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Full text of "Iconographic encyclopaedia of science, literature, and art"

EX LIBRIS 

The Cooper Union 



THE GIFT OF 



The Misses Hewitt 



ICONOGRAPHIC 

E NC YC LOP^DIA 

OF 

SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND ART. 



SYSTEMATICALLY AKRANGED 



J. G. HECK 



TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN, WITH ADDITIONS, 
AND EDITED BY 

SPENCER F. BAIRD, A.M., M.D„ 

PROFESSOR OF NATURAL SCIENCES IN DICKINSON COLLEGE, CARLISLE, PA. 



ILLUSTRATED BY FIVE HUNDRED STEEL PLATES, 

CONTAINING- UPWARDS OF TWELVE THOUSAND ENGRAVINGS. 



IN FOUR VOLUMES. 



YOL. IV: 

ARCHITECTURE, 

MYTHOLOGY, THE FINE ARTS, 

TECHNOLOGY. 



NEW YORK: 1851. 
RUDOLPH GARRIGUE, PUBLISHER, 

8 BARCLAY STREET (ASTOR HOUSE). 






Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1849, by 

RUDOLPH GARRIGUE, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York. 



112 Fulton 8t , N T. 



CONTENTS 



ARCHITECTURE. 



[The nombers refer to the bottom paging of the text.] 



I. Ancient Ai-cliitectiu-e, ..... 

1. Ancient Hindoo Architecture, 

2. Egyptian Ai-cliitecture, . . 

3. Assyrian, Median, Babylonian, and Persian Ai'cliitecture, 

4. Grecian Architecture, .... 

1. Genera] Considerations, 

2. Special Description of Grecian Structures, 

5. Phoenician or Syrian Architecture, 

6. Roman Ai*chitectm-e to the Time of Constantine the Great, 

A. The Period of the Kings, 

B. The Period of the Repubhc, . 

C. The Period of the Emperors, . 
Y. The Ordei-s, ..... 

8. Monuments of the Gauls and Britons (Celts), 

9. Chinese Architecture, .... 
10. American Architecture, .... 

n. The Architecture of the Middle Ages, 

1. The Period from Constantine the Great to the 11th Century, 

A. The Romanesque Style, 

B. The Byzantine Style, 

C. The Gothic and Lombardic Styles, 

D. The Arabian or Moorish Style, 

E. Modern Persian and Indian Styles, 

2. The Period from the 11th to the 16th Century, or to the Decline of 

Art, including the Pointed-Ai'ch Style, 

3. The Period of the Renaissance, 
m. Modern Architecture, 

1. Churches and Chapels, 

A. Italy, 

B. France, 

C. Germany, 

D. England, 

E. Russia, 

2. Castles and Palaces, 

A. Italy, 



1 
1 
5 

19 

22 

22 

32 

53 

58 

58 

59 

68 

97 

106 

115 

118 

124 

124 

124 

131 

141 

142 

146 

14Y 

114: 

180 
182 
182 
191 
196 
198 
199 
201 
201 



^5 



^A 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



Modern Architecture — {Continued.) 




B. France, ....,, 


. 204 


^ C. Belgium and Holland, . . . . 


. 207 


D. Great Britain, . . . . . 


. 207 


3. Theatres, ....... 


. 207 


4. Museums, ..... 


. 208 


5. City and Council Houses. Government Buildings, 


. 209 


6. Exchanges, ..... 


. 210 


7. Universities, ..... 


. 211 


8. Assembly Houses, .... 


. 212 


9. Watch-Houses, Custom-Houses, Excise Houses, 


. 212 


10. Honorary Monuments, .... 


. 213 


11. Halls and Bazaars, .... 


. 215 


12. Prisons, ...... 


. 217 


13. Bridges, ...... 


. 217 



CONTENTS OF THE PLATES (VII. 1—60) 

TO 

AROHITECTUKE. 

^*^ The references for explanations of the subjects are to the bottom paging of the text. 



PLATE 1. 

Fig. 1. Rock temple of Mavalipuram, 

" 2. Pagoda at Chalembaram, . 

« 3. Pagoda at Tretshengur, 

" 4. Pagoda near Benares, 

« 5. Interior of the temple of Indra, 

« 6, 7. Grotto temples, 

PLATE 2. 

Fig. 1. Temple of Kailasa near Ellora, 
" 2. Temple of Indra Sabah at Ellora 
" 3. Interior of the grotto temple on 

the island of Elephanta, 
« 4. Interior of the temple of Wisua 

Karmah at Ellora, 

PLATE 3. 
Figs. 1,2. Sculptures from Nineveh, 
" 3-11. Fragments from Persepolis, 
" 12. Tomb of Nakshirustam, . 
" 13-15. Hindoo pillars, 

PLATE 4. 

Fig. 1- Temple of Antaeopolis, 

" 2. Theatre in Antinoe, . 

" 3. Ruins of Apollinopolis Magna, 

" 4. Temple of Carnak, . 

" 5a. Temple of Tentyra, . 

" 56. Temple at Latopolis, 



19 

21 

21 

2,4 







PAGE 




PLATE 4 — {Continued.) 




Fig. 


6. Temple on the island of Philae, 


5 


a 


7. Rock-cut tombs of Silsilis, 


7 


« 


8. Entrance to the temple of Typhon 






at Denderah, 


15 




PLATE 5. 




Figs. 


1-6. Temple of Apollinopolis 






Magna, . 


7 


tc 


7. Plan of the Palace of Carnak, 


12 


t( 


8-11. Details from the same, . 


12 


" 


12. Catacombs at Thebes, 


10 


(( 


13, 14. Catacombs of Alexandria, 


16 




PLATE 6. 




Fig. 


1. Pyramid in Lake Moeris, . 


17 




2. Pyramids of Gizeh, . 


17 


" 


3. Section of a pyramid at Memphis 


, 17 


t< 


4. Pyramid at Assur in Nubia, 


16 


(( 


5. Colossi at Thebes, . 


9 


« 


6. The Sphinx of Gizeh, 


17 


i( 


7. Hall of the palace at Camak, 


12 


« 


8. Entrance into the palace of Luxor 


, 11 


a 


9. Propylaea on the island of Philae 
PLATE 7. 


, 5 


Figs 


. 1-24. Illustrating general conside 






rations on architecture, 


22-32 



CONTENTS. 



PLATE 8. 

Fig. 1. The Acropolis of Tiryns, . . 33 

" 2. Section of the same, ... 33 

" 3,4. The Grottoes of Corneto, . 36 

" 5. The Gate ofthe Lions at Mycenae, 34 

" 6. Section through the same, . . 34 
" 7. Entrance of the Treasury of 

Atreus at Mycenae, . . 34 

" 8. Section of the same, ... 34 
" 9-11. Plan and sections of the Gi- 
ganteja on the Island of 

Gozzo, .... 35 

PLATE 9. 

Fig. 1. View of ancient Athens, . . 37 

" 2. Western front of the Parthenon, . 43 

" 3. The temple of Theseus, . . 38 

" 4. The Tower of the Winds, . . 39 

" 5. The Choragian monument of Ly- 

sicrates, . . . .40 

" 6. Temple of Segesta in Sicily, . 52 

PLATE 10. 

Figs. 1,2. Temple of Jupiter at Olympia, 46 

" 3-5. Temple of Theseus, . . 38 

" 6. Eastern front of the Parthenon, . 43 

" 7. Plan of the Parthenon, . . 43 

8,9. Temple of Minerva Pohas,&c., 43 

" 10-12. The Odeon in Athens, . . 41 

" 13, 14. Doric portico, ... 41 

" 15. Temple on the Ilissus, . . 40 

" 16. The temple of Diana in Eleusis, . 45 

" 17. Temple of Cybelein Sardis, . 47 
" 18, 19. Temple of Concordia in Agri- 

gentum, .... 51 

" 20,21. Temple at Pffistum, . . 50 

" 22,23. Temple at Euxomus in Ionia, 48 

" 24-27. Temples at Paestum, . . 51 

PLATE 11. 

Fig. 1. The Acropolis of Athens, . . 42 

" 2. Temple of .Tupiter Olympius in 

Athens, elevation, . . 3*0 
3. Ditto, plan, .... 39 

" 4. Ditto, section, .... 39 

" 5. Temple of Minerva Polias, Erech- 
theus, and the Hall of the 
Nymph Pandrosos in Athens 
(restored view), ... 43 

" 6. Longitudinal section of the Par- 
thenon in Athens, . . 43 

" 7, 8. Temple of Castor and Pollux 

in Rome, .... 75 
9-12. Temple of Faustina in Rome, 88 

" 13. Plan of the temple of Cybele in 

Sardis, .... 47 

" 14. Plan of the temple of Concordia 

in Agrigentum, ... 51 

" 15. Plan of the temple of Juno in 

Agrigentum, ... 51 

•' 16, 17. Plans of Doric temples in Se- 

linuntiae, .... 52 

" 18. Plan of the temple of Ceres in 

Paestum, .... 50 
• " 19. Plan of the temple of Minerva in 

Sunium, .... 47 

" 20. Plan of the temple of Apollo at 

Bassae, .... 46 

PLATE 12. 

Figs. 1, 2. Temple of Diana at Ephesus, . 49 



Fig. 



PLATE 12 — (Continued.) 

Figs. 3,4. Temple of Apollo at Miletus, 48 

" 5, 6. Temple of Bacchus at Teos, . 50 

" 7, 8. Temple of Diana in Magnesia, 49 
*'* 9. Ruins of the temple of Neptune 

at Paestum, .... 50 
" 10, 11. Temple of Jupiter at Selinun- 

tiae, 52 

" 12. Temple of the Sun in Palmyra, . 53 
" 13, 14. Temple of Nemesis at Rham- 

nus, .... 47 

" 15,16. Temple of Portumnus at Ostia, 92 

" 17. Temple of .Tupiter in Rome, . 62 

PLATE 13. 

1. Ruins of Baalbec, ... 55 

2. Plan of the temple of the Sun at 
Baalbec, .... 55 

3. Plan of the temple of Jupiter at 
Baalbec, .... 55 

4. 5. Temple of Concordia in Rome, 72 

6. Plan of the temple of the Sun in 
Palmyra, .... 53 

7. Plan of the temple of Mars in 
Rome, .... 70 

8. Plan of the temple of Portumnus 
in Ostia, .... 92 

9. Plan of the temple of Serapis in 
" Pozzuoli, .... 92 

10. Plan of the temple of Augustus 
in Pompeii, .... 80 

11. Plan of the Rotunda on the Via 
Praenestina in Rome, . . 72 

12. Plan of the temple of Theseus in 
Athens, . . . .38 

13. Plan of the temple of Jupiter in 
-^gina, .... 45 

14, 15. Portico of Metellus, . 62, 66 

16, 17. Forum of Nerva, . . . 82 
18-22a6. Mausoleum at Halicarnas- 

sus, .... 48 

PLATE 14. 

1. The Forum Romanum, . . 63 
" 2. Amphitheatre of Flavins, . 65, 78 

" 3. Half ground plan of the Coli- 
seum, . . . . 65, 78 
" 4. Section of the Amphitheatre at 

Verona, .... 78 
" 5. Section of the Amphitheatre at 

Nismes, . . . .78 

PLATE 15. 
Figs. 1, 2. Temple of Neptune in Paestum, 50 
" 3-5. Temple of Jupiter at Olympia, 46 
" 6, 7. Temple of Jupiter Capitohnus 

in Rome, .... 81 
" 8. Temple of the Sun in Rome, . 93 
" 9. Plan of the Temple of Quirinus 

in Rome, .... 69 
" 10, 11. Maison Quarree in Nismes, . 74 
" 12, 13. Temple of Honor and Virtue 

in Rome, ... 73 

" 14. Plan of the temple of Ceres at 

Paestum, .... 50 
" 15. Plan of the temple of Jupiter in 

Forli, 82 

" 16. Plan of the temple of Pietas in 

Rome, .... 61 
" 17. Plan of the temple of Janus in 

Rome, ... 61 



Fig. 



n 



CONTENTS. 



30. 
31. 



32. 



33. 



35. 

36. 
37. 

38. 



PLATE 15 — [Continued.) 
Fig. 18. Plan of the temple of Spes in 

Rome, .... 61 

" 19. Plan of the temple of Minerva in 

Syracuse, . . . .51 

PLATE 16. 
Figs. 1-6. Temple of Venus and Rome 

in Rome, ... 86 

" 7, 8. Temple of Fortuna Virilis in 

Rome, .... 59 
" 9-12. Temple of Vesta in Tivoli, . 73 
" 13. Ruins of the temple of Jupiter at 

Baalbec, .... 55 
" 14. Plan of the temple of Jupiter 

Olympius in Athens, . . 39 
" 15. Plan of the temple of the Sun in 

Rome, .... 93 

" 16. Plan of the temple of the Sun in 

Baalbec, .... 55 
" 17. Plan of the temple of Jupiter Ne- 

maeus near Corinth, . . 46 
" 18. Plan of the temple of Miaerv^a at 

Priene, .... 48 
" 19. Plan of the temple of Diana at 

Eleusis, .... 47 
" 20. Plan of the temple of Jupiter at 

Ostia, 76 

" 21. Plan of the temple of Miners-a in 

Assisi, .... 74 

" 22. Plan of a temple at Palmyra, . 54 
« 23. Plan of the temple of Nemesis at 

Rhamnus, . . . 47 

" 24. Plan of the temple of Hercules at 

Cori, 73 

" 25. Plan of the temple of Augustus 

at Pola, .... 75 
" 26. Plan of a temple at Selinuntiee, . 52 
" 27. Plan of a temple at Palmyra, . 54 
" 28. Plan of the temple of Fortune in 

Pompeii, .... 80 
*' 29. Plan of the chapel of Mercury in 

Pompeii, .... 81 
Plan of the chapel of Isis in Pom- 
peii, 80 

Plan of the temple of iEsculapius 

in Pompeii, .... 80 
Plan of the temple of Nike Apte- 

ros in Athens, ... 32 
Plan of the temple of Themis at 

Rhamnus, . . . . 47 | 
34. Plan of a temple at Selinuntiae, . 52 } 
Plan of the temple of Diana in 

Eleusis, .... 45 
Plan of an Ionic temple at Athens, 40 
Plan of the temple of Jupiter at 

Pompeii, .... 80 
Plan of a temple of the Sybil in 

Tivoli, .... 73 



PLATE 17. 

Figs. 1-3. The Odeon of Pericles at 

Athens, .... 41 
(' 4-7. The Pantheon in Rome, . 70 

8-13. The island of the Tiber, with 

its temple and bridges, Gl, 67 
« 14. The bridge of ^Emilius in Rome, 67 
" 15. The bridge of Senators in Rome, 68 
" l6rt&. Triumphal arch at Xaintes, . 83 
*' 17a6. The arch of Gabius in Verona, 83, 93 



Figs 



PLATE 17 — (Continued.) 
g. 18ab. Trajan's triumphal arch at An- 

cona, ..... 86 
' 19a&. Trajan's triumphal arch at Be- 

neventum, ... 85 

* 20. Triumphal arch of Septimius Se- 

verus in Rome, ... 90 
' 21. Constantine's triumphal arch in 

Rome, .... 96 

' 22a6. Pedestals at Palmyra, . . 54 

* 23a&. The tomb of the Horatii near 

Albano, .... 67 



PLATE 18. 

1-7. Hadrian's mausoleum in Rome, 86 
8, 9. The Trophaeon of Augustus 

near Torbia, ... 74 

10. Sepulchre of Septimius Severus in 

Rome, .... 91 

11, 12. Trajan's triumphal arch in 

Beneventum, ... 85 
13, 14. Constantine's triumphal arch 

in Rome, .... 96 
15, 16, Triumphal arch of Marius in 

Orange, .... 83 
17,18. Triumphal arch of Titus in 

Rome, .... 83 
19ab. Gate of Verona, . . • . 93 
20, 21. Triumphal arch of Augustus 

at Pola, .... 83 
22,23. Gateof Mylasa, ... 48 
24-30. Trajan's column in Rome, . 84 
31-36. Column of Marcus Aurelius 

in Rome, .... 89 



Fig. 



PLATE 19. 

1. Doric capital from Peestum, 24, 50 

2. Ditto, from Delos, . . 24,47 

3. Ditto, from Psestum, . . 24, 50 

4. Ditto, from Albano, . . 84, 95, 100 

5. Ditto, from Rome, . . .100 
Gab. Ionic capitals from Athens, 25, 44 



V, e. Ditto, from Rome, , 
9. Corinthian capital 
Athens, 
10. Ditto, from Athens, 



11. Ditto, from Rome, 

12. Ditto, from Rome, 

13. Ditto, from Rome, 

14. Composite capital from Albano, 104 

15. Ditto, from Rome, . . 94,104 



25, 59, 102 

from 

.25,29,103 
.25,40,103 
. 25, 77. 103 
. 25, 63, 103 
25, 28, 70, 103 



16, 17. Attic base from Athens, 



40, 



18. Corinthian base from Athens, 

19. Ditto, from Tivoli, . 

20. Ditto, from Rome, . 

21. Ditto, from Rome, . 

22. Ornamented base from Nismes, 28, 103 

23. Ditto, from Rome, . . .103 

24. Crowning flower from Athens, . 40 
25,26. Ornamented shafts from Rome, 103 

27. Architrave soffit from Rome, 29, 77 

28. Ditto, from Rome, . 

29. Frieze from Palmyra, 

30. A Persian, 

31. A Caryatide, . 
32,33. Terminal statues (Hermae) 
34-38. Antefixae, . 



29,83 
53 
25 

25,44 
30 
30 



Fig. 



PLATE 20. 

Tuscan order, . 
Doric order. 



98,99 
. 99 



CONTENTS. 



Fig. 



Fig. 



PLATE 20 — (Continued.) 

3. Ionic order, .... 99 

4. Corinthian order, ... 99 

5. Composite order, ... 99 

6. Tuscan column arrangement with 

arches, .... 99 

7. Tuscan pedestal, ... 99 

8. Doric entablature, 25, 28, 29, 50, 100 

9. Details of the Doric order, . 24, 101 
10-13. Illustrating the reduction and 

torsion of columns, . 104,105 

14. Scotia of the Attic base, . 27, 29, 104 
14a. A Corinthian door, . . . 106 

15. Doric door, .... 106 
16-19. Balusters, . . . .104 



PLATE 21. 

1. Tuscan column arrangement, 

2. Doric entablature, 

3. Doric column arrangement, 

4. Ionic capital, . . . . 

5. Ionic column arrangement, 

6. Corinthian capital, 

7. Corinthian column arrangement, 

8. Composite capital, 

9. Arrangement of Composite co- 

lumns, . . . . 



Fig. 



Fig. 



Fig. 



PLATE 22. 

1. Tuscan capital and entablature, 

2. Doric base and pedestal, 

3. Doric capital and entablature, 

4. Ionic base and pedestal, 

5. Ionic capital and entablature, 

6. Corinthian base and pedestal, 

7. Corinthian capital and entabla 

ture, .... 

8. Composite base and pedestal, 

9. Composite capital and entabla 

ture, .... 



PLATE 23. 

1. Tuscan arcade, . 

2, 3. Doric arcades, 
4, 5. Ionic arcades, 

6, 7. Corinthian arcades, 
8, 9. Composite arcades, 



99 
100 
100 
101 
101 
102 
102 
104 

103 



99 
100 
100 
102 
102 
102 

102 
103 

103 



99 
100 
102 
102 
103 



PLATE 24. 

1. Men-hir in Bretagne, . . . 108 

2. Half Dolmen of Kerland, . .108 

3. Dolmen of Trie, . . .109 

4. Double Dolmen of the Island of 

Anglesea, . . , .110 

5. Trilith at St. Nazaire, . 108, 109 

6. Druid altar near Cleder, . .111 

7. Rocking stone nearWestHoadley, 112 

8. Rocking stone of Perros-Guyrech, 112 

9. Covered way in Morbihan, . 110 

10. Dolmen of Locmariaquer, . . 109 

11. Grotto near Esse, . . .110 

12. Grotto des Fees near Tours, . 110 
13, 14. The witches' grotto near 

Saumur, . . . .109 

15. Mound at Salisbury, . . .113 

16. Galleries in a mound near Pomie, 113 

17. Section of a mound in the Ork- 

neys, 114 

18. Pierced stone near Duneau and 

Gallic Tomb, . . Ill, 114 

19. Cromlech from the Orkneys, . 115 



PLATE 25. 
Figs. 1-11. Details of Chinese houses, 
" 12. Chinese ceiling, . 
" 13. Chinese window, 
" 14, 15. Chinese roofs, 
" 16. Dwelling of a mandarin, . 
" 17. Porcelain tower near Pekin, 
" 18, 19. Pagoda at Ho-nang, 
" 20. Entrance to the temple of Confu- 
cius in Tsing-hai, 

PLATE 26. 

1. Bridge in the district of Tlascala, 

2. Temple at Xochicalco, 

3. Pyramid of Teotihuacan, . 

4. The house of the ruler in Yucatan, 
5ab. Details from the same, . 

6. Pyramid of Tuzapan, 

7. Pyramid of Papantla, 

8. Fragment from the front of the 
Temple of the Two Serpents 
in Uxmal, .... 



Fig. 



Fig. 



116 
117 
116 
116 
117 
117 
117 

117 



120 
120 
121 
123 
123 
121 
119 



122 



27. 



church 



1. Plan of St. Marcelline 

in Rome, . . . .124 
" 2. Plan of St. Martin's church in 

Tours, . . . .125 
" 3. Plan of the church of Parenzo, . 125 
" 4. Plan of St. Paul's before the walls 

of Rome, . . . 125,128 
" 5. Plan of St. Peter's basilica in 

Rome, . . . .129 

" 6. Plan of the basilica Santa Maria 

Maggiore in Rome, . 125, 130 
" 7. Plan of the church of the Holy 

Cross, Jerusalem, . .130 

" 8-13. The basilica St. Lorenzo in 

Rome, . . . .129 

" 14. Church of St. Agnes near 

Rome, . . 97,125,1.30 

" 15. Basilica of St. Stephen in Rome, 125 
" 16. Romanesque basilica, . . 126 

" 17. St. Clement's basilica in Rome, 126, 128 
" 18. Rear view of a basilica, . . 126 
" 19, 20. Ciborium and choir of St. Cle- 
ment's in Rome, . 127, 128 
" 21-24. Baptisteries,. . . .127 
" 25-27. Baptismal fonts, . . .127 
" 28. Baptistery in Cividale, . . 127 
" 29. Baptistery in the basilica of St. 

Agnes in Rome, . . . 127 
" 30. Cloister in St. Paul's basilica be- 
fore Rome, . . . .126 

PLATE 28. 

Fig. 1. Panhagia Nicodimo in Athens, , 131 

" 2. Church of Samara in Greece, . 131 

" 3, 4. St. Sophia's in Constantinople, 133 
" 5-12. The church of Theotokus in 

Constantinople, . . . 135 
" 13, 14. Details of the Panhagia Nico- 
dimo, ..... 133 
" 15. St. John's Church in Pavia, . 142 
" 16. Church in Trani, . . .137 
" 17. St. Castor's church in Coblentz, . 140 
" 18. Mausoleum of Theodoric in Ra- 
venna, .... 141 
" 19. Capital from the Turkish baths in 

Constantinople, . . . 133 



VUl 



CONTENTS. 



Figs 



Figs 



19. 



1,2. 
3-5. 

6,7. 



PLATE 29. 

1-8. St. Vital's church in Ravenna, 136 
9-17. The Cathohcon in Athens, . 136 
18. Plan of St. Sophia's in Constan- 
tinople, . . . 131,134 
Plan of the mosque Achmed in 

Constantinople, . . .137 
PLATE 30. 
St. Peter's basilica in Rome, . 129 
Cathedral of Pisa, . . . 138 
St. Mark's church in Venice, . 134 
8. Court of the mosque of Osman in 

Constantinople, . . . 145 
9ab. Cathedral of Bonn, 139, 142, 149 
10, 11. Ruins of a Latin basilica near 

Athens, . . . .131 

12. Plan of the church of Navarino, 131 

13. Side portal of St. Nicodemus's 

church in Athens, . .132 

14. Choir of St. Theotokus's church 

in Constantinople, . . 132 
15-23. Details from Byzantine edi- 
fices, . . . 132,133 

24. Plan of the church of St. Agnes 

in Rome, .... 130 

25. Plan of the basilica in Tyre, . 131 



PLATE 31. 



Fig. 



143 



1. Interior of the mosque of Cordova, 

2. Interior of the hall Maksourah 

in the mosque of Cordova, . 
" 3. Interior of the chapel Zancaron 

in Seville, .... 
" 4. Entrance of the villa El Genera- 
life in Granada, . 
" 5. Court of the mosque El Moyed in 

Cairo, .... 

PLATE 32. 
Fig. 1. The Court of the Lions in Alham 

bra, .... 
" 2-12. Details from Alhambra, 
'^ 13. The Golden Hall in Alhambra, 
" 14. The Hall of the Two Sisters, 
" 15. The mosque at Cordova, longitu 

dinal section, 
" 16-25. Details from the same, . 
" 26. Mosque of Ebn Touloun in Cairo 

longitudinal section, 
" 27-33. Details from the same, . 

PLATE 33. 

Fig. 1. Plan of the mosque at Cordova, 
" 2-4. Details from the same, . 
" 5. Plan of the mosque of Ebn Tou 

loun at Cairo, 
" 6. Court in the same, 
" 7. Plan of the mosque of El-Moyed 

in Cairo, 
" 8. Mausoleum at Bedjapur, . 
" 9. Kutub Minar near Delhi, . 
" 10. The Antler Tower in Ispahan, 
" 11-20. The abbey of Lorsch, . 
" 21-26. Basilica St. Saba at Rome, 

PLATE 34. 

Figs. 1-39. Details illustrating the ar- 
chitecture of the Middle 
Ages, . . . 147-160 
*' 40. The cathedral of Cologne as it is 

to be, 163 



143 



145 



145 

146 



144 
144 
144 
144 

143 
143 

145 
145 



143 
143 

145 
145 

146 
146 
146 
146 
140 
130 



147 

148 

148 



PLATE 35. 

Fig. 1. Plan of the church St. Germain 
de Pres, .... 

" 2. Cross-arms of a transept, . 

" 3. Portal of Notre Dame la Grand 
in Poitiers, .... 

" 4-15. Details illustrating the ar- 
chitecture of the Middle 
Ages, . . . 147-160 

" 16, 17. The minster of Freyburg, . 160 

PLATE 36. 

Figs. 1-41. Details illustrating the ar- 
chitecture of the Middle 
Ages, . . . 147-160 
" 42, The minster of Strasburg, . . 161 

PLATE 37. 

Figs. 1-22. Details illustrating the ar- 
chitecture of the Middle 
Ages, . . . 147-160 
" 23. The church of St. Michael and 

St. Gudula in Brussels, . 166 

" 24. The cathedral of Antwerp, . 166 

" 25. Interior of St. Stephen's church 

in Vienna, . . . .165 

PLATE 38. 

Figs. 1-19, Details illustrating the ar- 
chitecture of the Middle 
Ages, . . . 147-160 
" 20. The minster at York, . . 172 

" 21 . Interior of the cathedral of Milan, 170 
" 22. The cathedral of Burgos, , . 171 

PLATE 39. 

Figs, 1-44. Details illustrating the ar- 
chitecture of the Middle 
Ages, . . . 147-160 
" 45. The cathedral of Rouen, . .168 

PLATE 40. 

1. Plan of Notre Dame in Paris, . 167 

2. Plan of the cathedral at Milan, . 169 
3-39. Details illustrating the ar- 
chitecture of the Middle 
Ages, . . . 147-160 

40. Interior of Notre Dame in Paris, 167 



Figs. 



Fig. 



Fig. 





PLATE 41. 




1- 


-12. Details from the cathedral of 






Cologne, .... 


164 


13, 


14. Cathedral of Magdeburg, 


166 


15. 


Interior of the Collegiate church 






in Manchester, 


173 


16. 


Interior of the church of St. Simon 






at Palermo, 


171 


17. 


Interior of Melrose abbey, . 


174 


18. 


Crypt under the abbey of St. Denis, 
PLATE 42. 


168 


1. 


The church of St. Zacharias in 






Venice, .... 


174 


2-5. The church of Notre Dame in 






Vetheuil, .... 


180 


6- 


-14. Church near the charter-house 






near Pavia, 


177 


15- 


-18. The royal palace in Venice, . 


176 


19. 


Portal of the Ecole des Beaux 






Arts in Paris, 


179 


20. 


Triumphal arch of Alphonso I. 






in Naples, .... 


178 



CONTENTS. 



PLATE 43. 

Figs. 1-3. Church of the Redeemer in 
Venice, .... 
" 4-16. Church of St. Francis in Pe- 
rugia, .... 
« 17. Plan of the church of St. Zacha- 

rias in Venice, 
« 18, 19. Monument of the Doge Ven- 

dramini in Venice, . 
" 20-22. Monument of Louis XII. in 

St Denis, 
" 23. Capital from the triumphal arch 
of Alfonso I. in Naples, 
PLATE 44. 
Figs. 1-4. St. Peter's in Rome, 

PLATE 45. 

Figs. 1,2. The church Delia Superga in 

Turin, .... 

" 3, 4. The church of the Assumption 

in Genoa, 
" 5. The basilica in Vicenza, 
" 6. The church of Santa Maria del 

Fiore in Florence, 
" 7-9. The church San Pietro in 

Montorio in Rome, 
" 10. The church delle Figlie in Venice, 
" 11. The church of Trevignano, 

PLATE 46. 

Fig. 1. Interior of St. Magdalene's church 

in Paris, .... 
" 2. The church of Notre Dame de 

Lorette in Paris, . 
" 3, 4. The church of St. Gervais and 

St. Protais in Paris, . 
« 5. The church of St. Paul and St. 

Louis in Paris, . 
" 6, 7. The church of Mary Magda- 
lene at Bridgenorth, . 
" 8. All Saints church in Munich, 
" 9. The basilica St. Boniface in 

Munich, .... 
" 10. The church of San Giorgio Mag- 

giore in Venice, . 
" 11. The church of St. Francesco de 

la Vigna in Venice, 
" 12. The church of San Pietro in 

Montorio in Rome, 
« 13, 14. Chapel at Fresnes, 
" 15. Plan of the basilica Bibiana in 

Rome, .... 

" 16. Plan of the church of St. Agnes 

in Rome, ... 97, 
" 17. Plan of the basilica Julia in Rome, 
" 18. Plan of the church St. Cosmo e 

Damiano, .... 
« 19,20. Church Madonna degli An- 

geli in Rome, . 
« 21,22. The church of St. Cyriacus 
in Ancona, 



175 



178 



174 



176 



179 

178 



184 



190 

189 

188 

182 

184 

188 
188 



195 



191 

191 

188 
196 



197 

187 

188 

184 
192 

131 

130 
131 

131 

189 
171 



PLATE 47. 

Figs. 1-6. The Hotel des Invalides in 

Paris, . . . .192 

'* 7,8. St. Isaac's church in St. Pe- 
tersburg, .... 200 

** 9-11. The church of the Sorbonne 

in Paris, 192 

" 12-14. The church of the Assumption 

in Paris, . . . .193 



PLATE 48. 

Figs. 1,2. St. Magdalene's church in 
Paris, .... 
" 3-5. The Pantheon in Paris, . 
" 6. Plan of Notre Dame de Lorette 
in Paris, .... 
" 7, 8. The Garrison church at Pots- 
dam, .... 
" 9. The church of St. Ignatius in 
Rome, .... 

" 10, 11. The church of San Carlo alle 
Quattro Fontane in Rome, 
" 12. The bell tower of Palermo, 

PLATE 49. 

Figs. 1-3. St. Paul's church in London, . 
" 4, 5. Church of St. Sulpice in Paris, 
" 6. Plan of Santa Maria del Fiore in 

Florence, .... 
" 7. Interior of the church of All 

Saints in Munich, 
" 8. Interior of the church in Faubourg 

Au in Munich, . 

PLATE 50. 
Fig. 1. Interior of the Invalides' church in 
Paris, 

2. Church of St. Louis in Munich, . 

3. Werder church in Berlin, . 

4. The chapel of St. Ferdinand at 
Sablonville, 

5. The church Santa Maria della 
Vittoria in Rome, 

6. 7. The church della Consolazione 
in Todi, .... 

8. Ground plan of a church in the 
form of a Latin cross, . 

9. Plan of the church San Andrea 
in Mantua, .... 

10-12. The chapel of the Knights of 
Malta in St. Petersburg, . 
13. The clock tower in Venice, 



Figs. 



Figs. 



195 
194 

188 

198 

190 

190 
183 



198 
193 

182 

196 

197 



192 
197 

198 

196 

189 

184 

148 

183 

200 
183 



Fig. 



PLATE 51. 

1-4. The palace of Caserta near 
Naples, .... 

5. Court of the Palazzo Saoli in 

Genoa, .... 

6. Plan of the palace of Laeken, 

7. Plan of the country seat of the 

duke of Argyle in Scotland, 
8-13. Markets, .... 

PLATE 52. 

1.2. The Louvre in Paris, 

3. The papal Cancelleria in Rome, 

4. The papal palace in Rome, 

5. The Palazzo Paolo in Rome, 

6. The Palazzo Sora in Rome, 

7. The Palazzo Sacchetti in Rome, 

8. The Villa Medici in Rome, 

9. The Palazzo Giraud in Rome, . 
lOa-c. The Casa Silvestri in Rome, . 
IL Ground plan of an antique Roman 

building, .... 

PLATE 53. 
1. The palace of the Tuileries in 

Paris, 205 

2.3. The navy department in Paris, 206 
4. The Luxembourg palace in Paris, 206 



203 

203 

207 

207 
216 



204 
201 
203 
202 
202 
202 
202 
201 
201 

201 



CONTENTS. 



PLATE 53 — (Continued.) 
Fig. 5. The palace of Laeken, . . 207 
" 6. Plan of the Glyptothek in Mu- 
nich, 209 

" 7-9. The column of the Place 

Vendome in Paris, . . 214 

« lOab, 1 1 . The column of July in Paris, 214 

« 12, 13. The bell tower in Rome, . 183 

PLATE 54. 

Fig. 1. The palace of Versailles, . . 206 
" 2. The battle gallery in tlie same, . 206 
" 3. The Palazzo Doria Tursi in Ge- 
noa, 203 

" 4. The Fontana Paolina in Rome, . 204 

« 5. The fountain of Marius, . . 204 

" 6-9. Doors from Roman palaces, . 204 

PLATE 55. 

Figs. 1, 2. The Walhalla at Ratisbon, . 215 
" 3ah. Candelabra from the same, . 215 
" 4-6. The royal residence in Amster- 
dam, 207 

7. The city hall at Maestricht, . 209 

« 8, 9, The town hall in Neuenburg, . 210 

PLATE 56. 

Fig. 1. The Capitol at Washington, . 210 

« 2. The Glyptothek in Munich, . 209 
" 3. The edifice for exhibitions in 

Munich, . . . .209 

" 4. The Exchange in New York, . 211 
« 5-7. The Exchange in Paris, - 210, 211 

" 8,9. Plans ofthe Exchange in Ghent, 210 
« 10. The University of Ghent, . .211 

« 11. The Exchange in London, . 211 

PLATE 57. 

Fig. 1. The triumphal arch in Paris, . 213 
" 2,3. The Paris observatory, . .211 
« 4. The theatre at Dresden, . . 208 
« 5, 6. The theatre in St. Petersburg, 208 
« 7. St. Charles theatre in New Or- 
leans, 208 



PLATE 57 — {Continued.) 

Fig. 8. The Custom-house in New York, 213 
" 9. Plan of the Palazzo del Te in 

Mantua, .... 202 

" 10-12. Casino in Liege, . . . 212 

" 13. The museum in Cassel, . . 208 

" 14. Old Exchange in Amsterdam, . 211 

" 15a6. Plans of caravansaries, . . 212 
" 16a6, 17. Watchhouses, . . .213 

" 18. Plan of the prison in Aix, . . 217 

PLATE 58. 

Figs. 3-4. Grain hall in Paris, . . 215 

" 5-7. Market of St. Germain in Paris, 216 

" 8. The market at Pavia, . . 216 

" 9, 10. The Magdalene market in 

Paris, . . . .216 

" 11. Plan of the market in Pavia, . 216 

" 12, 13. The Almeidan at Ispahan, . 217 

PLATE 59. 

Figs. 1-14. The prison at Halle, . .217 
" 15. Plan of the prison of Newgate in 

London, .... 217 
" 16-18. Plans of Prisons in Ghent, 

Milan, and Amsterdam, . 217 

PLATE 60. 
Figs. 1,2. Bridge over the Rialto in Venice, 218 

3-6. Bridge at Ispahan, . . .220 

7. Bridge of Gignac, . . .218 

8-10. Bridges at Paris, . . .218 

11. Waterloo bridge in London, . 219 

12. Bridge of St. Maizence, . . 218 

13. Bridge of K5sen, . . .219 

14. Bridge of Zwetau, . . .219 

15. Bridge over the Taff, . . 219 

16. Bridge over the Melfa, . . 218 

17. Bridge of the Ticino,. . . 218 

18. Bridge near Lyons, . . . 219 

19. 20. Chinese bridges, . . .220 

21. Bridge of Toledo, . . .219 

22. The bridge of Colebrookdale, . 219 



CONTENTS 



MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 



[The numbers refer to the bottom paging of the text.] 



Introduction, ...... 






221 


Polytheism, ...... 






223 


Non-Classic Antiquity, .... 






223 


I. The Eehgious Systems of India, 






223 


1. Mythology and Worship of the Hindoos, 






223 


2. The Kehgion of Buddha, or Buddhism, 






223 


3. Lamaism, .... 






236 


4. Chinese Mythology, . 






239 


5. Japanese Mythology, . 






242 


6. Javanese Mythology, . 






245 


n. The Rehgion of the Ancient Persians (Parseeism), 






245 


III. Egyptian Mythology, 






250 


1. Introduction, .... 






250 


2. Special Mythology, . 






255 


rV. Mythology of the Babylonians, Syrians, and Phoenicians, 




268 


V. Northern Mythology, 






271 


1. Scandinavian Mythology, 






272 


2. German Mythology, . 






287 


3. Slavono-Vendic Mythology, . 






289 


VI. Mythology of the Gauls, . 






294 


V 11. Mythology of the Mexicans, 






299 


Classic Antiquity, ..... 






304 


I. The Religious System of the Greeks, 






304 


Cosmogonies and Theogonies, or the Origin of the World ai 


id of the 




Gods, .... 






306 


1. Superior or Olympic Gods, 






310 


2. Gods of the Lower World, 






334 


3. The Inferior Gods, . 






335 


4. Subordinate or Ministering Deities, 






341 


5. Aerial Gods or Winds, 






343 


6. Gods of the Water, . 






343 


Y. Gods of the Mountains, Forests, and Fields, 






345 


8. Goddesses of Time, . 






347 


9. The Charites, or Graces, 






348 


10. The Muses, . . . . 






349 



zu 



CONTENTS. 



theism — ( Continued^ 






11. Nocturnal Deities, 




. 350 


12. The Heroes, . 




. 351 


13. The Giants, . 




. 363 


14. The Pygmies, 




. 363 


15. Sacred Animals, 




. 363 


16. The Genii, . 




. 364 


Theology and Worship of the Greeks, 




. 364 


n. The Religious System of the Romans, 




. 367 


1. The Gods of the Fii-st Order, . 




. 369 


A. The Twelve Superior Gods, 




. 369 


B. The Eight Inferior Gods, . 




. 375 


2. The Gods of the Second Order, 




. 376 


A. Deities of the Social Feelings, 




. 376 


B. Deities of Happy Conditions and Virtues, . 


. 376 


C. Deities of Time, . 


. 


. 377 


D. River Gods, 


. 


. 378 


E. Gods of the Mountains, Forests, 


and Fields 


, . .378 


F. The Lares, 


. 


. 379 


)theism, ..... 


. 


. 381 


1. The Mosaic Religion, . 


. 


. 381 


2. Christianity, .... 


. 


. 382 


3. Mahomedanism, 


, 


. 383 



CONTENTS OF THE PLATES (YIII. Nos. 1— BO) 

TO 

MYTHOLOGY AND EELIGIOUS RITES 



PLATE 1. 

Fig. la. Vishnu the Creator, . . . 224 
\h. Brahm wrapped in the Maya, . 224 

2. The Maya as Bhavani, . . 224 

3. Brahma, the creative power, . 224 

4. Birth of Brahma, . . .224 

5. Siva, the destroying power, . 229 

6. The Trimurti, . . . 224, 230 

7. The Lingam, . . 224, 229, 230 

8. The Hindoo symbol of wisdom, . 224 

9. The figure Om or Aum, . . 224 

10. The Hindoo symbol of creation, 224 

11. Pracriti, 224 

12. The tortoise supporting the world, 224 

13. The seven celestial spheres, . 224 

14. Siva Mahadeva, . . .229 







PLATE 1 — (Continued.) 




Fig. 


15. 


Parvati, 


230 


(( 


16. 


Lakshmi or Sri, 


227 


11 


17. 


Siva as Rudra, , . . 


229 


<( 


18. 


Vishnu as man-lion, . 


227 


« 


19. 


Surya, the god of the sun, . 


230 


" 


20. 


Camadeva or Camos, 


231 


a 


21. 


Ganges, Jamuna, and Saraswadi, 


231 


te 


22. 


The giant Garuda, 


231 


(C 


23. 


The giant Ravana, 


227 


" 


24. 


Buddhistic altar-piece. 


236 


" 


25-28. Buddhistic temple implements, 


235 






PLATE 2. 




Fig 


1. 


The Trimurti, .... 


224 




2. 


Vishnu and Siva, 


228 



CONTENTS. 



xiu 



Fig. 



PLATE 2 — [Continued.) 

Vishnu as a fish, 

Vishnu as a tortoise, . 

Vishnu as a boar, 

Vishnu as a dwarf, 

Vishnu as Parasu Rama, 

Siva, 

Vishnu, 

Vishnu as Krishna, . 

The nymphs of the Milk Sea, 

Vishnu as Kaninki or Katki, 

Siva as Hermaphrodite, 

Siva on the giant Muyelagin, 

Brahma and Saravadi, 

Buddha, . 

Buddha-Surya, . 

The Hindoo solar system, 

Mythic camel, . 

Hindoo penitents, 
-24. Hindoo sacrificial utensils, 
-30. Mongolian idols, . 



PLATE 3. 

Figs. 1-5. Hindoo idols, 

6. Vishnu on the giant Garuda, 

7. Indian idol of Astrachan, ■, 

8. Buddha, . 

9. A Brahmin, 
10-12. Hindoo ascetics, . 
13-20. Idols of Lamaism, 

21. Mongolian Lama, 

22. Tartar Lama, . 

23. Funeial of the Dalai Lama 



. 226 

. 226 

. 227 

. 227 

. 227 

. 228 

. 228 

. 228 

. 228 

. 228 

. 229 
229, 230 

. 226 

. 233 

. 233 

. 231 

. 231 

. 232 

. 233 

. 239 



231 
228 
231 
233 
232 
232 
236 
238 
238 
239 



Fig. 



Figs 



PLATE 4. 

1. Allegorical pillar from Barolli, . 232 

2. Chinese god of immortality, . 240 
3,4. Chinese idols, . . .241 

5. Worship at Honan, . . .241 

6. Chinese bonzes, .... 241 
7-13. Japanese idols, . . . 244 

14, 15. Japanese house gods, . . 244 

16. Temple of Nitsirin at Honrensi, . 235 

17. Temple at Foocoosaizi, . . 235 
18-32. Buddhistic temple implements, 235 
33-36. Buddhistic votive tablets, . 236 

PLATE 5. 

1. Worship of Fo in Canton, . . 241 

2, 3. Japanese idols, . . . 244 

4. Temple of Miroc in Japan, . 243 

5-10. Japanese idols, . . . 244 

11. Chapel of the Cami at Givon, . 243 

12, 13. The two Inari, . . .243 

14-17. The four Camini, . . .243 

18-36. Japanese temple utensils, . 244 

37, 38. Japanese monks, . . . 245 

39, 40. Buddhistic priests, . . 235 

41. Blind monk of Japan, . . 245 

42. Japanese nun and lay sister, . 245 

PLATE 6. 

. 1-3. Japanese idols, . . . 244 

4. Chief priest of the Tensju, . . 235 

5. Priest of the same, . . . 235 

6. High priest of Japan, . . . 243 

7. 8. Buddhistic priests, . . . 235 
9. Chinese procession, . . . 242 

10. Chinese fanatic, . . . 242 

11. Japanese procession, . . . 245 
12-15. Japanese temple utensils, . 244 



PLATE 6 — (Continued.) 
Figs. 16, 17. Necklaces of the chief priest 
of the Tensju, . 
" 18-23. Javanese idols, 



PLATE 7. 

Figs. 1,2. Persian processions, 
" 3. Persian Magi, . 
" 4. Median high priest and Feruer, 
" 5. Persian fire worship and Feruer, 
" 6. Worship of the sun, 
7, 8. The priest kings, 
" 9. Sacrifice by Mithras, 
" 10, 11. Mythic animals, 
" I2a6. Persian coin, . 
" 13. The celebration of the Darun 
" 14. Idols of Afghanistan, 
" 15-17. Abraxas Gems, . 

PLATE 8. 

Fig. 1. Egyptian symbol of the sun, 
2. The All-seeing Eye, . 

" 3-5. Sacred ships, . 
" 6. Egyptian Amun, 
" 7. Nubian Amun, . 
" 8. Kneph Mendes or Pan, 
" 9. Athor with the dove, . 

" 10. Isis upon a lotus, 

" 11. Statue of Isis, . 

" 12. Isis as a cow, . 

" 13. Isis as a star, 

" 14. Isis nursing Osiris, 

" 15. Osiris upon a cow, 

" 16. Osiris with the serpent, 

" 17. Amun, Isis, and Osiris, 

" 18. Hermes as Ibis, . 

" 19. Horus, 

" 20. The bull Apis, . 

" 21. Typhon, . 

" 22. Ailures, . 

" 23. Serapis as the sun, 

" 24. Serapis and the seven planetSj 

" 25. Harpocrates, 

" 26a6. Sacred jugs, . 

" 27a-c. Egyptian family idols^ 

" 28. The Sistrum, . 

" 29. The sacred camel, 

" 30. The Egyptian zodiac, 

" 31. Priests and priestesses of Isis, 

PLATE 9. 

Fig. 1. Kneph, .... 

" 2. Isis nursing Osiris, 

" 3. Isis nursing Horus, . 

" 4. Osiris as a lion, . 

" 5. Osiris as a bull. 



235 

245 



6. Anubis, Heraies, or Thot 

7. Anubis and Isis, 

8. Anubis, Canop, and Horus, 

9. The wolf, 

10. The tribunal of the dead, . 
11-14. Head-dresses of Egyptian 

idols, . . . . 
15, 16. Sacred jugs, . 
17-19. Egyptian family idols, . 
20,21. Egyptian mythic animals, 

22. A sphinx, . 

23. The Sistrum, . 
24-28. Sacred vessels, 
29. Mystic procession, 
30,31. Abraxas Gems, 



. 249 
. 249 

246, 249 

247, 249 
. 249 
. 249 
. 248 
. 250 
. 250 
. 249 
. 248 
. 268 



. 260 

. 260 
260,261 

. 253 

. 255 

. 255 

. 254 

. 257 

. 257 

. 253 

. 257 

. 257 

. 256 

. 256 

. 255 

. 258 

. 252 

. 253 

. 251 

. 259 

. 256 

. 256 

. 258 

. 261 

. 259 

. 257 

. 259 

. 265 

. 262 



. 255 

. 257 

. 257 

. 256 

. 256 
252, 258 

. 252 

. 252 

. 259 

. 267 

259 
261 
259 
259 
260 
257 
261 
265 
268 



f 






CONTENTS. 










FAGS 






PAGB 




PLATE 10. 








PLATE 13— (Continued.) 


ig. 1. 


Head of Isis, . 


. 


257 


Fig. 


8. Aske and Emla, the first human 


« 2. 


Isis Pharia, 




257 




beings, . 


. 274 


" 3, 4. Statues of Isis, 


257, 258 


" 


9. Radegast, . 


. 290 


" 5, 6. Serapis and Isis, . 


. 


256 


(C 


10. Sieba, goddess of love 


, . . 291 


« 7. 


Statue of Serapis, 


, 


256 


« 


11. Podaga, . 


. 290 


" 8. 


Serapis on his throne. 


. 


256 


(e 


12a6. Perkunust, 


. 290 


" 9. 


Isis nursing Horus, 


. 


257 


" 


13. Nemisa, . 


. 291 


" 10, 


1 1 . Statues of Osiris, . 


. 


256 


» 


14a. Sarmatian idol. 


. 291 


" 12, 


13. Statues of Anubis, 


, 


258 


« 


14b. Silesian idol, . 


. 291 


" 14. 


Statue of Harpocrates, 


. 


258 


« 


15,16. Northern idols. 


. 291 


" 15. 


Harpocrates on a ram, 


. 


258 


" 


17, 18. Gallic Jupiter, 


. 295 


" 16. 


The Nile,. 




260 


« 


19. Gallic Vulcan, . 


. 295 


" 17. 


The Nile key, . 


, 


260 


" 


20. Gallic Mercury, 


. 284 


" 18. 


Kneph as Agathodemon, 


. 


255 


" 


21. Hercules Saxanus, 


. 295 


" 19-22. Votive hands. 


. 


263 


" 


22. Gallic Diana, . 


. 295 


" 23, 


24. Sphinxes, . 


. 


260 


« 


23. Mercury, Abelio, Vulcan, Ceres, 


« 25. 


The flower of the lotus. 




260 




and Minerva, 


294, 295, 296 


" 26-31. Egyptian priests, . 


. 


262 


(C 


24,25. Dmid and Dr-oidess, . .296 


" 32- 


34. Egyptian priestesses. 




262 


" 


26. Annual search for the mistletoe, . 297 


« 35. 


Sacrifice to Isis, 


• 


261 




PLATE 14. 






PLATE 11. 






Figs 


. 1-7. Mexican idols. 


. 301 


ig. 1. 


Assyrian sacrifice, 


. 


269 




8. Fragment of Aztek writing, . 303 


" 2. 


Syrian idol, 




269 


" 


dab. Mexican priestess. 


. 303 


" 3. 


The goddess Astarte, . 


. 


269 


" 


10. The Mexican year, 


. 304 


" 4. 


Phoenician Deities, 




271 


<' 


11. The Mexican almana 


e, . . 303 


" 5. 


Phoenician procession of the 


gods. 


271 


<t 


12. Mexican altar top. 


. 301 


« 6. 


Odin, Thor, Freyr, Tyr 


and 




" 


13. Mexican sacrifice. 


. 301 




Loke, . . 275,2 


76,279,281 


" 


14-19. Idols of Guatemal 


a, . . 301 


« 7- 


10. Odin, . 




276 


" 


20. Altar with idols. 


. 301 


" lla6. Norwegian idol. 






281 


(( 


21-24. Sacrificial vessels 


of Guate- 


" 12. 


Ziselbog, . 






291 




mala, 


. 301 


" 13. 


Ipabog, 






291 


<( 


25-28. Idols of Yucatan, 


. 301 


" 14, 


15. Slavonic idols, 






291 


<t 


29. Sacrificial vase from Yucatan, . 301 


« 16. 


Nehalennia, 






284 


« 


30,31. Abraxas Gems, 


. 268 


" 17, 


18. Runic stones, 






276 








" 19. 


Runic calendar. 






276 




PLATE 15. 




" 20. 


Chinese worship, 




241 


,242 


Figs 


. 1, 2. Statues of Janus, 


. 368 










" 


2ab. Heads of Janus, 


. 368,375 




PLATE 12. 






ee 


3. Saturnus, . 


. 369 


^g. 1. 


Frigga, . 




277 


" 


4. Opis or Ops, 


. 368 


« 2. 


Braga, 




277 


" 


5. Jupiter as Deus pater. 


. 370 


" 3. 


Idunna, 




278 


" 


6, 7. Hera, 


. 314 


« 4. 


Freya, 




279 


" 


8. Hestia, . 


. 319 


« 5. 


Heimdall, . 




277 


" 


9. Vesta, 


.375 


" 6. 


The tree Yggdrasill an 


d the 




t( 


10. Diana, 


. 374 




Noms, . . 2 


74, 281 


,282 


<( 


11. Apollo, . 


. 327 


" 7. 


The Valkyrs, . 




282 


" 


12. Tages, 


. 368 


" 8. 


Triglav, . 




291 


« 


13. Mars the advancing. 


. 372 


" 9. 


Svantevit, . 




290 


" 


14. Bellona, . 


. 372 


" 10. 


Radegast, , 




290 


" 


15 Hermes, . 


. 323 


" 11. 


Prove, 




290 


" 


16. Ancharia, . 


. 368 


" 12. 


Siebog, . 




291 


" 


17. Aphrodite (Venus), 


. 320 


" 13. 


Shvaixtix, . 




290 


" 


18. Vertumnus, 


. 379 


" 14. 


Nirthus or Hertha, 




287 


" 


19. Pomona, . 


. 379 


" 15. 


Flyntz, . 




291 


" 


20. Voltumna, 


. 368 


" 16. 


Magusanus, 




294 


" 


2la6. Fortuna, 


. 377 


" 17. 


Alemanic idol, . 




288 


" 


22o6. Vejovis,. 


. 368 


" 18. 


Germanic religious ceremoi 


W, • 


299 


" 


23. Asclepios (.^sculapiu 


5), . . 341 


" 19. 


Venus Anadyomene, . 




295 


" 


24. Tyrrhenian Heracles, 


. 359 


" 20. 


The GalHc Isis, . 

PLATE 13. 




295 


,( 


24a6. Sacred coin, . 

25. The shield dance of tl 


. 366 

leSalii, . 372 








u 


26ab. Demeter (Ceres), 


. 316 


Ig. 1. 


Odin the supreme, 




275 


ce 


27a6. Demeter and Zeus, 


. 316 


" 2. 


Thor the thunderer, . 




276 








« 3 


Freyr, god of the sun, 




279 




PLATE 16. 




« 4. 


Freya with her maids. 




280 


Fig 


1. Faunus, . 


. 378 


« 5 


Njord, god of winds, . 




279 


u 


2. Nemesis, . 


. 342 


« 6 


Tyr, god of battle fields, 




276 


" 


3. Proserpine, 


. 376 


« 7. 


Hermode the messeng 


er. 




277 


" 


4. The genius of death. 


. 351 



CONTENTS. 



XV 



Fig. 



PLATE 16 — {Continued.) 
Figs. 5, 6. Two heroes, . 
7-9. Lares, . 
10. ^on, 
11,12. Cronos, 

13. Cronos and Rhea, 

14. Rhea, 

15. Atys, 
16ab. Attributes of Atys. 

17. The goat Amalthea, 

18. Jupiter Axur, . 

19. Zeus Amnion, . 

20. The Olympian Zeus, 

21. Zeus the Supreme, 

22. Zeus with the eagle, 

23. Hera suckling Ares, 

24. Bonus Eventus, . 

25. Ceres Catagusa, 

26. Diana Lucifera, 
27-33a6. Grecian sacrificial 
34. The Augures, . 

PLATE 17. 
Fig. 1. Nux or Night, . 
" 2. Coelus, 
" 3. Rhea, 
" 4. Jupiter Axur, . 
" 5. Zeus Hellenios, . 
" 6. Jupiter receiving the homage of 

the gods, 
" ?, 8. Zeus as warrior, 
" 9. Pelasgian Zeus, . 

" 10. Zeus carrying off Europa, 

" 11. Birth of Athene (Minerva), 

" 12. Jupiter Conservator, 

" 13. Pelasgian Hera, 

" 14-17. Juno, . 

" 18-21. Ares (Mars), 

" 22. Mars Pacificus, . 

" 23. Victoria (Nike), 

" 24. Ganymede, 

" 25. Hebe, 

" 26. Apollo and Daphne, 

" 27. Sibylla, . 

" 28. Apollo's raven, . 

" 29. A sacrificial knife, 

" 30. The Delphian oracle 



. 363 

. 379 

. 306 

. 307 

. 307 

. 309 

. 309 

. 310 

. 307 

. 368 

. 311 

. 311 

. 311 

. 311 

. 314 

. 377 

. 375 

. 374 

. 365 

. 380 



350 
329 
309 
368 
311 



. 369 

. 311 

. 311 

. 313 

. 313 

. 370 

. 314 

. 370 

. 322 

. 372 

. 377 

. 342 

. 342 

. 328 

. 380 
327,363 

. 365 

. 367 



PLATE 18. 



Fig. 



1. Zeus, .... 

2. Zeus conquering the Titans, 

3. Europa on the bull, 

4. Zeus on the centaur, 

5. Ares and Aphrodite, 
6-8. Genii of Mars, 
9. Nymph of Artemis, 

10. The Dioscuri, . 

11. Poseidon, Amphitrite, and Eros, 

12. Bacchanalian genii, 

13. Dionysos (Bacchus), 

14. Apollo, 

15. Ariadne, . 

16. Demeter (Ceres), 
1 7-24. Roman sacrificial implements, 
25. The assembly of the gods, , 

PLATE 19. 

1. The twelve planet gods, 

2. Zeus, Hermes, and Aphrodite, . 

3. Pallas Athene, . . . . 

4. Ceres (Demeter), 



311 
308 
313 
311 
321 
372 
329 
355 
332 
341 
337 
326 
340 
316 
380 
333 



332 
332 
317 
375 



Fig. 



Fig. 



PLATE 19 — (Continued.) 
5. The muse Erato, . . .349 
6,7. Flora, 379 

8. Fortuna, 377 

9. A naiad, 345 

10. Genii, 364 

11. The Seasons, . . . .377 

12. Tritons, 344 

13. Bacchanalia, .... 366 

14. Priestess of Bacchus, . . . 367 
15,16. Priestesses of Ceres, . . 375 
17, 18. Grecian priest and priestess, . 367 
19,20. Altars, . . . .365 
21-47. Sacrificial utensils, . . 365 

PLATE 20. 

1. Argos guarding lo, . . . 312 

2. Leda and the swan, . . .313 
3, 4. The Dioscuri, . . .355 

5. Leto (Latona), . . . 313, 327 

6. Lunus, ..... 376 

7. Apollo and Marsyas, . . 328 

8. Aurora, 377 

9. Artemis Locheia, . . . 330 

10. Diana Lucifera, .... 374 

11. Artemis Soleia, , . . . 330 

12. Juno Sospita, . . . .371 

13. Helios, 328 

14. Artemis (Diana), . . .329 

15. Artemis and her nymphs, . . 331 
15. Mountain nymphs, . . . 347 

17. Niobe, 331 

18. Amphion, 331 

19. Hermes the messenger, . . 324 

20. Hermes Agonios, . . . 324 

21. Zeus with the eagle, . . .311 

22. Europa and the bull, . . .313 
23 The Panathenaean festival at 

Athens, 



PLATE 21. 
Fig. 1 . Artemis of Ephesus, . 
" 2. Artemis Tauropolos, . 
" 3. Artemis Selene, 
" 4. Hebe, .... 

5. Iris, 

" 6. Death of the children of Niobe, 

" 7. Nereus, .... 

" 8. Palaemon, .... 

" 9. Nereid, .... 

" 10. Taras, .... 

" 11. Poseidon, .... 

" 12. Poseidon and Pallas Athene, 

" 13. Hippocamp, 

" 14. River god and naiad, . 

" 15a&. Nilus (the Nile), . 

" 16ab. Tibris (the Tiber), . 

" 17-19. Sirens, 

" 20. Artemis and Orion, . 

" 21. Msenade, .... 

" 22. Hermes (Mercury), . 

PLATE 22. 

Fig. 1. Hylas carried off by nymphs, 

2. Nereids, . 

3. A Triton, . 

4. Pelasgian Poseidon, . 
5,6. Statues of Poseidon, 

7. 7a. Neptune, 

8. Hippocamp, 

9. Melicertes (Palaemon), 



366 



330 
330 
329 
342 
342 
331 
343 
344 
342 
315 
315 
316 
345 
345 
378 
378 
361 
331 
347 
324 



345 
343 
344 
315 
315 
371 
345 
344 



XVI 



CONTENTS. 



Fig. 



Fig. 



PLATE 22 — [Continued.) 

10. Thetis, 344 

11. Hebe, 342 

12-15. The winds, . . . .343 

16. Boreas bearing off Oreithyia, . 343 

17. Hades (Pluto), . . . .334 
18ab. Proserpine (Persephone), . 334 
19. Saciifice to Neptune, . . . 371 

PLATE 23. 

1. Hades (Pluto), . . . .334 

2. Zeus Amnion, . . . ,311 

3. Hades (Pluto), . . . .334 

4. Poseidon and Amymone, . .315 
5ab. Nemesis, .... 342 

6. Hypnos (Sleep), . . .350 

7. Thanatos (Death), . . .351 
8, 9. Hypnos (Sleep), . . .350 

10. The genius of sleep, . . . 351 
11, 12. Persephone (Proserpine), . 334 

13. Hecate, 330 

14. Erinnyes or Eumenides, 308, 342, 351 

15. Prometheus, .... 352 

16. Pandora, ..... 352 

17. The Dreams, . . . .351 

18. Demeter and Triptolemus, . ,317 

19. Dionysos nursed by nymphs, . 338 

20. Triumph of Poseidon and Amphi- 

trite, . 
21,22. Tritons, 



PLATE 24. 

1. Pelasgian Demeter, . 

2. Bust of Demeter, 

3. Ceres, 

4. Persephone, 

5. Procession of Dionysos 

adne, . 

6. Triptolemus, 

7. Birth of Dionysos, 

8. Leucothea, 

9. The sacred lion, 
IQab. The sacred serpent, 
11. Dionysus and Faunas, 
12, 13. Dionysos, 

14. Ariadne, . 

15. Indian Dionysos, 

16. Pan and Olympos, 
17a6. Pan and the Panic^ 

18. Silenos, . 

19. Hygeia, 

20. Hephaestos (Vulcan), 

21. Telesphorus, 

22. 23. Hermes (Mercury), 

24. Charon, . 

25. Sisyphos, Lapithae, and 



315 

. 344 

. 316 

. 316 

. 375 

. 335 

and Ari- 

. 340 

. 317 

. 338 

. 338 

. 363 

. 364 

. 339 

. 339 

. 340 

. 339 

. 346 

. 346 

. 346 

. 342 

. 319 

. 342 
323, 373 

. 364 

Tantalos, 365 



Fig. 



PLATE 25. 

1. Faunus and a Bacchante, 
2,3. Pan, . 
4, 5. Dionysos, 

6. Dionysos of Naxos, . 

7. The Dionysian mysteries, 

8. Apollo and Marsyas, . 

9. Marsyas and Olympos, 
10-12. Silenos, 

13. Priapos, . 

14-18. Heracles, . 

19a. Persephone, 

196. Dionysos Zagreus, . 

20. Hephaestos (Vulcan), . 

21. Mount Parnassos, 



378 
345 
337 
339 
366 
328 
328 
346 
347 
355 
334 
339 
319 
350 



Fig. 



PLATE 26. 

1. The nine Muses, 

2. The muse Calliope, . 

3. The muse Clio, . 

4. The muse Polyhymnia 

5. The muse Euterpe, . 
6ab. The muse Urania, 

7. The muse Thali 

8. Mnemosyne, 
9a. Flora, . 
9b. Vestal virgin 

10a. Aurora, . 
106. Medusa, . 

11. Apollo and the Hours 

12. Dionysos as god of the sun, 

PLATE 27. 



Fig. 



Artemis (Diana), 
Hermes (Mercury), . 
A herma, .... 
Hermes the Eloquent, 
Hermes with the tortoise, . 
Vesta, .... 
■14. Pallas Athene (Minerva), 317, 375 



349 
349 
349 
349 
349 
349 
349 
349 
379 
375 
377 
353 
328 
339 

329 
323 
325 
324 
324 
375 



Figs. 



Fig. 



1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 

7- 

15. The Delphian Apollo, . . 326 

16. Antinous, 379 

17-25a. Aphrodite (Venus), . 320,373 
256. Mars and Ilia, . . . .371 

26. Aphrodite as goddess of matri- 

mony, .... 321 

27. Mars the Avenger, . . .372 

28. Athene, Asclepios, and Hygeia, . 332 

29. Asclepios and Hygeia, . . 342 

30. Venus Vietrix, . . . .374 

31. Birth of Aphrodite, . . .321 

PLATE 28. 

1-4. Apollo, 326 

5. Dionysos and Apollo, . . 339 

6. Bust of Athene (Minerva), . . 317 
7-12. Hermes (Mercury), . . 323 

13. Silenos, 346 

14-18. Aphrodite (Venus), . .320,373 
19-21. The Graces, . . 348,376 

22. Hermaphrodites, . . . 345 

23. Hymen, 376 

24. Asclepios, . . . . . 341 

25. Melicertes (Palasmon), . . 344 

26. The sacred bull of Dionysos, . 363 

27. Sacrifice to Mars, . . .373 

PLATE 29. 

1. Ariadne, 340 

2. Dionysian orgies, . . . 366 
3-6. Eros (Amor), . . .335 
7-10. Amor and Psyche, . 337,376 

11. Statue of Psyche, . . .337 

12. The Graces, . . . .348 

13. The Hours, . . . .347 

14. Fides, 377 

15. Pax, 376 

16. Pietas, 377 

17. Pudor or Pudicitia, . . . 377 

18. Concordia, . . . .377 

19. Bonus Eventus, .... 376 

20. Spes, 377 

21. Astrsea, 377 

22. A centaur, . . . .312 

23. Sacrifice in Rome, . . .379 



Fig. 



PLATE 30. 

1, Roman pontifex maximus. 



380 



CONTENTS. 



xvii 



PLATE 30 — (Continued.) 

Fig. 2. Roman augur, .... 380 

" 3. Guardian of the Sibylline books, 380 

" 4. Priest of Jupiter, . . .380 

" 5. Vestal virgin, . . . .375 

" 6. Victimarius, . . . .380 

« 7. The Suovetaurilia, . . .379 

" 8. Sacrificial tripod, . . .380 

" 9. Sacrificial horn, . . . 380 

" 10. Gorgons, 354 

" 11,12. Perseus, , . . .353 

« 13a6. Medusa, . . . .353 

« 14. Charybdis, . . . .361 



PLATE 30 — (Continued.) 

Fig. 15. Scylla, 361 

" 16. The nymph Circe, . . .361 

" 17. Minotaur, 340 

" 18a6. Sphinxes, . . . .360 

" 19. A centaur, .... 312 

" 20. (Edipous slaying the sphinx, . 360 

" 21-23. Giants, . . . .363 

" 24. Allegorical represen'tion of Atlas, 354 

" 25,26. Bellerophon, . . .354 

" 27,28. Amazons, . . . .355 

" 29. Pygmies, 363 

" 30,31. Pallor, Pavor, . . .372 



CONTENTS 



THE FINE ARTS. 



[The numbers refer to the bottom paging of the text."] 



Entroduction, . 






PAGE 

385 


I, Sculpture or the Plastic Art, 






388 


1. Non-Classic Antiquity, 






388 


A. The Hindoos, 






388 


B. The Medes and Persians, 






389 


C. The Babylonians and Phoenicians, 






390 


D. The Egyptians, 






391 


E. The Etruscans, 






395 


2. Classic Antiquity, . . . 




.• 


396 


A. The Greeks, . 






396 


B. The Romans, 






409 


3. Of the Subjects of the Plastic Art in Antiquity, 




412 


A. Mythological Subjects, 


. 




413 


B. Subjects from Human Life, . 


. 




426 


4. The Middle Ages, 


. 




428 


A. From the Decline of the Plastic Ai-t in 


the Third Centuiy 




down to the Thirteenth Century, 


. 




428 


B. From the Revival of Art in the Thirteenth 


to the Seventeenth 




Century, . 






433 


5. Modern Times, 








439 


A. Italy, 








439 


B. France, 








441 


C. Germany, 








444 


D. England and Denmark, 








448 


II. Painting, .... 








451 


1. Antiquity, 








451 


A. The Egyptians, 








452 


B. The Etruscans, 








453 


C. The Greeks and Romans, 








455 


2. The Middle Ages and Modern Times, 






461 


A. From the Introduction of the Christian 


Religion down to 




Ciraabue (d. 1300), 


. 




461 


B. From Cimabue to the Latest Times, 


. 




463 


1. Italy, 


. 




464 


a. The Roman School, 




, 




464 



CONTENTS. 



XIX 



Painting — ( Continued.) 

b. The Florentine School 

c. The Venetian School, 

d. The Bolognese, Lombard, and Neapohtan Schools, 

2. Spain, 

3. France, 

4. Germany, . 

5. The Netherlands, 

6. England, . 
v. America, . 

3. Theory of the Ai't of Drawing, 

A. Morphology or Doctrine of Forms, 

B. Pictorial Perspective, 

C. Drawing of the Human Figm-e, 

D. Composition, 

E. Illumination, 

F. The Various Kinds of Painting, 

4. Graphics, . . . . 

A. Engraving Stamps and Gems, 

B. Wood-Engraving, 

C. Engraving in Metals, 

D. Hyalography, 

E. Lithography, 
m. Music and the Drama, 

1. Music, .... 

A. Ancient Times, 

B. The Middle Ages, . 

C. Modern Times, 

D. Recent Times, 

2. The Dramatic Ai-t, 

The Buildings, . 



471 
478 
485 
493 
495 
503 
513 
517 
519 
520 
521 
530 
534 
539 
542 
542 
546 
546 
547 
549 
556 
556 
561 
561 
562 
563 
563 
564 
566 
569 



CONTENTS OF THE PLATES (IX. Nos. 1—26) 

TO 

THE FINE AETS. 

^*^ The references for explanations of the subjects are to the bottom paging of the text. 



PLATE 1. 

Fig. 1. Bas-relief from the ruins of Perse- 

poHs, 389 

" 2. Trimurti, from the temple of 

Elephanta, . . . .389 
« 3. Bas-relief from Ellora, . . 389 
« 4. Bas-relief from Kenneri, . . 389 
« 5. Bust from ^Egina, . . .399 
" 6. Mask from Sehnuntiae, . . 398 



PLATE 1 — (Continued.) 
Figs. 7, 8. Etruscan bas-reliefs, 
" 9-11. Grecian sculptures of the se- 
cond period, 
" 12. Bas-relief from Selinuntiae, . 
" 13, 14. Bas-reliefs from Xanthus, 

PLATE 2. 

Figs. 1-9. Egyptian statues, . 



395 

399 
398 
399 



393 



CONTENTS. 



PLATE 2 — {Continued.) 
Fig. 10. Facade of the temple of Hathor 
at Ipsambul, 
" 11, 12. Phoenician grave-stones, 
" 13. Numidian half-bust, . 
" 14. Statue of LakshmifromBengalore, 
" 15. Statue from Isura, 
" 16-19. Persian sculptures, 



PLATE 3. 



Fig. 



392 
391 
390 
389 
389 
390 

424 



1. Hercules's combat with Antasus, 

2. Aphrodite and Ares (Venus and 
Mars) 417 

3. The reclining Hermaphrodite, 405,421 

4. Pallas, in the Villa Albani, . 416 

5. Pallas with the serpent, . . 416 
The Farnese Flora, . . .423 
The wounded Amazon of Ctesi- 

laus, .... 404,426 
The dancing Hours, . , . 422 
Fragment of the frieze of the 

Parthenon, . . . 402,427 
Fragment from the Capitoline 

Museum, .... 400 
" 11. Bas-relief from a tripod-stand in 

Dresden, . . . .400 
« 12-17. Grecian portrait-busts, . 407,426 
" 18-20. Grecian animal heads, . . 403 
« 21. The Gonzaga cameo, . . 408 

« 22-26. Grecian coins, . . .401 

PLATE 4. 

Fig. 1. Phidias's statue of Pallas in the 

Parthenon in Athens, . 402,416 
« 2. The Medicean Venus, . 408, 418 
■« 3. The Venus of Melos, . . .418 
" 4. TheVenus of the Dresden Museum, 418 
" 5. The Venus Victrix from Capua, . 417 
« 6. The Capitoline Venus, . . 418 
" 7. Diana the Huntress in Paris, . 415 
" 8. Statue of Sallustia Barbara Ur- 

bana with Eros, in Rome, 411, 420 
" 9. Statue of Julia Soaemis in Rome, 411 
" 10. Sleep as a boy, in Dresden, . 422 



PLATE 5. 

Fig. 1, 2. The Farnese Hercules, . 
" 3. The Torso Belvedere, 
" 4. The Borghese Gladiator, . 
" 5. The Dying Gladiator, 
« 6. The Pallas from Velletri, . 
« 7. Cupid and Psyche, 
" 8 Venus crouching in the bath, 
" 9. Statue of Adonis, 

" 10. Statue of Dionysus, in Paris, 

" 11. Statue of Bacchus, in Dresden, 

" 12. Statue of Cincinnatus in Paris, 

" 13. Boy extracting a thorn from 
foot, in Rome, 



405, 424 
. 424 
. 427 

407,427 
. 416 



41] 



420 
418 
418 
419 
419 
425 

428 



Fig. 1. Statueof Antinousof Belvedere, 41 1,41 8 



2. The Apollo of Belvedere, . 

3. Statue of a Faun, 

4. Statue of Germanicus, from the 

15th century ; by oversight 
not mentioned in the text ; it 
belongs to the period of the 
revival of art, but the sculp- 
tor is not known. It is pte- 
served in the Louvre in Paris. 



415 
423 



PLATE 6 — (Continued.) 
Fig. 5. Hercules with the boy Telephus 

on his arm, in Rome, . . 424 

" 6, Boy wrestling with a goose, . 428 

" 7. Laocoon, in the Vatican, . . 406 

8. Statue of Meleager, in Rome, . 425 

PLATE 7. 

Fig. 1. Pietas Militaris, bas-relief in 

Rome, . . . .429 

" 2. The restoration of the dead to 

life, bas-relief in the Vatican, 431 
" 3. Statue of a bishop, by Agostino 

and Angelo de Senis, . . 435 
" 4. Shrine of St. Peter the Martyr, 

by Giovanni Balducci, . . 435 
" 5-8. Four Caryatides from this 

shrine, . . . .435 

" 9. Bust from a fountain at Siena, by 

Jacopo della Querela, . . 435 
" 10. Bust of an apostle, by Andrea 

Verocchio, .... 436 
" 11. St. John the Baptist, by Donatello, 436 
" 12. St. George, by Donatello, . . 436 
" 13. Holy Virgin, by Giovanni da Pisa, 434 
" 14. Apollo and Daphne, by Lorenzo 

Bernini, . . . .439 
" 15. The Angel of the Annunciation, 

by Francesco Mocchi, . . 438 
" 16. Perseus, by Benvenuto Cellini, , 438 
" 17. Mercury, by Giovanni da Bo- 
logna, . . . .438 
" 18. Bacchus and a Satyr, by Michael 

Angelo, .... 437 
" 19. Moses, by Michael Angelo, . 437 
" 20. Morning and Evening, by Michael 

Angelo, . . . .437 

PLATE 8. 
Fig. 1. The Three Graces with the Urn, 

by Germain Pilot, . . 441 
2. The Fettered Slave, by Michael 

Angelo, . . . .437 
" 3. The Penitent Magdalene, by Ca- 

nova, ..... 441 
" 4. The Dancing Girl, by Canova, . 441 
" 5. Statue of .Tason, by Thorwaldsen, 449 
" 6. Statue of Apollo, by Thorwald- 
sen, 450 

" 7. Statue of Cincinnatus, by Chaudet, 442 
" 8. Dancing Neapolitan, by Duret, . 442 
" 9. Statue of Spartacus, by Fogatier, 442 
" 10. The Maid of Orleans, by the 

Duchess Mavie of Orleans, . 444 

PLATE 9. 

Fig. 1. Statue of Hebe, by Canova, . 441 
" 2. Cupid and Psyche, by Canova, . 441 
" 3. The Three Graces, by Canova, 421, 441 
" 4. Statueof Venus, by Thorwaldsen, 450 
« 5. The Three Graces, by Thorwald- 
sen, .... 421,450 
" 6. Achilles and Briseis, bas-relief by 

Thorwaldsen, . . . 450 
" 7-11. Fragments from the Proces- 
sion of Alexander, bas-re- 
lief by Thorwaldsen, . 449 

PLATE 10. 

Fig. 1. Statue of Admiral Duquesne, by 
Roguier, .... 



443 



CONTENTS. 



YTl 



PLATE 10 — {Continued.) 
Fig. 2. Statue of Bayard, by Montour, . 443 
" 3. Statue of Du Guesclin, by Bridan, 443 
" 4. Statue of the great Cond^, by 

Jean David, . . . 443 

" 5. Statue of Mozart, by Schwan- 

thaler, .... 448 

** 5ab. Bas-reliefs from the pedestal of 
the last-named monument, 
by Schwanthaler, . . 448 
** 6. Statue of Margrave Frederick, by 

Schv^^an thaler, . . . 448 
" 7. Ino with the boy Bacchus, by 

Dumont, .... 442 
" 8. Leda and the Swan, by Seurre 

jeune, . . ■ . . 442 
" 9. Statue of Bavaria, by Ranch, . 447 
** 10. Statue of Felicitas puhlica, by 

Rauch, .... 447 
" 11. Monument to Marshal Saxe, by 

Pigalle, . . . .442 
" 12. Monument to Robert Burns in 

Edinburgh, .... 447 
PLATE 11. 
Fig. 1. Statue of Otto the Illustrious, by 

Schwanthaler, . . . 447 
" 2. Statue of Ludwig the Bavarian, 

by Schwanthaler, . . 447 

" 3. Statue of Gutenberg, by Jean 

David, . . . .443 

" 4, Statue of Gutenberg, by Thor- ' 

waldsen, . . . 444, 451 
" 5, 6. Bas-reliefs from the pedestal of 
the last-named monument, 
by Thorwaldsen, . . 451 
7. Statue of Schiller, by Thorwald- 
sen, 451 

" 8, 9. Bas-reliefs from the pedestal of 
the last-named monument, 
by Thorwaldsen, . . 451 
" 10. Statue of General Kleber, by Ph. 

Gross, . . . .442 

" 11. Monument to the Duchess of 

Saxe-Teschen, by Canova, . 441 
" 12. The Death of Epaminondas, bas- 
relief by Jean David, . . 443 
" 13. Bellona, bas-relief by Chinard, . 442 
" 14. Monument to Dugald Stewart in 

Edinburgh, .... 447 
PLATE 12. 
Figs. 1, 2. Egyptian paintings, . . 453 
" 3-7. Etruscan vase-paintings, . , 454 
" 8, 9. Wall-paintings from Pom- 
peii, . . . 458,460 
" 10. Monochrome from Herculaneum, 460 
" 11, Achilles and Briseis, from Pom- 
peii, 459 

" 12. Achilles at Scyros, from Pompeii, 459 
" 13, 14. Wall-paintings from the baths 

of Titus, . . . .460 

PLATE 13. 

Figs. 1-4. Etruscan vase-paintings, . . 454 
" 5. Theseus, wall-painting from Her- 
culaneum, .... 460 
" 6. Narcissus, wall-painting from 

Herculaneum, . . . 460 
" 7. The Aldobrandini wedding, . 459 
•* 8. Fresco painting from the villa 

Pamfili, .... 459 



PLATE 13 — (Continued.) 
Fig. 9. The Pythian Apollo, . . .460 
" 10. The Delphian Apollo, . 460,461 
" 11, 12. Nymp4is, from the Baths of 

Constantine, . . . 461 
" 13, 14. Amorettes, from the same, . 461 
" 15.. Ceiling from the sepulchre of the 

Naso family, . . . 460 
" 16. Masks, mosaic in the Vatican, . 458 
" 17. Doves, mosaic in the Capitoline 

Museum, .... 458 
" 18. Relief-mosaic in Rome, . . 458 
" 19-22. Mosaic pavement, . 458, 461 

PLATE 14. 

Figs. 1-3. Grecian vase-paintings, . . 457 
" 4. Wall-painting from the sepulchre 

of the Naso family, . . 460 
" bah. Miniature paintings of the 8th 

century, .... 463 

" 6. Mosaic from the Villa Albani, . 458 
" 7. Mosaic from St. John's in the 

Lateran, .... 462 
" 8. Fragment from Trajan's co- 
lumn, . . . . 411,462 

" 9. Mosaic from Cosmedino, . . 462 
" 10. Mosaic from St. John's in the 

Lateran, .... 462 

" 11. Mosaic from Florence, . 463 

" 12. Mosaic from St. Peter's in Rome, 462 

PLATE 15. 

Fig. 1. School of Athens, by Raphael, . 466 
" 2. Madonna and Child, by Leonardo 

da Vinci, .... 472 

" 3. Ecce Homo, by Ludovico Cardi, 476 

" 4. St. Mark, by Fra Bartolomeo, . 473 

5. St. Francis, by Guido Reni, . 490 

" 6. The Entombment of Christ, by 

Caravaggio, . . . 489 

" 7. Mary Magdalen and St. Francis 

of Assisi by the body of Christ, 

by Annibale Caracci, . . 488 
" 8. Joseph and Potiphars wife, by 

Carlo Cignani, . . .493 
" 9. Praying Madonna, by Sassofer- 

rato, 469 

" 10. Madonna, by Guido Reni, . . 490 
" 11. St. John the Baptist, by Guido 

Reni, 490 

" 12. Galathea, by Ludovico Caracci, . 487 
" 13. Pluto, by Agostino Caracci, . 487 

PLATE 16. 
Fig. 1. St. Cecilia, by Raphael, . . 466 
« 2. Madonna and Child, by Raphael, 466 
" 3, 4. Fresco paintings by Raphael, . 466 
" 5. The Distribution of the Holy Ro- 
saries, by Carlo Maratti, . 469 
" 6. Venus and Vulcan, by Giulio Ro- 
mano, 467 

" 7. Madonna, by Annibale Caracci, . 488 
" 8. Descent from the Cross, by An- 
drea del Sarto, . . . 474 
" 9. Polyhymnia and Erato, by Pietro 

da Cortona, . . 469, 477 

" 10. Euterpe and Urania, by Pietro da 

Cortona, . . . 469,477 

PLATE 17. 

Figs. \ah, 2ab. Fresco paintings, by Ra- 
phael, .... 466 



«u 



CONTENTS. 



PLATE 17 — (Continued.) 
Fig. 3. Raphael's portrait, by himself, . 467 

4. The Adulteress before Christ, by 
Tintoretto, . . . .482 

5. The Dying Magdalen, by Rusti- 
chino, 476 

6. Holy Family, by Francesco Al- 
bano, 491 

7. Charity, by Andrea del Sarto, . 474 

8. Madonna, by Murillo, . . 495 

9. Vandyk's portrait, by himself, . 515 
10. Passage of the Granicus, by Le- 

brun, 500 

PLATE 18. 

Fig. 1. Madonna and the Fathers of the 

Church, by Raphael, . . 466 
« 2. The Virgin Mary, by Fra Bartolo- 

meo, 473 

" 3. Christ crowned with thorns, by 

Titian, . . . .479 

" 4. Andromeda, by Francesco Furini, 477 
" 5. Offering brought to ^Esculapius, 

by Guerin, . . . .502 
*' 6. Guido Reni's portrait, by himself, 491 
" 7. Assumption of St. Mary, by Ru- 
bens, ..... 515 
" 8. Portrait of Rubens, by himself, . 515 
" 9. The Adoration of the Shepherds, 

by Van der Werff, . . 517 

" 10. Youth with the Drinking-cup, . 516 

" 11. Guitar-player, by Netscher, . 516 

" 12. The Adoration of the Magi, . 511 

« 13. Endymion, by Girodet-Trioson, . 502 
" 14. Belisarius, by Francois Pascal 

Gerard, . . . .501 

PLATE 19. 

Illustrations of the Theory of the Art of Drawing. 
Figs. 1-12. The eye, . . . .535 



13-15. 
16-19. 
20-27. 
28-31. 
32-39. 
40-45. 



The nose, . 
The mouth, . 
The ear. 
The feet, . 
The hands, . 
Pictorial perspective. 



535 
535 
536 
537 
537 
530 



PLATE 20. 

Illustrations of the Theory of the Art of Drawing. 

Figs. 1-10. The head, . . . .536 
" 11-14. The entire body, . . .538 
" 15, 16. Artistical Anatomy, . . 526 
" 17-21. The hands, . . . .537 

PLATE 21. 

Illustrations of the Theory of the Art of Drawing. 
Figs. 1-11. Auxiliary lines, . . .537 
" 12-15. Proportions of the human 

body, . . . .538 
" 16, 17. Proportions of the human face, 536 
" 18. Antique torso, .... 539 
" 19-21. Antique heads, . . .537 

PLATE 22. 

Illustrations of the Graphic Arts. 

Fig. 1. Etching on soft ground, . . 552 

2. Etching, 550 

" 3. Etching finished with the graver, 550 

" 4. Mezzotinto, .... 550 

" 5. Aquatint engraving, . . . 550 



PLATE 22 — (Continued.) 
Fig. 6. Stippling combined with line en- 
graving, . . . .550 
7, 8. Manner of holding the graver, 551 
7a. Engraver's easel, . . . 551 
8a. Engraver's hand-vice, , . 550 
9. Manipulation of cutting stones, . 547 
9a. Engraver's oil-rubber, . .551 
10, 11. Tampons, or dabbers, . . 550 

12. Common ruler, .... 551 

13. Parallel ruler, . . . .551 
14,15. Scrapers, . . . 551,558 

16. Burnisher, 551 

17. Rocking-tool or cradle, . . 552 

18. Roulette, 552 

19. Scratcher, 552 

20-22. Etching needles, . . .551 
23-26. Gravers, . . . .550 

27. Callipers, 551 

28a6. Improved callipers, . . 551 

29,30. Punches, . . . .551 
31, 32. Engraver's anvil and hammer, 551 

33. Lines made by the cradle, . . 552 

34. Reducing frame, . . . 550 

35. Frame for correctly observing 

curves on busts, &c., . . 551 
" 36-38. Hands for engraving stamps, 547 

PLATE 23. 

Alphabets of various languages for the use 

of engravers, ..... 553 

^*'^ The values of the letters in English charac- 
ters are placed opposite them. It will suf- 
fice here to give the list of the languages 
whose superscriptions are in German. The 
only words that may require explanation 
are : Keklhauch, guttural aspiration ; Kurz, 
short ; Lang, long ; Werth, value ; Zahl- 
werth, numerical value ; and Benennung, 
name. 
The alphabets are: 1. Japanese; 2. Tamul, 
3. Bugic (Malay) ; 4. Persian arrow-headed 
characters ; 5. Hebrew ; 6. Samaritan ; 7. 
Pehlvi (Parthian) ; 8. Armenian ; 9. Ancient 
Greek; 10. Modern Greek; 11. Coptic; 12. 
Gothic ; 13. Etruscan ; 14. Anglo-Saxon ; 15. 
Runic. 

PLATE 24. 
Alphabets for engravers (continued) : 1. Magadha 
(older Sanscrit) ; 2. Sanscrit; 3. Tibetan; 4. 
Arabic ; 5. Ethiopian ; 6. Syriac ; 7. Zend ; 
8. Mongolian ; 9. Russian ; 10. Wallachian ; 
11. Serbian. 



Bemerkungen, Observations ; these are : * Jerr 
adds to the force of the preceding consonant ; 
** Jehr softens the preceding consonant ; 
*** The Serbian language is printed with 
Russian type, with the addition of Jerr and 
Jehr. 

Interpuctionszeichen der Zendschrift, Punctua- 
tion marks of the Zend language. 

PLATE 25. 
Figs. 1-33. Details illustrating the construc- 
tion of theatrical buildings, 569-579 

PLATE 26. 
Figs. 1^5. Details illustrating the construc- 
tion of theatrical buildings, 569-579 



CONTENTS 



TECHNOLOGY. 



[The.numbers refer to the bottom paging of the text.] 



Introduction, . . • . 






. 581 


I. Means of Communication, 






. 582 


1. Construction of Roads, 






. 582 


A. Streets in Cities, 






. 583 


B. Roads, 






.586 


C. Tunnels, 






. 588 


D. Railroads, 






. 591 


2. Bridge building, . 






. 616 


A. Stone Bridges, 






. 617 


B. Wooden Bridges, 






. 620 


C. Iron Bridges, 






. 622 


3. Inland Navigation, 






. 626 


A. Dams, 






. 627 


B. Canals, 






. 628 


C. Locks, 






. 631 


D. Aqueducts, . 


; 




. 634 


E. Canal Bridges, 






. 636 


II. Windlasses and Cranes, . 






. 637 


in. Hydraulic Engines, 






. 639 


1. Pumps, . . . . 






. 639 


2. The Hydraulic Ram, 






. 641 


3. Fire Engines, 






. 644 


IV. Mills, . . . . . 






. 649 


1. Vertical Water Wheels, . 






. 649 


2. Horizontal Water Wheels, 






, 651 


3. Grinding Mills, . . . . 






. 652 


V. Cotton Manufacture, . . . . 






. 654 


1. Picking, Scutching, and Lapping Machines, 






. 655 


2. The Drawing Frame, 






. 661 


3. The Roving Frame, 






. 663 


4. Completion of the Roving, 






. 667 


5. The Mule and Mule Spinning, 






. 669 


6. The Singing and Gassing of Yarn, . 






. 676 


7. Weaving, . . . . , 






. 676 


8. Finishing and Bleaching, . 






. 679 


Woollen Manufacture, , . , 






. 680 



A.A1 V \^\y 


XI XJJJIA X 


IC7. 






PASX 


VI. Coining, . . . . . . . . .681 


1. Metallic Money, . 








. 681 


2. Paper Money, 








. 685 


VII. Mining, ..... 








. 686 


Litroduction, . 








. 686^ 


1. Experimental Works, 








. 687 


2. Mining for Ore, 








. 690 


3. Mining at the Surface, 








. 693 


4. Drifts or Levels, . 








. 695 


5. Sinking of Shafts, . 








. 701 


6. Working the Mines, 








. 704 


7. Ventilation of Mines, 








. 706 


8. Transport of Ores to the Surface, 








. 708 


9. Drainage of Mines, 








. 709 


VIII. MetaUui'gy, 








. 711 


1. General Preparation of Ores, 








. 711 


2. Roasting, .... 








. 712 


3. Furnaces, . 








. 712 


4. Chemical Metallurgic Apparatus, 








•. 716 


5. Working Iron, 








. 717 


IX. Agi'iculture, 








. 719 


1. Tillage, .... 








. 719 


A. The Soil, 








. 719 


B. Agi'icultural Tools, . 








. 721 


C. Grain Crops, 








. 723 


D. Root and Frait Crops, 








. 725 


E. Underground Drains, 








. 725 


F. Double Crops, 








. 726 


G. Flax, 










. 727 


H. Cider, 










. 727 


2. Live Stock, 










. 728 


A. The Horse, . 










.728 


B. Neat Cattle, . 










. 729 


C. The Sheep, . 










. 731 


D. The Hog, . 










. 731 


E. The Silkwoi-m, 










. 732 


F. The Honey Bee, 










. 733 


X. Hunting and Fishing, 










. 735 


1. Hunting, . 










. 735 


A. Aids in Hunting, 










. 736 


B. Practical Hunting, 










. 737 


C. Shooting, Trapping, ( 


fcc. 








. 738 


2. Fishing, . 










. 742 


A. Freshwater Fishing, 










. 742 


B. Marine Fishing, 










. 743 



CONTENTS OF THE PLATES (X, Nos. 1— 3§) 



TECHNOLOGY 



^*^ The references for explanations of the subjects are to the bottom paging of the text. 



PLATE 1. 

Figs. 1-27. Illustrating the construction of 

streets and roads, . 583-588 
« 28-34. Illustrating the Thames tun- 
nel in London, . . 589 

PLATE 2. 
Figs. 1-54. Illustrating the constniction of 

railroads,. . . 594-603 

PLATE 3. 

Figs. 1-29. Illustrating the construction of 

railroads, . . 594-603 

" 30. The Leipsic station of the Saxon 

and Bavarian railroad, . . 603 

PLATE 4. 

Figs. 1-6. Illustrating the motive power 

on railroads, . . 603-611 
" 7-15. Illustrating the construction of 

inchned planes, . 612-614 

PLATE 5. 

Figs. 1-8. Illustrating Stephenson's loco- 
motive with variable ex- 
pansion, .... 607 
" 9-28. Illustrating the construction 
of tenders and railroad 
cars, . . . 606-611 
•' 29. Interior of the Duke of Bruns- 
wick's car on the Brunswick 
railroad, .... 610 
" 30. Interior of Queen Victoria's car 
on the London and Dover 
railroad, .... 610 

PLATE 6. 

Figs. 1-10. Illustrating the construc- 
tion of atmospheric rail- 
roads, . . . 614-616 

PLATE 7. 

Figs. 1-23. Illustrating the construction of 

stone bridges, . . 617-620 

PLATE 8. 

Figs. 1-^5. Illustrating the construction of 

wooden bridges, . 620-622 

PLATE 9. 

Figs, 1-33. Illustrating the construction of 

iron bridges, . . 622-626 



PLATE 10. 

Figs. 1-28. Illustrating the construction of 

canals and dams, . 627-637 

Fig. 29. View of a chain of locks on the 
Rideau canal near Bytown in 
Canada, . . . 631,632 

PLATE 11. 

Figs. 1-5. Details from the Languedoc 

canal in France, . . 629 
" 6-8. The Cesse Aqueduct, . . 634 
" 9-11. The Croton Aqueduct of New 

York, . . . .637 
" 12-18. Locks and weirs, . . 631-634 

PLATE 12. 

Figs. 1-12. Illustrating the construction of 

windlasses and cranes, 637-639 



PLATE 13. 
Fig. 1. A lift pump, .... 
2. A forcing pump, 
3-6. Stephenson's double action 

pump, 

7-9. Pump used in the mine Huel- 
goet in Normandy, . 
10-12. Letestu's pump, . 
13, 14. Jordan's hydraulic ram in 
Clausthal, 
" 15-21. Reichenbach's hydraulic ram 
in the saltworks at Illfang 
in Bavaria, 

PLATE 14. 

Figs. 1,2. The simplest construction of a 

fire-engine. 

Portable fire-engine, 

Pontifex's fire-engine, 

7-10. Repsold's fire-engine, . 

11-15. Letestu's fire-engine, 

16-21. Common double-action 

engine, 
22,23. Bramah's fire-engine, . 
24. Steam fire-engine, 
25-29. Apparatus to save persons 
and property at fires. 



3,4. 
5,6. 



639 

640 

640 

641 

641 

643 



642 



645 
645 
645 
646 
645 



fire- 



. 646 

646, 647 

. 647 



648 



PLATE 15. 

Figs. 1-18. Illustrating the construction of 

vertical water-wheels, 649—651 
" 19-29. Illustrating the construction of 

horizontal water-wheels, 651, 652 



}SV1 



CONTENTS. 



PLATE 16. 

Figs. 1-15. Illustrating the construction 
of an American grinding- 
inill, . . . 652-654 



PLATE 17. 

Figs. 1, 2. Cotton gin, . 
" 3-5a. Wolf or willow, 
" 6. Spreading machine, 
" 7. Lap-machine, . 



655 
655 

657 
657 



8-16. Carders and carding ma- 
chines, . . . 658-661 
17-20. Drawing frame, . . .661 
21-24. Roving frame, . . .663 



Fig. 



PLATE 18. 

Figs. 1-7. Danforth's tube roving-frame, 
" 8-16. Self-acting mule, . 
« 17-19. Washing-kettle, . 
" 20,21. Wringing-machine, 
" 22-24. Scales for weighing yam, 
" 25,26. Starching and steam drying 

apparatus, 
" 27-29. Press for packing yam. 
« 30-33. Woollen willow, . 

PLATE 19. 

1. Beaming for hand weaving, 

2.3. Warping-mill, 

4. Simplest loom, . 
5-7. Power-loom, . 
8,9. Shuttle,. 

10, 11. Jaw-temples, 
12, 13. Singing-oven, 
14, 15. Wash-wheel, 
16-19. Gassing-machine, . 

20. Arrangement of spools, 

21. Lever of a power-loom, 

22. Batten of a power-loom, 

PLATE 20, 
1,2. Casting-machine of mints, 

3. 4. RoUing mill of mints, . 

5, 6. Circular shears, 
7-9. Flattening-mill, 

10-14. Drawing machine of mints, 
15, 16. Coin-punch, 
17-20. Milling machine, . 
21-37. Stamping-machines, 



Figs 



663 

669 
680 
680 
676 

680 
676 
680 



676 
676 
677 
677 
678 
679 
679 
679 
676 
676 
678 
678 



682 
682 
683 
682 
682 
683 
683 
684 



Fig. 



PLATE 21. 

1. Stamping machine of the mint 

in Rio Janeiro, . . . 685 

Coins of Various Nations: 

With their approximate values ; an ap- 
pendix to the article on the art of 
coining, pp. 681-685. 

VALUE. 

2. Persian gold piece of Imam 

Riza, . . . . $7 35 

3. East India Rupee Zodiac, . 6 20 

4. Gold piece of the East India 

Company, . . . . 4 90 

5. Gold piece of the Dutch East 

India Company, . . 4 90 

6. Double gold sovereign of Bra- 

bant of 1800, . . . 13 00 

7. Gold Sovereign of Brabant of 

1796. . . . . 6 50 



PLATE 21 — {Continued.) 
Fig. 8. Belgian gold hon of 1790, . $9 GO 
" 9. Danish Species Ducat, . . 2 35 
" 10. Danish double Frederic d'or of 

1828, . . . . 7 90 
" 11. Austrian ducat of 1826, . .2 25 
" 12. Bavarian ducat of 1821, . . 2 25 
" 13. Hamburg ducat of 1818, . . 2 40 
" 14. Ducat of Electoral Saxony of 

1797, . . . . 2 25 
" 15. Ducat of Canton of Berne, . 2 15 
" 16. Carl d'or of the duchy of Bruns- 
wick, 1799, . . . 4 GO 
" 17. Hanoverian double pistole, 1829, 7 90 
" 18. Wilhelm d'or of the Electorate 

of Hesse, 1829, . . . 4 GO 
" 19. Royal Pmssian double Frederick 

d'or, 1800, . . . 7 90 

" 20. Royal Prussian Frederick d'or, 

1822, . . . . 3 90 
" 21. Royal Wirtemberg Frederic d'or, 

1810, . . . . 3 90 

" 22. Sixteen franc piece or pistole 

of the Helvetic Republic, 

1800, . . . . 4 25 
" 23. Five guilder piece or imperial 

ducat of the grand duchy of 
Baden, 1827, . . . 2 35 
" 24. Ten guilder piece or Caroline of 
the grand duchy of Hesse, 

1826, . . . . 4 50 
" 25. Royal guinea of Great Britain, 

1801, . . . . 5 GO 

PLATE 22. 

Coins of Vaeious Nations: 

With their approximate values ; an appendix 
to the article on coining, pp. 681-685. 

Fig. 1. English guinea of George III., 

1793, . . . . 5 GO 

" 2. English third of a guinea of 

George III., 1797, . . 1 75 

" 3. English sovereign of Queen Vic- 
toria, 1845, . . . 4 85 

" 4. French Louis d'or of Louis XVL, 

1797, . . . . 3 75 

" 5. Napoleon d'or, 1813, . . 3 85 

" 6. Itahan double Napoleon d'or, 

1814, . . . . 6 50 

" 7. French Louis d'or of Louis 

XVIII., 1818, . . . 3 80 

" 8. French twenty franc piece, Louis 

Philippe, 1831, . . . 3 85 
9. French forty franc piece, 1848, . 7 70 

" 10. Half guinea of Ligurian repub- 
lic, 1798, . . . . 6 40 

" 11. Holland ducat, 1827, . . 2 00 

" 12. Netherland five guilder piece, 

1827, . . . . 2 00 
" 13. Netherland ten guilder piece, 

1825, . . . . 4 00 

« 14. Milan zechino, Joseph IL, 1784, 2 25 

" 15. Maltese single Louis d'or, 1782, 3 75 
" 16. Neapolitan twenty lire piece, 

.Joachim Napoleon, 1813, . 3 75 

" 17. United States half-eagle of 1798, 5 00 
" 18. Roman zechin of Pius VI., 

1783, . . . . 2 25 

" 19. Double Romana of Pius VII., . 7 70 



CONTENTS. 



XXVll 



PLATE 22 — [Continued.) 
Fig. 20. Scudo d'oio of the Roman re- 
public, 1798, . . $10 25 
" 21. Piedmontese Doppia nuova of 



Charles Emanuel, 1797; 

22. Polish ducat, 1791, . 

23. Portuguese dobrao, 1725, . 

24. Portugalese, 1800, . 

25. Crusado nuovo of Maria I., 1 790, 

26. Russian ducat of Paul I., 1801, 

27. Russian imperial of Catharine 

II., 1766, . . . . 

28. Sardinian gold piece of 20 lire 

nuove, 1827, 

29. Swedish ducat of Charles XIII 

1810, 

30. Sicilian double oncia, 1752, 

31. Spanish quadruple, 1801, . 

32. Tuscan P.ispone of Ferdinand 

III., 1798, 

33. Turkish zermahubzechino of Se 

lim III., . 

34. Sequin or zechino of Selim 

III., . . 

35. Venetian zechino, 

36. Venetian gold ducat, . . 



7 80 

3 75 
27 50 

5 40 

2 60 

4 00 

7 50 

3 30 

2 00 

8 00 
16 00 

6 40 
1 45 

1 45 

2 20 

3 30 



PLATE 23. PAGE 

Fig. 1. Exterior view of the mines of Fa- 
lun in Sweden, . . . 710 
'< 2. Exterior view of the mines of 

Persberg in Sweden, . . 710 
" 3. Coal strata of Ronchamps, . 687 
" 4. Coal strata of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, 687 

" 5-7. Slate quarries near Angers, . 693 

" 8-11. Apparatus for blasting, . . 692 

" 12, 13. Boring apparatus, . . 689 
" 14-35. Miners' tools, . . 690-711 
" 36. Interior view of a coal mine at 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, . 687 

PLATE 24. 
Figs. 1-32. Illustrating the construction of 

levels and shafts, . . 695-704 
" 33, 34. Illustrating the ventilation of 

mines, .... 707 
" 35. Exhausting engine, . . . 707 
" 36-39. Modes of descent and ascent 



in mmes, . 
40-43. Miners at work, 

PLATE 25. 



709 
705 



Fig. 1. Interior view of the mines of Pers- 
berg in Sweden, . . .710 
" 2. Interior view of the mines of Fa- 
lun in Sweden, . . . 710 
" 3, 4. Sections of mines, . . . 705 
" 5. Two coal seams, . . . 705 
" 6-9. Apparatus for boring, . . 689 
« 10. Mining by fire, . . . .693 
" 11-26. Illustrating the construction of 

levels and shafts, . 695-704 
" 27-35. Miners' tools for slate mines, 693 

PLATE 26. 
Fig. 1. Interior view of the salt mines of 

Wieliczka, . . . .711 
" 2 Interior of the millstone quarry at 

Niedermendig, . . . 710 
" 3-5. Interior plans of mines, . . 705 



PLATE 26 — {Continued.} 
Figs. 6-10. Illustrating the ventilation of 
mines, .... 
" 11. Breathing tube, . 
" 12. Davy's and Dumesnil's safety 
lamps, .... 

" 13-15. Anemometer, 
" 16-28. Means of transport of ores, . 
" 29-34. Hydraulic ram at Huelgoet, . 

PLATE 27. 

Figs. 1-7. Open furnaces, 
" 8-14. Stack furnaces, , 
" 15. Puddling furnace, 
" 16. Gold amalgam mill, . 
" 17, 18. Tongs for handling en 

bles, 
" 19. Interior of a blast furnace house, 
" 20. Tuyere chambers, 
" 21. Stamping mill, .... 



707 
708 

708 
707 
708 
710 



713 
713 
713 
716 

716 
714 
714 
712 



Fie 



714, 715 
. 715 
. 715 



Figs. 



PLATE 28. 

1, 2. Stack furnaces, 
3. Reverberatory furnace, 
4-8. Crucible furnaces, . 
9, 10. Tongs for handling cruci- 
bles, . . . .716 
11. Heating chamber for hot-blast, . 717 
12-22. Rollers for the final prepara- 
tion of iron, . . .718 

PLATE 29. 

1-17. Various ploughs, . . .722 
" 18-23. Various harrows, . . .722 
" 24-26. Drags and rollers, . . 723 

" 27-36. Sowing and planting ma- 
chines, .... 723 
" 37, 38. Winnowing machine, . . 724 
" 39. Grain shock, . . . .723 
" 40. Grain crusher, .... 724 
" 41. Straw cutter, .... 724 
" 42. Machine for cleaning flax, . . 727 
" 43. Machine for washing potatoes, . 731 
" 44. Plan and elevation of a farmhouse 
with barn and stables at- 
tached ; given as an appendix 
to the article on agriculture. 

PLATE 30. 
Figs. 1-7. Illustrating the management 



of double crops. 


726 


8-23. Agricultural tools. 


726 


" 24. Thermometer used to indicate the 




temperature of heaps in which 




root crops are stored, . 


725 


" 25, 26. Grain stacks. 


724 


" 27,28. Clover frames, . 


725 


" 29,30. Illustrating underground drain- 




age, .... 


726 


" 3]. Stack of roots or fruits. 


725 


" 32-34. Barns and threshing-floors, . 


724 


" 35-39. Apparatus for drying fruit, . 


725 


" 40, 41. Grain kilns, .... 


724 


" 42,43. Dairy, 


730 


" 44, 45. Flax brake, .... 


727 


" 46. English churn, .... 


730 


" 47-49. Apparatus for making cider, . 


727 


PLATE 31. 




Figs. 1-8. Neat cattle, .... 


729 


" 9-13. Sheep, 


731 



XXVUl 



CONTENTS. 



PLATE 31 — (Continued.) 

Figs. 14-17. Hogs, 731 

" 18-47. The horse, . . . .728 

PLATE 32. 

Figs. 1-10. The economy of neat cattle, . 729 
« 11-13. Sheep-folds, . . .731 

" 14-37. The management of silk- 
worms, .... 732 
" 38-57. The management of honey- 
bees, . . . .733 



PLATE 33, 

Figs. 1-56. Illustrating the art of hunt- 
ing, . . . 735-742 

PLATE 34. 

Figs. 1-8. Illustrating fresh water fish- 
ing, .... 742 
" 9-14. Illustrating marine fishing, . 743 

PLATE 35. 

Figs. 1-3. Illustrating marine fishing, . 743 



ARCHITECTURE. 

Plates 1—60. 



I. AISTCIENT AECHITECTUEE. 

1. ANCIENT HINDOO ABCHITEGTUIIE. 

Hindoo Architecture, prob.ably the most ancient tliat exhibits regular 
arcMtectonical mouldings, is remarkable for its well defined character, for the 
distinct groimd-plan of its temples, and for three different orders of pillars. 
As its leading features arose from the peculiarities of climate and situation, 
it has rarely been introduced into any other country. 

Impressed with the idea that the worship of an eternal religion should be 
conducted in imperishable temples, and in order to insure their being both 
airy and cool, the Hindoos constructed and excavated these edifices in the 
rocks. The temples at Tintali, Dasavatara, and the grotto palace of Siva, 
near EUora, number among the most ancient. They are all constructed in 
the following manner. 

The entire temple being under ground, the ceilings are supported by piUars 
of three different sizes and forms, of various thicknesses, and more or less 
finished and elaborated. Some temples are so deep below the sm-face as to 
require two tiers of pillars, one above the other, as in the grotto temple of 
Indi-a Sabah at Ellora {jpl. ^^fig. 2). All these pillars are entirely different 
from those in the ISTubian or Egyptian temples. The temples receive no 
light except through the openings in front. The large pillars, or those of the 
first order, are square and plain, and from three to five and a half diameters 
in height. A few small fillets form a kind of base, and a fillet on the top 
constitutes a capital, upon which rests a sort of cornice, divided into three 
stripes, running from pillar to pillar. The higher piUars are of an octagonal 
form. Their base is composed of regular mouldings, and they have caps 
consisting of a fillet and torus, similar to the astragal of the Doric order, and 
probably its prototype, as it is supposed that the construction was introduced 
into the island of Crete from India, where the Indian cap was rounded 
to suit the round column. Similar pillars are found in the interior of the 
temple of Yishnu Karmah {fig. 4), and as supporters of the ceiling of 
the Kailasa, as well as in the grotto temple of Indra Sabah, near Ellora. 
This remarkable palace is 24Y feet long, by 150 feet wide ; and its height in 
the clear, divided by two tiers of pillars, is 47 feet. Some of the walls are 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPEDIA. VOL. IV. 1 1 



2 ARCHITECTURE. 

supported by elephants cut out of very hard stone. The exterior is orna- 
mented with sculptures {jig. 2). The elephant near the pagoda-like building 
in the centre of the drawing, is called Iravat^ and is dedicated to the Indian 
god of the heavens. 

The pillars of the second order have a very high base (pedestal)^ and a 
square cap. Specimens of this order are met with in the upper tier of the 
grotto temple of Indi'a {fig. 2) ; of Yishnu Karmah {fig. 4) ; and Eabana 
{pi. Z.fig. 15). 

The pillars of the third order have a base composed of regular mouldings 
and a round cap formed of a double torus, divided by a fillet. Above the 
cap is an echinus, similar to the Doric cap ; and above that, a small slab 
which supports the cornice. In some instances the base has no mouldings 
{pi. l^figs. 6, 7). The columns in front of the Indra temple {pi. 2, fig. 2), 
the grotto temple on the island of Elephanta {pi. 1, fig. 7 ; pi. 2, fig. 3), 
the interior of the temple of Indra {fig. 5), and the grotto temple at 
Parashua Kama {pi. S^fig. 14), present the best specimens of these pillars. 

According to the different forms of piUars, Hindoo Architecture, in general, 
is divided into several periods, characterized in the following manner : Ist, 
The plain style. 2d, The decorative style. 3d, The elegant style. 4th, 
The meretricious style: The buildings of Tintali and Dasavatara, near EUora, 
and the pyramidal temple {Pagoda) Yis visor, near Benares {pi. l^fig. 4), a 
buddhistic building, belong to the first period. For the mythological history 
of these buildings the reader is referred to the di\dsion Mythology of this 
work. 

The grotto temple of Siva and the temple of Yishnu Karmah (the 
heavenly architect), both at EUora, are specimens of the style of the second 
period. 

The Indra temple at EUora, and the grotto temple on the island Elephanta, 
belong to the third period. 

Temples, the outer walls of w^hich are decorated in an architectonical style, 
belong to the same period, as for instance the grotto temple of Kailasa, 
near EUora. This temple {pi. 2, fig. 1) dedicated to the god Indra, is con- 
sidered the finest architectural mommient in EUora. It is wrought out of 
a single piece of rock without any joints, and consists of three different 
portions : 1st, The entrance-hall with two wings. 2d, The chapel of ]N"undi. 
3d, The main temple. 

The entrance-hall, which begins at the tennination of the exterior court- 
yard, is ^Tought in the form of a screen with two wings. It is located on the 
west side, at the lowest part of the hill, which varies from 47 feet to 104 feet 
in height. The excavation is 247 feet long, by 150 feet wide. The space 
outside the entrance is 88 feet long, by 138 feet wide. This hall is 
adorned with pilasters. The interior contains five different rooms, three of 
which are situated one behind the other, and form a passage to which two 
large rooms are attached, one on each side ; aU three rooms are decorated 
with sculptures. Staircases lead to the upper floor, which has windows on 
both sides. This floor, by means of a bridge cut in the rocks, communicates 
with the temple of Nundi (the buU of Siva), which forms a square of 16 feet on 
2 



ARCHITECTURE. ^ 

each side. A door in the rear wall opens upon a second bridge 21 feet bj 23, 
leading to the main temple, which is 90 feet high. The main temple 
entrance is formed bj a portico with two porches leading to a peristyle, 
which communicates by staircases with the lower court-yard. The peristyle 
is 18 feet long, by 15 feet 2 inches wide, and^lT feet high. Four steps lead 
to the main temple hall, 61 feet long by 55 feet wide, and 17 feet 10 inches 
high. The ceiling of this hall is supported by 16 pillars. Two porches, one 
on each side of the hall, mark the approach to bridges forming a con- 
nexion with the main rock, in which the private rooms of the priests were 
built. Opposite the main entrance another portico leads to the sanctuary, 
which contains the statues of Indra and of Lingam ; small doors on both 
sides of this portico open on a terrace surrounding the sanctuary, and 
communicating with five square chapels of different sizes, two of them 
projecting on the sides, and three in the rear of the temple. The height of 
the temple above the terrace is 50 feet. The court-yard which surrounds the 
temple contains a peristyle of piUars, in some places in two tiers. Kear 
the bridge which leads from the entrance hall to the temple of ^undi are 
two colossal elephants, probably the leaders of those placed in the lower 
temple, apparently supporting it. Behind the elephants, ten feet from 
the smaller temple, stand two obelisks, 38 feet high, and 7 feet wide at 
the top, by 11 feet at the base ; they are supposed to have supported 
lions. 

Aurungzebe attempted to destroy these temples, by surrounding them with 
fire, and causing water to be poured on the glowing rocks ; but the injury 
inflicted was only partial, and in some parts even the paintings on the walls 
have not been affected. Almost all temples of this description are cut out of 
a single rock. The most remarkable are at Mavalipm-am, in the province of 
Mysore {jpl. 'i^fig- 1), called the seven pagodas, the smallest of which, decorated 
inside and outside with inscriptions illegible even to the Brahmins, is 24 feet 
high by 12 feet wide. To the second pagoda is attached a gallery formed 
by two tiers of columns. The columns in one tier rest upon bases composed 
of lions lying upon a double plinth, and the caps are formed by equestrian 
statues which support the architrave. These pagodas are estimated by the 
Bramins to be 4800 years old. 

The fourth period is that of \hQ pagodas^ when no more rock-cut temples 
were constructed. The pagodas are overloaded with orAaments and 
grotesque sculptures, and are remarkable for their arrangement, as well 
as for the highly elaborated metallic work attached to them. The most 
important are found at Chalembaram in the kingdom of Tanjore, and at 
Madm-a or Tretshengm-. Those in Tanjore form the entrance-portico to 
the large temple district of Chalembaram, dedicated to the god Yishnu. 

Below the largest pagoda {pi. l^fig. 2) is a colonnade of slender columns, 
in which is placed a statue of the bull l^undi, consecrated to Yishnu, cut 
out of a single block of stone {monolitTi). Another monolithic statue of the 
bull l^undi is found before a small tower-hke temple near the pagoda of 
Madura or Tretshengiu- {pi. l^fig. 3), which was cut in the quarry of Tanjore, 
about 60 miles distant ; it is 16 feet long, and is estimated to weigh about 

3 



4f ARCHITECTURE. 

a hundred tons. The lower story of the pagodas is constructed of granite 
blocks, the upper story of burnt bricks. As a specimen of the elaborate 
sculptures of these buildings the trimmings of a window of the large 
pagoda are represented on jpl. 3, fig. 13. 

For the better understanding of the ancient Hindoo temple architecture we 
annex a general description of the temple district of Chalembaram. 

A quadrangle of 1230 feet by 960 feet is surrounded by a double brick 
wall 30 feet high and Y feet thick, faced with freestone slabs, which forms 
the peribolus or inclosure of the whole of the temple buildings. Each side 
has an entrance, a pagoda {pL l^tfig. 3) constituting the pylon (gateway). 
The pylon or pagoda is constructed of stone for about 30 feet of its height, 
the remaining 120 feet being built of brickwork, anchored with copper 
clamps, and plastered with cement. The ornaments of the brickwork 
on the upper part are in better preservation than those cut in the stone. 

The pagoda forms a passage to the court of the temples. On each 
side of this passage stands a column, resting upon a base moulded into 
the figure of a lion, the capitals of which are connected by a stone chain, 
cut out of the same piece with the columns, composed of 29 movable links, 
each 32 inches in circumference ; and consequently, the block from which 
the two columns and the chain were cut, must have been about 60 feet 
long. There is a staircase in the pagoda leading to the top. 

