; heyra, audire, as in Engl. / sai 
them come, I heard him tell, ek sa J)a koma, ek heyr3i hann tala. { 

sometimes after the verbs eiga and ganga ; hann gekk steikja, he wen 
to roast, Vkv. 9 ; eiga, esp. when a mere periphrasis instead of skal 
moSur sina a ma3r fyrst fram faera (better at faera), Grag. i. 232 
a |)ann kvi3 einskis meta, 59 ; but at meta, id. 1. 24 ; ra3a, nema 
gora . . . , freq. in poetry, when they are used as simple auxiliary verbs 
e. g. nam hann ser Hogna hvetja at riinum, Skv. 3. 43. t\. hljota am 
ver3a, when used in the sense of must (as in Engl, be must go), an( 
when placed after the infin. of another verb ; her muntu vera hljota 
Nj.129; but hljota at vera: fara hlytr {)u, Fms. i. 159; but J)u hlyt 
at fara : ver3a vita, ii. 146 ; but ver3a at vita : hann man ver3; 
saekja, J)6 ver3r ( = skal) ma3r eptir mann lifa, Fms. viii. 19, Fas. ii 
552, are exceptional cases. 0. in poetry, verbs with the verbal neg' 
suffix '-at,' freq. for the case of euphony, take no mark of the infinitive 
where it would be indispensable with the simple verb, vide Lex. Poet 
Exceptional cases; hvart sem hann vill 'at' verja pa sok, e3a, whatevei 
be chooses, either, Grag. i. 64 ; fyrr viljum ver enga koronu at bera, er 
nokkut ofrelsi a, oss at taka, we would rather bear no crown than . . . 
Fms. X. 1 2 ; the context is peculiar, and the ' at' purposely added. It ma) 
be left out ellipt. ; e. g. J)a er gu3 gefr oss finnast ( = at finnast), Dipl. ii 
14 ; gef honum drekka ( = at drekka), Pr. 470 ; but mostly in unclassica 
writers, in deeds, or the like, written hastily and in an abrupt style. 

AT and a3, conj. \Go\h.patei='6Ti ; A. S. ]>dt; Engl, that; Germ, dass, 
the Ormul. and Scot, at, see the quotations sub voce in Jamieson ; in al 
South-Teutonic idioms with an initial dental : the Scandinavian idioms 
form an exception, having all dropped this consonant ; Swed. at, Dan. ai\ 
In Icel. the Bible translation (of the 1 6th century) was chiefly based upoB 
that of Luther ; the hymns and the great bulk of theol. translations ol 



that time were also derived from Germany ; therefore the germanised form 
ba6 frequently appears in the Bible, and was often employed by theol. 
authors in sermons since the time of the Reformation. Jon Vidalin, the 
greatest modern Icel. preacher, who died in 1720, in spite of his 
thoroughly classical style, abounds in the use of this form ; but it never 
took root in the language, and has never passed into the spoken dialect. 
After a relative or demonstr. pronoun, it freq. in mod. writers assumes 
the form e3, hver e&, hverir ed, hva6 e&, J)ar eS. Before the prep, pu 
(/«), p changes into t, and is spelt in a single word ath'i, which is freq. in 
some MS.; — now, however, pronounced a66u, aSfieir, a86i5..., = a8 
bii .... with the soft Engl, th sound. It gener. answers to Lat. ut, or to 
the relat. pron. qui. I. that, relative to sva, to denote proportion, 

;ree, so..., that, Lat. tarn, tantus, tot...,ut; sva mikill lagamaSr, 

at ..., so great a lawyer, that . . ., Nj. i ; hari6 svA mikit, at {)at , 2 ; 

sva kom um si6ir J)vi mali, at Sigvaldi, it came so far, that ..., Fms. xi. 
05, Edda 33. Rarely and unclass., ellipt. without sva ; Baeringr var til 
seinn eptir honum, at hann . . . ( = sva at), Baer. 15 ; hlif&i honum, at hann 
saka6i ekki, Fas. iii. 441. II. it is used, 1. with indie, in a 

narrative sense, answering partly to Gr. on, Lat. quod, ut, in such phrases 
as, it came to pass, happened that . . .; J)at var einhverju sinni, at Hiiskuldr 
haf6i vinaboS, Nj. 2; J)at var a palmdrottinsdag, at Olafr konungr gekk lit 
um strsEti.Fms.ii. 244. 2. with subj. answering to Lat. ace. with infin., 

to mark the relation of an object to the chief verb, e. g. vilda ek at J)u 
leftist, / wished that you would, Nj. 57. p. or in an oblique sentence, 
i, answering to ita ut ...; ef sva kann ver3a at {)eir lati ...,ifit may be so that 
they might . . ., Fms. xi. 94. y. with a subj. denoting design, answering 
to Gr. iva or Lat. ut with subj., in order that; at 611 veraldar byg6in viti, 
ut sciat totus orbis, Stj. ; J)eir skaru fyrir J)a melinn, at J)eir daei eigi af sulti, 
vt ne fame perirent, Nj. 265 ; fyrsti hlutr bokarinnar er Kristindomsbalkr, 
at menn skili, in order that men may understand, GJ)1. p. viii. III. 

Jused in connection with conjunctions, 1. esp. J)6, ^vi, sva; \)6 at 

Jfreq. contr. J)6tt; svat is rare and obsolete. a. J)6at, J)6tt (North. E. 

J* tbof), followed by a subjunctive, though, although, Lat. etsi, quamquam 
J (very freq.) ; J)6at nokkurum mcinnum synist {)etta me3 freku sett . . . |)a 
jjviljum ver, Fms. vi. 21 : phrases as, gef J)u mer fio at liverSugri, etsi iti- 
dignae (dat.), Stj. MS. col. 315, are unclass., and influenced by the Latin : 
sometimes ellipt. without ' J)6,' eigi mundi hon \k meir hvata gongu sinni, 
at ( = J)6at) hon hraeddist bana sinn, PMda 7. Nj- 64 : ' J)6' and ' at' sepa- 
rated, svarar hann JxS rett, at hann svari sva, Grag. i. 23 ; J)6 er rett at 
I nyta, at hann se fyrr skorinn, answering to Engl, ye/ — though, Lat. attamen 
, — etsi, K. {). K. p. J)vi at, because, Lat. nam, quia, with indie. ; J)vi 

ij at allir voru gerfiligir synir hans, Ld. 68 ; |)vi at af ij)r6ttum ver&r ma3r 
;, fr66r, Sks. 16 : separated, J)vi J)egi ek, at ek undrumst, Fms. iii. 201 ; J)vi 
er |)essa geti6, at |)at J)6tti, it is 7nentioned because .. ., Ld. 68. 7. sva 

at, so that, Lat. ut, ita ut; gratrinn kom upp, sva at eingi matti 66rum 
segja, Edda 37 : separated, so . . . that, sva lisvast at ..., so bad weather, 
that, Bs. i. 339, etc. 2. it is freq. used superfluously, esp. after rela- 

tives; hver at = hverr, quis; {)vi at = J)vi, igitur ; hverr at })ekkr ok 
Jiaegiligr mun verSa, Fms. v. 159 ; hvern styrk at hann mundi fa, 44 ; ek 
undrumst hve mikil ognarraust at liggr i J)er, iii. 201 ; J)vi at ek matti eigi 
J)ar vera elligar, J)vi at J)ar var kristni vel haldin. Fas. i. 340. TV. 

as a relat. conj. : 1, temp, when, Lat. qmmi; jafnan er (est) mer J)a 

verra er (quum) ek fer a braut J)a8an, en J)a at (quum) ek kem, Grett. 150 
A ; J)ar til at ver vitum, //// we know, Fms. v. 52 ; J)a at ek lysta ( = {>a er), 
when, Nj. 233. 2. siftce, because ; ek faeri ySr (hann), at per eru6 i 

einum hrepp allir, because of your being all of the same Rape, Grag. i. 
260 ; eigi er kynlegt at {though) Skarphe6inn s6 hraustr, at {jat er maelt 

at ... , because (since) it is a saying that , Nj. 64. V. in mod. 

writers it is also freq. superfluously joined to the conjunctions, ef a6 = ef, 
si, (Lv. 45 is from a paper MS.), me5an a& = meftan, dum ; nema a6, nisi ; 
fyrst a8 = fyrst, quoniam ; eptir a8, si6an a6, postquam ; hvart a6 = hvart, 
Lat. an. In the law we find passages such as, J)a er um er daemt eina siik, 
at pa eigu peir aptr at ganga i dominn, Grag. i. 79 ; ef ping ber a hina helgu 
viku, at pat a eigi fyrir peim malum at standa, 106 ; pat er ok, at peir skulu 
reifa mal manna, 64 ; at peir skulu me6 vattord pa sok saekja, 65 : in all 
these cases ' at' is either superfluous or, which is more Hkely, of an ellipt. 
nature, 'the law decrees' or 'it is decreed' being understood. The pas- 
sages Sks. 551, 552, 568, 718 B, at lokit ( = at ek hefi lokit), at hugleitt 
( = at ek hefi h.), at sent (= at ek hefi sent) are quite exceptional. 

AT and a3, an indecl. relat. pronoun \lJlf.patei = os, bs av, oaris, offirtp, 
olos, etc. ; Engl, that, Ormul. at"], with the initial letter dropped, as in the 
conj. at, (cp. also the Old Engl, at, which is both a conj. and a pronoun, 
e. g. Barbour vi. 24 in Jamieson : ' I drede that his gret wassalage, | And 
his travail may bring till end, | That at men quhile full litil wend.' | ' His 
mestyr speryt quhat tithings at he saw.' — Wyntoun v. 3. 89.) In Icel. 
'er' (the relat. pronoun) and 'at' are used indifferently, so that where 
one MS. reads ' er,' another reads ' at,' and vice versa ; this may easily be 
seen by looking at the MSS. ; yet as a rule ' er' is much more freq. used. 
In mod. writers 'at' is freq. turned into ' eS,' esp. as a superfluous particle 
after the relative pron. hverr (hver e8, hva& e&, hverir e6, etc.), or the 
demonstr. sa (sa e6, peir e3, hinir e3, etc.) : — who, which, that, enn bezta 

grip at (which) haf6i til Islands komifi, Ld. 202 ; en engi mun sa at (cut) 
minnisamara mun vera, 242 ; sem blotnaut at (quae) staerst verfla, Fms. 
iii. 214; pau ti8endi, at mer paetti verri, Nj. 64, etc. etc. 

AT, n. collision (poiit.) ; odda at, crossing of spears, crash of spears, 
HiifuSl. 8. p. a fight or bait of wild animals, esp. of horses, v. hesta-at 
and etja. 

AT, the negative verbal suffix, v. -a. 

ata, u, f. an obscure word, and probably a corrupt reading ; nu skytr 
ma8r a hval i atu ok hnekkir Gu8s gafu, N. G. L. i. 59. 

ata, aft, to stain, defile, smear; likpra Naaman skal atast a pik ok 
pina aett, Stj. 618. 2 Kings vi. 27 (now freq.) 

atall, (itul, atalt, adj. [at, n. ; Ormul. attel = turpis], fierce, Lat. atrox ; 
otul iLugu, fierce, piercing eyes, Hkv. 1.3; petta folk er atalt ok illt, Hkr. 
iii. 313 ; otul, amatUg, fierce and loathsome, used of a witch, Hkv. i. 38 : 
Atli ek heiti, a. skal ek p^r vera, where the poet plays on the likeness 
between the pr. name Atli and the adj. atall, my name is 'Savage;' 
savage shall I prove to thee, Hkv. Hjorv. 15. At the present day, freq. 
in the changed form 6tull, in a good sense, brisk, strenuous. 

atan or 6tun, f. defiling. 

atatata, an onomatopoiitic interj., imitating the chattering of the teeth 
through cold, Orkn. 326 (in a verse). 

at-bemi, a, m. assistance, support, Fms. vi. 66 ; vera i a. mc5 e-m, to 
assist one. Fas. i. 265. 

at-bot, f. repair (now a6gj6r8), Vm. 4, Dipl. ii. 13. 

at-b\ir8r, ar, m. pi. ir, [bera at, accidere.^ 1. a chance, hap, acci- 

dent ; ver6r sa a., it so happened, Nj. 54, Vupn. 49; af (me8) atbur8, 
accidentally, perchance, Mart. 126, El. 5, 9, Mar. 656 ii. 16 ; me8 hverjum 
atbur8um, how, by what chance f Rom. 287, Eluc. 12 ; slikt kalla ek a. en 
eigi jartein, such things I call an accident but not a miracle, Sturl. ii. 54 ; fyrir 
a. sakir hreysti hans, because of his valour, Skalda 189, Sks. 147. 2. 

esp. in pi., events, matters, circumstances ; drap Bar8ar ok pa atburSi er par 
h6f8u or8it. Bard's death and the events that had happened. Eg. 222 ; Olafr 
sag8i honum alia atbur8i um sitt mal, O. told him minutely how bis matters 
stood, Hkr. i. 193 ; paer sem skyra i hverjum atbur8um menn fella a sik 
fullkomi8*bann, under what circumstances . . ., H.E. i. 462. 

at-buna3r, ar, m. attention, care, especially of funeral rites ; veita a. 
dau8um monnum, to lay out dead bodies. Eg. 34, v. 1. 2. now gener. 

accommodation or assistance in all that regards domestic life, esp. cloth- 
ing ; g68r, illr a. 

at-djup and atd^i, n. deep water close to shore, Hav. 48. 

at-djupt, n. adj. id., 623. 45 ; superl. aBdjupast, Fms. xi. 70. 

at-drd.ttr, ar, m. pi. draettir, [draga at], provisions, supplies for house- 
hold use ; hafdi hann a. at peirra biii, he supplied their household, Hav. 
39 ; atdraettir ok litvegar, means and provisions, Fms. xi. 423 ; a. af 
fiskum, Hrafn. 22. p. metaph. support, H.E. i. 244. compu : 

atdrdtta-ina3r, m., mikill a., a good housekeeper, Eb. 26. 

at-dugna3r, m. [at-duga, to assist~\, assistance. Fas. ii. 296. 

at-eggjan, f. egging on, instigation, Al. 5. 

at-fall, n. [falla at], ' on-f all, ' = of the fiood-tide, Ld. 56, Orkn. 428. 

at-fang, n. [fa at, to provide], only in pi., provisions, victuals, Bs. 1, 
130. Esp. used with dagr, or kveld, of the eve of great festivals, and 
partic. that of Yule : atfanga-dagr, pronounced afifanga-, m., a. Jola, 
Yide Eve, Christmas Eve, Grett. 97, 140, Fms. ii. 37, Isl. ii. 232, Orkn. 186 
old Ed., where the new Ed. p. 242 reads atfangs- (in sing.), which is very 
rare, J)6r8. 1 1, atfangadags-kveld, n. Christmas Eve, Bard. 1 76. at- 
fanga-ina3r, m. = atdrattama8r, Grett. 119 A. 

at-fara-, v. atfcir. 

at-fer3, f. (neut. 655 xxxii.) o. aggression, incursion, in a hostile 
sense, Fms. ix. 11, v. 1. p. more freq. in a good sense, exertion, acti- 
vity, Fs. 4 ; vikjast eptir atferSum enna fyrri fraenda pinna, to imitate their 
good deeds, id. ; atfer8 ok eljun, energy, Ld. 318. y. a law term, exe- 
cution; me8 domrofum ok atfer8um, Gpl. 183. 8. behaviour, pro- 
ceeding, conduct; hverja a. ver skulum hafa, Nj. 194, Rb. 390, Sks. 239, 
655 xxxii. 2 ; — now freq. in the last sense. compds : atfer3ar-leysi, 
n. idleness, inactivity, helplessness, Faer. 232, 544. 23. atfer3ar-nia3r, 
m. a skilful man, Bs. i. 639. 

atfer3-ligr, zd].fit or manly, Fms. viii. 53, v. 1. 

at-ferii, n. [ferill], action, proceeding, used esp. as a law term, proceed- 
ing, procedure; me8 enu sama a., Grag. ii. 405 : plur. skal sa shk atferli 
hafa 611 um lysingar sem a8r er tint, 27, H.E. ii. 75. p. method; pa 
eru m6rg a. jafnrett til pess, Rb. 38. y. hann spur8ist fyrir um a. 
h(3ra8smanna, what they were doing, Grett. 1 23 A. 8. gramm., a. parta 
(modi partiu?n orationis) eru tolf, Skalda 185. 

at-flutning, f. (now -ingr, m.), purveyance, supply, in plur., Eg. 275, 
Fms. ii. 68, viii. 179. 

at-fylgi, n. and atfylgja, u, f. help, backing, support, Fms. ii. 105, Stj. 
384, Horn. 139, Fms. x. 60, v. 1. 

at-feersla, u, f. exertion, courage, K. {>. K. 94 (rare). compd : at- 

f8erslu-ina3r, m. a man of vigour, Bret. 12, 155. 

at-for, ar, f. 1. prop, a going to; as a Norse law term, execution, 

domr ok atfor, Gpl. 361, 389 : mod. Dan. adf<erd, cp. atfer8, 7. 2. in 




Icel. commonly of an onslaught or armed aggression, Fms. i. 54, Nj. 92, 

93, 99, 113, Sturl. iii. 237, Ann. 1252. 3. tnelbod = Aiferb, Fms. ii. 

