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Ideals and Standard 

The History of the University 
of lUinois Graduate School of 
Library and Information 
Science, 1893-1993 


Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2010 witii funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Ideals and Standards: 
The History of the University 
of lUinois Graduate School of 
Library and Information 
Science, 1893-1993 

© 1992 by The Board of Ihistees of the University of Illinois 
ISBN 0-87845-089-0 

Printed in the United States of America 
on acid-free paper 

Ideals and Siandards 








^HE ilLlNOlSl 

r ' ^" :c]!l 

Katharine Lucinda Sharp, 1865-1914 (has relief by Lorado Taft) 


Foreword i 

Leigh Estabrook * 

Introduction ii 

Walter Allen 

1 Remarkable Beginnings: 

The First Half Century of the 

Graduate School of Library 

AND Information Science 1 

Laurel Grotzinger 

2 The School's Third Quarter Century 
with an Addendum by 

Robert W. Oram 23 

Robert B. Downs 

3 The Fourth Quarter Century: 

A Personal Reminiscence 36 

Laivrence W. S. Auld 

4 A Place of Our Own: 

The School's Space 57 

Dale S. Montanelli 

5 The Library and Information Science Library 68 

Patricia Stenstrom 

6 To Become Well Trained and Well Educated: 
Technical Services Education at the Graduate 
School of Library and Information Science 81 

Kathryn Luther Henderson 

7 Services and Sources: 
Reference and Other Public 

Service Courses 115 

Christine Beserra and T^rry L Weech 

8 From Mechanization in Libraries to 
Information Transfer: 

Information Science Education AT Illinois 134 

Linda C. Smith 

9 Children and Youth Services: 

Education for Librarianship 157 

Mary E. Forbes 

10 Advanced Studies at Illinois 173 

F. W. Lancaster 

11 The Library Research Center 180 

Herbert Goldhor and Leigh Estabrook 

12 Spreading the Word: 

The Publications Program 187 

Donald W. Krummel 

13 Extension Teaching: 

A Century of Service 195 

Leslie Edmonds 

14 International Influences: 

People at Home and Abroad 203 

Selma K. Richardson and Bradford Wilson 

15 Minority Students at GSLIS: 

The Carnegie Experiment 222 

Terry Crowley 

16 The Library School Association 231 

Carol Bates Penka 

17 Beta Phi Mu: 

The Alpha Chapter 238 

Robert F Delzell 

Afterword 24 1 

Appendices 244 

Contributors 259 

Index 267 

List of Photos 

Frontispiece: Katharine Lucinda Sharp, 1865-1914 (has relief 
by Lorado Tkft) 

1. The First Class, 1893-94 

2. The First L.S. Room, Altgeld HaU, 1900 

3. The Class of 1900 - Junior Year 

4. The Class of 191 1 - Junior Year 

5. Library Club, December 1912 

6. The Senior Class, 1921 

7. Advanced Students, ca. 1929 

8. Summer Session Students, 1930 

9. Robert B. Downs and Class, 1947-48 

10. Herbert Goldhor and Buildings Class, late 1940s 

11. Corridor Outside L.S. Library, ca. 1948 

12. Library Science Library, ca. 1948 

13. Allerton Conference, early 1950s 

14. First Beta Phi Mu Initiation, 1948 

15. Rose Phelps and Student, early 1950s 

16. Frances Jenkins and Class, early 1950s 

17. Robert B. Downs and C. Walter Stone, late 1950s 

18. Public Ubrary Club, late 1950s 

19. Rose Phelps's Retirement, 1958 (seated L to r.: Bond, 
Phelps, Boyd; standing: Lancour, Downs, Wiles, Jenkins, 
Windsor, Lohrer, Stone) 

^ Ideals and Standards 

20. Faculty, 1955-56 (seated 1. to r.: Phelps» Hostetter, Eaton, 
Lohrer, Jenkins; standing: Jackson, Strout, Downs, Wiles, 
James, Lancour Goldstein) 

21. Harold Lancour, late 1950s 

22. Dewey Carroll, early 1960s 

23. Herbert Goldhor and Barbara Donagan (Publications), 

24. LS. 434 at Illinois State Library, mid-1960s (seated left, 
with pipe: Don Strout; seated right, from right: J. Clement 
Harrison, Jessie Carney Smith, Alice Norton) 

25. Alice Lohrer's Retirement, 1974 (1. to r.: Lewis Steig, Harold 
Lancour, Lohrer, Robert B. Downs, Herbert Goldhor) 

26. Faculty, 1966 (seated, 1. to r.: Conway, Schultz, Ladley, 
Lohrer, Jenkins; standing: Spence, Goldstein, Stevens, 
Downs, Goldhor, Field, Carroll, Henderson 

27. Faculty 1973-74 (seated, 1. to r.: Goldhor, W. Allen, Lohrer, 
Henderson, Wilkens, Bonn; standing: Stevens, Draper, 
Thomassen, Schlipf, Brown, Krummel, Divilbiss, Lancaster, 

28. Robert Bingham Downs, 1903-1991 

29. Altgeld Hall, site of the Ubrary School from 1897 to 1926 

30. Main Library, site of the Ubrary School from 1926 to 1979, 
and David Kinley Hall, site of the Library School from 
1979 to 1993 

31. Faculty 1992 (front: Smith, Estabrook, Henderson; middle: 
Sutton, Lancaster, Richardson, Bishop, B. Allen, Bradley, 
Davis; rear: Newby, Williams, Weech, Krummel) 

32. New site of the Library School ( 1993- ), formerly the 
Acacia House 


Leigh Estabrook 

Publication oi Ideals and Standards celebrates the centennial 
of the Graduate School of Library and Information Science 
in a special way. These collected essays provide a way 
for us to hold on to our history as the school faces an 
uncertain future. They reveal how much the School has 
always been involved in change and at the same time how 
much the practices of today are embedded in the work 
of our predecessors. 

It is fitting that we celebrate with a publication edited 
by Professors Emeritus Walter Allen, who taught for many 
years in the area of publishing, and Robert Delzell, long 
a member of the University Library faculty. Former directors 
of the School Robert Downs and Herbert Goldhor and 
many of the faculty and alumni are some of the most prolific 
writers in our field. The School's publishing program is 
long-standing and includes Library Trends, Occasional 
Papers, conference proceedings, and a monograph series. 

To those alumni, faculty, and students who read this 
book, thank you for your part in creating this history and 
in making the Graduate School of Library and Information 
Science excellent. Even the most quiet and unobtrusive 
student challenges a faculty member to think differently 
about how she or he teaches. Those who dissent force 
us to examine our assumptions. Those who are active in 
the School and the profession help us see our connections 
to one another and reaffirm our commitment to library 
and information science. 

This, then, is a family album— probably of greatest 
interest to its members, but enjoyable also, we hope, to 
others in our profession who may see, in this family, patterns 
similar to their own. 


Walter C. Allen 

In September 1893, a bold new program of instruction for 
service in libraries began at the Armour Institute of Technology 
in Chicago under the directorship of Katharine L. Sharp. 
After four years there, the rapidly developing school outgrew 
its original parent and moved to East Central Illinois, where, 
like the ubiquitous com, it grew and flourished. There have 
been several publications about various stages of the history 
of what is now known as the Graduate School of Library 
and Information Science of the University of Illinois at Urbana- 
Champaign. Ideals and Standards marks the centennial and 
takes quite a different direction from that of its predecessors. 

In 1943, the School issued the first volume in a sometime 
series called Illinois Contributions to Librarianship. Titled 
Fifty Years of Education for Librarianship, it was apparently 
edited by Carl M. White, then the University librarian and 
director of the School. It is a collection of brief essays, some 
delivered at a fiftieth anniversary dinner at the Urbana-Lincoln 
Hotel on March 2, 1943; the others were later contributions. 
While several essays (including pieces by C. C. Williamson, 
Phineas L. Windsor, Margaret Mann, and Frances Simpson) 
address the history and influence of the School, the others 
are on "subjects of general interest in the field, ranging from 
recruiting to international cooperation in education for 
librarianship" (White, 1943, p. x). 

Twenty-five years later, "the Graduate School of Library 
Science of the University of Illinois completed its first seventy- 
five years. ..A collection of reminiscences written by persons 
who had been affiliated with the School was chosen as an 
appropriate way to mark this noteworthy event.... From this 
collection of personal recollections there emerges a history 
of the first three quarters of a century of the.. School and 

Introduction ♦ iii 

the promise for continued achievement in the years ahead." 
So wrote Barbara Oisen Slanker (Ph.D. 70) in the Foreword 
of a volume entitled Reminiscences: Seventy-Five Years of 
a Library School (Slanker, 1969). It is a highly informative 
and often quite entertaining volume even today. 

Now, after another quarter century, the entire profession 
has been revolutionized, and the School with it. It was clear 
to the planners of the centennial celebration that a new 
publication was needed, not only to mark the occasion, but 
to put the new developments into the context of the School's 
total history. 

In late 1989, Dean Leigh Estabrook asked me to be the 
editor of the book At that time, I suggested that, not being 
an alumnus, it would be helpful to have a co-editor who 
was one, and I suggested Robert F. Delzell ('51), long a 
member of the University Library faculty, a frequent lecturer 
in the School, and close friend and colleague of many faculty 
members over a thirty-year span. I also requested that we 
form an editorial committee which became, formally, the 
centennial publication subcommittee of the centennial steering 
committee, of which I became a member. The other members 
of the subcommittee, or editorial committee, were Raymond 
Bial (79), librarian of Parkland College; Lynne Curry, assistant 
to the dean for publications; Dean Estabrook; Kathryn Luther 
Henderson ('57), professor in the School; Debra Park, assistant 
to the dean for research and development; and Patricia Stenstrom 
('57), associate professor and Library Science librarian at 
the University of Illinois. 

The editorial committee met first on March 29, 1990 
and began to develop a plan for the book. There was never 
any intention of producing a definitive history of the School; 
we leave that to some alumna or alumnus with an interest 
in education for librarianship and the role of the School 
in it. Rather, we decided to assemble a collection of relatively 
short pieces on the overall history and on a number of the 
School's major areas of interest and impact. We also intended 
that, where appropriate, these pieces try to portray something 

iv ♦ Ideals and Standards 

of the School's relationship to the profe^ion in general— 
past, present, and future. The specific topics were chosen 
by the editorial committee from the many ideas generated 
during its meetings and those of the steering committee, 
and from other alumni and faculty meetings. Finally, we decided 
to present a volume that would be of interest primarily to 
the School's nearly 5,000 living alumni, and secondarily to 
others interested in the history of the University, the School, 
the profession, education for librarianship, etc. We also decided 
to include a much larger number of photographs than did 
the earlier volumes. Had our funding permitted, we might 
have included many more. In fact, at one point we debated 
issuing a second volume, just of captioned photographs, but 
reluctantly had to shelve the idea because of costs. Maybe 
some day... 

The title we were leaning toward at first was Standards 
and Ideals, which is derived from the last words of the inscription 
on Katharine Sharp's memorial plaque which has hung for 
many years on the third floor of the Main Library. Professor 
Henderson suggested that we reverse the words to Ideals 
and Standards, on the grounds that it is rather difficult to 
design standards unless one has ideals on which to build 
them. Given Katharine Sharp's innate ideals and the dedication 
with which she pursued standards of excellence, it seemed 
to the committees to be an appropriate change. 

The keynote paper is by Laurel Grotzinger (MS '58, Hi.D. 
'64), \\iiose dissertation on Katharine Sharp led to the definitive 
biography of her and to several related pieces concerning 
Sharp and the early years of the School. We asked her to 
write a new piece covering the founding, the earliest years, 
the move to Urbana, and the years between the directorships 
of Sharp and Robert Downs. It is based primarily on a paper 
in Reminiscences (Slanker, 1969) and one in the Journal 
of Litn-ary History (Grotzinger, 1967). She emphasizes Katharine 
Sharp's dedication to "ideals and standards " and the efforts 
of later directors to meet and even exceed them. 

Introduction ♦ v 

In 1968, Dean Robert Bingham Downs contributed a 
short piece entitled "The School's Third Quarter Century" 
to Reminiscences. The piece had one rather serious flaw— 
Downs's excessive reticence about his own role in many 
of the events of the period. We asked Robert Oram ('50), 
who was closely associated with Downs for many years in 
the Library and very much aware of the School's activities, 
to rewrite the piece with this in mind. He suggested that 
we use the original article and that he provide a commentary 
which would highlight Dean Downs's own contributions. 

Larry Auld (Ph.D. '78) was variously a Ph.D. candidate, 
assistant to the director, assistant dean, and teaching faculty 
member over a span of sixteen years, until 1989. We asked 
him to write on the period since Reminiscences. While he 
was hampered by a family medical situation that prevented 
him from coming to campus to research the School's archives, 
he was able to contribute a personal memoir of the period, 
which the editors have supplemented slightly to bring some 
aspects of the piece up to early 1992. 

One of Dale Montanelli's responsibilities in her position 
in the University Library is facilities planning. As a graduate 
('82), she was thoroughly familiar with the School's housing 
situation in recent years, and we asked her to look into the 
earlier years as well. She writes of the original space in Altgeld 
Hall; the more spacious but later crowded areas of the "new" 
Main Library; the rather gloomy upper reaches of David Kinley 
Hall; and, finally, the prospect of a move, probably early in 
1993, to spacious new quarters in a remodeled fraternity 
house, conveniently located across the street from a popular 
graduate dormitory. 

Pat Stenstrom ('57) has been a mainstay of the University 
Library for many years, since 1980 as head of the Library 
and Information Science Library. She has a keen interest 
in history and a flair for research, so we asked her to write 
on the School's library fiacilities. She sketches the development 
of this special coUection from a few shelves to one of the 

vi ♦ Ideals and Standards 

largest and most comprehensive library and information science 
collections in the country. 

The next group of ch^ters focuses on the teaching programs 
of the School. Kathryn Luther Henderson is blessed with 
many talents, not the least of which is an extraordinary memory 
coupled with highly developed research techniques, a great 
deal of patience, and the ability to produce readable prose. 
She responded to our request with a fascinating account 
of the development of the technical services segment of 
the School's curriculum— a piece that is at once scholarly 
and informative, and, at the same time, interesting and amusing. 

Terry L Weech has long been identified with courses 
in reference and public documents services. He and his graduate 
assistant of 1991-92, Christine Bessera, trace the history of 
the School's teaching in these areas, and in closely related 
specialties, such as bibliography, library use instruction, and 
adult public services. 

During the course of attaining her master's degree at 
the School, Linda Smith ('72) found herself fascinated by 
information science. Five years and a Ph.D. later she returned 
to Urbana to teach and has been a key figure in the development 
of the School's program in the entire area. She contributes 
a fine review of the School's activities, starting with the pioneer 
efforts of Frances Briggs Jenkins in 1962. 

Student Mary Forbes ('92) did a great deal of research 
in our records to establish the origins of the School's work 
with children and young adults. Not surprisingly, concern 
for both public and school library services dates to the earliest 
days. It was decades before programs became truly professional 
and, again, the School was nationally prominent in its programs, 
not only in teaching but in research, publications, and extension 

Our most frequent flyer is Wilf Lancaster, whose skills 
are in constant demand all over the world. One of the most 
published and cited scholars in librarianship, he has spent 
incredible amounts of time in patiently guiding doctoral students 

Introduction ♦ vii 

in their search for and achievement of acceptable research 
papers and dissertations. What better person to sketch the 
history of post-masters programs in the School: the C.A.S., 
the Ph.D., the D.LS., and the Visiting Scholars program. 

Herbert Goldhor returned to campus from a ten-year 
stint in a public library to become the director of the School, 
the last to hold that position under the old arrangement, 
i.e., Robert Downs was dean of the Library and the School 
wiiile Dr Goldhor was the de facto head of the School. One 
of the major events of his tenure was the establishment of 
the Library Research Center, now internationally recognized 
for its contributions in many areas. Showing characteristic 
promptness, his paper was the first paper delivered to the 
editors. Dean Estabrook has added a few paragraphs to bring 
his report up to date. 

In a piece that can only be described as "vintage Donald 
Krummel," said professor writes of the School's multi-faceted 
publications program, vdiich continues to have a strong and 
lasting influence on many aspects of librarianship. Lists of 
the various series will be found in the appendices of the volume. 

As a member of the faculty, Leslie Edmonds was greatly 
interested in and identified with the School's extension programs, 
including the unsuccessftil (not her fault!) attempt to establish 
a regular program in Chicago. She draws on Katharine Sharp's 
and Alice Lohrer's comments on extension offerings, details 
the several periods of great activity, and notes the recurring 
themes of discussion during a near-century of such programs. 

The School has another international traveler: Selma 
K. Richardson, wiio likes nothing better than exploring some 
exotic part of the world. Long involved with the children's 
aspects of the International Federation of Library Associations 
(IFLA), she brings her background and experience to a 
consideration of the two-way street of the School's international 
involvements. With the assistance of her graduate assistant, 
Bradford Wilson ('93), she considers the students from other 
countries who have attended the School and the faculty and 

viii ♦ Ideals and Standards 

alumni who have spent many months, even years, assisting 
in library services and development in other nations. 

The School had a handful of minority students in the 
years before World War II; the exact numbers seem to be 
impossible to reckon. Following the war and the gradual 
breaking down of barriers to racial equality, many more minority 
students began to appear on the nation's campuses, including 
this one. In 1969, the School made a proposal to the Carnegie 
Corporation for International Development for funding for 
an experimental program for disadvantaged minority students 
interested in pursuing careers in librarianship. Terry Crowley 
was the director of that program during its two-year span. 
He writes a critical review of the program, based on his 
own memory, records, and conversations with many of the 
students involved. 

The tradition of a library school alumni association goes 
back to 1898, very nearly as long as the School itself. Carol 
Penka ('68) describes its founding, growth, and programs, 
including its occasional periods of near or total dormancy. 
Co-editor Robert Delzell writes of the founding of Alpha 
chapter of the profession's major honor society, Beta Phi 
Mu, and its growth into a national organization. 

Because of limitations of time and space, a number of 
topics slipped between the cracks of the structure we established. 
For example, we have no chapters on two of co-editor Allen's 
own special interests, book publishing and library buildings, 
nor have we touched on administration or a number of other areas. 

Eleanor Blum ('47), long the communications librarian 
at Illinois, established a course called "Contemporary Book 
Publishing " in the late 1960s; Walter Allen took it over in 
1970. Several others, including the late Emily Schossberger, 
director of the university presses at Nebraska and Notre 
Dame, and Frank O. Williams of the University of Illinois 
Press, taught it during summers. It occasionally drew students 
from the College of Communications, which has no such 
course; some of them were doctoral candidates. Several 
undergraduates created their own publishing majors, called 

Introduction ♦ ix 

Individual Plans of Study, around this course and others in 
communications, economics, and marketing. At least two 
of them hold responsible positions in publishing. Other graduates 
got interested in the industry, attended summer programs 
at Radclifife and Denver, and have pursued careers in publishing 
rather than in librarianship. 

The origins of the buildings course are somewhat unclear, 
but Kathryn Luther Henderson notes in her paper that facilities 
was one of the topics included in the famous technical services 
field trips before World War II. Guy Garrison (Ph.D. '60) 
and Herbert Goldhor taught the course in the 1960s and 
perhaps even earlier. Donald L. Thompson, then librarian 
of Wabash College, taught the course during the 1960s, as 
did Ellsworth Mason, then of the University of Colorado 
in 1968; both were respected building consultants. Walter 
Allen took over the course at the request of Dr. Goldhor 
in 1969. One of the highlights of each class was a two-day 
field trip to the Chicago, Indianapolis, St. Louis, or central 
lUinois areas, to visit new or somewhat older but still important 
structures, and learn what a budding librarian needs to be 
aware of when he or she gets involved in a buildings project. 
Managers of these libraries and frequently their architects 
were uncommonly frank about the bad as well as the good. 
Naturally, the most fun visits were to the real disasters, usually 
limited to one per trip. 

Another area not specifically covered is that of library 
administration. Courses with various tides were offered decades 
back, as well as in recent years. Many faculty members, including 
John H. Lancaster, Harold Goldstein, Oliver T Field, Frederick 
Schlipf, Robert Brown, Kathleen Heim, Terry L Weech (Ph.D. 
70), Leslie Edmonds, Richard E. Rubin (PhD. '87), and Bryce 
Allen have taught such courses. Summer visitors have included 
Norman D. Stevens, William Axford, Deane HiU ('50), Ralph 
E. McCoy (Ph.D. '56), and William Chait. In recent years, 
students were encouraged to take courses in public administration, 
finance, and non-profit institutions, variously taught in political 
science or economics. 

X ♦ Ideals and Standards 

Other areas not given chapters are on library resources 
(taught by William V Jackson, ['51], Rolland E. Stevens [Ph.D. 
'51], Robert Downs, and Donald Krummel); library history 
(John Lancaster, Jessie Houchens, Thelma Eaton, Robert Downs, 
and R. E. Stevens); library systems (Robert Carter, Robert 
W. Kidder [Ph.D. '60], Terence Crowley, Sylvia Faibisoff, and 
Terry Weech; adult popular literature (created and still taught 
by Frederick Schlipf); archives (usually taught by University 
archivist Maynard Brichford); fine printing (Robert Chapdu); 
the communication role of the library (Murray Bob, Kidder, 
Linda Crow [CAS. '70], James Carey, Terrence Crowley, Dudley 
Marcum, Ralph McCoy, and Jerome K. Miller); audio-visual 
services (Harold Goldstein, Cora Thomassen ['55], Miller, 
and Lawrence Auld); and more than a dozen courses in the 
bibliography of special subject areas, from Africana to Slavic 
studies, usually taught by University library faculty or by 
visiting specialists. We round out the volume with brief 
biographical data on the contributors; some statistics on 
degrees granted and samplings of enrollment figures; a list 
of directors of the School, 1893-1992; and what we hope 
is a full list of regular faculty and at least most of the adjuncts. 
Finally, we provide, as any really good non-fiction book should, 
an index. 

A note concerning dates and names. Alumni dates of 
graduation or attendance are in parentheses foUowing their 
names. A date with no degree initials means the individual 
received the School's first degree. Before 1948, the School's 
first degree was a B.S.; after that it was an M.S. Advanced 
degrees always have initials indicated. Before 1948, the advanced 
degrees were the M.A. and the M.S. After that, they were 
the C.A.S., the D.L.S., and the Ph.D. Two dates joined by 
a hyphen indicate dates of attendance without receipt of 
a degree. Brad Wilson worked out this system for his and 
Selma Richardson's paper, and we have adopted it for the 

Introduction ♦ xi 

Editors of volumes such as this are always indebted to 
a large number of people. Most obvious are the authors of 
the individual essays, without whom there would have been 
no book. But the road to publication is paved with the willing 
and even enthusiastic assistance of many others. These include 
the dean, Leigh Estabrook, and her two assistants, Debra 
Park, who came up with the idea for the book in the first 
place, and Curt McKay, who helped with the gathering of 
statistics and updated information on student activities; and 
the people without whom no library school can function, 
the office staff: Willa Reed, Carol DeVoss, SaUy Eakin, Shari 
Grindley, and Kathy Painter. Lynne Curry, assistant to the 
dean for publications, James Dowling, managing editor. Hazel 
Dillman, Rhonda Gerber, and other members of the Publications 
Office staff guided us through the pitfalls of editing and 
production. David Colley designed the book jacket. The staff 
of the University Archives, particularly Maynard Brichford, 
William Maher, and Robert Chapel, guided us to the appropriate 
boxes for just the right information or photograph. Pat Stenstrom 
helped me compile what we think is a definitive list of the 
directors, assistant directors, and deans of the School. Raymond 
Bial, well-known photographer and compiler of delightful 
books of photographs of Illinois people, libraries, and events, 
not only served as a member of the Editorial Committee 
but provided enthusiastic help and guidance in locating and 
choosing useful and usable photographs from the hundreds 
in the archives. 

A special word about Debra Park: her gentle prodding, 
when necessary; her knowledge of University resources and 
operations; her reactions to various trial balloons concerning 
content, promotion, and the place of the book in the overall 
plans for the centennial celebration; and her willingness 
to drop everything at a moment's notice to help us, add 
up to an enormous contribution to the effort. 


Grotzinger, Laurel. (1967). The University of Illinois Library School, 1893- 
1942. Journal of Library History, 2(2) (April), 129-14 L 

xii ^ Ideals and Standards 

Slanker, Barbara Olsen. (Ed.). (1969). Reminiscences. Seventy-five years 
of a library school. Urbana: University of Illinois Graduate School 
of Library Science. 

White, Carl. (Ed.). (1943). Fifty years of education for librarianship. 
Urbana: University of Illinois Graduate School of Library Science. 

Remarkable Beginnings 

The First Half Century of the Graduate School 
of Library and Information Science 

Laurel Grotzinger 

he work of forceful leaders under conditions that 
gave their creative powers full play, the [early library 
schools] display a fascinating variety in their origin 
and development. [In Illinois, F. W. Gunsaulus and 
Philip B. Armour] came forward to pick up the gauntlet. 
It was not surprising that apprentice training was included 
as a feature of the new [Armour] institute library, for 
Gunsaulus' enthusiasm for books and libraries was 
legendary. What was more remarkable was the choice 
of Katherine [sic] Sharp to take charge of the work. 
A gifted and dedicated educator, she was soon laying 
farsighted plans for a school which has consistently 
remained in the vanguard of educational progress. 
(White, 1961, p. 147) 


As a new century loomed on the horizon, a unique 
combination of individuals, events, and a dynamic period 

2 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

in the history of our country merged in xhc metropolitan 
world known as Chicago, Illinois. The city itself embodied 
the revolution in the economy and culture of the late nineteenth 
century that had changed a largely agrarian society into 
the bold, industrial crossroads that marked the new century. 
Chicago, "hog butcher for the world"; Chicago, site of 
the weird and wonderful World's Columbian Exposition 
of 1893; Chicago, home of the first library school training 
program in the Midwest; Chicago, where Katharine Sharp 
changed the scope and nature of library education in North 

Miss Katharine Lucinda Sharp, born in Elgin, Illinois, 
in 1865, was also a product of that special period in history. 
Young, attractive, extraordinarily well-educated, she was 
a perfect role model for the "new" professional women 
who were turning our educational and social system upside 
down as nurses, teachers, social workers, and librarians. 
Sharp was raised in a working society dominated by self- 
educated, aggressive empire builders who, like Philip Armour, 
would choose to bestow some of their millions on institutes 
that would train men (and women) to be part of the emerging 
technical world of the twentieth century. 

"Knowledge is power" was an accepted philosophy 
of life and this relatively young country was caught up 
in the belief that every citizen had the right to be educated. 
The national explosion in numbers of elementary and secondary 
schools, of colleges, technical institutes, and universities 
was unparalleled. Furthermore, other agencies that offered 
educational opportunities were growing apace. As a result, 
the public library was readily perceived as a "university 
of the people " and became a major component in the national 
system that provided free and ready access to the majority 
of the people. And, as might be expected, those who worked 
in the libraries, as in the schools, had turned away from 
apprenticeship training to some method of formal education, 
i.e., the best teachers were products of the "normal" training 

The First-Half Century ♦ 3 

schools and the best librarians were graduates of Melvil 
Dewey's prototype library school established at Columbia 
College and then firmly and strongly ensconced at Albany, 
New York. 

Thus two components of the configuration that changed 
library education once and for all were put into place. 
First, there was Katharine Sharp, who earned bachelor 
and master's degrees at Northwestern University, spent 
a short time as a teacher, and then served as an untrained 
assistant librarian at Scoville Institute, Oak Park, Illinois. 
Her brief experience at the Scoville Institute convinced 
her that she needed a "professional" base and she took 
an unheard of step in 1890— she traveled to the east and 
studied for two years at the New York State Library School. 
That effort earned her a Bachelor of Library Science and 
placed her forever in a special elite of librarians who attended 
Dewey's school during its first decade. 

Second, at the corner of Armour Avenue and Thirty- 
third Street in Chicago, the objects of Philip Armour's 
philanthropy were physically in place, the Armour Mission, 
serving the spiritual needs of the indigent public was on 
one comer; directly across were the walls of the "manual" 
training school which opened in September of 1893 under 
the presidency of the Reverend Frank W. Gunsaulus, pastor 
of the Plymouth Congregational Church of Chicago. As 
noted in a popular article of that period 

Art, social and political science, literature and history 
are brought to the people of the neighborhood through 
this instrumentality. The Armour Mission auditorium 
and lecture room touch the people educationally in 
the same way, joining with the Institute in the great 
work.. ..The majority of the students finishing the Academy 
course go into the Technical College [which is] the 
main feature of the Institution, and towards its perfection 
all things are made to point.... 

The only school of Library Science in the central 
states is the one conducted at the Institute in connection 

4 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

with the excellent library provided by Mr. Armour.... There 
are at present about twenty young women preparing 
for professional library work by a two years' course. 
The course covers every phase of library economy, 
construction, classification, reference work, and 
bibliography. The main difficulty is in keeping the 
students for the full time, as opportunities for practice 
are numerous and an invitation for special work, such 
as classifying a library, often ends in a call to the 
librarianship. (Snowden, 1892, pp. 357-58, 361, 367- 

The other ingredients that produced the remarkable 
beginning in Chicago were, as so often occurs, time and 
coincidence. The key years of 1892-93 saw several timely 
events placed in felicitous interface. First, Katharine Sharp, 
during her senior year at the New York State Library School, 
had been assigned the collection and organization of a 
comparative exhibit of library paraphernalia for display 
at the international Columbian Exposition, the quatercentenary 
celebration of the "discovery" of America. In addition, 
she was then asked to supervise the display, sponsored 
by the American Library Association and the U.S. Bureau 
of Education, that was housed in the Government Building 
located in the midst of the "white city" that had risen 
along the southwestern shores of Lake Michigan. That special 
exhibit was eventually given to the Armour library school 
and served, for many years, as an unusual demonstration 
collection of the best in library technology. Further, the 
planning for the Armour Institute opening, scheduled for 
September 1893, had included a search for outstanding 
faculty to direct the programs. Gunsaulus, the newly selected 
president of the Institute, was emulating eastern institutes 
such as Pratt and Drexel and, not surprisingly, contacted 
the library man, Melvil Dewey, for a recommendation. At 
that very moment in time, 1892, Katharine Sharp was 
completing her degree at the Albany school. Dewey responded, 
using his usual phonetic spelling: 

The First-Half Century ♦ 5 

My old pastor F. W. Gonzales [sic], a member of the 
Boston Shakespeare Club of which I was president, 
came to Albany and said, "In old Boston days yu fild 
my hed with certain dreams that ar now coming tru. 
Armour Institute and I want the best man in America 
to start the library and library school and carry out 
yur ideas." I replied "The best man in America is a 
woman, and she is in the next room." (Dewey, 1922) 

Whereupon President Gunsaulus offered the position as 
director of the department of library science and librarian 
to that same redoubtable woman. In accepting the position 
at Armour Institute, Katharine Sharp did, indeed, set the 
stage for the future. The Armour School would be only 
the fourth in the country, the first in the Midwest. Sharp's 
standards and professional perception had been tempered 
by Dewey's program and her own superior preparation. 

The Armour program, although presumably directed 
to a high school graduate, would replicate the class work 
and preparation assigned to Dewey's mainly college-educated 
students. The course of study, as Sharp described it, "includes 
lectures and instruction in library handwriting, accession 
and other department routine, cataloging, classification, 
loan systems, binding, shelf arrangement, shelf listing, reference 
work and bibliography, literature and the history of books 
and printing" (Sharp, 1894, p. 164). In this brief listing 
lies the foundations for library school curricula well into 
the twentieth century although the library "economy" 
emphasis of the early years was eventually replaced with 
sound theories of bibliographical organization and the 
use of modern technology to facilitate the acquisition, 
organization, storage, retrieval, and communication of 
information in a variety of formats. The early classes were 
supplemented by actual library experiences, and Sharp 
and her faculty were practicing librarians as well as instructors. 
The students who completed their year of study at the 
Institute in 1893-94 received a certificate to attest to their 
forty hours per week "practice" work and devoted attendance 

6 ♦ Ideals and Sx\ndards 

at numerous lectures— technical, ps)ichological and 
"cultural"— as Dr. Gunsaulus phrased it. 

Given Katharine Sharp's inclination toward a more 
professional preparation, the first class was unique in that 
the department of library science was reorganized almost 
immediately and the course of study extended to two years— 
the first of many steps that reflected the director's attempt 
to raise the profession from "practical training" to "professional 
study." Sharp never intended that the Armour school would 
be a simple training adjunct to the high school graduate. 
The possibility of two years of study automatically set Armour 
apart from Pratt and Drexel and established an educational 
pattern that evinced a steady evolution, first at Armour 
and then at the University of Illinois. Two-year diplomas 
were awarded to the class of 1896 and later, when the 
Library School was established at the University, a baccalaureate 
degree was given, the first in the United States in the area 
of library science. Later, but much earlier than all but one 
other school, came the master's degree. 

The fiirst department of library science in the Midwest 
remained in Chicago for four years. There were fifty-nine 
matriculants; twenty-five received one-year certificates 
while eleven completed the two-year course and earned 
a diploma. At first, Katharine Sharp and May Bennett were 
the permanent faculty, but in 1896 two additional instructors, 
both graduates of the program, were employed. Cornelia 
Marvin Pierce and Margaret Mann, each destined to become 
a strong library leader in her own right, began their careers 
under the guidance of Katharine Sharp. Sharp's influence 
was paramount since she was, as described by Eleanor 
Roper (another graduate destined to become a library 
leader) "inspired herself and she was gifted in transmitting 
this inspiration to her classes" (Simpson, 1943, p. 42). 
In several respects. Sharp was the Library School, and her 
conviction, her enthusiasm, her drive, and her unswerving 
dedication were the determining factors for the School 
during its formative years in Chicago as well as the following 

The First-Half Century ♦ 7 

ten years when she directed the Illinois State Library School 
on the Urbana/Champaign campus. On the other hand, 
throughout the history of the Illinois Library School, there 
have always been faculty of distinction— men and women— 
who left their mark not only on the School but on the 
profession as a whole. 

The decision to transfer the Department of Library 
Science, including certain of its faculty, students, and materials, 
came in 1897. Within the first few months after the program 
was initiated, it was apparent to Katharine Sharp that her 
plan, her hidden agenda, to superimpose a university structure 
on a technical institute was undoubtedly doomed to failure. 
Her mission, goals, and objectives for library education 
were far removed from either the conceptual or real 
"technological" Institute established by Armour and Gunsaulus. 
Regardless, within a very short time after the classes were 
begun, she suggested a four-year course and the conferring 
of a degree to her old mentor, Dewey. Dewey, who always 
wanted to be first, quickly doused her ambitious plan with 
more than a dash of cold rationality that bluntly described 
her lack of experience and faculty. Moreover, the facilities 
at Armour were not designed to provide either the library 
collection or classroom space that Sharp would need. Inevitably, 
the issue of an inadequate budget became insurmountable 
and, not completely by happenstance, two Midwestern 
universities appeared more than willing to accept Katharine 
Sharp and her library department into their academic settings. 

The individuals, events, and timing that impacted the 
transfer of the department of library science included one 
new and important player As with the original establishment 
of the program in Chicago, time and circumstances were 
also actors. Katharine Sharp was thirty-two years old in 
the summer of 1897 and had already made a contribution 
to the library education movement that would be noted 
in the annals of its history. She perceived librarianship 
as one of the most compelling forces in society and was 
thoroughly committed to the concept of standards for formal 

8 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

library training. During the years in Chicago, her efforts 
had expanded far beyond the city limits, not only throughout 
Illinois but to the states of Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, and 
Iowa, where she and her cohorts were involved in summer 
training classes, library extension services, and other forms 
of outreach that continued to promote the library and 
the librarian as potential movers and shakers in the educational 
system. Sharp's vision had, at an early stage in the development 
of the Armour school, looked to the university setting 
as basic to formal training. Although many training programs 
developed in large public libraries (e.g.. New York, Los 
Angeles, St. Louis) across the country. Sharp's ambition 
was never compromised. Not only did the academic 
environment establish the educational legitimacy that was 
essential to a profession, but the dual requirements of 
formal class study and experiential learning demanded 
a library of significant breadth and depth to provide 
opportunities for professional experiences. 

Two Midwestern universities, already in the vanguard 
of educational expansion that emphasized the emerging 
disciplines of law, medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, home 
economics, music, and nursing found the additional field 
of library science equally attractive. The University of Wisconsin 
had been exposed to Katharine Sharp's dynamic personality 
during summer programs that she directed on the Madison 
campus. At Illinois, the vigorous leadership of President 
Andrew Sloan Draper had, from the moment of his appointment 
in 1894, favored programs leading to professional licensure 
or certification. And, he had come to Illinois from New 
York state where he had known and been influenced by 
Melvil Dewey's strong advocacy of the role of libraries 
in educational extension. Draper wanted a highly qualified 
librarian to build and organize a collection worthy of a 
university's mission, and he was actively establishing 
professional programs at the University. In Katharine Sharp, 
he found two for the price of one, and, once again, she 
came with the strong recommendation of Dewey. "Dr. Dewey, 

The First-Half Century ♦ 9 

who is the Secretary of the New York State Library, says 
that she is the best woman hbrarian in America, and if 
any one knows he does. If we can get her... I think it would 
be a great move for us" (Draper, 1897, p. 325). Ironically 
the opportunities at Wisconsin that focused on building 
a formal library curriculum rather than administering a 
library might have proved to have been the better choice 
in light of ensuing events at Illinois. However, Sharp could 
not separate the two — librarian and instructor— in her 
own personal philosophy (one also advocated by her mentor, 
Dewey) and selected the University of Illinois over the 
University of Wisconsin. President Draper moved quickly 
to solidify the agreement and in June, the Board of Trustees 
recommended Katharine Sharp as head librarian, director 
of the library school and professor of library economy 
to begin work on September 1, 1897. 


Katharine Sharp's direction of the Illinois State Library 
School was as determined, quality-oriented, and ahead- 
of-the-profession as had been her preparatory years in Chicago. 
She was quick to point out the significance of the move 
in an early brochure: "The Library School which is transferred 
to the University is the only one in the West. The University 
now goes farther than any institution of learning, either 
in the East or West, has ever gone, in recognizing the right 
of Library Economy to a place among the regular college 
courses" (University of Illinois Library School, 1897, p. 
3). In other words, as Adam Strohm, one of the Illinois 
School's most distinguished alumni, pointed out: "When 
the Library School was transferred from the Armour Institute 
to the University of Illinois its dignity was enhanced, its 
future secured. Under the wings of a state institution the 
boundaries of its usefulness were widened" (Strohm, 1943, 
p. 24). In addition to the establishment of a firm academic 
base, the move to Urbana provided a physical plan and 
equipment far beyond the limited resources found in Chicago 

10 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

at the Armour Institute. The library coUection at the University, 
although not well organized, consisted of some 40,000 
volumes located in Altgeld Hall — a brand new building 
already cited for the "sheer beauty of its surroundings." 
Constructed of Minnesota sandstone and designed by N.C. 
Ricker, the romanesque architecture included "ornately 
decorated arches, wrought iron railings and stairways, and 
a domed Byzantine ceiling constructed of glass with stained 
glass borders" ("Treasures of Altgeld," 1980-1, p. 5). As 
the second permanent building on campus, it also housed 
the administrative offices of the University. 

The entourage that came to this fine edifice included 
not only the principals. Sharp and Margaret Mann, but also 
six students as well as the course materials and supportive 
demonstration exhibits used at Armour. One new faculty 
member, Mary Letitia Jones, another well-qualified graduate 
of the Albany school, was employed as a third faculty member 
and reference librarian. At first, the course of instruction 
was almost a replica of the Armour program, but Sharp 
was quick to advertise that the end result of the practical 
training would be to produce librarians who would appreciate 
"their higher calling to furnish 'the best reading to the 
greatest number, at the least cost" '(Circular of Information, 
1897, p. 3). And, of course, there would be a degree, a 
real university degree, conferred, the Bachelor of Library 

The ten years of the Sharp administration that followed 
the September 1897 opening of the Illinois State Library 
School were amazing, confounding, and instrumental in 
determining the future development of library education 
not only in the Midwest but across the states. During those 
years. Sharp was aided by a staff which reflected individuals 
and philosophies that defined library education far into 
the twentieth century: Isadore Mudge, reference and 
bibliography; Margaret Mann, cataloging and classification; 
Minnie Sears, classification and subject headings; F. K. W. 
Drury, collection selection and development. Other nationally 

The First-Half Century ♦ 11 

recognized pioneers of the field were among renowned 
visiting instructors: Mary Eileen Ahern, William Warner 
Bishop, Frederick M. Crunden, Melvil Dewey, Helen Haines, 
Lutie E. Stems, James Wyer— to name only a few. Principles 
of cataloging, reference, book selection, and administration 
were combined with apprentice work both in the University 
Library and surrounding public libraries. As the curriculum 
expanded to meet the broadening dimensions of library 
service, the rigor and sophistication of the curriculum 
also evolved. 

Phineas Lawrence Windsor, who became librarian and 
director of the library school shortly after Katharine Sharp's 
leaving, later pointed out that "even in those early years 
some distinctive courses and methods were begun which 
had made for themselves an enduring place in our educational 
scheme" (Windsor, 1943, p. 34). Among the innovative 
courses were the use and cataloging of public documents, 
library extension that considered current developments 
in the library movement, and a "seminary" in library economy 
which, after 1904, replaced the thesis requirement. Windsor 
also noted that Sharp had initiated a course originally identified 
as "General Reference"— open to all students in the University, 
it provided information about basic reference sources, use 
of the catalog, and the library collection. Along with growth 
in the substance of the curriculum came a major movement 
to influence the public library development throughout 
the state of Illinois. The Library School and Library were 
seen as a central source of leadership and resources that 
would aid public libraries through a variety of mechanisms 
including traveling libraries, a state-supported library extension 
program, library legislation, a knowledgeable field librarian, 
and even, through use of the students, staff" for organizing 
and operating some of the nearby libraries. 

As happens with many ambitious plans and an aggressive 
leadership that looks to a powerful fijture, problems began 
to emerge despite the obvious successes. As early as 1902, 
Director Sharp pointedly made reference to the increasing 

12 ^ Ideals AND Standards 

numbers of students that could not be accommodated by 
the existing physical quarters or the teaching staff. Magnificent 
as Altgeld Hall at first appeared, it had many design aspects 
that were inadequate not only for the Library, but in addition, 
the Library School quarters had been added to the original 
plans; from this fact alone one could predict problems 
as the classes grew in size and involvement. While the 
original faculty of three had by 1902 doubled in size, the 
original student enrollment had tripled so that by 1903 
there were 47 students. As a result, the demand to teach 
well and thoroughly came in conflict with the demand 
to operate the expanding Library collection. Sharp's answer 
to this problem was one based on her perception of professional 
education, i.e., increase the admission requirements which 
would lower the number qualified to be admitted which, 
in turn, would provide not only smaller classes but individuals 
better prepared for the course of study. The proposal first 
presented at Armour— to require a bachelor's degree for 
admission— was publicly advocated at a meeting of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae as early as 1901 and, 
of course, was highly recommended for adoption much 
earlier. Sharp was keenly disappointed that Dewey's New 
York State Library School had moved faster and made the 
baccalaureate degree a requirement in 1902. In fact, she 
firmly believed that Dewey had been inspired to move 
quickly to maintain the Albany school's reputation as the 
leader in the field, thereby foreclosing the opportunity 
for the Illinois school to require a bachelor's for admission 
and become "foremost in the field." 

At Illinois, admission requirements were increased 
to three years of college preparation in 1903, but it was 
not until four years after her retirement, in 1911, that a 
"true" graduate education— or at least education that built 
on the bachelor's degree— was possible. In actuality, of 
course, the degree that was offered remained at the bachelor's 
level for many more years at Illinois. What is little known 
is that, in 1902, the University's Council of Administration 

The First-Half Century ♦ 13 

had approved the awarding of a master's degree with three 
years of work from the Library School. Sharp, unfortunately, 
was only too well aware that her faculty and resources 
could not support the third year of quality instruction, 
and she asked that the Council not recommend such to 
the Board of Trustees. However, the goal of the course 
of study was obvious, regardless of the degree offered. 
As the School's Circular stated for many years, "the purpose 
was 'to graduate educated as well as trained librarians'" 
(Reece, 1936, p. 156). 

When summing up the Sharp years at Illinois, a number 
of points might be emphasized, both notable successes 
and distressing failures. In the final summary. Sharp's 
accomplishments at the Illinois State Library School can 
be best encapsulated in three areas. First, the faculty, whether 
experienced instructor or willing novice, were invariably 
expected to be capable and dedicated. Sharp elicited 
enthusiasm for the work; her teachers, almost universally, 
had the unique ability to interest students while instructing 
them; the faculty of "Manns and Mudges" infused the library 
science curriculum with life and imagination. Second, there 
was the curriculum. Despite the many caveats that were 
outlined later by the Williamson study. Sharp was among 
the first, if not the first, at least in certain respects, to 
insist that the course of study be an instrument of library 
education directed to the professional librarian. While 
intended to train and direct for actual conditions, it also 
required a standard of achievement which was acknowledged 
by every review undertaken during the early years of the 
growth of library education in an academic environment. 
Third, the students represented a significant force in the 
development of library service especially in the Midwest, 
if not in North America. By 1908, 210 individuals had received 
degrees from the Illinois State Library School. They came 
from 23 different states with the majority from Illinois, 
Iowa, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin, although 27% had 
come from the Northeast where Dewey's school was well 

l4 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

known. The vast majority were women; only nine men 
attended during tiie years from 1897 to 1907. Some never 
practiced at all — often because they married and were 
not then "employable"; others devoted decades and their 
lives to the work: 

There, at the Illinois Library School, they were guided 
by Katharine Lucinda Sharp and through her presence 
they were imbued with a strength and determination 
that sustained them through long, successhil careers 
in libraries in the United States. Many of the names 
of these first generation of graduates from the Illinois 
Library School will not be found in the rolls of honor 
of the great and near-great in library and information 
science, but their achievements have built the foundations 
of American librarianship. (Roy, 1985, p. 65) 


Katharine Sharp was among the first to note that Ubraries 
and library practices were constantly changing and that 
it was difficult to maintain an up-to-date curriculum that 
would respond to the needs of the libraries and services 
offered. Equally open to change was the leadership of the 
first library schools. Melvil Dewey, founding father, stepped 
down first, in 1906, and was followed within five years 
by his three protegees, Alice Bertha Kroeger, Drexel; Mary 
Wright Plummer, Pratt; and, of course, Katharine Sharp, 

The strong foundations forcefully molded by Sharp 
had been eroded, prior to her resignation in 1907, due 
to the priorities and direction of a new President, Edmund 
J. James, who regarded the Library as far more in need 
of attention and funding than the Library School which 
was the focus of Katharine Sharp's interests. As resources 
diminished, so did her physical and spiritual strength. By 
the fall of 1906, she had decided to resign at the end of 
1907 and did so. Her leaving did not, at first, bode well 
for the Library School. Given President James's preoccupation 

The First-Half Century ♦ 15 

with the Library— and lack of interest in the School— little 
attention was given to a successor. That successor, Albert 
S. Wilson, was immediately controversial in the eyes of 
the staff and alumni since he had little library expertise 
and, unfortunately, no formal library training. In addition, 
Wilson was appointed only as director of the School— 
a form of heresy in the eyes of most librarians. President 
James's action "was a blow to the prestige of the library 
school training, particularly in view of Miss Sharp's qualifications 
and those of other newly appointed directors" (Vann, 1961, 
pp. 151-52). 

President James, however, apparently could admit to 
an error and within two years a fully qualified director 
was appointed. To the com fields of Illinois came Phineas 
Lawrence Windsor who, as had Katharine Sharp, assumed 
the dual role of University librarian and director of the 
Illinois Library School. He was a second generation graduate 
of the New York State Library School from the class of 
1899. Coinciden tally, he had earned his bachelor's degree 
from Northwestern University in Chicago, as had Katharine 
Sharp, but his career after his graduation from the Albany 
school had, at first, kept him on the east coast at the copyright 
office in the Library of Congress. Prior to assuming the 
Illinois position, he had been librarian at the University 
of Texas where he had also directed the library school 
program which had been initiated in 1901 by Benjamin 
Wyche. As so often occurs wiien there is a change in leadership, 
Windsor achieved immediately the elusive goal that Sharp 
had sought throughout her fourteen years of involvement 
in library education: the requirements for admission to 
the Illinois State Library School were changed to equal 
those at the New York State Library School. Now, two 
library schools in America were foremost. Students who 
matriculated at Urbana in September 1911 held a bachelor's 
degree in either the arts or sciences. 

Windsor arrived at Illinois with a mission and proceeded 
to take firm steps to implement his objectives. Shortly 

16 ♦ Ideals and Siandards 

thereafter, he appointed an assistant director of the School; 
she was an able and talented woman, Frances Simpson. 
Simpson was a Sharp protegee, one of the third generation, 
who had graduated from the Illinois School in 1901. She 
spent thirty years at Illinois, nineteen of them as the assistant 
director of the School. Writing later, Windsor noted, "Miss 
Simpson made an indelible impression upon the work of 
the School, both by the high standard of her teaching and 
by skill in administering the school office. Rarely, indeed, 
does one find such loyalty to a school, to its alumni, and 
to their professional work as she embodied during all those 
years" (Windsor, 1943, p. 35). Windsor himself did not 
neglect the Library School despite his keen interests in 
building a true research library. Not only did he teach 
a regular class, which was highly favored and sought out 
by the students, but he was instrumental in bringing many 
of the faculty to a campus "out west." Among the noteworthy 
male additions was a young Ernest J. Reece whose class 
in public documents brought cheers for its comprehensive 
and thorough introduction to the genre— and groans for 
the complicated problems that he expected to be solved. 
Noteworthy also were the women who dominated, in number 
at least, the faculty. Among them were Ethel Bond, cataloging 
and classification instruction, and Anne Morris Boyd, book 
selection, both of whom were glowingly acknowledged 
by students as exceptional professors who skillftilly combined 
practicality and principles. There is little doubt that the 
standards of performance remained high even during the 
crisis of the First World War years, the flamboyant 1920s, 
and the grim Depression decade. 

The curriculum during the interim before the inception 
of a graduate degree did not remain quietly static. Neither 
the profession nor this particular school could be immune 
to the demands and needs of the library world. Windsor 
initiated, in cooperation with the Illinois Library Extension 
Commission, the first summer school programs. In 1911, 
it was a six-week, non-credit "practical" course which 

The First- Half Century ♦ 17 

continued until 1919, when the eight-week session for 
credit toward a B.L.S. was introduced. The need for a course 
of study that would better prepare for service in special 
libraries was addressed first in 1916-17, when the school 
catalog made reference to preparation for librarians who 
would work in business, technical, agricultural, or other 
special libraries. By the 1920s, this had extended to the 
recognition of the need for a selective course for high 
school librarians and later, in the 1930s, came the first 
possibility of study for special populations— among them 
children. As one would expect of a maturing and experimental 
profession, the curriculum included electives, more focus 
on specialization, and needless to say, a stronger graduate 
educational thrust. The dominant theme throughout the 
early years of library education was an appropriate melding 
of apprenticeship and a practical course of study, but, by 
the early 1920s, the plans that Sharp had introduced in 
the first decade were ready to be implemented. Finally, 
in 1926 the moment arrived and the Annual Register of 
the University boldly stated: 

The instruction in the first year covers the accepted 
methods and practices in library work; students who 
complete this year's work are prepared to accept positions 
in library service. In the second year, now transferred 
to the Graduate School [emphasis mine], historical 
and comparative methods of treatment are emphasized; 
new subjects and research methods are introduced 
to give the student the necessary outlook and equipment 
for more responsible positions. (University of Illinois, 
1927, p. 169) 

At last, after three decades of struggle and commitment, 
the Illinois School reached its long-sought goal: a graduate 
degree for graduate work. From the one-year Armour certificate 
to the two-year diploma to the Bachelor of Library Science, 
given under increasingly demanding levels of preparation, 
there now came the Master of Science in Library Science. 

18 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

Moreover, attainment of this significant objective was matched 
with another, more obvious achievement— at least in terms 
of the practicalities of life. Although the original Altgeld 
space had never been completely sufficient, the Library 
School had remained in essentially the same, often crowded 
and uncomfortable, conditions for almost thirty years. 

A major success of Windsor's administration was the 
planning and construction of a fine new library building 
with space especially designed for the Library School— 
the third floor, where the School was to remain for several 
decades, and where Katharine Lucinda Sharp's famous bas- 
relief, sculpted by the internationally recognized Lorado 
Taft, still hangs with its lasting tribute: 

Nobility of character and grace of person were united 
with intellectual vigor and scholarly attainments. She 
inspired her students with sound standards of librarianship 
and ideals of service. 

The sculpture was not installed and dedicated until March 
1922. The tablet captures the inimitable poise and arresting 
stature of Katharine Sharp even though it was probably 
envisioned from a composite of surviving photographs. 
She is shown as a vigorous young woman— perhaps any 
young woman who was challenged to meet a new world. 

Phineas Lawrence Windsor, needless to say, was a leader 
of strength, character, and scholarly attainment. Many years 
later, still another outstanding Illinois librarian and director 
of the Library School, Robert B. Downs, summed it up 
succinctly when he commented that "under Windsor's 
leadership, the Library and Library School were brought 
to positions of eminence. ...The Library School made 
conspicuous progress.. " (Downs, 1978, p. 562). 

Windsor's administrative strengths were complemented 
by superb assistant directors who, in effect, managed the 
Library School. After relieving poor Albert Wilson of his 
responsibilities in 1912, Windsor relied heavily on the 
administrative skills of Frances Simpson for almost two 

The First-Half Century ♦ 19 

decades but, ultimately, in 1931, this persevering and 
perspicacious woman had to retire. Her successor, Amelia 
Krieg, spoke for many when she said, "Her leadership, 
gay personality, and knowledge of world events, library 
movements, and outstanding librarians, are seriously missed" 
(University of Illinois Library School, 1930-31, p. 1). Simpson 
was also remembered with respect by both the faculty 
and staff during her long tenure as assistant director Reece 
emphasized her effervescent personality as well as her 
toe-the-mark management style: "Diminutive in stature. 
Miss Simpson amply filled the commodious office she occupied. 
There she proffered abundant advice, some critical, some 
anything but that. I recall her comforting assurance— based 
on slight evidence, I now fear— that at worst I knew much 
more than my students did" (Reece, 1969, p. 22). 

Simpson's resignation was timely at least in terms of 
her being relieved from the strain of the Depression years. 
Amelia Krieg was destined to be a capable and expert 
assistant director, but the tenor of the times did not give 
rise to a pleasant administrative sinecure. She did use the 
catastrophe of the Depression as an argument for more 
stringent student admission requirements or, at the very 
least, higher standards of selectivity. At the graduate level 
there was a commitment by the School to seek out students 
who were capable of research and thesis construction. 
The concept of admission based on a "B or better" became 
a rallying cry, even when there were few applicants. Following 
a national educational trend, the Library School became 
a center for experiments and statistical studies that would 
provide sound data on which to base conclusions, not to 
mention the practical value of knowing more about job 
opportunities, preferences, and placement. When the Board 
of Education for Librarianship, the accreditation team of 
that period, visited in 1936, they encouraged the Library 
School to continue its stress on lower enrollments and 
higher admission requirements. They also strongly advised 
that the curriculum, always a matter of controversy, be 

20 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

revised further to bring it in line wijth contemporary 
educational concepts. While Krieg agreed with part of 
the recommendations, she perceived considerable need 
for more professional librarians and was not completely 
comfortable with limiting enrollment. Krieg did promote 
one philosophical guideline of exceptional merit: The future 
curriculum was to develop "along the line of theoretical 
courses on the place of the library in the present social 
order and its changing function and government" (University 
of Illinois Library School, 1935-36, p. 17). 

The faculty itself had continued to attract some of 
the best instructors in the country. Ethel Bond and Anne 
Boyd were well matched by the likes of Rose B. Phelps, 
Marie Hostetter, Josie Houchens, Guy Lyle, Blanche McCrum, 
E. W. McDiarmid, and, of course, Amelia Krieg and Phineas 
Windsor, along with a host of visiting professors. Krieg 
stepped down shortly after the country emerged from the 
Depression years, and just before the Illinois Library School, 
universally identified as among the best of the educational 
programs in the nation, came to the end of its first fifty 

Carl White and E. W McDiarmid assumed the leadership 
at Illinois after Windsor and Krieg retired; they immediately 
became immersed in a review of the School and in the 
development of plans for the future. They were aided in 
this endeavor by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation 
in 1941 that would support an in-depth study of the University 
of Illinois Library School. The results of that searching 
self-analysis and evaluation brought a new beginning to 
the School under the direction of Robert B. Downs and 
Lewis Stieg. As the second fifty years began, the Library 
School positioned itself to address the librarianship of 
the future that would include research, doctoral study, 
and, in 1959, the formal designation of the School as the 
Graduate School of Library Science. The coming half century 
was to be an era of change and growth that was as incisive 
and critical as the founding years. The philosophical foundation, 

The First-Half Century ♦ 21 

as well as the reality of the academic programs that Katharine 
Sharp, Phineas Windsor, Frances Simpson, and Amelia Krieg 
directed would be reconstructed, strengthened, and enhanced. 
From those remarkable beginnings of the first fifty years 
came the clarion call for the science of libraries and information 
centers to be a discipline, taught through the graduate 
professional education found at the University of Illinois. 
Or perhaps Carl White's simple assessment of Katharine 
Sharp and her vision is also true of all those remarkable 

A gifted and dedicated educator, she was soon laying 
farsighted plans for a school which has consistently 
remained in the vanguard of educational progress. 
(White, 1961, p. 147) 


Dewey, Melvil. (1922). Letter to Frances Simpson dated March 21, 

1922 (Sharp Papers, memorial correspondence). University of Illinois 

Archives, Urbana, IL. 
Draper, Andrew S. (1897). Letter to the Honorable J. E. Armstrong 

dated April 12, 1897 (Draper Letters, letterbook 9, p. 325). University 

of Illinois Archives, Urbana, IL. 
Downs, Robert B. (1978). Windsor, Phineas Lawrence. Dictionary of 

American library biography. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited. 
Reece, Ernest J. (1936). The curriculum in library schools. New York: 

Columbia University Press. 
Reece, Ernest J. (1969). Recollections, 1912-1917, and thereafter. In 

Barbara Olsen Slanker (Ed.), Reminiscences: Seventy-five years of 

a library school (pp. 20-28). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate 

School of Library Science. 
Roy Loriene. (1985). Bringing books to the people: The first generation 

of graduates from the Illinois Library School, 1898-1908. Unpublished 

Sharp, Katharine L. (1894). The Department of Library Science at Armour 

Institute, Chicago. Library Journal, /5>(May), 162-166. 
Simpson, Frances. (1943). The alumni speaking. In Carl M. White (Ed.), 

Fifty years of education for librarianship (pp. 39-43). Urbana, 

IL: University of Illinois Press. 
Strohm, Adam. (1943). Illinois Library School, early days. In Carl M. 

White (Ed.), Fifty years of education for librarianship (pp. 25- 

29). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. 

