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Full text of "Development document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector Effluent limits regulation : report"

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STOPPING 

WATER POLLUTION 

AT ITS SOURCE 



MISA 

Municipal/lndusfrial Strategy for Abotement 



DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT 

FOR THE 

INORGANIC CHEMICAL SECTOR 

EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 



@ Ontario 



ISBN 0-7778-1624-5 



DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT 

FOR THE 

INORGANIC CHEMICAL SECTOR 

EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 



SEPTEMBER 1994 







Cette publication technique 
n'est disponible qu'en anglais. 

Copyright: Queen's Printer for Ontario, 1994 

This publication may be reproduced for non-commercial purposes 

with appropriate attribution. 



PIBS 3274E 



DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT 

FOR THE 

INORGANIC CHEMICAL SECTOR 

EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 



Report prepared by: 
Frank Ryan, P.Eng. 



Report prepared for: 

Program Development Branch 

Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy 



Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) Effluent Limits Regulation 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i 

PREFACE ii 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY iv 

Chapter 1 THE MISA INITIATIVE 1 

1.0 The MISA Program 2 

LI The Effluent Limits Regulation Development Process 2 

1.2 References . . 5 

Chapter 2 THE INORGANIC CHEMICAL SECTOR (ICS) 6 

2.0 Introduction 7 

2.1 Inorganic Chemical Manufacturing 7 

2.2 Profile of the Inorganic Chemical Sector in Ontario 8 

2.3 Sector Overview of Production Processes, Water Use 10 
and Wastewater Treatment 

2.4 References 24 

Chapter 3 THE EFFLUENT MONITORING DATABASE 25 

3.0 Introduction 26 

3.1 Pre-Regulation Monitoring Program 26 

3.2 The ICS Effluent Monitoring Regulation 26 

3.3 References 31 



Chapter 4 BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY 32 
(ECONOMICALLY ACHIEVABLE) 

4.0 Introduction 33 

4.1 Best Available Technology (BAT) 33 

4.2 Summary of Global and Ontario BAT Studies 34 

4.3 BAT Technology Options for the Inorganic 37 
Chemical Sector 

4.4 Economic Assessment 47 

4.5 References 51 



Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) Effluent Limits Regulation 
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont.) 

Page 

Chapter 5 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EFFLUENT LIMITS 52 

5.0 Introduction 53 

5.1 Type of Effluent Streams to be Limited 53 

5.2 Type of Effluent Limits '53 

5.3 Approach to Limit Setting 54 

5.4 The Candidate Parameter List 54 

5.5 Selection of Parameters for Limits 56 

5.6 The Final List 60 

5.7 Statistical Derivation of Limits 63 

5.8 Non-Contact Cooling Water Assessment Parameters 64 

5.9 Environmental Benefits 65 

5.10 References 66 

Chapter 6 THE EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 67 

6.0 Introduction 68 

6. 1 Overview of the Regulation 68 

6.2 Explanatory Notes 70 

6.3 References 82 

Appendices 83 

Appendix A Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Appendix B Performance Values 

Appendix C The Inorganic Chemical Sector 
Effluent Limits Regxilation 



Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) Effluent Limits Regulation 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont.) 

LIST OF FIGURES 
Figure 2. 1 Inorganic Chemical Sector Plant Locations 



Page 
9 



Table 2.1 


Table 3.1 


Table 4.1 


Table 4.2 


Table 4.3 


Table 4.4 


Table 4.5 


Table 4.6 


Table 4.7 


Table 4.8 


Table 5.1 


Table 5.2 


Table 5.3 


Table 5.4 



LIST OF TABLES 

ICS Plants Excluded from the Effluent Limits Regulation 

Plants Included in the ICS Effluent Monitoring Regulation 

BAT Option 1 Technologies for ICS Plants to Achieve 
Non-Lethal Effluents 

BAT Option 2 Technologies for ICS Plants to Achieve 
U.S. EPA BAT Limits 

ICS Plants Not Compared Under BAT Option 3 

ICS Plants Compared Under BAT Option 3 

BAT Option 4a Technologies for ICS Plants to Achieve 
Maximum Removal of Contaminants 

Summary of Capital and Operating Costs for ICS BAT Options 

Summary of Total ICS Costs By BAT Option 

Projected Loadings and Reductions for the ICS 

Parameters Fotmd in ICS Sector Effluents 

Final List of ICS Limited Parameters 

Chemicals on the Candidate Substances List for Bans 
or Phase-Outs Limited at ICS Plants 

Contaminant Loading Reductions for the ICS 



8 

27 
37 

38 

39 
40 
41 

43 
50 
50 
55 
61 
62 

65 



Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector EfiQuent Limits Regulation 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

The task of data handling, analysis and presentation would have been unmanageable without the 
computer skills of David Clxmas of the MISA Industrial Effluents Section. His expertise, 
enthusiasm and innovative ideas which allowed simplification of the data for analysis, discussion 
and for presentation in this document, is gratefully acknowledged. 



Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector Effluent Limits Regulation 



PREFACE 

The Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) program was officially annoimced by 
the Ontario Ministry of the Environment in June, 1986. MISA is a regulatory program for 
reducing water pollution from both industrial and municipal dischargers. The ultimate goal of 
MISA is the virtual elimination of persistent toxic contaminants from all discharges into Ontario's 
waterways. 

Under the industrial part of the MISA program, technology-based effluent limits are being 
imposed on industrial direct dischargers as a minim um pollution control requirement. In addition, 
more stringent effluent limits may be imposed on a site-specific basis in order to provide for 
additional protection of sensitive receiving waters. The industrial direct dischargers were grouped 
into nine MISA Sectors according to the products that they manufactured. 

There are two regulatory phases in the MISA program. In the first phase, xmder the Effluent 
Monitoring Regiilation, direct dischargers were required to monitor their effluents for a period 
of twelve months for a list of specified parameters. In the second phase, effluent limits are being 
developed for the dischargers on the basis of the effluent monitoring database and Best Available 
Technology Economically Achievable (BATE A). 

This document describes the steps involved and the technical rationale used in the development 
of effluent limits for one of the nine MISA Sectors - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (LCS). Its 
purpose is to assist the reader in gaining a greater understanding of the regulatory requirements 
for the ICS and how they were derived. 

The information in this document is organized into six chapters and three appendices. 

Chapter One presents a short summary of the MISA program along with a brief introduction to 
the effluent limits regulation development process. 

Chapter Two presents information on the ICS plants. The Sector currently consists of twenty- 
three plants with direct effluent discharges. The plants range from small single product facilities 
such as abrasives, carbon dioxide and sulphuric acid plants to large multi-product facilities such 
as the fertilizer plants. Information is provided on plant location, number of employees, major 
raw materials, products and wastewater management and treatment. 

Chapter Three describes the pre-regulation effluent monitoring program and the one year effluent 
monitoring regulation for the ICS. Results of the monitoring program are also discussed. 

Chapter Four describes the process used for determining Best Available Technology (BAT) for 
the ICS. It also includes a description of the economic assessment which was conducted as part 
of the process to select the Best Available Technology Economically Achievable (BATEA). 

Chapter Five describes the process for selecting parameters for limits. Each step in the process 
is documented and the methods used to calculate effluent limits are explained. 



Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector Effluent Limits Regulation 

Chapter Six presents a summary of the key components of the ICS Effluent Limits Regvilation. 
Loading compliance requirements are explained, as are other regulatory requirements such as 
toxicity testing, flow measurement and reporting. 

Appendices A and B provide detailed information on the selection of parameters for limits and 
the current and BAT treatment performance for each plant. 

A copy of the Limits Regulation for the ICS is provided in Appendix C. 

As part of the consultative process, the draft limits regulation is being released for a sixty day 
public review period in order to fully solicit public input and comment. 



Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector Effluent Limits Regulation 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 

This document describes the steps involved in the development of effluent limits for the Inorganic 
Chemical Sector (ICS) under the Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) Program 
of the Ontario Ministry of Enviroiunent and Energy. 

Under the Effluent Monitoring Regulation for the ICS, twenty-two plants were required to 
monitor their effluent streams for a one year period commencing December 1, 1989, while an 
additional six industrial gas plants commenced monitoring on February 1, 1990. 

The results from the twelve months of regulatory monitoring were used as the basis for the 
selection of parameters for effluent limits. A total of one hundred and fifty-four parameters were 
specified for monitoring in the Monitoring Regxilation. Of this total, one hundred were "found" 
in ICS effluent streams. 

Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) monitoring data from each plant were examined to 
determine if the effluent monitoring data were acceptable for use in the development of effluent 
limits. Parameters were removed from fiirther consideration if the QA/QC data assessment 
showed that their presence in the effluent was highly suspect or if the data were of limited or 
imreliable quality for the purposes of effluent limits setting. 

Information on world-wide Best Available Technology (BAT), applicable to ICS plants was 
obtained by a consultant hired by the Ministry. The consultant also obtained information on the 
predicted performance and cost of the BAT and on the current status of ICS plants with respect 
to BAT treatment. 

Up to five BAT options were recommended by the consultant for each of the ICS plants. Due 
to the diversity of plants within the Sector, the specific technology recommendations were largely 
site dependent. The following criteria were used to differentiate the five BAT Options: 

BAT Option 1 - achieves non-lethality to fish and Daphnia magna : 

BAT Option 2 - allows ICS plants to meet U.S. EPA limits regulations for 
similar plants in the U.S.; 

BAT Option 3 - uses the best technology currently in Ontario; 

BAT Option 4 - provides the maximum overall removal of contaminants; 

BAT Option 5 - any current technology or combination of current 

technologies which will advance ICS plants the furthest 

toward virtual elimination and the ultimate goal of zero 
discharge of contaminants. 



IV 



Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector EfQuent Limits Regulation 

Pollution prevention measures were considered as integral first steps in the development of BAT 
options. Where practical pollution prevention measures were unavailable, in-plant controls and 
end-of-pipe treatment were considered. 

In order to select the BAT Option on which to develop effluent limits for the Sector, the Ministry 
conducted an economic assessment of the costs of imposing each of the five recommended BAT 
Option technologies for each of the ICS plants. 

At the outset, the General Chemical Canada Ltd., plant at Amherstburg was singled out as a 
special case because the only BAT technology identified to ensure that the plant's North Drain 
discharge was non-toxic was evaporation. However, the capital and operating costs of the 
technology estimated at $27 million and $233 million per year respectively, made it economically 
unachievable. The use of options such as in-process changes or effluent blending to make the 
North Drain non-toxic was studied by an outside consultant. The study concluded that neither 
blending nor in-process changes could guarantee compliance with the toxicity requirements for 
the North Drain. Therefore, all discussions of Sector costs exclude costs associated with General 
Chemical. 

The results of the economic assessment indicate that with the exception of one plant, Nutrite Inc., 
BAT Options 1 and 2 will not affect the financial position of the ICS. 

The economic impact of BAT Option 3 was not assessed as it applied to only one Sector plant. 

For BAT Option 4, three plants, Cytec, Nutrite and ICI (Cornwall), account for $ 10 million of 
the $17 million capital cost estimated for the whole Sector. Excluding these three plants, the 
average after-tax aimualized cost to all other firms in the Sector required to install technology is 
less than $ 0.1 million. For the Sector overall, costs incurred will have some effect on the 
Sector's overall financial performance. BAT Option 4 will result in an estimated overall loadings 
reduction of 22%. 

BAT Option 5, requiring annualized after-tax expenditures of $86 million per year, would cause 
a large reduction in both cash-flow and net income for many firms. The financial viability of 
several firms would also be affected. While this option would reduce overall loadings by 
approximately 96%, the cost of achieving this reduction would impose a severe hardship on the 
Sector. 

It was concluded that, on the basis of cost effectiveness, BAT Option 4 is the preferred option 
on which to develop discharge limits for the ICS. 

Following identification of the preferred BAT option, a six-criteria screening process, which is 
discussed in detail, was used to determine which of the found parameters at each plant would be 
limited. 

Daily and monthly average loading limits based on BAT Option 4 performance were developed 
for the parameters selected for limits. 



Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector Effluent Limits Regulation 



The ICS Limits Regulation, in addition to specifying individual plant loading limits, sets the 
following additional compliance requirements for all ICS plants: 

• process and cooling water effluents must be non-acutely lethal to rainbow trout 
and Daphnia magna (water fleas); 

• chronic toxicity testing must be performed on all process effluents following 
twelve consecutive months of acutely non-lethal test results; 

• process effluents must be discharged within the pH range of 6.0 to 9.5. 

ICS plants will have up to three years to come into compliance with the limits requirements. The 
three year period allows time to install capital equipment and to implement the necessary 
pollution prevention and control strategies. 

Contaminant loading reductions for the Sector (excluding contributions from General Chemical 
Canada) after implementation of the limits regulation are estimated at about 2100 tonnes per year. 

The proposed Effluent Limits Regulation for the ICS represents a significant step forward in the 
overall protection of human health and aquatic life in Ontario and is a step forward towards the 
Ministry's goal of the virtual elimination of persistent toxic substances. 



VI 



CHAPTER 1 



THE MISA INITIATIVE 



DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR THE ESfORGANIC 
CHEMICAL SECTOR EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 



Chapter 1 - The MISA Initiative 



1.0 THE MISA PROGRAM 

The Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement (MISA) program was officially announced by 
the Ontario Ministry of the Environment in the White Paper of June 1986'. MISA is a regulatory 
program for reducing water pollution from both industrial and municipal dischargers. The 
ultimate goal of the MISA program is the virtual elimination of persistent toxic contaminants 
from all discharges into Ontario's waterways. 

Under the MISA program for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS), technology-based effluent 
limits are being imposed on each ICS plant with process effluent as a minimiun pollution control 
requirement. In addition, more stringent effluent limits may be imposed on a site-specific basis 
in order to provide added protection to sensitive receiving waters. 

The MISA program to develop technology-based effluent limits for the ICS involved two phases. 
In the first phase, an Effluent Monitoring Regulation which was promulgated in 1989, required 
each direct discharger in the ICS to monitor for a period of twelve months its point source 
effluent streams at regular intervals according to specific sampling and analytical protocols and 
procedures. 

In the second phase, effluent limits were developed based on the effluent monitoring data and on 
Best Available Technology Economically Achievable (BATE A). 

The Effluent Limits Regulation for the ICS was developed in consultation with industry and the 
public. Consultation has been facilitated through the ICS Joint Technical Committee (JTC) made 
up of representatives from industry, Environment Canada and the Ministry. Public consultation 
is being facilitated through a sixty-day public review and comment period. 

The Ministry is committed to keeping abreast of available pollution prevention and control 
technologies. The Effluent Limits Regulation for the ICS will be reviewed in the future at 
regular time periods and tightened as new technology developments take place. Through this 
process of ongoing evaluation and step-by-step reductions, MISA's ultimate goal to virtually 
eliminate the discharge of toxic contaminants will be achieved. This goal is consistent with 
Ontario's commitment to the protection and improvement of our natural water resources, and is 
in step with the provisions of The Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin 
Ecosystem^ and the Canada-United States Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement^. 



1.1 THE EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION DEVELOPMENT PROCESS 

In 1989, the Ministry initiated the MISA Issue Resolution Process in order to establish standard 
procedures and criteria for the development of consistent and equitable effluent limits regulations. 
Special working groups called Issue Resolution Committees (IRCs) were formed. The working 
groups included representatives from the Ministry, industry and municipalities. 



Chapter 1 - The MISA Initiative 



Environment Canada and the MISA Advisory Committee were asked to comment on the proposed 
effluent limits development process and their comments and concerns were carefully assessed in 
the final IRC deliberations. 

The general process described in the IRC final report summary'' and the IRC Committee Reports' 
was followed in developing the effluent limits regiilation for the ICS. This process consisted of 
the following basic steps: 

STEP 1: EFFLUENT MONTTOREVG 

Under the Effluent Monitoring Regulation for the ICS*, direct dischargers were required 
to conduct one year of effluent monitoring for a comprehensive list of contaminants. On 
a Sector- wide basis, 154 parameters were monitored at daily, thrice- weekly, weekly, 
monthly, quarterly and semi-annual fi-equencies in process, combined, batch, cooling 
water, storm water, emergency overflow and waste disposal site effluents. 

STEP 2: CANDroATE PARAMETER SELECTION 

Statistical tests were applied to the effluent monitoring data to determine candidate 
parameters for effluent limits setting. A monitored parameter was selected for 
consideration for effluent limits unless a proportion of 0.9 of the concentration results had 
values less than the Regulation Method Detection Limit (RMDL) for that parameter. 

STEP 3: QA/QC DATA ASSESSMENT 

Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data were assessed to determine the suitability 
of the effluent monitoring data for use in limits setting. Data which were considered 
suspect or xmreliable were eliminated from further consideration. 

STEP 4: BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY (BAT) IDENTIFICATION 

Through a consultant study', available pollution control technologies in the world were 
identified and screened on the basis of applicability and treatment effectiveness. Best 
available technologies were identified from the list of available technologies according to 
the criteria outlined in the Issue Resolution Committee Report on Best Available 
Technology'. 

BAT technologies were reviewed in order to identify their predicted performance and 
costs if retrofitted at Ontario ICS plants. 

STEP 5: ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT 

The performance and cost information for each BAT Option were used to derive 
abatement cost functions to show the relationship between increasingly stringent levels of 
control and the costs of achieving them. The financial and economic consequences 



Chapter 1 - The MISA Initiative 



associated with imposing the different levels of control were used to determine the 
economic achievability and thus the preferred BAT Option for the ICS. 

STEP 6: EFFLUENT LEVCTTS SETTING 

Effluent limits were developed using the treatment data from the BAT Report* and from 
ICS plants with BAT treatment following the general procedures outlined in the Issue 
Resolution Committee reports on Monitoring Data Analysis, Limit Setting and Form of 
Limits. 

Specific parameter limits were based on BAT performance data consisting of long term 
average loading values and appropriate variability factors to produce daily and monthly 
average limits equivalent to ninety-nine (P99) and ninety-five (P95) percentile values, 
respectively. 

The Effluent Limits Regtilation' for the ICS specifies all of the legal discharge requirements for 
each of the ICS plants. The Regulation requires compliance with discharge loading limits, 
lethality limits and requirements for flow measurement and reporting. 

The Effluent Limits Regulation will be promiilgated under Section 136 of the Ontario 
Environmental Protection Act and will require ICS plants to achieve regulatory compliance within 
three years of the promulgation date of the regtilation. This will allow ICS plants sufficient time 
to implement the necessary pollution prevention and control strategies and to install the necessary 
capital equipment. 



Chapter 1 - The MISA Initiative 



1.2 REFERENCES 

1. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement 
(MISA). A Policy and Program Statement of the Government of Ontario on Controlling 
Municipal and Industrial Discharges into Surface Waters", June 1986, Queen's Printer. 

2. Environment Canada "The Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting The Great Lakes Basin 
Ecosystem", April 1994. 

3. International Joint Commission (1978), "Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, with 
annexes and terms of reference between the United States and Canada", Ottawa, Ontario 
(1978). 

4. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "MISA Issues Resolution Process Final Report 
Summary", September, 1991, ISBN 0-7729-8974-5, Queen's Printer. 

5. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "MISA Issues Resolution Process - Issue Resolution 
Committee Reports", June 1990, ISBN 0-7729-7354-7, Queen's Printer. 

6. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "The Development Document for the Effluent 
Monitoring Regulation of the Inorganic Chemical Sector", July 1989, ISBN 0-7729-5700- 

2. 

7. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd., for Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "Global 
Search for Bat Options Applicable to Inorganic Chemical Sector Plants", October 
1992, ISBN 0-7778-0210-4, Queen's Printer 

8. CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd., for Ontario Ministry of the Envirormient, "Performance da 
Cost Evaluation of Best Available Technology Options for the Ontario Inorganic 
Chemical Sector", October 1992, ISBN 0-7778-0209-0, Queen's Printer. 

9. Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, Ontario Regulation ???/9? under the 
Environmental Protection Act, "Effluent Monitoring and Effluent Limits ~ Inorganic 
Chemical Sector", 1993. 



CHAPTER 2 



THE INORGANIC CHEMICAL SECTOR (ICS) 



DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR THE INORGANIC 
CHEMICAL SECTOR EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



2.0 INTRODUCTION 

This chapter includes a brief introductory description of inorganic chemical manufacturing and 
the types of wastewaters generated. Also included is an overview of production processes, water 
use and wastewater treatment at each of the Ontario ICS plants. 



2.1 INORGANIC CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING 

In the early days of development, chemistry was divided into fields of organic chemistry which 
was concerned with living organisms, and inorganic chemistry which covered all other substances. 
Inorganic chemistry today remains a major branch of chemistry that is re-defined to embrace most 
substances except those containing carbon chains. 

The inorganic chemical industry processes and refines naturally occurring inorganic raw materials 
into a wide variety of products such as acids, bases, fertilizers, explosives, carbon black, detergent 
additives, bleaches and industrial gases. These materials themselves are used in the production 
of other finished products such as dyes, plastics and drugs. Process operations which are 
commonly used in the industry include purification, particle size reduction, drying, evaporation, 
melting, absorption and electrolytic reactions. 

The majority of raw materials used in the inorganic chemical industry are naturally occurring 
substances and are generally extracted fi-om the earth's crust. For instance, common table salt 
is a raw material for such chemicals as chlorine, caustic soda and sodium chlorate. These 
chemicals, in turn, are important ingredients for the production of wood pulp, plastics, bleaches, 
glass, detergents and aluminum. 

Gypsum rock when calcined loses its water and is used to make plaster board while bauxite, 
which is approximately 80% aluminum oxide, is the primary ingredient for abrasive grains. The 
fertilizer indvistry uses air and natural gas as raw materials in the manxxfacture of nitrogen 
fertilizer products. Brine solutions pumped fi-om wells and quarried limestone are the main 
components used for manufacturing products such as soda ash, calcium chloride, caustic soda and 
chlorine gas. 

Wastewater generated from inorganic chemical manufacturing facilities typically contains 
conventional and toxic contaminants by virtue of the nature of the products manufactured. 
Conventional contaminants include suspended solids, acids, bases, chlorides, sulphates, 
phosphorus, oil and grease and nitrogen compounds. Toxic contaminants include cyanide, heavy 
metals and a number of organic contaminants. Organic contaminants are usually associated with 
cleaning solvents and degreasers from plant maintenance operations and on-site laboratories. 

Physical-chemical treatment systems, flow equalization, neutralization, sedimentation, filtration, 
flocculation, ion-exchange and steam stripping are used in the industry to control the discharge 
of pollutants to siirface watercourses. The use of biological systems for carbon removal from 
wastewater is not practical for this industry due to the relatively low levels of organic 
contaminants found. 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



2.2 PROFILE OF THE INORGANIC CHEMICAL SECTOR (ICS) IN ONTARIO 

For the purposes of the Limits Regulation, the ICS is defined to include all direct discharging 
plants, primarily engaged in the processing, manufacturing, packaging or blending of inorganic 
chemicals. Inactive inorganic chemical sites which continue to have direct point source 
discharges to surface watercourses are also included. 

The ICS in Ontario is diverse in terms of plant size and products manufactured. It consists of 
twenty-five plants of which eight are located in south-western Ontario, nine in the Niagara 
peninsula, five in eastern Ontario, two in the north-east part of the province and one in central 
Ontario. The plants each employ from six to five hundred people and range from small single 
product facilities such as abrasives, carbon dioxide, sulphuric acid, explosives and carbon black 
plants to large multi-product facilities such as fertilizer plants. Figure 1 shows the location of 
the ICS plants. 

Physical-chemical treatment processes as well as in-plant water management measures are 
currently used in the Sector to reduce contaminant loadings to receiving waters. Currently, some 
plants do not provide treatment while others provide varying levels of treatment. 

Four ICS plants are not included in the Effluent Limits Regulation although they were subject 
to the Effluent Monitoring Regxilation. Table 2.1 lists the plants and the reasons why they were 
eliminated. These plants are excluded from any further discussion in this development document. 



Table 2.1 
ICS Plants Excluded From The Effluent Limits Regulation 



Plant 


Location 


Reason for Exclusion 


Allied Chemicals Canada 


Amherstburg 


Mothballed in August, 1992 


Canadian Liquid Air 


Courtright 


Shutdown in November, 1989 


Cyanamid Canada Inc 


Niagara Falls 


Shutdown in April, 1992 


Fiberglas Canada Inc 


Samia 


Shutdown in May, 1990 



On July 14, 1994, ICI Canada Inc., issued a news release announcing the closing of the chlor- 
alkali unit at its Cornwall plant site by the end of October 1994. 



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Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



2.3 SECTOR OVERVIEW OF PRODUCTION PROCESSES, WATER USE AND 
WASTEWATER TREATMENT 

This Section provides an overview of the ICS plants summarizing details such as types of 
processes used at each facility, number of employees, water use and wastewater treatment. Further 
details on ICS plants are provided in the Ontario ICS BAT Study Report' 



Albright and Wilson Americas - Port Maitland. 

The Albright and Wilson plant is located in Port Maitland at the mouth of the Grand River on 
Lake Erie. The plant employs approximately seventy people in the manufacture of phosphoric 
acid and various sodium and potassium phosphates. 

Sodium based phosphates are used as water softeners in detergents. Potassium based phosphates 
are used as inhibitors in automotive engine coolants, as additives in coffee creamers and in liquid 
detergents. 

Phosphoric acid is produced by burning yellow phosphorus in air and then adding water to the 
oxide to give the required product acid concentration. This acid is then reacted with sodium and 
potassium salts to produce the various industrial phosphate products. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

The site discharges approximately 6000 cubic metres per day of effluent into the Grand River via 
the Welland feeder canal. 

The final effluent is made up mostly of once-through cooling water, with some additions from 
ion-exchanger backwashes and water softener columns. Once-through cooling water is used for 
non-contact cooling of phosphoric acid and liquid potassium phosphate products. A cooling 
tower is used to cool water from the furnace burner, hydrator and venturi jackets. Process 
wastewater generated in the manufacturing operation is stored in a lagoon for process recycle. 



Cabot Canada Ltd - Samia. 

The Cabot Canada facility is located in Samia and employs approximately 180 people. It 
manufactures carbon black by the oil fiimace process. Carbon black is used in the manufacture 
of automotive tires, inks, paint pigments and carbon paper. 

Aromatic tars are heated in the presence of air in a refractory lined fiimace where they are 
cracked at approximately 1,600 degrees Celsius into carbon and a waste gas stream of hydrogen, 
carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The carbon is recovered as a powdered product while the 
hydrogen is used as a source of energy for the waste heat boilers. 



10 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water is supplied from nearby Polysar Limited. Water is used in the process as a quench 
to control the temperature after the cracking reaction and is also added in the pelletizing process. 

All storm water that accimiulates on site is collected and treated with alum to precipitate 
suspended solids in a settling lagoon. Wastewater is then passed through sand filter beds before 
final discharge to Talford Creek at a daily rate of approximately 2200 cubic metres. The lagoon 
also collects water from boiler blowdowns, air conditioning xmits and wash water. A second 
lagoon is used as stand-by. 



Columbian Chemicals Ltd. 

The plant is located in Hamilton near the Burlington Skyway. It employs about 120 people in 
the manufacture of carbon black using the furnace process. 

The fiimace feedstock consisting of petroleum hydrocarbon, coal tar distillate and small amounts 
of caustic potash is cracked at about 1,600 degrees Celsius. The products are carbon black and 
a gas stream of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The carbon black is cooled 
using quench water and sent to a classifier. Baghouses separate the product from the gas stream. 
Hydrogen is recovered as a source of energy for the boilers and dryers. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water comes from Hamilton Harbour and from the City of Hamilton municipal supply. 
The water is used as non-contact cooling water, quench water, bead water or for steam. 

Process, cooling and production area storm water is collected in simips and reused as quench 
spray. Boiler water treatment residuals and boiler blowdown are discharged to the mimicipal 
sanitary sewer. The only discharges off the site are storm water flows from outside of the 
production areas. 



Cvtec Canada Inc. (formerly Cyanamid Canada Inc). - Welland plant. 

The name of the Welland plant was changed from Cyanamid to Cytec in 1993. It is located on 
the south side of Niagara Falls on the Welland River. It presently employs approximately 85 
people in the manufacture of phosphine and phosphine derivatives. The Welland plant has one 
final effluent discharging 7000 cubic metres per day into Miller's Creek which in turn flows into 
the Welland River. 

A small on-site operation also manufactures electronic grade chemicals, however, there is no 
effluent discharged from the unit. Phosphine gas is produced by reacting yellow phosphorus with 
steam in a reactor. Other derivatives are also produced from the phosphine gas. 



11 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Dicyandiamide and cyanamide solution manufacturing operations were shutdown in 1992. Prior 
to May 1987, the plant manufactured nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, urea and calcium phosphate. 
Ammonia was also produced prior to May 1990. These products are no longer manufactured. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment. 

Intake water is supplied from the Welland River. Wastewaters are generated from boiler 
blowdowns. Wastewater also originates from once-through cooling water streams and a sludge 
pond. All process units discharge into Miller's Creek which runs through the Cyanamid property. 
There is a sludge pond on site which receives waste sludge material from the phosphine plant. 

In the past, the final discharge from this facility was subject to sudden pH and specific 
conductance spikes. Cytec has since provided equalization of the effluent upstream of its final 
sampling location to reduce the impact of these surges on the final discharge. 



The Exolon - ESK Company of Canada Ltd - Thorold. 

The Exolon - ESK facility, located in Thorold, produces aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and 
ferro-silicon for use in the manufacture of various types of abrasive tools. It employs 
approximately 100 people. 

Aluminum oxide is manufactured by fiising bauxite ore with a small amount of coke in an 
electric-arc furnace. The melt is poured into ladles where it cools and solidifies. This solid 
material is then crushed to produce the final abrasive grains. Ferro-silicon, a by-product, is also 
recovered from the ladle bottoms. 

Silicon carbide is manufactured by reacting sand and coke, at 2,000 degrees Celsius, in a 
horizontal furnace. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water is obtained from the Welland River. The plant has one final effluent stream which 
discharges at a rate of 9600 cubic metres per day into Beaverdam pond and eventually to Lake 
Gibson. 

Water is used to provide cooling for furnace shells, transformers, and ladles. All the cooling 
water is sent to a sedimentation pond before discharge to Beaverdam Pond. Storm water from 
the plant discharges with the final effluent. 



E T I Explosives Technologies International - North Bay. 

Explosives Technologies International is located in North Bay and employs approximately 185 
people. The plant was sold by Du Pont Canada in 1988 to Canadian Investment Capital and now 
operates imder the name of Explosives Technologies International. 



12 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



The plant presently manufactures two types of explosives, ANFO (a mixttire of ammonium nitrate 
and fuel oil) which is sold under the trade name of "Nilite", and water gel explosives. Until 
1985, the facility, as part of Du Pont Canada, also produced ammonium nitrate and nitric acid. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water is supplied from Lake Nipissing. In the water gel process, water is used for making 
water gel solutions, equipment washdowns, reworking waste solutions and general hoiisekeeping. 
Most of this water is recycled. However, a portion is purged and sent to a holding pond on site. 
In the summer the wastewater from the pond is sprayed on land adjacent to the pond. Water is 
used at the ANFO operation for wash-downs and is collected and sent to the holding pond. 

TTie plant discharges its wastewater at a daily rate of approximately 900 cubic metres through one 
outfall into La Vase Lake. This wastewater consists of excess intake water from Lake Nipissing, 
once-through cooling water, boiler blowdown, surface run-off from the old ammonium 
nitrate/nitric acid plant areas and leachate from the irrigated sections of land. In addition, there 
are three storm ditches draining the property. 



General Chemical Canada Ltd - Amherstburg. 

General Chemical Canada Ltd. is located beside the Detroit River just outside the town of 
Amherstburg. It employs approximately 500 people and manufactures soda ash and calcium 
chloride. Allied Chemicals Canada Inc. manufactured Genetrons™ (chlorofluorocarbons) and 
hydrogen fluoride at the same complex until April 1992. General Chemical Canada has two 
outfalls which discharge into the Detroit River, the North Drain and the Main Drain. 

Soda ash is used as a major raw material in the manufacture of sodium salts, glass, detergents, 
and for pH control. Principal uses of calcium chloride include dust control and maintenance of 
secondary roads, freeze conditioning for coal and ores, as a conditioner for concrete and as a 
dehydrating agent. 

