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Committee of Planning librarians EXCHANGE BIBLIOGRAPHY 




University of California list no. 6 June 1959 


Phyllis W. Ingersoll, graduate, Department of City and Regional 
Planning, University of California, Berkeley 




Greek Cities 

Hippodamian Model 
Ideal Greek Cities 

Roman Cities 

The Model Roman City 
The Ideal Roman City 


Model Cities of the 


Bastide Towns 
The Kolonialstadt 

late Medieval V. 

Cities of the Renaissance 
General References 
Treatises on the Central 

Model City 
Other Ideal Cities 
The Model Spanish 

Colonial City 

Nineteenth Century Cities 
Reactions to the 

Industrial Revolution 
Utopias in Now Lands ' ' 


I. Concentric Ideal Cities 

Small Concentric Cities 
Cellular Concentric Cities 
Large Concentric Cities 

II. Sectored Ideal Cities 

Small Sectored Cities 
Large Sectored Cities 

III. Ribbon Ideal Cities 

Lineal Ribbon Cities 
Parallel Ribbon Cities 
Sectored Ribbon Cities 

IV. Af ocal Cities 

Ideal Arrangements of Cities in a Region 
Dominant Satellite Arrangements 
Dominant Sectored Arrangements 
Equal Clustered Arrangements 
Equal Ribbon Arrangements 

Part Four: INDEX 


The aim of this bibliography is to select leading thinkers and 
writers who have proposed specific ideal urban forms, to organize 
their major works by historical period and, in Part III, by physical 
arrangement, and, finally, to list selected authors who have made 
significant comments upon their predecessors' or colleagues' work. 
The period from the Greek era through the Nineteenth Century has 
been well organized and described by many historians, but no author 
has yet described the broad outlines of city planning thought, 
activity and influence in the Twentieth Century, although there are 
several studies which cover specific countries. As a result of this 

CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

condition of scholarship this bibliography is more complete as it 

?ertains to the Nineteenth Century and before. It is hoped, however, 
hat it will prove interesting and suggestive in its coverage of ideal 
forms for cities in the first half of the Twentieth Century. 

The ideal city as used herein is a projection of a search for a 
better society as described in physical form. It is often presented in 
literary or diagrammatic terms and is rarely constructed* The model 
city, by contrast, had theoretical rationale, but may have had no 
literary origin. It became such an important solution to real urban 
problems as to have been the first in a series of plans or actual cities. 


or the 

This bibliography is an expansion of my thesis, Concepts of Id 
Urban Form, submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements fo* ut 
degree of Waster of City Planning, University of California, June, 1958 
(175 leaves, including 41 plates) . I am therefore greatly indebted to 
the members of my committee: Barclay G. Jones, Stephen W. Jacobs and 
Francis Violich. 

Three unpublished works, noted in Part I, were of unusual 
assistance to me: Ideal Cities, by John W» Eepsj a Critical Survey of 
Published Physical ., lanning i rinciples, by Thomas a, Kemerj ana a 
oioiiograpny, me concept or ggf ideal Urban Form, by Frederick G. 

To Holway R c Jones, thanks for the encouragement and, above all, 
the opportunity to rework this material, 

Format Notes 

All items are numbered consecutively regardless of outline 
form to simplify the construction of a name index, pp. 51-53. 

Numbers in curves following titles refer to the main entry 
under the author's name where the complete citation is given. 

Where an author has had different editions of his work published 
these are listed first under sub-letters (a), (b), etc., followed 
by secondary works (commentaries). 

A few entries are not complete bibliographically as not all 
books and periodicals were available to the author. 



Part I: 1-10 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 


Works listed here include those particularly helpful in setting 
the stage for this bibliography, source books and materials of special 
bibliographic interest. 

(1) Adams. Thomas. Outline of Town apd City Planning; a BfigJgH of . 

Past Efforts anc. Modern Aims . New York* Hussell Sage Foundation, 

193b. 368 pp. 
A good general discussion for students new to the subject. 
Approximately one-half the text is devoted to a history of 
city planning, beginning with the ancient world. 

(2) Ashworth, Williams. The Genesis of Modern British Town Planning. 

London; Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1954. 259 pp. (Series; 

International Library of Sociology and Social Reconstruction). 
A valuable and scholarly book, relating social and economic 
forces as well as various individuals who played important 
roles in the development of the British town planning 
movement. Comprehensive bibliography. 

(3) Aronovici, Carol (1881-1958). C ommunity Building; Science. Technioue T 

Art . Garden City, N.Y. : DoubTeday and Co., 1956. 354 pp. 
The author has brought a wide range of experience and 
reading from many countries to this primarily historical work. 
The bibliography is particularly valuable. 

(4) Avery Memorial Architectural Library. Catalogue of . Boston: Micro- 

photography Co., 1958. 6 vols, 

A major source book because of Avery's unparalleled historical 
collection at Columbia University. Reproduces actual catalog 

(5) Bauer, Catherine (b.1905). "First Job: Control New City Sprawl," 

Architectural Forum . 105 (Sept,, 1956), pp 105-112. 
Among other items this article presents a provocative 
discussion of ideal cities related to what is actually built. 

Blumenfeld, Hans. "Theory of City Form, Past and Present," 

Jo urnal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 8 ( July-Dec . , 

15397" , Pp. V-lb. — TTIus; "*■ * v * * 

Rare discussion of many general theoretical aspects of 
cities, including diagrams of various urban forms. 

(7) Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences . New York; MacMillan, 1931. 

useful preliminary source, although bibliographies are 
now over 25 years old. 

(8) Fisher, Robert Moore, ed. The Metropolis in Modern Life . Garden 

City, New York; Doubleday and (Jo, Inc., 1955, 401 p. 

See pages 357-67 for discussions of ideal cities and the 
role they play by Sir George Clark and Catherine Bauer. 

(9) Gallion, Arthur B. The Urban Pattern City Planning and Design . 

New York: D. Van No strand Co. Inc., 1950. 446 p. ELlus. and plans. 
A text for many city planning courses covering history and 
present practice. The chapter "The New Utopians" is parti- 
cularly appropriate. 

(10) Giedion, Sigfried (b.1888). S pace. Time and Architecture . 

Cambridge, Mass. : 'Harvard University Press, 1941; 1947; 1954. 
3rd ed. enlarged. 778 p. Excellent lllus. and plans. 

Interesting where relevant historical material is presented. 



Part I: 11-22 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(11) Goodman, Percival and Goodman, Paul. Communitas , Means of 

livelihood, and Ways of life. Chicago: University Press, 1947. 

141 p. Illus. and plans . 
Catagorizes past Utopias as; the green belt plans, the 
industrial plans ana integrated plans, and includes much 
interesting material and original thinking. Then presents 
three new utopias, caricatures of variojs aspects of 
modern planning theory, with diagrams et al. 

(12) Kimball, Theodora* Manual o£ Information Qp.City Planning and 

Zoning. Cambridge , Mdsa; Harvard utuvl'i - bily Pi - uss, 1925. 

188 pp. Supplements were published in 1928 (edited by Kimball 
and Katherine McNamara, 103 pp.) and 1936 (edited by McNamara, 
232 pp. 

Extremely valuable source for the history of city planning 
in the United States, covering the period 1910-1935. 

(13) Korn. Arthur. History Builds a Town . London j Lund Humphries, 1953. 

109 pp» Ill us. and plana. 

Outstanding illustrations and good general history of cities 
with some ideal cities. Especially good on some modern Utopias. 

the city as a symbol. 

(15) to J8^^A^f ^ii^ : i B Bi8ia ^ffia^jLi^te; 1 ma. tot ^^^ ett 

(16) — — . Histoire d'Urbanisme: Renais sance, et Temps MQdernes . 

Vol e 2. r&rig, Henri l£ufehs, 1941. 504 pp 

(17) , Histoire d'Urbanisme: Enoaue Contemnoraine . Vol. 3. Paris: 

Henri Laurens, xyt>;c. 4t4b pp 

The three Lavedan volumes are the single best source on the 
history of cities, actual and ideal. Unfortunately, an 
Englisn translation does not yet exist. Illustrated. 

(18) Maksimovic, Branko. Urb anizam . Belgrad: Izdavachko Preduzeto 

Gratevinske Kniga. "lSSl. 477 pp. Illus., plans and diagrams. 
Written in Cyrillic type, but contains an excellent collection 
of plates on all phases of city planning, including diagrams 
of Ideal cities, especially of the sectored type. 

(19) Muraford, Lewis. The Story of Utopia . New York: Boni and Liveright, 

1922. 315 pp, 

Interesting discussion of the character and function of 
utopias, with past Utopian writers used to reflect Mumford's 
own thinking. 

(20) . The Culture of Cities . New York: Harccurt, Brace and Co., 

193 8. 586 poc Illus. 

An interpretive history of cities. Annotated bibliography, 
pp. 508-552. 

(21) Purdom, C. B. The Garden City. A Study in the Development of a 

Modern Town . London: J. M. Dent and sons. mi'/, oau pp. nius. 
An early description of the origins and theory of the Garden 
City movement* 

(22) . The Building of Satellite Towns, a Contribution to the Study 

of Town Development and Regional Planning . London: J. M. Dent and 
Sons, I'd'tCo. Revised edition, iy<±y. 

A more interpretative discussion of the origins and history of 
the Garden City movement, with description of the relationships 
of the various influences on Howard (Part one). The rest of 
the book describes the building of Letchworth and Welwyn. 









■ ■ - 

Part I: 23-31 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(23) Reiner, Thomas A. A Critical Survey of Published physical Planning 
Principles . UnpuDiisnoa Master's tine sis. Massachusetts Institute 
or Technology," May. 1955. 104 leaves. 

An extensive critical survey of literature published since 
1895. Categorizes cities as massed, dispersed, poly- 
neucleated, and linear. 





Reps, John William. Ideal Cities . Unpublished Master*s thesis. 
Cornell University, 1947. lilus. 

A survey of ideal cities from Greek times to Howard. 

Stanislawski, Dan. "Origin and Spread of the Grid Pattern Town," 
Geographical Review , 36 (Jan , 1946), pp„ 105-120. 

excellent article discussing the problems of the relationships 
between different geographical areas and historical periods. 
Valuable bibliography. 

Stewart, Cecil. A Prospect of Cities . London: Longmans, Green and 
Co., 1952. 191 pp. ilius. 

Brief and well written, but occasional errors in details. 

Sturgis, Russell. A Dictionary of Architecture and Building . New 
York: M&c Milan, iyu*. o vols. 

Useful for biography and bibliography. 

Styles, Frederick G. The Concept of the Ideal Urban Form; A 
Selected Bibliograp h y of '"Recent Theorists or Urban Form . 
Mimeo. Berkeley: university SI (janiornia, iys>7. iy pp, 1 
Revised edition, 1958. 

Tunnard, Christopher. The City of Man . New York: Charles 
Scribner's Sons, l95o. 525 pp ? 

Good discussion of Utopias m general and coverage of the 
Renaissance and 19th. Century idealists. 

Wasmuths Lexikon der Baukunst . Berlin, Ernst wasmuth A.G., 1929. 
lysv. t> vols. Profusely illustrated. 

Contains information on terms, biography and places. 

Zevi, Bruno. Storia dell'architettura moderna . Torino, Gulio 
Einaudo, 19t>3. vyt> pp lllus. and plans 

Especially valuable for the continental idealists of the 
20th. Century, providing information and discussion of 
relationships unavailable elsewhere. 


Part II: I-A, 32-37 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 



The concept of the city as a political, socio-economic and physical 
unit was highly developed in Greek administrative theory. The two philos- 
ophers, Plato and Aristotle, however, were concerned with social rather 
than physical relationships in their descriptions of ideal cities. Pre- 
viously, during the Hellenic period (6th. -4th, Century B.C.) the model 
type, consisting of grid-iron plan with central agora was developed 
(presumably by Hippodamus) and' was used in the building of several 
colonial cities. Later, during the Hellenistic period (4th. -1st, Century 
B.C.) this same model plan was used by Alexander the Great (337-323 B.C.; 
in the layout of great numbers of cities which he founded throughout his 
empire . 

A, The Hippodamian Model 

These works dealing with the histcry and: theory of the. Hippodamian 
type plan represent at least three periods of Greek scholarship : the 
very influential early German works (Erdmann, 1883; Herman, 1841: 
Mackowsky, 1909), the high point of comprehensive studies (Haverfield 
in England, 1913; Gerkan in Germany, 1924; Lavedan in France, 1926), 
and the best in recent scholarship (wycherlay in England, 1951). 

(32) Boe'thius, Carl Axel (b.1889). "Roman and Greek Town Architecture," 

Gffteborgs Hflgskolas Arsskrift . Gttteborg, Elandersboktr, 1948. 

vol. 5ToZ pp, illus. and plans. 

English text. Discusses problems of the relation between 
model Greek and Roman towfc plans and also architectural urban 
form. Scholarly notes and bibliographic discussion, 

(33) Erdmann, Martin (b.1858), Zur Kunde der Hellenistiachen Staedtegru- 

endungen. Strassburg, Jon. Heinr. Ed, heitsz, Buchdrucker des 
Protestantischen XTonasiusm, 1883. (Series: Programm Protestant. 
Gymnasium zu Strassburg), 30 pp. 

Early study of plans using archaeological data. Now superseded 

by von Gerkan (36), 

(34) , "Hippodamos von Milet und die symmetrische Staedtebaunkunst 

der Griechen, " Philologus, Zeitschrift fur das KLassishe Aiter- 
thum (Leipzig; (joettingen), 4£ (itim), pp lya-fciiV. 

German commentary with sources of all references to Hippodamus 
quoted in .Greek, 

(35) Gardner, Percy (1846-1937). "The Planning of Hellenistic Cities," 

Transactions, Town Planning Conference, R.I.B.A. London: 1911. 
pp. lll-ll<i. 

Short article by a prolific writer on Greek art and architecture, 

(36) Gerkan, Armin von (b,1884). Griechische Staedteanlagen: Unter- 

suchungon zur Entwicklung des staedtebaues lm Altertum , Berlin 
and Leipzig, W. de uruyter ana U0c, TS&& I'/o pp, Exce 11 e n t 
illus, and plans, 

"The man to whom the study of this subject owes more than any 
other." (Wycherley, How the Greeks Built Cities, p, ix). A 
major reference work which correlates both archaeological data 
and written sources. Bibliographical footnotes. For 
Hippodamian model, see pp, 28-123, 

(37) Haverfield, Francis John (1860-1919). Ancient Town Planning . Oxford: 

Clarendon Press, 1913, 152 pp, Illus. and plans. 

"Although out of date in detail, the most useful general account." 
(Ward-Perkins, Town Planning Review, 26:153). Bibliographical 
footnotes. For Hippodamian model, see pp. 19-57. 


Part II: I-A-B, 38-50 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

Hermann, Karl Friedrich (1804-1855). de Hippodamo Milesio . 
Marburg, 1841. 

Ivanka, Endre. Die Aristotolische Politik und die Staedtegru- 
endungcn Alexanders des Grossen . Budapest, 193b. sa pp. 

Describes tne relation between the teacher, Aristotle, and the 
pupil, Alexander the Great, and his founding of cities. See 
pp. 1-20. 

Jones, Arnold Hugh Martin (b.1904). The Greek City from Alexander 
to Justinian . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940. 395 pp. 

Describes the model city in the socio-political scene, inclu- 
ding administration, education, etc. For reference to physical 
plan, see p. 214. 

Iavedan, Histoire de 1' Urban! sme, vol, 1 (15). 

Mackowsky, Hans (1871-1938). "Die Geschischtlische Entwicklung des 
Stadtplanes," Per Staedtebau (Berlin, Wasmuth), 1908, pp. 29-30, 
45-47. 73-77. iiius. ana plans in sections with plates. 
Early description of the development of Greek plans. (See 
pp. 45-47). 

Martienssen, Rex Distin (1902-1942). "Greek Cities," The South 
African Architectural Record. 26 (Jan., 1941), entire issue. 
Kxcellent iiius. an- maps. 

Historical, physical and economic aspects presented in handsome 
and scholarly form. Bibliography, pp. 56-58. 

Martin, Roland. L'Urbanisme dans la Orece Antique . Paris, A. & J. 
Picardj, 1956, 301 pp« Illus. and plans. 

Discusses two an:l three dimensional aspects of Greek cities. 

Robertson, Donald S. (b.1885). Handbook of Greek and Roman Archi- 
tecture . Cambridge, University Press, 1929. 2nd. edition, 1945 
and 19 54. 406 pp. 

A brief and thorough account of Greek and Roman plans and the 

relation between them. (See pp 186-191). 

Stanislawski, "Origin and Spread of the Grid Pattern Town," 
Geographical Review, vol. 36. (25). 

Wycherley, R. E. How the Greeks Built Cities . London: Macmillan and 
Co,, 1949. 227 np„ nius. and plans, 

Deals with the plans and other aspects of cities in the 
Hellenic period. Annotated bibliography on the best sources, 
pp. 210-222. For Hippodamian model, see pp. 1-35. 

. "Hellenic Cities," Town Planning Review. 22 (July, 1951), 

pp. 103-121. Illus. and plans. — "^^ 

Detailed account of several cities in the Hellenic period. 
Bibliography, p. 121. 

. "Hellenistic Cities," Town Planning Review t 22 (October, 

1951), pp. 177-205. Illus. ann. plans. 

Discussion of general characteristics of Miletus, Priene and 
other cities of the Hippodamian type. Bibliography, p» 205. 

B. Ideal Greek Cities 

A few passages from the writings of Plato and Aristotle, and 
commentaries upon them, will demonstrate the general way they described 
physical plans for their ideal cities. 

(50) Plato (427-347 B.C.). The Republic. 

Negligible referenuu Lu phvbiual form. 



Part III I-B to II-A, 51-61 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(51) ~. — . The laws , IV:704-5j V:745; and especially VI:778-9j VIII: 848. 

(a) Gerkan, Griechische Staedteanlagen (36), p. 62. 

(b) Stewart, A Prospect of Cities (26), pp. 10-13. 