22 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

Snowden, Clifford L. (1892). The Armour Institute of Technology. New 

England Magazine, 16(5), 357-358, 361. 
Treasures of Altgeld. (1980-81). Mendscript (Newsletter of The University 

of Illinois Library Friends at Urbana-Champaign), 2(4), 5. 
University of Illinois. ( 1927). Annual register, 1926-27. Urbana, IL. 
University of Illinois Library School. (1897). Circular of information, 

1897-98. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Library School, 3- 
University of Illinois Library School. (1930-31) Annual report of the 

assistant director, 1920-31- Unpublished manuscript. 
University of Illinois Library School. (1935-36). Annual report of the 

assistant director, 1935-36. Unpublished manuscript. 
Vann, Sarah K. ( 1961 ). Tt-aining for librarianship before 1923- Chicago, 

IL: American Library Association. 
White, Carl M. (1961). The origins of the American library school. 

New York: Scarecrow Press. 
Windsor, Phineas Lawrence. (1943). Fifty years. In Carl M. White (Ed.), 

Fifty years of education for librarianship (pp. 31-37). Urbana, IL: 

University of Illinois Press. 

2 The Schools Third Quarter 

With an Addendum by Robert W. Oram 


Robert B. Downs 

he year 1943, in the midst of American participation 
in World War II, marked a number of changes in the Illinois 
Library School's administration. Carl M. White, after three 
short years as director, departed for Columbia (his 
predecessor, Phineas L. Windsor, had filled the post for 
thirty-one years); E. W McDiarmid, assistant director, left 
for Minnesota; and Robert B. Downs and Lewis F. Stieg 
took over the positions of director and assistant director. 

Teaching and working conditions in the School were 
feeling a definite impact from the war in progress. The 
University was on a three-semester schedule, following 
adoption of an accelerated program, and classes for the 
fall semester did not begin until October 13. Enrollment 
in all University divisions was down; the Library School 
recorded only fifty-one students. Nevertheless, there was 

24 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

a Strong faculty on hand to greet the newcomers, including 
Ethel Bond, Anne Boyd, Marie Hostetter, Rose Phelps, 
Gwladys Spencer, John Lancaster, and Alice Lohrer. 

The effect of the war was being felt in another direction- 
placement. The acute shortages of personnel which have 
plagued libraries since the early forties were already in 
evidence. It is startling to recall, however, that library 
school graduates without experience were being placed 
in starting positions at $1,500 to $1,800, contrasted to 
a 1967 average of $7,000 or better. 

Several activities which have continued to the present 
time and have lent distinction to the Illinois School had 
their beginnings in 1943: the first of a long series of institutes 
for practicing librarians and the first in a series of publications, 
Illinois Contributions to Librarianship. The years immediately 
following, "until the boys came marching home," saw 
progress on various fronts: a general curricular revision 
in 1944 (inspired by the Metcalf-Osborn-Russell survey 
of the previous year); the relocation and strengthening 
of the Library School Library; the sponsorship by the Library 
School and the University Library of a weekly radio series 
treating the general topic of books and libraries. 

As early as 1945, alumni and students were expressing 
interest in a doctoral degree in library science at Illinois. 
Several years were to go by, however, before the inbred 
conservatism of the Graduate School executive faculty 
could be overcome and approval obtained for a doctoral 
program. Even after reluctant acceptance of the Library 
School's proposal in 1948, only a professional degree. 
Doctor of Library Science, was approved. Fortunately, before 
the new degree was actually conferred on any candidate, 
a more enlightened viewpoint prevailed in the Graduate 
School administration and the standard doctor of philosophy 
degree was adopted. 

When Professor P. L. Windsor retired in 1940, the 
Library School alumni created a special endowment in 

Third Quarter Century ♦ 25 

his honor. In 1948, after consideration of various proposals, 
the alumni voted to use the accumulated ftind to support 
an annual lectureship. The plan adopted provided for the 
appointment each year of a speaker of outstanding reputation 
in the world of books to deliver the "Phineas L. Windsor 
Lectures in Librarianship," and for publication of the lectures 
in a series by the University of Illinois Press. In the intervening 
years, twenty-two lecturers have contributed to the program. 
Nearly all the addresses have been issued in handsome 
and appropriate formats by the Press, and several have 
approached the status of best-sellers. Among the distinguished 
speakers who have held appointments as Windsor Lecturers 
are John Winterich, Gordon Ray, Louis Ridenour, John 
Carter, Sir Frank Francis, Jonathan Daniels, Dan Lacy, Vemer 
Clapp, Theodore Waller, David Mearns, John Flanagan, 
Sol Malkin, Ralph Shaw, and Lester Asheim. 

The national upheaval in library education that struck 
professional library schools in the late forties also brought 
about radical changes at Illinois. Starting with the 1948 
fall semester, in addition to inaugurating the new doctoral 
program, it was announced that the fifth-year bachelor 
of science and the sixth-year master of science degree 
were being discontinued, and a fifth-year M.S. degree in 
library science was being adopted. Admission to graduate 
study was based on the successful completion of four 
undergraduate "core" courses, or the passing of compre- 
hensive examinations, a pattern still [1968] adhered to 
for beginning students. The principal reasons for the changes 
were the growing belief that a master's degree in librarianship 
should not require more time than a master's degree in 
most subject fields, and the fact that the existing systems 
of training were proving inadequate to meet the increasing 
shortage of professional librarians. 

Along with the alterations in degree structure, the 
Illinois curriculum was revised. As modified, the new master's 
degree had two chief purposes: to prepare for beginning 
professional positions in various types of libraries, and 

26 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

to lay a foundation for advanced study leading to the doctorate 
in library science. 

Changes in any faculty are to be expected, for a variety 
of reasons, and the Illinois Library School faculty was 
no exception for the period under review. Lewis Stieg 
resigned as assistant director in 1947 to accept the directorship 
of the University of Southern California Library and Library 
School. He was succeeded by Harold Lancour, formerly 
librarian of Cooper Union, who remained in the associate 
directorship until 1961, when he was attracted to the 
deanship of the newly established library school at the 
University of Pittsburgh. Gwladys Spencer, who had joined 
the faculty in 1940 and had demonstrated brilliance in 
teaching, research, and scholarship, died in November 
1947. In 1949, Ethel Bond, who personified cataloging 
and classification to generations of Illinois Library School 
students, reached retirement age; Miss Bond had been 
a member of the faculty since 1912. Another long-term 
staff member, Anne M. Boyd, retired the following year, 
after thirty-two years on the faculty. Miss Boyd was a much 
beloved teacher and her courses in book selection and 
government publications were celebrated. Josie B. Houchens, 
who had taught part time since 1915 and who was for 
years a moving force in the Library School Alumni Association, 
reached emerita status the next year, 1951. Another extremely 
popular teacher, who followed in Miss Boyd's footsteps 
in her interest in government publications and reference, 
was Rose B. Phelps, who retired in 1958 after being almost 
continuously associated with the Library School since 
1928. An even longer period of service was represented 
by Marie M. Hostetter, specialist in school librarianship, 
who joined the faculty in 1926 and retired in I960. 

The tradition of long service in a single institution 
is less commonly observed in more recent times. Among 
those who have come to the Library School faculty since 
World War II the rate of turnover has been high, but the 
School gained substantially from their varied abilities while 

Third Quarter Century ♦ 27 

they were at Illinois. Thelma Eaton, Miss Bond's successor, 
was on the faculty from 1949 to 1962; Donald E. Strout, 
from 1953 to 1963; William Vernon Jackson, from 1953 
to 1962; Walter Stone, from 1949 to I960 (though for 
several years on leave); Viola James, from 1948 to 1957; 
and Harold Goldstein, intermittently from 1954 to 1967, 
when he resigned to accept the deanship of the Florida 
State University Library School. 

On the other hand, a number of appointments during 
the decades 1940-1960 continued to provide strength 
and distinction for the School. Frances B. Jenkins, brought 
in from the University of California in 1951, was recognized 
as one of the country's leading authorities on scientific 
and technical literature. RoUand E. Stevens, the School's 
first Ph.D. degree recipient, who came back to Illinois 
in 1963, was an able and enthusiastic teacher of reference 
service and of the history of books and libraries. Herbert 
Goldhor, who came out of military service in World War 
II to join the faculty (1946-52) returned to Illinois in 
1962, the first year as associate director and thereafter 
as director of the Library School. Illinois' reputation as 
a center for the preparation of school and children's librarians 
was firmly established by three members of the faculty: 
Alice Lohrer, Winifred C. Ladley, and Cora E. Thomassen. 

The international character of the Illinois Library School 
may be shown in several ways: for example, a number 
of the faculty have participated in foreign missions: Harold 
Lancour in England and France; Alice Lohrer in Thailand, 
Japan, and Iran; Harold Goldstein in Ceylon; William V. 
Jackson in Latin America, France, and Spain; Herbert Goldhor 
in Colombia and Europe; and Robert Downs in Japan, Turkey, 
Latin America, and Afghanistan. At the same time, foreign 
students have been attracted to Illinois in as great numbers 
as the School could accommodate them. No less than forty- 
five nations and all continents were represented in the 
School's enrollment during the two decades following 

28 ♦ Ideals and S^A^fDARDS 

World War II. Many returned to become leaders in their 

One of the distinctive aspects of the Illinois School 
is its publication program, the most extensive of any school 
in the nation. Noteworthy are the quarterly journal Library 
Ti-ends, started in 1952; Occasional Papers, inaugurated 
in 1949; Illinois Contributions to Librarianship, 1943; 
Monographs (a series of reprints and original works); 
Windsor Lectures in Librarianship; Allerton Park Institute 
Series, issued annually since 1956; and Proceedings of 
the Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing, 
an annual publication since 1963. 

A pioneer organization in its field and itself a prolific 
source of publications is the School's Library Research 
Center, established in 1961 and directed with great ability 
from 1962 to 1968 by Guy Garrison. Operating chiefly 
with grants from the Illinois State Library and from contract 
funds, the Center has carried on a variety of research 
studies on problems relating to the principal types of 

Space is lacking to review in depth other significant 
phases of the Library School's history during its third quarter- 
century. It would be negligent, however, not to mention 
such important activities as the weekly Library School 
colloquium, started in 1947, which brought many prominent 
speakers before the students; the establishment in 1949 
of the Alpha Chapter of Beta Phi Mu, international scholarship 
honorary in the field of librarianship; a statewide extension 
program of off-campus classes for librarians in service, 
in which a good number of the faculty have shared; the 
Allerton Park Institutes in late fall, which have gained 
national audiences; and a variety of other institutes, 
conferences, and workshops, some at Allerton and others 
on the Urbana campus, for special groups. 

As the Graduate School of Library Science (its proper 
title since 1959) entered its fourth quarter-century, it 
had a solidly established reputation for high standards; 

Third Quarter Centliry ♦ 29 

for producing able and distinguished alumni; for a strong 
faculty, sound curriculum, and deep concern with fundamental 
research; and an impressive publication program. 

The School endeavored, with much evidence of success, 
to maintain a proper balance among its three primary 
objectives— teaching, research, and public service. Growing 
enrollments enabled the School to be highly selective 
in admissions and through an expanding number of fellowships, 
scholarships, and assistantships to offer financial aid to 
the most promising students. Prospects are excellent for 
improved physical facilities for the School in the not-too- 
distant future. In brief, there is every reason to believe 
that the University of Illinois Graduate School of Library 
Science will remain one of America's leading professional 
schools in its field, as it has been for the past several 

The School s Third Quarter Century 

An Addendum by Robert W. Oram 

When the editorial committee decided to revise Robert 
Downs's earlier article on "The School's Third Quarter- 
Century" from Reminiscences, Walter Allen and I discussed 
just how this should be done without damaging the original. 
It became clear to us that one does not tamper with the 
prose of a (then) living legend. After Robert B. Downs's 
death it was even clearer that we must leave the article 
as it stands. There are those of us who remember his working 
habits— a steady flow of handwritten prose on a yellow- 
lined tablet which was then turned over to his secretarial 
staff without further corrections or additions. To change 
or amend those bare-bones sentences would have amounted 
to lese majesty. Therefore, we agreed that the only way 
was to fill in the areas he had not covered and to expand 
the role that he played in this period of the School. Although 
I was not directly connected with the School when I came 
back to Illinois in 1956, nor did I have him as a teacher 
when obtaining my M.S.L.S. in 1949-50, I did have close 

30 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

connection to the School in other ways. One valuable 
connection was sitting in the administrative staff conference 
on a weekly basis and watching Robert Downs in action. 
Further, from 1956 to 1972, I was fortunate enough to 
have each semester four graduate assistants assigned to 
the Circulation Department. There was no better inside 
source than those conversations I had with them, many 
of which concerned the School. Also, some of the professional 
staff were doctoral candidates, such as Charles Churchwell, 
Paul Spence, Ed HoUey, and the late Bill Nash, who brought 
their previous experiences to their assessment of the School's 
program. Finally, many of my wife's and my friends were 
members of the faculty who shared their thinking with 
us, particularly Professor Winifred Ladley and the late 
Drs. Lancour and Goldstein. 

Rather than do a questionnaire of all the Ph.D. graduates, 
I have chosen to expand the article from my own memories 
and experiences over twenty years at Illinois, from a series 
of short interviews and letters, and from the statistical 
information given to me by the School's staff. 


One of the most obvious omissions of the original 
article was any mention of Robert Downs's own teaching. 
For one so interested in library education, it is a strange 
and modest gap, one rather typical of him. The School's 
records show that he taught three courses as well as 101 
(Thesis I and II) and 102 (individual research), later 
renumbered as 491 and 492. At times he shared the thesis 
courses with others on the faculty. He taught "Resources 
of American Libraries" several times, as well as "Problems 
of College and University Library Administration" (which 
had a slightly different title in a later year) and "Current 
Scene in Librarianship." In addition, he was always available 
for individual doctoral consultation. He started teaching 
in 1944, but by 1949-50 he was largely working on the 

Third Quarter Century ♦ 31 

resources seminars. Unquestionably, the information gathered 
in those courses found its way into American Library 
Resources (Downs, 1951) with due crediting. Robert F. 
Delzell, later to be Downs's administrative assistant, noted 
that that particular course was taught "masterfully and 
it was great fun to boot." 

It was as a mentor that Robert Downs is most remembered 
by some of his doctoral students. Despite his seemingly 
austere personality, he was deeply concerned with his 
students. One of them remembers that when he was most 
discouraged and had quit the doctoral program, Downs 
called him up to find out why he had not registered. When 
Downs found out why, he said simply that he would see 
to it that the student was registered, and in due time 
that particular candidate got his degree. One time he even 
interceded in a housing problem for a minority candidate 
when the University could not provide quarters. His was 
a stabilizing influence, another former doctoral candidate 
reported. When the trend in dissertations seemed to be 
slanted toward a statistical approach. Downs would encourage 
a non-statistical method and would defend the project 
despite faculty arguments against it. 

He encouraged collaboration on his own books and 
worked closely, for example, with Ralph McCoy on the 
updating of The First Freedom (Downs, I960). Downs 
liked using his former students in his surveys, and Dr. 
McCoy remembers enjoying working with Robert B. Downs 
on the New York University project and the Missouri Survey. 
William Vernon Jackson participated in American Library 
Resources and is considering issuing another edition. Ed 
HoUey notes that Downs encouraged him to publish, and 
this encouragement continued well after HoUey's earning 
of the Ph.D. 


A little-mentioned aspect of Downs's influence on 
the relationship between the Library and Library School 

32 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

was his encouragement of clerical staff members to take 
courses on a part-time basis. These courses were clearly 
intended to make the staff a better prepared one. In later 
years, this practice was discouraged, but during this period 
of the School's history it was essential to the School's 
and Library's existence because it was a useful and practical 
solution both to enrollment and staff training. One highly 
educated refugee from Central Europe gave Downs full 
credit for enabling her, through this program, to attain 
a professional position suited to her talents. 

Robert Downs's continued encouragement of the 
graduate assistant program was beneficial to the School, 
the Library, and the Library Research Center. The program 
was designed to give both master's and doctoral candidates 
the experience of working in a large university library 
which they may have lacked before coming to Illinois. 
Further, the less-than-adequate financial support helped 
keep many a student in school. Dr. Guy Garrison noted 
to me that the Library Research Center contributed to 
the School's education program by its support of assistantships. 



Knowing Robert Downs's modesty, one can understand 
why he does not mention what appears to be one of the 
important factors of his administration — the influence 
he had as dual head in gaining benefits for the School 
and the Library. As a joint director (later dean), he had 
only to walk down the street to the Administration Building 
and start a process that would end in his getting what 
he wanted. Like many academic changes, this effort often 
proved to be a slow process, but it was a rare time when 
he could not persuade a provost (or a Graduate School 
Committee) what was best for the School was best for 
the University. As can be seen from the earlier text, he 
was particularly proud of changing the professional degree 
to the full doctorate. 

Third Quajiter Century ♦ 33 

It is interesting that his influence was so pervasive 
despite the fact that he had only the honorary doctorate 
himself. It is, of course, true that the doctorate for directors 
was not considered so important then as now. The University 
faculty thought highly of him (he worked closely with 
Professors Baldwin and Fletcher of the English Department, 
for example). Ed HoUey noted that he has rarely seen 
the type of respect the faculty had for Downs, perhaps 
because he was always alert to services to faculty and 

That his very presence as a person and as the head 
of both the Library and the School gave him clout is best 
known in the fact that, when he retired, the deanship 
was not kept for either the Library or the School. The 
Library never regained the title. It is true that, during 
his last years, the administration changed, the old guard 
retired, the familiar faces who knew and respected Downs 
left. Whether Downs could have maintained that clout 
in the face of these changes and the beginning of the 
still-continuing serious budget problems is a moot point, 
but that he brought both the Library and the Library School 
to national prominence during this third quarter is clear. 
And it was not only inside the University that he had respect. 
During these years he was president of the American Library 
Association, the Association of College and Research Libraries, 
and the Illinois Library Association. Further, he was honored 
by several foreign governments for his consultation on 
their library problems. Of these honors he was very proud. 


Speaking of Downs as an administrator. Dr. Herbert 
Goldhor, formerly director of the School, wrote in a letter, 
"He was certainly capable of decisive and even direct 
action." (It should be noted, however, that he did not 
act in haste and without due cause.) Dr. Goldhor noted 
that, upon Downs's retirement. Downs recommended 
separation of the School from the Library, and Goldhor 

34 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

added, "with no discussion with or input from me." In 
other words, as the last dual head in the country, he recognized 
that times had changed. In Goldhor's statement there lies 
a possible criticism of Downs's way of administration- 
action that did not always recognize consultation. He had 
a firm belief in his own ability to solve problems unilaterally. 

Other criticisms of the Downs era can be leveled. 
Library and School faculty salaries were sometimes very 
low and did not increase as rapidly as they might have; 
some of the graduating students were receiving better 
salaries than the faculty. There is also some feeling that 
the research, either by the faculty or at times by the staff 
of the Research Center, did not have the depth it might 
have had. At times Downs could be unwarrantedly optimistic, 
as when he noted, "Prospects are excellent for improved 
physical facilities in the not too distant future." It was 
well after his retirement that the School moved out of 
the cramped quarters of the Library, and only now is there 
the prospect that the University will remodel a building 
for the School, reminding us that even a Robert Downs 
could not accomplish miracles. 


Some aspects of the school which Robert Downs did 
not touch on were the make-up and growth of the student 
body and the influence the graduates, particularly the 
doctoral ones, had on the profession in later years. 

The change in numbers and the ratio of male to female 
was not unique to Illinois nor was the increase in enrollment, 
but the changes were significant and contributed to the 
prestige of the School. A quick look at the figures indicates 
that class size (including non-degree students and those 
working on degrees, including the B.S.) had reached a 
low in 1944 of 55. The peak enrollment came in 1967 
with 163. 

Women's enrollment was always proportionately greater 
than men's, but 1946 saw a mild increase in the percentage 

Third Quarter Century ♦ 35 

of men enrolled. The largest male enrollment came in 
1967 with 41 while there were 121 females. Obviously, 
the rise in male enrollment came in the post-war years 
with the influx of veterans, but there are a variety of reasons 
why class size burgeoned. The question here is, just how 
much did Downs's reputation and the consequent importance 
of the School have to do with this growth and change? 
Without examination of these patterns in other major 
library schools, this remains an unknown. Word of mouth, 
however, is always a factor in selecting a degree program, 
and the Downs reputation must be taken into consideration. 

I have no data on the non-doctoral graduates, although 
my observation is that many of the M.S.L.S. graduates came 
to have very responsible positions (including those as 
directors of large institutions). But the evidence of the 
doctoral graduates is impressive indeed. Of the 75 doctoral 
graduates between 1951 and 1971, 30 became heads or 
associate heads of libraries, and 39 became deans or professors 
in library schools. In fact, some became both. The balance 
gained responsible positions. 

Of course, other faculty members, the assistant director 
who managed the School on a day-to-day basis, the size 
of the School, and its location in a major university all 
played a role in growth. But one had only to attend American 
Library Association summer and midwinter conventions 
to understand the value of having Robert B. Downs as 
dean during this period of the School. 


Those persons who responded to my calls or letters were Charles 
Churchweil, Robert F. Delzell, Guy Garrison, Herbert Goldhor, Ed 
Holley, Ralph McCoy, Paul Spence, Jane Downs, and Debra Park. 


Downs, Robert Bingham. (1951). American library resources: A 
bibliographical guide. Chicago, IL: American Library Association. 

Downs, Robert Bingham. (I960). The first freedom: Liberty and justice 
in the world of books and reading. Chicago, IL: American Library 

The Fourth Quarter Century 

A Personal Reminiscence 


Lawrence W. S. Auld 


first visited the School in April 1966 when I attended 
the Annual Clinic on Library Applications of Data 
Processing, and I returned in 1968 and again in 1972 
to present papers. Nevertheless, when I entered the 
Ph.D. program in 1973, my family and I moved to what 
was for us a new and, we thought, temporary home. 
Both children were in junior high school, and Rhoda's 
first book was published that fall. We expected to be 
in Urbana-Champaign only long enough for me to complete 
the degree before we moved on. Instead, we stayed 
in the community more than three times longer than 
any previous home. What happened? In 1976, I accepted 
a one-year temporary appointment as acting assistant 
director of the School, taking on a set of responsibilities 
I continued for ten years under a number of different 
titles. Then, I taught full-time for three years. Thus, 
what began as a brief interlude between professional 
positions changed my career from that of a librarian 

The Fourth Quarter Century ♦ 37 

working in libraries to a librarian engaged in education 
for librarianship. That same change resulted in our longest 
sojourn in one community, for a total of 16 years. 

When I agreed to write this chapter, I planned to 
visit the University of Illinois campus where I could 
use the University Archives and other School records. 
However, a family medical emergency kept me in Greenville 
for most of 1991, so this chapter is a series of reminiscences 
based largely on personal recollections and impressions. 
I have exercised the prerogative of a selective memory, 
chiefly reporting strengths and accomplishments while 
ignoring some less happy events. Because this volume 
is a celebration of the first century of a particularly 
influential library school, I think this is an appropriate 
approach with an overall picture which is fair and accurate, 
although some shadow areas are lacking in detail. Also, 
it leaves ample opportunity for a future scholar to fill 
in the details, perhaps for the sesquicentennial volume. 

During my first semester in the School I kept busy 
with three units of course work, a half-time assistantship 
in the Learning Resources Laboratory, and, of course, 
my family. One of the highlights was the privilege of 
attending my first AUerton Institute. This exciting 
conference on cable television in libraries, organized 
by Cora Thomassen, was well attended by enthusiastic 
participants who believed in the potential of cable TV 
for libraries. I was converted, and it was only after 
several years of observation and writing a dissertation 
that I accepted the reality that the potential was far 
beyond the grasp of most libraries. Sadly, it has become 
even more distant since then. 

Later institutes were good, but for me they never 
had the same spontaneity or excitement. Then, the costs 
and logistics of maintaining the conference at Allerton 
House caused it to be relocated in Champaign-Urbana 
some years; however, the participants yearned for Allerton 

38 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

Park, and the institute later returned to a refurbished 
house and enhanced services. 

In August 1973, students packed the classrooms 
and crowded the corridors. Just five years before, at 
the beginning of the period which is the subject of 
this chapter, library school enrollments throughout 
the United States were the highest ever, and they were 
still growing. Even with the new master's programs 
that were being opened, there were not enough librarians 
to fill the vacant positions being advertised. To help 
meet this need, the library schools awarded MLS degrees 
to over 5,000 persons that year, and virtually all of them 
had been offered jobs by the time they had graduated. 
However, although we were not yet fully aware of it, 
job opportunities were already beginning to decline. 
(So much for the 100,000 professional vacancies for 
librarians said to exist across the United States!) 
Nevertheless, the high enrollments continued until the 
early 1970s when they peaked and then began to fall 
away, slowly at first, then more quickly, like a sudden 
steep flight of stairs leading down. Looking back, we 
can see that library schools continued to attract students 
after graduate programs in other disciplines were cutting 
back, for at least two reasons. The first was the time 
lag in the employment predictions issued annually by 
the U.S. Department of Labor. (It was not until about 
1974 that the Bureau of Labor Statistics recognized 
the decline in library employment opportunities.) Second, 
refugees from other disciplines were willing to take 
a chance on a one-year program which could offer better 
employment possibilities than their own fields. We 
attracted some fine librarians to the profession this way. 

Although the School saw its peak enrollment of 
about 220 in 1973, there were still over 175 master's 
students enrolled in 1976, and the University's Graduate 
College proposed placing limits on the size of the School. 
This was part of a campus-wide effort, reflecting a feeling 

The Fourth Quarter Century ♦ 39 

in the Graduate College that the University's graduate 
enrollments had exceeded the resources that were 
necessary to support strong graduate studies. Because 
additional resources seemed not to be forthcoming, 
quotas were set for each graduate program. The proposal 
was soon forgotten, however, as would-be applicants 
viewed the restricted job market and pursued other 
vocations. The Graduate College later denied having 
ever suggested such limitations. By 1980, applications 
and enrollments were far below the quota of 174 that 
had been proposed. 

Enrollments continued to decline, reaching a low 
of 134 in 1983. Then, after a couple of years, a slow, 
steady climb back up began, finally passing the 200 
mark in 1991. 

Throughout this experience, the School was fortunate 
that the University, unlike many other institutions, did 
not link budgets to enrollments. Thus, while the School's 
semester-by-semester production of instructional units 
(a measure of classroom productivity) dropped in the 
early 1980s to one-half of its previous level, the base 
budget was not similarly lowered, although there were 
attempts to use instructional units for this purpose 
during some austere years. Even though instructional 
units were not formally linked to budgets, I was impressed 
by the importance placed on them by the administration, 
for data on instructional units were systematically collected 
on printed forms, and they were distributed across the 
campus in printed reports. 

All through this period, there was talk in Admissions 
Committee meetings and among the faculty generally 
about wanting to exercise greater selectivity in admissions 
to the master's program, e.g., raising the minimum grade 
point averages and Graduate Record Examination scores 
required for admission to the master's program. In the 
eyes of the University, the higher the academic credentials, 
the better the student. Yet offsetting this was a realization 

40 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

on our part that the professional commitment of the 
average student during this period was as strong, perhaps 
even stronger, than it had been during periods of higher 
enrollments. The opposing expectations of the academic 
and professional communities were clearly delineated 
in these discussions. 

As I became acculturated to the School, I quickly 
learned that from 1897 until 1971 the School and the 
University Library were administratively linked. Today, 
even though they have been administratively separate 
for more than 20 years and housed in separate buildings 
for more than 10 years, many persons still confuse the 
School with the Library. I have noticed that this same 
confusion between library and library school also exists 
on other campuses and will, no doubt, always be a problem. 

Robert B. Downs became Dean of the Library and 
the Graduate School of Library Science in 1942. Like 
his predecessors Katharine L. Sharp, Phineas L. Windsor, 
and Carl White, he was responsible for the operation 
of both the University Library and the School. In August 
1971 he retired, and the School became an autonomous 
unit of the University. Herbert Goldhor was named director 
of the School, Lucien White was named director of the 
Library, and both reported to the vice-chancellor for 
academic affairs. I think that to have made the separation 
sooner, as some have suggested, would have made little 
difference, since Dr. Goldhor had been the de facto 
leader of the School for several years. While Dean Downs's 
interest in the welfare of the School was very strong, 
as it continued to be in his retirement, the increasingly 
complex demands of the Library prevented him from 
being as active in School affairs as he might have liked. 
There was no need to deprive the School of this interest. 

Before his retirement. Dr. Herbert Goldhor was 
a public librarian, a library educator, and an indefatigable 
researcher who also administered the School for some 
sixteen years. I always found him straightforward and 

The Fourth Quarter Century ♦ 41 

easy to work with. As the director of my dissertation, 
he gave me invaluable guidance. At the end of my first 
year as his assistant director, he invited me to continue 
for a second year. At that time he reorganized the Library 
Research Center and took on its operation himself, devoting 
half of his time to the Center and delegating much of 
the day-to-day operation of the School to me. 

My major duties included admissions, class scheduling, 
and student financial aid, which was the most difficult. 
As many alumni know, the University of Illinois has 
a remarkable program of financial aid for graduate students. 
While some do pay tuition, the vast majority do not 
because of tuition waivers or, more commonly, 
assistantships and fellowships which include waivers 
of tuition and service fees. Sooner or later, virtually 
all newly admitted students asked about their financial 
aid. Here I had relatively little authority, for individual 
members of the faculty selected the recipients of most 
of the assistantships within the School. A much larger 
number of assistantships were controlled by the various 
units of the University Library. Most fellowships were 
awarded with the advice and consent of the admissions 
committee (for master's students) and the advanced 
studies committee (for certificate of advanced study 
and Ph.D. students). Competitive tuition waivers and 
fellowships were awarded on the basis of academic 
credentials and, sometimes, other criteria such as minority 
status. I used to liken financial aid to a four- or even 
a five-dimensional puzzle; as the puzzle was adjusted 
and rotated, what had appeared to be a clear solution 
in one dimension was totally wrong in another dimension. 
Without question, working with financial aid was the 
most difficult part of my job. 

When I began as assistant to the director, I discovered 
to my surprise that I had unilateral control over admissions 
to both the master's and the C.A.S. programs. (Doctoral 
applicants were screened by the doctoral committee.) 

42 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

A point system had been devised by my predecessor, 
Dr. Robert Brown, in an attempt to imp'ose some rationale 
on the admissions process during the period when there 
were more applicants than there were places in the 
master's program. I continued to tally points for each 
applicant during my first year, but I abandoned it as 
we entered a period of declining applications. Soon, 
we were admitting all qualified applicants. This sounds 
bad on the surface, but, underneath, it was less of a 
problem. The minimum admission requirements were 
always fairly high, and the level of professional commitment 
of these students was very high. Also, correlation studies 
indicate that no more than one-fourth of the variability 
in graduate grade point averages can be explained by 
undergraduate grade point averages and GRE scores, 
the two primary admission factors. 

I was never comfortable with the notion that one 
person could make unilateral decisions that could affect 
people for the rest of their lives. Later, acting director 
Roger Clark shared my concern and proposed the creation 
of an admissions committee to the faculty. Working 
with the new committee, I was pleased and reassured 
to notice that their recommendations for admissions 
were, essentially, the same as I had been making. Even 
so, I believe that having a committee perform this function 
is much better than having one person do it alone. 

In working with admissions, I tried, always, to read 
through each applicant's entire folder regardless of 
how good or bad it appeared at the outset. At my insistence, 
the other members of the admissions committee followed 
this same practice. Thus, we could assure everyone 
that each recommendation was based on the applicant's 
entire dossier. This practice paid off more than once 
when an otherwise promising applicant had a low grade 
point average or low GRE scores, and we were able 
to recommend admission anyway. We have some fine 
alumni who could not have come to Illinois if we had 

The Fourth Quarter Century ♦ 43 

not followed this practice of "looking at the whole 

The C.A.S. program was very small before 1980, 
so my workload for C.A.S. admissions was very light. 
However, during attempts by the School to set up a 
C.A.S. program at the University of Tehran, Iran, in 1976, 
the matter of C.A.S. vs. doctoral admissions became 
confused. I shared this problem with the doctoral 
committee along with the suggestion that it be renamed 
the advanced studies committee and that the faculty 
transfer C.A.S. admissions to the new committee. The 
faculty agreed at its next meeting. (In spite of much 
hard work by Dr. Brown and others, the proposed Iranian 
C.A.S. program never materialized. However, in a separate 
effort. Dr. Brown later negotiated the establishment 
of a master's program at the Imperial Medical Center 
of Iran with faculty to be supplied by the School. The 
first and only semester's classes were conducted 
simultaneously with the revolution in 1979) 

About 1977, Pearce Grove, then director of the library 
at Western Illinois University in Macomb, said that he 
had a number of persons on his staff who were interested 
in securing master's degrees in library science. He asked 
if we could schedule a series of classes on Fridays only 
so that these persons could commute one day a week 
and obtain degrees. We did, and five or six persons 
from Macomb enrolled in the program. Every Friday 
morning, they were on the road by 4:00 am in order 
to arrive on campus at 9:00 am. As I recall, they all 
eventually completed the program, and one went on 
to earn a C.A.S. 

In May 1978, Dr. Goldhor announced that in August 
he would step down as director of the School, and that 
he would like to be the full-time director of the Library 
Research Center. The immediate question was: Who 
would be acting director? I had worked closely with 
Dr. Roger Clark in the Graduate College on several matters 

44 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

including admissions, and he was a great help as we 
revised the Ph.D. program. I suggesfed that he would 
be a suitable choice, since I had found him to be interested 
in matters concerning librarianship, thoughtful and 
deliberate in his actions, and in a position to bring 
the School and the campus closer together. He was 
appointed and served, half-time, from August 1978 to 
August 1979. He helped to select Dr. Charles H. Davis 
as the new dean (note the change in title), saw the 
School move from the Library to David Kinley Hall, and 
extended the connections between the School and the 
campus. An example of the latter was Clark's role in 
planning a one-day conference sponsored by the Graduate 
School of Library Science, the College of Education, 
and the School of Social Work on the opposing tensions 
between the University's professional and academic 
expectations. Just before he returned to full-time work 
in the Graduate College, he was awarded an honorary 
master's degree by the faculty in appreciation and 
remembrance for his work during the year. (Professor 
Don Krummel hand-lettered the diploma.) Among the 
benefits Dr. Clark brought to the School was a better 
understanding of campus expectations, protocols, and 

Dr. Charles H. Davis became dean in August 1979- 
He asked me to stay an additional year as acting assistant 
dean since, as he said, "You know where all the files 
are." In our division of labor, he concentrated on the 
external affairs of the School, leaving many of the day- 
to-day internal affairs to me. It was a good arrangement 
which allowed our complementary talents and interests 
to work together effectively. It was no surprise when 
he suggested that the School should expand its name, 
and, in 1981, it was changed to the Graduate School 
of Library and Information Science. Dean Davis invested 
heavily in efforts to maintain good relations between 
the School and its various professional clienteles. He 

The Fourth Quarter Century ♦ 45 

also served a term as president of the American Society 
for Information Science. 

The Library School Association, the oldest organized 
alumni group on campus, was formed in 1898. It published 
a newsletter with news of alumni, hosted annual reunions 
at the ALA Annual Conferences, and purchased several 
shares of AT&T stock through the income transferred 
periodically to the Katharine Sharp Fellowship Fund. 
As it became increasingly difficult to get the newsletter 
written, published, and distributed, there was a general 
consensus that a different arrangement was needed. 
After some negotiations by Dean Davis and Rita 
Bartholomew (the placement officer), the Library School 
Association became a constituent group within the 
University of Illinois Alumni Association. Members of 
the Alumni Association who were graduates of the School 
were automatically assigned to the Library School 
Association together with a portion of their dues, but 
members of the Library School Association did not 
automatically become members of the Alumni Association 
because of the difference in dues. At the same time. 
Dean Davis initiated a good-looking newsletter that 
featured news of the School and its faculty, students, 
and alumni. 

The School had offered a regular series of extension 
classes in the late 1940s, the 1950s, and on into the 
1960s. These offerings ceased during the period of peak 
enrollments, perhaps because the faculty was fully 
occupied with students on campus. But times change, 
and the School began offering extension classes again 
in the early 1980s in response to requests which were 
coming from all over Illinois. At one time or another 
we received requests from such widely scattered locations 
as Rockford, Chicago, Rock Island, Peoria, Bloomington, 
Decatur, Springfield, and East St. Louis. Although the 
needs were genuine, the critical mass of students could 
be assembled only in Peoria, Springfield, and Chicago. 

46 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

The other sites were too distant, or they could never 
produce enough students to fill a class.* 

In 1981, Chicago Public Library Commissioner Don 
Sager requested that the area library schools each submit 
a proposal for a master's program to be offered in downtown 
Chicago. Representatives from Northern Illinois University, 
Rosary College, and the University of Illinois met with 
Commissioner Sager and members of his staff. Despite 
rumors to the contrary, no proposals were actually offered, 
although a number of courses were offered. The School 
offered a series of five or six courses, one per semester. 
The first class, LIS 300 ("Foundations of Library and 
Information Science") opened with about 35 students, 
but the ranks quickly thinned to less than 20 within 
two or three weeks. Each of the subsequent courses 
saw smaller enrollments, and the last to be offered 
was canceled when too few students enrolled. (In the 
late 1980s, an unrelated proposal for an entire master's 
program in Chicago was assembled by Dean Estabrook 
and Professor Edmonds, but the State Board of Higher 
Education did not act on it, so it was never implemented.) 

For many years, eight semester hours of undergraduate 
prerequisite courses were required for admission to 
the master's program, and eight units of graduate level 
coursework were required for the degree. (As alumni 
will remember, at the University of Illinois a unit is 
the equivalent of four semester hours.) In 1973 the 
four undergraduate courses — selection, cataloging, 
reference, and administration — were combined into 
a single two-unit foundations course, and the degree 
was increased to ten units of course work. The new 
foundations course was initially numbered 400 with 
the idea that only graduate students would be allowed 
to enroll, but it was quickly renumbered 300 because 
of campus pressure that the course be accessible to 
seniors as well as graduate students. The foundations 
course and its development has been described in 

The Fourth Quarter Century ♦ 47 

"Directed Independent Study Approach to a Foundation's 
Course" by Waiter C. Alien and F. W. Lancaster ( 1981 ). 

A full-time student could complete the ten unit 
master's degree in twelve months, and it is my impression 
that most did complete the program in that amount 
of time in the 1970s. However, the length of time taken 
by many students had increased to two years in the 
1980s, probably a reflection of the larger numbers of 
students who held assistantships or other employment 
concurrently with their studies. 

At this same time, even more drastic changes in 
the master's degree program were being considered 
after Herbert Goldhor visited several major public libraries 
and became convinced that the program as it then existed 
could not meet the future needs of public librarianship. 
He proposed a lengthened master's program similar 
to the programs at the University of California at Los 
Angeles and the Canadian schools. The curriculum 
committee developed a proposal for what was described 
as a two-year program, also referred to as an extended 
program. In addition to 14 units of course work in library 
science, it included undergraduate prerequisites in 
statistics, administration, personnel management, and 
one course in one's area of specialization that had never 
been taken for whatever reason. The proposal was approved 
by a majority of the faculty and sent forward into the 
University's approval process. When Dean Davis arrived, 
he assessed the faculty's and students' concerns about 
the proposal and requested that it be held briefly in 
the Graduate College while he determined what the 
faculty wanted done. It became apparent that less than 
half of the faculty in 1979 had been hired or were otherwise 
present when the two-year program proposal had been 
approved initially. A study undertaken by Jerome Miller, 
Kathleen Heim, and me proved somewhat inconclusive 
other than failing to demonstrate any significant support 
for the proposal among library directors. There was 

48 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

also concern during the then current recession, and 
given the ready access to surrouncling schools, that 
an extended master's program could well put the School 
out of business. When the faculty voted this time, a 
majority rejected the proposal, and it was withdrawn. 
Since then, three schools, the University of Washington, 
the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, and Columbia 
University, have adopted two-year programs with moderate 
success. All three have managed to attract students, 
although one school has been closed for other reasons. 

In addition to the master's program, during this 
period the School offered an undergraduate minor, a 
certificate of advanced study (C.A.S.), a doctor of 
philosophy (Ph.D.), and a doctor of library science 
(D.L.S.). The minor no longer exists in a de facto sense, 
the D.L.S. was abolished, the C.A.S. program was modified, 
and the Ph.D. program was extensively restructured. 

The minor originally served school media certification 
requirements and was an accompaniment to undergraduate 
English and other secondary teaching majors. Believing 
that having the minor resulted in a lesser credential 
for school librarians, the School asked twice to have 
the faculty senate abolish the minor. Both times the 
senate insisted that the minor be retained as a needed 
element in the teacher education program. Forced to 
keep the minor as an authorized program, the faculty 
actively discouraged prospective students, so that there 
were only one or two per decade. Thus, for all practical 
purposes, the minor had ceased to be an important 
part of the School by 1970. However, it continues to 
be listed as an undergraduate option to this day. 

The C.A.S., introduced in the early 1960s, was 
sometimes described as the "invisible" program, since 
it rarely had more than one or, occasionally, two students 
per year. Dr. Jerome K. Miller and I became concerned 
that the C.A.S. program would never attract more students 
unless it were altered so as to become a respected degree 

The Fourth Quarter Century ♦ 49 

in its own right. Working with the advanced studies 
committee of which Dr. Miller was the chair, we proposed 
several changes, most notably that the number of units 
required to complete the program be increased from 
eight to ten units, the additional two units being devoted 
to a research or creative project. The School's faculty 
approved these changes, and the proposal went forward 
and received the necessary approvals. The revised C.A.S. 
program was inaugurated in 1980. About the same time 
a key admission requirement was changed from "two 
years of post-master's experience" to "two years of 
significant experience." This allowed most graduating 
master's students, particularly those who had worked 
as graduate assistants in the University Library, to go 
directly into the C.A.S. program. Enrollments increased 
immediately to 12-15 per year. 

The doctor of library science (D.L.S.) program was 
begun in 1969 as an alternate, non-research degree 
which would complement the Ph.D., a research degree. 
Lack of congruence between the studies undertaken 
by students and the degrees they received, however, 
became evident after a few years. The purpose of the 
D.L.S. was not being fully realized. After some deliberations 
by the advanced studies committee and the faculty, 
a request to abolish the D.L.S. was put forward. The 
Board of Trustees approved the request, and the D.L.S. 
ceased to exist after the 1980 fall semester. Not surprisingly, 
this sparked a lively, albeit brief, rumor that the School 
had abolished doctoral studies altogether. 

The Ph.D., begun in 1948, was a solid and traditional 
research degree program which required ten or more 
units of coursework, two or more units of a research 
tool (i.e., statistics, a foreign language, or, later, a 
programming language), a comprehensive examination 
(two days of written responses followed by a half-day 
of oral questioning), and the dissertation (including 
presentation of the proposal and the final defense). 

50 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

The program attracted a healthy cohort of students 
each year until the early 1970s after which the numbers 
dropped off sharply. Clearly, the program was in trouble. 

For several years doctoral students had been suggesting 
that the program needed revision. At first these suggestions 
were disregarded, being viewed as no more than an 
attempt on the part of the students to do less work. 
When I managed to persuade Herbert Goldhor and Rolland 
Stevens that the suggested revisions would, in fact, require 
at least as much work, perhaps more, they agreed that 
the doctoral program should be examined and the revisions 
considered. Over the next years. Dr. Miller and I worked 
with the doctoral students, the faculty, and the Graduate 
College in building the new program. Consensus was 
reached by spring 1978 on the course work (primarily 
a series of seminars and seminar papers), seminar 
examinations in lieu of written preliminary examinations, 
and first priority for doctoral students in matters of 
financial aid. We began the revised program unofficially 
in the 1978 fall semester with a full complement of 
new doctoral students. The new program was made 
official by the Board of Trustees in 1980, and the program 
has played to a full house ever since. 

Dr. Miller and I also proposed a post-doctorate, 
but there was no money to support this program, and 
the participants have had to provide their own financial 
support. The program can probably best be described 
as an extended visiting scholar program. Thus, the boundary 
between the post-doctorate and the earlier visiting 
librarian program has been somewhat blurred. Dr. Goldhor 
had initiated the Librarian in Residence program in 
1969; the first participant was Mary Jane Carr in November 
1970. Successful applicants were invited to campus for 
varying lengths of time, usually two or three weeks, 
were permitted to use University facilities and resources, 
and were asked to give a presentation on their work 
to the students and faculty. 

The Fourth Quarter Century ♦ 51 

Citing length of tenure as dean and a desire to spend 
more time writing, Charles Davis announced in fall 1984 
his intention to return to full-time teaching and research, 
and his term as dean concluded in December 1985. 
He has continued as a full- and, more recently, half- 
time faculty member, and as visiting scholar and adjunct 
professor at Indiana University. 

Dr. Leigh S. Estabrook began as dean in January 
1986. She has an M.L.S. degree followed by a Ph.D. in 
sociology which she says guides much of her thinking. 
She has demonstrated a particular talent for raising 
funds and persuading vendors to donate furniture, 
equipment, and software to the School. When she accepted 
the deanship, she secured a commitment from the 
University administration that a computer network would 
be installed in the School. She readily admitted that 
the School's size could not justify the network; rather, 
the network was needed as a demonstration of the School's 
interest in and ability to work with electronic 
communications. "After all," she said, "we are in the 
business of information." 

AT&T was persuaded to donate three interlocking 
networks, based on three minicomputers, for 
administrative, faculty, and student use. Some two dozen 
terminals enabled faculty, students, and staff to have 
access to the networks. Also, the networks were connected 
to the campus mainframe and, thereby, to the electronic 
world at large. For example, when Dr. Linda Smith spent 
a semester on leave in Linkbping, Sweden, we were 
able to exchange electronic mail as if she were still 
in her fourth floor office in Urbana. 

I have been fascinated to observe that each group 
of master's students is different from those before and 
after. One particular difference is the extent of students' 
participation in the various extra-curricular affairs of 
the School. Picnics, Thursday morning colloquia, Windsor 
Lectures, and Friday Club (beer klatsches) were well- 

52 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

attended in the late sixties and early seventies, but 
attendance was falling off by 1975. As the attendance 
fell off, all but one of these events was eventually 
discontinued. The annual Windsor Lectures were 
downgraded from a two-day affair to one hour and then 
suspended altogether in 1977. All-School picnics, once 
a popular and regular event, became sporadic and then 
ceased when no one chose to attend. Attendance at 
the Thursday morning colloquium exceeded 150 persons 
each week, but then the students stopped coming, even 
to hear the speakers they themselves had chosen. A 
succession of student council presidents wrestled with 
this problem before the colloquia were abandoned. 
The Friday Club has survived intermittently. When the 
idea of a School commencement ceremony was suggested 
about 1980 or 81, there was a resounding "NO" from 
the students. 

In contrast. School picnics reappeared in 1986, and 
the students of the late 1980s welcomed the idea of 
a School commencement. The Windsor Lectures were 
resumed in 1990. The colloquium has not reappeared, 
although the guest speakers for the foundations class 
serve a similar purpose. The student chapters of the 
professional societies have increased in number and 
activities since 1980, and they have picked up some 
of the slack in their programs. But, even nationally 
recognized speakers brought in by these groups do not 
achieve the level of attendance once regularly enjoyed 
by the Thursday morning colloquium. There is also a 
Monday dinner club in addition to the Friday Club. And 
there are annual all-School holiday potlucks and a February 
pancake breakfast. 

What makes these differences? Is television the 
problem as some critics of modern life would have us 
believe? Or the after-effects of Vietnam? Or changing 
professional expectations? Or the fiscal needs of working 
students? Whatever the reason(s), I still wonder at the 

The Fourth Quarter Century ♦ 53 

readiness of the students of one period to attend a weekly 
colloquium regularly, regardless of who was speaking, 
and the total unwillingness of the students of another 
period to hear and meet the chancellor of their University. 

Looking beyond the University of Illinois, I can identify 
three external factors which stand out among the many 
influencing library education generally and the School 
in particular during this period: the major changes in 
enrollment levels, the raised expectations and pressures 
for faculty research and publication, and the changes 
brought about by microcomputers and associated 
technologies. I have already described the ups and downs 
of enrollment, including the differences in academic 
and professional expectations for students. These same 
opposing expectations can be seen in the credentials 
and activities expected of the faculty. 

The first library educators were drawn from the 
ranks of respected librarians, and, until the advent of 
the profession's first doctoral program at the Graduate 
Library School (University of Chicago), library schools 
had no practical alternative. It was not until the mid- 
1970s that a sufficient number of doctorates had been 
awarded in the field that library schools could begin 
to insist each new faculty member must possess (or 
soon would possess) an earned doctorate. This shift 
in credentials was accompanied by a concomitant shift 
in emphasis away from teaching and service to research 
and publication. 

There is no doubt that today's library school faculties 
are better accepted as scholars than those of 20 or 
30 years ago. At the same time, there is concern in 
the library profession about whether library school 
faculty see themselves as librarians who teach or whether 
they perceive themselves as belonging to some other 
category no longer affiliated with libraries. It is widely 
recognized that most of the School's faculty from the 
past would not even be interviewed for vacant faculty 

54 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

positions today. The academic community is happier, 
but not all librarians are persuaded that library education 
has been improved. This is an issue that remains to 
be sorted out. In the meantime, the granting of the 
University's second annual Outstanding Graduate Teaching 
Award to Professor Kathryn Luther Henderson demon- 
strates that good teaching is still valued. 

Although Ralph Parker's punched card circulation 
system, introduced at the University of Texas in 1936, 
is frequently cited as the beginning of library automation, 
it was not until the 1960s that computers began to 
have a significant impact on either libraries or library 
education. The annual Clinic on Library Applications 
of Data Processing was initiated at this time with a 
title that belies its age. In practical terms, today's library 
automation courses can be described as being driven 
by the founding of OCLC in 1968, the marketing of 
the desktop microcomputer beginning in the early 1980s, 
and the more recent availability of CD-ROMs containing 
both textual and numeric files. 

While microcomputers have been making their way 
into library education, audiovisual courses and materials 
have faded away. To describe this as cause and effect 
is only partly correct. Without doubt, dollars and space 
have been diverted from audiovisual equipment and 
materials in order to support microcomputers. At the 
same time, the audiovisual courses were feeling' the 
pinch of obsolescence from another direction. When 
"audiovisual" courses and laboratories were introduced 
in the 1940s and 1950s, they were the means of opening 
up new vistas to students who, in turn, would open 
these same realms to the clients of their libraries, for 
few people personally owned such equipment. By the 
1980s, students had newer and better equipment in 
their dormitory rooms than was usually available in 
the classroom. We are now beginning to see a similar 
phenomenon in microcomputers as students take notes 

The Fourth Quarter Century ♦ 55 

on fast laptop computers with long-lasting batteries 
and huge stores of memory, while labs are stocked with 
slow 8086 machines with (relatively) limited memories. 

These are just some of the changes I watched and 
participated in during my 16 years with the School. 
Taken one at a time they seemed relatively minor, generally 
leaving us with the feeling that if business was not as 
usual, it was not particularly unusual. However, the 
cumulative effect of these changes, as seen in this 
foreshortened view, is more profound. While vestiges 
of the School as it existed in 1968 can still be seen 
in certain course titles, areas of specialization, and 
degree names, a time traveller jumping directly from 
1968 to 1992 would find many disorienting and even 
bewildering differences. 

There have been a lot of changes throughout library 
education, the chief one being the rapid and ongoing 
shift toward electronic communications and media. 
Who in 1968 would have believed a rainbow-hued disk 
five inches in diameter on which an entire encyclopedia, 
including moving pictures and sound, could be recorded 
and easily accessed by elementary school children? Who 
would have believed a larger disk which would allow 
one to take a spontaneous walking tour of our National 
Gallery of Art? Or who would have envisioned the 
developing virtual library in which remote access is 
taking precedent over institutional ownership? 

At a point like this we are inclined to say, "Yes, 
a lot has changed," and then sit back on the assumption 
that the way it is now is the way it is going to be for 
the rest of the future. This is a comfortable position 
and may be good for a very brief interval of rest, but 
then it is time to get up and get on with the future. 

What is our future and the future of the School? 
We know that it will be different, very different, from 
1992. I think it will probably include the following: 
There still will be books, although new media will continue 

56 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

to claim larger shares of the information and reading 
scene over which printed pages once held a monopoly. 
There still will be libraries, although they will serve 
increasingly as nodes of the worldwide virtual library, 
emphasize decreasingly the collections they house, and 
complement an increasingly privatized information base. 
There still will be librarians who will serve increasingly 
as information specialists, acting as intermediaries between 
clients and information, wherever it may be located 
regardless of format. There still will be library clients, 
persons who choose to engage librarians to help them 
with their information problems. Finally, there still 
will be the School, preparing information specialists 
who will understand better, through application and 
research, the flow and function of information. 


Allen, Walter C, & Lancaster, F. W. (1981). Directed independent 
study approach to a foundations course. Journal of Education 
for Librarianship, 2/( Spring), 313-326. 

4 A Place of Our Own 

The School's Space 

Dale S. MoNXAjvfELLi 


.iss Sharp is looking for more commodious 
accommodations" (Mann, 1943, pp. 23-24). Margaret Mann, 
in Fifty Years of Education for Librarianship, gave this 
as the explanation of why in April of 1897 Katharine Sharp 
accepted the invitation from the University of Illinois to 
move the Illinois State Library School from the Armour 
Institute to the University of Illinois. Miss Sharp was offered 
a home for the Library School in the new library building 
as well as the administration of the University Library. 

In accepting the offer of the University of Illinois, 
Katharine Sharp began what has come to be one of the 
continuing efforts of the Library School— finding and keeping 
spacious, serviceable, and adaptable facilities. Altgeld Hall, 
which was occupied in the fall of 1897, provided ample 
space for the Library School. Lecture room and document 
space was provided in the lower east tower. Room 104, 
and faculty offices and the Library School study room 
were located on the 3rd floor, above the stacks. 

58 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

From the very beginning there were concerns about 
ventilation in the building. In fact, it "was at the urging 
of Melville Dewey, who attended the dedication of the 
new Library, that the Library School study room was located 
in the third floor space originally assigned to the Art Museum, 
rather than in the damp basement area it had been assigned 
during the original planning (Ratcliffe, 1949). In 1899, 
as the School grew, Katharine Sharp, in a letter to President 
Andrew Sloan Draper, reported, "I think that we can place 
the desks in rows in the Library School room and thus 
accommodate 10 or 12 more desks. We shall need to cover 
parts of the floor to secure quiet. It is doubtful if there 
will be fresh air enough for so many people in that room" 
(Sharp, 1899). The pressures of space for the students 
continued, and in September 1901, Sharp again wrote to 
Draper stating, "Each additional one who is allowed to 
come now only makes our situation worse, and I trust 
you will consider it wise to ask this young man to wait 
until next year" (Sharp, 1901). Katharine Sharp, director 
of the School, was also custodian of the building, and 
spent administrative time and effort keeping things in 
order. In early 1900, she wrote to N. S. Spencer 
(superintendent of building and grounds), "I shall give 
orders to have the Library School Room vacated soon after 
5 o'clock so that the janitress can clean it. We should 
all be delighted if some provision can be made to keep 
the room in good order." There is a note on the bottom 
of this letter in Sharp's hand which said, "The janitress 
reported later that she would prefer to do the work from 
12:00-1:00, SO there will be no difficulty" (Sharp, 1900). 
Efforts to keep the building clean and in good order continued 
throughout Katharine Sharp's correspondence as well as 
that of her successors. Also illustrative of a recurring trend 
was the effort to keep hold of one's possessions. In a letter 
to Professor Esty of the College of Engineering on February 
13, 1900, Sharp wrote, "I think there must be a little 
misunderstanding about our Library School blackboard 

The School's Space ♦ 59 

remaining in your seminar room so long. I have hesitated 
to ask for it before, because I noticed it had diagrams 
on it and we have not absolutely needed it each day, and 
I did not wish to play the dog in the manger. There have 
been days when we have needed it, and from now on 
we shall wish it often. I shall be glad to have you use 
it on Tuesdays, when your seminar meets, if the College 
of Engineering cannot furnish you one, but I really feel 
that it is the duty of the College to furnish such equipment, 
I hope you will not consider me ungracious in asking 
for this but we sometimes need both our boards" (Sharp, 
1900a). How interesting to note a time in history when 
the Library School was able to provide equipment that 
the College of Engineering could not. By 1905, we find 
Katharine Sharp requesting better lighting in the library 
school room and lockers for the Library School students. 
In this respect, times have not changed very much because 
it was not until 1912 that $125 was authorized for lighting 
improvements in these areas (University of Illinois Board 
of Trustees, 1912). 

The pressure from a larger academic unit with whom 
the Library School shared quarters to recover the space 
assigned to the Library School became apparent very early 
in the School's history. In 1903 it was already clear that 
"within two years it would be necessary to extend the 
bookstacks through the two stories occupied as a school 
for the library students" (Ratcliffe, 1949, p. 7). Fortunately, 
during the period when F.K.W. Drury was acting university 
librarian (1907-1909), the campus administration moved 
out of Altgeld Hall. This gave the Library School an opportunity 
to request more space, an improvement over its "temporary 
and inadequate quarters." After the president and the 
business office moved to the new administration building, 
the west wing of the third floor of Altgeld Hall became 
the Library School study room and the east wing became 
the Library School faculty offices (allowing stacks to be 
put into the old study room). By this time Phineas Lawrence 

60 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

Windsor had become director of the Library and of the 
Library School. Things continued on sdmewhat peacefully 
with the construction of two stack additions to Altgeld 
Hall in 1915 and 1918, but space for the Library School 
continued to become cramped as more students attended 
the School. In 1920, Windsor reported that the classroom 
was too small, much too poorly ventilated, and that four 
faculty members were sharing each office (Windsor, 1920). 

It was not until 1924 that the space requests on the 
part of the Library and the Library School were answered 
with the authorization for the construction of a new building. 
The first phase of the new building was completed in 
1926 and the Library and the Library School moved from 
Altgeld Hall into what is now the Main Library Building. 
For that initial move, the Library School was assigned 
space in the south reserve room (now the Commerce 
Library, Room 101). In that room bookcases were arranged 
to make offices for the faculty and the remainder of the 
room became the Library School study room (University 
of Illinois Library School, 1927). Rooms 104 and 106 were 
used for classroom space (Bull, 1969). In December of 
1927, with the completion of the second phase of the 
building— the north wing, the Library School moved to 
the third floor. Room 306, the present Library and Information 
Science Library, was the study room with desks for about 
100 students; Rooms 314, 328, and 118 were used as 
classrooms (Bull, 1969). Faculty offices ranged along the 
east-west corridor and the north end of the north-south 
corridor. In 1929, with the completion of the last of the 
first four phases of the building, the Library School office 
moved to the south end of the second floor (the 331 
suite), which also provided a faculty lounge and additional 
faculty offices. The School continued to occupy space 
on the third floor of the Library, which proved satisfactory 
for most of the time, between 1929 and the mid-1940s. 