Soda ash is produced by the Solvay process. Ammoniated brine solution is carbonated and then 
heated to form sodium carbonate product and by-product calcium chloride. The calcium chloride 
solution containing sodium chloride, lime, inert solids and ammonia is pumped to the calcium 
chloride plant where it is clarified and concentrated to produce a final product. Excess liquid and 
inert solids are sent to the soda ash settling basin. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water is pumped from the Detroit River. Wastewater generated from the soda ash plant 
is sent for processing to the calcium chloride plant. After calcium chloride recovery, the 
wastewater is pumped to the soda ash basin for settling of solid material. 



' Genetron is a registered trade maik of Allied Chemicals Canada Inc. for its chlorofluorocaibon product 



13 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Effluent from the soda ash basin is discharged at the rate of 15,000 cubic metres per day via the 
North Drain to the Detroit River. Waste streams from the lime kihis, boiler blowdowns and 
barometric condensers are sent to the Main Drain which discharges at a daily rate of 
approximately 200,000 cubic metres. 

A consultant study by Woodard and Curran^ was undertaken in October 1993 on behalf of the 
Ministry and General Chemical to look at in-process changes or the use of Main Drain dilution 
to render the North Drain effluent non-toxic. The study found no economically achievable 
method of ensuring ongoing compliance with the toxicity requirements of the limits regulation 
for the North Drain. 



ICI Canada Inc. - Cornwall. 

The ICI chlor-alkali plant, which dates back to 1935, is located in Cornwall and employs 
approximately 160 people. It shares the same manufacturing complex with Cornwall Chemicals 
Ltd., a producer of carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulphide. 

The chlor-alkali plant produces caustic soda, caustic potash, chlorine, hydrogen, hydrochloric 
acid, chlorinated paraffins and sodium hypochlorite. These are used in the manufacture of 
various products including PVC plastics, bleaches and in the treatment of wood pulp. 

Chlorine and caustic soda are produced from the electrolytic decomposition of brine solution in 
a mercury cell where the mercury forms the cell cathode and a parallel steel mesh, the anode. 
An electric current is passed through a flowing brine solution liberating chlorine at the anode and 
sodium metal at the mercury cathode. The sodium-mercury amalgam flows to a decomposer 
where water is added to react with the sodium to form sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. 
Potassium hydroxide is also manufactured when potassi\mi chloride is used in place of the brine 
solution. 

Hydrochloric acid is produced by the combustion of chlorine and hydrogen, a by-product from 
the manufacture of caustic soda. The acid vapour is absorbed in water to form the final product. 

On Jime 14, 1994 the Company announced that the the Chlor-alkali operation will be shutdown 
at the end of October 1994. The site will continue to produce sodium hypochlorite and 
chlorinated paraffins. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water for the ICI site is largely supplied by the city of Cornwall. However during the 
summer, well water is used to supplement the city water supply. Principal water uses include 
make-up for the brine circuit, dilution for caustic solutions, seal water in brine pumps, cooling 
tower make-up, as an absorber for hydrogen chloride gas to make acid, cell room and general 
equipment wash water. 



14 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Oiemical Sector (ICS) 



Wastewater from the cell-room is treated with ferrous sulphate and sodium hydrosulphide to 
precipitate mercury. It is adjusted for pH and filtered before mixing with water from other areas 
of the plant. The combined effluent from the chlor-alkali complex discharges into the Brookdale 
Ave. sewer at a rate of approximately 4,000 cubic metres per day. 



ICI Canada Inc. fConpak) - Cornwall. 

Stanchem, a Business Unit of ICI Canada Inc., operates a filling and packaging facility in 
Comwall. The site, employing forty people, is adjacent to the Cornwall Chemical Ltd. 
manufacturing facility. It packages a nimiber of products such as liquid chlorine, sulphur dioxide, 
anhydrous anmionia, hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Wastewater from the facility is generated from container and floor washings. All washings drain 
to a central collection sump for neutralization. The effluent is batch discharged into the 
Brookdale Ave. sewer at a daily rate of approximately 30 cubic metres. 



International Minerals and Chemicals Corporation (Canada) Ltd - Port Maitland. 

The International Minerals and Chemicals plant is situated in Port Maitland, along the Grand 
River at Lake Erie. Presently employing only twelve people, this site has been shutdown since 
1984, and is now being used as a warehouse facility for imported phosphate fertilizers and animal 
feed phosphates. It has one effluent discharging into the Grand River. 

The plant maniifactured phosphoric and sulphuric acid, calcium phosphate, and various grades 
of super phosphate fertilizer. Sulphuric acid was reacted with phosphate rock to produce 
phosphoric acid and super phosphate fertilizers. To produce calciimi phosphate, limestone was 
reacted with phosphoric acid. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

There are presently five large storage ponds covering approximately 1 1 3 hectares, which contain 
gypsimi material from the old phosphoric acid production process. TTiese ponds are presently 
being drained. The pond water is neutralized with slaked lime before being discharged to the 
Grand River at a rate of approximately 2,700 cubic metres per day. Two of the ponds have been 
drained and covered with clay and grass. The remaining three ponds will be drained over the 
coming years. All storm water drains to the main sewer, where it is discharged through the 
plants main outfall. 



15 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Liquid Carbonic Inc. - Courtright. 

The Courtright site of Liquid Carbonic Inc. employs twelve people. It is adjacent to the Terra 
Industries ammonia facility which provides by-product carbon dioxide feed for processing. 

The carbon dioxide gas is compressed, cooled and liquified for storage. Some of the liquified 
carbon dioxide is used to produce dry ice. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water is received from the St. Clair River. Wastewater is discharged to the St. Clair River 
at a rate of approximately 4,900 cubic meters per day and is largely made up of once-through 
cooling water and some process condensate. 



Liquid Carbonic Inc. - Maitland 

The plant is located east of the village of Maitland. It employs 10 people in the production of 
Uquid carbon dioxide and dry ice. 

Carbon dioxide is the staring raw material. The gas goes through a series of compression and 
cooling steps to produce liquid carbon dioxide. Some of the liquid carbon dioxide is cooled and 
compressed to produce dry ice. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

An onsite well supplies about 2200 cubic metres of water per day for non-contact cooling, gas 
scrubbing. A portion of the water is softened for use as cooling tower make-up. 

All compressor condensate, once-through non-contact cooling water, cooling tower blowdown and 
any plant floor drainage is routed to an oil separator prior to discharge to the St. Lawrence River. 



Norton Advanced Ceramics of Canada Inc. - Niagara Falls 

The Norton facihty is located on the south side of the city of Niagara Falls, and employs 
approximately 255 people. The site manufactxires various types of abrasive grains including light 
Alundvun™, dark Alundum, and alumina-zirconia. Chromic oxide is also produced at this site, 
but on an infrequent basis. 

Dark Alundum is produced by fusing bauxite, coke, and iron borings in an electric arc furnace. 
Molten products are poured into moulds for cooling. The solid Alundimi is then crushed and 
ground before shipment as a granular product. 



' Alundum is a registered trade mark of Norton Canada Inc. for its aluminum oxide abrasive product 

16 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Light Alundum, which is a higher grade product, has sxilphur added during the reduction process 
and is formed into ingots and crushed. The grains are acid slaked and washed with water to 
remove iron impurities, dried and magnetically separated. 

In a separate process, calcined alimiina is received on site and fused in a furnace. The melt is 
formed into ingots from which it is broken and crushed before shipment as a more refined 
product (99.8% alimiina). Alumina-zirconia is manufactured by fusing together calcined alumina, 
zirconia, coke, and recycled fines. The melt is solidified and crushed to produce a very tough 
abrasive grain material. 

Chromic oxide is infrequently produced in batch units at this site. Tri-valent chromium oxide 
is melted and formed into ingots to produce a purer product which is then shipped after particle 
size reduction. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water for the site is pumped from the Welland River. Wastewater is generated from 
cooling water for furnace shells, power transformers, and cooling of moulds. Wash water from 
the light Alundimi process is neutralized with lime and sent to a 4.5 million gallon settling lagoon 
for solids removal. Discharge from this lagoon is then pumped into a sewer for final discharge 
to Pell Creek. Of three final discharge points, two discharge into Pell Creek while the third flows 
directly to the Welland River. The approximate total discharge for the plant site is 8600 cubic 
metres per day. 



Nutrite Inc. (formerly Nitrochem) - Maitland. 

The name of the Nitrochem plant was changed to Nutrite in 1993. The plant is located east of 
the village of Maitland along the St. Lawrence River. It employs approximately 175 people in 
the manufacture of nitric acid, ammoniimi nitrate and "nitrogen solutions". 

Nitric acid has many uses as a common acid throughout industry. Ammoniimi nitrate is used 
largely as a fertilizer and is the main ingredient in most common explosives. 

As of November 1992, ammonia manufacture was shutdown at the site. Ammonia is now 
brought in by rail car. The plant produces nitric acid from the oxidation of ammonia in air over 
a heated metal catalyst. The resulting oxides are absorbed in water to form the acid. Ammonium 
nitrate is formed when ammonia and nitric acid are mixed in a neutralizer to form approximately 
80% ammonium nitrate solution. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water, pumped from the St. Lawrence River, is used in the nitric acid absorption units, in 
the manufacture of nitrogen solutions and as make-up water for boilers and fire water systems. 



17 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



All regular process wastewaters from the boiler, compressor and cooling tower blowdowns, 
laboratory drains and water treatment régénérants are discharged to the St. Lawrence River at a 
rate of approximately 800 cubic metres per day. 

Nitrogen-containing process wastewater generated from the nitric acid and anamonium nitrate 
plants, and surface runoff from these areas flow to the equalization pond. From there the 
nitrogen-containing solution is pumped to an "Aquachem Unit" where it is concentrated for use 
as a product "nitrogen solution". The sanitary sewer effluent sewer is treated and joins regxilar 
process wastewater before the final discharge to the river. 



Partek Insulations Ltd. - Samia. 

Partek Insulations, located in Samia, employs approximately 130 people. It manufactures fibre 
insulation materials for use as roof and pipe insulation, insulating block boards and blankets, and 
loose wool and marine insiilation. 

Fibre insiilation is manufactured when basaltic rock is mixed with coke and melted at 
approximately 1 ,400 degrees Celsius in a furnace. The molten charge is then formed into fibres 
and cooled. Various chemical agents are added to the fibre to impart specific physical qualities, 
such as greater structural rigidity and dust suppression abilities. The fibres are sent to a blow- 
chamber where they are drawn to produce wool blankets of various thickness. Batt and industrial 
feh products are then cut from these blankets. Loose wool products are also manufactured. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water is supplied from the city of Samia. Wastewater generated from floor washings, 
product over-spray and furnace cooling water blowdown is sent to a retention pond for recycle 
back into the process. Once-through cooling water is used for bearing cooling and is discharged 
to the Scott Road ditch at a daily rate of approximately 20 cubic metres. A number of raw 
materials such as coke, basalt rock and slag are stored in an open area, and are a potential source 
of storm water contamination. 



Praxair Canada Inc. - Moore Township. Samia and Sault Ste. Marie. 

Praxair Canada Inc (formerly Linde, Union Carbide Canada) operates three nitrogen producing 
gas plants located in Moore Township, Samia and Sault Ste. Marie. The sites are relatively small 
employing approximately twelve people, except for the Moore Township location which has 
minimal staffing. 

The process initially consists of separating air into its constituent components. Nitrogen gas is 
extracted from the air separation process while the remaining gaseous components of air are 
vented to atmosphere except for the Sault Ste. Marie plant which in addition recovers the argon 
and oxygen. The gaseous nitrogen may either be fed directly by pipeline to nearby customers 
or may be liquified on site for storage. 



18 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water is supplied from the municipality for all three sites. The wastewater discharged 
originates from cooling tower blowdowns and storm water and is discharged at approximate daily 
rates of 12, 160 and 250 cubic metres for the Moore Township, Samia and Sault Ste. Marie sites 
respectively. 

These are no on-site wastewater treatment facilities at the three facilities. 



Puritan Bennett - Maitland. 

Puritan Bennett is a producer of nitrous oxide. The site emoploying six people, is located 
adjacent to Nutrite Inc., a supplier of ammonium nitrate, a basic raw material for nitrous oxide. 
Nitrous oxide is made by the heating of ammonium nitrate in a reactor. The gas is then purified, 
compressed and liquified. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water is drawn from an on-site well and is used largely as once-through non-contact 
cooling water. Wastewater generated from the process is sent to the Nutrite plant for treatment 
and recycle. The site discharges approximately 270 cubic meters per day of cooling water. 



Sulco Chemicals Ltd. - Elmira. 

Sulco Chemicals in Elmira employs approximately twenty people. The plant manufactures 
sulphuric acid and packages a number of acids including hydrochloric, phosphoric, sulphuric and 
hydrofluoric. 

Sulphuric acid is manufactured by burning molten sulphur at approximately 925 degrees Celsius 
in the presence of air. Sulphur dioxide is converted to sulphur trioxide after which it is sent to 
a combination of absorption towers for absorption in either 37% oleum or 99% sulphuric acid, 
depending on the required product type. Dilution of final acid with water achieves the desired 
acid concentrations. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water is supplied from the Town of Elmira. Wastewater generated from within the plant 
is sent to a 230,000 cubic metre settling pond before final discharge. Boiler blowdown, 
régénérant backwash and cooling tower blowdown in addition to storm water run-off are sources 
of wastewater that drain to the settling pond. The pond discharges at a rate of approximately 70 
cubic metres per day into the Canagagigue Creek, a tributary of the Grand River. 



19 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Terra Industries (Canada) Inc.- Courtright. 

Terra Industries Lambton Works (formerly ICI Canada's Lambton Works) is located south of the 
town of Courtright adjacent to the St. Clair River and employs 275 people. It is one of the 
largest fertilizer facilities in Canada manufactiiring ammonia, granular urea, urea solution, sulphur 
coated urea, ammonium nitrate, nitric acid, nitrogen solutions and carbon dioxide. Prior to 1986, 
the facility under ICI Canada, also produced phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphate. 

Ammonia is produced by the reaction of hydrogen gas with nitrogen over a catalyst at elevated 
temperatures and pressures. Natural gas is reformed at high temperatures to supply hydrogen, 
while nitrogen is supplied from the air. Carbon dioxide is formed as a by-product. 

Urea is manufactured by the reaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide to form ammonium 
carbamate, which is then dehydrated to give a fmal urea product solution. Solid urea is formed 
by subjecting this urea solution to granulation or prilling operations. Some of the urea is then 
coated with liquid sulphur to be sold as sulphur coated urea. 

Nitric acid is produced by reacting ammonia with air over a catalyst at high temperature to form 
nitrogen dioxide, which is then absorbed in water to produce nitric acid. Ammonium nitrate is 
manufactured by neutralizing ammonia with nitric acid to form ammonium nitrate solution. This 
solution is then "prilled" to form solid grains or prills of ammonium nitrate. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water is pumped from the St. Clair River. Process condensate from the ammonia plant 
is steam stripped to recover ammonia. 

Once-through cooling water streams from the ammonia, urea, nitrogen solutions, ammonium 
nitrate, and nitric acid plants, are combined with the process streams before fmal discharge to the 
St. Clair River. Compressor and boiler blowdowns are discharged into the cooling water streams. 
Condensate from the ammonium nitrate neutralizer, floor washings, and other wastewater from 
the ammonium nitrate prill area is used to make nitrogen fertilizer solutions. 

Process wastewater, once-through cooling water, and surface nmoff discharge to a network of 
open and closed sewers, and ditches which are combined to give a single final effluent discharge 
into the St. Clair River at a daily rate of approximately 171,000 cubic metres. 

The phospho-gypsum facilities at the Lambton Works are still owned by ICI Canada Inc. Prior 
to 1986, process water from the phosphate unit was sent to two large lagoons for solids settling 
(mostly gypsum) and cooling before being recycled. As the phosphate operation is presently 
shutdown, approximately 1.3 million cubic metres of pondwater is being stored in these lagoons. 
The water contains fluorides, ammonia, phosphates and low levels of dinitrptoluene. 



20 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



UCAR Carbon Canada Inc. - Welland. 

UCAR Carbon employs approximately 450 people at its location on the Old Welland Ship Canal. 
It manufactures graphite and carbon electrodes and cathode blocks. 

Carbon electrodes are manufactured by mixing calcined anthracite coal with coal tar pitch and 
stearic acid. The mix is cooled to a suitable temperature for extrusion to carbon blocks. These 
blocks are baked at a temperature of approximately 1 ,000 degrees Celsiixs for conversion of the 
pitch binder to coke. 

Graphite electrodes are similarly produced except that petroleum coke is used instead of anthracite 
coal. An additional processing step is included for producing graphite electrodes, where the 
carbon electrode is impregnated with petroleum pitch and heated to 3,000 degrees Celsius to 
convert the amorphous carbon to graphite. 

Carbon electrodes are used in alloy furnaces. Graphite electrodes are used in electric arc furnaces 
while cathode blocks are used in aluminum smelters. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water to the site is pumped from the Old Welland Ship Canal. Wastewater fi-om the plant 
originates as cooling water for furnace heads, compressors and fan bearings. 

Two direct wastewater discharges of approximately 200 and 6300 cubic metres per day are in the 
process of being eliminated through water-use reductions, operational changes and rerouting to 
the mimicipal sanitary sewer. A third outfall discharges once-through cooling water and storm 
water at a daily rate of approximately 600 cubic metres. A waste disposal site is located on the 
south side of the facility and contains solid carbonaceous material, coke, coal and slag. The site 
also receives waste sludge from a pulp and paper mill which is sprayed on plant property adjacent 
to the manufacturing operations. 



Washineton Mills Electro Minerals Corporation - Niagara Falls. 

Washington Mills Electro Minerals Corporation (formerly Electro-Minerals Canada Inc.) is 
located on Stanley Avenue in Niagara Falls. The plant manufactures various grades of abrasive 
metallic rods and employs approximately 100 people. Products include brown alumina, pink 
alumina, alumina bubbles, ferro-silicon, fused mag-chrome and ferro-carbo briquettes. 

All products are manufactured by similar processes and differ only in starting raw materials. 
Raw materials are weighed and fed into a furnace in definite proportions where they are fused 
together and poured into moulds for cooling. 

The cooled solid material is then crushed, sorted and screened to yield the final product. Major 
raw materials include bauxite, coke, iron borings, white alumina, chromic oxide, ferro-silicon, 
magnesite and chrome ore. 



21 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water is pumped from the Welland River. Process water generated from within the plant 
is mostly contaminated cooling water from furnace heads and power transformers. Wastewater 
is sent to one of two lagoons. The major portion flows to the Queen Lagoon for solids reduction 
and oil and grease removal. Part of the wastewater from this lagoon is recirculated to the plant, 
while the rest is discharged into Pell Creek at an approximate rate of 8,000 cubic metres per day. 

The Old Lagoon accepts wastewater from the west side of the plant and discharges into the 

Stanley Avenue sewer at an approximate daily rate of 10,000 cubic metres. 

t 

Storm water from the plant is discharged through several locations into the Stanley Ave. sewer 
and from one location to Pell Creek. 



Washington Mills Limited - Niagara Falls. 

Washington Mills Ltd., located in the south end of the City of Niagara Falls, employs 
approximately 35 people. The facility manufactures aluminum oxide abrasive grains, crude 
aluminum oxide and ferro-silicon. 

Both aluminum products are manufactured in an electric-arc furnace where bauxite, coke and kon 
filings are fused together to give the aluminxmi oxide melt. The melt is poured into cooling pots 
for solidification, removed from the cooling pots and broken-down to form the final product. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water is supplied from the Welland River and is used for cooling the furnace shell and 
melt pots. The spent cooling water is collected in open channels where it flows to a cooling pond 
for solids settling and aeration. This water is partially recirctilated into the process. A separate 
closed cooling water system is provided for cooling the furnace transformer and cables. Make-up 
water for this system is supplied from the city water supply. 

The plant has one effluent discharge into Chippawa Creek which drains to the Welland River at 
a daily rate of approximately 2000 cubic metres. 

Storm water from the plant is collected in catch basins and combined with the cooling pond 
discharge effluent before final discharge. Storm water is also discharged separately into 
Chippawa Creek at a location downstream of the process effluent location. 



22 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Welland Chemical Ltd. - Samia. 

Welland Chemical Ltd., located on Scott Road in Samia, employs approximately 60 people. The 
plant manufacturers anhydrous aluminum chloride, sodium hypochlorite, and packages chlorine 
gas. A once-through cooling water stream discharges into Talford Creek. 

Aliiminum chloride is produced by melting aluminum ingots in a furnace and passing gaseous 
chlorine through the melt. The gaseous aluminum chloride is then condensed and crystallized 
on the condenser walls. The crystals are removed periodically for crushing, screening, and 
packaging. 

Liquid chlorine is received in tank cars and re-packaged into 150 pound cylinders and one tonne 
containers. The cylinders and containers are degassed and steam cleaned on site before they are 
filled. Sodium hypochlorite solution is also produced by directing residual chlorine to caustic 
reactors to produce a 15% sodium hypochlorite solution which is packaged into small plastic 
containers for distribution. 

Aluminum chloride is used as a catalyst in the petroleum, pharmaceutical and other related 
industries. Chlorine is used for disinfecting water, in the manufacture of chlorinated 
hydrocarbons, plastics, and other chemicals. Sodium hypochlorite is used as a bleach and 
disinfectant. 

Water Use and Wastewater Treatment 

Intake water is supplied from the city of Samia. Water is used to vaporize liquid chlorine, to 
washdown the chlorine packaging areas and in the sodium hypochlorite units. Once-through 
cooling water is used for compressor and condenser cooling. 

There are two on-site wastewater lagoons. The first collection lagoon collects wastewater from 
settling tanks, and wash water from the packaging, bulk loading and shipping areas. Three 
settling tanks collect wastewater originating from equipment washdowns in the aluminirai chloride 
operation and from storm water nm-off. 

A second lagoon is used for treating effluent from the collection lagoon before it is finally batch 
discharged into Talford Creek at rates of approximately 130 cubic metres per batch. 



23 



Chapter 2 - The Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



2.4 REFERENCES 



1 . Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "Performance and Cost Evaluation of Best Available 
Technology Options for the Ontario Inorganic Chemical Sector", October 1992, 
ISBN O-7778-0209-0, Queen's Printer. 

2. Woodard and Curran Environmental Services, Portland Maine, "Discharge Improvement 
Study For General Chemical Canada Ltd.", May, 1994. 



24 



CHAPTER 3 



THE EFFLUENT MONITORING DATABASE 



DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR THE INORGANIC 
CHEMICAL SECTOR EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 



25 



Chapter 3 - The Effluent Monitoring Database - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

3.0 INTRODUCTION 

This Chapter describes the sources of information and databases used in the development of the 
Effluent Limits Regulation for the ICS. 



3.1 PRE-REGULATION MONITORING PROGRAM 

In order to generate a database for use as a basis for selecting parameters for the Effluent 
Monitoring Regulation, ICS plants in consultation with the Ministry, conducted a voluntary pre- 
regulation monitoring program for all process and batch effluent streams. Intake water was also 
monitored at the majority of the sites. 

Monitoring generally consisted of four days of composite sampling for the full list of Effluent 
Monitoring Priority Pollutant List (EMPPL) compounds,''^ (excluding resin and fatty acids), and 
for a selected list of conventional parameters. The EMPPL is a list of toxic pollutants that have 
been detected or are potentially present in Ontario municipal and industrial effluents. 

In addition to the target parameters on the EMPPL, open characterization for organic chemicals 
and inorganic elements was conducted. Mass spectrometry /gas chromatography and plasma 
techniques were used on at least two of the four sets of composite samples to identify additional 
parameters not on the EMPPL that may have been present in the effluent. The Ministry also took 
an audit sample at each plant during one of the four sampling days. Historical data, where 
available, was used to supplement the pre-regulation monitoring database. 



3.2 THE ICS EFFLUENT MONITORING REGULATION 

Effluent monitoring data for the ICS plants was collected as a regulatory requirement of the 
general Ontario Regulation 695/88 as amended by Ontario Regulation 533/89, and the sector- 
specific Ontario Regulation 395/89 and its amendment, Ontario Regulation 649/89. 

Plant Sites Covered under the Monitoring Regulation 

Twenty-two plants, included initially in the ICS, began regulatory monitoring on December 1, 
1989 under Ontario Regulation 395/89. Seven industrial gas plants were added later for twelve 
months of monitoring as of February 1, 1990 under an amendment by Ontario Regulation 649/89. 

One plant, Canadian Liquid Air, Courtright, was shutdown in 1989 before monitoring 
commenced, while a second site, Fiberglas Canada, Samia, ceased production half-way through 
the monitoring period in May, 1990. Table 3.1 provides a summary of ICS plants which were 
included in the Effluent Monitoring Regulation. 



26 



Chapter 3 - The Effluent Monitoring Database - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

Table 3.1 
Plants Included In The ICS Effluent Monitoring Regulation 



Plant Name 


Location 


Albright and Wilson Americas 


Port Maitland 


Allied Chemicals Canada Inc.' 


Amherstburg 


Cabot Canada Ltd. 


Sarnia 


Canadian Liquid Air^ 


Courtright 


Columbian Chemicals Ltd. 


Hamilton 


Cyanamid Canada Inc. (Niagara Plant)^ 


Niagara Falls 


Cytec Canada Inc. (Cyanamid) - (Welland plant) 


Niagara Falls 


Explosives Technologies International 


North Bay 


The Exolon-ESK Company of Canada Ltd. 


Thorold 


Fiberglas Canada Inc." 


Sarnia 


General Chemical Canada Ltd. 


Amherstburg 


ICI Canada Inc. (formerly C-l-L) 


Cornwall 


ICI Canada Inc.- Conpak (formerly Stanchem) 


Cornwall 


International Minerals and Chemicals Ltd. 


Port Maitland 


Liquid Carbonic Inc. 


Courtright 


Liquid Carbonic Inc. 


Maitland 


Nitrochem Inc. 


Maitland 


Norton Advanced Ceramics of Canada Inc. 


Niagara Falls 


Partek Insulations Ltd 


Sarnia 


Praxair Canada Inc. (formerly Linde) 


Moore Township 


Praxair Canada Inc. (formerly Linde) 


Sarnia 


Praxair Canada Inc. (formerly Linde) 


Sault Ste. Marie 


Puritan Bennett Corporation 


Maitland 


Sulco Chemicals Limited 


Elmira 


Terra Industries (Canada) Inc. (formerly CIL/ICI) 


Courtright 


UCAR Carbon Canada Inc. 


Welland 


Washington Mills Electro Minerals Corporation 


Niagara Falls 


Washington Mills Limited 


Niagara Falls 


Welland Chemical Limited 


Sarnia 



1 - Allied Chemical was mothballed in August/92. 

2 - Canadian Liquid Air was shutdown before the monitoring period commenced on Dec. 1/89. 

3 - Cyanamid's Niagara plant was shutdown in May/92. 

4 - Fiberglas Canada was shutdown in May/90. 



27 



Chapter 3 - The Effluent Monitoring Database - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

Monitoring Regulation Requirements 

Under the Monitoring Regulation, each ICS plant was required to monitor its process and 
combined effluent streams for the ICS characterization list of contaminants on at least a semi- 
annual basis. The characterization list contains one himdred and fifty-four contaminants of which 
sixteen are classified as conventional pollutants. 

Selected parameters from the characterization list were required to be monitored on a more 
fi-equent basis including daily, thrice-weekly, weekly and monthly. Once-through cooling water 
was monitored monthly. 

An open scan was also required as part of the characterization analysis to identify and 
approximately quantify additional organic and elemental contaminants present in the effluent 
stream and not listed on the EMPPL. If confirmed to be present, these additional contaminants 
will be subject to a hazard assessment for possible future additions to the EMPPL. 

Intake water monitoring was not a regtilatory requirement but seventeen of the twenty-eight sites 
provided some intake monitoring data. 

Monthly acute toxicity testing of process type effluent streams using trout and Daphnia magna 
was a requirement of the Regulation. Once-through cooling water final effluent streams were 
required to be monitored for toxicity on a quarterly basis. 

The Effluent Monitoring Regulation also specified field Quality Assurance/Quality Control 
(QA/QC) requirements for each site. Field duplicates, travelling blanks and travelling spiked 
blanks were required monthly or quarterly, depending on the specific parameter's monitoring 
frequency. To verify the quality of the monitoring data, the Ministry collected at least one 
inspection sample during the monitoring period at each site with process effluent streams. 

The rationale used for parameter selection and monitoring frequency assignment is contained in 
the development document for the Effluent Monitoring Regulation for the ICS^ 

Database Size 

Approximately 226,000 data points were collected during the twelve-month monitoring period 
for twenty-eight plants discharging process, combined, batch, once-through cooling water, storm 
water and waste disposal site effluent streams. 

Approximately 36,000 of these data points were collected for field QA/QC, while 9,000 were 
generated from Ministry inspection sampling. 



28 



Chapter 3 - The Effluent Monitoring Database - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Results of the Twelve-Month Effluent Monitoring Program 



Twenty-eight plants monitored their effluent streams for the twelve-month regulated monitoring 
period. The results of the monitoring program are presented in a separate reporf* which includes 
site-specific concentration/loading tables of "found" parameters and plots of selected conventional 
contaminants. 

A total of 138 EMPPL parameters were specified for monitoring in the regulation of which 86 
were found with mean concentrations at or above the Regulation Method Detection Limit 
(RMDL). The RMDL is the maximum allowable method detection limit for a laboratory 
providing data under the Regulation. 

Within the Sector, the largest dischargers of conventional contaminants^ include General 
Chemical Canada Ltd., (Amherstburg) and Terra Industries (Canada) Inc., (Courtright). These 
plants also have relatively high effluent discharge flowrates. 

Aluminum, boron, strontium and zinc were commonly foimd across the Sector. Other metals 
were found in effluents at less than one quarter of the plant locations. Several of the metals were 
foimd in the intake water at comparable levels to the effluent streams. Aluminum is often present 
in suspended clay particles in raw water while boron is foimd naturally in water. Strontium, like 
calcium, is a naturally occurring constituent of hard water. 

Many of the metals may originate as constituents of process materials, equipment corrosion and 
catalysts. Vanadium and antimony may be related to process catalysts at some sites while 
chromium (III), copper, nickel, lead, and zinc may be products of equipment corrosion. 
Hexavalent chromiimi was only found in effluents fi-om two facilities. 

Arsenic, antimony, and seleniimi were found in effluents at eight plants. 

Organic contaminants made up the majority of the remaining EMPPL parameters that were found. 
The number of detections and the loading were both relatively low, in part because only one of 
the plants. Allied Chemical, manufactured organic chemicals. The plant has since been shutdown. 

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were found in effluents 
fi:om eleven plants at concentrations greater than the RMDL. The quantification is inconclusive 
for eight plants since the results are based on a small number of samples. PCDDs/PCDFs in the 
effluents at two plants were at comparable levels to those in the intake water. 

Toxicity test results indicated that the majority of ICS plant effluents were not acutely lethal to 
rainbow trout and Daphnia magna . However, some acute lethalities to Daphnia magna were 
observed. 



Conventional contaminants include total suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, oil and grease, ammonia and ammonium nitrogen, nitrate and nitrite 
nitrogen, Kjeldahl nitrogen and phosphorus. 



29 



Chapter 3 - The Effluent Monitoring Database - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

The twelve-month toxicity results for the Sector are discussed in two separate six-month reports^*. 

Ministry inspection chemical sample data, with few exceptions, were determined to be within the 
99th percentile concentration value of the plant monitoring data values and therefore showed that 
there was no major systematic difference between the two data sets. 

Results of QA/QC Analysis of the Monitoring Data 

The QA/QC data assessment process confirmed that virtually all of the effluent monitoring data 
for the ICS plants are acceptable for use in the limit setting process. 

The assessment identified a small number of "found" parameters which required further attention 
before being considered for limits. Detailed results of the QA/QC assessment are documented 
in a separate report^. 



30 



Chapter 3 - The Effluent Monitoring Database - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



3.3 REFERENCES 



1. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "The Effluent Monitoring Priority Pollutants List 
(1887)" ISBN 0-7729-2784-7, Queen's Printer. 

2. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "The Effluent Monitoring Priority Pollutants List - 
1988 Update", March, 1989, ISBN 0-7729-5450-X, Queen's Printer. 

3. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "The Development Document for the Effluent 
Monitoring Regulation for the Inorganic Chemical Sector", July, 1989, ISBN 
0-7729-5700-2, Queen's Printer for Ontario. 

4. Ontario Ministry of the Enviroimient, "Twelve-Month Monitoring Data Report, Inorganic 
Chemical Sector" September 1992, MISA Industrial Section, Water Resources Branch, 
ISBN 0-7778-0094-2, Queen's Printer. 

5. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "Acute Lethality Data for Ontario's Inorganic 
Chemical Sector Effluents Covering the Period from December 1989 to May 1990", 
November, 1992, Aquatic Toxicity Unit, Water Resources Branch, ISBN 0-7778-0165-5, 
Queen's Printer. 

6. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "Acute Lethality Data for Ontario's Inorganic 
Chemical Sector Covering the Period from June 1990 to November 1990", February, 
1993, Aquatic Toxicity Unit, Water Resources Branch, Queen's Printer. 

7. "Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement 

(MISA), Report on the Assessment of the Quality Assurance and Quality Control Data for 
the Inorganic Chemical Sector", MISA Industrial Section, Water Resources Branch, 
February, 1993, Queen's Printer for Ontario. 



31 



CHAPTER 4 



BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY 
(ECONOMICALLY ACHIEVABLE) 



DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR THE INORGANIC 
CHEMICAL SECTOR EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 



32 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

4.0 INTRODUCTION 

The goal of the MISA program, as stated in the June. 1986 MISA White Paper', is "...the virtual 
elimination of toxic contaminants in municipal and industrial discharges into Ontario's 
waterways". This goal is to be achieved in part tlirough the application of Best Available 
Technology Economically Achievable (BATE A). 



4.1 BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY (BAT) 

In order to determine BAT for the ICS, a Ministry sub-committee of the MISA Joint Technical 
Conunittee was formed with representatives from Industry, Environment Canada and the Ministry. 
The BAT/Limit Setting sub-committee prepared terms of reference for a BAT study which would 
be used as a basis for developing effluent limits for the Sector. 

The BAT study was divided into two separate phases ~ a Global BAT Study and an Ontario 
BAT Study. 

The objective of the Global BAT Study was to develop an inventory of best available pollution 
control technologies applicable to Ontario ICS plants, through a world-wide search. The study 
included the selection of technologies which could provide improvements in the effluent quality 
of ICS plants towards the MISA goal. 

The objectives of the Ontario BAT Study were to obtain information on the current status of ICS 
plants with respect to proposed BAT treatment so that recommended BAT options from the 
Global BAT Study could be eval\iated as to their applicability to the ICS plants. In addition, 
predicted performance and order of magnitude costs for the recommended BAT options were also 
to be provided for each Sector plant. 

The Ministry invited tenders to be submitted for the proposed BAT studies in November 1990. 
The proposals were reviewed and evaluated by members of the BAT sub-committee. CH2M 
HILL Engineering Ltd. was awarded both contracts in January 1991. 

During the studies, CH2M HILL provided updates to the Ministry on an on-going basis and made 
presentations to the BAT sub-committee on progress. 

Draft reports were presented to the sub-committee members in November, 1991. After a number 
of subsequent revisions the two reports were accepted by the sub-committee and the Joint 
Technical Committee in April, 1992. The final reports were published in October, 1992. 



33 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

4.2 SUMMARY OF GLOBAL AND ONTARIO BAT STUDIES 

Global Study 

The objective of the Global BAT Study was to develop an inventory of best available pollution 
control technologies applicable to the Ontario ICS plants through a search in Canada, the U.S.A., 
Europe and the Far East. Information was required on methods to significantly reduce pollutants 
by means of pollution prevention using alternative manufacturing processes, chemical substitution 
methods and/or water re-use and recycle options as well as end-of-pipe treatment technologies. 

Information was also required on design specifications, operating conditions, as-foimd treatment 
performance including variability data, order of magnitude capital and operating costs for 
wastewater treatment, in-plant controls and best management practices. 

A report was prepared which includes the study methodology and technical inventory that was 
used as a reference for projecting cost and performance of implementing BAT options at Ontario 
ICS plants^ 

Conclusions of the Global BAT Study 

The following is a summary of the main conclusions provided in the Global BAT Study for the 
ICS plants. 

Abrasives Plants 

The global search did not find abrasives sister plants with more advanced wastewater treatment 
than those practised at the four ICS abrasives plants. The ICS abrasives plants employ both 
settling and recycling of process effluent which is used at similar plants in the United States. 
Recycling rates of approximately 70% were generally foimd to be practised by abrasives plants. 
There were no sister plants identified in Europe. 

Carbon Black Plants 

Carbon black plants in the U.S. are subject to a U.S. EPA regulatory requirements of zero 
discharge of process effluent streams. This requirement is already practised by one plant in 
Ontario - Columbian Chemicals which discharges storm water only. 

The other carbon black facility in Ontario, Cabot Canada, treats all its plant effluent which 
includes storm water, equipment/process washdown water and non-process related effluent such 
as boiler blowdown. Treatment consists of oil separation, coagulation, settling and filtration. 

Chlor - Alkali Plants 

In Europe, mercury-specific ion exchange resins are used as primary treatment for mercury 
removal from cell room wastes. Only two facilities in the U.S. were identified which have this 
technology in place. 



34 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

In addition, a pollution prevention opportunity was identified for ICI' s chlor-alkali facility in 
Cornwall. The use of membrane cell technology in place of the current mercury cell process 
would result in the elimination of mercury in effluent originating from this operation. 

However such a conversion would be capital intensive and would produce a product of different 
grade and quality. A sister plant was identified at Beauhamois, Quebec which was recently 
converted to the membrane cell process. 

Soda Ash Plants 

A global search of soda ash plants which employ Solvay manufacturing technology, found that 
most of these facilities are located in Europe. It also found that the Ontario facility, owned by 
General Chemical Canada Ltd., is the only remaining Solvay facility operating in the U.S. and 
Canada. 

Most of the European Solvay facilities discharge to salt water bodies and consequently do not use 
more advanced removal technologies for dissolved solids, a major contaminant fi-om this 
manufacturing process. General Chemical has indicated to the Ministry that they are in fact better 
than other Solvay plants world-wide since they recover for sale 60-70 percent of the calcium 
chloride fi-om their effluent. 

Nitrogen Fertilizer Plants 

A global search of nitrogen fertilizer facilities foimd that in-plant wastewater management is the 
key to reducing contaminant levels in effluents. Techniques include good housekeeping, 
reduction/reuse of process water streams and control of contaminant sources such as spills and 
leaks. 

In the U.S. and Canada, the collection of high strength process wastewater for reuse in 
manufacturing is a very common practice for reducing effluent contaminant loadings. 

Remaining ICS Plants 

An investigation of global sister plants for the remaining ICS plants for more advanced treatment 
technology did not result in any new technologies being identified which would result in further 
reductions of contaminants beyond those provided at Ontario faciUties. 

End-of-pipe technology was recommended where more advanced technologies were not identified 
at sister plants and fiirther contaminant reductions were necessary. Background information and 
performance data on selected end-of-pipe treatment technologies that are applicable for achieving 
these reductions are provided in the Global BAT Report^. 



35 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Ontario Study 

The objectives of the Ontario BAT Study were to obtain information on the current status of the 
ICS plants with respect to proposed BAT treatment so that recommended BAT options from the 
Global study could be evaluated as to theh- applicability to the ICS plants. In addition, predicted 
performance and order of magnitude costs for the recommended BAT options were also required. 

Five BAT options were evaluated for each ICS plant based on information collected in the Global 
BAT Study. The options were selected according to the following criteria: 

BAT Option 1 A least cost BAT option that achieves non-lethality to fish and 

Daphnia magna . 

BAT Option 2 A BAT option selected by the U.S. Environmental Protection 

Agency (EPA) for comparable facilities in the U.S. 

BAT Option 3 A BAT option that uses the best technology currently in Ontario. 

BAT Option 4 A BAT option that is predicted to provide the maximum overall 

removal of contaminants. 

BAT Option 5 A BAT option consisting of any current technology or combination 

of current technologies which will advance the ICS plants the 
furthest toward virtual elimination and the ultimate goal of zero 
discharge of contaminants. 



Conclusions of the Ontario BAT Study 

All of the work done in determining the current status of Sector plants and the selection of 
potential BAT technology under each of the five BAT Options was published by the Ministry in 
a report in October 1992. The Performance and Cost Evaluation of BAT Options Report^ 
contains the study methodology and the rationale for the selection of BAT technologies for each 
plant together with predicted treatment performance and costs. 



36 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

4.3 BAT TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR THE INORGANIC CHEMICAL SECTOR 

BAT Option 1 

The criterion for the selection of technologies for BAT Option 1 was the achievement of no acute 
lethality to rainbow trout and Daphnia magna in 100% effluent. Other toxic and sub-lethal 
effects were not considered for this purpose. 

A minimiun level of technology was recommended to produce non-lethal levels of target 
contaminants. The method did not allow for the identification of possible synergistic toxic effects 
of low level contaminants nor did it include technologies to mitigate these effects. Technologies 
were not recommended beyond the existing wastewater management system where the effluent 
was largely non-lethal. Technologies recommended for achieving non-lethal effluents in the ICS 
are listed in table 4.1. 

Table 4.1 

BAT Option 1 Technologies For ICS Plants To Achieve 

Non-Lethal Effluents 



BAT Option 1 Technology 


Plant 


Alkaline Chlorination 


Welland Chemical 


Dechlorination 


Albright & Wilson, 
Welland Chemical 


Nitrification/Denitrification 


ICI Conpak, Nutrite, Cytec, Welland 
Chemical, Puritan Bennett 


Chemical Precipitation 


ICI Conpak, Nutrite 


Filtration 


ICI Conpak 


Steam Stripping 


Nutrite 


Neutralization 


Cytec', Nutrite 
Welland Chemical 


Total Evaporation 


General Chemical 



BAT Option 2 

To identify BAT Option 2 requirements, existing technologies and current effluent quality for ICS 
plants were compared to similar morganic chemical facilities regulated by the U.S. EPA. If the 
existing effluent quality at an ICS plant was within U.S. EPA limits, no additional treatment was 
recommended. More advanced treatment was only recommended if the plant did not meet U.S. 
EPA limits. 

Technologies recommended under BAT Option 2 were not necessarily those on which U.S. BAT 
regulations were based. In some instances, less expensive and/or more appropriate technologies 
were recommended for a specific plant to meet U.S. EPA limits. 



37 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemi cal Sector (ICS) 

The structure of the Inorganic Chemical Sector in the U.S. is somewhat different to that in 
Ontario. In the U.S., inorganic chemical manufacturing regulations apply to plants that produce 
bulk inorganic chemicals. Facilities manufacturing products such as fertilizers, explosives and 
carbon black are regulated separately in distinct industrial categories. 

Only five of the twenty-five ICS plants proposed for effluent limits in Ontario were found to 
have equivalent U.S. EPA regulations'*'^'*. These plants include Terra Industries and Nutrite 
(nitrogen fertilizers), ICI Cornwall (chlor-alkali). International Minerals and Chemicals (IMC) 
(phosphate fertilizers) and Cabot Canada (carbon black). 

No recommendations are included for Columbian Chemicals (carbon black) imder the carbon 
black category for BAT option 2 since the plant already meets U.S. EPA requirements for total 
recycle of process effluent. 

Technology recommendations for upgrading ICS plants to meet U.S. BAT limits are listed in 
Table 4.2. 

Table 4.2 
BAT Option 2 Technologies For ICS Plants To Achieve U.S. EPA BAT Limits * 



U.S. EPA Industrial Category 


ICS Plants 


BAT Option 2 


Carbon Black 


Cabot Canada 


total recycle of process effluent 


Nitrogen Fertilizers 


Terra Industries 
(Canada) Inc. 


elimination of barometric condenser and 
clay bin wash water || 


Nutrite 


steam stripping, neutralization and 
sedimentation || 


Chlor-Alkali 


ICI Cornwall 


settling of brine muds filter water 


Phosphate Fertilizers 


IMC 


no additional treatment required 



BAT Option 3 

BAT Option 3 included technologies that represent the best demonstrated wastewater control for 
comparable facilities in Ontario. Due to the diversity that exists within the ICS, eleven of the 
ICS plants could not be meaningfully compared with other facilities within the Sector since they 
are one of a kind in terms of process and products manufactured. Two of the plants, Explosives 
Technologies and Partek Insulations discharge only cooling water. The eleven plants are listed 
in Table 4.3. Additional treatment under Option 3 was therefore not recommended for these 
plants. 

The remaining plants were grouped by products manufactured and compared with respect to 
wastewater management. Where applicable, the best demonstrated technologies within a group 
were applied to other plants in that group. 



38 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector ÇLCS) 



Table 4.3 
ICS Plants Not Compared Under BAT Option 3 



Unique ICS Plants | 


Albright & Wilson 


IMC 


Cabot Canada 


Partek Insulations 


Cytec Canada 


Ptiritan Bennett 


Explosives Technologies 


UCAR Carbon 


General Chemical 


Welland Chemical 


ICI (Cornwall) 





Table 4.4 lists ICS plants which could be grouped by a conunon product for the purposes of 
comparing wastewater controls. 

The BAT consultant indicated that all fotir abrasives plants incorporate technologies that include 
settling and partial recycling of contact cooling water. Smce effluent quality is comparable 
between the four plants and no advanced treatment is being used at any plant, there was no 
recommendation for additional treatment technology. 

Similarly for the industrial gas plants, although systems vary slightly from plant to plant, 
generally all of them have equivalent technologies for wastewater management and no particular 
plant could be considered as representing the best within the group. 

Although different technologies are used to produce nitrogen fertilizer products at Terra Industries 
and Nutrite, both plants incorporate collection and reuse of process wastewater. A direct 
comparison of effluent quality was not considered by the BAT consultant due to significant 
operational differences that exist between the two facilities. These include differences in 
manufacturing technology, product lines and capacities, cooling water use (non-contact cooling 
water at Terra Industries and recirculating cooling water at Nutrite) and effluent monitoring point 
locations. 

Despite these differences, the BAT consultant concluded that the two plants are equivalent in 
terms of wastewater management and did not recommend additional technology for either plant 
vmder BAT Option 3. 

Sulco Chemicals and ICI Conpak were grouped together since in addition to manufacturing and 
packaging activities at each site, they both package inorganic acids. Removal of TSS and 
improved control of pH was recommended for ICI' s Conpak plant to bring it to similar 
performance levels as Sulco. 



39 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Œemical Sector (ICS) 



Table 4.4 
ICS Plants Compared Under BAT Option 


3 


1 

Category 


ICS Plants 


BAT Option 3 


Abrasives 


Exolon 


No additional treatment 


Norton 


Washington Mills 


Washington Mills Electro Minerals 


Industrial Gas Plants 


Liquid Carbonic (Courtright) 


No additional treatment 


Liquid Carbonic (Maitland) 


Praxair (Moore Township) 


Praxair (Samia) 


Praxair (Sault Ste. Marie) 


Nitrogen Fertilizer Plants 


Nutrite 


No additional treatment 


Terra Industries (Canada) Inc. 


Packaging Plants 


ICI Conpak 


Settling and neutralization 
for ICI Conpak 


Sulco Chemicals 



BAT Option 4 (a,b) 

Technologies recommended under BAT Option 4 include a combination of demonstrated 
technologies identified in the Global study that would provide the maximum overall reduction 
of contaminants. 

A pollution prevention approach was initially considered in the development of recommendations. 
Where practical pollution prevention measures were unavailable, in-plant controls and end-of-pipe 
treatment were recommended. 

Maximtun removal technologies for ICS plants under BAT Option 4a are listed in Table 4.5. 

BAT Option 4b presents an alternative recommendation under the maximum removal option 
specifically for Id's chlor-alkali plant at Cornwall. The plant manufactures caustic soda and 
chlorine using the mercury cell process. Ion-exchange technology for mercury removal was 
recommended as a first level of treatment under BAT Option 4a. Under BAT Option 4b, 
however, replacement of the existing mercury cell process with membrane cell technology is 
recommended to eliminate the use of mercury in the process. 

Since the ICI plant is to be shutdown at the end of October 1994, both of the recommended ion- 
exchange and membrane cell technologies are no longer relevant. 



40 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

Table 4.5 

BAT Option 4a Technologies For ICS Plants 

To Achieve Maximum Removal of Contaminants 



BAT Option 4a Technologies 


Plants 


Alkaline chlorination 


Welland Chemical, 
Cytec 


Dechlorination 


Albright & Wilson, 
Welland Chemical, 
Cytec 


Nitrification/denitrification 


ICI Conpak, 
Cytec, Nutrite, 
Puritan Bennett 


Chemical precipitation 


ICI Conpak, 
Nutrite 


Settling 


ICI Conpak, 
ICI Cornwall, 
Sulco 


Filtration 


ICI Conpak, Cytec, 
Nutrite, Sulco 


Steam stripping 


Nutrite, 

General Chemical 


Neutralization 


Cytec, Nutrite, 
Welland Chemical 


Total evaporation 


General Chemical, 
ICI Cornwall 


Recycle of process effluent 

- 30% recycle rate 

- total recycle (for 1 of 3 
process effluent streams) 


ICI Conpak 
Norton 


Surface condensers 


General Chemical, 
Terra Industries 


Ion-exchange for mercury removal 


ICI Cornwall 



41 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

BAT Option 5 

BAT Option 5 considers technologies which will bring ICS plants the furthest towaurds the goal 
of virtual elimination of persistent toxic contaminants. 

For the majority of ICS plants, the BAT consultant did not recommend additional technologies 
beyond those covered under BAT option 4. For purposes of developing a complete list of limit 
options however, the Ministry did estimate the costs of installing total evaporation for all ICS 
process effluent streams. 

Conclusions 

A summary of the complete list of BAT technologies and their associated capital and operating 
costs are presented in Table 4.6. 

On the basis of economic analyses, BAT Option 4 was selected as the preferred economically 
achievable option on which limits were based. 

The performance predicted for BAT Option 4 is shown in detail in Appendix B for each plant 
site. Long term average concentration and loading data reflecting operations during the twelve- 
month monitoring period for each plant are shown for comparison. 



42 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Table 4.6 

Summary of Capital and Operating Costs 

for ICS BAT Options* 



Plant BAT Options 


Cap. Costs 
(OOO's $) 


O&M Costs 
(OOO's $)/yr 


Albright and Wilson Americas 
BAT 1 (Non-toxic): dc 
BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 
BAT 3(0nt): n/c 
BAT 4(Max.Rem.): dc 
BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


163 
n/a 
n/a 
163 
19300 


11.3 

n/a 

n/a 

11 

5400 


Cabot Canada Ltd. 
BAT 1 (Non-toxic): n/a 
BAT 2(U.S.): n/c 
BAT 3(0nt): n/c 
BAT 4(Max.Rem.): n/c 
BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


n/a 
50 
n/a 
50 
10,500 


n/a 

n/a 

n/a 
3.100 


Cvtec Canada Inc. (Welland Plant) 

BAT 1 (Non-toxic): nit/denit, pH adj. 

BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 

BAT 3(0nt): n/c 

BAT 4(Max.Rem.): nit/denit, fil., ac, dc, 

pH adj., 
BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


2,363 
n/a 
n/a 
2,363 

3,000 


30 
n/a 
n/a 
30 

900 


The Exolon-ESK Company of Canada Ltd. 
BAT 1 (Non-toxic): n/c 
BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 
BAT3(0nt): n/c 
BAT 4(Max.Rem.): n/c 
BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
25,400 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
7,400 


General Chemical Canada Ltd. 

BAT 1 (Non-toxic): te (COO 100) 

BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 

BAT 3(Ont): n/c 

BAT 4(Max.Rem.): te (COOIOO), Surf.Cond.and steam stripping 

(C0200). 
BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te (COOIOO and 0200) 


27,000 
n/a 
n/a 
34,200 

169,000 


233,000 
n/a 
n/a 
6,200 

250,000 


ICI Canada Inc. (Cornwall) 

BAT 1 (Non-toxic): n/c 

BAT 2(U.S.): Settling 

BAT 3(0nt): n/c 

BAT 4a(Max.Rem.): Settling, ion-exch. (mercury), te. 

BAT 4b(Max.Rem.): Membrane cell technology 

BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


n/a 

negligible 

n/c 

920 

3,415 

2,500 


n/a 

negligible 

n/c 

negligible 

900 

1,000 



43 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Plant BAT Options 


Cap. Costs 
(OOO's $) 


O&M Costs 
(OOO's $)/yr 


ICI Canada Inc. - Conoak 

BAT 1 (Non-toxic): Chem precip, fil, nit/denit 

BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 

BAT 3(Ont): Chem.precip. , fil 

BAT 4(Max.Rem.): Chem.precip., settling, fil, nit/denit. Recycle of 

proc. effl., 

te (at ICI Cornwall) 
BAT 5(Virt.EIim): te 


620 
n/a 
117 
645 

800 


4 

n/a 
4 
10 

200 


International Minerals and Chemicals Ltd. 

BAT 1 (Non-toxic): n/c 

BAT 2(U.S.): n/c 

BAT 3(Ont): n/c 

BAT 4(Max.Rem.): n/c 

BAT 5(Virt.EIim): te 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
12,300 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
3,600 


Liquid Carbonic Inc.(Courtright) 
BAT 1 (Non-toxic): n/c 
BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 
BAT 3(0nt): n/c 
BAT 4(Max.Rem.): n/c 
BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
17,000 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
4,900 


Liquid Carbonic Inc. (Maitland) 
BAT 1 (Non-toxic): n/c 
BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 
BAT 3(0nt): n/c 
BAT 4(Max.Rem.): n/c 
BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
7,600 


n/a 

n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
2,200 


Norton Canada Inc. 
BAT 1 (Non-toxic): n/c 
BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 
BAT 3(0nt): n/c 
BAT 4(Max.Rem.): n/c 
BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
15 
23,800 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
10 
6,900 


Nutrite Inc. 

BAT 1 (Non-toxic): Steam stripping, neut., settling, nit 

BAT 2(U.S.): Steam stripping, neut., settling 

BAT 3(Ont): n/c 

BAT 4(Max.Rem.): Steam stripping, neut., settling, nit/denit, fil 

BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


4,030 

1,110 

n/a 

6,630 

5,700 


690 
610 
n/a 
790 
1,700 


Praxair Canada Inc. (Moore Township) 

BAT 1 (Non-toxic): n/c 

BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 

BAT 3(0nt): n/c 

BAT 4(Max.Rem.): n/c 

BAT 5(Virt.EIim): te 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
200 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
100 



44 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Econoinically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Plant BAT Options 


Cap. Costs 
(GOO'S $) 


O&M Costs 

(GOO'S $)/yr 


Praxair Canada Inc. (Samia) 
BAT 1 (Non-toxic): n/c 
BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 
BAT3(Ont): n/c 
BAT 4(Max.Rem.): n/c 
BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
600 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
200 


Praxair Canada Inc. (Sault Ste. Marie) 

BAT 1 (Non-toxic): n/c 

BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 

BAT 3(0nt): n/c 

BAT 4(Max.Rem.): n/c . " 

BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
2,900 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a' 
n/a 
800 


Puritan Beimett Corporation 
BAT 1 (Non-toxic): nit/denit 
BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 
BAT 3(Ont): n/a 
BAT 4(Max.Rem.): nit/denit 
BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


1,600 

n/a 

n/a 

1,600 

3,000 


53 
n/a 
n/a 
53 
900 


Sulco Chemicals Ltd. 
BAT 1 (Non-toxic): n/c 
BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 
BAT 3(0nt): n/c 
BAT 4(Max.Rem.): Settling 
BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
34 
1,300 


n/a 

n/a 

n/a 

imdefined 

400 


Terra Industries (Canada) Inc. 

BAT 1 (Non-toxic): n/c 

BAT 2(U.S.): Surf. cond(CO 0500) 

BAT 3(0nt.): n/c 

BAT 4(Max.Rem): Surf. cond(CO 0500) 

BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


n/a 
257 
n/a 
257 
95,800 


n/a 
30 
n/a 
30 
27,600 


UCAR Carbon Canada Inc. 
BAT 1 (Non-toxic): n/c 
BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 
BAT3(0nt): n/c 
BAT 4(Max.Rem.): n/c 
BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
20,000 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
5,800 


Washington Mills Ltd. 

BAT 1 (Non-toxic): n/c 

BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 

BAT 3(Ont): n/c 

BAT 4(Max.Rem.): Alternate water source 

BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


n/a 

n/a 

n/a 

1,015 

10,100 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
10 
3,000 



45 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



1 

Plant BAT Options 


Cap. Costs 
(OOO's $) 


O&M Costs 
(OOO's $)/yr 


Washington Mills Electro Minerals Corporation 

BAT l(Non-toxic): n/c 

BAT2(U.S.): n/a 

BAT 3(0nt): n/c 

BAT 4(Max. Rem): increased recycling of process stream 

BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


n/a 
n/a 
n/a 
217 
32,200 


n/a 

n/a 

n/a 

6 

13,120 


Welland Chemical Limited 

BAT 1 (Non-toxic): Setding, pH adj., dc 

BAT 2(U.S.): n/a 

BAT 3(0nt): n/c 

BAT 4(Max.Rem.): Settling, pH adj. 

BAT 5(Virt.Elim): te 


575 
n/a 
n/a 
575 
3,100 


negligible 

n/a 

n/a 

negligible 

900 


TOTALS" FOR SECTOR BAT 1 
BAT 2 
BAT 3 
BAT 4 
BAT 5 


9,351 

1,417 

117 

16,978 

297,100 


788 

640 

4 

1,850 

90,120 



* Source of data • CH2M HILL Engineering BAT Report and plant provided updates 

No costs are shown for Columbian Chemicals Ltd., Explosives Technologies International and Partek 
Insulations Ltd., since these plants do not discharge process effluents 

Costs for BAT Option 4 for ICI Canada Inc., at Cornwall do not include the membrane cell option 

** General Chemical Canada Ltd. costs are excluded in the Totals for the Sector 



Legend: 




n/a 


= not applicable 


n/c 


= no change 


nit/denit 


= nitrification/denitrification 


ac 


= alkaline chlorination 


dc 


= dechlorination 


te 


= total evqwration 


fil 


= filtration 


pH adj. 


= pH adjustment 



46 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

4.4 ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT 

To develop effluent limits based on BATEA, the Ministry conducted an economic assessment 
to determine the impact of imposing each of the five recommended BAT Options on the ICS. 
The objectives of the economic assessment were to: 

• evaluate the cost-effectiveness of potential wastewater treatment and abatement 
options; 

• show the incremental costs of successively higher levels of contaminant removal 
(i.e. lower levels of pollutant loadings in wastewater); 

• assess the potential financial and economic consequences of the costs associated 
with potential abatement program BAT options; 

• analyze the ability of industry to pass-on potential regulatory induced cost 
increases as product price increases or input price decreases; 

• determine the effects of the potential regulatory-induced costs on the competitive 
position of the ICS plants. 

The estimated costs of the BAT technologies identified in the BAT report and the contaminant 
removals associated with each technology train were used to derive least-cost abatement cost 
functions. 

The abatement cost functions show the costs of applying different technologies to obtain higher 
levels of contaminant removal with the least-cost abatement cost function showing the lowest cost 
combination of technologies to achieve a given reduction in loadings. Based on predefined 
decision rules, up to five aggregate levels of abatement were defined for each plant. 

A generic Sector approach was not adopted for the ICS because each of the plants within the 
Sector was considered to be largely unique in terms of processing and wastewater characteristics. 

i 
Costs for Each BAT Option 

The costs associated with each of the BAT options for the ICS are reviewed in this section. 

General Chemical Canada is excluded from the analysis to avoid biasing the financial ratios, 
since the estimated abatement costs for this plant are orders of magnitude greater than those for 
other plants in the Sector. 

Tables 4.7 and 4.8 provide a summary of the projected capital costs and loading reductions for 
each of the recommended BAT Options. 



47 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

BAT Option 1 

For BAT Option 1 (non-lethal option), six plants are required to install technology to remove 
lethality in their effluent streams. Implementation of abatement technologies for these plants 
would cost $11.05 million (before tax) in capital and $0.85 million (before tax) in operating 
costs. These costs would represent an annualized after-tax expenditure of $1.7 million and 
would result in estimated effluent loading reductions of 1.0%. 

BAT Option 2 

BAT Option 2 (U.S. Option) covered only five ICS plants, since they were the only ones which 
have similar U.S. manufacturing facilities regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency. Implementation of the abatement technologies would cost $1.42 million (before tax) 
in capital costs and $0.64 (before tax) million in operating costs. 

While this option is the most cost effective at $1.15 per kilogram of contaminants removed, it 
is not viable since it is applicable to only five plants, of which only four are required to install 
treatment. 

BAT Option 3 

BAT Option 3 (Ontario option), was not a viable option since only one plant was required to 
install additional treatment. 

BAT Option 4 

Under BAT Option 4 (maximum removal option), twelve plants would be required to reduce 
contaminant discharge loadings. Implementation would cost $19.04 million in capital costs 
(before tax) and $1.85 million in operating cost (before tax). These costs would represent an 
annualized after tax expenditure of $3.2 million. This option would result in removals of 
approximately 22% of the initial loadings at a cost of $1.49 per kilogram. Option 4 is the 
preferred option for the Sector based on the cost effectiveness of loading reductions. 

t 

BAT Option 5 

For BAT Option 5 (virtual elimination), twenty-one plants would be required to install abatement 
technologies at a capital cost of $299 million (before tax) and operating costs of $90 million 
(before tax). The cost per kilogram of contaminant removed is estimated at $9.00 per kilogram. 

Financial Assessment 

In order to assess the potential financial and economic consequences of the costs associated with 
the implementation of each option, financial impact analyses were undertaken on eleven of the 
sector firms which represent fifteen ICS plants. One firm, Norton Advanced Ceramics, was 
removed from the analysis as financial data was not available after 1985. 



48 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

There were ten firms for which historical financial data was available to establish a base case 
for the current financial position of the firm. Fifteen financial indicators were calculated. The 
analyses focused on net income after taxes and five ratios which are generally considered to be 
key ratios for evaluating the financial position of a company: quick ratio, return on sales, retiun 
on assets, return on capital and the current ratio. 

The costs to the firm (plant) imder a BAT option were then compared with the base case data 
to determine the impact on the firm's financial position. 

The results indicate that with the exception of one firm, Nutrite Inc., BAT Option 1 and BAT 
Option 2 will not materially affect the financial position of the ICS, based on measures of the 
return on sales, return on assets and return on capital. Liquidity, based on measures of the 
current ratio and the quick ratio, would also not be materially affected. 

Under BAT Option 4, three plants Cytec, Nutrite and ICI (Cornwall), incur a large portion of 
the total estimated $3 million in annualized after-tax costs for the Sector. Excluding these three 
plants, the average after-tax annualized cost to all other Sector firms required to install 
technology is less than $ 0.1 million. For the overall Sector, costs incurred will have some 
effect on the Sector's overall financial performance. Based on the latest year for which financial 
data is available, the Sector will experience a slight decrease in return on sales and return on 
assets. The current ratio and quick ratio will also decline slightly. 

BAT Option 4 will result in an estimated 35% reduction in conventional contaminants, 15% 
reduction in EMPPL contaminants and 20% reduction in non-conventional contaminants. 
Overall total loading reductions are estimated at 22%, well above those for BAT Options 1, 2 
and 3. 

BAT Option 5, which is estimated to cost about $83 million per year, would cause a large 
reduction in cash-flow and net income for many firms. The financial viability of several firms 
could also be affected. Using the latest year for which financial information is available, the ICS 
would experience a negative return on sales and assets. Using a ten-year average of financial 
data, the Sector would experience a negative return on sales. Return on assets would be 
approximately zero. While this option would reduce loadings by 96% , the cost of achieving this 
reduction would be severe hardship for the Sector. 

In simimary, it was concluded that BAT Option 4 is the preferred option based on expected 
loading reductions achieved and a review of the financial position of Sector plants. 



49 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



Table 4.7 
Summary Of Total ICS Costs* By BAT Option 



BAT 

Option 


Costs (1991 doUars) 


Capital ($ millions) 


Operating ($ millions/yr) 


Option 1 


9.4 


0.8 


Option 2 


1.4 


0.6 


Option 3 


0.1 


0.004 


Option 4^ 


17,0 


1.85 


Option 5 


297.1 


90.1 



Option 4 was used to develop limits. 

' General Chemical Canada Ltd. costs are excluded from the Totals. 

^ Requiring membrane cell technology at ICI Canada (Cornwall) would result in a BAT 4 Option capital cost 
of $50.1 million. 