(c) "Plato »| Republic," Garden City (London), 1 (Feb., 1906), 

(52) Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). Politics. 11:6-8; VII:4~12. 

(a) Gerkan, Griechische Staedteanlagen (36), p. 62. 

(b) Ivanka, Die Aristotelische ... (39), pp. 1-20. 

(c) Stewart, A Prospect of Cities (26), pp. 13-20. 


During the period of Roman expansion, 200 B*C.-400 A.D., the Greek 
type of grid-iron pattern with central forum was used for many new cities, 
but it had been regularized by the addition of defensive walls with 

fates at their centers forming a square fortification. No contemporary 
heories or laws have been found which call for this type of plan, 
although there is one description by Polybius (205-125 B.C.). The 
contemporary theorist, Vitruvius, did not clearly promulgate this theory 
and his influence en his own time was negligible compared with the great 
influence of his book in the Renaissance. 

A. The Model Roman City 

This section contains the contemporary description of the model 

(53) Boe'thius, "Roman and Greek Town Architecture," Goteborgs Hogskolas 

Arsskrift ^Sg). 

(54) Gerkan, Griechische Staedteanlagen . ( 56) . pp. 123-169. 

(55) Haverfield, Ancient Town Planning . (37), pp. 75-137. 

(56) Lavedan, Histoire de l'Urbanisme (15), vol. 1 

(57) Mackowsky, "Die Geschischtlische Entwicklung des Stadtplanes," 

Per Staedtebau f (42), pp. 73-77. 

(58) McKendrick, Paul (b.1912). "Roman Town Planning," Archaeology. 
* (Summer, 1956), pp. 126-133. Illus., plans and air photos. 

A popular summary of recent research in Roman town planning. 


No* bibliography or footnotes. 

(59) Polybius (205-125? B.C.). The Histories . Edited by E. S. Shick- 

burgh. London and New YorK: Macmiiian and Co., 1889. 2 vols. 
Diagram opposite p. 1» 

Discussion of the typical Roman plan, Book VI, sect. 27-41, 

(60) Robertson, Handbook of Greek and Roman Architecture . (45), pp. 190- 


(61) Stanislawski, "Origin and Spread of the Grid Pattern Town," Geo- 

graphical Review , (25) . 





Part II: II-A to III-A, 62-63-f CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(62) Ward-Perkins, J. B. (b.1912). "Early Roman Towns in Italy," Town 

Flarming Review . 26 (Oct., 1955), pp. 124-154. Plans. 

Excellent discussion of the origin and use of Roman model 
plans. Bibliography, pp. 153-154. 

B. Vitruvius' Ideal Roman City 

(63) Vitruvius, Pollio (1st. Cent. B.C.). yen Books on Architecture . 

"The work was highly esteemed during the middle ages and was 
frequently transcribed. The manuscript of St. John's College, 
Oxford, was made as late as 1316. A manuscript at Avignon was 
carried to Spain in the 15th« Century. The eoitio princops 
was published by Johannes Sulpitius verulanus, c. 1486, and 
again c. 1507-1513, 1825-1830, 1836, etc." (Sturgis, R. A 
Dictionary of Architecture and Building, N.Y. : Macmillan, 1902, 
p 1101). "Vitruvius seems to havo given iliustratiDns at the 
end of his several books. Of these none have come down except 
perhaps the diagran of the winds in Book I." (Granger, p. xxvii), 
Two scholarly editions with commentary and notes are listed 
in "a" and "b" below: 

(a) Granger, Frank, ed. (b.1864). Cambridge, Mass: Harvard 

University Press, 1955-56. 2 vols. (Loeb Classical library) 

(b) Morgan, Morris Hicky, ed. (1859-1910). Cambridge, Mass.: 

Harvard University Press, 1914. 331 pp, Illus. 

(c) Gerkan, Griechische Staedteanlagen (36), p. 64. 

(d) Schlosser, Julius Ritter von (1866-1938). Die Kunstliteratvuv 

Wien, Kunstverlag Anton Schroll and Co , ly^i. 

Also Italian translation: la lettoratura Artistica . 
Firenze, La Nuova Italia, 1935 and 1956, pp. 251-259, 
Source material and bibliography. 

(e) Stanislawskl, Dan. "Early Soanish Town Planning in the New 

World," Geographical Review. 38 (Jan., 1947), pp. 94-105. 
Discusses the influence of Vitruvius on the Spanish 
towns in the New World. Footnotes. 

(f ) Rosenau, Helen. "Historical Aspects of the Vitruvian Tradi- 

tion in Town Planning," Journal of the R.I.B.A .. 62 (Oct., 

1955), pp. 481-487. Illus; 

The Vitruvian plan and other elements of the ideal city 
as they influenced designers from Filarete to Karlsruhe. 
Includes a variety of interesting ideas on diverse 
sources of influence. Bibliography and notes, p. 487. 


Among the many towns which grew and were f ounded in the later 
medieval period, at least two model types are now recognized. The 
Bastideiype, based on a grid-iron pattern with central market-place and 
near-by church, were founded both in southwest France and north England 
between 1150 and 1350. A second group of towns, founded between 1200 
and 1300 by the Teutonic knights in eastern Germany, the Kolonial- 
staedte, were based on several models, depending upon the purpose and 
founder of the colony. 

A« Bastide Towns 

One of the earliest studies (Tout, 1917) remains the foundation for 
two recent and more detailed accounts (Dickinson, 1938, and Shillaber, 




Part II: III-A-B, 64-75 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(64) Adams, Outline of Town and City Planning (1), pp. 86-88, 91-94. 

(65) Dickinson, Robert Eric (b.1905). "Lc Developpement et la Distri- 

bution 3e Plan Medieval en Echiquier dans le Sud de la France et 
l'est de l'Allemagne," La Vie Urbaine . 47 (1938), pp. 271-296. 
Maps, plans and diagrams. 

Discussion of the grid-iron plan in southern France and 

Eastern Germany. Bibliography, pp. 295-296. 

(66) -. The West European City, a Geographical Interpretation. 

Lond on; K6Utledgt' and KegaH raUl Ltd., 1951. 5d0 pp. (buri es : 
international Library of Sociology and Social Reconstruction). 
Excellent illus. and maps. 

Attempts to be comprehensive, but the work is confused by a 
disorganized wealth of details. Little on the Bastide. 
Extensive bibliography, see p. 353. 

(67) Hiorns, Frederick R. (b.1876). Town Building in History. London: 

George G. Harrar; and Co., 1956. 445 pp. Excellent illus. 

Summary cf influences and extent of Bastide towns, pp. 122-127. 

(68) Lavedan, Historie de l'Urbanisme (15), vol. 1. 

(69) Parker, John Henry (1806-1884). Some Account of Domestic Architec- 

ture in England from Edward 1 to Hlcnara ll . (Jxiora. itibd, <bd pp. 
illus. and plans. 

Early account by a prolific writer on history of Greece and 

Rome. (See vol. 3 chapter 5). 

(70) Shillaber. Caroline. "Edward I, Builder of Towns," Speculum, 

22 (1947), pp. 296-309. Maps and plans. 

Detailed and interesting account of plans and other aspects 
of the building of Bastide towns, using quotes from contem- 
porary sources. Footnotes. 

(71) Stanislawski, "Origin and Spread of the Grid Pattern Town," 

Geographical Review (25).' 

(72) Stewart, A Prospect of Cities (26). 

(73) Tout, Thomas Frederick (1855-1929). "Medieval Town Planning" 

(a; The Bulletin of the John Rvlands Library. 4 (April- August, 
1917), Manchester University Press. 

(b) Town Planning Review . 8 (April, 1919). 

(c) Medieval Town Manning . Manchester University Press, 1925 

ana iyo<±. os pp. 

Short but comprehensive discussion of the Bastide plan 
and its geographical extent. Bibliography. 

B« The Kolonialstadt 

Unfortunately a 
unavailable in English 
schke, 1912, and Klo< 

(74) Dickinson, Robert Eric. "The Development and Distribution of the 

Medieval German Town," Geography. 27 (March and June, 1942), 

pp. 47-53, 

The second article covers geographical extent cf the towns but 
contains no description of the model types Bibliography, 

(75) . The West European City (66). 

Best available coverage or subject in English. Bibliography, 
pp. 554-564, is excellent. (See pp. 301-416). 




Part II} III-B to IV-A, 76-82 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(76) KLoeppel, Otto (b.1873). Siedlung und Stadtplanung im deutschen 

Oston. Berlin: Guido Hackebeil A.G», lyzb. 4o pp. PTansT 
Clear presentation of typical plans and their examples, but 
not much emphasis on origin or geographical extent. No 
footnotes or bibliography. (See p, 23 for three types). 

(77) Koetzschke. Rudolf (b. 1867). Quellen zur Geschichte dor Ostdeut- 

schen " Colo nisat ion im 12 ten bis l^ te n janrnundret . ieip2ig: 

B.GV Teubner, lyiS. 142 pp. 

German commentary on latin texts of the sources of the history 
of the colonization of eastern Germany, (See pp. 71-81). 

(78) , and W. Ebert. Geschichte der o'st deutschen Kolonisation . 

Leipzig: Bibliograpmscnes institut, xyov, «st>± pp. BSSs and plans. 
A political tract showing the relation of western with 
eastern "Germany 1 .' Bibliography, np. 239-251. (See p e 200). 

(79) MackoiTsky, "Die Geschischtlische Entwicklung des Stadtolanes," 

Per Staedtebau (42). 

Early description of the cities of the German east, p. 77. 


Although the ideal city of the Renaissance in Europe and in the New 
World is not identical in every manifestation, its characteristics are 
easily recognizable throughout the period of its promulgation (1462- 
1625) and in later individual examples. The plan is symmetrical and 
centrally focused around an open space or an important building, whether 
the street pattern is grid-iron or radio-concentric. In most cases the 
exterior walls of the city form a complex geometrical pattern such as 
an octagon or a star, .'. rawn in calculated relation to the central focus 
and the street pattern. 

Five considerations of varying importance among the theorists 
seemed to be satisfied by this type of city plan: (1) revival of concern 
for social and political Utopias, (2) new self-consciousness about three 
dimensional design related to the contemporary studies of perspective, 
(3) concern for the symbolic meaning of centrality, (4) delight in 
geometrical patterns and relationships, (5) defense needs caused by the 
introduction* of cannon which came into Italy in 1494 with conquoring 
French armies, and (6) defense and control of extensive now lands 
dominated by a few key cities. Large numbers of fortress cities of this 
exact model were built in every part of continental Europe, North Africa 
and South America from 1545 to 1898. Later, shed of its heavy walls, the 
symmetric and central plan had great influence on the building of new 
palaces and the rebuilding of cities. 

A. General References 

German scholarship from 1910 to 1930, represented in summary by 
Muenter (1929) and by Lavedan (1941), has made the greatest contribu- 
tion to this subject. 

(80) Bardet, Gaston (b.1907). Naissance et Mdconnaissanco de l'Urbanisme . 

Paris: SABRI, 1951. 423-pp"; see pp. r/-t>s. 

(81) Brinckmann, Albert (b.1877). "Entwicklung des Staedtebau Ideals 

seit der Renaissance," Transactions of the Town Planning 
Conference of R.I.B.A .. 191U, pp. 146-166. lllus. 

German text wiui snortened English translation. Also published 
in Deutehe Bauzeitung , January-February, 1910. 

(82) De la Croix, Horst Max Albert. Problems in 16th. Century Italian 

Urban ism: The Radial Plan from srorzmaa to laimanova . OFF 
publisnea pn.i). dissertation, university or (janiornia, 1958. 
256 leaves. Maps and plans. 

Emphasizes the importance of military considerations in the 
"ideal" urban form. A comprehensive and scholarly work, 
including many quotes from contemporary texts. Also an in- 
valuable section on the development of Renaissance historio- 
graphy. Excellent bibliography. 


Part II: IV-A-B, 85-98-a CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(83) Dickinson, The ^ f est European City (66). 

In this' part tne author sets "the theorists in their historical 
setting. (See chapter 18, pp. 415-445). 

(84) Enclclopedia Italia na. Milan and Rome: Bestetti and Trumminelli, 

1951—1959. "~~~ 

Brief outline: See under "Citta," pp. 489-491, with biblio- 
graphy, p. 492. Excellent illustrations. 

(85) Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture (10), pp, 41-55. 

(86) Jordan, R. F. , and Stuart. "Cities of the Grand Renaissance," 

Journal of the Town Planning Institute. 53 (March, 1947) 

(87) Lavedan, Histoire de l'Urbanisffii (16), vol. 2, pp. 9~54, 72-92. 

(88) Maul. A. "Die Idealstadt," Per Staedtebau. 24 (1929), pp.. 315-514. 

Illus. and plans. 

(89) Muenter. Georg. Idealstaedte : Thro nesphichte yom 15-17 Jahrhundert . 

(a) Dissertation, Danzig Technische Hochschule, I9Z9. 
*bj Per Staedtebau. 24 ?1929), pp. 249-56, 517-40. 
c) Berlin: Henscnelverlag. 1957. 104 pp. 

German text. Most comprehensive and complete study available. 


(90) Parsons, William Barclay (1859-1952). E ngineers and Engineering 

in the Renaissance . Baltimore: Williams ana wiiicins (Jo., xyoy, 

bt>± pp. ilius. and maps. 
Discusses many aspects of civil and structural engineering 
without emphasizing the military. Bibliography, pp* 619-625, 
includes many Renaissance treatises and their location. 

(91) Piccinato, L. "Origini dello Schemo Urbano Circolare nel Medioevo," 

Urbanistica, 16 (1947), pp. 124-156. 

(92) Rasmussen, Steen Eiler (b.1898). Towns and Buildings . Cambridge, 

Mass.: Harvard University Press, iyai. <u$ pp, jaccellent illus. 
and plans. 

The best presentation available in English; leans heavily on 

Muenter (89). See pp. 20-27. 

(93) Rosenau, Helen, "Historical Aspects of the Vitruvian Tradition in 

Town Planning," Journal of the R.I,B.A . (63-f). 

(94) Schlosser, Die Kunstlitcratur (65-d). 

(95) Stewart, A Prospect of Cities (26). 

(96) Wittkower, Rudolf (b 1901). Architectural Principles in an Age of 

Humanism . London: Alec Tiranti, Ltd., 1950. 114 pp. Illus. 
Does not discuss city plans as such, but many or the architec- 
tural principles are appropriate. 

B. Treatises on the Central Model City 

Arranged by date. This is an extensive, but not complete list of 
Renaissance treatises. It includes the more available ana also some 
rare manuscripts with library location noted in some instances. Only a 
few authors have been chosen for more intensive bibliographic study, 

(97) 1st. Cent. B.C. VITRUVIUS, Ten Books on Architecture (65). 

(98) c, 1460-64 A.D. FILARETE (Antonio di Pietro Aver lino, 1400-1469). 

Trattato d'Architettura , 1460-64. 

(a) Oettingen, W. vcn, Quellenschriften fur Kunstgeschischte und 
Kunsttechnik . Vienna, u. uraesor, ibb>b. vol. o. German 
text. (Lici. of Cong.) 






Part II: IV-B, 98-b to 101-e CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(b) Lazzaroni, M. , and Muhoz. A Filarete. Scultore e Architetto 

de Secolo XV . Rome, 1908 1 

(c) Microfilm of original Italian text, Society of Architectural 


(d) Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture (10), pp. 45-47. 

(e) Lavedan, Histoire de l'Urbanisme (16), vol. 2, pp. 12-14. 


1439-1502). Trattato di Architettura Civile e Militare. c.1480. 

(a) promis, Carlo, ed» Turin: Tip . Chirio e Mina, 1841. 2 vols. 

(b) Fontana. Paolo, "F. G. Martini," Resumes de Communications^ 

Conrres de Histoire de l'Art . Berne, 1951, 102 pp« 

(c) Papini, Roberto (b.1883), Fran cesc o di.Gjorgiot Archit etto. 

Florence- Electa Aditrice , vol. 1 and 2, 1946. 

Pibliopraphy, pp. 267-275 

(100) LEONARDO DA VINCI (1452-1519) 

(a) Richter, Jean Paul (1817-1937). The Literary Works of 

Leonardo da Vinci . London: Oxford university wess, 1939. 
bee vol. a, pp 21-22, 249. 

(b) Giedion, Space. Time and Architecture (10), pp. 52-53. 

(c) Vallentin, Antonina (b*1893). Leonardo da Vinci, the Tragic 

Pursuit of Perfection . Translated by E. W Dickes. New 
York: Viking Press, 1938. 561 pp„ Uluso 

See pp. 126-130 and an extensive bibliography, pp, 547- 


(101) 1527 ALBRECHT DUERER (1471-1528) 

(a) Duerer, Albrecht. (Etliche) Uhterricht zu Befestigung der 
Stett (Sta edte).. -Hchcloss tifld' FleeKen . NUrnbcrTMbgV. — 
(Lib. of Cong.) 

(1) Latin translation published by Charles Wechelus, 
Paris, 1535, 

(2) Reprint of German, published by J. Janssen, Arnheim, 

(3) Modernized German edition with notes, Berlin, 1823. 

41 Modernized German edition with notes, Berlin. 1840. 

5) Frensh translation by A. Ratheau, Paris. 1870, plus 

introduction on the influence of Duerer's ideas, 

(b) Conway, William Marin. Literary Remains of Albrecht Duerer. 

Cambridge university Pragg, 1389, -19 59. 288 pp. 

Contains summary of Duerer's description, pp. 262-273, 
and bibliography. 

(c) Goltz, Colmar von der (1843-1916). "Albrecht Duerers Ein- 

fluss auf die Entwicklung der Deutschen Befestigungkunst," 
Ugber Kuenstler und Kunstweke, vol. 2 (1865-66), pp. 189- 
*cuo • 

(d) Enhof, G. von. Albrecht Duerer in seiner Bedeutung f.d . 

gpd. Befest . Grenzboten, Noerdlingen, 1871, 1872. 143 pp. 

(e) Lavedan, Histoire de l'Urbanisme (16), vol. 2, pp. 20-21. 