About one third of the court of the temples is portioned off by a wall into 
a quadrangular space, which contains three dark cells connected together, the 
stone ceilings of which are supported by pillars, all decorated with sculptures. 
The largest cell contains an image of Yishnu, to whom it is consecrated. In 
front of this smaller court is situated the pool of purification, where both 
sexes bathe. 

The main temple, with a portico bordered on either side by three rows of 
columns, six in each row, which are covered by sculptures, and whose 
capitals are very similar to the ancient Ionic, which were probably 
borrowed from them, is located on the right hand side in the fore part of 
the court-yard, and surrounded by various colonnades. It is composed of 
the pronaos or ante-nave, the main nave, and the sanctuary, which contains 
a picture of the bull Nundi, and also a statue of Parvati, the consort of 
Yishnu. The situation of this statue gives rise to the supposition that this 
temple was Consecrated to that goddess. On the left of the temple is a 
colonnade of 100 columns, covered with a stone ceiling, leading to a 
small dark building on the opposite side, designed for the use of the 
priests. At the left of the pool of purification stands the temple of 
eternity, surrounded by 1000 monolithic columns 30 feet high, with a 
ceiling partly of stone, partly of cemented bricks. This colonnade, one of 
the most remarkable constructions in existence, is 360 feet long by 210 feet 
wide, and offered to the three thousand priests, who passed here almost 
all their time, a cool and airy promenade at all hours of the day and night. 
The temple itself is small. It contains an ante-nave and a main nave, 
with a plain altar covered with gold leaf. The inscriptions upon the walls 
are unintelligible, even to the Brahmins. 
4 



ARCHITECTURE. 5 

' There is much difference of opinion as to the age of the ancient Hindoo 
buildings. A careful examination of the different theories on the subject 
inclines us to place it at about 2500 years before Christ. 



2. Egyptian AlEchitecttjre. 

Egypt, which, from the time of Sesostris, lYOO years B. C. to the Persian 
war, about 600 B. C, extended over Bactria, Ethiopia, Abyssinia, and Lybia, 
offers the most remarkable and important monuments for the study of the 
history of architecture, in her very numerous temples, palaces, pyramids, 
obelisks, and hypogea (under-ground buildings) ; and Herodotus, Diodorus 
Siculus, Pausanias, and Strabo certainly do her no more than justice in 
declaring that she surpasses all the nations of the earth in the magnificence 
and grandeur of her architectural monuments. 

The style of architecture known as the Egyptian originated in the northern 
districts of JEthiopia and in Nubia, and was introduced to the lower 
districts of the river l^ile by Egyptian colonists who migrated from Meroe 
under the command of some priests, and settled below the last cataract. 
The temple of Jupiter Ammon, between Thebes (the ancient metropolis) and 
Fezzan, the obelisks near Axum, and others, are evidences of the correctness 
of this statement. Pococke, Burkhardt, Beechey, Belzoni, and Gau are the 
best authorities on the history of Egyptian architecture. 

The island of Phite, about three miles from the city of Syene, above the 
last cataract of thel^^ile, which is here about 15,000 feet wide, is about 1156 
feet long by 404 feet wide, and surrounded by a wharf built of square blocks. 
It contains the mausoleum of Osiris, a congeries of temples disposed according 
to the form of the island, which is shaped somewhat like the portion of a 
gun-stock from the butt-end to the place of insertion of the barrel, the smaller 
end pointing up the stream. At the southern extremity is situated a 
smaller temple, to which a large court-yard is attached, surrounded by por- 
ticoes leading to the two ^mtj)ylons or _propyl(iBa (large temple entrances be- 
tween tower-like buildings of considerable height) {pi. 6, Jig. 9). These propy- 
laea lead to the fore com-t of the temple of Osiris. On the west side of this 
com't stands another temple, on the east the dwellings of the priests, and 
towards the north are the second propylsea {Jig. 9, a perspective view 
of the fore court and the surrounding buildings). The second propylseon 
leads to a smaller yard, which, surrounded on three sides by porticoes, forms 
the fore hall of the temple of Osiris. PI. 4:, Jig. 6 presents a perspective view 
of the hall, with the entrance to the large temple. The several parts of this 
series of temples differ considerably, not only in dimensions and proportions, 
but also in form and details. 

The columns of the southern temple, the smallest monuments of Egyptian 
architecture, are not over 15 feet high, by 2 feet 3 inches in diameter. The 
capitals support cubes ornamented by four heads of Isis in relief, one on 
each side. The western temple is surrounded by a portico on all foui' sides. 

5 



6 ARCHITECTURE. 

The porticoes were covered, and had a pillar at each comer, with 19 
colmnns between each of them. The Grecian porticoes being similarly 
an-anged, were probably borrowed from these. 

^ear the sonthem temple commences a wall, in front of which rmis a 
portico 228 feet long, formed by 32 columns richly ornamented with sculp- 
tures. On the opposite side of the fore court (the western) is a similar but 
shorter portico of 16 columns, which are 16 feet high, the proportion between 
the diameter and the height being as one to six. The capitals are ornamented 
with palm leaves, and the ceilings and the main cornice are covered with 
hierogh^hics. At the northern end of the fore yard are two lions in a 
recumbent position, cut out of red granite, and behind them stand two 
obelisks of the same material, decorated with hieroglyphics. Tfcese obelisks 
are immediately in front of the first propylsea, which are 118 feet long by 50 
feet high. The hieroglyphics, composed of figures 21 feet high, are cut in a 
recess, so that the most prominent parts do not project beyond the surface 
of the propyl^eum. Besides the western temple, the most recent of them aU, 
which was built 2500 years before Christ, there is in front of the priests' 
dwelling, on the eastern side of the second court-yard, a portico of 10 columns 
(jjI. ^^fig. 9, and^?. ^.fig. 6) 23 feet 8 inches in height, and 13 feet in 
circumference. These columns, together with the ceiling and cornice, are 
decorated with hieroglyphics, and the capitals with designs derived from 
the foliation of plants. The portico is lighted by a skylight. The main 
temple of Osiris is divided into several compartments of about 19 feet in 
height. At the extremity of the temple is the sanctuary, with the statue 
and tomb of Osiris. Tiie slabs in the ceiling are 15 to 16 feet long, by 3 to 
4|- feet in thickness and width, and of about 17 tons weight each. 

The very remarkable sculptures of this temple show that the Jewish law- 
giver, who was conversant with the forms of the Egj-ptian religion, to a certain 
extent adopted its sjTiibols in the Mosaic system. These hieroglyphics 
represent the cherubim, the ark of the covenant, the vessel in which Osiris 
came to Egypt, and the table with the sacred candlesticks and the show- 
bread. 

Besides the above-mentioned temples, the island of Philge contains on the 
east side of the temple of Osiris the rains of another temple, the columns 
of which measure 40 feet, or more than any other upon the island. The 
cubes between the capitals and the architraves are remarkable for their 
height, which is more than a diameter of the column, a proportion greater 
than in any other mommient. Among the ruins of a smaller temple on the 
south side of the island columns are found not more than 11 feet in height. 
All the aforesaid temples are built of a kind of whitish sandstone, which is 
almost as durable as granite, although the rocks of the island itself are 
composed of red granite. 

A portico of four columns and a few walls, all richly decorated with very 
elaborate sculptures, are the only marks of the spot once occupied by the 
city of Syene. The island of Elephantine contains the rains of two temples, 
both of the same style of architecture. The one to the south is still in very 
good condition {pi. 4, fig. 1) ; it was consecrated to Kneph, the good spirit. 
6 



ARCHITECTURE. 7 

PI. ^^fig. 1, represents the plan of the large temple of Apollinopolis Magna 
(Edfou) on the left bank of the Nile, between Syene and Esneh, which, before 
the French expedition, was almost unknown. This temple was consecrated 
to H{.)rus or Arueris, the Egyptian Apollo. Fig. 2 shows the longitudinal 
section, c ^ / jig. 3, the elevation of the propylsea, aa ; fig. 4, a section 
through the fore court, with a view of the fore hall or pronaos ; fig. 6, caps 
and cornice from the long portico, e / fig. 6, the central part of the entablature 
in the elevation of the pronaos. • 

Tlie entire edifice consists of: 1. An inclosure whose front side is formed 
by the propylseum, a a ,with the entrance, c, in front of which the two obelisks, 
J, 5, are erected. 2. The peristyle or the first fore-court, 6?, with the porticoes, 
6, e ; the court has the appearance of a staircase of twelve steps, so as to make 
each succeeding column shorter than the other by the height of a step. 3. 
The pronaos, /", with six columns in the first row, and eighteen columns 
all together, all very beautiful ; here commences the main wall of the 
temple, which is constructed with buttresses, and between it and the outer 
wall on each side are small side courts, 1 1. 4. The fore hall of the temple, 
^, with twelve columns, which through the passage way. A, communicates 
with the rooms of the priests, and with the staircases. 5. The sanctuary, 
^*, behind which different other rooms are located. 

The length of the temple is 484 feet, the front of the propylgea 212 feet, and 
the front of the main temple 145 feet. The circumference of the large columns 
is 20 feet, that of the capitals 37 feet. The length of the temple by itself is 300 
feet, the width of the propylaea 150 ; their height is 75 feet, the depth 24. The 
width of the fore-court, d^ in the clear is 75 feet, exactly equal to the width of 
the pronaos,/*, and consequently all the proportions harmonize. The length of 
the temple is eight times the height of the pronaos, four times the height of 
the propylaea, and twice their width. All the different apartments are lighted 
by skylights. The two stories of the propylgea are furnished with inner stair- 
cases, and are liglited by openings in the wall and in the ceiling. Grooves 
are cut in the front walls of the propylsea to receive the triumphal flagstaffs. 

All the walls, outer as well as inner, all the columns and entablatures, and 
almost all the ceilings, are covered with highly elaborate symbolic sculptures 
and hieroglyphics, which are still in very good condition. Some of the 
capitals in the form of vases, decorated with palm leaves and date branches, 
are of uncommon beauty, and are symmetrically arranged. From the striking 
resemblance of the leaves and volutes to the Corinthian capitals, we might 
not imreasonably suppose the latter to have been modelled after them. 

i^ear this large temple is located a smaller one consecrated to Typhon, the 
evil spirit, not more than 74 feet long, 45 feet wide, and 23J high. One 
of the ornamental sculptures shows that at the time when the temple was 
building the summer solstice was in the sign of Leo ; the temple, therefore, 
must have been erected about 2500 years before Christ. 

On the island of Masuniah, about six miles below Apollinopolis, are 
situated the famous rock-cut tombs of Silsilis {pi. ^^fig. 7), constructed on 
the same principle as the Persian tombs. They form very deep grottoes, 
to which architectural fronts are attached. In these grottoes are found two 

7 



8:* ARCHITECTURE. 

large inscriptions cut in the rock, and set in a frame of hieroglyphics, repre- 
senting tlie different labors of agriculture, fishing, hunting, the vintage, 
and cattle breeding, and therefore of some interest for the study of Egyptian 
manners and habits (See History : Plates, Division IST, ft. 1, figs. 2-10). 
One of the grottoes is 24 feet long by 12|- feet wide, with an arched ceiling. 

There is another group of temples at Latopolis (Esneh). PI. 4c^fig. 5 6, shows 
half the elevation of the pronaos of that temple which is in the best preser- 
vation. The pronaos is a hall with 24 columns ; those in the first row, up to 
about half their height, are connected by walls. A somewhat narrower temple 
situated behind this hall, is surrounded by a colonnade of 29 columns, with 
massive pillars in the corners. The lintels are 21 to 25 feet long by 6 feet 
wide. All the walls, the ceilings, and the columns are decorated with sculp- 
tures relating chiefly to Osiris. A little more to the north is another temple, 
but in a rather bad condition. According to the representation of the zodiac 
on the ruins, the temples at Latopolis must have been erected 2600 years 
before Christ. 

Opposite Latopolis, at Contralatopolis, is a temple, the columns of which 
are 19 feet high by three feet in diameter. ^N'ear Hermonthis (Ermeut) are 
the ruins of a temple which was erected about 2000 years before Christ, of 
materials previously used in another temple, a fact proved by the appear- 
ance of the ashlars, which contain fragments of hieroglyphic inscriptions, 
having been cut down from larger blocks of stone. 

The city of Thebes, the ancient Diospolis Magna, was situated upon both 
banks of the Nile, and surrounded by a wall 60 feet thick, furnished with 
100 gates. Here are found a large number of edifices important for 
the study of architecture. In giving a description of the most celebrated of 
them, we first notice the ruins of a very large racecourse (hippodromus) 
which extended 75,000 feet in length by 3000 feet in width, and was 
surrounded by a brick wall. It covered about 6,250,000 square fathoms, 
and therefore was about seven times as large as the Champ de Mars at 
Paris. There was a second racecourse of 5232 feet by 3234 on the op- 
posite bank, the right bank of the JSTile. The ruins of the palace of 
Sesostris, and of several temples and other buildings, are situated on the 
left bank of the river. 

In the palace of Sesostris, erected about 1700 years before Christ, are three 
large courts, two of them surrounded by colonnades. The first propylseum 
is 192 feet long, 27 feet deep, and (^Q feet high, and contains several rooms. 
Its vast entrance leads to an extensive court, bounded on two sides by galle- 
ries, and on the others by the first and second propylsea. The northern gal- 
lery, which is roofed over, is composed of seven square pillars, six feet thick, 
. with statues of Osiris before them 23 feet high ; the southern gallery also 
has a ceiling, and is formed by eight round columns. The second propylseum 
leads to the second court-yard, which is furnished with galleries on three sides, 
.' On the eastern side are eight columns, and opposite each column stands a 
square pillar with a statue of Osiris in front of it. Behind the gallery is a door 
communicating with the third court, which is separated from the preceding by 
; a waU. The third court-yard, which was probably surrounded by the dwelling 
8 



ARCHITECTURE. 9 

of the king and the royal family, is completely destroyed. A door in the south 
side of the gallery most likely led to a second building. The columns {pi. 5, 
fig. 8), the walls, and the ceiling are covered with hieroglyphics and sculp- 
tures, representing the famous expeditions by land and sea of Sesostris, the 
Egyptian hero, and introducing very often the statue of himself, sometimes 
riding in his triumphal car, at others slaying his enemies with arrows ; but 
the most remarkable are the representations of a sea-fight, in which the foe are 
represented as Indians, whilst in the battle scenes on land they are depicted 
with beards, and therefore are intended to represent Persians. The 
bas-reliefs in the peristyle represent the triumphal expedition of Sesos- 
tris to Arabia, after his numerous victories, as related by Diodorus Siculus. 

The world-famed palace of Memnon at Thebes, called the Memnonium, 
or, by the Romans, Temple of Serapis, one of the most wonderful monuments 
of the ancient world, has been so effectually destroyed by time, that, not- 
withstanding repeated investigations, not a'single portion of the building 
itself has been discovered. Still, the colossal statues between the palace of 
Sesostris and the mausoleum of Osymandias corroborate so far Strabo's 
description of it, as to remove any doubt that the acacia wood near Medinet 
Abou occupies the site of the ancient Memnonium. 

The colossi of Tamy and Shamy are the most attractive of a large number 
of fragments of colossi in the acacia wood, numerous enough to decorate all 
the squares of a large city. Two of them, the northern and the southern, are 
represented OY\.pl. Q^fi^g. 5. Almost all these colossi are formed of limestone 
or sandstone, granite, or breccia, a material which the Egyptians alone 
have ever been able to work into statues. The northern of these two 
colossi, which were probably the largest statues in the Memnonium, is 
covered with hieroglyphics and with inscriptions in Latin and Greek, pro- 
claiming that the colossus at sunrise emitted a sound somewhat like the 
breaking string of a harp or a guitar. Cambyses caused this statue to be 
overthrown and destroyed, for the purpose of examining its internal 
construction, and of finding out whether the reputed sounds were not a 
deception practised upon the people by the priests. It is not improbable 
that the effect of the sun upon the stone was so powerful as to cause a vibra- 
tion of its sm^face. Similar sounds are said to have been noticed by the 
French engineers in the granite apartments of the palace at Carnak. The 
mutilated portion of the colossus was rebuilt by five courses of sandstone, 
and the ancient head replaced upon it by the Romans. The statue and 
base were 48+13 = 61 feet high, and weighed about 750 tons. The 
southern colossus, also somewhat defaced, is formed of a single block of 
breccia, and between its legs are placed three smaller statues. 

The mausoleum of Osymandias is another monument worthy of mention, 
as it contained 16 colossal statues of Osiris, 29 feet 2J inches high, and the 
statue of Osymandias represented in a sitting position, 53 feet 10 inches 
high, several feet higher than the largest of the Memnon statues. It was 
cut out of rose-colored granite, contained about 11,965 cubic feet, and 
weighed about 1,000 tons. After standing for 2000 years, in the 
year 523 b. c. this statue was thrown down by Cambyses. Opposite to 



10 ARCHITECTURE. 

this was another smaller statue, likewise in a sitting position, which, according 
to Diodorus Siculus, represented the mother of Osjmandias. The second 
peristyle of the building contains columns of 35 feet 9 inches in height, by 
7 feet 6 inches diameter, modelled in a higher style than those in the palace 
of Sesostris, though the latter was built 800 years after the former. In the 
second court Vas a statue of black granite, with a beautiful rose-colored 
granite head, all in one piece 22 feet high. The head is at present in the 
British Museum. The bas-reliefs on the exterior walls represent battle-scenes, 
war-chariots, and attacks upon the enemy's position, who retreats swimming 
to his reserve on the opposite bank of a river. 

Besides the monuments on the left bank of the Nile already mentioned, 
there were about forty royal tombs, catacombs, or hypogea, only twelve 
of which can be entered at the present day. They were rock-cut, and are 
highly interesting on account of their bas-reliefs and fresco paintings. The 
tombs themselves are generally ranged in different tiers, one above the 
other ; the lowest are usually the most elegant, while those in the upper 
tiers are very plain. PI. 5, fig. 12, shows a ground-plan of one of the 
largest. In front of the entrance are large fore-courts, which communicate 
by galleries with the extensive apartments, the largest of which is about 
600 feet long, entirely rock-cut. The walls and ceilings are decorated with 
sculpture-work and fresco paintings, representing vases, feniture, musical 
instruments (flutes, harps, lyres, &c.) of the most elegant forms, girls dancing 
to the music of the harp, hunting and fishing scenes, rural occupations, 
naval scenes, vintage, weighing of goods, a large dinner party seated at a 
well supplied table, and a court of death. One of the catacombs contains 
a representation of a royal throne, which most minutely corresponds with 
the description of that of king Solomon given in 1 Kings x. 19, 20, which was 
therefore in all likelihood copied from the Egyptian throne. On one of the 
ceilings a zodiac is painted, by the position of the sun in which it is inferred 
that the temple was built lYOO years before Christ. Some of the catacombs 
contain fragments of arches. At the present time they are almost destroyed, 
and the mummies, divested of their coffins, lie mingled promiscuously 
together. 

It seems to be not out of place here to correct a very prevalent error 
respecting the art of fresco painting. The term fresco painting, an ancient 
Egyptian invention, means a painting produced by a chemical preparation 
of the mortar before and at the time of putting it on the walls, so that it 
mav be affected neither by atmospheric influence nor time, and that the 
painting executed ages ago may appear as fresh in color and as correct in 
outline as if done but yesterday. It has nothing at all to do with the object 
represented or with the beauty of the design, as shown by the great variety in 
the above mentioned representations. The art of fresco painting is entirely lost 
to the moderns, and the attempts made in different parts of Europe to rediscover 
it, sometimes at extrayagant outlay, particularly in Munich and in Berlin, 
have, after several years' experiments, turned out entire failures. It is either 
simply ridiculous and a proof of ignorance, or an intentional fraud on the 
public, to dignify by the name of fresco the common water color or oil 
10 



ARCHITECTURE. tl 

painting, such as covers the walls and ceilings of our theatres and other 
public buildings, whatever may be the subject they represent. 

On the right bank of the 'Nile we see the ruins of a palace near the village 
of Luxor (El-Kusr), standing close to the river upon a platform about nine 
feet above the surrounding ground, about 2200 feet in length, by 1100 in 
breadth, and fenced in with brickwork. The ruins consist of a large number 
of columns, the circumference of some of which is 18 or 19 feet, and that of 
others about 30 feet, 9 inches. Three obelisks, and the extensive propylsea 
represented on pi. 6, Jig. 8, indicate a royal palace. In front of the palace 
was a double row of colossal sphinxes, about 200 in number, which led to 
the temple, the ruins of which are near the village of Carnak. This avenue 
of sphinxes is terminated by two obelisks, which, a few years ago, were still 
standing ; they are of unequal dimensions, but both are monoliths of the 
red granite of Syene. The one on the left hand side, without the point (which 
is 7 feet long), is 77 feet T| inches high, its base being about 6 feet 3 J inches in 
width. The other, without the point of about 4 feet, is 72 feet 6|- inches high, 
with a base of the same dimensions as the first ; it weighs about 352,276 lbs. 
The bases on which the obelisks were placed were of different heights, for 
the piu'pose of equalizing the general height of the shafts. Tlie form of 
these obelisks shows the thorough knowledge of optical effect possessed by 
the Egyptians. The plane surface of a very slender body, when exposed to 
a bright sun, appears to be rounded towards the edges. To avoid this, they 
gave the surfaces a convexity of 15 lines, and this had the effect of making 
them seem flat, for otherwise one of the edges would have appeared like 
one half of a cylinder, very bright, and the other entirely dark. 

The viceroy of Egypt, Mahomed Ali, presented the two above mentioned 
obelisks to the king of France. The westerly one was taken down by M. 
Lebas in the year 1833, and transported to Paris, where it has been erected 
in the Place de la Concorde. The labors attending the removal began as 
early as 1829, and the whole work thus took four years. A very interesting 
model of the progress of the work in all its stages is preserved in the ]^aval 
Museum in Paris. The remaining obelisk is intended for the city of Mar- 
seilles. Behind the obelisks there were formerly two colossal statues of red 
and black granite intermixed ; but both these monoliths have been destroyed. 
They were about 42 feet 3 inches high. Between the propylsea, which are 
75 feet high, a doorway of 52 feet 4 inches in height leads to a large court 
yard surrounded by a peristyle. The propylseum is decorated with bas- 
reliefs, representing warlike scenes. In the court-yard are located the 
houses of the village of Luxor, the yard being about 169 by 138 feet, with 
a covered colonnade of 76 columns, 27 feet 7|- inches high. The second pro- 
pylaeum opens to the roof of that colonnade, where the inhabitants were wont 
to pass the night under tents. The passage from this court to the third pro- 
pylseum is by a gallery of 14 columns remarkable for their height and thick- 
ness, being 10 feet 6 inches in diameter by 62 feet 7 inches in height. They 
are composed of stone rings filled up inside with bricks, mortar, and cement, 
with capitals 16 feet 11^ inches at the top by 10 feet 9J inches below, and 
shaped like an inv^erted bell. The architrave is composed of stone blocks, 

11 



12 AKCHITECTURE. 

each 18 feet in length. The third propylseum opened into a court with a 
double peristyle of 44 columns in foui' rows, connected with a portico of 32 
columns, to which the side building is attached. The several courts do not lie 
in a line, the first forming with the large gallery an angle of 3° 9', which cir- 
cumstance would indicate that the different parts of the building were origi- 
nally separate, and afterwards connected by the above mentioned colonnade 
of 14 columns. This palace, according to Diodorus Siculus, was built by 
king Busii'is about 3100 years before Christ. 

The village of Camak, to the north-east of Luxor, contains the most 
extensive and magnificent ruins in the Thebaid, and even in the whole of 
Egypt. Of these, the palace of Carnak, the plan of which is represented 
on pi. ^^fig. Y, is the most extensive. PIA^ fig. 4, gives a view of the first 
court with the second propylseum ; jpl. 6, fig. 7, the large hall. This palace, 
which was situated about 2400 feet from the Mle, was surrounded by a 
wall 7052 feet long and 30 feet thick, one half of which still exists ; the 
dimensions of the bricks are 12, 6, and 5 inches. From the first propylseum, 
or from that side of the palace that faced the IS^ile, there were two rows of 
sphinxes forming an avenue to the river. Two of the sphinxes are still in 
existence ; they have the body of a lion and the head of a ram, and a sym- 
bolical cover enveloping the chest and back. They are placed upon a plinth 
12 feet by 3 J feet, and 7 inches high, which rests upon a base 10 feet high, 
and finished with a cima recta. The front, or the propylaeum of the palace, 
is 347 feet 10^- inches long, and 154 feet high. The sculptures upon it are 
unfinished, and mere rough sketches. In each wing of the propylgeum are 
eight windows in two rows, which correspond with four perpendicular recesses 
to receive the triumphal poles, like those at the temple on the island of 
Philse. In front of the ruins of the entrance are the remains of two colossi 
in a sitting position, similar to those at the palace of Luxor. The entrance, 
20 feet wide, was 60 feet in the clear, and 80 feet high to the top of the 
cornice, and was closed by bronze folding doors. In the interior of the 
propylaeum staircases led to the different stories, which contained several 
rooms. This colossal propylaeum leads to the fore yard {pi. ^.^fig. 7/), 315 
feet 5 inches by 252 feet, with a row of columns on the south and north 
sides. The latter row, consisting of 18 columns, is in comparatively good 
preservation, and in connexion with the wall behind it, forms a colonnade 
covered with stone slabs. The entablatm-e rests upon cubes, which are 
placed upon the capitals. These columns, represented in pi. 4, fig. 4, on 
the left, are 6 feet, 1 inch, and 10^ lines in diameter, and 27 feet, 8 inches, 
5| lines in height. The distance between them is somewhat less than the 
diameter. ]^o bas-reliefs have been found, and the colonnade appears to 
have been left in an unfinished state. The southern colonnade, eight feet 
wide, is divided by a building {pi. ^^fig. 7, g) which was probably a temple, 
a view of which is given in pi. 4, fig. 4, to the right. The frieze of this 
gallery contains two rows of hieroglyphics. In the centre of this court there 
were two rows of colossal columns, each consisting of six. These have aU 
been prostrated, except the last but one in the southern row, but the shafts 
are not broken. Tlie rows were 42 feet apart. The columns, the most 
12 



ARCHITECTURE. 13 

Blender in Egypt, except those at Philse, are composed of single pieces, each 
1 foot, 10 inches high ; the full height is 65 feet, 8| inches, with a diameter 
of 9 feet, 2 inches. The greatest width of the capitals is 15 feet, 4 inches, 
Si lines, their circumference being 46 feet, 2 inches. The shaft and the 
cube upon the capital are covered with hieroglyphics. "Whether the space 
between the two rows of columns was covered, and if so, whether the ceiling 
was formed by beams of cedar or by a tent {velarium), is a question that 
has not yet been decided. The French wiiters are of opinion that statues 
of the gods were placed upon the columns, and that they did not support 
any ceiling at all. The temple {pi. 5, Jig. 7 g), a portion of the large palace, 
projects into the court y, 36 feet, and had a propylaeum 67 feet, 11 inches 
long, which is very much dilapidated. The central line of the temple is not 
strictly perpendicular to that of the palace, from which it has been inferred 
to be of gi-eater antiquity, an opinion which is supported by the fact that 
the temple is completely finished and covered with hieroglyphics, which 
are found in no other part of this court. The fore-court has a peristyle, 
with statues of Osiris in front of the columns ; and the court leads to the 
pronaos, the ceiling of which is supported by eight columns ranged in two 
rows. This temple, which was probably the private chapel of the palace, is 
160 feet long by 65 feet wide. The large com-t,/, contains the ruins of the 
second propylseum, in fi*ont of which were two granite statues. The southern 
one of these, a monolith, is still in existence : it is 21 feet high, and repre- 
sented in the act of walking. Seven steps lead to the entrance of the propy- 
laeum, which was 20 feet wide, 63 feet, 5 inches high in the clear, and 91 feet to 
the top of the cornice. It is the largest in the world ; the folding-doors were 
of bronze. The propylseum is nearly destroyed ; nothing remains of it but 
the doorposts, which are decorated with bas-reliefs representing Horus, the 
symbol of the fructifying sun, and with paintings, the colors of which may 
still be traced. 

The saloon or hall, e, 30T feet, 10 inches long, by 154 feet, 5 inches wide, 
the ceiling of which is supported by 134 columns, is the most astonishing 
and magnificent edifice of ancient Egypt. It has three divisions. The 
centre is formed by 12 columns 66 feet high without the entablatm*e, by 11 
feet in diameter, the capitals being 10 feet high, 21 feet in diameter, and 64 
feet in circumference. All these columns remain entire. The two lateral 
divisions contain 61 columns each, 40 feet, 6 inches in height, and 8 feet, 6 
inches in diameter. The row of smaller columns nearest to the larger ones 
supports a stone wall with six openings, protected by stone lattice-work, 
thi'ough which the hall is lighted. The ceilings are constructed of stone 
slabs, ahnost all of which are 28 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 4 feet thick, 
weighing about 65 tons each. The architraves are 24 feet long, and 6 feet 
thick. The shafts of the columns are constructed of courses each 3 feet, 2 
inches high, and each course is composed of four pieces, all of them covered 
with hieroglyphics and symbolical sculptures in recesses. JPl. 5, Jig. 11, 
represents one of the capitals of the large columns ; pi. 6, Jig. 7, the central 
portion of the hall, with the view into the second court. I^l. 5, Jig. 9, shows 
another style of capital found in this palace. The capitals of the 122 smaller 

13 



14 ARCHITECTURE. 

columns are similar to the column of Medinet-Abou {pL 5, fig. 8), but larger. 
The ruins of this temple most distinctly show that the stones used in the 
construction of the palace of Carnak had formed portions of some other 
building, another proof that long before the erection of those buildings, the 
ruins of which are now before us, other and similar edifices had been built 
in Egypt, and destroyed by time. 

Tliis hall led to the third propylaeum, decorated with symbolic hieroglyphics 
and bas-reliefs. The entrance door of this propylseum, 49 feet high, leads to a 
corridor, fig. 7, a a^ which runs roimd the interior rear part of the monument. 
Close to the entrance are seen two obelisks of red granite, whose bases are 
about 5 feet, T inches above the present floor, their entire height being 61 feet. 
They probably measured 70 feet in height from the original floor ; their tops 
are 3 feet in width, by 9 feet in height. The northern has been prostrated and 
broken, while the southern is still in good condition. Behind these obelisks is 
the fourth propylseum, which contained a square fore-hall, leading into a gal- 
lery, d. cZ, about 80 feet long, by 58 feet wide, with a double row of pillars, 
at the base of which statues of Osiris are standing. In this room two 
obelisks were placed, which were among the largest in Egypt, and both 
monoliths of granite. The southern one is lying broken, whilst the northern 
one remains in tolerably good condition. It stands 73 feet, 7 inches, 9 lines 
high, above the rubbish, its entire height being 91 feet, 10 inches. At the 
base it is 8 feet, 1 inch thick, and where it projects from the rubbish, 7 feet, 
7-2- inches. It is the highest obelisk of the ten still existing in Egypt, and 
its weight is about 375 tons. 

From the above-mentioned galleries a fore hall of about 18 feet by 37 
feet, 6 inches, leads to a dilapidated wall with granite door jambs, probably 
the ruins of a small propylseum. Two doors lead to two different halls, the 
walls of which are decorated with highly elaborated symbolic sculptures. In 
front of the sanctuary {fig. 7, c) were two truncated obelisks {steles)., 7 feet, 7 
inche-s high, which probably served as pedestals for busts. A door between 
them leads to the granite apartments, the walls of which are covered with 
well finished and painted bas-reliefs, frequently representing Horus, the son 
of Osiris and Isis. The blue color is stiU. quite fresh and brilliant. The 
ceiling, constructed of granite and sandstone blocks, is decorated with yellow 
stars, with red centres on an azure ground. To some of these granite apart- 
ments small chambers were attached, decorated with sculptures representing 
the inauguration of kings by the priests, and sometimes the sacred boat. It 
is generally supposed that none but the kings and priests were admitted into 
these chambers. In the granite apartments the French engineers frequently 
noticed sounds similar to those attributed to the statue of Memnon ; they 
always seemed to originate from the granite ceiling, which probably vibrated 
in consequence of the sudden changes of temperature, the nights being very- 
cold, and the days exceedingly hot. About 500 feet behind the granite 
apartments are found some more ruins {fig. 7, J), which probably constituted 
a portion of the palace. They form a hall, the centre ceiling of which rests 
on 20 columns arranged in two rows, which are surrounded by a peristyle 
supporting a lower ceiling ; the whole being a miniature copy of the large 
14 



ARCHITECTURE. 15 

hall {pi, ^^fig- 7e\ probably the room in which the inhabitants of the palace 
held their meetings. Behind this is another hall, 88 feet long by 49 feet 
wide, the columns of which are remarkable on accomit of their 16 flutes, and 
probably gave the idea of the Doric column. Besides these mentioned above, 
the palace contained a number of smaller rooms. According to Herodotus 
and Diodorus Siculus, this palace was built at the time of king Busiris II. 
that is, about 4500 b. c. 

Several other ruins are situated at the southern and northern ends of the 
inclosure of the palace, but they consist of little more than a few woman- 
headed sphinxes with the bodies of lions, the number of which originally 
amounted to about 60 ; among them the largest in the Thebaid (See History, 
Plates, Division ly.^Z. 3, fig. 32). 

The ruins of Tentyra, or Denderah, which occupy an area of 2300 feet 
by 2400, and contain the northern temple, the temple dedicated to Typhon 
(Typhonium), the large temple, and the southern temple, are classed among 
the most elegant specimens of Egyptian architecture. The northern temple, 
not over 50 feet by 34, is peripteral, with 14 columns, and has not been com- 
pleted. The Typhonium, a temple dedicated to the evil principle, also perip- 
teral, is 105 feet by 55 feet, and similar to the temple at Edfou. Leaves of the 
lotus and other plants ornament the capitals, whose cubes show on all four 
sides the image of a typhon, enveloped in lotus leaves. Another Typhonium 
of great interest is situated on the mountain of Barkal. It is partly excavated 
in the rock, and contains two rooms. In the first, or pronaos, next to the pro- 
pylseum, the architrave is supported by four rows of pillars, four in each row ; 
in front of each pillar is a statue of the god Typhon, supporting a kind of 
cushion, upon which the architrave rests. PI. 4, Jig. 8, shows a perspective 
view of the interior of this pronaos. 

The large temple of Tentyra was 245 feet long, by 128 feet wide, and 55 
feet high. The entrance door is 15^ feet wide, and the ceiling of the portico 
{pi. 4,^^. 5 a) rests upon 24 columns ranged in four rows, the capitals of 
which are composed of four heads of Isis, which su2>port a cube, on the 
faces of which temples are represented {pi. 5, Jig. 10.) The colossal head is 
partly hidden by a drapery painted with longitudinal stripes, exhibiting lotus 
leaves and pearls. The sculptm-es upon the cube represent offerings to Isis, 
who is nursing her son Horus. All the columns are covered with hiero- 
glyphics. The door jambs, like the building itself of sandstone, are framed 
in by the centre columns ; the head-piece over the door is of granite. The 
walls of the portico are inclined on each side, to the extent of 10^ feet. The 
rear portion, or the main temple, is about ten feet lower than the portico. 
It contains a ceiling painted with yellow stars on a blue ground ; and also 
the famous zodiac, explained in the mythological part of this work. This 
zodiac is cut in stone ; it begins with the lion, and ends with the scarabaeus 
in place of the crab, the constellations ranged around it. On the ceiling of 
the portico, are similar decorations executed in painting. The two comer 
pillars on the front {pi. 4:^ fig. 5 a)^ are ornamented with four rows of bas- 
reliefs representing the offerings of gifts to Osiris and Isis, the former of 
whom is represented sometimes with the head of a boar, sometimes with 

15 



16 ARCHITECTURE. 

that of a sparrow-Lawk, or of a falcon. On the inside of these pillars are 
figures 15 feet high ; and from each side-wall of the temple project the heads 
and half the length of the bodies of three lions. The wall between the front 
columns is ornamented with bas-reliefs representing offerings to Isis. In 
one of the rooms are sculptures relating to the death and resurrection of 
Osiris, probably a symbolical allegory of the decay of vegetation in the dry 
season, and its renewal after the inundation of the ISTile. 

Upon the terrace of the main temple stands another smaller temple, a 
circumstance unique in Egypt ; its columns are copies on a smaller scale of 
those of the main temple. 

The southern temple of Tentyra presents nothing of particular interest. 
Judging from the zodiac, the monuments of Tentyra were built about 2500 
years before Christ. 

Two colonnades, which are scarcely accessible, mark the site of the ruins 
of Abydos, where Memnon had a palace, and Osiris a temple. They are 
ornamented with sculptures, and the ceilings are painted with yellow stars 
upon an azure ground. Further down the river we find the ruins of Antae- 
opolis, composed of a large temple, with its inclosure, and on the west a 
temple with a quay-wall towards the Mle. PI. 4, fig. 1, represents the ruins 
of the large temple of Antseopolis. The portico of 18 columns, ranged in 
three rows, was 135 feet long and 45 feet high. The ruins, which are in a 
very dilapidated state, are situated in a date gi'ove ; and the capitals of the 
columns are ornamented with date leaves. One hundred and eighty feet 
distant from the portico is a monolith temple of limestone, 15 ^ feet high. 
According to a Greek inscription upon the architrave, the temple was rebuilt 
by Antoninus and Yerus. 

On the ruins of the ancient Besa the emperor Trajan erected a city, which 
in honor of his friend Antinous he called Antinopolis or Antinoe ; and the 
ruins of this city being therefore of a more recent date, present some of the 
characteristics of Grecian and Eoman architecture. The remains of the 
theatre contain Corinthian columns {jpl. 4, fig. 2). Below Antinoe, near 
Sandah and Beni Hassan, are rock-cut tombs, one of them containing fluted 
columns, 3^ feet thick and T diameters in height, with 15 flutings, 
undoubtedly of ancient Egj^tian origin. 

The catacombs of Alexandria {pi. ^^fig. 13 a plan, and fig. 14 a section 
of the catacombs) contain eight Doric columns, which support the arched 
ceiling of the centre room, to which the four mausolea are attached. 

The pyramids deserve the name of eternal abodes of the deceased as well 
as the rock-cut tombs. These structures are of Egyptian origin, although they 
are met with in India and in ^N'ubia, for instance near Assur {pi. 6, fig. 4), 
and even in Egypt they have only been erected in the district of Fayum, 
and in the tract of the Libyan mountains, which is at j)resent occupied by 
the villages of Gizeh, Sakkarah, Dashour, Megduneh, and El Metanjeh, 
near the ancient Memphis and Busiris. Of late it has been surmised that 
they were intended for astronomical purposes, as the direction of the differ- 
ent passages in the interior has been observed to correspond with certain 
astronomical lines. 
16 



ARCHITECTURE. ]7 

King Moeris seems to have been the first to erect buildings in pyramidal 
form ; for on digging the lake which is called after his name, he built some 
large structm-es of this kind in the very middle of it {pi. 6, Jig. 1). Much later, 
about 1000 B. c, Cheops built the largest pyramid near Memphis, the present 
Gizeh ; the second was built by his brother Chephrenes ; the third by Myceri- 
nus, son of Cheops ; and Asychis, his successor, erected the fourth. These, to- 
gether with three smaller pyramids dedicated to the queens of the above-men- 
tioned kings, and to the daughter of Cheops, are known as the group of Gizeh 
{Jig. 2). "Hie pyramids at Sakkarah and in the other places were built about 
the same time with the others. In the neighborhood of the group of Gizeh 
is situated the far-famed colossal Sphinx {Jig. 6). Fig. 3 shows a section of 
the largest pyramid at Memphis. The pyramids were constructed either of 
bricks or of stone. The fourth pyramid, and those in the lake Moeris, 
belong to the former class, and have been almost destroyed; the latter, 
which was originally 240 feet high, being now not more than 180. The 
majority of them were constructed of limestone, which was found in the 
vicinity, or of Trojan or Ethiopian granite. Some of them exhibit pieces of 
yellow and red marble. With very few exceptions, the edges of the pyramids 
are directed towards the four quarters of the heavens. The proportion 
between the extension of the base and the height seems to have been strictly 
regulated ; the line from the base to the top is not always straight, being in 
some instances curved, in others broken by ten-aces of different heights ; 
the one near Sakkarah having six terraces of equal height. Some of them 
run to a point at the apex, while the tops of others are formed by platforms 
of different sizes. The dimensions of the pyramids are also equally various. 
According to the report of Girard, the pyramid of Cheops was 699 feet, 9 
inches long at the base, and 425 feet, 9 inches high ; the pyramid of 
Chephrenes, 655 feet base, by 398 feet in height ; those of Sakkarah are a 
little smaller. 

Herodotus informs us that it required the labor of 100,000 men during 
ten years to construct the embankment for the transportation of the stone 
blocks to the pyramid of Cheops, and afterwards the same number during 
twenty years to erect the pjnramid itself. The latter operation was conducted 
by first building one terrace, and then raising all the materials for the next one, 
up to this ; the angles between the terraces being filled up, and the surface of 
the pyramid smoothed afterwards. The construction of the large pyramid of 
Memphis {Jig. 6, view, Jig. 3, section) is as follows : The first course of stones 
rests upon the main rock, and was imbedded in it to the depth of seven or eight 
inches. Tlie rock was then cut so as to form a plinth, five feet high, which is 
100 feet above high water of the Nile. Above the first course of stones are 
twenty others cut into steps %\ inches wide to one foot rise. The two upper- 
most courses have been destroyed ; and the whole height, plinth and top 
included, is nearly 450 feet, the base being 716 feet in length. Each block 
is fitted into the adjoining one without the least irregularity, the lower stone 
receiving in a groove two inches deep, a projection of the upper one 
of the same size. The fom* angles of this pjTamid point exactly to the four 
quarters of the globe, a thing not easily done even at the present day ; it 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPEDIA. VOL. IV. 2 Vi 



18 ARCHITECTURE. 

establishes, however, one remarkable fact, viz. that during the thousands 
of years which have elapsed since the erection of this pyramid, the position 
of the axis of the earth has undergone no change whatever. 

The entrance to the pjTamid is at present on the north-eastern side, upon 
the 25th course, and about 45 feet above the base. It is represented on pi. 
6, fig. 3. Having been closed with brickwork it was only accidentally 
discovered. A gallery sloping downwards, leads to a passage 3 feet, 5 inches 
in width and height, and 102 feet long, the entrance to which was blocked 
up by a large piece of granite which could not be removed, but a passage 
has been made around it. At the extreme end of this gallery is a platform, 
and on the right hand side a well cut in the rock, about 200 feet deep, but 
without water, even as low as 50 feet below the level of the IS'ile. Its 
extreme depth has, however, not been reached. At this floor a level passage 
branches off, about 118 feet in length, which leads first to a room called 
the queen's apartment, which is 11 feet 10 inches in length, by 16 feet, 1 
inch wide, and empty; second, to another gallery, 125 feet long, 25 feet 
high, and 6-|- feet wide. On each side of this are benches 21 inches high 
by 19 inches wide, and at the end is another platform, communicating with 
another opening, 3 feet, 3 inches wide, 4 feet, 5 inches high, and 7 feet, 10 
inches long, forming the entrance to the upper room of the king, which is 
32 feet wide, 16 feet long, 18 feet high, and covered with polished granite, 
the southern side being the longest. At the western end is the granite 
sarcophagus, 7 feet, 1 inch long, 3 feet, 1 inch wide, 3 feet, 6 inches high. 
It is empty, and lies due north and south ; the lid is wanting. 

ISJ'ear this pyramid is situated a figure of the Sphinx {pi. Q^fig. 6). It is 
cut from the rock on which it stands, and is still connected with it. Its height 
to the back is about 40 feet, and it was necessary to remove masses of rock 
to lower the surrounding ground, in order to exhibit its foil dimensions. 
The figure is 117 feet long ; the circumference of the head is 91 feet, the 
height from the beUy to the top of the head 51 feet. There is an opening 
in the head in which the head-dress was fastened. The French, during the 
expedition to Egypt, after removing the sm-rounding sand by which it was 
covered up to the neck, discovered an opening between the fore legs of the 
figm-e, which soon proved to be a regular entrance, communicating by sub- 
terraneous passages cut through the rocks with the large pyramid. This 
accounts for there being no outer entrance to the pyramid, and for the 
different branches of the afore-mentioned galleries being secured by blocks 
of stone from the opposite side. At the same time also, it proves that the 
ancient Arabian authors were not mistaken in asserting that the different 
galleries and wells in the pjTamid communicated with an entrance through 
an opening in the figm-e of the sphinx. 

From this short account of the remains of ancient Egyptian architecture 
an idea may be derived of the state of civilization of the nation which created 
it. Our highest admiration is due to the noble monuments of the talent, 
industry, and perseverance of a people, who maintained for hundreds and 
thousands of years an imposing style of architecture, uncorrupted and un- 
changed, and to whom the other nations are indebted for the transmission 
18 



ARCHITECTURE. 19 

of the written alphabet, and for many valuable principles and ascertained 
facts in Geometry and Astronomy. It cannot be a matter of wonder that 
such a people should have spread its dominion over a vast territory, and 
have important colonies on the Euphrates, in Greece, and in other countries, 
and that its genius should have influenced the most talented and eminent 
men of ancient Greece. 



3. Assyrian, Mediajt, Babylonian, and Persian Architecture. 

The city of Kineveh, situated on the banks of the river Euphrates, was 
the metropolis of the kingdom of Assyria, which originally comprised the 
tract of country bordering on the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. But the 
Medes and Babylonians afterwards declared themselves independent, and 
formed two new kingdoms. The chief city of the former was Ecbatana, of 
the latter, Babylon. After the destruction of Mneveh and the incorporation 
of the kingdom of Assyria with that of the Medes (600 b. c), the kingdoms 
of Babylon and Media were continually contending with each other, until 
they were both conquered by the Persians, under Cyrus, the founder of the 
great Persian Empire. 

Kineveh, which almost exclusively furnishes the materials for the study of 
the architecture of the Assyrians, has only within a very short time been 
excavated from the rubbish by which it had been covered for ages. Accord- 
ing to Herodotus, it was built in the form of a quadrangle, which was 40 
geographical miles in length, by 13 miles in breadth. It was inclosed by 
a wall wide enough for three chariots to drive abreast, 100 feet high, and 
containing 1500 fortified towers of 200 feet in height. This wall was 
probably built of sun-dried bricks, since the conquest of the city was rendered 
possible by the destruction of a large portion, in consequence of an inunda- 
tion of the Euphrates. The most important remains brought to light by the 
latest excavations are some colossal sculptures from the royal palace {pi. 3, 
ji<}s. 1 and 2). 

Ecbatana, the metropolis of Media, and the summer residence of the 
Persian kings, was built by Dejoces 700 b. c, upon a hill which was forti- 
fied by seven terraces or walls of mason-work, each with battlements painted 
of a different color. Alexander the Great, according to ^lian, when his 
friend Hephgestion had died at Ecbatana, caused these walls to be pulled 
down. 

Our knowledge of the history of Babylon is not quite so scanty as that 
of Assyi'ia ; still we are acquainted with but few buildings except those of 
the city of Babylon, a city whose erection is due to several sovereigns, and 
particularly to the two queens Semiramis and l^itocris. It was situated in 
a fertile plain on the Euphrates, and formed a square of 81 square miles, 
giving a circumference of 36 miles, surrounded by a wall, which according 
to Pliny was 200 feet high, and according to Strabo 32 feet wide, though 
others assert that it was 400 feet high by 50 feet in width. The two faces 
of the wall were of bricks laid in bitumen, thirty bricks thick, and strength- 

19 



20 ARCHITECTURE. 

ened by buttresses ; the space between being filled up with bundles of reeds 
compacted by bitumen. This wall has been mentioned by us under the head 
of Military Sciences (Fortification), and a view and section of it given in 
illustration. (See Plates, Division Y . jpl. 42, figs. 12 and 13.) It had 100 
entrances with metal gates, jambs, and lintels. There was a second wall 
inside the other. The river Euphrates divided the city into two parts, which 
were connected by several bridges, constructed of beams resting upon stone 
piers. The buildings were generally three or four stories high, and the 
streets crossed each other at right angles. The royal palace is situated on 
one bank of the river, and the temple of Belus on the other. The hanging 
gardens formed part of the palace grounds. They were erected by Nebu- 
chadnezzar for his queen, who, as a native of Media, had a predilection for 
mountains. These gardens were laid out in a series of terraces constituting 
a hill Y5 feet high and 1600 feet in circumference. The terraces were 
supported by walls 22 feet thick, and 10 feet apart, which were covered with 
stone plates 16 feet long, and 4 feet thick. Upon these plates was first laid 
a coating of bitumen, followed successively by a layer of bitumen and reeds, 
a double course of bricks in mortar, and finally a sheet of lead. Tlie soil 
was then spread upon this substratum, of the proper thickness for the pro- 
posed plantations. The spaces between the walls formed large rooms for 
festal occasions, and were lighted from the projecting terraces. On the 
top was a reservoir, the water for which was drawn from the Euphrates by 
means of a hydraulic machine, and carried in pipes to all the different parts 
of the grounds. There was even a sufficient supply for a few foimtains. 
The height of each terrace was 12|- feet, and the width 64 feet. 

The temple of Belus formed a square of about 600 feet in length, in the 
centre of which was erected a tower 300 feet square. This tower was com- 
posed of eight stories, and a staircase was led up on the outside. The upper- 
most story contained the temple hall, where a maiden favored by the god 
nightly slept. In the lowest story was another hall, in which stood a colossal 
statue of Jupiter 24 feet high, of massive gold. The throne with its steps, 
and the table before it, were likewise of pure gold. An altar of gold and 
another of stone were placed in front of the temple. These treasures were all 
taken away by Xerxes. 

The principal feature of Babylonian architecture is its bold, massive 
character, and colossal dimensions. The water works of the Babylonians, 
too, were second in importance only to those of the Egyptians. Their fortifica- 
tions are really surprising. The temple of Belus was as large as any of the pyra- 
mids, though not so difficult to construct, as it was built of bricks. The 
outer walls of the Babylonian buildings were either coated with bitumen 
and painted, or the surface of the bricks was glazed. Only a few works, 
chiefly the dams and sluices on the Tigris, were constructed of stone blocks, 
on account of the great distance they had to be carried. The arch was not 
known to the Babylonians. In cases where a frame ceiling could not be 
erected, they had recourse to immense stone slabs. Metal was frequently 
used, particularly for doors and jambs. 

The Persians, who, before the time of Cyrus, were a j)eople of inferior 
20 



ARCHITECTURE. 21 

cultivation, and dependent on the Median kings, began to acquire a kaow- 
ledge of the fine arts after they had invaded northern and western Africa 
and Egypt. Cambyses, together with the treasures which he carried home 
from Egypt, brought Egyptian artists to Persia, to build the royal palaces 
at Persepolis, Susa, and in Media. But no actual improvements in the arts 
were made in Persia ; and they remained in the same condition in which 
they were when Cambyses and Darius first introduced them. Almost all 
the artists of Persia were foreigners. 

The buildings of Ecbatana were mostly of brick laid in bitumen ; marble 
or other valuable stones were used for columns and floors. 

Pasargada was the most ancient fortress of the Persian kings, and Cam- 
byses ordered the corpse of Cyrus to be brought thither, and an expensive 
mausoleum to be erected over it. The substructure was a square of stone 
blocks, accessible by seven marble steps ; the main building was erected of 
timber and bricks. In the interior were the golden coffin of Cyrus, his 
golden bedstead covered with rich carpets, and a table of gold with the 
royal garments and arms. The building still exists, and is called the 
mausoleum of the mother of Solomon. It is 43 feet long, 37 feet wide, and 
42 feet high. It is quadrangular, and has a gable roof. 

The city of Persepolis was magnificent both in plan and in execution. 
PI. ^^fig. 11, shows a portion of the royal palace. It was surrounded by 
three walls, the first 32 feet high furnished with battlements, the third 120 
feet high, and built of stone. It inclosed a quadrangle, on the eastern side 
of which was the rock with the royal tombs, which had no proper entrance, 
being cut in the rock ; the corpses were elevated by machinery, and thus 
deposited in their appropriate places. On one side of these ruins, which 
are about six miles from the ruins of Shehel-Minar, are fragments of two 
porticoes which stood at right angles to each other, and formed an entrance 
to a larger flight of stairs leading to another portico, composed of a double 
row of six pairs of columns, behind which was situated a spacious court-yard 
surrounded by colonnades. The two first-mentioned porticoes had colossal 
pillars on either side, at the foot of which stood the fabulous animals 
which are represented on pi. 3, figs. 9 and 10. Fig. 9 somewhat resembles 
the Egyptian sphinx, but in Persia the head of a priest was substituted for 
that of a female. Fig. 10 was probably intended for a horse or unicorn, 
which is frequently mentioned in the Persian mythology. Between the 
two pillars were four double columns, the bases of which are shown in figs. 
7 and 8. The capitals were formed as in fig. 5, surmounted by horses 
(fig. 6), which supported the entablatm*e in the manner represented in^^. 
12, where unicorns replace the horses. The capitals of the second portico 
were plain {figs. 3 and 4). The porticoes had ceilings of stone-slabs. 

The fronts of the royal tombs, known as the ruins of Nakshi Kustam, 
were built of a hard dark stone, in large blocks, very closely jointed ; 
and the columns were of white marble. Figures in bas-relief, with inscrip- 
tions in arrow-head writing, decorate the walls. Fig. 12 shows the elevation 
of one of these tombs, the entrances of which were blocked up after the 
corpse had been deposited. It has not yet been ascertained whether there 

21 



22 ARCHITECTURE. 

was any means of access by an inner passage. The figures upon the walls 
represent, besides mythological animals, long arrays of warriors making war 
upon lions, unicorns, tfec, evidently under the command of the king, whose 
likeness is often introduced. The tomb in jig. 12 is that of Darius. It 
exhibits a high, splendid scaffolding, supported by curiously-shaped figures 
of the unicorn, and between them two tiers of telamons, or pilastere shaped 
like men, supporting a weight on their raised hands. Two priests on duty 
stand at the foot of the scaffolding, and guards are drawn up on each side. 
Upon the scaffolding is the altar with the sacred fire, in front of which, 
elevated by a few stej^s, stands a figure with one hand leaning upon a bow. 
The other hand is upraised, and the face gazing towards the fire. Above, 
between the hearth and the worshipper, is a soaring figure, only half visible, 
which in the right hand holds a wreath, whilst the left is lifted as if in bene- 
diction. Behind it is seen a globe suspended over the fire. The figure 
with the bow represents the king under the protection and in sight of the 
divine beings, Oromasdes and Mythras, worshipping the sacred fire. 

Persian Architecture bears traces of its Egyptian origin throughout ; 
in the selection of building sites, in the style of ornaments of the door caps, 
the decoration of the walls, in the character of the sculptures, in the inferiority 
of their drawing, and in the practice of representing the person of the king 
always taller than all the others. After Darius had invited Grecian artists 
to Persia, the monuments of that and of the following ages frequently bear 
traces of Grecian designs. The best proof of this is the elevation of the 
mausoleum of Darius, and all its details. 



4. Grecian Akchitecttiee. 

1. General Considerations. 

The first structures devised by man for protection against the weather 
were huts half sunk in the ground, with the upper part formed by posts 
covered with earth and leaves on the outside, and on the inside with the 
skins of the animals which had supplied food for the inhabitants of these 
structures [^fl. ^i^fig- !)• The inconveniences of these primitive dwellings 
soon became manifest ; they not only did not afford sufficient accommodation 
for the increase of families, but they offered very indiflerent shelter from 
wind and rain. To remedy these disadvantages was the next step, and the 
enlargement of the capacity of these structm'es led to the use of more sub- 
stantial materials. Instead of posts they took whole tiTinks of trees, and 
entirely inclosed the site of the intended building, placing them close together 
either in a horizontal or perpendicular position. Other trees were put over 
these to form a ceiling, and thus originated log houses. From the great 
consumption of wood it soon became necessary to observe economy in its 
use, and the perpendicular logs began to be separated by intervals, connected 
only by horizontal pieces. A similar change was made with those on which 
the roof rested. The latter were afterwards covered with boards and earth, 
22 



ARCHITECTURE. 23: 

and the openings between the perpendiculars were closed with a mixture 
of earth and loam (j9^. I^fig. 2). Such a building was not impervious to 
water. In order to obviate the leaks in the roof, a triangular frame was 
constructed, to which the boards of the ceiling were attached {fig. 3 a). A 
structure of the above description, notwithstanding its rudeness in a scientific 
point of view, contains all the different parts of a modern building, viz. a 
roof composed of rafters, a tier of beams, and posts or supports underneath. 
Partly in order to protect the lower portion of the posts from the effects of 
rain, t^c, partly from a taste for ornament, the idea was conceived of sm*- 
rounding the lower part with a few extra boards, or else of setting the post 
on a support prepared for the purpose, instead of fixing it in the ground ; 
and thus the l)ase of the column originated. On the other hand, top pieces 
were laid upon the posts for the better support of the top cross-beams (the 
architrave of later buildings), and these top pieces w^ere the germs of the 
ahacios^ or the blocks surmounting the capitals of columns. To protect the 
ends of the beams against the rain a board was fastened to them, in which 
little gutters were cut to allow the water to run off; thus arose the triglypTis. 
The spaces between the different beams were also filled up, and hence 
originated \hQ frieze. Finally, to carry the water running from the roof 
clear of the beams, the rafters were made to project beyond the uprights, 
and a board was fastened to them, which formed that portion of an entabla- 
ture afterwards called the cornice. PI. 7, fig. 3 &, exhibits a skeleton of such 
a building. 

The above-described mixture of earth and loam used to fill up the intervals 
between the difterent uprights, was soon found to be too frail to protect 
the inhabitants fi'om the weather, or from the attacks of wild beasts, much 
less from the assaults of their human foes. They were therefore obliged to 
seek some other material, and they very early began to make use of stones, 
which were found almost everywhere in large quantities. The use of this 
new material being once commenced, in a remarkably short time people 
began to employ it not only for their dwellings, but also for marking the 
divisions of lands ; and not only did they manage stones that were easily 
portable, but large blocks of extraordinary dimensions. Their walls, which 
were put together without any cement whatever, are known as Cyclopean 
constructions, and to this day they command our admiration and surprise. 
Almost all the earliest strongholds were surrounded by such walls, the 
strength and durability of which are evidenced at Tiryns, and several other 
places. At a later period the interstices between the larger blocks were 
filled up with smaller stones, and gradually the stones were hewn square, 
and good workman-like walls, like those at Messene, were constructed. The 
entrances at this period were mostly pyramidiform, and in some we can 
trace rudiments of towers of defence. This form of construction passed 
through various phases of development into the regular bound masonry, 
or construction with rectangular blocks of stone ; but for the substructure 
polygonal blocks, or rectangular ones with bevelled edges, were retained 
through almost all periods. The bound masonry was in time superseded by 
brick-work. "We find, then, in ancient times the following manners of con- 

23 



24 ARCHITECTURE. 

struction : 1. The irregular work, opus incertum {pi. 7, fig. T), constructed of 
stones of various shapes, but of about the same size, and cemented with 
mortar. 2. The flat square work, opus quadraturn {fig. 8) of the Greeks, 
where the surfaces of all the stones are of equal size, and rectangular. 3. The 
facetted square work, as in the forum of Augustus {fig. 9), and in the tabu- 
larium {fig. 10), where the faces of the square blocks project, the edges being 
bevelled oiF; the joints are thus sunk in. 4. The net-work, opus reticulatum 
{fig. 6), where Only the corner blocks are set horizontally, all the others 
being laid diagonally. 5. Brick-work in even courses, opus isodomum 
{jig. 11), where all the courses are of the same thickness. 6. Brick-work in 
uneven courses, opus pseudisodomum {jig. 12), where thick and thin 
courses alternate. 

In constructing very thick walls, the two outer faces only were laid sym- 
metrically, the space between being filled up with mortar and small stones ; 
such walls were called filled walls, emplecton.^ and of these there were three 
different kinds : 1. Where the two faces {fig. 13 aa) are built without any 
connexion, and the space, b, between them is filled up. 2. Where the 
bricks in the faces are laid alternately as headers and stretchers {fig. 14, 
upper part), the latter thus affording a firmer connexion of the two faces, by 
projecting into the rubbish between them {fig. 14, lower part). 3. Where 
some of the bricks are stretched through both faces of the wall. Walls of 
this description are even constructed nowadays, but they ought always to 
be considered as very inferior work. 

The Column. After the walls were built of stone, the wooden posts of 
course soon gave way to stone pillars. These were at first short, and there- 
fore in a single piece ; but it soon became necessary to have them longer 
than single stones could conveniently be procured, in consequence of the 
increased height of the buildings, and they were then constructed of several 
disks (tambours) placed one on the other. The quadrangular pillar, however, 
in no long time must have become offensive to the eye accustomed to the 
circular forms of trees, and the stones were rounded to form the column. 
After a time, the upper part of the column, or more properly the block 
which was placed on the top to afford a better bearing for the beams, waa 
moulded into an oval or convex shape, the echinus {pi. l^^fig. 1). To form 
a more tasteful connexion betweeen the column and the echinus, a few hori- 
zontal stripes were made in the lower part of the top piece {pi. 20, fig. 9, 
left lower diagram), and another stripe was afterwards cut in some inches 
below, and so the neck of the column was formed. The mouldings of the 
stripes and of the echinus itself are sometimes a little different, as shown in 
the several Doric capitals {pi. 19^ figs. 1, 2, 3). To give the column greater 
strength and stability, it was made wider at the foot than at the neck and 
capital, and to make it appear lighter it was channelled with perpendicular 
stripes, and hence the origin of the fiutes. These flutes were sometimes put 
close to each other {pi. 19^ fig. 1), or a small ridge was left between them 
{jig. Y). Sometimes the shaft was lefl: plain {figs. 4), and at a later period 
the column itself was decorated with foliated work {fig. 25, 26). Some of 
the Doric columns have flutes of a few inches in length close below the 
24 



ARCHITECTURE. 25 

neck, and others of the same length at the foot, the remainder of the shaft 
bemgleft plain (^^. 19^ Jig. 2). Columns of this description, when first met 
with, were considered unfinished, but after they had been observed on monu- 
ments under circumstances which absolutely excluded the idea of an un- 
finished column, the opinion was established that they were purposely so 
formed, and these columns were called mantled columns. The introduction of 
human figures as supports of the entablature, instead of columns, was made 
at a later period, in order to convey the idea of the submission of the nations 
conquered by the Greeks, namely, the inhabitants of Caria and Persia. 
Hence the figures which represent females are called Caryatides (Jig. 31), 
while the male figures are denominated Persians {Jig. 30), and when naked 
Telamons. Buildings constructed with figures instead of columns are styled 
stalagmatic. In all the foregoing kinds of columns, which belong to the 
Doric order, the base of the column neither projects, nor is it moulded or 
decorated at all, the column standing immediately upon the ground {pi. 20, 
fg. 8). 

The second kind of Grecian capital is the Ionic {pi. 7, Jig. 22). It is 
more chaste and elegant than the former, and different accounts are given 
of its origin. Some think that as the capital is the head of the column, the 
volutes on both sides of the echinus are intended to represent the ringlets of 
an Ionian maiden ; while others are of opinion, that some builder having 
casually placed a piece of bark between the echinus and the abacus, which 
upon drying became curled into a pleasing shape, this addition was after- 
wards imitated in stone {pi. ^l^Jlg. 4). The profile {pi. ^^Jlg. 24) shows 
how the two volutes are connected by a kind of cushion ; the echinus is 
small, and decorated with serpents' eggs {pi. 19., Jig. 7). Columns of a very 
rich and elaborated character have a decorated neck below the volutes 
called hypotracJielium {pi. 19, Jig. 6, a^ J, and^?. 7., Jig. 24). The Ionic 
column, being more slender than the Doric, always has a base. 

The third class of Grecian capitals is the Corinthian. It is said, that Calli- 
machus, a sculptor of Corinth, on observing some acanthus leaves which had 
grown up round a basket that had been left upon a grave, and had bent over 
after reaching the top {pi. ^^Jlg. 5), was so delighted with the beauty of the 
picture that he imitated it in stone for a capital, which became the prototype 
of the Corinthian capital. Egyptian monuments, however, show capitals 
so similar in shape to the Corinthian, and certainly much older, that it is 
probable that the Greeks did not invent what they found ready at hand to 
imitate ; the more so as they brought most of their information from Egypt in 
colonizing their country. The Corinthian capital admits of a great variety of 
decoration {pi. 19^ Jigs. 9-13), and there are scarcely two buildings of that 
order without some difference in the capitals. 

The base of the Corinthian order is the same as that of the Ionic, but the 
column itself is more slender. The top of the shaft is always smaller in 
diameter than its lower part. In some cases the reduction is effected in a 
straight line from the base to the cap. Optical considerations have, however, 
led to the better plan of either giving to the lower part of the shaft, up to 
about one third of the height, an uniform diameter, the reduction then 

25 



26 ARCHITECTURE. 

commencing, and being continued from thence upwards (^jpl. 20, fig. 10) ; 
or of giving it the largest diameter at the height of the human eye, and 
reducing it from this point both upwards and downwards {fig. 11). The 
greatest diameter of columns of the latter description is called the swell 
{entasis). 

The columns are placed either on single stone cubes, or on a continuous 
plinth {stylobates). The space between the columns is styled the columnar 
distance, and varies very much. Different terms are applied to the various 
distances. If the space between the columns be equal to 4 diameters they 
are said to be placed distantly {aryostylos) ; if the space be equal to 3 
diameters, widely {diastylos) ; if 2\ diameters, beautifully (eustylos) ; if 2 
diameters, closely (sistylos) ; and if only 1^ diameters they are said to be 
thickly placed {jpicnostylos). As a general rule the two corner columns are 
for optical reasons placed somewhat nearer together than the othei-s of the 
same row. Another contrivance, intended to correct an optical delusion 
with regard to colonnades, is mentioned by Yitruvius by the name of scmnilli 
irajpares. According to this author on ancient Homan architecture, a row of 
columns standing on a substructure would, when viewed from a distance, 
appear convex, and elevated at both ends, and this effect would be averted 
by the SGamilli. Unfortunately, all the drawings which might have illus- 
trated the works of Yitruvius have been lost, and as, moreover, the ancient 
Roman buildings exhibit no architectonic moulding which seems to serve 
the purpose ascribed to the scamilli by Yitruvius, his commentators are 
greatly at variance in their explanations of the idea he means to convey. 
Most of these learned men agree in this, that the scainillus was a distinct 
moulding, which being placed above and below the column, would make it 
appear to recede. Some columns found among the ruins of the theatre at 
Laodicea seem to corroborate the correctness of this view. PI. ^^fig. 19, 
shows one in connexion with the substructure and architrave, dijidifigs. 20, 
a, 5, one of a different order on a larger scale. We see here at a and b 
small mouldings inserted above the top of the capital and under the foot of 
the base. The latter is slightly higher on one side, producing the impression 
of a slight inclination in the column ; the upper one has a similar excess of 
body on the opposite side, apparently levelling the slanting surface of the 
capital, and supporting the entablature with its full surface. But other 
authors say, that these small mouldings had no other object than to relieve 
the mouldings proper of the base and capital. Still others maintain that 
Yitruvius originally wrote camillmn and not scamillus^ and that he applied 
it to the columnar distances, which were to decrease as they receded from 
centre, and in proportion with them the pannels in the substructure {camilla) 
were to be reduced in size {fig. 15). One commentator, Bertanus, is of 
opinion that a moulding introduced in the base {fig. 16, c) would produce 
the effect ascribed to the scamilli im/pares ; and another, Placentius, follows 
this view, but places the moulding as in j^^. 17, d. Both make the mouldings 
a little higher at one of the sides. Blanconius, finally, explains scamilli 
imjpares as applied to the inequality of the side walls of the flights of steps 
leading to the colonnade, and supposes that the first ought to be the highest 
26 



ARCHITECTURE. 27 

{fig. 18, g), whilst the following gradually become smaller to the top of the 
flight. 

It would appear that none of all these views are entirely satisfactory. A 
better explanation of the whole subject seems to be afforded by the latest 
discoveries in re-surveying the Parthenon and the temple of Theseus in 
Athens. It was there found that the steps upon w^hich the columns rest are 
slightly convex towards the centre, both in front and on the top, and the 
different blocks of which the columns are com2:)Osed are not put together in 
horizontal joints, but are a little out of level so as to give the columns a 
slight inward inclination. The upper surface of the top block is again 
placed in exact level, in order to offer support to the architrave. This 
arrangement seems to serve the same optical purpose as the slight convexity 
of the surface noticed in the Egyptian obelisks. 

The object of architectural mouldings generally is, either to separate the large 
masses of a building, or to form a connexion between the several distinct 
parts, and to protect by their projection the plane surfaces and recesses of 
the buildings. The mouldings are either straight or curved. Among the 
former we distinguish : 1. The fascia or stripe, a continuous even surface 
projecting from the main surface, and whose height must not exceed ^ to i 
diameter of a column. 2. The toenia or fillet, similar to the fascia, but only 
half its height. 3. The quadra or socle, Avhich is very narrow, and is called 
the super ciliuTii or slab, if it is at the uppermost moulding, or the cover. 

4. The face or slanting plane, which connects two perpendicular surfaces in 
a diagonal line. 

The ciu"ved mouldings exhibit a greater variety, viz. 1. The torus or cushion, 
which is nearly a semi-cylinder, somewhat pressed out at the lower edge. 

2. The ecJiinus or ovolo, which exhibits a curved outline nearly the reverse 
of the torus, being more swelled at the upper edge. It is an independent 
supporting member, whilst the torus serves as an assistant to other mouldings. 

3. The quadrans or cavetto, w^hose outline is a quarter of a circle. 4. The 
astragalus or bead, which is a very narrow moulding of a semicircular out- 
line, and generally serves to separate the capital from the main column. 

5. The strioB or flutes, which are concave mouldings, whose outlines are 
segments of a circle, rarely a semicircle ; they are wrought in columns or 
pillars, connecting the bases and capitals ; on columns they are generally 
narrower at the top ; sometimes the flutes are separated by ridges (striges). 

6. The cymcttium doricum or wave, whose profile is a concave quadrant ; 
it is applied either erect or reversed ; in the former case, the curve projects 
from the main surface, whilst in the latter it recedes. Y. The trochyhis or 
scotia, similar to the last, but not exactly a quadrant, being composed of 
two different segments {pi. 20, fig. 14). It is applied both erect and reversed. 

8. The apopJiygis or quirked moulding, a small acute channel or recess 
used between mouldings ; the reverse, or the projection, is called apotliesis. 

9. The cyma lesbicum^ or bell moulding, a combination of a concave and a 
convex quadrant ; it is applied erect or reversed ; in the former case the 
upper half projects, in the latter it recedes. 

. The different mouldings were in earlier times decorated with painted 

27 



fiB ARCHITECTURE. 

ornaments and this is even sometimes done at the present day, but at the 
flourishing age of the art bas-reliefs superseded the painting, and in all 
edifices of true merit bas-reliefs are still retained. 

The columns are among the most important architectonic pieces, and as 
we have seen, generally composed of the base, the shaft, and the capital. 
The Doric column is without base, and is only placed on a plinth. For all 
the other orders, the Attic and Ionic bases are employed. The Attic base 
{pi. 19, Jig. 22) is composed of a plinth, a torus, a scotia, a socle, and 
a second torus. The Ionic base {pi. 22, Jig. 4) has a plinth, a scotia, 
and several dividing beads and fillets, a second scotia, a slab, and a 
torus. 

The shaft, and the Doric and Ionic capitals have been described already. 
The Corinthian capital {pi. 19, Jig. 13) is generally composed of two main 
parts. The first is the calathics or cup, whose ornaments present three 
different tiers ; 1, eight acanthus leaves ; 2, eight acanthus leaves with their 
stems {eaulicoli) ; 3, fom- volutes with acanthus buds and leaves. The 
second main part of the capital is the abacus or top piece, whose mouldings 
are the wave and the erect bell. It has projecting, truncated corners, and 
its receding sides are ornamented with flowers. This refers, of course, only 
to the general type of the Corinthian capital, for its ornaments are infinitely 
varied. 

The pillar {pila) differs from the column in its connexion with the wall, 
on account of which it has often been identified with it, though on the other 
hand, the pillar has many relations to the column, being often placed in the 
same row, for the same purpose of supporting the architrave or entablature. 
It receives similar decorations, particularly in the capital and base, some- 
times even the reduction of size towards the top and the entasis. We dis- 
tinguish the following kinds of pillars: 1. Pillars standing free on all sides. 
2. Pillars which strengthen the corners of a wall {antce). 3. Pillars which 
stand in place of door jambs {posies). 4. Pillars which project from the 
wall, either to mark the beginning of an adjoining colonnade, or merely to 
break the simplicity of the wall ; these are termed pilasters {parastates). 
5. Buttresses {anterides). 6. Short pillars, which serve as pedestals lor 
columns {stybolatcB) {pi. ^O^Jigs. 1-5). 

The pillar is composed of a foot {spird).^ a shaft or cube {truncus), and of 
a capital {metopon), which is always somewhat lighter than the capital of 
the corresponding columns, with which its ornaments are generally in 
keeping. 

The wall is the continuation of the pillar, and of course deviates still more 
from the characteristic features of the columns, because its object is not 
only to support, but also to inclose. Yet, like the pillar, it often receives a 
base and kind of capital, the cornice. Low walls occur partly as fences, in 
part as pedestals for the main walls, in which case they are called ashlers. 
Substructures of greater height and richer finish are termed stereobates or 
stylohate. They exhibit a distinct base, cube, and cornice {pi. I^Jlg. 20, I). 

Plights of steps are frequently introduced for the same ]3urpose, to raise 
the building above the ground {pi. '^O^Jlg. 8). If the steps are more than 
28 



ARCHITECTURE. 29 

twelve inches in height, snbsteps are introduced in order to afford easier 
access {pi. 15,^fig. 1). 

The trimmings and decorations of doors and windows in the walls corres- 
pond with the entablature of the different orders. Thus we have 1, Doric 
doors, whose jambs and lintels are cymatium doricwn^ and astragalus mould- 
ings, whilst the cornice has in addition an echinus moulding with considerable 
projections. 2. Ionic doors, having jambs and lintels similar to the Ionic 
architrave, divided in stripes {cordce)^ and trimmed with an astragalus 
moulding {pi. '^O^fig. 14). The lintel is surmounted by a cornice {Tiyper- 
thyruin) resting upon two consols, anconesov parotydes. 3. The Attic door, 
similar to the Doric, with the addition of the Ionic stripes. The windows 
are surrounded and decorated with similar trimmings, generally somewhat 
simpler. 

The entablature connects the supporting parts of the building with those 
which cover the same, and consists of three parts : 1. The main beam or 
architrave {epistylium). The Doric architrave is smooth {fig. 8), surmounted 
by a fillet whose face is divided by triglyphs, which pierce a socle {regula)y 
■ending in drops {guttoe). The Ionic architrave {pi. ^^fig^ 24) generally is 
composed of three stripes {fascim)^ surmounted by a cornice of mouldings. 
Sometimes its lower surface between the columns is decorated with deep 
pannels and other ornaments {pi. 19, figs. 27, 28). 2. The frieze {zoe)^ 
which connects the different beams resting upon the architrave. The Doric 
frieze {pi. '^O.^fig. 8) is composed of triglyphs, which represent the ends of the 
beams, being laid on every column, and over the columnar distances. The 
triglyphs exhibit three ridges, separated by two deep grooves, and bordered 
by two smaller ones, the whole surmounted by a small capital. The spaces 
between the triglyphs are termed panels {metopes).^ which are generally 
smooth, but sometimes ornamented with bas-reliefs. The Ionic and Co- 
rinthian friezes {pi. T, fig. 24) are quite plain, and finished with wave mould- 
ings. If they are decorated with metal or stone ornaments they are termed 
zopTioTus. 3. The cornice (corona) is composed of the projecting mouldings 
which form part of the roof The Doric cornice {pi. 20, fig. 8) is formed 
by a Doric cyma, the corona projecting considerably, and containing the 
ends of the roofing boards {mutuli) with the heads of the nails, and is 
finished with a second cyma, and an erect bell moulding. The Ionic cornice 
{pi. 7., fig. 21) shows a fillet with dentals, sometimes also quite plain {fig. 24) ; 
above the dentals is a wave moulding, followed by the corona, which termi- 
nates in a slab and erect bell moulding. The Corinthian cornice {pi. 22, 
fig. 7) is similar to the Ionic, differing only in having small consols {mutuli) 
as bearers of the corona, which are composed of volutes and acanthus leaves. 
In all the different cornices great simplicity of decoration, and comparatively 
great height and projection, denote a great age of the monuments, whilst 
buildings of a later period show less projection, narrower surfaces, and 
frequently very elaborate decorations. 

The plain ceiling, formed by a stone resting on the walls, occurs only in 
l^uildings of the very simplest description. The ceilings of temples and 
palaces were divided into deep panels {lacunaria)^ adopted from the archi- 

29 



§§ ARCHITECTURE, 

tecture in wood, where they were often inlaid with gold and ivory. The 
wooden ceiling consisted of the beams resting upon the architrave, of the 
narrower and jointed cross beams, and of the caps covering the spaces 
between the cross beams. The same constrnction is imitated in stone, but 
in the latter material the different parts are usually wrought in one block. 

The roofs of private dwellings were either flat, or pitched from the 
centre towards all sides, like a tent. Public buildings, particularly temples, 
had gables on the narrower sides of the building (^Z. 7^ figs. 21, front, 22, 
side view, 23, upper view in part). In Grecian buildings the height of the 
gable was about one eighth of the width of the building,^in Roman buildings 
rather more. The gable or frontispiece (fastigium) is composed of the 
gable field, tympanum (fig. 21 a), which is frequently ornamented with statues 
and bas-reliefs, and of the cornice with the corona b, and the cyma c. The 
cornice of the gable is the continuation of the main cornice of the building, 
but is rim up over the top of the gable, instead of being continued on a 
level with the long cornice, which would place it at the base of the gable field, 
in a straight line. The corners and the top of the gable are decorated with 
masks {pi. 19., fig. 38) or flowers, or with pedestals for statues, both at the- 
top {pi. 7, fig. 21, e), and at the sides {fig. T, d, d). The slope of the roof is 
covered with flat marble slabs {figs. 22, 23, h), whose long edges form project- 
ing ridges. These are placed close together, and the joints covered with semi- 
cylinders of marble, clay, or bronze, whose lower extremities terminate in 
handsome front tiles, antefixce {pi. 19^ figs. 34-37). Similar ones are some- 
times placed on the gable cornice. The water is conducted from the roof by 
small gutters piercing the cornice in different places, the outer openings 
being in some of the ornaments as in f {pi. T, figs. 22, 23), whilst the others, 
G, remain solid. 

Having thus examined the various component parts of buildings, we now 
proceed to notice the different classes of edifices. They are first divided 
into those erected for the effect of their exterior, and those built with a view 
to certain advantages to be derived from their interior. Of the former we 
may again distinguish two kinds, those that are monuments in themselves 
deriving aid from pictm*es or inscriptions, and those tliat serve as substruc- 
tures for other more emblematic works of art. 

The simplest monuments of the former kind belong to the period in 
which architecture and sculpture were still identical, and w^hich is repre- 
sented by the hermcB {pi 19, figs. 32, 33, the latter a terminal statue of 
Janus). Next in order are the tombs, frequently of chaste architectural 
forms, bearing inscriptions and bas-reliefs, and the horizontal tombstones. 
The second kind includes snch single columns as were employed even in 
the most ancient Grecian temples, in order to give a prominence to the 
imao-es, and the honorary columns which supported either the statues of 
distinguished men, or caldrons, tripods, &c. 

Among the structures erected for the sake of the area they circumscribe 
belong inclosures of every description, walls of cities, castles, sacred grounds, 
and j>laces of public meetings. Tlie addition of a roof over the inclosure 
makes it a house. 
30 



ARCHITECTURE. 'Stt 

The simplest house is the temple, at first only intended as a place for the 
safe keeping and protection of the image of the deity. The prominent 
character of the temple proper is the mysterious or awe-inspiring, and 
therefore it never had windows. The next thing was to give it a form, 
which would afford both protection and airiness, and for this purpose por- 
ticoes and colonnades were added. At a later period the centre portion of 
the roof over the inner temple was left open, which gave the interior a more 
roomy appearance. Formerly it had no other light than through the door. 

According to their difierent modes of construction the following temples 
are distinguished with regard to various points. 

1. With regard to the position of the columns ; a. The temples in Antissa, 
with pillars under the corners of the gables, and columns between them 
{jpl. IQ^fig. 33) ; h. The prostylos, temples with a portico in front {Jig. 27); 
€. The a7)iphiprostylos, with a portico in front and rear {Jig. 36) ; d. The 
peripte7vs^ temples with a colonnade all round the building {Jig. 26) ; e. The 
p^eudqperlpteros, temples with portico in front and rear, but half columns 
along the side walls {pi. 15, Jig. 11) ; /. The dipteros, tem])les sur- 
rounded by two colonnades {pi, 12, Jig. 4) ; g. The pse^idodipteros, a tem- 
ple with one colonnade round all the four sides, the distance between the 
columns and main walls twice the distance between the columns {pi. 12, 
Jig. 8). 

2. With regard to the number of columns in front, a. Tetrastylos, tem- 
ples with four columns {pi. IQ^figs. 36, 38) ; h. Hexastylos.^ with six columns 
(^Z. 15,/^. 19); c.Octastylos^ with eight columns {pl.l^^Jig.lQ)\ d. Deca- 
stylos^ with ten columns {pi. 16, Jigs. 3, 14) ; e. Dodecastylos., with twelve 
columns {pi. 16^ Jig. 15). 

3. With regard to the distance between the columns, as described before 
(p. 26). 

There are also circular temples, among which we distinguish : a. The 
monopteros., whose columns are connected merely by railings {pi. Id ^ Jig. 9) ; 
h. The peripteros^ with a colonnade all round {pi. 16, Jigs. 9, 12); c. The 
pseudoperipteros, where the colonnade is only designated by half columns 
on the wall {pi. 9, Jig. 5). Besides these there are circular and hexagonal 
temples with one or more halls {pi. 9, Jig. 4:] pi. IS, Jig. 11). 

The different parts of a temple are the substructure with the steps 
{suggest'us), and the temple proper, sometimes twice re23eated in the same 
building {pi. 16, Jig. 3), The latter generally exhibits, a. The place for the 
statue, sometimes surrounded by a railing {pi. 12, Jig. 2 -jpl. 16, Jig. 14) ; h. 
The space which is left unroofed {pi. 11, Jig. 3, where it is surrounded by 
the innermost columns) ; c. Colonnades in the interior of the temple some- 
what elevated above the main floor, stooe {pi. 15, Jig. 2) ; d. The sanctuary 
{adyton), sometimes wanting {pi. 11, Jig. 11, towards the rear) ; e. The fore 
hall {pronaos), the space between the front columns and the front wall 
{pi. 12, Jig. 6) ; f. A similar space in the rear of the temple, opisthodomos 
{Jig. 8) ; g. The colonnade, pteroma {Jig. 11) ; A. Attached to colonnades 
or porticoes {jpl. 10, Jig. 9, c), occurring only seldom. 

A numerous class of ancient buildings are the amphitheatres {agones)^ 

31 



32 ARCHITECTURE. 

open spaces surrounded by many gradually rising rows of seats. They 
were erected for the spectators at public games or combats. The theatres 
proper had the stage attached on one side of the circular area. 

The odeons were erected for similar purposes with the theatres, but their 
stages were not so spacious, as only few persons acted on the same. The 
odeons had mostly permanent roofs, whilst the theatres were covered with 
large sim tents {velaria) as a protection against the sun and the dust. 

The stadia^ or racecourses, were of an elliptical form, and contained lists 
between which* the horses ran, and a column {meta) marking the winning 
point. They were surrounded by an amphitheatre for the spectators. The 
Tiippodrornes were similar structures arranged for chariot races. 

The halls (stoce) belong to the same class of buildings. They were erected 
for public meetings and business purposes, and were large inclosures pro- 
tected against the sun and rain by a roof resting upon columns. Sometimes 
the columns were connected by walls, and had three or five parallel colon- 
nades (naves), the lateral ones often having double tiers of columns, so as to 
form upper galleries ; the front space was termed the chalcidicum ; the rear, 
sometimes of a semicircular shape, the tribunal. These buildings were the 
prototypes of the Roman basilica. 

The gyjnnasia, or thermce^ may also be classed here, the former being halls 
or inclosures for physical exercises, the latter for bathing purposes. 

The tombs, or mausoleums, were erected with a view to the preservation of 
the body or the ashes of the departed, or as monuments in honor of their 
memory. The rock-cut tombs were almost exclusively intended for the 
former purpose, though sometimes a frontispiece invited public attention 
to the same. In Greece and her colonies in Lower Italy the chambers were 
usually wrought in the shape of a coffin (sarcophagies). The monumental 
tombs frequently also contained a chamber for the corpse of the deceased. 
The most appropriate form for the combination of the sepulchre and monu- 
ments is that of a pyramid or of a tower-like building. The idea of the 
terrace-like monuments w^as probably derived from the shape of the funeral 
pile. Honorary monuments were analogous structures, but without any 
reference to the reception of bodies. They were erected for the purpose of 
receiving an image or emblematic group either into a niche or under a roof 
resting on columns. 

The triumphal arches combine in an ingenious manner the two objects 
of commemorating victories and of affording prominent places for the 
statues of the heroes. 

2. Special Description of Grecian Structures. 

1. Cyclopean Structures. Almost all the cities in Greece were originally 
built on mountains, the natural defence of which was increased by thick 
walls around the cities. In time the increase of population made it necessary 
to extend the cities beyond the wall, and they were gradually grouped round 
the foot of the mountain, which, with its fortified walls, became the citadel 
of the city, and was called Acropolis. It served also to preserve in safety 



ARCHITECTURE. 33 

the most valuable property of tlie city, the treasure, the archives, &c. ; and 
the temples of the tutelar deities were erected there for greater safety. 
Numerous ruins show that almost every city had its acropolis. The oldest 
of them are known as the Cyclopean or Pelasgian walls. The number of 
cities known to have had such walls is nearly 400. 

The ruins of the acropolis of Tiryns are among the most gigantic works 
of the kind in ancient Greece. The city of Tiryns, at present PalBeo-Anapli, 
was situated in Argolis, near Nauplia, in a valley called after the hill 
upon which the acropolis was located, whose walls are the only remaining 
fragments of the place, which according to historical sources was erected by 
Tiryns the son of Argos, 1740 b. c, and was destroyed by the Argives 468 b. c. 
and the inhabitants carried to Argos. According to Pausanias the walls 
were constructed of rough stones, of so large dimensions that the smallest of 
them could not be moved by a yoke of oxen. The acropolis (^Z. 8,^^. 1, plan ; 
fig. 2, view of the line oh i^fig. 1) was situated upon a long rock not more 
than 30 feet high, and lying due south and north. The walls surround a space 
200 feet in length, by 60 feet in width. They are from 19 to 22^ feet thick, 
built in straight lines, and their highest points are still upwards of 40 feet 
in height. The blocks are 10 to 13 feet long, by 4 feet thick, and are put 
in as they came from the quaiTy. The original height of the walls was 
probably 55 feet. Some blocks are found inside, which are more carefully 
trimmed than the rest ; they probably formed part of the entrances, which, 
according to Gell, were three. The eastern one is still in tolerably good 
preservation, and has a tower 22 feet wide, and at present of the same height, 
whose walls are constructed in a similar manner. The gateway is 15^ feet 
high, the lintel about lOi feet long. It is probable that it had a front orna- 
ment, as there are two stones lying near the gate, which together form a 
triangle ; whether they have been sculptured cannot be ascertained, as the 
one is very much decayed, and the other lying with its face to the ground. 
The gate swung on centre pivots secured in the sill and lintel. Inside 
the wall are two galleries whose ceiling is formed by two rows of stone 
blocks leaning against each other at an angle of 45 degrees. These galleries 
have window-like openings, which probably communicated with some 
detached construction, of which remains are traceable near them. The 
ceiling of the galleries is undoubtedly the oldest specimen of such a construc- 
tion as yet discovered in Greece, and probably the first rude attempt at the 
arch. 

Yast ruins of Cyclopean monuments are also found in the acropolis of 
Mycenae, at present Karvati, in the Morea, erected about lYOO b. c. It formed 
an iri'egular triangle along the outlines of a hill. The walls are not aU con- 
structed in the same manner, nor probably at the same time. Some parts 
are built of rectangular blocks, the joints of several courses placed in per- 
pendicular lines above each other; other parts of irregularly polygonal 
blocks ; and again others, particularly those parts near the entrances, of I'egu- 
lar blocks in good binding. The acropolis had three entrances. The fii-st and 
smallest was formed by two immense stone blocks leaning against each other. 
The second and larger one was constructed of two upright massive jambs j 

ICONOGRAPmC ENCYCLOPEDIA. VOL. IV. 3 33 



34 ARCHITECTURE. 

supporting a huge block as a lintel. The third was the renowned Gate of 
the Lions {pi. 8, fig. 5, front elevation ; fig. 6, section through the middle 
of the gateway), which formed the main entrance to the city. The door 
jambs are about 16 feet high, and the width under the lintel is about 9|- feet ; 
the lintel itself is one block 14 feet long, 6 feet high, and 4 feet wide. Over 
the entrance is a bas-relief sculptured on one triangular block 10 feet long, 
9 feet high, 5 J feet thick, of very hard, fine-grained, grey limestone. It 
represents a half round column, shaped somewhat like the Doric, but thinner 
below than above, and with a capital upon which are placed four rounded 
bodies, apparently supporting a second abacus. On either side of the 
column are erect beasts, considered to be lions, though the tails are unlike 
those of lions, and the heads are wanting. The emblematic import of this 
bas-relief has not yet been determined. Similar allegories are found in Persian 
sculptures and coins, where the column appears to be the altar of the sacred 
fire, attended either by men or lions. The lion was the symbol of the god 
Mithras, and his priests were termed lions. As there undoubtedly existed 
a lively intercourse between the Persians and Spartans, and as the latter in 
remote times worshipped the sun, or its symbol the fire, it may with some 
probability be supposed that the four rounded bodies on the column were 
intended to represent the ends of logs, and the supposed second • abacus the 
side view of another log, thus indicating a sacrificatory fire, whose flame 
must have been destroyed with the heads of the lions. The whole would 
thus have represented the altar of the deity of the sun, which was worshipped 
at Mycenae. The G-ate of the Lions probably dates from the time when the 
city was rebuilt by Perseus (1400 b. c), and the bas-relief is the oldest known 
ornament of Grecian sculpture, dating from the heroic age before the Trojan 
war. 

The treasury buildings deserve especial mention in this place, as we first 
meet with them m Greece. They served to receive either the public treasure, 
or the wealth of a prince, or the sacred vessels of a temple. Agamedes 
and Trophonius erected such a building for king Hyrieus at Orchomenus, 
where the treasury of Minyas was also located. That of Atreus in Mycenae 
is however the most remarkable {pl.%.,fig. Y, view of the entrance, ^p'. 8, 
section of the building). The chamber for the treasure is cut in the rock, 
and has a fore-hall of circular form executed in bound masonry, and arched 
like a bee-hive, which is entered by a long passage between two cyclopean 
walls. Its location is not far from the acropolis, surrounded by ruins of 
different buildings, with circular ground-plans and parabolically arched ceil- 
ings. The passage to it is about 19 feet wide and 69 feet long ; the entrance 8 
feet in width at the top, and 10 feet at the bottom, by 20 feet in height. The 
entrance is built of regularly cut stone blocks from a breccia quarry in the 
neighborhood. Tlie most remarkable part of the entrance is the lintel, 
which is formed by two huge blocks, the lower of which is 25 feet long, 20 feet 
wide, and 4 feet thick, and extends within the arch. The second block, almost 
completely covered with earth, is probably of the same dimensions. Blocks 
as large as these have never been found in the walls of buildings, except in 
the ruins* of Baalbek. Over the lintel there is a triangular opening, which 
34 



ARCHITECTURE. 35 

may once have contained a bas-relief similar to that of the Gate of the Lions, 
or perhaps was only introduced for the sake of ventilation, and with the 
intention to relieve the pressure on the lintel. The construction of the circular 
room is remarkable, consisting of many horizontal rows of stones placed 
above each other, in circles of gradually reduced diameters, whilst their 
inner surfaces are smoothed off to form a parabolic line ^pl. '^^fig. 8). The 
diameter of the floor is 48 feet, the height 37 feet, 2 inches. The walls 
have probably been decorated with bronze panels, as there are numerous 
bronze nails among the rubbish, and here and there holes drilled in the 
walls, and in the joints between the stones. The rock-cut chamber is at the 
right hand side from the entrance ; it is rectangular, 27 feet, 10 inches long, 
23 feet, 6 inches wide, and a little over 12 feet high. Some fragments of 
marble ornaments found in the passage which leads to the main building 
have induced some persons to suppose them the decorations of the entrance 
door, and Donaldson has tried to put them together and restore them ; but 
the style of these ornaments proves beyond doubt that they belong to a more 
recent period than the exquisite simplicity of style of the building itself. 
They therefore probably formed part of some other building in ancient 
Mycenae. 

To the period of Pelasgian and Cyclopean structures belongs also a tem- 
ple on the island of Gozzo, known as the Giganteja^ or the tower of the 
giants. It was first described in 1836 by Count de la Marmora, and is one 
of the most important structures of the numerous ones wrought by the 
Phoenicians when they introduced their religion into Greece, Sardinia, Malta, 
Spain, and the Balearic Islands. We have illustrated it on pi. 8, where 
fig. 10 represents the ground plan, fi^. 9 a section corresponding to the 
line F c in fig. 10, and fig. 11 a section corresponding to the line hi 
mfig. 10. 

The two temples,^. 10, a and b, are surrounded by an immense wall 
constructed of irregular blocks of stone, partly upright, in part horizontal. 
Each temple is formed by five somewhat irregular semicircles opening in 
a centre nave ; both have only one elevation with the entrances e and d. 
The inside walls, as well as the floors, were covered with stone slabs, some of 
which are still in their places at e. Similar flagstones of elliptical shape are 
lying in front of the entrance c, at f. The depth of the larger temple, 
FG, is 78 feet, its greatest width, hi, 70 feet, and in kl, it is 49 feet wide. 
In the first hall of the temple, on the right hand side of the entrance, stand 
several upright stone blocks, which surround the sanctuary, to which a few 
steps lead, the first of which is semicircular, and has had a railing, of 
which traces are left. Between the two steps at a^ is a vacant space which 
was occupied by the sacred threshold, which must not be trodden upon. The 
background of this hall is covered with large stone plates. Here ascends 
the sanctuary, &, composed of upright stones, surmounted by horizontal stone 
slabs, and containing in the centre a conical stone, the symbol of Yenus of 
Paphos, to whom the temple was consecrated. The cornerstone is intended 
to represent the creative power. Phallus, or Lingam of the Indians. The 
division of this hall at k, opposite the former, contains the ruins of a very 

35 



36 ARCHITECTURE. 

large altar, behind which is the reservoir intended for the sacred ablutions, 
particularly the washing of the feet. 

The second or main hall is separated from the first by a passage lined with 
stone slabs. It is one step above the former, and the floor is entirely 
covered with stone slabs. The right hand side of the hall at i, is shut off 
by a breast-work containing the altar, d^ near which a few low stone slabs, 
^, are placed upright, in such a position as to suggest their having supported 
a table top. Behind these stones the holes f f are cut out in the walls, 
which even at present retain the marks of fire. They were probably the 
places where the small sacred cakes were baked. At A, is a small reservoir, 
probably for the water with which the dough was prepared ; and near it a 
long stone, with the form of a fish wrought on it. The opposite side of the 
hall at H, contains the sanctuary, ^, partitioned off by large upright stones 
with tables between them. The background is lined with small cells, which, 
according to the stamp of a coin of the times of Antoninus, representing 
similar cells in the temple of Yenus, must have served as nestling places 
for sacred doves. 

The posterior portion of the hall, at g, is the most elevated, and contains 
nothing but a few fragments of stone. This was probably the location of 
the statues of the goddess Astarte of the Phoenicians, the prototype of the 
Grecian Yenus Urania, to whom the temple was consecrated. 

The second smaller temple, b, is of similar form with the large one, but 
destitute of any kind of exterior finish, except the altar at m, of a single 
stone. At ^ is a pile of bones and broken pottery, from which it may be 
inferred that the remains of the victims were deposited in this part of the 
temple, which is separated from the rest of the temple by the wall, I. 
Neither of these temples appears ever to have had a roof, and they agree in this 
respect with the temple of Yenus at Paphos, and all other temples where 
the religious rites bore any relation to Sabseism. But there are in many 
places holes in the stones in which perhaps masts were placed to support 
a suntent, the regulating strings of which may have been fastened in other 
holes near by. 

The necrojpolis (city of sepulchres) of the ancient Etruscan city ofTarquinii 
deserves to be mentiond here, as its construction took place in the Cyclopean 
period. The subterranean chambers in the neighborhood of Corneto are 
the only remains of this place which we have mentioned in the historical 
part of this work, giving a view of it in Plates, Division JY.pl. 11., fig. 1. 
It was situated on a hill, and the sepulchres were marked by circular strac- 
tures above-ground supporting a conical mound of earth. The interior of 
the sepulchres was frequently decorated with sculptures and paintings. 
Several of these chambers are in good preservation, and are known as the 
grottoes of Corneto {pi. S,figs. 3, 4). 

2. Temples and different othek Buildings. The increased civilization 
and wealth of the Greeks, together with the abundance of superior materials, 
and the assistance of Phoenician and Egyptian mechanics and artists, at an 
early period induced them to construct the buildings erected in honor of 
their tutelary deities exclusively of stone. 
36 



ARCHITECTURE. 37 

The oldest Grecian temples were built in the Doric order. In our descrip- 
tion of the Grecian monuments we shall follow the reports of Pausanias, 
whose annotations were made on a journey undertaken for the special pur- 
pose of examining works of art (a. d. 174), at a period when Athens was 
still in its full splendor. A view of its probable features at that time is 
given in pi. 9, fig. 1, where a a represents the acropolis ( with a the Parthe- 
non, or the temple of Pallas Athene, 5, the statue of Pallas Athene, c, the 
temple of Erechtheus, <:Z, the propylasa) ; b, the Museum with the monument 
of Philopappus ; c, the Areopagus ; d, the Pnyx ; e, the theatre of Bacchus ; 
F, the Prjtaneum ; g, the Odeon ; h, the temple of Jupiter Oljmpius ; i, the 
'tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes, or the tower of the winds ; k, the temple 
of Theseus ; l, the road to the Pyraeus. 

The Pyrseus was the port of Athens. Its entrance was ornamented with 
two lions, and it contained five public halls, a large market surrounded by 
colonnades, several temples, and a theatre. The road to Athens lay between 
two enormous walls, running all the way from the city to the port, a distance 
of five miles. 

Entering the city from this road, the first building near the gate was the 
Pompejon, the starting point of the religious processions. N^ear this edifice 
was an equestrian statue by Praxiteles. At a short distance from the Pom- 
pejon stood the temple of Ceres, which contained the statues of Proserpine, 
Ceres, and of the youthful Bacchus. Two colonnades led from the Pompejon 
to the part of the city called Ceramicus. There were several similar colon- 
nades in Athens which were necessary for public places of resort. JSTear 
one of the colonnades at the Pompejon were several temples, the gymnasium 
of Mercury, and the house of Polytion, surrounded by an inclosure, where 
the Eleusinian mysteries were practised by several of the wealthy citizens 
of Athens. E'ext stood a small building which contained bas-reliefs of burnt 
clay, among which was prominent the festival of the Athenian king 
Amphyction. On the right hand side, near the end of the colonnade, in the 
district of Ceramicus, was the Koyal Basilica, where the second archon of 
Athens held his court of justice, and where the Areopagus sometimes met. 
The name Basilica is derived from hasileus^ the king. This building was a 
peripteros, with porticoes in front and in the retr. The bas-reliefs in the 
gable represent the victory of Theseus over the pirate Skyron, and the rape 
of Cephalus by Aurora. At the entrance of the hall stood the bronze 
statue of Pindar, with a tiara around his head, a book on his knees, and a 
lyre in his hand. 

Kot far from the Koyal Basilica were two remarkable buildings, to the 
right the temple of Apollo containing a picture of Apollo by Euphranor, 
and two statues of Apollo by Leochares and Calamis ; and to the left the 
hall of Jupiter was situated, probably built with three rows of columns 
and walls placed inside the two outer rows of columns. 

In the same district was the temple of Cybele, with a statue of the goddess 
by Phidias, and the House of the 500 Senators, with numerous statues and 
paintings. The square to the right near the Koyal Basilica was surrounded 
by terminal statues with inscriptions at their base, containing either com- 

37 



38 ARCHITECTURE. 

inemorations of great and gallant deeds of the Greeks, or admonitions to 
wisdom and virtue. 

Next to the House of the Senate stood theTholus, a circular building 
surrounded by plantain trees, in which the officiating magistrates took their 
meals, and offered the regulated sacrifices. Among different others it con- 
tained the silver statues of Cecrops and of Pandion, in front of which the 
first archon held his court of justice. After the Tholus came the temple of 
Ares (Mars), with the statues of Mars, Pallas Athene, Yenus by Alcamenes, 
another Yenus by Locrus, and others. The street leading from the Tholus 
to the market terminated in a hall lined with terminal statues, fonned by 
several porticoes, and known as the Hall of the Hermge. The inscriptions 
on the statues proclaimed the gratitude of the state towards the common 
soldiers. 

In the rear of the Tholus was the Pnyx, where the large assemblies were 
held. iS'ear it was the Enneacrrounos or fountain with nine jets, the only 
public fountain of Athens ; and beyond it, the temples of Ceres and Proser- 
pine, and of Triptolemus, the deified founder of the Eleusinian mysteries. 
The former contained the statue of Ceres, and the latter that of Epimenides. 
]^ear the Eleusinium was the temple of Eucleia, or the Temple of Glory, 
erected with the booty made in the battle of Marathon, and containing a 
statue of Yenus in Parian marble by Phidias. 

Opposite the House of the Senate, in the market and adjoining the Eoyal 
Basilica, was the temple of Yulcan, containing statues of Yulcan and of 
Pallas Athene. IS'ear to the Hall of the Hermse was the Stoic Hall, in which 
philosophy was taught. In front of its portico were the bronze statues of 
Solon and Seleucus, and that of Mercury ornamented the entrance. The 
interior was decorated with paintings representing battles, the combats of 
the Amazons, &c. Tlie north side of the market was occupied by the 
temple of Yenus Urania and that of ^acus. On the market square itself 
was the altar of friendship, and a few other monuments of little importance. 

j^orth of the temple of ^acus was the temple of Theseus, the ruins of 
which still remain in tolerably good condition, whilst the location of the 
other monuments previously mentioned, with the exception of the Pnyx, 
can only be conjectured from literary sources. The Temple of Theseus as 
it is at present, is represented in^Z. 9, fig. 3, whilst ^Z. 10^ figs. 3 and 4, 
give views of its restored front, the latter for the sake of comparison reduced 
to the scale of the other elevations on this plate; andj??. 10^ fig. 5, shows 
the plan. This Doric temple has columns all round, six in front, and thirteen 
on each side, the corner columns being counted twice, which is always done 
in giving the number of columns of different sides, as they appear on two. 
The temple is 104 feet long by 45 feet wide. The pronaos and posticum 
are formed by the extension of the side walls, and two columns stand between 
the corner pillars. The entire temple is built of white marble, the founda- 
tion of large blocks of limestone. The gable of the pronaos has been deco- 
rated with sculptures which have disappeared, but the frieze inside the 
pronaos still contains representations of several groups of combatants and 
spectators ; and the frieze in the posticum the combat of Theseus and the 
88 



ARCHITECTURE. 39 

Lapitlise. The ten metopes of the front portico show ten labors of Hercules, 
and the four adjoining ones on either side, the labors of Theseus. The temple 
proper is 54 feet long, by 19 feet, 2 inches wide. The temple was erected 
ten years after the battle of Salamis, after the son of Miltiades had collected 
the bones of Theseus on the island of Scyros, and had triumphantly carried 
them to Athens. At present the temple of Theseus is used as a chm'ch of 
St. George, for which reason probably it is so well kept. 

Not far from the temple of Theseus, opposite the Stoic Hall, was the gym- 
nasium, erected by ordei^of Ptolemaeus, and containing the statues of Juba 
and Chrysippus, and a spacious court-yard surrounded with colonnades. 
Opposite the gymnasium, in rear of the Stoic Hall, was the temple of the 
Dioscuri, the entrance of which was decorated with the statues of Castor and 
Pollux, whilst on each side were those of their sons with their horses. The 
interior was decorated with paintings by Polygnotus and Micon, repre- 
sentins: the weddino; of the sons of the Dioscuri with the daughters of 
Leucippus and the embarkation of Jason and his heroes for Colchis. 

]^ear this temple was the district consecrated to Aglauros, with a temple 
of this nymph. Then came the Prytaneum, where the wi'itten laws of Solon 
were preserved, and citizens who had distinguished themselves in the service 
of the state were entertained at public expense. It contained the statues of 
Yesta, of Peace, as well as of Miltiades, Themistocles, and other celebrated men. 
Opposite these different buildings were the portico of Hadrian, the vegetable 
market sm-rounded by a wall and double porticoes, and in the rear of the 
latter the Tower of the Winds {jpl. ^^fig. 4, plan and elevation ; pi. 19, fig. 9, 
capital from the portico). 

The Tower of the Winds is an eight-sided marble building, whose faces are 
turned exactly towards the octants of the heavens, each containing a bas-relief 
allegory of one of the eight winds known to the Greeks. The tower carries 
a conical roof, on the top of which stood a bronze Triton serving as a vane. 
Below the bas-reliefs are as many sundials calculated to suit the eorrespond-- 
ing points of the compass, which are considered by Delambre to be the 
most remarkable remains of the practical gnomonios of the ancients. The 
building originally had two entrances, one towards the north-^easfc and the 
other towards the north-west, each of them ornamented with a portico of 
two columns. Stuart, when first surveying the building, after removing all 
the rubbish, discovered on the floor traces of a dejp&ifdra^ or water-clock, as 
described by Yitruvius, which was pax)bably fed by a brook passing close 
to the tower, and which to this day is called Clepsydra. The water reservoir 
is located in the round house attached to the main building. The interior 
of the tower is divided into four different stories, which probably had floors 
for the door to rest upon, The decorations of the ii^terior are of the Doric 
order ; those of the exterior of the Corinthian. 

Towards the south-east of the street of the Tripods, which began at the 
Prytaneuna, are the ruins of the arch of Hadrian, forming one corner of a peri- 
bolus supposed by some arohseologists to be portions of the temple of Jupiter 
Olympius, whilst others take them for the Pantheon of Hadrian. Of the 
temple of Jupiter Olympius, ;pl, X^^fig. 2, giyes the plan ; fijg., 8, the elevation ; 



4ft- ARCHITECTURE. 

SiTid pi. 11, Jig. 4, the section, drawn according to the designs of the cele- 
brated architect, Liiigi Canina. The temple was a dipteros dekastylos of the 
Corinthian order, with twenty columns. The interior contained two tiers of 
colnmns, one above the other, and was a hypcethros., for the roof was open 
above the statue of Jupiter. Besides the porticoes, the temple had a pronaos 
formed by four Corinthian columns. The building was erected and the 
statues of gold and ivory put up by Hadrian. The pronaos contained four 
statues of Hadrian, and the peribolus, 2300 feet in circumference, was orna- 
mented with statues which had been supplied by different cities, each con- 
tributing one. Another temple of Jupiter Olympius, of the Doric order, 
had formerly occupied the same spot, whose columns, after its destruction, 
were carried to Rome by Sylla, and erected in the temple of Jupiter Capi- 
tolinus, which was destroyed by fire. For the new temple Hadrian ordered 
the Roman architect Cossutius to adopt the Corinthian order, which was not 
generally introduced into Greece before the year 395 b. c. Of the 112 columns 
16 are still standing. The length of the temple on the upper stair was 354 
feet, by 141 feet in width. The columns had 6|- feet diameter, and were 
over 60 feet high ; and like the rest of the building, were of Pentelican 
marble. 

Towards the north-east of this temple were the statue of the Pythian 
Apollo, and a temple of the Delphian Apollo. East of the Olympgeon, a 
gate in the city wall led to the district of the gardens watered by the Ilissus, 
on the left bank of which was the temj)le of Boreas. ]N"orth-east of the 
latter, near the spring of Callirhoe, was a small Ionic temple, which some 
suppose to be that of Diana Agrotera, whilst others think it to be that of 
Ceres or of Triptolemus. It is represented on pi. 16, Jig. 36, plan, Rndpl. 
10, Jig. 15, elevation. A few ruins of it still exist. It belongs to the Ionic 
order, but its proportions, notwithstanding their beauty, deviate considerably 
from those usually met w^ith. The temple was an amphiprostylos tetrastylos^ 
and built of Pentelican marble. 

The Stadium of Herodes Atticus, built of marble, was also located on the 
left bank of the Ilissus, as well as a small temple of Hercules ; and a little more 
to the east a temple of Yenus, with a statue of the goddess. Opposite the 
latter, on the right bank of the Ilissus, was the Lyceum, containing large 
places for exercise, with 100 columns from Lybia. 

The most remarkable of the monuments in the street of tripods is the cho- 
ragian monument of Lysicrates, sometimes called the Lantern of Demosthe- 
nes. This is one of the most graceful of ancient architectural monuments. 
Its elevation is represented on^Z. 9,^^. 5, whilst details are given on pi. 19, 
viz. a capital {Jig. 10), a base {Jig. 18), and the restored dome with the cele- 
brated three-cornered flower that supported the tripod {fig. 24). This 
building, far famed in architectural history, is but 13 feet, 11 inches high, 
and has not more than 5 feet, 4 inches inside diameter. It was constructed 
as follows : Six marble slabs of equal size were placed close together to form 
a hollow cylinder. AJong the upright joints semicircular cavities were 
wrought, just wide enough to receive Corinthian columns which were placed 
in them with great accuracy, one half projecting beyond the surface of the 
40 



ARCHITECTURE. 41 

cylinder ; an entablature and a dome to cover it completed the building. 
Between the capitals of the columns are tripods in bas-relief, and the frieze 
is ornamented with a bas-relief representing the history of Bacchus, who 
conquered the Tyrrhenian pirates, and changed them into dolphins. The 
flutes of the columns terminate in leaves, an arrangement entirely unique. 
The recess at the neck of the columns has probably been filled by an astra- 
galus of bronze or gold. The roof is of one single block of marble, admirably 
wrought so as to appear covered with tiles of the shape of olive leaves. The 
crowning flower is of a beautiful model, and terminates in three volutes of 
great elegance. Other volutes on the roof have probably served to carry 
some ornaments on which the corners of the large flower must have rested. 
In our restoration {pi. 19, fig. 24) we have adopted dolphins, to correspond 
with the frieze ; others have introduced satyi's. 

Behind this monument was the Odeon of Pericles {jpl. 17, fig. 1, eleva- 
tion ; fig. 2, section ; fig. 3, plan). It was of the Doric order, circular, with 
32 stone columns supporting the peribolus. The masts of the Persian ships 
taken in war were used as rafters in the roof, which had the form of a 
tent. According to Diodorus, the building was of an oval shape, with 
an open portico {jpl. 10, fig. 10, front ; fig. 11, side view ; fi^. 12, plan). 
Dm-ing the Mithiidatian war it was either destroyed by fire or pulled down 
by the order of Aristion, the Mithridatian commander, to facilitate the ap- 
proach to the Acropolis. It was rebuilt, by the order of Ariobarzanes, by 
Caius and Marius, sons of Caius Stallius. On certain days the. Odeon was 
used as a grain market. 

The Theatre of Bacchus, located at the southeastern foot of the Acropolis, 
stood so near to the latter that the seats were partly cut in the rocks. This 
theatre was built by Themistocles, and afterwards the interior was decorated 
with portraits and statues of different poets. In the rock of the Acropolis, 
at the height of the top of the roof of the theatre, was the choragian monu- 
ment of Thrasyllus and Thrassicles cut out in shape of a niche or a grotto, 
and adjoining it another niche containing a tripod, upon which were repre- 
sented ApoUo and Diana murdering the children of Mobe. Adjoining the 
theatre was the temple of Bacchus Limngeus, the oldest temple of this god 
at Athens. Its peribolus inclosed still another temple, that of Bacchus 
Eleutheros, whose statue was of gold and ivory. 

On the southern slope of the rock of the Acropolis were the mausoleum 
of Talus, who was killed by Daedalus, and the temple of ^sculapius, con- 
taining the statues of ^sculapius and of his children, besides several beau- 
tiful paintings. 

The Odeon of Eegilla, located at the southern foot of the rock of the Acro- 
polis, was built 150 years b.c, by Herodes Atticus, in honor of his wife 
Eegilla. Eumenicus added a colonnade to it, which connected it with the 
theatre of Bacchus. It was of white marble. 

South of the Stoic Hall, and southeast of the Pnyx, were the Areopagus 
and the temple of the Eumenides, situated upon a hill commanding the view 
of the seashore over the roof of the Pnyx. ISTear this place is a Doric portico 
{jpl, 10, fijg. 13, elevation ; fi^. 14, plan) supposed to have been the entrance 

41 



42 ARCHITECTURE. 

of the Agora or vegetable market, from an inscription on the same men- 
tioning the names of two superintendents of the market, and another con- 
taining a proclamation of Hadrian regulating the sale of oil and the duties 
to be levied on importations. 

After having thus mentioned the various buildings alluded to by ancient 
writers as being in the city of Athens itself, we now proceed to the edifices 
on the Acropolis, the citadel of Athens, among which we find the best pre- 
served monuments of Grecian antiquity ; whilst those in the city proper have 
been entirely destroyed, with the exception of the few whose ruins we have 
noticed more in detail. 

The Acropolis of Athens (j?Z. 11^ fig. 1), according to historical ti^aditions, 
was ]Dliinned and executed by the Pelasgians, who were masters in the art 
and science of fortification in ancient times. It was a citadel which by 
strong walls was well secured against any hostile attack, and inclosed a 
sacred place filled with a number of temples and adorned with the noblest 
and most exquisite productions of art. It was, in fact, the sanctuary of 
Athens, where the Panathengean festivals were celebrated, and the deposi- 
tory of the public archives and the state treasure. 

Pausanias, the best author on Athens, has left us descriptions of all the 
luxury and beauty condensed upon comparatively so small a spot, which 
are indeed astonishing. He mentions the temples of Diana, of Yenus, of 
Minerva Polias, of Erechtheus and ^Nike Apteros, and of the Parthenon. 
Of all these glorious structures nothing has been preserved but the ruins of 
the propylsea of the Parthenon, of the temples of Minerva Polias and 
Erechtheus, and the Hall of the ISTymph Pandrosos ; but they suffice to bear 
evidence to the grandeur and beauty of the monuments in the time of their 
glory. Large flights of steps on the western slope of the mountain, orna- 
mented with two equestrian statues upon pedestals, led to the main entrance 
of the citadel, which was built in the purest style of the Doric order, and is 
far-famed under the name of the Propylaea. This magnificent structure, 
undoubtedly one of the most characteristic monun^ents of the time when 
Athens was in her prime, was commenced 437 b. c, and completed in the 
exceedingly short time of five years, according to the designs and under the 
superintendence of Mnesicles. 

