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Acces&qn No, 







' The Evolution of Religious Thought in Modern India,'" "Dante and His Ideal 





I8 95 . 


Heb Dduw lieb Ddim; Duw a digon. 

Es rauschen den eingeborenen Ton 
Der Wald, das Meer seit Jahrtausenden schon; 
Gcschlechter schwanden und sind gekommen, 
Sie haben des Urlieds Klang vernommen, 
Und konnten aus all dem Wogen und Wehen 
Ein einziges Wort nur: ,,Gott" verstehen! 

Feodor Lowe. 

3 Ev 

Zwei Dinge erfiillen das Gemiith mit immer neuer und zunehmender Be- 
wunderung und Ehrfurcht, je ofter und anhaltender sich das Nachdenken damit 
beschaftigt: der bestirnte Himmel iiber mir und das moralische Gesetz in mir. 


TO 6'vojud crou. 


When dealing with concepts of languages little known 
and understood we have thought it well in each case to 
give an outline of the grammar and ideology, together with 
the Pater Noster, and in this connexion we gratefully 
acknowledge our indebtedness to Prof. Friedrich Miiller's 
most excellent Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft. 

Nor must we fail to 'mention our obligation to Prof. 
Tylor's invaluable work on Primitive Culture, and to Curtius' 

It is hoped that the various classifications at the end 
of the work may prove useful not only to the philologist 
but to every one who delights to trace the mental progress 
of the race. The psychological classifications are those of 
Professors Steinthal and Oppert; the genealogical linguistic 
classification is that of Prof. F. Miiller, the theistic is 
our own. 




Preface Ill 

Introduction VII 



The history of Spirit 1 

Aryan thoughts of Grod . . \ 19 

Semito-Hamitic theology . 41 


The Mongol concepts of Deity 50 


The theology of the Nuba race 93 

The Dravida Race 98 

The Basques and the Caucasians 104 


Hottentot ideas of the Divine 112 

The Papua Race 118 

The Negro theology 121 

The Kafir Race . 151 

~3H VI HS~ 


Australian theology 163 

The Hyperboreans 169 

The American Race 174 

The Malay Race 194 

The Idea of God: its genesis and evolution 212 




Right and Wrong in Chinese 3 

Semitic ethics 8 

Aryan views of good and evil 23 

The concept of Love 52 


The moral sense 70 

Appendix 81 


HE tendency of modern thought is undoubtedly 
toward that unification of knowledge which is so 
essential to all human progress. Alike in science, 
religion and philosophy there is a call for exact correspon- 
dence between external fact and internal thought. Science, 
on the one hand, is advancing toward transcendentalism, 
combining with its results the principles of philosophy, whilst 
philosophy, on the other, is learning to operate only on those 
abstract symbols which are the rational equivalents of their 
concrete reals. Such, indeed, are the dangers of the spe- 
cialist that, unless he occasionally take a glance over the 
whole field of research his point of view is apt to be too 
circumscribed for him to be able to obtain or retain a far- 
reaching generalisation. Particularly is this the case with 
the theologian and moralist who, ignoring the comparative 
method, have looked each at his own science for his own 
special purpose, the result being that neither has often had 
a vision of total truth. 

Now it seems to us that it is the light of Language 
which must be thrown on these sciences in order to reveal 
their true nature and significance. In few fields of learning 
have such epoch-making discoveries been lately made as in 
semasiology. Students of language have brought many costly 
gifts to the Adyton of science, and it is some of those 

~>t VIII Kr- 

gems, those dealing more especially with man's ethical and 
spiritual consciousness, which it is here attempted to 
lay bare. 

Accepting the definition of moral philosophy as 'the 
science which teaches men their duties and the reasons of 
them' the comparative philologist is able to show not only 
what this philosopher or that poet thought of Obligation, 
but what has been conceived of Gk>d, of Duty, and of Eight 
and Wrong by the universal human mind. Interesting and 
important as it is to find out the views of Confucius and 
Aristotle on Virtue, of Kant on conscience, of Spinoza on 
the nature of the Deity and of Wordsworth on Duty, those 
of mankind at large are surely not less worthy of attention. 
We have, then, to place under the microscope of the etymo- 
logist the words for what Cicero has so happily termed the 
igniculi et semina virtutum, quae sunt earum quasi principia 
et fundamenta. 

And here we must remember that it must be a polar 
examination, resulting from the application of the historical 
method. That such antinomies of thought as many and 
one, whole and part, subject and object, matter and mind, 
are necessarily conceived as correlatives is the common 
dictum of all philosophies, however otherwise opposed. If 
there is a law of consciousness which may be looked upon 
as original or final it is surely that which tells us that, 
absolute unity is a mere verbal abstraction, that, apart from 
phaenomena 'force' has no meaning, can only be known in 
manifestation, that the infinite is in the finite, the inner 
itself the outer; namely, the law of relativity. The question 
mooted so long ago at the first flush of speculative thought: 
TTtQs be juot e'v TI id TTCXVT' crrai Kai x^pi? eKacriov; may per- 
haps be best answered by a re-statement of the problem. 
Every thing is a group of relations, every thought involves 
relation, likeness, difference; that is to say, thinking is a 
synthesis of thesis and antithesis in rapid alternation. The 

~>* IX KT- 

proof is not only psychological but also linguistic. In our 
own Aryan the same root tak has given us different words 
for the deepest of all correlations, that, namely, of thoughts 
and things and for the possibility of expressing either or both. 

thing : think : : denken : bedingen. 
If in the macrocosm two phaenomena A and B habit- 
ually appear together and the phaenomenon A is presented 
to the senses, upon the state a which is produced in the 
microcosm the state b immediately follows representing the 
phaenomenon A. But the thought-process does not end 
here. Since in the outer world the phaenomenon B is just 
as much the antecedent of A as A is of B since the 
expressions 'antecedent' and 'consequent' are only applicable 
as the order of our experience, it follows that, as often 
as the state b is induced the state a necessarily follows. 
So long as the relation remains the subject of thought, 
there must be this rapid alternation of thesis and anti- 
thesis. To use Mr. Spencer's illustration: If the outer lines 
and colors of a body are presented there at once follows 
on the resulting consciousness the consciousness of something 
resisting; and conversely, if in the dark a body is touched, 
on the resulting consciousness there follows that of something 
extended. But in no case is this all. When the idea of 
extension recedes, that of resistance does not wholly disap- 
pear. Both continue to be thought of as it would seem 
almost simultaneously; and since the two members of the 
relation cannot be apprehended in absolutely the same 
state of conciousness, since, further, the lasting conscious- 
ness of them cannot be one state of consciousness, which 
is equivalent to no consciousness, it follows that the seem- 
ingly-ceaseless presentation of both is in reality a rapid 
alternation, an alternation so swift that it produces the 
effect of persistence, just as the changing impressions 
to which the retina is subjected by the pictures at the 
opposite sides of a revolving thaumatrope induce a con- 

ciousness of the two pictures as merged into one. From 
a logical point of view Prof. Bain says the same: 

'The essential relativity of all knowledge, thought or 
consciousness cannot but show itself in language. If every- 
thing that we know is looked upon as a transition from 
something else, every experience must have two sides, and 
either every name must have a double meaning, or for every 
signification there must be two names. We cannot have 
the perception 'light' except as motion from the dark, our 
consciousness is affected in a particular way by the transition 
from light to dark and from dark to light. The word 
'light' has no meaning without that which is contained in 
the word 'dark'. We distinguish the two opposite transitions, 
light to dark, and dark to light, and this distinction is the 
only difference of meaning in the two terms: 'light' is 
emergence from dark; 'dark' is emergence from light. Now, 
the doubleness of transition is likely to occasion double names 
being given all through the universe of things ; languages should 
be made up, not of individual names, but couples of names.' 

If, as we have every reason to believe, the residuum 
of speech, the root, apperception-stuff or perceptual reflex 
were originally either the emotional or mimetic repetition 
of a syllable, then we can well understand how, in the 
synthesis, one syllable would represent the positive and the 
other the negative. Thus in Egyptian we find Menmen to 
stand y to move; in Joruba baba great Y small. A diffe- 
rentiation would be Rulie- Hurry, etc., metathesis of sound 
for inversion of meaning. Of radical polarity we have several 
instances, notably in the Hamito-Semitic family of speech. 
E. g. Egyptian: Ma to give Y to take; tua to honor Y to 
despise; tas to separate jA to bind; dp to meet ]/ to part; 
'suo to flow Y to dry up; lah empty]/ full; kef to take]/ to let 
lie; ken strong Y weak; tern to cut to pieces Y to unite; 
terp to take Y to give, and Ken to stand /to go; hierog.: 
laau kopt: le someone Y n one. 

-3M XI K~ 

Hebrew: fcirefc to bless y to curse. 
Arabic: bdnnali pleasant scent Y a stench; bdda to buy 
Y to sell; asdna lie pushed him back y it pleased him; Mas 
force |/" fear; balta to separate y to complete; bdsa'a bihi 
to rejoice, make glad y to despise; bdka to weep y to sing; 
tabdUada to rule y to be subject; gdt'ama to cleave to the 
ground Y to raise oneself a little above the ground ; harada 
to take refuge in something Y to separate from something; 
Jcdlada to rob y to endow; ddlafa to hurry y to go quietly; 
dintulm or dajjantuhu I asked him for a loan Y I received 
from him a loan; s&mafa to be quick Y to go with short 
steps; sdbaha with its double antitheses: to swim Y to dig 
into the ground, to be busy Y to be at leisure; sdgada to 
throw oneself down (for prayer) Y to stand upright ; sdmma 
to poison Y to set right; asgdhu it caused him pain Y it 
made him happy ; sdriba to have quenched one's thirst Y to 
be thirsty; safdba to destroy y to repair; tasdfaba it became 
united y it became scattered; 3 adala to act justly y to turn 
away from the right path; afralia to cause joy y to rob of 
joj]fdra3a he went up Y ne came down;/a3a he made his 
fortune Y ne died; kara$ahu he made him a loan y he 
received from him a loan; kdsaba to spoil ]/" to adorn, and 
kasabe to refuse to drink Y to drink. 
Aryan examples are: . 
Skt: upa above Y below 

Latin : sacer holy y accursed ; propugndre to attack y to 
defend; praevemre to go before, help y to come 
behind, hinder ; curiosus full of care, sad y inquisi- 
tive, glad. 

Persona y personne; Hem y Bien; Aliquis y Aucun; hos- 
tis y guest. 

French: prevenir assister y empecher. 
German: .Bodett ground y loft; bannen to hold fast 
y to exclude; gegen towards y against. 

v or THE 




English: square to agree y to disagree; fast rest 
]/ motion; shame modesty y disgrace; ravel to 
entangle y to disentangle. 

As regards let and cZeave in which different roots have come 
to be identical by mere outer change, it is a question 
whether, to the English linguistic consciousness, they are 
polar words or not. 

The early Trainers of speech could only realise thought 
by thesis and antithesis, likeness and difference. If great 
resemblance had to be expressed it could only be done by 
negation; the good was only the relatively bad, until, with 
the progress of thought, arose separation and distinction 
of positive and negative. Of the three phases of primitive 
speech, namely, antonymy (each sound expressing opposed 
meanings), homonymy (every sound having any meaning) 
and synonymy (every meaning being expressed by any sound) 
the first would seem to be alike the oldest and most 
interesting, but in our enquiry we must take note of all. 
Hitherto students of language have, for the most part, been 
engaged in seeking and formulating the laws of phonetic 
changes, but a far more important study is that of the 
laws of conceptual evolution as manifested in the rise and 
fall both of word-meanings and grammatical forms. How 
are concepts generated and concatenated? How are im- 
pressions co-ordinated? These are the questions that interest 
the psychological student of human speech. 

By more than one apostle of the mind it has lately 
been maintained that all future philosophy will be a philo- 
sophy of language. Not only do we find the higher order 
of linguistic students renouncing the purely grammatical 
and syntactical standpoint for the exploration of the border- 
land between philology and philosophy, but psychologists 
themselves are beginning to see that language is not so 
much the garment as rather the body of reason, and that 
the problems of reason, or the mythology of philosophy, 

~X XIII Kr- 

can only be solved by a critique of Language. It is possible, 
no doubt, to think in sight and to see in thought: modes of 
mind can certainly be represented in architecture, sculpture 
and painting, but no fine art in its richest forms can tell 
us such a simple fact as: last summer there was a bad 
harvest. Again, in nature everything is either necessary 
or contingent; there is no still small voice to whisper: 'thou 
canst, for thou must!' In other words, sequence of time 
and moral obligation can only be expressed in verbal sym- 
bols. We are thus led at once to consider the relation of 
language to thought, to seek the origin of Reason, to see 
whether the dawn of mind was not also the sunrise of the 
moral sense, whether conscience and consciousness did not 
rise together. 







F the many realms of knowledge upon which pro- 
gressing philology has thrown a flood of light, there 
is surely none more fascinating to the student of 
man than that of ethical and spiritual concepts. Language 
has made most of our riddles in ethics and religion, and 
must therefore be made to solve them. 

Now, in matters of scientific discovery there is perhaps 
no safer maxim than the well-known aphorism of Bacon: 

Sola spes est in vera inductions. 

But nowhere has it been on the whole so persistently neglected 
as in the attempts to explain the rise and fall of moral and 
religious ideas. And yet it is precisely in an examination of 
the fundamental facts of man's common religious and ethical 
consciousness that the inductive method should prove most 
fruitful. What philology and ethnology have done to strengthen 
the tie that binds the individual to his fellow-man, we venture 
to think comparative conceptology will do for the broadening 
and deepening of his faith. In dissecting the various forms 
of human speech we are not only laying bare the progress 
of culture, but are writing the history of the evolution of 
the moral sense. Thus, if we wish to know what stage in 

the development of ethical or religious thought has been 
reached by the different branches of mankind, we must ex- 
amine their words for God, for sin and righteousness, false- 
hood and truth, good and evil, love and hatred, soul or 

In the following pages we propose to give such a chapter 
of ethics from an analysis of language; to listen to the voice 
of conscience in the temple of speech. It is not too much 
to hold that, in the multiform manifestation of language 
we have a contemporary antiquity and are able, as Goethe 
would say, to look into great maxims of creation, nay, into 
the secret workshop of God! The consideration of the cell- 
element of all religious or ethical thought, namely, the con- 
cept of Deity or the idea of right and wrong can thus vie 
in interest with the astronomer's study of galaxy and nebulae, 
of systems and of worlds. To trace the history of the name 
which is above every name, to gauge the supreme concept, 
to arrive at a truly scientific derivation of the words for 
the All-Father, which, from the cradle to the grave, express 
for each his sublimest thought, his best feeling, his loftiest 
aspiration, must be to every reverent observer, be he ethno- 
grapher or psychologist, historian or antiquarian, a very 
choice delight. 

On the hypothesis of man's evolution from some lower 
organism the question naturally presents itself: is there no 
life of the soul in some of the higher mammalia, no poss- 
ibility of a pre-human ethical or religious consciousness? 
Have not the animals morals and religion? It certainly has 
been maintained, and more especially by von Hartmann, 
that the attitude of many domestic animals toward man is 
undoubtedly of a religious nature. In so doing, however, 
there can be little doubt that the unconscious philosopher 
looks at the question too much from an anthropopathical 
point of view, which leads him to overlook the fact that, 
owing to its lack of verbal symbols whereby impressions 

become co-ordinated, animal consciousness must necessarily 
be too fleeting to be called religious or moral. Surely the 
great difference between animal and human^ consciousness 
is that, whereas in the one case it is purely substantive with 
no differentiation of form, in the other form assumes a 
separate existence, a fixity in independent mental images. 
The reason why the animals do not speak is in no wise to 
be found in externals but essentially in psychical momenta. 
It is possible for the animal to grow up in human society 
to a great extent as the child does. It not only exactly 
apprehends speech-sounds, but can itself produce them and 
yet it cannot speak. Nay, it can understand other signs 
and can even project itself into the mood of others, fully 
taking part in human life, though more as rogue than as a 
worker. In many respects it is wiser than 'John' and 'Jane', 
and yet it does not learn to speak. Why not? Let us first 
of all remember that one does not become wise by speaking; 
the animals may be very wise and not a little clever in 
adapting means to ends : the lack of language does not make 
them stupid. That is to say, it is not the content of con- 
sciousness which is immediately affected by language, but 
only its form. A talking man may have less mental con- 
tent, less mental mobility than the animal, but he has his 
content in higher form. Of course, under favorable circum- 
stances the higher form will further the content. The form 
of animal consciousness is perception, that of human con- 
sciousness is apperception, which constitutes the fourth stage 
in psychical development. Feeling, sensation and perception 
may be completed and thoroughly comprehended without 
speech, but apperception is only possible with the help of 
language. 'Speech is form, speaking formation.' 

We have, then, to do with man, and when we say with 
man we mean, with the author of Genesis, O^N D^X. It is 
not necessary for our purpose to determine the dimensions 
of the protogenes Hackelii or to investigate the capabilities 

of Huxley's bathybius. All we say, is that, what the Turanians 
call JH, the Semites rf?p, the Hamites | e. > , and what we 

Aryans call 3gcT or Aoyog is to be found in man alone, 
however long it may have been evolving. It is astonishing 
how firm a hold this truth had upon the best minds of the 
Roman world. Cicero says of man: 'Deus homines, primum 
humo excitatos, celsos et erectos constituit, ut deorum cogni- 
tionem, caelum intuentes, capere possent'. 'Sed nostra omnis 
vis/ writes Sallust, 'in animo et corpore sita est; animi im- 
perio, corporis servitio magis utimur; alterum nobis cum 
Dis, alterum cum belluis commune est. Quo rnihi rectius 
videtur ingenii quam virium opibus gloriam quaerere.' And 
Ovid sings: 

Os homini sublime dedit, coelumque tueri 
Jussit, et erectos ad sidera tollere vultus 
Sic, modo quae fuerat rudis et sine imagine, tellus 
Induit ignotas hominum conversa figuras. 

As Prof. Steinthal well observes: 'If we are told that the 
Hottentots and Bushmen are nothing but simiae lingua 
jiraeditae, we answer with the king and poet of the Hebrews 
when he says of man (psalm 8): attamen paullulo tantum 
Deo est inferior.' 

In seeking the spiritual history of the various races of 
the globe let us begin by asking: what is the etymology 
of spirit and of soul? For, the biography of the word 
will show us how the concept was framed and named, and 
how man came to believe he could know so much more 
than he ever can know, to realise a world of thought far 
removed from that of sense. 

Now, as is well known, our word spirit is the Latin 
spiritus 'breath', from spir-are (for spis-a-re, speis-a-re, spois- 
a-re) 'to breathe'. The root is spu which underlies pus-ula, 
pus-tula blis-ter; Sanskrit puppu-sa-s 'lung'; Greek qpu-aa 
windbag'; Lithuanian pus-ti 'to blow', and pus-le 'bladder'. 

From this root comes also the Greek ipuxn (= spu-ch-e), 
which was destined to play so great a part in the history 
of philosophy. The direct descendants of 'spiritus' are the 
following : 


Spanish : 
Oldform : 

Italian: spirito 
Roumanian : spirit 
Portuguese: e-spirito 
Catalan: e-sperit 
French : e-sprit 


spright, spirit 

Here we find the primary concept to be 'breath' or 'wind', 
and the question naturally presents itself: is this true of 
other words for spirit? Let us examine a few. The root 
of 'animus' and 'anima', 'mind', 'soul', is an 'to breathe', as 
may be seen from the following list of cognates: 





Latin : 




an-a-s 'breath', ^fonq an-ila-s 'wind' 
an-i-mi 'I breathe', MnlcMj an-ika-s 'face'. 
A^jyjx) ain-ika 'face' (originally 'mouth'). 
av-e-uo- 'wind'. 
an-a-m<m 'revelry'. 

an-i-mu-s 'mind' ; an-i-ma 'soul' ; an-i-mal. 

J\N-ST 'grace, favor'. nz-jVN-j\ 'I expire'. 
Old High German: un-st 'wind'; an-do 'anger'. 
Ags.: an-da 'anger'. 
Old Norse: 6n-d 'soul, life'. 
Swedish: andedrag 'drawing the breath'. 

An-de 'spirit'; hellige Ond 'Holy Ghost'. (Norsk). 

The change of meaning has nowhere been so great 
as in Latin. When, for instance, Cicero says: 'quaedam 
animalis intelligentia per omnia ea transit', we have to trans- 
late: 'a kind of living mind goes through them all.' 

The mystery of breathing was the first to wake the 
wonder of our Aryan ancestors. When, wandering on the 
banks of the Sarasvati and looking up at the blue dome 
above, the venerable B,si asked himself whence this great 
creation sprang, he could not but break forth into 'mystic, 
unfathomable song': 

'The birth of Time it was, when yet was naught nor aught, 
Yon sky was not, nor heaven's all-covering woof; 
No life, no death, no amplitude of breath was sought 
In those primeval days. What clouded all? what roof 
Of many twinkling eyes, if need of such could be? 
Unknown alike were sun and moon; no light or sound 
E'er broke the awful sameness of that vast, wan sea; 
The One alone breathed breathless, waiting, self-profound!' 

Rgveda x- 129. 
A matchless line, unrivalled in the poetry of any nation! 

Similarly from a root VA, metathesized AU we get: 
Gothic: j\hwj\ 'spirit', Ahma sunjos 'the spirit of Truth'. 

yAU'VA 'to breathe, blow'. 

Skt.: cnfw 'I breathe', srro^ va-ju-s 'wind'. 

Sd.: )jjjo(> vaju 'wind, air'; ^jj\)(> vaja 'The Death-Bird', 

which conducts the souls of the dead into the 

Gh: y&f d-w 'I breathe', d'-og TrveCjua, d'n-jui 'I blow', 

ar|-Tr|- 'wind', au-pa 'breath', d-rip (= d/ep) 'air', 

'mist'; d-'i-(J0-iJU, dd-Z-uu, do-0-jLia 'difficult breathing'. 
Lat.: ven-tu-s, ven-ter. 
Eccs.: ve-j-a 'I breathe'. 
Lith.: ve-je-s 'wind', 6-ra-s 'air, weather'. 
Goth. : Y^- l f* H ' to blow, to breathe'. Ah-ma = d'rj-ua vi-nd-s 


H* 7 H- 

An expansion of this root (AU-T-) gives us the follow- 
ing important words: 
Skt.: MJI^H at-man 'breath, soul, self. 
Gk.: di)T-jLir|V 'breath, incense'; di-|Li6-g 'mist, smoke'. 
Old Saxon: ath-om. Old High German: at-um 'breath'. 

Ags.: 8e$-m 'breath'. Modern High German: Od-em. 
Irish: adh-m 'cognitio', adh-ma 'gnarus'. 

Again, from the root PNU come: 

Gk.: TTve-uu 'I blow', TrveO-jna 'breath, spirit'; Trveu-juuuv 'lung'; 
ire-Trvujaevo-g 'intelligent'; Trivu-ir| 'understanding'. 
Lat.: pul-mo(n) 'lung'. 
Eccs.: plus-ta 'lung'. 
Lithuanian: plau-czei 'lung'. 

Yet another root, with the same fundamental concept, 
has given us words for 'thought, spirit, soul'. 


Skt.: vjpftfti d'u-no-mi, ^ d'u-ta 'I shake, kindle'; VIJTH d'u- 

ma-s 'smoke'; vjfa d'u-li 'dust'. 
Sd.: /A3/)^ dun-man 'mist, incense'. 
Gk.: 0U-U) 'I rave, roar, sacrifice'; GU-V-UJ 'I storm'; 60-vo-q 

'assault'; 0u-eX\a, 'storm- wind' ; 0u-uo-$ 'courage, 

passion, emotional frame of mind; soul'; 60-|ua, 

6u-aia 'sacrifice'; 0ur|-i-? 'odorous'; Gujuouavxi^ 

'having a prophetic soul'. 
Lat.: fu-mu-s, 'smoke'; sub-fi-o 'I fumigate'; sub-fi-men 


Russian: #yxi> 'spirit'; ,nyxT> CBHTOH Duk' svjatoj 'Holy Ghost'. 
Boh.: du-ch; Pol.: du-ch; Cro.: du-h; Gypsy: du-k 'spirit'. 
Eccs.: du-na/ti 'to breathe'; dy-mu 'smoke'; du-chu 'spirit'; 

du-sa 'soul'. 

Lith.: dii-mai (pi.) 'smoke'; du-ma-s 'thought'. 
Goth.: daun-s 'odor'. Ohg.: tun-s-t 'storm'; tou-m 'vapor'. 
ON.: du-s-t 'pulvis'. Eng.: du-s-t. 

~X 8 *~ 

The conceptual evolution here is very significant: 
a) cVumas 'smoke' 
p) Gujiiog 'soul' 
Y) dumas 'thought'. 

Anglosaxon gdst 'spirit', gdst-bana 'devil', i. e. 'spirit- 
murderer', G-erman Geist, English Ghost all point to the same 
idea, for, they are connected with gas, yeast, geyser. 

On the other hand soul is connected with sea and swell. 


Skt: fHifa su-no-mi 'I press juice'; HcTR sav-am 'water'; 

|RTW su-ma-m 'milk, water'; *RH su-na-s 'river'. 
M>r.:sav-itu 'rain'. 
Gk.: u-ei 'it rains'; u-e-TO- 'rain', creiuu (== cr/e-juj) 'I shake'; 

crdXo-s (for cr/d-Xo-) 'oscillation, hesitation'; crdXa 

'sieve'; craXcrfri 'tumult'. 
Lat.: salu-s, salu-m = crdXog. 
Goth.: Sj\iys 'sea'; Sjuyj\Aj\ 'soul'. 
Ohg.: swe-11-an 'to swell'; wider-swal-m. 
Ags.: j-apul 'soul'. Dan.: siel. Isl.: saal. Dutch: ziel. 
Ger.: See, Seele, schwellen. Eng: sea, soul, swell. 

Compare for a moment now we know the etymology, 
English soul, German Seele, French dme, with Geist, esprit, 
spirit. * 

All three former words may be said to denote the whole 
of consciousness idea, feeling, will, though not quite in 
equal degrees. Soul, Seele, ame form the world within, the 
Kocrjuoc; vonios as Plato would say. These forceful and 
beautiful words express that deep and mysterious well whence 
issue and flow the streams of our manifold being. "Who can 
say when it will be exhausted? How truly the poet sings: 

'Kein Dichter hat sein Tiefstes ausgesungen, 
Kein Maler je sein Tiefstes hingestellt, 
Tief liegt es in der Seele Dammerungen 
Ein dunkles Sein, von keinem Strahl erhellt.' 

i See Prof. C. Abel's "Psychology of Language." 

^>* 9 K~ 

But it is different, as Prof. Abel well points out, "if, 
dividing the soul into its various capacities, we endeavour 
to mark out the proper sphere of each. Geist, esprit, and 
spirit indeed concur in that part of their comprehensive 
signification which approaches closely the meaning of soul, 
Seele, ame; the difference mainly consisting in soul empha- 
sizing the capacity rather than its application, while spirit 
and its foreign kindred do the reverse. But the moment 
this capacity, which they all equally recognise, begins to 
enter on the sphere of action, the genius of each nation 
profits by the opportunity for the display of its own peculiar 
calibre and taste. The German Geist discovers the more 
delicate features, resemblances and dissemblances of things, 
without expressly attending to their more patent qualities, 
qualities which they have in common with many other things 
and which reason and sense suffice to ascertain. Geist 
endeavours to penetrate the essence of matter I had almost 
said, to enter into the Geist of a thing, so identified is the 
term with inner individuality and special type. French 
esprit certainly proceeds on the same lines, but, in con- 
formity with the peculiar workings of the Gallic mind, shows 
a tendency to illustrate speciality by strong contrast, and, 
as brief and daring comparisons are apt to be incorrect, 
frequently succeeds in being more brilliant than true. As 
regards the English term spirit, in this particular appli- 
cation, it is essentially a sensible quality, but it is sense 
shaded off with a warm appreciation of what is correct, right 
and true. Instead of pretending to weigh, gauge, and assess 
the very soul of a person or an object, as the German and 
French relatives of the English term undertake, spirit is 
content to discern main facts and clothe them with colors 
supplied by principle and sense alike. The diversity of 
national character stands out well in these various ways of 
distinguishing the leading forces of the soul. The German 
endeavours to penetrate the inner essence of things by patient 


~3* 10 HSr- 

research; the French attempt to reach the same goal by 
brilliant leaps; and the steady-going, confident, and hearty 
valuation of surrounding objects by English sense equally 
betray some of the leading characteristics of the three 
national types compared." 

This examination of the more cultivated idioms has 
shown us that, roots, be they reflected sound-gestures or 
evolved phonetic types, are for the most part indicative of 
human action, pointing thus to the significant fact that, man 
was, before all, conscious of his own activity, that it was to 
him the best known, the -most intimate of all. And this 
truth will become clearer when we go on to consider the 
speech of tribes of the lowest order. 

Among the West Australians we find the same word 
for 'breath,' 'spirit,' 'soul,' namely, Wang, whilst in the Netela 
language of California Fiuz means 'life, breath, soul.' To 
the Malays of Java 'breath, life, soul' are all expressed by 
nawa, which at once reminds us of the Hebrew and Arabic 
$BJ nefes, Jt*-*^ nafs, nVl ruak 5 , -^ ruh r , the stages of 
development being identical. Of the Seminoles of Florida 
we are told that, 'when a woman dies in childbirth the 
infant is held over her face to receive her parting spirit, 
and thus acquire strength and knowledge for its future use.' 
At the death-bed of an old Roman the nearest kinsman 
used to lean over et excipies hanc animam ore pio to. 
inhale the last breath of the departing! 

The various terms life, mind, soul, spirit, ghost are not 
so much descriptive of really separate entities, as rather 
the several forms and functions of one individual being. 
Indeed, the doctrine of Animism, so admirably enunciated 
and worked out by Dr. Tylor in his 'Primitive Culture,' 
lies at the root of primitive man's philosophy of life. 

According to Malagasy psychology, the saina or mind 
vanishes at death, the aina or life becomes mere air, but 
the matoatoa or ghost hovers round the tomb. The Karens 

distinguish between the Id or kelah, the personal life-phantom, 
and the t'dli, the responsible moral soul. In the same way 
the Fijians make a distinction between a man's 'dark spirit' 
or shadow, which goes to Hades, and his 'light spirit', which 
is a reflexion in water or a mirror, and stays near where 
he dies. 

In savage biology the functions of life are said to be 
caused by the soul. Of one insensible or unconscious it is 
alleged, in the language of the South Australians, that he 
is wiljamarraba i. e. 'without soul.' Some of the Burmese 
tribes, the Karens, for instance, "will run about pretending 
to catch a sick-man's wandering soul, or as they say with 
the ancient Greeks, his 'butterfly' (leip-pja), and at last 
drop it down upon his head." According to the Caribs, 
the chief soul of man, which is to enjoy the heavenly life, 
is to be found in the heart, hence jouanni means 'soul, 
life, heart.' 

Again, Soul has been conceived as the phantasm of 
the dreamer and the visionary, that insubstantial form which 
is like a shadow and indeed has been often identified with it. 
In Arawak, for instance, ueja means 'shadow', 'soul,' 'image.' 
Amongst the Algonquins a man's soul is described as 
otdhk'uk 'his shadow,' and in kik'e we have natub for 'shadow, 
soul,' whilst the Abipones employ the word looked for 'shadow,' 
'soul,' 'echo,' 'image.' Similarly amongst the South African 
tribes we have Zulu tunsi and Basuto seriti for 'shadow, 
'spirit,' 'ghost.' Of the latter, indeed, it is said that 'if a 
man walk on the river bank, a crocodile may seize his 
shadow (seriti) in the water and draw him in.' The people 
of Old Calabar identify the spirit with the ukpon or 'shadow,' 
the loss of which is fatal. Nay, even in Christian Dante's 
Purgatory we find the dead know the poet to be alive, 
because, unlike theirs, his figure casts a shadow on the 
ground. According to Dante the dead soul forms for itself 
a shadow-body from the air by which it is surrounded. In 

~* 12 K~ 

that lovely and touching scene in the Purgatorio (xxi. 130) 
between Statins and Virgil, when the former learns that 
Virgil is before him, he bends at once to kiss his feet, but 
Virgil holds him back with: 'We are both but shadows'; and 
he: 'Now thou canst measure the greatness of my consuming 
love for thee, which led me to forget that we are shadows, 
and to clasp shadows as though they were solid bodies.' 
In the Hebraic doctrine of the D^D*| Repaint and the more 
or less obscure teaching of the ekimme in Assyria and Baby- 
lonia we again meet with the 'shadow-soul.' When the body 
dies, there is detached from it a sort of impalpable and in- 
visible image or double, the ns^Rapeh which descends intoViKt^ 
seol, the Shadow-land, the Ekimmu which goes down to Aralu 

'The undiscovered country from whose bourn 
No traveller returns.' 

And now that we have learned a little about the rise 
and growth of the concept, it seems almost ludicrous to 
think of the amount of useless speculation as to the seat 
of the Soul. Aristotle placed it in the heart, Plato in the 
brain. Herakleitos, Kritios and the Jews sought for it in 
the blood, Epikouros, on the other hand, in the chest. More 
recently Ficinus placed it again in the heart; Descartes 
in the pineal gland a little organ situated in the centre of 
the brain, containing sandy particles. Sommering declared 
the soul's seat must be in the ventricles, and Kant in the 
water contained in them, whilst Huxley can only think of 
it as a 'mathematical point.' 'The brain,' says Biichner, 'is 
not merely the organ of thought and of all higher mental 
faculty, but also the sole and exclusive seat of the Soul.' 

Already our study has shown us how great is the 
difference between the outer and the inner, the body and 
the soul of language, nay, between thought and its ex- 
pression! Who would have thought that the same radical 
idea, the simple act of breathing, would have given us words 
for Mind and Wind, for Thought and Dust, for very Soul 

~~ 13 H$~ 

itself? It is a remarkable fact in Sanskrit that the oblique 
cases to the substantive svajam are formed from atman, and 
there can be no doubt that the Greek CCIJTOS comes from 
the same root an to breathe, just as in Arabic we find 
nafs-u 'self, and 1m 'he', havyat 'ipseity' from hava 'to breathe, 
be'; and nafs 'breath, soul'. 

animus : d'vejuo^ : : cVurnas : dumas. 

It is perhaps not unnatural that 'the act of breathing, 
so characteristic of the higher animals during life, and 
coinciding so closely with life in its departure' should have 
repeatedly been 'identified with the life or soul itself.' But 
what a gulf between the breath of a savage and the Atman 
of the Vedanta, the udgit'a, the Om, the Brahman of the 
Aryan world, representing the high-watermark of speculative 
thought and finding its best expression in the Upanisads! 

To the uncultured mind it is simply 'in breathing see breath,' 
but to the philosopher, to the pandit of Aryan thought it 
is: 'know the Self by the self,' i. e. know thyself to be a 
limited reflex of the eternal Self, that thy spirit is part 
of Spirit supreme! Hence Sadananda, the author of the 
Vedantasara exclaims : 

Akandaih Sak'k'idanandamavan-manasagok'aram | 
Atmanamak'ilad'aramas'raje 'b'istasidd'aje || 

'In order to obtain my heart's desire, I flee to the indivisible 
Self of the World (Atman), the Upholder of All, beyond 
speech and reason, and consisting of Being, Thought, Joy!' 
Indeed I am not sure that we should not be justified 
in translating Atman 'the Prayer of the World.' It is the 
\OYO of feeling, the incense of the heart, the Breath of 
the Eternal! What to the Hebrews was objective "1HJJ 
the smoke of the sacrifice, was to the Aryans intensely 

->* 14 *$- 

subjective, was, in fact, the aspiring will of man: Brahman 
(j^barh), Atman, euxeaOai, MOJIHTLCH, orare, precari, bidjan. 
Unlike the children of Israel, the Arabs seem ever to have 
depended more ,upon the inner than the outer: *yoo (from 

How great, again, is the difference between the 
of the Greek peasant and that of the Homer of philosophers ! 
It has been truly said that, if not the best, Plato's definition 
of the soul is certainly one of the best ever written: TUJ 
juev 9eiuj mi dGavdiiu mi vonTtp mi juovoeibeT mi dbtaXuiuj 
Kai dei djaauTius mi Kara rauia EXOVTI eauiuj ojuoiOTdinv 
eivai ij;uxn v - 'The soul most nearly resembles an essence 
which is divine, immortal, intellectual, homogeneous, in- 
divisible, and always and uniformly the same.' Accepting 
the oucria or Eternal Substance of Parmenides, Plato argues 
that the forms of this universal oucri'a are certain eternal, 
simple and self-like (oiuoiiLjuctTa) pictures, which exist in the 
human soul as vormaia, immutable concepts. It is these 
alone which really exist, id ovia, OVTUJS 6'via, and form the 
xocTjuog vor|T6g. From them come all ideas of the True, 
the Beautiful and the Good, whilst the world of sense, 
KOdjuos 6paTO, has no real existence, is, in fact, the OUK 
6v. Indeed, the whole system may be described as a 
philosophy of the soul (cpiXo(TO9ia ifjs MJUXHS)- God (6 vous) 
has created the human soul immortal as part of himself, 
because it is itself the cause of motion (auio auTO KIVOUV), 
and because it is the necessary antithesis of the death of 
the body. The ipuxn has two parts (juepn) by which it is 
united with the body: whilst the XOTICTTIKOV Tf| vyuxns or 
the vous has its seat in the head, the animal part (TO 
dXoYiCTTiKOV or eTriGujunTiKOv) is to be found in the abdomen, 
the GUJLIOS or the 0u)uoeibe<; in the breast. The souls of men 
have not always been bound to this weak body; they might 
indeed be enjoying the eternal contemplation of the 

~3* 15 Kr- 

but having turned away from them, they have sunk into 
mortal bodies, wherein by memory (dvdjuvncri<;) they pant 
after the eternal types! 

It was, doubtless, in recognition of the instinct of im- 
mortality that the Greeks and the Karens were led to 
adopt the butterfly as the emblem of the soul. Dr. Owgan 
has well shown the twofold analogy between the two cases. 
Firstly, between the three states of existence through which 
the insect passes, and those through which the human being, 
if immortal should also pass. Secondly, between our spiritual 
instinct which leads us to anticipate another life, and that 
evident instinct which guides the lower animal to make 
preparation for the transformation of which it is impossible 
that it can have any fore-knowledge; from which it is 
^naturally inferred that, as the instinct of the butterfly is 
infallible, so also is man's. 

Between ipuxrj and irveOjua there is precisely the same 
nuance of thought as between $SJ and n^, ^Lij and .^. 
Perhaps this is nowhere so clearly seen as in Isaiah xlii. 1 : 


Hen abdi et'mak-bo bk'iri razt'ah nafsi nat'ati Ruk'i 
alaiv mispat lagojim jozi. 

'Behold my servant, whom I will uphold; my elect, in 
whom my soul delighteth: I have put my spirit upon him, 
that he may bring forth justice to the nations.' 

As quoted in the New Testament: 

'!6ou, 6 mxis juou, 6v fipencra, 6 dfttTrnTo^ juou, 6v 
euboxncrev rj yvxfy juoir Grjcruu TO TrveOjud juou err 3 aurov, 
Kai xpiaiv roTg 6vecnv d7TafTeXei. 

The Arabs distinguish not only between ^Jj Nafs and 
^ Ruh but between J^ JJi* Akl-i-kul 'Universal Reason', 
'Cosmic Intelligence' and J^ J^3 Nafs-i-kul 'all-embracing 

~3* 16 X~ 

Spirit, Over-Soul', which, as an emanation from God, is 
subordinate to the former. 

It was the ayiov of which, on the day of 
Pentecost when the whole house was filled with the sound 
of a mighty, rushing wind, the Apostles were full. Nay, 
of the Eternal himself it is said that, He is Spirit: TTveGua 
6 Geog ! This is the supreme revelation of the Son of Man 
to the children of God! 

Spirit of all the spirits of our race, 
Who of all souls art ever Over-Soul, 
Thine is the crescive secret, thine the roll 

Of aeons and the stately stretch of space. 

In thine infinitude for each a place 

Be found as facet, jewel, or as Scroll 
Whereon the alphabet of love, the whole 

Of being, thought and joy thou mayest trace. 

Son of Man! the brotherhood of man 
And sisterhood of woman in one faith 
And fire of heart art thou, and thine the plan 

Of service, till the gentle hand of death 
Reveal the banner of all souls unfurled 
In thee, o Heart, whose nutters fill the World! 

Having thus traced the development of the concept 
Soul from the simple act of breathing to the sublime thought 
of God, let us go on to consider the predicate of Deity, 
which will show us how, in all ages though in different 
ways, man has been conscious of dependence on a Higher 
Power, a Nobler will than his own, and has panted after 
God as the hart after the waterbrooks. 

The idea of God: was it evolved, revealed, or arrived 
at by a play of subjective intellectual activity? 

In discussing this important question philosophers have, 
for the most part, employed the deductive method. Thus, 
so subtle a thinker as Hume tried to show that the idea 
of Gods arose out of the ignorance and fear which personi- 
fied the "unknown causes" of the accidents and eccentricities 
of Nature, the idea of one God Monotheism out of the 

~>; 17 HS~ 

gradual concentration of flattery and offerings on one of 
these personifications. According to him polytheism is the 
deification of many unknown causes of natural phaenomena; 
monotheism the deification of one unknown cause. Comte 
supposed the so-called primitive fetishism to spring from 
infant or savage by a tendency which it had in common 
with dog or monkey to ascribe to natural objects organic 
or inorganic, a life analogous to its own. In Comte's view 
the individual passes, as the race has passed before him, 
through three states, the theological or fictitious, the meta- 
physical or abstract, and the scientific or positive. He says : 
"En etudiant ainsi le developpement total de Fin- 
telligence humaine dans ses diverses spheres d'activite, 
depuis son premier essor le plus simple jusqu'a nos jours, 
je crois avoir decouvert une grande loi fondamentale, a 
laquelle il est assujetti par une necessite invariable, et qui 
me semble pouvoir etre solidement etablie, soit sur les 
preuves rationelles fournies par la connaissance de notre 
organisation, soit sur les verifications historiques resultant 
d'un examen attentif du passe. Cette loi consiste en ce 
que chacune de nos conceptions principales, chaque branche 
de nos connaissances passe successivement par trois etats 
theoriques differents; Fetat theologique ou fictif; Fetat meta- 
physique, ou abstrait; Fetat scientifique ou positif. En d'autres 
termes, Fesprit humain, par sa nature, emploie successive- 
ment dans chacune de ses recherches trois methodes de 
philosopher, dont le caractere est essentiellement different 
et meme radicalement oppose; d'abord la methode theo- 
logique, ensuite la methode metaphysique, et enfin la methode 
positive. De la, trois sortes de philosophic, ou de systemes 
generaux de conceptions sur Fensemble des phenomenes 
qui s'excluent mutuellement ; la premiere est le point de 
depart necessaire de Fintelligence humaine; la troisieme, 
son etat fixe et definitif ; la seconde est uniquement destinee 
a servir de transition." 


~>> 18 H~ 

In his 'Descent of Man' Darwin combines the various 
elements of an ascription of life to natural objects, dreams, 
fears, &c. Mr. Spencer considers the propitiation of dead 
ancestors, who are supposed to be still existing and to be 
capable of working good or ill to their descendants, the 
rudimentary form of all religion. Sir John Lubbock is 
perhaps the only man of any authority in England who 
considers that tribes of the lowest culture, representatives 
of primitive man, are utterly destitute of belief of any kind. 
The transition to fetishism he describes as arising partly 
from dreams and disease, and, in some cases, owing to 
divination and sorcery. 

With the exception of Comte's, all these theories agree 
in the following propositions: a) that primitive man had no 
kind of idea of a God; p) that the animism of savagery 
was the rudimentary form of all belief; and Y) that, in the 
progress of the species from savagery to advanced civili- 
sation, anthropomorphism grew into theology. 

That these propositions, arrived at by the deductive 
method, are not tenable, we hope to be able to show by 
the application of the method of induction, by national and 
international linguistic analysis. We want, in fact, fewer 
theories and more facts; and for these facts we must look 
to the Logic of Signs or, in other words, to the Science 
of Language. It is customary with logicians to assume that, 
all objects of belief are susceptible of prepositional form; 
but the evidence of language when examined ideologically 
will, I think, conclusively prove that, confidence in a Divine 
reality may be expressed in other than our familiar affir- 
mative forms of language. 




To begin with our own Teutonic concept of Deity, what 
is the etymology of "God?" 

"Parmi les noms europeens de Dieu", says M. Ad. 
Pictet, "qui n'ont pas de correlatifs orientaux, mais dont 
quelques-uns peuvent etre fort anciens, je ne m'occuperai 
ici que du gothique Gutli, et de ses analogues germaniques. 
Les essais multiplies qui ont ete faits pour 1'expliquer 
montrent bien a quel point nous sommes livres aux incerti- 
tudes etymologiques quand les termes sanscrits ou zends 
nous font defaut," Starting from the base guta M. Pictet 
would naturally look for a Sanskrit form ^ guta. Not 
finding this, however, he suggests that the Gothic word 
came from ^<r huta (yHU), which has the double sense 
of sacrificatus and is cui sacrificatur, "et ce dernier con- 
viendrait parfaitement a Dieu," giving us the formula 

Now, though this may at first sight seem a tempting 
etymology, especially as we have the analogue usra jagata, 
AJK>A)jAyv> jasata, ^\>^, jasddn and Isten (yJAG), yet I 
cannot but agree with Ebel that Gud and not Guth is the 
true Gothic form, as the corresponding term in old High 
German is Kot. 

That "God" cannot come from "Good" will, I think, 
be no longer doubted by any competent philologist. Not 
only is it that in Gothic the vowels are different, Gud in 
the one case and god in the other, but there is the never- 
failing distinction between the long and the short vowel in 

H3* 20 H~ 

Anglo-Saxon. Let us take, for instance, two passages from 
Beovulf (15541563): 

And halig God 
Geveold vig-sigor, vitig drihten. 

J>at vas vsepna cyst, 

Buton hit vas mare bonne senig mon 6Ser 

To beadu-lace atberan meahte 

God and geatolic giganta geveorc. 

And in the following verse from St. Luke (viii. 19): 
Da cwseft se Hselend: hwi segst $u me godne. nis 
nan man god buton God ana. 

In Gothic: 

Kvath than du 'irnma Jaisus. hva mik kvithis godana. 
ni ainshun gods niba ains Gud. 

In Norsk : 

Men Jesus sagde til ham: Hvi kalder du mig god? 
Ingen er god, uden Een, nemlig Gud. 

The forms Gud and god in Gothic become, according 
to a phonetic law affecting the Aryan stratification of speech, 
Kot and kuot in Old High German. Of the former we 
have proof in a translation of St. Ambrose's three Hymns, 
beginning : 

Kotes kalaupu dera lepames 

Dei fide, qua vivimus, etc. 

whilst in the word kuotchunti for Gothic godlcundi 'gospel', 
we have an interesting verification of the latter. It is a 
law as well understood and as regularly applied as the 
so-called 'Celtic process', according to which initial con- 
sonants are changed into others of the same origin, to 
denote a diversity of logical or grammatical relation. For 


Tad 'father' 

Ei Dad 'his father' 
Ei Thad 'her father'. 

& 21 K~ 

In his Etymologisclie Forsclmngen Prof. Pott suggested 
the root sud* 'to purify', but we know that sud is a cor- 
ruption of hud" or kvad' (cf. Ka0-apo<;, cas-tus, cis-tu) which 
could only give us Hud or Haid in Gothic. 

Similarly when Ebel connects Gud with Sanskrit gad 
(Ku0-ov, KeuG-uj, cus-tos), the reply is that an Aryan form 
ktida would have given us what in fact we find, namely, 
Huda, hide, Hut. 

Nor do I think Schweitzer and Leo Meyer have been 
more successful. The hypothesis of the one being Guth = 
ved. D'uti, because, forsooth, skt. d is sometimes reduced 
to h, and li = g Gothic ! whilst that of the other is that 
Gutha is the original form and corresponds with Guta. 

No, if we want an etymology which is to be of any 
scientific value, we dare not disregard the Lautverschiebitngs- 
gesetz. If the exact phonetic equivalent cannot be found 
in Sanskrit, let us turn to Ancient Bactrian. 

"What I venture to submit is that the word 'God' is 
derived from the Eranian verbal adjective JUKUMOAJIX) ftaddta, 
meaning 'self-evolved' or 'self-determined', 'obeying one's own 
law', as opposed to AJWAW^JK?.Q stiddta 'following the law of 
the world'. So far from agreeing with M. Pictet when he 
says : 'le g gothique, en eifet, ne saurait en aucun cas 
repondre au q zend', it seems to me that a sound which 
is the equivalent of Pahlavi and Persian &' cannot have 
been very different from Greek x> which is the normal ex- 
ponent of Gothic g. 

Very remarkable are the passages in the Avesta in 
which the word Kaddta occurs. I shall quote at least three, 
firstly word for word, and then in M. Darmesteter's ex- 
cellent translation. 

jOr .yX 

self-determined Universe Zoroaster thou Invoke 

high-in-action. Vaju boundless Time 

-X 22 K- 

|| Nisbajaguha tti Sarat'ustra t'wasahe k'ad'atahe 
Srvanahe akaranahe Yajaos uparo-kairjehe || 

'Invoke, o Sarat'ustra, the sovereign Heaven, the bound- 
less Time, and Yaju, whose action is most high'. 

Vendidad xix. 13 (44). 

having-its-own-law place Misvana I call upon 

Masda-made. K'invad bridge 

|| Nisbajemi Misvanahe gatvahe k'acVatahe k'invad- 
peretum Masdad'atam || 

'I invoke the sovereign place of eternal weal, and the 
k'invad bridge, made by Masda'. y. 36 (122). 

The last is a very obscure passage from the Yendidad 
Sadah, and M. Darmesteter has to confess that his trans- 
lation is doubtful. 

most warlike Self-Existent Ancient Meresu I call upon 

Mighty. Creation of-the-two-spirits 

|| Nisbajemi Meresu P6uru-K'ad c at6 juid'isto 
mainivao daman savaghaitis || 

M. Darmesteter translates: 'I invoke the ancient and 
sovereign Meresu, the greatest seat of Battle in the Creation 
of the two spirits'. If I venture to give another version it 
is because I feel that I am supported by the note of a 
distinguished Eranian scholar. In his Handbuch der Awesta- 
sprache (p. 111. n. 2) Dr. Wilhelm Geiger, referring to 
this passage, says: 'Das Folgende . . . ist vollkommen un- 
erklarbar. Bemerken mochte ich nur, dass in Qadhdta ein 
Eigenname vorliegen konnte? This is the more probable, 
because P6uru-K'ad c ato is the subjective case, so that I 
should render the sentence as follows: 

~>; 23 *- 

'I call upon Meresu. In the creation of the two spirits 
the Ancient-of-Days, who follows His own law, was a mighty 

K'ad'ata is composed of K'a 'self, and data, the perfect 
participle passive of jAla (Skt. d'a, Gk. 0e) 'to lay, make, 
create'. Hence 'law' as that which is 'laid down'. The 
Sanskrt equivalent is ^aroTcT svad'ata, for, Old Bactrian 
x)tA> Ka is another form of AWOJO hva which represents 
Skt. ^g sva. We have seen that it is used hoth as an 
adjective and as a substantive, and I think it is not going 
too far to hold that we have here an Aryan phonetic type 
expressing a concept of Deity. 

To this etymology proposed hy me, it is only right to 
state that, Prof, de Harlez has objected on the following 
grounds: firstly, that the expression svad'ata is not Aryan, 
that, outside the Avesta it is nowhere to be found; secondly, 
that it never designates the divinity. Ahura Masda is not 
described by K'ad'ata. He argues that, in the third century 
of our era when the Germans already used the word GHith 
the Persian-Pahlavi k'udat was nothing but a transcription 
of the Avestic and that the k'uda of the fifth and sixth 
centuries had the exclusive sense of 'king', 'master', 'chief. 
"How should the Germans", he asks, "who were besides in 
the north of Europe, have understood and borrowed a term 
unknown beyond certain mountainous districts of Asia? 
What motive could they have in adopting and applying it 
to God?"i 

Now, in the first place, my answer is that, although 
the form Svad'ata is peculiar to the Avesta, the expression 
Svad'a feral), which is a personification of wra, is thoroughly 
Aryan, and is used in connexion with the worship of de- 
ceased ancestors. Thus, in the B'agavad-Gita (ix. 16) it 
is the solemn religious exclamation of those who offer an 

* The Babylonian and Oriental Record: Vol. 1. No. 7. pag. 109. 


oblation to the Manes. And though Ic'ad'ata is not speci- 
fically applied to Ahura Masda, it is applied to Srvana- 
dkarancij boundless Time, by which deity, according to at 
least one sect of the Persians, Ahura Masda was created. 
Alike from 'Sahrastani, from the reports of the Armenians 
Esnik and Eliseus and from Damascius, as Prof. Spiegel 
informs us, we learn that, the Zervanites hold that Srvana- 
akarana is really the eternal unconditioned Ruler, that he 
created Fire and "Water and that from the union of these 
two elements Ahura Masda arose. 

Thus ^gvrr and AJtoAx^vo may well have been per- 
manently before the Aryan religious consciousness, nor is 
it more surprising to find k'ad'a among the Goths as 
Gud than to know that an obscure son of Aditi wr has 
become the Supreme Being to the Slavonic nations EOFR 
Let us but look at the following list of cognates: 


Old Bactrian: 



Persian : 










K?ad c ata 


K c uda 


K c udai 




K c uda 


K f oda 

-> 25 K?~ 

Kumildan: \^. K'ucla 

Gothic: rnj\ Gud 

Icelandic: Gu$ 


Anglo-Saxon: God 

.Low German: God 

Frisian: God 

Flemish: God 

Zto7i: God 

English: God 
German: Kot 

Thus, alike in extension and intension, this Aryan con- 
cept of Deity is a truly noble one; it is the absolutism of 
the supreme 'Law unto Himself, Lawgiver to man. 

'God is law, say the wise, o Soul, and let us rejoice, 
For if He thunder by law, the thunder is yet His voice. 

Law is God say some; no God at all, says the fool, 

For all we have power to see is a straight staff bent in a pool. 

And the ear of man cannot hear, and the eye of man cannot see, 
But if we could hear and see this vision were it not He?' 

And what of Slavonic EOFL, which is to Russians, 
Bulgarians, Servians, Slovenians, Croatians, Bohemians, 
Wends, Slovaks and Poles the supreme thought? As 
already hinted Kfi, modern Eon, Bog is really the Vedic 
wr B'aga, one of the sons of Aditi. Here again, however, 
it is not to India but to Eran that we must turn for the 
supremacy of the concept. In the Veda the place of B'aga 
is always one of subordination. Even amongst the Aditjas, 
the phases and forms of the Infinite, he is by no means 
chief. Thus we read (ii. 27. 1): 


srenft srafi 1 sisr: u <i n 

|| Ima gira Aditjeb'jo grtasnuh | 
Sanadragab'jo guhua guhomi 
Srnotu Mitro Arjaina B'ago nah | 
Tuvigato Varuno Dakso Amsah || | || 

'May this song be poured forth to the Aditjas: 
I bring the offering to the Kings of long ago! 
May Mitra, Arjaman, B'aga hear us! 
Varuna, Daksa, Amsah, the mighty-born!' 

Nowhere do we find vm as a synonym of cr deva 
Braliman or ^ir+H Atman. In the minds of those 
early Aryan poets he was but one of the many sides of 
the 4j|fdfrl Aditi by which they were surrounded. 

But to the dwellers in Eran he had become Ahura 
Masda himself. In an Inscription of Alvend we read: 

|| Baga vasraka Auramasda hja imam bumim 
God great Ahura Masda who this earth 

ada hja avam asmanam ada hja martijam 
created, who that heaven made, who man 

ada hja sljatim ada martijahja hja darajavaum 
made, who plenty made of (= for) man, who Darius 

k'sajat'ijam akunaus aivam parunam k'sajat'ijam aivam 
king made one of the many kings one 

parunam framataram 
of the many rulers. || 

Again, in the Avesta there are at least three passages 
where Baga cannot but apply to Ahura Masda. In one 
of the hymns addressed to Haoma, the Vedic Soma, we 
read: (Jasna x. 2627). 


Aurvafitem t'wa dami-datem Bago tatasad hvapao. 

The God who fashioned thee, the swift dispenser of 
wisdom, was a supreme Artist! 
Prof. Spiegel translates: 

'Dich, den grossen Spender der Weisheit, bildete ein 
kunstreicher Gott.' 

The same sentence follows, with f\>jo(3AJoy nidat'ad for 

Then, in the 19th Fargard of the Vendidad, which 
constitutes the framework of the whole book and gives us 
the wonderful history of Sarat'ustra's temptation and victory, 
we find the following (78): 

>\Jy-V/AJ?-)c>3^l() .f 

Aad Vohu-mano-nidaitis suro-tVarstanam raok'agam 
jad he staram Bago-datanam aiwi-raok'ajaonti. 

And the prayer of man shall be under the mighty 
structure of the bright heavens, by the light of the God- 
given stars! 

Now, wr Raga comes from Yvm frag just as A>pAn 
Baga, is derived from Yyx>\ bag, the fundamental meaning 
being 'to bestow'. Hence from this root we have many 
words expressing fortune, property. 

to bestow, to obtain. 

Sid.: b'aga 'son of Aditi, fortune, happiness, wealth'; 

b'agavat 'adorable'. 
Sd.: baga 'God, the Highest Good'; bag-a-s 'piece'; bago- 

bak'ta 'God-given'. 

~3H 28 HE- 

Persian: bak'-t 'fortune'; bad-bak't 'unfortunate'. 
Buss.: Bog 'God'; boga-tiii 'rich'; u-bogii 'poor'; bogat-stvo 
'riches'; bog-inja 'goddess'; bes-bosie 'godlessness'. 
Lifh.: bago-tas 'rich'; na-bagas 'a poor man'. 
Gk.: qpaT-eiv 'to eat'; cpay-a-g 'devourer'; qpctY-ov-es 'teeth'. 
Goth.: ga-beig-s 'rich'; manna gabigs 'a rich man'. 
Eng.: big. 

Welsh: ffaw-d 'fortune, luck'. 
Irish: fuigh-im 'I get'; fagh-ail 'getting'; fuigh-eall 'profit'. 

Ski.: wi B'aga 

Sd.: AJOAJ> Baga 

OP.: j:KE Baga 

Pvi.: 9^ Bag 

Pers.: ^ Bag 

PJirg.: BcrfaTos (Zeu$) 

Sd.: Compounds: AJWAW^-^PAJ^ Bago-data God-made. 

Persian: Mjob Bagdad, the City of Irak, 

built A. C. 762. 


Old Slavic: 


Russian : 





Wendisli : 






Bohemian : 





Hence B'aga, is God as the great Bestower, the All- 
giver, the bountiful Dispenser of Riches. Few, if any, of 
the sons of Aditi have had so interesting and important 
a history. Whatever be the view taken of the Aditjas, 
whether solar or meteorological, certain it is that the wr 
of the B,g-veda has developed not only into the AJOAM of 
the Avesta and into the Clan-God of the Cuneiform In- 
scriptions, but has actually become the TTpOuTr) 0eou evvoicc 
of all the Slav nations. 

->* 29 *E~ 

Of the Timgus Tatars Castren tells us that, besides 
the Sun and Moon, Heaven, Earth and Water, they worship 
a Supreme Being whom they call Buga, and perhaps it is 
not going too far to hold that it was through tliis channel 
that the Slav peoples obtained and retained their thought 
and predicate of God. Whilst worshipping the forces and 
beauties of Nature it is hardly to be wondered at that one 
of the Turanian tribes should have adopted the Eranian 
generic name for deity, especially when we remember the 
etymology which, in this case, seems never to have been 
lost sight of. 

The history of this Name is interesting in many ways, 
and especially as an illustration of the law so clearly per- 
ceived and so poetically described by Dante in the Paradiso 
(xxvi. 130): 

Opera naturale e ch'uom favella. 

Ma, cosi o cosi, natura lascia 

Poi fare a voi secondo che v'abbella. 
Pria cli'io scendessi all' infernale ambascia, 

I s'appellava in terra il sommo Bene 

Onde vien & letizia che mi fascia; 
Eli si chiamo poi: e cio conviene; 

Che 1'uso de' mortali e come fronda 

In ramo, che sen va, ed altra viene. 

In dealing with the great Aryan family of mankind, to 
which we ourselves belong, let us not forget those thoughts 
of the Eternal which have sprung from the primary con- 
cept 'to shine', 'to be bright', from the ever-growing con- 
sciousness that 'God is Light and in Him is no darkness at all.' 

To the early Aryan framers of thought and speech, 
to the Rsis of our race all atoms in space were mirrors, 
fronted with the perfect face of God! The sun, the moon, 
the stars, the seas, the hills and the plains were or deva, 
'hright\ from the root fe^ div 'to illuminate'. And the sky 
was ci xar' eHoxnv, it was aft djo 'the Illuminator', from 
the metathesized from of the same root zx dju. Nor was 

~>* 30 K~ 

this all. In some of the oldest hymns of the Rg-Veda we 
meet with the great Asura afte Djaus, Heaven, the su- 
premely Bright one, and more especially in that close 
connexion with fam pita, 'father', which is so familiar to 
us in the religion of Greece and Rome, dim fun I Djaus- 
Pita, points to a primitive Aryan arorT Dju-Patar 'Heaven- 
Father'. 'This discovery of Dyaushpita', says Prof. Max 
Miiller, 'was like finding at last, by means of a powerful 
telescope, the very star in the very place of the heavens, 
which we had fixed before by calculation'. Thus we read 
(Rgv. vi. 51. 5): 

llfvyfg JTTrT: 

HHH ^Tt I 

Djauh Pitar iti Prt'ivi matah ad'ruk | 
Agne b'ratah vasavah mrlata nah ] 
'Father Heaven and kind mother Earth, 
Brother Fire, bright spirits, have mercy on us!' 

He is often invoked as dim fun I ^facrr Djaus pita ganita 
(= Aryan Dju-patar ganitar), Zeug irarrip T^veinp, Ju-piter 
genitor 'Heaven-Father creator'. 

In Homer we read: 

ZeO udrep, r\ frd TK; da-d Ppoxdiv dir' direipova Y a ictv, 
"0(m<; r dGavdroiai voov xai juf^nv dviijjei; 

Heaven-Father, who of mortals on the boundless earth 
Can now the immortal mind and will speak forth? 

And in those beautiful lines of Sophokles: 

Gcipaei jaoi, Gdpaei, T^KVOV. 

gri laeYa? oupavuj 

ZU<; o<; dcpopa iravra Kai Kpatuvei- 


Courage, courage, my child; 

Still is in heaven mild 

Almighty Zeus ; he, watching, ruleth as of yore : 

To Him commit thy grief exceeding sore, 

And be not wroth henceforth for evermore! 

-> 31 K-~ 

Amongst the Eomans we find besides Jupiter the form 
Diespiter. Thus Horace (lib. I. xxxiv): 

Xamque Diespiter, 
Igni corusco nubila dividens 
Plerumque, per purum tonantes 
Egit equos volucremque currum. 

There is a passage in Ovid which gives us in two lines 
the two other forms: 

Di pia facta vident. Astris delphina recepit 
Juppiter et stellas jussit habere novem. 

In Welsh we have the striking motto: 

Heb Dduw heb ddim: Duw a digon. 

Without God without Everything: God is enough! 

And this name, once found, was never to be lost. There 
has been no solution of continuity. Subject, as every other 
name, to dialectic growth and phonetic decay, it has sur- 
vived in many a forceful way to bear witness to the eternal 
truth that God is our Father and we His children! Whether 
uttered on the Himalayas, amongst the oaks at Dodona, in 
the Eoman Capitol, on the Welsh hills or the plains of 
Brittany; whether whispered in the forests of Germany, 
proclaimed from the peaks of Scandinavia, the heights of 
the Isle of Man, or wafted across the lonely lakes of Scot- 
land and of Erin it is the selfsame word. 


Ski.: tcre devas 'God'; aft djo 'Heaven, Day'. 

Sd.: joMjvjo* daeva bou'iuujv 

Gk.: Zeu$, Ai/-og; Aum/n; baijuiuv. 

Lett.! >eea?8 'God' 

Lith.: >iea>6 'God' 

Samo: SDieroas 'God' 

Lat.: Deus; Diov-is; Ju-piter; divus; div-initas; Diana; 
dies; sub clio. 

-X 32 

Mar aft: 












Jebba 'God' 

devane 'God'; Devane 




&> dev 

Tia, in the compound TTepviia = Paramdeva 

Peren-dia = Paramdeva. 

Duw 'God' 

Doue 'God' 

Dia 'God' 

Dea 'God' 

G-i = Dji 'God' 

Rom. (Oberl.): Deus 

Rom. (Engad.}: Deis 

French: Dieu 

Vaudois: Diou 

Roumanian: Ze in the compound Dmneze Dumnedeu 

= Dominus-Deus 
Italian: Iddio, Dio. 

Piedmontese: Diou, Iddiou. 
Catalan: Deu 
Spanish: Dios 
Portuguese : D eus 
Prov. : Dieu 

Old Norse: Tivar 'gods' 

Gothic: Tius 

Old High German: Zio 

English: Tues-day. 

Of the tribes Non- Aryan who have adopted this word 
we find many in America, doubtless owing to the presence 
of the Spaniards: 

Totonaki: Dios 

Ajmara: Diosaja 

Mayan: Dioz 

Paeses: Dios 

Lules: Lios (for Dios) 
Abiponese: Dios 
Color ados: Dios 
Timukua: Dios 

^* 33 HS~ 

Of the Malay race there are two instances: 
Kdgufl: Dew-se 

Batta: A ^ X Del) - ata 

Amongst the Dravidas we find at least two examples : 
Telugu: ~^ ?^j Devvada 
Konkani: Devata 

In his Hibbert Lectures of 1878 Prof. Max Miiller 
says of this pre-eminently Aryan concept: 

"Five thousand years ago, or, it may be earlier, the 
Aryans, speaking as yet neither Sanskrit, Greek, nor Latin, 
called him Dyu patar, Heaven-father". 

Four thousand years ago, or, it may be earlier, the 
Aryans who had travelled southward to the rivers of the 
Penjab, called him Dyausli-pita, Heaven-father. 

Three thousand years ago, or, it may be earlier, the 
Aryans on the shores of the Hellespont, called him Zeu$ 
Train p, Heaven-father. 

Two thousand years ago, the Aryans of Italy looked 
up to that bright heaven above, hoc sublime candens, and 
called it Ju-piter, Heaven-father. 

And a thousand years ago the same Heaven-father and 
All-father was invoked in the dark forests of Germany by 
our own peculiar ancestors, the Teutonic Aryans, and his 
old name of Tiu or Zio was then heard perhaps for the 
last time. 

But no thought, no name, is ever entirely lost. And 
when we here in this ancient Abbey, which was built on 
the ruins of a still more ancient Roman temple, if we want 
a name for the invisible, the infinite, that surrounds us on 
every side, the unknown, the true self of the world, and 
the true self of ourselves we, too, feeling once more like 


~5* 34 Kr- 

children, kneeling in a small dark room, can hardly find 
a better name than: "Our Father, which art in 'Heaven'." 
Another Aryan thought of the Deity is that of Ruler 
or Commander, from the root ^r, often in conjunction 
with param, 'supreme'. 

A / 

ylS to rule, have dominion 
Sanskrit: 4'*5R Is-vara, ^r Is-a Lord, God. 

Kait'i: RR Is-ana 

Parbuti: ^ c( t Is-vara 

Multani: 6^f7^^ Is-ranai 

Sand: jjj Is to rule. 

Bengali: ^T^Jl Is-wor God; ^^tf ois-worjo 

'Power, might'. 

Hindi: ^5R^ Is-varane 

Mondari: m.4*eHi Param-Esvara 'supreme Ruler'. 

G-urmutii: ^^ Param-Esura 

Umbrian: Es-unu 'sacrum'; Etruscan: Aes-ar 'deus'. 
Irish: Aes-ar, Aes-fhear. 