Part II: IV-B, 101-f to 113~c CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(f ) Waetzoldt, Wilhelm Adolf. Duerers Befestigunftslehro . 
v Berlin/ 1916. 5 — ' 

(102) 1554 PIETRO CATANEO (PIETRO CATTANEO). I Quattro or imi Iibri dl 

Architettura . Colophon: In casa de 'figliu oil di Aido, lbb4. 
Microfilm, University of California, Berkeley. 

(103) 1563 BERNARD PALISSY (c. 1510-1589). "De la Ville de Forteresse," 

Ceuvr es Comp letes. Paul-Antoine Cap, ed, Paris: J. J. Dubochet 
IT Cie, 1844. 45V pp. (See pp„ 113-123). 

(a) Morley, Henry (1822-1894). The Life of Bernard Palissy of 
Saintes (the Fotter) . London: unapman anc! Haii, Ltibd, 
'< vols. 

Includes translation of Palissy 's papers, see pp. 284-97. 

(104) 1565 GIROLAMO MAGGI (d.1572). Delia Fortificatione clella Cittd . 

Venetia, 1565. 

(105) 157Q GIORGIO VASARI (1511-1571). Quatro Libri d' Architettura. 

(106) 1582 ANTONIO LUPICINI. Dell 'Architettura Militare, 1582. 

(107) 1589 DANIEL SPRECKLE. Architectura von Festungen. 1589. 

(108) 1592 BONAIUTO LORINI (fl. 1600). Delle Fortif icationi . Ubri 

Cinque . Venetia: G. A. Rampazetto, lby2. <iiy pp 

(109) 1598 GIOVANNI BELUCCI. Nuova Invenzione di Fabbricare Fortez ze 

di Varie Forme, 1598. 

(110) 1599 FRANCESCO DE ' MAR CHI (b.1506). Dell 'Architettura Militare . 

Brescia 1599. ' 

(a) Later edition: Roma: Torchi di M. de Romanis e figli, 1810. 
Illus. by Luigi Marini. 

(111) 1600 JEAN ERRARD DE BAR-LE-DUC (1554-1660). La Fortification 

Demonstree et Reduicte en Art . 1600, 

(a) 2nd. edition, revenue et augmente, Paris: (Jean Messanger) 

a la Roe Blanche ru St. Jacques, 1604, 

(b) Enlarged edition, 1620, 

(112) 1601 JACQUES PERRET DE CHAMBERY. Pes Fortifications et Artifices. 

Architecture et Perspective . Paris, ibui. 

(a) German edition. Etlicher Festungern Staett. Kirchen. 

Schloesser, und~"Hacus er v:ie .lie auirs starlcsto, zier- 
licnste urv: oequemste koennen pebawet O'-'er auirgerlcfltet 
weraen . i. in. de Hry. ed fr'ranKi urt , WGZj 

(b) architectura et Persnectiva; des Fortifications et Artifices . 

l-ranKiurt-am-Mam: % Kicnter, lt>02 e 

(c) Brinckmann, Albert Erich (b. 1877). "Franzoesische Ideal- 

stadte urn 1600 und 1800," Per Staedte-bau. 1909, pp 9 158-9. 

(113) 1615 VINCENZO SCAMOZZI (1552-1616). L'idea della Architettvua 

Universale . Venetiis, 1615. 

(a) De ll 'idea della Architettura Universale di Vicenzo Scamozzl . 

Vehezia: G. Albrizzi, 1714. 

(b) L'idea dell 'Architettura Universale . Stefano Ticozzi, ed. 

Milano, 1838. 

(c) Microfilm, University of California, Berkeley. 


Part lis IV-B-D, 114-120 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(114) 1619 JOHANN VALENTIN ANDREE (1585-1654). Christianonolis . 

Strassburg, 1619. 

(a) Held, Felix Emil, ed. New York, 1916. Illus. (See pp. 688- 

(b) Abercrombie, Patrick (1879-1957). "Christianopolis, Ideal 

City," Town Planning Review. 8 (April, 1920), pp. 99-104. 

(c) Lavedan, Histoire de l'Urbanisme (16), vol. 2, p. 26. 

(d) Tunnard, The City of Man (29), pp. 52-53. Illus. 

(115) 1623 TOMMASO CAMPANELLA (1568-1639). Ci vitas So lis . Frankfurt, 


(a) "City of the Sun," in The Quest for Utopia, edited by Glenn 

Negly and J, Max FatricK. wew iorK: nenry Schuman, 1952. 
See pp. 313-348. 

(b) Firpo, Luigi. Riccrche Campanelliane . Firenze: G. C. Sansoni, 

A bio-bibliographical compendium of works by an on 

C. Other Ideal Cities 

(116) 1482 LEONE BATTISTA ALBERTI (1404-1172). De Re Aedificatoria , 


(a) English edition by James Leoni. London: Thos. Edlin. 1739. 
See Vol. I, pp. 63-75; vol. n, pp. 22-23; Vol. IV. 

(117) 1516 SIR. THOMAS MOPE (1478-1535). Utopia . Leyden, 1516. M 

Many editions exist in English e Describes regional relation- 
ships and social relationships, but is not explicit about the 
form of the city. 

(118) 1570 ANDREA TALLADIO (1518-1580). I Quatro Iibri dell'Archite- 

ttura . Venice: Dominicode Francescm, it>'/0. 

(a) English edition by Giocomo Leoni, with notes and remarks 
by Inigo Jones. London, 1742. See pp. 78-79, 95. 

D. The Model Spanish Colonial City 

In 1573 King Philip (reign, 1556-98) revised the original "Laws of 
the Indes" of 1523 and issued detailed ordinances concerning the layout, 
protection and beauty of the colonial towns founded in America. The 
plan was in the Greco-Roman-Bastide tradition with a grid-iron plan and 
central plaza, in this case surrounded by the church, the government 
hall and two other important buildings. 

(119) Nuttall, Zelia. "Royal Ordinances Concerning the Laying Out of 

New Towns," Hispanic American Historical Review, 4 (1921), 

pp. 743-753. a 

Translations of the original laws (Archivo Nacional Madrid, 
ms 3017, Bulas y Cedulas para el Gobierno de las Indias). 
(Correction in same journal, vol, 5, no. 2 (1922). 

(120) Leipziger, Hugo. The Architectonic City in the Americas . Austin: 

University of Texas iress, ly<±4. fc>d pp. illus. and maps. 
Interesting nhotos an J maps of pre-Columbian and early 
Snanish towns and ruins. 



Part II: IV-D to V-A, 121-125-f CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(121) Smith, Robert C. "Colonial Towns of Spanish an J Portuguese 

America," Journal of the Society of architectural Historians, 

14 (Dec, lybis), pp. s-is. 

Discussion of the origin and geographical extent of the 
grid-iron model in the Americas. Footnotes. 

(122) Stanislawslci, "Early Spanish Town Planning in the New World," 

Geographical Review ^63-e) 

(123) Violich, Francis. Cities of Latin America . Now York: Reinhold 

Publishing Corp., ±y<±4. *<±i pp. 

Little on the origin of the model, but much detail on 
physical description, its influence an:l geographical extent. 

(124) Lavedan, Histoire de l'Urbanisme (16), vol. 2, pp. 469-473. 


A. Reactions to the Industrial Revolution 

Arranged by date. After 1750 the development of an increasingly 
industrial society greatly changed the requirements of urban design. 
The factory and its ^relation to the rest of the rest of the town was of 
special importance in the plan. Even more important was the general 
consideration of a better way of life for the urban dweller, now 
increasingly dependent upon these larger industries. During this 
formative period, largely isolated individuals found no single solution 
to the common problem they perceived, and in most cases the physical 

?lans were not influential although their social criticism is a major 
oundation for continuing Utopian thought. The movement for housing 
reform also began in this period. 

(125) 1793 CLAUDE-NICOLAS LEDOUX (1736-1806) 

■While in prison 'Airing the French revolution, Ledoux 
developed an ideal scheme for a salt factory town. He chose 
a central plan with the factory as its focus. At the edges, 
instead of a wall, the public buildings and residences blend 
xvith the countryside, forming an early garden city, part of 
this scheme was actually built, but now lies in ruins. 

(a) Ledoux. L' Architecture Consirieree sous le Rapport de 

I'ari. de Noeurs ot 31 "la Legis la tion . Written in 
1793)1 Paris, 1804. 

(b) Rame», D., ed. Paris: Lenoir, 1847. 

(c) Microfilm, Society of Architectural Historians. 

(d) Kaufmann, Emil (1891-1953). Von Ledoux bis Le Corbusier: 

Ur sprung und Entwicklung dor ^.utonencnarchitektur, 
wien anc Leipzig: Veriag dr. Roll' Passer, 1933. 64 pp. 
Illus. and plans. 

Stre- ses the architectural aspects of Ledoux' plans. 


(e) . "Three Revolutionary Architects," Transactions of 

the American ^hilcsophical Society, 42:5 (1952), 

pp. 474—557. 

Briefly describes Ledoux' plan. Bibliography. 

(f) Lavallet-Haug, Genevieve. Clauae-Nicolas Ledoux . Paris 

and Strassbourg: Librarie istra, iyo4. XSE pp. Illus. 


Part II: V-A, 125-g to 126-1 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(g) Lavedan, H istoire io l<Urbanisme i (16), vol. 2, pp. 246- 
248 • 

(h) Raval, Marcel, an- J. Ch. Moreux. Claude-Nicolas Ladoux, 
Arcnitecte du Ro i. Paris: Arts et Metiers lirapniques, 
±y<±t>. <.±<l pp. iiTus. and maps. 
Bibliography, pp„ 243-245; 

(i) Zevi, Storia dell'architettura mederna (31), pp. 603-604. 

(126) 1808 FRANCOIS MARIE CHARLES FOURIER (1772-1837) 

Fourier, a social scientist and reformer, presented several 
different physical plans for his comprehensive, socially revo- 
lutionary schemes for an ideal community. In one scheme all 
members lived in a single huge palace, called a "Phalanstery," 
architecturally very like Versaille. In another scheme, "la 
ville du Garatisme," there were three concentric rings of 
activities: at the center, commercial and administrative; then, 
the industrial; finally, the agricultural. Fourier's social 
philosophy was very influential and many voluntary communities, 
including the famous Brook Farm, endeavored to follow his 
precepts. Only one of these, started by Go^in Steel Cgmpany 
used his physical scheme. No thorough account of his influence 
related to city planning is available in English. 

(a) Fourier, The'orie des Quatro Mouvements et des Destinies 

Generales, loua. 
Here he advocates a cooperative organization of society 
into "phalansteries," each one large enough to allow for 
industrial an! social needs of the group. 

(b) . Traite de 1 'Association Domestique-Agricole . 1822. 

2 vols^ 

(c) . Le Nouveau Monde Industriel et Socie'taire . Paris, 

1829 . 2 Volg. 

Flan and perspective of the phalanstere. 

(d) . Thdorie de 1' Unite* Universelle . Paris, 1841. 

(e) . Oeuvres Completes . Taris, 1841-1848. 6 vols. 

(f) . Citc*s Ouvrieres, Des Modificati ons a* Intro duir e dans 

l'Arclirte cturd de Villas , j-aris 1 , 18-*9„ 

(g) Bauer, Catherine. Modern Housing . Cambridge, Mass.: Hougton- 

Mifflin, 1934. 351 pp. illus. 

Good brief coverage of the 19th. Century idealists and 
their relation to the planning movement. See p. 73. 

(h) Considerant, Victor Trosner (1808-1893). Description du 

phalanstere et Considerations Sociales sur l'i>rcnitec"ton- 
lque . i J ans, lb4b. 

' ' * ' 

(i) . Exposition Abregce du Systeme Phalansterien de 

Fourier , i-aris; iaprairie : naianstenenne, 1840. JJ.4 pp« 

(j) • la Destinoe Social . Paris, 1851. 4th. ed, 2 vols. 

(k) Encyclopedia cf the Social Sciences . (7), vol. 6, pp. 402- 
±U4 353 Dioiiograpny» 

(1) Lavedan, Histoire de l'Urbanisme, (17), vol. 3, pp. 76-81. 
The mos t valuable ijuimnary of ' Fo urier's scheme and his 


Part II: V-A, 126-m to 127-1 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(m) Mumford, Culture of Cities (20), p. 393. 

(n) Purdom, The Building of Satellite Towns (22), p. 39. 

(127) 1817 ROBERT C«EN (1776-1858) 

Between 1813 and 1825 Owen was extremely active in public and 
industrial life in England in order to promote his solution for 
the masses of unemployed urban workers. His scheme consisted in 
moving them to a small town of limited population in which the 
residences and workshops formed a large central square where 
common facilities, schools, kitchens etc, were located. larger 
industry and agriculture took place outside the town enclosure. 
Owen's plan influenced many social idealists of the day, and 
after 1835 Oven went to the united States and founded several 
communities himself. Cwen wrote a good deal, and often repub- 
lished similar material under various titles. 

(a) Owen, Report to the Committee of the Association for the 

jtell gr of gag Poor , staagcur; 1817. 

(1) Republished as: A New View of Society, or Essays on the 
Forma ti on of t he Human Ch aracter . London. 1818. 8b pp. 

(2) Also published as: "New View of Society," Collected 
Papers . vol. 2, of the BJorrarhy ,, London, 1858. 3b8 pp. 

This contains a complete physical description, 
detailed financial proposals, and a drawing of his 

(b) . Report to the County of Lanark. Glasgow, 1821. 

— HerUbllghed in Collected pacers, v 2. of Biography . 
London, 1858. 
Similar to the above description, but briefer. 
(See p. 283-4). 

(c) Ashworth, The Genesis of Modern British Town Planning (2), 

pp. 120-I2TI 

(d) Bauer, Modern Housing (126-g), pp. 68-73. 

A brief description of Owen's ideal town and his relation 
to legislation for the poor of his time. 

(e) Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences . 

(f) Harvey, Rowland Hill (1889-1943). Robert Owen. Social 

Id ealist s Berkeley: University or uaiirornia press, 1949. 
269 pp. Bibliography, pp. 251-63. 

(g) Lavedan, H istorie de l»Urbanisme < .(17). vol. 3, pp. 81-84. 

(h) Mumford, Culture of Cities (20), pp. 392-393. 

(i) Podmore, Frank. Robert Owen . London and New York: Hutchinson 
& Co., 1906, 1919, ±9Jd4, 1926. 688 p. Illus. 

Biography, without special emphasis on physical plan. 

(j) Purdom, The Garden City . (21), pp. 5-6. 

(k) "Owen's proposed Model Town of Harmony", Garden City , 1 
(Feb., 1906), pp. 16-18. 

(1) The National Library of Wales, A Bibliography of Robert Owen . 
London: Humphry Milford, 1925. 90 pp. 
A very useful bibliography on a very confusing subject. 


Part II: V-A, 128 to 130-a CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(128) 1840 ETIENNE CABET (1788-1856) 

Cabet was a political radical and was exiled from France 
(1834-39) for his articles. Under the influence of Cwen, he went 
to the United States and in 1849 founded a Utopian community. 
His book Icaria. though primarily politically and economically 
oriented suggests a large city like Paris, but "rationalized" 
to a grid-iron pattern with two large circular boulevards. He 
proposed separation of pedestrian and wheeled traffic and the 
isolation of heavy industry out of the city. His social ideas 
influenced the socio-political nature of American Utopian 
communities but not their physical schemes. 

(a) Cabet, Voyage et adventures de Dodr Villiam Carisdall en 

Ic arie, traduit de l| angla is de Francis Adams (pseud. J 
par T h. Duiriut . Paris: H, Souverain, 104U. '< vols, in one. 
(iTTc yage en Icarie . Paris: Au Bureau du Populaire, 
IB46, 1848. 600 p, 
For physical description, see 20-2. 

(b) Colonie Icarienne aux Etats-Unis d'Amerique. Sa 

Constitution, ses lois, sa situation materielle et' morale 
au pres le premier semestre maa . Paris t cnez l'auteur, 
janvier ibbt>. <:5y pp. 

(c) Bauer, Modern Housing . (126-g). p. 74 

(d) Encyclopedia of Social Sciences . 

(e) Lavedan, Higtoire de lHlrbanisme >(17) T vol, 3, pp. 84-88. 

Paris 19411 

The most complete description of Cabet 1 s physical plan 
and its influences. 


Morgan and a group of Anglican clergy proposed a village scheme 
physically similar to Owen's also for the unemployed lower 
classes, out based on a very strict Anglican morality. 

(a) Morgan, Letters to a Clergyman on Institutions for Ameliora- 

ting the condition 61~tno" people . itKtb. 

(b) The Christian Commonwealth. London: Longman, Brown, 

Green and Longmans, 1849. ibi p. Illus, and plan. 

(c) Ashworth, Modern British Town Planning . (2), pp. 123-125. 

Shows tne relation or Morgan to wen and Buckingham. 

(130) 1848 JAMES SILK BUCKINGHAM (1786-1855) 

A traveler and lecturer, Buckingham wrote widely of his many 
trips, and was a vigorous idealist and advocate of free trade and 
temperance. His scheme for "Victoria" was of a central type, 
remarkably similar to that of the Renaissance Andree in plan. 
Aside from the physical plan, his proposal included a moral and 
social scheme with a financial system designed to create and to 
support the proposed community. The idea of a practical 
financial scneme was to have influence on Howard, although no 
"Victoria" was ever started. 

(a) Buckingham, National Evils and Practical Remedies, -with a 
Plan for a Model Town . London: P, Jackson, late Wisher, 
son and Co. 1849. bl2 p, Illus, 


part IIj V-A, 130-b to 133-b CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(b) Abercrombie. Patrick. "Victoria. Ideal City," Town P lanning 

Review, 9 (Mar, 1921), pp. 15-20. Illus. and pTaHs": 

(c) Ashworth, Modern British Town Planning (2), pp. 124-126. 

(d) Bauer, Modern Housing (126-g), pp. 74-77. 

(e) Purdom, The Garden Cit y. (21). pp. 9-13. 

(f) , The Building of Satellite Towns (22), p. 39. 