From Library annual reports it can be determined 
that Library School faculty shared third floor offices with 

The School's Space ♦ 61 

two people per office with the exception of Dr. McDiarmid, 
the associate director of the School, who had a private 
office in Room 426, the first Library School incursion 
onto the fourth floor of the Library. As the School continued 
to grow in size, office space for faculty became a much 
greater problem. Room 328, which had been a classroom, 
was used for shared faculty offices. As reported elsewhere 
in this volume, the Library School study room also contained 
the Library Science Library. In 1944, those two functions 
were split and the library was moved into the former 
classroom. Room 328 (Library School Library, 1944-45). 
By the 1948-49 school year, the Library School Library 
was moved back to Room 306 where it remains to this 
day and the Library School study room disappeared (Library 
School Library, 1948-49). By 1950 the Library School was 
routinely using Room 403b to house two Library School 
faculty and had begun to assign Room 428— up till then 
a classroom— as faculty office space. In 1959, the Library 
School became the Graduate School of Library Science, 
and in 1961, in addition to fourth floor and third floor 
space in the Main Library Building, the Library Research 
Center had its offices at 706 South Lincoln. By 1968-69 
the Center had moved to Illini Tower and by 1969-70 
it was housed in the Armory. 

In 1964, the Main Library Building received a seventh 
addition, the only addition to the building since its original 
construction which provided staff office space and faculty 
studies rather than just additional stack space. This provision 
of faculty studies on the fourth floor allowed a reorganization 
of the fourth floor and provided additional office space 
for Library School faculty. In addition to housing 10 members 
of the Graduate School of Library Science in Room 428, 
there were six staff members housed in Room 439 and 
the Library School Placement Office, with one professional 
and several support staff members, was housed in Room 
415. Through the 1960s and early 1970s, faculty offices 
continued to be inadequate. 

62 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

Shortly after the arrival of Hugh C. Atkinson as University 
librarian in the fall of 1976, the Colfege of Law began 
to apply pressure on the University Library to remove 
from the Law Building collections belonging to the library 
which has been housed in the basement of the Law Building. 
The College of Law was feeling space pressures but also 
had the benefit of an accreditation report that pointed 
to lack of space as a serious problem. At that time, Mr. 
Atkinson appointed a task force, chaired by Robert Oram, 
to assess the situation. On October 25, 1977, Atkinson 
wrote to acting Chancellor Morton Weir and Vice-chancellor 
Harold Hake saying: 

I have talked to both of you on various times about 
the need for additional space for library purposes 
in the main library building. This is a request that 
the library school be moved out. I realize that such 
a move has long been considered and indeed in principle 
agreed upon. However, with the combined pressure 
from Law to clear Law 5 and from Asian Studies to 
provide library services which at least partially meet 
the commitments from their many grant proposals, 
the need for the library school space has become 
critical. As you know, there has been full and careful 
consideration of such alternatives as forming an Asian 
collection in some space on the campus outside the 
library; moving the University Archives to other space, 
and the like. While some of these alternatives seemed 
promising to begin with, upon investigation and 
consultation, they have not proved to be feasible. 
The College of LAS Executive Committee and the 
college library committee together with the Dean 
have discussed the problems at length, and at the 
suggestion of the Dean, a Task Force on Library Space 
has been formed, met and recommends the move of 
the library school as soon as possible. The Dean of 
the College of LAS has also supported such a solution. 
The Director of the Library School while being 
sympathetic to the library's problem is not overly 
enthusiastic about such a move. (Atkinson, 1977) 

The School's Space ♦ 63 

Again, it is possible to see the impact on the Library 
School of larger units (the Library) and units with more 
clout (the College of Law and of Liberal Arts and Sciences). 

By 1977-78, the Library School had outgrown the 
accommodations so lavishly praised in 1929- There were 
poor office arrangements, insufficient classroom space, 
and units of the School were housed in other campus 
buildings. Thus, although not enthusiastic about a move 
out of the Main Library, there were some advantages to 
be gained. 

Earlier in 1978, Hugh Atkinson, director of the Library, 
had come upstairs one afternoon to chat with Dr Goldhor 
and me. He mentioned that the Asian language materials, 
packed in boxes in the Law Library basement, were going 
to have to be moved in response to a concern having to 
do with the reaccreditation of the College of Law. He 
added that, because it was likely that there would also 
be other changes in space allocations, it would be a good 
time to look for new quarters for the School. 

The idea of different quarters for the School was not 
new, since providing suitable space had always been something 
of a problem. In 1897, the space that was originally set 
aside in the basement of Altgeld Hall was rejected by Melville 
Dewey who insisted that the School be moved upstairs 
to more pleasant rooms. When the present University Library 
was opened in 1927, the School was given space on the 
fourth floor and later on the third floor. In the 1960s, 
a plan to build a wing onto the southwest corner of the 
Library for the School was in the University's capital budget 
priority list; however, it was never ranked highly enough 
to be funded, and it had slipped down and off the list 
by the early 1970s. Concurrently, the School was asked 
to consider spaces in a dormitory and elsewhere on campus. 
These spaces were examined by the faculty and rejected 
as unsatisfactory, even with substantial remodeling. 

Some weeks after our conversation with Hugh Atkinson, 
Dr. Goldhor attended a meeting with the vice chancellor 

64 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

for academic affairs where he learned that the School 
was to be relocated to make room for the East Asian collection 
and various offices. We were instructed to work with the 
staff of the Office of Space Utilization who, we were happy 
to learn, felt strongly that instructional units such as the 
School should be given priority over non-instructional 
units. Thus, they felt that the School should be located 
as close to the Library as possible, while non- instructional 
units could be located in such places as University-owned 
houses on the periphery of the campus. 

Space in the Armory was considered first, but it was 
a noisy, inconvenient, and unattractive assortment of rooms 
which were quickly rejected as being inconsistent with 
the School's purpose. Then space on the fourth floor of 
David Kinley Hall was offered. The Survey Research Laboratory, 
a non-instructional unit, would be relocated, in spite of 
their protests, to two houses at the edge of the campus 
in Urbana. After six months of planning, much of it coordinated 
by Dr. Jerome K. Miller of the faculty, we moved across 
the street between semesters in January 1979- 

We were fortunate to be able to work with Bill Stahlman 
and Don Wack, together with other members of the staff 
of the Office of Space Utilization. They worked hard to 
secure the best possible accommodations for the School 
on a campus which was short of space and even shorter 
of money for renovations. (Without their help and the 
concurrence of Vice-Chancellor Morton Weir, the School 
could easily have ended up in the two houses that were 
given to the Survey Research Laboratory. ) They had fluorescent 
lights installed in the corridor so that what had been 
a dark and gloomy cave had sufficient light to read by. 
They worked closely with acting director Roger Clark 
in having carpet put on some of the floors and hot running 
water brought into the Learning Resources Laboratory 
(the only hot water in the building). Nevertheless, when 
we moved into David Kinley Hall, we found the place 
to be badly in need of fresh paint because the Physical 

The School's Space ♦ 65 

Plant had refused to paint the area. Stahlman, Wack, and 
Weir toured our new quarters and, angered at the shabby 
appearance, ordered the Physical Plant to do the painting 
out of its own budget. Because the furniture was already 
in place, the cost to the Physical Plant was considerably 
more than if they had done the job when first asked. 

Both the advantages and disadvantages of this new 
location were evident from the beginning. Previously, in 
the Library, the faculty offices had been scattered about 
on two floors, and it was a walk of as much as a city block 
between some of them. Now, all of the faculty offices 
were together on one floor in sight of one another. The 
Library Research Center, which had been in the Armory, 
was also moved to the fourth floor. Materials that had 
been stored in several parts of the Library were brought 
together. At the end of the move, the only part of the 
School that was not in David Kinley Hall was the Publications 
Office which stayed in the Armory in a set of rooms accessible 
by stairs only. Another advantage was that relations between 
the School and members of the Library faculty and staff 
were eased, since we no longer occupied any space in 
the Library. Finally, the separate identities of the School 
and the Library were clearer to many persons across the 
campus, since they could see, at least a little, the differences 
between operating a library and teaching about librarianship. 

There were disadvantages, too. The Library Science 
Library remained on the third floor of the Library where 
we could no longer stop in between classes. Because it 
was now a city block distant horizontally and several floors 
distant vertically, most of us found that we used the Library 
less and less frequently. Like all of the Georgian style 
buildings on the campus, the fourth floor dormer windows 
in DKH offered a clear view of the sky, but not of the 
ground. The windows also leaked cold air in the winter, 
hot air in the summer, and water when it rained. I think 
this garret— some said aerie— must have been designed 

66 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

as a graduate assistant retreat. Then, as space became 
scarce, faculty were elevated to this level, too. 

In addition to the Publications Office, the one remaining 
part of the Library School that did not move into David 
Kinley Hall was the Library and Information Science Library. 
In February of 1978, Hugh Atkinson wrote to William E. 
Stallman, Director of Space Utilization, saying, "Philosophically 
I believe it is best to have a Departmental Library as close 
to the Department as possible, assuming, of course, that 
space to establish and maintain it is available. Therefore, 
I would urge you to consider the possibility of including 
space for the Library Science Library in the same building 
as the Graduate School of Library Science will be moving 
to" (Atkinson, 1978). Due to the floor loadings of David 
Kinley Hall and the shortage of space, this was not possible, 
and the Library and Information Science Library remained 
in the Main Library building. 

The space in David Kinley Hall appeared to work very 
well for the Graduate School of Library and Information 
Science but the pressures that had caused moves from 
one place to another in Altgeld Hall, from one place to 
another in the Main Library, and finally into David Kinley 
Hall continued to exist. The College of Commerce, also 
located in David Kinley Hall, had grown and expanded, 
and it had expressed a need to acquire the fourth floor 
of David Kinley Hall for itself. To that end, and to provide 
the Graduate School of Library and Information Science 
with a home of its own, the campus purchased the Acacia 
Fraternity House in the 1989-90 school year with the goal 
of remodeling it to create a free-standing building for 
the Graduate School of Library and Information Science. 
(The building does not include space for the Library and 
Information Science Library.) The dollars to fund the 
renovation of the building became available in the spring 
of 1992 and the Graduate School of Library and Information 
Science should be able to move into a place of its own 
during the 1992-93 school year. 

The School's Space ♦ 67 


Atkinson, Hugh. ( 1977). Letter to Morton Weir and Harold Hake, October 

25, 1977. University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 
Atkinson, Hugh. (1978). Letter to William E. Stallman, February 10, 

1978. University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 
Bull, Mary Lois. (1969). The nev^^ look. In Barbara Olsen Slanker (Ed), 

Reminiscences: Seventy-five years of a library school (pp. 57-63). 

Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Graduate School of Library Science. 
Library School Library. (1944-45). Annual report of the Library School 

Library, fuly 1, 1944 to fune 30, 1945. University of Illinois Archives, 

Library School Library. (1948-49). Annual report of the Library School 

Library, fuly 1, 1948 to fune 30, 1949. University of Illinois Archives, 

Mann, Margaret. (1943) A history of the Armour Institute Library 

School, 1983-1897. In Carl M. White (Ed), Fifty years of education 

for librarianship (pp. 9-24). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. 
Ratcliffe, Thomas Edward, Jr. (1949). Development of the buildings, 

policy and collection of the University of Illinois Library in Urbana, 

1897-1940. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois. 
Sharp, Katharine. (1899). Letter to Andrew Sloan Draper, May 24, 

1899. Sharp Papers, University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 
Sharp, Katharine. (1900). Letter to N. S. Spencer, fanuary 9, 1900. 

Sharp Papers, University of Illinois archives, Urbana. 
Sharp, Katharine. (1900a). Letter to Esty, February 13, 1900. Sharp 

Papers, University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 
Sharp, Katharine. (1901). Letter to Andrew Sloan Draper, September 

25, 1901. Sharp Papers, University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 
University of Illinois Board of Trustees. (1912). Minutes of the meeting 

of the University of Illinois Board of Thistees, December 12, 1912, 

546. University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 
University of Illinois Library School. ( 1927). Alumni Association Newsletter 

*8 (March). 
Windsor, Phineas Lawrence. (1920). Letter to Kinley November 13, 

1920. Windsor Papers, University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 

The Library and Information 
Science Library 

Patricia Stenstrom 


can argue with conviction that the Library and Information 
Science Library was established either in 1893 or in one 
of several years prior to and including 1944. The argument 
hinges on the definition of a departmental library. There 
was always a "Library School Collection," even at the Armour 
Institute. For many years, first at the Department of Library 
Science of Armour Institute, later at Illinois in the old library 
building, now Altgeld Hall, and still later in the current University 
Library building, collections were shelved in the Library 
School study room and other classrooms. It was September 
1944 before the University Library opened an autonomous 
Library School Library. 

Library literature, like library education, was in its infancy 
when Katharine Sharp founded the Library School at the 
Armour Institute in 1893- Although Miss Sharp tried to develop 
a library literature collection for the students of the School, 


she was impeded by the lack of a regular budget for the 
library of the Institute and by the paucity of library literature 
in the late nineteenth century There were few library science 
textbooks, and Library Journal along with Dewey's recently 
established Library Notes were the only library periodicals 
published for an American audience. But she did bring the 
library literature collection, such as it was, from the Institute 
to the University of Illinois. Once at Illinois, Sharp augmented 
the meager collection by soliciting bulletins, reports, manuals, 
and the like from libraries across the country. In addition, 
the Library School had "a complete collection of manuscript 
notes and problems which have been prepared since the 
school opened in 1893" (University of Illinois State Library 
School, 1900, p. 3). By 1902-1903, "library economy" had 
become a regular fund in the Library's material budget, and, 
in 1905, the Library purchased the bibliographical library 
of Karl Dziatzko (1842-1903), director of the Library and 
professor of Library Science at the University of Gottingen 
and a nineteenth-century German leader in the development 
of library science, library science education, and librariansh^ 
as a profession. The collection consisted of 550 items in 
the field of library science, paleography, bibliography and 
the history of printing, libraries, and the book trade. This 
collection, along with Sharp's other acquisitions, laid the 
foundation for Illinois' outstanding library science collection. 

At the Armour Institute, students were confined to a 
one-room combined classroom and library, and at Illinois, 
although the space available for the School was greater, the 
collection was shelved in the Library School study room. 
The study room, a commonplace feature of early library schools, 
was a curriculum laboratory for students. Each student was 
assigned a desk and fitted with tools of the trade, such as 
a box for catalog cards. The book and journal collection 
that lined the walls was chosen to support the instruction 
of students and the pedagogical needs of the faculty. Tbm- 
of-the-century teachers were not involved in research, at 
least not of a theoretical nature, and the collection consisted 

70 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

of practical and bibliographic works. Students and faculty 
were, of course, able to use other parts of the University 
Library. For most of the next fifty years, a "study room," 
similar to the one just portrayed, housed some of the library 
literature collection at Illinois. 

Beginning in 1908 after Sharp left, it appears that for 
a short time the collection in the study room was considered 
a "seminar library" Between 1909 and 1911, Florence R. 
Curtis wrote three annual reports for the "Library School 
Seminar Library." Miss Curtis is remembered now as the 
first director of the Hampton Institute Library School and 
a pioneer in library education for African-Americans, but 
she was on the faculty at Illinois from 1908 to 1920. The 
themes of Florence Curtis's reports are the enduring themes 
of the library school librarian. She reported on efforts to 
bind and organize the collection, to solicit domestic and 
foreign annual reports and bulletins, and to acquire non- 
book materials, in this case lantern slides for Miss Marvin's 
"Small Library Fittings" class. The books that she mentions 
acquiring are not library science texts but reference works 
like the American Catalog and the Catalogue of the Library 
of the Boston Athenaeum. The former was purchased for 
the trade bibliography course and the latter for the cataloging 
course. She also ordered children's books, including undesirable 
ones for comparative study. Subscriptions to foreign library 
journals were a priority. She described a project to reclassify 
library bulletins according to a local scheme that put all 
publications from the same library together This utilitarian 
scheme, used at Illinois until 1980, continues to provide 
easy access to the collection. The reports for 1909 and 1910 
bustle with activity but in the briefer 1911 report, she is 
primarily concerned about space shortages that resulted 
when the study room moved to the west end of the fourth 
floor stacks. 

These fascinating reports, written in library hand, are 
the only Library School Library reports included in the University 
Library's reports until 1939- Why were these three isolated 

Library AND Informahon Science LiBRAKV ♦ 71 

reports written? Was it because of Miss Curtis's personal 
commitment? As Ernest Reece described her, Florence Curtis 
was a remarkable woman "ever ready to take on tasks others 
had neglected" (Reece, 1969, p. 22). Did she volunteer 
to be the Library School Librarian, or was the Library School 
collection her assigned responsibility until she received her 
B.LS. in 1911? Was she more diligent than her successors, 
or is there another explanation? Can an explanation for the 
creation of a seminar library be found in this complaint 
from an anonymous student about the dominating presence 
of Library School students in the general University Library's 
reading rooms: 

I spent three hours and a half the other day just trying 
to get a squint into the "Year Book" for 1902 and a 
glance at "Who's Who in America," and by actual count 
seventeen different young women— all with pens and 
serious looks and pads of paper— were poring over those 
two interesting volumes as if in search of some single 
remedy for all the ills of the human frame. (Wilson Archival 
Materials, 1908) 

At that time there was not enough library literature to 
warrant a subject-oriented departmental library, but Albert 
Wilson, acting director of the School, may have decided 
to create a demonstration library to reduce the library school 
student's use of the reading rooms, but these plans were 
abandoned, either because Phineas L Windsor, the new director, 
did not support the idea or because of space shortages in 
the library. Reece, who was on the faculty from 1912 to 
1917 did not remember a Library School Library but "a large 
room in the West wing in wWch each student was assigned 
his own desk and wliich contained a small collection of books 
for reference or daily problems" (Reece, 1969, p. 25). 

Under the leadership of Windsor, who had become director 
of the Library and Library School in 1909, the decade between 
1910 and 1920 was one of major growth for the entire University 
Library, and the library literature collection also grew. By 

72 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

1924, the study room contained 4,000 volumes and 5,000 
pamphlets on library economy and allied subjects. About 
twenty-five journals of library economy and bibliography, 
including the leading ones in foreign languages, were regularly 
added to the collection. Informality distinguished the Windsor 
years, despite collection growth. The Library School Collection, 
managed by revisers for the convenience of faculty and as 
a demonstration library for students, was closed to the public. 
Revisers, so designated because they helped the fiaculty correct 
papers, were the graduate students not unlike graduate assistants 
in terms of status. In the new University Library building 
after an interim stay in the south reserve room, the study 
room and collection moved into room 306. Rooms 308 and 
328 also held some of the collection. Part-time, ever-changing 
librarians, who worked without assistance may have been 
able to oversee the small collection that moved into 306, 
but the materials allocation for the School more than tripled 
in the 1930s and the collection, and the materials purchased 
at Depression prices grew at an even more rapid rate. 

One of the revisers, Dorothy Parrish, wrote an annual 
report for the collection for 1939-40. In it she intimated 
that the collection was in disarray. The collection doubtlessly 
consisted of all of the major monogr^hs in the field, sometimes 
in multiple copies, at least the current issues of library journals, 
bulletins and reports, as well as reference works from all 
disciplines that might be studied in reference courses. Circulation 
routines were casual and students and faculty must have 
shelved their own books. Faculty requests to purchase books 
and journals would have been sent to Willia Garver, the estimable 
head of the order department, and her department would 
have taken care of the bookkeeping as well as the ordering. 
That was how it was done then. 

On September 1, 1941, Frances Hammitt became the 
first full-time Library School librarian. Miss Hammitt's reports, 
for the two years she was at Illinois, echo the ones written 
by Florence Curtis thirty years before in their professional 
zeal and determination. She altered the physical arrangement 

Library and Informahon Science Library ♦ 73 

of the room, reorganized the circulation system, negotiated 
nearly 900 library annual reports from Columbia's School 
of Library Service in order to fill in missing reports, and 
replaced the author file with a dictionary catalog. Helen 
Welch (Tbttle), in 1942 when she was a first-year student, 
reorganized the lantern slide collection. The Library School 
Library remained part of the study room, but it did maintain 
regular library hours, except on Sunday. There was no one 
on duty, however, when the librarian was not there. Although 
the Library was closed to the public, Miss Hammitt offered 
some reference service to outsiders. Frances Hammitt left 
Illinois in 1943. She subsequently completed a Ph.D. at the 
University of Chicago and was a professor at Western Reserve 
University Library School before her untimely death in 1950. 

In 1943, Robert Bingham Downs, the new director of 
the Library and Library School, appointed a faculty committee 
consisting of Professors Marie Hostetter and Anne Boyd to 
survey the Library School Library and make recommendations 
for its future direction. Library education was changing. In 
a few years the bachelor's degree would be gone, and Illinois 
would offer a Ph.D. degree in addition to the master's degree. 
Downs wanted a quality research collection to enhance the 
program. The faculty committee recommended inventorying 
the collection to look for omissions and weakness; continuing 
the practice reinstated by Frances Hammitt of collecting 
annual reports, handbooks, and the like, from individual libraries; 
and adding subject headings to the Library's catalog. The 
faculty report, while positive, also disclosed faculty fears 
that an enhanced library would not be as cozy and receptive 
to their personal needs as was the present one. They did 
not want strangers using the collection. 

In September 1944, Donna D. Finger, a recent Columbia 
University graduate, became the Library School librarian. 
She replaced Elma Anderson, the librarian who succeeded 
Frances Hammitt in 1943. In that month, the Library School 
Library also moved from the study room to room 328. For 
the first time the Library would be supervised at all times 

74 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

and accessible to faculty and students from other disciplines. 
The library would move again in 1948*, for the last time, 
back into the former study room. The study desks were no 
longer needed in the new curriculum, and student lockers 
were substituted. The library was partially furnished with 
shelving and furniture from the former undergraduate division 
at Galesburg. The move into expanded space allowed the 
collection to increase to 10,000 volumes. 

Two collections associated with the Library School Library 
also moved during the 1940s. The School established a "juvenile 
collection" in 1905 to support its courses on children's library 
service. Cramped into a small fourth-floor room of the University 
Library, the collection, administered by the Library School, 
was closed to the public. The "juvenile collection," renamed 
the "S (School) collection," was relocated twice during the 
decade to make it more accessible and better managed. First 
it was transferred in 1941 to the 7 day book room and then 
in 1948 to the Library School Library. Administration of the 
collection also shifted from Donna Finger to Eleanor Blum, 
7 day book librarian, and back again to Donna Finger. The 
audiovisual rooms, supervised by the Library School Library 
for several years, were disbanded. The library continued 
to select and control A-V materials, but a research assistant 
appointed and supervised by the School was in charge of 
the equipment. This division of responsibility continued into 
the next decade after the School established the Demonstration 
Laboratory, a forerunner of the Learning Resources Laboratory. 

Enormous change occurred during the ten years that 
Donna Finger was Library Science librarian. When she came 
in 1944, the Library, closed to the public, was a demonstration 
library run by a single librarian with a small amount of student 
help. When she left, the Library was fully staffed seventy- 
four hours per week by the librarian, a professional assistant, 
and a clerical assistant, and had seventy-seven hours per 
week of student assistance. A professional assistant was part 
of the staff beginning in 1947. These assistants, beginning 
with the first, Betty Ruth Crane, were students in the School. 

Library and I>fFORMAnoN Science Library ♦ 75 

In December 1950, Arthur McAnally, assistant director 
for public service, reported to Robert Downs that the Library 
School Library was surpassed in size of staff only by the 
Undergraduate, Engineering, and Natural History Libraries 
and that in the quality and amount of service it offered was 
exceeded only by the Labor and Industrial Relations Library 
He also commented on a subject that had been a source 
of concern if not controversy for nearly fifty years— "the 
routing of journals." The Library School library was the only 
library on campus to continue the practice. McAnally thought 
that the system never worked well, and that while a few 
people benefitted, the system usually broke down. The Library 
School faculty, however, long accustomed to ^jecial treatment 
in the University Library, found it difficult to give up routing 
and Miss Finger decided to continue the practice. About 
four hundred routings were made each month at the cost 
to the Library of eight staff hours or approximately six dollars. 
She justified her decision by stating that "an enlightened 
faculty is essential to a good instructional program, and the 
library will always review and evaluate its faculty services 
in that light" (Finger, 1951, p. 4), words for an academic 
librarian to live by. 

Miss Finger was not a member of the Library faculty, 
but she regularly attended faculty meetings of the Library 
School and was the secretary of these meetings for several 
years. She was also a guest lecturer in the school and taught 
a section of a course that instructed undergraduates in how 
to use the library and library materials. She wrote abstracts 
of Illinois dissertations for Library Literature and worked 
with Dorothy Cole, editor of Library Literature on a revision 
of the indexes' subject headings. She left the Library in 1953 
to become head of the reference department at Kansas City, 
Missouri Public Library. (Donna Finger Knutson McPherson 
currently lives in Champaign.) 

In September of 1954, after a short interim during which 
Billie Hurst was acting librarian, Donna Finger was succeeded 
by Jo Ann Wiles. Miss Wiles, a 1952 Illinois graduate previously 

76 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

had been an assistant librarian in the Undergraduate Library. 
The ten years that she administered the Library were years 
of stabihty, growth, and prosperity. Miss Wiles continued 
and built upon the collection-building and public service 
of her predecessors. The library had become in all respects 
a "librarian's library." There were, of course, some problems; 
the "S-coUection," crowded into room 308, was difficult 
to use; lighting in 306 and 308 was poor; and students, who, 
then as now, wanted the Library to be open more hours. 
The "S-collection," as well as its administration, was moved 
to the Education and Social Science Library but not until 
September of 1964. After years of nagging, the lights in rooms 
306 and 308 were replaced by fluorescent ceiling fixtures; 
the room was replastered at the same time. In response to 
student requests, the Library, staffed by volunteer library 
science students, remained open on Friday night. Journal 
routing, supervised by the Library's professional assistant, 
continued to be a major service to the faculty. One of these 
assistants, Edward G. Holley, was singled out by Miss Wiles 
for special recognition: "Mr. Edward Holley has been a most 
superior and exceptional assistant. His organization and 
supervisory abilities have made a real contribution to the 
library's operation this year" (Wiles, 1957, p. 5). In 1959, 
the Library School Library was renamed the Library Science 
Library, after the School changed its name. 

Jo Ann Wiles, following the traditions of former Library 
Science librarians, participated fully in activities of the School. 
She met with the core courses each semester to talk about 
the Library and was chair of the field work committee. She 
took a leave from October 1, 1961 to January 1, 1962 to 
work at the Escuela Interamericana de Bibliotecologia, a 
recently established library school at the University of Antioquia 
in Medellin, Colombia. In April of 1963, she married fellow 
librarian Dwight Tlickwood and resigned as Library Science 
Librarian a year later, although she returned to work in the 
Library for two months in the summer of 1965. In the fall 
of 1964, she taught the "Selection of Library Materials" course. 


Anne L. Corbitt stated that "under Jo Ann TUckwood the 
Library School Library was a living example of good service" 
(Corbitt, 1969, p. 74). 

From 1964 to 1969, three librarians, Ruth Spence (1964- 
1966), Evelyn Johnson ( 1966-1967), and Donald Lanier ( 1967- 
1969) were the Library Science librarians. The three continued 
the tradition of excellence, but few changes occurred during 
this time. Don Lanier remembers being Library Science librarian 
as the best job he ever had, and he has enjoyed them all. 
He recalls the kindness of the faculty and the appreciation 
of the students. 

The 1970s were a time of disruption and change in the 
University Library and especially for the Library Science Library 
Kathleen Draper was Library Science librarian from the fall 
of 1969 to 1975. She had worked in the Library School Library 
in the early 1950s as the clerical assistant and had received 
her M.S. from the School in 1965. During Mrs. Draper's 
administration Robert Downs retired in 1971, and the Graduate 
School of Library Science became an autonomous unit, but 
the Library Science Library continued to be part of the University 
Library In 1974, there was a shortfall in the materials budget 
that resulted in extensive serial cancellations, especially of 
duplicates. Because the Library Science Library was a 
demonstration library, it contained many duplicate reference 
works. Understandably, when confronted with the choice 
of canceling unique serial titles or duplicate copies of reference 
works available in the same building, the University Library 
chose to cancel the duplicates. The Library Science Library 
was no longer a demonstration library. 

The Library continued to suffer from a shortage of ^ace. 
Mrs. Draper had rearranged rooms 306 and 308 in the fall 
of 1969. Room 308 became office space and the entrance 
to the library, and the double doors to 306 were closed. 
Several other plans to increase space, such as closing off 
the hallway, were proposed but none was implemented. Mary 
Pillepich became the Library Science librarian in October 

78 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

1975. She came to Illinois from the Advanced Studies Program 
of Denver's Graduate School of Librarianship.* 

The University Library automated cataloging in 1975 
and circulation in 1977 and 1978. These automation projects 
had a direct effect on the day-to-day operations of the library. 
Another technology, photocopying, was also affecting library 
operations. The ability to photocopy changed the nature 
of reserve collections, and the passage of the Copyright Act 
of 1976 created conftision and anxiety about their management. 
In 1979, the Graduate School of Library Science moved from 
the third floor of the University Library to the fourth floor 
of David Kinley Hall. The Library Science Library remained 
in room 306-308 because David Kinley Hall could not support 
the weight of the library's collection. Physical separation 
of the library from the School meant a loss of the convenience 
and intimacy that had been traditional. One positive result 
of the move was that the Library Science Library acquired 
the office space and classroom that occupied both sides 
of the hallway to the Library. 

1 became the Library Science librarian in January of 
1981, after what Bob DelzeU once called a "checkered career" 
in the University Library. A 1957 graduate of the School, 
I had worked in seven different libraries or departments 
of the University Library before I became Library Science 
Librarian. Becoming Library Science— soon Library and 
Information Science— Librarian was an exciting opportunity 
and challenge. The materials budget was too low, library 
hours inadequate, and the Library was in poor condition 
from water damage caused by a leaking roof The University 
Library under the leadership of Hugh Atkinson supported 
improvement of the materials budget, as well as the addition 
of library hours and other services, and since university librarians, 
as faculty members, were now engaged in research and publication 
activities that greatly expanded their use of the Library and 
Information Science Library, there was justification for this 
support. In 1981-82 the Library received an increase in the 
materials budget of 23%, and there have been continued 

Library and Informahon Science Library ♦ 79 

increases in subsequent years so that in fiscal year 1992 
the budget is more than double the fiscal year 1980 budget. 
Increased allocations were used to establish a standing order 
for doctoral dissertations in Library and Information Science 
on microfiche from University Microfilms International and 
to otherwise strengthen research aspects of the collection. 
Special efforts have been made to acquire inexpensive and 
useful but not widely distributed reports and documents. 
Acquisitions of annual reports again became a priority Hours 
were extended over the next two years and by spring of 
1982, the library was open during the fall and spring semester 
for 82 hours a week. 

Repairs were made on the walls of the Library and the 
rooms were painted white in 1981 instead of green. This 
new color was as welcome in 1981 as was the last paint 
job in 1951, when Donna Finger happily announced that 
the library was "now a very inviting green in color" (Finger, 
1951, p. 6). 

Although the separation of the School from the Library 
is a problem, technology has reduced some of the barriers 
to service. In the fall of 1980 a "current contents" service 
was begun to replace journal routing. Photocopied contents 
pages from journals are mailed to faculty. In 1992 contents 
pages of 115 journals were sent to 120 Ubrary users. From 
the mid-1980s onward newsletters, not indexed, have also 
been routed and this has been a valued, trouble-free service. 
Through the use of the University Library's online catalog, 
faculty can check out books and have them sent to their 
offices. In addition, I use electronic mail to notify faculty 
of new books in their fields. The Library's acquisitions Ust 
appears online, as well as in paper 

Back in 1961, Jo Ann Wiles stated that the "library was 
pleased (ecstatic) to receive in October [I960] a gray Royal 
Standard typewriter with elite type" (Wiles, 1961, p. 4). 
Tsventy-four years later the library acquired an IBM personal 
computer, and this acquisition made many things possible. 
I am able to search library literature online and to offer 

80 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

online searching to the Library's patrons. The Library also 
has library literature on CD-ROM. 

The eleven years that I have been Library and Information 
Science librarian have passed quickly. I am involved in the 
activities of the School, just as my predecessors were. As 
a department affiliate, I occasionally teach an introductory 
course, and I regularly attend faculty meetings of the School. 
Staffing of the library has changed over the years, and two 
support staff and a graduate assistant now work with me 
in the Library. I am fortunate to have worked with outstanding 
graduate assistants and many excellent staff. Two members 
of the staff, Johnna Holloway and Donald Ellinghausen, received 
master's degrees from the School, and the two current members, 
Sandra Wolf and Melissa Ritter, are also planning to pursue 
careers in Ubrarianship. Ms. Wolf has already completed many 
courses toward her degree. 

There have been occasional problems such as the financial 
difficulties of these early 1990s, but I have every hope that 
the Library and Information Science Library will continue 
to be the home of one of the great Library and Information 
Science collections into the twenty-first century. 


Corbitt, A. L. (1969). Where there is vision. In Barbara Olsen Slanker 

(Ed.), Reminiscences: Seventy-five years of a library school (pp. 72- 

75). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Graduate School of Library Science. 
Finger, D. D. (1951). Library School Library annual report, July 1, 1950- 

June 30, 1951 Unpublished manuscript. 
Reece, E. J. (1969). Recollections, 1912-1917, and thereafter. In Barbara 

Olsen Slanker (Ed), Reminiscences: Seventy-five years of a library 

school (pp. 20-28). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Graduate Library 

University of Illinois State Library School. (1900). Circular of information 

1900-1901. Urbana, IL: University of Ulinois State Ubrary School. 
Wiles, J. A. (1957). Library School Library annual report, June 16, 1956- 

June 15, 1957. Unpublished manuscript. 
Wiles, J. A. (1961). Library Science Library annual r^xjrt, June 16, 1960- 

June 15, 1961. Unpublished manuscript. 
Wilson, A. S. (1908). University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. File 2/ 

5/6-10, folder L-Z. (This excerpt was found by Bill Maher, assistant 

University archivist. ) 

To Become Well Trained and 
Well Educated 

Technical Services Education at the Graduate 
School of Library and Information Science 


Kathryn Luther Henderson 


I was engaged in the research for this article, much 
of what I found became very personal to me. I discovered 
I knew or knew about many of the persons who have 
contributed to technical services education in this School. 
Can one write a history when one has been so intimately 
involved with that history? Such was the question I 
asked a noted historian as we each worked on our respective 
projects in the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 
Archives. He thought one could and surmised that it 
would be both easier and harder to write an honest 
history under such circumstances. This is as honest 
a history as I can write. If it becomes personal, it is 
because personal recollections seemed to illuminate 
the article in ways that are not documented in other 

82 ♦ Ideals and Siandards 

OLoL^ *-t-<^ O-Cui^ if-XLciul /CU^dL JV-v^^-i^<- lU C-iL'i, 


In his presidential address at the Conference of 
Librarians in 1891, Samuel Swett Green, librarian of 
the Free Public Library in Worcester, Massachusetts, 
included this statement: "If a library is to do really 
good work, librarians must not only be well trained 
and have technical knowledge, but they must be well 
educated" (Green, 1891, p. 4). Green's sentiment was 
echoed by the University of Illinois: "It is the purpose 
of the University to graduate librarians who are not 
only trained, but educated; librarians who are not only 
equipped in technical details, but filled with an 
appreciation of their higher calling to furnish 'the best 

Technical Services Education ♦ 83 

reading to the greatest number at the least cost'" 
{Catalogue of the University of Illinois, 1897-98, p. 
132). In preparing the students of the University of 
Illinois Library School for work in the technical services 
or to make use of the technical services in public services, 
attempts have been made to both train and to educate 

The term "technical services" did not come into 
being until the 1930s and its boundaries have been 
fluid. For purposes of this article, technical services 
will be defined as including cataloging and classification, 
acquisitions, binding and preservation, and serials 
management. Book selection will not be included per 
se. Each of the subjects included has been covered from 
1893 in some degree at some time in the School's history 
but not always in the same depth nor always as separate 
courses. One must view these courses in relation to 
the time in which they were offered, the content of 
the rest of the curriculum, the needs of the profession, 
the technology that existed, the instructors, and the 
instructional methods and materials. Only some highlights 
and general observations can be made for such a long 


Cataloging and Classification 

The mainstay of the technical service-related courses 
(a part of the curriculum every year of the School's 
existence) have been courses related to cataloging and 
classification. The two have been often included in 
the same course; at other times they have been separated 
or included as parts of other courses. 

The first decade of the School illustrates the blending 
together of several aspects of librarianship into one 
course. At the Armour Institute of Technology, numerous 
short courses were given with separate credit for each, 
but, with the move to Urbana, the courses were combined 

84 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

or extended to accommodate the local system of credits 
{Report and Student Records, 1893-1903, p. 11). The 
following discussion of the first decade of the School 
as found in the Report and Student Records, 1893-1903 
indicates the general content (although order of presen- 
tation varied) of "Elementary Library Economy" which 
met daily throughout the junior year. The course tried 
to follow the logical process of library operations, so 
it began with selection and ordering (see Acquisitions 
section in this article for further details). 

After the order unit came 10 lessons on accessioning 
using Dewey's Library School Rules. Standard accession 
sheets were filled out for 25 books. Treatment of duplicates, 
gifts, government documents, serials, and second-hand 
materials was also studied (p. 11). The next area studied 
was classification. Twenty-five lessons using the Dewey 
Decimal Classification required the students to classify 
10-12 books each day. By the end of this unit the students 
had classified 200 books and assigned book numbers 
to them (p. 11). (I hope the students in my courses 
who complained about a much lighter load will read this!) 

"Shelf occupied 12 lessons again using Dewey's 
Library School Rules. Each book was entered on standard 
shelf list sheets and cards. The book items were arranged 
on shelves and the arrangement for pamphlets, boxes 
for magazines, maps, clippings, and newspapers were 
considered (p. 12). 

Next came 45 lessons on "Cataloging." The emphasis 
at first was on the classed catalog because the Armour 
Institute had such a catalog and the students could 
practice using it, but the dictionary catalog was also 
studied. Libraries at this time were completing the change 
to dictionary catalogs and most students were employed 
by libraries using dictionary catalogs; Armour also changed 
to the dictionary catalog to afford practice for the students. 
When the move was made to Urbana, the catalog there 
was in dictionary form, offering ample opportunity to 

Technical Services Education ♦ 85 

Study and use that format. In those years, the tools used 
in addition to the Library School Rules were Charles 
A. Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog and the American 
Library Association's List of Subject Headings. Each 
session emphasized some basic principle of cataloging 
and, after class, eight to ten books that illustrated the 
principle were cataloged. Eventually the student had 
a complete card catalog illustrating the principles (p. 
12). (The practice of making one's own sample catalog 
continued for many years. I still have my sample catalog 
from my cataloging course in the late 1940s.) One problem 
with this approach of introducing a particular problem 
and concentrating on it (e.g., works under editorial 
direction) was that the bibliographic condition was 
already identified for the student. Such a practice was 
still in existence when I was a student, a practice that 
I found less than challenging. I have attempted to make 
this a more challenging problem-solving activity in my 
teaching, a process helped along by the reorientation 
of cataloging codes toward identification of bibliographic 
conditions rather than having specific rules for almost 
every possible condition. 

"Loan, Binding, General Information and Library 
Handwriting" completed the beginning "Library Economy" 
course. Advanced library economy courses in that era 
included comparative studies of cataloging codes and 
of classification schemes (pp. 13-14, 16). 

From studies made in the 1920s, we form the opinion 
that work in the formative years of library education 
was almost entirely of a practical nature and devoid 
of consideration of principles and issues. Such was not 
always the case. One is surprised by the similarity of 
the issues that were considered by the profession and 
in classes then and now. An exam in 1893 asked the 
students to note some of the advantages and disadvantages 
of the card catalog (University of Illinois Library School, 
1893). Discussions in beginning cataloging classes still 

86 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

often center on that basic question, we've just added 
a few more types to consider: book, TIIOM, and online 
catalogs. In 1895 students were asked the object of 
subdividing a subject and to illustrate how country 
subdivisions could be expressed (University of Illinois 
Library School, 1895). In the spring 1991 advanced 
cataloging class (LIS 408) the students responded to 
the call of the Library of Congress for comments on 
four position papers concerning subdivision practice 
in the Library of Congress subject headings. The junior 
examination of December 1896 asked for the most 
convenient way of keeping records of the headings and 
references used in the dictionary catalog (University 
of Illinois Graduate School of Library and Information 
Science, December 1986). Present-day students ponder 
the use of authority records, an important component 
of the effective online catalog. Students in the advanced 
library economy class of 1897 were asked to discuss 
the general principles that should govern the relative 
fullness of author and subject cards in bibliographic 
and descriptive particulars (University of Illinois Library 
School, 1897), a question that current students consider 
in relation to screen design and record content in online 
catalogs. (This question may receive wider attention 
as keyword searching on additional fields in catalog 
records becomes more prevalent.) The same 1897 class 
wrote directions for using the dictionary card catalog 
for persons who know nothing about its use and purpose; 
today we call this bibliographic instruction, a need 
for which has been exacerbated by the complexity in 
structure of online catalogs, and we ask our students 
to prepare instructional units for online catalog users. 

Along with other curriculum changes, the 1910- 
11 school year introduced changes for cataloging and 
classification by separating them into individual courses 
at the introductory level, a pattern which was to continue 
for almost 35 years; however, at the advanced level, 

Technical Services Education ♦ 87 

cataloging and classification were combined into one 
course (Annual Register 1910-1911, pp. 21-22). In the 
1935-36 school year the advanced courses also separated 
into the two parts {Annual Register 1935-1936, p. 308). 
During the period of separation, it is interesting to 
note that coverage of subject headings moved from the 
classification to the cataloging course and vice versa 
from time to time. In 1935-1936, a brief study of the 
Library of Congress classification scheme was first 
introduced into the beginning library curriculum {Annual 
Register 1935-36, p. 308). The coverage of Library of 
Congress classification remained brief for some time 
although it eventually gained "equal time" with Dewey. 

At the January 30, 1941 faculty meeting, the School's 
new director, Carl White, announced that a Carnegie 
Corporation award of $2,000 had been granted to the 
School in anticipation of its fiftieth anniversary for a 
study of the objectives and aims of the School (Minutes 
of faculty meeting, January 30, 1941). At this time there 
was a great deal of discussion centered around practice 
versus theory in library school curricula. The general 
consensus of the Illinois faculty expressed at the November 
25, 1942 faculty meeting was that there was a place 
and need for techniques and practice but these should 
depend upon and be clearly related to basic principles 
(Minutes of faculty meeting, November 25, 1942). A 
totally practical approach was thought to be shortsighted 
if the School was to prepare students for careers and 
not just for their immediate jobs; however, the issue 
was further complicated by the employers' preference 
for people who could begin work at their particular 
positions at once rather than for those who were only 
trained in theories and principles and not ready for 
immediate practical applications. This tension has never 
really left library education, especially in relation to 
technical services positions. 

88 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

The Carnegie grant report, made by investigators 
John Dale Russell, Andrew D. Osbotn, and Keyes D. 
Metcalf, did, however, compliment the teaching of 
cataloging noting that "Illinois has made an enviable 
record in the teaching of one of these techniques, namely 
cataloging" (Russell, 1943, p. 3). The researchers felt 
this tradition could be carried on with the changed 
emphasis on processes and administration. Although 
future catalogers would not be as well drilled in the 
matter of small details, they would be more competent 
because they would understand better what they were 
trying to do when they cataloged a book. They would 
also be better acquainted with the principles of cataloging 
and increase their sense of values and flexibility (Russell, 
1943, p. 3). Cataloging instructor Ethel Bond took 
exception to the investigators' perception that the courses 
emphasized details and drill over theory and principles, 
indicating that the latter aspects were covered in the 
Illinois program (p. 5). But she should have felt vindicated 
as the survey team admitted that cataloging had been 
largely responsible for the good reputation of the first 
year program at Illinois (Russell, 1943, p. 87). 

One of the recommendations of the survey group 
had been to combine, into one course, cataloging and 
classification, heretofore separated. The November 3, 
1943 faculty meeting minutes record the objections 
of Bond to such a move: one subject would be neglected 
in favor of the other; it would be difficult to obtain 
instructors for the summer session willing to teach both; 
at the Library of Congress, classification and cataloging 
work is performed in two departments; students do 
different quality of work in the two areas and grades 
would differ; and, finally, it would be difficult to cover 
all the content in one course (Minutes of faculty meeting, 
November 3, 1943). But Bond lost that "round" and 
in 1944, cataloging and classification were combined 
at the beginning level into one course, a practice that 

Technical Services Education ♦ 89 

Still continues {Annual Register 1944-45, p. 319). Also 
continuing is the practice of including nonbook materials 
as part of cataloging courses. 

In fall 1948, the School began to offer a master's 
degree as its first professional degree. University 
requirements at that time called for some undergraduate 
work in library science before enrolling in the master's 
program. "Organization and Operation of Libraries II," 
one of four required undergraduate courses, was mainly 
concerned with the organization and arrangement of 
library materials with emphasis on cataloging methods 
and classification schemes. "Cataloging and Classification" 
I and II continued the work begun in the core course, 
but were not required (University of Illinois Library 
School, 1948, p. 5). 

Some two decades later the faculty began a complete 
curriculum review and, by September, 1972, the four 
core courses were superseded by a two-unit, required, 
team-taught "Foundations of Librarianship" course that 
introduced to each student the conceptual framework 
of librarianship by giving an integrated overview of 
the theory and philosophy of library service while showing 
the interrelationship of all facets. In meeting this objective, 
the course introduced technical services in general, 
as well as acquisitions and cataloging as parts of the 
framework of librarianship. The emphasis was on the 
catalog as a tool and its background, history, tools, and 
principles rather than on practical work. (At last, I 
had an opportunity to express to students why we catalog 
before they cataloged!) Walter Allen, Donald Krummel, 
RoUand Stevens, and I constituted the first team. 

Over time, the foundations course took many different 
approaches including directed independent study. Toward 
the end of the 1970s, some faculty sensed a serious 
erosion in the coverage of reference and cataloging. 
Emphasis on these areas was strongly influenced by 
the foundations course instructors and their interest 

90 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

in or knowledge of the subject matter. In fall 1982, 
the general aspects of the foundations course became 
a required one-unit offering; separate half-unit, five- 
week courses in both reference and cataloging services 
were also required. This arrangement continues. Emphasis 
in the cataloging course remains the same as in the 
integrated foundations course and is a prerequisite to 
elective cataloging and classification courses. 

Beyond the introductory course and the two cataloging 
courses for master's students, advanced courses have 
been offered from time to time, but these have now 
disappeared. One of the four doctoral seminars first 
offered in 1978, "Bibliographic Organization of Information 
and Library Materials," includes some discussion of 
cataloging and classification. 

There have been special course offerings in cataloging 
and classification from time to time. From July 17 to 
August 12, 1967, Seymour Lubetzky offered "Cataloging: 
Purposes, Problems and Principles," which was essentially 
a course on the newly revised Anglo-American Cataloging 
Rules, first edition (AACRl). Lubetzky covered the 
theoretical consideration behind the rules as well as 
the transition to the new code. This course attracted 
many local students as well as students from throughout 
the United States and Canada. The next summer, Mary 
Piggott, a library science educator from England, taught 
courses on the history and development of the catalog. 
Both educators were members of committees that led 
to AACRl. Having met them during code revision sessions, 
it was one of the highlights of my career to share an 
office with them while they were at Illinois. 


After covering the lengthy and pervasive history 
of cataloging and classification, the history of the teaching 
about acquisitions is noticeably less extensive. This 
seems to be not only a product of the Illinois curriculum 

Technical Services Education ♦ 91 

but indicative of the coverage of acquisitions in most 
library schools. At Illinois, acquisitions has usually been 
included as part of other courses. In the first decade 
of the School, "Elementary Library Economy" included 
fifteen lessons on ordering to emphasize the general 
principles of book-buying including American, English, 
French, and German trade books. Assigned some 25 
items, the students verified and prepared orders (University 
of Illinois State Library School, 1903, p. H). In 1910, 
a new course combined ordering, accession and shelf 
work and included the order department records and 
routines, book-buying, publishers and discounts, copyright, 
serials and continuations, gifts, exchanges, duplicates, 
the accession book and its substitutes, the shelf list 
and its users, and the care of clippings, maps, etc. 
(University of Illinois State Library School, 1911, p. 
21). Trade and subject bibliography were two different 
courses— where to place bibliography was a point of 
much discussion in those days. During curriculum revision 
after the Williamson report in 1923, trade bibliography 
was combined with the course "Order, Accession and 
Shelf" which gave up "shelf and "alphabetization" 
to cataloging and classification courses. 

In the 1938-39 school year, after numerous complaints 
for many years about the order course, it was decided 
to distribute the three hours originally assigned to it 
to administration, reference, and book selection courses 
with the respective courses receiving relevant aspects 
of the earlier course (Survey of Faculty Curriculum 
Study 1940, pp. 6, 10). 

The study sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation 
for the School's fiftieth anniversary noted that Illinois' 
course in the routines of order work had not been given 
since 1936-37 but a course in book buying was still 
in the second-year curriculum. Since library school 
graduates should do professional, not clerical, tasks 
which make up the major part of an order department's 

92 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

work, the recommendation was that the School should 
give up emphasis on library techniques and teach from 
a broader professional point of view. The students should 
learn the processes as distinct from techniques to sense 
actual working conditions and to grasp the elements 
of administration. It was recommended that the course 
"Book Buying for Large Libraries" be dropped and that, 
in a seminar in library administration, attention be given 
to allocation of funds, choice of agents, selecting books 
from second hand catalogs, etc. (Russell, 1943, pp. 2- 
3, 6). Courses in book buying continued until the late 
1940s when curriculum changes were effected; then 
the content moved more in the direction of selection 
of materials rather than their acquisition. At various 
times, administration courses for special types of libraries 
such as "Service in Special Libraries" taught by Gwladys 
Spencer of the Library School faculty and "Organization 
and Management of College and University Libraries" 
taught by Arnold H. Trotier, director of technical services 
in the University Library, included sections on acquisitions 
(Course materials. Library Science 73 and 71, 1946- 
47). "Library Administration" and "Organization and 
Management of Public Libraries" taught by Herbert Goldhor 
in that same era also covered acquisitions (University 
of Illinois Library School, 1947-48) for those students 
who already possessed a master's degree and those in 
the newly instituted doctoral program. "College and 
University Library Problems" included a unit on 
acquisitions and processing which considered policies, 
procedures, allocation of funds, records (which now 
included punched cards!), cooperative buying and 
cooperation with public services, resource surveys, and 
photographic activities. Serials and binding were also 
covered (University of Illinois Library School, 1949- 

Under the core courses in the 200-numbered series 
offered in the 1950s and 1960s, acquisitions, binding. 

Technical Services Education ♦ 93 

and photographic services were considered as part of 
LS 204, "Development and Operation of Libraries" (Course 
materials, Library Science 204, 1957, 1964-65). The 
foundations course, which began in fall 1972, included 
a unit on acquisitions for a number of years, but such 
a unit is no longer included. 

The elective technical services functions course 
introduced in 1981 includes a unit on acquisitions. Issues 
related to acquisitions, relations with vendors, the effect 
of automation on acquisitions, and the relationship of 
acquisitions to public and technical services are studied 
rather than in-depth coverage of the routines of order 
work which are likely to vary from library to library. 
Usually both monograph and serials vendors visit the class. 


Binding, still the backbone of library preservation, 
was a part of the library economy courses in the School's 
early days. Students in 1897-1901 were asked to discuss 
approved principles of library binding, prepare binding 
slips for books being sent to the bindery, and consider 
whether or not it would be advantageous for a library 
to have its own bindery (University of Illinois Library 
School, 1897-1901). Although preservation as such was 
not mentioned in the early days, considerations were 
made of the most effective and safe way to mechanically 
prepare materials for the shelves including proper opening 
of a book and cutting untrimmed leaves— all topics that 
Florence R. Curtis included in her comprehensive 
"Instructor's Notes for Library 16 Order, Access, Shelf 
dated July 14, 1914. Also included were instructions 
for preparation of unstitched periodicals by sewing with 
linen thread or, for thick serials, pinning with a newspaper 
pin. Loose plates could be attached with McGill adhesive 
cloth fasteners. (In the archival materials a sample of 
the fastener, still in very good condition, can be found 
illustrating the preservation principle of keeping materials 
in the dark!) Springback, Bradley, and Boston binders 

94 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

are also mentioned (University of Illinois Library School, 
1893-1919). • 

For much of three decades ( 1920s-1940s), Josie 
B. Houchens, the University's binding librarian (also 
for some of her almost forty years as a librarian at the 
University, its personnel librarian), taught elective courses 
related to binding. A section on binding was part of 
a course known as "Printing and Binding." (For some 
of the time, "Indexing" was a part of the course title 
but this word was removed in 1933, since that area 
was covered in reference and cataloging courses [Minutes 
of faculty meeting, November 17, 1933]) In the University 
Archives can be found notes from a course that included 
binding. Although undated and unsigned, internal evidence 
from studies and sources cited would suggest that the 
notes originated sometime in the 1920s and, judging 
by the depth of information given, were probably from 
Miss Houchens. Students learned from the assignments 
and lectures to identify parts of books and types of 
bindings, the advantages of different types of leather 
and buckram, specifications for library binding, and 
tests to perform in order to determine a well-bound 
book. While there are hints of preservation here, this 
word does not appear in the notes (University of Illinois 
Library School, 1913-21). 

The study financed by the Carnegie Corporation 
recommended that the practical course in printing and 
binding be replaced by a course in the history of books 
to be required in the first semester (Russell, 1943, p. 
3). In that course, increased emphasis on "care and 
preservation" appears in the outline and reading list 
for the binding section which Houchens taught in the 
second semester of the 1948-49 school year. The reading 
lists illustrate that preservation is appearing in the title 
of books and articles but still binding appears to be 
at the heart of the course (University of Illinois Library 
School, 1948-1949). 

Technical Services Education ♦ 95 

Little attention appears to have been given to binding 
or preservation for several decades except perhaps some 
mention in administration courses. By the 1970s, and 
certainly by the 1980s, preservation became an increasingly 
pressing concern for librarians, at first for academic 
librarians only, but recognized by the 1990s as a concern 
for all types of libraries. Beginning in 1981, those enrolled 
in the technical services functions course have had an 
opportunity to study basic issues in preservation including 
paper and nonbook preservation problems, deacidification 
methods, and disaster prevention planning. 

In the 1980s several special summer course offerings 
on preservation were given by Paul Banks, Carolyn Clark 
Morrow, and Michdle Valerie Cloonan. The first regular 
full semester offering of Preservation of Library Materials, 
developed by William T Henderson (preservation librarian 
of the University Library) and me was offered in the 
fall 1988 semester. The course aims at raising the 
preservation consciousness of librarians and covers a 
full range of preservation issues: book structure, paper 
deterioration, binding, prospective and retrospective 
preservation, nonbook preservation and administrative 

Serials Control 

Like Acquisitions, the coverage of serials has been 
a part of a number of other courses rather than being 
developed into separate courses. Courses in selection 
and ordering, binding, and especially cataloging have 
covered serials issues. Since 1981 serials control has 
been included as part of the technical services functions 

Technical Services Functions 

In 1981, "Technical Services Functions" was added 
to the curriculum, ironically at a time when it seemed 
as if the profession were about to eliminate technical 
services departments in libraries. Since that time, however, 

96 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

the technical services functions have continued to increase 
in importance as these functions often* became the first 
to be affected by library automation. This seminar, offered 
first to a group of nine students, has continued to attract 
an increasing number of students, many of whom do 
not plan to become technical services librarians but 
who are interested in working effectively with technical 
services personnel and with integrated library systems. 
The areas covered in this course include the technical 
services in general, preservation, acquisitions, and serials 
control and management. Practicing technical services 
librarians are frequently invited to some class sessions 
as are vendors from book jobbers and serials subscription 
agencies. At this writing, I have been the only one to 
teach this course. 


The relation of practice to theory and principles 
has been an important component throughout the history 
of education for librarianship. How the practical work 
has been offered has varied from time to time. Most 
consistently, it has been included in individual courses, 
particularly in cataloging and reference sequences, and 
later in courses such as online searching. However, many 
other methods have been used as has been common 
in most library schools. 

To Katharine Sharp, practical experience was a very 
important component of the educational experience, 
not just to the students but to the teachers. In cor- 
respondence with J. I. Wyer, Jr. of the University of 
Nebraska on May 6, 1902, Sharp wrote: 

No member of our Library school faculty gives entire 
time to the school as distinct from the library, because 
we do not believe in that policy...! have always 
maintained that teachers in the Library school should 
be engaged in some practical work in the library 

Technical Services Education ♦ 97 

to prevent their becoming theoretical. ..Our strong 
belief on this point was one of the reasons why 
we did not move our school to the University of 
Wisconsin, because there our faculty would have 
been merely a teaching body, and we feel that it 
would have been disastrous to the practical nature 
of the instruction. (Sharp, 1902) 

The dual role for Library School faculty did not continue, 
although the appropriateness of faculty having recent 
practical experience would often surface again. By 1928, 
Williamson cited the University of Illinois as a school 
that did have full-time library school faculty members 
(Williamson, 1928, p. 43). 

Margaret Mann, in summarizing the work of the 
early years, noted the apprentice or practice work of 
the students which took place in the Armour Library 
(Mann, 1943, p. 17). Such work involved mending books, 
filing cards, reading shelves, accessioning materials, 
order work and cataloging. Obviously these are primarily 
technical service-oriented responsibilities that continued 
in the curriculum after the move to Urbana, for Mann 
is listed in the Catalogue of the University of Illinois 
for 1897-98 and 1898-99 as being responsible for 
"Elementary Apprentice Work," where "a laboratory 
for the mechanical preparation of books for the shelves 
is fitted up in the stack room, and here each student 
is given practical work each week." Each student was 
assigned to a library staff member "thus learning many 
points which cannot be given in the class room" ( Catalogue 
of the University of Illinois, 1897-1898, p. 204). Mann 
was also responsible for "Advanced Apprentice Work" 
which required independent technical work in the 
University Library and in the public libraries of Champaign 
and Urbana ( Catalogue of the University of Illinois, 
1898-1899, p. 227). This work engaged the students 
in the following technical services activities: accessioning; 
care of gifts, duplicates, and periodicals; binding; 

98 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

classification and cataloging of government documents; 
and revision of the cataloging of the jtlnior class. Until 
1926, members of the senior class were sent to various 
libraries throughout the country for one month of practice 
and experience {Annual Report, 1926-1927, p. 8). 

Some of the most interesting records of the School 
are those relating to inspection trips which were an 
important part of almost every student's course of study 
from the beginning of the School through 1948. Locations 
differed, as did the libraries and businesses visited and 
the mode of transportation used, but the main objective— 
allowing the student to see in practice what he or she 
had been studying in class— did not differ. Amelia Krieg 
explained the objectives to Dean Herbert S. Hirshberg, 
School of Library Science, Western Reserve University, 
as being to "show the student the theories he has learned 
in active operation in as many different types of libraries 
as possible" (Inspection trip files, 1935). As she wrote 
to Edward McGrail, National Publicity Officer of the 
American Legion, Krieg also saw the trips as a means 
of defining for the student "exactly the kind of library 
position" he or she would eventually like to have 
(Inspection trip files, 1940). So, through good weather 
and bad; through times of war and peace; through prosperity 
and depression; the inspection trips (with only a couple 
of exceptions) continued as a popular means to learn 
about libraries as well as a time-consuming exercise 
on the part of those responsible for arranging them. 