PI. 11.^ fig. 1, shows a perspective view of the edifice, which is composed 
of the main or centre building, with projecting wings, forming three sides of 
a quadrangle. The centre building, with its six columns, offers five en- 
trances to the interior of the Acropolis. The side building to the right 
forms a portico to the Doric temple of ISTike Apteros (the wingless Yictory), 
of which ^Z. 16^ fig. 32, gives the plan, whilst pi. 11, fig. 1, has a view of it 
near the right hand pedestal. The left side building contained in one of the 
interior apartments the famous paintings of Polygnotus. The portico in the 
rear, facing the interior of the Acropolis, was similar to that in front, both 
of them being of the Doric order, whilst the vestibule has Ionic columns, 
but without a base. Only very recently the discovery of a very carefully 
constructed inclined plane leading to the Acropolis has decided the question 
whether chariots had entered it, which had been supposed on account of the 
42 



ARCHITECTURE. 4^ 

greater distance between the two centre columns, and on the strength of the 
representations of chariots in the bas-reliefs of the Panathensean games on 
the frieze. The marble beams which formed the ceiling were 17 to 18 feet 
long, and of sufficient thickness to receive deep panels, which were orna- 
mented and painted. The depth of the building from the front to the rear 
wall was 43 feet, to which the posticum, of 18 feet in depth, was attached. 
The wings, or side buildings, had temple fronts of three columns between 
pillars, and were constructed, like the main building, of Pentelican marble. 
The columns of the propylseum are 27 feet high ; those of the side buildings 
are 18 feet high bj 3 feet in diameter. 

The Parthenon, dedicated to Pallas Athene, was one of the largest and 
most magnificent temples in Greece, for the illustration of which we refer to 
pi. 9, fig. 2, western front; jpl. 10^ fig. 6, eastern front; and jpl. 11.^ fig. 6, 
longitudinal section. It was in excellent preservation as late as the year 
1676, when it was visited b}^ Wheler and Spoon, but in the following year, 
when the Venetians bombarded Athens, a shell penetrated to the ammuni- 
tion of the Turks, kept in the temple, and the explosion that follow^ed did 
great damage to the edifice. The sculptures of the gable and frieze have 
been taken away by the English, and are now in the collections of the Bri- 
tish Museum. 

The temple is a peripteros with 8 columns in front and 17 at the sides, 
and a hypsethros with its interior columns in double tiers. The porticoes 
had two rows of columns each. The temple was built by Ictinos and Calli- 
crates (470 b. c), and is 227 feet 7 inches in length, by a width of 101 feet 
1 inch. It presented the peculiarity that the usual corner pillars of the 
second row of columns in the porticoes are substituted by columns. The 
outer columns are 35 feet, 5 inches high, by % feet, 1 inch in diameter ; those 
on the corners are 2 inches thicker. 

In ancient times the Parthenon was called Hecatompedon, because it had 
exactly 100 feet front, according to Boman measure. The width of the cella 
in the rear was 62|- feet by a length of 98 feet 7 inches ; the length of the 
vestibule was 43 feet 10 inches, and the total height of the temple 65 feet. 
The cella contained a magnificent statue of Minerva by Phidias, made of 
the costliest materials, chiefly gold and ivory. The two gable fields were 
also richly adorned with sculptures, which, as late as 1683, were in tolerably 
good preservation, when the French ambassador at the Porte, l^ointel, caused 
them to be drawn accurately by a Dutch artist, whose drawings have been 
consulted in the various attempts made at restoring the groups in recent 
times. The groups in the western gable fields had reference to the birth of 
Pallas Athene, whilst those of the eastern represented her contest with JS'ep- 
tune about the sway of the land. The panels in the external Doric entabla- 
ture contained 92 bas-reliefs representing the wars of the Lapithse and the 
Centaurs, and the frieze around the cella and vestibule, which was upwards 
of 500 feet in length, bore sculptures representing the Panathensean games. 

Another remarkable group on the platform of the Acropolis is formed by 
the temples of Minerva Polias and Erechtheus, and the hall of the nymph 
Pandrosos. PI. 10^ fig. 8, gives a view, and fig. 9 the plan of this group, 

43 



44 ARCHITECTURE. 

whilst pi. 11^ Jig. 5, is an attempt at a restoration of the same. For details 
we refer to pi. 7^ fig. 24, the columnar order ; pL 19, fig. 6 a, capital from 
the portico of the temple of Minerva Polias ; fig. 6 5, capital from the por- 
tico of the temple of Erechtheus ; fig. IT, base from the foi-mer ; fig. 18, base 
from the latter; fig. 31, carjatide from the hall of the nymph Pandrosos. 

This group was erected during the Peloponnesian war, probably 409 b. c, 
but took fire only three years later. Its eastern side is formed by the temple 
of Erechtheus, with a portico of 6 columns, 21 feet, 8 inches high, fluted, 
and with decorated necks. The portico leads into the cella {pi. 10, fig. 9 5), 
which is 70 feet 6 inches in length by 32 feet 4 inches in width. It con- 
tained the salt spring, and the altars of [N'eptune, Yulcan, and the hero 
Butes. The rear of this curious group was formed by the temple of Minerva 
Polias, whose cella is at a {fig. 9). Its portico has 4 columns 24 feet high, 
facing north. In the rear of the cella is the hall of the nymph Pandrosos 
{fig. 9 <?), which, in place of columns, had 6 beautiful caryatides supporting 
the entablature, one of which was carried off by Lord Elgin. It has 
been replaced by a pillar of bricks bearing the stigmatizing inscription : 
" This is the work of Lord Elgin." The capitals of the four columns form- 
ing the portico are larger, more richly ornamented, better executed, and 
altogether in a superior style to the other capitals of the group. The 
columns have a considerable swelling. Behind this portico a beautiful 
doorway with consols and entablature has been dug up, all of white marble. 

The interior of the Erechtheum was also decorated with sculptures and 
paintings, l^ear the entrance stood the three altars which we have men- 
tioned, and which were highly finished works of art. The walls were 
adorned with pictures. The division of the group consecrated to Minerva 
Polias contained a wooden statue of Mercury, an offering of Cecrops ; a 
folding chair, wrought by Daedalus and offered to the gods as a useful in- 
vention ; the sword of Mardonius, suspended on the wall ; and the statue of 
Minerva, in front of which was the eternal lamp, an offering of Callimachus, 
the alleged inventor of the Corinthian capital. 

Besides the afore-mentioned monuments in the city and upon the Acro- 
polis, there are the ruins of the aqueduct of Hadrian, consisting of a few 
columns and one arch at the foot of the mount Anchesmus ; the tombs of. 
Thrasybulus who overthrew the government of the thirty tyrants, of Pericles, 
Chabrias, Phormion, Harmodius, Aristogiton, and of many combatants at 
Marathon. 

A large road called the Sacred Way, about 500 stadia long, led to the 
city of Eleusis. On both sides of this road so large a number of tombs, 
mausoleums, and columns had been erected dm^ing the flourishing time of 
Greece, that Polemon wrote an extensive work on them. At present, 
the site of the road even is not perfectly known, and no traces whatever 
are left of the palace of Crocon, or of the temple with the statues of Apollo, 
Ceres, and Minerva. Eleusis at present contains the ruins of four build- 
ings, viz. the propylsea, the temple of Diana, the mystic portico, and 
the temple of Ceres. The propylgea formed part of the peribolus which 
surrounded the temples, to which only the initiated were admitted, a regu- 
44 



ARCHITECTURE. 45 

latioii particularly enforced at the temple of Ceres. They fonn a portico of 
six Doric columns of 5 feet and half an inch in diameter, which leads to 
the vestibule of six Ionic columns in two rows, which is followed by four 
pillars standing free, and inside by six Doric columns. The front gable 
field was decorated with a priest's head sm-rounded by a ring. 

The temple of Diana Propylgea (j?Z. 10^ fig. 16, elevation; pi. 16, fig. 35, 
plan) is accessible by six steps, the uppermost of which is 69 feet, 8 inches 
long. The temple is of the Doric order, with corner pillars and two columns 
of 2 feet, T inches diameter. The stone blocks of the ceiling, like the rest 
of the building of white marble, are 83 feet long by 3 feet wide, and 2 feet, 
6 inches thick, each of them weighing about 11 tons. The cornice and 
gable tops had front tiles.. The building is very much dilapidated. 

The Mystic Portico, where those about to be initiated in the Eleusinian 
mysteries had to undergo certain ceremonies, is of the Ionic order, and con- 
tains near the door two pilasters, with Corinthian capitals of uncommon 
beauty. This hall formed the vestibule of the temple of Ceres and Proser- 
pine, one of the most remarkable ancient buildings, which, however, was 
totally destroyed by Alaric. The temple had a portico of twelve Doric 
mantled columns of 6? feet in diameter. The fore hall is 38 feet deep, the 
comer pillars projecting so far as to indicate the existence of a second row 
of ten columns. The temple was a prostylos, and according to Yitruvius 
the fore hall only was added to the main building by Demetrius Phalereus, 
whilst the latter was built by Ictinus, 439 b. c. 

All the monuments at Megara and Corinth, to which Pausanias even 
alludes as being much injured by time, are totally destroyed. On the isle 
of ^gina, which at an early period was considerably advanced in civiliza- 
tion, many once celebrated monuments had already disappeared at the time 
of Pausanias. The most splendid building on the island at that time was 
the temple of Jupiter Panhellenius, some of the ruins of which are still exist- 
ing. The ground-plan of this temple {pi. IS, fig. 12) shows that it had 
been a peripteros of six columns in front, and twelve at the sides. It was 
of the Doric order, hypsethral in construction, and with two rows of 
columns in the interior. The gable field was decorated with sculptures 
which have been carried to Munich. The proportions of this monument are 
excellent, and the mouldings of the capitals and the entablature of a bolder 
character than those of the temples of Minerva and Theseus at Athens. 

Two Doric columns of the temple of Yenus, situated near the harbor, 
are all that remains of a number of other temples formerly kno\\Ti on 
JEgina. The ^gina theatre was considered to be of a very superior style, 
and was of larger dimensions than that at Epidaurus. 

Argos, a city in the district of Argolis, was the residence of the famous 
sculptors Polycletus, Praxiteles, and others, who by the master-pieces of 
their art ornamented its temples, among which were those of Jupiter Soter, 
Juno, Bacchus, Apollo Lycius, and Yenus ; and the temple of Minerva 
located upon the acropolis, which also contained a treasmy of Atreus similar 
to that at Mycenae. All these buildings, together with a large number of 
magnificent tombs, are entirely destroyed, a few columns of the Doric order 

45 



46 ARCHITECTURE. 

and of rather slender proportions of the temple of Jupiter Kemseus, between 
Argos and Corinth, being the only traces left of them. Of this temple, pi. 
16, Jig. 17, and pi. 13, Jig. 13, show the plan, the latter figure with the 
omission of the three columns between the comer pillars of the pronaos. A few 
other ruins near Argos are supposed to be those of a theatre, of the palace of 
Agamemnon, and of an aqueduct. About four miles from Argos near 
Mount Euboia was the temple of Juno, famous for its beautiful sculptures, 
those in the gable fields being representations of the birth of Jupiter, the 
war of the gods and the giants, and the Trojan war. The statue of Juno in 
the temple was of gold and ivory. 

At Bassge, near Phigalia, was the temple of Apollo Epicureus, one of 
the most remarkable monuments of Greece, and especially of the Pelopon- 
nesus. This temple, built by Ictinus in the time of Phidias, was 125 feet 
long, by 47 feet wide, with six Doric columns of 3 feet, 7 inches diameter, 
and 19 feet, 6 inches high in front, and of 13 columns of the same size on 
the sides {pi. 11, Jig. 10, ground plan). The interior of the cella contained 
ten Ionic columns in two rows, with capitals remarkable on account of the 
volutes being placed diagonally, and therefore presenting four equal faces, 
instead of the usual two. Between the two last columns, opposite the 
entrance, was one Corinthian column. These 11 columns supported a frieze 
of more than 100 feet in length, by 2 feet, 1^ inch high, decorated with 
representations of the war of the Centaurs and Lapithse, and of the Greeks 
and Amazons. This master-piece of sculpture is now in the British Museum. 
The walls and columns of this temple were built of limestone, but the roof 
was constructed of marble. 

Among many ruins at Olympia, are those of the temple of Jupiter, which 
the Eleans caused to be built in the year 450 b. c. by Libon from the booty 
gained in their wars {pi. 10, Jig. 1, front elevation ; Jig. 2, longitudinal section ; 
pi. 15, Jig. 3, half front ; Jig. 4, half lateral section of the pronaos ; Jig. 5, 
lateral section of the cella and porticoes). The outer walls of this temple 
were plastered with stucco j\ of an inch thick, and the roof, which was 
reached by winding stairs, was covered with Pentelican marble. On each 
front there were two rows of six Doric columns each, and 17 on each side 6 feet 
in diameter. Inside were two rows of columns placed in two tiers, and the 
temple was hypsethral. The length of the temple, which numbers among 
the largest in Greece, was 218 feet, by 94 feet in width, and 64 feet in height. 
The side walls were painted by Pansenus, brother of Phidias, but the gable 
fields are decorated with haut-reliefs. Those of the front by Pseonius repre- 
sented Pelops and (Enomaus preparing for a chariot race in presence of 
Jupiter ; whilst those of the rear by Alcmenes, exhibited the combat of 
the Centaurs and Lapithge at the wedding of Pirithous. The doors of the 
temple were of bronze, decorated with representations of the labors of 
Hercules. The architrave contained 21 gilded bucklers, a donation of 
Mummius the Koman general, after his victory over Corinth. 

Several monuments in Attica are worthy of special notice. On a plateau 
about 300 feet above the level of the sea, near Khamnus, 60 stadia from 
Marathon, are the ruins of two temples inclosed by a peribolus ; the largest 
46 



AECHITECTURE. 47 

consecrated to I^emesis, the smaller to Themis. The former {jpl. V2,^fig. 13, 
front ; fig. 14, and jpl. 16, fig. 23, ground plans) was a peripteros with six 
Doric mantled columns in front, and twelve on the sides. The members of 
the entablature show marks of painted ornaments. The height of the build- 
ing was 70 feet, 5 inches, by a width of 32 feet, 10 inches ; the diameter 
of the columns, which were 13 feet, 1 inch high, was 2 feet, 4|- inch ; the 
entablatm-e was 4 feet, 4 inches high. The ceiling and roof are constructed in 
a superior style, and their ruins are very instructive with regard to the 
rules by which the ancients connected stone blocks. Seven columns of the 
temple and one of the pronaos are still in good condition, and the three 
steps of the substructure show that the columns were placed over quadran- 
gular grooves several inches deep, and probably intended to receive metal 
plates. The temple of Themis {jpl. IQ^fig. 33, plan) had two Doric columns 
between the corner pillars, and was 32 feet, 3 inches long, by 20 feet, 10 
inches wide. It was erected at the time of Pericles, and destroyed by the 
Persians. 

At Sunium are two remarkable ruins, the one the remains of the temple 
of Minerva Sunias, and the other of its propylgea, which are very similar 
to those of the temple of Diana at Eleusis. Both these monuments 
are of the Doric order, and very carefully constructed of white marble. 
Of the temple there remain nine columns of the western side, three of the 
eastern, and the corner pillars and two columns of the pronaos. It had six 
columns in front, and 13 at the sides. Of the interior no traces are left, 
and it is therefore not well ascertained whether the vestibule inserted in om' 
ground plan {pi. 16, fig. 19) from the plan of the Parthenon, really existed. 

We now proceed to the Grecian monuments in Asia Minor, commencing 
with the island of Delos, where we find the ruins of the temple of ApoUo 
built of Parian marble, of which nothing remains but three Doric mantled 
columns of 3 feet, 1 inch diameter, and 18 feet, 8 inches high, with an 
entablature of 5 feet, 9^ inches {pi. 19, fig. 2, a capital). A few iluted 
Doric columns of a portico ascribed to Philip of Macedonia on the strength 
of an inscription on the same, are found near this temple. They are 19 
feet, 4 inches high, by 2 feet, 11 inches diameter. The flutes descend only 
to within six feet from the ground, the lower part of the shafts being polygons 
with smooth faces. The capitals have but very little projection, and an 
almost sti-aight echinus. 'Near this place are also some ruins of square 
piUars, the capitals of which are formed by the heads and shoulders of foiu* 
oxen, in the manner of the horse capitals in the monument of Kakshi 
Rustam {pi, S,fig. 6). 

Sardis, the metropolis of Lydia, at the foot of Mount Tmolos, contains the 
ruins of the temple of Cybele. This temple, of the Ionic order, was a dip- 
teros, but with three rows of columns in front {pi. 10, fig. 17, elevation ; pi. 
11,^^. 13, plan). 

Of all the monuments of Mylasa, a place eighteen hundred years ago 
remarkable for its numerous temples, colonnades, and buildings of every de- 
scription, nothing remains but a Corinthian column without the capital, 
erected in honor of the sovereign of Caria, and the ruins of a temple dedi- 



48 ARCHITECTURE. 

cated to Rome and Augustus and of a beautiful gate of the Corinthian order 
(pZ. IS, fig. 22, view ; fig. 23, plan.) About a mile from the city are the ruins 
of a mausoleum of a very inferior style. The corners are formed by square 
pillars between which a couple of slender pillars are j)laced, with half 
columns attached to them inside and outside. The Corinthian columns and 
pillars are fluted on the two upper thirds and plain below. The substruc- 
ture supports over a panelled ceiling a pedestal composed of steps, which 
probably once supported a statue. The frieze is convex. 

Halicarnassus, situated on a safe and extensive harbor, the native place 
of Herodotus, contained the temples of Mercury, Yenus, and Mars, and the 
marble-faced royal palace. In the centre of the city was the mausoleum 
erected in honor of the memory of King Mausolus, by his disconsolate 
widow Aj'temisia (^jpl. 13, fig. 19, elevation ; ^^. 20, side Y\Q^\fijg. 21, 
section ; fig. 18, ground plan). ^ The building is entirely destroyed. Some 
of the columns and sculptures of it were probably used in the construc- 
tion of the royal palace. Our illustrations have been made from a medal 
{fig. 22, «, 5), whose obverse showed the portrait of Artemisia, the reverse 
the mausoleum, and from ancient descriptions. The mausoleum, erected 
353 B. c, was 140 feet high, and 411 feet in circumference. The substruc- 
ture supported 36 Ionic columns, crowned with a rich entablature. The 
roof was formed by a series of steps, whose top supported the triumphal 
chariot with four horses, by Phytio. The four sides of the substructure 
were decorated with sculptures by Braxis, Leocharis, Timotheus, and Scopas, 
who, after the death of Artemisia, completed them without remuneration 
for the sake of their own reputation and fame. The building was destroyed 
by Alexander 334 b. c. during the siege of Halicarnassus. 

PI. 10, fig. 22, shows the elevation, and fig. 23, the plan (in which, by 
mistake, two columns of the sides and the posticum have been omitted) 
of a beautiful Corinthian temple at Euxomus in Ionia. The temple, 
probably erected in the time of Hadrian or Antonine, had six columns in 
front and eleven on the sides, with magnificent capitals and bases. 

The temple of Apollo Didymaeus, one of the largest in Greece, was located 
near the city of Miletus, on the cape Branchidge. It was of the Ionic order, 
hypsethral, with ten columns in front and two rows of 21 columns on each 
side {pi. 12, fi^. 3, front elevation ; fig. 4, plan). The columns were 6 feet, 
3 inches in diameter, and 63 feet, 1 inch high ; the height of the entabla- 
ture was 7 feet, 4f inches. The capitals of the pillars are ornamented 
with bas-reliefs, and the capital of the only remaining Corinthian column is 
one of the most beautiful in existence, and has been frequently imitated. 
The whole length of the temple was 295 feet, 9^ inches, by a width of 156 
feet, 7 inches. 

At Priene, on the right bank of the river Mseander, are the ruins of the 
temple of Minerva Polias, built by Pythius under Alexander, 334 b. c. {pi. 
16^ fig. 18, plan). It was an amphiprostylos peripteros of the Ionic order, 
with 6 columns in front and 11 on each side ; 122 feet, 5^ inches long, by 
64 feet, 3 inches wide, exclusive of the three steps. The columns were 4 feet, 
8 iuches in diameter, by 36 feet, 11 inches in height. 
48 



ARCHITECTURE. 49 

The magnificent temple of Diana in Magnesia (^Z. 12, jig. Y, elevation ; 
fig. 8, ground plan), which, according to Strabo, was the largest of all tem- 
ples in Asia except the temple of Ephesus, was of the Ionic order, with 
8 columns in front and 15 at the sides. I^o trace of it is left, and 
our illustrations are derived from the descriptions of Strabo and Yitru- 
vius. 

Of the temple of Diana at Ephesiis, renowned as the most exquisite build- 
ing in Asia, only a few ruins of the substructure are left. From ancient 
descriptions we have gleaned the details given in onr illustrations (j?/. 12, 
fi^. 1, elevation ; fig. 2, plan). The temple was destroyed five different 
times and as often rebuilt. After the fifth destruction the Greeks resolved 
to erect the costly building of which we here give the outline. The plans 
were made by Ctesiphon of Gnossus on the island of Crete, who here first 
introduced the Ionic order, whose capital he had probably seen in the tem- 
ple of Chalembaram in India. The constiniction was commenced by Theo- 
doras, towards the end of the seventh century b. c, who made a firm ground 
by piles, the natural ground being swampy and unsafe. After the death of 
Ctesiphon, the building was continued consecutively by Melagenes, Deme- 
trius, and Pseonius, who finally completed it 480 e.g., the whole work 
having occupied 220 years. According to Yitruvius the temple was a dip- 
teros with 8 columns in front ; 425 feet long, by 220 feet wide, and hypse- 
thral. It had 127 columns, donations of the Asiatic kings, the largest of 
which were 60 feet high, by 7i feet in diameter. On the day when Alex- 
ander was born Herostratus set fire to the temple, of which, however, only 
the cedar roof could be consumed; but the heat converted the marble 
columns in the cella into lime. Fourteen years later the restoration was 
commenced, about the manner of which there is a great diversity of opinion 
among archaeologists. From the reports of Yitruvius it would appear that 
the old plan was followed, and as he names a group of 36 columns which 
are also mentioned by Pliny, some authors are of opinion that these- must 
have been in the cella, forming two double rows of 9 pairs or 18 columns 
on either side. This would leave 91 for the outside. JS'ow Yitruvius gives 
8 columns at the front and 17 at the sides, which makes 84, the temple 
being a dipteros ; then there are mentioned 4 in the pronaos- and 2 in the 
posticum, making the number of the columns outside the cella 90 ; and as 
the last single column can be assigned to no special place, archgeologists sur- 
mise that there was a mistake in the ancient manuscripts, and that the number 
of columns in the building was written CXXYII., by mistake for CXXYI. 
We cannot admit the probability of such a conclusion, as it is based upon 
the presumption that two authors have made the same error. The 
view of the distinguished archaeologist, Luigi Canina, appears much more 
likely, and from his disposition of the columns our drawing has been made. 
According to him the new temple had 10 columns in front, 19 at the sides, 
4 both in the pronaos and posticum, 8 on either side of the cella, with 3 at 
the lower end behind the sanctuary between them, which brings in exactly 
127 columns, without violating any rule of architecture. 

The northern barbarians under Kapsa completely destroyed this mag- 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPEDIA. VOL. JV. 4 49 



50 ARCHITECTURE. 

nificent edifice, 262 a.d., and carried a number of the columns to Constan- 
tinople. 

Besides the temple of Diana, Ephesus contains the ruins of a temple of 
the Corinthian order, the foundation walls of an extensive theatre, and three 
lower and six upper arches of an aqueduct erected by Tiberius. About four 
miles northwest of Ephesus was Teos, the native place of Anacreon, with a 
temple of Bacchus {pi. Vh^fig. 5, plan ; jig. 6, elevation). It is of the Ionic 
order ; the columns 3 feet, 3^ inches in diameter, by 25 feet in height, and 
all the proportions and details of a superior character and style. The tem- 
ple was built 400 b. c, by Hermogenes. 

Grecian architecture was at an early period introduced by emigrants 
into the colonies in the southern districts of Italy and the island of 
Sicily. Though the exact time of its introduction has not been determined, 
it is quite certain that elegant Grecian structures were in existence at 
Sybaris as early as 740 b. c, and that in the fifth century b. c, Grecian 
architecture was generally adopted in the erection of temples, theatres, and 
halls. Of all the ruins of purely Greek structures those of Psestum, a city 
founded about 520 b.o. by the Sybarites, who had been driven from their 
country by the Crotoniats, are in the best state of preservation. The most 
remarkable among them is the temple of E'eptune, known as the large tem- 
ple at Psestum {pi, l^^fig. 9, view of the ruins ; jpl. 10. fig. 20, pi. 15^ fig. 1, 
restored elevation ; fig. 2, and^^. 10, fig. 21, ground plan ; pi. 20, fig. 8, the 
columnar order ; pi. 19, fig. 1, a capital). The temple forms a parallelogram 
of 155 feet length, by a width of 75, with a portico of 36 Doric columns all 
round, which is approached by three steps. In the interior there are two 
rows of columns surmounted by architraves only, which must formerly have 
supported a second tier of columns, and it is therefore supposed that the 
temple was hypsethral. It had 6 columns in front and 14 at the sides, 
those near the corners being a little thicker and placed closer than the 
others, but all without any swelling. The architraves in the interior are 
connected with the wall of the cella by stone beams which must have sup- 
ported the floor of the galleries, which were approached by stairs in the 
pronaos. The walls of the cella have only the height of the architraves on 
the lower columns, and it appears that they must have been surmounted by 
some contrivance for admitting light into the cella, similar to that of the 
hall at Carnak (p. 13). Some writers are of opinion that this upper side- 
light is exactly what the Greeks termed hypgethros, and that they therefore 
derived the latter from Egypt. 

The temple of Ceres, known as the smaller temple at Paestum {pi. 11, 
fig. IS, pi. 15, fig. 14), has 6 columns in front and rear, and 13 on each side. 
The columns of the peristyle are still standing, whilst in the pronaos only 
the bases and part of the shafts are left. The second row of columns is ele- 
vated one step above the first, and is one step lower than the two rows in 
the rear. These columns are the only Doric ones with 24 flutes instead of 
20. The capital {pi. 19, fig. 3) differs from the ordinary Doric in the con- 
struction of the neck. The columns of the pronaos are the only Grecian 
Doric columns with a base. 
50 



ARCHITECTURE. 51 

The Basilica of Psestum was also of the Doric order, with capitals like 
those in the temple of Ceres, but with considerably swelled shafts. The 
building {pi. 10, fig. 24, elevation ; fig. 25, plan) was 160 feet in length, by 
75 in width, and had 9 columns in front and rear, and 18 on the sides. In 
the interior, opposite to the third columns of the front and sides, are two 
pillai*s, with three columns between them, and it is probable that there 
was a similar arrangement in the rear. The walls marked in the plan 
probably supported upper rows of columns. In the centre was another row. 
The whole was thus divided into four naves between five rows of columns, 
which were connected by beams resting on the outside entablature, and 
supporting the roof. The building was probably used as a market haU, like 
the Stoa at Athens. 

The Island of Sicily had at one time still more remarkable monuments of 
architecture than Greece itself, but in consequence of the wars of the Carthagi- 
nians and the Eomans, during which many of them were entirely destroyed, 
only few and unimportant ruins have been preserved to the present time. 
At Syracuse are the ruins of the mausoleum of Archimedes, a few rock-cut 
stairs of a theatre, and twelve Doric columns of 6|- feet in diameter, which 
formed part of the magnificent temple of Minerva {pi. 15, fig. 19, plan), and 
are introduced in the new cathedral. The doors of the temple were of 
bronze, inlaid with gold and ivory. A number of excellent paintings be- 
longing to the temple were carried to Rome by Yerres. 

The city of Agrigentum, the largest on the island next to Sjracuse, con- 
tained a temple of Minerva, located on the plateau of the rock at the foot 
of which the city lay, of which no traces are left. There are considerable 
remains of a Doric temple of Juno Lucina, which was erected on a plinth 
10 feet high, and had 6 columns in front and rear, and 13 on each side. 
This temple contained one of the best works of Zeuxis, a picture of Juno. 

Another temple has been almost entirely preserved. It was consecrated 
to Concordia, situated on a hill covered with trees of the aloe family, built 
of a bright yellow limestone upon a substructure of six steps. It is one of 
the most beautiful Grecian monuments, exhibiting exquisite proportions {pi. 
10, fig. 18, elevation; fig. 19 smdpl. 11, fig. 14, plan). 

The temples of ^sculapius, Hercules, and Jupiter, have almost entirely 
disappeared. The latter temple, also called the Temple of the Giants, was 
310 feet in length, by 160 feet in width, and 120 feet in height. It was a 
pseudodipteros, and the columns were 66 feet high, by 9 feet in diameter. 
There were eight in front and rear, placed at distances of one diameter. 
The flutes were so wide and deep that a man could find room in their 
recess. Fragments of colossal statues have been found, which apparently 
supported some part of the building. They probably stood on half side- 
walls of the cella, with the architrave resting on them, thus forming openings 
to admit light into the interior. The temple, erected 420 b. c, was de- 
stroyed by an earthquake, and its materials were used for the quays of the 
harbor. 

\ The colossal ruins at Selinuntige, the present Pillori, are very remarkable, 
and unmistakably of Grecian origin. The place was sacked by Hannibal, 

51 



52 ARCHITECTURE. 

and earthquakes have completed the work of destruction. Its largest tem- 
ple was that of Jupiter Olympius {pi. I'^^fig. 10, elevation; fig. 11, plan). 
It was a pseudodipteros of the Doric order, with 8 columns in front and 17 
at the sides, 48 feet, 7 inches high, by 10 feet in diameter. It was a hypae- 
thral building, 311 feet long, by 158 feet in width, and stood on an isolated 
hill in the plain of Selinuntige, upon a substructure on which two other 
Doric temples were also erected. The first of the latter {pi. 11, fig. 16, 
plan) is very much dilapidated. Its proportions were 216 feet, by 94, and 
its fluted columns were 32 feet high, by a diameter of 6 feet, 7 inches. The 
other {fig. lY, plan) was 174 long, and had columns of 5 feet, 6 inches in 
diameter. Both these temples had columns all round, the former being a 
pseudodipteros, with two rows of columns in the pronaos, separated by a 
double columnar distance. 

On the acropolis are three Doric peripteros temples, the smallest of which 
{pi. 16, fig. 21, plan) is the southernmost. Between it and the next towards 
the north there is a small Ionic temple of only 16 feet front, with a portico 
of four columns. It has the peculiarity of having its pure Ionic columns 
surmounted by a Doric entablature, whose architrave, instead of the three 
Ionic stripes, exhibits two painted ornamental stripes, the third being re- 
placed by the taenia with the drops. The triglyph capitals, as well as the 
panels and the cyma of the cornice, are painted. 

The rival city of Selinuntiee was Segeste, the ally of Athens by which 
she was assisted in her unfortunate expedition against Syracuse. According 
to Cicero, her founder was ^neas, to whom one of her temples was conse- 
crated. The only traces of the former splendor of this city are the ruins of 
a theatre, of the cisterns, and of a temple before the city attributed by some 
to Yenus, by others to Diana. This temple, a view of which in its present 
condition is given on pi. 9, fig. 6, is in tolerably good preservation, except 
the roof. It has Doric mantled columns, 6 in front and rear, and 14 at the 
sides, placed on a substructure of three steps. Its proportions are 177 feet, 
by 74. The walls are executed in bound masonry of tufa. Each column 
consists of 12 or 13 stone rings, and is 31 feet high, by a diameter of 6 feet, 
7 inches. 

It is a remarkable fact that all the remains of ancient buildings in Sicily 
are of Grecian origin. All the temples, except the smallest in Selinuntise, 
are of the Doric order, and have capitals as bold and prominent as the oldest 
ruins in Greece. The most recent monuments date from 400 b. c, and the 
two temples of Jupiter at Agrigentum and Selinuntiae have columns of a 
greater diameter than any temple in Greece. 

In conclusion of this account of Grecian architecture we offer, from the 
illustrations given, and the short explanations of the same, the following 
general remarks : 

1. The order principally adopted in Grecian buildings was the Doric, 
which was brought to the highest perfection of noble simplicity and 
exquisite proportions by the Greeks. The fluted columns, which were 
introduced into Greece from Egypt, are of older date than the smooth or 
mantled column. 
52 



ARCHITECTURE. 53 

2. The Greeks borrowed from the Egyptians the form of these temples 
and the method of surrounding them with columns, but added to the Egyp- 
tian entablature the frieze and the peculiar cornice, as well as the roof and 
gable. 

3. The Doric order was ever faithfully adhered to by the Sicilian and 
Italian Greeks. The Ionic order was first introduced in the seventh century 
B. c, in the temple of Ephesus ; it was introduced into Greece in the begin- 
ning of the 5th century b. c. : after 410 b. c, no new Doric buildings were 
erected in Ionia, and none in Attica and Peloponnesus after the middle of 
the 4:th century b. c. 

4. The Corinthian order occurs in no ancient building in Greece in the 
manner observed in Palmyra, Baalbec, and Rome. The comparatively few 
capitals of the Corinthian form met with in single buildings constitute no 
distinct order ; the Corinthian capital was therefore, in all probability, not 
invented by the Greeks. 

5. The Grecian style of architecture adhered, even in the most magnifi- 
cently decorated buildings, invariably to a noble simplicity. The ornaments 
were masterpieces of painting or sculpture, which shared their claim to the 
attention of the beholder with no gaudy embellishments. 

6. The exterior of the Grecian temple had no decorative ornaments ; 
everything is based upon constructive architectural necessity ; the mouldings 
of the cornice had a bold and beautiful profile. 

7. The Grecian architects knew how to increase the effect of their build- 
ings by erecting them in groups in the same place, or on or near a hill, 
producing, as it were, architectural pictures. 

8. A careful survey and examination of the remains of Grecian monu- 
ments shows that the Grecian architects, in their designs for entire buildings 
as well as for details, never strictly followed monotonous rules, but preferred 
a well regulated variation, and understood how to make a tasteful choice be- 
tween the largest and smallest proportions. 



5. Phcenician or Sybian Architectuiie. 

The ruins of buildings at Palmyra and Baalbec are the only specimens of 
Syrian architecture which oifer any chance for the study of the art of that 
country, all the remarkable and magnificent buildings which, according to 
the narratives in the Bible and the poems of Homer, existed in the cities of 
Tyre and Sidon, having entirely vanished from the surface of the earth, and 
no excavations having as yet been made. 

Turning our attention first to the ruins of Palmyra, we find as the most 
prominent those of the Temple of the Sun {pi. 12^ Jig. 12, view, including 
part of the peribolus ; pi. IS, Jig. 6, plan). It was surrounded by a spacious 
court whose outer wall was lined with colonnades and had window-like open- 
ings. In the middle it had a double portico with gables and a highly 
decorative cornice (j>l. 19, fig. 29, fragment). The temple itself had 8 Co- 

53 



54 ARCHITECTURE. 

rinthian columns at the short sides and 15 on the eastern long side, whilst 
the western had only 12, and two strong pillars between which lay the en- 
trance, a remarkable difference from the Grecian temples, which always had 
the entrance on the shorter side. These pillars had half columns at the fore 
corners and at the sides. The substructure of the temple is formed by nine 
steps. The columns are of the Corinthian order, 51 feet high, by a diameter 
of 4 feet, 8 inches, and placed on cubes. From the Attic base up to the 
height of 5 feet, the shafts exhibit convex beads, and from this height up- 
wards to the capitals they are fluted. Each short wall had two Ionic half 
columns on the outside. The entablature is very rich, the frieze decorated 
with genii and garlands of flowers. The cella is 122 feet by 39, has a highly 
finished door on the long side, and eight windows ; at both ends winding 
stairs lead to the roof. The ceiling above the two altars is richly decorated 
with sculptures, including a zodiac and deities in hexagonal panels, among 
which are Baal, Cronos or Moloch, Baaltis, Melcarthos, Adon, Mercury, and 
Astarte, con^esponding to the Grecian deities Zeus, Artemis, Pluto, Helios, 
Poseidon, Hermes, and Here. 

About 1440 feet from the northern comer of the peribolus are the ruins 
of a triumphal monument composed of three arches, the two smaller ones of 
which open into covered colonnades, 16 feet wide, and 4000 feet long, with 
a street between them of 37 feet in width. The columns are 3 feet, 3 inches 
thick, 28 feet high, and support a very rich entablature. The ceiling was 
composed of stone blocks, 20 feet in length. Judging from the remaining 
columns and their distances, the total number of columns must have been 
1450. l^early in the middle of the street between the colonnades are four 
large pedestals which formerly supported groups of sculptures {jpl. IT, 
fig. 22 «, plan ; fig. 22 6, elevation of one pedestal). At this place a circus 
of 10,000 feet in length abuts on the colonnades ; this was also surrounded 
by columns, all of which, however, are lying in ruins. The colonnades end 
at a monument, by some considered to be a temple of Neptune, by others a 
mausoleum [^pl. IQ^fig. 27, plan). Its entrance was guarded by two winged 
genii, each soaring on a sphere. The six columns in front are of the Co- 
rinthian order and smooth, 2 feet, 11 inches thick, by 27 feet, 4 inches in 
height, placed on cubes of 2 feet, 11 inches, and supporting a gable, whilst 
they form a portico. The altar in the rear of the cella was surrounded by 
four columns supporting the richly decorated ceiling. 

Beyond the circus are the ruins of five small Corinthian temples and of 
two other buildings. Between the Temple of the Sun and the opening of 
the colonnades is a single Corinthian column, 54 feet high and 5J feet thick, 
and another, 60 feet high, stands to the right of the colonnade. Both 
once supported statues. Near by is still another monolithic granite column 
28 feet high, and at a short distance from it the ruins of the peristyle of a 
temple. West of the temple of Neptune are several important ruins, 
among which are those of a large palace, probably the palace of Odonatus, 
consort of Zenobia, or perhaps the assembly house of the city authorities. 
To the right of the colonnades is a small but beautiful temple {pi. 16, fig. 
22, plan). It has smooth Corinthian columns, 28 feet high, and 3 feet, 
54 



ARCHITECTURE. 55^- 

1 incli tliick, with the Attic base, which appears to have been generally 
adopted in Palmyra. The portico has 4 columns in front and 2 at the sides ; 
the cella 4 comer pilasters ; it is only 30 feet long, and has two windows, 
which, like those of the Temple of the Sun, prove that the ancients did not 
always avoid side-light in their temples. 

In Heliopolis, or Baalbec, as in Palmyra, the most important ruins are 
those of the Temple of the Sun {jpl. 13, fig. 2, plan). It consists of four 
large divisions, of a total length of 940 feet. The first division consists of a 
flight of steps, and the adjoining portico of 12 Corinthian columns, 42 feet, 
8 inches high, and 4 feet, 3 inches thick, and beautifully moulded. Above 
the entablature was a low wall with bottom and top cornices, probably a 
later addition to replace a destroyed gable. The portico has two side haUs 
and two gates in the rear wall. The second division is a hexagonal struc- 
ture inclosing a large open court. Five sides of this building, including the 
one in the rear of the portico, formed as many halls, bounded towards the 
court by Corinthian columns, 26 feet high, and 2 feet, 9 inches thick, placed 
on isolated pedestals, 5 feet, 6 inches high. The halls were 60 feet long, by 
a width of 22 feet, and their side and rear walls were lined with two tiers of 
columns, the upper ones connected in pairs by gables. Between these halls 
were nine other smaller apartments, which, like the halls, may have been 
occupied by the priests. The court is 193 feet wide, and at present filled 
with ruins. The third division of the monument is a large quadrangular 
open court, 350 feet long, by 336 feet in width, three of whose sides, including 
that adjoining the hexagonal court, are formed by eight halls, 58 feet long^ 
22 feet wide, and 36 feet high, together with four semicircular and several 
smaller quadrangular apartments. In front of each hall stood four smooth 
Corinthian columns, 28 feet high, and two similaj* ones in front of each 
semicircular apartment. These 40 columns were exactly like those of the 
first court. The interiors of the halls exhibit similar double tiers of columns 
along the walls with the first halls, connected in pairs alternately by triangu- 
lar and arched gables. The columns are 10 feet high, and the halls contain 
the total number of 352. In each niche formed by two connected columns 
was placed either an altar or a statue. Each of the semicircular apartments 
had ^Y^ niches, decorated with pilasters supporting columns also connected 
in pairs by gables. They contained 40 such columns. In the rear of this 
court was the temple proper, the fourth division of the grand monument. 
It was 268 feet long, by 146 in width, and its peristyle was approached by 
several steps. It had 10 columns in front and rear, and 19 at the sides, of 
72 feet, 5 inches in height, by a diameter of 7 feet. The gable and the 
cella are entirely destroyed. The buildings of the two first divisions stand 
over vaulted subterranean apartments, 23 feet high. 

Another very remarkable monument in Baalbec is the temple of Baal or 
Jupiter, situated by the side of the quadrangular court of the Temple of the 
'Sun, and of which we have given several illustrations {^jpl. \Z^fig. 1, view; 
' fijg. 3, and jpl. 16, fig. 16, plan; fig. 13, view of the interior through the 
large gate). This temple is a peripteros with two rows of 8 columns in 
front, one row in the rear, and 15 at the sides. They are of the Corinthian 

55 



56" ARCHITECTURE. 

order, 62 feet higli, hj 21. diameter of 6 feet, 5 inches, and placed on plinths 
2 feet high. The portico has a gable, and is approached by a flight of steps 
17 feet high, or one seventh of the entire height of the temple. The second 
row of columns is only 56 feet high, and fluted. ' The columns of the peri- 
style are richly and tastefully ornamented, and the frieze has a very peculiar 
decoration. The spaces between the centres of the columns are divided into 
Rve parts, each with a foliated consol standing on the cymatium of the archi- 
trave, and supporting busts of animals, on which rests the cornice of the roof. 
These busts are connected by festoons of flowers. In the interior of the cella 
are at each side 6 fluted half columns, one quarter column, and one pilaster. 
Between the half columns are arches forming niches and supporting two 
small columns surmounted by a projecting gable, between which there were 
probably statues. The gate of the temple is of a bold profile, and, like the 
ceilings of the portico and pronaos, very richly decorated. The ceiling of 
the cella was arched with splendidly ornamented braces. The proportions 
of the cella are 114 feet, by 70, and it has no windows. 

Besides the described monuments, Baalbec contains the ruins of a round 
temple, 32 feet in the clear, surrounded by six Corinthian columns, 29 feet 
high, and erected on a substructure 12 feet in height. In the interior it 
had a double tier of 14 Ionian columns below and 14 Corinthian above, 
and a number of small round and triangular gables. There are also some 
huge ruins, probably belonging to an ancient building of the Tuscan order, 
judging from an isolated granite column 60 feet high, 5 feet, 6 inches thick, 
smooth, and composed of 18 pieces, near the Temple of the Sun, and some 
enormous blocks of stone near it, which lie on a wall 20 feet high, and 
whose extraordinary proportions are 60 — 70 feet length, by a width and 
thickness of 12 — ^14 feet4 

We have, in conclusion, to add a few remarks on the period when the 
structures at Baalbec were probably erected, and by whom. According to 
the Bible (2 Chron. viii. 4, and 1 Kings ix. 18), a city was built by Solomon 
on the site of the present ruins of Palmyra about 1011 b. c, which, according 
to Flavins Josephus, was surrounded by a wall. The name of this city was 
Tadmor (city of palms), and on account of its favorable location between 
Jerusalem, Tyre, Sidon, and Babylon, it soon became an important emporium 
of commerce, and must have been a splendid place when it was sacked by 
ITebuchadnezzar 600 b. c, together with Jerusalem and Tyre. From this 
time forward 'New Tyre, the former port of Old Tyre, must have made 
rapid progress in wealth and civilization by the concentration of the world's 
commerce. Herodotus found there as early as the fifth century b. c. a tem- 
ple of Melcarthos or Hercules, containing a statue of gold, and another of 
emerald. Tadmor is not mentioned again by ancient writers. It occurs 
again as Palmyra under the Seleucides (successors of Seleucus E'icator), 
about the middle of the third century b. c. ; and it is probable that the 
buildings of Palmyra were erected before this time. At all events, it was 
before the conquest of Palmyra by Pompey (63 b. c), for the inscriptions 
on the building are Palmyrenian. At the beginning of the first century 
B. c. Palmyra was a rich and influential place, whose alliance was coveted 
56 



ARCHITECTURE. 57 

by the Eomans, and as late as 260 a. d. it is mentioned as an important city. 
It is therefore very probable that the monuments at Palmyra belong to the 
second and third centm-ies b. o. 

Baalbec was also founded by Solomon (1 Kings ix. 18), and called 
Baalath. In the year 59 a. d. when Crassus plundered the Temple of the 
Sun it was a renowned building, and Baalbec existed still in its full splendor 
imder Augustus, when it was called Julia Augusta. Herodotus mentions 
the columns at Baalbec as surpassing all other known columns in height, 
and since the buildings still standing are of a more recent date, it is probable 
that he refers to the building of which we suppose the single Tuscan 
column to be a remnant. The magnificent structures of Baalbec must, 
however, have existed for centuries before the incm'sions of the Romans, 
for if they had built them their historians would have chronicled the fact. 

But the proof that the monuments in Syria were built by native architects, 
and that their style was original and not copied from Boman patterns, can 
be furnished architectonically as well as historically, and in our account of 
the Roman Monuments we shall moreover prove that the Romans never 
had any original style of architecture of their own. Our arguments for the 
originality of the Syriac monuments are the following : 1. All temples of the 
Greeks and Romans had the entrance on the shorter side ; the Temple of the 
Sun at Palmyra had it on the long side. 2. All Roman temples are but slightly 
longer than broad ; those at Palmyra and Baalbec had a length of more than 
double their breadth. 3. The ornaments on the friezes, &c., in Syria are so 
peculiar as to vary materially from the Roman, and contain mystic emblems 
belonging to an ante-Roman period; for instance, the personification of 
Baal and winged genii, which do not occur on any Grecian or Roman 
building of that period. 4. The abaci of all the Corinthian capitals of 
Palmyra have truncated corners, whilst in aU the buildings erected during 
the reign of Hadrian we find sharp-pointed corners on the abacus ; after the 
conquest of Syria by Pompey Roman buildings show also the truncated 
abacus, which must therefore have been introduced from Syria. 5. The 
same may be said with regard to the modillions in the cornice, which do 
not occur in Roman buildings until after the conquest of Syria. 6. The 
Syriac columns are generally higher than the Grecian or Roman. Y. The 
grandeur of the Syriac monuments so far surpasses that of the Roman that 
the 846 columns of Baalbec and the 2000 and more of Palmyra (of from 
42-70 feet in height) would have sufficed to furnish all the known public 
buildings of ancient Rome. How insignificant does not the largest Roman tem- 
ple appear in comparison with the smaller temple of Baalbec ? Can it be 
supposed that the Romans should have erected such edifices in a foreign 
country in preference to their own capital ? 8. The rich ornaments on the 
window-frames, door-jambs and lintels, and the small round or triangular 
gables over windows and doors, do not occur in Roman buildings until after 
the conquest of Syria, where they had then existed for centuries in the 
wealthy city of Tyre. And finally, the placing of statues on consoles 
attached to the shafts of columns was not introduced either in Greece or in 
Rome until after that period. 

67 



58 ARCHITECTURE. 

All these facts must suggest the conviction that the Romans had no part 
in the erection of the buildings of Palmyra and Baalbec, and that they were 
not executed by the Seleucides is evident by a glance at the cities of Seleucus, 
Antiocha, and Damascus, which only contain fragments of small columns. 
The magnificent edifices of Syria are not therefore copies of Roman build- 
ings, but in many respects their prototypes, and it is not unlikely that the 
Corinthian style of ai'chitecture originated in Phoenicia. 



6. Roman Architecttjee to the Teme of Constantese the Geeat. 

.. The higher architectonic art was introduced into Italy fi^om foreign coun- 
tries, especially into Etruria by Phoenician colonists,, and into the southern 
parts by Grecian settlers ; and as both these people at first practised the art 
in the manner of their respective countries, we find in the oldest Italian 
monuments the Doric and Tuscan orders separately, but at a later period 
an amalgamation or rather mixture of the two. Tliis is clearly per^ceptible 
in the plans of temples. The Tuscan temple is nearly an exact square, the 
Grecian a quadrangle with a length about double its breadth. The Etruscans 
introduced into Italy the art of arching, which they had learned from the 
Phoenicians, and as early as the 6th century b. c. arched the Cloaca Maxima^ 
when in Greece no trace of a regular vault was as yet found. We shall con- 
sider the ancient architecture of Rome in three periods : that of the kings, 
of the republic, and of the emperors. 

A. The Period of the Kings. 

Of the oldest edifices of central Italy few or no traces are left ; and, though 
the city of ^gill^, in the neighborhood of Rome, in the time of the first 
Roman kings, formed a state of as much consequence as Rome itself, and the 
Tyrrhenians at that age were renowned for their skill in naval affairs as weU 
as for the comfort of their dwellings, we are so completely without reliable 
information about their structures that with regard to the oldest Italian archi- 
tectural history we can consider only the edifices of Rome. This unimportant 
colony had under the three first kings gradually risen to be a large city, so that 
Ancus Marcius, the fourth king, was compelled, on account of the increase 
of the population, to extend the confines of the city beyond the Tiber, so as 
to include the Aventine and Janiculan hills, which he fm-nished with walls 
and entrenchments, and connected with the city by a wooden bridge. He 
also founded the port of Ostia, extended the temple of Jupiter Eeretrius, 
which Romulus had built, and caused the first prisons to be built in the 
quarries, leaving their completion to Servius Tullius. Remains of these 
prisons are still found in the neighborhood of the Eorum, but they are of a 
more recent restoration of the same. The older Tarquin imj)roved the walls 
of the city, founded the Eorum for public assemblies of the mass of the peo- 
ple, and the large racecourse [Circus Maximus)^ besides beginning the work 
of the great system of sewers. He caused the top of the Tarpeian rock to 
58 



ARCHITECTURE. 59 

be smoothed for the erection of the temple of Jupiter Capitoliniis, the foun- 
dation of which was made by him. His successor, Servius Tullius, added 
the Quirinal and Yiminal hills to the city, and enlarged the district of the 
Esquiline. The w^alls and entrenchments which he completed remained 
imaltered until the latest times, as the city, after his day, was enlarged only 
by suburbs. He also erected on the Aventine hill a temple of Diana, de- 
signed as a sanctuary common to the allied cities of Latium, as was the 
temple of Diana at Ephesus to the allied cities of Asia. 'No trace of it is 
left, and it must have been vastly inferior to the magnificent edifice of Cte- 
siphon. Two other temples are attributed to him, viz. that of Bona Fortuna 
in the Forum Boarium, and that of Fortuna Yirilis on the bank of the 
Tiber. A restoration of the latter, probably made imder one of the later 
emperoi-s, still exists {pL IQ^fig. 7, front ; fig. 8, plan ; pi. 19^ fig. 7, a capi- 
tal). It is a pseudoperipteros with four Ionic columns in front, a portico 
of two columns, and five half columns at the sides. The columns are 25 
feet, 5 inches high, by a diameter of 2 feet, 11 inches, and are made of 
travertine marble, whilst the walls are of tufa. They have 20 flutes, but 
their capitals, with concave faces between the volutes, look less graceful 
than the chaste Grecian capitals of the same order. The temple with the 
entablature has had a plastering of marble dust, of which traces are percep- 
tible. The temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was not continued under Servius 
Tullius. It was again taken up by Tarquinius Superbus, who, however, 
was banished before its completion, which was finally accomplished in 
the third year of the republic, when it was consecrated by the consul Pul- 
villus. It was destroyed by fire 415 years later, during the consulate of 
L. Scipio and C. [N'orbanus. It stood on a high substructure, and had 800 
feet in circumference, the difference between its length and breadth being 
only 15 feet. The southern or principal front had three rows, the other sides 
two rows of distantly placed columns. The entablature was of wood. It 
was- of the Tuscan order, with proportions in altitude like the Doric. Its 
three naves were consecrated respectively to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. 
Tarquinius Superbus built also, with the assistance of the 47 cities of Latium, 
a temple on the Alban mountain, in which sacrifices were offered down 
to the latest time of heathenism. Only a few blocks of tufa are left to 
mark its site. 

B. The Period of the Repvhlic. 

The banishment of the Mngs took place in the 244th year of the city, or 
509 B. c. The first years of the republic were marked by considerable 
architectural improvements. On the road from the Forum to the Capi- 
tol a temple of Saturn was erected, which for several centuries was used as 
the state treasury. Soon after, the dictator Posthumius erected two tem- 
ples dedicated to Ceres and to Castor and Pollux, 482 b. c. The latter was 
located near the Forum and the temple of Yesta, and was rebuilt by the 
emperor Augustus. The former stood above the circus, on the slope of the 
Aventine hill, and was dedicated, besides, to Ceres, Bacchus and Proser- 

59 



60 ARCHITECTURE. 

pine. Both temples were built by Damopbilus and Gorgasus, the first Gre- 
cian architects in Kome. 

It will be appropriate to insert here a few remarks on the Tuscan style 
of architecture, which about this period was introduced into Eome by 
Etruscan architects, and adopted in all the principal buildings. The 
columnar proportions were similar to the Doric, 5 or 6 diameters in height, 
the difference being in the columnar distances, which with the Tuscans were 
much wider, on account of their constructing the entablature of wood, mostly 
without any frieze, the rafters being cut off slantingly and covered with a 
board. To their columns they gave a round plinth and a very simple capi- 
tal. The ornaments were of burnt clay. At .a later date the Eomans 
adopted the nobler Doric style, and the Tuscan was only retained in central 
Italy. The style of the Doric monuments in Eome was long that which we 
have mentioned in our description of the monuments of Psestum, whilst in 
Greece it had already been materially improved. 

In the year 434 b. c, the Yilla Publica was built at Eome for the adminis- 
trative assemblies, and in the year 430 b. c, the temple of Apollo was con- 
secrated. l!sext followed the very important work of connecting the Alban 
lake, which occupies an extinct crater, with the city, by an aqueduct 
7500 feet long, 7 to 8 feet high, and 5 feet wide, which is still in use. After 
the conquest of Yeii, 395 b. c, the tutelar goddess Juno of this city was 
transported to Eome, and a temple built on the Aventine hill to receive the 
statue. 

Up to this time the city and state of Eome had always been fortunate in 
war ; but in the year 378 b. c, it was conquered by the Gauls and laid in 
ashes, with the exception of a few temples. As early as one year later, it 
was already rebuilt, but without any regular plan, and partly of sun-dried 
bricks, on solid substractures. In the year 365 b. c, when the people had 
obtained the right of electing a consul from among themselves, and all in- 
ternal feuds had been discontinued, the temple of Concordia was built on the 
slope of the Capitoline hiU, of whose later restoration eight granite columns, 
surmounted by the entablature, still exist. The walls of the city were also 
renewed in solid bound masonry, and in the year 328 b. c, the lists of the 
Circus Maximus were built. 

With few exceptions, none of the buildings previous to this time had any 
of the grand features of Grecian architecture. During the next centuries 
the principal works consisted of highways, bridges, and watei-works, and it 
was not until the 7th century of the city, about 50 b. c, that greater efforts 
were made in magnificent architecture. The buildings of the republic, down 
to that period, belong to five different classes, and we mention them accord- 
ingly. 

1. Temples. The piety which characterized the Eomans of the earlier 
ages was still unabated in the present. Eeligious feeling was evinced on all 
occasions. Every victory or success in peaceable pursuits was attributed to 
the mercy of the gods ; every defeat or failure to their wrath. ITumerous 
vows were made and kept of erecting temples, partly from motives of grati- 
tude, in part of atonement. When at a later date the philosophy of the 
60 



ARCHITECTURE. 61 

Greeks had become naturalized in Rome, the simple works of piety were 
superseded by the products of the love of splendor and of vanity in the times 
of Marius and Sylla, of Pompey and Julius Ccesar. In the year 301 b. c, 
Babulsus dedicated a temple to the goddess Salus, which was renowned for 
the pictures on its walls by Fabius Pictor, which were preserved to the time 
of the emperor Claudius. The temple of Bellona, erected 295 b. c, by 
Appius Claudius, was also renowned for beautiful paintings and sculptures. 
During the next three years were erected the temples of Jupiter Yictor, 
Victoria, and Yenus ; the latter built by Fabius Gurges with the money 
collected from several matrons as fine for committing adultery. 

In the year 290 b. c. the temple of JEsculapius was erected on the island 
of the Tiber. With a view to avert the calamity of the plague a ship had 
been sent to Epidaurus, which brought home the genius of this god in 
the shape of a serpent. In commemoration of this expedition the entire 
island was girdled with bound masonry in the shape of a ship ; of 
this wall there are still ruins to be seen. The island was connected 
with the city by two bridges, the Pons Fdbricii and Pons Cestii. PI, 
17, fig. 8, gives a sectional view of the island, with the temple and its 
portico as last rebuilt, the obelisk erected by Augustus (the top at fig. 8 a)j 
and the two bridges. The temple of ^sculapius was of the Doric order, 
with 6 columns in front. The bridge of Fabricius {fi^. 9, view ; fig. 11, 
section), erected 62 b. c, by that consul, and rebuilt, 1680 a. d., by Pope 
Innocent XI., is 233 feet long, 20 feet wide, and consists of one large and 
two small arches of bound masonry. The bridge of Cestius {fig. 10, view ; 
fig. 12, section), erected in the year 35 b. c, is 165 feet, by 30, and had two 
arches of 72 feet span, vdth three small arched openings in the piers. Fig. 
13 exhibits a coin from the time of Antoninus Pius, representing part of the 
bridge of Cestius and of the buildings on the island. The foreground is 
occupied by the god of the river Tiber, and the sjTnbol of JEsculapius, the 
serpent which was worshipped in his temple. 

About this time Duilius and Attilius erected in the Forum Olitorium, 
near the theatre of Marcellus, three small temples, dedicated respectively to 
Pietas, Spes, and Janus. The first {pi. 15, fig. 16, plan) was a Doric perip- 
teros ; the second {fig. 18, plan) was of the Ionic order, with smooth columns 
on three sides and pilasters in the rear ; and the temple of Janus {fig. 17, 
plan), which some archaeologists attribute to Juno Matuta or Sospia, was an 
Ionic peripteros with two rows of columns both in front and rear. These 
three temples placed close together on an elevation of three steps show that 
the ancients sometimes grossly violated the laws of symmetry, the Doric 
temple being much smaller than the two Ionic, of which, again, the one 
on the right hand was smaller than that on the left. The details exhibit the 
same diversity both in appearance and proportions. The columns of the 
Doric temple were 2 feet, 4 inches thick, by a height of 7.65 diameters ; the 
smooth columns of the smaller Ionic temple were 2 feet, 10 inches, 5 lines, 
and 9 diameters high ; and the fluted columns of the larger Ionic temple 
were 3 feet thick, by a height of 9.21 diameters. 

To this period belong also the temples of Tempestas, consecrated by 

61 



62 ARCHITECTURK 

Caius Corn. Scipio ; of Yeims Erycina, by Fabius Maximus ; of C6ncdrdia 
on the capitol ; of Libertas on the Aventine hill ; and a temple of Honor 
and Virtue at the Porta Capena, with two cellas, and decorated with many 
works of art which Marius had brought from Syracuse. This temple was 
of the Doric order, and had 6 columns in front and rear and 11 at the sides 
placed only at one diameter's distance from the walls. The temple of 
Hercules and the Muses in the Circus Flaminius, consecrated by Fulvius 
J^obilius, was decorated with the statues of the deities carried away from 
Greece. 

The comparative smallness of the temples of Kome in this period is 
evinced by the circumstance that Fulvius Flaccus, 171 b. c, intending to 
erect a temple of Fortuna Equestris, which should be larger than any other 
temple in Kome, proposed to take for its roof half the marble tiles of the tem- 
ple of Juno on the Lacinian promontory, but was refused them by the people. 

Quintus Metellus was the first to favor magnificent architecture. With the 
booty of his victorious Macedonian campaign, 147 b. c, he erected a temple to 
Jupiter Stator, and one to Juno, the first temples of marble in Eome. They 
stood near together on a spacious place surrounded by a peribolus with a 
portico, which was later restored by Augustus, and is, therefore, sometimes 
quoted as the portico of Octavia, but oftener, and with more propriety, by 
its older name of Portico of Metellus. In illustration of these edifices we 
have given a front view of the portico {^l. l^^fig. 14), a ground plan of the 
entire group {fig. 15), and a plan of the temple of Jupiter a little larger 
{pi. 12, fig. 17). The portico, a {pi. 13, fig. 14), consists of two rows of 
fluted Corinthian columns, 36 feet, 61- inches high, 3 feet, 4|- inches thick, 
and placed at distances of l-J- diameters. Each row consists of fonr columns 
and two pilasters, on which rests the gable. The front and rear pilasters 
are connected by walls containing the gates to the right and left colonnades 
which had a front of 10 columns each, the whole front being 100 feet. The 
temples of Jupiter and Juno were at o and d respectively, whilst in the 
rear was the school of Octavia. The interior of both temples was profusely 
ornamented with works of art by the greatest masters, among which were 
Praxiteles, Polycles, and Dionysius. The first structure which Metellus 
caused to be erected by the Grecian architects, Saurus (lizard) and Batrachos 
(frog), has Ionic columns ; the restoration made under Augustus by the 
architect Hermodorus was of the Corinthian order. It is said that the first 
architects had worked without remuneration in the hope of being permitted 
to perpetuate their names by an inscription on the temple, but that this 
honor was refused them ; when they introduced on the bases of the columns 
a sculptured lizard and frog in order thus to hand their names down to 
posterity. When the temples were completed and nothing remained but to 
erect the statues of Jupiter and Juno, these statues were misplaced by 
mistake, so that the temple with the statue of Jupiter was decorated with 
emblems relating to Juno, and that of Juno with emblems having reference 
to Jupiter. The mistake, being regarded as the will of the gods, was not 
rectified. The temple of Jupiter was a peripteros, that of Juno a pseudo- 
peripteros. 
62 



ARCHITECTURE. 6S 

Three columns of anotlier temple of Jupiter Stator on the Forum Romanum 
are still in good preservation on what is now the Campo Yaccino or cattle 
market {pi, 14, Jig. V\ view; pi. 19, Jlgr. 12, capital; Jig. 20, base). 
They are 4 feet, 5 inches, 9 lines in diameter, by a height of 45 feet, 3^ 
inches. Some archaeologists deny the fact of there having been two temples 
of Jupiter Stator, and attribute these columns to a colonnade of Caligula 
which connected the Capitol and Palatine hills ; others again call them 
remains of the temple of Castor and Pollux. 

An important building of this period is the temple of Mars in the Circus 
Flaminius, which must not be confounded with that of Mars Ultor, erected 
at a later date by Augustus. Marius also, after his victory over the Cimbri 
and Teutons, ei'ected another temple of Honor and Yirtue, which was a 
peripteros without posticum, of beautiful proportions, but of poor ma- 
terial. 

The temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was destroyed by fire, 137 b. c, 
probably the work of incendiaries, and Sylla immediately commenced 
rebuilding it, by order of the oracle, of the same form, but with the addition 
of the marble columns which he had brought from Athens, having taken 
them from the temple of Jupiter 01}Tiipius which was in course of construc- 
tion by Pisistratus. He had the roof made of gilt bronze plates. Five 
years after the fire the new temple was consecrated by Lutatius Catulns, 
whose name shone on it until the second destruction by fire nnder 
Yespasian. 

Pompey built in the Circus Maximus a temple near his own theatre, and 
dedicated it to Yenus Yictrix, whilst Julius Caesar, during his third 
consulate, erected in his own forum a temple to Yenus Genetrix, an offering 
which he had vowed before the battle of Pharsalia. 

2. Maekets, Basilicas, Cuele. The public squares {ford) were of two 
kinds, such as served for meetings of the people for the transaction of the 
affairs of state, as the great Forum Romanum and the markets or sales 
places proper, as the Forum Boariuin or cattle market, and the Forum 
Olitarium^ or oil and vegetable market. Marcus Fulvius ]S"obilius. caused a 
market to be erected outside the Porta Trigemina, which was surrounded 
by colonnades and served for the sale of the goods that arrived on the 
Tiber, and another between the cattle and vegetable markets which served 
as a market for fish and other provisions. The Forum Julium^ built by 
Julius Caesar, was much more important. It was built with the booty of 
the Gallic war, and abont three millions of dollars were expended for the 
acquisition of private property alone to gain the necessary space. It contained, 
among other buildings, the above mentioned temple of Yenus Genetrix 
and the Basilica Julia, uncompleted. Of the Forum Pomanum as 
it is at present we have given a perspective view {pi. 14, Jig. 1), 
which shows how few traces are left of its former splendor. The Forum 
is now called the Campo Yaccino, or cattle field. Of the objects which 
stand there the most important are: \ The Triumphal Arch of 
Septimius Severus ; ^, The Church of St. Adrian ; ^, The Temple of Anto- 
ninus and Faustina (now the Church of St. Lorenzo) ; the Yia Sacra, or Sacred 

63 



64 ARCHITECTURE. 

Way, is tlie centi-e of our view ; % The Temple of Eemus ; \ The Temple of 
Peace ; ', The Church of Santa Francesca ; ', The Temple of Yenus and 
Eome ; % The Coliseum ; \ The Triumphal Arch of Constantine ; '°, Tri- 
umphal Arch of Titus ; ", The Farnesian Gardens ; ", Santa Maria, the 
Liberator, and opposite, the Temple of Castor and Pollux; ", Temple of 
Jupiter Stator; ", The Curia; ", Temple of Eomulus; ", Temple of 
Fortune; ^\ Temple of Jupiter Tonans; ^\ The Column of Phocas; 
", Temple of Concord. "We shall hereafter have an opportunity of speak- 
ing of most of these buildings. 

United with the Forum was the Curia^ where the Senate assembled. 
Upon the Eoman Forum there was also one {pi. 14:, Jig. 1'*) originating with 
Tullus Hostilius, and hence called Curia Hostilia. This curia was rebuilt by 
Sylla, but was burnt some years afterwards by the populace. M. ^milius 
Lepidus demolished another building on the same spot, also bearing the name 
of Sylla, and Julius Caesar built upon its site the Curia Julia, which, how- 
ever, Augustus completed and adorned with fine works of art. Pompey 
built another curia outside the city and near his theatre ; and it was here 
that the Senate met on the day that Caesar was murdered and fell at the 
very feet of Pompey's statue. 

According to Yitruvius, the Basilicas should also be placed upon the 
market-place. They served partly as courts of justice, partly as exchanges 
for merchants. The style of arrangement the Eomans took from the Greeks. 
In Athens the building in which the archon sat in judgment, under the 
name of basileus or king, was called the stoa of the basileus, or briefly Ba- 
silica; hence the name. M. Porcius Cato was the first, who, 183 years 
B. c, began such a building. This Basilica Porcia lay near the curia of the 
great Forum, was burned with it 52 years B.C., and was never rebuilt. 
Fulvius ISTobilior built the Basilica Fulvia, by the stalls of the money- 
changers, on whose site a much more magnificent building was afterwards 
erected. Besides these, there were also in Eome the Basilica Sempronia, 
built by Tiberius Sempronius, to make room for which the dwelling-house 
of Scipio Africanus was demolished ; the Basilica Opimia, Basilica Emilia, 
then the Eegia, which Pompey built near his theatre. The finest, however, 
was the Basilica Pauli, which ^milius Paulus erected upon the site of the 
Basilica Fulvia, with columns of Phrygian marble. 

The basilicas claim our especial attention, because from them was derived 
the form of the Christian church. Thus the Basilica Fulvia or Pauli is now 
the church of St. Porcia, and the basilica of Sempronius is the church of 
St. George in Yelabrum. The Eoman basilicas formed a quadrangle, whose 
breadth was not more than the half, and not less than a third of the length, 
if the situation permitted. At the end of the length of the building, addi- 
tions {calcidica) were built, in which were chambers where refreshments 
were served. Generally, the basilica stood upon the south side of the forum. 
The basilicas were distinguished from the hyp^ethral temples in this, that 
they had no exterior columns, but a covered vestibule in front, in the back 
of wliich shafts or pillars were placed. In the interior of such a building 
were two or four rows of columns, and in the rear an elevation or tribunal, 
64 



ARCHITECTURE. 65 

whicli was separated by a railing, and probably intended for the peculiar 
seat of the praetor. The columns, with the half columns against the walls, 
supported the roof in most basilicas. In some, however, there was a wall, 
pierced with windows, over the columns. The church of St. Paul outside 
the walls, St. Mary in Trastavere, St. Peter in Yincoli, give the best idea 
of the form and means of illumination of such basilicas. In front of the 
basilicas there were no porticoes reaching to the roof; and where columns 
were used, they were low, and formed the facade of the vestibule, which 
had no gable. There were often two tiers of columns in the basilicas, one 
over the other, with raised galleries. 

3. BuiLDLNGS FOR PuBLic Amtjsement. At this period the buildings for 
public amusement were much enlarged. We reckon here the theatres, am- 
phitheatres, ^he naumachia, and the circus. The plays were at first of reli- 
gious origin ; later they were regarded as methods of gaining popular favor, 
and became objects of the most extravagant expenditure and magnificence. 
The first play took place in Rome in the year 460 b. c, when, during a long, 
lingering pestilence, actors were summoned from Etruria to propitiate the 
gods. Earlier, there had been only combats in the circus. The actors 
amused the people with comical gestures and leaps, to the sound of flutes. 
Then verses were intermingled, and so gradually arose a kind of song-play, 
called Satyra. Livius Andronicus first connected the whole by a continuous 
story, which he caused to be sung with appropriate action, and hence arose 
the dialogue, ^milius Lepidus built the first theatre, 178 yeai's b. c, yet 
the sturdy Pomans were so opposed to it that it was destroyed, as it was 
held unmanly to enjoy one's self in a sitting posture. 

In the year Y5 b. c. there was a convenient and even splendid theatre, 
erected with a velarium, or sun tent, to shield the spectators from the sun. 
The theatre which Scaurus, stepson of Sylla, erected 5Y years b. c, seated 80,000 
people. Curio, 48 years b. c, built two wooden theatres close together, 
which turned on pivots. During the day they were turned away from each 
other and plays were performed in both ; then, with all the spectators they 
were turned together and formed one amphitheatre, in which combats took 
place. Modern mechanics will hardly credit this story ; but so great was 
the zeal to win popular favor by something striking and wonderful, that in 
Pompey's theatre water was made to run down the aisles between the seats, 
in order to refresh spectators during the heat of summer. Behind the stage 
was a hall of columns to which the audience might retreat on occasion of a 
sudden shower. Julius Caesar also began the construction of a huge amphi- 
theatre of stone, which Augustus completed, and dedicated to the memory 
of his nephew Marcellus, son of his beloved sister Octavia. PI. 14, fig. 
2, represents the amphitheatre of Flavins, the coliseum, partly in section, 
and fig. 3 half the groimd plan, with the ground level on the right, and the 
staircases upon the left. We shall presently return to this theatre. 

The Naumachia were built like the amphitheatres, and contained so much 
water that ships could float and sail in them. Under the head of ^N'aval 
Sciences we have spoken of these structures, and have there also represented 
such a Kaumachia (Division Yl.pl. 2^ fig. 12). 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPiEDIA. VOL. IV. 5 65 



66 ARCHITECTURE. 

The games of the circus were practised in Eome from the earliest times, 
and the great circus, in the time of Tarquin, was already an important build- 
ing. The second structure of this kind was the Circus Flaminius, and then 
the circus of Flora, between the Quirinal and Pincian hills. The building 
received its essential alteration, however, in the great circus of Julius Caesar. 
It was extended in length so that it was 3|- stadia long, and 400 feet broad. 
It was surrounded by a canal of water 10 feet deep. The lower story had 
stone ; the upper, wooden seats. Three sides were appropriated to the spec- 
tators, of which it accommodated 150,000. The fourth contained the inclo- 
sures for the horses. In the historical division of this work we have treated 
of the circus games, and there also (Division lY., pi. 14) the reader will find 
illustrations of the various objects appertaining to it, with sketches of the 
elevation, ground plan, and section of the circus of I^ero. • 

4. SEruLCHRAL AND HoNOKAET MoNiJMENTs. Mouumeuts of houor were 
either porticoes, single pillars, or triumphal arches. The porticoes were not 
alone united with public buildings, but were often independent structures, 
and very agreeable resorts under the beautiful and burning sky of Italy. 
They were richly adorned, and statues, bas-reliefs, and paintings were placed 
in them. Garden retreats, groves, and fountains were often in the neighbor- 
hood. Even at this period there were many such buildings, but there were 
more under the emperors. 

In the year 191 b. c, JEmilius Lepidus and ^milius Paulus built two 
colonnades, one outside the gate Trigemina, on the Tiber, the other beyond 
the gate Fontinalis, towards the field of Mars (Campus Martins), as far as 
the altar of Mars. Cneius Octavius erected a famous double colonnade in 
honor of his triumph and the capture of Perseus in Samothrace. This colon- 
nade, between the Flaminian circus and the theatre of Pompey, was magni- 
ficently restored by Augustus. The colonnade which Metellus Macedonicus 
built around the temple of Jupiter and Juno, is represented in elevation 
in pi. 13, Jig. 14, and the ground plan after the restoration of Augustus, 
in Jig. 15. Minutius, as proconsul, also built, from the booty of his vic- 
tory over the Scordisci, a colonnade, which he named from himself, and 
which attracted attention even under the emperors. Q. Lutatius Catulus 
built one upon the Palatine hill, on occasion of his victory over the Cimbri, 
close by the house of Cicero, after whose banishment it was destroyed 
together with the house. Pompey also built a noble colonnade by his 
theatre, with garden walks. 

Memorial columns are also of considerable antiquity. The first was the 
Columna rostrata., erected in honor of C. Duilius in the year 260 b. c, after 
his naval victory over the Carthaginians. (See Division YI., pi. 2, Jig. 
25.) It was of white marble. The people erected a column of ISTumidian 
marble, 20 feet high, to Julius Caesar, with the inscription, " To the Father 
of his Country." A columna rostrata^ with anchors, was erected to Octavia- 
nus Caesar, in honor of his naval victories over Sextus Pompeius, on the sum- 
mit of which stood the golden statue of the conqueror. 

Triumphal arches were also honorary memorials. Upon these the statues 
of the victors were placed. Lucius Stertinius, in the year 195 b. c, erected 
66 



ARCHITECTURE. 67 

two sueli arches, with gilded statues, from the Spanish spoils, one upon the 
Forum Boarium, the other near the great circus. Six years afterwards, Scipio 
Africanus the elder built a similar one upon the Capitol ; and Fabius Maxi- 
mus, after his victory over the Allobrogi, the Fabian arch on the Via Sacra, 
near the old Regia. More frequent and more magnificent were these arches 
under the emperors, and under the head of the Empire we shall return to 
this subject. 

Ancient as is the custom of sepulchral monuments, we shall here mention 
only the tomb of the Horatii, jpl. 17, fig. 23 *, plan ; fig. 23 \ elevation. 
This tomb is situated near Albano, and is called the Tomb of the Horatii 
and Curiatii, although some antiquarians reject the tradition, as it does not 
strictly harmonize with the historical descriptions, exhibiting truncated cones 
instead of pyramids. They refer the tomb to the last days of the republic. 
By this time, however, the use of splendid tombs was very common. 
They were erected upon all the great highways ; yet very few remain 
except those at Pompeii. To these belongs the tomb of Scipio, which was 
situated upon the Appian Way by the Porta Capena ; later, however, under 
Aurelius, it was included within the circuit of the city walls. In the year 
1782, the subterranean portion was again disinterred. It seems to differ very 
little from that of the catacombs, of which we have given a description and 
a drawing in the historical part of this work. (See plates. Division lY., jpl. 
l^^fig. 11.) The most important relic found in it was the sarcophagus of 
Scipio Barbatus, who was consul in the year 297 b. c. Upon this sarcopha- 
gus the oldest specimen of the Doric and Ionic order that we have in Rome 
is graved in relief. The most sumptuous, and in the important parts the 
best preserved tomb of this time, is that of Cecilia Metella, the wife of Cras- 
sus. It is situated on the Appian Way, and consists of a round tower, which 
is built upon a square substructure. The mass of the tower consists of 
little square quarry stones, and externally it is neatly covered with huge 
ashlers of travertine. Round the upper part runs a simple cornice mould- 
ing, and underneath a frieze, adorned with heads of bulls and clusters 
of fruit. Under that is the tablet w^ith the inscription. An arched 
entrance opens into the interior, which is contracted conically and arched 
flatly, and contained a sarcophagus, which is now in the Farnese 
palace. 

5. Beidges. The Romans, as we have already mentioned, were very 
good hydraulic architects, and their bridges, which have descended to our 
time, are remarkable not alone for their tasteful design and their fine style, 
but for the quality of the material and their careful and exemplary finish in 
the slightest details. We had already, in the description of the island of the 
Tiber and the temple of ^sculapius, opportunity of mentioning the two 
bridges of Fabricius and Cestius, and gave there {]?l. 17, figs. 9-13) de- 
tailed drawings of them. To these we now add the bridge of ^milius {pi. 
11^ fig. 14), at present known as the Ponte MoUe. This bridge was also 
called Pons Sublicius, Pons Herculis, Pons Lepidi, Pons Sacer, and was 
the oldest originally wooden bridge of Rome, founded by Ancus Marcius, in 
the year 638 b. c. It led from the Aventine into the valley below the Janicu- 

67 



68 ARCHITECTURE. 

lum, and, falling into decay, was rebuilt of marble by the consul ^milius 
Lepidus, 32 years e.g. One hundred years later, it was injured by the 
Tiber, and restored by Tiberius and by Antoninus Pius. But in the year 
791 of the Christian era, it fell in entirely. Some of its piles are yet visible 
in the Tiber. Fig. 15 represents a part of the Bridge of Senators. It led 
from the Koman Forum towards the Janiculum, and was the first stone bridge 
in Kome. It was built in the 127th year of our era, by Marcus Fulvius 
Flaccus. It was 500 feet long, 40 feet broad, and was destroyed in the year 
1598. Only three arches remain, known by the name of Ponte Sotto. 
Before its destruction it was called Ponte Santa Maria Egiziaca. 

C. The Period of the Emperors. 

The present epoch embraces the history of architecture in Eome under 
the Roman emperors, up to the decline of art under Constantine the Great. 
The theatre of art is now mainly Rome and Rome alone. Rome is its cen- 
tre. The chief structures were erected, and whatever was done in the pro- 
vinces received its impulse and reward from the emperor. So long as the 
empire was powerful, art maintained itself at the highest point. Its decline 
dates from the two Antonines, and then is more striking in the spiritual 
than physical regard. Colossal works yet arose, but no longer in the spirit 
of the epochs of Augustus, Trajan, and Hadrian. The technicality of art 
held its ground, but already the spirit was visibly declining. Of all the 
greatness of the Augustan age, nothing but the appearance remained in that 
of Constantine, and in nothing was decay so evident as in works of art. 

We shall now proceed to mention the architectural enterprises of the 
various emperors, and begin with 

1. Augustus. The battle of Actium, 31 years b. c, determined the univer- 
sal dominion of Octavius Caesar, who assumed, later, the name of Augustus. 
The Roman rule, enormously extended, could no longer exist as a republic. 
A series of civil struggles preceded the momentous change, and showed that 
weary mankind could rest and refresh itself only under the rule of one man. 
Augustus exercised with moderation the power that had fallen to him, and 
under him Rome enjoyed a repose and prosperity which Were unknown to 
the earlier Romans. During his reign of 43 years peace was disturbed only 
at a distance, and there were few military troubles. Augustus improved 
this peace and his great resources to adorn the metropolis, encouraging 
all his friends to a similar occupation. 

We have already mentioned the buildings erected before the empire by 
Augustus and his friend M. Agrippa, his son-in-law and heir. 

When Octavianus Csesar returned victorious from Egypt, 30 years b. c, the 
senate and the people erected to him a gate of honor at Brundusium, where 
he landed, and a second upon the Roman forum. A year afterwards he 
dedicated the Curia Julia and the temple (the Heroon) of Julius Caesar. 
Some hold the columns yet standing upon the Forum, which we, with 
others, have attributed to the temple of Jupiter Stator, to be the remains of 
this temple. Besides the Curia Julia the unfinished Basilica Julia was 
68 



ARCHITECTURE. 69 

completed by Augustus, and as it was soon afterwards again destroyed by 
fire, it was once more rebuilt and adorned with a cbalcidicum. After Au- 
gustus had erected a temple to Apollo upon the Palatine, inclosing a Greek 
and Latin library, and a wooden stadium upon the field of Mars in the 
Grecian style, he commenced the restoration of the old, falling temples ; of 
these restorations, if we may credit the Ancyranian inscription, there were 
not less than eighty-two. 

In the same year that Augustus built the stately temple of Apollo upon 
the Palatine, he laid the foundation of a mausoleum for himself and his 
famil3^ It was built in the shape of a hill, upon a foundation of white mar- 
ble, covered with evergreen trees, and upon the summit stood the statue of 
the emperor. In the interior of this artificial hill were compartments and 
chambers intended as burial-places for the household. The innermost of the 
four circular walls of which the skeleton of the building was formed, as in 
the gardens of Semiramis, is fallen, thereby discovering a round space large 
enough to form a ring for modern bull-fights. Before the building was a 
kind of propylseum, in which hung brazen tablets inscribed with the memo- 
rabilia of the emperor. These tablets have disappeared, but a copy of them 
is preserved in Ancyra in Asia, which we have just mentioned as the An- 
cyranian inscription. In the year 21 b. c. also took place the dedication of 
the Temple of Jupiter Tonans, of which we have already spoken, and 
which was raised upon the spot where the lightning struck a slave who was 
bearing a light before the emperor. 

The three remaining columns of this temple belong to the portico ; but 
they are too much laden with ornament for the Augustan age, and the re- 
maining letters on the frieze, ESTITUER, belong to the word resti- 
tuerunt^ and indicate a reconstruction of the temple under Septimius Seve- 
rus, who always joined his son's name with his own, and hence the plura] 
restituerunt. 

In the year 15 b. c. Augustus commenced one of his chief undertakings, 
the temple of Quirinus upon the Quirinal. It had Y6 Doric columns, and 
as Augustus died afterwards in his 76th year it gave rise to a superstitious 
feeling in connexion with it. Yet a Doric dipteros having 8 columns in 
front and 15 in length, required this number of pillars, and was consequently 
symmetrical, as our ground plan shows {pi. 16, Jig. 9). In the year 12 b. c. 
Augustus dedicated the theatre commenced by Julius Caesar, but only then 
completed, and which he called, in honor of the dead son of his sister Octa- 
via, the theatre of Marcellus, of which there are still important remains. 
The theatre contained 30,000 seats, and was consequently somewhat smaller 
than that of Pompey, which held 40,000 spectators. In this theatre the use 
of the dental ornament in the Doric entablature is remarkable, and does not 
occur before. The diameter of the orchestra is 180 feet, 4 inches, and the 
height of the wall 98 feet, 10 inches. Here are also the Doric half columns 
which gave the suggestion for the Doric order of Yignola and Daviler 
{pi. 2S, Jig. 2). Of the remains of the porch of Octavia, founded by 
Augustus (for the protection, possibly, of the spectators in the neighboring 
theatre of Marcellus from the rain), we have afready spoken (p. 62). 

69 



70 ARCHITECTURE. 

Augustus erected also two obelisks, which he had ordered to be brought 
from Heliopolis in Egypt in the year 9 b. c. ; the one consecrated to 
the sun and Osiris, in the Circus Maximus, in the midst of the spina, and 
the other, executed under Sesostris, upon the Campus Martins. The mathe- 
matician Manilius put them up, and as the obelisk of Sesostris was to serve 
as a dial-plate, a stone pavement was laid around it, upon which the shadow 
was indicated. Both obelisks still stand. Pope Sixtus Y. took the one from 
the circus and erected it upon the Piazza del Popolo. Pope Pius YI. di- 
rected the architect Antinori to erect that from the Campus Martins upon 
Monte Citorio. The hieroglyphics upon the first have been deciphered by 
the famous archaeologist Professor Seyfarth of Leipsic. 

To the greater and more splendid works of Augustus belongs the forum 
named from him, with the temple of Mars the Avenger which he built upon 
it, but which must not be confounded with a kind of chapel to Mars the 
Avenger which Augustus built upon the Capitoline hill, and in which the 
Parthian trophies were deposited. We give a ground plan of this hypsethral 
temple {jpl. 13, fig. Y), of which 3 beautiful columns yet remain on the 
right wing. Their diameter is 5 feet, 6 inches, but the leaves in the capital 
have too little projection. A pilaster with convex capitals, some remains 
of masonry of the roof, and the cornice, of which, however, the moulding is 
gone, have come down to us. 

Among the restorations of Augustus we must mention the temple of the 
Capitoline Divinities, the theatre of Pompey, the Lupercal (shrine of Pan), 
the temples of the Lares, of Minerva, of Juno Regina, and the vestibule of 
the goddess Liberty upon the Aventine, as well as a great number of larger 
or smaller water-works, naumachia, &c., &c. 

Augustus not only adorned Rome with beautiful buildings himself, but 
he exhorted his friends to do the same. Among the most important of 
those which rose from his example and exhortation are the Septa Julia, built 
by Menenius Agrippa, in which the popular assemblies according to i^aces 
were held ; the porch of l!^eptune, in commemoration of naval triumphs ; 
the Baths, and the Pantheon. 

The Pantheon^ the most beautiful building in Rome, throwing out what 
was added subsequently to Augustus, is the finest and best preserved monu- 
ment of antiquity in the world. It was built under the republic, without 
the exquisite portico, which was added by Augustus and Agrippa. PI. 17, 
fig. 4, gives the view of the building deprived of its later and injurious ad- 
ditions ; fig. 5, the lateral section ; fig. 6, the inner perspective ; fig. 7, 
the ground plan. PI. 19, fig. 13, is the representation of a capital from 
the portico, and fig. 21, a base from the portico. Agrippa dedicated this 
temple to all the gods, especially, however, to Jupiter Ultor and Cybele. 
Afterwards the portico was injured by lightniug, but was restored under 
Severus and Marcus Aurelius. Pope Boniface lY. consecrated the 
temple as a Christian church. Urban YIII. elevated some columns 
that had fallen, but, alas ! took away the beautiful bronze ornaments, 
and melted them into cannon, and into the tasteless altar of St. Peter's ; 
and at last the two execrable towers were built upon the roof by 
70 



ARCHITECTURE. 71 

Bernini. Clement IX. disfigured the portico by the railing, 14 feet high, 
between the columns. 

The chief building of the Pantheon forms a complete circle, whose dia- 
meter is 153 feet, and 133 feet in the clear. The exterior has three 
grand di\dsions, with freestone cornices. The foundation is of white 
marble, the rest of the building is brick. Upon the chief wall rests the 
dome, covered with lead, and on the outside diminishing stepwise to- 
wards the apex. The height of the steps is 27 feet. The dome has at 
top a round opening 37^ feet wide, with a bronze cornice, the means 
of illumination of the interior. The original facade, before the portico was 
built, had 4 pillars, upon which rested a great gable, which is now partly 
concealed by the gable of the portico. The colonnade added by Agrippa 
consists of 16 smooth Corinthian columns 44 feet, 1 inch in height. Eight 
of them stand in the front row {jpl. VI ^ jig. 7). The corner columns are 4 
feet, 8 inches in diameter, the middle 4 feet, 6 inches. The shafts of the 
columns are sculptured of a single block of granite ; the capitals, bases, and 
the cornices are of white marble. The sides of the front and rear gables run 
parallel, and the cornice of the gable fields rests on consoles. The tympa- 
num had sculptures, probably in bronze relief Under the portico in the 
middle is the single door of the Pantheon. There is a bronze grating in the 
upper part of the door to admit light into the interior of the edifice. There 
are bronze rosettes in the little panels of the door. On its side are two large 
niches built of brick covered with stucco, as high as the door (36 feet, 
\\ inches), in which formerly stood the statues of Augustus and Agrippa. 
The latter is now in the palace Giustiniani in Yenice. Agrippa's ashes lay 
in a fine sarcophagus which stood afterwards in one of the niches. It now 
contains the body of Pope Clement XTT., and stands in the church of St. 
John Lateran. 

The height of the interior of the Pantheon is equal to its diameter. There 
are two great side arches, supported upon 4 of the 14 columns which support 
the main cornice. One of these arches is in the further end, and under it 
once stood the statue of Jupiter ; the other springs over the entrance. Be- 
sides these there are smaller chapels in the circumference of the interior ; 
two form semicircles, the rest long quadrangles. Every chapel has pilasters 
upon the side, before which stand Corinthian columns wrought of yellow- 
veined marble, 3 feet, 4 inches in diameter, and 32 feet, 5|- inches high. 
The shafts are each sculptured out of a single block, and the flutings are 
filled below with beads. Between the chapels stand eight altars. Each 
altar is formed of 2 little Corinthian columns 4^ inches through with their 
entablature, cut in the style of the order which is still visible on the arch of 
Constantine, with a gable over it. The gables are alternately semi- 
circular and triangular, the whole apparently imitated from the niches of 
the temples of Palmyra. The columns, partly of marble, partly of porphyry, 
partly of polished granite, stand upon high plinths. Behind each altar 
in the wall are empty semicircular chambers, which are repeated at every 
story. Doors lead to the lower ones, steps to the middle, doors again to the 
upper. These chambers serve for the saving of masonry, for the drying and 

71 



72 ARCHITECTURE. 

airing of the walls, and for tlie diminisliing of tlie pressure upon the foundation. 
The inside of the walls is covered entirely with marble. One half of the height 
consists of the dome and the other of the vertical wall, constructed partly of 
brick vaults, and forming arches over the architrave of the lower columns. 

In the interior there are two dissimilar divisions ; the under part consists 
of the columns above described and of the arches that interrupt their 
entablature. The upper part is a Mnd of upper story in which 14 openings, 
with handsome mouldings, are pierced, which let the side light faU upon the 
niches beneath. To interrupt the flatness of the surface there were formerly 
pilasters of porphyry, serpentine, and yeUow marble placed against it, which 
were removed by order of Pope Benedict XI Y. and replaced by paintings. 

The cupola contains 4 rows of 28 deep panels, upon whose ground there 
were formerly bronze rosettes which Constantine II. despatched with several 
statues to Constantinople. But the ship was wrecked. In order to carry 
off the rain that enters through the opening in the dome, the floor, which 
is a mosaic of marble and other stones, inclines towards the centre w^here 
there is an escape for the water, which flows into a branch of the Cloaca 
Maxima and thence to the Tiber. When the Tiber rises, however, the floor 
of the Pantheon is overflowed by the inundation. 

Formerly the entablature of the portico was of brass, and the whole build- 
ing was covered with gilded bronze plates in the form of tiles. Urban YIIL, 
however, replaced the bronze beams with wood and the tiles w^ith a 
leaden roof, and melted the metal, as we have already stated. The baths of 
Agrippa were situated immediately behind the Pantheon, and jpl. 17, 
fig. 7, shows a part of its ground plan. The ground plan of a Rotunda on 
the Appian way and that of one on the Yia Prsenestina, are precisely like 
that of the Pantheon, although on a much smaller scale (j9^. IS, fig. 11). 

Among the other important buildings of Agrippa were a great aqueduct, 
the colonnades of Eiu-opa, and the Diribitorium, which, however, he did 
not complete. The latter building was used as a place of popular 
assembly at elections, for the distribution of alms to the needy citizens and 
of pay to the soldiers, and was the largest building ever included under 
one roof, for it had beams of 100 feet in length and 1| feet in thickness. 
When the building fell into decay, no one would undertake its recon- 
struction. 

Besides Agrippa, other friends of Augustus distinguished themselves by 
their buildings : Statilius Taurus, who built an amphitheatre, then the 
only one in Rome ; Marcius Philippus, who restored the temple of Hercules 
and the Muses ; Cornificius, who erected a temple to Diana ; Asinius 
Pollio, who founded the first public library in Rome, in the haU of freedom 
built by him ; Munatius Plancus, w^ho restored the temple of Saturn, the 
treasury of Rome ; and Balbus, who built a stone theatre upon the Campus 
Martins. Among these, too, must be named Tiberius, afterwards Emperor. 
He restored the temple of Castor and Pollux, and the temple of Concordia 
originally erected by Purius Camillus. This temple (pi. 13, fig. 4, 
elevation ; fig. 5, plan), stood with its back to the Roman Forum, and 
near the temple of Jupiter Tonans, of which three columns yet remain. 
V2 



ARCHITECTURE. 73 

It was a prostylos with six Corinthian granite columns, with marble 
capitals and bases ; and there were two windows and a door on the long side. 
Altogether the ground plan of this temple indicates a very peculiar 
construction and different from all hitherto in use. 

To this time, also, belongs the building of the renowned pyramid of 
Oestius, and the so called Temple of Honor and Yirtue above the fountain 
of Egeria, and termed by some also a temple of Bacchus and the Muses. 
PI. 15, fig. 12, shows the elevation, and fig. 13 the longitudinal section 
of this temple, which is now the Church of St. Urban alia Caffarella. 
This structure has in front 4 columns, separated from each other by the 
space of 3^ diameters. They are of the Corinthian style, with imperfect 
capitals, 2 feet 4 inches in diameter, 22 feet high, supporting a 
misemble brick wall with a gable at the top. The portico is now walled up, 
and arranged with windows and buttresses. The ceiling of the interior is a 
cylindrical vault, covered with stucco and disposed in octagonal panels. 
It rests upon a finely ornamented frieze, and the brick walls of the inside 
are divided by pilasters. For the rest, it seems as if the temple, as it now 
stands, had been built of ancient materials, but was not itself of ancient 
times. 

Thus far we have only considered the architecture of the period in the 
city. We turn now to the works outside the city. 

First we refer to Tivoli, the charm of whose landscape made it much 
sought as a country retreat. Here were the country seats of the illustrious 
Romans, and there yet exist considerable traces of the villa of Mgecenas. 
Quinctilius Yarro, too, had here a villa of which some foundation walls and 
vaults yet remain. Here were the villas of Horace and Propertius, and 
there are relics of the superb country house of Plautius still to be seen. In 
the town itself there are two temples built next each other above the falls 
of the river Anio. The one is a round peripteros of which the greater 
number of columns, and the walls of the cella, with the door and one of the 
windows, as well as the substructure, remain. This temple is supposed to 
have been sacred to Yesta, and pi. \%.^figs. 9 and 11, give general views of 
it. Fig. 10 gives a section, and fijg. 12 the ground plan. It is in the 
Corinthian style, and the columns, whose bases are seen \Vijpl. V^^fig. 19, 
are of travertine covered with stucco. The cella is built of volcanic 
stone in irregular work {pjpus incertum.^ p. 24). The other standing 
by it is a little prostylos pseudoperipteros in the Ionic style, and is regarded 
as a temple of the Tiburtine Sybil, contemporaneous in structure with the 
other. PI. 16, fig. 38, gives its ground plan. Of the great temple of the 
Tiber, consecrated to Hercules, and in whose halls Augustus often sat in 
judgment, there are some remains in the chief church of the town. Of the 
antiquities of Prseneste there are only a few remains of the Forum and of 
the basilica belonging to it. 

In Cori, the old Cora, an ancient mountain town in Latium, there are the 
remains of two temples besides those of the Cyclopean walls. Of the one 
dedicated to the Dioscuri there yet exist two remarkable Corinthian 
columns ; of the other, known under the name of the Temple of Hercules, 

73 



74 ARCHITECTURE. 

of which we have given the ground plan,^Z. 16, Jig. 24, the columns of the 
portico, with the entablature and the door, and a part of the cella, are yet 
visible. The style is Doric, but its rules are not sufficiently followed to 
allow the temple to be quoted as a good example of that style. 

In Pozzuoli the chief church is built upon the ruins of a temple of which 
several Corinthian columns remain. iN'ear the city there are also the ruins 
of a round temple which was a monopteros, and dedicated to Jupiter 
Serapis. PI. 13, Jig. 99, shows the ground plan. The bases of the 16 
pillars of the temple are yet standing, and three of the so called Cipollino 
marble columns of the quadrangular peribolus which surrounded the temple. 
There are also at Gaeta the ruins of the monument of Munatius Plancus, 
and at ISTaples the Tomb of Yirgil and ruins of the temple of the 
Dioscuri. 

Turning towards upper Italy we find besides the ruins of the bridges and 
of the arch of Augustus at I^omi, a beautiful temple of Minerva in Assisi, 
now the church Maria della Minerva. It is a six columned prostylos of the 
Corinthian style, of which pi. 16, Jig. 21, gives the ground plan. In Fano, 
the old Finestri, Yitruvius built a characteristic basilica, of which 
unhappily there are no remains, and which cannot be drawn after his 
description {Uh. v. cap. 1), although Barbaro, Canina, Marini, and others 
have attempted it. 

In Msmes, a provincial town of Augustus, there is, among other remains, 
a well preserved temple, dedicated by Augustus to the two sons of M. 
Agrippa, Caius and Lucius. This temple, of which pi. 15, Jig. 10, gives a 
general view, and^^. 11 the ground plan, is a prostylos pseudoperipteros, 
with six columns in front and half columns around the cella. The building 
is very handsome, of the Corinthian style, and now known under the name 
Maison Quarree. At the foot of the Alps, near Torbia, there is the nucleus 
of a monument which was dedicated to Augustus, and known as the 
Trophseon of Augustus. From Pliny's description, Canina undertook 
its restoration, of which pi. 18, Jig. 8, gives the elevation, and Jig. 9, the 
ground plan. 

By means of Roman conquests a better knowledge of art began now to 
diffuse itself over the countries adjacent to the Danube and the Rhine. 
Formerly those lands had neither cities nor boroughs. Each family lived 
alone on its own premises, and building with brick or quarried stone was 
equally unknown. Under Augustus, however, things assumed another 
aspect, and cities and villages arose along the Danube and the Rhine, and 
many important hydraulic works were undertaken. It is uncertain how far 
the limits of the Romans extended beyond the Rhine, and what was the 
precise direction of the stake-ditches that separated the Roman possessions 
from free Germany. Probably Nuremberg lay within the line, for its 
castle tower seems to be altogether Roman. Many cities, especially 
smaller ones, such as Rottweil and Yillingen, indicate in their plans the 
fonn of the Roman camp with remains of towers and walls. Of Roman 
buildings, however, there are very few except at Treves and the Baths 
of Badenweiler ; yet recently many more have been brought to light. 



ARCHITECTURE. 75 

Further down the Danube two triumphal arches were erected in honor of 
Tiberius, remains of one of which exist at St. Petronell in lower Austria 
At Pola in Istria there are, among other remains of which we shall hereaftei 
speak, those of a temple, of which pi. 16, fig. 25, gives the ground plan. 
It was a prostylos of the Corinthian order with plain columns, and, accord- 
ing to the inscription upon the architrave, dedicated to the goddess Koma, 
and to Augustus. The columns are 2 feet, 7i inches diameter, and 27 feet, 5 
inches high. 

2. Tiberius. As long as Augustus lived and Li via had some influence 
upon the dark mind of her son, he did not show himself indifferent to the 
higher aims of art. As ruler, however, he completed no fine building in 
Eome ; and the single one which he undertook, the Temple of Augustus, he 
left uncompleted during his reign of 25 years, so that it was only first 
dedicated under Caligula. On the other hand he completed many restora- 
tions commenced by Augustus, or of buildings which had been burned. 
In the year 23 b. c, Tiberius, at the instigation of Sejanus, caused the 
Pretorian Camp to be built for the Body Guard, which measure, by the 
tumultuous spirit of the Pretorians inclining them constantly to revolt, 
proved dangerous to the Emperors. There exist some remains of this 
structure which Constantino destroyed. Among the buildings outside Rome 
we mention only the unfortunate theatre at Fidense near Pome. The archi- 
tect Attilius, a freedman, had undertaken to build a wooden theatre in 
which spectacles should be exhibited for money. The Theatre fell during a 
representation, and injm-ed 30,000 men, of w^hom, according to Suetonius, 
20,000 died. 

3. Caligula. The reign of this emperor was very short, but much too 
long for the happiness of mankind. Little was accomplished in building, 
for the extravagant plans of the emperor were left half finished. Under 
him, how^ever, the temple of Augustus, commenced by Tiberius in Pome, 
was completed, and the restoration of the theatre of Pompey. The Palatine 
house, the usual residence of the emperors, was extended to the great 
Forum, so that the temple of Castor and Pollux formed the vestibule. 
PI. 11.) fig. 7, gives the general view, fig. 8, the ground plan of this temple. 
It was of the Corinthian order, and had 8 granite columns in front and 13 
on the sides. The arrangement of the portico and of the pronaos is peculiar. 
In this temple, placing himself between the heavenly twins, the emperor 
received divine honors as Jupiter Latiaris. He built an especial temple to 
his own divinity, in which stood his statue, which was daily clothed as the 
emperor was dressed that day. 

He commenced also a great aqueduct, which was afterwards com- 
pleted by Claudius. The building of an amphitheatre upon the Campus 
Martins was soon relinquished. He began to build a circus upon 
the Vatican. He proposed to restore the temple of Apollo Didymseus 
at Miletus, and to cut through the isthmus of Corinth; but these 
plans were no more realized than that of building a city upon the highest 
pass of the Alps. 

4. Claudius. The buildings of this emperor are more distinguished for their 

15 



76 ARCHITECTURE. 

size and usefulness than for their number. Among them the Port of Ostia, 
the di'aining of the Fucinian lake, and the completion of the aqueduct com- 
menced by Caligula, are to be mentioned. The building of the harbor of 
Ostia was, even at that time of enormous expenditures, one of the most 
enormous. A huge basin was hollowed out of the solid earth and surrounded 
by a wall of freestone. This was connected by a canal with the sea and 
with the Tiber, and at last an outer harbor was built into the sea by means 
of two piers. In order to protect the harbor from the sand and the piers 
from the waves, an artificial island was built, a large vessel loaded with sand 
and stone being sunk in the sea. Upon this island a lighthouse was 
erected. At this time, the temple of Jupiter Patulcius of Ostia, which had 
been struck by lightning in the year 200 b. c, was restored. PI. IQ^fig. 20, 
gives the ground plan of this temple, of which there are very few remains ; 
sufficient, however, to show that it was of the Corinthian order and very 
richly ornamented. The cornice is remarkable, and in the interior the 
cella had Corinthian pilasters with very ornate capitals. The aqueduct, 
mentioned before, was 184 miles long, 144 of which were subterranean. This 
was united in the neighborhood of Pome with a second, 248 miles long, 
partly subterraneous, partly resting upon arches and substmctures, leading 
from the Anio, whose troubled waters were first clarified in a peculiar reser- 
voir. The united aqueduct extended then upon arches, some 109 feet 
in height, to the walls of Pome. 30,000 men labored for 11 years upon 
the draining of the Fucinian lake, and it was designed to use the area of the 
lake for cultivation. When the canal was ended, a great naval battle took 
place upon the lake. Then the Emperor and the people repaired to a great 
banquet held upon a scaffolding erected in the lake. The sluices were 
opened, and before the banquet was ended the lake was drained. After- 
wards the sluices became stopped up by neglect, and the lake exists at the 
present day as under Claudius, but it would cost scarcely half a million to 
restore the old work completely. In the reign of Claudius also, that the 
soldiers might not be idle, they dug a canal 92 miles long between tlie 
Meuse and the Phine. 

5. I^ERO. Under this emperor the art of building was carried to a point 
hitherto unattained, yet posterity can show no traces of the works of this 
emperor. His first building was a wooden amphitheatre upon the Campus 
Martius, and in the year 62 a. d. the emperor erected the gymnasium 
called after him, and the adjacent baths, now more generally known as the 
Alexandrinian baths, as Alexander Severus restored them. Xever, how^- 
ever, was the zeal for building so intense as with ISTero, who, in order to 
obtain the space adequate to his house, and at the same time to rebuild the 
city more magnificently, caused it to be set on fire. Of the 14 districts of the 
city three were entirely destroyed, and seven were more or less injured. 
Tlie fire raged nine days, and immense pecuniary loss as well as the de- 
struction of treasures of art was the consequence. For the rebuilding the 
emperor removed the rubbish, and made ample indemnification, but intro- 
duced a very severe building law. The rubbish was devoted to fiUiDg 
up the swamps of Ostia ; and Monte Testaccio, which yet remains, is a rubbish 
76 



ARCHITECTURE. 77 

hill of this period. The ships in port were obliged to load with the rubbish 
as a return freight. To this period also belongs the beginning of the so- 
called golden house of JS'ero, of which Severus and Celer were the architect 
and builder. It is difficult to form a just idea of the magnificence of this 
house, which embraced corn fields, meadows, vineyards, forests, and fish 
ponds, and in which stood the colossal iron statue of JS'ero 120 feet high. 
The interior of the building glowed with gold and precious stones, and 
there were banqueting halls, with ivory tables wound with flowers, and 
with ceilings pierced like sieves, in order to shower odors upon the guests. 
When IM'ero dedicated the completed house he said, " That he had at length 
a home fit for a human being to live in." The statuary Zenodorus cast the 
colossus of JS'ero. 

With Kero ended the Augustan family, and the emperors Galba, Otho, 
and Yitellius reigned too short a time to complete any important works. 
So much the more, however, was accomplished under the three next 
emperors of th.Q family of Flavins. 

6. Yespasian. The first great undertaking of this emperor in building was 
the often-projected re-construction ofthetempleof Jupiter Capitolin us, which 
was once more burned, and this time in the struggles of the followers of 
Yitellius with those of Flavins. Yespasian commenced the work with great zeal. 
He put his own hand to the work, in order to encourage the laborers, and 
the corner-stone was laid with great pomp. For the rest, according to the 
decrees of the augurs the new temple should in no manner differ from the 
old, except in the little greater height of the columns. But the building 
was not destined to remain a long time, for it was again burned under Titus, 
and, as we shall presently see, was rebuilt by Domitian. The golden house 
of Nero was for the greater part destroyed, and the remainder much changed. 
A second important building was the temple of Peace, whose form, how- 
ever, differed materially from that formerly in use. According to the 
remains it was long in form, with a wide nave in the middle supported by 
eight Corinthian marble columns 5 feet, 8 inches, 3 lines in thickness, and about 
57 feet, 11 inches high. At the sides were three deep spaces like chapels, and 
in the front- wall of the great aisle was the large niche for the temple 
statue. The temple, besides its chief entrance from the Coliseum, had also 
a side passage towards the modern street. We find more of the basilica 
form in this temple, and to such an extent, that these remains are sometimes 
called the Basilica of Constantine, which however they are not. A very 
beautiful architrave soffit of this temple is given mpL 19, Jig- 27. Bramante, 
in his first plan of St. Peter's, placed the Pantheon upon the Temple of Peace. 

In the interior of this temple rare works of art, and valuable objects of 
all kinds, even the state treasury and the money of private individuals were 
kept, so that when it was burned in the time of Commodus the loss was 
incalculable. One of the colossal columns yet remains, and stands upon 
the place Santa Maria Maggiore. The height of the temple from the floor 
to the top of the arch was 112 feet, and this is probably the first instance 
of the great cross arch. This temple is also called the Temple of the Csesars, 
from which we represent a capital {Jig. 11). 

17 



78 ARCHITECTURE. 

In the year 72 a. d. Yespasian began the colossal amphitheatre of Flavian, 
known bv the name of the Coliseum, of which we have given a general view 
and section in pL l^^fig. 2, and mfig. 3, the half ground plan. The build- 
ing was completed by Titus, and occupied only a few years. The ground 
shape of this theatre is elliptical. The longer diameter is more than 600 feet, 
the shorter more than 500. Eighty small arcades on the circumference led to 
two galleries on the ground floor, parallel with the outer circumference. The 
public passed by 24 passages which led to the first places, into two other 
concentric galleries, before which were the podia for the senators, vestals, 
ambassadors, &c. and behind which were the seats for the knights. These 
places occupied the first twelve rows of seats, and those of the knights the 
next 17. The populace ascended to the third story upon the numerous stair- 
cases of the various galleries, and in the fourth or highest story sat the 
freedmen, servants, and women of pleasure. They reached their places by 
a staircase over the arches of the gallery of the second story. There were 
broad entrances from the sides and ends of the area to the first places, and 
to the box of the emperor, which was distinguished by an elaborate projec- 
tion. The arrangements for seats formed a ring of 60 feet in thickness, and 
provided accommodation for 87,000 people. The area left in the centre served 
for the combats of beasts and gladiators, &c. The exterior ornament con- 
sisted of three tiers of 80 arcades, the first Doric, the second Ionic, the third 
Corinthian. The upper story formed an attic with Corinthian pilasters 
and 40 windows. Between every two pilasters were three consoles, conse- 
quently 240 in all, each one of which bore a bronze support which passed 
through the cornice, and which altogether held the pulleys upon which the 
velarium was drawn. In the various arcades stood statues, chariots, &c. 
Plate 14 fig. 4, shows a section of the amphitheatre at Yerona, and^^. 5 
that of the amphitheatre of ^Nismes, from a comparison with which it 
will be seen how gigantic a building the Coliseum was. The amphitheatre 
of ^NTismes, which was oval, was somewhat over 400 feet in length, and over 
300 feet in breadth. 

Besides architectural w^orks Yespasian did much for the highways, and 
the Flaminian way, which embraces an archway through the rock Petra per- 
tusa (Pierre pertuis of modern times) 1000 feet long, was completed the 
year of his death. 

7. Trrus. During the reign of this emperor more w^as destroyed than was 
rebuilt. For, in the 79th year of our era, occmTed the memorable eraption 
of Yesuvius, which laid waste the surrounding comitry, and shook the 
entire city, and shortly after a fire broke out in Pome that destroyed the 
finest and fairest part of the city, the buildings of Xero in the Campus 
Martins, the Temple of Isis, the Baths, &c., and also injured the Pantheon, 
and the Porch of Octavia. It was not nntil his successor that the loss 
was replaced. 

As the destruction of the Campanian cities occm-red in the reign of Titus, 

this seems the proper place to speak of the present condition of the excavated 

towns of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabise. Of the last very little has been 

hitherto discovered. In Herculaneum the excavation was undertaken with 

78 



ARCHITECTURE. 79 

zeal and diligence, and the result was the discovery of a great mass of antiquities 
of all kinds. But as the city was buried under a great accumulation of lava and 
a new city was built over it, the work could only advance as in a mine, by 
shafts, and for this reason the work is nearly discontinued, because it required 
a disproportionate sum of money to forward it. The theatre has been entirely 
laid bare, and it is evident from that that Herculaneum was by no means 
a little provincial to^vn. This theatre offers the best study of the theatre- 
building of the ancients. 

The excavation of Pompeii was much easier and more convenient, for 
there was no overflow of lava here, and the town lies buried only under 
ashes and little stones, a few feet beneath a vineyard. Here buildings, 
streets, and places have been restored to the light, and therefore all available 
funds are devoted to the excavation, which constantly progresses with more 
or less diligence, so that a very tolerable conception of the structure and 
arrangement of an ancient city is now possible. The town, although 
not small, was only a provincial town of the third degree, but had all the 
iDuildings necessary to the business and amusement of a city, except that 
they are on a smaller scale than those of which we find traces in the large 
cities. The private houses also are lower and smaller than in a great town. 
They are of one story only, and evidently adapted to a single family. Only 
a very few of the recovered houses have two stories arranged with terraces. 

A wanderer through the city discovers many buildings, chiefly public 
buildings, which at the time of the volcanic eruption were in process of 
building, and Tacitus relates that Pompeii was almost destroyed by an 
earthquake a little before its final catastrophe. According to Seneca, this 
event preceded the final one by sixteen years, and hence we find most of 
the private houses restored, but with only one story to provide against 
similar misfortunes. The rebuilding of the public edifices progressed more 
slowly, yet the amphitheatre was entirely completed, although the other 
theatres and the forum with its adjacent buildings w^ere not so. Few of the 
streets are broad enough to allow the passage of a carriage, but they are 
well paved, and have elevated side walks. At the corners of the streets are 
fountains. Quite as carefully paved and provided with side walks are the 
streets outside the city, and upon these streets were the family sepulchral 
monuments. We have treated of the cit}^ walls of Pompeii, illustrating 
them in detail under the head of Military Sciences (Fortification) ; see Plates, 
Division Y.,pL 43, figs. 10-15. The sole remaining gate has three entrances ; 
the middle one for carriages, and one on each side for foot passengers. 

The dwelling houses are built together, but without communication with 
each other, and the main walls in common. Upon entering you pass into a 
court, small or large, generally surrounded by a colonnade, and with the 
sleeping rooms, sitting rooms, and kitchen opening upon it. It is all small 
but tasteful, with pavements of marble and mosaic. The walls and columns 
are covered with a coating of chalk and marble dust, smooth as glass, with a 
surface colored in fi'esco, upon which are laid the water colors. When 
treating of the Fine Arts we shall return to these wall paintings. In two 
bakeries the ovens are yet standing ; they were heated from below. 

79 



80 ARCHITECTURE. 

Of the public buildings the amphitheatre is the most striMng. If couM 
easily accommodate 12,000 men, and the rows of seats are made of volcanic 
tufa. Of the two theatres that lay near each other, one was covered and 
served as an odeon ; the large one was in process of building. The &teps of 
white marble were not all placed, and the wall work of the stage was not yet 
plastered. The forum was in the same incomplete state, and was to have 
had two colonnades one above the other. The pedestals of the statues, the 
equestrian also, were ready, but there were no statues. On the long side 
of the forum were three small buildings almost like basilicas^ destined for 
the sessions of the municipality. On the opposite side was the curia with 
the archives, and a kind of pulpit standing in the open air. Here also wa& 
the comitium, where the magisterial electoral assemblies were held. 

The administration of public affairs must not go on without the close 
superintendence of the gods, and hence there was no want of temples in the 
vicinity of the forum. In the neighborhood, and only separated by the 
street from the comitium, lay a long court surrounded with walls, on the 
side of which ran a colonnade. In the midst of the court upon a lofty Sight 
of steps a small temple, whose ground plan,^Z. 16, Jig. 37, shows that it was 
a prostylos hypsethros. This temple was dedicated to Jupiter, as the frag- 
ment of a very beautiful statue of Jupiter found in the vicinity leads us to 
suspect. Before the temple stands a large sacrificial altar. This temple 
was not fully restored, yet there were beautiful paintings on the wall. Upon 
the opposite side of the forum were two small temples, one dedicated to 
Yenus, the other to Fortuna. Both were of the Corinthian order, and we 
give the ground plan of the temple of Fortuna,^?. 16, Jig. 28. JSTear the 
forum was the hospital of Augustus, in the court of which was a round or 
rather polygonal monopteros dedicated to Augustus. PI. IS, Jig. 10, shows the 
ground plan of this little temple. We must finally mention three temples, 
or rather chapels, which stood tolerably near one of the long sides of the 
forum. The most important is the temple of ^sculapius {pi. 16, Jig. 31, 
shows the ground plan), which is hemmed in by other buildings, but has a 
porch with two columns towards the street. The temple itself is a Doric 
prostylos with four columns in front, and a fine sacrificial altar stands before 
it. The chapel of Isis {Jig. 30) stands with the long side towards the street, 
from which it is separated by the walls of the porch. A colonnade of the 
Doric order surrounds the porch, in the corner of which stands a little 
building destined for the use of those who had charge of the temple, and 
who took care that no improper person penetrated to the mysteries of the 
goddess. Others suppose this small building to have been designed for 
beasts, as was the custom in all Egyptian temples. Here the Ibis might 
have been kept, a bird sacred to Isis. This bird is an important figure in 
two jjaintings representing the religious habits of the Egyptians, which 
were taken from the walls of this temple of Isis. The sacrificial offerings 
might have been kept there, which were brought and consumed upon the 
platform by the ibis, and with which a kind of augury was connected. In 
the court itself there were several altars, and the temple is a prostylos of 
four columns, and the middle space between the columns is the largest, as 
80 



ARCHITECTURE. 81 

thence the staircase led to the upper part of the building. Tlie temjDle has 
an opisthodomos in the interior, and two wings with paintings. 

The chapel of Mercury {fig. 29) forms no rectangle, as the street runs 
slantingly against the long side, and the short sides are parallel with the 
street. The temple itself has a fore-court inclosed by walls adorned with 
pilasters and a colonnade in front, and is a Corinthian prostylos with four 
columns, standing upon a high substructure accessible from the rear. In 
the court stands a large sacrificial altar. The columns of all the temples 
hitherto mentioned are fluted and very tastefully adorned. 