(g) Sharp, Thomas (b. 1901). "The English Tradition in the Town 

II, Hell. Utopia, and Middlesburg," Architectural Review. 

79 (Jan.; 1936), pp. 21-24. ' 

Brief description of "Victoria". 

(h) Stewart, A Prospect of Cities .(26), pp. 168-173. 

(i) Turner, Ralph Edmund (b. 1893). James Silk Buckingham, a 
social biography . London: Williams and Northgate, 1934. 
465 p. Illus. 

See p. 435-441. Bibliography p. 445-458. 

(j) "Model town of James Silk Buckingham," Garden CitVj l (Mar., 
1906), p, 33. 

(131) 1871 JULES VERNE (1828-1905) 

Verne was a French novelist who inaugurated a new school of 
fiction, basing stories on technological innovations and progress. 
In this case he wrote of an ideal town very much like present day 
fine suburban areas. 

(a) Verne, Les cinq cent millions de la Begum . Paris: J, Hetzel 

et cie, id7i. IBb p. 

English translation, Works of Jules Verne, ed. Charles 
F. Home. New York: R. Tyler Daniel Co., 1911, Vol. 11. 

(b) Benot-Levy, George. "An Ideal City," House Beautiful . 53 

(Feb., 1§23), pp. 160, 208. *' 


Richardson was an English physician and sanitary reformer. 

(a) Richardson. Dr. Benjamin ward. Hvgeia: A City of Health . 

London: Macmillan & Co. 1876. 

(b) Purdom, The Garden City (21), pp. 12-14. 

(133) 1888 EDWARD BELLAMY (1850-1898) 

Bellamy was an American novelist, social theorist and leader 
in the American Nationalist movement. His extremely popular book, 
"Looking Backward," describing a small socialist town was a direct 
influence on Howard. 

(a) Bellamy, Looking Backward, 2000-1887 . Boston: Ticknor & Co. 

1888 . 4 70 pp. ^ i - s 

For physical description of his town see p. 27. 

(b) Equality. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1897. 412 pp. 

See p. 2 9 1-5 . 


Part lit V-A, 133-c to 135-d CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(c) Morgan, Arthur Ernest (b.1878). E dward Bellamy . New York: 

Columbia: University Press, 1954 . ^ Series: Columbia 
Studies in American Culture no. 15). 463 pp. 

(d) Purdom, The Building of Satellite Towns . (22). p. 27. 

(134) 1891 WILLIAM MORRIS (1834-1896) 

English poet, prominent socialist, and leader in the 
decorative arts. He fiercely denounced the late Victorian town 
and wanted to restore the gardens, the fields and also the 
manual arts to their true position in the lives of men and 
society. His influence on the town planning movement was 
indirect, striking at the roots of contemporary self-satisfaction. 

(a) Morris, ^illiam. News from Nowhere . London: Reeves & Turner, 

1891. 278 pp. 

Describes his Utopian town, p. 24-5, 75-6, 80-1. 

(b) Ashworth, M odern British Term Planning . (2), pp. 170-172. 

(c) Clutton-Brock, A. William Morris: His work and Influence . 

London, 1914. 

(d) Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 11, p. 21. 

(e) Morns, May. William Morris. Artist, Writer Socialist . 2 vols. 

Vol. 2 contains reprints of relevant articles. See pp. 

(f) Purdom, The Garden City . (21). 

(135) 1898 SIR EBENEZER HOWARD (1850-1928) 

An English shorthand reporter and social reformer, founder of 
the Garden City Movement. His single, short book has been and 
continues to be the basic thinking" for a large segment of the 
modern planning movement. He proposed a small concentric city 
of limited population surrounded by a permanent "Green belt" of 
agricultural land. Towns of this type were to form a satellite 
relation to the larger English cities, to help guide population 

frowth away from the "too congested" large cities. This scheme 
or the Garden City has had influence in at least five spheres: 
1) The analysis and logical placement of urban functions within 
a city, 2) The division of the town into residential units, each 
having a population required for one elementary school, 3) The 
use or a schematic presentation to communicate the basic idea of 
the plan, 4) The ideal character of a town combining city and 
country, 5) The regional control of population growth into urban 
and non-urban areas. 

(a) Howard, Tomorrow. A Peaceful Path or Real Reform ' 1898. 

(1) rteprintcd as GardorT Cities of T'-mrrrow . London: Faber 
and Faber Ltd, 19U2, 194t>. iy4b edition Ed. and 
Preface by F.J, Osborn, with introductory essay by 
lewis Mumford. 

(b) , Domestic Industry as it Might Be . London, 1906. 

Pamphlet . 

Explanation of his idea of cooperative house-keeping. 

(c) Ashworth, Modern British Town Planning (2), pp. 141-142, 

and footnotes. 

(d) Bauer, Modern Housing (126-g), pp. 110-113. 




Part II: V-A-B, 135-e to 140 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(e) Eden, W« A. "Studies in Urban Theory II: Ebenezer Howard 

and the Garden City Movement." Town planning Review, 19 
(Summer, 1947), pp. 123-43. ~ 

(f) Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture (10), pp. 508-511. 

(g) Lavedan, Histoire de l«Urbanisme (17), vol. 3, pp. 145-153. 

(h) Macfayden, Dugald. Sir Ebenezer H ow ard, and the Town 

Planning Movemen t,, Manchester University press. 1855 . 
IBB pp. iiius. and plans. 

A personal history of Howard and other men active in the 

movement . 

(i) Mumford, Culture of Cities - (20), pp. 396-400. 

(j) Osborn, Frederick James. "The Garden City Movement, Reaffir- 
mation of the Validity of Howard's Idea," landscape 
Architecture. 36 (Jan., 1946), pp. 43-54. 

(k) . "The Country-belt Principle, Its Historical Origin," 

Town and Country Planning , 13 (Spring, 1947), pp. 17-8. 

(1) Purdom, The Garden City (21), pp. 17-27. 

(m) , The Building of Satellite Towns. (22), pp. 25-29. 

(n) Zevi, Stcria dell'architettura moderna. (31) . 

For bibliography on the Garden Uity Movement pp. 579-80. 

B. Utopias in New lands 

During the 19th century there was an urge to create new 
communities and a better way of life, and this opportunity was 
available for many people in the virgin lands ana forests on 
the continents of America, Australia and New Zealand. A rich 
literature is available to describe the main interest of these 
communities, that is, the new social, political and economic 
ways of life they were attempting to achieve. Few experiments 
however, were based on the importance of physical planning and 
carrying out any specific form of physical arrangement. 

General References 

(136) Calverton, Victor Francis, where Angels Dared to Tread . New York: 

Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1941. obi pp. 
Concerned mainly with the economic aspects of the socialist 
and communist Utopian colonies established in many parts of 
the U.S. 

(137) "Early Cooperative Communities in the United States," G arden City. 

(July, 1506) 1, pp. 130-131. 

(138) Hinds, William Alfred. American Communities . Oneida, N.Y. : Office 

of the American Socialist, 1878, 176 pp. 

Quite a complete list of Utopian communities, with brief 
descriptions of each. No emphasis on physical design. 

(139) Holloway, Mark. Heavens on Earth. Utopian Communities in America 

1680-1880 . New York: Library Publishers, 1951. ZW pp. 
Bibliography pp. 232-234. 

(140) Nordhoff, Charles (1830-1901). The Communistic Societies of the 

United States . New York? Harper & Bro,, 187b. 4oy pp. 

Numerous engravings showing the character of communities. 








Part II: V-B-C, 141-151 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(141) Thwaites, R.G. ed. E arly Western Travels . Cleveland: Arthur H. 

Clark Co.. 1905. 32-Voli; 

See Bullock, w. "Sketch of a Journey through the Western 
States of North America.", Vol. 19, p. 140. 

Specific Communities 

(142) Francis, Emerick K. (b. 1906). In Search of Utopia, the Mennonites 

in Manatoba . Glencoe, 111.: Free Press, 1956. 294 pp. 

(143) Huntington, Charles White. Enclaves of Single tax, peine a 

" ?ether wiT h - 

Warren, I9'4l, 

Compendium of the Legal Documents Involved. Together wITh a 
"Historical" Description . Harvard, Mass. : Fisk T 
5 vols. 

On the principles of single-tax economies with examples 
Contains the not unusual physical plan of Montoliu for 
Fairhope . 

John Buonarotti Papworth, Architect ro the King of H 

Architectural Review. 79 (June, 1936), pp. 279-81. 

Contains a brief account of papworth »s utopia, "] 

(144) "John Buonarotti^Papworth^ Architecture- the King of Wurtemburg," 


(a) Giedion, S pace, Time and Architecture (10), pp. 682-688. 

(145) linn, William Alexander (1856-1917). The Story of the Mormons. 

from the date of their Origin to the" year 191U . Now Yorki 
McMillan Co., 1902. 6o7 pp. y " 3 ~ 

The history of ideal ana individuals with little emphasis on 

physical plan* See p. 228, 

(146) Montoliu, C "Fairhope (a single tax colony), a town planning 

scheme for its development into an organic city," American City . 
24 (April, 1921), pp. 355-359. Illus. and plan. 

(a) Garden Cities and Town Planning. 11 (July, 1921) pp. 162-166. 
Illus. and plan. 
Detailed plan and philosophical background for a city. 

(147) Nelson, Lowry (b. 1893). The Mormon Village; A Pattern and 

Technique of land Settlement . Salt lake Cityi University of Utah, 

1952. «J96 pp. Maps and air photos. 

Detailed descriptions of the origins and spread of the "City of 
Zion" concept among the Mormons. See p. 34, Bibliography, pp. 
c87— &91. 

C, An Ideal City in Australia 

The plan of Adelaide by E.G. Wakefield is of great importance 
as an early example of the use of a green belt around a city. It 
became especially famous in Howard's book. (135-a) 

(148) Wakefield, Edward Gibbon (1796-1862). A letter From Sydney, the 

Ionization . 

(a) Another Edition. London and Toronto: J#M. Dent and Sons. Ltd. 
New York; E.P. Dutton & Co., 1929. 

See p. 159 for reference to physical plan. 

(149) . A View of the Art of Colonization . London: J.W. Parker, 1849. 

513 p; ______ 

(150) Adelaide, City of. Official Illustrated Guide . Adelaide: Goodwin and 

Co., 1906. 216 pp. illus. ana maps. 

(151) Bennett, J.F. Historical and Descriptive , Account of South Australia . 

London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1843. 








Part n : V~C, 152-155 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(152) Garnett, Richard (1835-1906). Edward Gibbon Wakefield. The 

Colonization of South Australia and Mew Zealand . London : T.F. 
Ifawin, 1898. 376 pp. Illus. and maps. 

(153) Hodder, Edwin. The History of South Australia . London; Amson, Low, 

Marston & Co., lbyo. 

(154) Purdom, The Building of Satellite Tovms (22), p. 38. 

(155) Worsnop, Thomas. History of the City of Adelaide . Adelaide: J, 

Filliams, 1878. 457 pp. Map. 


Part III: I-A, 156-158 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 



The concentric ideal form describes that in which the various func- 
tions are separated from each other and arranged in concentric rings. 
Commonly this arrangement specifically requires the central area to be 
commercial-civic, surrounded by residential, then by industrial functions. 
This chapter has been divided into three sections because of three fundi- 
mentally different approaches to the scale of the town or city. 

A. Small Concentric Cities . 

Many of these ideal cities are based on the desire to maintain, or 
restore to some degree traditional pre-industrial social values which it 
is believed would be acheived by a small population in a small town, 
Although few are specific about the exact form, most assume residential 
areas with a commercial and civic area at the center. Most of the 
idealists who believe in the values of the small town, however, have 
become interested in regional plans or cellular cities which would theor- 
etically provide this kind of development within the framework of modern 
urbanizing population. 

(156) RALPH ADAMS CRAM (1863-1942) 

Cram was an American architect who felt the cure for the evils 
of modern industrial civilization should be based on small towns 
with their possibilities of close personal relationships. 

(a) Cram, Ralph Adams, Walled Towns . Boston: Marshall Jones Co., 

1919. 105 p. 

Proposal for a small town of medieval scale. 

(157) ARTHUR ERNEST MORGAN (b. 1875) 

Morgan is an American civil engineer, ex-president of 
Antioch College and chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority 
(1933-38). He has written much on the positive human values 
resulting from life in a small community. He uses the word 
planning to apply to the planning of social inter-action in such 
a community. Of his many works, few are specific about a 
physical plan. 

(a) Morgan, The Small Community. Foundation of Democratic Life . 

e'd. Baker Brownell. Hew York: Harper & Bro., 19^2. 312 p. 
Little on physical plan, see p. 121-39. 

(b) , Industries for Small Communities: with Cases from 

Yellow Springs . Yellow Springs, Ohio: Community Service. 
19b&, 107 p. 

Problems and possibilities of various types of 
industries in a small town. 

(c) , The Community of the Future arid the Future of the 

Community !, Yellow Springs. Ohio: Community Service. Inc.. 
1957. XBB p. 

(158) PRUNO TAUT (b. 1880) 

Taut was an architect active in the rationalist movement in 
Germany in the 1920 is. He was active in the housing movement, 
and contributed to the ^erkbund Exhibition in Stuttgart in 1927. 
He wrote a series of books illustrating the expressionist 
movement in German architecture and planning. 


Part III: I-A-B, 158-a to 161-a CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 
(a) Taut, Die Aufloesungder Staodte. oder Die Erde eine gute 

L p. 

Verlag, 1920. 

lirty Utopian diagrams of a highly imaginative and 
vague type, which express his and others' ideal cities. 

(b) ^asmuth, Lexikon Per Baukunst ,, Berlin, 1929. See p. 511. 

(c) Zevi, Storia dell'architettura moderna (SI), p. 608. 

B. Cellular Concentric Cities . 

In this group the assumption is made that cities will be large, but 
it is hoped by many that the neighborhood unit, which is emphasized to a 
greater or lesser degree, will achieve a small scale of the parts of the 
city. In actual fact, the neighborhood unit for residential areas has 
become an axiom for planning, whether or not it is supported by desire 
for social integration, and usually the concentric scheme is accepted. 
This section consists in writings of the individuals who have contributed 
most to the development of the neighborhood idea, its fulfillment in three 
dimensional form, and many who were active in the housing movement. 
Historically, Howard has been of fundamental influence on this group. 

(159) ALVAR AALTO (b. 1898). 

Aalto is &» Finish architect,. .and leader in the organic move- 
ment in Scandanavia. i Although he has done housing projects, has 
not written much about planning. 

(a) Aalto, An Experimental Town. Cambridge: Massachusetts 

Institute or Technology, 1940 . 

(b) Zevi, Storia dell'architettura moderna (10) 

(c) Walker, R. New Pencil Points. 23 (June, 1942), p. 42 for 


(160) THOMAS ADAMS (1871-1940) 

Adams was a British architect and specialist in town planning. 
He was active in the Garden City Movement, and secretary of the 
Association 1900-6. After years of private practice and public 
service in England, he became town planning advisor in Canada 
(1914-21). He was later director of the Regional Plan of New 
York and its environs (1922-30) and then professor at Harvard 
University. He was a prolific writer on all aspects of planning 
and translated the neighborhood unit idea into master plans for 
many communities. 

(a) Adams, Design of Residential Areas: Basic Considerations , 

P rinciples and Methods . Cambridge. Mass.: Harvard 
University Press, 1934, 296 p. Illus. and plans. (Series: 
Harvard City Planning Studies, Vol* 6.) 

Clear presentation of the neighborhood, and its relation 

to the metropolis. 

(b) Kimball,, Manual of Information (12). 

The best bibliographical material on Adams. 

(161) ADOLF ABEL (b. 1882) 

Abel is professor emeritus in architecture and city planning 
at the Munich Technische Hochschule. 

(a) Abel, Reparation der Staedte. des Villea. of Towns . Zurich: 
Verlag fuer Architektur, 1950. 

Typical concentric cellular scheme, see p. 50-68. 


- . • 




Part III: I-B, 162-166 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(162) CAROL ARONOVICI (1881-1958) 

Born in Romania, Aronovici came to the United States and 
became very active in public agencies for housing and social 
welfare. He was a consultant in city planning and created 
master plans for many cities. 

(a) Aronovici, ed. "Housing and Town Planning." Annals of the 

American Academy of Political and Social Science , ol (1914) , 
<£yb p. 
Contains articles by Unwin, Olmstead, Aronovici, etc, 

(b) , Community Building . Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday & 

Co! Inc. 1956. 554 p. 

Emphasizes the need for small comprehensible units within 
the city. 

(c) Kimball, Manual of Information . (12) 

Best bibliographical material f 

(163) GASTON BARDET (b. 1907) 

Bardet is a distin^ 
public and professional agencies. He wrote numerous books 

or most of Aronovici »s 

Bardet is a distinguished French town planner, active in 
lie and professional agencies. He wrote 
during the 40s and 50s. 

(a) Bardet, Pierre sur Pierre. Construction du nouvel Urbanisme . 
v Paris: Edition L.C.B, 1946. 

Part VI gives his ideal based on "scientific knowledge 

of community structure and requirements of individuals". 

He proposes the "echelon patrarchal'of 5-10 families; 

"echelon domestique", of 50-150 families, and "echelon 

paroissal", the "neighborhood". 

(164) HENRY STERN CHURCHILL (b. 1893) 

Churchill is an American architect active in private practice 
and also in many housing groups and agencies 1930 »s he was 
consultant to the U.S. Housing Authority. 

(a) Churchill 

sions . _ 
Consideration of physical and financial enviroment. 

(b) , The Citv is the People . New York* Reynal and Hitchcock, 

1945. 186 p. 

Proposes flexible neighborhood boundaries. 

(c) , "Space, Time and People," Building for Modern Man. A 

Symposium , ed. Thomas H. Croighton. Princeton: Princeton 
University Press, 1949. p. 219. 


(a) Gloeden, Erich. Die Inflation der Gross-staedte und ihre 
HeilungsmoulicHk"eit . Berlin; "Per Zirkel". architektur 

Verlag GMBH, 1§23T"64 p. Illus. 
Proposes reuniting work and r 
fifteen minute walking radius. 