Perhaps the modern Bengali will serve best as an 
instance of the use of this word for the Supreme. In the 
Tota-Itihasa we read of a certain Sultan Ahmad who was 
a man of great wealth and power. 'A thousand horse, five 
hundred elephants, nine hundred camels, with their burdens, 
were wont to stand ready at his gate'. But he had no family. 


Ei karon tini dibaratri, o prate o sondjate 
Iswor-pugokerder nikote gomon. 

-2w 35 K~ 

'On this account he day and night, morning and evening 
was in the habit of going near worshippers of God'. Thus, 
by means of worship, he made request for the gift of a son. 

An extremely interesting and significant Aryan thought 
of God is that of the Armenians, which seems peculiar to 
themselves. Nowhere in the Realm of Language do we 
find such a consciousness of the omnipresence of the Deity. 
The word is ^ U uini.ui& Asdouaz, meaning He-is-hcre. The 
beautiful Gospel message of St. John iii. 16 is thus trans- 
lated into Armenian: 

tlniilil[ uftplrg ui^juuip ^^, J^li^L. tip 
hn Jjiui&nL f|/ I 7/ r " ififii_iui_. np uidl^L nJ nn uilntn ^tui iiiuntii 

Inkou wor Asdouaz anang sirhz askar he, minkjev wor 
miazin Worgin dwau. Wor amen uv wor anwor hauadaj 
Ifgorsoui, habajauidhnagan gjanke entouni. 

'For God so loved the world that He gave his only- 
born Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, 
but have everlasting life'. 

As to the etymology of Greek 0e6g much has already 
been written. Many have attempted, notably Prof. Max 
Miiller, to connect it with the root div, which has given 
us Deus, but the initial seems to me an insuperable 
difficulty. On the whole I venture to think that Doderlein 
has found the true solution. He connects it with jAGeo" 
which we find in Gecr-ad-jnevoi (= aiincrdiuevoi), 0eo*cr-e-cr0ai 
(= aireiv, iKeieueiv), 0eo-g standing for Gecr-o-q as a sub- 
stantived adjective. 

to beseech, pray to 

Greek: Oeo-s for 0ecr-o-s God ; Tro\u-0ecr-TO- much-beseeched ; 

-^, Gea-itup. 

-^ 36 HS~ 

Latin: fes-tu-s, fes-tu-m, fes-tivu-s, fer-iae. 

French : fe-te, foire. 

Port. : feira. 

Prov.: feira. Span.: feria. Jt: fiera. 

Eng.: fair (cf. German: Messe = mass). 

Hence Oeoc; is 'He4o-whom-prayer-is-made'. From this 
root, too, we learn how all holidays were originally lioly 
days, nay, how even the fair itself was a place, a time of 

Xenophanes says: 

Eic; 0eo<; e!v Te GeoTai KCU dvOpuuiroiai jueficJToc, 
00 TI b^iac, 6vr)ToTai 6|uoio^ cube vornaa. 

Of gods and men One God alone is Lord 
Nor unto mortals like in form or word! 

Again, in Theognis: 

0eo!<; euxou, Geou; darw TU KpdToq- 


dvOpujTroi<; OU-T' dydG' ou-re 

But it is in the New Testament that the word has 
been hallowed and endeared to us all. 

Mrj TapacrcrecrGuu ujuujv rj Kapbior TriaTeOeTe ei<g TOV 0eov, 
Kai ei? 6]ue TricrreueTe. 

Before taking leave of Aryan theology let us not forget 
the specifically Hindu view of the Eternal as subjectively 
^JiTr*R Atman objectively sraR^r Brahman. We have already 
seen something of the evolution of the former concept, but 
the rise and growth of the latter are not so clear. There 
can, however, be little doubt that Brahman comes from 
l/"gr| barh 'farcire', to cause to swell, so that it would at 
first seem to mean 'flood', i. e. prayer, whereby man's 
aspiration is met by God's inspiration. As soon as the 
individual soul, the givatman, has learned to see that it is 
really part of the Over-Soul, the Paramatman, Mukjatnian, 

->; 37 K~ 

Aupanisadatman, it becomes one with Brahman and lives 
the life of Prayer. 


Sarvarii kalv iclam Brahman; tag-galan; iti santa 
upfisita. K'andogja-Upanis'ad: iii. 14. 

All is indeed Brahman; in Him it breathes, begins 
and ends; so let every one adore Him calmly! 

irtcfl 1 
Brahman satjam, gagan mit'ja, givo Brahmaiva naparah! 

Brahman is true, the world is false; the soul is Brah- 
man only and no other! 

When a man has once had this vision he exclaims: 
HrT C^T tat tvam 'that art thou' and loses himself in Self 
supreme, in gfegflR^ Sat-Kit-Ananda 'Being-Thought-Joy'! 

This final solution of the search of the Hindu mind 
after the Eternal and the Infinite I have endeavoured to 
express in the following sonnet: 

seeker after God, eternal rest 

Alone in Self is found! All else is part 

Of this great whole. See here, in this my heart 

1 feel its streams of light and life. No quest 
Of first and last can now the soul molest; 

For shines not 'neath the veil of soul, athwart 
The vast .dim sea of space, whose atoms dart 

Refulgent through the worlds, supremely blest, 

The beauty of the Self? No longer now 
Do shadows of duality appear. 
The sward of being rises; sweet and low 

Come murmurs of glad music; crystal clear 
The streams of peace upon the spirit fall: 
Existence, thought, love, bliss the all in all ! * 

1 The Evolution of Religious Thought in Modern India (S. P. 
C. K.) p. 36. 

-> 38 K~ 

Of Indo-European thoughts of God which have become 
polarised in speech there yet remain for examination: 
vvxjrx)* Masdao, *rv^ MdnraJi, ^l^> Jahdn, o^f?. Jasdan, 
and jlx.*^JLc Manistdr. 

t>\>^ Jasdan, like D^rfttf Eldlnm, is a plural form, and 
may be taken as the Persian subsumption of the henotheistic 
phase of religious thought. In the Gulsan-i-Ras or Rose 
Garden of Mystery by Sa'd ud Din Mahmud Sabistari, 
which is a compendium of Sufi thought and faith we read: 

Knan tan Gabr Jasdan Ahriman guft. 
'E'en as those Guebers speak of Jesdan and of Ahriman." 

As already hinted (p. 19) the fundamental meaning is 
He-to-whom-sacrifice-is-made'. From the same root comes 
the Greek <rfio$ 'holy'. And what is still more remarkable 
is the fact that, the Magyars, a Non- Aryan people, have 
adopted this very word for God, in the form Isten. Let 
us look at the congeners: 

|Ai5T JAG to offer, to sacrifice 
Sanskrit: zrarrftr jag-a-mi / offer, icorship; UOTH jag-jas to 

be revered. 

Sand: ^^ jas to offer to, praise; wwc\'f* jasata veneraUe. 
Persian: >^ jasd, ^\^. Jasdan God. 
Greek: erf* aZ!-o-uai I revere; ay-\o-<; (=jag-ja-s) Iwly; 
af-vo-<;pure; 0.^-0$ consecration ; a^ilojloffer. 
Magyar: Is-ten God. 

Just as in Iran the Hindu $& deva, God, became 
\w\>\ daeva, devil, so in Mesopotamia the Persian >^ 
jasd, God, became Ised, devil. 

"The Izedis or Yezidis, the so-called Devil-worshippers", 
says Dr. Tylor, "still remain a numerous though oppressed 

->* 39 KT- 

people in Mesopotamia and adjacent countries. Their ad- 
oration of the sun and horror of defiling fire accord with 
the idea of a Persian origin of their religion (Persian ized 
= god), an origin underlying more superficial admixture 
of Christian and Moslem elements. This remarkable sect 
is distinguished by a special form of dualism. While re- 
cognizing the existence of a Supreme Being, their peculiar 
reverence is given to Satan, chief of the angelic host, who now 
has the means of doing evil to mankind, and in his restora- 
tion will have the power of rewarding them. 'Will not 
Satan then reward the poor Izedis, who alone have never 
spoken ill of him, and have suffered so much for him?' 
Martyrdom for the rights of Satan! exclaims the German 
traveller to whom an old white-bearded devil-worshipper 
thus set forth the hopes of his religion". 

The Persian word ^>U^. Jdhdn God goes back to Old 
Baktrian juy.uj^o from the root AM yuo jd 'to go', so that Jana 
is really the 'going' to the gods, i. e. prayer, supplication. 
And this is the etymology of the Latin Janus. 

JA to go 

Skt.: ZIR jana a going. 

Sd.: AJ/AXUVO jana a going, prayer, salvation, blessing. 

Pers.: c;U^?. Jahan God. 

Lat.: Janus, janua, janitor. 

Assamese wvqj Manrah God, and Persian 
Mdnistdr Over-Soul or Supreme Spirit come from the root 
man, which has given us nearly all our words connected 
with mind. This is very significant: if, as has been often 
held by philosophers, there be nothing great in the world 
but man and nothing great in man but mind, then the 
Eternal must not only be spirit but mind supreme. 3 Ev 

~>~ 40 H~ 

1/W5T MAN to think 

Sanskrt: wfar man-mi I tlmik; *T=TH mind; irf?T3[ ma-tis 

Sand: jw man to think; eo^xy^? rnan-agh mind, man. 

fyjoe .>eo\j(> Vohu Mano Good Thought, the 

first of the Amesa Spentas. 
Assam: irv^n? Man-rah God. 


Persian: ^LXx^oLo Man-i-star Over- Soul. 

Greek: (iiev-og mind, mood; Mev-Tuup; Moucra = Movna. 

Latin: Men-s; Mon-i-tor; Miner-va; Mone-ta. 

jAtt\rx-- Masddo, the Supreme Being of the Parsis, pro- 
bably conies from an extended form of the same root. The 
primary form seems to be ma 'to measure', the secondary 
man 'to think', and the tertiary mad" 'to meditate, ponder'. 
Just as nasdista = nedist'a and mjasda = med'a, so S VW^A>* 
= ihn Masddo Med'd cosmic Intelligence. The word is 
usually found in connexion with AJ^HJOAJ Ahura, the breathing 
or living one, so that the thought is: Living Mind! Some 
have held that it is a compound, namely, TAJ? mas great, 
and v uv^ Dao knowledge, which would amount to an in- 
tensification of the same idea. 

Sand: Ahura Masdao 
Old Per s.: Aura Masda 
Pahlavi: Oharmasd 
Persian: Orrnusd. 

Let me close the Aryan thoughts of God with the 
Persian ^>L*. ^U^. Gan-Gan from the root 5R gan (Sd. ^r 
san) 'to produce' which has given us gen-ius and (g)natura. 

Truly a beautiful thought: Life-Life! 

"'Tis life, whereof our nerves are scant, 
life, not death, for which we pant; 
More life, and fuller, that I want." 

S* 41 Kr- 

It was Life and abundance thereof that the Shepherd 
of Souls brought for His true followers: eru> rj\0ov, wa 
uur|V exujcri Kai Trepio~o~6v exu^v- And as the king and 
poet of the Hebrews sings: 

ki inika mkor kajjim; borka nireh-or. 

'For with Thee is the Fountain of Life ; in Thy light shall 
we see light!' 



In trying to penetrate the hallowed precincts of the 
Semitic religious consciousness, to watch the first attempts 
to express the Inexpressible, to utter the Unutterable, we 
might a priori conclude, from the mould in which the mind 
was cast, that we should not find such an expression as 
'Heaven-Father' or even 'Heaven' to be the symbol of 
the Divine. Whether we find him in Siclon or Tyre, in 
Babylonia or Mesopotamia the leading idea of God in 
the mind of the Semite was that of Strength, Awe, Sover- 


Ani El-Saddai: hit'halek' Ipanai vehjeh t'amim! 

'I am God, Almighty, walk before me and be thou perfect!' 

Gen. xvii. 1. 

This name of God, El, ^^ ^\ ismi c asim the Great 
Name, as the Arabs call it, is found not only in Hebrew, 
but also in Syriac, and Himyaritic and Babylonian In- 


~3H 42 H$~ 

scriptions. The fundamental meaning of the root was 'to 
be thick' and then 'to be flesh and stron'. 


Hebrew: h* El Deus; DVftg h Deus Deorum; jrtjj *? 
Deus altissimus; ^ T1K cecZn divinae; ''Tin 
^ monies divini 

Himyar: A.J& Al 

Syriac- ^J Al 

Arabic: Jj^ II 

Samar: IfllA Ail 

Assyrian: ^-f or >->- Ilu (rod. E. g.: 

E-a Samas Marduk ilani 

The gods Ea, Samas and Merodach. 

Another well-known Semitic form is niVg Eloali, Arabic 
*V1 J^/?, from a root meaning 'to be perplexed, confused', 
'to be afraid', the transition of ideas being Fear, Object 
of Eeverence, God. In Hebrew it is the plural form 
D^r6 Eldhim with which we are more familiar, and which, 
from being originally opposed to the D"nt? S'edwi or evil 
spirits, came to be the subsumption of the henotheistic 
phase of the Hebraic religious consciousness. Compare, 
for instance, Deuteronomy xxxii. 17, with Genesis i. 1: 

Jisbbohu lassedim 16 Eloah: Elohim 16 idaum! 

'They sacrificed unto evil spirits, (things that are) not God : 
to Gods whom they knew not'. 

Bresit' bara Elohim et' hassamajim v' et' haarez. 
'In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth'. 

-sx 43 K- 

But it is amongst the Arabs that this form has become 
supreme, for <UJ1 Allah stands for rtll j\ 4Z .ZZfl/i. The 
key-note of Islam, nay, of Sufiism itself is the oft-quoted 
sentence ascribed to Muhammad: 

Kan Illahu, va lam jakun malm se! 
'God was, and there is nothing but He!' 

The realisation that Allah alone is Being, all else 
being Not-Being, is termed by the Sufis J^-y* tavlnd or 
'assertion of the Divine Unity'. One of the great objects 
of Sufiism is the attainment of this consciousness of the 
identity of the individual soul with the Over-Soul or Divine 
Essence, which state, when it is merely a temporary ecstasy, 
during which the soul beholds, as it were, its own Apo- 
theosis or Absorption, is called JU*. Hal, corresponding 
to the 2KCFTao~i or arrXiJuais of the Neo-Platonists. The 
next state, which is that of utter selflessness, is called Ui 
<3JU\ <3 fana fi 'llah 'Annihilation in God', evuumq or 0euu(Ti$, 
such as that of Moses on Mount Sinai. At this stage the 
Traveller on the Path is said to be (jlL* v-j^J^o magsub 

Mutlak 'drawn into the Absolute' or o MjT dsdd sara' 

'released into the Eternal Law'. There is yet another stage, 
which is considered final, namely, <OlJb *Uo l)dkd hi } lldh 
'abiding in God'. 

* ALAH to be agitated, fear 

Hebrew: JTK Eloah 

Arabic: <UJ\ = Jl J\ Allah = Al llah 

Judaeo- Arabic: n^ Allah 

Karsun: oJ Allah 

~>~ 44 *- 

Aramaean: ;ji Alaha. E. g.: 
Melta d' Alaha de-kabbel: 
'The Word of God, which he had received'. 

Alaha de-saged att leh va-sa'em att leh besme' 

va-sema't ket'ab'au. 
'God, whom thou honorest, and to whom thou 

bringest sweet savours, and whose books thou 

hast heard'. 
Phoenician: - Alilat, 

We now come to what the Rabbis call the 
'the isolated Name' or Dty^n D^ 'the secret Name', 
namely, ffiiT. 

From the third century B. C. down to our own day 
there seems to have been a shrinking from uttering the 
true name of the God of Israel. A passage in the Talmud 

'Said the Holy One, who is Blessed: I am not read 
as I am written. I am written with Joel, He, and read 
with Aleph, Daleth'. To this day in the Synagogue, when 
he stands with the roll before the Ark, the priest pro- 
claims the eternal truth: 

mrp tt'rftK nirr hvrtir* 

nr t v* vi ;T t A" ' s * 

Deut. vi. 4. 
but instead of saying: 

Sma' Jisrael, Jhovah Elohemi Jhovah ek:ad! 

he chants it: 

Sma' Jisrael, Adonai Elohenu, Adonai etad! 

Hence the true sound of the most important Name in 
the whole realm of pre-Christian religion is still a matter 
of uncertainty. As regards the first two letters, however, 
there can be no doubt, for the Psalms are full of that 
majestic paean: nn^n Hallu-Jah 'Praise the Lord'. 

.->; 45 K~ 

Now, according to Theodoret and Epiphanies, the Name, 
in the fifth century of our era, was pronounced IABE, and 
from this statement Reland and Ewald have concluded 
that the true vocalisation is njJT Jahveh. 

But there is another form given by Diodorus Siculus 
and St. Irenaeus (2nd cent. A. D.), by Origen (3rd cent.) 
and by St. Jerome (4th cent.), namely, IAQ or JAOH, 
i. e. niiT. On the other hand, St. Clement of Alexandria 
writes it IAOY, which would exactly represent the Hebrew 
form irp. 

Rev. C. J. Ball in an article on this subject con- 
tributed to the Babylonian and Oriental Record suggests that 
Yalnvali or Yahawah was the true vocalisation of the Tetra- 
grammaton, and gives in support of this hypothesis two 
names found in Babylonian contract tablets ; >~*3f J 

Ga-mar-ja-a-va = rnrTHDJ i. e. the Nethanjahu and Gemar- 
jalm of the Masoretic text of the Old Testament. 

It would thus appear that the Holy Name KCIT' Hoxr|V 
in the fifth century B. C. was pronounced by the Jews of 
the exile Jahava and by those at home Jahu. And this is 
just what we should expect. In Arabic ^ l lid is pro- 
nounced both liu and huva, $ being alike vowel (u) and 
semivowel (v). Nay, the emphatic form for God in Arabic 
is ybb Jdliu He! So that we have from the same root 
the formula: 

ybb : 1,T : : ybb : nin^ 
Jahu : Jahu : : Jahuva : Jahava. 

The human heart yearning, in dumb yet trustful fashion, 
after the Eternal, finds It, as the Hebrew of old and 
the Arab of to-day, to be Being, and exclaims with the 
Ansariah : 


Jahu, Jahu, ja man la jaalam malm illahu! 

'0 He who is, He who is, He whom none knows what 
he is but Himself!' 

jri HAVAH to breathe, be 

Hebrew: rtt!T Jahavah, nj Jdh God; Ktii Sw he. 
Arabic: y>b JaTw God; y& 7ift he; &* huvijat Ipseity, 

J-J God. 

From this root comes also that revelation of the 
Eternal in Exodus iii. 14: 

Yajomer Elohim el Moseh: Ehjeh aser Ehjeh. Yajonier 
koh tomar libne Jisrael: Ehjeh slakani alekem. 

'And God said to Moses: I-will-be that I- will-Be. And 
He said: Thus say unto the children of Israel: I-shall-Be 
sent me unto you'. 

Now, we know that Moses was learned in all the lore 
of the Egyptians, so that it is quite possible he may have 
been aware of the forceful fact that, when the religious 
Egyptian died, he had inscribed on a sacred scroll these 
remarkable words, which were his sublime thought of 


Nuk-pu-Niik 'I am that I am', which is the exact 
counterpart of rrng 1$K HVW Elijeli-aser-Ehjeli, as in this 
case it is certainly open to us to translate the future by 
the present. 

~>5 47 ;<~ 

We have thus seen how man- Aryan, Semite and Hamite, 
from the simple act and image of breathing has been led 
on to sublimest thought of the Infinite and Eternal! 

In Arabic there are three concepts of Deity which 
are very striking and which we shall do well to consider 
here. Besides ^JJ\ Allah, which is understood all over the 
Muhammadan world, we have y~T Amm, ^1*3 Vahhab, 
and J^v. Haiti. 

The first is from a root meaning 'to be stable', 'firm', 
and means Faithfulness, Loyalty-to-Truth, Amen! 

J1^> b 

Amin ja Rabba '1 aalamin 
Amen! o Lord of the Worlds! 

AMAN 'to be firm', 'stable'. 

Hebrew: fi&N Emet' stability, faith, truth. 

|K Amen true, truth, so-be-it! 
Arabic: cxH' Amm faithfulness, God. 

The second is the form used more especially by a sect 
which, in our own day, has been distinguished for its fanat- 
icism. t->l*3 Vahhab means Bestoiver and is therefore the 
Semitic equivalent of Aryan wn B'aga, of which we have 
already treated. 

Vahhabu'l eataja blk^Jl <_;l^ 
'God, the Bestower of Benefits!' 

<3*. Haiti, is a most important word in the East. Alike 
to Arabs and Persians it means Truth, 'The Truth', God. 
Of Him, whom St. John describes as the Ao^o^, the Arabs 
speak as j^UJ JU KaWl Hakk, Word of God. But it 
was through 'the friend by whom the head of the gallows 
was raised', namely, Hussain Manssur, Hallag, the wool- 

--3H 48 *- 

carder, that the word has become world-famous. He was 
born at Baid'a, a borough in Persia, and brought up at 
Yassif. His mystical writings, his eloquence, and the belief 
that he possessed the power not only of divining what went 
on in the homes but also the most secret thoughts, attracted 
many friends but made even more enemies. He was the 
first in Persia to spread the doctrine of the unity of the 
knower and the known, which he expressed in the memor- 
able words: 

Ana'l-Hakku j^T\ U \ 
'I am the Truth 7 . 

On returning from a journey to India, Transoxana and 
China, whither he is said to have gone in order to bring 
those lands to a knowledge of the One True God, he was 
charged with heresy and unanimously condemned to death 
by the Imams of Bagdad. After suffering the most fearful 
torture during which he constantly repeated the above words, 
he was hung as a heretic in the year of the Higra 309 
(921 A. D.), under the Chalifate of Muktedir Billah. 

Passing on to Hamitic concepts we come to Egyptian 
(j Nuter, which is derived from a root meaning 'to crush' 

rzi AAAAA 

'to destroy'. It is also found in Hieroglyphics as | 

^ /WNAM -~ ^ ^ 

and ^ ^ and in Demotic as C/, Cp, V, Koptic 

In the Turin Papyrus of Aufank we read: 



Enoik Nuter da tioper t'esef: I am the great God, the 
Am God great existing self [self-existent! 

Again : 

^^ D t^\ _jj_ |\ AAAAAA < ~ > ^= (| 

Nenek pu amen ren-f er nuter-u 
'I am he whose name is more hidden than that of the gods!' 

->* 49 

1^ r-1.9 Q /WWV\ /--\ ft 

T^ 1 T ' ^ m < j 

Nuter ud ante em mdtu dr enti-u Mm unen-tu. 
'God only living in truth, Creator of-that-which-is, Fashioner 


The Koptic form may best be studied in translations 
of Holy "Writ. Thus: 'And God blessed Noah' is ex- 
pressed by 

TO? cVq^JUV GII2C6 <|)-h 6IJNO6 

Uoh afsmu enge P'Nuti en-Noe. 
'And blessed (Norn.) God Noah'. 



nek to sca tter; E=snN\ nes-t to strike. 

c~^=~^ \ 

rA^AAAA i 1 r ] [Tl 

^ JVt^r God; Nuter-u, gods. 

Demotic: C 9 ^7w^ God. 
Koptic: <|)t p'Nuti God. 

SaJtidic: uois-c concutere; MOTTG Deus; UMTMOTTG di- 
vinitas; UMTUMTMOTTG divinitatis essentia. 
Mempliitic: OMTT contundere, molere. 

In the languages known as Ethiopic, Amharic and 
Tigre we find a most remarkable conception of God: it is 
that of the rich Eealm-Holder, the Land-Lord. 

Egsidbeher: i. e. Egsm land, Belier Lord. 

In Ethiopic we also find the expression AMh Amldk, 
King. In Galla the thought is 

T^r (j/"^) WdM-jo Potter 

E. g. Kan nu hume Wakajo: 'He who has made us, 

is God'. 
Nam-ni Wakajo sagada: 'Man God reveres'. 

~X 50 *- 

On the other hand, in Bogos we have 
(jar Heaven 

E. g. Duva takalan! ji ganat aiiir G-ar-li dabiu gun-la ; 
intin inti ganat 4r-li dabdanni-ma: 'Say, ye daft ones! 
I bury my mother in Heaven; will ye not also bury your 
mother in Heaven?' Nan aw&gin? Gar inahadila! 'What 
shall I do now? G-od help me!' 

Alike in Kabyle, a Hamitic idiom, and in Barea, a 
language of the Nuba race, we find the Hebrew ^2fi EdbU 



In nearly all the idioms known as Turanian we find 
it was the turkis-vaulted dome of the sky, the broad and 
beautiful firmament that seemed the Unchanging, the In- 
finite, the Divine. 

'Aspice hoc sublime candens, quern invocant omnes 
Jovem' said Ennius to the Roman world, and, with equal 
truth, under another name, he might have said it to the 
Indians of North America and to the dwellers on the 
tablelands of Asia. 

". . . . the whole circle of the heavens, for him 

A sensitive existence, and a God, 

With lifted hands invoked, and songs of praise". 

Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in the speech 
and thought of the Chinese. 5; T'jan Heaven is not only 
the $fe Kill, the Principle, Origin, Being, but the synthesis 
of fig and $& Jjg Wu Kill Being and Not-Being, namely, 

rfc Jig T'ai Kih Great Principle, First Cause. 

~$* 51 H$~ 

It is the secret of |$g Jen and |JJ| Jan Rest and Motion, 
the norm of $ K l ian and j:i|l .TTtw the male and the 
female elements in Nature. 

Thus we read in the Si-Kin (iii. 1. 1. 7) or Book of 
Odes and in the T ( ai-Jdh-tu or Table of the Primal Prin- 
ciple (I. a.): 

Saii T'jiin k'e zai: wu seii wu k'au, ol si zao hwa k'e k'u nju. 

P'in we k'e kan ti je. 
Translated into Mangu it is: 

Dergi Abka-i baita de, gilgan ako, wa ako bime, jar- 
gijan-i bangibure wembure horgiko ^o sohon, eiten gaka-i 
fulehe da ohobi. 

'High Heaven's works are without tone and without 
aroma (i. e. immaterial), and yet indeed they are the axis 
and source of life and death, the root and origin of every- 

Chinese: 3 Tjcln God, Heaven. 
Accadian: jfcZ Dingir, Heaven, God. 

Mongolian: ' Tengri Heaven, God. 

Turkish : ^yoll* Tangrl 
Jakut: Tanrapa Tangara. 
Him: Tang-li. 

Korean: ^ A Ttiien. 

* O 

The Jakuts divide their gods into white and black, 
good and evil. At the head of the former stands Tangara, 
at the head of the latter Abarj. Every disease has its 

~3H 52 K~ 

Siuliiikiun or black god, who is propitiated by pouring 
vodka on the burning coals and throwing tobacco and 
horsehair upon it. In ascending a ridge the Tungus and 
Jakuts avoid loud talk for fear of offending the mountain- 
spirit, who will then send a destructive snowstorm. 1 

In Mangu the expression for The Highest is 
V Abhai Egen Heaven-Lord, which is the exact equivalent 
^> of ^ Tjan Ku, the title adopted by Pope Clement XI. 
O ^ in 1715 to designate God in Chinese. 
^! The first Jesuits who visited China, notably Eicci, 

Y^ had chosen the word T'jan alone, but when the Do- 
^minicans arrived in 1631, a long controversy on the 
subject arose. 

'On accusa les Jesuites', says M. Piry, 'de chercher, 
par ce choix du mot T'ien et 1'autorisation qu'ils accordaient 
a leurs neophytes de continuer leur culte a la memoire 
des ancetres et du Sage Confucius, a assimiler la doctrine 
du vrai Dieu a la religion des Chinois. La question fut 
portee devant Innocent X. qui, en 1645, condamna les 
Jesuites ; mais, dix ans plus tard, Alexandre VII. leva cette 
sentence en declarant que les rites chinois en litige etaient 
purement civils et ne pouvaient d'aucune fagon porter atteinte 
aux dogmes de la foi chretienne. La question en resta 
la jusqu'en 1703, date a laquelle Clement XI. condamna 
de nouveau les Jesuites, enfin, en 1715, ce meme pontife 
decida que pour designer Dieu en chinois on conserverait 
le mot Tien, mais en y ajoutant Fepithete Chu, Seigneur, 

Maitre Quant au choix du mot T l ien pour designer 

Dieu, le Pere Premare dans sa "Lettre Inedite sur le 
Monotheisme des Chinois, 1728", deplore la decision du 
Saint-Siege qui le condamne; on sait en eifet que ce savant 
sinologue, et beaucoup d'autres apres lui, ont voulu demon- 

See "To the Arctic Zone" by a Russian Exile. 

~$H 53 ,<- 

trer que le T'ien ou SJiang-Ti J- ^ des classiques chinois 
possede les principaux des attributs du vrai Dieu.' 

The Hsjao Kin or Book of Filial Piety speaks of the 
three supreme Powers: ^ Tjan Heaven, jfa Ti Earth, A 
sin Man. Thus we have ^ , g T'jan ki Kiii 'the 
immutable Law of Heaven'; Jjj , H Ti 1ft I 'the Justice 
of Earth'; JJ f 'ft Min la Hsin 'the Obligation of the 

In the Lu 'Su we read: 

5c B It Tjan ju 'sin Heaven is called God. 
ft ^ S iSt Tjan ta kwo 'sin Heaven is greater than 
the gods. 

^ _t *ri? Tjan jii 'saii Ti Heaven is called the 
Supreme Being. 

But we must not forget that a very powerful Being 
amongst the Chinese, amounting in fact to what we in the 
"West should call the Monon, is jj| Tau meaning primarily 
The Way, from Radical 3^ 'to go'. Its Aryan equivalent is 
^RrJ Rta or X^AJ A'sa the Path of Righteousness, the Norm 
of Being, AoTog. In China's oldest historical book ^ g 
'Su Kin, we find the Emperor Kin, of the Kau dynasty, 
directing three of his highest officers of State 'to discuss 
the Tau, to govern the States, and to harmoniously regulate 
the Jen and the Jan'. But the Tau Kjau or Doctrine of 
the Monon was most fully worked out by the philosopher 
Li Er' or Po Jan, generally known as Lau Zo, in the 
7 th century B. C. His celebrated jf fg g Tau te Kin, 
known to the Japanese as Dau-toku Kjau, or Classic of 
Reason and Virtue, begins with the following remarkable 

it w 3t * n m 

Tau k'o tau fe kari Tau. Reason which can be em- 
bodied in speech is not the Eternal Reason! 

-S^ 54 HS- 

*.' H a. ' * jt a 

Min k c o min fe kan Min. The name which can be 
uttered is not the Eternal Name! 

According to M. Stanislas Julien jg Tau is almost 
equivalent to falniff Nirvana. In his preface to the Tau- 
te-kin he says: 'Dans Lao-tseu et les plus anciens philo- 
sophes de son ecole anterieurs a 1'ere chretienne, 1'eniploi 
et la definition du mot Tao excluent toute idee de Cause 
Intelligente, et qu'il faut le traduire par Voie, en donnant 
a ce mot une signification large et elevee qui reponde au 
langage de ces philosophes lorsqu'ils parlent de la puissance 
et de la grandeur du Tao. 

Lao-tseu represente le Tao comme un etre depourvu 
d'action, de pensees, de desirs, et il veut que, pour arriver 
au plus haut degre de perfection, 1'homme reste comme le 
Tao, dans un quietisme absolu; qu'il se depouille de pensees, 
de desirs, et meme des lumieres de 1'intelligence, qui, suivant 
lui, sont une cause de desordre. Ainsi, dans son livre, le 
mot Tao signifie tantot la Voie sublime par laquelle tous 
les etres sont arrives a la vie, tantot 1'imitation du Tao, 
en restant, comme lui, sans action, sans pensees, sans desirs'. 

As an illustration of the variety of views on this ques- 
tion, let us compare our own translation of Lau-zo's opening 
sentences with that of M. Pauthier on the one hand, and 
of M. Julien on the other: 

Via quae potest frequentari non aeterna-et-immutabilis 
rationalis Via. 

La voie droite qui peut etre suivie dans les actions de 
la vie n'est pas le Principe eternel, immuable, de la Eaison 
supreme. (Pauthier). 

La Voie qui peut etre exprimee par la parole n'est 
pas la Voie eternelle. (Julien). 

Nomen quod potest nominari, non aeternum-et immuta- 
bile Nomen. (Pauthier). 

~$~ 55 <- 

Le Nom qui peut etre nomme n'est pas le Nom eternel 

et immuable. 


Again, it is said of the Tan: 

ft -:i- = = * 

Tau sen ji ji seii 61 61 sen san san sen wan u 
Tau produced One; One brought forth Two; Two begat 
Three; Three gave rise to all things! 

Passing to the Land of the Rising Sun we come to 
the 'Way of the Kami' 

'Jj H J H f Kami-no Miti 

of which we may read more especially in the Ko si Id or 
Furu Koto Bumi. Who or what these ^ ^ Kami are, it 
is perhaps at first sight a little difficult to determine. In 
all likelihood the Kamino Miti or |i}i jj 'sin Tau as the 
Chinese call it, does not much differ from the Chinese 
worship of ftji 'sin and j^| Kwe, their divine Ancestors. 
'The Japanese', says D r Tylor, 'are a comparatively civilized 
nation, one of those so instructive to the student of culture 
from the stubborn conservatism with which they have con- 
secrated by traditional reverence, and kept up by state 
authority, the religion of their former barbarism. This is 
the Kami-religion, Spirit-religion, the remotely ancient faith 
of divine spirits of ancestors, nature-spirits, and polytheistic 
gods, which still holds official place by the side of the im- 
ported Buddhism and Confucianism. In this ancient faith 
the Sun-god is supreme. He is Amaterasu oho Kami the 
'heaven-enlightening great Spirit'. Below him stand all 
lesser kamis or spirits, through whom, as mediators, guar- 
dians, and protectors, worship is paid by men'. 

Here, then, we have as supreme Spirit 

3 7 7- > ? * a * 7, 

Amaterasu Oho Kami 

Japanese thought, speech and writing owe a great deal 
to the Chinese. When, in the third century of our era, the 

~3H 56 H~ 

Japanese came in contact with the Chinese, the literature 
of the latter found its way into Japan, and with it, Chinese 
writing. But the characteristic ideology of each nation is 
still preserved. Thus, whilst the Chinaman says: No pu Jci 
Hi 'I not know that', the Japanese says : Watakowa Korewo 
sira su 'I that know not'. 

In structure Japanese resembles the undeveloped langu- 
ages of the Altaic peoples, Mangu and Mongolian, but 
differs from them in its lack of vowel-harmony. The local 
relations of the noun are sufficiently indicated by phonetic 
means, and even for the purely grammatical relations such 
as subject and object there exist elements of which the idiom 
makes excellent use. 

"Whilst the language lacks definite verbal forms, it 
possesses a great number of gerunds and participles, which 
doubtless explains the lack of a relative pronoun. 

Within the sentence the denning element precede's the 
thing denned, that is to say, the genitive comes before the 
noun to which it belongs, the object before its verb, the 
defining sentence before the one it more nearly defines. 

Numeration in Japanese seems to be based on the 
decimal system: 

1 fito 40 go-so 

10 too 50 it su-so 

20 futa-zi 100 momo 

30 mi-so 1000 zi 

From an ideological standpoint the language is indirect, 
the formula being 1. 3. 5. Ill; i. e. Genitive + noun, adjec- 
tive + noun, object + verb, subject + verb. 

In Korean, as in Chinese, we find as the expression 

for the Highest not only I A Tk'ien Heaven, but 

A O 

-* Tjiu Lord, and not infrequently in combination. For 


~3H 57 HS~ 

instance, Tkien-tjiu-oi tieh-mo God's holy mother. lettin 
b-ro tjiu-ral Iwhkientiata to honor God with devotion. 

Like Japanese, Korean has a tolerably-well evolved 
noun, but a wholly-undeveloped,' flexionless verb, which is 
nevertheless rich in various turns affecting the relation of 
the speaker to the one addressed. 

The subject is only denoted when it is defined, but 
the object characterized by a sign of its own. The attribute 
is distinguished from the predicate, and the thing defined 
always comes after the defining element. The subject with 
its qualifications opens the sentence, the verb with its pre- 
ceding object closes it. The language possesses no relative 
pronoun, but several forms of the gerund. Its ideology is 
the same as that of Japanese; namely, indirect: 1. 3. 5. 8. III. 

Here, too, it is the decimal system of numeration. 

1 K'ana 30 t'ielk'on 

10 iel 40 mak'on 

20 t'omul 50 t'uin 

St. John 111. 16 is thus translated into Korean: 




~>i 58 H~ 

Most interesting is the thought, most curious the spreech 
of the Bodpa, the dwellers in Tibet. The language consists 
of monosyllabic radicals, the structure of the sentence de- 
pending partly upon combination, partly upon the addition 
of particles which in certain cases become suffixes by 

There is no difference between noun and verb, the 
latter itself being really a noun, and the two most important 
cases lack a distinctive sign. As in active transitive sent- 
ences the nominative cannot stand to designate the agent, 
but the instrumental, we have the remarkable fact in Tibetan 
that, nominative and accusative or the subject-case can 
never appear in one and the same sentence. Number, 
spatial case-relations and the relation of dependence are 
denoted by annexed particles. 

The verb is really a noun which expresses a state the 
bearer of which in a neutral sense is denoted by the naked 
stem (nominative), in an active-passive sense by the in- 
strumental. In Tibetan there is no active verbal expression 
with subject and object; even in passive constructions, in 
which we conceive the subject in the nominative, it is 
generally put by preference in the dative. Thus, on the 
one hand, the language lacks the conception of the subject 
as something acting, and, on the other, that of the object 
as something affected by the action. 

In the sentence the verb stands at the end; the de- 
fining expression precedes the thing defined, the genitive the 
noun, the object the verb. Only the instrumental or ex- 
pression of the agent has a freer position; if the object is 
in the dative, it can either come before or after it. So 
that Tibetan ideology is really natural, the order being 
1. 4. 5. 8. I, or genitive + noun, noun + adjective, object + 
verb and subject + verb. And with this goes the decimal 
system of numeration. 

~3* 59 HS~ 

Now, in the language of the Bod-pa there are two ex- 
pressions for God which seem to represent the high-water 
mark of the Tibetan religious consciousness, namely: 

Ml<og, pronounced Koa, The Best; 

Lha, pronounced La 
^ Lha-sa = deva-nagari City of God. 

Lha klu mi sogs-kjis saris-rgjes-la phjag bjas so 
(la lu mi sog-tji sari-dja-la 'kag ga so) 

'By the gods, snake-deities, men and others adoration was paid 

to Budd'a-' The form used by the missionaries 

Kon-Koa. <&!3e>ZJl T Ko is applied by Budd'ists to the Trratna. 

Passing on to Burmese we find it to be a language 
consisting of monosyllabic root-words; but possessing a 
great many dissyllabic nominal expressions which have been 
borrowed from the ecclesiastical language of the Southern 
Budd'ists, namely, Pali. Indeed, in one particular the lan- 
guage itself goes beyond Isolation, by prefixing a- to the 
verbal stems for the derivation of nouns and by combining 
synonyms with the verbal and nominal composition for the 
nearer determination of the concept. 

The various case-relations are indicated by annexed 
particles. There is no pure nominative or subjective, but 
the objective is known not only by its position in the sent- 
ence but by a suffix. The verb rests upon a nominal basis, 
though there are indications of a closer definition. 

In the sentence the subject stands at the beginning, 
the verb at the end. The defining element precedes the 
thing defined; hence the subordinate sentence must be en- 
cased in the principal sentence, which involves a certain 

-X 60 H$~ 

looseness of construction sometimes almost amounting to 

Burmese possesses three modes of intonation: 

a) the natural tone (without modulation of the voice); 

p) the rising tone; 

Y) the falling tone. 

In a language of monosyllabic construction there is 
really no distinction between root, stem and word. Nay, 
from a morphological standpoint there is no difference 
between noun, verb and particle. Use only can determine 
to which category it belongs. 

As regards the noun there are three points to be not- 
iced. In the first place substantives are often derived from 
stems which signify a general quality by the addition of 
the prefix a. The result is that the meaning of the word 
is very general. For instance, from the stem kaunh signify- 
ing 'good, to be good,' we have a-kaunh 'the good, goodness.' 
But the nouns proper, or underived, are monosyllabic and 
are not intimately connected with any verbal root. E. g. 
lu 'man', re 'water', ne 'sun', Kweh 'dog'. 

Then, the greatest number of compounds consists in 
expressions for definite persons and things combined with 
expressions denoting general categories and determining the 
former. E. g. mranh-ta-zili horse-a-riding-object = 'a horse'; 
lu-ta-kiij man-a-body = ''a man'. 

Lastly, the various case-relations are throughout ex- 
pressed by annexed particles of definite meaning. It is 
only the subjective, objective and genitive which, from their 
unique position, can dispense with them. For instance: 

Lu-kah man. 
Singular Plural 

Nominative Lu-kah lii-to-kah 

Agent (Norn. Inst.) lu-t'i lu-to-t'i 

Accusative lu-kii lu-to-kii 

~2* 61 X~ 

Singular Plural 

Approximative ) 

\ lii-t'o lu-to-t'o 

(spatial ace.) J 

Genitive lu-i, lii-twari lu-to-i, lu-to-twan 

Dative lii-ah lu-to-ah 

oca lu-nhaik lu-to-nhaik 

Instrumental lu-p'ran lu-to-p'rari 

Social lu-nhan lu-to-nhan 

Ablative lu-ka, lu-rnha lu-to-ka, lu-to-mha 

Causal lu-kraun lii-to-kraun 

As an attribute the adjective may either come before 
or after the substantive to which it belongs. In the former 
case it appears with the relative suffixes $i, and fan, in the 
latter it is the crude form. As predicate the adjective is 
equal to the verb and is put after the subject, receiving at 
the same time the suffix t E. g. llia-t'l meimma 'a beautiful 
woman'; meimma lha-t'i 'the woman is beautiful'. 

There is no relative pronoun in Burmese, but, by way 
of compensation, we have a series of participial and ge- 
rundive formations. 

With regard to the verb, it may be said to be quite 
formless in respect of person. If person is expressed at all, 
it is done by means of an accompanying noun or pronoun. 

In its inner form the Burmese verb often resembles the 
Tibetan, and in one respect it reminds us of Korean and 
Javanese, namely, in the distinction it makes between in- 
feriors and superiors. The tenses fall into two categories, 
actual and representative. Of actual or immediate action 
we find four forms of the present and three of the preterite, 
whilst the tenses of representative action are a) two forms 
of the future; (J) two necessitative forms, expressing necessity 
both near and distant. 

Burmese numerical expressions are based upon the 
decimal system. Like Tibetan, Burmese is natural in its 
ideology, the formula being 1.4. 5. 8. I. 

^H 62 Kr- 

As a specimen of the language we may take the 

Manl -krih-t 'i : mi-b'urah-ihrat ! ria-ah kjari-ra 

King -the: great queen! to -me work -thing 
kauri-ra-t'au t'ari-i wut ma-kon-t'au-krauri 

completion-thing of thy business not-finished-on account of 
nhit-loh ma-t'a-si-t'i lib ma-hot, tapah-t'au akraunh-to- 
mind troubled is alike certainly not, others causes 

krauri nhit-loh ma-t'a-si-ti lib ma-hot, 

on account of mind troubled is as also certainly not. 

Divine sovereignty seems to be the Burmese view of 
the Eternal, for, the word for God is 

OOCp B'ura Lord 

The language of the Siamese known as Dai is the purest 
example of a formless, wholly undeveloped monosyllabic 
idiom. In form all parts of speech are alike, the meaning 
alone determining which part it shall be. As regards the 
noun, there is no designation of number, and the spatial 
case-relations are only expressed by prefixed particles. The 
verb, too, does not denote either person or number. 

Indefinite is the position in the sentence. The defining 
element follows the thing to be defined without distinction. 
Alike the genitive and the attribute are put after the 
expression which they more nearly define, as also the com- 
plement of the verb, namely, the object. Hence the pre- 
dicate, which likewise follows the subject, is really indist- 
inguishable from the attribute. 

Like Chinese, the language distinguishes honionymous 
words by intonation, there being no less than five distinct 
tones in Siamese. Thus, 

a) the natural tone (without modulation of the voice) 
P) the higher rising tone (a quarter upwards) 
Y) the lower rising tone (a third upwards) 


->, 63 K- 

6) the higher falling tone (weak rise and then sinking 
to the fundamental) 

e) the lower falling tone (a fifth downwards). 

Every word in Siamese being a root-word, it is the 
lexicon and not the grammar which determines whether a 
word shall be taken in this or that sense. Nouns are either 
simple, such as (p) Hwa 'head', (a) tin 'foot', (j) fa 'heaven'; 
or compound, as in the three following modes: 


1. Genitive relationship: 

(e) ma- (Y) na 'mother of the water' (river); (e) ma- 
(a) mj 'mother of the hand' (thumb); (a) luk- (a) mi 'son 
of the hand' (artizan). 

2. Determination: 

(a) wat- (a) wa 'temple' (p) bai- (e) lai 'leaves', where 
the second members wa, lai in themselves mean nothing. 


(a) gwam- (a) riam 'thing-beautiful' (beauty); (e) p'u- 
(a) taj 'this three-die' (dead man). 

The cases being known for the most part by their 
position, it is well to pay particular attention to Siamese 
ideology. The subjective precedes the verb, the objective 
comes directly after it; thus: (a) fai (e) hmai (a) rien 'fire 
burn house'. The genitive is expressed either by putting the 
defining element after the thing to be defined, or by com- 
bining the latter with such words as (p) k'on 'thing', (6) 
hih place. For instance, (a) Bien (p) k'oii (a) naj (a) dahan 
'house thing leader troops' = the house of the leader of the 
troops. The dative and ablative are expressed by prefixing 
(6) ka 'to', 'after', and (6) ta 'from' respectively. Thus, (e) 
p'u- (T) s5 (e) hai (a) n6n (6) ka (e) p c u- (P) k c aj 'this there- 
buy give money to this there-sell' = the buyer gives money 

~3H 64 H~ 

to the seller; (a) ma (6) ta (a) mjan (a) dai (f) lau 'come 
from kingdom T'ai already' = he has come from the king- 
dom of T'ai. 

Whether as predicate or attribute the adjective comes 
after the substantive to which it belongs: e. g. (a) kien (|3) 
sun 'house high' = high house, and, the house is high. 

As in the Further Indian idioms generally pronouns in 
Siamese were originally nouns and vary according to the 
social position of the person addressed. 

The verb dispenses alike with person and number. 
Not infrequently the verbal stem is joined to another of 
general meaning, as in Burmese. Thus, (e) wa- (a) pai 'to 
talk' (say-go); (a) tok (a) Ion 'to fall down' (fall-descend). 

Numeration is based upon the decimal system, but the 
substantives do not immediately follow the numbers, a 
numeral word such as 'person', 'tail', 'piece' being put be- 
tween the two. E. g. (a) pla (g) hok (0) han 'fish six tails' 
= six fishes. 

Siamese ideology is direct, namely, 2. 4. 6. 7. VII, or 
noun -j- genitive, noun -{- adjective, verb -|- object and 
verb + subject. 

The Siamese thought of God is identical with that of the 
Burmese, namely 

E Bra Lord. 

St. John 111. 16. is thus translated into Siamese: 

If we pass up to the K'asia Hills of Eastern India we 
find that the language of the K'asia is one of peculiar inter- 
est, for, although it is a monosyllabic idiom, it expresses 

-3H 65 H$~ 

the various relationships of the outer world by means 
of particles rather than by position within the sentence. 
K'asi is thus the exact opposite of Chinese. Indeed there 
air not a few signs of agglutination and several poly- 
syllabic forms which have been borrowed from Bengali. 
It is noteworthy, also, that gender and number are re- 
gularly denoted. 

As regards form there is really no distinction between 
noun, verb and particle, differentiation being effected by 
means of suffixes. In the formation of the parts of speech 
the pronoun plays the chief part. 

With the substantive gender, number and case are all 
distinguished, but the form of the noun remains unchanged, 
these functions being performed by the personal pronoun 
of the third person. Thus we have: 

Xom. u briu 'the man', ki briu 'the men'; ka in 'the house', 
ki in -the houses'. 

Whilst the nominative as the subject-case generally 
comes before the verb, the dative and accusative follow it: 
e. g. U Blei u la t'au ia ka pirt'ei 'God created the Earth'; 
U Garka u la pin-ih. ia lia ia uta u him '6ark f a showed 
me this mountain'. In the genitive the definable expression 
precedes the defining, and not infrequently the word goii 
'thing' comes between the two; thus, u kun u briu 'the son 
of man'; kipa gon ni 'father our'; ka kti goii me 'thy hand'; 
ka in goii ria 'my house'. Then there are the dative, loca- 
tive, ablative, comitative and instrumental, which are formed 

When used attributively the adjective has a special 
form: it is derived from verbs or adverbs by means of the 
prefixed relative particle 6a; e. g. ba-lih white, ba-k'am-lih 
whiter; ba-b'a good, ba-k'am-b'a better. The adjective can 
cither come before or after the substantive to which it 
belongs; in the former case the relative pronoun which serves 


-s* 66 HS~ 

as a demonstrative adjective or article must agree with the 
noun in gender and number. For instance, u kulai ba-lih 
'the horse white'; u him ba-k r rau 'the mountain high'; ki 
dok'a ba-Va 'the fishes good'. 

The K'asi verb is just as immutable and indefinite as 
the noun; all relations and definitions of time, mood and 
person are expressed by auxiliary verbs, particles and pro- 
nouns. In fact, except for the meaning of the stem, there 
is no distinction between noun and verb. E. g. u ioh 
4 he has', u briu 'the man'; ka pom 'she breaks off', ka 
briu 'the woman'. The tenses are the following: an aorist 
present, a durative present, an aorist preterite, a durative 
preterite, a durative perfect, a preterital perfect (= plus- 
quamperfectum), an aorist future, a definite future and an 

Numeration in K'asi is based upon the decadic system. 
As a specimen of the language we may take the Lord's 
Prayer : 

Ko kipa gon ni u- ba ha binen, Ion ba-kiiid ka 
O Father who our He who in heaven, be holy the 

kirten gon me, wan ka hima goh me, Ion ka 
name which thine, come the kingdom which thine, be the 

mon gon me ha ka kindeu kum-ba ha binen, ai 
will which thine, upon the earth so-as in heaven, give 

ia ni m_nta ka gin-barn gon ni ka ba-biaii, map 
to us now the food which our the sufficient, forgive 

ruh ia hi ka rinkan gon ni kum-ba ni map 

also to us the transgression which our so-as we forgive 

ia ki-ba leh sniu ia ni. Wat ialam ruh ia ni sa 
to those who act badly to us. And not lead also us into 

ka ba-pin-soi, hinrei sumar ia ni na ka ba-sniu, na-ba 
the temptation, but shield us from the evil, for 

~3H 67 HS~ 

ka hima ka bor ruh ka burom ruh ki gon me 
the kingdom the power and the glory also which thine 
hala karta. Amen, 
eternal time. Amen. 

We have seen that K'asi ideology is hybrid, namely 
2. 4. 6. 8. VI. 

Like Burmese and Siamese, the K'asi thought of the 
Supreme is that of divine Sovereignty: 

Blei Lord (= B'ura, Bra). 

|| Blei u la pin-mi ia ka pirt'ei da ka gin-p_u-iap u kun gon u 

God made living the world (earth) by the death (die-make) 

of His Son!' 

Having thus followed the language of Indo-China and 
the course of theologic thought amongst the nations of this 
vast area, it may be well to understand their mutual re- 
lationship and interdependence. 

Now, indo-chinese philology is a science of yesterday. 
Were we to question a sinologist of any school of 50, nay, 
20 years ago, as to the origin of the Chinese, he would 
emphatically declare that, from time immemorial they had 
occupied the same ethnic position, and for five thousand 
years had had an isolating language and even a mono- 
theistic religion. That is to say, hitherto the history of 
China has been conceived as that of a gradual self-devel- 
lopment of a homogeneous stem, possessing almost the whole 
land, from savagery up to a culture to which five hundred 
years ago no Western nation had attained. From the 
existence of this supposed self-rise and progress of an im- 
portant focus of culture definite conclusions alike for political 
and historical philosophy have been drawn. 

The origin of the misunderstanding with respect to the 
political and ethnological state of ancient China is remark- 
able; it is to be found in the special divisions of the Chinese 
annals and in the peculiarities of the geographical division 

H2H 68 K~ 

of the empire for the purposes of administration. It was 
thus that Klaproth was misled in his 'Tableaux historiques 
de 1'Asie'. The three thousand volumes of which the his- 
torical annals consist are not by any means a finely-spun 
narrative of all the political, social, artistic, scientific and 
economical subjects which, according to our "Western notions, 
constitute history. They are rather analytical and encyclo- 
paedic: every thing is considered simply. First come the 
imperial records containing the purely political relations 
of each reign, and more especially the deeds of the Emperor. 
Then follow sections on chronology, prescriptions, politics, 
political ecomomy, music, geography and literature. In 
the last division of each part of the annals, where all the 
facts and relevant details are given, the immigrants who 
were not subject and, although within the Chinese Empire, 
were not Chinese, namely, the Mjau, Man, Lan, Pan, Ngu, etc. 
are treated as foreigners. The history of China having thus 
been mostly taken from the chronological parts of these 
annals, the Chinese seem always to have been in full poss- 
ession of their empire. 

Who, then, are the Chinese? This is a question which 
would seem to involve a reference to the very densest stratum 
of nebulous thought. It has been said of Art that 'with 
a special tenacity she has wrapped herself about in the 
grateful gloom of a mystic twilight', and with equal truth 
it may be said of China; for, indeed, in walking down a 
street in Hankow or Pekin 'we survey a living past and 
converse with fossil men'. Though known amongst them- 
selves as Po Hsin, 'the Hundred Families', we must not 
forget that the Chinese form a third part of the whole 
human race, and that this colossal agglomeration of 420 
millions of human beings is cemented solely by the tradi- 
tion of the Elders. Notwithstanding the fact that we possess 
a vast literature on both the race and language of this 
wonderful country, and despite all that has been set forth 

by chinamen as to the possession of an unbroken history, 
we cannot rest satisfied that three is nothing more to be 
learnt about them. Consulting the first chapters of this 
venerable history we find the representation of a small band 
of Chinese immigrants settling down in what form the 
North Eastern province of the present empire, that is to 
say, in a territory surrounded on all sides by autochthonic 
t rib os. These strangers are said to have been possessed 
of arts and Sciences by means of which they were able to 
exercise lordship over the more ignorant natives of the 
country. But then we at once ask: whence came these 
foreigners? From whom had they learnt astronomy, the art 
of writing and the science of government? 

The only way of satisfactorily answering these questions 
is by national and international linguistic analysis. In dis- 
secting words we are in reality writing the history of civili- 
sation. As regards China the linguistic problem is undoubtedly 
that of evolution. According to Schlegel and others matter 
and form in Chinese remain distinct, on the other hand 
Humboldt and Bopp have declared that the Chinese lan- 
guage is without all form, without organism, without grammar. 
Wherein, then, lies the difficulty of general exegesis if not 
in a right view of the Law of Evolution? Be it natural 
or mental science, the student presses the law of the deve- 
lopment of organisms or of the modes of thought and speech, 
which he accepts, with a magnificent and often enough 
successful onesidedness, as though he were obliged to derive 
everything exclusively from this. On the one hand the 
positive and inner formative causes are brought to the front, 
whilst on the other everything is explained by external pro- 

Beginning with national analysis we must bear in mind 
the truth so well enunciated by Wilhelm von Humboldt 
that the mental peculiarity of a people and the form of 
its speech stand to each other in such/intimate relationship 

tliat, the one being given, one should be able to completely 
deduce the other from it. For, intellectuality and language 
only admit and induce forms which are mutually correspond- 
ent, Applying this to the Chinese, we are not surprised 
to find that the principle which shows itself in their prac- 
tical life, that, namely, of undifferentiated unity, is also the 
principle of their speech. The inner form is lacking, having 
become pure externality. Only by the external order of 
words are the inner relations and interdependence of con- 
cepts expressed. It would seem that the richness of Chinese 
linguistic phantasy has resolved itself into music. Position 
and intonation decide the meaning of the sentence. But 
what is the origin of the Sen or tones? 'The salvation of 
science', says Prof. Steinthal, 'must ever mostly depend 
upon a correct statement of the question; for every question 
contains its answer in itself, and if the former is wrongly 
stated, the latter is necessarily wrong. "With new questions 
begin new epochs'. If, therefore, we have before us an 
organism of data, we have to ask, not so much after the 
How and Why, as rather after the What. Strange though 
it seem, it is to these 'Sen that Chinese owes its mono- 
syllabism. This ingenious musical device has been brought 
about solely by phonetic decay. It is a phaenomenon which 
is found, though in a less degree in many African dialects, 
where it has produced the same result, 

'To understand their origin', says Prof. Douglas, 'we 
must remember that on entering China the Chinese found 
the country occupied by races more or less civilised, with 
whom they freely mixed to a greater or less degree as 
circumstances determined. From this inequality of inter- 
course betwen races speaking languages with different mor- 
phological constructions, in which great importance was 
attached to the quality and quantity of vowels for the 
meaning of Words, there resulted a condition of phonetic 
poverty owing to contractions and elisions of the initial, 

~5* 71 XT- 

medial or final syllables of their words. By the movements 
of the organs of speech and the ordinary principle of equi- 
librium the place of these decayed articulations has been 
supplied by differences of tone in the pronunciation of the 
vowels, a system which, by the facility it gives for the 
economy of language, has received a full development'. 

The Chinese written language (Kjai-Su) is a word- 
writing; every sign represents a concept. But since the 
number of the simple conceptual signs was limited, new 
concepts were formed partly by reduplication and to a 
great extent by addition. A calculation based on the Im- 
perial Chinese Dictionary show that, at present, the Chinese 
language is represented by about 50,000 characters. Of 
these at least 13,000 are utterly irrelevant and consist of 
signs which are alike obsolete, incorrectly formed, and un- 
explained. In ordinary literature we do not meet with more 
than 4000 signs. A knowledge of only 2500 characters will 
enable one to understand the writings of Confucius and his 
disciples, in fact, almost any Chinese work on history and 

Now, the Kjai - Su does not date further back than the 
4 th century of our era. It is a modification of the more 
rounded and thick writing known as Li-s'u i. e. official script, 
which is ascribed to Kin-mo, rendered possible through the 
improvements in the scribe's apparatus, namely, his paper 
and hair pencil. The Chinese emperors have always con- 
sidered it their special function to uphold orthography and 
have repeatedly tried to fix by law the form of the written 
signs. Hence, since the days of the Zin dynasty the Li-s'u 
had been the official text. It will easily be seen that, when 
once there was a deviation from tradition and new forms 
were created, there would arise the danger that, in the far- 
reaching provinces of the Chinese empire, independent forms 
would be developed and the highly-important unity of written 
language be destroyed. The character composed of meagre 

->* 72 f<~ 

and monotonous strokes which had immediately preceded 
the Li-su was the Sjau-kwan which was written on a bamboo 
with a stylus. But this again was an official modification 
of the ancient mode of writing called Ta-kwan in which, 
among the different States which had once been subject to 
the dominion of the Kau, many and great variations had 
been developed. Formed by the historiographer C S6 Kau 
at the instigation of one of the greatest monarchs of the 
Kau dynasty, King Sim, the Ta-kwan was an undertaking 
in which the written character was reconstructed as one of 

Having come thus far by an analysis of the Chinese 
language itself, let us now, under the guidance of that emin- 
ent philologist, Prof. Terrien de Lacouperie, apply our 
second canon of research, namely, international linguistic 

The modern characters can be traced back through 
the changes they have undergone, partly in obedience to 
political necessities, in the fourth century and during the 
Zin (B. C. 255200) and the Kau (B. C. 1122255) dy- 
nasties, to a time when they were used to phonetically re- 
present an agglutinative or amalgamating laguage. 'We 
have multifarious proofs that the writing first known in China 
was already an old one, partially decayed, but also much 
improved since its primitive hieroglyphic stage. Although 
many of them had kept their early pictographic and ideo- 
graphic value, the characters, selected according to their 
sense, were used phonetically, isolated and in groups, to 
represent the monosyllabic and polysyllabic words as well 
as the compounds of the spoken language. At that time 
the writing of the Ku-wan was really the phonetic expression 
of speech'. By an analysis of the old inscriptions and frag- 
ments and by the help of the native works on palaeography 
M. de La Couperie has compiled a dictionary of this period. 
With the results of Jan Hjun's researches in 25 dialectic 

regions and by a comparison of the various idioms of modern 
China with those of the aborigines we are enabled to read 
the characters as the subjects of the Zin dynasty read them. 
The outcome of this process has then to be compared with 
the rhymes of the Si-Kin or 'Book of Odes' and with the 
languages of the offshoots from the ancient Chinese con- 
federation, such as the Siamese, the Burmese and the Anna- 
mites, and even with those of remoter kinship. 

We have already spoken of that characteristic of Chinese, 
namely the Sen or tones. Now, a comparison of these tones 
as they are developed in the speech of the Middle Kingdom 
with the double initials in Burmese, Siamese and Sinico- 
Annamite, and with the mute letters in Tibetan, completes 
the evidence required to prove that they are the modern 
representatives of decayed syllables. As an instance of 
the transformation of ancient Chinese words we may mention 
the equivalent for 'eye' which, as Prof. Douglas has pointed 
out, from a combination of two words, mut and Jean, becomes 
mukan, as it is at the present day among the Panicoochi 
tribe of aborigines. As this word gradually became the 
property of tribes some of whom laid greater stress on the 
final and other on the initial parts of their words, it was 
successively metamorphosed on the one hand to mang, ngan 
and the modern jen, and on the other hand to muk and mult. 

Thus, notwithstanding its excessive attenuation, and 
disguised as it is by the influence of idioms belonging 
to a different morphology and conceptology , the Chinese 
spoken language is nevertheless an ancient member of that 
great family of speech which is known as Uralaltaic. And 
here it may be well, as Prof, de Lacouperie suggest, to 
establish a third division of that family, which might appro- 
priately be called Amardian; a group in which the first 
division embraces Akkadian and its dialect, and the second 
division Proto-Medic, Susian and Kossian. 

The ideological characteristics of Chinese, coupled with 


~>r 74 ~3~ 

its peculiarities, place it as a link between the Amardian 
division and the Ugro-Finnish group. It is true that ancient 
Chinese shares certain very marked grammatical affinities 
with the Ugro-Finnish tongues, hut its phonetic degeneration 
and its choice of certain articulations more closely connect 
it with the Akkadian and Susian dialects. To quote but 
a few instances of this linguistic relationship: 

Akkadian Chinese English 

lu li cow 

uniu mu mother 

sik sik cloth 

gan gun cloud 

ka ko mouth 

Of the Akkadian hieroglyphics there have as yet been 
deciphered rather more than 500, and it is very remarkable 
that Chinese tradition fixes the number of the original 
characters at 540. 

'Results no less remarkable', says Prof. Douglas, 'are, 
however, brought to light by a comparison of the social and 
religious institutions of the two peoples. In the early leg- 
endary records of China we find the first place in the list 
of the five Sovereigns who bore rule at the dawn of history 
occupied by Hwaii-ti, anciently Kon-ti, whose family name 
is said to have been Nai or Nak. This ruler is credited 
with having invented astronomy, music, medicine and the 
other sciences, as well as the arts which contribute to the 
comfort and well-being of man. If we examine the old form 
of his name as preserved in the Kwen-zo-wd and the Su-su- 
fum-lui we find it to be composed of one group of charac- 
ters to be read Nak-Konti, a name which strangely coin- 
cides with Nak'unta or Nak'unte mentioned in the Susian 
texts as the chief of the gods. This name was added to 
their own by the oldest Susian Kings, as we find in the 
case of Kudur-Kak'unta who ravaged the country from Ur 
to Babylon and founded the dynasty called by Berosus 

~2* 75 r<- 

Medic (B. C. 2285). Again, tradition tells us that the in- 
ventor of Chinese writing was Zan Hie, or, as his name 
was pronounced in old Chinese, Dum-Kit, who is said to 
have been an independent chief, though by some writers he 
has been described as reigning in succession to Fu-Hi and 
by others as a minister of Hwan-Ti. The resemblance be- 
tween his name Dum-Kit and that of Dungi, King of Ur, 
who succeeded the famous Sikbagas or Likbabi on the throne, 
is curious, and the interest in the comparison is heightened 
when we recognise that the meaning of the Akkadian charac- 
ters composing the name Dungi is the man of the reed tablet'. 

Turning now to the political institutions of the early 
Chinese we find in the fragments of Susian history as yet 
made known complete explanations on two points which 
have hitherto baffled the investigation of scholars both native 
and foreign. In the second chapter of the 'Book of History 7 
we are told that the Emperor 'San (B. B. 22552205) 'gave 
daily audiences to all the pastors', who are understood to 
have been the Princes of the various states; and, in another 
passage, that 'he sacrificed specially, but with the ordinary 
forms, to God, and with reverent purity, to the Six Honored 
Ones. 7 The epithets 'pastors 7 , as applied to Princes, and 
'Six Honoured Ones 7 have been much commented upon, but 
no satisfactory explanation has been offered of them. Now, 
however, that which has been a riddle to the people them- 
selves for tens of centuries is made plain to us by the Susian 
texts. There we are told that the Princes of the second 
rank were called 'pastors 7 , and that in the Divine hierarchy 
there were next in order to the principal god six deities 
of the first rank'. 

And here we must stop to notice what is, after all, 
the most important work in the whole realm of Chinese 
literature, namely, the Ji-Kin. It was of this book that 
Confucius said that, if he had 50 more years to live, he 
would devote them to the study of the original text, which 

consists of short sentences arranged under certain diagrams, 
formed by the combination of straight lines. 

'As a matter of fact', says Prof, de Lacouperie, 'the 
Ji-kin is the oldest of the Chinese books, not certainly as 
it now stands, but as far as concerns the greatest part of 
the documents which are compiled in it. Some of these 
parts are most likely contemporary with the early leaders of 
the Chinese Bak families (Poll-Sing). It has all the appear- 
ance of being a series of notes, documents, and informations 
collected by the early chiefs of the Chinese immigrants. It 
looks like a repository of indications drawn up by the early 
leaders of the Bak families, for the guidance of their officers 
and successors, in the use of the characters of the writing, 
by the native populations with whom the newly - arrived 
people had to deal, for the customs, the produce of the soil, 
the animal kingdom, etc.; and it is in this sense that the 
Ji-kin is the most valuable of the Chinese classics, the one 
in which, according to the non-interrupted and unconscious 
feeling of the Chinese themselves, was embodied the wisdom 
and Knowledge of the sages of yore'. 

The work is attributed to the legendary Emperor Fu-Hi 
(B. C. 2852) and seems to have been first arranged under 
the Hia dynasty (22051766 B. C.). The fact that 1450 
works on the Ji were selected for the library of Kien-Lah 
shows pretty clearly the inability of the successive early 
commentators Wan Waii (B. C. 1150), k'au Kim (B. C. 
1120), and Kuh-pu-zo (B. C. 500) to understand the book. 
Native and European scholars have alike supposed it to treat 
exclusively of philosophy and divinatory lore, but the researches 
of Prof, de Lacouperie and his collaborateur, Prof Douglas, 
prove that 'the original text consits to a great extent of 
vocabularies in which important words and their characters 
are explained in the (probably eight) different dialects spoken 
within the limits of the Chinese supremacy, and in which 
to other words are appended lists of their equivalents. Inter- 

~>< 77 ws- 

iningled with these vocabularies are important records of 
unusual interest, such as ephemerides bearing on the ethno- 
logy and history of the ancient East'. 

Now, it would seem that these Chinese vocabularies 
Iisive been framed in obedience to the same principles, very 
much with the same materials, and according to the tradition 
of the old syllabaries of South- Western Asia. Both in Elam 
and China we find not only the phonetic vocabularies, but 
also the converse system, namely, lists of the words or 
characters which have a common meaning, Thus we have 
many proofs of a theory which has been held by Prof, de 
Lacouperie for many years, that before their emigration to 
the far East, the Chinese Bak families had borrowed the 
pre-cuneiform writing and elements of their Knowledge and 
institutions from a region connected with the old focus of 
culture of Susiana. There is, however, evidence of a multi- 
farious kind to show that the borrowing took place after 
the Semitic influence had been brought to bear upon the 
Akkadians and Sumirians, and at a time when 'the cunei- 
form strokes already introduced were not yet exclusively 
used to draw the characters, straight and curved lines being 
still used at the same time, and the introduction of the 
wedge-shaped implement had not effaced the pictographical 
forms of the signs'. 