To this brief survey of the ancient buildings in Pompeii, we add some 
general remarks upon the style there prevalent. In technical architecture 
there is little worthy of note. The walls, even of the largest buildings, are 
mostly of quarry stone, seldom of brick, and scarcely at all of freestone. 
Often the columns are of mason work, sometimes of great blocks of limestone, 
which is quarried in the neighborhood, and sometimes of marble, which is, 
however, oftener used for doorframes, thresholds, facing of the walls and 
floors. The rough cast is very carefully made and smoothed. The walls are 
mostly painted. The roofs are generally beam : arches rarely occur. There 
are not many specimens of the more elaborate style of architecture ; the 
buildings are generally simple. Excepting the temples the columns are 
almost all Doric or Tuscan. The only ornaments that occur are parts of the 
marble pilasters carved with winding plants and insects of remarkable 
execution. 

"We return to Rome and to the works of the successor of Titus. 

8. DoMiTiAN. This unworthy brother of Titus busied himself a great deal 
with building, and restored almost all the buildings that had suffered by the 
fire under Titus. Among these was the temple of the Capitoline gods. 
This temple, which Domitian erected with great magnificence, was based 
upon a quadrangular substructure of freestone, with truncated corners, upon 
the Capitoline hill, and this octagonal platform {pi. 15, fig. 7) is surrounded 
by a high wall, on the inside of which statues and columns were erected. 
Towards the south was a Corinthian portico of eight columns in two rows, 
closed behind by four great pillars, forming three passages, and to which was 
joined in the interior of the vestibule a back portico of four smooth Corinthian 
columns. Near the steps of the platform were two smaller temples, the 
object of which is unknown. Upon the platform itself, arose, upon an 
elevation of three steps, the temple of the Capitoline divinities, of a peculiar 
arrangement. It was properly an immense hall of columns with a back 
wall, and under the roof of this halL lay, towards the rear, the temples of 
Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, which had walls in common, and of which the 
temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was the middle one {fig. 6). The haU had six 
Corinthian columns of Pentelican marble, which were brought, already 
sculptm-ed, from Athens. They were very beautifully proportioned, but it 
had been forgotten that, owdng to the unusual columnar distances of the 
Capitoline (3-|-, 5, and T diameters) the columns should have been larger, 
60 that when they were erected they seemed scant. The hall had in front 
three rows of columns, one behind the other, which corresponded in columnar 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCyCLOP.€:DIA. VOL. IV. 6 81 



82 ARCHITECTURE. 

distances with the temples Ijing behind. Then came a fourth row in the 
line of the antse of Jupiter's temple, a fifth in that of the antse of the temj)les 
of Juno and Minerva, and on each side another column, and finally the 
corner pillars of the rear wall. 

The temple of Jupiter had, inside, double tiers of columns, twelve below 
and six above, or a hjpsethral order. Along the side walls were, on the 
outside, auxiliary altars ; and upon the platform, on the outside of the hall, 
several pedestals with groups of sculptures and two little temples or chapels, 
the one four-sided, the other round. How great the splendor of this structure 
must have been may be surmised from the fact that the gilding alone cost 
more than 12,000 Attic talents (about twenty millions of dollars), as 
Plutarch, Suetonius, and Martial assure us. 

Besides this, Domitian built a Stadium, an Odeon, and a Naumachia, for 
which a lake was formed from the Tiber and circularly walled. "We have 
treated this building among the Naval Sciences, and have given a repre- 
sentation of it in Plates, Division YI. ^l. 2, fig. 12. Domitian also enlarged 
the temple of Jupiter, built by Livia, the wife of Augustus, in Forli, or the old 
Forum Livii on the ^milian way, of which w^e have given the ground plan 
\TLjpl. l^^fig. 15, and which forms a Corinthian amphiprostylos peripteros, 
with six columns in front and 11 at the sides, entirely in the old Greek style. 

To the great works of Domitian belongs the plan of a great Forum with 
the temple of Minerva and a little temple of Janus. This forum was finished, 
however, by his successor, ITerva, and is thence called from him. It is known 
also, however, as the Forum of Domitian ; or, from the temple of Minerva, 
Forum Palladium ; or, because it was a thoroughfare, Forum Transitorium 
or Pervium. PI. IS, fig. 17, gives the ground plan, and fig. 16 the lateral 
section with a view of the temple of Minerva. The Forum was protected 
upon both sides with a wall crowned with an attic and adorned with 
Corinthian columns. The front side forms a fivefold passage which, on the 
inside, has a portico with four columns. 

The rear side includes the temple of Minerva, and there were arched 
gateways upon both sides. There are still remains of the walls and columns, 
and also of the reliefs of the attic, in which Minerva was represented instruct- 
ing virgins in female tasks. The temple of Minerva was a beautiful Corin- 
thian prostylos with six white marble columns in front ; the cella, behind, 
was semicircularly closed, and on the long side-walls there were columns 
with a richly ornamented frieze. The little temple of Janus was a singular 
building, of which the form may yet be seen in the middle of the Forum. 
It was completely quadrate, and had on each side four high Corinthian 
columns whose middle distances were, however, much wider than those 
on the sides. These twelve columns supported a rich entablature, with 
an attic which formed a platform upon which stood a bust of Janus 
with four heads. This entire structure, however, was only a canopy 
over the temple proper, which was inclosed in walls only half as high 
as the eight columns between which they stood. These walls sup 
ported a cornice and attic, which again formed a platform under the 
before-mentioned canopy. On each side between the middle columns 
82 



ARCHITECTURE. 83 

was a door opening into a portico of two little Corinthian columns with a 
gable over them, whose roof rested against the attic. 

The triumphal arches and arches of honor were among the architectural 
works that rose to prominence under the government of Domitian. He 
erected many of them in all parts of the city, and adorned them very richly. 
To this time, also, belongs a triumphal arch decreed by the senate and 
Roman people to Titus on occasion of his taking Jerusalem. The greater 
part of this work yet remains, and^Z. 18, j^. IT, gives a view of it ; fig. 18, 
its ground plan. That this arch was erected after the death of Titus appears 
from the inscription which calls the emperor " the deified ;" and the 
middle of the spring of the arch is sculptured in half raised work with his 
apotheosis, where he sits upon an eagle. This bas-relief, and above all the 
sculptures of this arch, indicate an exquisite style ; but the architecture is 
less praiseworthy, overloaded as it is with ornament. This arch is the 
most ancient monument in the composite style, on which over the usual 
Corinthian capital the Ionic volutes appear. Of this time also is the no less 
simple than beautiful triumphal arch upon the bridge of Santonum, the 
modern Xaintes on the Charente in France, where there are many other 
Eoman remains : jpl. l^^fig. 16, a and 5, give the general view and ground 
plan of this arch. Whether also the arch of Gabius in Yerona, near Castello 
Yecchio, which we have represented in elevation and ground plan, pi. 17, 
fig. 17 a and 5, belongs to this or a later period, perhaps that of the 
emperor Gallienus, which its mediocre architecture induces us to suspect, 
must remain uncertain, as neither the family of Gabius nor the name of the 
architect L. Yitruvius Cerdo is mentioned elsewhere. We must also 
mention here a very richly adorned triumphal arch which was erected in 
honor of Marius in Arausio, the modern Orange in the department of 
Yaucluse in France, of which pi. 18, fig. 15, gives the general view, and 
fig. 16, the ground plan. The arrangement of the gables upon the sides, 
and of the sculptured panels between the four gables, is peculiar. The 
sculptures are neatly done and in a good style. Arausio is distinguished for 
its antiquities, particularly for its amphitheatre, the only entire one remain- 
ing in Europe. There was formerly a little hamlet in the interior of this 
building, which the Department of Yaucluse purchased and removed, and 
left the theatre unincumbered. The arch of Augustus at Pola {fig. 20, 
general yigw^ fig. 21, ground plan) is remarkable for a simply beautiful form, 
and was built either under Domitian or his predecessor. 

But Domitian did not lavish the wealth of his kingdom only upon public 
buildings. He did much for his private edifices, and especially for the 
Capitoline house and the villa in Albano. The Basilica was adorned with 
great splendor. The rarest stones were used ; the richest ornaments were 
everywhere lavished so that even the smallest architrave sofiits were 
garnished with costly fillings {pi. 19, fig. 28). The hall was arched with 
unusual loftiness and represented the starry heavens. Domitian expended 
no less upon his estate in Albano, where he gave great plays, and even 
invited the whole senate thither. The ruins of this villa are yet visible 
between castle Gondolfo and the lake of Albano, and there are yet very 

83 



B4 architecture. 

beautiful remains of the various orders, among others the fine Doric order 
of which fig. 4 shows the capital, and which, to all appearance, served 
Yignola afterwards as the type of his Koman Doric style. "We shall return 
to this order. 

9. IS'eeva. After the long peaceful reign of Augustus which was so foster- 
ing to the development of art, the palmiest art-days of the Roman empire 
were those which fell in the reigns of l^erva to Commodus, the unworthy 
eon of Marcus Aurelius, that is from the year 96 to 180 of the Christian 
era ; and art took in this time its highest sweep, to fall so much the more 
quickly. JS'erva was too old when he ascended the throne, and reigned too 
short a time to complete any important edifices, and we have already 
spoken of the completion and dedication of the Forum begun by Domitian. 

10. Trajan. Although no buildings illustrated the first years of Trajan's 
reign, yet they increased afterwards so rapidly that Constantine the Great 
was accustomed to call Trajan the wall plant (^r5<^^<^m^<^W^), because his 
name was so universally engraved upon the buildings he had erected. 
Trajan's first great work was the enlargement of the Circus Maximus, which 
then held 260,000 spectators, but afterwards, according to Publius Victor, 
could contain 385,000 people. Trajan wished that the Eoman people should 
have place in the circus, and he extended the circus, which was then 4i 
stadia (2300 paces) long, that he might increase the number of seats. 
Other important buildings were the Baths and the Odeon, of which 
Apollodorus was the architect. E^ew temples and halls were not built in 
his reign, and his works of this kind were limited to restorations. 

Trajan's greatest work in the city was the forum, named from him, a work 
which has always excited universal wonder. The great triumphal column 
erected to the emperor by the senate and the people, yet remains, and 
recently the ground around it has been excavated, and a great number of 
granite pillars as well as fragments of statuary and architectural details have 
been brought to light, and again erected upon their old sites. But in 
this excavation the whole extent of the old forum has not been revealed, and 
remains still undetermined. In order to obtain the requisite space, Trajan 
had a part of the Quirinal hill removed and the space levelled as deep as 
the height of the column in the middle of the forum. The buildings which 
adorned this forum, were the column in its midst, the Basilica Ulpia, the 
Libraries, the Triumphal Arches, the Temple of Trajan, and the Colonnades 
leading directly across the place. 

Like all the Roman forums, it was a long quadrangle. The column is a 
magnificent relic of Roman greatness. PI. 18, figs. 24 to 30, are devoted 
to its representation ; fig. 24 gives the general view, fig. 28 is the bronze 
statue of the emperor, which stood upon the summit, where now that of the 
Apostle Peter stands (23 feet in height) \fig. 25, is the section of the column 
with the staircase ; fig. 26, is a horizontal section through the founda- 
tion ; fig. 27, the same through the shaft ; fig. 29, is a Roman coin, upon 
which the column is represented; fig. 30, a perspective view with Trajan's 
Temple to the right. Including base and capital the column is 92 
feet high, the substructure on which it rests is IT feet high, and the round 
84 



ARCHITECTURE. 85 

support for the statue is 13 feet higli, so that the height of the whole monu- 
ment with the statue is 145 feet. In the interior there are 185 steps; the 
staircase is illuminated by holes cut in the circumference, expanding inwards. 

The lower diameter of the column is a little over 11, and the upper 
10 feet. It is constructed of huge blocks of white marble, which were 
originally united by brass clamps. Every block fills out the full circle of 
the column, and the steps are wrought into them, which form the winding 
staircase. The square foundation is composed of similar masses, with the 
door on the south side, from which the steps conveniently wind. Upon the 
flat surface of the capital is a spacious walk around the base that supports 
the statue. 

The sides of the foundation are garnished with a beautiful top cornice and 
base moulding raised flat, adorned with weapons of war ; the torus or bolster 
of the Doric base forms a laurel wreath. Around the shaft of the column 
the sculptures ascend to the summit and present the wars of Trajan with the 
Dacians. In proportion to the height and its distance from the spectator, the 
upper figures are increased in size according to optical laws. ^Notwithstanding 
this, from the good arrangement of its reduction, the efiect of the shaft is very 
pleasing. The unpleasing part is the consideration of details. The execution, 
although skilful, is studied only with great trouble because the eye is wearied 
by the increasing distance, and the examiner, in contemplating the column, 
must constantly move roimd and round it. The wonder is, that the work is 
so well preserved, as in the Middle Ages the bronze clamps were torn from it. 

Of the other works of this emperor, we must mention the bridge he built 
over the Danube. It consisted of 20 piles of freestone, each one of which, 
without the foundation, was 150 feet high and 60 feet broad. The spaces 
between the piles, or the spring of the bridge arches, was about lYO feet. 
By the so-called iron gate between Servia and Wallachia, remains of a stone 
bridge have been discovered, supposed to be this bridge of Trajan, but 
erroneously, for they do not correspond with the description by Dio Cassius. 
They probably belonged to the bridge built afterwards by Constantine. 

Trajan built also the road through the Pontine marshes, and the fine road 
from Beneventum to Brundusium. A Triumphal Arch erected to the 
emperor in Beneventum in the 114:th year of our era is yet standing. PI. 18, 
fig. 11, gives a view of this ruin ; fig. 12, and^Z. Vl^fig. 19 ", the ground plan ; 
fig. 19*, gives the elevation of this arch, which is commonly called the 
Golden Gate. It is of Parian marble, and is completely preserved. Its 
height is something over 80 feet*, its breadth half as much, and its depth 19 
feet. The opening of the arch is about 17 feet, and on each side there are 
two columns of the Composite order directly against the wall. The columns 
are something over 19 feet high, and rest upon a stylobate running under 
all of them. Architrave, frieze, and cornice are in the best harmony, and 
the Attic bases of the columns are remarkably well profiled. The reliefs 
between the columns represent events from the emperor's life. In the 
archivolts are Victories with crowns and banners. The frieze is adorned 
with a triumphal procession in half raised work ; and the attic shows on 
both sides of the inscription remarkably fine bas-reliefs. 

85 



86 ARCHITECTURE. 

Trajan did mncli also for hydraulic architecture, by enriching the already 
noble system of aqueducts. He built two harbors upon the Italian shore ; 
the one was at Ancona, upon the Adriatic sea, where the marble arch upon 
the harbor dam still exists. Fig. 18 ', is the general view of it ; fig. 18 **, the 
ground plan. 

This arch, whether viewed as a whole or in detail, is very beautiful, 
although the shoulder-pieces of the cornice and of the attic are not in the best 
style. The two keystones of the arch joined by a female head, are very fine. 

11. Hadrian. The activity in art of Trajan's successor, Hadrian, 
surpassed all previous eiforts. Building in the provinces was prosecuted 
with no less zeal than in the capital. Hadrian was not only a friend of art, 
but he pursued its practice with almost more passion than became a prince. 
He drew, like King Louis I. of Bavaria, the plans of buildings, which he 
had executed, and was much displeased if the architects found fault with 
them. This was the case with the double temple of Yenus at Rome, and 
which the emperor had sketched and laid the drawing before Apollodorus. 
When this artist saw that the sitting figures were so large in proportion to the 
little temple that they could not stand up, and ventured to say so, Hadrian 
caused him to be executed, as Dio Cassius relates. This double temple of 
Yenus and Rome was one of the most important, not only of those which 
Hadrian undertook, but of all which adorned the city. PI. lQ.^fig. 1, gives 
the section tlirough the colonnade with the view of the temple ; fig. 2, 
the longitudinal section ; fi^. 3, the ground plan of the whole ; fig. 4, shows 
a fragment from the left corner of the gable of the portico ; and figs. 5 and 6 
are views of the temple upon Roman coins. 

The most recent excavations, under the auspices of the papal govern- 
ment, show that the two temples were surrounded by columns, which 
were to the number of twenty on the long side, of a fine Corinthian 
style, and on the short side ten, from which the temple would appear 
to have been a pseudodipteros decastylos. The temple itself was also 
surrounded by a court, inclosed with colonnades, and the whole rested 
upon massive substructures, higher towards the amphitheatre than 
towards the forum where the ground lay higher. The columns around 
the temple were of white marble, and the brickwork of the walls was 
faced with the same. The colonnade of the peribolus was of grey granite, 
with ceilings of gilded brass, which Pope Honorius I. removed to roof 
St. Peter's. The arrangement of the double cella of this temple appeal^ 
so clearly from the ground plan and sections that we shall not here 
further enlarge upon it. 

Hadrian, by the architect Decrianus, removed the Neronian sun-colossus 
to another spot, and effected it by twenty-four elephants drawing it in an 
upright posture. The emperor also built an athenaeum in which orators and 
poets might exercise themselves in Latin and Greek, and speak in 
public. 

One of Hadrian's great buildings was his Mausoleum on the right bank 
of the Tiber, now called the castle of St. Angelo. PI. 18, fig. 1, is the 
general view of this building as it originally appeared, although all its 
86 



ARCniTECTURE. 87 

ornaments and even the marble slabs that faced the foundation have 
disappeared, since the building was made a fortress. Fig. 2 is a 
horizontal section above the foundation ; fig, 3, a similar one through the 
lower part of the circular superstructure ; fig. 4 through the first columnar 
superstructure, and fi^g, 5 through the second ; figs. 6 and 7, are vertical 
sections of the building itself, which is connected with the bridge of St. 
Angelo. 

The lower part of this Mausoleum formed a square of which the sides 
were 250 feet long and 57f feet high. Upon this stands a round structure 
whose diameter is 201f feet. The columns were 32 feet, 5 inches high, the 
entablature 8| feet, and upon this second part stood a third circular building 
of less diameter. Under the covered colonnade, in the intercolumniations, 
bronze and marble statues were placed. History relates that Belisarius, 
besieged in this place by the Gauls (and it is still the citadel of Eome), 
threw many of these statues down upon the enemy. A flower crowned the 
apex of the monument. Others assert that the statue of Hadrian in a 
chariot with four horses abreast stood there. The flower, or rather the cone 
of fir, is eleven feet high, and still exists, standing in a niche of the Vati- 
can fronting the garden. Twenty-four fluted Corinthian columns, which 
belonged to the first perizonium, were, in Constantine's time, when the 
building began to decay, taken away and built into the church of San Paolo 
fuori le mure. The places for the sarcophagus and the funeral urns of the 
deceased of the imperial family, were partly in the vault of the square 
substructure, partly in the great hall that occupies the middle part of the 
building. A staircase in the wall of the tower led to the upper platform 
of the monument, upon which the roof was stretched in the form of a tent. 
Other authorities remove the roof and set upon the platform a little round 
temple of Hadrian, and say that the 24 columns in the Church of St. Paul 
formed the peripteros of the temple. There is one passage in Herodian 
which favors this idea, speaking of the urn of Septimius Severus which was 
placed in a temple upon the mausoleum of Hadrian, where reposed the 
remains of Marcus and other friends of Hadrian. 

Hadrian's Yilla Tiburtina (Tivoli) was thirty miles in circumference, and 
contained buildings for which the imperial recollections of travel supplied 
names, as the Lyceum, the Academy, the Prytaneum, the Poekile, the 
Canopus, &c. There was also a vale of Tempe, and a Hades. The ruins 
are constantly explored, and new antiquities brought to light. In the 
middle ages two huge limekilns stood here, that did nothing but convert the 
marble remains into lime. The walls, robbed of their facing, revealed the 
network {reticulatum) and brick-work very neatly executed, and many cast 
vaults made of little stones and lime. 

Hadrian's architectural achievements in the provinces, and especially in 
Athens, were very great. The arch of honor yet standing shows their 
character. This had on one side the inscription, " This is Athens, the old 
city of Theseus," and on the other, " This is the city of Hadrian, and not 
of Theseus." On this side of the arch lay that part of the city which 
Hadrian had adorned and almost rebuilt. We have already mentioned 

87 



88 ARCHITECTURE. 

how entirely . the emperor achieved his purpose, in our reference to the 
restoration of the temples of the Olympian Jupiter by Cossutius, of that of 
Jupiter Panhellenius, and of Juno. Hadrian built also a great deal in Egypt, 
where he founded the town of Antinoe. 

12. Ain^oNiNus Pius. The peaceful aspect of affairs which distinguished 
the government of Hadrian continued through that of Antoninus, which was 
among the happiest reigns of the Eoman empire. The culminating period 
of art had been passed, but still it was a favorable season, and already 
when consul the emperor had erected several important buildings. One of 
his first undertakings after becoming emperor was honoring his predecessor 
by the erection of a temple against the will of the senate, in the villa of 
Cicero at Puteoli, where Hadrian died. Then he restored the Grecostasis, 
where the foreign embassies were received, and the amphitheatre, and com- 
pleted the building of the mausoleum of Hadrian, and the restoration of the 
Pantheon, which had suffered by fire. The emperor had a special regard for 
-^sculapius, whose shrine of pilgrimage at Epidaurus he especially favored, 
and erected there baths, and a common sanctuary for Hygeia, ^sculapius, and 
the Egyptian Apollo, and a hospital and lying-in retreat for the inhabitants. 
He also restored the temple of JEsculapius upon the island of the Tiber (see 
page 61), and gave to the island itself that ship-form which it still retains 
in the circumference of its stone walls. 

There yet remains in Home a monument, which according to the inscrip- 
tion was dedicated to the deified Antoninus and his spouse Faustina, but 
which, we believe, was erected while he yet lived. Faustina died in the 
third year of her husband's reign, and the senate built a temple to her, an 
honor which they accorded also to Antoninus upon his death. They erected, 
however, no separate temple, but they removed the ornaments from the 
frieze of the temple of Faustina, which bore upon the architrave the name 
of the empress, and replaced them with the name of Antoninus. Plate 11, 
fig. 9, gives the general view of this temple ; fig. 10 is the ground plan, and 
'pl. 11^ figs. 11 and 12, are two Roman coins, upon which occur representations 
of the temple. The columns of the portico of this temple, which yet remain, 
are not fluted, and are built of green and mottled marble. The profiles 
upon this monument are beautiful, the execution careful, and the reduction 
of the columns is in a straight line. There were six columns in front and 
three on the sides. The foundation is 15 feet high, and has 21 steps ; the 
columns are 4 feet, 6 inches in diameter, and 43 feet, 8|- inches high. 
The monument itself is now mostly built into the church of San Lorenzo 
in Miranda, and was in the Yth century a Christian basilica. The walls 
were built of tufa, and were formerly faced with marble. 

13. Marcus Aurelius, L. Yerus, Coivoiodus. The prolonged reign of 
Marcus Aurelius, a man remarkable in every respect, who took L. Yerus 
as his colleague, offers little for remark in the history of architecture; 
either because his government was disturbed by many misfortunes, or 
because the Stoic philosophy to which the emperor attached himself 
engrossed his attention to the detriment of art. He was not deficient in 
knowledge of the subject, for he was himself a painter. Aurelius and Yerus 

88 



ARCHITECTURE. 89 

dedicated to their father Antoninus a memorial column of one huge granite 
block upon a pedestal of white marble. Tlie bronze statue of the deified 
emperor stood upon the summit. During the middle ages the column which 
stood upon the Campus Martins fell, and remained buried in rubbish until 
it was discovered by chance. The attempt was made to erect it again, but 
by an unhappy chance the cables took fire, the column again fell, and 
was broken into many pieces. The pedestal is now in the Museum Pio 
Clementino. Lucius Yerus built himself a magnificent villa not far from 
Eome on the Yia Claudia, where many marble remains have been excavated. 
To this time also belong many fine structures which a private citizen, 
Herodes Atticus, the teacher of Yerus, erected, and which we have already 
partly enumerated during our glance at Athens (page 41). 

But if Marcus Aurelius in his own person achieved little in architecture, 
there were a multitude of monuments erected in his honor. In the 17th 
century there yet stood in Rome a triumphal arch of this emperor, which 
was destroyed because it narrowed the Corso. The sculptures taken from it, 
representing the victory of Marcus Am^elius over the Marcomanni, are now 
in the capitol. The second monument is the great triumphal column where- 
upon, as on the column of Trajan, the campaigns of the emperor against 
the Marcomanni and Quadi are represented. Upon the summit stood the 
statue of the emperor, which has been since replaced by that of the apostle 
Paul. PI. V^^fig. 31, gives the general view of this column; jig. 32, its 
section; fig. 34, the statue which formerly stood upon it; fig. 33, the 
horizontal section through the column ; fig. 35 ^ and ^ are coins upon which 
the column occurs ; and fig. 36, is the perspective view of the place 
upon which it stands, with the adjacent temple of Marcus Aurelius, which 
had 8 Corinthian columns in front and 11 on the sides, and of which 11 
columns and a part of the cella remain. The frieze is smooth and convex, 
and the whole indicates an already declining art. So also the column 
which is 15 feet thick below, and with the statue is 176 feet high, 
although of great im^portance to history, is yet not to be compared with its 
type, the column of Trajan ; for it is not nearly so well cut, and its sculptures 
are of a much inferior style. 

The last mentioned monuments belong to the reign of Commodus, the 
unworthy son of Marcus Aurelius, and are almost the only ones of that 
time. Even these were not wholly finished during his reign. 

Let us revert now, upon the threshold of declining art, to the architectural 
achievements from Augustus to Antoninus. They are certainly greater than 
those of any other age, nor could any other government than imperial Pome 
have performed them. The colossal was the order of the day. The most 
costly material was collected from every quarter, and no limits were pre- 
scribed to the architect, except such as his own genius and will imposed. 
Temples of great size and magnificence, and of new forms, were erected ; 
and the fora were adorned with basilicas, temples, memorial columns, and 
libraries. To the Julian period the Augustan soon associated itself, then 
that of Domitian, and at last the splendid era of Trajan. Pome had its 
coliseum, and the ruins of similar buildings meet the eye frequently in other 

89 



90 ARCHITECTURE. 

regions, as in Capua, Pozzuoli, Pola, Yerona, Msmes. The baths were 
a species of building not seen before. Marcus Agrippa gave the example ; 
then followed the splendid works of I^qyo, Titus, the Suranian of Trajan, 
and the Cleandrian under Commodus. Kome had public colonnades earlier, 
but they did not approach in beauty to those of Agrippa, Augustus, or Kero. 
In respect of palaces we can hardly mention the Palatine of Domitian 
with the golden house of ISTero ; and the villas of Tiberius at Capri, 
Domitian's Albanum, Trajan's villa, the Lorium of Antonine, appear 
insignificant in comparison with Hadrian's sumptuous villa at Tivoli. 

We must add to these, the sepulchral monuments and memorial arches. 
Triumphal and memorial arches, even temples, are now more common in 
Rome and in the provinces, and are adorned upon all sides with the most 
costly bas-reliefs. Memorial columns rise on every hand, and surpass even 
the obelisks in height. Augustus and Caligula imported the last from 
Egypt, and even Constantine had one brought to Rome. Yet, near the 
columns of Trajan and of Marcus Aurelius, they lose all importance. If 
we now include the roads and bridges in and about Rome and the provinces, 
we shall have an idea of the grandeur of art during this period. 

There was abundance of the best material, and a great number of buildings, 
the style in most of which was masterly, yet less in the Doric and Ionic 
than in the splendid Corinthian capitals. There was, however, no lack of 
empirics who obtruded everyw^here, and treated art arbitrarily. The rage 
for novelty was also dangerous to architecture, and names like Severus, 
Celer, and Apollodorus are of rare occurrence at any period. Among the 
emperors who fostered art, Hadrian deserves the first place ; and his reign, in 
the history of art, marks the era of the last efiPorts towards the sublime. 

14. Septimius Sevekus. The disturbances consequent upon the assassina- 
tion of Commodus interrupted every architectural enterprise. Pertinax and 
his three successors were only apparitions upon the theatre of universal 
empire, until Septimius Severus at length assumed the government, and as a 
warrior and educated man, undertook many works of importance for the 
improvement of the city. He was also engaged in restorations. To his 
larger works belongs a very large temple of Bacchus and Hercules, of whose 
site, however, no trace remains. But there are two monuments in honor of 
this emperor and of his fortunate Oriental campaigns. The largest is a 
triumphal arch which the people and the senate dedicated to the em- 
peror and to his sons, 203 a. d. I^L 17, Jig. 20, shows the section of this 
work. It lies opposite the Capitoline hill, and was built of blocks of 
Pentelican marble without cement. It is entirely preserved, although 
it has often suffered from fire. The whole height is about 56 feet, the 
breadth Y2 feet, and the depth about 22 feet. It has three openings, of 
which the middle is the largest, and on each side stand four fluted columns 
of the Composite order, disengaged, and with pilasters behind them. 
These columns are 2 feet, 10 inches in diameter, and rest upon pedestala 
which on three sides have bas-reliefs representing captive enemies. The 
entablature, which is supported by the columns, formerly bore statues 
in the same manner as the arch of Constantine {pi. lY, Jig. 21). The 
90 



ARCHITECTURE. 91 

archivolts are in a pure and handsome style. The middle arch is 38 feet high 
by 22 feet span. The little arches are 23 feet high and about 10^ wide. 
The arches have beautiful deep panels with rosettes. The three arches 
communicate with each other through little doors which are also arched. 
The keystones of the great arch are adorned with armed warriors, and 
the archivolts with Genii of Glory with trophies ; those of the smaller ones 
with Yictorieswith palm branches. Over the little arches there is between 
the columns, first a frieze with a triumphal procession, and over that 
bas-reliefs with many figures representing battle scenes, indifferently exe- 
cuted. Here the decline of art that distinguished this period is very 
evident. There are no bas-reliefs upon the great frieze or the attic. In 
the interior of the arch is a staircase leading to a platform, upon which, 
formerly, was a triumphal chariot with six horses abreast, upon which 
stood statues of Septimius Severus, Caracalla, and Geta. The money changers 
and traders erected a little triumphal arch in honor of the emperor 
serving as an entrance to the Forum Boarium. Here Severus was represented 
with his wife Julia, and his sons Caracalla and Geta sacrificing. But later, 
after Caracalla had murdered his brother Geta, he carried his hatred to the 
degree of removing his figure from this bas-relief. 

An important building of the emperor Septimius Severus was the Septi- 
zonium, of which^Z. IS^Jig. 10, gives the general view. The emperor erected 
it as a family sepulchre on the Appian Way. His funeral urn was not, how- 
ever, placed here, but in the tomb of the Antonines, i. e. of Hadrian, but 
the body of Geta was buried here. ISTothing remains of this building, but 
Martianus has left a description of it, from the extensive ruins existing in 
his time. There were seven tiers of columns one over the other, but according 
to others there were only three stories with seven rows of columns. 

Sixtus Y. took a great many yellow marble columns from this monument 
for St. Peter's. It seems as if the vision of the Tower of Baal at Babylon 
had floated before the minds of the builders of this monument, and of 
Hadrian's mausoleum. 

Septimius Severus built also a great number of splendid dwelling-houses, 
which he presented to his friends. One of these houses was called the 
Palace of the Parthians, and another the Lateran. The Pantheon, the Porch 
of Octavia, and the temple of Jupiter Tonans, were repaired by him. 

15. Cakacalla. Upon the buildings which bear the name of Septimius 
Severus appears also that of his son Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius, for 
he received the name Caracalla from the tabard which he wore, and which 
he enjoined his soldiers to wear. To the buildings which he independ- 
ently erected belong preeminently the baths, whose walls yet remain, and which 
bear witness to the extent of the undertaking, which seems to have surpassed 
all similar ones. The masonry is of brick, and looks as in its best days. 
The vaults are all cast work, made, however, not of tufa but of pumice ; and 
are firm and light, for which reason they do not weigh heavily upon 
their supports. Some of them were so flat that it was supposed they had a 
metal support within. They now lie in rubbish, and it is evident that there 
was no metal, but that they held by their own lightness. The excavated 

91 



92 ARCHITECTURE. 

remains indicate the magnificence of these baths. Eight huge granite 
columns have been discovered, which supported the great hall, and of 
which one now stands in Florence, upon the Piazza Trinita. Here also 
were found the two marble reservoirs that now adorn the fountains upon the 
Piazza Farnese in Pome. From here too came the Farnese Hercules, the 
Flora, and the well known group of the Farnese Bull. 

Caracalla was much devoted to the Egyptian worship, for which reason 
Isis and Serapis, which had formerly only a shrine, were now elevated to the 
dignity of several temples ; and to this time also belongs the restoration of the 
temple of Serapis in Pozzuoli, of which we have already spoken (page 74), 
and of which ^Z. IS^ Jig. 9, gives the ground plan. 

16. HELiOGABALrs. We should no more have mentioned this emperor 
than we did Macrinus and his son, if he had not committed the folly of 
making the Syrian god Helagabal the Poman national god, and of erecting 
to him a temple and a chapel, and if he had not built a hall of council for 
women, in which they were to deliberate on matters of female dress and 
other frivolities. The hall was situated upon the Quirinal, and the remains of 
the walls are yet visible in the garden of the Palace Colonna. The emperor 
also restored the amphitheatre that had suifered from fire. 

IT. Alexander Severus. This emperor loved the arts and sciences, and 
was himself versed in mathematics and painting. He erected rooms for scien- 
tific lectures, and paid teachers especially for them. The forum of IsTerva 
{pi. 13, Jigs. 16 and 17) he adorned with the statue of the deified emperor, 
and in his private chapel (Lararium) he had a separate room for the portraits 
of such men as were famous for their writings or life. Here were Yirgil, 
Cicero, Apollonius of Tyana, Abraham, and Christ. The latter he reckoned 
among the gods, and intended to build him a temple. He restored the 
theatre of Marcellus, the great circus, and the amphitheatre ; and he com- 
pleted the stoa in the baths of Caracalla. An important building of this 
emperor was the Basilica Alexandrina, in the neighborhood of the Campus 
Martins. It was 100 feet broad and 1000 feet long, and rested entirely 
upon columns, and seems, therefore, to have been a stoa. This emperor 
erected at Ostia a round temple {pi. 12^ Jig. 15, general view ',Jig. 16, section) 
to Portumnus, the tutelar god of harbors. This temple was a beautiful 
peripteros, surrounded by 24 Corinthian columns, and is the first in which 
the architrave and entablature are superseded by arches, and vaults and 
where, consequently, the colonnade has no straight ceiling. The masonry 
is brick, and has been faced with marble ; the dome finely vaulted and 
garnished with very beautiful ornaments, but not cassetted. 

18. The Empeeoes from Maximus to Gallienus. The emperors that 
follow had, by the general short duration of their reigns, little inclination to 
busy themselves with the arts, which consequently fell more and more into 
decay. For this reason we shall include in one period the interval between the 
years 235 and 261 of our era, as the buildings then erected are neither im- 
portant nor of great architectural value. Properly, Gordianus was the only 
one who built at all. He erected his family palace and then his villa on the 
Praenestine Way, in which was a colonnade which had 200 columns, of which 
92 



ARCHITECTURE. 93 

50 were of Carlan, 50 of Claudian, 50 of Synnadian, and 50 of ^N'umidian 
marble, and every one of these consisted of a single block. Also three 
basilicas, each with 100 columns, were in this villa, and the baths yielded in 
magnificence only to those of Home. 

19. GrALLiENus. Under the feeble Gallienus full confusion broke over the 
Roman empire. The border inhabitants rose, whilst in the interior strife of 
long duration commenced between the commanders of the legions. At this 
time also the temple of Diana at Ephesus fell into decay, which, since its 
restoration in the time of Alexander the Great, had for 600 years excited the 
wonder of the world. It was plundered and burned by the Goths. In Rome 
there were very few and unimportant buildings completed under this emperor, 
whose chief ambition was to be a great poet. In Yerona, however, there are 
some monuments which we must refer to this time. The first is a city gate, 
with two arches surmounted by two stories, each consisting of six arched win- 
dows. The second story is adorned with columns which are fluted in a spiral 
form, of which style this is the first example. The third story has pilasters 
which stand upon projecting consoles, also a new style. According to the 
inscription upon the gate, it was erected at the same time with the city 
walls, 265 A. D., of which, however, there are few remains {'pl. 18, figs. 1", 
elevation ; fig, 19^, plan.) The other monuments are also gates, somewhat 
similar to that described, but adorned with columns, and in an inferior 
style. To this time also belongs the arch of Gabius in Yerona, of which 
we have already spoken (page 81), and of which jpl. 11^ fig. 17^, and'', give 
the elevation and ground plan. 

20. Claudius Gothicus. This emperor reigned too short a time to build 
anything, but he reigned so well that almost all the cities aimed at perpetuat- 
ing his memory by gates of honor. The senate of Rome placed his golden 
statue, ten feet high, before the temple of the Capitoline divinities, and a 
silver statue of the emperor weighing 1500 pounds upon the tribune of 
the Forum. 

21. AuKELiAiT. This emperor acted energetically and reduced the border 
population to tranquillity ; yet the feeling of the weakness of the metropolis 
was so great that it was the first care of the emperor to surround it with 
strong walls. We have treated of these walls among Military Sciences (Yol. 
n. p. 618). See Plates Division Y., pi. 43, figs. 6—9, and pi. 42, figs. 
19, 20. 

The chief building which this emperor erected in Rome was the temple 
of the deity of the Sun, whose temple in Palmyra he had restored, when 
his soldiers had injured and plundered the building, proving also in Rome 
the honor in which he held this god. He placed in this temple besides 
the statue of the Sun, that of Belus also, and probably the temple was 
arranged in the interior like that of Palmyra. PI. 15, fig. 8, shows the outer 
view, and pi. 16, fig. 15, the ground plan of the Temple of the Sun in 
Rome. According to P. Yictor, this temple lay in the 7th district, which in- 
cluded a part of the Quirinal hill. The modern topographers of Rome may 
therefore be right in asserting that the remains of the rich marble entablature 
found in the gardens of the Colonna in Rome belong to this temple. 

93 



94 ARCHITECTURE. 

The temple was not accessible upon all sides, being built with its back 
against another building, as the remains of walls and substructures show, 
which Serlio and Palladio saw, but of which nothing more now remains. 
The plan of the temple cannot be given with certainty. Our drawings 
are made according to Palladio's report, who saw the most of it and drew a 
restoration of it, and according to the idea of Canina. The temple itself 
stood in a great court, whose rear side was formed by the above men- 
tioned walls of other buildings. On both sides were walls with semi- 
circular niches with statues, and a similar wall inclosed the front side imtil 
the Baths of Constantine were erected there. The temple is a pseudo- 
dipteros with three rows of columns in front of the cella, of which the fore- 
most had 12, the two others only 6 columns standing behind the first, 
third, and fifth columns of the fi-ont on both sides of the door. This 
arrangement is unusual, and indicates a considerable decline of art. In the 
interior the temple was a hypsethros, for Yitruvius states that all temples 
.which are dedicated to the Sun must admit the sunlight from above. As 
the great height of the temple necessitated two tiers of columns one over 
the other, galleries were built on both sides which extended round upon the 
fore and rear walls. These galleries were ascended by means of staircases in 
the vestibule of the temple. It is probable that the acroteria at the top of 
the gable was adorned with the statue of Helios in his chariot drawn by the 
horses of the sun. 

22. Tacitus, Peobtjs to DiocLETLA:t;r. Tacitus was too old and reigned too 
short a time to undertake any great works, but he prosecuted the work of 
the Forum of Ostia, commenced by Aurelian, and sent thither, at his own 
expense, one hundred columns of l^umidian marble, 23 feet long. Upon 
the site of his own house in Rome he erected baths, and sold his property 
in Mauritania in order to improve, with the proceeds, the Capitoline temple. 
Probus undertook the construction of several highways and hydraulic 
works, upon which he employed the legions that they might not be idle 
in time of peace. This, however, was the occasion of his death ; for the 
soldiers who did not wish to work, slew the emperor, and afterwards 
erected a monument in his honor. 

Of the emperors who succeeded Probus we have nothing to remark until 
the reign of Diocletian, who was a prince no less valiant than active, and 
completed important buildings in Pome, Milan, Carthage, and Mcomedia. 
Of Diocletian's architectural activity the most striking proofs are the Baths 
in Rome, the Yilla of Salona, and the column in Alexandria. The Baths 
of Diocletian were only commenced by that emperor and were com- 
pleted under Constantine and Galerius, but were nevertheless named from 
their founder. The ruins of this structure are very extensive, and give a 
better idea of the style of these magnificent buildings than the ruins of the 
Baths of Caracalla. The great circular hall, xystiis^ as the middle point of 
the edifice, has yet the eight great granite columns which supported the 
cross-vault, and of which we have shown the beautiful Composite capitals 
in pi. 19, fig. 15. This hall now forms one of the most beautiful of the 
Roman churches, viz. Madonna degli Angeli alle Ccrtosa {pi. 46, fig. 19, 
94 



ARCHITECTURE. 95 

ground plan, and Jig. 24 section). There are yet visible the main entrance 
with the rooms where bathers undressed, the various bath halls, and 
the site of the swimming pond. In the outer circumference, the site of the 
theatre, two libraries and two round temples, one of which was dedicated 
to Mercury and the other to Hercules, are still discernible. Here, too, 
belongs the Doric capital which we have represented in pi. 19^ Jig. 4. One 
of the temples with its dome remains, and serves for a church. Diocletian 
erected a hall, which he called lovia, in the neighborhood of the theatre 
of Pompey. 

Quite as considerable as the ruins of the baths are those of the villa 
of the emperor at Spalatro, the old Salona, whither the emperor with- 
drew on his abdication, to repose after his reign of twenty-five years. 
It is evident from the extent and arrangement of these ruins that not a body- 
guard merely surrounded the emperor in his philosophical retreat, but a large 
retinue, for a great part of the building seems to have been adapted for 
dependants. There are also the remains of a Pantheon and of a tem- 
ple of Jupiter as well as a chapel of ^sculapius. The halls and 
large and small rooms, the arcades, basilicas, baths, and all the arrange- 
ments which the conveniences of an imperial palace demand, are very 
multifarious. 

But size and splendor could not supply the want of a high art, whose 
decline the buildings of Diocletian all evince. Not only were the columns 
set upon pedestals, but even upon projecting consoles ; and instead of straight 
architraves there are everywhere arches. The order is almost entirely the 
Corinthian or the Composite, overloaded with ornaments, while the capitals 
are thin, stiff, and graceless. The proportions are defective everywhere, 
the cornices being too high, the friezes convex, and the architraves 
having only two fillets and a clumsy cyma. The doors are broad and 
low, and are almost crushed by heavy pediments upon great consoles. 
Everything is arbitrary, and every law of art seems forgotten. As in 
Palmyra and Baalbec exuberance and extravagance prevail, so the buildings 
of Gallienus and of Diocletian indicate the weakness and poverty of age. 
In place of a beautiful architectural art, there is a miserable empiricism. 

23. CoNSTANTiNE AND HIS Family. We uow approach the point which 
we regard as the limit of the architecture of genuine antiquity. Constantine 
is still a conspicuous figure in the history of the world. In battle he was no less 
fortunate than brave ; and when after a protracted contest with his rivals he 
found himself at the head of his kingdom, he consecrated the last ten years 
of his life exclusively to internal affairs. Yet we can here consider his 
activity only in so far as it is necessary to the knowledge of the state of art 
of his time, and briefly mention what was accomplished with regard to it 
under him and his immediate successors. 

When Constantine, after the death of Constantius in the year 306 
A. D., assumed the command in Gaul, and had secured the borders 
against invasion from that direction, he marched against the internal foes, and 
the decisive battle near Rome made him master of the metropolis. The fine 
arch in Rome is still the witness of this triumph. It was decreed to him by 

95 



96 ARCHITECTURE. 

the Senate and the people, and is the only monument among the buildings of 
Home attributable with certainty to the time of Constantine. But in fact 
no monument is so well adapted as this to show the melancholy state into 
which architecture and the plastic arts had then fallen. PI. 18, fig. 13, 
gives the elevation; fig. 14, the ground plan, and jpl. lY, fig. 21, the 
section of this arch. The monuments of earlier emperors, with their orna- 
ments, furnished the material. The main proportions of the structure, 
which on the whole are yet very beautiful, were apparently taken from 
another triumphal arch, as well as most of the bas-reliefs, and the statues 
placed over the columns. The great bulk of the work is of marble. Tlie 
work of the columns indicates the time of Hadrian, the statues and bas- 
reliefs are of the time of Trajan, Hadrian, and Antonine ; only the strips 
under the round bas-reliefs bear sculptures which have reference to 
Constantine and the conquest of Rome. Besides these, the Yictories in the 
archi volts and on the pedestals of the columns belong to that time. 

All these sculptures, however, at once impress the spectator with the decline 
of art ; and the incorrect proportions and clumsy execution of the cornices 
have the same effect. At the same time, Constantine dedicated the basilica 
named after him, which his predecessor Maxentius had begun to build ; and 
he likewise adorned the circus and built the baths which bear his name. 

To this time also belongs, to judge from the architecture, the monument 
existing in Treves called the Porta Nigra, which probably belonged to the 
fortifications, and was perhaps the residence of the commander of the fortress. 
The monument of the Secundians near Igel, not far from Treves and the 
Rhine Bridge of Cologne, of which the remains are visible at low tide be- 
tween Cologne and Deutz, as well as the bridge over the Danube (probably 
its remains are near the Iron Gate, see page 84), were all buildings by 
Constantine. His great undertaking, however, was the foundation of a new 
residential city, whose progress he fostered so cordially, that the new Rome 
(which name it long bore in common with the name Constantinopolis) 
was ready for dedication in the 25th year of his reign, 330 A. D. 

Constantine comprehended the tendencies of his age, and the dangers that 
had long threatened the kingdom were not concealed from him. Only some 
great reform could avail against them, and the emperor was obliged to 
oppose a new city to the overgrown metropolis, and thus as it were reduce 
the queen of cities to the rank of other cities. A new form of government 
was connected with this change, and Constantine introduced it by separating 
the municipal power which the general had hitherto exercised in the pro- 
vinces from the military, appointing special officials for every part of the 
civil administration, and confining the generals to the army. In the same 
way the emperor struck at the power of the Roman senate, taking with 
him into the new residence many of the most distinguished families, and 
giving them positions there, forming a court, offices, and titles, and so creating 
an aristocracy dependent upon himself alone. Finally, the emperor, induced 
by the great number of converts to the Christian religion, in order to obtain 
a new support, put himself at the head of the movement, and by his 
countenance controlled tlje councils of the church. 
93 



ARCHITECTURE. 97 

Architectonically the new Home was only a phantom of the old. The 
magnificence of the latter was the fruit of many years of the prime of 
the empire and of art. In Constanthie's time the latter had declined. The 
colossus of the empire yet stood, but the springs of vitality were dried up. 
The emperor consequently, to build anew, was obliged to destroy the old. 
The tolerance of the Christian religion was proclaimed, and the old system 
fell, and with it fell all of artistic greatness and glory which the people had 
hitherto achieved, to serve as material for the new order. Only the techni- 
cality remained, and this was poor and awkward. Originally, the new 
city was to have been placed between Troas and Ilium, and the ground was 
even surveyed, and the marking out of the walls commenced, when 
the emperor altered his plan and chose the much more eligible site of 
Byzantium, w^here he had the further advantage that Byzantium was already 
a city, needing only improvements. Thus it could after a few years com- 
pete with Rome. 

Although the building of many Christian churches is ascribed to Constan- 
tine, yet the real number must be very small ; for on the one hand, Con- 
stantine did not adopt the Christian religion until he was quite old, and 
on the other hand, all the churches contained columns from the heathen 
temples, and the yet vigorous power of the priests would not then have 
allowed free play to such vandalism, and the destruction of the buildings. 
But that Constantine's immediate successors, and even members of his own 
family, executed such works, appears from the church of St. Agnes, which 
Constantine's daughter, Constantia, built. It is a three-aisled basilica {jpl, 
27, fig. 14, view ; jpl. 46, fig. 16, ground plan) of beautiful proportions but 
built of fragments, having columns of the Composite and Corinthian orders, 
and of various kinds of marble. Instead of straight architraves, arches are 
everywhere employed. At this time also was built the mausoleum of Helena, 
the sister of Constantine, on the I^omentanian Way. It was a circular 
edifice in the form of the Pantheon, with seven niches in the interior, and 
a vestibule of four columns. In this mausoleum was the beautiful porphyry 
sarcophagus, with bas-reliefs representing fighting horsemen and captive 
barbarians, which now stands in the museum Pio Clementino. Some author- 
ities ascribe this sarcophagus not to Helena the sister, but to Helena the 
mother of Constantine. Ammianus Marcellinus, however, tells us that a 
sarcophagus adorned with wreaths of plants, figures of children representing 
genii, a peacock, and a lamb, was found in a circular edifice like the former, 
which contained the grave of Constantine's mother. Pius YI. had the 
sarcophagus brought to the Museum of the Yatican, 

7. The Oedeks. 

Before we proceed to the architectural history of the middle ages, 
it will be necessary to say a few words upon the five orders of columns. 
As we remarked in our sketch of the architecture under the Roman emperors, 
all rules had fallen into oblivion with the decline of art towards \\\q 
close of that period. The buildings of the period betray an uncei-tainty 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPEDIA. VOL. IV. 7 97 



98 ARCHITECTURE. 

in tlie choice of columns, cornices, and ornaments, and too often the most 
unfitting details are united to a whole which seems then only a patchwork, 
in which all harmonious arrangement is wanting. The artists felt this when 
art gradually awoke from its long sleep, and they perceived the need of 
again investigating the old rules of art. They had no other material upon 
which to base their researches than the remains of those ancient buildings 
that were then in tolerable preservation, and we hence find such artists as 
Raphael and Michel Angelo zealously busying themselves to form their taste 
upon the antique monuments, and to measure and draw their details. They 
were afterwards imitated by such architects as Palladio, Serlio, Alberti, 
Scamozzi, and Yignola, and so gradually arose from the study of the old 
monuments the five orders, the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and 
Roman or Composite. But as those artists did not extend their re- 
searches beyond Italy, we might even say beyond the immediate pre- 
cincts of Rome, we find in them references only to the Roman style of 
building, and the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders of the Greeks are 
altogether disregarded. 

Although the organization of the orders as such is truly the work of the 
age of the Renaissance^ and although the results of the investigations of 
Yignola, as well as of his co-laborers Palladio, Serlio, and Scamozzi, 
who lived in the 16th century, ought to be mentioned in their chronological 
order, yet it seems proper to consider the various orders in this place, 
as they appear to have been the result of the profound study of the architec- 
tural remains of Roman antiquity. 

Although the various orders as they were classified by these four archi- 
tects often differ materially, according to the artistic knowledge and taste of 
the designer, or according to his predilection for a special monument, yet 
in the following remarks we shall confine ourselves to the orders of Yignola. 
They have for centuries, by universal consent, taken precedence of those 
of the other authorities, and were even the only ones considered classic 
by architects, until a better acquaintance with the architecture of ancient 
Greece proved the existence of something higher in art than Roman 
architecture. 

To an order belongs, 1, the column, with its base and capital; 2, the 
entablature, consisting of architrave, frieze, and cornice ; 3, the pedestal ; 
4, the parts necessary to the arches between the columns, that is, the 
impost with its cornice, the arch with its mouldings, and the inter- 
columniation. "We shall describe these various parts in each of the orders. 
The measure of which we avail ourselves in the account of the single 
parts of the orders is the modulus^ that is, half the diameter of the 
lower part of the column, an absolute measure, inasmuch as it may 
be employed upon every column, whether large or small, provided its 
lower diameter be known. The module of the order may be found 
when the whole height has been determined. Tims, for example, the 
Tuscan column has in height 14 modules, and with pedestal and enta- 
blature 21 modules, 9 parts {j?l. 20, fig. 1). We remark here that the 
module is divided, according to Yignola, into 12 parts, and each part into 
98 



ARCHITECTURE. ^9 

4: minutes. Other architects divide the module into 24, even into 30 
parts ; Wiebeking, for instance, into 50 minutes. We, however, follow the 
division of Yignola. If then we know that a Tuscan order to be employed 
is 21 feet, 9 inches, in height, the module will be = 1 foot, and the lower 
diameter of the column be = 2 feet. If the order is 43 feet, 6 inches high, 
then the module will be = 2 feet, and the lower diameter = 4 feet, from 
which the module measure may be derived for all details. The Doric 
column is 16 modules, and the whole order ^jpl. 20, fig. 2) 25 modules, 4 
parts in height. The Ionic order {fig. 3) is 28 modules, 6 parts, the column 
alone 18 modules. The Corinthian order {fig. 4) as well as the Eoman or 
Composite {fig. 5) is 32 modides, the columns alone 20 modules in height. 

1. The Tuscan Order. The Tuscan order is that which the Etruscans 
employed in their buildings, and although, as we have already remarked, 
there were many buildings of this style in Rome, yet no traces of them have 
come down to us. Yignola was thus obliged to create his Tuscan order, 
although he cleaves to the slightest trace of it in the works of Yitruvius. 
PI. ^l.ffig. 1, represents the Tuscan column arrangement, and we see from 
the accompanying numbers that the shaft of the column has 12 modules, 
base and capital 1 module, and the entablature one fourth of the whole height, 
consequently 4|- modules. This relative height of the entablature Yignola 
adopts in all his orders. PI. 20, fig. 6, shows the column arrangement with 
arches, according to which the breadth of the arches between the imposts is 
5i modules, and the height of the keystone of the arch is 1 module, whereby 
the point of commencement of the impost cornice, a {fig. Y), and the archi- 
volt 5, are readily determined. PI. 23, fig. 1, gives the Tuscan arrange- 
ment of arches with pedestals to the columns, where the distance from centre 
to centre of the columns is 12f modules, but the span of the arch 8f 
modules. Thereby, the breadth of the imposts is given ; so is their height, 
since the archivolt of the arch = 1 module. PI. 22, fig. 1, shows the 
detailed construction of the Tuscan capital and entablature, where the 
architrave, a, is = 1 module ; the frieze, ^, = 1 module, 2 parts ; and the 
cornice, c, = 1 module, 2 parts high, d, is the under view of the cornice ; 
B, the capital of the column c, 1 module high, of which e is the under view. 
These details determine the reduction of the column as being from 2 
modules to 1 module, 7 parts. The numbers in the figure show the various 
heights and projections. PI. 20, fig. 7, shows, in a, the upper view of the 
half column, and of the pedestal; in b, the impost with its cornice, a., 
and the archivolt, h. At a is the view of the pedestal and of the base, 
with their heights and projections accurately represented. The Tus- 
can order has the character of simplicity. It has been employed, among 
other architects, by Le Brosse, in the Palais Luxemburg, by Le Mercier upon 
the Palais Royal in Paris, and by Mansard in the Orangery at Yersailles. 

2. The Doric Order. Yignola composed two Doric orders, one with 
dentals, the other with modillions, which harmonize with each other in 
the important points, and differ much in detail. For the first style Yignola 
seems to have taken the Doric order of the theatre of Marcellus in Rome as 
his type ; whilst the other was founded upon the remains discovered at 

99 



100 ARCHITECTURE. 

Albano. The Doric order has its difficulties, on account of the placing of 
the triglyphs in the frieze, for which reason it is not adapted to all columnar 
distances, as in many the relation of the metopes to the triglyphs would be 
untrue. The placing of the columns and the entablature respectively, are 
shown in jpl, 21, fig. 3, where it appears that in this case, the columns 
from centre to centre must have distances of T-g- modules if the metopes and 
triglyphs are to be true. In the arrangement of columns with arches i^jpl. 
23, fig. 2), the distance must be 10 modules, so that, as 1 triglyph and 
1 meto]3e require a space of 2^ modules, 2 triglyphs and 2 metopes may 
find place ; and in the same way in the arrangement of columns upon 
pedestals, and with arches, the distance must be 15 modules to accom- 
modate 2 more triglyphs, and 2 more metopes. PI. 21, fig. 2, gives the 
details of the entablature, capital, and of the upper part of the shaft of the 
column of the dental style, in which the reduction of the column to 1 module, 
8 parts, may be seen ; and the remaining measures to the complete draw- 
ing of this order may be partly read, and partly calculated from the 
adjoining scale, a is the under view of the half column and of the half 
capital, whence it may be seen that the abacus is square and the echinus 
round. In b is presented the under view of the entablature, with the 
ornament of the under view of the corona. PI. 22, fig. 3, on the 
other hand, represents the entablature, and the upper part of the 
column of the Doric order of the modillion style. Here, instead of the 
dental, the arrangement of the modillion style is evident, and more plainly 
in the under view a. The measurements are here also sufficiently indicated, 
so that we need not enlarge upon them. Fig. 2 represents the Doric 
basis and the Doric pedestal in the front view, and below, the half upper 
view of the same. In a, there is a part of the impost, with its 
cornice, and the archivolt, one module broad, w^hich, reckoning from 
without inwards, consists of a supercilium, a torus, a socle, and two 
stripes. The Doric order of the dental style is especially adapted for 
external decoration, on account of the strength of the profile, and of the 
broad projection of the corona, through which the rain water is carried clear 
of the building ; and on the other hand the modillion style is peculiarly 
adapted to vestibules, galleries, halls, &c. PI. 12^ fig. 4, shows the capital 
of the order of Albano, and fig. 5, that of the Baths of Diocletian at Eome, 
which Scamozzi has taken as the model of his Doric order. Many builders 
have employed the Doric order w^ithout the triglyphs, because in many cases 
it is almost impossible to obtain a proper distribution of them. So, for 
example, Bramante in the palace of the Cancelleria in Rome, Kaphael in the 
Chigi Palace, and Bernini in the great colonnade before St. Peter's in Rome, 
have omitted the triglyphs ; and, it would indeed have been very difficult 
for Bernini to have made a correct disposition of them, since the columns on 
the exterior have wider distances than those of the interior, on account of the 
circular form of the colonnade. The arrangement of Michael Angelo on 
the Farnesian Palace, that of Scamozzi on the new Procurate in Yenice, 
and that of Palladio on the basilica in Yicenza, are very regular. 

In^pl. ^O^fig. 8 J we have given an example of the Greek Doric order, 
100 



ARCHITECTURE. 101 

witli the entablature and the upper part of the shaft of the column, its under 
part with the steps upon which the columns stand, which have no base ; 
next a section through the entablature, and in a the under view of the 
corona, showing that there are modillions over the metopes, which the 
Eoman Doric order did not have. Fig. 9 shows in b the foot and 
in A the capital of the pilaster, in c the construction of the neck of the 
column, in d that of the flutings, in e the columnar distance, and on the 
lower left the construction of the astragal on the under part of the echinus. 

3. The Ionic Order. Upon the whole this is one of the most graceful 
of the orders notwithstanding many irregularities in the capitals, owing 
to its two different aspects, and which often make it a very difficult order to 
employ. The two different aspects of the capital arise from the peculiar 
position of the volutes, which are only seen in front and rear, whilst the 
sides exhibit the cushions connecting them. It w^as particularly disagree- 
able in the coroer columns, the sides being freely exposed to view. The 
Greeks tried to obviate the difficulty by placing the volutes diagonally, 
thus making them appear in the front views of two different sides. This, 
however, is only a poor expedient, as it causes an irregularity, and it is 
therefore preferable to substitute corner pillars for columns, and to give them 
caps of four equal sides. PI. 21, fig. 5, shows the simple Ionic style, 
exhibiting the rule that the whole order with the entablature should have 
22^- modules, of which the column with its base and the capital have 18. 
Fig. 4 shows the complete construction for the capital, and below on the 
left the arrangement of the eye, in order to construct the spiral of the volute 
of regular arcs only. To accomplish this, the position and size of the eye 
of the volute must first be ascertained in accordance with the measures 
given in fig. 3. ]N"ext draw the perpendicular a, b, and the horizontal line 
c, D, through the centre of the eye, construct the square a, c, b, d, and 
bisect its sides by the perpendiculars 1, 3, and 2, 4. Divide each of these 

lines into six equal parts, 1, 2, 3, 12. Prolong the line 4, l,to the 

little disk in fvg. 4, and make this the centre of the volute. Then place one 
leg of the compasses in 1 and construct a quadrant from the centre of the 
volute to the prolongation of the line 1,2; then construct from 2 with the 
new radius a quadrant to the prolongation of the line 2, 3 ; next the 
quadrants from 3 to 4, and from 4 to 5, always changing the radius accord- 
ing to the distance from the centre of the volute. To obtain the second 
spiral, ])roceed in the same manner, constructing the quadrants 5, 6 ; ^.,^i \ 
Y, 8 ; 8, 9, always changing the radius as before. The third spiral is finally 
determined by the quadrants 9, 10 ; 10, 11 ; 11, 12, and 12 to the top of the 
capital, constructed with their appropriate radii. The greatest accuracy is 
required to avoid corners, and to end the volute with the proper curve. 
The second or parallel spiral is determined in the same manner from the 
points lying one third of the distance 1-5, towards the interior from the 
former centres of construction. 

The Ionic capital contains the following mouldings (yfig. 4), a supercilium, 
A;, a foliated cyma, ^, the socle of the volute. A, a scotia, ^, an ovolo with 
the decorative serpents' eggs, serpents' tongues and arrow heads /*, a bead, 

101 



1^6 ARCHITECTURE. 

^, and a socle, d. The flutes, «, are separated by the ridges, l. PI. 22, 
fig. 5, shows the entablature and the capital of the Ionic order, the latter 
from the front and side, and in half under view. Fig. 4, gives the Ionic 
pedestal and base of the column. Under A is the impost with its cornice 
and the archivolt, which is 9J parts broad, and consists of a slab, cornice, 
and two stripes. PI. 23, fig. 4, shows the Ionic arch-arr-angement, being 
8|- modules span, to 10 J modules of clear columnar distance. Fig. 5, 
shows the same order with pedestals, where the span is eleven modules, 
by an intercolumniation of thirteen modules. All the measures are given 
in the drawing. The Ionic capital allows various ornaments ; ])l. I^^fig. 7, 
shows the simple capital of the Temple of Fortuna Yirilis in Kome ; fig. 8, 
represents an Ionic capital from the villa Borghese, in which sphinxes 
are arranged as ornaments in a very peculiar manner. 

4. The Corinthian Oedek, We have already aimed to show in the course 
of this treatise that the Corinthian order was no especial order among the 
Greeks, but that the Ionic entablature was placed upon capitals adorned in 
the Egyptian style ; that the order was not invented in Rome, and that it 
is most probably of Phoenician origin. In pi. 21, fig. Y, we have the 
simple Corinthian arrangement of columns, whence it appears that the 
intercolumniation is 4| modules in the clear, while the column with base 
and capital has 20 modules, the shaft alone 16f , and the base one. The 
entire order is 25 modules high, as here, too, Yignola has followed his 
principle of giving one fourth of the height of the column to the entabla- 
tm-e. In the Corinthian arches {pi. 23, fig. 6), the span is nine modules, 
and the columnar distance between the centres of the columns is twelve 
modules. The height of the impost is found by deducting from the height 
of the column half the span and 1 module from the archivolt. When the 
columns are placed on pedestals, the span is 12 modules, by a distance of 
16 modules, the breadth of the imposts being self-evident and their height 
as before. The entablature and capital with the upper part of the shafts 
of this order are given in j)l. 22, fig. 7, with the requisite facilities for 
calculating the proportions, a is the under view of the corona with the 
modillions. Fig. 6 gives the Corinthian pedestal and base, with the upper 
view of half these parts ; at a is the impost cornice with the archivolt, show- 
ing its mouldings, which in this order are usually decorated very richly. 

The construction of the Corinthian capital we have endeavored to 
illustrate in pi. ^l^fig. 6, where the right side gives the profile of the cup 
and leaves, whilst the left is a perspective view of the entire decoration, a 
is the under view of a diagonal half of the capital, exhibiting in the same 
manner the profile and perspective. The breadth of the ground plan is 
determined by a square whose diagonal = 4 modules. On the sides of the 
square construct equilateral triangles. The concavity of the abacus is then 
determined by the arch constructed from the apex of such a triangle with 
one of its sides for radius. The distribution of the leaves and other orna- 
ments is seen from the ground plan ; their respective heights and curves are 
given in the scale near the elevation ; and finally, the projection of the leaves 
and volutes, is determined by a straight line drawn from tbe astragal to 
102 



ARCHITECTURE. 103 

the point of the abacus, which must touch the extreme points of projection 
of all these parts. The single parts of the capital are as follows : a^ cyma 
of the abacus, the truncated corners are termed the horns of the abacus ; 5, 
slab of the abacus ; c, volute ; d^ pedicle with small leaves ; 6, large leaves ; 
y, small leaves resting on the astragal. 

The Corinthian capital admits of multifarious decorations, and we meet with 
ornaments of olive leaves, laurel leaves, parsley, acanthus, palm-leaves, and 
even of ostrich feathers. Various kinds of Corinthian capitals are shown on 
pi, 19 '.fig. 9, from the Tower of the Winds ; fig. 10, from the monument of 
Lysicrates in Athens \fig. 11, from the Palace of the Caesars, or the Temple of 
Peace ; fig. 12, from that of Jupiter Stator ; and fig. 13, from the portico 
of the Pantheon in Rome. The base also is richly ornamented. Some- 
times the flutings do not extend to the foot of the shaft, but the latter is sur- 
rounded below by a rich ornament. PI. 19 shows examples of this. 
Fig. 22 is the foot of a column from the Baths in Nismes, and fig. 23, the 
richly decorated foot of a column from the Basilica St. Praxeas in Rome, 
executed, however, in a style which we will not advocate, as it borders on 
the meretricious and does not harmonize with the slenderness of the shaft. 

5. The Composite Okdek. It was long a question whether the Composite 
order should be regarded as a peculiar one, distinctly different from the 
Corinthian, or whether, as was the case with the Ionic and Corinthian orders 
of the Greeks, both had the same entablature, and were only distinguished 
from each other by the capitals. Palladio and Scamozzi, however, classed 
those monuments which had that peculiar capital differing so essentially 
from the various Corinthian capitals, and which had originated in a com- 
bination of the Ionic and Corinthian orders, as a peculiar order, which 
they called the " Roman," and which later received the much more expres- 
sive title " Composite," or combined order, and these architects invented 
also an entablature peculiar to it. Yignola has, beyond dispute, succeeded 
best in seizing the real character of the Composite order, and in giving it a 
regularity or peculiarity more prominent than that which his predeces- 
sors had allotted to it. The chief dimensions, that is, the heights of the 
columns and capitals, the height of the entablature in its chief parts, the 
intercolumniations, and the arcades, agree entirely with the Corinthian order. 
On the other hand the proportions and arrangements of the single members 
and their decoration in many places are very different, as an attentive 
consideration of the drawings will show. PI. 'il^fig. 9, shows the simple 
arrangement of the columns in this order; pi. 23, fig. 8, the columnar 
arrangement of the same with arches; and^^. 9, the columnar arrangement 
upon pedestals and with arches. PI. 22, fig. 8, gives the view of the 
pedestals and of the lower part of the shaft of this order, with a half 
upper view of the same parts, and at A, the impost cornice and the 
archivolt of the arch, which, considered from without inwards, consists of 
a supercilium, cyma, cavetto, socle, stripe, bell-moulding, and a fillet. 
PI. 'i^.^fig. 9, shows the capital and the upper part of the shaft with indi- 
cations of the reduction and the entablature, of whose cornice the under 
view is given in A. It will be seen from the drawing that the Composite 

103 



104 ARCHITECTURE. 

order has no modillions ; but on the other hand the remaining members, 
with the exception of the height of the corona, are much more boldly pro- 
filed, especially the dentals. The construction of the Composite capital is 
illustrated in jpl. 21, fig. 8. The ground plan. A, and the elevation are 
drawn according to the accompanying measures in the manner described 
with regard to the Corinthian capital. The sole difference is this, that 
instead of the flower stalk with the little leaves and volutes, large volutes 
are here employed as in the Ionic capital, having their groove, border, and 
the echinus, with the serpent's eggs and tongues or arrow heads between 
them. The projection of the rows of leaves and of the volutes upon the 
capital is determined by the oblique line from the astragal to the horn of 
the abacus. The leaves thereby obtain a much inferior projection, as, on 
account of the height of the volutes, the leaf-coronals must be lower, for 
which reason the Composite capital often appears heavy and overladen. 
The frieze of this order, and indeed a great many of the members, admit 
of a rich decoration, and the capitals especially have at all times been 
fancifully ornamented. As examples of such capitals we give in ph. 19, 
fig. 15, the Composite capital from the great hall of the Baths of Diocletian, 
and fig. 14, a capital from the church San Pietro in Albano. The con- 
struction of the attic base, and the scotia belonging to it, which are employed 
in this order, are represented inj?Z. '^O.^figs. 13 and 14. 

6. The Balusters. The Balustrades, or Balusters, which were sometimes 
introduced between the columns, or in the attics of the new buildings, were 
constructed simply or richly according to the orders, and for the sake of 
completeness we have included the balusters according to Yignola in our 
illustrations, although they are now very rarely or never introduced. The 
design for the balusters must include that for the pedestal, which consists of 
the plinth extending under the balusters, of the cubes supplying the places 
of balusters, and of the cornice extending over all the balusters. PI. 20, 
fig. 19, are balusters and pedestals for the Tuscan order, in w^hich the 
latter receive decorations of rustic work or bossage. Fig. IT is a baluster 
for the Doric order ; fig. 18 for the Ionic ; and fig. 19, for the Corinthian 
and Composite. It will be seen that the balusters and pedestals agree with 
the orders in the symmetry, slimness, and richness of the members. At 
present iron balusters are much more common than those of heavy stone, 
as in the former greater lightness and more elegance are attained. 

7. Kedijction and Torsion of the Shaft of the Column. Columns are 
reduced in various ways. Although in the majority, and the most beau- 
tiful of antique monuments, this reduction is achieved by a straight line 
from the foot to the neck, yet there are many such buildings in which this 
is not the case, but whose columns are either cylindrical for a certain dis- 
tance upwards, and then begin to diminish, or in which the greatest strength 
is not at the base but a little way up the column, which is there somewhat 
swelled. We will here mention the two most usual ways of drawing the 
reduction. When the height of the column and its diameters at the base 
and the capital jave been determined, make the column {fig. 10) cylin- 
drical up to a third of its height, construct a semicircle upon the diameter 

104 



ARCHITECTURE. J 05 

of the column, and let fall a perpendicular line from the top of the shaft 
upon this diameter, which will intersect the semicircle in some point ; 
divide the arc thus obtained into any number of equal parts, and the upper 
two thirds of the shaft into as many equal horizontal stripes. If, then, perpen- 
diculars are erected on the various points of the arc, and prolonged until 
they strike the horizontal lines in the shaft, the points of intersection will 
mark the diameters of the reduced stripes. The other kind of reduction 
is that of a swelling of the column, that is, a reduction upwards and down- 
Avards. After the proper diameter of the column {fig. 11) and the height of 
the column are determined, give this diameter to the shaft at one third 
of its height, and erect at its extremities perpendiculars extending to the 
base and to the astragal. Prolong the diameter at one third the height, 
sideways, giving it the length of two thirds the height, and half a diameter. 
Connect the highest and lowest points of the shaft, by straight lines, with 
the end of the prolonged diameter. From the axis of the shaft mark off on 
these lines half the length of a diameter, when the points thus obtained will 
be those of the upper and lower reductions. From the apex of the triangle 
formed by the two lines and the axis of the shaft, lines may then be drawn at 
will to any number of points on the axis, and semi-diameters marked off on 
the same, when all the points thus obtained will lie in the curve of reduc- 
tion. The French architect,- Blondel, regards the first conchoid of Mco- 
medes as the curve of reduction, and gives an instrument to draw this 
conchoid. 

The twisted columns fomid in the altar of St. Peter's at Pome, in the church 
Yal de Grace in Paris, and elsewhere, can only be regarded as abortive 
creations of a sickly fancy, and as exhibitions of a vicious style. In the former 
the chevalier Bernini sinned against good taste, and Le Due imitated him 
in the latter. We give here the construction of such columns in order to 
show what trouble is taken to accomplish a paltry result {jpl. 20, fig. 12). 
To draw the twisted column you must first make the ground plan {Jig, 
13) where the smaller circle indicates the cylinder of tlie column. Divide 
this circle into eight parts, and from all the points draw parallels with the 
axis of the column. The axis of the column you divide by horizontals into 
as many times eight parts as the column has twists (generally six, conse- 
quently into forty-eight parts). The points of intersection of these lines and 
of those which were drawn parallel with the axis from the smaller circle will 
then mark the course of a twisted line, which rests upon the small cylinder. 
From the points thus obtained mark off half the diameter of the column 
outwards, when the terminal points of these horizontals will mark the exterior 
contour of the spiral. 

8. DooKS AJST) Windows. We have already stated (p. 29) that the dooi*s 
and windows must harmonize with the cornices and members of the order, 
and for this reason Yignola has sketched especial doors for each order, 
although their form and size are always dependent upon the general relations 
and particularly upon the size of the building itself. The Tuscan door is 
very simple, twice as high as broad, and framed with a cavetto and socle, 
while the lintel, whose upper surface is curved, and the jambs are adorned 

105 



106 AECHITECTURE. 

with rustic work. Bj nistic work we understand that kind of free- 
stone masonry in which the several courses of the stones are distinctly 
marked by sunk joints or grooves, either chamfered or otherwise cut. 
The ftices admit of great variety of treatment ; and, quite contrary to 
what its name literally imports, the rustic work is frequently made to show 
the very reverse of careless rudeness, namely, studied ornamentation by 
means of highly finished moulded joints ; and even when the faces are 
vermi(yidated^ or otherwise made rough, it is apparent that it is done pur- 
posely or artificially, especially when the vermiculation appears in panels 
surrounded by smooth borders. 

Yignola gives the same proportions to the Doric door as to the Tuscan, but 
lays it in a smooth wall and gives it a richer frame adorned with two stripes. 
Larger and especially magnificent doors are laid between columns, and 
receive a completed Doric entablature, surmounted sometimes by a balcony 
railing in place of an attic. As an example of such a door Yignola adduces 
the gateway which he drew for the Palace of the Cancellaria for Cardinal 
Farnese in Rome {pi. 20, fig. 15). This palace was of stones w^hich were 
taken partly from the Coliseum, partly from the Arch of Gordianus, and 
was built by Bramante for Cardinal Rafael Riario, but completed by 
Yignola. Gates must always bear the character of the buildings to which 
they belong. Tlie door for the Ionic order has a richer frame and a cornice 
similar to the Ionic entablature, and resting on consoles (hypei-thyrum). 
A very beautiful example of such doors in ancient times is the newly 
discovered door of the Erectheum upon the Acropolis of Athens. The 
Corinthian and Composite orders have doors which are richly adorned and 
finished with a cornice with modillions. The height is rather more than 
double the breadth. An example of this door is that of the church San 
Lorenzo in Damaso at Rome {fig. 14). This church, also, Bramante under- 
took at the instance of the Cardinal Riario, but Yignola completed it, for 
which reason the doors were designed by him. 

The windows have the same proportions as the doors, inasmuch as, with few 
exceptions, they are twice as high as broad. If they are arched above, their 
height exceeds double the breadth, but not by the full height of the arch. 
The windows have also frames which agree with the style of the building, 
and cornices sometimes resting upon consoles. Fonnerly they had triangular 
or arched gables over this cornice, but that error is now avoided. Sometimes 
the windows receive lower cornices with mouldings, and often resting on 
consoles. 

8. Monuments of the Gauls and Bkitons (Celts). 

"We come now to a series of monuments, which, while the antiquities of 
Eg}^t, Greece, and Rome were studied with an untiring zeal, remained 
unnoticed and unknown ; partly, perhaps, because they lay so near, and in 
part because they had no artistic value. We mean the monuments of our own 
ancestors, the Druidical and Celtic remains, which strongly remind us of 
the Cyclopean remains of Greece. The Celtic, Druidical, Gallic, and British 
106 



ARCHITECTURE. 107 

monuments consist mainly of single or several blocks of stone, put together 
with rude strength, and bear witness of the time when all finer cultivation 
was unknown to the people who erected them. From them to the period of 
an enlightened architecture there is one immense bound, for there was no 
gradual advance among tliose people who received from the Romans and 
other strangers who came and settled among them their culture and art, all 
complete. If, then, we wish to examine the style of building peculiar to 
these people, we must go back to the most remote antiquity, and begin with 
single stones. 

The use of rough stones as monuments is traceable to the earliest times, 
but they had a lofty purpose, for among more than one people they were 
honored as the symbol of the divinity. In almost all countries of the world 
such idol-stones are foimd, which were the objects of the woi*ship of the 
early races of those lands. The north, especially, abounds in them. Eng- 
land, Scotland, the Hebrides and the Orkneys, Germany, Hungary, Sweden, 
Denmark, Russia, Siberia as far as Kamtschatka, offer specimens qf them, 
as well as Tartary, Thrace, Greece, China, and the coasts of Africa. Even 
in the new world they occur. 

The Celtic monuments, so far as we know them, seem to have all served 
either for worship or sepultm-e. Only a very few appear to have been 
devoted to domestic purposes, and we shall presently endeavor to 
discover the intent of a number of them. 

A chronological order in the description of these monuments might be 
difficult to follow, for though some savans have sought to do this, yet they 
have no authority for their work, and the only point that can be taken for 
granted is, that none of these monuments were erected after the invasion of the 
Romans into those countries. All are of Druidical orig-in, and the Druidical 
worship was everywhere suppressed by the religion of the conquerors. Of 
course these remarks do not apply to the mounds, for they were nothing 
but burial-places, at which there was no further worship than that of 
memory. In our description we must necessarily employ the Celtic names, 
so long as no other nomenclature exists, except our translation of these 
names. 

1. Men-htr or Peulvaxs. An upright perpendicular stone, standing by 
itself, consecrated to prayer or to remembrance, was called men-hir (long 
stone) or peulvan (stone pillar), or finally, men-sash (straight stone). In 
England it is called stone-henge, from stone and henged or hungup, floating; 
and this generic name is now the peculiar title of the greatest Celtic 
monument in England, situated in Wiltshire. The men-hir, the simplest 
and the most numerous of the Celtic monuments, seem to have had very 
various purposes. Merely human purposes they subserved in only two ways, 
as boundary stones, and as monuments of great recollections. In religious 
ways the men-hir served partly as symbols of the divinity, partly as monu- 
ments upon the graves of heroes, for three or four men-hir indicated the grave 
of a chieftain. The excavations among the sepulchral monuments reveal 
bones, weapons, boars' tusks, antlers of deer, &c. If the men-hir was only 
the memorial of some important event, there are only weapons there ; if 

107 



108 ARCHITECTURE. 

there is nothing found, it was only a boundary stone. Yerv often there are 
popular interpretations of the intent of the monuments. Thus, the men-hir 
of Guenezan in France, is called men-cam (the stone of crime) ; that of 
Brenantes near Plouaret, bren-an-tec'h (princes' flight). Often the whole 
region where it stands has a special name, as ker-brezel (place of victory), 
ker-laouenan (place of joy), &c. &c. 

The height of the men-hir varies between 9 and 30 feet, and sometimes 
the thinner jjart of the stone stands in the earth. One of the largest men- 
hir lies in ruins near the great dolmen which is known by the name of the 
Merchant's Table, and of which we shall presently say something more. 
This men-hir was once 65 feet long, and there are few Egj^3tian obelisks 
of greater length. Men-hir are sometimes discovered with inscriptions 
upon them, as, for example, that near Joinville, which bears the Roman 
inscription, " YIROMARUS ISTATILI F " (Yiromar, son of Istatilus), or 
with huge sculptures, as on the Maiden Stone near the town of Brecknock, 
in Wales, which represent the figures of a man and a woman. These 
ornaments, however, are unquestionably of a later date, as the original 
men-hir were wholly constructed of rough stones. When Christianity 
gradually supplanted Druidism these monuments were zealously destroyed, 
and there are yet extant old edicts of the kings Chilperich, Childebert (554), 
Edgar of England (967), whereby all who did not assist in the destruction of the 
idolatrous stones were threatened with slavery and the scourge. Afterguards, 
they were wiser, and instead of destroying these stones before which the 
people were accustomed to pray, they consecrated them to the true God. 
And they even erected new stones, upon which, as on the men-hir on the 
Judgment-hill of Carnac in Bretagne {pi. 24, Jig. 1), they engraved the 
form of the cross, or they shaped, the stones themselves into the cross, or 
wrought Christian sculptures upon the old men-hir that yet remained. 
Very probably the wayside shrines, so common in Southern Germany and 
all Catholic countries, arose fi-om the men-hir. 

2. DoL]srEN OR ToLMEN, Teiliths. Dolmcu (raised stone, devil's table, 
witches' table) are monuments which consist of several stones, and which 
support one or more flat ones like the top of a table. The word dolmen 
is Celtic, and consists of man (stone) and taol (table), which afterwards was 
cori'upted into tol or doll. 

The Dolmen are of three forms. The simplest are those which we will 
distinguish by the name Half Dolmen, and which seem to be incomplete. 
They consist of a long stone with one end upon the ground while the other 
is supported by an upright stone. An example is the Half Dolmen of 
Kerland near Carnac (Jig. 2), upon which a cross was erected when it was 
changed into a Christian monument. Sometimes the Half Dolmen are only 
apparently so because the other supporting stone has fallen. Generally the 
flat top is 10—12 feet long, 5—7 feet high, and 2—3 feet thick. The 
supporting stones are seldom more than 3 feet high ; if they are higher the 
monument is called Lichaven or Trilith. These monuments are rare. A 
very beautiful specimen is in the neighborhood of St. Xazaire (department 
of the lower Loire), consisting of a single stone, 3.26 metres long. 1.64 
108 



ARCHITECTURE. 109 

metres broad, and O.Si metres thick, wliose supports are 2.27 metres high 
{fig. 5). Strabo mentions in his Egyptian journey, Triliths dedicated to 
Mercury. 

The real Dolmen may be either simple or complicated. The simple 
Dolmen consists of four stones, three of which form a rectangular grotto of 
which the fourth side is open, and upon which the fourth stone forms the 
ceiling. Of this kind is the Dolmen of Trie {])l. ^^^fig. 3), in which, in the 
rear stone, there is a circular hole of which we have no explanation. The 
top is usually 18 — 20 feet in length, 12 — 14 in breadth, and 1^ — 3 feet in 
thickness. 

Besides these there are Dolmen which consist of a greater number of stones, 
of which several stand upright and support the top, while others simply 
serve to fill up the intervening space. Sometimes the top itself consists 
of several stones. One of the finest of this kind is the Dolmen of Locmaria- 
quer in Bretagne {fig. 10), known by the names of Caesar's table, table of 
the merchants, and Dolvarchant. The top is more than 25 feet long, 13 
feet broad, and 3 feet thick, and rests upon only three of the numerous 
stones that formed the wall, and of which some are pushed aside. This 
Dolmen stands east and west. In England also there are many such Dolmen, 
especially in the southern counties, and there are some there which are 
closed up on all sides. 

If we return to the original intention of such Dolmen, we should find it, 
without doubt, to be religious, even if we did not find some of them men- 
tioned by old authors as " Sanctuaries of Mercury." Tacitus says, speaking 
of Anglesea, the centre of Druidism in England, that in those forests there 
were altars upon which the blood of captives was bm-ned or rather evaporated, 
and the Dolmen are such Celtic altars, for upon the majority of them there 
is a circular depression in which, probably, the blood of the victim was 
received and thence flowed away through a groove. In Cornwall there is 
still such a slab 35 feet in length, 19 feet in breadth, and 15 feet in thickness, 
which is laid over two natural rocks, and in which there are several such 
depressions, the largest of which is more than 6 feet in diameter. Some 
have supposed these depressions to be the work of chance, but more than two 
hundred monuments of the kind remain, and it is not likely that the same 
chance would have afiected all of them. 

3. Covered Ways. Covered ways, witches' grottoes, witches' rocks, are 
properly nothing more than large Dolmen, and are classed by antiquarians 
with them. These passages are frequently not of the same breadth for the 
whole distance, but are broader at one end than at the other, and many seem 
like passages leading to a square or circular hall, in which is a kind of sub- 
division into three or four compai-tments. The most remarkable monument 
of this kind, as well for its preservation as its size, and the immense blocks 
of which its walls consist, is the famous Witch's Grotto in the neighbor- 
hood of Saumur, on the road to Bagneux. PI. 24, fig. 13, gives the exterior, 
and fijg. 14 the interior view. The monument is well preserved and sur- 
rounded with trees. The entrance of the grotto, which, however, is now 
closed by a door, lies toward the south-east, and is formed by two stones 

109 



110 ARCHITECTURE. 

standing the usual width of a door apart. These stones, as well as all those 
which serve to support the upper slabs, are about 7 feet high, and their 
thickness varies from 7 inches to 1 foot 9 inches. The exterior breadth of 
the monument is nearly 15 feet, and the long sides are each composed of 
four stones, together about 52 feet in length. In the rear a single stone 21 
feet long, extending far beyond both side walls, forms the end. All the 
stones, excepting the two front ones, which form the door and stand per- 
pendicularly, are inclined inwards at^he top. The ceiling consists of four 
stones, the largest of which is 22 feet long, 19 feet broad, and 3 feet thick. 
This slab is rent lengthwise, and is supported by an upright stone in the 
centre. Near Ess4, a place not far from Kennes, is a similar grotto, which 
is more than 57 feet long and is divided into two chambers. Fig. 11 repre- 
sents the exterior view. Of the two chambers one is much the smaller and 
serves as a kind of vestibule, and is about 13? feet long and 8 feet broad, 
entirely open in front and lying towards the south-east. A passage between 
two stones leads into the chief grotto, which is broader than the first room, 
being 11 feet in front and 12 in the rear. On one of the walls, which is 
only a continuation of the wall of the first room, the stones project on the 
inside, forming as it were small chapels. The rear wall of the grotto con- 
sists of a single stone, and the ceiling of nine slabs, some of which are six 
feet thick. 

]^ear Tours is a similar monument called the Grotte des Fees, and repre- 
sented in fig. 12. The entrance is towards the west, and the grotto is 
inclosed by 12 rough stones. One fourth of its length is partitioned off by 
an upright stone, leaving only a passage or door free, and thus a kind of 
vestibule is formed. The top consists of three stones, the middle one 
of which is 6 feet thick, that is twice as thick as the other two. The whole 
length of the monument is 22J- feet, its breadth 11 feet, and its height inside 
7i and on the outside on the centre top slab 13|- feet. Although rough, the 
stones are more carefully joined than was generally the case with such 
monuments. There are similar grottoes in France and England ; for 
instance, near Locmariaquer, near Yille-Genvin, and upon the island of 
Anglesea ; also in the province of Miinster in Prussia. 

A very peculiar monument, somewhat resembling the covered ways, 
is the double dolmen in a wood upon the island of Anglesea {pi. 24, fig. 4). 
Two slightly inclined dolmen stand close behind each other, one resting upon 
four, the other upon three supports. The top of the larger is about 14 feet 
long, 12 feet broad, and 2J feet thick. The largest supporting stones are 
about 5 feet high. There is also a very rare monument in the department 
of Morbihan, bearing the same relation to the covered ways as the half dol- 
men to the dolmen. It consists {fig. 9) of a row of upright stones, against 
which another row leans obliquely, and the monument thus appears like 
a row of half dolmen placed closely together. 

Much has been said of the object of these covered ways, and it has not 
yet been explained. The simplest and most natural idea seems to be, that 
the platforms of these ways, like that of the dolmen, were devoted to sacri- 
fices celebrated in the presence of the people, while the covered room under- 
110 



ARCHITECTURE. Ill 

neath served for the celebration of mysteries, which only the initiated 
were allowed to witness. They may also have served as dwellings for the 
priests, as would appear from their subdivision into chambers. 

4. ISTatukal Altars. We have considered the dolmen and the covered 
ways as sacrificial altars, but there were still others which were arranged 
with less labor, for nature herself erected them. Greater or smaller blocks 
of stone that lay upon the ground, either brought by men's hands or found 
there, were consecrated to the gods of the Druids, and used as sacrificial 
altars. Such is the Druid altar between Brelevenez and Cleder (Finis- 
terre) {fig. 6), which is nothing but a great stone of 216 cubic feet in size 
and brought to the spot by men. Upon its top is a square basin of some 14 
inches in breadth and 4 inches in depth, made with a chisel, or some similar 
instrument. From this basin a conduit leads obliquely off on one side. 
Upon the rim of the basin some runes are cut. Kear the stone stands one 
of the rude stone crosses by which the first Christians consecrated these 
altars to obliterate the remembrance of the bloody gods of their ancestors. 
In England there are many such natural altars. 

5. Pierced Stones. In France and more frequently in England, and 
especially in Wales and Cornwall, there are large upright stone slabs 
which are bored through from one side to the other. They are sup- 
posed to have been connected with the Druidical worship. Healing 
power is also said to have been attributed to them, the diseased limb 
having been put through the hole, amid mysterious ceremonies, with a 
confident anticipation of cure. A similar superstition in France lends 
force to this hypothesis, and recently such a stone was removed because 
the peasants were so credulous that they thrust their ailing legs and arms 
through the hole and firmly believed that they would be healed. There 
is a similar stone near Duneau in the neighborhood of Conerets, in the 
department of Sarthe, and we have represented it in jpl. 24, fig. 18, at the 
left. The stone is about 10 feet high, 6 feet broad, and 3 feet thick, and a 
bough of a neighboring tree has now pushed itself through the hole. 

6. Rocking Stones. Tlie rocking stones must be classed among the 
most remarkable of the Celtic monuments. They are found in many 
places both in France and England. As their name implies, these monu- 
ments consist of huge stones which stand resting on a point in such a 
manner, either upon the ground or upon other stones, that the slightest 
touch puts them in motion. As this phenomenon may readily arise from 
natural causes, it would be wrong to suppose all such stones Druidical 
monuments. Thus the famous rocking stone near Huelgoet (Finisterre) 
is certainly nothing else than a rock fallen upon another and happening to 
balance there. Still in many instances it is impossible to deny the human 
agency. 

The question as to the object of these rocking stones is answered very 
variously, but unsatisfactorily. One writer thinks that they were arranged 
with such care and skill only to show how much was then known of the laws 
of equilibrium. Perhaps these stones, floating as it were in the air, were to 
represent the world in space, or were a symbol of the power which moves 

111 



112 ARCHITECTURE. 

the universe so easily, or a symbol of the vitality that pervades the universe. 
Diilaur finds some affinity between these stones and those carried about by 
the Komish priests during drought to attract rain, holding that the stones 
were moved wdth a view to occasion favorable weather or to drive away 
magic. Baudoin makes of them the test of female virtue, because the 
stones in many parts of Bretagne, for instance near Jaudet, are called 
Eoc'h-werc'het (Koche aux vierges). Only the true and chaste could put 
the stone in motion. 

These rocking monoliths are found in all parts of France and England. 
The largest is that of Perros-Guyrech (Cote du JSTord), being about 43 feet 
long and broad, and 21 feet high {jpl. 24, fig. 8). The surface is flattened 
by natm-e and has a kind of hollowing, from which a channel is chiselled, 
so that it seems as if this enigmatical stone may have served as a Dolmen. 
The balance is so delicate that a single man can easily move this mass of 
rock, weighing not less than 1,000,000 pounds. In Bretagne there are 
several such stones ; for instance, near Autun where a granite block, with 
an egg-shaped top, stands upon another granite block, in such a manner 
that it moves with the lightest touch. We cannot here mention all, but 
must not omit that near West Hoadley in the county of Sussex {^fig. Y), 
which is about 22 feet high. It has a pyramidal base which rests upon a 
granite rock, and it is very easily moved. It is computed at 500 tons in 
weight. 

7. MouxDs. We have before mentioned that the simplest sepulchral 
monument was the upright stone (Men-hir), but distinguished persons 
received more important monuments. In the most ancient times no other 
than material greatness was recognised ; immense mounds were, therefore, 
erected as sepulchral remembrances to great men, and the largest pyramids 
are perhaps nothing but mounds in their highest perfection. This custom 
of erecting mounds is traced to the earliest times. Herodotus and Homer 
often mention them, and the Germans of the present day are familiar with the 
Giants' graves, which popular tradition designates as the graves of a Titanic 
race of men who lived thousands of years ago. The Etrurian graves also, 
the grottoes of Corneto (p. 36, jpl. 8, figs. 3 and 4, and Division lY. pi. 
11, fig. 1), are nothing but such mounds, as we shall presently describe, 
but walled with stone. Pallas found the mounds in the north of Asia 
among the Tschuwashi, Ostiaks, Baltyri, and Samoyedes. Baron Tott found 
them in Tartary ; Yolney in \he Pashalic of Aleppo as high as 90 feet ; 
Bertram among the savages in Florida. In all parts of America, even 
among the Botocudi and in French Guyana, the dead are even now buried 
in an upright postm-e with their arms, and huge mounds erected over the 
graves. The Celts called the mounds, if they were constructed of heaped 
up stones, Galgals (from gal, a stone), and the Britons Cairns. 

The dimensions of the mounds are very various, for there are some of 
immense size, and again others scarcely three feet in height. The round 
mounds have an almost semi-spherical form, and of this kind are most of 
the mounds in England, generally surrounded with a little ditch. The 
broad mound is similar to the round, but with the horizontal diameter much 
112 



ARCHITECTURE. 113 

greater, for there are those mentioned, not over 18 feet high, whose 
diameters are 90, 150, and even 220 feet. The oblong mound resembles the 
long in shape, and the long diameter is often three to five times greater 
than the short. There are rarely many of the oblong mounds in a line, but 
often an oblong one surrounded by several smaller round ones. The broad 
and oblong mounds are often galgals, and contain covered galleries leading 
to tomb-chambers. The little conical mounds were formerly very common 
in England, but have now mostly disappeared under the ploughshare, and 
they are, therefore, now only found in the uncultivated districts. Their 
diameter is rarely more than 30 feet, and they are often surrounded by a 
little ditch. 

The twin mounds consist of two mounds in close contact, and possibly 
inclosed two persons who had been intimate friends. The bell-shaped 
mounds are found in the neighborhood of Stonehenge, and are probably of 
more recent date than the others we have mentioned. The mounds, however, 
must not be confoimded with the artificial hills, which were often thrown up 
to mark the position of boundaries or places of execution, and which were 
distinguished by being always fiattened upon the summit. 

The mounds occur partly single, partly in groups. The former are the 
more common. To these belong, for instance, the mound of Salisbury in 
Wiltshire (^Z. 24, fig. 15). It is of great dimensions, and is considered to 
be the grave of a king. Its circumference near the ground is 2300 feet, and 
its perpendicular height about 190 feet. The great number of mounds 
which surround it at some distance, are supposed to be the graves of 
important persons buried in the vicinity of the king. The largest mound 
in France is in the neighborhood of Sarzeau (Morbihan), near the sea, and 
is known under the name of Butte de Tumiac. It is about 100 feet high, 
and 400 feet in circumference ; it is entirely overgrown with shrubbery, 
and serves the mariners as a landmark, as it can be discerned far at sea. 
I^ear Locmariaquer there is an oblong stone mound. The Mont St. Michel, 
too, near Carnac (Morbihan) is nothing but a mound erected upon a plateau, 
upon whose summit a chapel is built, dedicated to the archangel. 

Near Pornic, in the department of the Lower Loire, there are several 
mounds situated in the middle of a plain. One of them has on the north- 
east side an opening leading to two low galleries of from 2 to 4f feet in 
width, by a height of about 5 feet. Their length has not yet been traced 
beyond 7 feet. The diameter of the mound itself, which is a galgal of quartz 
and calcareous slate, is 75 to 80 feet. Of the other mounds, one has been 
entirely dug through, and is therefore the most interesting of the group. 
In it are likewise found the entrances of two galleries {fig. 16) consisting of 
large rough stones, and forming several spacious halls in the interior of the 
mound. 

In digging up a mound near Fontenay le Marmion, the galleries were 
found closed above with quarried stones, but the rooms in the interior 
empty. After digging through a layer of clay, however, which formed the 
floor, a mass of human bones was discovered, some of which showed traces 
of fire, whilst others were entirely uninjured. There were found ten 

ICONOGRAPmC ENCYCLOPEDIA. VOL. IV. 8 113 



114 ARCHITECTURE. 

different graves, eacli of which had its gallery leading to a round space 
which had been the place of burial. There were no objects of metal fonnd 
in the mounds, but a hatchet of stone, and a number of vases of black earth 
of peculiar form, and apparently made by hand alone without the assistance 
of a potter's wheel, from which their extreme age may be inferred. In 
other mounds also, hatchets of flint have been found together with vases of 
burnt clay (some of them containing well preserved nuts and acorns), small 
cutting instruments of stone, spoons made of burnt clay or of shells, a dish 
exhibiting rude drawings, boars' tusks, &c., but nowhere objects of metal. 

In the Orkney islands some remarkable mounds have been examined, 
and only in the Orkneys, have mounds been found that contained two 
tiers of tombs. Fig. 17 gives the section of such a mound containing 
five tombs irregularly distributed throughout the mound, and having no 
connexion with each other. The mounds of the Orkneys are the only ones 
in which objects of metal, combs, glass beads, armlets, arms, &c., have 
been found. 

The Gallic tombs of common people deserve especial mention in this 
place. They consist of an area inclosed by four upright stone slabs, never 
sunk more than three feet under the surface of the ground, and covered with 
a rough block. They are sometimes found by hundreds in a limited area, 
and such a spot is called Carneilloux (from carn^ flesh chamber). They 
are met with frequently both In Bretagne and in England. The remains 
found in the same are generally surrounded by similar objects with those 
found in the mounds, and indicate the Celtic period. The architect, Gau, 
author of a large work on ISTubia, found in 1839 a Gallic mound in the 
neighborhood of Gisors, in the department of Eure, consisting of six rough 
stones, leaned against each other in pairs, and forming a kind of gable roof 
over six skeletons {fig. 18, right hand). 

8. Saceed Inclosuees (Ceomlechs). It is well known that the Greeks 
and Eomans consecrated certain spots to the gods, setting them apart by 
inclosures. A similar custom is observed among the Celts, and according to 
Tacitus such places were held in such awe, that except the priest nobody 
dared enter them otherwise than with bound hands, this being considered 
as indicative of reverence to the Deity. 

These inclosures were of multifarious forms, often very irregular ; the 
most important ones are circular, and termed Cromlechs. They are among 
the most interestins^ Druidical monmnents. 

The inclosures were generally formed by earth walls, surrounded by a 
ditch. That of Kermurier (Morbihan) is of the shape of a horse-shoe, the 
opening closed by a straight line. One of the largest is near Begars (Cote 
du IS'ord). It forms an ellipse with a long axis of 3000 feet, running north 
and south. The semicircle at the northern end contains 12 huge stone 
blocks, 7 others lying along the axis. At the opposite extremity stands a 
men-hir, 25 feet high. 

The cromlechs, or Druidical circles, which sometimes have been called 
astronomical circles, but without any reason, are bounded by upright stones. 
In France they are of rarer occurrence than the dolmen and men-hirs, 
114 



ARCHITECTURE. 115 

whilst in tlie British Islands they are more frequent. Fig. 19 represents 
one from the Orkney islands, somewhat over 300 feet in diameter, very well 
preserved, and also interesting on account of its picturesque situation. In 
the centre of the cromlechs was a men-hir as symbol of the Deity to which 
the inclosure was consecrated, and which was worshipped by the people. 
Sometimes dolmen are found near the sacred inclosures, but never within 
the same, as the sanctuary must not be desecrated by the blood of the 
victims. 

Cromlechs have also been found in Germany. One of them situated near 
Helmstadt, in Brunswick, is very remarkable. It has in the centre a men- 
hir standing between two triliths, which arrangement seems to corroborate 
the view that the triliths were merely dedicatory, not sacrificial altars, 
since, as we have seen, dolmen proper never occur wdthin the circle of the 
inclosure. In Switzerland, where no other Druidical monuments are found, 
a cromlech occurs in the picturesque district of Hasli. 

In England there are two monuments of this kind, but more complicated 
in character. The more important one is Stonehenge, in Wiltshire. It 
consists of a double inclosure of upright stones about 28 feet high and 7 
feet broad. These stones are rudely hewn into quadrangular form, and 
sm-mounted by a kind of architrave of more carefully wrought stones 
mortised on their supports. The outer circle is about 190 feet in diameter. 
Within the double inclosure are two others of elliptical form, open on one 
side and containing each a men-hir standing alone in the centre. There 
can be no doubt that the group was a cromlech dedicated to some 
powerful deity, although some archaeologists designate it as the ruin of 
some substructure. 

It will be proper to insert here, before passing to the period of the Middle 
Ages, some remarks on the architecture of China and America, neither of 
which can be grouped in any of the chronological periods of architecture, 
the former having had no ancient, and the latter having no modern architec- 
ture of its own, as will appear from our sketch of the monuments of these 
countries. 

9. Chinese AKCHnECTUKE. 

China is essentially the country of stagnation. Hundreds of inventions, 
made by other people in later centuries, have been known to the 
Chinese often for thousands of years ; but at a certain point of develop- 
ment their progress has been arrested, and they have been gradualh* 
distanced by the development of the rest of the world so as now to 
be very far behind the general civilization. Their architecture of the 
present day is exactly what it has been time out of mind, and tliis 
suggested the foregoing remark that they had no ancient architecture, as it 
is identical with the modern in every characteristic. The great Chinese 
wall beai-s witness to the early progress of art in China, whilst at the 
same time, in a measure, it is the cause of its arrest, since it is a barrier 
against the introduction of foreign improvement as well as against the 

115 



116 ARCHITECTURE. 

diffiision of the valuable part of Chinese knowledge through the rest of the 
world. For the description of this wall we refer to the division of this 
work devoted to military sciences, where it has been treated of under the 
head of Fortification. It was commenced about 270 years b, c, and shows 
in its gates the construction of regular semicircular vaults made of wedge- 
shaped stones carefully jointed. Much of it is executed in bound 
masonry, and this kind of construction is also found in the walls of cities 
in the interior, and in the palaces of the grandees, whilst the great mass of 
the buildings in the country are chiefly made of sun-dried bricks or of 
bamboo cane. With regard to the shape of the Chinese buildings, they 
have with characteristic stability preserved the tent form of the nomadic 
ages, which is met with in all descriptions of edifices : temples, palaces, and 
common dwellings. 

The combination of framework in China is very simple. The ridge of 
the roof rests generally only on a couple of posts overtopped by a beam 
which supports other posts with a cross-beam, this arrangement being 
repeated until the requisite height is attained. Bamboo canes bent into 
the curve of the tent, recurved below, supply the place of rafters, and are 
connected by their cross-laths, which support the light glazed tiles. The 
latter are grey for common dwellings, green for princely residences, and 
yellow for the edifices of the emperor. The corners and ridges of the 
buildings are adorned partly with large foliated decorations, in part with 
fabulous animals among which the dragon is most prominent. Similar 
ornaments are placed on the ends of the architraves where they pierce 
through the wooden columns {^jpL 25, figs. 6, Y). Under the entablature 
and between the columns there are generally trellised friezes {figs. 14, 15, 
showing at the same time the form of the roofs with the pavilions usually 
placed on the same). The gaudiest colors are used in the decorations of 
all buildings, especially green and gold. Yellow paint occurs only on 
imperial buildings, this color being interdicted to all but the emperor. 

The ground plan of the buildings {figs. 1, 2) is generally so arranged 
that the street fronts are occujDied by shops. E'ext follow the rooms of the 
family, mostly spacious halls, the Chinese being of a very sociable disposi- 
tion, especially the female sex. The houses have no windows to the street, 
but always several large courts in the interior similar to those of the ancient 
Greek and Roman buildings, with which the Chinese structures have many 
surprising affinities in point of arrangement. The houses are generally 
inhabited by only one/amily, and are mostly only one story high. If there is 
a second story, it is placed some distance back from the front and has a piazza 
with columns before it, and a richly carved wooden railing like those repre- 
sented in figs. 8 — 11. The columns placed in the yards, as well as those that 
support the far projecting roofs, have no reduction. Their bases are more 
or less ornamental {Jigs. 5 — 7), but they have no capitals, their tops being 
concealed in the roof. • Fig. 3 gives the elevation, and^^. 4 the section of a 
Chinese house which exhibits the curious circular doors used even in the 
interior of the houses. The windows are generally fancifrilly carved and 
rather small {fig. 13). The walls have frequently trellis work, which 
116 



ARCHITECTURE. 117 

assists in ventilation, thus counterbalancing the smallness of the windows. 
The ceilings are panelled {^fig. 12) and gaudily painted and gilded. 

Fig. 16 gives a view of the rich dwelling of a mandarin. It is situated 
in Tong-Chow, and known as the Pavilion of the Star of Hope. It consists 
of three distinct buildings of magnificent workmanship, two of which are 
entirely open halls lying in front of the house, and forming, as it were, 
porticoes to the same. The roofs are all of different shapes and tastefully 
carved. The whole is surrounded by rich terraces and gardens. The 
interior corresponds in magnificence with the exterior, and is especially 
rich in carved and inlaid work. It is divided into two parts by a corridor 
filled with beautiful flowers and separating the rooms of the owner from. 
those of the women. All sleeping rooms are in the upper story, which 
opens upon a terrace surrounded with a carved railing also decorated 
with flowers. The effect of the villa and its grounds is said to be truly 
enchanting. 

Of public buildings the pagodas deserve special notice. Fig. 18 gives 
the ground plan, and^^. 19 the section of the large pagoda at Ho-Nang, the 
southern part of Canton. It is 572 feet in length by a breadth of 360 feet, 
and is used as a temple, a market, a tavern, and a hospital. The buildings 
in the circumference connected by colonnades contain the various apart- 
ments used for secular purposes, whilst the three edifices in the centre 
contain the temple and the dwellings for the priests. In the arrangements 
of the ground plan affinities to the Greek and still more to the Egyptian 
style of building are perceptible. 

With the exception of Christian churches, which are not tolerated, we 
find in China temples for the public worship of almost all known religions : 
for instance of the religion of Confucius, Buddha, Mahomed, of the Hebrews, 
&c. Exteriorly the different temples are almost all alike, and they vary 
only in their interior arrangement. Fig. 20 represents the entrance of a 
magnificent temple of Confucius in Tsing-Hai in the province of Tshe-Kiang. 
This temple is one of the most frequented. The entrance represented in 
our figure leads to the sanctuary which, like all similar places in China, 
serves two purposes, first that of worship, and next of occasional residence 
for imperial officers or of distinguished travellers^ who never omit to bestow 
upon the temple a donation in accordance with their rank or wealth. 
They also give presents to the priests, as they receive no salaries from the 
emperor, who only pays the priests of his household, leaving the others to 
the care of the devout. 

One of the most renowned edifices of China is the porcelain tower of the 
Temple of Gratitude, near the city of Pekin, which was built by order of 
the emperor Yung-Lo. According to the report of the missionary P. 
Lecomte it has a substructure of brick forming a large platform, smTounded 
by a railing of rough marble, and accessible from all sides by flights of ten 
or twelve steps. The hall serving as temple has a depth of 100 feet, and 
rests on a plinth of marble one foot thick, and projecting two feet on all 
sides. The front has several pillars and a gallery ; the roof is covered wdth 
green tiles. The woodwork in the interior consists of innumerable small 

rll7 



118 ARCHITECTURE. 

pieces joined together without any regular system, which is considered a 
merit by the Chinese, and is painted. The aspect of the forest of posts, 
pillar, beams, and ties, is indeed surprising ; whilst it is evident that the 
waste of work originated only in the ignorance of the Chinese of the noble 
simplicity in construction and decoration which gives our modem buildings 
tlieir strength and beauty. The principal hall is lighted through the large 
door on the east side. The tower standing at the side of the hall is octa- 
gonal, with a diameter of about 40 feet. Above the first story it has a glazed 
roof resting on columns, and having an elegant gallery. The whole consists 
of nine stories, divided by small roofs projecting under the windows about 
3 feet, and gradually less towards the top. They have no galleries or 
columns. The walls of the tower are 12 feet in thickness below, gradually 
reduced to 8 feet at the top, and are faced with porcelain slabs, which have 
suffered considerably from rain and dust. The stairs in the interior are 
narrow and uncomfortable, the steps being very higli. The stories are 
divided by strong beams supporting floors. The tower has thus nine cham- 
bers, whose walls are covered with the fantastic painting so characteristic 
of Chinese art. In the upper stories they have numerous small niches, in 
which idols are placed, which produce a singular effect. The walls seem 
to be faced with slabs of burnt clay, with bas-reliefs, and gilded throughout. 
The first story is higher than the others, which are all alike in height. The 
steps are 190 in number, each being 10 inches high. The whole height of 
the tower, including the substructure and the bell-shaped roof of the ninth 
story, is somewhat over 200 feet. The roof is very ornamental, and pierced 
by a mast, which commences in the eighth story and projects 30 feet above 
the top. It is surrounded by an iron spiral, wound at some distance from 
the wood, and its highest extremity carries a large gilded ball. 

This structure is one of the strongest and most ingeniously executed 
among this kind of edifices, which are found in all parts of China, and 
kno^^m by the name of Ta. 

10. Ameeican Aechitectuke. 

We have stated above that America has no modern architecture of her 
own. This view is based upon the examination of the monuments of a 
peculiar kind found in Central America and Mexico, and belonging to a 
much earlier period than the discovery of America, and probably dating 
even further back than the Christian era. The buildings erected on this 
continent at a later period and in our days bear no affinity whatever to the 
style of those monuments, but belong essentially to the European schools of 
art, modified to suit the convenience or taste of the builders. The monu- 
ments of antiquity must therefore be regarded as the only representatives 
of American architecture proper, and are therefore the only ones that claim 
our attention in this place, whilst we shall hereafter have occasion to mention 
several important edifices erected on this continent in modern times. A few 
stones with alleged Runic inscriptions found in the northern part of the 
United States (Rhode Island and Connecticut) have been designated by 
118 



ARCHITECTURE. 119 

antiquarians as the remains of buildings erected by the Danes, who had 
discovered America long before Columbus ; but as this allegation is as yet 
totally without historical proof, and these stones without aiiy architectural 
interest, they will not come within the province of our sketch. 

When, the Spaniards conquered Mexico they found a certain degree 
of civilization among the aborigines, which was the more surprising as it 
had been developed by no previous intercourse with other people. The 
division of labor was found to be carried to an incredible extent in the 
mechanic and finer arts. The artists as well as the craftsmen finished only 
a certain part of the work, and beyond its completion they had no knowledge 
whatever. They supplied by consummate skill and perseverance in their 
proper spheres the deficiency of their rude tools. 

The civil and religious architecture of the aborigines is only known from 
the descriptions of the conquerors, since the few remains of the same aiford 
too little scope for investigation at the present day. The dwellings of the 
poor were made of pebbles or sun-dried bricks, and covered by a net on 
which aloe leaves were fastened like tiles. The houses had only one room ; 
only in the towns some were found that had two rooms and a bathing room. 

The dwellings of the more wealthy were of a very porous red freestone 
laid in mortar, and had flat roofs with terraces. The palaces of the kings 
and the temples were of similar form, only larger. 

The art of architecture had reached a good degree of development among 
the people of the plateau of Anahuac, and thence spread to the Aztecs, and 
other tribes with whom the Spaniards came into contact, and whom they 
found thoroughly acquainted with the arts of erecting perpendicular walls, 
of dressing stones, and of constructing vaults, whilst their aqueducts which 
supplied Tenochtitlan with drinking water, their dams, dykes, and highroads, 
sometimes carried through lakes, bore testimony to their practical skill. 

The oldest edifices of which remains are still extant are the two pyramids 
of San Juan de Teotihuacan, in the valley of Mexico, known by the names 
of Sun and Moon. They were the prototypes of the great temple of Tenoch- 
titlan. Their tops are accessible by immense flights of stairs of hewn stones, 
and there are still found fragments of altars which had their places there. 
These pyramids face the quarters of the heavens, and were formerly sur- 
rounded by several hundred smaller ones 90 to 120 feet in height, which 
were grouped all around the pyramids, and had streets between them 
leading to the faces of the large pyramids. The smaller pyramids were 
dedicated to the stars, and probably contained the tombs of the chieftains 
of the different tribes. 

About sixty years ago the pyramid of Papantla {^pl. 26, fig. T) was dis- 
covered by chance in a dense forest near the pyramids of the Sun and Moon, 
which covers the slope of the Cordilleras, near the Gulf of Mexico. The 
aborigines had zealously kept the secret of the location of this pyramid, 
being very reluctant to discover the objects of their religious worship to 
the curiosity of the whites. This teocali (temple) is the highest as yet 
known, and consists of admirably hewn and jointed freestone. The struc- 
ture, which has seven stories and is accessible by two flights of stairs, is 

119 



120 AECHITECTURE. 

entirely covered with hieroglyphics. In all the stories are found qua- 
drangular niches symmetrically arranged, and numbering in the aggregate, 
according to Alexander von Humboldt, 318, corresponding with the number 
of single signs constituting the calendar of the Toltecs. 

The most important monmnent of the district of Anahuac is, however, the 
pyramid of Cholula, situated on a plateau 6700 feet above the level of the sea, 
and facing exactly the four quarters of the heavens. Its simamit is accessible 
from all four sides, and its general arrangements have many affinities to those 
of the Egyptian pyramids. It is nine feet higher than the pyramid of Gizeh, 
and nearly twice as high as that of Cheops. It contained spacious vaults 
which served as burial-places, and on its platform, which measured 1050 
square feet, stood in the times of the Aztecs an altar dedicated to the air, 
which the Spaniards replaced by the church ITuestra Dama de los Remedios, 
probably occupying a higher site than any other church. 

A very curious monument is a temple at Xochicalco, near the town of 
Quernavaca, which is at the same time a kind of fortress {^fig. 2). It con- 
sists of a natural rock, 360 feet high, wrought by hand into a tolerably 
accurate pyramidal shape, and smTOunded by a ditch, thus forming a 
redoubt, or a fortified temple. Its summit has an area of about 2500 square 
feet, and is surrounded by a wall for the protection of the defenders. The 
regularity of the construction of this wall of porphyry is highly spoken of 
bv travellers, as well as the clearness of the bas-reliefs which decorate it. 
Among the figm'es represented in the latter are crocodiles, and, what is 
very curious, human figures in the sitting posture of the East with crossed 
legs. Each figure covers several stones whose joints are so carefully closed 
as not to disturb the sm'faces of the sculptures in the least. 

The question whether there is any connexion between the Mexican 
pyramids and those of Egypt has not yet been decided. It is characteristic 
in the former that they always appear as huge substructures for temples or 
altars. The latter were always placed in the highest possible spots by the 
Mexicans, and where they did not find natural rocks in which they could cut 
stairs to gain access to the summit, they constructed artificial pyramids. 

Traces of a well developed ancient architecture are also found in the dis- 
trict of Tlascala, situated between the territories of Mexico, Cholula, and 
Huexotzinco. The aborigines of this district had surrounded their capital 
with walls, and erected a thoroughly fortified camp, for which the nature of 
the ground afibrded the best facilities. Its western extremity was closed by 
a deep ditch and high walls. On the eastern side was a wall of twenty-five 
miles in length, whilst the northern side Avas effectively protected by a 
number of strong positions in the chain of the Cordilleras. Within this 
inclosure the people asserted their independence from Mexico and wor- 
shipped the sun, whilst all around them a sanguinary worship had already 
been introduced. Fig. 1 gives the view of a bridge across the ditch which 
lay in the line of defence, from which it appears that the Tlascalans had 
only an imperfect knowledge of the art of constructing vaults, and that their 
method of construction was similar to that of the Cyclopean walls, which 
is the primitive architecture of all nations. 
120 



ARCHITECTURE. 121 

Among the oldest architectural remains of Mexico are the two pyramids 
of Teotihuacan {fig. 3) and of Tuzapan {fig. 6). In the neighborhood 
of these were twenty other such temples, of which but few traces are 
left. The former is erected on a quadrangular artificial rock with flights 
of stairs on all sides leading to the Cyclopean substructure of twelve 
steps which supported the temple proper. In the latter was found an 
idol of bronze; another of a large emerald, representing the god of war 
of the aborigines ; and an image of the sun wrought of gold with rays of 
mother of pearl, with its mouth open and set with human teeth. On the 
platform were found several other idols made partly of jasper or porphyry, 
in part of wood, plaster, or colored stones. The second temple {fig. 6) was 
larger and higher than the former, and its pyramid constructed with great 
regularity of blocks of freestone. It was approached by only one flight of 
stairs remarkable for having distinct cheeks. In the sanctuary of this 
temple, which had an elaborate front, Don Martin d' Urfua found, in the 
year 1697, a bag suspended from a rope and containing bones. On his 
inquiry about them he was told that these were the bones of the favorite 
horse of Cortez, who, when returning to Mexico, after receiving the oath of 
allegiance of the inhabitants, had left his sick favorite to the care of the 
king of the tribe. The horse died, and the Indians, who feared that on the 
return of Cortez they would be held responsible for this calamity, made the 
bones of the horse the object of religious worship. 