Table 4.8 
Projected Loadings And Reductions For the ICS* 



BAT 
Options 


Conventionals 

(thousands of 

tonnes/yr) 


Non<onTentionals** 

(thousands of 

tonnes/yr) 


EMPPL 

(thousands of 

tonnes/yr) 


Total 

(thousands of 

tonnes/yr) 


Loading 


Reduction 


Loading 


Reduction 




Reduction 


Loading 


Reduction 


Current 


1.14 


- 


8.58 


- 


0.094 


- 


9.81 


- 


1 


1.04 


0.1 
(8.8%) 


8.58 


0.0 


0.094 


0.0 


9.71 


0.1 
(1.0%) 


2 


0.87 


0.27 
(23.7%) 


8.39 


0.19 
(2.2%) 


0.093 


0.001 

(1.1%) 


9.35 


0.46 
(4.7%) 


3 


1.14 


0.000 


8.58 


0.0 


0.094 


0.0 


9.81 


0.0 


4 


0.74 


0.40 

(35.1%) 


6.87 


1.71 
(19.9%) 


0.080 


0.014 

(14.9%) 


7.69 


2.12 
(21.6%) 


5 


0.07 


1.07 
(93.9%) 


0.44 


8.14 
(94.9%) 


0.064 


0.030 
(31.9) 


0.57 


9.24 
(94.2%) 



Option 4 was used to develop limits. 

* - Excludes General Chemical Canada Ltd. loading reductions. 

""*'- Chloride, fluoride, sulphate and phenolics. 



50 



Chapter 4 - Best Available Technology Economically Achievable - Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 
4.5 REFERENCES 

1. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "Municipal - Industrial Strategy for Abatement 
(MISA) - A Policy and Program Statement of the Government of Ontario on Controlling 
Mimicipal and Industrial Discharges into Surface Waters", Jime 1986, Queen's Printer. 

2. Ontario Ministry of the Envirormient, "Global Search for BAT Options Applicable to 
Inorganic Chemical Sector Plants", October 1992, ISBN 0-7778-0210-4, Queen's Printer. 

3. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "Performance and Cost Evaluation of Best Available 
Technology Options for the Ontario Inorganic Chemical Sector", October, 1992, ISBN 
0-7778-0209-0, Queen's Printer. 

4. United States Environmental Protection Agency, "Development Document for Effluent 
Limitations Guidelines and Standards for Inorganic Chemicals Manufacturing Point Source 
Category", June 1982. 

5. United States Environmental Protection Agency, "Development Document for Effluent 
Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Basic Fertilizer 
Chemicals Segment of the Fertilizer Manufacturing Point Source Category" EPA - 
440/1-74-001-a, March, 1974. 

6. U.S. Federal Register, 40 CFR Chapter 1, July 1, 1989. 



51 



CHAPTER 5 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF EFFLUENT LIMITS 



DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR THE INORGANIC 
CHEMICAL SECTOR EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 



52 



Chapter 5 - The Development of Effluent Limits for the Inorganic Chemical Sector GCS) 
5.0 INTRODUCTION 

Effluent limits for all ICS plants with process effluent streams were developed according to the 
principles and statistical procedures outlined in the IRC report'. 



5.1 TYPE OF EFFLUENT STREAMS TO BE LIMITED 

Under the Effluent Limits Regulation for the ICS, all process effluent streams, discharged 
continuously or intermittently, will be limited in terms of contaminants discharged to the 
environment. 

Cooling water streams used for once-through, non-contact cooling are not being limited under the 
Limits Regulation. These streams, however, will be required to be monitored weekly for 
assessment purposes. The assessment data may be used if needed, to develop control programs 
if it is found that process materials are contaminating the cooling water. 

Storm water effluent discharges will not be limited imder the Limits Regulation. However, ICS 
plants will be required to conduct a storm water control study (SWCS) within two years of 
promulgation of the Regxilation. The results of the SWCS will be used to identify the need for 
control and prevention measures for storm water effluent discharges. 



5.2 TYPE OF EFFLUENT LIMITS 

Effluent limits may be expressed in one of the following three forms: 

• loading limits 

• production-based loading limits 

• concentration limits 

Production-based loading limits can only be derived if there is a direct relationship between the 
amount of contaminants discharged and production rate. Due to the nature and origin of process 
effluents generated within the Sector, it was not possible to establish a relationship between 
quantity of contaminants discharged and production rate at any of the Sector plants. 

A large number of ICS process effluent streams originate from sources which are largely 
independent of daily production rate swings such as cooling tower blowdowns, cooling water 
streams, washdowns and cleanouts and pondwater discharges from inactive facilities. 

In addition, to develop production-based limits for the ICS would have required the establishment 
of a large number of monitoring points to cover numerous individual manufacturing units 
particularly at the larger plants. Production-based limits were therefore not developed for the ICS 
Effluent Limits Regiilation. 

Concentration-based limits were also not developed for the ICS since dilution of the effluent 
could be used to meet such limits. Dilution would contravene the principle of water conservation. 



53 



Chapter 5 - The Development of ECQuent Limits for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



The MISA goal of the virtual elimination of persistent toxic contaminants would be in jeopardy 
if dilution could be used to meet such limits. 

Loading limits, expressed in terms of mass of contaminants discharged per day, were chosen as 
the best means of limiting plants in the ICS since loading limits would control the discharge of 
contaminants and encourage water conservation. 



5.3 APPROACH TO UMJT SETTING 

In the development of effluent limits, consideration was given to adopting a sector or sub-sector 
approach to effluent limit setting in order to make the Regulation as simple as possible. 

However, the ICS is extremely diverse in terms of products and type of manufacturing processes. 
This made it extremely difficult to develop a imiform limit number which would be applicable 
to all ICS sector plants. Furthermore, a sector or sub-sector approach would, depending on the 
limit number, allow for the potential of significant backsliding for some of the better performing 
plants if the limit was set too high. Conversely, the limit could be too stringent for other plants 
if derived based on performance at the better performing plants since the BAT required might 
not be economically achievable for a given plant due to significant differences in maniifacturing 
operations. 

Moreover, since the plants are so dissimilar, a significant cost would be incurred for plants if a 
single sector list of limited parameters was made a requirement for all even though only a portion 
of that list of parameters applied to any one plant's discharges. 

A plant-by-plant approach was therefore adopted for limit setting in the ICS. 



5.4 THE CANDIDATE PARAMETER LIST 

The initial list of candidate parameters for limit setting was based on the effluent monitoring 
database collected during the regulated monitoring period. Parameters were listed as found for 
a particular site unless a proportion of 0.9 of the concentration results had values less than the 
Regulation Method Detection Limit (RMDL). 

Of the one hundred and fifty-four parameters monitored, a total of one hundred were foimd in 
ICS effluents. These found parameters, shown in Table 5.1, formed the initial candidate list for 
limits development. 

The found parameters are also shown, by individual plant site, in Appendix A, Table A-1. The 
parameter, pH, was not included in the individual plant found parameter lists since it is handled 
separately in the Regulation and applies to all plants. 



54 



Chapter 5 - The Development of Effluent Limits for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 
Table 5.1 - Parameters Found In ICS Sector Effluents 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


ATG 


PARAMETER 1 




COD 


16 


Chloroform 1 




Cyanide Total 


16 


Chloromethane 




Hydrogen ion (pH) 


16 


Cis-1 ,3-Dichloropropylene 




Ammooia plus Ammonium 


16 


Dibromochlorometbane 




Nitrate+Nitrite 


16 


Ethylene dibromide 




Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


16 


Methylene chloride 




DOC 


16 


Tetrachloroethylene 




TOC 


16 


Trans-l ,2-Dichloroethylene 


6 


Total phosphorus 


16 


Trans-l,3-Dichloropropylene 


7 


Specific conductance 


16 


Trichloroethylene 


8 


Total su^)endcd solids 


16 


Trichlorofluoromethane 


8 


Volatile suspended solids 


16 


Vinyl chloride 


9 


Aluminum 


17 


Benzene 


9 


Beryllium 


17 


Styrene 


9 


Boron 


17 


Toluene 


9 


fyimiiifw 


17 


m-Xylene and p-Xylene 


9 


Chromium 


17 


o-Xylene 


9 


Cobalt 


18 


Acrolein 


9 


Copper 


18 


Acrylonitrile 


9 


Lead 


19 


Benzylbutylphthalaie 


9 


Molybdenum 


19 


Bis(2-ethylhcxyl)phthalate 1 


9 


Nickel 


19 


Di-n-butylphthalale 1 


9 


Strontium 


19 


Diphenyl ether 


9 


Thallium 


19 


Ruoranthrene 


9 


Vanadium 


19 


PhenanthreiK 


9 


Zinc 


19 


Pyrene 


10 


Antimony 


20 


Phenol 


10 


Arsenic 


23 


1 ,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene 


10 


Selenium 


23 


1 ,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 


11 


Chromium (hexavalent) 


23 


1 ,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 


12 


Mercury 


23 


1 .2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 


14 


PhenoUcs (4AAP) 


23 


1 ,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 


15 


Sulphide 


23 


2,4,5-Trichlorotohiene 


16 


1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 


23 


Hcxachlorobenzene 11 


16 


1,1,2-Trichloroethane 


23 


Hexachlorobutadiene 1 


16 


1,1-Dichloroethane 


23 


Hexachlorocyclopentadiene 


16 


1,1-Dichloroetbylene 


23 


Hexachloroethane 


16 


1 ,2-Dicblorobenzene 


23 




16 


1,2-Dichloroethane 


23 


Peniacblorobenzene 


16 


1 ,2-Dichloropropane 


24 


PCDDs\PCDFs(lI compounds) 


16 


1 ,3-Dichlorobenzene 


25 


Oil and Grease 


16 


1 .4-DiclUorobenzene 


27 


PCBT 


16 


Bromoform 


11 


Chloride 


16 


Bromomethane 


12 


Ruoride 


16 


Carbon tetrachloride 


D 


Sulphate 



55 



Chapter 5 - The Development of Effluent Limits for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

5.5 SELECTION OF PARAMETERS FOR LIMITS 

A formal screening process was applied to each of the parameters on the candidate list for each 
plant site to ensure that the parameter was actually being discharged as the result of plant 
operations and was not an artifact of sampling and analytical errors or a pass-through parameter 
from the intake water. A review of BAT and its effectiveness for controlling each parameter 
also had to be made before a parameter was selected for limits at a given site. 

The first step in the development of the final parameter list for limits for each plant, was to put 
together a candidate parameter list consisting of all of the parameters that were found' in the 
plant effluents during the twelve-month regulatory monitoring period. The candidate list then 
underwent editing on the basis of criteria described in this section. 

QA/QC Data Assessment 

Quality control/quality assurance data were examined after candidate parameter selection to 
determine whether the effluent monitoring data for the found parameters were of reliable quality 
and acceptable for use in the development of effluent limits. • 

The QA/QC data assessment involved the retrieval and screening of the field QA/QC data and 
corresponding process effluent monitoring data for each ICS plant. The data were sorted, 
suirmiarized and evaluated according to QA/QC procedures outlined in the Issue Resolution 
Committee report^ A parameter was removed firom further consideration in the effluent limits 
setting process if the QA/QC assessment indicated that its presence in the effluent stream was 
suspect. 

The QA/QC assessment for the ICS database confirmed that virtually all of the effluent 
monitoring data were acceptable for use in the development of effluent limits. Only two 
parameters, copper at Cabot Canada and hexachlorocyclopentadiene at ICI Cornwall, were 
deemed imsuitable for limit setting at each of the two plants because of QA/QC concerns. 

Full details of the QA/QC data assessment are presented in the report on the analysis of the 
Quality Assurance and Quality Control Data for the ICS^. 

Assessment of Possible Surrogate Parameters 

It was recognized that it would be possible to limit certain key parameters which could serve a 
surrogate function in that, their control would also indicate control over other similar 
parameters. Use of surrogate parameters would allow analytical cost savings without 
jeopardizing the Ministry's need for assurance that plant BAT facilities were being operated 
well. 



' found - a parameter was listed as found unless a statistical proportion of 0.9 of the concentration data results (at 
a 95% confidence level) was less then the Regulation Method Detection Limit (RMDL) - this is referred to as the 90/10 
edit rule 



56 



Chapter 5 - The Development of Effluent Limits for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

Both sector- wide and site-specific surrogate parameters were developed for limit setting. 

Although statistical correlations were not performed, Best Professional Judgement (BPJ) was 
used to determine which parameters could serve a surrogate function. 

Sector-Wide Surrogate Parameter Selection 

The following is a comparison of five key conventional parameter test groups to determine the 
most appropriate surrogate parameters: 

COD (chemical oxygen demand); 

• measures both organic and inorganic substances (such as sulphides, ammonia and 
metals) by chemical oxidation 

• the analytical method has a relatively high RMDL of 10 mg/1 

DOC (dissolved organic carbon); 

• measures total soluble organic carbon 

• the analytical method has a relatively low RMDL of 0.5 mg/1 

TOC (total organic carbon); 

• measures both dissolved and suspended carbon 

• the analytical method has a relatively high RMDL of 5 mg/1 

DOC was chosen as a sector-wide surrogate parameter for limits in place of COD and TOC for 
the following reasons: 

• much lower RMDL than TOC and COD 

• more likely to reflect trace organics than TOC and COD 

• particulate organic carbon will be measured as part of TSS 

• a larger database exists for DOC since it was monitored at a higher frequency 
during the Monitoring Regulation than TOC and COD 

A similar comparison was undertaken between Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Volatile 
Suspended Solids (VSS): 

VSS (volatile suspended solids); 

• measure of the organic floe associated with biological treatment systems 

• a component of total suspended solids measurements 

• the analytical method has a relatively high RMDL of 10 mg/1 

• sector more likely to have inorganic based solids 



57 



Chapter 5 - The Development of Effluent Limits for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

TSS (total suspended solids); 

• measures both organic solids (VSS) and inorganic solids 

• the analytical method has a lower RMDL at 5 mg/1 than VSS 

• less costly and quicker test than VSS 

TSS was chosen as a sector-wide surrogate parameter for limits in place of VSS on the basis of 
lower test cost, lower detection levels and because the TSS test also measures VSS. 

Total phenolics(4AAP) was used for limits in place of any specific phenol limit mainly on the 
basis of method speed and lower cost. 

Other Surrogate Parameters 

In addition to the sector-wide surrogate parameters, plant-specific surrogates were also selected 
on the basis that, with respect to parameters it was replacing, the surrogate had to be: 

• similar in response to treatment i.e within the same analytical test group 

• present in the effluent at a higher concentration than the parameters it 
was replacing 

Additional Considerations for Parameter Selection 

Other factors which were considered in making the final selection of parameters for limits 
include the following: 

a) - Contaminant Concentration Level 

Parameters were removed from a plant's candidate parameter list if found at levels equal to or 
less than the regulation method detection limit (RMDL). 

b) - Pass-Through Contaminants 

Contaminants were deleted from a plant's candidate parameter list if their origin was solely 
attributed to intake water. 

Two contaminants in particular, boron and strontiimi, were considered to be universally 
originating from intake water sources. Strontium like calcium is a naturally occurring 
constiment of hard water while boron is sometimes found naturally m water. Boron was found 
at concentrations levels of less than 1 mg/L, which is typical of drinking water levels. These 
two contaminants were therefore removed from the ICS candidate parameter list since they were 
considered to be "pass-through" contaminants. 



58 



Chapter 5 - The Development of Effluent Limits for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

c) - Insufficient Performance Data 

A parameter was removed from a plant's candidate parameter list if an insufficient number of 
data points (typically less than 6) were available to calculate variability factors. 

Sector- Wide Limited Parameters 

In addition to pH, all ICS plants are being limited for the following three core conventional 
parameters irrespective of whether they qualified as being "found" during the monitoring period: 

• total suspended solids 

• dissolved organic carbon 

• total phosphorus 

The rationale for including these parameters at all plants is simmiarized below: 

Total Suspended Solids (TSS): 

• TSS is a fundamental control parameter for the inorganic chemical industry which 
processes solids and is an indicator parameter for the efficiency of settling systems. 

Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC): 

• Limits on DOC will provide control on trace organic contaminants primarily 
originating from the use of oils and organic solvents in the Sector. 

Phosphorus: 

• A limit on phosphorus will fulfil the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreements that 
indicate that phosphorus levels should be controlled as much as possible. 

Other conventional contaminants such as oil and grease, ammonia, nitrates and TKN were listed 
as limit candidates for a plant if they were foimd during the twelve-month monitoring period. 

Specific conductance was not considered for limits in the ICS since it is difficult to set 
quantifiable, prediptable limits for this parameter based on the recommended BAT technologies. 

BAT Performance Data 

Where specific end-of-pipe or in-plant BAT performance data for a given found parameter was 
not available, the current plant performance was used as the basis for limits. 

In addition, where current plant discharges of a given parameter were lower than would be 
predicted on the basis of end-of-pipe or in-plant BAT treatment, the current performance data 
was used for setting a limit for that parameter. 

Therefore, no parameters were deleted because of the lack of BAT performance data. 



59 



Chapter 5 - The Development of Effluent Limits for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

5.6 THE FINAL LIST 

Following the screening processes, a total of fifty parameters, including eleven poly chlorinated 
dibenzo-p-dioxin and furan congeners, remained on the final list of parameters for limits for the 
ICS as a whole. 

Table 5.2 presents the final list of limited parameters for the ICS which is a compilation of 
individual plant lists. Appendix A provides tables of parameters fovmd in ICS effluents by 
individual plant site along with information for each parameter showing its status for limits. 

Where parameters were not included in the final limits list for a site, specific reasons are 
provided in the tables in Appendix A. 

Candidate Substances for Bans or Phase-Outs 

In April 1992, the Ministry published a Report^ which listed twenty-one candidate chemicals for 
banning, phasing out or for use/release reductions. Of the twenty-one parameters, four were 
foimd in the effluents from Sector plants. Table 5-3 lists the four parameters and the plants 
where they were found. 

These chemicals are persistent and bioaccumulative and therefore special care was taken to 
ensure that they were included for limits at the plants where they were foimd. 

Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) 

This special group of compotmds on the Ministry bans or phase-outs list is defined in the 
regulation vmder the generic term of "specific parameters". Levels of PCDDs/PCDFs inplant 
discharges must be non-measurable which is defined in the regulation as follows: 

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin concentration < 20 picograms/L 

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodiben2oftiran concentration < 50 picograms/L 

total toxic equivalent concentration (TEQ) of all < 60 picograms/L 
2,3,7,8-substituted dioxin and fiiran congeners ^ 

The method of calculating a TEQ value from the analysis of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxin 
and furan congeners is outlined in the Ministry sampling and analytical protocol'*. 

While all plants under the regulation are subject to the non-measurable limits for the "specific 
parameters", quarterly self-monitoring for PCDDs/PCDFs is required only at those plants where 
past Ministry and plant data have indicated the presence of these compounds in the plant 
effluents. 



60 



Chapter 5 - The Development of Effluent Limits for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 
Table 5.2 - Final List Of ICS Limited Parameters 



ATG 


PARAMbTKR 


2 
3 


Cyanide.Tocal 
Hydrogen ion, pH 


4 
4 
4 


Ammonia + Ammonium 
Nitratt + Nitrite 
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


Sa 


Dissotved Organic Carbon (DOQ • 


6 


Total niospbonis • 


g 


Total Suspended Solids • 


9 


Aluminum 

Cadmium 

Chromium 

Copper 

Molybdenum 

Nickel 

Uad 

Vanadium 

Zinc 


10 


Arsenic 

Antimony 

Selenium 


12 


Mercury 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


15 


Sulphide 


16 


Chloroform 
Carbon Tetrachloride 
Tetrachloroethylene 


17 


Toluene 


23 


1.2.3 Trichlorobenzene 

1.2.4 Trichlorobenzene 
Hexachlorobenzene 
Hexachlorobutadiene 
Hexachloroethane 
Octachlorostyrene 
Pentachlorobenzeoe 


24 


Polychlorinaled dibenzo-p-dioxin/fiirans •• 


25 


Oil and Grease 


27 


PCBT 


II 


Chloride' 


12 


Fluoride 


D 


Sulphate 



* TSS, DOC and Phosphorus are limited at all ICS plants 

** Includes 2,3,7,8 TCDD and five congeners for each dioxin and fiiran group (i.e. eleven 
contaminants for ATG 24). Although 2,3,7,8 TCDD was not found during the monitoring 
period, it is included for limits as part of ATG 24. 



61 



Chapter 5 - The Development of Effluent Limits for the Inorganic Chemical Sector ÇLCS) 



TABLE 5.3 

Chemicals on the Candidate Substances List for Bans or Phase-Outs 
Limited at ICS Plants 



Bans or Phase-out 
Parameter 


# of Sites 
where Limited 


Plant Sites 


Arsenic 


Four 


General Chemical Canada Ltd. 
ICI Canada Inc., Cornwall 
ICI Canada Inc.-Conpak (Cornwall) 
Sulco Chemicals Limited 


Mercury 


Five 


Albright and Wilson Americas 
General Chemical Canada Ltd. 
ICI Canada Inc., Cornwall 
ICI Canada Inc.-Conpak (Cornwall) 
Nutrite Inc. 


PCDD/PCDF 


Nine 


Caijot Canada Ltd. 

Cytec Canada Inc. 

General Chemical Canada Ltd. 

ICI Canada Inc., Cornwall 

ICI Canada Inc.-Conpak (Cornwall) 

Nutrite Inc. 

Praxair Canada Inc. (Moore) 

Praxair Canada Inc. (Samia) 

Praxair Canada Inc. (Sault Ste. Marie) 


Hexachlorobenzene 


Two 


ICI Canada Inc., ComwaU 

ICI Canada Inc.-Conpak (Cornwall) 



62 



Chapter 5 - The Development of Effluent Limits for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

5.7 STATISTICAL DERIVATION OF LIMITS 

Effluent limits were developed for process effluent streams according to the statistical procedures 
outlined in the Issue Resolution Committee reports ^ Daily maximum and monthly average 
limits were calculated for each of the limited parameters using BAT performance data. 

In general, loading limits are calculated as follows: 

Loading limit (kg. /day) = LLTA x VF 

where LLTA is the long term loading average 

VF is the loading variability factor based on either daily or 4 ox 30 point 
average loadings 

* 
For limits based on daily samples, the 99th percentile variability factor was used (LVFl in 
Table B, Appendix B). For monthly average plant loading limits, the 95th percentile variability 
factors were used corresponding to either 4 or 30 day averages from weekly or daily sampling 
(LVFML in the Tables in Appendix B). 

Daily maximum and monthly average loading limits were calculated as follows: 

Where daily loading performance data was not available: 

• A long term average concentration value was determined for a parameter selected for 
limits based on BAT performance data. Where no additional reductions were specified 
for a limited parameter in the BAT report, the plant was deemed to be at BAT 
performance for that parameter and the plant's current performance level was used as a 
basis for determining a limit. 

• A long term average flow rate was determined using BAT flow performance data. Plant 
performance flow data was used for the purposes of calculating long term average flow 
data if a specific BAT flow performance value was not available for a particular 
industrial sub-group. 

• A long term average loading value was calculated as the product of the long term 
average concentration value and the long term average flow rate for each plant. 

• Daily and monthly variability factors were calculated for each limited parameter on each 
process effluent stream using plant performance data. For plants with imusually high 
variability factors for specific parameters, an upper bound of 10 was used for daily 
variability factors while monthly variability factors were adopted fi-om better performing 
facilities. 

• Daily maximimi and monthly average loading limits, expressed in kilograms of 
contaminant per day, were calculated for each effluent stream as the product of the long 
term average loading value and the respective variability factor. 



63 



Chapter 5 - The Development of Effluent Limits for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

• Daily maximum and monthly average plant loading limits were calculated as the sum of 
the individual loading limits for each effluent stream for plants with more than a single 
effluent. 

• Statistical outliers were included since it could not be determined that their values were 
not representative of actual operating conditions. 

• Limits were specified for a common set of core conventional parameters at all sites. 
Some of these parameters, however, were found at levels which were less than the 
Regulation Method Detection Limit (RMDL) and consequently a variance could not be 
determined. Limits for such parameters were therefore based on four times RMDL and 
two times RMDL for the daily and monthly average limits respectively. 

Appendix B presents for each limited pfocess effluent stream, current and BAT Option 4 
performance values which were used as the basis for calculating the plant effluent loading limits 
specified in the ICS Effluent Limits Regulation. 

In cases where effluent limits are being specified at a plant through existing Certificate of 
Approval, the same limit values were transferred to the Effluent Limits Regulation if they were 
more stringent than those calculated using the MISA process. 

Compliance With The Limits 

Because the limits have been derived on the basis of the 99th percentile for daily maximum 
loadings and the 95th percentile for monthly average loadings, there is an implied 50% 
probability that even a well operated BAT plant may have an expectation of one exceedance in 
every one hundred daily measurements and five exceedances in every one hundred monthly 
average values. This may amoimt to 3-4 exceedances per year for each daily monitored 
parameter under limits and one exceedance in every 20 months for each parameter with a 
monthly limit. 

To increase the potential for avoiding the statistical exceedances, additional effort to better 
control discharges through equipment improvements or more efficient operation will be required 
on the part of the plants. 



5.8 NON-CONTACT COOLING WATER ASSESSMENT PARAMETERS 

Monitoring requirements for non-contact cooling water effluent streams are included in the 
Regulation so that potential leaks of contaminants from process heat transfer equipment can be 
detected. A basic list of assessment parameters was established for all plants with non-contact 
cooling water effluent streams with consideration for additional site-specific parameters where 
warranted by operations. 



64 



Chapter 5 - The Development of Effluent Limits for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 

All ICS plants which discharge non-contact cooling water effluent streams will be required to 
monitor these streams for the following basic list of conventional parameters: 

*pH 

• TSS 

• specific conductance 

• oil and grease. 

Additional parameters are listed for site-specific situations where the potential exists for contact 
with specific process materials. For instance, the total nitrogen group is specified for nitrogen 
based fertilizer and explosives plants, while total phosphorus is included for phosphoric acid 
plants. 



5.9 ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS 

The proposed Effluent Limits Regulation for the ICS represents a major step forward towards 
the Ministry's goal of the virtual elimination of persistent toxic substances which will protect 
human health and aquatic life in Ontario. 

Improvements in the overall water quality in the St. Clair, St. Lawrence, Detroit and Niagara 
Rivers will be achieved due to reduced loadings of toxic chemicals in open water and river 
bottom sediments. This will result in reduced levels of contaminants in fish and aquatic birds 
and reduced health risks for populations consiuning large amounts of fish. The discharged 
effluents will be non-acutely lethal. Any long term chronic toxicity impacts of the discharges 
will also be determined. 

Table 5.4 presents a summary of the estimated impact of the Limits Regulation on loading 
reductions, under BAT Option 4, for the ICS. 



Table 5.4 
Contaminant Loading Reductions for the ICS (excluding General Chemical) 



Contaminants 


Current Loading 
(tonnes/yr) (1990) 


Final Loading 
(tonnes/year) 


Total Loading Removed 
(tonnes/year) 


Percent 
Removal (%) 


Conventionals' 


1,143 


747 


396 


35 


Non-Conventionals^ 


8.576 


6,868 


1,708 


20 


EMPPL 


93.9 


79.3 


14.6 


16 


Total Contaminants 


9,813 


7,694 


2.119 


22 



1 = TSS, DOC, oil and gicasc, TKN(amnionia), nitrates, pbospbonis 

2 = Chloride, fluoride, sulphate, pheDoli£s(4AAP) 



65 



Giapter 5 - The Development of Effluent Limits for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) 



5.10 REFERENCES 



1. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "Issues Resolution Process - Final Report 
Summary", September 1991, ISBN 0-7729-8974-5, Queen's Printer. 

2. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement 
(MISA), Report on the Assessment of the Quality Assurance and Quality Control Data 
for the Inorganic Chemical Sector", MISA Industrial Section, Water Resources Branch, 
February, 1993, Queen's Printer for Ontario. 

3. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, "Candidate Substances List for Bans or Phase- 
Quts", April 1992, ISBN 0-7729-9764-0, Queen's Printer. 

4. Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, MISA, "Protocol for the Sampling and 
Analysis of Industrial/Municipal Wastewater", ISBN 0-7778-1880-9, August 1994. 



66 



CHAPTER 6 



THE EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 



DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR THE INORGANIC 
CHEMICAL SECTOR EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 



67 



Chapter 6 - The Effluent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



6.0 INTRODUCTION 

This section highlights the main requirements specified in the Regulation. The legal language 
of the Regulation is simplified, the reasons for some of the requirements are elaborated, and 
directions are provided to additional information to assist in the compliance with the Regxilation's 
requirements. A copy of the legal version of the Regulation is provided in Appendix C. 

6.1 OVERVIEW OF THE REGULATION 

The Effluents Limits Regulation for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) is made under the 
Environmental Protection Act of the Province of Ontario. Its full title is, "Effluent Monitoring 
and Effluent Limits - Inorganic Chemical Sector". 

The purpose of the Regulation is to reduce the quantity of contaminants discharged from the ICS 
Plants. This will be done by: 

• placing loading limits on the discharge of specific contaminants 

• requiring effluents to be non-acutely lethal 

• monitoring cooling water and 

• evaluating storm water discharges 

The Regulation requirements with respect to monitoring begin ninety days after the day on which 
the Regulation is filed. The requirements to meet the chemical parameter and lethality limits 
come into force three years after the day on which the Regulation is filed. 

The three year implementation period is provided to allow plants to install Best Available 
Technology (BAT) or to modify their processes to meet the limits. The current projection of the 
filing date is sometime early in January 1995. 

The Regulation requires that the listed discharger plants sample and analyze their designated 
process, cooling water and combined effluents at the specified monitoring frequencies. 

Plants must meet daily and monthly average loading limits for process effluents that are set out 
for each plant in Schedule 2 of the Regulation. All process effluents must also meet 
concentration limits for poly chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. All final discharges 
must pass acute lethality tests using rainbow trout and Daphnia magna . 

Plants must also monitor their cooling water and combined effluent discharges for a list of 
assessment parameters shown in Schedule 4 of the Regxilation. These effluents must also meet 
the acute lethahty limits. 

Speedy reporting of non-compliances and specified record keeping in support of the monitoring 
are other main requirements. 



68 



Chapter 6 - The Effluent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



Six documents, which provide "how to" information, are referenced in the Regulation: 

Protocol for the Sampling and Analysis of Industrial/Municipal Wastewater' 

Protocol for Conducting a Storm Water Control Study^ 

Reference Method for Determining Acute Lethality, of Effluents to Rainbow Trout^ 

Reference Method for Determining Acute Lethality of Effluents to Daphnia magna" 

Test of Larval Growth and Survival Using Fathead Minnows' 

Test of Reproduction and Survival Using the Cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia* 

The requirements of the Regxilation are organized under ten parts covering forty-one sections. 
The requirements under each of the ten parts can be summarized as follows: 

Part I - General 

• definitions; purpose; application; obligations with respect to legal instruments; non- 
application of the General Effluent Monitoring Regulation; by-passes; sampling and 
analytical procedure - reference to the sampling and analytical protocol document 

Part II - Sampling Points 

• the sampling points as listed in the Schedules are to be used; new sampling points require 
notification of the Director 

Part III - Calculation of Loadings 

• requirements for the calculation of loadings for process and process batch effluents, 
cooling water and combined effluents 

Part IV - Parameter and Lethality Limits 

• compliance requirements with loading limits listed in Schedule 2; concentration limits for 
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and seventeen 
2,3,7,8-substituted dioxin and furan congeners in terms of Toxic Equivalent Concentration 
(TEQ); lethality limits at plant outfalls based on rainbow trout and Daphnia magna testing 

Part V - Monitoring - Chemical Parameters 

• monitoring requirements ~ sample pick-up times, analytical obligations for daily, weekly, 
quarterly process effluent sampling and annual QA/QC sampling; provision for reduced 
frequency of monitoring from daily to three times per week for good performance; 
cooling water and combined effluent chemical parameter assessment 



69 



Chapter 6 - The EflQuent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



Part VI - Monitoring - Acute Lethality and Chronic Toxicity 

• acute lethality testing with rainbow trout and Daphnia magna : requirement for a 
Toxicity Elimination Report if effluents are toxic; chronic toxicity testing with Fathead 
Minnows and Ceriodaphnia dubia 

Part VII - Effluent Volume 

• flow measurement and accuracy requirements; calculation of plant yolumes 
Part VIII - Storm Water Control 

• requirement for a storm water control study as outlined in the referenced storm water 
control study protocol; exemption criteria; timing of study completion 

Part IX - Records and Reports 

• record keeping; annual report for the public; reports to the director - general information, 
non-compliance with limits, quarterly reports of loadings and flow, semi-annual reports 
of chronic toxicity results 

Part X - Commencement and Revocation Provisions 

• revocation of the ICS Monitoring Regulation; in force dates for the commencement of 
monitoring and flow measurement and for compliance with limits 

Schedules - 

• seven schedules, referenced in the Regulation, follow the text of the Regulation 

6.2 EXPLANATORY NOTES 

In this section, the requirements imder each of the ten parts and forty-one sections of the 
Regvilation are discussed in more detail with elaboration of tiie rationale behind the requirements. 