To historically determine this remarkable propagation 
of culture, we must remember the following interesting and 
important facts, which have been pointed out by M. de La- 

1. The writing was communicated with all its peculia- 
rities and complexity of ideograms and phonetics, the latter 
keeping their sounds, and the former receiving sometimes 
new appellations in the language of the borrowers according 
to their picture-meaning. 

2. The characters were still in the plastic stage which 
allows a certain range of alterations and occasional variations 

~3* 78 K^ 

for the facility of the compound characters. A comparative 
analysis of the compounds in the early Cuneiform characters 
discloses this parallel fact, and it is a feature of the so-called 
Hittite characters, which on the inscriptions are modified 
according to their position as opposed to the rigidity of the 
Egyptian hieroglyphs more early crystallized. 

3. Many characters were still pictographic, but a great 
number had lost their original hieroglyphic shape and had 
assumed apparently arbitrary forms. 

4. The writing had not been drawn at first by an ob- 
lique eyed people. 

5. The facing process, upwards or downwards, of draw- 
ing the pictographic characters, had been preferred as 
often as possible to the profile process (Egyptian and Hittite), 
probably to avoid the boustrophedon. 

6. At the time of its propagation to the Chinese Bak 
families, the pre-cuneiform writing was disposed in horizontal 
lines, but it had been written previously horinzontally and 
vertically, according to the size of the characters as in 
Egyptian and so-called Hittite hieroglyphs. 

7. The borrowers, perhaps in imitation of the knotted 
cords and notched rods previously used by them, disposed 
the writing in vertical lines instead of horizontal, and for 
that purpose had to put up the characters single a com- 
pound not easy to disintegrate, which had too much width 
for the regularity of the lines. The putting-up of the picto- 
graphic characters was ruled by the figure of their subject. 

8. In the script borrowed, the characters were used 
phonetically in the formation of compounds, without neglec- 
ting their ideographic values, which were taken into account 
and ruled their selection; their reading was from left to 
right or from top to bottom. 

"We have thus answered the question with which we 
started. The early leaders of the Chinese borrowed their 
culture from Elam, that confederation of states of which 

-> 79 t<$~ 

Susa was the chief town, and the Kussi the chief population. 
'From a body of evidence', says M. de Lacouperie, 'it results 
that they were at first settled south-east of the Caspian Sea; 
and that, in order to escape a heavy yoke, they extended 
on the east, along the head -waters of the Oxus, following 
its main affluent, the Red Water (Kisil Su), and then passing 
into Chinese Turkestan along the other Kisil-Su, the head- 
waters of the Ka'sgar River (the Tarim), which conducted 
them after a time to the Yellow River and 'The Flower Land 7 , 
of which the fame was without doubt already attractive 
enough to make it a suitable place of colonisation'. 

The same distinguished scholar suggests that the break 
up which happened in those states and resulted in the con- 
quest of Babylonia by the Elamite King, KaduixNalninta, 
in 2285 B. C. was also the cause of an Eastern conquest 
and a settlement in Bactria, and that this would account 
for the old focus of culture coeval with the earlier period 
of Assyrian monarchy said to have existed in Central Asia. 

Now, the .two ethnic names which were those of the 
future Chinese invaders, namely, Bak which is the ancient 
form of Poh (Poh Sin Bak families), and Kutti or Kutta 
(now Hia) are not foreign to these regions; nay, is it not 
likely that the Chinese Kutti and the Kussi, the Chinese 
Bak and Ball (Bak'-di: Bactria) are the same? 

Tho population of Indo-China thus consists for the most 
part of ethnic elements previously existing in China, so that, 
to fully understand the ethnology of the whole peninsula 
and adequately to appreciate the necessary interdependence 
of various human races, we must study the Chinese immi- 
gration itself. 

As we have seen, the results of ancient Chinese philo- 
logy point to the fact that China received her language and 
the elements of the arts, sciences and institutions, from the 
invasions of the Ugro - Altaic Bak families. These tribes 
came from Western Asia about 2300 B. C. under the leader- 

^H 80 f<~ 

ship of men of high culture who, through their neighbors the 
Susians, were acquainted with the civilisation which came 
from Bahylon and was changed in the second focus. 

When these Bak families came in contact with the 
aborigines they found tattooed tribes, two stems indeed, 
whose characteristics strike the traveller even to-day. One 
was a race of dwarfs, the Tjau, who are still represented 
by a) the Trau, in the east of Bienhoa in Cochin China, 
well-nigh the smallest of the human race; (3) the Hota e - c San, 
Southwest of Junnan; y) the Minkopies of the Andamans; 
6) the Simangs of the Malay peninsula, and e) one of the 
native Formosan stems. These races are all representative 
of the once so widely-spread Negrito stem. Near the first 
Chinese colony on the Swan ho was the other stem of the 
Kan Kjo, the 'long-legged'. The French scientists of the 
expedition du Mekong observed that the Mois, P'nohs and 
K'as of the Southern Indo-Chinese peninsula had long legs. 
Since at that time the Chinese knew nothing of the regions 
and races South of the Jan-zo-Kjaii, since, further, the 
present representatives of these remarkable men live not far 
from one another, it seems highly probable that the Chinese 
immigrants of both stems knew one another, that the then 
settlement was in North China, and that it was only af- 
terwards they were driven South. By the unequal amount 
of affinities and parallelisms which they have in common 
with the Chinese, the non-Chinese race of the 'flowery land' 
together with their younger relatives of Indo- China show 
that, some obtained them by fortuitous proximity, others by 

Now there are two facts which make it difficult for 
us to follow the linguistic history of a country and at the 
same time to keep fast hold of the identity of a race 
always speaking the same language, namely, racial succession 
and linguistic tradition. As regards the problem before us 
here, the primary data are ethnological; the linguistic evi- 

~x 81 *- 

dence does riot go beyond the tracing of the effect of 
aboriginal speech upon the idiom of the Chinese immigrants. 

The means used for determining the classification of 
native dialects are lexical and ideological affinities. Since 
it is the very nature of language to be in a state of restless 
evolution and change, we ought not to suppose that, in former 
times, other forces and influences were at work than those 
which we find dominant to-day. If roots are produced by the 
unconscious working of the mind in its search after signs 
for general ideas, then the radical period is with us still, 
and will never cease. The language of Tibet, Burmah, 
Pegu, Siam, Annam and China are generally called mono- 
syllabic and are still mentioned by some as living examples 
of the primaeval speech of monosyllabic roots. But it is 
very doubtful whether there ever was such monosyllabism. 
According to Prof De Lacouperie there are but three kinds: 
one of decay, that of pronunciation, and one of writing. 
The languages of South Eastern Asia belong to the second, 
whilst that of English, for instance, arises from decay. By 
reason of the separation of matter from form in these lan- 
guages they are sometimes called juxtapositing; now it is 
just the stuff- and form-words which run together and then 
gradually decay. The decay is often produced by distinction 
of pitch in pronunciation. These tones have been considered 
as the residue of the speech of primitive humanity, when 
language was pure soul-song, the fact is, however, that they 
are merely a common phaenomenon of linguistic equilibrium. 
By this process of decay the languages of South Eastern 
Asia became in many ways destroyed, but their former and 
fuller phoneticism can to a certain extent be restored by 
palaeography and dialectic comparison. The same savant 
divides them into the following six classes: 

1. Incapsulating. 2. Incorporative. 3. Alliterative. 
4. Juxtapositing. 5. Annexing. 6. Amalgamating. 

But we must remember that they are not stages following 


-SH 82 *<- 

one upon another but states resulting from the two great 
forces which produce language, namely, the mental capacity 
to conceive and express general ideas and the laziness of 
the organs of speech. Sometimes these two forces work 
harmoniously together and sometimes against one another. 
We have, for instance, the remarkable phaenomena of mixed 
and hybrid languages. A language is mixed when only 
the lexicon shows foreign elements, hybrid, if the grammar 
is cut up. Grammar shows inner and outer development: 
inner, if, making use of the possibility of evolution, it yet 
remain true to its own nature; outer, if it become mixed 
with another grammar. Of this phaenomenon comparative 
conceptology gives adequate proof, for, ideology has to do 
with the position of words in the sentence and shows how 
languages are built up according to different modes of 
thought, and that if an idiom with direct (logical) word-order 
come into contact with one of indirect or inverting ideology, 
the grammar develops, mixes and changes. 

Dr. de Lacouperie suggests the following laws of con- 
ceptual evolution and mixture: 

1. Where an immigrant idiom comes into contact and 
mixes with a language of different ideology which is spoken 
by the earlier settlers, the power of preserving the order 
of the sentence is greater with the less-refined idiom, whether 
autochthonic or nomadic. 

2. When, in the case of two languages spoken by two 
stems of different stages of culture, imposition and not 
suspension takes place, the prevailing position of the noun 
and adjective of the more refined language holds its own. 

3. Other things equal, the dominant position of the 
verb with regard to subject and object will be that of the 
less developed language, often with the addition of repeating 

Where a language of indirect form (V) is modified by 
an idiom of direct form (IV, .VI), we find the phaenomena 

->* 83 *$~ 

of incorporating pronouns, which frequently repeat subject 
and object. 

If, then, we wish to understand the inner speech-sense, 
the speech -creating mind or the national consciousness, it 
is highly important to know whether the ideology is natural, 
direct, indirect or hybrid. Speaking generally one may say 
that, the dolichokephalic stems have direct ideology, the 
brachykephalic indirect. 

Excepting that of the Northern races which had gone 
before them into the Middle Kingdom and probably belonged 
to the Turko - Tataric stem, the language of the primitive 
Chinese or immigrant Bak families was wholly unlike the 
idiom of the aborigines. Primitive Chinese was related not 
so much to the Altaic as rather to the Western or Ugric 
branch of the Turanian family and more particularly to the 
Ostiak dialects. The ideological formulae of this idiom 
were probably those which are common to all the Ugro- 
altaic languages, when not complicated, namely, 1. 3. 5. 8. III. 
But there are no texts with this ideology extant. In all 
Chinese dialects the formula of to-day is 1. 3. 6. 8. VI; an 
earlier formula 1. 3. 5. 8. I is sometimes found in the older 
of these dialects, e. g. those of Fukau, Kanton and Tuiikin. 
In the writings of the Tau-so we even find traces of the 
primitive ideology 1. 3. 5. 8. III. Yet even with these three 
formulae the linguistic evolution of China is not complete. 
Remarkable instances of a formula 2. 3. 6. 7. are occasionally 
found in older texts. The numerals 6. 7., which indicate 
the postposition of the subject, and imply a syntax IV or 
V, are extant in the earlier texts of the Hia dynasty about 
2000 B. C.; in the Calendar, for instance, and in certain 
parts of the Ji Kin. The former was instituted at the time 
when the founder of the said dynasty made his way down 
to the mouth of the Jan-zo-Kjan in a South Easterly direction. 
In this way the idiom of the conquerors became mixed 
with the speech of the autochthons. And since this calendar 

~>: 84 K- 

was written and spread for the benefit of the mixed popu- 
lation, it follows that, the deviation from the Chinese of that 
day corresponded with the linguistic traits of the district. 
Indeed, they are just those which are peculiar to the Tagalo- 
Malay idioms, the position of the subject after the verb not 
being found in the other dialects which have influenced 
Chinese. By the position of the object after the verb and 
by the synthetic arrangement of the sixth standard as against 
the pure numerals of Uralian, which were formerly common 
to it, there can be little doubt that Chinese has borrowed 
from the indigenous Mon and Tai- c San languages. The 
revolutionary stages of Chinese ideology are, therefore, the 
following: 1. 3. 5. 8. III., 1. 3. 6. 7. IV., 1. 3. 5. 8. I, 2. 3. 
6. 8. YI and 1. 3. 6. 8. VI. 

Phonetics, morphology and semasiology all show how 
great was the influence of the native idioms. The introduction 
and growth of the tones as the result of linguistic equili- 
brium by reason of phonetic decay are to be ascribed to 
the same influence. 

The postposition of particles in Ugro- Altaic to express 
relations of space and time has been replaced in Chinese 
by the exactly-opposite principle. 

On the ancient dialects there are three Chinese dic- 
tionaries, namely, the JEr -ja, the Fan Jen and the 'Swo Wan. 
The first is a work of the Kau dynasty (1050255 B. C.) 
and is divided, according to the subject, into 19 sections. 
Small collections of words arranged according to their related 
meanings constitute the first section, 'Si Ku, which is ascribed 
to the celebrated Duke of Kau. c Sijen, the second section, 
consists of a series of words of which the last gives the 
meaning of the others: its composition is generally ascribed 
to Zo Hia, a disciple of Kun. The next division is arranged 
in pairs with explanations. This kind of double words, 
which is a characteristic of the Tai- c San languages, is often 
found in the popular songs, the e Si Kin, for instance, and 

^* 85 K~ 

must be looked upon as the result of the influence of the 
native idioms of this family upon the speech of the Chinese. 
The Er'-ja is primarily a guide to the classics, but it con- 
tains many words which are found in no Chinese text. To 
a great extent they are loan-words which appear in Chinese 
only by homonyms as phonetic exponents. In this work we 
have a fifth of the whole repertory, i. e. 928 words which 
do not occur elsewhere. According to the Wu Kin Wan 
the five Kin or canonical books contain only 3335 different 
word -forms. If we add the four 'Su the number is only 
4754. The great collection of the 'Si San Kin or 13 Kin, 
which, besides those mentioned, contains the I-li, Kau-li, 
Hjau-Kin, Ko-lian, Kuii Jan and Er'-ja, contais 6544 differ- 
ent words. 

As regards the Fan Jen it is nothing but a compara- 
tive glossary which was made by Jan Hjuii (5 3 B. C. 
18 A. D.). Its full title is: Jeo hien 'se Ke zjiie tai jii 'si 
pie kwo Fan Jen 'the speech of the past explained by 
messengers in light carts together with words from different 
parts of the country'. In this work Jan Hjuii has collected 
over 12,000 words from more than 44 districts. 

Hii 'Sen, the author of the f Swo Wan, lived in the first 
century of our era. The 'Swo Wan, which consists of 9353 
words , is still the chief work with Chinese lexicographers. 
In this great work Hii 'Sen has collected all the characters 
of the so-called Sjau Kwan, which he considered the best, 
and has given 441 of the Ku Wan. 

If, therefore, we would critically arrange the data which 
are to be obtained from the Er'-ja, the Fan Jen and the 
e Swo Wan, together with the commentaries of Kwo P6, 
much of the linguistic history of China between 500 B. C. 
and 250 A. D. would be elucidated and explained. 

Let us now sum up the results of the Indo - Chinese 
philology, for they are of far reaching importance. In the 
first place they reveal the remarkable fact that China's 

-=M 86 HS~ 

interesting culture is derived from Babylonia and Syria, 
that the so-called Chinese list of kings is "based upon the 
early Babylonian canon and restores the first dynasty of the 
86 kings mentioned by Berosus. The duration of the Chinese 
canon, without any astronomical reference, has been calcu- 
lated at 44 centuries B. C. On the other hand, the earlier 
dynasty (13, 11, 9 kings) at 600 years, which would give 
us about 3800 B. C. for 'Sen-Nun = Sargon. Then, besides 
the similarity in names and facts between Chinese tradition 
and Babylonian history, we get two great synchronisms: 
Ku Nak K'un-te = Kudur Nak-Kunte about 2300 B. C. and 
c Sen Nun = Sargon about 3800 B. C. 

Still more important are, perhaps, the linguistic facts 
which have been ^brought to light by scientific research. 
Especially remarkable are the ideological changes which 
are manifest in the two types of speech known as Turano- 
Scythian and Indo- Pacific. The original ideology of the 
Kwanlunic family was 1. '6. 5. 8. Ill, but that of the Chinese 
of to-day is 1. 3. 6. 8. VI, whilst that of Karengian is 1.4. 
6. 8. YI. and that of Tibeto-Burmese 1. 4. 5. 8. III. 

Speaking generally, one may say that the great differ- 
ence between inflecting languages and those of the agglu- 
tinative type is this, that whilst in the former the single 
parts of the perception are presented to the hearer according 
to their importance, the sketch thus developing into the 
perfect picture, in the latter the conceptual framework is 
put together like a mosaic, and only at the end of the sen- 
tence or conversation is it possible to have a review of the 
whole. Again, what a contrast between the vocalisation of 
the Aryan idioms, with the Umlaut of Ancient Baktrian, 
Old Irish and German, and the vou'el-lmrmony as we have 
it in the Uralic and Altaic tongues! 

As a type of the Sarnoyede forms of speech we may 
take Jurak. The language has a richly-developed inflexion, 
the noun possessing the usual case-forms to express space. 

~3* 87 K~ 

On the other hand, the verb is tolerably poor in expressions 
for inner modifications. Every noun can be used as a neuter 
verb and every transitive verb can assume the form of a 
noun with possessive suffixes. The object is expressed phoneti- 
cally, but the subject is not. The attribute precedes the 
noun, but the predicate taking the form of the verb, follows. 
The subject stands at the head of the sentence, the verb 
at the end, the object, as the verb's complement, going before. 

From a phonetical point of view there is no distinction 
between noun and verb. E. g. nano-u my boat; madawae-u 
my section i. e. 'I have cut.' There is no expression of 
grammatical gender, but we have the three numbers, namely, 
singular, dual and plural, and 8 cases, namely, subjective, 
objective, genitive, dative, locative, ablative, prosecutive and 

The language of the Samoyedes possesses two phoneti- 
cally different series of suffixes, namely, predicative and 
possessive, applying alike to noun and verb. Tense is only 
imperfectly expressed in Samoyede. As a rule there are 
but two forms : a fundamental form which may be designated 
an Aorist expressing present and future durative, in fact, 
and a preterite derived from it by means of a sign pointing 
to the past. There are two moods, the conjunctive and im- 
perative, the optative being found in the Jurak dialect only. 

Samoyede numeration is based upon the decimal system, 
but it is very doubtful whether originally, the Samoyedes 
could count beyond six. 

1 Nopoi nob (Jurak); oker (Ostjak) 
5 Samljan ; somblan 

10 ju', lutsa-ju' ; ko't 

Jurak ideology is indirect, as will be seen from the 
following examples (1. 3. 5. 8. Ill): 
Sawa njenetje tubka-si har-si nji jili-nu'. 

brave man club-without knife-without not live will. 

H3H 88 f<r- 

Man jili-no-ma-u ja-u 

I dwell-shall-of-my place-mine = A place where I will 

Ostjali- Samoyede. 

Asa-m taksemel-kum-en njala-md mi-nge-d, wuenel 

Father-my rich-man-to daughter-his give will, another 

kum-en asa mi-nge-d. 

man-to not give will. 

The Jurak and Ostjak thoughts of the Supreme are 
common to all the Uralic tribes, namely: 
JSTum Thunder; Torim Earth. 

Nor must we forget that 'the Tatar tribes with much 
unanimity recognize as a great god the Sun, whose figure 
may be seen beside the Moon's on their magic drums, from 
Siberia to Lapland. Castren, the ethnologist, speaking of 
the Samoyed expression for heaven or deity in general (jili- 
beambaertje) tells an anecdote from his travels, which gives 
a lively idea of the thorough simple nature -religion still 
possible to the wanderers of the steppes. "A Samoyed woman," 
he says, "told me it was her habit every morning and eve- 
ning to step out of her tent and bow down before the sun; 
in the morning saying, 'When thou Jilibeambaertje risest, I 
too rise from my bed!' in the evening, "When thou Jilibeam- 
baertje sinkest down, I too get me to rest!' The woman 
brought this as a proof of her assertion that even among 
the Samoyeds they said their morning and evening prayers, 
but she added with pity that there are also among them 
wild people who never sent up a prayer to God'" * 

The chief characteristic of the idioms of the Uralic 
tribes is the truly astounding development of flexion. The 
noun, for instance, for the living expression of various spatial 
relations shows an unrivalled richness of forms. There are 

i Tylor; Primitive Culture, 291. 


no less than 1 7 cases or modifications of the stem, namely, 
subjective, objective, indefinite, essive, inessive, relative, illa- 
tive, adessive, ablative, allative, abessive, translative, prose- 
cutive, comitative and instructive, genitive and instrumental. 
The two important categories Noun and Verb are generally 
distinguished, as are also the attribute and the predicate, 
the former going before, the latter coming after, the subject. 
As regards the subject, its position is not always the same. 
Whilst in Magyar the object precedes the verb, in Finnish, 
as a rule, it follows. The genitive comes before the word 
it defines. 

The decimal system underlies Uralic numeration. For 
the sake of comparison I give the figures in the words of 
8 languages: 

Syrianian Mordwinian Keremissian 


1 yksy 

2 kaksi 

3 kolme 

4 nelja 

5 viisi 

10 kymmenen 








otik ifka ikta 

kik kafta kok 

kuim kolma kum 

njol' nila nil 

vit veta viz 

das kemen lu 

Ostjak Wogul Magyar 

1 it akva egy 

2 kat kit ket 

3 laid em korom harom 

4 njel njile negy 

5 vet at 6t 
10 joh lau tiz 

As a specimen of Finnish we may take a Rune from 
the great epic Kalevala (III, v. 91): 

Tuli nuori Joukaliainen, Ajoi tie-lla vastatusten 

Came young Joukaliainen, Hurried way-up towards; 

Tarttu-i aisa aisa-n paa-han; 

smashed-itself pole pole-the head-against; 


~H 90 Ki~ 

B,ahe rahke-lien takist-i, 

Pole-ring pole-ring-against was knocked, 
Lange-t puultu-i lanki-loi-hin, 
Harness entangled-itself harness-with, 
Yemmel vempele-n nena-han. 

Horse-collar horse-collar-of top-against. 
And the following prayer addressed to Ukko: 
Oi Ukko ylijumala, Ukko, thou, o God above, 

Tahi taatto taivahinen, Thou, o Father in the heavens, 
Vallan pilvissa pitaja, Who reignest in the clouds 
Hattarojen hallitsia! And leadest cloudlings all! 

K. II, V. 317. 

In Finnish the Pater Noster is as follows: 
Isa meidan, joka olet taiwaissa: Pyhitetty olkoon sinun 
nimes. Lahestykoon sinun waltakuntas. Olkoon sinun tahtos 
niin maassa, kuin taiwaassa. Anna meille tanapaiwana 
meidan jokapaiwainen leipamme. Ja anna meille meidan 
welkamme anteeksi, miinkuin mekin anteelsi annamine meidan 
welwollistemme. Ja ala johdata meita kiusaukseen. Mutta 
paasta meita pahasta. Silla sinun on waltakunta, ja woima, 
ja kunnia, ijankaikkisesti; Amen! 

Mordwinian may be represented by part of a fable 
entitled 'Fox and Wolf: 

Kelas as"di kapa prea-sa, mez-divik 

Fox sits hay-rick head-upon, something (abl.) 
jarhtsai mol'-s malaz-inza virgas kizift-iza: 

he eats. Came neighborhood-his wolf asked -him: 
'mezda jarhta-t kelas jalgai?' 'Da vaga! Kal-nat 
'What eatest-thou fox friend?' And there! fishes-which 
kunda-ri.' 'Ko-sta kunda-t'?' 'Af aza-n.' 

I have caught.' 'Whence has thou caught?' 'not I say.' 
Of Magyar we may take an example from Kisfaludy: 
Bus orje a sir-nak, magas Cyprus! te a 

Sad guardian the grave-to, high Cypress! thou the 


halal-nak nema biztos-a; mino titko-t feclez nemes 

death-to dumb confidant-his ; what secret conceals sublime 

peldazat-od? felho-t oszlat-va tor-sz fel a 

image-thine? clouds dividing strugglest-thou upwards the 

magas-ra 's az eg csillagos ter-e-i-n orok 

height-up and of-the heaven starry spaces 

feny-ben mereng-ve hezte-id tiszta-bb 

splendor-into fixing gaze-thine purer 

sziv-od arja-i-t 's komor-dan 

thou drinkest-it-in floods its and earnestly 

bii zke let-ed-et keskeny hant-ok 

proud being-thy narrow sod 


thou consecratest it! 

Ideologically the Uralic tongues are either indirect 
(I. 3. 5. 8. I) or hybrid (I. 3. 6. 8. HI). 

With the Magyar Concept of Deity, namely, Isten, we 
have already dealt. The remaining Concepts are: 

meg is 
yet also 




Itse ilmoinen Jumala 
Valjastele varsojasi, 
Eakentele ratsujasi 
Aja kirja-korjinesi: 

3umafa Thunder-place 
Thou, o God among the breezes, 
Catch the colth and have them ready; 
Harness, thou, the lively steeds, 
Hither drive in sledges gay! 
Kiill jumal teeb, kui anname teha. 
God indeed will do (it) if only we will let Him! 

Esfhonian: 3ummal Thunder-place 









The Hidden One. 
Pas povni God-fearing. 

Skai The Holy One. 




H3* 92 H$~ 

In the Mok'sa form of Mordwinian we find the word 
'Skai for Deity: 

Oh! otsu skai kormelets! vara Skai kormelets! Mu^ 
anatama, makst: varda pisem, alda lihtima, paksas sora, 
kuts sembendi sumbrasi, kaldasis sivatat; vanimast vorda, 
tolda, kaldun lomarida! 

great God, Guardian! God above, Defender! What 
we long for, that give: rain from above, springs from below; 
corn in the field, health for all at home, cattle in the pens. 
Protect us from thieves, fire, and sorcerers! 

There are many forms of the Tatar word, namely, 
Jum, Juma, Jub; Num, Nom, Nome, Nup, Nop, Som, but 
the Idea is always the same: primarily Sky, then Thunder. 
As Prof. Tylor well observes: 

'Over the vast range of the Tatar races, it is the type 
of the supreme Heaven that comes prominently into view. 
Nature-worshippers in the extreme sense, these rude tribes 
conceived their ghosts and elves and demons and great 
powers of the earth and air to be, like men themselves, 
within the domain of the divine Heaven almighty and all- 
encornpassing. To trace the Samoyed's thought of Num 
the personal Sky passing into vague conceptions of per- 
vading deity; to see with the Tunguz how Boa the Heaven- 
god, unseen but allknowing, kindly but indifferent, has 
divided the business of his world among such lesser powers 
as sun and moon, earth and fire; to discern the meaning 
of the Mongol Tengri, shading from Heaven into Heaven- 
god, and thence into god or spirit in general; to follow 
the records of Heaven-worship among the ancient Turks 
and Hiong-nu; to compare the supremacy among the Lapps 
of Tiermes, the Thunderer, with the supremacy among the 
Finns of Jumala and Ukko, the Heaven-god and heavenly 
Grandfather such evidence seems good ground for Castren's 
argument, that the doctrine of the divine Sky underlay the 
first Turanian conceptions, not merely of a Heaven-god, 

H>- 93 H$~ 

but of a highest deity who in after ages of Christian con- 
version blended into the Christian God'. Nor must we fail 
to mention a beautiful expression for the deity found amongst 
the Samoyeds, namely, Jilibeambaertje Protector of the 



Passing on to the Nuba race we may well begin with 
the language of the Fiil-be known as Ful-de or Fulful-de. 
Speaking generally the language has a harmoniously-evolved 
phonetic system. It is fond of polysyllabic forms. The two 
categories Noun and Verb are distinguished from each 
other, the latter being built up upon the relation of predi- 
cate. Subject and object are only distinguished by position 
in the sentence, and attribute and predicate are not quite 
adequately distinguished. Definition follows the thing to 
be defined, consequently the genitive comes after the noun, 
the attributive adjective after the substantive, the object 
after its verb. The idiom possesses alike relative particles 
and relative pronouns. With the pronoun of the first person 
there is a double form in the plural, namely, inclusive and 

Very interesting is the phonetic denotation of the cor- 
relation of unity and plurality. In certain cases both with 
the noun and the verb it is effected by a regular change 
of initial consonants, which, as Prof. F. Miiller well observes, 
occurs again in no idiom and implies an uncommonly cute 
linguistic consciousness. Thus, M-do slave, ha-be slaves; 
gor-ho man, tvor-le men; pul-o a fulah, ful-le fulahs. Nay, 
more, we find two forms of the substantive, the indefinite 
and the definite. 

~3H 94 H- 

Indefinite form Definite form 

singular plural singular plural 

Sagata sagata-be youth, youths; Sagata-on sagata-be-be 

Ko-do ho-be stranger, strangers ; Ko-do-on ho-be-be. 

But although as regards number and individuality the 
language shows a rich and original evolution, in respect of 
Case it is very poor. The two most important cases, the 
subjective and objective can only be recognised by position 
in the sentence. As already stated, the genitive follows 
the substantive to which it belongs and the other case- 
relations are expressed by prepositions preceding the nouns. 

The adjective in the sense of the attribute follows the 
substantive to which it belongs, agrees with it in number 
and, instead of the noun, takes the articular ending. For 
instance, baba moto a good father, baba moto-oii the good 
father; baba-rabe moto-be good fathers, baba-rabe moto- 
bebe the good fathers. 

One may do well to compare the nominal expression 
with possessive suffixes, with the verbal expression with 
predicate suffixes: 
Sing. 1. Pers. gelo-ba-am my camel fudor-mi I begin 

2. Pers. gelo-ba-ma fudor-da 

Plur. 1. Pers. gelo-ba-ammin fudor-men 

As in Arabic, the distinction between transitive and 
intransitive is made by difference of vowel, a in the one 
case, i or u in the other. The verbal stems are six in 
number, namely, the simple, the definite, the causative, the 
reflexive, the reciprocal, and the limitative stem-form. Every 
verb has a passive and every expression can appear either 
in the positive or negative form. 

The quinar-decimal system underlies Fulde and the 
ideology is hybrid, namely, 2. 4. 6. 8. VI, as may be seen 
from the following examples: 
Timba wi-i jo be-deff-ana-mo maro jo onjam 
Timba said that they boiled-him rice that he might eat. 

~s* 95 HS- 

Sapal-be nat-i e Gagaga, be-kel-i 
Moors-the pressed into Gagaga, they destroyed 

tata Makana be-mbar-i im-be fop. 

the wall (of) Male ana they killed people all. 

The thought of Deity is that of divine sovereignty: 
Gomam Lord. 

If we take the language of the Nuba we find that it 
has a harmoniously- developed phonetic system, excluding 
too great an accumulation of either vowels or consonants. 
As a rule forms are produced by means of suffixes. It is, 
in fact, the process of the simplest agglutination. 

Noun and verb are distinguished from each other but 
the nominal expression predominates. Subject, predicate, 
and object and attribute are denoted partly by position 
and partly by the speech-form. The thing to be defined 
comes after the defining element. The language possesses 
no relative pronoun. 

In Nubian a great part is played by compounds whereby 
both substantives and adjectives are formed. They consist 
of two expressions with definite denotation of the reciprocal 
grammatical relationship. The latter is either one of the ob- 
ject or of dependence. Thus, kare-kal 'fishes eating' = pelican; 
nune-g-att-i 'thoughts bringing' = wise; id-en 'of the man 
woman 7 = wife; mari-isse 'eyes water' = tear. Nubian not 
knowing the categories of grammatical gender one has only 
to consider those of number and case. Alike in the singular 
and plural an i is added to the stem, in the former short, 
in the latter long. E. g. sogort-i, murt-i (sing.); spirit, 
horse; fab-i fathers, gid-i grasses. 

As regards case, the nominative as subject has no sign; 
as predicate it is denoted by a suffixed -a, the expression 
of the copula. E. g. buru mas 'the beautiful maiden', on 
the other hand mas-a 'it is good', mas-a immun 'it is not 

~3* 96 K~ 

good'. The genitive is expressed by putting the denning 
element before the thing to be denned: buru-n ukld 'the 
maiden's ear'; fab-in ur 'the father's head'. The object-case 
corresponds with our accusative and dative and is formed 
by the suffix -ga in Mahas, and -gi in Kenus and Dongola. 

In the sentence the expression of the direct object 
(Accus.) as a rule goes before the finite verb. If a direct 
(accus.) and an indirect (dat.) object occur in the sentence, 
the direct takes the first place, the indirect the second. 

Both as attribute and predicate the adjective follows 
the substantive to which it belongs. In the former case 
it takes the suffixes of the substantive, in the latter it 
remains unchanged and must be joined to the copula. 

There is no relative pronoun in Nubian, so the relative 
sentence has to be treated as a noun, and construed as 
such in relation to the principal sentence. E. g. 'the moun- 
tain upon which Moses spake with Glod they call Sinai' 
is expressed thus: Moses with God spake-of which mountain 
Sinai they call. 

The Nubian verb is characterized by peculiar suffixes, 
and in speech by the preceding forms of the personal pro- 
noun. The former are divided into those of the durative 
and those of the aorist. There are six tenses: durative, 
aorist, perfect, pluperfect, two forms of the future, the exact 

With regard to modality Nubian distinguishes between 
positive and negative expression. 

The decadic system underlies Nubian numeration, and 
here it may be well to compare five dialects: 






her a 











H3* 97 K~ 


Cf-fab semfi-lti taiis inni gudsi-kir-takk-eia, 

Our Father heaven-in name tliine holy-be-made-indeed, 
mulk inni kir-eia it-logo, irada inn aw-takk-eia 

kingdom thy come-indeed us-to, will thine made-be-indeed 
sema-gon ardi-gon-la, kabire kafi-g' u-ga 

heaven-and earth-and-upon, food enough-which us-to 

den-g-e eli, gafra-den-g-e sembi uni-gu-ga 

give-us-indeed to-day, forgive-us-indeed sins our-they 

sikkir u-gon gafra-tigg-uru ter-i-n u-log us-k 

as we-and forgive them whom-of us-to bad-of 

aw-innan-ga ii-g uda-gga-tam-e gerrib-id-la lakin 
making (Ace.) us lead-us-not-indeed temptation-in but 
negi-g-e sarri-ltoni, il-lo dar-in-nogo 

deliver-us-indeed evil-out, thee-with is-because 

mulki-gon gudra-gon gurandi-gon abad-la. Amin. 
kingdom-and power-and glory-and unity-to. Amen. 
Nubian ideology is natural, the formula being 
Of the supreme concept we have the following forms: 
Nubian: Nor Lord 

Mahas: Nor Lord 

Dongolaivi: Arti Knower 

Barea: Rebbi Master. 

In Barea the Pater Noster is as follows: 
He-aben nere-ge ut-ko, eiig-ade kuddusnej-am 
Our-Father heaven-in is who, thy name hallowed be 
eiiga simet wo-n-em, enga solinga ej-am nere-gi 
thy kingdom come, thy will done be heaven-in 
lug-go, he-koberi wal-n-i-gin-der-ko enton 

earth-upon, our bread day-spend-make-to-which to-day 
da, he-wangel fine ha, heige le he-negus-guna-go 
give, our debt forgive us, as also our debtors 


~$* 98 f<~ 

firi-in-dere-k, fitnet-gi ma nanegine lakin kosei 

we forgive, temptation-in not lead into but evil 
mesa-ko-gi diliin-ni-gin-ha. Amen, 
great-out save us. Amen. 



Like those of the Nuba race, the languages of the 
Kolh or Vind'ja stems possess a richly-developed phonetic 
system. The principle underlying their structure is suffix- 
agglutination. By the side of this is the formation by infix. 
The verb rests upon a predicative basis, which formally cannot 
adequately be distinguished from the possessive relationship; 
but its structure is quite formless, since the personal pro- 
noun is only loosely connected with the verbal stem. A 
verbal expression can be derived from any part of speech 
by the addition of the verbal suffixes. In number there 
are singular, dual and plural with the noun and pronoun, 
and by the pronoun this distinction is transferred to the 
verb. And, as regards the first person dual and plural of 
pronoun and verb, we even find the distinction between 
exclusive and inclusive. By the infix-formation, the struc- 
ture of the verb, the dual, the two forms of the first person 
dual and plural, as well as by the vigesimal system, the 
Kolh idioms are essentially distinguished from the Dravi- 
dian. Subject, object, and predicate and attribute are kept 
apart alike by formal and syntactical means. 

The vigesimal system is at the basis of the Vind'ja 
numeration. The numbers one to five are as follows: 

Sanfal Mundari Kolh Gwan Kurku 

1 mi(t) Diija(t) mid mi rnia 

2 barea baria barea ambar baria 

->t 99 KT- 

3 pea a[)i;i apia sgota hapia 

4 ponea upunea upunja gudami upunia 

5 more inonea morea monoja 

Here are a few sentences in Mandari: 
Ora'-ete daru salani mena. Sane-te diri hambala- 
House-of tree high is. "Wood-of stone heavy 
tan-a. He gomke aliii higu-tan-a-lin. Ini 

being-is. O Sir we two (excl.) coming-are-we. He 
apia merom-ko kirin-ked-ko-a. Aiii horo kagi 
four goats bought them has. I man speech (lan- 

ka-in bu gaw-a. 
guage of the Mundas) not-I understand. 

Vind'ja ideology is that of primitive mankind, 1. 4. 5. 8. 1, 
being absolutely natural. 

So far we have been considering the Vind'ja idioms 
of the Dravida race, we have now to deal with the languages 
more specifically known as Dravidian, namely, Tamil, Cana- 
rese, Malayalam, Telugu, Tulu and Oraon. 

By their phonetic system these tongues are sharply 
distinguished from their neighbours, the Aryan. They all 
possess five, some even six, classes of explosives, viz. guttu- 
rals, palatals, cacuminal or cerebral and dental Dentals 
and labials. In Tamil and Malayalam the cacuminal den- 
tals are palatalised, whereby a new class of explosives arises. 
The cacuminal dentals are in these idioms not only trans- 
formations of ordinary dentals into suffix-syllables, as, for 
instance, in Sanskrit and the allied dialects, but integral 
parts of the roots. 

Words are formed from roots by means of the process 
of suffixing. The noun is rich in case-endings of a spatial 
nature, but the denotation of grammatical cases is some- 
what meagre. The verb rests on the predicative relationship 
and is formed by suffixes, which represent contracted pro- 
nouns. By position in the sentence subject and object, 

~2* 100 *- 

predicate and attribute are distinguished. The denning 
element goes before the thing defined, the object before the 
verb, which regularly closes the sentence. The subordinate 
sentence also precedes the principal sentence, which it more 
nearly defines. Possessing no relative pronoun the Dravida 
languages have recourse to participial constructions, whereby 
their structure becomes in many respects like that of the 
Altaic tongues. 

In these Dravidian tongues we have the phaenomenon 
so common with the Uralian, Altaic and Samoyedic idioms, 
namely, the so-called vowel-harmony, whereby one vowel 
determines the nature of a neighbouring vowel. But whilst 
in the Uralian and Altaic family of speech the vowel of a 
suffix is assimilated to the vowel of the preceding stem, 
i. e. retrograde assimilation, in the Dravidian languages the 
last vowel of the stem is assimilated to the vowel of the 
following suffix. 

Originally the roots of these tongues were undoubtedly 
monosyllabic, though now it is not always possible to find 
them so. Attaching to the added elements is a definite 
meaning, as in all word-forming elements of agglutinative 

As regards the noun there is, with the exception of 
the pronoun of the third person, no adequate appreciation 
of grammatical gender. But we find a distinction similar 
to that which prevails in several American idioms, namely, 
that between things rational and those irrational. The two 
classes are called by native grammarians 'forms of the 
higher cast' and 'forms of the lower cast'. To the former 
belong designations for men, gods, demi-gods, spirits, etc., 
to the latter those for animals, lifeless things and abstract 

The Dravida verb rests upon the union of a predica- 
tive nominal stem and a personal pronoun standing as subject. 

Dravidian numeration is based upon the decadic system. 

~>4 101 HS~ 

Tamil Malayalmn Telugu Canarese Tulu Kudagu 
1 Onclru onna Okati Vondu vongi ondu 

5 eindti anka ajidu eidu einu ani 

10 pattu patta padi hattu paltii pattu 

Podci Oraon Braliui 
I Yodd Onta asit 
5 iik panke pang 
10 paltu dase dah 

The Dravidians do not seem to have counted beyond 
100, at all events, in the first instance. 

The following may serve as instances of Dravidian con- 
struction and ideology: 


Parabaran imd-endr-um avar enn-ei ppadei-tt-ar 

God is-said-having-and he me created has 

endr-um viguvagi-kkidr-en. 

said-having-and believe-I. 

; I believe that God exists and that He has created me.' 
A-ppadi an-al avan en i-ppadi kkollu-gidr-an? 

That way being-through he as this way speaks? 
'If that is the case, how can he speak thus?' 


Masi kon-tu var-enam-enna avan-ota padra-ka. 

Ink taken-having come-beg-said having him-with speak. 

'Tell him to bring ink.' 

Tamil: uril evvalavu viduga] irukkidradu? 

Telugu: pallelo enni indlu unnavi? 

Kanari: uralli estu manegalave? 

Town-in how many houses are? 


Pater noster. 

He embai ge merka-nu rak-adaj, ninahi name 
O Father who heaven-in art, Thy name 

~s* 102 K~ 

pavitr mano, ninahi ragi barko, ninahi suuwak ekane 

holy be, Thy kingdom come, Thy will as 
merka-nu aneho k'ekal-nu ho-mano, emahi ulla-ulla-nta 
heaven-in even so earth-upon be-done, our daily 
asma ina emage kia, antle emahi dosan muaf 
bread to-day us give, and our debt forgiveness 
nana, ekane em-ho emahi dosnanur-in muaf 
make, as we-also our debtors forgiveness 

nandam, antle eman pariksa-nu amba kaka, pahe 

make, and us temptation-into not lead, but 
burai-nti Kar-a-bak-a; ragi, sawan antle mahatm sadau 

evil-from deliver; kingdom, power and glory ever 

sadau ninahi rai. Amen. 
ever Thine is. Amen. 

Tamil Pater Noster. 



(j) II 1~ <F & ILJ Lb 
JJLL<smL- 6 
Q<FlLJlLJUU(Sl!fD ^[iQLJfrSVjL-^uSllfilQsVlLJLD (o&'lLHUU 




Para-mandalan-gal-il iru-kkidr-a en-gal Bida-v-e! 
Highest circles-in being our Father-o 

~&* 103 K~ 

umm-ucleija namam bari-gutta ppadu-vad-aga. Unim-udeija 
Thy name holy be made be. Thy 

irakkijam varu-vad-aga. Umm-udeija gittam bara-mandal- 
kingdom come may. Thy will highest-circles- 

att- il-e gejja-ppadu-gidra-du bola ppumi-j-il-e-j- 

in- in truth done be as earth-upon-forsooth- 

mi gejja-ppadu-vad-aga. Andr-andr-ulla en-gal app-att-ei 
also done is. Day-day-being our bread 

eii-gal-u-kku indru dar-um. En-gal-u-kku virodam-aj 
us-to to-day give. Us-to inimically 

kkutrtraii gej-gidra-var-gal-u-kku nan-gal manni-kkidr-adu 
guilt making we forgiving 

bola en-gal gutrtran-gal-ei en-gal-u-kku manni-j-um. 
as our debts us-to forgive. 

En-gal-ei kkodanei-kku ut piravegi-kka . . ppann-amal 
Us ternptation-to into to enter not making 

dimei-j-inindru en-gal-ei iratki-ttu . . . kkollum! 

evil-from us saved having take! 

Irakkijam-um vallamei-j-um magimei-j-um endr-endrei-kk-um 
Kingdom-and power-and majesty-and eternity to 
mum-udeija-vei-gal-e! Amen. 
Thy property forsooth! Amen. 

Thus, speaking generally, the ideology of the Dravidian 
idioms proper is indirect, i. e. 1. 3. 5. 8. III. 

The Dravidian forms of the theisticldea are the following: 
Tamil: <Fp(fJj(S<oU<9i- J<5$r. Kadruvegurau Omnipotent. 
Ragmahali: Tfarfara Grosanjit' Leader of the Flock 

Urija: Q \ff$flfl Bura-Pennu Light-God 

<2*~ d~ 

Gond: rrftihr Tari-Pennu Earth-Goddess 


Munda: Oraon: Sant'al: ftrf^tf Sih-Boha Sun-God 

A very usual name for God in Tamil is uunruJJfEa 
Parabaran, but this is only another form of mmirw, the 

-3* 104 K- 

Supreme. Nay, the one given above, namely, 

is really UcfaeR The Omnipotent. 

"Booted as they are" says Dr. Tylor, "in the depths 
of nature-worship, the doctrines of the supreme Sun and 
Heaven both come to the surface again in the native reli- 
gions of Asia. The divine Sun holds his primacy distinctly 
enough among the rude indigenous tribes of India. Al- 
though one sect of the Khonds of Orissa especially direct 
their worship to Tari Pennu the Earth-goddess, yet even 
they agree theoretically with the sect who worship Bura 
Pennu or Bella Pennu, Light-god or Sun-god, in giving to 
him supremacy above the manes-gods and naturegods, and all 
spiritual powers. .. . . In tracing its old "World development 
(i. e. Sun-worship), we begin among the ruder Allophylian 
tribes of Asia, and end among the great polytheistic nations. 
The north-east quarter of India shows the doctrine well 
defined among the indigenous stocks. The Bodo and Dhimal 
place the Sun in the pantheon as an elemental god, though 
in practical rank below the sacred rivers. The Kol tribes 
of Bengal, Mundas, Oraons, Santals, know and worship as 
supreme, Sing-bonga, the Sun -god; to him some tribes 
offer white animals in token of his purity, and while not 
regarding him as author of sickness or calamity, they will 
resort to him when other divine aid breaks down in 
sorest need." 



The organism of the Basque language principally rests 
upon that polysynthetic suffixing structure which characterizes 
most of the North American idioms. The verb forms the 

-&* 105 ><~ 

centre of the sentence, taking up into itself the pronominal 
subject and object, both the nearer (accusative) and the 
further object (dative) as necessary complement. 

Phonetically noun and verb are sharply distinguished from 
each other, but an essentially-nominal conception underlies 
the verb. Speaking generally one may say that, there is no 
absolute demarcation of the subject from the object. There 
is a separation of the predicate and attribute, but the various 
attributive expressions are not all treated alike. The lan- 
guage possesses both a relative pronoun and a relative particle. 

The numerical system rests upon a vigesimal basis, but 
from a hundred onwards we find the decimal system, which 
was introduced later. 

1. Bat 10. hamar, amar 20. hogei, ogei. 

The three dialects are well shown in the 


a) Guipuzcoan. 

Aita gure-a ceru-et-an za-ude-n-a 
Father our the heavens-in Thou-dwelling-who-the 
santificatu-a izan bedi zure icen-a, b-etor 

hallowed-the become he-be Thine name-the, it-come 
gu-gana zure reinu-a eguin b-edi zure vorondate-a 

us-to Thy Kingdom- the made be Thy will-the 
nola ceru-a-n ala lurre-a-n. Egun igu-zu gure 

as heaven-the-in so earth-the-in. Day give our 
egun-oro-z-ko ogui-a eta barca di-zqui-gu-tsu gure 
daily bread-the and forgive them-us-Thou our 

zorr-ac gu-c gure zordun-a-i barca-tcen die-gu-n becela. 
debts we our debtors-to forgiving them-we as. 
Eta ez g-ai-tza-tsu-la utci tentacio-a-n eror-ten, 

And not us-thou-indeed let temptation-the-in fall, 
baicic-an libra g-ai-tza-zu gaitc-etic. Amen, 
but free us-Thou evil-from. Amen. 

~$H 106 H- 

(3) Biscayan. 

Aita guri-a cerub-it-an z-agoz-an-a santificadu 

Father our-the heaven-s-in Thou-be-ing-the hallowed 
bedi zure icen-a, b-etor gu-gana zure erreinub-a, 
be Thy name-the, it-come us-to Thy kingdom-the, 
eguin bedi zure borondati-a nolan cerub-a-n ala 
made he be Thy will-the as heaven- the-in evenso 

lurri-a-n. Egun-ian-egun-ian-go gueure oguij-a 

earth-the-upon. Day-in-day-in-for our bread-the 

egun igu-zu eta parcatu ei-gu-zuz gueure zorr-ac gu-c 
to-day give and forgive us-Thou our debts we 
gueure zordun-a-i parque-tan deutse-gu-zan legue-a-z 
our debtors-to forgive we them way-the-in (as) 

eta ichi ez ei-gu-zu tentacioni-a-n jans-ten bana 
and let not us-Thou temptation-the-in fall but 

libradu g-aizuz gache-tie. Amen, 
free us-Thou evil-from. Amen. 

f) Labour dan. 

Gure Aita ceruetu-an aic-en-a sanctifica bedi 
Our Father heavens-in being-the hallowed he-be 
hire icen-a ethor bedi hire resum-a, eguin 

thy name-the coming he-be thy kingdom-the, made 
bedi hire vorondate-a ceru-a-n begala lurre-a-n- 
he-be thy will-the heaven-the-in as earth-the-upon- 
ere. Gure egun-eco ogui-a igu-c egun eta quitta 
also. Our daily bread-the give to-day and forgive 
ietza-gu-c gure gorr-ak nola gu-c-ere gure gordun-e-y 
them-us our debts as we-also our debtors 
quitta-tzen baitraue-gu eta ez-g-ai-tza-la sar 

forgiving them-they-we-are and not-us-thou-indeed enter 
eraci tentation-et-an baina deliura g-ai-tza-c gaichto-tic. 
make temptations-in but deliver us-thou evil-from. 

~SH 107 HS~ 

Ecan hire-a du-c resum-a eta puissanc.-a eta 

For thine is kingdom-the and power-the and 
gloria secul-ac-otz. Amen, 
glory-the eternities-for. Amen. 

Basque ideology varies with the dialect, but, speaking 
generally one may say that it is hybrid, 2. 4. 6. 8. VI. 

The theistic thought is one of great significance, namely, 

Jainkoa = Jaun-goi-ko Master above, 
e. g. Jainkoa-gan-a bihots goititsea 'to lift the heart to God'. 

The Caucasian languages consist of at least two families, 
which differ alike from those of the Ural-Altaic tribes on 
the one hand, and of the Aryan on the other. With a 
great poverty of vowels we find a marked abundance of 
consonants. The principle of agglutination, which governs 
these idioms, in certain cases almost amounts to inflexion. 
Formation is both by prefix and suffix. 

In the North Caucasian idioms we have the interesting 
appreciation of gender which rests upon the antithesis of 
animate and inanimate, rational and irrational, as well as 
of male and female. The object is taken up into the verb, 
as in Basque. As regards numeration, with a few exceptions 
the vigesimal method obtains. 

Unlike the South Caucasians those of the North are 
so loosely connected that, at first sight, one would be inclined 
to consider each language a distinct individual. Neverthe- 
less, on closer inspection, we can discover certain likenesses 
which we should do well to remember, namely, a) the deno- 
tation of gender; p) the same syntactical treatment of the 
verb, in so far as it denotes a state or an act, i. e. appears 
transitively or intransitively. In all the idioms the transitive 
verb is connected with the instrumental of the agent, 
(genitive in Kasikumikian) , excepting only Abkasian; f) 
denotation of the plural; b) appreciation and phonetic deno- 
tation of case. 

In numeration, with the aforesaid exception, all the 


Caucasian idioms agree about the numbers 10 and 20 and, 
as regards the rest, there are many striking resemblances. 
According to Prof. F. Miiller these languages may be 
classified as follows: 

A. North Caucasian tongues: 

1. Abkasian and Kerkessian 

2. Avaric, Kasikumildan, Arln, Hirkanian, 
Kiirinic, Udic, Kefonzic. 

B. South Caucasian Stem: 

Georgian, Mingrelian, Lazian and Suanian. 

Owing to its peculiar prefixing verbal flexion combined 
with the infixing of the pronominal object Abkasian is 
unlike all the other North Caucasian idioms, and this applies 
to its expressions for number. 

As regards the question of linguistic affinities between 
North and South, the present state of science will hardly 
admit a definite answer. 

As an instance of nominal richness in the South Cau- 
casian languages let us take Suanian, where the declension 
is as follows: 

Sing. Plur. 

Mare 'man' mare-1 
mare-s marel-s 

rnare-s marel-s 

mare-sa marel-sa 

mare-su rnarel-su 

mare-ken marel-ken 

mare-t'e marel-t'e 

mare-si marel-is 

inare-kuk'an marel-kuk'an 
mare-ul marel-ul. 

The reflexive pronoun in Georgian is interesting. The 
word taivi 'head' is used in the sense of our 'self (Ar. 
nafs-u). From tawi we may probably derive the reflexive 
Vunsi, which in use corresponds with the Sanskrit sva. In 

Subj. Objective 










-3* 109 K- 

Basque the word buru 'head' is used in a precisely similar 
sense; e. g. beren buru-ak bil' os-ak ikusi siran 'they saw 
themselves naked' (their heads naked they saw). 

The most striking feature of the South Caucasian Verb 
is the distinction made between the direct and the indirect 
conjugation. In the former the psychological subject is 
conceived in the nominative, in the latter it occurs in the 
sense of the dative. 

To show the degree of phonetic affinity between two 
of the South Caucasian languages we may take the verbum 
substantivum in Georgian and Lazian. This verb is the 
more important as it is used in the formation of periphrastic 


Georgian Lazian 

Sing. W-ar I am W-ora 

K-ar thou art ore 

ar-s he is onu 

Plur. w-ar-t' we are w-ore-t 

k-ar-t f ye are ore-t 

ar-i-an they are ore-r-an 

The Perfect-Aorist is in Georgian derived from kaiv 
corresponding with the Lazian infinitive konu, but in the 
latter case the root used for the preterite is ar. Thus: 

Georgian Lazian 

Sing, w-i-kaw I was w-or-ti 

i-kaw thou wast or-ti 

i-ko he was or-tu 

Plur. w-i-kue-ni-t e we were w-or-ti-t 

i-kue-ni-t c ye were or-ti-t 

i-ku-n-en they were or-te-s 

The Lazian verb 'to be' is the only verb which possesses 
a future; it is as follows: 




1. Pers. 



2. Pers. 



3. Pers. 



Underlying numerical expressions of the South Cau- 
casian family of speech is the vigesimal system. Numbers 
1, 10 and 20 are as follows: 

Georgian Mingrelian 




ert c i 

art c i 












ieru-iest c 



















ka-it c u 















As a specimen of Georgian we may take a Portion of 
a Letter from Prince Sulk'an to M. le Comte Pont char train, 
dated 23. March 1714, which appeared in the 9th Volume 
of the 'Journal Asiatique' for 1832: 


-*f 111 ft*. 

Me Sulk' an Saba Orbeliani am zigns gzer da amas 
waznobeb rom t'kwenis maglis mepis brdsanebita zkalobita 
da uilfit'a ak dids kalaks Pariss mowedit'. 

I, Sulk' an Saba Orbeliani, write you this letter and 
make known to you that, by the commands, favors and gifts 
of your exalted Sovereign, I have arrived at this great city 
of Paris. 


Mama-o lhven-o romeli k-ar za-t c a sina, kmida 

Father-o our-o who who-art heavens in, holy 
i-kawn sak'eli seni, mo-wedin sup'ewa seni i-kawn 
it-be name Thy, hither-come Kingdom Thy, it-become 
neba seni wit'ar-za za-t'a sina egre-za k'uekana-sa seda, 
will Thy like-as heavens in even-so earth upon, 

puri kweni arsobi-sa mo-mez k'wen dge-s, da 
bread our existence-of hither-give us day-to, and 
mo-mitew-en kwen t'ana-nadeb-ni kwen-ni wit'ar-za kwen 
here-forgive us debt-s our like-as we 

mi-u-teweb-t c t'ana-mdeb-t'a mat' kwen-t'a, da nu 
them-forgive the debtors those ours, and not 

se-mi-kwaneb kwen gansazdel-sa aramed mi-ksnen kwen 
lead us temptation-to but deliver us 

boroti-sa-gan, romet'u seni ar-s sup'ewa da gali da 
evil-from, for Thine is kingdom and power and 

dideba sankune-t'a mimart\ Amin. 
greatness eternitie-s unto. Amen. 

As we have seen, the ideology of these South Cau- 
casian tongues is indirect, namely, 1. 3. 5. 8. III. 

Alike in Georgian, Mingrelian and Suanian or Swa- 
netian we have the same thought of God: 

Georgian: ^^ (\cn O? ~ Q A fa Gmert'- (man), stem: 

Gmert'i. J/^ = \^- 

G'mert c -oba divinity, deity. G'rnert'i-s sitkwa God's Word. 

^* 112 HSr- 

Mingrelian; JJIfltfljfltn Goront-i 
Swanetian ft**{t}l S^lh G'ermet. 

Here we have perhaps the answer to Prof, de Harlez's 
question (see p. 23). K'uda came to the dwellers in the Cau- 
casus as G e ti whence it may well have passed over to the 
Goths as Guth. Afterwards it was expanded to G'mert'i or 
G c ermet in the sense of 'The Self-Existent above'. 

In T'us and KeKenzis we have a common concept 
namely, Dal, Dele, ft % % $ t{ ^ g Giver. 
Dal-go-ih 'up to God 7 (conversive) ; Dal-go-re 'down from 
God 7 . NaKkwo or E elf enzis : si huma d-u kigamat-an din-ah. 

Two things are resurrection-of the day-on 
Dele ses-k'e hos-u-r w-6zu-s. 
God himself see-will not. 

Then we have 

Avaric: ^S^SSS. Betsed Eiches, Wealth; the exact 

equivalent of *m. Bits-ase hu'-el hetso; adam-asul 

God-to dying not is; men-of 

hulare-u wak'inaro. Gungutal-dasa tsai k'ak 

not-dying-one not is. Gungutal-of men very 

betsed-a-1 r-ugu. 
rich they-are. 

Lastly, we have the Abkasian 

5 1 L Anka, Mother. 



Let us now turn to the theologic speech and thought 
of savagery. Beginning with that yellow race of woolly- 
haired men, the Hottentots, or more correctly K c oikoi and 
San : by what name did they try to express the Inexpressible, 

~3* 113 Mg- 

to utter the Unutterable? What was their predicate of 

Before finding an answer to this supreme question 
it may be well to get a glimpse at the prehistoric ethnical 
condition of this interesting people. In ancient times this 
race, which consisted of two branches, inhabited the great- 
er part of South Africa, at least the territory South of 
the rivers Kunene and Zambesi. As Dr. F. Hahn points 
out: 'We should apply the term Hottentot to the whole 
race, and call the two families each by the native name, 
that is the one, the Khoikhoi, the so-called Hottentot proper ; 
the other the San (Sa) or Bushmen.' The meaning of the 
former term is 'men of men', i. e. men par excellence, but 
the derivation of San is not quite certain: most probably 
the root is Sa to inhabit, to be settled, so that San would 
mean Aborigines or Settlers. In the Colonial Annals they 
are styled Bosjesman or Bosmanneken to indicate their 
abode and mode of living, whilst in the Cape Records they 
are called Sa-gu-a, Sonqua or Sounqua. 

'While the Bushmen are hunters, the Khoikhoi are 
nomads, cattle and sheep farmers; and while the Bushman 
family has with the Khoikhoi, linguistically speaking, only 
the clicks and some harsh sounding faucals and a few 
roots of words in common, the various Bushman languages 
hitherto recorded differ among themselves as much as they 
differ from the Khoikhoi idioms. This difference and variety 
in speech is mainly due to their wandering habits and unsett- 
led life. The wild inaccessible mountain strongholds and the 
arid deserts of South Africa, where nobody can follow them, 
are their abode; constantly on the alert, constantly on the 
move, constantly on the path of war either with other tribes or 
with the wild animals, no inducement is given to them for 
a settled life, the necessary condition of the development of 
a more articulate speech and a higher intellectual culture. 

The Khoikhoi or Nomadic Hottentots have all the 


H3* 114 H5~ 

same language which branches off in as many idioms and 
dialects as there are tribes. The idiomatic peculiarities, 
however, are not very prominent, indeed not so striking 
as to hinder a Gei || khan or Auni or || Habobe of Great 
Namaqualand and the J Nube of Ovamboland, or the Gei 
^ nam of the North Western Kalihari conversing easily 
with the inhabitants of the Khamies Bergen (North Western 
Colony) and with the | Koras and Griquas of Griqualand 
West and the Orange Free State.' 

Considered formally the K'oilcoi language is amalga- 
mating, formless and suffixing throughout. Its ideology is 
hybrid, the formula being II. 8. 1. 4. That is to say, the 
order of the K'oiUoi sentence is: Object + verb + subject; 
subject -{- verb; genitive + noun ; noun + adjective. Noun and 
verb, originally identical, can only be determined in the 
sentence by affixed pronominal elements. From a psycho- 
logico - grammatical standpoint the language distinguishes 
the subject from the predicate principally by the different 
position within the sentence, as is also the case with the 
attribute and predicate, the subject and the object. As 
there is no relative pronoun in K'oikoi, such a sentence as 
'the ox which they had seen in Hoalanas, preceded them' 
can only be expressed thus: see-ox the-Hoaltan-as in-they 
seen him went before them, mii-fe goma-bjhoa-Ka-inas 
jna-gu gje mu-b gje ei-ei-ba-gu. 

But there is one fact about the K'oiKoi distinguishing 
them from all the Bushmen tribes which shows how high 
must have been their intellectual evolution even before 
migrating from their primaeval home. I mean their power 
of forming concepts or abstract words. For instance: - 

^ Ei to think, from J ani to cut to pieces; ^ ei (= ^ anis) 
thought; ei :f eT-sen to consider, think over again; ei ^ ei- 
sen-s the result of one's own consideration, idea, perception. 

A yes; ama. true; amab truth; amasib truthfulness. 

| Amo endless, eternal; | amosib infinity. This word 

- 115 r^ 

is derived from | a to be sharp, pointed; hence | am the 
end, the point; o is privative and corresponds to the a 
privativum of the Greeks, so that | amo is that which is 
without end the Infinite. 

| nam | nam to love; | nams love: nam | nain-sa fond. 
| K'om to have mercy; | koms mercy. 

| u to forget; [ u to forgive. 

$ Ma to refuse; ^ Itaba stubborn, wicked; ^ kaba sib 

3a to feel; $ab feeling, taste, sentiment; $a | ka to con- 
dole; }a- | kasib condolence. 

I Ann neat, clean; ami and Anuka sacred, pure, refined; 
anusib holiness, sacredness, purity. 

Nor is this all. The abstract power of the K'oikoi 
idiom is perhaps nowhere so fully shown as in the great 
number of its names for the various divisions and sub- 
divisions of color, j uri white, ^ nii black, | am green, | ava 
red, ^ hoa blue, | hai fawn-colored, i huni yellow, J gama 
brown, j kau grey, j nai ^ u garu dotted. Then there 
are the subdivisions: uri- j huni whitish- yellow, j urisi 
whitish, ^ nu ho black- patched, ^ mi | garu black-dotted, 
j(. nu | ura black-shining, | ava ^ ura red -shining, | ava 
^ gani with white and red patches, | ava | ho or | gi 
| ho chestnut-color, | avara or avaka reddish, j am J ura 
green-shining, ^ gama | ho brown-dotted, ^ gama | garu same; 
^ gama J hoa brownish- blue (the color of Bucephalus 
capensis), ^ gama ^ ura brown-shining, like the Vipera 

Prof. F. Mliller would therefore seem to be going too 
far when he says: 

,,Da die Sprache nicht im Stande ist ein Nomen un- 
bestimmt zu fassen (wie unsere ,,Pferd, Kind"), sondern 
jedes Nomen, falls es nicht als Pradicat in der dritten 
Person (gleich einem pradicativ gebrauchten Adjectivum) 
zu fassen ist, mit dem Zeichen der Person, des Geschlechtes 

~t 116 :<~ 

und der Zahl ausstatten niuss, so ersieht man wie bei dieser 
streng individualisirenden Auffassung der Sprache jeg- 
licher Weg zur Bildung der Begriffe von voruherein ab- 
geschnitten 1st." 

Now, it is a remarkable fact that in all the K'oikoi 
idioms we have various forms of the same word for God, 
namely, ^imi* |io$oam. 

K'oiHoi: &uni* II $oam: 3111 || Kwap 

Nama: sui || Goab 

j Kara: 5u || Goam: K'u || koap 

Cape Koilloi: Tan-kwoa: Ti || kwoa 

| Q-onakwa: T c ui-kwe 

5ui || Goab K c oi-b-a kai-b-a ra ma 'God gives bless- 
ing to mankind/ and 3i-b ge 3ui- || Goab | na-b-a ge mu | 
gai-b-a j kaie 'And God saw the Light, that it was good.' 
This K c oiloi word has long been a riddle to etymo- 
logists. Most missionaries have translated it "wounded knee", 
from zu wounded, and || goab knee. And even Dr. Halm 
himself in his paper 'Der Hottentotische Tsuni |j Goam 
und der griechische Zeus 7 , which was written in 1870, 
adopted this view. In a more recent work, however, he 
has given us a different interpretation. In 5uni || Goam 
we have two independent roots, j/zu to wound and || goa to 
approach, go on. And it is the same whether we say in 
K'oikoi || Goab, || Goam coming-he i. e. he comes or the 
coming one, namely, Day, or whether we say: || Goab || 
Goam the walking one, i. e. Knee. 3uni || Goam is, there- 
fore, the wound of Day, the Red Morning, the Dawn. What 
a lovely glimpse into the primaeval picture-gallery of 
human thought and faith: the lisas and J Hiu of the K. c oiloi! 
The j Koras believe 5ui || Goam to live in the red 
Sky, and when day dawns the K'oikoi go and pray with 
the face turned toward the East: '0 3u || Goa, All-Father!' 
The following simple and beautiful Hymn which is at the 
same time a Prayer is still sung when the Pleiades first 


appear above the eastern horizon, when the j Garni ^ nus 
in the || K c oras mountains the || Habobes or so-called 
Veltschoendragers (Sandal -wearers) in the North East || 
JECaras, and the Gei || K'ous, || O-geis and the ^ Aunis of 
the K c omab Mountains East of Sandwich Harbour come 
together for a | gei i. e. a religious dance. 

5ui || Goaze! 
Abo ize! 
Sida ize! 

Nanuba | avire! 
En kuna uire! 
Eda sida uire! 
$ K'abuta gum goroo! 
ii Gas kao! 
! As kao! 
Eta kurina amre! 
Sazgum kave sida izao? 
Abo izao? 
3ui || Goaze! 
Eda sida ganganzire! 
Eda sida II kava I Kaizire! 

Thou, o 5ui || Goa! 
Father of fathers! 
Thou, our Father! 
Let rain the thunder-cloud! 
Please let (our) flocks live! 
Let us live, please! 
I am so very weak indeed! 
From thirst! 
From hunger! 

That I may eat field fruits! 
Art thou then not our Father? 
The Father of the fathers! 
3ui || Goa! 
That we may praise Thee! 
That we may give thee in re- 
turn (i. e. may bless Thee!) 
Father of fathers! 
Thou our Lord! 
O 3ui || Goa! 

Abo ize! 
Sida j K'uze! 
3ui || Goaze. 

It is, however, highly probable that the term || B'lifi 
Ruler, Lord (Y\ lu to be laden, rich, powerful) was used 
even before 3uni || Goam as a predicate of the Godhead. 
'This name was formed long before the tribes separated 
to migrate to the right and left, and we are correct in 
presuming that at that time their religious ideas were 
much purer than we find them now, when various circum- 
stances have worked to accelerate their annihilation' (loc. 
cit. p. 149), 

H3H 118 H$~ 



In passing on to the Papuan race we are now able 
to analyse the New Guinea dialects known as the Motu of 
Port Moresby and the Map or of Dore Bay. 

