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Louis Agassiz. c^ 





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One Small Voice ^^^^ ^^«^ M «m,.?h3 

The Strange Career of 
Rafinesque C, Schmaltz 


In one of the sliding racks in the Rafinesque devoted his life to 
Index Room of the New York Public science with great fury. He was born 
Library at 42d st. and Fifth av. there of prosperous parents in a suburb 
are 36 cards referring to books or of Constantinople — the Istanbul of 
articles by or about Constantine today— in 1783 and by dint of deep 
Samuel Rafinesque (Schmaltz), the ^+„j„ , •, . , „ • j 

eccentric scientist whose corpse/held f^^^^' ^^^^ ^^^^^1' enormous mdus- 
for debt by a landlord, was stolen for try and mdomitable courage he died 
burial by kind friends under cover a bankrupt in a Philadelphia attic 
of darkness in Philadelphia about a in 1840. He pursued his scie- 'fie 
century ago. Those who like fantas- studies in Europe and in this coun- 
tic tales and strange characters ^ j^e wrote volumes in three 

should read up on Rafinesque. . .r, ,• , -r^ 

The name alone still baffles this Jt^Suages English French and 
ready reader. The "Constantine Itahan He lectured fluently. He 
Samuel Rafinesque" goes down easi- Pamted. He composed a long poem 
ly but the "(Schmaltz)" that is added He gave judgment on rehgion and 
to formal papers and some portraits Philosophy. 

is the mystery. Perhaps Donald Cul- , ^^ spent some years in this coun- 
ross Peattie or some other registered Jf^ ,^"? then went to Sicily where 
Rafinesque rooter will clear that ^^ lo^t what money he had accu- 

little matter up. V'Y}i^-^^ .""^ ^"^ ^S^^ II!"^-..?'' ''^'^^ 

Even so, there are some larger i?" him to run off with another man^ 

matters connected with the career of ^'^ .^on diea. His daughter married 

Rafinesque that may never be 5?,^^"^t ^^^ ^^^f^\^"^: ^Vi?^ ^""^ 
cleared up. How close did he come ^^tmna manner he cut her off 
to absolute genius? How far was he ^'jthout a shillmg m his will 
f.^^^ >^or<+^oi iv,c-^v,u^r'> Tj,c «^/^«v, which was not such a blow to the 
from partial insanity? His eccen- ^^^ighed daughter because his es-' 
tricities fell m with John Dryden s ^^^^^ ^^^^^ the sale of all his books 

}.^^^' ., , ,,. , and scientic connections, came to 

Great wits are sure to madness near allied, Joe^Jf r^f <ti4 49 
And thin partitions do their bounds divide, a aencil oi ;5)i'i.'±o. 

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preceded by a physical descriptian of the Ohio and its branches. 


^'7hnT.l t ^l^^7 ^"^ /^^turalTJistory in Transylvania University, Au- 
Ph 1n/^h^ ^''f^''' of Nature, &c. &c. Member of the Literary and 
Phi osophical Society of New-York, the Historical Societv ofNevv-York. 
theLyceumoNauiral History of New York, the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, the American Antiquarian Societv, the Koval 
Institute of Natural Sciences of Naples, the Italian Society of \rts and 
Sciences, ihe Medical Societies of Lexington and Cincinnati, £tc. &c. 

The art of seeing well, or- of noticmg and distinguishing- -mth accuracv 
the objects tvhich vje percetve, is a high faculty of the mind, un foiled in feli 
*nchvidmil8, and despised btjthone -who can neither aegutre it, nor appreciate 


^•BI^^T^o rou the luxaoE by w. o. huijt. (psics oje »0ijaii. 
< ^ 

These Page^ 

and the Discoveries which they contaiii 

in one of the principal Branches 

of Natural History, 

are respectfully Inscribed 

by the Author; 

To his fellow-labourers in the same field of Science: 

Prof. Samuel L. Mitchill, M. D. 

who has described the Atlantic Fishes of New Yorlg 

and to 

C. A. Le Sueur, 
who was the first to explore the Ichthyology of the 

^reat American Lakes, &c. 

In Token 

§f Friendship, Respect, and Congratulation. 




Trofcssor ofBotany and JVatural History in Trdnsylvania 



Nobody had ever paid any correct attention to the fishes of 
this beautiful river, nor indeed of the whole immense basin, 
which empties its water into the Mississippi, and hardly 
tw^elve species of them had ever been properly named and des- 
fcribed, when ifi 1818 and 1819, I undertook the labour of col- 
lecting, observing, describing, and delineating those of the Ohio. 
I succeeded the first ^ear in ascertaining nearly eighty species 
among them, and this year I added about twenty more, making 
altogether about one hundred species of fish, whereof nine 
tenths are new and undescribed. 

Many of them have compelled me to establish new genera,' 
since they could not properly be united with any former genus; 
and I could have increased their nuibber, had I been inclined, 
as will be seen in the course of this ichthyology; but I have in 
many instances proposed sub- genera and sections instead of 
new genera. I sent last spring to Mr. Blainville of Paris, a 
short account of some of them, to be published in his Journal 
of Natural History, in a Tract named Prodromus of seventy 
ne%D genera of Animals and fifty new genera of Plants from, 
^orth America^ and I now propose to publish a complete ac- 
count of all the species I have discovered. I am confident that 
they do not include the whole number ejiisting in the Ohio, 
much less in the Mississippi; but as they will oflfer a great 

B ~ 


proportion of them, and, a<? the additional species may be grad- 
ually described in supplements, I venture to introduce them to 
the acquaintance of the American and European naturalists; 
being confident that they will not be deemed an inconsiderable 
addition to our actual knowledge of. the finny tribes. To the 
inhabitants of the western states, to those who feed daily upon 
them, their correct and scientific account ought to be peculi- 
arly agreeable. I trust they will value the exertions through 
which I have been able to accomplish so much in so short a 
period of time, and I wish I could induce them to lend me 
their aid, in the succession of my studies of those animals, by 
communicating new facts, details, and rare species. I may as- 
sure them that their kind help shall be gratefully received and 

The science of Ichthyology has lately received great additions 
in the United States. A few of the atlantic fishes had been for- 
merly enumerated by Catesby, Kalm, Forster,Garden, Linngeus 
Schoepf, Castiglione, Bloch, Bosc, and Lacepede; but Dr. Sam- 
uel L. Mitchell has increased our knowledge, with about one 
hundred new species at once, in his two memoirs on the Fishes 
of New-York, the first published in 1814, in the Transactions of 
the Literary and Philosophical Society of New- York, and the 
second in the American Monthly Magazine in 1817. Mr. Le- 
sueur was the first naturalist who visited Lake Erie and Lake 
Ontario, where he detected a great number of new species, 
which he has already begun to publish in the Journal of the A- 
cademy of Sciences of Philadelphia, and which he means to in- 
troduce in his General History of American Fishes, a work on 
the plan of Wilson's Ornithology, which he has long had in 
contemplation. And I have added thereto about forty new spe- 
cies, which I discovered in Lake Champlaiu, Lake George, the 
Chesapeake, the Hudson, near New- York, Philadelphia, the 
Atlantic, 8cc. and published in my Prtcis des Decouvertes^ my 
Memoirs on Sturgeons, my dccads and tracts in the Amer- 
ican Monthly Magazine, the American Journal of Science, &c. 
besides three new fishes of the Ohio, published in the Journal 
of the Academy of Philadelphia. 
Many other fishes of the United States have been partially 

described by Bartram, Carver, Lewis and Clarke and other tra* 
vellers. It is reasonable to suppose that several others have es- 
caped their notice, akd my discoveries in the Ohio prove this 
assertion. I calculate that we know at present about five hun- 
dred species of North American fishes, while ten years ago we 
hardly knew one hundred and twenty. Among that number a- 
bout one half arc fresh water fishes, and one fourth at least be- 
long to the waters of the western states; but, although there arc 
fifty other species imperfectly known, I should not wander far 
from reality if I should conjecture that, after all, we merely know 
one third ot the real numbers, when we consider that the whole 
of the Mexican Provinces is a blank in Ichthyology, as well as 
California, the North West Coast, the* Northern Lakes, and all 
the immense bason of the Missouri and Mississippi, except thfe 
eastern branch of the Ohio: all those regions having never been 
explored by any real naturalists. From those who are actually 
surveying the river Missouri much may be expected; but I ven- 
ture to foretell that many of the fishes of the Ohio will be found 
common to the greatest part of the streams communicating 
with it, and therefore throughout the Mississippi and Missouri, 
whence the ichthyology of the Ohio, will be a pretty accurate 
specimen of the swimming tribes of all the western waters; 
while in Mexico, the North West Coast, and in the basin ot 
the St. Lawrence or even in the Floridian waters, a total differ, 
ence of inhabitants maybe detected: since I have already ascer 
tained that out of one hundred species of Ohio fishes, there are 
hardly two similar to those of the atlantic streams. 

I have in contemplation to visit many other western streams 
and lakes, where I have no doubt to reap many plentiful har- 
vests of other new animals; meantime communications on the 
fishes of every western stream are solicited from those, who 
may be able and willing to furnish them. 

It is probable that some of the fishes of the Mississippi 
are anadromic or come annually from the gulf of Mexico to 
spawn in that stream and its lower branches; but all the fishes 
of the Ohio remain permanently in it, or at utmost travel down 
the Mississippi during the winter, although the greatest pro- 
portion dwell during that season in the deep spots of the Ohic 

This is proved by their early appearance at the same time in al! 
the parts of the river and even as high as Pittsburgh. This 
happens even with the Sturgeons and Herrings of the Ohio, 
which are in other countries periodical fishes, travelling annu- 
ally from the sea to the rivers in the spring, and from the rivers 
to the sea in the fall. 

Fishes are very abundant in the Ohio, and are taken some^ 
times by thousands with the seines: some of them are salted; 
but not so many as in the great lakes. In Pittsburgh, Cin-' 
cinnati, Louisville, &c. fish always meets a good market, and 
sells often higher than meat; but at a distance from those towns 
you may buy the best fish at the rate of one or two cents 
the pound. It affords excellent food, and, if not equal to the 
best sea fish, it comes very near it, being much above the com- 
mon river fish of Europe: the most delicate fishes are the 
Salmon-perch, the Bubbler, the Buffaloe-fish,the Sturgeons, the 
Catfishes, Sec. It is not unusual to meet such fishes of the 
weight of thirty to one hundred pounds, and some monstrous 
ones are occasionally caught, ot double that weight. The most 
"usual manners of catching fish in the Ohio are, ^with seines or 
harpoons at night and in shallow water, with boats carrying a 
light, or with the hooks and lines, and even with baskets. 

I am sorry to be compelled to delay the publication of my 
figures of all the fishes now described: these delineations shall 
appear at another period. 

To facilitate the knowledge of tlie streams mentioned, I pre- 
fix a physical description of the Ohio and its principal branches^ 

Lexing-ton^ Kentucky -i \Sth Kovemher^ 1819.. 


Head. It is formed by the junction of the rivers Alleghany 
and Monongahcia, in Peniisylvania, at Pittsburgh, near the 4O5 
degree of north latitude. It is diificult to say which of them is 
the main branch or stream, the Alleghany being the longest 
and in the most direct course, while the Monongahela appears 
to be the largest at the junction, and to have similar waters. 


DiRKCTioN^ Although the Ohio is exceedingly crooked ii^ 
its course, its general direction is south west and west south 
west: it assumes every other directionj but very seldom the 
opposite one, N. E. 

Mouth. It empties into the Mississippi, near the 37th de^ 
gree of latitude, dividing the state of Kentucky from that of Il- 
linois, which lies north. 

Connections. The Ohio is one of the principal branches of 
the Mississippi, and properly its great eastern branch. The 
two great western branches, the Arkansas, which is about 1800 
English miles long, and the Red River, which measures about 
1600 miles, exceed it in length, but not in size,nor in the number 
of tributary streams; nor in the extent of their basins. The 
northern branch or upper Mississippi is much inferior to it in 
all respects (it is only 775 miles long, and receives only seven 
large rivers,) although it has been mistaken for the main branch. 
The real main branch is the Missouri, which takes the name of 
Mississippi after its junction with the upperMississippi. It flows 
2700 English miles above that junction, receiving thirty- three 
rivers above loo miles long, and 1300 miles below, receiving 
twelve such rivers, having a total course of 4000 miles and forty 
five large branches. It is yet undecided whether the Yellow 
Stone or the Western Missouri is the principal upper branch. 

Length. From Pittsburgh to the mouth, it is 500 geograph- 
ic miles in a direct course (60 to a degree) and 96o in the reg- 
ular course, equal to 1 120 English miles, (of 69^ to a degree;) 
but if the Monongahela be deemed the main upper branch, the 
whole course will be 1360 English miles, while if the Allega- 
ny be considered as such, the whole length of the Ohio will be 
found equal to 1405 such miles. 

Adjacencies. It flows through Pennsylvania as far as Mill 
creek belovv Georgetown; it divides afterwards the state of Ohio, 
which lie on the right bank from Virginia; this state extends 
on the left bank as far as Sandy river, where Kentucky begins, 
and it occupies the remainder of the left bank, as far as the 
Mississippi. While the state of Ohio terminates on the north 
side at the Miami river: the state of Indiana follows as far as 

the Wabash river, and from thence the state of Illinois ex- 
tends to the mouth. 

Parts. The Ohio is naturally divided into three parts, con- 
taining each two sections, the head branches Alleghany and 
Monongahela form the two sections of the first part. The se- 
cond or upper part lies between their junctions and the falls, 
being divided into two sections by Letart's rapids; while the 
third or lower part includes the space below the falls, the first 
section of which terminates at the end of the narrow valley above 
Troy in Indiana, and the second which includes the broad and 
ilat valleys reaches to the the mouth. The upper part of the 
river is the longest, being about seven hundred miles long. 

Breadth. At Pittsburgh the Ohio is about one quarter of a 
mile wide, above the falls and near the mouth it is over one 
mile: its average breadth may be reckoned at half a mile or 
rather two thousaud five hundred feet. 

Depth. Very variable according to places and times. The 
mean depth at low water may be rcckoDcd at three feet, and at 
high watejt at about thirty feet. Average medium fifteen feet. 

Velocity. The current of the Ohio is generally gentle, ex- 
cept at the falls and ripples. Its average at low water may be 
stated at two miles an hour and at high water at four miles an 

Bulk. The quantity of waters flowing in the Ohio may be 
therefore calculated, upon a general medium of the above 
breadth, depth, and velocity, at about forty millions of cubic feet, 
during an hour at low water, and at more than eight hundred 
millions of such feet at high water. Average medium three 
hundred and eighty millions in an hour, nine thousand one hun- 
dred and twenty millions in a day, and more than three millions 
of millions of feet in one year. 

Waters. They are slightly turbid, and become much moie 
so in the rises. At a low stage they are almost clear, and at all 
times very salubrious. The Monongahela has the same charac- 
ter, while the Alleghany is almost perfectly clear. The turbidi- 
ty of the waters is produced by very fine particles of earthy 
matter dissolved in it, and which are not easily deposited, un- 
less at high water, when mud and earth become mixed with 


Valley. The Ohio flows in a narrow valley as far as Utica, a- 
bove Louisville. This valley averages about one mile in breadth, 
and about three hundred feet in depth, but in sgimo parts it ia 
nearly five hundred teet deep. There are evident proofs that 
the river has formerly filled it. The sides are formed by steep 
cliffs and hills of sandstone as far as Vanceburg and the knobs 
below the mouth of the Scioto; beyond which all the strata are 
of limestone. Beyond those cliffs the country is broken, but 
much raised above the bottom of the Ohio Valley. The river 
meanders through it, leaving on each side, or only on one side, 
a level tract of alluvial and deep soil, which are called bottoms 
and were once the bed of the river. The cliffs correspond to- 
gether, keeping at a* equal distance, and every salient angle 
or elbow has an opposite bend. Below Utica and as far as Ot- 
ter creek below Salt river begins the site of an ancient Lake, 
forming now a plain, which is about twenty-five miles long and 
ten miles broad; the falls are situated in the middle of it: the 
silver hills bound it to the west, the knobby hills to the east and 
the barren hills to the south. Immediately below it are the 
narrows of Otter creek, where the valley begins again; but is 
not larger than at Pittsburgh, being hardly half a mile wide and 
the river is less than one thousand feet across. They both ex- 
pand gradually until they reach the rocky narrows above Troy, 
where the valley, after being contracted to three fourths of a 
mile, while the river is nearly half a mile broad, expands at 
once into a low country or broad valley, (the river being often 
one mile wide) which was formerly a second lake, extending 
about one hundred miles to Cave-hill narrows, with a variable 
breadth of four to twenty miles; only a few bluffs appearing oc- 
casionally on the banks, and the boundary hills being only one 
hundred and fifty feet high on an average. At Cave-hill or 
Cave in the rock, the river, from a mile broad, becomes at once 
very narrow, and the hills come very near the banks on both 
sides, forming a short narrows, below v/hich stands another 
plain, which was once a third Lake, about twelve miles long 
and six miles wide: it ends at Grand Pierre creek, and the broad 
narrows between the north and south bluffs. Here begins the 
lowest part of the Ohio Valley, which grows wide gradually 


and extends as far as the Mississippi, being from six to twenty 
miles wide and bounded by hills one hundred feet high on an 
average, and with very few stones. 

Basin. The basin of a river, must not be mistaken for its 
valley, since it includes the whole regions watered by the 
streams flowing into it. The basin of Ohio is very extensive, 
including the greater shareof the states of Kentucky, Tennes- 
see, Ohio, and Indiana, with parts of Pennsylvania, New- York, 
Virginia, Alabama and Illinois, and a small corner of North 
Carolina, Georgia and Mississippi, watering therefore twelve 
states of the Union. It occupies eight degrees of latitude from 
the thirty-fourth to the forty -^second degrees, and about twenty- 
six degrees of longitude. Its whole surface includes at least 
half a million of square miles, and three hundred and twenty 
millions of square acres. 

Islands. The Ohio has a great many, about one hundred 
and thirty; they are commonly long and narrow. Some sand- 
bars, lying in the middle of the river, are gradually becoming 
islands; most of them are overflowed at the high waters. There 
are very few ancient islands, forming now insulated hills; I have 
detected however half a dozen, the first of v/hich lies just below 
Pittsburgh on the right bank. 

Bars. They are very common, are generally sand bars, and 
lie on one side or round the islands, very few stretch across the 
river: they produce ripples or a broken current. Some of them 
have hardly six inches of water, at the low stage of the river. 

Channels. The current of the Ohio is digging another bed, 
deeper than the actual one, which forms the real channel of 
navigation. It does not experience many changes; sometimes 
it happens to be very crooked, particularly near islands and bars. 
It generally follows and grazes the highest cliff's or banks, and 
sometimes becomes double round some islands. 

Banks. The actual banks are all alluvial and of a deep and 
rich soil, seldom quite sandy or muddy. There are in many 
bottoms a second and even a third bank, all very steep and from 
ten to forty feet high. The first bank is almost every where 
overflowed at high waters, the second never. The platforms 
behind the banks are sometimes lower than the edge of the 


bank. Many banks sink or are washed away in inundations,' 
when the channel sets against thera. 

Rapids. Many ripples become rapids at low water, and all 
the rapid disappear at high water, even those called the falls, 
which lie below Louisville. They are several passages of the 
river between rocky ishaids, the waters flowing with great ra- 
pidity; but hardly ever pitching over, except on the Kentucky 
side of the falls, where at very low water there is a small fall of 
less than two feet. Their noise is heard at a great distance. A 
Canal will soon be cut on each side of thera. Letart's rapids 
and the Hurricane rapids are the most dangerous after the falls, 
yet they are merely large rock ripples. 

Bayous. They are narrow channels into which the waters 
flow at a certain stage of rise, forming temporary islands; 
they are not uncommon in the lower vallies, and are sometimes 
called cut offs; the longest lies below Evansville, forming oc- 
casionally a very large island opposite Hendersonville. 

Inundations. The Ohio is subject to periodical rises and 
to many adventitious ones. The highest happens in the spring, 
when the snow melts in the Alleghany mountains, and it has 
sometimes risen to fifty feet above the low water at some par- 
ticular places, covering ail the islands and bottoms of the first 
banks, and overflowing the towns built on those bottoms, such 
as Marietta, Shippingport, Lawrenceburgh, Shawneetown, &c. 
to the depth of ten feet or more. Another happens in the fall 
alter the first rains; both subside pretty soon. Many others oc- 
€ur throughout the year, occasioned by rains. They are either 
general or partial, sudden or gradual; but during the months of 
July, August, and September the waters are very low, while in 
January and February, they are covered with floating ice and 
even frozen over in the northern and upper part. The over j 
Sowings do not rise so high in the lower valleys; but they ex- 
pand more over the bottoms, often leaving behind pools and 

Phenomena. Eddies and whirlpools are common, particu- 
larly at high waters; but not dangerous. A natural echo is 
heard throughout the narrow valley. Fogs are common dur- 



ing the winter and spring in the valley, they collect in the morn- 
ing and last until the sun dissipates them: they preserve the 
valley from tlie chilling frosts, and render its climate milder 
than that of the adjacent country. The prevailing winds are 
westerly,and four times out of five a breeze blows up the stream, 
following the meanders of the valley: it is a deviated branch 
of the Mexican trade wind. Thunder storms are frequent in 
summer, and hurricanes have sometimes happened. Waves 
then rise high against the current and are dangerous. Inter- 
jnittent fevers are not uncommon in the fall near some low banks 
and in the low bottoms; but the climate is otherwise very 
healthy. Many springs are found along the banks and cliffs 
and many more appear at low water. 

Scenery. All the banks, and cliffs, and nearly all the islands 
are covered with trees, among which the Platanus occidentalis 
(Sycamore,) the Populus angulata^ (Cotton tree,) and the Sa~ 
lix nigra (Willow) are the most common and conspicuous. 
The cliffs and islands offer every where very fine views and 
prospects, and the cultivation increases those natural beau- 
ties; this is very conspicuous near Cincinnati, Maysville, Pitts- 
burgh, Sec. 

Navigation. The River is navigated by Steam boats," Bar- 
ges. Keel boats. Schooner barges, Rowing boats. Flat boats or 
Arks, Skiffs, Pirogues, Rafts, Sec. of which many thousand an- 
nually descend the stream. Those which ascend it again a- 
mount annually to many hundred, among which there are al- 
ready more than sixty Steam boats, averaging the burthen of 
150 tons ea?.h. The ascent is effected, besides steam, by sailing, 
poling, warping,and rowing, and is very tedious. The difficul- 
ties of the navigation consist in bars, sunken rocks, rocky ledg- 
es, snags or sunken logs, sawyers or moving snags, drifted logs, 
planters or upright trees, falling trees, sinking banks, sudden 
storms, rises and falls, drifting ice, rejecting currents, whirl- 
pools, shallow water, ripples and rapids. Sec. : but they are not 
dangerous except at some particular stages of the waters. In 
the spring rise the water is so deep that it may easily float ves- 
sels of 500 tons, even over the falls. Many large ships were 
built at Pittsburgh and Marietta, which safely reached the sea; 

but since the introduction of Steam boats, Ships have been dis- 

Towns. There are already more than 125 towns and villai^- 
es built on the Ohio. The city of Pittsburgh, at the head of it, 
contains nearly 15000 inhabitants. Cincinnati, in Ohio, con- V^ 
tains above 10,000. The other principal towns are; Louisville, 
in Kentucky, at the falls, about 5000: Steubcnville, in Ohio a- 
bout 3000: Maysvillc or Limestone, in Kentucky, about 2000: 
besides, Beavertown, in Pennsylvania: Wheeling, in Virgmia: 
Marietta, in Ohio, at the mouth of the Muskingum: Gallipo- 
lis in Ohio: Portsmouth, Ohio, at the mouth of the Scioto: Au- 
gusta, in Kentucky: Newport, K. at the mouth of Licking Riv- 
er: Owensboro^ gh, K. Hendersonville, K. Vevay, in Indiana: 
Lawrenceburg, Ind. at the mouth of the great Miami: Madi, 
son, Indiana: Jeffersonville and Ne\v-Albany, Indiana, both at 
the falls: Evansville, Indiana: Shawneetown, in Illinois. &c. 