PART I - GENERAL 

Section 1 - Interpretation 

Section 1 provides definitions to explain and to clarify key terms used in the Regulation to ensure 
a common understanding. The definitions cover: 

• terms having several possible interpretations 

• technical terms which may not be in common use 

• terms which have a different meaning in the Regulation fi-om those in the dictionary 

• terms specific to the ICS Regulation 



70 



Chapter 6 - The Effluent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



Section 2 - Purpose 

The purpose of the Regulation is to control the quantity of contaminants discharged to 
watercourses by the Sector plants. 

Section 3 - Application 

The Regulation only applies to the twenty-five plants listed in Schedule 1. It does not apply to 
dischargers of effluents to a Municipal sewer. New plants or new effluents can be brought under 
regulation through amendments. 

Section 4 - Obligations Under Approvals, Orders, etc. 

The Regulation does not exempt listed plants from any other obligations under Certificates of 
Approval, Control Orders, Directions or other instruments issued imder any Act. 

The Ministry will endeavour to ensure that duplication of requirements is avoided but in cases 
where duplication exists, the more stringent requirements will apply. 

Section 5 - Non- Application of the General Effluent Monitoring Regulation 

The tie-in between the IC Sectoral Monitoring Regulation (O. Regulation 395/89) and the General 
Effluent Monitoring Regulation (O. Regulation 695/88) has been severed. The Sectoral 
Monitoring Regulation is revoked with the filing of this Regulation and therefore the General 
Effluent Monitoring Regulation becomes void. 

Section 6 - Bv-passes 

On the date when the limits come into effect, plants will not be able to discharge any process 
effluent unless it flows past a regulated sampling point. 

Section 7 - Sampling and Analvtical Procedures 

The procedures for sampling and analysis to be used under the Regulation are referenced in a 
Ministry protocol document'. The Protocol provides specific information on sampling methods, 
sample containers and volumes, preservation chemicals and maximimi storage times. 

Similarly, on the analytical side, the Protocol provides information on sample preparation, 
methods of analysis, required method detection limits and laboratory quality control. 

The Reg\ilation requires that all sampling equipment be maintained to ensure that the samples 
collected, reflect the level of discharge. 



71 



Chapter 6 - The Effluent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



PART II - SAMPLING POINTS 

Section 8 - Sampling Points To Be Used 

The sampling points to be used are specified for each plant - Schedules 2 and 3 for sampling 
points on process effluent and process effluent batch streams and Schedule 4 for sampling points 
for assessment of cooling water and combined effluents. 

The discharger must use the designated sampling points no later than ninety days after the day 
on which the Regulation is filed. 

All of the sampling points have been designated prior to the filing of the Regulation. 

The detailed official record of the sampling points for each plant, including identification number, 
name and plot plan location, signed and dated by a plant official, is on file with the Ministry and 
is linked to the Regulation through the reference to the record on Schedules 2, 3 and 4 in the 
Regulation. 

The establishment of new sampling points or the elimination of current sampling points listed in 
the Regulation requires written notification of the Director within thirty days of the change. The 
notification must include the name, identification number and location of the sampling point 
together with an updated plot plan showing the location of all of the sampling points to be 
regulated. 

For pH measurement only, subsections 23(7) and 23(8) allow the use of an alternate sampling 
point located downstream of the designated sampling point but prior to discharge to surface water 
or prior to discharge to a common industrial sewer. Written notification and location information 
must be provided to the Director prior to use of the alternate sampling point. 

Where on-line pH measurement is used, the location of the installation does not need to be at the 
exact location of the designated sampling point where composite samples are being taken, as long 
as the pH measurement at its location is representative of the pH at the designated sampling 
point. 



PART III -- CALCULATION OF LOADINGS 

Section 9 - Calculation of Loadings - General 

The actual analytical concentration value is to be used in loading calculations unless it is less than 
1/10 of the Regulation Method Detection Limit (see the "Protocol For The Sampling And 
Analysis of Industrial/Municipal Wastewater"') in which case the loading is deemed to be zero 
for that parameter. 



72 



Chapter 6 - The EfiQuent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



The loading calculations for process effluents and process batch effluents must be done as soon 
as is reasonably possible after the analytical results are available. For cooling water and 
combined effluents, loading calculations must be done, at least in time to meet the quarterly 
reporting requirements. 

Section 10 - Calculation of Loadings - Process Effluent - General 

A daily plant loading in kilograms per day must be caJcidated for each limited parameter for each 
designated process effluent stream whenever samples are required to be collected (see Schedule 
2 for frequency of sample collection). The daily plant loading for sites with single process 
effluent streams is the single stream loading. 

For sites with multiple process effluent streams, the daily plant loading for each limited parameter 
is the sum of the loadings of that parameter in the individual process effluent streams designated 
for sampling for that parameter (see Schedule 3). 

A monthly average process effluent plant loading in kilograms per day must be calculated for all 
parameters sampled daily (or thrice- weekly) or weekly during each month. The monthly average 
plant loading is the arithmetic mean 6f the daily plant loading values. 

Section 11 - Calculation of Loadings - Process Effluent - Batch 

A process effluent batch loading in kilograms per batch must be calculated for each designated 
process effluent batch stream (see Schedule 3). 

Section 12 - Calculation of Loadings - Cooling Water 

The calculations are done in the same way as for process effluents to provide a daily cooling 
water effluent plant loading once per week and a monthly average cooling water effluent plant 
loading based on the average of weekly determinations. 

Section 13 - Calculation of Loadings - Combined Effluent 

The daily and monthly average combined effluent plant loadings are calculated in the same way 
as for cooling water. 

Section 14 - Calculation of Additional Loadings - Combined Effluent 

The combined effluent designation allows a plant to monitor several cooling water streams 
(including possible storm water contributions) and a co-mingled treated process effluent stream(s) 
at a single point downstream of their confluence rather than requiring individual cooling water 
stream analysis. 

For each combined effluent stream, the loading contributed from the process effluent stream 
flowing into the combined effluent must be calculated for parameters common to the streams for 
the days on which the combined effluent stream is sampled. 



73 



Chapter 6 - The Effluent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



Daily and monthly average process effluent contributions to the loadings in the combined effluent 
stream must be calculated. The process effluent loading contributions are the process loadings 
calculated only for the day on which the combined effluent is sampled. 

PART IV - PARAMETER AND LETHALITY LIMITS 

Section 15 - Parameter Limits 

Each plant must meet the daily and monthly average process effluent plant loadings specified in 
Columns 3 and 4 respectively of its specific Schedule 2 for the parameters shown in Column 1 . 

In addition, plants with process effluent batch discharges must meet the batch discharge limits 
set out in Column 5 of Schedule 2. 

All plants must ensure that their process and process batch effluents meet the following 
concentration limits for three poly chlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran groups: 

• 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin <20 picograms/L 

• 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran <50 picograms/L 

• total toxic equivalent concentration (TEQ) <60 picograms/L 
of seventeen 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners 

A listing of the 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners and the method for calculating their total toxic 
equivalent concentration are described in the Sampling and Analytical Protocol' 

Plants where polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) have been found 
have quarterly PCDD/PCDF self-monitoring requirements set out in their Schedule 2 or 3 tables. 

Process effluents and process batch effluents must meet a pH limit range of 6.0 to 9.5 at all 
times. When alternate sampling points are designated for pH, the 6.0 to 9.5 limit also appUes. 

Section 16 - Lethality Limits 

Acute lethality limits apply only to those sampling points that are designated in Schedule 5. Grab 
samples from the designated sampling points on process, process batch, cooling water and 
combined effluent streams must be non-toxic to rainbow trout and Daphnia magna as 
demonstrated by specific acute lethality tests where the mortality must not exceed 50% of the 
organisms in 100% effluent. 



PART V - MONITORING - CHEMICAL PARAMETERS 

Section 17 - Monitoring - General 

Collection of samples is not required on a day when there is no process effluent discharged from 
the plant. 



74 



Chapter 6 - The Effluent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



The Regulation requires that sufficient sample volume be taken to perfonn the required analyses 
and that all analyses be completed as soon as is reasonably possible. 

A three hour composite sample pick-up window between 7:00 am and 10:00 am is provided. The 
nominal twenty-four hoxii composite sample period can be as short as twenty-one hours or as long 
as twenty-seven. 

For plants with a large number of sampling points, the Director may allow deviations from the 
sample pick-up window upon written request but the Director may also revoke the allowance in 
writing if circumstances at the plant warrant it. 

Sections 18, 19, 20 - Monitoring - Process Effluent - Daily. Weeklv. Quarterlv 

The requirements for daily, weekly and quarterly sampling and analysis are set out in Schedule 
2. For multi-process effluent plants, the specific parameters to be analyzed in each effluent are 
shown in Schedxile 3. The requirement for daily pH monitoring resides in a separate section of 
the Regulation (Section 23) and therefore pH is not specifically listed in Schedule 2. 

For parameters with an initial daily monitoring frequency requirement, relief is provided to three 
times per week monitoring for good performance. The performance criterion is a monthly average 
plant loading equal to or less than seventy-five percent of the monthly average plant loading limit 
for that parameter for twelve consecutive months. 

A return to daily monitoring for a parameter is automatic, if during any twelve consecutive 
months, the daily plant loading limit for the thrice-weekly monitored parameter is exceeded three 
times or the monthly average loading limit is exceeded twice. To qualify again for thrice-weekly 
monitoring, the good performance criterion must be met for that parameter. 

Weekly samples must be collected at least four days apart. Quarterly samples must be collected 
at least forty-five days apart. The quarterly samples must be picked-up on the same day as the 
weekly samples. 

Section 21 - Monitoring - Process Effluent - Batch 

Each process effluent batch discharge must be sampled over the period of the batch discharge. 

Section 22 - Monitoring - Process Effluent - Quality Control 

Duplicate, travelling blank and travelling spiked blank samples, making up the Quality Assxurance 
and Quality Control (QA/QC) field samples are required annually beginning in the year after the 
year of filing of the Regulation. 

The duplicate samples are to be analyzed for the same parameters as are shown in Schedule 2 for 
weekly and quarterly monitoring for the plant. QA/QC samples must be collected at least six 
months apart on the same day as the weekly process effluent samples. 



75 



Chapter 6 - The Effluent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



The sampling and analytical protocol' provides additional directions on QA/QC analysis 
requirements. 

Section 23 - Monitoring - Process Effluent - pH Measurement 

Plants are required to measure pH daily by collecting three grab samples over a 24 hour period. 
The first sample must be taken between 7:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. or during the composite sample 
pickup time window allowed by the Director. The other two grab samples may be collected at 
any time during the 24 hour period as long as all three samples are collected at least four hoiirs 
apart. 

Use of an on-line pH analyzer is allowed in place of grab sampling. The first reading of pH 
must be taken in the same time period as would be applicable to a grab sample. Two other 
readings must be taken over the 24 hour period so that all three readings are at least four hours 
apart. 

Any recorded pH readings over the 24 hour period outside of the regulated pH range of 6.0 - 9.5, 
not the result of analyzer malfunction, are reportable as exceedances. 

For pH measurement, upon written notification of the Director, the plant may use an alternate 
sampling point downstream of the designated sample point for composite samples, but before the 
point of discharge to a surface water or to an industrial sewer. 

A composite sample for pH is required for process effluent batch streams. 

Sections 24, 25 - Monitoring - Cooling Water/Combined Effluent- Weekly Assessment 

There are no limits in the Regiilation for cooling water and combined effluent discharges. 

Cooling water and combined effluents require weekly monitoring for the assessment parameters 
shown in Schedule 4 for each plant. The samples are to be picked-up on the same day as the 
weekly process effluent samples. A minimum interval of four days is required between 
successive sampling. 

Section 26 - . Monitoring - Cooling Water and Combined Effluent - pH and Specific 
Conductance Measurement 

Three grab samples, in a 24 hour period, at least four hours apart, for each of pH and specific 
conductance are required as part of the assessment monitoring for cooling water and combined 
effluents. 

An on-line analyzer may be used for pH or for specific conductance in place of grab samples. 
Any three pH values, at least four hours apart, recorded by the on-line unit in a 24 hour period, 
may be reported. 



76 



Qiapter 6 - The Effluent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



PART VI - MONITORING - ACUTE LETHALITY AND CHRONIC TOXICITY 

Sections 27, 28 - Monitoring - Acute Lethality Testing - Rainbow Trout. Daphnia magna 

Both rainbow trout and Daphnia magna acute lethality single concentration, 100% effluent tests 
are required monthly at all sampling points where chemical monitoring is required (process 
effluents, process batch effluents, combined effluents and cooling water). All of these sampling 
points are listed in Schedules 2, 3 and 4 of the Regulation. 

Acute lethality limits apply only to sampling points on final discharges to watercourses. These 
points are designated for each plant in Schedule 5. The acute lethality testing of the remaining 
Schedule 2, 3 and 4 sampling points is for assessment purposes only. 

Both lethality samples must be taken on the same day, tied to a day when weekly sampling for 
the analysis of limited parameters is being done. An interval of at least fifteen days is required 
between successive monthly lethality tests. 

The acute lethality testing frequency at a sampling point for either species can be reduced to 
quarterly following twelve consecutive monthly passes for that species (mortality of no more than 
50% of the test species). Notification of the Director as to the change in frequency is required. 
An interval of at least forty-five days is required between successive quarterly tests. 

A single failure at the quarterly frequency for a species, causes sampling to revert to monthly 
until twelve consecutive passes for that species are achieved. 

The rainbow trout and Daphnia magna acute lethality tests are to be performed according to 
Environment Canada procedures referenced in the Regulation. 

Section 29 - Assessment Monitoring - Acute Lethality 

If testing at any acute lethality sampling point results in three test failures in any twelve 
consecutive months for rainbow trout or Daphnia magna, the discharger must prepare a Toxicity 
Elimination Report for the species for which the failure occurred. 

The information required for the Report is set out in subsection 29(3). The Report must be 
submitted to the Director within twelve months of the date of the third test failure. 

Section 30 - Monitoring - Chronic Toxicity Testing 

Fathead Miimow and Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity testing is required semi-annually for 
the discharge effluent sampling points listed in Schedule 6 of the Regulation but only after twelve 
consecutive passes of both rainbow trout and Daphnia magna acute lethality tests at those points. 

The intent is to require chronic toxicity testing on effluents that are non-acutely lethal to both 
rainbow trout and Daphnia magna . An interval of at least ninety days is required between 
successive sampling. 



77 



Chapter 6 - The Effluent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



PART VII - EFFLUENT VOLUME 

Section 3 1 - Flow Measurement 

Daily flow measurements within an accuracy of ±15% are required for process and process batch 
effluents. For cooling water and combined effluents flow measurement accuracy m\ist be within 
± 20%. 

A daily volume in cubic metres must be determined for each process, cooling water and 
combined effluent. A batch volume in cubic metres must be determined for each process batch 
effluent. 

Proof of accuracy of flow measurement by calibration or certification is required within ninety 
days after the day on which the Regulation is filed. 

New or altered flow measurement devices require proof of accuracy within two weeks after the 
day on which the new or altered installation is used. 

Maintenance and calibration schedules for each flow measurement system must be implemented. 

Section 32 - Calculation of Plant Volumes 

For process, cooling water and combined effluents, daily and monthly average plant volumes 
discharged, iiv, cubic metres per day, must be calculated. 

PART VIII - STORM WATER CONTROL 

Section 32 - Storm Water Control Study 

A storm water control study, completed in accordance with the requirements of the referenced 
Ministry document, "Protocol for Conducting a Storm Water Control Study"^ is required within 
two years after the day on which the Regulation is filed. 

The study may be postponed for up to one year after limits come into force upon written 
notification of the Director within two years after the day on which the Regulation is filed. 

A plant meeting the exemption criteria iii the storm water study protocol need not comply with 
the study requirement provided the Director is notified in writing within one year after the day 
on which the Regulation is filed. 



78 



Chapter 6 - The Effluent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



PART IX - RECORDS AND REPORTS 
Section 34 - Record Keeping 



Within ninety days after the day on which the Regulation is filed, each discharger must keep all 
records specified by the Regulation for a period of three years and upon request, make them 
available to the Ministry. 

Specific records in electronic format are required for the following: 

daily, thrice weekly (where applicable), weekly and quarterly process effluent and 
process batch effluent monitoring 

• pH meastirement 

• weekly cooling water and combined effluent monitoring including pH and specific 
conductance 

Other records that must be kept by each discharger include: 

sampling and analytical procedures and sample pick-up information 

acute lethality and chronic toxicity test results 

flow device maintenance and calibration 

all problems or malftmctions with a potential to affect compliance 

all by-passes 

all process changes impacting the quality of the discharge , 

the monthly average production m tonnes per day for each of the products listed in 

Schedule 7 (beginning with the first day of the month after the month in which the 

Regulation is filed) 

The arithmetic mean of the first twelve months of the monthly average production record has 
been designated as the reference daily rate of production for each product listed in 
Schedule 7. 

Section 35 - Reports Available to the Public 

A report covering the enviroimiental control performance of the plant summarized under seven 
specified topics listed in the Regulation, is to be prepared on or before June 1 in each year and 
made available to the public on request. 



79 



Chapter 6 - The EflQuent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



Section 36 - Reports to the Director - General 

Notification of the Director in writing is required for the following: 

• change of plant name or ownership 

• any process change, redirection or change in character of an effluent that affects the 
quality of the effluent for a period of one week or longer 

• operation for more than ninety days at less than 75% of the reference daily rate of 
production for any of the products shown in Schedule 7. 

Section 37 - Reports to the Director - Compliance with Section 6 and Part IV 

All by-passes of sampling points, all exceedances of any of the parameter limits shown in 
Schedule 2 and all failures to meet the regulated pH range and acute lethality limits must be 
reported orally to the Director as soon as is reasonably possible, and foUowed-up in writing as 
soon as is reasonably possible. 

Section 38 - Quarterly Reports to the Director 

Quarterly reports to the Director in electronic and hard copy are required no later than forty-five 
days after the end of each quarter and must provide the following information: 

a list of all exceedances of limits 

the monthly average plant loadings and plant flows and the highest and lowest daily plant 
loadings and plant flows for each month for limited and assessment parameters 

the highest and lowest batch loadings for each month including the number of batches 
discharged each month 

the monthly average and the highest and lowest daily process effluent contributions for 
each parameter in common with a combined effluent monitored parameter 

the number of process effluent discharge days in each month 

the highest and lowest pH readings for each month for each process effluent and batch 
process effluent monitoring stream 

the highest and lowest pH and specific conductance readings for each month for each 
cooling water and combined effluent stream 



80 



Chapter 6 - The Effluent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



Section 39 - Reports to the Director - Chronic Toxicity Testing 

When the chronic toxicity testing requirement comes into force (following twelve consecutive 
monthly passes of both acute lethality tests), semi-annioal reports on the results of chronic toxicity 
testing are to be sent to the Director within forty-five days of the end of each semi-armual period. 
The report is to include a plot of percentage reduction in growth or reproduction and a calculation 
of the concentration at which 25% reduction in growth or reproduction would occur. 

PART X - COMMENCEMENT AND REVOCATION PROVISIONS 

Section 40 - Revocation of O. Regulation 395/89 

The following ICS Regulation and its amendment are revoked on the date that is ninety days after 
the day on which this Regulation is filed: 

O. Reg 395/89 - filed June 30, 1989 

O. Reg 649/89 - filed November 30, 1989 

Section 41 - Commencement of Parts IV. V. VI and VII 

Part IV, Parameter and Lethality Limits, which requires compliance with parameter and lethality 
limits, comes into force on the day that is three years after the day on which the Regulation is 
filed. 

Parts V and VI, Monitoring - Chemical Parameters/Acute Lethality and Chronic Toxicity and Part 
VII, Effluent Volume, requiring flow measurement, come into force ninety days after the day on 
which the Regulation is filed. 

Schedules in the Regulation 

The following seven schedules form an integral part of the Regulation: 

SCHEDULE! - List of Regulated Plants 

SCHEDULE 2 - Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 

SCHEDULE 3 - Process Effluent Sampling for Plants with More Than 

One Process Effluent Sampling Point 

SCHEDULE 4 - Combmed Effluent and Cooling Water Assessment 

SCHEDULE 5 - Designated Sampling Pomts for Lethality Limits 

SCHEDULE 6 - Designated Sampling Points for Chronic Toxicity Assessment 

SCHEDULE 7 - Reference Products 



81 



Chapter 6 - The Effluent Limits Regulation - Explanatory Notes 



6.3 REFERENCES 



1 . Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, Laboratory Services Branch, "Protocol for 
the Sampling and Analysis of Industrial/Municipal Wastewater", ISBN-0-7778- 1880-9, 
August 1994, Queen's Printer. 

2. Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, "Protocol for Conducting a Storm Water 
Control Study", ISBN-0-7778- 1786-1, August 1994, Queen's Printer. 

3. Environment Canada, Environmental Protection Series, "Reference Method for 
Determining Acute Lethality of Effluents to Rainbow Trout", Reference Method EPS 
l/RM/13, July 1990, ISBN 0-662-57746-9. 

4. Environment Canada, Environmental Protection Series "Reference Method for 
Determining Acute Lethality of Effluents to Daphnia magna ". Reference Method EPS 
l/RM/14, July 1990, ISBN 0-662-57747-7. 

5. Environment Canada, Environmental Protection Series "Test of Larval Growth and 
Survival Using Fathead Minnows", Report EPS l/RM/22, February, 1992, ISBN 
0-662-19397-0. 

6. Environment Canada, Environmental Protection Series "Test of Reproduction and Survival 
Using the Cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia". Report EPS l/RM/21, February, 1992, ISBN 
0-662-19396-2. 



82 



Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) Effluent Limits Regulation 



APPENDICES 



DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR THE INORGANIC 
CHEMICAL SECTOR EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 



83 



Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) Effluent Limits Regulation 



APPENDIX A 



SELECTION OF PAJ^AMETERS FOR LIMITS 



DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR THE INORGANIC 
CHEMICAL SECTOR EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 



Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) Effluent Limits Regulation 



A ppendix A 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 



The disposition of all found parameters by control point for each plant is shown for each 
plant in the tables in Appendix A 



Legend for Tables: 



I = insufficient number of data points available to calculate a reliable 

variability factor 

P = pass-through contaminant, i.e. not generated on-site and its presence is due 
solely to intake water sources 

Q = deleted because of QA/QC concerns 

R = parameter was found at average concentration levels which were equal to or 
less than the Regulation Method Detection Limit (RMDL). 

S = surrogate parameter selected for this contaminant' 

N = chemical is no longer manufactured or used as a raw material 

*** = limited parameter 



Sector-wide surrogates: 

DOC for TOC and COD 

TSS for VSS 

Total phenolics (4AAP) for phenol 



A-1 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Albright and Wilson Americas 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


No 


P,R 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Aluminum 


No 


P 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Zinc 


No 


P,R 


12 


Mercury 


Yes 


*** 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


Yes 


*** 


16 


Chloroform 


No 


P 


Dibromochloromethane 


No 


P 


25 


Oil and grease 


No 


P,R 


11 


Chloride 


No 


P 


12 


Fluoride 


No 


P,R 


13 


Sulphate 


No 


P 1 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Cabot Canada 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


1 


COD 


No 


S 


2 


Cyanide Total 


No 


R 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Yes 


*** 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


No 


R 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


6 


Total Phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Aluminum 


Yes 


*** 


Copper 


No 


Q 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Zinc 


Yes 


*** 


15 


Sulphide 


No 


R 


24 


PCDDs\PCDFs' 


Yes 


♦** 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


♦** 


11 


Chloride 


No 


P 


13 


Sulphate 


No 


I 



Added for limits on basis of MISA Inspection data 



A-3 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 



Cytec Canada Inc. (Cyanamid) (Welland plant) 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


1 


COD 


No 


S 


2 


Cyanide Total 


Yes 


*** 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


Yes 


*** 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Yes 


*** 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


Yes 


*** 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Aluminum 


No 


P 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Zinc 


No 


P,R 


10 


Antimony 


No . 


P,R 


Arsenic 


No 


R,P 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


No 


R,P 


15 


Sulphide 


No 


R,P 


17 


Toluene 


Yes 


*** 


24 


PCDDsVPCDFs 


Yes 


*** 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


*** 


11 


Chloride 


No 


I 


12 


Fluoride 


No 


I 


13 


Sulphate 


No 


I 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

The Exolon-ESK Company of Canada Ltd. 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 




TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


**♦ 


9 


Aluminum 


Yes 


*** 


Copper 


No 


R 


Strontium 


No 


P 


15 


Sulphide 


No 


I,R 


11 


Chloride 


No 


I 


12 


Fluoride 


No 


R 


13 


Sulphate 


No 


I 



A-5 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

General Chemical Canada Ltd. 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


1 


COD 


No 


S 


2 


Cyanide Total 


Yes 


*** 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


Yes 


*** 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Yes 


*** 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


Yes 


*** 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Alxmiinum 


No 


P 


Beryllium 


No 


P,R 


Boron 


No 


P 


Cadmium 


No 


I 


Chromium 


No 


I 


Cobalt 


No 


I 


Copper 


No 


I 


Lead 


No 


QG 


Molybdenum 


Yes 


*** 


Nickel 


No 


QG 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Thallium 


No 


R,I 


Vanadiimi 


No 


R,I 


Zinc 


No 


P 


10 


Antimony 


No 


P 


Arsenic 


Yes 


*** 


Selenium 


No 


R,P 


12 


Mercury 


Yes 


*** 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


No 


R 


15 


Sulphide 


Yes 


*** 


16 


1 , 1 ,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 


No 


R 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


16 


1,1,2-Trichloroethane 


No 


R 


1 , 1-Dichloroethane 


No 


R 


1 ,2-Dichloroethane 


No 


R 


1 ,2-Dichloropropane 


No 


R 


Bromofonn 


No 


R 


Broraomethane 


No 


R 


Chloroform 


Yes 


*** 


Chloromethane 


No 


R 


Cis-1 ,3-DichIoropropylene 


No 


R 


Dibromochloromethane 


No 


s' 1 


Ethylene dibromide 


No 


S' 


Methylene chloride 


No 


R 


Tetrachloroethylene 


No 


R 


TranS'l ,3-Dichloropropylene 


No 


R 


Trichlorofluoromethane 


No 


N 


Vinyl chloride 


No 


R 


17 


Benzene 


No 


I,R 


Styrene 


No 


I,R 


Toluene 


No 


I.R 


o-Xylene 


No 


I,R 


18 


Acrolein 


No 


I 


Acrylonitrile 


No 


R 


19 


Fluoranthene 


No 


P 


Phenathrene 


No 


P 


Pyrene 


No 


P 


24 


PCDDs/PCDFs 


Yes 


*** 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


>K>|c* 


11 


Chloride 


Yes 


*:K>K 


12 


Fluoride 


Yes 


*** 


13 


Sulphate 


Yes 


*** 



NOTE: "S'" = Chloroform used as surrogate parameter 

"QG" = Analytical Interference due to high chloride levels 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 



ICI Canada Inc. (Cornwall) 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


1 


COD 


No 


S 


2 


Cyanide Total 


No 


P,I,R 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Yes 


♦** 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


No 


R,P 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


Volatile suspended solids 


No 


S 


9 


Aluminum 


Yes 


*** 


Beryliimi 


No 


P,R 


Boron 


No 


P 


Cadmium 


No 


R,P 


Chromium 


No 


R 


Cobalt 


No 


R 


Copper 


Yes 


*** 


Lead 


Yes 


*** 


Molybdenum 


No 


P,R 


Nickel 


Yes 


*** 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Thallium 


No 


P,R 


Vanadium 


No 


P 


Zinc 


Yes 


*** 


10 


Arsenic 


Yes 


*** 


11 


Chromium (hexavalent) 


No 


R 


12 


Mercury 


Yes 


*** 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


Yes 


*** 


15 


Sulphide 


No 


R 


16 


1,2-Dichloroethane 


No 


R,P 


Chloroform 


No 


I 


Dibromochloromethane 


No 


R 


Methylene chloride 


No 


I 


19 


Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 


No 


I 


Di-n-butylphthalate 


No 


I 


23 


1 ,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene 


No 


R 


1 ,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 


No 


R 


1 ,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 


No 


R 


1 ,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 


No 


R 


1 ,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 


Yes 


*** 


2,4,5-Trichlorotoluene 


No 


R 


Hexachlorobenzene 


Yes 


*** 


Hexachlorobutadiene 


Yes 


*** 


Hexachlorocyclopentadiene 


No 


Q 


Hexachloroethane 


Yes 


*** 


Octachlorostryene 


Yes 


*** 


Pentachlorobenzene 


Yes 


*** 


24 


PCDDs/PCDFs 


Yes 


*** 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


*** 


27 


PCBT 


No 


I 


11 


Chloride 


No 


I 


12 


Fluoride 


No 


I 


13 


Sulphate 


No 


I 



A-9 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 



ICI Canada Inc. - Conpak 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


1 


COD 


No 


S 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


Yes 


*♦* 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Yes 


*** 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


Yes 


*** 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Aluminum 


Yes 


*** 


Beryllium 


No 


P,R 


Boron 


No 


P 


Cadmium 


Yes 


*** 


Chromium 


Yes 


*** 


Copper 


Yes 


*** 


Lead 


Yes 


*** 


Molybdenum 


No 


P,R 


Nickel 


Yes 


*** 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Thallium 


No 


P,R 


Vanadium 


No 


P,R 


Zinc 


Yes 


*** 


10 


Antimony 


Yes 


*** 


Arsenic 


Yes 


*** 


Selenium 


Yes 


*** 


11 


Chromium (hexavalent) 


No 


R 


12 


Mercury 


Yes 


*** 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


Yes 


*** 


16 


Carbon tetrachloride 


Yes 


*** 


Chloroform 


Yes 


*** 


Dibromochloromethane 


No 


P,R 


Tetrachloroethylene 


No 


P.R 


17 


Benzene 


No 


I 


19 


Benzylbutylphthalate 


No 


I 


Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 


No 


I 


Di-n-butylphthalate 


No 


I 


23 


1 ,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene 


No 


R 


1 ,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 


No 


R 


1 ,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 


Yes 


*** 


1 ,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 


No 


R 


1 ,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 


Yes 


*** 


2,4,5 -Trichlorotoluene 


No 


R 


Hexachlorobenzene 


Yes 


*** 


Hexachlorobutadiene 


Yes 


*** 


Hexachlorocyclopentadiene 


No 


R,P 


Hexachloroethane 


Yes 


*** 


Octachlorostyrene 


No 


R 


Pentachlorobenzene 


No 


R 


24 


PCDDs/PCDFs 


Yes 


*** 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


*** 


11 


Chloride 


Yes 


*** 


12 


Fluoride 


No 


I 


13 


Sulphate 


Yes 


*** 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

International Minerals and Chemicals Corporation (Canada) Ltd. 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


1 


COD 


No 


S 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


Yes 


*** 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Yes 


*** 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


Yes 


*** 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Aluminimi 


No 


R 


Boron 


No 


R,P 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Zinc 


No 


R 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


Yes 


*** 


15 


Sulphide 


No 


R,I 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


*** 


11 


Chloride 


No 


I 


12 


Fluoride 


Yes 


*** 


13 


Sulphate 


Yes 


*** 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Liquid Carbonic Inc.(Courtright) 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Aluminum 


Yes 


*** 


Boron 


No 


P 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Zinc 


No 


R,I 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


**♦ 



A -13 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Liquid Carbonic Inc.(Maitland) 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


No 


S 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Yes 


*** 


Total Kjeldahl nitrogen 


No 


S 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Aluminum 


No 


P 


Boron 


No 


p 


Strontium 


No 


p 


Zinc 


No 


p 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


*** 



A -14 



APPENDK A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Norton Advanced Ceramics of Canada Inc. 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


1 


COD 


No 


S 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonimn 


No 


R 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


No 


R 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


No 


R 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*♦* 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Aluminum 


Yes 


*** 


Boron 


No 


P 


Chromivmi 


No 


R,P 


Copper 


No 


R,P 1 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Zinc 


No 


R,P 


12 


Mercmry 


No 


R 


16 


Chloroform 


No 


R,P 


Methylene chloride 


No 


P 


1 ,3-Dichlorobenzene 


No 


P 


1 ,4-Dichlorobenzene 


No 


R 


19 


Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 


No 


I 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


*** 


11 


Chloride 


No 


P 


12 


Fluoride 


No 


R,P 


13 


Sulphate 


Yes 


... 