Judging from Mapor the Papuan languages are totally 
different from the Melanesian and Malayo-Polynesian. They 
lack, for instance, the literal agreement of the possessive pro- 
nouns suffixed, and though the dictionary of Motu is Eastern 
Polynesian, the grammar is Papuan throughout. Motu is spo- 
ken not only at Port Moresby, but also at Pari, Borebada, 
Lealea, and Manumanu, as well as by the natives of Belena, 
Boera, Tatane, Yabukori, Tupuselei, Kaile and Kapakapa. * 

As regards the noun and the verb the former, if not 
primitive as du a tree, nadi a stone, is formed from the 
latter by prefixing i, as ilapa a sword, from lapaia to smite; 
ikoko a nail, from kokoa to nail. The plural is made in 
many ways; sometimes by reduplicating a syllable, sometimes 
by adding dia, the pronominal suffix of the third person 
plural, or, again, by dropping one or even two syllables, as 
Tauhau a young man, Uhau young men; Haniulato maiden, 
Ulato maidens. Prepositions and suffixes na singular and dia 
plural are used for family relations and parts of the body, 
and to express the genitive. 

Mero Sinana boy mother his; the boy's mother. 

Lohiabada aena chief leg his; the chief's leg. 

In other cases ena is placed after the principal noun. 
Plural nouns take dia and edia instead of na and ena: 

Hanua taudia edia rumadia village men their houses = 
the houses of the villagers. 

Motu is an indirect language, the ideological formula 
being III. 1. 3. 5. 8. Owing to the dearth of particles 

1 See Chalmer's Motu Grammar. 

~3* 119 H$~ 

the sense is sometimes obscure. For instance, 'He Jerusalem 
journey made; he towns and villages passed through; he 
them taught went' is a literal translation of Luke 13. 22 

Very remarkable is the use of Reduplication. Instead 
of increasing it diminishes: e. g. keheni girl, hekenikeheni 
little girl. Adjectives expressing colors are all reduplica- 
ted, as Jiurokuro white; horemakorema black. There are 
two forms of the plural, the inclusive and the exclusive: 
thus ita is f we' when the person addressed is included, ai 
when excluded. 

The verb is, for the most part, a primitive or underi- 
ved word, as gini to stand, noho to sit or dwell. Person 
is expressed not by change in the verb itself but by the 
pronoun and a vowel or particle placed between it and the 
verb. Similarly tense itself is shown by particles put im- 
mediately before the verb. To express reciprocity he is 
prefixed and heheni suffixed to the verb which is generally 
reduplicated, as : 

Hebadubaduheheni To be angry one with another. 

There being no verb to be in Motu, it is expressed by 
the pronoun and noun or adjective with a verbal particle 
as copula. 

Lau vata dika I (am) bad. 

Lau baina gorere I (shall be) sick 

'With active verbs the agent comes first, the subject 
acted upon next and the verb last. Lau ia dadabaia I he 
beat him la natuna lau hadikagu he his child I abused me. 
A noun-suffix requires its corresponding pronoun to pre- 
cede it. Lau imagu I hand my, my hand. Idia matadia 
vata Jiapapadia their eyes them were opened them. Hanua 
taudia idia edia rumadia village men their houses them. 
Mero idia tohu baine henidia boy they sugarcane will 
give them. 

Causation is expressed in the following remarkable 
way. 'He bananas anger angry' (la bigu baduna badu), he 

-** 120 HS~ 

is angry on account of the bananas. Idia boroma garidia 
gadi 'they pigs their fear afraid', they are afraid because 
of the pigs. Oi lau garigu gari 'thou I fear my afraid', 
you are afraid of me. Mero Mtolo taina tdi 'boy hunger 
crying his cries', the boy cries from hunger. 

The negative is put between the two nouns, as Umui 
idia gaudia basi o gari 'You they fear-their do not fear 7 , 
do not be afraid of them. 

Many of the customs of the tribe may be learnt from a 
study of its semasiology. When the men are away on a voyage 
a sacred woman performs certain rites to ensure the safe re- 
turn of the voyagers. If the misfortune or death of a foe 
be desired, incantations are used, whilst the spirits of those 
killed are believed to appear to survivors in some dreadful 
form. The function of the sorcerer is to bring back the 
soul when, during sickness, it leaves the body. This he 
does by making passes over the body of the sick man, for 
which the former receives payment. 

"When grieving for the dead", says Mr, Chalmers, 
"they scratch their faces so as to draw blood, or else they 
cut themselves with a flint or shell. A coarse cloth is worn 
as a mourning garment, or a cane is plaited round the body. 
On the death of a husband an enclosure of mats is made 
round the grave; inside of this the widow sits and mourns. 
They bury their dead. To feel pity is to have the stomach- 
ache, for the stomach is said to be the seat of the affec- 
tions. To an enemy treachery is practised, but hospitality 
is shown to strangers. The man who stores up for future 
use is praised, whilst the lazy man and the thief are 

What, then, is the Motu concept of Deity? If we look 
for a Papuan theosophic Archetype we are not likely to 
find it, for nowhere is the principle of evolution more fully 
to be recognised than in the history of the spiritual life of 
man. And yet the Motuans have no mean idea of God. 

~3* 121 f<~ 

Indeed, in extension they have the concept which Christ 
Himself has given us: they call Him Dirava 'Spirit', Dirava 
~kara religion, Dirava urana lira ham Godliness. It is 
Spirit mi' eHoxnv. For ghost there is the word Lauma, 
for the unknown spirit of evil Vatavata, but God, the Lord 
of all is Dirava. So that we can translate 

|||. la Dirava hekisehekise kara nahuana, ia laueku 
varavara, mai laueku taihuna, mai laueku sinana *|||. 

'Whosoever doth the "Will of God, the same is my 
brother, my sister and mother.' 

Map'or or, as the Dutch write it, Noefoor (Nupor) is 
spoken by about 2000 people, not only at Dore Bay but 
also on the islands of Manaswari and B-'un. But there is 
no native name for the Supreme in Map or. The word used 
is Hari, a cognomen of Vinu, borrowed from India, from 
the Aryan root yar to be light, to burn. 

Mark xi is translated thus: 

|||. Maka manseren Jesus p'iaper be Jerusalem 
And Lord Jesus came to Jerusalem 

ma ro rum Hari ma i-mam kojar 

and into house of-God and he observed everything 
orija ma mandira rape i-be-sasiar i-mbran 
there and evening when he-withdrew he-went 
be Bethanie ro murid-si samp'ur sisser suru. 
to Bethany with disciples ten and two .|||. 



Next in order comes the African Negro race. Here 
our material is singularly rich and varied. We have inde- 
pendent predicates of Deity in no less than 23 languages. 

Beginning with the speech of the Dinkas (Gjen-ke) 
on the White Nile we find that most of the forms are mono- 


^* 122 f<~ 

syllabic and end with a consonant. It is a formless lan- 
guage. Noun and verb are identical; subject and object, 
predicate and attribute can only be distinguished by ex- 
ternal means. And this is true of the dative and accusa- 
tive, the former being found regularly behind the verbal 
expression, whilst the latter invariably stands between the 
elements a-bi (future), a-Td (perfect and negation) and the 
following verbal expression. 

E. g. Dative: An a-M kan jelt ran 

I have this given man (to the). 

Accusative: Jen a-bi piu lei 

He will water bring. 

The category of grammatical gender is unknown to 
Dinka per se, and can only be represented by such ex- 
pressions as 'man, woman'. Thus mare is expressed by 
'little-woman-this-horse' (tirie gorikor). 

Alike in an attributive and in a predicative sense the 
adjective comes after the substantive to which it belongs; 
e. g. ran did great man, ror did great men; ran a-did the 
man is great, ror a-did the men are great. The ideology 
is hybrid, the formula being 2. 4. G. 8. VI. 

Now the Dinka name for the Supreme is Dendid 'that 
Great One', from den that and did great. 

Luke vi is translated as follows: 

Kedi jen a-ki lo gun-e Dendid ko 

As he went into house of this God and 

a-ki-nai mono ki tau ko a-ki-kam ko 
took-away bread set being and ate and 

a-ki-jek koik-ke ke jen mono a-kie jik 
gave people with him bread not allowed, 

hi tok k'am e tit e Dendid 

that one eat but priests these of God 

they-themselves ? 

~>* 1 23 <- 

In a Dinka poem we road of Dendid: 

'On the day when Dendid made all things, 

He made the Sun; 
And the Sun comes forth, goes down, and comes 


He made the moon; 
And the moon comes forth, goes down, and comes 


He made the stars; 
And the stars come forth, go down, and come again: 

He made man; 
And man comes forth, goes down into the ground, 

and comes no more'. 

The Bari, who are neighbors of the Dinka, have a 
great deal in common with them, though their word for 
il Sommo Bene is very different. 

Though here and there showing a tendency to agglu- 
tination and even to inflexion, Bari must be described as 
a formless language. Subject and predicate, subject and 
object can only be distinguished by syntactical means. As 
in Hottentot, the dative must always precede the accusative. 
Noun and verb are identical, the latter being distinguished 
by the attachment of the personal pronoun. Bari is re- 
markable for its regularity of accentuation. Whenever the 
object follows the verb, the latter is accentuated: Nan 
njanjdr bun I love God. The formative elements lo this, 
na this, ' ti these; i on, in; ~ko with etc. also receive the tone. 
Thus, 16-but a good one, na but good (fern.), i Jcadi na 
Nun in the house this God (of), i kak on earth, ko do 
with thee. 

The nominative precedes the verb, the dative and accu- 
sative follow it, and the former is always placed before the 
latter, as nan a-tin lu muntje I have given him bread, ti 
nan piom, nan momoje do give me water, I beg thee. 

The interrogative njo what, why? and ko-njo whereby, 

~3H 124 HSr- 

wherewith? appear at the end of the sentence; as do dek 
njo? wilt thou what? Nun a-gwega nutu njo? God cre- 
ated men why? jipopo lei ko-njo? we enter heaven whereby? 

The Bari verb does not express modality, time, person 
or number. All these must be distinguished by external 
means alone. The feeling of the language for grammatical 
gender is mostly manifest in the case of the genitive, which is 
expressed in the following noteworthy way. First comes the 
thing possessed, then a demonstrative pronoun and lastly the 
possessor. In gender and number the demonstrative must 
agree with the word to which it refers ; masc. lo, fern, na, plur. it. 
For instance, gur lo Bari the land of the Bari, nutu lo Sari 
the Bari-Negro, kadi na Nun the House of God (lit. house-this- 
God), nutu na Sari man this (fern.) Bari = the Bari negress, 
kulja ti Sari voice these Bari = the language of the Bari. 

As in Dinka so here the ideology is hybrid, namely, 
2. 4. 6. 8. VI. Though such near neighbors there are con- 
siderable differences in speech between the Dinka and the 
Bari, as may be seen from a comparison of the Pater noster 
in the two languages. 

Pater noster. 

jin a- to 
thou art 

Ua-da ke 

Father-our this 
rin-ku a-bi lek, 

name-thine praised become, 
puon-du a-bi loi 

will-thine (will) made be 
Jeke kog mivd-kua 
Give us meat-our 

kog karak-kua akit 
us sins-our as 

wnjal kog a-wtjok 
(in) heaven we beg 
pan-du a-bi ben 

land-thine will come 

piii-ik akit wnjal-ik 
earth-in as heaven-in 

akol-e a-vton pal 
day-this sufficient forgive 
kog ja a-pal koik 
we also forgive people 

~* 125 *s~ 

ki kerak loi eton kug ko dune 

having sin done to us and not 

pal bi kog kuat temak-ik lone koin 

give to so us lead temptation-into but deliver 
Kog eton Kerak. Amen, 
us from Sin. Amen. 

Pater nosier. 

Baba likan do lo gwo-gwon ki. Ti 

Father our thou this art (in) heaven. Give 

aiijan karin kunok kwa-kwaka. Arijan tumatjan 
that name thine honored-be. That lordship 
inot po-po ka-jan ni. Arijan deket inot gwegwe 
thine come to us here. That will thine become 
gwoko i ki kona luna i - kak ni. 

so in heaven even-as also on earth here. 

I 16-lor ti ji muntje nikan na 
On this day give us bread our that (of the) 
loron lin. Koloki ji toronjeki kan gwoko ji 
days all. forgive us sins our as we 

kokolokin katoronjak kan. Ko pik ji 
forgive sinners our. Not lead us (to) 

du-diimagi, ama luoki-luok ji i narok lin. 

temptation-bring, but deliver us from evils all. 



We have already seen that, the Bari name for God 

is Jvun. A Bari Ave Maria runs: 

Do ro-romue Maria, do na-budja, Nun ko 
Thou greeted Mary, thou blessed, God with 

do, do ra-rata i wate lin, luna ra-rata 

thee, thou anointed amongst: women: all also praised 

-SW 126 HSr- 

tore 16 mogun inot Jesu Kristi. Maria a-na-ke 
son ttis body of-thy Jesus Christ. Mary pure, 
note na I^un mol-e-mo ko ji katoronjak 
mother which God beg for us sinners 

kunana hma i dinit na tuan nikari. Amen, 
now also in time which dying (of) our. Amen. 
Now, this Bari word Nun is neither more nor less 
than the Egyptian OOO ^^ of which we read in the Turin 


papyrus of AupanK and the Hieratic papyrus of Taho. 

|| Enok nuter aa koper kesep mu 

I-am God great existing of self water 

pu Nun pu tep nuter-u || 

namely Nun namely Father of the gods. 
Again : 

|| Iri pe-t Kem un-t-u lai 

Who-made Heaven Creator of things ruling 
em Nun 
as Nun || 

Nun, then, is the chaos of Heaven and Sea, das Ur- 
gewasser, the fllDhfl or apucrcro^ of Genesis; and there is 
perhaps no other instance of a change so remarkable as 
that from the vague Chaos of the Egyptians to the sublimest 
Kosmos of the Bari! 

In the Wolop language we find no native name for 

Deity, the word used being the Arabic ^JJ\ in the form 
Jalla, as we have it in the fable of The Grub and the 
Butterfly, (gasak ak laplap). 

|| Walaj! Jalla bole-wu-nu ket! 

Truly God has-not-us-together given origin! 
man de ma-nav t'je asaman, jov sup reka 
I hover about heaven, thou earth only 

thou knowest. || 

~X 127 Xr- 

The languages of the Bullom and Temne are closely 
related, but, as in the case of the Dinka and Bari, the names 
for the Highest differ. 

As regards external organisation they remind us of 
the Bantu family. Noun and verb are distinguished from 
one another phonetically, but subject and object and sub- 
ject and predicate are shown by purely syntactical means. 
Between attribute and predicate there is a complete phonetic 
distinction. Originally the root seems to have been 
mono -syllabic and to have had both nominal and verbal 
meaning; e. g. Son 'dream' and 'to dream', ~ket 'to cut off' 
and 'slice.' 

The adjective follows the noun, when used attributively, 
and is distinguished by the copula (often only a pronoun) 
when used predicatively. Pokan kelen man-good 'a good 
man', Ml bomuu house-high 'a high house', on the other 
hand pokan woa kelen 'the man is good', a-pokan ria kelen 
'the men are good'. The attributive adjective agrees with 
the substantive in number. Thus a-pokan a-kelen 'the good 
men', kil ti-bomun 'the high houses'. 

The nominative or subject-case and the accusative or 
object-case have no phonetic expression and can only be 
distinguished by position in the sentence. Ja-no kumdi 
tamu mother -your -born -son 'your mother has borne a 
son'. The genitive is expressed by placing the thing 
possessed before the possessor, worn bai tre 'the canoe of 
the king', Ml bai Ire 'the house of the king.' The genitive 
can also be expressed by putting the particle ha or hoa 
between. Thus bai lia a-gju tre King of the Jews. 

Now the Bullom word predicative of Deity is P'oi from 
the root fioe to go out, beyond. Malaka ha P'oi Angel of 
God. To the Bullom, therefore, God is 'the Beyond'. 

As in Dinka and Bari so here the ideology is hybrid, 
namely, 2. 4. 6. 8. VI. 

The Tenme word for God is Kuru meaning Old-One, 

-* 128 h*. 

the 'Ancient of Days'. Pa lone-ko traka an-ton na Kuru 
He delights in the Law of God. 

For completeness' sake, that we may see how savage 
idioms lend themselves to religious expression, I add, where 

possible, the Pater Noster. 


Pa-ka-su, owo ji ro-Rianna, tra an' es-'a-mu na ji a-sam ; 
Tra 'ra-hai-ra-mu ra bek; tra 'ma-selo-ma-mu ma jone so 
ka an-top, ma ma jone ro ka Bianna; Jer-su tenon ar' 
a-ra-su ra-di ara beki; De zera-su tra-bei-tra-su, ma sjaii 
so sa zera ana ba tra-bei-tra-su; De ze su wona ka tr'ei 
tra-gbosa; kere wurasu ka tr'-ei tra-las; za mimo ba 'ra- 
bai de an'-pqsa, de an'-jiki, tankan 6 tankan. Amina. 

As in other idioms of the Negro race we find a re- 
gular phonetic evolution in Ibo. Consonantal groups are 
avoided: vowel and consonant stand harmoniously together. 
A peculiarity of the languages of West Africa is the ten- 
dency to nasalise the initial consonant. The distinction 
between verb and noun which did not originally exist, is 
made in the case of the noun by an increase at the be- 
ginning of the word, and in that of the verb by the position 
of the pronominal element denoting person. Similarly sub- 
ject, predicate, and object are only distinguished by their 
position as regards the verb. The attributive and possessive 
relationship is often expressed by the relative pronoun. In- 
deed this not infrequently serves to co-ordinate the sen- 
tences, which shows that the idiom has a certain striving 
after logical combination of thoughts. 

The accusative or object case is made known by its 
position to the verb, which it regularly follows. Ja-suk- 
wa ubi na he bought this country-house; ja-sa akwa-ja he 
washes his garment. The genitive is expressed in two ways, 
either by putting the thing possessed immediately before 
the possessor or by connecting the two expressions by the 

^ 129 ir- 
relative pronoun fJce (as in Bari, Wolop etc.). For in- 
stance, opara woke son-man = the son of the man; opara 
nhe Kiiku son -who -God =r son of God; ma eze nice odibo 
na ebere me-ja and Lord who servant this had pity on him 
= And this servant's Lord had pity on him. 

Whether as attribute or predicate the adjective follows 
the subtantive to which it belongs. The predicate is known 
by the preceding copula, the attribute by the relative 
pronoun joined to the substantive. Thus, Osisi nice oyo ogagi 
mea nikporo omma tree which bad can not bring fruits good 
= a bad tree cannot bring forth good fruit. 

As verb a substantiva the stems wu (wo), H (to exist, 
dwell) and do (de, di) are used. But the pronominal mean- 
ing predominates, as the sign for the third person is 
lacking. Hence such expressions as una-gi wo ese father 
thine is king? = Is thy father a king? On the other 
hand a-wum existence-mine = I am. In cases where the 
copula is not needed to distinguish the predicate from the 
attribute it may be omitted. Thus die oha-ni? what thy 
people? = of what people art thou? Ole una-ni ubua? 
Father thine now? = where is now thy father? 

Time is expressed by the addition of certain elements 
to the verbal stem. Thus na denotes the present and per- 
fect, whilst past generally is expressed by the elements 
hwa and ra (re, ri, ro, m) which can be combined with 
each other and with na. The future is expressed by the 
stem ga which precedes the verb. For instance, 
Mbe-m liu-kwa ese a-ga-m Jcara-hi ihie 

When-I seen-have the-king shall-I tell-thee what 

Ibo ideology is hybrid, the formula being 2. 4. 6. 8. VI. 

The Ibo idea of Deity is very remarkable. The word 
is Kuku the Seeker, from ytio to seek. Ed, Kuku njerem 
ahka dgamd Mja Yes, God helping me, I shall see him again. 


-&4 130 K- 

Closely connected with Ibo is the language known as 
Nupe and the expression for God is another form of the 
same word, namely, Seiko the Seeker (ko = tso, and Kuku 
= Tsuku). 

The languages Ewe, Ga or Akra, Ok'i and Joruba are 
so intimately related that we may take the first as typical 
of all. Considered grammatically these tongues are form- 
less with more or less richly evolved propensities to agglu- 
tination, in some cases almost amounting to inflexion. Pho- 
netically noun and verb are identical, whilst expressing for 
subject and object, attribute and predicate can only be 
distinguished by their position in the sentence. Everything 
else must be indicated by particles, originally nominal or 
verbal roots. Of course there is no relative pronoun known 
to these tongues. 

The root is originally monosyllabic, beginning with a 
consonant and ending with a vowel. Thus ku 'to die' and 
'death'; (Oki wit,]) do 'to sew' and 'seam'. Reduplication 
applies alike to verb and noun. For instance, bobo to 
humble oneself, from bo to bend oneself, dada to creep, 
from da to lie ; popo resurrection, from po to stand up ; gbo- 
gbo breath, spirit, from gbo to breathe; kuku dead, from 
ku to die. 

In Ewe the noun is formless, showing phonetically 
neither number nor case, to say nothing of gender. To 
'ear', to eve 'two ears'; ante 'man', am_>blave 'twenty men'. 
The cases are expressed partly by position within the sen- 
tence and partly by auxiliary particles. The subject-case 
precedes, the object-case follows the verb. E. g. Ati e-mu 
the tree is green, e-wu ame he kills a man. To express 
the genitive the possessor is put, as in English, before the 
thing possessed: popo ap_ < father's foot; ngoi-nje avg my 
brother's clothes. Sometimes the relationship is expressed 
by the word we 'property', with the word for the thing 
possessed in apposition. For instance, Mawu we mo God- 

~3H 131 H$~ 

property-face; eda we ta Snake-property -head. In Joruba 
the position is reversed: He bciba house father = father's 
house, sometimes also by means of the relative particle ti: 
He ti bdba house-which-father. The Ewe dative is shown 
by the verbal root na 'to give' which is used as a prepo- 
sition. Thus, Mupiala na mo na srolao teacher gives way 
gives (= to) pupils = the teacher dismisses the pupils. 

The preceding languages of West Africa have been 
classified by both Bleek and F. Miiller. The former classi- 
fies as follows: 

I. The Niger branch: Efik, Bonny, Yoruba. 
II. Gold Coast Branch: Fanti, Aschanti, Akwapim. 
III. Sierra Leone branch : Fullom, Sherbro, Timneh. 
On the other hand the Gor family consists of: 

I. Southern branch: Ga (Akra). 
II. Middle African branch: Wolof, Fulah. 
III. Nilotic branch: Tumale. 
F. Miiller's classification is the following: 

I Wolof (isolated) 
II. Bullorn and Temne. 

III. Ibo and Nupe (uncertain whether isolated, 
possibly related to the following). 

IV. Languages of the Guinea Coast: 
a. Ewe, Ga, Odschi, Yoruba. 

p. Efik. 

We have now to find out in what way these West 
African idioms have named the ineffable Name, have con- 
ceived the concept supreme. In the first place we must 
remember that though their resemblance is so great, they 
differ in ideology, which would lead one to expect an in- 
dividuality in theology. Ewe ideology is a hybrid natural 
one, namely, 1. 4. 6. 8. VI; the Yoruba formula, on the 
other hand, is indirect and hybrid. 2. 4. 6. 8. VI; whilst 
that of Epik is another form of the indirectly hybrid, namely, 
2. 3. 6. 8. VI. 

-$H 132 K~ 

To trace the Ewe theological idea to its root is not 
now easy, but so far as the data permit the induction, it 
seems probable that Mawu is to be derived from ]/wo to 
strike, which gives us e-wu drum and awunu shore. In 
many respects Mawu reminds us of his Polynesian counter- 
part Maul who is first Man, lord of Heaven or Hades, the 
lord of Day, and South Sea Island hero; and perhaps 
above all he is the Storm-God who holds the winds inpri- 
soned in his cave, and we may seek sublimity in 
. . . the hall where Ewe Mawu 
Howls his war-song to the gale'. 

Besides Onjankopoii we find in Kwi the following forms 
for the Highest: 

Odomankama All- giver, fr. domaiikama, manifold; 

Borebore Potter, fr. yHbore, to stir, mix. 
Onjankopon onje Ondomaiikoma Sunsum God is an 
Eternal Spirit. 
By-names : 


Totoro-bo-nsu Rain giver 

Tweadu-ampon Almighty 

Otumfoo Almighty 

Of the shorter form Onjame we have many instances: 
Onjame-je Godhead 

Onjame-nipa God-Man 
Njame-njansa divine wisdom. 
Njame-su divinity 

Onjame unjae ade bo da God never ceases to cre- 
ate things. 

Osorosoro Njame the Most High God! 
Anjame-Sem Word of God. Bible. 

H3* 133 K~ 

The Akra or Ha predicate of deity is Njoinno, wliich 
in all probability is another form of the Olu Njankopoii 
and the Akwapim Jankupon. It is Heaven itself, worship- 
ped as Supreme Deity. 'The idea of him', says Riis, 'as 
a supreme spirit is obscure and uncertain, and often con- 
founded with the visible heavens or sky, the upper world 
(sorro) wliich lies beyond human reach; and hence the same 
word is used also for heavens, sky, and even for rain and 
thunder'. And this applies to Joruba Olorun, though here 
we have the more interesting form Olodumare He-who-has- 
a-Name; i. e. The Named par excellence. 


Jen agja a wowo soro, wo din ho ntew; | wo ahenni 
mmra; nea wope nje wo asase so nso se nea eje wo soro; 
I ma jen jen da aduan ne; I na p'a jen akaw p'iri jen se nea 
jen nso de piri won a wode jen akaw; I na mp'a jen nko 
sopje mu, na ji jen pi bone mu; na wo na ahenni ne 
alioeden ne annonjam je wodea da. Amen. 


Baba wa ti mbe li orun, Owo li oruko re Ijqba re 
de; Ip'e ti re ni ki ase, bi ti orun, 4) e ni li aije. P'un wa 
li onge ogo wa li oni. Dari gbese wa gi wa, bi awa ti 
ndarigi awon onigbese wa, Ki o ma si p'a wa sino idewo, 
sugbon gba wa nino tulasin. 

Nitor i ig'oba ni ti re, ati agbara, ati ogo, lailai. Amin. 

'In "West Africa', says Dr. Tylor, 'let us take an 
example from the theology of the Slave Coast, a systematic 
scheme of all nature as moved and quickened by spirits, 
kindly or hostile to mankind. These spirits dwell in field 
and wood, mountain and valley; they live in air and water; 
multitudes of them have been human souls, such ghosts 

~^* 134 ;<~ 

hover about the graves and near the living, and have influ- 
ence with the under-gods whom they worship; among these 
'edro' are the patron-deities of men and families and tribes; 
through these subordinate beings works the highest god, 

Next come the Mande languages upon which Prof. 
Steinthal has bestowed such excellent labor. His book 
"Die Mande-Neger Sprachen" is an epoch-making work in 
West African philology, a lasting monument to the genius 
of the Berlin linguistic philosopher. 

As regards the general character of Vai, Mandingo, 
Susu and Bambara, they are distinguished by a high degree 
of euphony. All combinations which tend to make a lan- 
guage either too hard or too soft are strictly shunned. 
They are althogether formless, the sentence forming the 
true unity, in some cases more nearly defined by auxiliary 
particles. Noun and verb are morphologically identical; 
the latter being a nominal expression determined by pos- 
sessive prefixes. Subject and object are defined by their 
position to the verb. The copula serves to distinguish be- 
tween attribute and predicate. The substantive precedes, 
the adjective (attribute) follows. 

The root, which is monosyllabic, is used both verbally 
and nominally, as in Chinese, though there is occasionally 
an attempt at phonetic distinction. The formative elements 
in Vai and Mandingo and Susu are specially interesting. 
Nomina agentis and Nomina instrument are made as 
follows : 

Susu: se thing, gahu se fear -thing (a thing causing 
fear); bi se key (opening -thing); putun se thrashing-thing 

Yai; pen thing. Suma pen measure -thing (measure). 
Mandingo: miselme p'en sacrament (holiness-thing). 

Susu : pe thing. Tton pe play-thing (pleasure) ; dotio pe 
settlement (dwelling-thing). 


Vai and Mandingo: Mo ^ ,, -^ 

a ir 7> Man ' Person, 

busu: Jlfttfce j E. G. Susu: 

'e mulle bravery-person (hero); Yai: wuru mo procreation- 
thing (father); kom-mo (= kon-mo) hatred-person (hater). 

The noun denotes neither number nor case: the latter 
is known not only by its position to the verb but also by 
particular particles, as in K'oikoi. Thus in the Vai the 
demonstrative subject-particle ra, a serves to distinguish 
the genitive, and la in Mandingo. In Susu ra acts em- 
phatically, as an intensive of the subject. 

E. g. Vai: wu-pa ra pa were your father has died to- 
day; kaie ra baivara pa the man a sheep killed. Mandingo: 
ate le si altolu baptisa Alia nio-la nin dimba-la he will you 
baptize God spirit-with and fire-with. Susu: najele natia 
mini light has arisen; Abraham nan Isaak soto Abraham 
the Isaac begat. 

In the Mande languages the same elements often serve 
to bring into prominence alike the emphatic subject-case 
(Nominative) and the object-case (Accusative). The object 
may then follow the verb, which, as a rule it precedes, or 
the object-particle may attach itself to the verb, whereby 
the latter becomes trasformed into an expression which needs 
an object as complement which, again, necessarily governs 
the preceding nominal expression (in Mandingo). Thus 
Vai: m-ma Buraim-a pa I not have Abraham killed; ta 
bira du-je-ra fire seized the house; Mandingo: ieAllaJcanu 
le ba? thou God lovest, yes? 

The genitive is as a rule expressed by the application 
of the demonstrative relative particles, the possessor pre- 
ceding the thing possessed. Occasionally, however, the de- 
monstrative-relative is lacking, and then the sense must be 
ascertained from the position of the two members. E. g. 
pari a kira alligator-of the same-way (way of the Alligator) ; 
kai koro a den man old of the same child (the child 

-> 136 H$~ 

of the old man). In Bambara the order is reversed: bun 
a pali head this pig (this is the head of the pig). 

Although in the Mande idioms the genitive of definition 
comes before the thing defined, yet the adjective follows 
the substantive to which it belongs, whether used pre- 
dicatively or attributively. Thus Yai: Manga la na me 
prince great came hither; de mese-nu gH luri children small 
all. ran away. If a substantive connected with an attri- 
butive adjective is to be made plural, the suffix, instead of 
being attached to the noun, is added to the adjective. Thus, 
"Vai: Afanga Id-nn great chiefs (ba great) 

hai Idrare-nu poorly men (Idrare ill) 
Mandingo: Ice lette-o lu good men (bette good) 

pane Jmoirit't-o-lu white clothes (kuoiriii white) 
In expressing the relation of predicate the pronoun mu 
(Vai, Mandingo), na (Susu) is added, whilst the adjective 
remains unchanged. 1 glorod-re mu thou demented this = 
thou art mad; Mandingo: nte le mu I who there = it is 
I; Mansa le mu nun king who this once = a king was 

Of these languages the verbal expression is nothing 
but a noun furnished with possessive prefixes. Compare 
for instance, 
Vai: m-pa my father n-do I say 

i-pa thy father i-ro thou sayest 

a-pa his father a-ro he says 

mu-pa our father mu-ro we say 

wu-pa your father tvu-ro ye say 

an-pa their father an-do they say 

By combining the verb substantive be with the post- 
positions - - Mandingo: la, Vai: na, ro, into, with, a dur- 
ative expression is formed. Thus, Ni i-le salle-la when 
thou art prayer in = when thou prayest; Vai: m-le pen 
don na I-am-thing-eating-in, i. e. I eat; mbe taje-ro I-am- 

~3w 137 - 

going-in = I go. To express the habitual form in Han- 
dingo tlii'. word kare to do is used. 'Bachel wept for her 
children* is therefore expressed as follows : Bachel-did-eyes- 
water-pour-her-children-over: Rahel kare nja-gi-bo a dino- 

As regards ideology Vai, Mandingo and Susu are 
natural, the formula being 1. 4. 5. 8. Ill and VI, whilst 
Bambara is hybrid, namely, 2. 4. 5. 8. 


Wun- Pap'e nakan- na arrijana, Ikili k'a senijen-. 
Ika jamine ka pa. Isague ka naninama dunia ma, 
erne aninaki arrijanama kinake. Muku ki to muku 
ka loke loke buita sera. Anun- ika muku donii lu, 
erne mukutan pan- nei doni lu nak'ai muku doni nun-. 
Amur inama muku raso maninai, kono ika muku ra- 
kissi p'ekobi ma: ^enakaara Itanan gbe nan- jammera, 
anun- sembe, anun- daraga, abada, Amina. 

As theosophic Archetypes in Mande we have: 

Maude: Ngewo = Nga-wo That (art) Thou! 

Vai: Kaniba, = Kanu-ba, Love-great! 

I bira Kaniba-ma Trust thou in God! 

Bambara: Ngiiala, a form of the Arabic IM Allah. 
Ngnalasira religion. 

St. John iii. 16. has been translated into Mande as 
follows : 

|| Gbamaile Ngewo ije Iqi lo ni a ndoloi, ta loingi loi 
jakpe'i veni, ije joni; ta lo ntimui gbi lo ngi houa lo a tonja, 
6 lohu, ke kunap'o levu lo a jp. || 

The language known as Sonrai is essentially Negro 
in its formation. The root was originally monosyllabic and 
was used both as verb and substantive. Thus ba means 
alike 'to will', 'to love', and 'good 7 ; ma 'to understand' and 
'name'. There is moreover no phonetic distinction between 
the subjective and objective case. In the genitive relation- 


-3H 138 K~ 

ship the possessor precedes the thing possessed. Koru 
dene fire's tongue (flame); tuguri idge tree's child (fruit); 
hio koi ship's lord (captain); beri koi horse's lord (rider). 

An article or rather a demonstrative adjective is not 
altogether unknown to Sonrai. For things animate it is 
di, for the inanimate ni. For instance, ni-jo-di thy-camel- 
it, woki jiri-wo-ni this our-this it. The verb is nothing but 
a noun with the possessive prefix. 'I go', to take a simple 
example, is expressed by 'my-being-going' a-go-koi. Ideolo- 
gically Sonfai is an indirect hybrid, the formula being 1. 
3. 6. 8. VI. 

The theology of the Sonfai conceives the Highest as 
the celestial Ruler Jer-koi our Lord. 

Whether the root-words of the Logone language were 
originally mono- or dissyllabic or possibly a reduplicated 
syllable it is now difficult, if not impossible, to determine. 
One thing, however, is quite certain, namely, that noun and 
verb can both be expressed by the same word. Sd, for 
instance, means both 'to drink' and 'beverage'. 

The noun is absolutely formless. As regards Case the 
genitive is expressed by placing the thing possessed before 
the possessor; sometimes, however, the position is reversed, 
showing how weak is the feeling generally for the adequate 
expression of case-relations. Thus, skool eman pot of honey ; 
benne ro wall of the town; and vgola bunhe of corn bundle; 
kusku-n-tdbu of the hen young (chick) ; etc. The attributive 
adjective is often expressed both by a substantive in the 
relationship of the genitive and by juxtaposition of both 
expressions in phonetic identity. For instance, lebu-n-tu 
shirt-this-blackness ; lebu-m-pau shirt-this-whiteness. 

Between noun and verb there is complete distinction 
by reason of the law of prefixing personal elements. By 
prefixing the particle dl to the verbal stem a durative form 
is produced. Thus, inddl-u-gur 'now-I-going', I go; n-dl- 
a-kula-halge 'now-he-making-song', he sings. The ideology 
is indirectly hybrid, viz. 2. 4. 6. 8. VI. 

~3* 139 HS~ 

In Logone the theistic idea is thus embodied in speech: 
Mal-ua Our Master, corresponding with the terms in Ka- 
nuri and Sonrai.J 

We now come to the Wandala or Mandara language. 
The root is for the most part monosyllabic and serves both 
as noun and verb. Thus, ga is both 'rest' and 'to rest'; 
maga 'to work' and 'work'. 

There are two points of interest about the noun. The 
first is with regard to the expression of the possessive, which 
is as follows: camel-possession-mine = my camel (luguma- 
rua), the second has to do with the genitive case which is 
represented either by placing the thing possessed simply 
before the possessor, ha gaje house (of the) bird (nest); 
Melissa ungule horse (of the) journey, or by putting the de- 
monstrative-relative particle na (n) between the two ex- 
pressions: thus, edsa-n-belissa child (of the) horse, edsa-n- 
apd child (of the) tree (fruit), ubbene-n-apd flower (of the) 
tree (bloom). 

As regards the adjective, when used attributively it 
follows the substantive, when predicatively it precedes it. 
For instance, golondo gagi finger small, but kottiia ura-tere 
ml-tere? numerous totality of them what of them? = 
which is the more numerous of them? 

The expression of the verb in Mandara is almost 
identical with that in English except as regards the posi- 
tion of the pronoun: thus, ta-ye-me they beat us, ku-ge-nga 
ye beat us, je-mala-ku I help thee. When the verbal stem 
is combined with wa, we 'to do' the object-element is put 
between the two expressions, the verb itself remaining form- 
less. Thus : 

We-n-we baja do-him-love-I = I love him. 

We-nkore-gur betere do-you-love-they = they love you. 

We-ngare-gur wokore do-us-love-ye = ye love us. 

Wandala ideology is, therefore, the same as Logone, 
namely, 2. 4. 6. 8. VI, or indirectly hybrid. 

-*4 140 K- 

Very beautiful is the Mandara view of God: they call 
Him Dada-mia our Father! 

About the Maba or Mobba language there are several 
points of interest. Consonantal combinations are for the 
most part avoided. The possessive pronoun, which follows 
the noun to which it belongs, is derived from the substan- 
tive form by affixing to it the demonstrative particle ne. As 
regards the Cases the subject-case or nominative is not distin- 
guished phonetically. The object-case or accusative precedes 
the verb and is often known by the suffixes -en, -go. Thus, 
berek-en atani horse I mount, dreke-n ukd shirt wash == wash 
the shirt. In expressing the genitive the possessor is put before 
the thing possessed. For instance, beri melek of horses lord 
(rider), tang melek house lord; sometimes the suf&K-ang (with, 
of) serves to express the possessor; thus ganga-ng melek of 
the drum lord (drummer), linga-ng melek of the way lord 
(Street robber), and when this is the case the position of the 
members may be reversed, as tang kebel-ang dwelling of the 
bird (nest). The suffixes -nak, -via and -in are also used 
in the same sense: for instance, berik suk-nak place of the 
market, gorik ml-nak urn of Indigo. 

Now. it is quite possible that -nak, -aiig, -na, -in are 
only different forms of one and the same suffix consisting 
of the relative particle na and a demonstrative element ka, 
so that berik suk-nak would be 'place-market-which-this.' 

The adjective follows the substantive to which it be- 
longs whether as attribute or as predicate. Thus, sungo 
papada trees sparse, kedade sasala land waste; deeke-tu 
kumdak shirts (are) torn. The structure of the verb rests 
upon the connexion of the verbal stem with the pro- 
nominal prefixes. 

Maba ideology is the most interesting with which we 
have yet had to deal. It is altogether natural, the formula 
being 1. 4. 5. 8. I. 

~$* 141 K~ 

The Supreme in Mtiba is expressed by Kalak the Great 
One = Fur Kalge. 

Teda, the language of the Tihbu is peculiarly interest- 
ing to the philologist, as it presents alike the nominal and 
the purely verbal form of verb-construction. 

It is still an open question whether the Tibbu are 
to be considered as relatives of the Berber, i. e. Hamites, 
or a mixed tribe of negroes and Hamites. Prof. F. Miiller 
considers the Tibbu, as well as the Kanwis and Hausas as 
ethnologically belonging to the Negro tribes. 

In Teda the noun is absolutely formless, indicating 
neither number nor case. Nominative and accusative or 
the subject- and object -case can only be determined by 
their position to the verb, that is to say, to the centre of 
the sentence. The object regularly precedes the verb, 
sometimes with the particle -he. Thus, ashi-he tu-muni? 
horse hast thou bound? Sirdi ai aski-he ke-babi saddle this 
horse hurts = this saddle hurts the horse. The genitive 
can be expressed in three ways. In the first the thing 
possessed precedes the owner, in the second it follows, and 
in the third by the addition of the possessive pronoun. 
For instance, a) tugui derdai house (of the) chief; f$) horn- 
molo soro (of the) illness remedy; and f) derdaje de henua 
prince-mother-his, agre bm lientu slaves-great-one-your = 
your Overseer, etc. 

Whether as attribute or predicate the adjective follows 
the substantive to which it belongs. Thus: nemai toro-lno 
buerik town-one-I destroy (eat); tirm buja-he beterri street 
great we go. 

Verbal construction in Teda rests upon two principles: 
the one being the prefixing to the verbal stem of the stems 
of the personal pronoun, in the relation of subject and 
predicate, and the other the annexing to the nominally-con- 
ceived verbal stem of the possessive pronouns. 

As in Maba so in Tedfi the ideology is natural, giving 

^H 142 H^ 

us the formula 1. 4. 5. 8. I, i. e. genitive -f- nominative, 
noun -f- adjective, object -f- verb, subject -\- verb, and ob- 
ject -|- subject -f- verb. 

Now, the conception of God in Teda is this: K'en-uo 
our Master? 

Coming to the Kanuri language we find it is one of 
a suffixing and agglutinative order, with a harmonious 
phonetic evolution. The Kanuri noun is formless but the 
verb is wonderfully rich in forms, reminding us of the same 
part of speech in Finnish and Turkish (Osmanli). 

Subject and object are determined partly by their 
position in the sentence and partly by definite particles. 
As the dative is distinguished phonetically, the ideology 
may be varied to a great extent. Thus: 'I brought a 
horse to the king' may be expressed by wu per mei-ro 
~kusko I horse king-to brought; wu mei-ro per kusko I king- 
to horse brought; mei-ro wu per kuskd king -to I horse 
brought; per wu mei-ro kusko horse I king-to brought; wu 
per ~kuskd mei-ro I horse brought king-to; per mei-rd wu 
Imsko horse king-to I brought. 

Attribute and predicate, which always follow, are dis- 
tinguished by the fact that the former constitutes a unity 
with the substantive to which it belongs and to which the 
case-particles are added. The language possesses no re- 
lative pronoun. 

As regards the root, it is sometimes mono- and some- 
times polysyllabic. By means of reduplication intensive, 
iterative and durative stems are formed. Thus: her-hgin 
I bind, kerher-ngin I bind together; tern-gin I build, tem- 
tem-gin I build much and continuously. 

As already stated the noun is formless, defining neither 
number, sex, nor case. The same form may be both sin- 
gular and plural, both subject and object. When an ad- 
jective follows a substantive attributively the case -expo- 
nents (suffixes) are annexed to the former and not to the 

~3H 143 NS- 

latter. Thus, per karite horse fine = beautiful horse is 
declined as follows: 

1ST. per ka'riti-je horse fine 
G. per ka'riti-be horse fine-of 
D. per ka'ritu-ro horse fine-to 
A. per ka'rite-ga horse fine 
L. per ka'rite-n horse fine-in. 

Now the construction of the verb in Kanuri does not 
rest, as in most other languages, on the union of a nominal 
verbal stem used predicatively with a subjective pronominal 
element, but the relationship of the two elements consti- 
tuting the verbal expression is that of dependence, identical 
with that of the possessive between noun and pronoun. 

The Kanuri concept of God is that of a Lord, a 
divine Ruler Koma'-nde' Lord our. Thus the sentence 
'If thou dost try to get by force what God has not given 
thee, thou dost not obtain it', is expressed as follows: 
ago koma'-nde' n-ki-ni-te duno-n 

What Lord-our thee-he-not-given force-with 

ina'-nem panel-em ba'go. 

seekest-thou obtainest-thou not. 

As already stated Kanuri ideology is somewhat un- 
certain, being sometimes 2. 4. 5. 8. I and sometimes 2. 4. 
5. 8. III. 

And here we may notice that the Kanuri theosophic 
idea coincides with that of the Sonrai: Jer-koi: Koma'- 
nde' our Lord. 

For symmetry of tone and euphony of form there are 
few languages, if any, which can surpass Hausa. 

Considered morphologically the language shows formation 
both by suffix and prefix, the verb being the centre of 
attraction and constituting a veritable masterpiece of lin- 
guistic architectonics! Subject and object, attribute and 
predicate are distinguished by their position to the verb. 

-*- 144 HE~ 

The verb substantive is derived from the pronoun. The 
genitive is expressed by means of the demonstrative-relative. 

Hausa knows a relative pronoun, but makes little use 
of it, the connexion of sentences being of the simplest kind. 
A point of unusual interest about the language is the 
phonetic expression of grammatical gender, not only with 
the pronoun and the verb but with the substantive and 
partially with the adjective. This is the more astonishing 
as there is no phonetic expression either of the subject -or 
object -case. 

According to Prof. F. Miiller the root was originally 
monosyllabic, as Jti to eat, sa to drink, si to hear, but as 
there are many of the dissyllabic order, it is quite open 
to question whether in the first instance the root was not 
the repetition of a syllable. Stems of more than one syllable 
may be used both as nouns and verbs: thus, mdgana 'lan- 
guage', 'word', and 'to speak', taja 'aid' and 'to help'. 

The verbal formative elements in Hausa are peculiarly 
interesting and instructive. The vowels u and o form stems 
with intransitive or medio-passive meaning. For instance, 
gamma is 'to connect', gammu 'to meet'; koja is 'to teach', 
Jcojo 'to learn'. 'It is difficult to teach Kanuri' is expressed 
in Hausa by Koja-n~magana Kanuri da wuja teaching- 
language Kanuri is hard. 'It is hard to learn English' by 
Kojo-n- mdgana Erilis da tvuja learning -language English 
is difficult. Da forms transitives and reflexives, as Ui to 
eat, fti-da to feed oneself; sai to buy, sai-da to sell; Jcawo 
to bring, Jcau-da to take away. Sie forms causatives: zai 
to stand eai-sie to place. Jes and as form stems of dis- 
tinctly transitive meaning as sai to buy, sa-yes to sell to 
somebody. Jes-da and as-da form strengthened transitive 
stems expressing an exhaustion of the action, as ba-jes-dq 
to give away altogether, fitt-as-da to draw out wholly. 

The demonstrative stem wonne or wonda (masc.) wodda 
(fern.) serves as the relative pronoun. For instance, 

~s* 145 K~ 

Ba si-sanni ba wonda ja-danki 

Not he knew not (him) who taken had 


is the Hausa for 'he did not know who had taken his 

As regards the noun we have to consider three points, 
namely, grammatical gender, number and case. Gender 
from a grammatical point of view is conceived as twofold, 
the spontaneous (masc.) and the receptive (fern.), as in the 
hamito-semitic languages, but it is not always phonetically 
manifest. Number is expressed in many ways. First of 
all there are collective names denoting natural products 
and single psychical qualities in one single form, as mu- 
gunta badness, murna joy, tamaJia hope. The plural is 
formed in various ways; usually by suffixes of which the 
following are the chief: -una, -ami, -ane, -u, -je, -i, -se and 
-ki. It is also formed by the simple means of Redu- 

Amongst relationships of case it is only the genitive 
which is manifest phonetically; the nominative, both as 
subject and predicate, and the object-case are distinguished 
by their position to the verb whilst the others are indi- 
cated by particles (Dat. ga, da. Ablat. daga, gare). Thus: 
ja-paddi ga^mutane maganganu-n-Obangisi duka He pro- 
claimed to [men the words of God; Na-pitto daga Bornu 
I come from Bornu. Jdro ja-kuka the boy cries ; Timbuktu 
gari Jcarami tie Timbuktu is a small town. 

To express the genitive the thing possessed is put be- 
fore the possessor, and both are united by means of the 
demonstrative-relative pronoun na (masc.), ta (fern.). That 
is to say, 'the boy's 'name' is equivalent to 'name-this-boy'. 
For instance: kwara-na-sinkappa corn of the journey. 
magana-ta-bakinsa speech of his mouth. 

-$H 146 f<-~ 

The a of demonstrative-relative is generally elided, as 
Oba-n-gisi Father of the house 
dd-n-uwa-na child -this -mother -mine = my mother's child 

suna-n-jaro name of the boy. 

As a rule the adjective remains unchanged and only 
follows the analogy of the noun when it is used substan- 
tively, and in rare instances denotes grammatical gender. 
E. g. jdro Jcarami a small boy; jdrmia karamia a small 
girl. Used as an attribute the adjective may either pre- 
cede or follow, but as predicate it must always follow. 
Thus, baba sarki a great king, but sarki baba the king is 
great. Mutun ndgari ba si-sin-goro mutua a good man does 
not feel terror at death. 

The Hausa verb is a pure verb, having nothing no- 
minal about it. Its construction rests on the connexion of 
the verbal stem with the affixed personal pronominal ele- 
ment. Thus we are reminded of the prefix form which 
characterizes alike the Semitic and Hamitic languages. 
The scheme of the verb is as follows: 

Singular Plural 

1. P. na-ba I give mu-ba 

^ fmasc. ka-ba 

2. P. ., ku-ba 

[ tern, ki-ba 

_ fmasc. ja-ba 

3. P. { . su-ba 

[ fern, ta-ba 

This simple form, as in Hebrew, expresses momentary 
action in the past and corresponds to the Greek aorist. 
By prefixing to the verbal stem the elements na and ha 
we get forms with the function of the present and the 
pure perfect. The negative form is expressed by prefixing 
and suffixing the element la: e. g. na-sanni I know; ba 
na-sanni ba I know not. 

-SH 147 K~ 

Generally speaking the infinitive is without any definite 
sign and is represented by the naked verbal stem. Thus, 
na-tappi kwana I go to sleep; su-n-tappi Hi tuo-nsu they 
went to eat their bread. The infinitive can also be used 
as a pure substantive and then sometimes in the sense of 
a genitive or dative-objective with regard to the verb. 
For instance, i-na-so en-kawa mallami, don i-na-so en-koja 
ga mutane-n-kassa-mu I wish to become a priest, as I wish 
to teach the people of our land; mu-tappi ga sa-n-hiska 
we go to the drinking of the wind, i. e. we are going for 
a walk. The Malay says: Oran putih mdkan ariin 'the 
white man eats wind' i. e. goes for a walk. 

In many African languages we find no elaboration of 
the passive form of the verb, its place being supplied by 
the corresponding active construction and this is the case 
with Hausa. Instead of 'I am caught' we have 'they catch 
me' (su-n-kama-ni). But though it is not a verbal con- 
struction, the passive can be expressed in a very real sense 
by a perfect passive participle with a possessive genitive 
suffix indicative of the person to whom the action relates. 
E. g. a-n-kama-ni my caught being = I am caught; a-na- 
ba-ni my given being = I am given; a-ka-ba-ni my given 
having been = I have been given. 

What the copula is to Aryan languages the verbum 
substantivum is to Hausa. As in Egyptian so here it is 
of pronominal origin. The stems used for the substantive 
verb are ne, ke, Tie. Originally they were doubtless used 
to distinguish the three persons, but now there is no dis- 
tinction. Thus, ni talaka ne I am poor; kura Ue it is a 
hyaena; jdro nan la si-ke karami la this boy is not small; 
jdrima mugunia lie the girl is bad; make ba ta-ke mugunia 
ba the woman is not bad. 

From the point of view of accidence Hausa is pecu- 
liarly interesting to the comparative philologist. Prepo- 
sitions, for instance, are evidently of nominal origin, as in 

~3* 148 K~ 

the Semitic languages. With the exception of da, get, ma 
(to, at) the noun to which they belong appears in the ge- 
nitive case and with the possessive suffixes. 

The most important of the purely nominal prepositions 

baja (hinderpart) behind gare (place, side) with, by 

bissa (height, upper part) upon p'uska (face) before, 
dsakka (middle) in kiki (abdomen) in 

gaba (bosom) before 

Daga Uiki-n-gidda-mu in our house; baja-m-birni behind 
the town; dag a Mja-nsa behind him. 

With regard to the striking similarities between Hausa 
and the languages of the Hamito-Semites Prof. F. Mtiller 
well observes: 

4 Diese tiefgreifenden Uebereinstimmungen des Hausa 
und anderer afrikanischer Idiome mit den hamito-semi- 
tischen Sprachen konnen nach unserer Ueberzeugung ohne 
die Annahme eines tiefgreifenden vor-historischen Einflusses 
der Hamito-Semiten auf die Neger nicht erklart werden. 

Wie bekannt lagen die Sitze des Hausa -Volkes ehe- 
mals weiter in Nord-Osten und Heinrich Earth bringt die 
Hausa's mit den Ataranten Herodots (IV 184) in Ver- 
bindung, welchen Ausdruck er als die ,,Versammelten" 
(a-tara) erklart. 1st diese Annahme richtig - - und wir 
haben keinen Grund sie in Zweifel zu ziehen - - dann 
sassen nach jener Stelle Herodot's die Hausa's zu jener 
Zeit (2300 Jahre vor dem heutigen Tage) um Bilma im 
heutigen Gebiete der Teda (Tebu), also in einer Gegend, 
die den Hamiten naher lag als jene Sitze, welche sie heut 
zu Tage einnehmen. 

Wir haben schon zu wiederholten Malen die Ansicht 
ausgesprochen, dass die Schichtungs-Verhaltnisse der Volker 
Afrikas von dem Einrucken der Hamiten in den Norden 
und Nord-Osten dieses Continents und dem dadurch er- 
zeugten Yorwartsdrangen einzelner Stamme bedingt sind. 

HX 149 HS~ 

Wir haben namentlich die Fulah's, die vom Osten nach 
Westen, und die Kafir-Volker, die vom Norden nach Siiden 
gedrangt wurden, im Auge. Es scheint uns, der Sprache 
nach zu urtheilen, dass die Hausa's durch langere Zeit den 
Hamiten benachbart wohnten, bis sie von den nach dem 
Westen riickenden Fulah's von ihren Heimathssitzen ab- 
gedrangt wurden. Und zwar muss dieser Zeitraum des 
Nebeneinanderwohnens ziemlich lang gewesen sein, da sich 
nur daraus der tiefe Einfluss hamitischer Sprachbildung 
auf das Hausa-Idiom, der beinahe einem Aufpfropfen 
hamitischen Geistes auf ein Negervolk 'gleich sieht, er- 
klaren lasst. 

Ohne diese, wie wir glauben, nicht unbegriindete An- 
nahme bleiben das Hausa-Volk und die Hausa-Sprache fur 
den Ethnologen und Sprachforscher ein Kathsel, namlich 
einerseits der achteste Negertypus, andererseits eine Sprache, 
die von den eigentlichen Negersprachen bedeutend abweicht 
und offenbar vieles Fremde in sich enthalt, so dass sie 
einzelne Sprachforscher (Lepsius) den hamitischen Sprachen 
xuzuzahlen keinen Anstand nehmen'. 

It will be seen that Hausa ideology is indirectly hybrid, 
the formula being 2. 3. 6. 8. VI. 

The Hausa theological concept is indeed most remark- 
able. It is perhaps the only language in which God is 
called 'the Father of the House 7 , Obangisi. 

In his Grammar of the Hausa language Scho'n gives 
us the Magana-n-mallami da kurege or Story of the Priest 
and the Fox, of which the following forms part: 

Mallami si-na-da dukia dajawa da sanie da 

Priest had things many and cows and 

awaki da tumaki. Kurege ja-sakka gare-sa ja-ke: 
goats and sheep Fox came to him said: 

mallami ina-so en-ji ma-ka bara-nta-ka. ja-ke: 
priest I wish to make to thee service thine, he said: 

~>i 150 K~ 

da keao, ja-k'e: mi .a-ka-ji ma-ni? ja-ke: 

is good, he said: what wilt thou do to me? he said: 
ina-ji ma-ka sira garike tumaki-nka da 
I make for thee clean place sheep thine and 

awaki-nka. Ja-ke: da keao. su-nka-samna. 
goats thine. He said: is good. they-themselves-seated. 
Kowoke sapia kurege si-na-dauka kasi-n-tumaki. 
Every morning fox he took dung of sheep 

si-na-gerta turike-n-tumaki da na-awaki. Samma 

he made clean stall of sheep and of goats. Being 
samma su-na-nan. 
being were they there. 


Obamu, da ke zikin alizana, sunanka si samma 
keaokeawa. Sarautanka, tana sakkua, ahin da ka 
ke so anajinsa kamma zikin alizana hakkana zikin 
dunia. Ka bamu jao abinzimu dakulum. Ka 
jap'e mamu sunubaimu, kammada mu muna jape masu, 
woddanda suna ji mamu sunup'i. Kada ka kaimu zikin 
rudi, amma ka zieziemu daga mugu. Don sarauta taka 
ze, da alhorma, da haske, hal abbadu abbada. Amin. 

Of the remaining African Negro concepts of Deity we 
have : 

Sarar: Rog and G-bate 
Basa: Grepo or Gelipo 
Grebo : Njesoa 
Musuk: Alaii 
Bisari : Ankwane 
Fernando Po: Rupi. 

~^4 151 ~<~ 



Our attention must now be directed to the languages 
of Kafir race, which form what is known as the Bantu 
linguistic stem. 

In spite of the great diffusion of this branch of speech, 
namely from the seat of the Hottentots and Bushmen in 
the South as far as and even beyond the equator in the 
north, all the dialects and languages belonging to it ex- 
hibit such striking signs of relationship alike in vocabulary 
and in the phonetic evolution of forms, that we may well 
accept for them all a common grammatical system. Hence 
these languages, as in the case of the Aryan, Hamito-Se- 
niitic, and Dravidian idioms, have been regarded as off- 
shoots of a common primitive form of speech which no longer 
exists and the characteristics of which can only be inferred 
from finding out what is common to them all. 

Now, what Sanskrit is to the Aryan languages and 
Arabic to the Semitic, Kafir is to the Bantu group, pre- 
serving most faithfully the features of the mother-speech. 
It will therefore be best to begin with this language. 

From a phonetic point of view these languages are 
distinguished by a regular evolution of sounds. Combi- 
nations alike of vowels and consonants are for the most 
part avoided. Speaking generally, articulation in the south, 
in the neighborhood of the Hottentots, is strong and manly, 
whereas in the north, that is to say, in the neighborhood 
of the negroes, the vocal element predominates, rendering 
the language weak and effeminate. 

As regards grammatical structure these idioms hold 
the mean between the form and the formless languages. 

-$* 152 - 

They belong to the so-called agglutinative or amlagamating 
type, i. e. they have an inkling of form, but the feeling for 
form is not strong enough to create means adequate to its 
expression. Hence they fall into the opposite extreme of 
absolute formlessness. 'Wir wiissten, says Prof. F. Muller, 
keine Sprachclasse, welche ausser den sogenannten ural- 
altaischen Sprachen --so geeignet ware, den wesentlichen 
Unterschied zwischen formlosen, fornabildenden (flectieren- 
den) und agglutinirenden Sprachen ad oculos besser zu de- 
monstriren als die Bantu-Familie'. 

In these tongues grammatical definition is effected for 
the most part by prefix-formation; indeed we may regard 
it as the express character of these idioms just as the 
opposite formation, namely, that by suffixes, is the promi- 
nent characteristic of the Ural-Altaic family. 

Originally verb and noun were not to be distinguished; 
the former is nothing more than a nominal expression with 
dependent pronominal elements. Hence a purely predicative 
relationship is impossible. Subject and object are distin- 
guished by their position to the verb, a failing which led 
to the incorporation of the expression for the object into 
the verbal form, as in Mexican and many languages of the 
new world. 

We meet with three inspirates or clicks in Kapir which 
have been borrowed from K'oilsoi, namely, the palatal i, 
the dental I , and the lateral ||. As a rule the accent rests 
on the penultimate syllable, rarely at the end. There is 
however a subsidiary accent which, as far as possible, is 
placed at the beginning of words. 

In Bantu forms of speech the root is of two kinds: 
nominal and pronominal. Speaking generally, the nominal 
roots are polysyllabic and from these, by combination with 
the pronominal roots, words are formed. The common dis- 
tinction between word and stem is here unknown. In the 

^* 153 MS- 

process of word-formation the pronominal roots regularly 
precede the nominal. 

As regards the inner form of the nominal root, it un- 
ites both the nominal and verbal meaning, i. e. one and the 
same complexus of sound can act as noun and verb accord- 
ing to the pronominal stems with which it is combined. 
Thus tja is 'to eat', uku-tja fodder; so, 'to dawn', uku-sa 

Nevertheless, in most cases the language endeavors to 
keep the two forms distinct by means of elements attached 
to the root. The following are the principal formative 

1. To form nominal stems. 

The suffix -i, -e, Kafir: tenga to buy, um-teng-i mer- 
chant; sindisa to save, um-sindis-i Savior; lingana to be 
equal, um-lingan-i friend. The suffix -o. Alata to point 
out, show, im-alat-o first finger; pilisa to keep alive, im- 
pilis-o life, health; hala to call, isi-kal-o cry, call. 

The suffixes -ana and -jana form nomina diminutiva, 
and -anjana (= ana + jana) diminutivissima. E. G-. Isi-lo 
animal, isi-lw-ana small animal, isi-lw-anjana animalcule. 

2. Formation of verbal stems, 
a. Suffixes. 

-La or -ila (Herero: ra, na. Kiswahili: a) forms verba 
relativa. Before -la the a which regularly ends the verbal 
stem is turned into e (Kiswahili: i). Thus Kafir: hamba 
to go, haml-e-la to rush at something; Sekvana: lona to 
see, to look after somebody (bon-e-la)\ Herero: sepa to kill, 
sep-e-ra to kill for somebody. Kiswahili: pata to reach, 
pat-i-a to reach something for somebody; Mponwe: kamba 
to speak, kamb-i-na to speak for somebody. 

The suffix -isa before which the closing a of the stem 
disappears, forms Yerba causativa. Kafir: tanda to love, 


~$* 154 H$~ 

tand-isa to induce to love; Sek'wana: bona to see, ~bon-isa to 
cause to see; Herero: rara to sleep, rar-isa to send to sleep; 
Kiswahili: penda to love, pend-esa to cause to love; Mpoii- 
we: Jcamba to speak, kamb-isa to induce to speak. 

-Ika, -eka forms the reflexive-causative. Kafir: liamba 
to go, hamb-eka to prepare oneself to go; Herero: Imika to 
clothe, Jiuik-ika to dress oneself. 

-J.wft forms Yerba reciproca. Kafir: tanda to love, 
tand-ana to mutually love one another. Selswana: sebeletsa 
to work, sebelets-ana to work for one another. Herero: 
sepa to kill, sep-ana to mutually kill one another. Kis- 
wahili: penda to love, pend-ana to mutually love one another. 

The suffix -u, which has here become formally an infix, 
coming immediately before the final a, forms the passive. 
Kafir: tanda to love, tand-w-a to be loved; tand-isa to 
cause to love; tandis-w-a to be induced to love. Sekwana: 
rata to love, rat-o-a to be loved. Herero : Jiungira to speak, 
~hungir-u-a to be spoken; sepa to kill, sep-o-a to be killed. 
Kiswahili: penda to love, pend-o-a to be loved. Mpoiiwe: 
tonda to love, tond-o to be loved. 

p. Prefixes. 

Si- (kiswahili: gi-, Herero: n-, Sekwana: i-) forms 
verba reflexiva. Kafir: tanda to love, si-tanda to love one- 
self. Kiswahili: penda to love, gi-penda to love oneself. 
Herero: sepa to kill, ri-sepa to kill oneself. Sekwana: &owa 
to see, i-pona to see-oneself. 

f. Reduplication. 

This forms Verba frequentativa and intensiva. For in- 
stance, Kafir: hamba to go, hamlahamba to make a circuit; 
teta to speak, tetateta to chatter. Herero: handa to move 
oneself, kandoikanda to tremble. 

All these elements admit of combinations amongst 
themselves, whereby the following forms, which may be 
illustrated by the Kafir word teta to speak, arise: 

t 155 




' ni 

















































"7 1 

























































Another instance of the extraordinary complexity of 
savage modes of speech is the elaboration of the personal 
pronoun in the Bantu idioms. For the first and the second 
person singular and plural there are four forms, whilst for 
the third person there are no less than seven pronominal 
stems, whereof some are expressions of unity, some of plu- 
rality and others of both. By means of this distinction the 
language has been able to build up nominal forms express- 
ing number and a kind of gender, being furnished with 
pronominal elements in the sense of our Article or demon- 
strative adjective. 

From the seven Bantu character-sounds of the third 
person arise the following stems in Kafir and Sekwana: 

a. Primitive Form 

a. Primitive Form 


I. Singular Forms. 

b. Kafir Form 
um, u 
ili, i 
im, in, 

ulu, u 

c. SeUwana Form 
me, in 


c. SeHwana Form 

lin, rin 

III. Collective Forms. 

a. Primitive Form b. Kafir Form c. SeUwana Form 
uBu ubu bo 

uKu uku ko, ho. 

~3* 157 x~ 

The possessive pronoun is represented by the genitive 
of the personal pronoun. It either precedes or follows the 
substantive to which it belongs. In the latter case the de- 
monstrative element which refers to the preceding noun is 
prefixed in the shortest form to the possessive pronoun, 
whilst in the former the demonstrative, coming before the 
nominal form, must be prefixed to the possessive pronoun 
in its full form, united with the preceding demonstrative- 
relative particle a. 

Examples : 

a. Postposition of the possessive pronoun: 

umpas^ wake his wife = um-p'asi w-ake; the prefix 
w- points back to urn- and ake is genitive of je-na, the pro- 
noun of e. g. um-tu man. 

iha3e lajo his horse = i-hase 1-ajo; the prefix 1- points 
back to i (for ili) and ajo is the genitive of jo-na, the pro- 
noun for e. g. in-kosi chief. 

ukutja kwawo their fodder = uku-tja ku-awo; the pre- 
fix ku points back to uku and awo is the genitive of wo- 
na, the pronoun for e. g. ama-hase the horses. 

b. Preposition of the possessive pronoun: 

omake ump'asi his wife = a-umu-ake um-p'asi 
elajo ihase his horse = a-ili-ajo i-has"e 
okwawo ukutja their fodder = a-uku-awo uku-tja 
obam ubuso my countenance = a-ubu-ami ubu-so 
abam abantu my men = a-aba-ami aba-ntu 
elako ihas"e thy horse = a-ili-ako i-hase. 

The personal pronominal stems of the third person in 
their full form with the prefixed relative particle a act as 
demonstrative pronouns. Stems with initial m, being weak, 
take the stem li also, which is prefixed. 

We' have to distinguish three forms of the demonstra- 
tive pronoun, one simple and two compound, whereof the 

~3* 158 M&- 

one is compounded with wa (and au = o), the other with 
wa-ja (o-ja, ja). 

The demonstrative pronouns are so intimately connect- 
ed with the following nouns, that in most cases the initial 
vowel of the latter falls away. For instance: 
lo-mtu, lowa-rntu, lowaja-mtu this man 
lo-mp'asi, lowa-mp'asi, lowaja-mpasi this woman 
eli-hase, elo-hase, elija-hase this horse 
le-nkosi, lejo inkosi, lejaja inkosi this chief. 
There is no relative pronoun in Bantu but only the 
relative particle a. This is invariable, so that, where in a 
relative sentence, a case-relationship has to be expressed, 
a demonstrative pronoun must be joined to it, as in the Se- 
mitic languages. Thus, ihase elinjau sinkulu = i-hase a- 
ili-njau sin-kulu the-horse-which = that-his-feet-great. in- 
klu e|ango lukulu = in-klu a-i-[ango lu-kulu the-house-which 
= that gate-is-great. 

As regards the noun, it is unable to express phoneti- 
cally either gender or number. And indeed we may say 
the same of case, and more especially of the subject- and 
object-case. All these categories are indicated either by 
connecting the noun with the pronominal stems of the third 
person or by position in the sentence. For a few examples 
we may take: 

Singular Plural 

um-ntu the man aba-ntu 

u-dade the sister o-dade 

(for umu-dade) (for aba-dade) 

ili-swi the word ama-swi 

i-hase the horse ama-hase 

(for ili-hase) 

u-bambo the rib isim-bambo 

(for ulu-bambo) 
um-ti the tree imi-ti 

~>* 159 H$~ 

ubu-lumko wisdom and uku-tja fodder are collectives 
and have no plural. 

These pronominal elements which precede the nominal 
stems occur in all the Bantu languages with the phonetic 
modifications peculiar to each idiom. 

In Bantu the adjective is generally expressed as 
follows : 

Kafir: um-tu a-u-na-uhu-lumko (umtu onobulumko) 
the man who with wisdom = the wise man. 

um-lambo a-u-na-in-hlabati (umlambo onenhlabati) the 
river which with sand = the sandy river. 

Herero: omu-ndu u-n-osondunge the man who with 
understanding = the intelligent man. 

