(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The ideological fallacies of communism"



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES 
OF COMMUNISM 



STAFF CONSULTATIONS WITH 

RABBI S. ANDHIL FINEBERG 

BISHOP FULTON J. SHEEN 

DR. DANIEL A. POLING 



<f 



\ 






&,-■• 



or 

UJ 

o 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 
FIRST SESSION 



SEPTEMBER 4, 1957 

SEPTEMBER 25, 1957 

OCTOBER 18, 1957 

(INCLUDING INDEX) 




Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



22087° 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1958 



AUG24'62 

*7 33 f 



O^f 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan 

RicnARD Arexs, Director 



H. Res. 458 

In the House of Representatives, U. S., 

February 19, 1958, 
Resolved, That there be printed thirty thousand six hundred addi- 
tional copies of the staff consultations entitled, "The Ideological 
Fallacies of Communism", held by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities during the Eighty-fifth Congress, first session, ten thou- 
sand six hundred of which shall be for the use of that committee 
and twenty thousand to be prorated to the Members of the House 
of Representatives for a period of ninety days, after which time the 
unused balance shall revert to the Committee on Un-American 
Activities. 
Attest : 

Ralph R. Roberts, Clerk. 

ii 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis vn 

Staff consultations with— 

Dr. S. Andhil Fineberg, September 4, 1957 1 

Bishop Fulton J. Sheen, September 25, 1957 9 

Dr. Daniel A. Poling, October 18, 1957 17 

Index i 

in 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

6EC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
tary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent re- 
ports and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch 
of the Government. 

IV 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
****** # 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
* * * * * * * 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



* * * Communism, like crime, advances and takes hold 
because men ignore God. The real danger in communism 
lies in the fact that it is atheistic and seeks to replace the 
Supreme Being. Communism is secularism on the march. 
It is the mortal foe of all the world's religions which acknowl- 
edge the existence of God. Either the faith of our fathers will 
triumph or communism will engulf us. In this land of ours 
the two cannot live side by side. 

Nowhere among the leaders of the Communist Party in the 
"United States, Russia, Red China or in any other part of the 
world will you find one who loves and believes in God. God is 
truth. Communists hate truth and, therefore, they hate the 
church. 

One of the leading slogans of the Communist revolution m 
Russia in 1917 was: "Religion is the opium of the people." 

This was first uttered by Karl Marx, the founder of commu- 
nism, in 1843. Lenin, now resurrected by the Kremlin as the 
Communist idol and guide of the present and future, restated 
it in 1905. And last year, Nikita Khrushchev, the present 
head of the Russian Communist Party, publicly proclaimed 
that Communists have not changed their opinion on religion 
and said: 

We remain the atheists that we have always been; 
we are doing all we can to liberate those people who 
are still under the spell of this religious opiate. 

When Communists temporarily and passively tolerate 
religion, it is for the purpose of furthering communism. But 
time and again they have struck ruthlessly against Christians, 
Jews, and other faiths, torturing, imprisoning, and murdering 
those who hold God above the state. Those who hate God 
always bring misery in their wake. They are brutal, cruel, 
and deceitful. Communism denies and destroys every spirit- 
ual value. No church and no church member can temporize 
with it. * * *— J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau 
oj Investigation. 



VI 



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 



SYNOPSIS 



Three prominent clergymen— of the Jewish, Catholic, and Protes- 
tant faiths, respectively — analyzed in the accompanying staff consul- 
tations '"The Ideological Fallacies of Communism." 



'to* 



Rabbi S. Andhil Fineberg, community-relations consultant of the 
American Jewish Committee, characterized communism as follows: 

Communism is a totalitarian scheme for regimenting 
human existence. It subjects every aspect of life to the 
wishes and whims of a bureaucratic oligarchy. It is as 
different from our outlook on life as atheism is different from 
faith in God. The political and economic aspects of com- 
munism are derivatives of a philosophy whose ultimates 
cannot resemble ours. 

Communists base their view of life on materialism and on 
a collective society. Our way of life is based on Judaeo- 
Christian concepts and on the importance of even the most 
humble individual. They think of people as creatures whose 
destiny is determined solely by their material well-being. 
We think of people as creatures with souls, who prize spiritual 
values. 

He discussed the ideological fallacies of communism concerning 
God, man, private property, and power. Regarding the fallacy of 
communism with respect to the existence of God, Dr. Fineberg stnted: 

Ruling out, as they do, the existence of a deity and man's 
responsibility to that Higher Power, they revere only human 
beings. They have no hope of the hereafter; they have no 
concept such as the Jews have — which, incidentally, is the 
theme of our high holy days — that everyone is accountable to 
the Divine Judge. They, therefore, do not have what reli- 
gious people consider higher moral laws, the immutable 
demands that God makes upon human beings and which 
are at the base not only of our aspirations but of our concepts 
of moral conduct. 

His comments with reference to the Communist fallacy in regard 
to man included these observations: 

Lacking a spiritual basis for existence, Communist ideolo- 
gists conceive of people as having no other worthy objective 
but material prosperity and military might. All other 
human ideals, hopes, and aspirations are sacrificed for these. 
And, in pursuit of these goals for the nation as a whole, 
Communist rulers assume the right to deal with all human 
beings as though they were the property and chattel of the 
state. Democratic leaders would never set up one-party 
government. You will recall that, when the great emanci- 

VII 



VIII SYNOPSIS 

pator Moses was told that several people were speaking 
against him in the camp, he welcomed that dissent and 
said, "Would that all the people were prophets and that 
God would put His spirit in all of them." 

Continuing his analysis, Dr. Fineberg assailed the fallacies of 
communism in regard to private property by pointing out that — 

* * * where property right is so limited that the concept of 
ownership becomes a myth and a deception, as it is under 
communism, there ceases to be the kind of personal respon- 
sibility necessary for a genuinely religious life, which must 
be one of owning, of giving, and of sharing, with considerable 
opportunity for voluntary conduct. 

In regard to the fallacy of communism respecting power, Dr. Fine- 
berg exploded the theory of communism "that the beneficence of 
Communists is sufficient to guarantee good government." 

In response to the query as to how the forces of freedom can best 
combat the ideology of communism, he pointed out that the forces of 
freedom should emphasize the "proof of the superiority of our way 
of life over life under communism in terms of religious and spiritual 
values." 

Bishop Fulton J. Sheen, national director of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Faith, Auxiliary Bishop of New York and Titular 
Bishop of Cesariana, stated that — 

* * * communism is not an economic system; communism 
is basically a philosophical system, which was born of the 
marriage . of two unmarriageable and unproductive units 

* * * not based on reality. 

He pointed out that — 

* * * the existence of God and private property are both 
denied simultaneously by communism. If a man has no 
soul, he cannot allege that he has any relationships with any- 
one outside of the state. If he has no property, he is depend- 
ent upon the state even for his physical existence. Therefore 
the denial of God and the denial of freedom are both condi- 
tions of slavery. 

He continued: 

The goal of communism is the complete subjection of man- 
kind to a totalitarian system which would deny both internal 
and external freedom. 

With reference to the relationship between the philosophy of com- 
munism and communism in action, Bishop Sheen observed that — 

* * * as in Christianity the word became flesh, or truth 
became incarnate; in communism the ideology has become 
action. There is no great diversity between any principles 
of communism and communism in action. And that is why 
many people go wrong in judging communism, because they, 
not knowing its ideology, do not understand the present 
action. 

We of the Western World judge Russia by its foreign 
policy. Whenever there are smiles at Geneva and Russia 
apparently begins to be lenient with the Western World, we 



SYNOPSIS IX 

think communism is good. Whereas if you judge it from its 
ideology, it is a tactic, but not a change of s}^stem. 

In regard to the reason for the tremendous inroads made by com- 
munism in the course of the last 50 years, Bishop Sheen stated: 

There are many reasons for that. One reason is the spirit- 
ual vacuum that has been created in the world. The modern 
world has lost its faith, it has lost its goal and its purpose. 
And the world became sick and tired of milk-and-water 
systems where there was nothing so sacred that you could 
dedicate your life to it, and nothing so evil that you should 
risk your life to destroy it. And communism comes into a 
world that is sick with relativism, and offers an absolute, and 
men find a loyalty and a dedication and a consecration which 
gives them great faith in a political system, without impo? ; ng 
any individual morality. 

As to why certain persons become Communists, Bishop heen noted 
that communism — 

* * * legislates for the mass, but it does not impose any 
individual morality. That is one of the reasons, I think, 
why some people — not all, God forbid — have an exaggerated 
interest in social justice, because it dispenses them from 
individual justice; they begin taking care of everyone else's 
problems in order to cover up their own dark and rotten 
conscience. Whenever I hear people talk about social justice 
I always want to find out how much they pay their house- 
keepers. 

He continued: 

It is always well to investigate the moral background of 
those who become Communists, as it is always a good princi- 
ple in talking to people not to be so interested in what they 
say as in why they say it. Why do certain people say cer- 
tain things? For example, if you ask me a question, and I 
immediately begin insulting you or the committee, you 
shouldn't pay any attention to what I am saying, but to why 
do I say it, to what is wrong with me. 

A young man one day knocked Lincoln down in a hospital 
in Virginia. He didn't recognize Lincoln, and he said to 
Lincoln, "Why didn't you get out of the way, you big, long- 
legged spider?" And Lincoln said, "Young man, what's 
troubling you on the inside?" 