Branches. The Ohio receives immediately about 400 
streams, of which 20 are rivers above 100 miles long, 54 are 
small rivers or large creeks, and more than 300 are brooks and 
runs. Its largest branches empty into the lower parts of the Riv- 
er, such as the Tennessee, Cumberland, and Wabash. They 
all flow^ in valleys similar to that of the Ohio and proportioned 
to their size. Many of them, such as the Scioto, Miami, Ten- 
nessee, Wabash, &c. have plains, which indicate former lakes. 
Most of them have rapids, ripples, bars, islands, &c. and offer 
the same phenomena as the Ohio, particularly the periodical 
rises and falls. I shall give some account of the 20 principal 
streams, which fall into the Ohio, in the order in which they 
join it. 

I. Alleghany- It rises in Lycoming county, Pennsylvania, 
near the 42d degree of latitude, on the northern parts of the 
Alleghany mountains, and, after flowing through a small part 
of the state of New- York, it returns into Pennsylvania, until 
it joins the Monongahela at Pittsburgh and forms the Ohio. 
General direction S. W. Length in a direct course 170 geo- 
graphic miles, in the natural course 250, equal to 285 English 
miles. It has five great branches, the Conemaugh, Concwa- 


go, Tobas, &c. It is navigable throughout, and its stream is 
gentle and clear. 

2. MoNONGAHELA. Risos in the Alleghany mountains of 
Virginia, near latitude 38. Direct course N. and 150 miles, 
in the natural course 210 miles, or 245 English miles. It has 
three great branches, of which the Yohogheny is the principal. 
Its breadth at Pittsburgh is 1350 feet, being wider aud deeper 
than the Alleghany. It flows in a deep valley, is subject o 
sudden rises, and has a turbid but navigable stream. 

3. Mahoning or Big Beaver. Rises near Lake Erie, in 
latitude 42, and runs south through Pennsylvania, emptying on 
the right side of the Ohio, of which it is one of the smallest 
branches, and is even sometimes called a Crc^k, altho'igh its 
direct course is 80 miles long, and the natural nearly 140, or a- 
bout 163 English miles, being very crooked; but it is shallow, 
full of falls, and hardly navigable. It is formed by the junction 
of the Shenango and Neshanock. 

4. Muskingum. It flows through the state of Ohio, in a 
southerly direction, about 100 miles, but being very winding 
its natural course is 150 miles or about 175 English miles It 
rises in a small lake of the Ohio ridge, which separates the ba- 
son of the Ohio from that of Lake Erie, near the 41nt degree of 
latitude, and it joins the Ohio at Marietta. It is a large and 
navigable river, although it has a large rapid or fall at Zanes-^ 
villc and some other smaller rapids elsewhere. At the mouth 
it is 750 feet wide. It flows through a large valley, and receives 
four or five large branches, called Wills, Licking, Mohecan, 

5\ Little Kenhaway. It rises in the Laurel hills, and flows 
through Virginia in a N. W. course of 90 miles, or 140 in a 
natural course, equal to about 163 English rniles. It empties at 
Parkenburg, is partly msvigable and has several small branches. 

6. Hockhocking. Flows through Ohio. Direction, S. E. 
length seventy five miles, by the real course one hundred and 
twenty five, or about one hundred and forty English miles. It is 
a deep but narrow stream, navigable however as far as ihe two 
cascades. It had lakes formerly. 

7. Great Kenhaway, Rises in the Alleghany Mountainsi* 

near latitude 36, in North Carolina, and flows through Virginia.' 
Course northerly, otic hundreed and seventy five miles, reaj 
course very crooked, about two hundred and seventy miles or 
three hundred and fifteen English miles. It joins the Ohio a^^ 
Point Pleasant. It is a fine, navigable and broad river, with ma- 
ny branches. 

8. Big Guyandot. It rises in the Cumberland Mountains, 
and runs N. through Virginia, emptying itself at Guyandot , 
It is navigable sixty miles; length seventy miles, real course' 
one hundred miles, or about one hundred and twenty English 

9. Sandy River. Rises also in the Cumberland Mountains 
near the 37th degree of latitude, and separates Virginia from 
Kentucky. It is a large but shallow river, with three branches^ 
Common course north, ninety miles in length, natural course 
one hundred and twenty five miles, or one hundred and forty six 
English miles. It is also called Tottery river and Big Sandy. 

10. Scioto. It flows through the state ot Ohio, rising in a 
Morass of the Ohio ridge or table land, near latitude 40 1-2. Ij 
empties near Portsmouth after a southerly course of one hun- 
dred and ten miles, real course about one hundred and ninety 
jniles or two hundred and twelve English miles. It is naviga- 
ble one hundred and thirty miles, and is four hundred and fifty 
feet broad at the mouth. It has many bars and snags, but no 
falls. Its four principal branches are Whetstone river. Paint, 
Darby, and Walnut creeks. It had lakes formerly. 

11. Little Miami. Runs through Ohio in a S. S. W. di- 
rection of sixty miles, natural course one hundred miles or one 
hundred and fifteen English miles. It is not navigable. It joins 
the Ohio rear Columbia and has several small branches. Near 
its head, it runs for a mile through a narrow chasm, with suc- 
cessive falls of two hundred feet. 

12. Licking River. It flows through Kentucky in a N. W* 
course of one hundred and sixty miles, rising in the Cumberland 
Mountains, near latitude 37. It has two great branches, is hard_ 
ly navigable, and winds very much. It empties between New- 
port and Covington, opposite Cincinnati. Real course about 
three hundred miles or nearly three hundred and fifty English 

13. Great Miami. It rises in the Ohio ridge, near latitude 
40 1-2 and flows through Ohio in a S. S. W. direction, dividing 
that state from Indiana atits mouth, near Lawrenceburgh. Com- 
mon course one hundred and ten miles, real course one hundred 
and eighty, or about two hundred and ten English miles. Its cur- 
rent is very rapid, and difficult to ascend. It has four principal 
branches, such as Mad river, Whitewater, &e. The mouth is 
six hundred feet wide, and its valley is very large. It was for- 
erly called Rocky river. 

14. Kentucky. This fine river gives its name to the state 
throughout which it flows, in a N. W. direction. It rises in 
the Cumberland Mountains, near the 37th degree of latitude, a 
high spot from which the Tennessee, Cumberland, Licking, &c. 
flow westward. Common course 180 miles, real course 340 
and very winding, or about 400 english miles. It has 5 princi- 
pal branches, Dick river, Black river, Sec. It overflows in the 
spring and is then navigable even for Steam-Boats, he. It has 
many rapids, but no real fall. Its valley is deep and often nar- 
row ; in the narrows, the limestone cliff's are 300 feet high, and 
very near each other, without any bottoms. It had formerly a 
few small lakes and hilly islands. It empties at Port William. 
Former name Cuttawa. 

15. Salt River. Flows in Kentucky, rises in the knobby 
hills, course N. W. 80 miles long, natural course winding about 
140 miles, or 160 english miles. It is partly navigable and has 
many branches. It empties at Adamsville. 

16. Green River. It rises in Kentucky, in the knobby hills, 
•which are spurs of the Cumberland Mountains, and flows West 
ahd N. W. into that state. Direct course 175 miles, usuaj 
course about 350 or more than 400 english miles. It has four 
large branches, such as Barren river. Rough and Panther creeks, 
kc. It has a gentle current and is navigable. Its valley is ve- 
ry wide in the lower part, and when it joins the Ohio, above 
Evansviile, its stream is almost as large as the Ohio. It was 
formerly called BufFaloe river. 

17. Wabash. It rises in Indiana, on the ridge dividing the 
basons of the Ohio and the Lakes, near latitude 41§, and below 
it forms the limits betvt^een Indiana and Illinois. Direction S. 


S. W. Length 250 miles, real course 450 miles or nearly 525 
English miles. It is a large and deep stream, navigable even in 
summer, as far as the falls. Its lower valley is wide and shal^ 
low, with many islands and bayous. It has five large branches, 
such as Little Wabash, White river, Sec. This last is very 
considerable and extends its numerous and large branches 
throughout Indiana ; the longest is 350 miles long, one of them 
runs parallel with the Ohio. It empties above Shawneetown. 

18. Salixe River. It flows through Illinois in a S. E. di- 
rection, emptying below Shawneetown. Length 55 miles, rea* 
course about 90, or 105 English miles; it is therefore the smaL 
lestof the rivers emptying into the Ohio; although Big Blue river^ 
Tradewater river, Little Muskingum, and Liale Scioto, are still 
smaller and rather large creeks ; their course being less than 
100 miles, I have not noticed them. The Saline river is partly 
navigable and has three principal branches. 

19. Cumberland. It rises in the Cumberland Mountains o 
Kentucky, and after watering Tennessee, returns into Kentucky 

its course being W. and N. W. about 300 miles ; real course a- W 
bout 500 miles or about 585 English miles. It is a fine naviga- 
ble river, flowing in a broad valley, and with many small branch. 
es, but no large ones. It has also been called the Shawanec. 

20. Tennessee. The last and largest of the branches of the 
Ohio. It is formed by the union of the Holstein and Clinch riv_ 
ers in Tennessee, the former rising in Virginia near lat. 37, and 
the second in North Carolina, within the Alleghany Mountains 
near lat. 35. The whole course, if the Clinch river is deemed 
the main branch, will be three hundred and fifty miles, and the 
real course six hundred and fifty, equal to about seven hundred 
and sixty english miles. Duck river is another large branch 0£ 
it, and there are three others besides. The direction is S. W. 
then west and next north, watering Tennessee, Alabama, Ken- 
tucky, &c. and emptying into the Ohio a few miles below the 
Cumberland, from which basin it is divided by a high ridge 
and not far above the mouth of the Ohio. The Tennessee is a 
very large and fine navigable river, almost equal to the Ohio in 
size, but not in depth. Its valley is wide and has had many 
lakes, one of them was at the Muscle Shoals, which forms now a 


small lake, full of rocky islands and rapids, and are a great impedi- 
ment to navigation. It was formerly called the Cherokee riv- 


The fifty foiur small rivers and large creeks, flowing into the 
Ohio are the following, of which thirty three empty on the right 
and twenty one on the left. They are all over thirty miles long 
in their natural course. 

In Pennsylvania, 3. Right bank, Little Beaver; and on the 
^eftbank Chartier's Creek, Raccoon Creek. 

In Ohio, 17. Big Yellow creek, Warren creek, Indian Wheel- 
ing creek, Captina creek, Sunfish creek, Opossum creek, Lit- 
tle Muskingum river, Duck creek. Shade river, Kaygers creek^ 
Campaign creek, Raccoon creek, Symmes' creek, Brush creeky 
Little Scioto river. Eagle creek, White Oak creek. 

In Virginia, 7. Short creek, Wheeling creek. Big Grave 
creek, Fishing creek. Stony creek, Big Sandy creek. Little Guy- 
andot river. 

In Kentucky, 12. Little Sandy river, Tygert creek, Kinni, 
conick. Gunpowder creek, Bigbone creek, Harrod creek. Bear- 
grass creek, Otter creek, Sinking creek, Blackford creek, High 
land creek, Tradewater river. 

In Indiana, 12. Tanner's creek, Houghan creek, Loughery 
creek, Indian Kentucky, Silver creek. Buck creek, Coi'ydon 
creek. Big Blue river. Little Blue river, Anderson river. Little 
Pigeon creek. Big Pigeon creek. 

In Illinois, 3. Lusk's creek, Bigbury creek, Cash river. 


Having complete gills, with a gill cover, and a branchial mem, 
brane. Lower or ventral fins situated on the breast or thorax, 
under the pectoral or lateral fins. 

1 Genus. Perch. Perca. Perche. 

Body elliptical, scaly; head without scales, mouth large, jaws 
>vith unequal acute teeth, gill cover with a serrate prcopercule 

and a spiny opercnlt-; two dorsal iins, the first with spiny rays, 
the second with soft rays. Vent posterior. 

This genus was very badly defined by Linneus, Shaw, Bloch, 
and Mitchell; the above characters are now precise and apply 
to all the species that ought to remain in it, answering to the 
genus of Lacepede and the subgenus of Cuvier, bearing the same ^ 
name. All the species belonging to it are voracious and prey 
on smaller fishes. There are only few species in the Ohio, 
^vhich afford an excellent food. iJtu 

1st Species. Salmon Perch. Perca Salmonea. Perche Sau* 

Jaws nearly equal, one spine on the opercule and another at 
the base of the pectoral fins: body lengthened, breadth one ninth 
of the length, brownish above, with gilt shades, white beneath 
first dorsal fin v, ith fourteen rays, second with twenty, tail fork 
ed, ail the fins spotted; lateral line diagonal and slightly curved. 

A fine fish, from one to three feet long; it is one of the best 
afforded by the Ohio, its flcsli is esteemed a delicacy, being 
white, tender, and well flavoured, whence the name of Salmon 
ivas given to it, and its shape which is nearly cylindrical and 
slightly compressed, with the head and jaws somewhat similar 
to those of the Salmons, has induced many to consider it a real 
Salmon, although its fins and gill covers are quite different. It 
has received the vulgar, names of Salmon^ WInte Salmon^ and 
Ohio Salmon. It is not a common fish, but is occasionally 
caught all over the Ohio and in the Kentucky, Licking, Wa- 
bash, and Miami rivers during the spring and summer; it ap- 
pears at Pittsburgh soraetimes as early as February, while it win- 
ters in deep waters. It feeds on Chubs, Minnows, Suckers, 
Sec. It is not ofcen caught with the hook, but easily taken with 
the gig and seine. It has the back and sides gilt by patches, 
the head variegated w ith small gilt spots above and quite white 
beneath. The eyes are large, prominent and brown, situated 
above the corners of the mouth and surrounded with a gilt 
brown ivis. The tv»o dorsal fins are widely apart, the first ray 
of the first dorsal fin is short, the second dorsal fin is slightly fal- 
cate, they rre both yellow as well as the tail and with brown 
spots, the ether fins arc pnle yellowish with only a few brown 



^otis. The rays are, in the anal 12, wherein the fast is shor^ 
atid spiny, thoracic 6, the first hardly spiny, pectoral 1 4, can- 
dal 20. The whole fish is covered with very small scales, and 
the lateral line begins above the opercule: the second spine out- 
side of the opercule is remarkable. 

2d Species. Golden-eyes Perch. Perca chrysofis. Perchfe 

Upper jaw longer, one spine on the opercule, body oblong, 
\^ breadth one fourth of total length, silvery with five longitudinal 
brownish stripes on each side, head brown above: lateral line 
diagonal and straight; first dorsal fin with eight rays, the second 
has 14, whereof one is spiny, tail forked, roseate, tip brown; base 
Vulgar names Rock fish. Rock bass. Rock perch. Gold eyes> 
Striped bass, £cc. It is commonly mistaken for the Rock fish 
or Striped bass of the Atlantic Ocean, the Perca Mitchelli of 
Dr. Mitchell, (Trans, of the philos. Society of New York, 
vol. 1. page 413, tab. 3. fig. 4.) to which it is certainly greatly 
similar; but it differs from it, by the single spine of the opercule, 
the shape of the lateral line, the less number of stripes, the 
scaly tail. Sec. It is not very common in the Ohio, and is hard- 
ly ever seen at Pittsburgh, being more common in the lower 
parts of the river, where it frequents the falls, ripples, and rocky 
shores. Its usual size is about one foot. It is very good to 
eat. It bites at the hook. The mouth is large with very small 
teeth, the three pieces of the gill cover are slightly crenulate, 
the middle one or preopercule being hoAvever deeply serrate. 
The eyes are large black with a large golden iris. The lateral 
line begins at the corner of the opercule and does not follow the 
curve of the back, the stripes are parallel with it and only two of 
them reach the tail. The branchial membrane has six rays; 
the spine of the opercule is not terminal. The dorsal fins are 
rufous and quite separate, the two first rays of the first are short- 
er, the second is brown posteriorly and diagonally, its base is 
scaly and such is also the base of the anal fin, which has 
similar colours, and 15 rays, whereof three are spiny. Pec- 
toral fins with 16 rays. Thoracic fins incarnate with six rays, 
whereof one is «piny. 


It will appear that this fish differs so widely from the for(?g(» 
ing, as to be hardly reducible to the same genus; but its great 
similarity with the Perca Mitchelli has compelled me to retain 
it in this genus, notvvitstandmg many peculiar characters. I 
■shall however venture to propose a new subgenus or section in 
the genus Perca for this lish, to which the P. JMitchelU^ may 
perhaps be found to belong. It may be called Leiiibema and 
distinguished by the scaly bases of the caudal, anal, and second 
dorsal fins, this last with some spiny rays, and all the three parts 
of the gill cover more or less serrulate, besides the small teeth. 

The Perca Sahnonea may also form a peculiar subgenus, or 
section distinguished by the cylindrical shape of the body, long 
head and jaws, large teeth, and a second spine outside of the 
opercule over the base of the pectoral fins. It may be called 
Stizostedion, which means pungent throat. I could have made 
peculiar genera of each of them, under the proposed names; but 
as they otherwise agree with the reduced genus Perca^ I have 
preferred delaying this innovation until more species are found 
possessing the same distinctions, in which case my two perches 
33iay thenbe called Stizoatedion salmoneum^ and Leiiibema chry- 

3d Species. Black dotted Perch. Perca nigrojiunctata 
Perche a-points-noirs. 

Upper jaw longer; body brown, covered aU over with black 
dotts, breadth one sixth of the length, lateral line nearly straight 
the anal fins very long, tail truncate. I have not seen this spe- 
cies, I describe it from a drawing made by Mr. Audubon. I anx 
therefore doubtful, whether it is a real perch, particularly since- 
the drawing does not show the serratures and spines of the gill 
cover. It might be a Sciena^ or a Dipteroden, yet the shape of 
the body and the distant dorsal fins, induce me to rank it with 
the G. Perca until better known; when it may even turn out t^ 
be a peculiar genus, which the flexuose opercule, long anal fin 
and vent in the middle of the body, seem to indicate, and should 
it be a real perch, it must form a peculiar subgenus, which ma-j 
he cixWed Po mac a 7n/i sis in either case. The vulgar names of 
this fish are Black Perch, Widow's Perch, Dotted Bass, Black 
Bass, Batchelor's Perch, 8;c. It is found only in the lower parts 

of the Ohio, from the falls to the mouth, and it runs up the small 
creeks, but is rare every where. lis length is from six to twelve 
inches. The snout is rounded, the head sloping and small, the 
preopercule rounded, the opercule flexuose or nearly lobate; 
the eyes are black and beyond the mouth. The back is almost 
black, the two dorsal fins are dotted like the body, the first has 
about twelve spiny rays, and the second about eight soft rays? 
this last is very near the tail. The anal fin has about twenty 
rays and begins just below the vent and the end of the first dor- 
sal fin. Vent in thc.middie of the body, almost nearer the head. 
II Genus. Bubbler. Amblodon. Amblodon. 

Body elliptical, compressed, scaly; head and giii covers sca- 
ly, jaws with small fily teeth, throat with a triangular bone be- 
neath, covered \uth large round hollow and obtuse teeth. Gill 
cover with two pieces, preopercule slightly denticulate at the 
base, opercule without teeth nor spines: branchial membrane 
vith six rays. Two dorsal fins contigous, the first spiny, the 
second partly so, scaly along the base. Vent posterior. 

This genus was called by me Afilodinotus G. 8. of my Me- 
moir on 70 New Genera of American animals, in the journal of 
Natural History of Paris, having been led into error, in suppos- 
ing that the remarkable teeth of its throat belonged to the Buf- 
falo fish, as will be seen below. The name means obtuse teeth ^ 
It differs from tli3 G. Sciena by the scaly head, opercule and 
base of second dorsal fin, besides the singular teeth. Only one 
species is knovrn as yet. 

4th Species. Grunting Bubbler. Amblodon grunniem 
Amblodon grognant. 

Synonymy. Sciena grinniiens Raf. Catal, fishes of Ohio. 
Jij^lodinotus grunnieiis. Raf Mem. on 70 K. G. Animals,.G. 8. 

Entirely silvery, upper lip longer, lateral line curved up- 
wards at the base, bent in the middle, and straight posteriorly, 
tail lunulate, first dorsal fin with nine rays, the first very short, 
the second wilh 35 rays, the first spiny and short. 

The vulgar names of this fish are White-perch, White-pearch, 
Buffaloe-perch, grunting-perch, bubbling-fish, bubbler, and 
muscle-caler. It is one of the largest and best found in the O- 
hio, reaching sometimes to the length of three feet and the 


weight of thirty pounds, and affording a delicate food. It is aK 
so one of the most common, being found all over the Ohio^ 
and even the Monongahela and Alleghany, as also in the Mis- 
sissippi, Tennessee, Cumberland, Kentucky, Wabash, Miami, 
&c. and all the large tributary streams: where it is permanent, 
since it is found at all seasons except in winter. In Pittsburgh it 
appears again in February. It feeds on many species of fishes, 
Suckers,Catfiahes, Sunfishes,&c. but principally on the muscles, 
or various species of the bivalve genus Unio^ so common in the 
Ohio, whose thick shells it is enabled to crush by means of its 
large throar leeth. The structme of those teeth is very singu- 
lar and peculiar, they are placed like paving stones on the flat 
bone of the lower throat, in great numbers and of different siz- 
es; the largest, which are as big as a man's nails, are always in 
the centre; they are inverted in faint alveoles, but not at all con- 
nected with the bone; their shape is ciix:ular and flattened, 
the inside always hollow, with a round hole beneath: in the 
young fishes they are rather convex above and evidently radia- 
ted and mamillar; while in the old fishes they become smooth, 
truncate, and shining white. These teeth and their bone are 
common in many museums, where they are erroneously called 
teeth of the Buffalo-fish or of a Cat-fish. I was deceived sa 
far by this mistake and by the repeated assertions of several 
persons, as to ascribe those teeth to the Buffalo -fish, which t 
have since found to be a real CatostQ?nus; this error I now cor- 
rect with pleasure. 

A remarkable peculiarity of this fish consists in the strange 
grunting noise, which it produces, and from which I have de- 
rived its specific name. It is intermediate between the dumb 
grunt of a hog and the single croaking noise ol the bull frog* 
that grunt is only repeated at intervals and not in quick succes- 
sion* Every navigator of the Ohio is well acquainted with it, 
as they often come under the boats to enjoy their shade in sum- 
mer and frequently make their noise. Another peculiarity of 
t'his fish, is the habit which it has of producing large bubbles 
in quick succession, while digging through the mud or sand o 
fhe river, in search of the Muscles or Unios. 

It has a small head, sloping and compressed all the way from 


the snout to the dorsal fins and entirely scaly; thick, hard, and 
extensible lips, and 2 nostrils on each side, the posterior larger 
oblongSc obliqual: the operculeis rounded with gilt shades; those 
shades extend to the sides of the body, while the back is slight- 
ly dark or brownish, and the upper part of the head olivaceous. 
The iris is gilt brown and the fins are brownish, except the tho- 
racic and pectoral, which are reddish; these last have 18 rays, 
while the thoracic have seven, whereof the first is spiny and the 
second mucronate. Tail with twenty rays. Anal fin narrow 
elongate, brown tinged with reddish,and with nine rays, whereof 
the first is spiny, very small and flat, the second is also spiny, 
but very thick, large and triangular, the third ray is the longest 
and the last is mucronate. The first dorsal fin is triangular and 
broader than the second, which is very long and rounded be- 

This fish is either taken in the seine or with the hook and 
line; it bites easily, and affords fine sport to the fishermen. It 
spawns in the spring, and lays a great quantity of eggs. 
Ill Genus. Calliurus. Painted Tail. Calliure. 