Another temple was dedicated to the king and his descendants, and 
its pyramid served as a burial-place for the latter. There were other 
temples, one of which belonged to the priests, the others to private 
individuals. 

A description of the palace of Utatlan will give an idea of the arrange- 
ment of the royal residences as found by the Spaniards in Guatemala. It 
betrays a degree of civilization which would be incredible but for the 
unanimous testimony of eye-witnesses. The city of Utatlan lay on a plateau, 
whose declivities formed a natural ditch around the w^hole of its precincts, 
and it was only accessible by two narrow ways. In the centre of the city 
was the residence of the king surrounded by the palaces of the great. The 
number of inhabitants was so considerable that the king could oppose 72,000 
warriors to the Spaniards. Among the edifices of the city, the seminary 
was remarkable, in which 6000 youths w^ere lodged, clothed, and educated 
at the expense of the state by sixty teachers appointed for the purpose. 
The city was defended by two large royal castles capable of accommodating 
large garrisons, and by the residential palace, which was more magnificent 
than the one of Montezuma in Tenochtitlan, and that of the Inca of Cuzco. 
Its front lay due east and west, and was 376 steps in length, whilst both sides 
had 728 steps in depth. It was built of stones of various colors, and exhibited 
beautiful proportions. The interior was divided into seven subdivisions. The 
first was occupied by the body-guards of the king, consisting of archers and 
lancers. The second afforded residences to the princes and relatives of the 
king, who were there sumptuously provided for as long as they remained 
unmarried. The third division was the residence of the king himself, which 

121 



122 ARCHITECTURE. 

also contained the state treasury, the arsenal, and the offices of state. The 
fourth and fifth divisions were occupied by the wives of the king, every one 
having her own apartments, baths, garden, and every imaginable comfort. 
The sixth and seventh divisions were allotted respectively to the royal 
princes and princesses. No palace of modem times in any civilized country 
would bear a comparison with the sumptuous magnificence of this residence 
of the king of a comparatively savage nation. 

Near Chiapas, on the frontier of Yucatan, the ruins of Palenque are of 
especial interest. The ruins of the palace, of which several walls are still 
standing, are not the only ones found there, but there are also ruins of a 
number of private houses from which the ground plan and interior arrange- 
ment of such buildings with these people can be seen, their extreme age 
notwithstanding. The disposition of the plans to these buildings, the 
sculptures, the painting, of which sufficient remains are left for investigation, 
and the grand forms and proportions exhibited throughout, force upon the 
beholder the conviction that these people were deficient neither in civiliza- 
tion nor in practical skill. 

Of equal interest with the ruins of Palenque are those of Uxmal in Yucatan. 
They are the remains of a city which was once 16 miles in circumference, 
and are in better preservation than the iTiins of Palenque. The name of 
this city cannot be given with certainty. It is supposed, however, to be the 
ancient Majapan. Among its ruins is one called the Dwarf's House, situated 
on the platform of a pyramid 224 feet in length and 120 feet broad, and 
containing three rooms. Its exterior is entirely covered with sculptm*es, which 
are both tastefully grouped and skilfully executed. Among the decorations 
are leopards' heads, foliated work, and a variety of rich panels ; and the 
joints of the masonry are so admirably fitted that they in no instance 
mar the effect of the sculptures, although the figures often extend over four 
or five stones, the building being erected, like all American monuments, 
of much smaller blocks than were employed by the Egyptians in their 
edifices. 

Another building is said to have been the residence of the virgins of the 
sun, and is therefore even now termed the House of the Nuns. It is situ- 
ated on an artificial substructure 15 feet in height, and occupies a plot of 
ground 80 feet square. The principal entrance is wide, and leads into a 
spacious court. The walls of the buildings, both exteriorly and interiorly, 
are covered with sculptures, the interior being, however, much the richer in 
decoration. Fig. 8 shows part of the front facing the court, and exhibits 
the proportions of the cornices which were introduced in American 
architecture. The lower part of the front is smooth, the upper very rich 
in well executed sculptures, among which are full length figures drawn with, 
ease and well proportioned. The middle of the front has two colossal 
intertwined serpents, whose heads rest on the centre cornice, and which 
have caused the occasional designation of the building as the Temple of the 
Two Serpents. 

The house of the Tortoise probably destroyed by an earthquake, and the 
House of the Pigeons, the one named from its shape, the other from 
122 



ARCHITECTURE. 123 

numerous recesses in the front, deserve a passing notice, on account of the 
quaintness of their exterior, whilst their details are uninteresting. 

The most important among the ruins is that of the residence of the 
sovereign, besides being in the best state of preservation. It stands on two 
pyramids placed one upon the other. The lower one is 600 steps in length 
and breadth, and has a platform planted with trees, and having several 
buildings on it. At the south-east corner of this platform there is a row 
of 18 small cylindrical pillars, occupying a space of about 100 feet in length. 
They are about 4 feet in height, by 18 inches in diameter, and their form 
seems to indicate that columns were not unknown to the people of 
those countries. On this platform rises the pyramid represented \iifig. 4, 
on whose summit is the edifice termed the House of the Kuler, which is 
much in the same condition in which it was left by its former occupants. 
It is entirely of stone, without any ornament up to the main cornice. The 
latter, however, is decorated with surpassing richness, as may be inferred 
from our fig. 5, which represents the corner of the same, whilst fig. 5h 
gives the figure contained in the ornament on a somewhat larger scale. 
The proportions of this building exhibit a degree of symmetrical grandeur 
so thoroughly in accordance with the strictest rules of art, that it becomes 
difficult to credit that this is the work of a nation to whom the greatest 
ignorance in matters of art is usually attributed. liitelligent and veracious 
travellers class the ruins of IJxmal with the very best monuments of Egypt. 
A remarkable circumstance in the House of the Ruler is the fact, that whilst 
the whole structure is of stone, all the lintels are of iron wood 8 to 9 feet long, 
18 to 20 inches broad, and 12 to 14 feet thick, and that they have been 
burdened unhesitatingly with the weight of a wall 12 to 16 feet high, and 4 
feet thick. The only probable explanation of this circumstance is, that the 
wood has been introduced as a great curiosity of immense costliness, owing 
to its scarcity, and the difficulty attending its transportation to the spot. 
The floors and ceilings are constructed of quadrangular stone slabs. ]^o 
trace of arching is found, and the interior of the rooms is entirely without 
decoration. An ornament often repeated in the sculptures of the cornice is 
a death's head, with large extended wings and projecting teeth {fig. 5, top). 
It is two feet broad, and anchored in the wall. Another prominent feature 
of the cornice is the mosaic-like sculpture visible at a {fig. 5), whose efiect 
is very pleasing. 

The opinions as to the period when these monuments were probably 
erected vary greatly. Lord Kingsborough dates the civilization of Central 
America from an alleged migration of the Jews before the Egyptian 
captivity. Dupaix holds the American monuments to be antediluvian. 
Stephens considers them to be of comparatively recent date, that is to say, 
little before the Christian era. Waldeck, however, is of opinion that the 
civilization of Guatemala which called forth these monuments is much more 
remote than the settlement of the Aztecs in Anahuac, and, indeed, the 
oldest traditions of the aborigines make mention of these structures, which 
therefore perhaps may be contemporary with those of Egypt. 

123 



124 ARCHITECTURE. 



n. THE AKCHITECTUKE OF THE MIDDLE AGES. 

In the history of the arts the middle ages comprise the period which 
begins with the introduction of the Christian religion, and ends with the 
second decline of art, or with the time when architectm'e had sunk so far 
below the point of development to which it had risen in the 13th and 14:th 
centuries, that in the 16th century a complete regeneration of art 
{renaissance) became necessary, in order to reestablish in the features of 
architecture a pure taste, which would make the buildings expressive of a 
revived sense of beauty. This period may conveniently be divided into two 
sections, the first embracing the time from Constantine the Great down to 
the 11th century ; the second from that date down to the 16th century. We 
will introduce our descriptions of the prominent buildings of both sections 
by short historical sketches, tracing the progress of art in each. 



1. The Peeiod feom Constantine the Great to the 11th Centuet. 

The first Christians, it is well known, were the objects of the most violent 
persecutions, and accordingly held their religious meetings clandestinely, 
in the catacombs and' similar secluded places, or they made places of 
worship of grottoes, which they widened or lined with walls. These sub- 
terranean churches were termed crypts. Constantine gave countenance to 
the new religion by embracing it himself, and henceforth it was publicly 
professed, and consequently a new era in architecture commenced, that of 
the Christian churches. At first it was very much under the influence of 
Roman architecture, which had already declined considerably. This was 
especially the case with that branch of the art which prevailed in the west- 
ern part of the empire, Italy, Germany, France, &c., which was termed 
the style of the basilicas, or Latin or Romanesque architecture. The other 
branch originated in Constantinople, from the more oriental development 
of the Roman style, and was that peculiar and characteristic style known as 
the modern Greek or the Byzantine arcJiitecture. We shall examine the 
peculiarities of both these styles, adducing some prominent buildings of 
each as examples. 

A. The Romanesque Style. 

Having already stated the origin of the basilicas and the changes in their 
form and use since their introduction into Italy, from Greece, it remains for 
us now to examine the details a little more closely, showing at the same 
time how the heathen structures were adapted to the Christian worship. 

1. The Ground Plan. Great irregularity prevailed for a long time with 
regard to the plans of basilicas. Constantine erected in Rome, Constanti- 
nople, and in Palestine, basilicas of all forms, round, polygonal, rectangular. 
An example of the last form is the church of St. Marcelline in Rome [pi. 
21^ fig. 1). Sometimes the plans showed a combination of several figures. 
124 



ARCHITECTURE. 125 

There are several examples of quadrangular basilicas with perfectly 
cii'cular sanctuaries attached, for instance St. Martin's church in Tours (^fig. 
2), built by Perpetuus. When the rites of the Christian worship had been 
established, the rectangle was found the most convenient form for the 
basilica and was generally adopted in the west. It is shown in the ground 
plan of the basilica Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome {^fig. 6). The side 
aisles were reserved for female worshippers, and were made accessible by 
special doors in front, placed at the sides of the main entrance leading to the 
principal nave, which ended in a semicircular choir similar to the tribunal 
of the heathen basilica. Behind the altar was a bench for the priests. In 
some basilicas similar choirs were attached to the side aisles, for instance in 
the church of Parenzo in Istria {^fig. 3). The side choirs were closed by 
drapery, and served as receptacles for the vessels and books of the church. 
By degrees they were made of larger dimensions and became the treasuries 
and libraries of the churches. 

Although this form of the basilicas answered all practical purposes, 
further changes were made in the course of time from various motives. First 
the sanctuary was separated from the rest of the church by a wall, parallel 
to which another was laid near the middle of the church. This was the 
first germ of the transepts and of the cross form which prevailed in the 
plans of churches for the succeeding centuries. It is illustrated by the plan of 
St. Paul's before the walls of Rome {fig. 4). The cross w^alls were inter- 
rupted by wide arches affording a free communication between all parts of 
the building. The church had in front a vestibule with columns, where the 
congregation assembled before the ceremonies, and where penitents and 
sinners waited the permission of entering the church. Such vestibules were 
also attached to the circular basilicas as in St. Stephen's in Rome {^fig. 15). 

The earliest Christian churches, especially those built by Constantine in 
Rome, had their entrance on the east side, the altar at the western extre- 
mity, the officiating priest looking towards the east when turned to the 
congregation. This arrangement was afterwards exactly reversed, and aU 
the churches almost without any exception have their entrances at the 
western end, and the altar at the eastern. 

2. The Elevation. The first churches had mostly the outward appear- 
ance of the Roman buildings of the age, and were probably very simply 
decorated. Afterwards they were adorned with mosaic work, gilding, marble 
fronts, and excellent sculptures. The outer wall of the central nave was usual- 
ly carried much higher than the side aisles, and supported a gable roof with 
a rather simple cornice. The sides of the roof rested on the side walls with 
windows, through which the principal nave was lighted. In the gable was 
a circular opening, the eye, for admitting air under the roof. The place of 
the eye was afterwards taken up by mosaic work introduced in the gables. 
Sometimes there was no gable, the slope of the roof being laid in front, as 
in the church San Lorenzo before Rome {fig. 9). The gable form is shown 
in the view of St. Agnes' basilica near Rome {fig. 14). 

The principal front below the gable or sloping roof was mostly decorated 
with mosaic compositions representing Christ, the Holy Yirgin, the 

125 



126 ARCHITECTURE. 

Apostles, and even entire miracles. The front wall in the vestibule was 
subdivided bj the main and side entrances, and its face also decorated with 
mosaic or painting. 

The vestibule of the Romanesque church is a kind of portico, extending 
before the entire width of the front, and resting on columns, with antique 
bases, and shafts either smooth or with very narrow spiral flutings. The 
capitals are either Ionic or Corinthian, but vary occasionally from the 
original forms of those orders. The capitals are connected in pairs by 
architraves supporting a continuous frieze and cornice, the former often 
decorated with a mosaic of differently shaded marble, red and green por- 
phyry, &c., whilst the latter is too gaudily set with modillions and foliation in 
a poor style. The vestibule has a straight slanting roof resting with its lower 
side on the cornice, whilst the upper is lodged in the wall of the basilica. 
The doors leading into the naves have generally very rich frames relieving 
materially the paintings on the walls between them. Sometimes a narrow 
portico supplies the place of the vestibule, as in St. Clement's basilica in 
Rome {fig. lY), w^hen the door leading into the interior is always of sur- 
passing splendor. In some basilicas there is neither this portico nor the 
vestibule which we have described, but a cross wall at a short distance 
from the front wall cuts off a piece of the interior, thus forming a species of 
inner vestibule which communicates with the main and side naves by three 
openings closed only with drapery. 

The side fronts of most Romanesque basilicas offer few interesting points 
except the manner of construction, the roofs of the side aisles, and their 
connexion with the transept {fig. 16). The sides of the basilicas have 
usually a row of windows, with round arches above. In southern countries 
the place of windows is often supplied in the frames by thin slabs of marble 
pierced with circular or lozenge-shaped holes closed with glass {figs. 12, 13). 

The rear view of the basilica {fig- 18) exhibits usually one or more semi- 
circular attached buildings, the inclosures of the choirs. The central is 
always the largest, and has richer cornices. Windows occur but very 
rarely in the choirs. If the basilica has no transept the rear wall is profiled 
like the front, but if it is a cross basilica the roof line of the side aisles is 
horizontal {pi. 21, fig. 24). The semicircular choirs have conical roofs 
attached to the rear wall of the basilica. 

3. The Inteeiok. The oldest Christian basilicas had naves of different 
sizes, separated by two or four rows of columns parallel to the side walls. 
They were for a long time close imitations of the Roman heathen basilicas. 
In some the straight architrave is supplanted by arches, in others combined 
with them. In tlie latter case the side aisles have two stories, the 
upper one being formed by a gallery, as in that of San Lorenzo in 
Rome {fig. 10). This gallery was reserved for women, and had its own 
entrance from outside the basilica. Above were the windows through 
which the church was lighted. Towards the choir the walls had arched 
openings (fig. 11). The round wall of the choir being lower than the nave 
ample room was afforded in the straight rear wall for mosaic and paintings. 
The side walls above the galleries were also decorated in this manner. The 
126 



ARCHITECTURE. 127 

floors were inlaid with stone plates of various colors, and an excellent effect 
was attained hy grouping the marble, granite, and porphyry plates in rich 
patterns. 

The roof of the basilica was of simple, double, or triple suspension frame- 
work, according to the size of the main nave, and often without wainscoting, 
so that the rafters were visible in the interior. They were therefore painted 
with great elegance. 

The altar in the oldest basilicas was of the shape of a quadrangular 
sarcophagus, emblematic of the holy sepulchre. The attributes of Chris- 
tianity, the alpha and omega, labarum, palm tree, cross, &c., were among 
the decorative sculptures of the altar. In basilicas dedicated to sainted 
martyrs their remains were deposited in the altars, which also received a 
niche in which a relic of the martyr was placed. 

Sometimes subterranean chapels were constructed under the altars, and 
adorned with the richest embellishments. They were approached by steps 
from the interior of the basilica. At the four corners of the altar stood 
columns which supported an entablature and ceiling, forming a canopy over 
the altar. This canopy was termed ciborium. PL 27, fig. 19, shows that 
in the basilica San-Clemente in Rome, and under it the entrance to the 
subterranean chapel. 

The part of the basilica lying in front of the sanctuary was set apart by 
low partitions of richly carved wood or marble, and sometimes raised several 
steps above the level of the naves. This was the choir, or high choir, which 
had benches of wood or marble, and a pulpit. Fig. 20 represents the 
high choir of San Clemente. 

In some of the basilicas there is erected a small distinct building dedicated 
to the ceremony of baptism, and termed baptistery ; more frequently, how- 
ever, these buildings were erected in front of the main entrances of basilicas. 
They were of various forms {figs. 21-24). They contained in the centre a 
deep basin or pool, usually corresponding in form with the ground plan of 
the building, and the baptismal rite was performed by immersion, amid invo- 
cations of St. John the Baptist. Subterranean conduits supplied and drained 
the pool. Sometimes it was surrounded with columns, which supported the 
ceiling, as in that of St. Agnes in Eome {fig. 29). Afterwards the baptisteries 
were united with the basilicas themselves, and then occupied the head of 
the side aisle, set a]3art by a railing and a portico, as in the basilica in 
Cividale, of whose baptistery ^^. 28 gives a view. The ceremony of total 
immersion ceased after the baptistery had become part of the chm*ch proper. 
Baptismal fonts were then introduced, of which figs. 25-27 give the most 
usual forms. They were large enough for several persons to be baptized 
standing at the same time. The smaller baptismal fonts were not introduced 
until several hundred years later, when immersion had been altogether set 
aside. 

4. Desceiptiox of some Romanesque Basilicas. The oldest basilica 
built by Constantine in Rome is St. John Lateran. It had the Roman 
form and four rows of antique columns in the interior. These beautiful 
Ionic columns have disappeared under casings of pilasters made in the 

127 



128 ARCHITECTURE. 

eighteenth century by Borronini, who also marred the noble simplicity of the 
building by introducing a number of inferior ornaments, gables and the 
like. The valuable Romanesque structure was thus changed into a church 
in the most corrupt Italian style. 

The church of St. Clement, whose portico {fig. 17), ciborium {Jig. 19), 
and choir {fig. 20), we have noticed, is located on the way from the Coliseum 
to the Lateran. It is remarkable for having still the original arrangements 
given to it when it was erected in the fourth century. In front of it is a 
quadrangular court surrounded by colonnades with cross-vaulted ceilings. 
The court contains sixteen Ionic granite columns and four pillars. The 
church has three aisles separated by two rows of antique columns connected 
by arches and by two pillars. The semicircular ends of the side aisles form 
chapels, one of which is decorated with paintings by Masaccio. The centre 
terminates with the semicircular sanctuary containing the altar and seats for 
the bishop and priests. The ground plan of the church is simple. The aisles 
are different in width, which is not in strict accordance with good taste. 
ISTevertheless the effect of the church is very good in spite of the dissimi- 
larity of the capitals ; and the only real disturbance of the symmetry arises 
from the two unsightly pillars introduced by Fontana in the seventeenth 
century. The floors are in mosaic of various kinds of marble, and the walls 
have beautiful fresco paintings. 

St. Paul's basilica before Rome, on the way to Ostia, is among the finest 
and largest churches in the Romanesque style {fig. 4, plan ; fig. 30, per- 
spective view of part of the cloister). It was erected in the years 386-395, 
and has no court like St. Clement's. It has five aisles formed by four rows 
of twenty Corinthian columns. Those of the two middle rows are fluted 
and from 31 feet, 9 inches, to 32 feet, 4f inches high, by diameters from 3 
feet 3 to 3 feet 4 inches ; the columns in the outer rows are smooth and 27 
feet high. The intercolumniations are of three diameters, and the columns 
formerly belonged to some ancient monuments, probably the mausoleum 
of Hadrian. A few of them only are newer. The inequality of the 
heights is counterbalanced by unequal cubes. The columns of each row 
are connected by arches on which rests a wall with round-arched windows, 
those of the centre row being placed higher than those of the sides. The 
fresco paintings of the square panels under the windows have been destroyed 
by damp. The transept is nearly at the end of the church, and is 
divided into two parts by Ionic columns and pillars with small altars in 
front. The main altar is in the semicircular sanctuary. The interior, which 
was consumed by fire about twenty years ago, was of admirable effect, and 
the method of lighting it was excellent. It was based upon the Egyptian 
plan {j^l. Q^ifig. 7) of admitting the light through an aperture over the door. 
The cloister {fig. 30) is almost square, being 121 feet by 101. It has 
several doors to the court and fine arcades placed on low walls with well 
profiled cornices. The long sides are divided into five, the short into four 
sections, by pilasters serving as supports for the cross-vault ceilings of the 
divisions. Between every two pillars are five pairs of small columns stand- 
ing behind each other and connected by semicircular arches which are 
]?8 



ARCHITECTURE. 129 

surmounted by the main cornice. The columns have Corinthian capitals ; 
the two shafts nearest the pillars are smooth, the two next ornamental in 
various w^ays, and the centre pair have twisted or braided shafts. 

A remarkable basilica was St. Peter's, built in 326 by order of Constantine 
on the spot now occupied by the new St. Peter's, and destroyed in the 
sixteenth century {j^l. ^^^fig. 5, ground plan ; pi. Z^^fig. 1, section through 
the court with the front elevation ; fig. 2, lateral section). The ground plan 
is in the shape of a Latin cross, and the building lay in the rear of a large 
court surrounded by columns and pillars forming covered coloimades. The 
church had five naves, each with its own entrance from the colonnade. Tlie 
rows of columns inclosing the main nave were 33 feet in height, by 3 feet, 
4 inches in diameter ; those of the side aisles were 2Y feet, 4 inches high, 
and 2 feet, 10 inches thick. The rear wall was interrupted by the semi- 
circular sanctuary with the main altar. One end of the transept served as 
library, the other as depository for the sacred vessels. The length of the 
church, excluding the sanctuary, was 287 feet; with it, 321 feet. The 
centre aisle was 75 feet wide, the side aisles 30 feet, and the outer aisles 26 
feet ; the transept was 265 feet in length. The interior contained ninety- 
two columns, probably all from the mausoleum of Hadrian. The two rows 
of columns in the centre had straight architraves on which stood walls with 
windows 8 feet, 8 inches high, by 7 feet, 6 inches wide, and arched above 
in a full semicircle. The heights of the various naves w^ere 88|- feet for the 
centre, 53 feet for the sides, and 43 feet for the outer aisles. The roof of 
the centre aisles was covered with gilded Corinthian bronze, those of the 
side aisles with tiles. The ceiling over the choir was arched and decorated 
with mosaic and painting. The other ceilings were of inlaid woodwork 
or wainscoting, and were first repaired in 602. The principal entrance had 
bronze doors from the temple of Salomo. The gable front of the church 
was decorated with mosaic in 827. Pope Anacletes II. despoiled the 
basilica of its treasures in 1130, and it was finally taken down in 1503, 
under the superintendence of Bramante. 

The basilica San Lorenzo, before the gates of Kome, on the Tiburtine way 
{^jpl. 27, fig. 8, plan; fig. 9, elevation; fig. 10, longitudinal section of the 
choir; fig. 11, lateral section; figs. 12, 13, windows), was erected under 
Constantine, whilst the choir was added by Pope Hadrian, 772-791. This 
choir was enlarged in 1475, by Posalini, by order of Pope Sixtus lY. The 
entire building comprises the fore court, the principal and side aisles, the 
choir with two side aisles, and the sanctuary with the altar. The main nave 
has two rows of eleven granite columns of the Ionic order, surrounded by a 
straight architrave and cornice which supports a second tier of columns, 
connected by arches which are surmounted by the w^all with the windows. 
The lower columns are smooth, and were very probably taken from tlie 
ancient portico of Octavia. They are among the finest in Rome; their 
reduction is in a straight line from base to capital, both of which are very 
carefully wrought. The sides of the high choir have each five antique 
Corinthian columns fluted and of exquisite workmanship. Tlieir capitals 
are connected by fragments of ancient architraves, friezes, and cornices, 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPEDIA. VOL. lY. 9 129 



130 AECHITECTURE. 

carefully grouped into a new entablature which is surmounted by ^ve thin 
Corinthian columns with arches and wall like those of the main nave. The 
ceilings of the basilica are flat and decorated in a rich style ; that of the 
semicircular sanctuary is conically arched. The altar has at its comers 
four smooth Corinthian porphyry columns with a frieze and cornice support- 
ing a dome. The portico in front of the basilica has light Ionic columns, 
spirally fluted. 

The church of St. Agnes was also built during the reign of Constantine, 
and is situated before the gates of Rome {fig. 14, view ; pL 30, fig. 24, plan ; 
pi. ^6^ fig. 16, plan, including the new chapels). In the principal nave it 
has two tiers of antique columns, seven in each row, the upper ones forming 
galleries. The columns have different heights and unequal bases, and are 
connected by arches. Two of the columns have ropelike flutings, 140 in 
number, and probably date from the fourth century. The comparison of 
the old and new plans will show that no alterations have been made in this 
basilica save the addition of the chapels. 

The basilica Santa Maria Maggiore {pi. 27, fig. 6, plan) was built in 352, 
probably with materials taken from the temple of Juno Lacinia. It was 
modernized, though to little advantage, by Cosmo, Pietro di Cortona, and 
Rainaldi, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The interior has 
two rows of eighteen antique Ionic columns connected by an entablature 
with two large consoles. The altar had four columns around it, two of 
which have been removed by one of the restorers in order to attain a large 
opening, which is arched and interrupts the entablature, the arch resting on 
two coupled columns on either side. Behind these are pilasters, supporting 
others whose capitals are connected by arches. The wooden panelled 
ceiling rests on the entablature of the upper Corinthian pilaster. The choir 
terminates in at^pentagon, and is arched above. The front is very deficient 
in taste, and dates from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

The church of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem {fig. 7, plan) was erected in 
the fourth century as a Christian basilica, restored in 1144, and finally spoiled 
by Gregori in the seventeenth century, who caused the beautiful Ionic 
columns to be cased in pilasters. The portico of this basilica has eight 
columns from which three doors, a, 5, «, lead into the court c, which is 
flanked by colonnades. Three doors lead from this court into a hall, d, 
behind which lies the baptistery with columns on three sides, and in the 
centre the font, e. The fourth side is occupied by three doors leading into 
the basilica, f, which has five naves, the principal one ending in a semi- 
circular sanctuary lined with small columns and containing the altar, g. 

The basilica St. Saba, before St. Paul's gate in Rome, was erected in the 
fourvh century {j^l. SS^fig. 21, plan; fig. 22, plan of the choir, showing the 
stai]-s to the altar ; fig. 23, front view ; fig. 24, rear view ; figs. 25, 26, details 
from the mosaics of the principal entrance). The three naves of the church 
are of equal height, being formed by two tiers of seven columns, the lower 
ones supporting galleries over the side aisles. Two of the twenty-eight 
columns are of black, two of red porphyry, the rest of Parian marble ; all 
i:ntiqne. The portico was added in Y70 ; its decorations and materials are 
130 



ARCHITECTURE. 131 

also antique. The story over the portico, which is very much out of place, is 
of later date. The sanctuary and the two chapels, containing the library 
and the sacred vessels, are semicircular and roofed with tiles. 

The basilica Bibiana, erected in 365, has been modernized, and thereby 
despoiled of its characteristics, by Bernini. Its ground plan is given in pi. 
46, Jig. 15. It contained sixteen columns, arranged in two rows and two tiers. 

The plan of the basilica, which was changed into the church San Cosmo 
e Damiano {Jig. 18), is curious for the division of the side aisles into smaU 
chapels by pilasters and columns. I^ig. 17 gives the plan of the Roman 
Basilica Julia, now San Grisogno, remarkable for a pure Doric portico of 
four columns. 

The basilica erected by bishop Famfili in Tyre, in the fourth century, 
resembles that of San Cosmo, in having chambers or chapels in the side 
aisles {pi. 30, Jig. 25, plan), but is unique in. having a court all round. It 
is contemporary with a Latin basilica near Athens, the ruins of which we 
have given in front and rear views in Jigs. 10 and 11. 

B, Byzantine Style. 

The Eastern churches were mostly of a square, round, or polygonal form. 
Of the latter form a beautiful example is found in St. Yital's church in 
Ravenna {pi. ^^.^Jlg. 1). The characteristic difference between the Byzan- 
tine and the Romanesque styles is that the former always had a cupola, 
whilst the latter, even the buildings whose form was round, had flat roofs 
of carpentry. The type of the Byzantine style is given in the plan of St. 
Sophia's church in Constantinople {Jig. 18), constructed by Isidorus of 
Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles, by order of the emperor Justinian. It has 
many oriental characteristics which were copied in all the later buildings of 
this school, both in the East and in Italy, Germany, and France. The proof 
that St. Sophia's church is the prototype of the Byzantine ground plan is 
found in the various plans of other churches, of which we enumerate the 
church of ITavarino in Greece {pi. 30, Jig. 12), Panhagia Nicodimo in 
Athens {pi. 28, fig. 1), and the Catholicon or the Cathedral of Athens 
{fl. '^^.^fig. 9). Others will be adduced hereafter. 

Before passing to the description of Byzantine fronts we must mention 
some peculiarities of this style. In it freestone and bricks are often used 
together, the latter laid both in horizontal and in vertical lines, so as to 
form frames round panels of freestone. Great variety of decoration is 
attained in this manner, enhanced by the application of moulded, curved, 
and Y-shaped bricks. Another peculiarity of this style is, that the slope 
of the roof seldom appears to view, the top of the building being generally 
a straight line, surmounted by a cupola over the central rotunda, and some- 
times by smaller domes at the sides, marking the points of connexion 
between the vestibule and the side aisles in large buildings. A curious 
Byzantine edifice is the church of Samara in Greece {pi. '±'^.^fig. 2). 

The large Byzantine cupolas rest either on cylindrical substructures or on 
the roof itself, and have numerous circular openings or windows through 
which the spherical vaults are lighted. The tiles are generally flat like tlie 

131 



132 ARCHITECTURE. 

Roman, and joined in the Grecian manner, by semi-cylinders placed on tlie 
joint ridges, but the ^x^-shaped tiles are also met with overlapping each 
other, and therefore without the peculiar Grecian semi-cylinders. The 
domes are frequently covered with lead plates. The gallery usually found 
in the first story of Byzantine churches is indicated exteriorly by a row of 
windows, or by small arcades. This arrangement was also adopted in 
the pointed-arch style of architecture when it superseded the Byzantine. 
The Byzantine semicircular arches over the windows are either entirely of 
brick, or of brick and freestone in alternate wedges. The doors are usually 
set in thin stone or marble frames with cornices. Arches constructed over 
the lintels serve to relieve the latter of the weight of the upper wall. 
They are sometimes of horse-shoe form instead of semicircular. The mould- 
ings of the lintel cornice are peculiar, consisting of a socle of considerable 
projection over a projecting quirked moulding {a^ot7iesis\ followed by an 
astragal with two very narrow socles, and finally a broad stripe. Below 
this is a rectangular deep recess with an astragal running round the door 
opening. PI. ZO^fig. 16, exhibits this bold profile, which was the prototype 
of the similar one applied in the pointed arch style. 

The side fronts of the Byzantine churches are almost exactly like those of 
the Romanesque. Projecting entrances frequently mark the extremities 
of the transepts, as in St. Mcodemus' church in Athens {fig. 13). The rear 
wall, which is horizontally closed above, is interrupted by one or three 
sanctuaries which are either round or quadrangular, and have one or two rows 
of niches, in newer buildings superseded by windows. The latter are either 
simple or coupled, when they are called twin windows. The window arches 
rest on small columns placed at the salient angles of the window recesses, 
as in the choir of St. Theotokus in Constantinople {fig. 14). The vestibule 
in Byzantine buildings is always arched, sometimes with a dome as indicated 
in the ground plan {fig. 12), and framework is never visible in the ceiling. 
The vestibule is not very deep, but occupies the full width of the church, 
and is usually decorated with paintings or mosaic work. One or more doors 
of similar construction with the main entrance lead into the church proper. 
The rear wall of the vestibule has sometimes, besides these doors, windows, 
placed there for the better airing of the church, with window-sills formed 
of highly sculptured marble slabs. The interior has one or more domes 
decorated with paintings and mosaic. The principal one is over the point 
of intersection of the main nave and transept, and is never wanting. If 
there are more than one, the second and third, of smaller size, are placed 
over the arms of the transept, the fourth over the sanctuary, and the fifth 
over the front part of the main nave. The parts of the church that are left 
without cupolas receive cross-vault ceilings instead. The weight of the 
cupola is sustained by four comer pillars, being divided between them 
by ribs of vaults ascending from their cornices to the pendentive or lower 
circumference of the dome, which they support. This construction was 
invented by the Byzantians. It is either simple, forming a warped 
surface of twofold curvature ; or hollow, like the upper part of a niche, the 
curve being that of a cone ; or finally, complicated, being composed of a 
132 



ARCHITECTURE. 133 

number of small vaults placed over one another. The latter is the construc- 
tion usually employed by the Arabians. The corner pillars are connected 
in pairs by large semicircular arches, whose archivolts support the circle 
forming the foot of the dome. The pillars and vaults are covered with 
painting and mosaic, and in important churches they are frequently faced 
with marble like the walls. In smaller churches the domes are sometimes 
placed on marble columns instead of pillars ; the former are, however, not 
calculated to sustain the weight of large cupolas. 

The altar of the Byzantine churches is a cube or a cylinder of marble, or 
some other stone, and has no substructure like the Romanesque. Its perpen- 
dicular sides are covered with drapery, embroidered with the Grecian cross 
and the symbol of trinity. The ciborium is like the Romanesque, being a 
cupola resting on four columns and four arches. In front of the altar is a 
sacred inclosure, having two door wings with the sign of the cross. 

The details in the Byzantine buildings are in a great measure borrowed 
from the ancient Greek architecture. The basilicas therefore contain 
numerous columns of marble, Greek or Roman capitals, architraves, and 
cornices, bearing evidence of the Athenian or Ephesian sculptor. But when 
available fragments became scarce the Byzantine artists were compelled to 
produce original works in accordance with the massive forms of their 
basilicas. They then made their own heavy capital, which resembles the 
Corinthian divested of its foliated ornaments, and with its cup pressed into 
quadrangular shape. This nearly cubic mass received only a few ornaments 
in raised foliation. PI. 30, fig. 14, a capital, and fig. 23, base, from 
St. Yital in Ravenna ; figs. 21, 22, base and cap from the Turkish baths in 
Constantinople, from which is also the capital, ^Z. 28, fig. 19 ; jpl. 30, figs. 
19, 20, base and cap from St. Miniato in France ; fig. 18, <^, &, base and cap 
fi'om St. Michael's in Pavia, exhibiting fantastic figures in place of foliated 
work, are examples of Byzantine details, which were much imitated in Italy, 
on the Rhine, in Kormandy, and in England, where they were frequently 
employed in the 11th century. The decorations on the Corinthian entabla- 
ture and cornice underwent similar changes, the mouldings being replaced 
by a few inclined planes, which were embellished with sculptures, painting, 
or mosaic {ph. ^'^^fig. 13, cornice from the Panhagia Nicodimo, in Athens). 
The sculptures on the Byzantine ornamental work are broad and heavy, 
exhibiting frequently strings of pearls and festoons apparently set with 
precious stones. The foliated work is very boldly profiled, the leaves 
generally terminating in points {fi^. 14). 

The first church executed in this style w^as the church of the Holy 
Sepulchre in Jerusalem, which is described in the historical part of this 
work, and illustrated in Plates, Division lY ., pi. 39, figs. 4-6, where we 
have also mentioned St. Mary's church on Mount Moriah, and the church 
of Bethlehem {figs. 1, 2). Byzantine architecture was therefore first 
•introduced into Palestine in the middle of the fourth century. 

When the old church of St. Sophia in Constantinople was destroyed 
during a riot, Justinian resolved to replace it by a new edifice intended to 
exceed all existing churches in size, boldness, and splendor. This work was 

133 



134 ARCHITECTURE. 

finished within the short space of four years. The eastern dome was 
destroyed twenty years later, in consequence of an earthquake, but was 
quickly rebuilt, and the church consecrated for the second time by Justinian 
in the thirty-sixth year of his reign, and has now stood for 1200 years a 
great monument to its enlightened projector. 

This grand edifice {jpl. 29, fig. 18, plan ; ft. 28, fijg. 3, view ; fig. 4, 
section) covers an area of 2524 square toises, three fourteenths being 
occupied by walls and pillars. In front of the church is a court with colon- 
nades having sixteen columns in breadth and ^\q in depth. The front of 
the building is occupied by the principal entrance and twelve niches, and 
forms the rear boundary of the court, which is 188 feet broad and 90 feet in 
depth. The portico has five doors leading into the vestibule, from which 
the interior of the church is approached by nine doors. The central nave is 
158 feet mde, and closed above by one entire and two half cupolas of the 
same diameter. The summit of the central dome is 189 feet from the floor. 
This dome has twenty semicircular windows, and rests on four pillars, 36 
feet high and 18 to 24 feet thick, and on six columns of Egyptian granite 
standing between the pillars. The entire building is 352 feet long, by 306 
feet in breadth. The sanctuary is raised a few steps above the floor, and 
forms a semicircle of 48 feet in diameter. Between the sanctuary and the 
principal nave were the seats of the emperor and patriarch, each on its own 
side. The great pillars are of freestone firmly anchored with iron. The 
weight of the domes was made as light as possible by employing in their 
construction pumice and light bricks from Rhodes. The rest of the masonry 
is of burnt bricks. The interior is faced with marble, jasper, and porphyry, 
but the costly material exhibits only indifferent workmanship. Many of 
the capitals are very tasteless in form and decoration. In some places the 
facings of costly stones are interrupted by panels of mosaic work in which 
gold foil is extensively used. Many of the columns used in the building 
were donations, among which are conspicuous eight porphyry columns from 
Aurelian's Temple of the Sun, sent to Constantinople by a Roman matron, 
and eight of green porphyry sent by the authorities of Ephesus. The total 
cost of St. Sophia is computed as having exceeded five millions of dollars. 
Besides this church Justinian caused twenty-five others to be biiilt in Con 
stantinople, some of them only little inferior in size. 

St. Mark's in Yenice (p^. ^O.fig. 6, plan; fig. 7, view) was commenced 
in the eleventh century by order of the Doge Orceolo, and the construction 
was continued by the Doges Contarini and Selvi. It occupies the site of 
the old church, destroyed by fire in 976. In the year 1071 it was so far 
completed that the facing with marble and mosaic could be commenced. 
Its front and the arrangement of the cupolas in the interior show many 
affinities to St. Sophia's in Constantinople. It is connected with the palace 
of the Doges by colonnades exhibiting Byzantine, Moorish, and pointed 
arches. The church difiers from St. Sophia's in the following particulars. 
The latter has one full and two half cupolas besides four smaller half cupolas 
attached to the walls of the principal nave, and forming the ceilings over its 
four corners at about two thirds the height of the two half cupolas that 
134 



ARCHITECTURE. 135 

form its ends. St. Mark's has five complete domes, surmounted by pear- 
shaped turrets on their summits. The front of St. Sophia has simple but- 
tresses, whilst St. Mark's has sixty-six Corinthian columns 13 feet high, on 
pedestals, grouped perspectively around five entrances of different sizes and 
surmounted by bold arches. St. Sophia's has no such gateways. The 
cupolas in St. Mark's are constructed of timber and coated inside and outside. 
This construction was adopted in order to attain the greatest possible light- 
ness, the edifice being erected on piles. It also allowed the construction of 
very light walls, those under the cupolas being only 3 feet thick ; the walls 
of the circumference 4 feet ; the pillars dividing the gateways, however, are 
14 feet thick. The faces between the arches in the front are decorated w^ith 
mosaic work. The main arch over the centre entrance supports four bronze 
horses of Greek workmanship, whilst its archivolt exhibits the pictures 
of the prophets distributed in festoons of leaves. The doors are of bronze, 
and were cast in Venice in the fourteenth century. Those of the main 
entrance are said to have been cast by Grecian artists, and w^ere carried away 
from the church of St. Sophia in Constantinople after the conquest of that 
city by the Yenetians. The perspective gatew^ays form porticoes before the 
doors, and are decorated like the interior of the domes with mosaic work. 
The altar stands on four antique columns of yellowish marble in the semi- 
circular sanctuary. It is separated from the nave of the church by a 
railing supporting the statues of St. Mary and the twelve Apostles, made 
by the brothers Giacobelli in the fourteenth century. The church contains 
a number of other remarkable statues. The doors of the vestry, cast in 1576 
by Sansovino, and exhibiting several haut-relief figures, are real master- 
pieces. 

The church of St. Theotokus in Constantinople {jpl. ^^^fig. 5, view ; fig. 6, 
lateral section ; fig. T, plan ; figs. 8-15, details), has greater architectural 
affinities to that of St. Mark than of St. Sophia. It was probably erected 
under Justinian. The principal entrance is on the west side, and is approach- 
ed by a double flier. The portico extends some distance back on both sides 
of the naves, and is lighted by two windows, each of three arched divisions, 
formed by two columns between three sculptured marble panels. In 
this portico are a number of columns, evidently antique. Both extremities 
of the portico have entrances to the side porticoes. The northern one has 
two columns and leads into the baptistery. A door on the south side of 
this room leads into a vestibule situated between the front portico and the 
naves, and having three doors leading into the three naves, three others 
opening into the front portico, and one opposite the entrance from the 
baptistery, which leads into the south portico. The church proper forms an 
exact square, but its middle nave is much wider than the side ones. The 
centre is surmounted by a dome resting on four columns. The vestibule 
and portico have four other cupolas. The sanctuary is separated from the 
principal nave by two thick pillars, and communicates by doors with the 
two vestries, which have also doors to the side aisles. On the south side 
of the church a second side aisle is attached, which has its separate entrance 
from without and communicates with the church proper by three arches 

135 



136 ARCHITECTURE. 

resting on two columns and the corresponding corner pillars. The distri- 
bution of the windows in the principal front is peculiar and clearly illus- 
trated in fig. 5. It will also be seen from this figure that the front has no 
main cornice, but only a curved line over the arches of the windows, whilst 
it is finished above by the three cupolas over the portico, overtopped in the 
centre by the dome of the central nave. The construction of the cupolas 
over the portico is seen from the section {fig. 6). The other cupolas are 
constructed on the same plan. 

The Catholicon, the Cathedral of Athens {jpl. 29, fig. 9, plan ; fig. 10, 
front view ; fig. 11, rear view ; figs. 12-17, details), is one of the few build- 
ings which have escaped destruction in the war of independence. It was 
probably built in the tenth century, for the gables indicate a peculiar appli- 
cation of framework which was foreign to the earlier Byzantine style, and 
betray Italian influence. Its form is a rectangle, whose length exceeds its 
breadth by one half The first third is occupied by the vestibule. The church 
proper has three naves having semicircular apsides with narrow windows. 
The sanctuary alone projects on the rear of the building in form of a semi- 
hexagon. There are three entrances to the church, on the south, west, and 
north sides. The entire building is of white marble. The door in the main 
front, which is approached by two steps, has a straight lintel, but over it a 
richly moulded arch inclosing a sculptured panel. Several quadrangular 
panels on both sides of this arch exhibit bas-reliefs, in which lions occur, 
probably alluding to Yenice, The whole is surmounted by a rich frieze 
and cornice which separate the lower part of the edifice from the gabled 
roof of the portico, whose front or gable field is richly decorated with 
sculptures. The rear has two oblique cornices imitating the front gable 
and surmounting the sloping roof of the sanctuary. The dome over the 
main nave has eight windows, with eight paintings between them repre- 
senting eight apostles. Over these are eight angels in medallions, and the 
centre is occupied by a colossal picture of Christ The walls of the 
interior were decorated with paintings, of which in many places traces are 
still perceptible. 

A remarkable church in point of construction is St. Yital's in Ravenna 
i^fpl. 29, fig. 1, plan ; fig. 2, interior view ; fig. 3, longitudinal section ; figs. 
4-8, details). It was erected in the year 547, after a plan sent from the 
east, but whose designer is unknown. It is ascribed to Justinian, on 
account of the repeated occurrence of the name Julian, who was the 
treasurer of this emperor. The ground plan of the church proper is a 
regular octagon, with attached rectangular portico, J, bounded on either 
end by a circular turret, K K, containing the stairs leading to the upper 
galleries. This portico has been supplanted by a modern one {fig. 1 H), 
lying obliquely to the axis of the church. In the rear the original arrange- 
ment is preserved, the rectangular attachment containing the sanctuary, F, 
with a semicircular apsis, the vestries on both sides, and also round 
turrets at the ends, containing entrances from without. The centre of the 
church is surrounded by eight massive pillars supporting the cupola. 
Between them, except at E, where the view of the sanctuary is left free, are 
136 



ARCHITECTURE. 137 

triple arches, resting on pairs- of columns and supporting the ceilings of the 
side buildings {exedriB)^ which, on account of the octagonal shape of the 
church, do not form regular aisles. From two of these exedrae the sanctuary 
is approached through tlie arches G G. Over the exedrse are the galleries, 
which again are bounded by columns resting on the lower ones. In the 
construction of the cupola {fig. 4) great lightness has been attained by the 
use of earthen vases {aiivphorm-, fig. 4 J), in rearing the vault. They are 
placed vertically over, or rather in, each other, the points of the upper ones 
being placed in the necks of those in the row below. This arrangement 
is continued to the top of the windows. From thence upwards they are 
placed horizontally in a continuous spiral line to the top of the dome, which 
is surmounted by a light framework supporting the sloping roof The 
interior of the church is rich in decorative sculpture and painting. The 
columns are peculiar for having no bases, w^hilst their capitals {figs. 6, 7) 
are formed by two truncated reversed pyramids placed one above the other 
and having decorated faces. On several of them occur the cyphers of the 
Bishop Neo and of the Treasurer Julian. 

PI. 29, fig. 19, represents the ground plan of the mosque Achmed, in 
Constantinople, exhibiting a lavish application of columns and domes both 
in the interior of the building and on its different outer walls, as well as in 
the spacious fore-court. When the Byzantine style came more generally 
into use in the west it experienced some important changes. A greater 
simplicity was introduced in the ground plan, and the front was made "to 
terminate in a triangular roof, sloping on both sides. This was not a gable 
proper, as no cornice separated the main wall from its top, forming the 
regular gable field. The church of Trani, in the kingdom of Naples {pi. 28, 
fig. 16), exhibits this arrangement, with the variation of having two subor- 
dinate lower roofs in the same style. At the same time it is a fair example 
of the meagreness with which the fronts were decorated in the 11th century. 
On the other hand, this was the period of the introduction of towers in the 
construction of churches. The church of Trani has probably the oldest 
known tower. It is very simple, and like the towers of that time generally, 
much less high than those of the subsequent G-erman style. This church 
may, however, be regarded as the connecting link between the Byzantine 
and German styles, as it exhibits both round and pointed arches. 

Pisa contains three remarkable buildings in the Byzantine style : the 
cathedral, the leaning tower, and the baptistery. The last was not built 
before the twelfth century, and therefore belongs to another period of archi- 
tecture ; but being strictly in the Byzantine style, we include it here. It 
is a circular building of white marble, 115 feet in diameter, and 1Y2 feet 
high. Three steps surround it, supporting twenty rather tasteless columns 
in three-fourth outline on pedestals. They have capitals with the Koman 
combination of volutes and foliation, and below them the necks have still 
other foliated ornaments. The shafts stand 2^ diameters apart, and are 
connected by elliptical arches, on which rests a poorly moulded entablature 
supporting 60 columns, again connected by elliptical arches. High gables 
are placed on every pair of these arches. The gable fields are decorated 

137 



138 ARCHITECTURE, 

with bas-reliefs, and their peaks with busts aad statues. Tlie stnicture is^ 
crowned with a peculiar imbricated dome. The interior ©4' the baptistery- 
contains some fine statues by Kicolas of Pisa, the regenerator of sculpture 
in that period. 

The cathedral of Pisa {pi. SO^Jlg. 3, plan ',Jig. 4, western elevation ',Jig. 5,, 
perspective view) was designed by Buschetto. Its erection was commenced ini 
1063 by Dulichio, and it was built with the booty made by the Pisans in Sicily. 
Its front has three entrances with horizontal lintels, lying between columns 
with antique capitals, but with shafts of inferior proportions. It is inclosed 
between high corner pillars. On these and the six columns abut the springs 
of six semicircular arches, on which rests a horizontal cornice, support- 
ing two corner pillars and eighteen columns between them, having Eoman 
capitals and square abaci. These are connected by 19 elliptical arches, 
with a straight cornice over them. On the latter stand in the centre ten 
columns, connected by elliptical arches with another straight cornice, whilst on 
either side there are four columns, decreasing in height towards the corners,. 
and surmounted by oblique cornices. On the cornice over the centre stand 
nine columns, connected by elliptical arches, on which is the fourth straight 
cornice supporting the gable, which is adorned with columns of various 
heights. On the peak of the gable is a statue of St. Mary ; the aeroteria 
support two angels and the lower corner pillars two apostles or saints. 

The sides of the cathedral have very nearly the same arrangement, only 
that pilasters take the place of columns. Over the second tier of pilasters 
are an architrave and cornice, whence the slopes of the roofs over the side 
aisles rise to the higher walls of the centre nave, in which their upper ends 
are lodged. The highest part of the side walls of the centre nave is deco- 
rated with half columns, connected by elliptical arches, and having closed 
windows, with semicircular tops, between them. The rear of the church 
has three tiers of pilasters. The intersection of the nave and transept is 
surmounted by a high, egg-shaped cupola, with a ball at its top. The total 
number of columns in the structure is 450, of which 208 are in the interior. 
Many of them have been taken from antique monuments ; among others, 
24 Corinthian granite columns, which are supposed to have belonged to the 
baths of Hadrian. 

The renowned leaning tower of Pisa stands in the south-east angle 
formed by the transept and sanctuary of the cathedral. Its construction 
was commenced in 1074, by the German architect, Wilhelm, of Innsbruck. 
Its diameter is 50 feet, including the wall. Its total height is 170 feet. 
It consists of eight stories, exhibiting on the outside 267 small columns, 
arranged in eight tiers. They have poor capitals, and are connected by 
elliptical arches, surmounted by rather narrow cornices, surrounding the 
tower between the different tiers of columns. The entire structure is of 
white marble. Its inclination is very considerable, the summit being 12^ 
feet out of plumb-line. It has not yet been satisfactorily decided w^iether 
the obliquity of the tower lay in the intention of the architect or arose from 
the tower having settled on one side. Some strongly favor the former view, 
-holding, as the tradition relates, that the architect, who was deformed, 
138 



ARCHITECTURE. 139 

and therefore had intentionally built this tower oblique. An inscription is 
said to have been found in the tower, running thus : Wilfielmus^ (Enipon- 
tanus^ obliquus^ obliqui vindex (Wilhelm, of Innsbruck, the deformed, vindi- 
cates deformity). Wiebeking, however, who has carefully surveyed the 
entire structure, is of opinion that its obliquity is owing to the ground's 
having given way, and that a counterpoise had been attained by filling 
part of the interior with a mass of earth. 

We will now examine a few buildings of the Byzantine style in Germany, 
showing the changes it there underwent, and its gradual approximation to 
the German style. 

The cathedral of Bonn {pi. 30, fig. 9 a, plan ; fig. 9 5, perspective view 
from north-east) is a remarkable building of this class. It is said to have 
been originally built by order of Helena, mother of Constantine, and dedi- 
cated by her to the martyrs Cassius and Florentius, in the year 319. The 
present structure, which bears traces of the old arrangement in several 
parts, especially on the south side of the choir, was commenced in the 
eleventh centur^^, and the central spire was finished in 11Y7 by Gerhard 
von Sayn. The ground plan forms a long quadrangle divided into three 
unequal naves. The eastern extremity is occupied by a long choir, a semi- 
circular sanctuary, and two attached spires. The transept below the choir 
is short, and terminates in polygons at both. ends. The octagon at the point 
of intersection of nave and transept designates the position of the principal 
spire, which contains the belfrj^ The principal entrance, at the western 
end of the church, is flanked by two small round spires. The interior of 
this cathedral exhibits uncommon boldness. Its outlines are of unparalleled 
purity ; the arrangement of tiers upon tiers of columns and arches is 
exceedingly graceful. The spires are perfectly proportioned and governed 
by the bold centre spire. These combined merits make the cathedral of 
Bonn an object of universal admiration. The semicircular wall of the 
sanctuary has under its cornice, which rests on consoles, a beautiful gallery 
formed by arches. Under it are the large windows through which the choir 
is lighted. Under the choir is a crypt. The sides of the naves have pointed 
arches, whilst the spires and the polygonal walls of the transept exhibit the 
true Byzantine round arches, surmounted by cornices between the tiers of 
columns. 

The efiect of the interior is not less striking. The naves have round- 
arched ceilings resting on thick pillars and on the side walls. The thick- 
ness of the pillars is disguised by two tiers of columns placed in front of 
them. Those of the low^er tier are connected by round arches, the upper 
ones by pointed and divided arches. The imposing efifect of the church is 
owing to the coldness of the stonework rather than to decoration, in which 
the cathedral is much less rich than the Italian buildings of the same 
period. Its principal features are perfectly Byzantine, especially the 
arrangements of columns over one another. The mixed application of 
round and pointed arches, though attempted with surprising skill, and 
pleasing in effect, shows a want of unity in the construction which would 
seriously disturb the excellence of the building, were it not counterbalanced 

139 



140 ARCHITECTURE. 

by the exquisite taste with which the interior decorations have been intro- 
duced at a later period. 

St. Castor's church, in Coblentz {pi, 28, fig. 17), was founded in the 10th 
century, in the Byzantine style. In 1388 the choir was added in the 
German style. The church proper is divided into three naves. The central 
one is 30 feet wide from centre to centre of the pillars, and had originally 
a wooden ceiling. The cross-vault ceiling was not introduced before 1298. 
The side aisles are only 13 feet wide, and have cross- vault ceilings of porous 
tufa. The length of the centre nave in the clear is 148 feet ; its height, to 
the keystone, 39 feet. At the sides of the lower end of the choir are two 
old towers, 95 feet high. 

A very interesting building is the hall of the Abbey of Lorsch, in Hesse- 
Darmstadt {pi. 33, fig. 11, plan ; fig. 12, elevation ; fig. 13, longitudinal 
section ; fig. 14, capital of the interior columns ; fig. 15, capital and base of 
the exterior columns ; fig. 16, details from the pilasters in the upper story ; 
fig. 17, main cornice ; fig. 18, middle cornice ; fig. 19, impost cornice ; 
fig. 20, ornament of the inner arch). 

This hall formed the entrance to the court of the abbey which was 
destroyed by fire in 1090. It is now used as a chapel. It is 33 feet long, 
24 feet broad, and 25 feet high, and has two stories. The lower st5ry has 
on both sides (east and west) arcades of three round arches, with two 
columns between them and two at the ends. These columns have Ionic 
bases, and capitals resembling very much the ancient Composite order. The 
acanthus leaves are rather rudely wrought. On the capitals are square 
slabs. The middle cornice resting on these pillare has foliated decoration 
and a pearl moulding which strongly remind us of the cornices of the 
ancients. Its upper socle is a little inclined to produce a boldly marked 
shade. The front of the upper story has ten fluted pilasters supporting 
nine isosceles archivolts, forming pediment shaped ornaments. These orna- 
ments never occur in the South of Europe, but are frequent in England, 
being among the characteristics of the Anglo-Saxon style of architecture. 
The capitals of the pilasters are formed by two rows of eggs and two 
volutes. They are a clumsy imitation of the Ionic capital. All the cornices, 
columns, and pilasters are of hard, white freestone ; the walls are inlaid 
with lozenge-shaped plates of red and white marble. The windows in the 
second story, which are round-arched, cannot have been made at the same 
time with the rest of the building, but must have been added when it was 
arranged for a chapel. At the same time, probably, the eastern arches were 
closed and the altar placed against the wall, with two columns and an arch 
as decoration. The round tower at the southern end of the hall is of more 
recent date, and was evidently only built in order to place in it the staircase 
leading to the tribune in the interior of the hall. 

The Abbey of Lorsch was founded in Y64, under Pipin, by the Benedic- 
tine abbot, Gundeland, and was consecrated in 774, in presence of Charle- 
magne, his consort Ilildegarda, and his sons Charles and Pipin. The style 
in which the hall is built corresponds perfectly with this minute in the 
chronicles of Lorsch. It is therefore greatly surprising that the distin- 
140 



ARCHITECTURE. 141 

guished archaeologists, Kugler and Schnaase, give the period of its construc- 
tion as being in the twelfth century, whilst not a single detail, far less the 
plan of the hall, corresponds with the style of the latter period. 

C. Gothic and Lomho/rdic Styles. 

1. Gothic Style. About the middle of the fifth century when the Byzan- 
tine style was prevailing in Constantinople and the East, and the Eomanesque 
the most frequent in Rome and the west, a new style was introduced in 
IS'orthern Italy under King Theodoric, the Gothic^ which must not be 
confounded with the old German style which is often misnamed Gothic. 
Theodoric was passionately fond of the arts and lavish in his expenditures 
for their development. He devoted large sums annually to the preservation 
of the ancient Roman monuments, especially the aqueducts and the amphi- 
theatre. During his reign a great number of buildings were erected in 
N'aples, Pavia, Spoleto, Yerona, and Ravenna. In the last town there are 
still ruins of the palace of Theodoric w^hich testify to an economy in out- 
ward decoration, quite uncommon in that period in other countries. The 
mausoleum of Theodoric in Ravenna {pi. 28, fig. 18), built in the sixth 
century and still existing as the St. Mary's round church ; the front of the 
Franciscan convent, believed to be part of the palace ; the baptistery and 
other buildings of the fifth, sixth, and seventh centuries show the peculiari- 
ties of the Gothic style proper. These consist in very strong walls ; in 
columns and pillai^s of good proportions but with capitals decorated with 
other foliation than the antique orders ; in Roman leading ideas and the 
exclusive application of the semicircular arch and semi-cylindrical vault. 

The mausoleum of Theodoric was built by order of Queen Amalasunta. 
It is of Istrian marble, and its details may serve as a good illustration of 
the Gothic style. Its cupola is of a single block of marble, 34 feet in 
diameter. Twelve projections were left on the exterior of the cupola, to 
which the ropes were fastened for lifting this monolith. They appear in the 
elevation like so many small garret windows. The parts of the exterior are 
well arranged, the doors well profiled and ornamented. The lower part, 
containing the sepulchre, is filled up with earth. 

Only a limited number of buildings in the Gothic style have been pre- 
served. They all prove that this style equally approaches the ancient 
Roman and the Romanesque. Triangular gables, such as were peculiar in 
the Byzantine and German styles, never occur in the Gothic, which there- 
fore cannot be confounded with either. 

The VisigotMo style is sufficiently independent to claim a special notice. 
It occurs chiefly in Spain. The principal church of Tarragona and one of 
the gates of Barcelona are good examples. The Yisigothic style in which 
the walls are frequently interrupted by round or polygonal towers came 
into requisition when, in the times of cltib-law, strength in building was 
particularly desirable. It therefore was termed the castle style by the 
Franks and Kormans, who frequently erected buildings in this style. We 
have treated more largely of this style in the part of this work relating to 
Military Sciences when noticing the fortification of the middle ages, and 

141 



142 ARCHITECTURE. 

given as examples the Bastille in Paris (Plates, Division Y., pi. 46, figs, 
8-10), the tower of Montlhery (Div. Y., pi. ^^.^figs. 5, 6), and the castle of 
Yincennes (Div. Y.^pl. 4A:^figs. 14, 15). 

2. The Lo]mbardic Style. The buildings erected by the Lombards in 
Italy, in the 7th and 8th centuries, principally churches, are in their main 
features Byzantine ; but for several peculiarities they have been grouped by 
themselves, and constitute the monuments of the Lombardic style. Their 
characteristics are the following : 1. Yery small semicircularly arched 
windows. 2. Small arched niches, separated by thin pillars under the 
slopes of the gable, as in St. John's church in Pavia {pi. 28, fig. 15), 
which is the best example of the Lombardic style. 4. Half or three fourths 
columns at the entrances, grouped so as to form perspective gateways. The 
columns of the two sides are connected above by semicircular arches. Their 
bases, shafts, and capitals are decorated with rude foliated work or symbolic 
figures, whilst the Byzantine capital in a measure approaches the Corin- 
thian. The columns in the interior have generally rude cubic capitals sup- 
porting the arches. 5. The frequent spiral arrangement of the foliated 
decoration on the shafts. 6. The rude sculptures, frequently satirical repre- 
sentations of the abuses of priestcraft. These are found mostly in the 
entrances. 7. Festoons, wrought in stone, under the main cornices and 
under those marking the different stories of the churches or towers. 8. The 
invariably pyramidal spires on the towers. 

The Lombaixlic style has been frequently adopted in the churches of 
Germany. In attempting to classify the buildings of the middle ages, 
however, and to group them in the various styles, the duration of the con- 
struction must be taken into account and allowance made for additions to 
the original plans, since the later architects did not generally aim at uni- 
formity by following the style of the original designer, but frequently 
adopted the taste of their own period. Thus the cathedral of Bonn {pi. 31, 
fig. 9 5), which we have considered among the Byzantine buildings modi- 
fied in their introduction into Germany, has been adorned with the festoons 
and the pyramidal spires peculiar to the Lombardic styles, in contradis- 
tinction from the Byzantine. 

J). The Arabian or Moorish Style. 

When the Arabians, after conquering Africa, 665-689, penetrated into 
Spain in YIO, they introduced in the interior of their edifices a richness in 
mosaic work, slender columns, inlaid floors, and magnificent ceiRngs, which 
far surpassed that of all other decorations of that age. Their rich architec- 
ture chiefly flourished in the Yth and 8th centuries in Bagdad, Cairo, Alex- 
andria, Fez, Cordova, and Barcelona. It reached its climax in the palace of 
Alhambra, near Granada, of which we shall presently speak. Originally 
the Arabian edifices must have been wholly destitute of splendor, as is seen 
from the Kaaba at Mecca, built 100 b. c, which is quite plain. 

The Arabian or Moorish style, as it is usually termed, is entirely peculiar, 
differing from all other known styles. Among its prominent features are : 
1. The horseshoe-shaped arches, which generally occur exclusively, but 
142 



ARCmTECTUKE. 143 

sometimes in connexion with semicircular arches, and in a few buildings 
-even surmounted bj such. The latter arrangement is of exquisite effect, 
'being exceedingly picturesque, and it is remarkable that it has never been 
imitated in other styles of building. 2. The Moorish columns, employed 
in great numbers, are remarkably slender. Their capitals are sometimes 
antique, but generally of a peculiar shape, best described as two truncated 
pyramids placed on each other, the upper one inverted, somewhat like an 
hour-glass. 3. The walls and niches are richly inlaid w^ith peculiar orna- 
ments and sentences from the Koran, sometimes in stucco and frequently 
■even in precious stones. The ornaments are painted with gaudy coloi*s, 
chiefly purple, azure, and gold. 4. The floors are of colored marble plates, 
laid in elaborate patterns. 5. The vaults and arches exhibit frequently 
lattice-work, through which the buildings are lighted. 6. The entablature, 
consisting of but few members, is always boldly projecting. Y. The height 
in the clear of the Moorish buildings is generally limited ; on the other 
iand they cover extensive areas. The mosque at Cordova, for instance, 
which is only 35 feet high in the clear, is 620 feet long. 8. The cupolas, 
which frequently occur in the Moorish buildings, are mostly bulbiform. 

Among the numerous edifices of the Moorish style, we mention the 
following as the most interesting : 

The mosque at Cordova, commenced during the caliphate of Abdorrha- 
man, in 787, and finished under his son, is remarkable for the number of 
columns it contains. PI. 33, fig. 1, gives its ground plan ; j)!. 31, figs. 1, 
2, interior views ; jpl. 32, fig. 15, a longitudinal section ; figs. 16 a J, and 
]pl. 33, figs, 2, 3, details of the columns, the two first reminding vividly of 
the antique ; fig. 4, a fragment of the principal cornice in the interior ; 
Jpl, Z2^figs, 17-25, ornaments. In the ground plan, the lighter shaded parts 
are the additions made by the successors of Abdorrhaman. AA is the 
original mosque, A the addition made by Almansor, B the forecourt. The 
wall in the rear of the chapel, ^, and the hall Maksourah, a^ which is inter- 
rupted by the entrance to the sanctuary, is termed 2nJirab. Such a wall is 
found in all mosques. It is always placed at that side of the mosque which 
lies in the direction of Mecca, so that the devout look in that direction 
during their prayers. This wall is always the richest in decoration. The 
apartments d and c are other chapels. The section {j)l. ^^^fig. 15) is in the 
line ecA.oi the ground plan. Tlie interior view {2)l- ^1? fi9- 1) i^ taken 
from the east side, the hall Maksourah appearing in the foreground to the 
right ; fig, 2 gives the interior view of this hall. 

The mosque forms a quadrangle 620 feet by 440. The forecourt occu- 
pies 210 feet of the length. The building proper is therefore 410 feet deep 
by 440 feet in width. It had originally 21 doors, of which only five are 
left. They were coated with richly ornamented bronze plates. The 18 
pillars of the front towards the court are surmounted by Moorish arches. 
The breadth of the building is divided into 19 aisles, 14 feet wide in the 
clear, partly extending through the entire depth, in part only a limited dis- 
tance. According to Murphy, the edifice contains 850 columns of granite, 
porphyry, jasper, and various kinds of marble, among which are many that 

143 



144 ARCHITECTURE. 

were carried away from Eoman and Carthaginian buildings. The colnmns 
are only 18 inches thick, and not much above 12 feet high. The arches 
sprung from front to rear are Moorish ; those from side to side, resting on 
the capitals of the columns, are of the same form, but their springings are 
laid against pillars which rise between them from the capitals of the 
columns, and are six to eight feet high, terminating in cubic capitals, on 
which rest somewhat depressed Romanesque arches which connect them. 
The spaces between the upper and lower arches are left open. The effect 
produced by this extensive lattice-work between the arches and the ceiling 
is very pleasant. The arches of the hall Maksourah {jpl. 31, fig. 2) are still 
more complicated and their effect grander in proportion. Their construction 
is more easily illustrated than described ; a glance at our iigure will give a 
clear idea of their surpassing splendor. 

When the Moors lost the supremacy in Spain, the mosque was made a 
Christian church, but remained unaltered until 1528, when several altera- 
tions were made in the interior, executed in the German style, and totally 
destroying the harmony of the whole. The chapels, especially, which we 
have mentioned are in grievous discordance with the leading features of the 
ground plan. 

The greatest architectural work of the Moors is the palace Alhambra, 
built by order of Mahomed Abu-Abdallah, in the beginning of the 13th 
century, near the city of G-ranada. This edifice is situated on a hill by 
itself; its various component parts covering an area of 2300 feet by 600. 
The exterior is rather plain. The buildings are approached by a Grecian 
gate, erected by the Emperor Charles Y. The inner gate is known as the 
Gate of Justice, having formerly been the place where minor litigations 
were adjusted. Above this gate a colossal hand is wrought symbolical of 
judicature. Some have thought it and the key over another gate to have 
been intended for a magic spell which was to insm^e perpetuity to the palace. 
These gates lead into an open space with a tasteful palace erected by 
Charles y. Thence a simple gate leads into the palace of the Moorish 
princes, Alhambra proper. The first court, that of Alcerba, is paved with 
white marble. In its centre is a reservoir, 130 feet by 30, surrounded by 
rose trees and containing gold fishes. Thence an arcade leads into the 
court of the lions {jpl. 32, fig. 1), named from twelve lions which support 
the alabaster reservoir of a magnificent fountain in the centre of the court. 
The splendid halls surrounding this court afford the best facilities for study- 
ing the details of the Moorish style, of which we have represented a number 
mfigs. 2-12. Only the sides towards the court have white marble arches ; 
the ceilings are of wood, flat, and gorgeously decorated. One of the haUs 
exhibits rich inlaid stucco from Damascus, and designs ornamented with 
inlaid work of lapis lazuli. Among the many divisions of the palace, the 
hall of the ambassadors, or the golden hall (fig. 13), and the hall of the 
two sisters {fig. 14), are the most attractive. The latter takes its name from 
two marble columns found there, which are exactly alike, even to the most 
minute parts of the decoration. All the apartments of the palace and all 
its courts and gardens are provided with good water by special water-works. 
144 



ARCHITECTURE. 145 

On another hill opposite Alharabra is El Generalife, a villa of the 
Moorish Kings, with beautiful gardens. Its entrance {j>l. 31, fig. 4) 
exhibits the peculiar arches used in this villa. They have the height of the 
horse-shoe arches, but are closed above with the true arc of the Komanesque 
style, only with the addition of the Moorish ornaments. The capitals of 
the columns are of the true Moorish form, resembling hour-glasses in shape. 
The villa is surrounded by pleasure groves, with numerous fountains. 

In Alca9ar, the citadel of Seville, there are several Moorish remains, of 
which we mention the chapel Zancaron, an interior view of which is given 
in fig. 3. This building evidently belongs to a much later period than 
Alhambra, as it has German pointed arches besides the Moorish horse-shoe, 
and numerous ornamental details borrowed from the German style. 

In Constantinople the forecourt of the mosque of Osman is a remarkable 
Moorish structure. The mosque itself is a more recent building, dating 
only from the last century, whilst the court {pi. 30, fig. 8) which forms the 
avenue to it is probably 800 years old. It is in the purest Moorish style, 
although the columns, which are somewhat thicker than usual in Moorish 
buildings, have clearly been taken from ancient Roman buildings, their clumsy 
capitals notwithstanding. The construction of the cupolas over the single 
vaults is very curious, the ribs of the vaults only being executed rising from 
the side arches and forming the transition from the quadrangular to the 
circular form, their upper extremities carrying a circular cornice and a low 
drum with windows, surmounted by the low cupola, which has the form of 
a small spherical segment. 

In Egypt there are several interesting Moorish edifices, from which we 
select as examples the two mosques of Ebn Touloun and of El Moyed, both 
in Cairo. The former was built in the 9th century, by Ahmed Abn Touloun, 
governor of Egypt. It is peculiar for having no other columns than two at the 
Kiblah (direction of the eyes : therefore sanctuary). Ahmed's first plan had 
been to excel all older mosques in splendor. He accordingly ordered more 
than 300 columns to be placed in the forecourt alone. On learning that 
all Egypt could not furnish this number of columns except by despoiling 
all the ancient monuments and the Christian churches of theirs, he changed 
his design, and ordered his architect to build the mosque entirely without 
columns. This mosque is known by the name Djama ben Touloun. In 
illustration of the same we have given in pi. 33, fig. 5, the ground plan ; 
fig. 6, perspective view of the court ; pi. 32, fig. 26, longitudinal section 
along the line c d of the plan (B being the upper part of the minaret or 
steeple A) ; figs. 27, 28, windows ; fig. 29, one of the niches between the 
windows ; figs. SO ah, 31, friezes from the interior ; figs. 32, 33, the capitals 
of the columns of the Kiblah in the wall Mihrdb. The ground plan forms 
a square of 280 feet ; on three sides there are two rows of quadrangular 
pillars ; on the south side A, five rows. The entire building, in which 
Moorish and pointed arches occur in tasteful connexion, is of brick, coated 
with stucco, and partly painted, partly inlaid. The wall Mihrab especially 
is richly inlaid with ivory, and has numerous inlaid inscriptions in the 
Kufic character. 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPEDIA. VOL. IV. 10 145 



146 ARCHITECTURE. 

The mosque of El Moyed was built in 1415, by the Sultan Abou el !N"as8e 
Sheikh Mahmoudy, with the cognomen Melek el Moyed, after his release 
from captivity with the Emir Mentach. PI. 33, fig. Y, represents its ground 
plan ; 'pl. 31, fig. 5, the interior view of the court. The mosque forms a 
square of about 300 feet. Its court is entirely surrounded by colonnades, 
the east and west sides forming two naves each, the north side three, and the 
south side four. On this side the miJirdb is at J / c is the mirribar., or pulpit ; 
the tribune of the Khatih or leader of prayers, with the desks e e for read- 
ing the Koran. At the east end of these naves, in ^, is the sepulchre of 
Sultan el Moyed ; and at the west end, in y, that of his family. At Ji are 
the magnificent doors leading to the adjoining Bazar of Soukaryeh, i the 
passages to the adjoining school and the stairs to the top of the edifice. 
Before the northern side of the court is a kind of portico, h / at its western 
extremity the sinks Z, and connected with it by a passage the public baths, 
m. In the centre of the court, at ti, is the fountain, surmounted by a tent, 
unlike the fountain of the Djama ebn Touloun, which has a cupola. The 
total efiect of the edifice is very grand ; it is one of the finest monuments 
of Moorish architecture in the 15th century. The archi volts are com- 
posed of red and white stones alternating. The columns, which are all 
antique, are of different heights, the differences being counterbalanced by 
unequal pedestals. The ceilings are of wood, panelled and covered with 
ornaments, which are all painted in bright colors. As usual, the miJirab is 
the most luxuriously decorated. Its splendor is really astonishing. 

E. Modern Persian and Indian Styles, 

The modern Persian and Indian styles of architecture are peculiar in 
various points. The roofs of the dwelling-houses consist of very flat-arched 
terraces, coated with a durable cement. All mosques and sepulchres, on the 
contrary, have very high artificially vaulted domes. The form of the arches 
employed in these styles for doors and windows and in ornaments, is very- 
curious. It resembles the bottom of a ship turned with the keel upwards. 
It is the same form that occurred under the name ass's-'back arch in German 
architecture, towards its decline, and occurs in a number of buildings in 
France and England. 

Among the edifices in the Indian style is the Antler Tower^ in Ispahan 
{pl. 33, fig. 10), whose surface is covered with skulls of deer. The colon- 
nade exhibits {h.Q curious Persian arches which we have just mentioned. 

The Mausoleum of Ibrahim Adil Shah, at Bedjapur {fig. 8), shows the 
bulbiform cupolas which were placed both on buildings of great diameters 
and on minarets. The Persians were so far advanced in the construction 
of domes that they arched their smaller cupolas entirely without scaf- 
folding. 

Kear Delhi is a peculiar tower, Kutub Minar {fig. 9), attached to a 
mausoleum. It is nearly 200 feet high 'and entirely of red granite. Exte- 
riorly it is covered with ornaments, and divided into five stories by far- 
projecting cornices. The interior is occupied by a spiral staircase, leading 
to its summit. 
146 



ARCHITECTURE. 147 



2. The Period from the 11th to the 16th Century, or to the 
Decline of Art. 

Although the Byzantine and kindred styles of architecture, as we have 
seen, originated in the first portion of the middle ages, yet a number of 
buildings in these styles were erected during the second. The character- 
istic style of this period, however, is \hQ pointed-arch style. We will devote 
a few cui'sory remarks to its peculiarities before entering upon a more 
minute examination of its principal monuments. For greater clearness we 
shall separate the various component parts of the churches, and consider 
each by itself, noticing first that the ground plan was gradually perfected 
and received a more symmetrical and constant form. 

1. The Apsis or San^ctfary. The churches of the llth and 12th 
centuries terminate in a semicircular wpsis^ like the basilicas {pi. 31, fig. 1), 
connected by a semi-conic dome with the main building. It is, however, 
generally lower than the latter, whilst its floor is elevated by several steps. 
In the middle or at the lower end of the apsis stood the altar. Behind it, 
near the rear wall, was the bishop's throne, which was occupied by this 
functionary and his two deacons. Sometimes the apsis was triangular, as 
in the church of Yaison {fig. 2) ; quadrangular, as in the church of Amans 
{fig. 4) ; or polygonal, as in the cathedral of Carpentras {fig. 3) ; yet its 
interior was almost always round. At first this part of the church had no 
windows. They were afterwards introduced, but generally in uneven num- 
bers. In many very old churches the altar was placed against the rear 
wall, when the bishop's throne was south of it. 

2. The High Choir. This occupied the space between the apsis and the 
transept. It was originally intended for the accommodation of the singers 
and inferior clergy. Its roof was usually lower than that of the nave, 
but higher than that of the apsis. The choir was usually separated 
from the main nave by a railing and the desk at which the Gospel was 
read. 

3. The Main I^ave is the principal part of the church, forming, in an 
architectural point of view, the nucleus around which all the other parts are 
grouped, and against which they lean. It is therefore the most lofty. It is 
the place where the worshippers attend service. 

4. The Side Aisles are parallel to the main nave, and are only separated 
from it by rows of pillars or columns. In the basilicas they were cut short 
by a wall at the base of the apsis ; in the Byzantine churches they had sub- 
ordinate apsides of their own, used as vestry, library, &c. ; but in the 
pointed-arch style they extend far back, encircling the choir and apsis of 
the main nave, and forming the gallery of the choir, which in many cases 
has attached chapels at every arch, as in the cathedral of Magdeburg 
{2)1. ^^^fig- 1) and the church St. Germain de Pres in Paris {pi. Z^.,fig. 1). 
Examples are, however, found of pointed-arch churches and chapels without 
any side aisles ; e. g. St. John's church in Beauvais {pi. 31, fig. 5). On the 
other hand, the side aisles of very large churches are divided by pillars or 

]47 



148 AKCHITECTURE. 

columns into two parts, so that the entire building apparently has five aisles, 
as Notre Dame in Paris {^jpl. ^O^fig. 1). 

5. The Transept is a transverse nave intersecting the main nave and side 
aisles at right angles at the foot of the choir, and extending more or less 
beyond the outer walls of the side aisles, as in the basilicas, thus giving the 
church the form of a cross. The two projections were termed the cross- 
arms. At their extremities subordinate altars were placed. Small churches 
and chapels were often without a transept ; very large ones had sometimes 
two, which gave them the form of the archiepiscopal cross, or the cross of 
Lon^ain {jpl. S4:,Jig. 6). When the arms of the transept are as long as the 
main nave, the church forms the Greek cross {fig- 7) ; most commonly the 
main nave is much longer. The church then forms the Latin cross {fig. 8). 
In some churches the high choir with the apsis is longer than the main nave. 
The form of such churches is termed an inverted cross. 

6. The Poetals. The oldest churches had only one entrance leading into 
the forecourt. Since the courts were abandoned the principal front portal has 
taken their place {pi. 35, fig. 3, the portal of ISTotre Dame la Grande, in 
Poitiers). The portal is usually on the west side opposite the sanctuary. 
Sometimes, however, the church has two apsides at opposite ends of the 
main nave. In such cases the portal is in one of the cross arms, whilst 
there are subordinate entrances on both sides of the lower apsis, as in the 
cathedral of Treves {pi. 34, fig. 14), which is either occupied by a subordi- 
nate altar or serves as a baptistery. The grand portal is, in all edifices of 
the middle ages, the part which received the greatest display of magnifi- 
cence ; yet the subordinate ones added greatly to the splendor of the other 
facades. 

T. The Forehael and Yestibiile. Originally the vestibules were fore- 
halls pro]3erly so-called. They were attached to the churches, and served 
to protect penitents against the inclemency of the weather without their 
entering the church itself. Gradually this use was set aside and the size of 
the forehalls much reduced until they were entirely done away with, or 
rather supplanted by the vestibules. Of these there are two kinds, the 
exterior and the interior. The former are usually constructed in imitation 
of the antique portico, as in the basilica of St. Yincent in Eome {fig. 13). 
The interior vestibules are sometimes in form of a rotunda with a cupola, as 
in the Temple in Paris {fig. 9). This is an imitation of the church of the 
Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, which is found also in several Eomanesque 
churches, Yestibules are also naturally afforded by the areas of the sub- 
structures of the towers or spires, examples of which are found in St. Kade- 
gund's church in Poitiers {pi. 34, fig. 10), in the minster of Preiburg 
(2?l. ^^.fig- 16 A), and others. When there are two towers or spires, the 
space between them is roofed in and forms the vestibule, as in the church 
of Monreal in Sicily (^_>Z. 34, fig. 11), the cathedral of Magdeburg {pi. 41, 
fig. 16), &c. A vestibule may also be obtained by placing the door some 
distance back behind the mass of the portal, as in the cathedral of Rheims 
(>Z. 34, fig. 12). 

Another kind of vestibule occurred in the middle ages, attached to the 
148 



ARCHITECTURE. 149 

churches, though answering secular purposes. Such were the halls of the 
judges or magistrates, w^here decrees of the courts and ordinances were 
made public. These were decorated with some peculiar ornaments, often 
lions, as in St. Zeno's church in Venice (^Z. 35, fig. 4). Hence arose the 
formula in documents of that age " datuin inter leones'^' (given between the 
lions). Sometimes the magisterial hail, instead of being at the side of the 
portal, formed part of the same, and then was a vestibule in the proper 
sense of the term. 

There were also in some churches fortified fore-halls, with battlements 
and loopholes, or with projections over the gates, in the manner of the 
machicolis which we have described in another part of this work (see Mili- 
tary Sciences, p. 145, or Yol. III. p. 621). Such halls, which w^ere designed 
for an occasional defence of the churches, are represented in j)l. 34, 
figs. 15-17, and^?. 35, fig. 5. 

Ornamental fore-halls mostly projected considerably from the facades 
(fig. 6), or the front walls were exceedingly thick, so as to afford space for 
such halls in the solid masonry. Halls of the latter kind are found in 
some of the buildings which we shall presently describe, and will then be 
referred to more in detail. In some cases the fore-halls were merely light 
attachments, affording shelter against the weather {pi. 34, fig. 18), or even 
mere penthouses. 

8. The To wees and Spires. Church towers were from the first designed 
to afford lofty places for the bells, by whose sound, from the very introduc- 
tion of Christianity, the devout were summoned to worship. They were 
first added to the Koman basilicas when they were made Christian chm'ches. 
At fii*st they stood detached from the churches ; and in Italy and Germany 
there are still several such detached tow^ers {Campmiiles). Subsequently 
the towel's were made to serve still another purpose, namely, of indicating 
from a distance to the wanderer the site of the church. Hence their 
increased height, which also served to afford greater scope for the decora- 
tion of the edifices. In the churches of the 12th and 13th centuries, the 
bell tower or spire is mostly placed over the middle of the chm'ch, w'here 
the transept and nave intersect each other, as in I^otre Dame in Dijon 
{pi. 34, fig. 20) and the cathedral of Bonn {pi. 30, fig. 9 5). Yery large 
cathedrals have often seven or eight spires ; but generally only three, when 
the two principal ones are placed at the sides of the main portal, and 
usually a smaller one over the middle of the church. 

9. The Yestky is always situated near the high choir. It is less a 
subordinate part of the church than an addition to it. In many of the 
older churches it has not been considered at all in the original plan, and 
has afterwards been added, either by cutting off part of a side aisle, or 
by erecting a special apsis for it at the angle of the main apsis and a side 
aisle. 

10. The Exterior. The outer walls of churches and other buildings of 
the different centuries of this period w^ere subject to a great many and 
important changes. We find on the one hand plain, hard- smoothed walls, 
and again, those that were decorated in the highest degree of splendor, 

149 



150 ARCHITECTURE. 

even to overloading. The ornament, therefore, is no essential part of the 
pointed-arch style, but assumes its characteristics in accordance with its 
rules. The walls that are not held perfectly plain in their larger masses 
exhibit embellishments of various kinds. They are then usually divided 
into ])anels by mouldings or straight members, and these panels orna- 
mented with braided work {pi. 34, fig. 21), scales {fig. 22), or checkered 
work {fig. 23). The walls are, however, also found interrupted by pilasters, 
or by flat recesses or niches arched above, or with true or imitation lattice- 
work. Such arches were often subdivided into smaller ones, whose form cor- 
res23onds with that of the larger arch, and which jointly rest on a column, as 
in the Byzantine window {fig. 24). The filling over the column is then 
usually pierced, the openings corresponding in shape with the style of the 
arches, and being three or four lobed {fig. 25). Similar apertures are also 
employed for ventilating in other places ; or, when decoration only is aimed 
at, superseded by mere recesses of the same shape. The arches often appear 
intertwined, their springings resting on alternate columns or pilasters {figs. 
26-28, round and pointed arches, with imitation lattice-work). 

Special attention is claimed by the columns, pillars, and mitres (or joints) 
of arches, or arched recesses or niches. Columns are distinguished from 
pillars and pilasters by their having capitals, and usually also bases. A 
medium between the two kinds of supports is represented by the columnar 
pillars {fig. 29), which are always short and clumsy, and instead of capitals 
have only an astragal and slab at the top, and frequently only one or the 
other. A column is said to be incomplete if it has not a distinct base, shaft, 
and capital, that is to say if one or two of these parts are absent. Thus the 
base and part of the shaft may be wanting. When the latter is the case, 
as in half-columns, the lower end of the shaft rests on a console {fig. 30), or 
on a foliated knob {fig. 32) ; or the shaft is truncated, i. e. cut off horizon- 
tally or obliquely {fig. 31). The last mode of construction was frequently 
not the intention of the first designer, but the absent part was subse- 
quently removed by truncation, in order to gain space or light. 

The various forms of the outline of columns are illustrated on pi. 34, 
namely : round {fig. 34 a) ; wdth an obtuse projection {fig. 34 5) ; with an 
acute projection {fig. 33 c); elliptical {fig. 33 6?) ; square {fig. 34^), the 
outline of a pillar ; rectangular against a wall, the form of a pilaster {fig. 
34/) ; and polygonal {fig. 33 g). 

The bases either rest immediately on the ground or floor, or are elevated 
by plinths or pedestals. They are either composed of mouldings or deco- 
rated with animal figures {pi. 35, fig. 7), with single heads of animals 
{fig. 8), or with foliation. 

The various forms of shafts are shown in fig. 10 as club-shaped {a)., 
swelled (?»), baluster-shaped (<?), cylindrical {d)^ and conic {e) ; their group- 
ing is illustrated in fig. 11, viz. simple {a), crossed (5), braided (c), broken 
{d), knotted (6), and divided by rings (/). The different decorations of 
shafts are represented in fig. 12, viz. fluted {a), deep fluted 5), spirally 
fluted (c), lozenged {d), facetted {e), crimped (/), with chevrons (^), with 
steps (A), with scales (^), and with beads {k). Sometimes shafts are also 
160 



* ARCHITECTURE. 151 

decorated with vines or climbing figures. Thej are even at times supplanted 
by human or fabulous figures {pi. 36, fig. 1). The columns of the architectui-e 
of the middle ages are, however, not subject to strict rules like those of 
ancient times, and those constructed according to the columnar orders. The 
columns of the first centuries of the middle ages are indeed clumsy, but as 
architecture gradually rose from its dejection, they were very much 
improved, and in the prime of the German style they were of admirable 
slenderness, their real thickness being skilfully disguised by mouldings and 
ogees. 

The capitals in the middle ages, and especially in the German or pointed- 
arch style, are of the most varied forms. In their decorations the freest 
scope is left to the taste or fancy of the architect or sculptor. We have 
selected a number of examples showing the different forms occurring in 
remarkable edifices (j?Z. 37). They may be conveniently designated as 
follows : cylindrical, continuation of the shaft with ornaments {figs. 1, 2) ; 
cubic, with rounded lower corners {figs. 3, 4) ; strictly cubic {fig. 5) ; coni- 
cal {fig. 6) ; heart-shaped ( fig. 7) ; inverted truncated pyramid {fig. 8) ; 
cup-shaped {fig. 9) ; knob-shaped {fig. 10) ; prismatic bell-shaped {fig. 11) ; 
funnel-shaped {figs. 12, 13) ; cubic, with an astragal below {fig. 14) ; and 
boat-shaped {fig. 15). The decorations consisted either of sculpture or of 
painting, or of both combined. Smooth capitals were mostly painted ; 
there are even instances on record when very excellent sculpture in capitals 
was filled up with mortar and smoothed over in order to gain a surface for 
painted ornaments. Not unfrequently most exquisite sculptured work has 
been discovered on capitals that were thus plastered np. The sculptures of 
this period represent either the human figure or subjects from the animal 
and vegetable kingdoms, or the various human pursuits. The human figure 
appears at first only as a mask on the abacus {pi. S5,fig. 13) ; afterwards 
in half length in foliation {pi. S7,fig. 16). Entire historical representations 
are also sometimes met with on capitals {pi. 37, fig. 17) ; or clerical pro- 
cessions {fig. 16) ; or symbolic groups, whose import it is frequently difiicult 
to determine {pi. S5,fig. 14). Again, the ornaments may be mere freaks 
of fancy. Among them are groups representing human vices, or abuse of 
clerical power, and their imagined punishments. 

Among the decorations from the animal kingdom, few are taken from 
among the animals of the country ; they are generally representations of 
foreign or even fabulous animals which are supporting the abacus {pi. 37, 
Jig. 19). 

Decorations from the vegetable kingdom are the most frequent, including 
leaves, flowers, and fruits. These belong usually to the vegetation of the 
country, rarely to foreign countries ; where they are not of the indigenous 
vegetation they are mostly fantastic. The most common decorations of 
this kind represent the foliation of water plants {fig. 20), which also occur 
combined with acanthus stems {fig. 22) or with other leaves, and set with 
pearls {fig. 21). Indigenous plants were first generally adopted in the 
13th century. Among those most frequently met with are the ivy {pi. 38, 
fig. 2) ; the wild vine {fig. 3) ; the grape vine {fig. 4) ; the cinque-foil and 

151 



162 ARCHITECTURE. * 

tlie oak {Jig. 5); and even the cabbage {Jig. 6). One of the prettiest 
fantastic foliated capitals is composed of long, many-lobed leaves, over- 
lapping at the top, and forming small volutes. Among the flowers met 
with on capitals the principal ones are the rose {Jigs. Y, 8) and a fantastic 
flower {fig. 9). Small capitals of the 13th century have usually projecting 
foliated volutes at the corners, to which in the lith century a row of leaves 
was added {Jig. 14). In the 15th century the foliated decorations were 
meagre and stifl', but in the 16th century they again approached the forms 
of classic antiquity. The capitals of the 11th century appear nearly all 
smooth, with here and there a few rudely hewn pedicles. In the 12th 
century they are of a more elegant style and of a nobler form. In the 13th 
century, the decline of art is perceptible also in the capitals, which are 
overloaded with leaves and knobs {Jig. 10). In the 14th century the 
capitals have two rows of deeply lobed leaves, and the abacus is round or 
polygonal instead of quadrangular. In the 16th century, finally, the ca]3itals 
are entirely without gracefulness or richness. The Corinthian abacus 
{Jig. 11) was changed considerably, and finally made so thick, that it 
appeared to crush the capital instead of decorating it. 

Apertures or interruptions in the walls, whether they be windows, doors, 
or only niches or recesses, are closed above in various ways ; either by two 
straight oblique lines, the sides of a triangle, meeting over the centre of the 
aperture {Jig. 12), or by gradually narrowing courses of stone, a straight 
line forming the top {Jig. 14), or by a curved line or arch. An arch need 
not be complete ; the one-sided or ascending arch is on the contrary very 
frequent in the German style, employed to connect a lower outer wall with 
a higher uninterrupted inner wall {Jig. 13), and serving instead of a buttress 
to the latter. Complete arches appear in the middle ages in a great variety 
of forms. If the arch be a true arc, i. e. described from a single centre, it 
can have fom- different shapes : 1. Less than a semicircle, or the Jlat arch 
{fig. 15). 2. A full semicircle, or the Romanesgue arch {fig. 16). 3. More 
than a semicircle, or the Moorish arch {fig. lY). 4. A semicircle whose 
centre lies above the level of the imposts, or the overtopped arch {jpl. 36, 
fig. 2). The centre may be often considerably above that level when, for 
instance, the arches of intercolumniations or apertures of different width 
are to have their keystones in a horizontal line without giving up the strictly 
semicircular arch. The overtopping will then be in proportion to the 
decrease in width. A variety of the semicircular arch is the trefoil arch^ 
which is formed by three semicircles intersecting each other and producing 
two points {pi. 38, fig. 18). This construction is very frequent in Ger- 
many and England. The three first named varieties of the semicircular arch 
appear together in the 11th century, the fourth exclusively in the 12th, 
whilst the trefoil arch is represented at all times from the 11th to the 16th 
century. 

The simple pointed arch, the characteristic one of the present period, is of 

seven different forms, five of which belong to the 12th century, two 

exclusively to the 15th. The first and oldest form is composed of two arcs 

whose centres are but slightly removed to both sides from the centre of the 

162 



ARCHITECTURE. 153 

intercolumniation {jpl. Z^^fig. 19). Immediately afterwards appeared the 
second form, which is very high and pointed, the centres of the component 
arcs lying far beyond the sides of the arch (^?Z. S6,Jig. 3). The next form is 
that of the most beautiful and regular pointed arches. It is called the 
equilateral arch^ the centres of the arcs being in the springings of the arch 
{^fig. 4). The fourth form is the lanceTiead arch^ which is constructed from 
the same centres, but the arcs are extended below through the level 
of the centres {fig. 5). The fifth form is the overtopped arch^ whose 
curves are also described from the same centres as in the two last, whilst 
the extensions below their levels are in straight lines {fig. 6). This arch is 
employed in the same cases as the overtopped semicircular arch. The two 
forms belonging to the 15th century are : 1. The jprolonged pointed arch 
{fig. 7 * ). The curves forming the sides of this arch are composed of two 
arcs, the lower one described from the opposite springing as centre ; the 
upper one from a centre a little distant from the centre of the intercolumni- 
ation. 2. The coimter arch^ whose arcs are below the level of their centres, 
each of which is on the same side of the arch as the arc to which it belongs 
{fig. 8). This arch occurs frequently in English architecture. The trefoil 
arch occurs also in the pointed style in the 11th and 12th centuries ; after- 
w^ards much corrupted ; and in the 15th century in England and France in 
the flowing or flamboyant style. 

The ass's-lack arch^ which is called Tudor arch when it is very flat, has 
sides composed of two arcs, but difiers from the prolonged pointed arch in 
this, that the centre of the upper arc is above the arch as in the counter 
arch, whilst that of the lower is below the arch, and the entire side conse- 
quently a wave line {fig. 9). 

The lasket arch {fig. 7 &), which is a frequent form of our day, appears 
very flat in the middle ages, especially in France and England ; more 
rarely in G-ermany, and then only in private dwellings. An example of 
this latter form is given in fig. 10. It is not to be confounded with the 
horizontal top with rounded corners {fig. 11), which is no arch proper, the 
corners only describing arcs of a very short radius. In the time of the 
renaissance (revival of architecture) pointed arches gradually disappear, 
superseded by flat, elliptical, and semicircular arches. 

The decoration of the archivolts consists either in the introduction of stone 
of difierent colors {fig. 12), which was the prevalent manner of the Moorish 
and Byzantine styles ; or they are moulded {fig. 13) ; or the stone wedges 
project more or less {fig. 14). An English mode of constructing the archi- 
volt is curious, having a zigzag or toothed ornament {fig, 15). There are 
also lobed archivolts {fig. 16) or counter lobed {fig. 17). The latter were 
developed in the 15th century so as to exhibit the trefoil arch on a small 
scale {fig. 18) by prolonging and notching the points between the counter 
lobes. 

The archivolt of the pointed arch was at first entirely simple, and at 
most received an astragal for decoration. Afterwards it was covered with 
mouldings, with a view of disguising their true dimensions, and giving 
them a lighter appearance. The first decorative construction was the com- 

153 



154 ARCHITECTURE. 

bination of a socle, a scofcia, and an astragal in front and behind, the two 
astragals lying close together {fig. 19). Subsequently a thin ridge was 
inserted between the two astragals {fig. 20), and finally the archivolts were 
profiled like the girt arches and cross-vault ridges {fig. 21). 

The girt arches and cross-vault ridges always abut obliquely on their 
imposts. Owing to their limited width which never exceeds 8 inches, they 
are very simply profiled, mostly with sharp-edged astragals* scotias, and 
socles. The rich mouldings were all laid in the archivolt, which was 
sometimes very elaborately decorated {fig. 23). This degree of embellish- 
ment was the result of gradual improvement from the simple astragal 
{fig. 24) ; the twisted astragal {fig. 25) ; the wave line astragal {fig. 26) ; 
the zigzag astragal {fig. 28) ; the chevron {fig. 2Y) ; and combinations of 
two or more of these various forms. Such were the counter chevrons 
{Jig. 29), and all the different ornaments which we have represented mfigs. 
30-40. The keystone at the point of intersection of the various vaults 
constituting a cross-vault was frequently made to project some distance 
below the plane of the vaults, and decorated with great splendor {pi. 40, 
fig. 39). 

All these decorations reached their highest-point of perfection in the 13th 
century. They were then mostly borrowed from indigenous plants. The 
archivolts were often interrupted by trefoil arches and their upper edges 
decorated with erect foliage. In the 14th century the general jejuneness 
and monotony in decoration also affected the architectural mouldings ; and 
in the 15th century the tasteful distribution of ornaments over the entire 
buildino;s was discontinued to make room for a meretricious decoration of 
single parts. Henceforth ornaments appear only on the outside of arches, 
doors, windows, and on the gables which were entirely covered. In these 
places and on the edges of the spires, decorative appendices, more or less 
tasteful, were made, consisting of leaves {pi. S9,fig. 1), flowers, dogs' heads, 
animal and human fisiures, &c. 

Entablatures proper are not found in the pointed-arch style owing to the 
peculiar mode of construction which left no room for them. In the interior, 
only a cornice under the windows was retained, which varied in profile 
according to the individual taste of the architect. Some are found that 
approach the classic ages in noble simplicity. We have selected as an 
example a cornice from the cathedral at Avignon {fig. 2). On the exterior, 
cornices are more frequently employed as well at the gables as in the real 
or imitation interruptions that decorated the walls. These cornices were 
often supported by cornices {pi. 36, fig. 41) the shape of which was entirely 
matter of fancy ; they are found from the simplest cubes to the most 
elaborate representations of animal or human figures. The cornices were 
also varied to suit personal taste and were sometimes exceedingly rich. 
This effect was, however, attained by introducing a greater number of 
members in the mouldings, rather than by a deviation from the simplicity 
which marks the style of decorating the cornices in this period {pi. 39, 
fig. 3). The recesses between pilasters were also closed above with two or more 
small arches resting on small consoles {fig. 4), which often had the form of 
154 



ARCHITECTURE. 155 

human or animal heads or figures {fig. 5). In the absence of consoles the 
cornices of the small arches were made to run unintermptedly around the 
points between the arches, which in that case usually terminated in a flower. 

In some churches horizontal decorations are found aboA^e the cornice, 
taking as it were the place of the architrave. They are either composed of 
burnt bricks exhibiting trefoil or quatrefoil recesses {fig. 6) ; or inscriptions 
chronicling some events or invoking the blessing of God upon the building ; 
or else foliated work {fig. T). These ornaments were also poorer in the 15th 
century {fig. 8) ; and in the 16th century they were frequently displaced by 
more or less happy attempts at imitating the antique entablature {fig. 9). 

In the gables the arch decorations on consoles follow the slopes of the 
roof The axis of the arch is perpendicular either to the slope {fig. 10) or 
to the horizon {fig. 11). The latter is considered better taste. 

The roof commences over the cornice. It is either flat, or dome shaped, 
or a ridge roof The decorations at the upper walls are different for the 
different kinds of roof In the 13th and 14th centuries a gallery running all 
round the church w^as placed immediately below the roof. This gallery 
had a latticed or a decorated stone railing {fig. 13). Such were also placed 
at the edges of flat roofs. A similar latticed wall was also often placed as 
a decoration along the ridge of the roof, at first rather rude {fig. 12) but 
later more elegant, and in the 13th century superseded by gilt metal of 
elaborate workmanship {jpl. ^^.^fig. 3). The edges of the roof frequently 
rested on consoles {jpl. Z^.^fig. 14). This was especially the case with spire 
roofs which ascended very steeply. The decorations of the gables in the 
11th and 12th centuries have still some affinities with the antique {pi. 40, 
fig. 5). In the succeeding century they are more like the earlier Byzantine 
{jpl. 39, fig. 16), but in the prime of German architecture they are very 
tasteful {fig. 15). In this period little pyramidal turrets were placed at the 
foot of the gables on both sides. 

The rain-gutters were arranged very cleverly in the middle ages and 
carefully lined with lead. Their spouts projected from the eaves in the 
shape of human or animal figures {jpl. 40, fig. 4). Over them were the 
railings which we have mentioned, and which frequently were adorned 
with most beautiful circular rosettes or with lattice-work in the shape of 
trefoil arches over perpendicular compartments {jpl. Z^^fig. 17). These 
railings are always in accordance with the taste of their periods, so that a 
practised eye can from them determine the time when an edifice was 
finished. In some cases there are battlements with turrets at the comers 
{j[>l. ^^^fig- 6) or machicolis {figs. Y, 8) instead of railings. 

The walls were mostly very high and long, and especially in the prime 

of middle age architecture so thin that it became necessary to give them an 

outward support, partly in order to give them strength in proportion to 

their dimensions, in part to enable them to withstand the lateral pressure 

of the interior vaults. Buttresses were, therefore, employed as early as the 

Byzantine period. In the pointed-arch style buttresses and ascending 

arches were brought to the highest state of perfection. The first buttresses 

had but very little projection from the wall. They appeared almost like 

155 



] 56 ARCHITECTURE. 

pilasters {^jpl. Z^^figs. 35, 36) and at the corners like half-columns {j^l. 39, 
fig. 18). These reinforcements of the wall generally were carried up as 
high as the base of the cornice, and this height was retained even after they 
were considered as distinct architectural members, and received a greater 
projection {jpl, Z^^fig, 37). They were sometimes made round with a little 
conical roof {^jpl. 4:0^ fig. 10), or connected at the top by arches {pi. 39, 
fig. 20). As church architecture advanced and the height of the vaults in 
the interior was increased, the projection of the buttresses increased in 
proportion ; but as the pressure in the upper parts was gradually less, the 
buttresses were made of steps of different projections {fig. 19). When sub- 
sequently gracefulness in the appearance of the edifices received greater 
attention cornices were laid round the buttresses ; and they received little 
gables {pi. S4:,fig. 38) sometimes with ridge-roofs {pi. 39, fig. 22). A still 
more increased height of the nave led to another and stronger reinforcement 
of the walls. The side aisles, which were usually much lower, were girt 
with buttresses strong enough for the walls of the main nave. These 
buttresses were carried up considerably higher than the w^alls of the side 
aisles, and one or more one-sided or ascending arches were sprung from them 
against the wall of the main nave {fig. 21). 

The decoration of the buttress consisted of columns at the corners, and the 
main cornices led around them {fig. 23). Above the cornice was placed a 
solid quadrangular pillar wdth imitation lattice-work, gables, and pyramidal 
point {figs. 24, 26). The less projecting buttresses received only a ridge- 
roof whose gable was decorated {fig. 25). Heavy buttresses, decreasing 
stepwise, had the facade of every step decorated with imitation lattice-work 
which gave them a lighter appearance {fig. 27). Their tops were then- 
surmounted with solid pillars, whose front gables were supported by two 
small columns forming a niche between them in which a statue was placed. 
Sometimes, especially in England, a statue only was placed on the top of 
the buttress {fig. 28). Sometimes the buttresses had niches with gables 
from below upwards, this decoration being principally used on buttresses of 
towers {fig. 29). At the time of the renaissance all this elegant splendor 
disappeared, superseded at first by the rigid forms of the transition style, 
and then by the reversed consoles and other clumsy supports of the worst 
Italian style {fig. 30). In England polygonal buttresses are frequently 
met with surmounted by turrets with battlements, against which the ascend- 
ing arches rest {fig. 31). 

The windows that interrupt the walls of a church are either straight above-, 
or arched, or entirely round. Their sides may be rectangular {pi. 4:0^ fig. 11) 
or outwardly and inwardly oblique {fig. 12), or only inwardly oblique 
{fig. 13). The old basilicas have no windows in the apsis. At a later 
period the apsis had one or more, but always an odd number of windows. 
An even number only exceptionally occurs at a very late period. The 
great windows are properly a number of smaller ones packed into one 
frame, three or more lancet-windows being placed beside each other, and 
one or more foil or rosette windows above them or between their heads in 
order to fill out the arched cell of the vaulting, which then necessarily gave 
156 



ARCHITECTURE. 157 

the whole group an arched outline ; and this was indicated by an arched 
drip-mould or label. It then became desirable to lighten the irregular^ 
shaped masses of stone left between the perforations, and this was done 
by piercing these masses or spandrils, and reducing the solid frame of each 
foil or rosette to an equal thickness all round, as if several such frames or 
rings were packed into one great arched opening, w^hich henceforth was 
regarded as one window instead of several. 

Tlie oldest windows are generally round-arched and more or less simple, 
as shown in jpl. 39, figs. 32-36. Coupled windows {fig. 37) occur only in 
the first centuries of the middle ages. Among the earliest packed windows 
were those represented in pi. 40, fig. 9, consisting of three round-arched 
windows, the central one of greater width, with a common arch sprung 
over them all. The first round windows are of the same age, and occur 
between the heads of two coupled windows {pi. 34, fig. 25), but never 
alone. At a later period large rosette windows occur alone in the principal 
facades of churches, divided by little columns set around the centre like 
wheel spokes, and connected by round or trefoil arches {pi. ^^^fig. 38). In 
the pointed-arch stjde the rosette window is always surmounted by an arch, 
or at least a drip-mould. 

The improvement of the windows in the jDointed style was as gradual as 
that in the Romanesque and Byzantine. "We first find them small and 
simple {p)l. 4:0., fig. 14) ; then coupled {fig. 15) ; next coupled with a perfo- 
rated foil rosette between their heads {fig. 16) ; then the same arrangement 
packed into a common arch resting on columns {pi. S9,fig. 40). The 
desire for greater ornament made the windows more and more complicated, 
and designing the patterns for windows became a special art, the art of 
tracery. One centre mullion not being found suflicient to admit of many 
variations of design, three, five, and even seven were introduced. The 
mullions are usually perpendicular up to the level of the springings of the 
arch, w^here they diverge into arches, curves, and flowing lines, enriched 
with foliations. PL 4,0., fig. 17, gives an example of a window with three 
mullions ; jpZ. ^^^fig- 41, wdth five ; and/^. 42 with seven. The division 
of the heads of the arches in these examples is stiictly geometrical ; the 
principal groups are separate, and each has its own appropriate subdivisions 
and ornaments. 

The strictly geometrical tracery was in the 15th century superseded by 
the less beautiful but more lively English leaf tracery {pi. 4:0., fig. 20), and 
-the still more lively French fiamhoyant tracery {figs. 18, 19 ; and pi. 39, 
fig. 39). According to Garbett's Principles of Design in Architecture, the 
difference between the flamboyant and the English leaf tracery is, that 
while the upper ends of the English loops or leaves are round or simply 
pointed, i. e. with finial angles., the upper ends in France terminate, like the 
lower, in angles of contact (those formed by two cm'ves that have a common 
tangent). It was necessary to the leafy effect that the lower angles should 
be tangential, but to the flame-like effect that the upper ones should be so, 
even if the lower were flnite ; and hence some examples of flamboyant 
tracery turned upside down form a kind of leaf tracery. 

157 



158 ARCHITECTURE. 

The English, however, adopted still another method which was less con- 
ducive to the aspiring expression, and which conducted them to a style less 
rich and certainly less varied than any of the other After-Gothic styles. 
This style is called the ^perpendicular. Erroneously supposing that an 
abundance of vertical lines would increase the Gothic character, the Enoflish 
were led to convert all the flowing lines of the window tracery into vertical 
ones, to omit the capitals of nearly all the smaller shafts or shaftlets, thus 
converting what had been blank arcades into mere panels, and then to mul- 
tiply, diminish, and extend these panels with endless repetitions of vertical 
lines over every part of the interior, and in florid buildings even of the 
exterior. Examples of this style are given in jpl. 39, fig. 43^ and pi. 40, 
figs. 21, 22. 

Eectangular windows occur only in dwelling-houses or below pointed- 
arch windows, except in some cases in the period from the 13th to the 15th 
century, where they take the place of the gallery near the roof. The older 
quadrangular windows have highly ornamental jambs and lintels under 
arches {fig. 23). When they are very wide the lintel is supported by a 
column in the centre {fig. 24), or the upper courses of the side walls project 
imder the lintel, thus approaching the flat arch {fig. 25) ; when their width 
is greater than their height, they are divided by mullions connected by 
trefoil arches under the straight lintel {fig. 26). 

A curious combination of the Romanesque and pointed arch is produced 
by two Romanesque arcades intertwined, which at their intersections pro- 
duce pointed arches {fig. 27) w^hich are perforated for windows, and have 
a very pleasing effect. Windows of this kind were of frequent occurrence 
in the 12th century, but in the subsequent centuries their places were occu- 
pied by apparent perforations in the pointed arches. 

Rosette windows occur as late as the loth century, but their strictly cir- 
cular form was gradually abandoned for convex-sided triangles {fig. 28) or 
polygons, with strictly geometrical divisions. Such windows of the purest 
taste are very numerous in Germany. 

In the pointed-arch style of architecture doorways are striking and 
important features, indicating in the character of the mouldings and orna- 
ments the style and period of the edifice. They are located either in the 
centre of the more or less decorated facade, or in some other point of the 
exterior wall. Only the former claim our special attention, the latter being 
generally very subordinate in character. The principal doorway of a church 
is always of the character of its windows, except in some cases where the 
erection has been of very long duration, when occasionally a later architect 
has been sufiiciently deficient in good taste to vary the style with a view to 
satisfy his own fancy or the taste of his own period. The doorways are 
mostly perspective portals, deep enough to form forehalls, as we have 
already seen (p. 148). If the portal is very wide it is subdivided by a 
pillar in the centre {pi. 39, fig. 44), which is mostly adorned with the 
statue of the tutelary saint of the church. The door wings seldom reach to 
the top of the arch, but end mostly in a horizontal line at the height of its 
springings, the head of the arch receiving a packed window or merely an 
158 



ARCHITECTURE. 159 

indication of one in a profusion of sculpture. The greatest splendor of 
decoration prevails in the portals of the pointed-arch churches, as may be 
seen in the views of entire churches represented on pis. 34-39 and 41, of 
which we shall presently examine the details. The character of the sculp- 
tures found in and on the churches of this period will be described in that 
division of this work which is devoted to the Fine Arts. 

As in the Romanesque style the apsis w^as the characteristic part of the 
church more or less decorated {pi. 40, figs. 29, 30), so in the pointed-arch 
style are the bell towers or spires. Their lower portion is usually a square 
elongated vertical building, or tower proper, which at a certain height 
passes into a circular or polygonal form, thence tapering off to a point, and 
forming a spire or steeple. In the absence of the tapering part they are 
called towers, otherwise spires or steeples. The bells are usually Imng at 
the upper exti'emity of the tower below the commencement of the pyramidal 
part, and their position is exteriorly marked by the belfry window or other 
apertm*e for the escape of the sound. One of the oldest structui-es of this 
kind is the spire of St. Ainay's church in Lyons {pi. "^O^fig. 31). A beauti- 
ful example of towers proper is afforded in the cathedral of York {pi. 38, 
fig. 20). Among the spires various kinds are distinguished according to 
their shape. Among them are the pyramidal, whose reduction to a point 
is step- wise, as in the Minster of Strasburg {pi. 36., fig. 4,2)-, the arrow- 
headed, whose reduction is in straight lines from the substructure to the 
point {pi. S4:, fig. 39; ojid pi. 4:0, fig. 33) ; the needle-shaped, whose square 
substructure abruptly contracts into an octagon, the spire rising thence like 
the arrow-headed {pi. 40, fig. 35) ; the dome-shaped, w^hose corners are con- 
vex lines {fig. 34). Gahle towers have no steeples, but framework roofs with 
two or four gables, and covered with tiles or slate {fig. 36). In conclusion 
we mention the arch towers which occur frequently on village churches. 
They are solid structures with several arched perforations in one of which the 
bell is hung {fig. 37). 

The decoration of the towers in the 11th and 12th centuries consisted 
mostly of arcades arranged in different tiers above each other, and exhibit- 
ing principally the round arch. If the width of the arches was very great 
it was subdivided by subordinate arcades. The ornaments of the arches 
and their imposts, columns, consoles, archivolts, &c., were often exceedingly 
rich and always remarkable for unity of style to the minutest details. In 
the thirteenth century the round arches gave way for the pointed, and the 
towers had only one tier of arcades of great height, with deep perspective 
archivolts decorated with columns. In this century we find the first pyra- 
midal stone roofs on towers, multifariously j)erforated with rosettes and 
foils. In the fourteenth century the mull ions of the belfry windows are 
reduced to one, and the spaces filled out with sound-boards {pi. 40, fig. 32). 
On the other hand new decorations are introduced on the columns, arches, 
and gutter-spouts, giving the towers a much richer appearance. In the 15th 
century towers commence to be built of several stories of gradually reduced 
circumference, and richly decorated with buttresses, ascending arches, 
crowning flowers, &c., and harmonizing in surpassing splendor with the 

159 



160 ARCHITECTURE. 

style of the churches to which they belong. Fig, 38 a represents the upper 
part of such a tower. The workmanship is exquisite, but the arrangement 
of the ornaments already denotes a grievous deviation from a natm-al perfec- 
tion, as is more clearly seen from fig. 38 h representing a massive turret 
placed on a very slender column. 

The pointed-arch style is generally designated as the Gothic style. With 
much more truth and propriety it might be called the German style as has 
been proposed by Goethe, for it originated in Germany and has in its 
characteristics nothing in common with the older styles that we have 
examined in the preceding pages, and least of all with the real Gothic style 
which originated in Italy during the supremacy of the Goths in that 
country under Theodoric. The prominent original features of the German 
style are : 1. The construction of cross-vaults whose ribs alone are of free- 
stone, grouped in the greatest variety of forms, the spaces between them 
being filled up with bricks not more than four to eight inches in size. 
2. The pointed arcli over windows and doors. 3. The connexion of pillars 
and columns in the interior by pointed arches. 4. The extremely high 
naves and remarkably slender columns and pillars that support their cross- 
vault ceilings. 5. The profusely decorated perspective portals. 6. The highly 
finished perforated work in the high spires. 7. The proportionately thin 
walls of exquisite masomy, strengthened by buttresses at the points of 
lateral pressure of interior vaults. 

The oldest monuments of this style date from the 10th century, and are 
found in the very heart of Gei-many between the Eister and Saale Eivers, 
near the Elbe, where it would be absm-d to 5U];)pose Eomanesque, Byzan- 
tine, or Moorish infiuence, when the vast tracts of land that separate their 
site from the homes of these latter styles remained entii^ely unaffected, and 
had no buildings in the so-colled Gothic, j/i'Ojjerly Geema2«- pointed arch 
style until a century later. The fact that the chui'ch of St. Peter and St. 
Paul in Zeitz, dedicated in the year 9T-i ; the cathedral of Meissen, com- 
menced in 948 ; the cathedral of Mei-seburg, commenced in 968yand others 
which are in the purest pointed-arch style, are much older than any edifice 
of this style in Erance, England, Italy, and even in the rest of Germany, 
seems conclusively to prove that the pointed-arch style was invented and 
fij.'st employed in Saxony. It is therefore purely German, and it is a mis- 
nomer to call it Gothic. 