Very often skepticism is a moral position ; that is to sa} 7 , it 
has been determined by behavior. So the intelligentsia will 
sometimes follow communism because of their behavior. 

Among the courses of action which he suggested in undertaking to 
cope with the international Communist menace was the expulsion of 
Russia from the United Nations, and the insistence by the West on 
the liberation of certain suppressed peoples. 



22087°— 58 2 



X SYNOPSIS 

Dr. Daniel A. Poling, editor of the Christian Herald, stated that— 

Communism is a driving dynamic faith. It has all of the 
passion that we associate with the early Christian church. 
But its basic tenet, its first principle, is atheisim It not only 
disregards, but it refutes and denies, the Christian ethic. It 
has absolutely no concern for the individual. We believe 
that government is made for man, and not man for govern- 
ment. Communism teaches and practices that the individual 
is not only the servant of, but the slave of, the state. He 
exists for "the state. His personal well-being is of no con- 
sideration at all if the strength of the state is in any way 
mitigated or jeopardized by this individual. * * * Com- 
munism is a total and comprehensive philosophy. It is a 
way of life, It is a coverall, body, mind, and soul. It is 
the universal enslavement. 

Dr. Poling pointed out that so-called peaceful coexistence with the 
Kremlin is both incredible and impossible, that so far as the Kremlin 
is concerned peaceful coexistence means peaceful submission. 

"Communism," Dr. Poling continued, "has made, in the opinion 
of some of us, a moral debacle of the United Nations." He asserted 
"that there was every reason for us to withdraw recognition of 
Russia." He urged that individual citizens join in the efforts of the 
several patriotic organizations of the Nation which are dedicated to 
resisting communism. 

In regard to the manner in which the forces of freedom can compete 
in the world market place of ideas with Communist ideology he stated: 

* * * We need to emphasize not what material things we 
have here, but the realities of freedom and the fact that com- 
munism is slavery. It is the destruction of the very aspira- 
tions of the soul. It is enslavement of the body, and you can 
prove that by pointing to Communist slave camps all over 
the world, and not only the enslavement of the body, but the 
enslavement of the mind and the soul. And remember one 
thing; there are more than one billion human beings who 
believe in one God — the Moslem, the Buddhist, the Roman 
Catholic, the Protestant, and the Jew. 

We should lay emphasis upon the fact that communism in 
its first tenet is atheism. We have obscured that idea too 
often. We need to point to what we have on our coins, 
"In God We Trust." We need to get that across, if you 
please. We are getting the dollar across, but we need to get 
across the thing that we really finally live by in this country. 



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 



wednesday, september 4, 1957 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 

STAFF CONSULTATION 

The following consultation with Dr. S. Andhil Fineberg was held 
by the staff of the Committee on Un-American Activities at 10:10 
a. m., Wednesday, September 4, 1957, in room 226, Old House Office 
Building, Washington, D. C. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director (presiding); 
Richard S. Weil, staff member; and Col. William F. Heimlich, 
consultant. 

Mr. Arens. Today we shall consider "The Ideological Fallacies of 
Communism." 

We are pleased to welcome to the consultation on this subject 
Rabbi S. Andhil Fineberg, who is the community-relations consultant 
of the American Jewish Committee. 

RABBI S. ANDHIL FINEBERG 

Mr. Arens. We would like, for the purpose of this record, if you 
please, sir, your name residence, and occupation. 

Dr. Fineberg. My name is S. Andhil Fineberg. I reside in Mount 
Vernon, N. Y. I received my doctorate from Columbia University. 
I have occupied pulpits in Niagara Falls, N. Y.; Pittsburgh, Pa.; and 
Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Please give us a word about how you first became in- 
terested in the subject of communism. 

Dr. Fineberg. For the past 10 years I have directed the program 
against communism of the American Jewish Committee, but my in- 
terest in the subject began when I was serving in the United States 
Marine Corps during World War I. Among my friends were Mr. and 
Mrs. Boris Bogen, of Cincinnati, who were thoroughly acquainted 
with Russian political developments. When the Czar was deposed 
in March 1917, they were very happy. 

They were horrified when the Bolsheviks, an insignificant part of 
the Russian population, violently came to power in October of the 
same year. The Bogens knew that the Bolsheviks, or the Commu- 
nists as they were later called, were totalitarian who destroyed a 
democratic Russian government. I learned the facts in 1918 from 
people who knew that these new rulers of Russia were militant atheists 
steeped in theories of economic determinism and dedicated to the 
proposition that human beings do not possess souls, nor conscience, 
nor obligations to Deity. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask, Dr. Fineberg, whether you would charac- 
terize communism as just another economic or political system? 



2 THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 

Dr. Fineberg. If the communism of the Soviet Union involved 
only a difference of political theories, or of economic theories, as some 
Americans have fatuously believed, we could debate the merits of 
communism in this country dispassionately. 

Mr. Arens. What, then, is communism? 

Dr. Fineberg. Communism is a totalitarian scheme for regimenting 
human existence. It subjects every aspect of life to the wishes and 
whims of a bureaucratic oligarchy. It is as different from our outlook 
on life as atheism is different from faith in God. The political and 
economic aspects of communism are derivatives of a philosophy whose 
ultimatcs cannot resemble ours. 

Communists base their view of life on materialism and on a col- 
lective society. Our way of life is based on Judaeo-Christian concepts 
and on the importance of even the most humble individual. They 
think of people as creatures whose destiny is determined solely by 
their material well-being. We think of people as creatures with 
souls, who prize spiritual values. 

Mr. Arens. Dr. Fineberg, you are a man of the cloth of a great 
religious faith. Please tell us if there is a basis for coexistence or 
consistency between adherents of the Jewish faith and adherents of 
communism. 

Dr. Fineberg. As far as coexistence is concerned, religious people 
have alwa3 7 s accepted the idea that we must be willing, while opposing 
evil, to live with it. I reject the thought that there must be inevitable 
military war with the Communists, a clash which would end in vast 
destruction, but I wish to say, unequivocally, that Judaism and 
communism are absolutely incompatible. As early as 1919, the 
American Jewish Committee declared: 

Everything that bolshevism stands for is, to the Jew, detestable. The Jewish 
traditions wed him to law and order. The Bolshevists are the enemies of law and 
order. * * * The great mass of the Jews are faithful to their ancient religion, and 
are ever ready to help their brethren in distress. The club of the Bolshevist 
knows no brother and he despises religion. 

Mr. Arens. Have the religious forces of the world, in your judg- 
ment, been as vigorous in opposition to the spread of communism as 
they might have been? 

Dr. Fineberg. Too few religious leaders have accepted the respon- 
sibility of refuting Communist propaganda. Like most Americans, 
clergymen have been against communism without studying it and 
without effort to expose its fallacies. 

Mr. Arens. How do ymi account for that? 

Dr. Fineberg. Most religious leaders have taken the view that 
the best way to combat communism is to perfect our own Nation. 
"Let us be thoroughly honest," they say, in effect, "and no one will 
cheat us. Let us not attack communism lest we injure civil liberties 
in our own land." 

In the main I agree with the proposition that the first obligation of 
religious people is to set our own house in order and to improve our 
own system. But I believe it is an error to stop there. One cannot 
keep thieves from breaking into our houses by merely being honest, 
and I have never seen an instance where counterfeit coin was banished 
by merely minting more good money. 

Mr. Arens. Would you draw a distinction between the activities 
of the Communists and the ideolog}^ of communism? 



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 6 

Dr. Fineberg. The villainies of Communist leaders have become 
well known. But unfortunately people assume that these scoundrels 
acted contrary to Communist doctrines. Even Stalin, having been 
denounced by Communists, is assumed to have acted in an anti- 
Communist fashion. Actually, Stalin and all the other Communist 
bureaucrats whose villainies are now known were and are the incarna- 
tion of communism. They were thoroughly indoctrinated and whole- 
hearted Communists. They did what communism required of them, 
even though their comrades later made scapegoats of them. 

Political murder and kidnaping, ruthless purges that slaughter 
multitudes, imprisonment and execution without trial, and other such 
atrocities have been customary under communism because that is 
what communism brings. No government, including our own, can 
guarantee that everyone will respect the civil rights and civil liberties 
of others. But enormous injustices are inherent and inescapable under 
communism. They are inevitable where power is so highly centralized. 
We cannot point out often enough that it is Communist ideology which 
is responsible for the countless crimes of Communist bureaucrats. 

Mr. Arens. Dr. Fineberg, what do you consider to be the prin- 
cipal ideological fallacies of communism, which cause the reprehensible 
Communist conduct, to which you have alluded? 

Dr. Fineberg. Those fallacies are concerning God, man, private 
property, and power, to mention only the principal ones. 

Mr. Arens. Then may we proceed, if you please, with consideration 
of each of these principal elements. First of all, what is the fallacy 
of communism with respect to the existence of a supreme deity, God? 

Dr. Fineberg. Ruling out, as they do, the existence of a deity and 
man's responsibility to that Higher Power, they revere only human 
beings. They have no hope of the hereafter; they have no concept 
such as the Jews have, which, incidentally, is the theme of our High 
Holy Days, that everyone is accountable to the Divine Judge. They, 
therefore, do not have what religious people consider higher moral 
laws, the immutable demands that God makes upon human beings and 
which are at the base not only of our aspirations but of our concepts 
of moral conduct. 

In Judaism, we say, "Put not your trust in princes." We believe 
that without divine inspiration and that which the Creator gives us 
of his own eternal wisdom, we would flounder forever from one tempta- 
tion to another. In brief, unless the Creator has provided for man's 
morality, human life must resemble jungle, life. 