Body elongate, compressed, scaly; fore part of the head with- 
out scales, neck and gill-covers scaly: mouth large with strong 
teeth in both jaws, and without lips. Gill cover double, preo- 
percule divided downwards into three curved and carinated su- 
tures, without serrature: opercule with an acute and membra- 
naceous appendage, before which stands a flat spine. One dor- 
sal fin, spiny anteriorly, depressed in the middle. Anal fin 
with spiny rays, thoracic with none, and only five soft rays. 
Vent nearly medial. 

The generic name means fine tail. It differs principally 
from the genus Holocentrus, by the head, scaly gill cover and 
singular propercule: Genus 12 of my 70 New Genera of Amer- 
ean Animals. 

5th Species. Dotted Painted tail. Calliurus Punctida- 
ttise. Calliure pointille. 

Lower jaw longer: body olivaceous crowded with blackish 
dotts: head brownish, flattened above: lateral line hardly curv» 
ed upwards at the base: tail unequally bilobed, lower lobe larg- 
er, base yellow, middle blackish, tip white: dorsal fin yellow 
with 24 rays, of which 10 are spiny. 

An uncommon fish from four to twelve inches long. I ob- 
•served it at the falls; rare in the Ohio, more common in some 
small streams. Vulgar names, Painted-tail or Bride-perch. 
Tail with two lobes, slightly unequal, base flexuosc. Belly and 
lower fins pale, anal fin with 13 rays, the three anterior spiny 
and shorter, behind rounded and far from the tail, although 
nearer th-an the doi^sal fin. Thoracic fin with five rays, none of 
which appear spiny, and no appendage. Pectoral fins short, 
trapezoidal, with 15 rays. BrancJiial rays concealed. 
IV. Genus. Sunfish. Icthelis. Icthele. 
Body elliptical or oval very compressed, scaly. Mouth small, 
with small teeth and thin lips. Gill cover double, scaly, with- 
out serrature or spines. One dorsal fin, broader behind with 
anterior spiny rays, as »vell as the anal and thoracic fins, these 
without appendages. Vent hardly posterior. Lat«ral line fol- 
lowing the curve of the back. 

Synonomy Leponiis. Prod. 70 New Genera, 13 Genus. 
An extensive genus, which contains perhaps 20 species, most 
•efvi^hich were blended with the Labrus auritus and Xa^rw* 
-virginicus of Linneus. They differ from the genus Labrus or 
rather Sfiarus^ by the scaly opercule and the thoracic fins with- 
out appendage. I have already detected six species in the wes- 
tern waters; but there are more. I divide-them into two sub- 
genera. Meaning Sun-fish. All good to eat, and easily taken 
with the hook; they feed on worms and young fishes. They 
are permanent. 

1st Subgenus. Telipomis. 
Opercule without appendage; but spotted — Meaning spot- 
ted gills. 

6th Species. Gilded Sunfish. Icthelis macrochira. Itch- 
el c macrochire. 

Body oval,oblong, gilt, crowded with small brown dotts; head 
small, scaly, opercule flexuose, spot narrow marginal and black, 
jaws equal: tail furked; pectoral fins long and narrow, reach- 
ing the anal fin, which has 13 rays, whereof three are spiny. 

A pretty species from three to four inches long. In the O- 
hio. Green river, Wabash, &c Names, Sun-fish, Gold-fish, &c. 
Head rather acutQ, not scaly before the eyes. Iris gilt brown. 


Dbrsal fin with 22 long rays, whereof 1 1 are spiny, a depres- 
sion between the two sorts of rays. Anal fin broad and round- 
ed. Tail 20 rays. Thoracic one and five. Pectoral 15. Di- 
ameter of the body nearly one fourth of total length. 

7th Species. Blue Sunfish. Icthelis cyanella. Icthele bleu- 

Body elliptic, elongate, diameter one fifth, olivaceous gilt, 
crowded with irregular blue dotts; brownish abo/e: head elon- 
gate, lower jaw longei', cheeks with blue flexuose lines; spot ob- 
long blackish, nearly marginal: tail rounded, notched: anal fin 
very broad with 12 rays, whereof three are short spiny: pectoral 
fins very short. 

A small species hardly thr^e inches, called Blue-fish or Sun- 
fish. I found it on the Ohio at the falls. Appearing entirely 
blue at a distance. Head brown above. Iris gilt. Opercule curv- 
ed. Tail olive blue, with 24 rays. Dorsal fin brownish with 20 
rays, whereof 10 are spiny, hardly any middle depression. Pec- 
toral small trapezoidal, 12 rays. Thoracic one and five. 

8th Species. Blackeye Sunfish. Icthelis melar.Qfis Icth- 
ele aeuil-noir. 

Body oblong, diameter one fourth, olivaceous covered with 
blue dotts, neck hrown above, head large, mouth rather large, 
upper jaw longer; opercule with blue curved and longitudinal 
lines beneath: spot rounded black at its base: fins olivaceous, 
tail bilobed: anal fin with three and nine rays: pectoral fins 
lari^e oboval. 

Length from two to six inches: common in the tributary 
streams of the Ohio, the Kentucky, Licking, Miami, 8cc. and 
even in small creeks. Vulgar names, Blue-fish, Black-eyes, 
Sun-fish, Blue-bass, Sec. It has black eyes like all the other 
species; but the iris is black also, with a silvery hue or ring. 
Dorsal fin with ten and ten rays, the spiny ones very short. Cau- 
dal 20. Pectoral 16. Thoracic one and five, as usual; but the 
spiny ray is very short, as are also those of the anal fin. 
2d Subgenus. Pomotis. 

Opercule with a membranaceous appendage, often like an 
auric ule and spotted. Meaning eared gills. 


9th species. Redfye Sunfish. Jcthelis Enythtofis. Itch- 
ele oeuil rouge. 

Body oval elliptic, (clian^eter one third,) blackish above, olLva- 
ceous on the sides, whitish beneath: head small, Ipv^er jaw 
longer, preoperculefl exuose, operculcwith a short, angular and 
acute appendage, a faint and small brown spot above it: taj.1 f^i- 
lobed ciliate, base black, middle olivaceous, tip whitish, upper 
lobe rather larger: anal fin with six ^nd jt,en rays: pectorals tra- 
pezodial large, not reaching the vent. 

yulgar names Red-eyes, and Sunfish. Observed in Licking 
river, said to be common in many other streams. Length 3 to 
8 inches. All the fins plivaceoijs. Eyes black, iris Jarge and 
red. Porsal 1 1 apcl 10 rays, spiny short, as well as the 6 of the 
anal fin. Caudal 17. Pectorals 12. Thoracics 1 and 5,. thp 
epiny ray long. 

10th Species. Eared Sunfish. Icthelia aurita. Icthele oreil- 

Body oval elliptic (diameter one third) olivapeous with blue 
and rufous dots: head small, jaws equal, opercule flexuose, ap- 
pendage black, broad and truncate, some blue flexuose lines on 
the sides of the head: tail brownish lunulate; back brownish: 
anal fin 3 and 9: pectorals not reaching the vent. Thoracic mu- 

Length from 3 to 12 inches: common in the rivers, creeks, 
and ponds of Kentucky. Vulgar name Sunfish. Iris brown 
Dorsal fin brownish, 10 and 10, spiny rays shorter. Thoracic 
fins very long, spiny ray rather shorter, first soft ray mucronate. 
Pectorals nearly rhomboidal, with 14 rays. Tail 1-6 rays. 

11th Species. Big-ear Sunfish. Icthelia me^alotia. Icthele 

Body oval rounded, (diameter two fifths,) chesnut colour with 
blue dots, belly red: head large, lower jaw longer, opercule 
with blue flexuose lines, appendage black, very large elliptic, 
end rounded: tail black, slightly forked: pectoral large reaching 
the vent: anal fin 3 and 9: thoracics long and mucronate. Black 

A fine species, called Red-belly, Black-ears, Black-tail Sun- 
fish, Sec. It livcis in the Kentucky, Licking, and Sandy rivers, 
&;c. Length from 4 to 8 inches. Head yery sipping. Iris sil j 



very brown. Belly of a bright copper red colour. All the Rnj 
black except the pectorals which are olivaceous, trapezoida 
*2^cute and large. The dorsal has 90 rays, whereof 9 short ones 
are spiny. Body very short, hardly as long as broad, if thq 
head and tail are deducted. Thoracics like those of the forego 

ing species 

V Genus. River Bass. Lepomts. Lepome. 

This genus differs from Holocentrus by having the opercule 
scaly, from Calliurus by the opercule only being such, while 
the preopercule is simple and united above with a square suture 
over the head, besides the thoracic fins with 6 rays. Perhaps 
the Calliurus ought only to be a subgenus of this. From the 
G. Icthelis it differs by the large mouth and spines on the oper- 

The name means scaly gills. The species are Humerous 

throughout the United States. They are permanent; but ram- 
blers in the Ohio and tributary streams. They are fishes of 
prey, and easily caught with the hook. I shall divide them 
into two subgenera. I had wrongly blended this genus and thq^ 
Icthelis under the name Lefiomia 13. G.of my Prodr. N. G. 
1st Subgenus. Aplites, 
Only one flat spine on tha opercule, decurrent in a small me- 
dial opercule: first ray of the thoracic fins soft or hardly spiny* 
Meaning, single weapon. 

12th Species. Pale River-bass. Lejiomis fiallida. Lepome 

Olivaceous above, white beneath, a brown spot at the base of 
he lateral line, ah obtuse appendage on the opercule, spine be- 
hind it: 3 faint obliqual streaks on the gill covers; lowe^; jaw 
longer: tail forked, pale yellow, dp brown. 

Not uncommon in the Ohio, Miami, Hockhocking, &c. Vul- 
gar name Yellow Bass, common Bass, &c. Length from 4 to 
12 inches. Shape elliptic, diameter one fourth of the total 
length. Fins olivaceous, without streaks, dorsal depressed or 
interrupted in the middle, 9 spiny rays to the fore part, the me- 
dial longer, 1 spiny ray and 14 soft rays to the hind part. Anal 
fin rounded 13 rays, whereof 2 are spiny and short. Pectorals 
rounded with l^_ rays. Tail with 18. Thoracics with 6, Eye^ 


lafge, black, iris brown with a gold ring. Lateral line following 
the back, straight near the tail. 

13th Species. Streaked-cheeks River-bass. J.efiomU tri' 
fasciata. Lepome trifasciee. 

Whitish, crowded with unequal and irregular specks, of a 
gilt olive colour, none on the belly: gill covers with 3 large ob- 
lique streaks of ihe same colour: opercule without appendage, 
spine acute, a faint brown spot below the lateral line: lower jaw 
longer: dorsal fin streaked behind: tail forked, yellow at the baser- 
Ijrown in the middle, tip pale. 

Found in the Ohio and many other streams, reaches over a, 
foot in length sometimes: vulgar names Yellow bass. Gold bass, 
Yellow perch, Streaked-head, See. Fins olivaceous: dorsal 
hardly depressed in the middle with 24 rays, whereof 10 are 
spiny, hind part with 3 brownish and longitudinal streaks. Anal 
fin rounded with 1 3 rays. 3 of which are spiny, 2 short and a 
long one. Pectoral fins nearly triangular and acute, 16 rays^ 
Thoracics 6. Tail 2, very broad, forks divaricate nearly lunu- 
late. Eyes small black, iris brown. Lateral line following the 
back. Diameter less than one ^ourth of the length. 

14th Species. Brown River-bass. I.cpomis Jlexuolari^l 
Lepome flexueux. 

Olivaceous brown above* sidesxvith some transversal and flex- 
uose olive lines, belly white: lateral line nearly straight flexuose: 
spine broad acute, behind the base of the opercule, no appen- 
dage nor spot, preopercule forked downwards: upper jaw slight- 
ly longer: tail bilobed, base olive, middle brown, tip white. 

A fine species, reaching the length of two feet, and affording 
an excellent food. Common all over the Ohio and tributary 
streams. Vulgar names, Black Bass, Brown Bass, Black 
Pearch; Sec. Fins olivaceous, dorsal with, 23 rays, whereof 9 
are spiny and rather shorter: anal with 12 rays, whereof 2 are 
spiny: pectorals trapesoidal, 16 rays. Branchial rays uncover- 
ed. Iris brown. This fish might perhaps form another sub- 
genus, by the large mouth, head without upper sutures, spine 
hardly decurrent, nearly equal jaws, gill covers, lateral line, Sec ^ 
Its tail and preopercule are somewhat like Calliurus. It might 
be called A'emocam/isis, meaning flexuose Ime. Diameter one 
fourth of the leneth. 


; 2d Subgenus. Dioplites." 

Opercule with two spines above. First ray of the thoracic 
fins spiny. Lateral line curved as the back« Meaning t\^» 

l5th Species. Trout River-bass. Lejiomis Salmonea, Le- 
pome sauinone. 

Olivaceous brown above, sides pale with some round yellow- 
ish spots, beneath white: preopercule simple, head without su- 
tures, lower jaw hardly longer, spines flat, short, acute, and de- 
current above and beneath, opercule acute beneath the spinest 
tail lunulate, tip blackish: vent posterior. 

Length from 6 to 24 inches. Vulgar names White Trout, 
Brown Trout, Trout Pearch, Trout Bass, Brown Bass, Black 
Bass, Black Pearch, Sec. Common in the Kentucky, Ohio, 
Green; and Licking rivers. Sec. It offers a delicate white flesh, 
similar to the Pei-ca Salmonea. It is a voracious fish, with 
many rows of sharp teeth on the jaws and in the throat. It 
bites easily at the hook, and eats suckers, minnows, and chubs. 
Diameter one fifth of the length. Fins olivaceous brown; dor- 
sal with 25 rays, whereof 10 are spiny, slightly depressed be- 
tweeri them: anal rounderl sm^ll, S and 1 I r^iys. Pectoral acute 
trapesoidal 18 rays. Thoracic 1 and 5, spiny ray half the length- 
Tail with 24 rays. Iris silvery. 

16th Species. Spotted Riv^er-bass. Lepornis notata. Lepo- 
:^ie tache. 

This species differs merely from the foregoing, by having a 
"black spot on the margin of the opercule, two diagonal brown 
stripes on each side of the head below the eyes, and all the fins 
yellow, except the tail which is black at the end, with a narrovv 
white tip. It is also smaller, from 3 to 8 inches long. It bears 
the same vulgar names and is found along with it, of which some 
fishermen deem that it is the young. But I have seen so many 
false assertions of the kind elsewhere, that I am inclined to doubt 
this fact, as it would be vet y strange that the gradual changes 
should be so great. Yet this ought to be enquired into, since 
many vulgar opinions are often found to be correct. 

17th Species. Suntish Riyer-bass. Lepoviu icihcloides, 
Leporne ictheloide. 


Silvery, olivaceous above, some faint blackish spots on the 
sides: lower jaw hardly longer, head with sutures, two flat, 
broad and obtuse spines above the opercule, decurrent with the 
sutures. Vent medial. Tail lunulate. Diameter one fourth 
of the length. 

A very distinct species from the two foregoing. It might al- 
most form a peculiar subgenus, by the medial vent, and obtuse 
spines situated above the lateral line and opercule. It might 
be called AmhlofiUtes or obtuse weapons. It is found in the 
Kentucky and tributary streams Vulgar names White Bass, 
or Sunfish Bass. Length from 4 to 8 inches. It is also a fisk 
of prey and has many rows of sharp teeth. Its flesh is like that 
of the Sunfishes. Lateral line following the curve of the back. 
Iris silvery. Body with gilt shades; dorsal with 21 rays, 11 
spiny, no depression. Anal 15, whereof 5 are spiny and gradu- 
ally shorter. Thbracics 1 and 5. Pectoral broad 12 rays. Tail 
J6. Branchial rays 5. A faint and narrow marginal black spot 
©n the opercule beneath the spines. 

VI Genus Pomoxis. Pomoxis. Pomoxe. 

Body elliptic, compressed, scaly. Vent anterior. Head 
BC.4eless. jaws plaited extensible, roughened by very minute 
teeih. Gill cover smooth, scaleiess, propercule forked be- 
neath, opercule membranaceous ajid acute posteriorly. Tho- 
racic fins without appendage, but a spiny ray. One dorsal fin 
opposite to the anal, both with many spiny rays. 

A very remarkable genus by the anterior vent, equal anal and 
dorsal fin, by which it difl*ers from the genus S/iarusy besides 
the want of appendage, &c. The name means acute opercule. 

18th species. Gold-ring Pomoxis. Pomoxis annularis. Vo- 
moxe annulaire. 

Synonymy. Pomoxis annularis. Journal of the Acad, of 
Nat. Science of Philadelphia, vol. 1, p. 417, tab. 17, fig. 1. 

Silvery, back olivaceous, with some geminate brown trans- 
versal lines; a golden ring at the base of the tail; lateral line 
straight: dorsal and anal fins with six spiny rays, a marginal 
black spot behind both fins: tail forked: lower jaw longer. 

Vulgar names Gold-ring and Silver-perch. Found m* Au- 
gust at the falls, probably permanent^ Length from threa t© 


&x inchi^s. Good to eat. Eyes black, iris silvery. Diameter 
three tenths of the length. Head gilt above. Pectoral fins 
reaching the vent Scales deciduous and a little ciliated. End 
of the tail blackish. Spijiy rays of the anal and dorsal nns 
gradually longer, but shorter than the soft rays, which are also, 
gradually decreasing; the dorsal has only 14, while the anal ha"fe 
16 such rays. Caudal 28. Thoracic one and five. 

VII Genus. Red-eye. Aplocentrus. jifilocentre. 

Body elliptic, compressed. Head small, jaws with lips and 
teeth, opercule smooth and flexuose. Vent medial. One longi-. 
tudinal dorsal fin with only one spine- 

A singular genus, intermediate between Labrus^ Cynedusy 
and Coryfihena\ but belonging to the family of Labrides. The 
name means single spine. I describe it from a drawing made 
by Mr. Audubon. It is also the 1 1th genus of my Prodromus. 

19th Species. Ohio Red-eye* Jjilocentrus caUiops. Ap- 
locentre belseuil. 

Pale greenish above, with some flexuose transversal black 
lines, yellowish beneath the lateral line, and with some smal' 
black lines, whitish and unspotted beneath: iris red: forehead 
flexuose convex: upper jaw hardly longer: dorsal spine longer? 
tail flabelliform: lateral line straight. 

A beautiful fish from eight to twelve inches long. It lives in 
the lower parts of the Ohio, in Green river, See. Vulgar names 
Red-eyes, Bride pearch, Batchelor's pearch, Green bass, &c. 
Breadth about one fourth of the length. Dorsal fin beginning 
behind the head with a long spiny ray and ending close to the 
tail, variegated with flexuose black lines: broad at the base, 
depressed near the tail, and suddenly broad again at the end. 
Anal fin small. Thoracic fin triangular. Lateral line rather 
broad. Iris large and red. Tail unspotted, and with rounded tip 
or fan- shaped. 

VIII Genus. Barbot Pogostoma. Barbotte. 

Body oval, compressed. Head small, jaws equal, without 
teeth, but with lips and six barbs, two to each lip and two to 
the lower jav/: opercule smooth, rounded. Two distant dorsal 
fins. '■ 

A fine genus next to Difiterodon and C/ieilodifiterus; it be^ 


longs to the family of Labrides, and is distinguished from all 
t;Jie otlter genera by its barbs. The real name means bearded 
mouth. It was the loth genus of my prod, of 70 new genera. 
20th Species. White-eyes Barbot. Pogostoma leucosis; 
Barbotte cEuilblanc. 

Brown, with five black curved streaks, two on each side and 
one on the back, lateral line curved joining the lower streak: 
whitish beneath; a row of transversal lunulate, geminate and 
black lines, between the two lateral streaks, six similar ones on 
the gill cover: a large »vhite and round patch surrounding the 
eyes: tail forked: vent posterior. 

A beautiful fish: shape of sunfish: length sometimes twelve 
inches and weight one pound. It is found in the lower part of 
the Ohio and in the Mississippi; but is a rare fish. It haS 
great many vulgar names, such as White-eyes, Spectacles-fishj 
Streaked Sunfish, Black Sunfish, Barbot, Bearc'ed ^unfish, &c. 
and the French settlers call it Barbotte, Poisso ■ 1 nette, and 
GE,uilblanc. It does not bite the hook, and is only takea 
with the seine. The row of lunulated lateral lines have the 
convexity towards the head and extend through the tail. The 
two dorsal fins are short and trapezoidal, anal fins very small. 
Pectoral long. Thoracic under their hind part. Convexity of 
the three pairs of lines on the opercule, looking upwards. Eyes 
small and black, iris narrow and yellow, the white patch appears 
as a second iris. Chin and forehead between the eyes depres- 
sed, which form a kind of rounded snout, mouth small, jaws e- 
qual. I describe it from a drawing of Mr. Audubon. 

IX Genus. Hogfish. Etheostoma. Etheostome. 
Body nearly cylindrical and scaly. Mouth variable witli^ 
small teeth. Gill cover double or triple unserrate, with a spine 
on the opercule and without scales: six branchial rays. Thora- 
cic fins with six rays, one of which is spiny; no appendage. 
One dorsal fin more or less divided in two parts, the antex'ior 
one with entirely spiny rays. Vent medial or rather anterior. 

A singular new genus, of which I have already detected five 
species, so different from each other that they might form as 
many subgenera. Yet they agree in the above characters, 
and Glifrer from the genus Sciena by y^ie ^hape of the body a^d 



mouth, and the divided dorsal fin. The name means different 
mouths. I divide it into two subgenera. They are all very small 
fishes, hardly noticed, and only employed for bait; yet they are 
good to eat, fried, and may often be taken with baskets at the 
falls and mill races. They feed on worms and spawn. 
1st Subgenus. Aplesion. 
Dorsal fin single, split in the middle. Meaning nearly sim- 

21st Species. Bass Hogfish. Etheostoma calliura. Etheos- 
tome calliure. 

Body slightly fusiform and compressed, silvery, olivaceous 
above, some flexuose transversal brownish lines on the sides: 
lower jaw longer, preopercule double, opercule with an angular 
appendage and an obtuse spine behind it: scales smooth, lateral 
line flexuose, tail forked, tri-coloured, and with a brown spot at 
the base. 

The largest species of the genus from three to nine inches 
long. It has some similarity with the Lejiomis Jlexuolaris, and 
some other River bass, wherefore it is called Minny-bass, Little 
bass. Hog-bass, 8cc. common in the Ohio, Salt river, &c. It has 
sharp teeth. The head is large, rugose above: iris large gilt 
brown: branchial rays uncovered. Diameter one seventh of 
the length. Lateral line curved upwards at its base. Fins oli- 
vaceous. Dorsal with 9 and 14 rays, beginning behind the pec- 
torals and ending far from the tail, like the anal, which has 12 
rays, whereof one is spiny. Pectoral fins short trapezoidal 16 
rays. Tail 24, fine, base with a yellow curved ring, followed by 
a forked band of a pale violaceous colour, tip hyalin. Mouth 

22d Species. Fantail Hogfish. Etheostoma Jlabellata. 
Etheostome eventail. 

Body olivaceous brown, with transverse unequal brown 
streaks, a black spot at the lower base of the lateral line which 
is straight; scales ciliated: mouth puckered obliqual, jaws near- 
ly equal, cheeks swelled, preopercule simple, opercule cur\^ed, 
spine acute: pectoral fins rounded. Tail oboval flabelliform. 