A- 15 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 



Nutrite Inc. 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


1 


COD 


No 


S 


2 


Cyanide Total 


No 


I 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


Yes 


*** 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Yes 


*** 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


Yes 


*** 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphoras 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


Volatile suspended solids 


No 


S 


9 


Aliiminiim 


Yes 


*** 


Boron 


No 


p 


Copper 


Yes 


*** 


Strontium 


No 


p 


Vanadium 


Yes 


*** 


Zinc 


Yes 


*** 


12 


Mercury 


Yes 


*** 


14 


PhenoUcs (4AAP) 


Yes 


*** 


15 


Sulphide 


No 


I 


16 


1,1-Dichloroethane 


No 


R 


1 , 1 -Dichloroethylene 


No 


R 


Bromoform 


No 


R 


Chloroform 


No 


S 


Tetrachloroethylene 


Yes 


*** 


Trans- 1 ,2-Dichloroediylene 


No 


S 


Trichloroethylene 


No 


R 


20 


Phenol 


No 


S 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


24 


PCDDs/PCDFs 


Yes 


*** 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


*** 


27 


PCBT 


Yes 


*** 


11 


Chloride 


No 


I 


12 


Fluoride 


No 


R 


13 


Sulphate 


No 


I 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Praxair Canada Inc. (Mooretown) 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


1 CODE 


1 


COD 


No 


S 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


No 


I 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


No 


I 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


1 ^ 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


♦** 


9 


Aluminum 


Yes 


*** 


Boron 


No 


P 


Chromium 


No 


R 


Copper 


Yes 


*** 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Zinc 


Yes 


*** 


10 


Arsenic 


No 


I 


16 


Bromoform 


No 


I 


Methylene chloride 


No 


P 


19 


Bis(2- 
ethylhexyl)phthalate 


No 


I 


24 


PCDDs\PCDFs 


Yes 


*** 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


*** 


11 


Chloride 


No 


I 


12 


Fluoride 


No 


I 


13 


Sulphate 


No 


I 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Praxair Canada Inc. (Samia) 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


1 


COD 


No 


S 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


No 


R,I 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


No 


I 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


No 


I 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Alimiinum 


Yes 


*** 


Boron 


No 


P 


Copper 


Yes 


*** 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Zinc 


Yes 


*** 


10 


Arsenic 


No 


R,I 


19 


Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 


No 


I 


24 


PCDDs/PCDFs 


Yes 


*** 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


*** 


11 


Chloride 


No 


I 


12 


Fluoride 


No 


I 


- 


Sulphate 


No 


I 



A -19 



, APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Praxair Canada Inc. 
(Sault Ste. Marie) 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


1 


COD 


No 


S 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


No 


I 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


Volatile suspended solids 


No 


S 


9 


Aluminum 


Yes 


*♦* 


Boron 


No 


p 


Copper 


Yes 


*** 


Strontium 


No 


p 


Zinc 


Yes 


**♦ 


16 


Chloroform 


No 


I 


Methylene chloride 


No 


I 


1 ,3-Dichlorobenzene 


No 


R 


1 ,4-Dichlorobenzene 


No 


R 


24 


PCDDs/PCDFs 


Yes 


*** 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


*** 


11 


Chloride 


No 


I 


13 


Sulphate 


No 


I 



A -20 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 , 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Puritan-Bennett Corporation 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammoniirai 


Yes 


*** 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Yes 


*** 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


Yes 


*** 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 



A -21 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Sulco Chemicals Ltd. 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


UMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


1 


COD 


No 


S 


2 


Cyanide Total 


Yes 


*** 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammoniimi 


No 


R 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


No 


P 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


No 


R,P 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Aluminum 


Yes 


*** 1 


Boron 


No 


P 


Cadmium 


Yes 


*** 


Cobalt 


No 


R 


Copper 


Yes 


*** 


Lead 


No 


R 


Nickel 


Yes 


*** 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Vanadium 


Yes 


*** 


Zinc 


Yes 


*** 


10 


Arsenic 


Yes 


*** 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


Yes 


*** 


15 


SuJphide 


No 


R 


19 


Benzylbutylphthalate 


No 


R 


Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 


No 


R 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


*** 


11 


Chloride 


Yes 


*** 1 


12 


Fluoride 


Yes 


*** 1 


13 


Sulphate 


Yes 


*** 



A-22 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Terra Industries (Canada) Inc. 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


1 


COD 


No 


S 


2 


Cyanide Total 


No 


R,P 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


Yes 


*** 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Yes 


*** 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


Yes 


*** 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Aluminum 


Yes • 


*** 


Copper 


No 


P 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Zinc 


Yes 


**♦ 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


Yes 


*** 


16 


Chloroform 


No 


P 


Chloromethane 


No 


P 


19 


Benzylbutylphthalate 


No 


R 


Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 


No 


R 


Diphenyl either 


No 


R 


20 


Phenol 


No 


S 


11 


Chloride 


No 


P 


12 


Fluoride 


Yes 


*** 


13 


Sulphate 


Yes 


*** 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

UCAR Carbon Canada Inc. 



1 

ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


4 


Nitratie + Nitrite 


Yes 


*** 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Aluminum 


Yes 


**♦ 


Boron 


No 


P 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Zinc 


Yes 


*** 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


Yes 


*** 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


*** 


11 


Chloride 


Yes 


*** 


12 


Fluoride 


No 


I 


13 


Sulphate 


Yes 


*** 



A -24 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Washington Mills Ltd. 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


1 


COD 


No 


S 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonimn 


No 


I 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


No 


I 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


s 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Aluminum 


Yes 


*** 


Boron 


No 


p 


Strontium 


No 


p 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


No 


I,R 


15 


Sulphide 


No 


I 


25 


Oil and grease 


Yes 


*** 


11 


Chloride 


No 


N 


12 


Fluoride 


No 


I 1 


13 


Sulphate 


No 


N 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Washington Mills Electro Minerals Corporation 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


8 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


9 


Aluminum 


Yes 


*** 


Strontium 


No 


P 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


No 


R 


19 


Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 


No 


R 


25 


Oil and Grease 


Yes 


*** 


11 


Chloride 


No 


I 


13 


Sulphate 


No 


I 



APPENDIX A - Table A-1 
Selection of Parameters for Limits 

Welland Chemical Limited 



ATG 


PARAMETER 


LIMITED 
PARAMETER 


CODE 


1 


COD. 


No 


S 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonimn 


No 


N,I 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Yes 


*** 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


No 


I 


5 


DOC 


Yes 


*** 


TOC 


No 


S 


6 


Total Phosphorus 


Yes 


*** 


g 


Total suspended solids 


Yes 


*** 


Volatile susf>ended solids 


No 


S 


9 


Ahiminiim 


Yes 


*** 


Boron 


No 


I,P 


Cadmium 


No 


R 


Strontium 


No 


P 


Zinc 


No 


R 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


No 


I 


15 


Sulphide 


No 


I 


16 


Chloroform 


Yes 


*** 


Dibromochloromethane 


No 


R 


Methylene chloride 


No 


R 


" 17 


o-Xylene 


No 


R.I 


19 


Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 


No 


R 


Di-n-butylphthalate 


No 


R 


23 


Hexachlorobenzene 


No 


R,I 


Pentachlorobenzene 


No 


R,I 


25 


Oil and grease 


No 


R,I 


II 


Chloride 


No 


I II 


12 


Fluoride 


No 


R 


13 


Sulphate 


No 


I 



Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) Effluent Limits Regulation 



APPENDIX B 



PERFORMANCE VALUES 

DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR THE INORGANIC 
CHEMICAL SECTOR EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 



Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) EfHuent Limits Regulation 



Appendix B - Summary of Current (1989-90 Monitoring Data) Versus BAT 4 

Performance Data 



Legend for Codes - Performance Data Tables 



ATG 
Freq 



RMDL 

CLTA 

LLTA 

LVFl 

LVFML 

LDAYL 

LML 

CDAYL 

CML 



= analytical test group 
= monitoring frequency 

d = daily 

w = weekly 

q = quarterly . 

b = batch 
= regulation method detection limit 
= long term average concentration 
= long term average loading (kg./day) 
= daily loading variability factor 
= monthly loading variability factor 
= daily maximiun loading value (kg./day) 
= monthly average loading value (kg./day) 
= concentration equivalent of LDAYL 
= concentration equivalent of LML 



Note: 



In cases v^here the final monitoring firequency assigned for a parameter in the 
regulation is quarterly, no monthly average limit can be calculated and therefore 
in the regulation schedules these parameters will have no values listed under 
column 4 of Schedule 2. 



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Development Document for the Inorganic Chemical Sector (ICS) Effluent Limits Regulation 



APPENDIX C 



THE INORGANIC CHEMICAL SECTOR EFFLUENT 
LIMITS REGULATION 



DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT FOR THE INORGANIC 
CHEMICAL SECTOR EFFLUENT LIMITS REGULATION 



DRAFT REGULATION TO BE MADE UNDER THE 
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT 



EFFLUENT MONITORING AND EFFLUENT LIMITS - 
INORGANIC CHEMICAL SECTOR 

PART I - GENERAL 

Interpretation 

l.-(l) In this Regulation, 

"assessment parameter" means a parameter that is listed in colimm 1 of Schedule 4 for 
the discharger's plant; 

"blowdown water" means recirculating water that is discharged from a cooling water system 
for the purpose of controlling the level of water in the cooling water system or for the 
purpose of discharging from the cooling water system materials contained in the 
cooling water system the further build-up of which would impair the operation of the 
system; 

"combined effluent" means process effluent combined with cooling water effluent or storm 
water effluent, or both; 

"combined effluent monitoring stream" means a stream on which a combined effluent 
sampling point is established; 

"combined effluent sampling point", in relation to a plant, means a combined 
effluent sampling point that is specified for the plant in Schedule 4; 

"common parameter", in relation to a combined effluent monitoring stream at a 

plant, means an assessment parameter that is also a limited parameter in the 
circumstances described in subsection 14(1); 

"cooling water effluent" means water and associated material that is used in an industrial 
process for the purpose of removing heat and that has not, by design, come into 
contact with process materials, but does not include blowdown water ; 

"cooling water effluent monitoring stream" means a stream on which a cooling water effluent 
sampling point is established; 

"cooling water effluent sampling point", in relation to a plant, means a cooling water effluent 
sampling point that is specified for the plant in Schedule 4; 



"Director", in relation to obligations of a discharger, means a Director appointed under 

section 5 of the Act and responsible for the region in which the discharger's plant is 
located and includes an alternate named by the Director; 

"discharger" means an owner or person in occupation or having the charge, management or 
control of a plant to which this Regulation applies; 

"limited parameter", in relation to a plant, means a parameter for which a limit is specified for 
the plant in column 3, 4 or 5 of Schedule 2; 

"pick up", in relation to a sample, means pick up for the purpose of storage, if any, at a plant, 
including storage within an automated sampling device at the plant, and transportation 
to and analysis at a laboratory; 

"plant" means an industrial facility and the developed property, waste disposal sites and 
wastewater treatment facilities associated with it; 

"process change" means a change in equipment, production processes, process materials or 
treatment processes; 

"process effluent" means, 

(a) effluent that, by design, has come into contact with process materials, 

(b) blowdown water, 

(c) effluent that results from* cleaning or maintenance operations at a plant 
during a period when all or part of the plant is shut down, and 

(d) waste disposal site effluent; 

"process effluent batch" means a process effluent that is discharged intermittently with a 
discharge duration of less than 24 hours for each batch and a time interval of at 
least 8 hours between successive batches; 

"process effluent batch monitoring stream" means a stream on which a process effluent batch 

sampling point is established; 

"process effluent batch sampling point", in relation to a plant, means a process effluent batch 
sampling point that is specified for the plant in Schedule 3; 

"process effluent monitoring stream" means a stream on which a process effluent sampling 
point is established; 



"process effluent sampling point", in relation to a plant, means a process effluent sampling 
point that is specified for the plant in Schedule 2 or 3, as the case may be; 

"process materials", in relation to a discharger's plant, means raw materials for use in an 

industrial process at the plant, manufacturing intermediates produced at the plant, or 
products or by-products of an industrial process at the plant, but does not include 
chemicals added to cooling water for the purpose of controlling organisms, fouling and 
corrosion; 

"quarter" means all or part of a period of three consecutive months begirming on the first day 
of January, April, July or October; 

"semi-aimual period" means all or part of a period of six months begirming on the first day of 
January or July; 

"specific parameter", in relation to a plant, means 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin, 
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofiiran, and 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and fiiran congeners; 

"storm water effluent" means run-off from a storm event or thaw that is not used in any 
industrial process. 

(2) For greater certainty, this Regulation applies both to effluent streams that discharge 
continuously and to effluent streams that discharge intermittently. 

(3) An obligation on a discharger to do a thing tmder this Regiilation is discharged if 
another person has done it on the discharger's behalf. 

Purpose 

2. The purpose of this Regulation is to monitor and control the quality of effluent 
discharged from the plants listed in Schedule 1 . 

Application 

3.-(l) This Regulation applies only with respect to the plants listed in Schedule 1. 

(2) This Regulation does not apply with respect to the discharge of effluent to a 
municipal sewer. 



% 



Obligations Under Approvals, Orders, etc. 

4. For greater certainty, the requirements of this Regulation are in addition to and 
independent of requirements in an approval, order, direction or other instrument issued under 
any Act. 

Non-application of the General Effluent Monitoring Regulation 

5. This Regulation is not a Sectoral Effluent Monitoring Regulation within the 
meaning of Ontario Regulation 695/88. 

By-passes 

6. Beginning on , 19 , a discharger shall not permit process effluent to be 

discharged from the discharger's plant unless the process effluent flows past a process effluent 
sampling point or a process effluent batch sampling point at the plant before being discharged. 

(The date that is 3 years after the day on which this Regulation is filed will be inserted 
in section 6) 

Sampling and Analytical Procedures 

7.-(l) Each discharger shall carry out the sampling and analysis obligations of this 
Regulation, including quality control sampling and analysis obligations, in accordance with the 
procedures described in the Ministry of Environment and Energy publication entitled 
"Protocol for the Sampling and Analysis of Industrial/Municipal Wastewater", 
dated August, 1994. 

(2) Each discharger shall maintain the sampling equipment used at the discharger's 
plant for sampling required by this Regulation in a way that ensures that the samples collected 
at the plant under this Regulation accurately reflect the level of discharge of each limited 
parameter, assessment parameter and specific parameter from the plant. 

PART II - SAMPLING POINTS 

Sampling Points To Be Used 

8.-(l) Subject to section 23, each discharger shall, by , 19 , use the sampling 

points specified for the discharger's plant in the Schedules to this Regulation for the purpose 
of carrying out all sampling required by this Regulation. 

(The date that is 90 days after the day on which this Regulation is filed will be inserted 
in subsection 8(1)). 



(2) If circumstances change so that a new sampling point is necessary at a discharger's 
plant in order to permit the calculation of plant loadings under sections 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 
for each limited parameter and assessment parameter and the determination of concentrations 
for each specific parameter that accurately reflect the level of discharge of each such 
parameter from the plant, the discharger shall, within thirty days of the change, establish the 
new sampling point. 

(3) A discharger may eliminate a sampling point established under subsection (1) or 
(2) if the sampling point is no longer necessary to permit the calculation of plant loadings 
under sections 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 for each limited parameter and assessment parameter and 
the determination of concentrations for each specific parameter that accurately reflect the level 
of discharge of each such parameter from the plant. 

(4) Before using a new sampling point or eliminating a sampling point specified in the 
Schedules to this Regulation, a discharger shall give the Director written notice setting out the 
name, number and location of the sampling point and its change in status. 



PART III - CALCULATION OF LOADINGS 

Calculation of Loadings - General 

9.-(l) For the purposes of performing a calculation under sections 10, 11, 12, 13 and 
14, a discharger shall use the actual analytical result obtained by the laboratory. 

(2) Despite subsection (1), where the actual analytical result is less than one-tenth of 
the analytical method detection limit set out in the Ministry of Environment and Energy 
publication entitled "Protocol for the Sampling and Analysis of Industrial/Municipal 
Wastewater", dated August, 1 994, the discharger shall use the value zero for the purpose of 
performing a calculation under sections 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14. 

(3) Each dischvger shall ensure that each calculation of a process effluent loading 
required by section 1 and each calculation of a process effluent batch loading required by 
section 1 1 is performed as soon as reasonably possible after the analytical result on which the 
calculation is based becomes available to the discharger. 

(4) Each discharger shall ensure that each calculation of a cooling water effluent 
loading required by section 12 and each calculation of a combined effluent loading required 
by section 13 is performed in time to comply with subsection 38(4). 

(5) Each discharger shall ensure that each calculation of a process effluent loading 
contribution required by section 14 is performed in time to comply with subsection 38(6). 



Calculation of Loadings - Process Effluent- General 

lO.-(l) Each discharger shall calculate, in kilograms, a daily process effluent stream 
loading for each limited parameter in each process effluent monitoring stream of the 
discharger for each day on which a sample is collected under this Regulation from the stream 
for analysis for the parameter. 

(2) When calculating a daily stream loading under subsection (1), the discharger shall 
multiply, with the necessary adjustment of imits to yield a result in kilograms, the analytical 
result obtained from the sample for the parameter by the daily volume of effluent, as 
determined under section 31, for the stream for the day. 

(3) Each discharger shall calculate, in kilograms, a daily process effluent plant loading 
for each limited parameter for each day for which the discharger is required to calculate a 
daily process effluent stream loading for the parameter under subsection (1). 

(4) For the purposes of subsection (3), a daily process effluent plant loading for a 
parameter for a day is the sum, in kilograms, of the daily process effluent stream loadings for 
the parameter calculated under subsection (1) for the day. 

(5) Where a discharger calculates only one daily process effluent stream loading for a 
parameter for a day under subsection (1), the daily process effluent plant loading for the 
parameter for the day for the purposes of subsection (3) is the single daily process effluent 
stream loading for the parameter for the day. 

(6) Each discharger shall calculate, in kilograms, a monthly average process effluent 
plant loading for each limited parameter for each month in which a sample is collected under 
this Regulation more than once from a process effluent monitoring stream at the discharger's 
plant for ahalysis for the parameter. 

(7) For the purposes of subsection (6), a monthly average process effluent plant 
loading for a parameter for a month is the arithmetic mean of the daily process effluent plant 
loadings for the parameter calculated under subsection (3) for the month. 



Calculation of Loadings - Process Effluent - Batch 

ll.-(l) Each discharger shall calculate, m kilograms, a process effluent batch loading 
for each limited parameter in each process effluent batch monitoring stream of the discharger 
for each batch of process effluent for which a sample is collected imder this Regulation from 
the stream for analysis for the parameter. 



(2) When calculating a batch loading under subsection (1), the discharger shall 
multiply, with the necessary adjiastment of units to yield a result in kilograms, the analytical 
result obtained from the sample for the parameter by the volume of effluent, as determined 
imder section 31, for the stream for the batch. 



Calculation of Loadings - Cooling Water 

12.-(1) Each discharger shall calculate, in kilograms, a daily cooling water effluent 
stream loading for each assessment parameter in each cooling water effluent monitoring 
stream of the discharger for each day on which a sample is collected under this Regulation 
from the stream for analysis for the parameter. 

(2) When calculating a daily stream loading under subsection (1), the discharger shall 
multiply, with the necessary adjustment of units to yield a result in kilograms, the analytical 
result obtained from the sample for the parameter by the daily volume of effluent, as 
determined under section 31, for the stream for the day. 

(3) Each discharger shall calculate, in kilograms, a daily cooling water effluent plant 
loading for each assessment parameter for each day for which the discharger is required to 
calculate a daily cooling water effluent stream loading for the parameter under subsection (1). 

(4) For the purposes of subsection (3), a daily cooling water effluent plant loading for 
a parameter for a day is the sum, in kilograms, of the daily cooling water effluent stream 
loadings for the parameter calculated under subsection (1) for the day. 

(5) Where a discharger calculates only one daily cooling water effluent stream loading 
for a parameter for a day under subsection (1), the daily cooling water effluent plant loading 
for the parameter for the day for the purposes of subsection (3) is the single daily cooling 
water effluent stream loading for the parameter for the day. 

(6) Each discharger shall calculate, in kilograms, a monthly average cooling water 
effluent plant loading for each assessment parameter for each month in which a sample is 
collected under this Regulation more than once from a cooling water effluent monitoring 
stream at the discharger's plant for analysis for the parameter. 

(7) For the purposes of subsection (6), a monthly average cooling water effluent plant 
loading for a parameter for a month is the arithmetic mean of the daily cooling water effluent 
plant loadings for the parameter calculated under subsection (3) for the month. 



Calculation of Loadings - Combined Effluent 

13.-(1) Each discharger shall calciolate, in kilograms, a daily combined effluent stream 
loading for each assessment parameter in each combined effluent monitoring stream of the 
discharger for each day on which a sample is collected under this Regulation from the stream 
for analysis for the parameter. 

(2) When calculating a daily stream loading under subsection (1), the discharger shall 
multiply, with the necessary adjustment of units to yield a result in kilograms, the analytical 
result obtained from the sample for the parameter by the daily volume of effluent, as 
determined under section 31, for the stream for the day. 

(3) Each discharger shall calculate, in kilograms, a daily combined effluent plant 
loading for each assessment parameter for each day for which the discharger is required to 
calculate a combined effluent stream loading for the parameter under subsection (1). 

(4) For the purposes of subsection (3), a daily combined effluent plant loading for a 
parameter for a day is the sum, in kilograms, of the daily combined effluent stream loadings 
for the parameter calculated imder subsection (1) for the day. 

(5) Where a discharger calculates only one daily combined effluent stream loading for 
a parameter for a day under subsection (1), the daily combined effluent plant loading for the 
parameter for the day for the purposes of subsection (3) is the single daily combined effluent 
stream loading for the parameter for the day. 

(6) Each discharger shall calculate, in kilograms, a monthly average combined effluent 
plant loading for each assessment parameter for each month in which a sample is collected 
under this Regulation more than once from a combined effluent monitoring stream at the 
discharger's plant for analysis for the parameter. 

(7) For the purposes of subsection (6), a monthly average combined effluent plant 
loading for a parameter for a month is the arithmetic mean of the daily combined effluent 
plant loadings for the parameter calculated under subsection (3) for the month. 

Calculation of Additional Loadings - Combined Effluent 

14.-(1) For each assessment parameter and each combined effluent monitoring stream 
of the discharger, the discharger shall determine whether the parameter is also a limited 
parameter for any process effluent sampling point established on a process effluent monitoring 
stream that flows into the combined effluent monitoring stream. 



(2) The discharger shall calculate, in kilograms, a daily process effluent loading 
contribution for each common parameter from a process effluent monitoring stream that flows 
into the combined effluent monitoring stream for each day for which a sample is collected 
under this Regulation from the combined effluent monitoring stream. 

(3) For the purposes of subsection (2), a daily process effluent loading contribution for 
a common parameter for a day is the sum, in kilograms, of the daily process effluent stream 
loadings for the parameter calculated under subsection 10(1) for the day in each process 
effluent monitoring stream that flows into the combined effluent monitoring stream on the day 
a sample is collected from the combined effluent monitoring stream. 

(4) A daily process effluent loading contribution for a common parameter for a day for 
the purposes of subsection (3) may be a single daily process effluent stream loading for the 
parameter for the day if, 

(a) there is only one process effluent monitoring stream that flows into the combined 
effluent monitoring stream; or 

(b) there is only one daily process effluent stream loading calculated for the parameter 
imder subsection 10(1) for the day in respect of all of the process effluent monitoring 
streams that flow into the combined effluent monitoring stream. 

(5) Each discharger shall calculate, in kilograms, a monthly average process effluent 
loading contribution for each common parameter for each month in which a sample is 
collected imder this Regulation more than once for analysis for the parameter from any 
process effluent monitoring stream at the discharger's plant that flows into the combined 
effluent monitoring stream. 

(6) For the purposes of subsection (5), a monthly average process effluent loading 
contribution for a common parameter for a month is the arithmetic mean of the daily process 
effluent loading contributions for the parameter calculated under subsection (2) for the month. 

PART IV - PARAMETER AND LETHALITY LIMITS 

Parameter Limits 

15.-(1) Each discharger shall ensure that each daily process effluent plant loading 
calculated for a parameter under section 10 in connection with the discharger's plant does not 
exceed the daily plant loading limit specified for the parameter and the plant in Column 3 of 
Schedule 2. 



(2) Each discharger shall ensure that each monthly average process effluent plant 
loading calculated for a parameter under section 10 in connection with the discharger's plant 
does not exceed the monthly average plant loading limit specified for the parameter and the 
plant in Column 4 of Schedule 2. 

(3) Each discharger shall ensure that each process effluent batch loading calculated for 
a parameter under section 11 in connection with the discharger's plant does not exceed the 
batch loading limit specified for the parameter and the plant in Column 5 of Schedule 2. 

(4) Each discharger shall control the quality of each process effluent monitoring stream 
and each process effluent batch monitoring stream at the discharger's plant to ensure that the 
concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin and the concentration of 2,3,7,8- 
tetrachlorodibenzofuran are both non-measurable in any sample collected at a process effluent 
sampling point or a process effluent batch sampling point at the plant. 

(5) For the purposes of subsection (4), the concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- 
para-dioxin in a sample is non-measurable if analysis of the sample shows a concentration of 
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin of less than 20 picograms per litre and the 
concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in a sample is non-measurable if analysis of 
the sample shows a concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran of less than 50 picograms 
per litre. 

(6) Each discharger shall control the quality of each process effluent monitoring stream 
and each process effluent batch monitoring stream at the discharger's plant to ensure that the 
total toxic equivalent concentration of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners in any 
sample collected at a process effluent sampling point or a process effluent batch sampling 
point at the plant, calculated in accordance with the methods described in the Ministry of 
Environment and Energy publication entitled "Protocol for the Sampling and Analysis of 
Industrial/Municipal Wastewater", dated August, 1994, does not exceed 60 picograms per 
litre. 

(7) Subject to subsection (8), each discharger shall control the quality of each process 
effluent monitoring stream and each process effluent batch monitoring stream at the 
discharger's plant to ensure that the pH value of any sample collected at a process effluent 
sampling point or a process effluent batch sampling point at the plant is within the range of 
6.0 to 9.5. 



10 



(8) Throughout any day on which a discharger has used an alternate sampling point on 
a process effluent monitoring stream for sampling required by section 23, as permitted by 
subsections 23(7) and (8), the discharger, 

(a) shall control the quality of the stream to ensure that the pH value of any 
sample collected at the alternate sampling point on the stream is within 
the range of 6.0 to 9.5; and 

(b) need not comply with subsection (7) with respect to the stream. 



Lethality Limits 

16. Each discharger shall control the quality of each process effluent monitoring 
stream, each process effluent batch monitoring stream, each cooling water effluent monitoring 
stream and each combined effluent monitoring stream at the discharger's plant, for which a 
sampling point for lethality limits has been designated in Schedule 5, to ensure that each 
rainbow trout acute lethality test and each Daphnia magna acute lethality test performed on 
any grab sample collected at the designated sampling points for lethality limits at the plant, 
results in mortality for no more than fifty percent of the test organisms in one-hundred 
percent effluent. 



PART V - MONITORING - CHEMICAL PARAMETERS 

Monitoring - General 

17.-(1) Despite sections 18 to 28 and 30, a discharger need not collect samples from 
any stream at the discharger's plant on a day on which there is no process effluent that is 
being discharged from the plant. 

(2) Where a discharger is required by this Regxilation to pick up a set of samples and 
analyze it for certain parameters the discharger shall pick up a set of samples sufficient to 
allow all the analyses to be performed. 

(3) A discharger shall use all reasonable efforts to ensure that all analyses required by 
this Regulation are completed as soon as reasonably possible and that the results of those 
analyses are made available to the discharger as soon as reasonably possible. 



11 



(4) Subject to subsection (5), if a discharger is required or permitted in the Ministry 
of Environment and Energy pubHcation entitled "Protocol for the Sampling and Analysis of 
Industrial/Municipal Wastewater", dated August, 1994, to collect a composite sample for any 
sample required to be picked up at the discharger's plant under section 18, 19, 20, 24 or 25, 
the discharger shall pick up the composite sample between the hours of 7.00 a.m. and 
10.00 a.m. 

(5) If the Director is satisfied, on the basis of written submissions from a discharger, 
that the circumstances at the discharger's plant are such that it would be unpractical to pick 
up composite samples from each process effluent sampling point, each cooling water effluent 
sampling point and each combined effluent sampling point at the plant within the time period 
specified in subsection (4), the Director may give the discharger a written notice in respect of 
the plant, varying the time period specified in subsection (4). 

(6) Subject to subsections (7) and (8), where a discharger is required by section 18, 
19, 20, 24 or 25 to pick up a set of samples the discharger shall pick up a set collected over 
the twenty-four hour period immediately preceding the pick-up. 

(7) The twenty-four hour period referred to in subsection (6) may be shortened or 
enlarged by up to three hours to permit a discharger to take advantage of the three hour range 
specified in subsection (4) or of a different three hour period specified in a notice under 
subsection (5). 

(8) Where a notice has been given under subsection (5) in respect of a plant specifying 
a time period longer than three hours, the twenty-four hour period referred to in subsection 
(6) may be shortened or enlarged by up to that longer amoimt of time to permit the discharger 
to take advantage of the time period specified in the notice. 

(9) If the circumstances at a plant change so that the Director is satisfied that the 
circumstances described in subsection (5) no longer apply at the plant, the Director may 
revoke a notice given in respect of a plant imder subsection (5) by giving a notice of 
revocation in writing to a discharger for the plant. 



Monitoring - Process Effluent - Daily 

18.-(1) Each discharger for which a process effluent sampling point is specified in 
Schedule 2 for the discharger's plant shall, on each day, pick up a set of samples collected at 
each process effluent sampling point at the plant and shall analyze each set of samples for the 
parameters for which the frequency of monitoring, as set out in column 2 of Schedule 2 for 
the discharger's plant, is daily. 



12 



(2) Each discharger for which a process effluent sampling point is specified in 
Schedule 3 for the discharger's plant shall, on each day, pick up a set of samples collected at 
each process effluent sampling point at the plant and shall analyze each set of samples for the 
parameters listed in column 1 of Schedule 3 and specified for the sampling point in the 
column for that sampling point in the Schedule, for which the frequency of monitoring, as set 
out in column 2 of Schedule 2, is daily. 

(3) Despite subsections (1) and (2), where for twelve consecutive months, the monthly 
average plant loading of a limited parameter is equal to or less than seventy-five percent of 
the monthly average plant loading limit for the parameter as set out in Column 4 of Schedule 
2 for the discharger's plant, the discharger may reduce the frequency of monitoring for that 
parameter from daily to three times per week. 

(4) Subsection (3) ceases to apply and the discharger shall monitor in accordance with 
subsections (1) and (2), where the daily plant loading limit for a limited parameter as set out 
in Column 3 of Schedule 2 for the discharger's plant is exceeded more then twice or the 
monthly average plant loading limit for a limited parameter as set out in Column 4 of 
Schedule 2 for the discharger's plant is exceeded more than once during any twelve 
consecutive months. 

(5) Where a discharger changes the frequency of monitoring at the discharger's plant 
under subsections (3) or (4), the discharger shall notify the Director in writing within thirty 
days after the day on which a change occurs. 

(6) A discharger need not meet the requirements of subsections (1) or (2) where it is 
impossible to do so because of sampling by a provincial officer. 



Monitoring - Process Effluent - Weekly 

19.-(1) Each discharger for which a process effluent sampling point is specified in 
Schedule 2 for the discharger's plant shall, on one day in each week, pick up a set of samples 
collected at each process effluent sampling point at the plant and shall analyze each set of 
samples for the parameters for which the frequency of monitoring, as set out in column 2 of 
Schedule 2 for the discharger's plant, is weekly. 

(2) Each discharger for which a process effluent sampling point is specified in 
Schedule 3 for the discharger's plant shall, on one day in each week, pick up a set of samples 
collected at each process effluent sampling point at the plant and shall analyze each set of 
samples for the parameters listed in column 1 of Schedule 3 and specified for the sampling 
point in the column for that sampling point in the Schedule, for which the frequency of 
monitoring, as set out in column 2 of Schedule 2, is weekly. 



13 



(3) There shall be an interval of at least four days between successive pick-up days at 
the plant under this section. 

(4) All samples picked up under this section in a week shall be picked up on the same 
day in the week. 



Monitoring - Process Effluent - Quarterly 

20.-(l) Each discharger for which a process effluent sampling point is specified in 
Schedule 2 for the discharger's plant shall, on one day in each quarter, on a day on which 
samples are picked up at the plant under section 19, pick up a set of samples collected at each 
process effluent sampling point at the plant and shall analyze each set of samples for the 
parameters for which the frequency of monitoring, as set out in column 2 of that Schedule, is 
quarterly. 