In summarizing the first decade of the School, the 
State Library School Report and Student Record, 1895- 
1903, (1903) indicated how important the inspection 
trips were to the total instructional scene. When the 
School was in Chicago, one visit was made weekly in 
the spring semester. Students were usually given guidance 
in their observations and class discussion followed each 
visit. The junior visits in June, 1897 called for reports 
that would explain in detail the catalog department 

Technical Services Education ♦ 99 

of the John Crerar Library, the Rudolph Indexer, the 
systems of classification used in each library, and the 
five approved principles of library binding with mention 
of the libraries which observed or violated them {Course 
materials, "Library 17 and 1," 1893-1901). After the 
move to Urbana, a trip to Chicago, lasting a week or 
ten days, was made each spring with the entire time 
devoted to library visits. At first the students divided 
into committees with each responsible for detailed reports 
on one department of all the libraries visited. The results 
were unsatisfactory because the students tended to 
magnify details at the sacrifice of the broad view. Later, 
before the trips, students examined reports from the 
libraries and devoted their time at the libraries to more 
general observations. Better results were claimed {Report 
and Student Record, 1893-1903, p. 17). 

As the Chicago trips continued and library conditions 
changed, students were required to observe technical 
service-related areas such as storage; loan desks and 
furniture; charging systems; the classification system 
used; the care of public documents; the heating, lighting, 
and ventilation; plans of the building; the use of LC 
and other printed cards; children's work; floor covering; 
newspaper files; periodicals; bindings; and collections 
(Inspection trip files, 1908). 

Many sites in Chicago were visited almost every 
year: the Chicago and Evanston public libraries, 
Northwestern and Newberry libraries, Library Bureau, 
Ernst Hertzberg & Sons (a bindery), and A. C. McClurg 
(book wholesalers). It is obvious that the intent was 
to include several types of libraries; later school and 
special libraries were added to the itinerary. 

Beginning in 1916, and usually in alternate years, 
other towns and cities were substituted for Chicago 
trips along with multiple site visits on any one tour. 
Some years there were two or three alternate trips to 
accommodate larger school enrollments. Among the 

100 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

alternative locations were Decatur, Jacksonville, and 
Springfield, Illinois; St. Louis; Indianapolis; Cincinnati, 
Cleveland, Dayton, and Toledo, Ohio; Bloomington and 
Rockford, Illinois; Madison and Milwaukee, Wisconsin; 
and Kalamazoo, Ann Arbor, and Detroit, Michigan. 

Even though sites were often visited over and over 
again, the School never seemed to outlive its welcome. 
Many letters in the inspection trip files praise the demeanor 
of the students and their perceptive questions. The 
archival files include pictures and articles from local 
newspapers documenting these visits. In 1932, Cincinnati's 
Safety Department even provided a traffic officer to 
escort the buses conveying the students from place 
to place (Inspection trip files, 1932). 

An undated, unidentified clipping from a Springfield, 
Illinois newspaper carried the provocative headline 
"Alone in a Wilderness of Co-eds, College Professor 
Pilots 35 on Tour Here." The professor was noted as 
the only male, there being only one male student in 
library science that year— perhaps too intimidated to 
go on the field trip with all those females (Inspection 
trip files, box 1, no date). 

The visits seemed to mean as much to the librarians 
and vendors as to the students. Maud Mitchell, librarian 
at Milwaukee-Downer College, wrote to Amelia Krieg, 
assistant director of the Library School, that "having 
library school students with their enthusiasm come 
to an isolated library such as ours helps to renew one's 
faith in the cause." Margaret Reynolds, librarian at First 
Wisconsin National Bank of Milwaukee, wrote to Krieg 
of the "thrill it gives me to have you once again come 
to visit this child of mine and to see a wee bit of our 
splendid organization" (Inspection trip files, 1934). 

These women shared the enthusiasm that had been 
expressed two years earlier by Edward A. Henry, director 
of libraries. University of Cincinnati in writing to Krieg: 
"Of course, times are a bit strenuous and a little work 

Technical Services Education ♦ 101 

is involved in entertaining such a group, but they are 
all so generously appreciative that it is a real joy to 
have your classes visit us. We would feel quite disappointed 
if you should leave us out of the future schedules" 
(Inspection trip files, 1932). The same sentiment was 
expressed by M. L. Raney, director of the University 
of Chicago Library, to Phineas L. Windsor in: "Of course, 
bring on the Library School whenever you want to. Why 
raise the question? It's an old custom and a very welcome 
one to us" (Inspection trip files, 1931 )• 

As the University of Illinois Library had no in-house 
bindery, it seemed logical to include a bindery on most 
inspection trips. In Chicago, the Hertzberg Bindery 
was most generous in giving of time and also in providing 
refreshments! (I still remember the lovely tea table 
arranged for the visit of my class on March 24, 1948.) 
From at least 1903 to date, this firm has educated library 
school students in the art of binding. When the 1931 
faculty tour leader, Ethel Bond, wrote to Edward Hertzberg, 
she noted that the talk on "rare printing and beautiful 
bindings" was "informational" and "inspirational." On 
that trip each student was given a small handmade leather 
purse with a dime in it (Inspection trip files, 1931). 
That Hertzberg visit inspired the major portion of a 
poem by Marion Phillips, only part of which is included 

Large libraries, small libraries, 
Books and bookshops many saw they. 
Everywhere a welcome waited, 
Everywhere a welcome cordial, 
But no greeting was more hearty 
Than the day they went to Hertzb erg's. 
There they saw some books most 

Books in bindings rare and lovely, 
Saw the artists works in leather, 
Saw the products of their handcraft. 

102 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

And to each of them was given 
A souvenir to carry with her 
But the kindliness there shown them 
Could not ever be forgotten. 
Then they left the lakeside city 
Journeyed home then to Urbana, 
And to all their friends related 
Of their days spent in Chicago. 
And the morning spent at Hertzb erg's 
And the kindly friendship shown them 
Is a high point in the story, 
Is a day sweet to remember. (Inspec- 
tion trip files, 1931) 

The visits continued to the Hertzberg firm after 
part of its operation was moved to Jacksonville, Illinois. 
When on April 11, 1940 Amelia Krieg expressed her 
gratitude for continued cooperation (Inspection trip 
files, 1940), she could not have imagined that a half- 
century later the School would still be grateful to the 
firm. Since 1988, when the "Preservation of Library 
Materials" class was initiated, the Hertzberg New Method 
Bindery has hosted an extensive tour for the students 
enrolled in that course. 

During the inspection trip era, if available, binderies 
were also visited when trips were made to cities other 
than Chicago or Jacksonville. One student, Paul Beck, 
reported to Director Krieg that the faculty leader "had 
trouble tearing us away from the National Library Bindery 
[Cleveland]" (Inspection trip files, 1940). The in-house 
bindery of Ohio State University was visited in 1941 
(Inspection trip files, 1940). From student reports, 
it can be determined that mending and local repair 
operations were frequently the subject of observation 
on the trips and elicited a great deal of interest. The 
end of the inspection trips came in 1948. (Incidentally, 
I was on that last trip but to my knowledge did nothing 
to cause the demise of the field trips as they had existed 

Technical Services Education ♦ 103 

for half a century. Rather to be expected was that my 
required report was a comparison of cataloging and 
classification in the libraries visited.) ^ 

In keeping with the general trend in library education, 
the fifth-year second bachelor's degree at Illinois would 
from that time forward be a master's degree. In the 
early 1940s the study funded by the Carnegie Corporation 
recommended some training in the field of at least two- 
weeks' duration. If this sounds reminiscent of earlier 
days, it is because it was a rebirth of an earlier practice 
that the Graduate School faculty of the University had 
asked to be discontinued because of its exceedingly 
practical nature. To overcome that objection, the 
consultants suggested setting up a program under the 
supervision of the regular Library School faculty rather 
than of the field supervisors (Russell, 1943, pp. 78- 
80). Following a period of extensive study of the 
curriculum, a number of changes were made in regard 
to practical work. 

At the April 20, 1948 faculty meeting, Herbert Goldhor, 
chair of the committee on the laboratory library, presented 
a tentative outline for student practice work. The objectives 
were to ( 1 ) introduce the students to the basic routines 
of library work, and (2) give the student a chance to 
apply at a subprofessional level certain portions of what 
was learned in class. The report proposed 48 hours 
of such work over 9 months time of not less that 3 
hours each— all for no credit, but required for a degree. 
The public library work would be performed at the 
Urbana Free Library; the college and university work 
at the University of Illinois Library; and school work 
at University High School Library. The faculty voted 
to proceed along these lines (Minutes of faculty meeting, 
April 20, 1948). At the May 20, 1948 faculty meeting, 
the term "field work" was chosen to avoid comparing 
this type of work with the former "practical work" 
(Minutes of faculty meeting. May 20, 1948). 

104 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

Technical service units in the field work program 
in the Urbana Free Library involved filing cards, serials 
and order work, cataloging, and adapting printed cards. 
Similar patterns were followed in other participating 
libraries. In the University Library, binding was added 
to the above units. Explicit routines were prepared 
by librarians who also revised the students' work (Course 
materials, "field work"). 

In 1953, the Urbana public library was no longer 
used for field work due to the cessation of reimbursement 
from the University for its services. In the University 
Library some components of field work, especially 
cataloging and acquisitions where constraints of time 
were felt, were not going as well as had been expected. 
Binding was reported to be going well (Minutes of faculty 
meeting, October 29, 1953). Although the field work 
in these areas continued, adjustments were made in 
the schedules. Still, a common request from students 
was for more practical work with less observation and 
fewer lectures (Minutes of faculty meeting, field work 
report, 1956-57). 

In 1956 the faculty resurrected the idea of out- 
of-town inspection (now called field) trips (Minutes 
of faculty meetings. May 7, 24, 31, 1956). In 1957, a 
one-day field trip to Chicago to visit McClurgs, Krochs, 
and Donnelleys to get an introduction to book production 
and binding was finalized (Minutes of faculty meetings, 
April 2, 1957, September 19, 1957, October 24, 1957). 
In spring I960, a trip was planned to the Decatur Public 
Library to "observe their use of machines"; the trip 
continued on to Jacksonville to the Hertzberg New Method 
bindery (Minutes of faculty meeting, March 10, I960). 
Meanwhile some courses in school librarianship and 
audio-visual services were taking their own field trips 
which were generously opened up to others. 

Eventually, field work began to wane in popularity 
among the students. At the same time, the School's 

Technical Services Education ♦ 105 

administration was finding field work very difficult to 
administer. The admission that the program had not 
worked out as planned soon followed. The core courses 
were to be reviewed to search for substitute methods 
of gaining experience. Summer school I960 would 
conclude field work sessions of this vintage of practical 
work (Minutes of faculty meeting, May 19, I960). 

On January 9-11, 1964, the faculty met to review 
the four core courses. In reviewing LS 204, "Development 
and Operation of Libraries," Frances Briggs Jenkins 
suggested a laboratory component to complement other 
aspects of the course by giving the students actual 
experience in library routines. Mrs. Jenkins believed 
that the profession wanted new graduates to have some 
practical experience before their first jobs. Even in 
1992, this requirement or desired qualification seems 
to be frequently found in technical services position 
announcements. A fall 1991 electronic mail bulletin 
board, "autocat," carried messages from technical services 
librarians who wanted their new hires to have some 
sort of practical experience. In 1964 (as today) many 
students indicated a need to feel more confident "on 
the job" which they felt practical experience would 
bring. Jenkins envisioned a small library as part of the 
School that would take the students through all areas 
of work from selection of materials through their use. 
The faculty was receptive to the idea (Minutes of faculty 
meeting, January 9, 10, 11 and April 23, 1964). When 
I joined the faculty in the summer of 1965, my first 
assignment was to develop this laboratory. It was a nice 
transition from being a practicing librarian to becoming 
a full-time faculty member. In a way, it kept me from 
the loneliness I felt for not being involved in the day- 
to-day work of a librarian for I could take the students 
through the processes of verifying book orders, ordering 
and receiving books and LC and Wilson cards (doesn't 
that date the operation?), cataloging the items, filing 

106 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

the cards for our mini-catalog, processing the items, 
and eventually circulating them. It was fun to write 
down the routines that were involved. We also visited 
local libraries and had book repair demonstrations. In 
1972, when the foundations course was instituted and 
LS 204 along with other 200-level courses was abandoned, 
the laboratory ceased to exist. The 1980s and 1990s 
found students engaged in practicums some of which 
involved cataloging and preservation experiences. When 
the preservation course was introduced in 1988, it brought 
with it, in addition to the field trip to Hertzberg New 
Method Bindery in Jacksonville, hands-on experience 
in hand papermaking with Frank Gallo of the University's 
School of Art and Design, and book repair experience 
with John Ison of Demco. 


We sometimes seem to think the computer age 
invented library technology; however, techniques and 
technologies of different sorts have always been a part 
of library schools and of technical services-related courses. 

In its first decade, the Library School boasted a 
laboratory collection of 60,000 volumes, much of which 
had come from the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition 
collection. Additions from librarians and manufacturers 
made it a collection of great value for illustrating methods 
of administration in different types of libraries including 
"labor saving devices" and "samples of fittings for all 
departments" {Report and Student Record, 1893-1903, 
1903, p. 9). But the materials and equipment soon became 
outdated and pleas were made to upgrade examples. 
The lack of money to update and upgrade has been a 
perpetual problem, and the School has often resorted 
to the use of unsatisfactory "paper problems" which 
do little to satisfy the requirement that students learn 
how to "read" an item for bibliographic and subject 

Technical Services Education ♦ 107 

Those who read this article should be grateful that 
they were not required to learn library handwriting 
( in both joined and disjoined methods), an accomplishment 
apparently few perfected, if instructors' comments are 
a reliable criterion. In September, 1906 one instructor 
of the "Elementary Laboratory" course complained that 
the students would never be able to mark labels and 
plates and write catalog cards until they could make 
proper figures (Course materials, "Library 4," September 
1906). Tired of writing the same criticisms over and 
over, the instructor took the examples to the cataloging 
department from whence came this warning: "Tell the 
girls that if they can't write better than that when they 
come to do independent cataloging, their cards will 
not be accepted" (Course materials, "Library 4," March 
11, 1907). Who would dare suffer the embarrassment 
of not having one's handwritten cards accepted for the 

Frequently one is caught between technologies and 
methods. Seldom does an old technology or method 
disappear all at once. (One can still find isolated 
handwritten cards in the card catalog of the University 
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library.) There is a 
time of transition— such is the case today as the online 
catalog has not spelled the demise of every card catalog— 
and so it was in the past that the School's courses also 
included typewriter exercises alongside the handwriting 
exercises. The typewriter came into use in the late 
nineteenth century and, although Williamson would 
later hope to remove such clerical tasks from the 
professional arena, typewriting played an important 
part in some aspects of the early curriculum. While 
at Armour, Sharp struggled to acquire several different 
makes of typewriters for the courses that required 
typewriting. She made a case to the Armour president, 
F. W. Gunsaulus, for the Hammond typewriter which 
she found best suited for typing catalog cards and far 

108 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

superior to the Remington (Sharp, 1896, 1896a). But 
her pleas were frequently unsuccessful as the Armour 
president and the business manager failed to heed her 
directions. She could only complain about the amount 
of repair that had been necessitated by the substitute 
machine that was purchased, which she labeled "second- 
hand furniture" (Sharp, 1897). By March 11, 1907, it 
was reported that typewriters were in use almost all 
the time (Course materials, "Library 4," March 11, 1907). 

Of course, typewriting has long since disappeared 
as a course in the curriculum, but when computers came 
on the scene one could almost hear the same arguments 
as to whether library school students should be instructed 
in how to use them. In 1972, when the foundations 
course was initiated, students received some of their 
first hands-on computer experience with lessons in the 
cataloging unit; however, this was in the nature of 
computer-assisted learning using the University's PLATO 
system to teach about the computer as well as about 
cataloging. Even before OCLC was available outside 
Ohio, the PLATO lessons which I developed simulated 
the OCLC search process for the student. Later the School 
acquired its own OCLC terminals, and OCLC lessons 
have been commonly used in "Cataloging and Classification 
I" since the early 1980s. 

Many more examples of materials and methods used 
to teach the technical services could be cited. Suffice 
it to mention the perforatory stamps, book labels, adhesive 
fasteners, stapling samples, order cards, etc. that Florence 
R. Curtis took to her "Order, Accession, Shelf class 
in July, 1914 along with the following recipe for paste: 
1 tablespoon alum, 1 quart water, V2 pint flour, 20 drops 
oil of cloves (Course materials, "Library 16," 1893- 
1919). This might have made good-smelling paste that 
would not sour, but the alum would make any present- 
day preservation librarian shudder for the acidity it 
would introduce into the paper. Contrast that with recent 

Technical Services Education ♦ 109 

demonstrations and applications in the current pre- 
servation course of methods of testing paper using pH 
testing pens; spray applications for deacidification; local 
repair techniques; and so forth. 


It would be impossible to cover the full range of 
persons who have been responsible for the teaching 
of technical service-related courses in the School. Names 
such as Florence R. Curtis and F. W. Drury are among 
those who contributed. Often the teachers were librarians 
whose main position was with the University Library. 
And this has continued into contemporary times. 

But the mainstay of full-time faculty with continuing 
responsibility for cataloging and classification has resided 
with relatively few persons. It may be a surprise to 
some that Margaret Mann once taught cataloging at the 
Library School. A recipient of the two-year diploma 
from Armour Library School in 1896 (she held no other 
university degrees), she was immediately engaged by 
Sharp to be a cataloger and instructor in cataloging, 
accessioning, and shelf listing. In the letter of request 
to F. W. Gunsaulus, Sharp noted that Mann was the "best 
qualified of all the students we have had" (Sharp, 1896b). 
Mann remained at Illinois until 1903, when she went 
to the Carnegie Library in Pittsburgh (Sharp, 1903). 
In 1926, Mann joined the library school faculty of the 
University of Michigan where she remained until her 
retirement in 1938. Through her prolific writings and 
her widely used textbook. Introduction to Cataloging 
and Classification of Books (1930 and 1943), her 
distinguished efforts as a teacher extended far beyond 
Illinois and Michigan. 

Associate Professor Ethel Bond received a Bachelor 
of Science in Library Science degree from the University 
of Illinois in 1908. Until 1912, when she joined the 
faculty of the Library School as an instructor, she received 

110 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

cataloging experience at Northwestern University and 
at Ohio Wesleyan. Her service to the Library School 
continued until her retirement in September 1949. In 
his Annual Report, 1949-50, Director Harold Lancour 
noted that "the reputation of this School for producing 
well-trained catalogers has been due almost solely to 
the work of Professor Bond" {Annual report, 1949- 
50, p. 3). Her special interest was in the construction 
of uniform headings, well before the time that a cataloging 
code would cover this complex type of heading. In addition, 
she directed many advanced sixth-year master's students 
in preparing theses concerned with the complicated 
bibliographical problems in the author headings used 
for official state publications. The American Library 
Association published some of these studies. In a sense, 
these studies constituted established authority files 
made available to others at a time when such records 
were badly needed. 

Bond was involved in state and national library 
associations and code revisions. My first position in 
the Library School was to serve as her "reviser," a position 
in which Library School students assisted faculty members. 
While somewhat comparable to today's graduate 
assistantships, this position was often a three-quarters 
time one awarded to advanced students who assisted 
in teaching, revised the written work of students, and 
supervised laboratory sessions. I held this position in 
the last years of Ethel Bond's tenure. During one semester, 
she broke her shoulder and I took over the total teaching 
responsibility. It was then that I knew that some day 
I wanted to teach library science courses, particularly 
cataloging courses. Students of that era probably remember 
going to Miss Bond's Delmont Court apartment for 
refreshments at the conclusion of the advanced course. 
Many of the profession's leading catalogers for a whole 
generation were students of Ethel Bond. Lancour was 

Technical Services Education ♦ 111 

right in his assessment of her contributions to the School 
and the profession. 

Ethel Bond was succeeded by Thelma Eaton, a graduate 
of the University of Michigan, Department of Library 
Science, who received a doctorate from the University 
of Chicago Graduate Library School in 1948 after service 
during World War II in the U.S. Army Air Force. She 
had formerly been head of the Department of Library 
Science at Mississippi State College for Women and 
brought the specialties of descriptive bibliography and 
the history of books and librarianship to her appointed 
position as associate professor in September 1949. She 
remained on the faculty until her retirement in May 

In February 1965, Oliver T. Field joined the faculty 
as assistant professor following a decade of technical 
services work at the Air University, Maxwell Air Force 
Base, Montgomery, Alabama. In 1969, he completed 
a doctorate in library science from Columbia University. 
That same year he joined the faculty of the Graduate 
School of Librarianship, University of Denver. 

In the fall semester 1964, I taught "Cataloging and 
Classification I" as a visiting instructor and joined the 
full-time faculty in June, 1965. A graduate of the School 
with both fifth- and sixth-year master's degrees, I came 
to teaching from a dozen years in technical services 
work at McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, 
preceded by a period as a serials cataloger at the University 
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library. Between my 
mentor, Ethel Bond, and me over three-fifths of the 
responsibility for cataloging courses has been in our 


Since 1893, methods, tools, technologies, and people 
have come and gone in the School. Change, ever present, 
has intensified with time. Preservation has become every 

112 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

librarian's responsibility as collections deteriorate. 
Preservation has moved much beyond the binding routine 
to cover areas of chemistry, environmental controls, 
and heating and air conditioning. Automation has 
introduced some of the most radical changes. Integrated 
systems have made it essential for more librarians to 
know about the technical services. Technical services 
librarians spend less time doing the actual work of technical 
services, but more time in training, supervising, 
administering, and decision-making (as well as in 
committee meetings!). In the early days, almost every 
librarian cataloged; today fewer librarians catalog, but 
every librarian uses catalogs which, in their online state, 
have become more complicated and require everyone 
to know about their structures. Descriptive cataloging 
codes have changed (in my own work as student, librarian, 
and teacher, I have used or taught about at least six 
different codes) and catalogs carry records from all 
of them. MARC format codes have added to the complexity 
of cataloging instruction and use. Subject control has 
increased in importance for library users and occupies 
a much larger portion of the cataloging courses than 
in the past. The Dewey Decimal Classification scheme 
remains a constant but with the promise of entirely 
new uses. Courses change, too, as they incorporate new 
tools, new techniques, and new methods to meet new 
needs. The drill of the past has become the understanding 
of the methods and tools, for more of the students will 
become consumers of the products of technical services 
than the producers of them. This does not mean, however, 
that the "training" aspects entirely disappear, for we 
must know how to test out and evaluate the theory 
through practice. Green's century-old observations calling 
for librarians to be well trained, have technical knowledge, 
and be well educated still apply. 


Annual register, University of Illinois. University of Illinois Archives, 

Technical Services Education ♦ 113 

Annual report, Library School Record series 18/1/0/19. University 

of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 
Bond, E. (1942). Theoretical versus practical approach to library 

training: A digest of an analysis of the survey of the Library 

School presented at the meeting of the University of Illinois 

[Library School] Faculty on December 9 , 1942. Unpublished 

Catalogue of the University of Illinois, 1897-1898. (1898). Urbana, 

IL: University of Illinois. 
Course materials, [University of Illinois, Library School] Record 



Library 4, 1906-1908, Box 7 

Library 16, 1893-1919, Box 1 

Library 17 and 1, 1893-1900, Box 1 

Library 21, 1913-1921, Box 10 

Library Science 70, second semester 1947-1948, Box 44 

Library Science 73 and 71, second semester 1946-1947, Box 43 

Library Science 204, summer session 1957 and first semester 

1964-1965, Box 64 

Library Science 432, second semester 1948-1949, box 44 

Library Science 454, second semester 1949-1950, Box 46 

Field work. Box 44 
Green, S. S. ( 1891). Address of the president, conference of librarians, 

San Francisco, Oct. 12-16, 1891. Library Journal, 16(12), 1-9. 
Inspection trip files. Record series 18/1/9. 
Mann, M. (1943). A history of the Armour Institute Library School, 

1893-1897. In Carl M. White (Ed.), Fifty years of education 

for librarianship (prepared by the University of Illinois Library 

School) (pp. 9-24). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. 
Minutes of faculty meetings. University of Illinois, Library School. 

Unpublished manuscripts. 
Report and Student Record, 1893-1903. (1903). University of Illinois 

State Library School. Champaign and Urbana. Record series 18/ 

1/0/1, box 1. 
Russell, J. D.; Osborn, A. D.; & Metcalf, K. D. (1943). A program 

for the University of Illinois Library School: Report of a study 

financed by the Carnegie Corporation and made for the University 

of Illinois Library School on the occasion of its fiftieth anniversary. 

May 1, 1943 Unpublished manuscript. 
Sharp, K. L. to F. W. Gunsaulus. (1896a). Record series 18/1/1. 

Box, Letterbook 1, June 6. 
Sharp, K. L. to F. W. Gunsaulus. (1896b). Record series 18/1/1. 

Box 1, Letterbook 1, June 24, October 26, 1896. 
Sharp, K. L. to J. S. Van Vleet. (1897). Record series 18/1/1. Box 

1, Letterbook 1, October 26. 

1 14 ♦ Ideals and Siandards 

Sharp, K. L. to J. I. Wyer, Jr. (1902). Record series 18/1/1. Box 

3, Letterbook 9. 
Sharp, K. L. to M. Mann. ( 1903). Record series 18/1/1. Box 3, Letterbook 

11, September 17. 
Survey of faculty curriculum study. (1940). (With Library School 

Minutes of faculty meeting, October). Unpublished manuscript. 
Williamson, C. C. (1923). Training for library service (Report 

prepared for the Carnegie Corporation of New York). New York. 

For this article all available documents of the following 
University of Illinois sources were surveyed: 
Annual register 

Annual report (Library School) 
Catalogue of the University of Illinois 
Inspection trip files (Library School) 
Minutes of faculty meetings, Library School 
Report and student record, State Library School 

Samplings of the voluminous Course materials of the 
Library School were studied. 

7 Services and Sources 

Reference and Other Public Service Courses 


Christine Beserra and Terry L. Weech 

Aublic service courses at the University of Illinois Library 
School have been introduced, changed, and deleted as the 
field of library science developed through the years. In the 
early days at the Armour Institute, the only recognizable 
public service courses were courses on reference work, 
bibliography, and loan systems. These courses were decidedly 
practical in orientation, supplemented by actual apprentice 
work at the School's library (Armour Institute, 1894-95). 
Over the years, however, the focus shifted to a distinction 
between practice-oriented courses and theory-oriented courses. 
New courses, such as those in government documents and 
specialized literature, were introduced. Most of these became 
part of the long-term offerings of the School. Other not- 
so-common courses were short-lived, such as LS 91 "Psychology 
for Librarians," a course in "the application of psychological 
principles and techniques to library service" (University 
of Illinois Bulletin, 1946-47, p. 14) and "Information Services 

1 16 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

of the School Library" listed in the school's catalog in 1941- 
1942 and 1942-1943 (Annual Register, 1941-1942, p. 249). 

Over the years two reference courses have been constant 
in the curriculum, "Elementary Reference" and "Advanced 
Reference." The official titles and details of the course description 
may have varied over the years, but the essential concepts 
taught in these two courses have prevailed throughout most 
of the last 100 years. 


A course of study in reference work was offered from 
the opening of the Library School at the Armour Institute 
in 1893. According to the 1893-1903 annual report, reference 
was offered initially as a third-term course, but it was soon 
recognized that an introduction to reference should be provided 
early in the library curriculum because students needed 
to use reference books from the beginning of their studies. 
The entire junior year of the two-year program at the Armour 
Institute and in the early days of the School at the University 
of Illinois included what was originally called "Reference 
Work" and later listed as "Elementary Reference" in the 
School's 1893-1903 report (University of Illinois State Library 
School, 1893-1903, p. 14). 

Margaret Mann, writing about the first year at the Armour 
Institute, described the teaching of reference work as follows: 
"groups of subjects were assigned to students to look up 
in reference books, and a comparative study was made of 
the reference books in the Armour Library" (Mann, 1943, 
p. 16). Mann noted that this basic approach continued into 
her day at the School and others will note that it endures 
as the School enters its 100th year. 

During the first ten years of the School, it appears that 
at least six people taught the introduction to reference work 
course, which eventually became the elementary reference 
course. Only three (Marvin, Straight, and Mudge) were regular 
members of the faculty. The rest were lecturers (Faculty 
listings, 1893-1899). Appendix 1 to this chapter presents 
a chronology of these early instructors of elementary reference. 

Services and Sources ♦ 117 

In a 1902 Library Journal article, Isadore Mudge described 
the instruction in reference work as both class instruction 
and independent practical work (Mudge, 1902). The class 
instruction described by Mudge included lectures on reference 
work and reference tools as well as problem sets for students 
to solve. She even included a sample quiz given in elementary 
reference. Students had five minutes in class to answer the 

Sample Elementary Reference Quiz 

Mention authors and titles of books in which you would 
ejq)ect to find information on the following questions: 

1. Where find good biogr^hical sketch of Cardinal Wolsey? 

2. What was the Ostend manifesto? 

3. Who is president of Ohio State University? 

4. What is the national debt of Russia? 

5. Who is editor of the Atlantic Monthly? 

6. Where find good account of the Court of Star Chamber? 

7. Where find a synopsis of "Bleak House"? [sic] (Mudge, 
1902, p. 335) 

The independent practical work could be done either at 
the University Library or the Champaign Public Library Senior 
students were given the responsibility for the reference room 
and reference desk in the evenings (6:30 to 9:00) at the 
University Library At the Champaign Public Library, seniors 
took charge of the children's room and the branch Ubrary 
in the afternoons. Mudge noted that "In this way a great 
variety of reference work is secured and the same student 
may obtain at different times practice in answering such 
reference questions as are asked in a university library, a 
children's library and a branch of a public library, and at 
the same time become accustomed to practical library routine" 
(Mudge, 1902, p. 334). 

Mudge taught elementary reference through 1903 (Course 
materials, box 3, no date) at which time she accepted the 

118 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

head librarian position at Bryn Mawr College. She went on 
to teach "library economy" at Simmons College and later 
worked at Columbia University where she edited early editions 
of the Guide to Reference Books (Scott, 1918, p. 919). In 
1903-04, Frances Simpson began teaching the course and 
continued teaching reference courses until her retirement 
in 1931 (Obituary file of Frances Simpson). Her successor 
Rose Phelps, who taught reference from 1928 to 1958, probably 
holds the record for length of time teaching reference (although 
she took various leaves of absence) and for teaching the 
most variety of reference courses: reference; government 
publications; subject bibliography; advanced reference; reference 
and bibliography; U.S. Government publications; state, municipal, 
and foreign documents; reference service, advanced bibliography; 
use of books and libraries; bibliography of humanities and 
social sciences; bibliography of science and technology; advanced 
reference services; and problems in reference service (Circulars 
and announcements, 1897-1924, 1945). Phelps once estimated 
that she had taught approximately 1,500 students from 1928 
through 1958 (Obituary file of Rose Phelps). 

Although the name of the elementary reference course 
was changed many times (in 1910 to "Reference Work," 
in 1915 to "Reference," in 1944 to "Reference Service," in 
1948 to "Use of Books and Libraries" and in 1964 to "Introduction 
to Reference") it was taught as a separate course in the 
curriculum in one form or another from 1893 through 1972 
(Circulars and announcements 1897-1924, 1945). In 1948, 
with the installation of the new master's degree which replaced 
the fifth-year bachelor's degree, the elementary reference 
course became an undergraduate prerequisite for the graduate 
program and was to be taken in the summer prior to graduate 
enrollment {University of Illinois Library School, 1948-1949). 
Phelps noted in her reminiscences about the School that 
this changed the scheme of reference instruction with the 
"most general and most used reference sources now...taught 
in the core course: the first graduate course dealt with the 
more scholarly sources in the humanities and social sciences; 

Services and Sources ♦ 1 19 

the second with science and technology..." (Phelps, 1969, 
p. 69). 

In 1972, the faculty approved a change in curriculum 
that integrated all of the formally separate core courses into 
a "Foundations of Librarianship" course. This change came 
about in part because of the desire to integrate the content 
of the four core courses into a single comprehensive one. 
Duplication among some of the core courses had been a 
complaint for a number of years. Students found that the 
materials selection course and the introduction to reference 
course often covered some of the same bibliographical and 
trade publication sources. There was also the concern that 
some students admitted to the graduate program had either 
transferred undergraduate courses from other schools or 
passed proficiency examinations to avoid one or more of 
the required core courses; thus they did not share the common 
experience of an introduction to the profession. Consolidating 
the core into one course ensured that all graduate library 
students would receive a common professionalization e?q)erience. 
The course was also to be team-taught by faculty who had 
taught one or more of the earlier undergraduate core courses, 
providing the graduate students with an ejqposure to a variety 
of the fiaculty in their introductory course. 

There was also the matter of the undergraduate minor 
in library science. Some felt the undergraduate minor contributed 
to the dilution of the graduate program and led to confusion 
on the part of potential employers between undergraduate 
and graduate preparation. By consolidating the four core 
courses, previously available for undergraduate credit only 
and required as a prerequisite to the graduate courses, the 
Illinois library science program would be making a statement 
about the graduate nature of the preparation for the profession. 
It was also noted that some of the undergraduates who took 
the four undergraduate core courses and one or two others 
that were available for undergraduate credit had taken jobs 
in some public as well as school libraries. By switching the 
core curriculum to an all-graduate credit, students would 

120 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

not be able to obtain jobs with only the basic courses as 
preparation. • 

Under the University of Illinois Statutes, all changes 
in academic programs must be approved by the faculty 
senate. After reviewing the changes proposed by the Library 
School faculty, the senate turned down the request for 
eliminating the undergraduate minor in library science. 
Senators from the College of Liberal Arts and the College 
of Education in particular expressed concern about their 
undergraduate students being unable to elect a library 
science minor since that often allowed them to obtain 
employment in libraries when jobs in their major areas 
were difficult to find. The Library School faculty decided 
to retain the consolidated core course, but they had to 
make it available for undergraduate credit. Thus LIS 400 
(a designation that indicates graduate credit only) was 
changed to LIS 300 (a designation that indicates availability 
for either undergraduate or graduate credit). 

The consolidated core (incorporation of library 
administration, introduction to cataloging, materials selection, 
and reference into one course) continued for nearly ten 
years. But, in 1982, the faculty decided to separate out the 
cataloging and reference components due to concerns on 
the part of some graduates that they were not competing 
well in the job market because their transcripts did not 
indicate introductory courses in cataloging and reference. 
The Library of Congress, among other employers, had specifically 
expressed concern over the lack of such courses on the 
Illinois transcript. Despite letters of explanation regarding 
the nature of the LIS 300 course, employers continued to 
cast a doubtful eye at our transcripts. Thus the faculty acted 
to reestablish separate courses in cataloging (LIS 309) and 
reference (LIS 320). In doing so, they also reduced the credit 
of LIS 300 from 2 units (8 hours) to 1 unit (four hours) 
and elected to offer LIS 309 and LIS 320 in a five-week module 
at the beginning of the fell semester with the next level 

Services ANfD Sources ♦ 121 

of cataloging and reference courses being offered in the 
last eleven weeks of the semester. 

From the first offering of LIS 320, "Introduction to 
Information Sources and Services," students expressed concern 
about the amount of work that was required for a five-week 
course. While it incorporated the same material as the prior 
undergraduate introduction to reference, the earlier class 
had been offered as a 15-week course during the regular 
semester and an 8-week course in the summer session. After 
years of debate and numerous committee and subcommittee 
meetings, a proposal was taken to the faculty in January 
of 1990 to revise the reference sequence in order to place 
primary emphasis in LIS 320 on the history, theory, and philosophy 
of reference and to establish a new course (LIS 404) to 
cover the reference sources in detail. The revised LIS 320 
("Introduction to Information Services") with a more theoretical 
orientation was offered for the first time in the summer 
of 1991. While it may be too soon to pass judgment, initial 
feedback from students as well as faculty teaching the course 
suggest that it is a positive change. 


Advanced reference was originally a senior-year course. 
According to the 1899-1900 outline, the course covered 
what was later included in public documents {Pcpers Showing 
Scope of the School, 1893-99). It w^ noted that, beginning 
in 1903-04, any student satisfactorily completing elementary 
reference could take advanced reference as an elective (University 
of Illinois State Library School, 1893-03, p. 19). Eventually 
the description evolved to recommend the course to students 
preparing for positions in college libraries or large reference 
libraries {University of Illinois Library School Circular, 1921- 
22, p. 21). By 1926, the description had deleted reference 
to a specific type of library, but instead described the course 
as concerned with the "Transactions of societies; government 
publications [once again]; periodicals and indexes" {Annual 
Register, 1926-1927, p. 303). By 1931, the description read: 

122 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

"Bibliographic method in specific fields involving the use 
of scholarly bibliographies, abstract journals, special dictionaries..." 
(Annual Register, 1931-1932, p. 349). 

A course with the title "Advanced Reference" disappeared 
from the School's catalog in 1942 (Annual Register 1942- 
1943) but the course work was continued in LS 1 14, "Advanced 
Bibliography." It was reinstated under a new number (430) 
in 1948 and listed as "Advanced Reference Service" under 
courses for graduate students and required government 
publications as a prerequisite {University of Illinois Bulletin, 
19481949, p. 26). In the 1953-54 catalog, the title of 430 
was changed to "Advanced Bibliography" although the course 
description remained the same as that of "Advanced Reference 
Services" {University of Illinois Bulletin, 1953-54, p. 31). 
In 1964-65, it was changed back to "Advanced Reference" 
with no change of content description {University of Illinois 
Bulletin, 1964-1965, p. 32). 

Most of the early professors of elementary reference 
also taught advanced reference; Straight, Mudge, Simpson, 
and Phelps all taught the course between 1898 and 1958. 
In the latter part of the century, professors of advanced reference 
included RoUand Stevens, Dewey Carroll, and Walter Allen 
(Circulars and announcements 1897-1924, 1945-; University 
of Illinois Registers, 1925-1944). Various projects were part 
of the advanced reference course during the Phelps years. 
According to the May 1936 student newsletter End Papers, 
the advanced reference class was working on the "identification 
of the correspondents of Horace Walpole." By 1967, the 
course was still taught as outlined by Rose Phelps, concerned 
with "technical problems" in the use of reference titles which 
had been introduced in earlier reference courses, search 
sti^ategies, "procedures of reference work" and reference 
"trends." Class work included readings, assigned problems, 
a term paper, and class discussions of how students found 
answers to the assigned problems (FMM Jan. 5, 1967). 

In 1991, as part of a general revision of reference courses, 
the advanced reference course was deleted fi'om the curriculum 

Services AND Sources ♦ 123 

with the specialized discipline oriented reference courses 
on the humanities/social sciences, and science/technology 
rising to the level of advanced courses in reference service. 
In a sense, "Advanced Reference" has been replaced by not 
only the three specialized reference sources, but by all the 
other specialized discipline oriented courses in reference 
and bibliography (business, law, etc.). 


As noted in the discussion of elementary reference, in 
1948 the first level of courses in reference to be taken by 
graduate students dealt with scholarly sources in broad subject 
areas. There were two such courses originally. The first (LIS 
411) focused on sources in the humanities and social sciences, 
while the second (LIS 412) was concerned with sources 
in the sciences and technology {University of Illinois Bulletin, 
1948-1949, pp. 25-26). These were listed as bibliography 
courses until 1964 when their titles were changed to reflect 
their content ( University of Illinois Bulletin, 1964-1966, 
p. 32). 

For the next twenty-seven years there was little change 
in the catalog description of these courses. They continued 
to be the "second" level of reference courses after the introductory 
course until the implementation in 1991 of the revised reference 
sequence. Among the faculty teaching these courses were, 
in humanities and social sciences, Walter Allen, Leslie Edmonds, 
Donald Krummel, Winifred Linderman, Frederick Schlipf, 
Rolland Stevens, and Terry Weech, and, in the sciences and 
technology, George Bonn, Frances Jenkins, and Linda Smith. 
Jenkins and Stevens developed workbooks for these courses 
that were widely used in other schools as well as at Illinois. 

From 1948 through 1974, two companion courses to 
these reference courses were LIS 301 ("Literature of the 
Humanities and Social Sciences") and LIS 302 ("Literature 
of the Sciences"). These literature courses were designed 

124 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

for undergraduates and graduate students who wished more 
background on the designated disciplines, ki 1976, "Literature 
of the Humanities and Social Sciences" was renamed 
"Bibliography" {University of Illinois Bulletin, 1976-1978, 
p. 29) and is taught today more from the perspective of 
a general bibliography course (how lists are compiled and 
how books are made) than from a subject-oriented literature 
course. LIS 302 changed its name in 1976 to "Science Materials 
for Nonspecialists" {University of Illinois Bulletin, 1976- 
1978, p. 29) but was dropped from the curriculum in 1982. 
There have been many other specialized literature courses 
developed through the years. We do not have the space to 
go into them all here, but the review presented above of 
the evolution of the courses in the humanities, social sciences, 
sciences, and technology give some indication of the pattern 
of development. 


As early as 1938, the summer catalog for that year listed 
a course entitled "Problems in Teaching the Use of the Library" 
for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in the 
library school {University of Illinois Bulletin, 1938, p. 7). 
A course assigned the number 410 and called "Teaching Function 
of the Library" appeared in the 1949-1950 catalog, with a 
description indicating it was concerned with the study of 
the "implications inherent in the concept of the library as 
an education institution" {University of Illinois Bulletin, 
1949-1950, p. 29). This course then began an evolution away 
from the library-use-instruction orientation as it became 
increasingly concerned with more general adult education 
issues. By 1955, the course numbered 410 had been retitled 
"Adult Education" and was described as concerned with 
significant educational programs conducted by libraries 
{University of Illinois Bulletin, 19551957, p 34). 

In 1962, "Adult Education" was changed to "Adult Education 
and Libraries" {University of Illinois Bulletin, 1962-1963, 

Services and Sources ♦ 125 

pp. 28-29). In 1972, the course title was changed to "Adult 
Public Services" and the description also changed to reflect 
the more general content of the course {University of Illinois 
Bulletin, 19721974, p. 31). While the adult public services 
course remains in the curriculum today, "Library Use Instruction" 
(450AC) was added to the curriculum in the early 1980s 
in response to a need expressed by library science students 
for a course on the methods of providing bibliographic instruction 
or library use instruction to library users. While both courses 
cover all types of libraries, the adult public services course 
focuses has evolved to focus on public libraries and the library 
use instruction course on academic and school libraries. 
Instructors of these courses have included, for adult public 
services, Ida Goshkin (one summer), Kathleen Heim, and 
Frederick Schlipf; and for library use instruction, Terry Weech 
and Lizabeth Wilson. 


Years before the "Problems in Teaching the Use of the 
Library" course was added to the curriculum, the Library 
School offered courses to undergraduates from all fields in 
how to use the library. In the 1893-1903 report, a third 
reference course was listed after "Elementary Reference" 
and "Advanced Reference." It was "General Reference," which 
was designed as a "how to use the library" course (1893- 
1903 Report, p. 25). According to Josie Houchens, "General 
Reference" was commonly referred to as "Library 12" by 
the faculty (Houchens, 1969, p. 13) because it was listed 
as "course number 12" in the 1893-03 report. This early 
version of a library instruction course was offered in one 
form or another through 1944 {CiroAlars and Announcements, 
Series 18/1/0/1). The course was reinstated in 1962 as LIS 
195, "Introduction to Library Use" and was last offered in 
Spring, 1972. In the decade that followed, the University 
Library took a greater interest in library use instruction and 
developed special programs in the Undergraduate Library 
as well as elsewhere within the University Library system. 

126 ♦ Ideals AND SiANDARDs 

Although there has been discussion within the School of 
implementing "service courses" to students in other disciplines, 
no action has been taken to reinstitute such a course since 
LS 195 was dropped. 


According to the 1900 Register {Annual Register 1900- 
1901, p. 157), the University of Illinois Library School was 
the only library school offering an "extended course on the 
use and cataloging of public documents" when the course 
was first offered and taught by Margaret Mann in 1900 (University 
of Illinois State Ubrary School, 1893-1903, p. 25). In 1902- 
03, the course became a two-semester course "with a selected 
class" {University of Illinois State Library School, 1893-1903, 
p. 25). Presumably the reference to "selected class" indicated 
that there was sufficient interest among the students in that 
year to justify offering two semesters of work on public 
documents. As noted by Mann in a 1901 description in Library 
Journal, her class studied the government documents in 
the University's Library for both their reference \^ue and 
method of cataloging, where and how to obtain government 
documents, and the documents of the various government 
departments. Students were also given practical reference 
problems and, in connection with their study of the Department 
of Agriculture, the students compiled a bibliography on asparagus 
(Mann, 1901). 

During the first half of the century, government publication 
course offerings varied from a single course on public documents 
to two separate courses, one on Federal documents and the 
second on state, local, and foreign Documents. The latter 
two courses were first listed in the 1913-14 School catalog 
{University of Illinois Library School Circular of Information, 
19 13-19 14, p. 21). The basic course in public documents 
was reinstated in the 1925-26 catalog and was listed under 
a series of different course numbers, its name changing to 
"Government Publications" in 1933-34, to "Introduction 

Services and Sources ♦ 127 

to Government Documents" in 1944, and back to "Government 
Publications" in 1948. The 1948 designation remains the 
basic course in government publications to this day (Circulars 
and announcements, series 18/1/0/1). A separate course 
on state documents was listed in the School's catalog from 
1937-38 through 1941-42 {Annual Register, 1937, p. 179; 
1941, p. 298). In 1981, a course in advanced documents 
was developed, "Seminar in Government Publications 450PP" 
{Graduate School of Library Science, 1981, p. 27) and continues 
to be offered as one of the special topics courses in the 
LIS 450 "Advanced Studies in Librarianship" series (see Appendix 
2 to this ch^ter). 


As noted earlier, after a number of years of planning 
and deliberation, the faculty approved in 1991 the revision 
of the reference course sequence resulting in the dissolution 
of the advanced reference course, the revision of the introductory 
course, the establishment of a new intermediate course (LIS 
404), and the realignment of courses in reference services 
by discipline into three advanced courses intended to be 
taken by students wishing to specialize in specific subject 
areas. The three advanced courses are: (1) 412, "Scientific 
and Technical Literature and Reference Work"; (2) 413, 
"Reference Services in the Social Sciences," and (3) 4 14, 
"Reference Service in the Humanities." The new intermediate 
reference course was designed to provide an introduction 
to the tools and skills necessary for librarians and other 
information professionals working in a nonspecialist information 
environment. For those intending to work in most school 
libraries or small- or medium-sized academic and public libraries, 
the intermediate course should provide sufficient background 
in reference tools. This revision was a response to student 
and faculty concern over too little material being included 
in the introductory course (LIS 320) to provide a basic 
background to reference tools and too much specialized 
material in the next two courses ("Reference Services in 

128 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

the Humanities and Social Sciences" and "Reference Services 
in the Sciences and Technology") to prove useful to most 
of those who become librarians in smaller or medium-sized 
libraries. While the revised reference sequence has been 
in effect less than a year as this is being written, it seems 
to be accepted by the students and the feculty as an improvement 
over the prior sequence. 


The strength of the Illinois curriculum in public service 
courses has been a combination of stability in effort and 
yet a responsiveness to change in the field of library and 
information science. The relative stability of the offerings 
during this past century suggests the success of the design 
of the original curriculum which emphasized general courses 
on the various functions of public service. In reference in 
particular, the move away from specific tools to more issue 
and philosophically oriented courses at the early level of 
education, and the exploration of tools in later and more 
advanced courses does represent a significant change from 
the early curriculum when the elementary reference course 
was offered to beginning students so they would be better 
able to fulfill their duties as library workers in the University 
Library {Armour Institute, 1894-1895, p. 2). This change 
can best be represented by comparing Margaret Mann's 
description of the early undergraduate courses at the Armour 
Institute as "practical rather than theoretical the first year, 
and the training was planned primarily for high school graduates 
who might meet certain demands for library assistants in 
the central states" (Mann, 1943, pp. 11-12) to Herbert Goldhor's 
description of the ftinction of the School to be "that of the 
mediator between the theorists on the one hand and the 
practitioners on the other" (Goldhor, 1967, p. 400). 

While the tension between the advocates of teaching 
tools and those who prefer to emphasize the philosophical 

Services and Sources ♦ 129 

issues and theory of reference and other public services 
still exists, the recent revision of the reference sequence 
at Illinois suggests that the concerns of both sides can be 
met through a planned and rational reference curriculum. 

130 ♦ Ideals and Standards 


Armour Institute/Illinois State Library School Chronology of Instructors 
for Elementary Reference, 1893-1991 

All citations are from the faculty listings in "Papers Showing the Scope 
of the School," Katharine L Sharp Pi^>ers, series 18/1/20, box 2; Circulars 
and announcements 1897-1924, 1945-date, series 19/1/0/1, box 1; University 
of Illinois Registers, 1925-1943; Annual reports, series 18/1/0/19; Statistical 
reports, series 18/1/4; Course lists 1974-date, GSLIS office and University 
of Illinois Time Tables ( 1915-1991 ). University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 

1893-94. Carrie Elliott, reference librarian at Chicago Public Library, 
listed as lecturer for "Practical Methods in Reference Work." 

1894-95. Dr. George E. Wire, director of Medical Department at the 
Newberry Library, listed as a lecturer for "Practical Reference 
Work." Other courses listed for Dt Wire were "Being a Librarian," 
"How a Busy Librarian Reads," and "Little Things in Library 

1895-96. J. N. Lamed, superintendent, BufEalo (New York) Public Library 
listed for "Reference Work." (Dr Wire is also listed in 1895- 
96 for the 1894-95 courses and an added course on "Auction 
and Second Hand Book Buying.") 

1896-97. Cornelia Marvin, listed for "Reference and Bibliography" with 
Dr Wire. Marvin was the first instructor in reference listed 
under faculty. All earlier instructors were lecturers. 

1897-99. Maude Straight 

1900-09. Isadore Muc^e, Maude Straight, Frances Simpson 

1910-19. Frances Simpson 

1920-29. Anne Durand, Rose Hielps, Frances Simpson 

1930-39. Anne Durand, Marion Higgins, Mary Kinney, Rose Hielps, Mildred 

1940-49. Mary Kinney, Rose Phelps, Mildred Singleton 

1950-59. WiUiam Jackson, Rose Hielps, Arlene Schlegal 

1960-69. Walter Allen, Lois Beebe, Tekla Bekkedal, Larry Bone, Howard 
Cordell, William Jackson, Frances Jenkins, Winifred Ladley Winifred 
Linderman, Benjamin Page, Lois Schultz, Rolland Stevens, Cora 

1970-79. Walter Allen, Terence Crowley, Joel Rosenfeld, Dianna Lynne 
Smith, Cora Thomassen, Terry Weech, Lucille Wert. (Elementary 
reference was incorporated into the basic core course, "Foundations 
of Library and Information Science" from fall 1972 through 

1980-91. Fran Allegri, Bryce Allen, Waiter Allen, Richard Bopp, Prudence 
Dalrymple, M. Leslie Edmonds, D. W Krummel, Tish Lowrey, 
Jerome K. Miller, Linda Smith, Pat Stenstrom, Tom Walker, Amy 
Warner, Terry Weech 

Services AND Sources ♦ 13 1 


Chronology of Instructors for Government/Public Documents, 1900-1991 
(all citations are as above) • 

190(M)9. Rinny Jackson, Margaret Mann, Albert Wilson 
1910-19. Florence Curtis, John Kaiser, Ernest Reece, Albert Wilson 
1920-29. Anne Boyd, Alice Johnson, Charlotte Newton, Frank Walter 
1930-39. Anne Boyd, Marion Higgins, Alice Johnson, Charlotte Newton, 

Rose Hielps, Mildred Singleton 
194049. Anne Boyd, Rose Hielps, W W Smiley Gwladys ^jencer 
1950-59. Esther Clausen, Rose Phelps 
1960-69. Anne Corbitt, Oliver Field, John Harrison, WiUiam Jackson, 

Winifred Norton, Winifred Linderman 
1970-79. Lawrence Auld, George Bonn, Nancy Johnson, Kathleen Heim, 

Winifred Linderman, Schroyer, Frederick Schlipf, Terry Weech 
1980-9L Kathleen Heim, Terry Weech 

132 ♦ Ideals and Standards 


Additional Summer Professors of Elementary Reference and Government/ 
Public Documents, 1911- (all citations are from Summer Session 
announcements, University of Illinois Archives, Urbana). 

19II-I919. Reference: Anne Boyd 

I92O-I929. Reference: Ethel Bond, Anne Boyd, John Cleavinger 

Documents: Anne Boyd, Jim Matthews 
I93O-I939. Reference: Mabel Conat, Anne Durand, Florrinell ftands, Marion 

Higgins, Mary Kinney, Mary Marable, Rose Phelps, Charles 


Documents: Anne Boyd, Dorothy Black, Marion Higgins, Jim 

Matthews, Elleine Mclellan 
I94O-I949. Reference: Lura Crawford, Ruby Dare, Ruth Erlandson, Mary 

Kinney, Winifred Linderman, Esther Park, Rose Phelps, Donna 


Documents: Anne Boyd, S. A. McCarthy, Jerrold Ome, Rose 

Rielps, Joseph Rounds, W. W. &niley 
I95O-I959. Reference: Mabel Conat, Lura Crawford, Ruth Erlandson, John 

Harrison, WiUiam Jackson, John Moriarty, Rose Phelps, Roy 


Documents: John Moriarty, Lawrence Thonqison 
I96O-I969. Reference: Walter Allen, Larry Bone, Charles Bunge, Howard 

Cordell, Kevin Dowden, Ruth Erlandson, J. Elias Jones, Neil 

Radford, Dolores Ryan, Charles THnker 

Documents: Clifton Brock Jc, Anne Corbitt, Rae Ripps, TTiomas 

Siaw, Tbrry Weech 
I97O-I979. Reference: Terence Crowley, Fred Heinritz, Jordan Meo, Neil 

Radford, Dianna Lynne Smith 

Documents: George Bonn, Nancy Johnson, Winifred linderman, 

Ttrry Weech 
1980-1991. Reference: Richard Bopp, D. W. Krummel, Jerome Miller, Dennis 

Norlin, Pat Stenstrom, Tferry Weech 

Documents: Marilyn Moody, Gail TTiomburg, Tferry Weech 

Services AND Sources ♦ 133 


Annual register (1900-1901, 1926-1927, 193M932, 1937-1938, 1941-1942, 

1942-1943). University of Illinois. 
University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 
Armour Institute. (1894-95). Circular of information. Chicago, IL Department 

of Library Science. University of Illinois Archives, Urbana, IL 
Circulars and announcements (1897-1924, 1945). Series 18/1/0/1. University 

of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 
Course materials. Series 18/1/15, box 3, no date. 
University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 
Goldhor, Herbert. ( 1967). University of Illinois Library School. Illinois 

Libraries, (May), 400. 
Houchens, Josie. (1969) Looking backward. In Barbara Olsen Slanker 

(Ed.), Reminiscences: Seventy-five years of a library school (pp. 12- 

19). Urbana, IL University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library Science. 
Mann, Margaret. (1943). History of Armour Institute library School. In 

Carl M. White (Ed.), Fifty years of education for librarianship (pp. 

9-24). Urbana, IL University of Illinois Press. 
Mann, Margaret. (1901). University of Illinois State Library School: Course 

in government documents. Library Jourrutl (March), 152-154. 
Mudge, Isadore. (1902). Illinois State Library School: Instruction in reference 

work. Library Journal 27, 334-335. 
Obituary file of Frances Simpson. University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 
Obitiaary file of Rose Hielps. University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 
Papers showing the scope of the School ( 1893-1899). 
Katharine L. Sharp Papers, series 18/1/20, box 2, University of Illinois 

Archives, Urbana. 
Phelps, Rose. (1969). Who's got the action. In Barbara Olsen Slanker 

(Ed.), Reminiscences: Seventy-five years of a library school (pp. 67- 

71 ). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library Science. 
Scott, Franklin W. (Ed). (1918). The alumni record. Urbana, IL University 

of Illinois. 
University of Illinois Bulletin. ( 1946-47, 1948-49, 1953-54, 1955-57, 1964- 

65). University of Illinois Library School University of Illinois Archives, 

University of Illinois Bulletin ( 1962-64, 1968-70, 1972-74, 1976-78). Graduate 

School of library Science. 
University of Illinois Archives, Urbana, IL 
University of Illinois Bulletin. Summer training for librarianship, June 

20-August 13, 1938. University of lUinois Archives, Urbana, IL 
University of Illinois Library School Announcement. 
University of Illinois Archives, Urbana, IL 
University of Illinois Library School Circular of Information (1913-14, 

1921-22). University of Illinois Archives, Urbana, IL 
University of Illinois State Library School ( 1893-1903). 
Report and student record Urbana, IL University of Illinois Archives. 

8 From Mechanization in Libraries 
TO Information Transfer 

Information Science Education at Illinois 


Linda C. Smith 


although information science has its roots in the pre- 
World War II documentation movement, this history of 
information science education at Illinois begins with 1945. 
In that year, Vannevar Bush (1945), who coordinated the 
activities of American scientists during the war as director 
of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, published 
"As We May Think." This is considered by many researchers 
to be the starting point of modem information science (Smith, 
1991b, p. 265). Bush described a number of possible applications 
of machines to handling information and in particular proposed 
the memex, "a device in which an individual stores all his 
books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized 
so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility" 
(Bush, 1945, p. 107). These proposals were soon brought 
to the attention of students at the University of Illinois. Lecture 
notes on "Mechanization in Libraries" for a course on "Ti-ends 

Informaoon Science Education at Illinois ♦ 135 

in Librarianship" in summer 1948 included a list of various 
technologies (e.g., office machines, bindery machines, charging 
machines) with a section labeled "Possibilities" that included: 

(1) dial coding for extracting a given item: Memex; and 

(2) instantaneous recording of written materials: Memex 
(Redmond, 1948). 

Responding to some of the issues raised by Bush, the 
1950 Phineas Windsor Lectures addressed the theme 
"Bibliography in an Age of Science" (Ridenour et al., 1951). 
In his foreword to the published lectures, Downs (1951, 
p. 1) noted "the need for improving access to scientific 
and scholarly literature" but concluded optimistically that 
the lectures "indicate the almost unlimited potentialities 
for future progress" (p. 4). Two of the three lecturers (Ridenour 
and Hill) were physicists who shared Bush's enthusiasm for 
new technologies. The third, Ralph Robert Shaw, then director 
of libraries in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, was himself 
engaged in experiments with the Rapid Selector, a microfilm 
retrieval device inspired by Bush. Library School faculty and 
students attending these lectures would have heard that "the 
rate of growth of libraries suggests that unconventional methods 
of librarianship must be adopted" (Ridenour, 1951, p. 13), 
and that "we should not close our eyes to possible solutions 
to the library problem just because they are technically involved, 
or require entirely new methods of thinking about collections" 
(Hill, 1951, p. 88). Ridenour (1951) even had visions of 
what forty years later would be termed the virtual library: 
"If libraries were connected by a communications network 
over which complicated research material could be promptly 
sent from any point to any other, there would be no need 
\\iiatever for duplication in acquisition" (p. 21). Furthermore, 
"a library should no longer necessarily be regarded as a 
place where books are stored. Perhaps it is entirely something 
else. Possibly a library is a combination of study rooms, seminars, 
and a first-rate communications center of a specialized sort" 

136 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

(pp. 28-29). Shaw (1951) described a number of electronic 
devices for solving bibliographical problems, such as facsimile 
reproduction and digital computers and concluded: 

We now have machines available \viiich appear capable 
of doing higher orders of bibliographical work than have 
been achieved in the past; but they will serve only to 
do more of what we have been able to do in the past, 
perhaps doing it faster and cheaper and perhaps not, 
until we learn just what it is that we need to achieve 
so that we know how to instruct the machines, (p. 70) 

While the new technology did not immediately become 
the subject of separate courses in the School, the journal 
Library Tivnds served as a vehicle for further exploring these 
topics with issues on "Scientific Management in Libraries" 
(Shaw, 1954) and "Mechanization in Libraries" (Trotier, 1956). 
The latter sought to "bring together for the first time in 
one place information on the application of machines to 
the performance of library operations and techniques" (p. 
191 ) and covered library communication systems, transportation 
equipment, office machines, charging machines, dupUcating 
machines, photographic technology, and machine retrieval 
of information. 