A small fish only two or three inches long, common at the 
falls of Ohio. Vuli;;ar names Fau-tail> Black bass, Pucker, S<c. 


Head small, with swelled and dotted cheeks: iris brown witb 
an internal gold ring; branchial rays concealed. Scales s.nal 
roughened. Dorsal fin beginning above the pectorals and end 
in^j^ beyond the anal, with 8 short spiny rays and )2 soft ones 
olivaceous, with a longitudinal brown stripe. Vent anterior- 
anal fin very far from the tail, convex pule, rays 1 and 8. Pec, 
toral fins 15. Caudal 20, olivaceous with many small transver- 
sal and flexuose lines. Diameter less than one seventh of the 

23d Species. Black Hogfish. Ethtostoma ni^ra. Etheos- 
tome noire. 

Entirely black, pale beneath; scales smooth, lateral line 
streight, mouth rather beneath, forehead rounded, upper jaw 
longer; preopercule rounded, spine acute: vent rather anteri- 
or: tail entire nearly truncate. 

From one to two inches long. Observed in Green rivei\ 
Vulgar name Black minny. Iris black, silvery, and small. Di- 
ameter one seventh of the length, without spots. Head small. 
Pectoral fins obov^l. Tail 20. Anal fin 2 and 8. Dorsal 10 and 12. 
2d Subgenus. Diplesioj^. 

Dorsal fin nearly double, divided into two joining parts. 
Meaning neaii^ double. 

24th Species. Blui; j^ nose Hogfish. Etheostoma Blennioi^ 
des. Etheostome blennioide. ?■ 

Body elongate, breadth one eighth of the length, olivaceous 
almost diaplanous, some brown spots on the back, and some 
brown geminate transversal hues across the lateral line, which 
is straight, but raised at the base. Head small, snout rounded, 
mouth small beneath, lower jaw shorter; operiule angular, 
spine acute; scales ciliated, pectoral fins elongate, tail also, and 
.bilobed at the end. 

A strange species, which has the appearance, head, and spots 
©f many Blennies. Length two or three inches, and slender. 
Seen in the Ohio, Wabash, Muskingum, &c. Colour pale, 
sometimes fulvous, whitish beneath. Cheeks swelled and 
smooth, preopercule simple arched, opercule quite angular; 
iris large and blackish: scales roughened by the ciliation. Dor- 
^al fin 13 and 13, beginning above the middle of the pectorals 
and ending with Ihe anal, one faint longitudinal brown stripe oa 



It. Tail 20 rays, with many small transversal lines. VentmC* 
(5ial. Anal fin 2 and 8. Pectoral fins 16,oblon,^ acute. 

25th Species. Common Hogfish. Etheostonia cajirodes^ 
EtKeostome capros. 

Body quite cylindrical, whitish, with about twenty transverse 
bands, alternately shorter. Head elongate obtuse, upper jaw 
longer, rounded; opercule angular, spine acute: lateral lino 
quite straight: diameter one eighth of the length: tail forked^ 
olivaceous, brown at the base, and with a black dot. Vent an- 

The most common species, found in the Ohio, Cumberland, 

Wabash, Tennessee, Green Rive ', Kentucky, Licking, Miami, 
Sec; called almost every where Hog-fish. Length from two 
to six inches. Scales rough upwards, hardly ciliate. Mouth 
beneath, small; upper jaw protruding like a hog's snout, tho 
nostrils being on it. Eyes above the eyes, jutting, black, iris 
silvery. Sides of the head silvery, above fulvous; preopercule 
simple arched. Branchial rays half visible. Fins hyalinouss 
dorsal 15 and 12, ending before the anal, which is very distant 
from the tail, rays 2 and 10. Pectoral fins trapezoidal 16. 
Tail 24. 

Having complete gills, with a gill cover and a branchial 
membrane. Lower or ventral fins situated on the belly or abdo- 
men, behind the pectoral or lateral fins, 

X. Genus. Goldshad. Pomoloeus. Pomolobe. 
Body nearly cylindrical, elongate, scaly. Vent posterior* 
Abdomen carlnated and serrated from the head to the vent; but 
without plaits or broad scales. Head scale': ess, opercule lobed, 
^vith a rounded shield above. Jaws without teeth, upper trun- 
cate extensible, lower horizontal and fixed. Abdominal fins 
with nine rays and without lateral appendage: dorsal fin oppo- 

Out of eight species of fishes, similar to the Herrings and 
Shads, which have already been observed in the Ohio; after an 
attentive study, I have ascertained that not a single one is a real 
Herring, nor belongs to the genus Ciufica^ and I have been 
compelled to form four new genera with them; which afford 
striking chaiitcters, Tho present one differs from the 


una Ctupea by the lobed and shielded opercule, the quvions 
mouth, the bodily shape, and the want of lateral appendage. It 
belongs of course, with the four following, to the family of Clu- 
pides. The name means lobcd opercule. 

26th Species. Ohio Goldshad. Pomolobus. chrysochloris. 
Pomolobe dore. 

G. eenish-gold above, silvery beneath; lateral line straight: 
diameter two ninths of the length: dorsal and anal fin trapezoi- 
dal and with 1 8 rays: tail brown and forked. ( 

A fine fish from twelve to eighteen inches long. Flesh es- 
teemed, white and with less bones than the shad. It is taken 
with the seine and harpoon, as it seldom bites at the hook; it 
preys however on some small fishes. It seldom goes as far a^ 
Pittsburg!^, and does not run up the creeks. At the falls it ap-; 
pears in M^rch and April, and d s.^ppears in September. Its 
vulgar names are Ohio Shad, Gold Shad, Green Herring, &c.. 

It has the back convex, blue under the Sides, belly, 
and throat with purple and violet shades. Top of the head and 
neck clouded with brown. Several sutures on the sides of the 
he:\d. Upper lip truncate, flexuose, and even retuse; the low- 
er obtuse and brown at the end. Eyes black: iris silvery an(^ 
gilt. Opcrrule nearly trilobe, the upper lobe covered by a large 
oboval and radiated shield. Scales large deciduous, lateral lino 
concealed by them. Dorsal fin olivaceous, in the middle of the 
back, first and second ray shorter and simple, the third long, the 
others gradually shorter. Anal fin consimilar but whitish. Pec- 
toral and abdominal fins trapezoidal, the lowest ray simple and 
the longest: pectoral 15 rays. Tail equal 32 rays, brown, tip* 
darker, equal, decurrent on each side, end of the body truncate^ 
XI. Genus. Gizzard. Dorosoma. Dorosome. 

Body lanceolate, compressed, scaly. Vent medial. Abdo- 
men carinated, serrated, and with broad tranversal scales, as far 
as the abdominal fins. Head scaleless, gill cover triple, oper- 
cule simple: mouth diagonal without teeth, lovter jaw short- 
er. Abdominal fins with nine rays and no appendage: dorsal 

It diff'ers from Clufiea ^nd Pomolobus^hy the medial vent^ 
lanceolate body, gill covers, S;c. The name means lanceolate 

:h Species. Spotted Gizzard. .Dorosoma notata. Dor- 
e tachee. 

tirely silvery, a large brown and round spot above the base 
; lateral line, which is straight: two oblong spots of an em- 
r colour above the head: dorsal fin trapezoidal with ISraySj 

longitudinal with 40. Tail unequally forked, lower lobe- 

small species, seldom reaching over nine or ten inches, 
eter anteriorly one fifth of the length, taperitig gradually 
'ds the tail. I found it below the falls of the Ohio in Au- 
It comes also in the spring and disappears in the fall. 
ar nom^s Gizzard, Hickory Shad, White Shad, &c. It 
ot bite at the hook. Back faintly bluish. Mouth large^ 
jaw obliqual straight and longer, both fixed: tongue long 
aooth. Eyes large, bluish, with a black centre: irissil- 
S cafes small. Pectoral 12 rays, abdominals immediately 
id them. 
Genus. Gold Herring. Notemigonus. Notemigone. 
)dy fusiform, compressed, scaly. Vent posterior. Abdo- 
obtusely carinated, not serrate: back similar before the 
d fin. Head scaleless, mouth small without teeth, lower 
longer: gill cover double, opercule simple. Abdominal 
with nine rays and no lateral appendage. Dorsal fin behind 
I above the vent. 

his genus differs from Clufiea by the carinated b\ck and 
', without serratures, and the posterior dorsal. The name 
means back half angular. 14th G. of my Proclr. N. G. An- 

28th Species. Ohio Gold Herring. JVotemigoiius aura-^ 
tus. Notemigone dorc. 

Back gilt olivaceous, remainder gilt silvery; fins yellow; lat- 
eral line following the curve of the belly: dorsal with 9 rays, 
anal with 12: tail equally forked. 

Length from four to eight inches, diameter one fifth of the 
total length. Iris gilt. Tongue short, toothless; Scales large 
radiating with nerves. Head convex above and small. Dorsal 
fin broad trapezoidal, the first ray longer. Anal broad alsoybut 
not so much pectoral small with 16 rays. Tail 24. Not un 


common in the Ohio, Kentucky, Miami, &:c. The vulgaj* 
names are Gold Herring and Yellow Herring;. It appears in 
the fall. It does not bite at the hook. Flesh pretty good. 
XIII Genus. False Herrixg. Hyodont. Hyodon. 
Body lanceolate or oblong, compressed, scaly. Vent poste*- 
rior. Abdomen slightly and obtusely carinated between the ab- 
dominal fins and the vent. Head scaleless: mouth toothed all 
over, strongly on the tongue, which is formed by the hyodal 
bone; lojver jaw narrow and commonly longer. Gill cover with 
a preopercule. Abdominal fin with seven rays and a lateral 
appendage. Dorsal fin behind them above the base of the anal 

Hyodon. Lesueurin Journalof the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences of Philadelphia, vol. 1, page 364, Sept. 1818. 

Glossodon. Rafinesque in American Monthly Mag. 318. 
Amfihiodon. Rafinesque G. 15 of N. G. America^ Ani- 
mals, in Journal of Natural History Paris 1819. 

This genus has been minutely described by Mr. Lesueur; yet 
it is strange that he should have hardly noticed the abdominal 
appendages, similar to those of the genera Clufiea^ Salmo, Spa- 
7'USj Sec. which are very large, acute flat scaly adipose, and on 
the external and lateral side of the base of each abdominal fin. 
This genus differs from Clu/iea and the foregoing genera by its 
mouth and teetn, abdomen and abdominal fins; it approximates 
also to Erijthrinus and Chirocentrus. There are alreadyfive spe- 
cies known, all railed Herrings on the Ohio: they appear early 
in the spring and disappear in ths fall. They live on small 
fishes, insects, worms, and spawn: they often bite at the hook; 
and are taken in great quantities with the seines. I have adopt- 
ed Mr. Lesueur's name, although it is not without objection, 
particularly by its similarity with Diodon in sound; but having 
divided the genus into three subgenera, one of the names given 
to them might, if needful, be adopted as the proper generic 

1st Subgenus. Amphiodcn. 
Body lanceolate, lower jaw longer, dorsal fin beginning oppo- 
site to the base of the anal fin. The name means toothed all 


i29th Species. Toothed False Herring. Hyodon amfihi^ 
'^don. Do. 

Jmphiodon alosoides. Raf 70 N. G. Animals. G. 15. 

Diameter one fourth of total length, body silvery, back 
with bluish gilt shades, head gilt above: lateral line slightly 
curved downwards, tail acutely and equally forked, bluish 
brown, base reddish. Dorsal fin with 10 rays: anal fin with 34, 
ends acute, not falcated. 

Length from 14 to 18 inches. Jaws with large conical acute 
teeth, similar to those of the tongue. Scales large deciduous. 
Eyes behind the mouth, round and black. Iris silvery gilt. 
Dorsa! and anal fins with blue shades. It is very good to eat. 
I have observed it in the lower parts of the Ohio, where it is 
not so common as the two following species, and is of en called 
Shad, owing to its larger size. Pectoral fins with 16 rays, and 
not reaching the abdominal fins. Tail with 24 rays. 

30th Species. Summer False Herring. Hyodon heteru" 
riis. Hyodon heterure. 

Diameter one fifth of total length; body entirely silvery oliva- 
ceous, brown above the head: lateral line straight raised up» 
wards at the base; tail acutely and unequally forked, the lower 
part longer. Dorsal fin with 12 rays, the anal with 34, not fal- 
cated, both ends obtuse. 

Length from ten to twelve inches, body very narrow and com- 
i:)ressed. Jaws with very small teeth, the lower jaw much lon- 
ger. Eyes over the corners of the mouth, round and black, iris 
s^ilt. Fins slightly olivaceous, the dorsal and anal have the two 
first rays simple and the first very short, which produce the 
obtuse appearance of those fins. Caudal with 24 rays, pectoral 
fins with 14 rays and reaching the abdominal fins. A common 
species in the Ohio and tributary streams; it appears later than 
the following, wdience it is called Summer-herring. It forms 
a connecting link betw^een this and the following subgenus, hav_ 
ing the teeth as in the following species. - 

2d Subgenus. Glossodon. 

Body lanceolate, jaws equal with small teeth, dorsal fin oppo- 
site to the vent, nearly medial, beginning behind the abdomi- 
nal fins. The name means toothed tongue. 


SI St Species. Spring False Herring. Hyodrm vernalh; 
Hyodon printanier. 

Diameter one fourth of total length, body entirely silvery, 
back with bluish shades: lateral line straight, tail equally foik- 
cd, sinus obtuse. l>orsal fin with 13 rays, the anal with 28 
rays, falcated and with acute ends. 

Length from ten to twelve inches; head small and narrow, 
nostrils very large, eyes above the corner of the mouth, black 
and somewhat elliptical vertically, iris round, silvery with gilt 
shades. Fins slightly olivaceous, the dorsal with 3 simple rays, 
the first very short, anal fin somewhat adispose anteriorly. Pec- 
toral fins with 12 rays, hardly reaching the abdominal fins. Tail 
with 30 rays, somewhat marginated with brown. Branchial 
membrane with 7 rays. This fish begins to appear all over the 
Ohio and even at Pittsburgh in April: it is very common; but 
a poor food, owing to its great number of small bones. It is 
sometimes smoked and cured as the Atlantic Herrings; but is 
not quite so good. 

3d Subgenus. Clohalus. 
Body oblong irregular or somewhat rhomboidal. Jaws nearly 
equal, the lower one somewhat longer and with small teeth. 
Dorsal fin beginning before the base of the anal fin. 

32d Species, May false Herring. Hyodon clodalus. Hy- 
odon de May. 

H. Clodalus. Lesueur Jour. Ao. N. Sc. 1. p. STT". 
Diameter one fourth of total length, body silvery, back bluish, 
lateral line nearly straight, tail equally forked, sinus obtusely 
Dorsal fin with 15 rays, the anal with 30, not falcated, ends a- 

Length eleven inches, fins yellow with metallic colours on, 
the rays, pectoral with 13 rays not reaching the abdominal, 
caudal with 2© rays. It comes as far as Pittsburgh in May. 
Its flesh is pretty good. Eyes elliptical vertically, brown. Iris 

33d Species Lake False Herring. Hyodon ei^4€tlttT^ 
Hyodon lacustre. 
H. tergisus. Lesueur Journ. Ac. N. Sc. I. p. 336, tab. 14. 
Diameter one fourth of total length, body silvery, back blu* 

Ish, gill corers golden: lateral line somexvhat flexuose or 
somewhat arched towards the bac4i: tail equally forked, sinus 
obtuse. Dorsal fin with 15 rays, anal with 32, falcated, round- 
ed anteriorly, acute behiud, 

This fish was observed by Mr. Lesueur in Lake Erie. Mr. 
Say thinks he has seen it at Pittsburgh; but I have never ob- 
served it in the Ohio, and I suspect that Mr. Say may have 
mistaken the Hyodon vernalis for this species: in fact all the 
species are blended by the fishermen and considered as alike; 
I therefore introduce it among the fishes of the Ohio with some 
doubt. It has the same eyes and colours as the foregoing. 
Length thirteen inches. Good food. See Mr. Lesueur's mi- 
nute description. 

XIV Genus. Trout. Salmo. Truite. 

Body somewhat cylindrical scaly, vent posterior. Gill cover 
double, scaleless, more than four rays at the branchial mem- 
brane. Mouth large, jaws with strong teeth. Two dorsal fins, 
the first anterior or opposed to the abdominal fins which have 
a scaly appendage, the second adipose and opposed to the anal 


This Linnean genus which includes the Trouts and Salmon© 
is confined to the head waters and brooks of the Ohio. I 
only know two species as yet; but there may be more in the 
small streams of Ohio, the Cumberland and Clinch mountains, 
Sec. The white fish ©f Lake Erie, Coregonus albus o\ Lesueur, 
(or Salmo clufieformis oi Dr. Mitchell,) a fish which differs 
from the Trouts by being toothless, and is therefore a real Cor- 
egouus^ is said to be found in some streams of Indiana, at the 
head of the Wabash and Miami; but I have no certain proof of 
it. Other Trouts have been seen in the Osage river and other 
jstreams putting into the Missouri and Mississippi. 
, 34th Species. Alleghany Trout. Salmo Alleganiensis. 
Truite alleganienne. 

Back brownish, sides pale with crowded round fulvous spots, 
and some scattered scarlet dots above and beneath the lateral 
line, which is nearly straight: lower jaw^ hardly longer, tail red- 
dish nearly lunuIatCj dorsal fin quadranjjulur with brown stripes, 

45 , 

:and ten rays: anal fin lanceolate whitish, with a longitudinal lino 
black anteriorly and red posieriorly. 

It is found in the brooks of the Alleghany mountains falling^ 
into the Alleghany and Monongahela. It has the manner of 
the small Brook-trouts, and is called Mountain-trout, Creek* 
trout, ^c. It is easily caught with the hook, baited with earth- 
worms, and they may be enticed by rubbing the bait and hook 
with asafcetida like many other fishes. They afford a very good 
food. Length about eight inches. Haad olivaceous with vio- 
let shades. Iris brown. Dorsal fin rufous with brown lines 
parallel with the back. Pectoral fins oval, not reaching the 
base of the dorsal nor abdomiaal fins, redish below, whitish a- 
bove, with a brown line. Abdominal fins with nine rays and 
similar to the pectoral fins in colour, scaly appendage very small. 
Tail with brown shades. Adipose fin acute. Diameter of the 
body one sixth of the total length. I have seen some individ- 
uals (they may be the female or a variety) who were of a paler 
colour, with fewer and smaller dots; they had the yellowish 
spots more crowded, the fins darker and the tail pale. 

35th Species. Black Trout. Salmo nigrescens. Truite 

Body blackish brown, with some small spots, head black; lat- 
eral line straight: lov^er jaw hardly longer; fins and tail bla.k, 
tail slightly forked. Dorsal fin with 10 rays, anal fin with 15 

A very rare species, seen only once, near the Laurel hills; it 
is said to be found also in the Yohogheny, a branch of the Mo- 
nongehcla. Length six inches, diameter one fifth of total 
length. Iris black and gilt. Slightly pale under the body. 
XV. Genus. Minny. Minnilus. Minny. 
Body elongated, somewhat compressed, covered with small 
scales. V^ent medial. Head flat above, and somewhat shielded. 
Gill cover double, scaleless, three branchial rays. Mouth diag- 
onal, small, toothless and beardless, without lips, lower jaw 
shorter and narrower. A small trapezoidal dorsal fin, nearer to 
the head than to the tail, opposite to the abdominal fins, and 
^ ithout spines. Abdominal fins with eight rays and without ap- 
pendages. (Tail forked in all the Ohio species.) 



There arc in the United States more than fifty species of 
small fresh water fishes, (and in the Ohio waters more than six- 
teen species) commonly called Minnies, Minneus, Bait-fish^ 
Chubs, and Shiners, which should belong to the genus CyprU 
nus of Linneus, or rather to the part of it which has been call- 
ed Leuciscus by Klein and Cuvier; which subgenus (or genus) 
is distinguished by a smal! dorsal fin, no spines nor beards; 
but as the genus Cy/irimi^ forms now a large family, and 
veen the genus Leucisciis must be divided, since it contains 
more than one hundred anomalous species, differing in the po- 
sition of the dorsal fin and the vent, the number of rays to the 
abdominal fins. Sec, I venture to propose this and the three 
following genera. Three other different genera might be es- 
tablished upon the European species, distinguished as follow: 

.Dobula. Dorsal fin nearer to the tail, abdominal fins with 
nine rays and an appendage: upper ja»v longer. 

Phoxinus differs by ten abdominal rays and no appendage. 

Alburnus differs from Dobula by no appendage and the. 
lower jaw longer. 

Besides my genus Hemi/ilus^ (Annals of nature,) which has 
the vent posterior, the lower jaw longer, uniy five rays and an 
appendage to the abdominal fins. 

All these small fish are permanent; they feed on worms, in- 
jects, univalve shells, and spawn; they bite at a small hook, 
baited with worms or flies, and they form an excellent bait for 
all the larger fish which feed upon them. They are good lo 
eat when fried. ^ > 

36th Species. Slender MixNny. Minu^us dinemus. Min- 
Hy emeraude. 

Diameter one eighth of total length, silvery, back olivaceous 
with a brown longitudinal stripe in the middle: two lateral 
lines, one straight, the lower curved downwards and shorter: 
head i^iltand green above. Dorsal fin 9 rays. Anal fin 12 rays. 
, A small and slender species, common in the Ohio, &c. and 
<>-oin^ in flocks; lensrth two or three inches. Its head is beau- 
tiful when alive: it is above of a fine gold colour with green 
shades, becoming of an emerald green above the eyes. Iris 
silvery: sides opaque, upper lateral line gold-green. Nostrils 


lar^. Pectoral fins with 1^ rays, not reaching the abdominafv 
All the fins silvery. Tail with 24 rays. Scales very small. 

37th Species. Spotted Minny. Minnilus notatus. Min- 
ny tache. 

Diameter one seventh of total length, silvery, back olivaceous 
with a large brown stripe in the middle; head brown above, 
lateral line straight, a black spot at the base of the tail. Dor- 
sal with 8, and anal with 9 rays. 

Same si^e with the preceding, but not «jo slender and less coiitv 
mon. Iris golden, nostrils very large, mouth small, lateral 
line shining blue on tl e paque sides. Pectoral fins with 12 
rays and not reaching the abdomen. Tail with 14 rays. It is 
often called Minny-chub. 

38th Species. Littlemouthed minxy. Minniluft micro&to^ 
mus. Minny microstome. 

Diameter one seventh of y)tal length, silvery, olivaceous en 
the back and head, sides with a few black dots: lateral line 
straight, pectoral fins reaching the abdominal fins^ Dorsal and 
anal fins with eight rays. 

A small species found in the Kentucky river. Mouth very 
small, nostrils large, iris silvery, fins fulvous, the pectoral with 
12, and the caudal with 24 rays. Head elongated. 

XVI Genus. Shiner. Luxilus. Luxile. 

Difference from Minnulus. Vent posterior or nearer to the 
tail. Mouth rather large, commonly with lips and equal jaws. 
Scales rather large. Preopercule with an angular suture. 
1st Subgenus. Chrosomus. 

Mouth large, without lips, lov/er jaw much shorter. Scales 
rough. Opercule flexuose. 

39th Species. Redbelly Shiner. Luxilus erythro^aster. 
Luxile erythrogastre. 

Diameter one sixth of total length: back olivaceous brown, 
sides pale with two brown stripes, the upper reaching from the 
gills to the tail, und the lower ffom the nose to the anal fin^ 
belly white with longitudinal red stripes from the pectoral fin t® 
the tail: lateral line curved downwards and only an erior. Dor- 
sal and anal fins elongated. Dorsal 8, and anal 7 rays. 