When the adjective is expressed in the usual way it 
follows the substantive to which it belongs, whether as attri- 
bute or predicate; for instance, umhlaba ubansi wona earth 
extended it = the earth is wide; ump'asi omkulu (um-p'asi 
a-um-kulu) the woman who great = the great woman. 

As regards the verb it depends, as in every case, upon 
the connexion of the stem with the personal pronominal 
elements. The latter appear as prefixes, and in cases 
where the object is taken up into the body of the verb, it 
immediately follows the subject, so that the structure of the 
sentence is: 'I-thee-love'. But the subject -denoting pre- 
fixes are rather of an objective than subjective nature, 'I 
love' being not so much 'I loving' as 'to me is love' or 'me 
catches love'. Thus: 

u-Satani wa-m-kohl-isa u-Ewa. 

The Satan he-her-deceived the-Eve. 

u-ja-basi aba-ntu b-onke. 

Thou-them-knowest the-men all. 

U-ja-wad-ela ama-swi ami. 

He-them-despises the-words my. 

For the sake of comparison I here give the Pater 
Noster in three languages. 


I. Kafir (language of the Ama-|losa). 

Bawo w-etu os-esulw-ini ma-li-patwe 

Father who-our who-heaven the in may-he-borne-be 

ngo-bu-iig | wele i-gama 1-ako Ubu-kumkani 

with-holiness the name the thine. The-kingdom 

b-ako ma-bu-p'ike. In-tando j-ako 

the thine may-it-come. The -will the-thine 

ma-j-ensiwe emhlab-eni ngeiigokuba i-s-ensiwa 

may-he- done- be earth upon as he done being 

esulw-ini Ma-u-si-pe uku-tja kw-etu 

heaven-in Mayest-thou-us-give the-food the-our 

kw-emi-hla nge-mi-hla. U-si-||olele 

the-of the-days with-the-days. Thou-us-forgive 

i-sono s-etu ngengokuba nati si-||olela abo 
the debts the-our as also we-forgive these 

ba-sonajo tina. U-nga-si-ngenisi ekuhendweni 
the-debtors we. Thou-not-us-lead into-temptation 

s-u-si-sindise enkohlakalweni. Amene. 

but-thou-us-deliver evil-from. Amen. 

II. Sulu (language of Ama-sulu). 

Baba w-etu os-esulw-ini, ma-li-dunjiswe 

Father the-our which-heaven-in may-he-hallowed 

i-gama 1-ako. U-mbuso w-ako ma-wu-se 
the-name the-thine. The-kingdom the-thine may-it-come 

In-tando j-ako ma-j-ensiwe emhlabeni apa 

The-will the-thine may-it-done-be. earth-upon so 

ng'engasesulwini. Si-pe namhla isin-kwa 

as-heaven-in. Us-give this-day need-ful 

s-emi-hla s-etu. Si-jekele i-sono s-etu 

the-of the-days the-our Us-forgive the-debts the-our 

^t 161 K~ 

ngengokuba tina si-ba-jekela bona abo-najo 

as we we-them-forgive these the-debtors 

ku-ti. Unga-si-sisi ekulingweni kodwa si-kulule 

also. Thou-not-us-lead temptation-in but us-deliver 

ekwoneni. Amene. 

III. Se-suto (language of the Ba-suto). 

Ntate o-a-rona o-kua ma-gorimo-n, le-bitso 
Father the-our the-who the-heavens-in the-become 
la-gao le-galalele. Bo-pitle bo-gosi joa-gao. 

the-thine the-name-holy. The-kingdom the-thine may-it-come. 
Go-ratsan ki-uena go-etsoe mo-le-p'atsi-n jualeka 
The-will the-thine the-done-be as-the-earth-in so 
be-gorimo-n. U-re-p'e kajenu b-ogobe ba-rona 

the-heavens-in. Thou-us-give the-which the-food the-our 
ba-metle e-otle. U-re-ilavarele libe jeika 

the-days with-days. Thou-us-forgive also as 

rea-lebala melatu ea bamelatu mo-go-rona. 

we-too sins which the-debtors the-our. 

TJ-si-ke-ua-re-isa li-ben, u-re-tlose bo-ben. 
And-not-us-lead into-evil but-us-free from-evil! 

Bantu ideology, as will have been observed, is almost 
invariably indirectly hybrid, the formula being 2. 4. 6. 8. 
Ill, or nominative + genitive, noun + adjective, verb + object, 
subject + verb, subject -f- object + verb. 

The theology of the Kafir race is in many ways most 
instructive. In Kafir itself we have another form of the 
Koikoi Zuni || Goam, namely, uTi||o the Dawn, other forms 
being Tekesa and Tillo; e. g. 

Ili-swi li-ka-Ti\\o The word of God 
Ubu-lumbo lu-ha-Ti\\o The wisdom of God 

->? 162 K~ 

But the thought which most frequently occurs and 
seems to have sunk most deeply into the Kafir religious 
consciousness is that of 


the reduplicated form of kulu old, so that the root-idea is- 

Sulu: (M) Unkulunkulu 

Inhambane: Muluiigulu 

Kinika: Mulungu 

Ki-hjau: Mulungu 

Ki-kamha: Mulungu 

ki-Swahili: Mliingu 

Makua: Muhigo 

Otji-Herero: oMukuru 

Swahili: Muungu 

Sopala; Murungu 

Tette: Morungo 

Ki-pokomo: Mungo 

Such a concept would lead one to anticipate ancestor- 
worship amongst these tribes, nay, the very word for Grod 
in Sekwana and Se Suto means Ancestral Spirit-Morimo, 
Molimo. On the other hand, the Girjama word is Mwenje, 

The Kafir Pater Noster is: 

Bawo wetu osesulwini! Malipatwe ngobungcwele- 
igama lako. Ubukumkani bako mabufike. Intando 
jako majensiwe emhlabeni, ng'engokuba isensiwa esulwini. 
Sipe namhla rige ukutja kwetu kwemihla ngemihla. Usi- 
xolele isono setu, ngengokuba nati sixolela abo basonajo 
tina. Ungasingenisi ekulingweni, susisindise enkohlakalweni. 
Ngokuba bubobako ubukumkani, namandhla, nobung- 
cwalisa, kude kube ngunapakade. Amene. 

We are on more delicate ground when we come to 
deal with the other words for Spirit, namely: 

-X 163 <- 

Maravi: Nsimmo 

Sena: Musimo 

Kwellimane: Musimo 

Benga: Anjambi 

Mponwe: Anjambia 

Kongo: Nsambi-a-npungu Spirit on High 

Angola: oNsambi 

Kiteke: Nsaiho-rupuo Spirit above. 

Bogignigi: Puluga Good Spirit 

Now, the worship of ancestral spirits may not unjustly 
be described as a service of fear: the dead are propitiat- 
ed because it is in their power to injure the living. The 
ghost of the dead man lurks near the dwelling of the living 
relative, often assuming the form of a snake or a reed, so 
that of the Kongo, the Kiteke and the Bogignigi at least 
we may predicate that the theological concept does not 
arise from ancestor-worship. 

Isubu stands by itself as a monument of the spiritual 
genius of that tribe: the thought of God is 

Obasi the Father, 
reminding us of the Hausa Obangisi, of the Negro race. 



In dealing with the languages of the Australian Race 
we have to remember first of all that, morphologically they 
fall into several categories. Those of the west, for instance, 
stand no higher than the formless idioms of Further India, 
others show an agglutinative structure, whilst others, again, 
show a tendency to raise themselves to a higher level by 
amalgamating the formative elements with the stem. 

Most interesting is the evolution of case-forms in these 
tongues, and yet, strangely enough, there is no specialisation 

-* 164 MS- 

of case either for subject or object, the nominative and 
accusative being expressed by the naked stem. In con- 
tradistinction to the Papuan idioms and those of Melanesia 
and Polynesia the morphological process of the Australian 
languages is that of attaching suffixes to what are considered 
radical forms. 

Our knowledge of these tongues is for the most part 
confined to the eastern and south eastern part of the con- 
tinent, where they are more highly evolved. We propose 
to examine the languages known as Turrubul and Kamilaroi 
or Gumilroi. In Wiraturai or Wiradurei and the idiom 
spoken in the vicinity of Hunter's River and Lake Mac- 
quarie there seems to be no native thought of GTod, the 
word used being the Hebrew Jehovah, so we must be con- 
tent with the Pater Noster. 

Wiraturai: Jehova-gu guobini malnidjali-gun 

Jehovah ceased work-from-his 



Pejuii-pai nearum-pa wokka-ka-pa moroko-ka-pa 
Father our above-in heaven-in 

ka-tan kumunpilla jitura niroumpa jirijiri kakilliko. 
being be make name thine holy to be. 

Paipipunpilla piriwul-kopa niroumpa; nururpunpilla 
Appear make kingdom thine; heard be make 

wijellikane niroumpa janti purai-ta-pa janti ta 
word thine even as earth-in as is 

moroko-kapa nuwa nearun pureun ka janti ka-tai 
heaven-in give us day is as always 

takilliko. Natun warikulla iiearumpa jarakai umatoara, 
to eat. And throw away our evil done, 

-SH 165 H- 

janti ta neen warika, janti ta wijapajeen 

as since we throw away, as is spoken 

nearumpa. Katun jutiji-kora nearun jarakai umilli-kan 
our. And lead not us Evil doing 

kolan. Miromulla nearun jarakai-ta-pirun, kulla 

toward. Deliver make us Evil-from, for 

ta iiiroumpa ta piriwul-ko-pa natun killipinpin janti 
as thine is kingdom and Glory as 



According to Ridley Kamilaroi or Gummilroi is the 
language of the Aborigines of the Namoi, Barwan, Bundarra 
and Balonue Rivers and of Liverpool plains and the Upper 

As regards the noun, case-relations are expressed by 
suffixes, whilst number is designated either by the pre- 
position or postposition of the words buldr two and burula 
manifold, much. Thus: 

Subjective and objective: mulioii the eagle. 
Nom.: mulion-du (as agent) 
Gen.: mulion-nu of the eagle 
Dat. : mulion-go 
Abl.: mulion-di 
Loc. : mulion-da 
Soc. (rest): mulion-kunda 

(motion) : mulion-kale 

In an attributive sense the adjective occurs both be- 
hind and before the substantive to which it belongs: e. g. 
bular giwir muga 'two man blind', bain dina tungor 'sick 
foot lame'. In a predicative sense the adjective must fol- 
low the substantive: Lajaru wibil ginji 'Lazarus ill be- 
came', neane guije duri 'we happy become'. 

The verb has had a manifold evolution: it has both 
a causative and a permissive form. Thus, from numi 'to 



















-> 166 <- 

see' we have numil-mule 'to cause to see', 'to teach'; from 
buma 'to strike' buma-nabile 'to allow somebody to be 
struck', The tenses and moods of the verb are expressed 
by definite suffixes which are attached to the verbal stem. 
Person and number are designated by placing the forms 
of the personal pronoun before the verbal stem. For 




As a specimen of Kamilroi structure let me quote part 
of a translation of the Acts of the Apostles: 

"Baiame bular jarine jealokwai giwir." 

"Gods two have-come-down like men." 

Paul Barnaba nelibu bunanune, kaktildone: 
Paul Barnabas also ran, called: 

"kuria! kamil neane baiame, neane giwir jealokwai 
"away! not we gods, we men even-as 

nindai. neane guije duri, neane bud a 

ye. we happy have-become, we sad 

ginji, neane jili ginji, jealo neane 

have-become, we angry have-become, again we 

muru nurinilone. Neane muru goalda burulabu, 

good have-become. We good announce to all 

kuria nindai jealo kagil gigile berudi waraia, 

away ye again bad that-become; back go, 

numila Baiame moron. Baiame gir gunagula, 

look (up to) God living. God really heaven, 

~5n 167 HS- 

taon, burul kole, kanuno mina-mina-bul 

earth, great water, everything manifold 

gimobi. Baiame jahvuna Baiame"! 

has-created. God ever God!" 

It will be seen that Kamilroi ideology is hybrid, though 
it very nearly approaches the natural order, the formula 
being 2. 4. 5. 8. III. 

As we have already seen, the word for the Supreme 
in Kamilaroi is 

Baiame Creator, from y^baia to form, fashion, so that 
the idea of God is that of the potter moulding the clay. 
By this tribe of the North Western district of New South 
Wales Baiame is regarded as the maker of all things and 
according to their conduct, as the rewarder and punisher 
of men. He sees all and knows all, if not directly, through 
the subordinate deity Turramulan, who presides at the 
Bora. It is a very noteworthy fact that Baiame is said 
to have been once on the earth and that, in all his deal- 
ings with man and man's transactions with him, Turra- 
malan is declared to be Mediator. The meaning of Turra- 
mulan is 'leg on one side only', 'one-legged'. 

Turrubul is the language of the Aborigines on the Bris- 
bane River, and may fairly be described as a sonorous idiom. 

Its principle of formation is that of postposition. Suf- 
fixes serve to denote cases and to express number when a 
distinction is made phonetically. The verb is either primary 
or derived, and the tense- and mood-forms are expressed 
by means of suffixes. To define more particularly person 
and number in the verb, the substantival and pronominal 
forms precede; thus, 'What hast thou done?' is: inta minja 
jugari thou-what-done ? In certain cases the pronoun fol- 
lows the verb, as: daie-duna lay he. 

Alike in Kamilaroi and in Turrubul arithmetic does 
not go beyond the number three: 

~5H 168 Hr- 

Kainilaroi 1 mal Turrubul 1 kunar 

2 bular 2 budela 

3 guliba 3 mudan 

Any higher number is formed by combining two of these. 

Turrubul ideology, which is indirect, namely, 1. 3. 5. 
8. Ill, may be well seen from the following translation of 

Mumbal nambilebu nunankin juga-ri, Kaloma 
God all things made has, Once 

bigi jugar, na kilen jugar, na miregin, na 
sun not, and moon not and stars, and 

daoun jugar milbulpu, iki tar, nul-pa iiine-du, 
creature not living also earth, we-there sitting, 

tar jugar. Kurumba mumbal nambilebu juga-ri. 
earth not. Great God everything made has. 

Tar beren kurun, jugar nor nine-du kurun-kurun 
Earth there dark, not form sitting darkness 
wungun-ti tabil nine. Bagul jugar diirutunga 
above-upon water sat. Tree not growing 

tar-ti, kudal jugar, duga-tin jugar, jaraman 

earth-upon, bush not, men not, horse 

jugar, na muri jugar, nurun jugar. Mumbal 
not, and cangaroo not, Emu not. God 
nambilebu juga-ri mudan na mudan bigi. 
everything made has six days (in). 

What, then, is Mumbal, the Turrubul thought and pre- 
dicate of God? It is the rolling Thunder, the colossal 
manifestation in Nature, the Australian Thor! 

~* 169 r<~ 



Next in order come the idioms of the Hyperborean 
Race. Let us begin with the language of the Jukagirs 
known as Odul or Ododomni. 

The noun is peculiarly rich in cases, which are ex- 
pressed by suffixes, namely, the objective, locative, ablative, 
allative, sociative and prosecutive. The relation of genitive 
is expressed by placing the denning expression before the 
thing defined, the letter n being put between the two. For 
instance, 'the Russian's faith' is lutii-n-mudol "(of the) 

As regards the adjective, when used attributively it 
precedes the noun, when predicatively it follows. Thus, 
omok'a toivoka 'good dog', amun-gi adi 'the bones (are) 

When appearing as the stem-form the possessive pro- 
noun precedes the noun to which it belongs, as mit numa 
our house', but when the suffix Id is added, it follows, as 
eke mitlti 'Father our', k'ak'a tatla 'brother thine'. 

In the case of the verb the suffixes vary according as it 
is transitive or intransitive. E. g. le-i 'he is', jeginu-m 'he 
her kisses'. Let us look at a few sentences: 

Anure-mik tat puguv-danleg'e Anure. 

Lovest thou Sun-lord (Emperor)? I love. 

Age-tei-il, Koinin (for Koil-nin) 

Raise-we-ourselves (Let us rise) God-before 

naka-tei-li. Motin omolt age-tei, kknin mot 

bow-we-ourselves. Me-to good begins, if I 

leit-am-ik luki-n-mudol. 
know-should Russian-faith. 


->* 170 K~ 

Ideologically Odul is 1. 3. 6. 8. VI, that is to say, 

"What, then, is the meaning of T^T^^rf) Kil? 

The language of the Ainu is one of particles, expressing 
grammatical relationships by external means. Its type re- 
minds us of the undeveloped idioms of the Mongol-Tun- 
gusic stem. 

In the case of the noun, the category of number is 
only occasionally denoted, the singular and plural not as a 
rule being phonetically distinguished. Case, too, is only 
partially represented; the genitive by position and the rest 
by suffixed particles. For the subjective and objective there 
is no phonetic distinction. 

When used attributively the adjective precedes the sub- 
stantive, when as predicate it follows, receiving at the same 
time a particle representing the Copula. E. g. before kuroro 
glittering cloud, sirun guru poor man, tambaku eramus 
utara a man accustomed to tobacco. 

The personal pronoun comes before the expression to 
which it belongs, as anokai Use our house, k'okai po my child. 

As regards the verb, it seems to be absolutely form- 
less, time, mood, person and number being expressed by 
elements which are attached to what serves as the verbal 
expression. Thus, jaikota-no-ja I am afraid, ohono xiomo 
u-nukara, we have not seen each other for a long time, 
S'nenin ainu taban nobori kasketa rikin an Ainu has gone 
up this mountain. In form the active and the passive are 
identical. Intransitive verbs are turned into transitive and 
transitive into causal verbs by means of the suffix -te, -ti 
(-de -di). For instance, nukura to see, nukan-te to cause 
to see, to show; oman to go out, oman-de to send. 

To express number Ainu seems to have adopted the 
vigesimal system. The ideology is indirect, the formula 
being 1. 3. 5. 8. III. 

~$H 171 H5 

And the thought of the Supreme? It is Kamui Spirit! 

Judged by its richness in word-forms the speech of 
the Aleuts would seem to belong to the Turko-tataric idioms 
and the languages of the Uralian Branch, but the charac- 
teristic of these tongues, vowel-harmony, is unknown. 

The ruling principle is agglutination or amalgamation 
and the process of word-formation that of suffixing. There 
is no definite case for subject or object, but attribute and 
predicate are distinguished phonetically. Most remarkable 
is the evolution of the verb, which can only be compared 
with that of the speech of Turkey. 

Singular, dual and plural are all denoted in the noun: 
e. g. agituda-k brother, dual: agituda-kifa plural: agituda-n. 
The paradigm of the substantive is as follows: (ada-k 

Singular Dual Plural 

Nom. Ace. Ada-k Ada-kik Ada-n 

Gen. ada-m as Nom. same 

Dat. ada-man ada-kin ada-nin 

Abl. ada-gan same as Nom. as Norn. 

The defining cases come before the defined: thus, 'the 
word of the Kingdom of God' is Ago'gu-m ahali-gan tunu: 
God-of Kingdom- by word. 

When used attributively the adjective agrees with the 
substantive to which it belongs, whilst as predicate it be- 
comes a verbal expression. For instance, igamana-k good 
(Sing.), igamana-Jdk (dual), igamana-n (plural), but ada-n 
igamana-kuk my father is good; agitasa-n-tii mattk'isalakan 
your companions are not brave. 

Wonderfully rich in forms is the Aleutic verb. The 
sum of all the forms derivable from one root is about 40 
and if the persons and numbers of every form are added, 
it is said to be over 300. The verb would seem to rest 
on two formations whereof the one is a nomen agentis or 
its equivalent and the other a nomen actionis. To the 

~& 172 :<~ 

former are added the personal pronominal forms, to the 
latter the possessive suffixes. There are 5 moods and 5 
tenses, namely, Indicative, Conjunctive, Potential, Imperative 
and Infinitive; Present, Aorist, Perfect, indefinite Future, 
lasting Future and Futurum exactum. 

At the basis of the numerical expressions is the qui- 
nary system, and Aleutic ideology is hybrid, the formula 
apparently being 1. 4. 6. 8. VI. 

The Aleuts have conceived God as Agogu-k Creator. 

Of the Innuit or Eskimo language Prof. F. Miiller ob- 
serves that it is of great importance for the history of 
Language because it gives us a certain chronological crite- 
rion for estimating phonetic changes in nature-languages. 
We are told, for instance, that 'though the Eskimos in La- 
brador have been separated from the Greenlanders for at 
least 1000 years, the languages of both differ less than 
Danish and Swedish or Dutch and Hamburg Plattdeutsch. 
The dwellers in Boothia Felix, with whom Captain John 
Ross on his second polar expedition spent three years, 
understood much of what he read to them from a Green- 
land book and would certainly have understood more if 
they had heard it from a Greenlander, nay, perhaps 
everything if a Greenlander had spoken on matters of 
common life.' 

The centre of gravity of the linguistic organism is to 
be found in the demonstrative roots or pronouns, as in 
K'oik'oi, and the principle of formation is that of suffixing. 
Noteworthy, too, is the fact that, as the Hottentots, the 
Eskimos of Labrador call themselves men Kai'eHoxriv, for 

Singular, dual and plural are all expressed by the 
noun, whilst the denotation of the cases is singulary rich. 
Not only have we the purely grammatical cases, subjective, 
objective and genitive, but those which express spatial re- 
lations, namely, the locative, ablative, vialis, terminalis, 

-;>* 173 Kr- 

modalis and comparative. The object-case is represented 
by the naked stem; the genitive or rather possessive case 
is phonetically expressed by adding the pronominal suffixes 
to the expression which is to be defined, the defining ex- 
pression preceding. If, for instance, we want to render the 
sentence "the tail of the whale touched the bows of the boat" 
we must say: ak'fek'u-p sak'piata umia-p suju-a aktok'-p-a, 

1. e., whale (subject) tail-his (subject of the sentence) boat 
(subject) bows-its (object of sentence) touched-he-it. 

As attribute the adjective follows the substantive and 
agrees with it in number and ending. Thus, ujak'k-at 
akitsu-t stones weak; ikdlu-t ku-p sina-ne-itu-t = houses 
brook edge-its being, i. e., the houses which are at the edge 
of the brook. The predicative relationship is expressed by 
a form which also serves as a verbal expression. 'Our 
house is good' is ikdlok'put aj umiak = house-our good-is; 
'our house begins to get bad' ikdlok'put ojulekpok = house- 
our bad-to be-to get-begins. 

The pronouns are derived from the demonstrative roots 
uw 'here' and ik 'there', so that T is equivalent to 'my 
here-hood', 'thou' to 'thy there-hood'. The forms of the pro- 
noun are wonderfully rich; we find, namely, subjective, ob- 
jective, locative, ablative, vial, terminal, modal and com- 
parative. And, as regards the nominal stems with pro- 
nominal suffixes, they fall into two series: 1. subjective, 

2. objective; whilst of the pronoun of the third person there 
are two subdivisions, viz. demonstrative and reflexive suffixes. 

The quinar-vigesimal system of numeration underlies 
all the Inuit dialects: 5 = one hand, 10= two hands; 11 to 
15= first foot, 10 to 20 the other foot. 

Now in the Eskimo idioms of Labrador we find no 
native word for God, the words used being Gudib and 
Gude, which are easily recognisable as forms of our own 
word. In Greenlandish , on the other hand, we have the 
remarkable and deeply-significant word Torngarsuk, which 

-> 174 *- 

is an augmentative of Torngak Spirit, so that the thought 
is: Great Spirit. 

For the sake of comparison we may take a verse from 
the Gospel of St. John, which has been translated alike 
into Inuit and G-reenlandish 


Taimak Gudib sillaksoarmiut naegligiveit , Ernetuane 
tunnilugo, illunatik okpertut tapsomunga, assiokonnagit nun- 
gusuitomigle innogutekarkovlugit. 


Sillarsub innue Torngarsuk taima assakigei, Ernetue 
untniullugo taukkonunga, tamarmik taursomunga opertut 
tammarkonnagit, naksaungit somigle innursutekarkollugit. 

St. John. iii. 16. 

Eskimo ideology is hybrid, the formula being 2. 4. G. 
8. VI; i. e. indirect. 



Few languages are more interesting to the student of 
speech than the American. In the first place it is almost 
impossible to apply our familiar grammatical terminology, 
such categories as noun, verb, adjective, existing only in a 
very modified sense, if at all. Not only do we find a ming- 
ling of noun and verb but also the complete identity of 
the subjective and possessive pronouns. Sometimes singular 
and plural are not distinguished, nay, even the first and 
second person plural are not always phonetically separated. 

A peculiarity of most of these tongues is the so-called 
incorporation, i. e. the taking up an object into the verbal 
body. The verb, in fact, represents a whole sentence, the 
remaining parts of which serve merely as elucidation. In 

-> 175 H$- 

many respects we are reminded of the idioms of Dardistan. 
Only the intransitive or neutral verb can appear without 
reference to an object, whilst every transitive verb must 
in itself contain the expression of the object. To the Indian 
"love" in the abstract is unthinkable. His language has 
not emerged from the state in which it is impossible to have 
such a word as 'heart' as distinguished from 'my heart', 
'thy heart' or 'his heart'. So it is to this day in Hunsa. 
Ak, for instance, is 'my name', ik 'his name'. Take away 
the pronominal sign, and the remaining k means nothing. 
Aus is 'my wife' and gus 'thy wife'. The s alone has no 

Speaking morphologically the American idioms do not 
all stand upon the same footing, or rather, have not all 
arrived at the same stage of evolution. "Whilst some have 
hardly got beyond Isolation, others approach the agglutina- 
ting , conibinatory or amalgamating stage, others, again, 
form a new linguistic type, that, namely, of incorporation. 

To the Americans belongs that tribe which has abso- 
lutely no sense of number, and in this respect at all events, 
stands below the aborigines of Australia and the bushmen 
of South Africa, I refer to the Kikitos. 

Beginning with the tongues of the Tinne and Kinnai 
Stems we find in K'ippewe a very instructive syntax. 
Amongst the cases those which denote purely grammatical 
relations are the most important. The nominative stands 
either at the beginning or at the end of the sentence but 
never immediately before the verb. It is the complement 
of the verb, the accusative or objective which precedes the 
verb. To express the genitive the defining element is put 
before the thing defined. Thus, the sentence: 'the house 
of the sister of the father of my friend' is: 
se 1'a be tka be dese je kue. 

my friend his father his sister her house. 

-S* 176 ^ 

The adjective follows, as attribute, the substantive to 
which it belongs, without any change whatever: dene nesu 
man good, dene-like nesu men good. 

Possessive pronouns of the noun, which also serve as 
objective pronouns of the verb, are put before the forms 
in question. By combination of the pronoun and verbal 
stem arises the verb. 

As regards numeration, the decimal system, or rather 
the decadic method of calculation seems to underlie these 
At'apaskic tongues. 

The following is the Lord's Prayer in Kippewe: 

, )'i> CTV 



u' crv -)\j 

3, 03(7" r" ZV<=V Lr' URL/ 


The ideology of these sidioms is quite natural, 1. 4. 5. 8. 
I being the formula. 

"With the Algonkin idioms the stem is derived from 
the root by means of suffixes, whilst the transformation of 
the stem into the word is effected by prefixes. 

Nouns fall into two classes, that, namely, of the higher 
or things animate, and that of the lower or things inani- 
mate. As animate are treated not only the expressions for 
men and the larger animals, but also those for certain 
bodies and objects, such as sun, moon, stars, bow, arrow, 
kettle, wagon, tobacco-pipe, corn, silver and tobacco. Every- 
thing else is inanimate. 

This distinction becomes apparent in the formation of 
number and in the connexion of the noun with the verb. 

-* 177 HS~ 

With things animate the plural is formed by adding k to 
the singular, with those inanimate -n. Thus, Algonkin: 
anisindbe man, anisinabe-k men; Mikmak: lenu, lenu-k; 
Senni-Lennape : leni, lenow-a-k. Ogibwe: moskesin shoe, 
moakesin-o-n shoes; Lenni-Lennape: wikwahem house, wik- 
wahem-a-l houses, where we have I for n. 

As regards the cases, the nominative or subjective 
stands at the head of the sentence; the objective or accu- 
sative both precedes and follows the verb; e. g. Kri: ki- 
waskahigan nawak miwasin ispiki ni-waskahigan 'thy house 
is better than my house'; Sakihew kigemamtow-a 'he loves 
God'; Ogibwe: nin sagia n-6s 'I love my father.' But in 
Algonkin we can say either: osawakik sakiha otema, or, 
otema sakiha osawakik Osawakik loves his horse, or, his 
horse loves Osawakik. In the genitive case the thing de- 
fined follows that which defines and is furnished with the 
possessive pronoun. E. g. Lenni-Lennape: Ketanitowit 
o-|-ahoaltoagan God His-love = the love of God. The other 
case-relations are expressed by suffixes. 

The adjective may either precede or follow the noun, 
in the latter case it must agree with the noun in number 
and gender. When used predicatively the adjective must 
be turned into a verbal expression. 

These languages possessing no relative pronoun this 
relation has to be expressed by a participial construction. 

There is, in fact, no essential difference between a 
nominal, adjectival and verbal stem. Noun, verb and ad- 
jective are all treated in the same way. A peculiarity of 
the Algonkin tongues is the mood known as dubitative. If 
the Indian wishes to speak of things which he has not him- 
self experienced or the existence of which is not directly 
demanded by the mind, he makes use of this mood. It 
arises partly out of scrupulosity towards himself and partly 
out of politeness toward others. The sign of the dubitative 
is iolij tuke, cloy. Algonkin: ni-sakilia-tok I love him per- 


H3* 178 H5~ 

haps; nid-awema-tok he is perhaps my brother; Ogibwe: 
md-ikit-om-i-dog perhaps I say; Kri: ni-pimi-patan-a-tuke 
I run perhaps. 

As regards numeration, the decadic system seems to 
underlie these idioms. The degree of connexion between 
these tongues is also well shown by number. Thus: 

Kri Ogibwe Algonkin Mikmak Lenni Lennape 
1 pejak beg'ig pegik, ningot neukt neguti 
5 nijanan nanan nanan nean palrnas 

10 mitatat midaswi midaswi metelen telen 

The following is the Kri Pater Noster: 


"~ i>M\ r'O Mi" iASrc**. To. 

\ b < 

'A' J , To. PP'tr^A-A'', To, P 

Now the thought of the Eternal in these American 
languages is very remarkable: 

Kri: /_T"~ M an rt Spirit 

Tinne: <?V'jL- ^-^ ^ Kesamanedu 
Great Spirit i. e. kesa great, and Manedu Spirit 
Og'ibwa: pL l^(J~~~3 Yisemanito 

Great Spirit (vise = kesa) 
Lenni-Lennape: P U ' CT~^ ' A *^ Kittanitowit 

Great Living Spirit, from 
Kitta great, Manito Spirit, wit termination implying life. 

~3H 179 H^ 

This is a concept with which, beautiful as it is, it is 
always difficult to deal, especially when it is a question of 
uncivilised races. One thing, however, seems to be certain: 
a word such as Kittanitowit could never apply to ancestor- 
worship. What we really want to know is its intension. 
Of its extension we have already had proof (pp. 79. 80). 

'The Algonquin's belief, says Dr. Tylor, 'recognizes the 
antagonistic Kitchi Manitu and Matchi Manitu, the Great 
Spirit and Evil Spirit, who preside over the spiritual con- 
tending hosts which fill the world and struggle for the 
mastery over it. They are especially associated, the one 
with light and warmth, the other with damp and darkness, 
while some tribes identify them with Sun and Moon. Here 
the nature-religion of the savage may have been developed, 
but was not set on foot, by the foreigner': 

Amongst the Algonkins we find three words for the 
Supreme, namely : 

Atahokan Creator 

Kuduagni Framer 

Oki One-Above. 

From an ideological standpoint these tongues are naturally 
hybrid; viz. 1. 4. 6. 8. II. 

In passing on to the speech of the Irokois, we find 
the curious fact that, nouns are divided into higher and 
lower. To the former belong the expressions for God, the 
higher beings and the male members of the human race, 
to the latter those for all animals, whether masculine or 
feminine, and for every thing else. There are three numbers; 
singular, dual and plural. The three grammatical cases 
are mostly known by their position in the sentence. The 
genitive is expressed by putting the defining expression 
either after or before the thing defined, in the latter case 
with the possessive element. Thus ne hoauak ne Dauit 
'the son David's', Nioo ro-ieha God his Son, rakw, otat- 

H3* 180 H$~ 

enisteha of-the-queen her mother. The remaining cases, ex- 
pressing spatial relations, are denoted by suffixes. 

When used as an attribute the adjective is placed after 
the noun to which it belongs: kaniatare kouct, sea great; 
kahonueia koua ship great. As predicate the adjective 
must be turned into a verb. Thus, ra-koua-ne he is great. 

The Irokese verb is very rich in tenses and moods: 
it has even what we may call the conjunctive pluperfect: e. g. 
ao-k-a-tkah-t-v-hake if I had seen. The incorporation of the 
object into the verbal expression in the compound objective 
conjugation generally takes place by precedence of the sub- 
jective and sequence of the objective, that is to say, the 
pronominal prefixes which precede the verb are composed 
of subjective and objective elements. 

Ideologically Irokese is therefore indirectly hybrid: 
2. 4. 6. 8. VI. 

Unlike the thought of the preceding tribes, that of the 
Irokese is 

C7~"A ^ Nioo Creator 

Hawaniu pre-existent Creator 
There is another thought, namely: 
Taronhiawagon Sky-Holder 

In Slave the theologic Idea is identical with that of 

Q [> 

Niotsi Creator 

Very interesting is the speech of the Dakota. The 
root is transformed into the stem and the stem into the 
word by means of prefixes, more seldom by suffixes. Thus, 
ksa to break to pieces; ba-ksa to cut to pieces with a knife; 
ka-ksa to split with a hatchet. 

~X 181 K~ 

As regards the noun, inasmuch as there are no ex- 
pressions for higher and lower, animate and inanimate 
beings, we have only to do with the two categories of number 
and case. 

In Hidatsa the plural is not phonetically distinguished 
from the singular, and it is almost the same in Dakota. 
The grammatical cases : nominative, accusative and genitive 
are indicated by the position in the sentence. As a rule 
the objective or accusative precedes the verb: thus, Wit- 
sasta wa tvotvapi tva Jcaga man book made, 'a man has made 
a book.' If, however, there be no ambiguity about the 
matter, the object is put at the head of the sentence and 
the subject immediately before the verb, as in German. 
For instance, ivitsasta Wakataka haga den Menschen hat 
Gott gemacht, 'Man God made'. 

To express the genitive the defining element is put 
before the thing defined; i. e. Dakota tipi tijopa house 
gate; ista midi eye water (tear). Spatial relations are ex- 
pressed by postpositions. 

When used attributively the adjective follows the noun 
to which it belongs, when predicatively it must be turned 
into a verbal expression. Thus, Witsasta sitse Ksi man 
bad; ni-waste thou art good; iva-ma-jas&ka I am ill. 

The pronouns are divided into inclusive and exclusive, 
and are put as a rule before the verb. By combining the 
subjective and objective pronouns we get the emphatic 
reflexive form, namely, mis mije I me = I myself; nis nije 
thou thee = thou thyself. The possessive pronoun is of a 
twofold nature, either dependent or independent. In the for- 
mer case it appears as prefix to the noun, in the latter it 
is equivalent to an adjective. The demonstrative pronoun, 
which is put after the noun, corresponds to what used to 
be known as the definite or indefinite article. Thus, witsas- 
ta Id the man; wiUa^ta sitse M the bad man. 

The Dakota verb rests on the union of a stem con- 

->* 182 K- 

ceived as predicate with the prefixed subjective pronominal 
elements. But the interesting verb eki 'to think', with its 
synonyms, is conjugated not by means of prefixes but by 
means of suffixes. 

E. g. Sing. 1. Eka-mi Plu. 1. incl. u-keki 

excl. u-keln-pi 

2. eka-ni eka-ni-pi 

3. eki eki-pi. 

The decadic system of numeration seems to underlie 
both Dakota and Hidatsa. 

Dakota Hidatsa 

1. Waka dueza 

2. nopa dopa 

3. jamni dami 

As we saw just now, the form for the Supreme in 
Dakota is: 

"Wakataka Great Spirit, 

"Wakari spirit tanka great. 

Dakota ideology is natural, the formula being 1. 4. 5. 8. 1. 

Passing on to the speech of the Kolos known as 
Tklinkit, we find that the verb departs from the type of 
American tongues. Prof. F. Miiller tells us that it most 
nearly resembles the same part of speech in the languages 
belonging to the Hyperborean race. It is formed by means 
of suffixes which are connected with the stems of the per- 
sonal pronoun. In transitive verbs the accompanying pro- 
noun generally appears with the suffix -#, which would 
point to an original instrumental form, te-K, for instance, 
being 'with the stone', tek-U 'with the stones'. A peculiarity 
of this idiom is the fact that, in transitive verbs, the agent 
stands in the instrumental. 

The possessive pronoun has two forms, whereof the one 
occurs as a prefix, the other as an adjective, and both 
are often combined. Thus, for the first person there are 

~* 183 *~ 

the forms ok'-, ak'-agi (sing.), -, a-agi (plu.): afiagi all-is 
'mine my father', aagi a-is 'ours our father.' 

To the Kolos the Eternal is known as Asakun 

For instance, Abakwn-k' Ik'atakat agatin God knows all. 
As we have seen, the ideology of Tltlinkit is indirect, 
namely, 1.3.5. 8. III. 

As typical of Mexican forms of speech we may take 
Nahuatl or Kawatl. 

In this language it is not always easy to abstract the 
root from the words used singly. The derivation of stems 
takes place by means of suffixes. From tetl stone, for in- 
stance, we get tetla stony place, tetejo stony, tetik hard, te- 
tilitstli hardness, ni-tla-tetilja I make it hard. 

The most frequently-occurring process is that of Com- 
bination, wherein the defining element precedes the thing 
defined. Thus, totoltetl 'egg of the hen', consists of totolin 
'hen', and tetl 'stone'. Sok'ikali 'fruit' means properly 'flower- 
food' from sok'itl 'flower' and kal'i 'what is edible' from 
yka 'to eat'. 

In dealing with the noun and verb we must remember 
the well-developed antithesis between animate and inani- 
mate, rational and irrational beings. With inanimate things 
number is, as a rule, not denoted phonetically. On the 
other hand, the expressions for animate and more especially 
for rational beings have a manifold plural. Words ex- 
pressing a business or nationality drop the individualising 
suffix -tl and lengthen the final vowel. Thus, siwatl woman, 
siwa women; mesikatl Mexican, mesikd Mexicans. Occa- 
sionally reduplication takes place. E. g. koatl snake, pi. 
kokoa', Teotl God, pi. teteo. Expressions for animate ir- 
rational beings and for inanimate things conceived as 
animate, add to the form deprived of the individualising 
suffix, the suffix -me. E. g. ik'katl sheep, pi. ik r ka-me. Te- 
petl mountain, tepe-me mountains. 

Nor must we omit to mention certain suffixes which 

-& 184 HS~ 

are added to express respect, tenderness or contempt. 
Petlo-zin means 'the highly-honored Peter'; Ta-zin 'the 
much-honored father' but wewe-ton 'a despised old man'; 
pil-tontli denotes 'a childish boy', pil-zin, on the other hand, 
'son in the best sense'. Okik'-pil is a small, ridiculous little 
man. -pul implies blame or enlargement in a bad sense: 
e. g. siwa-pul is 'a bad woman', no-siwa-pul 'my bad 

As regards the cases, the subjective and the objective 
become manifest only by position, the former preceding, 
the latter following, the verb. Like the dative, the objec- 
tive is also indicated by the pronominal element which is 
incorporated with the verb. Thus: 

Ni-k-kiwi-lia in no-pil-zin se kail 
I-it-make-for the-my-son a house. 

Here kal'i is shown at once to be conceived objectively 
by the k which is incorporated with the verb, and the verb 
k'iivi-lia indicates that in no-pit-zin is the dative. 

The genitive is expressed by putting the thing to be 
defined before the defining expression, and by adding to 
the former the possessive pronoun applying to the latter. 
Thus, i-tlaskal okik'li his-bread Man = the bread of Man. 

As attribute the adjective precedes the substantive. 
E. g. K'ipawak atl pure water. As predicate the adjective 
must be turned into a verbal expression. 

When combined with the possessive pronoun most 
nouns discard the individualising singular suffix. Thus, 
Teo-tl G-od becomes Ten: no-Teu my God; kal'i house, be- 
comes kal: no-kal my house, mo-kal thy house. The re- 
flexive pronoun in a possessive relation is expressed by the 
stems ne, mo. E. g. Ne-tlasotla-listli Love to oneself; mo- 
tlasotla-ni one who loves himself; ne-mak'ti-lo-jan place 
where one instructs oneself, study. 

In Nawatl almost every independent word can be used, 
when combined with the subject-prefixes of the personal 

~3H 185 f<~ 

pronoun, as predicate, so as to make a whole sentence of 
a verbal expression. For instance, ni-no-ma-popowa It 
my + hands + wash = I wash my hands. Nisok'itekwi I + flow- 
ers + pluck = I am picking flowers. 

There is no verbum substantivum in the sense of our 
Copula. As a rule this is rendered by the personal or de- 
monstrative pronoun. Thus, Newatl ni-wei ni-tlatlakoani I 
I-great I-sinner = I am a great sinner. 

Interesting is the position of the object. Sometimes 
it is found between the subject-pronoun and the verb: ni- 
naka-ka I flesh eat; more often, however, the noun is re- 
presented by the pronoun of the third person and it is then 
put after the verb. 

Respecting numeration, the quinar-vigesimal system in 
its purest form underlies Nawatl: 

1 se 

2 orne 10 matlaktli 

3 jei 15 kagtol'i 

4 naui 20 Sem-pual'i 

5 makwil'i 

Ideologically this interesting language is indirectly hy- 
brid, the formula being 1. 3. G. 8. V. Now, what is the Na- 
watl thought of God? It is 

^jj*& Teotl. The Adored. 
Teotlatolli verbum Dei. ^2 Teo-kualo God-eating. 

Dropping the individualising suffix we have the root 
Teo, reminding us, curiously enough, of the Gothic Tin 
which is still with us in our own Tuesday. 

As typical of the so-called Sonoric forms of speech we 
may take that of the Otomi or Kia-K'iu. According to 
Prof. F. Miiller the relation of the highly-evolved Astek to 
the simple idioms of the North is very much that of the 
Tagala tongues on the Philippines to the dialects which 
are spoken by the Polynesians and the Melanesians. 


~3w 186 H$~ 

By combination of the pronoun with the verbal par- 
ticle the root can become a verb, and when combined with 
the demonstrative article or adjective, a substantive or ad- 
jective. But the Otomi language possesses a series of 
phonetic means by which, and especially in the case of the 
noun, it is able to express the various modifications of 
concrete action. Thus, in roots beginning with a vowel 
the prefix t denotes the result of the action, the prefix y- 
the agent. For instance, opko to write; t-opko manuscript; 
na y-optto writer. Where the root begins with in or n 
the prefix is k 3 : e. g. madi to love, na k f -madi love; nee to 
wish, na k'-nee wish, will. 

The most important of the Cases are recognised by their 
position in the sentence: the subjective precedes, the objective 
follows the verb. E. g. Na bednu i-ma okk'a Peter loves God. 
The genitive is expressed by putting the thing defined before 
the defining element. Thus, Na ma Okk'a the mother of God. 

When used as an attribute the adjective comes before 
the noun to which it belongs: e. g. Ka je a pious man. 
As a predicate the adjective is treated as a verb. 

The verb is conjugated by certain pronominal elements 
prefixed to the stem. Speaking generally, these elements 
amalgamate with adverbs which are put either before or 
after them, in order to more nearly define the temporal or 
modal quality of the state or action. For instance, d-na- 
nk'o I am good; di-nu I see. In the compound or objec- 
tive conjugation the expressions for the object are suffixed 
to the verbal expression: e. g. di-nu-i I see thee, gi-nu-gi 
thou seest me, gi-nu-gtfe thou seest us. 

Underlying both Otomi and Masahua is the quinary- 
vigesimal system: 

Otomi Masahua 

1 Na-ra daka 

5 Kuto sika 

6 Ra-to (1 + 5) nan to 

-* 187 H$~ 

7 Jo-to (2 + 5) jen-ko 

8 kia-to (3 + 5) riin-ko 

9 gu-to (4 + 5) sin-ko 
10 Reta deka 

From an ideological standpoint Otomi or K'ia-K'iu is 
hybrid, the order being 2. 3. 6. 8. VIII, i. e. noun + genitive, 
adj ective + noun, verb + obj ect, subj ect + verb. 

As we have seen, the theologic thought of the Otomi 
centres round 


probably another form of Oki, the Power that rules the 
seasons and controls the winds and waves. 

Most interesting are the forms of speech familiar to 
the Caribees. The so-called language of the Caribees real- 
ly embraces two wholly-different idioms, namely: a) the 
speech of the Caribees of the mainland, called by the 
French Missionaries 'la langue des Galibis'; and p) the 
language of the Caribees of the islands, 'la langue Caraibe'. 
The former has cognates in several idioms of the mainland, 
i. e. in K'aima, Kumana-goto, Tamanak etc., whilst the 
latter shows quite another type, which is grammatically more 
akin to Arowak. Now, this type is connected with a very 
peculiar circumstance. 

The language of the Islanders embraces two different 
forms of speech, whereof one is used by the men, the other 
by the women. In vocabulary the speech of the men is 
most akin to Galibi, that of the women to Arowak. 

The curious fact, that one the and same people ac- 
cording to the sex of its individuals speaks two lexically 
different languages is to be accounted for by the habits of 
this tribe. The Caribee warriors, when they had landed 
on the neighboring islands, slew the men Arowaks (Lukunu) 
who had settled there and captured their women. Inasmuch, 
therefore, as it became the duty of the women to educate 
the children from the 10th to the 12th year, not only was 

-* 188 *s~ 

their language communicated to them but a knowledge 
thereof was for ever assured to the growing lads. Thus 
whilst the women learnt Galibi from the men, the latter 
had already from early youth been taught Arowak by the 
former. And so we have both sexes learning two lexically 
wholly-differing modes of speech, yet in intercourse with the 
same sex using but one; for, when talking to his fellows 
the Caribee (Kalipi) uses Karina or Galibi, his wife in 
intercourse with women using Lukunu or Goakira. 

As regards the noun, there is the somewhat rare phae- 
nomenon of the denotation of sex alike in nouns and ad- 
jectives by means of the final vowel: e. g. basabanti boy, ba- 
sabantu girl; Go: antfsi good, fern, anase. In Goakira the 
form for the singular can be used without any addition for 
the plural, the distinction being generally made by gesture. 

Of the cases the three grammatical, the subjective, ob- 
jective and genitive are only known by their position in the 
sentence. In Arowak the subjective precedes the verb, the 
objective follows: damalitdn bahu 'I make a house', and the 
relation of genitive is expressed by simply putting the de- 
fining element before the thing defined. Thus, da-ti nlm- 
Ititi 'of my father younger brother'. The remaining spatial 
cases are denoted by postpositions. 

In Goakira the subjective comes before, the objective 
after, the verb. The relation of genitive is expressed by 
putting the defining element after the thing defined and by 
combining the former with the possessive pronoun referring 
to the latter, thus : No-i ni-kon Mareiwa 'the mother of the 
Son of God' = his mother his Son God. 

The adjective follows the noun to which it belongs and 
agrees with it in number and sex. 

In Goakira we find the decadic system of numeration, 
in Arowak the quinar-vigesimal. 

The ideology is in both cases hybrid, being respectively 
2. 4. 6. 8. and 1. 4. 6. 8. HI. and the Thought of God 

~>; 189 H$~ 


In dealing with Guarani-Tupi we find, first of all, that 
it is very rich in formative elements and is therefore able 
to express the chief distinctions within the perception. 

As regards the noun the plural is either left undeno- 
ted or is expressed by suffixing the word seta 'many' in 
the shorter form eta. Thus, aba 'man', aba-eta 'men'. Of 
the cases the most important, namely, the subjective, ob- 
jective and genitive are known only by their position in the 
sentence. Indeed it is only the genitive whose position is 
assured, the nominative and accusative both in relation to 
the verb and indeed to one another being uncertain of any 
definite position. For instance, one may say: Pedro ou miape 
'Peter eats bread'; Pedro miape ou 'Peter bread eats'; 
miape Petro ou 'bread Peter eats' or ou Pedro miape 'eats 
Peter bread'. 

In the relation of genitive the expression which defines 
comes before the word defined; thus Tupan roka 'God's 
house'. The remaining case -relations are expressed by 
postpositions of a purely material kind. 

The adjective as attribute comes after the substantive 
to which it belongs, becoming, indeed, one with it, so that 
the case-signs are attached to the former. Thus, mlae-'katu 
'good thing', nii-gatu 'good field', iribae-aiba 'bad thing', nu- 
aiba 'bad field'. As predicate the adjective is treated as 
a verb: e. g. i-katu 'he is good', i-hatu-pe? 'is he good?' 
se-katu-ramo 'as I am good'. 

According as the verb is transitive or neutral it is 
really double. The transitive verbs have prefixes which 
stand in a predicative relation to the following verbal stem 
whilst the neutral verbs take the same possessive prefixes 
as the noun. With the exception of the future there is no 
exact definition of time in the Tupi-Guarani verb; a-juM, 
for instance, means both 'I kill' and 'I killed', 'I have killed', 
'I had killed'. The future is really the only tense which 

~>i 190 H$- 

is adequately defined. The compound conjugation (objective) 
of Tupi, unlike what is usual in American languages, shows 
agglutination and not incorporation. 

As regards numeration, the quinary-vigesimal system 
seems to underlie G-uarani, Tupi and Omagua. 5 is ex- 
pressed by one hand; 10 by two liands; 20 by hands and 
feet (ase-po-petei; ase-po-mokoi; mbe mbi abe, ase-po ase- 
pi abe). 

Ideologically Guarani is most irregular. Sometimes it 
is natural, viz. 1. 4. 5. 8. I, but we have also the final 
formulae H. III. IV. In Tupi the Supreme is conceived as 

Tupan Thunderer. 

In Guarani, on the other hand, as 

Tamoi Lord of Paradise, Ancient of Heaven. 

In Kiriri and Kikito also we have the same thought, 
though the form of the word is, in the one case, Tupan, 
and in the other, Tupas. The ideology of these idioms 
differs from that of Tupi. Thus in Kiri we say : era Tupan 
House-God; Kaiigi Tupan good God, for 'the house of God'; 
'God is good'. And in K'ikito : I-poo-stii Tupas his house 
God or poos i-tsa-stii Tupas house his God = God's house. 

The Molu-ke of Chili have likewise considered Thunder 
to be the surest manifestation of the Supreme. 
Pillan = Thunderer. 

Pillan is also the highest deity of the Araucanians, 
known sometimes as Huenu-Pillan Heaven -Thunder, and 
Yuta-gen Great Being. 'The universal government of Pil- 
lan 7 , says Molina, 'is a prototype of the Araucanian polity. 
He is the great Toqui (Governor) of the invisible world, 
and as such has his Apo-Ulmenes, to whom he entrusts the 
administration of affairs of less importance. These ideas 
are certainly very rude, but it must be acknowledged that 
the Araucanians are not the only people who have regula- 
ted the things of heaven by those of the earth'. 

Their language, which is known as K'ili-denu, is in- 

~3* 191 f<~ 

direct in ideology, the formula being 1. 3. 5. 8. Ill, and their 
system of numeration decadic. Kim 1, kek'u 5, mari 10. 
Other American forms of the theistic Idea are: 

TuktuV : Vittukuk ankj o 

Astek: Huizilo-PoMi = Ancient of Heaven 

K'apaneki: Nomboui 

Koggaba: Kalguasisa 

Kvikuan: Pakakamakka World-Creator 

Inka: Pakakamak World-Creator. 

As an instance of theological deterioration none is per- 
haps so striking as the Astek Huizilopoktli. Originally 
representing the great thought of Heaven supreme he may 
now be found 'figuring as the demon Vizlipuzli in the po- 
pular drama of Doctor Faustus'. 

"The very name of Mexico", says Prof. Tylor, "seems 
derived from Mexitli, the national War-god, identical or 
identified with the hideous gory Huizilopochtli. Not to 
attempt a general solution of the enigmatic nature of this 
inextricable compound parthenogenetic deity, we may notice 
the association of his principal festival with the winter- 
solstice, when his paste idol was shot through with an ar- 
row, and being thus killed, was divided into morsels and 
eaten, wherefore the ceremony was called the teoqualo or 
"god-eating". This and other details tend to show Huitzi- 
lopochtli as originally a nature-deity, whose life and death 
were connected with the year's, while his functions of War- 
god may be of later addition". 

Pakakamak, from kamani I create, kamak Creator 
Kama Soul, is really a title of Uirakoka, the supreme Deity 
in the religion of the Inkas. His other title is Pakajakakik 
World-Teacher. 'The three great deities', says Prof. Tylor, 
'were the Creator, Sun, and Thunder; their images were 
brought out together at great festivals into the square of 
Cuzco, llamas were sacrificed to all three, and they could 
be addressed in prayer together: "0 Creator, and Sun, 

~3* 192 H~ 

and Thunder, be for ever young, multiply the people, and 
let them always be at peace". Yet the Thunder and Light- 
ning was held to come by the command of the Creator, 
and the following prayer shows clearly that even "our father 
the Sun" was but this creature': 

"Uiracocha! Thou who gavest being to the Sun, and 
afterwards said let there be day and night. Raise it and 
cause it to shine, and preserve that which thou hast created, 
that it may give light to men. Grant this, Uiracocha! 

Sun! Thou who art in peace and safety, shine upon us, 
keep us from sickness, and keep us in health and safety". 

Very remarkable both in thought and form is the 
expression for the Deity in the language of the Mikmak 
Indians, namely 

A Nikskam 

Malisit ^ Nukskam 

The following is a translation into Malisit, the idiom 
of the Indians in New Brunswick, of St. John iii. 16: 

Ibukul Nukskam eduki-musagitpun uskitkumikw weg'e- 
meluetpun wihwebu Ukwusul, welaman 'niseu wen tan 
welamsutuk uhukek, skatup uksekahawe, kanukulu uteiiip 

Does it not seem a spiritual instinct to conceive of 
supreme Being in a threefold aspect? Here, at all events, 
we have the triangle, not less than three lines enclosing a 
space. Unlike as they are in forms of thought and modes 
of speech, the Brahman and the Mikmak Indian show a 
psychical likeness which is most significant. 
/\ = 

Past, Present, Future; Being, Thought, Joy. 

The following is the Mikmak Pater Noster: 

Nusinen wajok ebin kiptuk clelwigin 

Our Father in heaven sitting it may Thy name 


megwidedemek wajok n'telidanen kiptuk ignemwiek 
be esteemed in heaven us may granted be 

V f& g3> 3i 

ula nemulek uledekinen. Natel wajok deli 

Thee to see unceasingly. There in heaven as 

skedulk kiptuk deli skedulek makimigwek 

Thou art may so to-Thee-obede- upon earth 
obeyed nience-be-given 


eimek Delamukubenigwal esemigwel aps 
where we are. As Thou us hast given in this way so also 

negwes kiskuk delamuktes penegwunenwin 
now to-day give us our food 

nilunen. Deljabiksiktakasik wegaiwinametnik 
to us. We forgiving those who have insulted us. 

< 3 A BczZ 

elp Pel Nikskam abiksiktwin 

so Thou o God forgive 

elweultik Melkeninres winnsudil mu 

our faults Hold us fast ' by the hand not 




k'tigalina keginukamke winnsigwel 

to fall hold far from us affliction 


twaktwin N'deliek 

Evil Amen. 



From Madagascar in the West to Easter Island in the 
East, from the peninsula of Malacca, Formosa and the 
Hawaiian group in the North to New Zealand in the South, 
excepting only those of the Australian continent and those 
of the Papuas, the languages of these islanders form a 
Unity which, from the ultimate geographical points, has 
been subsumed under the title of the Malayo-Polynesian 
branch. In fact, Malays, Polynesians and Melanesians are 
really members of one family and once had a common 

We have here a graduated series of linguistic evolution, 
whereof the Polynesian particle-languages represent the 
lowest stage, the Melanesian the intermediate, and the 
Malay idioms with their extensive formation by means of 
suffix and prefix the highest development. 

Morphologically these languages are interesting from 
the fact that, the element which corresponds to what in 
other tongues is known as the root, is here dissyllabic, re- 
presenting a complete word, and may appear as noun, verb, 
adverb, preposition; in fact almost any part of speech. 

The external means by which this type of speech is 

~S* 195 H$~ 

made up, are repetition, reduplication, suffix, prefix and 
infix. Those parts of speech which belong almost wholly to 
the nominal sphere are made manifest by position. 

Although these languages cannot be said to possess 
any very clear apprehension of number as a grammatical 
category, since one and the same word may be either sin- 
gular or plural, it is nevertheless true that those belonging 
to the Melanesian branch possess not only a singular, a 
dual and a plural, but even a trial. Nay more, as regards 
the pronoun of the first person there is the distinction 
made by the speaker as to whether he includes or excludes 
the person addressed, giving us the possibility of seven differ- 
ent expressions, namely, one singular, two duals, trials and 
plurals (inclusive and exclusive). 

As a rule the predicate precedes the subject, the 
attribute follows. 

There are nine cases, namely, subjective, objective, ge- 
nitive, dative, instrumental, local, social, abessive and ablative, 
and they are denoted by particles prefixed to the words. 
Originally the genitive seems to have been expressed by 
position only, the thing to be defined being put before the 
defining element. Thus, Maori: tuke mata 'bow of the 
eye' = eyebrow; Samoan: lau ulu = Tonga: lou ulu = Ta- 
hitian: rouru 'leaf of the head' = hair. The objective or 
accusative follows the verbal expression and the ablative 
can only be used in connection with a passive verbal form: 
e. g. Hawaiian: E malamaia kakou e ke Akua 'we are 
protected by God'. 

In the Polynesian languages Reduplication plays a 
very important part. As already stated, the root is dissylla- 
bic and serves either as noun or verb : e. g. Maori : korero 
=Tahit. orero =Haw.: olelo 'to speak' and 'speech'. In the 
verbal stem it forms a frequentatives ; thus, Samoan: tufa 'to 
part', tufa-tufa 'to distribute'; Maori: haere 'to walk', haere 
haere 'to go to and fro'; p intensives; e. g. Samoan: tala 'to 

~s* 196 *- 

speak' talatala 'to chatter', 'cry'; Maori: kai 'to eat', kakai 
'to devour'; y simultanea; that is to say, words in which 
the suggestion is that the action is done in concert with 
another. For instance, Samoan: moe 'to sleep', momoe 
'to sleep with someone'; Tongan; nofo 'to dwell', nonofo 'to 
live with someone'. 

In the case of adjectives it makes superlative expres- 
sions: Maori-Haw.-Rarot. : nui 'great', nunui 'very great'. 
With the substantive this process forms nomina collectiva 
and out of stems which are only used verbally forms those 
which are used nominally. 

The adjective remains unchanged. As attribute it 
comes after the substantive to which it belongs, as predi- 
cate it precedes it. Comparison takes place either by re- 
duplication or by certain periphrastic modes of speech. 
Thus, Sam.: E tele lenei i lela 'this is great to that'= 
greater than that. Maori: he tanata rahi ake ia Hoani 
'a man great above John'. 

The most essential points of the Polynesian verb are : 
a) Stem-formation of the verbal expression, namely, 
active, passive, causative, desiderative, and reciprocal; 
P) particles, which more nearly define the verbal ex- 
pression with regard to place, direction of the action 
and quality; 

T) particles, indicative of time and kind; and 
6) personal elements. 

The decimal system of numeration underlies these 
idioms; numbers 1. 5 and 10 are, in eight dialects, as 
follows : 

Fakaafo Samoa Tonga Maori Rarotonga 
1 tasi tasi tahu tahi tai 

5 lima lima nima rima rima 

10 fulu sefulu honofulu nahuru nauru 

Tahiti Haw. Marq. 
I tahi kahi tahi 

~& 197 *s~ 

5 rima lima ima 

10 ahum 'umi onohuu 

As examples of these tongues we may take the following : 


Koe Hotua ko Tanaloa mo ene foha 
The God of the Tongaloa with his sons 

toka-ua na nan nofo gi Bolotu. 
persons-two (pret.) they dwelt in Bolotu. 

Pater noster. 

Ko e mau Tamai oku i he lagi, Ke tabuha ho huafa. 
Ke hoko mai hoo bule. Ke fai ho finagalo i mama ni, o 
hage i he lagi. Ke foaki mai he aho ni haa mau mea 
kai. Bea fakamolelmole e mau agahala, o hage ko e mau 
fakamolemolea akinautolu kuo fai agahala kiate kimautolu. 
Bea oua naa tuku akimautolu Id he ahiahi, kae fakamoui 
aldmautolu meihe kovi: He oku oou ae bule, moe malohi, 
moe naunau, o taegata. Emeni. 


Ua hoe e too-piti tau taata i tai 

Were gone persons-two (pi. sign) men to sea 

e hi i te ia; o Roo te ioa o te tahi, 

to catch the fish ; the Eoo the name of the one, 

Teahoroa te ioa o te hoe. 
the Teahoroa the name of the other. 

Pater noster. 

E to matou Metua i te ao ra, ia raa to oe ioa. la 
tae to oe ra hau. la haapao hia to oe hinaaro i te fenua 
nei, mai tei te ao atoa na. Homai i te maa e au ia matou 

1 teie nei mahana. E faa ore mai i ta matou hara, mai 
ia matou atoa e faa ore i tei hara ia matou nei. E eiaha 
e faarue ia matou ia roohia noa hia e te ati, e faa ora ra 
ia matou i te ino. No oe hoi te hau, e te mana, e te hana- 
hana, e a muri noa 7 tu. Amene. 


koe, tena koe, Paraniti 

(art) Thou, that (art) Thou Francis 

3 Atiria 




Johepa, te ranatira nui rawa 
Joseph, the king great very of Austria 

katoa. Ka nui to maua hiahia kia 

entire. (part.) great the of is two wish that 

kite maua ia koe ; tenei te . take o to 
to see we two Thee; this the reason of the 
maua haerena mai ki tenei wenua. 
our both coming hither to this land. 


E to matou Motua i te ao, ia 
o the our Father in the heaven that 

tapu to oe inoa, ia koaa ia oe 

holy (be) the Thy name, that come to Thee 
te fenua ei hakaiki, ia tupu to oe 

the earth to rule, that may-thrive the Thy 

hinenao i te fenua nei mai to te 

will upon the earth here hither upon the 

ao atoa, a tu'u na matou i teie 

heaven also, lay down 
nei a o te a 

for us on this 

o te kai o te 
day of the eating of the 
e haakoe i ta matou pio 
day of the eating, forgive Thou our debts 

haakoe i ta te tahi pio e 
forgive the of the other debts and 
titii atu ia matou ia koohia 

that tempt ed-be 

here day of the 
a o te kai, 

ma te matou 
as we 



not indeed that lettest to us 

-^ 199 x~ 

matou i te pio e haapohoe ia matou 
we into the wrong but make-safe us 

i te mate. 


from death. 

Passing on to the Melanesian languages we find that 
Viti is the most complete, showing us the highest develop- 
ment of this class of speech and standing midway between 
the Polynesian and the Malay idioms. 

The Melanesian languages do not form that unity 
amongst themselves which is characteristic of the Polynesian 
and Malay. Whilst we can derive both Polynesian and 
Malay idioms from a single primitive speech-form, out of 
which, by purely phonetic processes, the single languages 
have for the most part issued, in the case of the Melanesian 
torms there seems to have been an early decay of the 
primitive idiom, and a predominance of foreign and more 
especially of Papuan influence. 

According to Grundemann and F. Miiller these tongues 
may be grouped as follows: 

A. The languages of the New Hebrides. 

1. The speech of the island of Annatom (Aneiteum, 
Aneituum), the most Southern of the New Hebrides, 20 lat. 
170 long, from Greenwich. 

2. The language of the island of Tanna. On this 
island no less than three different languages are said to 
be spoken, namely, a native and two imported idioms 
whereof the one comes from Erronan (Fotuna), the other 
from Eromanga. 

3. That of Eromanga. 

4. That of Vate or Efat (Sandwich Island). 

5. That of Api or Tasiko (Sesake-language). 
G. That of Paama, 

7. That of Ambrym. 

-3M 200 K- 

8. That of Ara^ or Whitsuntide (Pentecost-Island). 

9. That of Mallikolo. 

10. The speech of Eotuma. 

B. The languages of the Solomon islands. 

1. The idiom of Bauro or San Cristoval. 

2. That of Ulaua (Contrariety-island). 

3. That of Guadalcanar or Gera. 

4. The language of Mara or Malanta. 

5. That of Anuda (Florida). 

6. That of Ysabel (Mahaga-language). 

C. The languages of the Carolines. 

D. Those of the Marshall Islands. 

E. Those of the Kingsmill islands (1'Archipel Gilbert). 

The three last groups belong to the so-called Mikro- 
nesians aad their inhabitants more closely resemble the Poly- 
nesians from a developmental standpoint. 

The principal point about which all the Melanesian 
languages are in perfect accord is the pronoun, not only 
as regards the phonetic elements but also with respect to 
the development of this part of speech. Besides the singular 
and the dual we find two forms of the plural, namely, the 
inclusive and the exclusive. 

In most of these idioms there are possessive pronouns 
which are attached to the noun as suffixes. In doubtful 
cases these possessive suffixes may be looked upon as an 
essential criterion in the examination and appreciation of 
a language and in the ascertainment of its position. 

In estimating the connexion of these idioms the nume- 
rals are of special importance. They entirely agree with 
the numeral system of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, in 
some respects showing a closer relationship with the Malay 
tongues than with the Polynesian. Numbers 1, 5 and 10 
are as follow: 



Erromango Marshall-Isl 





t c uon 














1 sikei 


5 lim 


10 ra-lim 



Ambrym Araga 

Tarawa Bauro 






te eta 






nima rima 




san-ula han-wul 

tenaun tanhuru 




MalliMo Tana 


















Melanesian ideology is hybrid, the formula being 2. 
4. 6. 8. VI. 

As a specimen of these tongues we may take the Ma- 
haga language on the island Ysabel: 

Na vua ke varia na tinoni, garni 

The crocodile it devours the men, we 
boi regi-a, mar a ke hutu ke na regi-a 
not see-it men they great they have seen-it 
ihauna. Ki-ti regi-a na vana-nia 
long ago. We see-it the devouring-of the same 
na bodo, na iu. Na vua 
the pig, the dog. The crocodile 
sede na kindoru-nia, ki-ki-mua 
much the eggs-his, gradually 

dade-nia na vua ke au 

young-its of the crocodile they come 




~* 202 M5~ 

St. John III. 16 has been translated into Mare or 
Nengonese as follows: 

Wen' o re naeni Makase hna raton' o re ten' o re 
aw, ca ile nubonengo me nunuone te o re Tei nubonengo 
sa so, fu deko di ma tango ko re ngome me sa ci une clu 
nubon, roi di nubone co numu o re waruma t a t'u ase ko, 

As a specimen of Eromangan we may take the trans- 
lation of the Christian's 'marching orders': 

Muve kimi, mo muinpi ovun nurie enyx, ovun numpim 
16 su, wumbaptiso iranda ra nin eni Itemen, im ra nin eni 
Netni, im ra nin eni Naviat Tump or a. 

(Matt, xxviii. 19.) 

The following is the Pater Noster in 


Ak Etmama an nohatag, Etmu itaup niclam. Etmu 
jetpam nelkau unjum. Uhmu imjiaigi intas unjum an no- 
bohtan, et idivaig an nohatag. Alaama aiek nitai caig ni- 
kama an nadiat ineig. Um gim aru tah nedo has unjima 
aiek, et idivaig ekra eti aru tah nedo has o atimi vai kama 
aigama. Um g'im atau irama an nedo up aiek, gam imjiatamaig 
kama va nigi itai has. Et idim unjum aiek nelkau, im 
nemda, im nimjiahpas, irai igi mesese. 