(166) WALTER GROPIUS (b. 1883) 

Proposes reuniting work and residence in cells with 
" xeen minute wait " 

Grooius is a German architect who became head of the Bauhaus 
(1919-28). During this time he was also very active in the 
German housing movement and he contributed to the Werkbund 
Exhibit in Stuttgart in 1927. In the thirties unfavorable 


Part III: I-B, 166-a to 172~a CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

political climate forced his move to England, and from there he 
was called t6 the United States to become the Head of the 
Harvard Graduate School of Design. During the 1940 's he pub- 
lished many papers on community development and New Towns. 

(a) Gropius, and Wagner Martin. "Program for City Reconstruction," 

Architectural Forum. 79 (July 1943), pp. 75-86. 

Recommends the establishment of new small townships with 
accompanying industry to house the excess population, 
and provide new employment. 

(b) ■■ ■, Rebuilding Our Communities . Chicago: Paul Theobald & 
Co., 194b. 61 p. Ilius. 

Similar ideas to the above. 

(c) , "Organic Neighborhood Planning," Housing and Town and 

Country Planning . Bulletin No. 2, U.N. Itept. o±" social 
Affairs, April 1949. pp. 2-5. 

(d) •■■ ' . The Scope of To t al Architecture . New York: Harper Bro., 

1955. las p. ^series: 'vorid perspectives, Vol. 3 e ) 
For chapter on organic neighborhood planning see p. 99-167. 

(e) Ashton, Dore. "A Talk With Gropius," Art Digest. 26 (Jan. 1, 

1952}, pp. 7-8, 24. F V 

A chatty biography. 

(f ) Cook, Ruth V. Walter Gropius. a bibliography 1919-1950. 

Chicago: American Institute of Architects. 

(g) Giedion, Sigfied. falter Gropius . New York: Reinhold, 1954, 

249 p. Illus. and plans. 

The biography of Gronius stressing his importance in 
interpreting the -industrial revolution in terms of 
architecture. Only a small section covers his ideas of 
organic planning. 

(h) Zevi . S toria dell'architettura modern a . (31) . pp. 132-41, 
490- 4, 59d~bU. ^ FK ' 

(167) GUTKIND (See no. 219) 


(a) Herrey, Hermann, and Herry, Erna, and Pertzoff, Constantin. 
"An Organic Theory of City Planning," Architectural Forum f 
April, 1944. 

(169) HILBERSHEIMER (See no. 220) 

(170) HOWARD (See no. 135) 


(a) Humbert, la Ciudad Hexagonal . Buernos Aires: Vasco Ekin, 

S.R.l',^944. 89 pp. 

Humbert combines a hexagonal street pattern with large 
sized blocks so that all city functions are located 
within these blocks. 

(b) , "A Hexagonal layout for cities," Traffic Engineering. 

16 (April, 1946). 

(c) Tunnard, City of Man . (29), p. 67. 


(a) Leberton, la Cite* Naturelle t Racherche d'un Urbanisme 
Humain . Paris: Editions Paul Dupont, 1945. 177 pp. 
A typical cellular concentric scheme. 

28 p. 

Part III j I-B, 173 to 177- j 

CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(173) IE CORBUSIER (See no. 192) 

See schemes for Bogota, 1950; Boesiger, Vol. 5. pp. 42-7 
and pp. 116-163; and Chandigarh, 1950. 

(174) MARS (See no. 222) 

(175) MAY (See no. 231) 


McKensie is an American sociologist who developed a theory 
describing the relations between urban functions called multiple 
nuclei, where each nucleus is the center of a different function. 

(a) McKenzie, The Metrop o litan Qoimminity . New York: McGraw- 
Hill BookCo. Inc. 1933. 352 p, 
For his exposition of the multiple-nuclei concept, see 
pp. 191-4. 

(177) CLARENCE A. PERRY (1872-1944) 

While with the Russell Sage Foundation during the 1910 's and 
20 's, Perry wrote widely on school and community facilities and 

recreation. Later he became interested in housing, and wrote on 

problems of blighted areas. His main contribution was 
the detailed thinking out 

the deta 
neighborhood units. 










of the possibilities of planning for 

Perry, Wider Use of the School Plant . New York: Russell 
Sage Foundation, lyio. 523 pp. 

" — ■ . "The local Community as a Unit in the Planning of 
Urban Residential Areas," Urban Community , ed. American 
Sociological Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 

— ~> "Neighborhood and Community Planning," The Regional 
purvey^ of Mew York., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 

L929. Vol. 7., pp. 22-140. 
The classical description of the neighborhood. 

1959. ktui pp, Illus. 

See p. 
neighborhood unit idea. 

New York: Russell Sage 

busing for the Machine Age . 
J 1 pp. II 
-83 for the history and significance of the 


Dahir, James. The Neighborhood TMit Plan. Its Sproad anc 
Acceptance . New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1947. { 
A comprehensive bibliography to 1947, especially of 
U»S. sources. 

Englehardt, N.L. Jr. "School-Neighborhood Nucleus: Analysis 
of the Residential Community from the standpoint of 
Requirements of a modern Educational Program," Architec- 
tural Forum. 79 (Oct., 1943 \ pp. 88-90. 

Isaacs, Reginald. "The Neighborhood Theory," Journal of the 
American Institute of Planners , 14 (Spring, 1948), pp. Ib-23 
The major article questioning the validity of the 
neighborhood unit concept. 

Kimball. Manual of Information (12). 

Mumford, Lewis. "The Neighborhood and the Neighborhood Unit," 
Town planning Review, 24 (Jan.,, 1954), pp. 256-270. 

Rasmussen, Steen Eiler. "Neighborhood Planning," Town 
Planning Review. 26 (Jan., 1957), pp. 197-218. 



Part III: I-B, 178 to 182~c CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 


Reilly was director of the Liverpool School of Architecture 
from 1904-1933. He proposed a small neighborhood with 30-40 
families around a green space. 

(a) Rei31y, The Th eory and Practice of Architecture . London: V. 

Collancz Ltd , 1932. 144 p. 

(b) Scaffolding in the sky, a Semi-architectural Autobio- 
graphy . Iondon: (i. itoutledge and Son f 1958. 5b£ p 9 See 
Appendix la 

(c) -■■■■■■>. Architecture as a. Communal Art . London: B» T 8 Batsford, 

Ltdo. ±'or the Council i'or the Education in Appreciation of 
the physical Environment, 1944. 15 p. Ill us. 

(d) Wolf, Lawrence. The Reilly Plan: a new way of life . Intro. 

by Sir Charles Heilly. London: Niche lson and Watson. 1945. 
156 p. Illus. 
A description of Reilly »s scheme. 

(e) Architectural Review . 99 (June, 1946) 

Keview of the ^olf book, 

(179) LADISLAS SEGOE (b. 1894) 

Segoe was born in Hungary, came to the United States in 1921 
and worked as a planning consultant during the 1920 «s and 30 >s, 
doing master plans for many of large cities in all parts of the 
U.S. He was director of the Urbanism Committee of the National 
Resources Council from 1935-38. His book is one of the standard 
texts for planning in local government. 

(a) Segoe, Local Planning Administration . Chicago: Institute for 
Training in Municipal Administration, 1941, 1948. 337 pp. 
(Municipal Management Series). 

Assumes neighborhoods are useful to plan community 


(180) SERT (See no, 224) 

(181) STEIN (See no. 244) 

(182) SIR RAYMOND UNWIN (1863-1940) 

Unwin was an English architect, who in collaboration with 
Howard designed the first Garden City, Letchworth, He was very 
influential in establishing the character of the garden suburb 
and stressed the need for decentralization in his writings. 
During the 1920 «s he was active in various government housing 
offices, and became chief advisor to the Greater London Regional 
Planning Committee (1929-33). 

(a) Unwin. Town Planning in Practice, an introduction to the Art 

of Designing Cities and Suburbs . London: Fishcr-Unwin Ltd.. 
1909. 1914, 193 Z. 416 op. Illus. and plans. 

Includes complete plans for Letchworth & Hempstead 

Garden Suburb. 

(b) , Nothing Gained bv Overcrowding . London: P.S. King and 

Son, for Garden Cities and Town Planning Association, 
1918c 24 p. Illus. 

Includes Unwin 's scheme for city organization. 

(c) , "Scheme for a Satellite Town," Art Quarterly . 8 (1945). 






Part HI: I-B-C, 182-d to 185-a CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(d) Kimball. M anuel of Information (12). 

(e) Purdom. Garden Cities , (21) 

For plan of first Garden City see pp. 41-4. 

(f ) , The Building of Satellite Towns. (22) . 

See p. 458 for relation of Unwin to Howard in regional 

(183) HENRY WRIGHT (1878-1936) 

Wright was an American architect who worked with Stein and 
Mumfora on the Regional plan for New York State, 1926, and 
later was partner with Stein in the planning of Sunnyside and 
Radburn projects. He became a strong proponent of the super- 
block idea e In the 1930 »s he worked as a consultant to the 
Housing Division of the Public Works Administration. 

(a) Wright, "Regional planning," Survey Graphic. 10 (May, 1925). 

Entire Issue. 

(b) —-..and others. Report to the Commission on Housing and, 

Regional Planning to Governor Alfred gj Smith . 19ab» 

(c) — "Autobiography of Another Idea," We stern Architect. 

39^-40 (Sept., 1930). 

Discussion of the relation of the idea of Radburn to 

(d) , Rehousing Urban America . New York: Columbia University 

Press, 195b, 175 pp. Illus* and plans 

The superblock idea is developed and proposed for more 
wide-spread use. 

(e) Kimball. Manual of Information (12) 

(f) Mumford. lewis. "Henry Wright," Pencil Points . 17(Aug., 1936), 

A short tribute to Wright on his death. 

C# Large Concentric Cities 

The fundimental inspiration among these men is awareness, of and 
enthusiasm for technological change in transportation, materials, and in 
all aspects of life. Le Corbusier was one of the first to develope this 
concept fully, and he has been the greatest single influence among the 
idealists. The concentric. f orm with commorcial-civic functions in the 
center, surrounded by residential areas, remains the basic arrangement of 
functions in these schemes. 

(184) ERNEST W. BURGESS (b. 1886) 

Noted sociologist of the University of Chicago. 

(a) Burgess, Urban Areas . Chicago: University press, 1929. 
Analytical scheme describing various functions of the 
city thought to be found in concentric rings. 


A leader of the modern architectural movement in Brazil, 
which strickly applies the ideas of Le Corbusier. He was one 
of the original members of C.I. A.M. (Congres Internationaux 
d 'Architecture Moderne ) . 

(a) Costa, "Brasilia," Modulo (Rio de Janeiro), 3 (July, 1957). 
The entire issue is on the plans submitted for the 
competition for the new capital. The complete text and 
drawings of Costa's presentation is included. Portugese 
and German. 






Part III : I-C, 185-b to 188-d CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(b) Holford, Sir William Graham. "Brazilia, a new Capital City v 
for Brazil," Archite ct ural Review (London). 122 (Dec. ,1957), 
See many other arcnvtectural publications around these 
dates for other material. 

(186) ERNST ELGI (b. 1893) 

Egli is a Swiss architect and town planner. During the 20 »s 
he taught architecture in Vienna; during the 30 »s he was director 
of the Academy of Art in Istambul; during the 40 's he was lecturer 
at the Swiss Institute of Technology and became consultant in 
planning to Lebanon and in 1953 to turkey. 

(a) Egli, Climate and Town Districts. Consequences and Demands* 
Zuricn: venag ruer .architeKtur, iy;>±. 15b pp. mus. 
and plans. 

Starting from climitological data he shows that large 
structures in a park is the best way to plan. 

(187) NORMAN BEL GEDDES (b. 1893) 

Geddes is an American stage and industrial designer. He was 
designer of the General Motors Corporation building and exhibit 
Futurama at the "Tor Ids Fair 1938. Later he did the master plan 
for the city of Toledo. 

(a) Geddes, "City I960," Architectural Forum. 67 (July, 1937), 

pp. 57-62. Illus. 

Suggests further concentration of buildings supplied by 
three levels of circulation; pedestrian, auto and 

(b) , Magic Motorways . New York: Random House, 1940. 297 pp. 


Suggests that cities be built at automobile scale with 
huge buildings in huge blocks separated by two levels 
of streets on all sides. Contains photos of the 1938 
World's Fair Futurama. 

(188) VICTOR GRUEN (b. 1903) 

Gruen was born in Vienna, but came to the U.S. and has been 
active in private practice during the 1950 's. especially in the 
field of shopping centers. A great deal of the enthusiasm for 
busy pedestrian areas in downtown areas is a result of his 
enthusiastic speaking and writing. 

(a) Gruen, "Cityscape and landscape," Arts and Architecture. 

72 (Sept., 1955). 

General statement of the values of busy urban areas. 

(b) , A Gr ea ter F o rt forth Tomorrow . Fort ^orth, Texas: 

Greater ForE worth Planning (Joramittee, 1956, 31 pp. Illus. 
and plans. 

The plan which first presented a large urban area with 
an entirely pedestrian central business district. 

(c) — — , City Planning for the Year 2000, an address . Los 

Angeles: v. uruen ana. associates, ±i?t>b. 

presents his ideas for urban regions in the form of 
"clearly defined and separate nuclei for various 

(d) , "How to handle this Chaos of Congestion, this anarchy 

of Scatteration, " Architectural Forum. 104 (Sept., 1956), 
pp. 130-135. 

Development of the former ideas with diagrams. 



Part III: I-C, 189 to 192-b CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 


(a) Hebrard, and Andersen. Honrik Chrisian. Creation of a - j grld 

Center of Communication . Paris: Privately published, 1915. 
128" pp. 2 vol. Ltd. edr De Luxe. Illus. 
Grandiose scheme in' the beaux .arts style. ■ 

(b) Otlet, Paul. "Un Project Grandiouse de City Internationale," 

Pr iiaier Con gre s Inte rna tional, Union rie Villes et Commune a 
Beiges . Brwxelles: Union International des Villes, 1915, 
pp. 79-85. v 

(c) -■ , "The Foundations of World Society, and Need for an 

Intellectual and Civic Center of International Reconstruc- 
tion," Survey. Journal of Social ^ r ork. 41 (Feb., 1. 1919). 
pp. 598-601. 

(d) Sternfeld. H. "French comrades in America, No. 4. Jean 

Hebrard," Pencil Points . 13 (Feb., 1932), pp. 75-90, Illus. 

(190) LOUIS JUSTEMENT (b. 1891) 

Justement is an American architect active in private practice 
and member of the A.I.A. Committee on Urban Planning (1946-50). 

(a) Justement, New Cities for Old . New York: McGraw Hill, 1946. 
232 pp. Illus. 

(191) LOUIS KAHN (b. 1901) 

Kahn is an American architect who started the Architectural 
Research Group (1931-3) and was active in planning in Philadel- 
phia during the 1930 's as he continues to be today. During the 
40 »s he participated in the design of numerous housing projects. 

(a) Kahn, "City Center," Perspective 4, Yale Architectural 
Journal. 4 (1957). 

Reprinted, but not in full, Architectural Forum . 108 
(Mar., 1958). 


The importance of Le Corbusier in representing the spirit of 
the huge city composed of towers in a park cannot be overesti- 
mated. Actually he has proposed at least five different kinds of 
ideal cities at differenct times in his life, plus variations 
on these main ideas. Roughly his main ideas can be characterized 

1922 Une Ville Contemporaine, large concentric form (See 192-b) 

1930 Algeria, roadtown ribbon form (See 192-c). 

1933 La Ville Radieuse, parallel ribbon form (See 192-d). 

1945 ASCORAL, sectored ribbon form (See 192-h) 

1950 Chandighahr, cellular concentric form (See 192-1, vol.V) 

(a) Le Corbusier. V ers une Architecture Nouvelle . Paris: G. Cres 

et Cie, 1923, (Series: L'ttsprit Nouveau) 

(1) Trans. Etchelles, . Towards "a -New- Architecture . New York: 
Farren & Putnam, aiso London: rtodKer, J.y£7. 

(b) , Urbanisme . Paris: G. Cres et Cie, 1924. 284 p. Illus. 

(Series: L' Esprit Nouveau) 


Part III: I-C, 192~b to 192-m CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(1) Trans. Etchells, The City of Tomorrow and It s 
Planning . New YorSTTTayson ana UlarK, iy«i'/. Also 
Lonaon: Rodker, 1929. 301 pp. 

(2) The City of the Future . New York, 1930. 

(3) The City of Tomorrow . London, 1947. 

contains tne ramous description of the "Ville 
Contemporaine," towers in a park, etc. 

(c) — — . Precision sur un Etat Present de 1 'Architecture et 

de lTDrpanisme . raris; (j. ures et (Jie, lb>3U. 

Le cor busier' s South American lectures including 
development of the idea of the skyscraper roadtown. 

(d) . La Ville Radieuse; Elements d'une Doctrine d'Urban- 

isme pour l'Equlpement do la Civilisation wacTiiniste . 
Boulogne: Editions de I 1 Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, 
[1935], 344 pp. 

(e) . "Vertical Garden City," Architectural Review , 

60 (Jan., 1936). 

(f) . Sur les Qua tre Routes . Paris j Gillimard, 1941. 

(Series: Nouvelle Revue Francaiso). 

(1) Trans. Todd, The Four Routes . London: Dodson, 1947. 
207 pp. Illus. ' 

(g) • Le Chart e d' Athene s . Farisj plon, 1943. 

(1) Also Paris: Les Editiones de Minuit, 1957. 

Statement of the principles of urbanism formulated 
at the fourth Congres Internationaux d' Architecture 
Moderne (CIAM), in 1933, 

(h) , et. al. Les Trois Etablis seme nts Hu mains , Faris: 

Denoel, 1944. 27U pp. 

Report of the Assembly of Constructors for an Architec- 
tural Renovation (ASCORAL) edited by Le Corbusier. 

(i) . Propos d'Urbanisme . Paris: Bourrelier, 1946. 