A very distinct and insiilated species, intermediate bet„cen 


this and the foregoing g«nus. It might probably form a pecu- 
liar genus and be called Chrosomus erythroganter or Kentucky 
Red belly. I saw it in the Kentucky river. Length fronf four 
to six inches. Tail forked as in all this family, and yellow 
as well as the dorsal fin, and with twenty rays. All the 
other fins are whitish. Head yellow above, silvery beneath, 
iris golden, the brown stripe goes across the eyes. Pectora 
fins trapezoidal, with 12 rays, not reaching the abdominal fins. 
Lateral line reaching no further than the dorsal fin. Anal fin 
narrow. It is called Red belly Chub. 

2d Subgenus. Luxilus. 

Mouth rather large, with small flat lips, jaws equal, scales 

40th Specie^. Goldhead Shiner. Luxilus chrysocephalus> 
Luxile chrysocephale. 

Diameter one fifth of total length, silvery with golden shades 
on the sides, head gilt, back and nape dark olivaceous; lateral 
line curved downwards, pectoral fins reaching the abdominal. 
Dorsal and anal fins with nine rays. 

Vulgar names. Gold Chub, Shiner, Goldhead, &c. Length 
six inches. It is found in the Kentucky, Ohio, Cumberland 
Green river, &c. Iris golden. Fins fulvous, the pectoral gol- 
den large with 14 rays: tail with 24. It resembles the com- 
mon Shiner or Butterfish of Pennsylvania, Cyfirinus chrysoleu- 
cos Mitchell; but that fish is a Rutilus^ having nine abdominal 
rays, its body is besides shorter and the anal fin is falcated 
with 15 rays. 

41st Species. Kentuckian Shiner. JLuxiliis Kentuckien-' 
sis. Luxile du Kentuky. 

Diameter one seventh of total length, silvery, back oliva- 
ceous, lateral line curved downwards, dorsal and caudal fins 
red, the pectoral yellow, not reaching the abdomen. Dorsal 8, 
and anal 7 rays. 

Vulgar names, Indian Chub, Red tail, Shiner, Sec. Length 
about four inches. It is reckoned an excellent bait for anglers, 
because it will swim along Avhile with the hook in its body. 
Eyes small, iris brown with a gold ring. Yellowish brown a- 


bove the head. Abdominal and anal fins white. Pectoral and 
abdominal fins oboval, with 12 rays. Tail with 24rays. 

42d Snecies. Yellow Shiner. Luxilus interrufiius. Lux- 
ile jaunatre. 

Diameter one sixth of total length: yellowish olivaceous a- 
bove, silvery beneath, rufous brown above the head, a rufous 
line from the dorsal to the tail, two straight and separated half 
lateral lines, the anterior one above the posterior: pectoral fins 
reaching the abdominal. Dorsal with 10 and anal with 9 rays. 

A small species, only three inches long, called Yellow Chub 
or Sbiuer. Seen in the Ohio. Sides opaque, with violet shades. 
Iris silvery, mouth large, lips very apparent. Fins yellowish, 
pectorals with 16 rays, caudals with 24. 

XVII Genus. Chubby. Semotilus. Semotile. Ukl\ 

Difference from Minnilus. Vent posterior or nearer to the / 
tail. Dorsal fin posterior, opposite to the vent and behind the ""^"^^ 
abdominal fins. Mouth large and w4th lips. Scales rathar 
large. Preopercule angular. 

43d Species. Bigback Chubby. Semotilus dorsalis, Semo- 
tile dorsal. 

Diameter one fifth of total length: silvery, back olivaceous 
with some black dots, and raised; head brown above, a crenula- 
ted keel above each eye: lateral line upwards at the base: tail 
brown, with a black spot at the base and another before it. Dor- 
sal fin with 8 rays and a large brown spot at the anterior base. 
Anal fin with 9 rays. 

It is found in the Kentucky, and several other rivers. Vul- 
gar names, Big-back Minny or Chub, Skimback, Sec. Length 
from three to six inches. Iris gilt brown. Fins olivaceous, pec- 
toral fins with 12 rays, trapezoidal not reaching the abdominal. 
Tail with 24 rays, end pale, base with a round black dot, and a 
smaller one before it on the body, when the lateral line termi- 
nates. Head separated from the back by a suture connected 
^vith the opercule, back large convex higher. 

44th Species. Bighead Chubby SeJiotilus ce/ihaius. Se- 
notile cephale. 

Diameter one fifth of the total length: silvery, back brownish, 
lateral line raised upwards at the bascj fins fulvous, the pecto- 


ral reddishvthe caudal pale at the end and unspotted, the dorsal 
•with nine rays and a large black spot at the anterior base, anal 
•with nine rays. 

Length from six to eight inches, not uncommon in the creeks 
of Kentucky, Sec. Vulgar names Chub, Big-mouth, and Big- 
head. It has really the larges head and mouth of this trihe. 
Iris redish iridescent. Pectoral fins with 15 rays trapezoidal 
and short, abdominal fins rounded, dorsal fin begmning over 
them, spot round. Tail with 20 rays. 

45th Species. Warty Chubby. Semotilus difilemia. Sem- 

oti e verruqueux. 

Diameter one sixth of total length: olivaceous brown with 
gold shades above, silvery beneath: lateral line double, the an*- 
terior and lov/er curved upwards at the base, reaching to the ab- 
dominal fins, the posterior and upper straight from the pectoraL 
fins to the tail: fins red, a spot at the base of the dorsal and cau- 
dal, and many dots over them. Dorsal with nine rays; the anal 
with eight. 

Length from three to four inches, oiten called Minny or Red- 
fin. Observed in the Kentucky river near Estill. The male 
fish has a larger mouth than the female and some black v/arts 
on the head. Fulvous brown on the head. Iris large, golden, 
and white. Some black dots on the dorsal and caudal fins: tke 
caudal spot is on the tail, and the dorsal at the anterior base; 
they are small and round. The pectoral fins do not^reach the 
abdominal fins; they have 18 rays: the tail has 24. 

XVIII Genus. Fallfish. Rutilus. Rutile. 

Difference from Minnilus, Vent posterior nearer to the tail. 
Abdominal fins with nine rays. Mouth large and with lips. 
Scales large. 

I call this genus Rutilus^ in the supposition that the CijJirU 
mis rutilus may be the type of it; if it should be otherwise, it 
imav be called Plargyrus. 

46th Species. Silveiiside Fallfish. Rutilus fdarg-yi-us, 
Rutile plargyre. 

Diameter one fifth of total length: silvery, back with the dor- 
sal, pectorJI^ and caudal fins olivaceous: lateral line curved 


downwards: snout truncate, mouth almost vertical. Dorsal 
and anal fins with nine rays. ^ 

Length Ironi lour to six inches: vulgar names, Silverside, 
Shiner, White Chub, Sec. Common in the streams of Kentucky. 
Mouth large, upper jaw a.most vertical, yet longer than the 
lower. Iris white. Pectoral fins with 14 rays, reaching almost 
^he abdominals, which areoboval and white. Tail forked as usu- 
al with 24 rays. Scales large. 

47th Species. Baiting Fallfish. Rutilus comfiressus^ 
Rutile appat. 

Diameter one seventh of total length: silvery, back fulvous, 
sides compressed, lateral line straight, raised upwards at the 
'base, snout rounded, mouth hardly diagonal, nearly horizontal. 
Dorsal and anal fins with nine rays. 

A small fish from two to four inches long, called Fall-fish 
Bait-fish, Minny, &c. It Is found in the Alleghany Mountains 
in the waters of the Monongahela, Kenhaway, and even in the 
Potomac. The name of Fall-fish arises from its being often 
found near falls and ripples. Body more compressed than in 
the other species, as much so as in the genus Minnilu s. Scales 
large, lips a little fleshy. Iris silvery gilt. Fins tra'nsparent, the 
pectoral with 14 rays and not reaching the abdominal, tail with 
32 rays. 

48th Species. Roundnose Fallfish. Hutilus Amblofis, 
Rutile amblopse. 

Diameter one sixth of total length: silvery, head fulvous a- 
bove, snout round: sides with an opaque band, lateral line 
sftrai-ght: pectoral fins with 12 rays and reaching the abdominal 
fins. Dorsal and anal fins with 10 rays. 

Length one or two inches. Vulgar name White Chub or 
Fall-fish. It is found at the tails of the Ohio. Bick slightly 
lulvescent, snout large and rounded, mouth hardly diagonal, 
eyes large, silvery, and scales 'arge. Tail with 30 ruys. 

49th Species. Blacktail Fal.i^ish. Rutilus melanurus. 
Rutile melanure. 

Diameter one sixth of total length: silvery, back brownish: 
snout rounded, lateral line straight, tail blackish. Dorsal fin 
''vith 15 rays, anal with 12. 

f /. 



Length from four to six inches. Vulgar name Blacktail 
Chub. In the Ohio and Muskingum, &c. Head dark brown 
above, Mouth diagonal, iris silvery. Scales pretty large. Fins 
brownish, the lower ones pale, the pectoral short with 12 rays. 
Tail with 20 rays. 

50th Species. Anomal Fallfish. Rutilus anoma^v^ 
RutJle anomal. 

Diameter one fifth of total length, fulvous above, sides dusky, 
"white beneath: snout rounded, a vertical brown line behind the 
gills; lateral line st 'aight raised upwards at the base: pectoral 
fins yellow oboval short with 15 rays: tail unequally biloberl,the 
upper lobe larger. Dorsal and anal fins red, dorsal 8 and anal 
7 rays. 

An anamalous fish, differing from all those of the Cyprinian 
tribe in the Ohio, by its unequal bilobed tail, which is brownish 
and has 22 rays. Mouth diagonal. Eyes small, ins olivaceous 
gilt. Nape of the neck red, scales rather small. Length three 
inches. Found in Licking river Sec. Vulgar names Chub, 
Redfish, Fallfish, 8cc. 

51st Species. Red Minny. Rutilus? ruber. Rutile rouge. 

Entirely red, tail forked. 

1 add here a fine small fish, which I have never seen as yet, 
but is said to live in the small streams w hich fall into the Elkhorn 
and Kentucky. It is a slender fish, only tw^o inches long, com- 
pressed and of a fine purple red. It may belong to this genus, 
or to any other of this tribe. It is commonly called Red-minny. 
XIX Genus. Flat-head. Pimephales. Pimephale. 

Body oblong, thiclc, and scaly. Vent posterior nearer to the 
tail. Head scaleless, fleshy all over, even over the gill covers' 
rounded, convex above and short. Mouth termmal small, tooth- 
less, with hard cartilaginous lips. Opercule double, three 
branchial rays. Nostrils simple. Dorsal fin opposite the ab- 
dominals, with the first ray simple and cartilaginous. Abdom- 
inal fins with eight rays. 

A singular new genus, which differs from Cato^t omus hy ih^ 
terminal mouth, hard lips, soft head, simple dorsal ray, Sec. 
The name ib abbreviated from Pimelecephales which means 


52d Species. Blackheaded Fat-head. Pime/i/iales pro* 
vielas. Pimephale tete-noire. 

Diameter one fourth of the length, body olivaceous silvery, 
head blackish, snout truncated, and with soft warts: fins whi- 
tish, dorsal with a large irregular black spot at the anterior base, 
with eight forked rays, and one simple shorter obtuse hard: a- 
nal with eight rays; lateral line flexuosc and raised at the base, 
tail lunulate. 

A small fish tlu'cc inches long. It is rare and hardly kno\vh 
by the anglers. I describe it from a specimen taken with a hook 
baited with earth-worm, by Mr. William M. Clifford, in a pond 
near Lexington, in the month of April 1820, and now preserved 
in the Museum in Lexington. Its head is very remarkable, 
.soft and fat all over, the snout sloping, broad, truncate with soft 
warts in front, mouth at its inferior extremity very small, ellipti- 
cal transversal, with equal circular hard lips. The whole head 
and even the eyes are of dusky and bluish black colour. Pec- 
toral fins trapezoidal with 15 rays, the upper rays of the colour 
of the head. Tail olivaceous lunuiated, with 20 forked rays and 
5 short simple rays on each side of the base. Abdominal fins 
quadranguia\\ The first ray of the dorsal is singular, thick, 
short, hard, and yet blunt, almost cartilaginous, or not proper- 
ly spinous, and not at all serrate as in the Carps. Scales pret- 
ty large. 

XX Genus. Sucker. Catostomus. Catost5me. 
Body oblong cylindrical scaly. Vent posterior or nearer to 
the tail. Head and opercules scaleless and smooth. Mouth 
beneath the &nout, with fleshy, thick, or lobed sucking lips; 
Jaws toothless and retractible. Throat with pectinated teeth. 
Nostrils double. Gill-cover double or triple. Three branch'dl 
rays to the gill membrane. A single dorsal fin commonly op- 
posite to the abdominal fins, which have from eight to ten raya^ 
Lesueur has established this genus, in the first volume of the 
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia^. 
Nvith all the American species of the genus Cyfirinus which 
have the above characters, and he has described eighteen spe- 
cies belonging to it. I have discovered twelve additional new 

species in the waters of the Ohio, where about sixteen new spe- 



cies have already been detected. This genus havmg becomt; 
so extensive at an early period, and many other species existing 
probably in North America and Siberia, I have therefore divi- 
ded it into five subgenera, employing principally the number of 
abdominal rays. All these fishes are permanent in the Ohio 
its branches and the ponds. Some however disappear in win- 
ter,retreating into deep water or into the mud. Many bite at the 
hook. They feed on univalve shells, small fishes and spawn. 
They offer a tolerable food. 

1st. Subgenus. Moxostoma. 

Body oblong, compressed; head compressed, eight abdomhial 
rays, dorsal fin commonly longitudinal, tail commonly unequal- 
ly forked. 

53d Species. Ohio Carp Sucker. Catostomus anisurus, 
Catostome anisure. 

Diameter one fifth of the length: silvery, slightly fulvescent 
above, fins red, the dorsal olivaceous falcated with 17 rays, 
nearer to the head and reaching the vent: lateral line curv- 
ed upwards and flexuose at the base: snout gibbose: tail forked, 
upper part longer. Anal fin falcate with eight rays. 

A large species common all over the Ohio nid the large 
streams, as far as Pittsburgh. Permanent and sometimes taken 
in winter. It is called Carp every where. Length from one to 
three feet. It is taken with the hook, seine, and dart. Its 
flesh is pretty good, but soft. The male fish has a red tail; 
while it is olivaceous in the female. Snout divided from the 
head by a transverse hollow which makes it gibbose. Eyes 
black, iris silvery and golden above. Sides often with copper 
shades. Scales kirge with concentric stria. Pectoral fins large 
oval acute with 15 rays and reaching the abdominal fins. Cau- 
dal vv'ith 24 rays. 

54th Species Buffalo Carp Sucker. Cotostomus anisofi-' 
turns, Catostome anisopture. 

Diameter one fourth of the total length: silvery: head slop- 
ing, lateral line curved a^-i the back: tail unequally bifid, upper 
part much longer: dorsal fin longitudinal, beginning above the 
pectorals and reaching the end of the anal, sinuated by a dou- 
ble falcation, first ray very long. 


A singular species which I have never seen. I describe it* 
from a drawing of Mr. Audubon. It is found in tlie lower 
part of the Ohio, and is called Buflfalo Carp, Buffalo perch > 
Buffalo Sucker, White Buffalo-fish, he. Length about one 
foot Very good to eat. Taken with the seine in the spring on- 
ly. Body broad, dorsal fin broad and large, remarkable by its 
shape like a double sickle, and first ray which reaches the tail. 
Anal fin small and falcate. Pectoral fins reaching the abdomi- 
nal fins. The number of abdominal rays was not observed, if 
it should have nine it would be nearer to C. Velifer and C. seto- 
snsj or it may form a peculiar subgenus. 

The C. tuberculatus of Lesueur belongs also to this subge- 
nus, having eight abdominal rays; but its tail is regularly bifid, 
2d Subgenus Ictiobus. 
Body nearly cylindrical. Dorsal fin elongated, abdominal 
fins with nine rays, tail bilobed, commonly equal. 

The C. gibboaus and C. Communis, oi Lesueur, appear to be 
intermediate between this subgenus and the foregoing, having 
nme abdominal rays, but an unequal bilobed tail. 

55th Species. Brown Buffalo-fish Catostomus bubalus^ 
Catostome bubale. 

Diameter one fifth of the total length; ©livaceous brown, pale 
beneath, fins blackish, pectoral fins brown and short: h-ead slo- 
ping, snout rounded, cheeks whitish: lateral line straight, dor- 
sal fin narrow with 28 equal rays, anal trapezoidal v/ith 12 rays. 
One of the finest fishes of the Ohio, common also in the 
Mississippi, Missouri, and then- tributary streams. It is called 
every where Buffalo-fish, and Pi :oneau, by the French settlers 
of Louisiana. I had called it Aviblodon bubalus in my 70 N. 
G. of American Animals, having been misled by the commoa 
mistake which ascribed to it the teeth of the Amblodon grunni- 
ens; but it is a real Caiostc7}ius, \\liho\n any such teeth. Length 
from two to three feet; some have been taken weighing thir- 
ty pounds and upwards. It is commonly taken v.ith the dart 
at night when asleep, or in the seine; it does not readily bite at 
the hook. It feeds on smaller fishes and sh» lis, and often goes= 
in shoals. It retires into deep water in the tvinter, yet is some] 
tin\es taken even tiien. It comes as far as Pittsburgh. Its flesh 


Ts pretty good but soft. Scales rather large. Tail vviih 24 rays 
and two etf[ual rounded lobes. Iris gilt brawn, eyes small. Pec- 
toral fins with 16 rays. Dorsal fins shallow and even beeinniny 
just before the abdominal fins, and ending at the base of the a- 
nal fin. 

.56th Species. Black Buffalo-fish. Catostomus niger. 
Catostome noir. 

Entirely biack, lateral line straight. 

I have not seen this fish. Mr. Audubon describes it as a pe- 
culiar species, found in the Mississipp; and the lower part of the 
Ohio, being entirely similar to the common BufTalo-fish, but 
larger, weighing sometimes upwards of fifty pounds, and living 
in separate shoals. 

3d Subgenus. Carpiodes; 

Body oblong, somewhat compressed; head compressed, nine 
abdominal rays, dorsal fin commonly elongatctail equally forked. 

The C. cyfirinus and C. setesusy of Lesueur, belong to this 

57th Species. Olive Carp Sucker. Catostomus carpio. 
Catostome carpe. 

Diameter one fourth of the length: olivaceous above, pale be- 
neath, chin white, abdomen bluish: lateral line straight, dorsal 
iin somewhat falcated with 36 rays, anal trapezoidal with 10 
rays; head sloping, snout rounded. 

Seeii at the falls of the Ohio, commonly called Carp. Length 
from one to two feet. Eyes very small and black, fins oliva- 
ceous brown, the pectorals olivaceous, trapezoidal short and 
with 16 rays. Tail with 24. Dorsal fin beginriing before the 
abdominal and reaching the end of the anal fin. Not so good to 
<^at as the Buffalo-fish. 

58th Species. Sailing Sucker, Catosto'mus velifer. Catos- 
tome volant. 

Diameter less than one fourth of the length: body elliptical, 
silvery with golden shades, lateral line flexuose, dorsal fin very 
broad falcated with 25 rays, the first ones very long, anal fin tra- 
pezoidal lunulate with 10 rays: head sloping, snout rounded. 

Catostomus anonymous Lesueur in Jourii. Ac. Nat. So. of 
Philadelphia, Vol. 1? pagQ 110. 


A singular fish, not very common, yet found as far as Pitts, 
burg-h. It has received the vulgar names of Sailor fish, Flying 
fish, and Skimback, because, when it swims, its large dorsal fin 
appears like a sail, and it often jumps or flies over the water 
for a short distanr e. Length commonly from twelve to sixteen 
mches, of which the tail, which is very large, includes one 
fourth, and has 24 rays. Back slightly olivaceous, scales very- 
large. Fins olivaceous brown, except the abdominal and pec- 
toral, which are white. The dorsal beginning before the ab- 
dominal and reaching the end of the anal, the second and third 
rays are one third of the whole body, the iirst is short and cleav- 
ing to the second; mouth small, quite terminal at the lower end 
of the rounded snout; head small, convex above. Pectoral fins 
w";-h 16 rays. Not very good to tat. Seen only in summer. 

59Lh Species. Mud Sucker. Catosiomiis xcmthopus. Ca- 
tostome xanthope. 

Diameter one fourth of the length: lateral line straight: sil- 
very, back olivaceous, head brown above, snout gibbose round- 
ed: dorsal fin hardly fal.-.: ate with 14 rays, anal lanceolate with 
8 rays: lower fins yellowish. 

Found below the falls. Length from six to ten inches. It 
lives in muddy banks, and conceals itself in the mud. Flesh ve- 
ry soft. Head large, flattened above, mouth large, eyes large, 
ris silvery. Lateral line hardly raised at the base. Dorsal fin 
above the abdominal, fins oUvaceous as well as the tail, which 
has 20 rays. Pectorals with 18 rays. Scales large. 
4th Subgenus. Teretulus. 

Body elongate cylindrical or somewhat quadrangular, nine 
ibdominal rays, dorsal fins commonly small, tail equally forked. 

An extensive Subgenus to which belong all the following 
'.pecies of Lesueur: C. aureoius, C. maci^ole/iidotus, C. lon^-i- 
ostrumj C. nigricans, C.vittatus, C. maculosus, C. SucettUy 
uesides the C. teres and C. oblongus of Mitchell. 

60th Species. Black-face Sucker. Cotostomus tnelanofis. 
Catostome melanopse. 

Diameter one seventh of the length: head squared, blackish 
above, snout convex obtuse; back olivaceous, sides whitish 
with scattered black dots, a black spot on the gill cover, and u 

large one between the dorsal and caudal fins: lateral line straightj 
dorsal fin with 1 4 rays, anal with 9 rays. 

A singular species seen at the falls. It is rare and called 
Spotted Sucker or Black Sucker. Length from four to six 
inches; body cylindrical, flattened beneath as far as the vent. 
Head fiat above, blackish there and in the fore part. Mouth 
almost terminal with thick whitish lips, the lower one shorter 
and thicker, a few small black spots on the sides of the head 
and a large one on the preopercule. Gill cover silvery. Eyes 
black, iris brown with a gold ring. Back of a rufescent colour 
with gold shades. A very large black patch above the anal fin 
before the tail. Sides pale with small unequal black dots, bel- 
ly whitish." Fins coppery, the pectoral elliptical elongated with 
I8 rays, the anal elongated reaching the tail, the dorsal broad 
and opposed to the abdominal. Tail with 20 rays. Scales ra- 
ther larffe nervose radiated. 


61st Species. Bl.\ck-back Sucker. Catostomus melanotiis, 
Catostome melanote. 

Diameter one six'h of the length: bluish black above, whitish 
beneath; head convex, snout obtuse: lateral line straight: dor- 
sal and anal fins with nine rays. 

Seen only once at the falls. Length six inches, body nearly 
cylindrical. Mouth rather inferior, lips thick and somewhat 
gristly. Iris silvery. Scales pretty large. Fins whitish, the dor- 
sal and caudal a Ittle rcdish. Pectoral fins elliptical with 16 
rays- Tail 20. Dorsal fin trapezoidal, opposed to the abdom- 
inal, the first ray shorter. Anal elliptical obtuse. Vulgar names 
Black Sucker and Blue Sucker. 

62d Species. Rough-head Sucker. Catostomus fasciolaris. 
Catostomus fascie. 

Diameter one sixth of the length: brown above, white be- 
neath, sides with small transversal black lines: head sloping, 
tuberculated above, snout obtuse: dorsal fin longitudinal reach- 
ing the end of the anal fin, lateral line straight. 

I have not seen this species, but describe it from a dra.ving of 
Hr Audubon. It is found in the lower part of the Ohio. Vul- 
gar names Rough-head Siicker, Pike Sucker, Striped Sucker. 
Length about eight inches, body cylindrical tapering behind. 