Machine retrieval of information also received considerable 
attention at the 1958 International Conference on Scientific 
Information, wliich Frances Briggs Jenkins, a faculty member 
fi-om 1951 to 1971, attended (National Academy of Sciences, 
1959). Several papers in the proceedings were grouped under 
the heading "Organization of information for storage and 
retrospective search: Intellectual problems and equipment 
considerations in the design of new systems." Four years 
later, in fall semester 1962, Jenkins offered the first separate 
course on the topic, LS 429, "Information Storage and Retrieval." 
The following spring, the School sponsored its first Clinic 
on Library Applications of Data Processing. In the introduction 
to the proceedings of the Clinic, Goldhor (1964) put these 
two activities in context: 

Informahon Science Education at Illinois ♦ 137 

Starting from the proposition that it is the proper function 
of a library school to give leadership to the profession, 
the Faculty of the University of Illinois Graduate School 
of Library Science have from time to time attempted 
to identify major challenge problems of our age and 
to formulate responses to them. It is ever more clear 
that a major problem— perhaps the major challenge of 
the profession in our generation— is that posed by the 
mounting volume of publication in combination with 
the increased use of a complex technological society 
for factual information. 

In a sense all of librarianship bears on this problem. 
But more specifically this is the province of documentation 
and its special tools of high-speed machines. To help 
meet this challenge problem, the University of Illinois 
Graduate School of Library Science set up a graduate 
course on "Information Storage and Retrieval" which 
was ofifered for the first time in the fall of 1962. Then 
in the spring of 1963 a Clinic on Library Applications 
of Data Processing was held in Urbana, the proceedings 
of which constitute this volume. Other parts of the School's 
response will be forthcoming, (p. iii) 

In this the School was anticipating one of the conclusions 
of the 1963 Conference on Libraries and Automation, sponsored 
by the Library of Congress, National Science Foundation, 
and Council on Library Resources. The School was represented 
at the conference by Jenkins. In his introduction to the 
proceedings, Librarian of Congress L Quincy Mumford (1964) 
observed that "library schools need to train students in new 
techniques and methodologies: current programs should be 
evaluated to determine how they could be improved to prepare 
librarians and subject specialists in new information techniques" 
(p. 2). 

The 1960s 

LS 429, "Information Storage and Retrieval" was the 
first information science course and LS 415, "Library 

138 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

Mechanization and Automation" (later simply "Library 
Automation") was introduced later in the. decade. In addition, 
the School offered a summer workshop on computer programs 
for library operations from 1964 to 1968. Topics covered 
in LS 429 included the information problem, document analysis, 
codes and coding, coordinate indexing, notched card systems, 
punched card systems, computer systems, applications, and 
evaluation. Over time, computer systems received much more 
emphasis than the manual systems that were a major part 
of the course content initially. Dewey E. Carroll, who had 
served on the faculty of the School of Information Science 
at Georgia Institute of Technology from 1963 to 1965, was 
a faculty member from 1965 to 1969 with responsibility 
for both LS 429 and LS 415. While a survey reported by 
Hayes (1967) indicated that some other library schools may 
have had more regular course work related to data processing, 
Illinois was beginning to address the need through a combination 
of courses for students and noncredit workshops and conferences 
for practitioners. 

The noncredit "Workshop (subsequently Seminar) on 
Computer Programs for Library Operations" was offered for 
the first time in June 1964 over a four- week period (for 
three weeks in later years), sponsored jointly by the Division 
of University Extension and the Library School. The audience 
was professional librarians with at least two or three years 
of experience who wished to acquire a knowledge of the 
concepts of computer programming in relation to library 
applications. The emphasis was on what machines could do 
for libraries, and on the methods used in planning and 
implementing computer applications in the library, rather 
than on preparing technically proficient programmers. Instructors 
included Kern W Dickman, director of the Statistical Service 
Unit at the University of Illinois, and Hillis L. Griffin, then 
information systems librarian at Argonne National Laboratory. 
In 1967, Griffin offered two three-week sessions with the 
revised title of "Seminar on Computer-Based Systems for 
Libraries." The first session was designed for public, school, 

iNFORMAnoN Science Education AT Illinois ♦ 139 

and junior college librarians, while the second session was 
intended for college or university and special librarians, 
and both focused on principles underlying successful system 
design. The course outline included the following major 
topics: computer concepts; programming concepts; programming 
an actual computer; data record formats; real time systems 
and remote input devices; library applications, supplies and 
forms; economics of computer applications, and conversion 
and data input procedures. 

The 1960s were also a period when information science 
emerged as a distinct area of study The American Documentation 
Institute became the American Society for Information Science 
in 1968. Efforts to define the field included Borko's (1968) 
widely cited definition: 

[Information science] is an interdisciplinary science 
that investigates the properties and behavior of information, 
the forces that govern the flow and use of information, 
and the techniques, both manual and mechanical, of 
processing information for optimal storage, retrieval, 
and dissemination, (p. 5) 

The 1970s 

In the 1970s, experiments and demonstrations of information 
technology gave way to operational systems. The 1972-74 
Bulletin (University of Illinois, 1972) of the School characterized 
necessary areas of knowledge for librarians: 

[TJoday's librarian must be familiar with all forms of 
print and nonprint media, and must be able to utilize 
computers, communication principles, automation 
techniques, and information networks. Modem technology 
is developing sophisticated systems of information storage 
and retrieval. Experts in system planning, automation 
concepts, and computer use are developing new and 
more efficient methods for providing library services. 

The Bulletin also introduced a section tided "The Information 
Science Curriculum" (pp. 20-21), noting that wtiile the School 

l40 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

did not have a separate program in information science, it 
would be possible for a student to obtain a master's degree 
with a specialization in the area of information science. It 
characterized the curriculum as follows: 

Basically, the curriculum contains two groups of courses, 
one dealing with information retrieval and the other 
with library automation. Library automation refers to 
the mechanization of the technical processes and the 
general housekeeping activities of libraries, including 
ordering and acquisitions procedures, circulation, serial 
records, and the production of printed catalogs or catalog 
cards. Information retrieval relates more to the reference 
function of libraries and deals with the design of systems 
capable of retrieving documents in response to subject- 
related requests. Such systems may be mechanized, 
semimechanized, or purely manual, (pp. 20-21) 

Further development of the information science portion 
of the curriculum followed the appointment of two new 
faculty members: F. Wilfrid Lancaster in 1970 and J. L Divilbiss 
in 1971. Divilbiss held degrees in electrical engineering and 
was affiliated with the University's Coordinated Science Laboratory 
as principal research engineer prior to joining the School 
faculty. Lancaster studied librarianship in England and held 
various positions in both public and special libraries in England 
and the United States. He gained considerable expertise in 
information retrieval as a consultant with Hemer and Company 
and Westat Research as well as in the position of information 
systems speciaUst at the National Library of Medicine. Prior 
to joining the Illinois faculty, he had already completed a 
text on information retrieval (Lancaster, 1968), the first of 
many books. 

Contributing to a collection of papers to establish a 
framework for future planning and for the improvement of 
professional education in library and information science, 
Lancaster (1973) addressed the place of information science 
in the Ubrary school curriculum. The ideas presented in 

Informahon Science Educahon AT Illinois ♦ 14 1 

this paper provided a blueprint for the approach to curriculum 
development that emerged at Illinois and also served as a 
precursor for themes that Lancaster would address in subsequent 
publications and curriculum proposals. He described the 
steps in what he termed the "documentary information transfer 
process" (p. 123) and argued that "we must get away from 
our present 'institutional' approach to library education and 
devote more time and effort to instructing students in methods 
of information transfer in general" (p. 125). He felt that 
library school curricula should provide all students with 
at least an introduction to those aspects of information science 
most relevant to library services. In addition, he suggested 
that the curriculum should provide a core of information 
science courses to allow a student to obtain a degree in 
library science with a specialization in information science. 
The specific areas identified were: 

1. Application of modem technology to library problems. 
This includes automation of technical processes in libraries, 
reprography and facsimile transmission, networking, use 
of telecommunications in general, and fundamentals 
of computers and computer programming. 

2. Application of scientific methodologies to library 
problems. This includes systems analysis and relevant 
techniques from management sciences, industrial 
engineering, and operations research. Cost-effectiveness 
analysis and PPBS techniques might be included here. 

3. Current approaches to the design and implementation 
of information services. This includes modem methods 
of information storage, retrieval and dissemination, including 
equipment considerations, indexing and abstracting, 
construction and use of controlled vocabularies, searching 
techniques, studies of users and user needs, and evaluation 
of information services, (pp. 126-27). 

He foresaw the increasing level of automation in all types 
of libraries and the need for all graduates to adapt to work 
in an automated environment at some point in their careers. 
He anticipated the increasing importance of online resources 

142 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

in reference work, with bibliographic databases and online 
catalogs eventually supplemented with ftill text. 

A common pattern of curriculum development at Illinois 
was individual initiative in introducing courses as sections 
of LS 450, "Advanced Topics in Librarianship," with many 
later proposed as permanent and independent courses in 
the curriculum. Courses introduced by Lancaster in the first 
part of the decade included LS 444, "Evaluation of Information 
Services" (later changed to "Measurement and Evaluation 
of Library Services"), LS 445, "Vocabulary Control of Information 
Retrieval," and LS 450M, "On-Line Systems" (later LS 431, 
"Online Information Systems"). Divilbiss introduced LS 4l6, 
"Advanced Library Automation," teaching students how to 
program using the PL/I programming language, and LS 450Y, 
"Systems Analysis" (later LS 417, "Techniques for Managerial 
Decision Making"). The latter included an assignment in 
which the students carried Divilbiss's handcrafted random 
alarm mechanisms (familiarly called "beepers") as a case 
study in analyzing how personnel spend their time. Other 
faculty and students became accustomed to the beepers 
sounding at random intervals during classes. 

There was also experimentation with the use of technology 
in other courses in the curriculum. The University of Illinois 
was a pioneer in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and 
Kathryn Luther Henderson developed, tested, and evaluated 
computer-based educational materials for cataloging on the 
PLATO CAI system in the early 1970s. A master's student 
wtio took courses with both Lancaster and Divilbiss in the 
1971-72 school year, I joined the faculty in fall 1977 after 
gaining work experience as a trainee in computer librarianship 
and pursuing further graduate study in information science. 
My teaching assignments included LS 4l6, LS 445, and LS 
450M. Students in LS 450M, "On-line Systems" had a laboratory 
component for the first time in spring 1978, searching the 
BRS system that was also coming into use in the University 
Library. As the School's terminal was housed in my office 

Informahon Science Eduooion at Illinois ♦ 143 

on the fourth floor of the Library, students completed their 
online lab exercises there under my supervision. 

In 1979, Charles H. Davis, an information scientist who 
had worked at Chemical Abstracts Service and taught information 
science courses at four other universities, became the new 
dean of the School and encouraged further development 
of courses in information science. He had already authored 
texts on computer programming for libraries (Davis, 1974) 
and information retrieval in chemistry (Davis & Rush, 1974, 
later translated into Japanese). These have been followed 
during his tenure at Illinois with Guide to Information Science 
(Davis & Rush, 1979, later translated into Chinese) and two 
more editions of the programming text (Davis & Lundeen, 
1981; Davis etal., 1988). 

Lancaster as Author 

While developing courses over a twenty-year period, 
Lancaster authored several texts, often using the drafts with 
his students before they were published. Topics covered 
included vocabulary control (1972; 2nd edition, 1986), 
measurement and evaluation of library services (1977; 1988; 
Baker & Lancaster, 1991), investigative methods in library 
and information science (Martyn & Lancaster, 1981), information 
retrieval systems (2nd edition, 1979), indexing and abstracting 
(1991), online information retrieval (Lancaster & Fayen, 
1973), paperless information systems (1978), and libraries 
and librarians in an age of electronics (1982). Several of 
these texts have been translated into foreign languages, including 
Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Russian, and Danish. In a comment 
in his biographical profile in Contemporary Authors (1987), 
Lancaster offered one explanation for his productivity as 
an author: "I am writing books as quickly as possible in the 
firm belief that the book printed on paper has a limited 
life expectancy. The printed book will be replaced by new 
forms of communication/expression more suited to the age 
of electronics" (p. 278). Hewitt ( 1986) provided this assessment: 
"The more general significance of Lancaster's work results 

144 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

from his ability to combine a rigorous and thorough approach 
with a clarity of expression that renders, advanced concepts 
of information retrieval accessible to the student and the 
practicing librarian without oversimplification" (p. 429). 
One indication of Lancaster's influence beyond the School 
is citations to his work. For example, Hayes (1983) determined 
that Lancaster was the most highly cited individual among 
tenured-level faculty in schools of library and information 
science with master's degree programs accredited by the 
American Library Association. 

The 1980s 

The increasing importance of information science in 
the curriculum was signaled by the School's name change 
to the Graduate School of Library and Information Science 
(GSLIS) in 1981. The report for information submitted to 
the University's Board of Trustees on February 19, 1981 stated 
in part: 

The change recognizes that library and information science 
now have become one discipline. The curriculum of 
the School includes not only traditional library science 
courses but also a growing number of courses which 
either originate in information science or represent a 
merger of the two areas of study. 

Divilbiss and Lancaster continued to introduce new courses: 
Divilbiss taught LIS 450CC, "Telecommunications" and Lancaster 
taught LIS 450II, "The Electronic Age and Its Implications 
for Libraries" (following completion of a two-year National 
Science Foundation sponsored study on The Impact of a 
Paperless Society on the Research Library of the Future), 
US 450AP, "Use and Users of Information," and US 450QQ, 
"Bibliometrics." As the number of information science courses 
grew and the demand for them increased, other faculty shared 
in the teaching. Davis taught LIS 4 16 and LIS 429. Debora 
Shaw, a faculty member from 1984 to 1988, taught US 415, 
US 429, and US 431 as well as a section of "Advanced Topics 
in Ubrarianship" (US 450) on database design. Prudence 

Informahon Science Education at Illinois ♦ 145 

Dalrymple, a feculty member from 1988 to 1991, also taught 
US 429 and LIS 431. Martin Siegel (faculty member, 1986- 
1990), who held a joint appointment in Educational Psychology, 
the Computer-based Education Research Laboratory, and GSLIS, 
introduced a course on "Interactive Systems Design" (LIS 
450C), and I taught a course on "Advanced Information Science" 
(LIS 450AH). With Divilbiss's retirement in 1987, there was 
a need for someone else to take responsibility for the courses 
that he had developed. J. Brett Sutton and Bryce Allen, who 
joined the faculty in 1988, both contributed to information 
science education with Sutton teaching LIS 415 and LIS 429 
and Allen teaching LIS 415 and LIS 417. This generation of 
faculty had all gained experience working with information 
technology in library positions held before pursuing their 
teaching careers. 

While the course numbers remained the same or changed 
from LIS 450 to separately numbered courses during this 
decade, the course content continued to evolve to reflect 
changes in information technology and library practice. Examples 
included the use of CD-ROM (Dialog OnDisc) for some of 
the basic instruction in the Dialog command language prior 
to having students search databases online; the change from 
PL/I to Pascal as the programming language in LIS 4 16; and 
the use of microcomputers for assignments in database 
development in LIS 415. 

Curriculum Review 

In the 1983-84 academic year, a committee of faculty 
and student representatives chaired by Lancaster engaged 
in a long-range curriculum review to develop a framework 
for significantly restructuring the curriculum based on the 
concept of the information transfer cycle. Lancaster (1989) 
presented the recommendations of this review at a 1988 
seminar in Tkiwan. Citing Borko's ( 1968) definition of information 
science, he argued that the curriculum must deal with all 
components of the information transfer cycle (information 
producers and users, primary distributors such as publishers, 
and secondary distributors such as libraries) because they 

146 ^ Ideals and Siandards 

interact and because knowledge of these interactions is important 
for the efficient design and management of tnfonnation services. 
This view for the curriculum would not be limited to a library 
perspective, would emphasize the commonality of all types 
of information services, and would take subjects grafted onto 
the curriculum of library schools in the past twenty years 
(e.g., automation, systems analysis, information retrieval, 
bibliometrics) and integrate them more fully The information 
transfer cycle concerns all phenomena involved in the transfer 
of information from the producer to the consumer Areas 
of study include: ( 1 ) uses and users of information; ( 2 ) production 
and distribution of information; (3) collection and storage 
of information sources; (4) recording and representing 
information; (5) accessing information; (6) delivering 
information; (7) interpretation of information; (8) management 
and leadership; and (9) research methods. While the GSLIS 
faculty did not proceed with a curriculum revision along 
the lines suggested, some of the proposed content was 
incorporated in existing courses to give students this broader 

The 1990s 

The 1990s have begun with the addition of more faculty 
whose research and teaching interests are in information 
science. Martha E. Williams, a research professor who has 
directed the Information Retrieval Research Laboratory in 
the Coordinated Science Laboratory of the College of Engineering 
at Illinois since 1972, began teaching half-time for the School 
in fell 1991. Williams is internationally known for her research 
in information retrieval and her role as editor of the Annual 
Review of Information Science and Technology (1976), 
Online Review (1977), National Online Meeting Proceedings 
(1980), and Computer-readable Databases. A Directory and 
Data Sourcebook (first edition, 1976). She initially taught 
LIS 431 but plans to develop other courses on the information 
industry. Gregory Newby, from Syracuse University's School 
of Information Studies, also began teaching in fell 1991 with 
reqx)nsibility for US 415 and US 450C. 

Informahon Science Education at Illinois ♦ 147 

Curriculum review is proceeding with examination and 
revision of clusters of courses. Those courses related to reference 
were the first to be reviewed, resulting in creation of a new 
course, LIS 404, "Reference Sources and Services," that includes 
instruction in online searching. LIS 431 thus became a more 
advanced course and students could take advantage of online 
searching in completing assignments in other reference courses 
as well. In the 1991-92 academic year, a faculty subcommittee, 
including Allen, Dalrymple, Davis, Newby, Smith, Sutton, and 
Williams, began reviewing the information science/automation 
courses by revising course descriptions of LIS 415, LIS 4 16, 
and LIS 429 to reflect their current scope. This process will 
continue with review of other related courses. Concurrently, 
at the initiative of Newby and his graduate assistant David 
Micko, noncredit computer skills workshops were developed 
and offered for the first time in 1992. They are designed 
to introduce students to basic computer skills and to femiliarize 
them with the computing resources of GSLIS, UIUC, and 
other sites accessible through the School's network. The 
intent is to equip all students with the skills needed to make 
effective use of available information technology 


In 1969, the School established a Learning Resources 
Laboratory (LRL) to house instructional and audiovisual materials. 
As long as programming courses involved working with mainframe 
computers, students used campus facilities, first to punch 
cards for input and later to use interactive terminals. Similarly 
students had to go to locations housing PLATO terminals 
to complete the computer-assisted instruction lessons on 
cataloging developed by Henderson and to the Library's cataloging 
department to work on OCLC terminals. When the School 
finally did acquire one or two terminals for accessing remote 
computers, they were housed in faculty offices for lack of 
other suitable space in the School's quarters in the University 
Library The move to David Kinley Hall (DKH) created space 
for a terminal room, initially housing several print and CRT 

148 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

terminals, a PLATO terminal, and an OCLC terminal. It was 
separated from the LRL which was still devoted largely to 
audiovisual equipment and collections. The LRL shared a 
suite of rooms with the doctoral study at the south end 
of the fourth floor. The facilities allowed demonstrations 
and use of online systems to be integrated into a growing 
number of courses in the curriculum and additional recurring 
allocations of funds were given to the School to pay fees 
for access to fee-based systems. All computer equipment 
was consolidated in the LRL a few years after the School's 
move to DKH. 

The first microcomputer, a Radio Shack TRS Model 16, 
was acquired in summer 1982. The next decade was marked 
by substantial growth in equipment owned by the School. 
With the encouragement of Dean Leigh Estabrook in 1986, 
the campus administration negotiated the donation of a local 
area network by AT&T with minicomputers supporting a 
terminal or computer for each faculty and staff member as 
well as several workstations for students in the LRL Additional 
budgetary support from the campus administration allowed 
the School to hire a full-time staff member, Kent ^tes, with 
the technical expertise required to support use of the new 
equipment. The School competed successfully for campus 
computer fund money, obtaining a grant to acquire additional 
workstations and CD-ROM drives. The School subscribed 
to the ERIC CD-ROM database available from Dialog and 
solicited donations of sample CD-ROMs from other vendors. 
Equipment was gradually upgraded and a new minicomputer, 
christened Alexia, was acquired to manage the local area 
network- Although the name Alexia was intended as a derivative 
of Alexandria, location of a great library in antiquity, it was 
later noted that the word "alexia" actually means "a form 
of aphasia characterized by loss of ability to read," thus a 
somew^t unusual choice for a library school machine name. 
In spring 1991, the doctoral study was moved to the north 
end of the fourth floor and several new workstations were 
installed in the expanded LRL. The new computer room 

Informahon Science Educahon at Illinois ♦ 149 

was christened Oz, with its six machines appropriately named 
Wizard, Dorothy, Toto, Tinman, Scarecrow, and Cowardly 
Lion. The original computer room became Kansas, housing 
an array of equipment including several IBM-compatible 
computers, two Macintoshes, a PLATO terminal, two OCLC 
terminals, several CD-ROM drives, two network terminals, 
and various printers. 

The network now supports a variety of services, including 
electronic mail and bulletin boards, word processing, access 
to the Library's online catalog and other remote systems, 
and connections to information resources via the Internet. 
It has supported the development of new services, such 
as an online placement database. All students are now encouraged 
to become registered users of the School's network, and 
faculty increasingly make use of the network and other LRL 
resources to enhance instruction. To provide extended hours 
of access to the LRL, both paid graduate assistants and student 
volunteers staff the facility daytime and evening hours during 
the week and many hours on weekends. 

Just as the facilities and equipment of the School gradually 
improved, the University Library became increasingly automated. 
Under the leadership of Hugh Atkinson, the Library introduced 
an automated circulation system (LCS) that allowed University 
Library users to check out books from any of the several 
cooperating academic libraries, an online catalog (FBR), 
use of OCLC, and online searching. In the past few years, 
many CD-ROM databases have been acquired, including Library 
Literature in the Library and Information Science Library. 
Development of new computer-based services has continued 
under the leadership of David Bishop. In 1991, the Library 
introduced an enhanced online catalog, lO Plus, with the 
capability to search a number of databases, such as several 
Wilson indexes, in addition to the Library's holdings. As users 
of, and graduate assistants in, the University Library, students 
have thus had JSrst-hand experience with a variety of computer 
applications. Computing and communications technology 
became much more pervasive on the UIUC campus in the 

150 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

1980s (Randall, 1991), and faculty and students benefited 
from this by experiencing rather than siinply reading about 
both the possibilities and the problems of this new technology 


The Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing 
has been an important facet of information science education 
at Illinois. For those feculty students, and practicing librarians 
in attendance, it has offered an opportunity to learn through 
fonnal lectures and through informal exchanges with q^eakers 
and other attendees. Through the published proceedings, 
a much wider audience benefited from the e3q>ertise shared 
by the speakers. The choice of the name "clinic" reflected 
the original intent— individual case reports of the experience 
of various libraries in developing automated applications. 
While the number of conferences devoted to adjects of library 
automation has grown, the Clinic has continued to fill a 
unique niche, giving attendees in-depth exposure to new 
trends and ^proaches. 

The first seven Clinics ( 1963-1969 ) dealt with data processing 
in relation to all major aspects of library operations; there 
were no unifying themes in any of them, but all were published 
Three different individuals served as editors of those early 
volumes: Goldhor (1963-1964, 1966), Jenkins (1965), and 
Carroll (1967-1969). Beginning in 1970, each Clinic had 
a theme concerning a specific aspect of library data processing. 
Appendix VI identifies these themes together with the names 
of editors of the corresponding Clinic proceedings. In 1988, 
to mark the 25th anniversary of the Clinic, three faculty 
members presented retrospective papers discussing trends 
in the treatment of public services (Smith, 1991a), technical 
services (Henderson & Henderson, 1991), and management 
(Rubin, 1991 ) by Clinic speakers over twenty-five years. 


The American Society for Information Science (ASIS) 
is the major U.S. professional association concerned with 


information science. The University of Illinois has had an 
ASIS student chapter since 1977, begun at the initiative of 
master's student Barbara A. Rapp with my support as the 
faculty advisor for the group. The group has continued to 
provide programming over the years to complement the 
information science course work in the School and has been 
advised at various times by Shaw, Siegel, Dalrymple, and 
Newby as well as myself. Activities have included sponsorship 
of speakers, tours, and demonstrations. In 1987, the group 
received the first Student Chapter-of-the-Year Award in 
recognition of their outstanding schedule of activities. 

Two faculty members have led ASIS as president: Davis 
in 1982-83 and Williams in 1988. Many other faculty have 
been active in ASIS, presenting papers at meetings, contributing 
to publications, and serving on various committees. Davis 
received the Watson Davis Award in 1978 in recognition 
of his outstanding continuous contributions and dedicated 
service to the Society. 

A number of other ASIS awards are indicative of the 
quality of information science research and education at 
Illinois. Both Williams (in 1984) and Lancaster (in 1988) 
received the Award of Merit, the Society's highest honor. 
Lancaster received the first Outstanding Information Science 
Teacher Award in 1980 and I was likewise recognized in 
1987. An M.S. and C.A.S. graduate, Dudee Chiang, received 
the Best Student Paper Award in 1987, and four doctoral 
students have been recognized with the ISI Information Science 
Doctoral Dissertation Scholarship: Susan Bonzi (1982), Carol 
Tenopir (1983), Danny Wallace (1984), and Gail Thomburg 
(1985). Lancaster has won numerous publication awards 
from ASIS: the Best JASIS Paper Award in 1969 and the Best 
Information Science Book Award in 1970 (for Information 
Retrieval Systems), in 1974 (for Information Retrieval On- 
line), and in 1978 (for Tbward Paperless Informaton Systems). 
In addition to contributing to the research literature on 
information science, Bonzi, Tenopir, Wallace, and Lancaster 
all wrote chapters for a tutorial book edited by another GSLIS 

152 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

doctoral graduate, John Olsgaard (1989), on Principles and 
Applications of Information Science for Library Professionals. 


As this brief history suggests, information science education 
at Illinois has emphasized \\iiat Buckland (1978) has termed 
"library-and-information-science," a phrase that "helps us 
to get away from the stultifying polarization of librarianship 
versus information science" (p. 16). While there have been 
clusters of courses labeled "information science," most students 
have included at least one of the courses in their programs 
of study since the courses were first introduced in the 1960s. 
In addition, concepts associated with information science 
and applications of information technology have been integrated 
into other courses in the curriculum, from the core to the 
doctoral seminars. While only a small proportion of the faculty 
had responsibility for information science courses in the 
1960s (primarily Jenkins and Carroll) and the 1970s (primarily 
Lancaster and Divilbiss), several different faculty were involved 
in information science education and research beginning 
in the 1980s. Since 1963, the faculty has contributed to 
information science education of both librarians and students 
elsewiiere through organization of continuing education activities 
such as the annual Clinic on Library Applications of Data 
Processing and through publication of conference proceedings 
and textbooks. The School has received University support 
to enhance its equipment, both hardware and software, and 
benefited from its location on a campus with a rich computing 
environment and a Library with many computer-based services. 

In the Winter 1984 issue of Library Trends on atypical 
careers and innovative services in library and information 
science, Lancaster (1984) explored the implications for library 
and information science education, concluding: "This is a 
time of change, a time of turmoil, a time of excitement, 
a time of challenge for the profession. I hope we show ourselves 
equal to the challenge" (p. 348). In order to maintain its 
leadership in information science education, the School will 

Informahon Science EoucAnoN AT Illinois ♦ 153 

have to respond to a number of challenges. They include: 

(1) to continue to attract and retain outstanding faculty 
involved in information science teaching and research; 

(2) to continue curriculum development, anticipating new 
roles for librarians and new opportunities for information 
professionals outside of libraries; (3) to internationalize the 
curriculum where appropriate (Borko & Goldstein, 1987) 
in order to better respond to the needs of the increasing 
number of international students enrolled in GSLIS courses 
and to provide a broader perspective for American students; 
(4 ) to maintain the necessary support for fecilities and equipment 
so that students can experiment with newly developed 
information technologies and applications in order to understand 
their capabilities and limitations; and ( 5 ) to insure that ejqjerience 
with information technology is integrated with discussion 
of theoretical, social, and philosophical issues. 

The Windsor lectures have focused on information science 
and technology at twenty-year intervals: Ridenour, Shaw, 
and Hill on "Bibliography in the Age of Science" in 1950; 
Robert M. Hayes on "Some Implications of Information Science 
for Large Research Libraries" in 1970; and William V Jackson 
and Herbert S. White on "Technology and Librarianship" 
in 1990. As noted in the introduction, Shaw (1951) cautioned 
that machines "will serve only to do more of what we have 
been able to do in the past... until we learn just what it is 
that we need to achieve so that we know how to instruct 
the machines" (p. 70). Forty years later, White, in titling 
his lecture "Technology: A Means to an End Only if You Can 
Agree on the End," made a similar point. To realize the potential 
of information technology, information science education 
must continue to esqjlore ends as well as means. 


Baker, S. L, & Lancaster, F. W. (1991). 75be measurement and evaluation 
of library services (2d ed.). Arlington, VA: Information Resources 

Borko, H. ( 1968). Information science: What is it? American Documentation, 
19, 3-5. 

154 ♦ Ideals AND SiANDARDs 

Borko, H., & Goldstein, E. (1987). Information science courses. In J. 

F. Harvey & F. L Carroll (Eds.), Internationalizing library and information 

science education: A handbook of policies and procedures in administration 

and curriculum (pp. 275-289). New York: Greenwood Press. 
Buckland, M. K. (1978). Looking ahead— and around. Information Reports 

and Bibliogrt^jbies, 7(4-5), 15-17. 
Bush, V ( 1945). As we may think Atlantic Monthly, I76( 1 ), 101-108. 
Contemporary Authors. (1987). Lancaster, F(rederick) Wilfrid, 1933- . 

In Contemporary authors new revision series (VoL 19, pp. 277-278). 

Detroit, MI: Gale Research. 
Davis, C. H. (1974). Illustrative computer programming for libraries: 

Selected examples for information spedaJists. Wesqxjrt, CT: Greenwood 

Davis, C. H., & Lundeen, G. W. (1981). Illustrative computer programming 

for libraries: Selected examples for information specialists (2d ed.). 

Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 
Davis, Charles H.; Lundeen, Gerald W.; & Shzw, D. ( 1988). Pascal programming 

for libraries: Illustrative examples for information ^dalists. Wesqxjrt, 

CT: Greenwood Press. 
Davis, Charles H., & Rush, James E. (1974). Information retrieval and 

documentation in chemistry. Wesqx)rt, CT: Greenwood Press. 
Davis, Charles H., & Rush, James E. (1979). Guide to information science. 

Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 
Downs, Robert B. (1951). Foreword. In L. N. Ridenour, R. R. Shaw, & 

A. G. Hill (Eds.), Eibliograpby in an age of science (j^. 1-4). Urbana, 

IL University of Illinois Press. 
Goldhor, Herbert. (1964). Foreword. In H. Goldhor (Ed.), Proceedings 

of the 1963 clinic on library educations of data processing (Papers 

presented at the 1st Annual Clinic, 28 April-1 May 1963) (pp. iii- 

v). Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of 

Library Science. 
Hayes, R. M. (1967). Data processing in the library school curriculum. 

ALA Bulletin, 61, 662-669. 
Hayes, R. M. (1983). Citation statistics as a measure of faculty research 

productivity.foumalof Education for Librariansh^, 23, 151-172. 
Henderson, Kathryn L, & Henderson, William T (1991). From flow charting 

to user friendly: Technical services functions in retrospect. In M. A. 

Siegel (Ed), Design and evaluation of computer/human interfaces: 

Issues for librarians and information scientists (Papers presented 

at the 25th Annual Clinic on Library Applications of I>ata Processing, 

17-19 April 1988) (pp. 27-52). Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of 

Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science. 
Hewitt, Joe A. ( 1986). Lancaster, E Wilfrid ( 1933). In ALA world encyclopedia 

of library and information services (2d ed., p. 429). Chicago, IL: 

American Library Associatioa 
Hill, A. G. ( 1951 ). The storage, processing and communication of infbrmatioa 

In L. N. Ridenour, R. R. Shaw, & A. G. Hill (Eds), Bibliography in 

an age of science (pp. 73-90). Urbana, IL University of Illinois Press. 


Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. (1968). Information retrieval systems: Characteristics, 

testing, and evaluation. New York; John Wiley. 
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. (1972). MKobulary control for information retrieval. 

Washington, DC: Information Resources Press. ^ 

Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. (1973) Information science: Its place in the library 

school curriculum. In Martha Boa2 (Ed), Tbward the improvement 

of library education (pp. 122-134). Litdeton, CO: Libraries Unlimited. 
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. (1977). The measurement and evaluation of library 

services. Washington, DC: Information Resources Press. 
Lancaster, F Wilfrid. (1978). Tbward paperless information systems. New 

York: Academic Press. 
Lancaster, F Wilfrid. (1979). Information retrieval systems: Characteristics, 

testing and evaluation ( 2d ed. ). New York: John Wiley. 
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid ( 1982). Libraries and librarians in an age of electronics. 

Arlington, VA; Information Resources Press. 
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. (1984). Implications for library and information 

science education. Library "Rends, 32, 337-348. 
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. (1986). Ibcabulary control for information retrieval 

( 2d ed. ). Arlington, WK. Information Resources Press. 
Lancaster, F Wilfrid (1988). If you tvant to evaluate your library. Urbana- 

Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and 

Information Science. 
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. (1989). The curriculum of information science. 

In T W. Chang (Ed.), Library automation and information networks 

1988 (pp. 205-223). Tkipei, Tkiwan: National Central Library 
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid. (1991). Indexing and abstracting in theory and 

practice. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School 

of Library and Information Science. 
Lancaster, F. Wilfrid., & Fayen, Emily G. (1973). Information retrieval 

on-line. Los Angeles, CA: Melville. 
Martyn, J., & Lancaster, F Wilfrid. (1981). Investigative methods in library 

and information science. Arlington, WA: Information Resources Press. 
Mumford, L Q. (1964). Introduction. In B. E. Markuson (Ed), Libraries 

and automation (Proceedings of the Conference on Libraries and 

Automation held at Airlie Foundation, Warrenton, Virginia, 26-30 May 

1963 under sponsorship of the Library of Congress, National Science 

Foundation and Council on Library Resources) (pp. 1-3). Washington, 

DC: Library of Congress. 
National Academy of Sciences. ( 1959). Proceedings of the International 

Conference on Scientific Information (Vol. 2). Washington, IX;: National 

Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. 
Olsgaard, John N. (Ed). (1989). Principles and educations of information 

science for library professionals. Chicago, IL American Library Association. 
Randall, Mike. (1991). Computing handbook for students (and everyone 

else): Using computers at the University of Illinois UrbanarChampaign. 

Urbana-Champaign, IL University of Illinois, Computing Services Office. 
Redmond, D. A. (1948). Mechanization in libraries. Course materials. 

18/1/15 Box 44. University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 

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Ridenour, L N. (1951). Bibliography in an age of science. In L N. Ridenour, 
R. R. Shaw, & A. G. Hill (Eds.), Bibliography. in an age of science 
(pp. 5-35). Urbana, IL University of Illinois Press. 

Ridenour, L. N.; Shaw, R. R.; & Hill, A. G. (1951). Bibliography in an 
age of science. Urbana, EL University of Illinois Press. 

Rubin, R. (1991). The management of automation. In M. A. Siegel (Ed.), 
Design and evaluation of computer/ human interfaces: Issues for 
librarians and information scientists (Papers presented at the 25th 
Annual Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing, 17-19 ./^ril 
1988) (pp. 53-68). Urbana-Champaign, IL University of Illinois, Graduate 
School of Library and Information Science. 

Shaw, R. R. (1951). Machines and the bibliographical problems of the 
twentieth century In L N. Ridenour, R. R Shaw, & A. G. Hill (Eds.), 
Bibliogrc^hy in an age of science (pp. 37-71). Urbana, IL University 
of Illinois Press. 

Shaw, R. R. (Ed). (1954). Scientific management in libraries (issue theme). 
Library "Bends, 2(3), 359483. 

Smith, Linda C. (1991a). From data processing to knowledge engineering: 
The impact of automation on public services. In M. A. Siegel (Ed.), 
Design and evaluation of computer/human interfaces: Issues for 
librarians and information scientists (Papers presented at the 25th 
Annual Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing, 17-19 April 
1988) (pp. 3-25). Urbana-Champaign, IL University of Illinois, Graduate 
School of Library and Information Science. 

Smith, Linda C. (1991b). Memex as an image of potentiahty revisited. 
In J. M. Nyce & P. Kahn (Eds.), Prom memex to hypertext: Vannevar 
Bush and the mind's machine (pp. 261-286). Boston, MA: Academic 

Trotier, A. H. (Ed.). (1956). Mechanization in libraries (issue theme). 
Library Tiends, 5(2), 191-308. 

University of Illinois. (1972). University of Illinois Graduate School of 
Library Science Bulletin 1972-74. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University 
of Illinois, Graduate School of Library Science. 

Ideals and Siandards 

1. The First Class, 1893-94 

2. The First L. S. Room, Altgeld Hall, 1900 

Ideals and Siandards 

3. The Class of 1900— Junior Year 

4. The Class of 19 11— Junior Year 

Ideals and Standards 

5. Library Club, December 1912 

6. The Senior Class, 1921 

Ideals and Standards 

7. Advanced Students, ca. 1929 

8. Summer Session Students, 1930 

Ideals and Standards 

9. Robert B. Downs and Class, 1947-48 

10. Herbert Goldhor and Buildings Class, late 1940s 

Ideals and Siandards 

11. Corridor Outside L.S. Library, ca. 1948 

12. Library Science Library, ca. 1948 

Ideals and Standards 

13- Allerton Conference, early 1950s 

it. First Beta Phi Mu Initiation, 1948 

Ideals and Standards 

15. Rose Phelps and Student, early 1950s 

16. Frances Jenkins and Class, early 1950s 

Ideals and Sxvndards 

17. Robert B. Downs and C. Walter Stone, late 1950s 

18. PubUc Ubrary Club, late 1950s 

Ideals and Standards 


^ H 




^^m &r^-- ^^p >^ y 


/ ^-i^ -^'-^^^^iIsbIhP- 

19. Rose Phelps's Retirement, 1958 (seated 1. to r.: Bond, Phelps, 
Boyd; standing: Lancour, Downs, Wiles, Jenkins, Windsor, Lohrer, 

20. Faculty, 1955-56 (seated 1. to r.: Phelps, Hostetter, Eaton, Lohrer, 
Jenkins; standing: Jackson, Strout, Downs, Wiles, James, Lancour, 

Ideals and Siandards 

21. Harold Lancour, late 1950s 

23. Herbert Goldhor and Barbara 
Donagan (Publications), 1960s 

22. Dewey Carroll, early 1960s 

Ideals and Siandards 

24. L.S. 434 at Illinois State Library, mid-1960s (seated left, with pipe: 
Don Strout; seated right, from right: J. Clement Harrison, Jessie Carney 
Smith, Alice Norton) 

25. Alice Lohrer's Retirement, 1974 (I. to r.: Lewis Steig, 
Harold Lancour, Lohrer, Robert B. Downs, Herbert Goldhor) 

Ideals and Standards 

26. Faculty, 1966 (seated, 1. to r.: Conway, Schultz, Ladley, Lohrer, 
Jenkins; standing: Spence, Goldstein, Stevens, Downs, Goldhor, Field, 
Carroll, Henderson 

27. Faculty 1973-74 (seated, 1. to r.: Goldhor, W. Allen, Lohrer, 
Henderson, Wilkens, Bonn; standing: Stevens, Draper, Thomassen, 
Schlipf, Brown, Krummel, Divilbiss, Lancaster, Wert) 

Ideals and Siandards 

28. Robert Bingham Downs, 1903-1991 

Ideals and Siandards 

29. Altgeld Hall, site of the Ubrary School from 1897 to 1926 

:,, ti-if-''"'-' " 't-i'i-. 

30. Main Library, site of the Library School from 1926 to 1979, and David 
Kinley Hall, site of the Library School from 1979 to 1993 

Ideals and Standards 

31. Faculty, 1992 (front: Smith, Estabrook, 
Henderson; middle: Sutton, Lancaster, 
Richardson, Bishop, B. Allen, Bradley, Davis; 
rear: Newby, Williams, Weech, Krummel) 

32. iNew site of the Library School ( 1993- ), formerly the Acacia House 

Children and Youth Services 

Education for Librarianship 


Mary E. Forbes 


n 1897, wlien the Library School moved to the University 
of Illinois campus, children's rooms in public libraries were 
just beginning to open. Services to children and the quality 
of the books they read were becoming major concerns of 
the day. William Fletcher, in Public Libraries in the United 
States of America (1876), had written that the public libraries 
would fail in an important part of their mission if they neglected 
to serve children. Most subscription and privately endowed 
libraries did not admit children until state laws converted 
them into public libraries. In Illinois, the Illinois General 
Assembly passed a biU for tax-supported libraries in 1872. 

Between the establishment of the University of Illinois 
Library School and the Williamson Report in 1923, a climate 
of support and recognition for children's services was created 
by a multitude of events. Anne Carroll Moore presented the 
first paper on "Specialized Training for Children's Librarians" 
at the Chautauqua Conference in 1898. One year later, Pratt 

158 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

Institute Library School added a course for children's librarians 
(Federici, 1986, p. 962). By 1901, the Training School of 
Children's Librarians at Carnegie Library in Pittsburgh opened 
with a $5,000 per year donation from Andrew Carnegie, offering 
a two-year course with a certificate the first year. 

In 1920, the American Library Association (ALA) Section 
for Children's Librarians approved plans for a national Children's 
Book Week. The establishment of a special week gave national 
stature to a concern for children's reading. The first children's 
editor for a major publishing house was appointed by MacMillan 
in 1919. The first Newbery Medal Award was given in 1922. 
In 1924, the Horn Book Magazine was founded in Boston, 
and Anne Carroll Moore began editing a weekly page for 
children's books in The New York Times. 

During this period, children's librarians tended to be 
staff members with a desire to help children or were simply 
appointed to the position regardless of their qualifications 
or interests. Few children's librarians had professional training. 
As the need for education in this area became recognized, 
Illinois and Chicago were among the first university schools 
to include courses on library services to children. 

The University of Illinois, as with most other schools, 
stressed organization and technical training. It also stressed 
cooperation with other libraries; this was considered an 
important part of the student's practice work. In 1899, the 
Champaign Public Library opened a children's room supervised 
by Library School seniors who worked there two hours every 
afternoon during the school year. The students developed 
their own ideas for reading lists, bulletins, decorations, and 
holiday celebrations. They also made lists of books for the 
various grades of the public schools (University of Illinois 
State Library School, Report and Student Records, 1893-1903, 
p. 24). 

The University of Illinois State Library School Annual 
Report for 1906 lists Edna Lyman Scott, children's librarian 
at Oak Park Public Library, as presenter of lectures on the 
following topics: children's interests, development of children's 

Children AND Youth Services ♦ 159 

literature, selection of books for children's libraries, children's 
librarianship, libraries and the schools, and cataloging and 
classifying children's books. These topics mirrored the concerns 
of the day and are reflected in the coursework for library 
education in children's services even today. Scott continued 
presenting her series of lectures to seniors and juniors until 
1919, when she declined her appointment. The lecture series 
continued with other presenters (University of Illinois, 1906). 

In a 1915 report issued by the committee on library 
training, the ALA noted that the University of Illinois devoted 
four class hours and eight preparation hours to school libraries. 
(This formed a part of a library extension course given the 
first year and required of all juniors.) Occasionally senior 
students were assigned to high school libraries for four weeks 
of field work (Wert, 1968). 

By 1914, the School was offering six- week elementary 
courses in library economy in summer session. These courses 
did not count toward a degree but were designed to provide 
training for personnel of smaller libraries. These courses 
were a forerunner for summer programs for school librarians. 

According to the faculty minutes of June 20, 1920, the 
faculty discussed possibilities for lectures in the areas of 
children's literature, and in administration and work in high 
school libraries. In 1922, about the same time that the Williamson 
Report was being published with its recommendations for 
offering specialized training for high school librarianship 
and children's work, Illinois began offering an elective credit 
course, "High School Library Management. " The course, taught 
by Ruth Sankee, the University High School librarian, was 
elected by a number of juniors in the second semester 

The Williamson Report also focused on the long-recognized 
need for specialized training for library work with children. 
Under the plan of organization proposed, specialized training 
for reference work with children would be given as a second 
year of library study consisting of some technical library 
school courses, attention to literature for children, thorough 
courses in education, child psychology, and the relationship 

160 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

of the public library to the public school (Williamson, 1923, 
p. 95). 

The rising emphasis on children's services nationwide 
was having an impact on the School. In faculty minutes from 
November 12, 1928, the first subject proposed for consideration 
was the possible readjustment of courses in children's literature, 
and it was recommended to try an elective course in the 
summer of 1929, providing a good person could be found. 
The suggestion was made to secure Jessie Gay Van Cleve 
as lecturer. Van Cleve joined the faculty in 1924. She was 
an assistant editor of Booklist, a specialist in children's literature 
for ALA, and was chairman of ILA's Children's Libraries Sectioa 
Van Cleve was typical of the high calibre of lecturers attracted 
to the School as ejqjerts in the field of children's services. 

The 1930s saw the development of picture books, the 
first Caldecott Medal in 1938, and the separating out of circulation 
statistics to show children's books. An early survey in Illinois 
shows 40% to 50% of total circulation was juvenile books. 
Large libraries in Illinois, such as the Chicago Public Library, 
appointed directors of children's services for public library 
branches and directors of school library services, which were 
part of the public library services at that time. Yet, many 
children's librarians still had no education in librarianship. 
With growth in library services came recognition of the 
need for standards of service. The White House Conference 
of 1930 recommended that librarians working with children 
have a minimum of one year's q>ecial education at an accredited 
library school (Wert, 1968). The Ubrary School at Illinois 
offered its first summer program specially designed for school 
librarians in 1931. In 1933, ALA adopted the first standards 
for public libraries (Frederici, 1986, p. 968). 

In 1933, the faculty decided that "a new course which 
would probably be called Library Science 49, 'Children's 
Literature,' meeting twice weekly with a weighting of two 
hours, was to become part of the second semester curriculum 
beginning in 1934." The course was to be taught by Marie 
Hostetter. Hostetter came to the School in 1926; she was 

Children and Youth Services ♦ 16 1 

the first associate professor who would teach the courses 
in library work with children. The course was elective, especially 
recommended to students who planned to do public library 
or school work (University of Illinois State Library School, 

Prior to this time, the State of Illinois had no special 
qualifications for teacher-librarians or full-time school librarians 
(Wert, 1968). This was despite the fact that leadership for 
the development of national standards came from Illinois. 
In 1918, standards were adopted by the North Central Association, 
the National Education Association, and ALA. Among those 
primarily responsible was Professor Charles Hughes Johnston 
fi-om the Department of Education at the University of Illinois. 
The standards covered all phases of the library program as 
well as the qualifications of the librarians. Not until the 
late 1930s and 1940s did the State's qualification begin to 
come close to the standards, and not until 1958 was any 
mention made beyond certification of a recommended "minimum 
of sixteen hours of library science" (Wert, 1968, pp. 868- 

One of those attending the lecture series on library work 
with children was Alice Lohrer, who recalled recently: "In 
the summers of the 1930s I studied under Althea Currin 
and Elizabeth Nesbitt. They opened doors of understanding 
in the teaching of materials for children and young adults, 
storytelling, and the History of Children's Literature" (Lohrer, 
1992). Lohrer came to the University of Illinois in 1941. 
Under her direction, the nature and scope of the coursework 
for children's services began to expand and change. Her 
primary interest was the development of the school librarian 
program, and she strongly promoted cooperation between 
school and children's librarians. She promoted courses in 
studies in reading and library materials for adolescents and 
children. New courses were recommended on the "History 
of Children's Literature As Seen Through the Social Order" 
and "Storytelling." The emphasis on materials included multimedia 
resources and services for children in public and school 

l62 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

libraries. Interest in this field fi*om all over the state resulted 
in the development of extension classes primarily for school 
librarians in the 1930s and 1940s (Lohrer, 1992). 

The curriculum committee in 1947 gave serious 
consideration to major changes in professional developments 
and in higher standards for library services. The report recognized 
the "demand, not only for technical competency, but for 
vision, imagination, courage and professional enthusiasm." 
The report acknowledged that education had moved a long 
way from the controlled apprenticeship of individual library 
training classes, and that library schools needed to offer 
professional education on the college and post-college level 
in the principles and philosophy of librarianship. 

In 1953, Alice Lohrer edited the third issue of Library 
Thends on the subject of "Current Ti*ends In School Libraries." 
The subject of the first Allerton Institute in October of 1954 
was school library supervision. This Institute was offered 
to help school librarians obtain a comprehensive view of 
the present state of their profession. In the foreword to 
the brochure. Dean Robert B. Downs stated that a new professional 
was emerging, the school library supervisor. Like the new 
professions, he said, the supervision of school libraries was 
in a state of change and procedures were still being established. 

In 1954, the first report of the dean issued since 1948 

that the question of specialization has come up again, 
and continues to be insistent. There were courses listed, 
including specialization for work with younger readers, 
but it is felt that some of these are pretty feeble— 
specialization has to mean more than this or it means 
little indeed. For this reason, I turned to the faculty 
this year with suggestions to strengthen.. .the training 
of librarians who serve children and young f>eople. 

The disturbing fact is that the nation is falling down 
in no phase of library work more surely than in foiling 
to supply enough qualified personnel in this strategic 
field. (University of Illinois School of Library Science, 

Children and Youth Services ♦ 163 

In February, Thelma Eaton had distributed notes on the 
results of questionnaires mailed to school graduates. The 
consensus in the replies of children's and school librarians 
was that they should "not have courses such as are given 
to other people, but should have special courses set up for 
their needs. In reality, you're training everyone for a university 
library with a few crumbs thrown to us who happen to be 
misguided enough to choose a career in public or school 

The 1954 report of the dean discussed the formation 
of a committee consisting of Hilda Grieder, Robert D. Leigh, 
and Winifred Linderman to develop plans for enlarging the 
University's contribution to children's services. Professor 
Frances Henne was chosen to join the faculty and assist in 
developing an educational program. Professor Henne, widely 
respected because of her scholarship in this field, was given 
a leave of absence from the University of Chicago. (The Bulletin 
of the Center for Children's Books was begun at the University 
of Chicago Graduate Library School under the direction of 
Professor Henne in 1945.) 

By this time, school librarians were becoming specialists 
as distinguished from children's librarians in public libraries. 
In Major Problems in the Education of Librarianship, Leigh 
(1954) points to two distinct patterns of education emerging, 
one for public librarians and another for school librarians. 
Public libraries did not require courses on education and 
psychology for employment; and, as public librarians depended 
on graduate library schools for their employment, these courses 
were not provided. But teacher certification required education 
and psychology so teacher-librarians turned to teacher education 
institutions for these requirements (Leigh, 1954, p. 11). 

The standards adopted in 1952 through the cooperation 
of the Bureau of Education for Librarianship, ALA, and the 
American Association of School Librarians simplified school 
librarianship, but Leigh remained concerned about the education 
of children's librarians, and the prospect of competition in 
terms of recruitment (Leigh, 1954, p. 74). 

l64 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

In 1951, Sara Fenwick and Ruth Ersted at the University 
of Chicago conducted studies to detefmine the essential 
educational needs of school librarians and public librarians 
working with children. They proposed a common program 
of studies, discussing curriculum and problems of accreditation 
and certification (Leigh, 1954, pp. 74-75; Fenwick, 1951). 

In the 1950s, Unesco inaugurated a worldwide clearinghouse 
for cultural activities including children's library services. 
The Illinois State Library added a consultant in children's 
services to the staff by 1958 (Federici, 1986, p. 969). 

In 1958, the Allerton Institute was dedicated to public 
library service to the young adult (YA). Issues discussed 
were the young adult in current society and as a reader, 
standards, and legislation for public library service to YAs. 
The proceedings were not published 

In the faculty minutes for January 6, I960, Thelma Eaton 
inquired about a graduate program in books for children 
and young people for those students going into public library 
work. In planning teaching areas for a third faculty person, 
mention was made of criticism of the program for not giving 
enough preparation for public librarianship and the need 
for this area to be strengthened. It was suggested that candidates 
for consideration have a public library background and interest 
in children's work. 

The appendix to the Annual Report, April 7, I960, noted 
that two of the service courses, Library Science 303, "Library 
Materials for Children," and 304, "Library Materials for 
Adolescents" (since 1928) dealt with a rapidly developing 
field; and that the enrollment totaled 250 each year (University 
of Illinois, I960). 

As Lohrer became involved in the high school librarianship 
programs, teaching extension courses and international consulting, 
Winifred Ladley and Cora Thomassen, both with backgrounds 
in school librarianship and children's services, joined the 
faculty in 1961. Ladle/s love of storytelling was well-known. 
In 1963, she edited an issue of Library Tfvnds on "Current 
Trends in Public Library Service to Children" (Ladley 1963). 

Children and Youth Services ♦ 165 

There would not be another issue of Library Tivnds dedicated 
to this topic for twenty-five years. 

In the 1960s, Alice Lohrer undertook a nationwide study 
that resulted in the publication of The Identification and 
Role of School Libraries that Function as Instructional Materials 
Centers, and Implications for Library Education in the United 
States (Lohrer, 1970). While at the University, Lohrer gained 
a national reputation for her work in the field of school 
librarianship. She received the first Illinois Association of 
School Librarians Award for outstanding contribution to school 
library media services in Illinois. 

In eleven years, the library school at the University of 
Illinois sponsored three conferences and institutes for school 
librarians: one section of the Institute on New Library Trends, 
held in 1952, the 1954 Institute on Supervision of School 
Libraries, and in 1963, the title of the tenth Allerton Institute 
was "The School library Materials Center: Its Resources and 
Their Utilization." 

Ln 1964, Standards for Children's Services in Public Libraries 
was published by the ALA. The document recommended 
the following qualifications for personnel: the children's librarian 
must have at least five years of formal education beyond 
high school, including graduation from an accredited library 
school; training should include special courses in library 
service to children; the coordinator of children's services 
must be qualified by graduation from an accredited library 
school; and six to eight years of professional library experience, 
including four years of work with children in a public library 
and two years in a consultant or supervisor capacity. 

The papers presented at a 1970 conference on education 
for librarianship held at the University of Illinois were edited 
by Herbert Goldhor in Education for Librarianship: The 
Design of the Curriculum of Library Schools (Goldhor, 1971). 
Sarah R. Reed, director of the School of Library Science at 
the University of Alberta, presented a summary of the curricula 
of fifty ALA-accredited library schools. Of the 525 electives 
in administration, 116 (22%) pertained to school librarianship, 

166 ♦ Ideals and Siandards 

and 55 (10%) to work with children and young people in 
school and public libraries. About hatf of the 55 courses 
pertaining to children were concerned with public library 
materials and programming; the rest dealt with both school 
and public library situations. Of the 186 elective courses 
in library materials, about three-fourths were dedicated to 
materials and services to young people (Reed, 1971, pp. 

Also at the conference, Lester Asheim talked about the 
emphasis upon more concentrated specialization as reflected 
in programs designed for school librarianship. He identified 
school librarianship and instructional media (or learning 
resources) as two fields of expansion. Asheim also talked 
about opportunities for continuing education such as workshops, 
institutes, and conferences offered by library schools. The 
topic mentioned most frequently was media and related subjects 
such as instructional materials centers (Asheim, 1971, p. 

Finally, Monroe cited the Leigh study of the late 1940s 
as the last full look at public librarianship. In 1970, of fifty- 
two accredited schools, "over a score" listed public librarians 
with administrative or reader services experience on their 
faculties. There were "two basic patterns of curriculum 
development in public librarianship: 1. reliance on a cluster 
of traditionality titled. courses that allow specialization in 
children's and young people's reading, collections and services, 
in adult... services, in administration, and 2. emergence of 
a few courses related to 'special publics': storytelling, public 
relations. ..mass communications, intellectual freedom..,." 
Both categories were perceived as supplementing a core 
course program (Monroe, 1971, pp. 125-26). Further, library 
education must prepare librarians for their new community 
roles and the techniques of collaborative planning and action 
(Monroe, 1971, p. 122). 

In 1978, Statistics of Public School Library Media Centers 
by Nicholas Osso, was published as University of Illinois 
Graduate School of Library Science Monograph *14 (Osso, 

Children AND Youth Services ♦ 167 

1978). This study of public school libraries and media centers 
was the first such survey since 1962. The areas covered included 
library collections, staffing, expenses, loan transactions, and 
physical facilities. 

Throughout this period there remained a concern with 
guidelines and standards of children's services for public 
libraries and school libraries, with the focus on professional 
education both as part of a larger context of education for 
librarianship and with specific reference to education of 
school librarians. 

In 1977, the Allerton Institute for the first time centered 
on children's services in public libraries. Professor Selma 
Richardson, who joined the faculty in 1974, edited the conference 
proceedings. In the introduction, she noted that the subject 
of children's services had not been treated at previous Allerton 
Institutes nor had it been addressed recently in an Institute 
format. The proceedings were to serve as "a self-assessment 
of the present status of the field and can be used to identify 
areas to be improved to strengthen the quality of children's 
services of public libraries" (Richardson, 1978b, p. ix). The 
year following the Institute, the results of Richardson's Analytical 
Survey of Illinois Services to Cfoildren (1978a) were published. 
The survey was a contribution to an area greatly lacking 
in research. Leslie Edmonds, youth services librarian at Rolling 
Meadows Public Library and a member of the children's librarian's 
section of the Illinois Library Association, joined the faculty 
at the University of Illinois in 1984. 

In 1986, an Allerton Institute on Library Services to 
Children and Young Adults in the Information Age was held, 
and Edmonds edited the proceedings. The Institute was 
cosponsored by the School and by the three youth divisions 
of ALA: the American Association of School Librarians, the 
Association for Library Service to Children, and the Young 
Adult Services Division. The conference was supported by 
the World Book-ALA Goals Award Committee, and twenty 
Illinois participants received grants from the Illinois State 
Library to enable them to attend the conference. 

168 ♦ Ideals and Siandards 

The lingering and widespread assumption that library 
schools do not support youth services; which surfaces at 
various periods over the years, was intensified in the early 
1980s with library schools closing, declining to fill faculty 
positions in this area, or transferring responsibility for the 
youth services curriculum out of the library school (Edmonds, 
1989, p. 97). 

A study by Margaret Bush and Melody Allen reported 
that there was encouraging evidence of a good array of regularly 
scheduled core courses in children's and youth adult services 
taught by tenured or tenure-track faculty, and the number 
of these positions was healthy if not large. The results of 
their survey were reported in Library Tfvnds (Winter 1987), 
the first issue in almost twenty-five years to focus on services 
to children in public libraries (Allen & Bush, 1987). 

The leadership of the Illinois faculty in children's and 
youth services is evident in the many contributions made 
over the years to professional associations and in the field 
of research. Through the years, the school has benefited 
from the activities of the excellent faculty it has recruited 

With the coming of the prestigious Center for Children's 
Books under the directorship of Betsy Heame and its publication, 
the Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, to the University 
in the fall of 1992, the Library School is reaffirming its support 
for the continuing quality in education of librarians for children's 

Children and Yoltth Services ♦ 169 


Allerton Institutes Pertaining to Children and Youth Services 

1954. Institute on School library supervision (proceedings unpublished). 

1958. Public library services to the youth adult (proceedings unpublished). 

1963. School library materials center: Its resources and their utilization. 

1977. Chikiren's services 0/ public Iffnaries. 

1988. Managers and missionaries: Library services to children and young 
adults in the information age. 


Ideals and Sianduvrds 


Children's and Youth Services Faculty 

1905-1919 Edna Lyman Scott, lecturer 

children's librarian, Oak Park Public Library 
Chicago, Illinois 

1924-1928 Jessie Gay Van Cleve, lecturer 
assistant editor. Booklist 

I926-I96O Marie Miller Hostetter, associate professor 

I94I-I974 Mary Alice Lohrer, professor 

1961-1973 Winifred Ladley professor 

1961-1983 Cora Edna Thomassen, associate professor 


present Selma K. Richardson, professor 

1974-1990 M. Leslie Edmonds, assistant professor 

1992- Betsy Heame, associate professor director. Center for Children's 

present Books 

Children AND Youth Services ♦ 171 


Allen, Melody Lloyd, & Bush, Margaret. (1987). Library education and 

youth services: A survey of faculty, course offerings and related activities 

in accredited library schools. Library Tteruis, 35(3), 485-508. 
Asheim, Lester A ( 1971 ). New trends in the curriculum of library school 

In Herbert Goldhor (Ed), Education for librarianship: The design 

of the curriculum of library schools (pp. 59-79). Urbana-Champaign, 

IL University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library Science. 
Edmonds, Leslie. (Ed.). (1989). Managers and missionaries: Library 

services to children and young adults in the information age (Allerton 

Park Institute, No. 28). Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, 

Graduate School of Library and Information Science. 
Ersted, Ruth. (1951). The education of school Wferartans. Unpublished 

master's thesis, University of Chicago. 
Fenwick, S. I. (1951). Education of librarians working uHth children 

in public libraries. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Chicago. 
Federici, Yolanda. ( 1986). History of the public library service to children 

in Illinois. Illinois Libraries, 50(9), 962-970. 
Goldhor, Herbert. (Ed). (1971). Education for Librarianship: The Design 

of the Curriculum in Library Schools. Urbana-Champaign, IL University 

of Illinois, Graduate School of Library Science. 
Ladley, Winifred. (Ed.). (1963). Current trends in public library service 

to children (issue theme). Library "Rends, 12{ 1 ). 
Leigh, Robert D. (Ed.). (1954). Major problems in the education of 

librarians. New York: Columbia University Press. 
Lohrer, Mary Alice. (1970). Identification and role of school libraries 

that function as instructioruU materials centers and implication for 

library education in the United States. Urbana, IL University of Illinois 

Graduate School of Library Science. 
Lohrer, Alice. ( 1992). Tfelephone interview, March 12, 1992. 
Monroe, Margaret E. (1971). Curriculum for the preparation of public 

librarians. In Herbert Goldhor (Ed.), Education for librarianship: 

The design of the curriculum of library schools (pp. 120-129). Urbana, 

IL University of Illinois Graduate School of Library Science. 
Osso, Nicholas. (1978). Statistics of Public School Library Media Centers, 

1974. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Graduate 

School of Library Science. 
Public Library Association. (1964). Standards for children's services in 

public libraries. Chia^o, IL American Library Association. 
Public libraries in the United States of America, their history, conditions, 

and management. (1876). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing 

Reed, Sarah R. ( 1971 ). The curriculum of library schools today: A historical 

overview. In Herbert Goldhor (Ed.), Education for librarianship: The 

design of the curriculum of library schools (pp. 19-45). Urbana; Graduate 

School of Library Science. 

172 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

Richardson, Selma K. ( 1978a). Analytical survey of Illinois public library 

services to children, ^ringfield, IL Illinois State Library. 
Richardson, Seiraa K. (Ed.). (1978b). Children's services of public libraries 

(Papers presented at the Allerton Park Institute, No. 23). Urbana: 

University of Illinois Graduate School of Library Science. 
University of Illinois Graduate School of Library Science. ( I960). Annual 

Report, April 7. 
University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. University of Illinois Library School. 

(1954). Curriculum committee, Eaton memo, November 25. 
University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. University of Illinois State Library 

School ( 1920-1960). Faculty minutes. June 20, 1920; November 12, 

1928; May 4, 1933; January 6, I960. 
University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. University of Illinois State Library 

School ( 1906). Annual report, 1905-1906. University of Illinois Archives, 

University of Illinois State Library School, Report and Student Records, 

18931903. Champaign and Urbana, 1903- 
University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. University of Illinois School of 

Library Science (1954). Report of the dean of the academic year ending 

June 30, 1954. University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 
Wert, Lucille M. (1968). Education for school librarianship in Illinois, 

1900 to the present. Illinois Libraries, 50(9), 860-872. 
Williamson, Charles C. (1923) 'R-ainingfor library service (Report prepared 

for the Carnegie Corporation of New York). New York. 
Young Adult Services Division. (1982). Competencies for librarians serving 

youth. Chicago, IL ALA 

10 Advanced Studies at Illinois 

F. W. Lancaster 


Ver the last twenty years, several evaluations of schools 
of library and information science have been published. The 
fact that Illinois appears consistently close to the top of 
the rankings, and sometimes at the very top, must be attributed 
in large part to the strength of its doctoral program, to the 
reputation of this program within the profession, and to 
the feet that doctoral graduates from Illinois have been highly 
successful in obtaining positions of prestige and influence. 

THE PHD. PROGRAM: 1948-1981 

Serious discussions regarding possible doctoral studies 
took place at meetings of the feculty of the Graduate School 
of Library and Information Science as early as 1945 and, 
on October 25, 1946, the "committee on Ph.D. program" 
presented its final report to the feculty on a course of study 
to be announced in the fall of 1947. The committee gave 
three reasons why such a program appeared necessary at 
that time: librarianship was seen to be growing as a "scholarly 

174 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

field," librarians with Ph.D. degrees were sought for more 
important library positions, and demand for such a program 
existed among alumni of the School. 

The doctoral program at Illinois was officially established 
on April 10, 1948, when the Board of Trustees of the University 
approved a "two-year graduate program beyond the master's 
degree leading to the degree of Doctor of Library Science 
(LS.D.).'" This program was listed in the 1948-1949 catalog 
of the School {University of Illinois Bulletin, 45, June 21, 
1948, number 63). 

While the degree was first identified as an L.S.D. (the 
Graduate School's Executive Committee had insisted on a 
"professional degree"), it had all of the characteristics of 
a research degree. As approved by the Board of Regents, 
all Graduate College requirements applying to the Hi.D. degree 
(relating to major and minor areas of study, residence, period 
of study, knowledge of languages, and preliminary and final 
examinations, as well as to the research itself) would apply 
equally to the L.S.D. In fact, the Board of Regents, at its 
meeting of April 19, 1951, authorized the replacement of 
the degree of Doctor of Library Science by a Doctor of Philosophy 
in Library Science, and this new title appeared in the 1951- 
1952 catalog of the School. 

The School imposed its own requirements, beyond those 
of the Graduate College, for admission to doctoral studies: 
candidates should have a master's degree in library science 
from an accredited school or an "equivalent acceptable to 
the School" and should have had "a substantial period of 
acceptable professional library experience." This latter, somewhat 
imprecise requirement was later changed to two years of 
work experience after completion of the master's degree. 

From the beginning, special courses for doctoral students 
were developed. In fact, the 1948-1949 catalog of the School 

•With the closing of the Graduate Library School at the University of Chicago, 
the program at Illinois became the oldest in existence in the United States or, 
at least, co-oldest since the program at the University of Michigan was also established 
in 1948 

Advanced Studies at Illinois ♦ 175 

included eight courses, besides those associated directly 
with thesis research, that listed a master's degree in library 
science as prerequisite. These advanced courses covered 
academic library problems, public library problems, school 
library problems, education for librarianship, librarianship 
and society, problems in reference service, problems in cataloging 
and classification, and studies in reading. By the 1958-1960 
catalog, however, the number of courses having the M.S. 
as a prerequisite had been reduced to five. 

Changes in the Ph.D. program were made in the period 
1948-1978, but these were of a relatively minor character 
In substance, the program in 1977 differed rather little from 
the program that had existed in 1950. The course requirements 
were quite unstructured: the only course "required" of all 
students was LS 469, on research methods, although students 
were also expected to take a course in statistics before 469 
or concurrently with it. In toto, a student had to complete 
a minimum of ten units of graduate courses, at least six of 
which had to be taken within the School itself. In addition, 
he or she had to exhibit competency in French, German, 
or Russian. The examination requirements were onerous: 
the preliminary comprehensive examination consisted of 
four three-hour sessions of written tests and one three-hour 
oral examination. Questions for the written examination 
could be submitted by any member of the faculty Both written 
and oral examinations, the latter administered by a committee 
established by the dean or director of the School, could 
cover the entire range of library and information science. 
A doctoral candidate was also required to defend his or her 
research proposal before the entire faculty of the School. 
The final examination, given by a committee appointed by 
the dean of the Graduate College, consisted primarily of 
a defense of the candidate's thesis, but committee members 
were also permitted to examine the student on other aspects 
of library and information science. 

In the 1970s, faculty and students both experienced 
dissatisfaction with the program. A major problem was its 

176 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

lack of structure. Related to this was the fact that very few 
courses were designed specifically for doctoral students. 
In fact, a candidate could complete coursework largely on 
the basis of courses listed in the catalog at the M.S. level. 
Another problem was caused by the fact that a doctoral 
student could reach the research stage of the degree with 
very little previous experience of research, exposure to research 
methods, or practice in the writing of research papers. Without 
these experiences, it was very difficult for many students 
to identify an appropriate area of investigation. It was the 
recognition of these defects that prompted the substantial 
revision of the Ph.D. program that took effect on a trial 
basis in 1978 and was approved by the Graduate College 
in 1980. 


The Ph.D. program introduced at the end of the 1970s, 
and still in effect in 1992, is substantially different from 
its predecessor To obtain the degree, a student must complete 
20 or more units of graduate credit having three components: 
generalization (9 units), specialization (3 or more units 
plus "tool competency"), and the dissertation (8 or more 
units). In the generalization component, students are required 
to do extensive reading in the subject of the seminar and 
to discuss the issues raised in these readings during seminar 
meetings. Growing out of each seminar is a research paper, 
which the student will normally work on in the semester 
immediately following his or her participation in the seminar. 
The paper is prepared under the guidance of a faculty member, 
represents original research, and is expected to be of "publishable 
quality." Work on the preparation of the seminar paper is 
considered equivalent to a full course. The seminars and 
seminar papers each earn one unit of credit. In addition, 
each student must complete the course LIS 469, "Principles 
of Research Methods," for one unit of credit. 

In the specialization component, students take three 
or more courses in an area of library/information science 

Advanced Studies at Illinois ♦ 177 

in which they have special interest. This would normally 
be an area in which they propose to complete their doctoral 
dissertation. They can be courses offered by the Graduate 
School of Library and Information Science, including independent 
study courses, or they may be taken in other departments. 

A doctoral student must also demonstrate competency 
in the research tools that will be needed to complete the 
dissertation research, which will usually be achieved by taking 
appropriate courses. The research tool most likely to be 
relevant and useful is that of statistical analysis, although 
other tools may be determined to be more appropriate for 
certain research areas. 

The dissertation represents the results of original research 
performed by the student under the guidance of a faculty 
advisor. Historical, survey, experimental, or other methods 
may all be used A student is required to prepare a detailed 
written research proposal, which must be defended orally 
before a committee drawn from the faculty. The completed 
dissertation must also be defended orally before a committee. 

The Ph.D. program at Illinois differs from equivalent 
programs in most other schools of library and information 
science. The doctoral seminars and the seminar papers give 
the program great structure and rigor and are very demanding 
of the student. From the beginning, the program has emphasized 
generalization rather than specialization: a graduate is esq^ected 
to be a "well-rounded" individual having overall knowledge 
of most areas of library and information science as well as 
being a specialist in one area. 


The first Ph.D. degree was awarded in 1951 to Holland 
Ewell Stevens. Doctor Stevens later gave distinguished service 
on the faculty for many years and became professor emeritus. 
Between 1951 and the end of 1991, 61 Ph.D. degrees were 
awarded. Graduates have gone on to achieve important positions 
in the profession, several as deans of schools, professors, 
or directors of academic libraries, and one as director of 

178 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

a national library. The internationalization of the program 
is a comparatively recent phenomenon. Between 1951 and 
1971, only two of the graduates were born outside North 
America. Since 1971, on the other hand, thirteen of the graduates 
have been from outside North America. In the spring of 
1992, students in the program were drawn from Kashmir, 
Greece, South Africa, Taiwan and the People's Republic of 
China, as well as from the United States. 


In 1969, the School established the degree of Doctor 
of Library Science as an alternative to the Ph.D. The D.L.S. 
was considered a professional degree (comparable, for example, 
to the Doctor of Education) rather than a research degree. 
To obtain a D.LS., a candidate had to complete at least twelve 
units of graduate courses but no research component was 
demanded. The doctoral course on research methods was 
recommended but not compulsory. No research thesis was 
required: the candidate had to prepare a doctoral project 
involving "creative problem solving" rather than original 
research. Only two D.LS. degrees were awarded, one in 1976 
and one in 1979. The D.LS. is no longer offered at Illinois. 


An "Advanced Master's Program" was listed in the catalog 
of the school for the first time in 1955-1957; it was still 
listed in the 1966-1968 catalog but not in the catalog of 
1968-1970. The program was open to students with a fifth- 
year bachelor's degree from an accredited school. These 
students could get an M.S. degree by successftilly completing 
eight units of graduate credit; up to four courses could be 
taken outside the department. 

What is now thought of as the "sixth-year degree" (post- 
master's) is the Certificate of Advanced Study in Librarianship, 
which was ^proved by the Board of Trustees at their meeting 
of May 15, 1963. It appeared in the School's catalog for the 
first time in 1964-1966. For admission to the CAS., a candidate 

Advanced Studies at Illinois ♦ 179 

must have a master's degree from an accredited library school. 
Students must complete eight units of graduate courses, at 
least half of those in the School itself. Since 1980, C.A.S. 
students must also complete a C.A.S. project for two units 
of graduate credit. The project, which is defended before 
a committee, can take several forms— a paper, a bibliography, 
a computer program, an audiovisual program, and so on. 
Originally, C.A.S. students were required to have two years 
of library experience after completion of the master's degree. 
This requirement has since been waived, allowing students 
wiio wish to take more specialized or advanced courses to 
continue beyond their M.S. studies in the School. By the 
end of 1991, 122 CAS. degrees had been awarded. 

Studies beyond the master's level have been an important 
component of the program at Illinois for more than forty 
years; they are likely to be given high priority at the School 
for many years to come. 

Besides formal degree programs, the GSLIS also offers 
a Visiting Scholars program. Scholars from elsewhere in the 
United States, or from abroad, can come to work with individual 
faculty members on projects of mutual interest. While GSLIS 
does not offer financial support, it has been able to offer 
such visitors other types of support such as access to facilities. 

1 1 The Library Research Center 

Herbert Goldhor and Leigh Esiabrook 

he Library Research Center (LRC) was estabUshed in 
1961 by Robert Downs with a Library Services Act (LSA) 
grant from the Illinois State Library for the purpose of establishing 
an experimental center for research related to library 
development. This was the first such center in the United 
States, and it has been in continuous existence since then. 
Several similar centers were started in the 1960s but most 
were unable to sustain themselves when Federal funds dried 
up. In the past few years, several schools of library and information 
science have made renewed efforts to develop affiliated research 
centers (e.g., Rutgers University and the University of Wisconsin) 
but none has the history, nor is the size of the LRC. 

Mary Lee Bundy, shortly after receiving her doctorate 
from the School with a thesis on rural library service in 
Illinois, was appointed the LRC's first director. Dr. Bundy 
resigned after only a few months and later went on to be 
a member of the faculty of the new library school of the 
University of Maryland. Richard Walker became acting director 

Library Research Center ♦ 181 

from October 1961 to June 1962, wiien Guy Garrison assumed 
the directorship. Garrison earned the Ph.D. from the University 
of Illinois Library School, followed by several years of experience 
in public libraries. He served as director until 1968, when 
he resigned to become dean of the Drexel University library 

The LRC prospered during Garrison's administration, 
a time in wiiich Federal funding was more easily obtained. 
It was at this time also that Anita Schiller produced the 
first factual study to document the charge that female librarians 
were paid less than their male counterparts in American 
academic libraries (Schiller, 1969, p. 118). 

Garrison was followed by Terence Crowley (1969-71) 
^\iio had conducted the first unobtrusive test of public library 
reference service. He was succeeded by Lucille M. Wert 
(1971-75), another University of Illinois Ph.D. recipient. 
She, too, was remarkably successful in securing grants and 
contracts. In 1975, Herbert Goldhor assumed the duties of 
the LRC director on a half-time basis until 1978 when he 
resigned as director of the School. Richard Blue became 
acting director for the 1978-79 academic year, after which 
Goldhor assumed the directorship full time until his retirement 
in 1987. Since 1987, the Director of the LRC has been Leigh 
Estabrook who has also been dean of the School. 

In 1976, the LRC expanded its work by establishing the 
Library Information Service (LIS). Director Goldhor realized 
that many of the problems coming to the LRC were not 
"research" problems but questions that could be answered 
by existing resources. LIS, primarily an information-on-demand 
service was, for many years, staffed part time by Chris Jocius. 
In 1990, under Dean Estabrook's directorship, the LIS became 
a major resource for the University's Institute for Competitive 
Manufacturing providing information services to small- and 
medium-size manufacturers under a state economic development 
grant. At that time, the LIS changed its name to the Information 
Retrieval and Management Service (IRMS) (Allen & Corley, 
1990, p. 599). By 1992, IRMS was staffed by two professional 

182 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

librarians and three research assistants responsible for such 
services as document delivery as well as more extensive 

The LRC was first located in a rented store at 706 South 
Lincoln Avenue in Urbana, several blocks from the campus. 
In 1964, it was moved to the fourth floor of the Main Library 
building on the campus, just above the quarters of the School 
In 1971, the LRC moved two blocks to the second floor 
of the Armory Building, and, in 1978, it rejoined the School 
when the latter was relocated to the fourth floor of David 

Like most other research agencies, the LRC supports 
its work through grants and contracts. The uncertain nature 
of funding has been the greatest challenge to long-range 
planning for the LRC. Most funding is on a year-to-year (or 
even month-to-month) basis and all technical staff are paid 
from grants and contracts. The LRC has been fortunate enough 
to be able to hire talented people vAio are willing to work 
with relatively little job security. But the nature of funding 
clearly drives the Center's activities. 

It is estimated that in its first 30 years (1961-91), the 
LRC has had total revenue $3,500,000 in grants and contracts. 
Approximately one-third of this revenue has come from the 
Illinois State Library in LSCA funds, providing support for 
the compilation, analysis, and publication of data from the 
annual reports of the more than 600 public libraries in the 
State. The contracts from the Illinois State Library, while 
subject to annual renewal, have given the LRC a stability 
that it otherwise would not have enjoyed. 

Throughout its history, LRC staff have explored other 
potential ongoing sources of revenue and expanded the types 
of activities in which they are engaged. These sources of 
funding have included several agencies of the American Library 
Association, the U. S. Office of Education, the National Science 
Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, 
over a hundred individual libraries, and the U.S. Army Corps 
of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. 

Library Research Center ♦ 183 

The latter had designed a computerized file of all legislation 
and administrative regulations of the Federal Government 
and the 50 states which concern the physical environment, 
and for several years the LRC maintained and developed 
the resulting database. 

In 1985, the LRC organized the Coalition for Public 
Library Research in the ongoing effort to secure a broad 
base of support; two projects have now been completed 
(and a third is being conducted) under the Coalition's auspices. 
The Coalition is supported by annual membership fees of 
public libraries, representatives of which agree on a research 
project of mutual interest. The Coalition also publishes Public 
Library Watch, a quarterly research newsletter that reports 
on current research and potential funding sources. 

Over 300 final reports of LRC projects are now in existence, 
and many have been published. Some reports are available 
from the Illinois State Library's Research Series (1960-69) 
and the Illinois Library Statistical Report (1981-present), 
The work of the LRC is also represented in ALA publications 
and journal articles written by individuals who contracted 
with the LRC to collect and compile data. 

In order to manage the ever growing volume of data 
(including community profiles for over 75 public libraries), 
the LRC depends on computer storage. Originally the LRC 
used the standard format for research data, Hollerith punched 
cards. In 1978, the LRC converted to direct keying of data 
into computer files which were then analyzed on the University's 
mainframe computer at a cost of as much as $10,000 each 
year. With the advent of micrcomputers, the LRC began adding 
IBM ATs and XTs which were as ftinctional as the mainframe. 
By 1983, all computer analysis was conducted within the 
LRC. Much of the LRC's work for approximately the last 
15 years would have been impossible without the computers, 
including computer-assisted telephone interviews, detail analysis 
of data, and the machine preparation of the results (as in 
the National Shelflist counts for 1985 and 1989), and the 
production of camera-ready color graphics. The LRC's machine- 

184 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

readable data files are available for secondary analysis and 
should prove increasingly valuable with the passage of time. 

The typical mission statement of the American university 
addresses the fundamentals of research, teaching, and service, 
and it seems appropriate to use these categories for the 
evaluation of the LRC. The most important thing to be said 
about the LRC in regard to research is that the Center itself 
does not conduct research; faculty, staff, and those with whom 
the LRC has contracts are the actual researchers. Some projects 
have been initiated by the LRC director and his or her staff, 
usually involving brief surveys or snapshots of current conditions 
based on routine collection and analysis of data. But the 
primary role of the LRC is to provide research support through 
the collection and analysis of data and advice on research 
design. As a partner in the research process, the Center's 
greatest strength is its competence in research design and 
data collection and its attention to the accuracy of its statistical 
work. This is an area in which there is considerable need 
and demand from the field. Although many professional librarians 
lack a knowledge of statistics and research methods, the 
LRC's work is the sort that the average library practitioner 
can readily appreciate and understand. 

Useftil as such a data processing agency is, the growth 
and development of the profession needs help at a higher 
level. If the LRC is to produce meaningftil tests of hypotheses 
(let alone broadly applicable causal laws), it needs the 
participation of people with ideas for original research, primarily 
the faculty of the School and of other departments of the 
University. For most of the 30 years of its existence, the 
LRC was relatively isolated from the School and the campus, 
partly as a result of its physical separation and partly because 
that had been the desire of the director. For the last 10 
years, the LRC has been physically integral to the School, 
but has still been more intellectually isolated from faculty 
and students than it could be. The challenge to the LRC 
in the next 30 years lies in how to grow from a service 
agency into a research organization. 

Library Research Center ♦ 185 

The teaching function of the LRC has been expressed 
in several ways. On behalf of the Illinois State Library, over 
the years the LRC staff have led at least a dozen workshops 
for practicing librarians on such topics as data collection, 
community analysis, and statistical methods. Many requests 
from individual researchers have been received for advice, 
assistance, explanation, and recommendations during each 
phase of their studies. The LRC has assisted researchers in 
determining the size and type of the sample to be drawn, 
as well as in the design and pretesting of questionnaires. 
The LRC staff regularly give lectures to students in the School's 
courses on research methods. 

But, in some ways, the most important expression of 
the teaching function had been in relation to the students 
who have held assistantships in the Center Typically they 
begin by working with an LRC staff member on an ongoing 
project and then go on to conduct a study of their own 
with only general supervision. The results of the many such 
studies have been published under the students' names. A 
dozen doctoral students were able to conduct thesis research 
in this way, receiving support for travel expenses, clerical 
assistance, and computer time, etc. Some of the doctoral 
students who went through the experience of doing an LRC 
study have said that it was more valuable to them than any 
single course in their program. This sort of teaching should 
be encouraged and continued in a research center at the 
university level. 

The Library Research Center is— or at least has been— 
preeminently a service agency, not only for the Illinois State 
Library, the American Library Association, and the Construction 
Engineering Research Laboratory, but also for the many other 
libraries and other organizations with wiiich it has had single 
contracts. Among its many recent projects have been mail 
and telephone community surveys, case studies of public 
libraries' long-range planning processes, a national poll of 
public attitudes toward public libraries, and focus group 

186 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

interviews to compile a state library research agenda for 
public libraries. 

The service provided by the LRC has involved the application 
of theory or of technical expertise to the practical problems 
of an operating agency. As a result, the LRC has become 
proficient in that role and has developed a staff that is competent 
for such tasks. There is no thought that this service function 
should be eliminated or restricted; rather, the hope is that 
the LRC can grow beyond the limits so imposed to play 
an equally important role in original and important research. 

It is not possible to ascertain exactly \diich single person 
was responsible for the original idea of a library research 
center, but it was surely one of these three: Mary Lee Bundy, 
Robert B. Downs, or deLafayette Reid (the director of the 
Illinois State Library in 1961). In any case, it was fortunately 
the right idea at the right time and in the right place. 


Allen, Bryce, & Corley, Kathy. (1990). Information brokers in Illinois 

academic libraries. TZ&nots ZtbroTfes, 72( November). 
Schiller, Anita R. (1969). Characteristics of Professional Personnel in 

College and University Libraries (Research series 16). Springfield, 

EL: Illinois State Library. 

12 Spreading the Word 

The Publications Program 

Donald W. Krummel 


here does one start to describe the program of publications 
and public events? A diligent record of faculty, student, and 
alumni activity might be wtiat others would e^q^ect of librarians, 
which is to say that the results would be both awesome 
and sedative, and of interest mosdy as ego trips for the participants. 
Instead, let us assume a heroic posture as master of our raging 
past, and attempt to justify the activities through three 
assumptions. First, they have gone far in promoting the reputation 
of the School; second, they have contributed significantly 
in defining and rationalizing the intellectual and operational 
structure of the library profession; and third, the work on 
the outside has enriched the intellectual life of the School 
on the inside. 

The effective origins of the activity may date only from 
the second half-century of the School, but there are important 
harbingers from the Sharp and Windsor eras. One is the 
1912 List of Library Reports and Bulletins (University of 
Illinois Bulletin, 1912) which attests to the presence, at this 

188 ^ Ideals and Siandards 

early date, of an impressive collection of roughly five hundred 
annual reports, monthly bulletins, and other serial publications 
of libraries, then being received by the University for the 
use of its faculty and students, and for use by scholars in 
the future. (Indeed, users of the ALA archives in Urbana 
often find themselves turning up equally pertinent material 
in the stacks.) Other publications followed from time to 
time. In 1915, the youthful Ernest Reece prepared a brief 
list of Illinois state documents; in 1937, Raymond Howe Shove 
prepared an account of Cheep Book Production in the United 
States. The important signals in these titles, one may suspect, 
reflect the kinds of grass-roots activities that have characterized 
the School: keep an ear to the ground, and along the way 
assemble an archive of source materials, however seemingly 
ephemeral; remember the local community; and be attentive 
to the processes through wiiich library materials are created. 

It was during the School's fiftieth anniversary that the 
best part of the story begins, with a celebratory conference 
on March 2, 1943, for which Keyes D. Metcalf of Harvard 
University organized a study financed by the Carnegie Corporation, 
The papers presented at the conference were issued under 
the title Fifty Years of Education for Librarianship, thus 
inaugurating a series of "Contributions in Librarianship." 
Metcalf s study itself, entitled The Program of Instruction 
in Library Schools, was issued concurrently as no. 2 in the 
series. (For a hst of titles in the Contributions series, see 
Appendix VI to this volume.) 

An ambitious program in the 1940s and 1950s was hardly 
unexpected, considering the presence on the faculty, for 
instance, of four of the preeminent leaders of American library 
education over the next generation: Robert Bingham Downs, 
Harold Lancour, Herbert Goldhor, and Harold Goldstein. This 
quartet may have been the prime movers, although the general 
strength of the faculty itself should not be forgotten; nor 
should the first handful of doctoral students who were to 
become major figures in American librarianship in their own 
right. In recognition of the importance of the program, a 

Spreading the Word ♦ 189 

faculty Publications Committee came into existence, headed 
by the school's chief executive officer. A publications office 
was set up, with separate quarters and with, at times, as 
many as four full-time staff and ample added student assistance. 

Meanwhile, in 1949, Phineas L. Windsor was honored 
for his thirty-one years of leadership of the Urbana Library 
and Library School, with the first of the Windsor Lectures 
in Librarianship. John Winterich's lectures, collectively entitled 
Three Lantern Slides, established a multiple-event format, 
and a focus on librarianship as widely (which is to say, 
imaginatively) defined, as well as a publishing agreement 
with the University of Illinois Press. The list of lectures largely 
has followed this conception. (For a list of the Windsor 
Lectures and the resulting publications, see Appendix VI 
to this volume.) Pride of place probably belongs to Vemer 
Clapp's 1963 series on The Future of the Research Library; 
today's future may be quite unlike the future envisioned by 
the respected prime mover at the Library of Congress and 
first President of the Council on Library Resources, but his 
text remains a cogent statement of the profound faith of 
his generation. 

Other events followed like good Illinois crops— rich 
and regular— beginning in 1954 with the annual Allerton 
Park Institutes devoted to selected topics of current professional 
importance. Most were conceived as retreats at Allerton 
House, the University's 20-room Edwardian mansion near 
Monticello. Along with housing and meals, the conference 
has further entitled participants to the proceedings, published 
by the School as soon as the last of the dilatory contributors 
discovered \idiat they really meant to say, so as to rub shoulders 
with others whose papers were handed in immediately after 
delivery. (For a list of the Allerton Park Institutes and the 
published proceedings, see Appendix VI to this volume.) 
The Allerton Park series has customarily been scheduled 
in the fall over a non-football weekend and ideally when 
the leaves were turning (but sometimes during early blizzards 
that occasioned particularly active participation and long 

190 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

memories). In contrast, spring (and preferably when the 
cherry blossoms were gracing the Univeisity library building, 
but occasionally during the last blizzard of winter) came 
to be the season for the annual Clinic on Library Applications 
of Data Processing. The series, begun in 1963 and resumed 
on an annual basis in the 1970s, has similarly been conceived 
in terms of published proceedings, also issued by the School 
(For a list of the data processing clinics and the published 
proceedings, see Appendix VI to this volume.) 

Pride of place among the School's autonomous publications 
has been understood to fall to the quarterly journal. Library 
Tf-ends. No single model can be clearly identified, although 
there are several precedents for periodicals in wiiich each 
issue is given over to a special topic, and for which an assigned 
issue editor arranges the individual contributions. The first 
issue, in July 1952, explored "Current Trends in College 
and University Librarianship." Over its forty-year history, 
the editors have generally been the chief executive officers 
of the School: Harold Lancour (volumes 1 to 10, 1952-62), 
Herbert Goldhor (volumes 11 to 27:1, 1962-78), Charles 
H. Davis (volumes 28:2 to 34:1, 1979-85), and Leigh S. Estabrook 
(volumes 34:2-4, 1985-86), with Ernest J. Reece and Rolland 
E. Stevens filling in over interim periods and F. W. Lancaster 
serving as editor for volumes 35-40 (1987-92). Twice the 
design has been reconceived, as reflected in covers that 
moved fi'om the French Renaissance, to Hollywood in 1978, 
and back to Georgian London in 1988. Two double issues 
have also been issued separately as books in order to meet 
special demands: "Bibliography: Current State and Future 
Trends" in 1967 (volume 15, numbers 3-4), edited by Robert 
B. Downs and Frances B. Jenkins, and "American Library 
History 1876-1976" (volume 25, numbers 1-2), edited by 
Howard W. Winger for the ALA centennial. (For a statistical 
analysis of the first thirty years of the journal, see Auld, 1988. ) 

The strong presence of Library Ti-ends has somewhat 
obscured the Occasional Pcpers series, which actually began 
three years earlier in July 1949 with Howard Winger's Public 

Spreading the Word ♦ 191 

Library Holdings of Biased Books About Russia, 3. modest 
but timely harbinger of the censorship that was right around 
the corner in the McCarthy era. The intent of the Papers 
was understood from the outset: each was expected to be 
"either too long or too detailed for publication in a library 
periodical," or "of such specialized or temporary interest 
as to militate against their appearance in a more permanent 
form." The humble idealism that informed the program is 
nowhere in better evidence than in the announcement that 
"each issue will be about ten pages in length" — a dream 
that dissolved conclusively in 1967 with Elizabeth Stone's 
"Historical Approach to American Library Development" 
and W. Boyd Rayward's "Systematic Bibliography in England" 
(nos. 83 and 84), which ran to no fewer than 236 and 52 
pages, respectively 

Under such circumstances, it seemed inevitable that 
pricing would be needed to defray distribution costs. The 
original announcement was indeed in keeping with the title— 
papers would be issued "at irregular intervals and no more 
often than monthly"— and copies were free. By 196I, subscriptions 
had become a necessity: Sl.OO an issue, $7.00 a year. In 1971, 
the cost was rounded off at $5.00 for ten numbers, and in 
1974 promises that the papers would appear "at least five 
times a year" made the word "Occasional" essentially a misnomer 
Success bred success, both without and within. The mimeograph 
machine disappeared as early as 1950, the typewriter in 1979, 
the letter-size format in 1980; and as professional standards 
of the scholarship rose, so also did the rejection rate. The 
mixture of higher standards and increased competition has 
meant that the series, after reaching a productivity of six 
or more issues a year in the 1970s, fell back to five in 1980 
and four in 1988, and today has returned to the spirit of 
its name, with as few as one issue in 1990. The increase 
in the sophistication of the literature over the past forty 
years— and the importance of the school's publication program 
in this trend— is rarely in better evidence than in a comparison 
of recent Occasional Pcpers issues with some of the early ones. 

192 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

Other publications, singly and in their own right, have 
filled available resources, both by the faculty and in a growing 
support staff. A formal Monograph Series was begun in 1963 
for publications not issued by the University Press. (For a 
list of the titles in the Monograph Series, see Appendix VI 
to this volume.) The late 1960s probably mark the high point 
in the publications program, with no fewer than twelve balls 
in the air at one time: Library Trends, Windsor lectures, 
plus their publications. Occasional Papers, Contributions 
to Librarianship, the Monograph Series, the annual Allerton 
Park Institutes and the Data Processing Clinics as both events 
and as proceedings, and, finally, assorted "other" publications. 
The latter includes Mary Lee Bund^s An Analysis of Voter 
Reaction to a Proposal to Form a Library District in LaSalle 
and Bureau Counties, Illinois, 1959 (I960), issued as the 
first (and sole) Progress Report for the Rural Library Study; 
Harold Goldstein's Library School Teaching Methods, based 
on papers at a conference on April 9-12, 1967; Scientific 
and Technical Documentation (1969), in which Maynard 
Brichford, the redoubtable archivist par excellence, states 
a deserving case to the scientific community; and Reminiscences: 
Seventy-Five Years of a Library School (1969), a collection 
of personal essays assembled by Barbara Olsen Slanker. 

One may wonder how materials were assigned to any 
one of the particular series. A typical letter, written by Harold 
Lancour in 1955, suggests the advantages of flexibility. "Although 
everyone expressed the greatest interest in the material" 
(so begins what can only be viewed as a "canned sentence," 
which goes on) "it was the consensus that it did not fit 
into the present plans for our 'Contributions in Librarianship' 
series." (And perhaps to ask whether the earlier plans may 
have been different is to assume that things were expected 
to change.) The letter continues with suggestions of two 
outside publishers (who shall here be nameless) and ends 
thus: "If by the barest chance you would be interested I 
should like very much to run your conclusions and tables 
as an 'Occasional Paper.' It would need a brief introduction, 

Spreading the Word ♦ 193 

but the tables speak for themselves and I know it would 
be of great usefulness.. ..It could be published in a matter 
of a few weeks." (But, of course, it never was. ) 

Occasionally things did backfire. Well remembered through 
the 1970s are the publications committee deliberations on 
discovering that the School's flagship publication, Library 
'Rends, could not lay claim to being a "refereed journal." 
The casuistry of the discourse may not have paled beside, 
or least of all been inspired by, the Watergate events of the 
day, although happily lyends has survived into an era when 
"invitational" journals are receiving proper respect for vdiat 
they may or may not be. The feet remains that the publications 
committee has almost always made rather heavy going of 
the proposals from aspiring issue editors. Topics and contributors 
have been suggested for addition, redirection, or deletion, 
in a manner that has clearly discouraged a number of brainstorms, 
as it has also conjured images of the blue pencil of a heavy- 
wristed copy editor. As for the editing itself, it may amaze 
outsiders (as it did me) to learn that all citations are verified 
in the collections of the University of Illinois Library. (If 
librarians can't cite a text correctly, who can? But this anniversary 
book is a place to celebrate, not complain.) 

Two points may be suggested in conclusion. The first 
is a personal concession: much of what has been published 
strikes me as actually of very limited interest. But, of course, 
much of the holdings of our libraries is too; and the very 
items that particularly bore me, others will find especially 
exciting and impressive. Similarly, wiiat I like (from American 
folk tales to spiral libraries to Japanese kimono books) will 
seem to some as totally inappropriate to the technical agenda 
of librarianship. This very diversity confirms our professional 
commitment to intellectual freedom. Furthermore, while 
it has been not uncommon for students to go through library 
school without ever being greatly aware of the School's 
publications and events, it also seems clear that the intellectual 
content of the instructional program has been immeasurably 

194 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

the richer for the depth and the breadth of the publications 
and events. 

The second point is a reflection on the future of these 
programs. Ours is an age of proliferating publishing in general 
on the one hand, and increasingly constrained acquisitions 
budgets for libraries on the other; of proliferating costly 
meetings on the one hand and cutbacks in conference funding 
on the other. Might it not be appropriate for the School 
to once again blaze the trail, this time by abandoning these 
programs entirely? (The suggestion is reminiscent of the 
naughty juvenile juxtaposition of two biblical quotations, 
"Judas Iscariot went out and hanged himself," and "Go thou 
and do likewise.") One looks to the Delphic oracle for advice: 
How likely is this to happen? Happy news for the School 
(and, it is our mission to argue, for everyone else) would 
of course be bad news for collection development librarians 
and budget officers, and vice versa. How desirable is it that 
it should happen? Thanks to publishing activities everywhere, 
our bibliographical world is becoming even more profuse, 
involved, and respected; as a result, a fierce and intelligent 
commitment to intellectual freedom is all the more urgent. 
One assumes an increasingly intense need for the profession 
of librarianship, along with the presentation of its discourse 
in print and at formal conferences, for the kinds of public 
awareness, scrutiny, and debate that ultimately justify the 
very existence of our libraries themselves. 


Auid, Lawrence W. S. ( 1988). Library Themis, past and present: A descriptive 

study. Library Thends, 36(4), 853-868. 
University of Illinois Bulletin. (1912). List of library reports and bulletins 

in the collections of the University of Illinois Library School. 9(2) 


1 3 Extension Teaching 

A Century of Service 

Leslie Edmonds 


he Graduate School of Library and Information Science 
(GSLIS) at the University of Illinois has, from its beginning, 
acknowledged the need for offering instruction to library 
staff in the field. Extension teaching, or offering courses 
off campus for library practitioners, has been an activity 
of the School from its founding. From as early as 1896, when 
the School was part of the Armour Institute, to the present, 
as the School seeks to respond to the closure of Northern 
Illinois University's program, GSLIS has recognized the need 
to provide extension teaching to serve libraries in the State 
of Illinois. While courses have been offered on an irregular 
basis for the entire century of its existence, there were three 
periods of particularly active attempts to offer extension 
instruction at GSLIS. The first was during the era of Katharine 
Sharp, founder of the School, at the turn of the century. 
The second era of cohesive activity was directed by Alice 
Lohrer from the mid-1940s to the mid-1960s. The last efibrt 
was the attempt in the mid-1980s to offer a complete program 
of study in Chicago. 

196 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

Instruction in "library economy" by university instruction 
was first offered by the University of Chicago in 1896 (Grotzinger, 
1966, p. 220). Katharine Sharp's thesis at the New York State 
Library School had been on the relationship of university 
extension and the public library (Grotzinger, 1966, p. 221), 
so she was familiar with the opportunities that extension 
teaching offered to the newly forming libraries in Illinois. 
Sharp wrote to the division of university extension at the 
University of Chicago to ask that they offer library courses. 
The original plan was that the assistant university librarian 
would take charge of the classes at Chicago, but this arrangement 
did not work out, so Sharp agreed to be the instructor of 
the course, which consisted of twelve lectures given over 
a two-week period. This course was initially taught for the 
Cleveland Public Library (paid for by the board of that library) 
and then offered at the University of Chicago in January 
of 1897 (Grotzinger, I966, p. 223). When the Ubrary School 
at Armour was moved to Urbana in September of 1897, Sharp 
ended her involvement with extension at the University of 
Chicago and incorporated extension teaching into the mission 
of her new school (Grotzinger, 1966, p. 224). 

The content of these early extension courses seems to 
have consisted of lectures on individual topics, including 
such areas as the inception of the modem library movement, 
circulation, reference, classification, bookbinding and the 
care of books, buying books, and children's reading (Grotzinger, 
1966, pp. 224-25). Classes were offered to library workers 
and individuals who were interested in starting public and 
school libraries. Instructors were university librarians. Sharp, 
and other library leaders. The primary purpose of these courses 
seems to have been to teach fundamentals of both theory 
and practice and to cultivate the interest of the public in 
forming libraries in Illinois. As the curriculum of the Library 
School itself became more formalized. Sharp recognized the 
need to continue to offer additional short courses outside 
the regular Library School curriculum in order to upgrade 
the practice of librarianship and continue to support the 
creation of new libraries. 

Extension Teaching ♦ 197 

Evidence from faculty meeting minutes and correspondence 
indicates that the Library School had a fairly steady stream 
of requests for short courses from around the state. It seems 
that economics and the willingness of individual faculty to 
teach these courses governed the responses to these requests. 
The faculty minutes of February 18, 1937 report that faculty 
received a request from the director of University Extension 
to offer "correspondence courses to meet the need of persons 
engaged in library work in school and town libraries" (University 
of Illinois Library School, 1937, p. 5). Anne Boyd commented 
that, since most of those in need of such training had only 
a high school education, this might be a good way to offer 
training. Not unlike the minutes of more recent faculty discussions, 
these report that while the faculty agreed this issue was 
important, no action was taken and no courses were established 
(University of Illinois Library School, p. 5). 

Faculty meeting minutes from the 1920s to the 1940s 
mention similar requests either from University Extension 
or from librarians directly for extension courses. Many of 
the requests came as a result of the development of school 
libraries and the growing number of books for children being 
published. These minutes are also filled with discussions 
of appropriate standards for both admission and graduation 
of students at the School as well as economic and social 
concerns caused by the Depression and World War II. It 
appears that there was more discussion of extension teaching 
than there were actual courses offered. Faculty acknowledged 
that this was a service needed in Illinois, but resources were 
often unavailable to meet this need. 

In the period after World War II, during the expansion 
of higher education generally, the Library School faculty entered 
into a very active period of extension teaching. This was 
due in part to increased support for education, but also 
to the dedication of faculty member Alice Lohrer. Lohrer 
was on the faculty of the School from 1941 to 1974. She 
began teaching extension classes in 1944 and continued 
until the 1960s. Her first course was taught for the staff 

198 ♦ Ideals and Siandards 

of the Illinois State Library. It was to be a "non-credit sub- 
professional course" (Lohrer, 1968, p. 94) designed to give 
an introduction to library routines and library theory Lohrer 
also reported that several of these students later entered 
the regular classes on campus in the degree program, so 
the extension courses began to have a recruiting function. 

In the fell of 1947, Lohrer started to teach regular classes 
off campus. Although travel was still difficult due to gasoline 
rationing and questionable weather around Illinois for most 
of the winter months, there was a great demand for training 
in library services and literature for children and adolescents 
from school superintendents. Library School feculty had several 
concerns about a full-scale extension program, including 
the need for in-service training programs around the state; 
the availability of agencies available for such courses; the 
adequacy of library resources available at off-site locations 
centers for supporting materials courses; transportation problems 
related to distance and winter weather; and the feasibility 
of planned program extension courses to be offered in Galesburg 
and at Navy Pier in Chicago, the first campus of the University 
of Illinois at Chicago (Lohrer, 1968, p. 94). These issues 
raised questions that remain unanswered. 

In 1948, the University Extension began flying faculty 
to course sites to save time as well as transportation costs. 
Various collections of materials were also transported to 
teaching sites. In the fall of 1948, Viola James was appointed 
to the faculty as the first full-time extension instructor of 
the School. With this apf)ointment, the Library School began 
to offer graduate courses off campus. 

Alice Lohrer reported many adventures in getting to 
and from classes taught away from Urbana. She developed 
a great love of flying but did not always have good experiences. 
For example, she related the following story: 

As previously stated, the faculty were amused and skeptical 
at my weekly reports. So one week I asked if anyone 
wanted to go with me on a trip. There was room for 

Extension Teaching ♦ 199 

one more passenger on the plane. Rose B. Hielps accepted 
the invitation. We started ofif as usual, but ran into rain 
and sleet before we reached the Sterling airport. We 
finally landed safely but were told we could not take 
off that night nor the next day... We had no overnight 
bags and no assurance of getting on the morning train 
for Chicago. I did have a letter I carried with me from 
the University to railroad officials asking that I be allowed 
on the train even it were overcrowded. They finally 
let us sit in the washroom since there were no vacant 
seats....(Lohrer, 1968, p. 97) 

University Extension continued to support the School's 
service to the library community through course offerings. 
The School's course offerings expanded and changed periodically 
to meet state certification requirements, the changing degree 
structure of GSLIS, and the demand for the courses (Lohrer, 
1968, p. 100). In the 1950s, both graduate and undergraduate 
courses were taught and courses for medical librarianship 
were added to the offerings. In the 1960s, various universities 
worked together to develop a cooperative state program 
of extensions offerings in library science (Lohrer, 1968, p. 100). 

The School continued to offer courses as both demand 
and available faculty dictated. In the 1970s and early 1980s, 
the School offered regular courses in both Springfield and 
Peoria. By then fiaculty were paid for these courses by University 
Extension, and the courses were taught in addition to teaching 
assignments on campus. University Extension continued to 
offer travel and other support for these courses. Often students 
would use extension courses to begin the degree program 
wtiich then could be finished on campus. In 1986, the School 
stopped offering courses off campus. While there was demand 
from students and libraries, few faculty were available to 
teach and the GSLIS faculty wished to focus its energies 
on developing a full master's-level program in library science 
in the Chicago area. 

Under the leadership of Dean Leigh Estabrook, the faculty 
developed a proposal to offer a complete master's-level program 

200 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

in the Chicago area. This was in response to many requests 
for courses and for a complete degree program in the city 
of Chicago. The University of Chicago Library School had 
begun to focus on information science and no longer met 
the needs of library practitioners, and neither Rosary College 
nor Northern Illinois University offered classes in the city 
of Chicago consistently. GSLIS felt an extension degree would 
meet a real need of libraries in the Chicago area, increase 
the enrollment of minority students, and allow for new faculty 
positions that would broaden the expertise available to students 
on both campuses. The University administration supported 
the program, and I was appointed to be associate dean for 
the Chicago program. The program was to be a two-year 
course of study with classes meeting every other weekend. 
The requirements for graduation would be the same as for 
the on-campus program, but fewer upper-level and specialized 
courses would be offered in Chicago. The classes would 
be offered at Loyola University in the library at its Water 
Tower campus in the near north area of Chicago. Students 
were recruited, and the program was due to begin in the 
m of 1988. 

Due to financial constraints on budgets for higher education 
in Illinois, the Illinois Board of Higher Education, the regulatory 
agency that approves new university programs, declined to 
approve GSLIS's ^plication to begin the new degree program. 
Classes were therefore, never, begun in the program. It may 
be possible to renew this project if financial support for 
higher education improves, particularly in light of the closing 
of the library schools at both the University of Chicago and 
Northern Illinois University. 

There have been several themes over the past century 
in the extension teaching efforts of the School. The first, 
ever-present from Katharine Sharp's era to the present, is 
the need for library education outside of a formal degree 
program as a service to the library profession and specifically 
to aid in the development and growth of libraries in Illinois. 
The first courses taught by Sharp came from the expressed 

Extension Teaching ♦ 201 

need of practitioners as well as a developing set of professional 
standards for librarianship. We need to teach practitioners 
the most current theory and practice to ensure improvement 
in library service. This service mandate has been found in 
virtually all discussion of extension teaching to the present 

Themes of a more practical nature also seem consistent 
over time. Economic and political pressures seem to have 
governed whether courses were actually offered through 
extension. During wartime and economic recessions, money 
and other resources were unavailable, so courses were offered 
infrequently and offered then only because individual faculty 
members had a strong commitment to this kind of professional 
services. Before 1900, there seems to have been some 
coordination among universities in offering extension courses 
in library science, but there are also several allusions to 
competition among providers of extension from that time 
forward. As the public university system in Illinois developed 
over this century, there has been conflict about which school 
should provide courses in each part of the state. While extension 
courses have served as a recruiting vehicle for students with 
library experience, it has not always been clear whether 
this is necessary. In periods when the School needed more 
students, this was obviously a more important issue than 
in periods wiien it had adequate applicants. Quality of offering 
also has been debated by GSLIS faculty over the last century: 
Are the extension courses as "good" as the same courses 
offered on campus by regular faculty and supported by the 
campus library system? The quality and nature of extension 
courses has been debated in each of the eras identified in 
this paper. A last concern consistent over time has been 
the availability and willingness of faculty to teach aw^y from 
campus as well as the availability of library resources to 
support extension teaching. 

It seems likely that extension will continue to be debated 
in GSLIS's next century. Changes in technology may open 
up new forms of delivery of instruction. Distance education 

202 ♦ Ideals AND SiANDAROs 

needs to be explored as telecommunications and computing 
become more fiilly developed and more universally available. 
Since it seems unlikely that extension training as a service 
to libraries in Illinois will be any less important in the 21st 
century, the School needs to build on its strong tradition 
to continue to provide leadership and services in this area, 


Grotzinger, Laurel Ann. ( 1966). The power and the dignity: Librarianship 

and Katharine Sharp. New York; Scarecrow Press. 
Lohrer, Alice. (1968). A quarter of a century of extension teaching, 1944- 

1968. In Barbara Olsen Slanker (Ed), Reminiscences: Seventy-five 

years of a library school (pp. 94-101 ). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois 

Graduate School of Library Science. 
University of Illinois Library School. (1937). Faculty minutes, February 

18, 193 7. Unpublished manuscript. 

14 International Influences 

People at Home and Abroad 

Selma K. Richardson and Bradford Wilson 


in all it is, undoubtedly, people who make the difference 
in the international activities and perspectives of an institution. 
The Graduate School of Library and Information Science 
has in its history students, faculty, and alumni who have been 
very interested in libraries and librarianship in other countries. 
A few faculty members have been active abroad, and students 
have come from many countries of the world (to return 
as alumni). U.S. alumni, too, have assumed important roles 
on every continent. At the half-century mark, the School 
had about twenty alumni in a dozen countries. More recently, 
there were nearly one hundred alumni in forty countries. 
This chapter tells of some of these people. 

The School, through its faculty and alumni, has been 
influential in library education in many comers of the world. 
Some people have lectured at library schools; others served 
as consultants. Graduates are among the faculties abroad. 
The focus in one section of this chapter, however, is on the 
contributions in establishing ten library schools in developing 

204 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

On campus, international students bring a richness to 
the School by their very presence. The School nourishes 
understanding of the larger library world by sponsoring 
conferences, courses, and lectures. The last section of this 
chapter discusses the situation on the homefront. To suggest 
the School is ready to enter its second century with a dedication 
to internationalism, the chapter closes with the contributions 
people are making at this very moment. 

The activities, achievements, and publications of alumni 
and faculty are certainly not fully reported in this chapter, 
mostly because of limitations of space. Furthermore, there 
is reason to suspect the sources used did not document 
all contributions; the database of enrollment information 
was at times obscure. 


What has been the nature of the School's international 
involvement? The following three sections seek to answer, 
in part, this question. The first section briefly describes the 
number of international students that have come to the School 
and the countries they represent. The next section, geographically 
arranged, notes some of the achievements of alumni. The 
last section mentions the contributions of faculty to the 
international scene. 


During the past century, students have come from all 
parts of this terrestrial globe. In the School's first 25 years, 
four students can be identified who came from overseas: 
Thorstein Jahr ('00) from Norway, Adam J. Strohm ('00) 
fi-om Sweden, and Elizabeth G. Green ('04) from Japan, all 
of whom remained in the United States to accept important 
positions; Kate D. Ferguson ('16) came from the United Kingdom 
but later went to the Gold Coast to establish a library school. 

Immediately after World War I, a student from Russia 
enrolled, along with a person from Chile and one from Syria. 
A few years later, in 1922, the first student from Ireland 
arrived. In the 1927-28 academic year, five students from 

Internahonal Influences ♦ 205 

five continents were registered; the countries represented 
were Canada, Chile, China, Germany, and South America. 
Two decades later, four students from outside the United 
States pursued degrees; and Thailand joined the roster 

Forty years ago, in 1952, five students came from other 
countries, including Greece. Five years later, the number 
of international students doubled. To this particular list of 
nations can be added Bolivia, Ceylon, France, India, Indonesia, 
and Taiwan. Then, in 1962, the enrollment hit a new peak 
with 27 students, including a dozen from Taiwan. In this 
large group the Orient was further represented with people 
fi-om Burma, China, Korea, and The Philippines. Others came 
from Afghanistan, Egypt, Libya, New Zealand, and Pakistan. 
The number of students decreased to 10 in 1967. Even so, 
people from places near and far added to the character of 
the student body Students traveled from Canada and Australia; 
from Sierra Leone, Singapore, and Tlirkey; two came from 
The Philippines and three from India. 

Just a decade ago, 22 students were enrolled. Among 
countries not previously mentioned are Hong Kong, Japan, 
and Malaysia, although that is not to say this is the first time 
these countries were represented in the School's enrollments. 
The year before the centennial celebration, 36 students, 
or 15% of the year's enrollment, gave a decidedly international 
flavor to the School. Some of their comments are reported 
at the end of this chapter 

A tally in 1970 indicated that 176 international students 
had attended the School to that date. About one-fourth had 
come from China or Tkiwan and 18 from Canada. 


The alumni, indeed, have had influence in all parts of 
the world. Some have initiated, others have nurtured library 
services in various countries. From opening new libraries, 
to assuming high-ranking positions, to having a strong personal 
impact, the alumni from home and abroad have made the 
School known throughout the library world. 

206 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

Europe: The Paris Library School in the 1920s hired 
as teachers Margaret Mann ('96) and Margaret Herdman 
('15). The school, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation, 
was one of the early American educational efforts overseas. 
Students did their practice work in the Bibliotheque Nationale. 

Alumni who returned to Scandinavia after graduation 
include Ingrid Jensen ('31-'32) who became cataloger and 
later chief librarian at the Central Bibliotheket in Esbjerg, 
Denmark. She wrote to the School in 1945: 

In these five years of disasters and troubles, we in Denmark 
have learned to trust America and admire its wonderful 
fight for our freedom....We have had an awfiil hard time 
with restrictions and terror on all sides, but we succeeded 
and went through and have had a very busy time. (Alumni 

Anita Emma (Liden) Melin {'64^ became assistant at the 
Biblioteksjansk, Lund, Sweden. In the late 1980s, she was 
working as a librarian in Stockholm. 

An alumnus from Germany, Sigmund von Frauendorfer 
(MA '27) returned to Europe after graduation to become 
librarian of the International Institute of Agriculture in Rome 
until 1943. From 1943 to 1947, he reorganized agricultural 
libraries in Poland and Austria. From 1947 to 1959, he was 
librarian of the Hochschule fur Bodenkultur in Vienna. 

In Britain, Tony Olden (Ph.D. '87) joined the faculty 
of Information Studies at Ealing College of Higher Education, 
London. He had spent a number of years in Nigeria before 
enrolling in the School. 

Africa: Rudolph Johnson ( '61 ) became librarian at Cuttington 
College in Gbarnga, Liberia. More recently, he was at the 
Ministry of Foreign Affiairs in Monrovia. Sibyl E. Moses ('72) 
was documents librarian at the University of Ife, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. 
Lately, she returned to the School to pursue a doctorate. 

Franklin Parker ('50) studied the effect of mass media 
in Rhodesia and Nyasaland (now Zimbabwe and Zambia). 


Parker published voluminously on African conditions and 
also Central American ones. 

In South Africa, Rhoda Barry ('53) became the librarian 
at Durban High School for Boys in Natal in 1957. She has 
studied South African children's books and published a book 
of Afrikaaner children's songs. Another alumna, Ruth (Jacobs) 
Wertheimer ('58), was assistant director of the Library School 
at the University of Capetown, Rhondesbosch from 1955 
to 1964. Then she returned to Canada where she worked 
with staff development at the Toronto Public Library. 

Several alumni have held distinguished posts in Egypt. 
Rosalie (Cuneo) Amer C^"^) was a Fulbright fellow at the 
American University in Cairo for the 1966-1967 academic 
year and then became acting director of libraries. Mohamed 
M. El-Hadi ('60, Ph.D. '64) returned to Egypt to become 
coordinator of college and university libraries for the UAR. 
government, 1964-72. Later he was professor and chair of 
Information Systems and Computer Studies at the institute 
that became the Sadat School of Administrative Studies. El- 
Hadi has published numerous works. 

Near East: Alumnae have been working in the Near East 
at least from 1919 when Emma (Rhoads) Nickoley ('17-'19) 
went to Beirut to become librarian at the American Protestant 
College (later the American University). In Tlirkey, Furuzan 
Olsen ('57) is director of the library at the Middle East 
Technical Institute in Ankara. Nilufer (Norman) Tlincer ('60) 
returned to Tlirkey to become assistant director of the Medical 
Research Library in Ankara. Farther east in Iran, H. Vail Deale 
('37) of Beloit College used a Fulbright grant for 1965-1966 
to consult at the libraries of Pahlavi University in Shiraz. 
Among his responsibilities was the preparation of a proposal 
for the establishment of library science programs. In 1966, 
he wrote to Herbert Goldhor, director of the School: 

Iran desperately needs trained librarians.... This fast-growing, 
developing country has no "history" of librarianship 
as we think of it. There are probably no more than a 

208 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

half dozen professionals in the entire country, and libraries 
and librarians have no status. (Alumni files )b 

Mandana Sadigh-Behzadi (Ph.D. '81) returned to work in 
the Tehran Book Processing Center. 