328. COMPOS : atfarar-ddmr, m. sentence of execution for payment, 

G{)1., N. G. L. i. 154. atfarar-J)ing, n. court 0/ execution, MS. 302, 

1 7 2 (Norse). atfara-laust, n. adj . quiet, with no act 0/ violence between 

tivo hostile parties, Eb. 244, Sturl. ii. 40. 
at-ganga, u, f. 1. attack in a fight, onslaught, Fms. i. 36, Nj. 36, 

Lv. 13, Bret. 6. 2, peaceful help, Fms. xi. 86, Nj. 99, Isl. ii. 210. 

coMPD : atgCngu-mikill, adj. unruly, quarrelsome, aggressive, Fs. 41 . 

at-gangr, m. 1. fighting, combat, aggression, Isl. ii. 268, Korm. 

242 : injury, violence, = agangr, Fms. vi. 239. 2. help, co-operation, 

Grett. 157, 162, Vigl. 19. 3. now, redress, recovery of a claim. 

COMPD : atgangs-miklll, zd.]. = energetic, Grett. 129 A. 

at-geirr, m. (false spelling arngeirr), a bill or halberd, undoubtedly a 

foreign weapon, rarely mentioned in the Sagas, but famous as the favourite 
weapon of Gunnar of Hli&arendi ; mentioned besides in Sks. 392, Landn. 

163, Eb. 120, Fmi. iii. loo, v. 249, Fas. iii. 462, but esp. Nj. 44, 45, 84, 
95, 97, 108, 114, 119: in the Nj. used generally of thrusting, but also of 
hewing ; Hogni hjo i sundr spiot skapti6 me6 atgeirinum, en rekr atgeirinn 
i gegnum hann, H. hewed in sunder the spearshaft with the bill, and drives 
the bill through him, Nj. 1 19 ; in Landn. 163 mentioned as a javelin. 

at-gengiligr, adj. acceptable, inviting, Bs. i. 372. 

at-gerfl, atgervi, atgeyrS, v. atg6r&, -gorvi. 

at-g8ezla, u, f. superintendance, care, caution, Sturl. iii. 58 (now freq.) 

atgorS, f. 1. plur. measures, steps taken; litlar atg6r6ir, small 

measures, Isl. ii. 355, Fs. 4 ; var eigi vaent til atger&a, few expedients, 
Grett. 124. 2. repair of a building or the like (now freq.), Dipl. v. 

145. p. a surgical operation, medical help, Bs. i. 108, 6i8, 644 : Sturl. 
i. 43 is a bad reading. compds : atgSrfla-lauss, adj. helpless, lazy, 
inactive, Al. 25 : neut., atgorSarlaust er um e-t, no steps are taken, Fms. 
vi. 38. atgdrda-maSr, m. a ready man, El. 15, Sturl. ii. 127. 

atgSrfiar-mikill, adj. active, Nj. 56. 

at-g6rvi, atgerfl, atgjSrfl, f. ; neut., Fms. x. 293 C. [gorr at s^r, 
accomplished] ; endowments, accomplishments derived from good training 
added to natural gifts ; in olden times esp. those of an athletic or physical 
kind ; friSleik, voxt, afl, ok alia a., beauty, stature, strength, and all accom- 
plishrnents whatever. Eg. 29, Fbr. 56, Fms. vi. 5, 268, i. 30, viii. 140, 
X. 293 ; at ij)r6ttum, a. ok vinsaeld, Hkr. i. 212 : of spiritual qualities and 
character (rare in old writers), af Gu3s g65gipt ok sjalfs sins a. gofgastr 
ma6r a Islandi, Bs. i. (Hv.) 70; at laerdomi, vitrleik ok a., 130. Pals S. 
COMPD : atgdrvi-maSr, and more freq. atg6rvis-ina3r, m. a man of 
great (physical) accomplishments, Fms. i. 17, Eg. 685 (where it is used of 
a young promising poet), 22, Ld. 12 ; used of an artist, Isl. ii. 171 : a. um 
marga hluti, man of great capacity, 191 ; used of a musician, Grett. 158. 

at-hald, n. constraint, coercion, restraint, Fbr. 2, Fms. xi. 228. 

at-hjukan (now aShjtikruii), f. [hjuka at e-m], heed, attention, care 
in the most tender sense of that word, e. g. that of a mother to her sick 
child ; attention to a sick, frozen, shipwrecked, or destitute person, Fms. 
viii. 444, Finnb. 234, v. 1. 

at-hlaup, n. onslaught, assault, Fms. viii. 35, Bjarn. 37 ; i einu a., in 
one rush in a battle, Ld. 64 ; veita manni a. eSr sar, violence or wound, 
K. A. 48 ; tokst mi t)egar a., a hand to hand fight, GullJ). 12. 

at-hlatr, m. [hlsegja at], a laughing-stock, Fms. ii. 182. 

at-hleegi, n. ridicule, mockery; me& a. ok skom, ridicule and shame, 
Fms. X. 279 ; ef a. er vert, if it be ridicule, vi. 208 ; a. edr umannan, a 
laughing-stock and a vjretch, Sturl. iii. 240. 

at-hlsegiligr, adj. ridiculous. Band. 13. 

at-liuga, ad, to heed, bethink oneself, pay attention to, consider; a. sik, 
to take heed, Sturl. iv. 75 in a mod. MS. ; cp. Bs. i. 744 (now freq.) 

at-hugall, adj. heedful, careful, Sturl. iii. 125, Sks. 296. 

at-hugi, a, m. heed, care, attention, consideration, Hom. 52 ; af oUum a., 
carefully. Post. 656 B ; hi& elzta (bam) hefir ekki a. hit minsta, the 
eldest bairn has no head on his shoulders. El. 19, Sks. 482 ; me8 a. ok 
ahyggju, with care and concern, Fms. x. 281. compds : athuga-lauss, 
adj. heedless. athuga-leysi, n. heedlessness, Stj. 6, Fas. i. 245 ; hlytr 
jafiian illt af a., ' Don't care' comes ever to a bad end (a proverb), Grett. 
118 A. athugaliga, adv. attentively, Sks. 360. athuga-lftill, 

adj. little careful, heedless, Bs. i. 190. athuga-samliga, adv. and 

-ligr, adj. attentively, attentive, Sks. 600, 360, 6, 472. athuga-samr, 
adj. heedful, attentive, Hom. 58, Fms. viii. 447. atliuga-verSr, adj. 
worthy of attention, Fms. x. 2 76. 

at-hvarf, n. [hverfa at, to turn towards] : a. in the phrase, gora 
e-m a., to pay one compliments, pay attention to, Bs. i. 801 ; hann er vel 
vi8 {)orm68 ok gorfti meir at athvarfi vi6 hanji, he treated Th. respectfully 
or cultivated his friendship, Fbr. 119; Sighvatr giir&i at athvarfi um sendi- 
menn konungs, ok spurSi J)a margra tidenda, he communicated with them 
ot paid them visits, attended to them, Hkr. ii. 214. p. athvarf is now 
freq. in the sense of shelter, refuge. 

at-hygli, f [athugall], heedfulness, attention; me& a., Sks. i, 445 B, 
564, Fms. vi. 446, (now used as neut.) 

at-hyllast, t, dep. (qs. athyglast), to lean towards, he on the side of, ^ 

do homage to; with ace, af J)vi skolu v6r a. [)enna engll i beonte 
varum, to cultivate bis friendship, Hom. A. M. 237. 7 ; at a. ok saekja ^ 
at dma6ar or8i, 655 xiii. B. 4, Bs. i. 202 ; xtlum ver J)ann y6varn at i 
er mestan gcirir varn soma, take his part, who . . ., Fms. v. 273. 

at-h.8efi (not athcefi, vide Sks. B., which carefully distinguishes betwej 
CB and a), n. conduct, behaviour ; a. kristinna manna, their rites, senrit 
Fms. ii. 37, cp. Ld. 174; i oUu sinu a., conduct, proceeding, Fms. xi. jl 
viii. 253 : manners, ceremonies, Sks. 301 ; konunga a., royal manner 
Hom. : J)etta hefir verit a. (instinct) J)essa skrimsls, Sks. : deeds, doings; ak> 
mi J)ar standa fyrst um a. {jcirra, Mag. 11. Now freq. in a theol. senses 

at-hsefiligr, ad], fit, fitting, due. Eg. 103, Finnb. 228. 

at-h6fn, f. [hafast at, to commit], conduct, behaviour, business; hvi 
er hann haf5i fr6tt um a. Skota konungs, his doings and whereabouts. El 
271 ; fengin var J)eim onnur a., occupation, Fbr. 19 ; ganga til skripta 
segja sinar athafnir, to go to shrift and confess his behaviour, Fms. i. 301 
i athofnum margir, en sumir i kaupfer6um, Orkn. 298 ; er bat 
likligt at J)u fylgir {)ar eptir J)inni a., (ironically) that you will go you 
own foolish way, Fs. 4. compds : athafnar-lauss, adj. inactive, Fm 
iii. 128, 154. athafnar-leysi, n. /wcrcriwVy. athafnar-ma3r an 
ath.afna-, m. a busy enterprising man, Hkr. ii. 255, Faer. 209. In a ba 
sense, a laughing-stock ; gora e-n at athafnarmanni, to make a butt of bin. 
Sturl. i. 24, 181, this last sense seems to be peculiar to the first and secon 
part (J)attr) of the Sturl., which were not written by Sturla himself, but b 
an unknown author. 

at-kall, n. demand, call, request, solicitation, Bs. i. 735, Al. 64, Ver. 48, 

at-kast, n. a casting in one's teeth, a rebuke, reproach, Mag. 65. 

at-keri, anchor, v. akkeri. 

at-kvama, and later form adkoma or atkoma, u, f. arrival, Ld. 78 
Fms. vi. 239; metaph. (ted.) pain, visitation, Hom. 68, I2i. Now use 
in many compds : a5koinu-ma3r, m. a guest, etc. 

at-kv8e3i, n. [kve8a at or8i]. I. a technical phrase, esp. ii 

law ; sva skal saekja at oUu um fjartokuna, sem J)j6fsok fyrir utan a. 
the proceeding is all the same with the exception of the technical terms 
Grag. ii. 190 ; at J)eim atkvaeSum er Helgi hafSi 1 stefnu vi8 J)ik, theexprei 
sions used by Helgi in summonitig thee. Boll. 354. p. a word, expres 

sion in general ; fat er J)rifalt a., mannvit, siftgaeJi ok hseverska, Sks. 47, 
303 ; en J)6 ver maelim alia J)essa hluti me8 breiSu a.,«« broad, general ten 
Anecd. 21, {ji6r. I.- y "ow used gramm. for a syllable, and in mai ' 
compds such as, eins atkvaBdis or6, a monosyllable ; tveggja, Jiriggja . . 
atkvaeSa..., etc., a dissyllable, etc.: 'kve6a at' also means to colh 
the letters into syllables, used of children when they begin to spell. ( 
writers use atkvseSi differently in a grammatical sense, viz. = pronunciati'r 
sound, now framburftr ; J)eir stafir megu hafa tveggja samhljodenda a., hveri 
einn, Skalda (Thorodd) 165 ; eins stafs a. ; a. nafns hvers J)eirra ; J)a ei 
fat a. hans i hverju mali sem eptir lifir nafnsins (in the last passage = / 
name of the letter), 168. II. a decision, sentence, almost alwa 

in plur.; beid hann {)inna atkvaeSa, Nj. 78 ; var J)vi vikit til atkva' 
{decision) MarSar, 207 ; bi5a atkvaeSa Magmiss konungs um alog ■ 
pyntingar, Fms. vi. 192 : sing., var J)at biskups a., his decision, v. 10 
hvi gegnir {)etta a. (sentence) jarl, rangliga dsemir J)u, 656 B ; |)inu b( 
ok a., command and decisive vote, Stj. 203 ; af atkvaeSi gu3anna, by the: 
decree, Edda 9, Bret. 53. p. now a law term = i/o<e, and in a great 
many compds: atkvae5a-grei3sla, division; atkvae6a-fj61di, votes; a. 
munr, majority, etc. III. a decree of fate, a spell, charm, in a 

supernatural sense, = akvae5i ; af forlogum ok a. ramra hluta, Fs. 23 ; 
konungr sagSi uhaegt at gora vi6 atkvseaum, .. .to resist charms (MS. ak- 
vedni, where it is uncertain whether the reading is akv- or a/kv-) ; a. 
Finnunnar, the spell of the Finnish witch, 22 ; sva mikil a. (pi.) ok ilska 
fylg6i Jiessum alogum. Fas. i. 404, iii. 239, Fms. x. 172. compds: 

atkvseSa-lauss, adj. [kveSa at, to be important], unimportant, of no 
consequence. Fas. ii. 242. atkv8e3a-ina3r, m. a man of weighty 

utterance, of importance, Fms. xi. 223. atkv883a-inikill, adj. 0/ 

weight, note, authority, Nj. 51. 

atla, a8, to ' ettle,' intend, purpose, Bret. 144 ; so according to the modem 
pronunciation of aetla, q. v. 

at-laga, u, f. an attack in a sea fight, of the act of laying ships alongside;' 
skipa til a., Fms. i. 169, iv. 103 ; h6r6 a., hard fight, xi. 133, Hkr. ii. 273, 
Nj. 125, Sturl. iii. 63, etc. : more rarely of an attack on land, Fms. vii. 
244, Al. 122, Isl. ii. 83, Bret. 50. p. an advance, landing, without 

notion of fight, Fms. ix. 430. compds : atl6gu-flokkr, m. the name 

of a poem describing a battle by sea, Sturl. iii. 63. atl6gu-skip, n. a 
ship engaged in battle, Fms. viii. 382. 

at-lat, n. [lata at e-u, to comply with], compliance, Hom. 47 ; synda i., 
indulgence in sin, Greg. 31. Now, atlseti, n. and atlot, n. pi. treatment; 
gott atlaeti, kindness; ill atlot, harshness, esp. in respect to children. 

at-lega, u, f. shelter for sheep and cattle on the common pastures ; hag- 
beit a vetrum ok a. fe sinu at selinu, Dipl. v. 4 (rare). 

at-mseli, n. abuse, offensive language, Bs. ii. 181. 

atoma, u, f. an atom, Rb. 114 ; a weight, subdivision of an ounce, 532. 1. 