Eyes small, mouth beneath. Lower fins trapezoidal, about 
twenty transversal lines. A doubtful species, perhaps an Hy- 
drargyrus, but the mouth is like that of the Sucker. 

63d Species, Red-tail Sucker. Catostomiis erythrurus: 
Catostome rougequeue. 

Diameter one fifth of the length: rufous brown above, white 
beneath; tail olivaceous: head convex, snout rounded; laterajl 
line straight: dorsal fin trapezoidal redish with I2 rays, anal fin 
elongated yellow, anal falcated, with 7 rays. 

A fine species, not uncommon in the Ohio, Kentucky, Cum- 
berland, Tennessee, &c. Vulgar names Red-horse, Red-tail, 
Horse-fish, Horse Sucker, &:c. Length about one foot. Scales 
very large. Mouth beneath. Iris whitish, eyes black. Pectoral 
fins yellow elliptical reaching the abdominals and \ni\\ 16 rays. 
Tail large with 20 rays. Its flesh is dry and not very good to 

64th Species. Kentucky Suckkr. Catostomus Jlexuosusi 
Catostome flexi.eux. 

Diameter one fifth of the length: silvery, back brownish, 
scales rather rough, opercule flexuose: head squared, snout 
gibbose truncate; lips very thick, the inferior bilobed: lateral 
line flexuose: tail brown: dorsal fin blackish with 12 rays, anal 
fin whitish with 7 rays and reaching the tail. 

The most common species in Kentucky, in all the streams 
and ponds, called merely Sucker. Very good to eat. It con^ 
ccals itself in the mad in winter. It bites at the hook, living on 
minnies and little lobsters. Body thick cylindrical. From ten 
to twelve inches long. Head large, a deep depresion between 
the snout and the head, mouth large with fleshy lips. Eyes 
large black, iris yellow. Opercule hard bony. Lower fins 
whitish, pectorals elongated elliptical with 20 rays. Tail 20 
rays. Dorsal trapezoidal sloping behind. This fish is the 
most useful to keep in ponds. 

65th Species, Big-mouth Sucker. Catostomus? megasto- 
7mis. Catostome megastome. 

Diameter one fifth ol the length: blackish above, yellowish 
beneath, very broad: a spine at the bass of the pectoral fins; 
lateral line straight, 


A very doubtful species seen by Mr. Audubon. It tomes 
sometimes in shoals in March, and soon disappears. On- 
ly taken with the seine, not biting at the hook; vulgar name 
Brown Sucker. The mouth is very remarkable, being broader 
than the head, somewhat projecting on the sides. Length one 
foot. The head reseml>les that of Cat-fish, but has no barbs. 
Is it a peculiar genus ov/ing to the mouth and pectoral spine? It 
might be called Eurystonuis, The yellow colour covers the 
forehead and reaches to the anal fin. Dorsal opposed to the ab- 
dominal and trapezoidal, pectorals elliptical yellow. 
5th Subgenus. Decactylus. 

Body nearly cylindrical, abdominal fins with 10 rays: tail e- 
qually forked. 

Besides the two following species, the C. bostoniensis and 
C. hudsonius^ must be enumerated here. 

66th. Species. Pittsburgh Sucker. Catostomus diiquesni. 
Catostome duquesne. 

Diameter one fifth of the length, whitish; lateral line curved 
towards the back: anal fin with nine rays extending to the tail: 
dorsal with 14 rays and trapezoidal. 

C. duquesni Lesueur J. Ac. Nat. Sc. v. 1, p. 105. 

This species has been pretty well described by Lesueur: see 
his description. Length from 15 to 20 inches: good to eat, 
found in the Ohio as far as Pittsburgh: vulgar name White 

i 67th Species. Loxg Sucker. Catostomus elongatas. Catos- 
tomus allonge. 

Diameter one seventh of the length; brownish; lateral line 
nearly straight, snout and opercules tuberculated: dorsal fin 
with 32 rays, long, falciform and raised anteriorly. Anal 
fin small with 8 rays. 

C elongatus Lesueur J. Ac. Nat. Sc. v. 1, page 103. 

It is found in the Ohio as far as Pittsburgh, and called Brown 
Sucker, length from 20 to 25 inches. Head small cuneiform 
above: Scales large. Good to eat. See Mr. Lesueur's des- 


XXI Genus. Suckrel. CycleptCs. Cyclepte. 
Difference from the foregoing genus — Two dorsal fins, mouth 

round and terminal. 

The name means small round mouth. 

6Sth Species. Black Suckrel. Cycle/ilus nigrescent, Cy- 
clepte noiratre. 

Blackish, belly whitish, mouth recurved, tail forked. 

Cyclefitus. 17th G. of Prod. 70 N. G. American Animah. 

A singular and rare fish, which I have never seen, but men- 
tion upon the authority of Mr. Bollman of Piitsburgh; where 
it sometimes appears in the spring; but it is a rare fish, Kvhose 
ifesh is very much esteemed. It is also found in the Missouri, 
whence it is sometimes called the Missouri Sucker. Length 
two feet. 

XXII Genus. Catfish. Pimelodus. Pimelode. 
Body scaleless, elongated. Head large with barbs. Two 

dorsal fins, the second adipose and separated from the tail, the 
first short and commonly armed. Pectoral fins commonly arm- 
ed. Teeth like a file. Vent commonly posterior. 

'I'he extensive genus -SiVwrMs of Linneus, which is scattered 
throughout the rivers of both continents, has not yet been com- 
pletely illustrated, notwithstanding the labours of the modern 
ichthyologists, I have found in the Ohio about twelve species 
belonging to it: most of which offer consimilar characters and 
appear to belong to the genus Pimelodus of Lacepede and Cu- 
vier: which have left the name of Silarus to the species having 
one dorsal fin. I have already published a monography of them 
in the Journal of the Royal Institution of London, under the 
generic m^me of Silurus. I nov/ propose to form with them a 
peculiar subgenus^ divided in many sections, and different from 
the subgenera Bagrus^ SynodoniusySilusox^ Sec. 
Subgenns. Ictalurus. 

Plead depressed with eight barbs, one at each corner of the 
mouth, longer than the others, four under the chin, and two on 
the snout behind the nostrils. Teeth in two patches, acute and 
file-shaped. Pectoral fins and first dorsal fin armed with an an- 
terior spine. First dorsal trapezoidal and before the abdomi- 



nah, sccl^nd opposite the anal. Body compressed behind, vcut 
posterior or sub medial. Operculum simple. 

The fishes belonging to this group are common throughout 
the United States, the Silurus catics of Linneus, which is not 
found in the Ohio, belongs also to it. They are sedentary in 
the Ohio and branches, and very voracious, feeding on all 
smaller iishes: they are easily taken with the hook; their flesh 
is esteemed, and, although it is somewhat tough in the largest 
species, it makes notwithstanding excellent soup. These fishes 
often come to a great size and live to a great age. The name 
of Ictalurus, means Cat-fish in Greek. 

1st Section. Elliops. Tail forked. Eyes elliptical. Ab- 
dominal fins with less than nme rays. 

69th Species. Spotted Catfish. Fimelodus maculatus^ 
Pimelode tachete» 

Upper jaw longer, lateral barbs "black, reaching the dorsal 
fin. Eyes elliptical. Body whitish with small unequal brown 
spots on the sides; vent submedial: tail unequally forked, up- 
per lobe longer. Pectoral fins fenestrated. Anal fin longitu- 
dinal with 27 rays. Lateral line straight. 

Sihirus maculatus. Monogr. sp. 1. 

One of the small species, commonly about one foot long and 
slender, never reaching a large size. Vulgar names Spotted, 
White, and Channel Catfish. It is found as far as Pittsburgh, 
but is not very common. Flesh very good. Head long and 
flat, olivaceous rufous above, jaWs rounded, lips thick. Upper 
barbs the shortest and white; the exterior inferior ones long 
and blacli at the end. Iris elliptical white. Body somewhat 
attenuated behind, entirely silyery white. Belly white, flatten- 
ed, without spots or shades. Sides with gilt and blue shades^ 
besides the brown spots. Back unspotted, pale, rufescent. 
Lateral line not reaching the gills and slightly raised upwards 
at the base. First dorsal fin with six soft rays. Pectoral fins 
with five, spiny ray longer, very thick, and united to the fin by a 
fenestrate web on the inner serrate side. Abdominal oboval 
aBd with 8 rays. Caudal with 20. Lobes acute. All the fins 
redish, marginated, or tipped with brown. Tail marginated. 
Adipose fins brown. 


70th f^pecies. Blue Catfish, ^ivelodus ceruleacens. Pime- 
iode bleuaue. 

Upper jaw longer, lateral barbs black, shorter than the gills. 
Eyes elliptical. Operculum and lateral line flexuose. Body 
of a bluish lead colour, whitish beneath, unspotted. Tail e- 
qually forked, base redish. Anal fin arched with 25 rays, 

Silurus cerulescens. Monogr. sp. 3. 

A fine species, reaching sometimes to a very large size, I 
have been told that one was taken weighing 185 pounds and z^^ 
iiother 250 pounds. Vulgar names Blue Cat and Brown Cat, 
or Catfish. It is not uncommon m the lowest parts of the river. 
Whole shape somewhat fusiform as in all the species with a 
forked tail, yet depressed forwards and compressed behind. Of 
an uniform lead colour, nearly blue in the young individuals 
Jind nearly brow;\ in the old ones. Barbs rather short and white, 
the upper ones very short and brown. Iris elongate and whi- 
tish. Fins bluish; but the pectoral and abdominal whitish. 
Spine of the pectoral fins equal in length, not fenestrate, and 
hardly serrate inside. Number of rays, dorsal 1 and 6, pecto- 
ral 1 and 7, abdominal 6, caudal 22. A yai'iety has a blackish 
tail. Vent posterior. 

71st Species. White Catfish. PimelodusjialUdus. Pime 
lode pale. 

Upper jaw longer, lateral barbs reaching the pectoral fins.' 
Eyes elliptical. Lateral line straight. Body whitish, back 
slightly olivaceous. Tail nearly equally forked. Anal fin elon- 
gate with 25 rays. 

■Silurus pallidus. Monogr. sp. 2. 

Vulgar names white and channel Catfish: this last name is 
given to it because it dwells principally in the channels or deep- 
er parts of the river. Length from one two to feet. Shape as 
in the foregoing;. Head smaller, olivaceous above. Barbs 
white. Iris white. First dorsal fin nearer to the abdominal 
fins, yellowish, rays 1 and 6. Pectorals yellowish, rays 1 and 7. 
Abdominals white with six rays. Adipose fin olive with a brown 
tip. And and caudal pale brown, 24 rays in the tail, which 
has the upper acute lobe slightly longer. It offers some vari- 
eties. 1st. Marginata. Tail fulvous, marginate^ w^^^ ^l«ick 

5d. Lateralis. With three black spots on each side. 3d. Zeu- 
cO'jitera. All the fins pale and whitish. 

72d Species. Silvery Catfish. Pimelodus argyrus. Pirn- 
elode argyre. 

Jaws nearly equal, lateral barbs brown and reaching the pec- 
toral fins. Eyes elliptical. Body silvery, lateral line straight. 
Fins brownish, anal with 25 rays. Tail equally forked. 

Silurus argenteus. Monography, sp. 4. There is another 
species of that name alre:idy. 

A small ami rare species, Very similar to the foregoing, of 
which it is perhaps a variety. Number of rays similar. 

2d Section. Leptops. Tail bilobed. Eyes round and very 
small. Nine abdominal rays. Vent posterior. Adipose fins 

73d Species. Clammy Catfish. Pimelodus viscoeiis. Pim- 
elode visqueux. 

Jaws nearly equal, barbs very short, eyes round over the 
head. Body entirely brown, lateral line raised upwards before. 
Pectoral fins with 1 and 7 rays, anal fin rounded with 1 5 rays. 
Tail unequally bilobed and black, upper lobe smaller and white. 

Silurus -viscosu^. Monogr. sp. 6 

A very singular and rare species, found at the falls. Length 
only 4 inches, brown with bluish and greyish shades, covered 
with a clammy viscosity; throat whitish. Head very flat, with 
a longitudinal furrow above, elongated; upper jaw hardly long- 
er. Eyes over the head very small and bluish. Spines of the 
anterior fins short, thick, and simple. Dorsal with 1 and 7 rays. 
Abdominal small with 9. Anal blackish. 

75th Species, Clouded Catfish. Pimelodus nebulosus. 
Pimelode nebuleux. 

Jaws equal, barbs shorter than the head. Eyes round, ex- 
ceetUngly small. Body olivaceous, clouded with pale brown, 
white beneath, lateral line nearly straight. Pectoral fins with 
1 and 9 rays, anal fin rounded with 12 rays. Tail merely 
l^otched, hardly but equally bilobed. 
Silurus nebulosna. Monogr. sp. 5. 

This species is totally ditrerent from the foregoing, and 
might perharjs form a peculiar section or even subgenus, (O- 


pladelus,) by the conical head, membranaceous opercuhim; 
but particularly because the first ray of all the tins, exeept the 
caudal and adipose, is a kind of soft obtuse spine concealed un- 
der the neshy cover of the fins. It is a large fish, from two ta 
four feet long, and commonly called Yellow Cat, Mud Cat, and 
Brown Cat; but these names are common to other species. It 
is very good to eat, either boiled or fried. Head conical de- 
pressed, iris redish brown, eyes black, lateral barbs white, the 
lateral ones brownish. Operculum with a large membranaceous 
appendage or flap. Body conical tapering behind. Dorsal fins 
with I and 6 rays. All the fins very fat, thick, and somewhat 
redish, abdominal fins brownish. Tail with 20 rays. 

2d Section. Ameiu.rus. ^Tail entire. Eyes round. Eight 
abdominal rays. Vent posterior. Dorsal fin anterior with a 
spine. Lower jaw not longer. Pectoral fins, with one simplo 
tpine and seven rays. 

75th Species. Yellow Catfish. Pimeiodus cupreus. Pime- 
lode cuivre. 

Upper jaw longer, barbs half the length of the head. Eyes 
round; Body entirely of a coppery yellow colour. Lateral line 
straight. Tail truncate entire. Anal with 15 rays. 

Silurus cufireus. Monogr. sp. 9. 

Vulgar name, Yellow Catfish. Very difTerent from the fore- 
going. Similar however in size and form. Colour uniform, 
extending on the head and fins. Spines shoi-t. It is found as 
far as Pittsburgh. Very good to eat. Some have been taken 
weighing over 200 pounds. Dorsal fin with 1 and 7 rays. 

76th Species. Brown Catfish. Pimeiodus lividus. Pim- 
clode livide. 

Jaws equal, barbs nearly equal together and as long as the 
head. Eyes round. Body entirely of a livid brown colour. 
Tail rounded entire. Lateral line raised upwards at t4iebase. 
Anal fin elongate with 25 rays. 

Silurus lividus. Monogr. sp. 7. 

A small species, entirely of a leaden brown. Head short, 
slightly olivaceous, throat pale. Barbs equal, the upper ones 
livid, the lower ones rufous. A furrow on the head which is 


convex above. Operculum fiexuose. Tall- with 24 i-ays. Dor^ 
sal vvi^h one and 7. Spines short. 

77ih Species. Black Catfish. Fimelodus melas. Pime* 
ifode noir. 

Jaws nearly eqnril. Eyes round. Barbs unequal, shorte? 
than the*head. Body entirely black, lateral line strai^it. Anal 
iin with 20 rays. Tail nearly truncate, entire. 

Silurus melas. Monogr. sp. 8. 

A rare species less than a foot long. Hardly pale beneatki. 
Dorsal fin I and 7. Found below the fails. 

78th Species. Yellow head Catfish. Pi7nelodus xanr 
thocejihalus. Pimelode xanthocephale. 

Upper jaw longer. Barbs unequal shorter than the head. 
Eyes round. Body iron grey, with the whole or part of the 
head yellow. Beliy white. Lateral line straight. Anal fin 
with 22 rays. Tail entirely truncate. 

Silurus a-anthrocephalus. Monogr. sp. 10, 

About a foot long. In the Ohio, Kentucky, Sec. Head very 
large, often entirely yellow, or only forward, or covered with 
yellow patches. Iris white. Fins fleshy redish. The dorsal 
with 1 and 6 rays, caudal 24. Good food. 

4th Section. Ilictis, Tail entire, eyes elliptical. Nine 
abdominal rays. Dorsal fins submedial. Pectoral fins with 
one flat spine serrated outwards, and nine rays. Lower ja\r 

79th Species. Mud Catfish. Fimelodus limosus^ Pime?- 
lode bourbeux. 

Lower jaw longer. Barbs black, the lateral ones reaching^ 
the pectoral fins. Body fulvous, variegated or clouded with, 
black, belly grey. No lateial line. Anal fin with 15 rays. 
^Tail entire oval obtuse. 

^iiuriis limosus. Monog. sp. il. 

A very singular species, diiTering from all others by the long 
lower jav/, £cc: Leugth about one foot. It has a slender body 
of a rufous brown mixed with black. It is found in the muddy 
streams, and near the muddy^banks of large rivers. Dorsal fin 
opposite the abdominal, with one spine concealed under the skia 
and six r^iys. Braiichial membrane apparent outside. Pecto- 


ral fins with 10 rays, the first whereof is a long and broad flat 
spine, barbed outwards. Tail with 20 rays. This fish can live 
very long out of water, and is sometimes alive 24 hours after 
liaving been taken. 

XXIII Genus. Mudcat. PIlodictis. Pylodicte. 

Body scaleless conical flattened forwards and compressed be- 
hind. Head very broad and flat, with barbs, eyes above the 
head. Two dorsal fms, both with soft rays. Vent posterior. 

This genus was the 10th of my Prod, of 70 N. G. of Ani- 
mals. The name means Mudfish. It differs principally from 
the foregoing by the second dorsal having rays. 

80th Species. Toad Mudcat. Pylodictis limosiis. Py. 
lodicte bourbeux. 

Lower jaw longer, eyes round, eight barbs, four above and 
foui' below. Head verrucose above. Body brown, clouded 
and dotted with yellowish, redish, and bluish, one row of trans- 
versal black lines on each side of the back. No lateral line. 
Tail entire and truncate. 

I have not Seen this fish, but describe it from a drawing of 
Mr. Audubon^ In is found in the lower parts of the Ohio and 
in the Mississippi, where it lives on muddy bottoms, and buries 
itself in the mud in the winter. It reaches sometimes the weight 
of 20 pounds. It bears the name of Mudcat, Mudfish, Mud- 
sucker, af»d Toadfish. It is good to eat and bites at the hook. 
The head is broader than the body and with a very large mouth; 
the barbs appear to lay in four pairs, two above, longer and 
near the nostrils, and two smaller under the lower jaw. The 
first dorsal fins triangular and above the abdominals, which are 
nearer th« pectorals than to the anal. Second elongate witli 
many rays. Number of rays unnoticed. 

XXIV Genus. Backtail. Noturus Noture. 

Difference from G. Pimelodus^ S. G. Ictaluriis^ and Sect. 
Ameiurus'. Adipose dorsal fin very long, decurrent and united 
"with the tail, which is decurrent on each side, but unconnected 
with the anal fin. 

Genus 18th of the Prodr. N. G. It differs from the genus 
Flotosus of Lacepede by having the anal fin free, and from 
Pimclociiis by the connection of the tail with the second dorsal 


fin. The name means Tail over the back. The Silurus gyrl- 
■nus of Mitchell must belong to this genus. 

81st Species. Yellow Backtail. JVotums favus, No- 
ture jaune. 

Entirely yellowish. Upper jaw longer, barbs half the length 
of the head. Eyes round. Lateral line nearly straight. Anal 
fin with 14 rays. Tail entire truncate. 

A small species very common near the falls. Length 4 to 
12 inches. It agrees in almost every thing with the Section 
jfmeiurus among the Catfihes, Vulgar name Yellow Catfish, 
like the Piinelodus cufircus. Dorsal fin^ with 1 and 7 rays, 
rounded spine very short and obtuse. Second dorsal beginning 
befbre the anal and extending to the tail in a curve. All the 
lower fins rounded. Pectorals with I and. 7 rays, spine equal 
and acute. Abdominal fins with 8 rays. All the fins fleshy 
and fat. Head flat above, barbs unequal. lielly convex. Hind 
part of the body compressed. 

XXV Genus. Toteu. Hypentelium. Hypentele. 
Body pyramidal slightly compressed, with very minute scales* 
Vent posterior. Head scaleless nearly square, mouth terminal 
protruded beneath toothless, lower jaw shorter with five lobes, 
the middle one larger, lips very small. Abdominal fins anteri- 
or, removed from the vent, with nine rays, dorsal fin anterior 

opposed to them. 

This genus belongs to the family of Cyprinidia, and is next 
to my genus Exoglossum, with which I had united it; but this 
last differs Irom it by an oblong body, flat head, lower lip trl- 
lobe not protruded, abdominal fins and dorsal fin medial. Sec- 
'The name expresses the character of the lower lip. 

82d Species. Ohio Toter. HyliGntdium macropterunu 
Hypentele raacroptere. 

Eorehead sloping truncate tuberculated. Body silvered, va- 
Viegated, and reticulated with blackish, lateral line straight and 
faint. Ail the lower fins elongated, the pectorals reaching the 
abdominals, the anal with 10 rays and reaching the tail, dorsal 
fin with 12 rays, tail forked. 

Exoglossujn macropterum. Haf. in Journal Acad. Nat. Sc 
#f Philad. Vol. I, pjrge''S20. tab. 17 fig, 4. 


It is found near the falls and is only a small fish 2 or 3 inches 
long. Its vulgar name is Toter or Stone Toter. (Toter is a 
Virginia name for carrier.) There is a kind of Chub in Vir- 
ginia which bears the same name and has the habit of pushing 
pebbles with its head in order to form an inclosure where the 
female lays its eggs; the name of Toter was given to the Ohio 
fish owing to the same peculiarity. It is a rare fish and used 
as bait. The mouth projects in a short and obtuse snout. Iris 
large and gilt. Opercule simple. Pectoral fins lanceolate a- 
cute, as long as the head and with 12 rays. Abdominal fins 
lanceolate acute, situated nearly half way between the head and 
the Vfnt, but not reaching it. Dorsal fin trapezoidal. Anal 
fin elongate. Caudal with 20 rays. 

XXVI Genus. Ribbonfish. Sarchirus. Sarchire. 

Body scalelcss slender cylindrical, slightly compressed. Vent 
posterior. Head nearly square. Jaws elongated narrow flar 
with four rows of small unequal teeth, the lower one shorter 
and moveable, the upper one longer immobile, with an obtuse 
knob atthe end. Pectoral fins round without rays, but with a thin 
circular membrane surrounding an adipose base. Abdominal 
Sns anterior with six rays. Dorsal fin posterior nearer to the 
tail than the anal. Caudal fin lanceolate, decurreul beneath. 

A very distinct genus of the family Esoxida, difi*ering from 
all the genera of rt by its fleshy pectoral fins: It differs besides 
Irom I.ejiisosteus by the naked body, and from JEsojc by thft 
tail &c. The name means fleshy arms. 

83 Species. Ohio Ribbonfish. Sarchirus -vittatus, Sar- 
chire xubanne. 

Back olivaceous brovvn, and v/lth three longitudinal furrows, ft 
black- lateral band from the mouth to the end of the tail, n® lat- 
evRl line. Belly with a lateral row of black dots on each sido. 
Jaws obtuse longer than the head. Anal and dorsal fins ovate 
acute with two transverse black bands, the anal with ten rays, the 
dorsal with nine. Tail unequilateral acuminate. 

Sarchirus vittatus, Raf. in Journ. Ac. Nat. 5c. Philadel- 
phia, V. 1, page 418, tab. 17. fig. 2. 