(1) Trans. Entwhistle, Concerning Town Planning . New- 
Haven: Yale University iress, ±y-±b. IZ7 pp. Also 
London: Architectural Press. 

(j) • Maniere de Penser 1 ' Urban isme . Paris: Editions de 

1' Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, IS3B» 18-1 pp. 
Discusses the urbanism of CIAM. 

w (k) . Les Plan do Paris . 1956. 

(1) . Qeuvre Complete . Zurich: Girsberger. 

Vol. I, ed. Boesinger and Stonorov: 1910-29. 
Vol. II, ed. Boesinger: 1921-34. 
Vol. Ill, ed. Max Bill: 1934-38. 
Vol. IV, ed. Boesipner: 1938-46. 
Vol. V, ed. Boesinper: 1946-52. 

These valuable books contain everything but his 

literary works. 

(m) Bardet, Gaston. Pierre sur Pierre, Construction du Nouvel 
Urbanisme . Paris, la-io. 

SeeTart V for his critique of the radial city. 







Part III: I-C, 192-n to 195-a CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(n) Korn, History. Builds a. Tow n (13). 

One of the by st short interpretations of Le Corbusior's 
contribution to ideal cities. 

(o) Hudnut, J., et. al. Le Corbusier . Edited by Stame papadake. 
New York: Macmillan Co., 1950. 

A collection of articles on all facets of Le 
Corbusier's work. 

(p) Purdom, Building of Satellite Towns (22), pp. 14-18. 

(q) Stillman, Seymour. "Comparing Wight and Le Corbusier," 
Journal of A. I. A. . 9-10 (April-May, 1948). 

(r) Zevi, Storja _dell?architettura moderna (31). 

Excellent description Of XS ■CdrbUSle'T's influences on the 
modern movement. Contains the most complete bibliography 
available, pp. 594-7. 

(193) RICHARD NEUTRA (b. 1892) 

Neutra was born in Vienna, but came to the United States in 
the 1920 's to become a leader in the modern movement. He 
carries on an active practice, writes and lectures a great deal 
and is an active member of CIAM. In 1932 he created a project 
called "Rush City Reformed." 

(a) Neutra, Wie b aut America? Stuttgart: Verlag Julius Hoffman, 

1926. Vb pp. lllus, — — . , _. ^ ^ „ JA 
Contains drawings of his proposals for Rush City and 
analysis of American building methods. 

(b) . "Rush City Reformed," La Cite; Revue d'Architecture 

et dUlrbanisme (Brussels), lii (May, iyo4). 

(c) . "Rush City," U.S. A. Tomorrow, vol. 1, no, 2, 

pp. 8-14. . , . 

Brief and vague description. 

(d) Boesirper, ed. Richard Neutra . Zurich: Ginsberger, 1951, 

Contains his architectural plans and bibliography of 
his works, 

(e) Zevi, Storia dell»Architettura modema (31), pp. 486-490. 

(194) CHAUNCY THOMAS (1822-1889) 

(a) Thomas, The Crystal Button , 1891. 

(b) Negley, Glenn and J. Max Patrick, ed. The Quest for 

Utopia . New York; Harry Schuman, Inc», 195ki, p, 599. 
See pp c 81-107 for description of his Utopian city, 
including huge step-pyramid type apartment houses, 
two-level circulation and basement warehouses. 

(195) HERBERT GEORGE WELLS (1866-1946) 

Prolific English novelist, idealist, historian and author 
of scientific romances. 

(a) Wells, Anticipations of the Relation of Mechanical and 
ScicnfTllc i-rorress upon Human lale and Thought. 
Kev, ed. London: (Jhapman and Hall, Ltd., ±yu2. 342 pp. 
Describes the vast diffused urban areas of the future. 






Part ni» I-C to H-A, 195-b to 198-a CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(b) Wells, A Modern Utopia . London: Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 392 pp, 
See pp. 185-7, 209-10 for description of his city. 

(196) NORBERT WIENEB (b. 1394) 

Wiener is a professor of mathematics and an expert in cyberne- 

(a) Veiner, et al. "How can the U.S. Prepare for Atomic War?," 
Life. 24 (Dec. 18, 1950), pp. 77-85. plan. 
Description of a city with a 10-15 mile radius and a 
void center, all activities arranged along the 
circumference . 


The sectored ideal form is that in which the various functions are 
separated and arranged in a radial or star pattern. The purpose of this 
arrangement is to allow alternate sectors to be "open space", and to allow 
it to penetrate to the center of the city. 

A. Small Sectored Cities . 

The motives for small cities of a sectored type are similar to those 
of the concentric type. 


Edwards is a British architect, town planner and writer on 
subjects related to the visual arts, architecture and New Towns. 
In early articles he called for higher density development for 
new areas, instead of the contemporary suburban development. 
From 1919 to 1925 he was with the Housing Department for the 
Ministry of Health. In 1933 he founded the ^'Hundred New Towns 
Association", to urge the building of complete new terms indepen- 
dant of any metropolitan area, 

(a) Edwards, "A Criticism of the Garden City Movement," Town 
Planning Review. 4 (July, 1913), pp. 150-7. 

(b) — "'- . "A Further Criticism of the Garden City Movement", 

o. 312-318. 
for well-planned 

Town planning Review. 4 (Jan. 1914), pp. 312-318. 
Criticizes suburban spread and calls fc 

high density development. 

(c) , "A Model Town Designed for Traffic," Town Planning 

Review. 14 (May, 1930), pp. 31-41. 

Suggests a true pie-wedge form for the arrangement of 
functions . 

(d) , A Hundred New Towns for Britain . London; Simkin and 

Marshall, 1955, lyob. Also published in Design for Britain, 
No. 56, 1944. 

This is his detailed statement for the character of the 
New Towns he proposed. 

(e) Ashworth. Modern British Town Planning (2), pp. 197,222. 

(f) Purdom. The Building of Satellite Towns (22), p. 493. 


(a) Fritschj Die Stadt der Zukunft (Gartenstadt) . 1896. Also 
Leipzig: Hammer, ISIST. 


Part nix II- B, 199-203 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

B« Large Sectored Cities 

In large sectored cities the theoretical advantage of the scheme 
can be fulfilled; that is, the city can grow almost iridefinately while 
still retaining established relationships. Obviously this type merges 
with the regional city (See p. 47) 


As a young man, Blumenfeld worked with Adolf Loos, one of the 
founders of the modern architectural movement. During the 1930 's 
he worked with a large building trust in Moscow, and planned the 
towns of Vladimir and Vyatka, U.S.S.R. During the 191-0's he was 
research assistant to the Philadelphia Housing Authority. 

(a) Blumenfeld, "Theory of City Form, Past and Present," 

Journal of the Sopjety of Architectural, Historians, 8 
(July-Dec, 1949), pp. 7-16. 
Feels the star-shaped pattern to be a rationalization 
of the pattern now evolving in large cities. 

(200) RUDOLF EBERSTADT (1856-1922) 

Eberstadt was a German town -planner, writer on housing and 
planning laws and fighter against land speculation. 

(a) Eberstadt J Bruno Moehring: Richard "Petersen. Gross- Berlin ; 
ein Programm fuer die Plannunfr der neuzeitliche n Gross- 
stadt . Berlin; v/asmuth, pp. Maps and plans. 

(b) , Handbuch des "fohnongswesens und der T ' r ohn u ngsfra£e,« 

Juna, 191U, 192U. 

(201) HUGH FERRIS S (b. 1389) 

Ferriss is an American architect, famous primarily for his 
illustrations of architectural and engineering projects. 

(a) Ferriss, Metropolis of Tomorrow . New York: I. Washburn, 

1922, 19^9. 

Rather vague description of a vast sectored city, with 
huge skyscrapers in all parts. 

(b) , "Towards the Regional City," American City, 69 (Feb,, 

1954), pp. 9-10. 

(202) HOMER HOYT (b. 1896) 

Hoyt is an economist who specializes in- the analysis of 
urban areas and functions. 

(a) Hoyt, The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighborhoods 
in American uities. Washington, It. (J.: federal Housing 
Administration, iyo9. 

Hoyt suggests that uses originating near the city center 
tend to migrate from the center along established lines 
of transportation. 

(203) HENRY VAUGHN LANCHESTER (1863-1954) 

Lanchester was an English architect and town planner, advisor 
to the government on town planning in the, including 
the making of master plans for six Indian cities during the 
1910 «s and 20 's. Later he was active on various town planning 
and housing committees and was lecturer in civic design at 
University College. 


Part III: II-B to III-A, 203-a to 207-c CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(a) Lanchester, "Cause and Effect in the Modern City," XEansaSr. 

tians of, the Town. Panning Conference of the tt.T.fl.A. 
London, 1910. 232-6 po. 

Brief, not complete' explanation of his sectored diagram. 

(b) , "Plan Rationnel de Ville," Primier Congres Interna- 
tional. Union de Villes et Communes beiges . bruselles: 
Unions International des Villes, 1913. pp. 167-8. 

(c) . The Art of Town Planning . London: Chapman & Hall Ltd. 

1925, 213 pp. Plans. 

(204) ADOLF RADING (b. 1889) 

Rading was active in the rationalist architectural movement in 
Germany and contributed a design to the Werkbund Exhibition in 
Stuttgart in 1927. 

(a) , Tlatz. flaufcunst der NffV^sten, Zeit. 1927. 

Here he has a diagram showing the sectored city. 

(b) Purdom. The Building of Satellite Towns (22). p. 12. 

(c) Vollmer, Hans. All gem^ 

Thieme & Becker, ieii 
See Vol. 27, p. 54 


The brothers are Brazilian architects active in the modern 

(a) Roberto. "An Alternative "Ian for the New Capital City of 
Brazil," Eki sties. Housing arid Planning Abstracts. 6 
(Aug., 1958), pp. 58-82. Illus. 


(a) Sanders, and A. J. Rabuck. New City Patterns . Now York: 
Reinhold, 1916. 197 p. Illus. 

Carefully developed scheme for a pure sectored city. 

(207) FAUL "<0LF (b. 1879) 

Wolf is a prominent German architect and town planner who has 
designed many public buildings and housing projects. He was in 
charge of regional planning in Berlin (1914-1922). 

(a) Wolf , Staadtehanj Das Form problem der Stadt in Vergangeheit 
und 7,ukun f t - Leipzig: Klmkhardc St. Biermann, 1919. 224 pp. 
Illus . and plans. 

(b) , Fohnunr und Siedlung . lo.rUni ttasmuth, 1926 

(c) ^asmuths ' Ladkcn der rjaukunst ' (30) 


Many of the ideal cities of the ribbon form are more commonly 

described as lineal, but there are others which make various other internal 

arrangements of their functions. Obviously the main characteristic of 
this form is that it may expand in two directions. 

A. Lineal Ribbon Cities 

In these cities the road is taken as the main focus and all other 
functions are closely related to it in a single line. 














Part III: III-A, 208 to 213~h CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 


(a) Chambless, Roadtowfl . New York: Roadtovm press, 1910. 172 pp. 
Here the city as designed as a single continuous 
building following the transportation facilities through- 
out the countryside. Noiseless rapid transportation is 
in the celler, living and commercial activities on the 
roof. Industry is performed in the houses. 


(a) Freese, The Ten year Plan . London; Cecil Palmer, 1932. 

A plan for a new linear town to replace London. 

(b) Purdom, The Building of Satellite Towns (22), p. 485 

(210) MILO MILTON HASTINGS (b. 1884) 

American writer on agriculture, especially poultry. 

(a) Hastings, Tho Continuous House . Sunset, 1914. 

(b) , "The Continuous House," Journal of tho A.T.A .. 6 

(June, 1919), pp. 259-66. 


(a) Kern, and Charles Geschickter. "The New Town," Journal of 

the A.T.A. . 8 (Nov., 1920), Supplement pp. 1-8. Diagram. 

(b) — -~ The Supercity, a Planned rhvsjcal Equipment for City 

life . Washington. D.C.: 1924. 349 p. Illui. 


See plan for Algeria in Precision sur un Stat Present de 
1 'Architecture (192-c) and Boesinrer Vol. Z (192-1) 

(213) ARTURO SORIA Y MATA (1844-1920) 

Soria y Mata was a Spanish engineer, industrialist and writer, 
owner of a street car line and founder of the corporation Ciudad 
Lineal which built a suburb of Madrid following his ideal plans. 
He was the first to popularize the lineal city concept and was 
very active in promoting it internationally. 

(a) Soria y Mata, La Ciudad lineal . Madrid, 1894. 

(b) 9 n^a Ciudad Lineal," Revista de Urbanizacion . vol. 25. 

(c) •, Nueva arquitectura de los ciudades . Madrid; 1914. 

(d) , Las I-robleras social et le Citl lineaire. trans, 

Albert Simi, Madrid, 1919. 

Articles written 1883-92 and reprinted by H.G« Caste llo 
for the Project de Cite Lineaire Blege. 

(e) Collins, "Ciudad Lineal of Madrid," Journal of the Society of 

Architectural Historians > 18 (May, 1959), pp. 38-53. Illus. 

(f) Encyclopedia Ijhiyergal Illustrate. Madrid, 1927. 

See Vol. 57, pp. 549-bO for biography. 

(g) Gallion, The Urban Pattern (9). p. 375. 

(h) Gutkind. Edwin A. Revolution of Environment (219), vol. 2, 
pp. 294-6. 







Part III: III-A-B, 213-i to 215-b CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(i) Tunnard, City of Man (29), pp. 64-6 for biography and plan. 

(j) Wood, Edith Elmer. "The Spanish linear City," .Tmimal of -hho 
A.I.A.. 9 (May 1921), pp. 160-74. 

uontains discussion of the theoretical city, the actual 
suburb, with bibliographical references. 

B. Parallel Ribbon Cities 

In these cities the functions are separated and occur in parallel 
bands, thus the city is able to expand in two directions and maintain the 
same relationships between functions. 

(214) TONY GARNIER (1869-1948) 

Gamier was a French architect whose plan for an ideal "Cite 
Industrielle", separated the major functions into residential and 
industrial uses and allowed for growth of both functions as needed. 
He designed all aspects of the city including all the major types 
of structures. 

(a) Gamier ^ line Cite Industrielle. etude pour la construction 

de s villc s, Paris : A. Vincent. 1918. a vols, aa Edition . 
Paris: C.Ttfassin, 1939. 

The scheme was exhibited in 1901. 

(b) , Ies Grands Travaux de la Ville de IjvonSj etudes. 

pro.iets et travaux executes . Paris; C« Massin, 1925. 100 pp. 

(c) "Tribute to the Greatest of Town Planners," Architectural 

Review. 93 (April 1943). 

(d) Badovici, Jean. L'Oeuvre de Tonv Gami er. Paris: Editions 

Albert Morance; 1932. 1948. 

Good copy of the plan of the city showing details. 

(e) Gallion, Urban Pattern (9) pp. 384-6. 

(f) Giedion, Space. Time and , Architecture (10), pp. 689-694. 

(g) Korn, History Builds a Tow n (13), p. 3.36. 

(h) Purdom, The Building of Satellite Towns (22), p. 13. 

(i) Veronesi, Giulia. Tonv Gamier . Milan: 11 Balcone, 1948. 147 pp. 
Brief biography, also illustrations and bibliography. 

(j) Zevi, Storis dell'architettura moderna (31). pp. 102-1, 189-90. 

(215) M. GINSBURG 

Ginsburg was an architect and city planner who worked in Russia 
during the 1920 «s and 1930 «s. He was active in the construe tivist 
and rationalist movement and a founder of the S.A.S.S. group 
roughly translated: Society of Architects of the Cons true tivist, 
Socialists. He designed many public buildings and was planner 
for the city of Sebastopol. 

(a) Ginsburg, "Sotsialistichestaia Rekonstruktsiia Sushchest- 

vuiuschchikh Gorodov," (Socialist Reconstruction of 
Existing Cities), Reyoluitsiia i Kultura . 1 (1930), pp. 50-1. 
This entire issue is devoted to the discussion of the 
value of the "utopian" theories to Soviet city planning. 

(b) Blumenfeld, Hans. "Regional and City Planning in the Soviet 

Union," Task Magazine (New York), no. 3 (1942). 


snoid- I . . vno 

' . 


Part III: III-B-C, 215-c to 217-h CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(c) Lubetkin, Berthold. "Town and Landscape Planning in Soviet 

Russia," Architecture Association Journal. 1933. 

(1) Journal of the Town Planning Institute , 9 (Feb., 1933), 
pp. 69-7b. 

(d) Parkins, Maurice Frank. City Planning in Soviet Russia, with , 

an Interpretive _ Bib] i op rap hy. Chicago; Chicago University 
Tress, [19553. 257 pp., 

Brief mention of his architectural contributions. 

(e) Zevi, Storia doll'architettura moderna (31). 

(216) ALEXANDER KLEIN (b. 1879) 

Klein is an architect and town planner who worked in Russia 
and more recently has been active as a town planning consultant 
in Isreal. He is also professor and director of the Research 
Institute for Town Planning, Isreal Institute of Technology, 
Technion, Haifa. 

(a) Klein. "Man and Town," Technion Yearbook . New York: American 
Tecnnion Society, 6 (Sept. 194)) 

Contains Klein's proposal for a New Town, in which he 
uses a generally parallel form. 

(217) N.A. MILIUTIN 

Miliutin is a Russian town planner and professor. During the 
first five-year plan he designed a perfect parallel ribbon city for 
Stalingrad, and later for Magnitogorsk (which later was changed 
by May). The city was composed of parallel lines, with railway, 
industrial, green or open agricultural zones. 

(a) Miliutin, Stozporod . Moscow} 1930. 

(b) Blumenfeld, Hans. "Regional and City Planning in the Soviet 

Union," Task Mapazina, no. 3 (1942). 

(c) Gallion, The Urban Pattern (9), p. 383. 

(d) Gutkind, Creative Demobilisation (219-a), pp. 290-301. 

(e) Kampffmeyer, Hans. "Socialist Towns by N.A. Miliutin," 

Housing and Building Wohnen und bauen. Habitation et 
Construction (Habitation et Urbanisme T. Stuttgart: Inter- 
national federation for Housing and Town Planning, Jan., 
1932. Vol. 4. 