B,t-OT^a, u, f. energy, activity. compds : atorku-maSr, m. aw acrfiU! 
7nan. atorku-samr, adj. active. atorku-semi, f. activity. 



It-rds, f. nn on-rush, charge, attack, Fms. vlii. 413, v. ArAs. 

|t-rci3, f. (niilit.) a riding at, a charge of horse, Fms. vi. 417, in the 

ion of the battle at Stamford Jkidge : Hkr. iii. 162 has AreiS, but 

ISS. atreid, vii. 57. p. the act of riding at or over, Nj. 21 ; esp. 
tne translation of French romances of tilting in tournamen/s, Str. (freq.) 
siPD : atrei3ar-dss, m. a quintain pole, at which to ride a-tilt, El. 15. 
t-rekandi, m. pressing efforts, exertions; sva mikill a. var giirr um 
dna, the search was carried on so thoroughly. Band. 4 C ; cp. reki. 
t-renna, u, f. a slip. compd : atrennu-lykkja, u, f. a running 
■»t, a noose, Fms. vi. 368. 

fe-ri0, now atri3i, n. 1. = atreiS, movement, in the phrase, hann 

AM allt eitt atri6it, he did both things at once, in the twinkling of an 
!, Grett. 95 new Ed. 2. a gramm. term in the compd atrids- 

rtlf, f. probably «= dcrvj'SeToj', Edda (Ht.) 124, cp. Ed. Havn. ii. 154, 
SkAlda 193 ; atriS would thus mean a word, sentence. It is now very 
q. in the form atriSi, n. in a metaph. sense, the chief point in a sentence, 
a part, paragraph, and used in many compds. Atriflr, m. is one of 
! poet, names of Odin, the wise (?). 

t-r68r, rs, m. a rowing at, i. e. an attach made (by a ship) with oars, 
IS, ii. 310, Hkr. ii. 272, etc. p. gener. rowing towards, Jb. 308. 
t-samr, adj. [at, n.], quarrelsome, an \fy., Fms. iv. 205 ; cp. Hkr. 

t-seta, u, f. a royal residence; hafa a., to reside, used especially of 
igs, Fms. i. 23, X. 209, Hkr. i. 63, Eg. 170, Nj. 5, etc. 
t-8etr, rs, n. id., vide konungs-atsetr. 

t-skiljanligr, adj. [Dan. adskellig'], various, different, Karl. 206, (an 
ilass. word.) 

t-8kilnadr, ar, m., in mod. Icel. = parting, separation. p. discord, 
ett. 88 ; A, B, C, however, have askilnaSr. 

t-86kn, f. [saekja at], onslaught, attack, Fms. i. 64, Nj. lOO, etc. p. 
throng of guests or visitors seeking hospitality ; fong voru litil en a. 
kill, Bs. i. 63 (now freq.) y. in popular superstition, the foreboding 
% guest's arrival; sleep, drowsiness, or the like, caused, as people believe, 
the fylgja or ' fetch ' of the guest, his sure forerunner ; the Icelanders 
ak of a good, agreeable adsokn, or a bad, disagreeable one ; a man may 
;kja vel e8r ilia a6,' as he is an agreeable guest or not. Only a ' fey ' 
.n's fylgja follows after him. Vide Isl. f)j68s. i. 354 sqq. compd : 
i6knar-raa3r, m. aggressor, Fs. 70. 

t-spurning, f. [spyrja at], ' speering' at, inquiry, in the phrase, lei&a 
pumingum, which ought, however, to be in two words, Fb. i. 216. 
t-stada, u, f., now aostod, n. a standing by, backing, support, Bs. i. 
6. p. earnest request. Mar. (Fr.) 

fc-Btu3ning, f. and -ingr, m. [stySja at], support. Fas. i. 24. 
t-S&gr, m. prop, pressure [siigr] caused by crowding; now freq. in the 
rase, gora a. a5 e-m, to mob one. p. the phrase, bora frekan atsiig 

I e-t (where the metaphor is taken from boring), to deal harshly with, 
ru through to the marrow, Orkn. 144 : cp. Fms. vii. '29. 
fc-8vif, n. incident, bearing, Sks. 682. p. medic, lipothymia, afaint- 
'^ fit, swoon, Fel. ix. 185 ; cp. a6 svifa yfir e-n, to be taken in a ft, Sturl. 

t-tu, by assimilation = at J)u, that thou, freq. e. g, in the Orkn. new Ed. 
t-tonn, f. [at, n.], a tusk. Fas. i. 366. 
t-veizla, u, f. [veita at], assistance, Fms. x. 60, v. 1. 
t-verknadr, m. work, especially in haymaking ; |j6rgunnu var aetlaS 

'^r til atverknaSar, to toss and dry it, Eb. 26 : now, vinna at heyi, 

t for drying. 
t-vik, n. [vikja at], mostly in plur. details, particulars ; in the phrases, 
|;ir atvikum, according to the circumstances of each case, GJ)1. 403 ; atvik 
•"■ the particulars of a case, Sks. 663 ; me8 atvikum, circumstanti- 

apter and verse. Fas. iii. 330: in Stj. 179 it seems to mean ges- 
II. an onset, prob. only another way of spelling atvigi, 
G. L. ii. 65 ; at ek geta eigi hefnt J)essa atviks er mer er gort, that 
annot get this affront avenged which has been done me, Grett. 151 A. 
t-vinna, u, f. means of subsistence, support, Grag. i. 294, Jb. 151, Faer. 
,Stj. 143, 291,623.41,656 A, 655. 20, Clem. 56, Jb. 151, Fms. v. 239: 
our, occupation, Anecd. 20, Sks. 603, (now very freq.) compd : 

vinnu-lauss, adj. without means of subsistence, Fms. ii. 97. 
t-vist, f. [vesa at], presence, esp. as a law term, opp. to an alibi, the 
' of being present at a crime : the law distinguishes between ra6 (plot- 
g), tilfor (partaking), and a. (presence), GrAg. ii. 37 ; vera i atsokn 
a., to be present and a partaker in the onslaught, Nj. 100. p. transl. 
the Lat. assiduitas, 677. 12. 

t-vigi, n. onset, onslaught, N. G. L. ii. 65, cp. i. 126, Fas. ii. 244. 
t-yrSi, n. pi. abusive words, Fs. 5, Fms. iii. 154. 
1-UD-, adverbial prefix to a great many adjectives, adverbs, and parti- 
les, seldom to subst. nouns, [not found in Ulf. ; A. S. ea'S-, as in e.1,'5- 
du, humilitas, and also as a separate adj. eMe,facilis; Old Engl. ' eath,' 
iieath,' for 'easy,' 'uneasy;' Hel. 63 and obi, facilis, un65i, difficilis'], 
y, opp. to tor-. To this ' aud' and not to ' old' may perhaps be re- 
red some of the compds of aud and awd in Scottish and provincial 
glisb. Thus ' audie ' in Scotch means an easy careless fellow ; ' aud 

farand,' or * auld farand,' may both mean easy going : v. the words in 
Jamieson and the Craven Glossary. 

auda, u, f. desolation, pibr. 2. 

au8-be3inn, adj. part. [A. S. eic^bede'], easily persuaded to do a thing, 
with gen. of the thing. Eg. 17, 467. 

au3-b8Dttr, adj. part, easily compensated for, Gliim. (in a verse), 

au3-eggja3r, adj. part, easily egged on to do, with gen., Fms. v. 63. 

au3-fenginn, adj. part, easy to get, Fs. 62, Grett. 113 A, Mag, i, where 
it is spelt au6u- ; cp. torn- = tor-. 

au8-fengr, adj. id., Hym. 18 ; a. var 118, 655 xxviii, Fms. v. 274. 

au3-fundinn, adj. part, easy to find, in promptu, Hkr. ii. Ill ; neut. 
used metaph. easy to perceive, clear. Eg. 54, Ld. 194, v. 1. 

au3-fyndr, adj. an older form, id., used only as neut. easily perceived, 
clear ; {)at var a., at . . ., it could easily be seen, that . . ., Ld. 194. 

au3ga, aft, [Ulf. aupagjan = nanapiC^tiv ; A. S. ea^gjan = beatum facere"], 
to enrich, Bs. i. 320, Stj. 68 ; reflex., hafSi Noregr mikit au8gast, N. had 
grown very wealthy, Fms. vi. 448 : — to make happy, cr alia elskar ok 
au8gar, i. 281, Th. 77. 

au3-gengr, adj. easy to pass; sti'gr a., 677. 5. 

au3-ginntr, adj. part, easily cheated, credulous. Lex. Poijt. 

au3-g8etligr, adj. easy to get, common, Fms. i. 261. 

au3-g8ett, n. adj. easy to ^e/, = au8fundit. Lex. Foot., Hb. 6 (1865). 

au3-g6rr and later form au3-g6r3r, adj. part, easily done. Fas. i. 74. 

au3-heyTt, n. adj. part, easily heard, clear, evident, Ld. 266. 

au3igr and au3ugr, adj. [Ulf. aupags= fiaKiptos, aupagei, f. =/Mt«a- 
Pi<t/m6s ; Hel. odag = beatus, dives ; A. S. ea'Sig, beatus, opulentus ; O. H. G. 
otag'], contracted before an initial vowel into au8gan, au8gir, auSgum ; 
uncontr. form auSigan = auSgan, Fms. i. 112, etc. ; now used uncontracted 
throughout, auSugir, au8ugar, etc. ; rich, opulent ; rikr ok z., powerful 
and opulent. Eg. 22, 83 ; at fe, wealthy. Fas. i. 49, Isl. ii. 323, Nj. 16, Post. 
656 C ; skip mikit ok a., with a rich lading, Fms. xi. 238 ; a. at kvikfe, 
Ld. 96; superl. au8gastr. Eg. 25, Isl. ii. 124; England er auSgast at 
lausafe allra Nor8rlanda, Fms. xi. 203. 

AUDIT, n. part, of an obsolete verb analogous to auka (' ablaut' au — 
j6 — au), [cp. Swed. ode, fatum; au8na, luck; au8r, opes, etc.], used 
in many phrases, and often answering to the Gr. aHaa, vcnpuntvov, with dat. 
pers. and gen. of the thing; e-m er, ver8r, auSit e-s, it falls to one's Idt; lilik- 
ligt er at oss ver8i Jjeirrar hamingju a., it is unlikely that this good fortune is 
destined for us, Eg. 107 ; koma mun til min feigSin . . ., ef mor ver8r J)ess 
a., if that be ordained for me, Nj. 103 ; J)6 at mer verSi lifs a., though life 
may be granted to me, Fms. i. 47 ; konungr let grae8a menn sina sem lifs 
var a., those whose lot it was to live, who were not mortally wounded. Eg. 
34 ; hafSi J)eim or8it sigrs a., had won the day. Eg. 86 ; var J)eim eigi 
eriSngja a., to them was no heir granted by fate, 625. 83 : with 'at' and 
an infin., mun oss eigi a. ver8a at fa J)vilikan, Fms. x. 339 : absol., hafi 
peir gagn er a. er, let them gain the day to whom the god of battles grants 
it, xi. 66 : with the addition of til ;' ek aetla okkr litt til astafunda a. hafa 
orSit, we have had bad luck in love, 310: a'a3iiiii, masc. appears twice 
or thrice in poetry, au8ins fjar, means possessed, Skv. 3. 37 : in prose in 
Al. 2 1 (by Bishop Brand), lata au8ins bi8a, to submit to fate, to be uncon- 
cerned; even in compar., hvart hyggit or manni nokkuru at au8nara 
(any more chance), at hann fai kniita J)essa leysta, of the Gordian knot, 
19, at auSnu, v. au8na [cp. A.S. e^den, datus, concessus; Hel. odan, 
genitus, natus : cp. also j68, proles, a word perhaps of the same root.] 

au3-kendr, adj. part, easy to ' ken' or recognise, of distinguished appear- 
ance, Al. 21, Fms. i. 44. 

au3-kenni, n. ( = einkenni), mark, distinction, Karl. 180. 

au3-kenniligr, adj. = au8kendr, Hrafn. 13. 

au.3-kenning, f. a clear mark, sure sign, Sturl. i. 70. MS. A. M. 122 B ; 
aminning suits better, so the Ed. and Brit. Mus. 11,127. 

au3-keyptr, adj. part, easily bought, cheap, Hkr. iii. 246. 

au3-kj6rinii, adj. part, easily chosen, easy to decide betweeti, Sd. 170. 

au3-kumall, adj. (now vi8kvaemr), very touchy, tender, sensitive; a. ok 
lasmeyrr, of a snake's belly, easy to wound, Stj. 98; ongvaer (depressed} 
ok auSkumul, (fem.) touchy, Bs. i. 323 ; a. i skapi, irritable, 353. 

au3-kvisi, v. aukvisi. 

au3-kv8B3r, adj. easily talked over, easily moved, obsequious, pliable; 
eptirlatr ok a., N. G. L. ii. 400 ; ertii ok eigi a. (hard to move) til fylg8ar, 
Grett. 122 new Ed. = au8be8inn. 

au3-kymli, f. [au8kumall], touchiness, sensitiveness; a. konunnar, a 
woman's touchiness or weakness, 623. 36. 

au3-kyfingr, m. [kiifa, accumulare'], poet, a heaper up of riches, a 
wealthy man, a Croesus; orr madr er a., Edda 107 ; in prose in Sturl. i. 
38, Al. 5 ; rfkismenn ok a., Post. 656 C. 30. 

au3-lag3r, adj. part, wealthy, whence au81eg8, Lex. Poet. 

au3-lattr, adj. part, docile, easily kept in check. Glum. 396 (in a verse). 

au.3-lAtinn, adj. [hit, manners'], of easy affable manners, Str. 36. 

au3-leg3, f. easy circumstances, wealth, Bs. i. (Laur. S.) 836 ; now freq. 

au3-ligr, adj. happy, lucky, Fms. vi. 420 (in a verse). 

au3-ina3r, m. a wealthy man, Fms. ii. 21, Isl. ii. 385, 125. 