Having thus given an outline of the progress and development of Archi- 
tecture during the period of the pointed-arch style we offer in conclusion a 
short description of the most prominent of its monuments. 

1. The Mixster of Feeybukg ix Badex. {PL Zo.fi^. 16, plan; fi^. IT, 
view). This remarkable church was commenced in the year 1122. Its 
construction was prosecuted with great zeal on the part of the princes and 
citizens, the latter mortgaging their property in order to raise money for 
the church. In the year 1146 it was so far completed that Bernard de 
Clairvaux could preach In it and exhort the people to join in the crusade. 
The edifice then, however, only comprised the tower a, the nave b, with 
the side aisles c c, and the transept d, to the small tower d. The spire 
160 



ARCHITECTURE. 161 

was finished in the 13th century. The choir e, with the gallery f, was 
commenced in 1314, and finished in 1513 by John J^iesenberger of Gratz. 
Erwin von Steinbach, the architect of the Minster of Strasburg, w<as also 
for some time engaged in superintending the Freyburg building. The 
transept appears to be the oldest part of the church since it exhibits a 
mixture of the Byzantine and German styles, whilst the rest of the building 
is in the purest German style. The width of the nave is 27 feet, that of 
the side aisles 20 feet. The ceilings are simple cross-vaults resting on 
columns 7 feet thick. The walls without the buttresses are only 6 feet 
thick. The choir is closed on three sides and has cross-vault ceilings with 
very artificially distributed ribs. Its length is 157 feet ; that of the nave 
175 feet. The fa9ade has a beautiful perspective portal (1), 30 feet in 
width, lying between pillars of 8 feet thickness and 13 feet projection, and 
profusely decorated with columns, arches, and a gable with fine sculptures. 
The fore hall a is also rich in architectural ornaments and sculptures. The 
inner doorway (2) has a central pillar decorated with a statue of St. Mary. 
The vault of the fore hall is 42 feet high. The tower is square up to the 
first galler}^ ; thence twelve-cornered ; and finally eight-cornered up to the 
base of the pyramid which is six-sided and rises, without nucleus and with 
beautifully perforated walls, a pattern of the most exquisite architectural 
construction. Its extreme height including the substructure is 372-2- feet. 
The height of the nave is 82^ feet, and the choir has the same height, but 
it appears higher exteriorly as it is elevated by a number of steps above 
the floor of the nave. A number of chapels, e, are grouped around the 
choir. The cross-arms have each a portal surmounted by perforated pyra- 
mids, and the richly decorated buttresses of the side aisles are connected 
with the upper wall of the main nave by ascending arches which strengthen 
it. The south side is very rich in sculptures, and all the windows contain 
•most beautiful glass paintings. The pulpit is of stone, and a masterpiece 
of sculpture by George Kempt. 

2. The Minster of STKASBUKa {pi. 36, Jig. 42, view from northwest). 
This edifice is one of the most precious monuments of German architec- 
ture. The entire structure is of a hard white freestone, slightly tinged 
with red. Its extreme length is 343 feet 4 inches, in the clear 314 feet. It, 
has three aisles of an aggregate width in the clear of 114 feet, 6 inches. 
The transept is 173 feet, 8 inches long, by a width of 44 feet, 7 inches. 
The nave is 42 feet, 4 inches wide, and 95 feet, 5 inches high. The twelve 
clustered pillars which separate it from the side aisles have a thickness of 
7 feet, 4 inches ; their inner cylinder is 5 feet, 3 inches in diameter. The 
side aisles are 24 feet, 11 inches wide, by a height of 43 feet. The tower 
facade is 159 feet, 6 inches wide. The side walls are only 3 feet, 8 inches 
thick, with buttresses 4 feet, 4 inches broad, and projecting 8 feet, 6 inches. 
There are two side chapels, 51 and 56 feet in length, attached to the side 
aisles. These chapels have artificially distributed vaulting ribs, whilst the 
other ceilings are simple cross-vaults with caps 8-9 inches thick. The 
western side of the interior has beautiful German ornaments among which 
two rosettes are prominent, the one with apparent perforations, the other a 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPAEDIA. VOL. IV. 1 1 161 



162 ARCHITECTURE. 

true lattice window 51 feet in diameter. The intersection of the nave and. 
transept is surmounted by a dome. The choir, which belongs to the oldest 
part of the church, has been restored in inferior style. This oldest portion, 
which embraces also the cross-arms with the exception of the northern 
portal, which is of later date, is built in the Byzantine style. Under the 
choir is a subterranean church, and 21 feet below the latter is the founda- 
tion sole of the minster, being a layer of clay 3 feet thick on closely driven 
piles. Near one of the chapels is a small court containing a stone cube 
with the epitaphs of Erwin von Steinbach (d. 1318), the architect of the 
spire and of his wife and son. The tower was commenced in 12YT. Its 
height to the platform where the warder lodges, is 205 feet from the floor 
of the church. Thence rises the northern tower. The southern was never 
built. This part of the structure is a quadrangle with truncated corners, 113 
feet, 6 inches high, and containing the belfry and spiral stairs. From its top 
rises the spire proper, a pyramid 121 feet, 6 inches high. The total height 
of this spire is, therefore, 442 feet. It is the highest finished spire in 
Europe. The spires for the cathedral of Cologne were designed to be 532 
feet high, that of the minster of Ulm 452 feet, 6 inches, but they were not com- 
pleted. The upper pyramid of the Strasburg spire is octagonal and reduced 
stepwise to a point. It is of the most exquisite workmanship, and built 
according to the highest principles of stone-dressing. The gallery below 
the cross forms a sort of crown to the spire. The spire was executed under 
the superintendence of the architect John Hiiltz, and its every detail com- 
mands the admiration of architects in point of construction. 

The southern portal is in the Byzantine style. It is decorated with 
sculptures representing figures from the Old and l^ew Testaments and 
others distinguished by tasteful composition and beautiful execution. They 
are newer than the portal itself, and are principally works of Sabina von 
Steinbach, daughter of the architect. This portal formed the conclusion of ^ 
the oldest portion of the church, which was all finished in the year 1002. 
The outer walls of the new naves were finished by bishop Wernher in 1028. 
It is in the pointed-arch style of much lower dimensions than were after- 
wards in vogue. The vaulting of the nave and side aisles was not com- 
pleted before 1050. Erwin von Steinbach constructed the ascending arches 
to the walls of the main nave and built the tower to the height of the ridge 
of the nave. After his death his son John carried it up to the platform. 
He was followed by John Hiiltz of Cologne, who commenced the northern 
spire and built a piece of the southern, which was subsequently taken down. 
Conrad Frankenberger was the next architect. He worked at the northern 
spire for the first four or five years of the 15th century. Finally John Hiiltz, 
grandson of the above mentioned Hultz, finished the pyramid in the year 
1439. The stone pulpit is of exquisite workmanship and was wrought by 
Hammerer in the year 1485. 

3. TirE Cathedral of Cologne. ISTo building has been so much discussed 

in public prints and special books as the cathedral of Cologne. It has the 

greatest claim to the special attention of architects, on the one hand by the 

merit of its grand and harmonious ground plan, and on the other because 

162 



ARCHITECTURE. 163 

its architectural forms and ornaments are so many witnesses of the prime 
of the pointed-arch style. PL 34, fig. 40, gives a view of this building as 
it is intended to be when completed. Six hundred years have elapsed 
since it was commenced, but no part of the grand structure is entirely 
finished. In the beginning of the present century many of the finished 
parts showed serious marks of decay, and it became a point of pride in all 
the German nation to prevent the ruin of this cathedral, and if possible to 
complete it. In 1824 the Prussian government decreed an annual contri- 
bution of $10,000 ; a light cathedral tax was created, to which every man 
had to bring his mite ; extensive private collections were made, and nume- 
rous presents and bequests sent to the cathedral. The king of Bavaria set 
the example of having certain parts of the building finished at his own 
expense, and several other princes and associations followed it. The work 
was then commenced in good earnest, and has been carried on ever since. 
The restoration of dilapidated parts and the new parts are being made 
strictly in the spirit and according to the designs of the first architect. 
Fortunately the original plans still exist, so that no room has been left for 
mistakes by erroneous conclusions. But the astonishing elaboration of 
ornament makes progress very slow. There is hardly a stone laid in the 
building that has not on one or more of its faces highly finished stone- 
dresser's or sculptor's work. The progress of decay has, however, been 
efiectually arrested, and considerable work has been done towards the 
perfection of the cross-arms with their magnificent portals. The side aisles 
have been furnished with painted-glass windows of the highest artistic 
value, presents of the king of Bavaria, representing the birth of Christ, the 
Evangelists, and other subjects illustrating the Scriptures. The main front 
where the two spires are to be reared is still pretty much in its dilapidated 
condition. The northern tower is only 10 or 15 feet out of the ground ; the 
grand portal between the two towers is not even commenced ; and only the 
southern tower is carried up two stories and a half to about the height of 
the projected peak of the centre gable, which is to have the height of the 
main nave. On this tower stands the token of Cologne, a huge unwieldy 
wooden crane, used for raising the blocks of stone to their proper places. 
In the course of centuries the inhabitants of Cologne had become so 
strongly attached to this crane, that they replaced the old time-worn one in 
1826 by a new one, at an expense of nearly $20,000, although the final com- 
pletion of the edifice would have been much more furthered had this sum 
been judiciously expended in some other part of the building. The entrance 
to the church, at present, is through the side portal in this tower leading 
into the southern side aisle. 

The construction of the church was commenced in the year 1248, when 
the archbishop Conrad of Hochstedten laid the corner-stone on the eve of 
St. Mary's day. The plans are ascribed by some to Gerhard of St. Trond 
who appears in the accounts as a master stone-cutter: by othei*s, to 
Albertus Magnus, Dominican monk, and subsequently bishop of Ratisbon. 
The latter conjecture seems to have the greater probability, for the tho- 
roughly digested plans would appear to be beyond the conception of a 

163 



164 ARCHITECTURE. 

mere stone-cutter, whilst Albertns Magnus is known to have been the 
designer of the magnificent cathedral in Ratisbon. Archbishop Conrad 
died in 1261, and the city of Cologne was under the curse of the papal 
anathema for a number of years. The construction was therefore inter- 
rupted until 1305, when it was taken up again. In 1320 the choir was 
consecrated for church service. Since then down to 1824 very little has 
been done to the edifice, which thus has been exposed for -Q.ve hundred 
years in an unfinished state to the inclemency of a wet climate. As it 
stands now, it might be completed in a comparatively short space of time, 
if there were unity of action and a wise concentration of means ; but the 
political state of Germany, weakened as it is both in moral and material 
strength, leaves very little room for hope that more will be done hereafter 
than has been done for the last twenty years ; and, although the pious 
spirit in which the work is conducted commands the most unqualified 
appreciation, the rate of progress excludes all belief of its ever being 
brought to an end. 

In the arrangement of the ground plan the number of seven seems to 
have constituted the leading idea. Seven columns line each side of the 
main and side entrances. Seven pedestals for statues are on either side of 
the fore-hall. The southern tower has fourteen corner canopies. Se^en 
pairs of columns on either side separate the fine aisle of the church to the 
foot of the high choir. The latter contains also seven pairs of columns, and 
is surrounded by seven chapels. The entire church has fifty-six free 
columns and twenty-eigTit pilasters. All the dimensions are also resolvable 
by the number of seven. The height in the clear of the high choir is 161 
feet, equal to that of the width of the church. The western portal is 231 
feet wide, equal to the projected height of the gable. The projected height 
of the spire is 532 feet, equal to the entire length of the church, including 
the buttresses and the fliers. The height of the side aisles in the clear is 
TO feet; the width of the cross-arms, which haA^e three aisles, 105 feet ; the 
depth of the fore-hall 56 feet, &c. It would probably be easy to trace the 
combination of seven into the most minute details of the ornaments. These 
are arranged in the purest taste, and executed with surpassing skill. We 
have copied a number of them on jpl. 41 ; figs. 1-4 are capitals from the 
columns placed in front of the principal j)illars ; fig. 5, a capital from a 
pilaster ; figs. 6-8, ornaments from difierent galleries ; figs. 9, 10, medal- 
lions irom keystones of vaults ; figs. 11, 12, water-spouts. The walls of the 
side aisles are 4 feet 8 inches thick, and reinforced by buttresses of 11 feet pro- 
jection by 8 feet breadth. According to the plans, double ascending arches 
are to be sprung from these buttresses to the higher walls of the main nave, 
which are to be erected on the pointed arches connecting the main pillars 
lining the nave. The entire church covers an area of 69,000 square feet. 
In size it is the ninth Christian church. It is to St. Peter's in Rome as 
1 : 2.866. Its foundations are more than 40 feet deep. At present, about 
one third of the masonry is completed, if we include the projected spires in 
the calculation. 

4. St. Stephen's Church in Yienna. The first Duke of Austria, Henry 
J64 



ARCHITECTURE. 165 

Jasomirgott, laid the comer stone of St. Stephen's church in the year 1144 
or 1147 (the chronicle being illegible) on the site of an old chapel. The 
design was made by Bishop Reginbert, of Passau, and the construction 
conducted by the architect Octavianus Wolzner, of Cracow. Of the origi- 
nal edifice nothing remains but the walls of the central nave and the 
western facade, with the gigantic portal in the Romanesque style. All the 
lower part of the western front shows the perfect Romanesque style, whilst 
the pyramids of the towers exhibit the beginnings of the pointed-arch style. 
In the years 1258 and 1275 the church suffered considerably by conflagra- 
tions, but was repaired as early as 1278, when the Emperor Rudolph I., of 
Hapsburg, celebrated in it his thanksgiving for his victory over Ottokar of 
Bohemia. The re-edification and enlargement of the church in the pure 
pointed-arch style was completed by Anthony Pilgram, in 1313, by the 
designs of Bishop Peter of Passau, or rather of Parson Bernhard Bram- 
beck, who subsequently became Bishop of Passau. The vaults of the nave 
and side aisles, as they now stand {jpl. 37, fig. 25), date only from 1574 ; 
the previous ones had no artificial ribs. The high choir was finished in 
1839, by Duke Albert, with money raised by a tax of two cents on everj^ 
subject. The designs for the spires on the cross-arms were made by the 
arcliitect Hauser, of Eloster-E"euburg. A second Anthony Pilgram con- 
ducted the building in 1400, and completed the southern spire in 1433. 
The northern tower was in 1511 carried to the height of the church roof 
(145| feet) by John Buxbaum. In 1514 the spire was struck bj^ lightning, 
and inclined considerably to one side. It was righted in five years by the 
architect Leonhardt. Subsequently it settled again about three feet to the 
north-east. In the years 1839-1842 about 70 feet of its top were taken 
down, re-erected perpendicularly, and crowned with a gigantic flower, 
embossed of sheet iron. Its extreme height is 428 feet 8 inches. The 
length of the church is 321 feet. The main nave between the pillars, which 
are 8 feet thick, is 29 feet wide ; the side aisles 25 feet. The height in the 
clear of the central vaults varies from 76 to 85 feet. Its area is 46,866 
square feet. It is to St. Peter's in Rome as 1 : 4.14. The spire is one of 
the most daring structures, its height being to its area as 9.5 : 1, and its 
lower walls only 8 feet 10 inches thick. The foundations of the church are 
said to rest on huge subterranean vaults ^-^^d stories deep, the three lowest 
of which are never opened, whilst the two uppermost ones serve as sepul- 
chral vaults, in which bodies do not decay but dry up. The corpses are 
de])osited in chambers between pillars, which are walled up as soon as they 
are filled. Between these chambers galleries lead to the imperial vault in 
the centre, where since Ferdinand II. the intestines of the royal family are 
deposited in copper urns, their hearts being deposited in the chapel of 
Loretto, in St. Augustin's church, and their bodies in the church of the 
Capuchins. 

5. The Cathedral of Magdeburg. This edifice was commenced as 
early as 963 by Emperor Otho I., in the favorite city of his empress Edith, 
who was also buried in this church. This cathedral was a masterpiece of 
architecture in the pure Byzantine style. It was entirely destroyed by fire 

165 



1 66 ARCHITECTURE. 

in 1207, nothing remaining but the walls of the high choir, which were 
made use of in the re-edification which had commenced already in 1208, 
after the designs of the architect Bohnensack. JRl. 4:1, Jig. 13, represents its 
ground plan. Jig. 14 gives a front view of the edifice from the north-west 
side. It is in the purest German pointed-arch style. It w^as finished in 
little over 150 years, being consecrated in the year 1363. Its length in the 
clear is 288 feet. The vaults of the main nave, which rest on 22 columns 
connected by pointed arches, are 106 feet high, those of the side aisles 30 
feet 8 inches. The choir contains several statues and porphyry columns 
said to have been sent from Italy, and to have belonged to the old building. 
The church is one of the finest edifices in northern Germany, and of high 
value for the study of the architecture of the middle ages, being one of the 
few works of those times that are entirely finished. It suffered to some 
extent during the several sieges of Magdeburg in the Thirty Years' War, 
when especially the sonthern spire lost its crowning flower and suffered 
considerable damage to its interior decoration. In the year 1826 it was 
repaired by order of the King of Prnssia, strictly in the style of the first 
design, and the church has now a noble appearance both exteriorly and 
interiorly. The fac^ade of the towers, with the magnificent portal between 
them, is admirably composed. The fore hall contains the bronze monument 
to xirchbishop Ernest of Magdeburg, cast by Peter Yischer of Nurnberg, 
wlien the archbishop was still in life. At the beginning of the northern 
cross-arm is a remarkable parabolic vault with horizontal joints, constructed 
very much like the treasury of Atreus in Mycenae (p. 34 and^Z. S,Jig. 8). 
In the transept is a beautiful chapel forming half a dodecagon, whose flat 
ceiling rests on perforated girt arches. 

6. The Chtech of St. Michael and St. Gudula in Brussels was com- 
menced in 104T and enlarged in 1295. It is built throughout in the purest 
German style. PI. 3T, Jig. 23. gives the western view of the church. It 
has three portals leading into the three aisles, the central one of which is 
130 feet high and 34 feet wide, its vaults resting on 12 round columns four 
feet in diameter, in front of which stand the statues of the twelve apostles. 
The side aisles are 50 feet high and 20 feet 6 inches wide, including the 
chapels. The choir is about 86 feet high and lined with round columns. 
Over the intersection of the nave and transept is a pointed wooden spire. 
Tlie upper walls of the main nave rest on the pointed arches that connect 
the columns, and are secured from without by double rows of ascending 
arches, sprung from the outer buttresses over the side aisles. The choir has 
no such ascending arches, being much lower than the nave. The choir is 
ornamented by ten broad windows, more than 50 feet high, and decorated 
with highly finished glass-paintings. It has also 20 attached chapels. 
The interior of the chm*ch is magnificent. The main front, however, is 
incomplete, the towers having been left without their spires, and although 
of the same height, both unfinished at the top. 

7. The Cathedral of Antwerp {pi. 37, Jig. 24, western view) was first 
built in the 13th century, and dedicated to the Yirgin Mary. It was 
destroyed by a conflagration, only the choir and the facade of the towers 

166 



ARCHITECTURK 167 

being saved. The new nave was built in 1422 by John Amel on the old 
foundation. It is 490 feet long, 228 feet broad, and 154 feet in the clear, 
and is one of the most beautiful structures in the Netherlands. The vault 
over the intersection of the nave and transept supports a beautiful dome 
with a wooden cap. The new choir was not commenced before 1521, when 
Charles Y. laid the corner stone. The portal and the northern spire were 
finished in the year 1518, whilst the construction of the southern tower was 
interrupted as early as 1515. The northern spire is 44Y feet high, with a 
cross of 15 feet in height, and is by many preferred to the spire of the 
Minster of Strasburg. The unity of style in the latter gives it, however, a 
decidedly greater merit, the upper part of the spire of Antwerp deviating 
from the pure pointed-arch construction. Upon the whole the western 
fa9ade exhibits too much of the meretricious ornament of the 16th century to 
be ranked with the Minster of Strasburg, whose entire ornaments are purely 
constructive and therefore true. 

The ground plan of the cathedral of Antwerp is in the form of the Latin 
cross. The width of the church is divided into seven aisles, the central one 
of which is 31 feet in the clear. Its pillars are 5 feet 6 inches thick. The 
first side aisles north and south are 19 feet wide, with pillars 3 feet Cl- 
inches thick ; the second ones are 12 feet 2 inches wide, with pillars of 5 feet 
1 inch in diameter, on which rest also the vaults of the northernmost aisle, 
21 feet 8 inches wide, and of the southernmost aisle which is 27 feet wide. 

8. The Cathedral of Notre Da^ie in Paris, dedicated to the Yirgin 
Mary, is one of the most remarkable edifices in France both in point of 
design and of execution. Its corner stone was laid in the year 1163 by 
Pope Alexander III., and the choir with its gallery was finished as early as 
1177. In the year 1183 the vaults of the main nave were closed and the 
main altar was dedicated ; and three years later the choir was devoted to 
public worship. So far the church is in the Romanesque style, and the 
Romanesque pedestals for the columns in the naves and transept indicate 
that these parts were commenced by the same builders. 

At the time of St. Louis's advent to the throne of France (1226) the nave 
and side aisle were already considerably advanced. The two towers, how- 
ever, and the middle building which they flank, belong to the last quarter of 
the 13th century. The southern portal was commenced in the year 1257, 
together with the northern and the chapels around the choir. The entire 
process of construction lasted 170 years. 

The ground plan of this cathedral is given in j^l. ^O^fig. 1, and fig. 40 is 
an interior view of the same. It is in the form of a Latin cross, and has 
^YQ, aisles whose vaults rest on seventy-five columns. Its length is 390 feet 
by a width of 144, and a height in the clear of 102 feet. It has two square 
towers, which are only 204 feet high, having flat roofs at the height where 
the pyramidal spires ought to have commenced. The columns in the centre 
aisles are surmounted by pointed and those of the choir by round arches, 
on which rest the upper walls of the main nave. These walls are inter- 
rupted by the arcades opening from the galleries over the inner side aisles. 
The windows through which the main nave is lighted are above these gal- 

167 



168 ARCHITECTURE. 

leries. The church has the total number of one hundred and thirteen 
large side windows, and three large rosettes over the three western portals. 
The greater proportion of these windows are adorned with fine glass- 
paintings. 

9. The Abbey of St. Denis. The church of St. Genevieve belonging to 
the Abbey of St, Denis was built in the Byzantine style in the year 628-630. 
It fell down in 1160. It was re-erected in the pointed-arch style by Abbot 
Suger in the years 1251-1281, who had designed the plans himself, being 
an expert in all the fine arts. The crypt under the old choir, which is the 
sepulchre of the Kings of France, was retained unchanged (^?. 41, fig. 18). 
It is in pure Byzantine style, its vaults resting partly on thick columns, in 
part on square pillars. At the time of the first French revolution it contained 
the remains of twenty-five kings, ten queens, and eighty-four princes and 
princesses, which were disturbed by the mob and buried in the neighboring 
churchyard. Louis XYIII. caused the chapel to be re-consecrated. In his 
restoration of the monuments, the old statues were laid on the corners of the 
sarcophagi instead of being left standing near them as before. The upper 
church is not very remarkable, and does not claim special notice more than 
a thousand other buildings in the same style. 

10. The Cathedral of Rouen. Another remarkable church in France 
is the Cathedral of l^otre Dame at Rouen, also called the church of St. 
Ouen from the bishop of the same name. Plate Z^^fig. 45, gives the view 
of the chief portal, with the market-place in front. It is built in the Ger- 
man style and is cruciform. Its extreme length is 390 feet, the inner 366, 
that of the transept 162, the breadth of the main aisle 27 feet 9 inches 
between the clustered columns, which are 6 feet 7 inches to 7 feet 4 inches 
thick, and stand 9 feet 7 inches apart. The width of the middle space 
between the four chief pillars, which are 12 feet 6 inches thick, is 21 feet 
7 inches. The fourteen round columns of the choir are 3^ feet thick and 
36 feet high, and the height of the main aisle and the choir is 84 feet ; that 
of its gallery and of the side aisles is 52 feet. In the nave there are two 
rows of arcades, one above another, although there is but one side aisle on 
each side, and a side gallery stands also in the choir under the high 
windows. 

On the western front, which has three portals perspectively arranged, 
and which is ornamented with fine sculptures, and whose middle portal is 
crowned with a handsome gable, stand two towers 230 feet high. Over the 
middle portal is a great rosette, which is represented in^^. 39, and contains 
very handsome painted glass. Formerly the church had another tower 
over the cross, which was destro^^ed by fire in the year 1822. It was 
replaced by an iron spire 276 feet high. The transept has two portals. 
The southern one is perspectively arranged and is crowned with a pointed, 
pierced gable, over which is a great rosette, over which again stands a gable 
which leans against the buttresses. The northern portal has two buttresses 
in the form of towers, and also a rosette crowned with a beautiful gable. 

Besides these three great rosettes, the church hafs 130 windows, of which, 
however, only those in the high choir and in one chapel have painted glass. 
168 



ARCHITECTURE. 169 

From tlie exterior buttresses, ending in tasteful pyramids, ascending arches 
are sprung to the buttresses of the main aisle, the prolongation of the 
clustered columns of the interior. These buttresses rise with their rich 
pj^amids above half the height of the roof Galleries extend around the 
roof. 

In Rouen the Gospel was first preached in the year 260, by the English 
missionary, Melon, and in 2Y0 a church was erected upon the site of the 
present cathedral. It was renewed in the year 400 and beautified in the 
middle of the 7th century by the Bishop St. Ouen,but was destroyed by the 
ISTormans. "When their Duke, however, was baptized he rebuilt the church, 
which the son of the third Duke, Robert, Archbishop of Rouen, enlarged. 
The side aisles were added in J 050 and completed in 1068. In the year 1200, 
when Rouen was destroyed by fire, the church also suffered, and only the 
Tinder part of the walls remained standing, upon which the present church 
was erected in the pointed-arch style. The western front was commenced 
in the 13th century. The architect of the three portals was a German, 
Ingeram, who also enlarged the eastern chapel, and in 1280 erected the 
perforated gable over the portals. The northern portal was completed in 
1478, and three years afterwards the court before it, which exhibits much 
of the Arabian form. The upper part of the northern tower was built in 
1468-77, the southern 1496-1507. 

11. The Cathedral OF Milan. No building indicates more clearly than 
the Milan cathedral the position occupied in Italy by the Germans during 
the middle ages. The sketch was made by Henry Arter of Gemiind, who 
had gone to Bologna and was there called Enrico da Gamondia. His son, 
Peter Arter, under the name of Pietro da Bologna, directed the building 
of St. Yitus's church in Prague, and his father sketched the plan for the 
Minster in Ulm. Upon the site of the present Milan cathedral stood a 
splendid church, with a bell tower 448 feet high, which Frederick I. caused 
to be destroyed. In 1386 the corner-stone of a new church was laid under 
Galeazzo Yisconti ; but it was too small, and in place of it, in 1391, the 
building was commenced from the sketch of Henry of Gemiind. When 
Henry returned to Germany, Italians were elected architects ; but as the 
work reached the dome and the pyramids, the Italians were again at fault, 
and Duke Galeazzo Maria Sforza wrote in 1486 to the building guild of 
Strasburg for a German architect. Hans l^iesenberger, of Gratz, who since 
1471 had superintended the building of the Freyburg Minster, went to 
Milan, accompanied by his son John and German workmen. He appeared 
there usder the name of Giovanni da Gratz^ Ingenere di Allemania. He 
arranged matters there and returned to Germany, while Francesco di 
Giorgia da Siena, Antonio Omodeo, and Jacopo Dalzebono undertook the 
execution of the German design. Besides those already mentioned, the 
following Germans had assisted in the work : John Anex von Fernach, 
Ulrich vOn Frisingen from Ulm, and Jacob Cova from Bruges. The cathe- 
dral itself was only gradually completed, and after a great number of archi* 
tects had worked upon it, the point upon the pyramid over the dome was 
finally placed by Francesco Croce in 1762-72. On the 16th of August, 

169 



170 ARCHITECTURE. 

1806, the architect Amati received the command of the Emperor iN'apoleon 
to complete the facade and to cover the cathedral itself with white marble. 
It is not entirely completed even now. 

PI, 40, fig. 2, shows the ground plan, and ;pl. 38, fig. 21, the interior of 
this magnificent church. The length of the interior between the walls is 
448 feet 6 inches, the wall of the choir is 6 feet, and with the piers 12 feet 
thick. The thickness of the front wall is 15 feet 8 inches, consequently the 
whole length is 476 feet 2 inches. The length of the transept is 283 feet, 
and the inner length of the nave 175 feet. Measured between the columns 
the main aisle is 52 feet 4 inches, and each of the side aisles 21 feet T 
inches. Of the 52 round columns in the interior of the church, 48 are 
7 feet 6 inches through, and the middle ones 8 feet 7 inches. The height 
of the nave is 147 feet 9 inches, consequently 3 feet 9 inches greater than 
the height of St. Peter's, and it is the highest aisle in any existing church. 
The height of the inner side aisles is 97 feet, and that of the outer ones 75 
feet 4 inches. The ribs of the vaults are of marble and are 8-12 inches thick ; 
the caps are vaulted in brickwork and are 3-6 inches thick. The construc- 
tion of the dome over the middle of the church is very remarkable. It 
rests upon the four middle piers and the arches uniting them, and is raised 
201 feet 6 inches over the floor of the church. The lantern placed upon it 
is 34 feet high, and upon this rests the spire or the pyramid of 92 feet in 
height, upon which stands the statue of the Madonna, 12 feet high, so that 
the whole is 339 feet 6 inches high. This dome is 54 feet broad, 43 feet 
10 inches high, and forms an oval with eight principal ribbed arches, 
whose caps are walled in brick. The exterior is richly ornamented with 
pyramids and pillars, many of which support statues. The cathedml 
was to have had portals in the cross-arms, but little chapels were introduced 
instead. 

The western facade has five doors, of which the middle one is 15 feet 4 
inches broad and 30 feet 8 inches high. The doors and the windows over 
them are arranged by Pellegrini in the Italian taste. Besides these, 
there are three large windows in the old German style on this facade. 
Between the doors and upon the corners, there are richly ornamented 
buttresses, which are crowned by pyramidal pillars reaching QQ feet above 
the eaves of the roof. Of these there are several hundred upon the church. 
The number of statues is estimated by some as high as 4500, and 3000 is 
certainly not an exaggerated estimate. 

The effect of the interior is in the highest degree superb and won- 
derful, not only from the great size, but from the loftiness of the nave, the 
beautiful and naturally warm colors of the material, and the soft illumina- 
tion through the great painted windows. The 52 clustered columns of the 
interior were to have had their capitals crowned with statues, but the figures 
are completed upon a few only, as our view shows. 

The roof is striking ; for in place of the former tile roofing, white marble 

slabs li to two inches thick have been laid upon little flat vaults, avoiding 

the necessity of rafters, and in fact there is no wood used in the building. 

The plates of the roof are jointed with a very compact water-proof cement. 

170 



ARCHITECTURE. 171 

The cathedral has a crypt, which is 45 feet in diameter and 15 feet high, 
and is lighted from the church through openings in the vault. 

12. The Church of St. Cyriacus m Ancona. As a specimen of this 
period, even if not of the purely pointed-arch style, we must mention the 
church of St. Cyriacus in Ancona, of which ^Z. 4zQ^fig. 21, gives the ground 
plan, and Jig. 22 the section. This church was commenced in the 11th 
century, and the ground plan forms a Grecian cross whose whole length is 
155 feet, but the length of tlie transept extends, on account of the two 
apsides, to 182 feet. The central nave is 22 feet 6 inches wide, and 45 
feet high ; the whole church is 59 feet broad, but the transept only 
57 feet. The height of the dome is 78 feet. The building itself is of 
the Byzantine style, and. was completed about the year 1290 by Mar- 
chiano, a pupil of Amolfo da Lapo. Many of the interior columns 
have antique Ionic capitals as pedestals, and their own capitals are of 
a meagre Corinthian style. Under both apsides there are little crypts. 
The points between the ribs of the dome are very peculiar, containing small 
arcades. 

13. The Church of the Convent of St. Simon in Palermo. The capital 
of Sicilv is rich in remarkable monuments of the middle asres, which, 
almost without exception, offer a peculiar blending of the Moorish with the 
German pointed-arch styles. From this fact some have ascribed the origin 
of the German style to the Moorish, but certainly very incorrectly, as all 
the buildings which show this mixed style date from the 14th and 15th 
centuries, and are consequently of much later date than the origin of the 
German style in Saxony. The blending of the two styles is perceptible, 
especially in the ornaments, many of which, as for example the Palatinal 
Chapel (bulk in the 15th century), are copied from the highly characteristic 
ornaments of Alhambra in Granada. On the other hand, it is shown in 
the overtopped pointed arches, which are not set upon clustered columns, 
but upon slender pillars whose capitals are rather projecting, whilst the 
vaults themselves are dome-shaped, rarely cross-vaults. 

The arches, as well as the vaults, are rich with glowing paintings, often 
upon a gold ground, as are found also in Alhambra. The walls also are 
richly ornamented with stucco. In illustration we present an interior view 
of the church of St. Simon in Palermo {pi. 41, fig. 16). This church was 
built in the year 1449, and is distinguished by the beauty of its marble 
columns and the richness of its paintings. 

14. The Cathedral of Burgos. This cathedral, of which pi. 38, fig. 22, 
represents the western view, is distinguished by its construction and the 
history of its erection. It was built by Ferdinand III., consequently in the 
first half of the 13th century, on the site of a mosque erected by Abdor- 
haman in 1014. Its length is 300 feet, and that of the transepts 212 feet. 
It is entirely in the German style, and divided into three aisles, the 
main aisle being supported by ascending arches, sprung from the side 
buttresses. The cross-arms have portals with large, finely ornamented 
rosettes, over which stands a gallery, between two buttresses crowned with 
pyramidal pillars. Upon the intersection of the transept with the nave 

IVI 



172 ARCHITECTURE. 

stands an octagonal tower in the old German style, surrounded with pyra- 
midal pillars. The western facade has on each side a tower 300 feet high, 
with perforated spires. These spires are formed by 8 ridges meeting under 
the halls, which are ornamented by crowning flowers, and they are bound 
together by 24 horizontal ribs, at various distances from each other. In 
respect of construction, these pyramids are most like the towers in Freyburg, 
in Baden, and those of the church of St. Mary in Esslingen, but they are very 
inferior in composition and elaboration. In the panels formed by these ribs 
stone cross-joints are introduced. The portal is perspectively arranged, and 
there is a round window over it, under a pointed arch. A round window 
is introduced below the spires on each side of the towers, which resembles 
the windows of some of the old Ehenish churches, the Bonn cathedral for 
instance. These towers were built soon after 1442 by the architect John 
of Cologne and his son Simon, whom the bishop had taken with him from 
their native country. Under Charles Y. the transept of the church was 
repaired. The same two German architects built the charter-house Mira- 
flores near Burgos. 

15. The Minster at York. After the modern St. Paul's church in London, 
of which we shall presently speak, York Minster is the largest of English 
churches. PL 38, fig. 20, gives a view of its western front. With its three 
aisles and the transept divided into as many, it forms a Grecian cross. 
The exterior length from w^est to east is 578 feet. The central nave is 
43 feet, 6 inches wide, between the clustered columns, which are 7 feet, 
3 inches thick, and 27 feet high, and stand at distances of 20 feet. The side 
aisles are 20 feet, 6 inches wide. The cylinders of the two clustered 
columns supporting the towers, are 9 feet, 6 inches thick. The four great 
piers bearing the middle tower, which are surrounded by 27 half and 
three quarter columns, are 21 feet, 7 inches thick, and stand in the transept 
at distances of 27 feet. This transept is 45 feet wide, and its side aisles 
20 feet. The choir is 44 feet, 6 inches wide between the piers, which 
are 7 feet, 9 inches thick. The thickness of the side walls is 4 feet, 9 
inches, and the buttresses project from 6 to 9 feet long, and are 4 to 5 feet 
broad. The height of the nave is 92 feet, 6 inches, that of the side aisles 
48 feet. The middle tower over the cross is 198 feet high from the church 
floor, and its walls are 6 feet, 9 inches thick. The light falls through its 
windows into the centre of the transept. The front towers, or the two 
westerly ones, are 172 feet high from the church floor to the highest 
gallery. The pyramidal pillars upon them, eight upon each tower, are 24 
feet high. The great buttresses of the towers project 10 feet before the 
walls, and are 79 feet high. The walls are 8 feet thick. The point of 
the gable over the door is 35 feet, that of the front chief gable 100 feet, 
and the pyramids upon it 119 feet over the floor of the church. The main 
portal is 24 feet high, and 13 feet, 6 inches wide. The whole church 
is built of freestone and quarry-stone. A gallery extends quite round 
the church on the upper part of the side aisles and another around the 
eaves. 

Beneath the choir is a crypt 40 feet long and 35 feet wide, divided 
172 



ARCHITECTURE. 173 

into three parts by six columns 8 feet high. The cube-formed capitals of 
the columns support strong cross-vaults. 

The history of the building of this church is the following. In 627, when 
Edwin, the Saxon king in Northumberland, was baptized at the instance 
of his wife Ethelburga, a wooden chapel was erected here, which was 
replaced in the year 642 by a stone church dedicated to the apostle Paul, 
but this was destroyed by Benda, the king of the Mercians. In 741 the 
bishop Alcuin built a new church upon this site and the building was 
already important. In 1069 it was injured by fire, and, scarcely rebuilt, 
was again in 1134 once more destroyed in the same manner. Archbishop 
Thurstan, therefore, built a new church in the Byzantine style, of which the 
crypt still exists. In the year 1227, the southern transept with a beautiful 
round window and portico was erected. John le Romayne, treasurer of the 
church, built the northern belfry and that upon the intersection of the aisles 
in 1260, and his son of the same name, who was bishop, laid the corner- 
stone for the main building and the tower fa9ade in 1291. As all these 
parts were built in the German style Archbishop Thoresby, in 1361, had 
the choir rebuilt so that the church became symmetrical. The Arch- 
deacon of the church, Walter Skirlan, was the architect of this work, 
and expended much money upon it. The church was completed in the 
year 1405. It was much injured by fire several years ago, but it has since 
been thoroughly repaired. 

16. The Collegiate Church at Manchester. In no country of Europe 
in which buildings of the German style have been erected, has the artificial 
construction of vaults been carried to such a perfection, or executed with 
such taste as in England, in which occur almost exclusively the involutions 
of geometrical figures. The artificial vaults first occur in the last quarter 
of the 13th century, and they have been made the supports of a new 
English style. But as they exhibit no characteristic difiPerence fi'om the 
German style, appearing within the limits and construction of the pointed- 
arch style as ornaments of the vaults, such a classification cannot be 
admitted. On the other hand there are also buildings in England where 
vaults are constructed not according to the geometrical figures, but with 
ribs laid according to curves, with numerous subordinate ribs which are 
nothing but decorations. Several such ribs are united in one knot and 
recurve, being ornamented either with a hanging keystone or a kind of 
little temple, or human and animal figures. Often, however, these vaults 
are made so flat that the ribs seem like an imitation of the artistic wood- 
work with which the English roofed their large halls. The Collegiate 
church in Manchester is an example of this roofing. It was commenced in 
1400. PI. 41, fig. 15, represents the interior view. The ceiling of the 
choir is composed of such almost flat stone arches, while the main building 
shows the wooden construction unchanged. This building exhibits upon 
the whole a blending of the pointed-arch style with the flat ceiling which 
is characteristic in many other English churches. This building is also a 
good example of the English flowing pointed-arch style, even if there are 
occasional traces of the Tudor and ass's-back arches. 

1V3 



174 ARCHITECTURE. 

17. Melrose Abbey in Scotland. This building was foimded by David I. 
of Scotland in 1136, and is one of the most imposing monastic ruins and 
one of the most beautiful specimens of German architecture in Scotland. 
Walter Scott has introduced it in his romance, " The Monastery." Won- 
derful are the richness and the harmony of details, in which all the original 
sharpness remains. PI. 41, fig. 17, represents the interior, which is, 
however, far removed from the original noble simplicity of the German 
architecture, and in which the columns are certainly too heavy for the 
elegant detail of the arches. 



3. The Pekiod of the Renaissance. 

In the beginning of the 15th century many Italian architects recognised 
the beauty of the monuments of a classical antiquit}^, forgotten for centuries. 
For although then, much more than now, the most imposing remains lay 
under their eyes, yet they were so filled with the spirit of the new style, 
that not only did the old fail to impress, but there were enough voices to 
declare that they were the relics of a barbarous art. Nevertheless the 
sentiment of genuine beauty gradually prevailed, and the necessity was 
exj)erienced of cultivating acquaintance by sufficient attention, with the 
ancient Roman buildings, and especially of studying the ornaments of a 
classical antiquity. Thence it came that, inspired by the genius of order 
and harmony, Giovanni da Pisa placed regular pilasters upon the Campo 
Santo ; that the younger Masaccio introduced three regular orders of 
columns, one over the other, upon the belfry of Santa Chiara in Kaples ; 
and that Orgagna, in the Loggia Lanzi ; Alberti, Michelozzi Majano, and 
Brunelleschi in Florence, Mantua, Yenice, and Rome, for the facades of 
churches and palaces, chose cornices for doors and windows, which were 
conceived from the remains of old Roman buildings, and introduced colon- 
nades in the regular orders. Yet occasionally a blending of the German 
style with the antique is perceptible, and although the impression is not 
agreeable, yet it is easy to recognise in it the struggle for a timely and 
gradual progress, which, however, is here nothing but a retm-n to the 
true beauty which the ancient architects had already seen and honored. 

Whilst in Germany and the ]N"etherlands the domestic style, that of the 
pointed-arch, still reigned supreme, and, so far as concerns monumental 
architecture, was exclusively employed, in Italy and France the influence of 
the first-mentioned studies began to be felt ; and this beam of the beautiful era 
of art is known as " the Itenaissance " or revival of old art, which disappear- 
ed again only too soon, and left the field to a poor, overloaded, and grotesque 
style. We will now consider a few of the buildings of the Renaissance. 

Beginning with Italy, where the effects of the regeneration were first felt, 
we will glance at the principal cities in which monuments from that period 
remain. 

1. Yenice. The church of St. Zacharias, of which ^^. 42,^^. 1, gives the 
view, andj^Z. 13,^^. 17, the ground plan, is, as a work of the Renaissance, 
174 



ARCHITECTURE. 175 

iand both in respect to the construction and decoration, one of the most remark- 
able buildings of Venice. Its architecture is rather peculiar than beautiful, 
but it offers in the general and in detail so many singularities that we haye 
selected it for our plate in preference to many contemporary buildings. 

The ground plan of this church is simple, and finely illustrative of the 
type which the church buildings of this period present. It consists of the 
main aisle and the side aisles, the choir with its gallery and the chapels in 
place of the old apsis. One of these chapels is wanting, and in its place is 
the entrance to the side aisle of the church. The main nave has double the 
breadth of the side aisles, from which it is separated by three arches on 
either side. The arches rest upon very peculiarly formed columns with 
very high pedestals, short shafts, and Corinthian or Composite capitals. The 
two first vaults of the main aisle are cross-vaults ; the third, next the high 
choir, passes into a dome. The girt arches have little or no projection 
from the vault cappings. The third vault takes the place of the transept. 
The end of the choir forms half a decagon (in the German churches it is 
generally a semi-octagon), and departs materially in that from the form of the 
old Basilicas, whose apsis was round. This circular form appears in the 
interior, and beautiful mosaics are here introduced as well as in the vaults 
of the choir. This whole arrangement, viewed from the entrance, ofiers a 
very effective aspect, and it is impossible not to wonder at the skill with 
which the regularity of the Romanesque style is united with the charming 
grace of the pointed-arch style, for there are everywhere pointed arches, 
although the coupled windows are in the Romanesque style. The church 
has only few and unimportant sculptures. 

If we turn to the fagade of this church, it may serve as a type of the 
manifold changes which the church style of building experienced during 
the Renaissance. It must be conceded that the whole arrangement of the 
facade has something unusual, even ungainly, which is rare in buildings of 
this period, and it would be difficult in this arrangement to recognise 
Palladio. But yet, by its great magnificence and the effect of various kinds 
of marble, as by the skilful distribution of the sculptures, it makes a charm- 
ing impression. The sculptures of the columns and pilasters, and the 
cornices which are earned across the latter, produce an effect similar to that 
of the buttresses of the immediately preceding period ; while the straight 
entablature divided into architrave, frieze, and cornice, as well as the 
arrangement of the columns and pilasters in tiers above each other, recall 
again the Roman architecture. Least pardonable are the little columns 
with which the round gable is adorned, for as the projection and height of 
the entablature necessary to the effect of the whole are almost equal to 
half the height of its columns, they appear as an inappropriate ornament, 
not as an essential part of the fagade itself. 

The Venetian architect Martino Lombardo, in the years 1450-57, renewed 
the church which was originally built in 870-80, just after it had been 
injured by fire. The dome is brick below and wood above. 

The Church of the Redeemer upon the Giudecca, of which pi. 43, Ji(/. 
1, shows the exterior view,/^. 3, the ground plan, and Jig. 2, the longitudi- 

175 



176 AKCHITECTURE. 

nal section, was commenced by Palladio in the year 1576. It consists of 
a nave 92 feet long and 36 feet broad, flanked by very richly decorated 
chapels. Its transept or the cross-arms terminate in semicircular niches or 
apsides. The three-quarter columns upon the fa§ade and the Eoman 
capitals are of burnt clay. ISText the dome stand two small pyramidal 
towers. The walls supporting this dome are only 4 feet 6 inches thick. The 
half columns in the interior of the church have beautiful Corinthian capitals 
after those of the Pantheon at Rome. Altogether the general impression of 
the church recalls that of the Pantheon. The arrangement of the three 
gables above and behind each other can hardly be counted a beauty, 
especially as the great attic weakens the effect of the principal gable. The 
placing of the gables behind each other, as in the Pantheon at Rome, was 
there a necessity because the portico was added to a portal already com- 
pleted. But in the design of a new fa§ade that should have been avoided, 
especially when the gables must all lie nearly in the same plane, and can- 
not be placed at greater distances one behind another. 

The Library upon the Piazzetta is another notable building illustrative of 
this period of Yenice. The library was formerly kept there, but it is 
now devoted to the residence of the viceroy and is called Palazzo Regio. 
PI. 42, fig. 15, is the view of one side of it, fig. 16 represents the upper 
order of columns and the entablature, and figs. 17 and 18 are two of the 
statues which adorn the attic of the building. The facade represented is 
the one towards St. Mark's Place. The palace itself was built in 1536 from 
a drawing of Sansovino's, and completed by Scamozzi. The lower story is 
elevated three steps above the Piazzetta. The front is formed by 21 arches 
resting upon Doric half columns standing against pillars. On the sides there 
are three arches. The main story has Ionic half columns, and the windows 
on the sides fluted Ionic columns. At the side of every arch victories are 
carved in relief, and upon the ground story masculine allegorical figures. 
The key-stones of the arches are well executed masks. The frieze is dispro- 
portionately high and heavy, and has oval windows. The vaulted ceiling 
of the former library hall is painted finely in fresco by several masters. 

In the church of St. John and St. Paul in Yenice is the monument of 
the Doge Andreas Yendramini, who, after a short and not famous reign, 
died in 1478, and we mention it here because in few contemporary monu- 
ments is the effort to reach the antique so clear and striking as in this. 
PI. 43, fig. 18, gives the general view, and fig. 19 the ground plan in half 
the size of the view. The monument has a double substructure. The cube 
of the first is richly adorned with arabesques, while the second appears to 
be the pedestal proper of the columns resting upon it, and contains the 
epitaph. The Corinthian columns, with attic bases, are 10 diameters in 
height, and stand one diameter from the wall. The four Corinthian pilas- 
ters are adorned upon the shafts with ornamented panels, and inclose two 
niches upon the sides, in which stand two very profane images, apparently 
of Bacchus and Yenus, represented as Adam and Eve. Near this stands a 
pair of statues upon pedestals representing Roman generals. The middle 
niche contains the sarcophagus of the Doge ornamented with eagles, near 
176 



ARCHITECTURE. 177 

whicli stand three statues with torches. The pedestal of the Sarcophagus is 
adorned in front and on the sides by seven statues which are intended for the 
Yirtues, but look like Muses. Over the entablature which rests upon the 
Corinthian columns a high attic rises with a semicircular niche, in which St. 
John is represented leading the Doge to the Madonna and the child. At the 
side stands another Roman general or marshal, perhaps intended for St. 
Paul before his conversion. Upon both sides of the semicircular niche are 
reliefs which represent a kneeling angel and a praying female figure. How 
the crown of the whole is to be reconciled with the rest it is difficult to say. 
This crown represents two angels, terminating below like two sea-horses. 
They hold a wreath in which stands a boy with an apple. Over the crown 
is an urn, from which rises a flame. However beautiful the design and 
execution of this monument may be, it lacks the seriousness and above all 
the spiritual sentiment of a sepulchral monument. 

2. Pavia. a highly remarkable building, which if not designed and 
begun in this period, yet then received its magnificent fa§ade, is the church 
near the charter-house in Pavia. Giovanni Galeazzo, who had poisoned 
his imcle, and was made duke by the German Emperor in 1395, doubt- 
less hoped to atone for his crime by building this church near the charter- 
house, which had been built in 1376 under Galeazzo Yisconti. Enrico of 
Gamondia (Henry of Gemiind, of whom we have already spoken) made 
the plan, and the work was commenced in 1396, but the fa9ade was 
arranged by the painter and architect Ambrogio Fossano in 1473 ; but 
unhappily overloaded with ornament it does not correspond to the large 
style of the interior. PI. 42, fig. 6, represents the view of this church ; 
figs. 7 and 8, Corinthian capitals of pilasters ; figs. 9 and 10, niches in 
which these capitals occur, and in them statues of the Apostle Paul and of 
St. Yeronica ; figs. 11-14 a.^ consoles for statues ; and fig. 14 5, a medallion 
with a portrait of Galeazzo. The church forms a Latin cross, occupies an 
area of 25,370 square feet (consequently \ of the space of St. Peter's), has 
three aisles, and many chapels. The width of the main aisle between the 
clustered columns, which are 7f feet thick, is 26 feet. The side aisles are 
10 feet between the pillars and the wall, and the side chapels are of the 
same depth. The main nave is 69 feet high, and to the key-stone of the 
dome over the intersection of the aisles is 107 feet. The main girt arches 
are pointed, but the side arches round. The arches of the vault ovea' the 
choir are painted in ultramarine and have golden stars. The remaining 
vaults are also painted. The walls of the church are of brick, but the 
facade is ashlered with marble. Upon the buttresses of the side walls are 
little perforated towers. The choir terminates in an apsis upon which 
stands a colonnade gallery, whilst at the sides are two strong square but- 
tresses adorned with little towers, and similar ones stand at the apsides and 
in the corners of the transe]3t. Before the side walls of the main building 
are vaulted arcades resting upon little columns behind the towers, and form- 
ing a gallery, and a similar arcade runs around the church under the roof, 
appearing even upon the front facade. The various galleries one above 
another, the pyramidal reduction of the dome, the red natural color of the 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPEDIA. VOL. IV. 12 l77 



178 ARCHITECTURE. 

brick wall and ornaments, contrasting with the yellow tone of the marble 
fagade, produce a fine effect. The fagade formerly had points, which have 
been removed. It is very rich in sculptures, containing 44 statues, 60 
medallions, and many bas-reliefs. 

3. Perugia. In Perugia there are important buildings of every period 
of architecture, from the Roman arch down to the corrupt Italian style, 
and even the German style may there be met with in all its purity. Of 
the time of the Renaissance we shall mention the church of St. Francis, 
built from a design of Michelozzi. PI. 43, fig. 4, represents the facade of 
this church ; figs. 5, 6, Y, give the capitals of the pilasters in the statue- 
niches of the portal ; fig. 8, a detail from the consoles which support the 
four great statue-niches upon the fa9ade; fig. 9, one of the medallions 
under the lower statue-niches ; figs. 10-12, ornamental panels ; fig. 13 
represents the foot and crown-cornice of the socle of the facade ; fig. 14, a 
console of the lower niches ; and figs. 15 and 16, two of the patterns of 
the marble pavement in the interior of the church. The inside of the 
church is ornamented with beautiful paintings, and its fine architecture 
makes an agi'eeable impression upon the spectator. 

4. Naples. Among the many superb buildings in J^aples, of which we 
will only mention the Cathedral of St. Januarius, no one more clearly indi- 
cates the character of the period which we are now considering, than the 
triumphal arch erected to king Alfonso lY. of Arragon (Alfonso I. in 
Naples) upon his triumphal entry in 1445 into Castel Nuovo, and whose 
fagade is represented vcijpl. ^^^fi^. 20. PI. '^^^fi^. 23, is the capital, of the 
lower Corinthian order, drawn on a larger scale. A part of this facade is 
the work of Pietro di Martino, a Milanese architect and sculptor (d. 14Y0), 
who was rewarded by being knighted by king Alfonso himself. The build- 
ing, entirely of marble, is rich in ornaments, statues, and bas-reliefs. The 
most remarkable of the last, in the attic over the entrance-arch, represents 
the triumphal procession of the king ; and the arrangement of this proces 
sion, in combination with the niches over the entablature, is remarkable 
The three statues which crown the summit are those of St. Michael, St. 
Antonio Abbate, and St. Sebastian. They are supplementary, placed 
here under the government of the viceroy Don Pietro di Toledo, and are 
works of the Neapolitan sculptor, Giovanni Merlano da Nola. This tri- 
umphal arch is so much the more remarkable, as it is the only structure of 
this kind that remains to us from that period. 

From Italy reawakening art soon found its way to France, especially as 
King Francis I. not only brought the choicest works from Italy to France, 
but assembled the most illustrious Italian artists at his court, employing 
them abundantly, and heaping gold and honor upon them. Hence there 
are many fine monuments in France which belong to this period, and which 
we shall consider in the order of the principal cities. 

1. Paris. Among the distinguished persons who in the 16th century 
generously furthered art, the Cardinal George d'Amboise, archbishop of 
Rouen, and Minister of Louis XII., occupies an eminent place. He built, 
178 



ARCHITECTURE. 179 

among otlier things, the palace of Gaillon upon the Seine, one of the most 
beautiful buildings of this period. In the 12th century there was already a 
country seat upon the site, but it was destroyed in the 13th by the troops of 
the Duke of Bedford. In the year 1505 the new building was commenced, 
but only completed in the middle of the century ; and althougli no expense 
was regarded in its construction, Colbert afterwards knew how to lavish 
millions more upon it. In the Revolution it was again destroyed. Alex- 
ander Lenoir succeeded in saving a part of the facade. He had it taken 
off with the greatest care and brought to Paris piece by piece, when he had 
it again erected in the court of the old convent of the Petits Augustins, of 
which he had made a museum of antiquities. The building is now the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts, and the facade stands in the same place. PI. ^^^fiq. 19, gives 
a view of it. Formerly Jean Joconde was supposed to have been the archi- 
tect, but it is now properly credited to "William Penault and Collin Byard. 
In the royal sepulchre of St. Denis, of which we have already spoken 
(page 168), the monument of. king Louis XII. and his wife Anna of Bre- 
tagne was distinguished among the other magnificent monuments. PI. 43, 
fig, 20, gives the side view ; fig. 21, the east; and fig. 22, the west side of 
it. This monument was made at Tours in 1518 by Jean Juste, the sculptor 
of king Francis L, and then brought to St. Denis. The statues of the 
apostles and of the cardinal virtues were, however, added afterwards by 
Paul Pontius Trebatti. The work is of white Italian marble, and repre- 
sents upon a substructure of black marble, a kind of canopy upon pillars, 
under which the bodies of the king and queen lie upon a cup-shaped sarco- 
phagus as naked corpses, while upon the platform both appear in full attire 
kneeling in prayer. The substructure has plates of white marble, with 
bas-reliefs, which represent the Italian campaign of Louis XII., the battle 
of Agnadel, and the entry into Genoa. The arabesques that ornament the 
pilasters are in general poor, although overloaded with motivos of all kinds, 
which are ludicrously confused. Against the pilasters stand the imposts 
which support the semicircular arches, whose key-stones are richly adorned, 
and in whose comers are figures of Genii of Glory. The capitals are 
carefully, and some even tastefully, ornamented. The ornaments upon the 
corners suggest the volutes of the Composite capitals. The fi-ieze of the 
Corinthian entablature contains the epitaph. There are 20 statues upon 
the monument, including : 1. The two portrait-statues of the king and queen. 
2. The same as they lie in the tomb, the head bent slightly backwards 
and resting upon a handkerchief, the hands crossed. The artist has here 
represented death in its most ghastly form, for the worms appear in the 
incisions made for embalming. 3. On the four corners stood formerly the 
four cardinal virtues, Yalor, Justice, Temperance, and Wisdom. These 
statues are now removed, and stand at the entrance of the choir. 4. The 
twelve apostles. The last sixteen figures are heavy and mannered, and 
badly designed. The heads are wanting in nobility, with one exception ; 
and while John has a frightfully long neck, Philip looks remarkably 
\nilgar, so that these figures together are very ludicrous. They are the 
work of Paul Pontius Trebatti. 

179 



180 ARCHITECTURE. 

2. Yetheuil. The churcli of IsTotre Dame in Yetheuil (the old Yethe- 
lium near Mantes) is of three epochs. The choir was bnilt by Henry II. 
of England. The tower is of the 14:th century, built by command of Joanna 
of Evreaux, the third wife of Charles the Fair. The vestry, the western por- 
tal, and the transept, date from the time of Francis I. The western portal, 
of which ^/<^^^ 42,^^. 2, gives a view, and whose ground plan is represented 
in^^. 4, has on both sides a pair of wing walls, which excepting a pierced 
baluster, are devoid of decoration, and are even without windows. It pro- 
jects somewhat, has a pair of stair-towers on the sides, and is divided into 
three stories. The lower story is the highest, and is almost as high as the 
wing walls. It has a door, divided by a central pillar into two gates, with 
low vaulted ceilings. Before the pillar stands upon a column whose base 
and capital are given in^^. 3 a and 3 h the statue of Christian Love under a 
canopy ; over the gates are semicircular niches. The projection of the 
tower is also ornamented with niches, whose canopies instead of ending in 
pyramidal points bear a kind of dome in .the style of the Renaissance. 
The lower story is divided by a Doric entablature with triglyphs and modil- 
lions, over which is a low gable with an unrecognisable bas-relief There 
are no statues in the niches. The second story has two somewhat projecting 
wings with corner columns upon a small plinth connected by a railing over 
the above-mentioned gable. The middle part has two rather narrow 
windows upon whose sides are two medallions with sculptures. .The win- 
dows are semicircularly closed, and have also medallions with heads which 
the Renaissance introduced in abundance, a style which is now again 
pursued with great earnestness. From the imposts of the window arches 
rise little Ionic pilasters, which support the cornice which extends over the 
projecting wings, and is ornamented with Jacob's shells. The third story is 
almost entirely like the second, but is still simpler. The projecting wings 
support small octagonal towers with corner columns, and with tile-covered 
domes which have a peculiarly formed point. The three-cornered pro- 
jections at the bottom of these towers are decorated with vases. The 
crowning of the middle part forms a fronton in the shape of a true arc, 
upon which, in a very remarkable manner, balls are introduced as orna- 
ments, which much disfigure it. The fronton is surrounded by a cross. 
PI. 42, fig. 5, shows the ground plan of the southern portal. It is peculiar, 
as it forms a hall receding into the church. 



III. MODERN ARCHITECTURE. 

In our examination of the architecture of antiquity and of the middle 
ages, we have based our divisions partly on the manner of single races, and 
partly upon peculiar styles, because as the original architecture of a people 
is determined by their manner of life, by their character, by the land they 
inhabit, and its climate, and takes from all these influences its peculiar 
character which must remain for a long time unchanged, owing to the 
180 



ARCHITECTURE. 181 

limited intercourse among different people of old, we could speak very dis- 
tinctively, e. g. of an Egyptian and a Grecian architecture, without danger 
of meeting the same or even similar characteristics in both. This is some 
what true also of the middle ages, l^ations were much more separated then 
than now, and peculiar styles were formed with very distinguishable charac- 
teristics. Religion and increasing trade, however, united the European 
nations more closely. The fact that in the middle ages the monks w^ere 
mostly the architects of their own churches, led to the introduction of the 
different styles from one part of Europe to another. Hence we see buildings 
of the same style in very different places. Yet the original type of the style 
was generally closely followed, and if we occasionally find a mixture of 
styles in churches and other large buildings, it originates as we have 
already observed from the long duration of their construction extending 
through the periods when important changes in taste or manner influenced 
the several architects, who in succession had charge of the progressing 
edifices. 

In the architectural history of modern times, however, the relations of 
things are different. After the beneficial influence of refinement in archi- 
tecture had lasted for some time after the Renaissance, attention was 
exclusively directed to the old monuments of ancient architecture, and the 
imitation of these was attempted. But while such men as Michael Angelo 
and Raphael and their contemporaries wisely recommended the study of the 
noblest ancient monuments as a means of improvement of the public taste, 
persons of an ill-advised zeal devoted themselves blindly to the study of the 
relics of that period of antiquity when architecture was already declining, 
and when excessive ornaments rather than noble forms were resorted to for 
effect, such as broken gables over doors and windows, and similar absurdi- 
ties which had no architectonic truth or necessity whatever. Hence arose 
the new, and from that the corrupt Italian style. But as Italy was the tra- 
ditional land of art, these defects w^ere all carefully copied everywhere, and 
the corrupt style spread, receiving occasional additions, especially in France, 
which tended to make it if possible still more abominable. From this 
period date those architectural monstrosities which are found in all parts of 
Europe, and enjoy the little flattering epithet of the queue style. It was 
reserved for the most recent times to supplant this awkward taste. Greater 
knowledge of Grecian and other remains, and zealous study of them, led to 
the rejection of all fantastic and superfluous ornaments ; graceless forms 
disappeared, and a closer investigation of technicalities and manners of con- 
struction did away with much of the former clumsiness. But with this 
disappeared the nationality of style, and all forms were adopted promiscu- 
ously, modified according to the special purposes of edifices. Hence many 
modern cities contain specimens of the styles of architecture of almost all 
people and all times. In considering modern buildings, we can therefore 
no longer follow our old divisions of styles, for no style is consistently 
employed in any place. We have preferred to classify them according to 
their different purposes, and describe the edifices of the same class in ethno- 
graphical order. The reader will thus be able to form an idea of the 

181 



182 ARCHITECTURE. 

architectural taste and progress of the several nations. "We have included 
in the list several buildings which according to their plans belong to an 
earlier period, but were finished, rebuilt, or decorated in the present ; for 
instance such churches as Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. 



1. Chtjkches akd Chapels. 

A. Italy. 

The number of churches built in Italy during the last three centuries is 
astonishing, and an adequate description of them would fill volumes. We 
have, therefore, selected some of them as representatives of the changes 
and progress of the art in Italy, and will describe them in chronological 
order. 

1. Santa Maeia del Fioee in Flokence. To the largest buildings of the 
new Greek style belongs this church, or the cathedral of Florence, which 
was commenced in 1298 upon the site where the old church Santa Reparata 
had stood. Although some regard Arnolfo di Cambio de Cola as the 
architect, yet Yasari has proved that Arnolfo da Lapo, a German, made the 
design of the church, of which ^?. 4:9, Jig. 6, gives the ground plan, smdj)!. 
4:5, Jig. 6, the rear view. The ground plan forms a Latin cross, and con- 
sists of a middle aisle, two low side aisles, the choir under the dome, and 
the transept which intersects the choir. After Arnolfo's death the work 
advanced slowly and under the following architects : Giotto da Yespignano, 
Taddeo Gaddi, Andrea Orsagna, Filippo di Lorenzo, Brunelleschi, who 
added the no less artistic than beautiful dome, and finally Baccio di Agnolo, 
from 1547-74, who completed it. Arnolfo da Lapo had neither left 
sufiicient drawings for the dome nor for the centring ; consequently in the 
beginning of the 15th century, when it was necessary to vault the domes, 
no one knew how to do it. Brunelleschi made sketches for the work, but 
was unheeded imtil in 1420 he was elected architect. He completed this 
gigantic work in 14 years (1434) and began also in 1437 the lantern, 
which was not completed until 1456, twelve years after his death. 

The middle aisle is 50 feet broad between the pillars, and the side aisles 
27 feet. The pillars are 8 feet thick ; the side walls the same thickness. 
The whole length of the church is 448 feet, and the middle aisle is 129 feet 
high. The height of the pillars to the commencement of the connecting 
arches is 46 feet, to the commencement of the cross-vault 91 feet, to the 
vertex of the connecting arches 79 feet. The pillars and vaults are of hard 
grey sandstone. The exterior is faced with white, black, and green marble 
in panels, and around the roof of the dome runs a very beautiful marble 
gallery. The octagonal cupola is raised over the middle of the cross 264 
feet above the church floor. Its own height is 99 feet, 6 inches, and its 
diameter is 139 feet. The summit of the cross upon the lantern is 361 feet 
above the floor. The area occupied by the building is 83,988 square feet, and 
is to that of St. Peter's as 1 : 2.31. The whole cathedral and the cupola are 
accessible by stairs, and in two main pillars there are vestries. The floor is 
182 



ARCHITECTURE. 183 

paved with colored marble after designs by San Gallo, Michael Angelo, and 
Baccio d' Agnolo. The western fa§ade was formerly in the Byzantine 
style and ornamented with twenty-four statues ; but Benedetto Ugaccioni, 
the overseer of the church, had the madness, in 1586, to employ the lower 
classes during the famine in tearing it down. Later a new facade was 
commenced by Salvani, but it was so bad that what was finished was taken 
down, and finally a tasteless painted front in the corrupt Italian style was 
introduced, which still exists, bearing witness to the disgrace of the time 
and disfiguring the beautiful church. 

2. San Andrea in Mantua. This church was designed by Leo Battista 
Alberti, born in Florence in the year 1398, whose best work is the palace 
Rucellai in Florence, and its erection commenced in the year of his death, 
1572. It is not yet entirely completed. PL 50, fig. 9, shows its ground 
plan. It forms a Latin cross and has a dome over the intersection of the 
nave and transept. In the main building, which is covered with a casetted 
cylindrical vault, the pilasters which support the cornice are apparently 
coupled, so that instead of side aisles, larger and smaller side chapels are 
formed. The choir-termination is formed by two intersecting semicircles. 
There is a crypt added in modern times by the architect Salucci, and whose 
flat vaults rest upon 8 columns. The present, but still unfinished, fa§ade 
is by Juvara. It lacks yet the vestibule and one tower, only one being com- 
pleted. 

3. The Clock Tower in Yenice. The place of St. Mark in Yenice is 
surrounded, as are few places in the world, with a great number of beautiful 
and time-hallowed buildings, almost all of historical interest. To these 
belongs the clock tower {Torre del orologio\ which stands in immediate 
contact with the palace of the procurators. The middle part, which was 
built in 1496 by Pietro Lombardo, is 92 feet high ; the wings were added 
in 1500 by Carlo Rainaldi of Eeggio, and are 75 feet high. In the third story 
is the great clock of Yenice, the lower story is occupied by stores, and the 
rest of the building by dwellings. In the lower story the fagade consists 
of a large arch and several pilasters, next which stand little Corinthian 
columns upon high pedestals. 

4. The Bell Tower of Palermo is of a similar plan, but smaller. It 
was built almost at the same time. PL 48, fig. 12, gives the view. The 
middle part, with many openings, gives the otherwise well designed fagade 
a certain heaviness ; and the singularly formed dome, with its far projecting 
balusters unpleasantly dividing it, makes a peculiar impression. 

5. The Bell Tower in Rome, near the Basilica St. Maria in Cosmedino, 
was built in the 12th century, upon the remains of a temple of Ceres and 
Proserpine. PI. 53, fig. 12, gives the view, fig. 13 the section, of this 
tower. It is about 120 feet high and only 15 feet square. The lower part, 
about 32 feet high, is without opening, and there are two Corinthian columns 
within its walls from the old temple of Ceres {fig. 13). This substructure 
supports T stories, the two lowest of which have 2 and the upper 3 arched 
windows. The three lowest stories have pillars of brick-work, the upper 
little columns of marble, with handsome marble capitals. The exterior is 

183 



184 ARCHITECTURE. 

inlaid in several places with plates of porphyry, and the cornices, which 
separate the stories, have modillions of white marble. 

6. The Church Sai^^ Pietko ik Montokio in Eoivie. In the year w^hen 
Brunelleschi died (1444), one of the greatest architects of his time, Bra- 
mante Lazzari, was born in Castello Durante, near Urbino. He studied 
with great zeal the architecture of the old monuments, and his buildings, 
which are many, although he began late, show the fruits of these studies. 
One of his most beautiful works is the chm-ch San Pietro in Montorio in 
Kome, one of the smallest but finest of architectural achievements. PI. 45, 
fig. 7, gives the ground plan, fig. 8 the front view, and fig. 9 the section of 
this church, which occupies the centre of the cloister of the convent of San 
Pietro, in Montorio, and under which there is yet a round chapel dedicated 
to the apostle. Bramante built this church in the year 1502, and it was the 
first sacred building departing from the old Basilica type ever erected in 
Pome. Sixteen beautiful Doric columns fonii the peristyle, each of a 
single granite block. The attic appears perhaps a little too high, but the 
whole makes a fine impression. 

The principal church of San Pietro in Montorio is not to be confounded 
with this smaller one. The larger one stands upon the Janiculine hill in 
Pome, and to it belongs the cloister in which Bramante's church was built. 
It is a very old church and consists of an aisle with a choir apsis and 
side chapels, and is roofed over in part with two cross-vaults. This church 
received a new fagade in 1475, designed by Baccio Pintetti. PI. 46, fig. 
12, represents it. It has a door with a straight lintel, 6 feet 3 inches broad 
and 12 feet high. 

7. The Chuech della Consolazione m Todi. In 1505, a few years 
after the commencement of the above mentioned church, Bramante began 
the church della Consolazione before the walls of the little city of Todi, in 
the Duchy of Spoleto. PI. 50, fig. 6, shows the fi:*ont view, and fig. 7, the 
section of this church, whose ground plan forms a square, upon each side 
of which a semicircle is attached, forming a Greek cross. Each one of these 
semicircles is covered with a half dome, and over the middle of the centre 
space is a drum, over which stands the chief dome. The art with which 
the architect has adapted the height of the various colonnades to each other, 
and the harmony of all the lines, as well within as on the exterior of the 
church, deserve attention. 

8. St. Peter's in Eo:yrE. The work which immortalizes the name of 
Bramante is St. Peter's church in Kome ; and although he did not complete 
it, and even his design was not entirely followed, yet it was he who first 
advanced the bold idea of setting the pcmthemi upon a hasilica., and thus 
accomplishing a work unapproached in grandeur. St. Peter's church, of which 
j}l. 44, fig. 1, gives the entire ground plan, fig. 2 the horizontal section of 
the three domes, fig. 4 the geometrical side view of the church proper, and 
fig. 3 the perspective view of the whole edifice, is remarkable in respect to 
the sums lavished upon it and the means adopted for raising those suras, 
which was the famous selling of indulgences. Perhaps without the selling 
of indulgences Luther would never have been compelled to protest publicly, 

184 



ARCHITECTURE. 185 

and the reformation might liave been retarded if Bramante's simple plan 
had been adopted which he had sketched for a chm-ch upon the site of the 
old basilica, San Pietro, as his design did not require the immense sums 
that were afterwards expended in the erection of modern St. Peter's. 

Pope Nicholas Y. was the first who thought of building a new church 
(when the old one was considered decaying), and he caused Eosellini to 
draw a design, which was not followed and was lost. Seven popes after 
Nicholas permitted the matter to rest, imtil Julius II. revived it. Among 
many plans that of Bramante was selected. According to him the church 
was to consist of three aisles in the form of a Latin cross, with three 
entrances to them, under a portico of 36 columns, unhappily at unequal 
distances. The pillars of the interior were to have had niches, and the four 
chief pillars to have supported a dome of 127 feet in width and 67 feet in 
height from the drum, which was to have been a circular wall 32 feet high 
and 12 feet thick, surrounded by 48 disengaged Corinthian columns 3 feet 
thick. The dome, finally, was to have been surmounted by a lantern 94 feet 
high. 

On the 18th of April, 1506, the corner-stone of one of the chief pillars 
was laid by the pope, after the old basilica had been removed in injudicious 
hurry, and only a single one of its exquisite mosaics, that still exists in the 
present church, had been saved. Bramante, who must have foreseen an 
alteration of his plan after his death, aimed at having at least the dome 
retained, and so only the main pillars were constructed. But in spite of 
the great zeal with which he pursued the work, they were only completed 
to the main cornice with their arches at the time of his death in 1514. 
When Leo X. ascended the papal throne, Giuliano di San Gallo, Fra Gio- 
condo of Venice, and Eaphael of Urbino, Bramante's nephew, who had his 
drawings, were named as commissioners of the building. San Gallo soon 
returned to Yenice, Fra Giocondo died, and Raphael continued the work 
alone, strengthened the foundations and the pillars themselves which had 
proved too weak, but died in 1520. After him Balthasar Peruzzi w^as 
architect, and made a new plan by which the church would have formed a 
Greek cross, but would have become of inferior efifect. Around the great 
dome four smaller ones w^ere to have been placed ; the three great apsides 
which Bramante had already arranged, and which still remain, Peruzzi 
retained. This poor plan was only commenced, however, w^hen Pope Paul 
III. appointed Antonio San Gallo, the nephew of Giuliano, as the assistant 
of Peruzzi, and he soon after the death of Peruzzi presented his own plan 
in a ]nodel made by Labacco, in which the form of the Latin cross was 
restored. This plan was rejected, and San Gallo died of vexation in 1546. 
Thus the work had advanced for forty years without any plan, when 
Michael Angelo Buonarotti drew a new design, and Paul III., who had 
called him to Pome, appointed him sole architect. Michael Angelo 
approached again the form of the Greek cross, and according to his plan 
the church was built as far as where in our ground plan {fig. 1) stands the 
first row of pillars in the main building, so that the ground plan was a 
square, with a fore-hall and three semicircles attached. Here, at the great 

185 



186 ARCHITECTURE. 

division, the building was to end, and a double portico of 10 and 4 
columns was added. This plan was accepted as unalterable by an aix)stolic 
brief. Lorenzetto served as superintendent under Micbael Angelo, who 
conducted the work for seventeen years without remuneration. In the 
year 1557 Michael Angelo had completed the great vaults under the drum 
which was to bear the dome, and made the model of the dome, but this 
was not begun until twenty-four years after his death, which occurred the 
15th February, 1564. Pirro Ligorio succeeded Michael Angelo, but he 
did little, and Yignolo followed, with strict orders not to deviate a hair's 
breadth from the plans of Michael Angelo. By him are the two side domes 
^fig. 3), and he faced the exterior wall with ashlers. After Yignola's death 
in 1573, Gregory XIII. intrusted the work to Giacomo della Porta, who 
completed the building to the above-mentioned limits of Michael Angelo's 
plan, after which only the dome, but that the most difficult part of aU, 
remained to be executed. Sixtus Y. now named the Chevalier Domenico 
Fontana as architect, whose son Carlo Fontana designed the centring. 
It consisted of eight suspension pieces uniting in the centre, and of beams 
jointed one above the other, over which the sixteen chief ribs of the vault 
were to be constructed simultaneously, all being kept at equal heights. 
On the 15th July, 15S8, the work commenced with 600 laborers working in 
tmTis day and night, under the superintendence of Domenico Fontana, and 
twenty-two months later, on the 14th March, 1590, the pope himself laid 
the last consecrated stone in this vault. 

Meanwhile some fissures showed themselves in the vault of the dome, 
and its fall was feared. But Carlo Fontana showed the baselessness of such 
fears, and a great counsel of architects and mathematicians that was 
summoned in 1742 on the strength of similar apprehensions, decided that 
there was no reason to fear a fall, yet by Poleni's advice it was concluded 
for greater safety to place five girdles around the dome. This was accom- 
plished in 1747 by Yanvitelli, and since then no new precautions for security 
have been necessary. To retm^n to the earlier history, the crypt imder the 
middle of the church, to which access is had from the interior, was enlarged 
by Domenico Fontana, who also introduced additional light. 

As Michael Angelo's plan ended at the point indicated above, and as it 
was feared that the interior might be too small for the immense throng that 
would assemble for the Year of Jubilee and the coronation of the Pope, 
Paul Y. resolved to enlarge it. Maderno accomplished this by designing 
the remainder of the edifice including the portal of travertine. Tlie five doors 
leading into the chm-ch are covered with bronze plates with costly bas-reliefs. 
The middle one, with representations from the lives of the apostles Peter 
and Paul, was cast in 1430 by Antonio Filareto for the old church. The 
fifth door is walled up and is called the holy, because it is only opened once 
every year of jubilee. 

Until the year 1660 the church had no adequate avenue, and among 

many new and old plans Pope Alexander YIL chose the colonnade of 

Bernini shown in our ground plan (^fig. 1). In order to complete it, it was 

necessary to remove many buildings, and among them the house of Raphael, 

186 



ARCHITECTURE. 187 

built by Bramante. On the 25th August, 1660, the comer-stone of these 
colonnades was laid, which are 1056 feet long and in the long axis of the 
ellipse 738 feet wide. The inner colonnades of the elliptical hall stand 524 
feet apart, and the colonnade wings consist of four rows of Doric columns, 
41 feet in height, numbering 256, which support an entablature without 
triglyphs (see page 100), 9 feet, 6 inches high, surmounted by a balustrade 
6 feet high, adorned with 96 statues, 9 feet, 6 inches high. The diameters 
of the four rows of columns, beginning with the innermost, are respectively 

5 feet 3 inches, 5 feet 6 inches, 6 feet, and 6 feet 3 inches, so that the rules 
of perspective and optics are regarded. In the middle of the place inclosed 
by the wings stands an obelisk 124 feet high, erected in 1556, and at some 
distance towards both sides are two great fountains. The flight of steps before 
the church {Scala regia) is the largest in the world, for the outermost steps 
are 620 feet long. It will be found interesting to consider more particularly 
the dimensions of this temple, which is paved with marble of various colors. 

Its length {fig. 1) is 657 feet, 4 inches. The length in the clear of the 
middle aisle is 565 feet, 6 inches ; that of the transept 415 feet. The width 
of the middle aisle is 78 feet ; that of the cross-arms 73 feet, 10 inches. 
The inner width of the dome is 125 feet, the thickness of the principal 
girths at the lower edge is 4 feet and at the lantern 3 feet, those of the 
outer cupola are 3 feet thick below and 2 feet above, and the thickness of 
the four principal pillars in the shorter diagonal is 55 feet, in tlie larger 
78 feet. The smallest thickness of the outer wall is 26 feet. The height of 
the middle aisle is 144 feet, and the thickness of its principal girths is 3 feet, 

6 inches. The four pairs of decorative pilasters are 78 feet high and 8 feet 
broad. From the pavement to the opening of the lantern is a height of 
310 feet, 10 inches, and to the upper part of the cap of the lantern 363 feet, 
6 inches. The diameter of the little domes of Yignola is 38 feet, 3 inches, 
and their height above the drum is 21 feet. Their openings are 192 feet 
above the floor. The church covers an area of 199,926 square feet, of 
which 52,218 square feet are occupied by the masonry, which consequently 
covers more than a third. If five square feet are reckoned to a person, the 
church and its fore halls can hold almost 29,000 persons. The church has 
the high altar not towards the east, which is very remarkable, but towards 
the west. Towers were to have been erected on the fagade of the building, 
and Bernini had improved the plan of Maderno and Fernambosco and the 
work was begun. They were to have been 164 feet, 6 inches high, but as 
it appeared that the foundations of the church would not bear them and as 
the walls began to crack, the completed part was removed in 1647. 

9. The Church San Gioegio Maggiore in Venice. We now come to the 
period of one of the most famous architects of the 16th century, Andrea 
Palladio of Yicenza (born 1508, died 1580), who gathered his knowledge 
from the works of Yitruvius and Alberti, and was practically instructed by 
Trissino. His finest works are in Eome, in Yenice, and in his native city. 
In 1556 Palladio began the church San Giorgio Maggiore upon the island 
of Giudecca in Yenice, of which ^Z. 46,^^. 10, gives a view, and its interior 
was completed in 1579. The first church upon this site had three aisles, 

187 



188 ARCHITECTURE. 

and its old brick bell tower stands yet at the side of the present choir. 
Palladio gave his plan the form of a Latin cross with a gabled projection 
consisting of four half columns. The cross-arms are rounded off and a dome 
rises on the cross. The three-quarter columns of the facade crowned with 
Roman capitals, are 5 feet thick and 54 feet high, and stand upon high 
pedestals and are intersected by the cornices of the corner pilasters which 
are lower. The church is as little an example of a beautiful style as the 
fagade of the chm-ch of Trevignano {pi. 45, fig. 11), which has a similar 
ground plan but three aisles of equal height, for which reason the facade, 
from the unimportant character of the front attachment, appears jejune 
while it crushes the latter by its weight. Much better is the facade of the 
Church delle Figlie in Venice i^fig. 10), which, by the two well harmonized 
arrangements of half-columns and pilasters and the graceful gable over 
them, has a good effect. 

10. The Chukch of St. Feancesco della Yigna est Yenice. This church 
was first erected by Martin da Pisa in the 13th century, and was so ruinous 
in the 16th century, that in 1534 it was renewed from a design of Sanso- 
vino. Palladio changed it somewhat and made the facade {pi. ^Q^fig. 11). 
It consists of large and small Corinthian columns of marble, and has a semi- 
circular window. On the sides of the main-aisle, which is 49 feet 3 inches 
wide, are chapels with very beautiful bas-reliefs. There is in this church 
the same impropriety as in the fagade of the church San Giorgio Maggiore, 
yet the mouldings of the high pedestal of the half column are better 
combined. The intersection of the columns by the cornice of the lower 
order is, however, not to be justified. Palladio found many imitators in 
France and England. The church of Mary Magdalen at Bridgenorth, 
of which fig. 7 gives the elevation and fig. 6 the ground plan, and the 
church Notre Dame de Lorette in Paris, a view of which is given in^^. 2, 
and the ground plan in pi. 48, fig. 6, are entirely modelled upon the best 
works of Palladio. 

11. The Basilica m Yicenza. In his 30th year, after completing the public 
palace II Castillo in Udine, and the villa of his master Trissino, Palladio 
undertook a work of great importance. The magistracy of his native city 
had requested designs from three architects for the reconstruction of the 
council house or the so called Basilica, and as Palladio's gained the prize 
the work was intrusted to him. J^l. 45, fig. 5, gives a view of this edifice. 
The old building was to be surrounded upon three sides with colonnades of 
bard stone. The columns and pilasters are of marble, the walls of brick. 
The length of the largest side is 395 feet. Of the ten principal pillars, those 
on the corner had three columns, the middle ones had each one half column 
of the Doric order. Between them stand four coupled, small Tuscan columns, 
with an entablature connecting them with the small pilasters of the princi- 
pal pillars. Over these fom* columns an arch is sprung reaching almost to 
the architrave of the Doric order. The story above is of the Ionic order, 
and disposed in the same way. Over the corner columns stand statues upon 
pedestals, connected by a railing. Over the eight middle columns is an 
attic with round windows, over which is a roof constructed of rafters and 

188 



ARCHITECTURE. 189 

covered with lead. Its ribs are 9 to 10 feet apart. The arcades have cross- 
vaults. 

12. The Church Madonna degli Angeli at Kome is a vi^ork of 
Michael Angelo, built of a part of the remains of the Baths of Diocletian 
{jpl. ^^^fig. 19, ground plan, and jig. 20, lateral section). Its ground plan 
is in great part determined by the position of the ruins, for the great hall of 
the baths forms the chief part of the church. The eight antique granite 
columns, 43 feet 6 inches high, have Corinthian and Roman capitals, but the 
fine old door of the hall is walled up. Before this a handsome dome rises 
over the fore-church, between which and the church proper is a vestibule 
with four columns. Battista Soria has not much improved the church by 
his additions. It is roofed with heavy old cross- vaults. Its dimensions are 
336 feet length, 308 feet breadth, and 84 feet height. Adjoining the 
church, also in the ruins of the baths, is the cloister surrounded with one 
hundred columns, and designed by Michael Angelo. 

13. The Church of the Assumption in Genoa. Galeazzo Alessi (born 
in Perugia in 1500, died in 15T2) was for Genoa what Bramante was to 
Eome, Palladio and Sansovino for Yenice, and Amiiianato for Florence. 
He beautified the city in every direction. He built the Church of the 
Assumption {^jpl. 45, fig. 3, plan ; fig. 4, elevation). This church is by no 
means one of the largest, but one of the best monuments, and of complete 
unity in all its proportions. Its ground plan forms a regular square of 150 
feet, with a small addition about 20 feet deep for the high choir where the 
altar stands. The middle of this square is surmounted by a dome of 40 feet 
diameter, resting upon four massive pillars. The interior of the church 
forms a Greek cross, so that this church may be regarded as the completion 
upon a small scale of Michael Angelo's plan of St. Peter's. The exterior of 
the dome consists of the drum, composed of arches and massive masonry, 
and adorned with Corinthian pilasters, and of the overtopped dome whose 
lantern has a semi-spherical cap. The effect of this dome, which is 180 feet 
high, is in perfect harmony wdth that of the portal. 

14. The Church Santa Maria della Yittoria in Rome. Among the 
architects who helped to originate the corrupt Italian style which at the 
end of the 16th century extended from one end of Italy to the other, and 
overloaded the facades with pilasters, gables, and niches, must be reckoned 
Giamb. Soria, who built the fagade of the church Maria della Yittoria at 
Rome {pi. 50, fig. 5, elevation). This church was erected at the expense 
of Cardinal Scipio Borghese in gratitude for the ancient statue of the Her- 
maphrodite found in digging the foundations of the church, and presented 
to him. So fair a gift deserved a fairer recognition than this hideous 
facade. The church was commenced in 1605 under Paul Y., and the interior 
was ornamented by Maderno with pilasters of Sicilian alabaster, with gilded 
statues, and paintings of Guercino and Guido Reni. The pavement is 
marble. 

15. The Church of St. Ignatius in Ro:me. Alessandro Algardi (born 
1602, died 1654) was, like his pupil Baratta, both sculptor and architect, 
and his peculiar gift was the arrangement of irregular places and fountains. 

189 



190 ARCHITECTURE. 

Many buildings of his are extant, but they are all in the corrupt Italian 
style. Among these is the facade of the church of St. Ignatius in Rome 
{jpl. 48, fig. 9), whose front projections, double tiers of pilasters one above 
the other, and poor frontons, make it an example of utter tastelessness. 
The church was begun in 1626 at the expense of Cardinal Ludovisi, from 
the design of Father Grassi or of Domenichino, and was completed in 
1685. Father Pozzo crowned the work by furnishing the church with 
singularly tasteless altars. Its length is 140 feet, and it is 103 feet high. 
In the interior there are coupled fluted Corinthian pilasters standing in 
front of the pillars of the nave, with a complete entablature, and above that 
an attic, with tasteless work in stucco. 

16. The Church San Carlo alle Qtjatteo Fontane in Eome. Among 
all the architects of the 17th century, Francesco Borromini (born 1599, died 
1667) contributed most largely to the disgrace of architecture. Originally 
a sculptor, he studied architecture with Maderno. His works are remark- 
able for showing how far a favored artist can possibly go astray. He hated 
regularit}^, and crammed his fagades with broken entablatures, pilasters, 
semi-columns, niches, senseless ornaments, and door and window pediments 
of every imaginable form. IN^otwithstanding this, his works were engraved 
on copper as specimens of beautiful architecture, and so greatly assisted the 
corruption of art throughout Europe. The above-mentioned church, built 
by him in 1640 {jpl. 48, fig. 10, ground plan ; fig. 11, the facade) proves 
the truth of our assertion. This mixture of straight, convex, and concave 
lines, of semi-columns above each other, of niches and sculptures, of scroll 
cornices and reversed consoles, indicates only the taste of an architect who 
degraded his art to the level of a joiner's craft, and found pleasure in doing 
precisely the reverse of what others did. The interior of the church is, as 
the ground plan shows, formed of irregular, crooked lines, and contains 16 
Corinthian three-quarter columns, 22 feet high. 

17. The Church della Superga in Turin [^jpl . 45, fig. 1, plan ; fig. 2, 
elevation). One of the best pupils of the architect Carlo Fontana, whose 
ability we have already observed in St. Peter's, w^as Filippo Ivara (born 
1685, died 1755), of whose beautiful buildings a great number still remain. 
The most beautiful is doubtless the seminary and church della Superga, 
upon a height near Turin. From this point a broad view of country is 
commanded. Here in 1706 Victor Amadeus and Prince Eugene projected 
the plan of defence for Turin, and Victor Amadeus vowed, should he be 
victorious, to erect there a splendid temple to God. After the liberation 
of Piedmont, Ivara began the building in 1715. It was finished in the 
year 1735. The plan cannot be over-praised. It covers an area of about 
500 feet in length and 300 in breadth, and forais a symmetrical quadrangle. 
The building of the seminary is very skilfully joined to the chm-ch. The 
interior has a court of 150 feet in length, with two tiers of colonnades, and 
around this dwellings are distributed. The outer plan of the church is 
united with the common passage by a more than semicircular part, before 
which stands a portico of columns, four across the front and three in depth. 
To it are joined two retreating facades, which are adorned with Corinthian 

190 



ARCHITECTURE. 191 

pilasters, and unite on both sides with the convent, while thej constitute 
part of the church fagade. Upon each wing is a bell-tower, which skilfully 
relieves the mass of the dome. Inside, the more than semicircular part 
changes into a polygon which forms the circumference of the dome, whose 
support are the pillars of the arcades and the divisions which contain the 
chapels, ranged all round. The choir and the high altar occupy a prolon- 
gation of the space occupied by the church. The whole combination is 
admirably conceived. The inner height of the dome is 150 feet, the outer 
165, and with the lantern 200 feet. Its inner diameter is 56, the exterior 
80 feet. It belongs to the first domes of the second rank. 

B. France. 

In France the same general proportions were observed as in Italy, for 
France has always followed the Italian school in the fine arts, and has 
done very little of itself. But it has very skilfully adopted and developed 
the styles of its neighboi'S. 

1. The Church of Sts. Gekvais and Pkotais in Paris. This chm-ch 
claims notice here solely on account of its fagade {pi. 46, fig. 3), for the 
building itself was founded in 558, and renewed in the German style in 
1212, probably by Montereaux. When it was again repaired in 1581, the 
hanging keystones of the vaults were added, for such a construction was 
not usual in the 13th century, but was introduced later in England. The 
middle aisle is 24 feet bmad and 80 feet high, and is remarkable for having 
galleries, which were of rare occurrence in the middle ages. The fagacle 
represented by us was added in 1616 by Jacques de Brosse, and completed 
in 1621. It is 82 feet broad and 132 feet high. Beneath it is finished with 
four disengaged and four half columns of the Doric order, and a heavy 
attic over the entablature of this order, above which are eight fluted half 
columns of the Ionic order, with niches between them, and the window 
divided by a centre column. Over this again there is a heavy attic, above 
which is the upper building, with four Corinthian half columns, an entabla- 
ture, and a gable, whose outline is an arc. PI. 46, fig. 4, gives the ground 
plan of the portal ; fig. 4 a and fig. 4 J, the Doric ; and figs. 4 c and d., the 
Ionic order. In the last, the convex frieze over the low architrave has a 
bad effect. 

2. The Church of St. Paul and St. Louis in Paris. Formerly the Jesuits 
had only an establishment for the reception of novices in Paris ; but the 
Cardinal de Bourbon, uncle of Henry lY., gave them ground for the erection 
of a church, of w^hich Louis XIII. laid the corner-stone on the 10th March, 
1627. The Jesuit Francois Derrand designed the plan and directed the build- 
ing. PI. 4:6^ fig. 5, is the fagade of this church, which was begun at the ex- 
pense of Cardinal Richelieu in 1634, and finished in 1641. The facade, the 
most important part of the church, consists of three orders, above each other. 
The two lower are Corinthian and the upper one is Roman. The arms of 
Richelieu were formerly displayed upon a round gable over the main door. 
He consecrated the church and said the first mass in it. The middle story 
has upon its middle space an ornament of elliptical form, that contains the 

191 



192 ARCHITECTURE. 

cypher of the Jesuits in a flood of rays, and on the right and left are niches 
with the statues of Ignatius Loyola and Francis Xavier. In the upper 
story, which has only foui* columns, stands, in a niche, the statue of St. 
Louis. In former times (and our copy is from Derrand's drawing) the 
facade was overloaded with ornaments, which are now removed, and the 
effect, although not in the best style, is much improved. 

3. The Hotel des Invalides in Paeis. One of the most famous French 
architects next to Mansard was Liberal Bruant, who lived in the 17th and 
18th centuries (born in 1640). The Hotel des Invalides is among his best 
buildings. Of its church, jpl. ^7^ fig. 1, gives the ground plan, fi^g. 2 the 
view, fig. 3 the section, fig. 4 the ground plan of the dome, and figs. 5 and 
6 details of the arch soffits, whilst jpl. 50, fig. 1, represents the interior. 
The fagade of the entire building, which consists of five courts, is 615 feet 
long. In the rear of the middle and largest court which is surrounded by 
a gallery of double arcades, is the portal of the church, which now contains 
the ashes of Xapoleon. The fagade of the Invalide-house itself has arcades 
below and three stories above. In the middle a large arch crowns the 
portal. Upon the great court are 4 eating-halls, each 138 feet long, 33 feet 
wide, and 31 feet high. Louis XHI. founded the building in 1634 accord- 
ing to another plan, but the erection was interrupted, and Louis XIY. had 
it built from Eruant's plan in 1670. The church designed by that architect 
is not to be confounded with the later addition, but embraced only the 
part a {pi. 47, fig. 1), with the two round vestries c c. It consists of a 
fore hall and three aisles of which the middle one is 38 feet, the side ones 
only 9 feet, 6 inches wide. Upon these side aisles rests the gallery. Out- 
side of the vestibule stand six pairs of Doric and over them as many 
Corinthian columns, coupled. Between the vestries, c c, is the oval division ^, 
with the richly decorated altar h. The height of the aisles is 85 feet, and 
over the altar is yet a wooden dome 15 feet high. 

Thence you enter the cathedral proper f, whose Corinthian columns 
(4 feet thick and 36 feet high), with the pillars which are finished with 
Corinthian pilasters, support the drum of the dome which is 73 feet wide 
inside. The dome itself is of wood, and its highest point is 210 feet from 
the church floor. The dome begins 68 feet above the gable of the fagade. 
Its form is handsome, and its height to the breadth is as 5 to 3. It is 
gilded and upon it stands a lantern crowned with a cross, 275 feet above the 
floor, and smTOunded with Corinthian columns. The cathedral was begun by 
Hardouin Mansard and finished by de Cotte. It occupies an area of 30,132 
square feet, and with the old church the whole amounts to 43,896 square feet, 
and is to St. Peter's as 1 : 4.55. The cathedral is much like the chapel at 
Fresnes built by Cotte, of which pi. 4:6, fig. 13, gives the ground plan, and 
fig. 14 a section. It consists of a fore church and a square that supports the 
dome, which is accompanied by three half domes over the niches. 

4. The Church of the Soebonne in Paeis. Jacques Lemercier, who 
died poor in 1660 as first architect of the king (a fact of rare occurrence), 
bailt a great deal. His most important work was the church and college 
of the Sorbonne, finished under Kichelieu in 1653 {pi. 47, fig. 9, ground 

192 



ARCHITECTURE. 193 

plan, fig. 10, side view, fig. 11, lateral section). It forms a rectangle 150 
feet long and 72 feet, 6 inches broad. Its dome, 38 feet wide, divides it into 
2 equal halves. The middle aisle is 31 feet wide and 51 feet high. The 
cap of the dome ends at a height of 103 feet from the church floor, with 
an opening 6 feet wide. It rests upon walls 3 feet, 8 inches thick. Upon 
this wooden dome stands a lantern 32 feet high. The whole exterior height 
is 148 feet. Although the church belongs to the corrupt Italian style, it is 
yet one of the best conceptions of that time, and if the portal, instead of the 
heavy attic, had a gable, little could be said against the front. 

5. The Chuech of the Assumption in Pauis. A building of the better 
Italian style and among the most beautiful in Paris is the Church of the 
Assumption, built by Charles Errard (born at Nantes in 1606, died 1698), 
which was commenced in 1670 (j^Z. 47, fig. 12, ground plan, fig. 13, view, 
and fig. 14, section). The church was completed within six years and is a 
round building, finished upon one side with a portico of disengaged columns 
and covered with a dome 63 feet, 3 inches in diameter, equal to that of the 
church. It is only to be regretted that the drum of the dome is too high, 
and the substructure seems, therefore, too low, although the perspective 
naturally mitigates this effect. This would still more be the case if the 
substructure was either broader or the drum somewhat contracted. In the 
front row of the portico stand six Corinthian columns, 28 feet, 6 inches 
high, the middle ones at 2, the rest at 1^ diameters distance. Behind each 
corner column stands a column at 1^ diameters distance from it and 1 
diameter from the front pillar. The dome is of wood and its highest point 
is 150 feet from the floor of the church. It is well cassetted and rests upon 
ten pair of coupled Corinthian pilasters, surmounted by a complete entabla- 
ture, upon which the drum of the dome stands, on an attic. 

6. The Chuech of St. Sulpice in Pakis. After ISTotre Dame and Ste. 
Genevieve, St. Sulpice is the largest church in Paris. It is in the 
Paubourg St. Germain and is upon the site where St. Peter's chapel stood 
in 1211, whose crypt was again employed when the architect Gamarre 
projected a new and larger church. This church was found inadequate to 
the wants of the congregation, and Le Yeau, therefore, made a new design, 
for whose execution the corner stone was laid in 1655. After Le Yeau's 
death the work was prosecuted by Gillard, and Oppenoord finished the side 
aisles, the transept, and the northern side portal. From 1730 the architect 
Servandoni continued the work and undertook, from his own drawing, the 
completion of the principal facade {jpl. 49, fig. 4, ground plan, fig. 5, eleva- 
tion). But he could not complete the towers, which were to be 220 feet 
high. After his death, in 1777, Chagrin altered the plan again, by bring- 
ing the octagonal towers planned by Maclaurin into harmony with the 
fagade ; but he did not complete them. 

The length of the church is 360 feet, the width 150 feet, and its ground 
plan is similar to that of l^otre Dame. The middle aisle, like the 
side aisles, is 110 feet high. The pillars are 6 feet thick and stand 18 
feet apart. The connecting arches begin 27 feet above the floor. The 
transept, of the same width, is surmounted by a vaulted dome 28 feet high 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPEDIA. VOL. IV. 13 193 



194 ARCHITECTURE. 

at its intersection with the nave. In the rear of the choir gallery, which is 
68 feet high, is the oval chapel of the Holy Virgin, 35 feet deep, 44 feet 
loDg, and 78 feet high, and surrounded with a wooden dome. The fa§ade, 
which is 174 feet broad and executed after Servandoni's plan, has below 
four pairs of disengaged and four pairs of three-quarter columns of the 
Doric order. The former are 5 feet, 6 inches thick, and 43 feet high. Ser- 
vandoni had introduced a gable between the bases of the towers, which 
was struck by lightning in 1770, and then removed. 

7. The Pantheon, ok the Chtjrch of St. Genevieve in Paeis. With the 
erection of this church arose a new epoch in the architecture of Prance, as 
the corrupt Italian style was deserted and the forms of the antique were 
again introduced. The honor of this work belongs to Jacques Germain 
Soufflot (born at Irancy in 1714), who had studied in Kome. Whilst he 
was building the theatre in Lyons he went to Paris and was there named 
Director General of Public Buildings. The above-mentioned church was 
to be built at this time and Soufflot's plan was accepted, and in 1756 the 
corner stone of the church was laid. PI. 48, fig, 3, shows the ground 
plan, fig. 4 the view, and fig. 5 the lateral section of the church. King 
Chlodovig had once built a church upon the same spot which was renewed 
in the 12th century, but in 1483 was ruined by lightning and finally 
replaced by the present building. 

The form of the present church is a Greek cross formed of four aisles 
uniting under the dome. This at least was the wish of Soufflot, but the 
priests wished a lengthening of the choir and the main aisle. For this pur- 
pose pillar-arcades were introduced, which do not harmonize well with the 
columns. The desired two towers were also added in the rear of the nave, 
but they were afterwards removed. The beginning of the middle aisle forms 
a kind of fore hall, ovally vaulted, and with two tribunes. A third is over 
the entrance. The columns in the main aisle are 37 feet 8 inches high, and 
their axes are 14 feet apart. The diameter is 3 feet 6 inches, and the 
entablature one fifth of the height of the columns. The inner length to the 
wall of the niche is 282 feet, that of the transept 236 feet, and the inner 
width is 99 feet 4 inches. The middle aisle is 39 feet 6 inches wide, the 
side aisles only 9 feet 6 inches. The dome is 62 feet in diameter. The 
masonry occupies scarcely the 7th part of the whole area of the church, 
which is 52,992 square feet. It is very heavily taxed ; for while the square 
foot of the pillars in St. Peter's sustains 21,910 pounds, and in St. PauPs 
church of London 36,059 pounds, the weight on the square foot in the Pan- 
theon is 48,687 pounds. Each of the four principal pillars is 24 feet long 
and 14 feet 6 inches broad. They are connected by four large arches of 
43 feet 2 inches span, and whose vertices are 69 feet 4 inches above the 
floor of the church. From them to the opening of the cap of the inner 
dome there is a height of 186 feet, 232 feet to the opening of the lantern 
in the third vault, and 258 feet to the top of the lantern. When the inner 
cap of the vault was finished in 1781, the pillars showed some cracks. 
Nevertheless the building was continued after a suspension of four years, 
occasioned by Soufflot's death, in 1782, with the erection of the peristyle of 
194 



ARCHITECTURE. 195 

36 columns around the drum. In 1788 the cupola proper was begim, and 
in 1790 the lantern was erected. On the 25th of August Quatremere de 
Quincy received the order to change the church into a mausoleum for those 
who had merited well of the country, and the church was called Pantheon. 
First the windows were all walled up and only those in the vault retained, 
by which the light was improved, as the church had been too light. The 
belfries were then removed, and all garlands, reliefs, and whatever indicated 
the church, were taken away. By the concussion occasioned by 200 
laborers working without intermission more cracks appeared in the pillars 
and neighboring columns. Kondelet, who had prosecuted the building 
after Soufflot's death, investigated these, and found that they were partly 
attributable to the poor materials and partly to the reckless workmanship in 
the pillars. It was now intended to strengthen the pillars, as those of the 
crypt which supported them allowed their being made thicker. But the 
relatives of Soufflot protested against this alteration of his plan, and 
Rondelet finally conquered the difficulty by exchanging the poor stones and 
those that were improperly laid for good ones ; and since then the Pantheon, 
which by Kondelet again was altered to a church, has required no further 
repairs. 

8. The Madeleine at Paris. One of the most important modem build- 
ings in Paris is St. Magdalen's church. In this the form of the ancient 
temples is entirely restored, and there is no trace of tower or cupola. , PI. 
48, fig. 1, is the ground plan, fig. 2 the exterior perspective view, and jpl. 
46, fig. 1, the inner perspective view. 

In the 15th century a chapel stood on its site, which was replaced by a 
church in 1660. About 1763 it was deemed necessary for the adornment 
of the city to build a large church in its place, and the architect Coutant 
d'Yvry drew a plan, a Greek cross with a dome, of which only a little was 
executed. In 1777 Couture made a new plan, also a Greek cross with a 
dome, peristyle, &c. But it was rejected, and the revolution intervened. 
At length in 1801 the government determined to erect, not a church, but a 
temple to the fame of the French nation, and the plan of the architect 
Yignon received the preference, after long consultations of various com 
mittees. The building has a substructure 12 feet high, to whose platform 
ascends on each narrow side an open flight of 32 steps. Forty-eight Corin- 
thian columns form a grand peristyle around the building, eight columns in 
the front and rear and eighteen at the sides. The front portico contains 
four more placed behind the second and third front columns on each side. 
The building therefore is an octastylos peripteros, according to the classi- 
fication of Yitruvius. The intercolumniations are 11 feet 8 inches, the 
diameter of the columns is 6 feet, and their height 58 feet 6 inches. The 
peristyle is 12 feet 3 inches broad, and the main wall is 6 feet thick. The 
breadth of the building is 138 feet ; its length, without the steps, is 321 feet ; 
and it covers an area of 44,298 square feet. In the interior are on each 
side four Corinthian columns 2 feet thick, for which the entablature is 
broken, and upon which rest the girt arches which support cassetted vaults 
with skylights, the only means of light save the door, which is 15 feet 

195 



196 ARCHITECTURE. 

broad. Each of the Corinthian columns mentioned stands upon a pedestal 
which rests against pillars ornamented with pilasters. Under each arch 
stand two pair of Ionic columns, and between these four columns, which 
are placed upon stylobates, stand two pillars, in front of which are two 
Ionic columns supporting an entablature and a gable. In the interior of 
the apsis stand, upon a continuous stylobate, twelve Ionic columns 10 feet 
high, with their entablature, over which, up to the chief cornice, are several 
panels adorned with sculptures. When the monarchy was restoreql, the 
temple of glory was changed into a church and dedicated to St. Magdalen 
as the bas-relief on the front gable indicates. 

9. The Chapel of St. Ferdinand at Sablonville. The unfortunate 
event which on the 13th of July, 1842, terminated the life of the Duke of 
Orleans, oldest son of Louis Philippe, was the occasion of the erection of a 
beautiful building, of which jpl. 50, fig. 4, represents the perspective view. 
The King of the French bought from the civil list for 110,000 francs the 
house of Cordier in Sablonville, before which the accident occurred, removed 
it, and on its site the architects Fontaine and Lefranc erected a mausoleum 
that was consecrated on the 11th of July, 1843. It forms a Greek cross, 
and is of the Byzantine style, whose rigor is somewhat softened by several 
antique motivos. A little turret with a cross surmounts the intersection of 
the aisles. In the right cross-arm is the altar of St. Ferdinand, in the left 
the cenotaph of the Duke, and in the high choir is the altar of our Lady of 
Compassion {Noi/re Dame de Compassion)., whose statue also stands upon 
the exterior of the church in a niche of the wing. The three fagades have 
rosette windows with painted glass representing Faith, Hope, and Charity. 
There are also arched windows with glass paintings from Sevres, represent- 
ing various saints from designs of Ingres. The sacristy lies outside the 
chapel behind the high choir ; and in the front wing, before which is a little 
open place, is the dwelling of the keeper. The cenotaph is executed in 
marble from designs by Ary Schefer ; and a praying angel, one of the last 
works of the Princess Mary of Orleans, who died shortly before, is intro- 
duced. 

C. Germany. 

Germany does not lack churches of the time of the decline of art, but as 
they are mere repetitions of the Italian and French churches of the period, 
we do not notice them, but pass at once to some of the most modern build- 
ings of Berlin and Munich, where architecture is now especially cultivated. 

1. The Court Church of All Saints in Munich. Although king 
Maximilian I. of Bavaria did much for his country in architecture, yet its 
new era was reserved for the reign of Louis I., and that king, equally 
enamored of poetry and art, did not spare his private treasure in making for 
Munich an artistic period like the Augustan age in Rome. In all the 
churches of this period, although the antique is not avoided, the preference 
is plain for the Byzantine and the old German styles. 

The Church of All Saints was built after the design of Leo v. Klenze. 
PI. 46, fig. 8j shows the exterior, and ^l. 49, fig. 7, the inner perspective 
196 



ARCHITECTURE. 197 

view. The church is biiilt in the style of the 11th and 12th centuries, which 
is preserved throughout in its strictest purity. A high middle aisle is accom- 
panied by two lower side aisles, and is lighted by little semicircularly 
arched windows. The interior contains broad pillars, between which arches 
are sprung supporting vaults. Tlie main nave is separated from the side 
aisles by arcades which support galleries. The arches and domes are richly 
painted in fresco, and are well lighted by the front windows of the nave. 

2. The Chtjkch of Majry the Helper in the Faubourg Au in 
Munich. This chm-ch was designed and executed by the architect D. J. 
Ohlmiiller. PI. 49, fig. 8, represents the inner view. The church, of which 
the German style of the 13th century is the basis, consists of three aisles 
equally high ; the side aisles are half as wide as the main aisle. The ribs 
of the vaults are artistically arranged, and the nineteen windows are covered 
with very beautiful glass painting. The fagade has a chief tower with a 
perforated pyramid, and two small contiguous towers upon the corner pillars. 
A gallery extends around the roof between the pyramidal turrets which 
crown the buttresses. The church has no transept, and the end of the choir 
is semicircular. The church was completed in 1831. 

3. The Basilica St. Boniface in Munich {jpl. 46, fig. 9) was designed 
by the architect Ziebland, and beautifully painted in fresco by Henry Hess. 
On the 12th Oct., 1835, the corner stone of this basilica was laid, and in 
1840 the building was so far completed that the fresco paintings could be 
commenced, and they were finished in 1844. The church, in which pre- 
vails the old basilica style, forms a long rectangle with four colonnades, five 
aisles, atid a semicircular vaulted apsis. In the interior there are sixty-six 
disengaged columns in four rows. The columns of the middle aisle are 
connected by round arches, upon which rests the high wall of this aisle, con- 
taining the windows. The main walls, with the exception of some arch 
frames, are built of bricks in their natural color. The middle aisle is 262 feet 
long, 52 broad, and 83 feet high to the entablature. The framework of the 
roof is entirely uncovered, and the blue surface of the roof painted with gold 
stars is visible through it. Each of the side aisles is 18 feet broad, and 44 feet 
high, so that the whole breadth of the church is 124 feet. The columns are 
25 feet high, and each consists of one block of grey marble, but the capitals 
of white marble, upon which are carved vines and ears of grain as allegori- 
cal representations of the wine and bread of the Last Supper. All the paint- 
ings with which the walls of the middle aisle, the wall of the choir, and the 
choir niches are covered, were executed after cartoons of the artist Henry 
Hess, and under his direction. They are frescoes upon a gold ground, and 
represent partly scenes from the life of St. Boniface, partly the propagation 
of Christianity, or finally are portraits of saints and popes. 

4. The Parish and University Church of St. Louis in Munich. 
This church was designed and built by Fr. v. Gartner in the style of 
the 14th century, and painted in fresco by Peter v. Cornelius. PI. 50, 
fijg. 2, represents the exterior perspective view of this church, which con- 
sists of three aisles, and has an open portico in front between the towers. 
The church and towers are of red brick, coated with a cement imitating 

197 



i^ ARCHITECTURE. 

white freestone. It was built at the suggestion and expense of the citizens 
of Munich, and has an inscription in the interior to that effect. 

5. The Werdee Chitrch in Berlin. As Leo v. Klenze and Fr. v. 
Gartner were the animating principles of architectural progress in Munich, 
so was Frederick Schinkel its genius in Berlin ; and as they ornamented 
Bavaria, so did he Prussia, with buildings that indicate a pure sense of art, 
and the fruitful and earnest study of the architecture of all times and 
people. Schinkel's designs are diffused thoughout Germany, although Ber- 
lin is considered richest in them, and his school of architecture has sent 
forth a number of pupils who zealously strive to imitate his noble example. 
The design for the Werder Church, of which ^^. 3 gives a perspective view 
from the south-west, was made in 1825, and was soon executed. The means 
appropriated for the building allowed only very simple forms in the exterior. 
Yet it lacks not ornament from the sculptures in burnt clay and moulded 
cornice-stones. Over the portal stands, after a design of Schinkel's, the 
archangel Michael, modelled by Wichmann, and the capitals also are finely 
executed in burnt clay. The interior of the church has a single aisle with 
five cross-vaults up to the high choir, which has a star-shaped vault of 
remarkable breadth and height, and makes a lofty and pleasing impression. 
It is beautifully decorated with, oil paintings by Begas, Schadow, and Wach. 
The entire building is exclusively of brick, and not plastered. 

6. The Garrison Church at Potsdam. This was also designed by 
Schinkel. It was originally intended to be only a substructure of square 
ground plan (^Z. 48, fig. 7), with a portico and a semicircular apsis support- 
ing a drum surrounded by a peristyle, and having a double dome. The 
bells were to hang in the belfries forming the front corners of the ground plan 
with a fore hall between them, which were not to be higher than the sub- 
structure. The four corners were to be adorned with sculptures, statues of 
angels, and candelabra ; but as it was found that the bells did not sound 
loud enough, the two small corner towers were made higher, and thus the build- 
ing received the fagade which fig. 8 represents. There are no columns in 
the interior of the church, except in the three cross-arms arising from the 
inclosure of the two corner towers, and the corresponding sacristy and con^ 
fessional in the rear corners, where galleries are supported by light columns. 
The square of the church has a side of 135 feet, and the whole height to the 
wings of the angel upon the lantern is 232 feet, to the vertex of the dome 
only 200 feet. 

D. England. 

When the English deserted the pointed-arch style and returned to the 
antique, Palladio became their model, and they have many buildings erected 
entirely according to his rules. We have selected for representation the 
most interesting edifice of this period, second in the whole world only to 
St. Peter's in Eome. 

St. Paul's Church in London. Sir Christopher Wren (bom 1632, died 
1Y23) is justly reckoned among the most famous architects. He devoted 
himself with such zeal to mathematics, that in his 25th year he lectured 



ARCniTECTURE. 199 

upon astronomy. Upon his return from his travels through France and 
Italy, he was appointed first Koyal Architect, in 1668. In 1666, when the 
old church of St. Paul, in spite of Inigo Jones's repairs, threatened to fall, 
it had been resolved to build a new church, and Wren began it after his own 
design on the 1st of June, 16Y5. Originally his idea w^as to erect a build- 
ing in the basilica style, but the orthodox clergy demanded a new design, 
of which jpl. 49, fig. 1, is the ground plan, fig. 2 the western fa§ade, and 
fig. 3 a lateral section west of the dome. 

The length of St. Paul's is 530 feet, and in some places the foundations 
are more than 40 feet deep. There is a crypt beneath. The ground plan 
forms a Latin cross, with a transept 252 feet long. The middle aisle is 42 
feet wide between the pillars, and each side aisle is 20 feet wide. The 
height of the middle aisle is 90 feet, the inner vault of the dome is 216 feet 
above the church floor, the outer to the foot of the lantern 280 feet. The 
lantern with the cross is 80 feet, so that the whole height is 360 feet. Prom 
the street, however, as the church has a high substructure, it is 372 feet. 
The outer breadth of the dome is not quite 100 feet, and its height is 56 
feet, whence the dome forms a half ellipsoid. The church is faced with 
Portland sandstone, and was completed in 35 years, for in 1710 Sir 
Christopher Wren had the gratification of laying the last stone of the lantern. 
The church cost £747,954. Upon the landing of the great steps are six pair 
of coupled Corinthian columns 4 feet thick and 40 feet high, which support a 
complete entablature and an attic 3 feet high, over which again stand four 
pairs of coupled Poman columns 3 feet 2 inches thick and 33 feet high. 
These support a frieze with consoles 2 feet 6 inches high, a few connecting 
mouldings, and finally a lofty gable. Both stories are overloaded with 
coupled pilasters, niches, and gable windows. On each side is a small 
belfry 100 feet high, surrounded by Eoman columns. That the facade 
fails to make the grand impression anticipated from its proportions is attri- 
butable to the following reasons : 1. The use of coupled columns on the 
facade, and a slight inequality in the intercolumniations in the two stories. 
2. The intersection of the fa§ade by the lower chief cornice and by the 
attic. 3. The paralysation of the efiect of the great architectonic lines in 
the whole fa§ad€ by the many coupled pilasters, niches, and gable windows. 
And finally, 4. The tasteless details of the two small belfries, and the dis- 
proportionate height of the gable. 