(f) Lubetkin, Bert old. "Recent Developments of Town Planning in 

the uTs.S.R.," Architectural Review, 71 (May, 1932), 
pp. 209-14. 

(g) parkins, City Planning in Spvj,et Russia (215-d), pp. 20-6. 

(h) Sharp, Thomas. Town Planning. Harmonisw^rth. Middlesex: 

Ponquin Books Ltd., 1940. 162 pp.'Illus. (See pp. 60-2). 

C. Sectored Ribbon Cities 

The sectored ribbon form came about in an effort to condense the 
dimensions of the city while maintaining the advantage of growth which the 
ribbon form provides. In some schemes a center is developed. 



Part III: III-C, 218 to 222~a CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(218) ASCORAL 

The Assembly of Constructors for an Architectural Renovation 
are a French sub-group of the CIAM (Congres International* d 'Arch- 
itecture Moderne). Ie Corbusier has been very active with this 

See Le Corbusier, et al. Les Trois Etablissments Humains (192-h) 

(219) EHW2H ANTON GUTKIND (b. 1886) 

Gutkind is an architect town planner recently at the University 
of Pennsylvania working on a history of city planning. 

(a) Gutkind, Creative Demobilization . Iondon t Kegan Paul, Trench, 

Trubner and Co. Ltd. 1943. Vol. 1 "Principles of National 
Planning" ; Vol. 2, "Case studies in National Planning". 

See pp. 260-90, for his description of merging of the 

"linear" and "concentric" cities. 

(b) — --, Revolution of Environment . London: Kegan Taul, Trench, 

Trubner and Co. Ltd., 1946. 

Fart I includes his ideal solution. Part two discusses 
examples of planning in laraguay, China and Russia, 
Excellent bibliography. 

(c) — r— , The Expanding Environment: the End of Pities and the 

Rise of Uornminlties . London? i'reedon Press } 1955. 

(d) — ~-, Community and Environment: a Discourse on Social 

Ecology . Tnnrinn. Watte, 19S5, 19.^4. 81 p. 


Hilbersheimer was active in the German movement for modern 
architecture and contributed to the rr erkbund Exhibition in Stutt- 
gart in 1927. Later he came to the United States and has been a 
professor at Illinois Institute of Technology. 

(a) Hilbersheimer, The New Citv . Chicago: Paul Theobald and Co., 

1944. 192 pp. Illus. 

Contains text and diagrams of his proposals. 

(b) , The New Regional Pattern . Chicago: Taul Theobald and 

Co., 1949. 197 pp. Illus. 

Contains fuller development of his scheme. 

(c) , The Nature of Cities . Chicago: Paul Theobald, and Co., 

1955, 286 pp. Illus. 

Contains additional description of his ideas and 
historical material. 


(a) Hillman, "Project for a Linear New Town' 1 Ekistjcs. Housing 
and Planning Abstracts f 4 (Nov., 1957), pp. 83-86. 

Originally published in The Architect's Journal, April 
4, 1957, and Community Planninr K^viow . Sept. t 1957 f 
pp. 136-40. 

(222) MARS 

The Modern Architecture Research Society was founded in 1937 
in England by a group of architects of the modern movement who 
wished to present a scheme for the rebuilding and replanning of 

(a) MRS, "An exposition of the MARS work," Architectural Review, 
83 (March, 1938), pp. 109-116. 


Part nil III-C, 222-b to 224-g CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(b) MARS, "A Master Plan for London," Architectural Review, 91 

(June, 1942), pp. 143-50. 

This is a detailed analysis and presentation of the 
overall concept of a hierarchy of neighborhood cells 
combined in linear form. The article also includes 
detailed plans for small areas. 

(c) Korn, History Builds the Town (13). 

Onetime cnairman or tne MARS group describes briefly its 
proposals . 

(d) , and Brian Hudsen. "Arthur Korn, 1891 to Present," 

Architecture Association Journal , 73 (Dec, 1957), pp. 116, 

(223) HANS BERNHARD REICHCF (b. 1899) 

(a) Reichow, Hans Bernhard. Organische StadtKaukunst, yon der 

Gross stadt aur Stadtlandschaft . Braunschweig: G. Westerinann, 
iy^d. 212 p. iiius. 
Contains a full development of his ideas in schematic and 
project form. (See p. 77) 

(224) JOSE LUIS SERT (b. 1902) 

Sert was born in Barcelona, and as a young man led the modern 
design group, active particularly in housing. Burins 1930 he 
worked for Le Corbusier, and continued his activity in the CIAM 
group. At the time of the Spanish Civil War he came to the 
United States anci started private practice. In the 1950's he was 
consultant for Bogota and for the Housing Division of United 
Nations. In 1953 he became Dean of the Harvard Graduate School of 

(a) Sert, Can Our Cities Survive ? Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard 

University I: ress, iy44. «it>9 pp. Illus. 
Mainly a statement of problems, with the neighborhood 
unit proposed as one part of the solution. 

(b) , "The Human Scale in City Planning," The New Architec- 
ture and City Planning, ed. Paul Zucker, New Xork: 

i miosopnicai library, 1944. 694 pp. (See pp. 392-413) 

( c ) — — and paul Wiener. "Brazil Builds a New City," Progressive 

Architecture. 27 (Sept., 1946), pp 52-74. 

(d) •, and Faul Wiener. "Urbanisme en Amerique du Sud," 

1 » Architecture d ' Au .jo urd ' hui , No. 33 (May, 1951). 
Four pilot plans Tor South American cities. 

(e) , and J. Tyrwhitt, Ernesto N» Rogers. The Heart of the 

City. Towards the Humanisation of Urban life . London: land 
Humphries, 19S2. IBS pp. Illus. (Series : (JIAM 8). 

(f ) , and Paul Wiener. "New Towns Integrate Recreation," 

Architectural Record. 115 (Jan,, 1954) 

Description or plans for Latin American Cities. 

(g) » "The Architect and the City," Architectural Forum. 102 

(April, 1955). 

Design for pedestrian scale in city centers. 


■ • 







■ ■ ■■• • • 

Part III: IV, 225 to 227~d CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 


Afocal cities have no absolute geometric pattern in the arrangement 
of their functions . They have in common the assumption of great use of 
modern methods of transportation, communications and technology. 

(225) BUCKMINSTER FULLER (b. 1895) 

Fuller is an American engineer and innovator. He has not 
sented ar~ 

in mobi] 
ure citie 

(a) Fuller, 

presented any exact plan for his city or region, but his inter- 
est in mobility and flexibility have important implications for 
future cities. 

Her, "Universal Architecture," T-Square (Philadelphia), 
2 (Feb., 1932), pp. 22-5, 34-4l. lllus. v 
See p, 40 for the relation between houses. 

(b) Fuller Research Foundation. Dymaxion Index. Bibliography 

and Published Items Regarding Dvmaxion . Forest Hills. 
n.i., iybo. 

(c) Goodman, Paul, and Percival Goodman. Communitas. Means of 

Livelihood and \ .ays of Life . Chicago i Chicago University 
Press, 1947. ISO pp c (See pp. 39-40). 

(d) McHale. John. "Buckminster Fuller," Architectural Review, 

120 (July, 1956), pp. 18-20. " 

(e) Mumford, Lewis. City Development. Studies in Disintegration 

an d Renewal . New lork: Harcourt, brace and (Jo 9 , iy4b. 

z®rw° ^ — 

Mumf or_d objects -to the idea of a movable single family 
house, (See pp« 61-83). 


Smithson, Alison and Peter. "The Cluster City," Architectural 

Review, 122 (November, 1957), p. 333. 

Attempt to develop a modern structure comparable to the 
complexities of the modern c ity. 

(227) FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT (1869-1959) 

Following in the tradition of American Utopian thinkers 
1tr right does not limit himself to the physical conditions of his 
ideal city, but suggests the political and economic conditions 
which should exist there as well. His physical proposals should 
be given careful consideration as his is the only fully developed 
scheme of the afocal type. Each dwelling has at least an acre 
of land and groups of similar types are arranged at varying 
distances from industry, market and cultural activities; yet all 
are made accessible by fine highways and air facilities. 

(a) Wright, The Disappearing City . New York: William Farquhar 

rays on, iya<:. yo pp. mus. 

A preliminary statement of the Broadacre City concept. 

(b) — --. " America Tomorrow," American Architect and Archi- 

tecture. 141 (May, 1932), pp. 15-17, 76. 

A statement of the principles of Broadacre City. 

(c) . "Broadacre City, a New Community Plan," Architectural 

Record, 77 (April, 1935) 

(d) . When Democracy Builds . Chicago: Chicago Uiiversity 

Press, iy4t>„ i<±u pp lllus. 

Expansion of the material in Disappearing City . 



Part III: UMT-A, 227-e to 230 CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(e) Wright, The l iving City; When Demo cr acy Bui lds. New York: 

HorizofT-r'ress* iysy. J * 

Expansion or (d), including his "usonian" ideas, plans 
of individual elements of the city, and a colored plan 
of "the city." 

(f) , and Brownell Baker. Architecture and Modern life . 

New York; Harper and Brotners, lyav, ssy_pp. 

A dialogue concerning Broadacre City (See pp. 273-337). 

(g) Stillman, Seymour. "Comparing ''right and Le Corbusier," 

Journal of the AIA. 9-10 (April-May, 1948) 


The ideal cities in this section all prescribe some type of definite 
arrangement of urban versus non-urban land within a region. There appear 
to be two basic types: (1) a dominant central city surrounded by others 
which are less important and (2) a scheme in which all cities are of equal 
importance «> Within each of these types there can be various arrangements 
of urban areas. 

A. Dominant Satellite Arrangements 

Certainly the most influential expression of this arrangement was 
described and diagramed by Howards Indeed, this concept of arrangement, 
a small more or less independent community around a major city, has been 
the basis for most urban planning and most national planning legislation 
since Howard's time. 


From the time he won first prize for the Dublin master plan 
in 1913, Abercrombie was one or the most active and respected 
town planners in England. He was a orofessor from 191o to 1946 
and cnief planner for at least 19 major town or regional plans, 
including the London and Greater London, two of the most impor- 
tant physical schemes of the 1940 's and 50 is. 

(a) Abercrombie, Town and Co u ntry Planning . New York: Henry 

Holt, and London : xnornton Hutterwcrth Ltd,, 1933 e 
255 pp Illus, 

(b) , and Forshaw. County of London Plan . London: Macraillan 

and Co., 1943. 18d pp Plans. 

(c) . Greater London Plan. 1944. London: His Majesty's 

Stationery oriice, ±y4t>. 220 pp. Plans. 

(d) Ashworth, Modern British Town Planning (2). 

(e) Holford. William. "Leslie P. Abercrombie, 1879-1957," Town 

Planning Review, 28 (July, 1957), pp» 81-84. 

(f) Kimball, Manual of Information (12). 

(229) HOWARD (See no. 135) 

(230) BENTON MACKAYE (1879-1951) 

MacKaye's work in regional planning began when he was research 
forester. U.S. Forest Service. He has continued throughout his 
life to be active in natural resources conservation, for economic 
and recreation purposes. He was planning consultant for many 
government agencies, including the T-.V.A., where he was concerned 
with the effectuation of the regional plan. 


Part III: V-A, 230-a to 233-c CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(a) MacKaye, "Regional Planning," Survey Graphic. (May, 1925) 
Mumford was editor of this collection oi articles by 
MacKaye, Stein, A. Bing, S. Chase, et al. 

(b) , R eport for Governor's Committee on , the Needs and Uses 

of Open Spaces. State of Mass., 1927. 

?lan to" establish a system of "levees" throughout the 

( c ) The New Expl oat ion . New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 

1928. Zdb pp. Ilius. and Map. 

For his discription of the groupings of villages around 
a main city, see p. 162 and diagram. 

(d) - — -, and lewis Mumford. "Regional Planning," Encyclopedia 

Britannic a. 14th. ed. 

(e) — — - -, Roundtable on Regi on alism . University of Virginia, 

Charlottesville: Institute oT public Affairs, July 6-11, 1931. 

(f ) — — , and Lewis Mumford. "Townless Highways for the Motorist 

and a Proposal for the Motor Age," Ha rper's Mag azine, 163 
(Aug., 1931), pp. 347-56. 

(g) Mumford, The Culture of Cities (20), see section on regionalism. 

(231) ERNST MAY (b. 1886) 

May was city architect of Frankfurt during the 1920 's and 
built one of the most famous rationalist housing developments in 
nearby Seimenstadt. During the 1930 's he worked as architect 
and city planner in Russia, where he is credited with introducing 
the idea of satellite nevf towns. During World War II he was 
active in planning in East Africa, and recently has returned to 
Hamburg as Professor of City planning. 

(a) May, "Villes Nouvelles en U.R.S.S.," La Cite*. 9 (July, 1931), 

pp. 229-91. 

(b) , "U'rbanisme en U.R.S.S.," La Cite. 10 (Jan., 1932), 

pp. 65-78. 

(c) Korn, History Builds a Town (13), p. 97. 

(d) Malcher, Martin. "Town Development in Soviet Russia." (215-d). 
(f) Zevi, Storia doll'architettura moderna . (51). pp. 164-73. 

(232) GROPIUS (See no. 166) 

(233) FREDERIC JAMES OSBORN (b. 1885) 

Osborn has been active in the Garden City Movement since its 
beginning. Along with Howard and others he founded the New Towns 
Group in 1918 which bought the land and built "'fer.vyn, and from 
1919-36 he was manager of the Corporation of Welwyn. In 1946 he 
was a member of the New Towns Committee, active in promoting 
national legislation for New Towns. 

(a) Osborn, New Towns after the r Jar . London: Dent, 1918, 1942. 

(b) — --, "Planning and the Countryside," Rebuilding Pritain. 

Series No. 8. 40 pp. 

(c) , "The Land and Planning," Rebuilding Britain. Series 

No. 7. 56 pp. 


Part III: V-A-B, 233-f to 238-* CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(d) . "The Garden City Movement, Reaffirmation of the 

Validity of Howard's Idea," landscape Architec t. 36 (Jan., 
1946), pp. 43-54. 

(e) , Green-Belt Cities, the British Contribution. London: 

Faber and i'aber, Ltd., 194b. 191 p. Illus and plans . 

Here Osborn describes the arrangement of satellite towns. 

(f ) Ashworth, Modern British Town Planning (2) 

(234) UNWIN (See no. 182) 

(235) ROBERT HABVEY WHITTEN (1873-1936) 

"Whitten was an American planning consultant and specialist in 
the financial and legal aspects of land development, During the 
1920 «s he made master and zoning plans for many American cities 
and during the 1930' s was consultant to the National Resources 
Planning Board, and the New York State planning Board. 

(a) Whitten, Regional Zoning . [Cleveland], 1923. 30 pp. 

(b) "urdom, The Building of Satellite Towns (22). For diagram, 

see p. 459. 

B. Dominant - Sectored Arrangements 

The idea for a dominant-sectored, or star arrangement, has developed 
from a rationalization of the patterns already developing in metropolitan 
areas. Urbanization has tended to project outward along main transportation 
routes, leaving, for a time, relatively less developed area between 
radiating lines. Perhaps the most important crystalization of the positive 
aspects of this plan is the Copenhagen Regional Plan, known as the "finger 
plan" . 

(236) BLUMENFELD (See no. 199) 

(237) ARTHUR COLEMAN COMEY (1886-1955) 

Comey started his work as a landscape architect in park 
planning and supervising. He then became active in city planning 
working for public agencies. Later he was a professor at Harvard 
University, and consultant to the T.V.A. He was a member of the 
Urbanism Committee of the National Resources Planning Board and 
consultant to various state and regional planning boards. 

(a) Comey, Regional Plannjn? Theory; a reply to the British 

Challan^e . Augusta, Me.; C.E. Nash and Son.. 19£5. 18 pp. 

(b) , and Max S. "fehrly. "planned Communities," Urban Plan- 

njng and Tand Policies , vol. 2 of the supplementary report 
of the Urbanism Committee to the National Resources 
Committee. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing 
Office, 1939. pp. 3-161. 


In 1948 the preliminary regional plan was published, called 
the "Finger Plan", in which urbanization is confined to the 
cachment areas of existing and proposed electified suburban 
railways radiating from the town center like the fingers of a hand. 


(b) — --, Greater Copenhagen Planning. Status . Copenhagen: 

Regional Planning Com- 


• ' 





Part III: V-B-C, 238~c to 243-b CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(c) Bang, Jorgen. "Report for Denmark. The City and its 

surroundings," international C^neross for Housing and 
Town Plannmr . Vienna. 1956 „ 412 p. 

For a description of the plan see pp. 73-4. 


The Detroit Metropolitan Area Regional Planning Commission made 
studies of alternative arrangements of possible future development 
of the metropolitan region in the years 1953-4. The alternative 
chosen was tne dominant sectored arrangement . 

(a) Detroit Metropolitan Area Regional Planning Commission, 

Annual Report 1954 . Detroit: Regional planning Comm., 1954. 

(b) . Satellite Dispersal Studv . Detroit: Regional Planning 

Commission, 1954.' 

(c) . land Use Plan for the Detroit Region . Detroit: 

Re gi onal Planning Commission, Aug., 1957. 

(240) AUGUST LOESCH (1906-1949) 

Loesch was a German economic geographer, who, following in the 
tradition of Crystaller, studied the economic forces causing the 
location of cities in a region. 

(a) Loesch, Die Raeumliche Ordnunr dnr T 7irtschaf t . Jena, 1940. 
Translated as The Economics of LocationT oy William H. 
Vfoglom, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1954. 519 pp. 

C. Equal-Clustered Arrangements . 

In this scheme cities remain individual units, separated by green 
areas of recreational or agricultural landj yet the group of cities are 
well united by transportation routes and usually form complementary 

(241) MACKAYE (See no. 230) 


(a) Netherlands Government Information Service, physical 
Planning in the Netherlands . The Hague, 1950. <d6 pp. 