Southeast Asia: U.S. alumni have consulted on library 
organization in India and Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon). In 
i960, Lawrence J. Kipp ('41) evaluated university libraries 
in India and the Wheat Loan Exchange Program; he wrote 
a book on the subject. Paul Kruze ('40) used a Fulbright 
grant in 1965 to consult at the Library of the University 
of Ceylon at Peradeniya. 

Alumni who returned to positions in India and Pakistan 
include D. N. Sharma ('59), who became librarian for the 
Book Procurement Program of the Library of Congress in 
India. Sharma has contributed mightily to library literature. 
In 1964, he became librarian at Madras University. In a letter 
to Dr Goldhor, Katharine S. Diehl said: 

One of the Illinois graduates, Mr. D. N. Sharma...has numerous 
labour difficulties, paper-work problems, etc., but he 
has the library functioning in such manner that graduate 
students have easy access to the stacks. (Alumni files) 

Abdul Moid (Ph.D. '6i^ was librarian of the University of 
Karachi, Pakistan, and head of the Department of Library 
Science from 1966 to 1975. Moid also contributed to an 
international conference on library education in developing 
countries held in Hawaii in 1967. Moid moved to Nigeria 
in 1976 to become university librarian of Bayero University 
in Kano. 

Reginald Thambiah ('59) was appointed to the post of 
librarian at Jaffiia College in Vaddukoddai, Ceylon, a position 
he held for many years. Beginning in I960, he edited the 
journal of the Ceylon Library Association. 

At Chulalongkom University in Bangkok, Thailand, several 
alumni were Fulbright lecturers in library science. Ruth Rockwood 
('50), teaching there in 1952-1954, was instrumental in getting 


funded a floating library, a 46-foot river vessel. Arnold Trotier 
(MA'32) taught at the University in 1954-55, and Ruth Erlandson 
('37, M.S. '43) in 1956-58. 

Rtr East and Australia: Between the world wars alumni 
were influential in the library movement in China. First to 
contribute was T T. Yang ('24-'25) who, after graduation, 
returned to the post of librarian at the Peking College of 
Economics and Law. Starting in 1930, he and his wife were 
librarians at Kiangsi Provincial Library, Nanchang, Kiangsi. 
A graduate of Boone Library School in Wuchang, Lincoln 
Hsieu Cha ('29), returned in 1933 as dean of that School 
at Central China University. In 1935, he moved to National 
Chi-Nan University, Shanghai, where he taught library science 
and was a librarian. Lincoln Cha published a number of articles 
in China on library subjects, including some about library 
legislation. Entering politics, he became a member of the 
Republic of China delegation to the U.N. from 1947 to 1962. 
Afterwards he worked at the Queensborough Public Library 
in Flushing, New York. 

A somewhat later graduate, Paul Chen ('38, M.S.'51), 
returned to China in 1939 to become librarian for ten years 
at the Nanking Theological Seminary in Shanghai (where 
he knew Lincoln Cha). In 1956, he settled in Tkipei, Tkiwan, 
and worked at the National Central Library. In 1966, he became 
a librarian at the Vancouver Public Library in British Columbia. 
Chen kept in touch with the School over the years. In 1941, 
the School, and especially his class, raised funds to help 
support Chen's project to distribute children's books in Shanghai. 
In a 1946 letter to Dr Lewis Stieg of the School, Chen wrote: 

The Nanking Theological Seminary has recently moved 
back from Shanghai to our old campus in Nanking. We 
found that practically ail library books and equipment 
that were left in Nanking during the war were looted...I 
shall be willing to do whatever I can to promote the 
whole library movement in China. I have made a su^estion 
that a national conference of librarians should be called 
in Nanking sometime this coming summer...I am profoundly 

210 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

interested in the training work for librarianship. China 
needs more capable Hbrarians. In fact,' many Hbraries 
are now asking for trained librarians and the demand 
is far greater than the supply. It is my opinion that besides 
Boone Library School we should have one good library 
school in East China and one in South China as the two 
training centers. (Alumni files) 

Library education in China benefitted from the contributions 
of Grace (Darling) PhiUips ('05) and E. Eleanor Booth ('34) 
who taught at Boone Library School in the 1930s. War conditions 
forced Booth to leave China and relocate in Australia. 

The Philippines has been the home of alumni since 1918. 
More recently, Ursula de Guzman Pichache ('61, Ph.D.'69) 
returned to the Institute of Library Science of the University 
of The Philippines in Quezon City as professor and dean. 
Catalina Y Diluvio (Ph.D.'89) returned to Cebu City to become 
chair of the Department of Library Science of the University 
of San Carlos. 

In Japan, the School has been represented by Tkkeo Urata 
('52) who became librarian at the University of Tokyo. Influential 
in library circles, he has edited proceedings of workshops 
on medical and health libraries in Southeast Asia. Yoshmari 
Tsuda ('57) was appointed librarian of the Keio Medical 
College Library in Tokyo. Madoko Kon ('60) returned in 
1963 to become acquisitions librarian at that Library under 
Tsuda, but by the late 1980s was at Chuo University, Tokyo, 
as professor in the Faculty of Literature. 

Australia has provided a number of outstanding students 
at the School over the years. Jean Hagger ('61) returned 
to a position at the University of Melbourne and in 1963 
was appointed head of the Department of Librarianship at 
the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology in Victoria. 
She edited the proceedings of a conference held there in 
1968, "Librarianship for Tomorrow's World." Geza A. Kosa 
('69) became head of the Department of Librarianship of 
the Tasmanian College of Advanced Education. In the late 
1980s, he was at Burwood State College in Victoria. W. Boyd 

IiMTERNAnoNAL Influences ♦ 211 

Rayward ('66) returned in 1986 to become head of the School 
of Librarianship of New South Wales. 

Central and South America: An early alumna, Mary E. 
Dallera ('34-'35), returned to Chile in 1937 to become librarian 
of Santiago College of the University of Chile. In Colombia, 
Rudolph H. Gjelsness ('20) was co-director of a training 
institute for South American librarians held in Bogota in 
1942. He was assisted by Sarita Robinson ('17-' 19). 

In the 1950s, Lois M. Davidson ('52) became librarian 
of the Union Theological Seminary in Mantanzas, Cuba. Displaced 
by the revolution there in I960, she relocated to Mexico 
City, wliere she was librarian of the Union Seminary. Isaura 
E. (Salazar) de las Casas ('51) became head classifier at 
the National University Library in Panama City in 1952 and 
later librarian at the Biblio de los Estados Unidos. Her translation 
into ^anish of Professor Thelma Eaton's cataloging textbook, 
a standard in the field, was published in Panama. 

In the mid 1950s and 1960s, William V. Jackson ('51) 
(on the School's faculty from 1958 to 1962), became active 
in Latin American library education. During 1956, he lectured 
throughout Argentina under sponsorship of the U.S. Department 
of State, and later in Ecuador. In 1959 he lectured at the 
University of Cordoba in Argentina under the Fulbright program. 
He was delegate to the U.S. National Commission for Unesco 
in 1959, and from 1967 consultant to the regional office 
for Central America and Panama of the Agency for International 
Development (AID), to suggest some of the responsibilities 
of his career 


No record could be found of faculty teaching outside 
the United States before 1920. First to teach abroad was 
Florence Rising Curtis (assistant professor, 1908-1920), who 
taught at Honan Agricultural College in Kaifeng, China, and 
at The Philippines Normal School in Manila in the early 1920s. 

After World War II, several faculty taught and consulted 
in other countries. Probably most influential was Robert 
B. Downs (director, 1943-63; dean of library administration, 

212 ♦ Ideals AND SxvNDARDs 

1963-71). In 1948, he lectured at institutes at the University 
of Tokyo and University of Kyoto. Downs offered advice regarding 
the development of the National Diet Library in Tokyo. He 
also suggested legislation that would require depository copies. 
In 1953, Downs consulted at the National Library of Mexico 
and the Library of the National University in Mexico City, 
In 1961, Downs visited libraries in South America. Sponsored 
by AID, in 1963, he visited A^anistan to consult on a national 
library and the library of the University of Kabul. Downs 
enriched library literature with reports of his work in other 
countries. Some of his experiences are recalled in his 
autobiography. Perspectives on the Past (Downs, 1984). 

Harold Lancour (associate director, 1947-61) was also 
active in international consulting. For the 1950-51 academic 
year, he used a Fulbright Fellowship to visit Britain for a 
comparison of British and American library education. Then, 
in 1952-53, he was director of the U.S. Information Service 
(USIS) libraries in France. In 1957, he studied libraries in 
British West Africa on a Carnegie Corporation grant and 
reported his survey in the School's Occasional Papers (Lancour, 
1958). In 1959, Lancour was Ford Foundation advisor at 
the University of Education, Monrovia, Liberia. 

Alice Lohrer (professor, 1941-74), world traveler, also 
taught and consulted in several widely separated regions 
of the world. She was a Fulbright Lecturer in Library Science 
at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand, during 
the academic year 1955-56. During the summer of 1959, 
she taught at the Japan Library School, Keio-Gijuku University 
in Tokyo. Professor Lohrer used a Fulbright grant during 
the 1966-67 academic year to consult at the University of 
Tehran, Iran, a library school to which she returned for several 
years after retiring in 1974. 

Herbert Goldhor (professor and director, 1946-52, 1962- 
79) made a study of the Inter-American Library School in 
Medellin, Colombia, in 1964 with Dean Downs. Goldhor 
later spent part of 1977 at the Department of Library Science 
of the University of Azarabadegan in Tkbriz, Iran. He studied 

iNTERNxnoNAL Influences ♦ 213 

library use during a sabbatical year ( 1978-79) at the University 
of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. During November 1978, 
he was a Unesco consultant to the Department of Library 
Economy at the University of Brasilia in Brazil. 

George S. Bonn (professor, 1971-76) had many accom- 
plishments in international librarianship before joining the 
School's faculty He was a Fulbright research scholar in Japan 
(1953-54) and taught at the Japan Library School of Keio- 
Gijuku University (1954-55). He became a library consultant 
in TUrkey (1955-56), and then advisor to the Department 
of Library Science of the University of Delhi in India (1967- 
1969). It was George Bonn who introduced into the curriculum 
LIS 45OD, "International Comparative Librarianship." He brought 
an international perspective to all his classes. 

F. Wilfrid Lancaster (professor, 1970- ) has a most impressive 
record of contributions to library and information science 
abroad and to education for the profession, including both 
academic preparation and continuing education. He has been 
advisor, consultant, lecturer, teacher, and conference speaker 
in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Denmark, 
Egypt, England, Finland, France, Germany, Guatemala, India, 
Israel, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, People's 
Republic of China (PRC), Poland, Portugal, Sri Lanka, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tlinisia, Tlirkey, Venezuela, and 
USSR Lancaster has worked for the UN and Unesco as well 
as other international organizations. His reports and monogr^hs 
about these responsibilities are too numerous to name. He 
has contributed to books and journals many writings about 
topics with international implications; some international 
students have served as joint authors. He is a member of 
the editorial board of several international journals. His books 
about information science have been translated into Arabic, 
Chinese, Japanese, Russian, and Spanish. Twice a Fulbright 
Fellow, he has been awarded other grants and appointments, 
too. One Fulbright was to the Royal School of Librarianship 
in Copenhagen. More recently, on the other side of the world, 
he was visiting professor in the College of Library and Information 

214 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

Science, Wuhan University, PRC, a school that grew out of 
the Boone Library School mentioned earliec Professor Lancaster 
has also been most instrumental in attracting international 
students to the School 

Donald W. Krummel (professor, 1970- ) is a member 
of the International Association of Music Libraries and served 
on the editorial board of its journal. He spent sabbaticals 
in 1974 and 1990 at the British Library in London. He also 
gave lectures to the Bibliographical Society in London, and 
he delivered other lectures at Leeds (UK), Uppsala (Sweden), 
and Stuttgart (Germany). For his Guggenheim Fellowship 
in 1976-77, Krummel pursued research at the Bavarian State 
Library in Munich. Some of his publications deal with music 
matters of Europe. 

Professor Linda C. Smith ('72), who joined the faculty 
in 1977, pursued research at Linkoping University in Sweden 
in 1985 and gave lectures at five library schools in Scandinavia, 
as well as some in England. In 1989, she returned to Linko 
ping. In 1983, she was a participant at a meeting in Caracas, 
Venezuela. In 1988, she gave a keynote speech at the 44th 
International Federation for Documentation conference in 
Helsinki and in 1989 presented a paper at a meeting in \^enna. 

Oiarles H. Davis (dean, 1979-86, professor, 1979- ) presented 
papers at a conference in Taipei, Taiwan, in 1983 and at a 
conference on the applications of microcomputers held in 
Baden-Baden, Germany, in 1986. Leigh S. Estabrook (dean 
and professor, 1986- ) is a consultant to the U. S. State Department 
on information systems and has traveled to Germany and 
Barbados in that capacity. 

An author of this chapter, Selma K Richardson, has been 
active in the International Federation of Library Associations 
(IFLA), attending its conferences in Nairobi, Chicago, Brighton 
(England), Paris, Stockholm, and Moscow. At two conferences 
she presented papers which were later published in international 
journals. She has served as secretary of the Section of Children's 
Libraries and editor of its newsletter. Contributor to two 
IFLA publications about children's services, she also wrote 

iNTERNAnoNAL Influences ♦ 215 

an article about the Section for a Soviet journal. In addition 
to IFLA activities, Richardson was a consultant, with Professor 
Goldhor, at the University of Azarabadegan, Tabriz, Iran, in 
1977 and visited library schools in Tehran and Shiraz. On 
sabbatical in 1980, she attended the Congress of the International 
Board on Books for Young People in Prague, after working 
in research collections in Austria, Bulgaria, and Poland. In 
1983, she visited children's libraries in the People's Republic 
of China and then went to Singapore to give a lecture for 
the Ministry of Education. 


Alumni and faculty have influenced the international 
library community by helping to establish library schools 
in other countries. They have also served as full-time faculty 
and have lectured and consulted at schools. Discussion is 
limited here to ten schools in Africa, Asia, and South America 
where the impact of alumni and feculty has been significant, 
indeed. The schools are generally discussed in the order 
they were created. 

As early as 1943, Arthur Gropp ('30, M.S. '31) started 
a one-year program of library education in Montevideo, Uruguay 
The program was expanded to two years in 1946, when it 
afifiliated with the University of Montevideo and Gropp became 
the school's director. The school is flourishing today, with 
more than one hundred students enrolled. In 1944, Kate 
D. Ferguson ('16) started a library school at Achimota College, 
Accra, Gold Coast (now Ghana) to train librarians for posts 
in existing libraries and in cultural centers to be established 
in British West Afirica. She wrote to the School: 

We arrived at Achimota College, after a 250 mile drive 
through flat green country with small native villages 
dotted along the road.... This college, entirety for Africans, 
with English and African staff" is 7 miles out of Accra.... 

Our scheme is to teach for one year, then give our 
students one year practical work under our suf)ervisor, 
and then keep on supervising. (Alumni files) 

2l6 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

In the 1950s, Robert B. Downs assisted in establishing 
two library schools. One was the Japan* Library School of 
Keio-Gijuku University in Tokyo. Downs was instrumental 
in incorporating in Japanese library legislation a requirement 
that all librarians have formal library education. This ensured 
a steady flow of students through the school. In Tlirkey Downs 
established the library school at the University of Ankara 
in 1955 and was its first director Its early years saw several 
closings due to political unrest, but its program is well established 

In Bangkok, Professor Alice Lohrer drew up, in 1956, 
a plan for a library school when she was a Fulbright Teaching 
Fellow in Thailand. The in-service training component of 
the program was under the sponsorship of the Thailand Library 
Association. The library school affiliated with Chulalongkom 
University in Bangkok. 

Two schools were developed in South America. In the 
late 1950s, William V. Jackson ('51) was instrumental in 
starting the Inter-American Library School of the University 
of Antioquia in Medellin, Colombia. He was a member of 
the International Advisory Board and taught several courses. 
The school offers a five-year program. During 1964-65, Rudolph 
Gjelsness ('20) established the library school of the University 
of San Marcos in Lima, Peru. 

Harold Lancour was influential, around I960, in organizing 
the library school at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. An 
experimental program, especially adapted to the needs and 
resources of West Africa, the plan was based on Lancour's 
conclusion that to develop libraries there is great need for 
librarians at leadership levels. 

The School has had great influence on library education 
in Iran. H. Vail Deale ('37), while on a Fulbright Fellowship 
at Pahlavi University in Shiraz during 1965-66, drew up a 
plan for establishing library programs at that university and 
other schools. The next year Professor Alice Lohrer was a 
Fulbright consultant at the University of Tehran, guiding the 
establishment of its library school. Deale returned in 1970- 

IiMTERNAnoNAL Influences ♦ 217 

71 on a Fulbright to teach at the newly-established library 
school in Tehran, and Lohrer taught there from 1974 to 1976, 


Conferences, Courses, and Lectures 

The School sponsored, in 1967, an "International Conference 
on Education for Librarianship." It was attended by 58 people 
from nine countries. Other conferences, institutes, symposia, 
and meetings have carried elements relevant to international 
interests and issues. Many of these conferences have also 
brought speakers from other countries and attracted participants 
from abroad. 

The School has offered a few courses on international 
librarianship over the years. The course offered by George 
Bonn was mentioned previously. In the 1980s, students could 
enroll in LIS 450AE, "Librarianship in the Developing Countries," 
taught by visiting lecturer Bruce Manzer and doctoral student 
Tony Olden (Ph.D. '87). LIS 450AJ, "Libraries and Society 
in China," was taught by William Wong of the Library faculty 
Library faculty have taught Africana bibliography and Slavic 
bibliography several times. Although such courses are specifically 
directed to international concerns, mention is made in many 
courses of books, libraries, and information networks of other 
countries— references that span time and place from the 
early libraries of the classical world, to children's books 
published in other countries (then and now), to electronic 
communications among scholars. The examples must suffice 
for a huge body of instances. 

At least four lecturers of the Phineas Windsor Lecture 
Series sponsored by the School, addressed issues of librarianship 
in other countries. Lester Asheim, well-known library educator, 
presented "Librarianship in the Developing Countries" in 
1966. The following year, Erik Dal of the Royal Library, 
Copenhagen, lectured on printing and publishing in Scandinavia. 
In 1974, Harold Lancour, then director of the University of 
Pittsburgh library school, presented lectures about "The 
Role of Americans in Library Education Abroad," and "Ttends 

218 ^ Ideals AND SiANDARDs 

in Librarianship in Developing Countries." In 1991, William 
V Jackson ('51) of the University of Texas, spoke about national 
libraries in Europe. 

Innumerable lectures about the international scene have 
been given in classes and at special gatherings by people 
from the United States with considerable interest in libraries 
and librarians abroad, as well as by librarians from other 
countries who are studying in the United States. A roll call 
would produce a Who's Who in World librarianship; however, 
taking the roll is an exercise for another time. 

Summer and F^ 1991 

This chapter is by no means a final one about the international 
involvement of the School. If anything, at the time of writing 
(the year before the Centennial celebration begins), some 
new highs were reached with regard to international activities 
of faculty and alumni, and the representation of international 
students and visitors on campus. 

Faculty: Faculty have traveled to other countries to lecture 
and study Bryce Allen taught at Dalhousie University in Canada 
during the summer of 1991. F. Wilfrid Lancaster spent the 
FaU semester pursuing research at the Indian Statistical Institute 
in Bangalore, India. Martha Williams chaired a session at 
the International Online Information Meeting in London and 
presented a paper in Munich, Germany. 

Professors Linda C. Smith ('72) and Jana Bradley (Ph.D. 
'90) presented papers at an international conference in August 
at Tampere, Finland. Jana Bradley also pursued, in London, 
her research about early women printers. And Linda Smith 
received an invitation to present a paper at an international 
symposium in May 1992 at Kyoto University. 

Moscow was the venue of the August 1991 conference 
of EFLA, as well as a coinciding coup atten^t. Professor Selma 
Richardson was there, and so was the newly elected IFLA 
president, Robert Wedgeworth ('61). The conference also 
provided the opportunity to meet briefly with two alumni 
from TUrkey who will be helping organize the 1995 IFLA 
conference in Istanbul. Nilufer (Norman) Tbncer ('60), is 

iNTERNAnoNAL Influences ♦ 219 

professor at Hacettepe University and director of the 
Documentation Center of the Higher Education Council. 
Esin Ataman Solakogtu ('60) is USIS librarian in Ankara. 

Students: It was mentioned earlier that, as of this writing, 
there are 36 international students in the School including 
22 master's and 3 C.A.S. students. Among the homelands 
of the eleven doctoral students are Greece and Kashmir. 
Of the 36 international students, 17 come from the Peoples 
Republic of China. Seven are from Taiwan. Other students 
have traveled from Argentina, Hong Kong, Korea, Lebanon, 
Malaysia, and Poland. 

International students registered in fiall 1991 were asked 
what brought them to the School and what impressions they 
have had of the School. Many said they were drawn by the 
School's reputation. According to a doctoral student from 
the PRC, "GSLIS has excellent faculty members and high 
quality in teaching. It ranks first among library and information 
science schools" (Richardson and Wilson, 1991). Lorraine 
Haricombe, doctoral candidate from South Africa, commented 
that the School "enjoys an international reputation, thanks 
to leaders in library and information science wiio have long 
been associated with this campus— Robert Downs, Herbert 
Goldhor, and F. W. Lancaster, to name but a few" (Richardson 
and Wilson, 1991). Maria Floren, a doctoral student from 
the Dominican Republic, also emphasized the importance 
of personal connections in her decision: "I knew about the 
School a long time ago, through its publications (Library 
Themis), but mainly through Robert B. Downs, who was active 
in international librarianship. He was a consultant to other 
library schools in Latin America, particularly the Inter-American 
Library School in Medellin, Colombia" (Richardson and Wilson, 

What is their impression of life at the School? Impressions 
range widely. One student said it is "anything but fun" (Richardson 
and Wilson, 1991). But another, "V^ing Liu, a master's student 
from the PRC, said "My life at GSLIS has been great " (Richardson 
and Wilson, 1991). In general, most students comment on 

220 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

how difficult it is here, but in balance they feel the effort 
is worthwhile. One student commented: "Life at GSLIS is 
extremely difficult, not only because of academic requirements 
but also because of the language and the adjustments to 
another culture. But, in the end, I guess that it is worth 
it" (Richardson and Wilson, 1991). 

Among comments by the students are those that might 
offer some direction to the School for the next century. 
Some students say, and the concern has been heard from 
other quarters, that some courses and per^)ectives are geared 
to librarianship in developed countries, particularly English- 
^^eaking ones. Students are not exposed sufficiently to libraries 
and practices in other parts of the worid. Presumably, U.S. 
students could also benefit from such exposure. Perhaps 
it is time to heighten efforts to bring to courses, whenever 
possible, international perspectives. 

Viators: The School has for many years hosted international 
visitors, a topic neglected in this chapter Nevertheless, to 
suggest some examples, among those who, in the fall 1991 
semester, gave lectures and were available for consultation 
was Evelin Hohne of the International Youth library, Munich, 
Germany, ^e sx)ke about Latin American children's literature. 
Irene Wormell of the Royal School of Librarianship, Copenhagen, 
pursued her interest in the design and implementation of 
S>eciali2ed information sources. 

A steady stream of international visitors now comes by 
the School through the generous gift of C. Walter and Gerda 
B. Mortensen to the University Library. The grant, among 
other specifications, provides for the support of Mortensen 
fellows from countries around the world. While here, the 
fellows usually present lectures about librarianship in their 
countries to which the School is always invited 


A program offered on the very day that the final period 
must be placed on this chapter (January 15, 1992) hints 
of faculty, student, and alumni involvement in international 

iNTERNAnoNAL Influences ♦ 221 

activities on campus. The Library, under the sponsorship 
of the Mortensen grant, offered an orientation to all the 
new international students on campus. Among those conducting 
the program was Marianna Tkx Choldin, Mortensen Professor, 
who also teaches courses for the School. Two other members 
of the Library faculty assisting with the program, who also 
teach courses for the School, were alums Betsy Wilson (78) 
and Robert Burger (Ph.D. '88). Other alumni helping with 
the orientation were Tom D. Kilton ('73) and Ann Ricker 
('79). Doctoral candidate Lorraine Haricombe ('88) spoke; 
she also taught a course for the School this past semester. 
Jing Qiu, master's student from the PRC, serves as a graduate 
assistant to meet the library needs of international students 
on campus. 

The School has a long tradition and enviable reputation 
of contributing to the international scene. The efforts of 
alumni, students, and faculty are, indeed, worthy of praise 
and a source of pride. In libraries and library schools around 
the world the people of the School have made a difference. 


Sources used were the School's catalogs, annual reports, fiaculty meeting 
minutes, self-studies for the Committee on Accreditation (COA) of the 
American Library Association, reports to the COA, and the School's Newsletter, 
as well as the alumni files in the University of Illinois Archives, file 18/ 
1/42, Urbana. 
Downs, Robert Bingham. (1984). Per^ctives on the past: An autolHognphy. 

Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. 
Lancour, Harold. (1958). Libraries in British West Africa: A report of 

a survey for the Carnegie Corporation of New York, October-November, 

1957. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Library School (Graduate School 

of Library Science Occasional Papers, no. 53) 
Richardson, Selma, and Wilson, Bradford. ( 1991). "Survey of GSLIS International 

Students." (Unpublished). 

15 Minority Students at GSLIS 

The Carnegie Experiment 

♦ ■ 

Terry Crowley 


n the late 1960s, the United States was in a domestic and 
international turmoil over the growing war in Southeast Asia, 
the "War on Poverty" at home, and the friction between 
the stated ideals of the "Great Society" and the ubiquitous 
evidence of how far towards those ideals we had to go. One 
of the pressing issues of higher education was that of making 
opportunity more equal for minority students, most of whom 
were being educated at traditionally black schools which 
were very much separate and unequal. When students at 
these schools wished to continue their education in graduate 
school, they were often ill prepared for the rigors of competition 
with students from traditionally white schools. Additionally, 
they had to face indifference or outright hostility of some 
faculty and students, as well as the lack of a support group 
in what amounted to an alien culture. 

Among universities, Illinois was, in 1968, one of the 
first to set up a program to recruit, admit, and mentor minority 
students; a special dean was named to assist students in 
their adjustments to college life. Among units at the Urbana 

Minority Students at GSLIS ♦ 223 

campus, the Graduate School of Library Science was an early 
adopter of this innovation and mounted a short-lived program 
that identified, selected, supported, and eventually graduated 
numbers of minority students significantly larger than those 
of prior (or subsequent) years. 

On October 10, 1969, the Library School submitted to 
the Carnegie Corporation of New York a "Proposal to Prepare 
Disadvantaged Students for a Career in Librarianship." The 
application requested $65,000 for a two-year program beginning 
in June 1970. Thus began an unusual, flawed, but ultimately 
successftil program to increase the number of disadvantaged 
students, primarily black and Hispanic, who would become 
librarians. This is a brief recollection of the successes and 
failures of that program, and a partial review of what happened 
to the graduates about whom something is known. 

As described in the original proposal, the "problem" 
had two parts: the lack of scholarship money to support 
students of color and the "disadvantage" assumed to result 
not only from their academic but also from their cultural 
preparation. For part one, scholarship support was set at 
$2,200 for the first year, $450 for the first summer, with 
more for dependents; in the second year the figures were 
raised to $3,000 and $600 respectively Out of this would 
come room, board, books, and incidentals. 

Part two was harder The program was designed from 
the beginning to support the "disadvantaged" students with 
a variety of remedial programs such as reading and writing 
clinics, as well as with an extra year of financial aid to allow 
them to take classes at a slower pace. The normal one-year 
schedule was doubled, with summer employment in regional 
libraries facilitated if possible, by the program director 

Selection of the students was an area of great concern. 
They had to show that they did not have the financial resources 
to attend Illinois, and they had to file confidential statements 
about their personal history, which indicate(d) a "socially 
or culturally deprived background." Their academic qualifications 
had to be "minimal" and therefore not high enough to earn 

224 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

graduate stipends, which were traditionally awarded on the 
basis of scholarly achievement and potential rather than need. 
An applicant found to possess all the normal requirements 
for admission was welcome as a regular student taking a 
full-time course of study but not qualifying for the scholarship 

According to the proposal, the students were to be selected 
from "weaker schools" or have lower averages from "stronger 
schools." Deficiencies in language or course requirements 
were allowed, providing that they were made up during the 
course of the M.L.S. program. In other words, the students 
were going to be selected on the basis that they would probably 
not be successful at GSLIS unless they were given financial 
aid, extensive remedial and tutorial assistance, and allowed 
to take the usual number of credits over twice the usual 
time. That Illinois administrators and faculty were sincere 
in their desire to help these "disadvantaged" students is 
not the issue; that our proposal was insensitive to the labels, 
the lowered expectations, and the assault on the pride of 
the students is the conclusion, in hindsight, of the author, 
who was the faculty adviser to the students and director 
of the program. 

Beginning in the spring of 1970, an advertising campaign 
was launched targeting traditionally black colleges and universities 
in urban and non-urban areas across the country. Important 
qualifications, in addition to the Graduate College minimum 
3.5 (on a 5-point scale) grade point average, included personal 
references, class rank, and the "total record of achievement," 
which presumably would include extra-curricular activities 
and work experience. Sex and marital status were not factors, 
and some financial support was earmarked for dependents. 
Because of a Federal program initiated in 1969 to provide 
master's fellowships, the director of the Library School decided 
to allot ten of the fourteen Federal scholarships received 
to the Carnegie Program, thereby husbanding Carnegie dollars 
for future support. 

Although only ten students were supposed to be recruited, 
the program director was able to persuade the advisory board 
that twelve students should be admitted, arguing that if two 

Minority Students at GSLIS ♦ 225 

dropped out, the original number of ten would be maintained. 
One person withdrew before school began, and the first 
eleven students admitted to the program as "Carnegie scholars" 
were as follows: 

La Jean Boynton (Oakwood) 

Betty J. Bonner (Central State) 

Pamela Cash (Oklahoma) 

Alva G. Hayes (Sacramento State) 

Carolyn L Hebert (New Mexico Highlands) 

Darlene K Lewis (San Diego State) 

Frances D. Lyons (Southern) 

Karen D. McAdoo (Ottawa) 

Norman Y Plair (University of Cincinnati) 

Michael E. Powell (Kentucky State) 

The summer 1970 session began with rounds of "diagnostic" 
tests and evaluations of student reading and writing skills; 
the worst of these tests was one which used an answering 
sheet headed "Freshman Test of Abilities." Almost immediately 
the director was feced by some angry insulted students who 
stated forcefully that they were not going to "take it" any 
more, and that they wished to be included in any future 
planning and program adjustments. It became clear to the 
director that something was seriously wrong with the assumptions 
of the program, that these college graduates were not about 
to allow themselves to be treated like "freshman" and that 
the selection criteria had worked to produce a strong, cohesive 
cadre of students who were not the pliable, submissive, compliant 
individuals we had expected. 

While there were, in fact, some students who did not 
challenge the program's assumptions, it was evident that 
the basic premise of selecting students for their supposed 
disadvantaged status was inadequate justification for the 
corresponding assumptions of academic deficiency. The most 
egregious error was to e^qpect that there would not be negative 
repercussions from the students' "special status," a status 
that was immediately evident to program participants and 
to students in general. When the program director left two 

226 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

years later, all eleven students of the first group and 18 of 
the 19 in the second had graduated. Today, graduates of the 
first group for whom current addresses can be found are 
managing libraries for Dayton-Montgomery Library System 
(Norman Plair, Supervisor of Branch Libraries), Johnson 
Publishing Company (Pamm Cash), First National City Bank 
of Chicago (Betty Bonner), and the audiovisual department 
of the St. Louis Public Library (Michael Powell). Norman 
Plair was one of two winners of the Shapiro award, given 
annually to outstanding students. And although some students 
appeared on the mid-term "less than a B" list, over half earned 
at least one grade of "A" in their first semester 

Another less prominent effect of the program was its 
influence on the admission standards and policies of the 
School. Because of the experience with Carnegie applications, 
the School faculty decided to revise the admissions criteria 
to allow more fiexibility in meeting deficiencies in one area 
with strengths in another Thus a student who lacked a foreign 
language qualification but possessed a strong record of community 
service could be admitted with the proviso that the foreign 
language deficiency be made up before graduating. In this 
way, the Carnegie program contributed systemically to improving 
the opportunities for minority students who were to follow. 
Recruiting for the second year was facilitated when six of 
the first-year students were sponsored by the Black Students 
Association in visits to black colleges to recruit. 

While the Carnegie program was developing, the Champaign- 
Urbana Social Responsibilities Round Table (SRRT) issued 
a three-page, single-spaced statement (28 April 1970) on 
"Recruitment of Students from Minority Groups by the Graduate 
School of Library Science" urging the school to: (1) arrange 
for qualified tutors; (2) place urgent priority on recruiting 
a qualified minority group member to assist the director; 
and (3) "confront and eliminate" the two-track problem 
by developing a "sense of community" which would ensure 
that the Carnegie funded students were not seen and labeled 
as inferior Further suggestions included altering the School 

Minority Students at GSUS ♦ 227 

bulletin to reflect a special interest in recruiting members 
of minority groups, hiring an administrative staff member 
to work with minority concerns, recruiting substantial minority 
representation in sixth-year certificate and Ph.D. programs, 
establishing a consortium in Illinois of library schools to 
recruit, train, and place members of minority groups, and 
finally, recruiting minority faculty members. 

An undated SRRT memo to the Library School director 
summarizes, for purposes of confirmation, the "faculty response" 
as reported by the School director It was almost completely 
negative: the faculty as a whole "(tlid) not feel they can 
support" the statement on minority recruitment or make 
a statement "committing themselves to oppose racism in 
society or in our profession"; there was no need for organized 
recruitment, and the Carnegie program was "experimental" 
and "something apart from the regular library school 
be handled entirely by its director" The School could not 
"commit itself to ftirther action in minority recruitment until 
the results from the Carnegie program" were available. 

Despite what might fairly be called a lack of support 
and outright resistance on the part of the majority of the 
faculty, planning for the second year of the program began 
even as the first year got underway. A federally funded "M.S. 
Institute for Members of Minority Groups" was proposed 
to the U.S. Office of Education in the spring of 1971 seeking 
funding for 20 students. The original grant request of $145,000 
was, at the last minute, halved, so that fewer students could 
be supported, costs such as travel were eliminated, and various 
support features lost. Since 20 students had already been 
recruited, 15 were designated Institute participants and the 
other 5 were supported with Carnegie fiinds. A student from 
the first year joined the selection committee to help process 
the second-year applications. 

Second-year students were recruited with the expectation 
that they would finish the program in less time; their statistics 
for grade point average, age, and prior experience in libraries 
were very similar to students as a whole. Statistics gathered 

228 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

for an ALA proposal to the Illinois State Library to increase 
minority members of the profession show that, of the four 
library science programs in the state, only the Urbana-Champaign 
campus had more than a token number of minority students: 
29 of 205 or 16%. 

The second-year group was comprised of the following 

Jewell Armstrong (Prairie View) 
Juanita Buddy (Oakwood) 
John Butler (College of Emporia) 
Marion L Carter (University of Utah) 
Judith Dickens (Miami of Ohio) 
Edith M. Fisher (Cal State) 
Albert Garcia (Cal State) 
Janet Ha^\1dns (Ouachita B^tist) 
Willie Mae Hill (Grambling) 
Hallie Jordan (Knoxville) 
Grace Martinez (Corpus Christi) 
Samuel Morrison (Cal State) 
Sybil Moses (Spelman) 
Bobby Player (Alabama State) 
Wonne Wallace (Knoxville) 
Lonita Walton (Central State) 
Juanita Warren (Oakwood) 
Gwenn Weaver (SUNY-Bufifialo) 
Alfred Woods (Illinois-Chicago) 

In the second year, Carnegie students became active 
in the student council, with Edith Fisher serving as chairman 
(sic), Sam Morrison vice-chairman, and Grace Martinez on 
the planning committee. The Bookstacker's Hue and Cry, 
a student-produced newsletter in its initial issue of November 
1971, listed Jewell Armstrong, Juanita Buddy, and Yvonne 
Wallace among the staff. 

As with the first-year graduates, some have disappeared, 
some have gone into other fields, one has died (Marion Carter), 
and some have had distinguished careers. Those who could 
be traced include the head of the largest branch library 

Minority Students at GSLIS ♦ 229 

in the Scottsdale Public Library system Quciy Dickens Register) 
featured in a Library Journal cover story about the opening 
of that branch; the director of the Chicago Public Library 
at the time of the planning of the Harold Washington Memorial 
Library (Sam Morrison), now the director of the Broward 
County Library in Florida; the director of a human relations 
consulting firm (Tenge Enterprises) and recipient of a Ki.D. 
from Pittsburg (Dr. Edith M. Fisher); the former director 
of the ALA'S Office of Minority Services (Sybil Moses), now 
returned to the University of Illinois as a doctoral candidate 
in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science; 
head of the serial department at Howard University in Washington, 
D.C. (Bobby Player); the head of the cataloging division of 
the Pentagon Library (Jewell Player); Deputy director of 
the Atlanta Public Library (Lonita Walton); associate librarian 
for automation of the Baker Library at the Harvard Graduate 
School of Business in Boston (Gwenn Weaver). A second 
Shapiro award was won by Sam Morrison wWle he was at 

What is perhaps most notable about this list of 
acconq)lishments is that it is so similar to the accomplishments 
of Illinois graduates through the 100 years of its history. 
Exactly like the majority of Illinois graduates, the 30 students 
in this program worked their way through a rigorous academic 
schedule, coped with the many other demands on their time 
(including, for some, family obligations), and went on to 
careers in librarianship marked by diversity, growing re^x)nsibility, 
and a commitment to service. 

In a report to the Leadership Training Institute dated 
May 15, 1972, the director commented: "We felt that the 
best educational process for the recruited students would 
be one which separated them the least from other students... no 
special classes, no special sections, no singling out...." In 
another comment made a few years later, the director noted: 
"By avoiding the well-intentioned but essentially prejudiced 
views of the prior year's program we hoped to mitigate the 
abrasive factors of this program, knowing too well that we 

230 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

could not mitigate the abrasiveness of much of graduate 
life in this university." 

Often overlooked in programs such as this was the added 
value the Carnegie students brought to the classrooms. 
Discussions of outreach programs, selection of ethnic materials, 
racism in American society, and library support were enriched 
for students and faculty alike because of the presence of 
significant numbers of black students. As noted elsewhere, 
"we as a profession have suffered from the lack of education 
(under-represented minorities) could have given us" (Crowley, 
1975, p. 236). 


The sources for this chapter were of four kinds: unpublished internal 
documents, mostly mimeographed, from the Graduate School of Library 
Science; handwritten or transcribed contemporary notes made at the 
time by the author; a mimeographed copy of Bookstacker's Hue and Cry 
1:1, (November, 1971); and personal conversations and correspondence 
with graduates of this program made in 1991-92. 
Appell, Alice. (1969). Beta Phi Mu. Encyclopedia of library and information 

science (vol. 2, pp. 347-350). New York: Marcel Dekker 
The Bowker annual of library and book trade almanac. (1991). 36th 

ed. (pp. 658-660). New Providence, NJ: R. R Bowker 
Crowley, Terence. (1975). Student admission and minority recruitment. 

In Mary Cassata & Herman Totten (Eds.), The administrative aspects 

of education for Ubrariansbip: A symposium. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow 

Delzell, Robert F. (Ed.). (1957). The book of beta phi mu. Urbana, IL: 

Beta Phi Mu. 

The author would like to acknowledge the extra efforts during the years 
of the Carnegie program of Mrs. LaVeme Caroline, secretary to the Library 
Research Center She was a friend, mentor, and supporter of both the 
students and the author 

16 The Library School Association 

GvROL Bates Penka 

he history of the Library School Association is inextricably 
linked to that of the Graduate School of Library and Information 
Science, the University Library, and the profession of librarianship 
both here and abroad. As one reads the early accounts of 
the association, one is filled with pride at the enthusiasm 
and professionalism with which our founders went about 
their tasks. 

The Illinois State Library School Association was composed 
of former students at the Armour Institute of Technology 
and at the University of Illinois. It was organized at the annual 
conference of the American Library Association held in 1898. 
This conference was convened at Lakewood-on-Chautauqua, 
New York, and total attendance there numbered 494. Of 
this number, 15 were Illinois State Library School students 
from the classes of 1894 to 1899. It is interesting to note 
that, even at this early time in the history of the School, 
students were encouraged to attend library meetings. 

Katharine L. Sharp, founder and director of the Illinois 
State Library School, had been the first president of the New 
York State Library School Association. 

232 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

She no doubt realized that there was a great need for 
some tangible means of communicatioij between the 
school and the alumni, and she was instrumental in creating 
this organization and in helping to draft our 
constitution.. ..The association was probably one of the 
first alumni associations representing a school or college 
rather than the wiiole student body of a university. The 
reason was that in the early years the students varied 
greatly in their preparation; some were undergraduates 
who would receive a bachelor's degree, but many already 
were graduates of other universities who felt their loyalty 
was due to their own institution. This new association 
stressing loyalty to the library profession as well as loyalty 
to Illinois seemed to answer the need. (Houchens, 1969, 
p. 15) 

According to its constitution, the stated objects for the 
formation of the Association were to promote social intercourse 
among its members and to advance the interests of the Illinois 
State Library School. Josie Houchens, in "Looking Backward," 
included additional goals of giving support when needed 
and recruiting students who were deemed e^jecially qualified 
for library service (Houchens, 1969, p. 15). 

The Association's annual meeting was always held in 
conjunction with the annual American Library Association 
meeting. Its badge was the official pin of the University of 
Illinois. The officers were president, first and second vice 
presidents, and secretary-treasurer By May 1903, membership 
in the Illinois State Library School Association numbered 
76, and 64 former students also belonged to the American 
Library Association. 


In 1901, at the ALA conference held in Waukesha, Wisconsin, 
it was decided to establish an alumni lectureship for the 
school. The first lecture was given in May 1902 by R. Anderson 
H. Hopkins, president of the Illinois Library Association and 
assistant librarian of the John Crerar Library in Chicago. 
He ^K)ke on "The Library, the Museum, and the New Educatioa" 

The Library School AssociAnoN ♦ 233 

The second speaker was Mehdl Dewey, director of the New 
York State Library School, who gave a course of five lectures 
in November 1902 on "Qualifications of a Librarian." 

The years 1920-22, found the alumni of the School raising 
a memorial fund of about $1200 and commissioning the sculptor, 
Lorado Taft, to create a bronze bas-relief tablet of Katharine 
Sharp. Sharp, who had resigned as head of the School in 
1907 to become vice-president of the Lake Placid Club, died 
in 1914 as a result of an automobile accident. The bronze 
tablet still hangs on the third floor of the University Library 
near the Library and Information Science Library, and images 
of the tablet grace many publications. 

When 126 people attended the 1992 banquet meeting 
in Detroit, the realization came that more ambitious goals 
could be attained and greater communication between alumni 
was needed. Consequently, the first issue of the University 
of Illinois Library School Alumni Association News Letter 
was published in April 1923. The big news of this first issue 
was that the new Library building had reached first place 
in the proposed building program of the University of Illinois. 
The Board of Trustees asked $750,000 for the purpose, and 
the architectural firm Holabird and Roche in Chicago was 
already working on the plans. In the same News Letter issue, 
Grace Derby, president of the Association, called for a song 
suitable for use either in the Library School club meetings 
or at alumni reunions. 

Amendments to the Association's constitution were passed 
in June 1925. These amendments created life memberships, 
the receipts from which were to form an endowment fimd. 
With the receipts from two hundred life memberships at 
$25 each, there would be enough funds available to offer 
a scholarship. Alas, with the School's alumni body numbering 
nearly 1,000, the association still had a membership of less 
than 150. By 1930, only 175 life memberships have been 
obtained {News Letter, Dec. 1930, p. 20). 

Nevertheless, in June 1933, the first Katharine L. Sharp 
Scholarship ($300) was awarded to Lucy Brown Fbote, head 

234 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

cataloger, Louisiana State University. Brown received her 
B.S. degree from George Peabody College and her first library 
degree with the class of 1930. No tuition or other fees would 
be charged to the holder of the scholarship by the University 
{News Letter, June 1933, p. 1 ). In order to conform to University 
requirements, the name of the award was changed to the 
Katharine L. Sharp Fellowship in 1948-49 {News Letter, Dec. 
1948, p. 13). 

At the 1935 Texas Library Association meeting, a group 
of 27 Library School alumni met and sang for the first time 
the following hymn. No doubt they remembered Grace Derby's 
earlier request. Arthur R Curry, member of the class of 1916 
and a prolific poet, wrote the words to the song, but no 
mention is made of the melody. 


Sacred to loving hearts, stands our alma mater. 
Bom of devoted lives, nurtured with love, 
Guiding her children, guided from above. 

Strong with the strength of right, gracious in her beauty. 
Loyal in thought and deed, valiant for truth. 
Counting her treasure what she gives to youth. 

TTirough all the coming years, how shall we adore her? 
How but in better lives, built by her aim? 
Be all her children worthy of her name. {News Letter, 
June 1935, p. 12) 

A major milestone occurred in 1935 when the University 
of Illinois Board of Thistees created the University Foundation 
to unify and perpetuate alumni giving. The Library School 
Association chose to remain independent from both the University 
Foundation and the University's Alumni Association. Phineas 
L. Windsor, director of the Library and the Library School, 
sent a r^sumd of the Association's activities emphasizing 
the size and strength of the Library School's alumni activities: 
"The alumni and former students of the School... have held 
a reunion dinner at every annual conference of the ALA with 
attendance ranging in recent years from 100 to 220." In 

The Library School AssociAnoN ♦ 235 

addition, similar gatherings of Illinois alumni are held at 
state library association conferences {News Letter, March 
1937, p. 23). 

Phineas Windsor, who had been at the University of Illinois 
since 1909, retired from both of his positions in 1940. The 
Alumni Association raised $3,400 in honor of Mr. Windsor's 
long service. Modestly turning down proposals for a portrait 
of himself, Mr. Windsor expressed a desire for a project to 
benefit the alumni of the school: 

Dr. Robert B. Downs and Dr. Harold Lancour, with Mr. 
Windsor's approval, proposed that the income from the 
Windsor endowment fiind be used to establish a lectureship 
series in the field of librarianship and its related subjects. 
Published in a volume to be called the "Kiineas Lawrence 
Windsor Lecture Series," they would appear as part of 
a general library series known as the University of Illinois 
Contributions to Librarianship. {News Letter, June 1948, 
p. 4) 

The Windsor lectures were inaugurated in April 1949. Sf)eakers 
have included Dan Lacy, Sir Frank Francis, Sol M. Malkin, 
Lester E. Asheim, Erik Dal, Robert M. Hayes, Harold Lancour, 
Peggy Sullivan, Heinz von Foerster, Vemer Clapp, Ralph Shaw, 
Louis Ridenour, and Robert B. Downs. 

The Adah Patton Memorial Fund was established in October 
1931. Manuscripts and printed documents of the Archivio 
Cavagna Sangitdiana in the University of Illinois, compiled 
by Meta M. Sexton, cataloger in the University Library, 
appeared in March 1950 as the first publication supported 
by the fund. {News Letter, May 1950, p. 4) 

A memorial ftind honoring former doctoral students William 
S. Bemer and William V Nash, who were killed in an automobile 
accident on July 15, 1970, was established by the Doctoral 
Section of the Library School Association in 1970 {News 
Letter, 1970, p. 6). This fund supports the Bemer-Nash Award 

236 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

which is given annually to the author of the best doctoral 
dissertation as selected by the faculty. 

In 1971, to mark the retirement of Dean Robert B. Downs, 
another publication fund was established to be administered 
by the Association's advisory committee for endowment funds. 
This fund supports publications of the Graduate School of 
Library Science and the Library at the University of Illinois 
at Urbana-Champaign. Ex Libris F. S. Ferguson by James L. 
Harner, Collections Acquired by the University of Illinois 
Library at Urbana-Champaign, 1897-1974 by Jean Major, 
and A Checklist of the Proust Holdings at the University 
of Illinois Library at Urbana-Champaign by Larkin B. Price, 
were the first three publications supported by the Downs 
Fund {News Letter, 1975, p. 5). 

By the mid-1970s, with rapidly increasing costs and dwindling 
attendance, the long history of annual dinner meetings ended 
and the custom of the cocktail reception began. The last 
alumni dinner meeting was held in the Americana West Room 
of the Frontier Hotel in Las Vegas in 1973. Many alumni 
felt that the informal reception gave them more time to 
visit with friends from across the country. 

The Distinguished Speakers Program, inaugurated in April 
1987, was funded in part by a bequest from the estate of 
Edith Elizabeth Hague (B.S. '18), who remembered the Library 
School Association in her will. This program annually ^x)nsors 
one or two outstanding speakers in library and information 
science. Additional funds from the Hague bequest became 
the "seed money" for an endowment for a named professorship 
in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science 
{News Letter, 1987, p. 5). 

From 1976 until 1980, the News Letter was not published 
and no annual business meeting was held by the alumni association. 
In 1981, a decision was made to affiliate with the University 
Alumni Association. The LSA executive board felt that the 
services available to constituent groups outweighed any value 
independence allowed. All endowment funds would remain 
the property of the Library School Association and would 


not be transferred to the Alumni Association. Moreover, 120 
of the approximately 600 living life members of the Library 
School Association, and an additional 40 to 50 of the life 
members paid annual dues to the University of Illinois Alumni 
Association. Life members of the Library School Association 
would continue to have full voting privileges in the LSA; 
however, they would not automatically become members 
of the university's Alumni Association unless they paid those 
dues additionally. At the 1981 business, new bylaws were 
adopted and the members voted to petition the University 
of Illinois Alumni Association to affiliate with the Alumni 
Association as a constituent organization. On May 15, 1982, 
the executive committee and board of the Alumni Association 
approved the petitioa 

The Library School Association's News Letter continued 
to be published until 1987 when issue 100 was erroneously 
numbered 101. After this time, news of the School and its 
alumni began to be disseminated in one uniiSed publication, 
further reflecting the interrelated nature of the School and 
the activities of its alumni. 

In this centennial year, the activities of the Library School 
Association continue to focus on the promotion of scholarship 
in the profession, communication between alumni, assistance 
to deserving students, and recruitment of excellent students. 
Gatherings are now held at the conferences of all major 
library associations including the Special Libraries Association 
and the Medical Library Association. Thus, the traditions 
established in 1898 continue to be upheld 


Houchens, Josie B. (1969). Looking backward. In Barbara Olsen Slanker 
(Ed.), Reminiscences: Seventy-five years of a library school (pp. 12- 
19). Urbana, IL University of Illinois Graduate School of Library Science. 

University of Illinois Library School Association, News Letter, v. 1-101 
[sic], 1923-1987. University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 

University of Illinois State Library School (1903). Report and Student 
Record, 1893-1903. University of Illinois Archives, Urbana. 

17 Beta Phi Mu 

The Alpha Chapter 

Robert F. Delzell 


'eta Phi Mu, the International Library Science honorary 
society, was founded at the University of Illinois in August 
1948. The late Harold Lancour, then associate director of 
the Library School, had felt for some time that the creation 
of such an honorary for library school graduates could make 
a substantial contribution to librarianship. With a group 
of Illinois librarians, he suggested to a group of twelve students 
currently enrolled that they consider founding such a society. 
This group of students, including Alice Appell, Jean Atcheson, 
Alice Cooper, Louise Lodge, Kathryn Luther, Virginia Pumphrey 
Dorothy Short, Rolland Stevens, Nancy Sutton, Robert Tklmadge, 
Francis Taylor, and Howard Winger, unanimously agreed to 
organize the society. 

The name of the honorary stems from Greek words meaning 
"libraries are the guardians of knowledge" and the dolphin 
and anchor of Aldus Manutius, an early Venetian printer, 
was selected for the insignia. The constitution prepared by 
the group stated that the purposes of the society were to 
recognize high scholarship in the study of librarianship and 

The Alpha Chapter ♦ 239 

to Sponsor appropriate scholarly and professional projects. 
Membership is open to graduates of library schools accredited 
by the American Library Association who complete the fifth 
year or other advanced degree in librarianship with an average 
of 375 where an A equals four points. Only 25% of the graduating 
class may be nominated. This requirement also applies to 
programs of advanced study beyond the fifth year that do 
not end with a degree but require full-time study for one 
or more academic years. A letter of recommendation from 
the noted library schools attesting to demonstrated fitness 
of successful professional careers also is required. 

After Alpha Chapter of Beta Phi Mu was established at 
the University of Illinois, other library schools began requesting 
information about the installation of chapters. The constitution 
allowed for the creation of two kinds of ch^ters. They could 
be chartered by the national council of Beta Flii Mu on receipt 
of a petition signed by ten Beta Phi Mu members and a letter 
from the school involved. Professional chapters also could 
be formed by Beta Phi Mu members in areas having no library 
school. Library school chapters could hold initiations, professional 
chapters could not. 

As the numbers of chapters and membership increased, 
it became necessary to create a national headquarters organization 
and Harold Lancour was named executive director. The 
headquarters remained in Urbana until Lancour moved to 
the University of Pittsburgh School of Library and Information 
Sciences. In 1954, an executive council was formed, drawing 
its membership from all across the country. Annual meetings 
were held during the annual conferences of the American 
Library Association, a practice which continues. International 
membership in the honorary now is above 23,000 and the 
national headquarters continues to be located at the University 
of Pittsburgh. 

From the beginning, the society has been especially 
interested in a publications program. An early publications 
committee, made up of Harold Lancour, Dee Brown, and 
Helen Welch Tbttle, created a Chapbook series in which 

240 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

designers were allowed and encouraged to be as creative 
as they wished. The Chapbook series has been quite successful 
and has garnered a number of book awards, appearing on 
the winning lists of book competitions around the country. 
The society started a Newsletter, which continues to be published, 
and a monograph series for book-length scholarly works 
based on original research in subjects of interest to library 
and information professionals. In logical progression, a Beta 
Phi Mu awards program has included the Award for Distinguished 
Contribution to Education for Librarianship, which is administered 
by the Awards Committee of the American Library Association. 
In 1959, a Beta Phi Mu Good Teaching Award was created; 
the first recipient was Frances Neel Cheney. The Beta Phi 
Mu Award for Excellence in Professional Writing was first 
given in I960. This award is presented to library school 
students for papers wiiich demonstrate excellence in writing 
and suitability for publication. 

In addition to projects undertaken on a national basis, 
ch^ters of Beta Phi Mu have established scholarships, lectures, 
and publishing projects. Such projects, no doubt, will continue 
to grow as the international association grows in membership 
and in the quantity and quality of scholarly projects. 

More detailed information concerning the honorary may 
be found in the sources listed below. 

Appell, A. ( 1969). Beta Kii Mu. In Encyclopedia of Library and Information 

Science, Vol. 2, 347-350. New York: Marcel Dekker. 
The Bowker Annual Library and Book Ti-ade Almanac. (1991). 36th 

Edition, 658-660. New Providence, NJ. R. R Bowker. 
Delzeil, R. F. (Ed). ( 1957). The book of Beta PhiMu. Urbana 


Leigh Estabrook 

Civilization, and with it librarianship, must travel a perilous 
knife-edge into a paradoxical tomorrow of both menace 
and promise, a world about which there are no certainties 
except uncertainty. But for all the doubt, or perhaps 
because of it, we face a very exciting time to be alive, 
a time in which man's achievements will be limited by 
only his will to better his condition. (Jesse H. Shera, 
ALA Bulletin, 1967, p. 46) 

We enter our next century of education in library and 
information science at a time of enormous challenge for 
this field. It is menacing to watch some of our best sister 
institutions (e.g., Columbia University, the University of Chicago) 
close. But it is also promising, particularly at the University 
of Illinois. 

As our profession participates in broader social and 
technological changes and as librarianship gradually shifts 
its focus from collections to access, from libraries to information 
services regardless of location, this School is also changing. 
In a recent memorandum to other administrators at the University, 
I e:jq)lained our work as follows: 

Library and information science is a field directed toward 
issues of intellectual and physical access to information, 
literature, and other representations of human knowledge. 
Among the major areas of concern are the following: 
( 1 ) what are the publishing/production patterns for 
transmitting such representations; (2) how can works 
and the information within them be represented and 
described so they can be located by users; (3) how 
do we design database structures and interfaces to those 
databases to enhance retrieval; (4) what are the social 
and individual factors that affect information needs, access, 
and use; (5) how do we preserve the books, films, records, 

242 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

and other physical rq^resentations of knowledge to make 
them available for future generations; (6) how do we 
manage the collections of material; and (7) what are 
the policy issues (e.g., copyright) that affect access? 
As computers and communications technologies expand 
the ways in which people gain access to and use information, 
the field of library and information science has changed 
the ways in which it thinks about the problems on ^\1iich 
it works. The field has essentially turned itself upside 
down. The center has become what might be called 
information transfer (i.e., those areas mentioned above), 
with libraries as important, but not the sole vehicles 
for making information accessible. 

The field has broadened. The role of information in 
society has changed. Increasingly other units on campus 
are concerned with some aspects of information transfer 
and our fiaculty have developed collaborative relationships 
that reflect areas of interdisciplinary concern. GSLIS 
faculty are working with the National Center for 
Supercomputer Applications in the design of a digital 
library. Computer scientists are concerned with the 
technological design issues of storage and retrieval, GSLIS 
faculty with such issues as how users navigate through 
such systems to find the information they want. Another 
faculty member, whose research is on the effect of electronic 
networks on research, is working both with the NCSA 
project and also the Institute for Government and Public 
Affairs on areas of information policy. The Center for 
Children's Books, which moved from the University of 
Chicago to GSLIS in 1992, collaborates with the College 
of Education's Center for the Study of Reading. The 
Information Retrieval and Management Service works 
with Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and the 
Army Environmental Policy Institute on projects designed 
to make information available and useful to decision 
making and policy analysis. One faculty member has 
been appointed as a fellow in the Program in Cultural 
Values and Ethics. 

The Graduate School of Library and Information Science 
may seem significantly different from the school that was 

Afterword ♦ 243 

founded as the Department of Library Economy at Chicago's 
Armour Institute in September 1893- In many ways it is. 
The department opened with twelve students. The School 
now has over 250. The Department of Library Economy was 
integrally tied to the University Library. GSLIS now has formal 
connections with many of the other colleges on this campus 
and draws on faculty from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds. 

Although the profile of the School has obviously changed, 
our core concerns have not. The problems we have addressed 
for almost 100 years— as educators for the profession and 
as researchers— continue to focus on one central concern: 
how to preserve, store, and make accessible the knowledge 
of human civilization. Our relationships to other fields increase 
because our concerns have become their concerns. The College 
of Engineering, for example, now finds information and library 
services important to their efforts in technology transfer 
and improving the productivity of small manufacturers. At 
the same time, the approaches of other fields provide new 
insights into problems in library and information science. 
Research in cognitive science, for example, has become an 
important tool for understanding the ways in which different 
groups use online public access catalogs. 

And although the nature of libraries has changed, our 
professional base has not. Librarianship, wherever practiced, 
is a "calling" to service. Several years ago researchers asked 
our students, "Why did you choose this profession as a field 
of work?" One student answered: 

Because providing information to people who want it 
is a good thing to do. Because libraries do not pollute, 
do not destroy, do not attempt to create wealth out 
of nothing. Because I am concerned that many people 
do not have access to information. Because I can justify 
libraries on moral and ethical grounds. And because 
I like to read and find things out. 

As Jesse Shera also once noted, "plus ca change...." 


I. Directors of the School, 1893-1992 

n. Faculty of the School, 1893-1992 

in. Library School, Science and Information Science Librarians 
IV. Degrees Granted, 1893-1992 

V. Degrees Awarded by Sex and Ethnicity 1980-1991 
VI. Publications 

A. Windsor Lectures 

B. Contributions to Librarianship 

C. Monograph Series 

D. Allerton Park Institutes 

E. Data Processing Clinics 

Appendices ♦ 245 



Katharine Lucinda Sharp, librarian and director, 1893-1907 

Francis K. W. Drury, acting librarian and director, 1907-1909 

Albert Wilson, director, 1907-1909; assistant director, 1909-1912 

Phineas Lawrence Windsor, librarian and director, 1909-1940 

Frances Simpson, assistant director, 1912-1931 

Amelia Krieg, assistant director, 1931-1942 

Carl M. White, library director and director of the School, 1940- 

Errett Weir McDiarmid, assistant director, 1942-1943 
Robert Bingham Downs, Library director and director of the School, 

1943-1958; dean of library administration, 1958-1971 
Lewis Stieg, assistant director, 1943-1947 
Harold Lancour, assistant director, 1947-1961 
Ernest James Reece, acting assistant director, 1952-1953 
Herbert Goldhor, associate director, 1962-1971; director, 1971-1978 
Roger G. Clark, acting director, 1978-1979 
Charles H. Davis, dean, 1979-1985 
Leigh S. Estabrook, dean, 1986-present 

Titles differ because of the changes in the relationship of the School 
and the Library. The assistant and associate directors listed were, 
in fact, directors of the School during the years when the director 
or dean of the Library was also director of the School This changed 
in 1971 when Dean of Library Administration Downs retired; Lucien 
White became university librarian and Herbert Goldhor became 
director of the School. The title changed to dean when Charles 
Davis was appointed. 


Ideals and Standards 






Allen, Bryce 

Assistant Professor 


Allen, Walter Coleman 

Associate Professor 


Ambuhl, Frances Ida 



Auld, Lawrence W. S. 

7\ssistant Director & 

Assistant Professor 


Bishop, Ann 



Bone, Lany Earl 

Assistant Professor 


Bonn, Geoi^e S. 



Boyd, Anne Morris 



Brown, Robert E. 

Associate Director & 

Assistant Professor 


Carroll, Dewey Eugene 

Assistant Professor 


Cleavinger, John Simeon 

Associate Professor 


Conant, Barbara 



Corbett, Anne L 

Associate Professor 


Cordell, Howard William 



Crawford, Carolyn 

Visiting Lecturer 


Crowe, Linda S. 



Crowley, Terence 

Research Asst. Professor 


Curtis, Florence R 



Dalrymple, Prudence W 

Assistant Professor 


Davis, Charles H. 

Dean & Professor 


De Bruler, Olive Cleo 



Denio, Herbert Williams 



Divilbiss, James 

Associate Professor 


Downs, Robert B. 

Professor & Director 


Draper, Kathleen 

Assistant Professor 


Drury, Francis K. W 



Durand, Anna Perry 



Eaton, Thelma 



Edmonds, M. Leslie 

Assistant Professor 


Edwards, Grace O. 



Estabrook, Leigh S. 

Dean & Professor 


Faibisoflf, Sylvia 

Assistant Professor 


Felsenthal, Emma 



Field, Oliver Thobum 

Assistant Professor 


Florrinell, Francis 



Forrest, Elirabeth 



Garrison, Guy 

Research Professor 


Garver, Willa Kathryn 



Goldhor, Herbert 

Professor & Director 




Goldstein, Harold 



Goodaie, Grace 



Gorman, Michael 



Goulding, Philip S. 



Gramsely, Margaret Amidon 



Gridley, Clara Louise 



Hedstrand, Lillian Elvira 



Heim, Kathleen McEntee 

Assistant Professor 


Henderson, Kathryn Luther 


1965 -present 

Hodnefield, Jacob 



Hostetter, Marie Miller 

Associate Professor 


Hutchins, Margaret 



Jackson, Fanny R. 



Jackson, William Vernon 

Associate Professor 


James, Viola Louise 



Jenkins, Frances Bri^s 



Jones, Mary L 

Associate Professor 


Jutton, Emma Reed 



Kaiser, John Boynton 



Kinney, Mary R. 



Krieg, Amelia 

Assistant Professor & 

Assistant Dfrector 


Kronus, Carol 

Research Asst. Professor 


Krummel, Donald W 



Ladley Winifred Claire 



Lancaster, E Wilfrid 



Lancaster, John Herrold 

Assistant Professor 


Lancour, Harold 

Professor & Assistant 



Linderman, Winifred B. 

Visiting Lecturer 


Lohrer, Mary Alice 



Lyle, Guy R 



Mann, Margaret 

Senior Instructor 


McDiarmid, Errett Weir 

Assistant Professor & 

Assistant Director 


Machula, Ruth Stroud 

LRL Director & Instructor 


Miller, Jerome K. 

Assistant Professor 


Mudge, Isadore G. 

Assistant Professor 


Newby Gregory 



Patton, Adah 



Phelps, Rose Bemice 



Price, Anna May 

Assistant Professor 


Randall, Bertha T 



Recce, Ernest James 

Acting Assoc. Director 

1912-17 & 

Richardson, Selma K. 




Ideals and Siandards 

Rockwood, Ruth Humiston 

Admin. Asst. & Instructor 


Royce, Bertha E. 



Sankee, Ruth 

Instructor & Uni 

High Libn. 


Schlipf, Frederick A. 

Assistant Professor 


Adjunct Asst Profifessor 


Sharp, Katharine L 

Director & Professor 


Shaw, Debora 

Assistant Professor 


Shope, Grace 



Siegel, Martin A. 

Associate Professor 


Simpson, Frances 

Associate Professor 


Singleton, Mildred Ella 

Associate Professor 


Smith, Linda C. 

Associate Professor 


^ncer, Gwdadys 

Assistant Professor 


Stevens, Rolland 



Stieg, Lewis Francis 

Professor & Assistant 



Stone, C. Walter 



Straight, Maude W. 

Associate Professor 


Strout, Donald Everett 



Sutton, J. Brett 

Assistant Professor 


Sutton, Nancy Burham 

Admin. Assistant & 



Thomassen, Cora Edna 

Associate Professor 


Van Cleve, Jessie Gay 



Vought, Sabra W. 



Walter, Frank KeUer 



Wamock, Mary Lucile 



Weech, Terry W 

Associate Professor 

1972-73 & 

Wert, Lucille M. 

Associate Professor 


White, Carl Milton 

Director of Library 


Wilkins, Leah-Ruth 



Williams, Martha E. 



Wilson, Albert S. 

Assistant Director & 



Wilson, Martha 

^cial Lecturer 


Windsor, Phineas Lawrence 

Director of Library & 



Wiles, Jo Ann TUckwood 

Assistant Professor 


Appendices ♦ 249 



Frances E. Hammitt, 1941-43 

Elma Anderson, 1943-44 

Donna D. Finger, 1944-54 

Billie Hurst, 1954 

Jo Ann WUes Tlickwood, 1954-64 

Ruth ^nce, 1964-66 

Evelyn Johnson, 1966-67 

Donald Lanier, 1967-69 

Kathleen Draper, 1969-75 

Mary Pillepich, 1975-80 

Patricia F Stenstrom, 1981-present 

Note: Titles varied as the School's name changed 


Ideals and Standards 














































































































































































♦ 25 











































































































































































































































































































252 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

1982 --- - 65 3 2 70 

1983 --- --- 63 2 3 68 

1984 "- - 102 • 5 

1985 - --- 84 2 

1986 -- - 84 3 

1987 --- - 108 

1988 - - 101 4 

1989 --- -- 98 4 

1990 --- - 92 4 

1991 -- --- 103 5 

TOTAL 207 2236 4262 128 133 6963 











































































































































































































































































254 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

































TOTAL 5 10 2 6 59 124 

'As reported in the Association for Library and Information Science Education 
LQyrary and Information Science Education Statistical Reports. 

The categories used for defining ethnicity in the ALISE reports arc the 
same ones used by the U.S. Department of Labor 

AI— American Indian or Alaskan Native 

AP— Asian or Pacific Islander 

Black— Black or Afiican-American, not Hi^anic origin 

Foreign and International— Students who are not citizens, permanent 

residents, or landed immigrants of the United States) 
































































































































Appendices ♦ 255 



A. Windsor Lectures 

(Published by the University of Illinois Press unless otherwise noted) 

1949: John T Winterich. Three Lantern Slides: Books, The Book 'Prade, 

and Some Related Phenomena in America, 1876, 1901, and 1926. 
1950: Louis N. Ridenour, Ralph R Shaw, and Albert G. Hill. Bibliography 

in the Age of Science. 
1951: Gordon N. Ray, Carl J. Weber, and John Carter. Nineteenth Century 

English Books. 
1952: Harold K. Guinzberg, Robert W. Frase, and Theodore Waller. Books 

and the Mass Market 
1953: Arthur E. Bestor, David C. Mearns, and Jonathan Daniels. Three 

Presidents and Their Books. 
1958: Mody C. Boatright, Robert B. Downs, and John T. Flanagan. The 

Family Saga and Other Phases of American Folklore. 
1959: Dan Lacy Freedom and Communication. 
1963: Vemer W Clapp. The Future of the Research Library. 
1964: Sir Frank Francis, on the British Museum. (Not published) 
1965: Sol M. Malkin, on the antiquarian book world (Not published) 
1966: Lester Asheim. Ubrarianshp in the Developing Countries. 
1967: Erik DaL Scandinavian Bookmaking in the Tiventieth Century. 
1970: Robert M. Hayes. Three lectures on "Some Implications of Information 

Science for Large Research Libraries." (Not published) 
1972: Scott Adams. Information for Science and Technology. 
1973: Robert B. Downs. Books and History. (Published as Monograph 

no. 13 by the School) 
1974: Harold Lancour and Peggy Sullivan, on "The Role of Americans 

in Education Abroad" and "Ttends in Librarianship in Developing Countries." 

(Not published) 
1975: Heinz von Foerster, "Dialogue in a New Key" (Not published) 
1976: Eli M. Oboler. "Parameters of Intellectual Freedom." (Not published) 
1990: William V. Jackson and Herbert White. "Resources, Services, and 

Technology in Mega-Libraries: A Scholar's View" and "Technology— 

A Means to an End Only if You Can Agree on the End." (Not published) 

B. Contributions to librarianship 

(Published by the University of Illinois Press unless otherwise noted) 

1943: Fifty Years of Education for Librarianship. 

Keyes D. Metcalf, et al. The Program of Instruction in Library Schools. 

E. W McDiarmid. The Administration of the American Public Library. 
1949: C. U. Faye. Fifteenth-Century Books at the University of Illinois. 
1953: Kenneth J. Brough. Scholar's Workshop: Evolving Conceptions of 

Library Science. 

256 ♦ Ideals AND Standards 

1962: Frank L Schick. The Future of Library Service: Demognphic A^cts 

and Implications. 1962 {Library Thends, vol. 10, nos. 1-2) 
1963: Edward G. Holley. Charles Evans, American Bibliographer. 

C. Monograph Series 
(Published by the School) 

1963: Harold Goldstein. Implications of the New Media for the Teaching 

of Library Science. 
1966: 1962 Statistics of Public Libraries Serving Populations of Less 

than 35,000. 

Public Libraries in the United States of America, Part 1. (Reprint 

of 1876 U.S. Bureau of Education R^xyrt) 

Rules for Descriptive Cataloging in the Library of Congress. (Reprint 

of the 1949 book) 
1967: Elizabeth Stone. Jhuning for the Improvement of Library Administration. 

William J. Rhees. Manual of Public Libraries, Institutions, and Societies 

in the United States and British Provinces of North America. (Reprint 

of the 1857 book) 
1968: Leonard Grundt. Efficient Patterns for Adequate Public Library 

Service in a Large City. 

Herbert Goldhor Research Methods in Librarianship. Measurement 

and Evaluation. 

Guy Garrison. The Changing Role of State Library Consultants. 
1971: RoUand E. Stevens. Research Methods in Librarianship: Historical 

and Bibliognphical Methods. 

Herbert Goldhor Education for Librarianship: The Design of the Curriculum 

of Library Schools. 
1972: Herbert Goldhor An Introduction to Scientific Research in Librarianship. 
1974: Robert B. Downs. Books and History. (Windsor Lectures, 1973) 
1977: Nicholas Osso. Statistics of Public School Library Media Centers, 

1974 (UBGIS I). 
1978: Helen B. Eckard. Statistics of Public Libraries, 1974. (UBGIS U). 

Richard M. Beazley. Library Statistics of Colleges and Universities, 

1976 Institutional Data (UBGIS III). 
1980: Selma K. Richardson. Research about Nineteenth-Century Children 

and Books: Portrait Studies. 
1986: Richard Rubia In-House Use of Materials in Public Libraries. 

D. Allerton Park Institutes 
(Publidied by the School) 

L 1954: Ihe School Library Supervisor (Lmcom) 

2. 1955: Developing the Library's Personnel Program (not published) 

3. 1956: The Nature and Development of the Library Collection (Stout, 

Appendices ♦ 257 

4. 1957: ne Library as a Community Information Center (Phelps, 

5. 1958: Library Service to Young Adults (not published) 

6. 1959: Tbe Role of Classification in the Modem American Library 
(Eaton, Stout) 

7. I960: Collecting Science Literature for Geneml Reading (Jenkins) 

8. 1961: The Impact of the Library Services Act: Progress and Potential 

9. 1962: Selection and Acquisition Procedures in Medium Sized and 
Large Libraries (GoldhoT) 

10. 1963: The School Library Materials Center: Its Resources and Their 
Utilization (Lohrer) 

11. 1964: University Archives i^cvcns) 

12. 1965: The Changing Environment for Library Services in Metropolitan 
Areas (Goldstein) 

13 1966: Federal Legislation for Libraries (ladley) 

14. 1967: Tivnds in American Publishing (Henderson) 

15. 1968: Cooperation Between Types of Libraries: The Beginnings of 
a State Pian for Libraries (ThoTD3£sen) 

16. 1969: Serial Publications in Large Libraries (^. M\en) 

17. 1971: Libraries and Neighborhood Information Centers (Kronus, 

18. 1972: Informational Resources in Environmental Sciences (horm) 

19. 1973: CATV and Its Inplications for Libraries (Thomassen) 

20. 1974: Collective Bargaining in Libraries (Schlipf) 

21. 1975: Mafor Classification Systems: The Dewey Centennial (Henderson) 

22. 1976: Changing Times: Changing Libraries (Bonn, FaibisoflF) 

23. 1977: Children's Services of Public Libraries (Y^ichardson) 

24. 1978: Supervision of Employees in Libraries (Stevens) 

25. 1979: Organizing the Library's Support: Donors, \blunteers, Friends 

26. 1980: Data Libraries for the Social Sciences (PubUshed in Library 
Trends, 30:3, Winter 1982) (Heim) 

27. 1981: Conserving and Preserving Library Materials (Kathryn Luther 
Henderson and William T Henderson) 

28. 1982: Information in Practice— Atypical Careers and Innovative Services 
in Library and Information Science (Published in Library li-ends, 
32:3, Winter 1984) (W Allen, Auld) 

29. 1986: Managers and Missionaries: Library Services to Children and 
Young Adults ( Edmonds ) 

30. 1987: Critical Issues in Library Personnel Management (Kuh\n) 

31. 1988: Conserving and Preserving Library Materials in Nonbook Formats 
(Kathryn Luther Henderson and William T Henderson) 

32. 1989: Ethics and the Librarian (Lancaster) 

33. 1990: Evaluation of Public Services and Public Services Personnel 

34. 1991: Applying Research to Practice (Estabrook) 

258 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

E. Data Processing Clinics 

1. 1970: MARC, Uses and Users (Henderson) • 

2. 1972: Application of On-Line Computers to Library Problems (Lancaster) 

3. 1973: Networking and Other Forms of Cooperation ( Lancaster) 

4. 1974: Applications of Minicomputers to library and Related Problems 

5. 1975: The Use of Computers in Literature Searching and Related 
Reference Actitities in Libraries (Lancaster) 

6. 1976: The Economics of Library Automation (DivUbiss) 

7. 1977: Negotiating for Con^ter Services {Yym\b\s&) 

8. 1978: Problems and Failures in Library Automation ( Lancaster) 

9. 1979: The Role of the Library in an Electronic Society (lainczSieT) 
10. 1980: Public Access to Library Automation (Divilbiss) 

IL 1981: New Information Technologies— New Opportunities (Smith) 

12. 1982: Library Automation as a Source of Management Information 

13. 1983: Professional Cornpetericies— Technology and the Librarian (^aith) 

14. 1984: Telecommunications: Making Sense Out of New Technology 
and New Legislation ( Divilbiss) 

15. 1985: Human Aspects of Ubrary Automation: Helping Staff and Patrons 
Cope (Shaw) 

16. 1986: What Is User BiendlyF (Lancaster) 

17. 1987: Questions and Answers: Strategies for Using the Electronic 
Reference Collection (Smith) 

18. 1988: Design and Evaluation of Computer/Human Interfaces: Issues 
for Librarians and Information Scientists (Siegel) 

19. 1989: Database Management: How Much Power Is Enough? Issues 
for Librarians and Information Scientists (Davis) 

20. 1990: Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems: Will They Change 
the Ubrary? (Lancaster/Smith) 

21. 1991: Networks, Open Access, and Virtual Libraries: Implications 
for the Research Library (Sutton/Davis) 

22. 1992: Designing Information: New Roles for Librarians (Smith,Dalrymp\c) 

Note: 1963-1969 were published, but none had a unifying theme. The 
dates and editors can be found in the Smith article. 


Walter C. Allen received his M.S. from Columbia's School 
of Library Service in 1951. After holding positions in reference 
at Northwestern and in cataloging, reference, and circulation 
at the Dayton and Montgomery County Public Library, he 
joined the faculty of the School in January 1968. He taught 
courses in reference, book publishing, and library buildings, 
and was closely identified with the foundations courses, 
including the directed independent study experiment. He 
has edited or co-edited several issues of Library Thends, 
and contributed to others, including the 1976 centennial 
history issue. He served as co-president of the newly formed 
Reference and Adult Services Division of the American 
Library Association. He was also a director and president 
of the board of Burnham City Library also known as the 
Champaign Public Library & Information Center He retired 
in 1986 but has since taught the buildings course twice 
and frequently talks about buildings in the foundations 

Lawrence Auld was assistant director/assistant dean of 
the school from 1976 to 1986, serving under Herbert Goldhor, 
Roger Clark, Charles Davis, and Leigh Estabrook. Previous 
to coming to Illinois in 1973, he was a cataloger and head 
of technical services in academic and state libraries and 
was an early proponent of computer applications in libraries. 
Dr. Auld has been chair of the Department of Library and 
Information Studies at East Carolina University in Greenville, 
North Carolina, since 1989. Among other projects, he is 
working on a second edition of his Electronic Spreadsheets 
for Libraries (Oryx Press, 1986). 

Christine Beseira is a MA. student at the University of 
Illinois Graduate School of Library and Information Science. 
She is a former employee of Pikes Peak Library District, 

260 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

Colorado Springs, Colorado and received her bachelor's 
from Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado. 

Raymond Bial, a 1979 graduate of the Library School, 
is the library director at Parkland College. In addition 
to his work as a librarian, he has published a number of 
photography books, including Stopping By, The Carnegie 
Library in Illinois, From the Heart of the Country, Bom 
Belt Harvest, and County Fair. He lives in Urbana with 
wife Linda, also a 1979 graduate and their children. 

Terence Crowley was Faculty Advisor to the Carnegie 
Minority Scholarship Program at the University from 1969 
to 1972. He taught at the University of Toledo from 1972 
to 1977 and then worked as Visiting Reference Specialist 
at Chico State University for a year. Since 1978, he has 
taught courses in reference, communication skills, information 
and referral, and government publications at San Jose State 
University in San Jose, California. He earned a BA. at the 
University of Notre Dame, and M.L.S. and Ph.D. degrees 
at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. 

Robert F. Delzell holds bachelor degrees from Drury College 
(Springfield, Missouri) and Washington University, did graduate 
work at Northwestern University, and received his M.S. 
in Library Science from the University of Illinois in 1951. 
He was chief of the Acquisitions Department Branch and 
assistant to the director of the U.S. Air Force, Air University 
Library (Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama); and administrative 
assistant and, from 1967 until his retirement in 1978, director 
of personnel for the University of Illinois Library at Urbana- 
Champaign. He has acted as consultant for numerous library 
and personnel projects and has been a frequent speaker 
on personnel matters at this School (and others) and at 
state association conventions. He has been a contributor 
to a number of professional publications on personnel matters 
and authored an Occasional Paper on "Finding a Position: 
Strategies for Library School Graduates." He has served 
on numerous ALA award committees and juries and was 

Contributors ♦ 26 1 

chairman of the ALA Awards Committee, 1971-73. He was 
national president of Beta Phi Mu in 1969-70. He currently 
resides in Springfield, Missouri. 

Leigh Estabrook is Dean and Professor, Graduate School 
of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois 
at Urbana-Champaign. Her research focuses on the effect 
of technological change on the nature and structure of 
work. She also directs an interdisciplinary project on Scholarly 
Communication and Information Transfer in an 
Interdisciplinary Research Institute. Among her recent 
publications are: "Job Satisfaction: Does Automation Make 
a Difference?" Journal of Library Administration (fall 1990); 
"The Growth of the Profession," College & Research Libraries 
(May 1989), 287-296. Reprinted in The Best of Library 
Literature, 1989; and "Staff Attitudes— Conflicting Values" 
in Effective Access to Information: Conference Proceedings, 
Alphonse F. Trezza (Ed.). Boston, MA: G.K. Hall, 1989. 
Currently Dean Estabrook chairs the University of Illinois 
Campuswide Computer/Networking Committee and serves 
as a member of the Illinois State Library Advisory Committee. 

Herbert Goldhor was a member of the teaching faculty 
of the School from 1946-52 and returned to serve as director 
from 1962-78. He headed the Library Research Center part 
time from 1975 to 1978 (was on sabbatical leave in 1978- 
79) and full time from 1979 until his retirement in 1987. 
He hopes that his professional epitaph will read "Public 
Libraries" and "Library Research." He initiated and developed 
the Indices of American Public Library Circulation and 

Laurel A. Grotzinger, professor and dean, The Graduate 
College, Western Michigan University, received both her 
Master of Science (1958) and Doctor of Philosophy (1964) 
from the Graduate School of Library and Information Science. 
Dean Grotzinger served as instructor and assistant librarian 
at Illinois State University prior to her teaching career 
at Western Michigan University's School of Library and 

262 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

Information Science from 1964 until 1979. She also served 
as assistant director and, from 1982 mitii 1985, served 
as interim director as well as chief research officer at the 
University. Her definitive biography on the founder of the 
school, Katharine L. Sharp, as well as her several articles 
and professional presentations on the history of the School, 
its well-known faculty, women in librarianship, and library 
education have established her as one of the leading library 
historians dealing with the early 20th century. 

Kathryn Luther Henderson was a student in the last 
class in the Graduate School of Library Science to receive 
the fifth year Bachelor of Science in Library Science degree 
and also received a sixth year master's degree. She has 
held positions in the School covering the full range of 
titles: assistant (reviser), visiting instructor, instructor, 
assistant professor, associate professor, and professor Since 
1965, when she joined the faculty on a full-time basis, 
she has developed courses in cataloging and classification, 
technical services, bibliographic organization, and, with 
her husband William T Henderson, a course in preservation. 
She has chaired (or co-chaired) or been a presenter at 
a number of Allerton Conferences and Clinics on Library 
Applications of Data Processing. In April 1991, she received 
the second annual UIUC campus award given for Excellence 
in Graduate and Professional Teaching. She was a founding 
member of Beta Phi Mu. 

D. W. Krummel, a member of the library school faculty 
since 1970, was previously at the University of Michigan, 
the Library of Congress, and the Newberry Library. His 
specialties include bibliography, research resources, and 
library history in general and in the field of music. Of 
his writing in these areas, several books have received 
national awards from ALA, the Music Library Association 
(of which he was president, 1980-81), and the Sonneck 
Society. A Guggenheim Fellow, he has also been awarded 
an appointment as University Scholar and received several 
outstanding teaching citations at the University of Illinois. 

Contributors ♦ 263 

F. Wilfrid Lancaster is a Professor Emeritus in the Graduate 
School of Library and Information Science at the University 
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign where he taught courses 
relating to information transfer, bibliometrics, bibliographic 
organization, and the evaluation of library and information 
services, and served as coordinator of Advanced Studies. 
He also serves as editor of Library Thends. He was appointed 
University Scholar for the period 1989-92. He is the author 
of eight books, five of which have received national awards 
and has twice received Fulbright fellowships for research 
and teaching abroad. From the American Society for Information 
Science, he has received both the Award of Merit and the 
Outstanding Information Science Teacher award. Professor 
Lancaster has been involved in a wide range of consulting 
activities, including service for Unesco and other agencies 
of the United Nations. He is involved in research projects 
relating to subject access in online catalogs, the evaluation 
of reference services, and the information sources cited 
by East European scientists. He retired in 1992 but plans 
to continue to teach, coach doctoral students, and continue 
his research and consulting activities. 

Dale S. Montanelli is associate professor and director 
of administrative services for the University Library at the 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Professor Montanelli 
holds an MA. and Ph.D. in Psychology and an M.S. in Library 
Science fi^om the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 
An active member of the Library Administration and 
Management Association of ALA, she is a member and past 
chair of the Building and Equipment Section's Committee 
on Standards for Physical Space Requirements. Dr. Montanelli's 
research interests include the organization and management 
of libraries, with specific interests in financial management, 
facilities planning and management, and human resources 
management. The author of over twenty journal articles, 
her most recent work has focused on the application of 
behavioral research methodologies as a tool for library 
space planning. 

264 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

Robert W. Oram retired in 1989 as director of Central 
University Libraries and professor, Southern Methodist 
University. His first job, after graduating from the University 
of Illinois Library School with an M.S.L.S. in 1950, was 
at the University of Missouri where he was Assistant to 
the late Dr Ralph Parker. He returned to Urbana-Champaign 
in 1956 as circulation librarian, became director of Public 
Services, and served as associate director to Dr. Lucien 
White. After White's death, he became acting university 
librarian. On WILL-Radio, he did weekly five-minute book 
reviews from 1969 to 1979, some of which were used on 
commercial stations in Illinois and on PBS Radio. He helped 
found the University of Illinois Library Friends and the 
Urbana Free Library Friends, and was executive secretary 
of the Southern Methodist University Library Friends. He 
participated in Friends activities in Illinois and Texas and 
on the national level. 

Carol Bates Penka received a B.A. from East Texas State 
University in 1965 and her M.S. from the University of 
Illinois in 1968. She was initiated into Alpha Chapter of 
Beta Phi Mu in 1967. Her interest in the history of the 
Library School Association stems from many hours as a 
volunteer in the service of the association, most recently 
as the last editor of the News Letter. 

Selma K. Richardson has traveled in over sixty countries 
and visited such remote places as Antarctica and Tibet. 
A trip around the world at age 25 has a lasting influence. 
Her professional contributions to the international scene 
are reported in her chapter. She is author of Magazines 
for Children (2d ed. 1991, ALA) and other books about 
magazines for youth as well as numerous articles. Her expertise 
in children's magazines led to the invitation to contribute 
the article about U.S. magazines to a world survey. A school 
librarian for a dozen years, she continues to publish in 
the area of school librarianship. She made one of the early 
state studies of children's services in public libraries. She 

Contributors ♦ 265 

edited the papers of a symposium she planned, Research 
About Nineteenth-Century Children and Books. Her teaching 
responsibilities are in youth services and children's literature. 
Professor Richardson joined the faculty in 1974. 

Linda C. Smith is Associate Professor in the Graduate 
School of Library and Information Science at the University 
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign where she has been a faculty 
member since 1977. She earned her M.S. in 1972 from 
Illinois, where she discovered information science in courses 
taught by F. W. Lancaster and J. L. Divilbiss. Her Ph.D. (1979) 
is from Syracuse University. Her research interests include 
information retrieval, library automation, and scientific 
information and her primary teaching areas are science 
reference and online information systems. In 1985 and 
1989, she held visiting appointments in the Library and 
Information Science Research Laboratory of the Department 
of Computer and Information Science, Linkoping University, 

Patricia F. Stenstrom ('57) is Library and Information 
Science Librarian at the University of Illinois at Urbana- 
Champaign. She is the author of a number of articles in 
professional journals, and was joint editor of an issue of 
Library Trends on "Library Literature in the 80s." She was 
the author of a recent Library Quarterly article on "Library 
Science Collections at the University of Illinois at Urbana- 
Champaign." Her research interests center on library literature 
and the history of the University of Illinois Library. She 
is an active participant in ACRL's Discussion Group Librarians 
of Library Science Collections. 

Terry L. Weech is an Associate Professor at the Graduate 
School of Library and Information Science, University of 
Illinois. He received his Bachelor's from Knox College 
in Galesburg, Illinois, and his Master's and Doctorate (1972) 
in Library Science from the University of Illinois at Urbana- 
Champaign. He was head of the Departmentof Library Science 
at Mississippi University for Women in Columbus, Mississippi 

266 ♦ Ideals and Standards 

from 1973 to 1976 and taught at the University of Iowa 
Library School from 1976 to 1980. He .returned to join 
the faculty of the Graduate School of Library and Information 
Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 
in 1980. From 1981 to 1985 he was coordinator of Advanced 
Studies in the Graduate School of Library and Information 
Science and has served as the School's director of development 
and liaison to the Library School Association. Areas of research 
and teaching expertise include reference, government 
publications, library administration, economics of information, 
and evaluation of library services. He has been active 
professionally at the state and national level in areas of 
intelletual freedom, access to government information, 
and library governance. 

Bradford Wilson, currently a master's student and graduate 
assistant to Dr. Richardson, received his Ph.D. in English 
language and literature from the University of Chicago 
in 1977. His scholarly interests are in Medieval Studies 
and particularly paleography. He pursued his research in 
the British Library and Bibliotheque Nationale. Wilson 
has been lecturer at the University of Illinois at Chicago 
and Boston College. He was awarded a Ford Foundation 
Fellowship and a Research Grant from the American Council 
of Learned Societies. He is also a graduate of St. Olaf College, 
Northfield, Minnesota. 


BY Joan Grbpfitts 

Acacia Fraternity House, 66 
Acquisitions courses, 90-93 
Administration courses, 89, 92 
Admission requirements: 1930s, 19; 

1973, 46-47; 1980s, 39, 41-42 
Adult public service courses, 124-25 
Advanced reference courses, 121-23 
"Advanced Studies in Librarianship" 

course series, 127 
"Advanced Topics in Librarianship" 

course series, 142, 144 
All-School picnics, 52 
Allen, Bryce, 145, 218 
Allen, Melody, 168 
Allen, Walter C, 47, 89, 122, 123 
Allerton Park Institutes, 28, 37, 162, 

164, 165, 167, 189, 192 
Altgeld HaU, 10, 57-60, 63 
Alumni association, 231-37 
Alumni: in Africa, 206-07; in Central 

and South America, 211; in 

Europe, 206; in Far East and 

Australia, 209-11; in Near East, 

207-08; in Southeast Asia, 208-09 
Amer, Rosalie (Cuneo), 207 
American Association of School 

Librarians, 163 
American Catalog, 70 
The American Documentation 

Institute, 139 
American Library Association 

(ALA), 33, 85, HO, l63, 165, 182, 

231; Section for Children's 

Librarians, 158 

"American Library History, 1876- 

1976" (Winger), 190 
American Library Resources 

(Downs), 31 
American Society of Information 

Science, 45, 139, 150-52 
Award of Merit, 151; Student 

Chapter-of-the-Year Award, 151 
An Analysis of Voter Reaction to a 

Proposal to Form a Library 

District in LaSalle and Bureau 

CounHes, Illinois, /5?5^(Bundy), 

Analytical Survey of Illinois Public 

Library Services to Children 

(Richardson), 167 
Anderson, Elma, 73 
Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 

Isted. (AACRl), 90 
Annual Register 19001901, 126 
Annual Report, 1906, 158 
Annual Report, 194950, 110 
Annual Report, I960, l64 
Annual Review of Information 

Science and Technology, 146 
Armour Institute, 3, 69, 1 16; course 

of study, 5-6; facilities, 7 
Armstrong, Jewell, 228 
"As We May Think" (Bush), 134 
Asheim, Lester, 25, 166, 217 
Association of College and Research 

Ubraries (ACRL), 33 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae, 



Ideals and Siandards 

Atkinson, Hugh C, 62, 63 

AT&T, 51, 148 

Audiovisual courses, 54 

Automation: courses, 137-38, 142; in 
curriculum, 140; in University 
Library, 78 

Award for Distinguished Con- 
tribution to Education for 
Librarianship, 240 

Bachelor of Library Science degree, 
10, 12, 17 

Bachelor's degree requirement for 
library degree, 12 

Banks, Paul, 95 

Barry, Rhoda, 207 

Beck, Paul, 102 

Bennett, May, 6 

Bemer, William S, 235 

Bemer-Nash Award, 235-36 

Beta Phi Mu, 238-40; Alpha Chapter, 
28; Award for Excellence in 
Professional Writing, 240; Good 
Teaching Award, 240 

"Bibliography: Current State and 
Future Trends" (Downs), 190 

Bibliography course, 124 

"Bibliography in an Age of Science" 
(Ridenour), 135 

Bibliometrics course, 144 

Binding courses, 93-95 

Bishop, David, 149 

Black Students Association, 226 

Blue, Richard, 181 

Blum, Eleanor, 74 

Board of Education for Librar- 
ianship, 19 

Bond, Ethel, 16, 20, 26, 88, 101, 109, 

Bonn, George S., 123, 213, 217 

Bonner, Betty, 226 

Bonzi, Susan, 151 

Booklist, 160 

Bookstacker's Hue and Cry, 228 

Booth, E. Eleanor, 210 

Borko, H, 145 

Boyd, Anne Morris, 16, 20, 26, 73, 

Bradley, Jana*, 218 

Brichford, Maynard, 192 

Brown, Dee, 239 

Buckland, M.K., 152 

Buddy, Juanita, 228 

The Bulletin of the Center for 
Children's Books, 163, 168 

Bundy, Mary Lee, 180, 186, 192 

Bureau of Education for Librar- 
ianship, 163 

Bureau of Labor Statistics on library 
employment, 38 

Burger, Robert, 221 

Bush, Margaret, 168 

Bush, Vannevar, 134 

Cable television for Ubraries, 37 
Caldecott Medal, 1938, 160 
Carnegie Corporation, 20, 87-88, 

91-92, 94, 188; scholarship 

program, disadvantaged stu- 
dents, 223-30 
Carnegie scholars, 225 
Carr, Mary Jane, 50 
CarroU, Dewey E., 122, 138, 150 
Carter, John, 25 
Carter, Marion, 228 
C.A.S. (Certificate of Advanced 

Study) program, 48-49, 178-79; 

in Iran, 43 
Cash, Pamm, 226 
Cataloging and classification 

courses, 83-90, 111 
Catalogue of the Library of the 

Boston Athenaeum, 70 
Catalogue of the University of 

Illinois, 18971898, 97 
CD-ROM databases, 54, 149 
Center for Children's Books, 168 
Certificate of Advanced Study 

(C-A.S.) program, 48-49, 178-79; 

in Iran, 43 
Champaign PubUc Library, 158 



Champaign-Urbana Social Respon- 
sibilities Round Tkble (SRRT), 

Chapbook series, 239-40 
Chas, Lincoln Hsieu, 209 
Chautauqua Conference, 157 
Cheap Book Production in the 

United States (Shove), 188 
A Checklist of the Proust Holdings 

at the University of Illinois 

Library at Urbana-Champaign 

(Price), 236 
Chen, Paul, 209 
Chiang, Dudee, 151 
Chicago library school program, 

1981, 46 
Children and youth services, 157-68 
Children's Book Week, 158 
Children's literature courses, 160-61 
Children's services courses, 164, 

Choldin, Marianna Tkx, 221 
Clapp, Vemer, 25, 189 
Clark, Roger, 42, 43-44 
Clinic on Library Applications of 

Data Processing, 54, 136, 150, 

190, 192 
Cloonan, Michele Valerie, 95 
Coalition for Public Library 

Research, 183 
Cole, Dorothy, 75 
Collections Acquired by the 

University of Illinois Library at 

Urbana-Champaign, 18971974 

(Major), 236 
College of Law, 62 
Columbia College library school, 3 
Columbian Exposition display, 4 
Commencement, 52 
Computer-assisted instruction 

(CAI), 142 
Computer network in library 

school, 51, 148-49 
Computer-readable Databases: A 

Directory and Data Sourcebook, 

Computers in technical services, 

Contemporary Authors, 143 
Contributions to Librarianship, 192 
Copyright Act of 1976, 78 
Corbitt, Anne L, 77 
Core courses, 46-47, 89, 93, 105, 

Council of Administration, 12-13 
Crane, Betty Ruth, 74 
Crowley, Terence, 181 
Curry, Arthur R, 234 
Curriculum: information science, 

137-46; library automation, 140; 

revision, 1940s, 24-25; under 

Katherine Sharp, 10-11, 13; under 

Phineas Windsor, 16-17 
Curtis, Florence R., 70-71, 93, 108, 

Cutter, Charles A., 85 

Dal, Erik, 217 

Dallera, Mary E., 211 

Dalrymple, Prudence, 144-45 

Daniels, Johnathan, 25 

David Kinley Hall, 44, 6A 

Davidson, Lois M, 211 

Davis, Charles H., 44, 47, 51, 143, 
144, 151, 190,214 

de las Casas, Isaura E. (Salazar), 211 

Deale, H. Vail, 207, 216 

Degrees: Bachelor of Library 
Science, 10, 12, 17; CAS. pro- 
gram, 43, 48-49, 178-79; Doctor 
of Library Science (D.L.S.), 24, 
49, 174, 178; Master of Science 
in Library Science, 17, 25, 47-48; 
Ph.D., 49-50, 173-77; sixth-year, 
178-79; undergraduate minor, 
48, 119 

Delzell, Robert R, 31 


Ideals and Standards 

Demonstration Laboratory, 74 

Demonstration libraries, 77 

Derby, Grace, 233, 234 

Dewey Melvil, 3, 4-5, 7, 8-9, 12, 14, 
63, 84, 233 

Dewey Decimal Classification 
(Dewey), 84 

Dickman, Kern W, 138 

Diluvio, Catalina Y, 210 

"Directed Independent Study 
Approach to a Foundation's 
Course" (Allen), 47 

Disadvantaged students, Carnegie 
scholarship program, 223-30 

Distinguished Speakers Program, 

Divilbiss, J. L, 140, 142, 144 

Doctor of Library Science (D.L.S.), 
24, 49, 174, 178 

Downs, Robert B., 18, 20, 23, 27, 
29-30, 40, 73, 162, 180, 186, 188, 
190, 211-12, 216, 219, 236; as 
administrator, 33-34; graduate 
assistant program, 32; mentor, 
31; relations with administration 
and faculty, 32-33; teaching, 30- 

Draper, Andrew Sloan, 8, 9 

Draper, Kathleen, 77 

Drury, F. K. W., 10, 59, 109 

Dzlatzko, Karl, 69 

Eaton, Thelma, 27, 111, 163, l64 
Edmonds, Leslie, 123, l67, 200 
Education for Librarianship: The 

Design of the Curriculum of 

Library Schools (Goldhor), 165 
El-Hadi, Mohammed M., 207 
Elementary reference courses, 1 16- 

21, 125 
Ellinghausen, Donald, 80 
Employment statistics, 38 
End Papers, 122 
Enrollment: 1943, 23-24; 1940-71, 

34-35; 1973, 38; 1976, 38; 1980, 


Erlandson, Ruth, 209 

Ersted, Ruth, 164 

Estabrook, Leigh S., 51, 148, 181, 

190, 199, 214 
Ex Libris F. S. Ferguson (Hamer), 

Extended master's program, 47 
Extension program, 28, 45 
Extra-curricular affairs, 51-52 

Facilities for library school, 57-67 
Faculty: abroad, 27, 211-15; of library 

school changes, 53-54; turnover 

since 1941, 26-27 
Female enrollment, 34-35 
Fenwick, Sara, 164 
Ferguson, Kate D., 204, 215 
Field, Oliver T, 111 
Field work, 103-04. See a/so Practice 

Fifty Years of Education for 

Librarianship (Mann), 57, 188 
Financial aid for students, 4 1 
Finger, Donna D., 73-75 
The First Freedom (Downs), 31 
Fisher, Edith M., 228, 229 
Flanagan, John, 25 
Fletcher, William, 157 
Floren, Maria, 219 
Foote, Lucy Brown, 233 
Foundation courses, 46-47, 89, 93, 

105, 119 
Francis, Frank, 25 
The Friday Club, 52 
The Future of the Research Library 

(Clapp), 189 

Garrison, Guy, 28, 181 
Garver, WiUa, 72 
General reference courses, 125 
Gjelsness, Rudolph H., 211, 216 
Goldhor, Herbert, 27, 33-34, 40-41, 
43, 47, 50, 63-64, 92, 103, 128, 
136, 150, 165, 181, 188, 190, 212 
Goldstein, Harold, 27, 188, 192 



Goshkin, Ida, 125 

Government publications courses, 

Graduate School of Library and 

Information Science (GSLIS), 44, 

Graduate School of Library Science, 

1959, 20, 28 
Green, EUzabeth G., 204 
Green, Samuel Swett, 82 
Grieder, Hilda, 163 
Griffin, Hillis L, 138 
Gropp, Arthur, 215 
Grove, Pearce, 43 
Guide to Information Science 

(Davis), 143 
Guide to Reference Books, 118 
Gunsaulus, Frank W., 3, 4-5, 107 

Hagger, Jean, 210 

Hague, Edith Elizabeth, 236 

Hake, Harold, 62 

Hammitt, Frances, 72-73 

Hampton Institute Library School, 

Hamer, James L, 236 
Harricombe, Lorraine, 219, 221 
Hayes, R. M., 138, 144 
Heame, Betsy, 168 
Heim, Kathleen, 47, 125 
Henderson, Kathryn Luther, 54, 111, 

Henderson, William T, 95 
Henne, Frances, 163 
Henry, Edward A., 100 
Herdman, Margaret, 206 
Hertzberg, Edward, 101 
Hertzberg Bindery, 101 
Hewitt, Joe A., 143 
High school librarians' courses, 17, 

Hirshberg, Herbert S., 98 
"Historical Approach to American 

Library Development" (Stone), 

HoUey Edward G., 31, 33, 76 

Holloway, Johnna, 80 
Hopkins, R. Anderson H., 232 
Horn Book Magazine, 158 
Hostetter, Marie M., 26, 73, 160 
Houchens, Josie B., 26, 94, 125, 232 
Humanities reference courses, 123- 

Hurst, Billie, 75 

The Identification and Role of 
School Libraries that Function as 
Instructional Materials Centers, 
and Implications for Library 
Education in the United States 
(Lohrer), 165 

Illinois Association of School 
Librarians Award, 165 

Illinois Contributions to Librar- 
ianship, 24, 28 

Illinois Library Association, 33 

Illinois Library Extension Commis- 
sion, 16 

Illinois Library Statistical Report, 

Illinois State Library, 164; Research 
Series, 183 

Illinois State Library School, 7; 
curriculum, 11, 13; early 
brochure, 9; faculty, 13; physical 
facility, 12; students, 13-14 

Information Retrieval and Manage- 
ment Service (IRMS), 181 

Information retrieval: courses, 136, 
137, 142, 144; curriculum, 140 

Information science: courses, 134- 
35, 138, 144, 145; curriculum 
review, 145-46; curriculum, 
1960s, 137-39; curriculum, 
1970s, 139-44; curriculum, 
1980s, 144-45; facilities and 
equipment, 147-50; 1990s, 146- 
47; workshop, 138 

Information services course, 121, 

Inspection trips to libraries, 98-103 


Ideals and Standards 

Institute on New Library Trends, 

1952 conference, 165 
Institute on Supervision of School 

Libraries, 1954 conference, 165 
Interactive systems design course, 

International Conference on Educa- 
tion for Librarianship, 217 
International conferences, 217-18 
International lectures, 217-18 
International librarianship course, 

213, 217-18 
International students, 27-28, 204- 

Introduction to Cataloging and 

Classification of Books (Mann), 

Iranian C.A.S. program, 43 

Jackson, William Vernon, 27, 31, 211, 

216, 218 
Jahr, Thorstein, 204 
James, Edmund J., 14-15 
James, Viola, 27, 198 
Jenkins, Frances B., 27, 105, 123, 

136, 150, 190 
Jensen, Ingrid, 206 
Jocius, Chris, 181 
Johnson, Evelyn, 77 
Johnson, Rudolph, 206 
Johnston, Charles Hughes, 16 1 
Jones, Mary Letitia, 10 
Journal routing, 75 
Juvenile collection of Library School 

Library, 74 

Kruze, Paul, 208 

Katherine L. Sharp Fellowship, 234 

Katherine L. Sharp Scholarship, 233 

Kilton, Tom D., 221 

Kipp, Lawrence J., 208 

Kon, Madoko, 210 

Kosa, Geza A., 210 

Krieg, Amelia, 19-20, 98, 100, 102 

Kroeger, Alice Bertha, 14 

Krummel, Donald W., 89, 123, 214 

Lacy, Dan, 25 

Ladley Winifred C, 27, 164 

Lancaster, F. Wilfrid, 47, 140, 14 1, 

143-44, 145, 151, 152, 190, 213- 

14, 218 
Lancour, Harold, 26, 27, 110, 188, 

190, 192, 212, 238, 239 
Lanier, Donald, 77 
Lantern sUde collection, 70, 73 
Leadership Training Institute, 229 
Learning Resources Laboratory 

(LRL), 64, 74, 147 
Leigh, Robert D., 163, 166 
Librarian in Residence program, 50 
"Librarianship in the Developing 

Countries" lectiare, 217 
Library economy courses, 69, 84, 91, 

Library handwriting, 107 
Library Information Service (LIS), 

Library Journal, 69, 117, 126, 229 
Library Literature, 75 
Library Notes, 69 
Library of Congress classification 

scheme, 87 
Library personnel shortages, 1943, 

Library Research Center (LRC), 28, 

43, 61, 65, 180-86; funding 

sources, 182; mission, 184 
Library School Alumni Association, 

26, 231-37 
Library School Association News- 
letter, 236, 237 
Library School colloquium, 28 
Library School Hymn, 234 
Library School Library, 65; 1943 

relocation and strengthening, 24; 

collection, 68, 72; librarians, 70- 

78; Library Science Library, 76; 

professional assistants, 74; S- 

coUection, 76; study room, 69- 

70; technology, 79-80 



Library School Placement Office, 61 
Library School Rules (Dewey), 84, 

Library School Teaching Methods 

(Goldstein), 192 
Library schools abroad, 215-17 
Library Science librarians, 70-78 
Library Services Act (LSA), 180 
Library Services to Children and 

Young Adults in the Information 

Age, Allerton Institute, 167 
Library Ti-ends, 28, 136, 152, 162, 

164-65, 168, 190, 192, 193 
Library use instruction courses, 124- 

Linderman, Winifred, 123, 163 
List of Library Reports and Bul- 
letins, 1912 ( University of Illinois 

Bulletin), 187 
List of Subject Headings (ALA), 85 
Liu, Yaping, 219 
Lohrer, Alice, 27, l6l, 162, 165, 195, 

197-98, 212, 216 
"Looking Backward" (Houchens), 

Loyola University, 200 
LSCA funds, 182 
Lubetzky, Seymour, 90 

MacMillan, 158 

Major, Jean, 236 

Major Problems in the Education of 

Librarianship (Lei^), 163 
Male enrollment, 34-35 
Malkin, Sol, 25 
Managerial decision-making course, 

Mann, Margaret, 6, 10, 57, 97, 109, 

116, 126, 128,206 
Manzer, Bruce, 217 
Martinez, Grace, 228 
Master of Science in Library Science, 

17, 25, 47-48 
McAnally, Arthur, 75 
McCoy, Ralph, 31 
McDiarmid, E. W., 20, 23 

McGrail, Edward, 98 
Meams, David, 25 
Melin, Anita Emma (Liden), 206 
Metcalf, Keyes D., 88, 188 
Micko, David, 147 
Miller, Jerome K., 47, 48-49, 64 
Minority students, 222-30 
Mitchell, Maud, 100 
Moid, Abdul, 208 
Monograph Series, 28, 192 
Monroe, Margaret E., 166 
Moore, Anne Carroll, 157, 158 
Morrison, Sam, 228, 229 
Morrow, Carolyn Clark, 95 
Mortensen, C. Walter, 220 
Mortensen, Gerda B., 220 
Moses, Sybil E., 206, 229 
Mudge, Isadore, 10, 117, 122 
Mumford, L. Quincy, 137 

Nash, William V, 235 

National Education Association, l6l 

National Endowment for the 

Humanities, 182 
National Online Meeting Proceed- 
ings, 146 
National Science Foundation, 182 
New York State Library School, 3, 

The New York Times, 158 
Newberry Medal Award, 158 
Newby, Gregory, 146, 147 
Nickoley, Emma (Rhoads), 207 
1963 Conference on Libraries and 

Automation, 137 
1958 International Conference on 

Scientific Information, 136 
North Central Association, 16 1 
Northern Illinois University, 195 

Oak Park Public Library, 158 
Occasional Papers, 28, 190-91, 192, 

OCLC, 54, 108, 147 
Olden, Tony, 206, 217 


Ideals and Standards 

Olsen, Funizan, 207 
Olsgaard, John, 152 
Online Review, 146 
Online searching and systems 

courses, 142, 147 
Oram, Robert, 62 
Osbom, Andrew D., 88 
Osso, Nicholas, 166 
Outstanding Graduate Teaching 

Award, 54 

Paris Library School, 206 
Parker, Franklin, 206 
Parrish, Dorothy, 72 
Perspectives on the Past (Downs), 

Ph.D. program: 49-50; 1948-1981, 

173-79; present, 176-77; 

students, 177-78 
Phelps, Rose B., 26, 118, 122, 199 
Phillips, Grace (Darling), 210 
Phillips, Marion, 101 
Phineas L. Windsor Lectures in 

Librarianship. See Windsor 

Pichache, Ursula de Guzman, 210 
Pierce, Cornelia Marvin, 6 
Piggott, Mary, 90 
Pillepich, Mary 77-78 
Plair, Norman, 226 
PLATO, 108, 142, 147 
Player, Bobby 229 
Player, Jewell, 229 
Plummer, Mary Wright, 14 
Plymouth Congregational Church of 

Chicago, 3-4 
Post-doctorate program, 50 
Powell, Michael, 226 
Practice work, 96-106; in Armour 

Library, 97 
Pratt Institute Library School, 157-58 
Preservation courses, 93-95, 102 
Price, Larkin B., 236 
Proceedings of the Clinic on Library 

Applications of Data Processing, 

28, 190 . 
The Program of Instruction in 

Library Schools (Metcalf), 188 
Progress Report for the Rural 

Library Study, 192 
"Proposal to Prepare Disadvantaged 

Students for a Career in 

Librarianship," 223 
Psychology for librarians course, 

Public documents courses, 126-27 
Public libraries: development, 11; 

training programs, 8 
IHiblic Libraries in the United States 

of America (Fletcher), 157 
Ihiblic Library Holdings of Biased 

Books About Russia (Winger), 

Public Library Watch, 183 
Public services courses, 115, 124-25 
Publications Office, 65 
Publications program, 24, 28, 187- 


Qiu,Jing, 221 

Radio series, 1943, 24 

Raney M. L, 101 

Rapid Selector, 135 

Rapp, Barbara A., 151 

Ray, Gordon, 25 

Rayward, W Boyd, 191, 210-11 

Reece, Ernest J., 16, 19, 71, 188, 190 

Reed, Sarah R., 165 

Reference courses, 116-24, 147; 

advanced, 1991, 127-28 
Register, Judy Dickens, 229 
Reid, deLafayette, 186 
Reminiscences: Seventy-Five Years 

ofa Library School (Slinker), 29, 

Report and Student Record, 1893- 

1903, 84, 98 
Research methods course, 176 



Revisers, 72, 1 10 
Reynolds, Margaret, 100 
Richardson, Selma K., 167, 214-15, 

Ricker, Ann, 221 
Ricker, N. C, 10 
Ridenour, L. N., 25, 135 
Ritter, Melissa, 80 
Robinson, Sarita, 211 
Rockwood, Ruth, 208-09 
"The Role of Americans in Library 

Education Abroad" lecture, 217 
Roper, Eleanor, 6 
Rules for a Dictionary Catalog 

(Cutter), 85 
Russell, John Dale, 88 

Sadigh-Behzadi, Mandana, 208 

Sager, Don, 46 

Sankee, Ruth, 159 

Schiller, Anita, 181 

Schlipf, Frederick, 123, 125 

School libraries courses, 115-16, 

School media certification, 48 

"School's Third-Quarter Century" 
(Downs), 29 

Science reference courses, 123-24 

Scientific and Technical Documen- 
tation (Brichford), 192 

"Scientific Management in Li- 
braries" (Shaw), 136 

Scott, Edna Lyman, 158, 159 

Scoville Institute, 3 

Sears, Minnie, 10 

Selection course, 76 

Seminar library, 70 

Serials control courses, 95 

Sharma, D. N., 208 

Sharp, Katherine Lucinda, 2-13, 14, 
57, 58, 68-69, 96, 107, 195-96, 

Shaw, Debora, 144 

Shaw, Ralph Robert, 25, 135-36 

Shove, Raymond Howe, 188 

Siegel, Martin, 145 

Simpson, Frances, 16, 18-19, 122 
Sixth-year degree, 178-79 
Slanker, Barbara Olsen, 29, 192 
Smith, Linda C, 123, 214, 218 
Social sciences reference courses, 

Solakogtu, Esin Ataman, 219 
Special libraries courses, 17, 92 
"Specialized Training for Children's 

Librarians" (Moore), 157 
Spence, Ruth, 77 
Spencer, Gwladys, 26, 92 
Spencer, N. S., 58 
Stahlman, Bill, 64 
Standards for Children's Services in 

Public Libraries (ALA), 165 
Statistics of Public School Library 

Media Centers (Osso), 166 
Stenstrom, Patricia, 78-80 
Stevens, Rolland E., 89, 122, 123, 

177, 190 
Stieg, Lewis, 20, 23, 26 
Stone, Elizabeth, 191 
Stone, Walter, 27 
Storytelling course, 16 1 
Straight, Maude W., 122 
Strohm, Adam J., 9-10, 204 
Strout, Donald E., 27 
Student chapters of professional 

societies, 52 
Summer school programs, 16 
Sutton, J. Brett, 145 
"Systematic Bibliography in England" 

(Rayward), 191 
Systems analysis course, 142 

Tkft, Lorado, sculpture, 18, 233 
Technical services: acquisitions 
courses, 90-93; binding/pres- 
ervation courses, 93-95; cata- 
loging and classification courses, 
83-90; functions course, 95-96; 
serials control courses, 95; 
techniques and technology, 106- 
Telecommunications course, 144 


Ideals and Siandards 

Tenge Enterprises, 229 

Tenopir, Carol, 151 

Thambiah, Reginald, 208 

Thomassen, Cora E., 27, 37, l64 

Thomburg, Gail, 151 

Three Lantern Slides (Winterich), 

Training for Library Services 

(Williamson), 97, 157, 159-60 
Training School of Children's 

Librarians at Carnegie Library, 

Transcripts, 120 
"Trends in Librarianship in 

Developing Countries" (Lan- 

cour), 218 
Trotier, Arnold H., 92, 209 
Tsuda, Yoshmari, 210 
Tlickwood, Ehvight, 76 
TUncer, Nilufer (Norman), 207, 218 
Tbttle, Helen Welch, 239 
Two-year master's program, 47 
Typewriters, 107 


Undergraduate minor in library 

science, 48, 119 
Unesco, l64 

University Extension, 198, 199 
University Foundation, 234 
University library: building, 18, 60- 

61, 72; online catalog, 149 
University of Chicago, 164, 196 
University of Chicago Library 

School, 200 
University of Illinois: Office of Space 

Utilization, 64; Physical Plant, 65 
University of Illinois Alumni 

Association, 45 
University of Illinois Graduate 

School of Library Science 

Bulletin 1972-74, 139-40 
University of Wisconsin, 8, 9 
Urata, Takeo, 210 
Urbana Free Library, 104 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 

Construction Engineering Re- 
search Laboratory, 182 
U.S. Office of Education, 182 

Van Cleve, Jessie Gay, 160 

von Frauendorfer, Sigmund, 206 

Wack, Don, 64 

Walker, Richard, 180 

Wallace, Danny 151 

Wallace, Yvonne, 228 

Waller, Theodore, 25 

Walton, Lonita, 229 

Watson Davis Award, 151 

Weaver, Gwenn, 229 

Wedgeworth, Robert, 218 

Weech, Terry 123, 125 

Weir, Morton, 62, 64 

Welch, Helen, 73 

Wert, LuciUe M., 181 

Wertheimer, Ruth (Jacobs), 207 

Western Illinois University, 43 

White, Carl, 20, 23, 87 

White, Herbert S., 153 

White, Lucien, 40 

Wiles, Jo Ann, 75-76, 79 

WiUiams, Martha E., 146, 151, 218 

WiUiamson, Charles C, 97, 157, 159- 

Wilson, Albert S., 15, 71 
Wilson, Betsy, 221 
Wilson, Uzabeth, 125 
Windsor, Phineas L, 11, 15, 16, 23, 

24, 59-60, 71-72, 101, 189, 234- 

35; endowment, 24-25 
Windsor Lectures, 25, 28, 52, 135, 

153, 189, 217 
Winger, Howard W, 190 
Winterich, John, 25, 189 
Wolf, Sandra, 80 
Wong, William, 217 
World Book-ALA Goals Award 

Committee, l67 
Wyche, Benjamin, 15 

Index ^ 277 

Wyer.J. I, Jr., 96 


\kng, T T, 209 

\ktes, Kent, 148 * 

Youth services course, 164 

"The Graduate School of Library and Information 
Science may seem significantly different from the 
school that was founded as the Department of 
Library Economy at Chicago's Armour Institute m 
September, 1893. In many ways it is. The department 
opened with twelve students. The School now has 
over 250. Although the profile of the School has 
obviously changed, our core concerns have not. 
The problems we have addressed for almost 100 
years - as educators for the profession and as 
researchers - continue to focus on one central con- 
cern: how to preserve, store, and make accessible 
the knowledge of human civilization." 

from Leigh Estabrook's Afterword 

18 9 3 

19 9 3