au3-mjlakliga, adv. and -ligr, ad'j.humbly, Bs. i. 7 73, Grett. 207 new Ed. 



au9-mjukr, adj. humble, meelt, compar, au3mjukari, Sturl. i. 45 ; a. 
iSran, devoted repentance, H.E. i. 510. 

au3-inuna3r, adj. part, easily remembered, not to be forgotten, Fms. vi. 
249, V. 1. 

auS-m^kja, t and 8, to humble; a. sik, to bumble oneself, Bs. i. 854. 

au3-ni^kt, f. meehiess, humility, Fms. viii. 54, v. 1. ; now freq. in thcol. 

au5ii, f. [au8r, adj.], a wilderness, desert; au6n Sinai, Stj. 300. p. 

land which has no owner or is waste, uninhabited ; byg9ust J)a margar 
audnir vi8a, tnany ivide wastes were then peopled. Eg. 1 5 ; alia au3n 
landsins, Fms. i. 5, viii. 33, Greg. 33 : the au9n was claimed as a royal 
domain; konungr 4 her a. alia i landi, Fms. xi. 225 ; um J)aer au3nir er 
menu vilja byggja, J)a skal sa ra6a er a. a, the owner of the waste, N. G. L. 
1. 125 : different from dXn\c\\nmgr,compascwtm or common. 2. more 

Specially a deserted farm or habitation; sabaerhet siSan a HrappstoSum, 
|)ar er mi a., Ld. 24: liggja i a., to lie waste, 96, Grag. ii. 214, cp. 
278. 3. destruction ; au8n borgarinnar (viz. Jerusalem), Greg. 40, 

Rb. 332, Ver. 43, Sd. 179 (where au3nu, f.) ; riki mitt stendr mjcik til 
au6nar, is in a state of desolation, Fms. xi. 320, Bret. 68 : insolvency, 
titter poverty, Grag. i. 62. compds : auSnar-lxiis, n. deserted huts, on 
mountains or in deserts, Grag. ii. 158. au3nar-6flal, n. impoverished 
estates, Sks. 333. au3nar-sel, n. deserted shielings, Orkn. 458. 

au3na, u, f. desolation, Sd. 1 79, bad reading. 

au3na, u, f. [au3it], fortune, and then, like dxaa, good luck, one's 
good star, happiness, (cp. heill, hamingja, gaefa, all of them feminines, — 
good luck personified as a female guardian), in the phrase, a. raeSr, rules; 
au&na nmn J)vi ra3a, Fate must settle that, Nj. 46, Lv. 65 ; rae3r a. lifi (a 
proverb), Orkn. 28 ; arka at au3nu (or perh. better dat.from au5inn), v. arka, 
Nj. 185, v. 1. ; at au3nu, zdv. prosperously, SI. 25 ; blanda ligiptu vi9 a., 
Fms. ii. 61 ; me6 au6nu J)eirri at Jjorkatli var lengra lifs au3it, by that good 
fortune which destined Thorkelfor a longer life, Orkn. 18 (50). Cp. the 
Craven word aund in the expression I's aund to'ot, ' I am ordained to 
it, it is my fate.' compds: au3nu-lauss, adj. luckless. Fas. ii. 240. 

au3nu-leysi, n. /// fate. au3ini-leysingi, a, m. a luckless man. 

au3nu-ma3r, m. a lucky man, luck's favourite, GuUJ). 28, Ld. 40, Fas. 
i. 340. au3iiu-samliga, 2l&v. fortunately, Finnb. 344. 

au3iLa, a9, impers. to be ordained by fate; ef honum au5na&i eigi aptr 
at koma, if it was not ordained by fate that he should come back, Fms. ix. 
350; sem au&nar, as luck decides, Fb. i. 160, Fas. iii. 601, Lv. 30: with 
gen., ef Gu3 vill at J)ess au8ni, that it shall succeed, Bs. i. 159, v. 1., J)at is 
less correct : now freq. in a dep. form, e-m auSnast, one is successful, with 
following infin. 

auS-nsemiligr, adj. [nema], easy to learn, teachable, Sks. 16. 

au3-n8emr, adj. easily learned, soon got by heart, Sks. 247 B ; au5naem 
er ill Danska, bad Danish is soon learnt (a proverb) ; auSnaemast J)6 hi3 
vonda er, Pass. 22. 10. 

au.3-pr6fa3r, adj. part, easily proved, Laur. S. MS. 180. 85. 

AUDE, f. [Swed. ode, fatu7ii], fate, destiny, only used in poetry in the 
phrase, fa au3ar, to die, tsl. ii. 389 (in a verse) ; haga til au5ar, to avail 
towards one's happiness, Gis\. 59 (in a verse). Au3r is also a fem. pr. name. 

AUDR, adj. [Uli. aups = epr]iJ.os ; O.H.G. odi; ]ie\.odi = inanis: cp. 
A.S. ydan and edan, vastare ; Germ, ode and oden: the root is rare in 
A. S. and lost in Engl.] : — empty, void, desert, desolate ; hiisin voru au3, 
tminhabited, Ld. 96 ; koma at au3u landi, of the first colonists when 
coming to Iceland, Landn. 316, opp. to 'koma at bygSu laadi,' or 'land 
numid ;' au3 bu3. Eg. 727 ; au3 bor3,f o/(iq/"c?e/eM(fers, of ships that have 
lost their men in fight, Fms. ii. 329; au& skip ( = hro3in), all the crew 
being slain or put to flight, Hkr. iii. 126. p. metaph., au3r at yndi, 
cheerless, distressed, Stj. 421 ; sitja au3um hondum, now used oi being idle : 
in the Ad. 22, me3 a. hendr means empty-handed, without gifts ; so also 
in Stj. 437. 1 Sam. vi. 3, answering to ' empty' in the Engl. text. 

AUDB., s, and poet, ar, m. [Goth, auds = fj.aKapia is suggested; it 
only appears in Ulf. in compds or derivatives, audags adj. beatus, auda- 
gei f. beatitudo, audagian, beare ; A.S. edd, n. means opes; Hel. od= 
bonum, possessio : it is probably akin to 63al ; cp. z\so feudal (A.S.feoh== 
fee), alodial^ : — riches, wealth, opulence; au3 fjar (only in ace), abtindance, 
is a freq. phrase ; also, au3 landa ok fjar, Edda 15 ; oss er J)ar mikit af sagt 
au3 J)eim, Band. 8, Fms. ii. 80, 623. 21; draga saman aud, id. In 
proverbs, margan hefir au3r apat ; auSrinn er valtastr vina, wealth is the 
Jicklest of friends, Hm. 77, etc. 

au3-r&3inn, adj. easily to 'read' or explain. Fas. iii. 561. p. easy 

to manage, v. uaudra3inn. 

au3-rd.3r, adj. easily guided, pliable, yielding, Bs. i. 265. 

au3r8e3i, n. pi. means, property, wealth, Bs. i. I46, 129, 136 (where it 

— iticome), 158,68 (where the gen. au3ra3a = au3r8e3a), Stj. 345, Horn. 
68, Fms. iv. Ill ; not very freq., au3aefi is a more current word. 

au3-8agt, part, easily told. 

au3-salr, m. treasury (poiit.), Fsm. 7. 

au3-s6nn, part., now au3s63r (cp. however Pass. 6. 4, 7)> easily seen, 
evident, Hrafn. 13, K. A. 214. 

au3-skeptr, part, (in a proverb), Ad. 21, eigi eru a, almanna spjor, // is 

'not easy to make shafts to nil people's spear heads, 1. e. to act so that j 
shall be pleased, cp. Hm. 127 ; au3-skaef (as given in the Skalda, wh| 
this line is cited) may be a better reading = not easily carved or made i 
as to suit everybody. 

au3-skilligr, adj. easy to distinguish, understand, Skdlda 167. 

au3-8k8e3r, adj. part, easily injured. Eg. 770 ; delicate, tender, Stj. 345 
Deut. xxviii. 56, Bs. i. 353. 

aTi3-snuit, n. part, easily turned, Hkr. ii. 271. 

au3-s6ttligr, adj. easy to perform, an easy task, Fms. xi. 282. 

au3-s6ttr, part, easily won, easy to win ; mal a.. Eg. 38, 200, in bot 
cases of a happy suitor ; a. land, land lightly won, Fms. iii. 49 ; au3s6t1 
til hxniL, pliable, yielding, Al. 4 : eigi a., tiot easily matched. Valla L. 205. 

au3-sveipr (and now also au3sveipinn, whence auSsveipni, f.) 
3iA]. pliable, yielding, now esp. used oi good, obedient children, Bs. 

au3-syna, d, to shew, exhibit, Bs. i. 274; ma J)at vel auSsynast, to b 
seen, Stj. 13. 

au3-syniligr, adj. evident, and -liga, adv. clearly, Fms. i. 142, St; 
14, 26. 

au3-syning, f. show, exhibition, Skalda 199. transl. of Lat. demonstra 
tio ; H.E. i. ^I'j. proof, demonstration. 

au3-synn, adj. easily seen, clear; hon var si3an kollu3 Delos sva sen 
a., Stj. 87, 250 : neut. = evident, Horn. 154, Eg. 736, Fms. i. 72. 

au3-s8eligr, adj. id., Fms. vii. 148. 

au3-S8er, adj., neut. au3saett, fem. au3sae, easily seen, clear, Bjarn. 63 
Fms. X. 175, 655 xi. I : metaph. clear, evident, Magn. 436, 625. 174 
neut. evident, Fms. i. 42, Hrafn. 13 : compar. auSsaerri, more conspicuout 
Fms. ii. 322 : superl. auSsaestr, Ld. 236 ; au3saeust, P'ms. iv. 321. 

au3-trua, adj. ind. credulojis. Lex. Poet, (freq.) 

au3-tryggi, f. ind., now au3tryggni, f. credtdity, Gisl. 62. 

au3-tryggr, adj. credulous, Stj. 199. Grett. 130 A, Fms. viii. 447. 

au3-van, n. bad luck. Lex. Poet. 

au3-vandr, adj. very painstaking in doing one's duties, Bs. i. 141, a- 
an. Xfy. 

au3-van, f. expectancy of fortunes (poiJt.), Lex. Poet. 

au3-veld.a, d, to take lightly, make easy, Orkn. ch. 68. 

au3-veldi, n. easiness, facility, Hom. 7. transl. of Lat. facidtas; mei 
a., as adv. easily, Fms. vii. 116, Karl. 131, 142 : au3velda-verk, n. a, 
easy task, Grett. 127 new Ed, 

au3-veldliga and -velliga, adv. easily, lightly, Fms. i. 87, Stj. 99, Hkt 
i. 200 ; taka a. a e-u, to make light of a thing, Fms. xi. 1 24 : compai 
-ligar, i. 262, Stj. 130. 

au3-veldligr and -velligr, adj. easy, Stj. 8, 356. Josh. vii. 2. 

au3-veldr, adj. easy. Eg. 39 : superl. -veldastr, Ld. 14 ; metaph. co>n 
pliant, Bs. i. 256, Sturl. i. etc. 

au3-viiir, m. (poet.) a charitable friend [A. S. ea^vine'] ; in the ol< 
poets freq. spelt otvin, v. Lex. Poet. p. as a pr. name Au3uim ; th' 
etymology in Hkr. i. 1 2 is bad ; and so is also the popular etymology o 
this word = none, fr. au3r, vacuus. 

au3-vir3iligr, etc., v. auvirS-. 

au3-vita3, n. part, easy to know, clear, evident, Ld. 78, Finnb. 232 
now often adv. = clearly, to be sure. 

au3-vist, n. adj. sure, certain, Karl. 181. 

au3-J)eystr, adj. part, easy to make flow, Stor. 2 (dub. passage). 

au3-J)rifligr, adj. [probably = or -J)rifligr, fr. or- priv. and J)rifligr 
robust, strong^, feeble, weakly, Isl. ii. 456, Fb. i. 275 (of weak frame). 

au3-8efl. qs. au36fi, n. pi. ['au3r,' opes, and ' of ;' = ofa-fe, q. v. ; Lat 
opes], opidence, abundance, wealth, riches, in the Grag. freq. = weans o, 
subsistence, emoluments, i. 269, 277 (twice), ii. 213, cp. lb. 16, where i 
means emohiments : in the proper sense wealth, Hkr. i. 13, where it mean; 
gold and treasures, Sks. 334, 442 ; veg ok a., power and wealth, Greg 
23 ; himnesk a., Joh. 21 ; jarSlig a., Greg. 32. Matth. vi. 19, 20 ; morf 
a., Eluc. 53, Hom. 151, etc. 

aiifl, interj. [a for. word ; Germ, au web"], woe ! alas ! used with dat., a 
mer. Mar. 167 ; ace, a. mik, 175; absol., 147 : after the Reformatior 
' avi' and ' 6 vei' occur, or ' vei' alone. 

aiifusa, u, f., in Norse MSS. spelt afusa, Dipl. i. 3; avusa, Str. 27, 54] 
Sks. 775 B; afuusa, N.G. L. i. 446. In Icel. always spelt with au, av 
or o, by changing the vowel, cifusa, aufusa, (3. H. 155, where, hoW' 
ever, some MSS. have aufussa, avfusa, Fms. viii. 39, 250; tifusa, Fs 
123 ; ofusa, 677. 3, Band. 6 ; ofussa, Bs. i. 481 : the change of vowel ii 
caused by the following f {v). The word is now quite obsolete, and it! 
etymology is somewhat uncertain ; it may be qs. a-fiiss, or af-fuss, ar 
' af-' intens. and ' fiiss,' willing, this last suggestion would best suit th« 
Norse form. Its sense is thanks, gratitude, satisfactioft, pleasure, and ii 
almost exclusively used either as a supplement to 'J)okk' or in sucl- 
phrases as, kunna e-m au., or e-m er au. ii e-u, to be pleased, gratified with , 
J)akka me3 mikilli a., to thank heartily, Str. 27 ; ef y3r er j)ar nokkur a ; 
a, if it be any pleasure to you, Fms. ix. 495 ; kunna e-m au. e-s, or witJ;| 
'at,' to be thankful, Fb. ii. 257, Eg. Ill, (3.H. 56, Fms. viii. 1. c, Bs. i I 
481, H.E. i. 432, Eg. 522, Sturl. iii. 125, Faer. 209, 677. 3; leggja alj 
moti J)okk ok au., 0. H. 155; viljum ver au, gefa J)eim godum 



fimnnum, we will thank them, Fms. vlii. 250 ; var monnum mikil ii. k pvf, 
'^nuch pleased by it, Fs. 123 ; hafa 1 moti J)okk ok ii., Band. 19 new Ed. 
roMi'Ds : aufusu-gestr, m. a welcome guest. Valla L. 217, Sturl. i. 178. 
iii(iisu-or3, II. thanks, Gisl. lOO, aufusu-svipr, m. friendly mien; 
: vii.t a ser au., Fs. 14. 

I au-fiiss, adj. in a verse by Amur, perhaps akin to the above, meaning 
'fager, Orkn. 1 26 : vide, however, Lex. Poet. s. v. ofur. 

AUQ-A, n., gen. pi. augna, [Lat. oculus, a dimin. of an obsolete ocus; 

< ir. miiOaK/Mos (Boeot. uKTa\fji6s) ; Sanskr. aksba : the word is common to 

krit with the Slavonic, Greek, Roman, and Teutonic idioms: Goth. 

.■ Germ, aw^e; A. S. edge; Engl, ^^e;; Swed. o^a; Dan. 

tc. Grimm s. v. suggests a relationship to Lat. acies, acutus, etc. 

letter n appears in the plur. of the mod. northern languages ; the 

:ls say ' cigon,' ocw/», the Danes ' cijne ;' with the article 'iigonen' 

iiui ' iijnene ;' Old Engl. ' eyne ;' Scot, 'een']: — an eye It is used 

:; Iccl. in a great many proverbs, e.g. betr sjt'i augu en auga, 'two 

see better than one,' i. e. it is good to yield to advice : referring to 

uiiir auga meSan a ser, the eye is pleased whilst it can behold (viz. 

bject of its affection). Fas. i. 125, cp. Viils. rim. 4. 189; eigi leyna 

ef ann kona manni, the eyes cannot bide it, if a wotnan love a 

.. i.e. they tell their own tale, Isl. ii. 251. This pretty proverb is an 

i7T. Key. 1. c. and is now out of use ; it is no doubt taken from a poem in a 

': iitkvaett metre, (old proverbs have alliteration, but neither rhymes nor 

iuce, rhyming proverbs are of a comparatively late date): medic, 

I r sii heill er i augun verkir, Fbr. 75 ; sa drepr opt fzti (slips) er 

>nna missir, Bs. i. 742 ; h^tt er einu anganu nema vel fari, he who 

■ily one eye to lose will take care of it (comm.) ; husbondans auga 

i nLZt, the master's eye sees best; glogt er gests augat, a guest's eye 

s sharp ; mtirg eru dags augu, the day has many eyes, i. e. what is to be 

ii(iiicii must not be done in broad daylight, Hm. 81 : niiib er nef augum, 

be nose is near akin to the eyes (tua res agitur paries quum proximus 

rdct), Nj. 21 ; opt ver3r slikt a sae, kvad selr, var skotinn i auga, this 

f.'en happens at sea, quoth the seal, when he was shot in the eye, of 

lie who is in a scrape, Fms. viii. 402. In many phrases, at unna (to 

ire) e-m sem augum i hofSi ser, as one's own eye-balls, Nj. 217 ; J)6tti 

II r slokt it ssetasta Ijos augna minna, by bis death the sweetest light of 
•ly eyes was quenched, 187: hvert grsetr \)\i nu SkarpheSinn? eigi er 
at segir SkarpheSinn, en hitt er satt at siirnar i augum, the eyes stnart 
^oni smoke, 200 : renna, lita augum, to seek with the eyes, to look upon : 

: is used in various connections, renna, lita astaraugum, vanaraugum, 
inaraugum, triiaraugum, ofundaraugum, girndarauga, with eyes of love, 
ope, friendship, faith, envy, desire : maena a. denotes an upward or pray- 
ic; look ; stara, fixed ; horfa, attentive ; lygna, blundskaka, stupid or 
low; blina, glapa, gona, vacant or silly ; skima, wandering ; hvessa augu, 

threatening look; leiSa e-n a., to measure one with the eyes; gjota, or 
kii'ita hornauga, or skjota a. i skjalg, to throw a side glance of dislike or 
'l-u>ill; gjota augum is always in a bad sense; renna, lita mostly in a 

)Otl sense: gefa e-u auga, octdum adjicere alicui; hafa auga a e-u, to 
eep an eye on it; segja e-m e-t i augu upp, to one's face, Orkn. 454; at 
n'^vm, adverb, with open eyes, Hcrvar. S. (in a verse), etc. As regards 
arious movements of the eyes ; Ijuka upp augum, to open the eyes ; lata 
ptr augun, to shut the eyes; draga auga i pung, to draw the eye into a 
urse. i. e. shut one eye; depla augum, to blink ; at drepa titlinga (Germ. 
ii'^cln, blinzen), to wink, to kill tits with the suppressed glances of the 

'■ ^'168arauga, a suffusion on the eye, hypospbagma ; kyraugz, proptosis ; 
■ auga, a beam in the eye ; skjalgr, Lat. limus ; sky, albugo ; tekinn 
:,'nanna, with sunken eyes, etc., Fel. ix. 192; a. bresta, in death: 

II I styrur i augum, to have prickles in the eyes, when the eyes ache for 
'I'lt of sleep: vatna nuisum, 'to water mice,' used esp. of children weep- 

lently and trying to hide their tears. As to the look or expression 

eyes there are sundry metaph. phrases, e. g. hafa fekroka i augum, 

re wrinkles at the corners of the eyes, of a shrewd money getting 

■ , Fms. ii. 84, cp. Orkn. 330, 188, where krokauga is a cognom. ;, one insinuating with the fair sex; hafa aegishjalm i augum 

a metaphor of one with a piercing, commanding eye, an old mythical 

■nil for the magical power of the eye, v. Grimm's D. Mythol. under 

pgishjalmr : vera mjott a milli augnanna, the distance between the eyes 

fing short, is a popular saying, denoting a close, stingy man, hence 

\ n;r means close : e-m vex e-t i augu (now augum), to shrink 

//"om, of a thing waxing and growing before one's eyes so that 

>ic dares not face it. As to the shape, colour, etc. of the eye, vide 

le adj. ' eygr' or ' eyg5r' in its many compds. Lastly we may mention 

le belief, that when the water in baptism touches the eyes, the child 

thereby in future life prevented from seeing ghosts or goblins, vide 

c words lifreskr and skygn. No spell can touch the human eye ; 

hann sa augu hans (that of Loki in the shape of a bird), J)a grunaSi 

the giant) at ma8r mundi vera, Edda 60 ; 1 ^essum bimi ]pykist hon 

■una augu Bjarnar konungs sonar. Fas. i. 51, vide Isl. {)j63s. II. 

leton. and metaph. auga is used in a great many connections : o. 

itron. ; |)jaza augu, the eyes of the giant Tbiazi, is a constellation, probably 

le Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux; the story is told in the Edda 47, cp. 

HarbarSsljoS 19; (Snorri attributes it to Odin, the poem to Thor.) p. 

botan., auga == Lat. gemma, Hjalt. 38 ; kattarauga, cat's eye, is the 

flower forget-me-not. y. the spots that form the numbers on dice, 

M''g"' 530- 8. the bole in a millstone; kvarnarauga, Edda 79, 221, 

Hkr. i. 121 : the opening into which an axe handle is fastened, Sturl. 

ii. 91 : a pit full of water, Fs. 45 : nalarauga, a needle's eye : vindauga, 

wind's eye or window (which orig. had no glass in it), A. S. eag-dura 

(eye-door) ; also gluggi, q. v. : gleraugu, spectacles. t. anatom., the 
pan of the bip joint, v. augnakari, Fms. iii. 392 : gagnaugu, temples. {. 

hafsauga, the bottom of the ocean, in the popular phrase, fara lit i hafsauga, 

descendere ad tartara. tj. poet, the sun is called heimsauga, dagsauga, 
Jonas 119. COMPDS either with sing, auga or pi. augna; in the latter 

case mod. usage sometimes drops the connecting vowel a, e.g. augn- 

dapr, augn-depra, augn-fagr, etc. auga-bragd (augna-), n. the 

twinkling of an eye, Hm. 77 J ^ ^'"u a., in the twinkling of an eye, Ver. 32, 
Edda (pref.) 146, Sks. 559, Rb. 56S : a glance, look, snart a., Fms. ii. 

174 ; mikit a., v. 335 ; lifagrligt a., Fs. 43 ; hafa a. af e-u, to cast a look 
at, Fbr. 49, Fms. xi. 424 : in the phrase, at hafa e-n (or verfta) 
at augabragSi, metaph. to tuake fport of, to mock, deride, gaze at, Stj. 
627, 567, Hm. 5, 29. auga-briin, f. the eye-brow. auga-staflr, 
m. an eye-mark; hafa a. a e-u, to mark with the eye. auga-steinn 

(augna-), m. tbeeye-ball, Hkr.iii. 365, Fms. v. 152. augna-bending, 
f. a warning glance, Pr. 452. augna-blik, n. mod. = augnabragS, s. 

augna-b61ga, u, f. ophthalmia. augna-brd, f. the eye-lid, D.N. i. 2 16. 
augna-fagr and aug-fagr, adj. fair-eyed. Fas. ii. 365, Fms. v. 200. 
augna-fro, f. a plant, eye-bright, eupbrasia, also augna-gras, Hjalt. 231 . 
augna-free, n. lychnis alpina. augna-gaman, n. a sport, delight 

for the eyes to gaze at, Ld. 202, Bier. 17, Fsm. 5 {love, tweetbeart). 
augna-grom, n. (medic.) a spot in the eye; metaph., ekki a., no mere 
speck, of whatever can easily be seen. augna-hdr, n. an eye-lash. 

augna-livarinr, m. the eye-lid. augna-hvfta, u, f. albugo. aug- 
na-karl, n. the pan of the bip joint; slita or slitna or augnakoUunum, 
Fas. iii. 392. augna-kast, n. a wild glance. Earl. 167. augna- 

kla5i, a, m. psoropbthalmi. augna-krokr, n. the corner of the eye. 

augna-lag, n. a look, Ld. 154. augna-lok, n. 'eye-covers,' eye-lids. 
augna-mein, n. a disease of the eye. augna-mjorkvi, a, m. dimness 
of the eye, Pr. 471. augna-rd3, n. expression of the eye. augna- 
skot, n. a look askance, G\>\. 286, Fs. 44 (of cats). augna-slim, 

n. glaucoma. augna-staSr, m. the socket of the eye, Magn. 532. 

augna-sveinn, m. a lad leading a blind man, Str. 46. augn-tepra, 
u, {. bippus. augna-topt, {. the socket of the eye. augna- verkr, 
m.pain in the eye, Hkr. ii. 257, Bs. i. 451, Pr. 471, Bjarn. 58. augna- 
vik, n. pi. = augnakrokr. augna- J)ungi, a, m. heaviness of the eye, 

Hkr. ii. 257. 

aug-dapr, adj. weak-sighted, Fms. ii. 8 : augdepra, u, f. amblyopiOr 
Fel. ix. 191. 

aug-lit, n. a face, countenance ; fyrir a. alls lyfts, Stj. 326 ; fyrir Gu8s a., 
before the face of God, Orkn. 1 70 ; i a. postulans, 623. 25, Ver. 7. Gen. vii. 
1 (' before me') ; fyrir konungs a., Sks. 283. Now much used, esp. theol. 

aug-ljos, n. 'eye light,' in the phrase, koma i a., to appear, Fas. i. 80. 

aug-lj6ss, adj. clear, manifest, Fms. i. 229, Hkr. ii. 225. 

aug-l^sa, t, to make known, manifest: subst. auglysing, f. 

aug-sjdndi, part, seeing ocularily. Mart. 117. 

aug-stirr, adj. blear-eyed, Stj. 1 71 (of Leah) : sureygr is more freq. 

aug'S^, f. sight; koma i a. e-m, to appear before him, Eg. 458, 623. 
12; i a. e-m, in the face of. Bias. 46. 

aug-syna, d, to shew, Fms. v. 200. 

aug-syniligr, adj. and -liga, adv. evident, visible, GJ)1. 42. 

AUK, adv. [cp. Goth, auk, freq. used by Ulf. as translation of Gr. 
yap ; jab auk = Kai yap ; A.S.edc; Engl, c^e; Germ. omc^]. I. 

it originally was a noun = augmentum, but this form only remains in the 
adverbial phrase, at auk, to boot, besides, Bs. i. 317 (freq.): adverbially 
and without 'at,' besides; hundraft manna ok auk kappar hans, a hun- 
dred men and eke his champions. Fas. i. 77 ; J)riggja marka fe, en konungr 
{lat er auk er, the surplus, N. G. L. i. 350: cp. also such phrases as, 
auk Jjess at, besides that; auk heldr, v. heldr. II. as a conj. 

also, Lat. etiam, occurs in very old prose, and in poetry ; sva mun 
ek auk bletza J)a konu es \>u. baSsk fyr, 655 ix. B. 2 (MS. of the 12th 
century), Hkr. ii. 370 (in a poem of Sighvat); this form, however, is 
very rare, as the word soon passed into ok, q. v. III. used to 

head a sentence, nearly as Lat. deinde, deinceps, the Hebrew ^, or 
the like ; the Ormulum uses ac in the same way ; in MSS. it is usually 
spelt ok ; but it may be seen from poetic assonances that it was pro- 
nounced auk, e. g. auk und jofri fraeknum ; hitt var auk at eykir, Vellekla, 
Hkr. i. 216: auk at jdrna leiki. Lex. Poet.; it is sometimes even 
spelt so, e.g. auk naer aptni skaltu (53inn koma, Hm. 97, Hkr. i. 29, 
v.l. ; it is also freq. in the Cod. Fris. of the Hkr. This use of 'auk' or 
' ok' is esp. freq. in old narrative poems such as the Ynglingatal (where it 
occurs about thirty-five times), in the Haleygjatal (about six times), and 
the Vellekla (about ten times) : vide ok. IV. simply for ok, and, 

as spelt on some Runic stones, but seldom, if ever, in written documents. 




AUKA, j6k, joku (mod. jnku), aukit [Lztaugere; GT.aij^uv; Ulf. 
aukan; A.S. eacan or ecan; Engl, to ecbe or eke; O.H. G. auhoti]; 
pres. ind. eyk; subj. eyki or yki, mod. jyki. A weak form (aukar, 
aukaSi, aukat) also occurs, esp. in Norse, and (as a Norwegianism) in 
Icel. writers, esp. after the year 1260, e. g. aukaSu, augehant, Barl. 138 ; 
auka6ist, augebatur, aukaSi, aiigebat, Barl. 180, Fms. i. 140, 184, x. 2I 
(MSS. aukuSu or auka8i, and some even joku), Rom. 234 ; subj. aukaSist, 
augeretur, Fms. vii. 158 in three Icel. vellum MSS. ; only one has ykist, the 
strong genuine form. Pres. aukar, auget, and aukast, augetur, instead of 
eykr, eykst, Stj. 32 : part, aukat ( = aukit), O. H.L. 46; auku8, aucta, 
Fms. X. 236. Even Snorri in the Edda has aukaSist, p. 3, both in the 
vellum MSS. Ob. and Kb., — a form which is thoroughly unclassical ; 
the poets use the strong form, and so Ari, who has j6kk = j6k ek, in the 
preface to lb. ; — so also the great bulk of the classical literature. Since 
the Reformation the strong form is the only one used either in speaking 
or writing. I. Lat. augere, to augment, increase, with ace, eykr 

hann J)ar sett sina, Fms. iii. 82 ; jok Njall ekki hjon sin, Nj. 59 ; hot hann 
J)eim at auka vir6ing {jcirra. Eg. 33 ; J)essi or& joku mjok sok Adams, 
Sks. 542 ; jok nafn hans, Horn. 51, Nj. 33 ; var J)asi8an auku8 ( = aukin) 
veizlan, Fms. x. 236 : absol., J)at halft er eykr, that half which is over 
and above, Js. 75 : in the phrase, aukanda ferr um e-t, a thing is in- 
creasing, Nj. 139. II. Lat. addere, to add to the whole of a 
thing ; with the thing added in the dat., ok jokk ( = j6k ek) J)vi es mer 
var6 si8an kunnara, lb. (pref.) : impers., jok miklu vi6, increased greatly, 
Ld. 54 ; J)a eykst enn ellefu nottum vi8, eleven nights are still added, Rb. 
28 : followed by ' vi8,' auka e-u vi8 e-t, to add to it, Nj. 41 ; ' til' is rare 
and unclassical, and seems almost a Danism, as ' foie til,' J)etta til aukist, 
Vm. 7 : auka synd (dat.) a synd (ace.) ofan, to heap sin upon sin, Stj. 
2 74 : aukast or8um vi8, to come to words, speak. Eg. ch. 58, v. 1. (rare) ; 
ef ^u eykr or8i, if thou say'st a word more. Lex. Poet. p. with ace. (a 
rare and unclassical Latinism), auka ny vandr8e8i ( = nyjum vandraeSum) 
k hin fornu, Bs. i. 751. y. impers. in the phrase, aukar a, it in- 
creases, Rom. 234. III. to surpass, exceed; t)at er eykr sex 
aura, J)a a konungr h&lft J)at er eykr, if it exceeds six ounces, the king 
takes half the excess, N. G. L. i. 281, Js. § 71 ; en arma8r taki J)at er 
aukit er, what is over and above, N. G. L. i. 165. Esp. used adverbially 
in the part. pass, aukit, aukin, more than, above, of numbers ; aukin {)rju 
hundru8 manna, three hundred men well told. Eg. 530, Fms. ix. 524, v.l. ; 
me8 aukit hundra8 manna, x. 184, Ld. 196 ; aukin half vaett, Grett. 141 
new Ed. p. in the phrases, {)at er (eigi) aukat (aukit), it is no exag- 
geration, Jd. verse 22, the Ed. in Fms. xi. 169 has ' aria' (a false reading) ; 
J)at er aukat, O. H. L. 1. c. ; or8um auki8, exaggerated, Thom. 73- 

atikan, f. increase, K. A. 20. 

auki, a, m. eke [A.S. eaca; Old Engl. and. Scot, eke or e«^], increase, 
addition; Abram tok ^ann auka nafns sins, Ver. 14 ; a. ofundar ok hatrs, 
Stj. 192 : cp. also in the phrase, ver8a at moldar auka, to become dust, to 
die, in a verse in the Hervar. S. Fas. i. 580 ; cp. maSr er moldu samr, 
man is but dust, SI. 47 ; and another proverb, lauki er liti8 gaeft til auka, 
used by Sighvat (Lex. Poet.), the leek needs but little care to grow ; sars- 
auki, pain, Mirm. 47 ; Danmerkr auki is a poet, name of Zealand used by 
Bragi, Edda i : the phrase, i miklum auka, in a huge, colossal shape, 
Gliim. 345 (in a verse) ; hence perhaps comes the popular phrase, a3 fserast 
i aukana (or haukana), to exert to the utmost one's bodily strength, Glamr 
faer8ist i alia auka (of one wrestling), Grett. 114 A, (Ed. 1853 has faerSist i 
aukana.) 2. metaph. seed, germs, thou hast given me no seed, Stj. 

III. Gen. XV. 2 ; esp. the sperm of whales, amber, Sks. 137. p. pro- 

duce of the earth, Barl. 193, 200. -y. interest of capital, N. G. L. ii. 

380 ; vide aauki, sarsauki, sakauki, i. 187. compds : auka>dagr, m. 
' eke-day,' dies intercalaris, Rb. 488. auka-hlutr, m. in the phrase, 
at aukahlut, to boot, Horn. 129. avika-nafn, n. 'eke-name,' nickname, 
or additional name, Sks. 272. auka-smifli, n. a superfluous thing, 

a mere appendix, Fms. ii. 359. auka-tungl, n. intercalary moon, 

Rb. 116. auka-verk, n. by-work, Bs. i. 326. auka-vika, u, f. 

' eke-week' intercalary week, v. hlaupar. 

auk-nafn, n. = aukanafn, ' eke-name.' 

arLk-nefna, d, to nickname, Landn. 243. 

auk-nefni, n. 'eke-natne,' a nickname: a. a defamatory name, 

punishable with the lesser outlawry, Grag. ii. 146. p. in a less strong 
sense ; hann var svartr a, har ok horund, ok J)vi J)6tti honum a. gefit er 
hann var Birtingr kallaSr, he was swarth of hair and skin, and for that 
it seemed a nickname was given him when he was called ' Brighting,' Fms. 
vii. 157 : Helgi atti kenningar nafn, ok var kalla8r hviti ; ok var {)at eigi 
a., J)vi at hann var vaenn ma8r ok vel haer8r, hvitr 4 har, Helgi had a stir- 
name {in a good sense), and was called ' White ;' and that was no nick- 
name, for he was a handsome man and well-haired, white of hair, Fbr. 
80 : J)u hyggr at ek muna vilja giptast einum bastar8i, — eigi em ek 
bastar8r nema at a., of William the Conqueror, Fb. iii. 464. In old times, 
esp. at the time of the colonisation of Iceland, such nicknames were in 
freq. use, as may be seen from the index in the Landnama ; they gradu- 
ally went out of use, but still occur now and then throughout the whole 
of the Saga period in Icel. down to the 14th century. 

aukning, f.. Old Engl. ' eeking,' increase, Stj. 100, 176, Sks. 137. 

au-kvisi, a, m. [prop. au8-kvisi, from au8, easy, and kveistinn, toucl 
cp. kveisa, f. ulcus, dolor'] ; in old writers it is spelt with au or ai 
and sometimes with a double k, okkvisi, Bs. i. 497 vellum MS. A.N 
499 ; au8kvisi, Ld. 236 C and the vellum MS. A. M. 122 A to Sturl. i 
8 ; aukvisi, MS. 122 B ; O.H. (Ed. 1853) reads aucvisi ; it means a weakl 
irritable, touchy person. Used esp. in the proverb, einn er au. aetts 
hvenar, cp. the Engl, there is a black sheep in every flock, Hkr. ii. 23S 
mun ek son minn lata heita Gizur ; litt hafa J)eir aukvisar verit i Haul 
daela aett er sva hafa heiti8 her til, Sturl. ii. 8, at the birth of earl Gizu 
[The name Gizur was a famous name in this family, Gizur hviti, Gizx 
biskup, Gizur Hallsson, etc.] 

AULANDI, an indecl. adj., qs. al-landi, an air. Xey. in the provei 
Nj. 10, illt er peim er au. er alinn. [The root is prob. al- (Lat. alius 
land, cp. A.S. ellend or elland (Hel. elilendi), alietius, peregrinus; 01 
Engl, alyant; O.H.G. alilanta (whence N. H. G. elend, wjser) : there 
in Icel. also a form erlendr, prob. a corruption for ellendr. This root 
quite lost in the Scandin. idioms with the single exception of the provei 
mentioned above, and the altered form er-.] The MSS. of the Nj. 1. 
differ ; some of them have a lilandi in two words, in terra mala ; Johi 
sonius has not made out the meaning ; the proper sense seems to be ex\ 
ubique infelix. In olden times peregrinus and miser were synonymou 
the first in a proper, the last in a metaphorical sense : so the Lat. host 
( = hospes) passed into the sense of enemy. The spelling with o (oland 
ought perhaps to be preferred, although the change of vowel cannot I 
easily accounted for. 

auli, a, m. a dunce, aulaligr adj., aula-skapr m., aulast dep., etc., t 
not occur, as it seems, in old writers ; prop, a slug (?) ; cp. Ivar Aas« 
s. vv. aula, auling. 

aum-hjartaSr, adj. tender-hearted, charitable, Stj. 547, Hom. 109. 

aumindi, n. painful feeling from a wound or the like, Fel. ix. 192. 

aumingi, ja, m. a wretch, in Icel. in a compassionate sense ; Gu8s i 
655 xxxii. 15, Bs. i. 74, Hom. 87. 

aumka, a8, to bewail, to complain, esp. in the impers. phrase, a. sik, 
feel compassion for, Baer. 11, Al, 10, Rom. 182, Bret. 98, Fagrsk. ch. 34 
now freq. used in reflex., aumkast yfir e-t, to pity. 

aumkan, f. lamentation, wailing. El. 10. 

aumleikr, m. misery, Stj. 428, Bs. i. 321; now also used of the soi 
feeling of a wound or the like, v. aumr. 

aumligr, adj. and -liga, adv. [A.S. earmlic'], poorly, wretched, Grel 
161, Fms. i. 138, V. 218, Sturl. ii. 13, Baer. 4, Magn. 432, H. E. iii. 366 

aum-neglur, more correctly anneglur, cp. the Engl, agnail, hangnai 
or naugnail, Fel. ix. 192 ; the lunula unguium is in Icel. called anneglu 
and so is the skin round the finger-nail, id. 

AUMR, adj. [Ulf. has arms = miser; Dan. and Swed. owz], seems wil 
all its compounds to be a Scandin. word. It originally probably meai 
sore, aching, touchy, tender. In mod. Icel. it is sometimes used in tb 
sense, in Dan. and Swed. only = sore, and metaph. terider. 2. metap'. 

poorly, miserable, unhappy ; styrkstii, aumr, strengthen thyself, wretch 
man, Orkn. 153, Hom. 15, 16, Th. 6, 16: in a bad sense = armr, Fm 
ix. 414. 

atun-staddr, adj. part, in a poor, wretched state, Stj. 475. 

AUNGK, adj. pron., Lat. nullus, none, v. engi, enginn. 

AUNGR, adj. narrow, Lat. angustus, v. ongr. 

aung-vit, n., medic, lipothymia, a fainting-fit, ¥&. ix. 193. 

AITIIAR, m. pi. money, aura- in compds, v. eyrir. 

aur-bor3, n. the second plank from the keel of a boat, Vellekla ar 
Edda (Gl.) 

a\xr-falr, s, m. [aurr, lutum, fair], the spike at the butt-end of a spea 
Gr. ffavpojTTjp ; jpeir settu niSr aurfalina er J)eir st68u ok studdust v: 
spjot sin, Fms. i. 280 ; siSan maeldi hann grundvoU hiisgorSarinnar fjrr 
f)6rhalli me8 aurfalnum a spjoti sinu, ii. 230 ; Abner sneri spjotinn 
hendi ser ok lag8i aurfalnum framan i kvi8inn, Stj. 497, 2 Sam. ii. i 
(in Engl. Vers. ' the hinder end of the spear'). Art. 105. p. used < 
an arrow, Fb. iii. 406. 

aiir-g&ti, a, m. [qs. 6r-gati, or- and geta], a tit-bit, good cheer, goa 
treatment, a rare and now obsolete word ; mun ekki af sparat, at vei" 
OSS allan {)ann a. er til er, Fms. xi. 341 ; um tilfong veizlunnar, sem be: 
biiandi allan a.. Mar. 97 ; af J)eim orgata sem hon haf3i framast fbng t: 
655 xxxi. 2. 

aurigr, adj., only in the contr. forms aurgan (ace), aurgu (dat.), claye 
muddy, Vsp. 31, Ls. 48 ; cp. urigr, madidus. 

AURR, s, m., prop, wet clay or loam, but also in Eggert Itin. p. <■ 
of a sort of clay, cp. Ivar Aasen s. v. aur. In A.S. ear is humus; 
the Alvismal one of the names of the earth is aurr (kalla aur uppregi" 
In the Voluspa the purling water of the well of Urda is called aun 
hence the paraphrase in the Edda, ^xx taka hvern dag vatn i brunninuni 
ok me8 aurinn {the clay, hunnis) er Hggr um brunninn, ok ansa upp yi 
askinn. Elsewhere used simply of mud, wet soil, aurr etr iljar en ofa( 
kuldi, Gs. 15 ; auri trodd und joa fotum, Gh. 16 ; ok vi8 aur aegir hjamj 
bragnings burs of blandinn var8, his brains were mixed with the mm 



Vt. 1 6; Surr ok saurr, mud and dirt, Ann. 1362 ; hylja auri, humo con- 
dere, in a verse in the Korm. S. 
aurriSi, 6rri3i, mod. virriSi, a, m. salnio trittta, salmon-trout, YdX. 
i. 1 1 ; salmo squamis argenteis, maculis nigris bninneo cinctis, pinna 
pectorali punctvlis sex notata, Eggert Itin. p. 595 : deriv. from orr, celer, 
and -ri6i, or from aurr (?) ; the Norse form aure "indicates a diphthong, 
Gbl. 421, Edda (Gl.) compds : aurrifla-bekkr, m. a ' beck' full of 

trout. Bolt. atuTi3a-fl8ki, f. trout-fishing. Bolt. auiriSa-net, n. 
a trout-net, Gisl. 104. aurrifla-vatn, n. a water stocked with trout. 

aur-sk6r, m. (prop. ' mud-shoe'), a horse shoe, an air. X€7. in the story 
Fnis. iii. a 10, each of the shoes weighing l| lb. The story is a pendant 
to that told of king Augustus of Poland and the blacksmith, 
avir-skrida, u, f. a land slip, avalanche, Fbr. 84, Fs. 59. 
avirvandils-t£ (aurvantA, Ub.), f. Aurvandil's toe, probably the star 
Rigcl in Orion, v. Edda 59. 

AUSA, jos, josu (mod. jusu), ausit; pres. ind. eyss ; subj. eysi or ysi, 
mod. jysi (bauriret), cp. Lat. haurio, baus-it; not found in Goth, or in 
Germ. I. to sprinkle, with dat, of the liquid, and the object 

ace. or with a prep. ; J)aer taka hvern dag vatn i brunninum, ok ausa 
(viz. \y\) upp yfir askinn, . . .pour it over the ash-boughs, Edda 1 1 ; ef ma9r 
eyss eldi {fire, embers), Grag. ii. 128; a. sild or netjum, to empty the 
nets of the herrings, GJ)1. 427 : a. lit, to pour out, f6, Grett. 126. 2, 

ausa moldu, to sprinkle with mould, bury; hl63u J)eir at grjoti ok josu at 
moldu. Eg. 300; er hann h6f8u moldu ausit, Bjarn. 11 ; salr ausinn 
moldu, his chamber sprinkled with mould (poet.), Hervar. S. ; ausinn 
haugi, '^t. 26. p. ausa vatni is a standing phrase for a sort of baptism 
used in the last centuries, at least, of the heathen age. The child when 
bom was sprinkled with water and named, yet without the intervention 
of a priest ; this rite is mentioned as early as in the Havamal, one of 
the very oldest mythological didactic poems on record, where it is 
attributed even to Odin ; ef ek skal t)egn ungan verpa vatni a, if I am to 
throw water on a young thane, 159; Josu vatni Jarl letu heita, J6S 61 
Edda josu vatni, horvi svartan, hetu {)rael, Rm. 7, 31 ; sa var si&r gofigra 
manna, at vanda menn mjok til at ausa vatni ok gefa nafn ; . . . Sigurftr 
jarl jos sveininn vatni ok kalla&i Hakon, Hkr. i. I18 ; Eirikr ok Gunn- 
hildr attu son er Haraldr konungr jos vatni ok gaf nafn sitt, 122 ; eptir 
am daginn jos Hakon konungr |)ann svein vatni ok gaf nafn sitt, 135, 
Fras. i. 66, xi. 3 ; faeddi {jora sveinbarn ok var Grimr nefndr er vatni var 
;iusinn, Eb. 26 ; enn attu J)au Skallagrimr son, sa var vatni ausinn ok 
lafn gefit ok kalla8r Egill, Eg. 146, 147, 166, Ld. 108, Gisl. 32 (of Snorre 
Gode) ; and so in many instances from Icel., Norway, and the Orkneys, 
all of them of the heathen age. The Christian term is skira, q. v. 3. 

metaph. of scolding or abuse; hropi ok rogi ef J)U eyss k hoU regin, 
Ls. 4 ; ausa sauri a e-n, to bespatter with foul language, ausask sauri 
'\ (recipr.), Bjarn. 33 ; a. e-m e-u i augu upp, to throw in one's face. Eg. 
576 ; hann jos upp {poured out) {)ar fyrir aljiyftu oUum glaepum fo8ur sins, 
Mart. 80 ; um verka Jjann er hverr jos a annan, Bjarn. 42. II. 

ii a horse, to kick or lash out with his hinder feet, opp. to prjona, to rear 
ip and strike with the fore feet ; hestrinn tok at fry'sa, blasa ok ausa, 
reg. 49 ; at merrin eysi, Sturl. ii. 40 C. III. to pump, esp. a ship, 

yith the ship in ace. ; HallfreSr jos at sinum hlut, Fs. 113, Grett. 95 A, 
Fbr. 173, N.G. L. i. 102 : a. bat sinn, to make water, Fms. vii. 331. 
ausa, u, f. a ladle, ekki er sopi6 kali8 J)6 i ausuna se komit (a proverb), 
nany a slip 'twixt the cup and the lip, Grett. 132, |)6r8. 51. 
aus-ker, n. = austr-ker, Shetl. auskerrie, a scoop, v. Jamieson Suppl. 
ub voce, Fs. 147. 
ausli, V. auvisli. 

austan, adv. [A.S. eastan; Hel. ostan'], from the east. Eg. 183, Eb. 
1 : of the direction of the wind (cp. vestan, sunnan, norSan), used with 
ceding prep, a, a vestan, austan . . ., blowing from west, east.. ., Bs. 
p. fyrir a. used as a prep, with ace. east of; fyrir a. mitt haf, 
lirag. ch. 85, p. 142 new Ed., Nj. 36, 81, Eg. lOO, Landn. 228. y. 

vith gen. in phrases like austan lands, a. fjar3ar, cp. nor5an, sunnan, 
estan, Hkr. iii. 201. compds : austan-fer3, f. a journey from the 

nst, Fms. vii. 128. austan-fjar3ar, gen. loci, used as adverb, in 
he east of the firth, Hkr. ii. 295, Fms. i. 278, iv. 37. austan-gola, 
L, f. a light breeze from the east, Sturl. iii. 59 (Ed. austraen). austan- 
cvima, u, f. arrival from the east, Fms. vi. 23. austan-maflr, m. 

I man from the east. Old Engl, easterling, Sturl. iii. 248. austan- 
ijor, m. the east sea, nickname of a man, Fms. ix. 316. austan- 
reflr, rs, m. an easterly gale, Rb. 438. austaii-ver3r, adj. eastern 
cp. norSan-, sunnan-, vestan-ver8r), Landn. 25, Stj. 75, A. A. 286. 
lustan-vindr, m. an east wind, Sks. 38, cp. norSan-, vestan-, sunnan- 

austarliga, adv. and -ligr, adj. easterly, Fms. xi. 389. 
austastr, superl. easternmost, v. eystri. 

austflrSingr, m., esp. in pi. an eastfirther, one from the east of Iceland, 
Iturl. ii. 158. compds: austflr3inga-bu3, f., v. b\i&. aust- 

ir5inga-d6nir, m. the court for the east quarter, v. domr. aust- 
ir8inga-Q6r3iingr, m. the east quarter of Iceland, v. fjorSungr. , 

aust-lir3ir, m. pi. the east firths of Iceland, opp. to vcstfirSir, Landn. 
au8t-flrzkr, adj. one from the east firths in Ice!., Nj. 54, Lv. 57. 
aust-f6r, f. = austrfor. 
aust-ker, n. a scoop, bucket, v. auss-ker. 

aust-kylfir, m. pi. easterlings, cp. Kylfingar, an old Russian popula- 
tion, Kolbiager, east of the Baltic ; in a poem of Homklofi, Fagrsk. 9. 
aust-lsBgr, adj. easterly, of the wind. 

aust-ma3r, m., pi. austmenn, in Icel. and in the northern part of the 
British Islands a standing name of those who came from the Scandi- 
navian continent, esp. Norse merchants, vide the old Irish chronicles, 
and the Sagas, passim. The English used ' easterling' in the same sense, 
and sterling is an abbreviation of the word from the coin which the 
'easterlings' brought with them in trade. Eyvindr austmaSr, Landn., 
Nj. 81, Eg. 744, Isl. ii. fga, 128, Sturl. ii. 47, Lv. 33, Valla L. 316, 
Landn. 36, 290, 305, Eb. 104, 196, etc. In the Norse G^\. 450 it is used 
of Swedes in Norway: austmanna-skelflr, m. ' skelper' {conqueror, 
terror) of the east men, a nickname, Landn. 305. 

aust-marr, m. the east sea,^ the east Baltic (Estmere of king Alfred, 
Oros. Ed. Bosworth, p. 22), Yt. 18. 
aust-mal, n. = austrmal, N. G. L. i. 335. 
aust-mdrk, f. the east mark, i. e. the east, "tt. 4. 
AITSTR, rs, m. [A.S. and Engl, east; Hel. ostar; Germ. o.<;^ osten], 
the east; sol i austri, Grag. ii. 224, Rb. 93, Landn. 276 ; or austri, Sturl. ii. 
25. 2. as adv. towards east, eastward, Nj. i5i,Eg. 72,Grag.i.96, 189. 
austr, rs and rar, m. [ausa], the act of drawing water in buckets, 
pumping; v. daeluaustr and byttuaustr, Grett. ch. 19; standa i austri, 
to toil hard at the pump. Fas. ii. 520, Sturl. iii. 68 ; til austrar, Grett. 
94 B. p. the water pumped or to be pumped, bilge water, Gr. dvrXos, 
Sturl. iii. 67, 68 ; skipid fullt af austri, full of bilge water, Fb. ii. 204 
(Fbr.), Finnb. 234; standa 1 a., v. above. compd : austrs-ker, 
austker (N.G. L. i. 59), a scoop, pump-bucket {c^. ausker), G|)l. 424. 
austr-ilfa, v. austrhalfa. 

austr-&tt and -sett, f. eastern region, east; i austr., towards east, in 
eastern direction, Fms. ii. 49, x. 267, Sks. 38. 655 xiv. B. I. 

austr-biti, a, m. a cross-beam nearest the pumping-place in a ship, 
Fs. 153. 

austr-fer3 and austr-f6r, f. voyage to the east, esp, to Russia or the 
east Baltic, Fb. i. 130, Ls. 60, the last passage in a mythical sense. 
COMPDS : austrfarar-knorr, m. a vessel bound for the Baltic, Fms. vii. 
256. austrfarar-skip, n. id., Fms. viii. 61, Orkn. 274 old Ed., 

where the new Ed. 334 has litfararskip, a ship bound for the Mediter- 
ranean (better). 

austr-hdlfa, u, f. [Hel. ostarhalba — oriens'], ohen spelt -^a by drop- 
ping the h; the east, in old writers freq. of the Austria of the peace of 
Verdun, A. D. 843, including the Baltic and the east of Europe ; some- 
times also of the true east; um GarSariki {Russia Minor) ok vi8a um 
a. heims, Fms. i. 96 ; 1 GorSum austr ok austrhulfunni, x. 275; 1 a, 
heims eru J)rju Indialond, A. A. 283 ; Licinius lag8i undir sik vi3a a.. 
Bias. 37; Adam ok Eva byg8u siSan i a. J)ar sem Hebron heitir, Ver. 
5, Stj. 67, 43 : now used in Icel. = Asia, Vestrhalfa = ^mencfl, SuSrhalfa 
= Africa, NorSrhalfa = Europe, Eyjaalfa = Australia. compds : austr- 
hdlfu-1^3r, m. people of the east, Stj. 392, Judges vi. 33. austr- 

halfu-J)j63, f. id., Stj. 389. 
austr-kendr, adj. part, eastern, of wind, Bs. i. 388. 
austrligr, adj. eastern, Stj. 336. 

austr-16nd, n. pi. the east, orient, the eastern part of Europe, in old 
writers often synonymous to Austr-halfa, and opp. to NorSrlond, Scandi- 
navia ; Su8rlond, So7itb Germany, etc. ; Vestrlond, the British Islands, 
Normandy, Bretagne, etc.. Post. 656 C. 39, Fms. ii. 183, Post. 645. 102, 
Hkr. i. 134 in a poem of the loth century used of Russia ; cp. Brocm. loi. 

austr-m&l, n. (navig.), the pumping-watch, the crew being told off 
two and two, to hand the buckets up, one of them standing in the bilge 
water down below and the other on deck, vide the Fbr. 131, Grett. 
ch. 19 ; en hverr J)eirra manna er si8ar kemr en a. komi til bans, {)a 
er hann sekr niu ertogum, N. G. L. i. 335 [ausmaal, bilge water, Ivar 

austr-oka, a8, [austr], to lavish, squander, with dat. an air. \(y. as it 
seems, Fas. iii. 198, 302, where a. f^ sinu; cp. Gr. avrXio). 

austr-riki, n. the eastern empire, esp. the east of Europe (Russia, 
Austria, sometimes also including Turkey of the present time) ; the term 
is often vague, and synonymous to Austrvegr, Austrliind, or referring to the 
Germany of the year 843 ; (the mod. sense is = Austria) ; Ivarr vi5fa8mi 
eigna8ist allt Danaveldi, ok mikinn hluta Saxlands ok allt A., Hkr. 
Yngl. S. ch. 45, Fms. vi. 8 ; Constantinopolis er ae8st borga 1 A., Ver. 49 ; 
J>eodosius inn mikli var sex vetr konungr i A., 50 ; Licinius het konungr 
i A., Bias. 37, in these last passages = <Xe eastern empire (of Rome); \ik 
er ek (viz. king David) lif8a ok vask konungr kalla8r i A. {in the east), 
NiSrst. 4, cp. Baut. nos. 780, 979. 

austr-riim, n. the part of a vessel's hold near the stern where the pump 
is, Hkr. i. 82, Stj. 57, Fbr. 158, Edda 35 ; an aft and fore pumping- 
place (eptra ok fremra austrnim) is mentioned Fms. viii. 139. 

D 2 



avistr-trog, n. a scoop, bucket. 

austr-vegr, s, ni. (he eastern way, east, esp, Russia, Wenden, the east 
Baltic ; fara i Austrvcg is a standing phrase for trading or piratical expedi- 
tions in the Bahic, opp. to viking or vestr-viking, which only refer to 
expeditions to the British Islands, Normandy, Brittany, etc. ; austr-viking, 
Landn. 221, is a false reading; hann var farmaOr mikill (H61mgar3s-fari) 
ok kaupma6r; for opt i Austrveg (Baltic), Landn. 169, Nj. 41, Eg. 228, 
Fms. freq., vide vol. xii, s. v. In the Edda fara 1 A. is a standing phrase for 
the expeditions of Thor against giants, {jorr var farinn i A. at berja troll, 
26, cp. Ls. 59, where a. means the eastern region of heaven. Sometimes 
it is used of (he eas( in general, Ver. 9, Rb. 412, 623. 13, Baut. no. 813. 
coMPDs : austrvegs-konungar, m. pi. (he three kings or Magi (' wise 
men') from the east, Stj. 16 ; a king of Russia, Fms. x. 397. austr- 
vegs-ina3r, m. an inhabitant 0/ Austrvegir, Hkr. i. 44. 

austr-sett, v. austratt. 

aust-rcena, u, f. eastern breeze. 

aust-rcBnn, adj. [Hel. ostroni; A, S. easterne; cp. norrsenn, suSraenn], 
eastern, of the wind ; a. gola, eastern breeze, Sturl. iii. 59 ; vindr, Orkn. 
(in a verse) ; vi6r, timber from Norway or Scandinavia, Grag. i. 149, the 
Eistland tymmer of the old Scotch inventories (Jamieson, Suppl. s. v.) ; 
Austraenir menn, Norseinen in Iceland, Fms. ix. 276 ; as a nickname, Eb. 
12, and Landn. The name denotes the inhabitants of the Scandinavian 
continent as opp. to the British Islands and Iceland. 

aust-skota, u, f. = austrsker, Grag. ii. 171 ; Isl. ii. 382 spelt ausskota. 

au-vir8 and auvirfli, mod. au3vir3i, n. [af, off, and ver&, value ; the 
change of letter caused by the following v; a purely Icel. form, the 
Norse being 'afv-;' the mod. Icel. form is au6-v., as if it were to be 
derived from au3- and ver6] : 1. a worthless wretch, a laggard, 

bungler ; sel \i\i upp, auvirSit, knalegar byttumar. Bungler ! hand thou 
up stoutly the buckets, Fbr. 131 ; hygg ek at eingi nia6r eigi jafnmikil 
a. at frxndum sem ek, Hrafn. 11; ver8a at a., Bret. 163, Sturl. i. 
73. 2. a law term, damage, anything impairing the value of a 

thing ; hann abyrgist vi6 {)eim auvirSum er J)at faer af J)vi skaSa, Grag. 
i. 431. COMPDS : auvir3s-ma9r, m. a wretch, laggard, 655, vide 

Sturl. ii. 139, Faer. 74, |>orf. Karl. 426. auvir3s-skapr, m. naughti- 
ness, GullJ). 13. 

au-vir3ast, d, to become worthless. Eg. 103, Gliim. 377 C. 2. 

in the act. to think unworthy, disparage, Barl. 21, 57, 123, 190, Mar. 
83 : seldom used except in Norse writers, and consequently spelt with 
an ' af- :' in reflex, sense, Stj. 483. 

au-vir3liga, Norse afvir3-, and mod. Icel, au3vir3il-, adv. despica- 
bly, Sturl. iii. 220, Fs. 71. 

au-vir3ligr, etc., adj. worthless. Fas. i. 87, Bret. 31, 72, Sturl. iii. 225, 
Barl. 75 ; at skurBarskirn se afvir6ihg (indigna) Kristnum monnum, 159. 

au-visli, and contr. ausli and usli, a, m. ; etym. uncertain, ausli, 
GJ)1. 385 A; usli, N. G. L. i. 246, Fms. i. 202, viii. 341, xi. 35, Edda 
(Gl.) In the Grag. auvisH, spelt with au or av ; in the Ed. of 1829 
sometimes with o where the MSS. have au : I. a law term, 

damages, Lat. damnum ; bseta auvisla is a standing law term for to pay 
compensation for damages done, the amount of which was to be fixed 
by a jury ; baeta skal hann a. a fjortan nottum sem biiar fimm vir6a, 
Grag. i. 383, 418, ii. 229, 121, 223 (Ed. 1853), 225 (twice) : hence au- 
vislabot. In Norse law, gjalda a., GJ)1. 384; abyrgi honum garftinn 
ok allan ausla J)ann er, 385 A ; bei6a usla botar, N.G.L. i. 246. II. 

metaph. hurt, injury in general ; mondi {)eim J)a ekki vera gjort til au- 
visla, Ld. 76 ; ok er J)at J)6 likast, at fiii setir eigi undan ollum avvisla 
(^thou wilt not get off unscathed), ef J)u tekr eigi vi&, Fms. iii. 