Mr. Weil. Would you say ours is a religious nation? 

Dr. Fineberg. In our society there are many agnostics and some 
atheists, but there is tremendous respect for religion and for those 
values which can be readily traced to religious authority. Americans 
are guaranteed genuine religious liberty. Behind the Iron Curtain 
religion has been drastically curtailed and atheism has been state 
promoted. 

Mr. Arens. Now, having dealt with Communist negation of the 
concept of God and of all religion, may I invite your attention to the 
second fallacy which you suggest in the ideology of communism, 
namely, Communist fallacy with reference to man. 

Dr. Fineberg. Lacking a spiritual basis for existence, Communist 
ideologists conceive of people as having no other worthy objective 
but material prosperity and military might. All other human ideals, 



4 THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 

hopes, and aspirations are sacrificed for these. And in pursuit of 
these goals for the nation as a whole, Communist rulers assume the 
right to deal with all human beings as though they were the property 
and chattel of the state. Democratic leaders would never set up one- 
party government. You will recall that when the great emancipator 
Moses was told that several people were speaking against him in the 
camp, he welcomed that dissent and said, "Would that all the people 
were prophets and that God would put His spirit in all of them." 

The Communists claim that someday there will be, as a result of 
their efforts, a humanity which will somehow maintain an earthly 
paradise with no government at all. Toward the promised "wither- 
ing away" of the governments they have established, the Communists 
have made no progress whatsoever. Far from bringing about a 
classless society where all people are equal, the Communists way of 
life has widened the gap between those who possess power and those 
who lack it. What Communism does to people has been well de- 
scribed in Milovan Djilas' book, The New Class. Communists form 
an elite master group while the overwhelming majority of the popula- 
tion are deprived of the most essential features of desirable existence, 
such as the power to make important decisions, the right to engage 
in political action, and the opportunity for effective dissent. This 
is why I say communism is a way of life entirely different from our 
own. 

There is no escape in a Communist regime from Lenin's democratic 
centralism, incidentally, another example of the depravity of Com- 
munist language. Democratic centralism compels everyone to yield 
resignedly to the decisions that those at the top make. No one is 
permitted to question the rightfulness of those decisions. Anyone 
who can call that democratic when it applies, as it does in Communist- 
controlled countries, to every facet of existence, is already in intellec- 
tual bondage. 

Mr. Arens. Now, may we consider the third fallacy which you 
suggest in the ideology of communism, namely, its concept with 
reference to private property. 

Dr. Fineberg. Neither Judaism nor Christianity has challenged 
the right of private property. The Bible assumes, as does nearly all 
of our religious literature, that every individual should have some 
material possessions. However, according to the religious view of 
things, no one possesses anything without obligation and responsi- 
bility to others. Religious people assume that they must use what- 
ever property they have not only for their own benefit, but also for 
the welfare of others. 

Let me say parenthetically that there has been no objection in re- 
ligious thinking to people who agree to common ownership such as a 
partnership or a corporation or a cooperative. There is no religious 
objection to a nation's running its post office or owning its railroads. 
But where property right is so limited that the concept of ownership 
becomes a myth and a deception, as it is under communism, there 
ceases to be the kind of personal responsibility necessary for a genu- 
inely religious life, which must be one of owning, of giving, and of 
sharing, with considerable opportunity for voluntary conduct. The 
good life, as we envision and experience it, is impossible without some 
personal independence. 



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 5 

Let me explain this by comparing the status of a man who serves 
as the captain of a ship owned by a private corporation. How ridicu- 
lous it would be if he resigned his office and became a sailor on a United 
States Navy boat, saying, "Now I own my own ship." The fact that 
all citizens of the United States "own" the Navy does not create any 
such situation as the word "ownership" describes when a man owns 
his own boat. In fact, a government employee is independent only 
in a country where private employment is open to him. It is in a 
free market with private enterprise that one can enjoy greatest inde- 
pendence and freedom of action. It would be better to have a 
dozen Scrooges competing for one's labor or competing for one's 
produce than to have one monopolistic government as the sole em- 
ployer and purchaser. Total government ownership destro} T s the 
possibility of freedom of thought and action. 

Property is so closely related to the individual's choice of conduct 
and to his way of life that Judaism has always recognized private 
property rights. Jews developed many laws regulating inheritance 
and transfer of property, business activities, and the like, but private 
property was never declared to be an evil per se, as it is under com- 
munism. Under communism the individual loses along with his 
property, his opportunity of expression in the arts, and for the develop- 
ment of his culture. Let me cite the fact that there is no law in 
Russia against printing a Hebrew book, but for 40 years none was 
printed because no one could get the paper or type. In a free society 
every cultural group can publish what it pleases. In a Communist 
country, a culture must die if the hierarchy refuses to let it have the 
physical means of producing books and periodicals. 

A cruel fallacy of communism is the impression created among 
innumerable people that ownership is identical when the individual 
owns something and when "society" owns it. In actuality, there is 
a vast difference in ownerships. Individuals and small groups 
manage and control that which they own, while the "possessions" of 
50 or 100 million people must be managed and controlled by the 
relatively few at the top. In America, the electorate can at least 
change the administrators by ballot. In a Communist country, none 
but the top administrators can make any important change of any 
kind. 

Mr. Arens. And now, if you please, what about the fourth fallacy 
which you have suggested in the ideology of communism, namely, its 
concept of power? 

Dr. Fineberg. Among democratic people, there is a great distrust 
of government. We hedge the power of those who control govern- 
ment by a great many devices. I need hardly tell Americans of the 
many limits that restrict and restrain those who govern us. We keep 
the man who obtains political power from thereb} 7 acquiring power 
over our press, over our educational institutions, and over our various 
cultural and social activities. We encourage a tremendous number 
of voluntary organizations to do things which the government might 
do. But the primary point I want to make here is that there is a 
skepticism about those who govern. No man is considered so 
righteous that power may not corrupt him. 

Among Communists, on the other hand, the theory is that the 
beneficence of Communists is sufficient to guarantee good govern- 
ment. They excoriate people of wealth and those whom they call 



6 THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 

"the ruling classes" in non-Communist countries and say: "We per- 
fectly wonderful benevolent unselfish creatures will take over all of 
the power that the Fascists have but we must have a great deal more 
power — unlimited power. We will assume the reins of government 
and being determined as we are to advance the good of everyone, we 
will create that heaven which does not exist even in the hereafter." 
Amazingly, many people put such faith in human beings as a Com- 
munist despotism requires of its followers. 

Mr. Arens. Is that why the Communist doctrine has had such 
fantastic success in sweeping vast areas of the world in so short a 
time? 

Dr. Fineberg. That is part of the reason. Where people are so 
unhappy that they crave drastic social change, they are likely to 
accept glittering promises such as the Communists make. Unless 
analyzed and disproved, Communist theories are highly alluring. 
But it would be a grave error to think that Communists, with all of 
their wretched failures and unpardonable brutalities can point to no 
successes. To be sure they deceive, beguile, and betray, but they 
can boast of some triumphs in rapid industrialization. 

Mr. Arens. Now may I invite your attention to an area of inquiry 
that should be of immediate practical concern to all of us, namely, 
how can the forces of freedom best combat in the world market place 
the ideology of communism? 

Dr. Fineberg. I am glad you limited your question to the matter 
of ideology because there are many things our Nation has to do abroad 
to meet the threat of communism, such as foreign aid, military assist- 
ance, exchange programs, technical assistance programs, and the like; 
but in regard to ideology I would say that we must begin at home 
right here in the United States. We must overcome the idea that 
communism will doom or destroy itself. We must cease to let this 
be a one-sided intellectual war, with the Communists using every 
facility while many of our best minds are apathetic. 

In Communist schools the relative merits of communism and of 
Western Democracy are constantly contrasted. The faults and defi- 
ciencies that crop up in Western culture are magnified. The virtues 
are overlooked. But this process has been going on continually and 
it has produced extremely capable propagandists for the Communists. 
When courses of study or even lectures concerning communism are 
suggested in the United States, someone always is on the spot to 
declare that such instruction is altogether unnecessary. 

As long as the American public refuses to examine the theories of 
communism and to understand the fallacies, this tremendous move- 
ment which has declared from its inception that it will destroy the 
religious way of life and expunge our American outlook on life, is 
bound to win many a contest for the minds of men. 

Mr. Arens. Can we win this struggle for the minds of men by an 
approach which tells of the productivity of this Nation, how we can 
produce more television sets and automobiles and things of material 
value than can the Communist society; or should our approach, in 
your judgment, point out the ideological, spiritual fallacies of commu- 
nism and how communism has an ideology which is diametrically 
opposed to the undergirding forces of our free society? 

Dr. Fineberg. You have put your finger on one of the fallacies 
underlying our own efforts to combat communism which we would not 



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 7 

have made had our clergy, our educators, and others of our best minds 
not run away from this subject. 

If all that people want is more food, better machinery, and bigger 
guns, the Communists will have as much to offer as we have, as far 
as national product is concerned. What use will be made of it is 
another matter. Communist planners are capable materialists, 
ready to sacrifice all other considerations. They are not deflected 
by spiritual or religious considerations. Because of their bureaucratic 
system and their failure to take the human soul into account, they 
have some bad economic problems; but they can solve those by doing 
as they have heretofore, by herding millions of people into slave-labor 
camps and by exacting every last bit of labor and sacrifice from the 
toiling masses. 