In the lower parts of the Ohio and at the falls; length froni 



six to twelve inches. Vulgar names Ribbonfi&h and Carfisk." 
Not used as food. Abdominal fins narrow almost linear acute^ 
and with two transverse black bands, situated halfway between 
the pectoral and anal fins. This last far from the tail. 
XXVII Genus, Pike. Esgx. Brochet. 
Body cylindrical or very long covered with small scales, venti 
posterior. One dorsal fin behind the abdominal fins. Mouth 
large, jaws long and flattened with very strong teeth: opening 
of the gills very large. Head bony scaleless. Tail not obli- 
qual. All the fins with rays. 

There are several species of Pikes in the Ohio, Mississippi^ 
Wabash, Kentucky, &c. I have not yet been able to observe 
fthem thoroughly. I have however procured correct accountSj 
and figures of two species; but there are more. They appear 
to belong to a peculiar subgenus distinguished by a long dorsal 
fin, a forked tail, and the abdominal fins anterior, being remov- 
ed from the vent. It may be called Picorellus. The French 
settlers of the Wabash and Missouri call them Piconeau, and 
the American settlers Pikes or Pickerels. They are perma- 
nent but rare fishes, retiring however in deep waters in wiHter. 
They prefer thelarg* streams^ are very voracious, and grow t« 
9. large size. They prey on all the other fishes except the Gar- 
fishes, Sec. They *re easily taken with the hook, and afford ft 
xery good food, having a delicate flesh. 

S4th Species. Streaked Pikk. Esoj^ vittatu^. Brochet" 

White, with two blackish longitudinal streaks on each side,' 
back brownism: jaws nearly equal, very obtuse, eyes large and 
behind the mouth: dorsal fias longitudinal between the abdomi- 
nal and anal fins, tail forked. 

E.vittatus. Raf. In American Monthly Magazine, 181C 
Volume 3, page 447. 

This fish is rare in the Ohio, (although it has been seen at- 
Pittsburgh,) but more common in the Wabash and Upper Mis- 
sissippi. It is called Piconeau or Picaneau by the Canadians 
and Missourians. It reaches the length of from three to fiv* 
feet. The pectoral and abdominal fins are trapezoidal, the anal 
and dorsal longitudinal with many rays and Bearly equal. It i^^ 


sometimes called Jack or Jackfish. Lateral line straight, 

85th Species. Salmon Pike. Eaox ealmoneus. Brochct 

White, with many narrow transversal brown bands, som®'', 
what curved: jaws nearly equal, very obtuse: dorsal fins brown 
longitudinal and extending over the anal fins: tail forked and 
brown . 

It is one of the best fishes in the Ohio, its flesh is very delU 
cate, and divides easily, as in Salmon, into large plate* as white 
as snow. It is called Salmon Pike, White Pike, White Jack 
•T White Pickerel, VLud' Ficaneau 6 lane by the Missourians. It 
has a short and thick head, eyes not very large, and situated 
"ttpwards. Pectoral and abdominal fins trapezoidal. Dorsal fin 
beginning behind these last and extending over the anal. Th6 
number of transversal bauds is twelve or more, rather distant 
and with the concavity towards the head. It reaches the length 
•f five feet. Lateral line nearly straight. 

XXVin. Genus. Garfish. Lepisosteus. Lepisoste 
Body cylindrical or fusiform, covered with hard bany scales, 
vent posterior. Head bony scaleless. Jaws very long, and 
with strong unequal teeth. Opening: of the gills very large. 
Tail obliqual. AH the fins with rays. One dorsal fin behind 
the abdominal fins which are removed from the vent. 

The Garfishes or Gars, are easily known from the Pikes by 
their large and hard scales. This fine genus had been over- 
looked by Linneus and united with the Pikes. Lacepede was 
the first to distinguish it; but he has not been able to ascertain 
nor elucidate its numerous species. He has blended all the 
North American species under the name of Lefiisosteus ^avial^ 
the type of which was the Esox osseus of Linneus, or r?.ther 
the Alligator fish of Catesby. I find tlrat Dr. Mitchill, in ai 
late publication, describes another species quite new under the 
©bsolete name of Esox esseus. I shall describe and distin- 
guish accurately five species living in the Ohio or Mississippi, 
which must be divided into two subgenera. To this number, 
must be added three other known speci^'^. 1. L.gavial^ iht 
Garfish or Alligator fish of the Southe' : /vtlantic States. 2. /.• 
sjiatula or the Gar of Chili. 3. L. ii.clicus or the Euit Indian 


Gar. I suspect however that there are more than ten species 
of these fishes in the United States, and many others in South 
America, See. The Gars of the Ohi© partake ot the inclina- 
tions and properties of the Pikes; but they are still more dan- 
gerous and voracious. Their ilesli may be eaten: but is often 
rejected owing to the difficulty of skianing them, the operation 
may however be performed by splitting the skin beneath in zig- 
zag. Their scales are very singular, they are not embricated 
as in all other fishes; but lay over the skin in oblique rows, and 
are as hard as bones. They have many other peculiarities in 
common which have been stated by Cuvicr^ or may bo collec • 
ted from thej^following descriptions. 

I Subgenus. Cylindrosteus. 

Body cylindrical, dorsal fin beginning behind the anal fin. 
The name means bony cylinder. 

86th Species. Duckbill Garfish. Le^isosteus p-latosto- 
fhus, Lepisoste platostome. 

Jaws nearly equal, as long as the head, about one ninth of to- 
tal length, and flattened; body cylindrical olivaceous brown a- 
bove, white beneath; fins vdlowish, dorsal and anal spotted with 
eight rays, abdominal fins with seven rays, tail obtuse oboval 
and spotted with brown; lateral line nearly obsolete. 

This species is not uncommon in the Ohio, Miami, Scioto^ 
Wabash, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Cumberland, Sec. 
and other tributary streams. It reaches the length of four feet. 
It is taken wdth the seine, the hook, and even with the gig ©r 
harpoon. It is found as far as Pittsburgh and in the Alleghany 
River. Its flesh is as good as that of the Streaked Pike; but is 
erroneously thought poisonous by some persons. I shall give a 
full description of it, which will preclude the necessity of repe- 
titions in describing the others. The individuals which I ob- 
served were 26 inches long, the head 5|, the jaws 2^ inches; 
the dimension Irom the end cf the jaws to the abdominal fins 
was 12 inches, and to the vent 18. The body was 2 inches 
horizontally and 2^- vertically; nearly cylindrical, but slightly 
flattened on the back and belly, with convex sides slightly yel- 
lowish: the whole bodv is covered with hard bonv scales, some 
"What unequal aiid obliquely rLomboiualj but with Iho^tvvo inner 

Vides concave and the two outward sides convex, lying in ob^ 
iiquc rows, surface smooth and convex. Head scaleless, hard, 
und bony, eyes behind the base ot the jaws, iris large gilt with 
a brown stripe across, centre or real eyes small and black. Jaws 
short, broad, flat and obtuse, breadth about one fifth of the 
length, the upper one putting over the lower one and with four 
small nostrils at the end, motionless and with three longitudinal 
furrows. Thelower jaw mov-cable, soft in the middle. Teeth 
white, unequal, acute, strong, and upon a single row. Tongue 
bilobed cartilaginous and rough. Branchial with 8 rayfi, jut- 
ting out and gilt. Pectoral fins yellow with 12 rays, situated 
directly behind the gill covers and elliptical acute. Abdomi- 
nal fins yellow, obliquely oboval obtuse and with T rays. Anal 
and dorsal fins oval nearly equal and acute, each with 8 rays 
the anterior of which is serrated, yellowish olivaceous and spot- 
ted with brovt'D, the dorsal beginning behind the beginning of 
the anal. Space between those fins and the tail attenuated. 
Tail or caudal fin four inches long, oblong oboval, entire ob- 
tuse, base obliqual, the lower part decurrent, with twelve rays, 
the upper one serrated, yellowish olivaceous spotted with small 
iTnequal brown spots. Lateral line concealed under the scales, 
hardly visible outside. This fish bears (together with the fol- 
lowing) the names of Gar, Garfish, Alligator Gar, Alligator 
fish. Jack or Gar Pike, &c. and on the Mississippi the French 
names of Brocheteau^ Picaneaii, Poisson caymon, Bzc. 

87th Species. White Garfish. Le/iisosteus Albus. Lep- 
isoste blanc. 

Jaws nearly equal, as long'as the head, about one eighth of to- 
tal length, and very broad; body cylindrical and white, fins oli- 
Taceous unspotted, tail obtuse oblong, lateral line obsolete. 

This fish resembles very much the foregoing, and has the 
geiieral shape of a Pike. It is covered all over with white shin- 
ing obliqual eliptical smooth and convex scales. It reaches 
the length of six feet, and is often called Garpike or Pike-gar. 
It is a rare fish in the Ohio. Jaws shorter and broader than ia 
Ihe foregoing, breadth one fourth of the length. 

88th Species. Ohio Garfish. Le/iisoateus oxyurus. Lep- 
isoste oxynre. 

tapper jaw longer, longer than the head, one sixth of total 
length, flat and narrow: body cylindrical olivaceous brown a- 
bove, white beneath: dorsal fin with eight rays, anal fm with 
ten, abdominal with six, lanceolate acute, spotted with black; 
lateral line straight, but raised upwards at the base. 

This is a Very distinct species by the shape of the jaws and 
tail. It is found in the Ohio; but is by no means common. It 
Teaches six feet in length. Its flesh is not very good to eat, ra« 
ther toagh and strong smelling, like that of some strong stur- 
geons. The individual which I observed was caught at the fallsj 
and was SO inches in length, with the upper jaw 5 inches long, 
•while the lower jaw was only four inches: the upper one has 
three furrows and juts over the lower by a thick curved obtuse 
point with four small openings or nostrils, although there were 
two other cblcng nostrils in obliciual furrows, at the base before 
the eyes. This does not appear in L.jilatosiomus. Lower javr 
straight with a membrane between the lateral lines. Teeth 
unequal straight very sharp and on a single row. Breadth of 
the jaws one eighth of t4ie length. Iris large and gilt. Head 
rough nearly square, covered with six broad plates, two of 
which on each side, and of a fulvous grey colour. Body cylin- 
<?rlcal covered vviih the usual hard scales in oblique rows; but 
r.ct two bcales exactly alike either in shape or size; they are 
generally elongated obliquely with the two longest lateral sides 
straight, the upper one concave and the lower one convex, but 
these is a row of obccrdated ones on the back. All the fins 
fulvous, the pectoral lanceolate acute with 12 rays, the abdom- 
inal lanceolate acute and with only S rays. Dorsal and anal 
trapezoidal elongated, serrated by scaly rays anteriorly. Cau- 
dal fins with 12 rays, one sixth oi total length, covered with a 
few large black spots, df a lanceolate shape, with an oblique 
jRcxuose fease decurrent beneath Bnd acute at the end, serrated 
toth upwards and downy, arda and serratures extending on the 
boay. Lu.'oral line not obsolete, quite straight, but raised a lit- 
tle upwards* ,.t the base. 

89th Species. Longbill Garj^ish. Le^tisosteus longirostris. 
I.episoste longirostre. 

£»ox 08SCU9. Mitcliill in Amer. ^Monthly Magazine, Vol. 5j 
page 321. 

Upper jaw longer than the lower and the bead one fourth of 
total length and narrow: body cylindrical, dorsal and anal lins 
with 8 rays, abdominal fins with 6, tail unspotted nearly trun- 
cate, lateral line obsolete. 

I have only seen the head of this fish, which was taken in the 
Mtiskingura. It is evidently the same fish described at length 
by Dr. Mitchill under the old Linncan name of Eaox osseus and 
found in Lake Oneida; although his description is very minulo 
in some respects, he has omitted to mention the colour of the 
"body, shape of the fins, and many other peculiarities. I refer 
to his description, and shall merely add its most striking dis- 
crepancies from the former species. Length forty inches, up- 
per jaw ten inches with two cr«oked teeth at the end, lower jaw 
nine inches, teeth of three sizes crowded on the jav.s. Scales 
rhomboidal. Abdominal fins nearly medial. Tail with 12 
rays, serrated above and below. 

2d Subgenus. Atractosteus. 

Body fusiform or spindle shaped, dorsal and anal fins quite op- 
posite. The name means bony spindle. 

90th Species. Alligator Garfish. Zesisoi/euv ferox, 
Lepisoste feroce. v, ' 

Jaws nearly equal, as long as the head, about one eighth of 
total length and broad: body fusiform and brownish; dorsal 
and anal fins opposite, tail obliqual oval, lateral line obsolete. 

This is a formidable fish living in the ^Mississippi, principally 

in the lower parts, also in Lake Pontchartrain, the Mobile, Red 

Kiver, Sec. It has been seen sometimes in the lower parts of 

the Ohio. It reaches the length of eight to twelve feet, and 

preys upon all other fishes, even Gars and Alligators. Mr. 

John D. Clifford told me that he saw one of them fight with au 

alligator five feet long and succeed in devouring him, after cut- 

Hng him in two in its powerful jaws. My description ii made 

irom a sketch drawn by Mr. Clifford, and a jaw bone preserv-" 

cd in his Museum. These jaws are from twelve to eighteen 

inches long, and from four to six inches broad. They are crowd- 

ftj YviUi teeth; unequally set, not two of ^yhicU are 9X\)^<i Id %\zt^ 


the largest lie towards the end, and have many small ones be- 
tween ihem: they are however all of the same structure, im- 
planted in sockets and conical, base grey, striated and hollow, 
top wrhite smooth, curved and very sharp. The longest ijn^as- 
ure one and a half inch, and are three quarters of an inch thick 
at the base. The diameter of the body is nearly one sixth of 
the total length. The anal and dorsal fins are small and with 
few rays. It is called the Alligator fish or Alligator gar, and 
by the Lo'aisianians Poisson Cayman. The scales are largCj 
convex, ar.d rhomboidal. 

XXIX Genus. Diamond Fish. Litholepis. Litholepe. 

Body fusiform, covered with hard stony pentaedral scales,' 
vent nearly medial. Abdominal nn near the vent. One dorsal 
fin opposite to the anal. Head bony scalelcss protruded anteri- 
orly in a long snout, mouth beneath the head, jaws not elonga- 
ted, with strong unequal teeth. Opering of the gills very large. 
Tail not obliqual. All the fins with rays. 

A very singular genus, which comes very near to the last sub- 
genus; but diiFers by the snout, mouth, tail, scales, Sec. It 
must belong however to the same family. The name means 
Stony scales. 

9 l5t Species. Devil-Jack Diamond-fish. LUholefiis ad- 
mmantinus. Litholepe adamantin. 

•Snout obtuse as long as the head; head one fourth of total 
length; body fusiform blackish: dorsal and anal fins equal and 
•with many rays: tail bilobed, lateral line obsolete. 

Litholepis adamantinus, Raf. in American Monthly Mag- 
iBzine, 1818, Vol. 3, p. 447, and in Journal de Physique et Hist, 
JVat. 70 JV. G. d'Animaux^ G. 20. 

This may be reckoned the wonder of the Ohio. It is only 
ft>iind as far up as the talis, and probably lives also in the Mis- 
sissippi. I have seen it, but only at a distance, and have been 
shown some of its singular scales. Wcnderful stones are re- 
lated eoncepning this fish, but I have principally relied upon 
the description and figure given ixie by Mr. Audubon. Its 
length is from 4 to 10 feet. One was caught which weighed 
400ibs. It lies sometimes asleep or mc-lionless on the surface 
f f the waier, and may be mistaken for a log or a snag. It i'^ 

impossible to take it in any other way than with the seine or ave- 
ry strong hook, the proncjs of the gig cannot pierce the scales 
which are as hard as flint, and even proof against lead balls! Its 
flesh is not good to eat. It is a voracious fioh: lis vulgar names 
are Diamond fish, (owing to its scales being cut like diamonds) 
Devil fish. Jack fish, Garjack, Sec. The snout is large, convex 
above, very obtuse, the eyes small and bluck, nostrils small 
round before the eyes, mouth beneath the eyes, transversal with 
large angular teeth. Pectoral and abdominal fins trapezoidal. 
Dorsal and anal fins equal longitudinal with many rays. Tail 
obtusely and regularly bilobed. The whole body covered with 
large stone scales laying in oblique rows, tl^ey are conical, pen- 
tagonal, and pentaedral with equal sides, from half an inch to 
one inch in diameter, brown at first, but becoming of the col- 
our of turtle shell when dry: they strike fire with steel! and are 
ball proof! 


Having complete gills, with a gill cover and a branchial 
membrane. No lower or ventral fins. 

XXX. Genus. Eel. Anguilt.a. Anguille. 

Body scaleless, elongated. Mouth with small tccih. PS&; 
toral fins. Dorsal and anal fins very long and united with the 
caudal fins. Vent nearly medial. Gill covers bridled. 

It is remarkable that there is only this apodial genus of fish, 
and not a single jugular genus, in the Ohio, while there are so 
many abdominal and thoracic genera. The Eels of the Ohio 
of which I have already ascertained four species belong all to 
the subgenus Conger, having the jaws nearly equal and ob- 
tuse. They are permanent, but rare, and reach a large size. 
They are taken with the hook, seines, Sec. They feed on small 
fishes, shells, and lobsters, and afford a good food. 

92d Species. Broadtail Eel. Anguilla laticauda, An- 
guille largequeue. 

Black above, white beneath, head flattened, jaws nearly equal, 
the upper Somewhat longer, obtuse and broad. Dorsal fin be- 
ginning above the pectorals, which are small and oboval; late- 

ral line beginning before the pectorals; tail large rounded and 

It is found in the Ohio in ddep and muddy bottoms. Length 
from two to four feet. Forehead sloping, eyes very small. Dor- 
sal fin and tail black. One individual of this species poisoned 
once slightly a whole family, causing violent colicks, w^hich was 
ascribed to is having been taken in the vitriolic slate rocks of 
Silver creek near the falls. 

93d Species. Black Eel. Anguilla aterrima. Anguille 

Entirely black, jaws nearly equal, flat and obtuse: dorsal lin 
beginning above the pectoral. Tail obtuse. 

This speries is found in the Tennessee, Cumberland, &c. It 
differs from the foregoing by being totally blat k, and not having 
a broad tail. The body is also somewhat rounded. It reaches 
the same length. Very good to eat. 

94th Species. Yellow-belly Eel. Anguilla xanthome- 
las. /Vnguille xantbomele. 

Black above, yellow beneath, jaws nearly equal, flat and ob- 
tuse; dorsal fin beginning over the pectorals Tail obtuse. 

This species is also very ranch like A. latkauda^ but it haS 

not the broad tall, the body is thicker, the heMy yel.ow and thick 

Sec. It is found but seldom as high as Pittsburgh. Length 

two or three feet. 

95th Species. Y-rl-lov/ "Eel, Anguilla lutea. Anguille jaune,' 

Body entirely yello\Aish; back slightly brownish; throat pales 
iaws nearly equal, obtuse, dorsal fin beginning behind the pec- 
torals: tail obtuse, marginated with brown. 

It is found in the Cumberland, Green River, Licking River, 
^c. Length commonly two feet, very good to eat. The lateral 
Ime begi'is over the pectorals, while the dorsal fin begins much 
behind and pretty near the vent. 

Having incomplete gills, without a gill coyer, or a branchial 
membrane) or without both; 


XXXI. Genus. Sturgeon. Accipejtser. Eturg^eonr 

A gill cover without branchial membrane. Body elongated 
"with three or five rows of large bony scales. Abdominal. Vent 
posterior. One dorsal and one anal fin. Tail obliqual and un- 
equal. Mouth beneath the snout, toothless, retractible; snout 
bearded by four appendages before the mouth. 

A very interesting and extensive genus, inhabiting all the 
large rivers of the northern hemisphere; many species are an- 
adromic and live in the sea in the winter. There are six spe- 
cies in the Ohio and its branches, which appear very early in 
the sprmg, and must therefore winter in the deep waters of the 
Mississippi. They are all good to eat and are used as food. 
They are taken with the seines and harpoons. They spawn in 
the Ohio, 8cc- Lmneus, Lacepede, Shaw, and Schneider knew 
very few species of this genus. I have proved, in a Monography, 
that it must contain about 40 species, of which I haye ascer- 
tained 20. Seven of them belong to the Old Continent; 1. A. 
sturio^ Linneus. 2. ^. husoy L. 3. ji. ruihenus, L. 4. .4. stel' 
latus^ L. 5. A. lichtensteiniy Schn. 6. ji. lutescens^ Raf. 7. 
A, attilusy Raf. ; while thirteen are peculiar to North America; 
8. A. atlanticicsy Raf. fA. sturio^ Mitchill.J -9. A. oxyrinchusy 
Mitchill. 10. A.rubicundus.\uQ^\XQ\xv^ \\. j1. muricnfu9,B.^f. 
(var. prec. Lesueur.) 12. A, marginatus^ Raf. 13. A* Areviros- 
truTTit Les. (His three varieties are probably distinct species*) 
14, A. hudsonius^ Raf. ; besides the six following ones. 
1st SubgcQus. Sturio. 

Five rows of scales on the body, one doi'salj two lateral, and. 
two abdoiuinal. 

96th Species. Spotted Sturgeon. Accipenser maculosus» 
Etufgeon tachete. 

A. 7naculosus. Lesueur in Transactions of the American 
Philosophical Society; New Series vol 1, page 393. 

Head one fourth of total length channelled between the eyes» 
which are oblong, snout elongated obtuse. Body pentagonal 
olive, with black spots and small asperities: 13 dorsal scaleSf 
lateral rows with 35 scales, abdominal rows with 10. 

It is found in the Ohio as far as Pittsburgh. Size small, not 
exceeding two feet. Mouth and pectoral fins large. Scales 


rugose, radiated, keeled and spincscent behind. Iris yellovr 
oblong. See Lesueur's description. 

9rth Species. Shovelfisii Sturgeon. Jiccijienscr iilaHryn- 
chus. Eturgeon pelle. 

Head one fifth of total length, flattened, snout flat oval, hard- 
ly obtuse, rough above, eyes round. Body pentagonal smooth, 
pale fulvoLJs above, white beneath. Tail elongated mucronate: 
16 dorsa! scales, lateral rows with 40, abdominal rows with 12. 

A sii guTar species, very common in the Ohio, Wabash, and 
Cumberland in the spring and summer, but seldom reaching as 
high as Pittsburgh. It appears in shoals in March, and disap- 
pears in August. It is very gocd to eat and bears many names, 
such as Spade-fish, Shovel-fish, Shovel-head, Flat-head, Flat- 
nose, &c. having reference to the shape of its head, which is 
flattened somev/hat like a spade. It is also found in the Mis- 
sissippi and Missouri, where the French call it La pelle or Poi- 
son pelle^ which has the same meaning. Size from two to three 
feet, greatest weight 20 lb. Body rather slender, with small 
bluish dots on the back and whitish on the sides. Dorsal scales 
brownish, radiated, punctuated, and spinescent. Lateral scales 
dimidiated, serrated behind, the posterior smaller: the abdom- 
inal nearly similar, hardly serrated. Two roscrils on each side 
before the eyes, the posterior larger oblong obliqual. Eyes 
round black, iris coppered. Mouth with eight lobes and ver- 
rucose. Tail veiT^ long, one fifth of total length, the upper lobe 
scaly above, slender and with a long filiform terminal process. 
All the fins trapezoidal, the dorsal falcated with 25 rays and 
nearly opposite to the anal. Pectoral large 45 rays. Abdom., 
inal 20. Anal 14. Tail, inferior lobe 18, superior 60. 
2d Subgenus. Steuletus. 

Only three rows of scales, one dorsal and two lateral. 

98th Species. Fall Sturgeon. Accipenser serothnus. E« 
turgeon tardif. 