(2) Each discharger for which a process effluent sampling point is specified in 
Schedule 3 for the discharger's plant shall, on one day in each quarter, on a day on which 
samples are picked up at the plant under section 19, pick up a set of samples collected at each 
process effluent sampling point at the plant and shall analyze each set of samples for the 
parameters listed in column 1 of Schedule 3 and specified for the sampling point in the 
column for that sampling point in the Schedule, for which the frequency of monitoring, as set 
out in column 2 of Schedule 2, is quarterly. 

(3) There shall be an interval of at least forty-five days between successive pick-up 
days at the plant under this section. 

(4) All samples picked up imder this section in a qimrter shall be picked up on the 
same day in the quarter. 



Monitoring - Process Effluent - Batch 

21.-(1) Each discharger for which a process effluent batch sampling point is specified 
in Schedule 3 for the discharger's plant, shall, for each batch of process effluent that flows 
past a process effluent batch sampling point, pick up a set of samples collected at the process 
effluent batch sampling point and analyze each set of samples for the parameters listed in 
column 1 of Schedule 3 and specified for the sampling point in the column for that sampling 
point in the Schedule. 

(2) Where a discharger is required by subsection (1) to pick up a set of samples at a 
process effluent batch sampling point, the discharger shall pick up a set collected over the 
period during which the batch of process effluent flows past the sampling point. 



14 



Monitoring - Process Effluent - Quality Control 

22.-(l) On one day in each year after , on a day on which samples are picked up 

at the plant under sections 1 9 and 20, each discharger for which a process effluent sampling 
point is specified in Schedule 2 for the discharger's plant shall collect and pick up a duplicate 
sample for each sample picked up on that day under sections 19 and 20 at one process 
effluent sampling point at the discharger's plant and shall analyze each duplicate sample for 
each parameter for which the frequency of monitoring, as set out in column 2 of Schedule 2 
for the discharger's plant, is weekly or quarterly. 

(2) On one day in each year after , on a day on which samples are picked up at 

the plant under sections 19 and 20, each discharger for which a process effluent sampling 
point is specified in Schedule 3 for the discharger's plant shall do the following: 

1. Determine which one of the process effluent sampling points at the plant has 
the greatest number of parameters listed in column 1 of Schedule 3 and 
specified for the sampling point in the column for that sampling point in the 
Schedule, for which the frequency of monitoring, as set out in column 2 of 
Schedule 2, is weekly or quarterly. 

2. Collect and pick up a duplicate sample for each sample picked up on that day 
under sections 19 and 20 at the process effluent sampling point described in 
paragraph 1. 

3. Analyze each duplicate sample for each parameter sjjecified for the process 
effluent sampling point described in paragraph 1 for which the frequency of 
monitoring, as set out in column 2 of Schedule 2, is weekly or quarterly. 

(3) Each discharger shall prepare a travelling blank and a travelling spiked blank 
sample for each sample for which a duplicate sample is picked up at the plant under this 
section and shall analyze the travelling blank and travelling spiked blank samples in 
accordance with the directions set out in the Ministry of Environment and Energy publication 
entitled "Protocol for the Sampling and Analysis of Industrial/Municipal Wastewater", dated 
August, 1994. 

(4) There shall be an interval of at least six months between successive pick-up days at 
the plant xmder this section. 

Monitoring - Process Effluent - pH Measurement 

23.-(l) Each discharger shall, on each day during the time period applicable to the 
plant under subsection 17(4) or (5), collect a grab sample from each process effluent sampling 
point at the discharger's plant and shall analyze each sample for the parameter pH. 



15 



(2) Each discharger shall, within each twenty-four hour period beginning with the 
collection of the first grab sample at the plant under subsection (1) on each day, collect two 
more grab samples from each process effluent sampling point at the discharger's plant and 
shall analyze each sample for the parameter pH. 

(3) There shall be an interval of at least four hours between each of the three 
collections at a sampling point under subsections (1) and (2) in each twenty-four hour period. 

(4) Each grab sample collected under subsections (1) and (2) shall be picked up within 
twenty-four hours of when it was collected. 

(5) Instead of complying with subsections (1) to (4) with respect to a sampling point 
on a stream, a discharger may use an on-line analyzer at the sampling point on the stream and 
analyze the effluent at the sampling point for the parameter pH once in each day during the 
time period applicable to the plant under subsection 17(4) or (5), and two more times in each 
twenty-four hour period beginning with the first analysis at the plant under this subsection in 
each day. 

(6) There shall be an interval of at least four hours between each of the three analyses 
at a sampling point under subsection (5) in each twenty-four hour period. 

(7) For the purposes of subsections (1) to (6), a discharger may use an alternate 
sampling point located downstream of the sampling point established on the stream and 
specified for the plant under this Regulation but before the point of discharge of the stream to 
surface water or to an industrial sewer used in common with another plant. 

(8) Before using an alternate sampling point under subsection (7), a discharger shall 
give the Director a written notice setting out the name, number and location of the alternate 
sampling point, together with a plot plan showing the alternate sampling point. 

(9) Each discharger shall, for each batch of process effluent that flows past a process 
effluent batch sampling point at the discharger's plant, collect a composite sample from the 
process effluent batch sampling point and analyze the sample for the parameter pH. 

(10) Each composite sample collected under subsection (9) shall be picked up over the 
period during which the batch of process effluent flows past the process effluent batch 
sampling point. 



16 



Monitoring - Cooling Water Effluent - Weekly Assessment 

24. Each discharger shall, on one day in each week, on the day on which samples are 
picked up at the plant under section 1 9 for the week, pick up a set of samples collected at 
each cooling water effluent sampling point at the discharger's plant and shall analyze each set 
of samples for each assessment parameter. 

Monitoring - Combined Effluent - Weekly Assessment 

25. Each discharger shall, on one day in each week, on the day on which samples are 
picked up at the plant under section 1 9 for the week, pick up a set of samples collected at 
each combined effluent sampling point at the discharger's plant and shall analyze each set of 
samples for each assessment parameter. 



Monitoring - Cooling Water Effluent and Combined Effluent - pH and Specific Conductance 

Measurement 

26.-(l) Each discharger shall, on one day in each week, on the day on which samples 
are picked up at the plant under section 19 for the week, collect a grab sample from each 
cooling water effluent sampling point at the discharger's plant, diuing the time period 
applicable under subsection 17(4) or (5) to composite samples at the plant, and analyze each 
sample for the parameter pH. 

(2) Each discharger shall, within the twenty-four hour period begiiming with the 
collection of the first grab sample at the plant under subsection (1) for the week, collect two 
more grab samples firom each cooling water effluent sampling point at the discharger's plant 
and shall analyze each sample for the parameter pH. 

(3) There shall be an interval of at least four hours between each of the three 
collections at a sampling point under subsections (1) and (2) in each twenty-four hour period. 

(4) Each grab sample collected under subsections (1) and (2) shall be picked up within 
twenty-four hours of when it was collected. 

(5) Instead of complying with subsections (1) to (4) with respect to a sampling point 
on a stream, a discharger may use an on-line analyzer at the sampling point on the stream and 
analyze the effluent at the sampling point for the parameter pH on one day in each week, on 
the day on which samples are picked up at the plant under section 19 for the week, during the 
time period applicable under subsection 17(4) or (5) to composite samples at the plant, and 
two more times in each twenty-four hour period beginning with the first analysis at the plant 
under this subsection for the week. 



17 



(6) There shall be an interval of at least four hours between each of the three analyses 
at a sampling point under subsection (5) in each twenty-four hour period. 

(7) Subsections (1) to (6) apply with necessary modifications to each combined 
effluent sampling point and, for the purpose, the reference in subsections (1) and (2) to each 
cooling water effluent sampling point shall be deemed to be a reference to each combined 
effluent sampling point. 

(8) Subsections (1) to (7) apply with necessary modifications to the parameter specific 
conductance and, for the purpose, a reference in those subsections to pH shall be deemed to 
be a reference to specific conductance. 



PART VI - MONITORING - ACUTE LETHALITY AND CHRONIC TOXICITY 

Monitoring - Acute Lethality Testing - Rainbow Trout 

27.-(l) Where a discharger is required by this section to perform a rainbow trout acute 
lethality test, the discharger shall perform the test according to the procedures described in the 
Environment Canada publication entitled "Biological Test Method: Reference Method for 
Determining Acute Lethality of Effluents to Rainbow Trout", dated July, 1990. 

(2) Each rainbow trout acute lethality test required by this section shall be carried out 
as a single concentration test using one hundred percent effluent. 

(3) On one day in each month, on a day on which samples are picked up at the plant 
under section 19, each discharger shall collect and immediately pick up a grab sample at each 
process effluent sampling point at the discharger's plant and shall perform a rainbow trout 
acute lethality test on each sample. 

(4) There shall be an interval of at least fifteen days between successive pick-up days 
at the plant under subsection (3). 

(5) All samples picked up under subsection (3) in a month shall be picked up on the 
same day in the month. 

(6) Where a discharger has performed tests under subsection (3) for twelve consecutive 
months on samples collected from the same sampling point and the mortality of the rainbow 
trout in each test did not exceed fifty percent, the discharger is relieved of the obligations 
under subsection (3) relating to the sampling point and shall instead collect and immediately 
pick up a grab sample at the sampling point on one day in each quarter and perform a 
rainbow trout acute lethality test on each sample. 



18 



(7) Samples picked up at a plant under subsection (6) shall be picked up on a day on 
which samples are picked up at the plant under subsection (3). 

(8) If no samples are being picked up at a plant under subsection (3) during a quarter, 
samples picked up at the plant during the quarter under subsection (6) shall be picked up on a 
day on which samples are picked up at the plant under section 19. 

(9) There shall be an interval of at least forty-five days between successive pick-up 
days at the plant under subsection (6). 

(10) All samples picked up under subsection (6) in a quarter shall be picked up on the 
same day in the quarter. 

(11) If a rainbow trout acute lethality test performed under subsection (6) on any 
sample from a sampling point results in mortality of more than fifty percent of the test 
rainbow trout, subsections (6) to (10) cease to apply in respect to samples from that sampling 
point, and a discharger shall instead comply with the requirements of subsection (3) relating 
to the sampling point, until the tests performed under subsection (3) on all samples collected 
from the sampling point for a further twelve consecutive months result in mortality for no 
more than fifty per cent of the rainbow trout for each test. 

(12) Subsections (2) to (11) apply with necessary modifications to each cooling water 
effluent sampling point and, for the purpose, the reference in subsection (3) to each process 
effluent sampling point shall be deemed to be a reference to each cooling water effluent 
sampling point and the reference in subsections (3) and (8) to section 19 shall be deemed to 
be a reference to subsection 24(1). 

(13) Subsections (2) to (11) apply with necessary modifications to each combined 
effluent sampling point and, for the purpose, the reference in subsection (3) to each process 
effluent sampling point shall be deemed to be a reference to each combined effluent sampling 
point and the reference in subsections (3) and (8) to section 19 shall be deemed to be a 
reference to subsection 25(1). 

(14) For each process effluent batch sampling point at the discharger's plant the 
discharger shall, on one day in each month, on a day on which samples are picked up at the 
plant under section 21 at the process effluent batch sampling point, collect and immediately 
pick up a grab sample at the process effluent batch sampling point, and perform a rainbow 
trout acute lethality test on the sample. 



19 



(15) Where a discharger has performed twelve consecutive tests under subsection (14) 
on samples collected from the same sampling point and the mortality of the rainbow trout in 
each test did not exceed fifty percent, the discharger is relieved of the obligations under 
subsection (14) relating to the sampling point and shall instead collect and immediately pick 
up a grab sample at the sampling point on one day in each quarter, on a day on which 
samples are picked up at the plant under section 21 at the sampling point, and perform a 
rainbow trout acute lethality test on the sample. 

(16) If a rainbow trout acute lethality test performed under subsection (15) on any 
sample from a sampling point results in mortality of more than fifty percent of the test 
rainbow trout, subsection (15) ceases to apply in respect to samples from that sampling point, 
and a discharger shall instead comply with the requirements of subsection (14) relating to the 
sampling point, imtil the tests performed under subsection (14) on all samples collected from 
the sampling point for a further twelve consecutive tests result in mortality for no more than 
fifty per cent of the rainbow trout for each test. 

(17) A discharger shall notify the Director in writing of any change in the frequency 
of acute lethality testing under this Regulation at the discharger's plant, within thirty days 
after the day on which the change begins. 

(18) A discharger may notify the Director in writing of any period in which the testing 
of samples collected at a sampling point under this section would always result in mortality of 
more than fifty percent of the test rainbow trout. 

(19) Where a notice is given imder subsection (18), a discharger is relieved of the 
obligations under this section relating to the sampling point during the period in which the 
testing of samples collected at the sampling point would always result in mortality of more 
than fifty percent of the test rainbow trout. 

(20) Subsections (18) and (19) are revoked on , 19 . 

(The date that is 3 years after the day on which this Regulation is filed will be inserted 
in subsection 27(20)), 

Monitoring - Acute Lethality Testing - Daphnia magna 

28.-(l) Where a discharger is required by this section to perform a Daphnia magna 
acute lethality test, the discharger shall perform the test according to the procedures described 
in the Environment Canada publication entitled "Biological Test Method: Reference Method 
for Determining Acute Lethality of Effluents to Daphnia magna", dated July, 1990. 

(2) Subsections 27(2) to (20) apply with necessary modifications to Daphnia magna 
acute lethality tests and. for the purpose, a reference to rainbow trout shall be deemed to be a 
reference to Daphnia magna . 



20 



(3) Each discharger shall pick up each set of samples required to be collected from a 
sampling point at the discharger's plant under this section on a day on which the discharger 
collects a sample from the sampling point under section 27, to the extent possible having 
regard to the frequency of monitoring required at the sampling point under this section and 
section 27. 

Assessment Monitoring - Acute Lethality 

29.-(l) If a rainbow trout acute lethality test performed under section 27 on a sample 
picked up at a Schedule 2 or a Schedule 3 sampling point results in mortality of more than 50 
percent of the test rainbow frout three times in twelve consecutive months, a discharger shall 
prepare a Rainbow Trout Toxicity Elimination Report. 

(2) If a Daphnia magna lethality test performed under section 28 on a sample picked 
up at a Schedule 2 or a Schedule 3 sampling point results in mortality of more than 50 
percent of the test Daphnia magna three times in twelve consecutive months, the discharger 
shall prepare a Daphnia magna Toxicity Elimination Report. 

(3) For the purposes of this section, a Rainbow Trout or Daphnia magna Toxicity 
Elimination Report shall set out the following information: 

1 . A description of the studies carried out by the discharger for determining the 
sources and causes of the acute lethality 

2. A detailed description of the methods by which the acute lethality could be 
eliminated, and an identification of which methods are technically feasible for 
implementing at the discharger's plant. 

3. An estimate of the financial cost to the discharger of implementing each 
method identified as technically feasible under paragraph 2. 

4. The timetable that would be required to implement each method identified as 
technically feasible under paragraph 2 and each of the stages involved in the 
implementation of each method. 

(4) A Toxicity Elimination Report prepared under this section shall be submitted to 
the Director within twelve months of the date on which the third failed test was conducted 
that resulted in mortality of more than 50 percent of the test rainbow trout or Daphnia magna, 
as the case may be. 



21 



Monitoring - Chronic Toxicity Testing - Fathead Minnow 
and Ceriodaphnia dubia 

30.-(l) Where a discharger is required to perform a 7-day fathead minnow growth 
inhibition test, the discharger shall perform the test according to the procedure described in 
the Environment Canada publication entitled "Biological Test Method: Test of Larval Growth 
and Survival Using Fathead Minnows" dated February, 1992. 

(2) Where a discharger is required to perform a 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction 
inhibition and survivability test, the discharger shall perform the test according to the 
procedure described in the Environment Canada publication entitled "Biological Test Method: 
Test of Reproduction and Survival Using the Cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia", dated February, 
1992. 

(3) On one day in each semi-annual period, on a day on which samples are picked up 
at the plant under section 1 9, each discharger shall collect and immediately pick up a grab 
sample from each sampling point designated in Schedule 6 at the discharger's plant, and shall 
perform a 7-day fathead minnow growth inhibition test and a 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia 
reproduction inhibition and survivability test on each sample. 

(4) There shall be an interval of at least ninety days between successive pick-up days 
at the plant under subsection (3). 

(5) All samples picked up under subsection (3) in a semi-aimual period shall be picked 
up on the same day in the semi-annual period. 

(6) A discharger need not collect a sample from a sampling point in accordance with 
this section until twelve consecutive monthly rainbow trout acute lethality tests and twelve 
consecutive monthly Daphnia magna acute lethality tests performed on samples collected at 
the sampling point at a discharger's plant result in mortality for no more than fifty percent of 
the test organisms in one hundred percent effluent. 



PART VII - EFFLUENT VOLUME 

Flow Measurement 

31.-(1) Subject to subsection (5), for the purposes of this section, a volume of effluent 
for a stream for a day is the volume that flowed past the sampling point on the stream during 
the twenty-four hour period preceding the pick-up of the first sample picked up from the 
stream for the day. 



22 



(2) Each discharger shall determine in cubic metres a daily volume of effluent for each 
process effluent monitoring stream at the discharger's plant for each day on which a sample is 
collected under this Regulation from the stream, by integration of continuous flowrate 
measurements. 

(3) Despite subsection (2), where a process effluent monitoring stream discharges on 
an intermittent basis, the daily volumes for the stream may be determined either by integration 
of continuous flowrate measurements or by the simmiation of the individual intermittent 
volume measurements. 

(4) Each discharger shall use flow measurement methods that allow the daily volumes 
for process effluent monitoring streams to be determined to an accuracy of within plus or 
minus fifteen percent. 

(5) For the purposes of subsection (6), a batch volume of effluent for a process 
effluent batch monitoring stream is the volume that flowed past the process effluent batch 
sampling point on the stream during the period of flow of the batch of effluent past the 
sampling point. 

(6) Each discharger shall determine in cubic metres a batch volume of effluent for 
each process effluent batch monitoring stream at the discharger's plant for each batch for 
which a sample is collected under this Regulation from the stream,. by integration of 
continuous flowrate measurements. 

(7) Each discharger shall use flow measurement methods that allow the batch volumes 
for process effluent batch monitoring streams to be determined to an accuracy of within plus 
or minus fifteen percent. 

(8) Each discharger shall determine in cubic metres a daily volume of effluent for each 
cooling water effluent monitoring stream at the discharger's plant for each day on which a 
sample is collected under this Regulation from the stream. 

(9) Each discharger shall use flow measurement methods that allow the daily volumes 
for cooling water effluent monitoring streams to be determined to an accuracy of within plus 
or minus twenty percent. 

(10) Each discharger shall determine in cubic metres a daily volume of effluent for 
each combined effluent monitoring stream at the discharger's plant for each day on which a 
sample is collected under this Regulation from the stream. 

(11) Each discharger shall use flow measurement methods that allow the daily volumes 
for combined effluent monitoring streams to be determined to an acciiracy of within plus or 
minus twenty percent. 



23 



(12) Each discharger shall, no later than the day that this section comes into force, 
determine by calibration or confirm by means of a certified report of a registered professional 
engineer of the Province of Ontario that, 

(a) each flow measurement method used under subsections (2) and (3) meets the accuracy 
requirements of subsection (4); 

(b) each flow measurement method used under subsection (6) meets the accuracy 
requirements of subsection (7); 

(c) each flow measurement method used under subsection (8) meets the accuracy 
requirements of subsection (9); and 

(d) each flow measurement method used imder subsection (10) meets the accuracy 
requirements of subsection (11). 

(13) Where a discharger uses a new flow measurement method or alters an existing 
flow measurement method, the discharger shall determine by calibration or confirm by means 
of a certified report of a registered professional engineer of the Province of Ontario that each 
new or altered flow measurement method meets the accuracy requirements of subsections (4), 
(7), (9) or (1 1), as the case may be, within two weeks after the day on which the new or 
altered method or system is used. 

(14) Each discharger shall develop and implement a maintenance schedule and a 
calibration schedule for each flow measurement system installed at the discharger's plant and 
shall maintain each flow measurement system according to good operating practices. 

(15) Each discharger shall use reasonable efforts to set up each flow measurement 
system used for the purposes of this section in a way that permits inspection by a provincial 
officer. 

Calculation of Plant Volumes 

32.-(l) Each discharger shall calculate, in cubic metres, a daily process effluent plant 
volume for each day. 

(2) For the purposes of subsection (1), a process effluent plant volume for a day is the 
sum of the daily process effluent volumes determined imder section 3 1 for the day. 

(3) Each discharger shall calculate, in cubic metres, a monthly average process effluent 
plant volume for each month, by taking the arithmetic mean of the daily process effluent plant 
volumes calculated under subsection (1) for the month. 



24 



(4) Each discharger shall calculate, in cubic metres, a daily cooling water effluent 
plant volume for each day. 

(5) For the purposes of subsection (4), a cooling water effluent plant volume for a day 
is the sum of the daily cooling water volumes determined under section 3 1 for the day. 

(6) Each discharger shall calculate, in cubic metres, a monthly average cooling water 
effluent plant volume for each month, by taking the arithmetic mean of the daily cooling 
water effluent plant volumes calculated imder subsection (4) for the month. 

(7) Each discharger shall calculate, in cubic metres, a daily combined effluent plant 
volume for each day. 

(8) For the purposes of subsection (7), a combined effluent plant volimie for a day is 
the sum of the daily combined effluent volvimes determined under section 31 for the day. 

(9) Each discharger shall calculate, in cubic metres, a monthly average combined 
effluent plant volume for each month, by taking the arithmetic mean of the daily combined 
effluent plant volumes calculated under subsection (7) for the month. 



PART VIII - STORM WATER CONTROL 

• Storm Water Control Study 

33.-(l) Each discharger shall complete a storm water control study in respect of the 
discharger's plant, in accordance with the requirements of the Ministry of Environment and 
Energy publication entitled "Protocol for Conducting a Storm Water Control Study", dated 
August, 1994. 

(2) A discharger need not comply with subsection (1) in respect of the discharger's 
plant if, 

(a) the plant meets the exemption criteria set out in the Ministry of 
Environment and Energy publication entitled "Protocol for Conducting a 
Storm Water Control Study," dated August, 1994; and 

(b) the discharger notifies the Director in writing, by , 19 , 

that the plant meets the exemption criteria referred to in clause (a). 

(The date that is one year after the day on which this Regulation is filed will be inserted 
in clause 33(2)(b)). 



25 



(3) Subject to subsection (4), a discharger shall complete the storm water control study 
in respect of the discharger's plant by , 19 . 

(The date that is two years after the day on which this Regulation is filed will be 
inserted in subsection 33(3)). 

(4) A discharger may postpone completion of the storm water control study in respect 
of the discharger's plant imtil , 19 if, 

(a) in order to meet the requirements of Part IV, the discharger plans to 
make process changes, install waste water treatment facilities, implement 
management practices, or make any other changes at the plant that would 
likely alter the quantity or quality of storm water discharged from the 
plant; and 

(b) the discharger notifies the Director in writing, by , 1 9 , of the 

plans referred to in clause (a). 

(The date that is two years after the day on which this Regulation is filed will be 
inserted in clause 33(4)(b)). 

(5) Each discharger shall ensure that a copy of each study completed imder this section 
is available to Ministry staff at the discharger's plant, on request during the plant's normal 
office hours. 

PART IX - RECORDS AND REPORTS 

Record Keeping 

34.-(l) Each discharger shall keep records, in an electronic format acceptable to the 
Director, of all analytical results obtained under sections 18 to 21 and 23 to 26, all 
calculations performed under sections 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14, and all determinations and 
calculations made or performed under sections 31 and 32. 

(2) Each discharger shall keep records of all sampling and analytical procedures used 
in meeting the requirements of section 7, including, for each sample, the date, the time of 
pick-up, the sampling procedures used, and any incidents likely to affect the analytical results. 

(3) Each discharger shall keep records of the results of all monitoring performed under 
sections 22, 27, 28 and 30. 

(4) Each discharger shall keep records of all maintenance and calibration procedures 
performed under section 31. 



26 



(5) Each discharger shall keep records of all problems or malfunctions, including those 
related to sampling, analysis, acute lethality testing, chronic toxicity testing or flow 
measurement, that result or are likely to result in a failure to comply with a requirement of 
this Regixlation, stating the date, duration and cause of each malfunction, and including a 
description of any remedial action taken. 

(6) Each discharger shall keep records of any incident in which process effluent is 
discharged from the discharger's plant without flowing past a process effluent sampling point 
or a process effluent batch sampling point at the plant before being discharged, stating the 
date, duration, cause and nature of each incident. 

(7) Each discharger shall keep records of all process changes and redirections of or 
changes in the character of effluent streams that affect the quality of effluent at any sampling 
point specified for the discharger's plant under this Regulation. 

(8) Beginning on , 19 , each discharger shall keep records of the monthly 

average daily production, in tonnes, of each product listed in Schedule 7 for the discharger's 
plant, for each month. 

(The day that is the first day of the month after the month on which the Regulation 
comes into force will be inserted in subsection (8)). 

(9) For the purposes of subsection (8), the monthly average daily production of a 
product for a month at the discharger's plant is the amount of the product, calculated in 
tonnes, that is produced at the discharger's plant during the month, divided by the number of 
days in the month in which the product is produced at the plant. 

(10) Each discharger shall keep records of the reference daily rate of production, in 
tonnes, of each product listed in Schedxile 7 for the discharger's plant. 

(11) For the purposes of subsection (10), the reference daily rate of production of a 
product at the discharger's plant is the arithmetic mean of the amounts calculated under 
subsection (8) for the product for the first twelve months for which the discharger is required 
to keep a record under subsection (8). 

(12) Subject to subsection (13), each discharger shall make each record required by 
this section as soon as reasonably possible and shall keep each such record for a period of 
three years. 

(13) Each discharger shall keep each record required by subsection (10) for a period of 
ten years. 

(14) Each discharger shall ensure that all records kept under this section are available 
to Ministry staff at the discharger's plant, on request during the plant's normal office hours. 

27 



Reports Available to the Public 

35.-(l) On or before June 1 in each year, each discharger shall prepare a report 
relating to the previous calendar year and including, 

(a) a summary of plant loadings calculated under sections 10, 12 and 13; 

(b) a summary of batch loadings calculated imder section 1 1 ; 

(c) a summary of process effluent loading contributions calculated under 
section 14; 

(d) a summary of the results of monitoring performed imder sections 18 to 
21,23 to 28 and 30; 

(e) a summary of calculations performed under subsections 32(1), (4) and 
(7); 

(f) a summary of the loadings, concentrations or other results that exceeded a 
limit prescribed by section 15 or 16; and 

(g) a summary of the incidents in which process effluent was discharged 
from the discharger's plant without flowing past a process effluent 
sampling point or a process effluent batch sampling point at the plant 
before being discharged. 

(2) Each discharger shall ensure that each report prepared under subsection (1) is 
available to any person at the discharger's plant, on request during the plant's normal office 
hours. 

(3) Each discharger shall provide the Director, upon request, with a copy of any report 
that the discharger has prepared under subsection (1). 

Reports to the Director - General 

36.-(l) Each discharger shall notify the Director in writing of any change of name or 

ownership of the discharger's plant occurring after , 19 , within thirty days after 

the end of the month in which the change occurs. 

(The date that is the day on which this Regulation is filed will be inserted in subsection 
36(1)). 



28 



(2) Each discharger shall notify the Director in writing of any process change or 
redirection of or change in the character of an effluent stream that affects the quality of 
effluent at any sampling point specified for the discharger's plant under this Regulation, 
within thirty days of the change or redirection. 

(3) A discharger need not comply with subsection (2) where the effect of the change 
or redirection on effluent quality is of less than one week's duration. 

(4) Each discharger shall notify the Director in writing if the discharger's plant has, 
for three consecutive months, produced a product listed in Schedule 7 for the discharger's 
plant at less than seventy-five percent of the reference daily rate of production calculated 
under subsection 34(10) for the product, within thirty days after the end of the three month 
period. 



Reports to the Director - Compliance with Section 6 and Part IV 

37.-(l) Each discharger shall report to the Director any incident in which process 
effluent is discharged fi:om the discharger's plant without flowing past a process effluent 
sampling point or a process effluent batch sampling point at the plant before being discharged. 

(2) Each discharger shall report any loading, concentration or other result that exceeds 
a limit prescribed by section 15 or 16. 

(3) A report required under subsection (1) or (2) shall be given orally, as soon as 
reasonably possible, and in writing, as soon as reasonably possible. 

Quarterly Reports to the Director 

38.-(l) No later than forty-five days after the end of each quarter, each discharger shall 
submit a report to the Director containing information relating to the discharger's plant 
throughout the quarter, as required by subsections (3) to (14). 

(2) A report under this section shall be submitted both in an electronic format 
acceptable to the Director and in hard copy generated from the electronic format and signed 
by the discharger. 

(3) A report under this section shall include all information included in a report given 
under section 37 during the quarter. 

(4) Each discharger shall report, for each month in the quarter, the monthly average 
plant loadings and the highest and lowest daily plant loadings calculated under section 10, 12 
and 1 3 for each limited parameter and each assessment parameter. 



29 



(5) Each discharger shall report, for each month in the quarter, the highest and lowest 
batch loadings calculated under section 1 1 for each limited parameter. 

(6) Each discharger shall report, for each month in the quarter, the monthly average 
process effluent loading contributions and the highest and lowest daily process effluent 
loading contributions calculated under section 14 for each common parameter. 

(7) Each discharger shall report, for each month in the quarter, the monthly average 
process effluent plant volume and the highest and lowest daily process effluent plant volumes 
calculated vmder section 32. 

(8) Each discharger shall report, for each month in the quarter, the highest and lowest 
process effluent batch volimies calculated imder section 31. 

(9) Each discharger shall report, for each month in the quarter, the monthly average 
cooling water effluent plant volume and the highest and lowest daily cooling water effluent 
plant volumes calculated under section 32. 

(10) Each discharger shall report, for each month in the quarter, the monthly average 
combined effluent plant volume and the highest and lowest daily combined effluent plant 
volumes calculated imder section 32. 

(11) Each discharger shall report, for each process effluent monitoring stream at the 
discharger's plant, the number of days in each month in the quarter in which process effluent 
flowed past the process effluent sampling point on the stream. 

(12) Each discharger shall report, for each process effluent batch monitoring stream at 
the discharger's plant, the number of batches of process effluent in each month in the quarter 
that flowed past the process effluent batch sampling point on the stream. 

(13) Each discharger shall report, for each month in the quarter, the highest and lowest 
pH results obtained under section 23 for each process effluent monitoring stream and each 
process effluent batch monitoring stream at the discharger's plant. 

(14) Each discharger shall report, for each month in the quarter, the highest and lowest 
pH results and specific conductance results obtained under section 26 for each cooling water 
effluent monitoring stream and each combined effluent monitoring stream at the discharger's 
plant. 



30 



Reports to the Director - Chronic Toxicity Testing 

39.-(l) Each discharger shall report to the Director the results of all monitoring 
performed under section 30, together with the date on which each sample was picked up, no 
later than forty-five days after the end of each semi-annual period in which the monitoring 
was performed. 

(2) A report imder subsection (1) shall include a plot of percentage reduction in 
growth or reproduction against the logarithm of test concentration and shall include a 
calculation of the concentration at which a 25 per cent reduction in growth or reproduction 
would occur. 



PART X - COMMENCEMENT AND REVOCATION PROVISIONS 

Revocation of O.Reg. 395/89 

40. Ontario Regulations 395/89 and 649/89 are revoked on , 19_. 

(The date that is 90 days after the day on which this Regulation is filed will be inserted 
in section 40). 

Commencement of Parts IV, V, VI and VII 

41.-(1) Part IV comes into force on , 19 . 

(The date that is 3 years after the day on which this Regulation is filed will be inserted 
in subsection 41(1)). 

(2) Parts V, VI and VII come into force on _, 19 . 

(The date that is 90 days after the day on which this Regulation is filed will be inserted 
in subsection 41(2)). 



31 



SCHEDULE 1 
LIST OF REGULATED PLANTS 



PLANT NAME 


LOCATION 


OWNER AS OF May, 1994 


Albright and Wilson Americas 


Port Maitland 


Albright and Wilson Americas Inc. 


Cabot Canada Ltd. 


Samia 


Cabot Canada Ltd. 


Columbian Chemicals Ltd. 


Hamilton 


Columbian Chemicals Ltd. 


Cytec Canada Inc. (Welland plant) 


Niagara Falls 


Cyanamid Canada Inc. 


The Exolon-ESK Company of Canada 
Ltd. 


Thorold 


The Exolon-ESK Company of Canada 
Ltd. 


ETI Explosives Technologies 
International 


North Bay 


ETI Explosives Technologies 
International (Canada) Ltd. 


General Chemical Canada Ltd. 


Amherstburg 


General Chemical Canada Ltd. 


ICI Canada Inc. 


Cornwall 


ICI Canada Inc. 


ICI Canada Inc. - Conpak 


Cornwall 


Stanchem, Division of ICI Canada Inc. 


International Minerals and Chemicals 
Corporation (Canada) Limited 


Port Maitland 


Intemational Minerals and Chemicals 
Corporation (Canada) Limited 


Liquid Carbonic Inc. 


Courtright 


Liquid Carbonic Inc. 


Liquid Carbonic Inc. 


Maitland 


Liquid Carbonic Inc. 


Norton Advanced Ceramics of Canada 
Inc. 


Niagara Falls 


Norton Advanced Ceramics of Canada 
Inc. 


Nutrite Inc. 


Maitland 


Nutrite Inc./Imasco 


Partek Insulations Ltd. 


Samia 


Partek Insulations Ltd. 


Praxair Canada Inc. 


Mooretown 


Praxair Canada Inc. 


Praxair Canada Inc. 


Samia 


Praxair Canada Inc. 


Praxair Canada Inc. 


Sault Ste. Marie 


Praxair Canada Inc. 


Puritan Bennett Corporation 


Maitland 


Puritan Petmett Corporation 


Sulco Chemicals Limited 


Elmira 


Sulco Chemicals Limited 


Terra Industries (Canada) Inc. 


Courtright 


Terra Industries Inc. 


UCAR Carbon Canada Inc. 


Welland 


Union Carbide Canada Inc. 


Washington Mills Electro Minerals 
Corporation 


Niagara Falls 


Washington Mills Electro Minerals 
Corporation 


Washington Mills Limited 


Niagara Falls 


Washington Mills Limited 


Welland Chemical Limited 


Samia 


Welland Chemical Limited 



32 



Schedule 2 
Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Albright and Wilson Americas Inc. (Port Maitland) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg /day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


5 


DOC 


W 


210 


30 


6 


Total phosphorus 


D 


2.4 


0.93 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


170 


48 


12 


Mercury 


Q 


0.0025 


- 


14 


Phenolics 


. W 


0.12 


0.048 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 
of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = Final Discharge to River 



33 



Process Effluent Limits and IVIonitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Cabot Canada Ltd. (Sarnia) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Q 


3.2 


- 


5 


DOC 


W 


29 


10 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Q 


0.87 


- 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


48 


15 


9 


Aluminum 


W 


3.5 


2.2 


9 


Zinc 


Q 


1.4 


- 


25 


Oil and grease 


G 


17 




24 


2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin 


G 




2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran 


Q 




TEG 


Q 





Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEG total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Guarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 
of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = Discharge from Filter Bed to Cole Drain 



34 



Process Effluent Limits and IVIonitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Cytec Canada Inc. (Welland Plant) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


2 


Cyanide Total 


W 


0.13 


0.05 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


W 


10 


3.4 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


W 


32 


10 


4 


Total Kjeldahl nitrogen 


W 


9.7 


3.6 


5 


DOC 


W 


75 


27 


6 


Total phosphorus 


D 


5.0 


1.9 


7 


Total suspended solids 


D 


150 


21 


17 


Toluene 


W 


0.12 


0.046 


25 


Oil and grease 


Q 


8.4 


- 


24 


2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin 


Q 




2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodiben2ofuran 


G 




TEQ 








Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 
of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0400 = Sludge Pond #1 1 to Miller's Creek 



35 



Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 



PLANT: The Exolon-Esk Company of Canada Ltd. (Niagara Falls) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


5 


DOC 


W 


99 


14 


6 


Total phosphorus 


W 


2.8 


1.0 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


160 


79 


9 


Aluminum 


W 


2.6 


1.1 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 
of the discharger, dated , 19 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = 24 Inch Outfall at Beaver Dam Road 



36 



Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 



PLANT: General Chemical Canada Ltd. (Amherstburg) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


2 


Cyanide Total 


Q 


6.3 


- 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


W 


2900 


650 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Q 


750 


- 


4 


Total Kjeldahl nitrogen 


W 


2400 


890 


5 


DOC 


W 


2900 


1200 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Q 


64 




8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


43,000 


10,500 


9 


Molybdenum 


Q 


10 




10 


Arsenic 


Q 


1.9 




12 


Mercury 


Q 


0.016 




15 


Sulphide 


Q 


6.3 


- 


16 


Chloroform 


Q 


0.24 




25 


Oil and grease 


Q 


1400 


- 


11 


Chloride 


W 


1,200,000 


950,000 


12 


Fluoride 


w 


60 


46 


13 


Sulphate 


M 


37,000 


28,000 


24 


2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin 


Q 




2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran 


Q 




TEQ 


Q 





Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring reqflirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 



37 



Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 



PLANT: ICI Canada Inc. (Cornwall) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Q 


0.90 




5 


DOC 


W 


9.6 


4.2 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Q 


1.1 




» 


Total suspended solids 


D 


24 


4.3 


9 


Aluminum 


W 


0.43 


0.078 


9 


Copper 


Q 


0.016 




9 


Lead 


Q 


0.23 




9 


Nickel 


Q 


0.010 




9 


Zinc 


Q 


0.056 




10 


Arsenic 


Q 


0.0050 


- 


12 


Mercury 


D 


0.0058 


0.0012 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


Q 


0.0042 




23 


1 ,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 


W 


0.00034 


0.00013 


23 


Hexachlorobenzene 


W 


0.00016 


0.000060 


23 


Hexachlorobutadiene 


W 


0.00029 


0.00010 


23 


Hexachloftethane 


W 


0.0011 


0.00040 


23 


Octachlorostyrene 


Q 


0.000070 




23 


Pentachlorobenzene 


Q 


0.000010 




25 


Oil and grease 


Q 


6.7 




24 


2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dloxin 


Q 




2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran 







TEG . 


Q 





Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement « 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 

of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0400 = Effluent in Manhole #15 



38 



Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 



1 

PLANT: ICI Canada Inc - Conpak (Cornwall) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


W 


0.29 


0.10 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


W 


0.68 


0.15 


4 


Total Kjeldahl nitrogen 


W 


0.29 


0.11 


5 


DOC 


W 


1.4 


0.30 


6 


Total phosphorus 


W 


0.15 


0.023 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


3.5 


0.60 


9 


Aluminum 


W 


0.14 


0.022 


9 


Cadminum 


w 


0.00024 


0.000060 


9 


Chrominum 


w 


0.029 


0.0046 


9 


Copper 


w 


0.0071 


0.0012 


9 


Lead 


w 


0.014 


0.0018 


9 


Nickel 


w 


0.063 


0.0012 


9 


Zinc 


w 


0.0010 


0.00020 


10 


Antimony 


w 


0.00020 


0.000070 


10 


Arsenic 


Q 


0.00060 


- 


10 


Selenium 


Q 


0.0014 


- 


12 


Mercury 


W 


0.00030 


0.000060 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


W 


0.00063 


0.00017 


16 


Carbon tetrachloride 


W 


0.0029 


0.0011 


16 


Chloroform 


W 


0.0080 


0.00016 


Continued on next page 



39 



Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 



^^^^;^^=== 

PLANT: ICI Canada Inc - Conpak (Cornwall) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


23 


1 ,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 


Q 


0.0000040 




23 


1 ,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 


Q 


0.0000030 


- 


23 


Hexachlorobenzene 


W 


0.000040 


0.000010 


23 


Hexachlorobutadiene 


Q 


0.0000050 




23 


Hexachloroethane 


W 


0.00020 


0.000070 


25 


Oil and grease 


Q 


0.68 


- 


30 


Chloride 


W 


170 


43 


30 


Sulphate 


w 


120 


18 


24 


2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin 


Q 




2,3, 7 ,8-tetrachlorodibenzof uran 


Q 




TEQ 


Q 





Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 



Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name' and Location as set out in the plot 
of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 



plan 



0100 = Effluent from Conpak to the River 



40 



Process Effluent Limits and IVIonitoring Frequency 



PLANT: International Minerals and Chemicals Ltd. (Port Maitland) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


Q 


41 


- 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Q 


25 


- 


4 


Total Kjeldahl nitrogen 


Q 


30 


- 


5 


DOC 


Q 


68 


- 


6 


Total phosphorus 


D 


7.9 


4.5 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


250 


51 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


Q 


0.16 


- 


25 


Oil and grease 


Q 


10 


- 


12 


Fluoride 


D 


76 


57 


13 


Sulphate 


Q 


1 3,000 


- 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 
of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0300 = Final Effluent to River 



41 



Process Effluent Limits and IVIonitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Liquid Carbonic Inc. (Courtrlght) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


5 


DOC 


W 


310 


74 


6 


Total phosphorus 


G 


1.9 


- 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


97 


49 


9 


Aluminum 


W 


1.6 


0.62 


25 


Oil and grease 


W 


77 


27 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEG total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

G Guarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 
of the discharger; dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = Effluent to South Ditch 



42 



Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Liquid Carbonic Inc. (Maitland) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


W 


22 


15 


5 


DOC 


W 


190 


46 


6 


Total phosphorus 





0.87 


- 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


44 


22 


25 


Oil and grease 


W 


35 


13 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 
of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = Effluent to Main Outfall to River 



43 



Process Effluent Limits and IVIonitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Norton Advanced Ceramics of Canada Inc. (Niagara Falls) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg /day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


5 


DOC 


W 


34 


16 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Q 


2.4 


- 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


450 


100 


9 


Aluminum 


W 


15 


3.9 


25 


Oil and grease 


Q 


24 


- 


13 


Sulphate 


W 


1900 


770 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 



44 



Process Effluent Limits and IVIonitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Nutrite Inc. (Maltland) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


D 


16 


2.5 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


D 


37 


5.9 


4 


Total Kjeldahl nitrogen 


D 


16 


1.3 


5 


DOC 


W 


21 


11 


6 


Total phosphorus 


W 


7.9 


0.80 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


42 


9.0 


9 


Aluminum 


W 


1.6 


0.28 


9 


Copper 


Q 


0.10 


- 


9 


Vanadium 


Q 


0.86 




9 


Zinc 


W 


0.10 


0.021 


12 


Mercury 


G 


0.00045 


- 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


W 


0.0063 


0.0027 


16 


Tetrachloroethylene 


G 


0.11 


- 


25 


Oil and grease 


W 


8.7 


3.7 


27 


PCBT 


G 


0.00030 


1 


24 


2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin 


G 




2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran 


Q 




TEG 


G 





Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEG total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

G Guarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 

of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0400 = Final Effluent to River 



45 



Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Praxair Canada Inc. (Mooretown) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


5 


DOC 


W 


1.1 


0.17 


6 


Total phosphorus 


W 


0.095 


0.015 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


0.90 


0.14 


9 


Aluminum 


W 


0.014 


0.0052 


9 


Copper 


Q 


0.0038 


- 


9 


Zinc 


W 


0.020 


0.0066 


25 


Oil and grease 


W 


0.11 


0.047 


24 


2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin 


Q 




2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran 


Q 




TEQ 


Q 





Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out In the plot plan 
of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = Final Effluent to River 



46 



Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Praxair Canada Inc. (Sarnia) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


5 


DOC 


W 


1.3 


0.42 


6 


Total phosphorus 


W 


0.24 


0.043 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


2.8 


0.46 


9 


Aluminum 


W 


0.058 


0.022 


9 


Copper 


W 


0.0070 


0.0031 


9 


Zinc 


W 


0.013 


0.0065 


25 


Oil and grease 


W 


0.33 


0.14 


24 


2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin 


G 






2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran 


G 




TEG 


G 





Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEG total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

G Guarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 
of the discharger, dated , 19 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = Effluent from Cooling Towers to Cole Drain 



47 



Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Praxair Canada Inc. (Sault Ste. Marie) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


5 


DOC 


W 


9.0 


2.9 


6 


Total phosphorus 


W 


1.7 


0.30 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


20 


3.3 


9 


Aluminum 


W 


0.42 


0.15 


9 


Copper 


W 


0.045 


0.020 


9 


Zinc 


w 


0.090 


0.046 


25 


Oil and grease 


w 


2.1 


0.92 


24 


2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin 


Q 




2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran 


Q 




TEQ 


Q 





Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 
of the discharger, dated , 19 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = Outfall at Safety Drive to River 



48 



Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Puritan Bennett Corporation (Maitland) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


W 


3.9 


1.3 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


W 


2.9 


1.8 


4 


Total Kjeldahl nitrogen 


W 


3.1 


1.2 


5 


DOC 


W 


1.6 


1.0 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Q 


0.11 


- 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


5.4 


2.7 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 
of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = Effluent to Creek 



49 



Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Suico Chemicals Limited (Eimira) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


2 


Cyanide Total 





0.014 


- 


5 


DOC 


W 


1.4 


0.63 


6 


Total phosphorus 


W 


0.20 


0.082 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


2.9 


1.2 


9 


Aluminum 


Q 


0.085 


- 


9 


Cadminum 


Q 


0.0016 


- 


9 


Copper 


Q 


0.013 


- 


9 


Nickel 


Q 


0.022 


- 


9 


Vanadium 


Q 


0.040 


- 


9 


Zinc 


Q 


0.075 


- 


10 


Arsenic 


Q 


0.0014 


- 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


Q 


0.0024 


- 


25 


Oil and grease 


Q 


0.96 


- 


11 


Chloride 


W 


270 


140 


12 


Fluoride 


W 


1.6 


0.42 


13 


Sulphate 


w 


610 


150 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEG total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 

of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = Final Effluent to Creek 



50 



Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Terra Industries (Canada) Inc. (Courtright) 

1 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


D 


290 


140 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


D 


650 


150 


4 


Total Kjeldahl nitrogen 


D 


540 


250 


5 


DOC 


W 


1100 


510 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Q 


46 


- 


8 


Total Suspended solids 


D 


3500 


880 


9 


Aluminum 


Q 


8.9 


- 


9 


Zinc 


Q 


12 


- 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


W 


7.4 


2.6 


12 


Fluoride 


Q 


4.0 


- 


13 


Sulphate 


Q 


2700 


- 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 



51 



Process Effluent Limits and IVIonftoring Frequency 



PLANT: UCAR Carbon Canada Inc. (Welland) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


Q 


1.3 


- 


5 


DOC 


W 


6.4 


1.2 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Q 


0.052 


- 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


9.8 


4.7 


9 


Aluminum 


Q 


0.64 


- 


9 


Zinc 


Q 


0.10 


- 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


Q 


0.010 




25 


Oil and grease 


Q 


2.7 


- 


30 


Chloride 


Q 


370 


- 


30 


Sulphate 


Q 


1500 


- 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 
of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0200 = Government Dock Effluent 



52 



Process Effluent Limits and Monitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Washington Mills Electro Minerals Corporation (Niagara Falls) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


5 


DOC 


W 


81 


33 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Q 


2.2 


- 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


190 


61 


9 


Aluminum 


W 


2.8 


1.3 


25 


Oil and grease 


Q 


19 


- 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 



53 



Process Effluent Limits and IVIonitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Washington Mills Limited (Niagara Falls) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Daily 

Plant 

Loading 

Limit 


Monthly 
Average 

Plant 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/day 


kg/day 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


5 


DOC 


W 


24 


7.8 


6 


Total phosphorus 


Q 


0.58 


- 


8 


Total suspended solids 


D 


60 


18 


9 


Aluminum 


W 


3.0 


1.1 


25 


Oil and grease 


W 


14 


5.8 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

D Daily monitoring requirement 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 

Q Quarterly monitoring requirement 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the plot plan 
of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = Final Effluent to River 



54 



Process Effluent Limits and IVIonitoring Frequency 



PLANT: Welland Chemical Limited (Sarnie) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Batch 
Loading 

Limit 


kg/batch 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 5 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


B 


0.57 


5 


DOC 


B 


9.8 


6 


Total phosphorus 


B 


0.051 


8 


Total suspended solids 


B 


5.5 


9 


Aluminum 


B 


0.12 


16 


Chloroform 


B 


0.27 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 

kg/day kilograms per day 

B Process Effluent Batch - batch monitoring requirement 



Process Effluent Batch Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the 
plot plan of the discharger, dated , 19_, and filed with the Ministry. 

0200 = Effluent from #1 Lagoon 



55 



Schedule 3 

Process Effluent Sampling for Plants with More Than One 

Process Effluent Sampling Point 



PLANT: General Chemical Canada Ltd. (Amherstburg) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Control Points 


0100 


0200 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


2 


Cyanide Total 




X 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


X 


X 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


- 


X 


4 


Total Kjeldahl nitrogen 


X 


X 


5 


DOC 


X 


X 


6 


Total phosphorus 


X 


X 


8 


Total suspended solids 


X 


X 


9 


Molybdenum 


X 


- 


10 


Arsenic 


X 


- 


12 


Mercury 


X 


- 


15 


Sulphide 


X 




16 


Chloroform 


X 




25 


Oil and grease 


X 


X 


11 


Chloride 


X 


X 


12 


Fluoride 


X 


- 


13 


Sulphate 


X 


X 


24 


2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin 


X 


X 


2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran 


X 


X 


TEQ 


X 


X 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 
X means that the corresponding parameter in Column 1 is specified for the sampling 

point and is required to be monitored at the sampling point 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Numbers, Names and Locations as set out in the plot plan 
of the discharger, dated , 19 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = North Drain Effluent to Detroit River 
0200 = Main Drain Effluent to Detroit River 



56 



Process Effluent Sampling for Plants with More Than One 
Process Effluent Sampling Point 



PLANT: Norton Advanced Ceramics of Canada Inc. (Niagara Falls) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Control Points 


0300 


0400 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


5 


DOC 


X 


X 


6 


Total phosphorus 


X 


X 


8 


Total suspended solids 


X 


X 


9 


Aluminum 


X 


X 


25 


Oil and grease 


X 


X 


13 


Sulphate 


X 


- 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEG total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 
X means that the corresponding parameter in Column 1 is specified for the 

sampling point and is required to be monitored at the sampling point 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Numbers, Names and Locations as set out in the 
plot plan of the discharger, dated , 19 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0300 = Sewer C to Welland River 
0400 = Sewer D to Welland River 



57 



Process Effluent Sampling for Plants with More Than One 
Process Effluent Sampling Point 



PLANT: Terra Industries (Canada) Inc. (Courtright) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Control Points 


0300 


0500 


0700 


0800 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


Column 4 


Column 5 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


X 


X 


X 


X 


4 


Nitrate + Nitrite 


X 


X 


X 


X 


4 


Total Kjeldahl nitrogen 


X 


X 


X 


X 


5 


DOC 


X 


X 


X 


X 


6 


Total phosphorus 




X 


X 


X 


8 


Total suspended solids 


X 


X 


X 


X 


9 


Aluminum 




- 




X 


9 


Zinc 




X 




X 


14 


Phenolics (4AAP) 


X 


X 


X 


X 


12 


Fluoride 


- 


X 




- 


13 


Sulphate 


- 


X 




X 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 
X means that the corresponding parameter in Column 1 is specified for the 

sampling point and is required to be monitored at the sampling point 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Numbers, Names and Locations as set out in the 
plot plan of the discharger, dated , 19 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0300 = Emergency Containment Basin Effluent flowing into Plant Final Discharge to St. Clair River 

0500 = Effluent from 30 inch concrete pipe flowing into Plant Final Discharge to St. Clair River 

0700 = Effluent in Manhole number 55 flowing into Plant Final Discharge to St. Clair River 

0800 = Effluent in 42 inch line from A-1 1 flowing into Plant Final Discharge to St. Clair River 



58 



Process Effluent Sampling for Plants with More Than One 
Process Effluent Sampling Point 



PLANT: Washington Mills Electro-Minerals Corporation (Niagara Falls) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Control Points 


0100 


0200 


Column 1 


Column 2 


Column 3 


5 


DOC 


X 


X 


6 


Total phosphorus 


X 


X 


8 


Total suspended solids 


X 


X 


9 


Aluminum 


X 


X 


25 


Oil and grease 


X 


X 



Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

TEQ total toxic equivalent of 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin and furan congeners 
X means that the corresponding parameter in Column 1 is specified for the 

sampling point and is required to be monitored at the sampling point 

Process Effluent Sampling Point Numbers, Names and Locations as set out in the 
plot plan of the discharger, dated , 19 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = Effluent from Queen Lagoon to Welland River 
0200 = Effluent from the Old Lagoon to Welland River 



59 



Schedule 4 
Combined Effluent and Cooling Water Assessment 



PLANT: Cytec Canada Inc. (Welland Plant) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Column 1 


Column 2 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


W 


4 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


W 


4 


Nitrate plus Nitrite 


W 


6 


Total phosphorus 


W 


8 


Total suspended solids 


W 


25 


Oil and grease 


W 



Cooling Water Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the 
plot plan of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0300 = DICY Cooling Water to River (Cooling Water) 



PLANT: ET! Explosives Technologies International Ltd. (North Bay) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Column 1 


Column 2 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


W 


4 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


W 


4 


Nitrate plus Nitrite 


W 


8 


Total suspended solids 


W 


25 


Oil and grease 


W 



Cooling Water Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the 
plot plan of the discharger, dated , 19 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = Discharge at Weir to Lake (Cooling Water) 

Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 



60 



Combined Effluent and Cooling Water Assessment 



PLANT: ICI Canada Inc. (Cornwall) 

1 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Column 1 


Column 2 


8 


Total suspended solids 


W 


25 


Oil and grease 


W 



Cooling Water Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the 
plot plan of the discharger, dated , 1 9_, and filed with the Ministry. 

0300 = Effluent in LEL-2 to River (Combined Effluent) 



PLANT: Partek Insulations Ltd. (Sarnia) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Column 1 


Column 2 


8 


Total suspended solids 


W 


25 


Oil and grease 


W 



Cooling Water Effluent Sampling Point Numbers, Names and Locations as set out in the 
plot plan of the discharger, dated , 19 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0300 = Cooling Water Overflow Effluent (Cooling Water) 

Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 



61 



Combined Effluent and Cooling Water Assessment 



PLANT: Terra Industries (Canada) Inc. (Courtright) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Column 1 


Column 2 


4 


Ammonia plus Ammonium 


W 


4 


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 


W 


4 


Nitrate plus Nitrite 


W 


6 


Total phosphorus 


W 


8 


Total suspended solids 


W 


25 


Oil and grease 


W 



Cooling Water Effluent Sampling Point Numbers, Names and Locations as set out in the 
plot plan of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0200 = Main Effluent to River (Combined Effluent) 



PLANT: UCAR Carbon Canada Inc. (Welland) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Column 1 


Column 2 


8 


Total suspended solids 


W 


25 


Oil and grease 


W 



Cooling Water Effluent Sampling Point Number, Name and Location as set out in the 
plot plan of the discharger, dated , 1 9 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0100 = #2 Weir Effluent to Canal (Cooling Water) 

Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 



62 



Combined Effluent and Cooling Water Assessment 



PLANT: Welland Chemical Limited (Sarnia) 


ATG 


Parameter 


Monitoring 
Frequency 


Column 1 


Column 2 


8 


Total suspended solids 


W 


25 


Oil and grease 


W 



Cooling Water Effluent Sampling Point Numbers, Names and Locations as set out in the 
plot plan of the discharger, dated , 19 , and filed with the Ministry. 

0300 = Effluent from Chlorine Filling Unit (Cooling Water) 

0400 = Effluent from East Wall of Aluminum Chloride Building (Cooling Water) 

0500 = Effluent from South Wall of Aluminum Chloride Building (Cooling Water) 

Explanatory Notes: 

ATG Analytical Test Group 

W Weekly monitoring requirement 



63 



SCHEDULE 5 
DESIGNATED SAMPLING POINTS FOR LETHALITY LIMITS 



PLANT NAME 


'Sampling Point Number and Description 


Albright and Wilson Americas 


OICX) = Final Discharge to River (Process Effluent) 


Cabot Canada Ltd. 


01(X) = Discharge from Filter Bed to Cole Drain (Process Effluent) 


Cytec Canada Inc. (Welland plant) 


0400 = Sludge Pond #11 to MUler's Creek (Process Effluent) 
0300 = DICY Cooling Water to River (Cooling Water) 


The Exolon-ESK Company of Canada 


0100 = 24 Inch OutfaU at Beaver Dam Rd. (Process Effluent) 


ETI Explosives Technologies International 


0100 = Discharge at Weir to Lake (Cooling Water) 


General Chemical Canada Ltd. 


0200 = Main Drain Effluent to Detroit River (Process Effluent) 


ICI Canada Inc. 


0300 = Effluent in LEL-2 to River (Combined Effluent) 


ICI Canada Inc. - Conpak 


0100 = Effluent from Conpak to River (Process Effluent) 


International Minerals and Chemicals 
Corporation (Canada) Limited 


0300 = Final Effluent to River (Process Effluent) 


Liquid Carbonic Inc. (Courtright) 


0100 - Effluent to South Ditch (Process Effluent) 


Liquid Carbonic Inc. (MaiUand) 


0100 = Effluent to River (Process Effluent) 


Norton Advanced Ceramics of Canada 
Inc. 


0300 = Sewer C to Welland River (Process Effluent) 
0400 = Sewer D to Welland River (Process Effluent) 


Nutrite Inc. (Maitland) 


0400 = Final Effluent to River (Process Efflueijt) 


Partek Insulations Ltd. 


0300 = Cooling Water Overflow Effluent (Cooling Water) 


Praxair Canada Inc. (Moore) 


0100 = Final Effluent to River (Process Effluent) 


Praxair Caiuda Inc. (Samia) 


0100 = Effluent from Cooling Tower to Cole Drain (Process Effluent) 


Praxair Canada Inc. (Sault Ste. Marie) 


0100 = Outfall at Safety Drive to River (Process Effluent) 


Puritan Bennett Corporation 


0100 = Effluent to Creek (Process Effluent) 


Sulco Chemical Limited 


0100 = Final Effluent to Creek (Process Effluent) 


Terra Industries (Canada) Inc. 


0200 = Plant Final Effluent to the St. Clair River (Combined Effluent) 


UCAR Carbon Canada Inc. 


0100 = #2 Weir Effluent to Canal (Cooling Water) 
0200 = Government Dock Effluent (Process Effluent) 


Washington Mills Electro Minerals 
Corporation 


0100 = Effluent from Queen Lagoon to Welland River (Process Effluent) 
0200 = Effluent from the Old Lagoon to Welland River (Process Effluent) 


Washington Mills Limited 


0100 = Final Effluent to River (Process Effluent) 


Welland Chemical Limited 


0200 = Effluent from #1 Lagoon (Process Effluent) 

0300 = Effluent from Chlorine Filling Unit (Cooling Water) 

0400 = Effluent from East Wall of Aluminum Chloride Building (Cooling Water) 

0500 = Effluent from South Wall of Aluminum Chloride Bldg (Cooling Water) 



' - the designated sampling points for lethality limits are 
referenced for each plant in Schedules 2 and 3 and filed 



identified as to number, name and location on the plot plan of the discharger 
with the Ministry. 



64 



SCHEDULE 6 
DESIGNATED SAMPLING POINTS FOR CHRONIC TOXICITY ASSESSMENT 



PLANT NAME 


'Sampling Point Number and Description 


Albright and Wilson Americas 


0100 = Final Discharge to River (Process Effluent) 


Cabot Canada Ltd. 


0100 = Discharge from Filter Bed to Cole Drain (Process Effluent) 


Cytec Canada Inc. (Welland plant) 


0400 = Sludge Pond #11 to MUler's Creek (Process Effluent) 


The Exolon-ESK Company of Canada 


0100 = 24 Inch Outfall at Beaver Dam Rd. (Process Effluent) 


General Chemical Canada Ltd. 


0200 = Main Drain Effluent to Detroit River (Process Effluent) 


ICI Canada Inc. 


0300 = Effluent in LEL-2 to River (Combined Effluent) 


ICI Canada Inc. - Conpak 


0100 = Effluent from Conpak to River (Process Effluent) 


International Minerals and Chemicals 
Corporation (Canada) Limited 


0300 = Final Effluent to River (Process Effluent) 


Liquid Carbonic Inc. (Courtright) 


0100 = Effluent to South Ditch (Process Effluent) 


Liquid Carbonic Inc. (Maitland) 


0100 = Effluent to River (Process Effluent) 


Nonon Advanced Ceramics of Canada 
Inc. 


0300 = Sewer C to Welland River (Process Effluent) 
0400 = Sewer D to Welland River (Process Effluent) 


Nutrite Inc. (Maitland) 


0400 = Final Effluent to River (Process Effluent) 


Praxair Canada Inc. (Moore) 


0100 = Final Effluent to River (Process Effluent) 


Praxair Canada Inc. (Samia) 


0100 = Effluent from Cooling Tower to Cole Drain (Process Effluent) 


Praxair Canada Inc. (Sault Ste. Marie) 


0100 = Outfall at Safety Drive to River (Process Effluent) 


Puritan Bennett Corporation 


0100 = Effluent to Creek (Process Effluent) 


Sulco Chemical Limited 


0100 = Final Effluent to Creek (Process Effluent) 


Terra Industries (Canada) Inc. 


0200 = Plant Final Effluent to the St. Clair River (Combined Effluent) 


UCAR Carbon Canada Inc. 


0200 = Government Dock Effluent (Process Effluent) 


Washington Mills Electro Minerals 
Corporation 


0100 = Effluent from Queen Lagoon to Welland River (Process Effluent) 
0200 = Effluent from the Old Lagoon to Welland River (Process Effluent) 


Washington Mills Limited 


0100 = Final Effluent to River (Process Effluent) 


Welland Chemical Limited 


0200 = Effluent from #1 Lagoon (Process Effluent) 



■ - the designated sampling points for chronic toxicity assessment are identified as to number, name and location on the plot plan of the 
discharger referenced for each plant in Schedules 2 and 3 and filed with the Ministry. 



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SCHEDULE 7 
REFERENCE PRODUCTS 



Plant Name 


Products 


Albright and Wilson Americas 


•Phosphoric Acid 

•Sodium and Potassiimi Phosphates 


Cabot Canada Ltd. 


•Carbon Black 


Cytec Canada Inc. (Welland plant) 


•Phosphine and Derivatives 


The Exolon-ESK Company of Canada Ltd. 


•Abrasives 


ETI Explosives Technologies International 


•Explosives 


General Chemical Canada Ltd. 


•Soda Ash 
•Calcium Chloride 


ICI Canada Inc. 


•Caustic Soda 
•Chlorine 
•Hydrogen 
•Hydrochloric Acid 
•Chlorinated Paraffins, 
•Sodium Hypochlorite 


ICI Canada Inc. - Conpak 


•Packaging of - Acids, Bases, Ammonia, 
Chlorine 


International Minerals and Chemicals Ltd. 


•Shutdown Phosphate Fertilizer Facility 
- Storage Pond Drainage 


Liquid Carbonic Inc. (Courtright) 


•Liquified Carbon Dioxide 


Liquid Carbonic Inc. (Maitland) 


•Liquified Carbon Dioxide 


Norton Advanced Ceramics of Canada Inc. 


•Abrasives 


Nutrite Inc. 


•Nitric Acid 
•Ammonium Nitrate 
•"Nitrogen" Solutions 



66 



SCHEDULE 7 CON'T 
REFERENCE PRODUCTS 



Plant Name 


=——^ = 1 

Products 


Partek Insulations Ltd. 


•Insulation Fibre 


Praxair Canada Inc. (Moore) 


•Nitrogen Gas 


Praxair Canada Inc.(Samia) 


•Nitrogen Gas 


Praxair Canada Inc. 
(Sault Ste. Marie) 


•Gases - Oxygen, Nitrogen, Argon 


Puritan Bennett Corporation 


•Nitrous Oxide 


Sulco Chemicals Limited 


•Sulphuric Acid 

•Packaging of Acids - Hydrochloric, 

Hydrofluoric, Phosphoric 


Terra Industries (Canada) Inc. 


•Ammonia 
•Ammonium Nitrate 
•Urea 

•Nitric Acid 
•"Nitrogen" Solutions 


UCAR Carbon Canada Inc. 


•Carbon and Graphite Electrodes 


Washington Mills Electro Minerals 
Corporation 


•Abrasives 


Washington Mills Limited 


•Abrasives 


Welland Chemical Limited 


•Aluminum Chloride 
•Sodium Hypochlorite 
•Packaged Chlorine 



67