When we tell people in backward countries of our many bathtubs 
and our splendid cars, the Russian propagandist had better be taken 
into account, for he says "the reason the imperialists have all these 
luxuries is that they took your oil, your rubber, and your other raw 
materials." 

If all that we can do is offer material advancement, let us not forget 
that the Communist countries offer the same things. It is foolhardy 
to say that all you need do is to give people a better material existence 
to keep them out of communism at the very time that the Soviet 
Union itself is willing to help backward countries materially. 

What Communists cannot offer, what they do not have, and what 
we can provide is best described as "spiritual values." We can sup- 
ply, if our clergy will furnish the material, proof of the superiority of 
our way of life over life under communism in terms of religious and 
spiritual values. 

Mr. Akens. We thank you, Dr. Fineberg, for your contribution to 
the subject, "The Ideological Fallacies of Communism." 

Dr. Fineberg. Let me say it has been a pleasure to be here dis- 
cussing this subject with you. I hope that the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities will continue its efforts to educate the Ameri- 
can public on the nature of communism. It should be apparent that 
exposing the misdeeds of Communists is not enough. We must not 
fail to expose the soulless nature of communism and to refute the de- 
ceptive arguments of its ideologists. In the tremendous battle for the 
minds of men religious leaders eveiywhere should see to it that some- 
thing more than the needs of the body are brought into account. 

(Thereupon, at 12:35 p. m., Wednesday, September 4, 1957, the 
staff consultation was concluded.) 



22087° — 5S 3 



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25, 1957 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

New York, N. Y. 

STAFF CONSULTATION 

The following consultation with Bishop Fulton J. Sheen of the 
Catholic Church, was held by the staff of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities, at the offices of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Faith, 366 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y., at 3 p. m., on 
Wednesday, September 25, 1957. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director (presiding), and 
Col. William F. Heimlich, consultant. 

Mr. Arens. We are pleased at this time, on behalf of the Committee 
on Un-American Activities of the House of Representatives, to con- 
sult with Bishop Fulton J. Sheen, Auxiliary Bishop of New York and 
Titular Bishop of Cesariana on the subject, "The Ideological Fallacies 
of Communism." 

BISHOP FULTON J. SHEEN 

Mr. Arens. As a point of departure in our consultation, may I ask, 
Bishop Sheen, if you could give us the benefit of 30111- judgment on the 
principal ideological fallacies of Communism? 

Bishop Sheen. When one speaks of the ideology of communism 
one is speaking of a philosophy. That is what it means, basically, 
ideology. 

Well, the first ideological fallacy of communism is that it is an 
artificial system imposed on reality, both economic and political. 
What is this artificial system? This artificial system is the con- 
glomeration of two distinct philosophies that were united in the brain 
of Karl Marx. One was the system of idealism which issued from 
Hegel, which he was obliged to study, as were all students in Germany. 
Hegel's philosophy was called dialectical idealism. It was idealism 
because it was concerned with ideas. It was called dialectical be- 
cause it was concerned with how ideas developed, mainly by contra- 
diction. 

Suppose, for example, we were decorating a room. One said, "Let 
us decorate it in red," another said, "In green," and we compromise 
for blue. That would be a development of an idea through contrast, 
fiction, and contradiction. 

After Marx studied this particular system he then read a book of 
Feuerbach, Ludwig Feuerbach, entitled "The Essence of Christian- 
ity," which was an attack upon all Hegelianism and was an affirma- 
tion of the crudest kind of materialism. 



10 THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 

Marx said he was absolutely incapable of controlling his enthusiasm 
when he read this book, with its emphasis on materialism. Then 
there came to the brain of Marx the idea of uniting a part of Hegel 
with Feuerbach. He said, "Wouldn't it be a wonderful idea to take 
the dialectics which belong to Hegel's idealism and apply them to the 
materialism of Feuerbach?" If one did that, one would then have 
dialectical materialism. The philosophy would then be how material- 
ism grows. 

Marx then proceeded to show that materialism grows, or every- 
thing material grows, by contradiction, the same as Hegel said ideas 
grow by contradiction. And the example that his colleague Engels 
gave was that 3^011 drop barley on the earth; the barley is negated by 
the earth; out of the negation of the barley by the earth there comes 
an entirely new harvest of barley, different in quantity and quality 
from that which was sowed. 

Up to this point it is only a philosophy, but it is a philosophy which 
is purely mental and without any basis in reality. 

He now goes to France, where he meets Proudhon, explains the 
system to Proudhon, and Proudhon says, "Marx, you are a typical 
German; this is up in the air; it's too idealistic and nobody will be 
interested in it." Proudhon suggested that he appby it to the social 
order. 

And the application to the social order was this: Now it is not only 
matter that has within itself a tension; it is society that has the ten- 
sion. It is not just barley and earth negating one another; those who 
own property are negated by those who do not own property, and 
those who do not own are negated by those who do own; and out of 
the two comes- a new social order, and that new social order is 
communism. 

The point, therefore, is that communism is not an economic sys- 
tem; communism is basically a philosophical system, which was born 
of the marriage of two unmarriageable and unproductive units; 
namely, Hegel and Feuerbach. 

Mr." Areas. May 1 inquire at this point: How does this philosophy 
of communism compare with reality? 

Bishop Sheen. Well, the first point 1 made was that it was an 
ideology that was not based on reality. 

Mr. Arens. 1 should like at this point, if you please, to ask j-ou to 
pursue that specific train of thought to tell us how in your judgment, 
communism varies from or contradicts reality? 

Bishop Sheen. Well, first of all, it is perhaps going into it too 
philosophically to say that what Marx was really talking about were 
contraries instead of contradictions, that the earth is not the contra- 
diction of I he barley seed, it is something that complements it. 

Bui now getting more precisely down to earth, why is the ideology 
in conflict with reality? Because it is in conflict even with the reality 
of communism. Why, if contradiction, dialectics, tension are inherent 
in nature and in history, why is it that dialectics do not apply to 
communism? Why doesn't communism beget its negation? 

And they have never been able to answer that particular question; 
Hie only concret e answer that was ever given to it was Mao Tse-tung's, 
a month ago, when lie said, "You must allow for variations and even 
new contradictions within a Communist society." And for that Mao 
Tse-tung has been reproved by the Communists. 



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 11 

Mr. Arens. Does the philosophy of Communism encompass a 
concept of God? 

Bishop Sheen. No; there are several reasons why there is no place 
for God in communism. One is because of its concept of freedom. 
Suppose I correlate the problem of religion and the problem of freedom 
in answering your question, and let me begin with freedom and then 
go to religion. 

A man is free on the inside because he has a soul that he can call 
his own. Wherever you have the spirit you have freedom. A pencil 
has no freedom, ice has no freedom to be warm, fire has no freedom 
to be cold. You begin to have freedom only when jdu have something 
immaterial or spiritual. 

Now, freedom must have some external guaranty of itself. The 
external guaranty of human freedom is property. A man is free on 
the inside because he can call his soul his own; he is free on the outside 
because he can call something he has his own. Therefore private 
property is the economic guaranty of human freedom. 

Suppose now you concoct a system in which you want to possess 
man totally. On what conditions can you erect a totalitarian system 
so that, man belongs to you completely? One, you have got to deny 
spirit; two, you have got to deny property. 

That is why the existence of God and private property are botli 
denied simultaneously by communism. If a man has no soul, he 
cannot allege that he has any relationships with anyone outside of the 
state. If he has no property, he is dependent upon the state even for 
his physical existence. Therefore the denial of God and the denial 
of freedom are both conditions of slavery. 

Mr. Arens. Is there, in your judgment, room within the philosophy 
of communism for moral concepts? 

Bishop Sheen. Yes, there is, if you use moral in the Communist 
sense of what is expedient or nonexpedient for a totalitarian system. 
What is true and what is false, what is right, and what is wrong in 
communism? Anything that favors the Communist cause is right. 
Anything that deters it or obstructs it is wrong. 

What is true under the Communist system? Truth is what is 
helpful for establishing the revolution; false is what obstructs it. 

Mr. Arens. And what is the goal of communism? 

Bishop Sheen. The goal of communism is the complete subjection 
of mankind to a totalitarian s} :r stem which would deny both internal 
and external freedom. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you if you see a distinction between the 
ideology of communism and communism in action; does it work out 
the way it was conceived to work? 

Bishop Sheen. May I before I answer that question bring out one 
other point about the ideology 

Mr. Arens. Please do. 

Bishop Sheen. That will help us, I think, answer that question. It 
has to do with the problem of what is a person. There is a difference 
between a person and an individual. An individual is replaceable. 
When you buy oranges you can say, "I don't like that one, give me 
this one." But you cannot say that about children. 

Every person in the world is irreplaceable and unique. Now, 
democracy is based upon the concept of persons, not individuals. 
The political philosophers of communism said that it was based upon 



12 THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 

individuals, and individuals could be massed, and out of the mass 
came communism. 

Karl Marx discussed the problem of person. He said a person in 
a democracy is supposed to have value because he has a soul and was 
created by God. He was perfectly right in saying that that was the 
basic principle of democracy, but then he went on, in some works 
that are not very well known, and he reiterated the idea in one of his 
introductions to "Das Kapital," in which he said the person has 
value only inasmuch as he is useful to the revolutionary movement. 
The moment he ceases to be useful, he no longer exists. 

That is why liquidation can be right, because right is not in objec- 
tivity, right is in what the party determines to be right. 

Mr. Arens. Does not the Communist philosophy have an end 
result which they perceive to be good, a kind of a millenium on earth? 

Bishop Sheen. Yes; communism has actually taken from Chris- 
tianity. 

Mr. Arens. It is a perversion of Christianity, however, is it not? 

Bishop Sheen. Oh, yes; certainly. But it has taken from Christi- 
anity the notion of a final retribution and judgment; there is no such 
thing as coming into the Kingdom of God without a trial; individually 
there is not, collectively the world itself will not pass into another 
world without a last judgment and a great conflagration. 

Now, communism is much more right than the liberalism of the 
19th century. The liberalism of the 19th century believed in auto- 
matic progress; nothing can stop it. Their view of progress was 
quite wrong, because all you have to do is simply to count up the 
interval between wars; the interval between the Franco-Prussian War 
and the First World War was 45 years; and then between the First 
World War and the Second, 23, so they are becoming more frequent. 
Progress is not automatic. 

Communism, however, instead of believing in automatic progress, 
said there has to come a moment of trial, of conflict, of purgation — 
a kind of a last judgment. That is the moment of violence and rev- 
olution, and the imposition of party authority on the mass that is 
seized. Then there comes peace. 

So they have taken over something there from Christianity and 
perverted it, and they believe in a millennium, but they believed it 
would happen much more quickly than it has. 

Marx, for example, was sure that the last country in the world that 
would ever be Communist would be Russia, because it did not have 
the intrinsic contradictions of capital and labor, therefore it could 
not become communistic. But both Marx and Lenin expected that 
within 20 or ,30 years it would, and the revolutionists of 1917 thought 
it would be within 5 or 10 years. And the millennium today is receding. 

Colonel Heimlich. Plow do you account for the fact that so few 
people have acquired domination over so many in a state such as 
Russia, where even Lenin thought such revolution or communism 
would be impossible? 

Bishop Sheen. It is easy to make a touchdown when you run on 
the foul lines. Remember that the Communists operate in a much 
broader field than the rest of the world, who are governed by a very 
definite sense of right and wrong and respect for human personality 
and human truth. When you do not obligate yourself to a concept 
of truth and right, you have a much larger area in which to operate. 



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 13 

Mr. Arens. Do you perceive a distinction between the philosophy 
of communism, what communism purports to be, and what com- 
munism is in reality as it has been sweeping over approximately one- 
third of the globe? 

Bishop Sheen. No; I find that, as in Christianity the word became 
flesh, or truth became incarnate; in communism the ideology has 
become action. There is no great diversity between any principles of 
communism and communism in action. And that is why many 
people go wrong in judging communism, because they, not knowing 
its ideology, do not understand the present action. 

We of the Western World judge Russia by its foreign policy. 
Whenever there are smiles at Geneva and Russia apparently begins 
to be lenient with the Western World, we think communism is good. 
Whereas if you judge it from its ideology, it is a tactic, but not a change 
of system. 

Mr. Arens. Is there a basis for trust or confidence upon which we 
could have sound negotiations with the men of the Kremlin? 

Bishop Sheen. There is absolutely no basis. As Lenin himself 
said, lies, deceit must be used in order to attain the Communist goal. 

Mr. Arens. May I revert, if you please, to the theme that was 
posed a moment ago, by Colonel Heimlich, namely, in view of the 
fallacies of communism, why is it communism in the course of the 
last 50 years has made such tremendous inroads throughout the 
world? 

Bishop Sheen. There are many reasons for that. One reason is 
the spiritual vacuum that has been created in the world. The modern 
world has lost its faith, it has lost its goal and its purpose. And the 
world became sick and tired of milk-and-water systems where there 
was nothing so sacred that you could dedicate your life to it, and 
nothing so evil that you should risk your life to destroy it. And 
communism comes into a world that is sick with relativism, and offers 
an absolute, and men find a loyalty and a dedication and a consecra- 
tion which gives them great faith in a political system, without im- 
posing any individual morality. 

Mr. Arens. You have given us a diagnosis of the disease; do you 
have a remedy to suggest? 

Bishop Sheen. Remedies can be political, economic, moral, edu- 
cational. As regards education, I believe in informing people about 
the philosophy of communism. I insist on the philosoplry, because 
that is the only way that communism will ever be understood. 

Politically and juridically, there should be a tightening of our laws 
so that we could get back to a condition that we had in the days when 
our country began, when we knew practically only one traitor, and 
we could name him. And history carried on the name of Benedict 
Arnold. 

Now the name is legion. It is no longer a scandal to the American 
people that there is a traitor, or that we have traitors b} r the thousands, 
perhaps hundreds of thousands. 

Colonel Heimlich. Does that not indicate, sir, what you said 
earlier, that this very lack of some spiritual value, some rock on which 
we can anchor our moral life, is lacking? 

Bishop Sheen. Yes. 

Colonel Heimlich. And the Communist, as you said — and I 
thought it was so very well put — has his faith in his system which 
imposes no morality, a discipline which does not discipline morally. 



14 THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 

Bishop Sheen. It legislates for the mass, but it does not impose 
any individual morality. That is one of the reasons, I think, why 
some people — not all, God forbid — have an exaggerated interest in 
social justice, because it dispenses them from individual justice; they 
begin taking care of everyone else's problems in order to cover up 
their own dark and rotten conscience. Whenever I hear people talk 
about social justice I always want to find out how much they pay 
their housekeepers. 

Mr. Arens. May I inquire if you feel that is one reason why, in 
our work in the Committee on Un-American Activities, we find within 
the Communist network, and within the framework of those who are 
under Communist discipline, vast segments of the intelligentsia of 
this country, because they have lost a moral foundation for their 
lives? 

Bishop Sheen. Yes. It is always well to investigate the moral 
background of those who become Communists, as it is always a good 
principle in talking to people not to be so interested in what they say, 
as in why they say it. Why do certain people say certain things? 
For example, if you ask me a question, and I immediately begin 
insulting you or the committee, you shouldn't pay any attention to 
what I am sa}ang, but to why do I say it, to what is wrong with me. 

A young man one day knocked Lincoln down in a hospital in 
Virginia. He didn't recognize Lincoln, and he said to Lincoln, "Why 
didn't you get out of the way, you big, long-legged spider?" And 
Lincoln said, "Young man., what's troubling you on the inside?" 

Very often skepticism is a moral position, that is to say, it has been 
determined by behavior. So the intelligentsia will sometimes follow 
communism because of their behavior. 

Colonel Heimlich. What can we as Christians, or as believers in 
God and God's law and God's creation, do to blunt the attack of this 
ideology of communism? 

Bishop Sheen. Well, I was going to come to the Christian solution 
of it in answer to your question, because I mentioned several wa} r s of 
suggesting remedies. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, then please, at your own pace. 

Bishop Sheen. I think that the United Nations should expel Russia 
for certain actions, particularly in Hungary. Two, I think that the 
United Nations should be turned upside down. You see, the United 
Nations is made up — and because I haven't thought about this for 
some time and my language may need some correction — of the 
Security Council, and then there is the aggregate General Assembly. 
I think that the General Assembly should be on top, because the 
General Assembly for the most part is made up of small nations. The 
small nations must depend upon moral right, since they cannot 
depend upon physical power. Let them therefore be the legislative, 
judicial body, and let the Security Council of the powerful nations 
execute the decisions of the small powers. 

And furthermore, when the United Nations was set up it was set 
up with five powers. Suppose it were set up with 5 policemen who 
were supposed to take care of the civic peace of New York City, and 
1 of the policemen robbed a bank; should he have the right of veto 
against the other 4 policemen who wanted to arrest him? 

Colonel Heimlich. Of course this right was insisted on by the 
Soviet Union, represented b}^ Mr. Molotov, at the time of the San 
Francisco Conference. 



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 15 

Bishop Sheen. I know it was, and I talked about it to 25,000 
people the night before the United Nations opened in San Francisco; 
and a New York newspaper carried an editorial making fun of me 
because I said Russia would abuse the right of veto. 

Then as in regard to what Christians can do, remember that 
Christians are asked to do something for which they have no imple- 
mentation. We happen to live, remember, in a dualistic civilization. 
It used to be a unitary civilization, when Christianity was Christen- 
dom, and Christendom was civilization. The power and the force of 
Christianity do not have any organs by which their spiritual and 
moral power can find action, corrective action. Christianity must 
operate solely in the realm of suggesting ideas. 

Mr. Arens. I do not quite understand your observation that 
Christian organizations, churches, and the like, do not have organs by 
which they can make their ideology effective. 

Bishop Sheen. Well, for example, there is no waj' of influencing 
a whole judicial s} T stem from a Christian point of view, from a moral 
point of view, to include Protestants and Jews and Catholics. There 
is no way for the spiritual forces of the Nation, for example, to in- 
fluence an economic system or the international order. 

Mr. Arens. Can't they influence them because of their impact 
upon the individuals who represent the people in the governments? 

Bishop Sheen. Again, that gets back to what I was sa3 T ing, which 
was merely the proposing of ideals. The impact is not as it is, for 
example, in a baseball club, where a man who breaks training can be 
penalized immediately, or where I myself could be subject to disci- 
pline if I refused to obey the laws of the church. It is over them as 
in our present structure of society the sun is over us, but we can do 
many things under that sun. 

One way in which the spiritual and moral forces of the Nation might 
be harnessed would be to insist in the United Nations over and over 
again on the liberation of certain suppressed peoples, particularly 
Poland. World War II started on account of Poland. Whatever 
happens to Poland, therefore, will happen to the world. And we 
should never let go of the question of when is Poland going to decide 
its own fate, when is Hungary going to, when is Albania, and not be 
deterred by any other problems. No problem is settled until Poland, 
Hungary, and the other nations behind the Iron Curtain have their 
problems settled. 

Mr. Arens. What can the individual do? Here are Mr. and Mrs. 
Jones out in Dubuque, Iowa, or Kansas City, Mo., or here in New 
York City; what can they, as just ordinary Americans, do, if anything? 

Bishop Sheen. They can become more articulate about what they 
believe to be right and good for the world. It happens that we live 
in a mass civilization. We read the same newspapers; we listen to the 
same news commentators; we read almost the same magazines; and 
w T e settle down to the complacency of mass opinion. And persons to 
their neighbors will express moral opinions concerning the United 
Nations, the suppressed peoples behind the Iron and Bamboo Cur- 
tains, which they never have expressed to governments and to the 
United Nations. And if these common people ever express some- 
where else than over a back fence their moral convictions concerning 
what is happening in the world, I think they would make an impact. 



16 THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 

Mr. Arens. Is there some other point that you, of your own voli- 
tion, would like to make, even though we may not have asked j'ou 
about it? 

Bishop Sheen. From a purely spiritual point of view, we have been, 
of course, very much concerned with Russia, since what we call the 
revelation of Fatima in 1917; from April 13 to October 13, 1917, 
there were a series of revelations in Fatima about Russia spreading 
revolution throughout the world. In 1917 we entered the World War. 
The Kerensky government was falling, or had fallen; the Czar was 
killed, and no one ever would have thought that Russia would then be 
a world power. 

The fullness of this revelation has never been given out by the 
church. Some say it will be given out completely in 1960. 

The revelation further said that Russia would eventually receive 
the gift of faith. I think we will live to see, all of us will live to see, the 
end of communism in Russia. Communism has no way of propagating 
its masters. The monarchy has; democracy has; communism has 
none, except exile, cutting throats. Good is self-preserving; evil is 
always self-defeating. 

There is no such thing as the liberation of China until Russia itself 
disintegrates. I believe that, when Russia does disintegrate, Russia 
will be one of the great spiritual and moral nations of the world, be- 
cause one thing that communism has done in Russia is that it has 
restored a sense of discipline and dedication, which is very much on 
the decline in the Western World. From a truly Christian point of 
view, what has happened in Christianity in the modern world is that 
Christ and His cross have been separated, and the Western World has, 
to some extent, taken Christ without His cross, and made Him a femi- 
nine Kiwanis booster. 

Communism has taken the cross without Christ, and when you 
take the cross without Christ, you get tyranny and concentration 
camps. There is no love on it; it is a cruel instrument of contra- 
diction. That is the religious situation of the world. 

Who is closer to the ultimate reconciliation, of the two? Not the 
Western World, with its tawdry, cheap, sentimental Christ. Russia 
is closer, with its cross. And Russia will eventually be one of the 
greatest spiritual and moral forces in the world, within 50 or 100 years. 

Colonel Heimlich. When it has restored Christ to its particular 
cross? 

Bishop Sheen. That's right. 

Mr. Arens. May we conclude the consultation by expressing our 
thanks for the contribution which you have made to our study of 
"The Ideological Fallacies of Communism." 

(Whereupon, at 3:45 p. m., Wednesday, September 25, 1957, the 
staff consultation was concluded.) 



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 



FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 1957 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

New York, N. Y. 

STAFF CONSULTATION 

The following consultation with Dr. Daniel A. Poling was held by 
the staff of the Committee on Un-American Activities at the office 
of the Christian Herald, 27 East 39th Street, New York City, at 2:30 
p. m. on Friday, October 18, 1957. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director (presiding), and 
Col. William F. Heimlich, consultant. 

Mr. Arens. We are pleased at this time on behalf of the Committee 
on Un-American Activities of the House of Representatives to consult 
with Dr. Daniel A. Poling, the editor of the Christian Herald, with 
respect to the subject, "The Ideological Fallacies of Communism." 

DR. DANIEL A. POLING 

Mr. Arens. Doctor, what do you regard as the principal fallacies 
in the ideology of communism? 

Dr. Poling. Well, sir, communism is a driving dynamic faith. It 
has all of the passion that we associate with the early Christian church. 
But its basic tenet, its first principle, is atheism. It not only disre- 
gards, but it refutes and denies, the Christian ethic. It has absolutely 
no concern for the individual. We believe that government is made 
for man, and not man for government. Communism teaches and 
practices that the individual is not only the servant of, but the slave 
of, the state. He exists for the state. His personal well-being is of 
no consideration at all if the strength of the state is in any way miti- 
gated or jeopardized by this individual. 

Communism, as we regard faith and the Christian ethic, is unmoral. 
This is at the heart of the great and irreconcilable controversy. 

Mr. Arens. Does this faith of communism, or this force of commu- 
nism, translate itself into action which can be appraised? 

Dr. Poling. It does. It translates itself into action. For instance, 
I have just come back from the Far East. I met an old friend out 
there who, when I first knew him, was the treasurer of one of our 
orphanages in Canton. He was a fine young man. He was happy 
to remain in Canton after the Communists came in because he wished 
to continue to serve the little children in that orphanage. He was 
betrayed to the People's Government, charged with stealing from the 
orphanage. He was taken into custody and he was held in solitary 
for 8 months, brought out and tortured for 3 days and 4 nights, or 
perhaps it was 4 nights and 3 days, and by that time he was ready to 

17 



18 THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 

confess anything. He made his confession and what it was he does not 
now remember. Bringing the account books to him, they asked him 
to show where he had taken this money, and he could not. The poor 
fellow could not because he had not stolen. They changed the charge 
to lying. He had lied to the People's Government. He had not taken 
the money, and he had confessed to taking it, and therefore they 
charged him with lying. So they tried him on that, and found him 
guilty and sentenced him to 3 years, and he served the 3 years at hard 
labor in a briclsyard working with bare hands. He came out broken, 
of course, and was branded a criminal, so that he could not secure 
work, and he became a rice louse, begging from stoop to stoop. 

After 18 months and after many trips to headquarters, he persuaded 
the authorities to allow him to get to Hong Kong. There is movement 
to and fro, as you know, across the border. Right now there are as 
many as 40,000 refugees fleeing from the marvelous liberties of com- 
munism in Red China to Hong Kong, where a desperate situation 
confronts them. 

He got to Hong Kong, and he is now the treasurer of one of our 
largest orphanages, called the Peoples Garden. He had been there 
some 8 weeks when I came to see him. He had partially regained his 
strength but will never be the same. Death is marked on him. 

When I got to Taipei, I told this experience to our Ambassador, 
Mr. Rankin, and he smiled and said, "Mr. Poling, that is it." He 
said, "To understand communism, you must understand why that 
could be. It is injustice, complete incredible disregard for the 
individual, but nevertheless it is the realism of communism." 

He told me that in Nanking, shortly before the Embassy was 
moved, and while he was acting in the stead of Dr. Stuart who was 
then our Ambassador, but who was ill in the United States, there were 
two cases in one week in the People's Government court. In one a 
man was charged with the murder of his wife, and he was found guilty 
and sentenced to 90 days. In the other case, an employee of the 
People's Government was charged with stealing ink from the office. 
He was found guilty, sentenced to be executed, and his head was 
chopped off. 

"Now," Mr. Rankin said, "there is just nothing in that that is 
understandable to a Christian, or to a free man anywhere in the world, 
is there? But to the Communists in the first instance the man had 
committed a purely personal crime; he murdered his own wife. He 
of course should be punished, and the criminal act should be recog- 
nized, but it was simply the murder of his wife. But in the second 
instance, the man had committed an offense against the People's 
Government. He had stolen ink from the People's Government. 
His offense was heinous, and it was complete, and he was sentenced 
to be executed and his head was chopped off." 

Mr. Arens. You have pointed out something that is almost in- 
credible to the Western mind, and to a person who is inculcated with 
even the basic Christian precepts. Why is it, then, if communism is 
such a hideous force, that it has swept over vast areas of the earth 
with such incredible speed, and today threatens to engulf other areas 
of the earth? 

Dr. Poling. How often I have asked myself that question. I 
found one answer. If you do not have anything — and this is the case 
in Asia particularly where millions of people wonder whether they may 



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 19 

reasonably hope to have a handful of rice in the morning — a promise, 
even if it is a lie, is something. Now, that is one answer. That is 
part of the answer to the question. Communism purports to offer 
the answer to multitudes and millions of people, underprivileged, 
hungry, starving. Communism moves in on us at our weakest point. 
They blow up the great lie of colonialism and charges of imperialism. 
You know Goebbels said that if 3*011 repeat a lie often enough, people 
will believe it, and 3*011 will even come to believe it 3 r ourself. 

Now, for instance, at the present time there is the great falsehood 
about our inciting armed conflict along the Syrian frontier. I don't 
believe that anyone at the beginning believed that. I cannot under- 
stand how an3*one could. Of course, there are millions who have no 
background knowledge at all, and along comes this accusation. 
After what happened in Hungary, after communism has made, in 
the opinion of some of us, a moral debacle of the United Nations, 
here comes the statement, bald and bold, that we are instigating 
armed conflict on the Syrian frontier. Now, some people give a 
measure of truth to that. And against the incident at Suez, and 
against all that has happened in the past, bringing it forward, and 
holding it up in front of the people, 3*011 find multitudes and multi- 
tudes believing. 

Also, communism moves in on the very humanities of our Christian 
leaders. We should be men of mercy. We should believe rather 
than doubt. It is so easy for us, many of us, to be betra3 r ed. Again 
and again men in whom I have great confidence and for whom I hold 
great admiration have associated themselves in resolutions with 
groups that were set up to subvert, to distract, and to draw attention 
away from the central fact. They signed petitions and letters and 
resolutions. They are not doing as much of it now as they did for- 
merly, because, here a little and there a little, we have been able to 
bring to their attention the fallacy and the fact that in the name of 
the highest and the holiest, these men are moving to destroy the 
very freedoms that make it possible for us to speak out. 

¥011 see, after all, freedom has not 3*ct perfected its processes, but 
as I said to a friend in Calcutta 3 years ago, the genius and the great- 
ness of American freedom is this: that we may march and that we 
may move in the direction of the ultimate. Granted that mistakes 
have been made, and granted that not all of freedoms guaranteed by 
the Constitution and the Bill of Rights have been achieved, neverthe- 
less we are free to move toward perfect freedom. The goal is in front 
of us, and we are on the march. That is the difference today between 
America and Communist countries. 

Mr. Arens. Dr. Poling, how can the forces of freedom undertake 
to stem the tide of communism? Can we negotiate binding agree- 
ments with them? 

Dr. Poling. Speaking to a small group at the Williams Club last 
week I said that there was every reason for us to withdraw recognition 
of Russia; every reason for us to go back to the nonrccognition policy 
fixed by Secretary of State Colby in his letter to President Wilson, 
which was a fixed policy of the United States Government for the 
remainder of the Wilson administration, going through Harding and 
Coolidge and Hoover. Every agreement entered into by the Com- 
munists has been violated and it is apparent they deliberately moved 
to deceive. Here they have become in the embassy, and in the con- 



20 THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 

sular offices, centers for espionage and for traitorous acts. Therefore, 
there is every reason for us to do that. 

I also said that I believe that for us to withdraw recognition would 
strengthen our position internationally, and certainly it would 
strengthen our position in all free Asian lands. 

But then, I added, if, with the greater wisdom of the Government 
and with the greater responsibility of the Government — and the 
Government is responsible — if it is now impossible to take this radical 
action, then for freedom's sake, and for God's sake against atheism, 
let us not act as though we believed the great lie. 

In other words, let us not deceive ourselves, and let us not deceive 
our allies, and let us make it perfectly clear that while we are com- 1 
pelled to go on with these negotiations, nevertheless we do so with our 
eyes open and we do not believe the great lie. 

Mr. Arens. How can the free world contain communism, which is 
moving apparently with a relentless force over the world? 

Dr. Poling. I believe that so-called peaceful coexistence is both 
incredible and impossible. As far as communism is concerned, so far 
as the Kremlin is concerned, it means to them peaceful submission. 
That is what it means. We need to face that fact. We must realize 
that. Whatever we do, we must act accordingly. Peaceful coexist- 
ence to the Kremlin means peaceful submission. That is the result 
inevitably and finally. 

Colonel Heimlich. Can we as Christians apply moral or other force 
against this movement, against this insatiable demand for more 
people and more space in the world? 

Dr. Poling. I. don't believe I quite got your question. I am not 
sure that I do. 

Colonel Heimlich. Communism represents a force of evil, whereas 
we believe Christianity represents a force of good and all that is 
progress in the world. 

Dr. Poling. That is right; communism is satanic. 

Colonel Heimlich. How do we as Christians move against it? 

Dr. Poling. I think every declaration pointing out the nature and 
effect of communism, made in the United Nations is to the good, and 
let us keep on making declarations, and let us not lose a single oppor- 
tunity in spite of the fact that they are ignored and repudiated and 
cynically regarded. It is tragic, to say the least, but surely there are 
ways in which we can activate the resolution. 

For instance, now we have named a man to go to Hungary. 
Hungary declines to receive him. We ought to act on that. We 
ought to say something about that, but nothing has been said yet. 
Perhaps something will be said. We should insist that that man go in. 

I was in Germany in August, and I met a convention of over 7,000 
young Germans. One hundred and eleven came from behind the Iron 
Curtain. A young Lutheran churchman said, "What happened in 
Hungary is ready to happen in Czechoslovakia, in Poland, and 
among the pitiful remnants of the Baltic countries. What happened 
in Hungary is ready to happen in Mother Russia herself. But," he 
said, "the tragedy from the standpoint of those of us who do not 
consent was this: When Hungary arose, there was no support." 

"Now," he said, "certainly we were left under the impression that 
such action as that which occurred in Hungary was desired by the 



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 21 

West. Certainly it was promoted by the West, by the broadcasts, 
the Voice of America, and the rest, and yet nothing happened." He 
said, "We are not inclined to criticize; we don't know; but if something 
could have happened, if there could have been a quick declaration of 
moral support, staccato, just like that, we would have been encour- 
aged. In the end there will be risings. This thing cannot be 
contained." 

In other words, he believes, as I do, that communism has at its 
heart the seed of its own death, but it takes time for the seed to 
germinate, and it takes time for the seed to come to its harvest. All 
that we are doing now, with our preparedness — and whatever the 
cost that preparedness must not be skimped — all that we are doing 
is buying time, as I see it. 

Mr. Arexs. What can the average Air. and Mrs. American do, if 
anything, on behalf of the forces of freedom to stem the tide of 
communism at home and abroad? 

Dr. Poling. There are several things we can do. We can first of 
ah associate ourselves with those movements that are anti-Communist, 
definitely anti-Communist. For instance, there is the All American 
Conference to Combat Communism, which brings together officially 
representatives of more than 50 national organizations. These 
organizations have more than 60 million members. They are such 
organizations as the General Federation of Women's Clubs, and all of 
the veterans organizations that are nationally congressionally char- 
tered, and their auxiliaries, such as the American Legion, Veterans 
of Foreign Wars, the Catholic War Veterans, and Jewish War Vet- 
erans, and all of the fraternal organizations that are nationally 
chartered, all of them, including such youth organizations as the 
International Society of Christian Endeavor, and Allied Youth. 

More than that, 1 think that letterwriting where it is done intelli- 
gently and in good faith is helpful. I have, for example, written a 
letter to the New York Times, associating myself with that distin- 
guished churchman, Bishop Welch, the senior bishop in the Methodist 
Church. We need to do more of that. We need to give support to 
the men out in front. 

Herbert Philbrick is doing a fine thing in the Herald Tribune. 
There are many ways in which even the little man, the little woman, 
and the little person may get into this conflict and be identified with 
this movement. Above all, the individual citizen should support our 
own Christian patriotic organizations and institutions. 

Then I think that I might well say that you gentlemen who are 
here today from the Committee on Un-American Activities of the 
House of representatives represent the spearhead of the aggressive 
continuous attack on communism. I don't know what I would do 
without the material that comes month after month, and regularly, 
from Washington, D. C, and from your headquarters, because that 
is authoritative, and I use it in my column, "Americans All." 

The very fact you and the committee are under attack is significant. 
If you were not doing something, you would not be under attack. 
You arc out in front, as I say again; you are the spearhead of this 
attack. Your work is authoritative; it is official; and I am for it. I 
think that I would like to express my personal appreciation for it. 

There is the work that J. Edgar Hoover does and the FBI, the 
constant and unfaltering work. I find that all over the United Slates 



22 THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 

Mr. Hoover himself is regarded as one of the preeminent Americans 
whose integrity, whose patriotism, and whose intelligence and courage 
are not to be questioned. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any thoughts which you would care to 
express, Dr. Poling, with reference to how the average American can 
detect within his own community, and within the orbit of his own 
activities, Communist infiltration and influence? 

Dr. Poling. It is very difficult, and there the danger comes. I 
think it is so dangerous for us to name names, and to say, "This man 
is a Communist" or "This man is a subversive." But, nevertheless, 
we need to be alert to the fact that when it comes to basic American 
institutions and American freedoms, the man who is soft in his attitude 
toward these things, even though he may not be a subversive, is not a 
helpful fighter for freedom in our time. Those who come into print 
and associate themselves in the daily press with movements that have 
been, to say the least, far left of center, need to be answered, and we 
may answer them without indicting them, without questioning their 
integrity, and without questioning their basic loyalty. 

You see, here it is: The man who is not a Communist — a card- 
bearing Communist — but who associates himself with such activities 
as many of my brother clergymen, too many of them, associated them- 
selves with in the past, is worth more to communism than 100 card- 
bearing Communists, vastly more. 

Mr. Arens. How does the patriotic American of good intentions 
peer behind the appealing facade which the Communist operation puts 
up in this country for its various movements? 

Dr. Poling. Can I tell you what my experience was? I wrote an 
article in the Saturday Evening Post 3 years ago to which they gave 
the title, "Preachers Are Citizens, Too." In it I spoke of three 
instances in which I had unwittingly identified myself with move- 
ments that in themselves I judged to be correct, but in which I was 
associated with men and women whom I did not wish to be associated 
with. I was lined up on the wrong side. So I reached the conclusion 
that I would sign no resolution that I did not write myself, or for 
which I was not fully responsible as to my knowledge of it. That 
came out of an experience with the distinguished president of a 
theological seminary who signed the petition which was sent to the 
President in support of clemency for the 11 convicted Communists. 
He signed it, and he was asked to sign it by a clergyman who lives in 
Philadelphia, who has organized such movements frequently. Eight 
months later when it was released he discovered that it was not what 
he had signed, and also that he was associated with those he did not 
wish to be associated with. He telephoned me here at this office for 
my advice, and I said, "Send a telegram to the President and also 
send a telegram to the gentleman in Philadelphia, in which you ask 
that your name be withdrawn, in which you state the case that this is 
not what you signed, and that you do not wish to be associated with 
those who are on that resolution or petition." 

Then he wrote me a letter and he said, "What are we going to do?" 
I wrote an editorial in which I stated what I have just said to you: 
That I sign no resolutions that I do not write myself, or that I am not 
fully acquainted with as to their beginnings, as to their purpose, and, 
above all, as to those who are actually responsible for them. 



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 23 

Now, I think that that is the onty safe course, and a multitude of 
men who previously were careless — and women, too — are not careless 
any longer, and we are not having as much difficulty as we used to 
have. 

But on the other hand, it is not enough to be negative. We ought 
to be out in front with our proposals. For instance, there is this 
full-page advertisement in the New York Times by the Committee 
of One Million, in which the speech of Hu Shih, the distinguished 
Chinese, before the United Nations is given a full spread, in which he 
tells the awful story of communism in action on the mainland of 
China. 

Mr. Aeens. Now, may I ask you finally, if you please, Dr. Poling, 
how can the forces of freedom best compete in the world market place 
of ideas with Communist ideology? 

Dr. Poling. First of all, by being constructive. It is not enough 
to be negative. We must state the case for freedom and for democ- 
racy — what it has done. 

For instance, when we are charged with colonialism, let us tell the 
story of the Philippine Islands. That was told so eloquently by Gen. 
Carlos Romulo, in which in 25 years, as of his statement, we accom- 
plished more for the people of the Philippines, and now T the Republic 
of the Philippines, than other great powers had accomplished in 100 
years of colonializing in the Far East. We can tell that story of what 
we did, the millions we invested, in order that a people might be 
sanitary, that they might be educated, that they might be prepared 
for freedom. Then we gave them their freedom. 

Now, you can see how it pays off, because we have no more loyal 
ally anywhere in the world than the Republic of the Philippines. 

We need to tell the story of freedom — what it is. We made a mis- 
take early in the days of our broadcasting of telling the world how 
wonderful w^e were, and what our economy was, and what our material 
living conditions were. I saw in one of the Indian English papers a 
cartoon. Uncle Sam was seated nonchalantly at the top of a pyramid 
of things — automobiles, deep freezes, and telephones— and non- 
chalantly smoking a cigar. At the base of this pyramid little people 
were staggering and falling and holding up their starved hands. That 
was presented as a picture of the United States of America. 

A friend of mine whom I met first in the University of London said, 
"Now, Poling, that cartoon is a lie. I know that it is a lie." But 
nevertheless, that is released as a picture to these millions in India, 
and in Ceylon, and that is the story. He said, "For heaven's sake, 
go back and get the Voice of America to tell us something else, because 
we never expect to have deep freezes and bathtubs and automobiles." 

But I repeat w*hat I said before. They w T ould like to know they 
may have a handful of rice in the morning. We have changed the 
Voice of America at that point. We need to emphasize not what 
material things we have here, but the realities of freedom and the 
fact that communism is slavery. It is the destruction of the very 
aspirations of the soul. It is enslavement of the body, and you can 
prove that by pointing to Communist slave camps all over the world; 
and not only the enslavement of the body, but the enslavement of the 
mind and the soul. And remember one thing: there are more than 
one billion human beings who believe in one God — the Moslem, the 
Buddhist, the Roman Catholic, the Protestant, and the Jew. 



24 THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 

We should lay emphasis upon the fact that communism in its first 
tenet is atheism. We have obscured that idea too often. We need 
to point to what we have on our coins, "In God We Trust." We 
need to get that across, if you please. We are getting the dollar 
across, but we need to get across the thing that we really finally live 
by in this country. 

Mr. Arens. How do we point out the wolf of communism that is 
in sheep's clothing, which it presents to the peoples of the world? 

Dr. Poling. By telling what it has done and how it was done, the 
rape of the Baltic countries, taking up those populations and throwing 
them out of their homes and lands and farms into Siberia; what it has 
meant in the slave camps; what it has meant in China, the admissions 
of Chou En-lai, where he admits to 800,000 human souls liquidated. 
I prefer to take the figures of Bishop Quinton Y. K. Wong, a bishop of 
the Episcopal Church in China, who finally escaped, and he is now in 
the Diocese of Pittsburgh. His estimate is that 40 million people were 
liquidated. We need to tell the true story and we need to make it 
graphic. We have been sometimes restrained by our own readers who 
have been timorous about exciting or disturbing relationships in the 
United Nations. Well, as I see it, more and more we need to be doing 
what we are doing now there, telling the truth, and just the truth about 
communism as it is. We can point out the sham of the promise of 
communism by showing its morbid, bloody results. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Dr. Poling, we have asked you a number of 
questions on each of several facets of this tremendous problem. Are 
there other areas that you would like to comment on, or anything 
else you have in mind which you would like to say? 

Dr. Poling. Well, it is the human interest thing that holds me in a 
poignant grip. I have been going out and seeing these babies and 
children ever since 1946, in the Middle East, and then with the 
coming of the Korean war in 1950, in the Far East. They are children 
that I have come to love, and they are beautiful children. Here, for 
example [indicating], are some pictures that reached me today. Here 
is a picture of a little girl that Mrs. Poling made her very own. Oriental 
children are beautiful youngsters. This child saw her father beheaded. 
He was the head man of a small city 40 miles from Canton. She also 
saw two uncles beheaded, and she saw her family wiped out. Six years 
ago she was a little girl 7 years old, who fled screaming into the night. 
How she ever got across, I don't know, but she is now in our orphanage. 
We call it the Faith Love Orphanage in Hong Kong. 

Mr. Arens. What denomination, may I ask? 

Dr. Poling. It is interdenominational. The Christian Herald is 
nondenominational. When I first saw this child, she could not smile. 
As you see from these pictures, she smiles all over now. These other 
pictures are of children that were starved. Do you know that 6 
years ago when we took the census in our Faith Love Orphanage, 80.7 
percent of those children were children of fathers who had been 
liquidated? The clearer word for that is murdered by Communists 
when they came into south China. 

Now, don't ask me to be too calm about this thing. Don't suggest 
to me peaceful coexistence for this thing. If I believe — and I do 
believe in the Christian ethic — if I believe in the words of Jesus, who 
said, "Sutler the little children to come unto me and forbid them not," 



THE IDEOLOGICAL FALLACIES OF COMMUNISM 25 

if those things are real to me, then communism which is anti-God, is 
forever and eternally my enemy. 

Mr. Area's. It has been suggested, if I could interpose this comment 
just so our record is clear, that communism is after all only an eco- 
nomic system. I believe it was the present leader of the Kremlin, 
Khrushchev, who speaks of two competing economic S3*stems. Do 
you have an observation to make on that? 

Dr. Polixg. It is very simple. That, of course, is part of the great 
lie. Communism is a total and comprehensive philosophy. It is a 
way of life. It is a coverall, body, mind, and soul. It is the universal 
enslavement. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, Dr. Poling, for your contribution in this 
consultation on "The Ideological Fallacies of Communism." 

(Thereupon, at 3:20 p. m., Friday, October 18, 1957, the staff 
consultation was concluded.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Pa pre 

Bogen, Boris 1 

Bogen, Mrs. Boris 1 

Chou En-lai 24 

Djilas, Milovan 4 

Feuerbaeh, Ludwig 9, 10 

Fineberg, S. Andhil vii, viii, 1-7 (Statement) 

Hegel (Georg Wilhelm Friedrich) 9, 10 

Hoover, J. Edgar vi, 21, 22 

Hu Shih 23 

Khrushchev, Nik it a vi 

Lenin vi, 12, 13 

Mao Tse-tung 10 

Marx, Karl vi, 9, 10, 12 

Molotov (V. M.) 14 

Philbrick, Herbert 21 

Poling, Daniel A x, 17-25 (Statement) 

Proudhon (Pierre Joseph) 10 

Rankin (Karl L.) 18 

Romulo, Carlos P 23 

Sheen, Fulton J viii, ix, 9-16 (Statement) 

Stuart (J. Leigh ton) 18 

Welch (Herbert) 21 

Wong, Quinton Y. K 24 

Organizations 

All American Conference to Combat Communism 21 

Allied Youth, Inc 21 

American Jewish Committee vii, 1, 2 

American Legion 21 

Catholic War Veterans 21 

Committee of One Million 23 

Faith Love Orphanage 24 

General Federation of Women's Clubs 21 

International Society of Christian Endeavor 21 

Jewish War Veterans 21 

Peoples Garden (orphanage) 18 

Society for the Propagation of the Faith viii, 9 

United Nations ix, x, 14, 15 

Veterans of Foreign Wars 21 

Publications 

Christian Herald x, 17, 24 

Essence of Christianity, The (book) 9 

New Class, The (book) 4 

i 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05445 3442 



/ 



Boston Public Library 
Central Library, Copley Square 

Division of 
Reference and Research Services 

Social Sciences 
Department 

The Date Due Card in the pocket indi- 
cates the date on or before which this 
book should be returned to the Library. 

Please do not remove cards from this 
pocket.