144. 2. devastation, Fms. xi. 81 : esp. by fire and sword in the 

alliterative phrase, eldr {fire') ok usli ; fara me6 eld ok usla, i. 202 ; heldr 
en par leki yfir eldr ok usli, viii. 341 ; J)4 giirSi a mikit regn, ok slokSi 
J)ann eld vandliga, sva at menn mattu fia {legar fara yfir usla pann inn 
niikla {embers and ruins), xi. 35. In the Edda (Gl.) usli is recorded as 

one of the sixty names of fire : cp. also the mod. verb osla, to plunge 

through : auvisli is now an obsolete word, usli a common word, gjcira 

usla, to desolate, in the metaph. sense. compds : auvisla-bot and 

usla-bot (N. G. L. i. 246), f. a law term, compensation ^xed by a jury of 
Jive, cp. above ; distinction is made between a. hin meiri and hin minni, 
first rate or second rate compensation, Grag. ii. 344 : in pi. 225 : ausla- 

gjald and usla-gjald, n. compensation, G^)!. 387. 
AX, n. [Goth, aks, cp. Goth, asans — harvest'], an ear of corn, Stj. 201, 

Thom. 98. 
axar-, v. ox, an axe. 
ax-helma, u, f. a blade of corn, ear and stetit, Stj. 422, Ruth ii. 2 

(Engl. Vers. ' ears of corn'). 
ax-korn, n. an ear of corn, Edda (Ub.) ii. 283. 
axla, a6, to shoulder, Fms. iii. 228. 
axlar-, v. iixl, shoulder. 

axl-byr3r, f. a shoulder-load, Orkn. 346, Grett. 177 new Ed. 
axl-h.dr, adj. shoulder high, Js. lOi. 
axull, m., V. (ixull, axis, an axle-tree. 
ay, interj. dolendi, ay mer veslugri, Mar. Fr. 



A, &, prep., often used elliptically, or even adverbially, [Goth, ana; 
Engl, on; Germ. an. In the Scandinavian idioms the liquid n is absorbed. 
In English the same has been supposed to happen in adverbial phrases, 
e. g. ' along, away, abroad, afoot, again, agate, ahead, aloft, alone, 
askew, aside, astray, awry,' etc. It is indeed true that the Ormulum in 
its northern dialect freq. uses o, even in common phrases, such as ' o boke, 
o land, o life, o slaepe, o strande, o write, o naht, o loft,' etc., v. the glossary ; 
and we may compare on foot and afoot, on sleep (Engl. Vers, of Bible) 
and asleep ; A. S. a-butan and ofi-butan (about) ; agen and ongean (again, 
against); on bcec, aback; on life, alive; on middan, amid. But it is 
more than likely that in the expressions quoted above, as well as in 
numberless others, as well in old as in modern English, the English a- 
as well as the 0- of the Ormulum and the modern Scottish and north 
of England o- are in reality remains of this very a pronounced au or ow, 
which was brought by the Scandinavian settlers into the north of Eng- 
land. In the struggle for supremacy between the English dialects aftei 
the Conquest, the Scandinavian form a or a won the day in many case; 
to the exclusion of the Anglo-Saxon on. Some of these adverbs have 
representatives only in the Scandinavian tongues, not in Anglo-Saxon 
see below, with dat. B. II, C. VII ; with ace. C. I. and VI. The prep, c 
denotes the surface or outside ; 4 and or the inside ; at, til, and frd 
nearness measured to or from an object : a thus answers to the Gr. ini 
the Lat. iti includes d and i together.] 

With dat. and ace. : in the first case with the notion of remaining 
on a place, answering to Lat. in with abl. ; in the last with the notion o 
motion to the place, = Lat. in with ace. 


A. Log. I. generally on, upon; a golfi, on the floor 

Nj. 2 ; a hendi, on the hand (of a ring), 48, 225 ; a palli, 50; a steini 
108; a vegg, 115 ; a sja ok a landi, on sea and land. In some in 
stances the distinction between d and i is loose and wavering, bu 
in most cases common sense and usage decide; thus 'a bok' merely 
denotes the letters, the penmanship, 'i' the contents of a book; mod 
usage, however, prefers ' i,' lesa i bok, but stafr a bok. Old writers 01 
the other hand ; a bokum Enskum, in English books, Landn. 24, bu 
i Aldafars bok, 23 {in the book De Mensura Temporum, by Bede) 
cp. Grag. i. 76, where a is a false reading instead of at; a brefi, th 
contents of a letter : of clothing or arms, mitr a hof^i, sver8 a hli8 
mitre on head, sword on side, Fms. i. 266, viii. 404 ; hafa lykil a ser, 01 
one's person, 655 xxvii. 22 ; mottull a tyglum, a mantle banging on (i. c 
fastened by) laces, Fms. vii. 201 : a fiingi means to be present at a meeting 
i J)ingi, to abide within a jurisdiction ; a himni, a jor8u, on (Engl, in 
heaven and earth, e.g. in the Lord's Prayer, but i helviti, in hell; : 
Gimli, Edda (of a heavenly abode) ; a bati, a skipi denote crew an, 
cargo, ' i' the timber or materials of which a ship is built. Eg. 385 ; ver 
i stafni a skipi, 177: a skogi, to be abroad in a wood (of a huntei 
robber, deer) ; but to be situated (a house), at work (to fell timber), 
skogi, 573, Fs. 5, Fms. iii. 122, viii. 31, xi. i. Glum. 330, Landn. 173 ; 
morkinni, Fms. i. 8, but i mork, of a farm ; a firSinum means lying i 
a firth, of ships or islands (on the surface of the water), J)xr eyjar liggj 
a Brei8afir3i, Ld. 36 ; but i firdi, living in a district named Firth ; 
landi, Nj. 98, Fms. xi. 386. II. d is commonly used in connec 

tion with the pr. names or countries terminating in ' land,' Engl, in, 
Englandi, Irlandi, Skotlandi, Bretlandi, Saxlandi, Vindlandi, Vinland 
Graenalandi, Islandi, Hulogalandi, Rogalandi, Jotlandi, Frakklandi, Hjali 
landi, Jamtalandi, Hvitramannalandi, Nor6rlondum, etc., vide Landn. an 
the index to Fms. xii. In old writers i is here very rare, in moder 
authors more frequent ; taste and the context in many instances decide 1 
An Icelander would now say, speaking of the queen or king, ' a Eng i 
landi,' ruling over, but to live ' i Englandi,' or ' a Englandi ;' the rule i 
the last case not being quite fixed. 2. in connection with othe 

names of countries : a Maeri, Vcirs, Og8um, Fjolum, all districts of Noi 
wa)', V. Landn.; a Myrum (in Icel.), a Finnmork, Landn., a Fjoni ( 
Danish island) ; but i Danmork, Svipj68 (a SviJ)j68u is poet., G: 
13). 3. before Icel. farms denoting open and elevated slopes an 

spaces (not too high, because then 'at' must be used), such as ' sta5' 
vollr, bol, hjalli, bakki, heimr, eyri,' etc. ; a Veggjum, Landn. 69 ; 
Holmlatri, id. : those ending in ' -sta3r,' a Geirmundarsto&um, |)6ri.' 
sto6um, Jar81angssto3um . . ., Landn.: '-vollr,' a Mo6ruv611um : a Fil 
jum (the farm) i Stor6 (the island), i Fenhring (the island) a Aski (th 
farm), Landn., Eg. : '-nes' sometimes takes a, sometimes i (in moc 
usage always ' i'), a Nesi, Eb. 14, or i Krossnesi, 30 ; in the last case th! 
notion of island, vrjaos, prevails : so also, ' £jor3r,' as, J)eir borSust a Vigra; 
fir&i (of a fight on the ice), Landn. loi, but orusta i Hafrsfir3i, 122 
with ' -baer,' d is used in the sense of 3. farm or estate, hon sa a e-m b; 
mikit hiis ok fagrt, Edda 22 ; ' i bae' means within doors, of the buildings 
with ' Baer' as pr. name Landn. uses ' i,' 71, 160, 257, 309, 332. 4, 

denoting on or just above; of the sun, when the time is fixed by regardin 



the sun in connection with points in the horizon, a standing phrase 
in Icel. ; sol a gjuhainri, when the sufi is on the crag of the Rift, Gn'ig. i. 
26, cp. Glum. 387 ; so, brii u ti, a bridge on a river, Fms. viii. 1 79, Hrafn. 
20 ; taka hiis u e-m, to surprise one, to take the house over his head, 
Fms. i. II. III. a is sometimes used in old writers where we 

should now expect an ace, esp. in the phrase, leggja sver6i (or the like) 
& e-m, or u e-m miSjum, to stab. Eg. 2x6, Gisl. 106, Band. 14 ; Jxv stakk 
Starkaftr sprotanum a konungi, then Starlead stabbed the king with the 
wand. Fas. iii. 34 ; bita k kampi (vor), to bite the lips, as a token of 
pain or emotion, Nj. 209, 68 ; taka a e-u, to touch a thing, lay hold of 
it, V. taka ; fa a e-u, id. (poet.) ; leggja hendr a (better at) si6um, in 
wrestling, Fms. x. 331 ; koma a uvart a e-m, to come on one unawares, 
ix. 407 (rare). • 

B. Temp, of a particular point or period oftime,a^o«,m; I. 
gener. denoting during, in the course of; 4 nott, degi, naetr{)eli . . . , Bs. 
i. 139; or spec, adding a pron. or an adject., a ngesta sumri, the next 
summer; a J)vi ari, {)ingi, misseri, hausti, vari, sumri . . ., during, in that 
year . . . , Bs. i. 679, etc. ; a J)rem sumrum, in the course of three summers, 
Grag. i. 218; a J)rem varum, Fms. ii. II4; a halfs manaSar fresti, 
within half a month's delay, Nj. 99 ; a tvitugs, sextugs . . . aldri, a barns, 
gamals aldri, etc., at the age of. . ., v. aldr : a dogum e-s, in the days 
of, in his reign or time, Landn. 24, Hrafn. 3, Fms. ix. 229. II. 
used of affixed recurrent period or season ; a varum, sumrum, haustum, 
vetrum, a kveldum, every spring, sujnmer . . ., in the evenings. Eg. 711, 
Fms. i. 23, 25, vi. 394, Landn. 292 : with the numeral adverbs, cp. Lat. 
ter in anno, um sinn a manuSi, ari, once a month, once a year, where the 
Engl, a is not the article but the preposition, Grag. i. 89. III. 
of duration ; a degi, during a whole day, Fms. v. 48 ; a sjau nottum. 
Bard. 166; a ])vi meli, during that time, in the meantime, Grag. i. 
259. IV. connected with the seasons (a vetri, sumri, vari, 
hausti), 'a' denotes the next preceding season, the last winter, sitmmer, 
autumn, Eb. 40, 238, Ld. 206: in such instances 'a' denotes the past, 
' at ' the future, ' i ' the present ; thus i vetri in old writers means this 
winter; a vetri, last winter ; at vetri, next winter, Eb. 68 (in a verse), etc. 

C. In various other relations, more or less metaphorically, on, upon, 
m, to, with, towards, against: I. denoting object, in respect of, 
against, almost periphrastically ; dvelja a na3um e-s, under one's protec- 
tion, Fms. i. 74 ; hafa metna& a e-u, to be proud of, to take pride in a 
thing, 127. 2. denoting a personal relation, in; baeta e-t a e-m, to 
make amends, i.e. to one personally ; misgora e-t a e-m, to indict wrong 
on one; hafa elsku (hatr) a e-m, to bear love {hatred) to one, Fms. ix. 
242 ; hefna sin a e-m, to take revenge on one's person, on any one; rjiifa 
saett a e-m, to break truce on the person of any one, to offend against 
his person, Nj. 103 ; hafa sar a ser, loi ; sja a e-m, to read on or in one's 
face; ser hanu a hverjum manni hvart til |)in er vel e8r ilia, 106; var 
J)at bratt au6se6 a hennar hcigum, at . . . , «V could soott be seen in all her 
doings, that . . ., Ld. 2 2. 3. also generally to shew signs of a thing; 
syna faleika a ser, to shew marks of displeasure, Nj. 14, Fs. 14 ; taka vel, 
ilia, litt, a e-u, to take a thing well, ill, or indifferently, id. ; finna 4 ser, to 
feel in oneself; fann litt a honum, hvart ..., it coidd hardly be seen in his 
face, whether . . ., Eb. 42 ; likindi eru a, it is likely, Ld. 172 ; gora kost 
a e-u, to give a choice, chance of it, 178 ; eiga vald a e-u, to have power 
over . . ., Nj. 10. IT. denoting encumbrance, duty, liability ; er 
fimtardomsmal a J)eim, to be subject ^o . . ., Nj. 231 ; the phrase, hafa e-t 
a hendi, or vera a hendi e-m, on one's hands, of work or duty to be done ; 
eindagi a fe, term, pay day, Grag. i. 140 ; omagi (skylda, afvinna) a fe, of 
fl burden or encumbrance, D. L and Grag. in several passages. III. 
with a personal pronoun, ser, mcr, honum . . ., denoting personal appear- 
ance, temper, character, look, or the like ; vera l)ungr, lettr ... a ser, to be 
heavy or light, either bodily or mentally ; J)ungr a ser, corpulent, Sturl. 
i. 112 ; katr ok lettr a ser, of a gay and light temper, Fms. x. 152 ; J)at 
brag5 haf6i hann a ser, he looked as if, . . . the expression of his face was as 
though . . ., Ld., cp. the mod. phrase, hafa a ser svip, bragS, x.h\, si&, of 
one's manner or personal appearance, to bear oneself as, or the like ; 
skjotr (seinn) ii fseti, speedy {slow) of foot, Nj. 258. IV. as a peri- 
phrasis of the possessive pronoun connected with the limbs or parts of 
the body. In common Icel. such phrases as my hands, eyes, head . . . 
are hardly ever used, but h6fu8, eyru, har, nef, munnr, hendr, faetr ... a 
mer ; so ' i' is used of the internal parts, e. g. hjarta, bein . . . i mer ; the 
eyes are regarded as inside the body, augun i honum : also without the 
possessive pronoun, or as a periphrasis for a genitive, brj6sti5 4 e-m, 
one's breast, Nj, 95, Edda 15 ; siirnar i augum, it smarts in my eyes, my 
eyes smart, Nj. 202 ; kvi&inn a ser, its belly, 655 xxx. 5, F'ms. vi. 350 ; 
hendr a henni, her hands, Gisl. (in a verse) ; i vcirunum a honum, on his 
lips. Band. 14; ristin a honum, his step, Fms. viii. 141 ; harSr i tungu, 
sharp of tongue, Hallfred (Fs. I14); kalt