The effect of the interior, however, is weakened by no defects, and its 
grandeur of proportions and neatness of execution are well calculated to 
make a deep and lasting impression on the beholder. It contains a great 
number of noble monuments to England's great men, among which are 
those of Abercromby, Pitt, Nelson, &c. Sir Christopher Wren, the architect 
of the church, is buried in it. His epitaph, which is in Latin, is short and 
appropriate in every respect except in being in a foreign language ; tlie 
concluding sentiment, though frequently quoted^ is worth repeating for its 
felicity of expression : Lector^ si monumentum requvris^ circumsjnce (Reader, 
if you seek his monument, look around you). 

199 



200 ARCHITECTURE. 

E, Russia, 

At the time when Italy had only remains of the Roman monuments, and of 
the Greek and Etruscan, but already possessed large and beautiful Christian 
basilicas, when in France and Germany and England large churches shamed 
the works of past centuries, Russia was yet only inhabited by barbarians. 
In 957 the Russian princess Olga, the wife of Igor, was baptized in Constan- 
tinople, and returning to her native country, introduced civilization, together 
with the milder religion. From this period date the traces of the new 
Greek architecture which we meet here and there, as, for instance, the 
Kremlin in Moscow, built in the 14th century and destroyed in the year 1812. 
When Peter the Great removed his residence to the city of Petersburg, 
which he had founded, Russian edifices began to be built in a regular and 
modern style. Of these we have selected two for our account. 

1. The Chapel of the E^nights of Malta in St. Peteesbueg. The 
Emperor Paul I. had given a palace in St. Petersburg to the Knights of Malta, 
and permitted them at the same time to erect a Catholic chapel. At that 
time Giacomo Quaranghi lived in St. Petersburg (born in 1744 at Bergamo, 
and died there in 1820), and the knights applied to him for a design for the 
chapel, which would certainly have been very beautiful if they had executed 
the portico he designed. But instead of this, the building, founded on the 
23d of August, 1798, received a fagade which is represented in ^l. 50, fig, 
11, which has four Corinthian half columns, and two small columns with a 
gable as door ornament ; fig. 10 represents the ground plan and the manner 
in which the chapel is united with the palace, and fig. 12 the lateral section 
of the chapel. The interior is in the basilica form, ending in a large apsis. 
Two rows of yellow marble columns divide the church into three aisles 51 
feet high. The breadth of the chapel is 50 feet, its length 100 feet. 

2. St. Isaac's Chtirch en" St. Petersbueg. After the fire which destroyed 
in 1710 the wooden church of St. Isaac of Dalmatia, standing upon the site 
now occupied by the statue of Peter the Great, and the two churches of 
the same saint which were in time built in another place, after designs by 
Maternowi and Rainaldi, had fallen into decay, the emperor Alexander I. 
resolved to rebuild it in a simple but effective manner, and intrusted Mon- 
ferrand with the design, which was accepted, and the erection of the 
building commenced on the 8th July, 1819. PI. 47, fig. 7, shows the 
ground plan, fig. 8 the elevation of this church. Its exterior length is 312 
feet, the inner 297 feet 6 inches, and the greatest breadth is 192 feet. It 
covers 580,322 square feet, and is consequently somewhat smaller than 
Notre Dame in Paris, and is to St. Peter's as 1 : 3.44. On each long side, 
one of which fronts on the Place of the Admiralty, opposite the statue of 
Peter the Great and the ISTeva, is a portico, closely imitated from that 
of the Pantheon at Rome, but much more imposing, as the columns, 
which consist each of a single block of Finland marble, are 12 feet higher 
than those of the Pantheon, being 56 feet high. The capitals and bases of 
the columns are cast in bronze. The short sides, which are east and west, 
have also porticoes, but less projecting, which were demanded by the rules 

200 



ARCHITECTUKE. 201 

of the Greek ritual, according to which the high altar must he placed in 
the east and the church doors in the west. The interior is roofed with 
cassetted cylindrical vaults, which rest upon pillars decorated with columns 
and pilasters. The columns of the sanctuary are partly of jasper, partly of 
porphyry. Over the middle of the church is a dome 8Y feet 4 inches in 
diameter, and whose height is 275 feet, and with the lantern, 327 feet from 
the church floor. The drum is surrounded by a superb Corinthian peri- 
style, whose entablature supports an attic with a balustrade, upon whose 
cubes stand statues of angels. The acroteria are also adorned with statues. 
Four small belfries covered with domes, on the corners of the middle 
building, injure the othei'wise fine effect of this beautiful edifice. 



- 2. Castles and Palaces. 

A. Italy. 

We must here again begin with Italy, because in this country, while the 
German style reigned elsewhere supreme, even in secular buildings, the 
introduction of a new style had commenced, which afterwards spread through 
Europe. We mention the prominent buildings in chronological order. 

1. The CANCELLEiiLAL m Eome. Bramante, whom we have already men- 
tioned, meets us again in the most beautiful palaces of Home. The palace 
of the Papal Cancelleria {pi. 52, Jig. 3), w^hose right side includes the 
church of San Lorenzo in Damaso, which was restored about twenty years 
ago, is among the most noticeable of Roman buildings. Its fa§ade, 254 
feet long, is built of travertine taken from the old Coliseum. Two ranges 
of pilasters ornament the broad window-piers of the two chief stories, while 
the lower story has windows raised above a substructure of freestone in 
rustication. A bolder profile would be desirable in the cornices. The 
court of columns is especially beautiful, which below,' as in the first story, 
consists of four pillars and twenty-two Tuscan columns, connected by semi- 
circular arches, and whose passages have cross-vault ceilings. The shafts 
of the columns are each of a single block of 'granite, taken from the 
Basilica of San Lorenzo, which stood upon this spot. 

2. The Casa Silvestki m Rome, of which pi. 52, Jig. 10 a shows the 
ground plan, Jig. lOh the front, and Jig. 10 c the rear view, is said to have 
been commenced by Baldassare Peruzzi of Volterra about 1502, although 
many, and probably justly, ascribe it to Michael Angelo. It is a small build- 
ing, with a meagre main cornice, and overladen with subordinate cornices. 
The ground plan is like the antique Roman buildings, one of whichis repre- 
sented in^^. 11 ; but the windows are too narrow, and disagreeable divisions 
arise from the omission of the vertical joints in the rustication of the first story. 

3. The Palazzo Giraijd m Rome {Jig. 9) was begun by Bramante in 
1504. It is situated beyond the Tiber, and was built for the Cardinal 
Corneto. It is almost a copy on a smaller scale of the Cancelleria, save 
that the windows of the first and third stories are alike. The pilasters 
here, as in the Cancelleria, project a little from the walls, a plan which 

201 



202 ARCHITECTURE, 

deserves to be imitated. Yet here also the main cornice is^ too insigniiScant, 
and the upper windows are too low. 

4. The Palazzo Sora m Parione in Kome was built by Bramante in 
1505. Its facade {Jig. 6) is well massed, but the windows of the second 
story have three-cornered and round pediments, to which the under cor- 
nices offer an unfavorable contrast. The columned court of this palace is 
very beautiful. 

The Palazzo del Te in Mantua, of which pi. 57, Jig. 9, shows the ground 
plan, was begun about 1520 by Giulio Pippi, known as Giulio Komano. 
The name is derived probably, not from any resemblance to the letter 
T, which does not exist, but from an abbreviation of the word Tejetta 
(drainage), for the palace stands upon a ground drained by water furrows. 
The principal ground plan forms an exact square of 180 feet side, and 
incloses a court of 120 feet side. This court has two entrances, the princi- 
pal one, consisting of a great gate with an arch in rustication, leading into 
a vestibule ornamented with columns, while the other, which is located at 
one of the sides, has three arches built in the same taste. The fagades of 
the palace, both in front and rear, consist of an order of Doric pilasters, 
coupled at the comers. The panels with rustication in the lower story are 
interrupted by window openings which relieve the heaviness. The fagades 
are sm-mounted by a Doric entablature with triglyphs and metopes. Prom 
the court, where instead of pilasters is an order of coupled wall columns, a 
loggia leads into the garden. The fagade of this side represents a peristyle 
of 12 columns, two deep and coupled. The centre intercolumniation com- 
municates with a bridge which separates two water basins. Beyond this 
is a parterre with greenhouses and household buildings. The garden 
terminates in a large semicircle. The length of the whole estate is 550 
feet. The interior of the building is arranged in a masterly manner, and 
decorated with paintings by Giulio Romano and his pupils. 

6. The Palazzo Sacchetti in" E-ome (originally called Oasa San Gallo) 
was designed and built by San Gallo (died 1546) for himself, in the year 
1530. PI. ^^.)Jig. 7, represents its fagade. It is 111 feet broad and has a 
very beautiful door. The windows are four feet broad and are placed 9 
feet, 3 inches apart. Those of the first story are unfortunately a foot narrower 
above than below. The main cornice is 3 feet in height and of the same 
projection, and is to the height of the building as 1 : IT. The rectangular 
court is surrounded by arcades beneath, resting upon imposts between 
which stand Tuscan pilasters. 

7. The Palazzo Paolo en^ Rome {Jig. 5) was built by Torriani, a pupil 
of San Gallo, with a handsome door and otherwise of good proportions, 
although the middle windows, from the varying width of the piers, fail to 
make an agreeable impression. 

8. The Villa Medici in Rome, at present the French Academy, built by 
Alessandro Lippi, about 1551, is a well proportioned building. The width 
of the piers between the windows, the upper of which are, however, a little 
too low, as well as the pure and bold profile of the girth and main cornices, 
whose height and projection are equal to one seventeenth of the height of 

202 



ARCHITECTURE. 203 

the fagade, shows the pure taste of the architect. A vestibule towards the 
court and garden is especially good. It is supported by six beautiful Ionic 
columns ; jpl. ^^^fig. Sa, shows the front facade, Jig. 85 the ground plan of 
the lower story. 

9. The Palazzo Saoli m Genoa was built in 1553 by Alessi, who was 
for Genoa what Bramante was for Rome. This palace is a master-piece. 
It has two facades, as it is a corner house, and a garden lies before one of 
the fagades. The street facade, including the entrance, has five openings 
in rustication constructed so judiciously as to make a very agreeable 
impression. The middle of the upper story consists of arcades upon 
columns, with a window upon both sides, with coupled pilasters, over 
which is a balcony. The interior of the court (pi. 51, fig. 5) is surrounded 
by two stories of piazzas, or vaulted galleries of marble columns, and has a 
magnificent efi'ect, as well as the staircase. The extraordinary grandeur of 
these galleries is attained by connecting the columns in pairs by complete 
entablatures, and these again by arches sprung from their ends, whilst the 
vaults abut between and on the arches. The main cornice is well profiled, 
but too richly ornamented. . 

10. The Papal Palace in Pome. Domenico Fontana (born 1553, died 
1607), known by a large number of fine buildings in Pome, by command 
of Pope Sixtus Y., enlarged the Yatican with a building, the Palazzo di 
Pajpa Sisto F"., briefly termed the Papal Palace. PI. 52, fig. 4, repre- 
sents this building. It makes a grand impression, although it is not a large 
edifice. The round and triangular pediments over the door and centre 
window can, however, hardly be justified by good taste. The main cornice 
is beautifully and boldly profiled. 

11. The Palazzo Doria Tuesi est Genoa was begun in 1590 by Rocco 
Lurago, and is at present the property of the king of Sardinia. PI. 54, 
fig. 3, shows the fagade. It is almost too crowded with pilasters and 
gable-windows to be classed unreservedly with the good Italian style. On 
each side the fine vaulted portico supports a terrace adjoining the second 
story of the building. The cornice is remarkable for its very great consoles. 
The staircase, approached from the spacious vestibule, is numbered among 
the most perfect. The court is surrounded with columns and half columns 
connected by arches. 

12. Palazzo Caseeta neae ISTaples. One of the largest European build- 
ings of the last century is the Palace of Caserta near Kaples. Yanvitelli, 
or more properly Louis van Witel of Utrecht, planned it and laid the 
corner stone on the 20th January, 1752. PI. 51, fig. 1, represents the 
ground plan of the lower story, fig. 2 that of the main story, ^z^. 3 the eleva- 
tion, and fig. 4 the section of the palace. The building has four courts and 
occupies an area of 410,480 square feet. Each of the two principal fronts has 
a large portal and two side entrances. On every corner is a pavilion of 161 
feet in height and in the centre between the courts a dome covering the 
great vestibule, whose height is 183 feet from the floor. The main story, 
which is 26 feet high, rests upon a substructure which has two stories, 
each 18 feet high. The great saloons in the main story extend through 

203 



204 ARCHITECTURE. 

the upper building and are 45 feet high. The windows are 5 feet, 6 inches 
wide in the clear, and are placed 10 feet apart. Those of the main story 
are 12 feet high. Over this story is still another, 21 feet high, and an 
intersole, 12 feet high. In the middle of each fagade stand four Ionic 
columns, and as many in the fagades of the pavilions, which have flat roofs 
surroiinded by balustrades. The plan of the arcades, which are 45 feet 
high, and connect the two portals, is magnificent. They have four passages, 
and in the middle they form the octagonal vestibule which contains the 
great staircase^ At each portal is a vestibule ornamented with eight Co- 
rinthian columns. The columns consist each of a single block of ash-grey 
Sicilian marble. The great staircase, which also leads to the royal chapel, 
whose ceiling is supported by sixteen Corinthian marble columns, has steps 
19 feet, 6 inches long, each of a single block of marble. In one side of the 
building is a theatre extending through two stories. 

In order to show the style in which the Roman palaces were finished, we 
havq represented in jpl. 54, figs. 6-9, four superb doors from various palaces, 
and also in f^g. 4 one of the many Roman fountains, the Fontana Pdolina^ 
not far from the church San Pietro in Promontorio upon the Janiculus. It 
was executed by Jacob Fontana, and is fed by the aqueduct of Bracciano, 
which, lies 36 miles from Rome. Three large and two small arcades, whence 
falls the water in three streams into the broad basin, form the fountain. 
Between the arcades there are five half columns of granite, and over them 
an attic with an inscription, and then an arched superstructure with two 
angels bearing the papal arms. As an offset to this example of tasteless- 
ness, built in 1560, we give in fig. 5 the ancient fountain of Marius, not far 
from Rome, and it is curious to observe how human taste, when such guides 
were near, could go so far astray as to produce the Fontana Paolina. 

B. France. 

1. The Lotjvee m Pakis. Of French palaces, the Louvre at Paris 
claims the priority of age : for in the 8th and 9th centuries there stood upon 
its site a palace ^of the King of France, which in 1529 was so ruinous that 
Francis I. determined to build a new palace in its place. Sebastian Serlio 
and Francis L^scot drew plans for it, and the latter was accepted. But at 
the death of Lescot even the wing towards the Tuileries, the old Louvre, 
was not yet completed. Its court facade {pi. 52, fig. 2) has in the centre a 
projection ( le grand avant corps)., and a little one on each side and in the 
corners. These avant corps are repeated on the other sides of the court. 
Before them stand forty-six. pairs of fluted Corinthian three-quarter columns 
2 feet thick and 19 feet 2 inches high, placed on high pedestals. Before the 
receding parts {arriere corps) are thirty-two pilasters of the same order 
ornamenting the window piers. Similar orders of columns and pilastei-s 
are repeated before the main story but in the Roman style, and each order 
has its full entablature. The ground floor is 33 feet high, the main story 
29 feet. The length and depth of the Louvre are 525 feet. After Lescot's 
death Lemercier erected, over the middle of the wing towards the Tuileries, 
a high balustrade, and over that a rectangular drum with a dome of frame- 
204 



ARCHITECTURE. 205 

work which covers a large hall, resting in part on caryatides executed by 
Jean Goujon. Lemercier (born 1629) continued the wing towards the Seine, 
to the fagade of which Claude Perrault afterwards added the remarkably 
beautiful colonnade represented in elevation and ground plan hi pi. 52, Jig. 1. 
The three older fagades towards the court were then made to harmonize 
with it. After Perrault's death Gabriel continued the building of the upper 
part of the three older facades according to his own idea. When Louis XIY. 
wished to finish the Louvre there was a disagreement about the form of the 
outer fagades. At the suggestion of Colbert, Bernini was summoned from 
Rome to Paris, but his plans were not approved of. It was then that 
Perrault designed his colonnade, which was completed in 1670. It consists 
of coupled fluted Corinthian columns 3 feet 9 inches thick and 38 feet high, 
placed upon pedestals over the lower story, and supporting an excellently 
profiled entablature, whose height is 2^ columnar diameters. The column- 
couples are placed at distances of 3 diameters; the two middle ones 6 
diameters' distance from each other. The four couples, or eight columns, in 
the centre support a triangular gable, whose crown cornice consists of two 
stones 54 feet long and 28 inches high. The fagade towards the Rue le 
Coq has much beauty, especially an imposing carriage portal. In 1755 the 
exterior of the Louvre was completed. After the palace had been left to 
itself almost forty years Percier and Fontaine were ordered by IS'apoleon 
to improve it and arrange the interior tastefully. They opened the niches 
between the columns of the colonnade and changed them into windows. 
The two divisions of the colonnade were united over the middle door with 
a horizontal ceiling, so that now the communication appears no longer to be 
interrupted by the great arch. In spite of the triangular pediments over 
the windows of the main story, this fagade is justly regarded as one of the 
finest of modern times, owing to the correctness of its proportions. 

2. The Palace of the Tuileeies in" Paris was commenced in 1364 by 
command of Catharine di Medici, by Philibert Delorme and Jean Bullart, 
but was again abandoned until Henry lY. caused it to be continued on an 
altered plan by Ducerceau and Dup^rai. It was finally completed under 
Louis XIY. by Louis le Beau and Frangois d'Orbois. I^l. 53, Jig. 1, gives 
a view of the Tuileries from the Place du Carrousel. The employment of 
so many architects has had the efiect of producing a singular arrangement : 
there are roofs of five different shapes, and the whole building is without 
any essential aesthetic unity of design. The windows, which are six feet 
wide, have throughout piers of no greater breadth. Those of the first and 
second stories are 18 feet high ; of the third, 16 feet. The entablature of 
the pilasters is intersected by the windows of the second story, and in the 
upper there are small pilasters standing over those beneath. The roof is 
disproportionately high, higher than half of the building. Altogether there 
are five pavilions, among which, besides the clock pavilion in the centre, 
the northern is interesting as the residence of Napoleon, of the Duchess 
of Berry, and finally of the Duke of Orleans ; and the southern as the 
j-esidence of Pope Pius YII. in 1804, of Charles X., and finally of Louis 
Philippe. 

205 



206 ARCHITECTURE. 

3, The Lijxembotjrg Palace m Pajiis. When, after the deatli of 
Henry II., Maria di Medici wanted a palace for her own residence, she 
bought, in 1611, the old Palais Luxembourg, had it removed, and ordered 
Desbrosses to build a palace, of which the corner-stone was laid in 1615, 
and the Palazzo Pitti in Florence served as model. The plan of the 
Palais Luxembourg {pL 53, Jig. 4) is a rectangle. It has six large square 
pavilions, and is very regular. The north side has a row of arcades, over 
which there is an open terrace, which is divided into two parts by the dome 
over the entrance. The system of rustication prevails throughout the build- 
ing, and there are no columns, scarcely any pilasters, and thence the 
building has an appearance of great strength, but it is also naonotonous. 
The smaU dome is unimportant in itself, but it very happily interrupts the 
long line between the pavilions. The walls here recede above the main 
story, forming two galleries. Upon the middle pavilion is a sun-dial, upoQ 
which the meridian of mean time is indicated. 

4. The I^avy Department and the Garde-Metjbles in Paris. In the 
year 1763 the Place Louis XY., now the Place de la Concorde, was designed. 
It was completed in 1772. Upon the north of this place stand two larg§ 
buildings 288 feet long. Before the ground story of each is a row of 
arcades 10 feet wide, which form a covered passage 9 feet broad and 25 
feet high. On both sides {Jig. 2) of the fa§ade are pavilions, upon whose 
substructures of bound masonry are four Corinthian columns crowned with 
a triangular gable, whose sides rest on pilasters. Between the pavilions 
stand twelve Corinthian columns 30 feet high and three feet thick, forming 
a terrace over the lower passage. The columns extend through two stories 
and stand 11 feet apart. These buildings were originally designed as store- 
houses of the furniture and jewels of the crown (Gardes-Meubles) ; but one 
was changed into the present Kavy Department. Jacques Gabriel, a pupil 
of Hardouin Mansard, was the architect of these edifices, and they have the 
advantage of the Louvi^e in not having their columns coupled, whilst on 
the other hand they are too weak and low and their distances too great. 

6. The Palace at Versailles. The royal pleasure grounds at Yer- 
sailles were first planned by Louis XIIL, but Louis XIY. caused the present 
palace to be erected after Leveau's designs. It is 1320 feet in length, and 
consists of a centre building with two wings. Its finest part is the grand 
colonnade after Mansard's design, fronting towards the garden. PZ. 54, 
Jig. 1, gives the view of it. Unhappily the chief masses of the palace are 
injured by many projections and recedings, by which all the great architec- 
tonic lines are destroyed. The great entrance is truly insignificant, hidden 
as it is between the rear wings inclosing the open court which is TO feet 
wide. The interior of the palace is magnificent, and Louis Philippe 
placed there the Museum, whose treasures are all of the grandest historical 
interest to France. One of the finest halls is the so called Battle Gallery 
(Jig. 2) in the southern part of the ground story. It is 327 feet long, lighted 
from above, and contains in paintings, mostly by Horace Yernet, the history 
of Napoleon's campaigns from 1796-1815, and of the French campaign in 
Algiers. Some of the paintings are of enormous size : the Battle of My for 
206 



ARCHITECTURE. 207 

instance is 90 feet long. The busts of Napoleon and of the members of his 
femilj are also placed there. 

C. Belgium cmd Holland. 

A league and a half fix>m Brussels, near the canal to Malines, is the 
jdedsure palace of Laeken., erected in 1782 after the designs of Montemayor, 
but the interior was executed by Payen. PL 51, fig. 6, shows the 
ground plan, fl. 53, fig. 5, the front elevation. The facade is in the French 
style, and has in the centre a portico of four Ionic columns placed at dis- 
tances of three and a half diameters, and on the corners pavilions with 
pilasters. The round hall in the rear of the vestibule is surrounded with 
twelve Corinthian columns, and covered with a dome, and is considered to 
be a structure of great architectonic value. 

The Koyal KESiDEiircE m Amsterdam, built by Jacob Yan Campen, born in 
Harlaem (d. 1658), is without question the most beautiful building in Holland. 
The grandeur of its masses, the regularity of its plan, the beauty of its con- 
stniction, the richness of its decoration, all combine to make it one of the finest 
creations of modern architecture. PI. 55, fig. 4, gives the elevation, fig. 5 
the ground plan of the ground story, and fig. 6 that of the second and third 
stories. The dome, which is wanting in the elevation, is represented to the 
right, the line A A being that of its connexion with the clock tower. The 
building stands upon 13,659 piles driven into the morass, and forms a large 
rectangle of 282 feet in length and 222 feet in breadth. The plan is im- 
posing, the interior arrangement judicious, the communications convenient 
and easy, and all combined with taste and skill. The height of the facade 
is 116 feet. Upon a large substructure, forming a very subordinate story, 
with seven low entrances, there are two tiers of pilasters, the upper belonging 
to the composite, the lower to the Corinthian order. They are 36 feet high, 
each reaching through a story and an intersole. The facade has three pro- 
jections, the middle one being both broader and deeper than those at the 
ends. This middle projection has a gable with a beautiful bas-relief repre- 
senting the power of Amsterdam, and the acroteria of the gable support 
bronze statues twelve feet high. 

D. Great Britain. 

The castles and palaces of England are for the greater part of the medi- 
aeval style, which was widely employed for secular buildings after it had 
yielded in other countries to the Italian, and it is still much used. Kext to 
that we find the manner of Palladio, and especially in country seats, which 
are often of very great extent. Such, for instance, is the country seat of the 
Duke of Argyle in Dumbarton county in Scotland, whose ground plan 
{pi. 51, fijg. T) is much like the castle at Laeken, and whose fa§ade is almost 
precisely the same. 

8. Theatres. 

A considerable degree of luxury has always prevailed in the building of 

207 



208 ARCHITECTURE. 

theatres, not alone among the Greeks and Eomans, but in modern times ; 
and there has been an effort to give them an exterior adequate to the 
sumptuous splendor which characterizes the modern dramatic art. In the 
division of this work devoted to the Fine Arts we shall speak of the plans of 
theatres, and especially of their interior construction, and therefore will 
\iere record only one of the most beautiful German theatres, begun in 
1837 and finished in 184:0, the theatre in Dresden, designed and executed 
by Semper {jpl. 57, fig. 4), and one of the largest theatres, that of St. 
Petersburg, built about thirty years ago by Montron [fig. 5, front view ; 
fig. 6, ground plan). 

The appearance of the Dresden Theat/re is unique in this, that its exterior 
is of the same form as the interior. The chief entrance is at the end of the 
ellipse, while the carriage portico is at the side. The upper part of the 
fagade is rather heavy for the fine, light arcades of the lower. In the 
interior arrangement, the judicious distribution of the apartments, and the 
spacious vestibule and foyer, deserve unqualified praise. The latter are 
remarkable for their beautiful fresco paintings. 

The Theatre in St. Petersburg was built under the Emperor Alexander, 
and is singularly regular. By the arrangement of the rear, it is susceptible 
of being enlarged upon special occasions. As it is 360 feet deep in itself, 
enlargement is, however, very rarely required. The facade, with its eight 
Ionic columns, is imposing. 

St. Charles Theatnre^ in ISTew Orleans {fig. 7), fails in its exterior,, and 
may be quoted as an example of bad arrangement of the fagade. The por- 
tico reaches through two stories, and is covered with a heavy gable. There 
are Corinthian columns above, standing upon high pedestals. It is much 
too heavy for the open wall behind, which seems hardly calculated to sup- 
port the heavy superstructure. 



4. MrsEUMs. 

During the two last centuries, the care for the better arrangement and 
preservation of objects of art, like the sense of true art, had apparently lost 
all vitality. Only recently have objects of art begun to be collected in 
buildings specially constructed for the purpose, and affording greater con- 
venience of observation and study. We have selected a few of the best 
buildings of this kind for special notice. 

The Museum m Cassel {fig. 13), which contains also the library, was 
planned by du Ry. It is 294 feet long, and its fagade is decorated with 
Ionic pilasters, and has a portico of eight Ionic columns. Over the large 
round hall is a tolerably high dome, with a drum, surrounded by Corin- 
thian pilasters. Although the whole makes a pleasant impression, yet the 
details belong to a period whose predominant corrupt taste precludes the 
possibility of anything very beautiful. Nevertheless, the building has just 
claims to admiration from its perfect interior arrangement. 

King Louis I., of Bavaria, in order to collect into appropriate buildings 
208 



ARCHITECTURE. 209 

the various treasui'es of art dispersed in his palaces, and amassed during 
his travels, built in Munich ilie Pinacothek for tlie paintings, and for the 
sculptures the Glyptothek. Of the latter, pi. 53, fig. 6, shows the ground 
plan, and pi. 56, fig. 2, the perspective view. It was commenced in 181b 
and completed in 1830, and reflects the highest honor on its architect, Leo 
V. Klenze. It surrounds a rectangular court, and is built in the Grecian 
style. In front is a portico of eight, in the rear one of four, Ionic columns. 
As the whole hall is lighted from above and from the inner court, it has no 
exterior windows, but in place of them niches, in which are placed statues of 
famous painters and sculptors. There are nine colossal figures in the front 
gable, representing Minerva and the plastic arts. The interior contains 
twelve halls, with friezes and ceilings painted in fresco by Cornelius, Hay- 
degger, Zimmermann, Hermann, and others, and marble floors. The cor- 
rectness of its proportions, and the noble simplicity of its motivos, make 
this building a model of good taste, worthy of being minutely studied by 
architects, along with the finest monuments of antiquity. 

Opposite the Grlyptothek is the newly built edifice for the exhibitions 
of ai-t and industry {fig. 3, perspective view). This building is similar to 
the opposite one in form and plan, but very inferior to it in point of cor- 
rectness and decoration, besides having the great fault of not answering the 
purpose for which it was constructed, since its door is so small that wall- 
paintings cannot be brought in for exhibition. The eight columns of the 
portico are very beautiful, and of the Corinthian order. In the gable-field 
is likewise a rich sculpture composition, representing Minerva as the tutelar 
deity of the arts and crafts. The general effect of the building is very good, 
and if it were not for the gem opposite it would certainly command consi- 
derable admiration. 



5. City and Council Houses. Government Buildings. 

The council houses of cities and houses erected for the meetings of the 
legislative bodies of states or confederacies, are usually, in their exterior 
appearance, expressive of the dignity of their purpose. Their prominent 
features are, generally, durability and simplicity, though from the latter rule 
there are some notable exceptions. AYe have selected a few examples of 
this class of buildings. 

TJie City Hall at Maestricht^ of which pi. 55, fig. Y, is a view, was erected 
in the middle of the eighteenth century, and rests entirely upon a mass of 
piles, over which is a tolerably high substructure. This is ascended by 
two flights of steps, which lead to the portico consisting of four Ionic 
columns upon high pedestals. The facade has two tiers of pilasters. The 
lower ones are Ionic, placed upon high pedestals, whose cornices extend 
across the entire front. These pilasters support a complete entablature, and 
upon that is the second tier of Corinthian pilasters, resting also upon pedes- 
tals. The middle building rises over the chief cornice, and has Koman 
pilasters, whose entablature supports a gable with good reliefs. Over the 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPEDIA. VOL. IV. 14 209 



210 ARCHITECTURE. 

whole is a bell-tower with arched openings and covered with a dome. 
The building is, on the whole, well proportioned, although many of the de- 
tails lack good taste. 

Much better is the town-liall in I^euenhurg in Wirtemberg, built in the 
present century, and of which pi. 55, fig. 9, shows the view, and fig. 8 the 
ground plan. The portico, of six Ionic columns, is well proportioned, and 
the arcade which ornaments the front side is of good effect. The windows 
are rather low, which is the more striking on account of the heavy cornices 
over them. The large hall in the interior, extending through two stories, 
is very beautiful. Its two tribunes rest upon six Corinthian columns 
each. 

The Cajpitol at Washington., of which pi. 56, fig. 1, gives a perspective 
view, is the seat of the Congress and of the Supreme Court of the United 
States of North America. This handsome building, erected in the year 
1814, is elevated upon a hill 78 feet high, and consists entirely of marble. 
It is 362 feet long, 120 feet deep, and has three domes, the highest of which 
is 120 feet. The front of the building has a portico of eight Corinthian 
columns, with a wing-portico of five columns on each side, receding about 
one columnar distance, and bears a finely decorated gable. On the rear is 
a colonnade of 10 Corinthian columns, forming a gallery in front of the 
library room. The windows on the whole circumference of the building 
are laid between Corinthian pilasters. The fagades would merit to be 
classed among the best, if it were not for the tasteless mixture of differently 
shaped windows. The interior plan is susceptible of great improvement, 
as there is a sad want of room for the transaction of business. Besides, no 
regard has been had in the construction to the laws of acoustics, so that the 
edifice is far from being adequate to its purpose. The great rotunda in the 
middle of the principal floor is surmounted by the great dome, which is very 
valuable in point of construction. 



6. Exchanges. 

Exchange buildings would answer their nearest purpose of affording 
places of meeting for merchants for the transaction of mutual business, if 
they were merely, as in former times, spacious inclosures sheltered from the 
weather by roofs only. Such were the ancient Greek sto(B^ and similar 
halls or inclosm^es were for a long time found all-sufficient for the wants of 
the merchants. More recently, however, it has been found very convenient 
to connect with these places of meeting a number of offices with which the 
greater number of merchants have daily business, and hence the open halls 
have been abandoned for solid, and for the most part magnificent edifices, 
affording room for banks, insurance companies, commercial reading-rooms, 
and sometimes the post-office, besides the great hall where the merchants 
and brokers meet for business transactions. The plans of the Exchanges 
of Paris {pi. 56, fig. 6, ground floor, jig. 7, upper story) and of Ghent 
{fig. 8, ground floor, fig. 9, upper story) will serve as illustrations ; the 
^10 



ARCHITECTURE. -211 

large halls being the places of meeting, the smaller apartments serving 
various purposes of the above-mentioned nature. 

The Exchange in Paris {fig. 5, perspective view) was built after the 
designs of Brogniart. It forms a rectangle of 69 metres by 41, and is 
erected on a substructure about 3 metres high, on which is a peristyle 
of QQ Corinthian columns, 1 metre in diameter and 10 metres high. The 
entablature resting on these columns is surmounted by an attic without 
any ornament, which hides the roof. The wall proper is inteiTupted by 
two rows of windows, separated by a Doric entablature. The introduction 
of these tasteless windows in connexion with the beautiful peristyle, is 
altogether unaccountable. Much superior in this respect is the granite 
portico of the Exchange in New York {fig. 4, perspective view), which 
exhibits a perfect unity of taste, and is one of the boldest edifices of recent 
times. 

The Exchange of London {fig. 11) has a fine portico of eight Roman 
columns, but the whole fagade is spoiled by the tasteless arched windows 
and the door behind it, as well as by two entirely inappropriate arches in 
the attic over the gable. 

The Old Exchange in Amsterdam.:, of which we have given a section in 
jpl. 57, fig. 14, has the original character of this style of building, a large 
court surrounded by covered galleries as protection against the weather, 
and in the upper story the necessary rooms for business and chambers of 
commerce. 



T. Universities. 

The plan of the building for a university must be modified by the various 
necessities arising from the number of professors, of necessary recitation 
rooms, of students, of laboratories, museums, &c., and no general rules can 
be given. But as this is a matter of theoretical architecture, we will here 
confine ourselves to the descrij^tion of a few buildings belonging to this 
class. One of the most modern buildings of this kind is the University of 
Ghent., whose facade is seen \xijpl. h^^fig. 10. It was erected at the expense 
of the city of Ghent, and was designed and executed by Rouland. It con- 
tains a fine round hall, whose cassetted dome is supported by eighteen 
Corinthian columns, and surmounted by a lantern through which the hall 
is lighted. This haU is reached by a double-armed state staircase with 
twelve columns, whose wood-work ceiling is also cassetted, and through a 
superb vestibule, whose ceiling rests on four Corinthian columns. Before 
the building is a grandiose portico consisting of eight Corinthian granite 
columns, the field of whose gable is decorated by an excellent bas-relief 

The Pans Ohservatory {pi. 57, fig. 3, ground plan ; fig. 2, northern 
facade) was built under Louis lY. by Claude Perrault. The building con- 
sists of four chief parts : of the centre, a rectangular tower whose sides face the 
four quarters of the heavens, the north projection with a gable, and two 
octagonal towers on the ends of the south side of the building. In the ele- 

211 



212 ARCHITECTURE. 

vation the building has, besides the ground floor, a kind of intersole and a 
main story, and is covered with a flat roof. The great windows of the main 
floor are arched and all the stories are vaulted. Through all the vaults an 
open space passes in the middle of the building to the cellar, for experi- 
ments with freely falling bodies. The building is extremely sound, and 
throughout in a pure style, so that it makes a good impression. But a great 
fault is that it is so inadequately planned that on the east side a new build- 
ing was necessary for the astronomical observations. This fault is ascribed 
to Cassini. 



8. Assembly Houses. 

These buildings, again, depend for their plan upon many circumstances, 
as whether the place is much visited, whether it is for men only, and has 
consequently reading-rooms, billiard, and coffee-rooms, or whether balls 
and assemblies are held there. One of the prettiest edifices of the kind is 
the Casino in Liege {fig. 10, view ; fig. 11, ground plan of the ground floor ; 
fig. 12, plan of the upper story). The building stands upon a terraced 
hill, and has in front a grand double-armed staircase which leads to 
the terrace before the building. In the rear the ground floor divides into 
two parts, between which is the carriage way. Upon the ground floor of 
the front there are great halls and card rooms. In the rear building is the 
staircase and some other assembly rooms. The first story contains in the 
front building the great ball room, and on both sides terraces over the card 
rooms of the ground floor. As the carriage way is built over in the upper 
story, the rooms of the rear building communicate immediately with those 
in front. 

A peculiar kind of buildings for guests are the Persian Ca/ra/vansaries. 
Tliese buildings are especially devoted to the entertainment of caravans. Erect- 
ing them is a meritorious work, and they are under a public superintendent. 
They take the place of our assembly and coffee-houses. They consist 
generally of a four or eight-cornered court, mostly with a fountain in the 
centre, and suiTOunded by the building, affording opportunity for exercise 
either under the arcades or in the free air. PI. 5Y, fig. 15 a and h, are 
ground plans of such caravansaries. The building around the court consists 
only of single cells. The outer ones serve as shops for the traders or as 
coffee-houses, the inner ones for lodging the travellers, who make them- 
selves at home there, and must themselves provide for their wants. The 
beasts are also sheltered here. The institution of caravansaries is very old, 
for Herodotus mentions them and calls them catalysais. 



9. "Watch-Hotjses, Custom-Houses, Excise-Houses. 

Custom-houses are situated either at the gates of cities, if they serve for 
the reception of the barrier tax, and are then called excise-houses, and are 
212 



i 



ARCniTECTURE. 213 

very subordinate buildings, at most an ornament of the gate, or they are 
destined for the collection of the state duties, and stand then generally near 
the wharfs or freight depots. They contain various offices, a hall of sessions 
for the officials, and sometimes dwellings for one or more of them. The 
custom-house of J^ew York (yfig. 8), built in a fine old Doric style, is admi- 
rable as an ornament, but certainly suggests upon the exterior anything rathei* 
than a building for the collection of duties. The facade, of a fine Greek 
temple style, is built of white marble, and being placed on a considerable 
substructure, has a very good effect. 

Watch-houses are public buildings for the accommodation of soldiers or 
officials who have charge of the public peace. They are therefore very sim- 
ple, often included in the excise building, or are decorations of the gate and 
the open square. They contain nothing but the rooms for the officers and 
men, and a chamber of confinement for the arrested delinquents. The decora- 
tion of these buildings is very various. Those of the residential cities are 
usually very handsome. When Paris was made a fortress, a certain system 
was introduced in this matter. Watch-houses were placed in the interior of the 
city {jpl. ^I^fig. 16 «, ground plan \fig. 16 J, elevation), and were manned by 
strong detachments of the National Guard, and Vedette houses {^fig. \T) for 
subordinate posts. These watch-houses are so arranged that they can be 
defended for some time against a superior force ; some are even fm^nished 
with light cannon. 



10. HONORAHY MONUMENI^. 

Honorary monuments are erected either for the commemoration of great 
events or of great men, and there are very various ideas of their construc- 
tion from a simple statue to columns and arches of honor. The use of 
them dates from the most remote antiquity, but modern times have 
abounded in monuments to individuals, many of whom were very much 
honored and very little fed while they lived. We will describe some of 
these modern monuments. 

In commemoration of the great victory which IS^apoleon had achieved as 
in a whirlwind, he resolved in the year 1806 to erect a superb triumphal arch, 
the present Arc de VEtoile in Paris {pi. 57, fig. 1). The ground was so 
unstable that an artificial foundation was necessary to secure the building. 
When I^apoleon married Mai'ia Louisa of Austria, the building was scarcely 
above the foundation, and it was finished for the occasion of their entrance 
into Paris with wooden scaffoldings, covered with linen and painted, so that 
the architect Chalgrin had the rare fortune of seeing the model of his build- 
ing in the natural size. In 1811 it was continued by the architect Goust ; in 
1814 it was interrupted ; and in 1823 Huyot and Goust began it again. In 
1828 it stopped again, and in 1832 Blouet was ordered to complete it as 
rapidly as possible, and in 1836 it was finished, after an expenditure of about 
ten millions of francs. The monument is 137 feet long, 68 feet broad, and 152 
feet high. The middle arch has a span of 90 feet. The reliefs upon the side 

213 



214 ARCHITECTURE. 

visible in our drawing represent on the right the departure of the army in 
1792 : the Angel of Glory summons the people ; on the left is the triumph of 
JS'apoleon in 1810, by Cortot : Napoleon protected by the Angel of Glory is 
crowned by Yictory. Upon the opposite side is the defence of the French 
23eople in 1814 and the Peace of 1815. In the upper part the figures appear 
in modem costume, and here are the Battle of Aboukir, the death of General 
Marceau, the Battle of Austerlitz, &c. The frieze contains historical reliefs, 
and in the attic are shields with the names of the yictories. In the walls 
are steps by which the summit of the arch is gained and a fine prospect 
commanded. 

We must here mention two monuments of similar import, the Column 
of the Place Yenddme and the Colwmn of July in Paris. In the middle 
of the Place Yendome was erected in 1699 an equestrian statue of Louis 
XIY., modelled by Gerardon, which was destroyed upon the day of the 
execution of Louis XYL, who was forced to behold the outrage. When 
IS^apoleon seized the reins of government, he resolved to immortalize the 
battle of Austerlitz, and to erect a column after the model of Trajan's 
Column in Rome, and from a drawing of the architect Lepere. It was 
erected of stone, and surrounded by 2Y4 bronze reliefs from Bergerel's 
designs, spirally arranged in 22 windings. The column is of the Tuscan 
order, 108 feet high, and with the substructure 124 feet. The shaft is 
11 feet thick. PI. 53, fig. Tcj, shows the column as it now is, and 
fig. 7h^ a view of its prototype, the Column of Trajan. The colossal statue 
of Napoleon was 10-11 feet high, and represented the emperor in antique 
wan'ior's costume, resting with the right hand upon a sword, and bearing in 
the left a globe with the victory {fig. 8). But it was removed in 1814. 
After the revolution of July it was resolved to replace the statue of Napo- 
leon upon the column ; but his modern costume was chosen {fig. 9) on the 
one hand because it had become world-renowned, and on the other because 
all the figures in relief were in modern costume. The metal of the column 
weighs 1,800,000 pounds, and it was built of captured cannon. The labor 
alone cost 1,200,000 francs. Upon the pedestal is the Latin inscription 
represented in fig. 7 c, and on the upper part of the capital a French one, 
relating to the building of the column, begun under Denon, Lepere, and 
Gondoin on the 25th August, 1806, and completed on the 15th August, 
1810. 

Upon the site of the Bastille destroyed on the 14th July, 1789, it was 
proposed to erect a fountain, with an elephant 40 feet high, the plaster 
model of which still exists. But after the July revolution, it was deter- 
mined to decorate the place with a column in remembrance of those who 
had fallen there; and Louis Philippe on the 28th July, 1831, laid the 
corner-stone, and on the 29th July, 1840, it was consecrated. PI. 53, 
fig. 10 a gives the view ; fig. 10 h, the inscription upon the pedestal ; and 
fig. 11 a view of the Column of Antonine in Pome, which served as the 
model. The Column of July stands upon a vaulted foundation, through 
which passes the canal of St. Martin, and it has a double substructure, one 
round, with an inner gallery, and one square, over it, of granite and whit^ 
214 



ARCHITECTURE. 215 

marble, in which are the beginnings of the steps upon which the column is 
ascended. It is of the Corinthian order, and the pedestal is adorned with 
inscriptions, palms, laurel crowns, oak branches, the arms of the citj of 
Paris, the Gallic cock and the lion, the zodiacal sign of July. Upon the 
shaft, divided into three parts, are recorded in gold letters the names of 
the victims of Julj. The statue of the Genius of Freedom with a torch 
and a broken chain in the hand is by Dumont. The column is entirely of 
bronze, 133 feet high, and the lower diameter is more than 11 feet. 

Another monument of honor is the Valhalla near Ratisbon {pi. 55, 
fig. 1, view, fig. 2, section), which king Louis I. of Bavaria erected to the 
memory of distinguished Germans. It forms a Doric marble temple, and 
was founded on the 18th October, 1830, planned and executed by Leo v. 
Klenze, and dedicated on the 18th October, 1842. The monument stands 
upon a hill on a foundation 126 feet high. The temple is YO feet high, 100 
feet broad, and 300 feet long. In front is a double portico of eight columns ; 
each side has seventeen columns, and the rear eight again, so that the 
temple is a peripteros. The gable-fields are decorated with reliefs by 
Ranch and Schwanthaler. The southern slope of the hill is made accessi- 
ble by steps up seven terraces of Cyclopean work, one above the other. The 
exterior is finished with unusual splendor. The walls and roof are painted 
in several colors. The ceiling is pendent, being fastened to the roof, and 
ornamented with rich metal cassettes. The illumination is from above. 
The upper entablature is supported by caryatides standing upon a cornice 
supported by pilasters, which divides the walls into an upper and lower 
part. The paintings of the frieze are by Wagner. Between the entablature 
and the pendent ceiling are figures from the northern mythology. The 
hal] is decorated with the marble busts of distinguished Germans, standing 
partly upon pedestals, partly upon consoles, and executed by German artists 
only. There is room for one hundred and forty busts ; about ninety have 
as yet been placed. Victories by Ranch and candelabra {fig. 3 a and h) 
interrupt the monotony of the rows of busts. On the north side is a smaU 
hall with columns supporting the floor of an upper hall which opens into 
the interior of the building. Southward in the subterranean part is a kind 
of crypt, where are placed the busts of those who are to have a place in the 
Yalhalla after their death. 



11. Halls and Bazaks. 

Market halls belong to the most sensible institutions of the ancients, 
revived in our day, and are no less useful to the public than to the traders. 
One of the finest is the Grain Hall in Paris. {PI. 58, fig. 1, gives the 
half outer view ; fig. 2, the half section ; fig. 3, the ground plan of the 
lower ; fig. 4, the ground plan of the upper story.) The hall was begun in 
1762, and was finished in 1772. The President of the Board of Merchants, 
Viarmes, undertook the building after the designs of Comus de Mezieres. 
The ground plan is a complete circle, whose outer diameter is 68 metres, 

215 



216 ARCHITECTURE. 

and the gi'ound floor, which has 28 arcades, is excellently vaulted. A 
double winding staircase serves for communication. Originally the build- 
ing consisted of these arcades only, but in 1782 the court was covered with 
a dome of framework, designed by Legrand and Molinos, and executed by 
Eubo. The diameter of this dome is 126 feet, and its height is 100 feet. 
In the year 1802 the dome was burnt, but in 1811 was restored, of the same 
dimensions, but of iron with a copper roofing. Upon the side of the hall is 
a column {fig. lA and A)^ which was erected by Catharine di Medici, 
and served her as an astronomical observatory. ]N^ow there is a remarkable 
sun-dial of Pingre's upon it. PI. 51, fig. 8, gives the ground plan of the 
ground floor, and fig. 9 that of the chief story of the grain market at Corheil 
near Paris, which contains store-rooms for corn and meal. 

The Market of St. Germain in Paris {^l. 58, fig. 5, inner view ; fig. 6, 
section ; fig. 7, ground plan) consists of a rectangular building inclosing a 
court and containing 400 stalls. The length is 276 feet, the breadth 216 
feet, and the depth of the part covered with building, 42 feet. The build- 
ing was commenced on the 15th August, 1813, by Destournelles. In the 
centre of every side there are three arched passages 30 feet high. All the 
arcades are furnished with blinds, and under the roof there are openings for 
ventilation, the beams of the suspension roof resting on little pillars project- 
ing above the side walls. In the middle of the court b is a fountain. A 
distance of 34 feet separates the large market from the meat market c. It 
is 220 feet long, 42 feet deep, and was planned in 1814 by Blondel. Under 
this are cellars, which are lighted by windows in the lower wall of the 
building. This hall has 20 divisions with about 150 stands, and in the 
middle a large vestibule. 

The Magdalen Market in Paris {fig. 9, lateral section ; fig. 10, general 
ground plan) was completed in 1836, and serves for the vendors of flowers 
and vegetables. Upon the sides are large and small hall-like stands for 
business, but in the middle only open stalls. All the ridges of the roof are 
of iron, and the covering of sheet-iron. 

The Market at Pavia {fig. 8, half view ; fig. 11, half ground plan) was 
built in 1837, and contains, npon the front side, a colonnade for the stands, 
but in the rear a number of sitting rooms for the hucksters, and over these 
chambers smaller ones in the attic. 

The Market Hall in Florence {pi. 51<)fig. 10, ground plan ; fig. 11, view) 
was built in the sixteenth century by Bernardo Tasso. It consists of twenty 
Ionic columns, 2 feet 7 inches thick and 23 feet 3 inches high, and eight 
pillars. It rests upon four steps. The shaft of each column consists of one 
block of grey granite from Fiesole. The columns of the loggia have Corin- 
thian capitals. Upon the corner pillars are niches for placards. 

The Pish Hall at Marseilles {fig. 12, ground plan ; and fig. 13, eleva- 
tion) is, like those of Ghent and Bruges, only an imitation of the fish hall 
built at Florence, in the sixteenth century. It is a double hall, with a wall 
running lengthwise through the middle. The roof rests upon eighteen Ionic 
granite columns and two pilasters. 

As an example of the hugeness of market haUs. in the East, we have re- 
216 



ARCHITECTURE. 217 

presented in j^l. 58, fig. 12, a part of the view, and fig. 13, a part of the 
ground plan of the Ahneidan at Ispalian^ in Persia. The whole building 
contains selling stalls, distributed through many stories. It surrounds a 
large court C C, to which is adjoined a spacious colonnade. Large 
entrances, A, B, D, E, F, G, lead into the inner stalls, and on the inside a lane 
passes before the stands, every building having four rows of stands, of which 
every two stand with their backs to each other. 



12. Prisons. 

In the construction of prisons, meaning those which are also work- 
houses, many systems are adopted, according to the manner in which the 
prisoners work, together or separately, and whether strict silence is to be 
observed, &c. The last-named system arose in America. This is not the 
place to speculate upon the characteristic advantages of these systems. Yet 
the American system greatly prevails. Generally, the prison-houses sur- 
round several courts, as the prison at Aix {pi. 57, fig. 18), to separate the 
sexes, and even the classes of prisoners from any intercourse. PI. 59, fig. 
15, shows the ground plan of the prison of IsTewgate, which is not a work- 
house, on which account the cells are larger, and no regard is had to a hall 
for labor. The jail at Ghent {fig. 16), recently built, and upon the cell 
system, forms an octagon, and all the entrances of the cells are in the form 
of radii from the church placed in the centre. In the prisons of Milan 
(fig. 17) and Amsterdam {fig. 18), the labor is in common, and only espe- 
cial criminals are separated into single cells. 

We shall give some details of the new prison at HaUe, because it is 
often quoted as a model institution. PI. 59, fig. 1, gives a perspective 
view of the whole institution, and fig. 2, the general ground plan. A is the 
chief building, of which ^^. 3 shows the ground plan of the cellar storj^fig. 
4 that of the first story, fig. 5 of the second, which is like the third, and 
fig. 6 is the ground plan of the four stories, with the church. Pig. Y is the 
front, and fig. 9 the side view of the main building ; fig. 8 its lateral section, 
and fig. 10 the longitudinal section. Pig. 2, B, C, and D, are the prison- 
houses, connected by bridges a h with the church in the main building. E is 
the entrance building, F the bath and wash-house, whose ground plan is 
seen in fig. 13, and the side view in fig. 14. G is the lazaretto, whose 
ground plan is seen in fig. 11, and the side view in fig. 12. The whole 
establishment is surrounded by a wall, inclosing courts and gardens for 
recreation and labor in the open air. 

13. Bridges. 

As in the other buildings we have described we have omitted technical 
details, so we shall do with the bridges, of which we will describe a few of 
the most famous. 

1. Italy. One of the most beautiful bridges is the covered bridge over 

21Y 



218 ARCHITECTURE. 

tlie Ticino, near Pavia {jpl. 60, fig. 17). It is TOO feet long, 70 feet broad, 
and 108 feet high, and has seven Gothic pointed arches, ^^ feet wide and 
60 feet high. The covering has several stories. The great mass of the build- 
ing is of brick, the little columns which support in double rows upon each 
side the covered way for pedestrians are of colored, and the bases and capi- 
tals of white marble, of which also the balustrade and other architectonic 
parts are made. Over the arches are arabesques^ with gilding upon blue 
ground. 

The covered bridge over the Eialto in Yenice {^jpl. 60, fig. 1, view ; fig. 2, 
section) was begun in 1560 by Antonio Conte del Ponte, and finished in 
1591 by Dyonis Boldo. It is a master-work. A single flat marble arch, 
90 feet wide and 19 feet high, supports the street of the bridge, which is 
inclosed upon both sides by arcades of marble used as shops. The bridge 
ascends and descends by three marble steps, and hence its peculiar form. 

The curved bridge (Ponte corvo) over the Melfa, near Aquino, was planned 
by Stefano del Piombino. The ground plan forms a sextant. Stefano's son 
and the Genoese Era Jocondo completed the work in 1505. It is 600 feet 
long, 42 feet broad, and consists of seven semicircular arches {fig. 16). The 
middle arch has 88 feet span, the last and smallest 70 feet. The pillars 
increase in thickness symmetrically from 10-12 feet, and stand upon a 
common foundation. The bridge is built in a simple and imposing style. 

2. France. The bridge Notre Dame^ over the Seine in Paris {fig. 10), 
was built by Fra Jocondo in 1507, after the stone bridge of 1412 had been 
destroyed in 1499. It is 380 feet long, 73 feet broad, and has six semi- 
circular arches averaging 53 feet span. The pillars are 12 feet broad and 
have three-cornered heads. 

The bridge Ste. Marie in Paris {fig. 8) was begun in 1613 by Christopher 
Ste. Marie, and completed in 1635. It is an imitation of the beautiful 
bridge of Augustus near Rimini, 335 feet long, 72 feet broad, and it has 
seven semicircular arches of 42-55 feet span. 

The bridge of Neuilly over the Seine, near Paris {fig. 9), one of the most 
beautiful and imposing of bridges, was begun in 1768 by Perrot, and 
finished in 1774. It is 876 feet long, 45 feet broad, and consists of five 
large, depressed, basket arches, constructed from eleven centres, of 120 feet 
span, and 30 feet high. Each top surface of the arch ends in a flat arch, 
whose union with the basket arch of the bridge vault produces an oblique 
vault {cow's horn). At the key-stone the arch is 5 feet, and the oval-headed 
piers are only 13 feet broad. 

The bridge of St. Maizenee^ over the Eure, built by Perronet in 1774-84, 
is 252 feet long and 39 feet broad. It has three very flat arches of 72 feet 
span {fig. 12) and 4 feet 6 inches thick at top. The piers are only 18 feet 
thick. 

The bridge of Gignac, over the Herrault {jpl. 60, fig. 7), was begun in 
1777 by Garipuy, and finished in 1793. It is 558 feet long and 80 feet high, 
with three large arches, the middle of which has 150 feet span and is 50 
feet high. The two other arches are semicircles of 77 feet diameter. The 
piers of the bridge are 24 feet broad. 
218 



ARCHITECTURE. 219 

Tlie "bridge of Tilsit oi* Bellecourt, over the Saone, near Lyons {fig. 18), 
was "begun in 1Y89 by Yaregua and Yimar, and was completed in 1810. It 
IS 422 feet long, and has five basket-arches 61 feet in width and 20 feet 
high. The pillars project and rise to the railing, where they bear inscrip- 
tions. They are semicircular. The cornice exhibits consoles, and the 
bridge-way is horizontal. 

3. England. The bridge over the Taff {fig. 15), in Glamorganshire, was 
built of brick in 1756. It consists of a single flat arch 132 feet wide and 
33 feet high, the widest arch in England and the seventh in the world. 
Over each shank are three circular bridge eyes, which materially lighten 
the structure, and thus contribute to its stability. 

The Strand, or Waterloo bridge, in London {fig. 11), one of the largest 
bridges in Europe, was begun by Kennie in 1814, and finished in 1817. It 
is 1200 feet long and 43 feet broad, and consists of nine basket-arches, 112 J 
feet broad and 28 feet high. To diminish the pressure upon the pillars, 
all the arches are united by reversed vaults. The pillars are 18|- feet 
thick, and the heads terminate in the pointed-arch style. Each one 
bears two columns, whose entablature lies in that of the railing of the 
bridge. 

The bridge of Colebroohdale over the Severn {fig. 22) is the first great 
iron bridge, and was the work of the master-smiths John Wilkinson and 
Abraham Darley. It was cast in 17Y3 and erected in 1779. It consists of 
a flat arch 100^ English feet broad and 38 feet high. The arch is formed 
of five arch ribs ; and upon each lies, with the length of the bridge, rows of 
beams to support the road upon the bridge, which is laid upon iron plates 
^\ inches thick, strewn with gravel and sand. Diagonal buttresses and 
straight joints knit it firmly everywhere. The road upon the bridge is 22 
feet broad and the iron works weigh 380 tons. 

The most astonishing work of modern times is the tubular iron bridge 
over the Menai Straits in Wales. This structure will be found mentioned 
under Technology. 

4. Germany. The bridge near Kosen over the Saale {pi. 60. fig. 13) is 
one of the oldest remaining German bridges, and was built in the 11th cen- 
tury. It is 288 feet long, and consists of eight arches, whose middle five 
are pointed arches, the rest semicircular. They have 24-25 feet span. 
The pillars are almost 12 feet thick, and have round heads. The ascent is 
rather steep. 

The Bridge of Zwetau near Torgau {fig. 14) was built in 1730 by 
Augustus II. King of Poland, Elector of Saxony. It is 690 feet long, and has 
twelve arches in full semicircle, spanning 33-46 feet. The pillars reach to 
the cornice, and have alternately a three-cornered projection. The bridge 
is steep and uncertain of ascent. 

5. Spain. The Bridge of Toledo {fig. 21) was built in the 13th century, 
and is simple and handsome. It is 520 feet long, and has nine semicircular 
arches of 32 feet span, and eight piers of 20 feet breadth, with semicircular 
heads which extend to the bridge-way, where they keep the railing firm. 
The bridge is horizontal. 

219 



220 ARCHITECTURE. 

6. Persia. The Bridge of Barbaruh at Ispahan over the Senderuth 
{^fi^, 3, the length ; fig. 4, front view ; fig. 5, section of the side) is named 
from its builder, and is of an unknown antiquity. It is 2250 feet long, 120 
feet high, and 156 feet broad. The middle way, 60 feet broad, and the side 
ways are paved with marble, and the latter lead through arcades, to which 
the ascent is by stairs in the four towers of the bridge. These stairs also 
lead under the bridge, where a way leads along the length of the bridge 
through the pillars, as the substructure reaches to the surface of the water, 
which flows only through bridged canals. The bridge has 29 arches of 50 
feet span, and the pillars are 25 feet thick. 

Y. China. The Chinese bridges have generally huge proportions, as, for 
instance, the Bridge of Loyang, which is 26,800 feet long, and that of 
Focheu, which is 22,000 feet long, and both are 60-70 feet wide. "We 
have represented two specimens of Chinese bridges in figs. 19 and 20, one 
with pointed, the other with round arches. These two bridges prove that 
the usual simplicity of Chinese bridges is not owing to ignorance of the art 
of vaulting, which on the contrary the Chinese appear to possess in 
perfection. 



220 



MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

Plates YIII. 1-30. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The belief in a Supreme Power is inherent in every human being ; and so 
thoroughly interwoven with our nature is this sentiment, that it is impossible 
for any one at any period of life wholly to divesthimself of it,and hence the 
desire to worship this power. Everything in the external world as well as 
in the internal world of his thoughts impresses him with the great truth, that 
there is a God who has created all things, and who rules over all. He is 
forced to this conclusion when looking around for an answer to the questions 
concerning himself and the material world with which he is surrounded. 
For what other reply could be given to the questions, "What has called this 
world into existence ? "Why does it exist, and what is its ultimate destiny ? 
IS'ay, why do I exist, and what will become of me after death ?" And when 
his attention is drawn to the phenomena of nature and the extraordinary 
events in the life of individuals, as well as to the history of whole nations, 
is he not compelled to acknowledge the superior hand that shapes om- 
destinies, " rough hew them as we may ?" 

Hence it will be difficult to find among the nations of antiquity or modern 
times, one wholly destitute of the consciousness that a higher power exists, 
or without a desire to worship that power in some way or other. Even the 
Atheist, of whatever school, only deceives himself when he fondly imagines 
that his reasoning power will always enable him to combat successfully 
every rising inclination to a religious faith. 

But though all nations have acknowledged the existence of this supreme 
power, they often differ widely in their representations of it, in their modes 
of worshipping it, and in their habits and thoughts, as far as they are the 
results of their religious creed. The cause of this difference will be found in 
the different degrees of civilization, variety of soil, climate, and even occu- 
pation, whether commercial or agricultural, peculiar to the country inhabited 
by each. For in proportion as a nation is barbarous and uncultivated, so 
will also its religion be rude and imperfect ; and the lower its position in the 
scale of civilization the more incomplete will be the character which it 
ascribes to its gods ; for " As the people's gods so are the people." Hence 
the many dissimilarities which we meet with by the side of similarities, 
when comparing the different systems of religion practised by the nations 

221 



2 MYTHPLOGY AND EELIGIOUS RUES. 

of antiquity and modern times ; and it is for that reason often difficult to 
show how they are connected in their origin and in the propagation of their 
doctrines and principles. 

Tlie systems of religion best known to us are : Monotheism, viz. the 
worship of one god, and Polytheism, the adoration of several gods, the latter 
of which includes also Dualism (the worship of two gods) andTritheism (the 
worship of three gods). 

The lowest grade of polytheism is Fetishism, viz. that idolatry which 
teaches its followers to worship inanimate nature, sticks and stones, and the 
productions of their own skUl. ISText to this comes Pyrolatry or the worship 
of fire, and Sabaeism, which considers the stars as gods. All other creeds are 
varieties of the same general system. 

Mythology is the name given to the science which treats of the various 
systems of idolatry, and the doctrines of its votaries. It embraces also the 
language of figures and symbols by which the ancient and modern Pagans 
sought to teach their religion, philosophy, and history. Their manner of 
testifying reverence for the gods, and the other devotional acts appertaining 
to their religion, are designated as Religious Pites. 

Every reflecting man must feel a desire to inquire into and make 
himself acquainted with these various systems of religion. For, conscious 
that religion is the most important subject, and of the most vital interest to 
our race, he will naturally feel inclined to inquire into everything pertain- 
ing to it, whether true or false, and to examine the beacons which different 
portions of our race, at different times, have set up for their religious 
guidance. This field of human research will present him, like all others, 
with a view of a slow but constant progress from the imperfect to the 
perfect. In it he will also learn that notwithstanding all the aberrations of 
the human mind which have manifested themselves more particularly in 
systems of religion, there is always a higher power whose overruling influence 
cannot be mistaken. 

It is also impossible, without a thorough inquiry into the migration of 
religious ideas as they passed from nation to nation, properly to appreciate 
this progress in the scale of perfection, or to understand the spirit which 
pervades individual nations in theii' every-day life, in their heroic deeds, and 
the vicissitudes that befell them. This inquiry is even necessary to a 
thorough understanding of the religious systems of our own times. 

A knowledge of mythology is also indispensable to explain the growth and 
spread of the arts and trade, which were indebted to the fostering care of 
religion for the high degree of j)erfection to which they attained at so early 
a period. 

We will now endeavor, as far as possible, to pursue a systematic course 
in tracing the progress of religious development as it is delineated in 
mythology. To do this we shall have to examine chronologically the various 
religious systems of antiquity. We begin with those of non-classic anti- 
quity, the more developed religious systems of the Greeks and Romans 
constituting the subjects of the mythology of classic antiquity. 

222 



HINDOO MYTHOLOGY. 3 

ISrOK-CLASSIC ANTIQUITY. 

I. THE RELIGIOUS SYSTEMS OF INDIA. 

1. Mythology and Worship of the Hendoos. 

The study of Hindoo Mythology is surrounded with difficulties and 
obscurities. Many of the books from which we have to draw our information 
are still either unknown or almost inaccessible to European mythologians. 
The religious systems have also undergone considerable changes in the 
course of time, and while some have altogether disappeared, others have 
taken their place. All this has contributed to perplex many learned investi- 
gators, and to cause them to mistake one for another, or to confound them 
together. Yet, nevertheless, a close examination of the authorities accessi- 
ble to us will be sufficient to enable us to throw considerable light upon 
this very intricate subject. 

The chief authorities upon which the student of Hindoo mythology must 
rely are : the fom- Yedas^ considered the holy books of the Hindoos ; each 
of which is divided into two parts, the one containing prayers and the other 
hymns. !Next in order are the Puranas^ eighteen in number. They con- 
tain the theogony and cosmogony (doctrines of the origin of the gods and of 
the world) of the Hindoos. To these may be added the two great epic 
poems, Ram.ayana and Mahahharata^ which celebrate heroic acts and battles. 

We learn from these holy books that the Hindoo religion was originally 
a kind of monotheism, for it taught that all was ruled by one great Supreme 
Being. But it was also at the same time a sort of pantheism, for the 
Supreme Being was considered to be a portion of the world, a species of 
world-soul pervading the universe. This monotheism soon degenerated into 
polytheism, the oldest form of which w^as Brahmaism / it prevailed until 
Sivaism took its place, which again in its turn was supplanted by VisJinvr 
ism. These systems were named, either after the divinities recognised as 
the supreme ruler or after their respective founders. 

1. Hindoo Cosmogony. The Hindoos have various myths concerning the 
creation of the world. The simplest is the following. Brahm (the self- 
existing), who is also called Para Brama (the infinite), the supreme and 
invisible god, created the waters at a time when darkness still covered the 
unfathomable abyss. He then deposited in the waters the seed of light, 
which soon developed into an ^^^ brilliant with golden hues and sparkling 
like a bright flame, or as others say, with the combined splendor of a 
thousand suns. This ^^g he inhabited a full year (Menus in his book of 
laws says a thousand years) as Brahma, completely absorbed in self-contem- 
plation. At the expiration of that period he divided it into two equal 
parts, and then made out of the one half the concave canopy of heaven and 
the eight celestial spheres, and out of the other the earth and what is called 
by the myth the water house. These he peopled with gods, spirits, and 
men, and then became again Brahm. 

223 



■4 MYTHOLOGY AND BELIGIOUS RITES. 

Another mytli describes Brahm {jpl. 1, fig. 1 V) as the supreme being, 
self-existing and ever the same, wholly absorbed in his sublime meditations, 
wrapped in the Maya (this word means also delusion), the personification 
of pleasant self-forgetfulness, represented in the form of a cloak. In con- 
junction with the Maya (also called Bhavani^ the mother of all created 
things), he gave existence to the three great Deyotas (created spirits), 
BraJima^ Vishnu, and Siva, who compose the Indian trinity called 
Trimurti, and are represented as a man with one body and three heads 
{jpl. ^,fig. 1). The Maya, when Bhavani (^jpl. 1, fig. 2), is generally found 
depicted as seated upon a cloud, one foot under her body and the other 
stretched out as if in the act of descending ; a veil cast around her, orna- 
mented with the figures of animals and other created things. 

The Trimurti is also included in other symbolical figures of Hindoo 
Mythology : viz. in the triangle with the flame {^jpl. l-^fig. 6), in the Lingam 
or Phallos {fig. T), of which we shall speak again hereafter, when treating 
of Siva. The figure Om or Aum {fig. 9) contains also an allusion to the 
Trimurti. Om is a contraction of the letters A. U. M., and is considered 
by the Hindoos too holy to be pronounced by any one who is not a 
Brahmin. 

There are a few other symbols which we will enumerate here on account 
of their connexion with the above. The elephant {fig. 8) in the act of 
worshipping the lingam as the symbol of wisdom ; the Pradya^ati {fig. 10) 
the symbol of creation as taught by the Brahmins ; Pracriti {fig. 11), the 
symbol of the three divine attributes, the creating, preserving, and destroy- 
ing powers ; and the tortoise upon the serpent supporting the world and 
the seven celestial spheres {fig. 12), as the symbol of eternity. The chief 
symbol of Brahma is the earth, of Siva fire, and of Yishnu the water; they 
are all represented in. figs. 6 and 9. 

2. The theee Supekioe Gods. a. Brahma. Brahm, the Supreme Being, 
was considered too awful and holy a god to have temples erected to him, 
or to be addressed by mortals. Hence a distinction was made between 
Brahm and the spirit of Brahm personified in Narayana, which signifies 
moving on the waters. 

Brahma, who was the first manifestation of Brahm enveloped in his 
Maya, is the embodiment of the creative power and wisdom, as well as the 
ruler of destiny, and lord over life and death. He is regarded as the first 
law-giver and teacher of the Hindoos, and hence as the author of the 
Yedas. 

In the sacred book we find the following account of his birth. Na/ra- 
yana extended upon the thousand-headed serpent Sesha, and moving upon 
the waters, caused the lotus to spring from his navel, and from the lotus 
Brahma {jpl. 1, fig. 4). Another myth informs us that Yishnu, the second 
person in the Trimurti, and considered by the Yishnuites as only another 
name for the Supreme Being, assumed as J^arayana the shape of a child, 
with its toe inserted in its mouth, and in this form, bedded on the leaf of 
the Indian fig tree {fi.g. 1 a), was rocked by the waves of the milk sea. 
While in this position, and asleep, he called into existence the laws of 
224 



HINDOO MYTHOLOGY. 5 

nature, regulating generation, and the result was, that the flower of the lotus 
came forth from his navel, and gave birth to Brahma the creative power, 
who in his turn created the world. But a long time, which he spent in 
profound meditations, elapsed between his own birth and the creation of 
the world. When he had resolved upon calling the universe into existence, 
he created first space, and placed in it the seven Surgs, or starry spheres of 
heaven, illuminated by the radiant bodies of the Deyotas. Then he made 
the earth {Mirtlock\ and the sun and moon to give it light, and the seven 
Patois^ or lower regions. This creation embraced the fourteen worlds of 
the Hindoo Cosmogony. When these worlds had been completed, and with 
them the mountain Calaya (Meru), there appeared at the top of the latter 
the symbol Ymii^ the triangle, and inclosed in it the Lingam. Mount 
Meru was then selected as the seat of the gods, and for that purpose made 
the most delightful place of abode. Silvery brooks meandered in every 
direction, and fertilized its soil ; magnificent trees, shedding delightful odors 
and covered with delicious food, gratified the eye and the taste ; and four 
large streams issued from the highest point of the mountain, and flowed 
towards the four quarters of the heavens. Splendid palaces were every- 
where seen, in which dwelt the gods, the guardians of the world, and the 
souls of the happy admitted to their company. 

Brahma, having thus made the material world, now created the spirits ; 
and in order to people his world, he gave existence to one hundred sons, 
partly Deyotas^ spiritual beings, to become denizens of the celestial regions, 
and partly Daints^ who were to live in the worlds of the lower regions. The 
earth alone remained still an uninhabited region, but it was not destined to 
remain so long, for Brahma now resolved to give it inhabitants who should 
be direct emanations irom his own body ; and from his mouth came forth 
the eldest bom, BreJiman {Brahman^ priest), to whom he confided the four 
Yedas ; from his right arm issued Chcetris^ or Chetre (warrior), and from 
his left, Sliaterani (the warrior's wife). His right thigh gave birth to Bats, 
or Bice (agriculturist and trader), and his left to Basani^ or Yaissya^ his 
wife ; and lastly, from his right foot sprang the lowest of the race, Sud£t\ 
or Sooder (mechanic and laborer), and from his left Suderani, or Sudra^ his 
wife. 

These fom* sons of Brahma, so significantly brought into the world, 
became the fathers of the human race, and heads of their respective castes. 
They were commanded to regard the four Yedas as containing all the rules 
of their faith, and all that was necessary to guide them in their religious 
ceremonies. They were also commanded to take rank in the order of their 
birth, the Brahmins uppermost, as having sprung from the head of Brahma. 

Brahma was originally the first in rank in the Trimurti, but he lost his 
position very soon after the creation. For the myth tells us that, anxious 
to enlarge his domain, he secretly appropriated to liis own use a large por- 
tion of the imiverse assigned to the other gods, and then claimed, as author 
of the Yedas, superiority over Yishnu. Besides these, he was also accused 
of other and more heinous offences. Brahm j)unished him for these cn'mes, 
by casting him, with his place of abode, into the lowest a^yss. There he 

ICONOGRAPmC EXCYCLOP.^DIA. VOL. IV. 15 225 



6 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

had to abide for a million years, and to submit to the severest penances, 
part of which were, his compulsory appearance upon earth during a portion 
of each of the four ages of the world, in order to act as a chronicler of 
Yishnu's heroic acts. After that period had expired, he was again admitted 
into the celestial regions, there to be the representative of the Supreme 
God. The most prominent of his wives is Saravadi^ who is described as 
seated by his side upon an elevated bench {^l. 2, fig. 15). Brahma 
is represented as of a golden color, with four heads and faces, with 
which he looks over the four divisions of the world (sometimes five are 
given to him) ; he has also four arms and hands, in one of which he holds 
the Yedas, in another a sacrificial spoon, in the third a sacrificial vase, and 
with the fourth he grasps the rosary hanging around his neck. His para- 
dise, BraJima-Loga^ is upon Mount Meru, the favorite place of the gods. 
To that place he admits his faithful followers to bathe in the sea BeJira^ by 
which they renew their youth. 

The worship of Brahma has long ago been abandoned by the Hindoos, 
who now bow before Yishnu and Siva. 

1). Vishnu. Yishnu is the second person in the Hindoo Triad, and as 
the second emanation from Brahm, the personification of the preserving 
power of that God. His Avatars or Incarnations were ten in number, and 
are the most remarkable incidents in his history and the favorite subjects 
of Hindoo poetry. In his first Avatar {Matsyavatara) he appeared as a fish 
{pi. 2, fig. 3). He assumed this form to save King Satyavrata or Yaivas- 
rata and his queen, with the seven MisJiis and their wives, during the 
deluge which inundated the whole earth, for they alone, on account of their 
piety, were deemed worthy to escape the general destruction. The myth 
relates further, that he presented them with a vessel (the ark CaJiitra) in 
which to navigate the waters, and then transformed himself into a fish of 
stupendous dimensions, to which the ark was moored, and which served as its 
guide during the flood. 

After the waters had subsided he returned to the land to promote the 
welfare of the new races. In his second Avatar {Curmavatara) he appeared 
with the body of a tortoise {fig. 4). The myth concerning it informs us 
that the gods and the giants united to prepare the Amrita, the draught 
which gives immortality to all who partake of it ; and for that purpose 
twined the great serpent Sesha (sometimes called Vashy) around Mount 
Mandara (Mandreghi), and afterwards carried the mountain into the Milk 
Sea. The mountain was then made to revolve by means of the serpent ; 
for the gods on one side pulled it by the tail, and the giants on the other 
pulled it by the head in a contrary direction, and thus gave it the rotary 
motion in order to convert the sea of milk into butter. But after churning 
thus for a thousand years, they found that the mountain began to settle into 
the sea. To prevent its further sinking, Yishnu assumed the form of a 
tortoise, and diving under it supported it on his back till the Amrita was 
obtained. The gods, who immediately appropriated the precious draught, 
had to fight a hard battle for it with the giants, who were finalty vanquished 
by Yishnu and then cast into the bottomless pit. But the Amrita was not 
22G 



HINDOO MYTHOLOGY. 7 

the only result of the churning of the ocean. Among other valuable gems 
Lakshmi (also called Sri) {pi. 1, Jig. 16), the goddess of beauty and for- 
tune, like another Yenus, was born of its foam, and Yishnu, captivated by 
her charms, made her his wife. In the third Avatar ( VaJiaravatara) 
Vishnu took upon himself the form of a boar {pi. 2, fig. 5). This incarna- 
tion took place to save the earth from a watery grave ; for the giant 
Eriniak-Shasser {Hirana-Yatsha., the golden-eyed) had seized the earth 
and cast himself with it into the depths of the sea. Yishnu, in order to 
preserve it, descended into the abyss in the shape of a boar, where, after a 
severe contest, he slew the giant, and then emerged with the earth on the 
point of his tusks. The earth, however, had lost its balance in consequence 
of its immersion ; he added, therefore, a few mountains of great height to 
its bulk, and thus restored its equilibrium. In the fourth Avatar {Narcu- 
singhavatara) Yishnu apjDcars in the form of a man-lion bursting forth from 
a pillar {pi. 1, fig. 18), which divided into two parts to give him egress. 
This incarnation took place in consequence of the blasphemous conduct of 
the giant Hirayacasipu. This giant, who had obtained from Brahma, by 
means of a long penance, the boon of universal empire, an exemption from 
death by the hands of either god or man, and that no animal should be 
permitted to hurt him upon earth, became insolent even to the gods, and 
caused himself to be worshipped ; and when exhorted by his son to abstain 
from such conduct, he replied by defying Yishnu and all other gods. They 
were standing before the consecrated pillar erected at the threshold when 
he exclaimed : " Show me this mighty god and his abode, and I will soon 
convince thee that he must lie subdued at my feet." Hardly had he uttered 
these words when the pillar burst asunder, and before him stood the 
terrible NavasingJia (the man-lion), who threw himself ujwn him, and lifting 
Mm off the ground^ tore his bowels out of his body. Tlie fifth Avatar 
( Yamanavatara) is that in which the god appears in the ibrm of a dwarf- 
brahmin {pi. 2, fig. 6), who is called Braman Vimana. The giant Bely 
had, by the usual process of penances, obtained from the gods such gifts as 
made him independent of them. He then pursued a behavior similar to 
that of his predecessors, bidding defiance to the gods. To subdue him 
Yishnu assumed the form of a dwarf, and while the giant was offering 
sacrifice, Braman Yimana asked for a spot large enough to build him a 
cottao-e on. As soon as this was granted to him he expanded his body to 
such a degree that it filled the whole world, while he stood with one foot on 
earth and the other in heaven. Bely, who was at first astonished at the 
metamorphosis, now recognised Yishnu, and throwing himself down, 
embraced his foot and begged for pardon ; which was granted to him on 
account of his speedy repentance. His mission during the sixth Avatar 
was to destroy the giant Eavana^ King of Ceylon, who had ten heads and 
twenty arms {pi. 1, fig. 23). Havana's offence was that of his predecessors, 
his having set himself up as an object of worship. Yishnu, under the 
name of Parasu Rama^ aided by the king's brother, attacked him, and 
after a terrible battle slew him with a weapon which Brahma himself had 
presented to him. He then liberated his wife, Lakshmi, who was incarnate 

227 



8 MYTHOLOGY AND EELIGIOUS RITES. 

in the person of Sita^ and who had been carried oiF by the Ravana. His 
exterior during this incarnation is described to be that of a handsome youth 
of a green complexion, who is armed with bow and arrows {pi. 2, ^jig. 7). 
The ninth Avatar is the most important of all his incarnations. He now 
appears as Krishna^ the noble black shepherd {Jig. 10). While he was 
thus incarnate he was attacked by Kalinac.^ the father of the serpents, who 
bit him in the heel, and Krishna in return crushed him with his foot. The 
tenth Avatar {Katki Avatar).^ according to the sacred books, will only take 
place when the present creation is to be destroyed. "VYh®n the last day shall 
have dawned upon this earth, then will Yishnu appear as Kaninki or Katki., 
upon his body the head of a horse {fig. 12) (other authorities say mounted 
on a white horse), his right hand armed with the terrible flaming sword, and 
in his left the impenetrable buckler. The wicked will be judged according 
to their deeds and condemned to fearful punishment, and the good be 
admitted into paradise. The sun and moon will lose their light, and the 
earth tremble to its very centre ; the stars will fall from the heavens, and 
the world with all that is therein be consumed by fire. After that there 
will be a new heaven and a new earth, and an age of purity will succeed. 

Before we close the history of Yishnu we must mention a few other 
representations of him, frequently met with in the temples devoted to his 
worship. Fig. 9 is that of a beautiful youth seated upon an oval cushion ; 
his head is encircled with the triple crown, to indicate that he is the ruler 
of heaven, earth, and the sea ; suspended from his neck hangs the famous 
diamond Kaustyhhamanuy., and priceless rubies constitute his earings. 
Another representation of the god is seen in jpl. 3, fig. 6, which exhibits 
him as carried by the giant Garuda., and in the act of revealing himself to 
the giant Vismamitra and to Rama as an incarnation of Eama. He is 
also sometimes exhibited, as in jpl. 2, fig. 2, completely united with Siva., 
by which some of his followers wish to indicate that Yishnuism and Sivaism 
are one, and have superseded Brahmaism. Besides these there is a represen- 
tation of him on a pillar in the palace of Modobedery, near Manglar, where 
he is seen mounted on the back of an elephant {fi.g. 11) composed of the 
goijis or goj)eas (nymphs of the Milk Sea). 

His paradise is also located on the sacred mount Meru, and is guarded 
by two dragons. It is divided into four sections, the highest of which is 
Nirban., where the perfectly pure are united with the god, which exempts 
them from the necessity of a metempsychosis ; while the lowest, Saloc^ is the 
abode of those who as a reward for their purity in life are endowed with an 
ethereal body, and with faculties capable of enjoying the purest pleasures. 

c. Siva (Shiva, Shiven) is the third person in the Triad. He is sym 
bolized by fire, and is himself the personification of the destroying power. 
His immediate worshippers look upon him as the Supreme Being, but other 
sects ascribe to him only a subordinate place. His followers are called 
Sivaites, and their religious system Sivaism. He is general^ represented 
as of a white color, with one head (sometimes with five heads, and with 
four and in a few instances with sixteen arms) and riding on a white bull. 
He is distinguished by a third eye placed in the centre of his forehead, 
228 



HINDOO MYTHOLOGY. 5^ 

"which is the emblem and instrument of his omniscience and omnipotence. 
Durga^ the Nemesis of the Hindoos, is said by some to have issued from it. 
His head is adorned with the crescent and his locks with the Ganga^ a 
beautiful female head, symbolizing humidity, one of the fertilizing princi- 
ples. Sometimes, to show the fearful light in which he is viewed, we find 
him wrapped up in a tiger or elephant skin, a necklace of skulls around his 
neck, with the trident in one hand and the battle-axe in another. His 
attributes are the Lingam^ the trident which never misses the object at 
which it is thrown, and the snakes which he uses either as a girdle, neck- 
lace, or bracelet, or as a toy in his hands. It will not be difficult to 
recognise some of these attributes in each of the representations which we 
have given of him. PI. 1, fig. 5, represents him as the destroying and 
reproducing power ; this is indicated by the trident in his hands and the 
flame which rises like a tiara above his head, symbolizing warmth as a 
fertilizing principle. PI. 2, fig. 8, exhibits him simply as a 3^oung man 
seated in Oriental fashion, and holding a long trident in one hand and the 
Indian sacrificial drum in the other. His wife Ama, or £havam, or Par- 
vati, is said to die at the end of every year, when he, in order to honor 
her, severs one of her legs and adds it to those already hanging on a string 
around his neck. 

Many incarnations, miracles, and heroic labors of Siva are recorded in 
the Hindoo legends, some of which are illustrated in our plates. The first 
of these is pi. 1, fig. 14, where he appears as Siva Mahadeva at Caylasa., 
the torrid side of Mount Meru. He is seated upon a tiger-skin, with his 
back leaning on an oriental cushion ; by his side is his wife Parvati^ 
evidently pleased with the loving converse of her lord. A little in the rear 
stands the holy cow, from whose mouth gushes forth the father of waters. 
Again (fig. 17) we see him in the form of Rudra. the king of the monkeys. 
In this capacity and form he show^ed himself a faithful and valuable 
auxiliary to Yishnu, during the latter's Avatar as Rama. Ph 2, fig. 13, 
represents him as the hermaphrodite, half man half woman, which is 
intended to indicate that he and Parvati are so closely united as to make 
but one person. The name given to him by his followers when he is found 
in this form is Pa/rashiva or Parasata. Finally, fig, 14 represents him on 
the back of the giant Muyelagin., crushing him, a position which we find 
explained in the myth wherein the origin and nature of the Lingam.^ the 
symbol of the triad, and the most important attribute of Siva, is told. This 
Lingam is also the most sacred symbol under w^hich he is worshipped. It 
is the symbol of the universe imbued with the powers of the deity, allegori- 
cally represented as a column consisting of three component parts : the 
hardest being Brahma (earth); the second and softer, Vishnu (water and 
air) ; and the third and most delicate, Siva (light and fire). These three 
combined are represented as the fertilizing principle of the earth, and the 
column therefore appears inserted in the opening of a conch or sea-shell, 
symbolizing the earth, which rests on a rock symbolizing the durability of 
its natm-e (j9Z. 1, fig. T). Siva is represented as the guardian of this 
column, before which he daily prays and sacrifices flowers, and hence the 

229 



10 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

Lingam has become his most sacred symboL It is said to have arisen from 
a combat for the supremacy between the different elements or principles ; 
and according to the worshippers of Yishnu it originated nnder the follow- 
ing circumstances. 

Certain devotees, who had exhibited extraordinary sanctity, had been 
granted great powers and privileges on the condition of maintaining spotless 
purity in themselves and in their families. Siva determined to deprive 
them of their prerogatives ; and with the assistance of Yishnu in the form 
of a lovely maiden, he succeeded in beguiling them. Smarting under the 
consequences of their transgression, the poor dupes sought only to revenge 
themselves upon the authors of their misfortunes. By their prayers and 
sacrilices they raised up the giant Muyelagin^ and arming him with the 
sacrificial fire, sent him to combat Siva; but the god, seizing the fire 
with his right hand, struck dow^n the giant wnth the other, and trampled 
upon his prostrate foe {]?l. ^^fig- 14). Enraged at this failure, the devotees 
now combined all their incantations, and directed them with temble effect 
against their enemy. Enveloped in a volume of unquenchable fire, Siva 
did not escape without serious injury from the all-searching element, and 
furious at the indignity, he cast down the glowing fragments of his mutilated 
body with the full intention of destroying the whole earth by the fire which 
they would call forth ; but Yishnu caught them as they fell, and conveying 
them into the lap of Brahma, thus saved the world. The wrath of Siva 
was finally appeased by the promise that the mutilated portions of his im- 
mortal body should hencefoi-th, as a symbol of the principle of life or of 
fertility, become an object of worship to all mankind. PI. 1, fig. 7, repre- 
sents this symbol, or the Lingam. The pedestal, the recipient of the fertiliz- 
ing principle, is the symbol of Brahma ; and the oval cup-like form which it 
supports, forming the channel of communication, is the emblem of Yishnu, 
the Yoni., sometimes also represented {^fig. 6) as a triangle. The Lingam is 
not recognised by the Yishnuites as a sacred symbol, but all other Hindoos 
worship it w^ith zeal. The principal wife of Siva is Parvati. She is 
described {fig. 15) as seated upon a bull with a crescent around her head, 
and with rays seeking to penetrate the shadow caused by her body, which 
has reference to the allegory by which the cause of the eclipses is explained. 
Her name was the Daughter of the Mountain, or mistress of the lofty 
regions. But different names are sometimes given to her when she is wor- 
shipped as the presiding deity over objects. 

3. Hindoo Theogont and Theology. Thus far it was impossible to sepa- 
rate these branches from the Cosmogony of the Hindoos, for the gods which 
we have described were not only the creators to some extent, but also the law- 
givers of their creation. But now, having finished the history of the supe- 
rior gods involved in the creation, we can examine under the proper head 
the inferior gods and the good and bad spirits of which the theogony treats. 
The chief among these is Siirya^pl. l^fig. 19, the god of the sun ; one of the 
eight celestial gods or guardians of the world. He is described as standing 
in a carriage drawn by seven horses, who are guided hj Ilarun or Arig una, 
the god of twilight, with rose-colored reins. The image of the sun crowns 
230 



HINDOO MYTHOLOGY. 11 

his liead, and in each hand he holds a flower of the lotus which opens its 
petals to the first rays of the sun, and closes them again as soon as the last 
rays have left the horizon. Among the rest of the inferior gods we must 
notice Camadeva or Camos {jyl. l^fig- 20), the god of love. He is a son of 
Yisbnu and Lakshmi, and is represented as a boy riding a parrot, and 
armed with a quiver, bow, and arrows. The old Hindoo idols, whose pic- 
tures are given in pi. 3, figs. 1-5, were found in the cave-temples, but their 
names have as yet not been ascertained ; neither have we been able to learn 
the name or oflice of the god represented by fig. 7, an idol worshipped by 
the Indians of Astrachan. 

I'he Giants were a wicked race of beings, and since the difficulty about the 
Amrita, of which they were deprived by the gods, the bitter enemies of the 
Triad and all its friends. Like Garuda {pi. l-ffig. 22) they are represented 
with the most grotesque bodies and heads. 

House gods^ worshipped as the particular patrons of individual families, 
are also common among the Hindoos. They are generally selected from 
the inanimate productions of nature ; among these the Ganges.^ and other 
rivers considered sacred, held conspicuous positions. Fig. 21 is a specimen 
of the forms under which they were worshipped. It represents a personifi- 
cation of the Ganges^ Jamuna^ and Saraswadi., all embodied in one gi'oup. 
Some animals were also considered sacred ; among these were the buU, 
the elephant, the monkey, the eagle, the swine, and the serpent. A trace 
of this can be detected in the Mythic Camel {pi. 2, fig. 19). In the vege- 
table kingdom, the lotus was honored as peculiarly favored by the gods. 
But the Hindoos did not confine themselves in their consecrations and 
deifications to the productions of our globe ; the blue ether above them, 
with its host of brilliant worlds, was introduced into their religious system. 
A specimen of this is seen in j^^. 18, which is a representation of the Hindoo 
solar system {Rasi-Chacra) with the zodiac. Suraya.^ with his phaeton, the 
only wheel of which is the sun itself, is seen driving through the centre. 
The back of the carriage leans against Mount Meru, while the remainder, 
with its seven green horses, is hovering in the air. The inner circle, with 
its figures, represents the seven planets, in which the sun and moon are 
included, revolving in their periodical courses. Each of them is named 
after a god, and has one day in the week assigned to him over which he 
rules. 

The two figures on the left are only imaginary planets ; the one with a 
crowned head resting upon a rug, and supported by a cushion, is intended 
to represent the ascending node or dragon's head ; and the other, the body 
without a head, seated upon an owl, and holding in one hand a sceptre, 
and in the other a flower, the descending node or dragon's tail. The myth 
accounts for these strange figures, by telling us that when Yishnu struck 
ofi" the head of the giant BaJiu^ whom he had caught taking by stealth 
the Amrita destined only for the gods, he did it with such force that the 
head flew into heaven, where it remained, and was placed among the stars. 
The outer circle oi fig. 18 is an exact copy of our own zodiac. 

The Hindoo worship is much less complicated than the doctrines about 

231 



12 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS EITES. 

their gods. It is principally confided to the Brahmins {pi. 3, fig. 9), who 
constitute a caste by themselves, and order, arrange, and conduct every 
part of it. They alone can become priests ; no member of another caste is 
permitted to read or expound the revelations contained in the Yedas, to 
prepare the sacrifice, or instruct in religious matters, and, in case of being 
overtaken by poverty, to demand alms. They are the sole judges in all 
religious cases, and their decision is considered infallible. They were wont 
to adorn the temples of the gods with many architectural ornaments. A 
specimen of these will be found in pi. 4, fig. 1, which is a connect repre- 
sentation of a pillar, with allegorical figures, found in an old Hindoo temple 
at Barolli. 

Next in importance are the Ascetics. They are generally divided into 
tribes or fraternities more or less differing from one another in their 
habits, dress, &c. The most respected and venerated of this class are those 
distinguished by the name of Sanashis^ or Saniassi {pi. 3, fig. 10), who are 
also considered by the people as saints. The majority are Brahmins, and 
are vowed to poverty, chastity, and abstinence. They lead a wandering 
Hfe ; going from place to place with a staff in one hand, and a cup out of 
which they drink, in the other, while their dress consists only^of a strip of 
yellow linen wrapt around the body. They abstain carefully from all 
employment, and obtain the scanty supply of food which they allow them- 
selves by asking it as an alms of their counti^-men. Another fraternity of 
this class, the VisJtnavins {fig. 11), collect their alms by going from house 
to house with a guitar-like instrument in their hands, upon which they 
play, and prefer their request in a song ; when this is finished, they bow 
their heads, upon which they carry a small copper vessel to receive the gift 
which any one may choose to bestow. 

The Penitents belong also to this order, but are distinguished fr-om other 
ascetics by their fanaticism. Their gloomy doctrine teaches them to merit 
reward by a rigid abstinence from all the enjoyments of life, by severe 
mortification of the body, and a refined self-torment, which cause them to 
be held in great respect by the people, who look upon them as saints. One 
of this order is represented in pi. '6^ fig. 12, with a bundle of peacocks' 
feathers in his arms, his cheeks and tongue pierced with a sharp iron, which 
is firmly held in its place by another piece fastened under his chin. A 
whole group of these penitents is given in pi. 2, fig. 20, where one is seen 
standing in a painful position on one toe, his right foot and his arms 
elevated, in which position he has vowed to continue for a specified time. 
Another is seen stretched out on the ground, in consequence of a vow to 
measure the distance between two temples by the length of his body, which 
he does by throwing himself on the ground, and then rising repeats it 
until he has traversed the space the length of which he is bound to ascer- 
tain. The figure on the left of the tree represents one who has voluntarily 
undertaken to cany a heavy yoke upon his shoulders, and an iron lock in 
his hands ; and the one in the left corner does penance by carrying heavy 
weights in his hands and around his neck ; while he who is seen in the 
back-ground, between these two, has resolved to remain for a definite 
232 



HINDOO MYTHOLOGY. 13 

period in a fixed position, Lis leg chained to the ground, and his eyes fixed 
upon the tip of his nose, with his mind wholly absorbed in meditations. 
Many other and often fearful penances are voluntarily submitted to by 
these deluded followers of an idolatrous creed. 

Like all other nations of antiquity, the Hindoos considered sacrificial 
ofi'erings one of the most important parts of their worship. The value and 
the kind of these were in many instances prescribed by the priests, who 
selected the utensils, a representation of which will be found (^Z. 2, figs. 
21-24), for the ceremony, according to the natm-e of the oifering. 

Strong were the barriers thrown out by the founders of Brahmaism to 
guard against division or innovations ; but notwithstanding all these pre- 
cautions, there sprang up, as we have said, different sects, who disagreed 
about essential doctrines. The most important schism, however, was that 
which was known as Buddhism. 



2. The Eeligion of Buddha, or Buddhism. 

Tliis religious system does not profess to be a new religion, it only claims 
to be a reformation of Brahmaism, which having become corrupted it 
sought to exhibit again in its pristine purity. Tlie history of its founder^ 
BuddJia^ is still enveloped in much mystery. Some assert him to be one 
of the seven planets, the one who rules the fourth day of the week and who 
is called by the Hindoos Buddha - Vara ; others consider him to be Brahma 
himself; while a third party look upon him as the ninth incarnation of 
Yislinu, and hence Krishna only under another name. Some of the 
learned among his followers say that he was the saint known also as Sacya^ 
while the Hindoo transcendentalists contend that Buddha is not the name of 
an individual, but only a word used to signify a certain assemblage of 
virtues, or the character of a perfectly virtuous being. 

Hence the various accounts given of his birth and life, and the difierent 
representations made of him. In his character as a sage and the first 
teacher of the sublime sciences he is sometimes found as Surya {fig. 17) 
with seven heads on one body seated in an oriental fashion and with his 
eyes turned in every direction ; on his breast and in his open hand is the 
square, divided into fom* smaller squares, and at his feet the crescent moon. 
He is also represented in a similar position, with but one head and without 
the square on his breast or the moon at his feet as in^^. 16. A more mag- 
nificent representation of him is sometimes found in which he is surrounded, 
as in J9Z. 3,^^. 8, with figures of men and animals, all in the act of worship- 
ping him. What we have said here will explain why he is worshipped by 
his followers under so many different names. But all agree in recognising 
him as the supreme ruler of the present age of the world. 

Buddhism flourished for a long time in Hindostan proper until DhuV' 
andara put to death Aditya^ the last Buddhist king, and compelled his 
followers to seek refuge in other kingdoms. They then emigrated into the 
country of the Burmese, into Further India, China, Siam, Thibet, Mongolia, 

233 



14 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS KITES. 

Tartary, and many other countries of Asia. Thither they carried their 
religion, and propagated it with such success that it has continued even up 
to the present time the prevailing religion of these countries. Much of this 
success is owing to the policy which they pursued at the very outset, not to 
set their religion up in opposition to that which they found in each of these 
respective countries, but to graft it upon the already existing form of 
w^orship. Thus among the nations of ISTorthern Asia they identified 
Buddhism with the prevailing doctrines of Zoroaster^ while their brothers 
in other countries hesitated not to incorporate the most opposite doctrines 
in their creed, provided they could thereby persuade the nation which 
granted them an asylum to adopt also their religion. "We need not, there- 
fore, wonder at the many diversified sects and doctrines to be found under 
the general name of Buddhism. 

The most marked features by which it distinguishes itself from Brahma- 
ism are : that it rejects a distinction of castes, while it acknowledges the 
right of all to serve God as it may seem best to them (hence, also, the 
right of every one, no matter what his birth or condition in life, to 
become a priest if he chooses), and the abolition of all bloody sacrifices, 
for it deems only those ofierings acceptable to the deity that can be 
made without giving pain to any living creature. As an indication of 
the latter, we find the statues of Buddha distinguished by a flower which 
he holds in his hand, which is interpreted to be an allusion to that golden 
age of the Hindoos when the Yedas and the bloody sacrifices commanded 
by them were as yet unknown, and man was wont to bring as an accepta- 
ble offering to the gods, the fruits of the earth and the flowers of the field. 

The doctrines of Buddha are too little known to attempt a full exposition 
of them ; only an outline can be given with anything like accuracy. The 
Buddhists teach that in the beginning there was only an infinite vacuum, 
in which creation, destruction, and restoration (Logo) developed themselves. 
Gradually there appeared the seed of good and evil ; the former found its 
reward in the highest condition of bliss, while the latter met with its 
punishment in a succession of innumerable births through which it was com- 
pelled to pass, which, when completed, were divided into six departments 
or degrees. The first of these is the kingdom of the pure spirits, Esruen 
or Toegri^ over which Chormiisda rules; the second, that of the bad or 
impure spirits, Assuri^ under the government of Bimatchi Dahri ; the 
third, that of men ; then comes that of the animals, that of the monsters in 
the portals of the infernal regions, and finally that of the inhabitants of hell 
itself. These kingdoms were also subdivided into minor sections, through 
which all created beings have to pass during their state of impurity until 
the time of their final reunion in one great being. The final and highest 
state of existence is that in the B%iddha or Burchan state. To hasten the 
coming of this period Buddha descended upon the earth, and by his efforts 
he will raise all men and spirits up to that degree. Though millions of 
years will have to pass until this great work will be accomplished, it will 
finally terminate in the absoi'jDtion of all, Buddha included, in one grand 
unity, the end of all things. 
234 



HINDOO MYTHOLOGY. 15 

1. The Spieit World of the Buddhists. The celestial beings who are 
called J^at^ are divided into three classes, and these are above the twenty- 
six heavens, which run parallel with the earth and are of the same size. 
The lowest of these is 130,000 miles above the earth, in the centre of Mount 
Mienmo. It is adorned by the sun, moon, and stars, and inhabited by the 
J^at ZatamaTiarit who dwell in four kingdoms, ealh of which has its 
separate capital and king. The highest part of the mountain constitutes 
the heaven of the Tavateinza^ w^ho are of immense size and enjoy twice as 
much felicity as the I^at Zatamaharit. Their immediate ruler is Buddha 
under the name of Sacreiya. Then come the other heavens, one still above 
the other, and each conferring in its turn double the happiness and dura- 
tion of life enjoyed in the heaven next below. Good men ascend first to 
the lowest heaven, with the prospect of being advanced by degrees to the 
very highest. 

But even these heavens were not always free from sin, for a portion of 
the Tavateinza, seduced by the wine as it pearled in the cup, partook of it 
and became Assuri^ in consequence of which they were banished from their 
heaven. They wandered for a time in the empty space until Buddha 
created for them a new world beneath Mount Mienmo, where they were 
permitted to live and enjoy a species of inferior felicity. They were also 
made the judges over the souls of those recently deceased, and are there- 
fore located near the portals of Niria^ the hell of Buddhism. 

2. MoEAL Code of Buddhism. The moral code is mainly embraced in 
five great commandments : 1. Thou shalt not kill. 2. Thou shalt not steal. 
3. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife. 4. Thou shalt not lie. 5. Thou 
shalt not drink wine or any other intoxicating liquor. 

Besides these, the great commandments as they are called, Buddhists are 
enjoined not to use harsh or angry words and idle conversation, not to 
covet their neighbor's goods, not to wish a neighbor's misfortune or death, 
and carefully to abstain from every act or thought which may lead them to 
worship false gods. 

3. Sects amoxg the Buddhists. We have already stated the causes 
which led the followers of Buddha to divide into numerous sects. These 
sects in the progress of time began to difier widely from one another, not 
only in their names but also in doctrines and rites. Our space permits us 
to allude only to a few. 

One of these is the sect called Tensjil. It has its chief temple at Foocoo- 
saizi, of which we have copied an interior view {pi. 4, ^. 17). JPI. 6, 
Jig. 4, represents the chief priest ; Jig. 5, one of the subordinate priests. 
The former is particularly distinguished from other priests by the rich 
necklace, a drawing of which is given in Jigs. 16 ah, 17 ah. Another sect, 
the Hokkesja, worshipped in the temple of Nitsirin at Honrensi {pi. 4, 
Jig. 16). PI. 6, Jig. 8, is the figure of a priest belonging to this sect. 
Fig. 7 is a priest of the Iccosju, and pi. 5, Jigs. 39, 40, priests of the sects 
Zen and Singon. All the temples were supplied with various implements 
that were used in the service and when offerings were made : some of these 
we have represented on pi. 1, Jigs. 25-28, and^p^. 4, Jigs. 18-32. 

235 



16 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

A beautiful and rich altar-piece is given on jpl. 1, fig. 24. Many of the 
figures and attitudes in it recall to mind the pictures of the Yirgin Mary 
with the infant Saviour in her arms, and the three Magi. 

Before we leave this subject, we must not forget to mention more par- 
ticularly the votive tablets, jpl. 4, figs. 33-36. They had their origin in a 
custom which was also not unknown to the Greeks and Komans, that of 
making vows on extraordinary occasions : for instance, in case of sickness, 
for the recovery of the patient ; or when travelling, for a safe return home ; 
and in order to remember such vow, they wrote it upon a tablet, which 
they wore suspended around the neck until it was paid. Hence the name, 
from the Latin, tabuloe votivcB. 

After having thus touched upon all the most important points of 
Buddhism in general, we will now examine it in one of its special forms, 
Lamaism. 

3. LA3^IAISM. 

Lamaism is one of the many religions under which Buddhism disguised 
itself, when it entered as a refuged the territories of those who gave it 
shelter. It derives its name from Lmna.^ the title which the Thibetans, 
Mongolians, Tartars, and their kindred nations gave to their priests. They 
worshipped Buddha (considered by them the ninth incarnation of Yishnu) 
under the name of Shalcia-muni^ the supreme being, ruler of all things. 
The inferior gods held in great veneration by them were Dshaed-shih, who 
introduced Buddhism into Thibet, and Cenresi and Cadrmna., two apes 
who were held to have been the first parents of the Thibetans. PI. 3, 
fi^. 19, exhibits another of theu* idols called Amida. It is generally found 
with a head like that of a dog, seated on a throne, its feet planted on the 
back of a lion, who stands upon a corpse. Among the goddesses they 
assign the highest rank to PurJia {fig. 14). She is always represented as 
a woman ; one of the family of gods (Pusa)^ to which was assigned the 
guardianship of the minor affairs of life, and the members of which were 
interrogated as oracles in all ordinary transactions. It is very probable 
that this goddess was only a personification of nature, and hence we find 
her represented in different ways. Sometimes partially, at other times 
wholly dressed, she is seated upon the 3fusnud, a seat in the shape of an* 
altar, and formed of several cushions laid one upon another, generally from 
five to seven feet high ; her legs are crossed, and her neck and breast 
ornamented with a rosary. The cuticle of the palms of her hands and the 
soles of her feet is slit open in a circular or star-like form, and that of the 
nose in straight lines. 

They had also a number of other gods of less importance, a few of which 
are represented by figs. 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 20, whose names and cha- 
racters have not yet been learned. 

The spiritual world of Lamaism embraced also a great many good and 
bad spirits : among the latter we mention the Assuri, who were divided 
into four sections, each governed by its ovrn prince. 
236 



HINDOO MYTHOLOGY. 17 

1. Cosmogony. Lamaism liad also its own peculiar cosmogony. It, 
teaches its followers that incessant rains formed the ocean, which became 
agitated by a violent storm ; and after this subsided a golden bottom was 
found to support the w^aters, from which four different species of atoms 
evolved, which when united constituted the world. After thus being called 
into existence, it was divided into four equal parts and eight islands. The 
central part of the world is occupied by the Bighiel or world-mountain, 
supporting the Sumviar Oola or world's pillar. The country north of this 
mountain, Enada Mina^ is inhabited by a race of beings without a soul, 
but enjoying a very long life. The solid part of the earth was then encircled 
by the briny ocean, and this again by an iron wall. This world being thus 
prepared to receive its inhabitants, the Lahen spirits sent by the Supreme 
Being descended from on high and clothed themselves with earthly bodies, 
which shone with a lustre which enabled them to dispense with any other 
light. Their food was the fruit of the heaven-born tree Zamjpu planted for 
them, and from whose sides gushed the four sacred streams. Gangly Sintliu^ 
Pankin^ and Sita. They lived thus in happiness and innocence for 80,000 
years, until they yielded to the tempter and partook of the forbidden 
fruits of STiima^ the earth, when they lost their inherent luminous radiance, 
and were hence buried in profound darkness. To disperse this darkness 
the great being caused the sun, moon, and stars (planets who derived 
light from their inhabitants, Lahen, in their primitive state of innocence) to 
appear in the sky. The fallen Lahen wandered for a while upon the earth, 
now cursed on their account, and then died without heirs. Those who had 
repented were transferred to other worlds, while the others had to expiate 
their sins by being sent into the bodies of animals and reptiles. After the 
first race had wholly passed away, the supreme being sent other Lahen, to 
some of which he gave the bodies of men and to others those of beasts. 
But only two of these new inhabitants of the earth had the power of 
assuming different sexes, and that only on condition that while so doing 
they must divest themselves of the form of man, which was the image of 
the celestial beings. Cenresi and Cadroma assumed therefore the shape 
of apes, as that most resembling the original form of man, and in that 
shape became the progenitors of the human race. Man now began very 
soon to degenerate and display the lowest vices of a fallen being, which 
contributed greatly to reduce gradually the original period of his longevity 
(30,000 years) to that of a hundred years, and this will continue to decrease 
on account of his hardness of heart, until ten years will be the average 
lifetime and an ell the average size of man. 

2. The Condition of the Soul after Death. Lamaism teaches that as 
soon as death has separated the soul from the body, the former has to appear 
before ErWk-Klian^ the judge of the dead and the ruler of the lower world, 
by whom it is judged according to the deeds done in the body. The good 
are then sent to the paradise {TangTiri) of the happy, w^here silver trees 
bearing golden and diamond fruits gratify the eye, and where unceasing 
pleasures await those who have lived a good life. Tliere is also a second 
though inferior paradise, for those who have not attained to so great a per- 

237 



18 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

fection as to merit admission into the first. But onlj few are so perfect as 
to be immediately assigned a place in either of these abodes ; most men 
have to undergo first a purification, shorter or longer according to the state 
of the soul, by means of a transmigration into the bodies of difierent 
animals, which always terminates in the body of a dog, the emblem of 
fidelity and genius, before the soul is permitted to inhabit for a second time, 
preparatory to its final rest, the body of a human being. 

The wicked are condemned either to a long course of transmigration from 
one body to another, and if very bad through those of the meanest reptiles, 
or if hopelessly corrupt are sent to the lower regions {Tamv), Tamu is 
divided into three regions : the first, Biridien Orron^ is a kind of purga- 
tory, whence the soul after a long course of suffering may again be liberated. 
This purgatory is situated 500 miles beneath the surface of the earth, and 
has a large city, surrounded with white walls, for its capital, in which 
Erlik-Khan has his palace in a castle guarded by sixteen iron walls. The 
second division in Tamu is GieJiva (hell), subdivided into sixteen regions, 
eight of which arc always filled with a burning heat, and in the other 
eight reigns more than polar cold. In the former the spirits are tor- 
mented by being thrown into vast caldrons filled with liquid iron, and 
then stirred up in their frightful bath by their jailors, the imps of the 
place, while others are hacked or cut to pieces with red-hot saws and scythes. 
In the other division a fearful cold penetrates every sensitive part, without 
depriving it of sensation. Murderers were thrown into the boiling ocean 
of ever sweltering gore. The soul that had once entered these regions could 
never more return. 

3. The Pkiesthood. Priests have always exercised a great influence, and 
Thibet may justly be called the kingdom of priests. Those of the higher 
rank are called Lamas^ and those of the lower Gylongs. The former are 
always considered an incarnation of the gods, and are therefore always 
looked up to with the most profound reverence. PI. 3, fig. 21, repre- 
sents a Mongolian Lama, and fig. 22 a Lama among the Tartars. The 
chiefs of the whole priesthood, and at the same time the rulers of the 
country, are two Great-Lamas. One of these, the Dalai Lama^ resides 
at Lassa and governs the northeastern portion of Thibet ; the other, Bogdo- 
Lama. has his residence in Tishi Lumbo, and exercises dominion over the 
southern part of Thibet. Besides these two there is also a Great-Lamaess 
(female Lama), who resides on and rules over the island Palte or Shandro, 
governing the convents of tliis island. But though absolute on the island, 
she is not independent of the Great Dalai Lama, before whom she appears 
at stated periods seated upon a movable throne, her face and body enve- 
loped in costly veils, and her carriage surrounded by a numerous retinue. 

The Dalai Lama is considered not only the representative of the Supreme 
Being, but also the Deity itself incarnate and dwelling upon earth. Hence 
divine honors are paid to him, which he receives seated with crossed legs 
upon a magnificent cushion of costly material and embroidered with gold 
and prcjcious stones. He is supposed to be omniscient and omnipresent, 
and on that account the cpiestions which he addresses to his worshippers are 
238 



HINDOO MYTHOLOGY. 19 

considered only tests to ascertain their sincerity and truth. His death is 
only the destruction of the external form, subject to the unchangeable laws 
of matter, which the undying principle has left to inhabit another body. 
His corpse is then burned with imposing ceremonies {pi. 3, fig. 23). It 
"becomes now the duty of the Lamas to discover the person upon whom the 
spirit of the Dalai Lama has descended, and in this search they have no other 
guide than the name of the province in which he resides, which has been 
designated by their late chief, and certain signs and tokens known only to 
themselves. We have already said that Thibet may justly be called the 
country of priests ; hence comes it that an unusual proportion of the 
inhabitants belongs to that order, which is divided into nine degrees. 

The two Great-Lamas are always surrounded by a long retinue of 
priests belonging to the first order, and it is said that in and around Lassa 
there are 30,000 persons belonging to the different degrees of priesthood. 
The country is moreover filled with numerous monasteries and nunneries, 
the greater number of which are in the hands of the Lamas. There is not 
a family in the land which has not at least one of its members enrolled as a 
priest, monk, or nun. 

The worship of the followers of Lamaism consists chiefly in the conse- 
crating of persons to the service of their religion, in prayer, singing, and 
performing upon musical instruments ; though even the giving of presents 
to the Lamas is considered an act of divine service. They have also 
several religious festivals and processions ; as one of the former, we 
mention the celebration of the new year, which takes place in the beginning 
of February. 

The Mongols who profess Lamaism differ from their neighbors, the Thi- 
betans, only in the more rational and less idolatrous respect which they pay 
to the chief of their priesthood, whom they call Cutuchtu. 

On pi. 2, figs. 25-30, w^ill be found some ancient idols worshipped by the 
Mongols ; but little is known of their history and to what system of religion 
they belonged. 



4. Chinese Mythology. 

We have classed the Chinese religious systems under Hindoo Mythology 
because their most common religion (Foism) is properly only a variation of 
Buddhism. 

The most perfect religious toleration is practised in China, from which 
only Christians and Mahomedans are excluded ; hence we find three forms 
of religion among the inhabitants : that of Zao-Tse^ or LaoMun., or 
Laolhung • that of Confucius, or CTiung-Tse / and that of Buddha.^ or Fo. 

The primitive religion of the Chinese was in a great degree a worship of 
nature. Tian., who represented the heavens, was their chief deity. ^Next 
to him in rank were the spirits who ruled the earth, the stars, the moun- 
tains, cities, and rivers ; and next to these the souls of their ancestors, 
particularly those of the Emperors, all of which received divine honors. 

239 



20 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

The first reformer of tliis simple religion, particularly of the moral pre- 
cepts connected with it, was Lao Tse, or, as he is sometimes called, Laokung. 
He was the son of a poor peasant, but was already at an early period of 
his life fond of meditating and speculating upon religious subjects. During 
a journey to Thibet he became acquainted with Lamaism, which was then 
already the religion of that country, and pleased with many of its features 
he resolved to introduce them among his own countrymen. 

As the basis of his moral system he laid down the rule that man must 
subdue and control his passions if he wishes to obtain spiritual and physi- 
cal happiness. But he asserted also at the same time that sickness and 
death, the two greatest enemies to undisturbed pleasure, could and ought to 
be overcome by the draught of immortality (a preparation of opium and 
other materials calculated to excite the nerves) lately discovered. 

The temples of his followers are filled with large uncouth idols made of 
wood, stone, or burned clay, and painted or varnished with glaring colors. 
A favorite idol with them is the so-called god of immortality {^jpl. ^^fig. 2). 
The manner in which they arrange their idols is peculiar to themselves. It is 
done by ]3lacing on one side all those that personify virtuous and proper 
sentiments with their corresponding antagonists opposite to them ; thus the 
personification of love is contrasted with that of hatred. 

This whole system of moral philosophy was Epicurean in the lowest sense : 
Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die. The priests of Lao-Tse, in 
accordance with his precepts to enjoy the present without a thought for 
the future, lived in celibacy and associated together in convents, where 
they practised magical rites, incantations, and the invocation of spirits. 

The professors of this creed are chiefly the rich, and those that belong to 
the higher classes of society. But Lao-Tse, the founder of this sect, met 
already during his lifetime with a rival. 

Chung-Tse, or, as he is commonly called, Confucius, came also forward 
as a reformer, with the avowed purpose to re-establish again the religion of 
the fathers, and to lead man back to a primitive life of purity and virtue. 
His object was not so much to teach a new religion as the inculcation of 
moral principles, and to induce his countrymen to live a moral life. 

The Mythology which he taught was, that from the Great First Source, 
TaiM^ emanated Yang and Yen. The former, which was the perfect 
principle, was of the masculine gender, and included the higher heavens, 
the sun, day, and warmth ; and the latter, the imperfect principle, and of 
the feminine gender, comprised the moon, the earth, night, and cold. 
From a union of these two sprang the lower heaven (the sky) the source of 
moisture, fire, water, the winds, thunder ; the dry land, and mountains. 

Man was then formed of an ethereal principle, which was joined to an 
earthly heavy body. The two are again separated by death, which consigns 
the latter to its mother earth, and permits the former to fly back to its 
native element. But the spirits of the good are not cut ofl" by this return to 
a spiritual abode from visiting the places where they dwelt while upon 
earth, and particularly the spots where divine honors are paid to them by their 
descendants, upon whom they are permitted to bestow blessings and favors. 
240 



HINDOO MYTHOLOGY. 34 

Confucius attached no idea of personality to the Deity, and prohibited his 
followers from making images or representations of him ; and seems to have 
worshipped him rather as a power or principle pervading all nature, and 
acting by means of his creatures the sun, the moon, and the elements. To 
these he ordered adoration to be paid, joining them all in one under the 
name Tien (heaven). 

As a teacher of morals he was in advance of his age and country. The 
main features of his moral code were : love all mankind, execute justice, be 
upright in all dealings with men, and observe the laws and customs 
sanctioned by the authorities. 

His disciples, who were chiefly the nobles and the educated, revered him 
therefore as a saint. 

Buddhism, which we have shown to be the foundation of Lamaism, was 
also the basis upon which the religion Fo is built. But here the original 
assumed a far more varied and amplified form than with the followers of 
Lama. 

This system of religion has the greatest number of professors in China. 
Many of the doctrines of Confucius and the ancient Chinese have been 
incorporated in it, while the features which it has borrowed from Lamaism 
served to degrade it into a common idolatry. 