Head conical two ninths of total Ienp;thj snout short obtuse, 

eyes somewhat oblong. Body cylindrical entirely fulvous brown, 

belly white. Tail short and truncate obliquely. Dorsal scales 

17, two of which behind the dors?d fin, lateral rows with about 

- -^0 scales. 

Y^-i^%.t^-;_ ''A,<^DK,i(^'^-erfc^$ P ? 1^ 


A large species reaching .I and 6 feet in length. It appear* 
5ft June and disappears in November, but is seldom caught, ex- 
cept in the fall, when attempting to go dgun the river. It is 
sometimes caught in the Krntucky as late as November. It 
affords a tolerably good food. Snout very short yet somewhat 
attenuated, barbs brown, eyes-nearly round, head with a depres- 
sion above, lips very thick. Scales radiated knobby behind. 
Pecioial and anal fin somewhat oboval, the abdominal and dor- 
sal trapezoidal. 

99th Species. Ohio Sturgeox. jiccij'ienaer ohiensis, Etur-r 
geon del' Ohio. 

Head conical one fifth of total length, snout sloping short 
nearly acute, eyes round. Body cylindrical rough olivaceo'is) 
fulvous, belly white. Tail short lunulafe falcate. Dorsal 
scales Ucarinated, the lateral rows with 34 dimidiated and un- 

Somewhat similar to the foregoing. Length from three to 
four feet. Found as far as Pittsburgh, comes in the springs and 
goes away in September. Head convex above, with a protuber- 
ance on the top. All the fins trapezoidal but somewhat falcate. 
The tail remarkably so, and obliquely lunulate, the lobes not di- 
vided by a notch as usual in the other species. It has been 
mentioned by Lesueur as a variety of his A: rubicundus^ page 
390 of the Trans. Am. Phil. Society, buUt differs widely from 


100th Species. Bigmouth Sturgeon, ^cci/ienscr macros- 

t9mus. Eturgeon beant. 

Head one fourth of total length, snout elongated, someivhat 
■Rattened, eyes rounds Body cylindrical deep brown above, 
white beneath. Tail elongated; about 20 dorsal scales, seve- 
ral between the dorsal and anal fin, about 30 scales in each latj 
cral row. 

I have not seen this species, but Mr. Audubon has commu- 
nicated me a drawing of it. It is only found in the lower parts 
of the Ohio, and reaches four feet in length. Good food. 
Mouth large gaping, hanging down, retractible. Gill cover 
•blong. Tail slender, the lower lobe very small. Fins trape- 


soidal, the dorsal and anal somewhat falcated and more distant 
irow the tail than usual Lateral scales dimidiated. 

XXXn Genus. Double fin Dinectus. Dinecte. 

Differs from Sturgeon, by having tv/o dorsal and no abdom* 
inaj fins. First dorsal anterior, the second opposed to the anal. 
Three rows of scales as in Sterletus, 

This genus rests altogether upon the authority of Mr. Audu- 
bon, who has presented me a dra^vmg of the only species be- 
longing to it. It appears very distinct if his drawing be cor- 
rect; but it requires to be exa.mmed again. Is it only a Stur- 
geon incorrectly dravvn? 

lOlst Species. Flatjstose.Doublefin.. Dinectus truncatus, 
jDinecte camus. 

Head one fifth of total length, conical, snout very short trun- 
cated, eyes round. Body cylindrical deep brown above, silve- 
ry white beneath, tail elongated: dorsal scales, 4 before the first 
dorsal fin, 5 bctv^een the fins, and 4 behind the second, lateral 
rows with about 30 small dimidiated scales. 

This fish was taken v.ith the seine near Hendersonville in 
the spring of 18 IS by Mr. Audubon. Length two feet, skin 
very thick and leathery. Mouth very larg'e and hangmg down 
as in the foregoing, somewhat like a probo-ici?.. Pectoral and 
anal fins trapezoidal, dorsal fins nearly triangular, the first larg- 
er r.nd standing immediately behind the pectoral. Gill cover 
rounded. Tail somewhat forked, the upper lobe thrice as long 
as the lower. Four long white barbs, very near the end of the 
snout, eyes above the mouth. 

XXXIII Genus. Stadefish. Polyodon. Polyodon. 

Differs from Sturgeon, by having a transversal mouth with 
teeth, no barbs ?md no scales. Snout protruded ma long flat 
process, gill cover elongated by a- membraceous appendage. 

This singular genus was first described by Lacepede. It be- 
lonp-s to the family of Sturicrda^ along with the two foregoing 
and the followinjr. Only one species is known as yet. 

102d Species. Western Spadefish. Polyodon foliums 
7^olyodon feuille. 

He^id longer than the body, snout as long as the head, cucei- 


form obtuse thin and veined with one main nerve. Brown a^ 
bove, while beneath. 

Squalus sfiathula Lacep. Poiss. 1, p. 403, tab. 12, fig;. S. 

Polyo don folium Lacep. and Auct. mod. 

Spatularia. Schneider's Ichthyology. 

This singular fish hab often been described and figured, but 
I ha/e not seen a single figure of it perfectly correct It is a 
tare fish, occasionally seen in the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, 
&c. It disappears in winter. I saw several at the falls in Sep- 
tembj&r1818. It is caught m the seines and sometimes bites 
at the hook. It is not eaten. Length from one to three feet. I 
^hall add an exact description of it. An oblong rcdish spot at 
the base oi the snout, which is brown membranaceous, with a 
thick cartilaginous nerve in the middle and many veins, broader 
and obtuse at the end. Eyes round small black, before the 
mouth, a small nostril in front of them. Mouth large, similar 
to that of a shark, with small crowded teeth on the jaws and 
the tongue, this is large thick and similar to a file. Gill cover 
very long membranaceous reaching the abdominal fins. A lat- 
eral line following the curve of the back. All the fins I rown, 
nearly rhomboidal, with an obliqua redish band, and a multi- 
tude of small crowded rays, inserted on a thick fiesh]^. 
lump: the dorsal fin larger and rather more anterior than the 
anal. Tail very obliqual, serrated above: lobes not very differ- 
ent in size, but extremely in shape and situation, the lower one 
broader, shorter, and nearly triangular. 

XXXIV Genus. Paddlefish. Planirostra. Planirostre. 
Differs from Polyodon^ by having no teeth whatever and the 
gill-cover radiated with a short appendage. 

By the want of teeth this genus is intermediate between Po- 
lyodon and Jiccipenser. It was first described by Lesueur, un- 
derHhe n^an^^A Platirostra (by mistake) instead of P/aw/rosrra, 
I had called it in manuscript Megarhinus paradoxus. 

103d Species. Toothless Paddlefish. PlaninostraedeU" 
■iula. Piaitirostre edente. 

Head as long as the body, snout longer than the hr;\tl, oCi^ie- 
^hac ^cuneiform; obtuse^ and Uiin^ witu two longitudinal nerves 

and reticulated veins forming an hexagonal net\tork. Body en- 
tirely o'^^o brown. 

PlatiroHra edentula^ Lesueur in Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila-^ 
delphia, VoIuitip. 1, page 229. 

This fish is still more rare than the foregoing, but found oc- 
casionally as far as Pittsburgh- It is larger, reaching from 3 to 
5 feet and 50''bs weight. Not very good to eat. It has been so 
fully described by Lesueur, that I need not do it again. The 
indivif;lual which I saw was 40 inches long, head 20 inches, 
snout 1 1 inches long and 1\ wide at the end, hardly cuniforra. 
Eyes vixceedingly small and round. Gill cover oval radiated 
as in ihe Sturgeons, wiihashort membranaceous flap, reaching 
on! beyond the pectoral fins, &c. It is also called, along with 
the forcicoing, Oarfibhand Spatula fish. 

XXXV Genus. Lamfrey. Prtromyzon. Lamproie. 

Body cylindrical scaleless, vent posterior. Two dorsal fins 
and a caudal fin, no other fins. Seven branchial round holes oa 
each side of the neck. Mouth terminal inferior acutiform, 
tof thed. 

There are two or three species of Lampreys in the Ohio; but 
they are very scarce and I have only seen one as yet. 

I04rh Species. BlA-CK. Lamprey- Petromyzon nigri»n. 
Lamproie noire. 

Entirely blackish, tail oval acute, second dorsal over the vent, 
several rows of teeth. 

A very small species, from four to five inches long; it is found 
as high as Pittsburgh. Dorsal fins shallow, and distant from 
each other and the tail. Eyes round and large. Branchial 
holes small. No lateral line. Mouth oval, teeth white and 
yellow. It torments sometimes the Buffaloe fish and Sturgeons, 
upon which it fastens itself. It is never found in sufficient 
f u^vntity to be vised aS food. 

yf^^Akm^-^^i P^ %^ 

f i I 

The Itchthyology of the River Ohio was begun to be printed 
in the Wcatcrn Review in December 1819, and has been con- 
tinued gradually until November 1820. During the course of 
the impression some new species have been discovered, or as- 
certained, which I now propose to notice. 


XXXVI Genus. Springfish. PepxEdictis. Pegedicte. 

Body conical with small scales, belly flat, vent medial. Head 
broad scaleless, gill cover with a membranaceous appendage 
and a concealed spine, mouth toothed. Two dorsal fins, the 
iirst with simple, soft, semi-spinescent rays. Thoracic fins 
■with five rays. 

This new genus belongs to the family Percidia, and has many 
affinities with the G. Holocentrus Lepomia, Ethcoatoma^ Sec. 
but its conical form and many other secondary peculiarities dis- 
tinguish it completely. The name means Fountain-fish. 

105th Species. Catseye Springfish. Pegedictis ictalops, 
Pegedicte seuil de chat. 

Jaws equal, forehead knobby, eyes elliptical. Body oliva- 
ceous with some black transversal unequal brown bands; a con- 
cealed spine on the gill cover: lateral line straight: tail ellipti- 
cal. The first dorsal fin with 8 rays, the second wivii 12, as 
well as the anal and pectoral fins. 

I have discovered this species in the summer of 1820 near 
Lexington. It has no vulgar name. Length hardly two inch- 
es. Head large brown, convex above witl^ several small knobs 
on the forehead, fiut beneath. Eyes as in the Catfishes with ob- 
long eyes, iris gilt brown. Spine of the gill cover coficealed 
iinder the skin. Teeth small and acute. Pectoral fins large 
lanceolate. Btlly white and flat. Fins hyalin with some brown 
spots. Five transversal bands. The specific name means Cats- 

6lh Genus. Etheostoma. 

I06th Species. Springs Hogfish. JEtheostoma fontinalis, 
Etheostome des fcntaincs. 

Body ot^long cylindrical, breadth one sixth of the length, oH- 
vaceous, sides with transversal brown lines somewhat curved: 
a small round black spot behind the gill cover; latv;ral line ob*. 
solcle. Jaws obtuse, the upper one shorter. Tail oboval en- 
tire gilt tesselated with black. First dorsal with 8 rays, the se- 
cond and anal with 12. 

A little species, from one to two inches long, found in the 
springis and caves near Lexington in the summer. It belongs 
to the subgenus Difilesion. Body cylindrical somewhat com- 
pressed. Head small flat above: gill coyer attenuated behin^ 


obtuse and with a spine. Eyes small, iris gilt. Dorsal fina 
joining, the first with spiny rays appencUculatecI, second with 
soft rays, anal fin opposed to it and with two spiny rays. Pec- 
toral lanceolate with 12 rays, thoracic lanceolate with 6. Vent 


17th Genus. Semotilus. 

107th Species. Silverspotted Chubby. Semotilus? nota- 
tus. Semotile tache. 

Breadth one sixth of the length, brownish, pale beneath; 
head smail obtuse with a large silver spot on the forehead be- 
fore the eyes, jaws neajly equal; dorsal fin opposed to the anal, 
tail oboval entire. 

It is found in the Cumberland River, and the Little River, a 
branch of it. Communicated by Mr. Wilkins. It is rather 
doubtful whether it belongs to this genus, ovMimiilus, Rulilus, 
Sec. It might perhaps be found to constitute a peculiar one 
by the small mouth without lips, and the posterior dorsal fin. 
Vent posterior. Pectoral and abdominal fins oboval. Eyes 
large. Length three inches, good bait for Perch, Bass, Red- 
eyes or Ringeyes, Sec. 

26th Genus. Sarchirus. 

108th Species. Silver Ribbonfish. Sarchirus? argenteus. 
Sarchire argente. 

Entirely silvery, without bands- or spots. 

Communicated by Mr. Owmgs. It is found in Licking Riv- 
er, Slate Creek, See. Length from two to three feet. It is call- 
ed Pike and may be one, but as it is described without scales 
and very slender, I have added it to this genus, until it is better 



lG9th Species. Gourdfish Sturgeon. Jiccipenser lagena' 
riu8. Eturgeon gourde. 

Snout attenuated obtuse like a gourd, body entirely brown. 

A species of Stuigeon which I have never seen, is said io 
live in the Ohio, which is called Gourdfish otving to its head 
having the shape of a gourd, of which the snout represents the 
neck. It reaches twe and three feet in length. 

XXXVIl Genus. Sawfish. Pristis. Poisson-Scie. 

Abdominal, with five branchial spiracles on each side, body 
cylindrical, tail obliqual, head protruded in a long sav»\ 

This genus belongs to the family of Sharks or Antacea. 

llOlh Species. Mississippi Sawfish. Pristis Mississipfii- 
ensis, Poisson-Scie du Mississippi. 

Sav thicker in the middle where it has two longitudinal fur- 
rows; margin somewhat sinuated with transversal depressions, 
26 long and narrow acute teeth on each side, alternating with 


the depressions: extremity of the saw rounded nearly truncate, 
with a raised granular margin reflected upwards. 

I have only seen the saw of this fish, which is preserved in 
Mr. Clifford's museum. It is six and a half inches long, and 
one broad, olivaceous above, pale beneath, middle part raised 
but flat. Teeth half an inch long, shorter and more distant near 
the base, 26 on the right and 27 on the left, nearly equal. This 
fish is found in the Mississippi, Lake Pontchartrain, Red River, 
Arkansas, Mobile, and has even been seen in the Ohio, length 
from three to six feet. 

XXXVIIl Genus. Hornfish; Proceros. Proceros. 
Apoddi. Body elongated. Vent posterior. One dorsal fin 
opposed to the anal. Mouth beneath transversal toothed. Snout 
protruded in a a straight horn. Four spiracles or branchias on 
each side. 

Singular new genus of the family of Sharks or Antacea^ from 
which however it difl'ers by Ihe want of abdominal fins. There 
are two species of it: the second, which I have called Proceros 
vietatusj lives in Lake Ontario, and has longitudinal stripesl'* 

11 1th Species. Spotted Hornfish. Proceros maculutussi 
Proceros tacheteii 

Iron grey with white spots on the sides: tail forked: horn 
one fourth of total length. 

This fish lives in the Mississippi, and is sometimes caught 
at St. Genevieve in the State of Missouri. The French set- 
tlers call it P@isso7i arme. It has no scales, but its head is bony: 
Eyes very small. Dorsal and anal fine rounded. Length two 
or t^hree feet, vei'y good to eat. Communicated by Mr. M— — 
of St. Genevieve. 

Several imperfect and incorrect notices or Catalogues of fish- 
es living in the western waters have been published. Carver 
and Pike have noticed those of the Upper Mississippi, Curtis 
those of Red River, Pike those of the Arkansas and Osage riv- 
ers, Thomas those of the Wabash, and Lewis and Clarke those 
of the Missouri; but very few practical facts can be collected 
from their imperfect accounts, except perhaps from the two 
latter travellers. I may at a future period notice the new fish- 
es of the Missouri, discovered by Lewis and Clarke. I shall 
at present merely add some facts lately ascertained or drawn 
from Thomas's account of the fishes of the River Wabash, page 
211 of his travels published in 1819. 

2d Sp. Perca chrysofis^ is found in the Wabash, and called 
Rock-mullet, it reaches three feet in length and fifteen prounds 
in weight. This fish will not bite at the hook, unless when it 
is withdrawn, it then darts on it. 

4th Sp. Amblodon ^runniens. It is sometimes called Drurm 
in the Wabash. 


14th Sp. Lefioniisjlexuolarifi, Mr. Wil kins has informed 
Itie that this fish watches over its spawn, and prevents any small 
f^sh from coming near it: while thus employed it will not bite 
at the hook, bat endeavours to drive avv'ay the bait. It is com- 
mon in all the tributary streams of the Ohio, also in the Arkan- 
sas, Osa[^e, Missouri, &Co 

19th Sp. Jfilocentrics calUop^. Found in the Cumberland, 
Tennessee, Little River, &c. and calied Redeyes or Ringeyes, 
63d Sp. Catostomus eryihrtirus. In the Wabash, weighing 
as far as 15 pounds. 

TlstSp. Pimelodus pallidus. It is called Wal-heu ov TiQG^ 
v/ater fish by the Lenape Indians. The other Catfishes are gen- 
erally- called IVt-sa-meek by the same Indians, which means 
Fat fish. The names of Pout and Bullheads are given to some 
species in the Wabash, Miami, Mississippi, Sec. The French 
settlers call them Barbottes. 

84th Sp. Esox vittatits. Thomas mentions three kinds of 
Pikes found in the Wabash, 1, River Pike, 2. Pond Pike, slim, 
three feet long, excellent, 3. Jack Pike or Pickerel, excellent, 
weip;hing from 5 to 20lbs. 

89th Species. Le/iisosteiw longirostris. Common in the 
Wabash, called Gar or Billfish, two leet long and quite slim; 
bill six inches and pointed. It is a strong fish. Thomas says, having caught them in his hands, he was unable to hold 


Some trlvly.l errors or omissions of the press have occurred, which may 
be'easily detected; but the follovying', being more importanr, deserve cor» 

Pa£;e 15, line 5, Pltlsbursjh had oily 8000 inhabitants by the census 
of 1820, and Cincinnati about 9000. 

Page 19, 1. 22. The Cumberland has a fine fall in Kentucky near Mon- 

Page 21. Perca sahnonea add Raf. 1313 In Amer. Month. Mag. V. 3, p.354 

Page 29, 1. 1, Enythrohs read Kvijthrops. 

Page 34, 1. IT, add Bo<;ia?ius caUiop?, iiaf. 1818, Am M Mag V 3, p 457. 

Page 38, 1. 4, add Sciena capjodes, Kuf. 1818 in Am M Mag 3, p 334. 

Page 40, 1. 2, actl Chipea hetemrus, Kaf. 1818, in Am M Mag 3, 355 

Page 42, I. 18, add Glossodon heiencnis, Raf. in Am M Mag 3, p 354. 

Page 43, 1. 2, add Glossodon hareng-cides, Raf. in AmM Slug 3, p 354. 

Page 43, 1. 35, If:jodoii Clodalus read Ifyodori tergisus. 

Page 45, 1. 23, .Minvhis read JMinnilus, 

Page 49, 1. o5, SenotUu..i read Semotilus 

Page 50, 1. 10, IJiplemia read Dipleiruuff. 

Page 52, 1. 27, Flat-head read Fat-head. 

Page 55, 1. 21, add Raf. 1818, in American Monthly Ma^^. 3, p 355. 

Page 59, 1, 5, add Raf. 1813 in American Monthly Maga/ine, 3 p 355. 

Page 62, 1. 21, add Slluru3 punstaiu^t Raf. 1318 in Am M Mag 3, p 355. 

Page 64, 1. 36, add Sihtrns oUvaris, Uaf 1818 in Am M Ma^ 3 p 355. 

Fa^-e 77, add to Jnjidlla iaiicauda, Raf 1818 in Am M Mag 3 p 447. 





f>f Scientific JSTames, 

o/" American JYamcs. 

*Accipenser Genus 


Alligator fish 

Species 86, 90. 

Amblodon - - - 


Backtail - - 

- Genus 24. 

Amhloplites - - 

- 5. 


- Sp. 47, &c. 

Ameiurus - - - - 


Barbot - - 

- - - 20. 

Jlmphiodon - - 



- - - G. 22. 

*Anguilla - - - 


Bass Sp.2,3, 

,12,13, 14, &c. 

Jiplites - - - - 



Sp. 89. 

Aplesion - - - - 




Aplocentrus - - 

- 7. 

Blackhead - 

- 52. 

Aplodinotus - - - 


Bluefish - 

- - 7, 8. 

Atractosteus - - 



- 4. 

Calliurus « - - 


Buffaloe fish 

- - 55, 5Q. 

Carpiodes - - - 


Carp - - 

- 53, 54, f,1. 

^Catostomus - - - 



G. 22. 

Chrosmnus - - 


Chub - - 

Sp. 39, 40, 41. 

Clodalus - - - - 



G. 29. 

Cycleptus - - - 




Cylindrosteus - - 



- 18. 

Dinectus - - - 


Fantail ■• 

- Sp. 22. 

Dioplites - - - - 



G. 19. 

Diplesion - - - 




Dorosoma - - - 



- 11. 

Decactylus - - - 


Gold eyes 

Sp. 2. 

Elliops - - - - 


Gold herring 

- G. 12. 

^Esox - - - - 


Gold head - 

Sp. 40. 

Etheostoma - - - 



- G. 18. 

Eurystomiis - - 




Exoglossum - - - 

. 25. 

Herring - 

- Sp. 28 33. 

Glossodon - - - 


Hog fish 

G. 9. 

*Hyoclon - - - . 


Horn fish 


Hypentelium - - 


Jack Sp. 

84, 86,91, &c. 

Ictalurus - - - . 

■ 22. 


- G.35. 

Ichtlielis - - - 


Minnies or Minnows G. 15. 

Ictiobus - - - . 

■ 20. 



^Labrus - - - - 



Sp. 79, 80 

Lepibema - - - - 

. 2. 



*Lepisosteus - - 



- G. 34. 

Lepomis - - - - 


Painted tail 

Sp. 5./ 




2,3,4,13, 18. 

Litholepis - - - 



- 55. 


Liixilus - - 

Genus 16. 

Pike - ? - G. 27. 


- - 15. 

Poisson armc - G. 38. 

^foxostoma - 

- - 20. 

Poisson cayman - 28. 


- - 5. 

Polnson lunette. - - 20, 


- ~ 12. 

Pucker - . 22, 

Npturus - - 

- - 24. 

Redbelly . Sp. 11. 

Pcgedictis - 

- - 36. 

Redeyes - - 9, IS- 

*Perca - - 

- - I. 

Redfi&h - - 50, 5K 


- - 35. 

, Red liorse ) 63. 

^Pimelodus - 

- - 22. 

Red tail ] 


- - 19. 

Ribbon fish - - G. 26. 

*Piani rostra - 

- - 34. 

Salmon - - - Sp. 1. 


- - 8. 

Sawfish . - G. 37. 


- - 33. 

Shad - - Sp.26, 27. 


- - 10. 

Shiner - - G. 16, 

i^omotis ' - 

- - 4. 

Skimback - Sp. 43, 58. 


» - 6. 

Siiverfish - - 46, &c. 

^Pristis - - 

- - 37. 

Shovelfish . G. 33. 

Proceros » 

. - 38. 

Springsfish - - 36. 

Pylodictis - 

- - 23. 

Sturgeon - - 31. 


- - 18. 

Sucker - - 20 

*Salnio - - 

- - 14. 

Suckrel - - 21. 

Sarchirus - 

- - 2q. 

Suiifish Sp. 6 to 12, 20. 


- - n. 

Toadnsh - - 80. 



Toter - - G. 25. 

- .. 31. 

Trout Sp. 15,34,35. 

Slizostedioh - 

- - 1. 

Whiteyes - - - 20. 

Siurio - - 

- - 31. 

Tellpomis - 

- - 4. 

Ter&lidus - - 

. - 20- 

N. B. The names with as';erists .ire old g-eneric those in italicft 
are new subgeu'sra, or French names in the second column.