"We now come to the Malay languages, and here we 
must notice more particularly the substantive. In the Poly- 
nesian and for the most part in the Melanesian languages 
also there is no phonetic distinction between noun and verb; 
in the Malay, on the other hand, even before they enter 
into a syntactical relationship, both verb and substantive 
are distinguished phonetically. More especially is this the 
case with the categories of the concrete and abstract, agent 
and action, substance and accident. But, as regards a 
clear apprehension of the constituents of the sentence, the 
Malay idioms are singularly poor, their whole power being 

~$H 203 K~ 

concentrated on the distinction and exact appreciation of 
inner modifications, which are brought about by means of 
prefixes, infixes and suffixes. 

The Malay adjective is well worthy of note. In form 
it remains unchanged. When used as a predicate, or rather, 
when, speaking generally, the adjective would be used as a 
predicate, it often assumes the form of a verbal constructino 
or of a nomen loci. Instead of saying 'that is bad' the 
Malay says: 'that makes bad' or 'that is a badness-place' 
(badness personified). 

"With the exception of the Tagala languages, whenever 
the adjective is used attributively it follows the substantive 
to which it belongs, in the relationship of predicate it 
comes before the noun. 

As regards the verb we know that, in the Polynesian 
languages it is wholly formless. By putting nominal particles 
before and verbal particles either before or after, the same 
complexus of sound one can cause to become either noun or 
verb. With the Malay, however, it is different. Here, as 
in the case of the noun, there is an attempt to more nearly 
define the verb by means of prefixes, infixes and suffixes. 
Yet, despite the interesting structure of many forms, there 
cannot be said to be a radical distinction between noun 
and verb in the Malay tongues. 

The Malay numerals are the following: 
Tagala Bisaya Hoc. Pamp. llanag. Formosan 
1 i-sa u-sa meisa isa itte na-ta 

Batta. Malag. 
sada isa 

Dayak Mauk. Bugis Alfur. Jav. Mai. 
1 idja si si, sedi esa sa sa. 

In all these tongues, with the exception of Formosan 
the word for 'five' is lima (Malag. dimi), which is a Malay 
word meaning 'hand', thus giving us proof, as in the case 
of the Innuit tongues, of the digital origin of Arithmetic. 

~!H 204 HS~ 

It may now be interesting to see how eight of these 
languages express the Pater Noster: 

1. Tagalic. 

Ama namin 
Father our 

sambah-in an 

holy-be the 

aii nalan-mo , 

the name - Thine , 



lupa para 

earth just 

kamin riai on 

to-us now 

sa lariit 


in heaven 


mupa sa 


come to 


sa amin 


to us 


loob-mo dito 


will-Thine here 


at patauad-in-mo 

and forgiven-be-by-Thee 
otan para nan 
sins just as 


sund-in an 
done-be the 

sa lanit, bigi-an-mo 
in heaven, given-be-from-Thee 
amin kanin sa arao-arao, 
our food 
kamin nan 
us the 




in day-day, 

by us 


nanagkakaotari sa amin, at hunag-mo 

sinners against us, and hindering-Thine (that) 

sa tokso, at 

into temptation, and 

dilan masama. 

kamin ipahintolot 

we thrown be 

jadia-mo kami 

freed be through Thee we 




2. Visayic. 

Amahan namu 

Father our 

lanit, i-papag-dajet 
heaven, praised be 

na itotat ka sa 

who art Thou in 

an imori rialan, moanhi 
the Thy name, come 

~3* 205 HS~ 

ka-namun an imoii pagka-hadi, tuman-un 

to us the Thy kingdom, followed be 

an imoh buot dinhi si jata maiiiuii 
the Thy will here over earth as 

sa lanit, ihatag-mo damun an kanun 

in heaven, given be by Thee us the food 

namun sa matagarlao, ug pauad-in-mo 
our in every day, and forgiven be by Thee 

kami san na-sala namu mainum g-in-uara 
us the sins our as pardoned 

namun san rianaka-sala damun, nan 

our (are) the sinning-ones against us, indeed-not 
diri-imo tugot-an kami maholog sa 

by-Thee allowed-be (that) we fall into 

mariapanulaj sa amun mana-kaauaj, apan 

temptation by our many enemies, but 

barit-un-mo kami sa maiia-maraut 

freed be- through Thee we from many evils 


3. Pampangan. 

Ippa-mi ati-ka banua, pa-samba-mo 
Father-our art Thou heaven, hallowed be through Thee 
in lagjo-mo detail ke kami in kerian-mo, 
the name-Thine come to us the kingdom-Thy, 

papaminto-mo in loob-mo keti sulip 

made be through-Thee the will-Thine evenso (on) earth 
anti banua, in kakanan-mi ken aldao aldao 
as (in) heaven, the food-our to day day 

ibe-mo ken aldao neni, ampoii 

be given through-Thee to day this, and 



forgiven be through Thee 







against us, 

kin tooso, 

to temptation, but 

kami kin sablan 

we from all 

ke kami in otan-mi 
to us the debt-our 

pavatamad-mi kariii-mi ka-otaii 

forgiven are by us opponents-our sinning 
ini-mo ke pasaol 

hindered be through Thee to fall 
amp on jadja-mo ke riii 

led be through Thee back 

4. Formosan. 

ta-mau, ta 

the Father, the 
i-pa-dasa joa 
hallowed be Thy 
o ai, i-pa-ijoro 
this, made be 
ma-sini de 



Namo a 

de busum 
in heaven 

namo-no piada i toro 
us to-day our 

soo abo-e namo ta 
and forgive us the 

namoa ma-ibas kanuma namo 
our as here (earth) we 

ta masea pa-rapies i 

who are evil doing against 

pa-sabas i namo, soo baras 
make tempt us, 



naan, i-pa-sarja joa 
name, brought be Thy 
joa airab ma-ibas 
Thy will as 

ta kanuma, epe-e 
upon the earth, give 

upo maatsikap 

rice-dumplings to eat 
taap o kakosi 
deed of disobedience 

forgive (those) 
namo, hai 

us, not 

i namo inai 
and deliver us from 


rapies ai, inau joa miko kakimit o ai 

evil this, for Thine property dominion this 

soo bar o ai soo adas ai ta-ulaulan. 

and power this and glory this ever. 


Ni raj-naj, 
The Father, 
ni anara-nao, 
the name-Thine, 
Atavi ni 

Come-to-pass the 
tahaki ni 




the being 

5. Malagasi. 

an-danitra , hasino 
in-heaven, hallowed 
ampandrosoj ni fandsaka-nao. 
come the kingdom-Thine. 

fankasitraha-nao eti an-tani 

will-Thine evenso upon-earth 

ani an-danitra. Omeo anaj 

in-heaven Give us 


isaj nnma-naj isa-nandro, an m-amela 
which food-our this-day, and forgive 


trosa-naj tahaki 
sins-our as 

are forgiven by us 



ami-naj, ari 
with-us, and 

asa mi-tarikia 
not lead 



ni fakampanahi, 
the temptation, 

fa manafaha 
but deliver 



ni ratsi. 


the evil. 

6. Dajak 


our (excl.) 

iga huan 
who in 



hallowed be. 





kilan huan 
as in 



kakaj kea hung'un petak. Peiia talo kinan 
evenso also upon earth. Give the eating 
akan ikaj andau to, dan ampun kara 
to us (excl.) day this, and forgive all 

ka-salah-n ikaj kilau ikaj 
sins us (excl.) as we 

kea m-ampun 
also forgive 

olo, iga aton 
men, which are 

salah denan ikaj, dan 
sinful with us (excl.). and 

ala menamaan 
not lead 

ikaj huan 
us (eycl.) into 

tinkese, baja 
temptation, but 

lapas ikaj 
deliver us (excl.) 

bara talo 
from the 

papa , krana 
evil, for 

aju-m aton 
property- Thine is 


tuntan kwasa 
and strength 

tuntan ka-haie 


and glory 

for ever ever. 


7. Javanese. 

Rama kawula hinkan 

Father (of thine) servants who 
swarga wast a sampejan 

heaven name (of thy) feet 
karaton sampejan handatenana ; 

kingdom (of thine) feet come then; 

sampejan dadossa hin bumi 
feet come-to-pass upon earth 

swarga; reg'ekki kawula kan 

heaven bread (of thine) servants which 
sukanni dinten punniki marm 
give day this to (thy) 

puntan marm kawula dosa 

wonten hin 
art in 

dadossa sutgi 
be holy; 

will (of thy) 
kados hin 
as in 

a day-day 
kawula, hambi 
servants, and 

to (thy) servants guilt (of the) servants, 


kados kawula 

as (tliy) servants 
titijaii kan salah 
enemy who sins 
sampun bekta 

indeed not lead 
tapi k'uk'ullaken 
but free make 
iiawon, sabab 

evil, cause 







to (thy) 








kawula, hambi 
servants, and 
hin perk'oban, 
into temptation, 
bari pada sari 
from what 

hambi kowasa 


sarta kamukten gusti 

with glory 

hin nawet. 

into eternity. 


Lord (=Thou) property his 





8. Malay. 
Bap a kami 

Father our (excl.) 

di-per-suki-lah kira-nga! 
be-hallowed-then please! 
ka-hendak-mu g'adi-lah 

bumi ; roti 
earth ; bread 

ada di-sorga, 

is in heaven, 

kingdom-thin e 


come-then-to-pass similarly 
demikian-lah di-atas 

evenso-then upon-above 

kami sa-hari sa-hari beri-la 

our (excl.) of-day of-day give-then 

of heaven 

akan kami 

to us (excl) 

ampon-i-lah pada 
forgive-then to 
kami seperti lagi 

our (excl.) even as again 
pon-i pada oran 

to men 


pada hari ini, dan 

to day this, and 

kami segala salah 

us (excl.) allhood (of) sins 
kami ini men-am- 

we (excl.) there forgive 
jan ber-salah 

who have-commited-sin 

~3* 210 K~ 

ka-pada kami, dan ganan-lah mem-bawti 

against us (excl.), and indeed-not-then lead 
kami ka-pada per-koba-an, hanga lepas- 

us (excl.) into temptation, but loose- 

kan-lah kami deri-pada jan gahat, 

make-then us (excl.) from-to anything evil, 

karena ankau punga ka-rag'a-an dan kwasa 

cause (for) Thou owning kingdom and power 
dan ka-mulija-an sampej sa-lama-lama-nga. . 
and glory unto length-length-his. 

To sum up. The Malay race may be shortly classified 
as follows: 

I. Australian negroes and Tasmanians. 
II. Papuas, including the inhabitants of New Guinea, 
of the Luisiad Archipelago, New Caledonia and 
the Loyalty Islands. Here also belong the Negri- 
tos, the inhabitants of the Andaman (Mincopies) 
and of the Nicobar islands. 
III. Malayo-Polynesians, namely, 1. Polynesians, 2. Me- 

lanesians and 3. Malays. 

Ideology in these tongues varies. Whilst in the Me- 
lanesian and Malay it is hybrid, in the Polynesian it is 
direct, the respective formulae being 2. 4. 6. 8. VI and 2. 
4. 6. 7. VII. 

Now, as regards the Malay Eace, the human mind has 
evolved a very noble thought of G-od. In nearly all these 
idioms it is a form of Atua, 'the very Core of Humanity', 
atu being a kernel or core, and a an intensive. 'Eternity' 
is expressed by e rimua ua atu 'until covered with the 
moss of ages'. 

Samoan : Atua 

Aneityum : Atua 

Maori: Atua 

Tahitian: Atua 


Rarotongan : Atua 
Marquesan : Atua 


Hawaii : 



Rotuman : 



Okotdsi and Hase. 1 

The word Jo 'pith' or 'core' is also used for God: Jo 
ora living God. 

Those that differ from this form are: 
Malagasi : Sanahari Creator; and 

Andria Manitra Noble-Sweet. 

The former is the older form, used by the ruder tribes, 
the latter has become polarized in Malagasi religious thought 
since the introduction of Christianity. 
Balinese: "Widi 



Dajak : Tapa 

Jaian: Kon 

Figi: Kalu 

Viti: Kalou 

Ngunese: Supe 



Saibai: Augadan. 

1 Trenehase God-knower=Priest. 

Hnei angeike hna loda kowe la uma i Hase. 

By him was gone into the House of God. 




We are now in a position to discuss the question which 
modern Science and Positivism have combined to raise: 
how did the idea of God arise? What was its earliest 
form ? What the law or what the process of its evolution ? 

Already at the outset of our enquiry we had occasion 
to notice some of the natural histories of religion, and here, 
without attempting an analytic and categorical criticism, 
we may do well to point out that, they all assume the 
truth of an empirical philosophy. Religious concepts are 
resolved into sense-impressions, it being taken for granted 
that man started with 'an original atheism of consciousness'. 
But, how, upon this hypothesis, are we to account for man's 
faculty of faith, his tendency to believe in beings invisible, 
his conception of the Infinite? Can we accept an hypo- 
thesis which would derive the sublime predicate 'God' from 
dreams, delusions, fears? Surely ex nihilo nihil fit. Gran- 
ted that savage and monkey, infant and dog, alike think 
natural objects alive, the one does, the other does not, for- 
mulate his thoughts into a religion. Nor must we forget 
that the evidence of religion is never entirely furnished by 
sensuous perception. 'In worshipping his fetish, the savage 
does not worship a common stone, but a stone which, be- 
sides, being a stone that can be touched and handled, is 
supposed to be something else, this something else being 
beyond the reach of our hands, our ears, or our eyes'. 1 
If, with M. Comte, we argue that man can get out of I 1 Mat 
tlieologique ou fictif, we must also be prepared to admit that 
he can get into it. Is it not more true that mind makes 
nature than that nature makes mind? In the formation 

' Max Miiller: Hibbert Lectures for 1878. p. 168. 



~>; 213 HS~ 

of beliefs the constitutive element is what mind brings to 
nature, not what nature brings to mind. 

"It is not without significance", says Principal Fair- 
bairn, "that, while M. Comte was introducing his law of 
evolution to the world, finding the roots of religion in Fe- 
tichism and the final and perfect system in a Positivism 
without God, the two profoundest thinkers then living were 
formulating very different doctrines the one the doctrine 
that a nation and its religion rose together, that, apart from 
religion, a nation, with its institutions and laws, was im- 
possible; the other, that 'the religion and foundation of a 
State are one and the same, in and for themselves identi- 
cal', .and that, 'the people who has a bad conception of 
God has also a bad government, and bad laws'." 

Going back from these 'incomplete' Kantians to Kant 
himself, though it is doubtless true that he found a three- 
fold impossiblity of proving the existence of the Ideal of 
Reason, yet, what is important for us is the fact so strongly 
held by him that, though experience may give the first im- 
pulse to faith, it is the transcendental concept which acts 
as Reason's guide and points the goal to all her aspirati- 
ons. According to the Konigsberg philosopher, theology 
is either transcendental or natural. In the former case 
there is the attempt to derive the existence of the First 
Cause either from experience generally, which is known as 
cosmotheology, or from mere concepts, without the aid of 
the least experience ontothelogy. Natural theology, on the 
other hand, induces the attributes and the existence of a 
World-Framer from the nature, order and unity met with in 
the world around us, wherein we must admit a twofold causa- 
lity, namely, nature and freedom. It thus rises from this 
world to the highest Intelligence, either as to the Principle 
of all natural or of all moral Order and Perfection. That 
is to say, it is either physico-theology or moral theology. 

Examining the subject from the standpoint of the archi- 

-S* 214 K~ 

tectonics of pure reason Kant could not but come to the 
conclusion that, from purely speculative reason, no satis- 
factory proof of the existence of a Being is possible, which 
would correspond to our transcendental idea of the Ens 
originarium, realissimum, Ens entium. 

We know that the Cartesian school laid stress upon 
the ontological proof. Descartes held that there must be at 
least as much reality in the Cause as in the Consequence. 
Finite man could never arrive at the concept infinite sub- 
stance unless it came to him from an infinite Being. In his 
third Meditation Cartesius says: 

Ideoque ex antedictis Deum necessario existere est 
concludendum: nam quamvis substantiae quidem idea in 
me sit ex hoc ipso quod sim substantia, non tamen id- 
circo esset idea substantiae infinitae, cum sim finitus, nisi 
ab aliqua substantia, quae revera esset infinita, procederet. 

Again, in the fifth meditation we find the noble thought 
which had already been expressed by Anselm: 

Est aliquid quo majus nihil cogitari potest et in in- 
tellectu et in re. 

Malebranche went even further and asserted that, in 
order to have ideas we must be in God. 'Dieu est tres 
etroitement uni a nos ames par sa presence, de sorte qu'on 
peut dire, qu'il est le lieu des esprits, de meme que les es- 
paces sont en un sens le lieu des corps. Dieu est le monde 
intelligible ou le lieu des esprits, de meme que le monde 
materiel est le lieu des corps'. Again, 'Dieu renferme dans 
lui-meme les perfections de la matiere, sans etre materiel; 
il comprend aussi les perfections des esprits crees, sans 
etre esprit, de la maniere, que nous concevons les esprits. 
Son nom veritable est Celui qui est, c'est a dire 1'etre 
restriction, tout etre, 1'etre infini et universe!'. 

Passing on to Spinoza we find him to be so full of 
the idea of Deity that he has been aptly described as the 
God-intoxicated man. He says: 

~>i 215 5<~ 

Quicquid est in Deo est, ct nihil sine Deo esse nequr 
concipi potest. 

God is the absolute, infinite substance, and without 
Him there is no substance. 

Per Deum intelligo Ens absolute, infinitum, hoc est, 
substantiain constantein infinitis attributes, quorum unum- 
quodque aeternam et infinitam essentiam exprimit. 

Praeter Deum nulla dari neque concipi potest sub- 

Thought and extension are the attributes of Deity. 
'Deus est res cogitans' and 'Deus est res extensa'. What- 
ever is founded in something else is a mode of that other 
thing. Thus, a triangle is a modus of the substantia ex- 
tensa, a definite thought is a modus of the substantia co- 
gitans. The sum of these modi is the 'Natura naturata'. 
God, considered as Free Cause, in whom the modes have 
their basis, is the 'Natura naturans'. He is the causa efficiens 
not only of the existentia but also of the essentia of things. 

According to Spinoza the highest joy and the noblest 
virtue is knowledge of God. And if to joy is added the 
thought of its cause, we have love. Joy sprung from know- 
ledge of God leads to love of God. 'Amor est laetitia con- 
comitante idea causae externae'. Our happiness consists 'in 
sola Dei cognitone, ex qua ad ea tantum agenda induci- 
mur, quae amor et pietas suadent'. 

Leibniz, too, is full of the thought of God. He is 
'centre par-tout et sur-tout'; the highest Monad; the final 
Reason. 'La derniere raison des choses doit etre dans une 
Substance necessaire, dans laquelle le detail des change- 
ments ne suit qu'eniinemment, comme dans la source: et 
c'est ce que nous appelons Dieu\ In his Monadology he 
argues that God exists necessarily if it is possible: 

Ainsi Dieu seul (ou 1'Etre necessaire) a ce privilege 
qu'il faut qu'il existe s'il est possible. Et comme rien ne 
peut empecher la possibilite de ce qui n'enferme aucunes 

-^ 216 H~ 

bornes, aucune egation, et par consequence aucune contra- 
diction; cela seul suffit pour connaitre 1'existence de Dieu 
a priori. 

Again, in the Essais de Theodicee: 

'Dieu est la premiere Raison des choses: car celles 
qui sont bornees, comme tout ce que nous voyons et ex- 
perimentons, sont contingentes et n'ont rien en elles qui 
rende leur existence necessaire ; etant nianifeste que le terns, 
1'espace et la matiere, unies et uniformes en elles-inemes, 
et indifferentes a tout, pouvoient recevoir de tout autres 
mouvemens et figures et dans un autre ordre. II faut done 
chercher la raison de 1'existence du Monde, qui est 1'assem- 
blage entier des choses contingentes : et il faut la chercher 
dans la substance qui porte la raison de son existence avec 
elle, et laquelle par consequent est necessaire et eternelle, 
II faut aussi que cette cause soit intelligente : car ce Monde 
qui existe etant contingent, et une infinite d'autres Mondes 
etant egalement possibles et egalement pretendans a 1'exis- 
tence, pour ainsi dire, aussi-bien que lui, il faut que la 
cause du monde ait eu egard ou relation a tous ces Mondes 
possibles, pour en determiner un. Et cet egard ou rapport 
d'une substance existante a de simples possibilites, ne pent 
etre autre chose que I'entendement qui en a les idees; et 
en determiner une, ne peut etre autre chose que 1'acte de 
la volonte qui choisit. Et c'est la puissance de cette sub- 
stance, qui en rend la volonte efficace. La puissance va a 
1'etre, la sagesse ou I'entendement au vrai, et la volonte 
au bien. Et cette cause intelligente doit etre infinie de 
toutes les manieres, et absolument parfaite en puissance 
en sagesse et en bonte, puisqu'elle va a tout ce qui est 
possible. Et comme tout est lie, il n'y a pas lieu d'en 
adrnettre plus d'une. Son entendernent est la source des 
essences, et sa volonte est 1'origine des existences. Yoila 
en peu de mots la preuve d'un Dieu unique avec ses per- 
fections et par lui 1'origine des choses.' 

~5* 217 K~ 

Modern philosophy, in so far as it deals with the ques- 
tion before us, may be fitly represented on the one hand 
by Mr. H. Spencer and on the other by the late Prof. Green. 

In his First Principles Mr. Spencer says: 

'Our examination of Ultimate Religious Ideas has been 
carried on with the view of making manifest some funda- 
mental verity contained in them. Thus far however we 
have arrived at negative conclusions only. Criticising the 
essential conceptions involved in the different orders of be- 
liefs, we find no one of them to be logically defensible. 
Passing over the consideration of credibility, and confining 
ourselves to that of conceivability, we see that Atheism, 
Pantheism, and Theism, when rigorously analysed, severally 
prove to be absolutely unthinkable. Instead of disclosing 
a fundamental verity existing in each, our investigation 
seems rather to have shown that there is no fundamental 
verity contained in any. To carry away this conclusion, 
however, would be a fatal error; as we shall shortly see. 

Leaving out the accompanying moral code, which is 
in all cases a supplementary growth, a religious creed is 
definable as an a priori theory of the Universe. The sur- 
rounding facts being given, some form of agency is alleged 
which, in the opinion of those alleging it, accounts for these 
facts. Be it in the rudest Fetishism, which assumes a se- 
parate personality behind every phenomenon; be it in Poly- 
theism, in which these personalities are partially generalized ; 
be it in Monotheism, in which they are wholly generalized; 
or be it in Pantheism, in which the generalized personality 
becomes one with the phenomena; we equally find an hypo- 
thesis which is supposed to render the Universe compre- 
hensible. Nay, even that which is commonly regarded as 
the negation of all Religion even positive Atheism, comes 
within the definition; for it, too, in asserting the self-exis- 
tence of Space, Matter, and Motion, which it regards as 
adequate causes of every appearance, propounds an a priori 


~$* 218 H$~ 

theory from which it holds the facts to be deducihle. Now 
every theory tacitly asserts two things: firstly, that there 
is something to be explained; secondly, that such and such 
is the explanation. Hence, however widely different spe- 
culators may disagree in the solutions they give of the same 
problem; yet by implication they agree that there is a 
problem to be solved. Here then is an element which all 
creeds have in common. Religions diametrically opposed 
in their overt dogmas, are yet perfectly at one in the tacit 
conviction that the existence of the world with all it con- 
tains and all which surrounds it, is a mystery ever pressing 
for interpretation. On this point, if on no other, there is 
entire unanimity . . . 

Nor does the evidence end here. Not only is the om- 
nipresence of something which passes comprehension, that 
most abstract belief which is common to all religions, which 
becomes the more distinct, in proportion as they develop e, 
and which remains after their discordant elements have 
been mutually cancelled; but it is that belief which the most 
unsparing criticism of each leaves unquestionable or rather 
makes ever clearer. It has nothing to fear from the most 
inexorable logic; but on the contrary is a belief which the 
most inexorable logic shows to be more profoundly true 
than any religion supposes. For every religion, setting out 
though it does with the tacit assertion of a mystery, forth- 
with precedes to give some solution of this mystery ; and so 
asserts that it is not a mystery passing human comprehen- 
sion. But an examination of the solutions they severally pro- 
pound, shows them to be uniformly invalid. The analysis 
of every possible hypothesis proves, not simply that no hypo- 
thesis is sufficient, but that no hypothesis is even thinkable. 
And thus the mystery which all religions recognize, turns 
out to be a far more transcendent mystery than any of 
them suspect not a relative, but an absolute mystery. 
Here, then, is an ultimate religious truth of the highest 

-X 219 K*~ 

possible certainty a truth in which religions in general are 
at one with each other, and with a philosophy antagonistic 
to their special dogmas. And this truth, respecting which 
there is a latent agreement among all mankind from the 
fetish-worshipper to the most stoical critic of human creeds, 
must be the one we seek. If Religion and Science are to 
be reconciled, the basis of reconciliation must be the deepest, 
widest, and most certain of all facts that the Power which 
the Universe manifests to us is utterly inscrutable.' 

We now come to the greatest of the Neo-Kantians 
the late Prof. Green. Speaking generally, the whole fabric 
of his philosophy may be said to rest on his theory of re- 
lations, which mainly consists of two propositions, namely, 
that objects are constituted by relations, and that relations 
are the work of the mind. According to him relations 
exist only for a self-conscious intelligence and are due to 
the activity of a self-conscious intelligence; in other words 
'nature results from the activity of the spiritual principle'. 
The relations constituting nature form a 'single unalterable 
all-inclusive system' implying as such the existence of a 
'principle of unity in relation' which cannot be other than 
Universal Spirit. 

Mr. Balfour has done well to point out the singular 
resemblance which Green's system bears to that of Berkeley. 

'Berkeley by an examination of the nature of perception, 
Green by a criticism of the conditions of experience, alike 
reach the conviction that the world of objects exists only 
for mind; both deduce from this the reality of freedom; 
both assume the existence of a universal spirit in order 
that their idealised universe may be something more than 
the phantasm of the individual consciousness; with both 
this assumption develops into something which resembles, 
though it never actually becomes, a species of Pantheism.' 

It will, then, surely be admitted that the best philo- 
sophy and the purest science do not pronounce against the 

~X 220 f~ 

truth of theology nor do they accept the law ol historical 
progression enunciated by Positivism. 

But if we cannot admit any hypothesis whereby the 
idea of God is evolved from the lower faculties and passions 
of men or from generatio aequivoca, shall we trace it to a 
primitive revelation? Let us consider for a moment what 
this implies. In the first place it means that, far from 
being rooted in the nature of man, religion must be im- 
planted from without. If there be no religious capacity or 
instinct man can never 'seek the Lord, if haply he might 
feel after and find Him'. The implication really is that, 
the human race was originally atheistic. Moreover, if there 
were a primitive revelation, it must have been either written 
or oral. And this involves us in hopeless difficulty. On this 
point none has spoken with greater clearness than Princi- 
pal Fairbairn: 'If written, it could hardly be primitive, 
for writing is an art, a not very early acquired art, and 
one which does not allow documents of exceptional value 
to be easily lost. If it was oral, then either the language 
for it was created or it was no more primitive than the 
written. Then an oral revelation becomes a tradition, and 
a tradition requires either a special caste for its transmis- 
sion, becomes therefore its property, or must be subjected 
to multitudinous changes and additions from the popular 
imagination becomes, therefore, a wild commingling of 
broken and bewildering lights. But neither as documentary 
nor traditional can any traces of a primitive revelation be 
discovered, and to assume it is only to burden the question 
with a thesis which renders a critical and philosophic dis- 
cussion alike impossible'. 

There remains, then, the historical method by which 
to approach this interesting and important question. It is 
the method which, so far as it has been possible, has been 
applied throughout the whole of this work. But mental 
life goes back further than historical, although to have 

~3* 221 K~ 

historical evolution is an essential characteristic of the 
mental. There are tribes and times and relations which 
remain outside of the historical movement. Philology only 
embraces historical life: what lies beyond is the province 
of the science of Language. Where language oversteps the 
bounds of philology, it enters the province of psychological 
ethnology. There is undoubtedly a mental life which is 
not historical. Tribes without culture and history have 
language and religion, and the life they lead is one ordered 
by mental considerations such as marriage, work, law, 
authority. And here we must remember that, the mental 
or spiritual life of a nation is a connected whole, that a 
people is not a heap of individuals but an entire Being, 
and as such creates and thinks, frames notions and words, 
that in its life ideas are the leading and ruling forces, not 
blind chance or the vagaries of a single ruler. Moreover, 
our investigation has shown us that, religion is really co- 
extensive with man; that, tribes the most distant and the 
most unlike in genius, culture, and position on the earth's 
surface, having laws and tongues wholly different, yet have 
as their common characteristic the thought of God. 

From the point of view of evolution our inquiry should 
doubtless have begun with the Hottentots and ended with 
the most cultured and refined Europeans of to-day. Never- 
theless, by beginning with the Aryan family we have had 
the twofold advantage of at once connecting the discussion 
with ourselves and of proceeding from the more known to 
the less known. 

Now, the primitive form of the theistic Idea amongst 
the Aryan peoples that in which there is both radical 
and general agreement we have found to be Djdus (pp. 
29, 30), the bright and beautiful Heaven. Tin's is the 
specific term. Then, from the same root, we have the ge- 
neral term deva, the Brilliant. This is especially note- 
worthy because it is the very concept which is supreme 

~3* 222 K~ 

with the Mongols T'jan, Jum, Num. (pp. 49, 50, 51). We 
cannot call this nature-worship in the strict sense of the 
term, the nature is so limited, excluding even Earth. The 
form Djaus Prt'ivi, T'jan Ti, Num Torim is a dis- 
tinctly later phase of religious thought. Perhaps the best 
expression is individualistic Theism, for Djaus, T'jan, Num 
is conscious, creative, moral. 

To the early Aryan, as to the Tatar of to-day, the 
most natural thought was that Nature acts by virtue of an 
immanent life. The seat of this life both Aryan and Mongol 
placed in Heaven. 

'The glory of the blue and brooding heaven was the 
glory of the immanent God'. To them Heaven was a Being 
capable alike of feeling and willing, to whom they prayed, 
to whom they offered sacrifice. There was no localisation 
of the deity upon earth, and hence no temple, hence no 
priest. 'The home, or the meadow, or the shadow of a giant 
oak, like that which stood in old Dodona, or those under 
whose spreading branches the Germans of Tacitus gathe- 
red to worship the invisible Presence, was the temple, and 
the patriarch of the family was the priest. 

That worship may be termed a Nature-worship, because 
the one word was the name of Heaven and of God, but 
Nature is here only a synonym for God. The Nature was 
living, and the life in it was to our primitive man divine 7 . 

Of Aryan and Mongol it may indeed be said: 

'They stood in the primeval home in the highlands of 
North-Western Asia, looked, as Abraham once did, at the 
resplendent sun flooding the world with life and light, at 
the deep, broad, blue heaven, a bosom that enfolded earth, 
bringing the rain that fertilized their fields and fed their 
rivers, and the heat that ripened their corn, at the glory 
its sunlight threw upon the waking, its moonlight upon the 
sleeping, earth, and at the stars that "globed themselves" 
in the same boundless Heaven, and went and came and 

-** 223 *~ 

shone so sweetly on man and beast and they called that far 
yet near, changing but unchangeable, still but evermoving, 
bright yet unconsumed and unconsuming Heaven, deva (Num) 
God. To Aryan man Heaven and God were one, not a 
thing but a person, whose Thou stood over against his /. 
His life was one, the life above him was one too. Then, 
that life was generative, productive, the source of every other 
life, and so to express his full conception, he called the 
living Heaven, Diespiter, Djauspitar Heaven-Father'. 

Now, this element of paternity, so characteristic of 
the Aryan conception of God Djauspitar, Zeu$ Trairjp, 
Jupiter, Alfadir is precisely that which most distinguishes 
it from the Semitic thought of deity. The fundamental 
unlikenesses in feeling, thought, and worship can all be 
traced to this primary difference in the thought of God. 
Whether as monotheisms or as polytheisms we nowhere 
find in the Semitic religions the attribution to their God 
or gods of a fatherly or humane character. It is true that 
the Hebrew as a people may realise an abstract ideal 
fatherhood of which we find traces in the Old Testament, 
but as an individual the Jew never does. The concept 
which is common to all the Semitic tribes is that of the 
Great Ruler sitting in judgment El, Allah (pp. 41, 42). 
To the Semitic mind the Supreme is an awful, invisible 
Presence, dwelling in inaccessible light, before whom, un- 
covered, man stand eth trembling! In an exalted mono- 
theism like this, the majesty of God is so conceived as 
well-nigh to annihilate the freewill and even the personal 
being of man. And here perhaps, as Dr. Fairbairn has 
suggested, we may find the explanation of the Hebrew 
horror at death, 'almost hopeless "going down to the grave," 
the often-asserted and often-denied silence of the Old Tes- 
tament as to the immortality of man. So much is certain, 
whether the Warburtonian or the more orthodox theory be 
held, the doctrine of a future state occupies a less promi- 

~3* 224 HS~ 

nent and less essential place in the religion of the Old 
Testament than in the Aryan religions in general. The 
belief in immortality was before Christ more explicit and 
more general among the Greeks than among the Jews'. 

Here, again, we have no trace of the dead ancestor, 
the idol or the fetish. It is a concept of intense subjec- 
tivity. The Semitic finds his God in himself, and offers a 
worship such as would have been pleasing to him had he 
himself been Divine. Hence the designation of Deity in 
the Kabbala \JN 'I'. There is certainly one very striking 
passage in the New Testament where Oupavog is used as 
a synonym of Oeog: 

fjjuotpTov ei$ TOV oupctvov. Luke xv. 21. 
but we must not forget that the story of the Prodigal Son 
was told to 'publicans and sinners' amongst whom the ma- 
jority were probably Greeks and Romans. It is also true 
that, amongst the Bogos, a Hamitic tribe, the supreme 
thought is fO5 Heaven (p. 48), but nowhere do we find 
D^ used as the equivalent of DNlfeg. Thus, while the 
Semitic religions developed themselves subjectively from 
the idea of Divine Sovereignty, whereby the thought of 
God almost shut out the concept of man, the Aryan 
religions were evolved objectively from the idea of Divine 
Fatherhood, whereby the two conceptions were mutually 
complementary, the one being incomplete without the other. 
The Semite delights in the frequent and prolonged fast, 
but the Aryan loves the gay religious festival. 'While the 
father in the Aryan religions soften the god, and gives, on 
the whole, a sunny and cheerful and sometimes festive 
character to the worship, the god in the Semitic annihilates 
the father, and gives to its worship a gloomy, severe, and 
cruel character, which does not indeed belong to the reveal- 
ed religion of the Old Testament, but often belongs to the 
actual religion of the Jews'. 

"What, then, shall we say of the theology of so-called 

~& 225 *~ 

savagery? Surely here we shall find not only traces, but 
the prevalence of, ancestor-worship. And indeed, were we 
guided solely by the evidence of the Kafir race, there can 
be little doubt that we should come to that conclusion. 
Munkuluukulu 'Old-Old-One', Nsambi-a-npungu 'Old-Spirit' 
may well represent the 'wandering double' of the departed 
forefather (pp. 162, 163). But this is not all. We have to 
deal with such concepts as Hausa Obangisi 'High Father' 
(p. 149.), Oki Onjan-kopon 'Heaven' (p. 133), Joruba Olodu- 
mare 'One-who-has-a-name' (p. 133.), Kanuri Kema-nde 
'Lord-of-us' (p. 143.), Kamilaroi Baiame 'Creator' (p. 167.) 
and Malay Atua 'Core of Humanity' (p. 210.). 

In seeking the genesis of the idea we cannot but see 
what light the form throws upon the question. Now, in this 
respect, we have seen that, with perhaps two exceptions, 
the already-considered Positivist theories are historically 
untenable. We have watched the theogonic process in its 
multiform manifestation, but have not found that it has 
been induced by fear, horrid dreams or the longing to pro- 
pitiate the angry ghosts of the dead. 

As regards the Aryan concept Prof. Fairbairn truly 
says: 'There were two real or objective, and two ideal or 
subjective, factors in the genesis of the idea. The two 
real were the bright, brooding Heaven and its action in 
relation to Earth. The two ideal were the conscience and 
the imagination. The real factors stimulated the action 
of the ideal. The ideal borrowed the form in which to ex- 
press themselves from the real. Conscience knew of rela- 
tion, dependent and obligatory, to Some One. Imagination 
discovered the Some One on whom the individual and the 
whole alike depended in the Heaven. Neither faculty could 
be satisfied with the subjective, each was driven by the 
law of its own constitution to seek an objective reality. 
Conscience, so far as it revealed obligation, revealed relation 
to a being higher than self. Imagination, when it turned 


-^ 226 H$~ 

its eye to Heaven, belield there the higher Being, the great 
soul which directed the varied celestial movements, and 
created the multitudinous terrestrial lives. "Without the 
conscience, the life the imagination saw would have heen 
simply physical; without the imagination, the relation the 
conscience revealed would have been purely ideal the re- 
lation of a thinker to his thought, not of one personal being 
to another. But the being given by the one faculty and 
the relation given by the other coalesced so as to form that 
worship of the bright Dyaus, which was our primitive Aryan 

Psychologists may differ as to the intensity of the 
action of these two powers, but that they were the faculties 
generative of the idea there can be no question. And this 
is true throughout the whole realm of comparative theology: 
the real or objective factors differ, the ideal or subjective 
remain the same. Nor is it only from the concept of Deity 
that we infer this. The existence amongst the primitive 
Aryans of such rudimentary ideas as faith, worship, holi- 
ness, sacrifice, prayer, imply no less a creative faculty than 
Conscience. In the case of our Aryan forefathers, then, 
we can be quite sure that the oldest is the highest. Far 
from rising by almost imperceptible gradations from the 
physical, the moral is really eclipsed by the physical. 
Some of the oldest hymns of the Rg-Veda are addressed 
to Varuna who, as Dr. Muir has well observed, 'has a 
moral elevation and sanctity of character far surpassing 
that attributed to any other Vedic deity'. Take, for in- 
stance, hymus Rgv. 2. 28; 5. 85; 7. 86. 7. 8. 9. Nay more, 
there is one hymn which is wholly ethical, that, namely, 
by B'iksu, the beggar, on the duty of beneficence (10. 117). 
Speaking generally one may say that, more ethical ele- 
ments are found in the earlier than in the later forms of 
our Aryan faith. It is the moral sense which alone can 
account for these primary religious acts and ideas. 'Mind 

H3* 227 MS- 

conscious of self was also mind conscious of obligation. 
The "I am" and the "I ought" were twins, born at the same 
moment. But to be conscious of obligation was to be cons- 
cious of relation, and so in one and the same act mind was 
conscious of a self who owed obedience, and a Not-Self to 
whom the obedience was due'. In other words, 'conscious 
ness and conscience rose together 7 . 

In the very same act as the idea of self was given 
the concept of God; there was no question of precedence. 
Without the consciousness of God mind could as little be 
mind as without that of self. 'Certain philosophies may 
have dissolved the first idea as certain others may have 
dissolved the second, but each idea is alike instinctive, rises 
by nature, can be suppressed only by art 7 . 

From a consideration of the genesis of this irptuTri 
OeoO evvoia, which has been variously styled relativer Mono- 
theismus, henotJieism and individual theism, we pass on to 
its evolution. The aboriginal concept was essentially ger- 
minal, its developmental possibilities were great; though it 
did well as a starting-point it could never be the goal of 
the human mind. Now, if primitive man, whether Aryan, 
Semitic, Hamitic or Turanian had been possessed of a 
cultured reason, or, as in the case of the Semite, had a 
strong instinct anticipated its action there would in all 
likelihood have been a development to a complete Mono- 
theism. But this was not the case. The two faculties which 
we have been considering acted in opposite directions; the 
moral sense, which was unifying, required an individual deity, 
but the imagination was multiplicative, demanded many. 
To again quote the admirable words of Principal Fair- 

'The very conception of a life immanent in the lumi- 
nous and impregnating Heaven strengthened the multiplying 
as opposed to the unifying tendency. The variety and 
contrasts of Nature helped the imagination to individualize 

H3* 228 KS~ 

the parts. A different spirit seems to animate the calm, 
smiling Heaven from what animates a heaven tempestuous 
and thundering. Night seems distinct from day the brilli- 
ant, beneficent spirit of the one from the revealing yet en- 
folding, distant yet near, spirit of the other. So the imag- 
ination, which had discerned and localized the God con- 
science demanded, pursued its creative career, not now 
in obedience to the moral faculty, but only to its own im- 
pulses. And so its creations graduated to Naturalism, be- 
came more physical, less moral simple transcripts of the 
phenomena and aspects of Nature'. 

Perhaps the first step to Physicalism was marked by 
srenr in India, Oupavog in Greece from ]/var to cover. 
Here we have the representation of the all-enfolding Night- 
Sky as opposed to the bright and beautiful affe. That 
is to say, the two aspects of the same object were appre- 
hended as two beings. The deification, though compara- 
tively recent, probably took place before the Aryan sepa- 
ration. But deified Night is incomplete without deified 
Day, hence, by the side of crenr we find the god of Light, 
fr^r. This is the graduation to naturalism, though the 
influence of the moral sense is not wholly lost. It is only 
when we come to ^j, who superseded ciw, to that splen- 
did physical figure 'borne on a shining golden car with a 
thousand supports, drawn by tawny steeds with flowing golden 
manes, hurling his thunderbolts, drinking the soma-juice, 
slayer of Vrtra', that the transition is complete. And here 
we trace alike the decay of the old Yedic religion and the 
beginnings of philosophy. Hymn 10, 151 expresses doubt 
and uncertainty as to the value of belief, and in 9, 112 we 
find Indra represented as an Egoist, in 10, 119 as drunken. 
Then there is the longing for unity, as we have it in the 
song of Dirgatamas (1, 164) and in the Creation-Hymn 
(10, 129). This unity is more nearly defined in hymns 10, 
121; 10, 81; 10, 72 and 10, 90. 

~3* 229 MS- 

In the primitive Aryan religion we find the two ele- 
ments as spirit and letter, matter and form in a realised 
unity, but, in the course of evolution, mind became conscious 
of a dualism in its faith and, by exclusion of the ethical 
element, the physicalism of the Vedas was developed, by 
exclusion of the natural, the spiritualism of the Avesta. 

Nor was this all. There was an indirect action of the 
conscience on the theogonic process. It not only prompt- 
ed to worship but furnished objects which could be per- 
sonalised, the tendency being to increase rites and acts 
and ceremonies. At the beginning the process seems 
to operate in two distinct spheres the natural and the 
sacerdotal. In the former we have already seen how geo- 
graphical conditions have influenced its action, in the latter 
we shall find how marked is the influence of social and 
political. Our study of the religious consciousness of man- 
kind has abundantly shown that, the physical phases and 
forces deified have throughout been borrowed from the Na- 
ture presented to the imagination. Under the rough and 
boisterous skies of the North the Scandinavians and Ger- 
mans forgot the bright vision of Tius and worshipped, for 
the most part, the stormful Odhin and the thundering Thor. 
Unlike these, our Teutonic forefathers, the dwellers under 
the sunny sky of Hellas, that land of many mountains, 
rivers and islands, surrounded by the shining sea, were 
ever mindful of Zeus, and summoned round him the fairy- 
forms and many-colored spirits of forest, hill, and stream. 
Similarly in India, among the mountainous regions of Kas- 
mir, we meet with the furious and tempestuous Hudra, ^ 
whilst the Hindus who came down into the hot plains and 
lived under a burning sky, sighed and prayed for the cool- 
ing Rain, and created the grand and glowing Indra. 

In India, too, political and social conditions were such 
as to lead to the evolution of sacerdotalism. The fathers 
of the family were undoubtedly the first priests, but as life 

-X 230 HS~ 

became more complex the head of the household would 
gladly hand over his priestly office to another. And the 
sense of guilt would be likely to affect the worshipper to 
the extent of inducing him to distinguish between what he 
would consider sacred and that which would be called se- 
cular, until, at last, he would come to believe that, the man 
well-pleasing unto God must be one wholly devoted to things 
divine. 'Hence, a professional priesthood was formed, and, 
as a matter of course, forms of worship increased. Each 
reacted on the other. The worship became more elaborate 
as the priesthood became more professional, and the ritual 
the priest developed the imagination idealized the form 
became to it the matter of religion. What could reveal 
deity was deified. What made the worshipper accepted, 
forgiven, was idealized into the accepter, the forgiver; and 
hence, sacerdotal deities were evolved alongside the natural. 
The same period that witnessed the creation of Varuna- 
Mitra witnessed also the creation of Soma. The juice of 
the plant used in sacrifice to God became itself a god, just 
as to a certain section of Christians the symbol of Christ's 
sacrifice has become the sacrifice itself.' 

At the time of the Indian and Iranian unity many 
forces were operative in the realm of religious conviction, 
and, at the separation, the outer and formal powers and 
tendencies seem to have been carried away by the Indians, 
whilst the Iranians retained the inner and ethical. Hence 
the direction which the genius of each people took was 
different, and we have, in the one case, a development of 
the spiritual side of religion, and, in the other, an evo- 
lution of the external. Nowhere do we find such extreme 
sacerdotalism, which changes the form into the matter 
of religion, as in India, where even the physical deities 
assume a sacerdotal character. It is not only that Indra 
delights in the Soma, as a thirsty hart in the waterbrooks, 
that 'sjrfrr is a deification of the sacrificial fire and so 

->* 231 - 

becomes 'the priest of the gods', but we find the creation 
of such sacrificial deities as agn^Tci? whom Prof. Roth 
well describes as an 'impersonation of the power of devotion 7 , 
a deity in whom 'the action of the worshipper upon the 
gods is personified' (cf. Bgv. 10, 72) and u^fufk. the order 
of whose development seems to be a) as Creator (10, 121); 
p) as Euler and Upholder; y) as Water and Not-Being; 
6) as Mind and Speech; and e) as a Cycle or Year and as 
Sacrifice. In other Aryan countries there was a tendency 
to regard the instruments of worship as sacred, but, the 
necessary social conditions being wanting, neither the sacri- 
fices themselves nor the oaks and groves where they took 
place were considered divine. 

In each sphere the early faith-faculty, the organ of the 
spirit seems to have followed a different course. Physicism 
descends, metaphysicism ascends. The earlier hymns of the 
Rgveda show the worship of Heaven under two aspects as 
luminous, ajfe ; as boundless, HjfdfH- But it is not long be- 
fore Aditi becomes dissolved into the Aditjas, some eight 
deities partly physical, partly spiritual. Then we find the 
deification of such single objects as TOT the Sun, IHHJJ the 
storm-gods, and gisrer the Dawn. Nor is this all. Rivers 
such as the s^frt and *rcpr, mountains like the femn are 
looked upon as gods. In the sacerdotal sphere, on the 
other hand, the process is just the reverse. Starting with 
the juice known as ^ffor there is ascension through sjrfrr and 
till we come to a culmination in ^B* the highest 

deity of speculation. 

Nor does the process end here. As the human mind 
developes there is an evolution of another double process, 
which starts from two opposite sides but springs from allied 
causes, namely, anthropomorphism and apotheosis. When 
once the worship of a nation has introduced human ele- 
ments into the idea of God, the unconscious poetry of early 
society begins to import divine elements into the thought of 

-s* 232 f<~ 

man. Hence the constant widening of the polytheistic circle 
and the difficulty of ascertaining not so much what was, as 
rather what was not, divine. But at last there is a limit to 
mythical creations and the period of amalgamation begins. 
This is the age of the world's great epics the Maha B'arata, 
the Ramajana, the Iliad and Odyssey, the Kalevala, the Edda 
and the Song of the Niebelungen. Here we have a more or 
less organized polytheism, a 'conscious effort to weave into 
historical harmony and form the mythical creations of the 
past.' As an instance of Aryan religious combination we 
may take Agamemnon's prayer in the third book of the 
Iliad :- 

Zeu TTorrep, "IbrjGev juebeuuv, Ku&icne, 

3 HeXio$ 0', og irdvT 3 eqpopag, KCti Trdvr' 

Kai TToTauoi Koti fcua, mi o c i imevepGe K 

Tivuo~0ov, OTI K 5 emopKOV ojuocrcrr], 
judpTupoi eerie, (puXdacreTe 6'opiaa Tricnd- 

II. iii. 276-280. 

Thus, when multiplication is no longer possible we 
come to this product of the reflective consciousness, which 
combines heterogeneous elements, so far as this can be 
done, into a homogeneous system. That is to say, the 
meditative faculty is brought into play to lead to the evo- 
lution of the theogonic idea in another direction, namely, 
that of Unity. Assuming the truth of the many mythical 
creations of the past, granted that the gods have each 
their place and work in the world, it seeks behind and 
above them all a subsumptive Principle and ascribes to it, 
even over the gods supreme power. Thus in India the 
priestly deity a^HHifH developed into -atpr the chief of the 
gods, and lastly into sngr^ or ^irHH the Over-Soul or World- 
Will. Amongst the Greeks, Romans and Teutons we find 
the same unifying tendency; MoTpa, Fatum, Eagnarokr was 
the sombre, mystic power that controlled and directed alike 
gods and men. The various steps of this meditative con- 

~$H 233 KT- 

sciousness toward oneness doubtless depend upon the par- 
ticular people's culture and power of abstraction, but, sub- 
surnption once having begun, poets and philosophers were 
eager to strive after theistic unity. What was thus found 
by reason was unity of a thought, something abstract, im- 
personal, self-centred; not monotheism but Monism. 

The thought expressed by the Rs'is in the first Man- 
dala of the Bg-veda (i. 164. 46): 

^eRJT HH fetTT RpJT ddlfWl 

In many ways, 

The Sages say, 

Doth God himself 

To man display! 

was developed by the Brahmans in the Brahmanas and 
subsumed by the Vedantins in the Upanisads. 

Of this SF*T SrT there are in the Brahmanas four 
stages: a) as jreu Purus c a Soul, vital Force; p) as tmir Pra- 
na Breath; r) as ^fw Skamb'a The Support; 6) as zfsssz 
Ukk"ista the Eest supreme. 

In the Upanisads we reach the standpoint of the 
a^nr - - sffiwr Brahman- Atman doctrine, the science of 
Being-in-itself. In tracing the history of Spirit we have 
already had occasion to consider the rise and growth of 
Atman, the World-Self or Spirit supreme (p. 13). Brah- 
man, from the root brh or vrh to grow, expand, corres- 
ponds perhaps best to Hegel's das Werden: it is the Re- 
conciliation of Contradictions. Thus we read in the B'aga- 
vad Gita (xiii, 12): 
inl *Jf fTr 


'I will explain (to thee) what is to be known, what 
kind of knowledge it is that leads to immortality. That 
which is to be known is Brahma supreme, which is without 
beginning, and can neither be described as Being nor Not- 


^H 234 
Again (ix, 19): 

'I am death and immortality, Being and Not-Being, o 
Arg'una! 7 

According to the Vedanta a^H is 

'not split by Time and Space' and 
'free from all chane'. 

The great commentator Sankara in discussing the 
theology of the Vedanta distinguishes between the saguna 
vidjd or exoteric doctrine of the Atman, and the nirgund 
vidjd or esoteric teaching. Of the latter, which alone con- 
cerns us here, the fundamental tenet is the utter inad- 
equacy of human thought and speech to conceive and ex- 
press God. 

Hence the well-known formula of the Brhad-aranjaka- 
Upanisad: - 

1m *TrH I 

'It is not so; It is not so! 7 "When we ask: is it this 
or is it that? the reply is always: neti, neti! The only 
adumbration of a definition is: 'JUirTi jim *HWT Silence is 

Thus, to the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman, grasped in 
ourselves as our own Atman, is the only Reality, the Self 
in which all other selves live and move and have their being. 
This is the samjagdarsanam, perfect knowledge, but it is 
the great Secret revealed not by gnana but by anulfava. 
By absorption into his own self the Brahmakarin finds 
that he is one with the Over-Self (Brahma- dtma-aikja), 
whereby he exclaims: aham Brahma asmi 'I am Brahma', 
whilst he says to his Guru: tat tvam asi 'that art thou.' 
It is this which constitutes molfsa, as has been well poin- 
ted out by Prof. Deussen: 

~>i 235 K~ 

"The knowledge of this Atman, the great intelligence: 
n aham bralima asmi, u does not produce moJcsha (deliverance), 
but is moJcsJta itself. Then we obtain what the Upanish- 
ads say: 

xlIW oR 44 1 fill 

When seeing Brahma as the highest and the lowest 
everywhere, all knots of our heart, all sorrows are split, 
all doubts vanish, and our works become nothing." 

No student of Greek thought is likely to forget the 
noble conception of Deity given by Aristotle in his Meta- 
physics (xii. c. 7): 

<t>auev be TOY Oeov eivai ujov d'ibiov apiatov, aicrre 
uir| mi aiwv auvexn? Kai dtbios uirapxei TLU Geilr TOUTO 
Yp 6 6eo<;. "Oaoi 6e uTroXajupdvoucriv, ujcfTrep o! TTuGa- 
Kai ZTreuaiTTTro^, TO KaXXicrrov Kai dpicrtov jai 5 ) ev 
ri eivai, 6id TO Kai TUJV cpUTUJV Kai TUJV djcuv Ta<; dpxd^ 
aiTia juev eivai, TO 6e KaXov Kai TeXeiov iv TOI^ ^K TOUTUJV 
OUK 6p0iij<; oiovrai. TO ydp crir^pjua eH eTepuuv ecTTi irpOTeptuv 
TeXeiuuv, Kai TO irpuuTOv ou cnrepjua eo"Tiv, dXXd TO TeXeiov 
olov TrpOTepov d'vGpujTTOV dv cpairj Ti eivai TOU dTrepaaToq, 
ou TOV CK TOUTOU yevojuevov, dXX 5 erepov eH ou TO crTiepjua. 
"OTI |iiev ouv ecTTiv ouo"ia TI<; dtbiog Kai aKivrjTO^ Kai Kexujpia- 
|uevr| TUJV aia0r)TUJV , ^avepov CK TUJV eiprjjuevujv. 6e6eiKTai 
be Kai OTI |LieTe0o<; ou9ev exew evbexeTai TauTnv Tiqv ouaiav, 
dXX' ajuepris Kai abiaipeTog ICTTIV. 

'So we say that God is a living, everlasting, best Being; 
life and perpetuity become Him, for such is the essence 
of Deity. But those are mistaken who, with Speusippos 
and the Pythagoreans, hold that the best and the most 
beautiful exist not originally, since even with plants and 
animals the beginnings are indeed causes, but the noble, 
the complete is contained in what results from them. In 

~SH 236 K~ 

error, for the seed comes from something earlier, something 
perfect; the seed is not that which is first, but the perfect. 
One may indeed say that man is earlier than the seed, 
not the man who is born from the seed, but he from whom 
the seed comes. From what has been said it is thus clear 
that there exists an eternal, immovable Being, removed 
from Sense. It has also been shown that this Being can 
have no extension, but that it is inseparable and indi- 

Xenophanes, too, has left us those fine lines: 

Ei$ 0e6$ Iv re GeoTcri KCU dvGpumoicn uefio~TO, 
ou TI bejuas 9vr|ToTcri 6uoio$ ou&e vor|]ua. 

Of gods and men one God alone is lord 
Nor unto mortals like in form or word! 

Nor must we forget that *X)\ is sometimes referred to 
as c^l^A) <^^~~c cause of causes! And we have already had 
occasion to notice the speculative tendencies of the Sufis. 

The many monistic and subsumptive propensities of 
our own century in theology are perhaps nowhere better 
expressed than in Goethe's Faust. The man of culture 
KdT 5 eHoxnv, he who was at once philosopher and poet, who 
had scanned the whole horizon of the world of thought, 
could not but leave his Confession of Faith. 

Wer darf ihn nennen? 

Und wer bekennen: 

Ich glaub' ihn. 

Wer empfinden 

Und sich unterwinden 

Zu sagen: ich glaub' ihn nicht? 

Der Allumfasser, 

Der Allerhalter, 

Fasst und erhalt er nicht 

Dich, mich, sich selbst? 

-X 237 K~ 

"Wolbt sich der Hirninel nicht da drobeu? 

Liegt die Erde nicht hierunten fest? 

Und steigen freundlich blickend 

Ewige Sterne nicht herauf? 

Schau' ich nicht Aug' in Auge dir, 

Und drangt nicht alles 

Nach Haupt und Herzen dir, 

Und webt in ewigem Geheimniss 

Unsichtbar sichtbar neben dir? 

Erfiill' davon dein Herz, so gross es ist, 

Und wenn du ganz in dem Gefiihle selig bist, 

Nenn' es dann, wie du willst, 

Nenn's Gliick! Herz! Liebe! Gott! 

Ich babe keinen Namen 

Dafiir! Gefiihl ist alles; 

Name ist Schall und Rauch 

Umnebelnd Himmelsgluth. 

Him who can name, 

And who declaim: 

I believe? 

Who were afraid, 

Yet could himself persuade 

To say: I believe not? 

The All-embracer, 

The All-upholder, 

Embraces, upholds He not 

Thee, me, Himself? 

Is not above bright Heaven's eternal dome? 

And here on earth is not a steadfast home? 

Mount not on high 

The eternal stars of night 

See I not eye in eye 

Thine own most inner light? 

-SH 238 K~ 

And does not all in thee 

Press on toward Head and Heart, 

And move in eternal secret 

Around thee, about thee, 

Within thee, without thee? 

Thy spirit drink thereof unto her fill, 

And in her flight of feeling, striving still, 

Name it then as thou wilt: 

Joy! Heart! Love! God! 

No name have I for it! 

Feeling is all: 

Name is but echo and vapor 

Enveloping heavenly fervor! 

The deity thus discovered by Reason is a Principle 
of Order, Unity of a Cause, a World- Will. Here we have 
the Monon of philosophy, not the God of Religion. How, 
asks the philosopher, can we venture to ascribe personality, 
with all that it implies, to the Deity? The man of medi- 
tation, the Jogi of East and West may perhaps find lonely 
solace in an abstract, impersonal Unity, but the common 
people, who heard the Master gladly, mankind at large 
can worship no other than a personal God, a living Being 
who can sustain relations with every human soul, who 
possesses qualities which appeal to the noblest and ten- 
derest susceptibilities of every human heart. Well does a 
Persian poet exclaim: 

'How can I know Thee who art beyond the vision of 
reason? So concealed, Thou art the more revealed to the 
eye of the heart. The world were an empty tablet but 
that Thou hast written thereon Thy eternal thought. Of 
thy divine poem the first word is Reason, and the last is 
Man. And whoso shall trace the words from first to last 
shall find them the unbroken series of Thy favors, the varied 
names of Thy love.' 

-2w 239 K~ 

Our enquiry has shown us how in all ages and in 
many ways man has been stretching out his hands toward 
the All-Father palmas ad sidera tendens! 

'Es sagen's aller Orten 

Alle Herzen unter dem hiinmlischen Tage, 

Jecles in seiner Sprache.' 

The dei sensus is there, and the individual soul (g'ivat- 
rnan) is only man when conscious of the Over-Soul (Para- 
matman). The Esis of our race will never find it hard to 
believe that God is Spirit (TTveujuct 6 0eo$), but what we 
all have to learn sufi and sophist, savant and seer is 
the truth brought to light by Him who was hallowed and 
sent into the world, that God is Love ('Ayanr! 6 Oeog), 
living and undying Love! 

'0 Oeos drfonrri ecttr KOU 6 ^leviuv Iv rf) orfotTrr), dv TLU 
Oetu juevei, Kai 6 0e6^ Iv CCUTIJJ. 





s representative of the Turanoscythian stock let 
us take the Chinese. Now, it would almost seem 
as though the Chinese, from time immemorial, had 

been conscious of the privative nature of sin. Indeed, the 
well-known saying of Augustine: 'Nemo de me quaerat 
efficientem causam malae voluntatis; Non enim est efficiens 
sed deficiens; quia nee ilia effectio est, sed defectio', might 
have been written by Confucius himself. For, to the chinaman 
Eight is Jg si Being, TO 6v, whilst Wrong is =J[i pe Not- 
Being, TO (Lirj 6v. The established opinion is that, man is 
by nature good and that it is only as he falls away from 
the Tau Jff; the Path, the Norm, the \OYO?, that he becomes 
bad. As Aau-zo in his Tai-M-tu says: 

'All men have the rational principle of motion and rest, 
but in motion they miss it. For originally men and things 
possess altogether the Norm of the First Cause'. This, 
too, is doubtless the meaning of Lau-zo in his classic of 
Reason and Virtue, when he says (Tau-te-Kin: cap. 
11. 9): 

'Thus the saintly man does not become entangled in 
the meshes of Not-Being'. In the proverb in which, out of 

four words, three are radicals we have this truth in its 
most terse form: 

P & >fr ^ Ko "si, sm pe. 

Literally, the mouth (saying) yes, the heart (meaning) 
no, or, as we should say, 'in speech true, in thought false'. 
We may attempt to realise Being in speech, whilst at the 
same time our heart is set on Not-Being. 

'To be or not to be, that is the question!' 

It is only when, to quote another proverb, >jj p $p 
sin tto gu ji 'the heart and the mouth are as one' that we 
tread the Path of Being. jj is sometimes used in the 
sense of fault, as in the saying: j^ J^ || jg ;Ml Q ^ 
Jtjan rin ji san wan tii po pe (when you) see a man (per- 
form) one good (action), forget his hundred faults. S$ and 
Pe in the general meaning of Bight and "Wrong are common 
in such a phrase as J^ gij fEf J^ si ze jen si (if) right say 
so > rJ H'J ~m $F PC zv J en fa &) wrong say so. 

Having conceived wrong as a falling away from Being, 
the modes of this declension have seemed to the dwellers 
in the Flowery Land well-nigh infinite. No language is so 
rich in ethical terminology as the Chinese. 

Viewed as a transgression, a going beyond, Traptipacric;, 
the expression for evil is in action Jg, pan, from the radical 
3 ttjuan (94) 'dog' and in speech jg ~kwo, from the 162nd 
radical ^Jc'o 'to go'. Thus we read: g ^ J J Jfil J |f) p 
wan zo pan pa ju min Pun zwi when the king's son trans- 
gresses the law, the guilt is the same (as it would be) 
in the case of the people. And in the Lun-jli (Bk. vii. 
Cap. 16.): 

? tn Ai m * + JH * * W 1 % * Jft ^ 
^o ^*w: /c/a tt'o sw n/ew ww ^ i /yo 7? Jt'o i wu ta kwo i. 

The Master said: 'If some years were added to my life, 
I would give 50 to the study of the Ji, and then I might 
come to be without great faults'. 

But in order to gauge the concept of Evil in all its 
forms we must compare it with the corresponding forms of 
Good. For the law of relativity applies here as elsewhere, 
giving us sense and countersense, thesis and antithesis, 
positive and negative. TUJV evavriuuv, says Aristotle, irjv 
aurriv eivat eTricrn'-]|unv. Omnis determinatio, says Spinoza, 
est negatio. Or in the words of Hegel: 'Die Grundlage 
aller Bestimmtheit ist die Negation. . . . Als seiende Be- 
stimmtheit gegeniiber der in ihr enthaltenen, aber von ihr 
unterschiedenen Negation ist die Qualitat Realitat'. 

Now the opposite of Jg, pan is *, linn loyal, from 
radical 61 >jj sin heart, and 41 Huh middle, to hit the 
mark; and of $jjh kivo the antithesis is f^ hsin faithfulness, 
from ^ rin man, the 9th radical, and fjf jan to speak. 
In the 24th Chapter of the Lun-jii we meet with both 
these words: 

Hr & E9 f i ft & fe Zo i so lijo Wan Hiu Kun 
Hsin. The Master taught four things: literature, ethics, 
loyalty to truth and faithfulness. 

Then sin is conceived as the 'missing of a mark', 
djuapiia. Thus in the Sin Jii Kivan Hsun or Amplification 
of the Sacred Edict we read (ix. 12): 
ft BS $5t f , T& wu tau zuh zo Ui tijen: beware of 
the sins of your unbridled instincts! or as M. Piry trans- 
lates it 'Gardez-vous des errements de vos instincts de- 
regies!' Jg tijen is from radical 61 >g sin heart and fff 
jen overflowing, which is composed of the 144th radical 
^7 Mn to act and *} swi water, so that the idea is: the 
heart acting as water. Opposed to this is $ sit Reci- 
procity, the word that was so often on the lips of Con- 
fucius, from the same radical >gi sin 'heart' and in gu 
'as', the heart being in equilibrium, acting harmoniously, 
hitting the mark. Hence it is often used in conjunction 
with ,, tiun loyal as *, $ Uun su faithful and benevolent. 
When 30 Jmn asked Confucius whether there were one word 

which might serve as a rule of practice for all one's life, 

he said: g & ^ S J?f ^ft # jfc & A ^ * w lm: U so 

pu jil ivu si jil Bin! 'Is not Reciprocity such a word? 
What you do not want done to yourself, do not to others!' 

Evil is also conceived as 'disobedience to a voice', 
Trap(XKOr|. Thus we have the ethical antithesis: |M wu 
VIS sin, both from the radical jan to speak, a voice. 
Goodness, as obeying the voice, is the theme of Kau Zo's 
T'ai Ki tu. 'Sincerity' (f$), we read, 'is the foundation 
of the saintly man, the end. and beginning of things and 
the norm of fate', which the Manlm translator has rendered 
as follows: 

|| Unenggi serengge, enduringge nijalmai pulehe, jaka-i 
duben deribun, hesebun-i doro kai \\ 

As in Hebrew so also in Chinese sin is looked upon 
as that which is crooked. For gi ngo wickedness, vice, is 
composed of Jg ja 'two hunchback men looking at each 
other' and radical 61 >jj* sin heart; a froward heart, a 
stiif neck. Thus in the Analects we read: 

* * . it * * m A 

ku Til ju sen i : ivu ngo je. 

'If the will be set on Goodness, there will be no practice 

of vice!' 

Not only is sen straightforwardness, benevolence, 
opposed to 3g ngo, but also j| i righteousness, ^| san 
virtue and ^ me excellence, which are all connected with 
radical 123 ^ jan sheep, the type and trope of simplicity. 
In the T'ai-Tti-tu we read of the 5 chief virtues, of 
which sen and i are two, in connexion with the Jen and 
the Jan: 

'The heart of Heaven and Earth, nay, the principle of 
humanity. Now, form arises from Jen and mind from Jan; 
the nature of the five chief virtues is manifested by con- 
tact with things: thus Jan is good and Jen bad'. 

The heart of heaven and earth, the principle of 

humanity, is the -fa /g tai-ln; the 5 fundamental rules of 
conduct are: sen benevolence, j| i sincerity, jjjg li pro- 
priety, ^ Hi wisdom, and ^ hsin faithfulness. 

According to Kau-zo matter is earthly, spirit heavenly ; 
as, therefore, matter belongs .to [^ Jen and spirit to [>J| 
Jan, the former is the earthly whilst the latter is the 
heavenly principle. Now, the Tai In is the resultant of 
these two great forces, Good and Evil, Motion and Rest, 
the earthly and the Heavenly, and is free only in so far 
as it follows the Tau of Jan, the Path of Right; for, if it 
abide in the way of Jen it is bound by the fetters of Sin, 
it is caught in the tissues of Falsehood! 

Finally, to the sons of Heaven (Tjan z'o) Evil has 
seemed a Net which is spread by unseen hands to catch 
the will that is weak. Alike in lore and language, in proverb 
and in prayer we meet with fp zwi sin, crime, from radical 
122 HO wan a net. 

There is a celebrated passage in the Lun-ju (xx. 1. 3) 
in which this word occurs. It is a prayer addressed to 
God by T'an on his undertaking the overthrow of the Hia 
dynasty, which he rehearses to his nobles and people, after 
the completion of his work. 

i A ' ; 'je- .**''"'* 

Hivari liwan hau Ti, ju zwi pu kan se. 
'0 most great and sovereign God, the sinner I dare not 

pardon !' 

The opposite of fp zwi is f* te Virtue, from ^ tii 
a step, radical 60. The full meaning of the character is: 
'the heart stepping out of the net'. With all his love of 
virtue Confucius had to admit: 

'It is all over! I have not seen one who loves Virtue as 
he loves Beauty'. 

a ^ s * i, F j *. fc . f ..*'* 

Ki i 1m: ivu we kjan hau Te gu hau Se tie je. 