But it is the religion of the emperor and of the people. Many if not 
most of the Chinese idols are little more than adaptations of Indian deities, 
or the persons of their remote ancestors invested with the characteristics of 
these gods. PI. ^-^fig. 3, represents one of these, Tshing-Hoang^ receiving 
the offerings of his worshippers, and^^. 4 another, Totur^ or as he is some- 
times called Ninifo. 

The priests, who are very numerous, are called Bonzes., and are divided 
into different classes. They inhabit convents called Poo-torla. This word 
is derived from Buddhalaga (the dwelling of Buddha), the Chinese not being 
able to pronounce the original word. In jig. 6 we give a representation of 
some priests in the dresses belonging to their respective ranks. The chief 
priest is here called BandsMin Erdeni.^ and like the Dalai Lama is absolute 
head of the priesthood throughout the empire. The priests of the higher 
classes are educated, and in duty bound constantly to study their religious 
books ; but the lower classes are very ignorant, and live in convents, where 
they pass their time in modest retirement, fasting, and penitential exercises. 
Foism has also its female Bonzes, who live together in convents Hke nuns. 

The temples dedicated to the worship of the idols are either mere chapels, 
being areas inclosed by colonnades, at one end of which is an apartment 
called Ting for the idol ; or they are large temples, consisting of several 
such inclosures, the whole surrounded by one colonnade, ornamented at the 
corners with pavilions two stories high, and surmounted by high towers. 
These temples always contain several idols, each of which has its own apart- 
ment in it. 

The worship of the Foists consists mainly of prayer, music, and offerings. 
PI. 5, fig. 1, represents the interior of the temple of Fo in Canton during 
worship ; jpl. 4, fi^. 5, the worship in the temple at Honaii near Canton ; 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, VOL. IV. 16 241 



22 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

and jpl. 11, fig> 20, represents the interior of a temple in which the Toku- 
Nafir is worshipped with strange ceremonies. Religious festivals and pro- 
cessions are very numerous ; especially in July and August, the dry season 
in China, when these solemn trains may be seen in every province, invok- 
ing the gods for a plentiful rain {^pl. Q^fig. 9). 

The religion of this idolatrous people abounds like that of other nations 
of antiquity in superstitious rites ; one of these, the inquiry into the future, 
is illustrated onjjl. 6, fig, 10. The figures to the left represent a Chinese with 
his friend who, about to enter upon some important undertaking, as mar- 
riage, the building of a house, or a distant journey, seeks first one of those 
little temples which abound in every city and village, and are even to be 
found in the forest and on the mountain top. They are always open in 
order to enable any one to repair there and seek counsel. The inquirer 
having entered approaches the altar before the hideous idol, and takes the 
cup with the little wooden sticks ; this he shakes until one of these staves 
falls out, and is carefully examined on both ends upon which dififerent words 
are inscribed. The priest seated to the right now endeavors to find in the 
book of divination (which is always kept in the temple) the corresponding 
sign and its interpretation. This ceremony the inquirer repeats three times, 
and if he meets with one favorable stick during the process, he considers it 
a propitious omen. His friend behind him looks on with anxiety vividly 
depicted on his countenance. If the enterprise turns out favorably, the 
grateful worshipper returns to the temple and acknowledges his indebted- 
ness by burning a few sheets of colored paper upon the furnace w^hich is 
seen to the right of the idol, and then deposits a few coppers for the support 
of the temple. 



5. Japai^ese Mythology. 

The Japanese, whose religious systems are classed here for the same 
reason as those of the Chinese, namely, on account of the prominence 
of Buddhism, enjoy like the Chinese great religious toleration. Hence 
the variety of different creeds professed not only by different families, but 
also frequently by the different members of the same household. 

The oldest religion of the island, and that which would be still the pre- 
vailing and state religion if political causes had not obliged many of the 
inhabitants openly to acknowledge one of the sects of Buddha, is the Xinto 
or Sinto religion. 

This system teaches the existence of a supreme invisible being inhabiting 
the infinite regions of eternity, and that of a race of great but inferior gods 
who dwell in the visible heavens. 

But the great king is thought of too lofty a nature to be represented by 
images or worshipped in temples, while the other gods are considered as 
wholly indifferent to all the affairs of man. ]^o altars are therefore erected 
to either, nor religious worship paid to them. Their existence is only recog- 
nised as objects by which to swear. The gods that are worshipped by the 
242 



HINDOO MYTHOLOGY. 2$ 

people are a kind of inferior deities, called Cama, who are represented as 
the rulers of the world and the destiny of mankind, and whose altars are 
zealously thronged with supplicants. 

The chief of the priesthood, Dairi^ is also deemed to become a god after 
his death ; hence the number of their gods increases from time to time. 
Pious men are after their decease adored as saints. 

The creation of the world had, according to the Sinto religion, its origin 
in a wandering chaos, which gave birth to the spirit of the universe, ITi 
(power). This Ki then created out of the chaos seven races of sensuous 
spirits. The first of these was Tensjo-Dai-Sin^ the creator of Japan. From 
him emanated the succeeding spirits, who decreased in spirituality in the 
order in which they came forth. The people over which they ruled were 
of a semi-divine nature, but gradually degenerated, until they sank to the 
level of the present race of men. 

According to the views of the Japanese, the soul immediately after its 
separation from the body is cited before a tribunal where it is judged for 
its motives as well as for its deeds. The just are then recompensed by an 
immediate admission into the thirty-third or highest heaven, but the 
wicked are excluded, and condemned to wander about in space as a 
punishment for their sinful life upon earth. 

The duties to be performed by the pious are : to cultivate purity of 
thought and the practice of strict morality, symbolized by great purity of 
the body, to celebrate the days set aside for festivals and religious services 
in the temple, pilgrimage to the sacred place Isje^ and mortifications of the 
body. 

The temples, Mias^ generally consist of two apartments, a large one for 
the accommodation of the priests and their attendants, and a small chapel 
for the idol. Their erection is required to be accomplished without injury 
to any of the laborers during the progress of the work. On pi. 5, fig. 11, 
we give a representation of one of these chapels, that of the Cami of Givon^ 
in which the little building on the top, 1, is the mia of the two Cami ; the 
building, 2, the mia of the two Inari {figs. 12 and 13) ; the building, 3, is 
the house for the priests ; and the square to the right, 4, the place for 
music and dancing. Figs. 14, 15, 16, and 17, are the four Camin% who 
are always represented as watch-dogs. Fig. 4 shows the interior of the 
temple of Miroc of Tuhic-Kaisi.^ one of the four great gods of the Sinto 
religion. He is worshipped (particularly by merchants) as the god of 
riches, health, and happiness, and always represented very corpulent. 

The title of the high priest {pi. 6, fig. 6) is Ninxit^ who is second only 
to the great Dairi. All the priests of the second class (Tmidas) are chosen 
by him. 

The Buddhist form of worship, which comes next to that of the Sinto, 
and is often called by the natives Buddsdo.^ has the greatest number of 
professors. The leading doctrines of this system are : that Amida^ or 
0-mit-to., the creator and supreme ruler of the whole universe, is without 
beginning or end. He at one period came down upon earth, where he 
lived for a thousand years and became the redeemer of our fallen race. 

243 



M MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITEfS. 

The good who keep his commandments, will through him obtain forgiveness 
of sin and life everlasting ; but the wicked will be cast into hell for a time 
proportioned to their sins. After a suitable expiation has been made, 
Amida's mediation will procure for them permission to return to the earth, 
to inhabit first the body of some animal and then that of a human being, 
and thus to have an opportunity to secure for themselves, by a more virtuous 
life, a happier fate in the land of spirits. 

The sect of Syuntoo^ which professes the morality of Confucius, is quite 
distinct from the above creeds, and numbers among its adherents chiefly 
the great and the learned. Here, as in China, its only object is the incul- 
cation of a virtuous life in this world, without any reference to a future ; 
for it teaches that the soul of the departed is absorbed into the aU-pervading 
power, as a drop of water into the ocean. It teaches also that the original 
ruler of the universe, but who was not its creator, is a spiritual and perfect 
being, and the world which he governs eternal. Men and animals are the 
productions of InrJo and the five elements. The professors of this creed 
have no temples or ceremonial worship ; they only celebrate the days set 
apart for the commemoration of their departed friends and relations. 

When we take into consideration the different religious creeds of Japan, 
with their diversity of doctrines and traditions, and the manner in which 
new gods are added to their list, it will not appear strange to find that a 
host of idols are worshipped there. There are not less than 3,132 Cami 
enumerated ; 492 of these were created spirits, and 2,640 are canonized 
mortals. Besides those mentioned already before, we will only add here the 
following : Syu-toolc-dui-si {jpl. 5, fig. 2), and Koobo-dai-si {fig. 3) ; the idols 
of 3fumero-wiaro and Matsvo-maro {fig. 5) ; Cami Tenzin {jig. 6) ; Tsyoo- 
hon-ge-syoo {fig. 7) ; Tsyoo-hon-tsyoo-syoo {fig. 8) ; and Kong-goo-Tcaino- 
dai-nitsi {fig. 9). The idols chiefly selected as objects of worship in the 
temj^les are : Man-dorrano-mida {pi. 4, fig. 7) ; Hookai-syooye-yuge-tsintsua 
{fig. 8) ; Ko'kvMzoo-'basats {fig. 9) ; Sitsirts'ironontsyoo {fig. 10) ; Ye-lcwan- 
soo-tsyoo {fig. 11) ; TseTwmui {fig. 12) ; Soo-syoo-ni-yorai {fig. 13) ; figs. 
14 and 15 are only house-gods, idols worshipped in domestic circles by par- 
ticular families. A few other idols will be found on jpl. 6, viz. fi^. 1, 
TsigcHnontsyoo : fig. 2, Itsi-tsi-kin-lin / and fig. 3, another whose name 
has not been ascertained. 

To avoid the confusion that must necessarily attend the worship of so 
great and diversified a number of idols, and to give to each his share of 
worship, they have been divided into sections, and one or several assigned 
to each province and district in the empire. 

The great diversity with which these different idols are worshipped in 
their respective temples, requires also a great number of vessels and instru- 
ments, each appropriated to its own particular use. Among these are censers 
{pi. 5, figs. 18, 19, and 20 ah) ; vases for flowers {figs. 21, 22, and 23); 
ornamented candlesticks, used only at ceremonies in the temples {figs. 
24r-27) ; various utensils employed during the service {figs. 28-34) ; and 
musical instruments {figs. 35 and 36). PI. 6, figs. 12 and 13, are some 
other vases, and figs. 14 and 15 other utensils belonging to the service of 
244 



PERSIAN MYTHOLOGY 



§?; 



the idols. As in China, so also in Japan, processions constitute an impor- 
tant feature in the celebration of religious festivals ^j^l. 6, fig. 11). 

We have already mentioned a few of the religious societies when we were 
treating of idolatry in China ; we will therefore only add, since the same 
features are also found in this country, that Japan is also not without iti^ 
monks and nuns, a few of which we have represented on j^l. 5. Fig. 37 it 
a Jamabusi., or mountain monk of Japan ; fig. 38, another, with the idol- 
box upon his shoulders, with which he wanders from place to place : fig. 
41 a blind monk, and fig. 42 a nun and a lay sister. 



6. Javanese Mythology. 

Sivaism seems to have constituted the primitive feature in the creed of 
the aborigines of the island of Java ; only at a later period was Buddhism 
intermixed with it, but the whole was subjected to many reforms, and many 
centuries elapsed before the latter system became the prevailing religion. 
At the present time, most of the inhabitants are Mahomedans, though 
Christianity is not wholly unknown in the island. But though the Javanese 
profess now a belief in one God, they are by no means free from super- 
stitious practices, which bear evidently the marks of being remnants of the 
idolatry of their forefathers. A few of the idols of the olden times are still 
found in several places of the island, pictures of which will be found on pi. 
6. Fig. 18 represents Ganesa., a son of Siva, with the head of an elephant, 
whom the Indians worshipped as the god of marriage. Fig. 19 is probably 
intended for the Trimurti, with Siva as its chief, and {fig. 20 « 5) Siva 
himself, in his character as the destroyer, having around his neck the 
string of skulls. Figs. 21, 22, and 23 are evidently not idols of Indian 
origin, and must have come from some foreign quarter ; their import has 
not yet been ascertained. 



II. THE RELIGION OF THE ANCIEKT PERSIAJSTS. 

(PARSEEISM.) 

This religious system differs essentially from those already described, 
and has even a faint resemblance to the Mosaic and Christian religions. 

The primitive religion of the ancient Persians was simply a worship of 
the elements of nature, fire, water, earth, and air, the winds and the starry 
heavens, but particular reverence was paid to the sun and the moon. The 
rivers were also considered sacred. They had no temples, but sacrificed 
upon the mountains, by offering to the gods the lives of animals without 
burning their bodies. It is probable that, already at an early period, the 
principles of a religious system which came out of Media were incorporated 
into this service of nature, and became soon after the prevailing religion. 

245 



26 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

Such was, in all probability, the origin of the Magian^ or Medo-Persian 
religion. 

The first framer of a new law was Hom^ who is also generally considered 
to have been the founder of the sect known as Magi^ and who continued 
on that account to be held in high esteem. At a later period ZerdvsTit^ or 
Zoroaster^ reformed and renovated the religion of the Persians, and wrote 
fur them the book which contained the law, aud which is still in existence. 
The life, and even the epoch of the birth of this famous legislator and 
reformer, are involved in the utmost obscurity. 

He inculcated the doctrine of an eternal self-existing Supreme Being, 
Zeruane AJcJierene^ who created at first, by means of the living word 
{Ronover) Ormuzd^ the source of aU good. In this being, equal in power 
and greatness to the Supreme Creator, are united the three original powers, 
the source of light, fire, and water ; and his kingdom endures for ever and 
ever. Opposed to him is Ahrimcm^ the prince of darkness, a morose and 
evil being, who, not created, but by divine permission having been suffered 
to come into existence, is allowed to continue, in order that the good may 
be glorified in its struggle against the evil. 

In accordance with the will of the Supreme Being, Ormuzd created, by 
the word Honover, out of the source of light and water, the whole universe, 
and completed his work in six periods. 

At first, he created his own abode, the dwelling of light, the heaven 
SakJite7\ and the pure spirits. The highest among these were tlie seven 
AmsJiasjpands^ of whom Ormuzd himself was the ruler and chief. BaJiman 
became lord of the empire of light, king of the universe, and dispenser of 
all happiness. Ardibeheslit was constituted the genius of fire ; SJiariver^ 
lord of splendor and of metals ; Stapandomad^ the source of aU fruitfulness ; 
Khordad^ the genius of water and of time ; and Amerdad^ protector of the 
vegetable world, and the prime cause of growth in aU living things. 

The second class, Izeds^ consisted of twenty-eight good spirits, of both 
sexes, who presided over and ruled the elements and all pure things. 
Their chief was Mithras^ the sun, the vivif)dng and fructifying power. 
^N'ext to him came Tashter^ Serosh^ and Behram^ who were very much 
worshipped. 

The third class were the Feruers. They are actually only the ideas of 
the Supreme Being embodied, and constitute, as a whole, the fundamental 
idea of the perfect world, of which the visible creation is an imperfect 
imitation. 

Every being, even Ormuzd, the Amshaspands, and Izeds not excepted, 
has its Feruer, its type, which is the purest emanation from the deity ; and 
every new creation or new creature is but the manifestation of a new 
Peruer. The abode of the Peruer is in the pure world of light where 
Ormuzd lives ; here they sparkle even in the splendor of that light, by a 
more brilliant one of their own, and fly to the protection of the good when- 
ever invoked by them. A representation of one of these Feruers will be 
seen on pi. Y, in the upper part of^^. 4, where he appears as if descended 
to protect the chief persons of the group, to whom he bears a strong 
24G 



PERSIAN MYTHOLOGY. 27 

resemblance. He seems to emerge out of a circle formed by the bodies of 
two serpents folded around his body ; in his left hand he holds a ring, while 
the right is lifted up and open, and a huge pair of wings are spread out as if 
to support him in his flight. A similar representation of a Feruer is seen 
in fig. 5. 

When Ahriman, who was originally a good spirit, had fallen and rebelled, 
the Supreme Being set aside 12,000 years as the time dm^ing which the 
contest between darkness and light was to last, after which the empire of 
the former was to be destroyed. 

• During the first quarter of this period Ormuzd was to retain the supreme 
rule over the universe, during the second the contest was to begin, during 
the third the contending parties were to have equal power over the world, 
and during the fourth Ahriman was to have apparently the victory over 
his adversary, which would inevitably lead to the destruction of the 
whole visible world with the empire of evil, by a general conflagra- 
tion, in order that the pure and the good might reign undisturbed and 
supreme. 

As soon as Ahriman saw the world of good spirits which Ormuzd had 
created, he sought to fortify himself by creating a rival world composed of 
evil ones, Dem. The highest among these, over which he presided in 
person, were the Arch-dem^ intended to oppose the Amshaspands. The 
Devs were the personifications of all vices, impurities, and noxious things. 

While Ahriman was still confined with his creatures to the realms of 
darkness, Ormuzd created the sky, the sun, the moon, and the stars. He 
then made the fire, the wind, and the clouds, separated the solid part of the 
earth from the waters, bade the mountains to raise up their heads, and 
planted among them Albordj^ the father of mountains, from which the sun 
and moon start each on its respective torn*. The earth he after that divided 
into seven Kashvars^ and called forth the vegetable world ; first of all H(yin^ 
the type of all trees. Having thus prepared it to support animal life he 
created Abudad the great bull, from whose blood all the living things of 
earth have sprung. 

As soon as Ahriman was released fi-om his captivity, he attempted with 
his hosts to storm heaven, but was repulsed by Ormuzd, who continued his 
work of creating the terrestrial world. Repulsed from heaven Ahriman 
visited the newly made earth and killed Abudad ; but the body of the bull 
became the germ of all kinds of animals and of the first man Kajamorz ; 
him also the Devs slew, but Ormuzd then made a plant JReivas (man and 
woman combined) to grow out of the body. It gained its maturity in 
fifteen years, and bore as its fruits fifteen pair of human beings, the first of 
which were MesJiia and Mesliiana^ the parents of the present race. After 
each period in the creation of the world and all that is therein Ormuzd 
rested and celebrated the festival Gahanbar. 

Ahriman, disappointed by his previous failures, sought now to destroy 
the new creation. He blackened the fire with smoke, created difierent 
kinds of noxious animals and reptiles, and finally succeeded in seducing man 
from his allegiance to virtue. In the course of the fourth period he had 

247 



SB MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

gained so great an influence upon earth as to lead men wholly to forsake the 
worship of Ormuzd, and to join the Devs in all their practices. Ormuzd, 
who pitied the fallen race, now sent them his law, first by his servant Hom^ 
and afterwards by the great reformer Zerdusht or Zoroaster. But the 
people paid no regard to it, and hence Ahriman remained victorious for the 
last 3,000 years. Eeligion and virtue disappeared gradually from the face 
of the earth, and misery and destruction prevailed eveiy where. 

Thus will Ahriman continue to rule with an iron rod until the expiration 
of time, when Sosiosh^ the promised redeemer, will come and annihilate the 
power of the Devs, awaken the dead, and sit in final judgment upon spirits 
and men. After that the comet Gurzsher will be thrown down, and a general 
conflagration take place, which will consume the whole world. The remains 
of the earth will then sink down into Duzahh^ and become for three periods 
a place of punishment for the wicked. After these three periods Ormuzd 
will have compassion upon them and pardon their sins, and admit those 
into heaven who seek for it by penitence and prayer. The just will pass 
through the fiery ordeal without injury, and at once ascend into the heaven 
Gorodmone, 

Even Ahriman and the Devs will after a more protracted punishment be 
pardoned and purified, and after a proper submission to Ormuzd be admitted 
into the regions of bliss. Then a new heaven and a new earth will be 
created free from the impurities of the old, and a fit habitation for the 
virtuous and good. 

The Zendavesta, the sacred book of the Persians, contains what is taught 
concerning God and his work, as well as the moral law and that which per- 
tains to their civil institutions. Their worship consists in reading this book, 
in adoring the sacred fire as a symbol of Ormuzd, in their sprinkling them- 
selves with consecrated water, in praying to Ormuzd and the good spirits, 
and in partaking of the sacramental bread and cup. 

Temples properly so called were not erected by the ancient Persians, 
neither were they in the habit of making likenesses of their gods ; and 
images which did exist were looked upon with reverence, but never received 
any divine honors ; they treated them in the same way as an enlightened 
Catholic may be supposed to treat the pictures and images of saints. PI. T, 
fig. 14, represents two ancient colossal idols of Afghanistan, but evidently 
belonging to a period of which we have neither record nor tradition. 

We have already said above that Mithras, the Ized of the sun, was par- 
ticularly an object of general adoration. Fig. 9 is generally considered a 
representation of a sacrifice by Mithras. A bull is evidently about to be 
slain in honor of the god; the animal having been thrown, struggles to 
regain his feet, which a youth, in a garment agitated by the wind, prevents 
by kneeling down upon him, holding with one hand the lower jaw of the 
beast, and with the other burying the sacrificial knife in his neck. A dog 
jumps up and licks the flowing blood, while a serpent and a scorpion appear 
by his side. Mithras the mediator is said to have brought this sacrifice as 
an atonement for the Ahrimanian original sin introduced into the world. 
Some consider this group as an emblem of nature on the approach of 
248 



PERSIAN MYTHOLOGY. 29* 

summer, and think the bull represents the earth, and the blade the first rays 
of spring. Others again assert that this representation is by no means of 
Persian origin, because, say they, bloody sacrifices were never ofiered by 
them. But this is not true, for before Zoroaster's reformation, and even a 
short time after his appearance, such sacrifices were brought, as will be 
seen in Jigs. 1 and 2, which are copies of pictures representing two sacrificial 
processions, in which horses, oxen, lambs, and dromedaries are led to the 
altar. 

■^^ A feature peculiar to Parseeism was the adoration of the sun {Jig. 6), and 
that of fire (Jig. 5), as the symbol of the animating principle which was in 
reality nothing but Ormuzd himself clothed in his divine power. Mg. 13 
represents the celebration of the Darun, a ceremony performed at least 
once a month in commemoration of Hom, the giver of the law. The priest, 
after having said the prescribed number of prayers, now stands before the 
altar ready to partake before the devoutly kneeling assembly of the conse- 
crated bread, a kind of unleavened cake, and of the juice of the Hom, a 
beverage somewhat similar to the Amrita of the Indians. 

The priests of Parseeism belonged to the Magi, who formed a caste by 
themselves, the members of which never intermarried with other than the 
children of Magi. They were divided into different classes, to each of 
which was assigned its own occupation. PI. 7, Jig. 3 a-e, represents five 
of these, with the implements indicating their pursuits, viz. a, Iconologists, 
or sacred scribes (Chartiimim) ', 5, Magicians (AspMn)-, c, Astrologers 
(Mechasphim) ; d, Soothsayers (Gasrin) ; and e, Gasdim.^ a class whose 
occupation remains still unknown. 

The priests were also divided into three classes : the l^ovices {IIerheds\ 
teachers {Mobeds)^ and the perfect teachers or masters {Desdur Mobeds). 
They were distinguished by sacred vestments, consisting of the Sadere^ a 
tunic with short sleeves and coming only down as far as the knee and girded 
with the Costi or sacred belt, which was to indicate that the priest was 
always ready to contest against Ahriman ; in addition to these they wore 
the Penom.^ a mask w^hich was to prevent them from sullying the sacred 
flame by their breath. The most prominent person in Jig. 4 is that of a 
Median high priest. The face is somewhat disfigured, but the beard is 
ample and carefully arranged, while profuse locks cover head and neck. 
The dress consists of long and flowing garments coming down to his feet 
and supplied with apparently wide and hanging sleeves. In his right hand 
he holds a staff tipped with a broken ornament probably intended to repre- 
sent an apple, in his left a lotus. One of his attendants holds a parasol over 
his head while another with a flybrush in one hand endeavors to keep the 
flies from his master, and in the other carries something resembling a hand- 
kerchief. Above is seen the already described Peruer. The human figures 
in Jigs. 7 and 8 have a very strong resemblance to this high-priest. They 
are of a colossal height and are generally called ih^ priest-Icings. Both are 
of a noble and imposing carriage and are dressed in long and flowing 
garments without sleeves. A rather low diadem encircles the thick and 
curly locks, and the long and pointed beard is curled in a way peculiar to 

249 



'30 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

the kings of the nation. Each of the two figures is represented as seizing 
with one hand the strong horn so prominent on the forehead of the animal, 
while with the other he buries his sword in the bodj. The attitude of both 
during this act is quiet and self-possessed. A little difference will be per- 
ceived between the two animals. The one {fig. T) is a monster with the 
body of a lion, the head and neck of an eagle, the feathers extending down 
over the back and resembling the scales of a coat of mail. The other 
{fig. 8) has a head resembling that of a wolf and legs like those of an 
eagle; the neck is covered with feathers resembling scales and with a 
mane ; and the long wings extend down to the tail, which is long and has 
the bony appearance of a prolonged spine. The tradition among the 
natives is that these figures are a symbolic representation of the fights 
in which Dshemshid and JRustan overcame the evil spirits who had 
assumed the forms of monstei-s. It is said that the former, an old king, 
ruled over his people with so much wisdom and goodness that he made 
his kingdom flourish more than any other ; but an enemy came and drove 
him from his land. Then arose Eustan (like the Hercules of the Greeks) 
and slew the usurper and freed the land from the oppressors. He was 
therefore looked upon as the benefactor and hero of his nation. 

Similar figures of mythic animals, only more simple in form, are given 
in figs. 10 and 11, which are very probably intended as symbols for some 
duties, for it was customary to represent them symbolically under the 
forms of different animals, as the unicorn, the ox, the ass, &c. In addi- 
tion to the above there are also two coins {figs. 12 a, F), dating from the 
period of the Sassanides, with figures that have reference to this religious 
system. The former of these we suppose to be the bust of a Magian or 
a high priest, and the latter a representation of fire worship. 



III. EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY. 

1. Intkoduction. 

The mythology and religion of the ancient Egyptians is composed of 
various and often heterogeneous elements, in a greater or less degree con- 
nected with one another. Their growth and development were materially 
influenced by the physical conformation of the country, by which the 
inhabitants were early led to devote attention to mathematics and astronomy. 
But they owed many of their peculiar features more particularly to the 
mixed character of the inhabitants. People with widely different ideas 
and customs emigrated thither from time to time. While at one time the 
Arab and Phoenician sought the fertile plains of the Delta, there came, at 
a later period, the persecuted Brahmaists, driven out of India by the 
followers of Siva, who gained the ascendency. All these brought with 
them their creeds and rites, part of which were gradually grafted upon the 
religion of the country. Other sources of many modifications were the 
250 



EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY. 31 

domestic disturbances and wars which broke out from time to time, and 
brought in their train necessary deviations from the customary ceremonies, 
whilst, on the other hand, they caused the propagation of new ideas by the 
contact of different elements of the people. Thus arose, at different periods, 
entirely new systems, which wholly or partially supplanted those that were 
already established. But it was also very natural that during each contest 
of a new with an old system, no matter whether followed by the suppression 
of the latter or its amalgamation with the other, each would seek for the 
victory by its natural weapons, and hence new myths were introduced on 
all such occasions. 

This will account for the various ingredients found in Egyptian mythology, 
such as Fetishism^ particularly the worship of animals and plants, Sabmsm^ 
and the worship of nature in general ; and with these strangely- connected 
Anthropomorphism^ the worship of deified human beings. 

It will, therefore, not appear strange that this mythology is so full of 
contradictions and uncertainties that it is almost impossible to speak with 
any certainty concerning the number, name, and particulars of all its gods. 
To the causes here enumerated, which render it diflicult to gratify our 
curiosity, we must add another ; the great unwillingness which the ancient 
Egyptian priests evinced to spread their knowledge beyond the precincts 
of their own temples, which caused them to invent a system of hiero- 
glyphics bearing a double or triple signification, in which hieroglyphics 
they wrote the mysteries of their religion. JSTot until these hieroglyphics 
are deciphered will it be possible to have a perfect knowledge of the 
Egyptian antiquities. 

The following is the result of the latest information drawn from the most 
reliable authorities. But before we enter fully upon the subject, we will 
preface the theogony by a myth which is as interesting as it is important 
to know ; for it will show that the Egyptian mythology with which we are 
acquainted is of a later origin, and somewhat different from that of the 
primitive inhabitants. 

1. Myth of Osieis and Isis. Osiris^ the sun, and Isis^ the moon, which 
were, with Hermes^ the three most important gods of the ancient Egyptians, 
were at one time induced to descend to the earth to bestow gifts and bless- 
ings on its inhabitants. 

Isis showed them first the use of wheat and barley, and Osiris made the 
instruments of agriculture, and taught them the use of them, as well as how 
to harness the ox to the plough. He then gave men not only the fruits of 
the field, but also laws, the institution of marriage, a civil organization, and 
taught them how to worship the gods. After he had thus made the valley 
of the ISTile a happy country, he assembled a host, with which he went to 
bestow his blessings upon the rest of the world. He conquered the nations 
everywhere, but not with weapons, only with music and eloquence. His 
brother Typhon {pi. 8, Jig, 21) saw this, and, filled with envy and malice, 
sought, during his absence, to usurp his throne. But Isis, who had 
returned, and held the reins of government, frustrated his plans. Still 
more embittered, he now resolved to kill his brother. This he did in the 

251 



32 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

following manner: After having organized a conspiracy of seventy-two 
members, lie joined with them the feast which was being celebrated in 
honor of the king's return ; he then caused a box or chest to be brought in, 
which had been made to fit exactly the size of Osiris, and declared that he 
would give that chest of precious wood to whosoever could get into it. The 
rest tried in vain ; but no sooner was Osiris in it, than Typhon and his 
companions closed the lid, and flung it into the ]^ile. When Isis heard 
of the cruel murder, she wept and mom-ned, and then, with her hair 
shorn, clothed in black, and beating her breast, she sought diligently for 
the body of her husband. In this search she was materially assisted by 
Anuhis^ the son of Osiris and Nejplithys (wife of Typhon), who w^as the fruit 
rather of a mistake than an infidelity. He was represented with a dog's 
head {pi. 9, figs. 6, 7, 8), and as having a dog's nature ; but he was wise 
and good like his father. They sought in vain for some time ; for when the 
chest carried by the waves to the shores of Byblos had become entangled 
in the reeds that grew at the edge of the water, the divine power that 
dwelt in the body of Osiris imparted such strength to the shrub, that it 
grew into a mighty tree, inclosing in its trunk the coflSn of the god. This 
tree, with its sacred deposit, was shortly after felled, and erected as a 
column in the palace of the King of Phoenicia. But, at length, by the aid 
of Anubis and the sacred birds, Isis ascertained these facts, and then went 
to the city of Byblos. Arrived there, she seated herself before its walls as 
a servant seeking a place. The queen, who had just presented her lord 
with an heir, sent her servants out to procure a nurse, and they engaged 
Isis. The goddess, however, instead of feeding the child from her breast, 
put frequently her finger into its mouth, and then laid him during the 
night in the fire, in order to cleanse him from all earthly dross. One night 
she was watched by the queen, who, when she saw what the supposed 
nurse did to her child, shrieked aloud in despair; upon this, Isis imme- 
diately abandoned her disguise, and appeared as the goddess surrounded 
with thunder and lightning ; striking the column with her wand, she caused 
it to split, and give up the sacred coffin. This she seized, and return- 
ing with it, afterwards concealed it in the depth of a forest, but Typhon 
finding it there, cut the body into fourteen pieces, and scattered them 
hither and thither. After a tedious search, in which she was not quite so 
•fortunate as in the last, Isis found thirteen pieces, the fishes of the Xile 
having eaten the other. This she replaced by an imitation made of 
sycamore wood, and buried the body at Philse, which became after that 
the great burying-place, and the spot to which pilgrimages were made 
from all parts of the country. A temple of surpassing magnificence was 
also erected there in honor of the god ; and at every place where one of the 
limbs had been found, minor temples and tombs were built to commemorate 
the event. 

But the story has also a sequel. As soon as the body of Osiris had been 

consigned to a suitable sepulchre, his spirit appeared to his son Horus 

{pi. 8, fig 19), and exhorted him to revenge against Typhon. The youthful 

god therefore proclaimed war against the fratricide, whom he vanquished 

252 



EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY. 33 

and made prisoner, and then delivered him bound to his mother. But Isis, 
full of compassion, and prevailed upon by the prayers and promises of the 
captive, set him again at liberty. Ilonis, enraged at her ill-timed clemency, 
tore the crown from her head, which Hermes (Anubis) immediately covered 
with the skin and horns of a cow's head {^fig. 12), which ever after con- 
tinued to be the insio:nia of the o^oddess. 

Horns now waged for a second time war against Typhon, and forced him 
and his companions to hide themselves in the desert. He then mounted 
the throne of his father, and was the last god that honored Egypt by ruling 
over it as its king ; for all its subsequent kings were mere mortals. 

Osiris became after that the tutelar deity of the Egyptians, and his 
soul was supposed always to inhabit the body of the bull Ajpis^ and at his 
death to transfer itself to his successor. PI, 8, fig. 20, represents this bull 
attended by two genii with their burning torches, to indicate his resurrection. 

Apis, who was in fact the same as Osiris, or rather the perpetual abode 
of his soul, must always be a perfectly black animal, with a white spot 
resembling a triangle on the forehead, another resembling a crescent 
on his right side, and under his tongue a lump somewhat in the shape of 
a beetle. As soon as a bull thus marked was found by those sent in search 
of it, he was placed in a building facing the east, where for four 
months he was fed with milk. At the expiration of this term the priests 
repaired at new moon with great pomp to his habitation and saluted him, 
Apis. The bull was then placed in a vessel magnificently decorated, and 
conducted down the ISTile to Kilopolis, where he was again fed for forty 
days. During all this period women only were permitted to salute him. 
After certain ceremonies at Nilopolia he was conducted to Memphis, where 
his inauguration was concluded, and a temple with two chapels and a court 
for exercise assigned to him. Sacrifices were made to him, and once every 
year about the time when the Kile began to rise a golden cup was thrown 
into the river, and a grand festival was held to celebrate his birth-day, and 
however extraordinary it may appear, oxen were immolated to him. 
Marcellinus says, " during this festival the crocodiles forget their natural 
ferocity, become gentle, and do no harm to anybody." There was, however, 
one drawback to his happy lot, he was not permitted to live beyond a 
certain period ; and if when he had attained the age of twenty-five years 
he stilly survived, the priest drowned him in the sacred cistern, and then 
buried him in the temple of Serajpis. On the death of this bull, whether 
it occurred in the course of nature or by violence, the whole land was filled 
with sorrow and lamentations, which lasted until his successor was found. 

2. Theogoxt of the Egyptians. The gods of Egypt were divided into 
three classes or orders, each of difierent rank from the others, while each 
successive series was supposed to have been an emanation from the one 
immediately above it. 

They acknowledged as the highest deity Amun^ afterwards called Zeus or 
Jupiter Amnion^ the one great, almighty, and incomprehensible being. He 
was symbolically represented under the figure of a ram {pi. 8, fig. 6) with 
the disk of the sun upon its head, to indicate that he is the god of the sun, 

253 



S4 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

as that luminary enters the sign of the Itam. Amtin then manifested him- 
self in his word or will, which created Knejph and Aihor^ the mother of 
the material world. Athor is represented {^fig. 9) as the Egyptian Yenns, 
accompanied by the dove held sacred to her. Kneph, who was of the male 
sex, breathed out of his mouth Athor, who was of the opposite sex. After 
this Amun caused another principle to emanate from the primordial night ; 
this was Phtha^ the god of fire and of life. He then formed out of the 
residuary matter Tho and Potiris^ the upper and the lower heavens. Phtha 
now divided himself into a male and a female, Mendes and Neith / and the 
sun, the moon, the firmament, and the earth were called into existence. 
These two, Mendes and N^eith, were the last emanations belonging to the 
first order of the gods. The second order, to which also a few of the gods 
belonging to the first are reckoned, consists of twelve deities, planets with 
the sun, the moon, and primordial principles of nature ; and the third of 
seven, including also some properly belonging to the first and second orders. 

The twelve great gods of the Egyptian mythology had each for his sym- 
bol one of the twelve signs of the Zodiac, and as satellites three attendants 
who in their turn had again two assistants each assigned them, and this 
system continued until the last class of subordinates amounted to 360 ; thus 
giving to each degree of the Zodiac a genius of this class to preside over it. 
The starry firmament was then divided into two sections ; and the stars of 
the northern section placed under the influence of light and purity, while 
those of the southern section were ruled by darkness and the principle of 
evil. There were also six orders of demons ; and every star, everj^ creature, 
and every occupation had its own particular tutelary genius. 

Upon this system was founded the study of astrology, to which the 
Egyptians were so much addicted, and which led to the doctrine that the 
souls of all human beings were at some previous time disembodied spirits or 
demons. 

The Creator now resolved to call into existence a new race of beings, and 
with his breath sent forth a beautiful woman ; this was followed by his 
creating in the same way many thousand souls made after his own image, 
and which he divided into sixty classes. These he commanded to procreate 
beings like themselves, and gave them the promise that he would animate 
these creatures by his own breath. 

But they, prompted by curiosity, passed the boundaries of the celestial 
spheres, and seeing the earth, longed to inhabit it. To gratify and punish 
them at the same time, Hermes gave them bodies of earthly mould, and 
they became men and women. Their happiness was, however, of a short 
duration, for they remembered their lost pleasures and became discontented, 
and committed crimes upon crimes, until the earth and the elements com- 
plained of them to the creator. He then took compassion upon them, and 
bade Osiris and Isis descend upon earth and be born as children, in order 
to redeem the fallen race. They accordingly descended and made Egypt, 
the cradle of the human race, the scene of their deeds. 

The course of a soul before it inhabits a human body, and after it has left 
it again, is described as follows : Accompanied by its guardian angel it is 
254 



EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY. 35 

launched into existence, with the privilege either to live in heaven or 
descend down to earth. If the latter be its choice, it is made to traverse the 
Zodiac until it reaches the sign of the Lion, the gate to corporeal existence, 
through which it goes down to the earth in the sign of Cancer, where it 
receives a human body and then is purified. After 3,000 years it reaches 
again in Aries the confines of the region where the celestial beings dwell. 
Here it is compelled to wait and wander about for three days, before it is 
permitted to enter these abodes of bliss. 

These are the things which are taught to the people, but the priests had 
mysteries where lessons were imparted far different from the religious 
instruction given to the people, but they were carefully concealed from the 
uninitiated. The mythology which the people considered as literally true 
was to the priest only a symbolic language for great truths expressed in 
figures, and the names of the gods with their mythic histories conveyed to 
them a meaning never suspected by the rest of their countrymen. But 
they were rigid in enforcing all the rites and ceremonies of the external 
worship, and inculcated a profound reverence for the creed as taught,, in 
order to sustain their authority and power over the people. 



2. Special Mythology. 

1. Myths aot) Symbols. Having given an outline of the gods of the 
Egyptians, we will now examine the leading features of the principal deities 
and the myths appertaining to their history. The first of these deities, we 
have already said, was Amun or Ammon ; he was the god above all gods, 
the infinite and eternal, the source of all life and being, from whom every 
blessing came, and who was too holy to be named by any one except the 
priests. We have already referred to his representation in Egypt. In 
Nubia we find him represented, as in pi. 8, fig. 7, seated upon a throne, 
with the war-club and key to the Mle in his right hand and the left raised 
as if in benediction. In Elephanta he is found represented, as in fig. IT, 
with the Mle key in his hand, standing between Osiris and Isis^ who join 
their hands behind him as a sign of their intimate union. 

Knejph., the creator of Osiris, is represented {pi. 9, fig. 1), seated, and 
with his hands stretched out as if about to create ; his head is ornamented 
with rams' horns. On pi. 8, fig. 8, we give his likeness as Kneph Mendes.^ 
resembling that of the Pan of the Greeks. On pi. 10, fig. 18, is a copy of 
a coin upon which he is represented as a serpent called Agathodemon^ the 
good spirit The harmless serpent, particularly that of Thebes, was so 
called by the Greeks because they used it as a figure of the benevolent 
power of God, and this name was therefore also given to Kneph Mendes. 
Peculiar characteristics of the serpent representing him are also the hawk's 
head, and the swollen and erect body, and particularly the ornament upon 
the head, the highest mark of distinction. The ears and poppies with which he 
is surrounded are symbols of the blessings bestowed by this benevolent deity. 

Osiris^ who is next in rank, is the chief of the three highest deities to 

255 



M MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

whom temples were erected by the Egyptians. He was worshipped as the 
god of the sun, the source of warmth, light, and fruitfulness, in addition to 
which he was also looked up to as the god of the I^ile, who annually visited 
Isis his wife, viz. the earth, by means of an inundation. The year and 
Tartarus were also subject to his sway. Hence do we find him represented 
in a variety of forms. PI. 8, Jig. 15, he is seen as a boy with a hawk's 
head riding upon a cow, the horns grasped in his hands ; and on pi. 9, Jig^ 
4, wdth a lion's head, while Jig. 5 represents him with a bull's head crowned 
with a crescent. The lion's head he has in his capacity as god of the Nile, 
whose annual rising was symbolized by the figure of a lion. 

PI. 10, Jig. 10, show^s us a statue of the god with the hawk's head look- 
ing upwards, and holding in his left hand the key of the Nile ; and Jig. 11 
is another representation of the god, wrapped in a long and ample garment, 
holding in his right hand a staff ornamented with a hawk's head simi- 
lar to his own. PI. 8, Jig. 16, is intended either for Osiris with the 
Serapis serpent, as the god of Tartarus, in which capacity he is considered 
as one and the same with Serapis, or it is to represent Serapis himself. 
The latter, it is asserted by some writers, was a separate deity, ruler of Tar- 
tarus and god of medicine, in which latter capacity the serpent is appended 
as the symbol ; others considered him also as god of the sun, and as such 
he is seen in Jig. 23, with the rays around his head, and encircled by the folds 
of the serpent. He is also regarded as the presiding deity over the rising 
Nile, and in that capacity he is WTapped in a long garment, pi. 10, Jig. 7, 
holding a stafi" in his hand and carrying a corn measure upon his head. 
This latter attribute is always found about his person, no matter what the 
form under which he is represented. He is seen thus infy. 8, seated upon 
a throne and his feet covered with sandals, while his right hand, without 
the staff, is raised over his shoulder and the left resting upon his knee. Pigs. 
6 and 6 seem on the contrary to confirm the assertion that Osiris and 
Serapis were one and the same person, who was called by the one or the 
other name, and represented according to the capacity in which for the 
time being he was supposed to act ; for these figures are intended for 
Serapis and Isis closely united, and it will be remembered that Isis was the 
wife of Osiris, the god of the sun. Another fact in corroboration of this 
opinion is that Osiris was buried in the temple of Serapis, where he was 
worshipped more than at any other place. Nevertheless it is probable that 
Serapis may have been substituted for Osiris, which some say was actually 
the case after the time of Alexander ; and if so, he was considered ruler 
of the elements, bearer of the keys that unlock the waters everywhere, and 
particularly those of the Nile, god of the earth as well as the presiding 
deity over all the powers of matter and king of Tartarus. In this character 
it necessarily followed that he was the source of life, and the judge of the 
dead, to punish or pardon according to his own good pleasure. 

A coin has also been preserved (pi. 8, Jig. 24), upon which he is repre- 
sented with a corn measure upon his head and sui rounded with seven heads, 
intended for tlie seven planets, who are in their turn encircled by the 
Zodiac. 
256 



EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY. S9 

Isis^ the wife of Osiris, is represented in a variety of forms besides those 
abeady mentioned. PI. 10, fig. 1, represents her head decorated with 
Egyptian ornaments. On pi. 8, fig. 10, she is seen in a youthful form, her 
head ornamented with the emblem of divine authority, seated upon the 
flower of the lotus, liolding in her right hand a whip, the symbol of govern- 
ment. Fig. 13 represents her as a star in the heavens surrounded by the 
sjTubols of the four elements, the eagle (air), the salamander (fire), the 
lion (earth), and the fish (water). PI. 10, fig. 2, is a copy of a coin upon 
which she is represented as queen of the ocean, her garment agitated by 
wind and holding in her hand the sistrum, while she is in the act of unfold- 
ing a sail. In this form she was worshipped under the name of Pharia, 
The sistrum^ of which we give two different drawings, one on^Z. ^^fig. 28, 
and the other on pi. 9, fig. 23, was a musical instrument invented by Isis 
and made use of in the service of the temple for the purpose of beating 
time. It was of an oblong oval form, narrowed towards the lower end and 
hollowed out in the centre wdth four strips of metal fastened over it. 
Sometimes she is represented in her character of a mother, as in fig. 2, 
where she nurses, as some say, Osiris, who is seated upon her lap with the 
crescent on his head. On the back of her chair are two hoopoes, symbols of 
filial love, and upon the table before her is a vessel with a long spout and 
a handle in the shape of a serpent. This vessel was made use of in the 
ceremonies of the mysteries belonging to the worship of several gods of the 
elements, and was the jug which as a water vessel was sacred to the gods 
of that element, while the lamp attached to it indicated its use in the 
worship of fire, and the serpent called to mind the powers of nature ever 
growing and ever renovating themselves. Osiris is sometimes also found 
grasping a staff ornamented with the head of the hoopoe. Another figure 
of the same import is given in pi. 8, fig. 14, where Isis is seen with the 
head of a cow. 

Here it becomes necessary for us to say that the incongruity by which 
Osiris, the husband of Isis, is presented as her son must be either owing to 
a mistake in consequence of which his name has been substituted for that 
of Sarpocrates^ a younger son of the goddess, or must have had its origin 
at a later period when a new system assigned to Isis her original rank 
among the gods, while Osiris was placed among the deities of the second 
rank. Twice we find the goddess represented as nursing Horus / first on 
pi. 10, fig. 9, where she is seated upon a chair, without any attendants, 
holding the child upon her lap ; and again pi. 9, fig. 3, where Horus, as a 
half-grown boy, stands by her side to be fed from her breast. Before her we 
see a priest apparently with an offering of lotus ; immediately behind hey 
sits Hennes., keeping the sacred records, and behind him Osiris holding 
the staff in one hand and the key to the Nile in the other. 

There are three very fine and even artistic statues of Isis w^hich we have 
copied on our plates. PI. 8,/^. 11, represents her dressed in a closely 
fitting transparent garment holding a lotus or palm-branch in her left hand, 
her head and a part of the face almost concealed beneath the folds of a 
curiously wrought head-dress. PI. 10, fig. 3, is a very elaborate work, 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPAEDIA. VOL. IV. 17 257 



as MYTHOLOGY AND KELIGIOUS RITES. 

particularly the rich drapery and the manner in which it is disposed over 
the under-garment ; the attributes are the sistrum in her right hand and 
the sacred cruse in her left. In fig. 4, the youthful-looking head of the 
goddess is finely set off by the long braids that fall over her neck and 
shoulders, while the loose upper and longer under garments envelope her 
whole figure ; in her right hand she holds the sistrum. 

Harj^ocrates^ the youngest son of Isis and Osiris, was the symbol of the 
8un when in its feeble condition, just after the winter solstice, it appears 
with its faint rays as if just called into existence. On a coin {'pl. ^^fig. 25), 
we see a bust of this boy-god, and on jpl. 10, fig. 14, a statue of him with a 
cap ornamented with rams' horns, with his hand raised as if in the act of 
placing the fingers upon his lips. The Greeks considered this as a symbol 
of silence, and hence called him the god of silence. Fig. 15 represents 
him mounted upon a ram which carries a ball upon its head ; his left hand 
is armed with a club, while he here also appears to place his right hand 
upon his lips. He carries the club because he was considered the Hercules 
of the Egyptians. 

Anubis^ the son of Osiris and I^ephthys, has already been mentioned in 
the myth which relates the labors and death of Osiris. Concerning him it 
was thought that his mother, afraid of her husband Typhon, exposed the 
babe in the desert. There Isis found him, attracted to the spot by some of 
her dogs. After carrying him home with her, she nursed him with great 
care, and found the reward of her charity in the faithful services he rendered 
her afterwards as a friend and watchful guardian. He was also made a 
guardian to the gods, and discharged the duties just as the dog fills that 
ofl&ce among men, and hence we find him often represented in the form of 
a dog, as in pi. 9, fig. 8, where he is seated between Canqp and Ilorus, 
Sometimes he is found with the body of a man and only the head of a dog, 
as in fig. 6, where a cloak is thrown around part of his person. In his left 
hand he holds a staff resembling a caduceus, and his left foot is planted upon 
the back of a crocodile ; and^. 7, where he is seen by the side of Isis, repre- 
sents him likewise with a human body surmounted by the head of a dog. In 
this form he is considered as one and the same with ITermes, or T/ieut, or 
Thot. There are two other statues of him (pi. 10, figs. 12 and 13) that 
differ but little from those already described, only the former is furnished 
with a plainer kind of caduceus, and a branch which is placed in the left 
hand of the god ; while the latter represents him with a palm branch in 
his left, and the club in his right hand. As Hermes., he is sometimes seen 
with the head of the Ibis surmounted by a lyre (pi. '^^tfig. 18). Under this 
name he was also known as the friend and counsellor of Osiris, the inventor 
of spoken and written language, of grammar, astronomy, surveying, arith- 
metic, music, and medical science. He was also held to have been the first 
who framed laws for the human race, and taught man how to worship the 
gods and erect temples to them. The discovery of the olive tree as well 
as the instruction how to use its fruit is also ascribed to him. 

The statues which represent him with the head of an Ibis instead of that 
of a dog are of a later date, and owed their origin to the following legend : As 
2o8 



EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY. B9 

soon as the nilometer indicated a rise in the river, the Ibis was seen busy 
along its shores devouring the vermin driven back by the water. Hermes 
was the first to observe this, and devised at the same time a correct standard 
for measuring the gradual increase of the flood. This he described in 
hieroglyphics, chiefly by the figure of an Ibis. Hence was he represented 
with the head of this animal instead of that of the dog, to indicate his talent 
as a geometer, or rather nilometer. 

PL 8, fig. 22, is a copy of the statue of the god Allures with the head 
of a cat ; but little is known of this idol. The wolf {pi. 9, fig. 9) was the 
guard of AmentMs^ the Hades of the Egyptians, and was one of the attri- 
butes of Osiris or Serapis, in his capacity as ruler of the infernal regions. 

The head-dresses with which the Egyptians ornamented their idols difiered 
much in appearance, but were always characteristic, and sometimes even 
gorgeous. The most curious will be found in figs. 11-14. 

In addition to the gods worshipped in the temples, the ancient Egyptians 
had also a kind of domestic gods, who were very highly revered. But as they 
were only idols of particular families, they were not only very diversified in 
appearance, but had even the most grotesque and often rude forms, as will 
be seen trom the specimens which we give (figs. 17-19, smdpl. S^fig. 27, a, 
b,c). 

After what has been said of the gods of Egypt, and the forms under 
which they were represented, it is not surprising that living animals were 
also worshipped or regarded as sacred by the people of that country. But 
those so distinguished were not all of the same character, for the useful 
and harmless ones enjoyed this distinction as a mark of gratitude, while 
fear dictated a similar ofiering to the noxious beasts and reptiles, in order 
to propitiate them. Neither were the same animals equally esteemed in 
all parts of the country ; for those that were worshipped or considered 
sacred in one section were often despised and even killed in another. 
Only a very few enjoyed a universal reverence. Thus, we find that every 
household had its sacred bird as a tutelary deity, which was carefully tended 
and provided for. When one of these sacred animals died, it was brought 
to the priest to be consecrated. The body was then embalmed and placed 
in a tomb in some temple or sacred burying-ground. The pains taken 
with the body depended altogether upon the degree of sanctity ascribed to 
the animal. The Falcon and the Ihis were treated with marked distinction 
in this respect. Small animals were also sometimes, after they had been 
embalmed, placed in vessels of clay or stone, and thus preserved in the 
family ; but of the larger class, only one or a few limbs were embalmed, 
and then wrapt round with linen, on one end of which the head was 
fastened, or often only a rude likeness of it painted. 

Only a few forms of the symbolic and mythic animals belonging to 
Egyptian mythology have been handed down to us. Some of these will be 
found on jpl. 9, figs. 20 and 21, and on jpl. 8, fig. 29, the last representing 
the sacred Camel^ the two former probably intended to represent the 
PJwenix^ a fabulous bird, who was said to have had a golden plumage. 
In size and form it Avas thought to resemble the eagle. It was said to 

259 



40 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

visit Egypt only once in five hundred years, in order to consume itself by 
fire, and then to arise out of its own ashes in renewed youth. The 
Sphinxes were also fabulous creatures, variously described, and divided 
into male and female sphinxes. Usually they are found with the body of 
a lion and the head of a woman, covered with the sacred cap, which was a 
head-dress with very ample folds ; the body is generally seen stretched out 
like that of a lion when at rest, as in pi. 10, fig. 23. Sometimes, though 
rarely, they are found with a lion's head upon a lion's body {fig. 24). 
There is another copy of a sphinx {pi. 9, fig. 22) taken from an Egyptian 
coin, struck off in the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, which deserves par- 
ticular notice, on account of the numerous attributes of divinity with which 
it is surrounded. The head is ornamented with the lotus ; the front part of 
the body covered with a veil, which falls down over part of the limbs, and 
from the breast projects the inverted head of a crocodile ; upon the back 
sits a griffin with a wheel in his claws, and beneath the feet of the sphinx 
a serpent strives to drag its body forward. The body strongly resembles 
that of a lion, with the head of a woman. Mythologians, as well as anti- 
quarians, are still divided in their opinions as to the typical meaning of these 
monsters. 

They were usually found before the entrances to the temples, as guardians 
{pi. 10, fig. 35). Some think that they were the emblems of wisdom and 
power, but others ascribe to them an astronomical signification. The 
Egyptians considered them, like all other monsters, as created by Typhon 
and NepJdJiys. 

Among the other symbols of Egyptian mythology we mention particu- 
larly the fiower of the lotus {fig. 25), which occupied a prominent place 
among them. It was the most sacred plant of the Egyptians, and served 
as the emblem of the world as it emerged from out of the deep. Gods and 
goddesses ascended out of its cup, and from it the people drew lessons 
which taught them to hope for immortality and happiness, even amidst the 
terrors of death. Hence do we find it not only as an attribute of the gods, 
but also frequently by itself in their temples, their pictures, and elsewhere. 
The !N"ile, too, had its symbol, which is represented {fig. 16) in the form of 
a man with a cornucopia in his hand, out of which a cliild appears to 
ascend, while he seems to watch its motions. Before him stand three other 
children in a supplicating attitude, and by his side lies the mysterious 
sphinx. The Kile key, or Egyptian cable {fig. 17), which we have already 
mentioned, is a symbol concerning which not much is known, except its form. 
Some say that it was intended as an emblem of the four elements, others that 
it was a nilometer, and a few contend that it was a symbol of authority over 
the earth, or of the division of the year into four seasons. As symbols 
may also be regarded the attributes of the sun {pi. 8, fig. 1), viz. the 
serpents and the two wings, which were symbolic of eternity and motion, 
and the all-seeing eye {fig. 2), which represented omniscience. In connex- 
ion with the symbols we must also mention the sacred ship {fig. 3). This 
vessel was an object of general reverence and profound regard. It is some- 
times found as if resting on a pedestal, and in other places surrounded by 
260 



EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY. 



4i 



^any priests, who cany it by meau8 of long poles. The centre seems to 
be occupied by a little temple, around which are grouped a number of 
figures and on-naments, as cherubim and other representations of a similar 
kind, while the prow and the poop are ornamented with rams' heads. I^igs. 
4 and 5 are two other but simpler forms of this same vessel. The figure 
seen in the latter is probably intended for the body of Osiris, after he had been 
slain by his brother Typhon, It is uncertain whether it was placed there in 
commemoration of the act of launching it upon the waves of the Nile, or of 
Isis's devotion in carrying off the body after she had discovered it at By bios. 
It was a favorite device of the Egyptians to represent the gods as going 
about in vessels ; and they kept the idols generally in large boxes which 
were deposited in the sacred ship, whence they were removed during 
festival seasons or for sacrificial solemnities, and placed in the temples 
dedicated to them, 

2. WoESHip AND Priesthood. Sacrifices, which were sometimes of a 
bloody character, and music constituted the main features of the worship 
performed in the numerous temples dedicated to the gods. PL 10^ Jig. 35, 
represents a sacrifice brought to Isis in one of her temples. 

A great variety of sacred vessels and utensils were employed in the 
temple service, most of which were wrought with great skill and taste. 
"We have represented a few of them on om* plates. PI. 9, fig. 24, is a kind 
of cup ; figs. 25, 2G, and 27, are two jugs and a pitcher, and fig. 28 an 
ancient flask or bottle. The most valued and esteemed vessels were the 
so-called Canopce or sacred jugs {pi. S., figs. 26 a^ 5, smd pi. 9, figs. 15 
and 16). They were brass vessels wide in the body, w^ith narrow necks and 
covers, made in the shape of the head of some deity : sometimes they were 
also covered with hieroglyphics. We cannot with certainty say for what 
purpose they were used, but it is probable they were employed as deposi- 
tories for the sacred water drawn from the JSTile. They seem to have 
served in astronomical observations for measuring time in the manner of 
hour-glasses in which water was used instead of sand. This was done by 
placing one jug with a small hole at the bottom and filled with water, over 
another empty jug of the same size without an opening at the bottom. 
When the time for the astronomical observation had come, that is as soon 
as the watched for star made its appearance on the horizon, they removed 
the stopper from the aperture in the upper vessel. The water which now 
ran into the graded v^essel beneath it, during the time which elapsed between 
the first appearance of the star and its reappearance on the following night, 
served as the standard by which to measure the course of every move- 
ment in the starry heavens. JS^ot only the course and periods of the stars 
but also the length of the days and nights were calculated by the help of 
these little instruments, and those that were set aside for that purpose 
were ornamented with covers resembling a dog's head or a dog sitting upon 
his haunches. 

The guardians of this mythological system and of the sacred rites con- 
nected with it, the priests, formed a separate caste. The cultivation of arts 
and sciences was their special province. All legislative and judicial power 

261 



42 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

was vested in them. Thej governed the land under the presidency of the 
king, who applied to them for counsel and acted under their tutelage. 
Their sons were his playmates in his childhood, his companions during 
his youth and manhood, and his life was spent in accordance with the 
rules prescribed by them, which were so minute in their details as to 
specify the time when he must walk and bathe. When the reigning family 
became extinct a successor was chosen from among the priests. But these 
prerogatives never contributed to the aggrandizement of an individual at the 
expense of the class ; they were the property of the whole body, and no 
matter what the personal talents, merits, or honors of any one might be or 
become, he had no exclusive right to them, but his merit was ascribed to 
the entire caste. The priests were, therefore, not honored by the people for 
their personal merits, but only for belonging to the caste of priests. 

The caste was divided into different classes, holding different ranks : 

1. The PropTiets^ or orators, who superintended the worship in the temple, 
had charge of the government of the order and of the public revenues. 

2. The Stolists^ whose duty it was to impress the seal which was the mark 
of consecration upon the animals selected for sacrifice. 3. The Ilierogram- 
matists or sacred scribes, who were the scientific men of Egypt. 4. The 
HoroscOjpists^ who occupied themselves with astrology and magic. 5. The 
Minsi/rels^ who devoted their time to music and hymns, and occupied the 
front in all processions. 6. The PastopJioroi (box carriers), whose chief 
occupation was the practice of medicine. They are represented in j)l. 10, 
figs. 26-31, most of them distinguished by some mark of their profession. 
Some of them had even the attributes belonging to a god, as fig. 27, who 
carries the staff with the falcon's head. Figs. 32-34 seem to be priestesses ; 
but it is still doubtful whether they were invested with the privileges of 
officiating at the altars, or were only attendants in the temple. 

In addition to the above division there was another by which each of the 
greater gods and goddesses was furnished with his or her own college of 
priests, who had the charge of the temple and worship of their patron 
divinity. PI. ^^fig. 31, are two priests and two priestesses belonging to 
the temple of Isis ; the first of these carries the sacred jug ; the second 
probably the sacred books ; the third follows with the large pitcher, the 
handle of which is the crawling serpent ; and the fourth has in one hand 
the sistrum and in the other a ladle with a long handle carved as if for a 
measure. 

The priesthood was hereditary in Egypt, as well as the property belonging 
to the temple. The style of dress and mode of living were strictly prescribed 
to the priest. He had to keep his head shaved, except when a member of his 
family died, and then he wore his hair as a mark of mourning. His dress 
consisted of a linen gown and tunic more or less long, and shoes of rushes 
or papyrus. His drinking vessels had to be washed and cleansed daily, and 
he himself was required to bathe twice every day and every night. His 
food he had to select with the greatest care ; he was not allowed to eat fish 
or any indigestible or flatulent food, particularly pork, which he was not 
permitted even to look at ; but on the other hand he and the king were the 
262 



EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY. 43 

only persons to whom the use of wine, though in prescribed quantity, was 
allowed. 

The votive-Jiands^ so frequently found, must here be mentioned on 
account of their close connexion with the vocation of one class of the priest- 
hood. We have already said that ih.Q pasto2)lioroi were also the physicians 
of the people, and as such belonged to the colleges of priests who served in 
the temples of Serapis and Isis. The sick and afflicted repaired therefore 
to this temple to be cured, and whenever they were restored they deposited 
there as offerings of gratitude these votive-hands, of which we give copies 
on pi. 10, figs. 19-22, and during the festivals in honor of the god or the 
goddess they were carried about upon long poles as trophies of his or her 
power. All these hands of bronze, as will be seen on the plate, had the 
thumb with the fore and middle fingers stretched out, while the others were 
bent down to the palm. 

The first hand, fig. 19, has on the inside of the fore and middle fingers the 
head of Serapis, and on the palm of the hand two other symbolic marks ; 
just above the wrist is a bracelet, beneath which is seen the figure of a 
woman in a recumbent position, with a child on one side and an ibis on 
the other. Fig. 20 has the head of Serapis in the same place as the other, 
but instead of the palm this shows the back of the hand covered, with a 
miniature drawing of a serpent, a toad, a lizard, a pair of scales, a jug, and 
a few hieroglyphics. Fig- 21 is a hand showing the palm ; the end of the 
thumb has the shape of the head of Serapis, and upon the second joint of 
the bent fingers is a miniature ram's head ; a serpent entwines the wrist. 
Fig. 22 is a drawing of the back of a hand, with the head of Serapis in the 
same position, a tortoise and several vines covering the centre of the hand, 
while a serpent which encircles the wrist stretches out its head towards the 
thumb. All these hands are right hands, and in every one the fingers are 
found in the same position. This has led to the supposition, it is true upon 
very slight grounds, that the cures in the temple were performed by a kind 
of animal magnetism which it is thought was well understood by the 
priests. 

3. The Mysteries. The system of secret doctrines adopted by various 
nations of antiquity, and which was known as The Mysteries., was also in 
high repute among the Egyptians. These doctrines were diametrically 
opposite to those held by the people. They had two kinds of mysteries in 
Egypt, the greater and the lesser ; the former taught by the priests of 
Osiris and Serapis, the latter by those of Isis. 

The first cause of the introduction of symbols was the profound ignorance 
of the people, which compelled the more enlightened, whose views about 
the deities were more developed, to speak to them in parables and figures 
in order to be understood at all. This system of symbols increased at last 
to such a degree that the explaining of them became a distinct branch of 
study wholly confined to the priesthood. The people in their great 
ignorance were naturally inclined to regard the symbols as the very things 
or ideas which they allegorically represented, without troubling themselves 
about understanding the allegories in their higher connexion, or in other 

263 



44 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

words to be initiated into their mysteries. The priests, perceiving the 
tendency and the advantages which it gave them, became more careful in 
concealing the truths which they at first had sought to propagate. They 
required therefore that a candidate for initiation into the mysteries should 
be of a mind sufficiently cultivated and enlightened to understand and 
practise the lessons taught by them to their disciples, and that he should 
have lived a pure and moral life. Even when these conditions were fulfilled 
a number of preparations and tests had to be gone through, and a solemn 
and fearful oath of perpetual silence was administered. The initiation itself 
was accompanied by many and strange ceremonies. The novice was then 
instructed gradually, at first still in symbols and by degrees only, and as 
he advanced from step to step he was made acquainted with their true 
meaning, and what they were intended to convey. 

The manner of proceeding was as follows : When a candidate offered 
himself for initiation he was required to spend a week in solitude and medita- 
tion, and to purify the body by frequent ablutions and severe mortifications 
of the fiesh. Then he was ordered to enter the pyramid during the night, 
where he had to descend by aid of his hands and feet through a narrow passage 
without steps, until he reached a cave-like opening, through which he had 
to crawl to another subterranean cave, where three priests, disguised as 
jackals, sought to frighten him, first by their appearance and noise, and 
afterwards by enumerating the dangers that awaited him on his journey 
onwards. If his courage did not fail him here, he was permitted to pass on 
to the hall of fire. This was a large apartment lined with burning stuffs, 
and whose floor was a grate painted flame color ; the bars of this grate 
were so narrow that they offered scarcely room enough for the sole of his 
foot. Having passed through this hall, he came to a canal which he had 
to cross by swimming. As soon as he reached the opposite shore, he found 
his passage obstructed by an iron door. While vainly striving to force his 
way, the earth suddenly began to quake beneath his feet ; he sought for sup- 
port from the iron rings inserted in the door, but he no sooner grasped them 
than he felt himself abruptly lifted up in the air, exposed to raging and 
piercingly cold winds. When he was almost exhausted by his sufferings, 
he was gently let down and the door opened before him of its own accord. 
A dazzling light filled the apartment of the temple into which he found 
himself suddenly introduced, and before and around him stood the whole 
band of priests, dressed in full regalia, and singing hymns in praise of their 
divinity. 

There he was made to kneel before an altar, and take the solemn oath 
which bound him to secresy. He was then retained for several months in 
the temple, where moral trials of different kinds awaited him. The object 
of this was to bring out all the traits in his character, and to test his fitness 
for his vocation. After he had passed through this trial, there came what 
was called his manifestation. This consisted of a number of ceremonies, 
of which the novice was the subject during the space of twelve days. He 
was dedicated to Osiris, Isis, and Horus, and decorated with the twelve 
consecrated scarfs {stoics) and the Olympic cloak. These scarfs were 
264 



EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY. 45 

Embroidered witli the signs of the zodiac, and the cloak with figures 
that were symbolic of the starry heavens as the abode of the gods and 
happy spirits. A crown of palm-leaves was placed upon his head, and a 
burning torch in his hand. Thus prepared, he was again led to the altar, 
where he renewed his oath, and called upon the gods to visit him with their 
direst wrath if he should ever be so unfortunate as to violate his solemn 
oath and obligation. 

This terminated his initiation, and entitled him to be instructed in what 
was called the lesseT mysteries^ and in the writings of Tho% which were in 
some degree connected with these mysteries. 

;N"ow came the time when he had a right to appear as victor before the 
people, and to this end they prepared for him a solemn procession, called 
The Triumphal March of the Initiated i^pl. 9, fig. 29), which was pro- 
claimed by heralds in every quarter of the city. 

On the moj-ning of the day appointed for this ceremony, the priests 
assembled in the temple, where the most precious treasures belonging to 
the sanctuary were displayed, and repaired to the chapel of Isis to bring a 
sacrifice to the goddess, covered with a veil of white silk, and embroidered 
with golden hieroglyphics, and this again concealed beneath a black gauze. 
After the sacrifice, the procession left the temple and moved westwards. 
First in the train came an image of Isis seated upon a triumphal car 
drawn by white horses, next to w^hich walked the priests in the order of 
their rank, dressed in their most gorgeous attire, and carrying the sacred 
symbols, the utensils of the temple, the books of Thot, and the sacred 
tablet of Isis, which was a silver plate with the hieroglyphics that referred 
to the mysteries of this goddess engraved on it. The priests were followed 
by all the native and foreign adepts, dressed in white linen garments. The 
newly initiated walked in their midst, distinguished by a white veil which 
extended from his head down to his shoulders. All the houses of the 
streets through which the procession passed were decorated as on festal 
occasions. Flowers and perfumes were everywhere thrown over the person 
of the novice, and his arrival greeted with shouts of rejoicing. 

After his return to the temple he was placed upon an elevated throne, 
before which immediately afterwards a curtain descended. While the 
priests chanted during the interval hymns in honor of the goddess, he 
divested himself of his holiday suit, and assumed the white linen garb 
which he was henceforth to wear. The curtain was now again raised, and 
the renewed shouts of the spectators greeted him as an adept. The cere- 
monies concluded with a festival, which lasted three days, during which 
the newly-made brother occupied the seat of honor. 

4. Astronomy. The science of astronomy was probably better understood 
by the Egyptians, or rather by their priests, than by any other nation 
of antiquity. We have already stated that one class of priests devoted 
all their time to it. As a proof of the great advances they made in 
it we refer to the picture of the Egyptian zodiac {jpl. 8, fig. 30), found 
on the ceiling of one of the oldest temples of the country, situated 
in the wretched village of Denderah, which occupies the site of the 

265 



46 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

ancient Tentyra in Upper Egypt. This picture was afterwards removed 
and carried to France. It is composed of a great number of figures and 
hieroglyphics, arranged in a certain order. We notice first the external 
circle inscribed with a number of hieroglyphics which follow one another 
in regular succession. This circle is divided into eight equal parts by four 
erect female forms and four pair of kneeling female twins with sparrow- 
hawks' heads. These figures appear also to support the weight of the inner 
circle. 

The picture within the latter circle contains quite a number of hiero- 
glyphics of all kinds. We will endeavor to examine them in their astrono- 
mical order. The first figure in this order is that which is seen a little to 
the left, just beneath the centre of the disk. It is a lion with a serpent under 
his feet, and a woman behind him. This was the true zodiacal representa- 
tion of the sign Leo. Next to this group, if we turn to the left, comes a 
woman with an ear of wheat in her hand, and a man with something like 
the attributes of Osiris. This is intended for Virgo. Further on we see 
Lihra with the scales, Scmyio^ Sagittarius in the shape of a winged centanr, 
Capricornus half goat half fish; then comes a male figure pouring water 
out of two vessels which is Aquarius^ followed by Pisces., two fishes united 
by a triangle and the hieroglyphic for water ; next to these we see Aries, 
Taurus.^ and Gemini, and finally the last sign in the ring, which is Cancer, 
over the head of Leo. whereby the latter appears the first in the order of 
the zodiac. A great number of other figures are also there, both within 
and without the spiral line of the zodiacal signs. These represent the most 
important constellations next to those of the zodiac. The erect clumsy 
animal which occupies nearly the whole centre of the disk, is an ancient 
figure for Ursa major, hence the north pole is pretty nearly in front of it. 
The position and order of the 36 figures which are seen on the very edge of 
the inner circle are interesting. They were intended for the 36 Decanes or 
good spirits, to whom the care and protection of the human race were 
intrusted. To each was assigned a particular limb or part of the body as 
the object of his peculiar care, and which he had to guard against the power 
and influence of the evil spirits. 

The hieroglyphic marks around the individual groups are merely the 
respective names of the different Decanes, e. g. Chnurais, CJiachnuniis 
TJare, &c. 

5. DocTurNiEs CONCERNING THE FuTUKE State OF THE SoTJL. The idea 
of a future state was closely connected with astronomy. The Egyptians 
believed in the immortality of the soul, and in its partial transmigration. 
Life upon earth they looked upon as of no great importance, but they valued 
as a very estimable thing a good conscience, which could be carried 
beyond the grave. Hence they bestowed but little care upon the dwellings 
of the living, which they looked upon merely as inns, only intended to 
accommodate the wanderer on his journey home ; but the tombs of the 
dead were to them the permanent abodes of mankind, and were therefore 
built with great care, and without regard to expense. Some think that 
they embalmed the body only as a symbol of the purification which the 
266 



EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY. 47 

sonl had to undergo before it could enter the place of eternal rest ; others 
say it was done in consequence of a belief that the soul could preserve its 
individuality only as long as the body preserved its own, and that as soon 
as the latter had returned to its native dust, the former was compelled to 
commence its transmigration through the bodies of the inferior animals, 
and continue it for three thousand years, at the end of which period it was 
permitted to enter again a human body. 

They believed firmly in a rigid judgment beyond the tomb, for they 
thought that shortly after the separation of the soul from the body, the 
former, before it could enter into the peaceful realm of the departed, had to 
appear before Osiris, the stern judge of the lower world. Here its life 
upon earth underwent a close sci'utiny, and according to the degree of its 
past piety or wickedness was the amount of reward or punishment awarded 
to it. 

PL 9, fig. 10, is a picture of this tribunal of the dead, as described by 
the ancient Egyptians. To the left, which appears to be the entrance to 
the judgment-hall, is a group of three persons ; the one nearest to the 
entrance appears to be a priestess, who prays jointly with the figure before 
her, that of a departed soul, that the latter might be permitted to present 
itself before the god who is seated in the back-ground upon the judge's 
throne. These prayers are evidently addressed to the female who confronts 
them, and whose attributes indicate that it is Isis. Behind this goddess 
are the immense scales in which the deeds of man are weighed. They are 
attended by two persons, one with a hawk's head, and the other with that 
of a jackal, who seeks to steady them. These attendants are probably only 
representations of the same divinity in diiFerent capacities. Above the 
centre of the beam is a figure with a dog's head, probably intended for 
Anubis, accompanied on each side by a miniature sphinx. A weight similar 
to the one in the scale hangs down from the beam ; and in the scale to the 
right is a substance somewhat resembling a plant. Immediately behind 
the scales stand the divine scribe Thot or Hermes, with the head of the 
Ibis, engaged in noting down the result of the inquiry as ascertained by 
the scales. In front of the scribe we see Harpocrates seated on a crook, in 
one hand a flail, and in the other a small crook ; and upon the altar sits a 
monster with the body of a lion and the head of a boar, almost in contact 
with the lotus, upon whose leaves four mummy-like figures are seen, one 
with the head of a man, another with that of a dog, the third with a 
jackal's, and the fourth with a hawk's head. The last figure in the picture 
is Osiris upon his throne, the crook in his right and the flail in his left 
hand ; and before him, hovering in the air, a little animal like a horse, with 
the head severed from the trunk, and the latter transfixed by a spear. 

Though it cannot be denied that every explanation given of this symbolic 
picture must be the result of mere conjecture, yet it is certain that it was 
intended to convey the idea that there is miother life leyond the gr(we, 
where every one will meet loith a just reward for the deeds done in the 
tody. 

6. The Abraxas. Before we conclude the Mythology of the Egyptians, 

267 



48 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

we must mention the Abraxas (gems well known to all mjthologians 
and antiquarians) to which the ancients attached a symbolical meaning. 
Abraxas^ the name bj which they are distinguished, is said by some to be 
a word composed of Greek letters, the numerical value of which was 365 ; 
others hold that it is a compound of the Egyptian words Abrac and Sax^ 
which signified either the Saviour^ or Mithras^ the sun, if it was not meant 
for the sacred mystic w(yrd. Basilides of Alexandria, a Gnostic, who 
endeavored to connect all kinds of ancient philosophic elements with Chris- 
tianity, considered this word as the symbol of the deity from which 365 
spirits came forth by emanation. The Abraxas figure found upon these 
gems {pi. 14, fig. 30), he explained as symbolizing the seven primary 
powers of the deity, viz. the serpent's feet, thought and reason ; the cock's 
head, wisdom and foreknowledge ; the whip in the left hand of the figure, 
power ; and the circular shield, equity and peace ; while the trunk was the 
symbol of the eternal uncreated Father of All. The followers of Basilides 
valued gems of this kind very highly, and carried them about their persons as 
amulets. These gems must be carefully distinguished from the Abraxoides^ 
for the figures upon the latter, though in the style of Abraxas, referred 
generally to something taught by the Christian gnostic sects. There were 
also some gems known as Abraxasters^ which were altogether difierent 
from the two already mentioned ; the devices and inscriptions upon these 
always had reference to strictly Pagan subjects {pi. 7, figs. 15-17 ; pi. 9, 
figs. 30, 31). 



lY. MYTHOLOGY OF THE BABYLONIANS, SYEIANS, AKD 

PHCENICIAISrS. 

The mythology of these Eastern nations may be considered as the well- 
spring or fountain whence first came those corrupt streams of idolatry, 
which receiving numberless accessions in their onward course, deluged all 
the heathen world with false gods. 

The basis upon which the mythology of these three nations was founded 
was very nearly the same in all : it was a worship of nature, and particularly 
of the stars. The objects thus deified were also more or less common 
to them. If we consider their political relations and commercial inter- 
course, it will appear evident that they must have exchanged with one 
another many of their religious ideas. This, together with the great want 
of copious and reliable authorities, contributes materially to the obscurity 
which still exists with regard to the essential points of difference between 
their systems. 

The supreme gods of these nations were the same, only worshipped under 
different names ; and their respective cosmogonies show that their mytholo- 
gical systems must have sprung from a common source. 

The Babylonians and the Assyrians generally held that all creation had 
its origin in a shapeless chaos which moved in the beginning in primitive 
268 



BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY. 49 

darkness, and over, whicli the goddess ^mwc<x reigned in solitary grandeur. 
This chaos was supposed also to have been the abode of beasts and human 
beings of monstrous conformation. 

After the lapse of some millions of years, Belus or Baal^ the father of all, 
determined upon creating the world, and divided Homorca into two parts, 
which became the heaven and the earth. But this separation of her body 
caused the monstei^ of her former realm to die. Belus resolved then to 
create a race out of his own blood, and ordering some of the other gods to 
cut off his head, mixed the blood of his body with some earth, and made 
out of it the sun, moon, and stars, besides the five planets, and out of the 
residue men and animals. But mankind were still but little removed in 
intellect and manners from the lower creation. Danes arose therefore out 
of the Ked Sea, and came to Babylon in the shape of a large fish, with feet 
like those of men, and brought them laws for their government, and 
instructed them in manners, civilization, religion, arts, sciences, and trades. 
Every evening he returned into the sea, and every morning he appeared 
again and continued his labors. 

Other sacred animals {Annedati) followed his example in instructing 
mankind, the last of which was the one generally called Odacon. 

The twelve chief gods worshipped by the Babylonians, were said to have 
had their respective abodes in the twelve signs of the Zodiac. The best 
known to us were : Salamlo^ probably the goddess of the moon, during 
whose festival the slaves were waited upon by their masters ; Turrah^ the 
god of war ; and Derketo^ who was considered to have been the mother of 
Semiramis. 

The worship of the Babylonians consisted in sacrifices and prayers offered 
up in temples, and in the celebration of festivals in honor of the gods. 
PI. 11.^ fig. 1, represents two of the ancient Assyrians in the act of bringing 
their offerings to the altar in vessels suspended fi:-om long ribbons, probably 
priests. The two feet on the pedestal between them must have belonged 
to some idol-statue, the body of which was broken off. 

The main feature in the system of idolatry of the ancient Syrians was the 
worship of animals ; fishes and doves in particular received divine honors. 
The origin of this species of worship among the Syrians is related in the 
following myth. Once an immense egg fell down from heaven, and was 
caught by the fishes of the Euphrates, which carried it to the shore, where the 
doves hatched it. After a time the Qgg opened and a goddess of great beauty 
came forth, who has ever since been worshipped under the name of the 
" Syrian goddess" or Astarte^ and sometimes also Derketo. The earliest repre- 
sentations make her appear as a woman, with fins and tail like a fish. After- 
wards she was shown with a head-dress in the shape of the head of an ox. 
But the latest statues of her are often found to represent her as a beautiful 
woman, with a mural crown upon her head, a spindle in her hand, and 
the magic belt around her waist. A few of these attributes we have 
copied in jpl. 11, figs. 3, a.^ 5, from representations found upon ancient 
medals. 

Another ancient Syrian idol is seen in fig. 2. It appears like a hale old 

269 



50 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

man with a long beard, his head covered with a cap curiously ornamented 
with figm-es, his right hand lifted up, and his left as if buried in the folds 
of his dress. His garment as well as the background is covered with a 
number of hieroglyphics, probably in explanation of the statue. 

Tlie Phoenicians believed that the breath of the supreme god Colpiah 
united with that of Baau (chaos) and produced the primitive matter. Moth. 
This gave birth in its turn first to the lower animals, and afterwards to 
rational beings {Zqphasemini). After the creation of the living world. 
Moth assumed the form of an Qgg^ from which sprang the sun, the moon, 
and the stars. Colpiah and Baau now united again, and produced Proto- 
gonos the firstborn and u&n (time), from whom all the generations and 
species of beings have sprung. Life was then infused into the dormant world 
and the air, the ocean, and the earth separated into distinct elements, the 
winds began to blow, and the clouds to move, pouring down rain upon the 
earth, while the thunder awaking the echoes in the mountains roused also 
the slumbering animals into life, who now came forth out of the Moth. 

The giants were afterwards called into existence, and were made of fire, 
light, and flame, the triad of the Egyptians. The fii'st inhabitants of By bios 
were said to have been the Eluen (the oak) and the Beruth (the pine). 
They had two children, Uranos and Goea^ who gave birth to four sons, Ilos 
or Crmws^ BcBdylos^ Dagon^ and Atlas j and three daughters, Astarte^ 
Mhea. and Dione. Uranos, alarmed by a prophecy which predicted that 
his son Cronos would dethrone him, sought to kill his eldest bom, but 
Cronos by the aid of the Elohim conquered his father, and then became 
himself the ruler of the universe. 

Among the idols of the Phoenicians we mention the following as the 
most prominent : Misor^ whose son Taauth or Hermes was the inventor 
of waiting, and first instructor in all sciences ; Sydik^ the father of the 
Cabires^ famed for medical knowledge, and the founder of civilization among 
men ; and finally Baal^ who is frequently spoken of in the Bible. 

The chief temple of Baal was at Tyre, where he was worshipped as the 
god of the sun, and also as Metcarth (the Tyrian Hercules). But he was 
also worshipped throughout Assyria and Babylonia and in Carthage as the 
chief god. Jezebel, a Tyrian princess, and wife of Ahab, king of Israel, 
introduced his worship even among the Hebrews, but Jehu, a pious monarch, 
afterwards abolished the abomination. 

The sacrifices offered up at the altar of this idol were generally oxen, but 
sometimes children were immolated at the shrine of his bull-headed image. 
This was done by first heating the hollow statue by a fire kindled in its 
interior, and then placing the infant in the extended arms of the monster. 
The altars were generally erected on high places ; and the priests, dressed in 
crimson-colored garments, madly danced around the sacrifice, howling, and 
lacerating their bodies with sharp instruments. 

But there are also other idols known by the name of Baal ; these are 

distinguished from the one spoken of, by having distinctive appellations 

added to their names, e. g. Baal-Zelub (the god of flies), an idol at Ekron, 

who w^as thought to prevent the pestilence and the plague of flies from 

270 



NORTHERN MYTHOLOGY. 51 

afflicting the people ; Baal-Zamen^ a divinity worshipped by the Phoeni- 
cians as the god of heaven and of the sun. The discoveries made among 
the ruins of Pahnyra brought to light, among other things, a temple of Baal, 
the best and most magnificent monument of antiquity found there. 

The idols of the ancient Phoenicians were as grotesque and diversified as 
those of other eastern nations, as will be seen from the procession of the 
gods {pi. 11, figs. 5 a^ 5, <?), which show that animals and parts of animals 
entered largely into the composition of their forms ; for everywhere we 
meet with serpents' heads or tails, parts of fishes, or the heads of birds or 
beasts. Fig. 4 h represents one of the goddesses, whose name is not known ; 
she has flame-like hair, surmounted by a crown in the shape of a star, and 
before her sits an eagle, with his head and eyes uplifted, as if watching 
her countenance. Fig. 4 a represents two other deities, standing by a palm 
tree. The bas-relief was found in the region of Palmyrene. One of them 
is dressed in a skirt which falls from the hips half way down to the knees ; 
around the shoulders is a cloak, which appears to be thrown back ; the head 
is ornamented with a flat crown, and the left hand armed with a club; 
behind the shoulders we see the crescent, which is probably a characteristic 
attribute. The other figure is that of a youth dressed in an under and upper 
garment, and holding a scroll in his left hand, which he seems to ofier to his 
companion. 



Y. IS^OKTHEE]!^ MYTHOLOGY. 

To the descendant of the Anglo-Saxons, the northern mythology is pecu- 
liarly interesting. When he examines the religious poetry and the solemn 
rites of his forefathers, and enters into the peculiarities which distinguished 
their religion from that of all other nations of antiquity, he must feel proudly 
uplifted by the stem dignity that pervades their myths. Nowhere does 
he meet with the luxuriant allegories of the Grecian mythology, the adven- 
tures of Jupiter, or the intrigues of Juno ; but everywhere an abundance 
of vigor, and the majesty of a deeply-rooted love of truth and honesty set 
forth in tales of surprising simplicity. It is true, the good is not entirely 
unalloyed by evil, yet the innate respect of the Northern people for virtue, 
veracity, and purity of heai-t, is predominant. It is evinced by the very 
simplicity and grandeur of the northern mythology, whose powerful and 
highly figurative poetry is unequalled by anything presented by other 
Pagan nations of antiquity. 

The religion of the Scandinavians was at one time the prevailing belief 
of all the Germanic tribes that inhabited the shores of the Baltic and the 
Khine, as well as that of the Francs and Westphalians. But when Norway 
was conquered in the ninth century, and the countries around it acknow- 
ledged the truth of Christianity, and the freest and proudest families saved 
their liberty and their faith by taking up their abode in Iceland, this 
country became properlv the home of their religion, and Icelandic poetry is 

2*71 



52 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

the richest source of authority on the subject. The Germanic, and particu- 
larly the Scandinavian nations were, more than many others, distinguished 
for possessing unusually athletic bodies, and an iron will, to strain every 
nerve in defence of their gods and their hearths. They were also renowned 
for their bravery and skill in all warlike exercises, while the name of a 
coward was considered the greatest stigma that could be affixed to any 
one ; and these virtues and sentiments we see fully reflected in all their 
myths. The distinct features of the northern religion are most conveniently 
examined if we turn our attention separately to the religions of the Scan- 
dinavians proper (comprising the Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians), of the 
Germans, and of the Slavono-Yendic nations. 



1. SOANDINAVIAIT MyTHOLOGT. 

The first thing that deserves our particular notice in the Scandinavian 
system of religion is the lofty idea which it presents of the Supreme Being. 
Twelve names are given to him, some of which are : the One and Indivisible, 
the Creator, the Destroyer, the Eternal ; but the one by which he is the 
most frequently called is Alfadur^ the father of all. 

This God and Creator dwelt high above all mundane affairs, and was 
not even approachable by worship ; that was paid to inferior deities 
who presided over the temporal interests of man, and who were themselves 
mortal, and finally responsible to the Supreme Ruler, for their death was 
predicted to take place at the twilight of the gods, of which we shall speak 
more hereafter. The chief of these gods was Odin^ who, though frequently 
called Alfadur, must be carefully distinguished from the Supreme Being, the 
uncreated God. 

The cosmogony of this system is also on a grand scale ; for we learn from 
the Edda, on the authority of the Yoluspa, a very ancient and sacred poem, 
that, " In the beginning there was neither shore nor sea ; the earth was not 
to be found below, nor in the expanse above ; all was one vast abyss, in 
which a chaos reigned." To the north of this abyss was Niffleheim (the fog- 
world), a dreary region of mist and cold ; and to the south, MusjpeXheim 
(the fire world), a world glowing and luminous, not to be dwelt in by any 
but the sons of fire. Surtur (the black) is its ruler ; but Nifflehehn is a 
world of icy coldness and full of gloom, and in its centre, beneath one of 
the roots of the ash tree Yggdrasill^ is the spring Hmrgelmir^ which sends 
forth part of its waters in the Elivanger^ that flow through Helheim^ viz. 
the rivers of destruction, of howling, of roaring, of agony, &c. The world 
of fog is the abode of all who have died as cowards, or in any other dis- 
graceful manner. The ruler of this dreary place is Hela^ the daughter of 
Lohe and Angv/rbodi^ a monster of Jotunheim^ who was hurled into Niffle- 
lieim by Odin, when Loke dared bring her to Asgard^ the abode of the 
gods. Odin gave her power over nine of its worlds, into which she 
distributes those who are sent to her, that is to say, all those who die 
cravens, or through sickness or old age. Her domain is protected by very 



NORTHERN MYTHOLOGY. 53 

high walls and strongly barred gates. Misery is her palace ; Hunger^ 
her table ; Starvation^ her knife ; Delay ^ her waiter ; Sloth, her maid ; 
Patience, her threshold ; Sickness, her bed ; Burning Anguish and Bias- 
phemy, its curtains. One half of the body is livid, and the other the color 
of human flesh ; one side of her head is covered with hair, while the other, 
the livid side, is hideously bald, which contributes to increase the frightful 
appearance of her grim countenance. 

Some of the waters flowed at one time so far from their source, that the 
poison which they contained became hard, and this was the origin of the 
ice, which now began to fill the dark abyss. But the ice was afi'ected by 
the fiery vapors of Musjpelheim, and the drops that fell from the melting 
mass formed themselves into the giant Hymir, who became the father of a 
new generation, and especially of all the giants that have ever since lived 
in the world. As he lay stretched out sleeping, his natural warmth 
brought forth a man and a woman from his armpits, and the contact of his 
two feet produced a son. These became afterwards the progenitors of a 
race called Hrimthussar, or frost giants. These giants were demi-gods, 
and nearly related to the gods of the first order, but were nevertheless 
their greatest enemies ; for Hymir and his posterity had a great portion of 
the poison of the Elivanger in their bodies, and were therefore of a wicked 
disposition, and employed all their powers in efforts to injure the gods. 

Besides Hymir there sprang also from the melted ice a wonderful cow, 
Audhumbla, whose milk, which flowed from her in four rivers, afforded 
nourishment and food to the giant. The cow supported herself by licking the 
hoarfrost and salt from the ice. But these rivers of milk were not the only 
wonderful production of this cow ; for while she was one day licking the 
saltstones, there appeared at first the hair of a man, on the second day the 
whole head, and on the third the entire form endowed with beauty, agility, 
and power. This new being was a god who is called Bure, and became 
the father of Bor, who married Belsta the daughter of the giant Belthorn^ 
by whom he had three sons, Odin, Vile, and Ve. These three now made 
war upon Hymir and slew him, and in the deluge caused by his blood as it 
flowed from his body all the giants were drowned except Bergelmer and 
his wife, who escaped in a boat. Odin and his brothers then commenced 
to create the visible world out of the body of the slain giant. They dragged 
the body of Hymir into the middle of the abyss, cut it in pieces, and formed 
out of the flesh the earth, his blood became the sea, his bones became 
mountains, his teeth rocks, his hair trees, his skull the arch of heaven, and 
his brain clouds pregnant with hail and snow. With his eyebrows the 
gods formed the castle Midgard (middle earth), destined to become the 
abode of man. The earth thus formed is round and flat, and the arched 
heaven above it is supported by four dwarfs called the East, South, West, 
and North. The sea forms a belt around the earth, and beyond this belt is 
the land of the giants. 

But thick darkness still covered all the world created by the three 
brothers ; to dispel which they gathered the sparks and beams that issued 
from Muspelheim and scattered them in the firmament to light the earth, 

ICONOGRAPHIC ENCYCLOPEDIA. VOL. IV. 18 273 



54 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

and they became stars. Odin then regulated the periods of day and night 
and the seasons, by placing in the heavens the two great luminaries, and 
appointing to them their respective courses. As soon as the sun began to 
shed its rays upon the cool earth, it caused the vegetable world to bud and 
sprout. Shortly after the gods had created the world, they walked by the 
side of the sea, pleased with their new work, but found that it was still 
incomplete, for it was without human beings. 

They therefore took an ash-tree and made a man out of it ; and they made 
a woman out of an alder, and called the man AsTce^ and the woman Emla, 
Odin then gave them life and soul, Yile reason and motion, and Ye 
bestowed upon them the senses, beautiful features, and speech. Tliey were 
then perfect {jpl. 13,^. 8). Midgard was then given to them by the gods 
as their residence, and they became the progenitors of the whole human race. 

The mighty ash- tree Yggdrasill {pi. 12., fig. 6), was supposed to support 
the whole universe. It had sprung from the body of Hymir, and had three 
immense roots extending, one into Asgard (the dwelling of the gods), the 
other into JotunJieim (the abode of the giants), and the third to Niffleheira (the 
regions of darkness and cold). By the side of each of these roots is a spring 
from which it is watered ; the root that extends into Asgard is carefully 
tended by the three Norns^ Urdur (the past), Verdandi (the present), /cSX^i^^i^ 
(the future). The spring at the Jotunheim side is Hymir's well, in which 
wisdom and wit lie hidden, but that of Niffleheim, which is called Hvergelr 
mir (the old goblet) feeds the 2ididiQY N'idhbgge (darkness), which perpetually 
gnaws at the root. The branches of this tree spread over the whole world, 
and reach even above heaven. An eagle is perched upon them, which 
knows many things (between his eyes sits sometimes the hawk called 
Vederfolnir) ; the squirrel Eatatosh runs up and down the ash, fanning 
strife between the eagle and the Mdhogge, by whispering to the one what 
the other says. Four harts run across the branches of the tree and bite 
the buds ; they are called Dainn^ Dvalinn.^ Diineyr.^ and Durathror^ and 
represents the four winds. Under the tree lies Hymir ; when he tries to 
shake off its weight the earth quakes. 

Asgard is the name of the abode of the gods, access to which is only 
gained by crossing the bridge Bifrost (the rainbow). On one end of 
this bridge is a citadel in w^hich dwells the warden appointed by the 
gods to watch without ceasing that no enemy cross or even approach 
it. Asgard itself consists of golden and silver palaces, the dwellings 
of the gods; but the most beautiful of these is Valhalla^ the residence 
of Odin and some other deities. It is an immense building of solid 
gold, with 540 gates. It fronts the rising sun, and is surrounded by 
the magnificent grove Gladsheim (home of joy), all the trees of which 
bear golden leaves. Its splendid halls are the reception rooms where 
Odin welcomes the spirits of heroes slain in battle, and hails them 
Einlieriar (chosen heroes). Here they are then made to enjoy unalloyed 
and uninterrupted pleasures. Every morning they are roused from sleep by 
the crowing of the cock with a golden crest, when they arm themselves and 
go to dill's Tuum (the court of Odin), where they fight until the hour of 
274 



NORTHERN MYTHOLOGY. 55 

repast ; then they return to OcHd's hall with their wounds all healed, and 
enjoy the sumptuous feast daily spread for them. This banquet consists of 
the flesh of the boar Seremnir^ which is always sufficient in supply, no mat- 
ter how great the number of the guests may be. Every day it is served up at 
table, and every day are its life and flesh renewed. Their drink is mead, 
the milk of the goat Heithrun^ which stands upon the walls of Yalhalla, and 
feeds on the foliage of the tree Lerad^ which grows upon the hall of the 
dead ; this beverage is served to them in abundance by the Valkyr ce^ beauti- 
ful maidens of whom we shall speak hereafter. Before we leave the hall of 
Odin, we must also notice the wonderful stag Eikthyrnir^ from whose 
horns the waters of the spring Hvergelmir gush forth. 

But this scene of fierce contest was not the only heaven of which the 
northern nations had an idea. We learn from the Yoluspa, that beyond 
the clear blue ether there is another heaven called the boundless, in 
w^hich is situated the glorious city Giinble^ the eternal and unchangeable. 
At the final day of judgment, the dwellers of Yalhalla, Niffleheim, and 
Midgard, will have to stand forth and be tried, no longer by the rule of 
warlike achievements, but by that of moral justice. Those who, however 
unwarlike, have been good and just, will then be admitted to the glories of 
Gimble and the presence of the Supreme Being ; while those who, though 
valiant, have been cruel, unjust, and rapacious, will be hm-led down 
loNastrond (the bleak shore of the dead). 

In the meantime all who die by old age or disease, and all cowards and 
fugitives in battle, will have to sufier in HelTieim^ a province of Niffleheim, 
which is girt by the hell-stream Gjbll^ and set apart as the abode of the 
unblest. 

The Gods of the Scandestavians. The Supreme Being, the uncreated one, 
we have already said was not considered an object of the religious worship 
of mortal beings. They honored therefore in this way the created gods, the 
chief of whom was Odin. He was originally the sun considered as a deity, 
and also its symbol. As the ruler of the world, and king of gods and men, 
he occupies the chief seat at the banquet of the gods of Yalhalla, upon his 
throne, from which he can overlook all heaven and earth. 

Upon his shoulders are the ravens EJugin and Munin^ who fly every day 
over the whole world, and on their return report to him all they have seen 
and heard. As the god of the sun, he has the disk of that luminary behind 
his head, supported by two serpents {pi. 11, fig. 6). In his right hand he 
holds a spear, and by his side is the sword, attributes which designate him 
as the ruler of battles, and source of all valor. The tablet in his left hand 
he holds as the inventor of the Kunic characters and songs of enchantment. 
Fl. V^^fig. 1, we see him standing with the left foot on a stone ; around his 
shoulders is the warrior's cloak over a splendid cuirass, and upon his head 
a golden helmet ; his left hand grasps the shield, and with his right he is 
leaning upon the sword. The two ravens before mentioned are perched 
upon his shoulders, and at his feet lie the two wolves Geri and Freki^ to 
whom he gives all the meat placed before him at every banquet, while he 
himself lives only on the wine which he drinks. 

275 



56 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

There are a few representations of him, which we give in pi. 11, Jigs. 
7-10, but they are much more imperfect. In the two first we see his gar- 
ments covered with Eunic characters. These runes were the written letters 
of the ancient Scandinavians, and consisted chiefly of oblique lines placed 
upon a perpendicular one, so that their individual character and meaning 
had to be determined by their number and direction. The well known 
runic stones {figs. lY and 18) had generally a border in the shape o? 
two intertwined serpents, whose bodies were covered with these lines. They 
were used either as tombstones, monuments, genealogical registers, or 
records of treaties. The runic calendar (Jig. 19) is covered with the same 
kind of characters. 

Vile and Ve, the brothers of Odin, who assisted him in the creation of 
the world, are not afterwards mentioned in the Edda, and appear never to 
have been objects of worship. 

Thor, the god of thunder, the most powerful warrior, and the oldest son 
of Odin and Frigga, was the first in rank after Odin. He was caUed J.««r. 
Tlior (the lord Thor). His splendid palace, situated in the air, had in it 
540 halls, and was called Bilshirnir. He is represented {pi. 13, Jig. 2) 
seated on an iron chariot (the rolling of which causes the thunder) drawn 
by two wild goats. Hence his other name Auka Thor (the driving Thor). 
His attributes are the three precioua presents which he received, and which 
make him powerful and feared, namely : in his right hand the hammer 
Mjolnir with the short handle, which, when hurled against his enemies, not 
only kills, but returns also to his hand of its own accord ; it was also sometimes 
used to bless the marriage tie. Around his body is the belt of prowess, 
Megingiadir.^ which increases his strength twofold ; and upon his hands are 
the enchanted iron gloves, which enable him to handle his hammer with 
greater efficacy. On account of his influence and power he is also seen {pi. 11, 
Jig. 6) at the right hand of Odin when the latter is seated on his throne. 
The hammer in his hand he wields as a symbol of lightning. 

Tyr., another son of Odin, is the god of battle-fields. He is the protector 
and friend of all heroes who combat one another in open and honest fight, 
for he himself is without guile or deceit. He is generally represented {pi. 
\Z.^Jlg. 6) as a powerful-looking man in the vigor of life, with a cuirass- 
like tunic, and the warrior's cloak thrown over his shoulders, a helmet upon 
his head, the lance in his right hand, and the buckler by his side. Behind 
him lies the ram. He is distinguished for courage and boldness, and was 
therefore appointed to feed the terrible wolf Fenris, who has such enormous 
jaws that when he opens them his nose touches the heavens, and he dis- 
plays teeth so large that the highest towers would seem small by their side. 
T}t's fearless courage caused him afterwards to lose his right hand by means 
of this wolf The myth which relates the circumstance tells us, that the 
wolf Fenris was a son of Lohe, and then continues. When the gods who 
raised the monster saw how rapidly he grew in size and strength, and more- 
over knew that he would at a future j)eriod prove fatal to them, they 
attempted to chain him, but he broke the strongest fetters as if they were 
made of cobwebs. 
2*76 



j 



NORTHERN MYTHOLOGY. 67 

The gods despairing that they would ever find a chain strong enough tv 
fetter Fenris, sent a messenger to the mountain spirits {Svartalfi^') in hartal- 
faheim^^ho made for them the chain called Gleipnir (the Devouring). I^ 
was fashioned of six things ; viz. the noise made by the footfall of a cat. 
the beards of women, the roots of mountains, the breath of fish, the sinews- 
of bears, and the spittle of birds ; when finished, it was as smooth anc 
soft as a silken string. But when the gods asked the wolf to sufier himseh 
to be bound with this apparently slight ribbon, he suspected their design, 
fearing that it was made by enchantment ; he therefore only consented to 
be bound with it upon condition that one of the gods put his hand in hie 
mouth as a pledge that the band was to be removed again. Tyr alone had 
courage enough to do this. But when the wolf found that he could not 
break his fetters, and that the gods would not release him, he bit off the 
hand of Tyr, who has ever since remained one-handed. 

Braga^ another son of Odin {^]pl. X'^^fig. 2), is represented as a man ad- 
vanced in years, and playing on a harp ; he was the god of elocution, oratory, 
poetry, and song, and was distinguished above all the other gods for his 
wisdom and penetration. His tongue was covered with runes of enchant- 
ment, symbolizing that his song records great deeds. He is, therefore, in 
modern literature, often regarded as the god of history. 

The warden of Asgard, who lived in the celestial citadel at one end of the 
bridge Biforst, which he guards against the giants, was Heimdall^ or Heim- 
dallur (Jig. 5) ; he is represented mounted upon his steed GuUtojopur (Golden- 
mane), blowing his trumpet GiallarJiorn (the far-sounding), the sound of 
which can be heard throughout the universe, and which he only blows to 
call the gods and heroes to the rescue when danger threatens. He also 
was a son of Odin ; but the gifts bestowed upon him by his nine mothers 
were the coolness of the ocean, the strength of the earth, and a blood of 
reconciliation. He was particularly and in an extraordinary manner 
qualified for his post ; " for he sleeps," says the Edda, " less than a bird, 
can see a hundred leagues by night or day, and so acute is his sense of 
hearing, that he hears the grass grow in the earth and the wool on the 
sheep's back, and a wound from his sword is always fatal." His nine 
mothers were the nine hours of night, begetting the dawn, and he was 
himself the symbol of the brightness of early morning, which favors virtue 
and opposes vice. 

Odin's messenger to transmit all his orders and resolutions was his son 
Hermode^ also the protector of travellers. On pi. 13, fig. 7, we see him dressed 
in a cuirass, and with a helmet upon his head, both presents from Odin. 
He acted also as master of ceremonies with his brother Braga, whose duty 
it was to welcome the newly slain heroes on their entrance into Yalhalla. 

Besides those already mentioned, there are two other gods that belong to 
the same class, who have the collective name Asir ; Yidar^ the god of silence, 
and Yali., the god of spring, concord, and reconciliation. 

The goddesses of this race were Frigga^ Idunna., Gefion^ Fylla., and 8if. 

Frigga was the wife of Odin, and granted growth and fruitfulness to all 
living things. She presided in all the assemblies of the goddesses, which 

277 



58 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

were always held in her palace Yingolf. She knew, also, the fate of all 
men, but never revealed it to any one. She understood, moreover, the 
language of all animals and plants. Her wisdom and knowledge were so 
great, that even Odin applied to her often for counsel. She is generally 
represented as in jpl. 12, fig. 1, seated in a golden chariot, which is drawn 
by two white cats, her white veil is flying in the wind, and by her side 
hover two of her attendants with veils similar to her own. 

Idunna was the wife of Braga, and the goddess of immortality. She is 
always found as in fig. 3, seated by the side of her husband, with a basket 
of apples in her lap, which the gods eat when they begin to grow old, in 
order to renew their yonth, and which are given to the Einheriar to make 
them immortal. The myth relates of her, that she was once carried off by 
the powerful giant TJiiasso^ who was assisted in this abduction by Loke^ 
that most crafty of the gods. When the gods w^ere thus deprived of the 
youth-giving apples, they visibly began to grow old. Alarmed at this state 
of things, they threatened Loke, who confessed his guilt, and promised to 
bring her back if the queen of the gods, Frigga, would change him into a 
falcon, and endow him with the power to transform himself and others into 
any shape he pleased. The request was granted, and he transported him- 
self immediately to the abode of the giant, where he arrived just as the 
other had gone on a fishing excursion, accompanied by all his servants. 
He entered the window in the shape of a falcon, and seating himself on the 
shoulder of the goddess, communicated to her his errand, and changing her 
into a swallow, flew with her towards Asgard. 

The giant, who returned just in time to witness their escape, immediately 
pm^sued them in the shape of an eagle, but they reached Asgard before he 
could come up with them. Loke, afraid of his pursuer, hid himself beneath 
a pile of branches just as the eagle was about to dart upon him, but the 
gods set fire to the pile, which singed the wings of the eagle so badly, that 
he fell down, when he was readily destroyed. But Idunna's arrival was 
hailed with great demonstrations of joy. 

Gefion was the goddess of innocence, and the protectress of pious 
virgins. Fylla was the confidential attendant and counsellor of Frigga ; and 
Sif, the wifeofThor. 

The gods belonging to the second class were the Yanir, and such of them as 
were afterwards adopted by the Asir. The ^^anir were a race who inhabited 
the regions of the ether which stretched over Godheim (Asgard). They were 
always friendly disposed to the human race, and protected it even against 
any injustice perpetrated by the gods against any individual of the race, 
or avenged it when protection came too late. When Odin had once 
unjustly killed a man, the Yanir took up the cause, and stormed Asgard ; 
a battle ensued, but as neither side could gain a victory they made peace, 
and ratified it by spitting in a large vessel. The saliva thus collected gave 
birth to a wonderful being Quasir, who was endowed with supernatural 
wisdom, and travelled through the world for the purpose of instructing man- 
kind. At last the dwarfs Fialar and Galar killed him, and collecting his 
blood in two tubs and a large kettle they mixed honey with it. This mix- 
278 



NORTHERN MYTHOLOGY. 69 

ture soon became a mead, the drinking of which made sages and poets. 
To the gods they reported that they had found Quasir strangled by his own 
wisdom. But some time afterwards they killed a giant also ; his son avenged 
the death of his father by placing them upon a rock in the sea, and 
threatened that he would not release them until they had given him the 
precious mead. Fear at last overcame avarice, and they yielded to him 
their treasure. He concealed it in the Guitberg / but Odin having bored a 
hole in the rock, entered through it in the shape of a w^orm and drank all 
the mead in the three vessels, and then escaped in the shape of an eagle. 

The giant discovered the theft, pursued him in a like form, and caught 
the god above Asgard. A terrible fight took place, and Odin, in order to 
relieve himself, disgorged all the mead, which was caught by the gods 
below in a number of small vessels. 

When the Asir and Yanir had ratified the peace above mentioned, they also 
exchanged hostages. The Asir gave to the Yanir Honir and his companion 
Mimir^ and the Yanir left with the Asir Njord^ and his two children, 
Jtreyr and Freya^ who were adopted by their new associates. 

Njord, or l^jordr, was the god of the winds, the giver of rain, and had 
the power to still the agitated weaves of the ocean and to quench the fire. 
He was the patron god of sailors, fishermen, and hunters, and received with 
particular favor the o.^erings of travellers. Even temples and sacrificial 
places were considered under his especial care. His palace ISfoadun is the 
eleventh of the palaces in Asgard. He is represented (j?Z. 13, fig. 5) 
dressed in an ample garment, with wings upon his shoulders, and long and 
dishevelled hair on his head ; in his right hand he holds the oar, and in his 
left the bow, while a net is at his feet. 

Frefyi^ his son, is the god of the sun, of fruitfulness, and rain ; his aid w^as 
always implored when men wished to obtain a favorable season or peace. 
He was considered kindly disposed towards mankind and willing to grant 
their prayers. He is represented {fig. 3) with a halo around his head, in 
his left hand holding a number of ears of wheat, and with his right an urn 
from which the water flows ; as the god of the sun, he has the golden boar 
Gullinbursti lying at his feet. His dwelling is in AlfJieini. Sometimes he 
is also found standing on the left of Odin {jpl. 11, fig. 6). 

The myth tells us of him that he once seated himself upon the vacant 
throne of Odin, from w^hich, as has been said, one could see everything in 
the whole world. Casting his eyes around he saw in the high north in the 
land of the giants, the beautiful Gerda^ daughter of Gymh\ and fell imme- 
diately so deeply in love with her that it afiected his health, so that he 
could neither eat, drink, nor sleep. His parents were very much afflicted 
at the condition of their child, and made his servant Skyrnir ascertain the 
cause. When they learned it, they charged the faithful attendant w^ith the 
task of demanding her in marriage for their son. After much trouble and 
overcoming many obstacles, Skyrnir succeeded and Gerda became Freyr's 
wife. 

Freya^ the sister of Freyr, was the goddess of love and also goddess of 
the moon. She was next to Frigga the most powerful and honored, the 

279 



60 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

most beautiful, virtuous, and gentle of all the goddesses, ever ready to grant 

the prayer and petitions of man. 

She loved music, spring, and flowers, and was particularly fond of the 
Elves (fairies). The Scalds also drew their inspiration for their love songs from 
her. Her husband Odur left her and travelled into distant countries ; when 
she found after some time that he did not return, she went in search of him, 
but without success. She began therefore to lament and weep her loss ; 
but her tears became gold and her lamentation the sweetest melodies. 
She is always described as attended by two of her maids {pi. 13, fig. 4). 

The strangest figure in the whole circle of Scandinavian gods is LoTce^ 
the ever fickle, the disturbing element. He is the symbol of the resisting 
force in the material world against the laws of nature, the embodiment of 
that wild, unruly recklessness which breaks down all barriers that will yield 
to its strength. In the spiritual world he represents arbitrariness, untruth, 
falsehood, frivolity, impudence, sin, and generally all evil in the world 
arising from its compound nature of spirit and matter. 

Locke or Lohe.^ for he is called by either name, was the son of the giant 
Farbaiit^ and surpassed most created beings in beauty, skill, agility, as 
well as in craftiness and perfidy. He appeared as if belonging neither to 
heaven nor to hell, but partaking of the virtues of the one and vices of the 
other. He remained on indifierently good terms with the gods, into the 
company of whom he had forced himself, and he delighted equally in 
bringing them into difiiculties and in extricating them again out of the 
danger by his cunning, wit, and skill. His greatest crime was the plan 
which he devised and which resulted in the death of Baldur.^ the best and 
most beloved of the gods. 

This Baldur was a son of Odin and Frigga, and is described in the Edda 
as " so fair and dazzling in favor and features, that rays of light seem to 
issue from him, and of so fair a head that the whitest of all plants is called 
Baldur's brow. Baldur is, moreover, the mildest, wisest, and the most 
eloquent of the Asir, yet such is his nature that the judgment he has pro- 
nounced can never be altered." For a long time he lived in happiness by 
the side of his wife Nana in his splendid palace Breidablih (far shining 
splendor) until he dreamed one night that his life was in danger. 
Disturbed by this dream he related it to the gods. His mother, who 
became alarmed, sought to prevent all danger by making everything 
animate or inanimatCj^fire, water, earth, animals, stones, trees, and reptiles, 
take an oath that they would not hurt him. Baldur being now thought 
invulnerable, the gods amused themselves by making him a target at which 
they discharged arrows, stones, and swords, without occasioning him any 
injury, all things that had taken the oath being mindful not to hurt him. 
But Loke, who hated and envied this pure being, was hatching a malicious 
trick. Disguised as an old woman he elicited from Frigga the avowal 
that, deeming the mistletoe too weak and insignificant to do harm, she had 
omitted to take the oath from it. Loke immediately went in search of the 
mistletoe, which he found and returned with it to the assembly. He now 
persuaded Hodv/r., who was blind, and had taken no part in the sport, to 
280 



NORTHERN MYTHOLOGY. 6Jl 

hurl the shrub against Baldur, offering to direct his hand. Hodur, ignorant 
of the nature of the weapon, consented and threw the mistletoe against 
Baldur, who, to the consternation of all the gods, immediately fell dead. 

The grief of the celestials was so great that it deprived them at first of 
all courage and even speech, for the oracle had predicted that the death of 
their favorite threatened all with destruction. All the gods and even 
some of the giants united in burning his remains with great pomp on a 
funeral pyre. His wife, who died of grief, and his horse were buried with 
him. 

After a fruitless attempt to restore him to life Frigga sent Hermode the 
messenger to entreat Sela^ the queen of the lower world, to allow the latter 
to return, assuring her that he was beloved by all things. " "Well," replied 
Hela, '^ if all things in the world, both living and lifeless, weep for him 
then shall he return to the Asir, but if one thing speak against him or 
refuse to weep, he must be kept in Helheim.^'' When Hermode had returned 
with this answer from Hela, the gods sent messengers out into all the world 
requesting all created things to w^eep for Baldur's death, and all, even the 
inanimate things, wept. Only one old witch who was found in a cave shed 
no tears and refused to do it ; this witch was Loke in disguise. Baldur had, 
therefore, to remain among the dead. But Loke did not escape his well 
deserved punishment. When he perceived how exasperated the gods were 
he fled to the top of a mountain. There he built a house with four doors 
so that he could see every approaching danger. Frequently he changed 
himself into a salrnon and hid among the stones of a neighboring waterfall. 
But the Asir caught him in a net, and then took the intestines of his son 
Nari^ who had been torn to pieces by his brother Yali^ whom the gods had 
changed into a wolf, and with them they bound Loke to the points of three 
rocks, and afterwards transformed these cords into thongs of iron. Skadi^ the 
goddess of the chase, then suspended a serpent over him in such a manner 
that the venom fell on his face drop by drop. Bigyn his wife stands 
by him and receives the drops as they fall in a cup; but when she carries 
it away to empty it of its contents, the venom falls upon Loke, which makes 
him howl with horror and twist his body about so violently that the whole 
earth shakes, and this produces what men call earthquakes. In this condi- 
tion will he remain until Ragnaroeh (the twilight of the gods), which is the 
end of the world, when in the war of extermination Loke will fall simulta- 
neously with his antagonist Heimdall. The lower portion oi pi. 11, fig. 6, 
is intended to represent Loke suffering the punishment of his crime. 

Fig. 11 is a front and back view of an idol lately found in Norway ; but 
little is known about it. 

Among the lower goddesses, though not exactly goddesses themselves, 
we must also enumerate the Norns already mentioned above {jpl. 12, 
fig. 6). They were the dispensers of the uncihangeable fate to which 
gods and men had alike to bow, and were as such looked up to with awe 
and reverence. The first, Urdiir (the past), was of the race of the giants ; 
the second, Verandi (the present), belonged to the Asir; and the third, 
Sculd (the future), to the Vanir. 

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62 MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS RITES. 

Their chief occupation consisted, as we have already said, in taking care 
of the tree Yggdrasill, and seeing that its root was duly watered ; they had, 
besides, to engrave the runes of fate upon a metal shield, for by these runes 
was the lot of every living being decided. But they were always just, 
impartial, and unchangeable, and none of their decrees could ever be altered. 

Next to these in rank are the ValkyrcB^ or Yalkyryor {pi, V^^fig. 7). They 
were warlike virgins, mounted upon horses, and armed with helmets, 
shields, and spears. Odin, who was desirous to collect a great many heroes 
in Yalhalla, in order to have a numerous host of warriors when at the 
Hagnaroek he would be compelled to meet the giants in battle, sent down 
to every battle-field to make choice of those who were to be slain, and to 
sway the victory. Hence their name, which is composed of FaZ, a battle- 
field, and Jcyra^ to choose, the electors of tJie hattle-field. Their presence was 
known by a strange flickering light, like that of the Aurora Borealis, and 
every hero was rejoiced at the prospect of being called by the Yalkyrae to take 
a plac