(b) Glikson, Artur. Regional planning . and Development . Leiden: 
Ac 1 ?. Sijthoff, 195b. 1*0 pp. illus, maps, bibliography, 
p. 118. 

Six Lectures delivered at the Institute of Social Studies, 

The Hague, 1953. 

(243) ELIEL SAARINEN (1873-1950) 

Saarinen was well established as an architect in Finland, but 
came to the United States in the 1920 «s, where he continued' his 
work 'in "architecture, city planning :and- education. 

(a) Saarinen, "The *rt of Building Cities." The American 

Architect. 147 (Oct. 1935), pp. 12-20. Thotos and plans. 
Here he presents his idea for re-constructing present 
day cities in groups of small town units. 

(b) , The City, its Growth r its Decay f its Future. New York: 

Reinhold Publishing Co., 1943, 1945. 380 pp. Illus, and 


Part III: 7-C-D, 243-c to 245-a CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(c) Reid, Kenneth. "Eliel Saarinen, Master of Design," Pencil 
Fm n t fi, 17 (Sept., 1936), pp. 465-503. 
A Survey of his -work, including his ideal plans. 

(244) CLARENCE STEIN (b. 1382) See also no. 247. 

Stein is an American architect and city planner. He was 
chairmen of the Commission on Housing and Regional Planning for 
the State of New York, 1923-1926. He is most famous for his 
design (with H. Wright) of Radburn, No J. the first fully- 
developed scheme using open "Super-Blocks", surrounded By housing. 
During the 1930 's he was associated as consultant with all the 
"Green" cities, the New Towns of the United States. In the 1940 »s 
he was consultant for Kitimat, a new town in the forests of 
British Columbia. 

(a) Stein. "City Patterns, Past and Future," Npw Pencil Points. 
23 f June, 1942), pp. 52-6. Diagrams. — -™— -— ~* 
This is the most complete statement of his ideal arrange- 
ment of towns in a region. 

(b) , "Planning Technique and the London Plan," Amhitpntnral 

Rpvjpw, 96 (Sept.. 1944), pp. 79-30. 
Recommends smaller sized communities* 

(c) , "The City of the Future; A City of Neighborhoods," 

American City. 60 (Nov., 1945), pp B 123-4. 

A popularized presentation of his regional concept. 

(d) -, Toward New Towns for America. Liverpool: University of 

Liverpool Iress. ti^b pp. "" 

(1) 2nd, ed. New York: Reinhold, Publishing, Corpora- 
tion, 1957. 263 pp. 

His own story or the major site planning 
projects he designed. 

(e) , "Communities for the Good Life," Journal of the A. I. A . 

25 (July, 1956). 

(1) Reprinted in Apartments and Dormitories. F»W« 
Dodge Corporation, iyt>3., pp. ob~4i. 

(f) "Land Planning 's Man of Influence - Clarence S. Stein," 

House and Home, 9 (May, 1956 j. 

(g) Kimball, Manual of Information (12). 

D« Equal-Ribbon Arrangements 

In this arrangement cities remain as individual units, separated by 
green areas of recreational or agricultural land, but the group of cities 
is arranged in a particular directional pattern within the region. 

(245) HENRY FORD (1863-1947) 

Ford, the American automobile manufacturer, engineer and 
politician, proposed in 1922 that a string of small towns 75 
miles long be built, as part of a scheme to industrialize the 
Mississippi River. 

(a) Ford, M y Life , and Mv Work . New York: Doubleday, I 
Co., 19i«. BSsjpp. 

age and 

No direct reference to his ideas on regional planning, 
but interesting as background. 


Part Ilia V-D, 245~b to 247-f 

CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

(b) "The Greatest City," Survey. 47 (Feb., 11, 1922), pp. 764-5. 

A brief description oi the Muscle Shoals schemes. 

(c) Kimball, Manual of Information (12). 

(246) HILbEHSHEIMER (See no. 220) 


This is a plan for the redistribution of the population of 
New York State based on the premise that relatively isolated 
small centers are now technically and socially possible. (By 
Mackaye, H. ™right, C. Stein, Chairman) 





New York State Commission of Housing and Regional Planning 
(C. Stein, Chairman). Exhibit: Preliminary Studies of 
Jatur al Features and Ec onomic Develo pmen t of the State . 
(Catalogue of the Jixhibitionj. New York, 1925. 8 pp. 

. Re port of the Commission of Housing and Recional 

Planning to Governor Alfred 01. Smith,. May 7. 1926 . Albany. 
N.Y. : 1926. 82 p. Illus. 



ein, Clarence. "A Plan for the State of New York," The 
International Town Planning Conference Now York. 19257 
— i. 282-7. 

Clear statement of the policies of the plan. 

"Summary of the New York State Plan of 1926." Journal of the 
Town Planning Institute of Canada . (Dec . , 19257T 

MacKaye, The New Exploration (230-c), p. 43. 

'ord. Culture of Cities (20), pp. 308-9. 
Good description of the proposals, plus a diagram. 


Vitruvius' Ideal City Pattern 
(After Thomas Adams, t># 75) 

"ee no, 63 




CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

Part Four: INDEX 

This is a name index only. In entries with more than one 
number, underlined items refer to main citations and numbers 
in curves to a name placed in the outline for reference pur- 
poses but without citations to the author's works. 

Aalto, Alvar: 159 

Abel, Adolf: 161 

Abercrombie, Sir Leslie Patrick: 

114-b, 130~b, 228 
Adams, ■'"ThOmad: IT~64, 160 
Alberti, Leone Bavtistal 116 
Andersen, Hendrik Christian: 

An dree, Johann Valentin: 114 
Aristotle : 52 
Aronovici, Carol: 3, 162 
ASCORAL lee Assembly aftton- 

structors "f or an Architectural 

Ashton, Dore: 166-e 
Ashworth, Williams: 2, 127-c, 

129-c, 130-c, 134-b, 135-c, 

197-e, 228-d, 233-f 
Assembly of Constructors for an 

Architectural Penovation: (218) 
Aver lino, Antonio di ^etro; 

see Filarete 

Badovici, Jean: 214~d 

Baker, Brownell: 227-f 

Bang, Jorgen: 238-c 

Bardet, Gaston: 80, 163, 192-ro 

Bauer, Catherine ;~5. ^6-gT "T27-d. 

12&ic, 130-d. 135=d 

Bellamy, Edward: 133 
Belucci, Giovanni: 109 
Bennett, J. F. : 151 
Benot-Levy, George: 131~b 
Blumenfeld. Hans: 6, 199, 215-b . 

217— b, (236) 
Boasmger : 193-d 

Branckmann, Albert Ericni 81, 
112-c — ' 

Buckingham, James Silk: 130 
Burgess, Ernest W. : 184 

Cabet, Etienne: 128 
Calverton, Victor Francis: 136 
Campanella, Toramaso: 115 
Cataneo, Pietro: 102 
Chambless, Edgar: 203 
Churchill, Henry Stem: 164 
Clutton-Brock, A.: 134-c 
Collins: 213^e 
Coraey, Arthur Coleman: 237 
Considerant, Victor Prosper: 

Conway, uilliam Marin: 101-b 
Cook, Ruth V.: 166-f 
Costa, Lucio: 185 
Cram, Ralph Adams: 156 

Dahir, James: 177-e 

Da Vinci, Leonardo: 100 

De Bar-le-duc, Jean Errard: 111 

De Chambery, Jacques Ferret: 112 

De la Croix, Horst Max Albert: 82 

De Marchi Francesco: 110 

Detroit Metropolitan Area Regional 

Planning Commission: 239 
Dickinson, Robert Eric: 65, 66. 74, 
.75, 83 — — — 

Di Giorgio see Martini, Francesco 

di Giorgio 
Duerer, Albrecht: 101 

Ebert, *T.i 73 

Eberstadt, Bruno Moehring: 200 
Eden, r; A,: 135-e 
Edwards, Arthur Try s tan: 197 
Elgi, Ernst: 186 
Englehardt. N. L.: 177-f 
Erdmann, Martin: 33, 34 
Errard, Jean, de Ba"r-le~duc see 
De Bar— le-duc, Jean Errard "" — 

Ferriss, Hugh: 201 

Filarete: 98 

Fisher, Robert Moore: 8 

Fontana, Paolo: 99-b 

Fourier, Francois Marie Charles: 

Ford, Henry: 245 
Forshaw: 228-b 
Francis, Emerick K.: 142 
Freese, Stanley: 209 
Fritscn, Theodore: 198 
Fuller, Buckminster: 225 

Gallion, Arthur B. : 9, 213-g, 214-e, 

217-c ' 

Gardner, Porcy: 35 
Garnett, Richard: 152 
Gamier, Tony: 214 
Geddes, Norman Bel; 187 
Gerkan, Armin von: 36, 51-a, 52~a, 

54. 63-c 
Geschickter, Charles: 211 
Giedion, Sirfried: 10, 85, 98-d, 

100-b' 13 W. 16&-g7 , 214if ' 
Ginsburg, M. : 215 ' 
Glikson, Artur: 242-b 
Gloeden, Erich j 165 
Goltz, Colmar von der: 101-c 
Goodman, Paul: 11. 225-c 
Goodman, Percxvali n, <iz5~c 

Granger, Frank; 63~3~ 

Gropius. Walter: 166, (232) 

Gruen, Victor: 18B~"^ 

Gutkind, Erwin Anton: (167), 213-h, 

217-d, 219 \ >> * 



." : 



"■ . 

. - 



. • 



CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

Harvey, Rowland Hill: 127-f 
Hastings. Mile- Milton: 210 
Haverfield, Francis John; 37, 55 
Hebrard, Ernest M. j 189 — ' 
Held, Felix Boils 114-a 
Hermann, Karl Friedrick: 38 
Herrey, Hermann: 168 
Hilbersheimer, Ludwig: (169), 

220, (246) 
HiTTman: Mayer: 221 
Hinds, William Alfred: 138 
Hiorns, Frederick R. j 67 
Hodder, Edwin: 153 
Holford, Sir William Graham: 

185-b, 228-e 
HoTToway,~Iark": 139 
Howard, Sir Ebenezer: 135, (170), 


Hoyt, Homer: 202 
Hudnut, J.; 192-o 
Hudson, Brian: 222-d 
Humbert, Ricardo C: 171 
Huntington, Charles White: 143 

Miof, G. von: 101-d 
Isaacs, Reginald: 177-g 
Ittleson, Roslyn: 164~a 
Ivanka, Endre: 29, 52-b 

Jeanneret, Charles Edouard see 

Le Corbusier 

Jones, Arnold Hugh Martin: 40 
Jordan, R. F. : 86 
Justement, Louis: 190 

Kahn, Louis; 191 
Kampffmeyer, Hans: 217-e 
Kaurmann, Emil; 125-d. e 
Kern, Robert Russ: 2ll 
Kimball, Theodora: 12, 160-b, 

162-cJ 177-h, 182~ari83~e, 

228-f, 244-gJ 245-c 
Klein, Alexander: 2l6 
Kloeppel, Otto: 76 
Koetzsche, Rudolf: 77, 78 
Korn, Arthur: 13, 192Hi7~214-g, 

222-c, d, 231-c 

Ianchester, Henry Vaughn: 203 

Lang. S. : 14 

Lavallet-Haug, Genevieve: 125~f 

Iavedan. Pierre: 15, 16, 17, 41, 
56, 68, 87, 98-e7T.0I=e,-±L4-c, 
124, 125-gJ 126-1, 127-g, 128-4, 

Lazzareni, M. : 98-b 

Laberton, Jean: 172 

Le Corbusier: (173), 192, (212) 

Ledoux, Claude-Nicolas7l25 

Ieipziger, Hugo: 120 

Leoni, Giocomo: 118-a 

Leoni, James: 116-a 

Linn, William: 145 

Loesch, August: 240 

Lorini, Bonaiuto: 108 

Lubetkin, Berthold: 215-c, 217-f 

Iuigi, Firpo: 115-b 
Lupicmi, Antonio: 106 

Macfayden, Dugald: 135-h 

McHale, John: 225-d 

MacKaye. Benton: 250, (241), 247-e 

McKendrickj. Paul: "So 

McKenzie, Roderick Duncan: 176 

Mackowsky, Hans: 42, 57, 79 

McNamara, Katherine: 12 

Maggi, Girolamo: 104 — 

Maksiraovic, Branko: 18 

Malcher, Martin: 231-d 

MARS see Modern Architecture Re- 

Martiensson, Rex Distin: 43 

Martin, Roland: 44 

Martin, Wagner: 166-a 

Martini, Francesco di Giorgio: 99 

Mata. Arturo Soria y see Soria y 
Mata, Arturo 

Maul, A.: 88 

May, Ernst; (175). 231 

Miliutin, N. A.: 217~~" 

Modern Architecture Research 
Society: (174), 222 

Montoliu, C: 146 

More, Sir Thomas: 117 

Moreux, J. Ch, : 125-h 

Morgan, Arthur Ernest: 133-c. 157 

Morgan, John Minter: 129" 

Morgan, Morris Hicky: 63-b 

Morley, Henry: 103-a 

Morns, May: 134-e 

Morris, Wllliamj 134 

Muenter, Georg: 89 

Mumford, Lewis: 19, 20, 126-m, 
127-h, 135-i, 177-17 1.85-^ £25-e. 
230-d, f, g/247-f * ' 

Negly, Glenn: 115-a. 194-b 

Nelson, Lowrys i4y 

Netherlands Government Information 

Service : 242-a 
Neutra, Richard: 193 
New York State Commission on Housing 

and Regional Planning: 247 
Nordhoff, Charles: 140 
Nuttall, Zelia: 119 

Cettingen, W. von: 98-a 
Osborn, Frederick James: 135-.J, k, 
233 ■ "* — — * 

OtleT, Paul: 189-b.c 
Owen, Robert: 127 

Palis sy, Bernard: 103 
Palladio, Andrea: 118 
papini, Roberto: 99-c 
Parker, John Henry: 69 
Parkins, Maurice Frank: 215-d, 

217-gj 231-e ' 

Parsons, 'William Barclay: 90 
Patrick, J. Max: 115-a, 194-b 
Pertzofr, Constantlnl — 168=5 — 
Perret, Jacques see De Chambery, 

Jacques Perret "~~ "" 


Perry, Clarence A.s 
Peterson, Richard: 
Piccinato, L. : 91 
Plato: 50, 51 
Podmore,~TranTc: 127-i 
Polybius : 59 



Promls, Carlo: 99-a 
Purdom, C. B. : 21, 22, 126~n, 
127-4, 130-e, T? is£b, 133-d. 

i34-r; is5-i; m' 154, is2-e, f, 

192-p, 197-f, 264-b, 209-b/ 
214-h, 235-b 

Rabuck, A. J.: 206 

RadingJ Adolf: 204 

Ramee, D» : 125-b 

Rasmussen, Steen Eiler: 92, 177-1 . 

258— a, d 
Raval, Marce 1 : 12 5-h 
Reichow, Hans Bemhard: 223 
Reid, Kenneth: 243-c 
Reilly, Sir Charles Herbert: 178 
Reps, John William: 24 
Reiner, Thomas A* : 23 
Richardson, Dr. Benjamin Ward: 132 
Richter, Jean Paul: 100-a 
Roberto, Marcello: 205 
Roberto, Maurizio: 205 
Roberto, Milton: 205 
Robertson, Donaid S»: 45, 60 
Rogers, Ernesto N»: 223R; 
Rosenau, Helen: 65-f , 93 

Saarinen, Eliel: 243 
Sanders. Spencer Edward: 206 
Scamozzi, vincenzo: 113 
Schlosser, Julius Ritter von: 63-d. 

94 ' 

Segoe, Ladislas: 179 
Sert, Jose Luis: (180), 224 
Sharp, Thomas: 150-g, KITE 
Shickburgh, E* S7i 59 
Shillaber, Caroline: 70 
Smith, Robert C. : 121 
Smithson, Peter: 226 
Soria y lata, Arturo: 213 
Spreckle, Daniel: 107 
Stanislawski, Dan: 25. 46, 61, 

63-e, 71, 122 —* ' ' 

CPL Exchange Bibliography 10 

Stein.. Clarence: (181), 244, 247 

Sternfield, H. : 189-d 

Stewart, Cecil: 26, 51-b, 52~c, 72, 

Stiliman, Ssymour: 192-g, 227-e 

Sturgis, Russell: 27 

Styles, Frederick G. : 28 

Taut, Bruno; 158 
Thomas, Chauncy: 194 
Thwaites, R. G« : 141 
Tout, Thomas Frederick: 73 
Tunnard, Christopher: 2£, 114-d, 

171-c, 213-i 
Turner, Ralph Edmund: 130-i 
Tyrwhitt, J,: 224-e 

Uhwin, Sir Raymond: 182. (234) 

Vallentin, Antonina: 100~c 
Vasari, Giogiot 105 
Verne, Jules: 131 
Veronesi, Giulia: 214-i 
Violich, Francis: 123 
Vitruvius, Pollio: 63, (97) 
Vollmer, Hans: 204-5"^ 

Waetzoldt, WLlhelm Adolf: 101-f 
Wakefield, Edward Gibbon: 148, 149 

Ward-rerkins, J. Be: 62 

Wehrly, Max 3.: 237-b 
Wells, Herbert George: 195 
Ihitten, Robert Harvey: 235 
Wiener, Herberts 196 
Wiener, Paul: 224-c, d 
Wittkower, Rudolf: 96 
Wolf, Lawrence : l78~d 
Wolf, Taul: 207 
Wood, Edith Elmer: 213- j 
Worsnop, Thomas: 155 
Wright, Frank LLoyd: 227 
Wright, Henry: 183 
ftycheriey, R, E. : 47. 48. 49 

Zevi. Bruno: 31, 125-i, 135-n, 
158-c, 166-h, 192-r, 193-e, 
214- j, 215-e, 231-f ' 

Zucker, Paul: 224-b 

Reproduced by the Department of City and Regional Planning, University of 
California, Berkeley 4, California. June, 1959. 

Permission to reproduce this bibliography must be obtained from the 
originating library.