As representing the Hamito-Semitic branch of the 
Midlanders let us take Egyptian and Hebreiv. 

By the Egyptians, as by the Chinese, the subtle enemy 
Sin has been looked at from many points of view, to such 
an extent, indeed, as well-nigh to hide the angel goodness. 

As Trapdpacris, transgressio, a 'going beyond' it is 

sen sin, ^ ^^ sen-n-t evil, from the root ** . r\ sen 

AAAAAA I 3 - -* 

to go beyond. Memphitic CGKI, CGIICCOM. Perhaps the most 


usual form is ^ I/ sonen. Thus (D. Temp. 1. 1.) in 


the temple of Dendera: 

TF V ^$ & Sut'a-p Horse er Sonen 

~s X- ___ I ,~-, ^-PY K 

'TJL S <^_> I ea i-'L- ^^-i=:^- 

'He keeps the lake of Horus from defilement'. 
A peculiarly interesting view of Good and Evil in 
Egyptian is that of an Afflatus, diabolical or divine. It is 

a polar expression, both in sound and sense, a synthesis of 

K * - n 
thesis and antithesis. *~^ v\ ^^, nep-a, Memphitic IJOB-G, 

^=s__ _ur^> ~^^ 

Basmuric IJAB-G sin; Jl ^^ ben Memphitic BCDN bad; 

AAAAAA Q ^^^^ 

^ $& n *P i m pi us ' enemy. I "~ =0= nep'-r, Sahidic uorq-e 
Memphitic Ki-A-uorq good, useful. All these forms come 
from the root "~ ZZU n&p, Sahidic and Memphitic ueq, 


UHiq, Basmuric KIIB-I to blow, in the sense of clouds passing 
over the sky, to be under a cloud, to be blown hither and 
thither. For instance, (Abyd. Mar.) 

Nepau Krotu liemi In tep 'The sins of the children who will 
know nothing of their father'. According toBrugsch the funda- 

mental meaning of ~T, {*/]_. is 'to arrive at the end'; 

'to complete' (perficere, perfectum esse). In a Stele at 
Leiden we read: 

tt A/VWVA r\ A 

^^=^ zzzz * A/VAAA ^ Anil-sen em ma nepru-k. 
i i i 1 

'Their life consists in the contemplation of thy perfections'. 
I nefer a) good (5) happy Y) beauteous. 


Not infrequently ^ (I I &aw is opposed to T nefer, as 


5w wo/er Jceper in bu ban "bona fuint mala". 
Then wrong has been conceived as a 'sword' piercing 

the heart and causing pain. JS 1 ' mak evil; 

mah-a-s-u Coptic UAX-I a sword; 

mek-s sceptre; C\ Y> ^ mds-u dagger; Sahidic UOK-? 

JiP^- 1 v^ i JH I 

pain. Hier. mes-h-u S. mek-h M. hem-k-o to afflict. 

At the basis of all these words is the root Jw) *^ ^ _ /] 

mdt'-d to cut, f and k being interchangeable, metathesized 
in Memphitic KIU to strike. 

To fall away from righteousness is to fall into sin r 
hence a common view of evil is that of a declension, Trapd- 
We meet with it in Egyptian. 

^"^ Ku ^\^ d - ha fliW^ ^ 

Memphitic 20, T-?O, ?OOT, toor, Sahidic eo, Basmuric 
2 AT; Somali: Jni-ma bad. Sahidic ?B-B-6 worse. ^ r ". 

<m> T: ;-*' 

her fear, horror; Demotic liair, Sahidic eAip-ei, Memphitic 
?ujip-i excrement. 0^\^\O k\iu sin; all from the root 

o V T! ^ lnm-a to decline, fall away. 

X tl ^ I 


~3* 10 H~ 

Thus in Dihnichen's 'historische Inschriften' (II. 35) 
we read: 

5 <cz> Hu Umr tiuu 'preserve the Adyton 

I I I C3 C-D O A Q 

from uncleanness (sin)'. 

In this short sentence we have the same root expressing 
the opposite ideas of sacredness and defilement. Prof. 

Bmgsch suggests that the fundamental meaning of J^ n 

is 'to guard', 'to preserve', giving us holiness as that which 
'keeps' us from evil, and sin as that from which we have 
to be 'preserved'. 

And in the Book of the Dead (125, 63): 

wa em 

kuu-nib. 'Yes, I have been washed clean from all sin'. 

As we have seen, this is another instance of counter- 

sense, of a polar root expressing both the rise and fall of 

the moral consciousness. E. g. k'u is 'excellent', 

'sacred'. Sahidic and Basmuric eox-e better. Demotic 
holy. Thus: 

IP) ! % <a "| Atu (nutr) nib ku em Bek. 
ILdiJr I 

'All the divine and sacred animals in the land of Bek'. 
O2^>-?1l\l(3_3JYy L L i<jJirZ. Na-Jcdu-u daa ent tim 
tern. 'The other animals which Egypt considers sacred'. 

So strong, indeed, was this feeling of 'falling' with 
primitive humanity, that there is perhaps no language which 
has not thus conceived wrong. 

Akin to this is the idea of 'going astray', of leaving 
the straight path for the crooked. Many are the rami- 
fications of this thought in Egyptian, to which the root 

er crooked has given rise. 

1 _ 1 t _ ) ^r-^ ker~ker, c-KOp-nep to roll; 

->* 11 f<~ 

Sahidic KU-O-C ) . 

iv r T.-X- circle; 

Memphitic KOp-K-c J 

Demotic and Sahidic Kcorp a ring <^> 1 1 tier-s to in- 
volve, bury. A j?gr8 k l er-t'-a to fold. 

(] ^ ^-^ fcer-au crooked ; [1 tter-d-t barrier. 

The forms which have an ethical significance mostly come 
from the metathesized form of the root. 
<cz>-ri n f\ n 

K^ I] v^ LA rdt-Qdu to curve, to swerve ; Coptic 

A _E^- ] _zl ^ 

PAK, piK-e, peKpiK-6 a wink, a twinkling. 

~v\ /\ re ^'" a ^ * urn awa 7 from; > | |l re ^ 
to be addicted to; Sahidic pOK-6. 

(1 (1 / ^ rete-% bad, an enemy. Memphitic piK-i 
transgression; A-piK-i fault. 

" 1^> i "^ Jl -^ ^ re k- a( i u -t quarrel. 
^^^ ^ er Sahidic O*OA, Basmuric O-AA lie, con- 

Thus, in an Inscription at Elkab (Gr. Ateflera's) we 
read : 

M f\ l~\ n AAAAAA ^_^^ / 

\\ (j ^? . N. ~ AA^NA j Tot-d enten nen ~ker dm 

-^T^> I ^*- ' '<H> AAAAAA I I I C^ii\ 

'In what I tell you there is no deceit'. 

The corresponding virtue is represented by ^ (1 ^*- 

1 r\ 

ma-t, dem. 4/ me-t, whereof the root-idea is 'to be 
open, straight forward': it is the parent of such words as 
truth, justice, uprightness. 

^\ ^ her meter md-t 'having the witness of 

H ) 1 


But sin is not only a going astray or speaking falsely, 
it is sometimes doing an injury, and of this also the 


I^rj n 

\b\ \ 
J^S> -=4 

k'ab-t to do an injury, we have: 

J" ^^ Veb-n-ti iniquity; * ^ fc'ep-f Memphitic 

sinner; jacoq-T sin; ^yojB-q to sin; JCB-A violence; 

Sahidic KB-A to avenge; Demotic km-a to avenge. " % 

x ^ 

' He gives life to the 

virtuous but death to the corrupt'. (Melanges egyptologiques 
III. p. 269.) 

Opposed to the vice ttdb-t is the virtue mer g7\ 

Sahidic ue, Memphitic UAI, uenp-6; Basmuric UHI to love. 

." ' ' ' ' '. s-^ 

~ Ar mer-d n Am on 'I was a friend 

of Amon'. 

Besides this view of evil as the perpetration of bodily 
harm, there is the more subtle sense of sin as 'opposition 
to truth', as 'violence to the categorical imperative'. This 

is expressed in Egyptian by [1 \ ^^ seteb H 'V^ ! set'eb 
evil, damage. 

On the other hand, conformity to truth, fixity of ethical 

purpose is " (1 (1 *"j tesfc, Bas'muric xici, Sahidic 2^1 ce, o^oc-e. 
Memphitic (roc-i better, best. lJ\ I ^2 altitude, sublimitas. 

Au pe sop a panp tesi 
xai Tfjg aiuujv dperng (uefKJTOv uTrojuvniaa. 

Then we meet with a conception of sin which is Egyp- 
tian Hat 5 eSoxnv. It is that of the foul, the impure, the 

tainted. ^\ ^ TV, K tata Sahidic TOB, TOSTOB; Mem- 

Jk ' m. m ^ 

phitic eoieoi to stain, be stained. o ^= t'at Sahidic 

[ _ 1 /\ 

A I v* 9\ 
^5^ t'ffttt enemy, impious 

Demotic t'eti; Bas c muric 3:62:1; Sahidic XAXG; M. 
t'a foul. 

~$* 13 *- 

The opposite of ta is afc to wash, to shine, to be pure. 
X*^ and jj-^ 1 w tib ; M. OTAB B. ores pure, 


orderly; S. oron to shine, purity, holiness. Memphitic: 
BOTBOT to shine. 


nib nop'ri db. lit. Things all good, 
pure. 'Everything good and pure'. 

As the Chinese, though not to the same extent, the 
Egyptians were conscious of the privative nature of sin. 
They saw that, if persisted in, it would lead to the ex- 
tinction of all Being. Thus, from the root J -^^ Demotic 

^-i-O ~"^" bet not to be, TO jnfj 6v, we get J ^^? bet 

bad; Sahidic BUT abominable; B6T to wipe out, destroy; 
BOT, qoT to be sick, abominate. 

w 75 ^f= bet-n bad, enemy. M. BOT-C, BCOT-C to wage 


war ; and in metathesized reduplication A A \\ tebteb, 
Sahidic TGB-C to strike against. 

Finally, there is a view of Good and Evil in Egyptian 
which is highly remarkable, reminding us of the tree in 
the Garden of Eden whereof Adam and Eve were forbidden 
to eat. It is that of knowledge. 


M - 

COJOTII, COT; S. COOT-KI, COOT; to know, to understand, 
to enjoy. 

IK y J ^ sau b to teach; M. CB-OJ science, S. to 

sa; M. ctoq foul, impure; MM sai o----J-o sa S. CA 

M. CAI, jaoT beautiful, worthy. 

- 14 4*- 

In an Inscription of Paher at El Kab we meet with 
these remarkable words: 

Rek'-kua Niiter mert Rein sa 

i T - 

'"*" k ave known God in the midst of men, and 
c - tsu have enjoyed Him!' 

The dwellers on the Nile also conceived the Bad as a 

M 14 in 

se /vwwx mm and the 
clearness of heart and mind 

M 14 in 

disease /vwwx mm and the Good as perfect health, or 

w^ A:'m aAf-t w? men-t 'He looks upon knowledge 
as ignorance and upon the good as the bad' (pap. Prisse 
17, 6). 

Of all forms of ethical consciousness there is none so 
deep, so inward and at the same time so far-reaching as 
that of the Hebrews, the people of the G-eist, the people 
of the Book. Sin and righteousness, G-ood and Evil apply 
to Man only in so far as he is in touch with God. The 
leading idea is that of Psalm li. 4: 

^^g TJ'B? yi'7! "WaO ' 115V I 1 ? 
dsit'i lenek'd vMra k'atdt'i Ibaddk'd Ik'd 
'Against Thee, Thee only have I sinned, and done evil 
in Thy sight !' and of Psalm xxxi. 1 : 

r^D /injrraa ttyyh n^ns-^ ^n^pn nin^i? 

Btia Jliovdli k'dsit'i al-ebosali loldm bzidMt'k'd p'alteni. 

'In Thee, o God, do I put my trust; let me never be 
ashamed. Deliver me in thy righteousness!' 

As Franz Delitzsch well observes : 'all relations in which 
man stands to man, and indeed to creation generally, are 
only phaenomenal forms of his fundamental relationship to 

^M 15 f<~ 

God, and Sin ... is opposition to the will of God, of Him 
who alone is the supreme lawgiver and judge'. 

On the one hand we have the more or less passive 
sins arising from man's fallen nature, from his weakness as 
born of the dust. 'For He knoweth our frame, He re- 
membereth that we are dust!' To this order belong fiN&n 
Kattdt', rfy\y_ avldh, jn ra, f\% dvon and nj>1fl todli. On the 
other there are the various forms of active wickedness ex- 
pressed by y#B pesa, yt5h resa and n$N asmdh, 1JK aven, 
n"Up mirmdh. 

As we have already seen in the Psalm li. 4.: 
fiNfcn, Arabic **^*- is 'the missing of a mark', djuapiia, 
das Verfehlen des rechten Zieles, the conscious lack of the 
divine Presence; from the root Nttf! to wander, to fail of 
the end. Opposed to this sin of Godlessness is DPI, iWpfl, 
DN3JJ tdm, tmimdh, tummim whole-heartedness, truth, per- 
fection, from ]/DfcP\ whole, integer, insons, Arabic ? UJ>. Thus 
in Genesis xvii. 1, we read: 

D^n rprn ^b ^Vnnn ^ l ?"^ 

Ani el saddai: hit'halek' Ip'dnai v'ehjeh tdmim. 'I am 
God almighty: walk before me and be thou perfect!' 

Next to the sin of atheism and agnosticism comes that 
of 'falling away' from God, TrapaTrrujua, which is expressed 
by rfyy_ or b\% from |/"^5} to fall away. This is particularly 
manifest in the 37th Psalm, where we have the striking 
contrast between those who trust and delight themselves 
in the Lord and such as bring about the forsaking of 

Al-tit'kar bammreim, al-tkanne lose avldh. 'Fret not 
thyself because of evil-doers, Neither be thou envious against 
such as work unrighteousness (or, effect backsliding)'. 

The counterpart of avldh is ^ jasdr straitforwardness, 
integrity, from y^t^; to make straight, to be equal. 'Good 

~3* 16 HSr- 

and upright', says the Psalmist, 'is the Lord : therefore will 
he instruct sinners in the way'. Ps. xxv. 8. 

sp^a D^tsn ni^ \3~by_ nirr i#;rai& 

Tob v'jdsdr Jalweli, al-ken joreh ttattdwn baddrek. In 
many respects 1t8h has had a similar development to the 
Vedic ^RH. 

We then come to the world-old antithesis of Good 
and Evil as a state of mind, manifest in y*J Ra and 31tD tob 
(Syriac &*% ^ 01 0- The former is from JJJJ1 Rdaa 'to break 
in pieces', Arabic ^5^ so that the fundamental meaning 
would seem to be 'iconoclasm'. Thus in Genesis iii. 5. we 
read : 

:jnj mo ^ 

Ki jode Eloliim hi Ijom aMlkem mimmenu vnip'kku 
enekem vihjit'em Jcelolnm jode tob vdrd: 'For God knoweth 
that in the day when ye shall eat thereof, your eyes shall 
be open and ye shall be as God knowing Good and Evil', 

And in that majestic passage in Isajah (xlv. 7) in which 
the creation of Evil is ascribed to the Eternal Himself: 

Jdzer or ubore koseti, oseli sdlom ubore rd. 'I form 
the Light and create Darkness; I make Peace and create 

Again in Solomon's beautiful prayer for an 'under- 
standing heart': 

'Give thy servant therefore an understanding heart 
to judge thy people, that I may discern between good 
and evil'. 

Right and wrong are, moreover, conceived as 'the 
crooked' and 'the straight' alike in the outer and the inner 
world, in the realm of thought and the sphere of action. 

~2* 17 f<~ 

For these concepts we have the words ]*ijj dvon and p"TO 
^edteA; perversity and rectitude. Of the former we have a 
notable instance in the opening words of the great prophet 

(Isa. i. 4): 

: narrate n^a D^ID jnt, flg 155 D^. t?n Ma in 
#(n #M fc'6e, am kebed dvon, sera mreim, Mnim maskit'wi. 

'Wo! sinful nation, people laden with iniquity, seed of 
evildoers^ children that are corrupt!' 

Here we have sin in its triple form, as k'et or kdttdif 
the being estranged from God, as don or dvon crookedness, 
turned from the Path, and rd evil-minded. Isajah speaks 
with burning words to the heart of Israel that has become 
corrupt. On the other hand, rectitude, straitforwardness, 
righteousness is zedek, zddMh, Arabic : &.***> sddilt, 
righteous; ^j^> sddek, to believe, as is peculiarly manifest 
in the noble words and stirring tones of the Psalmist 
(xxxvi. 7): 

Zidkat'k'a kharre-el ^fcpYiro ^njn? 

'Thy righteousness is like the mountains of God!' 

nglfl todli impiety, defection from the Supreme, ( l/HJjri 
aberravit) is the passive side of y$B pesa from y#! to 
break faith. It is not only the breach of faith between 
man and man Treubruch, of which Schiller so forcefully 
speaks in his Burgscliaft that: 'Der Freund clem Freunde 
gebrochen die Pflicht', as we read of Moab in its action 
toward the people of Israel: 

Vajipsa Modi bjisrdel: ^felSi n1 Vg^?!l 

'And Moab acted faithlessly toward Israel'; but also 

the rebelling against God. What saith the prophet Micah? 

'Hear, ye peoples, all of you; hearken, earth, and 

all that therein is : and let the Lord God be witness against 

you, the Lord from his holy temple. For, behold, the Lord 

cometh forth out of his place, and will come down and 

tread upon the high places of the earth. And the mouu- 

H>< 18 re- 

tains shall be molten under him, and the valleys shall be 
cleft, as wax before the fire, as waters that are poured 
down a steep place. For the faithlessness of Jacob is all 
this, and for the sins of the House of Israel /' 

Bpesa Jaakob Iwl sot' ubttattot' Mt' Jisrael. 
Again, in Isajah (xliv. 22): 

Mdb psaeka tfkeanau frattdi'efcd. 
'I have blotted out, as a thick cloud, thy breaches of 
faith, and, as a cloud, thy want of communion with me!' 

Opposed to this Breach of Faith is ng emet' stability, 
faith, truth, from |/")&K to be firm, stable, which gives us 
also pDN truth, veracity. 

Arabic: ^^M*-?. jainm right. 

^T dmdn to believe. 
^U_>\ emdn faith. 
Thus, in the 37th Psalm we read (v. 3): 

Btak laJhovah vaaseh tob, shan-erez ureh emundh. 

'Trust in the Lord and do good: dwell in the land 
and feed on faithfulness!' 

Then we have sin in the form of 'taking pride in self- 
sufficiency', having no sense of dependence on a Higher 
Power, which is expressed by J?Kh resa or HJJBh risdh from 
JJKh. Of the man guilty of this sin the psalmist gives us 
a most vivid picture (x. 4): 

Rasa hgobah apo bal-jidros en Eloh/im kol-msimmot'div. 

'The wicked, in the pride of his countenance, (saith): 
he will have no need. All his thoughts are: There is no 

On the other hand, the man who is conscious of his 

~$H 19 HS~ 

own weakness, who more than any other feels his need of 
God, is "OJJ am the poor; a truth which was afterwards 
to come in more simple and beautiful language and with 
a far deeper meaning from the lips of the Master himself: 
uampiot oi Tmuxor on ujueiepot ecFiiv f] pacriXeia roO 0eoO. 
The Psalms speak thus of the am (cxl. 12): 

D^b BBEto ^j> )^ nirp v ni^ps njn; 
Jddaati ki-jaaseh Jahavah din am mispat ebjonim. 

'I know that the Eternal will maintain the cause of 
the needy, the right of the poor!' 

A form of sin with which the Hebrews were not un- 
familiar is that of HDID mirmdh fraud, deceit, from the 
root tiff] ar. ^*j to throw; the idea being 'to throw off the 
track'. Perhaps the most notable instance of this is the 
deception practised upon his father by Jacob, whereby he 
obtained Esau's blessing. In Genesis xxvii. 35 we read: 

*jrois nj?i nia *pn to io s i 
Vqjomer M fttiitid bmirmdh vajika'ti birkdt'etid. 

'And he said: thy brother came with fraud and took 
away thy blessing'. 

Then we come to the sin of Omission, the leaving 
undone, expressed by D^ dsdm or niptt^ asmali from 
yvtfX asam, which is sometimes described as culpa de- 
linquendo contracta. It survives in the Arabic JU'l. We 
meet with it in the 69th Psalm (v. 5) and more particularly 
in the Proverbs, where we read: 

Evilim jaMz dsdm uben jsdrim rdzon. 

'Fools make a mockery of guilt, but among the upright 
there is goodwill'. 

Nor must we overlook an ethical contrast which occurs 
in that mine of moral antitheses the Proverbs, namely, 

20 HJ~ 

nn t'ahpukdt' 'perverseness' from ^JSH to overturn, 
and IT^n t'usijjdh 'uprightness', 'discretion', from n#J, ar. 
,^2 'it was solid', to be real and substantial. Thus, in 
the 8th Chapter we read: 

jn ntoi? nirr nT 
mo \i nj^rn, rreg ^ 

J^raf Jhovdli snot' Raa, geali tfgaon v'derek rda u-pi 
t'ahpuJcot' sdnet'i. Li ezali v't'usijjah, Am vmah, U gvurah. 

'The fear of the Eternal is to hate evil; pride, haughtiness 
and the evil way, and the mouth of perverseness have I 
hated. To me is counsel, is uprightness; I am. Under- 
standing; to me is strength'. 

Lastly, in the Book of Job we meet with two ex- 
pressions in one verse which forcibly remind us of the 

Chinese 3j and the Egyptian U : I mean the llth verse 
of the llth chapter. 

Ki-hu jddaa mt'e sdv vajar dven vlo jit'bdndn. 

'For He knoweth men of vanity: he seeth wickedness 
also, and shall He not consider?' 

These words N]!# sdv and )JK dven show us that the 
Semites, as Turanians and Harnites, were conscious that 
sin is rather a defect than an effect, for the root of the 
one is HN$ (ar. ^lS') defectus realitatis, inane; whilst that 
of the other is pN which is a polar root meaning both 'to 
be and not to be', its other form being fjtk or ]NK. Perhaps 
the best rendering for both expressions is the word 'vanity', 
emptiness, as we have it in the 10th Psalm (v. 7): 
|| Alahpihu male umirmot' vdt'ok tatiat' I'sono dmdl vddven \\ 

'His mouth is full of cursing and deceit and fraud: under 
his tongue are mischief and vanity'. 

In Arabic there are two forms expressive of good and 
evil which . deserve careful consideration, namely, jU and 

H3* 21 f~ 

f~>\. Both these words imply reflexion resulting in choice 
on the part of the subject; in the former case it is that 
of the right and the good, whilst in the latter there is the 
distinct recognition of sin. One of the finest Surats of tlu; 
Kurfin tells us how, in paradise, the faithful Moslem 'shall 
not hear any vain discourse nor any charge of sin, but only 
the salutation Peace! Peace!' 

&&> l^\Uo j \j\ [ro] It^tf \f/ lyiJ L^ j^JT ^ 


|| La jisamiaivun p'lha lag wan wa la tat'iman; ilia 
Itilun Saldmun Saldmun \\ (Ivi. vv. 24. 25.) 

Again, in the Conclavia Medinensis (Surat xlix. 6) we 

meet with the expression ,J^jU pasilmn, the man of ^^ 

(/us 'deceit' and ^j^o mad' 'praise', the Sycophant, from the 
root p'ask 'to act dishonorably'. 

'Even if a tale-bearer come unto you with a message, 
investigate it'. 

In ga-am p'asikum bi-naba'in p'a-tabajjanu! 

(O qui crediderunt), si venerit ad vos (aliquis) Sycophanta 
cum nuntio, recte distinguite. 

On the other hand, the man of probity (^sn^o) and 
truth (,3ft*) is ^JLo salih. He it is who knows ^oJL^. k'dlisat 
purity, and who is <^>x^o muhassab sincere. In him we 
know the 'Traveller on the Path'. 

Finally, in two very remarkable passages of the Kuran, 
in which the 'possessors of a religious book' (Ehl Kitab) 
are acknowledged as spiritual brethren, we have the clearest 
statement of the ethical contrast: 

Surat ii. 61. 

->* 22 *- 

'llad'ina dmanii va 'llad'ma hddu va 'nnasdrdh va 
ssdbama man dmana billahi va Ijom il atiir va 'amila salihan, 
pa lahum agirohum inda rdbbehim va Id gdp'um 'ale! dm va 
Id hum jaksanun. 

'Verily those who have believed (in the prophets) and 
those who have become Jews, and the Christians and the 
Sabeans, whosoever hath believed in God and the Last 
Day, and hath done that ivhich is right, they shall have their 
reward with their Lord and no fear upon them, neither 
shall they grieve'. Marracci translates: Certe qui cre- 
diderunt, et qui Judaei sunt, et Christiani et Sabaitae; 
quisquis (ex his) crediderit in Deum et diem novissimum, 
et fecerit rectum; erit ipsis merces sua apud Dominum 
suum, neque tinior (erit) super eos, neque ipsi contris- 

Surat xxix. 46. 

Va Id tugddiiu ahil alkitdb Hid Ulati lie atisanu, ilia 
'llad'wa salamu minhum va kulu: Amannd bilad'i unsila 
elaend va unsila elaeJmm va Elahond va Eldliolmm v'Ahadun, 
va natinu lahu Muslimun! 

'Dispute not with the people of the Book (Christians 
and Jews) unless in the kindliest manner, except with such 
of them as deal evilly, and say ye: "we believe in that which 
has been sent down unto us (the Kuran) and in that which 
has been sent down unto you (the Old and New Testaments), 
and our God and your God is One, and to Him are we 
self-surrendered (resigned or Muslims)".' 

According to Marracci: Et ne disputetis cum familia 
Libri (i. cum Judaeis et Christianis) nisi cum eo, quod est 
pulcherriniuin (i. verbis humanis, hortando eos ad religionem 

~>r 23 <- 

vestram) exceptia illis, qui iniqui fuerint ex eis (contra vos: 
cum his enim non verbis sed gladio disputandum est). Et 
dicite: Credimus in illud, quod dcinissum fuit ad nos (id est 
Alcoranuni) et (in id, quod) demissum fuit ad vos (id est 
Pentateuclmm et Evangelium), et Deus noster et Deus vester 
unus est et nos sumus ei devoti. 

Thus the antithesis is that of ^JLo and ? \Ui or the 
Path of Light and the Way of Darkness. ^ jo 
Those who deviate from the right path. 



We now come to our own race, the Aryan, and here, 
though we take Sanskrit as a basis, we shall feel at liberty 
to adduce evidence from nearly all the various members 
of the Indo-European family of speech. 

In the Bg-Veda we meet with two concepts of Sin 
which seem to be peculiar to ourselves, so that he who 
would read the riddles of the race must know how to 
consult the oracles of the living word: ?m ago, or 3r&3 
anhas 'the throttler', 'the garotter'; and ^rer enas 'the eom- 
peller', 'the oppressor'. Such a view of evil is highly in- 
structive and has taken deep root in the Aryan con- 
sciousness, as may be seen from the following list of 

. n. ANH i/~5jrer, nasalised ^ 'to press close together'. 

Sanskrt: aya sin, evil. anJi-as, anli-a-tis sin, anxiety. 

anh-u-s oppression, narrow. 
Send: ag-a bad, hurtful, ag-ra tormenting, evil; Agro- 

Mainjus the Evil-Minded, Ahriman. ds-ag com- 

pression, anxiety, sin. 

~5* 24 H~ 

Ecdes. Slavic : as-iJm narrow. 

Lithuanian: ank-szta-s narrow. 

Russian: us-hii narrow, small, us-a band, chain. 

Greek: d'x-o$ anxiety, sorrow, d'x-6-oq burden, d'x-o-ucu 

I am worried. (Tfx-w I strangle. dyx-ovr) 

hanging, dyx-i near. 
Latin : eg-e-o. ind-ig-e-o. eg-enu-s. ang-o. ang-us-tu-s. ang-or. 

ang-ma. Ang-itia. anxiu-s. 
Gothic: og I am frightened, ag-is fear. . aggv-ja I shut 

in. aggv-u-s narrow. 
Oldhigh German: Ang-u-st anxiety. 
Modern German: Ang-st. Eng. Be-eng-ung. 
Norsk: Eng meadow. 

In Rgveda viii. 18. 6 7 we read: 
TOOT i ^rfefn: 

THH g^r: HTf""^rr n c n 

Aditih nah diva pasum, Aditih nahtam advajdh: 
Aditih patu anhasah sadd-vrd f d. 

'May Aditi by day protect our cattle; may she, who 
never deceives, protect by night; may she, with steady in- 
crease, protect us from evil!' 

Here we have Aditi in her moral character. Sin being 
once conceived as an ever-tightening collar, a bond or a 
chain, we can easily understand the transition from the 
purely cosmical conception of A-diti the unbound, or un- 
bounded, the Infinite, to the ethical view of a goddess who 
unbinds, who is best fitted to remove the fetters of sin 
and misery. 

Still more definite and pronounced is this sense of sin 
in the Avesta. Thus the tenth Ha of the Jasna (xvii. 53) 
tells us how the Haomas are held by the 'gorges' and 
'bands' ol the evil genii, the Gainis or ganajo, those deadly 
woman-heads which were 'born' unto sin. 


> . 

Haoma upa staomi 
JadJc'id laresnusva gairindm 
Jadfid gdpnusva raondm f 

Jaek'id dsahu deretdonho Gainindm upa deresdhu. 

Jasna x. 53. 

'I praise all the Haomas which are on the tops of the 
mountains and in the depths of the valleys and which are 
held in the gorges and clutches of the evil ones!' 

Prof. Spiegel translates: 

'Alle Haomas preise ich, welche auf den Gipfeln der 
Berge und in den Schliinden der Thaler sich befinden und 
welche gehalten sind in den Engpassen, in den Banden der 

Thus *inN[ and V*JA^ show us Sin as the serpent which 
coils itself about us until it has utterly destroyed the divine 
image in man, until it has choked the 'stream of tendency 
which makes for righteousness'. It is the story of Laokoon 
applied to humanity. 

There is a striking passage in Rgveda v. 3. 7 where 
agas, enas and ago, are all found together. 

iff ^T sjrntf wr ^1 wnrn' wte *JTCW ^EHR? OTirr n c u 
Jo na ago ab'j end b'ardtj ad'id agam agasanse dad'dta. 

'Whoever brings wrong and sin upon us, lays evil upon 
him who thinketh evil'. 

Speaking generally, agas is used in a more subjective 
sense than enas ( jAn), the latter almost always occurring 
in conjunction with krtam, as the sin committed. Nor is 
this to be wondered at, since the radical idea of the former 
is 'to wander from the Path' l/'jnr. In the Avesta we meet 
with the form A>A>, the Persian ^bT] 

Opposed to these ideas of evil are the forms of good 
spdnag, w[ faldra, srfa sila and mjm prasaya. 

-*4 26 H~ 

The first is from the root f*>^ span, to increase, which 
is an expansion of the yO su, Skt. H to bring forth, so 
that the order of ideas would seem to be: to produce, to 
further, to be good and useful, to be holy. In the Avesta 
the word ^W>^>^Q)A> spenta is always opposed to A)7y,u agra; 
Agro Mainjus the Bad Mind, the Devil, 
Aj Spenta Mainju the Good Mind, God. 
mdt e ra spenta the sacred Word, Holy 
Writ. Spenta sacred, spanjag more sacred, spenista most 
holy. Thus, in the ninth book of the Jasna we read in 
praise of the genius of the sacred plant (73): 

ffaomo taek'id joi katajo Nasko-p'rasaogo aogenti spdnem 
masttmk'a batisaiti. 

'Haoma gives to those who as householders recite the 
Naskas, greatness, holiness and wisdom'. 

*T^ is one of the most interesting of all ethical con- 
cepts. It comes from the root w^|, which is an extension 
of the root wr to shine, to radiate, Sd. -^ , giving us 
AJ^AV^ much, the crescive participle, and the superlative 
^W)M>j^Au^ mostly, in the best way. For us, however, its 
peculiar interest is the fact that, it has become in English 
a polar word, expressing both good and evil. Nay, this 
has even come to pass in Hindustani, where skt. w?f 'good' 
has become ^ jo badi 'evil', and in Persian jo bad wicked ; 
fl>\ ^MLorL. jo most vicious of mankind. 

In the D'ammapadam we find the contrast papo V 
b'adro. Thus (vv. 119, 120. Papavaggo navarno): 

Papo pi passati ba c dram, Java papani na pak'k'ati, 
Jada k'a pak'k'ati papani, at c a papo papani passati. 
B'adro pi passati papam, Java b c adram na pak'k'ati, 
Jada k'a pak'k'ati b'adram, at c a b f adro b c adrani passati. 

->* 27 *<- 

Improbus bonum videt, quaindiu malefactum non matu- 
ivscit; ubi vero maturescit malefactum, turn mala videt. 
Probus malum videt, quamcliu bonum non maturescit ubi 
vero bonum maturescit, turn bona videt. 

Gothic: BJ\T-S good, BJVTIZJV better, B^TISTS best. 

Ays.: bee good, becepa better, becj-c best. 

Ohy.: baz good, beeiro melior, bezisto optimus. 

Eng.: bad, malus, better melior, best optimus. 

Irish: badb-acli great, good; feodh-as better. 

In the Hitopadesa, for instance, we read (Mitr. 4): 

i vjjT IT *& T usuifa i 

B'adram idam na pasjami. 

'I do not see that this is good'. 

Dr. Biihler informs us that the ancient royal title 
I'adramuk'a 'of pleasing or gracious countenance' is found 
in the Western Ksatrapa Svami-Rudrasena, where it is 
applied to the three kings Rudradaman, Rudrasimha and 
Rudrasena. It is the oldest document in which this rare 
word occurs, belonging to the end either of the first or of 
the second century A. D. 

Thus in Firdusi's Sahnamah we read: 

'Manifestum fiat illis arcanum meum; in omni bono et 
malo socii mei sunt'. 

The root-idea of sfta is exactly that of xapcxKirip, for 
the root sjta meaning amongst other things 'to make', 'to 
prepare' is an expansion of for to sharpen, 'to make an im- 
pression'. XapaKTrjp ev TUTTOI^ TT7T\r)KTCU. (xapacrcriu.) It 
may be rendered 'nature', 'habit', 'disposition', but always 
in a good sense. With the preposition ^ we may translate 
it 'good-tempered'. In combination with cTarma it means 
'versed in' or 'addicted to' Law or Religion. Thus in 
Mahab'drata 79: 

s* 28 HS~ 


punard'armastlasja mama vd madvid'asja vd. 

'Who, again, is so religiously-disposed as I, or can be 
compared to me?' 

trenEB and V&RZ prasasja and prakrsta from the roots 
sm 'to praise' and sra 'to stand out' in the sense of un- 
conscious excellence are more particularly opposed to 

We now come to the important antithesis TTTU V 
papa V punja Vice and Virtue. These words play a 
leading part in the drama of the Aryan ethical con- 
sciousness, and are to be met with more especially in the 
celebrated Budd'ist work D'ainmapadam. The root of the 
former is uncertain, but in all probability it is SFfeF which 
has given us the Greek K(XK-6g, xdKK-n, the Latin caco and 
the Lithuanian szik-u, the idea being that of 'dirt', 'filth'. 
That the labial and guttural tenues interchange is a funda- 
mental fact in Aryan phonetics. On the other hand, jnw 
is from lAHff which is an expansion of j/g 'to purify', a 
root underlying the Greek Tiotvri, of-iroiva, and the Latin 
poe-na, pu-n-io, poe-nitet. Let us begin with the Upanis'ads. 
At the end of the Talavakara or Kena Upanisad we 
read : 

t cTT Sf 
ufdTrf&dFrf II 3J II 

Jo va etam evam veda apaliatja papmdnam anante 
svarge lokegjeje pratitistati, pratitistati. 

'He who knows what has been set forth above, being 
delivered from his sins, obtains an everlasting joy in the 
heavenly mansions!' 

In the B c agavad-Gita the word punja is used of Krs'na, 
who says : 'I am the pure odor in the earth and the splendor 
in the flame' (xii. 9): 

ircnff TTO: "jFvuctii g H^IVW 'for fswicni i 

Punjo gand'ah prt'ivjdm k'a tegask'a 'smi viMvasdu. 

H3H 29 f<~ 

Of the true B'iksu we read in the D'ammapadam that, 
it is not 'he who begs* but the religious man who, 'above 
and away from the good and the bad, lives considerately 
in the world'. 

|| Jo d c a pimnan k'a pdpan k'a Mlietvd brahmak'arijavd 
Samk'dja lohe Itarati, sa ve B'ikk'u ti vuk'k'ati. \\ 

D c mm. 19. cclxvii. 

Qui hie, bono maloque alienato, religiosus considerate 
in mundo vivit, is profecto Ifikttus appellatur. 

Again : 

|| 17. Id'a tappati, pek'k'a tappati 
papakari, ub c ajatt c a tappati; 
'Papam me katan' ti tappati, 
b'ijjo tappati duggatim gato. 
18. Id c a nandati, pek'k'a nandati 
katapunno, ub'ajatt'a nandati; 
'punnam me katan' ti nandati: 
b'ijjo nandati suggatim gato. || 

In hoc aevo cruciatur, morte obita cruciatur malum 
patrans, utrobique cruciatur; "malum a me peractum", ita 
(cogitans) cruciatur, magis cruciatur tartar um ingressus. 
In hoc aevo gaudet, morte obita gaudet qui bonum per- 
fecit, utrobique gaudet; "bonum a me peractum", ita 
(cogitans) gaudet, magis gaudet coelum ingressus. 

Gogerly translates: 'The sinner suffers in this world, 
and he will suffer in the next world. In both worlds he 
suffers; he suffers, knowing sin has been committed by 
me ; and dreadfully will he suffer in the regions of torment'. 

'The virtuous man is happy in this world, and he will 
be happy in the next world. In both worlds he is happy; 
he is happy, knowing I have acted virtuously, and greatly 
will he rejoice in heaven'. 

A painfully prolific root in Sanskrit is gij 'to corrupt, 
vitiate', which gives us gjhr vice, blemish, sin; ^iscreiff? 
du'sprdkrti 'of an evil disposition'; S^RH and ^r? duskrta 
and durvrtta wicked, criminal. 


Pandite k'a gunah sarve murk'e dosdsk'a kevalam \ 
Tasmdnmurk'asahasresu prdgna eko visisjate \\ 
'And in a learned man are all excellent qualities; but 
in a blockhead faults (or blemishes) only. Hence, amongst 
thousands of fools, one wise man is distinguished'. 

In the Avesta, too, we find the expression dusvarsta 
*>feMAud&3 used in the sense of 'wrong-doing', 'sin'. Thus 
the Haoma worshipper says (Jasna x. 48): 

Hvar stake ahmi dusvarstalw noid ahmi. 

'I am of those who do right, and do not belong to 
those who do wrong'. 

As a prefix dus is opposed to su (Sd.: dus V Jiu) and 
appears in Persian as dus, GT.: 6ucr-, Gothic: tus-, Old 
High German: zur- and Modern High German: zer-, Skt. 
Dur-manas = Sd.: dus-manag = Gk.: 6u^-juevr|<;. With gtf 
is connected Yfyx to hate, so that we have afa sin, gu 
hatred. In Greek we have 3 06ucr-eu-?; ajbucrin; obucrcrd- 
juevog hating. 

Of the Brahmak'arin to whom one may impart the 
secret of Vedanta it is said: 

fyasdntak'ittdja gitendrijdja k'a praliinadosdja jat'okta- 

'Whose mind is at rest, who has his organs under 
control, whose sin has disappeared, and who acts according 
to command'. 

Opposed to this root is I^TVJ to cleanse, to purify. The 
derivatives are particularly interesting and worthy of study. 

Skt.: *ra sud c , sud'-ja-mi lustror, sudd'i puritas. 

-* 31 HS- 

Gh.: Ka0-ccp6-q pure, Ka9-apo~i purification, expiation, 


Lat.: cas-tu-s for cad-tu-s pure. 
JRuss.: qiicToia cleanliness, HHC-THH pure. 
Kro. : cis-toca 

cleanliness. Eels.: cis-tu pure. 

Pol. : czys-tosc 

Boll. : cis-tota 

Olig.: lieit-ar innocent, happy. 

Ir.: cuidli clean, pure. 

Litli.: czys~ta-s pure. 

N. 8. 18. 

Na hi me sud'jate b'dvdh. 
'Verily, my disposition is not purified'. 
MctKdpioi oi KaOapoi rrj KapMa, on auioi TOV 0eov 


BjiaHiemiBi HIICTHG cepAUGMt; n6o OHH Bora yapnTx. 
Blalioslaveni cistelio srdce; nebo oni Boha videti budou. 
Btogoslawieni czystego serca; albowiem oni Boga 

Blago onim, koji su cistoga srca jer ce Boga vidjeti. 

The well-known forms SH and ?n^rT TO 6v and TO |ur| 
6v Being and Not-Being, Good and Evil, show us that the 
generalisation of the Aryans coincides with that of the 
Hamites, Semites and Turanians. In Persian >^ U $ >^> 
have also the sense of riches and poverty. 

As we saw at the outset of our enquiry, the root *HH 
to breathe, to be, from which come HH and sjrerf has been 
prolific of ethical terminology. Thus we have ^rfx true; 
HH4HI truth; SrcT mind conscious of itself; tJr^K worship. 
In Hindustani 1^.1 is still used for 'good'. E. g.: \^J <*o 
^yb l4yk.\ ^^i ^\ Jili larM us se atilta liai 'this boy is 
better than that'. U^J x^ * ^> Sab larkon se aJcltd- 
'best of all the boys'. 

~* 32 H~ 

The concepts Being and Not-Being, Right and Wrong 
have long been familiar to the Hindus. There are several 
very remarkable passages in the Rgveda and in the 
Upanisads in which these words occur. Thus we read 
(Rgv. x. 5, 7.):- 

^ i Hri ^ i trcir i fe 

Asat tta sat Ua parame vi-oman daldasja yanman, 
Aditeli upa-st e e. 

'Not Being and Being, Right and Wrong are in the 
highest heaven, in the birthplace of force, in the lap of 
the Infinite!' 

s^r^f gfr HOT **WTT: SH ^rarrarT n Rv. x. 72. 3. 
Devanam juge prat'ame asatah sat agdjata. 
'In the first age of the gods Being (Right) was born 
from Not-Being (Wrong)'. 

But the most celebrated passage occurs in the Creation- 
Hymn ascribed to Pragapati Paramest'in (Rv. 10. 129): 

^T SlUfT iniqlri *ft ^fir ^TH 'Hi^rT HTR 1 ^ II 

Na asat dsit no iti sat astt tadamm. 
'When Time was born, was neither Is nor Is-Not, 
Right nor Wrong!' 

In the sixth prapat'aka of the Kandogja Upanisad we 
find Uddalaka discoursing to his son Svetaketu about the 
origin of Sat and Asat: 

Sat eva idam agre asit, ekam eva advitijam. 

'In the beginning there was that only which Is (Right) : 
one only, without a second'. 

The father continues: 'Others say, in the beginning 
there was that only which is not (wrong) : one only, without 
a second, and from that which is not, that which is was 

-SH 33 HS~ 

born. But how could it be thus, my clear? How could 
that which is, be born of that which is not? No, my dear, 
only that which is, was in the beginning: one only, without 
a second'. 

Like the Egyptians and Chinese the Aryans are fully 
conscious of the crookedness of Evil; that sin is a deviation 
from the straight and narrow path. Hence the contrast 
^R5T Rgu straight, upright; ^foR vrgina crookedness, sin. 
E. g. in Bgveda 4, 1, 17 we read how Surja, the undying, 
looks down upon the right and the wrong (straight and 
crooked) amongst mortals. 

^iT |ro: ^HJ (tuari sjrarR ^RSJ JRHTJ <^HjMi ^F USIR M 

A surjah brhatah tisfat agran rgu martesu vrgina Ha 

These words and ideas are specially interesting and 
important because they are radically and conceptually 
connected with our own words right and wrong. In order 
to fully gauge the concepts we shall do well to take note 
of the cognate words. 

YARG. YRAG. to attain. 

Skt.: SJRT ^iftr arg-a-mi I acquire; 5K5JS rgus right, 
straight, upright; iiHri^ rdgis row, line; 5&5W 
Rg-ra-s Leader. 

Sd.: >$? eresu straight, right, upright. As subst. 'finger.' 
Gh.: 6peT-uj, 6peY-vu-)ui I reach, stretch; 6piY-vd-o-jaai 

I stretch myself, attain; 6pef-|ucx, opeHi-? a stretch; 

op-find a clasp, a grasp. 

Lat.: reg-o } e-rig-o } por-rig-o, rogu-s, recAu-s, rex. 
Goth.: J^JVKQJVH rak-jan to stretch, reach; ^jMlrrs raih-t-s 

straight, right. 
Ags.: paecan to reach; piht right. 

~3M 34 H$~ 

Dan.: Ret law. 

Reichen 'to reach' ; Recht 'right'; rich-t-ig 'correct'; 

Ge-richt 'judgment'; Rich-t-er 'judge'. 
Reach; rack; right; right-eousness. 

yVARG- to turn away. 

Skt.: CRT ^iijf^u vr-n-a-g-mi I keep off, exclude; $RTW 
vraga-s cowpen; ^5R vrg-ana crookedness, sin; 
3%TO vrg-ina-s evil. 

6rfr.: /epY' eipT-vu-jmi, eipT-w I shut in, detain; eipY-Mo- 
imprisonment; eipx-iri prison; AUKOOPYO-<;. 

Lat. : urg- urg-e-o (= varg-ja-mi); ex-urg-e-o. 

Goth.: y^iK- yj<.iR-j\H to follow up, persecute; yj<j\Kj\ 
vrak-a persecution; yjuirra vrung-o trap, crook- 
edness, transgression. 

Ags.: pnac- pjiacan wrac-an, pjiaecca wraec-c-a. 

Ecds.: OJJJbfflfe' lLDIb(fl%b& vrag-u inimicus. 

Lith.: RepsK* Kepmio vers-ju I urge, bind. 
Eng.i wrek- wreck; wrong. 

Norsk.: vrag' 'vrang wrong'; en vrang Strampe a stocking 
turned inside out. 

Shakespere in his King Henry VI makes Talbot 

'And here will Talbot mount, or make his grave. 
Now Salisbury! for thee, and for the right 
Of English Henry, shall this night appear 
How much in duty I am bound to both'. 

In Julius Caesar (Act III, Sc. I) the great Roman 
says to Cimber: 

'Know, Caesar doth not wrong, nor without cause 
Will he be satisfied'. 

-^ 35 H$~ 

An allied concept is that of ^RrT rta the right, the 
orderly,, the true; from J/SR r to go, to strive, to fix. Thus 
we read (Rgv. x, 133, 6): 

Rtasja nak pat* a naja ati visvdni duh-itd. 
'Lead us (0 Indra) on the right path over all evils'. 

Varuna, Mitra and Arjaman are described as rtasprsah 
upholding the Right, and the gods generally are said to 
delight in Rta and to hate Anrta (Rgv. v. 67. 4; vi. 52. 10; 
vii. 66. 13): 

H % Hf&Ti WTJWSIi ^RrTJcTRt 5RJ3R I 

Te In satjah rta-sprsah rta-vdnah gane-gane. 

Visve devah Bta-vrd'ah Rtu-Wi 

g TO: ii RO ii 

havana-srutah gusamtdm jugjam pajah 

Rta-vdnah Rta-ydtdh Rta-vrtfali 
gordsah Anrta-dvisali. 

In VasisiVs hymn to Yaruna anrta is used in the 
sense of 'all evil'. 

Svapnah Kana it Anrtasja pra-jotd. 

'Even sleep does not remove all evil'. vii. 86. 6. 

Herr Geldner translates: 'Sogar der Traum verschliesst 
sich nicht dem Unrecht'. 

In the Avesta we find A>^A> ? which is the old Bactrian 
form of ^RH, used in the sense of Cosmic Order, of KOCTJUO^ 
as opposed to xS; /^^^^ 'belonging to the holy, well- 
ordered Creation' = 

-3M 36 HS~ 

Of the most powerful Drug whom Agra-Mainjus is 
said to have created we read that, she destroyed the Right, 
the harmony of the world: 

Jaw asaogastemam Drugim fratia Kerentad Agro 
Mainjus aoi jam astvaitim gaetdm mahrMi asahe gaetanam. 

'"Whom Agra Mainjus had created as, in the bodied 
world, the most powerful Drug, for the destruction of 
Righteousness in the world; i. e. to stamp out the divine 
World-Order'. Jasna ix, 27. 

And here we are reminded that the Drug of the 
Avesta is but the personification of a common Aryan con- 
cept of sin. The ancient Rsi Vasist'a in his prayer to 
Varuna exclaims: 

5T *n ?&cr in 

Ava drugd'ani pitrjd srga nah ava jd vajam tiakrma 
tanutfih. ?gv. vii, 86, 5. 

'Forgive the sins of our fathers and what we have 
done with (our own) bodies!' 

The evolution of this thought of evil seems to be a) to 
hurt p) to be at enmity f) to cheat. 

Skt: tt druh to be harmful; 37\-j drugd'a offence, sin. 

VJ V V5 

Sd.: ^>*^3 drug to cheat, deceive; name of a class of 
female demons, xj/xiy-fj^^ drugim-vana slaying 
the Drugas. 

Pers.: ^> durtig evil. 

-^ 37 f<- 

Ohg.: trug' triug-an to deceive; trug-u-mes we cheated. 

On.: draugr ghost. 

Mlig.: triig-en to cheat; Trug deception. 

Welsh: dnvg offence. 

Irish: droch evil. 

In the oldest of the Gat'as, that known as Ahuna- 
vaiti, we read how, at the beginning of the world, there 
existed the heavenly twins, the Good and the Bad in 
thought, in word and deed; how, when man appeared upon 
the scene, some chose the former, others the latter, ranging 
themselves respectively on the side of Ahura Masda and 
Agra-Mainjus. And there is an interesting passage in this 
Gat' a in which the crooked and deceitful Drugas are said 
to be given over into the hands of Asa, the upright, 
the pure. 

AdJcd jadd aesdm Itaena gamaiil aenagdm ad Masdd 
taeibjo Ksat'rem Vohu Managd voividdite aeibjo sasffi Ahurd 
joi Asdi Kaden sastajo Drugem. Jasna xxx. 8. 

'When punishment overtakes those doers of evil, then, 
o Masda Ahura, the Kingdom will come, through Vohu 
Mano and the Doctrine, to those who decide for thee and 
who deliver the Drug'as into Asa's hands'. 

But the Avestic ethical contrast KCIT' eSoxnv is ivt^v V 
^3-w Vaga-Aka, The noble and the Base. We have here 
a conception of Good and Evil thoroughly Aryan though 
worked out only by the Parsis. Nowhere in the Veda do 
we find such a development of srcr and 


yVAS to dwell, abide. VAK to writhe. 

Skt: cw to dwell; cw vasu VGR tortuose ire; 

riches; cn^cf vds-tu ^K ak-a sin, affliction. 


house ; di^Houu vd- 
stavja-s oixeiog. 

Sd.: ex^A>o to abide; o$M9 A>JA) a/ca base, bad. 
vagu beautiful, good, 
noble; AJ 

gana goodness, ex- 


Pv.: *$- veh good. 
Pers.: ao bah good. dJ\ a-/c evil. 

Ok.: /a^. d'o"Tu (for /datu) City; dcneio-g civic; d 

GotJi.: yisj\N vis-an to be (vas, vesum, visans); ga-visan 

to abide; vists essence, nature; vis stillness. 

Goth 'ist unsis her visan 'it is good for us to 

be here.' 

Ags.: pej-an wes-an to be. 
Id.: ver^. Mhg.: Wesen, war. Eng.i Was. 

Skt.: vasu, vasjas, vasista = Sd.: vagu, vagag, vahista. 

As an ethical expression vagu is most commonly used 
in connexion with the two Ames a spentas Asa the most 
noble and Mano the good. .MK>**JVZ\)[? ,A)^A) Asa vahista, 
.ex>^A)/Aj? )ox)^9 Vohu Manag. Opposed to the latter is 
V/AW .^AJ Akem Mano Bad Mind, the arch-demon; 
V/AJ .$toM3jjA> AMstem Mano the Worst Mind, Agra 
Mainjus himself. 

H>4 39 f<r- 

The radical antithesis is thus conceived as Rest V 
Motion. Goodness is that which abides, Evil is full of a 
tortuous, snake-like activity. 

We may take a strophe from the 30th Ha of the Jasna, 
which forms part of the Gtit'a Ahunavaiti, as the best 
textual illustration : 

OJOUJ .AX)vXV> .AWuO .V\JJ) r \)ijA) .>JJJA>e .AX)K> .\>AJ 

\ \ e^ojx 

. iv J o 

^.d ta Mainju paouruje jd jemd kafna asrvdtem ma- 
nahitta vatialiiltd sljaot'anoi M vahjo alt emit & ajaoslla, 
huddogo eres visjdtd noid du$ddogo. 

'These two heavenly beings, the twins, were the first 
to be heard, namely, the Noble and the Base in thought, 
word and work. Of these rightly chose the wise, not so 
the unwise!' 

'Violation of the categorical imperative' is perhaps the 
truest rendering of the Sanskrit ftm himsd from the root 
ftrH hints, primarily to kill, injure; then to violate, offend. 
It is action contrary to \nJ, whereby the moral sense is 
injured. On the other hand, ?wfiHT ahimsd is the perfection 
of \w. As with the metaphysical antithesis between Brah- 
man and Samsara, between phaenoniena and the Thing- 
in-itself, so here in immediate connexion we have the 
ethical contrast between denial and affirmation. 

TOT tRfw n 

'Harmlessness or the-denial-of-the- Will-to-life is the 
highest Duty, the most excellent way, the supreme Joy, 
the noblest thought!' 

Or as we have it in the beautiful language of the 

-&4 40 

^ . 


fff *Tc 

f fdUtfUlrHHIr44M rfrft 

In all things dwells the Lord supreme, 
Undying, when they cease to be. 
Whoso can look beyond the dream 
And know Him he indeed can see: 
The Self within he cannot wrong, 
But treads the Path serene and strong! 

A characteristic thought of good and evil is that of 
the gay and the grave, the bright and the blurred. In 
the well-known Indian maxim: sjrasw ^sr wfooir tt ^fw 
sprsiWT 'The fruit of every action good or bad is of 
necessity to be eaten'; we have the compound sub'asutfct 
from YSU!} to shine, be gay, and a privative. 

In ^jPHdtU, from ykram to step, and ati beyond, we 
have the familiar view expressed in Ttapdpacri? and trans- 
gressio, more particularly as the overstepping or going 
beyond a law. 'Peccare', says Cicero 'est tanquam tran- 
silire lineas', but for the full significance of the conception 
we must listen to St. Paul: 

CN 0$ ev VOJLIUJ Kccuxacrai, bid rfjq irapapdcreujg ToO vojuou 
TOV 0eov cmudEeis; 

Qui in lege gloriaris, per legis transgressionem Deum 
ignominia afficis ? Rom. ii. 23. 

Kai J A6djLi OUK r)mnr|0)r n be T^vrj dTraTnGeTaa , ev 
rrapapdcrei TeTOve* 

Adam non est seductus; mulier autem seducta, in 

transgressione fuit. 1 Tim. ii. 14. 

But sin is not only the transgressing of a law or line; 
it is sometimes the non-observance of a law dvojuia, 
irapavojuia. The Stoics defined sin as VOJLIOU 

~J* 41 HS- 

and St. Augustine well said that it was 'factum vel dictum 
vel concupitum aliquid contra aeternam legem.' 

Kai rote dTTOKaXuqpencreTai 6 d'vo|uo<;, 6v 6 Kupio? dva- 
Xujcrei TUJ 7rvetj|uaTi TOU (TTojuaioq auiou, Kai KarapYn^ei TT) 
emcpaveia ing Trapouaias auroO. 2 Thess. ii. 8. 

By 6 dfvojaoq St. Paul here means 6 d'vGpuuTros ifjs 
djuapTias, 6 uiog Tfjg dinjuXeiaq. 

TTapdTTTiujua sin as 'falling away' is not found in clas- 
sical Greek, but is familiar to us in the writings of 
St. Paul. Its Sanskrit equivalent urneR ( Ypat TTGT) is used 
in the sense of crime both in the B'agavad-Gita and the 

Kai ujuaq, oviaq veKpou? TO!$ TrapaTrrujjuacn Kai raT<; 
djiiapTiai?- Ephes. ii. 1. 

Kai irapaTrecrovTas , -rrdXiv dvaKaivi7eiv eig jaerdvoiav, 
dvacrraupouvTa^ eauroig TOV Ytov roO OeoO Kai Trapaberf- 

Heb. vi. 6. 

TCTrleF II ^ H 

B c g. i. 38. 

'Should we not resolve to forego so sinful a deed, we, 
who hold the murder of relatives to be sin?' 

In the New Testament, where ethical terms have the 
deepest significance, we find, moreover, the principle of evil 
conceived as disobedience to a voice, irapaKon; ignorance 
of what one ought to have known, dTVonjua; a diminution 
of what should have been rendered in full measure, fJTrniua; 
as discord, TrXrijuijueXeia ; and as the missing of a mark or 
aim, the failing to attain the true end and scope of our 
life, djuapTia. 

"Qcrirep ydp 6id Tffc TrapaKofjg roO vo$ dvGpujTTOu djuap- 
TiuXoi KarecrTdGncrav oi iroXXoi 1 OUTUU Kai old rfjg imaKofjc; 

TOU vo$ biKaioi KaiacrraGriaovTai oi iroXXoi. Rom. v. 19. 


3* 42 *~ 

5 rr|V oeuiepctv airaH roO eviaurou jnovo? 6 dp- 
ou x^pi? aijaaro?, o rrpoaqpepei imep eauroO xai 
TUJV roO Xaou dyvor)|udTU>v u 

XlGIJ. IX. /. 

Ou&eis KUJV KCCKO? says Plato, and it may well be 
asked whether all forms of wrong do not more or less 
partake of the nature of an orfvorijua. On the above passage 
Trench aptly observes: 

"The dYVorunara, or 'errors' of the people, for which 
the High Priest offered sacrifice on the great day of 
atonement, were not wilful transgressions, 'presumptuous 
sins' (Ps. xix. 13), 'peccata proaeretica', committed against 
conscience and with a high hand against God; those who 
committed such would be cut off from the congregation; 
there was no provision made in the Levitical constitution 
for the forgiveness of such (Num. xv. 30, 31); but sins 
growing out of the weakness of the flesh, out of an im- 
perfect insight into God's law, out of heedlessness and 
lack of due circumspection (Lev. v. 15 17; Num. xv. 
22 29), and afterwards looked back on with shame and 

"Hrrrma is the Latin 'delictum', the German Fehler, 
the coming short of Duty, a fault. Thus St. Paul says: 

"Horj |uv ouv oXius fJTTnjua ujuiv eanv, on Kpijuata 
exere jueG 5 eauiiuv. Atari oi>xi juaXXov dbiKeicrGe; 6iaii ouxi 
ludXXov dTroo-Tepi(T0e. l Cor yi ? 

TTXnjuueXeux, from irXriv and jueXog, is evil as Discord, 
a singing out of Tune, opposed to ejujueXeict, the right 
modulation of the voice to the music. It is often found in 
the Septuagint. 

'Disproportioned sin 

Jarred against nature's chime, and with harsh din 
Broke the fair music that all creatures made 
To their great Lord.' 

-^ 43 *- 

But by far the most significant view of sin to be 
found in the New Testament is that expressed in the word 
djuapiia, namely, the missing of a mark, the failing to 
attain the true scope and goal of our lives. It is the word 
of the master and of his beloved disciple. 

Ti's d uuujv eXeYX^i MC Trepi djuapiiag; 
That is to say: 'Who can show that I have failed of 
the Divine, that I have missed the true Mark?' 

Ei TCX pYd jar) Troino"a ev auioig, a ou&ei? aXXo? 
eiroirjcrev, djuapriav OIIK ei'xocrav 

The Jews did wrong (fiNtsn, duapTi'a) because they 
failed to see in Christ the Revelation of the Father, the 
nVtp and the Aoyo? of God. And we too sin when we are 
content with anything less than the secret of Jesus! 

Righteousness, on the other hand, is expressed by 
ocrtoTns, 6iKaio<JiJvr|, dYioin? and dyveia. 

6(TiOTr| corresponds to the Latin sanctitas: it is the 
divine constitution of the Kocrjuog, the everlasting ordinance 
of right. In classical Greek it is generally applied to 
piety toward the gods and dutifulness to parents; in the 
Septuagint ocnos is used as the rendering of Tpn the man 
who loves God; the saint. Plato says: Kai juiiv irepi TOU? 
dv9p(JUTrou id irpoo"r|KOVTa TTpdnruuv, bixai 1 av Trpdrroi, irepi 
5e Geous ocria (Gorg. 507 b). Here 6cno is the pious man, 
biKCtios is he who is faithful in his obligations to his fel- 
lowmen. But in another dialogue Plato regards bixaiocruvr) 
or TO &IKCUOV as the sum total of all virtue: TOUTO TOIVIUV 
ejuoiTe 6oKei, 01 ZuuKpaie?, TO jnepog TOU bixaiou eivai euaepe? 
T xai 6criov, TO Trepi T^V TUJV Getuv GepaTreiav TO be irepi 
TIIV TUJV dvOpiwrruuv TO Xomov eivai TOU bixaiou |aepo? 
(Euthyphro 12e). 

According to its etymology bixn, fcucaiocrOvn is that 
which can be pointed at, so, firstly, established practice, 
consolidated custom, law. 


yDIK to point out. 

Skt.: 1/fe 7 *' fenfa dis-d-mi I show, direct; fen di- 

Q-k.: ybw beix-vu-jui I point, show; 6eii- notice; 

6eiYua something shown; 6iK-r| Right; &iK-aioq, 

Lat.: ydic. dico; causi-dic-u-s ; in-dico; judex, dicis 

Goth.: ytih. teih-an, taih, taihum, taihans; to show, an- 

Oer.: l/^zig. zeig-e I point. 

orfiOTTK and dYveiot are both from the root diy meaning 
primarily to set apart, worship. 


Skt.: V^J5j mrrfir ja^-d-mi I sacrifice, worship; irnm 
jag-am sacrifice; zracrcr jagjas = ayio^ adorable. 

Qk.: yaf a2-o-|uai I stand in awe of; crf-io-c; holy; 
dy-vo-g pure; dyi^uj I consecrate; df-o? sacrifice. 

Sd.: y^f* to sacrifice, praise; A>K>A>jAy\> jas-ata ador- 

AiKOuoduvri yap QeoO ev aiiruj drroKaXuTrTeTai EK TTi 
ei$ 7rio"Tiv, xa6uj<; YeTPd7TTar 6 6e biKaioq 6K 7TicrTeiu<s 
(Terai. Rom. i. 17. 

Kai TUJ aYYeXtu t^c, ev 0i\abe\q)eia 6KK\rio~KxS 
idbe XeYei 6 <rfio, 6 dXnGivoq, 6 exuuv rrjv K\eT6a roO 
Aaueib, 6 dvoiYwv, xai oubeig xXeiei, xai KXeiei, Kai oubei^ 
dvoi'Yer Rev. iii. 7. 

Mnbeiq (Tou ifi<5 veoinToq KaiacppoveiTtu , dXXd TUTTO? 
Yivou TUJV TTICTTUJV ev XoY^J, ev dvatfTpocpri , ev dYdirn, ev 
Tricriei, ev dYveia. 1 Tim. iv. 12. 

-3N 45 - 

Lastly, we have the well-known contrast between the 
good of its kind <rfa9o and the bad of its kind KCCKO^. 
AYCXOOS is from the root gdd ( meaning to stand, be firm; 
the thought of goodness being that of stability, whilst KCIKOS 
from yltdk to be unsteady, to vacillate, gives us the idea 
of badness as instability. From Ygatf come also the 
familiar Teutonic forms god, kuot, good, gut. 1 

Amongst the Romans this contrast was expressed by 
bonus V malus, the bright and the black, light and 
darkness. The earlier form of bonus was duonus from 
the root div (dju) which has given us deus, dies, Diana 
p. 31). Just as bi-du-u-m stands for bi-div-u-m so du-o-nus 
stands for div-o-nus, which at once reminds us of divinus, 
and in truth the good is never far from the divine. Malus, 
on the other hand, is connected with a mournful group of 
words, as may be seen from the following list: 

yMAL- to be dirty. 

Skt.: srercj mal-a-s dirt, filth; nf?H*H mal-ina-s black; 

srfcs^ mal-ista-s very foul, very wicked; *MT*I 

mal-aka a lewd woman. 

Gk.: |ue\a black; jueXcciv-iu I blacken; uoXOv-u) I pollute. 
Lat.: mal-u-s, mal-itia, mali-gnu-s, male-ficu-s. 
Goth.: mail. 

Olig.: meil a spot, blemish. 
Lit.: mol-i-s mud; mel-yna-s blue. 
Lett.: niel-s black. 

Peculiarly instructive are the words Evil and Sin. 
The former is from yvdb\ the latter from yas. Already 
we have seen sin as the 'throttler' (uizQ) and the 'writher' 
and now we have to know it as 'that which is woven' 

See p. 20. 

-$M 46 K~ 

and 'that which is bound 7 ; actively also as 'weaver 7 and 
'binder' (evil: peccatum). 

yVAB'- to weave. 

Skt.: srw 1 in gRcmro urna-vab'-as wool-weaver = spider. 
Oh: uqr ucp-diu and uqp-aivuu I weave. Gejuei'Xia OoTpog 

uqpaivei Phoebus lays (lit. weaves) the foundation. 

uqp-rj woof. 
Goth.: IIB-IA malus; muATcqis malefactor; (|)j\i DBIAJ\BJ\ 

hj\Bj\N&j\NS oi KCCKIUS e'xovreg; RBIAUI^J\H male- 


Ags. : yjzel malus; etc. 

To lang is to recenne, hu ic |?am leod-scea^an 

Yfla gehvylces hond-lean forgeald. 

Beov. 2094-5. 

Mhg.: Ub-el malus; IJbeltater malefactor. 
Eng.: Ev-il malus; evildoer malefactor. 

Erlose uns von dem libel. 
Deliver us from Evil. 

As regards peccatum opinions differ as to its derivation. 
Pott, for instance, fixed upon the root pik, which has given 
us "ftrapw traitor, treacherous; Lithuanian plk-tas bad; 
pyk-ti to be angry; peik-ti to despise, scold; Greek rriK-pog, 
Treuxebavos, TreuKa\i|uos bitter, sharp; but, inasmuch as 
Ypik seems fundamentally to mean 'to sting 7 or 'stab 7 , it 
hardly fits peccare. On the whole I am inclined to believe 
that pah is the root, giving us 'binding 7 as the primary 
view of Sin to the Romance peoples. 

YPAK- to bind. 

Skt.: irnm pds-as trap, halter; msjmfa pdsa-jd-mi I bind; 
trar^ fat, solid; traj^ pas-us cattle. 

** 47 K- 

Sd.: ^A3<j) pas to bind. 

G%.: TTCXY* 7rr|Y-vu-|ui (e-TT<rf-nv) I make fast, confirm; 
a pedestal; TTTIY-OS fast, strong; Trcrr-og, 
n rime, frost; TTcrr-n trap; Trdacr-aXog 
-Xos plug. 
Lat.: pac-i-sc-or; pax; pac-i-o; pa-lus; pang-o; pec-c-are; 

pec-c-atu-m; pig-nus; pec-u. 
Goth.: fah-an to catch; fulla-fah-jan kavov Ttoieiv; fagr-s 

euGeros; faih-u property. 

Olig.: fuog-a, gafuogi aptus; gafag-jan to satisfy; fah de- 
partment; fih-u cattle. 

Mlig.: fang-en; Each; fug-en; Fug-e; fug-lich; Vieh. 
OPr.: pek-u cattle, property. 
Boh.: pas girdle; pas-mo thread, yarn. Eng: fing-er. 

/ The order of conceptual evolution seems to be: to 
bind fast, to catch, to freeze. 

From the Egveda itself we know that both sin and 
punishment are spoken of as fetters or cords. Thus we 

'O Soma, Eudra, all the medicines that ye have, put 
into our bodies. Whatever guilt cleaves to us which we 
have brought upon ourselves, take away, and set us free! 
Ye bearers of the pointed spear and sharp lance, Soma- 
Eudra, show gracious favor; deliver us from the fetters 
(pasad) of Varuna and take us into thy friendly protection! 7 

Rgv. 6. 74. 

This thought of sin is thus thoroughly Aryan, and is 
present not only to the linguistic consciousness of the 
Eomance nations, but has been handed on to the Welsh 
as pechod. 

Latin : peccatum. 
Welsh: pechod. 
French : peche. 

-> 48 MS- 

Spanish: pecco, peccado. 

Portuguese : peca. 

Italian : pecca. 

Provencal: peca. 

Perhaps the most difficult to determine is the word 
sin itself. Already we have seen how often evil has been 
conceived as Not-Being, but here it seems at first sight 
as though sin had been conceived as Being, if we are 
right in deriving it from yas, which has given us the 
Gothic sun-ja truth, being. The real difficulty is the vowel 
in Latin, where, instead of son-s we should have expected 
sen-s (pre-sen-s, ab-sen-s). 

Ags. : seon-an to bring a sacrifice, purify; syn sin. 

To gebetenne ealle mine sinna 
To atone for all my sins. 

L. Can. Edg. Conf. 9. 

ON.: son piaculum, expiation; synd quod expiandurn 

est; synia negare. 
Danish \ 

Swedish > synd sin 

Gothic: sann expiation. 

Dutch: zonde sin. 

Mhg.: Siinde sin; suhn-en to expiate. 

Irish: sain to change. 

Galic: sain-e discord. 

Norse: onde evil. 

Latin: son-s guilt; in-son-s guiltless. 

If this is a case of polarity we might well be tempted 
to compare: 

Gk.: o"do-, (Too-g, o~ujo-$, crux; whole; CTUJ-KO-S 

powerful; craoiu, o~u)--uj I heal, save; o~uu-Tr)p 
saviour; d-duj-TO-c; unsaved. 

~X 49 H$~ 

a. : sa-nu-s whole. 

Ohg. : ga-sunt well. 

Ags. : sund healthy. 

Eng. : sound. 

Now it is quite possible that all these words come 
from yas, not so much, however, in its secondary sense 
of Being as rather in its primary meaning of Breathing 
(skt.: as-u-s breath of life; as mouth; lat. os). 

YAS to breathe. 

Skt.: ym' *Jifw as-mi am; ^jrfer is; HH sat being, 
good; ^yfw^r sv-as-ti-s well-being; JR su = eu 
well; *&gTO asu-ra-s living; *TOH as-u-s breath 
of life. 

GL: yic- et-jtii == etfui; 3. S. ecr-ri; eu-ecr-ruj well- 
being; ecr-G-X6-<; excellent; e-u-q good. 

Sd.: Jcx3A> ah-mi am; JW>ov>A3 ag-ti is. 

Lifh.: es-mi am; es-ti is; es-a-la essence; es-ni-s sub- 


Ecds.: jes-mi am; jes-ti is. 

Lat.: (e) s-u-m am; es-t is. 

Osc.: es-uf estate. 

GotJi.: i-m am; is-t is; suni-s true; sun-ja truth. 

Eng.: a-m, is. 

On.: sann-r true. 

The order of conceptual evolution seems to be: a) breath 
p) life y) being 6) reality e) truth I) goodness. 

If the word sin really comes from this root there 
can, I think, be little doubt that it is the primary sense 
of 'breathing', 'mouth', for 'out of the abundance of the 
heart the mouth speaketh'. 


50 r 

It is, however, possible that 'sin' and its cognates come 
directly from oiv-o$ a mischief, a plague; criv-o-juai I plunder, 
spoil; CTIV-TTIS ravenous. 

There remain a few ethical concepts, mostly savage, 

the etymology of which I am unable to give: 

Kafir: enkohlakalu evil. 

sono trespass. 

Sulu : ekwon evil. 

sono trespass. 

Sesuto: ben evil. 

melatu trespass. 

Sari: toronjak sin. 

narok evils. 

Temne: trabeitra sin. 

tralas evil. 

OUi : akaw sin. 

bone evil. 

Kamilroi: kagil bad. 

mufu good. 

Macquarie : jarakai evil. 

jifijifi sacred. 

Odul: omolt good. 

Kuktien: nimelk'in good. 

Aleutic: igamanak good. 

Encounter Bay: brup bad. 

nankur good. 

Adelaide: muijo good. 

West- Australian: gul bad. 

gwab good. 

Ostjah: bog at] right 
Kottish: pagai j 

Musuh: dur bad. 
pidem good. 

Kamir: gig bad. 



(= b e agavat, from 

Kippewe : 



~X 51 H~ 

Basque: gaitzetic 


barkha trespass. 

Udic: sel 


p c is 


Jurak: sana 



Tas; naga 



Kot: taxse 



Russian : xopoino 

V xy^o 

Croatian : dobro 


V hudo 


Polish : dobrze 


V zle 


Bohemian : dobf e 

V zle 

YGAR to 


Sht: har-ja-mi. 

Gk.: \aip-(jj, x^P~ l -?> X ( 


Lat: gra-tu-s, gra-t-ia; 

Herentatis (Osk. 


Got: gair-n-s, gair-uni. 

Lit: gor-u-ti, gor; 



Russ.: kor-oso. 

YD A to divide. 




dap-s; dap-inare. 

tib-er; ON.: taf-n. 

Russ.: dob-ro. 

Happy indeed is the Tibetan view of Virtue as 'that 
which is to be rejoiced at' ^j'^T dge-ba, from ^]$*J' 
dgd-ba to rejoice. On the other hand, sin is conceived as 
a Scorpion ^|'J' sdig-pa. Sdig-pa-rnams bjas-pa TioXXd 

fi)uapTriKiu<;. Dgasdug-drag-san good and bad; las dge-ba, 
mi-dge-ba good and bad actions. 

Lastly, we have the American Indian Mikmak forms : 

Jee^i i c twaktwin evil. 


Here we have most likely an onornatopoetikon twist 
twist, moral crookedness! 

^H 52 H~ 



Having applied the search-light of language to the 
grave issues of Right and Wrong, Good and Evil, Sanctity 
and Sin, turn we now to the beautiful thought of Love. 
Treating the words of each language separately we shall 
obtain a picture of the individual nation's thought. A com- 
parison of the pictures so won will bring out national 
characteristics and reveal the nature of that holy state 
which has been truly described as the greatest thing in the 
world. Hebrew shall represent the early Semites, Sanskrit 
and Persian the Arjas, Greek and Latin cultured European 
antiquity, Gothic the Teutonic world, and Russian the 
aspirations and inspirations of the Slavs 1 . 


The cultured European of to-day may perhaps find it 
hard to realise a naive antiquity, a sceptical present can 
only with difficulty enter into the emotional life of a devout 
past, to which the Supernatural was a reality more vital 
than anything physical. To the Jew of the ancient East 
Love was not what it is to the Gentile of the modern 
West. The different kinds of love which are possible 
between members of the human race the Hebrew dis- 
tinguished as concrete and abstract, as active and inactive. 
Whilst the former was analysed according to the mood 

1 In his Linguistic essays my friend Dr. Abel has on this subject 
an excellent chapter, to which as regards the Hebrew conception I 
am much indebted. 

~SH 53 r<~ 

and motives from which it springs, the latter was con- 
sidered to be the same in all cases. So long as love was 
denoted as mere feeling, one word seemed to him enough 
for all the various relations between man and man in which 
it can manifest itself. But where the benevolent purposes 
which accompany love and the delightful results were em- 
phasized, he became conscious of the manifold gradations 
of the feeling in strength and motive and felt the need of 
several words, the synonymity of which was quite peculiar 
to him. If, on the one hand, this view represents the 
simple relations of early times in which less was thought 
of the good intention than of the good deed, yet, on the 
other, we must remember that the latter springs from love, 
nay, that it is indeed love itself. Hence the application of 
the concept in all its various Hebrew colors to Jahveh 
himself and the tracing of all earthly love to its divine 

YAEAB- to breathe quickly, to love. 

Heir.: 3HN he loved; 2HK loving, a friend, lover; rung love, 


Sam.: !"DN amavit. 
Ar.: vJUi concitatus est, anhelavit; <^*~\ amiable, most 

lovely; U^.\ friends; L-A^-1 favorites; 

Amor patriae. 

'For God so loved the world.' 

The history of this Hebrew word forms, as Prof. Abel 
truly says, a sacred chapter in the history of humanity. 
Like drain], its equivalent among the Greeks, Ahav is love 
as pure feeling, embracing not only the love between man 
and woman but also between parents and children, relations 

-^ 54 HS~ 

and friends, in fact, all men generally. Metaphorically also 
love to things, inclination to certain actions, when its idea 
dwindles to liking. It expresses an inner attachment 
without the cause becoming apparent, and has a tendency, 
this point being left undecided, to let one think rather of 
the impulse of a warm heart than of a weighed and settled 
esteem. Between man and woman it is both passion and 
conjugal affection. As passion Ahav is capable of the 
highest poetic elaboration, as in the Song of Solomon, where 
it is the 'banner held over the beloved' and where all nature 
is invoked to adequately express its sweetness. From the 
earliest times, too, it has represented that devotion which 
gladly serves the beloved object and finds nothing too hard, 
no trouble too great for a purpose so dear. "We are told, 
for instance, that Jacob served seven years for Rachel, and 
that they seemed to him but a few days for the Ahav he 
had to her. 


Nay, it even denotes that glowing passion which is 
found only in that ideal sphere where love is lord of all. 

6 inn; ?ia rtjnKa inra |trrb-n I^K )J?TD 

'If a man would give all the substance of his house 
for Love, it would utterly be contemned. 7 

Taken broadly it embraces not only the pitiful tender- 
ness of God toward man and man's devotion to God, but 
also a world-wide charity. 

Wnteh ^?-n nirv ron:p 

'As God loved the children of Israel. 7 

'And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, 
with all thy soul and with all thy strength. 7 


'Love covers all sins. 7 

~^~ 55 H$~ 

At different periods of Semitic history these three 
views of Ahav have underlain Jewish thought, nor do they 
shut out the idea of Jahveh as an avenging Judge. It is 
just because God loves, that He punishes or purifies His 
people. And if the Highest can forgive and even love the 
man who has sinned against Him, it behoves all men to 
pardon and esteem one another. Hence DHK represents the 
bond of universal brotherhood. Thus we read in Leviticus 
as a commandment of the Eternal: 'Thou shalt not avenge 
nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, 
but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the 

nirp ^ TO? sjjn 1 ? 5?5*51 ^ ^?~ n $ *feO"^l Qfcrrfcft 

From the conception of charity as applying to the 
various members of the Semitic family Ahav rises to the 
thought of all mankind. 

yian ^rj D^n ^KJ n^n \^ Kin 'bD'rfjg rnrr ^ 
Din; BSBto nbty nnitf n^. vb] D^D KteT*& ^ Nl^ 
n^rrs "ijrrnK oronNj *n^^l onb ^ nnb 15 nnfci 

.D^D pa DJTVJ 

'For the Lord your God, he is God of gods and Lord 
of lords, the great God, the mighty, and the terrible, who 
regardeth not persons nor taketh reward. He doth execute 
the judgment of the fatherless and widow, and loveth the 
stranger in giving him food and raiment. Love ye therefore 
the stranger: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.' 

Passing on to the thought of active love we find in 
1DH a noble combination of love and grace. It is a grace 
arising from goodwill, a disposition which gladly does good 
because it looks upon the active love, which underlies bene- 
fience, as the beautiful prerogative of the Mighty One. Thus 
Isaiah says (liv, 10): 

taibn xb 

~$* 56 H$~ 

'For the mountains may depart, and the hills may be 
removed; but my kindness (Kesed) shall not depart from 
thee, neither shall the covenant of my peace be removed, 
saith He that hath mercy (Raltam) on thee, the Eternal. 7 

The fundamental meaning of the root (ytiasad) seems 
to be painful emotion. 

Hebr.: Ton Ar.: 5JL*. Syr.: I, 9 a 

And this is perhaps why it primarily expresses a 
vouchsafing or condescending grace, pity. 

non rb w\ *)bimK nirr \TI 

'But the Lord was with Joseph and shewed kindness 
unto him.' 

But it is not solely love of superiors for inferiors; not 
infrequently the idea of condescension steps into the back- 
ground and we find Uesed expressing brotherly love and 
even conjugal affection. 

'And David said: I will shew kindness unto Kanun the 
son of Nakas, as his father shewed kindness unto me.' 

D^rrai norni toftt pnsa 

'Yea, I will betroth thee unto me in righteousness, in 
judgment, in loving-kindness and in mercies.' 

In Genesis xxi, 23 we find it used as love of one's 
country, patriotism; and in Nehemiah xiii, 14 as piety or 
love of God. 

From the friendly grace of Kesed we pass to the 
loving pity, the mercy of Rattam. 

^ orn 

'to be soft, tender.' 

To the Psalmist Kesed is more than mere grace, 
Ral^am more than sympathy. Thus ciii, 8: 

57 *<- 

DISK spK nj.T parn 

'The Lord is merciful and gracious, slow to anger and 
plenteous in loving kindness.' 

In Drn we have an exquisite tenderness, that delicate 
solicitude which not only an earthly father feels for his 
children but which the All-Father entertains for those who 
fear Him. 

i^T"^ n !' T , D) 7l ^3?"^ n D CH? 

Nay, it expresses that annihilation or abandonment of 
self in God which was the burden of Israel's sweetest 

'pm nirr *iorn 

Whilst Itesed is kindliness manifested toward rich 
and poor, whole and sick, happy and miserable, without 
distinction, rakam represents pity for the poor, compassion 
with the needy and the suffering. And it is the same in 
Arabic where <*JJ\ is described as ^U^.J\ arrakman the 
Compassionate, -Jl arrakim the Merciful. 

'May he have mercy and pardon and the blessing 
of God!' 

A modification of Kesed is Ken or Kanan, the primary 
meaning of which seems to be 'to utter a gurgling sound,' 
'to groan.' 

In the Old Testament it is often used in the sense of 
that kindly feeling which a master has for his pupil, a 
senior for a junior, and which a son may warmly entertain 
for his father. Where we should say: 'if it please you,' 
the Hebrew used to say: 'if I have found ken in thine eyes.' 
Thus Jacob at the end of his days says to his son Joseph: 
*If I have found )n in thine eyes, put thy hand under my 
thigh, and shew me 1DH and faithfulness!' And indeed, 
where the relations between man and his Maker are close, 


~5H 58 H$~ 

the same feeling is expressed. In Exodus xxxiii, 17, we 

'The Lord spake unto Moses: what thou hast said, I 
will do. For thou hast found grace (Hen) in mine eyes, 
and I know thee by name!' 

But perhaps its best and most sacred meaning is 'a 
father's love for his little ones.' (Job xix, 17.) 

"jtpn on 1 ? irmn} *t$*b rnt T Tin 

'My breath is strange to my wife, and my cherishing 
to the children of my body.' 

By far the most interesting feature of the Hebrew 
question is the bright and beautiful expansion of the Jewish 
1HN into the Christian erf dun, the full meaning of which is 
given us by St. Paul in the 13th Chapter of his first Letter 
to the Corinthians, and by St. John in his epistles. 


Of early Aryan ideas of the supreme emotion perhaps 
the most striking characteristic is spontaneity. The most 
general thought is that of the heart bending toward the 
world at large, a kindly, genial benevolence. This, at all 
events, seems to be the fundamental meaning of spm, though 
in later literature it came to be specialised as the Indian 

YKAM to lend. 

Skt.: 5RW sums Mmas love, affirmation of the will to Life. 

ERtnT Mnta lover; cRrfsrf Mnti beauty; SFTPRW Mmam 

freely. Kamopahatakittamga amore affliction 

animum et corpus habens. 
Irish: caemh love, desire; caom'hach friend; caonihaim I save, 

protect. Roumanian: chamor love. 
Latin: cd-rus (= cain-rus) dear; ca-ri-tas love. 

-^ 59 HS~ 

And this concept, as the affirmation of the will to Life, 
is found in one of the most interesting of the Rg-veda 
mantras, which long ago excited the enthusiasm of Prof. 
Max Miiller in his History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature. 
The Sukta, which is known as the Creation-Hymn, opens 
with a lofty description of the primaeval Chaos no light, 
no sound; no day, no night; a yawning Abyss of empty, 
dark space, without death and without immortality. 
'The One alone breathed calmly, self-contained'. 

From this serene self-consciousness of the primal Brah- 
man in the profound chaotic gloom arose, by reason of the 
genial heat evolved, Kamas, the earliest seed of mind, 
which poets, pondering in their hearts, have found to be 
the source of being from not-being. 

sum: i rTH i wx i i 
i ?HJ i tnnr i SH i 
i fa: i 

i iMlm u a u 

Expressed in the philosophical phraseology of Schopen- 
hauer's school it is: Out of the Will (Tad) arose, through 
the turning thereof (Tapas), first Kamas, affirmation, and 
this became the first germ of mind, the only principle of 
the visibility of affirmation. From this first principle rose 
the whole realm of Being, its flames being cast over all 

Then we come to a thought of friendship which, though 
always implying a surface-attachment, is by no means to 
be considered the ideal of love. Affection as 'oiliness' 
seems to be pre-eminently Aryan, ^ sneJia and fafgw 
mltratvam coming each from a root meaning 'to be fat', 
'oily', namely, fera snih and ftr^ mid. They are found 
especially in the Hitopadesas, a book of moral instruction 
and popular legend, generally supposed to have been written 
by Visnusarman for the benefit of certain Indian princes. 

~$H 60 K~ 

Thus, in the first Book we read how, for a long time, a 
Deer and a Crow live in great Sneha in a forest of Bahar. 

rreu f^RT^T TFgrTT ?iiN ^i^i^ f^HfTJ 

Tasjdm Uiran maliata snehena mrgakakau nivasataJi. 

The Deer, frisky and fat, roaming about at his pleasure, 
is seen by a certain Jackal. Having eyed him, the Jackal 
reflects: 'Ah! how shall I feast on this delicate flesh? 7 

In the same way S^t mmiri and fw^TrcRT mitratvam are 
used of that lively friendliness amongst animals of the lower 
order which may, perhaps, not improperly be described as 
brute love. Continuing the above story, for instance, we 
find that the jackal seeks to effect his purpose by ad- 
dressing the deer as Mitra (ymid) and then by describing 
himself as a poor lonely creature without a Mitra (friend) 
and without a band'u (relation), K'sudrabudd'i of the forest! 

'Here, in the forest, as one dead, I dwell alone, without 
kinsman and without a friend!' 

The word SFVJ band f u brings us at once to another 
view of love, that, namely, of those strong ties of blood 
and kinship which unite various members of the same 
family, clan, tribe or nation; for, yband f ' means to bind. 
A bancfu is one who is bound to another in the first instance 
by family-feeling, afterwards, no doubt, by other and purely 
ideal considerations. The opening of the B^agavad-OUa 
deals largely with the relations of the parties involved, and 
from that work we may quote the following: 

T; KTrRt ^T^n^R^ 

t iftTr: 

II 3 II 

'Teachers, fathers, sons also, and progenitors; Uncles, 
sisters, nephews, brothers-in-law and near relatives (sam- 
land'iuas 'those-who-are-bound-to-one'). 

~$* 61 H$~ 

In ifrfo Priti and UTT^ Pr&man we have love as J!r- 
hUaration, a lofty joy which takes possession of the soul 
and rushes in tumult to the heloved object. 

to he overjoyed at, love. 

Skt.: trtorrrfa pri-na-mi I delight in; ftran pri-ja-s dear, 
beloved; irtfn pri-ti, 5*FT pre-man love, joy. 

Sd.: T>? fri to love, praise; ^-A fri-fa love, bene- 

$&.: 7Tpa-o<;, Trpau-q soft; Trpa-6-Tri<j softness; Trpau-v-uu. 

i?wss.: EpiaxeJib pri-ja-tel friend. 

Eccs.: pri-ja-ti to provide; pri-ja-telu friend. 

Lit! i.: pre-telius friend. Russ.^^mm^pri-ja-sn friendship. 

Goth.: fri-j-on to love; frijond-s friend; fri-a-thva love. 

Olig.: fra-o gl&d', fri-unt amicus ; fri-da pax. 

MJig.: fro-h glad; Freund 91X05; Fri-e-de peace. 

Eng.: fri-end amicus. Irish: frith service. Welsh: priawd 

Prijatva : irpaoiri^ : : friathva : Friede. 

Kroat.: pri-jat-nost loveliness. Pol.: przy-jem-nosc loveliness. 

Kroat. : pri-ja-telj ] ; pri-atan ] 

Pol. : przy-ja-ciel \ friend przy-ja-zny \ friendly. 

Boh.: pri-tel pra-tel-sky ] 

Boh.: pri'jem-ny amiable 

Dan. : fre-nde 

Ags. : fre-oud amicus 

Flem.: vriend 

Goth.: fri-j-ei freedom; frei-s free; fri-thus peace 

Eng.: free; freedom; fro-lic. 

In the second Fargard of the Vendidad we find the 
word frit* a applied to Spefita Armaiti, the genius of the 
earth, in the sense of 'beloved'. Jima steps forward toward 
the luminous space southwards, to meet the sun, and he 

-:>* 62 H$~ 

pressed the earth with the golden ring, and bored it with 
the poniard, speaking thus: 

JFHfa Spenta Armaiti, fratia ( sava, vzKa nemaya! 

'Beloved Spirit of the Earth, Kindly open up and 
stretch thyself afar!' 

It is a significant fact that Bishop Ulfilas thought the 
word friathva the best Gothic equivalent of the Greek 
(rfdTrr|. To the liberty-loving Goths the ideal of life was 
more than charity, affection or respect; it was 

Friede : Freude : Freundschaft : Freiheit 
'peace, joy, friendship, freedom'; for, friathva connotes these 
things and ypri underlies them all. Hence its great im- 
portance as an Aryan concept. 


qjVBju p^ij\^yj\ IIJ\BJ\IA. HU|> izyis HISSQ. 

5 Ev TOUTIU YviJucrovTai Travte^, on Ijaoi ua9rjTai eerie, 
drditnv exnie 4v dXXnXo,?. gt John lg ^ 

When we compare the Latin version with the Gothic 
we seem to pass from a moon-lit world to one flooded with 
sunlight : 

In hoc cognoscent omnes quia mei discipuli estis, si 
dilectionem habueritis ad invicem. 

To change the metaphor: dilectio is to friathva as 
water unto wine. The Anglosaxon is little short of the 
Gothic, although the connotation is not so great: 

Be tham oncnawaS ealle menn that ge synt mine 
leorning-cnihtas gyf ge habbaft lufe eow betwynan. 

Here we at once become aware that the Anglosaxon 
word is an early form of our own love, which, in many 

-3M 63 HS~ 

respects, is the most interesting concept with which wo 
have to deal. Already we have seen that true friendship 
implies freedom, and now, not only shall we find this, but 
also the great truth enunciated by St. Paul and mirrored 
in his matchless Spectrum of Love, namely, that love hopetJi 
all things, Idieveth all things. The root M) has given 
us lib-ertas freedom; lub-o love; lub-ains hope; ya-laub-ains 

to yearn. 

Sht.: y*M luV- *fhiF IdV-a-s cupidity, yearning; 

luh-tfa greedy; ^wrrftr luV-ja-mi I yearn, desire. 
GJc.: yXiqr Xiijj desire; XITT-T-O-UCU I long for. 
Lat.: lub-et; lib-et; lib-i-do; lib-er; Libentina; lib-er-tas. 
Russ.: Jiro6oBL ljub-ov love; Jno6iiTi> ljub-iti to be fond of. 
Kro.: ljub-av amor; ljub-ezan amiable. 
Boh.: lib-ez~nost loveliness. 

Ecdes.: ljub-i-ti 9i\eTv; liub-y dfaTrn; ljub-imi sponte. 
Litli.: liub-y-ti to take pleasure in; liub-jaus rather. 
Goth.: liub-an to love; lub-an to hope; laub-janto believe; 

liub-s dear; liitba-leiks lovely; hib-o love; lub-ains 

hope; ga-laub-eins faith; lib-dins life. 
Ohg.: mot-lub-a affectus; lop praise; lop-on to praise; 

lep-an l(ur\. 

Ags.: luf-e d.fanr\; lif l(jjr\\ Uf-frea Life-Lord, God. 
Mhg.: Lieb-en; Lieb-e; lob-en to praise; Leb-en. 
Eng.: lov-e; lief; be-lief; lif-e. 

In love we have freedom, hope, faith, praise, nay, life 
itself. No poet has expressed this exquisite feeling with 
greater delicacy .than Tennyson. Maud's lover speaks of 
his love to 

'Her whose gentle will has changed my fate 
And made my life a perfumed altar-flame.' 

-^ 64 K- 

Peter the Great is described as having worked for 
Russia with such Lubov: 

BT> 3TOMi> cnjia H 6yyin,HocTfc Pocciii, AJIH. Koiopoii TaKi> 
Heyciairao, ci> xaKoio jy6oBH) pa6oia.TL Heip^ BejinKin. 

'Herein lie the power and the future of Russia, for 
which Peter the Great worked so incessantly, and with 
such love 7 . 

In no language has this root been so prolific as in 
Russian where, besides lubov, we have lub-esni to be loved 
on account of really amiable qualities recognised not only 
by the feelings but by the judgment; lub-imi to be loved 
from choice; lub-oi loved as a matter of taste; lub dear 
from natural inclination; lub-im and lub-imez the dear hus- 
band; lul)-ovnik the erotic amateur; v-lul)-tiivi one in love; 
lub-itel lover of the fine arts. 

In Latin we see two streams of thought ; that in which 
love turns to lust (libido)', and that whereby a lofty, dis- 
ciplined passion leads to freedom (libertas). 

A libidinosa sententia certum et definitum jus religio- 
num eos deterret 

Liber sum, et nullius dominationi parens. 

The corresponding word in Persian is <5^, which is 
at once lub-o and lib-ains, Liebe and Leben, love and life. 
In the sweet song of Umar K'ajjam: 

'The heading of the Volume of the Spirit-World is Love! 
The first verse of the lyrics of youth is Love! 
ye who know not of the realm of Love, 
Know this alone, that Life is Love!' 

-^ 65 H$~ 

This is the Persian word par excellence and is a 
thoroughly Aryan view of the subject, the root being is 
to yearn. 

Skt: j/"nr ^isr ^s-to dilectus; ^ftr is-$ desire; ^mq /l- 
ma-s Love-god; elw-a-mi = ais-sk-a-mi. 

Sd.: > is to wish, earnestly seek; JK>OV>J ^-^ longing. 

GJc.: yic to wish; io-Tn- wish, will; i-juepo-q for io~- 
uepo-s longing. 

Lat: aes-tlmare. 

Gotli.: is-an to long for; fra-isan to tempt. 

Passing on to the people of Hellas we meet with the 
well-known and weighty words (rfcurdv and qnXeiv. Now 
these two words stand to each other in much the same 
relation as diligere and amare, but the Greek expression 
which most nearly corresponds to sffore and in later liter- 
ature to 5FTWF and < j r ^.s> is puu, from ]/ap to strive after, 
long for. It is not only the passion of the youth for the 
maiden, but is used by Plato to express that yearning for 
the unseen yet ever-present Beauty which surrounds us all, 
and will one day be revealed to every purged soul. 

Just as the Indian Rsis found Kamas to be the moving 
principle of Creation, so in the theogony of the Greeks 
"Epoq holds a foremost place. In the beautiful words of 

r|6 5 "Epos, 0$ KdtXXuTTOS v deavotTOim eeoiffi, 
TTCXVTUUV re Geujv, TravTuuv T J avGpumiuv oauvaTCU ev 
voov, Kcd erricppova pouXrjv. 

Anakreon says: 

'0 b^ Kdi Geujv buvdatri?' 
'O b^ Kcxi pporoix; baiud^ei. 

Most of all in the organ-voice of the Chorus in So- 
phokles' Antigone and in the Hippolytos of Euripides: 



"Epuj?, oc, v KTi'uuaai ithrreu;, 
oc, iv juaXaKcus irapeiai? 
veavibcx; ^vvux^uei^' 

b' UTrepuovTio?, Iv t" 

KOU a' otir' dOavaTiuv qpuSi|uo<; oubei<; 
oOG' dfnepiuuv dir* dv- 
GpuuTriwv 6 b' 2xwv> M^iunvev. 

Ant. 777785. 

Epuu<; "Epiuc, o xar' 


X^piv ou? 
jurj |uoi irore auv xaKuj 
|ur|b' 6ppu0]uo(; ^XGoiq. 
oOre ydp irupo? OIJT* 
aarpuuv OTrdp 
oTov TO Td<; *AcppobiTa<; 

6 Aid? iral<;. 

Hipp. 525-534. 

Amongst the Romans, too, we find Ovid saying of 
Amor: regnat et in dominos jus habet ille Deos, which might 
well be paraphrased in the words of the 'Last Minstrel': 

Love rules the court, the camp, the grove, 
And men below and saints above: 
For love is heaven, and heaven is love! 

Between the Greek dYctTrav and qpiXeiv and the Latin 
diligere and amare the parallelism is so close that it will 
be best to consider them together. 

Both drfOtTroiv and diligere express an attachment re- 
sulting from choice and a deliberate judgment that the 
object is really worthy of regard, whilst qpiXeiv and amare, 
without necessarily-implying an unreasoning attachment, 
give utterance to an instinctive feeling, an impulse of 
passion, as is amply manifest not only in the literature of 
Greece and Rome but in the New Testament itself. As 
regards the Latin words we cannot do better than refer 

~H 67 MS- 

to Cicero's letters. Writing to one friend concerning 
another, the great orator says: 'Ut scires ilium a me non 
dili u i solum, vemm etiam amari 1 (Ep. Fam. xiii. 47) ; and 
with regard to Clodius' feeling for him: 'L. Clodius valde 
me diligit, vel, ut ucpaTiKiuTepov dicam, valde me amat\ 
(Ad Brut. 1). Dion Cassius tells us that, addressing the 
Roman people over the body of Caesar, Antonius said: 
eqpiXrjO"aT autov ax; Ttaiepa , xai iifarrria'aTe uj eu- 

But it is in reading the New Testament that we most 
fully realise the distinction, as was long ago shown by 
Dean Trench. Whilst we are often bidden drfaTrav TOV 
Oeov (Matt. xxii. 37; Luke x. 27; 1 Cor. viii. 3) and good 
men are said to do so (Rom. viii. 28; 1 Pet. i. 8; 1 John 
iv. 21), it is nowhere urged that man should cpiXeiv TOV 
Oeov. Of the Father we read that He both (rfotTTa (John 
iii. 35) and cpiXe! (v. 20) TOV Yiov. And in this connexion 
we cannot forget the touching scene, described in the 
21 st Chapter of St. John's Gospel. The risen Master thrice 
asks the penitent disciple: 'Lovest thou me?' and to each 
enquiry Peter answers: qpiXuj ere, expressing a warm, per- 
sonal affection, but when the question is put it is only the 
third time that our Lord uses this word, dfctTrqts fue, re- 
spectful affection giving place to qpiXei$ ue, personal attach- 

The Latin Caritas seems to hold an intermediate 
position: a man may have caritas for his fellow-man, he 
may also have it for his country and his country's past. 

Ex ea caritate quae est inter natos et parentes, quae 

dirimi nisi detestabili scelere non potest. 

Cic. Am. 8, 27. 

Oblitaque ingenitae erga patriam caritatis, dummodo 
virum honoratum videret, consilium migrandi ab Tarquiniis 
cepit. Liv. 1. 34. 5. 

~~ 68 HS~ 

In the same way Amor, from primarily meaning sexual 

Persuasit nox, amor, vinum, adolescentia 

Humanum 'st. 

Ter. Ad. 3. 4. 471. 

has become transformed by the great Christian poet of the 
Middle Age into the supreme cosmic emotion: 

L'Amor che muove il Sole e 1'altre stelle. 

But of all the words for love in any language there 
is none so sacred as the Greek orfa7rr|. No classical writer 
goes beyond qpiXict, cpiXabeXqpict or cpiXavOptUTria. It is 
Christianity alone which has created this noble con- 
ception, this glorious expansion of the Hebrew HHS, this 
love which 

'delightedly believes 
Divinities, being itself divine'. 

Of this beautiful Christian thought St. Paul has given 
us an exquisite analysis in the 13 th Chapter of his first 
Epistle to the Corinthians: 

C H d-fairr) (uaKpo0uu.ei, xptltfTCueTar f) (rraTrr) ou nXor 
f| orfdTrri ou irepTrepeueTCu, ou qpuaioOiai, OUK do~xriuoveT, ou 
r|Tei rd eauTfjg, ou TrapoHuverai, ou XoYiEeTai TO KOCKOV, ou 
Xaipei em Tfj dbixia, cruYXaipti ot Tfl dXrjGeia' irdvia 
iravra TriaTeuei, iravta eXTTi'Z;ei, Trdvia uTTOjuevei. r\ 

Nuvi be jiievei TTICTTI?, iXmg, aYdTrn, id rpia TaOia 
be TOUTUJV fj 

Here we have vastly more than a transition from 
Amor, through caritas, to dilectio. "Epuug represents amor 
and qpiXi'a fairly corresponds to caritas, but drfdTrri goes 
far beyond any dilectio. St. Paul has shown us that it 
has at least nine ingredients, namely, patience, kindness, 

^H 69 K~ 

generosity, humility, courtesy, unselfishness, good temper, 
guilelessness and sincerity. Nay, though prophecies fail 
and tongues cease, though knowledge vanish and the very 
world itself pass away Love abides! 

'For life, with all it yields of joy and woe 
And hope and fear, 

Is just our chance o' the prize of learning love, 
How love might be, hath been indeed, and is 1 . 

-X 70 Hfr- 



In conclusion let us see how the inductive survey of 
human views of good and evil bears upon the great question 
of the existence, nature and function of what is known 
as conscience, divine reason, moral sense or categorical 

Assuredly the most important enquiry respecting this 
faculty is whether it is really intuitive, that is to say, 
an instinct, or nothing but a power of appreciation and 
distinction wholly derived from experience. The consensus 
of opinion in the past has accepted it as the innate prin- 
ciple to which all laws and moral maxims are addressed. 
As far back as the 4th century B. C. we find a Chinese 
philosopher exclaiming: 'In man there is a sense of right 
and wrong 1 ; that he loses it, arises from the fact that it 
is daily injured and its beauty destroyed, just as trees are 
hewn down by axes. During a period of repose conscience 
again comes to the front, but, since it is always hurt, the 
human being is not far removed from the lower animals. 
At the same time it must not be supposed that man has 
never had a moral sense, for that were wholly-contrary to 
his nature!' 2 But not only do the ancients, notably the 
Roman philosophers who distinguish between the honestum 
and the utile, take the transcendental side of the question: 
we have the witness of words themselves pointing in the 
same direction. For instance, to the linguistic consciousness 

1 R ft 

2 Maii-zo (373 289 B. C.) In the first instance the expression 
JJ >{$ 'innate principle' is used, in the second fjlf Ziu 'conscientious 

HN 71 t*. 

of Europe the moral sense is knowledge or consciousness 
of the individual soul with the Over-Soul, of man with God 
(jAdd- cruv-etbrjOK; coBtcit; svjest; sumnienie; svedomi; 
con-scientia; Mith-vissei; Gewissen; in-wyt). 

It is quite true that there are words of ethical import 
implying a long course of evolution, such as fl0og, Sitte, 
Mores, Pflicht, but we have only to look into the history 
of these words to see that, as soon as they assume an 
ethical meaning they primarily apply not to the individual 
but to the nation, if not to the race. They represent, in 
fact, the collective, as distinguished from the individual, 

YD 1 A 'to do'. 

Sid.: *CTOT sva-d'd own doing, custom, character. A law 
unto oneself or to one's own people. 

For, Indra, according to thy wont, thou art 
ours! Rgv.i.165.5. 

sva-d'ata the Self-Determined (see p. 24). 

Gk.: f\Q-o<; (= c/e6o<;) custom; r|0eio-g trusty, dear. 

ei'-u)6-ot am wont, 0-i-uj accustom myself. 
Goth.: suxns sid-u-s custom; sidon to practise. 
Olig.: sit-u fjGoq. 

Wig.: Sitte custom, etiquette; Sitt-lich-keit morality. 
Latin: Soda-lis a consort. 

Mores manners, conduct, morals; from Mos a 

German: Pflicht duty, from pflegen to be accustomed to, 

cultivate, practise. 

The analysis of such ethical terminology would seem 
to support the views of Mr. Herbert Spencer. 'I believe,' 

~3* 72 H$~ 

he says, 'that the experiences of utility organized and con- 
solidated through all past generations of the human race, 
have been producing corresponding modifications, which, 
by continued transmission and accumulation, have become 
in us certain faculties of moral intuition certain emotions 
responding to right and wrong conduct, which have no 
apparent basis in the individual experiences of utility.' 

But we cannot go very deeply into the discussion 
whether, independently of experience, we have any really 
intuitive appreciation or perception of right and wrong 
without becoming aware that it is, after all, only a special 
case of the general metaphysical question whether we have 
any ideas a priori or transcendental, wholly underived from 

Now, the two theories known as idealist and sensuist, 
formal and material, are as old as philosophy itself. Alike 
in India and Greece we find the sages holding, on the one 
hand, that mind is a reflex of matter, thought a secretion 
of the brain; and, on the other, that mind makes nature, 
that intelligence involves principles which, as the conditions 
of its activity, cannot be the result of its operation. In 
other words, the a priori theory maintains that, in all 
mental phaenomena there is an element given not to but 
~by the mind, having, in fact, a previous and necessary 
existence, whilst the a posteriori view regards the intellectual 
element as explicable on principles within the empirical 

According to Aristotle the moral maxims of which 
ethical science consists are our 5 d'pa qpucrei, oure rrapd 
qpuorv, dXXd Kara cpucriv. Though they are not intuitive 
they are in accordance with nature by reason of the 
eTTirnbeiOTriq or natural adaptation to them which man 
possesses. This comes very near to the recognition of a 
moral sense; in fact, Aristotle would probably agree with 
Cicero when he says: Natura cledit liomini quosdam igniculos 

-3M 73 H$~ 

e semina virtutum, quae sunt earum quasi prindpia et 
fundamenta. And when Seneca observed: sanabilibus aegro- 
tamus malis, nosque in rectum genitos natura, si sanari 
velimus, adjuvat, there can be no doubt that he was of the 
same opinion. And this is true of some who once thought 
otherwise. Dr. Cabanis, for instance, who, in the early part 
of his career, wrote: ; les sciences morales devaient rentrer 
dans le domaine de la physique, pour n'etre plus qu'une 
branche de 1'histoire naturelle de 1'homme,' in later life 
renounced such materialism and became a fervent idealist. 
Even Darwin, who considers the social instincts the prime 
principle of man's moral constitution, tells us that, he fully 
subscribes 'to the judgment of those writers who maintain 
that of all the differences between man and the lower 
animals, the moral sense or conscience is by far the most 

Perhaps the most powerful thinker of modern times 
who has written on this subject is Immanuel Kant. The 
learned author of the Critique of Pure Reason declares 
that the faculty which he characterizes as der kategorische 
Imperativ, lies wholly beyond the sphere of ordinary logic; 
is, in fact, a transcendental psychological truth admitting 
neither proof nor disproof. From the existence of this 
absolute tendency which controls the motives of actions 
Kant infers the reality of ethical freedom. Freedom is 
the ratio essendi of the moral law, but the moral law is 
the ratio cognoscendi of freedom. The indeterminateness 
of the Will as Noumenon is postulated by the Law which 
we find in us dictating unconditionally how we are to act. 
And this law must be connected with the idea of the pos- 
sibility of its fulfilment. 'Du kannst, denn du sollst,' says 
the voice within; not 'du sollst, denn du kannst'; because 
the sense of duty is there wholly independently of our 
power. It is the law which man as nouinenon gives to 
man as phaenomenon. As St Paul puts it: <I delight in 


~X 74 H~ 

the law of God according to the inner man'. And of 
this truth comparative philology gives startling confirmation. 
At the outset of our examination of ethical concepts we 
found sin looked upon as 'disobedience to a Voice' (irapa- 
Kor|), whilst righteousness was 'hearkening to the inward 
monitor' (p. 54). 'If any man will follow me, let him deny 
himself expresses the entire content of an Imperative 
which is no longer hypothetical hut categorical. Hence 
the soul is not so much Imowing as willing. In deter- 
mining moral worth it is not intellect, hut deeds, as the 
manifestation of the quality of a man's will that we take 
into account. Thus the thought of duty must ever form 
the basis of all true practical philosophy. 

Two further most important inferences Kant draws, 
namely: the existence of God, because there can be no law 
without a Lawgiver; and the fact of a future life, because, 
were there no perpetuation of consciousness beyond the 
grave, the tendency would be gratuitous. 

But if proof of the existence of a moral sense be 
needed, we have the most satisfactory evidence in its 
universality and uniformity which have, I think, been fully 
shown in the course of our enquiry. It is quite true that, 
at various times and in different places, we find different 
estimates of right and wrong, but the discrepancies are 
accidental and caused by external circumstances. We 
have only to look a little below the surface to find certain 
leading principles of agreement exerting an influence 'over 
every variety and condition of human nature with a power 
and uniformity analogous to those of the most obvious of 
the physical instincts.' 

We have seen, for instance, how not only Hindus 
and Hebrews but Chinese and Egyptians, differing as they 
do in language, culture and modes of thought, yet wholly 
agree in conceiving Eight as Being, Wrong as Not-Being. 
This is very significant. Not only does it seem to prove 

~*i 75 Kr~ 

the existence of an ethical intuition as distinguished from 
a faculty gradually acquired by experience, but it shows 
that Augustine's view of evil is that which mankind in- 
stinctively adopts. Essentially sin is privative, is absolute 
malitia, which, if unchecked, would go to the extinction of 
all being, nay, of God himself. 'There is no doubt', says 
the late Dr. Duncan, 'that all sin designs deicide. All sin 
is directed against universal being. It is primarily against 
God, inferentially against all being. It seeks to slay Being 
at the root.' 

Again, we have found that the thought of evil as 
transgression or trespass is well-nigh universal. The im- 
plication is obvious. The various races of mankind have 
instinctively felt that in doing wrong they were going beyond 
a Law. That law was looked upon as the emanation of 
the will of a Superior or Superiors having authority, there 
can surely be no doubt. Though we may describe the 
reign of physical law as a modern discovery, the great 
truth arrived at by Kant on philosophical grounds, namely, 
the universality of the moral law and the necessity of a 
Lawgiver, our investigation has shown to have been in- 
stinctively recognised from the dawn of humanity. Nor is 
this result affected by the fact that, amongst various races 
we find different estimates of right and wrong, in some 
cases even amounting to ethical polarity. In our own 
Aryan idioms we have the curious instance of the same 
moral term meaning both good and bad, better and worse: 

Latin: rnal-us 'bad'; rnel-ior 'better.' 

English: bad malus; bet-ter (= bad-ter) melior. 

(Sanskrit: b'ad-ra 'good'). 
Russian: EjiariH 'good and bad.' 


Xopoiirt 'good' ^ 

Little Russian: Tiipui 'bad' 1 Ygar to shine. 

Polish: gorsze 'worse'; 

~3* 76 H$~ 

German: schlicht 'straight, upright'; schlecht 'bad. 7 

Chinese: j| 'good'; Jg. 'bad.' 

Sanskrit: w^ Kad-ra 'good'; English; bad. 

Gothic : vair-s 

vara 'good' ver 

Danish : vaerre 

English: worse. 

But no modern student of the phaenomena of con- 
sciousness can overlook the fact that, the geological con- 
ception of the mental world so strongly advocated by the 
evolutionist, by offering a new interpretation of all a priori 
forms of thought, greatly affects the question before us. 
Before the rise of the new doctrine our ideas of Duty and 
of the Deity were either included in the a priori category 
or were supposed to have been arrived at in the course 
of individual experience. According to the principle of 
Evolution, on the other hand, they are the 'accumulated 
lesson of actual experience unconsciously whispered on to 
each new descendant by its line of progenitors.' The real 
difficulty lies in distinguishing the bequeathed part of the 
infant's mental furniture from its own subsequent acqui- 
sitions. None has stated this more clearly than Prof. Sully. 
'According to this hypothesis', he says, 'a man's experiences 
and habits, while they distinctly modify his own cerebral 
structure and mental capacity, tend also to modify those 
of his offspring. Hence it is fairly certain that if these 
processes of hereditary transmission have been going on 
through countless generations of the human race, every 
infant now born into the world receives along with its 
primitive nervous organization a very decided and powerful 
moral bent, whether it be as a predisposition to certain 
modes of conception, or as an instinctive force of emotional 
susceptibility in particular directions. Not only so, but if 
we suppose man to have been gradually evolved from less 

-* 77 HS~ 

highly organized species, it becomes highly probable that 
influences which can be seen to have acted on whole species, 
man included, have left behind them a yet deeper impress 
in the innate mental structure of a nineteenth century boy 
or girl. 7 

In his Descent of Man our great biologist Mr. Darwin 
has made an elaborate attempt to interpret the brute mind 
and to derive man's ethical feelings from the instincts of 
lower orders of being. He tells us that, when the degree 
of its sociability and of its intelligence qualifies it to ex- 
perience the recurrence of images of past actions, and a 
feeling of dissatisfaction at the recollection of an unsatis- 
fied instinct, an animal suffers remorse. And, indeed, his 
view of conscientious sensibility is such that, he does not 
hesitate to maintain that, if mankind were brought up under 
the same conditions as the hive-bees, sisters would feel it 
to be a sacred duty to slay their brothers, and mothers 
to make away with their prolific daughters. 

Now it must be confessed that, this is a somewhat 
strange view of the moral sentiment. In the first place, 
we are left in the dark as to how a mere memory of an 
ungratified instinct becomes suddenly transformed into the 
voice of a Socratic baijuoviov which imperatively points 
out 'that it would have been better to have followed one 
impulse rather than the other.' In the second, if one is 
not disposed to believe that a superior bee would solve the 
population problem in a less drastic way, there is certainly 
no reason for supposing that human beings in a state of 
sanity would not do so. Unless we can find, after a wide 
psychological induction, based on the observation of many 
races, that men in crowded cities or under specially- 
uncomfortable circumstances have resorted to such measures 
from a sense of duty, we must decline to entertain any 
such opinion of the human conscience. Then, who is to 
say that the superior persistence of an instinct gives a 

-& 78 f<~ 

consciousness of obligation? When the swallow abandons 
her young in order to migrate, is it at the high call of 
duty? The difficulties of trying to enter into the feelings 
which a dog, a swallow, or a horse experiences under the 
drawings of two opposite impulses are indeed immense. 
Of one thing, however, we may be quite sure, namely, that 
a sense of wrong in no way accompanies the regret which 
we ourselves feel at the omission to seize a passing pleasure 
or at the recollection of an unsatisfied longing. Nor is 
this all. There are surely few students of anthropology 
who would deny that 'the first rudimentary sense of duty 
presents itself in that peculiar variety of fear which ac- 
companies a recognition of superior will and power in 
another.' It is thus more than likely that an intelligent 
elephant, horse, or dog, which is capable of apprehending 
the manifestations of lofty volition lurking behind its master's 
words, feels something akin to man's sentiment of obligation. 
But when we are told of a troop of baboons (Cercopithecus 
griseo-viridis) that, after passing through a thorny brake 
each stretches himself at full length along the branch of 
a tree whilst his neighbor 'conscientiously' extracts from 
his fur every thorn and burr, we cannot but think it highly 
conjectural to suppose that such an impulse of mutual 
service really amounts to an act of conscience. 

Thus, as regards the lower animals, the truth 
would seem to be that, under domestication and in con- 
stant contact with man, a moral sentiment may be ac- 
quired, but that there is no really-instinctive appreciation 
of duty. 

As regards man, on the other hand, we have found 
that, even in a state of nature, in which condition according 
to Hobbes no moral element exists, there is an undoubted 
intuition of right and wrong. Darwin himself gives us the 
account of three Patagonians who preferred being shot, 
one after the other, to betraying their comrades. That 

H3H 79 - 

tlie distinction between virtue and vice is intrinsic or 
essential is further shown by the general use of the word 
ouyltt, doit, soil, and of such impersonals as oqpeiXei and 
oportet f clearly indicating some universal idea of duty apart 
from, though perhaps coinciding with utility. Nor can this 
idea of duty be expressed in any language relating to a 
consideration of consequences. 'Duty!' exclaims Kant, 
'wondrous thought, that workest neither by fond insinuation, 
flattery, nor by any threat, but merely by holding up thy 
naked law in the soul, and so extorting for thyself always 
reverence, if not always obedience; before whom all ap- 
petites are dumb, however secretly they rebel whence thy 
original?' l 

How truly does the poet say: 

'He that ever following her commands, 

On with toil of heart and knees and hands, 

Through the long gorge to the far light has won 

His path upward, and prevailed, 

Shall find the toppling crags of Duty scaled 

Are close upon the shining table-lands 

To which our God Himself is moon and sun!' 

The fact is, wherever we find man we find him with 
face upturned to Heaven, his eyes upon the stars, looking 
for the sudden outshining of transcendental idea. As soon 
as ever he becomes conscious of self he is aware of Deity. 
This is the truth underlying not only the European words 
for Conscience already noticed, but such remote expressions 
as Malay cA* ^y^, Arabic ^*i, and Hebrew H)DEfa, which, 
from primarily-signifying the breath of life breathed into 
man whereby he became a living soul (Gen. ii. 7), came to 
mean 'a lamp of the Everlasting, searching all the inner 
chambers of the body 7 (Prov. xx. 27). Nor should we forget 
the Chinese J > and flj, where in each case it is the 
heart or will rather than the head that is taken into 

i Kritik der^praktischen Vernunft (S. 105). 

~3H 80 f<~ 

account: and the Hyperborean Ndtaiva, from naitea 'that 
which is on high'; a conception of the categorical im- 
perative whereby das sittliclie Gesetz rises to clem gestirnten 

Perhaps no better analogy could be found than that 
between the moral sense and an eye for color or an ear 
for sound. As certain musically-gifted people come into 
the world -enabled to appreciate and delight in the simul- 
taneity and succession of certain musical sounds, without 
knowledge of the laws of harmony and counterpoint, so, 
though altogether ignorant of moral maxims, mankind is 
born with an intuitive appreciation of right and wrong in 
various degrees of sensitiveness. It is certainly possible 
that, this exquisite sense, together with the faculty of speech 
has been gradually evolved in countless ages from lower forms 
of life. What we hold is that, in man alone it is intuitive. 
Plato, Plotinos and Paul express themselves differently, 
but, in this matter, the truth to which they give utterance 
is the same; a truth made amply apparent by an analysis 
of language. 

The light of the Logos thrown upon the consciousness 
of man makes manifest the two great and abiding facts: 
God and Conscience; giving us all the sublime assurance 
that, though that image may be blurred and sometimes 
altogether lost, the true likeness of the human is that 
of the divine! AUTO TO Trveujua aujujaapTupei TUJ Trveuucm 
niuujv, OTI etfjuev TEKVCX OeoO. And this is the sacred secret 
of Duty, 

'Nor know we anything so fail- 
As is the smile upon thy face!' 



1. Genitive + noun 

2. Noun + genitive 

3. Adjective -f noun 

4. Noun 

5. Object 

6. Verb 

7. Verb 

8. Subject 

+ adjective 
4- verb 
+ object 
+ subject 
+ verb. 

I. Natural gen + n, 

II. Hybrid gen + n, 


III. Indirect gen + n, 


IV. Hybrid gen -t- n, 

V. Hybrid gen + n, 

a) Object + subject + verb 
p) Object + verb + subject 
T) Verb + object + subject 
6) Verb + subject + object 
e) Subject + object + verb 
) Subject + verb + object. 

4 58 

n + adj, o + v, s + v. 

4 68 

n + adj, v + o, s + v. 

3 58 

adj + n, o + v, s + v. 

adj + n, 

5 7 

+ V, V + S. 

adj + n, v + o, s + v. 

4 68 

VI. Hybrid n + gen, n + adj, v + o, s + v. 

2 467 

VII. Direct n + gen, n + adj, v + o, v -|- s. 

In the transmission of Language the old word-order is 
often disturbed by later substitution of races, but with a 

-3H 84 K~ 

regularity which enables us to formulate the following 
laws of ideological evolution: 

1. Wherever a language spoken by immigrant tribes 
is brought into contact with an idiom of different ideology 
spoken by a settled population, and mingles with it, the 
power of preserving its sentence-arrangement is greater 
with the less civilised. 

2. When, of two languages spoken by two populations 
at different stages of civilisation, there is imposition and 
not supersession, the position of the genitive and adjective 
which usually prevails, is that proper to the more civilised 
idiom, often with the addition of an affix. 

3. Under the same conditions the position of the verb, 
as to its subject and object, which has the greater chance 
of prevailing, is that of the less cultured language, pro- 
nouns &c., being often added. 

4. The phaenomena of incorporative pronouns relating 
to subject or object are found wherever a language of an 
indirect standard comes under the modifying influence of 
another language of a direct standard. 

i< C s ir 

QK ^ 
-^-f OO f^~ 


^1 1 

r.| -1 


1 ' - 1 


^ P-i t> PH 


^ ^ 

?' o 




ft ^ 



be g 

o p^ 



-t^ PH 




o ^ 

i-5 w 


' QQ W 

03 C3 


g .2 o -g 



>> n^ <FH rf 


I' "1 1 

^ g , d | 



M t> rv* & c ^ 


& 00 

J 1 



J s 


,_q 1 






*""* Q_J 


Pi JS 

~*^ (V? 

O trl 








r. P 

| 3 B 


^ "o y^^. 


1 1 1 g 



*^ Pdi 




S * 

' c8 


o3 ^^ 


PH ^ 


p -fl 

S o> 

d ej 

a; c3 

r * 

ft OQ 

O ^^ 


. "1 





I. Hottentots. 

II. Papuans. 
III. African Negroes. 

IV. Kafirs. 
V. Australians. 
VI. Hyperboreans. 

VII. Americans. 

1. Speech of the Kbik'oi. 

2. Languages of the Bushmen. 
Idioms of the Papua-stems. 

21 different speech-stems. 

1. Mande idioms. 

2. Wolof language. 

3. Felup idioms. 

4 11. isolated languages. 

12. Bornu idioms 

13. Kru 

14. Ewe 

15. Ibo 

16 17. isolated idioms 

18. Musgu 

1920. isolated 

21. Nile 

Bantu languages. 

Australian and Tasmanian idioms. 

1. Jukagir 

2. Korjak. Kukkish. 

3. Kamkadal. Speech of the Ainu. 

4. Jenissei-Ostjak and Kottish. 

5. Eskimo languages. 

6. Aleutic. 
26 Stems. 

1. Kenai languages. 

2. At'apaska 

3. Algonkin 

4. Irokese. 

5. Dakota. 

6. Pani. 

87 HE- 


VIII. Malays. 
IX. Mongols. 

7. Appalach. 

8. Languages of the tribes of the 

N.W. Coast. 

9. Oregon idioms. 

10. Californian 

11. Juma 

12. Isolated idioms of Sonora and 


13. Idioms of the aborigines of 


14. Astek-Sonoric languages. 

15. Maja 

16. Isolated idioms of Middle 

America and the Antilles. 

17. Carabee; Arowak. 

18. Tupi-Guarani. 

19. Andes-idioms. 

20. Araukan. 

21. Abiponese. 

22. Languages of the Puelche. 

23. Tehuelhet. 

24. Pesarah. 

25. Kibka. 

26. Kwikua. 
Malayo-Polynesian languages. 

1. Ural-Altaic idioms. 

2. Sumirian and Akkadian. 

3. Japanese. 

4. Korean. 

5. Monosyllabic languages. 

a) Tibetan. Himala tongues, 
p) Burmese. Lohita 
Y) Siamese. 
6) Annamite. 
e) Chinese. 

X. Dravidas. 

XI. Nubas. 
XII Midlanders. 

88 K- 

I) Isolated languages of the 
Indo-Chinese Peninsula. 

1. Munda languages. 

2. Dravida 

3. Singhalese. 

1. Fulah tongue. 

2. Nuba languages. 

3. Languages of the "Wa-Kwafi 

and Masai stems. 

1. Basque. 

2. Kaukasian languages. 

3. Hamito-Semitic 

4. Aryan 

A. Inorganic Languages. 

B. Organic Languages. 

1. Normal 

2. Intranormal 

3. Transnormal 


I. Idioms without grammatical 
structure (Chinese, for in- 

II. Languages with affixes (all 
idioms of polysyllabic build 
excepting the Indo-European). 
III. Flexion-Languages (theAryan). 
a) Synthetic (the ancient), 
p) Analytic languages (the 
modern Indo - European 

Flexional languages, or state 

Isolating and agglutinative, or fa- 
mily 'nomad'. 

Incorporative tongues. 




I I 

^ H 


s g 


02 -< 

O2 S 


O QQ | 

O * 

* ! 

u i 


_ :g 

1 I 






M -* 

.2 13 IS 13 

. 2 




>2 .a 




. Separating matter A. 
and form. 

Mixing matter 
and form. 

a- cr 

| | || 

1 1 ^ 

P TO S' 
| g " 1 
g | 

1 1 1 

O 3 




10 H- 



1- & 

Oq ^ 

erf- GO 

y" erV 

cc? p" 



"TO P -^ "OD P TO P 

.-?. 3 o. 





B? *L SL 

X v^ 1 ^' 

1' ; | ( 

I! I!! Iff 

*! Ill fit 

CD s ' 5 P S ^ cro 

; - s ^^ &s ^. 

| . v, ... |jjH 

) Expressing relations of the 
matter by word-formatior 
Expressing word-relations 
j Expressing form-relations b 
ing stuff-words to the ro 



-- g" g. 

s- g. 

Pi C^ <r<- (fo 

ro . . CD ** ^ 

S- ... ^ S ^ 

3- 3^ 


15 - 3" 

g JST- a 



1 ; : : : ; . - . 1 



- 1 - ^ - I '. 

!-*.?!? . 



P p 

2. Languages with completer 
external form. 

1. Languages with 
incomplete form. 


M M 

~K3 <! 

i_j HH 


!I. Semitic. 
I. Sanskrit. 

a? ...ggSg.'^ 

^>S & <" *. p' CD" Q 

11 1 *l i P 3? 

<! p B M 
f g I f f g ^ 

CfQ, PJ OQ H ^ p J5 

^ " P p OTQ q 



& I' s- 

^ ^ *0 

t> s s 


3 ^j P^ 

to ^ P* 


bd o ^ 

t t-^ Q 

00 Q3> OD . &* 

JO ^ CO 

- p' 

* ^^ 

p tf 

^/ \_ 

-j P 







H Q 

^ B 

trj o 
o * 





H H 

O fl} 


. O . ft 

& cj 

3 , I . 

,^ o3 ^3 


- ^ g 

. ^^ B> g ^ 

^ rrt^ .d ^ 

"^ '"^ '"E J? 'ft 'i 3 

^J m'pq* p?p? 




m w I 1 

O1 CO T|5 iO 





I. Thought-Script: 

A) Script-Painting. 

B) Picture-Script. 

II. Sound-Script: 
A) Word-Script. 

B) Syllable-Script. 

(Thought as a whole). Script- 
painting of the North American 

(Thought in its constituents). 
Writing of the Mexicans, and 
at the basis of the Chinese 
and the Egyptian script. 

(Substitution of the picture of 
an idea for another, coincid- 
ing with the former in sound). 
Script of the Chinese and 
ancient Egyptians. 

Japanese writing and Semitic 

C) Syllable-letter-Script. (Writing in which a definite 

sign can denote neither a 
syllable nor a single sound, 
but both). Writing of the 
Semitic nations. 

D) Letter-Script. 

(Writing in which a definite 
sign denotes a definite sound). 
Persian Cuneiform. Egyptian. 
Indian, Greece-Roman Script 

-sw 93 *- 




e o o 

i ii u 

e 6' 6 

i u u 


e o o 

i u u 

e 8 6 

^ u etc. 


tr 1 tr 

gD JO 

a- a" 



>ri tr 1 H0 

EL 5* EL 

go OQ p 

o g r 

u sr 




g. 3 

I - 






A. Hottentot Race: 

1. K'oilioi 2. San 
IK'u'b Zuni-||Goam 

Lord Red Morning. 

B. Papua Race: 

1. Motu 2. Mafor 

Dirava Hari 


Bright C 

C. African Negro 


1. Mande 


2. Tenne 

4. Kanuri 

5. Ewe 

7. Oki 

8. Akra 

10. Sonfai 
Our Lord 

11. Ibo 

13. Dinka 

14. Maba 
Great One 

16. Logone 
Our Master 

17. Wandala 
Our Father 

3. Hausa 
House Father 

6. Joruba 

9. Teda - 
Our Master 

12. Bari 
The All-Depth 

15. Musuk 
(a fenn of Allah?) 

18. Bisari 

$* 96 K~ 

19. Fernando Po 

20. Serer 

21. Nupe 

22. Basa 

23. Grebo 

24. Bullom 

D. Kafir Race: 

I. Kafir 2. 
Ked Morning 


3. Swahili 

4. Sekwana 5. 
Ancestral Spirit 

Ancestral Spirit 

6. Inhambane 

7. Ki-Hjan 8. 


9. Eanika 

10. Makua 11. 

o Mukuru 

12. Maravi 

13. Sena 14. 


15. Benga 

16. Mponwe 17. 


18. Sofala 

19. Tette 20. 


21. Isubu 
The Father 

22. Kongo 23. 
Old' Spirit 

o Nsambi 

24. Kiteke 
Spirit above 


25. Fulde 

E. Anstralian Race: 

1. Kamilaroi 

F. Hyperborean Race: 

26. Andaman 
, Puluga 

Good Spirit. 

2. Turrubul 

1. Odul 

2. Eskimo 

3. Greenlandish 




Great Spirit 

4. Aniu 

5. Aleutic 

6. Labrador 





(a form of God). 

G. 1. Tinne 

2. Kri 

3. Lenni-Lennape 




Great Spirit 




4. Og'ibwa 

5. Mikmak 

6. Malisit 




Great Spirit 

7. Algonkin 

8. liokta 

9. Irokuois 







10. Dakota 

11. Tklinkit 

12. Mexikan 




Great Spirit 

13. Otomi 14. Tukud' 


15. Goalura 

Vittukukankjo Mareiwa 


16. Tupi 


19. Kili-denu 



17. Kiriri 

20. Astek 

18. Kikito 


21. G-warani 

22. Inka 

World Creator 

Huizilo Poktli Tamoi 
'Humming Bird, 


23. Kvikuan 24. Kapaneki 

Pakakamakka Nomboui 
World Creator 
25. Koggaba 

H. Malay Race: 

1. Lifu 
Akotesi and 

2. Aneitjumese 

4. Tongan 

5. Maori 

7. Rarotongan 

8. Marquesan 

10. Hawaii 

11. Rotuman 


13. Malagasi 

Andria-Manitra and Sanahari 

15. Balinese 

18. Mare 

16. Batta 


The Bright One 
19. Jaian 


3. Samoan 

6. Tahitian 

12. Fate 










^ 99 x~ 

21. Viti 

22. Ngunese 

23. Saibai 

/. Mongol Race: 

1. Akkadian 

2. Mongolian 

3. Turkish 

4. Jakut 

5. Manku 

6. Hun 


Abk'a-i Egen 
Heaven's Lord 


7. Chinese 

8. Korean 

9. Japanese 

10. Tibetan 
Lha and Mkog 
Lord Best 

11. Burmese 

12. Siamese 

13. K'assi 


14. Kams'adal 

15. Finnish 

16. Esthonian 

17. Keremissian 

18. Lapp 

19. Jurak 

20. Ostjak 

21. Wogul 

22. Kuvas 

23. Magyar 

24. Mordvinian 


Object-of worship Lord 

~X 100 <- 

25. Kalmuk 26. Lepka 27. Samoyede 

Tari Ramu Jilibeambaertje 

Earth Protector-of-theLiving 

28. Karassin 
Great Uncle. 

K. Drdvida Race: 

1. Kol 1 

2. Munda > Sin-Zona Sun-God. 

3. Oraon J 

4. Sant'ali 5. Tamil 6. Tulu 

Kando Kadruveguran Kadavular 

Moon Omnipotent Omnipotent 

7. Gond 6. Urija 9. Eagmahali 

Tari-Pennu Bura-Pennu Gosanjit' 

Star- Woman Lord and Lady Leader-of-the-Flock 

L. Nuba Race: 

l.Nubi 2. Fulde 3. Mahas 4. Dongolawi 

Nor Gomirado Nor Arti 

Lord Folk-Lord Lord Knower. 

M. Midlanders: 

1. Basque 2. Avaric 

Jainkoa Zov and Betsed 

Lord celestial Heaven Wealth 

3. Georgian 4. Mingrelian 5. Swanetian 

Gmerti Goronti Germet 


6. Lesgish 7. Abkasian 8. Udic 

Tangri Anka Zu 

Heaven Mother Heaven 


9. T'us 

10. Kek'enzis 








1. Bogos 

2. Galla 

3. Kabyle 







4. Egyptian 

5. Koptic 

G. Hebrew 







7. Aramaean 

8. Assyrian 

9. Syro-Chaldaic 


An and Ilu 





10. Phaenician 

11. Karsun 

12. Arabic 







13. Bilin 

14. Kamir 

15. Kara 







16. ^Ethiopia 

17. Amharic 

18. Tigre 








Aryan Race: 

1. Sainskrt 

2. Sand 

3. Pali 




Bright One 


Bright One 

4. Bengtlli 

5. Assami 

6. Parbuti 



T' ' 





8. Gurinuki 
High Ruler 

11. Multani 

14. Sangiri 

7. Mondari 
High Ruler 

10. Simhali 
Bright One 

13. Kait'i 

Isaya Ruata 


16. Pahlavi 


18. Persian 19. Kas c miri 20. Sind c i 
K'uda Kudan Kuda 


22. Dalsam 23. Mussulman-Bengali 

K'u'da Kolla 


25. Pastu 26. Osseti 


28. Welsh 
Bright One 

31. Gaelic 


Bright One 
34. Latin 


9. Marat e i 
Bright One 

12. Hindi 

15. Old-Baktrian 
Kad c 'ata 

17. Parsi-Gugarati 
K e odao 


29. Armor ic 
Bright One 

32. Manx 

Bright One 

35. French 36. Vaudois 
Dieu Diou 

Bright One 

21. Urdu 

24. Kurdish 

27. Armenian 
30. Irish 
Bright One 

33. Umbrian 


37. Italian 

~3* 103 Kr- 

38. Piedmontese 39. Romanese 40. Roumanian 
Iddiou Deus and Deis Dumnedeu 

Bright One Ruler anil Brigth One 

41. Catalan 42. Spanish 43. Portuguese 44. Provencal 
Deu Dios Deus Die'u 

Bright One 

45. Gypsy 46. Tosk 47. Geg 

Dewel Perutia Perendia 

Bright One High Bright One 

48. Greek 


49. Old Slav 50. Russian 51. Bulgarian 

Bog Bog Bog 

52. Servian 53. Slovenian 

Bogu Bog 

Dispenser of Wealth 

54. Slovak 55. Polish 56. Wendish 

Boh Bog Bohg 

57. Kroatian 58. Bohemian 

Bogu Biih 

Dispenser of Wealth 

59. Lettish GO. Lithuanian 61. Samogitian 

Deews Diews Diewas 

Bright One 

62. Icelandic 63. Swedish 64. Norsk 65. Gothic 



Gud Gud Gu'd 

~3* 104 K~ 

66. Old High German 67. Nether-German 68. Anglosaxon 
Kot God God 


69. Frisian 70. Flemish 71. Dutch 72. English 


God God 



Printed by W. Drugulin, Leipzig. 





JAN 9 1959 



MAY t 




MAR 1 6 1961 


LD 2HOOm-12, '43 (8796s) 


YC 30182 


\ 092: