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orvie ros 




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Aii rig^Ats reurved 


» • 

First EdUion 1886 
Second Edition 1900 



Bt the rewriting of large portions of the notes, and the addition 
of an Apparatus Criticus and Appendices, the present volume has 
grown almost into a new work. The thirteen years which have 
elapsed since the first edition appeared have naturally brought 
with them many modifications in the opinions then expressed, as 
weU as many corrections of error. But the Homeric problems 
still present themselves substantially in the same aspect as 
they did in 1886, and the only serious change in point of view 
between this volume and its predecessor is that involved in the 
full acceptance of the Feisistratean recension as an all-important 
factor in the constitution of the Iliad, 

Among books which have appeared since 1886 I am con- 
scious of particular debts to van Leeuwen's Enchiridium, Cauer's 
GruTvdfragen, Erhardt's Entstehumg der HomeriscJien Gedichte, and 
Schulze's Quaestiones JEpicae. Prof. J. A. Piatt has by his 
published papers again put me under many obligations, among 
others in caUing attention to Brandreth's edition of the Iliad, 
which in 1841 surprisingly anticipated many recent conjectures 
of the "forward" school. It is impossible to specify obliga- 
tions to papers in periodicals, but I have satisfaction in thinking 



that the proportion of valuable contributions from English scholars 
has largely increased of late years. 

My warmest thanks are due to the French Ministry of 
Education, and to M. Delisle of the Bibliothfeque Nationale, for 
lending to the British Museum for my use the three valuable 
MSS. quoted in this edition as F, Q, R I must add, with deep 
regret, that my sense of obligation is all the greater because 
England refuses similar courtesy to continental students. 

I have to express my special gratitude to the Eev. 
M. A. Bayfield of Eastbourne College, who has read the proof- 
sheets and assisted me with many invaluable criticisms and 
suggestions beyond those to which his initials are appended ; to 
Mr. T. W. Allen for much valuable information from his un- 
rivalled knowledge of the MSS. of the Iliad ; and lastly to the 
scholarly care and accuracy of Mr. Webb, Messrs. R & E. Clark's 

December 9, 1899. 


The object of the present edition of the Iliad is to oflfer a guide 
to students anxious to know more of Homer than they can learn 
from elementary school-books. It must be confessed that, when 
once the strict limits of a verbal commentary are passed, it is hard 
to know which path to choose from the many which open into the 
world revealed to us by the Homeric poems. We find ourselves 
at the starting-point of all that has given Greece her place in the 
world — of Greek history, of Greek art, of Greek philosophy, 
theology, and myth. The poems are our ultimate resource for 
the study of the history of the Greek language, and it is to them 
that we owe all our knowledge of the one great school of Greek 
criticism. An editor may be pardoned if, at the risk of apparent 
superficiality and discursiveness, he attempts, not of course to 
follow all or any of these roads, but barely to indicate the 
direction in which they lead. 

Unfortunately for the English student, the works which he 
must study if he wishes to pursue these lines of inquiry are 
almost entirely in German ; unfortunately also for the editor, 
who can hardly escape the appearance of pedantry when he has 
to be continually quoting works in a foreign language. The 
difficulty is one, however, which it lies with English scholars 
themselves to remove. 


Where the acumen and industry of Germany have been for 
nearly a century so largely devoted to the Hiad and Odyssey, it 
is not to be expected, or even desired, that in a commentary for 
general use a new editor should contribute much that is really 
original The proper place for new work is in the pages of 
philological journals and dissertations. Indeed it is not possible 
for any man to be sure of the novelty of any suggestion he may 
make, so vast is the mass of Homeric literature which has been 
annually poured forth since Wolf revived the study. While 
believing therefore that some few improvements on old interpre- 
tation will be found in the following pages, I am at no pains to 
specify them, and shall be quite content if I see them adopted 
without acknowledgment On the other hand, I have freely 
taken wherever I have found, only acknowledging in the case 
of recent work which has not yet passed into the common stock, 
and reserving for this place a general statement of the great 
debts which I owe to previous authors. 

Prominent among these ^ I must place Ameis's edition of the 
Hiad, and more particularly Dr. Hentze's Appendix thereto ; the 
references given in it are of inestimable value to the student 
Heyne's large Iliad, and the editions of Pierron, Diintzer, Paley, 
La Roche, Christ, Nauck, Niigelsbach, Fasi, and Mr. Monro, have 
all been consulted; the last two continually and with especial 
respect References to notes on the Odyssey have, as far as 
possible, been confined to Merry and RiddeU's edition of the first 
twelve books, but here again Ameis and Hentze have been valued 
guides. Ebeling's great Lexicon Hoinericum, at last completed, has 

Mf I do not place Mr. Monro's Homeric Grammar in the first place, it is 
because I trust that the continual references to it will keep before the reader my 
immense debt to it. 


been of course an indispensable companion, though often usefully 
supplemented by Seiler's smaller dictionary. The other principal 
authorities will be found in the list at the end of the Introduction ; 
isolated papers and monographs can hardly be enumerated. 

I have further to express my thanks to Mr. J. A. Piatt, 
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, who has been so good as to 
read through the proofs, and contribute many valuable remarks. 

Finally, I have to name with affectionate remembrance my 
friend, the late John Henry Pratt, Fellow of Trinity CoU^, 
Cambridge. The eight years which have elapsed since his 
lamentable death by drowning in the lake of Como have so 
greatly modified the work which I inherited from him that I 
have no right to make him responsible for any opinion expressed 
in the following pages ; but I would emphatically say that their 
existence is entirely due to him, and that it is my earnest hope 
that I have said nothing which would not have met with his 
approval had he lived. 

[Jpril 1886.] 




Side view of a Mykcnaean warrior ..... 

Front view of a Mykenaean warrior ..... 

(These two figs, were drawn to Mr. Bayfield's instructions by Miss 
Alice Knox on materials from Reichel's Horn. JVaffen) 

Mykenaean battle-scene ...... 









(Figs. 3 and 4 are from gold intaglios on rings found in the tombs 
at Mykene ; Schuchhardt figs. 178, 221, pp. 197, 221) 

Diagram of the Mykenaean shield (M. A. B. ) . 



> I 


» • 


> J 



Dagger-blade from Mykene, representing a hunting-scene. The picture 
is formed by diflferently coloured alloys in the bronze blade. 
An admirable reproduction in colours will be found in Perrot and 
Chipiez, Hist, dc VArt, vol. vi. See also Schuchh. pp. 229 if. . 

Back view of Mykenaean shield (M. A. B.) . . . . 

Fragment of silver bowl from Mykene, representing a sortie from 
a besieged city ; reproduced from 'Etprifi. *Apx. 1891 

Fragments from two sides of a large vase found at Mykene, 
representing warriors marching out, and warriors engaged in 
battle ; Schuchh. p. 280. ) . . . 

Gold leg-guard found at Mykene ; see Schuchh. p. 228 

Plan of the Homeric house .... 

Cup from Mykene ..... 

Cup from Caere ..... 

> > 









I. — The Origin of the Iliad 

r is impossible to approach either the textual criticism or the 
cegesis of Homer without some theory as to the way in which 
le Iliad and Odyssey reached their present form. The Homeric 
uestion can here be but briefly touched upon ; no more will be 
ttempted than to give the main points of the hypothesis adopted 
y the present editor ; it will be stated in a categorical form for 
3nvenience only, and with no desire to disguise the undoubted 
ict that it is but one among many scores of theories, all of 
^hich have had equal attraction for their own authors. It is 
ere put forward as a working hypothesis, which appears to 
Qswer the conditions of the problem. 

Greek tradition knows that the Eiad and Odyssey^ with 
arious other poems, were the work of a historical poet called 
[omer, whose birth, residence, and death are placed in various 
Lties and islands, but by a preponderating authority are attri- 
uted to Asia Minor, and in particular to Smyrna or Chios. For 
masons which will appear, the one poet can no longer be regarded 
3 historical ; but this much at least is certain — that in the fifth 
3ntury and later nothing was known of any Epic poetry older 
lan that of the Ionian cities of Asia. As for date, we have the 
efinite opinion of Herodotos^ that Homer and Hesiod lived "400 
ears before me, and no more." 

When we come to examine the poems themselves, however, 
'e find that they do not ostensibly shew signs of Asiatic origin. 
he scene of the niad is of course laid in the Troad, but its 
oint of view is professedly that of dwellers in Greece proper ; 

1 ii. 63. 


it is there that the heroes have their homes, and thither that 
they return after the war. The poems profess a close 
acquaintance with the topography of Greece, and almost com- 
pletely ignore that of Asia. And in particular, there is no overt 
mention of the great movement of peoples, generally called the 
Dorian invasion, which led, according to a tradition which has 
every sign of truth, to the presence of Greeks on the eastern 
coasts of the Aegaean. 

Eude mountaineers from the North, it was said, had 
descended into central and southern Greece, and had dispossessed 
the ancient lords of the soil, driving them eastwards in successive 
waves. Eecent discoveries have borne out this tradition. They 
have shewn us that there was in Greece proper, and indeed 
through most lands bordering on the Aegaean, an extremely 
ancient civilization, the zenith of which is now commonly 
supposed to have fallen between 1500 and 1200 B.c. We 
can in the remains trace the end of this culture, and its dis- 
placement by far ruder elements, which only slowly grow into 
the more perfect form which we call Hellenic. 

That the poems, when professing to depict the prae-Dorian 
age, are as a whole actually contemporary with it, has probably 
never been maintained. There can be no question that, at least 
in great part, they merely bring back in imagination the " good 
old days " which have passed away. In so doing they touch on 
countless details of daily life, which we can to some extent 
control by the monuments. We can give some sort of answer to 
the question whether they reproduce the real circumstances of the 
old time, or only clothe the old tales with the garb of their own 
days. For an uncritical age the latter supposition is a priori the 
most probable ; but it is not entirely borne out by facts. There 
is, on the whole, a striking similarity between the life of Homer's 
heroes in its material aspect and the remains which have been dis- 
covered at Tiryns, Mykene, and elsewhere. The two cultures are 
not identical, but, beyond a doubt, the Homeric resembles in the 
main the Mykenaean rather than that of the "Dipylon" (so far as 
we know it) or the archaic Greek. The ancient tradition is on 
the whole truly kept in the Epos. Yet in many points we can see 
traces of apparent anachronism. But it is very difficult to say 
whether a departure from the Mykenaean culture as we know it 
in the monimients is due to a later development of that culture 


itself, or to an unintentional introduction of elements from the 
veiy different conditions of later Greece. In discussing such 
questions it is well always to remember that the epoch of 
Mjkenaean civilization with which we are best acquainted, that 
of the ** shaft-tombs " of Mykene, is far from the end of the whole 
Mjkenaean age. The Homeric stage is certainly later than the 
"shaft-tombs," but it does not necessarily follow that it is post- 
Mykenaean. It is quite possible that certain notable differences 
between the poems and the monuments, in burial, for instance, and 
in women's dress, may be due to changes which arose within the 
Mykenaean age itself, in that later part of it of which our know- 
ledge is defective — almost as defective as it is of the subsequent 
* Dipylon " period. On the whole, the resemblance to the typical 
Mykenaean culture is more striking than the difference. 

The inevitable conclusion seems to be that Epic poetry had 
its roots in the Mykenaean period, and that this true tradition 
of the departed grandeur was carried across the Aegaean in lays 
which were the progenitors of the Homeric poetry. The whole 
scenery of the poems, the details of armour, palaces, dress, 
decoration, must have been so long the subjects of song before the 
Dorian invasion that they had become stereotyped, and formed a 
foundation which the Epic poet dared not intentionally sap, easily 
though he slipped from time to time into involuntary anachronism. 
How far these oldest songs may have actually left traces of them- 
selves in our " Homer " it is naturally impossible to say; but it is 
not beyond the bounds of possibility that some part of the most 
primitive Iliad may have been actually sung by the court 
minstrel in the palace whose ruins can still be seen in Mykene. 

The Epic dialect lends some countenance to the belief that 
the lonians were not the originators of the Epos. It has always 
been recognized that the dialect is not pure Ionic, such as would 
be expected from the reputed birthplace of the poems ; and the 
presence of " Aiolic " elements has been generally admitted. Fick 
published in 1882 and following years elaborate disquisitions to 
shew that the older parts of both Iliad and Odyssey had in fact 
been composed in pure Aiolic, and translated into Ionic, only 
those Aiolic forms being left untouched which were fixed by the 
fact that the Ionic equivalent differed metrically ; and that only 
the later portions were composed in Ionic. The theoiy involves 
too many arbitrary alterations of the text to be accepted in the 


form in which he states it; but it remains probable that the 
dialect is in fact the resultant of older poems composed in a 
dialect which may, in the vaguest sense, be called Aiolic. The 
peculiarly non-Ionic forms point rather to the Thessalian and 
Arkadio-Kyprian dialects, however, than to that of the Asiatic 
Aiolis as the precursor of the Epic. But it must be admitted, 
after all the discussion which has taken place, that our knowledge 
of the early state of the Greek dialects is far too imperfect to 
enable us to base any far-reaching conclusions upon such 
hypotheses. It can only be said that they seem to correspond 
with the probabilities of the case, and in particular with the 
localization of " Homer " at Smyrna, the city which was taken by 
the rising Ionic race from the decadent Aiolians. 

We assume, then, as a probable hypothesis that the old 
Greeks, expelled from their homes by the invading Dorians, carried 
with them across the sea a body of Epic poetry, the outcome of 
so long a development that it had already stereotyped much 
of what we find to-day in Homer ; that this poetry dealt with 
the legends of Greece proper, in particular the Trojan War, 
including the return of the heroes, the tale of Thebes, perhaps the 
adventures of Herakles, and doubtless legends of the gods ; that 
it was taken over by the lonians from the descendants of these 
emigrants, and cultivated by them on their own account, much of 
the old being faithfully preserved, though adapted to new hearers, 
but much new being added ; that the same scenery, spirit, and 
phraseology were retained, though with the admission of occasional 
anachronisms, which, of course, grew more frequent as time went 
on ; and that this Ionian development lasted from, perhaps, the 
ninth century B.C. to the seventh. But in all probability the corpus 
of Epic poetry had been brought substantially to completion some 
time before the latter date; as the creative and imaginative forces 
of the Ionian race turned to other forms of expression, it is 
probable that but small and unimportant additions were made to 
" Homer " after the end of the eighth century or thereabouts. 

The poems were all this time handed down orally only, by 
tradition among the singers who used to wander over Greece 
reciting them at popular festivals. Writing was indeed known 
in some form through the whole period of Epic development ; but 
it is in the highest degree unlikely that it was ever employed to 
form a standard text of the Epos or any portion of it There can 


: hardlj have been any standard text ; at best there was a con- 
\ tinaous tradition of those portions of the poems which were 
I especially popular, and the knowledge of which was therefore a 
I Valuable asset to the professional reciter. 

By the end of the seventh century there must have been in 
existence a large amount of such Epic poetry, concerning itself 
chiefly, so far as we know, with the subjects previously named. 
But the tale of Troy must have been infinitely the most im- 
portant, and the Iliad and Odyssey the most important poems on 
Troy. Some scholars have spoken as though they regarded the 
whole mass of this poetry as equally " Homeric" in the eyes of men 
of that day, and as approximately homogeneous in quality — a 
floating mass of which lengths were cut oflf more or less by 
chance, and labelled Iliad and Odyssey. For such a supposition 
there are no grounds ; that parts at least of the mass had long 
before attained complete solidity and permanence is amply proved 
by the fact that the Iliad is notably earlier in language than the 
Odyssey. The kernel of it must therefore have attained its 
permanent form at a time materially earlier than the beginning 
of the Odyssey. But though the kernel was thus solid, it was 
surrounded by a great deal of later addition which was in a more 
or less fluid state. The rhapsodist, like the modem concert-giver, 
had to consider his hearers' liking for " old friends " on the one 
hand, and their wish for novelty on the other. He sought to 
reconcile the two by inventing fresh episodes to continue and 
extend those tales which every one knew. Here and there such 
a new episode would survive and come into such general repute 
as to ensure its permanence. But it is easy to see how the 
repertoires of various rhapsodists would diSer, though all were 
based on the same original story. 

We can now understand the reasonableness of such a pro- 
vision as that ascribed by a widely spread tradition to the Attic 
statesmen of the sixth century, a provision that the Iliad and 
Odyssey should be recited at the Panathenaia in a regular and 
officially recognized order ; and we can also see that such a rule 
involved a new constitution of the text. The most widely 
accepted tradition attributed the recension to Peisistratos. But 
Solon is named in a famous passage of Diogenes Laertios (Life of 
Solon L 57): rd re *0^rjpov ef v7ro/3o\rjf; y€ypa<f>€ payjrayc- 
Bela-Oac, olov oirov 6 irpSyro^ eXrf^ev CKeWev ap'^eaOat, rov 

xviii THE ILIAD 

expfievov, fmXXov ovv So\g>i/ 'Ofirjpov iifKona-ev fj THei^L" \ 

<rT/oaT09, ft)9 <^o-t i^L€\r)(iha^ iv irefiirrtoi, M^eyapLxAv. ffv hi j 

fidXtaTa TcL eirr} ravra* ** ot 8' ap* *A0i]va^ €l;^oi//* teal ri 

€^^9 (B 546-58). There is unfortunately something lost in i 

this passage, asserting explicitly the interpolation of the lines { 

mentioned. The reference is to the arbitration between Athens I 

and Megara for the possession of Salamis, when each side brought 

forward lines from Homer, the Athenians relying on B 558 as 

we have it, the Megarians accusing them of falsifying the text 

and putting forward a difiFerent version. The natural sense of 

the passage as it stands is this : " it was not Peisistratos, as is 

generally supposed, but Solon who collected the scattered Homer 

of his day; for he it was who interpolated the lines in the 

Catalogue of the Ships " ; so that we should add something like 

this after HecaLoTpaTo^ : — iKelvo<; yap fjv 6 tcL eirrj eh top 

KaraXoyov ifj/7roi,i]aa<;, xal ov HecaiaTpaTO*;, Kitschl, however, 

gives the whole passage a quite different turn by inserting (in the 

same place) — otrrrep a-vWi^a*; ra ^Ofiijpov iveTroirjai rcva €t9 

TTfv ^AOrjvaLcov xa/oAi/. This has been accepted by Wilamowitz 

and Cauer, but is clearly wrong. Tradition unanimously held 

that the recovery of Salamis took place in the time of Solon, 

while Peisistratos was still a boy. Dieuchidas, giving the 

Megarian version, must therefore have attributed the interpolation 

to Solon, and concluded that the compilation of the Athenian 

copy was due to him and not to his successor. But in any case 

the passage shews that the tradition about Peisistratos was 

current in the fourth century B.C., when, as Wilamowitz has 

shewn, Dieuchidas must have written. There was yet another 

version which ascribed the collection to Hipparchos ; ^ but for us 

the names are comparatively a matter of indifference; the 

essential element is that all tradition points to Athens of the 

sixth century. This tradition is probable enough in itself, and if 

once accepted it explains many a difficulty. | The great problem 

for those who maintain the gradual growth of the poems by a 

process of crystallization has been to understand how a single 

version came to be accepted, where many rival versions must, 

from the necessity of the case, have once existed side by side. 

The assumption of a school or guild of singers has been made ; 

but the rare mention of 'OfirjpiSai in Chios gives no support 

^ Pseudo-Plat. Hipparchos 228 c. 


} this hypothesis, which lacks any other confirmation. The 
^dsistTatean recension is the only source, other than the 
ntograph of a real Homer, which will account for the unity of 
he vulgate text. It agrees, too, with the constitution of the 
Had itself, which in several places^ shews such a piecing 
ogether of parallel narrative as can hardly be credited to natural 
riowth in the hands of irresponsible rhapsodists, but involves the 
leliberate work of a literary editor based on a written text. 
Qus, too, accounts for the numerous traces in our text of an 
imobtrasive but suflBciently clear Attic influence. It agrees with 
bhe position of Athens as the first book-mart of Greece. It 
igrees with the evidence that the archetype of the vulgate was 
written in the old Attic alphabet. In fact we might almost 
lecoDStruct the necessity of such a ** codification " of the text from 
the conditions. An oflBcial copy of some sort is implied by the 
transformation of fluctuating oral compositions into such a vulgate 
as we possess ; it must have taken place at Athens, the head of 
the intellectual Greece and the centre of the publishing trade ; it 
must have been created before the fifth century, for Herodotos 
and Plato already have Homer as we know him ; it must have 
taken place after the seveuth, to which we can date some of the 
latest additions to the Iliad ; therefore an official copy of Homer 
was made in Athens in the time of Solon and Peisistratos. "1 

Belief in the recension of Peisistratos was not so long ago un- 
fashionable ; but in the last few years a clear reaction has set in.^ 
The chief reason for scepticism has been the complete silence of 
the Aristarchean scholia respecting any edition of Peisistratos. 
This has been held to shew that the tradition is no more than a 
late invention absolutely unknown to Aristarchos. But now that 
Wilamowitz has shewn that Dieuchidas wrote in the fourth 
century, it is no longer possible to hold that Aristarchos had 
never heard the story — which is moreover involved in the allusion 
to the Salamis arbitration by Aristotle (see note on B 558). It 
follows, therefore, either that Aristarchos deliberately ignored 
the tradition — which is hardly like him — or that he dealt with 
it in his lost works. The argument from silence is especially 
deceptive in the case of an author like Aristarchos, of whom we 
have nothing whatever preserved beyond excerpts of second-hand 

' See Introductions to B, N, T. 
'^ Dating, I think, from Seeck's Die QuelUn der Odyssee, 1887. 


accounts of his commentaries, with some titles of lost works. It ia 
likely enough that he dealt with the Attic recension somewhere, 
and having settled the matter one way or the other found no 
need to refer to it in his critical notes. On the other side of the 
account we must set the facts that he believed Homer to have 
been an Athenian, and that he often assumes the transliteration 
of the poems from the old Attic alphabet into the new — indirect 
proofs at least that he held the vulgate text with which he deall 
to have reached him from purely Attic sources. The scholia 
can therefore count neither one way or the other; and the 
hypothesis of the Peisistratean recension appears so highly 
probable that it will be adopted as a postulate in the following 

The Peisistratean text is identical with the vulgate, which 
has held its own through all time. Becent discoveries in 
Egypt have shewn, indeed, that there was a time when different 
texts, altered from the vulgate chiefly by the insertion ol 
additional lines of no intrinsic importance, had attained a great 
vogue, at least in Egypt. This is certain to be the case with all 
highly popular books reproduced in large quantities for an 
uncritical public. The rise of criticism at Alexandria put an end 
to these commercial texts, and established the vulgate in its 
rightful position again. In this sense only can Aristarchos and 
his predecessors be said to have altered the Homeric text ; they , 
did not work upon these inferior copies and decide which lines 
were to be expelled, but they gave the weight of their authority 
to a demand for copies of Mss. of approved antiquity and correct- 
ness. The position of Aristarchos was, in fact, precisely that of a 
critic who would make a correct text of Firdausi's Slhahnamah 
to-day. The variation between difierent copies of the Persian is 
incomparably greater than that between the prae-Aristarchean 
papyri and the vulgate, though here there was undoubtedly one 
common source in the poet's own MS. Even the unbroken 
existence of a written tradition has not been able to save 
Firdausi from the interpolations of popular reciters; the task 
of the Persian Aristarchos will be to point out which mss. 
contain the ancient and pure tradition, and to stop the demand 
for copies of any others. 

Such as the vulgate was before the days of Aristarchos, such 
it still remains. In only an infinitesimal number of cases can 


|it be shewn that he produced any effect upon the current reading. 

JLines of which he disapproved remain uncancelled ; the readings 

[he preferred do not therefore in any appreciable degree supplant 

lihose which he held inferior. The Mss, in our libraries differ 

from one another in the same degree as those of Aristarchos, 

land with fresh collations the number of variants which we know 

[through Aristarchos alone is constantly dwindling ; it may not 

[be long before we are able to point to an existing MS. 

[representative of almost every variant mentioned by Didymos 

ind Aristonikos. The great addition to our knowledge of the 

tradition made by the discoveries of papyri has shewn how 

wonderfully tenacious and correct was the mediaeval scribe. 

II. — Analysis of the Iliad 

Two cardinal assumptions have been made in the preceding 
d section : first, that the Iliad was not composed by a single poet, 
vi but was the growth of a long period; and secondly, that this 
L growth took place by gradual accretion or crystallization about a 
u central nucleus, which W£is from the first something fixed amid 
q: later expansions and accretions of a more or less fluctuating 
t^ nature, though some of these in time gained a solidity almost 
1 equal to that of the original kernel 

The arguments on which these two assumptions are founded 
r. are set out in detail in the commentary which follows. With 
i regard to the first it is suflBcient to say here that the discrepancies 
and contradictions which seem to disprove unity of authorship 
are those which go deep into the structure of the poem, not 
casual mistakes of detail to which all authors are liable. The 
most significant of these is undoubtedly the contradiction involved 
in the Embassy of the ninth book, which is completely ignored 
in the eleventh and sixteenth. The tenth book is so loosely 
inserted into the Iliad that doubts as to its rights date from 
very early days. Wider but perhaps less glaring discrepancy is 
involved in the fact that the promise of Zeus to Thetis is 
entirely forgotten from the first book to the eleventh, and that 
the whole balance of the story is disturbed by the way in which 
the exploits of Achilles, the real hero, are outdone by Diomedes 
in E. 

The kernel of the Iliad is, beyond a doubt, the story of the 

VOL. I c 


Wrjitli, tin- 
is i:ivcn in 
parts c)i* {'. 
large mhW' 
received n 
Chryscs, )•: 
father, wli- 
answers lii 
An assen: 
anyiir e.\ • 
leads to i- 
through ; 

satisfy h 
(B J-: 
Preseiii I 
the oil: 
army i 
Aiiis a! 
a moir 
far ;> 


T, <l> 



1 lights. Only in an extremely email minority of 
/ rending be found which haa not the certificate of 
i_ of these authorities, and then generally in matters 
. tradition leaves us in doubt. It is, for iustance, 
SiSerent ijven to our best mss. whether they write ei 
' whether they write a liquid single or double. Thus 
t Buch as tre<^vKi}i for weifivKei (A 483), or r&v r^vfto^ 
^v^Bvfiof (K 187), can hardly be regarded as departures 
our MSS. ; the two readings would certainly have 
[distingiusbable in the old alphabet The most serious 
from tradition is the acceptance of Xauck's iw/u 
( of all WAS. in I 414; I could not make up my mind 
B the unmetrical reading, though I have endured ew? as a ,' 
I rather than go to pure conjecture and write elo<t or ^s.* 
.voaially speaking I have endeavoured to choose in each 
■itifinlwT cose what seemed to me to be the best reading among 
,jae carrent in the fifth century ; and I have not hesitated in 
lUj cases to give a reading in the text which is described in 
:; notes as clearly wrong — a corruption, that is, as old as the 
Ml century, of an older form which we can confidently restore. 

For the adscription in place of the subscription of i in the 
[ihthongs dt, rjt, tot no apology is needed — at all events I shall 
TiT none, it is curious that a twelfth -century device for 
-rrecting the blunders of copyists should have been so far 
-nonised as to lead the unthinking to suppose that it has some 
ncient authority. It is typographically ugly as well as philo- 
>nically misleading. 

IV. — The Apparatus Cbiticus 

In compiling the Apparatus Criticus I have aimed at 
cnnpressioa and brevity, not only from consideratione of space, 
nt in a firm belief that for the purposes of the critic a small 
election of readings is more useful than approximate completeness. 
have therefore omitted as a rule all variants which afTect 
nly orthograplucal questions, or which, to the best of my 
ddgment, were mere blunders of no critical interest. The 
missions under the head of orthography include all such 

' Tlie only other readinEs in the tent the r^i fi^i or Vij' of the xss. (compsre 
m wbich DO KnciGDt BQthority can be A 608] ; and Jarasay for Itratay or 
■Otod an, I belieTs, r^ fy^ in 1 SC4 foi Irrairar IS. SB. 


Doloneia, were in all probability composed originally in almost 
exactly the same form, allowing for the difference of alphabet, 
as that which we now have. Even if it were not so, our means 
do not permit us to reconstruct the more ancient dialect with 
any approach to confidence. Our only guide in so doing is the 
metre ; and though in many matters this is a safe test, yet it is 
impossible for us to say in how many others it may leave us in 
the lurch. To take an obvious instance, it enables us to restore 
an initial digamma in a large number of cases, but leaves us 
almost always uncertain as to whether we should at the same 
time restore the letter internally. For these reasons all attempts 
to introduce the digamma without exception in all words where 
we know it once to have existed are interesting and instructive 
philological exercises, but lie outside the province of the 
commentator. His business is to take the text as he finds it, 
and to indicate from time to time where it shews traces of a 
more ancient form, but to accept as a part of it the constant 
inequalities and anachronisms with which it abounds. 

The materials for the constitution of the text are found in 
(1) Mss. of all ages; (2) the scholia, especially the excerpts from 
the works of Didymos and Aristonikos on the writings of 
Aristarchos ; (3) quotations in ancient authors. On these the 
present text is entirely based. Little weight is given to the 
evidence of quotations ; interesting though they often are, it is 
impossible to be sure in any case of the accuracy of the author 
who is quoting. Of MSS. of the Iliad some hundreds exist, from 
the third century B.C. to the sixteenth A.D, Of most of these 
very little is known ; of complete mss, only thirteen have been 
collated throughout, and of these five are now for the first time 
published. Of fragmentary MSS., however, earlier than the 
Venetus A, we have full information; the papyri are now 
so numerous that we know something of the tradition of every 
century since the third B.C., with the exception of the two or 
three which intervene between the Syrian palimpsest in the 
seventh and A in the tenth a.d. 

The value of the various mss. and scholia will be treated in 
detail in the next volume. It may be said here that readings 
of Aristarchos are taken as equal to those of the best MSS. ; read- 
ings of Zenodotos are treated as of the second rank. Between the 
variants thus attested we are at liberty to choose with the aid of 


modern critical lights* Only in an extremely small minority of 
cases wUl any reading be found which has not the certificate of 
one or other of these authorities, and then generally in matters 
where the MS. tradition leaves us in doubt It is, for instance, 
almost indiflferent even to our best MSS. whether they write ec 
or iy*, or whether they write a liquid single or double. Thus 
readings such as 7r€<f)VKi]c for 7r€<f)VK€t (A 483), or r&v ffivfio^ 
for T&v vqBvfjbo^ (K 187), can hardly be regarded as departures 
even from our Mss. ; the two readings would certainly have 
been indistinguishable in the old alphabet. The most serious 
departure from tradition is the acceptance of Nauck's tcofic 
for i/ca)fiai^ of all MSS. in I 414 ; I could not make up my mind 
to leave the unmetrical reading, though I have endured eiw? as a ( 
trochee rather than go to pure conjecture and write elo? or ^o^} 
Generally speaking I have endeavoured to choose in each 
particular case what seemed to me to be the best reading among 
those current in the fifth century ; and I have not hesitated in 
many cases to give a reading in the text which is described in 
the notes as clearly wrong — a corruption, that is, as old as the 
fifth century, of an older form which we can confidently restore. 

For the adscription in place of the subscription of c in the 
diphthongs at, rft, col no apology is needed — at all events I shall 
offer none. It is curious that a twelfth -century device for 
correcting the blunders of copyists should have been so far 
canonised as to lead the unthinking to suppose that it has some 
ancient authority. It is typographically ugly as well as philo- 
logically misleading. 

IV. — The Apparatus Criticus 

In compiling the Apparatus Criticus I have aimed at 
compression and brevity, not only from considerations of space, 
but in a firm belief that for the purposes of the critic a small 
selection of readings is more useful than approximate completeness. 
I have therefore omitted as a rule all variants which affect 
only orthographical questions, or which, to the best of my 
judgment, were mere blunders of no critical interest. The 
omissions under the head of orthography include all such 

' The only other readings in the text the riji firji or V')' of the mss. (compare 
for which no ancient authority can be A 608) ; and tcrraffav for iaraaav or 
qaoted are, I believe, rtji ifirji in I 654 for ftrraffoy M 56. 


matters as accentuation, breathings, omission or addition of v 
i<f>€XKv<rrLK6v or iota subscript, single or double writing of \, fju, i/, 
a, p, itacism, confusion of o and «, and many cases of difference 
in the division of words, especially such forms as S' i/iot or Si 
fioL, S' i<f>€^ojrro or Be <f)i^ovTO, iravroa ita-rjv or irdvroae tarjv. 
In all these the testimony of Mss. is practically indifferent, and 
it is waste of space and energy to accumulate it ; our choice has 
to be made on other grounds. 

It is in the omission of what I believe to have been mere 
copyists* mistakes that I may have neglected something in 
which acuter eyes than my own might detect traces of a genuine 
variant. The risk of this must be preferred, however, to 
the accumulation of ridiculous blunders such as would make it 
diflBcult to see the wood for the trees. 

For similar reasons, namely, at once to save space and to give 
a clearer view of the weight of testimony, I have as a rule 
quoted only one of each group of related MSS. My P and La 
Eoche's L, for instance, are so closely connected, coming evidently 
from a common archetype, that I have not quoted L except where 
it differs from P. So I quote only G and omit its satellites 
" Mor Bar " except where they differ from it ; the three can only 
be weighed as a single MS. 

Thus though my Apparatus seems brief in comparison with 
La Eoche's, I feel confident that it gives all that is really of 
importance for the constitution of the text, and indeed adds a 
very considerable amount of new matter. Our knowledge of the 
MSS. will soon be greatly enlarged by other hands ; but in the 
meantime there can be no loss in this humble contribution to a 
strangely neglected field of Homeric criticism. 

V. — Makuscripts 

The mss. quoted in the Apparatus Criticus are the following : — 

A. Papyri 

Pap. a = Petrie, Haxoara Biahmu aiid ArsinoCf pp. 24-8 (collated also by 
myself) ; contains part of B 1-877. 5th cent. a.d. 

„ fl = British Museum cxxvi. {Classical Texts from Papyri in the B. M. p. 
81) ; B 101-A 40. 4th or 5th cent a.d. 

„ r = B. M. cxxxvi. {Class, Texts p. 93); parts of T 317-A 544. 3rd 
cent. A.D. 





L Pap. d = Bodleian d 20 (Grenfell An Alexandrian Erotic Fragment and other 
Greek Papyri p. 6) ; parts of 9 64-75, 96-116. 2nd cent a.d. 

- „ € = B. M. dclxxxix. (Grenfell Greek Papyri, Second Series p. 4) ; 

8 217-9, 249-63. 3rd cent B.C. 
„ z = Maliaflfy Flinders Petrie Papyri PL iii. (4); fragments from A 

503-37. 2nd cent b.c. 
„ H = (Jenavensis ; Nicole Eev. de Philologies Jan. 1894 (Kenyon C, R. viii. 

pp. 134-6); small fragments from A, A, and Z, and A 788-M 

II. 2nd cent b.0. ? 
„ • = Louvre; La Roche Homerische Textkritik p. 448; N 1-175. 1st 

cent B.C. ? 
V i=B. M. cvii. (Harris Papyrus); Catalogue of Ancient MSS, in the 

B, Af., part L : Greek, pp. 1-6 ; 2 1-218, 311-617. let cent RC. 
„ K = B. M. cxzvii. {Class, Texts p. 98) ; small fragments from £, Z, 2. 

3rd or 4th cent a.d. 
X = Bodleian b 3 (Grenfell Greek Papyri, Second Series p. 5) ; fragments 

of 4>, X, '^, 3rd cent b.c. 
jui = B. M. cxxviii. {Glass. Texts p. 100 ; /. P. xxi. pp. 17-24, 296- 

343) ; large parts of ^ 1-79, 402-i2 759. let cent B.c. 
H = B. M. cxiv. (Bankes Papyrus) ; Catal, of Anc. MSS, p. 6, PhiL 

Mtis, i. p. 177, and my own collation ; Q 127-end. 2nd cent A.D. 
>- „ s = Grenfell and Hunt Oxyrhynchus Papyri p. 46 ; B 730-828. 2nd 

cent. A.D. 

- „ o = B. M. dccxxxii. (Hunt A Ne\o Homeric Papyrus in /. P, xxvi. pp. 

25-59) ; most of N 2-775, H 120-522. Ist cent a.d. 
„ n = Grenfell and Hunt Oxyrhynchus Papyri ii. p. 96 ; E 1-303 and a 
few fragments from E 329-705. Beginning of 3rd cent A.D. 
For readings see App. F. 

B. Uncial 

Ambr. = Amhrosianus Pidus, saec v.-vi., a MS. at Milan consisting of leaves 
containing illustrations of the Iliad and accompanying portions 
of the text. It contains pieces from all the books except F, 2, 
T, Y— 800 lines in all. Published by Angelo Mai, 1819, Iliadis 
fragm4irUa antiquissima cum picturis. 

S3nr. = B. M. Add. 17, 210 ; Catal, of Anc, MSS, p. 6, and Fragments of the 
Iliad of Hom^r from a Syriac Palimpsest, Edited by W, Cureton 
(saec. vi. or vii.). It contains 3873 lines from M to 12. See 
Hoffmann, 21^^ und 22^'* Buch der Ilias pp. 3 ff., La R H. T 
p. 454 no. 5. 

C. La Roche's MSS. 

A = Venetu9 454, in the Marcian Library at Venice, saec. x. First 
published by Villoison Homeri Ilias ad veteris codicis Veneti fidem 
recendta. Scholia in earn antuiuissinia ... 1788. La Roche's 
collation in Homeri Ilias (1873-6) is followed ; but I have to 
thank Mr. T. W. Allen for some valuable additions and corrections, 
which are distinguished by his initials. (Hoffmann pp. 12 ff.) 

xxviii THE ILIAD 

A = portions of the above MS. which have been supplied by a later hand, 
the original leaves having been lost. The supplements consist of 
E 336-635, P 277-677, 729-61, T 126-326, ft 405-504. 

C = Cod. Laurentianus xxxii. 3, in the Medicean Library at Florence, saec. 
xi. La R. Horn. Teztkritik no. 14 p. 460, Hoffmann p. 28. 

D = Cod. Laurentianus xxxii. 15, saec. xi.-xii. La R ibid. no. 15, Hoffmann 
p. 31. 

2) = portions of the above supplied by later hands. These are not 
mentioned by La Roche or Hoffmann. Mr. T. W. Allen has 
kindly given me the following valuable list of the passages thus 

"(1) A hand coeval or nearly so with D, though markedly 
different from it ; O 388-11 167. 

(2) A hand of s. xii. or xiii. ; books A-A and N 96-160. 

(3) A hand of s. xv. ; 6 390-525, P 369-2 192, 593-T 
38, ^ 652-719, 854-fi 85, 219-348, 764-804. 

(4) Another s. xv. hand supplies 2 326-93 and 638-92." 
[E] (Note. — La Roche's E refers to the printed text of the Roman edition 

of Eustathius, 1542, and is not quoted here as it is of no critical 

G = Vindobonensis 39, saec. xiv. La R. H. T, p. 472 no. 92. First 

published by Alter, Vienna 1789. 
H = Vindobonensis 117, saec. xiii. La R. H, T. p. 473 no. 95, Hoffmann 

p. 33. From "^ 648 to the end is in another hand, noted as H.^ 
L = Vindobonensis 5, saec. xiv.-xv. La R. H. T, p. 476 na 105, Hoffmann 

p. 40. This MS. is almost identical with my P, and is only 

quoted when it differs from P. 
M = Venetu8 456, saec. xv. La R. H. T. p. 477 no. 107. La R. has 

published a collation of three books only, A-Z. This MS. is 

almost identical with Harl. a ; I have ascertained that they agree 

for all readings of M given in my Apparatus, except where a 

difference is noted. 
N and = Venetus 459, which consists of portions of two MSS., one (N) 

containing A 1-H 392 (saec. xv.), the other (0) A 214-M (saec. 

xiv.). La R ff. r. p. 459 no. 10. The collation of books A-Z 

only has been published. 
S = Stuttgartcnsis 6 (saec xv, T). L& U, H. T. p. 478 no. 111. La R. 

follows the collation of the Iluid published by Rieckher in Eos, 


D. Manuscripts now Added 
(See J. P, XX. pp. 237-51. The first five are collated by myself.) 

J = B. M. Harley 1771 — a late xv. cent. MS., with glosses in red and black 
ink, mostly rhetorical and grammatical. Leaves have been lost 
containing A 622-653, O 31-62, ft 719-end. 

^ I regret that I overlooked Hoffmann's different hand, ff should therefore be 
statement that Book A is also in a read for H throaghont this book. 



P = Paris, grec 2766 — ^late xv. cent (so dated by Sir E. Maunde Thompson 
from the watermark). The ms. is nearly identical with L, The 
writing is often very small, and ct, 17, and a are frequently 
almost or quite indistinguishable from one another. La R. H, T. 
p. 471 no. 88. 

Q = Paris, grec 2767. A 1-118, 204-233, 12 673-end are missing, and a 
good many lines have been lost by mutilation of the lower margin, 
xiv. cent (so Catalogue ; rather, late xv.). La R. ibid. no. 89. 

B = Paris, grec 1805, saec. xv., written by Georgios Gregoropulos, in a neat 
clear hand. La K p. 470 no. 80. 

•T = Townleianus, R M. Bumey 86 ; saec xiiL 1 This was very imperfectly 
collated by Heyne in 1802; my own collation is independent, but 
I have used (and checked) Heyne's as welL See Heyne voL iiL 
p. c. ; E. M. Thompson in 0. R, iL p. 103 ; La Roche H. T, p. 467 
no. 65 ; Maass in Scholia Graeca in Homeri Iliadem ToMmleyana i. 
(voL V. of the Oxford ed.) pp. vii. fiF. ; Gardthausen Gr, Faldogr, p. 
405 ; myself in G. R. iii. p. 166. I have occasionally named John 
Rhosos of Crete as responsible for some added lines, etc., as his 
handwriting is unmistakable. 

U = Genavensis, for which I have of course followed the laboriously minute 
collation of Nicole Scolies Genevoises d^ Vlliade ii. pp. 219 ff. The 
MS. is exhaustively described in the Introduction to that work. 

17= portions supplied by later hands, viz. A 1-54, 109-66, B 506-877, 
e 214-565, I 1-63, 706-13, K 1-50, O 576-617, 12 707-62. 

All the M8S. hitherto named except M, N, O have been collated through- 
out. In all that follow the collation is presumably or certainly only partial. 

HarL a = B. M. Harl. 5693 ; saec. xiv.-xv. This is the "HarL" of Heyne, 

who took his readings from Bentley's MS. notes (vol. iiL pp. xcvii. 

flf.). See also 0. R iii. 295. I have repeated Heyne's readings 

where I found them correct, after checking the whole with the 

MS. — a very necessary precaution — and added a few of my own. 

In A-Z HarL a is quoted only where differing from M (see above). 
The following B. M. and Paris mss. I have collated only in 

selected passages (about 2000). 
„ b = HarL 5600, by John Rhosos, finished 16th May 1466. It is 

based on T and ahother ms. not yet identified. 
„ c = HarL 5672, also in the hand of Rhosos. Contains A, B 1-9, 

490-594, r 123-461, A 1-246. This is not based on T. 
„ d = HarL 5601, saec. xv.-xvL 
King's = B. M. King's 16. Written in 1431. 
Par. a = Paris, grec 2681, saec. xiv.-xv.? The ms. has large gaps filled up 

in another hand on different paper (X P. xx. p. 244, La R. //. T. 

p. 470 no. 81). 
„ b = Paris, supplement grec 497, saec. xiii. (?) ; a fragmentary ms., see 

/. P. XX. p. 250 ; not in La R. 
„ c = Paris 2894, saec. xiiL (?) (La R if . T. p. 475 no. 103). 
„ d = Paris 2680, saec. xv. (La R H. T. p. 476 no. 100). 
„ e = Paris 2682, saec. xiv.-xv. (La R. H. T. p. 471 no. 82). 



accounts of his commentaries, with some titles of lost works. It is 
likely enough that he dealt with the Attic recension somewhere, 
and having settled the matter one way or the other found no 
need to refer to it in his critical notes. On the other side of the 
account we must set the facts that he believed Homer to haveb 
been an Athenian, and that he often assumes the transliteration 
of the poems from the old Attic alphabet into the new — indirect 
proofs at least that he held the vulgate text with which he dealt 
to have reached him from purely Attic sources. The scholia 
can therefore count neither one way or the other; and the}' 
hypothesis of the Peisistratean recension appears so highly 
probable that it will be adopted as a postulate in the following 

The Peisistratean text is identical with the vulgate, which 
has held its own through all time. Becent discoveries in 
Egypt have shewn, indeed, that there was a time when different 
texts, altered from the vulgate chiefly by the insertion of 
additional lines of no intrinsic importance, had attained a great 
vogue, at least in Egypt. This is certain to be the case with all 
highly popular books reproduced in large quantities for an 
uncritical public. The rise of criticism at Alexandria put an end 
to these commercial texts, and established the vulgate in its 
rightful position again. In this sense only can Aristarchos and 
his predecessors be said to have altered the Homeric text ; they 
did not work upon these inferior copies and decide which lines 
were to be expelled, but they gave the weight of their authority 
to a demand for copies of Mss. of approved antiquity and correct- 
ness. The position of Aristarchos was, in fact, precisely that of a 
critic who would make a correct text of Firdausi's Sliahnamah 
to-day. The variation between different copies of the Persian is 
incomparably greater than that between the prae-Aristarchean 
papyri and the vulgate, though here there was undoubtedly one 
common source in the poet's own MS. Even the unbroken 
existence of a written tradition has not been able to sare 
Firdausi from the interpolations of popular reciters; the task 
of the Persian Aristarchos wiU be to point out which mss. 
contain the ancient and pure tradition, and to stop the demand 
for copies of any others. 

Such as the vulgate was before the days of Aristarchos, such 
it still remains. In only an infinitesimal number of cases can 


I:i it be shewn that he produced any effect upon the current reading. 
btn Lines of which he disapproved remain uncancelled ; the readings 
i ^ he preferred do not therefore in any appreciable degree supplant 
those which he held inferior. The MSS. in our libraries differ 
from one another in the same degree as those of Aristarchos, 
and with fresh collations the number of variants which we know 
^1 through Anstarchos alone is constantly dwindling ; it may not 
be long before we are able to point to an existing MS. 
representative of almost every variant mentioned by Didymos 
U and Aristonikos. The great addition to our knowledge of the 
-■ tradition made by the discoveries of papyri has shewn how 
wonderfully tenacious and correct was the mediaeval scribe. 


II. — Analysis of the Iliad 

Two cardinal assumptions have been made in the preceding 
section : first, that the Iliad was not composed by a single poet, 
but was the growth of a long period ; and secondly, that this 
growth took place by gradual accretion or crystallization about a 
central nucleus, which was from the first something fixed amid 
later expansions and accretions of a more or less fluctuating 
nature, though some of these in time gained a solidity almost 
equal to that of the original kernel 

The arguments on which these two assumptions are founded 
are set out in detail in the commentary which follows. With 
regard to the first it is sufficient to say here that the discrepancies 
and contradictions which seem to disprove unity of authorship 
are those which go deep into the structure of the poem, not 
casual mistakes of detail to which all authors are liable. The 
most significant of these is undoubtedly the contradiction involved 
in the Embassy of the ninth book, which is completely ignored 
in the eleventh and sixteenth. The tenth book is so loosely 
inserted into the Iliad that doubts as to its rights date from 
very early days. Wider but perhaps less glaring discrepancy is 
involved in the fact that the promise of Zeus to Thetis is 
entirely forgotten from the first book to the eleventh, and that 
the whole balance of the story is disturbed by the way in which 
the exploits of Achilles, the real hero, are outdone by Diomedes 
in E. 

The kernel of the Iliad is, beyond a doubt, the story of the 

VOL. I c 


Wrath, the M^i/t? which is announced in the Prologue. This tale 
is given in the following books — A, A, O, IT, T-X, or rather in 
parts of them, for there is not one which has not received 
large additions. The plot is as follows : — Agamemnon has 
received as part of his booty from a foray the daughter of 
Chryses, priest of Apollo, and refused her to the petition of her 
father, who thereupon prays to his god for vengeance. Apollo 
answers his prayer by sending a pestilence upon the Greek army. 
An assembly is held to discuss the position, and Kalchas the 
augur explains why the host is sufifering. Achilles calls on 
Agamemnon to appease the god by sending Chryseis back This 
leads to a quarrel ; in the issue Achilles withdraws in anger, and 
through his mother Thetis obtains a promise from Zeus that, to 
satisfy his wounded pride, the Trojans shall defeat the hitherto 
victorious Greeks (Book A). Agamemnon is therefore lured to 
battle by a deceptive dream, which promises him victory 
(B 1-50). He begins by driving the Trojans before him. 
Presently, however, he is wounded and has to leave the field ; 
the other chief Greek heroes suffer the same fate, and the whole 
army is driven back to the ships, which are attacked by Hector. 
Aias alone holds his ground (A). He is at length disarmed for 
a moment, and fire is set to the ship of Protesilaos (O 592 &'.). 
Achilles thereupon, though he will not fight himself, relents so 
far as to send Patroklos with the Myrmidons to the rescue. 
Patroklos drives the Trojans back, and among many others slays 
Sarpedon; but he presses his advantage too far, and is himself slain 
by Hector (H). Achilles on hearing of his death sallies forth to 
avenge it, and after making havoc of the Trojans, chases Hector 
thrice round the walls of Troy, and finally slays him (parts of 
T, ^, X). The story ends with the dragging of Hector's body 
(X 404). 

This is the backbone of the Uiad as we have it, whether or 
no it be the earliest portion of it historically ; it is the main plot 
to which all else stands in an episodical relation. That it is 
also the oldest kernel I feel no doubt. The conditions of the 
MrjvL^ have been imposed on all the rest of the book. The 
absence of Achilles from the field is everywhere either tacitly 
assumed or expressly alluded to. It is in the story of the Wrath 
that the real unity of the Uiad is to be found. Here, at least, 
we need not hesitate to see the work of a single poet, perhaps 


the greatest in all the world's history. How far he may have 
made his poem from pre-existing materials it is beyond our 
powers of analysis to say.^ The story is organically and 
indissolubly bound together; the arguments which are still 
brought forward to separate the Patrokleia and the death of 
Hector from the earlier part, the Mijvi^ proper, seem to me 
wholly inadequate and improbable. 

From the several Introductions to the books, it will be seen 
that the main episodes included in this volume are (i) the duel 
of Menelaos and Paris, and the treachery of Pandaros in T-A ; 
(ii) the Diomedeia in E and Z, itself a composition shewiug 
continuous growth from the earliest days to the latest ; (iii) the 
duel of Aias and Hector in H ; (iv) the Embassy to Achilles in 
I with its prologue, the defeat of the Greeks in ; (v) the 
Doloneia in K; (vi) the battle at the wall in M, with an 
introduction, the building of the wall in H. The relation of 
these episodes and the MtJi/^? to one another and to the whole 
structure of the Hiad will be more conveniently discussed in the 
next volume. 

III. — The Text of the Iliad 

From what has been said, the aim of an editor of the 
Homeric text clearly follows. He must endeavour to reconstitute 
the Attic text as transliterated into the new alphabet from the 
official Athenian original Farther back than this it is useless 
for him to attempt to go, for this is the earliest date at which 
the Iliad, as we know it, existed. It is true indeed that many 
portions of the Iliad bear signs of greater antiquity; we can 
trace with confidence not only the older form of the story, but 
remains of an older form of dialect, corrupted in the course of 
transmission in the mouths of rhapsodists and editors, to whom 
it was virtually a dead language. But it is a complete error to 
try, from these indications, however numerous and clear, to 
introduce into Homer a uniformity of "Proto-Epic" language. 
In Homer, as we know it, no such uniformity can ever have 
existed. The later parts of the poems, such for instance as the 

* On one point only do I now feel form of the AVratb did not contain tlic 

hesitation. It will he seen from the promise of Zeus to Thetis ; it was a 

Introduction to B that there is some tale played exclusively on the earthly 

groand for supposing that the oldest stage. 


Doloneia, were in all probability composed originally in almost 
exactly the same form, allowing for the difiference of alphabet, 
as that which we now have. Even if it were not so, our means 
do not permit us to reconstruct the more ancient dialect with 
any approach to confidence. Our only guide in so doing is the 
metre ; and though in many matters this is a safe test, yet it is 
impossible for us to say in how many others it may leave us in 
the lurch. To take an obvious instance, it enables us to restore 
an initial digamma in a large number of cases, but leaves us 
almost always uncertain as to whether we should at the same 
time restore the letter internally. For these reasons all attempts 
to introduce the digamma without exception in all words where 
we know it once to have existed are interesting and instructive 
philological exercises, but lie outside the province of the 
commentator. His business is to take the text as he finds it, 
and to indicate from time to time where it shews traces of a 
more ancient form, but to accept as a part of it the constant 
inequalities and anachronisms with which it abounds. 

The materials for the constitution of the text are found in 
(1) Mss. of all ages; (2) the scholia, especially the excerpts from 
the works of Didymos and Aristonikos on the writings of 
Aristarchos; (3) quotations in ancient authors. On these the 
present text is entirely based. Little weight is given to the 
evidence of quotations ; interesting though they often are, it is 
impossible to be sure in any case of the accuracy of the author 
who is quoting. Of MSS. of the Iliad some hundreds exist, from 
the third century B.c. to the sixteenth a.d. Of most of these 
very little is known ; of complete MSS. only thirteen have been 
collated throughout, and of these five are now for the first time 
published. Of fragmentary mss., however, earlier than the 
Venetus A, we have full information; the papyri are now 
so numerous that we know something of the tradition of every 
century since the third B.C., with the exception of the two or 
three which intervene between the Syrian palimpsest in the 
seventh and A in the tenth A.D. 

The value of the various MSS. and scholia will be treated in 
detail in the next volume. It may be said here that readings 
of Aristarchos are taken as equal to those of the best mss. ; read- 
ings of Zenodotos are treated as of the second rank. Between the 
variants thus attested we are at liberty to choose with the aid of 


modern critical lights* Only in an extremely small minority of 
cases will any reading be found which has not the certificate of 
one or other of these authorities, and then generally in matters 
where the MS. tradition leaves us in doubt. It is, for instance, 
almost indifferent even to our best MSS. whether they write ec 
or iy*, or whether they write a liquid single or double. Thus 
readings such as ire^vicriL for 7r€(f>vK€L (A 483), or r&v rjBvfio<f 
for T&v vi]Bvfjbo^ (K 187), can hardly be regarded as departures 
even from our MSS. ; the two readings would certainly have 
been indistinguishable in the old alphabet. The most serious 
departure from tradition is the acceptance of Nauck's tmfic 
for XK(ofiav of all MSS. in I 414 ; I could not make up my mind 
to leave the unmetrical reading, though I have endured eiw? as a j 
trochee rather than go to pure conjecture and write elo? or ^09.^ 
Grenerally speaking I have endeavoured to choose in each 
particular case what seemed to me to be the best reading among 
those current in the fifth century ; and I have not hesitated in 
many cases to give a reading in the text which is described in 
the notes as clearly wrong — a corruption, that is, as old as the 
fifth century, of an older form which we can confidently restore. 

For the adscription in place of the subscription of l in the 
diphthongs di, rjc, (oi no apology is needed — at all events I shall 
offer none. It is curious that a twelfth -century device for 
correcting the blunders of copyists should have been so far 
canonised as to lead the unthinking to suppose that it has some 
ancient authority. It is typographically ugly as well as philo- 
logically misleading. 

IV. — The Apparatus Criticus 

In compiling the Apparatus Criticus I have aimed at 
compression and brevity, not only from considerations of space, 
but in a firm belief that for the purposes of the critic a small 
selection of readings is more useful than approximate completeness. 
I have therefore omitted as a rule all variants which affect 
only orthographical questions, or which, to the best of my 
judgment, were mere blunders of no critical interest. The 
omissions under the head of orthography include all such 

* The only other readings in the text the rrfi firjt or 'fi^i of the mss. (compare 
for which no ancient authority can be A 608) ; and laraaav for iaracray or 
quoted are, I believe, ttji ifAiji in I 654 for ((rraffoy M 56. 


matters as accentuation, breathings, omission or addition of v 
i<f>€\Kv<rrLK6p or iota subscript, single or double writing of \, fju, v, 
o-, p, itacism, confusion of o and o), and many cases of diflference 
in the division of words, especially sucli forms as S' ifioL or he 
fioL, S' i<f>€^oin'o or Bk (fyi^omo, irdvroa itcrjp or irdmoae larjv. 
In all these the testimony of Mss. is practically indifferent, and 
it is waste of space and energy to accumulate it ; our choice has 
to be made on other grounds. 

It is in the omission of what I believe to have been mere 
copyists' mistakes that I may have neglected something in 
which acuter eyes than my own might detect traces of a genuine 
variant. The risk of this must be preferred, however, to 
the accumulation of ridiculous blunders such as would make it 
difficult to see the wood for the trees. 

For similar reasons, namely, at once to save space and to give 
a clearer view of the weight of testimony, I have as a rule 
quoted only one of each group of related MSS. My P and La 
Eoche*s L, for instance, are so closely connected, coming evidently 
from a common archetype, that I have not quoted L except where 
it differs from P. So I quote only G and omit its satellites 
" Mor Bar " except where they differ from it ; the three can only 
be weighed as a single MS. 

Thus though my Apparatus seems brief in comparison with 
La Eoche's, I feel confident that it gives all that is really of 
importance for the constitution of the text, and indeed adds a 
very considerable amount of new matter. Our knowledge of the 
MSS. will soon be greatly enlarged by other hands ; but in the 
meantime there can be no loss in this humble contribution to a 
strangely neglected field of Homeric criticism. 

V. — Manuscripts 

The MSS. quoted in the Apparatus Criticus are the following : — 

A. Papyri 

Pap. a = Petrie, Havxira Biahmu and Arsinoe, pp. 24-8 (collated also by 
myself) ; contains part of B 1-877. 5th cent. a.d. 

„ fl = British Museum cxxvi. {Classical Te:cts from Papyri in the B. M. p. 
81) ; B lOl-A 40. 4th or 5th cent a.d. 

„ r = B. M. cxxxvi. (Class, Texts p. 93); parts of T 317-A 544. 3rd 
cent. A.D. 



• ♦ 


L Pap. d = Bodleian d 20 (Grenfell An Alexandrian Erotic Fragment and other 

Greek Papyri p. 6) ; parts of 9 64-75, 96-116. 2nd cent a.d. 
^ „ € = B. M. dclxxxix. (Grenfell Greek Papyri, Second Series p. 4) ; 
6 217-9, 249-53. 3rd cent B.c. 
„ z = Mahaflfy Flinders Petrie Papyri PL iii. (4); fragments from A 

503-37. 2nd cent b.c. 
„ H = Genavensis ; Nicole Eev. de Philologies Jan. 1894 (Kenyon C, K viii. 
pp. 134-6); small fragments from A, A, and Z, and A 788-M 
11. 2nd cent B.O. ? 
„ • = Louvre; La Boche Homerische Textkritik p. 448; N 1-175. Ist 

cent B.C. ? 

,. i = B. M. cviL (Harris Papyrus); Catalogue of Ancient MSS, in the 

B. M^ part L : Greek, pp. 1-6 ; 2 1-218, 311-617. 1st cent ac. 

., K = B. M cxxvii. {Glass, Texts p. 98) ; small fragments from E, Z, 2. 

3rd or 4th cent. a.d. 

X = Bodleian b 3 (Grenfell Greek Papyri, Sccmid Series p. 5) ; fragments 

of 4>, X, '^. 3rd cent b.c. 
JUi = B. M. cxxviii. (Class. Texts p. 100 ; /. P. xxi. pp. 17-24, 296- 

343) ; large parts of ^ 1-79, 402-i2 759. Ist cent B.C. 

N = B. M. cxiv. (Bankes Papyrus) ; Catal. of Anc, MSS, p. 6, PhiL 

Mtis. i. p. 177, and my own collation ; 12 127-end. 2nd cent A.D. 

„ s = Grenfell and Hunt Oxyrhynchus Papyri p. 46 ; B 730-828. 2nd 

cent. A.D. 

o = B. M. dccxxxii. (Hunt A New Homeric Papyrus in /. P. xxvi. pp. 

25-59) ; most of N 2-775, H 120-522. 1st cent a.d. 
n = Grenfell and Hunt Oxyrhynchus Papyri ii. p. 96 ; E 1-303 and a 
few fragments from E 329-705. Beginning of 3rd cent A.D. 
For readings see App. F. 

B. Uncial 

Ambr. = Ambrosianus Pictus, saec v.-vi., a Ms. at Milan consisting of leaves 
containing illustrations of the Iliad and accompanying portions 
of the text. It contains pieces from all the books except F, 2, 
T, Y— 800 lines in all. Published by Angelo Mai, 1819, Iliadis 
fragmenta antiquissima cum picturis. 

S3nr. = B. M. Add. 17, 210 ; Caial, of Anc, MSS, p. 6, and Fragments of the 
Iliad of Homer from a Syriac Palimpsest. Edited by IV. Cnreton 
(saec. vi. or vii.). It contains 3873 lines from M to 12. See 
Hoffmann, 2P^ und S2^^^ Buch der Ilias pp. 3 ff., La R H. T, 
p. 454 no. 5. 

C. La Roche's MSS. 

A = Venetus 454, in the Marciau Library at Venice, saec. x. First 
published by Villoison Homeri Ilias ad veteris codicis Veiieti fidem 
recermta. Scholia in earn antiquissima ... 1788. La Roche's 
collation in Homeri Ilias (1873-6) is followed ; but I have to 
thank Mr. T. W. Allen for some valuable additions and corrections, 
which are distinguished by his initials. (Hoffmann pp. 12 ff.) 



xxviii THE ILIAD 

A = portions of the above MS. which have been supplied by a later hand, 
the original leaves having been lost. The supplements consist of 
E 336-635, P 277-677, 729-61, T 126-326, ft 405-504. 

C = Cod. Laurentianus xxxii. 3, in the Medicean Library at Florence, saec. 
xi. LaR. Horn, Teztkritik no. 14 p. 460, Hoffmann p. 28. 

D = Cod. Laurentianus xxxii. 15, saec. xi.-xii. La R ibid. no. 15, Hoffmann 
p. 31. 

2) = portions of the above supplied by later hands. These are not 
mentioned by La Roche or Hoffmann. Mr. T. W. Allen has 
kindly given me the following valuable list of the passages thus 

"(1) A hand coeval or nearly so with D, though markedly 
different from it ; O 388-11 167. 

(2) A hand of s. xii. or xiii. ; books A-A and N 96-160. 

(3) A hand of s. xv. ; 8 390-525, P 369-2 192, 593-T 
38, ^ 652-719, 854-i2 85, 219-348, 754-804. 

(4) Another s. xv. hand supplies 2 326-93 and 538-92." 
[£] (Note. — La Roche's E refers to the printed text of the Roman edition 

of Eustathius, 1542, and is not quoted here as it is of no critical 

G = Vindobonensis 39, saec. xiv. La R. H, T. p. 472 no. 92. First 

published by Alter, Vienna 1789. 
H = Vindobonensis 117, saec. xiii. La R. H. T. p. 473 no. 96, Hoffmann 

p. 33. From "^ 648 to the end is in another hand, noted as ^.^ 
L = Vindobonensis 5, saec. xiv.-xv. L&'R, H. T. p. 476 no. 105, Hoffmann 

p. 40. This MS. is almost identical with my P, and is only 

quoted when it differs from P. 
M = Venetu8 456, saec. xv. La R. H. T. p. 477 no. 107. La R. has 

published a collation of three books only, A-Z. This MS. is 

almost identical with Harl. a ; I have ascertained that they agree 

for all readings of M given in my Apparatus, except where a 

difference is noted. 
N and = Venetus 459, which consists of portions of two MSS., one (N) 

containing A 1-H 392 (saec. xv.), the other (0) A 214-M (saec. 

xiv.). La R. //. T. p. 459 no. 10. The collation of books A-Z 

only has been published. 
S = Stuttgartensis 6 (saec xv. ?). La R ^. T. p. 478 no. 111. La R. 

follows the collation of the Iliad published by Rieckher in Eos, 


D. Manuscripts now Added 
(See /. P. XX. pp. 237-51. The first five are collated by myself.) 

J = B. M. Harley 1771 — a late xv. cent. MS., with glosses in red and black 
ink, mostly rhetorical and grammatical. Leaves have been lost 
containing A 622-653, O 31-62, ft 719-end. 

^ I regret that I overlooked Hoffmann's different hand, ff should therefore be 
statement that Book A is also in a read for H throughout this book. 



P = Paris, grec 2766 — late xv. cent, (so dated by Sir E. Maiinde Thompson 
from the watermark). The Ms. is nearly identical with L. The 
writing is often very small, and ct, 17, and a are frequently 
almost or quite indistinguishable from one another. La R. H, T, 
p. 471 no. 88. 

Q = Paris, grec 2767. A 1-118, 204-233, 12 673-end are missing, and a 
good many lines have been lost by mutilation of the lower margin, 
xiv. cent (so Catalogue ; rather, late xv.). La R. ibid. no. 89. 

B = Paris, grec 1805, saec. xv., written by Georgios Gregoropulos, in a neat 
clear hand. La R. p. 470 no. 80. 

•T = Townleianus, B. M. Bumey 86 ; saec. xiiL ? This was very imperfectly 
collated by Heyne in 1802; my own collation is independent, but 
I have used (and checked) Heyne's as well. See Heyne voL iii 
p. c. ; E. M. Thompson in G, 22. ii. p. 103 ; La Roche H, T. p. 467 
no. 65 ; Maass in Scholia Graeca in Homeri Iliadem Tcyimileyana i. 
(voL V. of the Oxford ed.) pp. vii. ff. ; Gardthausen Gr. PcUdogr. p. 
405 ; myself in G, R. iii. p. 156. I have occasionally named John 
Rhosos of Crete as responsible for some added lines, etc., as his 
handwriting is unmistakable. 

U = Genavensis, for which I have of course followed the laboriously minute 
collation of Nicole Scolies Genevoises de Vlliade ii. pp. 2 1 9 ff. The 
MS. is exhaustively described in the Introduction to that work. 

17 = portions supplied by later hands, viz. A 1-54, 109-66, B 506-877, 
e 214-565, I 1-63, 706-13, K 1-50, O 576-617, 12 707-62. 

All the Mss. hitherto named except M, N, O have been collated through- 
out. In all that follow the collation is presumably or certainly only partial. 

Harl. a = B. M. Harl. 5693 ; saec. xiv.-xv. This is the "Harl." of Heyne, 
who took his readings from Bentley's MS. notes (vol. iiL pp. xcvii. 
ff.). See also G, R iii. 295. I have repeated Heyne's readings 
where I found them correct, after checking the whole with the 
MS. — a very necessary precaution — and added a few of my own. 
In A-Z HarL a is quoted only where differing from M (see above). 
The following B. M. and Paris mss. I have collated only in 
selected passages (about 2000). 
„ b = HarL 5600, by John Rhosos, finished 16th May 1466. It is 

based on T and another ms. not yet identified. 
„ c = HarL 5672, also in the hand of Rhosos. Contains A, B 1-9, 

490-594, r 123-461, A 1-246. This is not based on T. 
„ d=Harl. 5601, saec xv.-xvi. 
King's = B. M. King's 16. Written in 1431. 

Par. a = Paris, grec 2681, saec. xiv.-xv. ? The ms. has large gaps filled up 
in another hand on different paper (/. P. xx. p. 244, La R. H. T. 
p. 470 no. 81). 
„ b = Paris, supplement grec 497, saec. xiii. (?) ; a fragmentary ms., see 

/. P. XX. p. 250 ; not in La R. 
„ c = Paris 2894. saec. xiii. (?) (La R. H. T. p. 475 no. 103). 
„ d = Paris 2680, saec. xv. (La R H. T. p. 476 no. 100). 
„ e = Paris 2682, saec xiv.-xv. (La R. H. T. p. 471 no. 82). 


Par. f= Paris 2683, saec. xiv. (La R H, T. p. 471 no. 83). 
„ g = Parifl 2684, saec. xiv. (La R. p. 471 no. 84 is wrong ; A 1-683 
are supplied by another hand, but the MS. contains the whole 
„ h = Paris 2685, saec. xv. (La R p. 471 no. 85). 
. „ j = Paris 2768, saec. xiii. (1?) (La R p. 472 no. 90). 
„ k = Paris 2697 (not in La R), *saec. xiii.' (1). Contains A-M only ; 
I is in a different hand (/. P. xx. p. 246)^ 

(Note, — Paris suppl. grec 144 is in the hand of George 
Qregoropulos, like R, and is identical in its readings with that 
MS. as far as Y 367. After that line it is practically identical 
with P as far as the end of ^, and apparently to the end of 12. 
It is therefore not quoted here.) 

E. Heyne's MSS. 
("Harl.," see Harl. a above ; "Townl.," see T.) 

Vr. a = Vratislaviensis ^ a (La R H, T, p. 477 no. 106). Heyne does 
not give any date. Contains A-Z 356 and the Odyssey. 
„ b, ace. to La R (H, T, p. 469 no. 72) saec. xiii.-xiv. 
„ c (no date) contains A-K 377, with Eustathioa 

„ d (no date) contains N-12. It is practically identical with La Roche's H. 
„ A, written by Michael Apostolis, who died a.d. 1472. Contains Iliad 
and Odyssey, 

The above mss. were collated for Heyne by Prof. F. Jacobs of 
Gk)tha (voL iii. pp. Ixxxvii. ff.). 
Mosc. 1, in the Archives of the Imperial College at Moscow, saec. xiv., 
contains A-G 434 (La R H, T. p. 470 no. 76). 
„ 2, in the Library of the Holy Synod, saec xii. (?), contains A 195-331, 
604-B 304, 391-406, 424-40, E 438-Z 97, 234-301, 438- 
H 24, A 65-133, 340-M 60, H 237-522, 11, Y-12 475. 
„ 3 ("recentior" Heyne), in the Library of the Imperial Archive, 
contains A-B 26, T 1-323, A-A 688. 

For these three Heyne used a collation made by C. F. Matthaei 
(vol. iii. pp. xc. ff.). 
frag. Mosc., portions of a ms. of which we are told nothing more, con- 
taining M 61-467, 0, P, ^, T. These fit so exactly into lacunae 
of Mosc 2 that one would naturally suppose them to belong to 
that MS. ; but Heyne does not suggest this. The collation is due 
to Heyne's pupil Nohden (ibid. p. xci.) 
Eton., in the Library of Eton College, saec xiiL (?), contains A-E 84. 

Collated by Nuhden (Heyne iii. p. ex.). 
Mor. (saec. xv.), called from its owner, John More, Bishop of Ely ; at his 
death it was bought by Bentley, and is now in the Library of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. This ms. and the next coincide so 
closely with G that only their differences from it are quoted. 
Heyne's collation is from Bentley's notes (iii. p. xcvi.). 

^ Vraiislavia is the Latin name of Breslau. 


Bar., Baioccianus 203 in the Bodleian at Oxford, collated by T. Heame 
(Heyne ilL p. xL). 

Land., Laudianus (from the library of Abp. Laud), in the Bodleian, no. 731, 
contains, with other matter, A-B 493. 

Cant., in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. This contains 
Iliad and Odyssey, It was first used by Barnes, and afterwards 
by Bentley, on whose notes Heyne's readings seem to be based 
(iii pp. xl., xcvi). It is almost identical with S, and is quoted 
only when differing. 

laps. = Lipsiensis 1275. This consists of two parts, A-P 89 and P 90-42, 
on different paper and from different sources. The former is the 
older — about 1300 ace. to Hoffmann ; the latter, here distinguished 
as Lips,y about 1350. It was collated by Emesti for his ed. of 
Clarke's Iliad; Heyne follows him with additions from Bentley, 
who apparently had notes from Mencken or Bergler ; Heyne iii. 
p. c. See Hoffmann pp. 46 ff. Lips, is closely related to P, and is 
quoted only in the rare event of a difference. 

Ven. B = Venetus (Marcianus) 453, saec. xi. See Hoffmann p. 22, La R. 
H. T. p. 458 no. 7. Heyne rarely cites this MS., and it is not 
clear whence he got his readings. Hoffmann has given a full 
collation for ^ and X — as in the case of the other Mss. for which 
his name has been cited above, viz. Syr. ACDHL Lips, 

"Vat. Heyne quotes occasional readings under this title, but I have been 
unable to find anything to identify the MS. referred to. He mentions 
Vatican mss. on pp. xliL, xlvii., c., but none of them seems to 

VI. — Explanation of Signs and Contractions 

An. = Aristonikos (the excerpts in the scholia from his book Trcpt tQv 

' Kpixrrdp^ov (njfieCtav), 
Antim. = Antimachoa 
Ap. Xex. = Apollonii Sophistae Lexicon. 
Ap. Bhod. = ApoUonios Rhodios. 

{Note, — In thescholion on I 153 'ATroA-Xcuvtos ("ApoUon.") is 

probably a mistake of the ms. for ' AjroXXoSiopoSj which Schol. 

L reads.) 
Aph. = Aristophanes Byzantius. 
At. = Aristarchos. 
Argol., Chia, Cypr., Mass., Sinop., the ancient editions quoted in the 

scholia as rj 'ApyoXt/crJ, Xta, KuTrpta, MaoxraXtcurtK^, StvcDTTtK?). 
Dem. Ixion, ^rj/irirpios o 'l^((i)v : Dem. Skeps., Demetrios of Skepsis 

Did., Didymos (the excerpts in the scholia from his work ttc/ji ttJs 'Api- 

<rTap\€iov 8t,op6w(r€iJs). 
Dion. Sid., Dionysios Sidonios (see Ludw. i. 50), to be distinguished from 

Dion. Thrax (ibid. p. 49). 
Et. liag. = Etymologicum ^lagnum. 

xxxii THE ILIAD 

£t. Gud. = Etymologicum Gudianum. 

Herod. = Herodianos (generally the excerpts in the scholia from his 'Ikiatcrj 

Nik. = Nikanor (the excerpts from his Trcpt oTiy/irjs). 

Porph. = Potphyrios (the fragments of his ZjjTrjfuiTa ^OfirjpLKa), 

PtoL Ask. = riToAc/iatos o *A(rKaX.(DvCTrjs : Ptol. OroancL = UroXefiaios 6 
'Opodv8oVy also called ITtoX. JlLvSapitjDv (Ludw. i. 60) ; both to 
be distinguished from IlToAc/iaios 6 'Efl-t^c-nys (ibid. 48). 

Bhi. = Rhianos. 

Sosig. = Sosigenes. 

Zen. = Zenodotos. 

&•. = a^€r€^ dOerowri. 

rp. = ypd<f>€raLf ypd<f>oxKri, ypairrkov. 

dix^ indicates different readings in the two editions of Ar. 

ap. = apud ; generally of readings mentioned or implied, but not adopted, 
by an author. 

om. = omittit, omittunt. 

SUpr. = supra scriptum, supra scripto. 

C^ etc. = the first hand of C ; D' etc. = the second hand of D. 

G* = G in the text, (y" = G in the margin. 

[H], the square brackets indicate a reading of one of La Roche's mss. 
inferred from his silence only — i.e. he does not quote the MS. for 
any other alternative. The inference is, however, often highly 

O indicates, according to circumstances, " all mss.'' or " all mss. other than 
those explicitly quoted for a different reading" — in both cases, of 
course, with the qualification " so far as I am aware." 

*, the asterisk indicates erasure of one letter. 

All " suprascript " readings, on account of their generally secondary 
value, are enclosed in parentheses when occurring in a series of quotations. 
They are to be understood as implying (where no explicit statement is made) 
that the ms. itself agrees with 12 or the text. A similar reference is implied 
in C\ D2 etc So also H*, P°» imply a reading of H°», PS which will be 
clear on the same grounds. 

All parentheses in a series of mss. (when they do not themselves include 
the name of a ms.) refer to the ms. immediately preceding, and to no other. 

Take then the following (imaginary) note : " 999 om, CD* || crdxci Ar. 
fi : CTcfxKO I^^G^H^J (yp. creixci) (L mpr.) P {mpr. €i), €v aAAwt 
A, yp. Harl. a." 

This conveys the following statements : — 

C omits the line entirely. 

D omits the line in the text but has it supplied in the margin. 

Aristarchos reads crreixci (as in the text), and so do all mss. (so far as I 
am aware) other than those which follow. These read either crrcixtji or 
oT^ixq (which for the purposes of this Apparatus need not be distinguished) : 
namely : — 

The line supplied in the margin of D (probably by a later hand, though 
information on this point is too often deficient). 


The second hand of G — but the first hand had o-T€t;(€i. 

The first hand of H — but the second hand has altered it to 0T€iX€t. 

J — but with (rr€i\€i given as a marginal variant. 

P — but with €1 written over rj(i), 

L, while reading aT€t;(€i, has a-r€LX7j(i) or simply ?;(i) written over it 

A and Harl. a, while reading c^retx€^ have the marginal variant 
oT€tx»y(i), introduced in one case by €v aAAcoi, the formula peculiar to A, in 
the other case by the ordinary y/o. 

iT?0 1 


Ahrens Beitrage, — Beitriige zur griechischen UDil lateiuisclien Etymologie, von 

H. L. Ahrciis. Erstes Heft. Leipzig, Teubner, 1879. 
A. J. P. — American Journal of Philology (from 1880). 
Ameis. — Homers Ilias fUr den Schulgebrauch crkliirt von K. F. Amcis. (Recent 

editions, which are numerous, are "besorgt von Dr. C. Hentze.") 
,, Anh, — Anhang zu Homers Ilias, Schulausgabe von K. F. Ameis. (Third 

ed. of part i., second ed. of subsequent parts, "besorgt von Prof. Dr. 

C. Hentze." Frequently cited as "Hentze" only.) 
Bekker //. B. — Homerische Blatter, von Imman. Bekker. Bonn, vol. i. 1863. 

vol. ii. 1872. 
Bergk P. L.^ — Poetae L>Tici Graeci. Tertiis curis recensuit Th. Bergk. Lipsiat, 

Teubner, 1866. 
Brandreth. — 'Ofirjpov ftXtas littera digamma rcstituta ad metri leges redegit ct 

notatione brevi illustmvit Thomas Shaw Brandreth. London, 

Pickering, 1841. 
Bragman(n) Prob. — Ein Problem der Homerischcn Kritik und der vergleichenden 

Sprachwissenschuft. Von Karl Brugman {sic. Tlie author is however 

identical with the Brugmann of the following work). Leipzig, 1876. 
,, Gr. — Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der Indogennanischen 

Si»nichen (vols. i. and ii.). Strassburg, Triibner, 1886-92 (see 

Dclbriick frr.). 
Buchholz H. R. — Die Homerischen Realien. Von Dr. E. Buchholz. Leipzig, 6 

parts in three vols. 1871-85. 
Buttmann LexiL — Lexilogus . . for Homer and Hesiod. By Philip Buttmann. 

Translated and edited by the Rev. J. R. Fishlake. 5th edition. 

London, 1861. 
Cauer Grundfr, — Grundfragen der Homcrkritik. Von Paul Cauer. Leipzig, 

Hirzel, 1895. 
C /. = Corpus Inscriptionnm Graecarnm. 

Gierke (Miss) Fam. Shidies. — Familiar Studies in Homer. By Agnes M. Gierke. 

Longmans, 1892. 
Cobet J/. C, — Miscellanea Critica. Scripsit C. G. Cobet. Lugd. Batavorum, 1876. 
Collitz. — Sammlung der griechischen Dialekt-Inschriften. Herausg. von Dr. 

Hermann Collitz. Gbttingen. Vandenhoeck, 1884 on. 
C. R. — Classical Review. London, D. Nutt, 1887 on. 

Cortius Et. — Grundziige der griechischen Etymologic, von G. Curtius. 5th ed. 

Leipzig, 1879. 
Vh, — Das Verbum der gr. Sprache, seiuem Baue nach dargestellt. Von 

G. Curtius. Vol. L, 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1877 ; vol. ii, 1876. 
St. — Studicn zur griechischen und lateinischen Grammatik, herausg. von 

G. Curtius. Leipzig, 1868-78. 



I This index is not intended for a complete list of works cited in the notes, much less for :i 


Darbishire RelL Phil. — Relliouiae Philologieae, or Essays in Comparative 

PhiloloK>', by the late H. D. Darbishirc. Edited by R 8. Conway. 

Cambridge, 1896. 
Delbriick S, F. — Syntaktische Forschungen, von B. Delbriiek und E. Windisch. 

i, Der Gebrauch des Conjunctivs und Optativs im Sanskrit und 

Griechischen, von B. Delbriick ; Halle, 1871. iv, Die Grundlagen der 

griechischen Syntax, erortert von B. Delbriick, 1879. 
,, Gr. — GrundrLis der vergl. Gramm. der Indogermaniscben Sprachen (see 

under Brugmann (7r.), vols, iii., iv., 1893, 1897. 
Doderlein Gloss. — Homerisches Glossarium, von L. Doderlein. Erlangen, 1850-58. 
Erhardt. — Die Eutistehung der Homerischen Gedichtc. Yon Louis Erhardt. 

Leipzig, 1894. 
FAsL — Homers Iliade. Erklart von J. U. Fiisi. Fiinfte Auflage besorgt von 

F. R. Franke. Berlin, 1871. 
Franke. — Do. do. 

Frazer Paus. — Pausanias's Description of Greece, translated with a commentary by 

J. G. Frazer. 6 vols. London, Macmillan, 1898. 
Gladstone, J. M. — Juventus Mundi, the Gods and Men of the Heroic Age. By the 

Right Hon. William Ewart Gladstone. London, Macmillan, 1869. 
H. — Homer. 

H. O. — A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect. By D. B. Monro ; second 

edition. Oxford, 1891. 
Hartel //. S. — Homerische Studien . . von Wilhelm Hartel. Zweite Auflage. 

Berlin, Vahlen, 1873. 
Hehn. — Kulturpflanzen und Hausthiere . . Historisch-linguistische Skizzen 

von Victor Hehn. Funfte Auflage. Berlin, 188r. 
Helbig U. E. — Das Homerische Epos aus den Denkmalem erlautert. Archao- 

logische Untersuchungen von W. Helbig. Zweite Auflage. Teubner, 

Leipzig, 1887. 
Hentze. — See Ameis. 
Hinrichs Horn. El. — De Homcricae elocutionis vestigiis Aeolicis. Scripsit G, 

Hinrichs. Jena, 1876. 
J. P. = Journal of Philology. 

J. H. S. = Journal of Hellenic Studies. 
Kn5s dc dig. — De digammo Homerico quaestiones. Scripsit Olaus Vilelmus 

Knos. Upsala, voL i. 1872, ii. 1873, iii. 1878. 
Kiihner. — Ausfiihrliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache von Dr. Raphael 

Kiihner. Zweite Auflage. Hannover, 1869, 1870. 
L. and S. — A Greek-English Lexicon compiled by H. G. Liddell . . and Robert 

Scott . . Seventh edition. Oxford, 1883. 
Lange EI. — Der homerische Gebrauch der Partikel EI. Von Ludwig Lange. 

i, Einleitung und ct mit dem Optativ. " Leipzig, 1872. ii, et kcv (Av) 

mit dem Optativ, und el ohne Verbum Finitum, 1873. (No more 

published. ) 
La R. ff. T. — Die Homerische Textkritik im Alterthum, von Jacob La Roche. 

Leipzig, Teubner, 1866. 
,, ff. U. — Homerische Untersuchungen von Jacob La Roche. Leipzig, 1869. 
Lehrs Ar. — De Aristarchi Studiis Homericis. Scripsit K. Lehrs. Editio recognita. 

Lii)siae, 1865. 
Ludw. — Aristarchs Homerische Textkritik nach den Fragmenten des Didymos 

dargestellt und beurtheilt von Arthur Ludwich. Leipzig, Teubner, 

vol. i. 1884, vol. ii. 1885. 
,, U. V. — Die Homervulgata als voralexandrinisch erwiesen von Arthur 

Ludwich. Teubner, 1898. 
M. and R. — Homer's Odyssey, edited . . by W. W. Merry and the late James 

Riddell. Vol. i.. Books i.-xii. (all published). Oxford, 1876. 
M. and T. — Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb. By AV. AV. 

Goodwin. Macmillan, 1889. 
Meister Dial. — Die griechischen Dialekte . . dargestellt von lUchard Meistcr. 

Gottingeii, Vandonhoeck. Vol. i. 1882, vol. ii. 1889. 
Menrad Contr, — De Contraction is ct Synizeseos usu Homerico. Scripsit Jos. 

Menrad. Munich, Buchholz, 1886. 



xxxvi THE ILIAD 

G. Meyer Gr. — Griechische Grammatik von Gustav Meyer. Dritto Auflage. 

Leipzig, Breitkopf, 1896. 
Milchh5fer An/, d, Kunst. — Die Anfan^e der Kunst in Griechenland. Studien von 

Dr. A. Milchhofer. Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1883. 
Nagelsbach H, T, — C. F. von Nagelsbac^'s Homeiische Theologie. Dritte Auflage, 

bcarbeitet von Dr. G. Autenrieth. Niimberg, 1884. 
Nitzsch JSrkL Antiu — £rklarende Anmerkungen zu Homer's Odyssee. Von G. W. 

Nitzsch (3 vols.). Hannover, 1826-40. 
Preller G. M,* — Griechische Mythologie von L. Preller. Vierte Auflage bearbeitet 

von Carl Robert. Erster Band, Berlin, 1894 (Zweiter JBand, dritte 

Aufl. bearb. von E. Plew, 1875). 
Reichel ff, W, — Ueber Homerische Waffeu. Archaologische Untersuchungen 

von Wolfgang Reichel. Wien, 1894. 
Roscher Lean. — Ausfdhrlicnes Lexicon der griechischen uud romischen Mythologie 

. . herausg. von W. H. Roscher. Leipzig, Teubner (in progress, from 

Schrader ffandelsg. — Linguistisch-historische Forschungen zur Handelsgeschichte 

und Warenkunde von Dr. O. Schrader. Erster Teil. Jena, 1886. 
S, und U. — Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte . . von Dr. 0. 

Schrader. Jena, 1883. 
Porph, — Porphyrii quaestionum Homericarum ad Iliadem pertinentium 

reliquias collegit disposuit edidit Hermannus Schrader. Teubner, 

Schuchh. — Schliemann's Excavations, an Archaeological and Historical Study, 

by Dr. C. Schuchhardt. Translated from the German by Eugenie 

Sellers: Macmillan, 1891. 
Scholze Q^ E, — Quaestiones Epicae. Scripsit Guilelmus Schulze. Gueterslohae, 

Studniczka. — Beitriige zur Geschichte der altgriechischen Tracht, von Franz 

Studniczka. Wien, 1886. 
Thompson Gloss. — A Glossary of Greek Birds, by D'Arcy Went worth Thorajwon. 

Oxford, 1895. 
Tsountas-Manatt. — The Mycenaean Age : A Study of the Monuments and Culture 

of Pre-Homeric Greece. By Dr. Chrestos Tsountas and J. Irving 

Manatt. Macmillan, 1897. 
Van L. — Homeri Iliadis Carmina cum Apparatu Critico ediderunt J. van 

Leeuwen J. F. ct M. B. Mendes da Costa. E^litio altera. Lugd. 

Batavorum, 1895, 1896. 
,, Ench, — Enchiridium Dictionis Epicae. Scripsit J. van Leeuwen J. F. 

Lugd. Batavorum, 1894. 
Veitch. — Greek Verbs Irregular and Defective . . by William Veitch. New 

ed. Oxford, 1871. 
W.-M. H, U, — Philologische Untersuchungen herausgegebcu von A. Kiessling und 

U. von Wilamowitz • Mollendorff. Siebentes Heft. Homerische 

Untersuchungen [von Wilamowitz-MollendorfT]. Berlin, Weidmann, 

„ Her. — Euripides Herakles erklart von Ulrich von Wilamowitz-MollendorfT. 

Zweite Bearbeitung. Berlin, Weidmann, 1895. 

Note. — ^The books of the Iliad are referred to by the capitals, and those of the 
Odyssey by the minuscules, of the Greek alphabet. 


The problem of the composition of the Iliad meets us in a peculiarly subtle 
and difficult aspect on the very threshold of the poem. The first book 
seems, even to a careful reader, to be a perfect and indivisible whole ; yet 
it is here that the severest battles of the critic have been fought Lachmann 
and his school have rightly felt that if the book could once be disintegrated 
in spite of its apparent solidity, the task of separation would be dis- 
proportionately facilitated for the rest of the Iliad, 

The weak points on which Lachmann fixed are two. The first is the 
inconsistency involved in 423, where it is said that all the gods went 
' yesterday ' to the Aethiopians ; whereas Apollo is elsewhere conceived as 
still shooting his darts at the Greeks, and in 474 as present at Chryse; 
while Hera and Athene are watching the strife in the assembly, the latter 
descending to Ti*oy and returning to Olympos fiera SaCfiovas akkovs. The 
second is foimd in ck roto 493, which refers back, not to the day indicated 
in the preceding lines, as we should ei^pect, but to the interview between 
Thetis and her son which ended in 42^, and since which at least one night, 
and apparently several, have passed. 

The conclusion drawn by Lachmann is that the first book consists of an 
original *lay,' 1-347, with two * continuations,' (a) 430-92, (b) 348-429 
and 493 to the end. Of these he thinks that (a) may be by the poet of the 
original lay, but that (6) is certainly of diflferent origin, and not very skilfully 
adapted to the ,place where it is found. 

We will first take (a), the episode of the restoration of Ohryseis. The 
vague reference of ck toIo, though not indefensible (as the preceding lines 
naturally lead the thought back to the point to which ck toio belongs, cf. 
488 with 422), is certainly not what we should expect Further, the whole 
episode can be cut out without being missed — we have only to make 49^^ 
follow 429 immediately — and is of no importance to the story. A large 
portion consists of lines which are found in other parts of the Homeric 
poems ; and of these one at least, 463, seems to be more at home in the 
third book of the Odyssey than here, while 469-70 are not in harmony 
with a well-marked Homeric custom. According to the usual Greek ritual, 
the purifications of 312-17 should not precede but follow the removal of 
the plague by Apollo. There is therefore very strong g^^ound for holding 
*^ that Lachmann is right in saying that ' continuation (a) ' is not an integral 
part of the original lay ; but if the two are once separated, we can no 


2 lAIAAOC A (i) 

longer admit the possibility that they are by the same author ; the continua- 
tion must, from the evidence of borrowing, be of a very much later date. But 
it is most skilfully introduced into a pause in the main action, and ofifers 
a pleasing contrast, with its peace and feasting, to the stormy scenes with 
which the book opens and continues. 

This, however, is a subordinate matter ; the real question is, whether 
the original story of the Menis contained the promise of Zeus to Thetis that 
he would bring disaster upon the Greeks to revenge the insult offered to 
Achilles. The inconsistency as to the whereabouts of the gods cannot be 
denied ; is it inexplicable ? We can hardly say so. The consistency 
with which the Epic poet, composing for hearers and not for readers, is 
concerned, is the consistency of the moment. The consistency of details in 
different scenes is of less importance, so long as they are not conspicuous 
enough to affect our understanding of the main story. This is not the only 
place where the poet may have hovered vaguely between the divine power 
of omnipresence and the limitations of the anthropomorphic body. We will 
say, then, that the contradiction is real and disquieting, but not convincing. 

That Lachmann's original lay was ever really an independent poem, 
as he would have us believe, it is hard to think, and few are now found 
to hold that a great poet, such as he who composed this debate, would have 
left the quarrel truncated and without a conclusion. That the opening of 
the book, prologue and all, is the beginning of a poem of the Wrath, which 
went on through the defeat of the Greeks and the death of Patroklos to the 
slaying of Hector, seems as certain as anything in this thorny and obscure 
matter can be certain. But we must not forget that the more ancient any 
portion of the Iliad is, the more it has been exposed to weathering ; and 
that one effect of the continual process of growth and adaptation has been 
to obscure and smooth down the rough joints. Hence in this oldest portion 
critical analysis is peculiarly difficult. But one consideration must be added 
which lends some weight to Lachmann's separation of ' continuation {by In 
the Introduction to B it will be pointed out that there is some evidence of 
a different continuation of the quarrel scene ; a continuation in which the 
dispute is laid at once before an assembly of the whole army, and the visit 
of Thetis to Zeus left unnoticed. This version was a parallel one, and 
A, as it stands, may have been adapted from the two. It is not in our 
power to say which of the two was older ; time has effected a union which 
shews but the slightest scar, yet we cannot deny the mark, and can only 
interpret it in the way which seems best to account for the facts. And the 
facts are certainly to be accounted for on this supposition. The first x>art 
of A really belongs closely to a certain part of the assembly scene in 6, 
especially to the speech of Thersites ; it does not belong so closely to the 
scenes between Achilles and Thetis, and between Thetis and Zeus. In this 
form of the story it was the mere absence of Achilles from the field, not the 
interposition of Zeus, which brought about the rout of the Greek army in A. 
This is mere hypothesis, but it is a possible hypothesis, and it agrees with 
much that we shall find later, all pointing to the gradual composition of the 
" Iliad by the more or less perfect fusion of different versions, knitted together 
from the first by the fact that all alike are outgrowths from the Story of the 
Wrath, but otherwise independent 


Aoijul6c. Mftmc. 

IS/lrjviv aeiSe, Bed, UrfKr/idBeto 'Aj^tXiyo? 
ovXofjLevrfv, fj fivpC 'Aj^atol? oLhrfe eOrjKC, 

^pdotov, avToiff: Sk iXtopui t€vj(€ Kvve<T<nv 
oitDvolai T€ iraai, Ato? S' irekeiero fiovKij, 


1. rj 5i SoKWiTa i.pxoda 'I\idf, ^ Xtyofiiyrj 'AireWiKwyTos {dv iXtKtayoi MS. corr. 
Xauck), vpooifuoy fx^t tovto' MoOoac Added xa) *An6XXcoNa tcXuTbroaoN, u)s xal 
SiKdAap fUfivifTcu Koi Kpinrtit iv roU SiopOuyriKOii' 'ApKrrd^POi 8* iv a IlpcL^idaftayrlutP 
ifnf<rl Kard rivai fx^tv ''EcncTC nOn juoi, MoOoai 'OXiijuinia dcbiiOT* Cxouoai, Siincdc d^ 
iftAfdc Tc x^^oc •' XXc riHXdcoNa, AhtoOc t' ArXabN Mh' 6 rdip BaoXAY xoXcoedc. 
Osann An4X. JRomanum p. 5. 8. noXX^C : noXX^N Matranga Anee. 500. |l 

ipux^c : KC9aXdc Ap. Rhod. ; cf. A 55. 4-6 dS, Zen. 4. V ikktbpM 

CHPST al. 6. naa : Zen. datta ? {i\ infra) \\ fiouXi^ : BouXAi Nik. ap. Enst. 

1. •cd, the MoiTira of a 1, who tells the 
poet the history which he has to relate ; 
see B 484-92, and compare x 347 
avTodldaKTos 8' elfdy debt d4 fioi iv <f>p€(rlv 
dCftai vatrrolas (V^^ucrev, and 44, 64, 
488 ^ (r4 y€ Mour' mda^e, At6f vdi's, ij <r4 
7* *Aw6Wuy. riHXHYddcQa, originally no 
doubt Ilri\rfidda\o). This is one of a class 
of patronymics formed with a double 
suffix, the a(^ectival -to- and the purely 
patronymic -aSri-s : while the commoner 
form IlrfXe-idri'S has only one. Cf. B 566. 

2. oOXoubiHN, accursed ; it bears 
the same relation to the curse 6\oio as 
dtrfificvos (/3 33} to the blessing tfvouo, and 
means * that of which we say 6\oio/ 
It is best regarded as a purely metrical 
variant of dXS/ievot, which occurs in the 
same sense in Tiag. (Eur. Hel. 231, 
Phoen, 1029, Or, 1363, Here. 1061) ; see 
Schulze Qu, Ep, pp. 192 ff. uupia, 
countless; in its later sense, 10,000, the 
word is accented fj^Opioi. 

3. Y9eiJUL0C here, as in 24 other places 
(Knos), does not admit an initial r and 
never requires it. Thus connexion with 
Fli, Fi<piof is impossible, in spite of the 
nearness of sense. For a suggested 
etymology see CoUitz in AJP. viii. 
214-7. The feminine ItpOlfiri is also 
found, but only applied to women — e.g. 
T 116. "AYdi, a metaplastic dative of 
*A.tSrjtf which in H. always means the 
godf not his realm — with the exception, 
apparently, of 4^ 244. npotcnpc : irpo 
implies * forth on their way,' as in irpo- 
"jri/xireiv, irpoUvai. (195, 442, etc.). taT- = 
/rtc-, so that TrpotarJ/ey =prO''i€€-'U exactly. 

4. oOtoOc : the body is to Homer the 
real self, the ^fx^ is a mere shadow ; 
cf. "ir 65, where the soul of Patroklos is 
irdyr' airribi fkvia, like the real man. 

5. nda, i.e. all that chose to come : 
a perfectly natural expression. The 
reading dcura ascribed to Zen. is not 
mentioned in the scholia, which merely 


ef ov Si) tA TTp&Ta hiaa-TrjTqv epLaavre 
Xrpethr)^ re ava^ avhptov /cat Slo^ 'Aj^tXXeu?. 

Tt9 Tap <Tff>oD€ 0€&v epiZi ^vv€7)K€ fJui^eaOai ; 
ArjTOv^ Kol Ato9 i;/o9. o yap fiaa-iXiji y^pXcoOeU 
vovaov ava arparov &p<r€ KaKijv, oXckovto Se \aoi, 
ovvexa top ^pva-rjv ririfiaaev dprjrrjpa 
ArpetSrj^;, 6 yap ^\6€ 0oa^ iirX vrja*; *A^aiS>p 
Xvaofievo^ re dvyarpa (f>€p(ov r airepeiat airotva, 

<TT€flfiaT €J(Ci)V €V J(€pa\v €K7J^6\OV 'AtToWwI/O? 


6. Tivii yp. did cn^THN AplcaNTO EuRt. 8. C9AY(n) Zcd. and others. 

11. ArLuaccN ART»(?) Arnbr.* Lips.^ Vr. a: Aiiuac' L: AtUihccn DU Amhr.^i 
AtUihc' Q. 14. CT^JULUOT* Ar. Q : cr^jujuid t' Eton. Vr. a. 

say that he athetized 4-5. The only 
authority for tlie statement is Atlienaeus 
(L p. 12), on whom no reliance can be 
placed. But the reading is in itself 
vigorous and poetical. In fact the 
metaphor is so natural that we cannot 
even argue with confidence that Aischylos 
had dcura before him when ho wrote 
{Hupp. 800) Kvabf 5' iveiO* fKupa Kdvi- 
X<ifpioii I ipviffi dtiirvov o^K dvalvofjLai 
ircXftv : or Eur. Hec, 1077 <r0aicTA*' 
KwrL T€ 4>ovlay dair* dtr^/xepoy-j Ion 505 
irravoTs i\ii)pi<T€ Oolvav OrjpaL re tpoivlav 
SaiTa (Soph, is neutral, Aj, 830 /n4>0Q 
Kwrlv wp6^\riTos oluvots 6' iXup). In all 
these cases there is an apparent echo of 
the present i)assage, and daira if a real 
variant is much older than Zen. The 
argument against it in Athenaeus (often 
ascribed, though without ground, to 
Ar.), that H. never uses dait except of 
Imman banquets, is not even based on 
fact, see O 43. On the whole daura 
seems intrinsically a better reading, but 
we have no right to leave the uniform 
tradition of the mss. 

6. Is oC may refer to the preceding 
line, * the will of Zeus was being ful- 
' filled from the time when * (so Ar. ) ; or 
better, to &€i8e in the first line, 'take 
up the song from the point when,' as in 
500 fpaiye 8* docdi^, ivSey iWv^ un ol 
fUvj kt\. The extraordinary variant 
did arirniv {ifAaavro) was explained to 
mean ' on account of a woman ' ( !) 

8. Tdp : an enclitic particle recognised 
by Herod, (and perhaps Ar.), from r dp, 
as ydp from 7' dp. It does not of course 
make any perceptible difference here if 
we write r dp (with mss. except A); 
but see 65, 93. The combination is a 

favourite in questions ; B 761, F 226, 
A 656, etc. ipidi goes with ^wir/Ke, 
' pitted them in strife. * G9Q0C : according 
to the rule of Ar. this form belongs to 
the 3rd person. Zen. here and elsewhere 
read <r0wi', which Ar. confined to the 2nd 
person. It is, however, possible that the 
distinction is a mere fiction. Cf. Brug- 
mann Or. ii. p. 804, and App. A. 

11. Both drifiduj and drifid^uj occur 
in our texts, but the aor. is elsewhere 
only ip-LfiffffeVy and drifid^ is peculiar 
to the Odyssey. Rhythm, how- 
ever, is a strong argument here in 
favour of AriuaccN in place of the 
vulgate -/jrl/jLiffa, Nauck indeed wishes 
to expel dTifxdu from the text of Homer 
altogether ; but v. Curtius VTf, L p. 341 n. 
t6n XpikHN . . ApHTfipa: a use of 
the article which *is scarcely to be 
paralleled in Homer.* In other ex- 
amples with a proper noun it is used 
witn an adversative i)article (oiirdp, pi^y, 
d4)y and only of a person already men- 
tioned, e.g. B 105 (Monro). It would 
simplify this passage if we could take 
Xptj<nfs as an appoluitive, 'that man of 
Chryse, even the priest'; but there 
seems to be no other instance either of a 
local name thus formed in -lyt, or of a 
person addressed directly by a local name, 
as in 442 & Xpinni, Payne Ejiight conj. 
Toi, Nauck rovy for t6v. 

13. XuoducNoc: the mid. of the person 
who offers the ransom, tlie act. of him 
who accepts it, e.g. 20. 

14. CxcoN is su ordinate to the preced- 
ing participles, indicating a detail, ai% 
not co-ordinate with Xiird/icvof , expressing 
the main object of his journey. It is 
therefore best to retain the vnlg. insteaii 

lAIAAOC A (i) 

j(pva€<oc ova aK^qirrpooi, koX idaaero irdmra^ 'Aj^otov?, 
^ArpetSa Be fuiXurra Sveo, Koo'/i'qTope Xa&v 

** ^ArpetSat T€ /cal aWoc ivKvqfithe^ 'Aj^atot, 
vfilv fiev Oeol Sotev ^OXvp/iruL Bwfiar €j(pvT€^ 
i/dripaai Tlpidfioio iroXiv, iv S' oiKaS" iKeaOaf 
iralSa £' ifiol Xvaatre (l>tX7jv, ra 8' airotva Sej^eaOai, 
a^ofievot A&09 vlov €K7)fio\ov ^AiroWciyva* 

hfff SXKoi, fiev frdvTe^ i'7r€V(f>7]firf<Tav 'Aj^atol 
aihelaOai 0^ ieprja kol ar/\aa 8€j(0ai airoiva* 
ttXX* ovK ^ATpetBrjt ^ AyapAfivovi rjvSave 0vfi&i, 
dXKa KaK&^ a<f>Ui, Kparepov S* 67rl /ivOov ereWc 
" /ii] <T€, yepov, KOtXrjvaiv iyo) irapa vrjval KV^elct) 
fj vvv SrjOvvovT rj varepov aJm^ lovra. 





16. XicccTO AT {supr, c) : ^(ccrro 12. 16. nvis drpddac An. 20. 

Luoi : kxikM P. II Xikcrrc CZ>PT Yr. c : XOca«Tc R. || d^ccem ABB. {supr, c) 
r^T^ {supr, c) Yr. c : d^ccec Q: t6 8i d^cceai dtn-l irpoffTaicnKov dwapifuparop 
$chol. T. 24. 'ArpcSdcu 'Atou^unonoc Zen. 27. aOmc OHR Bar. 

>f reading ffri^ifia r with Bentley (to 
igree with vrkynM. in 28). The cr^uua is 
the Apollinis infiUa of Aeni^ ii. 430, a 
ivreath of wool wrapped round the staff 
in token of suppliantship ; cf. the ipib- 
TTnTTot xXaSoi of Aisch. Supp. 23. It is 
probably the fillet worn, in ordinary 
circamstances, by the priest himself, or 
possibly, as has been suggested, the 
ivTeath from the image of the god. 

15. See on r 152. Afcccro is preferable 
to ^\i<ra€TOf as it is very rare to find a 
vowel left short before the first letter of 
this word {H, G. § 371). But v. II 46. 

18. Bentley conj. Cfifu 0€ol tUv boicif, 
as the synizesis of deb^ in H. is very 
Improbable (| 251 is the only other 
case) ; but Piatt points out that this 
puts fiiv in the wrong place. He suggests 
VOL for d€oL (which can be spared, cf. E 
383, O 115, etc., and particularly Hymn, 
Cer. 135). But Plato had ^eof, B^p, iii. 
393. Brandreth boUv fjukv OtcX Hfituv. 

20. M8S. are divided between XOoarrc 
and Maare. The former is practically 
equivalent to \\kraL re, the reading of 
Apio and Herodoros adopted by Wolf. 
This involves changing t6 V into rd t 
[with Wolf) or kcU (with Ap. and Her.). 
Bentley conj. XiVai^e. nut the text 
may pass, as the opt. is well suited to a 
suppliant. As between UxftrBe and 
54x^(r0ai there is nothing to choose ; in 
either case the change of mood is rather 

harsh. See H. G. § 299 b, and for the 
article rd S* Airoiva, ' on the other hand 
accept ransom,' §"259. 1. • 

22. tecu9i^HGaN, gAvc pious ■ assent, 
probably by shouting ; hardly by silence, 
as in the later use of the word. For the 
use of the infin. to express purpose, 
H. G. § 231. 

24. eujuid^i is not a * whole and part ' 
constniction with ^AyafUfu^ovi, but a 
locative, in his soul, as appears from 
numerous other passages. 

26. For Kixcico many would read 
Kixiffcj, but we have no right to neglect 
the consistent ancient rule by which in 
such forms ei is written before <a and o, 
as it may represent a real difference of 
pronunciation {H. G, App. C). It is not 
necessary to supply any verb before /«J, 
which IS an independent prohibitive 
particle ; the literal meaning is * Far be 
the thought that I shall find thee.' 
ff, G. § 278; Delbriick S. F. i. 22. 
Thus the constr. supplies the missing 
imperative for the Ist person (M. ami- 
T. § 257). The same explanation can 
be given in 28, though here the ftij-clause 
is obviously far on its way to become 
subordinate. The progress of /a^ oi5 to 
complete subordination may be followed 
through 565, K 39, 164, O 569 (the 
only other cases in H. of i*.^ ov with 
subj.) to the change of mood in 584 
(Afi and T. § 263). 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

fit) vv roi ov 'Xpala/jLTfi aKYJirrpov xal arififia Oeolo, 
Ttfp S' iyo) ov \v<ra>' irpLv fiiv Koi yrjpa^ ^Treiaip 

7ffJL€T€pODt €1/1 OiKCOl iv **Apy€L, TTfKoOl TTaT/tWy?, 

loTOP iTTOi'Xp/jLevrfv Koi ifiop Xej^o? aimooxrav. 
aXX' XOi, iirj fi €pi0i^€, aaoaTepo^i W9 #ce i/^i/at." 

©9 €(f>aT\ €8£6t(r€i/ S* 6 yipayv koI iireLOero /ivOcot, 
/St} S* aK€(ov irapii, Blva iroXvffikoLa'^OLO OaXdaa'q^, 
iroXKk K eiretr airdvevOe kicov rfpaff 6 yepato^ 

^ATTOWcOVt avaKTL, rOV rjVKOflO^ T€K€ AffTCO' 

" kXvOL fJL€V, dpyvpOTO^\ 09 ^pvarjv dpj^i^e^r^Ka^ 
KtXXai/ T€ ^aOerjv TeviSoto re l(f>L avdcaet^, 
^jMvOev, el TTore tol 'yapievr cttI vtjov epeyfta, 



29-81 d$. At. -(see- below). 88. &c 9070 L. || l^dciCc(N) Q: idciccN Ar. ^ 

(see Did. on O 12$).' . ;34. Ax^m ^^n. 89. Ipc«|ia : [<pc>a H™. 

28. xpotcuHi : app. an aor., but irreg- 
ular in stem {H. G, § 32, 3). There is 
no clear evidence for a pres. xp^^t'^^y 
though we have fat. x/>ai<r^^et (T 296), 
and aor. x/>a(0'M^<''ai (A 120, etc.). 

29-31 dderovvToXf 5ri iLvoKOown t^v 
iwiroffiy ToO vou xal rijy diretXi^. ^- 
fffUviae yiip «rcU 6 XpOarii eliroOffTji {an 
avvoOarjs ? Cobet) auriji twi ^a<ri\tT, d- 
vpcvis di Koi rb rbv * kyafUfiMova rotoDra 
X^cty. * Quod autem dixit patri gratum 
esse filiam suam esse Regis concubinam, 
Alexandriae fortasse in aula dissoluta 
verum esse poterat, sed non apud heroicae 
aetatis homines '—Cobet (if. C. p. 230, 
in an amusing essay on drpeir^). It is 
in such judgments that Ar. appears at 
his worst. 

31. hHn&tacoM with ace. only here ; 
cf. Soph. Aj, 491 rb abv X^x^s ^vyijXdoVf 
Trach, 159 iiywvai i^ubv {going forth to 
meet), Find. N, i. 67 6Tav Seol yiydpreafftv 
ttjiX"'^ iiyrid^tacaf, Eur. Phoen, 817 17 5^ 
^i^vai^p \4xos IjXiev. This suggests that 
the ace. is that of the end, after the im- 
plied verb of motion {coming to my bed to 
ineet me), rather than the * adverbial ace.' 
of ^.(?.§ 136(1). teoixoJui64HNimplieRthe 
walking backwards and forwards which 
was necessary with the ancient loom. 

33. CdciccN if read by Ar., must be 
a piece of genuine tradition from the 
form idFcLffev. For the article in 6 
r^pcoN and 6 rcpai6c see //. O. § 261, 3. 

37. Killa is placed by Strabo on the 
gulf of Adramytteion, near Thebe. The 
historical Chryseixras on the west ooast 

of the Troad, though others, hard put to 
it to explain why Uhryseis was captured 
at Thebe (see 366), knew of a Chryse 
close to Killa, afterwards deserted (Strabo 
pp. 604, 612-3). The alternative explan- 
ation was that she was on a visit to rela- 
tives at Thebe. Cf. note on 184. &JL191- 
BdSHxac, standest round about, as protect- 
ing deity, like a warrior protecting a fallen 
friend, e.g. P 4. Cf. Aisch. Sept. 174 tw 
0/Xoi 8alfJMy€s Xvr^pioi dfi<pi^dyT€i irdXiv. 

38. iiN6ccs.ic protectest by thy might, 
rather than rulest ; see note on Z 402. 

39. ZuiNOcO, lit. * Mouse-god ' ; Apollo 
was worshipped under this title in the 
Troad, as at Smyrna as ' Locust -god,' 
Uapv&irioi, Strabo (p. 606) knows of 
several places named Sminthia, as far as 
Rhodes. The Sminthian temple near 
Cape Lekton existed to historical times ; 
and even on late coins of Alexandria 
Troas Apollo appears with a mouse at his 
feet. Mr. Lang argues that this indicates 
the amalgamation of the Greek Apollo 
with a local mouse -god, originally a 
tribal totem. The common explanation 
is that the word is a familiar abbreviation 
o{ XfuvOoipObpoi, destroying the field-mice 
or voles which ravaged the vineyards : 
ol 7d/) Kp^€i rot)s /lOas <rfdy0ovt KaXovaiv 
Schol. A (see Frazer's note on Pans. x. 
12. 5). Only a few years ago Thessaly was 
seriously injured by an invasion of these 
little pests. Others see in the mouse 
the symbol of plague, which would be 
especially suitable here. In Herodotos the 
destruction of the army of Sennacherib 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


^ el Si] irore rot Kara iriova firfpu cKTfa 40 

Tavptov TfS cUy&v, roSe fiot Kp'qrjvov ieXBayp* 
Tiaeiav Aavaol ifik Bdxpva aolai ^eXeaa-tv*^ 

firj Se Kar OvKvp/iroio Kaprjvtov ^ayofievo^ terjp, 

Tof ' AfiOKTiv eytov aful>rjp€(f>€a re <f>ap€Tp7jv, 45 

exTuvy^ap 8 ap oIctoX hr &pMiv ^(coo/ievoto, 

avTov Kivrjdhno^' 6 S* 'qle vvktI ioiKw, 

€^€T eiretr airavevife vecov, fiera o lov erjKe* 

SetVTf Se KXar/yij rf^ver dpyvpeoco fiiolo, 

oifprja^ fjikv irp&TOv eTrcovxero xal Kvva^ dpyovf:, 50 

aurdp eTretr g^vrotat /SeXo? iyeirevKC^ i(\>Lel<i 

/SaXX^* aUX a TTVpal vckvodv KaLovro OafietaL 

ewrjfiap p^ev dviu arparop At^xero /crj\a Oeoio, 
TTJt ScKaTTji S* wyoprjphe KaXeaaaro \aop 'Aj^tWeu?* 
r&L yap iirl <f>p€<rl OrJKe dek 'kevKotkepo^ H/jt;* 55 

' 41. T^dc : t6 d< Ar. 42. rfccicIN Zen. (?) Q: TicxiiCN Ar. ? (see Ludw. ad loc,). 
46-7 dS. Zen. 46. IicXciaaN T^ Lips.^ 47. louctbc : ^uoedc Zen. (Schol. 

M 463). 

61. B^oc K S. II 69ic)c S Mosc. 3. 

, is attribated not to a plague but to a 
I host of field-mice which gnawed the 
Assyrian bow-strings in the night. A 
somewhat similar story connected with 
the colonization of the Troad is told by 
Strabo (p. 604). In 1 Sara. vL 4 golden 
mice are offered as a propitiation when 
visited by a plague (W. Robertson Smith 
Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia 
p. 302, where further evidence is given 
for a Semitic mouse-god). Upmfa seems 
to indicate the most primitive form of 
temple — a mere roof to protect the image 
of a god standing in a grove ; for it was 
to groves, not to buildings, that sanctity 
originally belonged. Temples are rarely 
mentioned in H. ; we hear only of those 
of Apollo and Athene in Troy, and of 
Athene at Athens. See note on E 446. 
XapkNra seems to be proleptic, for thy 
pleasure. For the construction of the 
prayer cf. B 116. 
40. nioNa UHpfa : see note on 460. 
42. For the form Wcrattv, probably 
read here by Ar., see note on Q 38. 

47. oOtoO, * he ' emphatic, * the 
god * ; a use which reminds us of the 
Pythagorean ou>r6f i<pa. We should 
have expected the word to imply an 
opposition to some other person as in 

51 ; merely to contrast the god with 
the arrows seems weak. It was probably 
this which induced Zen., followed by 
Bentley and Bekker, to athetize this 
and the preceding line ; but the couplet 
is too fine to be sacrificed. 

50. tec&ixcro. visited ; the word is 
used in this sense only of attacks made 
by a god or under immediate divine 
inspiration ; v. note on K 487. 

51. aOroTci, the men. 

52. The position of fidXX* is the most 
emphatic possible ; the same effect is 
obtained by Milton, * Over them tri- 
umphant death his dart | Shook ; but 
delayed to strike.' ^cncux^ lit. 
having sharpness. For the form of the 
compound see H. Q. § 124 d. tcvk- is 
doubtless conn, with Lat. pug-^ pungo, 
cf. T€piv€VK4s A 845, ir€VK€Sav6s K 8. 

53. The rhythm of this line is very 
strange ; the connexion of the preposi- 
tion with its case is so close as hardly to 
admit a caesura ; but there is no other 
in the third or fourth foot, cf. S 191. 
^Nfluap . . Tfii dcKdTHi : the regular 
formula for a vague number of days ; 
Z 174, Q 610, and elsewhere often. 

55. T^i kn\ 9pcd eAxc : so 6 218, 
X 146 iiros ip4u) Kal Hrl <f>p€<rl Oi^u, etc. 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

KijBero yiip Aava&v, on pa dvrjtaKOvrwi oparo. 

oi S' iireX oJnf ijyepOev o/jLTjyepee^ re yevovTO, 

Toiac S' dvi(rrdfjL€vo<; fjL€Te(f>rj iroBa^ a>#cu9 'Aj^tWeu?* 

** ^ArpetSrf, vvv a/A, fie ttoKiv TfKcvf)(0ivra^ oL(o 

ayft dirovoaTTjaeLV, eX xev Odvarov ye <f>vyoifiep, 

el Bi) ofiov irokepxi^ re BafjbdL xal XoLfio^ 'A^atou?. 

aXX' aye SiJ rvva pAvrLV epeiofiev rj ieprja 

fj Kal ovetpOTToXoVj xal yap r 6vap ex Ato9 etmv, 

09 K eXiroL Srt roaaov i)({i><raro 'J>oJ'/8o9 'AttoWci)!/, 

el rap o y 6uj^a)\^9 i7n/ie/JL(f>erat ^S' exarofi^rf^* 



66. 6pATO Zen. 
noXiufiXare- P). 
(n6Xcuoc baudiq ?). 
MS. and will not be 
66. cT Tap Herod, 
have read cY t* Up* 
and is -presumably a 
1488. Cf. on 93.] 

69. nciXiufiXa(r)xe^NTac Q (-ra S : naXinXaxe^Nrac ^ Z> : 
60. oY KCN Zen. : aY kcn C. 61. n6Xcuoc d* Aud Mosc. 1 

62. 6Xk6i re P (this variant is almost always found in Sbnie 
again recorded). 68 AS. Zen. 64. cYhh H {$iipr, oi) L. 

A : cY T* hp Q. II Ad' Q (Ad* A). [All printed edd. hitherto 
. . cY •*, but cY •* appears to have no MS. authority whatever, 
conj. of Demetrius Cnalcondylas, editor of the edUio pHneepSf 

A rather commoner phrase is M tftpeal 
{OvfjuMy <rH)d€(T(Ti\ which shows that ivl 
4>p€<rl is to bo taken in a locative sense. 

56. Note the variant iprjro {iprjro) 
ascribed to Zen., and compare 6fnjou 
^ 343. The form in -tj- agrees with 
the Ionic colouring of our present text ; 
6paTo would be tne old non- thematic 
form, but dparo is more probably due to 
Attic influence than to a survival from 
a prae-Ionic text. 

59. nXcD<xo^NTac, foiledj lit. driven 
from the course ; cf. B 132 cX fie fidya 
vXd^ovffi, The MSS. write iraXi/LtirXayx- 
04in-ai in one word, which is so far right, 
as it indicates that xdXiy is to be taken 
in a purely local sense. There is an old 
and wrong explanation, that irdXiv means 
'once a^in,' and contains an allusion 
to the legend, unknown to Homer, of 
a previous expedition a^nst Troy in 
which the Greeks had lost their way, 
and invaded Mysia by mistake. See 
note on B 276. 

60. cY KCN with the opt. assumes as a 
mere supposition, which is expressed as 
unlikely ('remoter and less emphatic,' 
M. and T. § 460), while in the next lino 
€l with the future indie, assumes as a 
vivid probability. After dLu dirovotrnj- 
aeiv it comes in like a sudden correction 
of a too confident expression. 

62. ipckxucN is an anomalous form, 
and should come from a present * fprjfu 
{H. G, § 80). The -o- cannot, of course. 

stand in the pres. subj. of a thematic 
form. Nauck writes iputfieOa (cf. 188),' 
Schulze ipifOfA£v^ Fick ipe6ofi£v, as aorist 
{ipeOai like x^t^O* '^^^ icfMEiic is men- 
tioned merely as an authority on ritual 
(65), not as a diviner ; for the Homeric 
])rie8t as such seems to have had no 
functions of divination ; there are no 
omens from sacrifices. 

63. 6Ncipon6Xoc either a dreamer of 
dreams, one who has converse with the 
god in sleep ; or an interpreter of the 
dreams of others. In the absence of any 
other mention of professional dreamers 
or interpreters in H. (which doubtless 
led Zen. to reject the line) we cannot 
decide between the two. The root voX 
seems to have been a very primitive word 
for agricultural and pastoral duties ; cf. 
ol(ij»oir6\os beside a/-ir6\-os {^ov-K6\-<n is 
probably from the same root kar. Curt. 
^. p. 470). It thus means 'one who 
attends to dreams,' or perhaps, as we 
might say, 'cultivates' them; compare 
the double significance of Lat. coH-ere, 

64. fin is the rel. pron., not the ad- 
verb, and is, like rinrffw, an adverbial 
ace, expressing the content of ix^ffo.To : 
cf. e 215 /Ai^ /AOt rbBe X(^Oi &nd E 185. 

65. For Tap see on I. 8. Herodianos 
expressly read it here, not r* ftp, on the 
ground o6k i<my 6 t4 aOpSefffios' iwctp^pcro 
yAp Av ircpoi ri. He thus distinctly 
excludes tho accepted but purely con 
jectural reading et $' for i^*. Granting 

lAIAACK A (i) 


€u K€P 7ra>9 dpv&v Kviar)^ ( uljc^v re rekeicop 
ffovXerai dvTicura<; rjfuv diro \oljov dfivvai, ' 

fl Toi o J (5 9 eliTfov KOT ap €^ero, toIcl S' dvioTrj 
KjaX^a<; SearopiBr)^, oIcovottoXmv oj^' aptaro^, 
h^ •ffiBf) rd T iovra rd t iaaofieva irpo r iovra, . ' . 70 
/ecu vr\^a<r rfyrjO'aT 'Aj^atwi/ "IXlov ecaay % 

f^ StA fiavToavvrjv, rrfv oi irope ^oc^o^ ^AttoWcov 
o a<f>ip iv <f>pove(ov dr/oprjaaro koX fiereei/Trev 
" & 'Aj^tXeO, xikeai fie, BU<f>Lke, /ivdijaao'daL 
fjLTJviv 'AttoXXg)!/©?, kKOTTj^eKkrao dvaKTO^' 75 

Tovyap irfiov ipeo), av Se avvdeo xai /mol ofjuxraov 
jj /A€i/ fiOL Trpo^pcov €7reacv xal ')(epaXv dptj^ecv. 

M. KNfcHC Ar. : kn{c(c)hc : kn^ccijc K : fivh knIchic is implied in Did. 68. 
h w ^ a cro Zen. 69. KdXxac : udimc Zen. 70. Ada J^P Mor. Vr. b, 

Moac. 1^ 73. b Ar. ACD^GT al. : 6c /T^HJP^ (?) Ambr. a/. : 6c juin djuMifiducNoc 

irwo irrcp^CNTa npocwOda Zen. 76. ird> pito J^ 

the existence of rap — and the analogy of 
ydp shews that it is at least possible — 
there is do reason for disregarding the 
imanimons tradition. The case is pre- 
ciaely the same in 93, where the corres- 
ponding conj. oCO* has supplanted the 
only attested reading oOS'. For the use 
of the gen. of. H. G.%l5lCj and for other 
cases of res pro rei cle/ectu (?ow and 
hecatomb tmI paid) E 178, 4> 457. A 
colon is put at the end of the line (with 
Oaner), because the following at kc is 
not a continuation of the preceding line, 
bat recurs to the opening of the sentence 
(62), * in the hope that* 

66. It will be observed that the 
rams and goats seem to represent the 
' hecatomb,* which here does not con- 
sist of 100 or of any oxen. It may 
indeed be doubted if the -jSt; represents 
fious at all. (Piatt explains the word as 
'one hundredth of the oxen' a man 
has ; but even that does not suit this 

67. fimiXcrai after at k€v must be 
sabj., and is therefore an erroneous 
form, as the subj. of thematic verb' 
stems must have the long vowel {H. G. 
§82). Read /Soj^Xttt' with P. Knight 
andChirtius(K5. u. 72). 

69. 6x* : a word which only occurs in 
the phrase 6x Apurros, and is of quite 
uncertain origin. It is generally com- 
pared with ^?oxos» where, however, the 
idea of eminence is given by the i^. 

71. Ariouou with dat. = to guides as 

X 101, ^ 134, etc. ; with gen. = to com- 
mand. cYccD is a pure adv., the ace. 
giving the idea 'to Ilios' {H. O. § 140, 
4), and etau being added ■ = inside. 
This is always the use of " //., 
and virtually makes 6f(ru; = 6/s. In Od. 
there is one instance (6 290) of the 
' quasi- prepositional ' use '^(11 ■ geri. 
familiar in later Greek. The earlier 
history of the expedition is evide'htly 
presumed as a familiar, story. The 
fjLdvTis was in historical times a regular 
official in every Greek army. 

73. kii 9poN^N may be either (1) with 
good sense, opposed to &4>pov^u)v, 104 ; 
or (2) with good iiUeiit, opposed to /ca^cwj 
fppovitov. This double meaning runs 
through later Greek: e.g. (1) Aisch. 
Prom. 385 Kipburrov etf <ppovovvTa fx^ 
8oK€iv <f>povuvy and (2) Ag. 1436 AtyiaOos 
ws t6 xpSffOev ed (f>povCov iixoi. 

74. It would seem natural to write 
Ati 4>i\€ as two words {H. O. § 124 /), 
but for the analogy of Suirenjj, where 
the second element cannot have been 
independent. Probably, therefore, the 
combination was at an early date felt 
as a real compound. So also we have 
dprit(paTOS beside dpri'i'icTdfjuevos {"AprfC 
KTdfi€voi)j irvpirjKT^i beside 5oupt/cXi/T6s, 

76. Cf. Z 334, 318, T 259. cONeeo. 
mark my words, as T 84, p 153. 

77. fi Jui^ is the regular Homeric 
formula of swearing, Att ij ii-fiv. The 
short vowel is confirmed by the metre in 


lAIAACK A (i) 

^ ^ap oioficU avSpa yoXmaefiev, ^9 fieya iravrtov 
^Apyeicjv Kpareei, koI oi ireidovrai 'Aj^atot. 
icpeiaacov ycLp ^aaiXev^, ore yoiaeTai avhpX x^PV^' 
€t Trep jdp T€ j(6\ov y€ teal avrrjfuip tcarairey^L, 
aXKd T€ /cal fieroirKrdev ej^et tcoTov, o^pa reXiao'Tji, 
iv an^deaaip ioiai. ab Si <f>pdaaiy el fie acuacec^,^^ 

TOP 8' a7rafjL€ifi6fj£vo<; Trpoaitfyr) iroSa^ d)tcif^ 'Aj^tXXev?* 
" daparjawi pAXa elire deoirpoinov, o tl oUrda* 
ov fjL^ yap ^AiroXXxova Bd^iXov, m T€ av, KaX^av, 
eifXpfMcvo^ AavaouTL deoirpoiria^ avat^aivei^, 
ov Tt9 ifiev f6)iH"09 tcaX hrl yQovi hepKopAvoio 
aoi (fcoi\r)i^ iraph vrjval) fiapeia^ ^(elpa^ iTToiaei 
avfiTTovrayv Aava&v, ov8 rjv ^ Ayafiifivova etirqi^, 
S? vvp woXXov apKTTO^ ^A^ac&p ev'^erai elvac,^^ 

teal Tore Srj ddparjae Kal r)vBa (fidvrc^ afivpxov) 




80 dd. Zen. II KpdccwZen. 81. Korran^oi(C9if/)r.) Laud. Vat: Korran^tpM S 
{mpr. 01). 82. TC A[Z>]U Eton. : re 0. 83. 9pdcoN Zen. Par. d. !l oacbcHC 

/>^ 86. oTceac Zen. ? 86. xdXxo Zen. D Par. c. 88. zcboNTOC D. 89. 

KofXaic G. II k^ikcsi Vr. a. 90. cYnoic R. 91. ^x^'^** '^^^ ^^°* '^P^- 

Sosigenes [S ?] : ^n) crpcrr^ 0. ' 

S 275, T 261. lUv and jui^y are of coarse 
only two forms of the same word. 

78. bnhpa is of course the object of 
the transitive xoXbNr^/xev. ' 

80. X^pMY : another form of xcp^^o"** 
with the weak comp. stem -uc- or -w- 
(cf. -t(r-Toj and Lat. itiag-is, mag-is-ter). 
See H. G. § 121 and note on the 
analogous TX^es, B 129. x^/"?'* will then 
stand for x^P^^h ^< being altered to 17 on 
the analogy of the other forms mentioned 
in ff. G. App. C, 4. See also A 400, H 

81. KciTcin^iimi, sioallow dowrij lit. di- 
gest, as we say * stomach.' Cf. on B 237, 
and Pindar 0. i. 66 jcar. fUyav SK^ov. 
X^XoN, as sudden anger, is contrasted 
by yc with k6ton, enduring resentment. 
fittpa may mean until, but the omission 
of K€ indicates rather that it is final. 
cY n^ TC •. . dXX6 tc : re here marks the 
two sentences as being correlative ; so 
K 226 (y.v.), A 161. 

83. 9pdcai, consider ; neither act. nor 
mid. means say in Homer. 

86. •«oiip6niON: the neater form 
occurs only here in H. (and possibly Z 
438, where however it is merely a 
question of accent), and seems harsh in 

the immediate neighbourhood of the 
commoner Beowporiri (87). Hence l)oth 
Beorpoinwv and -Tiuv (Nauck, as 109) 
have been conjectured here. But 
$€OTp6Ttov is well established in Herod, 
(e.g. i. 64, 68). Btoirp&iroi is probably 
one who prays to a god (rpox- is perhaps 
conn, with Lat. prec-j procus, etc.). In 
Herod, it is used of one who consults 
an oracle (i. 67). (Cf. [6]ioTpoTloin'ot 
OlvoxiSao, Collitz 494, 17, from Or- 

88. Cf. IT 439. p\iTr€iif is commonly 
used in Attic in the sense of living ; e.g. 
£ur. Ale, 143 Kal irias iuf airr^ ^rar^droc 
re Kal /9\^Tot; This line and the next 
contain three sins against old Epic 
prosody, the contracted 4fi€v and ^wktoj, 
and KoCkijis for KolXrftffi. Van Leeuwen 
and others have removed them, but only 
by rewriting the couplet after the model 
of the line in t, wnich has the older 
forms (oiVts <rol vapd vrfval /Sap. x« ^oitreij 
fc^ovr^s 7* ifUdev Kal i. x^. 5. ). 

91. cCxcToi does not imply any boast- 
fulness in our sense of the word, but 
merely a naive consciousness of his 
position. False modesty is unknown to 
the Homeric hero. 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


" ov rap o 7 eifj^coXfj^ einfiifKf>€TaL oiS' eKaTOfi^rj^, 

a\X hfc/c aprjTtjpo^, hv rjrlp/qa ^ AjafJi>€fiv(OP 

ouS airiXvae dxr/arpa Kal ov/c aTreBi^ar diroiva, 95 

Tovv€K ap cuKrfi eSmtcev i/crjjSoXo^ tJS* en Sdaei. 

ovS o ye irplv Aavaotaiv AeiKea Xoijov) aTrdaec, 

irpiv y diro Ti'aTpl (l>tXM)L Sofievai iXcxdinBa KOvpr)v 

airpiaTqv avdiroivov, arfeiv ff Uprjp eKarofi^Tjv 

€9 XpiJcnyi/- Tore kcv fup tXaaadfievoc ireirLdoifievr 100 

ri TOi o 7 0)9 eLiroav kot ap e^ero, toutl o avea-rrj 
fjptD^ ^ArpetSrff; evpv /cpeitov ^ KyapAjjoftov 
aj(yvfi€vo^' fi€P€o<; Se fi&ya <f>pev€^ dfKJH fiiXaivai 

93. oO Tap Herod. : oOr' Ap' (dp) Q. \\ oW Q : oOe' [G ? U ?] : oOr* J. See 
on 65. I can find no explicit statement that oCe* appears in any MS. 94. 

Arrfuac* LS. 96 dS, Ar. || ^aTHB6Xoc S. 97. daNQoTaN AeiK^a Xoir^N 

inthcn At. Rhiauos Massil.: XouuoTo Bapckic X'^P^^ 69^0 Zen. 0. 100. 

t6t€ : aY Zen. 

93. See on 65. 

94. ArfjuLHC* — Naack tirifuura' : see on 

97. AoNaoToN dcucte XoirbN 6ncbca : 
so tiie editions of Ar. and Rhianos, and 
the Meur(raXi(tfrtin^. MSS. ^ve \oifioTo 
^aptLas x^H^f dffti^tf he wUl not vnth- 
hold his hands from the pestilence^ which 
is meaningless. To translate 'he will 
not keep off (from us) the heavy hands 
of the pestilence' involves a very un- 
Homeric personification of \oiiJubi, which 
is not much improved by Markland's 
oonj., Kyjpa,'! for x^'/x^^ (cf. v 263, 548) ; 
moreover this leaves no subject for the 
verbs in the next line. Still, in face of 
the almost unanimous tradition, the text, 
like Zen.'s ^\o» ffrop in Z 285, looks very 
like a bold ancient conj. to avoid an 
obvious difficulty. 

98. AXiKcbnida, with the masc. i\i- 
Kvw€s ('Axcuo/), has been variously ex* 
i^ned : (1) by the ancients black-eyed ^ 
DQt i\iK6t in such a sense has no better 
authority than the glossographers, weakly 
sapported by a quotation from Kalli- 
machos ; (2) tmth roujid cyeSf IXt^ = 
curved ; but i\t^ rather means * twisted,' 
aod is not used of a circular curve ; (3) 
rolling the eyes ; (4) sparkling-eyed (root 
0-cX- of ciKa'S'. so Ameis). The choice 
lies between (3) and (4), of which the 
former seems preferable. The epithet 
well expresses A vivacious keen spirit, 
SQch as the Greeks were conscious of 
possessing ; while, as applied to a woman, 

it will imply eagerness and youthful 
brightness. It is therefore needless to 
look beyond the familiar sense of FcKlk- 
for an interpretation. i\iKo^\4(papov 
*A<ppodl'njv in Hesiod Th. 16 must imply 
a loose use of p\4<peLpov as = 5/i/xa, cf. 
iyCi) <TKOT(J^(a ^Xiipapa Koi BebopKbra^ 
Soph. Aj. 85 and elsewhere in Trag. 

99. 6npidTHN and 6N6noiNON were 
regarded by Ar. as adverbs — perhaps 
rightly. dirpidTrjy is certainly so used 
in ^ 317 ; for the form cf. din-t/S/jyv, etc. 

103. AJU19I JuiXaiNQi is the Alexandrine 
reading ; most edd. give d/x^i/tiAatvcu. 
The phrase recurs in P 83, 499, 578 
{d 661 is probably imitated from this 
passage). It means literally his midriff 
black (with anger) wa>s full of fury 07i 
both sides (above and below). This 
connection of dfitpl with <f>p4v€s is 
common ; e.g. T 442 fpo^ </>p€vai dfup- 
€Kd\v\l/€f Z 355 Tr6pos 4>pivai d/t0t/3^/3i7Kf, 
and other instances in H. G. § 181 ; 
(pp^vai dfJL(f>iy€yrj$ibi Hym. Apoll. 273. 
For the epithet JU^aiNau as expressing 
deep emotion, cf. Aisch. Pcrs. 113 roDrd 
fxou ficXfLyxiruv 4>p^v dfivaceTai *p6^(ai, 
Cho, 413 oTcKdyxy^ ^^ A">t iccXatvoOrat, 
Theog. 1199 Kpadirjp iirdra^e fiiXcuvav, 
as well as the Homeric KpadLrj irbp4>vp€. 
This (Autenrieth's) explanation seems 
much superior to the ordinary inter- 
pretation of dfufH/jiiXcuvai as * lying in 
the midmost darkness of the boidy,' 
which is hardly Homeric either in 
thought or expression ; but the com- 


lAIAACK A (i) 

irifiTrkavT, oaae Se oi irvpl XafiTrerocjPTL ii/CTrjv, 

KaK^avra irpcoTcara kclk oaaofievo^ Trpoaeenre' 105 

" fidpTC Kax&p, ov TTco TTore fioC to Kpryyvov elira^;' 

cUei Toi TOL Kate iarl <f>i\a <f>peal fiavTeveadai, 

eatfKop oxrre tl ttco etTra? eTro? oirr ereXecro-a?. 

#cal pvp €P ^apaolai deoTrpOTreojp ar/opevec^, 

ft)9 Bf) TovS* €P€Kd a<f>cp €/cr]l36\o<; aXrfea Tevj^et, 110 

0VP6/C iya> Kovprf^ ^pv<rr)t8o^ dy\a airocpa 

ov/c edekop Be^aadaL, — iirel ttoXv fiovXofiai avrrjp 

ottcoi €')(€ip. Kal yap pa KXtrraifipi^a'Tprff; Trpo^efiovKa, 

/covpcBif)^ ako')(pv, CTrel ov kdip icTi j^epeiojp, 

106. etnac Ar. £ust. : cTncc A Cant Vr. c A, Lips. : Ceincc CJTIP : Ceinac O. 
108. oOri Tl Ar. Aph. 0: oud^ ti A s^ipr, (T.W.A.) DU^ : oOt* In Bar. || cTncc 
DH}T II oOt* MXeccac Ar. Aph. : o6d' ir^CGcac 0. IIO dS. Ar. 113. 

pa om. Li[>s. II ICXurauULNi^CTpHC : A has two dots above the n to mark it as 

pound may be explained as nroleptic, 
* so as to become darkened all about ' 
(with anger). Although in P 499, 673, 
anger is not in question, yet both refer 
to moments of strong emotion. The 
metaphor seems to come from the surface 
of water darkened by a breeze blowing 
over it ; cf. 12 79, and esi)ecially S 16 
wt 6Te Top<pijpy ireXayos . . i&s 6 yepcjv 
&pfiaiv€. So *:aXxo/v«i' in Soph. Ant 
20, where see Jebb's note. 

105. k6k* 6coducNOC, 5ri dxb tCjv 
6<r<T(av KaxQs inri86fi€y<n , ovk dvb Trjs 
/J<r<n7S, TTJs i/xayi}^, KaxoXoyi^as, Ariston. 
The verb is always used of the mind's 
eye in the sense of bodiiuf ; dvfi/ts is 
generally added, eg. k 374, <r 154, 2 

106. Kpi^ruoN, a doubtful word ; it 
evidently means good, though in late 
Greek it is sometimes used in the sense 
of true. But the line labours under 
many suspicious irregularities — the use 
of the article, the neglected F of FcTxai, 
and the lengthening of t6 by position 
in the fourth thesis. Furthermore, t6 
Kfy^vw in the sense that which is good 
is Attic, and unexampled in H. rd 
KaKd in the next line, those evil things 
of thine, is entirely different Hence 
Bentley's rd Kpi/iyva is but a partial 
remedy, and there seems to be some 
grave corruption. As we know nothing 
of the origin of Kpifiyvw, the v may, for 
all we can tell, have been long ; we 
could then read oO tu xvri ijloi Kpifyvov 

icLiras, and the Ms. variants may point 
to something of the sort For the form 
cTnac see ff. O. § 37. 

107. For the personal constr. 9(Xa 
kcri uaNTCiicoeai of. A 345 <f>i\* dTxaXe a 
Kpia iSfievaiy p 347 al8u}i ovk dyaOrj 
Kcxp^y^v^*- dvbpl Tapclvair, etc. ; see H. <i. 
§ 232. 

112. BoOXojuau prefer, as in 117, A * 
319, ^ 594, and often ; and with iroXi', 
P 331. This sense is still more em- 
phatically brought out in the following 
compound, irpo^^ovKa (the perf. is dir. 
\ey. in Greek outside the Anthology). It 
is in this sense of c?ioice that jSoi/Xo^at 
differs from 4di\u), not in any subtle 
difference as to the efficacy of the wish. 
aCrri^N, emphatic, as opposed to the 

113. This is the only occurrence of the 
name of Klytaimnestra in the Iliad. It 
will be seen that A has an indication of 
what is now generally acknowledged to 
be the correct form, K\vTaifi-ff<rrp7}, given 
by the best Mss. of Aischylos and 
So])h., though the rest have the faulty 

114. KOupidiHC, a difficult word; the 
most plausible, but not entirely satis- 
factory, explanation is that of Curtius 
{Stiul. i. 253), who derives it from Kclpw, 
and refers it to the custom of cutting 
the bride's hair before marriage ; hence 
'wedded.' So Kovpoi from the custom 
of cutting the irX^^a/uo? dpcTTi^pios at the 
age of puberty. 

lAIAACK A (i) 


ou 0€fjLa<; ouoe <f>vr]v, ovr dp <pp€va^ oxrre tl epya, 

aXXa Koi a»9 idikto Bofievai iraXiv, el to y afieivov 

fiovXofi eyo) \aov aoov €fi/M€vac ^ aTroXea-dac. 

avrap ifioi jipa^ avri')^ eTocfJbdaaT, o<f>pa firj olo<i 

^ApyeicDP aryepaoTO^ eo), iirel ovB^ ^oi/ce- 

XevaceTe yap to ye Trdirre^, o /mol yepa^ ep^erai a\\7)i*, 

TOP S' ^fieifieT errecTa iroBdp/cr)^ Bio^ 'Aj^tXXei;?* 
" * At petBri tcvSurre, (f)L\oicTeav(iyraT€ irdvTtov, 
TTW Tap TOL Sdaovai yepa^ fieydOvfioc ^Aj(aLoi ; 
ovBe TL TTO) lip^ev ^vi^ia tcelfieva iroWd, 
dXXA Ta fiev iroXiojp i^eirpdOo/Mev, tcl BeSaarai, 
Xaoif^ S' oifK iirioitce iraXlXKoya Tavr iirayeipeiv, 
dXKci av phf vvv Trjvie de&i irpoe^, airrap 'Aj^atol 
TpiirXfji TerpairKrn t diroriao/Mev, at fce iroOt Zeu? 




116. &UCOiON : ApicTON L. 117 d^. Zen. || c6oN (c^n) il : c^n Ar. : 

odoN Apoll. de Coni. 120. XcOootc G : XcOccrc multi, || t6 rc : rdrc Vr. a. 

122. ^iXoKTCON^craTc Aph. (ace. to Seleukos ap. Eust.). 123. rdp A : rdp 0. 
124. nco : nou Ar. Aph. (A mpr. but ou dotted, T.W.A.). 

115. The distinction of d^uac and oui) 
is not quite clear. From phrases like 
Utiat irvptrt it would seem natural to 
take d^/uaf as * outward appearance ' 
generally: 0wj as * growth,' i.e. * stat- 
ure.' But this latter meaning belongs 
to de/Mif in £ 801 Tvdet/t rot fUKpdt fxhf 
ifiv 94fM$. Perhaps we may render 
'stature and figure' with about the 
same degree of vagueness. Cf. N 432 
irdXXel' xal ipyouny iSi tppecL 

117. in Zifvbhvrw aOrbp ifd^TriKfy wj 
rip Siavoiai edi^ovt oC<np. ov Set di airrbv 
l8Uu rpo^peffOaif dXXd avvdirreiM toU &yw • 
iv trapevdicei (MS. iv ff^et) 7^/) X^Ycrat, 
Ariston., rightly. (For the emendation 
of ^ IjOct see Yerrall on Eur. Med, 148 ; 
io in Schol. A on A 234, E 150.) c6on 
is preferable to the aOtv of Ar., a con- 
tracted form not elsewhere found in H. 
except in the nom. aCoi in X 332. But 
the correct form is <rii<K : see note on 

118. r^poc. the gift of honour to the 
king, set aside before the division of the 

119. oOdk ioiKC, perhaps *it is not 
even decent,' much less reasonable. 

123. Top : see on 8. It is to be pre- 
feired as the rarer form, aud has prob- 

ably often been supplanted by y&p in 
similar passages. 

124. KclucNa noXXd go together, a 
common store laid up in ahundan^t. 
BUNi^Ya recurs as an adj. in 4^ 809. nta 
here, as often in H., in any mise ; it is 
not restricted, as in later use, to the 
sense yet. 

125. Td JUi^N is here the relative, w?iat 
we have plundered out of tlie towtiSj thai 
18 divided. But this use of rd is not 
consistent with the usual practice by 
which the art. when used as a relative 
mnat follow the noun or pronoun to which 
it refers, and we ought probably to read 
dWd 0' d fiiv (see H. O. § 262). Even 
then i^€Tpd$oiJL€v is curious ; elsewhere 
T^pSctv is used only with ciVy, not bootyf 
as the object. The preceding ten years 
of war have been mainly occupied in 
plundering neighbouring towns ; Achilles 
counts twenty-three such forays in I 328, 
and they are alluded to elsewhere. 

126: XaoOc is perhaps to be taken 
after inar^ptxN, in the sense to gather 
again from the people^ with the double 
ace. usual after verbs of taking away, 
^i- thus expresses, as often, the idea of 
going over a space, or round a number 
of people, e.g. Hriveifmi, ivnrioXeiaOai, 
4iri<TTp<a<pdif (Paley). 


lAIAACK A (i) 

Smac ttoXlv Tpoif)v evretj^coi; efaXaTrafat." 

TOP S* a7rafi€Ll36fi€vo^ 7rpoa€(f)r) Kpeicov ^Ayafie/Mpayv 130 
^^ fjLr) S' ouTft)?, arfado^ irep i(OP, deoeUOC 'A^tXXeO, 
#c\e7rT€ v6(i)L, eirel ov Trapekevaeat ovSi fie Treiaei^. 
97 idekei^, o(f)p auT09 ej^^t9 yepa^, avrap €fi avray^ 
fjadac Bevofievov, Kikeai Be fie t'^vS' airoBovvac ; 
dXX' el fiev BdxrovaL yepa^ fieyddvfioL W'^aiol, 13r> 

dpaavre^ Kara dvfiov, oirto^ dvrja^iov earcw 

129. TpofHN Zen. : TpotHN Ar. 132. n6ooi : n6on U, 

133. ^cic C. 136. ttpooNTCC Ar. A. 

133-4 dS. Ar. 

129. Tpotijy, Ar., as an adj., a city of 
TroaSf DOt *the town of Troy.' It 
might appear in that case better to read 
Tpufi'fiVt tnc usual form of the adj. (v. 
Cobet M. C. 252) ; but as Tfxaidt 
generally, though by no means always, 
stands with the first syllable in thesis, 
it is probable that it should itself be 
written Tpo'ios : see van L. AVicA. p. 84. 
Ar. held that H. does not use the ex- 

?re8sion xoXis Tpolrj for * the towu of 
'roy,' but v6\k Tfxatoyf though in X 
510 T6\ts TpoLrj (Ar. Tpotrj) must mean 

* Troy ' ; and there seems no reason to 
reject this sense here. Zoilos, the famous 
'OnrtpofidiTTi^j accused Homer of solecism 
in this line for using a plural verb 
instead of a singular ; he must therefore 
have read 6w(rt, which was probably 
indeed the original form of the 3rd sing, 
subj., answering to *ddtj not a contraction 
of duitjiffi : sec H. G. § 81, and Mulvany 
in C. R. X. p. 26. Brandreth after P. 
Knight reads biin)L<TL Tpolrjy. 

131. ncp seems hereto have merely 
its original force of * very,' rather than 
of * though,' which indeed belongs pro- 
perly to the participle. The meaning is 

* Being a very great warrior (the Hom. 
sense of dya66^f be content with that, 
and do not attempt to outdo me in 
cunning too.' 

132. n6cm is here instrumental rather 
than locative ; lit. * by thought * as 
opposed to brute force. Cf. Soph. Ei. 
56 \6ry(M KXiirrovTcs, and S 217 Tdp- 
ifmatii ij'T IkXc^c v6ov TiJica rep </>poy€6v- 
Ttav : and for wapeXci^cai, v 291 K€p5a\4ot 
K etij Kal irUXowot, 5j <r€ TopA^ot, e 104 
'rap€^€\0€Tv Aibt vbov. So Theog. 1285 
d6X(iH TapeXet^fcu. 

133. 'J'hree ways of translating this 
lino have been proposed, (a) * Wouldest 
thou, while thou thyself keepest thy 

prize, have me for my part sit idle with 
empty hands?' (6) * Wouldest thou, 
in order that thou mayest keep,' etc. 
(r) ' Dost thou wish that thou shouldest 
keep thy prize, but that I should sit,' 
etc. In favour of the construction of 
iOfKeiv with 6<ppa instead of the infin. in 
(c) E 690 is quoted, \f\LriiAjivot 60pa 
TdxMTra <5<rcuT' *Apry€lovtf and so A 465 ; 
but in neither of these passages is it 
necessary to join 64ipa with the participle. 
Cf. also Z 361 Svuds iiriavvrai, 6<ppa. 
In n 653 6<f>fKi with the opt seems to 
be epexegetic of elvai : but that single 

Eassage does not justifv our assuming so 
arsh a construction here, especially as 
there is nothing in the way of the 
natural construction aCrbs iUv ix^iy. 
Both (a) and (b) give a good sense, {a) 
referring to the distance of time at which 
the recompense is to be made (128), (6) 
to Achilles' refusal to accord the i-esti- 
tution at all. But (6) is i)referablc, 
firstly, because 6<l>pa when it stands 
alone is commonly a final particle ; in 
the sense of ^us it is regularly followed 
by rbippa (not always, v. 4^ 47, A 346 ; 
H, G. § 287) ; and secondly, because for 
ixv^f we want in this sense ixfis (which 
C reads). The aOrdp is not of course 
logical, but the interposition of an ad- 
versative particle to accent the contrast 
between the two persons is a perfectly 
natural anacoluthon. A very similar 
instance is V 290 el d* Olv . . airrdp iydi). 
K^cai is i)aratactic = seeing that thou 
hiddcat me, Ar. athetized the two lines 
on subjective and insufficient grounds. 

136. It seems natural to take 6na»c 
Ant. Icrai in the sense ' be sure that 
the recompense is adenuato ' ; but this 
construction, though found in Herod, 
and Attic, is not Homeric ; and the 
clause &pcravT€i Kard dvfibv should come 

I> lAACK A (i) 


el Be ice iii) Bdxoaiv, eyw 8e k€v avTo<; eKxofiai 

fj reov ^ AtaiH"09 iiiv y€pa<;, rj ^OSv<rrjo<; 

a^to eXtov 6 Si xep Ke^dXcoo-eraL, op k€v iKoyfiac, 

aXX' ^ TOA fjLCV Tavra fieTa(f)paa6fjL€a'da teal aiJrt?, 140 

vvv 8' 076 vija fieXaivav ipvaa-ofjLev eh aka Slav, 

ev S' epera^ eTTtriySe? cuyeipofiev, €9 S' e/caTOfifirjv 

Oeiofiev, av S avrrfv XpvarjtBa KaWnrdprjcop 

firiaofiev* efc he tl^ cupyp^ avfjp /SovXrj^opo^ ecrro), 

^ Afa? ^ ^IBofiepeif^ rj 8lo^ ^OSvaaeif^ 145 

r)€ av, TlffXetBrj, wdpTWP iKTrayXorar apSp&p, 

otpp rjfjbip eKoepyop CKaaaeai lepa pej^a^, 

TOP S ap^ viroSpa lSci}p irpoaeKJyr) iroBa^ oi)/cv^ 'AvAWeu?* 
" &fioi, dpcuBelfjp iircecfiepe, Kep8aXe6(f)pop, 

TTftK TA9 TO* TTpo^pojp eTTcacp TTeidfjTai 'Aj^atwi/ 150 

rj oBop ikdifiepaL rj dpSpdacp i<f>c fidj^eadac ; 
ov ycLp €ya> Tpdcop epeic fjkvdop alj^rjTdoDP 
Bevpo fjLa'Xf}a6fjLepo^, iirel ov ri /jloc aXrioi elaip' 

137. dcbcouoN G Par. h (k supr.), 139 dd. At. 140. aOeic CD. 142. 
iM d' ip^rac Ar.: ic d' 4p^c (cic Vr. b). Cf. 309. 143 dS. Zen. |j aOrA 

L. 147. AuiN Herod. AT^U. 149. KcpdaXcd9p<ON Q Vr. c. 160. ndeoiro S. 
161. ^a^ucNaf 1^ S. 

in the apodosis rather than the protasis. 
We may take dW (135), in connexion 
with what precedes, as *Verv well, if 
they will give me a prize, such that the 
recompense is fair (I will do so).' Hay- 
field ingeniously suggests that Apaatn-es 
card Svfidv is itself the apodosis, the 
verb Si86pT(ap being supplied' from the 
protasis, Id them give U to meet my wish. 
The idiom by which a verb common to 
two clauses is expressed in one only is 
not rare in later Greek (Kiihner ii. 
p. 1079) ; but clearness requires that 
the two clauses should be distinctly 
separated, by particles or otherwise^ which 
is not the case here. Nor does the 
idiom recur in H. with the doubtful 
exception of I 46 (q.v.). But there is 
no doubt that this gives the best sense. 
ddbooua (135) echoes Achilles' dthaovai 
(123). Note that there is no appreciable 
difference between el with fut. iiid. and 
ef K€ with aor. subj. 

137. There is some doubt as to the 
punctuation here, some putting a colon 
after (Xapuii^ but this makes the repeti- 
tion of the Mirticiples Icjv . . i\u)v very 
awkward. That given in the text is 

unobjectionable. 139 was rejected by 
Ar. as superfluous and cfty^cs. This 
athctesis is accepted by those who would 
banish k€ with the fut. ind. from the 
text of Homer ; but the grounds given by 
Ar. are not convincing, and the omission 
of the line would damage the effect. 

140. Juicra9paGducc«a, i.e. we will 
postpone the consideration of this for 
the present. 

144. Apx^ is predicate : let one^ a 
member of the council^ be in command. 
For those who had the right to be sum- 
moned to the royal jSouXi) see B 404. 

146. XKnarXoc is not entirely a word 
of blame, cf. 2 170. it is perhaps for 
^K-irXo7-Xoj (root itXok-), meaning * vehe- 
ment,' * violent.* 

149. foiciJu64C : cf. i 214 jueydXi^v ixiei- 
fjAvov dXKiffv, y 205 bvvatuv TreptOuvai, to 
clothe as with armour. KcpdaXcd9poN, 
greedy, or perhaps crafty ; cf. Z 153 
2f<n'0os, d K4pSi(TT0i yivcr* dvbpQv. 

150. ncfeHTOi : a subjunctive express - 
ing submission, how is any 07ie to obey f 
Cf. H. O. § 277. 

151. 6d6N, whether military or diplo- 
matic. T91 : V. r 375. 



ov yap Trd) ttot ifm^ l3ov<; YJKaaav ovBe fiev Ittttov?, 

ovBe TTOT iv ^di7}c ipcfidXaKC fi(»)TULveip7)L 155 

/capirov ihrfKrjaavTy eirel fj fiaXa TroWa fiera^v, 

oiped T€ atcioepTa daXaaad re rj')(^€aaa' 

aXXa aoi, & fiey dvaiSi^, ap. €<r7rop^d\ o<f>pa av X'^^PV^^* 

rip^iv dpvvpevoL yieveKafai, aoi T€, Kvvanra, 

7r/>09 Tpaxop- T&v ov tl p^rarpeirqi ovS* oKeyi^ei^* 160 

/cal 897 p^oL yepa9 avro^ dff>aipi^a€<r0at aTreiXel^;, 

&I, Itta ttoXXA p^ayrjaa, hoaav he p,oi vU^ 'Aj^atwi/. 

ov p^v aoi wore laov ej^o) yepa^, omroT ^ K^fiiol 

Tpdxov itcirepawa Of vatop^vov irroXiedpov 

dXKct TO pJev irKjelov iroXvdiKo^ iroXep^io ' 165 

j^€t/>€9 ipaX hiiirova, drdp rjv irore BcurpLo^ t/C7)Tat, 

aoi TO yepa^ iroXv p^l^ov, iya> S' oXiyov re (f>i\ov re 

epxpp^ exo>v €7rl vrja<;, iirei K€ tcdp^u) irdkep.i^ayv, 

vvv S* elp^i ^OlfjvS*, eTrel ^ ttoXv (f>€pT€p6p iariv 

157. CKi6ci>NTa Ar. 168. X^^P^^ Q* ^^9* dpNOucNOC Zeu. 160 d$. 

Zen. II AXcHzijC Vr. a. 16S. noXXb JUi6rHCa Ar. : n6XX' iudmca 0. 163. 

6nn6fT*: oOd' St' Zen. 165. nXcToN : nXcTcroN Vr. b. 166. aCrrbp T. 

168. Incf KC KduCD Ar. Herod. : iniiN xcxdjuco (or in^ kc k6uxo) Q : ind 
KCxduM Et. Gud. 169. nOn cTjuli U. || fefHNd* Ar. Zen. Q : a variant 9«iMN 

is implied, and attributed to Zen. in Scbol. P: fobcNdc ind Draco de Metr. \\ 
9^pTcpON : XcbYoN Plato Hipp, Min, 370 c. 

156. Bekkor and otbei*s write tu- 
cifyv{'i)y on the insufficient ground that 
/ucTo^u does not recur in H. 

157. CKi6cNTa is very expressive of 
the importance of shade in a sunburnt 
land. The variant <TKi(HavTa, which in 
spite of the authority of Ar. is In- 
defensible, is explaine(l by Fick as due 
to a primitive 2KI0NTA, which could 
be interpreted either as (rK(ovKra= crictdevra 

or (TKlCiVTa = (TKibfiiVTIl, 

158. x^^P^c, subj.y because the pur- 
pose expressed by iffirbfuda is still pre- 
sent, hence also the present i)articiple 
dpvvfievoi follows, tuii^n, recompense. 
The heroic point of honour is not ab- 
stract ; it requires to be realized in 
the shape of ransom or material recom- 
pense. The present dpiiOucNoi implies 
* trying to win.* 

163. 6nn6fT€ is here whenever ^ and 
TpcboMi irroXkApoN = a town of the Tro- 
jan landf see note on 129. Homer never 
uses Tp. wTo\le0pw of Troy, but Tpibuv 
ir6Xtf or *l\lov wroKieOpov. Indeed the 
ezpreasion o0 rore #x<^ cannot possibly 

mean wx ^^«, and 166 tf. obviously refer 
to repeated experience in the past. 

166. ftN: read ely the contraction of 
el dy not being Homeric, and dy itself 
doubtful. If. G. p. 329 (where, how- 
ever, the restriction of e/ dv, ef k€v to 
partiailar statements is at least dis- 

167. 6X{roN Tc 9iXoN tc, a proverbial 
expression ; ^ 208 S6<ris dXiyrj re <pl\ri 
T€ : Touchstone's * a poor virgin, an 
ill-favoured thing, but mine own.' 
<f>l\os here indeed is little removed 
from its apparently original sense * own.' 

168. The vulg. iirijv KtKdfua is con- 
demned by the non-Homeric contraction 
from ircl dv. ind xc xduco can equally 
be read iirel KCKdfuo, though it is curious 
that there should be no trace of the 
redupl. form except in passages equally 
ambiguous (H 6, P 658). The choice 
is not easy; see H. G. § 296. The 
rhythm perhaps favours KCKdfua^ but 
cf. B 475, * 483, 575 (?), 4^ 76, 423, 
e 554, 277, p 111, <r 150 (van L. EncJu 
p. 20). 

lAIAACK A (i) 


oiKoS* Ifiev aifv vrjval Koptovunv, ovBe a otco 170 

ivdaS* arifuy; eiav a^€vo^ teal ttXoOtoi/ ai^ufeti/." 

TOP S* rjfieifier eireira ava^ avSp&p ^Aryafjuifjuviov 
** <f>€vy€ fidX*, et roc dvfio^ iiriaavrai, ovSi <t eycS 76 
Xia-aofkcu eivcK ifieio fjUveiv irap ifjLoL ye /cal aWoc, 
oi K€ fJLe TLfirjO'ova'Ly fiaXiara Se ^'qrUra Zev^, 175 

€j(j9urro^ Bi fiol iaai BioTpe^imp fiaaiXi^wp' 
ctUl yap Toc €pi^ re ^iKr) jroXefiol re /id')(ai re. 
el fuiXa tcaprepo^ iaat, 6eo^ irov aol to 7' eBwtcep. 
oiKaS" Uop ai/p prfvai t€ aiji^ koI aoi^ erdpoun 
MvpfuSopeaacp apo^a-ae, aedep S' eyia ovk akeyl^o) 180 

ovB oOofiac KoreopTO^' direiXiiato Bi tol &Be' 
ci9 €fi a^atpeirat ^pvarftBa 4>oi')8o9 'AttoXXwi/, 
Tr)p fiep eyw avp pr)t t i/Mrji, xal ifioh eTdpoLac 
wefiy^, iya> Be k 070) ^pcarjtBa KoXXcTrdprjiop 

171. 69CNON Q Bar. Mor. Mosc. 1^. 173. firoi D (Schol. B) : d n Q. || 

fa^ccUTOl : yp, kikd€Tm Schol. T. 175. oY re Lips. Bar. || niuioaxa R Schol. T. 
176. diOTpof^MN J. 177 de. Ar. || rdp coi H. 178. T6dc d^KCN S. 179. 
caTc Vat 

and fidxai are no rebuke to a hero in the 

179. NHud Tc cAiQ a case in which it 
is impossible to restore the long form of 
the dat. plar. in -crt without some violence 
{yrit re ffiji Nauck, arjia ld4 van L. ). But 
it is in these monosyllables that the short 
form seems first to have arisen. 

182. The thought with which the 
sentence starts is, 'As Apollo takes 
Chryseis from me, so will I take Briseis 
from you.' But the second clause is 
broken up into two, correlated by n4v 
and 8i. A very similar sentence with a 
double antithesis will be found in 8 268- 
72. (It might appear simpler, though 
losing the emphasis in ifxdy to take u)s = 
since. But this causal use is found in 
Homer only when ut follows the prin- 
cipal verb of the sentence, and is thus 
equivalent to Sri oOrun.) kc in 184 indi- 
cates that Ayfa) is contingent upon ir^/i^w, 
virtually meaning *and then I will 
bring.' H.O.% 27 5 a. 

184. The origin of the name Bpioitc 
(or rather of Bpiae^t) is uncertain. Fick 
writes Bfnjffrjtsj referring it to Bresa, a 
town in Lesbos, where there was also a 
Chryse, holding that in the oldest legends 
both ladies were captured in a raid on 
Lesbos; see 1 129, 660. To Homer, how- 
ever, Briseis comes from Lyrnessos, not 
far from Thebe (T 291-300) ; see on 37. 

170. c*, i.e. eoi: this elision does not 
recur (except possibly 4> 122), but is 
snfficiently supported by fi for fuu, which 
is found several times. Van Leeuwen 
{£nch. pp. 68 ff.) has shown good reason 
for thinidng that it was originally 
commoner, out has been expefled as 
against the mles of later prosody. The 
sense is, *I have no mind to draiv 
wealth for you,' like a slave set to 
draw water from a well for his master. 
The fat. d^^ta beside aor. ij<f>v<ra is 
abnormal ; it occurs only here, and 
perhaps should be d^6<r<r€iyf or d<l>6c€iM 
\&4>va<ra, /3 349). 

178. JudXa, ironical, 'run away by all 
means ' ; cf. 85. 

175. 5c KC with fat. indie, seems 
eqoivalent, wherever it occurs, to Strre, 
Att. 6ffTis {H. G, § 266), and describes a 
class, 'men who will honour me.' 
Those who are engaged in the task of 
expelling from H. all instances of k€ 
with fat iudic (an attempt which I 
rsffard as wholly mistaken) would do 
well to write here ot re (not dt ye with 
▼an L.) rather than TifiiiauHn. For 
oUier instances of this use of 5t kc 
see B 229, I 155, K 282, * 687, X 70, 
^ 675, e 3d, r 438. See note on 

177 was athetized by Ar. here, as 
wrongly interpolated from £ 891 ; ir6Xe/A0i 



ov yap TTco ttot ifjui^ /SoS? TjXaaap ovBe fikv ittttov^;, 

ovBi iroT iv ^dirjc ipil3(o\aKC fiojTcaveipfjt 

KapTTov iBrjX'^aavT , i^rrel rj fiaXa ttoXX^ /Lterafv, 

oiped T€ atcioarra daXao'ad re '^'^(ijea'aa' 

aWct aoi, & fiej dvacSi^, afi ktrrropLeS*, 8(f>pa av ^at/o^t?, 

TLfifjp dpvvfievoi M.€V€\do>i aoi t€, /cvv&Tra, 

7r/>09 Tp(oa>P' T&v ov tl fi€TaTp€7rf}i ovB* dXeyi^ei^* 

teal Bij fjLOL yepa^ avro^ d<l>acpi]ae<r0at dTrecXel^;, 

&L hri iroXKa fMayrjaay Boaap Be fioL vU^ ^Ay(ac&v. 

ov fi€V aoi TTOTC laov ej^o) yipa^, omroT 'Aj^atol 

Tpdcov i/CTrepaoja iv vaiofievov irroTdedpov 

dXKa TO fjL€P TrXetov iroXvaitco^ iroXe/Moio 

j^eZpc? ifial Bii7rova\ drdp ^v ttotc Ba^fib^ ifcrjrai,, 

aoi TO yepa^ iroXv fiel^ov, iyo) S' oKiyov re ^iXov re 

€pj(pfi e)^a>v iirl vrja^, iirei k€ /cd/juo iroXefii^wv. 

vvv S' elfML ^di7}vB\ iirel ^ ttoXv ^eprepov iariv 




157. CKi6cdNTa Ar. 158. x^i^pvc Q. 159. dpnOjuLCNOC Zeu. 160 aO. 

Zen. II AXcHziyc Vr. a. 16S. noXXb JUi6rHca Ar. : n6XX* ^u6rHca 0. 163. 

6nn^* : oOd' St' Zeu. 165. nXcToN : nXcTcroN Vr. b. 166. oinhp T. 

168. Incf KC KduCD Ar. Herod. : knim K€k6xixo (or hvkN kc k^juud) Q : ind 
KcxduM £t Gud. 169. nOn cTui U. || fefHNd* Ar. Zen. Q : a variant 9«b4N 

is implied, and attributed to Zen. in Schol. P : fobcNdc ind Draco de Metr, \\ 
9^pTcpON : XcbToN Plato Hipp, Mm. 370 c. 

156. Bekker and others write /xe- 
0ir^(f), on the insufficient ground that 
/lero^i/ does not recur in H. 

157. CKi6cNTa is very expressive of 
the importance of shade in a sunburnt 
land. The variant a-Kidwvra, which in 
spite of the authority of Ar. is in- 
defensible, is explainetl by Fick as due 
to a primitive SKIONTA, which could 
be interpreted either as a-KioOtrra = aKidevra 
or <TKiwvTa = <TKi6u>yTa, 

158. xci{p*<ic, subj., because the pur- 
pose expressed by iairbfuda is still j>re- 
sent, hence also the present participle 
dpi^vneyot follows. TUii^N, recompense. 
The heroic point of honour is not ab- 
stract ; it requires to be realized in 
the shape of ransom or material recom- 
pense. The present dpiiOucNoi implies 
'trying to win.* 

163. 6nndTc is here whenever ^ and 
TpcboMi rrroXkApON = a totvn of the Tro- 
jan land, see note on 129. Homer never 
uses Tp. wToXUdpov of Troy, but TfxJxav 
t6\is or *l\Lov wroKUOpov. Indeed the 
expression o0 Tore (x^ cannot possibly 

mean oi5x ^{w, and 166 tf. obviously refer 
to rei)eated experience in the past 

166. ftN : read e/, the contraction of 
€l &v not being Homeric, and &y itself 
doubtful. If, G, p. 329 (where, how- 
ever, the restriction of d dv, ef k€v to 
partiaUar statements is at least dis- 

167. 6XiroN tc 9iXoN tc, a proverbial 
expression ; ^ 208 hbcii dXiyrj re ^rj 
T€ : Touchstone's * a i>oor virgin, an 
ill-favoured thine, but mine own.' 
<f>l\ot here indeed is little removed 
from its apparently original sense * own.' 

168. The vulg. iirijy KCKdfuj is con- 
demned by the non-Homeric contraction 
from irel dv, ind kc Kduco can equally 
be read 4tcI KCKdfuo, though it is curious 
that there should be no trace of the 
redupL form except in passages equally 
ambiguous (H 5, P 658). The choice 
is not easy; see ff, O, § 296. The 
rhythm perhaps favours KeKdfiu, but 
cf. B 475, * 483, 575 (?), ^ 76, O 423, 
e 554, 277, p 111, <r 150 (van L. £nch. 
p. 20). 

lAIAACK A (i) 


oiKaS* tfiep avv vrfval Koptoviaiv, ovSi a 6ta> 170 

iv6dS* arifio^ ia)v a^evo^ tccu ttXovtov a^iifetv." 

TOP S ri fielder eireiTa ava^ avSp&v ^Aja/Mifiveop' 
*' <f>€vy€ fidK\ et roi dvfio^ iireaavrat, ovSi <t eyei) 76 
\iaaofkai eivex ifieio fieveiv Trap* ifiol ye /cat aWoi, 
01 K€ fie TifLTjaovaL, /JLaXto-ra Se fjurjriera Z€V9. 176 

€j(0i4TTO^ Be fJLoi iaac BLOTp€(f)€Ci)v ^aa-CKritov 
cUel yap tol epi^ re ^ikrj iroXefiol t€ fJM')(ai re. 
ei fiaXa Kaprepo^ eaai, deo^ irov aol to y eBtotcev. 
oiKaS Ubv cvv irqvai re arji^ Ka\ <70?9 erdpoKn 
MvpfuBoveaaiv avaaae, aedev S* iyo) ovtc aXeyi^to 180 

ovB 600 fiat KoriovTO^* dTretXijaa} Be tol e&Se* 
a>9 €fi a^aipelrai ^pvarjtBa 4>ot)8o9 'AttoXXcoi/, 
T^v fiev eytt) avv vrjt t i/iijL xal ifioU erapoiai 
irefiy^, €ya> Be tc arf{0 ^piarjtBa KaWtirdprjiov 

171. fi9CN0N Q Bar. Mor. Mosc. 1'^. 178. firoi D (Schol. B) : d n Q. || 

fa^ccUTOl : yp, Wihwrai Schol. T. 175. oY re Lips. Bar. || Tuutooxa R Schol. T. 
176. diOTpof^MN J. 177 dS, Ar. || rdp coi H. 178. T6dc dAxcN S. 179. 
coTc Vat. 

and fidxai are no rebuke to a hero in the 

179. NHud TC cAiQ a cose iu which it 
is impossible to restore the long form of 
the dat. plur. iu -ai without some violence 
(vrft re aiji Nauck, aijia I8i van L. ). But 
it is in these monosyllables that the short 
form seems first to have arisen. 

182. The thought with which the 
sentence starts is, ^As Apollo takes 
Chryseis from me, so will I take Briseis 
from yon.' But the second clause is 
broken up into two, correlated by fi4v 
and di. A very similar sentence with a 
double antithesis will be found in 8 268- 
72. (It might appear simpler, though 
losing the emphasis in ifii^ to take tji = 
since. But this causal use is found in 
Homer only when wj follows the prin- 
cipal verb of the sentence, and is thus 
equivalent to 5t( oihus.) kc in 184 indi- 
cates that &y(a is contingent upon irifiyj/taj 
virtually meaning 'and t?ieii I will 
bring.' H. O. § 276 a. 

184. The origin of the name Bpioitc 
(or rather of Bpitreds) is uncertain. Fick 
writes B/wycrT/ts, referring it to Bresa, a 
town in Lesbos, where there was also a 
Chryse, holding that in the oldest legends 
both ladies were captured in a raid on 
Lesbos; see 1 129, 660. To Homer, how- 
ever, Briseis comes from Lymessos, not 
far from Thebe (T 291-300) ; see on 37. 

170. c*, Le. (Toc : this elision does not 
recur (except possibly ^ 122), but is 
sufficiently supported by /a' for fxoi, which 
is found several times. Van Leeuwen 
{Eneh. pn. 68 ff. ) has .shown good reason 
for thiuKing that it was originally 
commoner, out has been expelled as 
against the rules of later prosody. The 
sense is, 'I have no mind to draw 
wealth for you,' like a slave set to 
draw water from a well for his master. 
The fut. d^^ beside aor. ij<pv(ra is 
abnormal ; it occurs only here, and 
perhaps should be d^daceiVf or d</>ij<T€iv 
(d0wr<ra, /3 849). 

173. uidXa, ironical, * run away by all 
means ' ; cf. 86. 

175. 5c KC with fut. indie, seems 
equivalent, wherever it occurs, to &rr6, 
Att. &mr {ff, G. § 266), and describes a 
class, 'men who will honour me.' 
Those who are engaged in the task of 
expelling from H. all instances of jce 
with fat iudic (an attempt which I 
regard as wholly mistaken) would do 
well to write here ct re (not ot ye with 
▼an L.) rather than TifiifffuKri. For 
other instances of this use of Ss k€ 
see B 229, I 166, K 282, * 687, X 70, 
^ 676, e 36, r 438. See note on 

177 was athetized by Ar. here, as 
wrongly interpolated from £ 891 ; wdXtfiw, 



auT09 10)1/ /cXiaifjvSe, to aov yipa^f 6<f>p^ ii) elSfjt^ 185 

oaaov (f)€pT€p6<; elfii aidev, arvyer)!, Be koI aXXo9 
laov ifjLol (f>d<r0ac koI opjOModrnievai avrrfv,^* 

W9 <f>dTO' TlrfKetayvi S* aj^09 jh/er, ev Be oi f/rop 
arrfdeaaw Xaaioiat BtavBi^a fiepfnjpc^ev, 

fj o ye <f>d<ryavov o^v epva-adfievo^ irapct firjpov 190 

Tot>9 fiep dvaarrjaeLeu, o B XrpetBrjv ivapi^ot, 
^e j(p\op iravaeiev iprfTvaeii re Ov/mov, 
&)9 6 Tavff &pfjLaLpe kotcl <f>peva KaX tcarcL dvfiov, 
eSjcero S* i/c xoXeoio jj^ya ^iAf>o^, ffKde B* ^A0i]vr) 
ovpavoOev irpo yhp fiice Oeh XevicoiiKevo^ ^^pVf 1^5 

afKfxo ofjLW OvfjL&t ^iXeovad re KfjBofievrf re, 
a-TTJ S' oinOeVf ^vOrj^ Bk ko/mt)^ eKe TIrjXetcopa, 
otwc <f>ai,vofi€vr}, r&v B* dWiov ov t£9 oparo. 
0dfil3f}a'€v B 'Aj^tX€i;9, fierck B erpdwer, avriica S' eyvto 
IlaXXaS' *A0rjpairjv Bei,va> Be oi oaae (f)dapd€V. 200 

Kal fiiv ^fxovTja'a^ errea irrepoevra irpoarjvBa/ 

186. cruria J PR : crurloi Bar. 189. ucpui^pizcN QHL Cant. 191. 

iNapisoi HVPRST : iNapixci Vr a. 192 dd, Ar. (see note on 188 below). 

198. 6f>uaiNC D. 196-6 d$. Ar. 197. mcmekN di xduHN . . nHXcioMioc 

Tip^t (Zen.?) An., Par. c supr, 198. Spirro U: dpAro Zen. C. Gf. 56. 

185. t6 c6n may be an Attic cor- 
ruption : T€6v P. Knight (see 207, 
Z 407, 490, n 40, 2 457). But the 
article has a certain emphasis, 'that 
yipas of thine.' 

187. TcoN is an adverb, Iffayopijaal fiw, 
(schol.), not an adj., as it would then 
rather be hros. Cf. o 377 dtn-la SeffTolvrit 

188. kM is here still an adverb, within^ 
* his heart in hu shag^ breast.' Xadoici, 
according to the Sch^. A, because they 
cover the heart, iv ^i i<TTl rb Tvp<a8€s xal 
Oep^v Kal fiaPiKdv ttjs y/^vxvi . . v 
$4pfiri ydp alrla rijt iKipCtreut rSiP rpixCiy. 
So Hentze quotes Galen, de Temp, ef 
Ttf Ixavus €trf da0-i>f rd (rW/jva, Ovfuxdv 

189. didNdixo ucfMJU^piscN : see note 
on 8 167, (6 6j8e\6j) Uri 80o ipmpipLvricev 
oujc ivavria dXXiJXots, 5t€/) iKKa^u)v rtj 
TpoffidrfKev ** ^€ x^^o" Tai/ffcicv," and on 
192, 6ti ^KXderaL rA r^s dpyrjt (the picture 
of passion is weakened) * Sl6 d$€T€iTcu — 
Ariston. These remarks are perfectly 
right ; didifdixo- M^pMi^pt^*" means * he 
hwi "half a mind,'" and does not 

require two alternatives expressed ; and 
192 entirely spoils the picture. 

191. 6 bi as often repeats the subject 
of the first clause ; the contrast is with 

TOJ>J fUv. 

193. &0C scanned as a trochee i*epre- 
sents of course an original ^s {elot ace. 
to the rule of our Mss.), clearly by an 
error in transcription of an old Attic 
(H)EOS. This is the only scansion of 
the word in JL excejjt in P 727 ; the 
alternative form etut is equally ijot (but 
Wwj is w- in T 189, 658). In Od. the 
scansions v^ — or — (synizesis) are com- 
moner. See van L. Bnch, pp. 550/. 

195-6 were rejected here by Ar. as 
wrongly anticipated from 208-9 (which 
Zen. athetized) ; it is not for the poet 
but for the goddess to give this in* 

197. ctA, cavie up; this is the usual 
sense of the aor. iarrjif. 

200. ol may refer to Athene — ?icr eyes 
gleamed terrible ; or to Achilles — terrible 
shone her eyes on hinu Gf. T 17, which 
is in favour of the former view. 

lAIAACK A (i) 


r' air, alyco^oio At09 reKO^, etKrjkovda^ ; 

vfiptv lBr)i^ * AryafUfivovo^ ^ArpetSax) ; 
€K Toi ipeco, TO hk KaX reXieaOai otay 
Trepdrrkirjio'i Td')(^ av irore Ov/jlov oXeaarjiy 
* S' aJne irpoaeeLire OecL yXavK&in^ ^Kdrfin}' 
ov eyo) iravaovaa reop fi€vo<;, at xe Trldrfai, 
60€v irpo Si fi fJK€ dea XevKtokevo^ "H/wy, 

o/A<it)9 Ovfi&t (f>c\€ovad re Kr)SofjL€prf re. 
aye \rjy* €pi£o^, fif)Bk ^/0O9 iXjceo X^t/ot* 
fj TOL eireaiv /ih/ ovelSiaov d^ eaerai irep, 
fap i^epew, to Be xal rereXeapAvov earac 
•ore Toi Tpl^ Toaaa Trapeaa-eTac ar/\act S&pa 
? €iP€Ka TTfaoe* av o la^eo, Treiueo b r)p,iv. 



>r': oG PS Mosc. 2. 208. TdHIC Zeo. GJR Par. c f: YdMi Ar. 0. 

EOecn Ar. Par. f: TcrcK^oeoi il: TcrcKccuiNON Icrai Zen. 205. 

l)CZ)(Ri ?)STU HarL b^. 207. Tcbn HarL c d, Par. d e h, Bust. : 

208-9 de, Zen. 212. TcrcK^oecn 6tcD Zen. 213. TOI : ooi H. 

«, agairif an expression of 
, implying *one vexation after 
Cf. 540. 

i valgate tdrji for Tdmc might 
L if written lSri\ai)f but the 
form is late. Ar. preferred 
in this verb there appears to 
iinction whatever in sense 
le active and middle voices, 
ilarly t6ov . . tdtafuu, 1. 262.) 
bj. the latter is commoner, 
le 1st pers. pi., where Iddficda 
ad. See also F 163, A 205, 
2. The hiatus after tva and 
bed f of Fidrfit suggest that 
mg, especially as tne word is 
ily Odyssean, recurring in 12. 
: {{fppltovTes A 695, v^pnTTrjuTi 
1 very late passages). 
a, ^0071, never 'perhaps' in 
it the word has little force. 
i snbj. as a solemn threat see 
75 b. For the scansion of 
a (r in thesis) cf. TpTijK6<ri' 
note on A 678. This seems 
e licence. The various diffi- 
lis short speech, and the dis- 
>ne, strongly contrasting with 
lest that 201-5 may be a later 

iiK^&ffnCp either * bright-eyed ' 
^-)eyed.* See Paus. i. 14. 6 
e in the temple of Hepbaistos, 

t6 S^ AyaXfUL bp(av rifi 'AOi^at yXavKoi^ 
ixop TOi>t 6^a\fio0st Ai^^tav rhv ftSiBov 
tvTO, eUpiffKw. To&rois ydp i<rrt» elprffiivov 
JloarfidCjvot xal \ifunjs TptTonfiSot dvyaripa 
fliKU, Kol did TovTo yXavKodi e&ai Sxnrep 
Kal ruM noareiSQvi to6s 6it>0a\fM6s. Cicero 
(Nat, Dear. i. 30, 83) says that Neptune's 
eyes were sky-blue, which is in favour of 
blue rather than grey as the colour of 
Athene's eyes. See Frazer's note ad loc. 
As with other colour -words, we have 
considerable latitude of explanation. The 
simple y\avK(n is used in H. only once, 
of the sea (IT 34), with y\avKi6u>v T 172, 
which can have no distinct reference to 
colour. As Uie owl is Athene's bird, 
some would Translate 'owl -eyed,' and 
explain by an owl-totem identified with 
the goddess. But any such sense must 
have completely disappeared by Homeric 
times. See on 39. 

211. d>c IccTcd ncp is the object of 
dveLSiaov, ca^ in his teeth how U wUl 
he, what will follow, as Achilles pro- 
ceeds to do. Cf. 212 iT*pG)Cv S' u)i Hfferai 
vep dXijBelijv KardXi^u), and so r 312, 
7 255 ; and for the construction of dvei- 
8il^€iy, B 255 dveiSil^eiv Htl . . SiSovaiv : 
cf. I 24, <r 380. 6vei8i^€iv occurs without 
an expressed object only in H 96 (where, 
however, see note). 

213. nap^cccToi, shall be laid before 
thee. Tpk T6oca : cf. 686. 


lAIAACK A (i) 

*' XP^ At€i/ o-ffxotTepop ye. Bed, Itto? elpvaaacOai, 
xal fidXa irep Ovfi&i, K€j(p\iOfiivop' £9 ycLp afieivov 
09 K€ 0€ol^ eiri,'rr€L07}Tai, fiaXa r etcKvop avrov^^ 

ff Kal hr dpyvpifft Kioirqi (rykOe x^^P^ fiapelav, 
A-^ S' €9 KOvT^ov &ae fieya ^^^9> ovi* diriOrfa'e 
fivOtoi, *A0r)valr)^' 17 S* OvKvfiirovie ^e^riKei, 
hiofiar 69 av^ioypio A^o9 psrd ScUfiopa^ aXXot/9. 

Ilfjkel^^ S* i^avTi^ draprrfpoU eirieaaip 
^Arpel^p irpoaienre, Kal ov irto Xr^ye yiikoio' 
** olpofiapi<;, Kupo^ Sfifiar e)(top, KpaBir)p S* i\d<f>oio, 
ovre iroT €9 iroKefiop &fjui \a&c\ 0(opr)'x^7Jpcu 
ovT€ Xo^ppS* iepai avp dpiarrjeaaw ^A^cu&p 




216. JUibf : juc G. 21$^20. &e dndm ndXm &ot uitra sifoc, oOd' dfil«Hoe 

Zen. 222 SOvaTou. d^ereur^oi Schol. BL (Ar. t). 223. hnOmc C. 22&-33 

d$. Zen. 

216. ofCdtrcpoN, because Athene speaks 
for Here as well as for herself. dpOc- 
oaceau to observe, from ((T)pVy ((r)e/>v = Lat. 
serv-are. It is now generally recognised 
that this is the root, and that the verb 
has nothing to do with Fepdu = draw, 
though the forms are very similar, 
and m the numerous cases where the 
Terb is used pf the dead and wounded 
drawn away or saved from the enemy 
either root gives an equally good sense. 
The chief forms of the verb are (1) non- 
thematic pres. ^0(T$ai, ^dar, {^(tkcv: 
(2) thematic ^t^/icu (v and v) : (3) aor. 
ipp(HTa.T0,}f6<TaffdauLf fut. ^(/(to/mu (from cpv) : 
(4) aor. elpwrdfjLrjy {i-ffepv-), 4p6a{(T)a(r$atj 
etc., fut. 4p6a<T€TcUf ipOctrOai : (5) perf. 
etpvfuUf etc. {=se-8ru'7nai)^ This leaves 
elpdccaadai here and elsewhere, elpdctrovToi 
2 276, €ipv6fjL€<T0a, to be explained as duo 
to the analogy of ttpvfuu re^rded as a 
present. The varying quantitv of the v 
naturally arises from the mutoil influence 
of the forms (e)pv and ((r)6/>0. (So Schulze 
Qu, Ep, 325-9 ; cf. also van L. Eneh. 
p. 406.) None of these forms require, 
and few admit, a f, which is rarely 
absent where the verb means to draw 
(t 194 = «r 444 is apparently a mistaken 
adaptation of | 260 = p 429). The active 
forms are all from f epu-, to draw. The 
ambiguous forms are chiefly those of 
the 1 aor. middle, and the perf. and 

218. The T* is called a 'gnomic' rt. 

It may, however, be for r<u (cf. 170) ; or 
possibly we should read 5f tc for 6t jcc, iii 
which case the repeated re will simply 
mark the correlation of the two clauses, 
as often in gnomic lines ; v. on 81, and 
H. Q, § 382. The oOtoO at the end, 
however, seems so weak as to raise a 
more serious doubt as to the authenti- 
city of the line, which is in itself rather 
flat, and precisely of the sort which would 
be likely to be interpolated in the age 
of Hesiod or the 'seven sages* (Doder- 
lein conj. a5 toO). 

219. cx^ec must be taken here as aor., 
not imperf. (see note on N 163), as A xai 
always introduces an action coincident 
with the words : he stayed his haitd, 

221 . BcBi^KCi : * the pf. /S^/Si^/ca expresses 
the attitude of walking, the step or 
stride ; hence /Se/Si^/cei, '' was in act to 
go," comes to mean "started to go" (not 
** had gone ").' — Monro. 

223. ArafiTHpoTc, a word of doubtful 
origin ; Hesych. dra/)TaTou* Xwrci, /3\dx- 
T€i. Cf. /3 243 M^KTO/j draprripi, 

225. For the dog as the type of shame- 
lessness cf. 159, and the curious compar. 
ATiVrepot. olHoBap^c : cf. 1 374 otpofiapetwp, 
7 139 otvM j8e/3o/M7«s, r 122. 

226. Observe the distinction between 
TdXefjMs, open battle in which the whole 
host {\a6t) is engaged, and X6xof, the 
heroic * forlorn hope,* reserved for the 
ilUe (dpiffTij€s), As a test of courage the 
X6xot is vividly described in N 27^86. 


lAIAAOC A (i) 21 

rirXriKa^ dvfJL&i* to Be toi xrjp eiBeTai. elvai, 

^ TToXif \toiov iari Korh ^(npebrov evpvv Ay^at&v 

i&p airoaipeiaOcu, 09 t«9 dOev ovtLov eiTnji' 230 

SfjfLofiopo^ fiaaiKev^, iirel ovrihavolaiv avdaaet^' 

^ yap av, ArpetSf), vvv varara Xtofii^a-ato, 

aXX €K TOi ipea> koX iirX p^av opKov op^ovpui' 

vaX /xA Toie a/crjwrpov to pkv ov irore (f>vWa /cal o^ov9 

<f>va'ec, hrel Sij irp&ra Top^fjv iv Speaai \i\oc7r6P, 235 

oifS" dvaOrfXijaei' irepl yap pa i ^aXif09 IXeyfre 

<f)v\Xd T€ /cal ^Xocov vvv aire p>iv -pU^ ^Ay^at^v 

iv 7ra\dfi7)t^ <f)opiova'i SiKathroXoi ol re OeiuoTa^ 

irpio^ Ai09 eipvaraL' 6 Si tol fieya^ iaaerai, opxo^' 

^ WOT 'Aj^tW^09 TToOff i^erai vla^ 'Aj^atwi/ 240 

avfiiravra^' Tore S' ov tl Bw^aeai d')(yvp^v6^ irep 

jfpaur/Mecv, eir &v ttoWoI v<f>^ '^K/cropo^ dvSpo<f>6vou) 

230. dApa d9cnpcToeoi G. || cYnoi R (and S 9upr.), 286. 9OCI P. 236. 

6iia«HXikH Q : ^laeciXiicci S {mpr. m over o). II Ipcipc(N) LS. 238. naXduHic 
H&rL c d, Par. b f j, £t Mag. : naXdjuaic 0. 239. SpKoc iccTtai G. 240. cY 
noT* S. 241. sOjuuioNTac Q. !l t6tc Ar. A : toTc (Par. k has toTc in rcut.). || 
buMAcM PR Vr. b,\ Mosc. 1 2. 

223. Klip : cf. r 454 ttrop ydp (rtfnv troffiv 
irrfyxBtro icijpl fukalvrii,, 

230. AnoaipcToeoi : so 275, but d^ou- 
petTOi, 182, etc There is no plausible 
explanation of these occasional signs of 
an evanescent initial consonant, and the 
contraction is suspicious. (Brandreth 
conj. draelpecBaij but there is no 
sinular use of the word in Greek, cf. 

231. dHAioB6poc devourer of the corn- 
men stock. For ^/lios in this sense com- 
pare B 647, A 704, 2 301. For the 
exclamatory nom. H. G, § 163. oOn- 
deotoTcu men ofnaiiglU ; cf. 293-4, which 
explain the ydp, * else,' in the next line. 
For the form compare -fyirebiuthi by ^los. 
For XttBiioaio we should rather have 
expected the aor. indie. ; cf. on A 223, 

234. The ocArrrpoN does not belong to 
Achilles, but is that which is handed by 
the herald to the speaker as a sign that 
he is 'in possession of the house.' See 
K 321, 2 505, 4^ 568, /S 37. So in the 
Ellice Islands in the Pacific Ocean the 
natives ' preserved an old worm • eaten 
stair, which in their assemblies the orator 
held in his hand as tlie sign of having the 
right to speak' (Tylor Anthropology p. 

374). Virgil imitates the passage in Aen. 
xii. 206-11. He may have read «r6/Ai7v for 
Tofi'^, poauitque comas et braehia ferro. 

235. np^^TO, (U the first, i.e. once 
for all, just as in T 9 ; cf. A 6, Z 489, 
7 183, 320 (with M. & R.'s note). So 
ubi priinumf * as soon as ever. ' 

238. diKacn6Xoc, qui jus colit, see on 
63 ; the <r, however, is strange, as com« 
pounds are very rarely formed directly 
from the ace. See, however, H. O. 
§§ 124/. Brugmann, Or. i. 172, coni{)ares 
fwyoardKOi for fxoyoys - tokos, e^icrac 
dpiiaTau guard (216) th^ traditions, which 
are deposited as a sacred mystery in the 
keeping of the kings. So in old Iceland 
and Ireland law was a tradition preserved 
entirely by the special knowledge of a 
few men ; the plur. d^fuarcs is used 
exactly in the sense of our * precedents.' 
See note on I 99. 

239. np6c Aide, like de par Ic Rot, by 
commission of Zeus. Cf. ^ 57 irpbz ydp 
At6i clffi ^cTvoi, and I 99. Or we may 
take it with difuarai, laws given by 
Zeus. 6pKoc is here used in the primi- 
tive sense of the object sworn by. 

242. And, because irlirruxTi is in sense 
a passive, as P 428 ; so also with <f>€vyu), 
ird<rx^f ^tc. 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

0vi]urKOVT€<; irhrToxri' aif S' evhoOi Ovfwv afiv^et^; 
'Xjcoofiepo^, o T aptoTov *Aj(ai&v oifSev erura^.** 

0)9 (f>dTO UijXetSr)^, ttotI Sk aKryrrTpov fiaXe yaitfi 245 

j^pva-eloi^ fiXjoiai ireirapfUpop, Ifero S* aifTOf;" 
^ArpetSr)^ S* krepwOev ifii]vi€. Totat Se Necrro)/) 
TfBv€7rff^ avopova-e, Xatu? TlvXUav dyoprjTij^, 
Tov Koi diro yXxoaa-tf^ fieXiTO^ y\vKl(OP peev avBij. 
T&i S' rjSrj Svo fJL€V y€V€al fupoTTtav apOpdyrrayp 250 

i<f>0la0\ oX ol irpoa-Oev afia Tpd<f>€v rjBk yh/ovro 
iv HvKo)!, fyyaOern, fierk Be TpcTaTOKrvv avaaaev, 
o a^ip Of <f>pov€a)v dyopija-aTO xal fj^rietTrep' 
" w TTOTTOi, i} fiiya irevOo^ ^Aj^auBa yaiav iKovei • 
^ K€v yqOrjaai, Ilplafio^ Upidfioio re iralBe^, 255 

aXXoi T€ Tp€t>€9 fieya k€v KeyfapoLaro Ovfi&t, 
€t aif>&lv TaBe Trdyrd} irvOoLaTO p/ipvapivouv, 
6i irepl fi€v ^ovXffv Aapa&v, Trepl B* ecrre fidj^€<r0ai. 

2M. riHXctdHC : x^'^^^^JLCNOC Athen. xi. 488. 247. di : d* 6 J. 249. 

rXci^TTNC CP. il rXuKfcD Zen. 251. at ol Zen. 268. 6 At. Q: be H^PQ. 

264. 6xat^ JP: Ax^"^^^ C- ^^^' rnoAat (C mpr.)?(R mpr.): mei^ca Q(H 

mpr.). 268. BouXiiN Ar. A {sujjr, " i, T.W.A.) C^Q Par. d : 6ouXAi Q (C 

9upr. ). II xxj6LX€C9m : uaxirrai £t. Mag. 

244. 5 T*, 8C. 6 T€ = iri re. On the 
difficult question of the elision of 6ti see 
ff, O. § 269 ad fin. 

246. The ' golden nails ' here seem to 
be a mere ornament ; in the case of the 
sword in A 29 they doubtless fasten the 
blade to the handle. See Helbig ff. E.' 
pp. 377, 333/ 

249. The xai is very unusual as intro- 
ducing a purely epexegetic sentence — in 
this case merely an expansion of what 
has already been said. Compare, how- 
ever, T 165 with note. 

250. Nestor is represented as having 
lived through more tnaii two generations, 
and still being a king in the third ; i.e. 
between his 70tli and 100th years, if 
with the Greeks we count three ytveal to 
a century. In 7 245 he is said to have 
reigiud over three generations, which 
seems to be an instance of the growth 
of the legendary into the miraculous. 
iACp6nc0N, an epithet of which the real 
sense was in all probability forgotten 
in Homeric days, as it is used only 
in purely stereotyped connexion with 
6.v$piinroi (exc. B 285, q.v.). We can 
only say with confidence that it does 

not mean 'articulate,' fiept^ovres -Hju 
0Ta, as in so ancient a word the F of 
f 6^ would not be neglected. The other 
derivations which have been proposed 
are quite problematical. 

251. TfM9CN Adk rybiOKTO : for the 
Harepov Tpdrrepov cf. /x 134 Op^atra 
rcKovtrd re fJ^'fyrrip, and elsewhere. 
^90(070 is probably plpf., but it might 
be aor. Tpa9CN : see on B 661. 

252. Ar&ecoc, an epithet, like ^ddtot, 
applied only to places ; no doubt both 
mean * divine,' as they are only applied 
to localities connect^ with particular 
gods. We should perhaps reaa dydBcoi 
(from ^Tav), the first syllable being 
lengthened metrically : see App. D. 1)7, 
is used of Pytho {6 80), Lemnos (B 722), 
and ywHfLov (Z 133). Some take it to 
be another form of dyaOds^ which is, 
however, never applied to localities. 

257. For the construction TrvOiirBaL 
Tivos for Tcpl Tivoi (lit. * if they were to 
liear all this about you fighting') cf. 
X 505 IIi^X^ dfi6/ioyot oOri irixwrfuu, 
224, etc. ; so X 174 €lir€iv ri^oj, A 357 
Cn yvG) x^^oiUvoio : cf. H, G. § 151 d. 

258. Construe Tcpiforc fiiv /9ovXV Aa- 

lAIAACX: A (i) 


7j8rf yap ttot iya> Kol apeioaiv rje irep vfuv 
avSpdaiP &p,tKriaa, koX ov ttotc fi oX y aOepi^ov. 
ov yap TTQ) TOLOV^ Ihov avepa^ ovSe tBwfuu, 
olov IleiplOoov T€ ^pvavrd re iroifUva \aS)v 
Kxuvea r ^^^aZtov re koX avrlOeov UoXvifyrjfiov 
[Sfjaia T AlyetBffP, hrteiKekov aOavaTourC]. 
KapruTTOV Stf Kctpov hn/)(0ovUov Tpcuf>€v avSp&v 

KapTUTTOI. fl€P €<raV KOi KapTlOTOl^ ifld')(pVTO, 

ifyrjpalv opecKdtourt, Kal iKirarfKoa^ aTToKeaaav. 
Kai /JL€P Tolaw iya> fieOofuXeov iic Tiiikov i\0(ov, 
rrfKoOev ef aTriij^ 70/179* KaXeaavro yctp avroi' . 




259. hjjolio S Vr. b. 260. kr^n P. || OuTn Zen. C6PU {mpr, h) : AuTn 

Ar. O. 266 om. 0: haJbent H™J {vbOoi 6 <rrixos o^roi) RT™ Harl. a, Vr. a, 

liosc 2 {man, rec,\ Par. j. 268. oApcm PQ^ Lips. Yr. b. || dpcoctbcoa G. || 
lKn«^rX«9c T. 269. kr^m P. 

vautVf Tepie(rr€ 8i ftdxcffdai : cf. r 326 
rtpUifu ywcuKuv, For the co-ordination 
of stibstantiye and infin., O 642 ^lulvtav 
WfunoUii dperds, iiyukv xddas 1)^ fidxco^Ocu, 
260. OjuTn, so Zenod. ; Ar. read ijfiivy 
thus saving Nestor's politeness at the 
sost of his point. Ar. objected to Zen.'s 
reading i^fipirrot 6 \6yos : in other 
irords, he wished to import into heroic 
language the conventional mock-modesty 
>f the Alexandrian Court. The whole 
mflaning of Nestor's speech is that he 
:iimself is the peer of better men than 
:bo8e he is advising (v. Cobet M, C, 
^ 229). 

262. Cf. i" 201 <Ak iffS' odroi dv^p 
kcp^ ppor^ oOdi y^yrp-ai. The sub- 
imctive being a more archaic form of 
'h» fat. perhaps suggests a solemn and 
[>rophetic tone. 

263. oToN ricipleooN : accus. by attrac- 
ion to the case of rolovi, for cloi fjv 
iMiplBooi. The names are those of the 
^efs of the Lapithai. 

265. This line, which is quoted by 
Pansanias x. 29. 10, is found also in the 
[»eado-Hesiodean 'Shield of Herakles/ 
L82. Theseus is mentioned again only 
n X 322, 631, both doubtful passiu^es ; 
:ihe latter indeed is expressly saia by 
Sereas of Megara {ap, Plutarch, Thes. xx.) 
» be an interpolation of Peisistratos to 
>lea8e the Athenians. It is, however, a 
piestion if the same may not be equally 
•id of the whole reference to the 

Lapithai ; it is doubtful if there ever was 
a reinthoos in any but Attic legend. 

268. The fight of the Centaurs and 
Lapithai is mentioned at some length in 
<t> 295-304, and is alluded to in B 743, 
where the word 4»^a€i is again used. It 
is commonly saia to be an Aeolic 
form for ^f)€i, * wild men ' ; but for 
this there is only the authority of 
grammarians, and both H. and Pindar 
seem to use it as a tribal name. The 
identification with ^p may well be a 
later fancy (Meister Dud. i. 119). 
There is no allusion in H. to the 
mixed bodies of the later legend, and it 
is possible that he conceived them as 
purely human beings (note, however, 
the opposition to &vdp€s in </* 303) ; the 
myth may very likely refer to ancient 
struggles with a primitive race of 
autochthones. The present [)assage 
seems to imply the existence of a 
prae- Homeric epic dealing with the 
story. The last naif of the compound 
6pccx^ioi is possibly connected with 
K(H-Tos {KcTfMi)t and means 'couching 
in the mountains ' ; or else with kQs 
or k6os = a cave (Hesych.) ; cf. i 155 
alyai dpetTKUKOvi, In that case we should 
read 6p€<TK6ioi for -K6F-tos. 6p4aKoos 
occurs in Aisch. Sept. 532. 

270. AniHC is generally derived from 
dir6 as = distant ; but there is hardly 
a Greek analogy for such a formation. 
It is used by Aisch., Soph., and others. 

24 lAIAACX: A (i) 

Kal /la'XpfJi'V^ '^o.T efi avrov iyd' /eeipova-i S' &v ov Tt^ 

T&p, ot vvv fipOToi euriv iiri/xOovioL, fiajfioiro, 

Kal fiev fiev jSovkeav ^vviev irclOovro re fivOioi, 

aX\a irLOeaOe koI vfifi€^, iwel TreiOea-Ocu afjueivov, 

firfre <rv tovS* dya06<i irep imv airoaipeo Kovpf)v, 275 

aXX' la, w? ol irp&Ta ioaav yepa^ vie? ^Aj(ai&v' 

/Lnjre <rv, UijT^tBr), 0€)C ipi^ifievai ficuriXrji 

avTtfiiriv, iircl 06 iroS* o/iotT/? efifiope rip/^^ 

aKfjiTTovxp^ /SaaiXev^, &t re Zeu? kvBo^ eBcoKep. 

el Sk aif xaptepo^ iaa-t, Oeh Si ere yeivaTO fnfrrfp, 280 

aW' oSe (f>€pT€p6^ iariv, hrel TrXeoveaaiv avdaa-eL, 

^ArpetSf), a-if Bk irave reoi/ /xei/o?* avrap iyd ye 

yjiaaofi Af^CSXrji fieOcfiep y(6\op, S9 fieya iraaLV 

271. Xu'aOrbN Ar.: kuMXTrhnZtn, 272. uqx^ointo Z>H'Ul 278. XI^NICN 
Ar. A[H] Par. e^?) f^(?): v^nion O (sOMiYoN P). 276. t6n r* Eton.: -rbn R. 
277. niiXdd* ftocX' AQ(R ?)U Lips. Eton. 281. 8 re GL. 

as a name of Pelopounesos {iiria 7^), 
and may be the same here in spite of the 
difference of quantity. For a suggested 
etymology see Curtius El. p. 469. 

271. KOT* Cu* aOrbN, 'for my own 
hand/ as we say ; as a champion acting 
independently. Cf. in a slightly differ- 
ent sense B 366 Korii tr^ai fiax^oyrai. 

272. fipoTo) teixe6Nioi together form 
the predicate. uaY^rro, like fiax^oivro 
844, is a highly doubtful form ; the stem 
/iaxe(«) is implied in /xaxMc)o/xa(, but 
nowhere else appears in the pres. The 
best emendation is Piatt's fMx^<raiTo, 
would have /(night {J. P, xxiiL 211) ; this 
use of the opt. to express past time 
{H. G, § 300 c) appears to belong pro- 
perly to the aor. (A similar case is T 
171, where many mss. give fiaxhcdax for 
fmx^(roLa$ou.) See note on E 311. 

275. Anoaipco : for this syncopated 
form (for -pieo) cf. ff. G, % 6 (and 
Fritzsch in Curt. Stud. yi. 128) ; so 
O 202, /9 202, etc. dxaclpeo Hrandreth. 
See note on 230. 

277. Aristarchus read UriXeldijeeXy or, 
as we should write it, Ilrikeldr} i[$c\\ on 
the ground that iOiXeiy is the only 
Homeric form. But it is better to admit 
the possibility of a single appearance of a 
form so common in later Greek than to 
haye recourse to an unparalleled crasis, 
rendered the harsher by the slight pause 
after Hi^XeMi;. (See ff. G, § 378.) 

278. oOx AuoImc = * very different * 
(from common men) ; litoteSf cf. E 441 ; 

tion simili poena j Aen. i. 136. It has 
been objected, with force, to this line 
and the next that they are a pointless 
generality here, as Achilles is just as 
much a ffKffirrovxoi pcuriXe^'s as Aga- 
memnon ; the real ground for his 
yielding is given by 281. For the 
form Xujuiopc see ff, G. § 23 (2). 

280. The antithesis of KapTcp6c and 
9^prrcpoc (Mn greater place') is the 
same as in 178, 186. Tne similarity of 
the terminations has its effect, though 
they are of course different in origin and 
meaning as well as accent. 

282-4. The connexion of thought in 
these three lines is not very clear, and 
has given rise to suspicions of interpola- 
tion, which do not seem justifiable. The 
reiterated entreaty, the almost pathetic 
appeal to persouGil influence, is entirely 
in accordance with Nestor's character, 
human nature, and the necessities of the 
situation, which is not one where we 
need demand strict logical consistency. 
Nestor, after appealing equally to both, 
ends with an especial prayer to Agamem- 
non, who is obviously tne offending party. 
aOr^p hnh re, ' Nay, it is I, Nestor, 
who ask it. ' There is no antithesis with 
(Ti) dij which is merely the common use 
of the pronoun after a vocative ; ain-dp is 
not adversative except in so far as it 
marks the transition to a new line of 

283. *AxiXXAY may be taken with 
XiXoi* {thine anger tcith Achilles)^ or 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


ipKo^ h.'^fCLtolo'iv iriXerai iroXefioio KaxoioJ'^ 

TOP B* airafui^fiofievo^ irpoa€if>r) Kpeiayp *Ayafi€fiv<i)v 285 
** vol 8r) ravrd ye iravra, yipop, (Kara p»oipaif\ hiircf;, 
aXX oS' apfjp iOiXei Trepl iravrfop efifiepai a\\a>p, 
iravTOiv fiep Kparietp iOeKei, 7rdpT€<r<n S' dpaaaeip, 
irdai Se a-ijp/iipeip, a tlp ov ireiaeadai otco, 
% el Be fUP aly(jii]Tr}v eOeaap Oeol alep ioirre^, 290 

TovpcKa ol irpoOeovalp opeiBea fivOi^aaaOat,^ " 

TOP S' ap" {nrofiki]Bf)P rffieifieTO Sao? 'Aj^tWeu?* 
•' 1j yap K€P BeiXo^ re koI ovTcBap6<; KoXeoifirfp, 
el Btj o'ol Trap epyop inrei^ofiair, orri fcep etirrji^' 

286. ionac PQRSU Mosc. 1 2. 287. h^ntcon ncpi^uucNai Eust 289. 

Mosc 1. 293. KC Q. |; dciX6c {om. tc) PQ. 

better, on account of the order of the 
words, with fjxdiiuv as a sort of dat. 
commodi, rdax in favour of Achilles. 
Ct 3/7 fJLiSiev xo-^^oio x^Xoio TiyXc- 
fidxtift. JuuEra is perhaps an adverb, 
such as continually precedes irdvTes : 
of. 78 M^yn TOVTUV AprY€itt)v Kpariei^ 
and i6 irivTat nd\a wdvraj dfta irdvra, 

287-9. The tautological repetitions of 
these three lines are very suitable to 
unreasoning fury ; they have to do duty 
for arguments. 

289. ouiafNCiN with dat. = to give 
orders^ as B 805. tino, oTiej a general 
expression in form, though Agamemuon 
is of course thinking of himseli. Nagels- 
bftch compares Soph. Ant, 751 I^S* oT>v 
9av€iTai Kal Bcufovc dXei rivi. (sc. iiU), 

291. npoetouoN — (^ burXri) irt <Tuir/i6<i)s 
iavrCk irpo04ovffi rd dvelSriy i.e. the plural 
verb with the neuter plural is in accord- 
ance with the poets practice. This 
shows that Ar. took dveiSea as nom. , but 
we are not told how he explained the 
line. Ameis (followed by Monro) 
takes the words to mean * do his 
revilings therefore dash forward (like 
spearmen themselves, cf. the phrase 
roKi^ Tpo04€(rK€ X 459) for him to speak 
them ?' Monro com^iares, for the 'half- 
personified ' dvelSea, Herod, vii. 160 
Src/dea xarc^rra dydptjjirui ^tX^fi iwavd- 
yeiv rbv 0vfi6v (though the other passage 
which he quotes from i. 212, KartSpros 
rou oIpov (s t6 aCjfMf seems to weaken the 
relevancy of this, as shewing that the 
metaphor is material, not personal) : and 
for the use of irpoOiut ut 319 dvd plvas . . 

bpifxb fUvos TrpoHrvxIfe (where again ^livm 
is rather a physical conception than a 
personification, cf. txi^oi Tveloyres), The 
extreme harshness of this metaphor has 
led most recent editors to regard duelSea 
as the object, and irpo$4ov<Ti as another 
form for irpoTtOiaaiv, * do they set before 
him (i.e. allow him) revilings for him to 
utter?* This certainly gives a better 
sense, but no satisfactory analogy for 
the form of the verb has been given 
(there is a doubtful dv^dei in an Ionic 
inscription, C. I. 1195 ; see Curtius Verb. 
i. 213). Hekker suggests Tpodiuxri as 
aor. subj. The mood might be explained 
as one of expectation : ' are we to look 
for them to suggest words of insult ? ' 
But the form with the short stem-vowel 
is entirely unexampled, and I see no 
choice but to regard the passage as 
hopelessly corrupted. 

292. OnoBXi^dHN, iiUemipting ; v-ko- 
paXuju rbv tdiov X6701' Schol. B. Cf. 
v^^dWfiv T 80, and for the form 
Tapa^XriSriv A 6. Observe that Achilles 
begins without the usual formula of 

294. Oncfsojuai : future rather than 
aor. subj., cf. 61. There is a slight 
change of attitude, as so often happens, 
after the opt. KaXeolfirjy : what Achilles 
in 298 conceives only as a supposition 
he here vividly realizes as an admitted 
fact (this is of course the same, however 
we take inre^ofiat), Ondaouai should 
be v-iroFet^ofjiai^ and various conjectures 
have been proposed to restore the full 
form, but none seem satisfactory {Oiri- 
(rxofiai Brandreth). 


lAlAACX: A (i) 

aWoio'tv Si) TavT iTTiTeXKeo, fiij yap ifioi ye 295 

a-'^fiaip*' ov yhp iyd y en aoi ireiaeaOaL oto), 
aWo Be TOi ip€(o, ah S' ev\ (l>p€<rl fidWeo arjKn' 
X^pal fiev ov tol iyco ye fiaj^^ao/uii elveKa Kovpr}^ 
ovre aol ovre rtoi, aXXa>£, eirei p! cuf>€\€a0€ ye Sovre^' 
T&v S' aXXcov, a pLOi eari doiji irapa vrjt fiekaivrji, 300 

r&v ovK av rt (f>€poi^ aveXwv deKOvro^ ifieio, 
el 8* 076 firjp ireiprja-aL, Xva yvdxoai Kal otSe* 
ah^d TOi alpoL xeXaiPOv epforjaei, irepX BovpL ' 
w? Tci 7' dim/SCoio't pw^fea-aafiepa) hreea-aiv 
dvoTTfTf^v, Xvaav S' dyopijv irapk vrjvalv 'Aj^atwi/. 305 

Ilr)\€tBr)^ fiev cttI /eXiaia^ xal vrja^ iiaa^ 

296 dS. At, (6 Xoyyti'Oi xtpunrbv tprriiri tovtw t6v crixov J™), ji Irxorc Ti QR 
Vr. a, Mosc. 2. || ndeccoai H Mosc. 1. 298. oOn GHPRSU. |l uaxi^GOJULCn 

Ar. Aph. Antimachos, Mass. Argol. Sinop. ACZ>JT Vat Vr. a, Mosc. 1 2 : uax^- 
cojuai GHPQRSU. || oOnckq J. 299 om. Q. li ted p* ie^cic 69cX^ceai Zen. 

801. 9^pHC UU Par. f ^ (?) li. || Bm kk^n AT Bar. || «uoTo PQS. 304. 

JUUlxcCCau^CD : JUUfXHCcmiNoa Ar. 

295. (17 iiTXri) &n Koipbv t6 terr^XXco 
Kal 6 r^p Teptffffdi. oCrtas di ylvercu 
Tcpiaff^ 6 i^ijs- did d^erftrai, Ariston. 
(emended by Cobet) ; i.e. Ar. obelized 
296 on the ground that aiiftatye had 
been added in order to supply a verb 
which was wrongly supposed to be re- 
quired by the second clause of 295. 
This is a fertile source of interpolation 
of whole lines ; e.g. Q 558, 4> 570. 

298. X*P^ '^^ '^ though he meant 
to continue, 'but by abstention from 
war I will.' But in 300 the course of 
thought is changed, and tQv AXKuv is 
made the antithesis to Koi^fnjs, The mss., 
as often, vary between umAcoxua and 
fMx^ffffofjMi, But the weight of tradi- 
tion, confirmed by the mss. of Herodotos, 
is strongly in favour of (Ionic) fut. 
fMXTffO'ofMtf aor. fjMx^ir{<r)aff6cu. See 
Schulze Q. E, p. 450, H. G. § 63. Ar. 
preferred -1^r- tor both tenses, but this 
takes no account of the short form 

299. Af^cce^ re d6NT«c: Achilles re- 
cognizes that the yipas is a free gift, not 
a matter of right, like the share of the 

302. In d d* fire the el is clearly inter- 
jectional, as in I 46 e/ 5^ . . <f>€vy6mt)v. 
Lange calls it an 'adhibitive' particle, 
by which the speaker appropriates, as 
by the * prohibitive * mtJ he puts away, a 

thought, supposition, or, as here, com- 
mand. Nikanor, followed by van L., 
however, separates the cl here from el, if, 
HTiting ^r (eZd) for el d'; cf. Lat. eia age. 
ff. G. § 320. For the «* see on 340. 

303. Apwikci only in this line ( = t 
441) means ./fotr. llie connexion of this 
with the usual sense, to hang ba4:k, and 
of both with the subst. ip^^t is ^eiy 

306. ^icac, a form found only in the 
fern, with cases of vi/Os, d^rirfs, 6cUs : in Od. 
only with </*p4vai, and once besides B 765. 
In the last passage it clearly means (<ras, 
and with vTfvs and dtrxls this gives a 
good sense, 'even,' i.e. trim of the 
ship, wdl'balanced of the shield. (To 
take xdyroff* ilarf as ' equal in all direc- 
tions,' i.e. circular, is intolerably mathe- 
matical and prosaic. That the ponderous 
Mykenean shield should be 'well- 
balanced on every side' was a matter 
of life and death to the wearer. ) With 
8ali it cannot mean strictlv, if we push 
the word, equally divided (see on H 
320), but a banquet where some receive 
a larger portion in virtue of their dignity 
may yet be *fair.* Still this account 
of the word has not satisfied all com- 
mentators ; anciently it was often ex- 
plained to mean ' good ' (ettrov • dyad^^ 
Hesych. ) ; recently it has been pro- 
posed to refer it to root Fik, * seemly * 

lAlAACX: A (i) 


^ArpeiSrjfi B* apa vrja 0or)v akoBe Trp^ipva-aev, 
iv S* ipiTa<; iKpLvev hlicoa-LV, e? S' ixarofifirfv 
/Srjae Oe&t, dva hi \pvcr7jt8a KaWiTrdprjiov 
elcrev arfcov iv S' dp'^p^ eySiy iroXvfirfTL^ 'OSvcrcreu?. 

ol fiev €7r€VT dva^avre^ hreifKeov vypa iceKevOa, 
Xaom S' ^ArpetSf)^ diroXyfiaLvea-OaL avcayep. 
oi S* aTreXvfiaivovTO icaX el^ a\a Xvfiar efiaXKov, 
ephov S' 'A7roXXa)i/t reXiyeo-cra? ixaTOfifia^ 
Tavptov ^S* aiy&v iraph 6lv aXo^; /drpififeTOiO' 
KvioTf S* ovpavov Xk€v eKiaaopAvr) Trepl kuttvAv, 

0)9 ol fikv tA irevovTO Kara arparov* oiS' ^ Ayafiifipcjv 
Xrjy lp^So9> Tr)v irp&TOv i7rr)7r€iXr){r 'Aj^tX^t, 
aXX' 8 y€ TaXBvfiiOP re Kal Eivpv/Sdrijv irpoo'eei/n'e, 
rto oi ea-av KrjpvKe Kal OTprjpoD Oepdirovre* 
" €pj(€a0ov KXiairfp lIr)Xi]idB€(o 'A^tX^o? • 
j^€t/0O9 iXovT dycfiep lApKrqtBa KaXXiirdprjiov 
el Si K€ fit) BcoTfiaiv, iy(o Si k€v avro^; ^Xayfiai 
iX0a)v avv irXeovea-ai* to ol koL piyiov lorat." 

w elircop TTpotei, Kparepov S' eVl fiv0op ereXXe. 





809. bt d* Ip^rac Ar. Par. k : ic d* 0. 811. Bn d* GP Harl. a. Vi. A : AnbL 
b* S. 812. An6iXcoN Vr. a^ 314. AnoXuuaiNONTO GH. || XOuora BdXXoN 

Ar. U. 317. KNicH ATU: kn(cch O. H Akcn DHQR. 324. dcbcooN GH 

{supr. h). 826. Kpcrrcp6c L. 

(the form iurtroi is found in Doric), or 
Fidf ' conRpicuons ' (?). All this seems 

307. The story of Troy is regarded as 
familiar, even apart from the Hiad ; for 
Patroklos, like Agamemnon in 1. 7, is 
first introduced by his patronymic alone. 

313. fiNcorc is in form an imperf. from 
dpdtyeuff which is a secondary pres. from 
the perf. A^taycu In use, however, it is 
an aor. and is so found in the famous 
Cypriote inscr. from Idalion (Collitz 
no. 60), 'HBakiiFcs SoKoyov ^OydaiKov icrX. 
A sigmatic aor. occurs in 295, k 531, 
SciU. Her, 479 (d^w^eu). See van L. 
Sndi. p. 468. 

314. Perhaps the Greeks had abstained 
from ablution during the plague in sign 
of mourning, and now typically threw 
of their sin, the restitution having been 
m«ide. dc fiXo, because OdXcurffa kXCJ^ci 
vdrra TivOpdnrvv Koxd (Eur. I.T. 1193). 
XiijuaTa, defilement, as in S 170 {"Upri) 

dirb xpo^ IfUpbevTOi \{tfJua.Ta irdvraKdOripeK 
Thus it is meant that they washed in the 
sea, not that they washed on land and 
threw the defiled water into the sea. 
Of. KaddpfMTa in Aisch. C?u>. 98. The 
Neapolitans used to practise an annual 
lustration in the sea down to 1580 A.D., 
doubtless a survival from Greek times. 

317. ncpi KanN^i : for wepl meaning 
iiiside cf. X 95, of a snake, i\i<ra6pi.€yot 
wepl x«'7^ and 11 157 irepl tppcalv do-Teroj 
dXKT^. So ircpl Selfioriy tpd^ui, etc., lit. 
compassed by fear, Pind. P. v. 58, Aisch. 
Pers. 696, Hymn, Cer. 430, etc. Cf. A 46. 

320. Both these names are leffendary 
names of heralds srenerally ; for the 
hereditary heralds of Sparta were called 
Talthvbladae, and Eurybates is the 
herald also of Odysseus, B 184. 

325. finoM : a comparative (cf. lUyiara 
E 873) formed directly from the substan- 
tive l>iyoif cf. K^nrrepoSt ^^/wv, /czJ^mttoj, 

' -k. 


lAIAACX: A (i) 

TO) S' a€KOVT€ l3dTf)v iTapcL 6lv clXjo^ aTpvycToio, 
MvpfuSoPfOP S' eTTt T€ K\i<rla^ icai vrja^ iKea-Oijv. 
Tov S' evpov irapd re KXiair)!, koX vr^t p^£Kaiin\i 
r\li€VOv oils apa tw 76 ihow yi^0r)a€v A^tXXev?. 330 

TO) fi€P TapPrja-avTC ical alBofievo) iSaa-iXrja 
(TTTfrqVt ovSe rL fiip 7rpoa€(f>(ip€OP oiS' ipiovro' 
aifT^p 6 eyi/o) fjiatv ivi (f>p€<ri (fxavrja-ep tc 
" ')(aip€T€, Ki]pvK€^, Aao9 cuyyeKoi rjBe koI avhp&v* 
aaaov it* ov tL p,oi, vfifie^ hrairiot, aK)C *Ayafi€fiv(i>v, 335 
h a(f>&'i irpotei, UptarftSo^ etW/ca Kovptf^. 
•*aXX' arf€, B^oyevk^ TlarpoKXet,^, €^arf€ Kovprfv 
t Kai aifxolv S09 a^eiv. ro) S* avTw fidpTvpoi larcov 
irpo^ T€ Oe&v /jLaKaptav irp6<; re Ovtjt&v dvOpoyirfov 
KoX irpo<; TOV fiaaCkrio^ airrfveo^, et Trore S' avre 340 

j(p€ia} i fie 10 yemfTcu deixea \oiybp dfivvai 
ToU aXKoi^, ^ 7^^ o 7' okot/fjia-t <f>peal Ovet, 
oifSe Tt olBe voTjaai afia irpoaa-a) xal dirLo'ao), 

328. d* om. P. 332. oilbi Tl Ar. Q : oOd^ tc ap. Did. I npoccffibNOUN S. 

838. 6* T. 336. Onainoi H^QS Laud. 336. 8 Ar. [A]CR[8]T Lips. Mosc. 1^ : 
8c Q. li 09AYN Zen. (A 5((;>r.) Harl. c d. Par. a^ h j, Mosc. 1 : 09^ King's. 837. 
naTp6icXccc Mor. : ncrrpoicXAc U^ 338. 09AY U. || JuidpTupcc G : juidfrrupc C. 

340. AnHN^: ISlfKcvKos iv rrji ToKwrrix^i yp. ANaid^oc Did. 841. &U0T0 

PQS Vr. b. II AjuiOncin C {yp. AjuOnoi inun. rec.). 342. 6Xoifi(l)a AT: 

6XoA(i)a(N) (2. 343. Tl : toi J s^ipr, : oOd' Ihi I). 

331. TapfiftooNTC : the aor. seems to 
mean * struck with alarm ' at his look 
{beivbi dyi^p ' rdxo. Key koX dyairioy alrid- 
uiTo^ Patroklos says, A 654) ; while the 
pres. aldofiiyu) implies their permanent 
respect. For the juxtaposition of the 
two ideas compare the fayourite Setv^ 
al86i6i T€. 

334. Ai6c fiiTcXoi : cf. 6 517 KijpvKes 
SUipiXoi. The herald has no connexion 
with Hermes till post-Homeric times. 

336. For tlie difference between 09AY 
and C9C0YN (338) see on 1. 8. 

339. np6c before the face of; the phrase 
occurs occasionally in later Greek, e.g. 
Xen. Anab. i. 6, 6 povXcvbfuyos 6 tl 
8Ucu6y ioTi Kal wpds Betay xal Tpbs dyOpta- 
v(av. Hence the use in oaths and en- 
treaties, Tp6s varpbi yoiiydj^oficuj etc. It 
seems to be derived from the purely local 
sense, as in -irpds dX6s, 'in the direction 
of the sea,' irpbi A(6s eipi'HtToi 239, q.v. ; 
of. Z 456. 

340. ToO SaoXAoc AnHN^oc, him the 
king untoward. The order of the words 
shews that roG is not the article. Ahh- 
mAc, lit with averted face (cf. Skt. dna = 
mouth, face ; T/wyvi^, i/inji'i7 = that which 
is under the mouth), of one who turns 
away from the suppliant ; opposed to 
Tpoarp'-iis, It seems best to follow the 
unanimous MS. tradition in writing 
d' aCrrc. though the 5* must represent di^. 
But the vowel so often coalesces with 
another that it is necessary to assume 
that 8ifi had a weak form 84 (cf. fUv by 
fjLTfiy), the s|)elling 3t> being retained to 
distinguish it from the adversative 
particle when the vowel was not elided 
(cf. van L. Ench, p. 587, and H. (7. § 
350, where it is noted that the 3* in el 
5' A7C is the same). aOrc, hcrcaflei\ as 
E 232, H 30, etc. , 

343. *To look before and after* -is, 
as in Hamlet f the prerogative of reas(>n, 
which argues from the i>ast to the futu^re. 

lAlAACX: A (i) 


/ 1» 

oTnro)^ ol irapa prjval a6o6 fia'^eoivro 'Aj^atot.' 

&^ (l>dTo, TldrpoKKo*; Be ^t\o)£ iTreireiOeff* iraipcoi, 
€K S* arfor/e KXia-irj^ HpiatftSa KaWiTrdprjiov, 
8&K€ S* aryeiv. tq) S* atm,^ tT7)v iraph vrja^ 'A^atcSi/, 
17 S* deicova dpu toutl yvvi) kUv, avrap 'Aj^tXXei? 
Saxpvaa^ ierdpayv a<f>ap l^ero v6a'(f>i Xcaadel^ 
ffiv €(f>^ ako^ TToXvfj^, 6p6(ov iirX oLvonra ttovtov 
TToXXa Se fiffTpi (f>i\r)i fiprfaaTO j(€ipa^ opeyvi^' 
** fJLrJT€p, iirel p! €T€K€^ y€ .ptvuMdSiov irep ioirra, 
TLp/qv Trip p4)i S<f>€XK€v ^OXvp/mo^ iyyvaXi^ai 
Zev? inlnl3p€fi€r7j^' vvv S' ovhe p^e tutOov ena-ev, 
jj ydp p^ ^ArpetSff^ evpv Kpeicov ^Ayapipvcjv 
TJTLp^rja'ev cXmp yap ej^et yipa^, avTo^ dirovpa^,^^ 

0)9 (f>dTO hdKpv %ea)i/, tov S* €kXv€ irorvia priTT^p 
fiphn) iv /SevOea-airP d\6^ irapa Trarpl yepovrt. 




S46. tand«CT* L. 346. fire FT. 347. aGoic C. 360. M oTNona : 

61' AndpOHQ Ar. 861. Apdcooro G. || 6pcrNl}c : ANanrdc Zen. (? x^P* ^^' 

nrmdc Cobet) : nv^ iotacxdoH Schol. T. 862. re : tc S. 863. tuijin jui6i 

Vr. a. 366. rtip (w/». Jui*) H. 

844. 5nfM9C : here an adv. of manner, 
'how his men can fight/ clearly shew- 
ing the transition to the final use. 
juax^oiNTO is quadmply wrong : (1) the 
hiatus is intolerable ; (2) -otyro for -oiaTo 
is not Homeric ; (3) auxx^* is not the 
pres. stem (see on 272) ; (4) the opt. is 
the wrong mood (J/, and T, § 322). 
Barnes's conj. fiaxeoLar* removes only 
the first two difficulties. Porson couj. 
fULX^<^J^o^$ Thiersch fiax^ovrax (fut. 
indic, B 366) ; the latter is best, cf. 
H, G, § 826 (3). 

350. M oYNona : so Mss. ; Ar. iw' 
dwelpwa, perhaps on the ground that 
otpora is inconsistent with woKiijs. But, 
if the epithets are to be pressed, it might 
be urged that there is very vivid truth 
in the contrast of the * purple deep' 
with the greenish grey of the shallow 
water near the shore, which is almost 
always the meaning of &\i. ^ 59 is al- 
most the only exception. Ameis thinks 
that the * infinite sea intensifies the 
feeling of despair and desolation — a 
German rather than a Greek idea. 

352. There seems to be a mixture of 
two trains of thought in this speech. 
It opens as though /up, wep idvra were 
a parenthetical complaint, 'Mother — 
for you did give me life, of however 

short a span.' But this apparently 
subordinate clause is then made one 
part of the emphatic antithesis of the 
entire sentence, 'since my life is short, 
it should at least be glorious.' The 
sentence, like the * two-sided * similes (see 
on M 151), buds out into new relations 
while it is being uttered. It is possible, 
but more prosaic, to leave fuv. xep 
idura out of sights altogether as a mere 
parenthesis, and take frcKcs as involv- 
ing the claim, the divinity of his mother 
being understood : ' since you, a goddess, 
bore me, the gods should have dealt 
better by me.' 

353. O9cXXcN = (l^06(X6, not to be con- 
fused with the quite distinct 64t^\\<a = 
augeo. See note on Z 350. 

356. aOrbc, by his * own arbitrary 
will, not in the name of justice. 
AnoOpac = dir6 - Ffxi - $, root f cp, short 
form Fpa ( = Fp) ; the long form is found 
in diri-fc/xre, etc., Z 348, * 283, 329 
(van L. Ench. p. 379, H. G, § 13). 

358. The nor^p riptoN or &\ioi yipwv 
is known to later mythology as Nereus, 
but is never named in Homer. (In i 
Proteus also is called dXtos yiptav. ) The 
nymphs are named "Sriprftdes only in a 
passage of doubtful authenticity, Z 38, 


IMAACX: A (i) 

KapTraXifKO^ S' apiBv iroXt% aK6<; r]VT 6fii')(\r), 

Kcu pa TrdpoiO* avroio KaOi^ero Sdxpv ^(iovTO^, 360 

J^etpt T€ fllV KaT€p€^€V, €7r09 T €(f>aT €K T OPOfia^C' 

" TCKVov, TL KXaiei^ ; rl Be ere (f>pha^ ik€To irevOo^ ; 
i^avBa, fit) Kev0€ votai, iva eXiopLev a/i0o).*' 

Tr)v Bk jSapif o'Tevd'Xiov irpoa-e^ iroBa^ wkv^ Aj^tXXev^* 
*' olaOa' TL ^ TOi ravT elBviijt ttclvt arfopevon; 365 

iiv^dpj^ff €9 ©17/8171/, iepr]v ttoXlv 'Her/wi/o^, 
Tr}v Be BieTTpdOop^ re xal fffopLev ivffdBe irdvra, 
teal Ta fiev eS Bdaaavro p^era cr^tcrti/ i/Ie? 'Aj^atoii/, 
eK B* eXov ^Arpel^i Xpvar)tBa KaWcTrdprfiop. 
^pvar)^ S' aid* lepeif^ €Karr)l36\ov 'AttoXXwj/o? 370 

^\0e 0oa^ hrl vfja^ 'A^awii/ j^aXKoyfiTfOPayp 
Xvaopjepo^ re Ovrfarpa (f>ep€OP t direpeiaC anoipa, 
arep^p^ar e)(a>p ip "xepalp €Kffl3oKjov ^AttoWodpo^ 


869. AOe' duixXH Vr. a''' b. 362. cc : cou Q. 366. dropcOcu QT 

Eton. Vat. Lips. 366-92. dXX6r/Moc oi iiri4>€p6fU¥Oi <rrlxoi etKOiri iirri. An. 

866. Icpiw R. 370. aOe* : aO A {supr, o* T. W.A.) Vat. 

361. Kcrr^pcBC, stroked^ so £ 4t24 
Kapp4i^ovaa. This can hardly be con- 
nected with the ordinary sense of 
{F)pdi^u : Autenrieth refers it to root reg 
of 6'p^-<a, 

365. tqOt* ddulm, i.e. raDra Ftdvlrfi, 
This, the only correct form of the fein. 
part. , has been preserved by some of the 
M88. in the phrase Idvlrjuri irpairldefffft 
(608, 2 380, 482, T 12), but is elsewhere 
restored by conjecture only. Cf. I 128. 

366-92 were condemned by Ar. as 
superfluous, and contradictory of 365. 
The real objection is, of course, that they 
are not required, at least from 368, for 
the sake of the hearer. But the frequent 
verbal repetition of messages shews what 
the Epic poet and his hearers liked. 
For 0HfiH see notes on 37, B 690, Z 397. 
Why Chryseis was taken here instead 
of in her own home we are not told. 

icp6c, holi/i because a city is an in- 
stitution to which men submit without 
asking why ; it is a bond imposed by 
a higher power, and is hence dedicated 
to a deity. So Up6y riXos K 56, of 
a dignity. *The impersonal and in- 
animate, when it exercises power, is 
divine . . Sea, river, and night are 
divine as well as lepdv . . The fish 
that breathes in water where men die 

is Upds . . Human power and soul, 
ascribed to an indefinite godhead, are 
the Upbtf fjjpoi, kings are diayei^eii. The 
official, as his insignia denote, is dedi- 
cated ; he belongs not to himself but to 
his office, the impersonal divine which 
we call duty* (W.-M. H. U. p. 106). 
But it must be admitted that this is 
not satisfactory as regards the fish ; it is 
tempting to seek, with Frazer, a less 
subtle explanation in a 'taboo' or re- 
ligious scruple against the eating of fisli, 
which agrees with the well-known fact 
that Homeric heroes do not eat fish 
except as a last resource (sec ^ Taboo ' 
in Encycl. Brit,), Some would recur to 
the supposed primitive sense of iep6s, 
strong (Skt. Uhiras) ; but in Greek any 
such meaning, if it ever existed, must 
have long died out, for all the derivative 
forms (cf. iepeiJw) are entirely restricted 
to the iiense sacred. Those who are not 
satisfied with this explanation will find 
ample discussion from other ]>oint3 of 
view in Schulze Q. E. 207 ff., Mulvany 
J, P. XXV. 131 ff*. 

367. firoJuiCN is properly used of tiring 
things ; here, in spite of the neuter 
xdyra, Achilles is thinking mainly of 
the captives. 

372-79 are verbatim from 12-25. 

lAlAACX: A (i) 31 

j(pvae(i)L ava <rKi]irTp(oi, xal Xiaaero irdpra^ 'Aj^atou?, 

^ArpetBa Be fiaXurra Svo), xoafiiJTope \a&p, 375 

€V0* aWot fiep 7rdvT€^ iir€V(f>rip/qaav *A^atol 

alBeurOai 0* Uprja xal wyKaa Se^Oai airoLva' 

clW' ovK ^ArpetBrji * Ay afiefivovi ijvSave Ovfi&i, 

aXXa KaKO)^ axf>Ut, Kparepov B* iwl fivOov ereWe. 

"^caofievo^ S' o yipayp iraXiv eStj^ero' rolo B* 'AttoWiwi/ 380 

eif^afiipov r/Kovaev, iirel fiaXa oi <f>i\o<; rJ€P, 

'^K€ S' €7r' Apyeioiat xaKov /SeXo?* ol Be vv \aol 

Oinjia-Kov eircuravTepol, tA B* eVciitj^eTo fcr]\a Oeolo 

irdin"qL dvk (nparov exfpvv A^ai&v, afifu Be fidvTi^ 

ev elBa}<; arfopeve OeoirpOTria^ eKoroio. 385 

avTiK erfO) irpAro^ Ke\op/qv Oeov [kdaKeadav 

^Arpetfova S' hreira ')(oXjo<; "Kd/Sev, alyjra B* dvaarh^ 

TjiretXrfaev fivOov, h Bij reTeXeafievo^ ia-rL 

T7)v fiev ykp avp prft Oofji eXi/cwTre? 'Aj^atol 

€9 ^pvarjp Trepiirovaiu, arfovai Be B&pa avaKTi* 390 

rrjv Be veov Qckiatrfffep) e/Sap Ki^pvfce^ wyopre^ 

Kovpr)p IBpiarjo^;, tijp fiot Bo<rap vte^ Aj^ai&p. 

aXXa (TV, el Bvpaaai ye, irepia^eo waiBo^ eolo' 

eXOova Oifkvp/rropBe Aia \iaai, et irore Brj tl 

7J €7rei Apijaa^ KpaBitfP Aib^ i^e Kai epycai, 895 

iroWaKi yap aeo irarpo^ ep\ fieydpoia-ip aKovaa 

eirxpfieprj^, or €<f>7)a0a Ke\aipe<\>ei Kpopucopir 

374. XiccCTO Ar. AT Lips. : iXicccro O. 376. drpcidH H. |i (After this Hue 

Q repeats lines 17-21.) 377. e* om, G. 381. JodXa : ^ nu in the 'Cyprian 
and Cretan ' ace. to Seleukos ap. Did. 383. teacciiTcpoN Q (glossed nuKN6- 

TcpoN). 388. 8 d^ Kai DK. ]\ TcrcXccuiNON H. 893. Cli : ci> re P. || ioTo 

Zen. HL Cant. Vr. b, Harl. c d, Par. a d* (Woe in ras.) e {in ras. ?) f j k {yp. 4floc), 
and yp. J PR Par. e : Woe (Woe) Ar. 0. 396. iNiimcrdpoiaN U. 396-406 

&d, Zen, 

383. lnacci>Tcpoi: usually derived from 
dTx* > cf. dacoripott p 572, r 506. The v 
is called Aeolic. But Brugmann refers it 
to ^-ai'-<r(€)iJ(w), separating it from iacov. 
The sense is much the same, close upon 
or hurrying up. 

385. ^droio, a short and almost 
familiar form {KoaeTunne) for iKarrjpdXos, 
Fick has shewn that this method of 
shortening is one which has very largely 
prevailed in the formation of Greek 
proper names. 

388. The rhythm — a single woi-d of 

two spondees filling the two first feet — 
is almost unique in Homer, and some 
suspicion attaches to v i(f>. added to make 
position. fivBov ivrjirelXrjffev Nauck, cf. 
y 127. 

393. 4oTo, thy : see Ai)p. A. 

396. eco must go with &Kovaa. naTp6c 
= my father's (Peleus'). Zenod. athetized 
396-406, probably on the ground that it 
was superfluous for Achilles to tell his 
mother what she had done. But here 
of course the enlightenment of the 
reader is sufficient justification. 


lAlAACX: A (I) 

oXf) €v dOavaTOiaiv oeiKca Xoi^bv afivpai, 
imroTe fuv ^vv&rjo'aL ^OXvfiTrioi rjOeXov aX\joi, 
^apf) T rjSe TloaetBdoDV /cal IlaXXa? ^AO'qvrj. 
aXkit aif top y iXJOovaa, Oed, {rrreXva-ao Betrfi&v, 
'*'&X €KaT6ff)(€tpov KoXiaaa e? fia/cpov "OXvfj/rrop, 
hv lipidp€09v KaXkovai Oeoi, avSpe^ Se re Trovre? 
AiyaifdV' 6 yap aire /Sitft ov Trarpo^ afieipayv 
09 pa irapa Kpopicovi. tcaOe^ero KvSel yaitov 
TOP /cal inreBBeKrap fuzKape^ Oeolj ovBe r eBrjaap. 
T&p pvp fup fipi^aaaa Trape^eo xal \aj3e yovpfop. 



400. riaXX&C 'Aei^NH : ^TBoc *An6XXcoN Zen. 401. t6n (om, r') Z>. 402. 
^crr6rxcipa Q : ^crrdifXCipoN Z>P. 408. fipidpcoN Mosc. 3. jj oco( r* dn^pcc S. II 
fiNdpcc : fiXXm Q. 404. Bba : B(hn Ar. : ZrivoSoros ypd(f>et 8 r6p a(>TC BIni 

noX6 9^frraT0c Acn t^n (MS. 9^frraT0c AndirruN, carr. Bentley) 6ndG0i ilaiouc' 
6n6 TdprapoN cOpciborra An. 406. xaeizcro Yr. b. 407. juun : xim Q (so 

DioD. Hal. Ant. p. 106). ;■ nOn JuuuNf^Gaca G. 

400. As the Scholiast remarks, these 
three divinities were the allies of the 
Qreeks, which would be a strong argu- 
ment for Thetis' prayer for help to the 
Troians. For FlaXXdc 'AeiiNH Zenod. 
read ^difio% 'AiroXXt^, which, as Ariston. 
remarks, d^eupcZrat t6 iri0ay6Vf spoils the 
effectiveness of the appeal. 

403. The other instances in Homer 
of double names in the language of men 
and gods are B 813 rijv ^ t(h &vdp€s 
BarUiaw KiKXifffKOVffiv, dddyaroi d4 re (ttj/m 
ToXvffKdpOfioio MvplvnSf 3 290 6pyiOi, 
ijv r' iv dpefffft x^X^c^a KucX-fyrKovai Beoij 
&ydp€i di KVfuydiyf T 74 dv SdifBov Ka- 
X^oiHTi d€oif AvSpts di ^dfMydpoy, Cf. 
K 305 fJuaXv 8i fuy KaXioinri Oeolf /x 61 
llXa7«fr4f dij rot rds yt 0col fjAKapet 
KaXdovffty. The natural supposition 
would be that the * divine' words are 
archaic survivals, perhaps from an older 
race. It is sometimes said that the 
divine name has usually a clearer mean- 
ing than the human, una that the Greeks 
therefore regarded their own tongue as 
divine, and others as the languages of 
mere men. But this is only the case 
with the xaX/r/s and KOfuvdn, and possibly 
ZduBof and ^Kdfuufdpos, which, however, 
look like different renderings of the 
same foreign word. fuaXv is not a Greek 
form, nor is the theory borne out by 
isolated instances elsewhere, e.g. Diog. 
Laert. i. 119 Aryev (6 *e/)c/ciJ3iyj) &rt 
ol 0€ol rijv rpdirci^ay euoap6N KaXovaiy. 
Again the Pelasgian Hermes was called 

'l/xfipoi : compare with this the state- 
ment of Steph. Byzant., '£p/xoG, dv 
'Ifippoy Xiyowrt ftdKap€s. Both Bpidpttas 
and Alycduv may be equally referred to 
Greek roots (/3/u of /3pcap6$, ppidvs, and 
cUylSf cf. Alycuw iriXayos). The father 
of Briareus was, according to the legend, 
Poseidon, who himself was sometimes 
called Aiyaiuy or Alycuos. — Tlie legend 
is one of a number referring to revolts 
against tlie Olympian gods, as of the 
Titans, Prometheus, etc. aiW«, again : 
as Poseidon, in union with the other 
gods, was stronger than Zeus, so his son 
again was stronger than he. To avoid 
the synizesis in Bptdpcuy van L. suggests 
Bpidfyrfy^ the gen. of wliich, Bpcdpi7o, is 
quoted from Ibykos. 

405. rorfcoN occurs only in this phrase, 
E 906 of Ares, 6 51 and A 81 of Zeus. 
The line in E was rejected by Ar. on the 
ground that Ares could hardly be said 
to 'rejoice in his glory' immediately 
after his ignominious defeat by a mortoL 
But Hentze suggests that Kvdos may refer 
rather to the outward splendour of a 
divinity (cf. KvSalyu E 448), so that the 
phrase means ' brilliant ^ith splendour.' 

406. o<ihi T* I^hcon: read ovdi T 
fdyjcay. The loss of f = e can be traced 
in many places — nowhere more clearly 
than in il 154, q.v. The fact was first 
discovered by Brandreth, and has been 
systematically investigated by van 
Leeuwen. See ff. G. § 391. 


lAIAACX: A (i) 33 

€u K€V 7rft)9 eOekrjLaw iirl Tpdeaaiv aprj^ai, 

Toif<i Se Kara irpvfiva^ re Koi dfuf)* aXa ekaai ^A^atov^ 

icT€i,vofievov^, Xva iravre^ iTravpayvrai ^aatkfjo^, 410 

yv&i Sk Koi ^ArpetSr)^ evpif Kpelayp ^AyafUfivoDv 

tfv aTTjv, o T apLOTOV Aj^atcoi/ ovoiv eTia-e. 

Tov S' ^fiei/Ser eTretra 0€Tt9 fcara BaKpv j^iova-a' 
. " & fjMLy T€Kvov ifiov, ri vv a h'p€(f>ov alvcL TeKovaa ; 
aX0* oif>€\€^ irapa vrjvalv ahaKpvro^ icaX airrjiioDv 415 

^aOai, iirei vv toi (da-a pivvvdd irep, ov ri fidXa Bi^v 
vvv 8' apa, T ooKVfiopo^ /cal oi^vpb^ irepl irdvT(ov 
eifKeo' T& ae Ka/crjv aX(rqi, t€KOp iv fieydpotai, 
VoOto Se Toi, ipiovaa Itto^ Atl repTriKepavvayi 
elfjL avTTf irpo^ "OXvfnrov dr/dwi(f>ov, at xe 7ridr)TaL, 420 

dXKa ai) pjev vvv vrjvaX irapripjevo^ mKyiropota-i 
pJ)vC ^Ay^aiounv, irdXep^ov S' dTTOTraveo irdp/irav 
Zetr? tyiip €9 'fl/ceai/oi/ fUT dp,vp^va^ AlOtoTrija^ 
j^^^fo? e/Sr) kaTtL SaiTa^ Oeol S apM wdvre^ eirovTO* 

409. XXacn G. 414. TCKoOca : naeoOca Schol. A 31. 417. cbxi^juopbc tc kqI 
Q. 419. bi TOl : d* Mn P. 420. nioHai Q. 421. nOn : cOn T. 423. 
Ic: In* C. II Tipis 7p. ucrd u^unonoc (u^unonqc A) ateionAac Schol. AT. 
434. KOrd Ar. Aph. Antim. Mass. Sinop. Cypria al., Par. c^ : urrh Q. || SnONTO : 
ap. Did. (not Ar. , v, Ludw. ad loc.): AN^cniN Par. c. 

409. &U9* fiXa, round the bay, where yue^' aUrrfit H 218 TpoKoKicffaro x^PM-Vh 
the ships were drawn up. Kcrrd, as ^ and perhaps 11 203 x^^<^i ^pa a trp€<t>c 
225 TpfaMif Atf-oi Karh. Actv, 'in the y^'fyryip. afca is one of the Homeric 
region of the stems, which were drawn words which the Cyprian inscriptions 
np towards the land. have shewn us yet alive in the primitive 

410. Incn^pootrrai, ironical, ' that sense of measure : tCj Aids rCo Foivta dttra 
they may have profit of their king.' ftri y ^^j (Collitz no. 73). Cf. also 
Cf. N 738 iiravpLiTKovrau. Hegesandros ap. Athen. viii. 365 d 

412. The Homeric idea of Aiy is best 'ApyeToi . . KoXiowi . . r^v fxepLSa aUrau. 

explained by Agamemnon himself in t^ not rwi, is the reading of A in all 

T 85-186. Dawes would restore the passages where it means iherefort ; and 

form 6.{F)6.'n\ to Homer throughout (cf. with this grammatical tradition agrees. 

Pind. aikln;), but this is impossible in It seems to be a genuine relic of the old 

T 88, fi 28 ; and the contracted forms of ablative ; compare ircu with ircus, and 

the verb do-aro T 95, So-e X 61 (late pas- perhaps olW-a; with ofh-ci^s. (M. L. Earle 

sages all) are opposed to it. 5T*=5T(rf, in C, R. xi. 243 would read tu>s here, 

see note on 244 and U, O, § 269 (3). so ill- starred did I hear th^e. This 

414. ob«d, adv. , cursed in my child- seems very probable ; there is no place 

hearing^ thesame idea as koktil aXarji in 418. for an inferential particle here. ) 

416. The omission of the substantive 423. For the theories which have been 

verb with an adverb is perhaps unique. founded on the absence of the gods here 

For the use of adverbs with elfd see Z as compared with 222 see the Introduc- 

131 3V -JJr, H 424 Siayifiayai xaXerwj ^k, tion. For the journey of the gods to the 

I 551 Kovp'j/JT€e(n KaicQs ^v, and of. A 466 Aethiopians compare a 22-26, where 

fWfwBa di ol y4v€0' hpfi-fj. Poseidon alone is entertained by them. 

418. Kcocfti aTcMi must have the same They dwell on the extreme limits of the 

sense as alca above, and therefore mean world, by the stream of Ocean. 
loan evil/aU; cf. X 477 liji &pa 7c(v6- 424. Kcrrd Ar., fierd H88. Kard 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

ScoScKaTTji, Si Toi airi^ iXevaercu OvXvfiiropSe, 425 

Kal TOT hrei/rd toi. elfit Ato? ttotI 'yahjco^aTk^ S&, 
Koi fuv yovpdao/juu, koX fiiv Treiaeadat oto)** 

w? dpa ^(ovTjaaa aTre/SijaeTO, top S* SXiir airrov 
j(a)6/ji^vop KaTCt Ovfiov iv^dvoLO ywaiKO^, 

Trjv pa piqt dixovTO^ drrffvpoyv. aifTap ^OBvaaev^ 430 

€? X.pvaf)v XKavev 070)1/ Upr}v eKaTOfi/Srjp, 
oi S' 0T€ Bff Xt/A€i/09 TToXv/SevOeo^ €VTo^ Hkovto, 
iaria p^v CTeCkavTO, Oiaav S* iv mft p>€Xaijn)c, 
loTov S' laToBoKrjt TreKaaav TrpOTOvocai^v v<f>€VT€f; 
KapircbXip^ta^, Tr)v S' eh oppLOV irpoepeaaav ipCTp^l^. 435 

^K S' evvd^ l/SaXov, icaTci Be irpvpLvrjaC eBrjaav 
4/c Bi KoX airrol fialvov eVl pr)yp2vt OaXdaai]^, 
.€K B €KaTop,l3r)P ^rjaap cKfj/SoXcot ^AttoWmvc 
i/c Be ^pva-ffi^ Vfj6^ y8?) irovTOiropoio. 

Trjp phf eireiT eirX ^(opLOv aytov iroXvp/qTi^ ^OBvaaev^; 440 
irarpl (f>C\ja)i iv j(€p<rt^ tlOcv, xaC puv TrpoaeeiTrev 
" & \pv<rr), irpo p, eirep^yfrev ava^ avBp&v ^ A.yapip,v(ov' 
iralBd T€ aoX dyep^ev ^oL^tot G* ieprjv eKaTop^/Sijv 

426. aOmc C. 428. A ukn 6p* &c dnoOc* J. |i AncBitoaTO JDGH^JPQU. 

429. x«d^ucNOC L. 482. hn6c I IrKic Ar. 434. O961TCC Zen. Q : A^^ntw 
Ar. 486. npo^pccccof Ar. Argol. Sinop. Sosigenes : npo^uc(c)<iN 0. 443. 

co) : diN J^. 

means *in the matter of a banquet/ 
cf. H, O, § 212 (3) ; fierd would be * to 
look for' a banquet, which is a some- 
what undignified expression as used of a 
god. The Tariant iworrai for Snonrro, 
mentioned by Did., is an attempt to ^et 
over the contradiction of the line with 
the presence of the gods in the camp : 
'they are foUoiving (going to follow) 
him (to-day?).* But (xtadai in Greek 
always means *to accompany/ or some 
immediately related notion. It never 
means * to follow ' at an interval. 

426. dA is generally explained as 
= 3w/i, an old m-stem, cf. hdov = iv 
dofi. Brugmann, Gr. § 223 ad fin., 
mentions the suggestion that it is 
originally = our to, Germ, zu, a heavier 
form of the enclitic -de, and got the 
meaning 'house' only from its acci- 
dental resemblance to dCjfia in the 
common phrase iifUrepov $Cj = iifUTep6y de. 

430. On the question of the genuine- 
ness of this episode (to 489) see Intro- 
duction. BfHi A^oNToc seems to bo a 

pleonastic expression, ' in spite of him 
unwilling. ' We cannot construe (Ujcom-ot 
with d-rrji^fHaVf as verbs of robbing take 
a double ace. 

432. For h€T6c Ar. read ^i>f, but 
this is not necessary, as 5fxuoN in 435 is 
the mooring -place inside the harbour, 
and is not identical with Xi/ii^, as he 
probably considered. 

483. CTciXaNTo: the mid. may mean 
'furled their sails,' but in this sense it 
occurs only here. arciXdv tc has been 
conjectured by Wakefield. 

434. The (croddKH was a crutch, a 

forked piece of wood at the stem of the I 

ship, into which the mast was lowered j 

by slackening the forestays. See diagram 
and Excursus in M. and R. pp. 541-3. 

436. The cOncH are heavy stones with 
hawsers thrown out to moor the bows of 
the ship, while the stem is secured by 
the stern ropes (Tpvfiyiffffia) to moorings 
on shore, probably to a stone with a 
hole set up for the purpose (rpifrdt \l0os 
I' 77). 


lAlAACX: A (i) 


pk^cu inrep ^ava&p, o^p ikaaofieaOa apa/cra, 

09 vvv ^Apyeioiai TroXvaTova Krfhe^ iifiTJKCP,** 445 

(&9 eiirwv €V X^P^^ Ti0€i, 6 Sk Si^aro xf^ipoDv 
TToiBa (f>lXi]v. Tol S" (OKa 0€&c KXecrifp cKarofi^ffv 
6^6^179 eoTTfaav ivSp/rjTOv irepl jScofiov, 
yepvly^avro h eirevTa koI ovKo^yra^ aveKovro. 
TouTtv he ^pvari^ fiery dX^ ev^^TO yelpa^ avaaxfov 450 

" kXvOl fieVf apyiJpoTO^, S9 X.pvo'ffp d/M<f>i^€l3ffKa^ 
KiXXdv T€ ^aOirfv TeveSoco re l(f>t dvda-aec^* 
7]Srj fiev iroT ep^ev irdpo^ exXve^ ev^apevoto, 
rip/qaa^ p^v ipi, peya S* f^oo Xaov ^Ap^atdi/* 
^S* €Ti Koi in/v pot ToS' iiri/epi^vov eeXSwp* 455 

^Sf) vvv ^avaoiaw ((devKia Xotyoij dpvvovJ^ 

W eiJHiT evj(pP'€vo^, tov S' SxXve <I>oJ)8o9 'AttoXXo)!/. 
aindp hrei p ev^avro koX ovXoyyrafi irpolSaXovro, 

avepvaav phf irp&ra koL ea'if>a^av koX eBeipav, 


M4 de. At. II iKac6jULCCea ACHR al, : IXaccb^uice' P* {supr, o) Vr. b A : 
iXoodbjuM** Yr. a : iXXaooti^uce' S : IXocob^ucea G : IXacducoe* Lips. : iXaoducaa D : 
iXoodum' U : fXaooducea Q : iXaoduca* T^ 446. nOn h\* Apr. Q. || Ki^dc* : 

nAtMOi^ J. 446-7. &c dn^N (cTncN Wolf) Toi d* &Ka ecd^i \mpkM ^cti^uBhn 

Zen. 447. Toi : 01 Ambr. || kXcithn : Upku Ar. 449. ^^ONTO : npo- 
BdXoKTO Eiist. 461. JUMU : juu>i ap. Did. 468. d d^ ukn Q : fi Atkn hk Schol. 
Z 75 (Aubf djk seemB to be Bekker's conj. from n 236). 468. npoBdXoNTO : 

iadkomo R. 469. ClO^pucciN AG : AN^puccm Eust. and yp. J : aO IpucoN 0. || 


449. X^P'^^V''^^* ^ &Tai Xeydfieyov 
in Homer, uniooe in form among Greek 
compounds. The pres. x^P*'^^'^^/^^ 
occurs freqaently in Attic, e.g. Aristoph. 
Pax 961. oOXoYihtic, barley grains; 
80 oO\al y 441, the Attic 6\al, They 
appear to have been merely bruised — 
a nJic, such as often appears in ritual, 
of a fbrgotten time before grinding was 
invented. The usual course seems to 
have been to cast them into the fire, 
but occasionally they were thrown on 
the victim's head. 458 below would 
suit either. An^ohto, * took up in their 
hands from the basket.' Compare the 
whole description of the sacrince in y 
430-63, and m Aristoph. Pax 948 sqq. 

454. liuMoac, an 'explicative ' asynde- 
ton, merely expanding the sense oUkXvcs. 
Bekker would read ri/i'^as, which how- 
ever is not necessary. Yi|kio. didst smite, 
Lat. ic-^re ; cf. lTo6fiafo%t crushed dovm, 
Aisch. P, V. 365. So r^erot B 193. 

459. aO^puGQN, for dF-Fipvirav by 
assimilation from dv-Fep, 'they drew 
backy lifted up (the head) ' (Att. dvappi^u) 
partly perhaps for convenience of cutting 
the throat, partly in sign of dedication 
to the heavenly gods. (Compare dvcurx^- 
fieyot ^ 425, dtf€\6yT€i y 453.) So victims 
to Chthonian powers were killed into a 
pit, oOtu) ydp OtJOWTi roU x^^^^^'^^y '''®** 
8i oOpaploii Avu) &va<rrp4<f>ovT€i rbv 
rpdxv^oy ff<pdl;^ov<rw (schol. Ap. Rhod. 
I 587) : Kv/xcU<i)v Si fSoSy alToivTiav rbv 
Bebv dxb tQu Kdru iirl rd dvo) a&rovs 
HXkcip (Schol. B here). Cf. also Cecil 
Smith's paper on 'Nike sacrificing a Bull,' 
J. H. S, vii. 275 sqq. (See Schulze's 
excellent discussion, Qu. Ep, 56-60.) 
In Pindar 0. xiii. 80 dvapinji is ex- 
plained by the Schol. <T4>d^y)L^ 06rji. 
Most MSB. give ad ipvcav, which cannot 
be right, as aD never = KarbinaSe : in 
9 324-5 the repetition of aD would be 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

* fj/qpov^ T i^erafiop Kara T€ fcvi<r7jc eKoKinlrav 
BiTTTV^a irotijaavre^, iir aintav S' dy/iodeTTja-av. 
Kale S' eirl crj^tfiyt? o yipcop, eVl S* aiOoira olvov 
XeZySe' vkoi, Se Trap' axnov €)(pv TrefiTrdjSoKa j^epcrti/. 
avrhp hreX Kara firjp i/cdr) teal tnfKar^yy iTrdaavro, 
fiicrvWov T apa raWa xal dfi(f} o^eXjolatv eTretpav, 
taiTTT^aav t€ 7r€pc<f>paS€0)^, epvaamo T€ irdvra. 
ainhp eTrel iravaaPTO TrovoxJf tctvkopto re BaiTa, 
baivvvT , ovO€ T* uvfJLo^ €0€V€TO oat^TQf; eurr)^, 
avTctp iirel iroaio^ xal iSrjTvo^ ef epov &to, 
Kovpoi /Jbkv Kpfjrfjpa^ iTreaTiyjtaPTo ttotolo, 
vdp/qa-av S* apa iraaLV hrap^dpkvoi SeTroecrcrti/, 




462. cxfzaic G. 463. After this add 463^ cnXdrYNa d* fip* &ULii«lpcmT« 

OndpcxoN (OncpcTxoN J) A9aicroio ( = B 426) JLQRT™ Hart b, Tar. d f^. 464. 

uApc xdH Ar. (? see Ludw. ad loc.). || aiXdmia ndooNTO Ar. 466. incipoM 

SU. 468. oOd^ Tc P : oOk^ Eust : oOd* tri Vat. Mor. Har. 470. KporApcK 
QK : KaporApac J. il icriifKiNTO J. 471. h\apx6iUM0i Cram. Epim, 107. 27. 

460. juLHpoOc, the thigh bones with the 
flesh adhering. These are cohered with 
a layer of fat doubled over them, and 
pieces of flesh from other parts of the 
body are laid u{)on them {ihfMderelv^ from 
ij)n6it cf. i 427) in order to symbolise an 
offering of the whole animal. uApa in 
464 seems to be identical with m^/>o<^> 
but, like the commoner titipia^ is only 
used in the sacrificial sense ; so B 427, 
7 179, /* 364, V 26. 

461. difiTux<if ace. singular, 'making 
it (the fat) into a fold.' 

462--3. Cf. 7 459, where the lines are 
certainly more appropriate, as the vio*. 
there are Nestor's sons, who help him 
with the sacrifice. Here the idea of young 
men is not in place. The ncuncbfioXa 
must have been five-pronged forks stuck 
into the meat to hold it over the fire. 
Eustathios says that the use of five 
prongs for the purpose was i>eculiar to 
Kyme in Aiolis, the other Greeks using 
only three. (Engelmann has shewn, 
Jahrb. d, d, arch. Inst. vi. 173, that 
the forks figured in Helbig, H, E.'^ 354-5, 
are kitchen utensils used for fishing 
boiled meat from the caldron, cf. 1 
Sam. ii. 13, and could not have been 
used for Homeric sacrifices, which are 
always roast.) 

464. For JiiAp* kK6H there is a curious 
old variant, said to have been approved 
by Ar., ixrjfie k6l% where /xiype is supposed 

to be a dual = m^P<^- The * tasting ' ol 
the entrails at this stage seems to hav< 
been symbolical, unless it means simpl] 
that they were more rapidly cooked thai 
the other parts, and thus formed i 
•first course.' 

465. Au^i, an adverb ; they piercec 
them with spits on both sides, i.e. sa 
as to make the spit project on botl 

468. For kknc see on 306. 

470. himcri^aHTO.JiiUd to the brim 
cf. ixurrefiai otvoio 6 232, /3 431. I 
was a misinterpretation which led U 
Virgil's sodi cratera coronant, and th< 
actual crowning of the goblet witi 

471. tedpxcceai denotes the libatioi 
of a few drops taken by a ladle from th« 
mixing bowl, Kprrrffp, and poured int< 
the drinking cups {dtTdeffatv being i 
locative dat). Apx^ffSai is particul«*b 
used of ritual acts of all sorts, and Hr 
implies * going round ' the guests 
They first poured out these drops to th< 
gods and tnen had their cups filled t4 
drink. (See Buttmann Lexil. p. 169 
and M. and K. on y 340.) The diffi 
culty here is that the libation is men 
tioned when the drinking is endec 
(ir6<nof 469), contrary to the rule. Th< 
whole passage from 451 to 486 entirely 
consists of Tines or phrases appearing 
elsewhere, except 456, 472, 474, 478 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


ol ik TravTffiipioi fioXTrrji deov IXdaKOpro, 
KoKov aeiSovre^ iracqova, Kovpoi ^Aj(ac&p, 
fi€\7rovT€^ kicdefyyov' o Zk <f>piva repirer okovodp. 
^/A09 £* rjeXiof; KariSv kclI iirl Kvi(\>as fjXSe, 47r) 

hfi Tore KOi^firjaavTO irapk irpvfivrjaui vtfo^. 
^/LU>9 S* ripirf€V€ia <f}din) po&oSdxTvXof; 'Hco?* 
Koi TOT erreiT dvdr/ovTO ficTa OTparov evpifv *Aj(ai&v' 
Tol<nv 8' iKfjLepov oipov lec iKd€pyo<i 'AttoXXo)!/. 
ol S' ioTOv arqaavT dvd 0\iaTia XevKcL' ireTcurtTav' 480 

eij^ S' av€fio^ irprjaev fUtrov iarlop, dfuf>l Bk KVfia 
trreiprfi 'n'op<f}vp€Op /fieydX* taj(€ 1^09 ioiar)^* 
17 8' id€€v tcoTh /cvfia Ziairpriaaova'a xeXevOop, 
avTctp iirei p Xkovto KaTh arparop evpvp *Aj(ai&p, 
vfja fiev 01 ye fiiXaipap iir fiireipoio epvaaap 485 

ir^ov iirl ylrafid0oi<i, xnro S* epfuiTa fULKph Tdpvaaap, 
avTol S* iaxlSpaPTO kutcL K\iaia<i t€ pea^ T€. 
ainhp o fitipie PTjval iraprj^po^ wKUTropocai 

474 d0. Ar. 481. bt d* : In*' J. 484. KOT^ Ar. 0: juct6 AJJGT 

HarL a. Cant. Vr. A Lips. Moso. 1 Vat. Bar. 486 om. T^. || ipoudeoio JPQRT°>, 
Mor. Cant. Lipe. Yr. a b : tpoju^eou G Vr. c, Mosc. 3. || Xprjucrra IPQ. 488- 
92 Zriw, 'ffSinjKetf, t6v di oOnri nor' kc n6XcuoN (491) oiiSi iypa<f>€v. 

and it seems to be betrayed by this 
oyersight as an unskilfally made cento 
— ^onleas, with Diintzer, it be preferred 
to reject 469-74 altogether. Ar. 
athetized 474 partly because he did not 
allow the meaning sing to /xATeiv (see on 
N 637), partly on account of the taut- 
ology ; and the two participles, with Kovpoi 
'Axeu&w interposed eTidently by an adap- 
tation of X 891, are certainly awkward. 

472. noNMiiifMOi must = ' all the rest 
of the day ' in which 'the assembly and 
voyage to Ghryse have already happened. 
For this use compare wavvvx^rj ^434 
(with 888), way ^fiap Z 458. 

478. ncnitoMa, a hymn of rejoicing, 
not necessarily to Apollo, see X 391. t6 
KoX^N drrl Tov KoXfayf, Ariston., rightly. 

474. ixdcproif, here apparently Aver- 
r uncus, the 'keeper afar' of pestilence; 
the opposite and complementary function 
to that of *Ejci7/36Xof, and fitly mentioned 
now that his anger is appeased. 

477. ApirbMKi, early - horn ; ^/h = 
rftp-i from duser-i, whence also dpurrw, 
the early meal. 

479. TiuMNON. a word of unknown 
origin, found four times in Od. but only 

here in IL Whatever the derivation it 
must mean ' favourable.' 

480. cnicoNTO, like (rre^Xoyro 433. 
Here we could equally read <rnj(rdv t\ 

481. npftccN : the word means to puff, 
spirt outf blow, and is used (1), as here, 
of air; (2) of fire = frM7^, wvpl or trvpds 
being generally added in Homer ; (3) of 
fluids, e.g. n 350 (af/ua) . . dyd (rrb/ia 
trprjffe x"*-''**"'' Only the sigmatic forms 
are found in H., with the exception of 
iviwprjeov I 589. 

482. crdpHi, t?ie stem ; the solid beam 
which had to take the shock when the 
vessel was beached. nop90pcoN, a word 
which seems to be properly used, as 
here, of the dark colour of disturbed 
waves; cf. notes on 103, E 83, S 16 
(irop0i/pciv), n 391. 

483. dicmpi^coouca here, with the 
addition of K^evdoVf shews the transi- 
tion from the primary meaning ' to pass 
over' (root Tpa of Tcpd-ta etc.) to that 
of 'accomplishing.' 

486. XfMiora, shores^ either large stones 
or beams of wood, set so as to keep the 
ship upright. The line seems to come 
from mjmn. Ap. 507. Cf. B 164, A 117. 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

ovT€ WOT eh arfopTfv TrcSXio'KeTO KvSvdvecpap 490 

ovT€ iroT €9 TToKcfiov, oXXct ^0CVV0€aK€ <f}i\ov Ktjp 
aiOi fUvtoVf TToOeecKe S' auriji/ re TrroKefiop re. 
aAA 0T€ o»; p €#c TOio ovtooeKaTT) yever rja)^, 
Kol Tore Sif irpo^ ^OXvfiirov taav Oeol alep iovre^ 
Trdvres a/ia, Zev^ S' VPX^' Q^rt^ S' ^^ \i]0€t i<l>€Tfie<op 
iracBo^ iov, aXX' ij y avehvaero tcv/xa 0aXda<nf^, 496 

'^€pirf S' avifirj fjbiyap ovpavov OvXvfnrov T€. 
£v/96i/ S" evpvoira KpoviSrjv arep fjfievov aXXo>i/ 
aKpordrrji KOpv<p^i iroXvSeipdBo^ OvXvfnroio. 
Koi pa irdpoiff* avroio KaOe^ero koX Xd/Se yovptov 500 

(TKairji, Se^ireprjt S* dp* xnr dvOepe&vos kXovaa 
Xiaaofiivf) irpoaeeiire Aia Kpopicova avaKra* 

489. hhXAoc Harl. a, Mosc. 1 : hhX^oc [AL]H^J : hhX^coc Q. 490. oCr^ 

noT*: oOdinw pi : odbi nor' LF^. || kc Q. 491. dc HJRU. ,j ndXcjuuSN r' 

Draco de Mdr, 492. d(MN koX P. || nT6XcJUl^N [ACS] : n6Xcu6N Q. 498. 

This line has the obelos in A, but no Schol. to explain it ; possibly Ar. athetizetl 
(Ludw. adloc.), 496. k^^TuAxan H. 496. ioTo Q. || ANcdOccTO Ar. Mosc. 1 
(A supr.)x dNcdi}(c)GaTO O. 497. oOXuun^Ndc J {supr. tc) PQ. 601. 

V fip' : d^ Eust. : d' aO L. 

489. ut6c as an iambus, see P 575. 
In the older Attic inscriptions u6s and 
vlbi are used indifferently ; in the later 
i*'6f is the regular form, the i becoming 
semivocalic and then falling out ; G. 
Meyer Or. § 180. The synizesis of 
IIi7X^<i;t or IIi;X^of is not Homeric. 

490. Kudi^apcm, elsewhere an epithet 
of iidxii only ; cf. I 441 dyopiutv Ua r 
&ydp€S dpiirpeirhi Te\i0ov<riy. These 
assemblies and battles must be taken 
as falling within the twelve days after 
the quarrel. 

491. 9iXoN in this and similar phrases 
simply =/it8 oum, ^61^ : see on 167. 

493. be ToTo, sc. from the interview 
with Thetis. This vague reference be- 
comes far more intelligible if we omit 

496. The aco. icOjua is strange, cf. 359, 
e 337, where we find the gen. which we 
should expect ^Ifupa and KW(pa have 
been conjectured. 

497. Hcp(H either = t^(^' ifJux^V (359), 
or better *in the early morning,' from 
^pi, see 477. This is clearly the meaning 
in I 52. Cf. also 557, F 7. 

498. It has been debated from old 

times whether cOpOona is from f6^ 
voice, or from root 6t to see. The 
former would of course express the far- 
reaching voice of the thunder. In 
favour of this it may be said that the 
compounds of dw make -wTa, not -oira, 
cf. eXtxci)irif, eirum-iSaj etc. ; and there can 
be- no doubt of the derivation from f6^ 
in Pindar's KpovlSay papv6irav trrtptyirap 
wp&raviVf P. vi. 24. The word is gener- 
ally a nom. On the analogy of ^pvS- 
Tav we ought perhaps to read evpv&ray 
for the accus. Otherwise we must 
assume a second nom. *€ifp6oip. 

500. a^ToTo: cf. ai)ToD in 47. For the 
suppliant's attitude cf. 6 871 yo^^ar* 
fKwnre xal fKKafie x^^P^ yevelov : in K 454 
the touching of the chin only is men- 
tioned. This act perhaps symbolises the 
last resource of the disarmed and fallen 
warrior, who can only clasp his enemy's 
legs to hamper him, and turn aside his 
face so that he cannot see to aim the 
final blow, until he has at least heard 
the prayer for mercy. 

501. On the analogy of 9 371 AXa/Sc 
X^tp^ yevelov it would seem that (m6 is 
here an adverb, * taking him by the 
chin beneath.' 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


" Zev Trdrep, et irore irj ae yuer dOapaToiaip' ovrftra 

7j iiret fj IpyoDi, roSe fwt KprjTjvov ieXJBayp^ 

rlp/qaov fioi viov, &9 iyKV/Mopdnaro^ aWcop 505 

eirXer' drdp fuv vvv ye ava^ dvZp&v ^AyafiifivoDP 

fjTififj<r€v ikoDv yhp ej^e^ y€pa<i, auT09 dwovpa^, 

aXXa (TV irep fuv tutop, ^OXv/mttcc fj/qrUra Zev' 

r6<l>pa S' iirl Tpmecrat riOet Kpdro^, 6<f}p* av 'Amatol 

viov i^ihv rUraxrvv ofpeWayalv re e rcfirjt*^ 510 

C&9 ^dro* T^v S' ov Ti 'n'poa€<f)i] pe<f>e\7jyepira Zev^, 
dXX' oKetop hr)v fjaro, 0€Tt9 B w '^yjraTO yovvayp, 
A? ^X^t' i/j,'n'€<f>w'ia, xal elpero Sevrepop avrc^* 
" pfffieprk^ piv S'q fioc ir7r6aj(€0 koI Kordvevaov, 
ri airoevTT , eirel ov roc eiri 0€09, o<f)p ev eioca 515 

oaaov iyo) fierd iraacp drifiOTdTrj Oeo^ elfii.^* 

TTjp Sk fjUy* o')^r\fia^ irpoaiifyrf P€(f>€\rjy€piTa Zev^* 
^ fj ^ \olyui €py, o T€ fi ij(0dSo7n]a-ai i^rjaei*; 
Hp7)i, OT ap fi ip€0rfiaip opeiSelot^ iirieaaip, 
ri ik Koi auT(k)9 fi aUl iv ddapdroiat, Oeolat, 520 

606. JUMl : JL&ou HP. 610. TUJLJiN i>JQ {supr. ft) Yr. b, A. 612. dx^N 

Vr. a. 613. ftpcro HPRIP : 6 3* 'l^iw cTpc t6 (IrpcTO, Schol. Lips.). || aOeic 
6 Ambr. 616. oCn Q^DOV, \\ h\\l kcri V\J\ \\ ddftic Suid. i. 2. 619. ftpH 

Ar. (? see Lndw. ad loc.), \\ 6Ncidioic DH^JPQT^ (a constantly recurring variation). 

505. The juoi long in thesi &n hardly 
be right. Nanck conj. vUa fwi TipLrjirov, 
Menrad rlftyiaiaf a^ fioi vl6v, Piatt rlfirjaov 
9i/i fi{o*) v^^' For QXXcoN after the 
superlatiye cf. Z 295, 4" 582, c 105, 
Soph. Ant, 100 KdXKiffToy tQv Tporipcjy 
0<iot (with Jebb's note), 1212 Svervxt- 
ordniv xfXcvdoy ifrtno r(av vapekdovaCav 
aOtf, and numeroos others. The gen. 
means ' doomed to swiftest death as com- 
pared with all others ' ; it is ablatival, 
and ' expresses the point from which the 
higher (here the higher) degree of a 
quality is separated,* H, O, § 152. 

506. InXcro, ' he was made before . . 
bnt now in addition.' 

510. 69^XXooa tlulAi, generally trans- 
lated augeani eum honore, 'exalt him 
with honour ' ; but Hentze suggests that 
ri/uTc is rather the fine paid; so that 
the words mean 'make him rich with 
recompMBnse.' This is a thoroughly 
Homeric idea, see note on 158. 69<fi>AciN 
is not elsewhere used with a personal 

512. <bc . . &c *as she had em- 
braced him, 80 she clung to him.' Theo- 

kritos' (if Wok, &s ifidanjVy Virgil's Ut vidi 
ut periif seem to rest on a misunderstand- 
ing. See, however, note on S 294. 

513. ^iuiC9uuTa, a hyperbolical ex- 
pression for 'clinging close,' as in iv d' 
dpa ol <f>v x^'-f^ ^^d ^^ TepKpvaa r 416, 
Tpoffipj^ fi 483. 

515. d^oc, no reason to fear (any superior 
court of appeal). Cf. M 246 <rol d* oi 
54os icr' diro\4<r0ai, and 563. 

518. Xofna Cpra, an exclamation, 
'sad work,' as wo say; it is hardly 
necessary to supply (ffrcu if we read 
6 Tc with Bekker ; ore gives a rather 
weaker sense. See H. G. § 269 ad fin. 
ot(i) Xolyi' (<r€ff$aL occurs in ^ 588, 
"ir 810. ^eodonftcai: Aira^ elprjfihoWf 
but ix^odoTrds occurs in Attic, and seems 
to be related to ^^os as dXKo5aT6t to 
dWos. Ar. is said to have put a stop 
after ^0ij<re«, and read "Hpi; for "Kprft 
(but Ludwich doubts this). In any case 
such an order of the words would not 
be Homeric. 

520. kg) gOto^c, even as it is ; compare 
the use of xai AXXus, ' even at the oest 
of times.* 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

peiKci, Kai T€ fiA (fyrfac fJi^X'^i Tpwecraiv dpijyeiv, 
aXKet crif fi^v vvv avri^ a'7ro<mj(€, firj ri voijarji 
'^Uprj' ifiol Si K€ ravra fieXiiaerai, 8^pa reXeaao). 
€1 8' aye toi K€<f}a\rji Karavevaofiai, o^pa TrewoiOrfi^ 
TOVTO yctp i^ ifi€0€v ye fier aOavdroiac fieyicrrop 
reKfifop* ov ycLp ifiop iraXii^yperov oifS* dfrarrfKop 
ovB* dTeXevTTjTop, on xep K€<f}a\7]L Karapevaa),^* 

fj Kol Kvaperjcaip hr 6<f>pvai pevae JS^popiaop* 
dfi^pocrtcu S' apa j(cuTac hreppwaapro apuKTos 
KpoTos dir dBapoToio, fJL&^ap S* ikeXi^ep ''OXvp/rrop. 

Tco 7* eS? ^ov\ev(raPT€)Bi€Tfia^€P' rj pJep eireiTa 
eh &\a SXto ^aOelap dir alyX'qePTO^ ^OXvp/rrov, 



622. otfoic C6Q. !| luk n aX dpiardpxov kclL al dXXcu (rxed^c Airairai diopduxreii 
Did. : uA c€ il. 624. TOi : rfti Vr. a, Eust \, iniNCikouai ap. Did. and Atheu. 
ii. 66. ,; ncnd«cic Q : ncnd«HC L {aupr. oi). 626. i^KJUuip H {supr, w) R (T^icuoop 
Ri»). 627. ^ KCN : Sncp Bm Stob. Fl, xi. 6. 628. KUON^iaN CH (supr, h) 
JPR. 629. incpptiboNTO £n»t. || fiNaicn Harl. a. 630. Kptrrbc Zen. 631. 
dl^JUUircN Ar. ft : di^iiaroN GPQR {V^ siipr,) Lips. Vr. a,\ A Mosc. 1" 3^ 

525. iu^ecN re : Zeus perhaps means 
that he alone is not required to swear ; 
even Hera has to take an oath (S 271, 

526. i^iUMOp : see note on H 30. Au6n, 
anything of mine (or possibly any r^Kfuap 
of mine). This use is, however, very 
strange ; ifiol would seem more natural. 
noXiNdrpcTON, from dypita, which is said 
to be the Aiolic form of aipdu. Hut it 
occurs in Aisch. Ag. (lyric), Archilochos 
and Theognis, as well as in Sappho and 
Aiolic inscriptions. (The identity of 
the twp words is very doubtful. Smyth's 
attempt to prove it, A.J.P, vii. 382, takes 
no account of iCypa.) For the use of 
* take back ' = revoke compare A 357 ird\iv 
h* 6 ye Xd^ero fivdov. 

528. ini-NcOcc go together in the 
sense of /caToyei/w above (Did. mentions 
indeed a variant ^irii^eiVo/uai in 524). 
KuaN^ON can mean only * dark ' ; cf. 
O 94 jcdXu/i^ . . Kvdvcov, tov S* oH ti 
fuXdyrepov ^irXcro f<rOos, These lines are 
said by Strabo to have ius[tired Pheidias 
with the conception of his famous statue 
of Zeus at Olympia. 

530. iX^ixcN : Dawes explained the 
verb as a mere blunder for iF4>a^€tr, and 
it appears that in almost every case in 
H. sense requires and metre permits 
some form of feXf<r<r«. The three ex- 

ceptions are this line, 8 199, X 448, 
where the sense needed is shook, which can 
hardly be got out of FeXlffatitf, It seems 
necessary, tlierefore, to postulate for these 
cases, and for AeX/x^w (Pind. P. ii, 4, 
vi. 50, Soph. Ant. 153) a verb<XcX/feti' = 
shake, darcpourdv AeX^^ais I*ind. A", ix. 
19, tfxoi . . aeihtuvw iXiXiKTo X 658 
are ambiguous, as the two verbs come 
near together in the sense 'brandish.' 

532. The hiatus at the end of the first 
foot without a pause is harsh, though 
not unexampled (see on B 87). Darbishire 
{lUU. Phil. p. 51) would read FdXro, 
swooped, deriving it from root uel of 
dXefs, vol-v-o etc From the meaning 
* to gather one's self together * he deduces . 
that of swoopiiigy through phrases like 
otfirjae dXeli, and sicoirped is more natural 
than ^ leapt like a hawk' in tpri^ Crs 
d\To 2 616. Still it is rather violent 
to say that Thetis 'gathered herself 
together into the sea.' Moreover, the 
only other case where the digamma 
would be useful is H 15, where iTidXfievoi 
certainly means jumpi)ig, not ^woopimj. 
All other forms of the word (not of 
course including id\r\v, etc.) are neutral or 
reject the digamma, even in some places 
where we should equally like to say 
sxpooped. Tradition varies as to the 
accent and breathing of the word ; the 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


Zev9 Se kov irp6<i B&fia, Oeol S* afia irdvT€<i apiarav 
i^ iSicDv, a'<f>ov irarpo^i ipavriov ovSe ta9 €T\rj 
fielvcu iirepjfpfievov, dW' dvrioi earav aTravre^' 535 

w 6 fi€v evOa KaOi^er iirX Opopov ovSi fiip Hpv 
ri^fpoiqaep ISovtr on oi avfi^pdaa'aro /3ov\d<i 
apyvpoire^a ©€T49, Oirfdrrjp aXioio yepopro^, 
aifTiKa KepTOfuoio't ^ia Kpopiaypa wpoarjvSa' 
" Ti9 S' ai roi, SoXofirjra, Oe&p avfi^pdaaaro 0ov\d^ ; 540 
alei TOL ^tkop iarlp ifiev airop6a(f>cp iopra 
f^KpuirrdSca <f>popioPTa StKa^ifiep' ovBe ri 7rci fioi 
7rp6(f>p(OP rir\r)Ka<i eiirelp hro^, 2tta poi]a-rfi<i,^* 

rrjp S' fj fielder hrena irarifp dpSp&p t€ 0€&p tc 
*'^Hp7j, fit} Sif irdpTa^ ifiov^ iiriiXweo fiv0ov<; 545 

elSfjaeip* j(a\eiroi tol eaopr aXo^oit irep iovarji, 
aXX' hp pjkp K iirUcKe^ aKovifiep, ov ta9 eireira 
ovT€ 0€&p irpoTepo^ TOP y elaerai ovt dpOpayrrcop' 
OP Be K iycDP dirdpevOe Oe&p i0e\a>fii pofjaai, 
firf TL aif ravra cKaara Si^ipeo firjBe fierdWa.^^ 650 

633. An^tON : inoNTO Eust 634. kbpisoH GHPR^ and rivis Schol. AT. 

636. difrbN T : iNOirrioN R. || IcTtlN : Afieivov ftXeoN ypd<f>€tv Schol. BT. 636. 
Xno* ixatt^Ecr^ H. 639. KcpTOuiH(i)a JP. 640. cuJui9pdoccTO H. After this 
P repeats 538. 641. TOl : n J : coi Enst. || iuoQ G. 643. NOl^CHIC 

[ADjJQRT^U: Noi^coc Q. 646. xo^cnoi rdp Q. 649. bi K* : V Bm Eust. || 
4rd» Q. ;| le^ooui Q {mpr. oi) : fo^ouu 0. 660. xuk r€ cb L Vr. b. || 

diiipco D. II xu^c JucrdXXa P. 

regular form wonld of course be dXro, 
but the best ancient authorities decide 
for the anomalous iXro, 

583. The hiatus in the middle of the 
first foot is inexcusable, and the zeugma 
is harsh, though it is not impossible 
to supply *went' from 'leapt* or 
*swoop€KL* The simplest correction is 
Brandreth's Zeds J* te 6v or f ibv (recon- 
jectured forty years later by Fick and 
again by Agar). 

540. For Tk d' aG Bekker and others 
read ris IHj ad. See on 340. The change 
is the less necessary as questions often 
begin with an unelided 64, e.g. 244, 
247. On the other hand, the position of 
the word seems to shew that d^ stands 
for d-^ in H 24 Hirre aif i' a5. aO ex- 
presses vexation, like a^e 202. 

541. It is impossible to say whether 
dir6 »6(T^ or onoN^o^iN is best ; the 
authority of grammarians is in favour of 
the first (cf. B 233), taking &t6 \(ith 

Uvra, For the participle in the ace, 
though TOl has preceded, cf. H, G. § 
240 ; i6trri would give the meaning *w?ien 
you are apart f ram me you like to decide.* 

542. bmcaiuMMf to give decisions^ as 8 
431. Kpunrddia goes with 9poNteNTCL 

543. np69pcDN, offru vnll, ultro. It 
is always used as a predicate, never as 
an epithet inoc, a matter^ as when used 
with T€\i<r<rai 108. 

647. For k* Wakefield conj. <r\ which 
makes the sentence clearer, and is adopted 
by van L. The omission of the subj. 
irji is rare, cf. E 481. incrro, as though 
cf Tiya had preceded instead of the 
equivalent 6v. 

549. ie^coui now has ms. authority ; 
it has been hitherto adopted only on 
Hermann's conj., but was possibly read 
by Ar. ; cf. Didymos on 9 23 40i\oifjUf 
^Apiarapxos iOiXufu, The Ist pers. in 
'(ajju for -(a is an analogical formation, 
after -rfuri beside -i^t. In the mss. it has 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

TOP S* i^fiei/Ser hrei,ra ^oSnn<i irorvia '^Hprj* 
" alvorare KpopiSrj, irolov rov fivOov eevwe^ ; 
(koX Xlf/ih ^€ irdpo^ y ovt eXpofiai, ovre /xeraXXw, 
aXKa fidX* ev/crjko^ ra <f>pd^€at aaa iOeXrfurOa' 
vvv S* alvw SeiSoiKa Karit ^piva, fii] ae irapelTrrfi 
apyvpoire^a Sens, Oir/drrfp aXioco yipovros* 
fjeplrf yhp aoi ye irape^ero xal Xd/Se yovpcjv 
TTJt a otoD Karavevaac iTi]TVfJLOv, ci? ^A'^iXija 
Ti/j,7]a€i<i, oXiaeis Sk iroXeas iiri vtfvalv 'A^atwi/.'* 

TTjv B d'n'afjL€i^6fi€P0<i irpocre(\yq P€<f>€X7jy€piTa Zev?" 
" SaifJLOvhf, aUl fikv oteai, ovSe ae Xridto, 
wprj^ai S* Ifiirrfs ov tl Bwqaeac, aXX' diro Ovfiov 
fuiXXop ifiol ecrear to Si rot Kai plrytov earcu, 
el S ovTCD TovT iarlp, ifioi fieXXet <f>LXop elpai. 

662. Icmac PS. 668. Wan H. || r* om, U. II ndpoc t' Mor. Bar. tj fipouai 
D, II oOtc At. Aph. Rhi. Q : oiOk ap. Did. 664. ficc* : yp. fi k' J. || Sm 

e^XHicea Dion. Sid. 669. Tuuiccic Z^LQ^: 6X^ceic Z>^Q (?) : tuuu^chic . . 

6X^CMic O. !: noX^C : noXcTc Zen. (noXOc ? see on B 4). || nap6 nhucIn R. 
660. yp, TkM hk lUr* 6x«i4oac A. 668. TOI : n P, am, Q. 


been almost entirely superseded by the 
familiar opt. in -oc/ii. Both here and in 
8 23 the opt is, however, defensible. 

553. Koi XfHN, ifwst assuredly ; 858, 
etc. For ndpoc with pres. of. A 264, 
36 etc. 

555. On the analogy of e 800 SeLSut fiij 
Sij Tdvra Ock vrffxepria elT€v and the 
regular Attic use we should have ex- 
pected here the past tense of the indie. , 
to express a fear that something has 
already happened. This use of /ii^ with 
indie, however, seems to be a com- 
paratively late development, and there 
is no other case in H. Fear indeed 
naturally refers to something future ; 
when we say 'I fear that a thing has 
happened,' we mean ' I fear that it will 
prove to have happened.' Thus it is 
natural to use the aor. subj. as in E 98, 
538, 2 8 ; see particularly X 455-6-7 
SciSu) fiij di^ . . Slrp-cUf Kai 9t^ fuv Kara- 
TraiJOTfi (see if. and T. § 93, 307-8). The 
neglected F of irapFelTrrfi has led to 
Bentley's Tap4\0rit and other conjectures. 
Brandreth suggests fii^ <re Tapcu^^, fx^ 
TapaFelinfif fi-ff a &f>a (or ai ye) velirrfi, 

559. The fut indic. here gives the 
simplest sense, <bc (lit. 'how') express- 
ing the content of the promise. The 
subj. however is defensible, and is classed 

by Goodwin with X£<r<ro/Aoi 6tw5 (7 19, 
$ 344), ^promising to act taking the 
same constr. as eiUreaXing to act* {M. 
and T. § 359, cf. H, Q, § 285 [2]). 

561. dauji6pnoc seems to mean properly 
one who is under the influence of a Sai/iuv 
or unfavourable divine intelligence ; that 
is, one whose actions are either unac- 
countable or ill-omened. Hence it some- 
times means 'fool' {daifi6vioiy futlytade, 
<f 406), B 200, I 40, N 448, 810, 5 774 ; 
or indicates severe remonstrance, B 190, 
r 399, A 31, Z 326, 521, <r 15, t 71, and 
here (this shade of meaning is hardly 
translatable ; we say colloquially * I am 
indeed surprised at you' or *what 
})os8csses you ') ; or tender remonstrance, 
Z 407, 486, K 472, ^ 166, 174, 264 ; in 
194, ^ 443, it perhaps expresses pity, 
* ill -starred.* (This is Nagelsbaeh's 
explanation, H, T, p. 73.) 6tcai, *you 
are always fancying, supposing,' an 
allusion to dtu in 558. 

562. dn6 •uuoO, far away from my 
good will ; cf. iK Ovfiov ireaieiv ^ 595, 
dxo$6fua S 261. For dwd =far from 
cf. e 213, I 353, 437. 

564. toOto, sc. that of which you 
accuse me. u^XXa, you may be sure it 
is my good pleasure ; cf. the same phrase 
in B 116; so O 46, « 377, <r 19. 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


aXX axeovcra KaOrfao, ifi&i S* iirtTreiOeo fivOcoi, 565 

fJLi^ vv Toi ov ^alcfjuoatv ocol 0€oi eia iv 0\vfiiro>v, 
aaaov I6v0*, ore xiv roi adirrov^ j(€Zpa^ e^e/©." 

w €<f}ar, eSBeiaev Be fioSmi^ irorvm ''Upv* 
KoL p cLKeovaa KaOTJcTo, i^irfvafj^'^aaa (f>L\ov /crjp, 
&j(0rj<rav S dpcL Z&fia Ato9 OeoX OvpavLtove^' 570 

Tolatv S' "H^a^oTO? K\vT0Te')(y7)^ Ijp^ ayopeveiv, 
fiT)Tpl <f>L\,rji eirl ffpa ^epcov, XevKtokevtOL '^Hprji' 
"ij Stf Xoiyta epya rdB* laaerai ouS* er avexTci, 
el S^ a^S) eveKa dvrir&v ipiBaiperov &Se, 
iv Bk OeouTt KoX(oi6v eXavverov ovSe ri 8aiT0<i 575 

iaffXij^ ecraerat i}So9, ewel ret jf^epeiova vcxai. 
fiffrpl S* eyo) irapa^fu, koI avTpji irep voeovarji, 
irarpl (f>lXa}i eirl^pa <f}€peiv)^U, o<f>pa fit) avre 
vecKelrjiac irarijp, favv 8 17/x-Zi/) icuTa Tapani,, 
el irep yap ti €0e\r)ia'cp 'OXu/i7rt09 aaTepoirrfTrjf; 580 

i^ eSecoi/) a'TU(l>e\i^ai • o yiip iroXif <\>epTaTO^ eariv. 

566. dc' In: ddN G. 667. I6n«* A: I^ntc Zen. {U irXiipom) £ust || 

Adrrrouc Ar. ili d^nrouc Aph. (see Ludw.). 669. dlxouca U^ Vr. b. || kni- 

mdipooa DPS Laud. 670. Sx®**^'"' •^'^ Eton. Lips. 672. XcukcdXIncdi 

fipHI : HfUivw ypdipeuf TcnHu6iHi firop Schol. T. 678. yp, Hbn ixl fUXKovros 

J°>, so Eust. £t. Mag. cU, 678. aOnc R. 681. idp^N G(R sujrr.) Cant.; 

cp. 534. II 9^pT«poc Cramer Jn, Far. iii. 109. 

567. doooN I6no', &ri Zriuddoros ypd<f>€i 
iffaov ibi^Te, (suk iari 5^, dXX' dyrl tov 
Iharros. <nryx« ^^ KoX rb dviKdv — Ariston. 
That is, Zenodotos took I6v0* to be for 
I6irr€ in the sense of Idtn-eSf agreeing with 
$eoL His theory was that the dual and 
plural were interchangeable — a theory 
which has been held also by some modern 
philologists, and receives some support 
from several passages in Homer ; see E 
487, 6 74. Anstarchos opposed this view, 
and took iStfd* here for Idvra (sc. ifi^, ace 
after xp^'^y^<^^) '» ^^"f"^ "^^ l6vro% meaning 
that we should have expected a gen. 
absolute, 'when I come near,' as the 
construction "xjpaiffiuaf rivi tivoj ' to 
ward one person off another,' is not 
found elsewnere, though we have xp^- 
iffuiv TUfl Ti (e.g. H 144), which is perhaps 
sufficient analogy. Bentley conj. iaaoif 
USjvj while Diintzer would eject the line 
altogether, ddnrouc: Aristoph. dim-ovi^ 
which is perhaps to be preferred ; it 
will stand for d-irer-Touf, from ^iro;, 

'not to be dealt with or handled,' i.e. 
irresistible. i.<r<rov Uvai = aUack, cf. 1 05. 
572. in\ Apa 9ip€0N, doing kind 
service to his mother ; a very ancient 
phrase, appearing in the Yedic vdram 
bhar, lit. to bring the vxisliea. Ar. read 
ivitipa, as a neut. pi., koX iireKpdrrjirey ri 
^AptffrdpxoVf Kalroi \6yov ovk ix^^^^i 
Schol. A. For S 132 ^pa (pipovres with- 
out ivl is decisive agaiust him ; cf. also 
<f>ip€i.v x^P^^ i'l ^^6 same sense, I 613, 
etc. Frjpa is an ace. singular, root var, 
to choose, desire. 

575. koXcoi6n, din ; cf. B 212 KoXmdv : 
conn, with Kokoi&Sf * the noisy ' jackdaw. 
So KciXovav' Oopv^eiy Hesych. 

576. Td x^pc^Na: cf. 107 rd «ca/cd 
for the use of the article. 

577. napd9HJUu, to advise ; else only in 
aor. (mid.) to prevail upon. 

579. cOn of course goes with rapd^rii, 
not with ij/uy, 

581. It is not necessary to supply any 
apodosis after ef rip /c' edfKrfiai : it is a 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

dXKa av top y iireeaac KaOairTeadai fuiKaKolaiv' 
avriK eireiO* lKoo^ *0\vfnrto<i edaerai f)fiiv^ 

fiffTpl <f}tXrft ip x^^P*' ^^^€4, Kai fiiv irpoaieiire' 585 

" t€t7ui0i, firJT€p ifiTj, koX apd(r)(€o KfjSofievff irep, 

fiTj ere (l>iXrjv wep iovaav ip 6(f>0a\fioZaip IScjfiac 

0€CPOfi€PrjP' t6t€ B ov Ti Sw^aofuu aypvpspo^ irep 

j^paia-fieip* apyaXeo^ yap ^OXvfiinos aPTC<f>€p€a0ai, 

TjBf} yap fjL€ Kal aXXxn aXe^efiepod, prnfiaxara 590 

ph^e TToSo? T€ra/ya>p arro ^rfKov 0e<nreaioio» 

Trap S' VH^P ^^pop/qp, ap/i S' rjeXlcoc KaToZxnni, 

Kamrecrov ip A'qfipcov, oXiyo^ B* ere Ovfio^ ivffjep' 

€P0d fi€ f$tipTi€<; apipe^) a<f>ap Kopiaapro Treaopra,^^ 

e&9 (f>dTO, /jLeiBrja-ep Bk 0€h XevKOiXepo^ '^^pV* ^95 

fieiB'qa-acra Be Tra^So? iBe^aro %€t/>l KvireXKop. 

686. XClp) -^i*- Aph. Sosig. Mass. [S] : X'^P^ ^^• 
Did. ii d^ Ti HP Eton. Mosc 3. 694. drmoi G. 

693. Tivis kc XAjunon 

supposition made interjectionally, *only 
suppose he should will to drive us 
away ! ' Bentley's <m;^X^ei, to supply 
the apodosis, is far weaker. Cf. <l> 567, 
<f> 261. Brandreth writes (rrv<f>€\L^cu, 
6 7* Ap. 

582. Ka«drrrccoai is used here in a 
neutral sense, to address ; and so /8 39, 
K 70 ; but it more generally means to 
attack, revile. Cf. 7 345. 

583. YXaoc elsewhere has H (I 639, T 
178), but d (or rather 17 : fXi/os is found in 
Ionic inscr.) is according to the analogy 
of 'Words which have -eci;s in Attic. 

584. &U9iKuncXXoN, dmible - handled. 
This interpretation, due to Aristarchos, 
is decisively supported by Helbig H. E. 
pp. 358-71. He derives it from ^KxnriKrj, 
conn, with /ci^tt;, JiaruUe, as an Aeolio 
form (cf. Latin capiUus) ; hence an adj. 
Ki/TcX-tos = K&K-iKKoi. The explanation 
of Aristotle, followed by Buttmann and 
others, that it meant *a double cup,' 
i.e. a quasi • cylindrical cup divided in 
the middle by a horizontal partition, 
80 that each end would serve either as 
a foot or a cup, he shows to bo quite 
untenable. The two-handled type is the 
commonest of all forms of drinking-cup 
from the earliest times — Hissarlik and 
Mykenai — till the latest 

590. AXa^ucNGi, to keep him off, ap- 
parently in defence of Hera ; the allusion 
seems to be the same as in 18-24. 

For another different legend of the fall 
of Hephaistos from heaven see 2 395. 

591. Cf. O 23 pirrTOffKOv reraywy drb 
^riXov : TC-Tor-cbN is connected with Lat 

593. LenmoR was sacred to Henhaistos 
on account of what was called the 
' Lemnian Fire ' on Mount Mosychlos. 
This is commonly taken to mean that 
Mosychlos was a volcano. But the 
present state of the island forbids the 
assumption of volcanic agency, and the 
fire was probably only a jet of natural 
gas, such as may have existed for a time 
and then disappeared. (See de Launay 
in liev. Arch, for 1895, pp. 304-25. 
For the references to the Lemnian Fire 
see Jebb on Soph. Phil. 800, and pp. 
242-5. The supposed disappearance of 
the ' volcano * Mosychlos is geologically 
untenable.) The ZLvries are named as 
inhabitants of the island by Hellanikos 
fr. 112, while Thuk. ii. 98, 1 speaks of 
the Z^vrot as a tribe on the coast of 
Thrace. What their connexion may 
have been with the 'Pelasgian' in- 
habitants of Lemnos expelled by Mil- 
tiades about 500 B.C., or with the authors 
of the (Etruscan ?) inscription recently 
discovered on the island, we naturally 
cannot say. 

596. naih6c from her smi ; X^'P^ ^**^^ 
her hand (not * at her son's hand * ; the 
dat is used after 3^^a<r^ai, 87, etc.. 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


avrap 6 roh dXKoiac 0€oi<i ipBi^ia Traaiv 

oliH)j(p€L ykvKif pcKTap, dwo KprjT7Jpo<i a<f>va'aa)p, 

aa/SeoTO^ S* ap iv&pro yeXo)? /jLaKapeaac Oeolaiv, 

«9 tBov "H^atcTTOi/ Sia Sa>fiaTa iroiirvvovra, 600 

e&9 TOT€ p^v irpoirav fjp^p €9 rjeXiov KaraSvpra 
0€uvuvT , ovoe Ti uvfio^ €0€V€TO oa&T09 eiarj^, 
ov pJev <\>6ppA/f^os irepiKaWio^y rjp ej^ 'AttoWwi/, 
Movcrao)]/ 0\ at oeiBop afiec^ofiepac ottI KoXrji. 
avrap iirel Karehv Xap/irpop <f>do^ rjeTdoio, 605 

ol fjL€P KaKK€iopT€<i €^ap oIkopS^ ^KaaTQ<i, 
ff)(i, iKaoTCDi h&p^i iirepiKXvTO^ dp^iytjrjei^ 
"H^^ACTTO^ iroirjaep IBvirjiac irpairiBeaac, 
Z€U9 Be irpo^ OP X^;^09 ^'t 'OXu/x,7rA09 d<rT€po7rrjTi]^, 
€P0a irdpo^ KOipJaff , ore pip ffKvKv^ inrpo^ Udpoi' 610 

€P0a Ka0€vS^ dpaffd^, irapd Be ^va60popo^ ''^PV^ 

698. oInox^ Ar. Aph. Zen. Antim. Argol. Mass. King's : icoNox^ Q : 
cb(i)N0x6ci U. II KpcrrAfMC G. 600. nomNOcoNTa al waaai (Ar. ? see Ludw.). 

60S. o6d' Cn D : o<idi tc G. 603. uhi : xikM A'^ Mosc. 3. 606. of ju^ 

bk KcioNTCC ofh-ta vaaai Did. || &caCTOC : N^cceai Q. 608. nofHCCN IdufHia 

Ar. AL Ambr. : nobiccN dduiHa P Eust. : nobic* clduiH(i)a (and yp. A). 609. 
8n : 8 (oO Sch. T) Zen. Par. e^ (n add. e'^). 610. bcdNO Q Vr. a. 611. iNo' 

ixdacud' Zen. 

but only of persona^ being a strict dot, 
ethicus). For the gen. cf. S 203 Se^dfievoi 
'Peii7S, I 632, A 124, and particularly 
O 305 KOreXkov iS4^T0 ^s d\6xoto. 

597. 6id4bnci, a much disputed word ; 
see note on M 239. Of course it implies 
the Mucky'' direction, whatever that 

598. oInox^ci is applied to ticctar by 
a slight generalisation such as is common 
in fSl languages ; so T 221 t-jrwoi ^vko- 
yJwrrOf naves aedificare, etc. (cf. the 
sailor's Mn Cape Town the tops of the 
houses are all copper-bottomed with 
lead '). 

599. Bentley's 7Aof for r^uc is no 
doubt right here, and similar forms 
should be restored in other passages, 
and so with ipof. The only cases found 
are dat. yikuL it 100, ace. yi\(o or yiKujv 
(read yikw) <t 350, v 8, 346. For ^ftw 
see note on V 442. From this passage 
comes the phrase ' Homeric laughter.' 

603. The absence of a conjunction is 
curious ; cf. obhk fUv in 154. Brandreth 

conj. 01^^ T6, adding * MS. unus o^di yc 
habet ' (?). 

604. Cf. <i> 60 jJMvaai 8* ivv4a iraaai 
dfieifidfievcu drl KoKrjif where, however, 
the mention of nine muses is one of 
many proofs of the later origin of w. 
For djuoBducNai cf. Virgil's aynatU 
alterma Camenae, Ec, iii. 69. 

607. djuifirui^ac, a disputed word, 
generally explained * ambidextrous,' or 
utrinque valiiis artubus instructus^ which 
overlooks the £ict that there is nothing 
in the word to express validis. Probably 
the word really means * with a crooked 
limb on each side' = KvWotroblwv^ from 
a noun ^y&n = crook (cf. yinii in Lexx.). 
This comes to the same as the old der. 
from 7ui6j, 'lame of both feet.' Cf. 
also d/upLyvos N 147, etc. 

611. Kaeciidoo occurs only here in U, 
See note on B 2. 609-11 look very much 
like a rhapsodist's tag for the purpose of 
winding up A in recitation. Note the 
rare neglect of F in {F)^ in 609 {4i Fbv 
Brandreth, iir' iFbv liekker). B 1 
follows 608 quite naturally. 



The second book falls naturally into two parts so markedly distinct that 
most MSB. of the Iliad divide the Catalogue from the rest by a fresh rubric. 
Some, as will be seen, omit it ; but the fact has no critical significance. It 
is due merely to the wish to reduce the cost of copyiug by leaving out 
matter which most purchasers would regard as unreadable. This is clearly 
shewn by the fact that aU mss. retain the prologue 484 - 93, which can 
never have been composed apart from the Catalogue. Leaving the Catalogue 
then for the present, we turn to the first part. 

In the first book we found a marked unity of conception and develop- 
ment, marred at most by a somewhat superficial contradiction in a secondary 
point. With this book the case is very different ; hardly any portion of 
the niad has caused such trouble to the defenders of the unity of composi- 
tion. The opening lines are simple enough ; with a discrepancy even more 
unimportant than that already noticed, the sending of the Dream carries 
on the story of the first book. In order to fulfil his promise to Thetis, 
Zeus proceeds, as a preliminary to the defeat of the Qreeks, to bring them 
into the field against the Trojans. Elated by the dream, as we are led to 
suppose, Agamemnon summons the army — to lead them into battle ? 
Nothing of the sort ; he calls them to assembly, and proposes that they 
shall return to Greece ! The only preparation for this astounding step is 
a most meagre and puzzling account of a council before which he lays his 
dream, and his decision to * tempt ' the army 7) dtfiis fxrrif whatever that 
may mean. The proposal is a disastrous failure ; the temptation is taken 
in earnest as it well might be. We suppose, however, that the chieftains 
being forewarned will at once do as they have been bidden, and step forward 
to stop the incipient rout. Again, nothing of the sort. The council is 
altogether forgotten, and nothing is done till Athene by a special inter- 
position arouses Odysseus to intervene. By her aid he brings all back to 
their places, and the assembly b resumed in a speech from Thersites. This 
speech makes no allusion whatever to the extraordinary events which have 
just taken place, but turns only on the conduct of Agamemnon a fortnight 
before in tcddng Briseis from Achilles, as though this were a matter hardly 
over, and the cause of all the difficulty. When Thersites has been silenced, 
the question of retirement is once more discussed, but in terms which seem 
to imply that the proposal has not come from Agamenmon at all, but from 
his antagonist Thersites. Finally, Agamemnon sums up the debate in 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 47 

brave words which are chiefly remarkable for the fact that they do not 
shew the least consciousness, much less contain any explanation, of the 
diametrically opposite tone which the king of men had employed when last 
on his feet 

How, then, are we to explain this wonderful medley of inconsistent and 
self-contradictory motives? The conclusion seems inevitable that we have 
a fusion of two quite different continuations of the first book. The Dream 
is the continuation of the promise of Zeus to Thetis. It is followed by the 
description of the arming of the host for battle, by the triumphant career 
of Agamemnon, and the sudden peripeteia in A. Head in order B 1-50, 
443—83, and then go on with A 56 ff., and you have a narrative masterly 
in conception and smooth in execution. 

But there must have been an alternative continuation of the story from 
the point where Agamemnon and Achilles parted in anger in A. In this 
version the immediate consequence of the quarrel of the chiefs was, naturally 
enough, an assembly called to consider the altered state of affairs. On the 
meeting of the army Thersites, before any one else can speak, rises and attacks 
Agamemnon for his lustful greed in terms strictly appropriate to the occasion ; 
87-99 were immediately followed by 212-42. It is Thersites who proposes 
flight, and breaks up the assembly ; 242 was originally followed by 142- 
210 (143 and 193-4 we shall presently account for). By divine suggestion 
Odysseus stays the rout, and when the assembly is again collected replies to 
Thersites; 244-399 follow 210 with the change of a word or two, e.g. 
Bcpcrm^i 6c fidk' J>Ka TrapUrraTo kt\. We have now got a consistent scene 
in the assembly. There is no longer anything surprising in the tone which 
Agamemnon adopts in 370-93, and the famous words of Odysseus in 203-5 
gain a fresh significance. As the book stands, there has been no iroXvKOLpavu) 
at all, the army has but obeyed the commander-in-chief. But if Thersites 
has taken the word out of his mouth and made the proposal which the host 
adopts, then indeed it is time to say that * one must be king.' 

So far, then, we have found two continuations of the tale of the quarrel, 
consistent in themselves, but irreconcilable with one another. But as the 
Iliad crystallized, and had to be reduced into one official form for public 
recitation, it became needful either to sacrifice one of the versions, or to weld 
them together perforce. Happily for us, the latter course was adopted. The 
' diaskeuast ' hit upon the ingenious device of the * temptation.' Nothing short 
of such an extreme device could have served him. He set to work by borrow- 
ing the speech of Agamemnon in I 17-28 ( = B 110-8, 139-141), where the 
situation was somewhat similar ; he expanded it by adding 119-38, which 
are a clever suggestion that the proposal was not in earnest, because the 
natural conclusion from the numerical superiority of the Greeks is that they 
should fight it out. With this expanded speech he made Agamemnon open 
the assembly, transferring that of Thersites to its present place, immediately 
preceding the reply of Odysseus. He introduced further the preparatory 
idea of the temptation in the council, while shewing us, in the anxious 
repetition of the superfluous and suppression of the essential, the straits to 
which he was reduced. It was hopeless to attempt to make the idea of the 
temptation probable ; he took the best course in suggesting it in the fewest 
possible words, and trusting to the excellence of the material he was welding 


to cover the gaping imperfection of the joints. His work might just pas6 
muster with hearers who had been trained to acquiesce in the inequalities of 
a growing Epos. We who read must shut our eyes now and then, to open 
them again as soon as the ring of the true metal calls our attention to the 
splendid narrative and characterization which are at the bottom of the 
expansion of the Menis into the Iliad, 

This hypothesis, which is largely founded on Erhardt's analysis, is but 
one out of many which have been suggested in order to bring order into 
the present chaos. It is violent ; but no gentle measures will suffice. 
Whether it be approximately right or wholly wrong, the important thing 
to notice is that the present state of the book can hardly be explained as 
the result of natural growth and gradual interpolation of a ^Volksepos.' 
We seem to have before us the work of an arranger, working with a definite 
literary aim on the fusion of most intractable materials. We shall in some 
of the later books come on similar phenomena, though in a less aggravated 
form. In these phenomena lies the strongest internal evidence for such a 
deliberate official arrangement as that commonly ascribed to Peisistratos. 
Further indications of an Attic influence at work upon the book will be 
found in the notes. 


6Napoc dkmapa. 

tXXoL fiev pa Oeoi re koI avepes iTnroKopvoTal 
viov irapvv^tot, Aia B* ovk €^€v rjSvfio<; vttpo^;, 
IXX' o ye fjL€p/j,i]pL^€ Kara <f}p€va, a>9 'A^iX^a 
rifiijarjL, oXearjc Be iroX^a^ cttI vrfvalp *A^cud)i/. 

. fiXXm : Zeu. &XX01. 2. ixcN ftduJUMC yp,J,Titfis Eust.: Xx< Niidujuoc Ar. 


3. 6 re : 6dc C. 4. tuu^cmi Nikanor Q : tiui^cmi AT. l| 6XlcHi Q : 


Ml T (nuika' ciKTuc^ t6 di 6kian inroroKTiKSv Schol. AT). || noX^C : noXOc 
(MS. noXik). Cf. A 559. 

There is a slight inconsistency 
eeu this line and A 611, which it 
been proposed to avoid by takine 
to mean 'did not ke^p hold' all 
t long ; i.e. Zeus awoke after going 
leep. Hut Ix^ implies only the 
$nce of sleep (cf. 4^ 815), and this 
aan't sense cannot be read into it in 
Absence of fuller expression. After 
sleep ' and * pass the night ' are 
changeable expressions in A 611, cf. 
[lae of Icukiy (note on I 825). It is 
T either to assume that A 609-11 
f the nature of a movable tag (see 
note there), or to admit sucli a 
I inconsistency as would hardly be 
ed at a point which forms a natural 
I in the narrative. K 1-4 follows 
I in precisely the same manner, but 
x>ntradiction there is insignificant 
note), and in any case i)rovcs 
ing, in view of the doubts as to 
Msition of K in the original poem. 
AduJioc MBS. give viffivfioSf a word 
ti has never Men satisfactorily ex- 
ed, and no doubt arose, as Huttmann 
from the adhesion of the ¥ which, 
ven cases out of the twelve where 
mrs, ends the preceding word ; a 
smenon which may be paralleled in 
Ah, e.g. a fUeknatM for an ekenavu^ 
'« from mine uncle (Fr. taiUe from 

ta ante), a newt for an ewt (other in- 
stances in Skeat's Dictwnarjf under N, 
and Wordsworth J. P, v. 95. So in 
mod. Greek 6 ydySpas from rbtf dvSpa). 
IjSvfioi itself was in use as a poetical 
word in much later times ; the scholia 
quote Simonides and Antimachos as 
employing it, and Hesiod, £pichanno6, 
ana Alkman are attested by others. It 
is also in the Hymns, Merc. 241, 449 ; 
xix. 16. MS. evidence for it will be 
found (for what it is worth) also in b 793, 
/i 311. It is used by Ap. Rhod. (ii. 407), 
and "AJbvtuK occurs as a proper name in 
an inscr. from Phthiotis (Collitz 1470). 
Ar. read vfiBviMi, it maybe presumed, 
because of the hiatus in II 454, ^ 366, 
v 79 ; of course he could not know that 
FiffSufiot began with F, There is no inde- 
pendent evidence for the form tr/iSvfios, 
except Hymn. Ven. 172. For the form 
^u/iof by ^5iJf cf. /cdXXt/xos by /caX6f, 
^HxLSifjLOi by 4>aidp6s (van L. Undi. 
p. 162 n.), and numerous cases of 
adjectives formed from other adjectives 
by secondary suffixes without apparent 
differences of meaning, <pcu8iix6€is, 0tj\6- 
T€poSy etc. etc. 

4. It would be easy here to read 
ri/bii^<rei' with the edd., did not this 
involve 6X^<rai, with the rare term, -ai 
(A 255, H 129, 180, M 384, T 81 are the 


50 lAIAAOC B (ii) 

rjSe Bi oi Kara Ovfiov dpiairrf (f>aip€TO /3ov\i^, 
irifi'y^aL eir ^ATp€tBr}L ^ Ayafi€fivopt oxikov oveipov 
zeal fiiv (\>(ovrjaas eirea irrepoeina irpoarjvSa' 
" ^da-K to I, ovXje ov€ip€, 0od<; eirl vr]a<; *Aj(ai&v, 
ikOoiv €9 KXiairfv Ayafi€fipovo<i ^ArpetSao 
iravra fioiTC arpeKia)^ arfopevifiep, w iirireWo). 
Omprj^al € xiXeve Kaprj tco^fopra^ ^Aj(cuoif<i 
iravavSirji* vvv yap Kev eKot ttoTuv evpvwyviav 
Tpaxov oi yap er afj^l^ OXvfnrui SdfiaT €j^oi/t€9 
dOdvaroc (fypd^ovrai* hriyvafiA^ev yap diravTa<i 
''Uprj Xtaaofiivrf, Tpdeaai Se ^iJSe' iffnJTrrai,^* 

w? <f)dro, ^rj S* ap* oveipo^, hreX top fwOov aKovae' 
KapiraXifio}^ S' iKave Ood^ iirl vrja^ ^A^atoii/. 
^^ S' ap* iir ^ArpetBrjv ^ Ay a fiifivova' rov S' iKiyayey ^ 
evhovT iv KXiairfi, irepl S' djifipoa-co^ #c€j^u^' vTrvo<i, 

6. drpddHN drcuUuNONa 6S. 9. Ic : b' kc CGS Laud. Vr. a. 10. In 

T^XXcD : dropcOw P. 12. naccudiH GJLS Harl. a. || ^oi Zen. O : XXm G 

lEXoic Ar. (?). 14. ln^rNaipc(N) C^DVKTV Lips. 16. Tpdbcca . . Ifftrmii 
didoucN bi of cOxoc dp^ceai Aristot. Foct, 25, Soph. El, 4 (cf. <l> 297). 


only clear cases in IL ; see van L. Ench, 
p. 291). On the other hand, the subj. 
after the historic tense is equally rare 
in H. though so common later \M. and T. 
§§ 318-20, and particularly H. G. § 298). 
A precisely similar question arises in 
II 646-50, q.v. As between Tifi-ffatn.^ 
-€(, -ei', MS. authority is nt7, but with 
iiKiaat. and 6X^<n7i it counts for some- 
thing. See also A 558-60, which has, 
of course, had an influence on the present 
passage, only it seems impossible to say 
whether it was on the mind of the poet 
or of later copyists. In spite of its 
rarity in H. the subj. (or fut. ?) is a 
very natural and vivid way of repre- 
senting what is passing through the 
mind of Zeus. The form irokvi here 
attributed to Zen. is etymologically 
correct (for roXwy, H, G. § 100), and is 
probably preferable in all cases to ToKtii 
or ToXeaf. 

6. oOXoN, bamfvl, as E 461, 717, 
<l> 536. It is presumably conn, with 
6XXi;^u (for S\-voi ?). Cf. oifXtos A 62 n. 
It appears to be only the particular 
dream which is personified ; there is no 
trace in Homer of a separate Dream- 

8. To avoid the hUUus illicit U8 we 
may with Lange and Nal)er read o^\o^ 

6v€ip€, cf. A 189 ipikos & MeyiXac, B. C 
§ 164 (OSLffffov conj. Bentley). 
' 13. djuiffc. Oil two sideSf i.e. divide 
in counsel ; N 345. 

15. I^Arrrcn, lit *are fastened upo 
the Trojaus,' i.e. hang over their head 
So Z 241, H 402, 4> 513. The variai 
form of the end of the line twice give 
by Aristotle (see App. Crit.) is not 
worthy in its bearing on the significaoi 
of ancient quotations, as it is certain) 
not a lapse of memory. It appears froi 
what he says that critics were offende 
by the downright lie put into Zeus* mout 
by the word Hboiiev^ and that Hippias < 
Thasos ' solved the problem ' by readio 
bibbujev, iriiin. for imper., thus leavio 
the actual falsehood to the dream. 

19. djuJ3p6cioQ froffrarU, as sleep 

commonly called 7Xi;«ci;s, besides beii 

^^vfjLOi and ^i€\l(f>pav in the compass of 

few lines. So vb^ dftppoalrj, because 

gives men sleep, or perhaps because < 

the peculiar fragrance of a still war 

night. Verrall has shewn that the id( 

of ftagranct is always suitable to tl 

use of dfi^pSffioif while there is no cle. 

I instance of its meaning immortal onl 

lit is probably not a pure Greek woi 

Ut all, but borrowed from the Semit 

•umbar, ambergris, the famous perfun 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


a-TTj S' a/>' inrep K€<f>a\rj^ NrfXrfttoi vU ioiKW 
^ioTopc, Tov pa fidXiaTa yepovrcov rf^ ^AyafjUptpcop* 
T&t fitv ieLcdfievo^ irpoa^^wveev ovko^ oveipo^' 
** et/Sci?, 'At/3€09 vlk hat^povo^ linroBdfJLOco ; 
ov ')(pr) iravvvyjiov evSeiv j3ov\r}<f>6pov avSpi, 
&1 XclqL r e7rcT€TpMf>aTai koX Toa-aa fiifJtfXe. 
vvv S* ifieOev fui/e? &Ka' Ato9 Se tov 0776X09 elfu, 
09 a€v avevOev ioav p>eya fcqBerai 178' ikeaipec, 
0a}p7J^al <T ixiKeva-e Kaptf KOfioaovTa^ 'A^atov? 
irai/cvSifji' vvv yap Kev eXo49 irokiv eipvdyvcav 
Tpiowv ov ycLp €T afKpls^ ^OXvfnna idfiar e)(pvT€^ 
adavaroc (f>pd^ovTaf hreyvafi'^ev yap airavra^ 
fiprj Xcaaofiijnf, Tp^ecai Sk K'qBe^ iifyfjirrai 
iK A&09. dXXi ,av aijurtv e)(€ <f>p€aL, fj/rjSi ae XtjOt) 
aipeiTco, €VT av ae fieXi^peov virvo^ dj/ifrjiJ** 

o>9 apa <f>Qyvi](ra<i aTrejS'qaero, rov Si \nr avrov 
rd <f>pov€OVT dvd Ovfiov, a p ov reXeeaOac SfieWov, 
<f)i] ydp o y aiprjaeLV Tlpidfiov iroTuv fifiart Kelvtoi, 





22. npoCie^NCCN o&Xoc A supr, (T.W.A.) Par. d, Mosc. 2 and yp. J : npoc- 
C90MICC •<To9/ Q. 28. drp^Koc CZX>QR Mosc. 1. 26. T <mi, L. 27 d0. 

At. 28. yc' iK^cuc HT Lips. : cc k^cuc D, 29. noGCudlH GJLS. 81. 

ttimip^My n?RTU Harl. a. 84. ANfM P^ Vr. h, A : dNi^co Q. 85. dn- 

cBlkcTO ALC^T Mosc. 1 2 : AncBi^corro Q. 86. a {oi,i. fi') G. || lucXXoN Ar. G : 
hiMKX{€)Mlzeji. 0. 87. npidjuu>io IT. 

to whicjti Oriental nations assign mythical 
ous properties, so that d^poala 
huy£aken the place of the old Aryan 
j^/ia. A/i^paroSf though in some of 
Tts uses it undoubtedly means imynortal, 
ill others is a synonym of dfjippdaiost the 
two senses being thus from different 
sources and only accidentally coincident 
iu sound {0 365 A^Pp- f^cuov, e 347 
KpiiBiiufoVy n 670 ef/iara, X 330 vt>( 
AiJiPpoTOif and S 78 fi)^ d^pdrrj = yi>^ 
dfi^pociri). That the epithets are chiefly 
restrict^ to divine objects is clearly the 
result of popular etymology. 

20. NnXnTwi uTi, an unusual expres- 
sion, with which we may compare 
TeXafubvu TaT Soph. Aj, 134. So also 
X 67. 

21. rcp6NT0M«, members of the royal 
council, without regard to age ; see 53. 
Young men like Diomedes and Achilles 
belonged to the council. 

22. JuuN is of course ace after wpoae- 

(pwyec. odXoc is preferable to OttoSt which 
iu the II. retains the original scansion 
Oii'oSf Set- being always in thesis, cf. 41, 
56 {"P 689 is no exception), but BeToi 
doiSit is common in Od. 

27. This line occurs in (2 174, and was 
rejected bv Aristarchos here and 64, as 
the 'pity seems out of place, ecu is 
gen. after K-j^derat, not dvcvOev. <re is of 
course to be supplied to ^Xca/pei, from 

33. It is not usual for Homeric 
messengers to exceed the words of their 
message. In 9 423-4 a similar addition 
is suspected for other reasons. 

36. XucXXoN : so Ar. for ffieWt, He 
preferred the plural wherever the choice 
was possible, relying on passages such as 
B 135, H 6, 102, and others, where the 
verb cannot be in the singular. As the 
tendency of corruption would bo towards 
the more familiar idiom, he is no doubt 


lAlAACX: B (u) 

vrfTTi^fit oxfhk ra ijiBrj, a pa Zev? fi^Bero epya* 
driaeiti y^p er efieXKev hr aXryed re <rTOva')(a<i re 
Tptoai re xal AavcLotcrc Sta xparepa^ vafiiva^. 
eypero S' ef irirvov, deirj Be fup ap^')(yT 6fKf>i^. 
e^ero S' opOtoGeL^, ftaXoKov S* hfhvve ^tr&pa 
KoXop vrjydreov, yrepl Be pAya /3dXXeT0 <f>dpo<;' 
TToaal B* inro luirapolai^v eBrfaaro KcCKk ireBCKa, 
dpj^l S' ap &pai<nv jSoKero ^i<l>o^ apyvporjXov 
eikero Bi a/crJTrrpop irarpoHOVy a^dirov otet* 
ainf rm e^ri xarcL vrja^ *A^ai&v ^aTsjco^trdvtov. 

'Ha)9 p>€v pa decL irpocre^rjaero puKpov "OXvp.irov 
Zrjvl ^00)9 ipeovcra Kal aWoi^ oAtpdrotcrLV 
avrap o Kfipyxeaat Xiyv<l>0oyyoiai tci^^vcre 
KTjpvaaetv dr/opijvBe xapr) KopJxovra^ 'A^Yatou?' 
oi p£P i/CTJpvaaov, rol S* rjyelpovro p,dX* (^o,, 

fiovktfv Bk irp&Tov p^eyadv/jLtov Ife yep6vT6^ 


38. T^: T^i ^' J (yp. oOdi T^i). il Add />iJQS Mor. i| p^> t» ^ Mor 
40. h\h : yp. Korb J. 43. bi : B* aO P Harl. a d, Par. a (i7v««.) k tp- 

44. Onal GJPQR^ (altered to 0n6) and ap. Eust. || Oncdi^ccrro Q. K n^MXa . 
48. npoccBikorro CZ)HJPQRU : npoccBi^GCorro G. 49. 96COC : jt^oc G. 

k^cuc(n) CZX^JRST. 63. 6ouXJ^N Zen., al KOival, 0: BouX^ A^T' -^I'^*' 
BouXjin) and yp. Par. a. 

40. M, either through the whole course 
of battles, as we find did yi/«rra in a 
temporal sense; or better by jneana of, 
like fjy did itavTocivifiv A 72, did /li^iv 
'A<^i75 K 497, battles being Zeus' 
instrument for working his will. 

41. Ajuif^UTO, surrounded hiui, i.e. 
rang in his ears. 6juai) in Homer is 
always accompanied either with Otlrj or 

43. NMrdrrcoN occurs only here and Z 
185 in a similar phrase. The exact 
meaning of the wonl is doubtful ; it is 
generally derived from vios and 7a- for 
7(e)y* of yiyvo/xoUf as meaning * newly 
produced ' ; but it may be questioned 
whether the root y€P- is ever employed to 
express the production of manufactured 
objects, and verj- from tfiFo- never 
coalesces to rr}-, least of all in a genuine 
Homeric word. A derivation now widely 
accepted is that of Schmalfeld from 
Skt stiihf oUedf and thus shiuitig ; cf. 
note on S 596. Monro {J, P. xi. 61) 
refers it to a subst *vTjyap from *io>7w, 
related to viu to spin^ ns Tfi-tfy<a to rifivta 
(Tfic). Thus vyrY^r€Oi = of spun work. 

Goebel derives from vri- ^ priv 
dyoTcur^ot = ^XdTTeaBai (Ht-sycl 
the sense integer, fresh, ikpt 
Similarly Diintzer refers it to\rc 
of Ayot = pollution, as meanii 
defileid.' f^poc, the luxuriouS 
robe of royalty, not the common 
of wool. Cf. note on 8 221. 

45. dprup6MXoN : cf. notes on 
and A 29, where the same (?) swoi 
nails of gold. The discrepancy 
hardly deserve mention were it n 
occasion for the excellent remark 
rd TdavTa Kvplon oil X^crat, dXA 
ixupopdp iari xonrriKiji dpccKelas. 

46. fi9«rroN, as the work of 
(see 1. 101) and the symbol of a 

49. dptouoa, heralding the appro 
light ; so "ir 226 'Ettxnpdpos eun if>6fa\ 
ixl Tcuoy. 

53. For BouXi^N of Zenod. and 
Aristarchos read /SouXi^, taking Ij^c 
transitive, as is usual in Homer ( 
96 and 792). The transitive use 
]>resent stem appears to recur oi 
n 553. The /3ovXi^ was comi)ose< 

lAlAACX: B (II) 




Ne<rTO/0€7?t irapcL vrji TlvXotyeveo^ fiaaiXijo^, 

Toif^ o ye auyKoKeaa^ irvKi^vrjv rjpTVveTO I3ov\i]P' 

'' k\vt€, <f>i\oi' deto^ fioi ivinrvLov fjXdev oveipo^ 

dfi/Spoaifjv BicL vvKTa, fidXiara Be ^earopc Bicoi 

eI8o9 T€ fieyeOo^ re <f>v'qv t ay^i^ara idt/cet. 

ari] S' ap^ xnrep Ke^aXri^, /cat fie tt/oo? fivdov eeiirev 

' evBei^, ' At^€09 vie Sat<f>povo^ iinrohdixoLO ; 

ov ^(pr) iravvv^iov evZeiv fiov\rj<f}6pov avSpa, 

&i XaoL T €7nT€Tpd<f>aTat teal roaaa fiefirfKe, 

vifv K epiOev fwe? w/ca* Aio? he rot ayyeXo^ elfic, 

09 (rev avevOev icbv fiiya fcqSercu rjB iXeaipei' 

Ofoprj^ai a ixeXevae xaprj /cofiotovra^ Aj(cuov^ 

iravavBlijf vvv yap k€v ?\ot9 ttoXlv evpvdyvcav 

Tpaxov ov ykp'h^ dfuf)!^ 'OXu/iTrta ScofuiT e^opre^ 

dOdvarot <f>pd^ovTai' i'rreyvafiy^ev yap diravras 

"UpV Xiaaofievr), Tp(0€acri Be x'^Be^ €<f>ri7rTai, 

€K At09. aXXA aif aijiaiv €j(€ <f>p€aip.^ w 6 fiev etTroji/ 70 

&i')(€T diroTrrdfMevo^, i/Jik Bk yXvxif^ inrvo^ dvrJKev, 

aXX' ayer , at xev irto^ dtoptj^op^ev vla^ 'Aj^atcSi/. 

TTp&ra B iycbp erreaip Trei^pijaofiai, fj Oifit^ iari, 


S4. N«crof>bi(i) GHURS. || nuXoircN^OC (Ar. ?•) [AjH^^U (in ras.) : nuXiircN^oc 
Q. 05. aOrdp ^nd p' ftrcpecN AuMrcp^cc t' Mnonto, toTq b' dmcTducNOC 

ucri9H KpciooN droJUi^uNQON Zen. 66. a^oN Zen. || ^NOnmoc D. 68. [cTd6c] 
TC : T* oC PR. 60-70 contracted by Zen. into fmtism oc nor^p Oipfizuroc aie^i 
HokoM Tpcod uaxiicciceai npori TXion. &c 6 xikn cind>N kt\. 60. drp^uc CDQ. 
62. t' om. L. 64 dS, Ar. 66. c* 6c^cuc HT Lips, (and A"*, T.W.A-) : cc 

Kikmi€'D. 66. noGCudfiH GJLS. 68. te6^cn|fc(N) Z>PRTU. 72. brtri k^n 
Q. 73. irodr' S. || nopdcouoi H. 




small number of the most important 
chiefs (yipwTCi) specially summoned ; 
see note on 194. 

54. N«crop6« = y^aropoi, as yriXrjtujt, 

20 : for the addition of the gen. cf. 

opytlri KC^Xii detvoio X€\<Afpov E 741. 

reason is given for the meeting at 

estor's ship, as though it were a matter 

i course ; we should have expected to 

nd Agamemnon's ship — or nut — the 

eeting-place of his council. 

56 = ^ 495. ^NiirmioN, which does not 

ar in Homer, is an adverbial neut. of 

e adj. iv&irviot (like IjXOop ivaiaiyiov 

519), and is so found in Ar. Vesp. 1218 

to9 iffTithfieOa, Compare the Attic 

of 5rap. In later Greek, however, 

ior was generally used as a sub- 

stantive, and accordingly Zenod. read 
Setoy here. 

57. JUL^icra — firxicra : rather tauto- 
logical, though the two words do not 
perhaps mean exactly the same ; fjidXicra 
= to Nestor more than to any otheVy 
&yxt<rra = very closely resembled. But 
58 = ^ 152, and has probably been 
adopted by the interpolator without 
due care. For 9U1) cf. A 115. 

60-70. The third repetition of the 
message is really too much ; Zen. had 
good reason for condensing it into two 

73. The idea of tempting the army has 
been compared with a similar story told 
of Cortes ; a proposal on his part to 
return was made merely to excite the 


lAlAACX: B (ii) 

KoX <f>€vy€iv (TXfv prjval iroKuKK/qlaL KeT^vaui* 
vfiel^ S' dWodev aXXo^ iprjrveiv eVeeo'O'Ai/.'* 

ri Toi o 7 0)9 eiTTcov /car ap e^ero, roiai o avearrj 
Ne(rra)/), 09 /ia JIvKjoio ava^ Tjv rjfLaOoevTo^* 
o cr<f>tp Of <f>poP€(DP arfopriaaTO Kal fiereet/irev 
** & if>Ckoi, ^ApyeuDV fffriTope<; fihe fUiovre^, 
el fiev Tt9 TOP opeipop ^A^at&p aXKo^ epcawe, 
y^evBo^ K€P if>a2fjL€P koX pocr<f>t^oifi€0a /jlSXXop' 
pvp S' iSep S9 fiey apiaro^ ^Aj^a4,&p €vj(€Ta4, elpai. 
aXX' wycT, at xip ttw? Ocoprj^ofiep vta^ 'Aj^oiwi/." 

ft)9 apa <l)(OPi]cra<; /3ov\r]^ i^ ^PX^ piecrOai, 
oi S* eirapeoTTjcrap ireLOopro re iroifiepi Xa&p 
crKfjTTTouxpt jScuriKfje^' eireaaevopro Be \aoL 
Tivre eOpea elai fieXiaadayp aSiPouop, 

74. KcXoko £t Mag. 518, 44. 76-83 dS. Ar. 78. 5 : ek GPQ. 

6X«^N : h*\ crpcrr^ PQR Par. a f (cf. A 91). 83. fircr^ k6« rKoc Q. 
Tivis ncm^cTHcaN ypd<f>ovffi, Ijroi xdPT€t dpOol iarjioav Eust. 





npirits of his followers, and met with 
complete success. A e^c icri, as 
I he words stand, can only apply to the 
verb x€ifrfiffOfjuUf but it is impossible to 
see how such a temptation can be an 
* established ' or 'rightful custom.' 
It is usual to join them with iyiiwf * it 
is rightful for me as king to do so ' ; 
but this gives a hardly better sense, and 
is against the order. The whole con- 
clusion of the speech can only be ex- 
plained by supposing that the author 
U trying to huV^ over an impo»>ible 
task, suggesting the idea of the temptation 
in wonu whose exact bearing is to be 
forgotten as quickly as possible. 

75. To ipHTOciN the scholia supply 
ifji^ as object ; but the words hardly 
admit of any other object than 'Axaux's. 

81. 9aTjuUb« kcn is potential, *we 
might deem it a delusion.' Homeric 
usage permits us to translate 'we should 
have said ' ; but the phrase ' belongs 
to the borderland between past and 
future conclusions,' AT. and T, § 442. 
NoofizoLuceo, hold aloof from the plans 
founded on it 

82. The idea clearly is that the supreme 
king has an innate right to communica- 
tions from heaven on behalf of the 
people at large. Nestor's silence with 
respect to Agamemnon's last proposition 
may perhaps be explained as due to dis- 
approval of a resolution which he sees 

it is useless to resist. But the speech is 
singularly jejune and unlike the usual 
style of Nestor ; L 82 seems much more 
in place in 222 ; and Aristarchos re- 
jected 76-83 entirely, on the ground that 
it was for Agamemnon and not for Nestor 
to lead the way out from the coancil. 

87. ddufdoMi (or, as Aristarchos seems, 
from a scholium of Herodianos on this 
passage, to have written the word, d^i- 
vduv), busy. The word seems to express 
originally quick restless motion, and 
is thus applied to the heart (II 481, 
r 516), to sheep (a 92, d 820), and to 
flies (B 469) ; then to vehemence of 
grief (4^ 225, ot 317, and often), and to 
the passionate song of the Sirens (^ 326). 
According to the explanation of Uie 
ancients, adopted by Battmann, the 
primary sense is dense ; but this 
gives a much less satisfactory chain of 
significations. It is then particnlarly 
hard to explain the application of Uie 
word to the heart ; few will be 
thoroughly satisfied with the snppoai- 
tion that it means 'composed of dense 
fibres,' while a more probable epithet 
than ' busy ' or * beating ' coula not 
be found. 

It may be noticed that both I ti nn 
cTa (which Bentley emended idwe* taun) 
and oi d^ TC Xnoo (1. 90 : oX ^ koX ivBo. 
Brandr.) are cases of hiatus iUieUui; 
i.e. they occur at points where there is 

lAlAACX: B (ii) 


Trirprj^ etc y}uul>vpr]^ otei v€OV ip'x^0fjL€vd(OP' 

/3oTpvBbp Be 'jrcTOVTCu iw avdeaiv elapivoiaiw 

al fi€V T evda SlKl^ ir^iroTrjarai,, ai Si re evda' 90 

0)9 T&v e6v€a TToXXA ve&v ano xal /cXicridayv 

rilovo^ irpoTrdpoiOe fiaOeirj^ iaTi)(p(OPTO 

tXaBov 6t9 ar/op^P' fiercL 84 a<f>unv 6aaa iehriu 

orpvvova lipai, Ato? 0776X09 • oi S' ar/ipopro. 

T€Tp'^€i S' arfoprj, xnro ii crrepa^i^ero yala 95 

Xatop L^opTtop, OfLabo<; 6 tip, eppea be aipea^ 

KrjpvKe^ y3ooa)i/T€9 iprfruop, el ttot dvTri<; 

ayolaT y oKovaeuLP Bi hioTpeif>e(op jSaaiXi^cop, 

oTTOvB^i S' ?feTo 'Kao^, eprjTvdep hi Ka0* ihpa<; 

Travcrdfiepoi /ckayyrj^. dpcL Bi /cpeiayp ^Ayafiifipcop 100 

eoTT) a/c^TTTpop €j((OP' TO /Jiip '*}i<f>aiaTO^ xdfie rev^tap, 

''H<^atoT'09 fJi^P S&Ke Au Kpopiaopi dpa/crc, 

avrap apa Zeif^ B&/ce Sia/croptoi dpyel<f>6pT7)i' 

88. dd T. II dpxoJUCNdQON J. 89. BoTpud6N tc QR. 96. CTCNax^zCTO 

ARU: croHdxizcTO 0. 96. omc C6. 98. dioTp09^N GJ. 99. kpikrvoM 

PQR (7p. lpifm39€H R>"). II Koe^pac C/X^HJPQRT. 100. xXancAc Q. 103. 
dmcTOpi Pap. ^\ \\ 6prm^6HTl Q. 

no caesura nor any tendency to a break 
in the line which might account for 
them. Of the fifty-three cases of such 
hiatus in Homer, twenty-three occur at 
the end of the second foot, and twenty- 
one in or at the end of the fifth ; six 
are found in the first, two in the third, 
and only one in the fourth. Of the 
twenty-one in the fifth foot, all are in 
the trochaic caesura except this, A 678 
(=^ 100), N 22, g 285, 358, 2 4, e 257, 
t 553, K 68. (See note on 2 4.) A com- 
plete list will be found in Knos De 
digafnmo ffomerico p. 47. The hiatus 
is legitimate if found (1) in the trochaic 
caesura of the third foot ; (2) in the 
bucolic diaeresis ; (3) at the end of the 
first foot, though this is much rarer than 
the other two, and is perhaps only per- 
missible when coinciding witn a pause in 
the sense ; van L. Ench. pp. 77-78. See 
alao note on 105. (In reckoning cases of 
hiatus Knos omits genitives in -ao and 
-oM, which in his opinion do not suffer 
elision, and words like repf , rt, and others, 
which certainly do not. ) 

88. N^ON, 'in fresh relays,* as A 332, 

89. 6oTpud6N naturally reminds us of 
the settling of a new swarm of bees. 

hanging down in a solid mass like a 
bunch of grapes. But HvOcciv rather 
indicates that no more is meant than 
the thronging of them upon the flowers 
in the eager search for honey. 

90. ttXic is here used in its primary 
sense, in throngs^ from ffX, squeeze 
(f eiXftv, d - oXX - ^e?, etc. ) ; it is thus 
almost identical with IKabbv^ 1. 93. 

93. dcdi^o : this metaphor is a favourite 
one with Homer, especially of battle (cf. 

Z 1, and the word 6at$) ; it is applied 
even to olfKoyifi in v 353. For the per- 
sonification of 6coa, Jieave7i-se)U runwur^ 
cf. ii) 413, and see Buttmann LexU. s.v. 

95. TCTpi^x^ plpf' intrans., from ra- 
pdffffu). The form recurs in H 346. 

99. cnoudAi, *with trouble,* a pciiie^ 
liardly. So E 893, A 562, w 119, etc. 

103. diaicrbpoM dprcY96NTHi : these 
names of Hermes are obscure. The 
former perhaps means *the runner,* 
from d(a«r-, a lengthened form of di-a-, 
root 2i to ruUf whence also dtuJK-(a : cf. 
SidKovos. ' Apy€i'<f>6vT7js is traditionally 
explained slayer of Argos ; but the 
legend implied is evidently later than H. 
and may have arisen from the name 
itself. Even in ancient times an 


lAlAACX: B (ii) 

avrhp avre HeXcyi/r Z&k ^Arpu iroi^fievi Xa&v 

^Arpev^ Se Ovinia fccov eKiirev iroXvapvi ^v€<m}i, 

avrap 6 aJne ^v€<tt ^ Ayafiifivovi XeiTre <f>opr]vai, 

TToW-fjiacp v7]aoiai koI ''Apyel iravrX avdaaeiv. 

.TWA o 7 ipeiadfievo^ eire ^Apyeioia-t fieTrfvBa* 

** & <f>L\oi 7]p€i)€^ Aavaoi, depairome^ "A/wyo?, 

Zeu9 /x€ fieya^ KpoviBrj^ aTqi, iviBi^cre /3ap€irji, 

(tj^ctXao?, §9 TTplp fUv fjLOi v7r€<Ty(€To Kol /carivevcrev 

"IXfcoi/ eKirkpaavT ivrei'^^eov awovieaffod,, 

vvv he KatcTjv airdTTjv jSovXevaaTO, xai fie xeXevei 

ZvcKkea "Apyo^ ixeadai, eirel iroXvv AXecra Xaop, 

ovrco TTov All fieXXei inrepfievei <f>iXov elvcu, 

09 S^ TToWaroi/ iroXiayv /careXvae /cdpr)Pa 

^S' €Ti Kol Xvaei' Tov yap fcpdro^ earl fieyiOTov. 




106. Arp^' : drp^ Pap. /3. 108. 6m6cxxoh Vr. a\ 110-119 7AiM<mH 

(Tvvriiivei ^ 9{Xoi fipcocc daNooi, ecpdnoifrcc fipHoc. XcbfiH r6p rddc r* kcri Koi 
kocoxxitHoici nue^ceai. 111. jui^rac Ar. (see Ludw. i. pp. 66, 205) Par. j and yp. 
Vr. b : u^ra ih 112. xxbi om. Pap. /3. I| Onfq(CTO Q. 114. ta^HN : fiTMN S. 
116. noXiiN : ndirr (?) Pap. /3. 116. 9(XoN cTnoi : xpoNfodNi R. 

alternative dcr. from dpydt and <paiv(o 
was current, and was accepted by Ar., 
in the sense sioifi appearing. For want 
of a better it may pass ; but the et 
and are unaccounted for, the proper 
form being evidently dpyi<pdirni% if any. 
Generally speaking, these mythological 
names are inexplicable to us. (See 
Roscher Lex. i. 2384.) 

105. Notice the hiatus at the end of 
the first foot here and 107 ; there are no 
less than fifteen cases after avrdp 6 in 
this place (van L. Eiich. p. 78). These 
two may be written 6 F (Brandreth), 
and so V 379, * 33, with F ' for f ot. In 
the other eleven cases we can write 8 y* 
or 6i (Brandreth), or admit that the 
hiatus was allowable after 6, which can- 
not be elided. The mh. tradition is 
strongly in favour of the latter choice. 

108. Argos here, from its opposition 
to the islands, can hardly mean less 
than the whole of the mainland over 
which the suzerainty of Agamemnon ex- 
tended. See the remarks of Thucydides, 
i. 9, where he calls this passage the 
ffK-fiirrpov irapddwris. This famous line 
seems to have reached even the Mortc 
d' Arthur — *king he was of all Ireland 
and of many isles,* i. 24. 

111-18 = 1 18-25. juirac: so Ar. 
(ace. to Did. in a most explicit and 
important schol. ; the contradictory 
statement of An. is clearly wrong). 
The adj. is more natural than the adv. 
thus separated from the verb, though 
the latter may be defended by A 78. 

113. The main idea is given by hn- 
n^poofrra : we should say, * that I should 
not return till I had wasted Ilios.' 
The ace. is the regular idiom. (Cf. A 

1 1 5. duacX^, i.e. dwicXe^o), see H, G. 
§ 105, 4. The supposed * hyjihaeresis ' 
in these stems is just as mythical as the 
' syncope ' of irX^av for xXiwat (129). 

116. nou u^XXci, mxist^ it seems, as 
4> 83 fJu^Wu TOV dvcxO^crBai Ail xarpL 
Bekker brackets 116-18, urging that such 
an appeal to Zeus as destroyer of cities 
contradicts what Agamemnon has just 
been saying. This, however, actually 
weakens the passage ; for surely the 
thought that Zeus has so often 'over- 
thrown fenced cities* heightens the 
bitterness of the Anj which Agamemnon 
says has come upon him. For KdpHMa 
usetl of cities compare the frequent 
epithet cinrriipayoi. 

lAlAACX: B (ii) 


ala'xpov yap roBe 7' iarl xal icraofievoiai TrvOeaOai, 
fiay^ ovTO) Toiovhe rocrovSi t€ Xoop ^Kyat&v 
cnrprjKTOv iroXefiov woXefii^eiv rfBi fui^eadat 
avSpdai iravporepoiat, reXo^ S' ov iron tl irk^vrai,, 
el Trep yap k iOikoi^fiev 'Aj^atot re Tp&i^ re, 
opKia Tnarh Tafiome^, dpiOfirjBiifjuevat afjufxoy 
Tp&€^ fikv Xi^a^Oai, i<f>€(moi ocrcroi eaaip, 
TffieU S 69 BexdBa^ BiaKoafirjffelfjuev ^A^aioi, 
Tpcodop S* avhpa cxaaToi iXoifji^Oa olvax^oeveiv, 
iroXKaL K€v BexdBe^ Bevoiaro otpo^ooio. 
Toaaov iyco <fyr)fu irXea^ €fifi€vai vta^ ^Ay^ai&v 
Tpdxov, oi vaXovai Kara m-oXiv aW* iirUovpoi 
itoKKAodv €k iroXitov iy^ficTraXoi avBpe^ epeiciv, 
0% fie fieya ifKa^ovcri, xal ovk el&a eOeXjovra 




k _ 

119. r 09/1. G. II nYe^ceaiQ. 120. Tf 07n. LQ Pap. /3 : rcQ. 123. r6pT*K. 
124 i.B. Ar. 125. Tp^C Ar. {h riffiv dpriypd<fKns (Cprrrai Eust. ) : rp^bac li. 

126. dicucocuHoAjucN CL Yr. b (and ap, Schol T): diaKOCUH«^^JULCN PR'^ (o) 
til ras. ) : dicucocuH«dHUCN DQ : KcrraKOCUHa^JucN J. 127. I^KacTOl Ar. : Sxa- 
croN Ixion Q, 130. n6XiN HQ. 130-3 dS. Ar. 131. noXXdom K. || iNCiaN 
Ar. (in one edition) Kallistratos : laaN 0. 

124. Ar. athetized the line on the 
good ground that in a mere hypothesis 
the supposition of details to render it 
)K)88ible is qnite out of place. 

125. Xdracecn, to number themselves. 
h^kcno^ i.e. citizens in the town, as 
opposed to the allies from other lands ; 
CI. 6c<rai fUv Tpjbojv irvp^ iax^pon K 418, 
with note. Tp^6cc Ar., Mss. TpiDas, 
which would mean 'to muster the 
Trojans.' After Tpw« above the nom. 
is more natural, ' the Trojans to muster 
themselves.' For ef xcp . . kc with 
opt. see Lange EI p. 195, IT. O. § 313, 
M. and T. § 460 ; it differs only by a 
shade from the simple e/ with opt. For 
the sentiment compare Virg. Aen. xii. 
238 vix hostem, alterni si congraliamurj 

126. P. Knight followed by van L. 
reads BuucwrfivOiifjiey* (infin.), which is 
probably risht; the mss. give only 
-^poi for tliis termination before a 
vowel, but it seems that -i/fiev* should 
always be restored (van L. Eneh. p. 319). 

127. Xkoctoi, i.e. each set of ten. 
The MBS. all give (Kturrow: the text 
is more idiomatic and vigorous, and 
from the way in which Did. quotes 
Ixion as the only authority for iKatrrov 

it niiglit seem that iKoarot was the old 

129. nX^c a comparative form = 
xXiopas, for irXe-eaj = x\e-jcff-as: see 
note on A 80. The form remained in 
use in more than one dialect to historical 
times, being found in an inscription 
from Mytilene (Collitz no. 213, 9). 
rods dpxcii' xalffois rals ifi M[irTtXi^]>'a{ 
irX^a; Tfwjy alfdaeuiff and in the great 
inscription from Gortyn, in the forms 
xXUSf tX/o, xXLays. The nom. irX^ej 
is found in A 395. 

130-33 were athetized by Ar. on the 
ground that all the 'barbarians,* Trojans 
and allies together, are elsewhere always 
said to be fewer than the Greeks. The 
objection rather is that elsewhere the 
Trojans always plav the prominent part 
in the defence, while the allies arc of 
secondary importance. See especially 

131. biciaN : so one of the editions of 
Ar., as in E 477 ot xip r ixixovpoi 
(yiifiePf and this gives a better sense 
than foffiy of mss. 

132. nXdzoud, lead vie astray, drive me 
nnde of the mark ; cf. irdXtv irXa7x^^''Taj 
A 59. d^^, i.e. idoinn, elav is a mere 
figment, cf. 165. 


lAlAACX: B (II) 

IXlov iKiripaai iit vatofievov irroKLedpov. 
ivvea Stj jSefiddat A(09 fieyaXov ivuivroi, 
Kal Brj Sovpa crecrrjTre v^&v KaX <rrrdpra XiKxnrrai 
at Se irov '^fierepai r aXo'^oi, xal vqiria re/cva 
eiorai iv fieydpoi^ iroriZe^ffievai' afifu Be epyop 
avTO)^ d/cpdavTov, ov eivcKa Bevp* IxofjueaOa, 
tt\X ay€0\ CO? &v eyo) eXirto, TreiOco/ieOa iravre^* 
<f>€ir/a}fju€v avp vtfval <f>i\rjv €9 irarpiBa yaiav 
ov yap €TL Upoiriv aiprjaofiev evpvdr/VLavJ'* 

W9 (fxiTO, Towrt Be Ovfiov ivi arijdecrcriv optve 
iraai fjuera irXrjOvv, oaoi ov jSovXij^ eiraKOVcrav. 
KLVTjO'q S' dyopt) <^ KVfLara /MifcpcL daXdaaT}^, 



133. IXfou : YXiON Ar. J {snpr. ou). 134. hkl di J. 136. T* om, S. 

137. cYcrrai In Herakleides PQK : cYot* kn A (yp. cTot* hA) D : cYcrre Im G : cYorr* 
hi\ CHJT Harl. a, Lips. Vr. b c A, Moac. 1. 139. 4rd>N Q. * 141. iv tl(tlv ov 

ipiperai oOrof 6 (ttIxos Schol. T. 143 d0. Ar. 144. ^k Zen. : d>c Ar. O. 

133. *IXbu: 80M88. ; Ar. "IXtor. Both 
constructions are found ; the ace. in line 
.501 and pa8»im in the Catalogue, the 
gen. in B 538, E 642, a 2 TpoLrit iep^ 
TToXleOpoiff 193, etc. 

135. Observe the neuter plurals followed 
by one verb in the sing, and the other 
in the plur. cndf>Ta, apparently ropes 
made of common broom ; see L. and 
S. S.V. Hemp was hardly known 
in Greece even in the fifth century ; 
V. Herod, iv. 74. Varro, perhaps 
rightly, took the word to mean thongs 
used to bind the timbers together: 
Liburni plerasque naves loris 9uebant: 
(/raeci magis cannabo et stujfa^ ccteterisqu-e 
scUivis rebus, a quiMis (nrdpra appelUi- 
bant {ap. Cell. xvii. 3). This suits the 
context rather better than to take cirdpTa 
= cables, a less vital matter. (A cable is 
called pupXivos in 4> 391 ; the rigging is 
of leather, /9 426.) 

141. The reason why this line was 
rejected by 'some* (see above) is that 
dvcupet Hfif dfufK^oXLav. Agamemnon's 
speech hitherto has been studiously 
ambiguous, as becomes a irttpa. While 
suggesting flight, he has ingeniously 
suggested also l)oth the shame and the 
ueedlessness of flight. This line undoes 
all by its open aeclamtion of opinion. 
The objection is well founded, but applies 
equally to 140. It may be said that 
139-41 are wrongly added from I 26-8; 
but the difficulty is really inherent in 
the idea of the temptation. If 139-41 

are omitted, the effect of the speech 
becomes inexplicable. 

143 was rejected by Aristarchos as 
involving unnecessary repetition ; the 
tXijOOs of course knew nothing of the 
council. For jucrd with ace. = among 
compare I 54, x 419, and 8 652 (though 
in the latter (tassage /j.€$' iffUas may 
mean * next to us ) ; and also fierk 
X«/)as, Herod, vii 16. 2, Thuc. i. 138, 
etc. See H. G. § 195. Van L. reads 
jcard, which we should have expected ; 
the two ai'e constantly confused in Mss., 
see App. Crit. on 163, 179 below, and 
A 424. 

144. Aristonikos has here preserved for 
us the reading of Zenodotos, 91) for u;; of 
MSS. ; and there can be no doubt that it 
is correct, though Ar. rejected it \vith the 
brief comment ovdivore "Ofxrjpos rb <piff 
dvrl ToO un rlraxey. This merely means 
that the word had generally dropped out 
of the MSS. in his day ; it is found again 
in S 499 6 d^ <f^ Kwdeiav dva(rxu>y, where 
it was written 4>rj^ and, in defiance of 
Homeric idiom, translated *said.' The 
word has survived also in Callim. Uekalr 
(col. iv. 5 C. R. vii. 430) Kvdvtov <p7i 
vUraauy in ^ yepdvoiai quoted from Anti- 
machos, and, by certain emendations, 
in Hipponax (fr. 14, 2, Bergk P. L. O? 
p. 755), where ifyft glossed ws has been 
turned into Cn <fnjai : and Hjpnn, Merc. 
241 (Barnes, for ^ or 0ri, see Allen 
in ,/. H, S, xvii. p. 260). 

lAlAACX: B (II) 

irovTOV ^Ifcaploio' ra fiiv r Ftvpo^ re N0T09 re 
&pop eirat^a^ irarpo^ At09 iic ve^eKofov. 
CO? 8' 5x6 Ktvi^arji Zi<f)vpo^ /3a0if Xi^lov ikddp, 
\dl3po<; iirairfi^tov, iirC r rip,vei, aarwjfyeacriv, 
cw? r&v iraa arfoprj KivrfOri, roX S' oKaXriT&i 
vria^ Itt' iaaevoPTO, ttoB&v S' xnrevepde kovlt) 
taraT aeipOfUprj. rol S' aXX'^'Koio'i, xeXevov 
airreauac prjwv rjo eXxefiev u<; cuKa oulv, 
ovpov^ T €^€/cd0a4,pov dmi) S' ovpavov Ik€v 
oiKoBe iefiepayv vtto S* ijipeov epfxara vrj&v. 

€v6d K€v ^Apyeloiaiv inrepfiopa voaro^ erv^dt), 
el fitf ^A0r)pair)v '^Upt) irpo^ fivOov eenrev 




147. KiNikHi [A/)]JR: KiNikciO. 148. Xafip6NPar.h. || InaiHzcoN: teatcouN 
Aph. i| faiM T^ in ras. : AuOo T^. 163. T* : d' Pap. /3. || 6uTk V: iamAM Pap. 
fi. II Akcn H. 166-69 ^vMoroi ffwrirfiriKey d Xik 'A»HNaiH XaoGc6oc AX»' 

dn' *OXiijunou. cOpcN Ibicrr* *OducAa kt\. 166. deHNofHN : deHNobi Pap. ^\ 

145. 'Ixapfioio, 80 called from a small 
island near Samoa {Hymn, xxxiv. 1, 
Strabo p. 639). n^wrou aeems to be in 
apposition with 9a\d(r(n7$, as the part to 
the whole. 

146. &popc, transitive, as d 712, ^ 
222 (t 201 ?). In N 78, 6 539 it is intrans. 
The usual form of the trans, aor. is of 
course S>pa€, The singular shews that 
E9p6$ re ^hroi re must go together as 
' the wind of East and South,' the later 

Some edd. have taken unnecessary 
offence at the two similes. They seem 
to express rather different pictures ; that 
of the stormy sea bringing before us the 
tumultuous rising of the assembly, while 
the cornfield expresses their sudden 
bending in flight all in one direction. 
For the multiplication of similes cf. infra, 
455-88. If either is to be rejected it 
is the first, 144-46, both on account of 
the rather awkward addition of irbvTov 
'Ixafdoio after BoKdffffrit, and also because 
it indicates a familiarity with the Asian 
shore of the Aegaean sea, which is a note 
of later origin. 

148. Auiki, the crop bends vnth its 
ears, M, before the blast. For the 
change from subj. to indie, compare 
I 324, A 156. But the junction of the 
two b^ re is very harsh ; we ought to 
read either ixl d* or •ffpu^i. So in A 156 

Heyne read vdimiji 8\ For the character 
of Zi4>vpot as a stormy wind see Sk 200. 

152. dToN*. here in its primitive sense, 
brig?U. So of the aieiip, U 365, r 540, 
and dawn, I 240, etc. It is twice used 
of the earth, Z 347, Q 532 ; in the latter 
passage the epithet seems somewhat 
otiose, but in the former 'bright' is 
obviously appropriate. In relation to 
men and gods it appears to mean 
illustrious, either for oeauty or noble 
birth ; but here again it becomes otiose 
as applied to the swineherd Eumaios in 
the Odyssey. 

153. oOpoiic, *the launching- ways,' 
trenches in the sand by which the ships 
were dragged down to the sea ; Ipuorra, 
the props, probably large stones, placed 
under the ships' sides to keep them 
upright, see A 486. The former word, 
wnich does not recur in Greek in this 
sense, may possibly be the same as o^poi 
= 6pos, the boundary being originally the 
trench marking the divisions of the 
common field. No weight can be laid 
on difference of accent. 

155. Onipuopg, a rhetorical expression 
only : nothing ever actually happens in 
Homer against the will of fate, as a god 
always interferes to prevent it. For 
similar expressions compare P 327, T 30, 
336 ; and also II 780, and a 34, \iith 
M. and R.'s note ; and for inrip^ against, 
ifvkp 6pKia V 299, etc. 


lAlAACX: B (II) 

« * 

a) TTOTTOi, alyi,6^oio At09 T€ko^, aTpvrdvrj, 
ovTO) Bi) oIkovSc, <f>i\ijv €9 irarpiha yalav, 
^ApyeloL (f>€V^ovTaL iir evpea vSrra daXdaarj^ ; 
/caB Be K€v €Vj((o\rfv Tlpi,dfia>i, koI Tptoal Xiiroi^v 
^Apyeirjv 'ISXiprjv, ^ eiveKa ttoXKoI ^A^cu&v 
ip Tpoirji, airoXovTOt <f>iXrj^ dwo irarpiBo^ ati;?. 
aW* Xdi, vvv Kara Xaop 'Aj^atwi/ ^(aKKOj^iTdvcov, 
(7ot9 ayavot^ eirieaaiv ipijTve <f>&Ta CKoarov, 
firjBk ea prja^ &\aB* iXxifiep ap/\>i^'Xiaaa<iy 

ft)9 €<f>aT, ovB* dirlO'qae Oea yXavK&wi^ ^AOijprj 
0rj Be tear OvKvfiiroio xap'^payp at^aaa. 



167. T^OC : T^KNON H. 168. bk : di Pap. ^\ 160-2 dS. Ar. 161. 

dprdHN •* Zen. 163. KOT^ Ar. : jucrd />JPRU Pap. /3, Harl. a d, King's 

Par. b d g j k. II xoXxoxiTdbNCON : jumd^ t* Apcba Pap. fi^. 164 dS. Ar. || 

CoTc Ar. ad xa/K^(rrarat xal ij * kfH.<TTO<p6.vom : coTc d* O. 

157. ArpuTcbNH : one of the obacure 
titles of gods, of which we cannot even 
say with confidence that they are of 
Hellenic or Indo-European origin. The 
common explanation is that it means 
'unwearied one/ from rpiJai to rub (in 
the sense ' to wear out '). It is equally 
likely that it may be connected with the 
first element in the equally obscure 
T/HToy^veta, for which see note on A 515. 
(Reference may also be made to Auten* 
rieth, App. to Niigelsbach's Horn, Theo- 
logic ed. 3, p. 413. ) 

169. The punctuation of 159-62 is 
rather doubtful. Some edd. put one 
note of interrogation after afi7f, and 
another (or a comma, which is the same 
thing) after ^aXcUro^s : while others have 
no note of interrogation at all. In a 
88, 201, 553, c 204, o(h-« ^ introduces 
an indignant question ; and this cer- 
tainly nves the most vigorous sense 
here. In i 485, X 348, oi^TUi ^ occurs 
indeed in direct statements ; but there 
it does not stand in the emphatic position 
at the beginning of the sentence. On 
the other hand, it seems better to place 
a simple full stop after afiTt, because the 
opt. 18 not suited to the tone of re- 
monstrant questioning. Thus M in 160 
almost = our 'Why! For cOx«oXii = 
subject of boasting compare X 433 6 fwi 
. . €^(a\ij kotA Aarv xeX^ffKto, 

164. Ar. not without reason regarded 
this line as interpolated from 180 ; the 

task is more suited to Odysseus than 
Athene, and is entirely committed to 
him. Ar. equally obelized 160-62, as 
being in place only in 176-78. This, 
however, does not seem necessary. 

165. JULHdi la, i.e. firjd' itu. All 
similar cases of hiatus before idto (8 428, 
P 16, X 339, ^ 73, 8 805, k 536, <r 420) 
can be cured by reading the open form, 
and there is no other trace of an initial 
F, {fir}84 r ia Brandr.) Cf. 132. 
Ajui9icXlGcac is a word of somewhat 
doubtful meaning, as it is only applied 
to ships. The traditional explanation, 
rowed on both sideSy is insufficient, as 
there is no ground to suppose that 
i\i(r<r(ji (fcX-) was ever used for ipicffta 
(root ip-)f from which we actually have 
dfi<f>iip7jSf Eur. Cycl. 16. Nor will 
rolling both ways do, for i\i<raui is not = 
ffoKe^w. The two meanings which are 
generally adopted are (1) curved at both 
ends, i.e. rising at both bow and stem 
(see note on KOfHavltri, 1. 771 below) ; 
or (2) icUh curved sides. Against 
both these it may be urged that ^XtV- 
(r€t» never seems to imply 'curving,' 
but always 'turning round,' 'whirling,' 
and the like, a very different idea ; and 
further, with regard to (1) dfuftl strictly 
means 'at both sides^' not 'both oids. 
The only sense consonant with the use 
of the word kXloffw is wheeling both icaifs, 
ie. easily turned round, handy. Cf. 
note on a>ic(kiXos 705. 

lAlAACX: B (II) 


[/capwdKlfico^ S* iKOve 0oa<; hrl vrja^ 'A^ata>i/.] 
€vp€v iirei/T ^OhvoTja Atl firjrtv aroKavrov 
iaraoT' ovS* o ye 1/1709 ivaaikfioio fieXaivrf^ 
airrer, hrei fiip a^o^ KpaBlrjv xal dvfjJbv Lxavev, 
arf-^fov S* iarafjiivrj Trpocre^ yXavKomi^ *AOi^vrf 
" Sioy€P€^ AaefyrLoZri, iro'kop.ri^av ^OivacreVf 
ovTta Brj oiKovie, <f>tXrjv i^ irarpiZa yaiav, 
(f)€v^€aff* €v vqecrcri iroKvKKrilcn, irecrovre^ ; 
KoZ Si K€v €vj((o\rfv TlpuifKoi, KoX Tptoal XtTTOtre 
^ApyeLrjv 'Fikh/rjv, ^9 elvexa iroWol 'Aj^atfii/ 
ip Tpoii]i aTToXopTO, (f>tkr)^ airo irarpCSo^ atrj^. 
aXX* lOt pvp Kara Xaop 'Aj^atwi/, firjS^ er ipcoei, 
aol^ ar/apoc^ hrieaaip iprfTve <l>&Ta Ixaarop, 
fiffoe ea prja^ aXao eAjcefiep afupieXicraa^, 

a>9 <f>d0\ o Se ^vp4i]K€ Oea^ Sira (fxoprfadarj^, 
I3rj Be 0€€tp, diro Bk j^Kalpap fidXe' ttjp S* cKOfitao'e 
/crjpv^ ^ifpv/Sdrrj^ ^Wa/C'qato^, 09 ol ow'^Bei, 
avTo^ S* ^ArpetBeto * Ayajj^fipopo^ dprio^ iXdwp 
Bi^aro ol a/cfprrpop frarpwiop, d<f>0iTOP alei* 
aifp T&i efirj xard ptja^ *Aj(ai&p ^aXjco^irdpoiP. 

OP Tipa fiep PaaCKrja koX €^o)(pp apBpa fci'xeiri, 
TOP S* dr/avoi^ eiriecrcnp iprjTva-aaKe irdpaard^" 





168 <w«. ACjDt It XJt Pap. a /S, Vr. a b, Mosc. 2, Eton. 169. cGpc V Vr. b. 

170. hct€^' L. II oOd^ re Q. 171. ttmcr' 8upr. h over ft H. 172. inca 

nTcp6orra npocHiida PR. 178. rpoia J. 179. KOT^ Ar. A[G]PR : nxrh Q 

(cp. 163). II JUiHd' It' CT Lips. Bar. : Juuid^ t* 0. || Apcbw U. || xoXxoxirtibNCON Pap. 
^1 (cp. 163). 180. cote Ar. : cote d' 0. || f^brra : findpa Eust. 184. 6ndda 
P^R>. 186. ANTfoN HS. 187. IBh : 0dc Zen. 188. kixcIhi GT : rtv^v xixobi 
Schol. T. 189. ipHTOcacc Bar. : ipimkiacc Vr. a^ 

168 was unknown to Nik., for his 
acholion speaks of the asyndeton after 

175. iModNTCc implies tumultuous and 
disorderly flight ; so Z 82 ^v X^P^^ ywai- 
KSff 0ei>yorraf Tcaieip, et aL The phrase 
iw ni%fal T€ffi€i» is, however, also tised of a 
riolent attack upon the shi])8, and hence 
an ambiguity frequently arises ; e.g. I 
235 (see note), A 311 (cf. 325), M 107, 

179. ^pcba, refrain rwi, hold not back. 
The verb is generally used with the gen., 
xoXdfJMOt -xlpimtf etc. ; but it occurs 
without a case, fi 75, X 185, 4^ 433. In 
N 57 it is transitive, 'drive back.* In 

a similar sense ipuyfj (iroX^fiov) is used, 
• cessation,* H 302, P 761 ; but ipt^ in 
its ordinary meaning of 'swing,' 'im- 
petus,' must be an entirely different 
word ; and so also 4f>or/iffei in A 803. 

186. This is the sceptre described in 
46, 101-9. It is of course handed over 
as a sign to all that Odysseus was acting 
on behalf of Agamemnon, ol, * at his 
hand,' a dativus ethicus. See note on 
ircud6s iSi^aro x^^P^ KOweWov A 596. 

188. jui^ is answered by 5' a?, 198. 
The asyndeton at the beginning of a 
fresh stage in the narration is unusual. 
Hence Zenod. I'emoved the full stop 
after xa^oxirt^vwr, reading /3dj for fpt}. 


lAlAACX: B (ii) 

'* Saifi6vi\ ov a€ €otK€ KaKov 0)9 BeiBlcrcreadai' 
a\X' auT09 T€ Kcidijao xal aXKov^ tBpve \aov<:, 
ov yap TTO) ad<f>a olad\ 0I09 1/009 * At petavo^* 
vvv fiev Treipdrod,, Td)(a B ly^erat ula? ^A^ai&p, 
iv fiovKrii S' oxf wavre^ axovcrafiev otov eei/rre ; 
fjLi] Tt ')(pX(oa'dfA€vo^ P^^if KaKOv vla^ ^Aj(ai&v. 
Ovfio^ Be fieya^ iarl Bi,oTp€<f>€a>v fiaaiX'^tov, 
TLfiff S' ix Aao9 icrri, <f>t\€l B4 e fiffriera Zcu?.' 



192. &Tpc(ooNOC Ar, Aph, Dion. Sid, Ixion, at xa/M^<n'6/)ac, L : drpcfdoo Q. 
193-7 6.0, Ar. 196. ^^sci Q. 196. hk: r6p GP : bk Cant. || blcrpt^koM 

(dioTpo9^N) fiaciXi^oON Zen. J9GHJLP>RU Aristot JRhsi, ii. 2 : diorpcf^oc BaaXAoc 

190. dcidicccceai is uniformly transi- 
tive in Homer, and there is no reason 
why it should not be so here ; Odysseus 
actually 'territies' the common sort 
into the assembly (199), but will not 
employ more than persuasion to the 
chiefs. We must therefore write oC ok, 
not oH (T€y to emphasize this contrast ; 
and so Herodianos thought, though the 
* usage ' was against him (^ fUv dxpl^eia 
dpdvrovil, iyKkivn di ij ffwi^Bcia). Monro 
(jonrii. Phil. xi. p. 127) rightly compares 
196 X^P^^ 5i fi^ tL fi€ vdyxv Acaic6v &s 
deidKTffifffftt), and A 286 <r<pQii fikv oO ykp 
ioiK drpiuf^fuv. Sehol. B adds Scidtacre- 
adcu clptI toO euXa/Sewr^ai, a wrong inter- 
pretation, which has been generally 
adopted. Among the solecisms derided 
by Iiucian, Psettdosoph. 564, is that of 
using deSiTTOfjLat in the sense of 'fear ' ; 
irpdi 5i rbv flvbvTa, Aedirrofiai rbv &y8pa 
Kal ipevyoj^ — i), it/rrj, koI drav rivk «;Xa- 
^ridrjii, Siw^Tji. The ellipse of thought 
implied in dXXd (191) is very simple : 
*but this I do say — sit still,' etc. This 
is, in fact, the common use of dWd in 
appeals, with imper. (A colon is put at 
the end of 190 to bring this out.) 

19.3. Aristarchos rejected this and the 
following four lines as dvtoiK&res xal ov 
vporrptiTTiKoi €« KaraffroKfiv — a not very 
convincing remark. On the other hand, 
he inserted here 203-5, as being evidently 
addressed to the kings, not to the 
common folk. But as spoken to chiefs 
203-5 would eminently be ov xporpcimKol 
CIS KaraaroXifiVy and likely rather to arouse 
the spirit of independence and opposition ; 
they gain in rhetorical significance if 
addressed to the multitude, to whom 
they can cause no offence. 193-4 are, 
however, clearly an insertion due to the 

same hand which gave us the scene in 
the BovXtj. 192 becomes literally true 
if in the first form of this scene Aga- 
memnon has not as yet had a chance 
to speak (v. Introd. ). For Ti|fCTai see A 

194 is commonly printed without u 
note of interrogation ; but * by reading 
it as a rhetoricalqucstion ' (an alternative 
given by Schol. B) 'the connexion of 
the speech is considerably improved. 
Odysseus has begun by explaining the 
true purpose of Agamemnon. Then he 
affects to remember that he is speaking 
to one of the ** kings" who formed the 
council. ** But why need I tell you this? 
Did we not all — we of the council — hear 
what he said ? "'—Monro J, P, xi. 125. 
This also suits line 143 xoun furd xXriOvpf 
6(Toi ou (iovXijs eirdKowrav. On the other 
hand, there is no doubt that the council 
is always regarded as consisting only of 
a small number of 'kings,' not as in- 
cluding all the chiefs. Nine persons, 
Agamemnon, Menelaos, Odysseus, Nestor, 
Achilles, the two Aiantes, Diomedes, and 
Idomeneus, *are the only undeniable 
kings of the Iliad, as may appeal' from 
comi>aring together B 404-9, T 309-11, 
and from the transactions of K 34-197. 
Particular phrases or passages might raise 
the question whether four others, Meges, 
Eurypylos, Patroklos, and Phoinix, were 
not viewed by Homer as being also 
kings.' — Gladstone Jttv, M, pp. 417-18. 
This is clearly too small a number to be 
expressed by line 188, and this considera- 
tion no doubt led to the rejection of the 
note of interrogation. 

196. It looks as though Ar. preferre<l 
the gen. sing, to the plural on the ground 
that the latter involved the use of e as 

lAlAACX: B (ii) 


OP o av orjfiov avopa coot pootovra r €<f>€vpoi, 
TOP afciprrptot iKdaaaKCP o/JLOKXTjadCKc re fivdtoi' 
** Saifiopt , arpejJLa^ ^ao xal aXKtop fivBop axove, 
ot aeo <f>€pT€pot eici, crif S* a7rroX€/M>9 fcal apaXtci^, 
ovT€ iroT ip 7ro\€/ia>i, €papi0fiu)<: ovr ipl fiovkrji. 
ov fjUp 7rci)9 7rdpT€^ ^aatXewrofMep ipOdS* 'Aj^atot. 
ovK ar/aOop iroXvKoipapifj' eh Koipapo^ earco, 
eh ffdciXev^, &i S&K€ JS^popov Trot? arfKv\ofii]T€(o 
[a/crjirrpop r ^Se defuara^, ipa a<f>i<Tc fiaaiXevrfiY^ 

&^ o ye Koi^papitop BUTre arparop' ol S* arfoprjpie 
aim<; eirecrcrevopro pc&p airo koX KTuaiduiP 
V^^9 0)9 ore KVfia TroXytpiXjoia/Soio OaXdo'a'rj^ 
alrfi,aXS>c fieydXcoi ^pifierai, cfiapayel Be re ttopto^, 

aXK/}t fiep p e^opTO, epr^rvdep Bk fcaff* eSpa^, 
Sepcrirrf^ S' eri fiovpo^ dfiCTpoeirrjf; eKoXcoia, 




198. afi : &N East. || diiuou tmbpa AST Par. h, Bar. Laud. Eton : bAuou r 
btdpa Q. II TdN Q. I| i^pn Q {supr. oi). 199. JUlO«col : •ujuiAi Vr. a. 201. 
AndXcuoc £t Mi^b:* ^2- ^^^ "ot* ^R P&P- P- II oCt' : oOd' Pap. /3. 203. 
nooc : ncp Lips. 206. d^KC Ar. Harl. b : «dAKc T : IdwKC 0. 206 oin. : 
habeni GJPQ«»R Harl. a"* Vr. b. || c^ion R Vr. b : c^ion ArcixoNCiiH Had. a»n : 
091a BouXcdma Dio Chrys. || BaaXcOci Qm. 207. ol V : Ad' Q {supr. oY). 

208. oGmc Pap. /3. 211. ipAruMN Q. || xao^pac CZ>GHJPQRT. 212. 

oapdTMC Pap. /9. |i d^ n U. II AjuaprocnJic Plin. Ep. i 20, 22. 

a plural (see App. A). It is, however, 
quite possible to retain the plural used 
geaerically, and yet take i as sing, used 
of a particular instance, as is proved by 

1j t' €(rrl 51x71 deiwv ^affCkinav^ 
dXX^y K ix'^CLlfnjiai ^porQiff 4XX6v k€ ^Xo/17. 

Compare Eurip. And, 421 — 

/SpoTOis dxcun, kSlp Ovpauos Cbv Kvprji. 

(^lonro ut sup. and H. G, § 255. 1.) 

198. dfiuou fipidpa : the r' is probably 
inserted only to avoid the hiatus, which 
is rare in this place. We should rather 
read ^/um' (and so in ^ 431, 578). 
For the elision of o of the term, -oto see 
note on A 35. If tc be retained, we 
must with Bekker, H, B. ii.' 165, exiilain 
* every one whom he hoUi saw to be of 
the common sort and found shouting,' 
which is not very satisfactory. 

202. o&rc . . . knaplmuoCf in niUlo 
numero, * not counted.' 

203. oO Jui^ = Att. ov dTfprov, as 233 ; 

fi^v is virtually = /iTjv, and has no ad- 
versative force here. For the neut. 
dyaOdv in the next line cf. triste lupus 
stabuliSf Virg. Ec, iii. 80. 

206 is apparently inserted in order to 
supply an object to hCaKf, which does not 
need one (see on A 295), and is clumsily 
altered from I 99, apparently at a time 
when the sense of metre was dying out. 
It is, however, as old as the age of 
Trajan, for Dio Chrysostom {Or. i. p. 3) 
knows it. It is hardly worth while to 
discuss the reference of (T<l>i(rif which may 
have been supposed = u/tuy, or simply 
transferred from I 99 without furtner 
consideration. If the line is to be 
corrected, Dio Chrysostom's ^ovXevijiai is 
better than Barnes's ifx^affiKevrii. 

209. On <bc &rc in similes see 394. For 
ucrdXooi Bentley conj. fuy6.\a, with 
much probability ; cf. A 425. 

•212. OcpdTHC, like OffxrlXoxos P 216, 
is from the Aeolic 04f>aos = BpdffoSy a 
name made to suit the man, cf. IIoXi;- 
Ocpacidris ifuXoKifyrofios x 287. 6coXcbia : 
see A 575. djucrpocni^c (cf. difnifiapToeiHii 


lAlAACX: B (II) 

09 p iirea <f>p€alv ^latp a/coafid re TroWd re "qiBtf, 
fiOA^ drap ov /card xocfiop epi^ifiepai /3aaiXeva'ip, 
ttXV TL oi etcrairo yeXoiiov ^Apyeiouriv 
€fifA€vai. aXarj^toTo^ Be dvifp inro "IXtoi/ ffK£e' 
(po7>jco<i eijv, ^a>\09 o erepov irooa* rco oe oi tofito 
KVpTco, iirl oTTjdo^ avvo^dOKOTC' avrdp virepde 
^o^b<; eqv K€<f>a\'^v, y^eSvrj S* eirevrjvoOe \d')(yq. 

21 :. 


213. 5c : 6 Z> : 6oc* Pap. /3 {(nn. p'). \\ fi(i)dci C/>GS. 214. oOreip Q. i 

BaaXAi Q. 216. d* dnkp CG Laud. Eton. 217. 9oXk6c : fopxbc S. 218. 

cuNOXHKdrc Mor.^ (h in ras. ) Vr. c : cunqox^X^^^ Q i^upr, o over first oo) : cun- 
OKQOX^^ Hesych. : cunoxmk^tcc Pap. /3. 220-3 d^. Zen. 

r 215, d/c/xr6Mi/^os B 246) is illustrated 
by Soph. PhU. 442— 

fif}dels iuHtjf 

where see Jcbb's note. 

214. The infin. in this line is cpexe- 
getic, and is qualitied by /nd^ drkp ov 
Kork Kdafwv, For &Kocud tc noXXd tc 
we should have in Attic xoWd re xal 
AKOfffia, and for Ar&p oO, oi/di. For the 
litotes oO Kcrrb k6cuon cf. xX-qyds oi) 
xard K. 8 12, and oi xbafiMi M 225. 
Schol. A rightly iroXXd re xal AraKra 
\iyetp rpriaraTOf Chttc fjidrrfv Kal ov xpds 
\i&yov ^\oif€iK€tp rois ^offiXewriy. In the 
next line we may understand XaXely or 
the like after dXKd. 

The scholiasts give two curious legends 
about Thersites: one that having been 
Homer's ^ardian, and in that capacity 
robbed him of his inheritance, he is 
thus caricatured in immortal ravenge ; 
the other that he had been crippled by 
Meleagros, who threw him down a pre- 
cipice oecause he skulked in the chase of 
the boar of Kalydon. They also ]K)int 
out that Homer mentions neither his 
father nor his country, in order to 
indicate his base origin. In the AWtiopis 
and Quintus he is killed by Achilles for 
insulting him and the corpse of Penthc- 
sileia. He is the only common soldier 
mentioned by name in the Iliad. 

217. 9oXk<Sc 90s6q ipcdN6c are all dr. 
\€y6fi€ifa in Homer, and it is impossible 
to be sure of their derivation and mean- 
ing. The first seems never to recur in 
all existing Greek literature. 9oXk6c 
6 rd ipdrj eDucwrfijipos 6 iariv iffrpafifju^vos 

(i.e. stiuinting), Schol. A. This ety- 
mology was universally accepted by 
antiquity, but it is of course untenable. 
Buttm. LexiL p. 536 points out that 
the order of the adjectives clearly shews 
that 0oX«rdf refers to the feet or legs. 
He is probably right in explaining 
'bandy-legged,' but not in connecting 
it with valgtis. It goes rather with 
0dXr)7f, the rib of a shin, Lat. /alx^ 
/(Uco. 90b6c is explained as meaning 
strictly * warped in ourning,' of pottery 
(0o(d Kvpitat cUrl rd wpippayij darpoxa, 
Schol., who quotes Simonides, aSrri 5^ 
ipo^lx^iXot 'Ao>e/i7 ict^Xi^), and hence witli 
a distorted nead. In this sense *the 
works of the old physicians shew that 
it continued in constant use, not merely 
as a poetical word, but as one of daily 
occun-ence' (Buttm. 1.1.). Perhaps conn, 
with <fHlrfU), bake (Buttm., Curt.), in the 
sense of otrrbaked. ipcdN^c, irapd r6 
yj/dtf bvofJM /yrjfUiTiKdp ^c6vbi b fiadapdtt 
Schol. L (i.e. ifalliug away, s{>arse). 

218. For cuNoxMKdrc Yalckenaer in 
doubtless right in reading with Hesych. 
ffvpoKuxbre (Cobct Jf. C. 304), of. d^wx^J. 
dpoKUJX^t d(o/cu>x^< KaroKUfxi^, For ffvvix^'^*' 
=j(nn (or intrans. wit^O cf. A 133. 
tn€NikMOO€ is a doubtful form. dPT^PoBc 
A 206 is from root dyc^-, whence dv^os, 
and we should probably with Brandreth 
read iirav-ffvodt here ; in p 270 most 
Mss. have dyi^vo^f, but Ar. read itnivode. 
In the ()d. {$ 365, p 270) it is a perf. ; in 
11. it must be a plupf. (K 184, A 266) 
vrith the secondary person -endings (/T. U. 
§ 68). The sense is spraiUed or simply 
appeared on the sivrface (see on A 266, 
and cf. loiikovt dvdrioaLi X 320). XdxNH. 
»tnl)blef bristles ; cf. Xax*^«s, of swine, 
I 548. 

lAlAACX: B (ii) 


TO) 7A/0 veiKeUcTKe, tot avr ^Ayafiifipopt Bia>i 
o^ea KeKMffto^ Xey oveio^a* t(oi o ap A^atOL 
iKirwyKcof; Koreovro vefieaarjOip t ivl Ovfi&i, 
avrap fuiKpa jSowv * Ayafiifivova pelxee fjuvOcoi* 
" ^ArpetBrj, reo S' aZr €7nfjiAfi<f>€ai i^Be j^aTtJet? ; 
TrXelaL rot ^oXkov KXiaiai, iroXKaX hk yuvaiKC^ 
elalv ivl KXicirji^ i^aiperoi, £9 roi Aj^atol 
irpoDrLaroDL BiSofiep, evr &v inoXUdpov eKoofiev, 
fi en KoX j(pv<Tov iTTiSeveat, ov K€ rt? olo'eL 
Tpaxav iTrrroSafKOP ef 'IXtoi; ulo? airoiva, 
ov K€V iyo) Bijaa^ a/ydyco rj aXkof; ^Ayai&v, 
17^ ywaZKa verjp, Xva fiiayeai iv <f>iX6TfjTi, 
rjv T auT09 a7rovo<T(f>i Karia-^eai ; ov fiev eocKCP 
dp^ov iopra xax&v iiri/Saa-Kifiev vla^ *Aj((n&v. 
& 7r€7roj/€9, Ka/c iXiyy^e, Aj^aaSe?, ovkct *A^atoL, 




221. T09 Ar. a : t6& Z>Q : to£ic Pap. a (i. || oSt* : oG GPS. 224. Bo&N : 
Bifidc Yr. a. 226. d' d&r' : d^ oGt' Zen. 226. nXcTai di ruNoiK^bN Zen. 

227-8 dO. Zen. 227. icXidH J Cant. : xXidaic Bar. Mor. : xXidHaN PR. 229. 
oTcMi G. 231-4 dS. Zen. 231. ird>N L. || drdroui* Eust. 233. An k' S : 

An d' Pap. fiK 236. dx«tdcc S. 

222. X^n in the strict Homeric sense, 
counted otU^ enumerated, cUbitait sea 
injures. t€^ is clearly Agamemnon. 
Thersites is at the moment the accepted 
spokesman of the mob, who are indig- 
nant with Agamemnon for his treatment 
of Achilles ; and it is by a subtle piece 
of psychology that they are made ashamed 
of themselves, and brought to hear reason 
by seeing their representative exhibited 
in an absurd and humiliating light, and 
their own sentiments caricatured till they 
dare not acknowledge them. 

225. T^ : the gen. is the same as A 65 
tirxioknt iTrifUfuperai. Thersites pretends 
that avarice is Agamemnon's only reason 
for wishing to continue the war. He 
assumes that he will do so, and makes 
no allusion whatever to the proposal to 
return home. 

228. cJh^ fiN, as often as we take any 
Trojan stronghold. But we should 
probably read e^re, cf. A 163. Thersites 
purposely alludes to Achilles' words, as 
again in 242. 

229. fi, can U he thai. For he kc 
with the fut indie cf. note on A 175. 
Similarly 231 5n kcn Ardro, ' such as I 
■hall bring.' 

232. niiiMTKa nbrn is strictly co-or- 

dinate with xpvffov (229), and ought 
therefore to be gen. The intervening 
ace. in the preceding line no doubt 
caused the change, which is natural 
enough to a speaker, uicrcai and kot- 
fcxcai must be subj. ; but the short vowel 
cannot be right. Read fjUayrj* and 
KarUrxrj** like poOXrjT* A 67, and cf. 
note on A 380. 

233. oO JuiN, as 203. Bentley conj. o0 
<r€, Heyne ovW, Christ oiht. 

234. kokAn tnSacKiuMM, bring into 
trouble. This causal sense is probably 
not elsewhere found with the verb-suflSi 

Cf. e 285, I 546, ^13. Zenodotos 


rejected 227-8 (reading xXeiai d^ Twat- 
kQv) and 231-4, apparently thinking 
them beneath the dignity of Epic poetry. 
235. n^oNCc : this word is found in 
H. only in the voc. It is generally a 
polite address, sometimes with a shade 
of remonstrance, such as is often ex- 
pressed in our * My good sir ! ' It is 
always found in the sing, except here 
and N 120, and in these two passages 
only it has a distinctly contemptuous 
meaning, 'weaklings.' ^irxca, an ab- 
stract noun used as a concrete. Monro 
(If. ^. § 116) compares 6firi\iKlri = 6fi7j\i^ 
X 209, dijfjLoy ibvra, one of the common 


lAlAACX: B (u) 

oiKoSi Trep avv vrfval vewfuda, rovBe S i&fi€P 

avTov ivl Tpoii]!, yipa irecrae/jiev, 6^pa ISrjTai, 

71 pd TV oi ^ r)fi€l<; wpoaafivpofiev ^€ xal ovkl' 

§9 fcal vvv ^A.')(CKria, eo pAy ap>eLvova <f>&Ta, 

rJTip^Tja'ev iXwv yap e^ei yipa^, avro^ cnrovpa^, 240 

oKXcL /uzX* ovK Ajf^LKfji j(o\o^ <f>p€aiv, dXKa fieOrjpMV 

fj yap av, ^ArpetBrf, vvv vcrrara Xtofiijaavo.^* 

0)9 <f>dTo veiKeicov ^ Ayafiip^vova irotpAva XaeSi/ 
Sepcrlrrf^' rm S' &Ka Trapiararo Slo^ ^OSvaaev^, 
KoL fuv VTToSpa ISoiv j^aXeTToit fiviiraire p^vOeoi* 245 

** Repair dKptrop^vOe, Xi^v^ irep iwv arfopr^rrfi, 
ta^eo, p/i]S* 10 eX^ olo^ ipc^ifuvai fiaaCKevcnv. 
ov ykp iyo) aio <f>fjpX '^epei^Tepov fiporov dXkov 
lp,p£vai, oaaoi dp! ^ArpetBrji,^ virb IXcov ffkOov, 
T& OVK &v fiaaCKria^ dvcL <rr6p! e^a>i/ dr/opevot^, 250 

236. T^Nd^ T* J. 237. In) : ^ S. 238. x' <^^ 6* II oOk) did ro8 k, 

ov did ToO X (o^O ^^- 239. toQ Zen, 246. HjNOtnonc Pap. a. 249. 

drpddH PQ Pap. ^\ 260. dropcOoc DQ {supr, oi). 

sorty M 213. It should be substituted for 
i\€yx^€s in A 242, q.v. So tA 8' A^ea 
irdyra XiXeiwrai 260. 'Axarfdcc, oOk^* 
'Axaiol=H 96, imit by Virgil, Aeii. 
ix, 617 verc Phrygiae, neque enim 
Fhryges, Thersites evidently regards 
the suggestion of a return to Greece as 
entirely his own ; after his attack on 
Agamemnon it would be absurd to con- 
clude with a proposal to do just what 
the king has himself ordered. 

236. oTxad^ ncp, ' let us have nothing 
short of return home ' (Monro ff, G. § 
353). T6Ndc d* k6SxiOi : read r^ 8* idufiev 
(P. Knight). 

287. r^ ncco^ucN, * to digest, gorge 
himself on, meeds of honour,' enjoy 
them by himself. Cf. A 81. 

28S. of x' AucTc, i.e. koU, Some read dt 
X* (i.e. /re). But npoccuiONOUCN must be 
the pres. indie. ; if it were aor. subj. it 
would mean *if we sJuUl help him,' a 
sense clearly precluded by the nature of 
Thersites' proposition. There is no clear 
case of K€ with pres. indie, in H. Koi 
must be taken closely with Ajul^Tc, we 
also of the common sort, as well as great 
chiefs like AchiUes. So 6 111 (Iliirrrat, d 
KoX ifihv d6pv fjuaivtTOi, The second Kal is 
that commonly used to give emphasis to 
one of two alternatives in an indirect 
disjunctive question, e.g. 300. On the 
question of crasis or elision see Z 260 

241. ju^o goes with oiJ/r, as in Germ. 
gar nicht. These two lines are an ob- 
vious allusion to the dispute in the 
assembly, Achilles' very words being 
quoted, toOto irp6s rb daeKh r^ {t^vX- 
Klai 4nt<Tlvy Schol. B. It has been 
pointed out in the Id trod, that the nOn 
m 242 is meaningless as the speech now 
stands, spoken at a long interval after 
the quarrel of the kings. 

245. ANlncmc, a strange reduplication, 
like i)pi;icaice. The subst. ipiiHi is common, 
but the pres. ivlxTw is doubtful ; see F 
438, Q 768, where van L. {EncK p. 480) 
would read fyt<r<re, ivlcffoi. On the 
cognate ipdviwe see if. O. p. 397. 

246. dxprrduuec: see 796 aZcl roc /tvtfoi 
0/Xot AxpiTol eUrtv, 505 Axpira ir6XX' 
dy6p€voif. The latter passage shews 
that the word means indiseriminaUf in- 
consistent^ rather than countless ; a sense 
which it would not be easy to derive 
from Kplvw. So dxpirdfivOoi 6v€ipoL^ r 
560, hard to he discerned^ &x^* lUptra 
{V 412, O 91), &Kpiroy Tev^iJ^tevoi (<r 174, 
T 120), of grief which is not brought to 
a determination, endless ; dxpird^vWos B 
868, with confused foliage, Xinic is a 
word of praise (A 248) used ironically. 

248. xcpadrcpoN virtually =x^/>^^<»^ 
See A 80. 

250. oOk Hn 6ropc0oic you may not 
(i.e. must not) chatter with kings* names 

lAlAAOC B (ii) 


Kai aff>iv oveiBed re 7rpoff)€poi^ vootop t€ ff)vXdaaoi^. 

ovSe TV TTto ad<f>a tS/jLev, ottg)? larai rdSe Spya, 

tj ei Ije KatcdS^ voanjaofiev vie? 'Aj^atcSi;. 

TO) pvv ^ArpetSrji * Ay afiifivovc, irocfiivt, Xa&v, 

^aai 6v€tSi^(ov, ore oi /judXa TroWct ScSovaiv 255 

rjptoe^ AapcLol' <rv Se tceprofiicov arfopevei,^, 

aXX' €K Toi ipito, to Si koI TereKeafiivov earai' 

ei K en a dff)palvovra Ki/)(riaofiai,, w vv irep &S€, 

fj,7fK€T erreiT ^OSvaiji ledprf &fioi,ai,p iireirj, 

261. npo9<pcic J P. |i n6cton hk Pap. /9. || 9uXdocHC J : 9uXdcccK: (or -oic ?) P : 
fuXdrnm: C. 262-6 dS, Ar. 268. ^ K* in Ar.T: d d* Ihi Zen.?: cT xi ti 
RU HarL a : d xoi ti PQS Par. o. || kixi^ooucn Pap. /S^ : xixdoo Et Mag. : 
KiXciouai Ptol. Ask. i| &e nO ncp &dc Ar. Q : cbc t6 nApoc ncp Slnop. : OcrcpoN 
aGnc Mass. : kn daftaoToN Philemon. (The scholia on the line are corrupt and 
contradictory : v, Ludw. ad loe. ) 

on your tongue ; so S 126, t; 135 
('ironical courtesy,' ff. O. § 300 /5 ; but 
practically it means 'you sha'u't'). 
Or we may take tCj as virtually a pro- 
tasis, 'if that were not so.' For the 
phrase cf. Eur. El. 80 Beoin ix<ap drd 

251. npo9^poiQ east in their teeth^ 
IS r 64. n6cton ^uXdcooic, he on the 
waUhfor departure. The next two lines 
refer to this ; but they hardly seem in 
place here, and would come more suitably 
ifter 298. Lehrs would put 250-1 after 
!64. Ar. rejected 252-6. The repeated 
rw (250, 254) has all the appearance of 
i double version, such as we should 
sxpect if the speech has been displaced 
IS suggested in the Introduction. If 
iny lines are to be rejected, 250-3 
thonld go. 

255. Ar. objected against this line 
iiAt Thersites was standing when he 
ipoke (cf. 211-2), and therefore the word 
lom could not be properly used. But 
% is freauently found with a participle 
A a weak sense, meaning no more than 
x> ' keep on ' doing a thing ; e.g. A 134, 
B 187 ; see also A 412 (comp. with 366). 

258. iax*ioojJuii : fut indic. The aor. 
lubj. is KLX^ita (or -i^w), A 26. There 
ire several other clear cases of the constr. 
n H. (see H. O. § 826. 5). There is no 
lerious ground for disputing k€ with fut. 
ndic except that it is not known in 
ittic ; and aor. subi. and fut. indic. are 
K> closely connected both in form and 
lenae in H. that the use with one tense 
ilmost inevitably implies that with the 
>ther. See note on X 66. By its 

nature k€ is indeed particularly suitable 
for use with the fut indic. in the very 
frequent case where a future contingency 
has to be expressed. The wonder is not 
that H. so uses icc, but that later Greek 
does not so use &», 

259. The apodosis hero, as in E 212 
s(}(]^., virtually consists of a whole con- 
ditional sentence, a second condition 
occurring to the mind of the speaker as 
he ' rhetorically expands the simple 
Xa/9(6y c€ dxodijcw which would form the 
logical continuation. Telemachos is 
mentioned in the II, only here and A 854, 
q.v., in an equally curious phrase, o^ 
iavrQi vvv dparaif dXXd run xcuSL koI 
ioTiy ij fjuhf irptimj xardpa «rard rod *08vo- 
ciutSf if 8i ievripa Karh, rod TiyXc/mlxoi/ ' 
tl yh.p dirbXoiro 6 irals, ovk^ti xarfip iarip 
*08voo€vi (Schol A). It is possible that 
the origin of the expression may be more 
recondite, and lie in the strange but 
wide - spread use among * savages of 
' paedonymics ' instead of patronymics. 
E.g. ' In Australia when a man's eldest 
child is named the father takes the 
name of the child, Kadlitpinna the 
father of Kadli ; the mother is called 
Kadlingangki, or mother of Kadli, from 
ngangki a female or woman. This 
custom seems very general throughout 
the continent. In America we find the 
same habit . . In Sumatra the father 
in many parts of the country is dis- 
tinguished by the name of his first child, 
and loses, in this acquired, his own 
proper name . . The women never 
change the name given them at the time 
of their birth ; yet frequently they are 


lAlAAOC B (ii) 

/Lw;S' en Ti;Xe/Ltaj^040 Trarifp K€K\rffi€vo<; elrfv, 260 

€1 fJLTj iyco a€ Xafiojp oltto fiep ff)i\a eXfiara Svao), 
j(\aLvdv T ^Se j^ir&va, rd r cdhS) dji<f>tKa\v7n'€i, 
avTOV he KKaiovra 6od^ hrX vrja^ di^rjato 
TrerrKif^oi)^ drfoprjOev deiKeaai, irXrjyijta'iv,^ 

0)9 dp* €<f>rj, (TKIJITTpfOl Bk fJL€Td<f>p€VOV I^Sk KoX WfUa 265 

TrX^fei/' S' IBpdOff, OaXepov Se oi CKTreae Bdxpv, 

a/jL&Si^ S' aifLaToeaaa fJL€TCul>p€VOV H^mraviarr) 

aKTiirrpov vtto ')(pvaeov' o S' a/>' efero rdp^r^aiv re, 

aXrfi](ra^ B\ djf^pelov IBcop, dirofiop^aro Bdxpv. 

oi Be KoX d'xyvfievoi irep iir avrm rjBif yekcLaa-av 270 

cjBe Bi T49 elirea-Kev IBojv €9 7r\rfaiov dWov 

" w TTOTTot, ^ Brj /jLvpC 'OSi;<7<7€U9 i<T$\d eopye 

fiov\d<; T i^dp)(€OV dyadds iroKefiov re Kopvaacav 

260. ukdi 
•rti V Pap. p\ 
AcikcXIhic R. 

CK9urc Ar. 
cu6f>saTO n. 

HQ. II THXcudxou re G. 261. b^M Q. || diko L^ 262. 

264. ncnXHro>c: nWs nciiXHrd>N Schol. B. || AropAei G. ji 

266. &JULON J. 266. eoXcp^N : AXuk6n Zod. Lex. \\ ixnccc : 

267. jacrd9pCNON Pap. /9^ 269. &iau6psaT0 ACJ'PU : An- 

called through courtesy, from their 
eldest child, "Ma si ano," the mother 
of such an one ; but rather as a polite 
description than a name.' — Lubbock 
Origin of Civilization p. 358. The same 
is the case among the Kaffirs (Theale 
Kaffir Folk -Lore p. 117). Odysseus 
thus means, 'may I lose my proudest 
title.' *A\Oala M-eXeaypls (Ibycus, fr. 
14) is another instance of a paedonymic 
(quoted in Geddes Prob, of Uom, Poems 
p. 84 n. 5), but I am not aware of 
materials sufficient to prove that the 
custom was ever prevalent in Greece ; 
or that there are any relics there of the 
savage's reluctance, for fear of magic, to 
reveal his real name, with which it is 
not improbably connected. 

262. Td T* of course refers to x^^^ra 
and x^'''^^ ' ^^ cannot be trans. * and 
that which,' as some have done, under- 
standing it to refer to some other articles 
of dress (Mfpn ? or ^ta/xa ?). 

266. ooXcpidN, big; apparently from 
the idea * well-grown,' * flourishing, ' in 
which the word generally occurs (but 
always of men, their limbs, grief, and 
the like ; never in the most literal sense, 
of growing tr^es). 

269. AxpcToN IdcbN, tvith helpless look ; 
0-163 dxP^Top i* iyiXaffae, 'she laughed 

au idle unmeaning laugh,' not being 
really gay. So here the word seems to 
imply a dazed * silly' expression, as 
though Thersites could not recover from 
the sudden shock and grasp the position. 
So Schol. B, dKoLptas inro^Xiyl/as. For 
the use of IddbN cf. inrdSpa IdiJbp. Philetas 
absurdly read l8Cfy for i<p0a\fuap. The 
F is neglected ; dxpcui Bentley. 

270. The assembly are vexed to see 
themselves humiliated in their spokes- 
man's person, and to lose their hope of 
returning home ; but Odysseus has 
gained his point by getting the laugh 
on his side. 

271. For TIC as the 'public opinion' 
of Homer reference may be made to 
Gladstone J. M. p. 436. The passages 
are— r 297, 319 ; A 81, 85, 176 ; Z 469, 
479 ; H 87, 178, 201, 300 ; P 414, 420 
X 106, 372; /3 324 ; 8 769; i" 275 
e 3-28 ; *f 37 ; v 167 ; p 482 ; <r 72, 400 
V 375 ; 361, 39G ; \// 148. 

273. fadpxciN elsewhere in H. always 
takes the gen. ; 76010 S 51, etc, fioXwijt 
2 606 [5 19], and in mid. Kouciit ikflfnc^o 
povXrjs fjL 339 (cf. also ft 721). The ace. 
depends no doubt on a reminiscence 
of the familiar /3oi'Xd$ /SouXei/eir: the 
meaning is 'taking the lead in giving 
counsel,' whereas with the gen. it means 



iwp Be ToSe fJLC'y apiarov iv ^ApyeLoiaiv epe^ev, 

09 TOP \a)fir)T7Jpa hrea^oXov ea')^ ar/opdoDV. 276 

ov Orjv fJLip TToKiv avTi<; avriaei 0vfi6^ cuy^vcap 

veiKeUiv ficurtXTJa^ ovetSeioi^ iTreeatnv.** 

«? ff>daav r) TrXrfOv^' dvh Se irroXiiropOo^ ^OSvaaeif^ 
eoTf) a/crprrpov €)((av' irapa Be yXavK&7ri^ ^A0i]V7) 
elBojjbevf) icripvKi, aimirav Xaov avcoyei, 280 

w afjM ff* oi Trp&Tol re Kal vararoL vle<; 'Aj^atwi/ 
fwOov d/eovaeiav koX €7nff)pa<TaaLaTo fiovXtjv, 
o a'(f>i,v Of <f>pov€(DV ar/oprjaaTO xal fierieiTrev 
" ^ArpetBrf, vvv Btj ae, dva^, €0i\ovaiv ^Ajfaiol 
irdaLV eKerf-^uTTOv OifMevat fjuepoireaai ^poToiaiv, 285 

274. T6dc : t6 d^ PR : T6d* aO Bar. Harl. a. 276. AropcikoN J. 276. 

oOeic CZXjr Pap. j3^. 278. bk Vr. a and rivis ap. Did. (Harl. a has hk in outer 
margin) : d' 6 Ar. 0. || nroXfcepoc Q Pap. /9^ 281. d&ce' T Eton. || npc^broi re 
{sic) P. 283. 6 Ar. : 6c GHQ Par. a e g h k and yp, J. 284. dl^ : rdp 

Ar. : hi 3, 

rather * beginning/ * starting. ' So Hymn 
XX vi. 18 i^dpxowra x^f^'^t ^^^ often in 
later Greek ; see Lex. We may compare 
oWi' ify^ffoaOcUf dJdXovs rods iireLprfyravr 
*Oivarjoi 6 23, and other exx. in Monro 
I£. O, § 136. 

275. For the order of the words cf. A 
11 : that insulUry scurrilotts that ke is. 

276. rb fih rM&XiN is roiixiata rb hk 
aOnc xP^^f^^ ^^ uirripov, Schol. A. 
Aristarchos repeatedly insisted that 
Tr6\tp in H. never means *a second 
time/ but always *back again,' in the 
local sense ; but it requires some forcing 
to make the present passage consistent 
with the theory (e.g. 'his heart will 
not bring him back to the assembly'). 
There is no doubt that the temporal 
grew out of the local sense, through the 
idea of ' going back again ' to a former 
state of things ; and it is better to 
recognise in such phrases as this in- 
stances of the transitional use than to 
attempt to force an arbitrary rule on 
Homer. So v 456 ird\tp irolrice yipovra,. 
isrkmap may be ironical, as it is gener- 
ally a word of praise ; but as applied 
to Achilles in I 699, to Laomedon $ 
443, and perhaps to the suitors in the 
Odyssey, it may have conveyed a shade 
of blame. So schol., aitdab^s v^pta-His 
Kol 0pour6t. 

278. nroXInopeoc recurs in H. as an 
epithet of Odysseus only E 363. In 
Od. it is of course common, in allusion 

to the capture of Troy by his cunning, 
see X 230 (rrji d' ijXu) ^ovXiji Hpidfiov 
irbXis cifpvdyvia. In //. it is frequently 
applied to Achilles, and once each to 
Enyo E 333, Oileus B 728, Otrynteus 
T 384, and Ares T 152. 

281. The e' is perhaps inserted to 
prevent hiatus ; which is probably allow- 
able at the end of the first foot (see 
on 87), without the necessity of taking 
ol for the pron. Foiy with Nauck. If 0* 
is to be kept, Doderlein's explanation 
seems the most satisfactory, viz. that 
there is a confusion between dfia re 
irpQrrw. Kal (hrraroc, and A/ta xpCnoi re koX 
0. : in other words, A/ua has, as often, 
attracted a re into its neighbourhood 
from its proper place in the sentence, e.g. 
I 519, ( 403 ; but the word is afain 
repeated, just as we sometimes find dy 
occuring twice, once in its right place, 
and once following a word which it is 
desirable to emphasize, np^&roi and 
OcroToi are used in a local sense, those 
in front and those behind. 

284. For nOn di) Aristarchos seems to 
have read vvv ybp, *'^^oj be a(Vru)t (sc. 
*0/ji^pwi) dxb roO ydp Apx^ffOai** (e.g. H 
328, K 61, 424, 4^ 156). In all other 
cases, however, the ydp is either in a 
question or in an explanation by antici- 
pation {H. O. § 348, 2) ; it is far less 
natural here in a principal sentence. 
Piatt suggests 7' dp, but rap is more 
likely ; see on A 123. 


lAIAAOC B (u) 

ovSi Toi i/creXiovaiv vir6a')(€a'iv, fiv wep vTriarav 

ipOdS' ert aT€i'Xpvr€<; air* "Apyeo? ImrofioTOUf, 

"iKiov i/nripaavr ixn€i')(€ov airovieaOai. 

W T€ yhp ij TraZSe? veapoX XVP^^ '^^ yuvaiKe^ 

aXKrfKoi,aLV oivpovrai, oixovBe vieaOai, 

Ij fiifv Kol TTovo^ iarlv avirfOivra veeaOat. 

Koi yap Tt9 eva pJrjva pAvtov a/rro 1)9 aX6')(pi,o 

aa')(aXd(u avv vr)i 7ro\v^vy(oi, ov irep aeKKcu 

')(€cpApuii eiXecaacv opivopAvr) re 0d\curaa' 

fipiv S' efj/aro? iari, TrepcTpoirifov iviavro^ 



286. TOI : Ti CLS Bar. || An : h Pap. /9. 287. ti96bi tT P Lips. : 4N«4dc 

re O : kHB^b' faicrdxoirrac Q Cant. 292. e* om. O. 293. teureoi Pap. fi^. |] 
RNncp CGJ (7p. 6n) F> (? also finncp Pi») S. 294. x<UA^piot Vr. c Lipe. || 

iX^woN At (dX^woN A>n T.W.A.) Cant. : dX^ociN PR: yp. ^pinoa H. 295. 

X* AuTm y Q. 

289. The A . . tc of Mss. is an ob- 
vious difficulty. Bentley proposed el 
for ii, so that &t re ydp €l=S>s ef re : but 
un €l are never separated in H. Nauck 
writes '/f&rc ydp for &rr€ ydp ^, Anieis, 
after Bekker, ^, as 7 348 &s ri rev ^ 
irapb. trdfitrap dpelfiovos i)d^ ireiftxpoOf and 
T 109 &s ri rev ^ ^o^iX^, in both which 
passages the mss. have ^, though it is 
clearly out of place (in the former 
pisssge MBS. also have i^, not ifii). 
But there does not seem to be any 
certain case of this use of ^ in a simile — 
where indeed so strongly affirmative a 
particle seems out of place. Still it is 
adopted in the text as an only resource, 
better than taking the sequence ^ . . re 
as a very violent anacolutnon. 

290. For this pregnant use of 6diipo- 
juun cf. 4^ 75 6\o<l>6pofAai, The infin. 
nkucaax in fact stands in the place of 
the accus., found in e 153, v 379 pfxrrop 
6dijpe<r6ai, r 219 6 6* dSijpero warplda 

291. The obvious sense of this line, 
if it stood alone, would be, * Verily it 
is a trouble even to return home in 
grief.' But this docs not cohere with 
what follows, and the only interpreta- 
tion which really suits the sense is that 
given by Lehrs (Ar, p. 74), and probably 
by Aristarchos (who noted that rrdpos 
is used in the true Homeric sense of 
/abour, not gritf) : * trulv here is toil 
to make a man retnm disheartened.' ^ 
/A^v Kai thus introduces an excuse, just 
as in I 57. The difficulty is the very 
bare use of the ace. and infin. with a 

violent change of subject. Lehrs com- 
pares P 284 0^ Ti Uraatp ddparop koL 
KTtpa fiiXaipap \ it ^ <r<fH, trx^^^ iarip, 
hr* lifiari irdprai dXMcu, a not very satis- 
factory i)arallel. Monro {Joum. PMl, 
zi. 129, ff, O. § 233) adds /loip* irrlp 
dXi/^ou, &pfti eCdea^f and other similar 
phrases, and we may add A 510, H 
239, and the infin. after roios, etc. ; but 
none are really quite parallel. Various 
emendations have been proposed ; the 
most attractive is van L.*s dplri r" hd^ 
dylX^ffOai (after Mehler's d^tiydA^' dp4x^- 
ffOai, where the aor. part will not do) ; 
for dylri cf. 17 192, u 62. The only 
alterations are the interchange of 6 and 
r and the insertion of x» &nd the cor- 
ruption is easily account^ for by wicadat, 
in the previous line. 

295. This line seems at first irreconcil- 
able with 134, where it is said that nine 
vears of Zeus ?Mve passed. But it is to 
be noticed that the word used here is not 
the usual irepixXdfxepos or ire/MreXX6fievoT, 
but ncprrpon^coN, which is not elsewhere 
appliea to the year. The word is to be 
explained not as the revolting year, but 
as the year an the, turn^ i.e. at the very 
point of changing from one year to 
another. Secondly, Prellwitz has shewn 
good reason for supposing that this is 
the primitive sense of ipiavrfn^ as being 
the moment at which the heavens are 
again ipl adrCkf * in the same position * ; 
the word represents not a period but an 
epoch. And in the Gortynian inscr. 
ipiairrCk actually means 'at the year's 
end.' x€piTpoTi(ap is in fact to be con- 

lAlAAOC B (ii) 


ivOdBe fUfjLVovreaac, t& ou vcfieal^ofi *Aj^a*ov9 
oo'^oXaai/ Tropin vffvai Koptovlaiv aSXh icaX ifi/mj^ 
alaj(p6v TOi Sffpov re fUveiv Kcveov re vieaOat, 
T\rjT€, ff)C\oi,, Kol fielvaT hr\ j(povov, Sff)pa Sa&fiev, 
'fj €T€Ov KaXj^a? fiavreverai, Ije xal ovkL 
€v yhp irj ToBe tSfiev ivl ^peaiv, iark Sk irdpre^ 
fjtdpTvpoi, 0^9 fJ^vf KTJpe^ efiav Oavdroto ff>€povaai,' 
X^^i^ '^^ ^^^ Trptat^ or h AiXlSa i/^e? 'Aj^atwi/ 


S97. nap^ NHud xopodNlaN: uSumoht* M ni^cocM Zen. (juujUN6irraca* rd 
rXifdwriKd dviKtat ix^piav US,), 299. Ml Cn Zen. H XP^MON : y^pAnou R (M 
CP6non Rm). 800. A At. A^R : d Q {K aupr,), 802. udprupcc Zen.: udp- 
rupc Q. 808. 6t* 4c : 9t« R. 

lected with rpoir^, which from Hesiod 
mwards means the solstice. The sailing 
^m Anlis mast have been at the 
rammer solstice ; the action of the Iliad 
a fixed as happening at the summer 
lolstice exactly nine years afterwards. 
i¥ith this time of year, of course, the 
pestilence sent by Apollo well agrees. 
^ the epoch of the Odyssey is clearly 
ized to the winter solstice. Aischylos 
oo, as Yerrall has well observed, fixes the 
Late of the Agamemnon to the winter 
olstice {Agam^ 817 and p. xlL note). 
Svidently either tarn of the year is 
regarded as the proper moment for a 
preat turn of fortune. Aischylos places 
he fall of Troy at the (cosmical) 'setting 
»f the Pleiades' late in October, four 
nonths after the opening of the Hiad, 

299. M XP^NON, as /i 407, ^ 193, o 
L94, etc. Zenod. in, ''diriedvufs" (Schol. 
1). doAiucN : a non-Homeric form for 
kitlofup. Brandreth conj. FlStafxev, and 
K) Tan L. 

300. The choice between cl and fi 
II the first clause of subordinate dis- 
nnctiye questions in not easy. Generally 
ipeaking, MS. authority is for €l and Ar. 
br if. In a few cases (e.g. a 175, w 
N^, r 525) V is ^^^ ^y metre, or one 
iroold be inclined always to write €l as 
A single clauses. The ambiguity prob- 
iblj dates from the earliest days of the 
irritten poems. Cf. H. O, § 841. 

302. This is the only clear case in H. 
)f the use of juui for o() in a ' quasi-condi- 
tional' relative clause with the indie. 
Df. 143, 338, H 236, S 363 (H, O. § 
S69). The xApcc, ace. to Rohde, are the 
iemons, originally themselves ghosts, 

who hover about the earth to carry off 
the spirits of the departing to Hades. 
The cult of the dead had its origin in 
the wish to appease this malignant 

303. Ji^iaA Tc Koi npooTzd : a pro- 
verbial expression, more common in the 
form iTfH^v T€ Kol x^^ff ^ in Hdt ii. 
53 fJidxpt o5 irp. r. k, x^^j until very 
lately. So Ar. Han, 726 and Plato. 
There are three leading explanations: 
(1) the principal verb is i^yri (308), 
but the construction of the sentence is 
virtually forgotten in the subordinate 
clause 5r€ . . ipipovatu and the quasi- 
parenthetical ^AAccf . . 0d(tfp, and is 
resumed by Ma, In this case the 
phrase is used to make light of the long 
duration of the war, ' it is as it were but 
yesterday, when,' etc Or (2) ^v is to 
be supplied after rrptai'^d, 'it was a day 
or two after the fleets had begun to 
assemble in Anlis.' Nag. and Aut. 
support this at length, comparing y 
180 rh-parov ^fiap hjv &r* iv "kpyt'C v^t 
iieai I Tude/dew (rapoi Ato/jn^dcos Ixto- 
ddfioio I toToaap, <f> 81 '^Cjs 84 fiol icriv \ 
fl^e SvwSeKdTTi &r is "IXtoi' elXi^XovOa, 
The passages they quote for the omission 
of ^p are insufficient, for they are all in 
rel. or subord. clauses. (3) I^ehrs, Ar. 
p. 366, takes x^- '''* f*^ irpwi'^'d with 
•fiy^P'f transl. vix cum Aulida adveeti 
eramus, turn (v. 308) portcTitum accidit. 
This is far the best ; the interpretation 
coincides with (2), ' when the ships had 
been gathering but a day or two in A.' 
This omen cannot fail to recall the 
famous portent of the eagles and the hare 
in Agam, 115-20, told of the same place 
and time. 


lAlAAOC B (ii) 

rjyepiOovTO xaxit Hpid/jbayi, koX Tpcjal ff>€pova'ai' 
rffiei^ S" apxpl irepl Kprfvriv iepoxf^ xark ^cap^if^ 
epBop^v ddavdroiai T€\r)€aaa^ cKarop^fiaf;, 
KaXrji, xnro TrKaravioTcoi, oOev peev aryXaov vSayp* 
€V0* i<l>dvr) p^eya arjfia' Bpaxayv iwl vSrra Bcufyoivo^, 
cp^pSaXiofi, Tov p aifrb^; 'OXv/iTrto? ij#c€ <f>oa)aS€, 
^tofwv inrat^a^ irpo^ pa irKardviarov Spovaev, 
evOa S* iaav arpovOolo veoaaoi, vrfirui ri/cva, 
S^coi hr d/epordrayt, TrerdXoi^ viroirerrT'qSyTe^, 
6kt(o, drhp P'Tirrip ivdrt) ffv, ^ re/ce rixva. 
evff* o ye T0V9 ikeeiva KarrjaOie rerpiy&Ta^* 
P'^Trjp S' dp^eiroraro oSvpop^vrf ^iXa riKva* 
rriv S' eXjeXi^dp^vo^ irrepir/o^ \dfiev dp,^ui')(yiav. 
avrhp iirel Kork reicv €ff)ay€ arpovOolo /cai avTijv, 




307. pixMl N^CN Pap. jS^ 308. iNaa 9dNH Mosc 1. 309. t6n p' : t6n 

d* PK Pap. p : t6n* U. || 9<&09Gdc P^ (9<Scocdc F^ : 9<Socdc D. 311. Ino' Icon 
CGQT. 314. Tcrpur^^rac JPR : TcrpMr^^rac CT^ : irHzoNrac Zen. 316. 

diJi9inoTdTO G. II 6dup6ucNa Pap. /3^ 316. d* ^ixducNOC Pap. /3. || cui^ia- 
XoucoN Ambr.^ 317. t^cno 9drc Mosc. 1. 

305. Not only was this spring shewn 
at Aulis in Pausanias' day, but part of 
the plane-tree (307) was preserved as a 
relic in the temple of Artemis (ix. 19. 7). 

308. da - 90in6c : da- = ^a-y for dia- 
intensive. ipoiyds, H 159, is apparently 
for ipdpioSf gory, i.e. blood -red. Of. 
<f>ol»iop c 97, 0otyi^tt M 202, <ftoivi^, 
Kendel Harris {Hojneric CerUones p. 4) 
has called attention to the curious echo 
of this line in Rev. xii. 1, 3 Kal (nituiov 
fUya &<f>d7i iv tQi oOpavCk . . Kal IBod 
dpdKUfP fieyas wvpp6Sf ktX. 

311. Observe how the word t^cno 
(and t4k€) is repeated so as to give a sort 
of human pathos to the passage. Of. M 
170, V 217, and 6 248, U 265, P 133 
(Wiros). HAma especially emphasizes 
this association. Notice also the rimes, 
311-3-5 and 312-4. This phenomenon, 
though not rare in H., is so sporadic 
that we have no ground for supposing it 
to have been in any case intentional, even 
if it was consciously observed. 

312. OnoncnTH^&TCQ st. irn;, as in 8 
136 KaTairHrrrjPf the only form found 
beside the pf. part (y 98, ^ 354), other 
pacts being supplied from the secondary 

stem TT7J-K (iTT^ffU)), 

314. ^ccuid, adv. with rerpiywratj 
cheeping in piteous fushion. 

315. In the principal caes-ura the 
hiatus is * licitus ' ; we do not therefore 
need Bentley's conj. dfitpetroraT* dXwpvpo- 

316. ^cXisducNOC (the original ^\c^- 
lupot has survived in Pap. /3, though 
perhaps only by a blunder ; see A 530), 
'coiling himself up for the spring.' 
diJi9iax^^'': &n anomalous form. We 
have a root fax, strong form Ftjx i" F^x^j 
pres. stem Wxw = FtFdxu, From this we 
may perhaps have a perf. ))art. without 
redupl. Faxvia, like Idvia {H. O, 
§ 23. 5). Schulze has ingeniously 
conj. an aor. (i)Faxop to explain the 
numerous cases where F is neglected, 
reading fxiya Fdxop, iirl 8i Fdxop, irrl- 
Faxop for fUy* (axop icrX, Of this aor. 
dfji^{F)axoO<raVy read by Amhr., would 
be the regular participle. The scholion 
of Herodianos on the accent of m tfjOiw. 
is characterintic : irapo^vrdptai. Kal 6 fUp 
Kopujp 6i\€i irpowapo^VT&p<oSf un Boldvxos, 
dXV ixeid^ olh-cjs doxei ropl^tiw rwi 
* ApuTrdpxi^'-i fr€t66/ji€da aifTwi wf rdpv 
dpicTiat ypafipiaTiK&i. 

lAIAAOC B (u) 


Tov fiev dt^rfKov 0rJK€v Oeo^, 09 7re/> eifyrjve* 
\cLav ^ap fJLiv €07) K€ K.p6vov 7rai"9 drf/cv\ofJLi^T€<D' 
TjfjLel^ S' €<rTaoT€9 0avfjui^OfJi€v, olop €Tv^0ri, 
<i9 ovv Sei^vct TreXwpa 0€a)v eiarfKB* €KaTOfJL^a<;, 
KaXj^a9 S* avriK eirena 0€O7rpo7r€(i>v arfopeve' 
^TLTrr* av€(OL iyiv€a0€, xaprf icofiotovre^ ^Aj(atoi ; 
Tffui/ fiev ToS" €(l>r)P€ ripa^ fieya fjbrjrUTa Zev^, 
iyjrcfjLov o^neKeoTov, oov #c\€09 ov ttot oX^trat, 
tt)9 o5to9 tcarit re/cv* €<l>a/Y€ aTpov0olo koI aim]v, 
OKTco, arap fJ^i^rrjp ivdrrj ffv, ^ re/ce reKva, 
a>9 r/fiel^ roaaavT Ihea TrroXe^^ofiev av0t,. 



318. Jubi: uir* Vr. b. || dtzHXoN Ar. (v. Ludw. ad loc.) Ambr.^ (AiziiXoc 
AdHXoc Hesych. ) : Ac(zmXon Ap. Lex. : AtdiiXoN £t. Mag. : ApizHXoN : ApidnXoN 
Zen. II coHKCN Ambr.^ |] &cncp Bar. Schol. ad T 407. 11 IfHNC : Idem Q. 319 
d$. Ar. (An. says the Hue was added by Zen.). 320 onu T^. 322. d* om, 

GST. II econpon«fiON T^ {i in ras. T*) : econpcnccoN Pap. p\ 324. JUL^N : jul^n 

Pap. ^. 326. Ayn^cuTOM Vr. b. || 5 oO (with hyphen) A (T.W.A.): 5 oO (?) Q. 
326. T^KN* l9arc O (T^CNa G) : t^cnq ^rc Ar. (?). 328. TOCCaOr' : re 

TocaOr* GRS: TooaOr' C^Z>QT^ || nroXcuizojucN DU : noXcuixoucN C^QT^: 
noXcuJTOiicw J PR Lips. Vr. a. 

318. dtlMXoN, 5rt (sc Ar. marked the 
line with the dixX^ irepieffTtyfUyrjy because) 
Zrft^SScros ypd4>ei dpldrjXoy koI rbv 
ix^f-tyov (the next line) trpoclOTiKiv. t6 
ykp dplSriXop dyop ifuf^apht Strep inrldavov. 
6 yd,p i^M xXdfffji roOro dvcupei (i.e. what- 
soever a god creates, that he brings to 
naught again. But there seems to be 
some lacuna in the quotation). \4y€i 
fUrroi ye 6ti 6 <p^pas avrbf Oebs xai ddi/Xov 
HrolrfceVt Ar. It seems clear therefore 
that Ar. read dtlyiXop (or dtSrfXop) ex- 
plaining invisible, and athetizing 319. 
dtdriXoi recurs several times in H., but 
always in the sense deslructivey which 
will not suit here. The best course 
seems therefore to rea<l dt^rjXov, as 
phonetically equivalent to dtdr/Xov, but 
in a pass, sense, removed frmn sight 
(d/i^Xof 6.<paPT0i Et. Mag.). Cf. dei^eXa 
in the same sense, He^iod, fr. 136 (of 
Autolykos the thief) SttL kc x^P^^ Xd^e- 
ffK€P, delSeXa wdpra rideaKep. Cic, who 
tr-mHlates 299-380 in Div. ii. 30. 63, 
took the word in the same way — 

* Qal laci edideret genitor Satumius, idem 

Hinrichs suggests dtdriXos = ever visible, 
d^ = dd as in dXTdpOepos (Sappho), and 
often in Aeolic inscriptions. The sense 
is thus the same as with the alternative 

dpL^TfXop, and would be *god who created 
him made of him an evident sign,' which 
is comparatively weak. (Cf. however the 
fate of the Phaeacian ship, p 156 Oelvaji. 
Xldov iyyij0i yairis prjt dorji fjceXoy, tva 
Oavfid^wTty AtraPTcs.) 

319. rejected by Ar., was known 
to Cicero, Abdidit, et duro firmavit 
tegmina saxo, and Ovid Met. xii. 23 Fit 
lajtis et servat serpentis iina^fine saxnm. 

320. oToN here preceded by davftA^oiiev 
shews the origin of the exclamatory use, 
e.g. H 455 d x6iroi, ivpoalyai* citpwrdepii, 
dop iciires, where we must supply such 
a suppressed thought as 'the thing is 
marvellous, such as you have spoken.' 
See H. G. § 267. 3. The arguments 
there given seem decisive against the 
paratactic origin of these phrases. 

321. Cauer, with Cicero, puts a comma 
at the end of 320, and regards the line 
as an expansion of dop ir&x'^Vt * ^<>^ the 
portent came in.* This, however, does not 
seem very Homeric ; but the connexion 
with 322 is also unsatisfactory as the 
text stands. Bekker and Nauck con- 
demn the line altogether. 

325. Sou : doubtless an error in tran- 
scription for So, an intermediate form of 
the gen. which has disappeared from 
Mss. but may often be restored with 



T&v BcKaTcoc Sk TToKiv aipi]aofJL€v evpvarfviav,* 
Kclvo^ T0)9 ary6p€V€' tA Srj vvv irdvra TekelTai. 
a\X* 076 fiifjLvere Trdvre^, ivKi^fiiSe^ A')(euoi, 
avTOv, 619 o K€v aoTv fieya Tlpidfjuoio IXa>/x€i/." 

ft>9 l^T, ^Apyeloi Sk fiey* ta'xpp, dfjLif>l Se i/^€9 
afiepZcCKiov KOvdfir)aav dvadmtov xrrr ^K')(ai&v, 
fjLV0ov hraivrfaavre^ 'OSi;<7<n;o9 Oeioio, 
Tolai Sk Koi fierietTre TepijvLO^ ImroTa NeoTO)/)* 
" ^ TTOTTOC, Ij Srj iraialv ioiKore^ dryopdaaOe 
VTjind'xpi,^, 0I9 ov Tt fieKei TroTs^firfia epya, 
irrjL Sif avvdeaiat re xal opicui fii^a-erai fjpZv ; 
iv TTvpl Bff povXai re yevoiaro firiied t avip&v 




880. TOX At. ? (The scholia are contradictory. A says ^kphrapxoi di& rod r : 
Schol. TU give i^k to Herod., e* ^ to Ar. ; the Et. Mag. and Anec. Ox. i. 234 give 
e* ^bc to Herod., t6cc* to Ar. ) : d' ^bc R : e' ^bc Herod. ? Q. || d^ : dk Q. 332. 
aOroi H. 333. JUcrkixoN Pap. j3^ 834. kon^icoon J : KONdfitooN Q. 336. 
faaiN^c)aNT«c P Pap. a (cnaiNc[ ) : facnpi^GaNTac S. 387. Aropdaosc Pap. /3^. 
839. TC om. S. 340. hk\ hkG, 

confidence. So also in a 70, and cf. hit 
n 208. See lines 518, 731, and H. O, 

329. t6Si : on this nse of the article 
with numerals see H. G, % 260 e. 

330. Ttibc : cf. a 48, <r 271, where Mss. 
are divided between rtin and 6^ &t. The 
word recurs only P 415, t 234, but has 
very likely disappeared by corruption in 
other places ; cf. on A 418. 

382. The F of FiXwfitv is very doubt- 
ful in H. ; out of very many instances 
only one other (E 118) requires it and 
most reject it, though there is evidence 
for it from Eloan inscriptions. Bentley 
oonj. FaXtbrfi, 

885. For a participle belonging to the 
leadine clause of a sentence, after a 
virtual parenthesis, we may perhaps 
compare A 158, where x^^^^^ drfCdunrrcs 
seems to belong to Ixxeis S* iTnijas in 151. 
But the construction is ver^ awkward. 

886. Fcpi^Nioc is traditionally ex- 
plained as a local name from a river 
or town in Elis where Nestor was 
supposed to have been brought up when 
expelled for a time from Pylos. The 
story is attributed to Hesiod (fr. 84, 
35, Kzach), but Strabo p. 340 makes it 
clear that no ' Gerena ' or ' Gerenia ' was 
known to him, and that he regarded the 
supposed sites as fictions (cf. Paus. iii. 
26. 8, who identifies the Gerenia of his 

time with the Homeric Enope, I 150). 
The alternative which makes yepfipnos 
only a lengthened form of y4p<a¥ is also 
known to the scholia. Another ex- 
planation, iyrifios, seems to imply a der. 
from y4pas. The title is evidently so 
old that the real meaning of it had been 
lost in prehistoric times. Steph. Byz. 
mentions a village Tipviy in Lesbos, named 
from V4p7iy rod U.o<r€i9Qyot, who may have 
had a place in the Neleid genealogy. 

387. For the long a of Aropdacec 
cf. dwoy 4€ffdai 113, 288, etc., dddyaroi 
306, etc., dwafUvoio a 276, and other 
instances, which will be found enumerated 
and discussed in App. D. It is due to 
the ictus, and is confined to forms which 
would not otherwise suit the verse. 
dyopdofjuu occurs elsewhere in H. only 
in impf. and aor. 

838. For oO a later writer would prol)- 
ably have used m^, but the only instance 
in H. of such a use of fii/i with the rel. is 
in line 802 (o.v.). oO shews that the 
claim is added as a general description 
of a class, while in 302 fii/f is used to 
make an exception to what the speaker 
has already said (H. G, § 359). 

389. Cf. 286, Virgil Aen, iv. 426. For 
hi nup( cf. E 215. He means of course 
'all our oaths are so much useless 

lAIAAOC B (u) 


awovSai r atcfyqroi tcaX Se^uU, fjc<: hrerrLOfiev 
airro)? 7A/) iireeaa ipi^Saivofiev, ovSe ri fJ^rJX^^ 
evpifievai BvpdfieaOa, irokifv ypovov ivOaZ^ iovre^. 
^ArpetBrf, aif S' €0\ co? Trpii/, €')((ov currefi^a fiov\r)V 
ap')(€v ^Apyeioia-L xark Kpareph^ vafuva^, 
Tova-Be 5' ia ff>0ivv0€iv, Sva Kal Svo, roi /eev Af)(cnS)v 
v6aff>iv QovXevaxr, avvai,^ S' oiffc eaaercu avr&v, 
Trplv ''ApyoaS* livai, irpXv koX A^o? alytoxoto 
yvcofievat el re -^eOSo? irrroaj^eai,^ el re xal ov/ci, 
ffyqpX yhp ovv Karavevaai vTrepfievea KpovKova 
fjfiaTi T&t, ore mjvalp ev ooKviropoiaLv efiaivov 
*Apyeiot Tpdeaai ff)6vov koX Krjpa if>epovreSi 
oarpdirTtov hriZe^C, evalaifia arffuiTa <f>aLva)v. 



841. file : aTc GP. 342. rhp PR : rdp p' a 344. d' <•' [A] : M e' Q. || 
P. 345. AprdoiciN An6 (p8eudo-)Plat. 117. 40. 346. toOc d' ia JQ. || 
KCN : uhi R (kcn Rm). 347. BouXdicooc* L Yr. a b A : BouXcOouc* East || 

oiOtoTc Vr. c (Lips. supr,). 348. fiprocb*: fiproc Pap. pK 349. cT tc Koi: 
M Koi PR. II oOkI At. (not oOxi). 361. bt AZ>PQR : tn' Q. 363. iNdcUM : 
alNiaua GR. || 9i^[ac Pap. /3^ 

341. fixpHTOi, solemnised with un- 
mixed wine, as A 159. See, however, 
r 269, with note. Peppmiiller conj. 
Upayroi here and in A ; but the Homeric 
brm is d.Kpd(urrot. cnoNdai here includes 
[>oth the literal meaning of 'libation' 
md the metaphorical * ratification of 
igreement.* dcnai: handclasping as the 
lign of a pledge is mentioned Z 233, 
P 286. It 18 of course familiar in later 
J reek ; e.g. de^tdf <pip€iv irapd rtvof, to 
}rlng a pledge from a man, Xen. An. ii. 
L 1. tnhtmuMM : for the rather rare 
non-thematic plpf. see ff, O, § 68. 

844. aovufte: see Curt. Et, no. 219; 
it. * not to be squeezed ' {erifjupvXoif = 
dressed olives), hence unflivjching, ini' 
mtnahUy as F 219. 

845. ApxcikiN : only here and E 200 
irith dat, as Hpyeiv E 592, 6 107, 
}fy€tiov€(t€kv B 816, 7 386, etc., ^eur^at 
1 71, X 101 ; always of 'shewing the 


846. ToiiGdc, if the reading were 
ight, would shew that Thersites is 
dmed at, not, as some commentators 
lare thought, Achilles and Patroklos, 
'or it must indicate some who are 
9rt9ent. But we roust read with P. 
Knight roi>t 6* iac (cf. on 1 65), and then 
the reference is clearly to Achilles and 

his friends ; Thersites cannot be said to 
take counsel vbaf^v 'Axcuc^y. 

347. oOt&n : it is hard to say whether 
this is masc. or neut. (sc. PovXevfidrufP or 
the like), avrds is so rarely used of things 
in H. that the presumption is in favour 
of the former, which we must then under- 
stand to mean * there will be no fulfilment 
on their part.* This clause is paren- 
thetical, Uvai depending on fiovXeOioai. 

849. cY TC . . cY T€ : cf. note on 300. 
There is no authority here for i} re in the 
first clause ; and we have no right nor 
need to desert the tradition and write 
ifrt , . 1jr€ (or V) with Bekker, though 
there is no other clear case of etre . . eFre 
in an indirect question, cfre . . oIk is 
found even in Attic in similar cases, e.g. 
6xiai tdi^is I e(r ipdop etr* oCik ivdw 
Soph. Aj. 7, where see Jebb's note. 
In the purely hypothetical statement of 
a fact (el with indie, here i<rrl to be 
supplied) e^ oO seems to be the original 
and more natural construction, though 
it was afterwards superseded by el fu-ff by 
force of analogy. See note on A 160, 
and H. G. §§ 316, 841. For the pre- 
dicative use of ipcOdoc cf. 1 115. 

353. AcrpdnruN : a very natural ana- 
coluthon, the thought in the speaker's 
mind being xarivevce Kpopluv, For the 


lAlAAOC B (ii) 

T(o fJL'q T49 irplv eTreiyeaOa) olfcovBe vieaOai, 

irpLv TLva Trap Tpaxov a\o^o)t KaraKOLyuqdrjvaVf 355 

riaaaOai S' 'EXcj/i;? opp/rjfiaTd re aTOva')(a^ re, 

el Si Tt9 iK7rdy\(a<; eOekei, oIkovSc vieaOat, 

airreaOoi ^9 1^09 ivaaekfioio fieKalinj^, 

6ff)pa irpoaff* aXkayv Bdvarov KaX iroTfiov iiriairrji, 

aiXKd, ava^, avro^ r Of fjLijBeo irelOeo t aXKjcof 360 

ov TOi aTrofiXrjTOv e7ro9 ea-a-erai, ottI kcv €L7r<D' 

Kplv dvSpa<; xard <f)v\a, Kard ff)pi]Tpa^, ^ Ay a fjL€fMVOv, 

366. nhp : ncp Ar. 366. d* : e* Pap. p\ 367. Uikm Yr. b. 361. 

oCHn iXJHJP. 362. ^pifrrfMC t" G : 9ih^pac JQ Vr. A. 

sense of faidtea (rather than ixl de^id^ 
cf. ivSe ^la) see on M 239. But Heyne 
rejected the line as made up from I 236 ; 
and the mention of such a vague omen 
is intolerably flat after the elaborate 
account in Oaysseus' speech. When the 
line is omitted, Nestor also will refer to 
that portent 

355. TiNo, as though HacTov^ like 382, 
n 209, etc. 

356. A much disputed line. It is 
highly probable that Heyne is right in 
regarding it as interpolated here from 590, 
where the explanation is comparatively 
simple. The xwp^fo»'^f* of Aristarchos' 
time took it to mean ' Helen's searchings 
of heart and groanings,' and urged that 
this view of Helen's resistance to her 
abduction was peculiar to the H.y while 
the poet of the Ckl. represented her as 
going willingly with Paris. Aristarchos 
replied, 5x1 oi>K ftrrtp ^t' avrijs 6 \6yos 
dXX * i^utOetf irp6d€ffip Hjv * wepl ' 6€i 
Xa/Sciv, tp'^i' Tcpl 'EKivrjs: The scholiast 
goes on, Kal itrriv 6 X670f, rifitaplav 
XaPelv dp0* Siv icreifd^fiev Kcd iy^ptixvii- 
cafiev irepi 'EXivrjs' xapaXeiirTiKbs (fond 
of omitting) ydp irpodi<r€d>p iariv 6 
TToiriHli. Apart from the gratuitous 
insertion of the preposition there can 
be little doubt that this view is right, 
if the line is to be regarded as in place 
here at all. The sense is all th^ fighting 
and groaning about (caused by) Helen 
(not, of course, *our (mental) struggles 
and groans ' of sympathy^ as some have 
taken it). Whatever excuse might be 
found for Helen in the guile of Aphrodite, 
there can be no doubt that Homer repre- 
sents her as having deserted her husband 
voluntarily as far as the outward aspect 
of her action went ; and she could not 
therefore be regarded by the Greeks as 

a victim whose sufferings were to be 
avenged. The chief passages in H. are 
« 145, 260, r 164, 399 ff., [^ 218-24]. 
See also Mr. A. Lang's note to Helen 
of Troy, For the gen. compare dx<» 
i^vibxoio, grief for the charioteer, 8 1 24, etc., 
dxoY cidtp A 169, x^Xoy vloi 138, xipeoi 
xaiSbs dirwpSifjJvoio Z 88, and others 
in H. O. § 147. 1. 6puiluaTa recurs 
only in 590 ; it evidently means the 
struggles of war, bp/xdu and bpfidofuu 
being used chiefly of the rushes of close 
conflict. (In the alternative expl. we 
should compare dpfiaipu^ always uised of 
mental effort.) 

357. fondrXcDC : cf. /9 327 ferae ahCn, 
a curious parallel to some expressions of 
modern slang. 

359. This line is a threat, *let him 
so much as touch his ship, he shall im- 
mediately be slain before the face of the 
rest.' (The alternative explanation, 
' he will start homeward only to perish 
on the road sooner than the others,' is 
clearly inferior.) 

362. This tactical counsel, like the 
advice to build a wall round the ships in 
H 327-43 (q.v.), is singularly out of 
place in the last year of the war ; it is 
the first of many such didactic passages 
put into Nestor's mouth, and is meant 
at once to present him as the leading 
counsellor of the Greek army, and to 
introduce the coming Catalogue. For 
9piVrpac, clans, lit. brotherhoods, cf. I 63 
i<t*prfrr(ap : the word does not recur in H., 
but is only slightly disguised in the 
Attic ^parpla, and is used by Herod, 
i 125, where, as here, some Mss. give 
the form <fyfjfTfni, perhaps by confusion 
with the Dor. wdrpa. So in Attic 
(parpla has some support from gram- 
marians and late authorities (see Lex.). 



a>9 f^prjTpTj <f>pi]TpT}<f>iv apijyrji, ff)v\a Be ff)v\ot<;, 

el Be Kev a>9 ep^i^ icaL rot ireiOcavTac 'Aj^a^ot, 

yvwarjt eirei6\ 09 0* ^ye/JLovcav kuko^ 09 re vv Xa&v, 365 

^S' 09 ic ea0\o<; eijiaL* Kara a^ea^ yap fjua'^eovraf 

yvwaeai B\ ei teal OeaireaCrji iroTuv ov/c a\a7rd^ei<i 

^ avBp&v KaKOTt^Ti, KoX aff>paBL7fi TroXe/Moio.^^ 

TOP B d7rafjLetfiofi€vo<i irpoaei^ Kpelcjp ^ Ayafiefiprnv • 
" j} /Ltaj; avT aryoprji, piiedi^, yepop, vla^ 'A^atwj/. 370 

at yap, Zev re wdrep koI *A6rjpali] xal "AttoXXoi/, 
TOiovTot Bexa fioi avfufypdBfiope^ elep A'^at&p' 
Tft> K€ Tdj^ rj/jLvaeie 7r6\i<; Uptdfioto apaKTO^ 
yepalp v<f>' ^fiereprfta-ip aXovad re irepOofiep'q re. 

363. 9i^pH 9i^pH9iN JQ Yr. A. || dpiirci 2>iPQS. 364. Ipsoc PQR Yr. c. |[ 
Kol 00) G. II ncfMNToi C2>HPQRT Pap. /3i Lips. Yr. b A, Eton. Mosc. 1^ 366. 

5c T* Q. II ua%iof€TO Q : uox^into Schol. ad A 368. 370. XjJtkH : juijin G : jlUn 
Par. k^ II dropAi : ApcrAi Schol. ad B 350. 373. KC : hk Pap. /3. 

There can, however, be no doubt of the 
connexion with fraJUr^ etc. The word 
seems to be a relic of the patriarchal 
time when the family, not the tribe, 
was the unit. 

363. 9pi^pH9iN is evidently meant to 
be a pare dat. , an unexampled use of the 
term. -^. The only alternative is to take 
it, with Moller, as an (ablat.) gen., cf. 
N 109 dfi^€iP rrf&v, U 522 iratdds dfiijvei, 
etc., and then write ^i/Xwi' for 4>C\oit, 
Bat as van L. remarks, we ought to hear 
that the object of the arrangement is not 
that clan may help clarif but that clans- 
man may help clansTnan, But all the 
military advice of which Nestor is the 
spokesman is strongly suggestive of 
Athens under Peisistratos, who claimed 
to be his descendant ; and here we seem 
to have an echo of the political re- 
organization so supremely important in 
the seventh century in Attica. 

365. After each oc we must apparently 
supply K irftffL from the next fine ; i<m 
would almost make Nestor call in 
question the existence of brave men 
while insisting on the presence of cowards 
(Ameis). rwcbcMi: rather 7i'i6<rc*(at), as 
the contraction is not Homeric. In 367 
MS8. all read yvuxreai with synizesis in 
place of contraction. Barnes omitted 
the y in 367, but it can hardly be dis- 

Sensed with unless we omit 365-6 as a 
oublet of 367-8. 

366. Kcrrii c^iac: cf. /xax6/xri^ ^ar 
ffi' ainbv tpb A 271, *they will fight 
each tribe on their own accourUy and so 

every man will have a motive for ambi- 
tion in the glory which will accrue to 
his tribe or family from success. Cf. 

* Quodque praecipuum fortitudinis in- 
citamentum est, non casus neque fortuita 
couglobatio turmam aut cuneum facit, 
sed familiae et propinquitates,' Tac. 
Oerm. 7 ; * Batavi Transrhenanique, quo 
discreta virtus manifestius spectaretur, 
sibi quaeque gens consistunt, Hist, iv. 

367. eccnedm, a substantivized adj., 
like many others in H. ; djufipoalTf 
duayKal'q ld€ia tcrf Tpa</>€p^ ^p^t aud 
cases used as here adverbially, dj^Ti^Lrjy 
dxpidrrfy (see A 99) dfitpaSLjjv (Ameis 
Anh. to a 97). There is no need to 
supply any ellipse. dXandzcic : fut. in 
potential sense (cf. Z 71, N 260), or 
perhaps as taking up with some slight 
irony Agamemnon's despairing tone, oO 
ydp frt Tpolrjv alp^ffofiev ei^pvdyviap 141. 
Bekker's conj. dXaird^ccs is needless. 

371. This formula (also A 288, H 132» 
II 97, and several times in Od. ) gives a 
typical instance of the similarity between 

* wishing-clauses,' followed by a para- 
tactic clause expressing the result, and 
regular conditional sentences ; 371-2 
stand independently as a wish, as the 
a]>peal to the gods and the parallel 
passages show, but by putting a comma 
at the end of 372 we could treat them 
as the protasis of a regular conditional 
sentence, ff. (?. § 318. 

374. 0n6 xcpdN: this instrumental 
use of vir6 with dat. is developed from 


lAIAAOC B (u) 

09 fjL€ fjL€T a7rpi]KT0v^ 6/9t&i9 Kol vclxea fidWet. 

Kal yhp iyoDV 'Aj^tXeu? t€ fia'^eaadfi^O* elvexa Kovpri^ 

dvTifiioi^ iTreeaacv, eyo) S' fipx^^ 'XpXeiraLvtov' 

el Be iroT ^9 76 ylav povXevaofjuev, oxftcer eirevra 

Tpcaalv avdfiXrjac^ kukov laaerai, oifS' rf^aLov. 

vvv S' lp')(€a0* iirl Selirvov, Xva ^uvofyca/jLev "Aprfa, 

€v fiiv T*9 Sopv dri^daOoi, e5 S' aairlZa 0ea0o), 

€v Si T69 tinroiacv Sehnfop Sotq) oaxviroSeaacv, 

€v Si T^9 apfiaro^ afjuff)!^ ISojv irokifwio fieSiaOo), 

W fC€ iravfffjJpiOL artjyep&t, Kpi^vwfieO* "Xprfi, 

ov yiip iravatoKri ye fieriaaerac, ovS* rjfiaiov, 

el fit) vif^ ekOovaa Siaxpiviei fiivo^ avSp&v. 

lSp(oaei fiiv rev reXapMP dfuf>l aT-qOeai^iv 

dcnriSo^ a^ifiporr)^, irepl S ?7X^t X^^P^ KafielTCW 





376. zeOc : mparip* S. || I^cokcn : Hhkcn Pap. /9^ Eust. 376. julct* : kot* 
J. il Anpi^KTac S. 377. JUMIXCc(c)duce* 0: JuaxHodjUMe' Ar. 378. JpikMr 

ncdNCiN O. 383. <bKun6poiaN Pap. /3^ 386. &c tc Vr. a. || ncuoiucpioic 

Pap. /9. 888. cniMC9lN ACH^PQR Vr. b c, Mosc. 1 : cTi^Moa(N) [/>G]J[S]TU 
Pap. /5, Ambr. 389. ncpi : napii H. || X^P^^ X«^P ^ U^C^mrow.). 

the local by a transition which is quite 
easy in phrases like the present, wliere 
'subjection' or 'falling prostrate' is 
the leading idea ; in inrb 6ovpl rvTrels^ vxb 
podaoH fpSiffOai (N 667), Gxvm Hvo y\vK€pwi 
rapvibfuda, the local sense almost fades 
away, but never quite disappears. Obs. 
AXoOca, aor. of tne moment of capture ; 
ncpeoubm, pres. of a continuing state. 

376. Anpi^KTOUC : fniiUess^ not condu- 
cing to any result ; cf. Q 524 01) y6.p tis 
xp^is iriXerai Kpvepoio ydoio, /3 79 d»-pij- 
KTOvs 6d6pas. 

879. JUiioN, sc. /SouXi^v, to be supplied 
from the verb ; so ^ 435 liiy feu', supply 
fuHpav from Bie/JLOtpdro. 

380. ABoi6n occurs only in this phrase, 
and always at the end of a line, except 
I 462 i\d6vT€S d* -/i^aibp dird ffwelovs. It 
would seem that some of the ancients 
preferred to write ov6* 1j fiaiAv or ou 5?; 
j3at6y. The origin of the word and its 
relation to /3cu6t are quite uncertain. 

381. zuNdmucN ApHo, eatnmittere 
praeliam't compare S 149, 448, n 764, 
for similar phrases. 

382. •mfA, not lierc in the later sense 
of 'grounding arms,' but place ready, 
bestow toell, as I 88 Hdcm-o d6pwa: so 

€d 64ff6ai dx-Xa, to keep armour in order, 
Xen. Ci/r. vi. 6. 3 ; els Sr)piv idevro 6w\a 
Epigram ap. Dem. 322. 6. 

384. iuuu^\c : so Mss. ; Bentley dfiifU, 
which is, however, found with gen. in H. 
only n 825, 267. Monro ff. Q. § 184 
comp. Att. ircpiopQfiai with sen. = to look 
round after, take thought about (Thuc 
iv. 124), and also the gen. with i/jL^n- 
fidx^ffOai IT 496, etc. dfi<f>ls with gen. 
appears elsewhere always in the sense 
'aside from.' 

385. KpiNcbuc«a, measure ourselves; 
cf. the same root in de-cern-ere, cer-tamen. 
From the primary idea of separation (by 
sifting, etc.) conies that of two parties 
standing in opposition. So diOKpiN^ 
part, 387 ; cf. 362, F 98, t 269 fUwos 
KpivrjTcu "Aprios, (T 264, uj 507. 

387. Jui^oc dNdp&N, a {leriphrasis for 
' brave warriors, ' as fUvos *A\kip6oio, etc. 

388. T€U virtually = ^icdcTToy, at least 
for puri)ose8 of translation, as in 355. 
We must in the next line supply ris as 
subject to Kafifirai. This passage may 
be added to those in If. O. § 186, in 
which it is doubtful whether wept is 
prep, or adv. {= exceedingly) ; cf. H 289. 
For djui9i6pdTH see App. B, 1, 2, 3. 

lAIAAOC B (n) 

iSpwaec Si rev ltttto^ iv^oov apfia TiTaivoiV. 
hv Si K erfoav airdvevOe fidx'i^ idiXovra vorfato 
fi^Lfwa^eiv iraph mfval KoptovUnv, ov oi Sireira 
dpKiov iaaelrai i^xfyieiv Kvva^ 178* ol(ovov<:.*^ 

0)9 €ff)aT, ^Apyeloi Se fiirf ta')(pv, w ore Kvfia 
oKT^i i<l> vy^Xfji, ore /eivi^arfi N0T09 ikOdv, 
Trpo/SXrJTi aKOTriXoDf top S' ov ttotc KVfiara Ts^Lirei 
iravToUov dvifUDv, or &v €v0* ^ €v6a yivcavrcu, 
avardvre^ S' opiovro KeSnaOivre^ Kara vrja^, 
KOTTVUTadv T€ Kard Kkiala^ teal Seiirvop ikovro. 
SlKKo^ S* a\Xo)t epe^e Oe&v aletyeverdiov, 





391. d^ K* : d* fiN U Ambr. Yr. a. || £rdb Vr. a. || MXoNTa : mtbccoirra 
Aristot Eth. N, iii. 11. 393. Ad': oOd' Q. 396. KiNiioa CHPQRT. 396. 
t6n V : Sn r^ G. 397. r6f00NTCU Ar. : riph rhnmn Did. 398. 6Mcr6Knc 
Ar. O : Aocrdirrac others. || 6p^lfT0 : 6p6oMiTO C : 6p6oNTO Cant. || occdaotiNTic 
Q. II KOT^ : M Eust 400. ipcn Yr. b. 

391. MoAcKo : in sense ' perceive ' pociv 
takes a partic. ; 'to think over/ 're- 
member/ an infiu. E 665, X 6*2, etc. 

393. fipmoN, 'there shall be nothing 
on which he can rely, nothing to give 
him any well-grounded hope of escaping 
the Jogs and birds,' Buttm. Lex, pp. 
163-4, comparing 502 pvy dpKiop 1j 
droKMcu, \ iti ffaudTJpai, He deduces this 
sense from the verb dpicety, through the 
sense 'suflScient,' 'able to help,' and 
thence 'that on which one can rely.' 
So K 304 fuffO^ U <A ApKios iaraif his 
reward shall be certain (see, however, note 
there). The passa^ of course means 
' he shall certainly be slain and left un- 

894. On cbc 9tc without a finite verb 
see L. Lange EI pp. 134, 234, where it is 
compared with the similar use of us cl 
in similes. He argues that there is no 
need to supply any ellipse ; the Sre is 
really indef., *&a on a Htm^* and is, 
strictly speaking, superfluous. It seems 
more likely, however, that there is an 
unconscious ellipse ; see M. and T. § 475. 
The construction recurs A 462, M 132, 
N 471, 571, 362, 679, H 406, S 219, 
* 712, e 281, \ 368, t 494. For the 
simile itself cf. 144 and 209. 

397. An^ucdn : for this use of the gen. 
cf. V 99 oLPifjuup dwrai^ufp fUya KUfm, A 305 
v4^ed dpyeffTM N^roto, and i 411 povaov 
Ai6s, a sickness sent from Zeus, rbifiON- 
Tcn : sc di^AiM (but Ar. thought ici/ftara, 
and some actually wrote yivTirai), 

the F is neglected as in 
ApcKTOPf ir 570 ipe^as^ w 458 

T 150 

From here eleven consecutive lines 
have the trochaic caesura, which is 
commoner than the penthemimeral in H. 
(about 54*5 per cent of the lines have it 
in //. and 58 per cent in Od., see Yan 
L. Bnefi, p. 14 rwte), and was perhaps 
originally invariable. For the genesis 
of the Homeric hexameter reference 
may be made to a very interesting paper 
by F. A. Allen of Cincinnati, in Kuhn's 
ZtscJi, XX iv. 558 (1879), where it and the 
Saturn ian verse, as well as the typical 
old German measure, are traced bacK to 
a common origin still found as a metre 
in the Zend-Avesta. Another view is 
taken by Usener, Altgriechischer Versbau, 
He takes the original form of the hexa- 
meter to have been a couplet of which 
the second half had an anacrusis, long 
or short — 

— ^70 I — 00 I — 'M' II 

— 00 I — 00 I — w li 

and of this doubtful length he holds 
that traces still remain in numerous 
cases of ' neglect of F ' and other irregu- 
larities after the trochaic caesura. But 
the evidence is not decisive enough to 
raise this above the level of an attractive 
hypothesis ; and it gives no explana- 
tion of the importance of the bucolic 


lAIAAOC B (ii) 

€U)(6fi€vo^ Odvarov re <f>vy€lv xal fjL&Xov "A/m/o?. 
avTap 6 fiovv Upevaev ava^ avhp&v * Ayafi€fiv(OP 
iriova Trepraerrfpov virepfievei l^povUovi, 
KLKXTjaKCv Se yepovra^; dpiarrja^ Hava'xai&v, 
Nearopa fiep Trpdriara teal ^ISofieinja dva/cra, 
avrap cTreiT Aiai/re ova) fcai iuO€09 viov, 
€KTOV S* avT ^OSvaija AiX fjbrjriv drdXavrov. 
avTOfiaro^ Bi oi JjkBe fiotfp dr/aOo^ Mei/eXao?* 
fiihee yap Kord Ovfiov dB€Xxf>€6v, ok hrovelro, 
fiovv Be TrepLOTtiaavro koX ovKo^vra^ dviXouro, 
Tolaiv B 6u^o/x€i/09 fiereifyr) /cpeifDv *Ayafi€fjLV(ov 
" Zed KvBtare fieytare, K€\aiv€(f>e<:, aWepi vaiayv, 
fjLTf irplv CTT* Tfekiov Bvvat icaX iirl KV€<f>a^ ikOelv, 
irpiv fJL€ Kara Trprjvh paXeeiv Upcdfioio fiiXaOpop 
aiOaXoev, Trpijaai Bk irvpo^ Brjtoio dvperpa. 




406. dOo PQR. 407. V om. D. || <iO«' C. 408. of : re G. 409. Sas- 
I>octed ace. to Ath. p. 177. 412. fv run yiypaxrai zcO ndrcp TdH«CN n^^4 imt 

-cKOdiCTC JUi^cTO Ad. 416. npAcai : ip ra?s xXeiaraLi bib. tov X [i.e. nXAon], 
Koi al *ApteTdpxov Did. || eOpCTpa : ju^oepa Pap. fi\ 

409. AdcX9«6c is the only Homeric 
form (cf. E 21) ; so dMpeop, never 
d^pdpoy (cf. however on F 15*2). 

410. ncpicTiioaNTO, so all mss. But 
the aor. mid. is always transitive in H. 
(see A 480, ^ 481. etc.). S 533, t 54 

biguous, but DO doubt are also trans., as 
Herod, also says cTficaxrdax xoXifxovs, 
Hence Bekker conj. x€pUmi<r&if tc, 
followed by most edd. ; so also in ti 356, 
cf. A 532. But possibly the word may 
have some old ritual significance now 
lost to OS. oOXoYi^Tac, A 449. 

412. KcXoiNCfCC, apparently for «reXat- 
Pov€i^i, god of the black cloud. The 
epithet is also applied to blood, dusky^ 
tne significance of the second element 
havinj; been weakened — a phenomenon 
familiar in the Tragedians but very rare 

413. M, Uhat the sun set not upon 
ii$y* a pregnant expression which is 
virtually an anticipation of the iwl 
immediately following, and may be com- 
pared with Eph. iv. 26 6 i^Xios fi^ iindu^Tu 
iwl rQi TrapofrfLCfiCi)i iffiup. See also 8 
487 Tp<iKrli' fiiy ft' diKov<riP idv ^os. Some 
have, without necessity, conj. fr* or 7* 
in place of ^ir* : La K. thinks that the 
word was inserted when it was forgotten 

that irplp was originally long by nature 
(Cretan ^pef^, Brugm. Or. ii. p. 406). 
For iuk with in fin. expressing a prayer 
see ff. a, § 361. fiii appears funda- 
mentally to express the idea * away with 
the thought that,' Met us not suppose 
that,' and may thus be properly used 
with the infin. without the need of sup- 
plying any ellipse of 56s or the like. Cf. 
r 285, H 179, p 354, where the infin. 
expressing the mere thought indicates, 
by the form of iiiterjectional utterance, 
a strong wish ; and also the use of the 
infin. as an imper. The idiom is common 
in later Ok., e.g. Aisch. Sept, 253 & 
6€ol ToXtTOt, fi-fi fit bovKeiai rirx^ip^ and 
other instances in M, and T, § 785. 
(It is virtually a case of the use of fiif 
without a finite verb, such as we find in 
A 295 and Sre miJ=* except' ; see Lange 
EI p. 162 (468), where the key to the 
question is given.) 

415. nup6c: for this use of gen. see 
H, O. § 151 Cf where it is classed as a 
* quasi - partitive ' use, as though the 
idea of malericU used implied a stock 
drawn upon ; so H 410 irvpb% pxCKL<raiiu€p^ 
Z 331 xvp6i eipTjTax. npAcai, A 481. 
bAtoc with xOp, in the lit. sense blazing^ 
conn, with baUa : so 6 217 irvp in^Xeor 
{Kcduf). See note on I 674. 



lAlAAOC B (ii) 81 

'E/cTopeov Sk j^iT&va irepi arrjOeaai, Sat^at 
^aXjc&i ptoyaXiov TroXee*; S afjxf>* aifTov eralpoi 
TTprjpiei iv Kovhjiaiv oBci^ Xa^oiaro yalapJ* 

&^ €<f)aT\ ovS" apa iron oi errefcpdaive Kpovltop, 
aXX^ o ye Se/cro fiev ipd, irovov S' dfiiyaprov 6<f>€W6P, 420 
avriip iirei p ev^apro xal ovXo'xyTa^ TrpofiaXopro, 
avepvaap pJkp irp&ra koI €a<f)a^ap koL eheipap, 
fjLr)pov^ T i^erafJLOP Kara re kpIotji eKaXvyjrap 
hLimr)(a Tron^a-apre^, iw avr&p S' a^fioOirrjaap. 
KoX rd /ikp &p a')(i^r)unp d<f)vWoiaip KarcKaiop 425 

oifKarfypa S* ap afiireipapre^ vireipejfop }i<f>aia'Toio. 
airrcip iwel Kark firjp* i/cdrj xal <nfKjdr^yy iTrdaaPTO, 
futrrvWop r apa rdXka xal dfiff) ofieXolo'tp eweipap, 
toimiadp T€ 'n'€pi<f>pa£ia}^ ipvaapTO re irdpra, 
avrdp errel iravaavro iropov t€tvkopt6 re Salra, 430 

ca^pupT , ovoe tl ovpLO<; eoevero oai,TO^ €t<rrj<:. 
avrdp eTTcl Trocrto? xal eSiyriJo? ef epop hno, 
T0A9 apa fjLv0a>p ^px^ Tep'^pto^ i'mrora NeoTO)/}* 
" ^ArpetBff /evSurre, apa^ dpBp&p ^ Ay dficfipop, 
fjLijKiTi pvp 8r) ravra Xeyd>fi€0a, fJbrjS* It* Srjpop 436 

416. ddTaoN H. 419. 4ncKpdaiNC Pap. a : incKpdoNC Pap. /3 : faocpakiiNC 
O. 420. 6 rc : 6 dc Q. II n^NON : 96NON Et. Gud. l| duiraproN : AXfacroN 
Ar. 421. npoBdXoNTO : An^Xonto GS (cf. A 449). 422. oO^pucCDf AG : 

oG ipuooN O: An^ucon J (cf. A 459). || lEdHpoN Q. 423. Tc: bk Pap. p\ \\ 

KNfacH(i) CZ>PQR. 426. A^OXXhq Q. || kot^ijon J. 426. oiX^xno P. || lu- 
ncipcD«T«c G Euat. 427. uApa (Ptol. uApc) k6h xai cnXdrxNa ndcaNTO Ar. 

(et A 464) 11 oiXdxN* P. 433. ToTa bk S. 436. bk TaOra Zen. : dHeavra 

Pap. /3^ : dfti^ aCm CP^R : bM aOei Ar. (Pap. ^) : bk nOn aGm Kallistratos : 
bk oG« others. || unbi {uk bi) n AHJQST. 

417. fitorakioHf proleptic ; as II 841 other shews that he is deliberately de- 

cdfiarSewTo, But alociX6e<, 415, seems to ceiving Agamemnon, 

be a standing epithet of the hall ; see 421-4 = A 458-61 ; 427-32 = A 464- 

X 239. 69. 

419. The correct form incxpdcnNC is 426. *H9a{cToio=7rt>/)6s, as ^AfuptTplrrf 
preserved here by the papyri, and in =dd\a(raa /ea 97, 'A<f>podiTTf = €iir/i x 444, 
E 508 by P. Kpataipta is a mere figment, 'A/»7$ = ir6\€fiot passim. Cf. I 468 
a supposed case of ' Epic diectasis ' ; cf. ^Xoybi 'H0. 

ixpadrrovi KeKpdcu^TOi. Kpcdpca and Kpaalvca 435. The reading of Zen. given in the 

are related as xpar- and Kpaar-, ?iead ; cf. text is the only one consistent with 

iwo/uLT' : Apo/Aolyut (van L. Bnch. p. 494). Homeric usage ; cf. N 275, 292, T 244, 

420. Ar. read dXlaaroy as a X^^c$ etc. Ar. explained the vulg. S^O* af^di, 
ifi^arriKtaripa, but the litotes in iuUrap- thus : dHO^ iroXvp xp^^^^i o^^ airrw, 

is thoroughly Homeric, cf. \ 400. XcrobjuMea (rwadpoi^ihfuOay *let us not 

Hentze points out that elsewhere a god now long remain gathered here,' which 

either accepts the sacrifice and fulfils the is unsatisfactory enough, though it takes 

prayer, or refuses both. That Zeus account of the fact that Xiyecdfu is never 

should accept the one and deny the used absolutely in H.= to convfrs^. The 



lAIAACX: B (ii) 

afifiaXK(Ofi€0a epyov, h Stf Oeo^ iyyvaXl^ei' 

aXX* ar/e KrfpvKe^ fiev 'Aj^aiwj/ j(a7ucoj(iT<!>va>v 

\a6v Kfipvaaom^^ ar/eipovTCDv Kark vrja^, 

^/JLel^ S' aOpooL &S€ Kark arparov €vpvv *Aj((U&v 

lofiev, 6<f>pd K€ Oaaaov iyeipofiev o^ifv "A/wya." 440 

&^ €<\>aT, ovS* oTrlOrfaep ava^ avhp&v ^Ayafiifipwv' 
avriKa Kr)pvK€aai, Xirfix^Ooyyoiai, /ciXevae 
/cfjpvaaeiv iroKefiovhe /cdptj KOfiotavra<; 'A^oiot;?* 
oi fiev iKTipvaaov, rot S* riyeipovTO fioK* &/ca, 
oi K dful> ^ArpetoDva SiOTp€<l>€€9 fictaiXrje^ 445 

Ovvov Kpivovre^, fJueriL he ykav/c&in^ KOrjvri 
cdyiS eypva ipm^LOV, dr/i^paov ddapdrrfP re* 
T^9 €KaTov Ovaavoi iray)(pva€oi ^epeOovrcu, 

486. ImidXfza Ar. Aph. Ap. Rhod. A : ImiaXiKi {supr, oi L) : ImiaXiiMi 
Vr. a. 440. ArdpoucN PRT. 442. k^cuc GQ Vr. b^ 444. KiipuoooN S : 
ixApucaMM Q. 447. An^pooN Ar. Aph. : Anipoo •? PR. 448. Acp^eoNTo Zen. 
GHJQRST and A supr. (T. W.A.). 

difficulty in the text, which led to the 
alteration and this strained interpreta- 
tion, is obvious ; how can Nestor talk 
about 'continuing this conversation' — 
for this the words must mean — when no 
conversation has been mentioned ? Epic 
practice forbids us to understand it of 
the conversation 'which had naturally 
taken place at the table, though the poet 
does not mention it ' (Buttmann). And 
though it is true that utik^i does not 
necessarily imply that the conversation 
has begun (Gilaersleeve in A.J.P, vii. 
p. 271), yet raxha clearly does so. The 
Key to the whole crux is to be found in 
the fact, which seems obvious when 
pointed out, that the. words of Nestor 
here really belong to his former speech, 
in place of 362-8, which are condemned 
on so many grounds, and that they 
have been displaced to make room for 
that awkward interpolation. The only 
question is whether we should simply 
replace 485-40 after 361, omitting the 
formal 434 and making some little altera- 
tion in 441, so that it may follow directly 
on 432, or whether 362-433 are not an 
interpolation alto^ther. Either alterna- 
tive seems admissible. 

447. For the aegis see also A 167, E 
738, O 308, P 593 ; it clearly symbolizes 
the storm-cloud, and as such belongs 
properly to Zeus ; Apollo wields it O 
318, 361, 20; Athene here, E 738, 
2 204, 4» 400. It is no doubt rightly 

explained by Reichel {Hov^ Waffcn^ 
p. 69) as a Xaurifiov or skin with the hair 
left on, whence the epithet iLtA4H,bdi(r€iay 
O 309, covered with hair. This skin 
shield is the primitive form, superseded 
in Homer for the heroes by tne solid 
shield overlaid with metal, but still 
carried by the common folk. But from 
its antiqul^ it remains as the divine 
armour. There is no ground for sup- 
posing it to have been of metal, except 
that it is made by Hephaistos the smith 
in O 309. But the smith in his capacity 
of armourer may well have undertaken 
leather as well as metal work, and the 
mention of the golden tassels here and 
elsewhere in any case gives a reason for 
the intervention of the metal-worker. 
The Bvffavoi are presumably a fringe with 
pendants, serving at once to adorn the 
edge, where the hair alone would make 
it look ragged, and to protect it where 
it was most liable to wear. So a belt is 
finishnl off with tassels in S 181. These 
pendants developed later, under the in- 
fluence of the Gorgoneion, into the snakes 
of Athene's aegis in classical art. Ani- 
paoN and AeoNdrMN being co-ordinated 
by Tc are epexegetic of iplrt/ioy, 

448. Acp^eoKTcn : so Ar. ; Zenod. -orra 
The present is quite in place in describ- 
ing the immortal gear of the gods ; 
see a striking instance in £ 726-8 
compared with 729. 

lAIAACX: B (n) 

irdvre^ ivirXeKee^, iKarofifioiof; Se cKctaro^' 
avv T^t irav^daaovaa hUaavro "Xaov 'Aj^atwj/ 
orpuvova ievav iv hk aOivo^ &pa€v i/cdoTfot 
KapSirji,, aXkrjKTOv irokefii^eiv rjSe pAyeaOat, 
Tolai S' aff>ap iroXep^o^ yXvKLfov yever rjk veeaOat 
iv vrfval yXa^vprjiai <J>l\7jv i^ irarpiha yalav, 

riire irvp at&riKov i7n<l>\iy€i aairerov vXrjp 
ovpeo^ iv Kopv^i^, l/caOev Si re (fxtiverai avyrj, 
&<; T&v ipj(ppAv<ov airo ')(aXKOv BeoTreaioio 
aiyXrj irapj(f>av6<ii}0'a hi cdOipo^ ovpavov Z/ce. 

T&v S\ 0)9 T opviOtov ir€T€rfv&v eOvea -TroXXa, 
yr}v&v fj yepdvtav fj kvkv(ov hovXiypheipfiav, 
^Aaito iv XetpAvt, Kavarpiov dp^l peeOpa, 
€v0a Kal hfOa iror&vrai dyaWop^va irrepvyeaai, 





461. iKdcTQU (p8eado-)Plat. 136. 41. 462. xpadbii CGPQRT. || aXuKTON 

C2X>HJPQRU. 464. rXa^upoTa Q. 466. Kopu9Q G : Kopu^Aa Q : Kopu- 

^atc Par. d : ix KOpu^Ac Vr. a. || faiNcro P. 467. T^Nd' Vr. a. 468. nau- 
ymbccoi H. || fixe H. 460. doXuxoddpcoN Q. 461. Adco Ar. Ptol. Ask. 

Herod. 0: AdoM CG. 462. n^roKTcn (pseudo-)Plut 14. 38. || 6raXX6jULCNO 

At. AGHRS {supr, en) Harl. a, Eton.^ Vr. b c A : draXXdiMNai CDJPQTU : 
draXXduaNcn Pap. /3 : ucNoi {sic) A^ (T. W.A.). 

450. ncoy d ccouoa, dazzling^ here and 
E 803 only, perhaps by intensive re- 
dnplieation from a secondary fotm. of 
root ^-, 0ay- (cf. wuptiOaKta). 

451. ArpOiioucci, clearly not by words, 
but by her inyisible presence and the 
sapernatoral power of the aegis. 

455-83. The accumulation of similes 
has given much offence to critics, and 
most edd. reject one or more. But each 
is vivid and Homeric, and refers to a 
paiticalarly striking point in the aspect 
of the Greek host, the gleam of their 
weapons (455-8), the clamour of their 
advance (459-66), their countless number 
(467-8), their multitudinous unrejst 
(469-73). Then follow two describing 
the leaders in general and Agamemnon 
in particular. The effect is that of a 
majestic prolo^e, and would be greatly 
enhanced if the direct action of the 
poem followed on immediately, and 
were not interrupted by the Catalogue. 
The mention of the Trojans in 472 
particularly requires that the two armies 
should be actually face to face. dtdHXoN, 
lit. 'making invisible,' d^ay/^v, i.e. 
dedroying ; cf. note on 318. 

456. For this use of Skomm. where we 
say 'to a distance,' see II 634. Observe 

the characteristic iise of d^ tc in similes 
(456 and 463) to introduce an additional 
touch, often, but not always, containing 
the tertium coniparcUionis, 

461. *Adoo : so Ar., who regarded it as 
the gen. of a proper name *AaLas (for 
*A<rl€U))^ said to have been a king of 
Lydia. So Herod, iv. 45 Kal to&tov fUy 
/icraXa/A/Sdyoyrat rou odudfiarot AvSol^ 
<pdfi€uoi iirl *A<rl€(a tov K6tvos tov Mdvcut 
K€K\ii<r6ai TT}y *Aalay. Virgil, on the 
other hand, clearly read 'AaUai : 

variaii pel&gi volucres, et qiiae Asia 
Dulcibus in stagiiis riinantur prata Caystri. — 
Gtorg. i. 883. 

Geu quondam nivei liquida inter nubila cycni 
Cum Hetie e pa«tu ivtferunt et longa canoros 
Dant pt*r colla modoti, tionat amnis et Asia 

Pulsa palus.— ^e«. vii. 6W. 

This is the only passage in the Iliad 
indicating knowledge in detail of any 
part of the coast of Asia Minor beyond 
the Troad. 

462. draXXducNO, perhaps here in the 
primitive sense (root 7aX to shine), 
* preening themselves.' The variant 
d7aXX6ftci'cu would be perfectly good 
Greek but for the masc. trpoKadi^vnav 


lAIAACX: B (n) 

Kkcuffqhov TTpOKaOi^ovrmv, a/iaparfel Se re Xeifuov, 

ct>9 T&v eOvea ttoXX^ ve&v airo /cal KXtauimv 

€9 ireSiov irpo^eovro %KafidvBpiov, avrap viro j^0a}v 465 

afi€pSa\€Ov KOpdfii^e iroi&v airrcjv re Kal ifrirtop, 

larav S' iv XeifL&vi %KafuivBplan avOefioevri 

fivpioi, oaad re <l>vWa Kal avOea yiverai Sprji, 

17VT6 fividtov ahivdfov eOvea iroXKa, 
aX T€ Karib araOfiov iroifivqiop rjXda/covaiv 470 

&p7)i iv elapivrji, ore re 7X0709 ayyea Sevei, 
Toaaoi iirl Tp(0€aai Koprf KOfjbowvre^ *Aj(acol 
iv ireSitoi XaravTO Siappcuaai fi€fJui&T€^. 

T0U9 S\ 0)9 T aliroXia irXare alycjv cUiroXoi avBpe^ 
pela SuiKpivmaiv, iirei /ce vopAi fiiyetoaiv, 475 

a>9 T0U9 r/ycfiove; Si€k6<t/jl€ov €v0a koI hfOa 
vafuvr)vB* ievai, fierii Bk icpeitov * AyapAfivayv, 
ofifjMTa Kal K€<l>a\rjv IkcKo^ Ad repTTiKepavvcoi, 
*'Ap€i Bk ^(ovr)v, aripvov Bk HoaeiBdciJVi. 
rjvre fiovfs d^e\r)<f)c fiey^ ^^0')(p^ CTrXero irdvTtov 480 

468. Xciuci^N : raTa ap. Did. (Ar. objected that the final short syllable 
weakened the sound of the line ; Schol. T.) 466. npox^ONTO R {siipr. o). |! 

KOJUi^dpiON GJVr {post ras.) Harl. a^. Lips. 466. KONdBncc S. 467. CNcitm 
Pap. /3^ II KdJUONdpicoi C {post ras.) GPQT {post ras.) Harl. a^ Lips. .468. ^Xa 
H. II rdNcrai &pH A™ (T.W.A.). || oSpHi : yp. Api L {inan, rec.). 469. uu&iMt 
P^TU. 470. AXdcKOuaN : IXdcKomxii Pap. /3. 471. Sre Tc : 8t« dk Pap. 
fi: re 8tc G : TC om, HR. || dciiH PR. 476. dicocpiNOUCUf GJ : diciKpiN4wa(N) 

PRU. 476. To6c r* G. 477. ucuc[inmn Pap. a. 479. Ikptit tc Harl. a. 

in the next line. nor^Nrai: iriTorrai 
van L. 

463. npoKaeiz6fiTO0N, a pregnant ex- 
pression, ' keep settling ever forwards ' ; 
the whole body moves forward by the 
continual advance of single birds who 
keep settling in front of the rest. 
CAAOpar^ may here, as in the two other 
passages where it occurs (210, 4> 199), be 
taken to refer either to bright light or 
loud noise, but the latter is generally 
adopted, and suits the simile best. 

465. 0n6 must go with irodcuy, the 
gen. indicating a transition from the 
local to the causal meaning of the j)re- 
position. Of. S 286 iro^Qv Otto with T 
863 birb woccIp. 

469. AdtNd«Mi. busy. See on 87. The 
simile indicates both the multitude of 
the Greeks and their restless eagerness 
for their object ; cf. 11 641-3, where line 

471 also recurs. Homer has another 
striking simile of the fly in P 570. 

471. It has been noted that this 
simile implies that only sheep's and 
goats' milk was used in Homeric, as in 
modem Greece, cattle being employed 
as beasts of draught ; and further, that 
the milk was obtained only in the 
spring, the natural breeding - time of 
wild animals, instead of all the year 
round by an artificial stimulating life. 
An was om. by Bentley because of the 
F of Fiap : so e 485 CipTfi x^t/xeplrf*^ 

474. nXcrr^ because of the wide 
spaces over which they range. 

479. zcbNMN, t?u waist. Except in A 
234, the word is elsewhere used only of 
a woman's girdle. 

480. foXcTO : for this use of the aor. in 
similes as virtually a present cf. H 4, 
etc. : and for fioOc raOpoc cf. cvs Kdrpos, 
f/wy| KlpKos (v 86), tpyiBes alyvwiol (H 59). 

lAIAACX: B (u) 


ravpo^* 6 yap t€ fioeaai fierairpiirei arfpofievfjiaf 
Tolov ap ^ArpetBijv 0rJK€ Zei? r^fuiTi Kelvaaiy 
imrpeire €v iroXKolai, kclL l^oj(pp rfpayeaaip, 

eawere vvv fioi, fiovaai ^OXvp/jrta hdiixar eypvaoAt 
vfiel^ yhp 0€ai iare irdpeari re tori re irdvra, 
r}fiel^ Se kXAo^ olov d/covofiev ovBi ri tBfiev, 
oX Tiv€^ rjy€fi6v€<i Aava&v /cal /coipavoc Tjcav, 
irXriOvv S' ovK &v iya> fivO^qaofiat ovS' ovofjLrjvta, 
ov^ el fioi Si/ca ph/ yk&aaai, Beica Be arop^ar elev, 
KJxoprf S' appriKTO^, yaKjceov Be pot TfTop iveirf, 
el p,r} ^OXvp^iriABe^ p4)vaai, Ato^ alyto^oio 
Ovyarepe^, p,vr)aaUi0* oaoi irrro iXtov ffKdov. 
ap^ov^ av vff&v epeto vrjd^ re irpoirdaa^. 



481. arpoi^NOia CGH^. 482. fip' : d* H. 488. cOnpcn^ S {supr. ex). 
484. 7p. KoX Xnoictc 6.Tb rov McncTC Schol. T. |i 6X0juuno doSuar' Ix®^^^ * 
6XuJULni6dec fiaeOxoXfioi Zen. 486. ndpccrc xa) Ycrc G : napAcrc Ti,vk% An. 

487. Placed before 485 in HJ (the same order indicated by letters in Yen. B) : om, 
C. 489. cTcn: Acn Cram. An. Ox, iv. 318. 490. ^oiHik t' Bekk. An. 771. 

21. II fipHKTOC PQR. 498. apxodc rdp aG Q. 

483. It would hardly be possible in 
Homeric language to join noXXoTa with 
Apcbcocm : rather * pre-eminent in the 
multitude and excellent amid warriors.' 

484. icncrc : either a redupl. aor. for 
c4'ffW'€T€, or more probably for iv-<nr-€T€ 
(which some read, v. supra), root crcir = 
aek^ our say. The pres. ivv€ir€=iiKTeirCf 
Lat. insece {virum mihi^ Cairuiuiy inseee 
vtrauium is Liv. Andr.'s translation of 
a 1 Avipd fxoi iweTCf Movcra). The 
other aor. forms all take the full form of 
the prep, iyi-ffir-cu', etc. Observe the 
rime fAovffot — ix^*'^^'^ ndpccrc, either 
*are present at all that happens,' or 
'stand at the poet's side.' The Muses 
are particularly appropriate in such a 

Slace as this, for they are goddesses of 
[emory (Mouo-a = Moinya, root men ; 
see Curt JSSf. no. 429), though the 
l^nd which made them daughters of 
liuiemoeyne is post-Homeric Cf. Virg. 
Aen, vil 641. 

488. For Hh with aor. subj. as apodosis 
to a clause containing cl with opt. cf. 
A 386, and the equivalent fut. indie 
iaatirai with ire fiij ^/i/3d\oc, N 317 (so 
I 388, and other instances in M. and T. 
§ 499). Possibly fiv9ifi<rofiai is fut indie, 
and dvofi-ffiKa is independent of Ay, as in 
A 262 oifBk tSiofiai. &y here seems to 
enforce the contrast, see H. 0^. § 276 b. 
Virgil imitates the passage, O. ii. 42, 
A en. vi. 625. 

490. firopk Lat. animus, primarily of 
vitality, as here ; then, as most com- 
monly, of the passions. Though the 
^word probably comes from Aw to hreaihe, 
it would be quite against all Homeric 
use to understand it, as some comment- 
ators have done, of the lungs. 

492. juLNMOcrfoTO, made mention of, as 
5 118, 400. npondcac, all from end 
to end ; so irp6irav ^/xap, etc. 


Boi€9Tfo A KcrrdXoroc ncAn. 

Thb CATALoams of the Ships, as modem critics have almost unanimoiialy 
recognized, was not composed for its present place, but has been adapted to it. 
The phraseology throughout suggests a description of the assembling of* the host 
in Aulis, such as ApoUonios Rhodios gives at the opening of the Argonaviica, rather 
than a review of the army before Troy. Expressions such as (Lye p^f, viti icri- 
X^MyrOf are out of place when used of ships which have for ten years been drawn r. 
up on land. When circumstances have changed, as with Achilles, Philoktetes, 
Protesilaos, the adaptation to the Iliad is made in the most superficisi manner. 
Moreover, the Catalogue does not agree with the Hiad in the names of heroes and 
tribes. Not merely do many tribes, cities, and heroes named in the Catalogue not 
reappear in the Iliad, while cities named in the Iliad (e.g. the whole 1& of I 
15d-52) are not mentioned in the Catalogue ; but the whole perspective of the 
Catalogue is entirely different from that of the Iliad. Here Boiotia takes the first 
place, both in order and in the number of cities named ; elsewhere it hardly receives 
a passing notice. The Arkadians, never named again, here bring the large con- 
tingent of sixty ships ; and so with manv other cases. But it has been pointed out 
by Niese that all the heroes named in tne Catalogue played their parts in other 
portions of the Epic Cycle. The conclusion is that the Catalogue originally formed 
an introduction to the whole Cycle, and was composed for that portion of it which, 
as worked up into a separate poem, was called the Kypria^ and related the beginning 
of the Tale of Troy, and the mustering of the fleet at Aulis. 

Another point essential to observe is that in the Catalogue alone the localization 
of the heroes is consistently carried out. Elsewhere in the Iliad they are heroes 
of Greece at large, not of particular towns, save as rare exceptions, notably 
Odysseus and Idomeneus. Agamemnon himself is only three times brought into 
connexion with Mykenai (H 180, I 44, A 46), Aias once with Salamis (H 199). 
Diomedes never has a kingdom at all, but is called an Aitolian, who has had to 
flee from his home. The whole Catalogue contains an appropriation to the different 
Greek states of the heroes of Troy. This can hardly nave been founded on old 
local tradition ; for it is noteworthy that few Trolan warriors received local honours 
in Greece proper ; Diomedes was worshipped in the cities of Italy, Achilles on the 
shores of the Black Sea. It would seem, therefore, that the partitioning was not 
carried out till after the early days of colonization. 

Moreover, it is clear that considerable difficulty was felt in the apportionment. 
Though Agamemnon is *king of all Ar^os and many isles,' the realm of Diomedes 
is carved out of his kingdom of Argos and contains the chief island. Achilles 
receives only three towns, one of which (Trachis) is in Lokris, and should therefore 
belong to the Lokrian Aias ; another (Alos) is in the very middle of the towns 
ascribed to Protesilaos. The Phthians are followers of Philoktetes and Protesilaos, 
not of Achilles, in N 686-99 ; cf. B 695, 704, 727. So the towns given to Eurypylos 
(734 ff.) lie in the midst of those of Eumelos ; indeed, as Strabo notes with astonish- 
ment, the Fountain Hypereia ^ven to Eurypylos lies inside the town of Pherai 
which bMslouCT to Eumelos. Philoktetes has the towns in Magnesia, but the 
Magnetes, who are expressly located in the same district, come senarately under 
IVothoos. So again the towns given to the Lapith Polypoites are all Perrhaibian, 
but the Perrhaibians appear separately under the leadership of Gouneus. All these 
difficulties, it will be seen, occur in Thessaly ; the rest of Greece is at least not 
discordant with itself, though the name and city of Euirtos of Oichalia are trans- 
ferred bodily from Thessaly to the Peloponnesos. So far as the Catalogue goes, 

lAIAACX: B (ii) 87 

therefore, appearances are decidedly against the theory which has lately found mnch 
support, that all the heroes of the Hiad were originally Thessalian, and had been 
only at a later date spread oyer all Greece ; it seems that it was precisely in 
Thessaly that there was least clear local tradition. 

It is impossible to discuss here the historical questions raised by all these 
perplexities. It must be sufficient to point out that on the whole the author of 
the Catalogue studiously preserves an ante-Dorian standpoint. It is only in one 
or two slight indications that he betrays any knowledge of the change brought 
about in Greece by the Dorian invasion. The clearest of these is the presence of 
the Herakleid Tlepolemos in Rhodes, with the characteristic three-fold division of 
his people. And Thucydides long ago pointed out the difficulty caused by the 
presence of the Boiotians in Boiotia ; for according to the legend they settled 
there only twenty years before the Dorian invasion, and sixty years after the fall 
of Troy. He concludes that an iToSaafiis must have come in advance of the main 
body, and taken part in the Trojan war. 

It seems hopeless with our present means to give even an approximate date 
for the composition of the Catalogue. There can be little doubt that some of 
the material at least is old, though in its present form it must have been 
worked over at a late date. For the unmistakable traces of Athenian influence see 
the Prolegomena, 

The canonical position held by the Catalogue in Greece in matters of inter-state 
law is best illustrated by the famous story alluded to by Aristotle {Ithet. zv.), that 
the possession of Salamis was disputed between Athens and Megara, and after a war 
was referred to the arbitration of Sparta. The Athenians urged in their pleadings 
the evidence of B 557-8 (o2 fiiy odv voWol tQi X6\o)vi (rwayiavUroffBai Xffovai r^v 
'Ofi^pov d^ap' i/jpa\6vTa yd,p airrbp hro% els pcCjp KaTdXoyov Hrl t^j Slicrjs dpayviavai' 
Atas 84 ict\ Plut. Solon x. 2). Schol. B adds other iDstances, saying that Abydos 
^ined Sestos from Athens by Quoting 1. 836, that Miletos gained Mykalesos from 
Priene by the aid of 868, and tnat Homer ' presented Kalydon to the Aitolians, in 
a dispute with the Aiolians, by mentioning it in the Aitolian Catalogue ' (640). 
There seems to be no independent confirmation of any of these stories, however. 

It will be seen that the Catalogue is arranged on a sort of concentric system, 
the enumeration passing from Boiotia NW. to Phokis, then £. to Euboia, S. to 
Attica, W. through the islands to Mykene and Sparta, Pylos, Arkadia, Elis, and 
the Western Islands and Aitolia. Then a fresh start is made with Crete, and a 
round is taken by Rhodes and the Sporades (no mention being made of the Cyclades) 
to Thessaly, which ends the list. 

Boioonrfo A KOTdXoroc ncAn. 

BoitoT&v fikv Hrjvikew^ koX Aijlto^ VPX^^ 
^ApKcalXao^ re UpoBorivtop re KXovlo^ re, 496 

o? ff 'Tplrjp ivefiovTO icaX AvXiSa irerprieaaav 

Siaweiav Tpaldv re Kal eipv^opov MvKoXrjaaov, 

0% T* apj^ "'Ap/i' hfkyuovTO koX EtXecrtoi/ koX *Epv0pa^, 

oX T 'EXcwi/' ely^ov rjS' '^TXrjv /cal Tlere&va, 500 

^ClKoXirjp MeSe&vd t\ ivKrifievop irroXieOpov, 

Ka>7ra9 ^vrprjaiv re iroXvrprjpwvd re Sia^rjv, 

oX T€ K.op(ov€iav Kal Troc^evO* 'AXiaprov, 

oX T€ TlXdraiav €')(pv i)S' ot Wlaavr ivcfiovTo, 

oX 0* ^Tirodrj^a^ elj^ov, ivicrifievov irroXUOpov, 505 

^Oyjfffarop 0* Upov, IloaiBi]iov aykaop akao^:, 

oX T€ iroKvard^vXov "Api/rfp lj(pv, oX re MiSeiav 

494-877 am. 2>TU Pap. /3 (506-877 added in ^by later hand). 496. oT eupbw 
Tufis Scbol. A (v. Ludw.). 497. noXliKNHJUL6N : noX^KpHJUiNdN Bekk. An, 

865, 25. 498. e^cnopON P. || cOp^xcopON 6HJP. 600. cTxoN : &koun P. || 
ftXHN J {yp. OXhn). 602. efcBHN : u^ccmn Zeo. : e^cfiHN P. 608. nouicNT* 

AXkiproN PR. 606. 0n6 •liBac CJPR Strabo (and ol irXeiovs East.). 606. 

fiXcoc : flcru Sobol. Ap. Khod. ill. 1242. 607. fipNHN : fiacpHN Zen. : fyioi 

TdpNHN ap, Strabo, p. 413. 

496. The available information about 
the following towns will be found in 
Frazer*8 Pausanias vol. v., viz. : Hyria 
p. 68, Aulis 72, Skolos 21, Thespeia 
140, Mykalessos 66, Harma 62, Erytnrai 
2, Eleon 65, Eopai 131, Thisbe 162, 
Koroneia 170, Haliartos 164, Plataia 8, 
Glisas 60, Onchestos 139, Ame 208, 
Mideia 567, Anthedon 92, Aspledon 195, 
Orchomenos 180. 

502. noXurpiipooNa : Chandler was led 
to the discovery of the ruins of Thisbe 
(near the coast of the Corinthian gulf) 
by the number of pigeons which haunted 
them, as they do to this day (Frazer v. 
p. 162). 

505. TnooiiBac, apparently meant for 
a lower Thebes in the plain, an otfshoot 
from the great city which we are to 
regard as still lyin^ waste after its de- 
struction by the Epigoni. 

506. For the grove of Poseidon at 
Onchestos, and the curious customs 
connected with it, see Hymn. Apoll, 230, 
and Allen J,U,S, xviL p. 247. 

507. No Ame was known in Boiotia 
in historical times, the only known Ame 
being in Thessaly. Strabo takes this to 
be the prehistoric name of Ptoon, 
Pausanias of Chaironeia (Frazer v. 
p. 208). Zen. read 'Ao-Kpijy, but Ar. 
objected that Hesiod's birthplace, x^M<a 

lAIAACX: B (ii) 


Nto-aj/ T€ ^aOerjv ^AvOrjBova t iajfarocoaav 

tS>p /jl€v irevTTiKOVTa i/ee? KioVy iv Sk eKdarrfi 

Kovpoi Boi(OT&v ixaTOv /cai eiKoac fialvov, 510 

ot S* ^AawXrjSova valov W ^Op')(pfi€vov Mivveiov, 
T<av fjpj(^ *AaKaka(f}Of: koI ^IdX/ievo^, uZe? "Afyrjo^, 
OU9 T€K€v ^AarvoyTj Sofiwi ^AjcTopo^ ^A^ethaOf 
irapOevo^ alBoirf, inrepmov elaava^daa, 

"Aprji KpaT€pa)i' 6 Si ot irapeXA^aro \d0pr}i' 615 

Tolf; Se TptTjKOVTa y\a(f)vpal i/€€9 i(JTcj(p(ovro, 

ainap ^WKrftov S;^eS/o9 koX ^^irloTpo^o^ ^PX^^' 
vUe^ 'I<^tTOu fieyaOvfiov NavfioXiSao, 
ot K.v7rdpiaaov eypv Hv0&vd re ireTpri^aaav 
Kpurai/ T€ ^aOerjp Koi AavXiSa kclI Havoirrja, 520 

ol T ^Ave/uopeiav koI TdfiiroXtv dfuf>€V€fiovTO, 
OL T apa irhp Trorafiov K.r}^ta6v Blop evaiov, 
oL T€ AtXatav C'^ap irrjyrjif; erri K7j<f)i<To2o' 
T0A9 S' &/ia reaaapdxoPTa fieXaipac prje^ erropTo. 
ol fi€P ^(o/ci](OP <TTL')(a<: Xaraaap dfi<f)U7ropr€f;, 525 

BoAoiTO)!/ S' €fi7r\rfp eir dpiorrepa OtoptjaaopTo, 

608. NtcdN : NfooaN HPS : Tc6n, xpcOcdN, n0c6n, fapdc tc zaetec ap, Strabo. 
611. acnXHd6N' Xnqion CGJQ^ Eton. Mosc. 1, Vr. b (-nXiidoN*). 612. T&N : 

T^^Nd' Cant. 616. ToTc Ar. 0: tAn A (aupr, oic) HPRS£/; || rpidKONTa G. 

617. ^oncktOH and 90MCckoN Ar. iix^i: ^axKiktaH H {sapr, a over ik). 618. 

uTcc GS. II alBoXidao J {post ras,, yp, NaufioXidao J™): NauoXidao Bar. 620. 

Kpioocm P (second c inserted) QS £uBt || dauXfda : nyis ANCocpida Schol. Soph. 
0. T. 733. II naNOnAo : noNOiiT^OMi (?) Zen., Afierpov iroiQy t6v crixov (An.). 621. 
ripii Ancuc^Xckin Strabo. 622. &p R. || KM^iccbN PQ^J. || IBaiNON L (PM corr. 

to Xnoion). 623. nHratc G. || km^icooTo PQC7 Strabo. 624. 5* am, P. || 

TCOOCpdKONTa A : TcrrapdKONra L. 626. JEcracaN CP (corr. from lEcracoN) S : 


Ktucii, 64pei d/ryoX^, could not be called 
wo\v<mi<f>v\os. The Thessalian Ame was 
the original home of the Boiotians, ace. 
to Thuc. i. 12. 

508. icxcrrbcoccm, as lying on the 
Euboic sea. No Nisa in Boiotia was 
known in the classical period ; hence the 
conjectures recorded oy Strabo. The 
name suggests Nisaia, the port of 
Megara ; this territory, not named 
elsewhere in the Catalogue, may once 
have belonged to Boiotia. Cf. Pans. 
L 39. 5 TTji ir6\€i Miyapa 6vofia yeviaBax, 

511. The territory of the Minyai was 
afterwards part of Boiotia. For Orcho- 
menos see I 381. The local name was 

*Epxofiey6s : cf. note on 605. Ares was 
the tribal god of the great tribe of the 
Minyai, and hence the two chiefs claim 
descent from him. 

514. aldofM, there was no dishonour in 
the love of a god. Oncp. cIoon. goes with 
T^c in the sense conceived^ as 742. 
Compare n 184. 

518. 'I^frou: read 'I0/too by a certain 
restoration ; the second syllable of the 
name is short, see P 306. For this 
form of the gen. see H. O. § 98, and for 
lengthening of the short vowel before 
initial /*, § 371. 

519. Eyparissos, ace. to Pans. x. 36. 
5 the later Antikyra. Pytho is of course 
Delphi. For Erisa see Frazer Pans. 


lAIAACX: B (ii) 

AoKp£)v S' rfyeiiivevev 'OaX?}o9 rax^^ Ata?, 
fieitov, ov Ti To<ro9 y€ oao^ TeXa/icovio^ Ata^, 
aXXib iroXif fieicav 6X^709 fikv erjv, \ivo0oi>prf^, 
irfyeirii S' i/ce/cdCTO UapeWrjva^ koI ^A^cuov^' 
ot Kvvov T iv€fjbovT ^Oiroevrd re KaWiapop re 
Brjaadv t€ %Kdp<l>rjv re koI Avyeiii^ ipareivit^ 
TdpKJyrfv T€ Spoviov re Boa/ypiov dfupl peeOpa* 
T&i S* a/Ma reaaapdxovra fiikaivai vrje^ errovro 
AoKp&Vf ot valovai iriprjv Upij^ ^Evfioirjfs, 

ot S* ^^vfioiav C'xpv fiivea irveiovre^ "A^avre^, 
^uiKKiia T ^Iperptdv re 7ro\vaTd(f>v\ov 6 'lortoww/ 
}LrjpLv66v T €<f)a\op Aiov r alirv irroXiedpov, 
OL T€ KdpvoTov expv i)S' ot %Tvpa va^erdeaKov, 
T&v aiff* r/yefjiovev '^\€<j>'qv(op S^o<: *'A/>i;o9, 
lLa\/CQ)SovTidBr}f:, fieyaOvp^v dpyp^ ^ A^dvTfov, 
TWA S' afi "Afiavre^ eirovro Oooi, oindev KOfi6(ovT€f;, 




627. &YXA0C Ar. : 6 'IXAoc Zen. G. 528 (i.e. 528-30) d0. Zen, 629-80 

dO, Ar. 529. ucizcoN H. !| XiNOOwpaz CGQ. 630. noN^XXHNac : An' 

SXXhnqc SchoL Thuc. i. 3. 531. KiipNON L. || oY tc kOnon In. G. 632. 6Ac6n 
Zen. GPR Vr. b, Mosc. 1, Laud. : cBAccon C Eton. 684. 1^1 : t^ G. 685. 
nipHN : n6KiN Q : h^n G. 536-7. oT d' cOfioioN fy>N kq) x^^'^'^^^ '>'' 

cIpcrpiaN T€ Strabo. 637. x<>^^d* Ip^pci^N t€ Steph. Byz. || t* Icrfcncm A (• 
IcTfaiON A°^, T.W.A.). 538. Kiipie^N PQR. 639. NOirrdecKON QR : 

NoiCTdaacoN 0. 640. t&n d' GQ. || aO G. 542. l^l : t^n J. 

v. p. 459, Daulis 222, Panopeus 216, 
Hyampolis 442, Lilaia 410. 

528-30 were rejected partly on account 
of the obvious tautology, partly because 
of the word floNlXXNNaQ which implies 
the later extension of the name of the 
Thessalian 'EXX^/yef to all the Greeks. 
XiNo^cbpHX, which recurs in 830, seems 
to mean ' wearing a linen chiton instead 
of a breastplate.' Pans, saw such linen 
'breastplates' at Olympia (vi. 19. 7) 
and elsewhere (i. 21. 7, with Frazer's 
note) ; cf. Alkaios, fr. 15. 5. Iphikrates 
armed the Athenians with linen instead 
of metal breastplates to make them 
more rapid in movement ; and this agrees 
with the character of light infantry and 
bowmen which is attributed to the 
Lokrians in N 714, but is hardly con- 
sistent with the praise of Aias the Less as 
a spearman ; in N 712 he, as a hoplite, 
is separated from his followers. He does 
nothing in actual battle to justify the 
pndae in 530. 

535. n^pHN, over against^ as XaXx£do$ 
iripav Aisch. Ag. 190. It might, how- 
ever, mean ' beyond,' if we suppose that 
the poet's point of view is that of an 
Asiatic Greek. 

537. 'IcrfaioN, trisyllable by synizesis, 
as Alyvvrlai I 382, 5 83. Cf. 'I<rTicuei5j 
/i' iv40TjK€v at the beginning of a hexa- 
meter in an inscr. from Delphi ; where, 
however, we should naturally have 
supposed that the diphthong is shortened 
before the following vowel, as in clos 
N 275, yaiifioxot Hes. Theog. 15, etc. 

540. 5zoc ''ApHOQ commonly expl. 
scion of Ares^ cf. (pvoi SfTonil^ thence 
ckUdy Pind. and Trag. ; so Qyfvd^o. 6^ 
^kBrivGiv Eur. Hec, 125. But it is far 
more probably explained by Schulze 
(Q. E, p. 498) as companion^ follower 
(<$-=d/Mi, cf. on 765, -^-=0-5-, *»crf, root 
of 6d6s : cf. Hesych. 6^€ia * Oepdweta^ 
Ao^oc • {rrnipirai), 

542. 6ni«CN kou6contcc : rd dirUna ftdpvi 
rijs K€fpa\^ KOfMaPT€S dvSpelai X^P^* ^^^^ 



cdyji/ryrai, fie/iaSn-ef; opefcrrjiaiv fi€\irji<n 

T&i S* a/jM reaaapd/covra fieXaivai vrjefs cttovto. 

ot S ap AB'qva^ €lj(pv, ivKTifievov irroXieOpov, 
SrjfjLOv 'Ep€j^^?Jo9 fi€ya\i]TOpOf;, ov iror *A0ijvrj 
Oph^e Ato9 Ovydrrjp, tckc Sk ^elBtopofs dpovpa* 
KaS S* iv ^AOijvTjc^ eUr€v, km hit iriovi vrj&i' 
€v6a Si fiiv ravpoiai koI dpvetol^ tkdovrai 
Kovpot *A0r)vaLa}v irepireKKopivtov ivi^avr&v 
T&p avff 'q^efisovev vlo^ TlereSio TSJleveaOevf;, 



648. 6pcKToTa Q. 644. •cbpoxac P. |i pAocnui Strabo. || cti)«cc9i(n) PR. 
649 om. Pap. a. || dei^NH P : a^i^NOic G. || lifi : In ACHQS Eton. Laud. Yr. a b. |i 
NH^ : bAiUA P (7p. NM&i) R : Na& U {supr, h). 660. IXdocoNTCu P Yr. A : 

iXdotrro S mpr, 662. tAn d* CGJQ Eton. || aC G Eton. 

S^ TOVTO Trjs rOif "Edfioitav Koupdst rb 
STTiffdtv rds TfUxat ^adtlas ix^^^y Schol. A. 
So of two Libyan tribes, d fih MdxKvcs 
rd iwUruj KOfjJov<ri rijs Kc^Xiji ol Si At/trees 
rd ifAwpoffOCf Herod, iv. 180. Compare 
Ofy^€i SjcpdKofioi A 533 ; the Abantes 
themselves seem to have been a Thracian 
tribe, Strabo x. 445, Herod, i. 146. 
These seem all to indicate that part of 
the head was shaved according to a tribal 
fashion, such as is familiar to us in the 
case of the Chinese, whereas the usual 
Greek practice was to let the hair grow 
long all over ; the xdpri Ko/xSuvret 'Axato/ 
being thus distinguished from many or 
most of their barbarian neighbours. 
Compare Sir A. Lyall's description of 
the Rig'put chief, * girt with sword and 
shield, and having the usual tail of 
clansmen with their whiskers knotted 
over the top of their heads . . as 
particular about his eponymous ancestor 
as if he were a Dorian Herakleid' 
{Analie Studies p. 154). 

543. Strabo aptly refers to this line in 
connexion with the curious compact 
between Chalkis and Eretria in the 
Lelantine war, rriXe^dXois fiT) xprjcOai,. 

544. It seems necessary here to scan 
dMTflON as an anapaest ; otherwise the 
line is d(i;deKa<ri^XXa^os. See note on 

547. dRuoN: here in the strict local 
sense, recUm. It probably comes from 
root ia- of ScUo) ana means the common 
land of the tribe apportumed for tillage 
among the tribesmen, as is still done 
in the Slavonic village communities ; 
of. on M 422. So Nausithoos iSdaaar 

dpodpat ^10. In a still earlier stage 
d^fjLos indicates a yet more complete 
communism, meaning the common stock 
of what we should call 'personal' 
property, e.g. r 197 ^fi60€v, A 704 ^f 
Sij/jLoyy and P 250 di^/uof, A 231 Bri/io^dpoSt 
2) 301 KaTaSTjfio^op^ffoi. (Mangold in 
Curt. St. vi. 403-13.) 

548. T^c — fipoupa is of course paren- 
thetical — an allusion to Athenian 
autochthony — and 'A$i/ivrj is the subject 
of cTffe. The temples of Athene Polias 
and Erechtheus were always under one 
roof. So Tj 81, where Athene repairs to 
Athens, she SDvev 'Epcx^^of irvKivdv ddfiov. 
This of course means that two different 
worships, one presumably pre- Hellenic, 
had been fused; only the character of 
Athene and the priae of autochthony 
alike precluded the iisual device by 
which the older hero or god was made 
the son of the Olympian. zcid«opoc, 
the graingiver^ from ^eid, not, of 
course, life - giving, nioNi, sc. with 

550. uiN, Erechtheus ; for cows and 
ewes were offered to female goddesses. 
The festival where these offenngs were 
made was the (annual) ' lesser Pan- 
athenaia,' in honour of the two founders 
of agriculture. This naturally finds 
mention in the poems whose final 
redaction it appears to have occasioned. 

552. ncr«6^ gen. of Herett^f , as S 489 
Ilrpfe\4<ao. The three following lines 
were rejected by Zenodotos, as was 558 
by Aristarchos also, in obedience to the 
persistent tradition, evidently founded 
on truth (see Prolegomena), that they 


lAlAACX: B (n) 

Twt S' ov TTco TA9 o/iolo^ iinjfdovio^ yiver dinjp 
/coafirjaai 'hnrovf; re koI avipa^ atrTriSidra^' 
Nearwp o2o9 ept^ev 6 yiip irpoyeveo'Tepo^ fjev. 
T&i S* a/Ma irevTrjKovTa pAXaivai, vrje^ hrovro, 

AXa^ S* ix %a\afuvo^ ayev SvoxaiSeKa jnja^' 
OTtjae S' aywv tv ^ABr/vaioav Xcrravro (f)d\ayy€^, 

ot S* ''Apyo^ T €t')(^ov TipvvOd re Tci^toeaaav, 
Epfuovffv ^Aaivffv re ^adbv Kard tcokirov i^ovaa^, 



658-6 AS. Zen, 668. 5' otn. R. 664. KOCuAcaf e' PR. 666. N^croop 

d* L. 667. &rcN duOKoidCKa : rivks fire Tpiacaidcxa Bust. 668 om. AB^U 
Pap. a, Cant^ Vr. b {UtiffUrrpaTos vap^pa^e rbv arlxov rovrov ivravda^ Scirep odx 
dpicKei roif KpiTiKois Par. a). || YcTONTO : CTiicaNTO L. 660. ipjuu^mm t' PR. || 
AdNN Ccrtamen Horn, et Hes. 282. 

were an Athenian ' interpolation.* They 
most, however, be regarded as an integral 
portion of our (Attic) text. Herodotos 
mentions them (vii. 161), and Aischines 
{KUa. 185) quotes the inscription set up 
by the Atnenians in honour of the 
victory over the Persians at the Strymon, 

iK trore rijade irdXrios Afi* *ATpeL6rii<n 

iiyeiTo ^dOeov TpwiV^i' 9l/x iredloVf 
6v vo$' "Ofiffpoi iifnj Aayaii)^ iri/Ka 
Kwrfirjrijpa pdxv^ f^oxov dvdpa /jloXcip. 

There can be little doubt that they have 
ousted an older version of this part of 
the Catalogue, in which the various 
independent demes of Attica, especially 
£leusis, were mentioned by name. The 
praise given to Menestheus in no way 
corresponds to the rest of the Iliad. In 
A 326-48 Agamemnon depreciates him, 
and he is named again only M 381, 373, 
N 195, 690, O 331, always among 
secondary heroes. There seems to have 
been no genuine Attic legend about him 
at all. 

558. Here again criticism attacked 
the text at an early date (see Prolego- 
mena), and seems, from the number of 
Mss. which omit the line, to have 
affected the tradition in prae- Aristarchean 
times. But the text was certainly current 
in the time of Aristotle, who alludes 
{Rhet. L 15) to the story about the 
arbitration with Megara, to which 
the line is essential. According to 
this, Solon and not Peisistratos must 
have produced the interpolation as 
existing in the already established text. 

But no doubt the whole story of the 
arbitration is a fiction, and the Athenians 
won Salamis by force of arms. Strabo 
evidently doubts the tale (ix. 394), ol 
ftkv o^v *A0rfvaToi roiaiJnjr Tti'a cic^a<r0cu 
fiapTvpLav vap* '0/Ai^pou SoKovffti'' ol Si 
yieyapeii AvTiwapiatSifffcu a&roh oOrtat' 

AUls d* 6/c 2)aXa/uyof Ayev p4as (k re 

(k r Aly€ipo6<rarit "SKraliji re Tpiir6daiP re. 

It is evident fron> this that the Attic 
version had supplanted all others at an 
early date, and that the Megarians had 
no authentic version of their own, but 
could only suggest what might have 
stood here. The fact that the line can- 
not be original is patent from the fact 
that Aias in the rest of the Jliad is not 
encamped next the Athenians, see A 327 
ff., N 681. Indeed, the way in which 
the great hero is dismissed in a couple 
of lines, without even his father's name, 
sounds like a mocking cry of triumph 
from Athens over the conquest of tne 
island of the Aiakidai. No line in the 
Hiad can be more confidently dated than 
this to the sixth century. 

559. Taxi^cocoN: the 'Cyclopean' walls 
of Tiryns are as great a marvel at the 
present day as in the time of Homer. 
But this is the only mention of the 
town in H. ; the fame of it must have 
died out long before the end of the 
Mykenaean epoch. 

560. KOTCxo^oac, enfolding the deep 
(Saronic) g^Uf. The word applies of 
course to the territories, not the cities. 
There is no sufficient analogy for taking 
ix^vffai by itself as intrans. = lying. The 
Argive domain, viz. that centring in 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


Tpotf^i/' 'Hioi/a? re teal afiTreXo'epr ^^iriSavpov, 
oX T eypv AXyivav TS/Ldarfrd re Kovpoi Aj(at,&v, 

xal SOeveXo^ Kairavrjo^ aya/cXeirov (f)t\o^ vlo^' 
Tolai S' afi EupuaXo9 rpiraro^ kl€v, taoBeo^ (fxo^, 
Miy/ctcrreo)? vio^ TaXcuoviSao ava/cro^. 
avfnrdvTfov S* rj^elro fiotfp ayaOo^ ^lOfirfhrj^' 
Tolac S' afjL oySwKOvra fiiXaivai vrje^ errovro, 

01 Be Mu/ciyi/a? elj^oi/, ivKTi/Mcvop irroXUdpov, 
€uf>v€c6v T€ l^opivOov ivKTifiEva^ T€ KXeoDvd^, 
^Opveidfs T ivifLOVTo ^ApacOvpirjv t iparecvijv 

2fiKva)v , ou ap AoprjoTO^ irpcjT efipaaiKevev, 
oX 0* 'TireprjaLrjv re koX alireivfjv Tovoeaaav 
HeKKrjVTfv r etypv^ ^S* Alycov d/uf>€P€fLOPTO 



662. oY T* }t%pn : nAc6n ^ ap. Strabo p. 375, Cert. Horn. 284 and yp, J. 663. 
T6bM d* CGQ. II aC G. |j After this is added TudcidMC oG ncrrpbc (x^** juUEnoc otNCidao 
in Cert. Horn, 286. 666. cOpOnuXoc Cert Horn, 288. 666. uhkict^oc [AG]J 
(sapr, od). 668. After this it d* ttNdpcc noX^uoio dcuU&ONcc Ictix^conto, 6pr^oi 
XiNO«cbpHKCC K^rrpa irroX^uoio Cert. Bom. 292-3. 671. &pNCldc : ApNodc J. || 
6paieup6lN T* : -f om. JF: napcneupbiN t* Zen. 672. cucuANa PQR. || &p* 
om. PR. II fidpacroc G^^ || IBadXcucM QRU: IBadXcuocN GGS : iuBadXcuocN 
J Lips. Yr. a. 673. OncpHcdMN GHJ Pap. a, Eton. Lips. : OncpcidHN QU {supr, 
m) : 6ficppodHN Schol. Ap. Rhod. L 176. || roN6coxm : doN6ccoaN ' before 
Peisistratos/ ace. to Pausanias vii 26. 

the plain of Argos, is split into a western 
and an eastern half, to provide a king- 
dom for Diomedes, and the name ''Ap7os 
is evidently used of the city, which 
became known only in Dorian times, 
after the fall of Mykene. For the 
following towns see Frazer Paiu. : Her- 
mione iiL 293, Asine and Eionai iii. 299, 
Troizen iii. 273, Epidauros iii. 259, 
Mases iii. 298, Kleonai iii. 82, Omeai 
iii. 217, Araithyrea iii. 76, Sik^on iii. 
43, Hyperesia, identified with Aigira iv. 
176 (Gonoessa, see Pans. ii. 4. 4), Pellene 
iv. 181, Aigion iv. 159, Helike iv. 165. 

564. 6raicXcrroO, as one of the Seven 
against Thebes, A 404-10. 

566. TaXaYoNidao,sonofTalaos. This 
is one of a number of patronymics 
formed with a double termination ; 
another case of -luv + idrft is 'lawerioviSrii 
(Hes.). Forms like UTjXrfiddrjs, ^fnrridSris, 
etc., are quite similar ; they contain the 
suff. -to- (which itself is capable of being 
used for a patronymic, as TcXa/idltyios Atas) 
+ dSffi : CL on A 1 . For the double suffix 
compare Kopiy6-ia-K6-s (Angermann C. 

St. i. 1). Mhkict^goc, i.e. MfiKurrifos. 
See on A 489. 

568. The second added line (v. supra) 
seems to come from a seventh century (?) 
oracle, given in Anth. Pal. 14. 73. Cf. 
note on 528. 

570. Ar. observed that when the poet 
speaks in his own name (here and N 664) 
he calls the citv * Corinth ' ; but puts in 
the mouth of the hero Glaukos the older 
name *E<p6p7jf Z 162. See, however, note 

572. np^^ra : Adrastos, originally a 
local god, had according to the legend 
been driven from Argos, and dwelt with 
his grandfather in Sikyon, where he 
gained the royal power, but afterwards 
he returned and reigned in Argos. The 
worship of Adrastos at Sikyon was 
vigorous in the time of Kleisthenes 
(Herod, v. 67), and is also found at 
Megara (Paus. i. 48. 1), but the legends 
all locate him at Argos. Sikyon (locally 
l,€Kvu)v) se^ms to be a later name for 
the older MrjKdyri (Hes. Theag. 536), 


lAIAACX: B (ii) 

AlytaXov t avh irdvra koX dfuf)^ 'Eki/erjp evpelap, 575 

T&v CKarov inf&v fjpx^ KpeLmv ^ ArfafiAfivtav 

^Arpetirj^. a/jua r&i ye iroXif TrXelarroi, koI apurrot 

\aol errovT* iv S' avro^ iSvaero vtopowa j(a\Kov 

KvBiocov, irdo'ip Sk fjL€T€7rp€7r€v fjptoeaaiVt 

ovpcK apuTTO^ irjv, ttoXu Se TrXeiarovs aye \aov^, 580 

ot S' el'Xpv /coiXrjv AaKcBaifiova icqTd^aaav 
^dplv T€ XTrdpTtjv T€ iroKvTprjpfovd re M.iatrrfv, 
Upvo'cia^ T ivifiovTo Kal Avyecd^ ipareipd^, 
ot T dp* 'A/ii5«\a9 €tj(pv ''EXo9 t €<f)a\ov irroXUOpov, 
oX T€ Adav €lj(pv r)S' OtTv\op dfJul>€V€fiovTO, 585 

T&v oi dZelsj^eo^ ^PX^* /3or]v dya0o<i M€i/6Xao9> 
k^KOvra v€&v dirdrepOe hi Ofoprjaaovro. 
ev i auT09 icUv fjiai Trpodvfurjiai TreTrotBw, 
oTpvvfOP 7ro\€fi6vS€' fidXiaTa Sk tero OvpAi, 
riaaaOcu 'EXiiMy? opfirjfund re OTOi/aj^a? re. 590 

0? Se YlvKov T ipifjLovTo koI ^Api^vfjv iparecvijv 

678. IdliccTO Ar. AH : yp, [^O]cccro J : IdOccrro 0. 679-80 dB. Ztn. 

679. naaN di Ar. (in one ed.) Zen. : kq) nda H Par. k : 8n naci(N) O. 68L 
rtp^ KaierdccooN (Zen. ? v. Ludwich). 682. 96pHN G^ (and rd vXeUa rwr dr* 

Tiypd<f>u)y East). || ulcCHN : u^cthn U {supr. fl u^cchn) : •(gBhn Max. T^. 
683. Bupcdac GJ. || aOrdac -^ G. 686. oTtuXon : firuXoN J : oT niXoN l^nnumio 
P (and yp. J) : oT Tii90N R (9 in ras.). 

676. AInciX6N, the N. shore of Pelo- 
ponnese, afterwards called Achaia. Td^N 
is gen. after vtjmu, ships o/t?tese/olk, 

578. Ncbpona is found six times in 7Z. 
and twice in Od, (w 467, 500), always as 
an epithet of xaXxdy. It is generally in- 
terpreted gleaming^ shining^ but the 
denvation of the word is quite uncertain, 
and of many interpretations that have 
been proposed none is convincing. 

581. KofXHN A. KHTcibcccaN, L. lying 
low among the rifted hills, Krp-tJbtffffaM 
perhaps refers to the numerous ravines 
which are characteristic of the Laconian 
mountains. There was another reading, 
attributed to Zen. by the scholiast on 
5 1, Kaierdcffffoyf which was explained 
to mean ' rich in Kateros ' (said to be = 
KaKafuv66Sf mtn/), but might equally 
mean * full of clefts, * from Kcuerol {ol dirb 
rCiv aeia/juav j^wxM^* Strabo) ; cf. KcUara 
=6p6yfiaTa ^ tA inrb <rct<riMa¥ Karappayima 
X^P^^i Hes., and KoudSaf, the gulf into 
which political criminals were cast at 
Sparta. See M. and R. on 9 1. 

587. dndrcpec i.e. Menelaos' contin- 

fent was independent of that raled by 
is brother. For 590 see 356. The 
line, whatever be the interprotatioii of 
the gen. 'EX^y^;;, is far more natonlly 
used of the chief sufferer Menelaos t^y" 
of the Greek army at large. 

591. The site of Nestor's Pylos was 
disputed from the earliest days between 
three cities of the name in W. Pelopon- 
nesos, one in £lis, one in Messenia (the 
modern Old Navarino), and one between 
the two in Triphylia. The present pas- 
sage, and the localities named in Nestor's 
narrative, A 670 ff., seem clearly in 
favour of the Triphylian, which lay 
near the Alpheios. So too the mention 
of Alpheios in E 545 points in the same 
direction. On the other hand, the 
journey of Telemachos and Peisistratos 
from Pylos to Sparta with Pherai as a 
halfway halt, in 7 485, « 1, is only 
consistent with the Messenian Pylos; 
and the epithet -fituLdbcii implies a 
situation on the sea-shore, while both 
the Elean and Triphylian towns were in 
hilly places. So again the legends of 

lAlAACX: B (u) 


%pVOV A'K(f>€C0l0 TTOpOV KoX ivKTLTOV AllTV, 

Kv7rapLaai]€VTa koX * Afi^irf€V€cav evaiov 
nreXcoi/ KoX ''EX09 koX Atopcov, evdd re fiovaai 
ofievac ^dfivpLv rov Qpi]i/ca iravaav dothri^, 


Mktiton : ^ktLulcn* CX> {mpr, on) : cOkticton P^: Mktnton Q. 694. 
S. II <Nea re G. 595. eduupiN : yp. &uupiN J. 

^ration of the Minyan Neleus 
lessaly all take him to Triphylia ; 
dar speaks of him as Meo-o-dycos 
nd the Messenian site was clearly 
merally accepted by the fifth 
It is natural to suppose that, 

as the legends may have a 
\\ basis, the Triphylian Pylos 
iginally the home of Nestor, 
it, in consequence perhaps of 
!tolian invasion, which took 
n the W. Peloponnesos about 
36 time as the Dorian in the 

supplanted the Epeians by the 
sians, the Neleid clan were driven 
ird out of Triphylia, and took 
tiem their legends and local 

a new home in Messenia. Some 
isis of the sort seems required to 

for the frequency of duplicate 
in the region. The Homeric 
then contain traces of both the 
ad newer state of things. See 

1 R. on 7 4, K. 0. Muller 
eno8 pp. 357 ff., Strabo viii. 

where the problem is fully 
sd. So far as they can lie 
sd, all the towns here named are 
ian, and Messenia is entirely 
, unless with the scholia we 
[esse (582), named among the 
3f Lakonia, to mean Messene. 
us. iii. 25. 9 testifies to a Mcsse 
linarou, evidently the town here 
led, though Strabo viii. 364 
lot to know of it. Christ has 
3d that the list of Messenian 
named in I 149-56 may come 
lost part of the Catalogue dealing 
Bssenia. For the remaining sites 
:er : Arene iii. 481, Klir6 (Aipeia) 
, Kyiiarissei's iii. 462, Helos iii. 
»rion iii. 445, Oichalia iii. 408. 
0pOoN, evidently the QpvUaaa 
A 711. 

t6n Opi^YKQ, that Thracian. 
•is, like Orpheus, was one of the 
ry Thracians who dwelt in Pieria 
■oot of Olympos, and from whom 
us of the Muses was said to come. 

In Hhesos 921-25 the Muses speak of 
the time 

IldTYouoy dpydvourtv i^aKtifUvau. 
MoD(rai, /uyUrTrjv els (piv tie\<ai5las 
8€UfQi awfMrrijL QpTjiKlf KdTwpXuxraficp 
OdfivpiVy df ijfjLcjv v6\\* 484 waff €v t4x^V^* 

It will be noticed that the Hhews places 
the scene of the meeting in Thrace, and 
beyond question the legend was origin- 
ally a northern one, transplanted south- 
wards, perhaps, in the course of the 
same tribal migrations which carried the 
name of Olympos from Thessaly to Elis. 
In 1. 730 below Eurytos and Oichalia 
are placed in Thessaly ; and there also, 
according to Steph. Byz., Hesiod made 
Thamyris at home, in A(^iop, the Dotian 
plain, a name which bears a curious 
resemblance to Aibpiov. Commentators 
have generally tried to save the con- 
sistency of the Catalogue by supposing 
that Thamyris was a wandering bard, 
who found himself at Dorion, far away 
from the Thessalian pichalia, in the 
course of his travels southward. But, 
apart from the fact that Homer knows 
nothing of wandering minstrels, and 
tells us only of bards attached to a 
particular chieftain's court, there is 
clear evidence that the Oichalia legend, 
which played an important part in the 
later Epos, was localized in Peloponnesos 
as well as in Thessaly ; see 13 ff. (of. 
224) and Pherekydes in the scholia on 
Soph. Track, 354. Pausanias iv. 2. 2 
says that the Messenians claimed, in 
proof that theirs was the real Oichalia, 
possession of the bones of Eurytos. 
There was, however, yet a third claimant, 
near Eretria in Euboia, which was 
generally recognized by later poets, the 
OlxaKlas "AXowtf attributed to Ereo- 

Shylos, Soph. Track, 237 and Ap. 
:hod. L 87. We may therefore easily 
admit that the Catalogue recognizes two 
different localizations of the same legend, 
in preference to supposing, with Niese, 
that the compiler has fallen into a mere 


lAIAACX: B (ii) 

OijdoXirjOev iovra irap ^vpuTov Olj^aXirjo^' 
arevTO yhp evypp^evo^; vixTjaifisv, et irep &p aifrai 
fiovaai deiBoiev, Kovpai Ato9 (uyc6j(pio' 
ai Se ^dXxoad/iepcu irripov Beaav, avrkp aoiSrjv 
Oeaireairjp dxfyekojrro koI etcXAXadov KtOapiarvv. 
Tcjv ai0* rjyeiJLOv^ve Veprivt.o^ iirirora Nearayp' 
T&i S* ivevriKOVTa y\a<j>vpal pee^ iaTij(p(i)VTo, 

ot S' €y^ov ^ApKaSirjv viro Ki/Wt/i/t;? opo^ aliru, 
AlirvTiov irapk rvfi^op, Xv avipe^ ^X*A"^X^Tat, 
ot 4>ei/eoi/ t ivifioPTO teal Op'^ofiepop iro\vfi7j\op 
^Viirqp T€ %TpaTLrfP t€ koI '^pcfioeaaap ^Epiairrip, 
Kal Teyerjp eljfop Kal Maimpirjp ipareiprip, 
XrvfiifyrfKop t €ly(pp koI Happaairjp ipifioPTO, 
T&p fjp^ ^Ayxaioco Trot? Kpeioyp ^Ayainjpayp 
e^KOpra pecjp* 7ro\€€9 S ip prji eKda-TTfi 
^Ap/cdBe^: apSpe^ e/Saipop iTnardfiepoi iroXefd^eip. 
avTo^ ydp a<\>iP B&k€P apa^ dpBp&p ^Ayafiifipoyp 




697. ipxdiMNOC C. 600. Kieapicr^ GHJPQ^ (S supr.) Yr. b, Mosc. 1. 

601. T&N d* CQ. II aC G. 602. T&i : t^n S. 603. kuXXi^nnn S Vr. b. 

608. napNadoN 6. 612-4 dO, Zen. 

blander through mistaking the name 
Dotion for the Messenian or Arkadian 
Dorion. The localization of this place 
is purely conjectural (Strabo viii. 350). 
The southern Qy^halia was placed at or 
near Andania. 

597. CTcOro, boasted^ see on Z 191. 
This is the only case in H. of cl &v with 
opt., but there are 26 (or 28) of ft k€ {M, 
and T. § 460, ff, O, § 318). It is 
difficult to see that any particular shade 
is given by the particle. In accordance 
with Humeric usage it is more likely 
that the original sentence is to be con- 
ceived as pi/n^oi, efirep &y dxliouv than 
to regard the opt. as representing a subj. 
of direct speech. 

599. nMp6c. a doubtful word, tradition- 
ally explained Uindy as in Aesop 17 
d.v^p mip&t : cf. ^u^Xiifffafiev in Jihes, 
ut sup. Others say maimed^ deprived 
either of voice (so Ar.) or of the right 
hand, or more vaguely helpless ; and in 
this general sense the word is common 
in later Greek. This certainly gives a 
better sense, for as Ar. says, comparing 
64, blindness does not disable a bard. 
Indeed, music is always the natural pro- 
fession for the blind. The rv^Xbi Mip^ 

oUeTdi Xluiivi waiTaXoiatrrfi (Eynaithos ?) 
of Hymn. Apoll. 172 naturally suggests 
itsel ('. Teiresias, Da phnis and St*-sicnoro8 
are other blind bards, ace. to the legends. 
aOrdp is continuative, as 465, etc., and 
moreover, bff\€ka90H : for this trans, 
use of the red u pi. aor. cf. O 60, and 
XeXaxco' always (H 80, X 343, etc.). 

604. The Arkadians are never men- 
tioned again in H. except H 134 in a tale 
of Nestor's, though tneir sixty ships 
formed one of the largest contingents to 
the army. The tomb of AimtoH son 
of Elatos is mentioned by Pausanias 
(viii. 16. 3) as being still shewn at the 
foot of the mountain Ziprla. See Pind. 
01. vi. 33. For Pheneos see Frazer 
iv. 235, Orchomenos 224, Tegea 422, 
Mantineia 201, Stymphalos 268, Par- 
rhasia 306. 

605. Coins and the inscription on the 
famous Plataian Tripod shew that, as 
with the Boiotian town (511), the old 
local name was *Epxofi€u6i. 

612-4 were obelized by Zenodotos ; 
but they are obviously designed to meet 
a possible 'historic doubt,' and cohere 
with the rest of the paragraph. Nothing 
of the sort, however, is suggested for the 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 97 

v^a^ ivaaikfiov^ irepdav iirl otvoira ttovtov, 
^ATpetSf)^, €7rel ov cr^t OaXdao'ia epya fiCfu^Xet, 

ot S' apa ^oxnrpdaLov re koX ''HXtSa ilav hfaiov, 615 

oaaov i<f>* "Tpfiim) koI ^vpaivo^ iaj^aToaxra 
irerpf) r 'flXo/tiy koI *A\€i<riov eWo? iepyei, 
T&v aJf riaaape^ o>pj(pl eaav, ietca h avBpl eKaoToyi 
vrj€^ hrovTO 0oai, iroXAe^ S' efi^aivov ETretot. 
Tcop fi€v ap * Aful>ifjLa'^o^ koI 0a\7rAO9 fiYqa-da-Oriv, 620 

trie? o fikv KreaTov, 6 S' ap' Evpvrov, ^ Ajcropitove* 
T<M)V S' * AfiapxryKetBrj^ ^PX^ tcparepo^ ^idpr}^* 
Tcav Sk T€TdpTQ)V ^PX^ Tlo\v^€ivo^ OeociS'q^, 
vio^ ^Ayaa-Oiveo^ AvyrjidSao avcucro^, 

ot S' €K ^ovXi'^ioio 'Ep^ti/ao)!/ 0* Updoov, 625 

injaav at vaiovai iriprfv a\6^, "HXtSo? avra, 
Ta>v aiO^ fiyepJiveve ^eyrf^ araXavTO^ "April, 
4>i;Xe^<Si79, ^v ri/cre Su<f>i\o<; linroTa ^vXev^, 

616. I9' : O9' Q Eton. Mosc. 1 : A G. || OfiufNHi Zen. || ^crr^ccca R Vr. a. 

617. dXikiON Steph. Byz. ap. Eust. : AXfaoN Ar. on A 757. || l^roi Vr. b'. 

618. Apxa) J. 619. IBoinon PR. 621. Ap* om. CQ {yp. 8 dk cOpOrou A. J). || 
AicropkoNC Ar. A(S 8upr.)U Par. e^ g^: dirropfcoNoc U. 622. AjUMpuncXcidMC 
R (djuapuncddNC Ri"). 624. dracMN^coc PR. 626. aT : ot Zen. || n^paN G. 
627. TOm V CP Vr. A. || aO G. 

ThMsalUn tribes, some of whom are as of Kteatos and Eurytos (not of course 

landlocked as the Arkadians. the same as in 596), as * sons of Aktor/ 

615. See A 756 for Buprasion, the at least as putative father. But the 

Olenian rock, and Aleision as landmarks patronymic is here, as often, transferred 

of Elis, and Frazer Faiu. iii. p. 466 for to the grandsons ; AlaKlSris is a familiar 

Hyrmine. The four localities in 616-7 case, and Priam is Aapiwldrjt from a 

seem to be regarded as being at the four yet more remote ancestor. The vulg. 

comers of the valley known as KolXfj AicToplcaifos probably comes from N 185 

*HXif. There is a slight confusion of where only one brother is mentioned ; 

construction in 6ffaoif iirl . . ivrbs here it is less suitable than the dual. 

i4py€L, or, in other words, the object of For the curious legends about the sons 

iipy€i is not, as we should exj)ect, and of Aktor see A 709, 4^ 639. 

as we find in O 544, fiaaoy, but 'HXtda, 626. aY. Zen. ot : but 17 29 {ddfMs) vcdei 

to be supplied from the previous line. and the analogy of vaierdav as applied 

Instead 01 6(r<Toif iiri, the usual phrase to places by a sort of personification 

is 6<rop T* ivi (P 12, H 451, 358, etc.). (A 45, a 404, etc.) are sufficient to justify 

The distance of iirl from the verb for- the reading of Ar. and mbs. So Soph, 

bids explanation by tmesis, nor is Aj. 597 S) Kkuvh, ZaXafxis, ad fUv tov 

i'r€4prf€iv found elsewhere in H. There vaUiz aKlxXaKTot xrX. The Ecliinean 

would seem to have been a fourfold islands as a matter of fact lie opposite 

tribal division of Elis. 'Encio{ was the Akarnania, a considerable distance N. of 

proper name for the inhabitants of Elis, Elis ; but the Homeric geography of the 

A 671, the name 'HXeiot having probably W. coast of Greece is apparently based 

come in after the Dorian and Aitolian on imperfect hearsay, not on knowledge, 

invasion. Dulichion cannot be identified. It can 

621. 'AxTopkoNC is properly the title hardly here be Leukadia (Sta. Maura). 



lAIAAOC B (ii) 

09 irore ^ov\i')(i,6vS* afrevdatraro irarpX jfciXxoOel^ 
T&i S' a/ia Tea-a-apoKovra fiikacvai vfje^ hrovrp. 

avrhp ^Ohvaaeif^ ^e K6^aXX^va9 fieyaOvfjLov^, 
ot p ^\daKf)v el'X^ov icaX ^rjpnov €lvoa'i<f)vWov, 

Kol lK.pOKV\€l, ivefJLOVTO Kol Av^iXt/jTa TpfJ')(€laV, 
OL T€ ZaKVPOoV ij(pV ^S* ot XdfJLOV afuf>€V€flOVTO, 

0% T ffTreipov S)(pv ^S dvriTripat evifiovTO* 
T&v fikv ^OSva-a-ev^ ^PX^ ^^^ firjriv aToXavTO^' 
T&i S* afia vrj€^ erroPTo BvdBeKa fuKroirdpr^ioi. 
AIt(oX&v S' rffeiTO %6a^ ^ hvipaifJMvo^ vlo^, 
ot IlXevp&v ivifJLOVTO xal ilXevov rjSe IlvXi^vrfv 
^jaXxlSa T arpfUCKov KaXi/Sfii/a re irerpi^eaa'av 




629. douXixioN GS Lips. Yr. a, Mosa 1. || AncNt^ccrro R: AncNdoorro PR™. 
681 d$. At. ? (A has obelos but no schol.). 682. cTyoN om, PR, adding t' ^oun 
at end of line. 688. kpokOXmn Eton. || TpoYcTcm GJ {9upr. m) 17 {supr, m). 

684. cduHN Zen. {Afierpoy t(huv An.). || yp. Ad' ai oduoN Aju^in^uiokto Par. d. 
686. Ad' : oY d' QS : oY t' H. || AimnipaN Yr. c, Mosc. 1 : Antui^ S. 

629. Phyleos had to leave his home 
because he bore witness against his 
father Angelas, who endeavoured to cheat 
Herakles of the reward promised him 
for the cleansing of the stables. See 
Pind. 0. xi. 31. In N 692, 619 Meges is 
still king of the Epeians ; the legend of 
his migration northwards to the coast of 
Aitolia looks like a reflex of the migration 
of the Aitolians S. to Ells. Such in- 
vasions were commonly justified as 
bringing back an expelled family to 
their old realm. The case of the 
Herakleidai is the most familiar, but 
there are many others. 

632. clNocf9uXXoN=^y-fo<r(-, fromfo^, 
root of <a0iu)^ etc ; * making its foliage to 
shake,' Le. with trembling leafage. So 
Hesych. Kiyrfffl<pv\\oiff and cf. iyywrlyaiot, 
NApiTON, y 351, I 21. The four places 
named in these two lines seem to he all 
on the island of Ithaka ClOdicri being the 
chief town), though the Greek geographers 
located Erokyleia and Aigilips on the 
mainland, dduoc is Kephalleuia. 

635. Aimnipaia, the coast of the 
mainland opposite Ithaka (regarded as 
part of Ells). That the inhabitants of 
the islands had such possessions on 
the mainland is consistent with d 635, 
where Noemon speaks of crossing over 
to Elis, h$d fjLOi Xrwoi \ dibdexa S^XeuUy 
vird d* ijfdoyoi ToKatpyol, But there can 

hardly have been Kc^aXX^yes there. This 
was no doubt the ground for the (prob- 
able) athetesis of 631 by Ar. 

637. JuuX-rondpHioi (here and c 125), 
with cheeks painted with vermilion. 
This does not indicate so much a 
personification of the ship as a literal 
painting of a face upon the bows, the 
red paint being used as a primitive 
approximation to the colour of nesh. So 
ipoiyiKovdprjios X 124, ^ 271. Though this 
practice is not expressly recorded other- 
wise in H., there can be little doubt that 
it existed then as it did, and still does, 
all over the world, from Chinese junks 
to Mediterranean and Portuguese fishing 
boats, to say nothing of its survival in 
the * figure-head.' In early vase-paint- 
ings the ship of war has an animal's 
head for the bows, generally a pig's snout. 
The original idea seems to have been 
to give the ship eyes with which to see 
its way. (See Assmann Jahrh. d. d, 
arch. Inst. iv. 100, Torr Ancient Ships 
pp. 37, 69.) Of course the actual 

Sainting may in Homer's ships have 
egenerated into a purely conventional 
daub ; but the epithet in question shews 
that even in that case some consciousness 
of its origin had survived. Ar. remarked 
ijdrj ij ix x/x^MT(uy fd^is fjv ^(ToXd<rcura 
vpibi T^v iioypaifH.K'fip, Cf. Herod, ili. 68 
rb bk TToKaibv Ta<rai al y^€s Ijaop fuKr- 



oif yhp ir Olvrjo^ fi€ya\i]Topo^ vUe^ fjaaVf 
ovK ap €T auT09 €fjv, 0dv€ Sk ^avOof; MeXea/ypo^* 
T&i S' iwl irdvT €T€tclKto avaaaifiev PuTtokoUrL* 
T&L 8* afia TeaaapaKovTa pAXatvai vrje^ eirovro. 

KprjT&v S' ^ISofievev^ SovptK\vTO^ '^efiovevev, 
ot KvoxTov T el')(pv Toprvvd re retj^Aoecrcrav, 
AvKTOV MtXiyroi/ re xaX dpycvoevra AvKaarov 
^aioTOV T€ *¥vTi6v T€, TToXei? iv vaiCTcuoaa^, 
aXKol 0\ ot Kp^qnjv eKOTOfiTroXiv dfi<f>€vifiovTO. 
Tfov fjiiv ap" ^ISofievev^ BovpiKXvTO^ rfyefjLoveve 
^fjpi6vr)S T aTakavTO^ *FiVva\i(Oi dvSp€Uf>6vTrfi' 
TouTL S' apL oySfOKOvra piiXxuvai, vfje^ ^ttovto, 

TXrjTToKep^S S' 'IlpaKXetSfjf; rjv^ re pUya^ re 



641-2 de. Zen. 642. Mosc. (1 ?) adds Ka) TudcOc [6i] ei^Bcnc HfT* dn^Xcro 

ia6c Axak^. 648. ir^Tairro JR>»S Lips. 644. tA •' J {post ras,). 646. d* 
171. L. 646. kncocg6n CGHJQ^(so Tryphon). 647. dpn6cNTa S. || XOkqcton : 
iducipoN H (supr, A XOKacroN) : yp, xdjuupON J. 648. n6Xic A. 661. 

iNdpH96NTM R: dNdpi96NTi;; G. 663. d' om, P. 

641. For the Homeric legend of Oi- 
leus and Meleagros see I 529 sqq. Zenod. 
ibelized 641-2, apparently because Mele- 
tffroe alone is named of all the sons of 
)iDeus. The inserted line (v. supra) 
rcstifies to the surprise naturally felt at 
iie omission of Tvdeus, the most famous 
»f them. As the scholiast remarks, 
iAt6c may refer either to Oineus or to 
lieleagros, according to the punctuation. 
nAi d4 8c Thoas. 

645. The enumeration having passed 
rom Boiotia S. and W, through Pelo- 
Mnnesos and the Western islands to 
JLitolia, now takes a fresh start from the 
3. of the Aegaean Sea and passes through 
;he islands to Thessaly. The Cretan 
owns named are all at the foot of Ida 
n the middle of the island. See r 172- 
r for the Homeric account of Crete. 

646. Kno>c6c Z 591, r 178. 

647. MIXhtoq said to be the metro- 
lolis of the famous Ionic Miletos. 

649. In T 174 Crete is said to contain 
linety cities ; a divergence on which, as 
ire learn from the scholiast, the x^^P^' 
^TCf founded one of their arguments. 

651. 'ENuaXkoi diidpcY^NTHi : if this 
■eading is risht there is a violent synizesis 
>f -Oft dw' into one syllable. But we 
>aght to write ddpupdyrrn (or rather 
iSpo<ff6inyfi)f where dipt- is a lighter form 
)f dpdpi' : and so XitoOc ddpor^a U. 857 

(where see note), X 363, for dydporrfraf 
like i^pdrrj dfupt-^poroSt where the /3 has, 
like the d of dpSpi^ arisen from the nasal, 
which then disappeared [H. G. § 370 n.). 
Similar forms are &{fi)r\aKi/ifMTa Aisch. 
Euin. 934, dySi{fi)Tr\dKriTOi Sonh.O. T. 472, 
d{fi)T\aKd)v Eur. Ale. 242, wnere also the 
MSB. mostly give the ju. Cf. ddpl- dudpl, 
Hesych. In the Cyprian inscriptions the 
nasal is regularly omitted before a con- 
sonant (and so often in mod. Greek, 
e.g. dOptaTToi), 

653. In spite of this elaborate pane- 
gyric the Rhodians are not again men- 
tioned in H. Tlepolemos enters only to 
be killed in E 628 ff. His connexion 
with Rhodes is not there alluded to. It 
is impossible to suppose that a Dorian 
colony was ever admitted by tradition to 
the Trojan war ; but the triple division so 
characteristic of the Dorians is pointedly 
alluded to in 668. It is possible, of 
course, that the prae- Dorian Rhodians 
had their share in the early history of 
Greece, and that the Dorians only re- 
colonized an island already Greek. The 
intention here may be to give the Dorian 
hero an earlier possession of the island, 
and bring him there not by the Dorian 
invasion out by a private quarrel ; but 
the author manages to betray himself 
by the word rpixBd. Bergk suggests 
that the high praise of tlie Rhodians 


lAlAACX: B (ii) 

iic 'PoSou iwea vrjaf; ayev 'PoSioov 076^(0^0)1/, 

01 'PoSoi/ dfi<l>€V€fioPTO Sia rpi'^a KoafirjOevre^, 

AlvSov *lffKva6v re fcal afyyivoevra lK,d/JL€ipov, 

T&v fiev TXrjirokefjLO^ BovpcKXvTO^ '^yefiovevev, 

ov T^KCP ^AaTv6j(€ui ySiiy* 'HpaKXijeirji, 

Tr)V o^er' i^ *Fi<f>vpfjs, iroraiiov airo SeW^yein'o?, 

irepaa^ aarea TroWd SiOTpe^icov al^r}&v. 

TXi77roX€fM>9 S', eTrel otn/ Tpd<f>^ ivl fieydpcoi ivTnJKTO)!,, 

aifTLKa irarpo^ koto <f>L\ov fH^Tptoa KarcKTa 

fjSfj yqpdaKOvra, Ackv/jlviov o^ov ''Aprjo^. 

alyjra Se vrja^ eirrj^e, irokuv S' o 76 Xooi/ dr/eipa^ 

/3r] <f>€vyQ)v iirl iroirrov diretXriaav yap oi aXKoi 

vlie^ vitovoi re /3irf^ 'HpaKK/rjeirj^* 

avrdp o y €9 'Voiov l^ev dXdfievo^ a'Xr/ea Trda")(a)v* 

Tpt')(^9d Be &tKr}0€v Karaf^vKaZov, ffik ^CXtfOev 




666. dpn6cNTa S. j| KdiupON CJPR Bar. Eton. Vr. b c A. 668. AcnidducM 
Schol. Pind. 0. vii. 24. || ApoicKciciH Q : ApaxXdHi Zen. {Afurpov ttouop An.). 669. 
rkn ArcT* : THX6ecN Strabo viL 328, viiL 339. 660. dioTpo9^N HL. 661. 
Tpd^cN tnX PQR Vr. A : rpA^' 61 Vr. a : Tp6^€T' kn Mor. Bar. Vr. c : tpAfH 
kn G. 663. fizoc U {supr. n) A™ (T.W.A.). 666. ft' tkti BA 9cOrciN Schol. 

I'ap. a (v. Ludwich ad loc.). 666. ApoxXdHC Q^. 667. aOrdp : aTifwi d' 

Zeu. II Akcn G : Azcn Mor. Bar. 668. Ka99uXad6N Vr. a. || oT d' i^iXHMN Cant. 

points to the time of their naval supre- 
macy, perha{)8 about 900 B.C. The legend 
of Tlepolemos is given in Pindar 0. vii. 

654. ArcpcbraN, apparently a desperate 
word ; many aerivations have been pro- 

fosed, but not one carries conviction. 
t is applied by Homer to the Trojans, 
the Mysians, and once to an individual, 
Periklymenos, X 286. In Homer and 
Pindar it seems to be a word of praise, 
but later writers use it to mean * over- 
bearing,' * haughty.' Pindar applies it 
to things, N. vi. 34, 0, xi. 78, P. i. 50. It 
is common in Polybios, Plutarch, Philo- 
stratos, etc., though not found in pure 
Attic. I give without comment a number 
of proposed etymologies. (1) AyoM yepad- 
X<n (At.) ; (2) dir6 rod Hyav ivl yiptos 
dx^Bat {M. Moij,) ; (3) 5td rb dycLpew 
6xMt ro&rtm. rpo^yfiv : (4) i.yilp€iv 6xovs, 
assemblers of chariots (Diiderlein) ; (5) 
dyelpciv, w^iJf, swiftly gathering (Bott- 
cher) ; (6) dYofy) ^po^J (suff. -x©-), violent, 
impetuous (Gobol) ; (7) dya-^ ^pa, ^w, 
having much land (Suidas) ; (8) dyatuptas 
fx^iy, holding themselves proudly (Pott) ; 
(9) adj. dyepSij root (I7, to admire, hence 
dyeptixrtrei (Hesych.), and d7^/)«xof= ex- 

citing wonder (Schmalfeld) ; (10) = d7^- 
\avxoSf the bull proudly leading his 
herd ; Bergk {Gr. LU, i. p. 129). 

669 = 531. This river Selleeis (dif- 
ferent of course from that mentioned 
839, M 97, in Asia) was according to Ar. 
in Thesprotia, in the country of tlie 
ZeXXo/ (II 234) ; others said it was in 
Elis, and that Herakles took Astyocheia 
when he overthrew Angeias (so Strabo). 
For the name *E^6pH see note on Z 152. 

661. The aor. Tp<&9c is here, as always 
(cf. 4^ 84, 90), intrans. , and should appa- 
rently be substituted for the pass, rpdtpvi 
which occurs only in P 201, A 222 (note 
the reading of G here). So rpd^ should 
be Tpd<f>ov in A 2r>l, 266, ^ 348. 

662. Likymnios was brother of Alk- 
mena. See Piud. 0. vii. 27. The homi- 
cide was committed in a fit of anger 
according to Pindar, but another legend 
(ap. Schol. A) made it purely accidentaL 

665. 7dp ot, M88. with Ar. ; but the 
neglect of the digamma in the pronoun 
oi is so rare that it is better to read rhp 
oL o2 dXXoc is common enough in H. : 
e.g. A 75, 264, 524, 540, and many 
other cases ; see Z 90. 

lAIAACX: B (ii) 


€K At099 09 T£ 0€olai Kol avdpfOTTOiavv avdcraec, 

teal <T<f>i,v Oetririaiov ttXovtov Kori'^^eve KpovKov, 670 

^ipeiff; ai '^vfirjOev ar/e rpel^ vria^ iia-a^, 
Nt/3eu9 ^AyXatfj^ i;/o9 ^ijapoiroio t avaxTO^, 
Ntpeu?, S9 KoXKioTO^ avrjp viro YKlov fjkde 
T&v aXXoDv ^ava&v fier afJLVfjLova HrjXetcova* 
dW' akairaSvo^ eqv, iravpo^ he oi eXirero Xao^, 676 

ot S' apa ^lavpov r €l')(pv JUpdiradov re Vidaov re 
KoL KSi/ Fivpv7rv\^to iroKiv vrjaov^ re KaXvSva^, 
T&v av 4>€tSA7r7ro9 re koI Ai/ta^o? ff^Tjadadriv, 
^eaaaXov vie Bvca 'llpaKXetSao avaxTO^' 
T&v Sk TpiTfKovTa yXa^vpal vee^ e<TTi')(ptovTO. 680 

vvv ai T0U9, oaaoL to HeKaayiicov *'Apyo<: Ivaiov 

669 de. Ar. 671. NipcOc d' QKU, \\ alcOjUHOCN QS Yr. b : toiJUHOCN FR^U 
Vr. A. 672. T am, Q. 678, 675 dB, Zen., 674 o6di fypaipev. 674. tAn V 
RS. 676. rdp ol Sncro 6. 676. xdcON : KpdcoN P. 677. K^N : kA L 

(post ras.), 678. tAn V CGQR Eton. Vr. c. 680. T&M AH J (7^. toTc) VU 
Pap. a : ToTc 0. 681. Zrfy68oros fieriypaipev oT d' ""Aproc t' cTxon t6 llcXacnKbN, 
oO«op ApoOpHc An. || nOn afi ToCrc : oY t' a^rol Q{supr, nOn Q^) R(ifON a& 
To6c R°*) S Par. e {yp. nOn a^roCic) j : ol d' a^roi Mosc. 1 : nOn d' aOroirc J Vr. 
a c A : nOn oOto) Vr. b : nOn toCic 9101! Scot G. 

670. There was a legend of a literal 
rain of gold sent by Zeus upon Rhodes, 
apparently founded upon tnis passage ; 
CI. iroKifv ^ff€ xp^^^^ rind. 0, vii. 50, 
fip^€ x/*u(r^ou$ ¥i<pdS€aat T6Xty ib. 34. 
KOTdx^ciN is very often used metaphori- 
cally* «•?• X^P^'' ^ 1^» 6tc., Aeyxefi;!' 
^ 408, and so it may be here ; but Pindar's 
mention of the ^avSd yc0^Xa shews that he 
understood the verb in its literal sense. 
But this line, according to a scholion on 
Pindar, was obelized. There is no 
mention of this in Schol. A, where we find, 
howerer, that Ar. obelized the preced- 
ing line, taking 4f[Kff$ev to mean 'they 
were friendly to one another in spite of 
the tribal division,' and regarding 669 
as inserted in order to give another 
explanation of 4>l\ri0€v : the line with 
its obvious padding certainly bears out 
the idea. 

671. Kireus is not mentioned again. 
The double epanalepsis is unique in H. 
For tAn ttXXoMf after a superl. cf. A 505. 

676. These are small islands among 
the Sporades, only Kos having attained 
any snbsequent importance ; the Cyclades 
are not mentioned at all. Pheidippos 
and Antiphos again are named only 
here ; the mention of their Herakleid 

descent looks as if these lines came from 
the same source as the Rhodian episode 
above. All the islands were Dorian 
colonies, but Kos at least had legends 
of colonization from Thessaly, whence 
Thessalos is brought into the genealogy. 
This is again an anachronism, as the 
Thessalian name is elsewhere ignored 

681. It is hardly possible to read this 
and the two following lines without 
feeling that originally Achilles was the 
leader of the whole of the Thessalians, and 
that bis restriction to three paltry towns 
in 682 is merely a device to make room 
for the localization of other Thessalian 
heroes. As it stands, the effect is almost 
like * all the peoples of Britain, who 
dwelt in Greenwicn and Woolwich and 
Blackheath, and were named Saxons and 
English and Danes.' The Pelasgian 
Argos, properly the central plain of 
Thessaly about Larissa, a long way from 
Phthia, is in the sequel stretched to com- 
prise Thessaly in the widest sense, and 
even Dodona in Aitolia. There can be 
little doubt that Hellenes, Myrmidons, 
and Achaians were originally three dis- 
tinct tribal names of Thessaly, all under 
the suzerainty of Achilles, as the South 


lAIAAOC B (u) 

oX T "hXov oX T ^AXoirrfv oX re Tprj^lv^ €P€fiovro, 

oX T €tj(pv ^0if)V Tih^ *EXXaSa KaXKif^vvaiica, 

^vp/uSove^ Se KoXevvTO koI ''FtWijve^ Kal *A^atot, 

T&v av irevrrjicovTa ve&v ^v ap'yp^ 'A^tWev?. 685 

oKK oX y ov irdkefwio Bvafjj(€o<: eiiV(i>ovTO* 

ov yap €fjv, 09 Tt9 <r<f>i,v iirl (rri'^a^ rjyri<Tai,TO. 

kcIto yhp iv vrieaai iroSdpKtf^ Sio^ 'Aj^tWeu? 

Kovpfj^ j((o6/JL€vo^ 3pt<n}tSof; rjvKO/Moto, 

Tr)v €K Avpuffo-a-ov i^etkcTO iroXXA iioyrjaa^, 690 

\vpvf)aaov htairopdriaa^ Kal rel^ea &i^firj^, 

KctS Sk Mui/iyr' e^aXev Kal ^^irLarpot^ov iy^eai/uipov^, 

viia^ Ftinjvoto XeXfjiridSao avaKTOS' 

682. TpHxTN* (TpMXCiN Pa)), a) iNiuONTO Q : TpHxtNO N^ONTO Ar. || ol Si 
ypd4>owTip oY •' *'AXoN oY •* *AXioOn»* oY tc Tp. 6i. Strabo. 688. 9«cikn Pap. 
a. 684 0771. P^ Lips. Yr. A. i| d^ : tc Q. W KoXcONTai Q : KoXoONTai G. 680. 
tAn d' P. il aG : ap P^ 686-694 &0, Zen. 687. Ihn. 6c TIC : IcriN 8nc Q. || 
Tfc: TiCH^. 690. 6i XupNMcc&i ZeD. 692. uONMTa BdXcN G. || 26ciXcN : 
XXoBc E. 

was under the suzerainty of A^memnon. 
In I 447 Hellas, the home of Phoinix, is 
clearly distinct from Phthia, the home of 
Achilles. But in I 395 the Achaians 
seem to include the inhabitants of both 
Phthia and Hellas, a first step to tlie use 
of the Achaian name for all prac- Dorian 
Greeks. Similarly the Myrmidons are 
identical with the inhabitants of Hellas 
and Phthia in X 496. The confusion 
that reigns in the use of the names is a 
reflexion of the intermixture consequent 
on the great migrations from North to 
South, of which the Dorian and Thes- 
salian invasions were a part. See Bury 
in J. H, S. XV. 217 ff. This is the only 
case in H. where the name Hellenes 
occurs, except in 530 IIovAXip'cj. The 
introductory words nOn aG are evidently 
used to mark a new and important 
section of the whole. toOc is used as 
though the poet meant to continue with 
iffxere or ipita, 

682. These towns are all in the extreme 
south of Thessaly, round the head of 
the Malian gulf, in the same district 
as that assigned to Protesilaos (695 ff.). 

686-94, athetized by Zen., are evidently 
added to adapt to present circumstances 
a passage originally describing the 
mustering of the whole host. So also 
699-709, 721-28. ^buMdboNTO, i.e. ^^d- 
oirro= fUfAv^Koyro. The only other form 
from this pres. stem, in ^he sense ranem- 

ber, is fu^tadfjueyoSf d 106, o 400 ; elsewhere 
fiifdeffOai means to woo a wife. ducHX^oc, 
from Axot, Ka/cd Axv ffepnroiufv^ the vowel 
being lengthened, us so often in com- 
pounds, at the point of juncture. Cf. 
SwnyXryTjj from dXyoj. The alternative 
der. from (f )i7X'). as if Jierrisonus, takes 
no account ot the F ; and even if we 
wrote Tro\4fiov SvaFrpc^os with van L. 
tlie epithet would not suit ddparoi 
(II 442, etc.). 

687. An^oorro, potential opt. after fc 
Ti$ without dv, as X 348. (Other 
instances in Af. and T. § 241.) Inl 
cHxcic, inio the ranks drawn up for 
battle. So T 353 M arlxas iXro, 
r 113 tmrovs Upv^av ixl arlxaSt brov^ht 
them into line. 

690. For the original home of Briseis 
see on A 184. Mynes was her husband 
according to the tradition, though there 
is nothing in H. to shew it. She was 
captured on the same raid as Chryseis, 
A 366. 

692. For the termination of Irx* 
pouc see A 242. The anticipation of the 
future course of the story in 694 is 
paralleled in 724, but is not in the 
Homeric style ; the Epic poet occasionally 
speaks of future events as prophetically 
known to his characters, but foreshadows 
them in his own words only in suspicious 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


oi S' el^ov ^vXd/CTfv xal Tlvpacrov dvOefioevra, 695 

Ai^/MfjTpo^ T€fJL€vo^t "'Irtovd T€ fjif^ripa fiijXoav, 
dyxyiKov t 'Avrp&va ISk TlreXebv \ej(€7rolrjv^ 
T&v ai Jlpayrea-iXao^ dprilo^ ^efioveve 
(fci>09 i(ov' roT6 S* rjSrf eyev xdra yala pAXaiva. 
Tov Sk KoX d/i(f)iSpv<f>rj^ aXo^o^ ^v\dKr)t iXekeiiTTO 700 

Koi SofjLO^ i7/uT€Xi79' TOV S' SxTape AdpSavo^ dvtfp 
VTfo^ diroOpfoio'KOPTa iroXv irpoiTtarov 'Aj^atfir. 
ovik fi€v ouS' ol dvap')(pi eaav, irodeov ye p^v dpjfpv 
dXKd <r^€a^ Koap/qae HoBdpKf)^ o^o^ ''Aprjo^, 
I<f>iK\ov vlo^ iroXvp^rjkov ^vXaKiSao, 705 

avTOtcaaiyvrfTO^ p£ya0vp4)v UpayTcacXdov 
oirXorepo^ yeperjf 6 S' ap^ irporepo^ Koi dpeicov 
fjpa>^ TlpcaTeaiXaof; dprjlo^* ovSe Tt Xaoi 
hevovff' rj^ep/ivo^, irodeov ye p>€v eaffXov eovra* 
rm S* apu Tea-aapdtcovra p^eXaivat vrje^ cttovto. 710 

6M. 6Ncri)Gaooai 1/ (c supr. over ac) : dcn^ccoeai (or d(N)cntoaoeai ?, MS. 
ANcrrdooceai) Zen. 697. drxi^HN Zen. || dNdp^NO J. || fidk 6Q. || Ix<"o{hn Q. 
700. di kq) : hi KCN U, 701. ddpdoNOC &N^p : faiduuoc Ibcrcop Dem. Skeps. 
ap. Schol. Lykophron 531. 707. rcNCJiN Schol. A 60. || &ua Ar. : fipa Q. 

708. oOd' Cn H Vr. a. 709. rc JUl^N : re u)n G : d< juun S. 710. tA •' J. || 
TcoocpdKONTa A. 

696. The asyndeton shews that AAuh- 
r^ucNOC must be in apposition with 
I^rasoe, and is not the town ^rjfufirpioVf 
explained by Ar. as distinct from PyraMOS. 
See Strabo ix. p. 435, and cf. 506 lloaiihfiioy 
dyXa^p d\<rot in ap(K>sition with Onche.stos. 
These towns surround Alos at the head 
of the Malian gulf. 

699. KdrcxcN, as T 243. Protesilaos' 
ship plays a prominent part in the Hght- 
ing later on, N 681, 705, n 286. 

700. &U9idpu9i)c, explained by A 393 
Tou a yw€UKi» fUv T dfi<pidpv<pol (lai 

701. AjuutcXj^c fJTOi arcKvos ^ iL^iprfj- 
fUvot TOV iripov tCjp SetnrorCjv fj 6LT€\€i(a- 
TOf* iBon ydp fjP Tois yr\pLairi BdXafioy 
oUo9o/Uiff6au (Schol. A). The first ex- 
planation is best ; he has only half com- 
pleted his household, as, though marri* d, 
he has left no son. Cf. Soph. 0. T. 930 
TorreXV ^fMpy * because the wife's estate 
is crowneil ami perfected by the birtli of 
children ' (J ebb). The list ia founded 
upon Otlysseus' description ofhis >MiiMing 
his own marriage-chiamber, ^ 189 sqq. 

Cf. also A 227 r/ifias d" 4k BaXd^ioio . . 
Xk€to. But 96/aos cannot mean 'wedding- 
chani>>er.' The AdpdoNOC ^Ap was 
variously said to have been Aineias, 
Euphorbos, or Hector ; the latter was 
the name given by the Kypria, Demetrios 
of Skepsin (vide supra), and Soph. (fr. 
443) ; but Ar. held that it was certainly 
wrong, as Hector was not a Dardanian 
stri'tly speaking. 

703. ollbk uhi o6d' ol, yet neither 
were they ; an emphasis is thrown on 
the o2, which is not easily explicable, for 
there does not seem to be any striking 
contraNt with some other leaderless band 
8U(th as the words would imply. In 
726 they come naturally, as two lost 
chieftains have already been mentioned. 
The line is simply copied here from 726. 

708-9 look like a gloss intended to 
explain the apparently ambiguous 6, and 
filled up from previous lines so as to 
make two hexameters. 

The towns following (711-5) lie N. 
and (716-7) £. of the head of the Paga- 
saeau Gulf. 


lAIAAOC B (u) 

ot Sk ^€pct^ ivifiovTO irapaX ^oifirjtBa \ifiinfv, 
MoiP'qv teal T\a<f>vpa^ koI ivKTifUvrjv ^IcuoXkov, 
T&v i}/>x' *A.Sfnfroio <f>tKo^ irai^ evheica vrf&v, 
^vfifjko^, TOP xnr *ASfii^T(oi, t€K€ Sia ywaiK&v 
"'AXKrja'Tis, IleXiao duyarp&v elBo^ aplarrf, 

ot S' apa ^7f0(ojnjp xal Savfjuucir^v ivifiovro 
Kol MeXiffoiaP ^01/ xal *0\i^&va rprf^elaVf 
T&v Sk ^iXoKn^rr)^ ^PX^> To^eav iv elSw, 
errrct v€&v iperac S* iv cKcumji irevnjtcovra 
€fi/3€/3a€raPt ro^tov iif elSoTC^ l<f>i, fjLdj(€<T0at, 
aW' o fikv iv vrja-cDt kcIto Kparip aX/yea Trda'j(<a)v, 
A'qfjLvoyt iv rjyaOii^c, odi fiiv Tdirov vle^ *Aj(^ai&v 
eXtcec fjLO')(6L}^ovTa Kax&c 6\o6<f>povo^ vSpov 
evff o ye kcIt aj(ioiV' Tdj(a Se /Mvija-ea-Oat efieWov 
^Apyeiot, irapa vqval 4>tXo/CTi7Tao avaicro^, 
ovSe fi€v ovB^ ol avap')(pL eaav, irodeov ye fiev ap')(pv 
aXKoL MeSo)!/ Koa-firjaev, ^OtKfjo^ voOos vlo^, 
Tov p ereKev 'Vrjvq xnr ^OjXrji 7rTo\nr6p0o)i,. 

ot 8 el^ov TpLKKfjv KaX \d(Ofir)v tcKwpuKoeaaav, 
oX T e'xpv Oi'xaXirjv iroXiv F,vpvTOv Ol'^dkcrjo^, 
T&v av0^ r)yei<r0Tjv Aa-tcXfjirLov Bvo walSe, 





711. napa) BoifiHtda XLuuihn : Kar Movs Id^ kpi^nmn ^nipmoM Schol. Find. 
F, iy. 125. 712. cOicrfucNON G Harl. a. || laoXxbN GPR Harl. a. 718. t^^ d' 
Yr. a. 716. ncXfdao J. 717. ucXfBoicm : nrrOdON Steph. Byz. || AXaftiia 

J. II Tpdx^cm G. 718. tAn aG Arcu6NCuc ^iXokti^thc, 6roc AiidpAN Zen. 

724-6 (6 ?) de. Zen, 724. d' iMcrkcncmaa H {supr, liNiiccoeai). || AucXXcn Pa)>. 

a^ mpr. o. 727. AXXd : ToCrc dk Zen. 728. Cm6 IXAY J (7^. On' 6TXAT). 

729. kXumk^cooon A Pans. iv. 9. 2 : kXhucdc^cooon G (and R supr.) : KX«Aucn^cc- 
CON P. 731. T^^ aG G ^ Vr. b. || Ati^csmn Q. jj naTdcc P. 

719. Sophoklea evidently follows this 
line {Pha, 1027), frXeOffwe* irrd t^awrl 

720. For T91 Bentley conj. ifiiy perhaps 
rightly ; but see note on Z 478. 

723. dXo6^pOMf is used in //. only of 
animals (0 630, P 21), in Od, only of 
•men (a 52, k 137, X 322). There is no 
other allusion in H. to the story of 
Philoktetes, but it must have been per- 
fectly familiar as an essential part of the 
legend of Troy. Zen. athetized 724-6 on 
the same grounds as 686-94. Medon 
appears again in N 694, but there he is 
leader of the Phthians with Podarkes (704 ). 

729. There is now a jump from the 
SE. to the W. of Thessaly, whence 

came the cultus of Asklepios, which in 
historical times had its chief seat in 
Epidauros, though the temple at Trikka 
was always famous. (The oldest myth 
takes us to Lakereia on the Boibeian lake, 
which we have just left, 711.) Homer 
does not represent him as anything more 
than a mortal chieftain, A 194. kXomui- 
K6cooGm (At. Xry.), t^ rpaxetay koI tpni 
^v0-a# Schol. By ToXXd dvojcXifiara 
ItxowrcWf KpTifUKohj Hesych. Der. and 
reading are alike uncertain. KXtfuuch- 
€a<rcuf might perhaps be used of terraced 
hill-sides, like staircases. For Oichalia 
and Eurytos see on 595. 

731. 'AocXHnioO : read *A<rK\riTi6o, see 
on 518. 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


Tol? Be TpirjKOVTa y\a<l>vpal i/€€9 ioTfXpcDVTO, 

ot S' ^j^ov ^Opfiiviov 01 T€ Kprjvqv "Tiripeiav, 
oL T €j(pv ^AaripLOV TtTcivoio re Xevtca Kaprjva, 
T&v fipx ^vpvTTvXx)^ ^FiVaifJLOvo^ 07X009 u/o9* 
T&i S OLfia TeatrapaKovra fiiXaivai vrje^ eirovTO. 
ot S' ''Apyva-a-av ej(pv icaX Tvprdvqv ivifMOpro, 
"OpOrfv ^KXdovrjv re irokiv r ^OXooaaova Xevfci^v, 
T&v ai0* fff€fiovev€ /Meveirroke/Mo^ Ilo\u7roLTfj^, 
vlo^ Ueipidooco, Tov addvaro^ TCfcero Z6U9» 
TOP p xnro TletpiOoat reicero kKvto<; 'lirirohafieia 
rjfjuiTi T&i, 0T€ (fyfjpa^ irLaaro Xo;^i'i7€i/to9, 
T0U9 S' €/c TlrjKiov Sxre fcal AidiKeatri, ireXaaaev 
ovK 0Z09, a/ia T&i ye Aeovrev^; c(fo9 ''A/M709, 
vlo^ xnrepdvfJLOLO Kopdvov KaivetSao' 
T0Z9 3* o/xo reaaapaKOvra fieXaivav vrje^ eirovro, 

Tovvev^ S' eK Kv<f>ov ffye Bvo) koI evKoa-t vrja<i' 
Tcoi S' 'Ei/A^i/€9 hrovro fieveTrroXefioi re Hepai^ol, 




732. lorrftp' R : iHrApc KciXd> G. 733. tAn dk ap. Did. 786. ol d' P. 

737. TCOCCpdKONTa A. 738. fipmooN AGHR Pap. a : ttpnooN CQ Bar. Lips. 

Vr. a : yp. ttprocm J East. (o-Tdytd nva rG)v dyriypdipiav), 740. tAn d' S. || oQ 
G. 741. AodNOTON Zen. 744. alefxcca : alm6ncca Demokrines. 747. 

tA P {supr. oTc). II &JJM : fipa Vr. c. || TccccpdKONTa A. 748. Koi cTkoq : 

] KOI doc [ Pap. ^ 749. IniAncc : yp. fip' YcoXoi Steph. Byz. (?). 

734-6. We make another jump back 
to Magnesia, this group of towns being 
anionff those assigned to Eumelos, 711-5 : 
17 d* Tx4p€ia Kpf^Pfi iarlp iv fUarn t^l 
itpaUov irbXti Strabo ix. 439. See note 
on Z 467. For KdpMNa of cities cf. 117. 

738. We now go to the N. of Central 
Thessaly, the home of the Lapiths (M 
128), near the later Larissa. Oloosson 
is said to be stilt, under the name of 
Elassona, conspicuous for its white lime- 
stone rock. Strabo says (439) that all 
these towns were Peraibian till the 
Lapiths seized them. Here it is the 
^pcf who are driven out. 

741 is a very clumsy line as the text 
stands ; 742-4 seem meant to supplant, 
not to follow, 741, and to bring in the 
later myth of the Centaurs and Lapiths, 
of which Athens made so much. As the 
iigbt took place at the wedding of 
Peirithoos and Hippodameia, clearly 
T^ccro = conceived. For the other al- 
lusions to the tale see on A 263. 

742. kXut6c, fem., cf. e 422, Z 222, 
T 88, and even 5 442 6\winaroi ddfii}. 
H, O. §§ 116 (1), 119. 

744. The Aithikes apparently dwelt 
in Pindos, to the W. of Thessaly. One 
Demokrines actually read Al$i6fW€<r(rif 

749. No Peraibian towns in Thessaly 
are mentioned, as they have been already 
given to the Lapiths. The explanation 
of Strabo is that these Peraibians are a 
portion of the tribe who had been driven 
out of their old homes in the plain, and 
lived scattered among the mountains, 
while the bulk of the tribe lived mixfd 
up with the Lapiths. If this is meant, 
it would seem that some of them must 
have crossed into Aitolia, for there can 
be no question that it is the Aitolian 
Dodona which is named ; though, on the 
other hand, it is hard to escape the 
suspicion that the poet of this passage 
supposed it to lie in Thessaly. The 
Thessalian Achilles prays to the Pelasgian 


lAIAACX: B (u) 

ci irepl A(oSd)vr)v hvfryeLfiepov oIkC eOevro, 
01 T a/M<f>* ifiepTov Tirap'^aiov Spy* ivifiovTo, 
09 p 69 Tlr)V€ibv irpoUl KaWippoov vB(op, 
ovS* o ye Hfjvei&L a-v/i/Miayercu apyvpoSivrji, 
aWd ri fiiv KaOvirepOev eTrtppiec rjvr Skaiov 
opKov yap Setvov Xrvyof; vSarof; iarcv airoppd^, 

MoTi^TO)!/ S' ^px^ UpoOoo^ TevOprjBovo^ vio^, 
ot irepl Tlr)V€i6v xai Ili]\tov eivo<riff>vXKov 
vaUateov r&v fikv UpoOoo^ 0oo^ fjyepJiveve, 
rm S' afia TeaaapaKovra p^Xaivai tnje^ eirovro. 

ovTOi, ap fiyefJMve^ ^ava&v teal Koipavot fjaav. 




751. Spr* kniujOHTO Q: Xpra N^uoNTO Ar. 764. cnippci Pap. ^. 756. 

TCpepMd6NOC S : Tcu»pMd6Noc L 9upr. 759. Tccccp^Konra A. 760. Accof : 

XcQN C, supr. c over c. 

Zeus of Dodona in 11 233, and this may 
have caused the mistake. There was 
indeed a legend that the oracle of Dodona 
had been transferred there from Skotussa 
in Thessaly, but of this Strabo, p. 329, 
in an unfortunately mutilated passage, 
speaks with marked incredulity. There 
must, however, have been some early 
religious connexion between Thessaly and 
Dodona, which may have led to the 

751. TiTQpiiaoN, the later Europos. 
Bentley's TiTaprj^adp is most tempting, 
because of F^pya^ and of the analogy of 
other place-names in -rfffads : cf. Luoan 
vi. 376 Defendit TUaressos aquas. But 
unfortunately it contravenes the rule 
that lengthening by position of a vowel 
short by nature is not permitted before 
the bucolic diaeresis. What idea the 
poet had in his mind about the meeting 
of the rivers it is hard to say. It is saia 
that the Europos is a clear stream which 
is easily to Im9 distinguished for some 
distance after it has joined the Peneios 
white with chalk ; but AprupodfNMi is a 
strange epithet to use for a river if the 
emphasis is laid on its want of clearness. 
The connexion of the river with the 
Styx is no doubt due to the existence of 
some local cultus of the infernal deities 
of which we know nothing. Xpra, tUthy 
as M 283, in a purely local sense of 
tilled fields. The word is of course 
common in Homer in the pregnant sense 
•of agricuitural labour. 

755. 5pKoc here, as often, means the 
object sworn by, the * sanction ' of the 
oath. Cf. O 88 rb Kareifib/juevov Srvyds 

Cdtapf 6s T€ fUyurros \ 6pKos SeipArards re 
x{\€i fjLaKdp€(r(n 6€c!i<ri. For the origin 
of the oath by the Styx see Frazer 
Pajis. iv. p. 253. The water was supposed 
to be fatal to life, so that the oath was 
originally ' a sort of poison-ordeal ; the 
water would kill the man who forswore 
himself, but spare the man who swore 
truly.* In Herod, vi. 74 there is a case, 
the only one recorded in history, where 
the Arkadians are asked to swear by the 
Styx ; so probably ' when the poets 
made the gods swear by Styx, they 
were only transferring to heaven a prac- 
tice which had long been customary on 
earth.' For Anoppdbs cf. «c 514 KtitKv- 
t6s d\ t% ^^ 'Zrvybs tbarbs ianv d,iropfnii^, 
and see M. and R.'s note there on the 
rivers of the infernal regions. 

756. Once more we make a jump back 
to the E. ; and again we have a tribe, 
the Magnetes, without any cities, as the 
towns of Magnesia have been already 
enumerated and apportioned among 
various chiefs, Philoktetes, Eumelos, 
and Eurypylos. And here no theory of 
a separation of the tribe will help us, as 
these Magnetes are expressly located 
about Pelion and the Peneios, the very 
country that we have already been 
through. Strabo fairly gives up the 
puzzle in despair : ioiKaaiv oZv {ol Oartpctf 
AySfxaroi) dib, rds <n/yexets fieraardacis xal 
^^aXXd^ecs tQv iroXtreciDy Kal irifd^eis 
avyX^'^^ /cal rb. dvbfiara koI rb. iOyrj (ix. 
442), which is a mere admission of the 
impossibility of any historical criticism 
of this part of the Catalogue. 

760. The ships enumerated amount to 



Ti9 rap T&v o')^ aptoTO^ erfv^ av fiot ewewe, fiovtra, 

avT&v TJB tinroyp, ot a/jL ^ ATpetBrfunv hrovro. 

vmroi fiep fiey apiarai i<rav ^rfprfridBao, 

r^9 'Eu/ii/Xo? tkawe iroSeoteea^ ipviOa^ &^, 

OTpiyas; oleria^, araifivXfji iirl v&tov iUra^* 765 

Ta? iv Tlieplfji Opeyjr apyvpoTO^o^ 'AttoWo)!/, 

dfuf>cD OrjXeia^, ^o^ov ''Aprjo^ ff>opeov<ra^, 

avhp&v ai fiey apiOTO^ erjv TeXafuovto^ Ata^, 

o^p 'A^a\€U9 fJL'^viev' 6 yctp iroXv ^epTaro^ ffev, 

761. Tap A : rhp S Vr. b : T* ap a 762. drpddaiaN G. 763. ficcm 

OQR. 766. IccT^c P(R9ifpr.): Icocr^c Mor. Bar. 766. In: koI Par. h. || 
nicpfm : nHpcbi Pap. a, J {supr, ci over Mp : yp, kn racp{M J™) East. : nMCpba 
A. (nicpiM A» T.W.A.): 9MpiH Harl. d. 768. hndft&H d* HQ. 769. 

pIpTOTOC Ar. : 9^pTCpoc JQS Harl. d, Par. d e f h, Vr. b. 

1186. Thuc. i. 10 suggests that by 
taking a mean between 120, the largest, 
ind 50, the smallest number mentioned 
for a ship's crew (see 510 and 719), we 
nny gain an approximate idea of the 
lumbers of the Greek army. The mean 
twing 85, the total on this plan will 
X)me to just over 100,000. 

763. ^pHTiddao, another *pappo- 
DTmic' (see on 621). Eumelos was son 
>f Admetos, son of Pberes. It is of 
x>unie possible that tbe poet meant that 
the horses were the horses of Admetos, 
lod only lent to Kumelos by his father, 
>r inherited, as in the case of the 
^i^X^Mu IrTot of Nestor, A 597 ; but this 
j9 not likely, cf. 4^ 376. 

765. ^irpixac olcrlac, <me in coats and 
in years. The 6- is the same as in 
Urarpot, A 257, but the relation of it to 
the commoner d- (for sm-. short form of 
9em-f one) is not clear. Cf. also Aydarutp' 
hfuydartop by the side of dyd(rrop€S- 
&6cX0o2 didvfiM in Hesych., and 6fi6s by 
IfjuL The 'I' of oleriai presumably 
represents only the lengthening by ictus 
before F of dFer^as, Cf. Hesych. autrfi' 
ri aOroerfj beside drr^a* rd rwt ain-Qi 
fret y€y¥(i)ijje¥ay and again uenjs* 6 airro- 
rHit. Wackeriiagers explanation olFo- 
FeHft {olFot = one) leaves the other formfe 
unaccounted for. See Schulze Q. E, 
p. 495. cra90XH (distinguished by 
iceeut from <rra0uXi), a bunch of grapes) 
is explaine<i by Schol. A as Xao^oiWdt 
Sca/Si^riTt, df Afia rXdros xal D^of firrpet, 
Le. the still familiar mason's level, con- 
listing of a plummet hanging in a 
T-iquare. The sense is that the two 

mares were exactly of equal height at 
every point as measured by a level across 
their backs. Reichel remarks (if. W, 
22) that such equality was important 
when horses were harnessed to the same 
yoke across their necks. 

766. The reading here is doubtful. 
UTipeLrii seems to be merely an itacistic 
variant ; though Steph. Byz. and 
Hesych ios mention a town of that name 
in Thessaly, nothing more is known of 
it) and it is probably only a deduction 
from this line, supported by the fact 
that the position of Pieria is clearly too 
far north. Besides, the horses were 
evidently bred by Apollo during his 
service with Admetos at Pherai. Hence 
Valckenaer conj. ^pcLrji, which has a 
shade of Ms. support, and would be 
satisfactory but for the fact that the 
Thessalian town is ^pal (711), ^pai 
being in Mcssenia. But the patronymic 
^priTiddrjs points to some variation of 
quantity, as it is evidently connected 
with the name of the town. 

767. 96B0N ''ApMOC 9opcoOoac, carry- 
ing the panic 0/ loar into the ranks of 
the enemy. Cf. note on E 272 ix-fyrrtapc (?) 

769. This and the next line are an 
awkward interpolation, apparently in* 
tended to bring the Catalogue into 
harmony with Tines such as 4^ 276. 
Schulze Q. E. p. 349 has shewn that the 
scansion iiifvU is purely Attic, the pen- 
ultimate being always short in H. He 
suggests with great probability that 768 
originally ended irdai CtKin 'AxtXXei^, 
and was followed by 771. Euripides 


lAIAACX: B (n) 

tmroi 0\ ot ^opeeaKOV afivfiova HrjXettova. 

aXX' o /Jikv iv vrjcatri teoptDvio'i irovTarropouri 

kcIt airofirjvLO'a^ ^AyafU/MVOvt iroifj^vi. \a&v 

ArpetSrjL, Xaol Si iraph prjyfuvL ffa\d<rcr7j^ 

BlaKot(TLV repTTovTO teal atyaverjiciv Uvre^ 

TO^oiiTiv • Xinroi hk irap apfiaiTiv otatv etcacTo^ 

Xo)Toi/ iperrrofievoL ikeodpeinov re <ri\ivov 

iaraaav apfiara S' ei freirvKaapAva Keiro avatcrmv 

iv KXtaifjc^' oi h ap')(pv apr)t(f>iXov iroOiovre^ 

<f>oLTtop €v0a Kol €v0a Karh arparov oifBe fid')(0VT0. 

ol h ap tcav, ft)9 et re irvpl j(0ci>v iraaa vefiono 
yaia S inreoTevd^c^e Atl &? TepiriKepavvtot 
'^coofievtDt, 0T€ T ap^pl Tv<f)a)ii yalav IpAacrTji 




772. dnoJULMPadcac Bar. Mor. || nouc[Ni Pap. (. 778. napai H : ncp) U supr. || 
pHTiMiNi Pap., a. 777. d* cfi : V aO PR: dk U, \\ cmcDcroc Pap. a. 778. ol 
d* : Ad' Vr. b. 780. TcaN : Xcoon P. 781. OnccroNdxizc JPQRS Pap. a 

Harl. a: OnocroNdxizc GH. 782. XOOOuiNOOl : dpUrrapxoi oUrut' rivit x^^^"^^*^ 

<i)s dir' AWrjt dpxvt Schol. Pap. o (Did.). \\ T am, G : r* Schol. on O 17. II -ni9^bNi P : 
TU^caia Pap. a. || ludcoa CGQ((7 e corr,) Vr. a. 

Iph, Aul. 206-26 clearly had the passage 
before him, but knows of no horses 
fleeter than those of Eumelos, with which 
Achilles competes in speed of foot. 

771. Kopooifia, a word recurring only 
in the phrase vrjvffi k. No doubt the 
ordinary expl., curved (of the upward 
curve at bow and stern), is correct ; cf. 
Kopibv% of the curved handle or hook on 
the door (a 441, etc), and the tip of the 
bow (A 111). (A. few ancient commen- 
tators explained ' black as crows ' !) 

772. wioJULMifioac : the 6iro- here seems 
to be intensive, as in our vulgar phrase 
'raging away,' giving full vent to his 
anger. So also H 230, I 426, T 62, r 
378. Cf. r 415 dTcx^aipctK, T 183 
dxapiaaaaOaif I 309 dTrofnrelv, ^ 49 dxo- 
Bavfidaait and Lat. destuvire^ etc 

774 = d 626. alroN^iiaN, either from 
a{^, as a spear for hunting goats, or from 
dt(r<T(a : the former derivation is supported 
by c 156, where they are actually used 
against goats. 

777. ncnuKocu^ia, wrapped up with 
covers, t^tXm, as E 194, to keep them 
clean while not in use. In 4^ 503 the 
word seems to be used in a hyperbolical 
sense, 'hidden by its ornaments.* 

780. We have two more short similes 
describing the march to battle, in addi- 
tion to those of 459 sqq., to be followed 

by others at the beginning of T. 780 
seems to be an exaggeration of 455, and 
to refer to light, which is as great as if 
the whole earth were on fire. The idea 
is not the same as in A 596 ^td/avorro 
d^/iaf irupds aXOopivoio. N^uorro is pass, 
only here. The act. means to deai out 
or drive to paature (( 233) ; the mid. to 
feed upon (of fire, ♦ 177), to inhabit^ or 
to possess (Z 195). 

781. The connexion of Zeus rtpwixi- 
pavpos with the phenomena of a volcanic 
district has been thought to allude to 
the violent electrical disturbances which 
often accompany eruptions. "Apujua is 
said to be a volcanic region in Kilikia, 
or, according to others, in Mysia, Lydia, 
or Syria. The latter name suggests 
Arairif the native name of Syria. 
Evidently Arima or the Arimoi are 
best located in mythland. A, perhaps 
following Ar., gives ElpaplfioiSf and so 
Virgil must have read, Aen. ix. 716 
* durumque cubile Inarime lovis impeiiis 
imposta Typhoeo.' The metaphor of 
lashing reappears in the story of the 
defeat of Typhoeus by Zeus in Hes. 
ThAog. 857, where he is described as a 
monster with a hundred snake's heads 
spitting fire, the son of Gaia and Tartaros. 
So also Pindar, in a magnificent passage 
of Pyth. i., where his birthplace is given 



etv 'A^t/i049> 00c <f>aal Tvifxoio^ efifievai eifvd^' 
aJ9 apa r&v viro iroaal fie^a aTCva'^^i^ero yaia 
ep'x^ofievoDv fiaXa B* &Ka hUirp'qaaov irehLoio. 

Tpcoalv S* ayyeKo^ ^\0€ irohrjve^o^ wfcia *I/)t9 
Trap A^09 aiyiojfpLO avv a^eXirjt aXeyeivfjf 
ol S* arfopk^ a/yopevop iirl Upidfioio dvprjto'i 
irdvTe^ 6/Mfjyepie^, rjfiev veoi, rjBk yepovre^. 
arf^ov S* iaraphni irpo<r€ifyq iroha^ a)Kea *I/)i9* 
eXaaro he <l>0oyyifv vh Upcd/Moto TloXiTfji, 
09 Tpdxov a-KOiro^ Ife, TroSayKeiijiat ireiroiOfos, 
TUfi^coi, iir aKpordrtaL Klavrirao yepovTO^, 
Biyfievo^ orrrroTe vav<f>iv d<f>opfjLr)0€i€v 'Aj^atot* 



783. Some add X^^^P^* ^i dpu6cNTi, *TdMc hi nbNi 'bifuMM Strabo. 784. 

croNoxixcTO CGHPQR^/* Harl. a (with c supr, over c instead of o). 789. 

AuMrup^cc P Vr. a. 790. ucWd^m Vr. b (and H supr.). 791-5 d$. At. 791. 
Kxrro Pap. a. \\ bk: rhp S Vr. b. || dccuiiNM Eust. || Mt AR Vr. a : ul«T J Pap. a. 
792. nodeoKcfaia G. 798. cucuiKrao Pap. a. || rIpONTOC : fiNaxroc Pap. ( Q 

(and yp. J™). 

as Kilikia, bnt his prison as beneath 
Cumae and Aetna. 

785. di^pMGOON ncdfoio : for this local 
gen. see ff. G. % 149 ; it ^ expresses a 
▼ague local relation {uHthin, in the sphere 
of, etc).' 'This use of the gen. is 
almost confined to set phrases ; accord- 
ingly it is only found with the gen. 
in -oio (the archaic form).' Cf. 801, and 
12 264 Ua trp^aufuv 65oTo, and note on 
A 483. 

786. We now come to the Catalogue of 
the Trojans and allies, introduced by a 
short narrative. 

788. The gate of the king's palace has 
always been the place of justice and of 
audience among eastern nations ; a 
familiar example is the * Sublime Porte.' 

791-5 were obelized by Ar. on good 
grounds : ' if the advance of the Greeks 
was all that had to be announced, there 
was no need of the goddess ; but if 
the Trojans lacked courage and had to 
be persuaded to advance, the goddess 
roust appear in person. When the gods 
take human shape, they are wont to 
leave at their departure some sign by 
which they may be known. The message 
is not adapted to the tone of a son 
speaking to his father, but is intense 
(iirirerafUvoi) and reproachful ; and the 
words of 802 do not suit Polites ; it is 
Iris herself who should impose the 
command.' On the other hand, 1. 798 

is rather suited to a human warrior than 
to a goddess. But the whole passage 
seems forced, and out of place. 804-5 
should belong to a description of the first 
landing of the Greeks (compare the 
similar advice of Nestor 362-8, and the 
building of the wall in H 337-43) ; and 
it has been remarked that as a matter of 
fact the numbers of the enemy must 
have been largely reduced by the tenth 
year of the war, especially as the Myr- 
midons are no longer among them. 
Robert {Bild u. Lied "p. 17) has shewn 
that Polites was probably the Trojan 
sentinel in the Kypria, so that the 
whole passage probably comes thence 
with the rest of the Catalogue. 

793. The tomb of Aisvetes is not 
again named as a landmark ; but other 
barrows are mentioned in a similar man- 
ner, e.g. 811, and the tr^juo 'IXou K 415, 
A 166, 371, 349. 

794. b^ixmoc, apparently a perf. part, 
with irregular accent. So also I 191, 
S 524, V 385, Trorid^yfieyos H 415, 1 
628, K 123, vTod^yfieyos v 310, ir 189. 
Cobet would read SixM^^o^ (^ form 
mentioned in the Etym. M. and found 
as a variant on I 191 in A) as a non- 
them. pres. His objection to the text, 
however, applies only to the ordinary 
view that diyfievos is an aor. form 
(id^firfp) which is plainly unsuitable to 
the sense waiting. For other cases of 


lAIAAOC B (ii) 

*' & yipov, aid roi /mvOoi <f>[Xoi axpiToi ela-^v, 
©9 ttot' iir elpi^vfj^' TroXe/x-o? S' a\iaaTO^ Bptopev. 
9} pJev hrj fiaXa ttoXXA iJM')(a^ elarjkvdov avSp&v, 
aXX' ov TTco TOiovSe ToaovSi re \abv SircDTra' 
\Lr)v yctp tf^vWouTLv ioiKore^ fj yjrafidOouriv 
epypvrat ireBioco fiaj(fja6fi€voi, irporl aarv, 
''FiteTop, aoi S^ fjMKi><n eirniKKopui,, &h€ Be pi^cu* 
TToXXol 7^^ KUTct aoTV fiija Tlpidfiov iirtKOvpoi, 
aWfj S* aWcDv yK&traa iroXvairepetov avOpdyrrtov 
rouTLV €ica<no^ avrjp <rrjfiai,v€T(o, olai irep ap')(€i, 
T&v S* i^rjy€i<T0(D, Koa/Mrja-dfievo^ 7ro\ti7Ta9." 

W9 €<l>a0\ ''FiKToyp S' ov rt Oea^ iiro^ rjyvoLrjaev, 
alyjra S* eXva arfoprjv iirl T€V')(€a S iaaevovro. 




796. JULIN : c]9iN Pap. ( : G91N J (7^. juun). || accmcNM Pap. a. || npoc^H ACP 
Vr. a : ucr^M il (and yp. A). 797. &C noT* in* : cibc t^ nor Pap. a : ooc tc 

noT Pap. I : &cncp In' 6. 798. Kdn ukM Ar. (A mpr,,T.W.A.) S Harl. d, Par. e 
j, Vr. b : fi dJi ukn Par. h (and yp, J^). After 798 Pap. ^ adds CNea idoN rfXcicrouc 
9purac a]Ncpac aio[XonoaXouc = V 185. 799. toT6n tc U. 800. Xfcm J {yp. 
XImn) : XciHN Pap. (. 801. npori Ar. Zen. Aph. {Asupr,, T.W.A.): ncpi O. 

802. &b€ hk Q : &bi re [G]J : dibi n L. 803. KOT^ : n[cpl t Pap. (. 801. 
noXucnop^N S. 806. d' om. U {add. IP). \\ faMn^caco Q. 807. C9crr Pap. 

a. II ArNcbHOCN H : mfnoimiocn Pap. a. 

perf. without reduplication see H. O. 
I 23 {otda, llpxc^'ratf iaacu, ? Upcvro 
O 125, and one or two other doubtful 
forms). Or Siyfievos itself might be a 
syncopated present ; there is probably 
no reason for supposing that tne atfec- 
tion of X ^y M ^9 confined to aor. and 
perfect stems. This is apparently the 
view taken by van L. Bnch. p. 384 ; 
dix^fo^ may then also be a non-theni. 
pres. = d4x-^^ (M 147). NaO^iN: this 
form of yaOs occurs only for an ablatival 
gen., with a specially locative sense. 
H. O. §§ 164-8. 

795. JUUN in this phrase is to be taken 
with npoc^M. 

796. 9iXoi is pred., ttxprroi {endless, 
see on 246) goes with fiOBoi. 

802. "'EKTOp, col hi : for the use of d4 
cf. "H^cuo-re, aol W, Aisch. Pr. V, 8, 
and notes on A 340, 640. 

804. Cf. A 437-8, and X 364-5 old re 
TToWoin pSffKti ycua fU\<upa Tro\v<rT€p4as 
avOpiinroviy where the epithet is more in 
harmony with the metaphor of men as 
fed by the soil ; here it means no more 

than widely scaUered, and even so is not 
appropriately used of certain definite 
tribes, instead of mankind at large. 
But if the passage is to be saved from 
ludicrous weakness, we must omit both 
803 and 804 ; the iniunction then be- 
comes, not an absurdly obvious piece of 
tactical advice, but a call to immediate 
action, such as the context requires: 
'let each commander give his men the 
word (to advance) and lead them against 
the enemy.' As Greeks and Trojans 
always talk freely together, it is absurd 
to suppose that the Trojans and their 
allies had difficulty in understanding 
one another's language. Cf. note on 

805. For CHuoiN^Tfio cf. A 289. 

806. noXu^c a Herodotean form not 
recurring in H. ; toX^t^s is found only 
668, X 429, rf 131, p 206. 

807. ArNofMOCN, 'the word which led 
astray the interpolator of 791-5,' accord- 
ing to Ar., may quite well mean 'did 
not ignore,' i.e. disobey (Schol. A). 

lAIAAOC B (ji) 


fot a iTnnje^ re* iroKv^ b opv/iaybo^ optopet. 
ean Be ta9 Trpoirdpotde ttoXao? alfrela KciXwvrj^ 
TTcBUoi dirdvevOe, ireplBpofio^ evOa xal evda, 
V fi rot avSpe^ ^arUiav KtKkriaKovaiv, 
^dvaTOL Be re aijfui iroXvaKdpOfiOLO Mvpivr)^' 
9a Tore Tpw€9 t6 BiifcpiOev r)S' hriKOvpoi. 
Tpoxrl p^v ryyep^veve p4ya^ KOpvdaioXo^ "FttcroDp 



I 6purjuuid6c CGHJPR^. 811. n6XMOC J (i siipi-. over n) L'^ : ndXic U 
813. BoTCKiN Pap. a. 814. noXuacdpuoio P. 


ndocn dvrl rod SXai (and so M 
r., i.e. the gates were thrown taide 

because, with the doubtful excep- 

£ 789 irv\cd ^apddtucUf H. does not 
to have conceived Troy as having 
ites except the Skaian. But in aU 
;her phrases (A 65, N 191, 408, 
to., and even t 389) to which Ar. 
d to support his theory of rSis = 
he emphasis lies on the fact that 
lole of something is affected when 

ht have been only a part ; the 

ty here obviously is that we can 
' conceive a part of a gate being 
1 ; Tcurat could at the roost mean 
K)th the <rayld€S were opened, not 
ily, and then it would obviously 
unnatural phrase. It is better to 
er the poet as conceiving Ilios, 
1 great towns, as many-gated, but 
f naming the oue gate which was 
ily recorded by his tradition. 

The tomb of Myrine, like that of 
es, is not again named in the 
but both names are probably 
onal, and do not look like the 
ion of an interpolator. Myrine is 
o have bt^n one of the Amazons 
nvaded Phrygia (P 189). She is 
tly the eponym of the Aiolic 

Myrina ; Kyme and Smyrna 
Y derived their names from 
)ns, Strabo 550, 623, 633. For 
inguage of gods and men see A 
rijy fikv drjfitod€<rr^pay dv0fniyirois rijy 
Bij dcots TpocrdirTeif Schol. B. 
Bcrrfcia = Brier hill. 

The Catalogue of the Trojans 

notably from that of the Greeks 
J evident want of detailed know- 

of the countries with which it 
Three groups of towns are given. 

two without any tribal names (828 f., 
835 f., 853 f.), all lying along the Helles- 
pont and the south shore of the Euiine. 
Niese suggests that these may probably 
be taken from an early form of the 
Argonautic legend, 'as they all lie on 
the course there taken. The rest of 
the Catalogue contains only names of 
tribes with occasional mention of a 
single city. The arrangement of the 
allies is radial, not concentric, along 
four lines running NW. (844-50), E. 
(851-7), SE. (858-63), S. (864-77), 
the extremity of each line being marked 
by TrjXe or TijXdBey, The Trojans and 
allied tribes form a central group 
(816-43). There are serious differences 
from the rest of the Iliad ; for instance in 
K 428 ff. we have a list of Trojan allies 
omitting the Paphlagonians (who do 
not reappear in the Iliad) and Kikones 
(P -73 only, and Od.), but including 
the Leleges and Kaukones whom this 
Catalogue omits, though they are named 
again in T 96, 329, ^ 86. Ennomos 
(860) and Nastes and Amphinomos (875) 
are not slain by Achilles in the fight 
at the river as we have it in ^, In H 
511 the leader of the Mysians is not 
Chromis or Ennomos, but Hyrtios. On 
the other hand, several lines seem to be 
taken from the Iliitd^ e.g. 822 from M 
99 f., 837-9 from M 95-7, 831-4 from A 
329-32. This all seems to point to 
older material worked up ana partly 
adapted to this place. xopueafoXoc ex- 
plained 6 aldWtaVf 6 Kivdv r^ KbpvOa 
waving the helm, or more simply with 
sparkling helm, cf. note on E 707. 
Grammarians and mss. vary in the 
accent, many writing -aibXos as in the 
simple adj. 



HpuLfiiSrj^' afia t&c ye ttoXu irXelarot xal apiOTOt 
\aol 0(opTiaaovro fiefxaoTe^ iy^eitfcai. 

AapBavicov avr fjpx^^ ^^^ irai^ ^XyjfUraxi 
Alv€La^, Tov VTT ^Ay^uTTfi Tifce SV *A<}>poSiTrf, 
*'ISi;9 iv KV7)fiolai Oeit ^pOT&t €vpr)0€laa, 
oifK o2o9, cifia t&i ye Svco ^Avn^vopo^ vU, 
'Ap^eXo^o? T *AKd/jLa^ re, fid-xtf*; Of elSore ttcmtt;?. 

ot Be ZeXecav evaiov xriral iroha veLarov IS179, 
a<f>v€iol, TTLvovre^ vScop fiekav Alaijiroio, 
T/)«69, T&v avT ^px^ AvKCLovos 07X009 Ut09 
Hdviapo^, &i KoX To^ov ^AiroWcov 0VT09 eScoxev, 

ot S' ^ AiprjCTeidv r eX^pv koX Bfjfiov ^Airaiaov 
KoX TltTvetav e^pv koX Trfpeirffs opo^ alirv, 

vie Sua) M€/}07ro9 TlepKcoaiov, S9 Trepl irdvrtov 
rjiSee juuivroavva^, ovBk 0^9 7roASo9 eaaxe 




817. T^l rt: T6^d€ P. 818. Juicua^bTCC CHJPQt/: 819. aOr' : t* aXh^ 

P: b' aOr' U: t* aO L: t* R. 820. ArxacH . . a^podmn Pap. o* (-hi . . -h 

Pap. a-). 821. KNi^JUHa Q : KN^Juaia G. 823. ApxiXoxoc R. || t* om. Pap. ^. 
824. p«aTo[N Pap. a. 82S. ndNONTCC Pap. a ^. 826. t^6n t* P Vr. A. i| oO 

Yr. A. 828. ol d* fipa dpi^cradN PR {rivit ap. Eust) : oT V fip* dtdpAcrmAn B.U: 
oY t' 6bpAcT€iaN J {yp, oT d* fip* A^pdcracm). || AdpdcraaN G {om. t'). 829. 

nhvaN cxoN G : nlruoN cTxon Strabo. || Tupcbic GP. 830. fidpacr6c G : 

fiNdpHcroc S. II ajU9Cioc Pap. eu 831. ncpKCOciou : Kcpxoniou G. 832. oOd* 
foCic ACGHJPQR Vr. a b A : oOd^ foCic U Lips. Eton. Vr. c : oud* couc Ambr. : 
o0dc6«ic Pap. a. 

818. UMua&Ttc: for the variation in 
quantity comjwred with fie/xaOres N 40 
see H, G, % 26. The partic. is used 
Tit'ithout an intin. = eager, N 40, 46 (78 
fiaiiMa<Tiif)f 276, etc 

819. For the Dardauians (whence 
' Dardanelles ') see T 215 sqq. 

821. Cf. E 313 ; and for ec6 Bpor&i 
cOnhocToo n 176. 

824. These T/mo^; are a semrate clan 
who liad doubtless split oti from the 
Trojans proper, and settled a short dis- 
tance away to the NE. See also note 
on £ 105. The Aiscpos runs into tlie 
Sea of Marmora near Kyzikos. NdoroN, 
ncthennosty where Ida runs down to the 
sea ; vide A 381. 

827. t6xon, the bow^ in the sense of 
skill in archery, ace. to Schol. A ; for 
Pandaros had acquired his bow himself, 

A 106 sqq. A similar phrase is used 
ofTeukros, 441. 

828. These towns lie at the extreme 
N. of the Troad, where the Hellespont 
opens out into the Sea of Marmora. 
Pityeia is possibly the later Lampsakos. 
Adrasteia was a local goddess = Nemesis, 
and Adrastos perhaps originally a god 
identical with the Adrastos of Sikvon 
(see note on 572). It is certainly cunous 
that he should appear here with Am])hio8, 
apparently a short form of Am])hiaraos, 
so closely bound up with Adrastos in the 
Theban legend. Amphios of Paisos or 
Apaisos is in E 612 son of Selagos. For 
XiNoecbpHS 8ce 529. 

831-4 = A 329-32. In both places 
MHS, give ov5' ious for oOd^ oOc (o-foi^). 
Merops seems to have migrated from 
Perkote (see 835), or rather the name 
points to some hero-worship common to 
all the district ; cf. Ap. Rhod. i. 975. 

lAlAAOC B (ii) 


aTci'^eiv €9 TroXefiov <f>0urqvopa' to) Be oi ov re 
weiOiaOrfv /cfjpef: yhp ayov p^eKavo^ Oavdroio. 

ot S* apa UepKooTrfv koI UpaxTCOv afiAf>€vifiomo 835 

KoX St/cttoi/ koX "AfivSov e^pv koI Blav ^Apla^rfv, 
T&v avB^ 'TpraKiSrj^ ^pj^ "Acrto? 6py(afJMf; avBp&v, 
"Acrto? 'TpraKiSr)^, hv *Apur^rf0€v <}>€pov tinroc 
aWoDve^ fieydkoi, irorafiov airo %eXKrievTO^, 

'linrodoo^ S' ap/e <f>v\a UeXaay&v iyjfeacfuopcov, 840 

T&v ot AdpLaav ipvficoXaKa vaierdeaKov 
T&v ^px *Iw^o^oo9 re Uvkcuo^ t 3fo9 ''Aprjo^, 
vU BvoD ArjdoLo TJekaayov TevTafuSao, 

avTctp ^prjiKa^ fiy ^Afcdfia^ koX Heipoo^ ^/>a>9> 
o<r(rou9 'EK\i]<nrovTO<; a/ydppoof; ivro^ iepyei. 846 

Ei;<^/i09 S' dp^of; Kcfcovcov ^v cu/Xji/qTdtov^ 
vio^ Tpoi^'qvoio St0Tp€<f>€0<; KeaSao. 

836. ncpKtibnHN G Vr. b. 837. t^^ d* aO G. 841. X^picooN GJ?Usupr,: 
kdpTcoiN A (T.W.A.). II NOIcrdcCKON GJPQ : NcncrdaocoN Q. 842 (mu Pap. a. || 
Bzw G. 844. ndpcoc J Eust 847. diOTpo9^oc GJ. 

836. As Niese remarks, it is natural 
that in a wepiirXovs such as that of 
the Argonauts Sestos and Abydos, on 
opposite sides of the Hellespont, should 
be joined together, but not that in a 
geographical list they should be put 
under the same ruler. Sestos on the 
N*. shore must have belonged to the 
rhracians (844). Ace to Schol. B, 
bowever, Sestos was awarded to Abydos 
in a dispute with Athens oil the authority 
9f this line. The other towns are on 
the S. shore. 

839. aYMMfCQ apparently sorrel or 
brown. The epithet is used to mean (a) 
ihining, especially of iron or bronze, 
[h) reddish-coloured or tatonyt of animals 
[cf. fulvus from fulg-eo), especially the 
lion, the bull (II 488), and eagle (0 690). 
[Hhers understand it to mean ' of fiery 
x>nrage,' others (see Ameis on tr 372) 
'shining' with sleek coats or feathers, 
[t is hardly possible to decide between 
these ; the only important ar^ment 
irged is that in 8 185, where Hector's 
bur horses are Zdv$<n, tlSSapyoSj AlBuPj 
md Ad/iTOf, the two first clearly refer 
bo colour ; but the last name would 
rapport Ameis's interpretation. 

840. ^coudbpcoN, see on A 242. The 
Pelasgians are introduced as though 
^ey were inhabitants of the Troad, all 
ihe preceding nations being evidently 

regarded as lying within the dominion 
of Priam, though having their own 
chiefs ; cf. O 544-5, where the limits 
given include all the towns hitherto 
named. (So Lele^es and Eilikes, not 
named here, lived in Troas, from a com- 
parison of T 92, Z 897, with I 329.) 
The Larissa should then be that known 
as Ka6* *Afia^ir6Vf only twenty-five miles 
from Troy (Strabo p. 620). But this does 
not suit P 301, where this same Hippo- 
thoos dies r^X' dirb AapLffrp. On this 

f'ound Strabo decides for Larissa near 
yme in Aiolis. The simplest explana- 
tion is to suppose that the Catalogue 
speaks of the Trojan Larissa, but tnat 
the poet of P was thinking of another. 
This he might easily do, as no less than 
eleven towns of the name are recorded 
by Steph. Byz. and Strabo (p. 440). 
The name is always brought into con- 
nexion with the Pelasgians — whether as 
a historical fact or as a mere hypothesis 
we are not in a position to say. 

845. inrrbc icprci, of a boundary on 
one side only, see 617, M 201, and Q 
544. The Thracians seem to be limited 
to the Tbracian Chersonese and neigh- 
bourhood ; Peiroos comes from Ainos, 
A 520. Iphidamas the Thracian leader 
(A 221 ) is not named here. 

846. For the Kikones see i 39 sqq. 
They lived on the coast of Thrace 


lAIAAOC B (u) 

avTitp Ilvpalj(jM7f^ arfe Haiova*; cuyKvXoTo^ov^ 
Trj\60€v ef 'A/iuSo)i/o9, am-* *A^iov eipif piovTO<:, 
^A^LOV, ov KoXXtoTov vBtop iwtfclBvaTcu alav. 

Ila<f>\arf6v(i)v B rffelro TivKai,fiiv€o^ Xdatov /crjp 
i^ *¥tP€T&v, o0€v rjfiiovcov yivo^ arfporepaxov, 
oX pa KvTa>/}oi; e^ov koX Xijaafiov afJuf)€vifiovTO 
ap/f>i re TiapOeviov irorafMov KXxrrct SfOfioT evaiov, 
Y.pS}fivdv T AlyioXov re Kal v^n;\ov9 ^pvOivov^, 

axnhp 'AXtf(De)i/o)i/ 'OSto? koX ^^iriarpo^o^ ^f^XP^ 



848. Some added nHXcr6iioc e' ul6c ncpiddnoc 'AcrcponaToc (Eust). 849. 
AuudiSbNOc: ABudd^oc Steph. Byz., Suidas. 850. aToN: gYh Harl. b, Par. d^ 
{birrCn ii ypa^ Eust.). Others wrote 'A., &i k. 0. i. AYhc (Strabo) or *A. oG k. 
6. k, ATa (Eudoxos ap. SchoL A 239. qTon rufh o6 -HfP yijv ip&tiaaw d\\d rira nry^ 
Eust). 861. ncuifXardNOON R. || d* om, S. || nuXauioNioc R. 862. kK : Kod 
G. II iNcrfic (or ^n^thc) Zen. 864. bdmOT* Inoion : ipr* iN^uoirro Strabo: 
Ingon J. 866. Kp^^AuiN JR : riph Kp6^uMaM KooBfaXbN tc Strabo (cf. Ap. Rhod. 
ii. 942 Kpcj^laXw KpQfwdv re). || ipioONOuc PQ : ^u«ciNouc Pap. a. || Eallisthenes 
added after 855 KaOxooNac <d*> aOi^ Arc lloXuicXioc ul6c djuuijuoMf, oT ncp) 
napa6inoN noroubN icXurd bthuaf Inoion (Eust). 866. o2 /j^w 'AXcBcbNOON, oi d* 
'Ajuuizc^noon, t6 S* kM 'AXOBhq kM 'AX6nMC fj fa 'AX66hc Strabo. ypd<f>ct, ["E^o^] 
oih-ut aOrdp 'Ajulox^noon 'O. kqI *E. ApxoN, 4X«6nt' km 'AXi^mq 6e* 'AjuozoNldcoN 
r640c icriN idem, 'OXocbNOON and XoXOBhc are also mentioned by Eust, but all 
these variants are * conjectures in the teeth of the old Mss.' (Strabo). 

till the time of Herod, (vii. 59, 108, 

848. The Paionians are elsewhere de- 
scribed as spearmen and charioteers, 
i.e. heavy -armed soldiers, not archers 
(except K 428). Herod, mentions the 
legend that they were of Trojan lineage, 
V. 13 (vlL 20, 75). Asteropaios is not 
mentioned among their leaders, although, 
according to 4> 156, he must, by a strict 
reckoning of days, have been in Ilios 
at the time which the Catalogue is made 
to suit. The praise ^iven to the Axios 
(W. of the Strymon m Macedonia, now 
the Vistrizza) caused great difficulties, as it 
is and always was, apparently, a very 
dirty stream. The variants given above 
testify to the attempts to evade the 
difficulty bv transferring the eulogy to 
' Aia,' which was said to oe the name of 
the main spring of the Axios, and to be 
clear and bright. 

851. XdaoN xAp: cf. A 189. Plato 
quotes the phrase, Th^aet. 194 E. The 
*wil(i mules' are supposed to be Jag- 
getais of Tartary {equus hemionuSy Linn.), 
a species intermediate between the horse 
ana the ass, of which some rumours 
must have come westward along the 
eoast of the Eoxine. A breed of wild 

* mules ' in the literal sense is of course 
a physical impossibility. Hehn Uiinks 
that the Enetoi made a trade of breeding 
mules and sold them * unbroken ' to 
their neighbours, but dypordpa cannot 
= dSfxr^t. However, the discovery of the 
breeding of mules is attributed to the 
Mysians, who were neighbours of the 
Paphlagonians and gave rriam his mules ; 
see note on O 278. In historical times 
the only known 'Everol (or 'Eyerol as 
Strabo writes) were Illyrians (sub- 
sequently the founders of Venice). It 
was concluded that they must have 
emigrated W. from Paphlagonia very 
soon after the Trojan war. Mules are of 
course commonly mentioned in the i/., 
though the ass is only once named 
(A 558, where see note). 

855. The lines added by Eallisthenes 
(vide supra) are of course intended to 
remedy the omission of the Eaukones, 
who appear among the Trojan allies in 
K 429, T 329. Other Eaukones in Ells 
are mentioned in y 366 (of. Herod. L 

856. In this line we appear to reach 
fairyland. The conjectural readings of 
the ancients (vide supra) shew that no 
identification with historical regions was 


lAIAACX: B (n) 


Trf\60€v ef 'AXu/St;?, o0€v dpyvpov iarl yeviOXrj, 

aXX' ovK olcdvolaiv ipvaaro Krjpa fUXacvav, 

dXK* iSdfiTf VTTO X^P^^ TToScoKCO^ AlaxiSao 8(K) 

iv TTOTafi&t, 001 irep Tp&a*; Kcpdl^e koX SXKov^, 

^opKV^ av ^pvya^ ^e koI ^AcKavio^ 0€O€iSrf^ 
T7J\* i^ ^AaKavhjf;' fjA/iaaav S' vafilvi pA')(€a0a4,. 

^rjLoatv av M.€a0Xr)f; re xal "Ain-t^o? 7fyrjada0f)v, 
vie TaXatfjL€V€o^, to) Tuyairf t€K€ XlfiVTj, 866 

01 Kal M^toi/a9 l^yov xnro T/iuoXcot yeya&Ta^. 

Na<m79 av Kap&v fffrjaaro ^ap^apoffxaveov, 
ot MtXiyroi/ ^x^^ ^0ip&v r opo^ aKpi/ro^vXKov 

858. xpouioc J (7p. XP^u>c). 860-1 6.6. Ax. 861. KCpdYzc Kcd : Kcpcrf- 
■oG. 862. afi: d^Strabo. 863. ucucTm Pap. a: 6cuInm(i) GPQCT. 864. 
uIooXmc : Tivks M^crpMc Eust || tc om, P. 866. nuXauuiNcocSr/': nuXoiu^iocQ: 
imXciUiMoc G : yp, TcXcucNioc J (supr. en over Xcu). || rurafH : TuraiH P (and 
B 9unr.) : iv run rupaiH Schol. Pap. a (so Mass. ap. Eust ). || XLulnhi Chains and 
Diocforos. 866. irpoffypdipown tipU (^ xar* EOpiTlSrjw East) TjutfbXoM 0n6 N196CNTU 
TdNC In nk>Ki bAuxM Strabo, East. (= T 385). 868. oT : oT d^ R. || uoXhton 
Pap. a. !l 9eip&N AGG Vr. b ; 9ecipd^N Q. 

rdble. 'AX(;/9i7, as Strabo says, may 
XaXi&pTI : the Chalybes in historical 
feimes were famoas miners, bat produced 
iron only, not silver, Xen. Aiiab. v. 5. 
1, Strabo pp. 549-51. Armenia how- 
ever, close to them, was the home of 
silver (see 0. Schrader Sprachv. und 
Urgesch. pp. 258 ff.). roi^XM = Hrth- 
place only nere. Paley compares dpyvpov 
nry^ of the silver mines of Laurion in 
Aiscb. Pera. 238. 

858. These Mysians are Asian, and 
geographically, at least, distinct from 
those of Thrace, see on N 5. Chromis 
is called Chromios in P 218, 494, 534. 
Four others of the name are mentioned. 

861. hi noTou^i, sc. 4>15sqq., where 
Ennomos is, however, not named (but 
see P 218) ; hence Aristarchos obelized 

863. The Askanian lake was in 
Bithynia, by the later Nikaia. This 
district lies close to the Propontis. 

865. PurafM XIunm, near Sardis, Herod. 
L 93 ; cf. T 391. Strabo says it was 
afterwards called E0X617. The name 
obviously has to do with the familiar 
Gyges. The mother was of course the 
ISifts or nymph of the lake. Cf. Z 22, 
3 444, T 384. There is no other case in 
H. of maternity attributed to a lake. 

though rivers are often fathers (e.g. ^ 
159). The variant X</ii^t (locatival) was 
meant to avoid this objection, by making 
TiTfoLyj the name of the nymph. 

867. BapBapoocbNOON seems to refer 
only to the harshness of the dialect, as 
Thuc. remarked (i. 3). H. does not 
make any broad distinction between 
Achaians and barbarians. So Zd^ta; 
dypio<f>djvovs 294. This marked refer- 
ence to the days before the colonization 
of Asia Minor may indicate that the 
line is really very old ; but, on the other 
hand, we must admit that the poet could 
not well have given a more effective 
touch to indicate the extreme remote- 
ness of the heroic times from his own, 
had he lived in Miletos itself, than by 
this casual allusion, made as though a 
matter of course, to the days when the 
great and famous city was no more than 
a dwelling of the despised barbarians. 

868. AKprr69uXXoN, i.e. with foliage 
massed together, so that the eye could 
not distinguish separate trees ; see note 
on 246. According to the scholia the 
small cones of the pine were called 
(ftdeipci from some fancied resemblance 
to those insects ; but the best ancient 
authority is for the reading <f>$ipCjp or 


lAIAAOC B (n) 

MaidvSpov re poct^ MvicaXi;? t alirei^vh fcdprfva' 

T&v piv ap ^Aful>Ljuuiy(o<: koI Nacrriy? '^rfada'0f)v, 870 

Na<m;9 ^Afjuf)ifia')(6^ re, No/xtoi^o? ar/Xxih re/cva, 

&9 fcal ')(pvaov e'^tov irokefiov^ lev rjvT€ Kovprj, 

vrjirio^, ovSi ri oi to y iinjpKeae Xuypov SkeOpov, 

a\X' iBdfiT) viro X^P^^ 'iroStoKeo^ Aicucihao 

iv irorafi&t, ypvaov S' 'Aj^tX6V9 iKOfuaae Sat<f>p(ov. 875 

Sap'7rrfBii)v S* ^px^v Avxitov xal TXavfco^ dfivfitov 
TrfX,60€v ix AvKLfjf;, 'SdvOov airo Sivi^evro^. 

870. Noiicnic C (and ap. Eust.). 871. NOucfoMOC HR. 872. Kcd : bk G. 
874-6 d6. Ar. (The lines haye the obelos in A — in Pap. a it is afiBxed to 875-6 — 
and their rejection follows on that of 860-1, but the schoUon is missing.) 

872. 8c would naturally refer to Am- 
phimachos as the last named, and so 
Ar. took it ; but Schol. A says that 
Simonides held it to mean Nastes as 
the principal leader. Perhaps L. Mtdler 
is nght, therefore, in thinking that 
Simonides did not read 870-1 at all ; 

they are certainly not wanted, though 
there is no obvious reason for their 
insertion. xpucdn evidently means 
golden ornaments, such as Euphorbos 
wore, P 52. Neither of these leaders is 
named in the fight in the river in ^; 
cf. on 860-1. 




Vtth the third book begins a distinct section of the Iliads extending to 
i 222 : the story of the duel of Paris and Menelaos, and its sequel, the 
reacherous wounding of Menelaos by Pandaros in spite of the treaty. The 
action contains two subordinate episodes : the Tctxoo-KOTr/a or interview 
etween Helen and Priam on the walls of Troy (121-244), and the scene 
etween Paris and Helen after the duel (383-448). 

Within itself the whole story is consistent, plain, and straightforward ; 
; is indeed one of the most brilliant and picturesque pieces of narrative 
1 the Iliad. As the second book gave us a picture of the general scenery 
f the poem, so the third takes us back to the causes of the war ; as the 
^cond shewed us the state of things in the Greek camp, the third sets us 
mong the Trojans. We have a whole gallery of fresh persons brought 
efore us with extraordinary truth and vivacity ; Menelaos and Paris, Priam, 
*andaros and the Trojan elders, and above all, Helen, the cause of the 
rhole war, a marvellous study of a complicated woman's heart, oscillating 
etween repentance and love, her heart fuU of desire for her former home 
nd husband, yet dominated by the power of her temptress the goddess 
Lphrodite. There can be little doubt that we have here a poem composed 
rith a single aim and in one piece by a most gifted author, preserved 
•ractically intact 

But when we come to relation of the section to the rest of the Eiadj the 
uestion is by no means so simple. Achilles is indeed assumed to be absent 
rom the battle, and so (&r the framework as already laid down is assumed, 
^ut there is no other reference to the state of affairs as pictured in the last 
wo books. After the pompous description of the march out of the two 
rmies which accompanied the Catalogues, it is certainly surprising to find 
hat they no sooner meet than a truce is made, and instead of the general 
ngagement we have been led to expect, a single combat is proposed as a 
sttlement of the whole war. It is impossible not to feel the force of the 
rgnment that the action seems to belong rather to the first than to the 
enth year of the siege. Not only would the duel be then better in place, 
ut the whole of the Teichoscopy assumes an ignorance on the part of Priam 
naccountable, according to prose and logic, after ten years of war. With 
egard to this, however, it is enough perhaps to say that for the hearer or 
eader this is the opening of the war ; the convention to which he has to 
dapt himself is infinitely less than the conventions of drama which through 

118 lAIAACX: r (m) 

familiarity we accept without a murmur. More serious, however, is the 
fact that the breach of the truce by Pandaros is ignored throughout the 
rest of the Iliads that we have a doublet of the duel in H, and that the 
purpose of Zeus to bring about the defeat of the Qreeks to the glorification 
of AchiUes passes entirely out of sight for five whole books. These 
points have been dealt witii in the Prolegomena, and need only be briefly 
mentioned here. They are, however, amply sufficient to prove that this 
part of the lUad had no place in the story of the Mems ; whether it was 
composed for this place, as the absence of Achilles seems to imply, or was 
violently inserted into it &om some other source, is a matter on which 
critics must form their own conclusions. It is not likely that any con- 
vincing arguments on such a point will ever be found, and the question 
must be decided only by the general view taken of the composition of the 
Iliad, My own belief is that in the natural course of the development of 
the story the duel between Aias and Hector, now in H, stood here, and was 
displaced in order to make room for the combat of Paris and Menelaos, which 
originally stood at an earlier point in the tale of the siege. We must at 
all events recognize that in the two duels we have two parallel stories which 
cannot have originally been meant to follow in sequence — a point which 
will be further discussed when we come to H. 






6pK0i. TaxocKonia. 'AXcadNdpou xa) McNcXdou uoHOuajnia. 

avrhp iweX Koafji/rfOev (afi fffefioveaaiv' ?KaaTOi, 

Tpwe9 fJi^v ^52^077174 T evoinfd r Xaav (jipvides wi 

ijure irep (KXar/yt) yepaveov) 'ffeML (ovpavoOi irpo^ 

at T iireX oiv ')(€tfi&va <f>vyov Kal a0i(T<f>aTOv Sfifipov) 

fcXarfyrjt rai y€ werbvTcu (eTr ilKeavolo poaoii) 6 

dvSpdai HvyfjLoiouri <f>6vov fcal fcrjpa <f>ipova'ai' 

TflpOu S*^apa ToL y€ xa/cffv ipcoa irpo^epovrcw 

3. kXotHKO t' ODJQRS : KXarrfl(i) O. 3. o0pcm6MN Par. b j (and ru^it 

ap, Apoll. de Adv.). 6. n^ruKrai D : n^rairrai Schol. B on E 249. 6. 

^^poNTcc J (7/K f^pouGcn). 7. d* fipo : manh Vr. a^. 


1. The tale is taken up from B 785 or 
810. iKacroi, each tribe, not ' Trojans as 
well as Greeks.' Of. B 805. 

3. The simile is oopied by Virgil, 
Aen, X. 264 sqq. — 

Qoales sub nabibus atris 
StrymGniae dant signa groos, atque aethera 

Com sonita, fogiontqae notoe clamore 


Cf. also yi 311, Juyenal xiii. 167. 
oOpcmbM npd, before the fau of heaven, 
wp6 goes with the locative instead of the 
gen. in two other phrases, 8 561 *Tkt6di 
wp6, A 50 iiiiei vp6. H, O. § 225. 

4. fiiroN : observe the aor. in the 
simile — a sort of ^gnomic ' aor. followed 
by the present. 'Hie Toice of the crane 
in the sky is a sign of winter in Hes. 
Op. 450. 'The crane is in Greece a 
bird of passage only . . it breeds 
farther north, in Macedonia and on the 
Danabe,' Thompson Glow. p. 41. See 
Herod. iL 23, where this passage is 
partly qnoted. For d » fe yaTOC see Buttm. 
1«SB., mere the word is explained as a 
hyperbole, ' such as not eren a god coald 
utter ' ; bat such hyperbole is not 
Homeric. Rather 'not OMordiivg to an 

utterance of the godSj hence vaguely 
porttoious^ unble st (Monro). But the 
form of the word is unexplained. 

5. M with gen. = towardSf as E 700 ; 
H. O. § 200 (3). The streams of ocean 
seem to represent the bounds of the 
earth, not any particular direction. 
Cf. Herod, ii. 23. The war of cranes 
and pigmies (' Thnmblings') does not 
reappear in H., but is very common in 
later literature, both Greek and Latin ; 
the reff. are collected in Thompson Olo8s, 
p. 43. 'The legend of the Pigmies 
appears in India in the story of the 
hostility between the Garuda bird and 
the people called Kirctta, i.e. dwarfs . . 
It is quite possible that this fable has an 
actual foundation in the pursuit of the 
ostrich by a dwarfish race (ibid. ). We 
know from recent travels that such a 
dwarfish people lives in the heart of 
Africa ; some report of them may well 
have reached even prehistoric Greece 
through the ivory trade. See also 
Miss Gierke Fanu Studies p. 145. Ace. 
to Eust. the pigmies lived in Britain ! 

7. I^Mda npo9^NTai, ap^iarently our 
' ofier battle,' or bring stryfe ; so B 210 ; 
cf. ^92, and A 529 l/nda xpo/3aX6Fret : 


lAIAAOC r (hi) 

oi S' ap* taav avyrji (uAvea irveiovret) A^aiot, 

ein c6p€o^ K6pv<f)7JurCi N0T09 Koriy^evev 6fil')(\7jv, 
TTo'ifieaiv ov ri <f>LKr)v, KkiTrrrji Se re vvkto^ afieivto* 
Toaaov T& ^' iirX)\€iaaeL, oaov r iirl Xadv iTjaiv 
a>9 apa r&'v iiro iroaaX- kovixtcCKo^; &pvvT oeXX^? 
ip')(Ofi€vciv ' fidXa S (a/ca iteirpriaaov TreSioto. 

ol h jSre Srj crycSoi' fiaav^eir aSXrjKoiaiv, iovre^J 
Tp(oalv fikv Trpofia'^iyev lAXe^avSpo^ OeoecBi]^, 
irapoaXerfv A^ioiatv eya>v Koi Ka/JLitvka ro^a 
fcal ^uf>o^, avrkp (p obvpe Svca K€Kopv0fiiva jfoXK&i 
ifaSXoDi^ ^Apyeltov wpoKaXltero irdvra^ aplarov^ 




10. cQt* Ar. Q : dbc t^ G : Ai>rc Spcuc Chia Mass. ai. || Kopu^Ta G. 11. 
oCtc L : oO Toi P. II &ucfNOd Ar. O : rivis iujjAicoH An. 12. 6c(c)on (ani, t') JDB. 
13. KON(coaXoc PR Par. d : KomcdXou Aph. || SpNur* P. 16. Ycon Q. 17. 

napdaXlMN S. 18. 6 om, Ar. Aph. Zen. al. and oi x^^P^^^^P^' 18-20 &0. Zen. 
19-20 d^. Ar. 

see also E 506, K 479. A^oi, in early 
momingt A 497, i 52, though the 
significance of the epithet here is not 
very clear. Virg. Ocorg. L 375 seems to 
have thought, perhaps rightly, that it 
meant * flying high in the air ' ; (uriae 
fugere grues. 

8. The silence of the Achaian advance 
is contrasted with the Trojan clamour 
again, A 429-36, and is one of the very 
few signs by which H. appears to mark 
a national difference between the two 
enemies, who are always represented as 
speaking the same language. Compare 
B 810 and note on N 41. In A 50, 
however, clamour is ascribed to the 

10. There seems to be no choice here 
but to accept the vulgate cfrr* in the 
sense of i^(>r6, like as ; though the only 
other instance of it is T 886 (q. v. ). The 
reading of the Massaliot, i/Orc {ii^rr*) 
6p€vst introduces a non • Homeric con- 
traction, as Ar. pointed out; the few 
other iuHtances of it are very suspicious 
('£/>^/3cvf, Bdpaevtf $4p€vs, Odfjipevs, see 
H, q. § 105. 3). The reading of G, 
&s t\ adopted by van L., is merely 
another instance of the passion of that 
MS. for the introduction of Attic forms 
into the text, ii&rc and cHre are ob- 
viously different forms of the same word, 
cf. ij^ by e? : there is indeed nothing to 

prevent our writing rjdre at once, as 
m the old alphabet they were in- 
distinguishable. And the two senses 
as and when pass into one another with 
the greatest ease, just as with un. Some 
ancient commentators took e^rf in the 
ordinary sense, w?ien, making 12 into 
the apodosis ; but such a form for the 
expression of a simile is quite without 
parallel in H. 

12. Tc . . Tc, as often, indicate merely 
the correlation of clauses. The m. 
which regularly follows rbcvw and iavov 
(see on B 615), is construed with it; but 
according to the canon of Ar. does not 
throw back the accent on account of 
the intervening particle. 

13. AcXXi^c seems to be the same word 
as doXX^e;, denser lit. crowded together ^ 
root feX of FiKkui^ FeiKica, etc, the 
variation of stem being similar to that 
between diVwr and deix^ {H. O. § 125), 
doubtless affected by the analogy of the 
subst deXXa. The reading KotrurdXov 
attributed to Aph. seems to imply that 
he read also AtXXa for dfXXi^r. 

19-20 were obelized by Ar. (and Zenod. 
included 18 also) on the ground that a 
warrior would not be arrayed with a bow 
and panther-skin if he were challenging 
heavily-armed foes to combat. But this 
objection would equally apply to wpo/id* 
Xt^*^ above. Ar. and most of the other 

lAlAAOC r (m) 


TOP S" «09 oiv ivoTjaev tpLfyrft^iKo^ Mei/eXao^ 
ipypiievov irpoirapotOev opTkiv fiaxpcL ^ipcjv^a, 
a>9 re Xecov e'yapri fieyoMoi €irl atofuiTL Kvp&a^, 
evpwv fj ek(uf>ov fcepaov rj arfpcov atya, 
irUvdoDV fidXa yap re fcareaOUt, et irep &v avTov 
aevcovrai (ra')(e€<; re kw€^ uoKepoi r cu^rfOf 
C&9 ix'^'PV M6i/€\ao9 lAki^avBpov OeoetBia) 
6<f>0aXfioiatv IBcov <f>dTO ycLp riaecrOai, oMtrriv. 
c^VTiKa S' ef 6')(€(ov /trvv rev^eaiy} oKro y(ajuM^€. 


23. &c TC : &cn€p Q. 2S. ju^a : u^ra J. 26. ccOontoi 2)J^PRU. 27. 
ecoadA C. 28. Ticcceoi A^G : Tfcaceai (and A™, T. W.A.) : tSogmi P (a in 
ras. ). II dXcfroc Zen. 

ancient critics also omitted the 6 in 18, but 
Didymos for once ventures to disagree, 
remarkinff that Homer frequently employs 
phrases liJke 6 84, etc, without any change 
of subject He quotes 1 874, which is not 
to the {mint ; but see appropriate in- 
stances in H. O, % 257. 1. aOrdp is 
here merely a particle of transition ; if 
the adyersatiye sense is to be pressed it 
most mean that though he has the skin 
and bow of the archer, yet he has also 
the pair of spears of the hoplite. For 
the use of a skin in place of the shield 
cf. App. B, viiL Observe that Pans is 
not onallenging to a duel properly 
speaking, but only to a combat in the 
midst of the general engagement ; for 
this is the only admissible sense of 

23. The idea seems to be that the lion 
comes upon a quarry just killed by a 
hunting party, and eats it under the 
eyes of the hunters and hounds. Similar 
pictures of the intruding lion occur in 
A 480, N 198. Some of the old critics 
objected that the lion will not eat any 
animal he has not killed himself, and 
therefore took odMian = j^dttai, a living 
animal. But Ar. was clearly right in 
sajring that H. never uses trCofM of the 
living body. It is likely enough that 
the poet was not acquainted with this 
habit of the lion ; or it may be that the 
lion's repugnance does not in fact extend 
to an animal out of which the life has 
hardly gone, as is notoriously the case 
with lions in captivity. Cf. 2 161. It 
has also been suggested that the emphatic 
position of ndN^ooN means that the lion 
IS driven by stress of hunger to an un- 
usual meal. 

25. JudXa, amaiUf as ^ 24. cY ncp 
fiN, even if, B 597. 

28. Here, as in several similar passages 
(112, 366, T 85, X 118, 120, and others 
collected in ff, O. § 238), the Mss. vary 
between the aor. and fut. infin. The 
same phrase recurs in v 121 — mss. 
rlffcurdau only ; in w 470 they are nearly 
unanimous for TUreaOai, A nas ri<T€<r6ai 
here, but TlffoaOai in 366. The question 
is an old one, as appears from the scholia 
on X 118, /3 373, and the testimony 
of the MSS. on such a point carries 
little weight. In most oi there cases 
the fut. is the more natural, and 
Madvig and others would read it 
throughout. But the aor. is quite 
defensible ; here the sense would be 
'he thought that he had now got his 
revenge.' After words of saying (in- 
direct discourse) there is no question 
that the tense of the infin. must follow 
that of the verb in the direct statement 
In other cases there are exceptions where 
the idea of futurity is especially vivid — 
see the instances in M. and T. § 113. 
* Verbs of hoping, expecting, prc/mising, 
swearing, and a few others . . regularly 
take the fut. infin. in indirect discourse, 
but they also allow the aor. and even 
the pres. infin. (not in indirect discourse) 
like verbs of wishing,* M. and T. § 136. 
Hence the possibility of two renderings 
in 98, and of two readings in 112, 366, 
and other passages. AVhere the idea to 
be expressed so easily shades off on the 
one side to emphasis of the futurity of 
the subordinate verb, on the other to 
the mere thought of accomplishment, it 
is useless to lay down a rigid rule as 
the purists do. 


lAIAAOC r (ill) 

Tov S' 0)9 oiv ivoTjaev *(XXi^avBpo^ 0€oeiBfj^! 
iv irpouAyotat dnivivTa, KareirXnyn $i\ov iirop, 
ay (erapoDV et9 €uvo^ eva^^fTO (krfp a\€€ivo)v>) 
0)9 ore Tt9 re opafcovra ioodv iraMvopao^ airearrf 
(ovpeof; iv /8^<j2ri;t9) <v7ro t€ rpofxosfi tSXa^e yvta, 
ay avexjoDpTfaev, ft);^/)09 t€ /itx/ elXe irapeia^, 
0)9 aSr^9 icad' ofiiXov ^ISv Tpmtov dy€p<o')((i)v 
Beiaa^ (Arpio^ vlov ^AXe^avhpos 0€O€cS^^.\ 

^^^ " Av</7rapt, e2So9 apLore, ytwavfiavh ijmpoir'eirra, 

'^ ^— a?^' 2^6X69 arfov6% r €fi€vat ^a7a/i09 r*^ airoXkaOaC^ 

KoL K€ TO ^OVAoitlTfV, KaL K€V TToXlf /C€pOtOV i^CV 

Tj ot/TO) Moprfv T efievac xal vrroyfnov aWoDv. 
^ irov K(Vf)(CLK6<aa't icapr} KopJitovres ^A'^aiol, 
<f>dvT€^ dpLaTTJa ifpSpZv ep^fievai, ovvexa koKov 




31. KOTinXdrM C^HJPQR Vr. b. 33. TC am. GHPQRT : rt J. 34. Bftecoic 
G : BiicHic Z>RT Pap. /3. 36. nafm6 Herod. (Ar. ?) : napNid Dion. Sid. (ie. fern, 
dual ace. to Dem. Ixion ; Schol. calls it neuter). 36. aOeic C2>H Par. k. \\ lEdiu : 

CBm Q. 37. Arp^ooc C {supr, o) Z>Q. 40. 69CXCC t* QS. Dion. Skytobrachion 
added juwd^ n roONaoN oTcin A9^coaG«ai ^ikoM uI6n ( = I 455) (Eust. ). 41. AcN : 
cYm J {yp, cTcn). 42. ln6i|noN Aph. 


33. noXfNOpooQ only here in H. ; on 
account of the <r it seems distinct firom 
root op of waXtpSpfie^os (or xdXiy 6.) X 
826 ; Curt. conn, with root ers-f Lat. 
err-o ; so &\//oppos {Et, p. 556). The 
simile is copied in Virg. Aen, ii. 379. 

36. For drcpcbxwN see B 654. 

38. alcxpoTc t<hs alax^w ivtyKciv 
Svyafiivois Hesych. So ^ 473 alaxp^^ 

39. Gf. A 385. Aiioiapi, so fJLtjTep 
SOfffirrrep ^ 97, AwreXA'o Eur. Or. 1388 ; 
cf. *Ipot "Aipoj a 73, KaKotTuov r 260, 
Alv&rapis Eur. iTec. 944, and Ai^nra/Mt 
Alvdrapity KaKbp 'EXXddi pwriOMclpiji 
Alkman ap. SchoL A. 

40. firoNOc should mean childless^ 
and so Augustus understood the line 
when he applied it to his daughter 
Julia ; but this sense does not suit the 
passage, for it was not through his 
offspring that Paris harmed the Trojans ; 
indeed we hear of no child of his by 
Helen except in an obscure tradition 
mentioned by Schol. A, and even that is 
inconsistent with d 12. The only good 
sense that could be got out of the word 
would be cursed hy heaven (with sterility) 
as I 454, which is too weak and indirect 

to suit the context. The alternative is 
to translate uvbom ; and so Eur. Phoen, 

Kcd xplv it 0w; /irjrpds iK yor^i fioXciy 
dyopov *Air6\\<ap Aatun fi* iOiffrtat 
<po»ia ycviffdax TraTpds. 

For TC . . TC we should rather have 
expected fj . . If: but as neither wish is 
possible of fulfilment there is a certain 
^in of rhetorical force, with the loss of 
logical accuracy, in combining both into 
one vehement wish. 

42. 0n6i|noN, an object of contempt or 
hatred, lit. 'looked at from below, Le. 
with the feelings intimated by the 
familiar inrddpa. Aph. iTr6^i0Vf con- 
spicu&uSt in the sight of all men. For 
a similar formation cf. 4> 397 way6\f/ios. 

44. Apparently ApicrAa is subj.,- 
npduoN predicate ; saying that a prince 
is our champion (only) because his favour 
is fair. Else it must be deeming (Le. 
having at the first moment deemed) 
(hat it was a princely champion (whom 
they saw). Trpdfiot = primnSf a superl. 
of Tp6 : in use it = Trpdfxaxos. koXon is 
predicate, as its position, separated from 
its subst. by the end of the line (cf. on 

lAIAAOC r (in) 



€ZSo9 Itt', aXX' ov^ ecrrt ^iri ^peaXv ovhe Tt9 a/uc^. 

ff TOU>ahe ia)v)^ irovToiropourc vieaac) 

irovrov emTrXcoaa^, krdpovs ipirfpa^ cAeCpai, 

fnyOel^ a\X.ooa7rou7» (ywalfc itj^iBe) avfffei 

ef awLTf^ 70*7/9, wox' avoptav ai')(/irfTaa)v, 

iraTOL Te a&t (/leya Tnjficc^^ woKrjt re iravrl re B'q/Moc, 

Sva-fjueveaw fikv ')(apfJM, /cd'fiiifeirfv Se aoi avrSa ; 

ovK &v Brj fAeiifita^ (pLprft^CKov Mevikaou ; 

yvoir)^ j^' otb^~Aa)T09 ej^eii^aXeprjv irapakotriv^ 

OVK av Toi j^ai<flif}C(^i0apc^ rd re o&p* 'A<^poSm79,> 



40. oOrri tk 2>. 47. Apbipac Q Bar. Eton. 61. KcmifcfiH Zen. Par. k. 

53. x' • *' £ton. Vr. A (and J supr.), 54. TOI : 001 P : n Q Eust. || idaapic : 
Tivit xidapic An. 

N 611), shews ; but we naturally trans- 
late it as an epithet. 45 may represent 
the words of the Achaians. 

46. Ijy not fi, is the reading of Herodiau 
and Nikanor ; but there is no opposition 
with what precedes. The question in 52 
goes closely with that in 46-51 : * can it 
be that thou oouldst bring . . ? and now 
canst not thou dare f ' 53 then expresses 
the result, 'then wouldst thou find.' 
It is equally possible, however, to abolish 
the note of interrogation at the end of 
51 (Bayfield), and to understand * truly 
you were such a one (as I say, i.e. a 
mere flashy weakling) when you stole 
Helen ; can you- not now meet her 
husband ? ' But the sarcasm of the text 
is more biting : ' were you, such as you 
are, brare enough when it was a question 
of stealing a woman, and now dare not 
&ce her husband ! ' Totbcdc him, hiatus 
UlicUus, cf. B 8, E 118, T 288, ^ 263, 
7 480, i- 151, r 185. It is the less 
justifiable because roibdc (like 5de) 
regularly refers to the speaker, such as I; 
here we require such as thou artf Toiovrof 
(like o^oSf iste) or roUt vep (van L. Bnch. 
p. 266). Bentley conj. both, cf. 159. 
Toios ^ P. Knight, rotScS* &p Brandreth. 

49. AniHQ see A 270. Observe the 
alliteration in the next line. In Greek 
poetry, unlike Latin, this phenomenon 
18 sporadic and apparently accidental ; 
some of the most marked instances in 
Homer occur in places where no parti- 
cular efiiect can well be aimed at, e.g. 
2 288, T 217. 6Hbo6liH, plur. because 
Helen is regarded as having married into 
the nation ; nu6c ii yeyafiJifUvrj roTi rod 
ya/iT^OMTos oUelois Ap. Lex, 

51. Cf. P 636, ^ 185 ; and for KcmifcfiH, 
n 498. The ace. vaguely expresses the 
result of the preening actions ; cf. 
A 207 and other instances in If, O, 
§ 136. 4. 

54. The correlation of subj. and opt. 
is the same as in A 386-7 — 

oifK Hv TOi xpa^M^tcrt ^ibi Kal rap^pits lot. 

In both there is an apparent logical 
inconsistency, for the subj. expresses 
confident anticipation {H. G. § 276), 
which is however based upon a con- 
dition considered as less probable ; we 
are accustomed to observe the strict 
rule of thought, and to make the conclu- 
sion as supposititious as the condition on 
which it is based. But the confidence 
expressed in these two passages is relative 
rather than absolute ; if the condition be 
once gi'anted, then the result is certain. 
See also on X 42. As far as the lines 
before us are concerned, indeed, we 
might say that Hector, though he 
chooses to put the case of Paris' fall as 
hypothetical only, yet at any rate for 
rhetorical purposes clearly means to in- 
timate that ho does expect it ; but this 
explanation would not apply so well to 
A 386. That passage proves that we 
must not alter the text by reading either 
XpcUfffUH with some critics, or fuyelriis 
(subj.) with others. See also note on 
B 488. P. Knight remarked, as an 
illustration of the deictic use of the 
article, that it is added to what can 
be pointed at, or 6/^17 and etdotj but not 
to KlOapiSf which Paris has not with him. 


lAIAAOC r (ill) 


/^ T6 KOfiTjYro T€ eZSo^ or iiv Kovirfva-^ fiiyeitf^:. 55 

aXKct fiaka Tp&e^ BeiSi^fjMve^ • ^ re k€v i]Sr} 
Xati/oi/ ecrero y^^trtava Cfcaxcov ei^ej^ , oercra €Opya^^ 
Tov S' aSre irpoaeeiirev ^(AXe^avipo^ deoeiZrft' 
" EiKTOp, iirel /Me (Kar alaav) iv€LK€<ra<: (jovS* xnrep alaa0 
aUi Toi fcpaSifj (iriXifcv^ o)?; iaTiv arecp^^, 60 

Co9 T elaiv Sta hoi/po^ ^iir avepos^ 09 ^d re T€')(pr)ii 

(^vr)iov €KTa/jLvr)t<riv^ oq>€W€L avopo<; eptoriv* 
&^^ao\ ivl arrideao'tV) arapfiriTos v6o^ iarL' 
p/q fioi ^B&p* iparcO. irpo^epe ypvarj^ A<f>poBLTrff;* 
ou Toi aTTOJSkfjT iaTl 0€&v eptkvSea S&pa, 65 

oaad tcev avrol B&aiv €Ka}v S' ovfc av Tt9 iKoiro. 
vvv avT, et fi iOeXec*; TroXe/ufeti/ ^Sk fm^eaOac, 

66. dciX4uLONcc DRTU (-ciX- in ras.) Harl. b, Vr. a^ (and P Par. g supr,)\ 
4XciUjmncc Zen. || A ^ kcn 6. 67. 2oco Ar. : cTco Pap. /3. 61. 6c T* : 

8c G. 62. ^KTdjuMia T. 63. toi GJPQRT. 66. oOn 2>GJPQS Vr. a. || 

<piKcpdte Lips.^ 

57. or. 453. It is pretty clear from 
the context that the 'rol)e of stone' 
indicates public execution by stoning, 
such as the Chorus fear for Aias, ire06- 
^Tltuu \idit\€Vffro¥ 'Apri in Soph. Aj. 253. 
The phrase itself ix precisely similar to 
one which is common in later poetry, 
but only as a euphemism for Durial; 
e.g. Pind. Nem. xi. 16 7ai' iwitaaStiepoif 
Ap. Khod. i 691 ytuai^ itp^affeaOai. But 
the two ideas come to the same, because 
the heap of stones by which the male- 
factor is slain forms his tomb as well 
(Studniczka BeUr. pi 62). Cf.— 

TpiffiijfJLaTdf rdLif Tyjpwji)!' 6 dcijTepos 
ToWijv &if<aO€Vt riiv Kdrta yh.p oi X^w, 
xBoi'bs TplfjLoipov x^^^^^^ ^iv'hc^*^ Xa^c^, 
dira^ iKdffTUH KarSawCjv fiop<fhafiaTi. 

Ag. 870-3. 

(f)^oco, plpf. without reduplication, H, G. 
§ 23. 5. To save the digamma Bentley 
couj. Xdaw for XdiVoi'. 

59. The thought is, *■ Since thy rebuke 
is just, I will say no more than this — 
Cast not in my teeth the gifts of the 
gods' (64) ; the apodosis in not expressed, 
cf. note on Z 333. 60-63 are a paren- 

60. Ampi^Q so xaX/cdi' i.r. T 233. 

61. On* ANipoc, as though tlaiv were a 
passive verb ; as often with irfTreii', etc. 
So icdrei rot irp6i riKViaVj thou shaft be 
brought back by thy children, Eur. Med. 
1015 (em. Person). 

62. The subject of 69dXXa is of course 
TtXeKvs. Apooi^ effort, as N 590. Paris 
clearly speaks partly in anger and partly 
in admiration of Hector's straigntfor- 
wardness, which thrusts aside without 
relenting ^iTdpprp-os) all conventional 

64. np69cpc, as B 251. So Herod. L 
3 T^y ilijdeirji afyiray^if <r4>i vpo^peuf, 
iii. 120 tlireuf run irpo<t>ipo¥Ta = to speak 
tauntingly. XP^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ unani- 
mous reading of mss., xp^^V^ being 
occasionally found in other places. Edd. 
generally read xp^Vh ^^^ (unless we 
are prepared to say that the quantity of 
the V is variable, as in later lyric poetry) 
there is nothing gained by the change ; 
synizesis is just as doubtful in H. as con- 

65. An66XMTOc = abUctus, contempt- 
ible, as B 361. 

66. Cf. oHk aifOcdperoi ^poroU (purres 
Eur. Frag. 340. The line is somewhat 
of a commonplace, and rather weakens 
the effect of the preceding ; it is rejected 
by van L. after P. Knight, on the ground 


also that bC^ is not the Homeric form 
{8a<r airrol S<bwn Brandreth ; but see 
H. G. § 81, and A 129). ixtim too is 
not used in its ordinary sense ; it must 
be taken either participially, by wishing 
for thenty or better, as a matter of choice. 
This all points to the line being one of 
the gnomic additions of which uiere are 
so many traces in the text. 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 


SXXovi i^kp KaOiaov Hp&a^ koX irdvTa^ ^A^aiov^, 


^^pj^ ^ f^o'treoc) Kol dprjt<}>c\ov MepeXaov 
<rvfij^5^MT* afJL^^ (EKh/rjt koI KTrffiacL Tract) fia')(€a0ai. 
omrorepo^ Se k€ viKi^af)t fcpeiaatov re yevrfTai, 
KTrffiaff" cXmv Of irdvra ywatKci re otxaS^ ar/iauioS)' 
ol B* aXKoc <f>iXoTrfTa Kot opxia irioTCL jrafiovre^ 
vdtbire Tpoirjv iptpwXaKa, rol Be veeaOcav 
"Apyo? 69 imrofioTov) koX ^A'^aUBa KaWi/fuvaiKa.^ 

«9 €(f>a0*, ^"EucTtop S* (air ix^PV M^^ fiv0ov aKovaa^, 
Kai p 69 p^eaaov uov Ipcotav) aveepye a)aKayyaf;, 
pAaaov Bovpo^ iXfov rol S' vopwOriaav airavre^. 
T&L S' iTrfroBoii^ovTO (^dprj KOfiocovre^ 'A^^a^ot) 
loiaiv T€ rvfuaicSfievoL (\deaaL t e^aXKov) 
axnap o (fjiaxpov avaev) avaf avopcjv Aya/jLcpLvcov 
" layea-ff, ^Apyeloi, /nrf jSdWere, Kovpoi 'Aj^atwi/' 
arevrai ydp (tv hros ipieiv) KopvPa&Ko^ ''E/cto)/}." 





4>9 €<f>a0\ oi S* la^ovTO fid^V^ avecDt re yivovro 
iatTvpAvca^. "^KToyp Bk ffer*'' dfiSoripoia-iv eevwe* 
" xixXure p>€V, Tp&e*; xal etJlcmffuc^f; 'A;^atot, 
fjLvdov ^AXe^dvBpoco, rod etvexa vbIko^ opaypev. 


68. Tpdkic K^eizoN Pap. p. 70. 4X6(hn Z>. 71. Kpdcooo Zen. 72. 

firccwn H Vr. c. 74. NaiouMN Zen. Pap. ^K 76. &)i<itda LR. 77. Kaf p': 
5 p' S. 78 am. AU^. || juAcoon G. il to) d' : oY d' H. || IdpOoHcaN H J Pap. /3. 
80. TC om, CDG?K, || rX^cod J. 83. crcOro Q. || n : -roi P. 86. After this 
add 69P* cTnoo rd uc eujubc M cn^ecGa KcXciia (= H 349) CGJPn^TTJ'^ Cant. 
Lips. Harl. a, Par. a e, Eton, (^i' Tieiv &yTiypd<pois & (rrlxos oi> TlSerau, T™). 

72. ki seems to go with the verb, 
'ariffht,' i.e. ducalun, Paley quotes 
Aisch. Supp, 77, 528 AXewrw ivSfHav 
Cppiy eS <rrirfffa-as. Some however take 
it with ndNTa as though fiAXa riyra, 

Su.ite all. There certainly seems to 
ave been a tendency to join ^i> rdyres 
together, but there is no case in H. 
where we cannot take 46 with the verb ; 
in 869 we mtist (rdx* o6k iv iraat. 
iri^trcit, thou unit not do well to obey the 

73. The sentence begins as if o2 fiiv or 
v/uiU fih , , ol di were to follow in 
distributive apposition as in w 483 ; but 
the change made is a very natural one. 
^iXdnrra goes with TOfiAvres by a rather 
violent zeugma. 

74. Noiorrc; either a concessive opt. 
admitting a possibility (see H, O. § 299/), 
or a real opt. expressing a wish. 

78. Possibly borrowed from H 66. 
Hector holds his spear horizontally in 
order to press back the advancing ranks. 
For the 'quasi -partitive' gen. doup6c 
see H. O. %151 a. 

80. The construction passes from the 
partic. to the finite verb, as though not 
to include stone - throwing under the 
general head of iiriTo^d^tffdau. 

83. CTcOrcn, ?ias set himself to say 
something. See on Z 191. 

86. k^kXut^ julcu uOaoN : this con- 
struction is used only here in the sense 
hear from me ; xXOeiv tl = hear (a 
sound) ; A " 455, etc. The ordinary 
phrase is k4k\vt4 fiev fiCOuif, k 189, 811, 
etc. We also have kX^civ tifi dpfjs 
d 767, where the dat. is ethical. Hence 
van L. reads here KiKXvri /iuh, which is 
almost certainly right as avoiding the 
contracted fieu for fieo. 


lAlAAOC r (m) 

Tev^ea koK* arroOeaOai ^iirl j(0ovl wovXi/fioTeiprji} 
avTov S* iv fieaaoyt fcal aprjt<f>iKov Mei/eXoox^ 
olov^ ^fifj^^ 'EXivTfb Koi KTi]fiaat iraav) (lajfeaOai,, 
oTrjTorepo^ Be fce viKrjariL Kpeiaacov re yepr)Tac, 
KTqfJMff eKcbv iv irdvra yvvcuKa re otfcaS^ arfeaOw 
oi i aXKoi <f>i\6T7fTa fcal opxca ttiotcL rdfjuofiep*^ 

0)9 €q>au , OL apa iravres aKrjv eyevovTO aionrqu 
rolai Sk Kal fiereetire l3orfv d/ya0b<; Mei/eXao?' 
" KeKkvre vvv koX ifielo • fid\i<rTa yitp aA/yo? Ixdvei 
0vfjLOV ifjMv <f>povia} Sk ScaKpLv0i]fievat fjSrj 
^Apyeiov^ koI Tp&a^, iirel xaKct ttoWcl irhrcurOe 
eXv€K ifirjt; lpiSo<; Kal ^AXe^dvSpov cpck dpyn^, 
fifietov S* 6inroT€pa>t Odvarof; koI /jLolpa rervKrac, 
TcOvalrj* aXKot Be BcaKpivOelrc Td')(iaTa, 




89. noXuBoTclpH(i) Z>QRT[J. 90. kc xUkocoH Vr. a {yp. Harl. a). 91. oYouc 
d* Z>. 92. KpctcoQO Zen. : KpcHruN L. 93. nmaTx^dc H. 94 om. Pap. 

^. II t6jlaoumn G. 96. hk orruB,. 97. AuoTo HPQR Cant Vr. b. 98. 

dicncpieiijuLCNcn C^iX^LQ Pap. /9, Harl. a^ jj fidH : fijui9Ci> S Harl. a {yp. ftdM). 99. 
Apr^oi Kai Tp^^ Zen. || n^acec Ar. A supr, : n^ONoec Par. f : n^oioec S : 
n^ocec Q. 100. kxxJkc : iucTo GT. jj ApX^C Ar. O : fixHC Zen. 101. &niio- 
•ripWN Pap. /3. 102. dioucpiecTTC GLQ Pap. /3: diaKpi(N)eftTC CP^ (R stipr.) U 

Vr. a Kj Bar. Eton. 

98. 9pON^ may be taken in two ways : 
(1) ' My mind is that Argives and Tr. be 
at once separated,' i.e. I desire to see 
them separated ; (2) ' I deem that they 
are already separated,' i.e. I accept the 
challenge, ana think that an end has 
thereby been put to the war. Of these 
the former beist suits the simplicity of 
Homeric expression and the Ind of the 
next line ; for the use of 4>povi€iv^ 
virtually = to hope, cf. P 286 <t>P^if€ov 3^ 
fjuiXurra \ Atrrv vinri <r(f>iTcpov ipdeiv Kal 
KvSos dp^ffScu. See note on 28. 

99. n^aoec, for Wra^e, see ff. G. 
§ 22. 7, and compare the participle 
TrevaOviaf p 555 ; vulg. xhrocdcy which 
Curtius takes to be for -Ki-jrwd-Tt {Vb. 
ii. 165) ; but the strong stem is wrong 
in the plural. The -de is, however, 
taken by Brugmann as a middle term, 
for jriirae-<rd€. Or. ii. 1358 (?). The 
word recurs in the same phrase only 
K 465, ^ 53. 

100. ApX^c, the unprovoked aggression ; 
a pregnant sense, for which compare 
HerooT viii. 142 xtpi rijs vfitripris dpxrjs 

6 dyujy iyivrro. So dpx***' = to he the 
aggressor ; davdrui rltras &Tep ^p^€P Aisch. 
Ag. 1529, Eur. Here. 1169, Frag. 825; 
cf. Soph. EL 553. Zenod. &Trjs, to 
which Ar. objected iar at diro\oyo6n€ifos 
MeviXaoi 6ri Attji v€pi4v€ff€v 6 'AXc^aySpos. 
&T7if however, is often = «i>i, and regarded 
as deserving moral condemnation ; see 
e.g. I 510-2 ; and certainly Achillea is 
not 'apologising' for Agamemnon in 
A 412. In O 28 Ar. himself read drrjs 
(though there was a variant dpxv^), and 
so Z 356. A more serious objection is 
that Attj is for dFdrrjf and that the con- 
tracted form is found only in late passages, 
the first syllable being usually in th^is. 
See on A 412. 

102. TceNafH, may he lie dead, as 
ridvadi X 365, spoken to the dead 
Hector. Compare Ttdyairjs Z 1 64. Both 
optatives are * pure,* expressing a wish. 
The accent of moKpiNMttc is due to the 
idea that it is contracted from -eLrjre, 
This is of course not the case ; before 
the * heavy' endings the opt. stem is 
formed with -t- only, not -417- (h, O. § 83). 


lAIAAOC r (m) 


oXaere apv, frepov XevKov, eriprjp Sk fiikcupav, 

yrji T€ Kal fjekLtof Atl S' rifieZ^ otaofup aXXop. 

a^€T€ Se npuifioto fiirjv, Q<f>p* op/cia^'tdfiinji 

avro9j €7r€t ot iraioe^ v7r€p<pUi\oi xai atrtarof 

jjLT] TA9 VTrepfiao'irjc Ato9 opKUt) SrjX^arjrai. 

aUl S' onrKoTepcov avhp&v <\>pkve^ fjepedovraf 

ol^ S* 6 yipcov puET^uauf, aph irpoaato koX oiriaaeo 

Xevo'a'ei, otreo^ (6j^ apiaTO) p^er ap<f)OT€poi(n yevrjrau* 

w? €<f)a0\ oi S* €j(ap^aap ^A^aiol re Tpcoe*; re, 
ikirop.evoL iravaaaOai, R&p3v iroKep^io, 

I p Xinrov^ fiiv €pv!^av iirl artj^a^, €k S' €J3av avrol 




103. oTccTC Pap. /Sa (oTccr* ?/3i) : oTccrc V «. 104. b* : t* Pap. /3. 105. 
O : Xbctc Pap. /9. || t6julnci Q {supr. h) : rdjuui H : t6julnoi Ap. Lex, lOS- 
110 d^. Ar. 108. Ad G. 110. AcOca DJRQ. 112. fox^^^^^CMOi H {aupr. 

iXn6), 113. IpuooN S. 

103. oTcrrc and fixcrc (105) are aor. 
imper. For the sigmatic aor. with the 
thematic vowel see ^. 6^. § 41. The cases 
are enumerated in Curt Vb, ii. 282-4, 
and exphiined as due to the analogy 
of the non- sigmatic (strong) aorists 
which prevail in Epic Greek. In Alex- 
andrian times the converse phenomenon 
is found, as the non -sigmatic aorists 
constantly take a as thematic vowel 
(e.g. ^\$a) on the analogy of the sigmatic 
aorists, which hy that time were far 
commonest The only cases of this in 
H. are cliras, efirare, and IjveiKa (with 
its various forms). See note on 262. 

fipN* is probably for Apve^ but it may 
be for dpya. The F of Fdpy- is well 
attested {H, O, p. 364, van L. Ench, 
p. 163) ; the omission of 5* before it, 
proposed by Heyne, is now confirmed by 
the Papyrus. 

104. Considerable suspicion attaches 
to this line, rft for ycua is a rather late 
form (only three times again in II. t 
24, T 259, * 63 (cf. P 596), seven times 
in Od.j but often in Hes.). Ajum!Tc (or 
ijfj^es !) is metrically assured in only 
three other places, S 369, a 76, y 81, the 
older form being probably -qfiis uncon- 
tracted (Menrad Contr. p. 106). Finally, 
the mention of the third lamb on the 
part of the Greeks is curious ; in the 
seauel it would seem that Trojan lambs 
only are used. The line may have been 
added because Zeus is prayed to in 276, 
and it was thought that he too ought to 
have his lamb. Without this line we 
should naturally suppose that the white 

lamb was for the heavenly, and the black 
for the infernal deities in general (276- 
9). On the other hand, the mention of 
the male and female lamb suits the male 
and female deity (cf. A 729), and the 
question is not at all clear. 

105. hpKia TdjuLNHi, in the meta- 
phorical sense, as elsewhere, make .the 
treatyj for the actual slaughtemig is 
done by Agamemnon. 

107. For the subj. dHXi^cNTcn with 
the irregular long vowel see If. O. § 82, 
and Mulvany in C. R. x. 27. The 
expression Aioc SpKia is unique, and the 
line could well be spared. 

108. Acp^eoNTai, lit. 'flutter,' are 
blown about by the wind (B 448), i.e. 
cannot be trusted, the opposite of 4>pi^€s 
ffXTeSoi Z 352 ; so dealfpfxay T 183. Cf. 
^ 386. Ar. obelized this line and the 
two following ; the only reason given is 
that dxoXoyLa iarlv a^ni xnrkp tQv rapa- 
pdpTtav Hpiafuduv. This, of course, is 
insufficient ; the lines quite suit the 
eminently courteous character of Mene- 
laos. oTc (109) is left without a very 
accurate reference by the change of sub- 
ject to 6 y4p<av (which seems to be 
employed in a generic sense, not for 
Priam only — an Attic, not an Epic, use of 
the article). It is best taken as a neut. 
in the case where ; cf. the analogous 
uses of the neut pi. in H. O. § 161. 

112. See note on 28. Here the Mss. 
all read iraiyo-cur^ou, and we can translate 
either hoping to toin^ or to have won^ 
rest Almost all edd., however, read 


lAIAAOC r (ui) 

revyed r i^ehvovro' ra fi€v KareOevr ijrl yalffi 
TT^Jqalov aXKrjXjcov, oXiyr) S* fjv d/j^l^ dpovpa, 
''^KTfop he irporX aarv (Bvod KrjpvKa^, eirefiire 
KapifaXifio)^ apvd^ re <f)€p€ip Tlpiafiov re KaXecacu. 
avTcLp 6 TaXdvfiiop if pom /Kpeimv ^ Ayafiifivcov 
jn)a<; eirc yXa^vpa^ levat, 170 apv €K€\€V€v ^ 

oitrifievaf 6 £* ap* ovk diridrja ^Ayafiifivovi SLfoi, 
'1/5*9 S' av0* 'Ekimji XevKcoikivat.. 0776X09 ^Xdev 
elSofiem) yctkooyt, ^Avnjvop/lBao BdfuipTi, 
rrjv ^AvrrjvopiSr}^ clj^e ^peitov 'EXt/caa>i/) 
AaoSiKfjv (Jlptdfioto Ovyarp&v elBo^ dpL<TTrii)i, 
Tqv o €vp K€vp£yap(oc) rj be fieyav larov v<paiv€, 
Si'rrKa/ca troji^vperjv, iroXea^ S' iv^Trcura-ev de0\ox}^ 
Tpcoeov (f iTTiroSdfKov xal ^A^at&v j(a\K<>yiT(6va)v, 
0^9 C^Oev eive/c) eira<r)(pv (^ir ^Aprjo^ 7raXafma)Pi 
dyxpv S" laTapAvq irpoo'e^i] (iroBa^ ay/cea ^ipi^' 
" Bevp* Wi, vvfi<f>a <f>Lkfj, Xva OeaKeka epya IBrjat 





114. fediioNTO Pap. /3. 116. nori Q. (| Incuipc CGRST Lips. Eton. Vr. a A. 
119. Ik^CUCN AHU Pap. /3: te^cuccN 0. 123. t^n d' U. 126. nop9Up6fN 
Ar. Aph. Zen. PU King's : uapuap6«N 0. || An^ooocn Pap. p. 130. Niiu^M Q. 

115. AXXi^coN refers to rci^ea, and 
&u9ic means 'there was but little 
ground (uncoyered) between the heaps 
of arms.' (This interpretation is clearly 
established by Buttm. Lex, s.y. dful>ls, 
as against the tradition that dXXi^Xtov 
referred to Trojans and Achaians, so that 
dpovpa meant the fjLenUxM^ov between the 
armies.) See also note on H 842. 

119. ftd' fipN'; read koI Fdpv (P. 
Knight) ; Idi Fdpv* Heyne, but see on 

120. olc^ucNon, aor. as 103. La R. 
strangely makes it fut., saying that the 
in fin. of these aor. forms is not used ; a 
very unwarrantable assertion in the face 
of 4" 111, 564, 668, and four or five 
other passages. He seems hardly to be 
conscious of any distinction in sense be- 
tween the fut. and aor. in fin. 

121. Iris is introduced as acting on 
her own mere motion, against the usual 
rule that she only goes at the bidding 
of the gods. But cf. ^ 199, B 786. 

124. Cf. Z 252. AaodbcHN, ace. for 
dat. by attraction to the case of the 

126. dtnXoKa, large enough to be worn 
double ; cf. K 134, 230, p 224, r 226. 

It is opposed to the smaller dwXcitt Q 
230, to 276 (see Studniczka Beitr. p. 73). 
6i<riaoocN, as X 441 ; the word is used in 
connexion with weaving in a way which 
shews that the art was so highly de- 
veloped in early days as to permit of the 
weaving of pictures. This was presum 
ably done by inserting coloured threads 
by hand as the weaving went on, as the 
Indian carpet-weaver makes his patterns 
by inserting tufts of coloured wool. One 
cannot but be reminded of the Bayeux 
tapestry, on which the ladies of Nor- 
mandy embroidered their duke's victories. 
130. Niijui9a is the name by which a 
Greek woman still speaks of her brother's 
wife ; so also niise m Albanian, properly 
bride. The form is to be classed with 
(Tv^Qra, iprepoTevTdf ro^&ra, etc., as an 
instance of the old vocative of the -a 
declension, which survived only in Aiolic. 
Sappho has S> AIkH fr. 78, yOfufA ir. 105. 
The statement of SchoL A, ^lu^ucd v^fupa 
T6\fiaj lacks all confirmation. See If, d, 
§ 92 and p. 390. e^occXa, strange, a 
word of unknown origin recurring ^ 107, 
X 374, 610. Of course the old derivation 
Qtoli Ik€\o% is imi)0S8ible ; but we natur- 
ally think of the equally obscure Bia^rtn, 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 


ot irpXv (eir aKKriKoLai,\ <f>€pov TroXvBaxpvv "A/jiya 

» 5>/ y^tf^^ ^ Via'' -v f 

€P ireoitoiy aixooio XcA/itofievoi iroxep.oio, 
oi hi) vvv ^arai (riyfJL, iroXefJU)^ Be ireiravrai, 
cunrio't /c€/cA,ifi€voi, irapa o ey^ea fiaxpa Treirrj^ev. 
avrap ^Aki^avSpo^ xal apfjt<f>t\of; Mei/eXao? 
^ /jLaKpriL<; iy^elrjco'i) fia^i^aoprat irepX aelo' 
<T(oi Be K€ ptKijaavTi} <f>IXri KexXijarji aKoiTL^.^ 

(£9 etirova-a Oect (^vkvv Ifi'^pdih €fi/3a\€ Oufim 
dpBpo^ re irporepoLO xal aareo^ rjBe TOKrj(ov, 
avriKa S' dpyevvtJKTi Kokxr^ap^evq oOoi/rjcacv 
iipfjMT ix OaXdfiOLO repev /caret Bd/cpv ^(eovcTa, 
ovK oTf), afia rrjc ye Kal foLfi^iiroKoi, ov eirovro. 



133. rrroX^uoio S. 134. n6Xcu6c tc U. 136. Acnidi R. 137. uoKpoTc 
GR. I ^doia G. |i coTo PQ. 138. KC : re P. || 9IXH : ruNJi H (7/). 9iXH). 
143. Tfti re : Tfl(i) dc QS. 

133. This is a *Leoniue* verse, with 
a rime in the middle. 

134. Sorai for c?or(u.= fjarai (^-vrai), 
with shortening as in K^arai for Kclarat, 
y^ai for yrjaSj xf^^^^^ ^or xpiJcrcios, and 
other cases in van L. Ench, p. 85. So 
euro H 414. Of. ©n 153. 

138. KC goes with kckXi^chi (fut. 
indie.) ; to him who conquers thoit shaU 
(then) be assigned. The order of tlie 
words Is the same as in H 41 oi 5^ k' 
dyaaffdfuvoi . . (42) iTdpaciay. It seems 
un natural to us here, because we are 
accustomed to the Attic use of the art. 
with tlie jMirticiple, where no word from 
another part of the sentence can be 
interposed. But here t^i is still an 
independent pronoun, lit. 'to him, 
having conquered,' etc. The difficulty 
arises of course from the reference being 
not to one definite person, but to either 
of two (cf. H, G. § 260). This shews 
that the Attic use has practically been 
reached in all but the stereotyped order, 
of. Tov fiaaiXijos dirrivioij etc. There are 
very fe.w other instances in H., perhaps 
only * 262, ^ 825, 663, 702, beside the 
parallel 255 below (q.v.). It has been 
proposed, on the analogy of oTT&repos 
5^ K€ fucffarii (71), to take k€ with the 
l>articiple here ; but in practice the kc 
(dv) is inseparable from the relative in 
such sentences for H. as for later Greek, 
and no analogous case has l)een quoted. 
At best we could refer to the instances 

of a repeated &y where the first often 
attaches itself to a participle represent- 
ing a conditional clause, but is not con 
stnied with it (instances in J/, and T. 
§ 224). There seems to be no case of 6 
I'tKTjtros &Vf and even if it were found it 
could only mean 'the man who would 
have conquered.' Van Leeuwen evades 
the difficulty by reading ye for kc, with 
P ; but this is intolerable. kckXi^chi, 
i.e. KeK\i^<rc\ai), 

140. TOKi^cDN, Lcda and Tyndareos, 
though Helen is Aids iKyeyavia^ see 199, 
426, 5 184 ; the legends to the 
imternity of the children of Leda, see 
X 298 (M. and R.'s note), and on 238 

141. 6e6NH, linen veil, see 2 595. 
KaXutfrojL&^NH : this reflexive use of the 
middle, in which the agent is the direct 
object of the action, is comparatively 
rare ; H. 0. % S (2). 

142. T^pCN, rouiul ; Lat. ter-es. The 
word is used by H. (1) of flesh, A 237, 
N 553, S 406; (2) of tears, here, 
n 11, T 323, T 332 ; (3) of leaves, N 
180, M 357 ; (4) AvOia Trolrjs i 449. The 
ordinary exj)lanation, * tender,' does not 
suit either (1) or (2), for the flesh to 
which it is applied is always that of 
stalwart warriors, not of women or 
children ; it rather indicates the firm 
rounded muscles (cf. Lat. (or-us). As 
applied to leaves and bloom it means 
' swelling with sap,' firil of fresh life. 




AtOprj TliT0r]o^ Oirfdrrjp KXvfievrj t€ /3ofS)'m^. 

"'myfrO' S* eireiff* Ijcavov, o0i ^xaial irvXai fjaav, 
ol S* afi<f>l Tlp[afiov Koi YldvOoov ^Se Svfiolrrfv 
Adfi'rrov re KXvtlov 0* 'ixerdovd r o^ov "Ap?;©?, 
OvKoKeycov T€ koI ^AvTrjvcDp, ireirvv^evto dfi<f>a), 
ecaro Brjfi^epovre^ iirl ^xairjia-L irvXtfLO'i, 
yijpal Br) iroXefwio ireTravfievoi, aW' dryoprjTal 
€<TffKoL, Temyeo'a'iv €oiKOT€<i, oi re Kau vXrjv , 

Coevopei eipe^ofievoC) oira Keupioeaaav leuip' 



144 aS. Ar. (see below). 146. Ykqncn P. 147. XdunoNra 6. || T* SzoN : 
•* SzoN T. 148. TC (ym. G. || ncnNOLu6<fC0 T. 149. ocoiaTa nOXaia G. 

160. l-HpaY : r^i S : 7/>. kuI n^pcY u)s oCdei A. \\bk: ^ G. 162. d^ldpci 

Zen. : dcndp^i Ar. Q : bindpto P Par. k {^wst rns. ). ;i iz6juicHoi S. || Xupi6«ooaN 
G. II Ymcqn (?) Pap. p- : Yccqn /S^ 

144. This line is a clear case of inter- 
polation of a later myth. The story was 
that Aithra, daughter of Pittheus, was 
the mother of Theseus. Theseus having 
stolen Helen while yet a child, her 
brothers, the Dioskuri, invaded Attica 
daring his visit to Hades, and recovered 
Helen, carrying off Aithra to be her 
slave. At the taking of Troy, the sons 
of Theseus, Demopnon and Akamas, 
found their grandmother there among 
Helen's handmaids, and took her back 
to Athens. The legend was dealt with 
in the *l\lov Tripais ascribed to Lesches 
(Paus. X. 25. 5), and is at least as old as 
the Chest of Kypselos, see Paus. v. 19 
Aid pa di 7] Utrdiun vvb t^s 'EX^vt;j roh 
jTOclv eli ida<poi KaTa^e^Xrjtiivr) fxiXaivav 
iXO^'<^d iffTiy (ffdiJTa. (Tlypafi/Jia di iir' 
oiVotj ivoi re i^dfxerpoVj Koi 6v6^t6s 
iariv i^bs 4irl rCn, i^a/xirpuL Trpoa6i}K'q • 

TwSapiSa 'E,V»'ai' <pip€TOVf AWpav 5* 



The recoveiy of Aithra was a regular 
episode of the Iliupersis on Attic vases 
of the fifth century (Robert Bild u. Lied 
c. ii), and was painted by Polygnotos in 
the Lesche at Delphi (Paus. x. 25), 
where the two handmaids of Helen were 
named Elektra and Panthalis. But 
Homer is, of course, ignorant of the 
Theseus myth in all its oranches. The 
Alexandrine critics were troubled by the 
chronological difficulty of the age which 
most be assigned to Aithra : AirLdavbv 
yap 4(TTiv "EX^vrjs ifjuffiToXoy elvai rrjv 
oi^TCJi ^v oi'K iKWOiei (it is 

not possible) f^v 5t4 rb firjKos rod xplivw 
(Schol. A). That, however, must be 
l)Ut to the account of the myth-maker. 
More serious indications of interpolation 
here are the fact that Homer does not 
name handmaids on similar occasions 
(a- 182 is the only case), and that the 
epithet /3o<2irts belongs to Hera alone, 
H 10 and S 40 being the only exceptions. 
The latter, at least, is a doubtful passage. 
The line was evidently composed at a 
date when the old tradition had died 
out, if it is true that the epithet ori- 
ginally came from the time when gods 
were worshipped in animal form, and 
was no mere epithetoii ornans. Cf. on 
yXavKUTis A 206. 

146. ol iux^\ nplauoN, the party con- 
sisting of Priam and the rest. The idiom 
by which a man is included in * those 
about ' him is familiar in H. as well as 
in Attic ; see B 445, A 295, Z 486, O 801. 
etc. The change to the nominative in 
148 is merely for the sake of convenience, 
and does not indicate that Ukalegon and 
Antenor were in any way different from 
the rest. The three names in 147 are 
ace. to T 238 those of sons of Laomedon, 
and therefore brothers of Priam. 

149. dHJuor^pONTCc : the word recurs 
only A 872, where it is applied to Ilo«, 
the eponym of Ilios. There is no reason 
to su])pose that it is in any way different 
from the simple y^pwv : it means merely 
member of th^ cmincil of elders of the 
8ij/xoi or community. Cf. the yepw^ios 
opKOi X 119 note. 

152. Xcipi6cccaN : so Hes. Theog. 41, 
and cf. 6Tra XeLpiov Ap. Rhod. iv. 903 ; 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 


Toloi apa (Ypdxov r/yijTOpes:) fjvT iirl irvpycDL. 
oi S* 0)9 ovv €lBov0^ ^EK€V7)v itrl irvpyov iovaav, 
i^Kd 7rpo9 aX\i]Xov<; eirea Trrepoevr ar/opevov 155 

" ov vefji€(n<i Tp&a^ xal ivKin^fiiBa^ 'Aj^atov? 
{TotrjiS ap><^\ yvvaiKbj iroXvv ^(popov aX/^ea 'n'da'j(€iv* 
atvay; (aOavdrrfio't 0€rji^)€h &7ra eoixev, ^ 

dWa Koi 0)9, TOLT) irep iova , ev vrjvcrl veeaOo), 
fjajS" (fjfuv TeKeea-a-l^ T oiriaaco TrPjfjba XtTrotro." 160 

o>9 a/5* €(f>av, Upiafw^ S* 'FXevrjv iKaXeaaaro (fxovrjt,* 
" Bevpo irdpoiG' ikOova-a, iblXov T€Ko<i, t^ev ifieio, 
o<f>pa lorji^ 7rpoT€pov re iro(nv irriov^ re <pi\ov^ re 
ov TL fiot cuTirj iaai, Oeoi vv fioi alrtoi elatv, 
OL fioi etfxopfirfa'av woTufjuov iroKvhaKpvv A'^aicov 165 

163. TofoN G. li cTnt* O. || niiproN Q {s^ipr. to) : niipruN Schol. ad O 10. 
164. ctdoN GQT : cTdoNe* RS Harl. a : YdoNe' D : YdoN Pap. /3. 155. fixa : 

cbxa Zen. Rrates : tip^s ^ko Par. a. 156. rp^c tc Kcrt HPQR. 158. &ea- 
Ndrma P. || ecatc 6. |! hoKn P Eust. 159. nhI Yr. A. 160. Xintrrai P {yp. 
Kol nSkua Xinorro). 162. t6cnon J. || Yzou G. || iuoXo PQRS Vr. b. 163. 

Tdmc Zen. CGJRST Pap. /3, Harl. a b, Par. d eW h j : T^mi Ar. ft. 166. k^p- 
JUMGON Lips. : i9cibpjuucaN P. || Ax^'^'' * ^PHOC Pap. /3^ 

bat it is hard to say how a voice can be 
* lily-like/ or, to be literal, * full of lilies.' 
Commentators generally are content to 
say that the idea of delicacy is transferred 
from the flower to the sound. The schol. 
explain iTiOvfiyn^* ^^cioi'. The Greeks 
felt particular pleasure in the voice of 
the cicada (cf. particularly the charming 
lines in Scut. Her. 393 n.), and we can 
understand the * chirruping' of the old 
men being compared to it ; but that 
does not bring us nearer to the meaning 
of the epithet, \eipi6cii is applied to the 
skin in N 830, but the lily is not else- 
where mentioned by H., and appears 
first in Hyma. Cer. 428. It looks as 
though some different word of forgotten 
meaning had been corrupted into a more 
familiar form ; but it is hardly safe to 
trust to the gloss of Hesych., who explains 
\iipbi by iffxyds (Paley). Xeipitai^ dfifidrtav 
in Bacchylides (xvii. 95) cannot be said 
to throw any fresh light on the question. 
dbfdpa, so Zen. The form is well 
attested in Attic and Herod, vi. 79. 
64w8p€ot^ is certain in N 437, 5 458 ; but 
here the simultaneous synizesis and 
shortening in the vulg. dtvdpim are in- 
tolerable. (In A 15 XP^^^^^ ^"^ o-ojir- 
Tpw. we may read either 9lv with Lehrs 

or ffK-ftTrrfxai dvA xpwr^an with Brandreth.) 
The other Homeric forms, 8Mp€a and 
d€vdp4<av, are ambiguous. Scvdp^wi i^6- 
fi€voi is possible, but ill attested. 

153. Auto, a mii^u« form for ^aro, i^roj 
due to the similarity of ^^loi {rj<r-fiaL) to 
the vocalic stems, which admit both -vro 
and -aro after rj (/3e/3\7j-arat — ^iJH^\tj-vTo 
If. G. p. 5). 

Lessing, in a well-known passage of 
the Laokoan (ch. xxi.), quotes the 
admiration of the old men as a supreme 
instance of the manner in which poetry 
can convey the idea of exceeding personal 
beauty without any attempt to describe 
a single feature. 

156. oO N^eac, Hhere is no place 
for indignation that,' as a 80, a 350, 
just as we say ' Small blame that ' ; so 
v€fi€(T(r7}T6f r 410, etc. 

1 60. XinoiTO, remaiiij as I 437. nAjma, 
in apposition, as 51, etc. 

162. The order is devpo iXdovtra t^ev 
Tcdpoid* i^uio, and cbc (166) is co-ordinated 
with 69pa YdHic, 164-5 being parenthet- 
ical. HHoOc, kinsfolk by marriage, ex- 
plained in d 582 yafi^pbi 1j weydepdif 61 
TC fidXicrra \ KifSiffToi reXidowri fieS' alfjui 
re Kal y4vos aOrCav. 



&^ fjLoi Koi TovS* avBpa ireXwpiov i^ovofiijpi]i<i, 
09 TA9 00 €<TTtv A^uio^ avr}p «fi;9 T€ fieya^ re. 
fj Toi fi€v Ke^aXrji koI fieit^ove^ SXKoi, ecuri, 
Kokov S* ovTeo iycbv ov TTO) Ihov 6<\>daXp^iaLV 
ovS* ovTOD yepapov ^aaCKrfi yap avBpl eoiKe.*^ 

Tov h 'EXei/iy fivOoiatv dfielfiero, Sia yvvaiK&v 
" at£o?09 T€ fwl iaat, <f>lX€ hcupe, Beivo^ re* 
0)9 o<f>€X€v Odvaro^ fwi aSetv KaK6<i, oinroTe Bevpo 
viei (Teoi eirofirjv, uaKafiov yv(OTov<; re Kiirova'a 
Traioa re TrfKvyerrjv Kav op/rpuxLffV eparetvfjv. ^^ 
dXXcL rd y ovk iyevovro' to kol KXiiovaa Terrjxa, 
TovTO 0€ TOi epeeo, o fi aveipeai i^oe p^raKKat^' 
ovTO^ y* ^ArpetSi]^ evpv xpeitov ^ Ay a fie p,v(»>v\ ^ ^ 

dpxf)OT€pov, fiaaiXev^ r dyaOo^ Kparepot; r ai^^rjTijf; 
oarfp avT e/i09 ea-Ke fcvvooirioo^, ec wot erjv ye. 


V.<;««.(r ij2 i*«*t^ 



169. cTdoN 69MX1A0TC H. 170. rcpa6N Pap. ^K || rdp : d^ Athen. xiiL 566. 
174. PNCocToiic DXJ. 176. rd r* : rd kc, yp, di Kod t6 r€ Schol. A. |I xXcfioiica 
Pap. iS. 178. r* om, G Pap. /3 : t' U. 

168. Kol juLcfzoNCC, ev^n (p-eatcr, not 
merely equal. KCfoXAi, bij (the measure 
of) the head, 

172. 9iXc iK\3pi'. the aF of {(rF)€Kvpi 
lengthens the e as in oOSi {<rF)oM B 832. 

173. odNcrroc . . AdctN, a curious 
phrase apparently founded on the 
familiar ffv^av^ §ov\f}. The neglect of 
the F of ddcTN {svad-) is very rare ; ws 
li{oi) 6(f>€\€v Bdvarot Fabieiv is a clearly 
right correction required by the order of 
the words (Monro ; H. 0. p. 337). Yet 
even so the verb is a curious one to use, 
and there is no exact parallel. €\i€Lv^ 
XafiUiv were not likely to be corrupted. 

176. nafda, sc. Hermione, 5 14. thXu- 
r^THN : the explanation of this much 
disputed word which now seems to be 
the most generally accepted is that 
given by Savelsberg in the IViein. Mas. 
1853, p. 441. It is explained at length 
by M. and R. on 5 11. The conclusion 
there arrived at is that tlie word means 
n>iol€SC€iis, lit. 'grown big,' from *r^Xi'y 
= great, and that it indicates an age of 
from thirteen to twenty or thereabouts. 
This suits the statement of Sophokles as 
quoted by the schol. on 5 4, and 
Eustath., who say tliat Hermione was 
given in marriage while Helen was in 
Troy, so that she could not have been 

very young when her mother left her. 
But it is only an uncertain guess. 

178. oCtoc is * anaphoric,' not * deic- 
tic ' ; in other words it means * he of 
whom you ask,' while Priam (167) uses 
55c, * this warrior whom I see.' 

179. This was a favourite line of 
Alexander's, Pint. Mor. i. 331. See 
also Xen. Mem. iii. 2. 2. &U96T8PON. 
exactly our idiom, *holh a good king 
and.' So Pindar 0. vi. 17 dfi<f>&r€po¥ 
jxdvrlv T dyadbv Kal dovpl fjApvatrdax. 

180. cY noT* Ihn re: this phrase occurs 
in five other places, viz. A 762, O 426, 
268, T 315, w 289. It is always, 
except in and w, preceded by some 
form of eivat. It is commonly taken to 

-^mcan 'if indeed it is not all a dream,' 
si unqiuim fuit quod iwn cut ampluis, i.e. 
si rede dici potest fuisse quod ita sui 
factum est dissimilc lUfuissc nunquavi 
cretfasj 0. Hermann. The doubt would 
then l>e a rhetorical way of emphasiz- 
ing the bitter contrast between the pa.Ht 
and the present. Monro compares ef 
TroT€ in prayers (e.g. A 39, 394), where 
there is no doubt expressed ; * the effect 
is that of an assurance that the past to 
which the speaker looks back was once 
really present ; " if there was an Aga- 
memnon [as there was], he was my 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 

0)9 <paTo, TOP o o yepoDV rf^aaaaro d>(opi]a'€v re 
" (o fuiKap * At petSrj, fWLfnyyeve^, 6X/3iookifiov, 
ij pa vv Toi TToWol hehfirjaTo tcovpoi 'Aj^atwi^. 
ijSrj Kol ^pvyifjv €L<rqKv0op a^ififLo^aaav • 
evOa iBov irkelarov^ ^pvya^ avepja^ alo\o7rco\ov<i, 
\aov^ 'Ot/5^09 teal M,vyBovo<i avriueoLO, 
oi pa TOT io'TpaTocovTO Trap* o^Ba^ %a^apLoio' 
Kol yap <€rf(ov iintcmfpo^ ia)v) fieTh Tolaiv iKe^Orjv 
TjfidTt TCJi, 0T€ T ffK0ov ^i^p^^ove^ avTiJiiveLplat)' 




aW qvo 01 Toaoi ri<Tav oaoi •cAt/cojTre? A'yat^oi, 
Sevrepov avT (*OBvarja lSoi}v ^ ipieiv* 6 yepaio^ • 
€f7r aye fioo xai Tovbe, <pi\ov tcko^, 09 tc^ 00 eo'Ti, 
^fUla>v pkv K€<f>a\r]i * Ay a fie fivovo^ ^ATpetSao, 
evptfrepo^ S' &fioi<Tiv IBe aTepvoia-Lv IBecOac. 
T€vj(€a flip oi KelTai(€'/rl y(^9ovl trovkv^oTeiprji^ 196 

auT09 BeC/CTiXo^; w^ eTrcTrtoKeiTat aTiya^ avBpcjv 
apvei&t fitv iy(o ye eiaK(o irrjyeaLfidWcoi, 
09 T oitinv fieya ircov oiep-xeTav apyevvatov, 

186. Xaoiic -K J. 187. ^crparciioNTO JP^ (-doNTO F). 188. Irc^N : ^dbN 

Pap. /3\ II iX^JULMN Strabo. 189. T* om. 6R. 190. oOb* oi : oO d^ Q. 

191. afie* C. 193. KC9aX^N Ar. H Par. g^. 194. iOk GPQ. 196. TC^xcd 
ol JU^ JR. II noXuBoTcfpHi im Pap. ^^ 196. incnodXeTTO Pap. /3. 197. JUlIN : 
ujkM S. 

brother - in - law. " ' But the phrase 
belongs to a class of sentences in which 
€l is not conditional at all, but merely 
calls attention to a concomitant circum- 
stance, of which the so-called 'protasis' 
is independent. See note on A 321. 
The sense is rather ' Do not forget that 
he was * than * if he was.* To bring out 
this sense Curtius would read ft ttot* 
frjp yCf * surely once he was,' which is 

182. JuoipHrcN^ child of fortune^ 
born to a happy fate. Doderlein ex- 
plains * bom for destruction (of enemies),' 
on the ground that ^km/xi means evU fate. 
But this is only tlie case in phrases like 
fidipau daydroio and others ; in t; 76 it is 
opposed to A^fiopirf^ and clearly means 
'good fortune* : fiolpTji ycvdfievos would 
answer to the Kaxiji at<nn. riKoif of A 418. 

183. dcdjuu^oTO, i.e. 'are, as I now 
see, subject to you ' ; tlie plpf. being 
used like the imperf. in ^/x«XXov, ^v (A/>a), 
etc. Cf. irirxf^o 9 163, M 164. 

185. The rhythm shows that ^piirac 
hnkpac go closely together. abXoncbXouc : 

cf. 7r65as o/6Xos tiriros T 404, wUh nimJble 
horses. nXdcrouc is predicate, with 

188. iX^OHN, either ^ was numbered 
among tliem' (Xe7-) or ^lay dmim 
(bivouacked) among them ' (Xex-)- The 
same ambiguity is found in 8 519, I 67. 
H. mentions the Amazons once again, 
Z 186; cf. also B 811. 

193. KC9C1XA1, as 168. Ar.'s K€(pa\iiv 
follows the analogy of 227. 

196. KTiXoc, the ram who leads the 
flock, *bell wether' ; the simile is given 
again, at full length, in N 492. In 
later Greek the word seems to be used 
only as an adj. ^tavie. Cf. Pind. P. ii. 
17 Upia ktIXop 'A^poStras. 

197. nHreciudXXoji, thick -fleeced ; cf. 
ir>776$ of horses and waves, I 124, e 388. 
The formation of the word is hard to 
explain ; the analogy of TauvalrrrepoSt 
i\K€<TiTr€Tr\oi^ ra^ufflxpoos, AepalTToSes, and 
many others, shews that it must be 
derived from the verb -stem tr-ny-f not 
from mjySi (cf., however, XI/Koreo-fXaos). 
H. G. § 124 c. 







*' o5to9 S' au AaepTidBrj^ 7ro\vfii]TC^ ^OBvaaev^, 
S9 Tpd<f)rj (iv BijfKoi ^lOaKfj^Kpavarj^ irep iovarj^^ 
eihw iravTolov^ re h6\ov<i koX firfiea irvKva^ 

Tr)v S' air ^AvTrjVwp ireirvvfUvo^ avriov i^vha* 
** & yvvai, fj fidXa tovto Itto? vr)fi€pT€<; letTTC?* 
rjBrj yap Kal Bevpo iror fjkvde :^lo<i ^Oivaaevs:) 
<T€V evei^ ar/y€\lrj<i, avv aprjL<f>L\a)i MeveXdeof 
T0U9 S' iyo) i^eivKTca Kal iv fi€ydpoi<Ti <l>l\rjla'a^ 
dfi<f)OT€pa)p Be (fivriv iBdrjv xai iitjB^cl irvKvd. 
aW' 0T€ Br} (Tpweaaip iv wypofiei/oia-tv ' efii^Oev, 
ardvT^ov fuv MeveXao^; V7r€ip€)(€v evpia^ atfiov<;, 
(a/i(f}(0 S' €yafjiiv(o,) y€pap(OT€po<; ^ev ^OBva-a-ev^, 

203. aO P Lips. 204. Sanac GL Yr. a^ Lips.^ 206. cAc Zen. Par. b.^ 

207. ToOc b* : ToOcdc d* P. II ird>N fadmcGa J. || xdNica PQ. || jucrdpoic i^iXifoa 
Pap. /}. 211. tEouiMtoM Zen. I/TV Harl. a^ c d, King's, Par. e, Eton. 


201. diiucdi, ' realm ' in local sense, 
see B 547. ncp : the idea seems to be, 
' poor though the soil X)f Ithaka be, yet 
it has succeeded in producing a great 
man.' Cf. 5 605, t 27 rprfx^r dXV 
dyaOij Kovporpdipos. Tpd9H, read rpdipev 
or Tpd(f>* ivl, though here the Mss. are 
unanimous ; see on B 661. 

206. ArrcXlMC dfrl rod &yy€\oi, Ar., a 
much disputed doctrine. In the present 
passage we may well take orr. as 
governed by ft'€<ca (as ir 334 ttjs airrrjs 
fp€K dyyeXlrjs) and ccO as an objective 
gen. after it (as k 245 dyyeXiijv irdpuv 
ipiuv). So A 384 dyycXlrjy ivl Tvdr} 
(TTetXav 'AxcLiol is ambiguous, for ivi 
may be taken with the verb (see note 
there) ; and A 140 McvAao*' . . dyyeXlrfv 
iXObvra, with the analogy of i^cclT^v 
iXebvTi 235, 20 (hence Bentley, 
followed by van L., read dyytKiriv here). 
But in N 252 fii t€v dyyeXtrit /jl€t' ifx 
ijXvOcs, 640 6s ECpvaSrios didXtav 
dyytXLriz otxycaKC pirji 'HpaxrXiTfli/t, we 
must either make the word a nom. with 
Ar., or read dyy^^^'n^ with Zenod., or 
extend the * causal ' use of the genitive 
beyond all analogy, even in the freedom 
of Homeric usage. The termination 
•irjs recurs only in veripli^s, rafilrfSf in the 
latter case with the fem. rafdr) beside it, 
though this is not an abstract noun. 
For the formation of such masculines 
of the -a declension from abstract 
feminines see jy. C. § 116 (2). There is, 
therefore, a certain amount of analogy 

for the doctrine of Ar., establishing at 
least the possibility of it ; the conclusion 
in the last resort depends on the tradi- 
tion of the text in N and 0. (See also 
Delbriick Gr. iii. pp. Ill, 368.) There 
can be no doubt tnat on the whole the 
nom. masc. gives the be^t sense here, 
*an envoy concerning thee.* The gen. 
would rather mean to get (or more 
naturally to bring) a message of thee, 
which is not what is required. Odysseus 
and Menelaos came as envovs from 
Greece, to obtain the surrender of Helen 
by peaceful means before the opening of 
the war, as was related in the K\fpria. 
This is again alluded to in A 138, q.v. 
<r^s, the reading of Zen., is no im- 
provement on ccO, and would have to be 
taken in the same objective sense, cf. 
T 336 i^JLTiv TTOTidiyfjLefOP aUl \ Xnypijp 

209. &rpojui640ia, sc. when they first 
made their appearance in the dyopd, 

210. crdNTUN seems to refer to the 
whole multitude ; the dignity of Odysseus 
is emphasized by his being more stately, 
when they sat down, even than the man 
whose slioulders stood out not only above 
his, but above all the Trojans. Bentley 
read ffTdvres on the analogy of i^ofiivta 
below. OneipcxcN is probably in trans., 
with gen. as ifiXioi inrepiirxcOe 70/17$ 
A 735 ; inrepix^tv in the trans, sense 
means * to hold over,' e.g. B 426, which 
is possible here, but seems less natural. 

211. There is an anacoluthon here; 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 136 

ore Btj fivOov^ koI fiijBea Trdaiv vq>aLvov, 

fi€P Mei'eXao? hrih'po'ydhrjv dyopeve, 
I fji€V, aXka fidXa Xiyew, iirel ov 7ro\vfiv0o^, 
i<ffo/iapT^€7n]^, el koI yepei va-repo^ fiev, 215 

ore tr) TroXvfirfTi,^ avc^^eiev ^Ohv<Taev^, 
<evy{wra\ ie theaKe^iKara j(j9ovo<;> ofifjuara 7r?Jfa9, 
, OUT oTTiaoD ovre TrpoTrprjve^ evcofia, 

aa¥eji<^e^ e'^ea-Kev, dihpel (jxorl eocKW" 

Ke ^aKOTOv re tlv efifievai a<f>povd r avrco^, 220 

ore Bij^oTra re fieyd\r)v) ck (TTijOeo^ etr) 

>r s>M^ p. i^lr^ 

: A AT Eton. {yp. Harl. a) : h Paj). /S^ : « or fi Nik. 219. dtdpi 

b, Pap. p\ 220. ri TIN* : TiNd S {yp. J) : tin* Q. || •' aOrwc JQ. 

iLU : To GP Harl. a : Y« CHiL : Yh Lips. 

notion is just like K 224 <t6v 
livoj, Kai T€ wpb 6 ToO iv6vj<r€v. 
ises the sentence begins as if 
were to be continued in dis- 
pposition (Ard 6\ov els fiipri) 
iv , . 6 S4 (as a 95 5i) r&r' 
J 6 fxkv ijXaffe de^ibp wfiof \ 
li/X^v' fKa<r<T€v, H 306, M 400, 
t here the second member is 
iltogether ; in K tlie two are 
er into irpb 6 toO. Cf. also /u 
(a (rKdveXot 6 niv . . followed 
iT€pov 101. Zenod. read 
pparently regarding &fi(fKa as 
e (it is not found in H. except 
d ace. ). 

r {i9aiNON Casaubon conj. 
'. 2 295, e 499. But the 
of weaving speeches is too 
be objected to. For the dat. 
(Ti 5* dv4<TTTj (locatival). 
Tpox^bHN, Jimnthf (as <r 26), 
ling for want of words ; it is 
)y the whole of what follows, 
ig taken up by oi!- 7ro\ijfiv6oiy 
: (which seems to mean clear 
:e) by 01*5' d<f>afiapTO€'n'TfiSy ' no 
n words either' (cf. X 511 
rape fii^'duv, and N 824 
I. I.e. Menelaos spoke con- 
; what he did say he said 
d without stumbling, cf. 
dyop€i'>€i 171. In the 
)f Menelaos' speech on this 
ks conceived by Bacchylides 
an hardly be said that the 
character, ov wo\v/iv6oi, is 

)ugh the MS. testimony is 
avour of d here, the scholia 
18 9i and ij as variants. The 

latter is inadmissible here ; the former, 
preceded by a colon, may be defended by 
passages where it introduces short paren- 
thetical sentences, as H 393, A 362, 
X 280 (if. G, § 338). All these cases 
are, however, so far different that Jj 
retains its original force of strong 
affirmation, and in none of them could 
€1 be substituted without detriment to 
the sense. Here, however, there is no 
need of asseveration about the relative 
age of ^lenelaos, and if ^ is right, it 
means no more than e/, which it is 
therefore better to retain. 

217. (ina\,/rom under as usual (H. G. 
§ 201), not dowrif which is Kard. So 
vrrdSpa of the glance of a man from 
under eyebrows contracted in anger. 
Here fijuLucrra refers to the face rather 
than the eyes ; Odysseus keeps his face 
turned to the earth and looks up from 
under his brow, inrb ^Xe^dptav T 17. Cf. 
Ovid Met. xiii. 125 LaeHius licroa 
AdstitU (Uqiie oculos paullum icllurc 
woratos Sustulit ad procures. ANatkciCH, 
rose to speakf cf. ijttraov S 506. The opt. 
is iterative. 

220. z6koton: the idea seems to be 
Avhat we call * sulky ' ; Kdrot implies 
resentment rather than open anger, and 
is thus contrasted with x^^os in A 82. 
Odysseus, by not employing the outwaM 
signs of appeal ana persuasion, looks 
like a man who in deep resentment 
chooses to hold aloof from his fellows. 
T^ TIN* : Tivd f ' Brandreth (see the 
variant). The caesura is insufficient in 
any case. For 9aiHC kc = diceres, credcreSy 
cf. 392, A 429, 697, etc. aOrwc. a 
mere simpleton ; A 133. 

221. We can choose between cYh and 



KoX etrea {vKJxiSea'a'iv ioiKora xeifiepirjia-iv^ 

ovK hv eireiT ^OBvarjt y ipta-aeie /3pOTo^ aWo9* 

ou t6t€ y &8 ^OSvarjo^ dya<T<Tdfi€0 elBo^ tSoi/T€9." 

TO TpLTov air AXavra ihoav ipieiv 6 yepato^* 
€(jrh '^^P ^^^' aWo9 'A^ato9 di/^p) ^V9 t€ fieya^ re, 
e^o'^o^ ^ApyeloDV K€<f>a\i]v rjB evpea^ oifiov<; ; ' 

Tov S' 'Ekivrj TavvrreTrXo^ dfieljSero, Bla yvvai/c&p 
otrro9 o Ata9 eari ireXcDpio^, epKo^ A'^aicov 
^ISofievev^ S* €T€p(o0€P dvl l^prjreaa^iOeo^ &s) 
e<TT't]K , a/Xript 0€ /ill' (]S.p7jTa)v Ofyoi,) rjyepeuovTai. 
TToWuKi fiiv ^elvtaaev dp7ft<f>iXo^ MeveXaof; 

oIkCOL iv 7)fl€T€p(i)t OTTOTC }^pT]Tr)0€V IKOCTO, 

vvv S' SXKov^ fi€P iravTa^ opta kXiKo^ira^ 'Aj^atoi;9, 
o{/9 icev iv yvoirjv Kai r ovvofia fiv0r)<Taifirjv 
BoLoo S* ov Bvvafiai IBeecv Koafiyrope Xacjp, 
Kdaropd 0^ iinrilBafiov koI wv^ dya06v UoXvBevKca, 




222. Kal p* T^. II xcuuiepioia Q Vr. c. 226. Tap A : r6p Trypho G : t' fip 

il. II &x<"^ ^* ^'^oc Q* II J^^L^rti<= ^ ^- 227. Ad* : Tc Kai Ar. Aph. : Koi Q 
(and this the Scbol. of Did. implies .as a A'ariant). 229. b* oni, KT. 230. 
Kpi^TCCO: epi^Kcca Pap. /3^ 231. Arep^eoNTai ACJPKU Harl. a : Hrcp^eoirro 
7X3II {post ras,) LQST Vr. a b: Aep^eoNrai Pap. j8. 234. 6pA ndirrac Q. ; 

IKlK&nac : ko) n^mxic Pap. ^K 236 om. Pap. ^^ ,; kq) ToONOua CH : Ka( k* 
o&NOJLia C {sic IjSl K; GO T. 236. duco P^QS (du<b? T^). 237. noXudci^KHN OS. 

Ui {trj) even apart from MS. variation : 
but the opt. in 216 la evidently in favour 
of the former. 

224. The line was condemned by 
Beutley. It is most awkward as well 
as tautological, and the di^mma of 
root Fi8 is twice violated. Giseke re- 
marks that it would come better after 
220 ; but it seems to be only a variant 
of 223, added by way of recapitulation 
of the whole speech, dodc must then 
mean * so mucn as we did before ' : 
whereas the proper sense is ^ so much as 
we do now.' 

227. AB' : the reading of Ar. re Kai 
introduces the forbidden trochaic caesura 
in the 4th foot (cf., however, P 719). 
Ahrens thought that the old reading 
was KaL (vide supra), the length being 
preserved by the bucolic diaeresis. 

228. TQNOncnXoc seems to mean nearly 
the same as iXKeffl-rexXos (Z 442, etc.). 
irith loiKj (or wide) robe (lit stretched 
oiU)j cf. ^KTadiT) K 134. See Studniczka 
BeUr, p. 116, Helbig ff. E,^ p. 205. 

229. It is remarkable that Aias should 

be dismissed in one line (cf. on B 657), 
and Diomedes altogether omitted ; the 
name of the latter indeed does not occur 
at all before A 365, except in the 
Catalogue, B 563, 667, and he drops 
entirely out of the action after A, 
except in the games in 4^ and one speech 
in S (109 sqq. ). It is not impossible that 
Idonieneus, who is frequently the object 
of di8proi)ortionate praise, has here 
supplanted the description of the more 
famous warriors. 

235. rNoiHN, ' I could recognise and 
name,* a sort of assimilation of the first 
clause to the second, for ' whom I re- 
cognise and could name ' (Monro). Or, 
in other words, yvolrjv KaL = yvov<ra: cf. 
' whose shoe's latchet 1 am not worthy 
to sfoop doicn and unloose,' Aisch. Sept, 
272 Uiffdai Kai = iKo/jJpovi (M. A. B.). 

237. For another (and later ? ) legend 
of Kastor and Polydeukes see X 300 
s({([.f the only other place where they 
are mentioned in H. That jiassage 
is clearly inconsistent with 243-4, as 
they are said to have shared immortality 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 


avTOKa<Tiyvr)Teo, rm fjuoi fita yeivaro fir)Tr}p, 

fi ovj(^ €<T7r€(r07fv (\aK€Balfiovo^ ef ipaT€tV7J<;) 

rj Bevpo fikv eirovTO veeaa €vi irovTonropoLa-i, 

vvv aZr ovK eOikovai, fid)(r}v KaraBvfievai dvSp&v, 

aia")(€a oeiocore^ Kal oveioea troXK, a fioc etmv, 

&<; (fxiTO, T0U9 S' fjSrj Kdije')^v (^vaii^oo^ alA^ 
Iv AaKehaifMovL avOi, <f>lXrji ip irarpihv yalrji. 

KTjpvKe^ S* (ava darv) 0€(av <f>€pov-^pKia Triard, 
dpv€ Bvto Kal olvov iv<f>pova, Kapirov dpovpri^y 
(jKTKoyi ev cuy€L<i>t^' (pepe be KprfTrjpa (paetvov 
Ocrjpv^ ^ISato^ '^Sk j(pv<Teia KimehXa' 
cjTpvifev Be yepovra iraptcrrdfievo^ iireea-aiv* 
*\6paeOj AaofieBovTidBff, xaXeovaiv dpc<TTOL 




239. IcnkoHN [A]R[S]T : dn^coHN P : in^coHN 0. 240. dcOpo HJP^QRTU^ 
{in ras.) Harl. a {yp. pco) b c d, King's, Par. a» b (?) h j : deOpco ACGL[S] Vr. a-*, 
Par. c d e f g : deOpco D. 241. nOn d* CGPRS. || aO Vr. a. || JUldxHN : n6N0N 
East. 242. dNddc* d noKKh J {yp. ko) 6Ncidca noXXd uoi). 243. fidH om, 

P. ii Kcrr^e(N) J {yp, xdrcxe) PQ. ; 9udzcooc DV. \\ aTa : fipoupa Q. 244. 

9(Xhn ic narpiba raToN I). || 9IXHI : iiki Zen. 247. bk I bk Lips. i| Kporftpa 
GK. 249. firpuNCN Vr. a. 

after death by alternate days. The 
synizesls iu lloXudciiKca is suspicious ; 
perhaps tlie variant IIoXi/5€i5<c7;i' is right. 
Zen. explained the absence of the 
brothers from Troy by supposing that 
they had been left as regents of Greece 
{dioiKTjT^s r^ 'EWdSos Schol. T). But 
their death was related in the KypHa. 

238. aOroKoarNi^o) according to the 
grammarians means ' w hole brothers ' ; 
we have not evidenc^'^enoughofThe 
early forms of the Dioskuri mvth to sav 
if Homer regarded them both as children 
of Zeus ; in X they are distinctly made 
sons of Tyndareos, and it is probable 
that Helen herself may have been to H. 
really his daughter, and only in a more 
distant degree descended from Zeus. 
But see on 140. juifa = 17 dirrfi as 
T 293 ; UOI goes with it, ' the same 
as me.' 

240. dcOpo has the last syll. length- 
ened by ictus. The 5ci//)w of a few 
MS8. is an imaginary form not else- 
where found. If we write ft . . fi with 
Nikanor, the two suppositions take the 
form of alternative assertions ; Herod- 
ianos preferred ft . . fi, when we must put 
a note of interrogation after l^ariv. See 
H. G. § 340. 

241. aCrc = 5^, avr&p, A 237, etc. 

242. aYcxca, 6Nc{dca, in objective 
sense, the insults and revilings of men. 

243. Observe the way — to our idea 
inappropriate — in which the conven- 
tional epithet 9ucizooc is introduced ; cf. 
* 63, note. 

244. aOei, there., i.e. in their own 
place. For 9iXHi Zenod. read e^t, 
'their,' see A pp. A. 

24.^). 6pKia here and 269, oath-offer- 
ings, including wine as well as victims, 
the epithet nicrd being curiously trans- 
ferrea from the abstract sense. In the 
phrnse tpKia rdixvtiv, 252, the victims 
alone are signified, properly speaking ; 
but the original signification of tne 
phrase became so conventional that 
ultimately 6pKLa = a treaty, cf. 94, 256, 
A 269, and even the sing. 6pKt.ov is found, 
A 158. Buttmann has an excellent 
article on the Greek conception of oaths 
{Lexil, S.V.). The significance of the 
verb rdpLvtiv may be well illustrated by 
the note in Frazer Pans. iii. 367, where 
it is shewn that in many oaths, Greek 
as well as savage, the actual division of 
the animal into two or more parts is an 
essential element of the ceremony. 



Tpdxov 0* iTnroSdfKav xal ^A^aiayv 'xa\/co'^iT(ov(ov 
€9 ireSiov KarajSrjvai, Xv opKta ircara rdfirjre' 
avrhp ^XKePavhpo^ kcu dpritdxXo^ MeveXaof; 
fAaxprji^ ey^eirjco'c fjLay(rf(rovT afi^i yvvaifcf 
T&i Si /c€ VLKtiaavTL yvvf) xal KTrffiaO firoiro* 
oi S' SXKoL <j>i\oTriTa xal opKia iriard TafiovT€<; 
vaioifiev ^Tpoirjv ipifidXaKa) tol Be veovrac 
"A/yyo? €9 Itttto^otov koI 'Aj^attSa xaWtyvvaiKa, ' 

0)9 <paTO, puyr}a'€V o yepmv, eKcKevo'e eraipov^ 
iTnrov^ ^evyvvfj^evai' toI S' ^paHKew eiridovro, 
ai/ ap epr) iipuipxi^y Kara o rjvLa reivev OTnaa'a)' 
Cirdp Be ot) ^AvTijvcop irepi^KoKKea ^ija-aro oi<\>pov. 
TO) 06 < Ota ZKaLOiih trebiovo eypv (OKea<; lttttov^. 
aXK ore 017 p ikopto fiera Iptoa^ Kai A^afcou9i 
ef tTTTTO)!/ dirofidvTe^C eirX '^Oova irovKv^oretpav) 
€9 fieaaov Tpdxov Kal ^Kyai&v i(mj(pcovTo. 




261. O* oin. r. 262. ^n ncdicDi U. || rdjuiHai Z>IIJS. 264. uoKpoTc ^d- 
oia 6. 267. nc^cocon GJP (-^cocdn app. tiuin. 2 in ras.) QRS Pap. jS^ 268. 

&Xcrtda P. 269. irafpouc GJPSU Pap. /3 (aud A™, T.W.A.): Ir^pouc Q: 

iratpoic Ar. Zen. 0. 262. fii^GOTO Ar. (see below) A supr. C6JQ : fii4Cccrro H : 
fii^ccTO 0. 263. ncdIoN Lips. 264. Ykonto : Ykonon Pap. /3. 266. noXu- 

BdropoN PTi Pap. /3. 

255. See note on 138. 

259. iraipouc is better than iralpon 
as avoiding the rare dat. in -ots for -oun, 
KcXeOcLv takes both constr. in H., but 
the dat is less common ; it is found 
ofteuer in IL than Od. , and survived in 
Attic only as a rarity. 

261. tcTncn, drew backj taking them 
from the front rail to which they were 
attached when no one was in the car ; 
E 262, etc. 

262. fit^coTO : vpoKfAvei fUv t\)v Std rov 
c ypafpij)v fii^cCTO, jtX^v oi fieTarlOrjffip 
dXXd dcd ToO a ypd(p€i 6 'Aplarapxos, Did. 
The statement is highly important, as 
evidence of a variation in Ar.'s authorities 
which he did not feel at liberty to 
disregard, in spite of his ilesire for 
uniformity. Our hs8. bear abundant 
testimony to the uncertainty as to the 
correct form of these sigmatic aorists ; 
e.g. they constantly vary between dvaero 
and Si'iffaro, In 475 dva^rjadfityoi is 
causal, but there is no other evidence 
of such a nse of the aor. mid., which, 
indeed, does not seem to occur elsewhere 

in Greek, except in the variants now 
under consideration. (The subj. jcara- 
/StJo-ctcu (0 382) is, however, from the 
-<ra- form.) The wisest course is to 
admit the variation in our texts, as the 
uncertainty goes back to a period as 
remote as our current text itself. At 
the same time we may, with Ar., j>refer 
the forms in -c-, on the ground that the 
tendency of analogy must always have 
been to change thrm into the more 
familiar -a- forms of the ordinary sigmatic 
aorist. A is the only Ms. which con- 
sistently follows Ar. ; the -o- forms have 
generally invaded the rest spreading no 
doubt since Alexandrian days (note on 
103). See more in Jf. G. § 41, van L. 
Eiich. § 152, Cauer Ornmf/r. p. 27. 

263. Ckqi&n without ttvXwp only 
here. The suspiciously contracted -wr 
recurs in 273. ^on, drove, as often. 

265. fa YnncDN, mit of the chariot. 
tTTTot is continually used in this sense, 
even with adjectives which properly 
ap])ly only to the horses; e.g. P 504 
«V 'AxtXX^s KaWlrpix^ ^fX€vai tmrw. 

lAiAACx: r (ill) 


ApvvTO S' avTiK etreira ava^ avhp&v ^ Ay afjuifivayv, 
av S' 'OSi;<reu9 trdkvfirjrc^' arap KrjpvKe^ af/£vo\ 
op/cta TTicrrh de&v avvw^ovy /cpijrrjpi Se olvov 
luayov, arhp Baa-Ckevat^ vitop iiirl yelpa^^ eyeuav, 
Arpetorj^ 0€ epvaaafievo^ yeipeaai fiayaipav, 
rj (01 iraps^ ^L<peo^ yu&^a koxjmov at€v aopro, 
apvS)v CK K€<f>a\€eov rdfive rpiya^' avrap eireira 
/cijpVKe^ VpoHov Kal Ay^aicov vecfiav apicrroi^, 
TouTtv S* ^ArpetBfj^ yx^7aX' evjj^tro) ^€lpa<; avaa^mV)* 
" Zev irdrep, "I&y^ej; fieoetov, Kifhiare fiiyiare, 
^€A,A09 u, 09 Tram €<popat^ xal iravr €7raKov€i<;, 
/cal TTorafiol xal yaia, xal ot (virevepOe Ka{i6vTa<^ 



267. 6pNUToP: dSpNur' Q (am. &*). 268. aOrdpFQ. 270. tx*"®** ^r. CHPST 
(A2 supr,) Lips. Vr. c, Ven. B. 272 om. Pap. /3^ || fiopTO J9GLQ and Kard 

Ttyas EoAt. : ficopTO 0. 273. AptUtOH Zen. || KC9C1X&N JQR. 274. ncTjuion 
T Lips. Eton. : ncTucn Pap. p, 276. zcO Kiidicrc u^crCp kcXoinc^^ aMpi 

NoffidN HerakL ^^Z. 3 and 23. 277. A^ioc d* Schol. fi 374. || ^pdi Pap. /S*^. II 
foaKoiici Pap. /3, 278. Kajui6NTCc Herakleides, Pap. j^, Par. j 5?^;>r. 

270. The wine used in treaties was 
not mingled with water (see B 341, A 
159). The scholia explain that here the 
Trojan and the Achaian wine is all 
mixed in one howl, and the obvious 
typical significance of such an act 
renders the explanation most probable. 
Compare the scene of the oath in Virg. 
Aen. xii. 161 sqq. ix^vop, read here by 
Ar., must have oeen taken for another 
instance of a mixed aor. (or imperf., to 
agree with fuayov 1 ff. G. ut supra). 

271. udxaipa, the sacrificial knife, 
never mentioned by H. as a weapon, 
and not to be confused with the sword, 
^iipos or <pdcyayoy. See note on Z 597. 

272. fiopTO is clearly the correct form, 
not the entirely anomalous dupro (cf. 
dopn^p : root dFcp of deipcj : for the sense 
Tuing down cf. wapTj^pBrj 11 341). It 
appears to be a plpf. without redupl., 
though the -o- stem is very rare in the 
pass. Cf. H, O. § 25 {ivJjx-aTo ?). 

273. This cutting off a lock of hair 
from the victims' heads is called rpixas 
dxdpx^ffdai in the parallel pass., T 254 ; 
cf. i 422 dirapx^fJi^eyos K€<f>a\^s Tplxo-s ^v 
wvpl pdXKev. The hair is regarded as a 
foretaste of the victim, and was no doubt 
a devotion of the whole body to the gods 
(see" 310, and note on 4^ 135). It is not 
burnt here, because no fire is used in the 
oath-f^acrifice. Every one of the chieftains 
takes a portion of the hair in order to 

Earticipate in the sacrifice. Zen.'s dp»i(av 
e explained as an adj. = dpveitav (cf. 
linreltav A 636). 

276. ZcO , . A^ioc is often quoted as 
an instance of a rule, found in Skt. also, 
that * where two persons are addressed 
connected by re, tne second name is put 
in the nominative,* H. G. § 164. But 
r 406 is an exception, if the text is right, 
yafipp^ 4fi6i S^yarip re, and there are 
some instances of voc. in -os, e.g. 0/Xo$ 
ib McvAae (ff. G. ibid.) ; where this 
elasticity is possible the metrical difficulty 
of -ffiXie may well be decisive (see Gilder- 
sleeve in A. J. P. ii. 88). For the oath 
compare T 258. Here Zeus is named 
the god of Ida, and the Rivers, which 
are local divinities, are included, no 
doubt because the Trojans are parties. 

278. Kajui6NTac used to be explained 
'those that have passed through the 
toil of life, ' as though KCKpirjKdTe^, labori- 
bits fundi; or Imen outworn/ dfievrjvol, 
of the feeble shadows of the dead ; 
Nagelsbach, 'those that endured ill in 
life' = 5etXoi Bporol as opposed to the 
happy gods. But Classen explains 'those 
that grew weary, succumbed to the toils 
of life ' = daubvTcs : so «co7ri(i<ras, C. /. 
6509. This best suits the aor. jmrt., and 
is now generally accepted ; see M. and R. 
on \ 476. The phrase recurs also ^ 72, 
a; 14. ' ot . . TfNuceoN must mean Zet^r 
Tc KaTax06vtoi Kal iiraip^ Tl€p(r€<f>6v€ia (I 


lAIAAOC r (ill) 


avTcav Kai rexeayv, aXo^oi o aWoKri fuyeiev, 

0)9 €<f>av, ovo apa 7r(o a<pi,v eireKpaaive is^povimv, 
Tol<n Be (AapSaviSfj<i Tlplafw^ 'fiera fivBov eeiire* 
" k€k\vt€ fjL€v, Tpa>€9 Kol ivKPtjfiiSe^ 'Aj^ator 
?} Toi iycov elfit irpori "IXtoi; i^ve/JLoiaa'av 
ayft, iirei Cov ttor rXi^a-ofi iv 6<f)0a\fiola'iv opcurOat 
. fjMpvdfUVOV Cxf>Ckov viov> aprji<f>l\Q)i Mei/eXatot * 
Zev^ fUv irov to ye olSe xal aOavaroL Oeoi aXKoiy 
OTTTTOTeptoi uavaroio reXo^ ireirpcofievov ecTLv. 

7} pa Kai €9 BL<f>pov apva^ Oero (iaqOeo^ <\>(t)^ 310 

av ap epaiv ai/T09, Kara rfvia reivev oirKTa-w 
Trap Be oi Xvrrjvtop irepiKoXK.ea ^rjaejo Bi<f>pov, 
TO) fiev ap myfroppoi (yrporl *'I\cov^ airoveovro* 

301. JULircTcN : dojucTcN AT Harl. b, Par. e, and yp. Harl. a. 302. l9aT* Q Pa]>. 
ti. Par. d, East || IncKpdaiNC : incxpdaNC Pap. /3 : incxpaiaiNC O : yp. kntKpAnHt, 
J (see note on B 419). 306. nori JQR MorL 306. tXi^cOU* bi : rXikoJuun 

Bust. 308. XktK : rdp Eiist. i; t6 re : T6dc DQ Pap. /S, Par. j. 310. dc Q 
Pap. /3. 311. &p* ifiaiN* : dNdSaiN* K. 312. fiiicaro CGJQRT. 313. n<n\ 

Homanum sic ferito ut ego hunc porcum 
hie hodie feriam^ and similarly xxi. 45 
precatus decs iUi ac ma/^tarent quern ad 
inodum ipse agnum mact£iS8ci ; compare 
also the oath 'by the stone,' si scicns 
faJlo turn me Diesjntcr salva urhc arceqiie 
bonis eiciat lUi ego hunc lapidem (Roscher 
Lex, 1187). 

301. aOrd^N after <r0t, as X 75, /lum . . 
dvdpds Sv<rHiif(Ho. The eonstraction is 
common with participles, e.g. a 26, 
f 157. See H. G, § 243. 3 rf, and for 
the dat. fiXXoia with the pass, verb, 
If. O. § 143. 5. The variant Sa/xeTcv looks 
like the prudery of a more fastidious 

305. On ANCu6ccoaN Prof. Virchow 
(A pp. to Schliemann's Ilios p. 682) 
nialtes the following comment : * Our 
wooden huts (at Hissarlik) which had 
l)een put up at the foot of the hill, well 
below the level of the old city, looked 
straight down upon the plain from a 
height of at least 60 feet, and the winds 
blew about us with such force that we 
often felt as if our whole settlement 
might be hurled down the precipice.' 
Ancu6coccin, i.e. dvefidtaffoy. So vy€p4- 
BovTat, iiyjudUiSj and one or two more (van 
L, Ench.%21). But the change to 17 is 
irregular ; see A pp. D. 

306. oC ncd=od to;}, in no wise. The 

two forms were of course originally 
identical (cf. oOrw by ofhw), and their 
ditferentiation is not complete in Homer. 
It is only by great violence that the 
sense *not yet can be brought in. 
Cf. also M 270, l 102, etc. Some would 
always read irwj in this sense, but the 
tradition is strongly in favour of main- 
taining the difference ; later usage would 
tend to abolish, not to introdaee it. 

310. The taking away of the victims 
is strange ; the scholion says idoi ijv t4 
iicl ToU 6pK0is yiyu6fJL€va UptM roit fxiv 
^yX<*fpiovs yrJL TC/ncrr^XXcti', rods Si irrriXv- 
5as eis Ttjif OdXaaffop fUTrreiy, This is 
probably only a deduction from the 
present passage and T 267, q.v. Perhaps 
the victims were supposed to carry with 
them the power of vengeance, and were 
kept at hand to watch over the fulfil- 
ment of the oath. 

311. Observe ifiaiNC here compared 
with ifirj 261 and /97j<rrro 312. It seems 
hy^)ercritical to attempt to draw a dis- 
tinction here between the two tenses. 
See the excellent remarks in M. and T, 

313. The scholion on this line is a 
delicious specimen of the spirit in which 
Porphyrios and liis school invented and 
solved their * Homeric problems.' Sid 



^'EfCTcop Be Upidfioio trdi^) xal Blo^ ^OBva-o'ev^; 

X^pov fi€v irpSiTov Bce/jL^Tpeov, avrap eireira 315 

/cXijpov^ <€v Khvirfi x^Xxi^pel) ttoaXov eXovre^, 

OTTTTOTepo? Bt) TTpocOev d<fikirj j(,^\k€OV €rfj(p^, 

\aol S' Tj^prjiravTOi 0€ol<n Bk yelpa^ dvkayov* 

wBe Be Tt9 elirea-Kev 'A^atwi/ re Tpcocov re* 

** Zev irdrepy "^IBrjOev fieBemVy KvBiaTe fieyiare, 320 

oiriroTepo^ rdBe epya {pi^T dfi(j>OT€poi(nP) iOrfxe, 

Tov' B6^ fL7ro<f>0Lfievov Svvai <§6fiov ''AaSo9 etcrco) 

tffuv S' av <f>i\6T7fTa koX op/cia Triara yevea-Oai, 

W dp e^avy trdXKev B\ .^p,erfa^ Ktp'uBaioKo^ ''E/crtop ) 
a^ op6(ov • Tldpiof; Be ^uo(o^ i/c /c\rjpo^ Sf^offcrev. 325 

OX fiev eireiu i^ovro Kara (my(€L<;y ^t eKaaTeot 
iTTTTOc aipaiirobe^ Kai {iroLKiXa Tev^^ eKCiTO' 
avrap 2 7' ^d^<^^ Afioiaiv^ iBvaero revyea KoKd 
Blo^ ^AXe^avSpo^, 'K\eprj<i noai^ ^VKOfwco. 
KvrjfilBa^ fiev irp&ra irepX KvijfirjKnv eOrjKe 330 

KaXd^y dpyvpeoiaiv €7ria'<l>vpL0if dpapvia<;* 

317. 49fa DJQRT^ Vr. a b, Mosc. 1 (H 9upr.). 318. ecoTc- tdi Nik. CS Lips. 
Vr. c : ecoTc fidk 6. 319. cTncCKCN : On^cN Yr. a. 323. b* om. Pap. /3. 
326. iK6crou At. : iK^cnoN R. 327. Ikcinto CS Scliol. T : TC^xca kcTto Bar. 
328. 8 r': fix* G- II i&ucrro A^: idt^coro T: idiicoro (and A™, T.W.A.) 
(cp. on 262). 331. Aprupfoia J : ini c^upbic DVB. (-oicin). 

dri iva d0' v\f/ovs KpcTaffov 0€<afnj<Trji drrb 
T7JS wSXetas rijv fiopofiaxifLy, oi 5<?, tva 

<Pv\d^l T^LTCIXV' d^^OldiTTJV^OfJirjpLK^V 

64>0a\fwi(Tiy opdcdai.'* &ic€p afxeivov. 

316. ndXXoN : the actual shaking up 
of the lots, which is always done by one 
Y»erson, comes in 324 ; hence it has been 
proposed to read /SdXXov from H 176, 
but there is no authority for the change, 
which is not necessary. The line is in 
fact a formal one, recurring 4^ 881, k 

317. &9ciH seems to represent a^ de- 
liberative subj. of the or. recta. We 
might be inclined to read here d^cir/i or 
d^rjif but for ( 331 T€ira\da0ai dvuryov 

I 6s Tis ToKfii^eiei^. 

318. Nikanor read ij/wjo-ovro deoU, /5^, 
but only the frivolous reason is given 
that the text would imply that they 
were praying to others than the gods to 
whom they lift their hands : wj iripois 
(ffovrat Beois dvaTcLvatfTcs tAs xf*P«5. The 
phrase recurs H 177 (cf. Z 257, 6 347, 
T 254, and Bacchylides xv. 45 deoits 5' 

dviaxovTcs X^P^^ dOavdrois eCxovro xaij- 
(raaOai Svdy) . A serious argumen t against 
Nikanor's reading is that lU occurs 
practically only after trochaic caesura 
in the 3rd foot, as an iambus. The 
only exceptions are S 175, S 589, T 285 
(for a suggested explanation of this rule 
see van L. Enclu p. 556). 

325. ridpioc, the only instance of a 
case from this stem except nom. and ace. ; 
the gen. and dat. are elsewhere always 
'AXc^di'Spou -wt. 

327. Ikcito belongs to rci^x^a only, 
both in syntax and sense ; with Xxvol 
supply 9icav. Cf. K 407 irov Si oi (^vrea 
Kcirai dp^l'a. ttoO Si ol tinroi, <l> 61 1, ^ 291, 
etc., and see note on E 356. 

330 sqq. Cf. A 17 sqq., U 131 sqq., 
T 369 sqq. The six pieces of armour 
are always mentioned in the same order, 
in which they would naturally be put 
on, except that we should expect the 
helmet to be donned befoi*e the shield 
was taken on the arm. For the arming 
generally and for inic^^pia see App. B. 


lAlAAOC r (III) 

hevrepov av OtoprjKa irepl OTijOeaaiv eBvvep 
olo . KaciyP'qTOto Kvkolovo^, ffpfloae S' aifT&i. 
dfJL(f>l 8* ap* AfiOKTiv /3aX€T0 ^i(f>o^ apyvporfkop 
j(^d\K€OP, avrap CTretra (.o-aKO^ fieya re ^'^^apov^ re 
(KpaTL 8' €7r' lq>ut,fKoi) Kvherjv ivrvKrov eOrjxev 
iTTirovpiP' oetvov oe X0909 Kauvirepuep ^vevev, 
6iX€T0 oKKCfiop 67^^09, o 06 ira\afjLr}<pip apr)pei, 
0)9 8' aJ;Tft)9 ^6i/e\ao9 aptjio^ evre ehvvev, 

ol S' eTrel ovv i/cdrepffep ofitXov 0(»)pijj(^9rja'av, 
69 fieaaop Tpcixap xai 'A^atwi/ iartj^ocopTO 
Bcipop BepKOfiepoi' 0afJLpo<; S' e^ei^ elaiopoajpra^, 
Tp&d^ 0^ imrohdfjLOv^ koX ivKP7]fiiSa<; ^A^atov^. 
/cot p €77i>9 OTTiTrjpKjbiafieTprjTwc €pl ')^copa>0 
aeifoPT 67j^€ta9, aW?;A^t<rtj^ /icoteoi/T€. 
irp6a'0€ S' ^A\€^apBpo<; irpotei SoXi^oaKiop eyY09, 
/cal pdXep ArpetBao xar aairiha wdpTOa cLarjp' 




33^6 dd. Zen., reading 6119) d' ftp* dbuuoiaN BdXcr* dcnida TcpcoNbcccaN after 
338. 338. noXdjuujO^iN J. i| 5 . . Api^pei : ^v d\\a;t Akoxu^on 6x^Y xciXx^ 
A. 339. d* o^7l. Pap. /3. 342. Ccxcn G. 346. ccTon d* Pap. /9. ii Kor^oirrac 
Q Pap. /3. 347. ndNTOCC Ychn ACDU (the variation is constantly found, and will 
not be again recorded). 

333. Lykaon's cuirass, because Paris 
himself is light-armed ; 1. 17. ftpuocc 
probably trans., *he made it fit him- 
self.' It may, however, possibly be in- 
trans. ; there are two other ambiguous 
passages, P 210, T 385, q.v. 

334. It will be seen that Zen. (supra) 
left out the sword, perhaps on the ground 
that Paris, unlike Menclaos, docs not 
use it in the sequel. It is more natural 
too that the ponderous shield should be 
taken last of all. The word TCpcaN^cccaN 
is not known elsewhere ; it may be a 
mistake of the Ms. arising from a con- 
fusion between T€pfu6€<r<rav (see FI 803) 
and 6v<rav6€<r<Taif^ the latter being, how- 
ever, only applied elsewhere to the aegis. 

336. KUN^HN, simply Jichiwtt nothing 
being implied as to tne material ; see on 
K 258. 

340. ixdrcpocN, explained by the glos- 
saries i^ iKardpov fi4povSy iKar^fHoSeVf on 
fitJicr side of the throng, i.e. either com- 
batant retiring to the rear of his own 

346. doXix6cKioN has caused difficulty 
both to ancient and modern critics, and 
the idea of shadow docs not seem 
particularly appropriate to a spear. 

Autcnrieth (quotes in defence of this 
ititerpretation from a German review of 
an edition of the Makaiitat-ul- Hariri, 
* the Arabs declare that the shadow of 
the lance is the longest shadow. Ikfore 
the first morning light the Arabian horse- 
man rides forth, and returns with the 
last ray of evening : so in the treeless 
level of the desert the shadow of his 
lance appears to him all day through as 
the longest shadow.' But this loses all 
special significance for the Oivek ; more- 
over, as Mr. Rouse has remarked (C. R. 
iv. 183), the epithet is almost always 
used of spears brandished or hurled, not 
standing upright. Hence various alter- 
native explanations have been proposed, 
-OCT Art- lieing compared to our oi/i, or 
6cxos (this, however, does not suit either 
form or 8en«»). Rouse (ibid.) better 
compares Zend darcgha-arstaya, from 
arsti = S]K(ir, shaft, an epithet in the 
Avesta of Mithra and his worshippers. 
There are obvious phonetic difficulties in 
the equation, but an entirely antiquated 
6o\iX'o{p)<TTios may have been changed 
by popular etymology to make an in- 
telligible compound. 

347. ndNToc* ^chn : see on A 306. 

lAIAAOC r (III) 145 

€pp7j^€v j^aX/C09, ai/€tfvafuf>u7j 0€ 01 aL')QLr) 
iK ivl KpaT€prjt, 6 Bk Bevrepo^ &pvvTO ^(aXK&i, 
eiirj^ MeviXao^, €7ij#i;fa/Lt€i/09 Ad irarpL* 350 

if ava^ So9 Tia-aa-dai, o fi€ irporepo^ kuk iopye, 

KKeJ^avopov, Kal {Cfim^ viro x^/><ri) oafui<r<rop, 
I Tt9 epptr/rjio'L Kai oyftirfov^v avuponrtov 
ipoKov Kaica pc^ac, o kcv (pLKoTqra irapcuryriu 

pa Kal cLfi^eirSKfov irpotei, Bo\ty(^6a'KLOv €yj(p^, 355 

^aXe Tlpiafjiihao kot aoTrlBa irdirroa itar^v, 
fikv dairiBos. j^^Oc ^a^vvrj^ (6^pifiov ey;^09) 
Bca OcoprjKO^ iroXv^aiBaXoV) tiprfpevoTO* 
Kpv 0€ irapai Axnraprjv oiafirfa'c jfLTtava 
9* o B €k7up07j Kal aXeiiiTO Krjpa fieXavvav. 360 

€tBr]<; Be ^pvaadfievo^ ^L(f>o^ apyvporjXov 
^€v dvaa")(OfjL€VO^ (K6pvOo^<f)d\ovy dfufd &* ap axnrjL 
6d T€ Kal TeTpa')(6d Buifpvijyev) e^eae j^et/309. 

(oXxdc Ar. AZ;=>QS^TU^ Vr. a : x<i^k6n O. || dNCTNdf^H R : dfMK^u^M 

n6jul9h H. 349. &cnfd' bd L Mor. Bar. : aoifdi M JPQRT Cant 

acnfdi bt ACDGH Pap. /3 Eton. || fipNuro Q. 361. 6 : Sc GR |i JUM : 

362 dB. Ar. || ^uatc G Pap. /3. || dcmANcn Ar. and yp, T. 364. 

>u J. II 6c KCN D. 367. AuBpuAON CGHJQ^ Pap. /9. 369. nap6 

360. ixxXiNeH J : ^NicXiNeH Pap. /3^ 361. x^P*ca JudxoipoN Q. 

fil Ar. and al x<^P^<^'r€pou, A mpr, (T.W.A.) : aOroO L : aUrrC^i Q, 368. 

kN CGHPRT Lips. Vr. a (La R.'8 diadpu^ob* is a misprint). 

I 4Urri is established in several 
ases, particularly B 765, and it 
ible to decide between the two 
iyTO<r* i{F)L<Tyi¥ and ir<ivTo<re 
iee, however, Piatt in J, P, 

xXk6c is better than x^'-^^'^i 
he word by itself is regularly 
ireapons of offence, not of the 
s.g. 349, A 528, E 292, etc. 
ver H 267. ) The same question 
H 259, P 44. 

»pr« {FiFoprf€v) : ipt^e Bentl. 
belized by Ar. on the ground 
not necessary, and that Mene- 
Id not apply the word btoN to 
But the epithet is purely con- 
, see X 393, Z 160, y 266, and 
^ a 29. For dduacooN Ar. 
^cu, which Ameis supports 
1 the ground that it gives more 
L's words that he should pray 
self the conqueror, not a mere 
e hands of Zeus, 
d : the lengthening of the t is 
le ictus in the first foot ; see 

Appendix D, H, G. § 386, and notes on 
A 205, A 155. MS8. vary as usual between 
KBpiuoN and 6fxfipifio¥: the weight of 
evidence is for the former, though Hevne 
considers dfippifiw arUiquitis, norridivA 
et potentius. Cf. note on A 453. 

358. Api^pciCTO, forced its way, iptl- 
d€iy properly = to press ; the sense ' to 
lean one thing upon another is second- 

360. ixXiNeH, better iKKkivBii^ bent 
aside (from the coming blow). As 
Reichel remarks (p. 83), this implies 
that no breastplate was worn, and 358 
must be a later interpolation (see App. B). 

362. dNacx^JUCNOc, lifting his hand ; 
so X 34 /ce0aXV 3' 6 yt Kdrf/aro x^/^^" | 
v\f/6<r* dyaurx^M^f'oSy and of two boxers 
'squaring up,' 4^ 660 iri)£ /tdV d^aax^' 
/xiyuy and 4^ 686. ^dXoN : see App. B 
vii. 2. aOrflii, the body of the xdpvs as 
opposed to the ^\os. The vulg. a^w, 
is a very natural corruption, caused by 
the proximity of the masc. ^Xos^ but 
by Homeric usage it would rather mean 
the man himself, Paris. 



lAIAAOC r (m) 

^ArpetSff^ S' &tfi(o^€v ( IBoyv et? ovpavov evpvv> 
" Zev irarep, ^ov rt^j^creco ^ecai/ oKocorepo^ a\\o<:' 
tJ t' €<^dfi7jv TLtraaOac AXe^avhpov KaKOTqro^' 
vvv he fioi (ev '^eipeo'a'cp'i ayrj ^L(f}0^, etc Be fioL ey^o? 
riV')(uri 7ra\afjLi](piv ercotriov, ovo epaXop fiiv. 

tJ Kal errai^a'i: Kopvdos Xd^ev itnToiaaeit]^, 
€\Ke B eTTLOTpey^a^ fier €Vfcv'^fiiSa<; Aj^acov^* 
cHyye Be fivv ^oXvKea-TO^ i/ia^/ cairaXrjv vtto Bevprji^ 
•09 Q)t i/TT avuepewvo^ yj^euj reraro ■:Tpv(f>a\eLr)<;, 
/cat i/v /c€i/ eipv&aep re /cat aairerov rjparo Kvoo^y 
el firj ap < of u potfo-e") Ato9 (fivydrvp ^AifipoBirrj^ 
fj oi pTf^ev lfiav¥a (fioo^ 7(f}c KTctfjiepotd^ 
KetPTj be Tpv<pa\eia afi eanrero x^^P^ 'iraxcLrji, 
Tvv aep eirei.ff* rjoco^ iier evfCpnuiBa^ 'Ayatoi'? 
piyfr eTnoLpriaa^, KOfiia-ap (epfrjpe^ eratpoix 
avrap o ay* eiropova-e KaraKTa/Mepac fiepeaivcop 



865. For similar chiding of the gods 
in momentary ill-temper cf. M 164, N 
681, V 201 ; and for oXoci^rcpoc = />tor« 
baneful, mMiievmiSf f^\a\f/ds fi\ iKdepye, 

$€Qv 6\(HiJTaT€ TdvTUJV X 15. 

866. Ticaceai : see on 28. Either aor. 
or fut. is equally suitable, the former 
meaning *I thought, when dealing the 
blow, that I had (now) got my 

868. noXduH^iN: abl. gen., IT. O. 
§ 156. The variant M* itdfmaffa seems 
to be due to the apparent contradiction 
oi)d' i§a\ov with 356. It is, however, 
defended by Ameis-Hentze. 

369. KdpueoQ by the helmet, as if a 
part of the man ; cf. 11 406 IXice bk 

371. noXiiicecTOC for ToXiJ-Kevr-TOj **6 
TToXvKimjTW iK 6k toOtov 6 toikCXos 
SrfXovTOx (leg. drjXop&ri) 5t4 rAj ^0<if," 
Ariston. , embroidered. Cf. «cc(rr6j of the 
girdle of Aphrodite, S 214 ; and ijKicrrai 

372. Tpu9ciXciHc : properly an adj., sc. 
K6pv0os. Generally explained as = having 
a peak pierced for the eyes, a sort of fixed 

vizor. But the Quantity of rpv is against 
this. The word may possibly = rerpd- 
(paXos, from T{€)Tpv=quadrU', cf. rpdvt^a 
for TerpdTcJi'a. 

373. ffpoTo seems to be another case 
of the invasion of a- forms in the aor. 
(cf. on 262), on the analogy of ofpci;, which 
of course is a different word ; so iipdifi€$a 
X 393, iipa{o) u 33. All other forms 
are thematic, dpSfxrjy dpi<r6ai, etc. (Cobet 
M. C. p. 400, van L. Ench, p. 373). 
Hence Brandreth rightly read lipero. So 
also S 510, 2 165, « 107, etc. 

375. t^i KTCLu6«oio, because such 
leather would be better than that of 
an animal which had died of disease. 
* Hence in Hes. Opp, 541 shoes are 
ordered to be made of the hide /3o6s l^ 
KTafUvoLo* (Paley). t^i looks like an 
instrumental of Fli = vi-8 ; but the stem 
in Greek seems to be Flv- (plur. trej). 
Moreover l<f>i never requires, and often 
(6 times) will not admit an initial f, 
while the adj. Fi<fKos often requires and 
always admits it, and Fls itself rejects 
it only twice (P 739, * 356). Thus 
J<fK like (4>difioi (see on A 3) remains a 
puzzle. See note on Z 478. 

370 ! 

364. cOpiSN : alniiN Zen. 366. coTo PQ. || 6Xo6Tcpoc />P. 366. -rioccecn 
U. 367. fim Q. 368. Apparently Ar. in one ed. had idduacoa for €BaX6N 
JUUN {v. Ludw. ad loc.). 369. dNatUc P. || XdficN : ^dXoN Pap. /3^. 370. 

cTXkc Pap. /3. 371. AnoXftc Anb [dapftc] Pap. ^\ 373. cTpucc^N TC : 4zd- 
pucGC Aph. 379. 6 om. Q. || inoiipoucc Q. 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 


i j(^a\K€L(»}f Tov S' e^rjpira^^ ^AifypoBirr) 380 

8' eta (ip OaXdfUDt ivdBe'dsjcrjdevTi)) 
S' aiff* 'Ekeprjv fcaXiova te* t^v S' i/ciy(ap€ 

wt €<f> vylrrfKm^ irepl 8k Tpayial aXt? fjaav. 
0€ P€fCTap€ov eapov) enpa^e Xapova-a, 885 

Se fjLCP '€lKv2a TraXaiycpii) irpoa-eecrrep 

'o}jLm, fj ol AafceBaifiopv paveVaovo'rjL 

IP etpca fcaXd, fjuaXta-ra Bi ficp (f^CKeeaKe* 

'UP ieia-afieprj) irpoa'€(f)(oP€€ BV *A(f}poBLT7j' 

p W\ ^KXA^apBpos (re xaXel oIkopBc peeadai. 390 

9^7* ip OaXdfjLOil fcal Bipcoroto't Xeyeaa-t '*:^^^*<^^ tc^ 

^r re aTCKp(aV Kai eifuurtp' ovoc tec <paLri<f 

', pxiy^aaapsvop top) 7' i^Oelp, dXKct ^(opopBe 

T0* Tie '^opolo P€Op Xi^yifpTa Kadi^etp,*^ 

: <f)dTO, TTJi S* apa Ovfiop ^€pI OTi^Oca'a'tj^ optpc 395 



c6c r Vr. su 382. clc* kn: \c' bt Apoll. /Hyni. : ctoc(N) S Mosc. 1 : 
r. 383. aG L. || koX^couc' P. 387. ctpon6K0M T {yp. dpoxduu). H 
Ch(i) P : NaiCTacbcH(i) O : Noicrdooca Bar. 388. fiaca Z>k>HPQ {p, 

ps.- :i KoXd: noKkh S Vr. b. || 9iX^ccKc: KaX^coccN Pap. /9.i 391. 
1 AG. II Xcx^cca HR. 393. JuaxHcdjuMNON Ar. Vr. a^ (A has juaxccc-, 

II t6n r' : t6n V HQ Pap. /9 Vr. a. 

}(cY : apparently a second spear 
though only one is named in 

Qg of Paris, 338 ; but the 
warrior regularly carries a 

!, etc.). 

: Tc ec6c as being a goddess, as 

pected of a goddess. Cf. 2) 518. 

dbcNTi : apparently from ^ktjFos 

(Koiw), i.e. fragrant f cf. icrnbdrjs 

it the tautology ivtbdei, Kiycievrt, 

me to derive it from *Kafot = 

f=' vaulted.' 

X^uca : fut, of which only the 

and in H. 

KTaptou, fragrantf like dfi- 

: B 19. 

KCiN : so Ar. apparently ; but 
i other case in H. of the parag. 
contracted form of the third 
erf. It is sometimes found, 
n Mss. in the analogous third 
)f., e.g. E 661, 899. But of 
» original reading was fjffKeev. 
ct of 9iX^8CKc is Helen, not 

iNOQ as though pointing to 
144, etc. diNCOToTa : cf. r 56 

xXicrlrjy divt$rr^y 4\i<pa¥Ti Kal dpyijpiai, 
Ariston. explains iJToi did. t6 Terop^evaBai 
(turned in a lathe) roi); ir6das, 1j did rifp 
ivTcunv Twv l/xdynay (i.e. apparently, 
that the leathern straps — for which see 
\// 201 — were tightened by twisting or 
winding them). But this latter does 
not suit the chair in r, while the idea 
of 'turning' is not easily connected 
with ivory and silver ornament. In N 
407 a shield is />iydi<n ^oQv koX v<6poirc 
XaXicu)t I Sivum^ where the circular plates 
of the shield are meant. The most 
probable explanation of the word here is 
* adorned with circles or spirals' of 
silver or the like, inlaid. This pattern 
is of high antiquity, being found e.g. by 
Dr. Schliemann at Mykenai in profu- 
sion. See the illustrations in Murray 
Hist. Or. Sculp, pp. 38-40, *the forms 
which most naturally arise from copper 
working are spirals and circles, into eitner 
of which a thread of this metal when 
released at once casts itself. ' The use of 
dfiifHSeSiyrp-ai is similar in 6 405, 4^ 562. 
395. eujui6N bpmt, stirred her anger^ 
as elsewhere. Ar. explained vaptlbpfifiac. 


lAlAAOC r (ui) 



Kai p w ouv ivorjae Oea^ ^cpiKoXXea ieipriv 


uaapriaev r ap eireira, eiro^ t efbar ex r ovouace' 

oaifjLOVLr), TL /M€ Tavra M/uueai. rjirepoTreveLV ; 
tJ th;* fie irpoTipo) ^oXitov iv vaiofiepdcov^ 
a^ei^ fj ^pvyirj^ fj Mrjiovirj^ ipareanj^, 
€t Ti9 TO^ ^at ^€£C/& 9tXo9 ficpoircov apupco'TTcap, 
ofjv€Ka St) vvv chlov ^AXe^apBpojJ^ Mei/eXao? 
VLKi^a-a^ i0€Xec(^a'Tvy€prjp ip^) oLKaS" aryetrOac 
Tovpe/ca Bt) vvp Bevpo Bo\af[f>pop4ova'a irapjiarri^, 
^n^aa 0rap ainov^ lovaa, 0€&v S' aTrcjecTre /ceXevdov^ 

396. p* added above the line Pap. p. 396-418 d0. Ar. 398. edufiHc6l 

T* &p* : edjuOSHCCN d* fip' P Pap. /3 : edjuOSHc* aOr^ip Yr. a. ;| incrra d* inoc 
<9aT' G. 400. npoT^N R Pap. /3 East 401. fisMic G. 402. Kat KcTm 
Ar. ACHT : KAKctei O. 403. bk om, P. 404. te^oi G. || oTxad* : oTkon 
Pap. iS^ 406 am. Pap. /3^. || d^ nOn : nOn d^ U : hk am. C. 406. 6n6cinc 
KcXeO«ouc : An6oKc kcXcO«ou Ar. (v. infra). 


excited her to lave, holding that the 
following passage (see next note) was 
interpolated from a misunderstanding of 
the words. But there is clearly no 
reason for departing from the usual 
sense of the phrase. 

396. Aristarchos rejected 396-418 on 
the grounds (1) that the goddess could 
not in the person of an ola woman have 
the outwaitl beauty described in 896-7, 
(2) that 406-7 are p\ia<fnifui, (8) that 414 
is ei>reX^ Karii. r^v Bidpoiai'f beneath the 
dignity of the goddess. These argu- 
nients are not weighty enough to prevail 
against lines which are spirited and 
thoroughly Homeric. Witn regard to 
(1) it may be remarked that the goddess 
takes a disguise primarily in onier to 
remain unknown to the bystanders, not 
to Helen ; the gods in such cases often 
give some sign which reveals them to 
those to whom they speak, see X 72 
dplytnoToi Si Oeol irep, where Poseidon 
has appeared in the character of Kalchas. 
396 was apparently before the author of 
Hymn. Ven. 182 uts 5i tSey deipifiif re Kal 
immra k6X * k<f>poSL-n^t. It is, however, 
true that this intimate converse of a 
goddess with a mortal, even after 
recognition, is such as we find only in 
the later strata of the U. (Cauer Grwndfr. 

399. For the double ace. with Ancpo- 
ncOciN cf. Xen. Anab. v. 7. 6 rovro iffids 
i^aTarijaai, ws. 

400. noXicoN may be a partitive gen. 
after hhi, but it is more in accordance 
with Homeric use to take it in the vague 
local sense, lit. * lead me any farther on 
in the region of cities, whether of 
Phrygia or Maionia.' These regions of 
course are mentioned as being farther 
eastward, away from home. 

400-5. The punctuation is that of 
Lehrs and Ameis. Most editors follow 
Nikanor and put notes of interrogation 
after d»$pii)T(av and TrapitmfSf and t 
comma after (LytaBax. But odvem 
regularly follows the clause of which 
it gives the explanation ; Lehrs {Ar. p. 
57 n. ) denies that two clauses correlated 
' by of^€Ka . . . roiv€Ka. occur in Homer ; he 
would also put a full stop after ipya in 
N 727-9, q.v., and cf. A 21-3. d by 
itself with indie, also ap))ear8 not to 
occur in an iuterrog. sentence (Hentie, 
Anh.). Thus the victory of Menelaoi 
is made a reason for supposing that 
Aphrodite will immediately wish to take 
further measures for removing Helen. 
As Lehrs says, after the removal of the 
not(*s of interrogation, multo aeerbiar 
evadit ironia. 

406. All Mss. give An6<inc kcXcOsoin; 
rerumnce the paths of the gods. But 
Didymos sa3's 'hplarapxoi dir6€iK€ did roi 

Kf Ktd X^P^S '''0^ ^ K€\€VB0V. 6aVfAdff€K 

d* &v rii if (ripa &d rod r wddtv wapiiv 
othc ydp iv rah * KpurrapxtLoit oOrt if 
iripau tQv yovv iierpiuv iiri^p6fuw99 

lAlAAOC r (ill) 


€Ti aolat iroBeaa-ip {nrooTpe^^eia^; "OXvfjLirov, 
aUl m'epl Kelvov 6t^u€ fcai i (f>v\aa'a'€, 
Ke a Tf a\oj(ov iroiTJaercu fj o ye BovXrjv. 
: 670)1/ ovK elfJLi, v€fi€&ar)Tov be Kev eirj, 
V iropaapehvaa \€^09* Tpcoud Be fi OTrio'a'a) 
u fuofMrja-ovrat, €^o) o ay(^e axpira uvfi(ot. 
}v Be j(o\(oa'afJuipr} irpoaeifHovee BV ^AifypoBirr)' 
fi epeOe, a')(eT\Lrf^ fit) j^^axrafievrj ae fieueio), 
Be a a'np')(jSrjp(»}j (»9 vvv ^i^arfKa (f)Ckr)a'a, 
(01 S' afjL<f>OT€p(ov fnfriaofiat ej^^Oea \vypd, 
ov KoX ^avaSyv, trv Be /cev (Kaxbv oItov) S\r)at, 



oTa G. 408. nap* «kcTnon P. || ^liXacooN H. 409 de. Ar. j| Ki 

ukN G : KCN A Vr. a\ Mosc. 1. || noiHCci P. 410. inh U. || cYhn J. 
CQN^OUca Ar. A2>STU Vr. b A, Mosc. 1 : nopcuN^uca {yp. nopcoN- 
K). 412. fixpiTa •UJUi^i : AKpirduuea />. 413. npooc^cbNci H. 

arXa 9iXHca Ar. T Bar. Lips. Eton.: IbcnarX* A^iXiioa Q. 416. 
DH. 'I ^eea : fix®^ -^r. CD: fix®^ (a^cx«a Schol. T), fiXrca, dix^sriph 
lol. A. 

Kal 06 fiSvov iv rats iKd6<r€<riP 

iy Toh ffvyypdfifioffiy (the 

ins of Ar.) Aira^diravTCf oCrwj 

This very vehement asser- 

ill be seen, applies only to the 

and dissertations, not to the 
r., of which Did. had plainly 
edge. It is clear that the 
adition was dir6€tr6, not merely 
lonsensns of our own Mss. but 

the fact that An. quotes it in 

on 396. In other words, we 
deal with a case of critical 
m the one hand, and MS. 
on the other, though what we 
ir. will induce us to believe 
reading of the critics had a 
1 in the mss. which has not 
The critical objection to 
!\€ij6ovs was presumably that 
in the sense renounce^ is else- 
d only of a thing which is re- 
1 words (T 35, 75 tirjviv) not in 
id further, that the plur. of 

usually Ki\€vda (but see K 66, 
83, 17 272 ?, K 86). Neither of 

very great weight. For the 
vBoi cr. irdrov iv0pu)T(t)y Z 202. 
ocrp^aac : intrans., as M 71, 
c. "OXuunoN : ace. of the 
id queni, ff. Q. § 140. 4. 
cue KOKonrdOei ra\airi6pf t Schol. 
uffer %nxiet\f. So ^5 (Tpo^T/j) 

€XveK* 6i^ofie¥ xaxii iroXXd S 89, and 8 
152, rp 307. 

409. 6 re might seem to emphasize 
the second clause, 'or even his slave.' 
But in other passages it merely resumes 
the original subject, as p 327 If rwas iK 
HaXov &^€i . . fj 6 ye KoX liirdpTtfdev : 
80 7 214, M 239, etc. ; *nunc dextra 
ingeminans ictus, nunc Ule sinistra,' 
Virg. Aen. v. 457. The scholia on 5 12 
note doOXH as a suspicious word for the 
regular dfiuftifi. It occurs only in these 
two places (but 8o6\iov Ijfiap Z 463, $ 340, 
p 323, BovKeiov w 252, BovXwrOt^ij x 423). 

411. MSS. here (as in Pindar, etc.) 
vary between nopcoN^ouca and wopcwi- 
ov<ra : in y 403, rj 347 they give only 
the form with -iJvw, but Ar. read xbpiraLve 
in the last passage, and this is found 
also in Hymn. Cer. 156, and Ap. Rhod. 
For the phrase see M. and R.'s note on 
y 403, where the origin of it is deduced 
from the fact that ' no one but the wife 
had free access to the husband's chamber, 
and so she actually "prepares *' his bed 
for the night's rest.' Of course it passed 
into the sense of ' sharing ' the beo. 

414. q(crXiH: the short syll. before 
r\ is Attic, not Homeric. 

417. cO d^ KCN ktX.: an independent 
clause, the Kev showing its original 
force, 'and in that case thou wilt 
perish.' Aphrodite means that she 


lAlAAOC r (ill) 

©9 €<f>aT, eBBectrcv S' 'EX^i^ Ato9 ixyeyavla, 
I3rj Bk KaTcuT')(^o/jL€vrj kav&t ap^^rjri (fxievv&i 
(Tirfijc, irdaa^ Bk Tpcoia^ \adev ^PX^ ^^ BaLfioiv, 

ai B* OT ^AXe^dvBpoLo ^ofiov irepiKaXKe^ Xkovto, 
dfi(l>L7ro\ot, /JL€V eirevTa 0ow iirl epya Tpdirovro, 
rf B* <€t9 vyjr6po(f}Ov 6aKcLp.ov)ocLe ila yuvaifccjp) 
TTJc S' apa (&^pov kXawa) (f}iKofifjL€iotf^ ^AifypoBlrrj 
avri^ ^ATu^dvBpoio 0ea Karedr^Ke ^<f>€povaa' 
€V0a Ka0i^^ *E\6W7 Kovprj (Aio^ atyioyoio) 
oatre iraXiv KKuvaaa, iroaiv o i^piiraire fivucoi' 
7]\v0€^ ix irgXifJLov a)9 &(f>€\€<; avTO0^ d\ea'0ai 



ti JL 

418. irrcrauTa T Pap. /3. 419. KCrracxou^H : KaXui|yajui^H Q. 431. 

oY d' P. 433-6 om, Zen., writing aOr^ d* dirrioN Tzcn 'AXcsdfidpoio fiNaKTOc 
424. 9iXoJUu4dHc Q. 426. di6c aindxoio ixrcrauTa G : di6c iKrcrcniTa Vr. a. 

428. noX^uoio Pap. j8. || obc : cY e* 6. 

will embitter the strife between Trojans 
and AchaianSi so that Helen, ' Troiae et 
patriae communis Erinnys/ will become 
intolerable to those around her. But 
the phrase seems weak after ten years of 
war, and the line might well be spared. 
416 will then mean *i will stir up hatred 
instead of love between you both,' i.e. 
Paris and Helen. 

419. KOTaq(OJUi6iH, covering herself^ 
like KoKv^afjiivri 141, and cf. ^pi yiip 
icar^X®'^*** = *'** hidcLen^ P 644. 

420. dalucoN : only here of a feminine 
goddess ; nor does it appear to be used 
anywhere else of a definite god present 
in nis own person. The plur. is used as 
= ^eo( in general, A 222, Z 115, 4" 595 ; 
in T 188 we have the phrase irpbi ScUfiopos 
iiriopKifaia^ and similarly o 261, e 396 
(where no god has been specified) ; and in 
all other cases it is used either in the yet 
more general sense of * the will of heaven ' 
or *fate' (cf. dcUfiova Stixro) 9 166), or 
in the metaphor iTiaavro dalfiofi laos. 
See M. and R. on /3 134, where, however, 
the sinrrularity of the present passage is 
not brought out. If it were not for 
the presence of Aphrodite in the follow- 
ing lines, it would indeed, by Homeric 
usage, be necessary to translate ' her 
destiny, the divine power, led her on,' 
as in dydyoi 64 i dalfiw ^ 201. 

423-6. Zenodotos rejected these lines, 
writing instead "o^r^ S* dprlov ffev 
*A\e^dfSpoio dyaKTOs"' dirp€irh ydp airrQi 
i^oXvero rb r^t 'EX^^T^t t^v *Aif>podlTriP 
dltPpov /SaoTdfcty. ^irtXAiyoTtti 5i 6ti ypat 
efKGurrcu, «roU Ta&nfi rift fJtop^nfi rd xpwHi- 

Kovra iirirrid€V€if Ariston. Cobet has 
an amusing chapter on the question of 
propriety as it appeared to the Alex- 
anclrian critics, Misc. Orit. 225-39. 
(Schol. T quotes r 34, where Athene 
carries a lamp for Odysseus.) Romer 
suggests that Zen. may have considered 
that Aphrodite, being disguised as an 
dfi<piTo\oSt must have gone off with the 
rest in 422. 

426. The title KodpH Ai6c aln6xom is 
elsewhere reserved for Athene alone. 

427. 6gcc ndXiN icXiNaca, the aversa 
tuetur of Aen. iv. 362. This is a most 
instructive piece of Homeric psychology, 
shewing the struggle of the weak human 
mind against the overpowering will of 
the gods. From the outward point of 
view, as distinct from the presentation 
of such secret springs of action, Helen 
is depicted to us, Nagelsbach says, as 
the counterpart of Paris — vacillating 
between repentance and love, as he 
between sensuality and courage. 432-6 
were obelized by Ar. as jrc^brepoi Kal rois 
vortifxaxn i^vxpol Kal dicardXXi/Xoi. With 
this judgment it is impossible to agree. 
432 is spoken in bitter irony. The 
sentence beginning with dXXd 0-' iyii ye 
may be taken in the same tone as a 
bitter taunt ; ' but no, you had better 
take good care of yourself — you might be 
killed ' ; or we may take it as senously 
meant, as marking the point at which 
the old love suddenly resumes its sway, 
in fear lest the taunt may really drive 
Paris to another duel. The former is 
more consonant with the reply of Paris, 

lAlAAOC r (III) 


apBpl Bafiel^ Kparep&i, S9 €/i09 irporepo^ iroai^ ^€P. 
7j fi€v Sf) TTpLv y €vj(€ aprfCi^lXov Mei/eXooi; 
ariL (re fiirji Koi xe/xrl xal ey^^et ) <^6/>t6/309 elvai* 
aW* I0c vvv TTpoKaXeaa-aL ap7}t^CKov MeviXaov 
i^avTL<i fia'X^ea'aaOat ivavTiov. aXKd <r iyco ye 
TraveaOai, ieXofuu, firjBe ^avOm Mei/eXacot 
avTL^LOv iroXefiov TroXefii^eiv '^Bk fidj(€a0at 
a<f>pa6€(o<;, firj (ttco? Taj^ i)ir auTOV Bovph hafi/qriL^^^ 

rrjv Be Tldpi^ fivdoiaiv dfiei.^ofievo^ irpoaeeLTre* 
" fiTj fie, yvvaiy i.*)(aKeirolaLv opelBeai) Ovfiov epiirre. 
yvv fiev ykp Mei/eXao? ipifcrjaev avv Adi^prjc, 
Kelvov S* aJrn<; eyco' irapk yctp Oeoi eiai teal fiuXv, 
aXK a/ye orf iq}i\oTi]Tt Tpaireiop^v^eviPquevre' 
ov yap ird> irore fi cjBe €po<; (jypepc^ dfjuf}dfcd\vylflev, 
ouS' ore ae irp&rov (^aKeBaifiovo^ ef ipareiinj^) 
eirXeov dpird^a^ ev irovroTropoKn veeaa-t, 
(yrjO'toL S' ev Vipavdrji) ipiyrjv fpiXoTrjrc xal evinji. 





429. np^TCpoN Q Eust. 430. r* om. CD. \\ cOxou G. || dpHY^iXoo ucNcXdoo 
Q. 431. cAl : Tfli G. 432-6 iS. Ar. 433. isaOeic C. || juax^ccceai Cant. 
434. nai^cceoi Ar. CHP Bar. Mosc. 1, Eton. : ncnioccMii R Cant. Lips. : naOcaceai 
Q. 436. doui^HlC Ar. : dcuiaceflic AU Pap. /3, Par. g (King's mpr.) : douacecTc 
King's^: dojuciHc 0. 438. x^^^noTaN : juOsoion T. || •uu^n : juiO«on D, || 
Snioic DQTB, Pap. /3, Yr. a, Mosc. 1 : l^nc HQ Lips. 440. aGeic C. 441. 
9iX^nrra GP. [| cOnho^ntcc />HQ(?)TU Yr. a, Mosc. 1. 442. &dc or &d' 

/>HJPQRT Pap. /3, Par. d f g j k : &&^ r* A (the reading of CGS is left uncertain 
by La R., but is probably &dc without r'). || Ipoc (xard rtvas 9p6«ac ipoc Eust.): 
Spue a 443. np£bTOM : npdrcpoN CRT. 444. apndcac DJ, \\ kn : InI Yr. a. 

but it cannot be said that either is 
'prosy, frigid, and inconsistent.' 

435. AimfiioN by Homeric use must 
be an adverbial nout., not agreeing with 
<r4 or T6\€fMoy, 

436. La R. considers that 0n6 goes 
with doupi, oOtoO being simply 'his,' 
comparing ifjuai inrb dovpl Sa/xijvai E 653, 
etc. But this use of airov as a simple 
possess, gen. is very rare (see II 405), 
and it is more natural to construe *by 
him wUh his spear. ' 

438. MnreiN always takes a persoii 
only as object elsewhere, except v 17 
Kpablrpf "^liraTe fxvOui. 

440. cidnc *some day,* sc. kikiJctw. 

441. TponcfoucN : metathesis from 
rapirelofiev, lei us take oiir pleasure. 
So S 314, e 292 \iKTpoifde TpaTelofACP 
eimfOiirres, where see M. and R. A 
converse metath. seems to take place in 

TtpTTLKipavvoSt from rpCTu. Other in- 
stances are abundant, e.g. KapSlrj KpaSiri^ 
KapT€p6s KparcpSSf Odpaos 0paa6if etc., 
either ap or pa being the Greek re- 
presentative of vocalic r. 

442. ipoc : M6S. ipui^ and so SI 294 ; 
but we must read fpos in H 315 (though 
even there most mss. have ^/wj), and 
as the cases are always formed from 
this stem {fptai <r 212, ipov passim) there 
can be little doubt that Bothe and 
Heyne are right in restoring it here after 
Eustath. The earliest trace of fp<as 
seems to be the ace. fpurra in the 
Homeric Hymn, Merc. 449. So yiXot, 
not 7AWJ, is the Homeric form, 
generally disguised by the M8S. See 
note on A 599. 

445. KpoNdH according to Pausanias 
(iii. 22. 1) lay in the Laconic gulf opposite 
Gytheion. Others made it Kythera, as 


lAlAAOC r (III) 

M 99 

0)9 aeo vvv epafiac Kal fie yXvKif^ Xfiepo^ aipeV 

7 /oa Kal cLp')(€ Keyoqbe klcov afia o enrer aKOtrv^. 

TO) /M€v ap iv TprjToun Karcvvaa-Oev Ae^eecrcrti/, 
ArpetSrj^ S' av^ ofiCKov epolra (0r)pl ioi^KW)^ 
6? irov iafiSpijo'eiev ^KXA^avhpov OeoeiZia' 450 

aAA ou Tt9 ovvaro LDoxav KXetrayv r c'lrfKOvpcov 
Bei^ac AXi^avBpov tot apmd>tKo)v Mei/eXacot. 
ou /i^i/ 7a/> ^CKottitL y acevOavov, el rt? iBotTO' 
laov yap a-(f}iv iraaLV a'7rr)y(U€To Ktjpl fieXalvTji,, 
Touri B^ Kal iieTeeLirev ava^ avip&v ^KyapAfivoyv 455 

*' K€k\vt€ fi€v, Tp&€^ Kal AdpBavoL tjH" iiriKovpoc • 
vixTf fikv Sff <^a£v€T api]l(f>L\ov Mei/eXaov* 
v/MCt^ B ^Apyeiijv 'Ekivrjv Kal KTqfiaff* afi airnji 

€kB0T€, Kal TlfJL^V airOTlV€fl€V, ffV TIV €OtK€V, 

^ re Kal iaao/jLevotat /m€t avOpwirovat ireMfTav^^ 460 

cS? e<f>aT ATpetBff^, i'jrl S' rjiveov aWoc ^Aj(cuoL 

447. d* : T^ Pap. j9. 448. JU^N : Kip P. I| KOTcONQcec Z>JQ. 460. ecocidA 
FP Mosc. 1. 451. kXut^^ G. H t' : b' Pap. /9. 468. r* om. G Pap. 0. I 

^cOeaNCN Pap. /9. 466. ddpdaNOi Ad* Infxoupoi: cOxNi^dcc Axaio) G. 
469. AnoTiNiucN : AnoriNCTON Zen. || An tin* Ioikcn : An in^iKCN P : Kn t' 
An^KC Mosc. 1 : yp, koX An ncp Ioikcn J. 461. dx^i^** ^• 

the dwelling of Aphrodite. These of 
course are mere guesses ; the island was 
unknown, and some read Kpa^a^ as 

448. TpHToTa: see M. and E. on a 440, 
where it is explained to mean morticed^ 
on the strength of Plat. Pol. 279 e rwv bk 

(T^Sera. But Plato can hardly be quoted 
as a decisive authority on Homeric 
archaeology ; and the following passage 
from ^ 196-201 is strongly in favour 
either of the interpretation 'pierced 
with holes through which straps were 
passed to support the bedding, or still 
better 'piercea with holes by which to 
rivet on the ornamental plates or disks ' 
(v. on diyurrouTL 391) : — 
KopyJbv d' iK ^{ijs trporafx^v dfi^^aa 

ipfuv* diTKiJcraj* Tirprjpa d^ irdvTa 

^K 5^ ToD dpx^M^t^os X^of i^€0¥, 6(pp' 

dau5d\\(i)v XP^^^*^ '''* 'f*^ dpyvpiM ifd' eX^- 

ip 5' irdyiHrff* Ifidpra Pobi (poiPiKi <paeip6p. 

453. Not for love were thry trying to 
h uie Aim, shinUd any sec hitiu * The line 
represents in narrative form the thought 
oj KevOdpoiHTip, fjp ris f^i^rai, thry are n<4 
for hUiiiuj (will not hide) him, if any 
sluUl see him' (M.A.B.). rdp explains 
the use of diiNcrro, ' for it was a matter 
of poicer, not of will.* Tliis is satis- 
factory grammatically ; but the violation 
of the r of tdoiro and the form KtvBdpta 
(instead of *KVpBdp(a) for K€vdto have 
raised grave suspicions against the 
couplet. Various remedies have been 
proposed ; one fault is cured by Heyne's 
iKcvBop dp, the other by Brandreth's tf rw or van Hcrwcrden's cf Ft FISopto, 
But all these conjectures are far from 

457. 9aiNcrai, with gen., as we say 
*is declared for M.* The construction 
with the gen. is essentially the same as 
with adjectives {dplmi ^mIpcto ^ovX^, 

459. For dnoriN^ucN Zen. read dwo- 
rlp€TOP, on his theory of *dual for 
plural.' We might easily read dTorlpcre, 
as the hiatus is ' licitus ' in the bucolic 
diaeresis ; but see A 20. 


Book IV. falls obviously into three divisions : (1) the wounding of Menelaos 
by Pandaros (1-219) ; (2) the review of the Greeks by Agamemnon (220- 
421) ; (3) the beginning of the general battle (422-544). 

The first episode is clearly a continuation of the story of the preceding 
book. It can never have stood alone, nor can the third book well have 
ended as it does without some such continuation to enable the battle to 
begin after the truce. There is no serious difficulty within the story itself^ 
though the relation of it to the rest of the Iliad is fraught with many 
thorny questions. 

In the first place, the colloquy of the gods with which the book opens 
is cryingly inconsistent with the intention of Zeus and his promise to Thetis 
in A. Here the course of the war seems to be an open question, and 
vengeance for Achilles is never thought of. Again, it is strange that the 
flagrant crime of the Trojans should never again be mentioned in the course 
of the Tliadf except in a few lines patently interpolated for the purpose of 
bringing it in (see E 206-8, H 69, 351). Some allusion seems imperatively 
demanded in the case of the death of the arch-traitor Pandaros (E 286-96), 
which so soon follows his offence. 

The whole story, in fact, from F 1 to A 219, admirable as it is in 
narrative, cannot belong to the original Iliad, More perhaps than any 
other part, with the exception perhaps of K, it produces the impression of 
a distinct poem, composed for its own sake, and without any regard to the 
place it would hold in a continuous tale of the fall of Troy ; suited, too, 
rather to the first than to the tenth year of the war. An unconscientious 
compiler might have adapted it to this place by stopping at the end of F, 
and simply saying that, as the duel had not been brought to the proposed 
conclusion by the death of either champion, the truce was simply at an end. 
But we could ill afford to lose such a famous passage as the accoimt of the 
bow-shot ; and there can be little doubt that the whole episode was 
originally composed as a single piece. To hold, as some have done, that 
the Pandaros episode is a later extension of the duel, leads to the obvious 
question, *Why should a compiler or continuator have introduced a new 
motive which must infallibly lead to all the difficulties in the sequel which 
have been pointed out ? ' 

The second portion, the iiriirioXrfO'Ls, is in some ways puzzling. The 
allusions to the breach of the treaty shew that it was composed to follow 

154 lAIAAOC A (iv) 

the duel ; on the other hand, the way in which the simple and modest 
character of Diomedes displays itself under severe provocation can hardly be 
meant for anything but a preparation by contrast for his exploits in the 
next book. The whole episode, though not without considerable vivacity, 
prolongs beyond measure the delay in the opening of the battle, at a point 
where rapidity seems essential to the story, and the speeches are unreasonably 
prolix in the crisis of the attack. The gratuitous insults which Odysseus, 
like Diomedes, has to undergo are strangely at variance with the services he 
has rendered in B, nor do they accord with the character of Agamemnon. 
The clear allusion in I 34-36 to 370-400 here shews that the episode is 
certainly earlier than that book ; it may well be by the same hand. It 
would seem, therefore, that it was composed at a time considerably earlier 
than the Attic recension, in order to join the duel to tlie rest of the exploits 
of Diomedes. 

About the last portion of the book there is little to be said. It consists 
mainly of battle * vignettes ' of no unusual interest, such as could no doubt 
be turned out impromptu to any extent by the practised bard. The similes 
with which it opens are incomparably the best portion of it. 


6pidcDN cOryuac. 'AtouIunonoc InmcibXHac. 

ol Be 0€ol irkp Zrjvl fcaOijfievoc ff^opooyvTO 
ypvaitoL iv BairiBcji, fxerk Be a(f}i<n Trorvta '^ill3i] 
vexrap ecoivo'^^pef toI Be '^pvceoi^ Beirdeao'L 
BeLBe')(aT aXKrjXov^, Tpdxov ttoXlv elaopocovre^, 
avri/c eTretpuTO JS^povlBrj^ epeOi^e^iep 'Hprjp 
fcepTOfiLoi<; eireeaau, irapafiXijBrjv dyopevcop' 
** Botai fiev Mepe\d(OL dpriyope^ el<rl Oedcop, 
'^Hprj T *ApyeL7j Kal ^AXaXKOfieprjU ^A0i]pr), 

2. dNdon^du J. 
Vr. a : dcibixar' H. 

3. iNCOiNoy^o Zen. ? {rivis Schol. T). 
6. napaxXi&HN Lips. 

4. dcid^crr' 

1. Arop^NTo, fuld assembly, as B 
337 Tourlv €oik6t€s dyopdaaOe, Ar. ace. 
to Porphyries in Schol. B explained the 
word by iidpol^oPTo, but it implies debate 
as well as mere gathering together. 

2. *'HBh reappears only in E 722, 
905, and the post- Homeric passage X 
603, where, as in the later legends, 
she is the wife of Herakles. For the 
golden floor see Helbig H. JE.^ 115-7, 
where 1 Kings vi 30 is compared. 

3. iwiMoxoci : of course a false form 
for 4oivox^tf cf. ^pdave, and see A 

4. dcid^oTo : generally referred to 
d€iKvvfuit, y. I 196 det/cyt/Atevo; {H. (?. §§23 
(6), 24. 3), 'pledging' ; in that case it must 
be a secondary sense derived from the 
custom of pointing to the person whose 
health is to be drunk. But both form 
and meaning present difficulties, and 
the word may be independent. Cf. 
dfiKap^Hoirro O 86, SeKaparai' dcnrdferat 
Hesych., and the Odyssean SeiSlaKOficu, 
which may point to a root SFik (van L. 
£nch, p. 345, Schulze Q. E. p. 156). 

6. napofiXiidHN: variously explained 
maliciously (with a side meaning) ; by 
way of retort (so Ap. Rhod. ii. 60, 448, 

etc., seems to have taken it) ; by way of 
invidious comparison between Aphrodite 
and the two goddesses. None of these 
is satisfactory ; I would suggest by 
way of risking himself ('drawing her 
fire' in modem metaphor), i.e. wilfully 
tempting her to retort upon himself; 
hence provokiiigly (cf. wapcufidXa Kcpro- 
fUovffip of teasing boys. Hymn, Merc, 
56). This sense of rapa/SdXXea^at is 
(with the exception of the purely literal 
meaning) the only one which occurs in 
H. (see I 322), and remained attached 
to the word throughout Greek literature 
(v. L. and S. s.v.). 

8. 'AXoXkqucnhTc : Pausanias (ix. 33. 
5) testifies to a cultus of Athene at 
Alalkomenai, near the Tritonian lake in 
Boiotia, down to the times of Sulla. 
The local hero was 'AXaXKOftey^ei^, and the 
name is evidently connected with some 
very primitive cult ; cf. the interesting 
fragment in Bergk P. L.^ frag, adesp. 83 
(Pindar ? ) xoXeir^i' 5' i^evpeiy etrt Botorrols 
* K\<a\> KOfJXViifi i/irip Xlfiyris Krj(f>iffl- 
dos dpiffx^ TrpQros dpBpiJInrcjy ctre kt\, 
(followed by a list of local myths about 
the origin of man). The local fem. form 
is *A\a\KOfi€yla, one of a trio of local 

156 lAIAAOC A (iv) 

a\X* ^ TOt ral voa'(f>i KaOrffievai elaopooxraL 

repireaOov rm S' airre (f)iXofi/jL€iBrf^ ^A(f>poBLTr) 10 

cuel 'jrapfiefi/SXcoKe koX avrov /cijpa^ dfivvet, 

Kol vvv i^etrdfoaev olofievov OavieaOat. 

aXX' ^ TOL vUrj fiev apr)l(f}lXov M.€V€\dov 

fliiel^ Be (f>pa^(ofi€0 Stto)? earav rdhe epya, 

fj airu^ irokefiov re kukov fcal (f>v\o7rcv alvrjv 15 

Spaofiev, fi (f}iX6TrjTa fier afx^oTepoiav /3d\(0fi€v. 

el S' ai 7rft)9 ToBe iraat (f>i\ov koX fjBv yevoLTO, 

tJ tol fiev olKeoiTo 7ro\t9 Uptdfioio avatcTo^, 

aZrt^ B ^Apyeirjv 'Ekevrjv MeveXao^ ayocro.^^ 

0)9 €(f}aO , al S* eirifiv^av 'AOrjvairj re Kal "H/^^, 20 

'irkrjaiai al y fjadijv, fcaKd Be Tpeoeao'L /MeBetrOrfv. 
tJ rot *A0i]vair) cuKetov ^v ovBe rt elire, 
(TKV^ofievrj Ail TraTpL, j^oXd9 Be fiiv dypio^ fjtpef 
'^UpTji S' ov/c e'x^aBe aTrjOo^ j(^o\op, dWd irpoa-ijvBa* 
*' alvorare KpovLBrj, irolov top fivOov eeiire^ ; 25 

7rc!)9 ideXei^ dXiov delvav irovov rjB^ dreXjeoTov, 
IBpSy 0* ov iBpcoaa fioycoc, xafieTqv Be fwc iTrrroi 

10. 9iXoui)dHC Q. 16. fi (ft) P Pap. 7 : fi ^* a || aGeic C. 17. aG 

ncoc Ar. : aG t^ Apb. : oOtcoc Par. d : aOrcoc (aOrcoc) O. |i r6ioiTO Aph. fi : 
n^orro Ar. (? v. Ladwich) : rbmrcn Par. f. 19. aGeic C. 20. <9aT' Pap. 7. 
21. nXHcfoN Eton. 9upr. \\ aY r* : aY d' 0. 22. ft toi : A ub« G. 23. 

q(UZ0JUi6«H Pap. 7. 24. oO K^adc HT (and ij TXeluy XPV<^^^ f^^ dyriypd<fHO¥ 

Eust.). 26. lonac N Yr. a. 27. kou^thn : ^ Xkcuion £ust. || Ynnco S. 

(chthonian ?) goddesses, absorbed as who desires peace, is a little nearer the 

usual by the Olympian (Pans, ibid.), pure idea of * wish.' We exactly ex- 

The name becomes here attributive press the ambiguity in translating * then 
rather than local, meaning' the guardian.' • may the city of P. be a habitation.* 

It recurs in literature only E 908 (the Zeus is here not expressing a wish, but 

only other place in H. where Hera is only putting as a {)ossibility the result 

called *Apy€lri) but is found in Chios of his second alternative in 1. 16. 

on an inscr. Hence also the Boiotian 20. juOzcin, to 'mutter,' 'murmur,' 

month *A\a\KOfUyiot. a family of words derived onomatopoetic- 

11. napjui^ufiXooKC=irap/x^/iXu;«r6 from ally from an imitation of the sound of 

(fi)^\(i><rKU) {fi\o=fio\, from nil-), ad- the voice when the lips are closed. 

ToO: the usual construction of dfu^ety 20-6 = 9 457-62. 

is tI TUftj not Tivos, But M 402 Zeifs 22. Ak^n is indeclinable here and 8 

KTJpas dfAwe I irai^df ioVf <l> 539 Tpihuv 459, and </> 89 dKiuw dalvvaOe Kad-fifuvw., 

Xva Xovybp dXdXxot. And the cases where Elsewhere it is always declined like a 

dir6 is added are essentially similar, participle, and it is hard to see what 

v^dv dirb Xoiybp dfiCvu¥ U S6, etc. H. G, else it can be. Of course dKiowr* could 

§152. easily be restored here, with Brandreth, 

18. olK^rro . . firorro: potential op- or, as van L. and Agar {J. P. xxiv. 

tatives, but illustrating how the ' wish- 273) suggest, fiiv dKifiP, but there is 

ing' opt. shades off into this sense with- nothing to explain how such a corrup- 

out dp: poLoiTe F 74, in the mouth of one tion could have originated. 

lAlAAOC A (iv) 


\abv arfevpovatfi, Upvdfuot fcatch toio T€ iracaiv ; 
epS'' arap ov Tot irdvre^ iiraivcofiep 0€ol aWoi^ 

Tr)V Be fiiy* 6')(j9ria'a^ irpoae^ v€(f)€Xn]y€p€Ta Zev^ 
*' Batfiovirj, ru vv ere Upiafjio^ TLpidfioio re iralBe^ 
Toaaa Kaxa pi^ovacv, o r da''jr€p')(k^ ficveaivet^ 
'IXxoi; i^aXaird^at iv/crl/Mevov irroXicOpov ; 
el Be (TV y elae'XJBovo'a TrvXa? koX reiy^ea fia/cpcL 
d}fiov ^e^pdOot^ Upiafiov Upcdfioio re TralBa^ 
aWov^ T€ Tp&a^, Tore Kev '^oXov e^aKeaaio, 
ep^ov OTTQ}^ €0e\€t^' fit) TOVTO y€ veuco^ oTriaao) 
aoX KoX ifJLoX fiey Ipcafia fier d/j^OTipotai yevrjrai, 
aXXo Be TOL epeco, av S* ivl ^pe<ri /SdWeo otjio'lv 
oirirore Kev KaX eyo) /Mefiaw iroXi^v e^aXaird^at 
TTjv iOeXo), oOc Toc (f}L\oL dvepe^ iyyeydaac, 
fiTj Tc BcaTpi/3eiv tov epJov j^oXoi/; dXKd yH eaaai* 
Koi yap €70) aol Bwxa e/coDv de/covri ye Ovfx&L, 
cu yap vir fiekiwi, re KaX oipav&v darepoevrv 
vaterdovai nr6\r}e<; iirt'^Oovicov dvOpcoTrcov, 





29. Ipd** &T^p: ipdc Ckp G. II oOn JMNQ. || inaiN^ooucN Mosc 1 : inaiNoOucN J. 
36. BcBfx^bocic QR {supr, 01) Mor. 38. ipocua D^Q. 41. Irrcrdaa^N) AJQT 
Vr. b, Mosc. 1 3 {eeorr.): iKrcrdaa(N) Q. 42. iacpN G. 43. ir6i toi S. || 
b6^* dixtOH Trypho. || rt : tc {aupr. re). 44. On' : 4n' Q. || T€ ani, Q. 

45. Noicrdtta Z>. 

28. KQKd, accusatiye, ' in apposition to 
the sentence,' as it is generally called ; 
Le. 'expressing the sum or result of an 
action ' {If. G. § 136. 4) ; so 1. 207 6y rti 
i^Xev . . tCh iUv KyJoty ci/J-fJU' d^ iriv' 
Bos : O 735 ^^J/ei x^^P^ ^Xu^v dir6 TOpyoVf 
\vyp6if 6\e0poy, The construction is only 
found after a verb goyerning an accus. 
'of the external object* either expressed 
or implied, and may be regarded as an 
extension of the construction f^ij^eip rivd 
re. For Kdfjufeiy Tt=to make cf. 216, etc. 
The peculiarity here is that in the 
principal clause the verb is used in- 
transitively — a sort of zeugma. 

29. ndNTCc is the emphatic word. It 
is indifferent as to the sense whether we 
take inaiN^oucN as fut. or pres. ; but it 
must be the latter according to Cobet's 
canon, that in verbs where e is not 
changed to 17, if the preceding syllable 
is l<mgf the fut takes <r, but where the 
antepenult, is short the c always dis- 
appears ; thus alSiffOfiatf dpKiffotf retx^cru;, 
but TtXita, yafiita, Kopiu, etc. {M, C. 

p. 307). Moreover, the simple alv4(a 
makes o/kiJctw in H. (ir 380, 403), cf. 
iTi^ivricrajf Z 312. 

32. 6 TC implies ' as 1 must conclude 
they do, because,' etc. Acncpx^: appa- 
rently for dva-Tcpx^Si CTripxu 'to press,' 
lit. hasUning^ pressing on (so Curt. Et» 
no. 176 h, and Clemm in C, St, viii. 95). 

35. For similar expressions v. X 347, 
212, and the words of Xenophon to 
liis soldiers, Anab. iv. 8. 14 To&roxnt Ijjv 
TTUi dvv(i>fjL€0af Kot (bfxoi^ d€i Karaipayeaf 
(and Hist. iii. 3. 6). BcBpc&eoic seems 
to be a perf. in -Ba like iyprjydpOcuny v. 
R, Q, § 22 (10), and note on (9). The 
more usual form ^e^puxibs is found in 
X 94, X 403, where it may have sup- 
planted the rarer pe^pcjSdln, 

43. ^d)N AixoHTi re euu&i, not under 
compulsion, but yet not of my own lik- 
ing, as the Schol. explain : iroXXd Topd 
Tpoalpeatv r^s i^vxv* wpdrrofup Tp6s t6 
Kcxapia-fUpop rQy ir^Xas. 

45. Naicrdouo, ?iave their piaee, see 


lAlAAOC A (iv) 

fS »> 

rdcov fioc irepl /crjpt Tteafcero l7uo<; I pi) 
Kot Tlpiafio^ Kal \ab^: ivfip^Xicj TLpidfjMio' 
ov yap fiol TTore ^cofio^ iBevero Bacro^ itaris, 
\ovl37Jf: T€ KVicrj^ T€' TO yap Xd'^oficv yepa^ i7/i€i9. 

Tov S* tj/M€L^€T eiTecTa /Socoirc^ TTOTVia "^Uprj' 50 

"^ Tot ifJLoX Tpel^ fi€V TToXif (f}iXTaTaL elai TroXiye?, 
^'Apyo^ T€ SirdpTT) T€ Kal evpvdryvia MvKi]vr}' 
T^9 BtaTrepa-ai, or av rot dTrk')(6(mnai irepl /crjpc* 
TOODV ov TOt eyo) irpoaff' Xarafiav ovBe fjueyaipco, 
ei irep yap <f)0ov€a) re koI ovk elS) Biairepa-ai, 55 

ovK avvoi (ftOoviova , iirel ^ iroXif (f}€pT€p6^ iao'c, 
dXKck ')(pr) Kal ifibv Oeficvat ttovov ovk dTekea-TOP' 

46. rdcoN : Ik t^n G. 47. iUjuuucXiou L. 48. Bcojiibc : euu6c Eust 

61. ^iXTOTOi N Yr. a. 63. didncpcoN G. || TOl : ti Q. || An^eoNrai Z>R. 

64. o(h*Ol : oOn GMQS. 66-6 d0. Ar. 66. 9^fmiT6c D? (and A^"). 

46. ncp) Kftpi : on this disputed phrase 
see If. G. § 186. 2, where the evidence 
is fully given. Monro takes the dat. 
as a locative, in the heart ; and with 
much hesitation trepl as = exceedingly ; 
' vtpl KrjfH, may have been meant in the 
literal sense, — the feeling (fear, anger, 
etc.) being thought of as filling or 
covering the heart. On the whole, how- 
ever, the evidence is against this view 
— unless indeed we explain xe/>2 Kijpi as 
a traditional phrase used without a 
distinct sense of its original meaning.' 
The sense exceedingly is obviously suit- 
able here, but less so in 53 ; and vtpi — 
inside is supported by A 317, q.v. 

47. AuJULUcXico. with good spear of asfi^ 
rod cJ5 iroTe rrji /xeXfcu xPV<^<*-f^^o^t iroXe- 
fUKoGj Schol. ; a somewhat strange epithet 
to apply to Priam, who is not repre- 
sentea as a warrior in Homer (except 
r 188) ; hence van L. writes ivfifieXlrfs 
here and in the three repetitions of the 
line (165, Z 449, [9 552]), thus also 
removing the contracted gen. -w for -€u. 
The epithet is also applied to the sons 
of Euphorbos in P (9, 23, 59), and to 
Pelsistratos, y 400. 

62. The clear mention here of the city 
of Argos, like the epithet *Af)y€lrf applied 
to Hera in 1. 8, marks this passage as 
composed after the Dorian conquest — 
one of the few cases in Homer where 
the traditional prae-Dorian character of 
the poems has been forgotten. It was, 
of course, that invasion which created 
the city of Argos at the expense of 

Mykenai ; the two can never have 
existed side by side as they are re- 
presented here. The hearer is naturally 
expected to apply the words only to 
the fall of Mykenai, represented as the 
price paid for the con(iuest of Troy. 

55. ^90Nito and o6^ are taken by 
Ameis as subj. ; he compares a 167 ou54 
rtj i}/juy I ^aXirui/n), et xip ris iwixOoyluy 
dy0punr(A)f I ipTJtffiy iXeOaecBaUf but this is 
essentially different, as it refers to a 
repetition of anticipated cases ; so A 261 
ef trep ydp t &\\oi . . Sairpby vlviaaiv, 
Hera is here stating a fact which she 
admits, in order to base another state- 
ment upon it, and for this the indie, is 
the proper mood ; cf. H 117 ef wtp ddei^s 
T cffrlj and note on A 321. It is also 
more natural to find ov after e^ with the 
indie, than the subj. ; H. G, § 316, and 
V. on B 349, A 160, though it is true 
that we do tind e/ oO with subj., e.g. T 
139 oi)«c cliacky where the neg. coheres 
closely with the verb. In the next 
line aNiko may be either ])res. or fut., 
/ shall do no good. 55-6 were obelized by 
Ar. , &ri rijy X^P^*' dvaXtjovtriy, el KtU firj 
TpodcTjdfU d^yarai tovt (x^^^y ^^c Hera 
is not doin^ Zeus a favour if Zeus can 
work his will withont asking her. But 
this ground is quite insufficient ; the 
turn of thought is natural enough, * have 
your way ; you know I cannot prevent 
it. ' The iiKhA following (57) also clearly 
refers to 56, * though you are more 
mighty, yet I am not to count for 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 


KoX yap eya> ^€09 elfu, 761/09 Bi fioc evOev oOev <rol, 

KaL lie 7rp€afitJTdTr)v T€K€T0 K^oi/09 oryKvXofi'qTrj^, 

afi(f>6T€pov, yeveijc re koI ovveKa atf TrapaKotri^; 60 

K€K\rjfjuii, cif he Trace fier aOavdrovaiv dvaacei^, 

aW' ^ Toi fiev Tav0* viroei^ofiev d\\i]\oia't, 

col fiev iyco, av 8' ifiol* iirX S' eyfrovrav deoX aXKoi 

dOdvaroL, aif Be Oaaaov ^AOrjvairji, iircreZKat 

i\0€lv €9 Tpdcov Kol ^Aj(CLt&v <f>v\o7rtv aivriv, 66 

ireipav S' W9 ice Tpw€9 VTrepKvBavra^ ^Aj^a^oif^ 

dp^(oaL TTporepot virkp opxca hrfKrjaao'OaL^ 

W9 €<f>aT, ovB^ diridrjae irarifp dvSp&v re Oe&v re* 
avTiK ^A0rjvaIr)v eirea irTepoeina TrpoarjvBa' 
" al^lra fid\^ €9 crpaTov iXde fier^ Tp&a^ xal ^Aj^atov^, 70 

TTClpaV S' (39 fC€ T/>6)€9 VTTepKvBaVTa^ ^AyCLLOV^ 

dp^foai irporepov virkp opKia hrfKriaaadai.^^ 

W9 eiTrwv &Tpw€ irdpo^ ficfjuiviav *A07]vrfv, 
firj Bk Kar OvXvfiTTOio Kaprjvtov dt^aca, 
olov 8' dare pa ^k€ Kpovov irdi<i dr^KvKoyJyT^ia, 76 

59. uc : juioi H. II AncuXduHTic Mor. 60. c^ : coi Q. 61. k^kXhtqi Pap. 
7. 62. TaOr* dnocixojucN J (7p. raOe* OnodzoucN) : TaOr* faicizoucN ApoU. 

Syrd. : TaOy OnocfaojucN Pap. 7. 66. cic O. 66. d' om. P. 67. npdrcpON 
JQ. 68. l[9aT' : 9dT[o Pap. 7. 71-2 07n. J. 72. npdrcpON 0. 

59. npecBurdTMN, senior in dignity, 
not merely eldest^ as the second clause 
of 60 clearly shews ; cf. the use of 
rrpiapOt trpcff^ijiov 9 289, 5*571 of honour, 
etc. So yipunf, cowncUlor^ is used without 
re8|)ect of age, like seigTieur, sir. Ac- 
cording to the legend in Hes. Theog. 
4.54 Hera was actually older than her 
brothers, and thus ycvtr^i. here probably 
means age, though it may equally well 
be taken to mean parerU/ige. 

66. OncpKiidcmrac : probably an adj. 
like &KdfMi dddfjuii, from stem kv8 (not 
Kvdeff) like Kvd-p^. It recurs only Hes. 
Theog. 610. Cf. fieyaKOjdaPTos (?) in a 
Cyprian inscr. (Collitz 31). 

67. See P 299. It is clear here that 
6pKia is governed by inrdp, not by SiyXiJ- 
aaa-0ai. Here also MS8. give vrepdpKia, 

75. dcripa Akc : so Mss. ; Bentley 
darip* friKe. The place, just before the 
caesura Kard rpirow rpoxaXov, is the most 
unlikely for an hiatus, so that the 
conjecture is almost certainly right 
See B 87. It is not easy to make out 
exactly what the people saw and mar- 
velled at (79) ; the metaphor clearly 

indicates more than the mere swiftness 
of descent, and implies at least a visible 
flash, though we cannot suppose that 
Athene actually changed herself into a 
* fire - ball * or meteorite ; but on the 
other hand Homeric gods are not in the 
habit of appearing to luultitudes in their 
own person. Of course the sparks in 77 
are merely part of the description of such 
a meteor, and do not belong to the com- 
parison. A very similar passage is P 
547 sqq., which describes the descent of 
the same goddess clothed in a cloud like 
a rainbow, spread by Zeus rdpai ififuvai 
il To\4/jLoio fj Kal x^^f^'^^'Of- 82 shews 
that the people did not know what had 
happened, but only expected some divine 
interference in a decisive way, whether 
for good or ill. The edd. compare Hipnn, 
Apoll. 440— 

ivd' 4k yffdi 6pov<rev tfyol eKdcpryos *At6Wuv 
dcrrdpi cl86fi€vos fU<ru)i ij/xari' rov S* dxb 

(nrtrBaplSei irtarClwTo^ <ri\ai 8* els oipawhp 


where Apollo is actually surrounded by 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

'fj vavTTjiai repa^ rjk orpaT&v eifpil Xawv, 

\afi7rp6v Tov Si re ttoXXoI airb trmvdrjpe^ ievrac 

rSyi iiKvt ijl^v eirl ')(06va TiaXKk^ ^AOtJvtj, 

fcaB S* edop i^ fieaaov* 6dfifio<; S' e^^ei/ eiaopofovra^ 

Tp&d^ ff iTnroBdfiov^ /cat €VKvi]/JLtBa^ 'Aj^atov?* 

&S€ Be Tt9 elireaKCv IBiyv i^ irXtjaiov aXKov 

" tJ P avTL^ iroXefio^ re fcaxo^ xal <f>v\o7rc^ alvi) 

iaaerai; fj (fycXortfTa fier dp/f>OT€pOLav riOrjai, 

Zev^, 09 T dv0pd}7r(ov rafurf^ irdKefioio rkrvKrai, ; " 

W9 apa Tt9 etirecKev ^A^ai&v re Tpdxov re. 
rj S' dvBpl iKiXrj Tpdxov KaraBvaeff o/miXov, 
AaoBoKtot ^AimfvopiBrfi, Kparepm alj(/i7jTrji, 
HdifBapov dvrlOeov Sc^rjfiivrf, el ttov €<f>€vpoi, 
evpe AvKoovo^ viov afivfiovd re Kparepov re 
kara&r • d^ii^X Be fMiv Kparepal arij^e^ dairva'Tdtov 
\a&v, oX oi hrovTO dir AifTryiroio podcov, 
drp(pv B* Itrrafievrf errea irrepoevra irpocqiBa' 
** ^ pd vv fJLol Ti iriOoio, AvKdovo^ vik Bat<f>pov ; 
rkairj^ Kev MeveXawt hri irpoefiev Tayhv loi/, 




76. Naihvia P : Naihxiia G. 78. lYlcuf : Ik^Xh L : bc^* P. 79. Mc^pi 
G. 82. aOrnc C. 84. dNepcbnoic M. || Tcuudac G. 86. KcrradOcce* A 

(supr. a over c, T.W.A.): KcrrcdOcca' NTU Vr. b: Kcrrcdik(c)ae' 0. 87 ottu 
V: II KpOTcn^ 0. 88. cT nou l9cOpOl : cOpc di T6Ndc Zen. (omittiDg 89). |l 

A^cOpci Q {supr. m) : A^cOpH {aupr. oi). 89. cCpc di Z>GP. 91. inoN- 

Tai Q^ (and $upr. 0). 92. Inco nrcpborra npooiOda : npoG^ rXauK&nic 

*AoibfH NS and yp. O^ (G ? v. Heyne). 

a blaze of fire ; the author of these lines, 
however, clearly had the present passage 
in his mind. 

82. Nikanor takes the two clauses 
introduced by >) as questions, and accents 
accordingly ; this seems to give the best 

224. For the genitive 
cf. A 28 T^pas ^v$p(j)irtaVf a 
the eyes of men. It would 
to depend on rafdrfSt not 
To\4fioio, But cf. £ 332 dySpuhf xdXefios. 

86. Observe the long i of dNdp( : this 
is possibly the primitive quantity of the 
dat. sing. ^ H. G. % 373, van L. Ench. pp. 
61, 80. But see Schulze Q, E. p. 229. 

88. cY nou, in the hope thai, Zenod. 
was offended at the doubt which he 
thought was expressed as to the certainty 
of the goddess finding him, and wrote 
cOpe d^ r6rde, omitting 89 altogether. 

84 = T 

portent in 
thus seem 

But cCpc is commonly found beginning 
a sentence asyndetically, e.g. B 169, 
A 327, E 169, 355, A 197, 473. 

90. Cf. Xaoi dypoiOrroi A 676. But the 
division of dcnicrdcoN | Ka&n suggests 
that they should be taken as substantives 
in apposition, not as acy. and subst., the 
comma after XaiDi^ being removed. Notice 
the rime. For 91 cf. B 824-27. 

93. The (question here implies a wish, 
the opt. being potential ; lit. could i/ou 
listen to met So we have the simple 
xiOoib fMi d 193, pray listen to tne^ which 
shews that the interrogative form is not 
necessary here (/T. G. § 299 6). We have 
the same form in H 48, but oAk dr is 
more usual, P 52, K 204, x 132. kcn 
is virtuallv an apodosis, as though e^ . . 
xlOoio had preceded, as in N 55, o 180, 
etc. (see if. G. §318). 

94. Cni npo^JULCN Ar., ixixpoifup M88. 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 161 

Trdai Si xe Tpdeaai ')(apiv xal kvBo^ dpoio, 95 

€K TrdvTcov Bk fidTuara ^AXe^dvBpcot, ^aaCKrj'L 

rov Kev hrj TrdfiTTpayra Trap* ar/kad hS)pa <f>€poio, 

at K€v iSrjv TSieveXaov dprjlov 'At/>€09 viov 

(Twt ^eKei B/jurjdivTa 'rrvpr}^ iircfidvT dXeyeivrj^, 

aW' ay oiarevaov ^eveXdov KvSaXifioio, 100 

€v^€o S AttoWcjvi XvKTjyevii kKutoto^col 

dpv&v irpcoToyovcov pe^eiv KXetTtfv iKarofi/Srjv 

ocKaSe voarijaa^ leprj^ eh darv ZeXet^?." 

95. KC om. C. II fipHQi Q. 98. Tdoi 0. || Arp^coc iPGKOPQR. 99. nupAc 
T* G Vr. a : nupAc d' L. 102. npoorordKUN Et, Gud, 108. dc AcTU : ficni 
re P. 

Cf. X S ^' 'ApTLtfdiM IBOyeTo. Ameig 
prefers the double compound ixtirpoiivaL 
which is used in the simple sense of 
* sending forth in a certain direction/ 
I 520, P 708, 2 58, o 299. In these 
cases, however, the direction of sending 
is purely local, and the separate Cni 
better conveys tlie idea of hostility. 

95. Tpcbecci, at the lumds of the Trch 
janSy apparently a locative sense {H. G. 
§ 145. 7 c). So I 303 ^ ydp k4 ff<pi 
fjidXa /jJya KvSoi dpoio, X 217 otccaOai 
fjUya KvSoi 'Axouotort, compared with 
K\4oi i(re\bv ivl Ipuxcav dpiicrSai P 16. 
But this use is rare with the singular ; 
'AXe^dvSpui seems to be added as an 
analogical extension of the constr. rather 
than as a true dative. 

97. The simplest construction of napd 
is with ToOf but the rhythm is in favour 
of joining the participle with the verb, 
as the line is otherwise divided into two 
equal halves (for which, however, Fasi 
compares B 39 Bifiactp ydp ^t' ffieWev 
iir* d\y€d re crovaxdz re). Cf. H. O, § 
192. There appears (ace. to Veitch and 
the lexx.) to be no other instance in 
Greek of the mid. of irapaif^peiv^ though 
TT po<r4>4p€ ffBai occurs in Attic. 

99. faiBdirra: cf. I 546 voWoifs 8i 
Tvprjs irripTfa' d\ey€Uf7is. The expression 
is very natural, even as used of the dead. 

101. XuKHTCNi^c, wolf-horrij an epithet 
which, according to Lang and others, 
points to an earlier stage of animal 
worship (see on A 39, and Frazer Pans. 
iL p. 195). The wolf was sacred to 
Apollo and was sacrificed to him at 
Argos (Schol. Soph. El, 6), and the 
name Avkcios was widely spread, being 
found, among other ]>laces, in Argos, 
Athena (Lyceum), £pi<iauros, Lemnos, 


Sikyon, Megara. According to the 
legend in Aristotle If. A, vi. 35 Leto 
was changed into a wolf at the time of 
liis birth (cf. also Eust on this line). A 
statue of a wolf was set up by the altar 
in Delphi. (See Verrall on Aisch. 
iSept, 132.) Another connexion with 
the wolf is implied in the epithet 
\vkokt6vos Soph. £l. 6 ; compare Zfuy^ei/t 
beside (rfjuydo<f>06poi. There were, how- 
ever, two alternative etymologies in 
ancient times, both of which still find 
defenders : (1) the name is derived from 
* \i)/o7, light, and means bom of light, or 
begetting light, of the Sun-god. But 
this is not an early character of Apollo ; 
the second derivation is also excluded 
by the uniformly passive sense of forms 
in -yev/js. (This explanation is as old 
as Macrobius ; see Sat. i. xvii. 36-41, 
pp. 96-7. J. A. Piatt.) (2) Bom in 
Lykia. But this would entirely separate 
the adjective here from KvKtioi, obviously 
a native name. In fact it is not im- 
probable that the name Lykia is itself 
derived from the title of the god ; the 
primitive inhabitants called themselves 
lermilai, not Lykians. Still it must 
be admitted that the author of this 
passage may have had such a derivation 
in his mind, for, as we shall see in the 
next book (105), Pandaros is in one 
version of the story actually made out 
to be a Lykian. 

102. npcorror^NCON, apparently first- 
lings, the first - born oi the year, the 
irp6yovot of t 221. The word, however, 
suggests the Hebrew custom of offering 
the first offspring of every animal. The 
analogy of irpuTOirayeU E 194 suggests 
also the possibility of translating new- 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

0)9 <f>(iT ^A07fvaifj, rm Se <f>p€va^ a<f>povi, nreldev 
avTLK iaxfka ro^ov ev^oov l^aKov 0^709 105 ' 

arypiov, ov pd ttot avro^ vtto aripvoio rv^rjaas 
TrerpTf^ ixfiaivovTa, SeSeyfievo^ iv TrpoBo/c^i^ai, 
fieffXi^KCt 7rpo9 <TTfj0o<i* 6 8' vimo^ efjuireae 7r€Tpr)i. 
Tov K€pa CK K€<f>a\r}<i eKKaiheKoZtopa 7r€<f>vK€i,' 
KoX rk fi€V daKrjaa^ Kepao^oo^ i^pape reKTcov, HO 

Trav 8' €v Xefqvaf: j^vtrirjv iiridrfKe fcopdvrjv, 
Kol TO fiev €v KariOrjKe rawccdp^evo^ itotX yairji 
dr/KXiva^' TTpoadev Sk adxea C'^iOov iaffXol eraipoc, 

106. cr^pNi 
npoddxaia G. 
112. raiHN Q. 

SohoL B (PorphyrioB) on B 827. || TUXi^cac : kixi^coc Q. 107. 
108. Cnccc MQ (Sunccc Harl. a). 111. XiHNac Kpuoom Ambr. 
113. IncXSNGc HP Lips. Eton. Vr. a. 

105. icOXa, 'stripped' the bow of 
its covering; in 116 * stripped the lid 
off the quiver/ the object in one case 
being the thing ancovered, in the other 
the covering itself. The two uses of 
icaX(}irreiv are exactly similar. For the 
bow-case {ywpvrdi) see 54. It is not 
clear if IsdXou is an adj. (of the wild 
goat, cf. ( 50 lovOddot dyplov alyds) or a 
specific name, as in /3oDf raOpoif etc. It 
is pretty certain that the animal meant 
is the ibex or stein bock, an animal still 
found in the Alps, though it appears to 
be extinct in Greece. It was, nowever, 
in historical times an inhabitant of 
Crete ; and Milchhofer has published 
{Annali 1880, p. 213, Anf. d, Kunst p. 
169) a bronze plate from that island 
representing two huntsmen, one of 
whom bears on his neck an ibex, while 
the other carries a bow evidently made 
of ibex-horns ; it clearly shews the 
rings, see note on 109. For t6bon alr6c 
cf. Iftjivrai po6t 4^ 684. 0n6 ciipNOio 
Tuxi^oac is added parenthetically, aud 
5n is governed by jSe/SXiJicct, for rvx^tv 
is not found in H. with an aco. of the 
object hit, as in later writers. Cf. E 579, 
M 189, 394, etc. 

108. Cuncoc, apparently fell into {a 
cleft of) the rock — an odd expression. 
Afiw€<r€f fell hack^ has been suggested ; 
cf. Aisch. Ag. 1599. 

109. K^pa, i.e. K4pa for K4paa or Kipa€. 
^Kaidcxddcopa : Ju^pof' icaXetrai 6 raXcu- 
<rr7)s, 3 ioTiv (KToais rdv ttjs x^'P^* recffd- 
po)v B(XKT(fK(avy i.e. a pcUm, four fingers' 
breadth, or about three inches. The 
horns would then be four feet long, 
which appears to be beyond the recorded 
size of the horns of the ibex, and would 

obviously make an unwieldy bow ; hence 
either H. is exaggerating, or he means 
that the united leneth of the two was 
sixteen palms, which would be rather 
small. BCopov in this sense seems not to 
recur, but we have Arkad. ddpif aTrtBafiij 
(Hesych. ; cf Albanian dore, hand ?) ; 
some have suggested that it may mean 
the rings on the horns, by which the 
animal's age is known. 

110. doci^oac expresses any artificial 
preparation, e.g. of wool F 388, a mixing- 
bowl Sk 743, guding of horns 7 438, etc. 
fipapc, joined with a handle (injxvi) in 
the middle. The kooc^nh is the tip 
with a notch, into which the loop u 
slipped in stringing (cf. 138, 165 ; 
elsewhere of a door-handle). At the 
other end there must have been another 
Kopdwri into which the string was per> 
manently fastened, or else a hole through 
the horn. 

113. AncXiNac must be in close sub- 
ordination to rapvffffdficvos, but the exact 
meaning is not certain. It is commonly 
taken with nor) ra(Ht, he bent the bow hy 
leaning it (the end to which the string 
was permanently attached) upon the 
ground. This is of course the way in 
which the modern long-bow is strung, 
but Reichel [Horn. Waffen p. 130) objects 
that the method is not suitable to the 
short bow. This was strung by placing 
the bow under the left and over the 
right knee and then bending it upwu^, 
the string passing over the left knee. 
He accordingly takes the words nor) 
ra(Hi with kot^hkc, 'he laid the bow 
on the ground after stringing it hy bend- 
ing it up.* This is no ooubt possible; 
but if the preceding statement as to the 

lAIAAOC A (it) 


fii) TTplv avdt^eiav aprfloi vU^ *A^at6)i/, 
TTpLv ffXTjaOai MeveKaov aptjiov ^Arpio^ viov. 
avrap o o'vXa Tr&fia <f>apiTpr)^, ix S' eXer Ibv 
apKrjra irrepoevra, fieXatvitov Ip/M oBvvcuov 
al'^a S' iirl vevprji KarcKOCfiee TrtKpov oIotov, 
€vj(^6T0 S' ^AiroXXeovi Xvtcrjyevel /cXinroTofwt 
apv&v TrpcoToyovtov pe^eiv k\€it^v eKarofifirjv 
oiKoSe voarriaa^ lepr}^ 6^9 dcrv ZeXct^?* 
€\k€ S* ofiov yXv<f>iBa^ re Xa^wv koX vevpa fioeia 



114. dMtitmmoi QU : iomppAwoaM Vr. a : AncltkaoN (corr. from -cicn) Pap. 7. 
115 om, Etont. || BcBXftceai N : eXHoANai G. || Arp^Qoc DQQ. \\ irrpioe Mm : 
iipX^ dxai^^ CRT and yp, Harl. a. 116. Ik : kr Pap. 7. || XXm' I6n JQR 

Vr. c. 117 dS, Ar. || JULcXamlcON Ar. AU : lUkamAfOH 0. 118-21 am, Q. 

118. knl: fad G. |! kcitck6cauc KS: Kcrrcxbcua 0. 122. rXu9fdac Ti: 

rXti^* oGtc G. 

length of the horns is to be taken 
literally, it would seem that even if the 
sixteen palms covered the entire length 
of the bow it wonld still be a long rather 
than a short bow, and it is open to 
question if it could be conveniently 
strung in this way. However, in view 
of the fact that there is no evidence for 
other than the short bow on the most 
ancient monuments, it is better to regard 
the length of the horns as a mere poetical 
fiction, and to hold that the author of 
the lines had in view only the short bow. 
As Reichel points out, the Mycenaean 
monuments always represent the archer 
as shooting in a crouching attitude, with 
one knee almost or quite on the ground. 
This is well seen in the well-known 
dagger-blade with the lion-hunt, and in 
the scene with the siege from the 
Mycenaean silver bowl. The attitude 
is of course particularly suitable for an 
ircher >vho, like Pandaros, shoots from 
behind the shelter of his companions' 
ihields. It plainly excludes the use of 
i long bow. cO KOT^HKC, laid caref^dly 
hum ; the great deliberation of Pandaros' 
Qovements, and the attention he gives 
o the selection of hLs arrow, a new one, 
never yet shot,' are insisted upon. 

117. ipua : a well-known crux, not 
asily explicable from any other uses of 
he word. These are in Homer (1) the 
frop put under a ship drawn up on 
and, A 486, B 164, (2) metaphorically 
pfut w6\i7ot, prop of the eiii/t II 649, 
(r 121 ; (3) in pi. earrings^ Z 182, <r 

297. The senses bcUlasi and reef come 
in later Greek. The usual explanation 
is from 2, foundcUion of woes. But Ar. 
felt this to be so unsatisfactory that he 
athetized the line, y^Koiov ydp 4^^ 
ip€t<rfjLa TUP dSvyCav Xfy^ffBai. In favour 
of the athetesis we might add the 
synizesis of -iup {-dw) ; but on the 
other hand Ap. Rhod. imitates the line, 
which clearly has respectable antiquity 
(iii. 279 rd^a raydaaat loSbxris d^rjra 
wo\6<rTOPOP i^iXer* liuf). No really 
satisfactory explanation has been given. 
Curtius derives from a root meaning to 
flow, Skt. sary comparing bppLJi and 
translating spring, source ; but there is 
no other trace of such a sense in Greek. 
The sense ballast suggests at least the 
possibility of understanding it of a 
cargo, charge, freight, of woes ; compare 
Aisch. Supp, 580 Xa^oOo-a 5' tppa Aiop 
. . ytlyaro iraiS* dfiefufnj, of the child in 
the womb. 

122. rXu9{dac: cf. <!> U9 (Xxtp yevp^y 
y\v<pl8as t€. The wonl is generally 
taken to mean the notch in the arrow 
into which the string fitted, and so Ap. 
Rhod. understood it (iii. 282 yXv^lBas 
fUffcrrft iyiKdrOero yevpiji). But the plur. 
is then unexplained, and this sense 
does not suit Herod, viii. 128 ro^ev- 
fjLaros rapd {frcpl ?) t4$ y\v<f>ldas irc/xetXf- 
^ayres. Hence it has been conjectured 
that there were two notches near the 
ends of the arrow, meant to give a 
hold for the fingers. This would give 
a good sense ; but there is no evidence 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

v€vpr)v fi€v fJM^&t viXaaev, ro^tov Bk aiSrjpov. 

avrhp iirel hi) KVK\oT€p€<; pAya ro^ov ereive, 

Xiry^e y3to9» vevptf Se /juiy ta^ev, SXro S' oicrro? 125 

o^v^eKrj^i Kaff" op^CKov emirreaOai, p^veaivcov, 

ovBk aeOev, Mei^eXoe, OeoX pAKape^ XekdOovro 
aOdvarot, irpa}Trj Se At09 OvyaTrjp dyeXeirj, 
fi Toi irpoaOe araaa fieXo^ e^eTreu/ce? ap>vv€v. 
17 Se Toaov p^v eepyev diro ')(po6<i, w ore p^rprqp 130 

iraiho^ eepyrjc p^vuiv, ou rjoei, Xe^erai trrrvcoc 
avTtf S' a!rr tdvvev o0t ^oxrrrjpof; o^^e? 
ypvaevov avv€')(ov /cat St^rXoo? r]VT€TO Odopr)^, 
iv 8' eireae ^coaTfjpi dprfpori 7riKpb<; oiaro^* 
Bict p,kv ap ^(DOTTjpof; ikrfKaro BacBaXioio, 135 

Koi Btci OcoprjKO^ voXvBaiBdXov rfprfpeioTO 

pirpTf^; 0\ fjV i<f>6p€l €pVp4l 5^009, €pKO^ CLKOPTOyV, 

128. Zen. placed this line after 124. 127. ^deoNTO Q. 129. TOI : oi Q 
(and so ap. Did. o^ta /lerA toO t) : r« G (ace. to Heyne). 131. l^prHl AMPRT : 
hkprwL 0. II X^oTO Mosc. 3 {e corr, ). 133 om, R^ || ecbpaz G. 136. Apiipicro 
RU : ^i^piCTO B, 187. Juh-pH L (p. reus.), \\ e* : d* M. || Spujuia Ar. O : XXifua 
A ph. Zen. 

for sach an arrangement, and it is 
doubtful if the Greeks shot with the 
arrow tightly held (see Seaton in C. IL i. 
p. 244 and App. B, x.). It is possible, 
however, that two longitudinal grooves 
may have been used to give a better hold. 
NcOpa only here = ycvpij, bowstring made 
of a bull's sinew ; see 151 for a different 

123. cidHpoN, the point of the arrow, 
which was fastened to the shaft by a 
thong, 151. This is the only instance 
of iron used in weapons in H. (except 
the club of Areithoos, H 141). On this 
ground some critics condemn the line — 
a perfectly arbitrary step. The mention 
of iron is one of many signs that this 
book belongs to the later period of Epic 

124. KuxXoTCp^ is predicate, bent into 
a (semi-) circle, Zeno<l. inverted the 
order of this line and 123, but not well. 

125. Xirxc seems to be an imitative 
word ; it does not occur again in Greek. 
Notice the personification of the weapons, 
tax^t 4Xto, fi€V€alv<av. So \i\ai6fieya 
XP<>^f ^ai A 574, etc. In <p 411 
Odysseus' bowstring KoKby tfettre, x^^t^^*'* 

128. npci^TH, as if an affirmative had 

preceded, * remembered, ' instead of * for- 
gat not.' drcXdH, s?ie who leads (Ms 
spoil {dyUf \eia) as goddess of forays. 
This traditional interpretation is sup- 
ported by the epithet Xiyfrtj K 460. The 
word is used only of Athene. 

130. t6con, just a little^ see on X 
322, ^ 454. The word is not correlativt 
with u;f, for the point of the simile ii 
the watchful affection, not the distance 
to which the arrow or the fly is driven 

131. X^crai: subj. , root Xex. 

132. For the following passage see 
App. B. Taken in connexion with 186-7 
and 213-6 it seems clear, as Reichel has 
pointed out, that 136 is an interpolation 
made at the time when the breastplate 
was an essential part of the hoplite's 
equipment, and that in 133 the word 
ecopHZ means not brectstpl^Ue but armour 
generally, and refers to belt and fdrpnt. 
136 is a formal line, occurring in three 
other passages. I 

134. niKp6c: cf. Pindar's oxymoron 
yXvKitv durrdtff 0. ix. 12. 

137. Itpuua : so Ar. ; cf. Xen. Cyr. iv. 
3. 9 BibpaKai ipufiara (rufidrtay. But i 
Aph. and Zen. read iXvfia^ " o16p€i ctXvfia " 
(rt tarapf covering ^ i* 179) Did. ; and 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 


TrXelaTOv epvro* hiairpo he etaaro koX t^9. 
%Tov S' ap olaro<; iireypwy^e xpoa (fxoTO^* 
I S' eppeev alfia K€7uitv€<l>€f; e^ a)T€iXrjf;. UO 

S' ore TL<; r iki^ama ywrj <f>0LVi,Ki /juiijvfjt 
'I9 ^€ Kdeipa, iraprilov e/jufieuai, ittttcov* 

S iv OaXdfKoi, voXeef; re fitv tipriaavro 
9 ^opeeiv, ^(ktiXtjI Sk Keirai aryaX/Jui, 
epov, Koafio^ 0* ittttcoi iXarrjpL re /cvSo^' 146 

Toi, M.€V€\a€, fiidvOrjv aXfiari firjpol 
:9 KvfjfJLaL T€ IBk a'(f)vpct KohS ir7rev€p0€. 

)• 6YcTbc : «pa xaAxbc Zen. 140 d0. At. 141. T* om, LOQ. 

k^ S. I! YnncDN : Xnnto{i) Aph. (?) J Par. b (and yp, 0) : Ynnou Bust. : 
;al> Ynnco {sic: Ynncoi?) Ar. 5txws (see Ludw.). 143. d^ uxh HP. 

4 DOU. II ipcrrftpi U. || T« : di Vr. b. 146. TOI : T€ HPQR. || 

'1 : uidNOCN GR. 

m does not recur it is likely 
riginal reading altered to the 
<vfia. There is no obvious 
:he contrary change. 
TO with dat like d/xi5vctv rivi 
here is no other instance of 
action. We find the ace. of 
N 555 Ifiaropos vlbv ipvrOf of 
E 538 17 5' ouK iyx^i HpirrOj 
)ut an object expressed E 23 
ffTOi (pvTo. Here we may 
6v as object. cYccrro, hastened, 
m FUfiai. The more correct 
i be FLffaroj the spelling -et- 
jrobably to the similar aor. of 
Ahrens was the first to point 
is verb has nothing to do with 
fu, root se) or cl/u, with both 
it has been confused. The 
eaning seems to be aim at. 
always necessary or possible 
I sense is appropriate, exc. 
185 ?), 2 501, (O 462 ?), p 327, 
2, (o 213 ?). 

• ftp* 6Yct6c Zen. read dpa 
ich Ar. rejected on the ground 
oint of the arrow was of iron 
e reading is naturally adopted 
;ic8 who reject 123. Ar. also 
10, because (brciXi^ ought to 
ound given, not by a shot, 
hrust or cut, to ^ich senses 
Td^b) is limited. So also 149. 
iver, is surely hypercritical. 
rMMi : imitated by Virg. Aen. 

aanguineo veluti ciolaverU ostro 

So <f>0€lp<a and degrade are used of mixing 

142. YnnooN and frTcjt suit the sense 
equally, the pi. Xirvwv being general, 
practically = tmrtor. It is not clear 
what Ar. and Aph. read, as the schol. 
of Did. is corrupt, but it is possible that 
there was a variant trirotv : the dual 
suits the Homeric use of horses in pairs 
rather than in threes or fours. 

143. eaXducDi, of the treasure chamber, 
/3 337, Z 288, etc. 

145. ^orApi in H. is used only of the 
driver in a cnariot race, A 702, 4^ 869 ; 
the connotation of the word is thus very 
appropriate to an ornament which would 
be used for purposes of display rather 
than of warfare. 

146. JuidNOHN, a form which has not 
been satisfactorily explained. Buttmann 
took it to be a^aual for itudv-irOviv, but 
the middle termination is out of place. 
The terminations -Hv, -ev, -vv of the 3rd 
pi. are lengthened only in arsis in H. 
and that but rarely, cf. e 481, t 413, x 
358. On the other hand, as they re- 
present an older -avr, -evr, -ivt, they were 
once long, and the termination -Jiv for -ev 
is in fact found in Doric inscriptions of 
the 2nd century b.c., while a relic of the 
quantity remains in the Doric accentua- 
tion iXiyov. But in the complete 
absence of analogous cases we cannot 
draw conclusions from Doric to Epic, 
and must leave the problem unsolved. 
See G. Meyer Or, § 534, van L. Eiich, 
p. 294, Schulze Qu, Ep. p. 426, ff. G. 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

piyrjaev S' a/>' eiretra ava^ avSp&v * Ay a/jL€fMva>v, 
w elSev iieKav alfia Karappeov i^ dyreiXij^' 
piyrjcev ik Koi avro^ ap7jt<\>i\o^ MeveXoo?. 
C09 a tBev vevpov re koI SyKov^ itcrb^; iovra^, 
Ayjroppov oi 0VfW<; ipl crrjOeaaLV aryipdff, 
Tot? Bk fiapv arevd^cov fi€Ti<f>rj KpeUov ^ Ay a fUfJuvcov, 
jf€*/>09 ej^o)!/ MeriXaoi/* iirearevajf^oin'o S eralpoc* 
" <f>vK6 Koa-lrfVfjre, davarov vv tol opKL* erafivov, 
olov irpoan^ca^ irpo 'Aj^atwj/ Tpoxrl fid'xea'Oai, 
0)9 <r i^cCKov Tp&€^, Karh h opKia TncTct Trdrrja'av. 
ov fiiv 7ra)9 &\cov ireXei opKiov alpA re dpv&v 
airoviat r aKpTjroc koI Be^iai, fjif; iireTTiOfiev. 
el irep yap re koX avriK ^0\vp/mos ovk irikeao'ev, 
ex T€ Kal o-ip-e reXel, avv re fieydXtot dTrcTtaav, 

148. ^if-HC^ t' J (7p. ^(thccn V) NO* (Tap) U King's. 149 dd. At. 
hk YdcN : y cTdc(N) CJ^NQ^S : h' oTdc Q^ 163. t6n d^ GNP^Q and 

Harl. a. || npOG^H CNQS. 164. faccroNdxoNTO GHJPQ. 166. Itrmu 

(7p. 0). 167. cbc {om. c') DG8, 168. nooc : ncp 8. || aTjmd Ti : aTjua 
M. 169. Alc: aTc GO. 161. TcXcT: tcX^co Zen. (?). || dn^Tic(c)c| 

{supr, cm) R : licouaN Zen. : An^oon Pap. y^. 

151. NcOpON, by wliich the base of the 
tip was ' whipped ' to the shaft ftncouc, 
barbs (uncos) ; there were probably three 
such, the point having three edges ; 
Helbig H, E.^ p. 341 ; v. itVrrwt rpiyXJjx^yi 
E 393, A 507. Only the actaal point 
has penetrated the flesh, the rest of the 
head remains in the armour. 

155. 9fXc : a trochee, as E 359, $ 308, 
and so 0/\cu, ^Xaro. The lengthening 
in the verb is, of course, regular : in the 
adj. it appears to be due solely to the 
first arsis, and is a real metrical licence, 
as in the case of did (F 357, etc) and ^ei 
{^ 2, etc.). See App. D under C 1. 
The der. of ^IXos is unknown ; but 
there is no instance of i in Greek 
except in a few late imitations of this 
plirase. For the Ions e of xadrNHTC 
see H. O. § 387. •wiaTON : ace ex- 
pressing the result of the action, H, O, 
§ 136. 4. 

158. 5pKioN, sing, only here, an oath- 
sacrifice generically ; cf. T 245. 159 = 

160. d . . oOk. This is clearly a 
case like 162, T 129, O 296, etc., 
where the negative does not coalesce 
with the verb into a negative word, but 
applies to the whole sentence. The use 
of tl ouK with the indie, seems to be 

Erimitive, and only to have been o 
y cl fiii through analogv. The use 
with the indie, is to place a state 
in the form of a supposition mere 
the intellect f i.e. without any indie 
of wish or purpose on the part o 
speaker ; whereas fiif appears origi 
to have indicated a *mood' in 
strictest sense, i.e. the active pu 
aside of a thought {prohibition) ; so 
el fiif with the indie, was at first 
possible. We find jutJ with the i 
without cl in the phrase fiij CbipcXop 
also O 41, K 330, T 261 (?) (JET. 
358), where the speaker not only d 
a fact, but repudiates the thought c 
a categorical expression not suite* 
hypothetical clauses. (See the : 
there and If. O. §§ 316, 359 f, % 
Vierke's rule is ^ven, viz. that * wi 
and the indicative ov is used whei 
clause with €l precedes the prin 
clause,' except in i 410. The cu 
is probably due to the fact that tl 
the older #rder, and the more p 
tive expression of thought, and is 
associated with the older construe 
el fiif with indie, is a use which gre 
later by analogy, and was eraployi 
the more artificial order of ideas. ) 
161. Ix TC: Bckk. conj. ix Si, 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 


aifv a<f>7]ca'tv K€<f>a\rji,ai yvvai^C re koI TeKeeaaiv. 
ev yap 670) roSe olSa Kara <f>piva koI Karh Ovfiov* 
eaaerai ^fjuip or av ttot oXeoXrjt "IX^o? Iptf 
Kal Uplafiof; koI Xao9 ivfifieXiw Tlpidfioio, 
Z6U9 Si a<f>c KpoviSff^ vyfri^vyo^, alOepi valtov, 
avTO^ iTrca-aeirjta-cv ipcfivifv alr/iSa iraai 
TtjaS^ aTrdTrj^ Koretov. ret fikv ecaerai, ovk dreXecTa' 
dXKd fioi, aivov a')(p<; aeOev eaaeraL, & ISieviXae, 
at K€ ddvqL<; Kal iroTfiov dvairX'qa'rji^ fiioroto. 
Kal K€v iXey^ta-TO^ TroXvBlylrcov ^Apyo^ iKolfirjv 
avTiKa yhp fivijaovrai 'A^a^ol irarplBo^ atrj^* 
KciB Be K€v evycSkrjv HpidfKoi Kal Tpcoal XiTrotfiev 
^Apyeirjv '^Xevrjv aeo B* ocria irvaei dpovpa 



164. dXcbXd NQ. 165. WuucXfou L. 166. d^: rdp K. 169. Xocrcn 
£t Mag. 170. cY kc J. || n^TJUMN Ar. [S] Par. k (yp. uoTpoN), and yp. 

H : JUoTpoN (and al /cocvcU Did.). 171. IX6-X1CTOC and ^^txicton Ar. dixtat, || 
noXi/npioN or noXO h' TipiON ap, Eust. 173. XfnoicN CDGNPQRS Lips. Eton. 

174. dprdHN •* Zen. (cf. on B 161). || fipoupON Pap. 7. 

this is probably a case of the primitive 
use of Tc . . re to express mere correla- 
tion, not conjunction, precisely as in 
the similar sentence in A 81, q.v. It 
might be referred also to the gnomic 
use of re, II. G. § 332, but it is hardly 
possible to separate the re in the 
apodosis from that in the protasis. The 
conjunction of the present tcXcT with 
the gnomic aor. dn^oaN is not un- 
natural. Zen. cannot of course have 
read reX^tre* for rcXct (see App. Crit.) as 
the context stands ; possibly he only 
meant to explain that reXei is a fut. 
But the contracted form is later and 
suspicious. The subject to dir^Turav 
is general, * transgressors * ; but Zen. 
read rlaovatp, and made it refer to the 

168-5 = Z 447-9. Some critics con- 
sider the lines interpolated here, but 
the supposition is quite gratuitous. 
Appian says that Scipio, at the sight of 
the ruins of Carthage, used these words 
with reference to Rome. For the con- 
struction of 164 cf. e 373. The subj. 
gives a solemn tone (see on A 262). The 
&N here can neither be removed nor 
changed to k€ without great violence. 
The collocation with norc shews that it 
generalizes rather than jmrticularizes 
(see H, G, § 289. 1 6) ; bift the pure 
subj. seems more natural, as in <t> 111. 

166. Oijrfzuroc* if fieTa<f>opdL drb twv iv 
vavffl ivyQvy i</>* S>v Kadi^ovrai ol ipictrov- 
T€s Schol. A. Cf. ffiXfxa ctfivbv lifieyoi 
Aisch. Ag. 183, and ibid, 1618. 

170. ndrjuoN : so Ar. ; Mss. fioTpoPf 
cf. A 263 x&Tfiov dvarXiJcravres, 9 34 
Kaxdv oItov dyarXi^ayres, O 132 /caicd 
ToXXd dfair., c 207 ifiJJea. We use 
precisely the same metaphor, 'to fulfil 
one's destiny.' 

171. noXud(i|fiON : so "Apyovs 8i\f/lay 
X06va Eur. Ale. 560. The epithet 
caused some trouble to the old com- 
mentators, as the plain of the Inachos 
was reputed well-watered (cf. linrb^vrov 
B 287). They were inclined to explain 
it TToKxrirfyOriToVy much thirsted after, or to 
read ToXuZ^tov = destructive (so Strabo), 
Sid. rods ToKifiovi. Some preferred, how- 
ever, to explain it by a legend (found 
also in a fragment of Hesiod) that Arcos 
was waterless till Danaos came with his 
daughters ; and that Poseidon or Athene 

frovfded it with wells. And in fact the 
nachos and Charadros, which flow by 
the town of Argos, are almost waterless 
in summer ; the reputation of abundant 
supply seems to have been based upon 
an elaborate system of irrigation, to 
which the legends allude. See Pans, 
ii. 15. 5, and Frazer iii. p. 96. 

173. See B 160. 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

KeifjAvov iv Tpolffi dT€\€VTi]T(Oi iwi epytDi. 175 

KaL K€ Tt9 <5S' ip€€i Tpcotov vTTeprjvopeovTtov 

Tv/Jificoc hrLOpwiaKcav MereXaou KvBaXifjLoto* 

'aid* ovTco^ €7rl Trdat ^6\ov reXeaet ^Ayafie/Mvcov, 

e!)9 Kol vvv aXiov crparov ijyayev ivOdS' 'A^cu&v, 

Kal Srj efirj oIkovSc <f>l\7jv €9 irarpiha ^aHav 180 

(T\)v Ketvrjto'tv vqvcly Xnrwv dyaObv MeviXaov.^ 

W TTori Tt9 €/>€6f T0T6 fioi ')(avov €vp€ca yOdavr 

Tov S' hndapavv(ov 7rpo<r€<fyrj fai/^09 Mei'eXao9* 
" Odpaet, firjSe ri tto) SeiSiaaeo \abv ^A'^ai&v • 
ovK iv Kaiplfoc o^if irdrfq )Se\o9, aSXa irdpotOev 185 

elpvaaro ^(oaTrip re iravaioXos 17S' virevepOe 
^a>/Lu£ re Kal fdrprj, rijv ^aX/crje^ Kdfiov avSpe^.*^ 

176. KCUJ161C01 Pap. 7. 178. TcX^coi N(Q?) : TcX^oai S mpr. 181. KcrnaTa 
G. II Ncnid GQR : Ncud Pap. 7 : X<P^ ^ {supr, NHud). 183. immapcAcac Yr. c. 
184. JUiJi d* Ihi LMQU (und* Ihi Harl. a) : julhk^ R. || noo Ar. : nou rip^t ap. 
Did. 185. 7p. oG ohn xafpioN 6k0 B^oc ndm Harl. a (interlined). 187. 

xduoN: TdjuoN P. 

175. drrcXcuTiVroM in\ lEprcoi : so t 111 
dyrpfijaTui erl ^p7«t, and 178 below, erl 
tcUti 'in all cases.' This use of iiri is 
more common in Attic, e.g. Soph. 0. C. 
1554 ^T* ciirpa^iai. fUfiyri<r0i /xoi', j4fU. 
566 4t* dppTJTois \6yoii *with words 
unsaid,' Eur. Ion 228 ^t' 6/r<f>dKTots 
firfXoiffL. iir' dptryvif 4^ 574, is similar. 

1 76. For KC with fut indie, see on X 66. 
178. aYec, whatever its derivation — 

and some regard -Be as a shortened deol 
— gives much the same idea as our 
* Would to God,* i.e. a sort of hopeless 
despairing wish. Thus its use here, 
in a phrase which really expresses a 
triumphant taunt, intensely emphasizes 
the bitter irony of the imaginary words 
(L. Lange EI 343). 

184. nu=irci;s, v. T 806. 

185. KQiplooi, a deadly spot. The 
sense of Kolptoi is quite clear in U. ; 
it is always used in the phrase (r6) 
Kolpiov as here (9 84, 326, A 439 ?) ; but 
the traditional derivation from Katp6i 
appears highly unsatisfactory. In the 
first place neither Kcup6i nor any other 
derivative occurs in H. ; in the second, 
a transition from * opi>ortune * to * fatal ' 
seems quite alien from the directness 
of Homeric language. Indeed even 
' opportunity ' is not the ori^nal significa- 
tion of Kaup6st for in Hesiod Opp, 694, 
and Theognis 401, where it makes it^ 
first appearance, it means only 'due 

proportion,' in the proverb Kaipbi S' 
iirl iraaiy dpi<rroi. These two considera- 
tions iaJccn together seem to be convin- 
cing ; for the transition of meaning, 
though not quite incredible in itself, 
could be excused only if the word were 
quite familiar in its primitive use. We 
need not go far for a more satisfactory 
etymology. The exact sense required 
is given bv the word /nj/) (Curt. BL no. 
53, p. 14'8), *Skt. kar to kill, karas 
death-blow.' Homer himself supplies 
us with the negative adj. in dxTipios 
'unharmed,' /* 98, ^328. Possibly, 
therefore, we ought in H. to write 
K-fipLov^ not KaipioVf the word being 
confused with the adjective Kaipios = 
timelij only in later Greek. Indeed 
were it not for a single passage which 
possibly stands in the way (ou ydp es 
Kaip6v Tinrels irijyxave Eur. Aiidr. 
1120), icrjptos might be written for 
KcUpioSj I believe, at least in all the 
tragedians and Pindar, whenever it 
occurs in the sense 'deadly.' 

ndpoiecN, in temporal sense, befarr it 
got so far. Others take it locally, with 
^itHFT^p, 'the belt, etc., in front of (i.e. 
protecting) my flesh.' It does not stand 
m opi)osition to vx^vepBcy which is 
added independently, as in the phrase 
ir65cj Kal x^*P^* OTrcpdev : this is clear 
from 215. . 

187. See App. B. 






Tov S' a'7rafi€ifi6fi€vo<: irpoaiffyi] Kpeitov ^ Ayafiefivcov 
" at yctp 8r} ovto)? etr), (f>i\o^ & MeveXac' 
€\fco<; Lfjnjp eTTifMcuraeTai ^o 6'mu'qaei 
<f>dpfia^, a K€v iravarjiai fiekaivdcov oSvvdcov,* 

fj Kal TaXdv^iov Oeiov KtjpvKa TrpoarfvBa' 
**Ta\0v^i\ OTTt rd'^^iaTa Ma'^^dova Sevpo KoXeaaov, 
<f}a)T *AaK\i]7nov viov dfivfiovo^ IrjTrjpo^i, 
o^pa iBrji MeveXaov dprjlov 'Arpeo? viov, 
ov T49 oiarevaa^ e^cCKev ro^cov iv €l8(o<;, 

Tp(0(DV fj AvKL(t)V, Tcbl, fl€V kXcO^, aflflL Sc TTCl/^O?." 

«? €if>ar, ovh^ apa ol /crjpv^ aTrldrfaev a/covaa<;, 
fiij S' livai Kark \abv 'Aj^atwi/ ^a\KO'^LT(ov(t)v 
TraTTTaLvcov ijpcoa TSia^dova. tov S' ivorjaev 
eoTaoT* afi(f)l Be fitv k pare pal ari^e^ daTnardtav 
\a&v, oi ol ewovTO TpixTf^ ef iinro^oroLO, 
dy')(pv S' l<rTdfi€VO<; eirea irrepoevra vpoarfvBa' 
" opa, * A<rK\rj7ndSfj, xaXiei Kpeicov ^ Ayafiefivcov, 
6(f)pa iBrji^ ^eveXaov dprjiov dpyov ^A^aiwv, 
ov Tt9 6iaT€vaa<; efiaXev to^cov iv eiSd)^, 
Tpdxov fj AvKLtov, T&c fM€v kXio^, afifit Be irevdo^,^^ 

w? <f>dTO, T(ot S' apa Ovfiov ivl aTi]d€aaiv optve' 

191. kcn: ncp P. II naOcHia: naOcMi cc G: naOcMi tc Mosc. 3 {e corr,). 
196. 89P* CGRT Veil. B. || irrpioc u!6n ANT : drp^coc ui6N D : dpx6N dxai^&N 
O (and yp. A). 196-7 dS. At. : 196-7 om. I>Otp. 196. 6n tin' C^ |i t6toh R 
{supr, «h) : t6kp U^ 202. TpfKHC [GO]Q*R[S]Ti : epi^KHC 2) Vr. A : TpixKHC 

O. 203. npocHijda : yp. dr6pcucN A. 204. Spec* S Vr. A : 6pceo Q (and 

yp. Harl. a). 206. YdH(l)c GLMNOQRS : Xbm Ar. O (and Harl. a^). || dpx^N 
^Xai^N : drp^oc ui6N iXTMOPSU : drp^ox: ui6N J. 206. 6n tin' C^ || t6son 

R. 208. T^l : toO N. 


189. For the combination of nom. 
and voc. see If. G. § 164, and notes on 
B 8, r 276. <pi\oi is voc. also in I 601, 

* 106, i^ 313, 343, 627. 

191. With naOcHia we must of course 
supply <r€ as object ; the constr. iraiiLv 
Tiyd TOfos occurs in B 595, etc. Van L. 
follows G in reading watjcrii tre. 

194. ^6lna and m\6h in apposition as 

* 546, cf. 26 <f>u>e\'EpaK\7ia, d 247 
ipurrl Sdimjif the latter of which passages 
shews clearly that the addition of </>ujs 
does not imply anything like 'manly' 
or * heroic* drijp is used in just the 
same way, cf. dvdpa Bi-^vopa A 92, E 649 ; 
and 80 iupotf dySpbt 'Eicropos Soph. Aj. 
817. It is needless to say that Pausanias 

(ii. 26. 10) is wrong in taking it to mean 
'human son' as opposed to his divine 
father. See on B 731. 

197. The Lykians here are doubtless 
the chief allies of the Trojans, Sarpedon's 
army, not the followers of Pandaros 
from Zeleia (see on E 105). kX^oc: 
ace. expressing the result of the action, 
as 155. 

202. See note on 90, and for TpfxHC 
B 729, where the name is TplKKrf as 
always elsewhere in Greek. 

204. 6pc*, i.e. 6p-<ro, from the non- 
sigmatic aor. *u>p6firiv : while 6p<r€v 264 
is 6pa ' €Vf from the * mixed ' aor. 
*(bpcr6firiv : cf. \i^€0 by \4^o. 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

fiav i* levac Ka6^ ofiiXov avct crparov evpvv ^A'^ai&v, 

aXX* ore 817 p 'i/cavov oOl ^avOo^ Mei'eXao? 210 

ff\i]fi€vo^ ^v, irepl 8' avTOV arpf^kpaO^ oaaoL apiaroi 

KVKkoa, 6 S* iv /jLCcaoio'c irapiararo ia6deo<; <f>€0<;, 

avTLKa 8' eK ^marripof; aprfp6T0<: €\k€v dlarov 

Tov B* i^e\KOfjL€voi,o iraXiv ar^ev o^e€9 oyKoi. 

Xvae Be oi ^(oarijpa iravaioKov ^S' inrevepde 215 

^&fid T€ Kol fiirprjv, ttjv j^aX^c^e? Kafiov avBpe^. 

avrhp eTrel thev cKko^, 50* efiTreae irvKpo^ oiaro^, 

alfi iKpA)^riaa^ hr ap rjirui (fxipfuifca elBw 

Trdace, rd 0% nrore irarpX <f>IXa <f>pov€(i)v irope ^eipmv. 

6(f>pa Tol a/JL<f>€7r€V0PT0 fioTfv dryadov ^eveX/iov, 220 

T6<f>pa S' iirl Tpdxov aTL')(€<; rjXvOov dcTno'Tdcov 
ol S' airrt? Karh rev^^ eBxjv, fivrjaavro Be x^PM-V^* 

218. d' Ik : di Pap. 7. || ^IXkcn Ar. and al irXtlovi, P (Par. b ?) : cTXkcn Q, 
216. z^^a : yp. z^^cua Harl. a. || TdjuoN M (xduoN Harl. a) : «duoN (k in ra^) 
P ; see 187. 220. to) : n R : oT 0. 222. aOeic CQ. II Kord t' Xntc* Iduirro 
N II CduNON 0. 

212. For kukX6c* Ar. strangely read 
k^kXos as = kOkXos ytvdfievoit comparing 
dyp6fievoi Tas d^/xos T 166. But, as 
Herodianos remarks, this is a quite in- 
sufficient analogy, as kOkXos is not a 
noun of multitude like d^/uos. He there- 
fore supports Nikias and Ptolemy of 
Askalon in reading KVK\6<r\ Cf. P 392. 
tc6e«oc 9cbc is more naturally taken to 
mean Machaon than Menelaos ; irapiirraTo 
as usual signifying 'came up,' and the 
apodosis beginning with 6 S4, 

214. ndXiN may be taken with i^eX- 
KOfUvoiOf 'drawn back the way it had 
entered ' ; or with dyw, * were broken 
backwards.' The barbs of course stick 
in the hard armour. They have to be 
cut out of the flesh in the case of 
Eurypyloa^ A 844. There is an obvious 
inconsistency with 151, where the 'barbs 
are outside — hardly serious enough, 
however, to justify Heyne in rejecting 
this line. 

219. ol . . noTpi, as P 196 A ol Beol 
Ovpayloires \ iraTpltplXwil^iropov. In these 
and many similar phrases ol = his ; but 
Bentley's Fuk is tempting. Cheiron 
is mentioned again as having taught 
medicine to Achilles in A 832, and as 
having given Peleus the *Pelian sjjcar,' 
II 143, T 390, but none of the other 
legends about him are alluded to by 

221. The line is not very suitable to 
the present context, as the aor. fiXuooN 
puts the Trojan attack as a point of 
time, not as a continuing process. Hence 
it should be followed at once by the 
actual conflict, and there is no room for 
the next episode, the long iTLXutXrfais of 
Agamemnon. In other words, the episode 
of the duel of Menelaos and Paris once 
ended here, and was followed imme- 
diately by the general engagement ; the 
^irtTwXiytrtj, though composed for this 
place, is a later addition. There is no 
reason to suspect 221 as an interpola- 
tion, as Heyne and others do ; an 
interpolator would obviously use the 
imperf., not the aor., if he had the 
irnrdliXfyrii before him. 

222. x^pJUMC, generally explained th^ 
battU'joy, and this is supported by N 82 
X<ipM'>7i yyjObawoi H)v ctpip Ofbs ^/u/^aXe 
Ovfjulji. But it is very remarkable that 
Homer never represents his heroes as 
taking any delight in battle, except by 
immediate instigation of a god, as in 
the above passage, B 453, A 13. On the 
contrary, he lavishes all epithets of 
hatred upon war, XnypSsy iroXuddxpuof, 
SvariXfyifli^ Svarfxifis, atV6j, etc., and in 
E 891 (A 177) fondness for battle appears 
as a severe reproach. It seem^i, there- 
fore, most unlikely that he should have 
made one of his commonest names for 



€V0^ ovK av fipl^ovra iSoif; ^ Ayafiefivova Siov 
ovBk KaTairrdHTCovT ovh^ ovk iOekovra fid'^€<r0ai, 
dXXA fjLoKa (nrevSopra i^cuyriv i^ KvSidveipav. 225 

tTTTrou? fi€v yap ecure koI apfiara TroixiXa ^aTuem' 
Koi Toif^ fiev Oepdirtov dirdvevO^ €)(€ (fyvaiocovra^ 
^vpvfieBayv vlo^ UrdKefiaiov HeipatSao, 
rm fxdXa ttoXX' iirereXKe irapia-^eiiev, OTnrore tcev fiiv 
yvla \d^i]i KdfjULTO^ TroXea? BiA KOipaviovra* 280 

airrdp 6 Trefo? ioi)v iiren'(oXeiTO ari'^J^^ dvhp&v. 
KaL p 0^9 tJi>^v (nrevhovra^ iBoi Aavaa>v ra^vircoXcov, 
Toif^ fjbdXa Oapa-vveatce Trapicrdfievof; iireeaaLv 
"^Apyeioi, fiTj TTO) rt fjueOiere 0ovpiSo<; a\/c^9' 
ov yap eVl ylrevSea-ai irarrfp Zev? eaaer dpcoyo^, 235 

228. BpizoNTa P. || YdH J {supr, oic) : YdHC NPH?)(,^ Vr. a. 228. noX[cua(ou 
Pap. 7. II napatdoio U. 229. napacx^^CN Ci>JMPQ(U» ?) Caut. Mor. Vr. A, 

Mosc. 1. 230. XdBoi M Eust. 234. JUi^noo toi G : juu^nu t6 H. ;; JUM#dcrc 


it out of a word which ori^nally meant 
*joy,' but which has eutirely lost its 
connotation except in a single passage. 
Curtins would explain it as * the glow, 
burning flame' of battle (root g?uir\ 
like SaXs from Saio) : compare the ex- 
pression fidpvavTO difxai rrvpbs aldofidvoio. 
We could then explain N 82 as meaning 
' the glow, the fire, which the god had 
put in them.' This, however, does not 
account for x^PM''n=8P^f''^'Poi''^ (Stesich. 
fr. 94, with x<^^ox<^P/^'i ffiSapoxdp/xas 
in Pindar, dyxo-PfMP' dvuKpeprj ttjv aXxt^i)¥ 
Hesych. ; see Schulze Q, K p. 141). 
Hence Postgate's reference {A, J, P, iii. 
337) to root ghar = prick, tear, is better ; 
battle is called tearing of flesh and 
shields, and the phrase in N 82 is due 
to confusion with the different root 

223. oOk 6n Tdoic expresses poten- 
tiality in the past, like o^4 jce ^a/i;; 
r 392, A 429, etc. 

228. Eurymedon is Agamemnon's 
charioteer here only in H. ; but the 
later tradition accepted the name, for 
Pausanias says that he was slain with 
Agamemnon. Eurymedon is also Nestor's 
charioteer, 8 114, A 620. Cf. note on 
Eurybates, A 320. 

229. napicx^ucN, to have his horses 
at hand. For the subj. XdBHi after an 
imperf. v. H, O. § 298; it is used 
because 'the action expressed by the 
subordinate clause is still future at the 

time of speaking ' ; but this differs from 
the passages there quoted in that they 
all give the actual words of a speaker to 
whom the subordinate action is really 
future ; but here the poet himself is the 
speaker, and to him the action is neces- 
sarily past, so that he has to put himself 
in imagination into the place of Aga- 
memnon giving the order. See note on 

231. For incnuXcTTO cf. P 196, of 
Odysseus, KTi\oi d&j ^irtTwXciTat arixas 

232. Wakefield read 6v fxkv (rTe^jSovra 
FlSoi, and so 6v riva 5* a^ fieOUvra 240. 
Cf. 516, M 268, N 229. 

234. noo here again = xus, as 184, 

235. ipcOdcca {\f/€08of) Hermappias, 
yf/€vdi<T<rt (^ci'SrJs) Ar. ; on which a scho- 
liast characteristically remarks fxSXKop 
ireiffT^oy 'Apttrrdpxwt ^ riDt 'Ep/uiirTriou, el 
Kal doK€i dXrideOeiK It is true that 
d/)7^€iv and cognate forms are elsewhere 
only used by H. with personal datives, 
not with abstract words like yj/evdoi : but 
the idea of being 'a helper for lies' is 
not impossibly bold, and adjectives in 
-T^s, from -ej stems, with the single 
exception of vyn/ji (9 524 only), are 
elsewhere in H. entirely restricted to 
compounds, such as 0t\o^et>d^ (H. O. 
§ 116. 5) ; the Homeric word for liar is 



aXV of w€p Trporepov inrkp opKLa hrfKriaavro, 
T&v ^ Toi avT&v repeva XP^^ yvwe^ ehovrai, 

a^ofi€v iv vfjeaatv, errel vToXUOpov eXco/xcr." 

0V9 Ttva^ av ficOUmra^ ISoi, oTxr/epov voKifioco, 240 

T0V9 fidXa v€tK€l€(TK€ '^dXxDTOia'iv iTrieaaiv 

" ^Apyeiot lofKopoi, iXeyx^ee^, ov vv ae/Seade ; 

Tl<f}d* OVTCO^ €aTf)T€ T€07f7r6T€^ 7JVT€ V€^poL, 

288. d* am. Ar. U. 289. Ind Q : knkn a || IEXoucn Q. 240. d* oG 

NQ. II YdH J. 212. ccOcoec H. 248. aCrcoc Schol. B on X 1. || NcBpof : 
Ncupof GU. 

236. Onip 5pina : see on T 299. 

237. T^pcNQ : see on V 142. 

288. The omission of d* (Ar.) is not 
material, aire bein^ often used as a 
conjunction like at in 240 (if the text 
is right). Observe AX6xouc contrasted 
with adrd^, the men, 

239. ttxojuiCN, carry off as captives; 
cf. Z 426, and the phrase Ayeof koL 

242. l6uoDpoi: a word of uncertain 
sense and derivation recurring only H 
479. We have eyxco-i/iwpos B 692, y 
188, etc., vKaKbfuapw, of dogs ( 29, and 
ffivdfuapoi in Herod, and Attic. (1) The 
analogy of iyx^ffifjuapos makes it probable 
that the first element of the word is Ms, 
an arrow, though this always has I in H. ; 
we find, however, tox^cupa in Pindar (P. 
iL 9). (2) Others refer it to Id, l-fi, 
voice, a rare word found in an oracle in 
Herod, (i. 85) and once or twice in 
Trag. v\a.K6fuapw, is then analogous. 
(3) Dod. for, of the dark colour of the 
hair, comparing ZoT\6icafu>s, but this is 
improbable. The second element is 
equally uncertain ; the derivations sug- 
gested are (a) smar, fiep, to think of, 
cf. firiffaam-o 8i x'^PM^t thinking of 
arrows, ie. devoted to fighting with the 
bow. To call a hoplite an archer was to 
accuse him of cowardice, see the taunt 
of Diomedes to Paris, A 385-7 ; cf. also 
N 713-21. For the vowel cf. 8C!>fjM by 
d4fi(a. Curt, compares for the weakened 
sense of the root the compounds of ^^v, 
fu:\L<pp(ap, etc. (6) fmp of fidpya/xai, 
fighting with arrows, or with shmits^x 
but this hardly suits either vXcucdfuapos 
or airdfiMpos, (c) /tap, to glitter, futp- 
fialpu), etc. So Ameis and Goebel with 
(2), eminent in shouting (and nothing 
else), (d) Skt muras, stormy, eager, 
earnest (Fick, Brugmann), for fioF-pos, 

conn, with Latin mov-eo (cf. fjuapow 
t6 6^j/, Ki^pioc Hes., JSL M.), eager with 
arrows. This latter sense appears to 
suit all uses best, if the Skt. analogy 
can be relied upon, which is far from 
certain, ^ctxmq mss., but the correct 
form is certainly i\4yxea, things of 
shame ; the neuter adds a sting. The 
phrase recurs in B 235, E 787, G 228, 
Q 260, and so we should read in O 239. 
^XeTX^ej is apparently a mere fiction 
invented to avoid a hiatus which is per- 
fectly legitimate in the bucolic diaeresis ; 
it is besides open to the same objection 
as yp€v84<r<n, 235. 

243. IcTMTe : so Ptolemaios, farrirc Ar. 
The testimony of mss. is of course 
indifferent. The former is supported 
by T 178 Ali'cia, ri ffi> rbcaov ofjUXov 
ToWbv iireXeojy ianji ; and cf. B 323 
tLttt dyeui iy4v€<T0€ ; k 64 rwt ^\0€S, 
*08v<T€v; [H. G. § 76). There is no 
analogy for the lengthening of the vowel 
in perf. (cf. iffrdr^ A 340, T 354). Bekk. 
compares iirUmfrai II 243 by irLa-TaTcu 
(but that is a subj.), ^drrfr by i^iiTrjv, 
and some other forms which, however, 
prove nothing. (//. B. 95. 11.) The 
difficulty is to see how the idea of a 
point of time, such as the aor. seems to 
imply, can be introduced. Agamemnon 
in fact asks, ' Why have you stopi)ed ? * 
when the sense required is, * ^^ hy do 
you not start?' For the same reason 
the following simile is not appropriate ; 
243-6 seem to have been originally com- 
posed for a sudden check in pursuit, not 
for this place. In the passages quoted 
above, B 323, T 178, the sense come to 
a stand suitably expresses the sudden 
silence of the Greeks l)efore the portent, 
and the appearance of Aineias to Achilles. 
Monro {H, G. § 76) regards the aor. as 
characteristic of 'impatient questions.' 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 


ai T eTrel ovv exafMOv TroXeo? veBvoio Oeovaat, 
earaa, ovS* apa ri^ a<f>v fiera <f>p€<rl yii/erac oXkij 

^ fJL€V€T€ TpCJa^ a')(€ioV i\0€fl€V, €P0d T€ |/^€9 

elpvar evTTpvfivoc 7roXt^9 errl Oivl OaXdaar}^, 

6<f>pa tSffT at K vfifJLtv V7ripaj(rjc X^^P^ Kpovlcop ; " 

W o ye Kotpavecov eireTrtoKelro ari'^a^ dvBp&v. 
TJXde S' iwl l^prjreaav Kioav dva ovka/MOV dvhp&v, 
oi 8' a/i4^* ^Ihofievria Bat^pova dtoprjaaovro' 
^Ihofievev^ fM€v 62/1 TTpofidjf^oi^, avt eiKeXo^ oKki^v, 
^ffpiovrff; 8' apa ol irvfidra^ &Tpvv€ (f)d\ar/ya^. 
T0V9 Be lBa}v yrjdr)aev dva^ dvBp&v ^AyafiifJLVcov, 
avTiKa S' ^IBofievrja TrpoarfvBa fMeiTw^loi^aiv 
" ^IBofievev, Trepl fUv ce tl(o Aava&v ra'^yTrcoXayv 
rjfiev evl VToKeficoi ^S' d\XoL(OL cttI epytat 
iJS' ev BaLd\ ore irep re yepovaiov aXdoira olvov 
^Apyeicov oi apitrroi epl KprjrrjpaL KepcovTai* 
et irep ydp r clKKoL ye Kdprj KOfMoayjne^ 'Aj^atol 
Bairpov TTLvwaiv, aov Bk TrXeiov ScTra? alel 





246. "rfc Ar. : -ri JMNQRT (c add, inaiu 1 ? supr, trifv run c rb tic) U Harl. a 
{p. ra^. ) b c, King's, Par. a (p. ras, ) b c g. || C91 UCT^ : G91N knX Q. || HrNclxn 
LN : rdNcroi A^ (with rtHcroi in marg., T.W.A.). 248 om. Lips.* 249. at 
X* 2>M Mosc. 3. 261. AXec d* : AXecN Eust. || Kpi^caN id>N Mosc. 1 in ras, 

253. In) : M G. || TkcXoc GMNO (P supr.) QRU. 264. nujudrtoc R. 268. 
noXiuM JQ {K^p, ras.), 269. In : In) Q : Ic Vr. a. || dafe' : dani A {9upr. e') 
D Pap. 7. 260. KpHTftpi Ar. : Kpcrrftpa JP : KpHrAa U. 261. r€ : T€ J. 

244. ncdioio : see note on B 785. 

249. For the metaphor cf. E 433, I 
420 (where we have the gen. iO^y instead 
of the (iat, and so O 374). 

253. There is a slight anacoluthon, as 
*ldoJUffNc6c has no verb, which can how- 
ever easily be supplied from the following 
clause, e.g. rrpurrai drrpwe <f>6.\ayyai. 
For the Homeric idea of the boar's 
courage see P 21. 

257. ncpi is here just on the boundary 
line between an adverb and preposition, 
as in A 258 ; cf. /Soi'X^t irepUSfieyai dXXcuy 
N 728, with irtpl vdvrtav Hfifievcu A 287. 
It is unimportant which we call it, though 
its position rather separates it from the 
gen., which in any case is a gen. of 
comparison (ablative), not partitive, 
irepl meaning beyond ; H, G, § 185. 

259. rcpoOaoN, i.e. at the assembly 

of the counsellors. So k 8 6<T<roi . . 
yepoi^'aioy aldora olvov aid Trlyerc, 

260. KpHTApa: Ar. Kfytjrripi^ on the 
ground that there was only one mixing- 
bowl at a feast. But the pi. may be 
general, referring to many feasts. Cf. 
on 142, tiTTwr. KlpcoNrai, luive the wine 
mingled ; the form implies a present 
K^pa/Mi (cf. dvvufiai from 5iWyiuu), not 
elsewhere found ; it is expressly sup- 
ported by Schol. L. The other similar 
forms are from Kepdu, e.g. KepdaaBe 
7 332, K€pG)VTo 500, etc. Hence some 
accent KfpQyrai here. 

262. barrpdu, an allotted port io7i. For 
the custom of honouring a guest by keep- 
ing his cup full cf. 9 161 irepl fxiv tre rlov 
Aavaol TaxvvdfXoi \ ^Spiji re Kpioffiv re l^k 
rXe/ots 5eTde<r<ri, and so M 311. Com- 
pare 'Benjamin's mess,' and H 321, b 65. 
c6n : Bentley conj. coit to answer to ifioi. 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

SoTrjj^, 0)9 trep ifwi, irUetv ore dvfio^ avdyoi, 
aXX' Spaev ir6\€fi6vS\ 0I09 irdpo*; €vy(€ai elvat,^^ 

Tov S' airr *lSofi€V€if<: K.pfjTa>v ayo^ dvriov r^vSa' 265 

"^ArpetSr), fiaXa fUv toi iya>v ipirjpo^ kTalpo<; 
eaaofjbcu, C09 to irp&rov {nrioTfjv koI Karevevaa' 
aXX' aXXov9 orpvve Kcipr) KOfioonna^ ^Aj(cuov^, 
S<f>pa rd'^iaTa /ia^(6fi€0\ eirel avv y opKi e^evav 
TpS>€^' Totatv S' ai ddvaro^ kcu /ciJSe' oiriaaco 270 

laacT , . eTTcl irporepoi inrep opKia hrfKrjaavro,*^ 

W9 €<f>aT, ^ArpetSrj^ Bi iraptot'xero yqBoawo^ xrjp, 
rjfkde S* iir Atdmeaav Kvoiv dvh ovKa^v dvSp&v 
TO) Bk KOpvaaiadrjv, a/ia Be v€<f)0^ enrero ire^&p, 
C09 B OT dwo (TKOinrj^ elSev v€<f>o^ alwoXo^ dvrjp 275 

ipj(Pfi€vov Kard, irovrov inro Z€<f)vpoio lodtj^' 
T&i Bi T avevBev iovri fieXdvrepov '^vre iriaaa 

268. mifXH : noi^N J : ni^ucN N. || dmcibra L^NOQ Yr. a b^. 264. cDxco 
(A rnjyr. T.W.A.) GHJMQRT Harl. a. 266. cOda Pap. 7. 266. *rd> M. || 

Apbipoc Q. 268. ^pUNC MQ Pap. y. 269. Ix^^c^^ ^^ • ^ '" SpKKi "x^^^^^ 

Q. 270. d* aO : d4 C. 271. Spxi* ^HXiiocuiTO Yr. a. 272. d* Oncpc&xcro 

M. 278. AXec d*: AXmn East. 274. tcd r* teopucc^csHN M. 277. t^ 
d* AnaNCUMN N Par. f. |i d^ T* : d' Ct* H. || k6Kn Ar. O : l6Nn Zen. M S Harl. 
a, Par. h. 

263. &Nc£>roi : cf. ^ 374 €l fu^ , . iXBi- 
fuv drpOvTiiaiVf &r* dyyeXfiy iroSiv (\$oi. 
The opt. if right implies a slight shift 
of thought ; Ag. puts his case generally, 
to include the future, but shews that he 
is thinking chiefly of experience in the 
past. But it must be admitted that we 
should expect Bekker's dywyrfif and in 
such a matter Mss. count for little. It 
is not unlikely that a reminiscence of 
9 189, d 70, where the opt. is necessary, 
may have misled rhapsoaists or copyists. 

264. For ndpoc with the pres. of a 
state of things continuing up to the time 
of speaking cf. A 553 ; and for the 
pregnant use of oToc, 11 557. 

269. The re belongs to the whole 
sentence ; cf. A 352. 

273. The Aiantcs are always repre- 
sented as fighting side by side, N 701 

274. N^90C : for this metaphor cf. IT 
66, P 755, 4^ 133. It is here expanded 
into a fine simile. 

276. lodi^ is again used of the blowing 
of wind in A 308, and of the rushing 
of flame II 127 ; in K 139, p 261 (M 
f^pfuyyoi), of sound. 

277. ucXdNTcpoN fi&n nicoa, blacker 

than pitch. This is the only instance 
of the use of 'f)&r€ in this sense ; prob- 
ably we ought to read if4 re, as Brandreth 
and Bekker suggest, on the analogy 
of X 216 kXaiov Si Xiyiun, dbivunepw 
ij T* olbjvol (where Buttmaun would 
read ijOr'). It is not possible to get a 
natural sense if we take -fi&rc in its 
regular meaning ; we can only make it 
mean ' growing blacker and blacker, like 
pitch,' or else 'all the blacker because 
of its distance ' (so Ameis and Fiisi), 
neither of which alternatires is satis- 
factory. But Ap. Khod. seems to have 
taken the {mssage in this way, i. 269 
KXalowr* ddivclyrepoVf '/i&re KoOpvj . . 
fiAL>p€Tai. The meanings 'as* and 
'than' are so closely allied that we 
need not be surprised to find a word 
capable of taking both, like the German 
ttn€f alSf Latin quajn, and as in O.E. 
{New Engl. Diet, as, B. i. 4). Ilentze ob- 
jects that * blacker than pitch ' is merely 
hyperbolical and therefore un-Homeric ; 
but cf. \€VK&r€f>oi xi^i'os K 437. Besides, 
a heavy thunder-cloud may seem really 
blacker, because dead in hue, than pitch, 
which always has its darkness relieyed 
by bright reflexions from its surface. 



<f>aiv€T iov Kark irovrop, ayei Be re \aCkaira woWi^v' 

piyqaiv re tSoii/ vtto re tnreo^ ij/X/ure firjka' 

ToluL afi Aldvreaai BiOTp€<f>ea)v al^7)&p 280 

Bt]Iov 69 iroKefiov irvKVvaX kIvwto (fxiXarfye^ 

Kvdveai, aaKeaiv re KaX €yj(€<rc 7r€<f)piKvlai, 

Kot T0V9 fJi'€v yi]0rja€v iSci}v KpeUov * Ay apAfiveov, 

teal (r<f>€a^ ^ayv^aa^ eirea irrepoevra irpoiTTfvBa' 

*' AlavT, ^Apyeuov riyrjTOpe yaXKoyira^veav, 285 

(T^&i fi€v ov yhp eoiK orpwifiev, ov tc /ceXcvoi* 

aifTci) yap fidXa Xaov dvar/erov J<f>L fid'^eadai, 

at yap. Zed re irdrep KaX ^ABrjvaArj xal "AttoXXoi/, 

T0I09 iraaiv dvfw^ ivl aTrjdea'ai, yevoiro' 

T& K€ rd'^ fjiivaeLe ttoKl^ Upidp^to ava/CTO<: 290 

)(€palv wf} rjjjLereprnaLv oKovad re TrepdofjAvrj re." 

W9 eliTfov Toif^ fikv Xlirev avrov, fir} Se fier aX\ou9' 
€P0^ o y€ NeoTOp' erer/te, Xiyvv TlvXicov cuyopr^rriv, 
0O9 irdpov^ oTeXXovra kol orpvvovra fidj(€a'0aL, 
dfuf)! fiiyav UeXd/yovra ^AXdaropd re ^popiov re 296 

AXpA)vd T€ Kpeiovra ^iavrd re woifiiva Xa&v, 
Imrrjaf: piv irp&ra avv iTrrrotaiv koI S')(^e<r<f)L, 
Tre^oif^ S* i^oinde arrjaev iroXia^ re Koi ea0\ov^, 
epKo^ €fi€v TTokifioio' tcaKoif^ S* 69 fieaaov eKaaaev, 
o^pa KOL ovK iBikayv t£9 dvarfKairji TroXefii^oi, 800 

280. ToToi C {supr. m). || al(i)dNTCcciN ApHYe6o9N HP (yp. J). || diorrpo9^N 
OJS Lips. 281. nuKNG) S. 282. KudNCQi : ApcbcoN Zen. || nc9piKuTai 

and BcfipiouTcn Ar. Sixii^s. 283. kg) xikN toCic L Pap. 7. 286. kcXcOcco Vr. 
b supr. : KcXc0eo9 Yr. c. 290. AjuOccicc U. 294. drpUN^Nra C. 296. 

XpoJudoN : cx^i6n P. 296. e6coNd tc dHtnup6N tc Ap. Lex. 14. 9 (cp. N 92). 

297. np^^TO : np^^TON M : npcbncra Yr. b c, Mosc. 1 3. 298. ctAoon M. 

299. iXacccN Ar. O: ATsXoi 5i CcprcN Did. 800. noXcuizH(i) />JMNORSU (Q 

gupr. ) : noXcuizci Q^ : noXculzciN L : noXcuf 01 P. 

279. Note the characteristic Epic way 
in which the human element is intro- 
daced into a simile taken from a purely 
natural phenomenon ; a still more striking 
example is 9 559. 

282. For KudNcai Zen. read iipdxavy 
feeling no doubt that blackness is not 
a physical attribute of an army march- 
ing to war. The comparison with the 
thunder -cloud is justified less by the 
external appearance than by the moral 
terror of ruthless onset produced by the 
blackness of the approaching storm. 

286. For the anticipatory use of rdp 
see ff. O. § 348. 

287. For T91 without F see on Z 478. 

288-91 : see B 371-4. 

299. CXacccN : Didymos mentions an 
old variant ieprycp. The kukoI, it is to be 
presumed, are a section of the xefo/, of 
whom the best are kept as a reserve. 
There does not seem to be any other 
allusion to a formation in more than a 
single line. The schol. accordingly 
explains that irpiHrra means ' on the right 
wing,' i^&iriOc *on the left,* and says 
that *one Kaxdi is placed between two 
dvdpeioiy* not a very likely thing {iirl 
yiip fJi€Ttbfrov rdaaet t^v <f>d\a,yya, 0^ Karh. 


lAlAAOC A (iv) 



iTnTevaiv fJL€v Trp&r iTreriWero' roif^ yap av(oy€i 
<r<f}ov^ LTTTTOv^ i')^€fi€v fjLTjSe fcXovicadai ofMiXxai* 
" fj/TfSi Tt9 iTrrroavvrji re xal '^voper^^i ireiroidw 
o2o9 irpoaB* SXKjodv fie/jAra) Tpdeaac fidj(€O'0ai,, 
firjB* avayfopeira)* okaTraSvorepoi ycLp eaeade. 
09 0€ fc avr)p OTTO (ov oyfecjv erep apfiau ncqraL, 
€yj(€t ope^da-do), CTrel J) ttoKv <f>epTepov ovro), 
&he Koi oi Trporepoi TroXta? koI rei'^c iiropBovv, 
Tovie voov KaX dvpiiv hit ari^Oeaaiv ej^oi/T€9." 

ci)9 6 yipayv (orpwe iraXai TroXifiayv iv elBw, 
Kol Tov fiev yrj67}(T€v ISojv Kpemv ^Ayafjbifivcov, 
Kai fjLtv (fxop'^aa^ eirea Tnepoevra TrpoarjvSa* 
" & yepop, €Ld\ e!)9 dvpits ivl ari^Oeaai ^iXocaiP, 
0)9 Toc yovvaS" eTrotro, fiir) B4 rot ep.ireho^ etrj. 
oKKd ae yrjpa^ reLpev ofMoUov w o^eXev Tt9 
avSp&p aXXo9 c'X^iv, (tv Be Kovporipoiat fjLerelvai,^^ 

301. ten^XXcTO S. II rbp : jjAn A [supr, r2ip) i>MNOP Cant. Vr. a b and yp. 
J. II T has an erasure (three letters) between to6c and rhp. 303. fnnoci^Hl Tc: 
innocONH(i)a D\J Pap. 7. 306. iiNaxtopifnxo JR. 807. oOrodc J. 308. 

&b€ : €^^ I). II n6XHac P : n6Xcic N : n6Xcac Ar. A^ (n6Xiac A^) H : noXtec 
Pap. 7. II in6p90\3N : te6pecoN ATU. 810. ehrpuNC HJMR. 311. Koi xjukM 

t6n 0. 312. npoGcOda Pap. 7. 314. S>c kq) G. || d^ toi : d^ 001 M. 


301. The jui^ implies that some advice 
to the foot-soldiers is to follow ; but this 
never appears. 

302. ^^ucN here evidently to hold in 
?iandf not to drive, as usual. xXoN^cceai, 
to he enUingled. 

303. This sudden change from oratio 
obliqua to recta is very strange, the only 
parallel in H. being i' 855, a very weak 
authority. There seems to be something 
wrong about the present passage, as 
308-9 refer apparently to siege opera- 
tions, and should be addressed rather 
to the xffoi than the ixir^ej. The 
whole passage 297-310 is weak and out 
of place, and is one of the numerous 
instances where inopportune tactical 
lucubrations are put into Nestor's mouth, 
doubtless under Athenian (Peisistratean) 
influence ; see on B 362. The advice 
in 304-5 recalls P 357-9, where it is 
given to foot-soldiers. 

306. An6 &h 6x^n, i. e. from his own 
chariot, standing in its proper place in 
the ranks, he is at liberty to attack any 
one within the range of his spear. Ykh- 
TQi, can reach an enemy's chariot. The 

expression of the thought is far from 
clear, and the style of fighting is not 
Epic, for Homeric heroes as a rule use 
chariots only to move from place to 
place, and dismount in order to fight. 
There are, however, some exceptions, 
E 13, 294, etc. 

308. oi np6Tcpoi : here only for the 
Homeric irp&rcpoi AydpiMnroi. The use of 
the article and the Attic contracted form 
indpoouN well accord with the Attic 
origin of the passage. 309 is weak and 

315. 6juiofiON : this form is elsewhere 
always used of strife or battle, except 
Sdvaroi 7 236. Nauck would in every 
case read 6\oUos. The sense of ' common 
to all ' (which itself is not very appro- 
priate as a general epithet of war in 
spite of ^w6s iuvdXios Z 309) is not 
supported by any use of 6fioios» Pind. 
I^^em, X. 57, which is quoted, is not in 
|)oint, for there tr&rfiov dfioiw obviously 
means *the sayne fate' for the two 
brothers (like biiolriv yaiav ip^vcai. 2 329), 
and is explained by the following lines. 
There is therefore an undoubted case 

lAlAAOC A (iv) 


Tov S* rj fielder hreira Teptjvio^ iinroTa Nearayp* 
'* ^ At petSrj, fidXa fiev rot, iycbv idiXoi/u xal avrb^ 
w9 €fi€P w 0T€ Btov ^^pev0a\ia)va Kareicrav, 
aXhJ ov 7ra>9 S,fJUi irdvra deoi Soaap avdpmiroiaLv 
el Tore Kovpo^ ea, vvp aJne fie yrjpa^ Ixdvei. 
dWa Kal a>9 i'mreva'L fieriaaofjuii rjBe KeXevao) 
fiovXrji Koi fivBoiai' TO ydp yepa^ iarl yepoprayv. 
al')(^^ S* alyjjbdaaovtTL vewrepoi, oi irep ifielo 
oTrXorepoi yeydaat ireiroiOaaLp re ^Lrj<f)ip.^* 

&^ €<f>aT, ^ArpetSr)^ Se 7rap(oi')(^eT0 yrfOoavpo^ Krjp. 
€vp viop Tlerewo Mez/6<7^^a irXrj^LTnrop 
kcTTaoT ' dfjL<f>l S' ^ABrjpaloc, firjartDpe^: avrrj^' 
avrdp 6 TrXrjaLOP ear'qKei TToXvfnjTi^ ^OBvaaev^, 
Trap Be Ke<f)aXXT^p(t}p dfi<f>l crtj^e? ovk dXairaSpal 




318. TOi : K€N JOP Pap. y. 819. xdrcxTON (A supr.) CU: Kcrr^cra JQ Par. 
' {p. ras., supr, an) h, and ap. Scliol. A (Herod.). 820 d$. Ar. || ncDC: noo Q. 
)21. &i: (hn N. |> facdNCi : Ik6noi Z>: 6ndzci Ar. (see Ludw.) Par. k {yp. bcdNCi). 
S22. JULcrdoouai P. 323. BouXaTc H. || rcp6ifT00N : eaNdirrooN Pap. y. 324. 
buoTo G^MNPQS. 327. nXi^einnoN Pap. y. 828. UNiicTopec : juu^cropcc 

^RU. 329. 6 : oT N. i! Icn^KCl Ar. AGHJPRT : cIcti^kci 0. 

igainst oftoliosj which anyhow ought to 
i»e separated in the lexicons from o/uotot. 
[ndeed Aristonikos says that the 7Xw<r- 
T&ypdipoi explained ofioUof = t6 KaKbv. 
But there is no obvious reason why it 
ihould have displaced a word so clear 
n meaning as 6\oikot. Christ, followed 
yj Fick, conj. that the right form may 
t)6 dfjUFioVj conn, with Skt. a7nlva = 
lerumiuif and (Jjfids. For cbc van L. 
reads Cjs f (sc. T^pas), comparing for 
fe as neuter /uv in 143, Z 221, T 287, 

818. The reading /cev for toi is natural 
t)ut not necessary. The opt. is con- 
;essive, *I admit that I wish,' H, O, § 
299/, and M, and T. § 240. Compare 
fork's speech in King Richard the 
Seeotvd, ii. 3. 99, 'Were I but now the 
lord of such hot youth,' etc. 

319. For Nestor's story of the slaying 
>f Ereuthalion see H 136-56. 

320 seems to be an adapta'tion of N 729- 
30, and was athetized by Ar. on this 
^ound. The sense suits the passage 
Bvell, and the line to be condemned is 
J21, which is flat and empty enough. 

321. d here expresses as a supposition 
what is known to be true, rhetorically 
pretending that it is a matter of doubt, 


and thereby throwing it into the dim 
distance as a forgotten thing like ef wot 
hfv ye r 180, '1 suppose I was young 
then, but now I am old.' The sentence 
is not in any sense conditional, any 
more than A 281, where dSe <pifyr€p6i 
ioTip is independent of the e^clause in 
280. e^ here retains something of its 
interjectional force and merely calls up 
for consideration a concomitant fact. 
This line is therefore wrongly classed in 
M. and T. § 402 with a conditional 
sentence such as el e^phv-nfce^ koX ifffrpa- 
\f/ev. Ha : a form recurring in E 887, 
^ 222, 352 only, and, like other forms 
of the impf. of elfdy not entirely ex- 
plained. The a seems to be treated as 
long by nature, though the ictus may 
account for this. 

324. alxudccoua, vneld the spear ^ only 
here in H . The word is used in a similar 
but not quite identical sense in Soph. 
AJ. 97, Track. 355, and Aisch. Pers. 
756 ; v. Lexica. 

327. For the asyndeton cf. 89 ; and 
for Menestheus B 552 sqq. 

328. juu^crcopec AutAc, lit. devisers 
of the battle ' shoiUy usually applied to 
individual heroes, N 93, 479, II 769. 
Cf. on fil/iaTupe 4^010 E 272. 



earaaav ov yap ttco a^iv aKovero Xao9 ai/r^?, 

aXKa viov avvopivofievai kIvvvto <f>aXayy€<; 

Tpcoayv iiriroidficov KaX ^A'^ai&p, oi Be fievovre^ 

earaaav, oTnrore irvpyo^ Af^fai&v aXSjo^ eireXBonv 

TpcocDv opfiijaeie kol ap^eiap iroXefiovo, 335 

Tov^ Se lioDV veUeaaev ava^ aviptov ^ Ay afiefJLvaov, 

Kal a<f>ea^ (fxovqaaf; eirea frrepoevra irpoarivZa' 

" & vie UeTe&o BioTp€<f>€o^ ^curikfjo^, 

Kal aif KaKolai B6\oiai KeKaapAve, K€phaXe6<f>pov, 

TLTTTe KardTTTfoaaovTe^ a<f>e(TraT€, fiifivere S' aX\ov9 ; 340 

(T<j>S)lv pAv T iireovKe p^era irpmTOtaLv iovra^ 

iarap^v tjBk pdxv^ Kavareiprj^ apTc^oXijaai' 

TT/acoTft) yap xai BacTo^ aKovd^eaOop ip^io, 

331. oO rdp : oOd^ G. 332. n^n M. || kinoOnto Vr. b. 333. TpcibcoN 
Ar. i>HJPQT : rpc^bcoN e* 0. 334. Icnm J). \\ nOproc Ax^^l^N ' ^ ^ 

'iro\v<rrlx(»>i' k6« tic ^QNTfoN : (k^ tic Axai&N Vr. b ?). 336. fipsacN Vr. b and 
^u TTJi irdXjffTixiai. 336. NcfKHCCN N. 338. ul6c Mosc. 1 e corr. || diOTpo9^oc 
H. 339. d6Xoia : X6roici Pap. y, \\ KCpdaXc69pcoN NQ {supr. o) : ^oS^ujl 

'OducccO Zen, 340. A9^craTC Q. 341. C9^Y JQK Vr. b. || npci^roiaN 

l6NTac: TpcbccoN l6NTac R (7^. npcibroiciN). 342. aOcTcipAc (?) P^, corr. P^. 

343. iiioio GPS. 

331. AKoOcro : the only case in H. of 
the middle form iu the present or imperf. 
It is possible that this implies a con- 
scious listening rather than a mere 
physical hearing ; if they were not 
attending to the battle-cry, there is more 
ground for Agamemnon's rebuke than if 
they had not yet heard it There seems 
to be a similar distinction in many cases 
between dpQ and bfyQ^uu, though they 
are often identical (cf. A 203). See 
H. O. § 8. 

334. 6nn6TC goes with fUvorra, * wait- 
ing till.* So after iroTid^/ieyoi H 415, 
etc. ff. O. § 308 (2), M. ami T. § 553. 
nOproc, a vmll or serried line of warriors ; 
cf. TTvpyrjdoy M 43, N 152, O 618. It is 
tempting to translate column ; but xiz/r/ot 
in H. metins /artijicationf not tower ; and 
hunters (M 43) do not attack in column. 
Aristarchos strangely enough wished to 
make Tptautv depend on wvpyov and 
' Axoituv on 6pfi, , vxiUing till a battalion 
of Trojans should attack the AchaianSy 
because he thought that the delay of 
the Athenians ought to be due to their 
wish to see the Trojans put still further 
in the wrong by beginning the general 
engagement. On this ground he was 
inclined to prefer the variant k^v tu 

ivavriov for trvpyoi 'AxatiDv, and df^tuv 
for -eiai'. 

389. Kocacu^c : cf. r 395 (Ai)T6Xvirof) 
ti dvOpdjirovi iKiKatrTO \ /cXenTOcri/yiyt $' 
6pK(iii re. 

341. jui^ T* : here p^iv seems to answer 
to yOv 8i in 347. The exact sense of re 
(or Toi ?) is not so obvious ; it perhaps 
emphasizes this clause as general, whereas 
kDv 84 takes a particular instance {H, 0. 
§ 332). Observe ibrnxic in spite of the 
dat. (r<f>ih'CVf on account of its close con* 
nexion with the infin., as A 541 roi . . 
ibvra : H. G.% 240. 

842. KQUCTcfpHc recurs only in M 
816 ; it is the feminine of *icouon^/>. 
The grammarians wrongly accented jcav- 
areiprjSt and held that it came from 
Kav<TT€tp6Sf supposed to be a dialectical 
form of KawTT7)p6t, 

343. The sense of this line is clear, 
on are tlie first to receive my invitation ^ 
ut the syntax hopeless. The gen. after 
verbs of hearing expresses *(1) the 
person front whom sound comes ; (2) the 
person about whom something is beard ; 
(3) the sou7id heard,* U, O % 151 rf. 
daiT6c cannot be brought under any of 
these heads. KiKKvri fiev pLijdtav is clearly 
different, being a sort of 'whole ana 


lAlAAOC A (iv) 


oTTiroTe Salra yepovaiv i^oTrXi^ayfiev 'Aj^ato/. 

€P0a <f}t>C oTTToXea xpea ehfievav rfie KxnreXKa 345 

oXvov invefievav fieXcrjBeo^, 6<l>p* idekrjrov 

vitv Bi <^/X6)9 X opocoire, koX el Bexa Trvpyoc 'A^a^o)!/ 

vfi€L(ov 7rpo7rdpoL0€ pxiypiaTO vrfkil j(a\KS>t" 

TOP ap virobpa looav irpotreffyq TroXvfirjTc^ Uouaaev^' 
" ^ArpetBr), irolov ae eTro? <f>vy€v epKo^ oiovrayv ; 350 

7ra)9 hrj <f>rjtf: TToXifMOio fieOiifiev, oiriror 'Aj^atol 
Tpayalp i<f>^ imroidfLOLaiv iyelpofiev o^vv ^'Aprja ; 
oyjreac, fjp iffeXrjiaBa Koi cu K€V roi rcL fiefMTjXrji, 
TrfXefia^^oLo ^ikop iraripa wpofid^oiaL fivyevra 
Tpdxov iTTTroBdfjLQyp' av Se ravr dvefuiiXia /Safet?." 355 

344. i^onXfzooJULCN AH (ftupr. oi) : i9onXizoJUiCN P : i9onX{zouiCN 12. 346 

i^juLCNai: ImiCNQi L. 347. xai c!: kim G. 349. fip*: aC J. 361.* 

JUceo^jmcN A {sitpr, i over «, T.W.A.) NT. 368. An: An k* AT Pap. y. \\ 

UMuAka NQ Vr. a : xuuAXm Yr. b. 364. thXcu6xou CGRT Lips. 366. 

TpcbfiON e' Li^ts. !' ANCiUibNia J. 

part * construction. The only possible 
explanation is, 'you hear nie about a 
banquet' (or rather 'you listen to the 
banquet from me'), which is without 
analogy, and only gives the required 
sense by violence. Moreover Ka{ is 
meaningless.' This, however, is the ex- 
planation of Ar., TTpCxToi fiov dKoiLfere vepl 
dairSi. It may be added that ' to hear 
from a person,' in the sense of receiv- 
ing a message, is a modern but not a 
Greek idiom. dKovdi^€<rdai, in the two 
other passages of Homer where it occurs 
(c 7, V 9), means ' to listen to,' as we 
might suppose from its form, which 
suggests a frequentative sense. . The 
only remedy seems to lie in Nauck's 
trenchant conjecture koK^ovtos for koI 
SairSi, yau are the first to listen to me 
when I am calling to a hanqiut^ but 
when I call to war you have no e^rs. 
A minor difficulty is that Menestheus, 
who even in this scene is a Kia<f>6v 
irp6<Tufiropy never appears among the 
yifiovrei (see on B 53 ; and for feasts 
given to them, A 259 and B 404 sqq. ). 

345. oiXa, sc. i(rrl, cf. B 796. This 
line and the next 4y toU inrofiyi^fiaffiy 
(notes of Ar. ) o6k dOerovpraif dxatncuvrai 
Si adroin ol iifUrepoi (i.e. modern taste) 
ufs dir/HTiTu)? . . dveidlj^om-oi tou * Ajya- 
fUfiropos Schol. A ; and see Cobet's 
commentary, M. C, 231. If they were 
omitted, the point of the passage, the 
contrast of <fU\a . . iplXun, would be lost. 

351. The punctuation given is men- 
tioned by Nikanor, who prefers an alter- 
native in which the note of interrogation 
is put after fieSUfxevy and a comma after 
'Afnja. JULcai^CN refers to Odysseus and 
Menestheus in particular, while in iyclpo- 
tuv Odysseus speaks as one of the army 
at large, meaning ' every case in which 
we fight' (aor. subj.). If iyelpofuy 
referred to a future event, xe would be 
required (Monro). Moreover, it is un- 
usual ii» Homer to begin an entirely 
fresh sentence of several lines in the 
middle of a line (^ 217 is the only case 
quoted) ; and the asyndeton before 353, 
repeated in I 359, is less harsh than 
before oTrirdTf. 

353. fiN is of course a late (Attic) 
form which has supplanted et kc (see on 
I 359). The variant ifv k is a relic of 
the older reading. 

354. For the phrase 'father of Tele- 
machos' see on B 260. Here it is 
clearly impossible to give any appro- 
priate reason for the introduction of 
Telemachos except as a title of honour. 
Aristonikos mentions that Ar. noticed 
this 'foreshadowing of the Odyssey' 
as a sign that it was by the author of the 

355. If &NCUcibXia is der. from S.v€fM5f 
it has entirely lost the primitive sense,' 
as in j)hrases like t6^ov dvcfubXioy 4> 474 ; 
cf £ 216, and the use of dve/uatos, Plato 
TheaeL 151 E, 161 A. 


lAlAAOC A (iv) 

Tov S' hrvfieLhrjaa^ irpotreifyq Kpeifov ^Ayafiifiva>v, 
*' Sioyeve^ AaepTidBrf, froXvfirjyav 'OBvaaev, 

OVT€ (T€ V€lK€i(0 TTepLdciOV OVT€ /CeXcVO)' 

olBa yap w tol dvfw^ iv\ arrjdeaav <f>Ckoi<riv 880 

rJTTUi S'qvea oISc ret yap <f)pov€€L^ a r iyco irep. 
aXX' Wi, ravra S' Sinadev apeaaofieff* , ef rt KaKov vvv 
eipifTai, rk Si iravra deoX fjLerafuiovia BelevJ* 

&^ elTTcbv Toif^ fJL€v XIttcv aifTOv, ^7] Se fier aXXov9. 
€vp€ Se TvSio^ vlov vTrepBvfiov AiofMijBea 365 

karaoT ev 0* XinroKTL Kal apfuiac KoWrfroicf 
Trap Si oi €<tti]/c€1 S^ei/eXo? Kairavijio^ vio^, 
Kal TOV fiev veUeaaev iS<ov Kpeitov ^AyafiifipcoPf 
Kai juv f^xovrjca^ eirea irrepoePTa TrpoarjvSa' 
*' & fiov, TvSio^ vie Sat<l>povo^ iTnroSdfioio, 370 

TL Trrdaaet^, ri S* oTriirevei^ iroXifioio y€<f>vpa^ ; 
ov pi^v TvSii y SySe <^tXoi/ irroxTKa^ifiev fjev, 
ciXKa iroXv irpo ^tXiov krdptov STjioLaL fjLayeaBav, 

357. TuCi with gen., as ^ 36, V' 109. 
This is common in the participle of otba 
in the sense ' to be skilled in,' e.^. fjuixv^, 
dXKTjSy etc., but rare in the finite verb. 
^ 452 is possibly another case. .See 
ff.O, § 151 d. ndXiN XdzcTO, just our 
idiom *took back his words.' Cf. irdXiy 
ipici. = coniradictf I 56. The phrase 
recurs y 254 in a slightly different sense 
(took back what he was about to say). 

361. Ania dib«ca ofdc, Le. is well 
disposed towards me, as 11 73 cf /am 
Kpeluv *Ayafxifiyuy /fxca eldeiri, Cf. note 
on E 326. di^Nca. thoughts^ apparently 
from harjvai. 

362. Apcco6uc«o, atone for ; but where 
an object is expressed it is elsewhere 
always a person, conciliate, Cf. the act. 
Sl\I^ dpiaai I 120, T 138. 

363. ucTcuu&NKi occurs clsewhera only 
in Ckl. (/9 98, etc.). Both der. and form 
are quite uncertain ; the majority of 

MS8. are in favour of /tera/AwXio, perhaps 
inHuenced by the similar sense of d^c- 
/A^Xia above. Compare also the Odyssean 
diro0w\io$, which is e<iually obscure. 

366. Ynnoia here as often = chariot, 
and goes with dpfiaai by hcndiadys. 419 
shews that Diomedes is standing in the 
car, not merely amid the horses and 

371. noX^Juoio rc^Opac: this phrase 
recurs 9 378, 553, A 160, T 427. From 
E 88-9 and O 357 (cf. * 245) it appears 
that yi<f>vpa implies a dam or cause- 
way rather than what we should call a 
bridge. It is explained by the schol. 
tAj bibbov^ tQv ipaXdyyuPf the lines of 
o])eu ground between the moving masses 
of men, who ai-e perhaps likened to 
flowing water. It is especially used of 
the snace between the hostile armies. 
6nincucic, eycstj in a contemptuous sense, 
implying hesitation to advance. 

357. JuOeodi Vr. a. 359. oCt^ (oc) : oOti M (oCtc Harl. a) : oitbi Vr. a. Ij 

oCtc (kcXcOco) : oOn N : o0d4 L. 361. dl^Nca : ui^dca H. 363. JULCTO- 

JUUONia AGJN Eton. (T^UM) : ucrcuuibYa L\[^.^ : ucrcuudXiNa Q Lips.^: Juiercuu^XMi j 
Q, 865. On^puueoN J. 366. e* oin. G. !! KoXXoyroTa Vr. b : KoXXoroTa Li)>8.* ~ 
367. toi^KCl Ar. AGUJKT : dcn^Kci 0. 368. xai ubi t^n MQSU Pap. y. 

369 om. A\ || npoccOda Pap. 7. 371. 6nincucic ACi>NTU L\\ts.^ : 6ndncucc 

Pap. 7: 6ninT«ieic 12. 872. r': b* Q. i| nrcoKca^cN GLM (nrcooc- Harl. a) 



019 <f>daav oX \uv ISojrro iropevfievov ov yap iyd) ye 

fjvrrja ovS^ IBov irepi S' aXKtov <\>aaX yeveaOai. 375 

^ Toi fi€v ykp arep iroKkfiov eiarjkde ^vKrjva^ 

^Ivo^ afi avrtdifoi UokvveLKel, \aov ar/eipcov. 

oi Se TOT icTpaTOCdpff* lepct 7rp6<; Tci'^ea 077/8179, 

/cai pa fiaXa XiaaovTO Sofiev KXeiToif^ ewiKovpov^' 

ol S* eOeXov Bofievai koX iwi^iveov w i/ciXeuop* 380 

aXX^ Z6V9 eTpeyfre irapaiaia ai^fjuiTa <f>aipa)v, 

ol S* irrel oip &L')(ppTO He irpb oBov iyepoPTO, 

^Ao'coirop S' iKOPTO ^adva'^fpipop Xe')(€7roirjp, 

€P0* aJfT dyyeXirjp eTrl TvBij <TTeTKap 'Aj^atoi, 

axnap ^rj, irdKea^ Be Ki,yr\(TaTO KaBfietoiPa^; 385 

Siuvvfiepovf; Kara B&fia /3ii79 ^^TeoKkriei'q^, 

epff* ovBe ^€41/09 Trep eo)i/ iTrTrrfKaTa TvBev<; 

Tapfiec, fiovpo^ eiop iroXeaip fierct KaBfieioto'tp, 

376. uuKi^NHC Q. 377. xcTnoc : yp. Kal kcTnoc A. || ArcfpcON : Arcfpac Q, 
and ap. Did. 878. o! hk AJ (yp. pa) OPTU Pap. 7 : ot ^ 0. 879. JUL^a : 
udXicra J {yp, xai pa JudXa). 380. ixiKwm Q. 881. napafojuui N (and 

Hesych.). 382. Idi: Ad^ />JSU. || np6: np6c L. 883. Accon6N e* Bar. || 
Tkcdion U. 384. bie' : in b' P. I| TubA : TubcT C?2X5J {supr, ft) L (supr, ft) 
P^ (?) (S 9upr.) Cant. Vr. a c: TubcT, d^ crciXaN (sic) Q. 386. KCrrb : 6Nh Q. 
S88. Kadudo9aN N. 

374. &c: 80 Ameis, for vulg. un with 
comma after /idxcirdai. The regular 
ose in Homer of c&s itfnjf etc., is to 
refer back to a completed expression 
)f opinion ; there is no other case of 
at ^4^1 = OS he said. noNcOjucNON, in 
tpecial sense of lighting, as irbvoiy 456, 
B 420 and often, of the toil of battle. 

378. AcTpcrrbcimTO (also F 187), were 
m a campaign^ either for iffTpardovTO 
>T icTpar^omo. (TTpardeffdai is found in 
Usch. Ag. 132, {rTpardeaSai does not 
NTCur anywhere else in Greek. For the 
brm '6ujtrro from an o-verb we may 
compare N 675 lhil'6u>uT0f d 226 dTj'Cduiev^ 

108 dpSoxTii^, which all follow the 
inalogy of stems in a-. But they are 
>f course false representations of the 
dd uncontracted verbs. See H. O. §§ 
>5, 56 (3). 

380. ol, Thyestes and the people of 
liykenai. tecXcuoN, Tydeus and Poly- 

381. Crpopc, changed their minds, 
wpafaa only here, i^aUaios is more 

882. n^ is here an adv., and 6do0 
I local genitive, lit. 'forward on the 

way.' Cf. on irpb <f>6^oio P 667, and 
for the hiatus after Trp6 K 224. For 
XcxcnobiN cf. B 697. 

384. kni : so Mss. and Ar. , thus con- 
necting it with the verb, and making 
dyyeXLriy a masc. in apposition with 
Tviij^ see note on F 206. Or we may take 
dyyeXlriv as fem., an internal ace. with 
iwlffTeiXaVf like i^€aiT]y i\0€iv. Others 
read ?irt, and understand ^ir* dyye\l7jv = 
*for an embassy.' Nauck reads Tvdrj* 
^oTciXav, omitting My as the contracted 
TvSrj is a late form. Another emenda- 
tion is iirl Tud^i' reiXav (Brandreth), 
charged T, mith a mission {iiriT4\\€iv). 
The following story is repeated in £ 
802-8, where the phrase used is ifXvOe 
vbcfpiv 'XxaiQp d776Xof 4s 9i(/3as. It is 
no doubt adapted from Epic poems of 
the Theban war. 

387. xcTnoc must here mean 'a 
stranger,' i.e. virtually under the cir- 
cumstances an enemy, whereas in 377 
it means a friend. But the word never 
acquired in Greek the connotation of the 
Latin JiostiSy and in ordinary cases to be 
a ^eivos in any sense was a reason for ex- 
pecting frienaly treatment, not treachery. 


lAlAAOC A (iv) 

aXX' o 7' a€0\€V€iv irpoKoXi^ero, irdma S' ivixa 

fyqlH(o^* Toif) oi imppoBo^ fjev *Adi^vrj. 390 

01 Se "^fpXaxrdfievoi KaBfieloi, Kevrope^ Xinr^ov, 

&ylr ava€p')(opAv(OL itvklvov \6')(pv elaav ayovre^, 

Kovpov^ Trevn^Kovra' Svco S* 'fyyi^rope^ fjaav, 

'M.aifov Ai^viSrj^ iTrteiKeXof; adavdroia-iv, 

vi6<; T AvTO<l>6voio fieverrroXefio^ AvKo<f>6vTr}^, 395 

TvSeif^ psv Koi rolaiv devxia iroTfiov i<l}r]K€' 

7rai/Ta9 €7r€<f>v\ eva S' oJov lei oIkovBc vieaBar 

yialov dpa TrpoerjKe, de&v repdeaai 'indrjaa<;, 

roLO^ if)v li;0€i»9 AtT0)A.t09* aWa rov viop 

yeivaro eto yipeia /idj(rjf ayoprji Si t dfieipayv" 400 

W9 <f>dTO, Tov S' ov TV 7rpoa€<f)ri xparepo^ AiofM^Bri^, 
alSeadelf; ^aaiXrjo^ iviirrjp alSouoio. 
TOP S* vlo^ Ka7rar^09 dfieiyjraTO KviaXifioio* 
" ^ATpetBri, fit) yjrevBe^ emoTdfiepo^ (Td<f>a elireip. 

390. o!: TOi Q. II ^iTtfippoeoc Q. 392. &i|f Ancpxou6icd(i) C/X^MPl^RS 

Harl. a, Lips. Vr. b c A, ^losc 1 3, Yen. B. || X^XON : d6XoN Q : X^x^ ^ {s%ipr. 
o over c). || cTcQN : i^caN i>. 396. noXu96NTHC A {yp. Xuko96nthc): Xuko- 

9dNTHc G. 896. I9AKC : ^cTkc C. 398. fipa npo^HKC : ANanpo^Hxc Pap. 
7. II npo^KC U. 400. X^P"{»)a WJHJMNR Lii^s.^ Vr. A: x^P«a Vr. a {supr, 

m). II AjULcfNCON Ar. A^: AudNUi Pap. 7 : AjucfNU A»n (T.W.A.) O. 

890. ^fppoeoc, lit. coming with shovis 
(to the rescue), is found only hero and 
4^ 770 in H., and ace. to van L. is a 
mistake due to non -recognition of the 
fact that -a of pronouns can be elided. 
He reads rolrj F\oi) iviTdppoOoi here, and 
so Ai'(^0 i^ ^* iirippcOoi is, liowever, as 
old as Hes. {Op. 560) and Aisch. Sept. 
368, and can therefore hardly be doubted. 
The difficulty is rather with imTdppoOos, 
for which sec E 808. In Sonh. Ant. 413 
ivlppoBoi is used in a completely differ- 
ent sense {pibusive). 

892. For 8i|f ANacpxou^coi most edd. 
write tyf/ dp* (Beutl.), affrit (Brandreth), 
or d\ff ol (Barnes) dvepx., the first on 
the analogy of the similar line, Z 187 ; 
but dpa has no sense here. For 
the hiatus cf. I 167 ^TridrJ/oimi, i 122 
icaTaf(rX«rat, N 262 dwoalvvfutit P 381 
iirioaffopLivw. nuKiN6N, lit. dense, i.e. 
consisting of a large number, as in 
irvKival 0dXa77«, etc. This sense does 
not suit X 525, but that line is inter- 
])olated. cTcoN firoNTCC, took and net, 
dy. being pleonastic. cTcaN, from T^w, 
A 311. 

394. The three names, ALuLONidHcAOrd- 
90NOC AUK096NTHC are evidentlv meant 
to have a murderous ring (Fasi). MafoM 
is a traditional name, not one invented 
for the purpose ; according to Statins 
he was an augur and priest of Apollo, 
which would explain dtCiv r€pdc<r<n (398). 
Pans. (ix. 18. 2) says that according to 
local tradition at Thebes it was he who 
buried T>'deua. 

399. For t6n, here used in a possessive 
sense, read 6v. See App. A. 

400. X^P^^ • o^ ^^113 word see A 80. 
The best mss. follow Ar. in writing 

X^p«a and x^P^^^^i ^^^ X^PV^t X^/"?*« 
AudNCON, sc. 4<rTi, so A with Ar. ; 
dynLvu cet. The reading of Ar. seems 
best, for Si re frequentlv introduces a 
clause added paratactically, with a con- 
struction of i^ own. 2) 106 is exactly 
parallel, ^p iro\^fiu>if dyopiji de t dfielpwes 
tUri KoX aXXoi. It must, however, be 
admitted that the omission of both 
subject and verb here is harsh. Com- 
pare Eur. Sv.ppl. 902 (6 Ti'5ei>f) oxik iv 
X67ots ^v \afnrp6Sf dXX' €v dajrldi, 

404. Gdfo, if taken with elTrcly, mutt 

lAlAAOC A (iv) 



i7/Lt€t9 Toi irarepoiv fiiy a^ivove^ extyofieff elvac 

TffieU xal ©^/8i79 eSo9 etkofiev errraTrvkoio, 

iravpoTepov \a6v a/yarfovB^ vtto t€?j^09 apeiov, 

ireiOofjuevoc Tepdeaav Oe&v koX Zrjvo^ apayy^L* 

KCiPOi Be a^eriprjia-LV aTaadaXlrjiaLV oKovro. 

tS) fiTj fioL irarepa*; iroG* ofioirjc evOeo rtfirjc" 410 

TOP 8 dp inroBpa IBwv irpoai^ Kparepo^ Avofiij&r)^' 
*' Terra, avciyTnjc fjao, ifjL&L S' eiri/ireiBeo fivdayc. 
ov yitp eyo) vefieaA ^Ayafiefivovv woifievL \a&v 
orpvvovri fid')(ea6ai, evtcvrjiuia^ 'Aj^atou?* 
rovr(oi p£V ydp KvSof; afjL ^eraL, eX kcv 'Aj^atol 416 

Tpwa? Brjuoacoo'tv IXaxrl re "iXtoi; lpi]v, 

407-9 d$. At. 408. ArwrA P. 409. C9CiipaiaN AraceoXfaiaN &Kohto G. 
412. ClOOnAl : arfl N. 413. ncucgAi SotikQs A™ (T.W.A.). 416. JUL^ om. 

M. i! r^p om. COT Lips. || aY kcn NS : d ukn G. 416. dHY6oociN M : 

dHYbccDaN Harl. a : dH(i)^uaN D Vr. A. || CXcoa d4 P. 

mean tnily {yj/evde* being then rJ/evSco), 
but this is not the usual Homeric sense. 
The word is always used with verbs of 
knowing^ except three times in Od. witli 
e/veci', always in the sense 'living a 
clear, certain report about Odysseus.' 
The two senses are, however, nearly allied 
(cf. Soph. EL 1223 iKfMff it (Tatprj X^«, 
Trach, 387 ws rdy^ hv (ro0^ X^letev, 
Eur. Med, 72 fiOdot el (ra«^s SSe^ etc.), 
and it is better to translate truly here 
than with Fiisi to do violence to the 
order by joining fiij y}/€v^4a clireiv^ 
iirurrdfjLeuos <rd<f>a (that they are so). 
This expression is another case, ap- 
parently, of Attic use. 

406. Kcd is expressed by the emphasis 
in * we did take, i.e. we did not merely 
besiege. This is the only mention in 
H. of the war of the Epigoni ; that of 
the * Seven ' is rarely alluded to. 

407. Arar6Ne', dual, as he is thinking 
only of Diomedes and himself. fipaoN is 
taken by the Schol. as comparative, viz. 
ToG iv TpoLcu ; for the sake of the anti- 
thesis it should rather mean ' a stronger 
wall than our fathers found,' as though 
Thebes had been strengthened in the 
interval. Cf. O 736, *a stronger wall' 
than that which is now being taken. 
There is no Homeric instance of Apeios 
for the regular *Aprfios, and in any case 
that would weaken the point of the 
line. Ar. obelized 407-9 on the ground 
that if the fathers were defeated by their 

own madness and the sons conquered 
only by obeying the gods, there is no 
ground for concluding that the sons are 
better warriors than the fathers were. 
It is an obvious reply that the best 
warrior is the one who takes every step 
to ensure victory, and that the first step 
is to win divine support. 

409. The AraceaAkii may be illustrated 
from Aisch. SepL 427 sqq., where it is 
said of Kapaneus — 

$€oO T€ ydp diXovTOi iKiripaeiv irdXiv 
Kai fx^ BiXovrbi <fnj(Ti.Vf kt\, 

410. Observe the very rare use of mi 
with aor. imper. ; so 2 134 /nij irw ^ara- 
dt/(reo, fa; 248 /x^ . . hOeo. Schol. A 
quotes Aristoph. Thesin, 870 fi^ ^cO<roi», 
S) ZeO. See on this H. G. § 328. 

412. T^TTQ : a fiir. X€7. which divided 
the opinions of the ancient critics, some 
taking it as a irpo<r<f>iijvq<ni 0iXeratpc«r>^, 
others as an itrlpptj/xa ox^rXtatrTiKdv, It 
is probably like drro (I 607, q.v.), a 
term of affection, jwrhaps borrowed from 
the language of infancy (for rf ' dtrro, 
where rf ' = rtf, thinej as in French 
tarUe = tiui amita ?). * A friendly or 
resiHjctful address of youths to their 
elders,' L. and S. ; but there is no ground 
for supposing Sthenelos to be older than 
Diomcues. fico, simply continiief as 
often. The hiatus after ooonAi is un- 
usual, but there is no obvious emenda- 
tion {rirXadif ffiyrji 6* ^o Bentley). 


lAlAAOC A (iv) 

TOVTioi S' ai fiiya 7revdo<; ^Aj(ai&v Bi]i(o0€VTa>v, 
aW arf€ Bif xal v&i fieBtofj^Ba BovpiBo^ aX/c^9." 

Jj pa xal ef o'^^iayp axfv rev^eaiv SXto yapLa^e* 
Zevvov S* €^pa')(€ "^foXjco^ iwi anjOeaaiv avaKTO<i 420 

opvvpAvov* vTTo K€v ToXaaLi^povd irep heos elKev, 

0)9 S or iv alyuiX&i iroXvry^fei KVfia daXdao'T)^ 
Sppvr eTraaavTepop Z€<f>vpov vtto KivqaapTO^;' 
iroPTtoL flip T€ irp&Ta Kopvaaerai, avrctp eireira 
j(€p<T(oi pifypvfievop fieyaXa fip€fjL€i, afjuf>l Be t aKpa^ 425 
KVpTOP iov Kopv<f)ovTai, dTTOTTTvei S' aXo9 a')(pr)p* 
W9 TOT iTraaavrepac Aapa&v klpvvto <f>d\a/fY€^ 
i/a>X6/i€a>9 TTokefiopBe, xiXeve Be olaip cKaaTO^ 
"^yefiovayp' oi 8' aWoL olktjp taap, ovBe k€ <l>aif]^ 
Toaaov \ahp eireaOaL e^oj/r' ep (TTTjOeaiP avB'qp, 430 

aiyrJL, BecBioTe^ (yqfidpTopa^' dfi<l>i Be Trdai 
Tevyea itoikOC eKapLire, tcl eifiepoi iaTi'^poypTo. 
T/3a)€9 S\ W9 T oi'€9 TToXvirdfiopo^ dpBpb^ ep avXrii 

418. arc: «pa Pap. 7. 420. Aix^i cti^occin Q. 424. JUL^ T€ APU Vr. a: 
Jui^N TOi M : ukn th 0. 426. !6n Ar. (J supr. ) : i6N Q. 427. ^accOrcpoN 

GJ {mpr, a\) : in' AccOrcpoi N. || KfNUNTO : &pNUNTO Pap. 7. 428. n6Xcu6N 
V kxiktuw oTqn H. II K^cucc N. 429. TcQN : <caN T Harl. b (7^. Ycon) : 

fiooN 2>^; 481. dcdidrcc HQ : dodidrac Pap. 7. 438. noXundjULONOC ARU 
{supr. u), 81 ivbs fi yp. Harl. a : noXunduuoNOC Q. 

421. 0n6: explained by Am. and La 
R. of fear seizing the kiiccSy as F 34 {firb 
8i TpdfJLOs fSXa^e yvia. But it is better 
to translate, with Fdsi, thcreaty as 
though = under the influence of the 
noise. This is common in composition, 
e.g. vvoTpiUf to tremble at a thing ; so 
ifTral 84 t€ Kd/Miros 686uTuy ylverax A 417. 
TciXad9pONa : cf. 4>6/9of . . ds r* i«p6pri<re 
raXdtppovd vcp TroXe/uff-Hiy N 300 ; and, 
for the introduction of a supposed spec- 
tator, A 539, etc. 

422. kOjuo is used collectively, as is 
shewn by iTraaa&repov. Cf. Kvfia . . rd 
T 4p€ijy€Tcu € 438. The point of com- 
parison is given by firouro-iVcpw', see 427. 
Here the der. from iir-ay-<r€V(i), hastening 
up in succession (see on A 383), is par- 
ticularly suitable. 

424. iUm tc: vulg. fi^y rd. trpurra 
and rd TrpCrra seem to be used indis- 
criminately (cf. 442 below), but the 
former is commoner, and the use of re 
in similes is habitual, v. H. O. p. 302. 

426. I6n : so Ar. ; the vulg. ibw is far 

less vigorous and picturesque, as it 
leaves out of sight the movement of 
the wave. 

428. ncdXcu^coq xciUwut cease, a word 
of unknown origin. 

433. For the pointed contrast between 
the silence of the Greeks and the clamour 
of the Trojans cf F 1-9. Tp^^ is not 
followed by any verb, the sentence being 
interrupted by tlie simile, and taken up 
in an altered form in 436. We have a 
similar case in y 81-4 ^ 3*, &s r , . d^ 
apa TTJs, noXundjuiONOC, from *ird-ofiai 
acquire (x^wd/xou, ifraadfiriv, etc). The 
verb occurs in Pindar, Attic and Ionic 
poetry, and Xen., but not in H. IloXu- 
TTfjfioyiSTjs (a> 305) is evidently a deriva- 
tive (W.-M. H. U. p. 70); for the v 
compare the Attic trafimiaia, though d is 
otherwise kept throughout the verbal 
forms in all dialects. The alternative 
7ro\\nrdfiixu)v is defended by Hinrichs as 
A colic, for -iraT-fnav (cf. ir^r-vta), but 
there is no support for this (see, however, 
G. Meyer Or, § 65). 

lAlAAOC A (iv) 


fjLVpiac ecT'^Kaa'tv dfieXr/oficpai ydka XevKov 

d^i7^e9 fiefiaKvlaL, axovovaac oira apveov, 485 

w? Tpdxov akaXrjTO^ dvd, arparov evpvv opdpci' 

ov yap 7rdvT(op ^€v o/i09 dpoos ovS* la yrjpv<;, 

aXKd yXjuxra ifiifivKro, 7ro\vK\r]TOt S* eaav avSp€<;. 

&pae Be Toif^ fiev "Apiy?, tov<; Si y\avK&7n^ 'A^^i/77 

AetfJLO^ T ^Se 4>o/8o9 fcal *'E/3t9 afiorov fiefiavia, 440 

''A/3609 dvipo<f>ovovo KaaiyvrjTT} irdprj t€, 

rf T oXXyrj fiiv irp&ra Kopvaaerac, avrdp erreiTa 

ovpav&c iarrjpL^e xdprj xal iirl yPovX ^aivet, 

T] a(l>iv Kol t6t€ veiKo^ ofioUov efifiaXe fieaaayi 

ip'x^ofievrj Ka0* ofivkov, 6<f>€Wov(Ta arovov dvBp&v. 445 

ot OTe 61) p €9 X^P^^ ^^ ^vpiovre^ ikovto, 
avv p e^oKov pivov^, avv S' eyyea KaX pAve dvhp&v 
Xa\K€off(opTjK(OP' drdp dairihe^ 6pxf>a\6€a'a'at 
€Tr\f)VT dW-qXTjiai, 7roXu9 S' opvp,ar/ho^ dp(op€L, 
€v6a S' dp! oip^foyri re Koi €V)(^ooi\v t^P^^v dvSp&p 450 

6WvvT(i)V T€ KaX 6Wvp,€V(i)v, p€€ S' alp^TC yaui, 
ft)9 S' 0T€ x^ipxippoi TTorafioX Kar 6p€(T<f>L peovre^ 

434. icn^KcociN A (T.W.A.) .^NS Vr. b, Pap. 7, and yp. 0. 436. julcuukuToi 

Q : JuicuauTai Pap. 7^ 438. rX^^cca ju^uikto P Vr. b. 441 oni. T^ ; inserted 
by Rhosos in margin. 442. ff T* : ftd* J. 443. xdpHN G. 444. jui^c(c)on 
2>Q. 445. ANdp6c Q {sujn-, dn). 446. Ykonto : Ykqnon O. 448. aOtdp 

X>PR. 449. AXXi^Xaici G : AXXi^Xoia CZ>JNQ Vr. a b. || dpuruadbc CiX>HJM 
(not Harl. a) PRU. || 6pc&pH Vr. b e corr, 450. «no' Sua GL : «no* fiu* i>NP. 
461. TC om. HQR : re M. 452. f>ioHT€ CJ. 

435. dzHXi^c, iiicessanty from d-dta- 
<^^'^i ^i^^W^^^ (ace. to Scbulze Q. JS. 
p. 471), the negative of Sjcx'Jt, separate^ 
and so equivalent to <rvvrxiii (so £ust.). 
Cf. hUaxov of intervals of time in Soph. 
0. T. 717. 

437. Cf. B 804. For Ya see note on 

438. noXiiKXHTOi (cf. Ar.*s reading in 
A 564, iroXiryfp^ej), called together from 
many parts. See note on E 491. 

440. The three half-personified spirits 
of battle must not be regarded as siding 
with either party, but as arousing alike 
To^ fUv and toi>« U, Cf. A 73, N 299, 
O 119, 2 535, in none of which are they 
actual persons in the war. 

441. The gen. *'Apcoc for''Ap77os recurs 
only in T 47, 267 (late passages), and 
the line, which T omits, might be sus- 
pected, were not the whole passage, with 

its personifications, unlike the old Epic 
manner, and consistently late. 

442. Cf. 424, and the well-known 
imitation of the lines by Virg. Aen. iv. 
173 sqq., especially Ingredilurque solo 
et caput ini€r nuhila condU, 

443. Notice the aor. kcvjkpvEX. and pres. 
BafNci side by side, of momentary and 
continuous action as usual. 

444. For 6juiofioN see 315. 

448. 6jui9aX6ccGai : see on A 34. The 
Acnfdcc are merely a repetition of javo^fs 

449. InXHNTO, mety the only pres. in 
use being Trl\vayiai and wcXdfw (trans. ) ; 
ireXdoi' Hymn, Horn. vi. 44 is in a corrupt 
passage. The perf. treTrXtifiivoi is found 
in fi 108. 

450. Observe the chiasmus olfxcry^ . . 

452. 6pcc9i : locative, with /card as 
with Trp6, r 3. 



i^ fiiaydyKeiav avfiffdWerov ofipifiov vB(op 

Kpovv&v CK fieyoKiov kolKti^ evroade yapdipr}^* 

T&v Se T€ rrfKoa-e Sovttov iv ovpeatv €k\v€ irovfj/qv 455 

©9 TSiV fuayopAvcov yivero lay(i] re irovo^ re, 

irp&To<: S' *AvTCkoj(p<: Tpaxov ekev avhpa Kopvar^v 
iaffKov ivl irpofid'^fpiav, SaXvaidBrfv 'Ej^eTTwXov 
Tov p e^cCKe irp&ro^ Kopvdo^ <f>d\ov Iwirohaaeiri^, 
iv Sk fi€T<o7ra)c 'rrfj^e, iriprfae S' dp^ oareov eiaao 460 

alj(jiff j(a\K€irj' tov Sk aKoro^ 6a<Te KoKxr^ev, 
Tjpnre S , ci? ore wvpyo^, ivl KpareprfL vafiivr)!,. 
TOV Be ireaovTa iroi&v ekafie Kpeiayv ^^\€<f>'^v(op 
Xa\K<oSovTidSi]^, fieyaOvfJuav dp'xp^ 'A/8ai/Tft)i/, 
eXiee S* uttck ^eXicov \e\irifJL€vo<; o<f>pa Tdj^^iara 465 

468. JUucrdrraaN IKUNPQRT^ || 56piJULON [Ai>S]T : buBputon Q, 466. (be 
y 6tc Pap. 7^ : tAn V 6tc Pap. y. y THX6ei P Par. b d h (Harl. b interlined) : 
yp, thX6gc . . Aficivoy Si t6 THX6ei Schol. PT (Ar. ? see Ludw.). || doOnoc Pap. y, 
466. n^NOC Ar. OP: 96B0C i2. 468. eaXacaddHN S. 461 (nn. Pap. 7. \\ hk: 
hk M. 463. iXofic : cTXc S. |I ika^ANOup P. 466. -rdxicrxx: J. 

453. JUucrdncaaN, tffcUtrsrticet, place 
where two valleys {&yK€a) join their 
streams {dw, Xey.), Hentze remarks that 
the picture would be clearer if 454 
stood before 453. SBpiuoN : apparently 
from /3/u- of ppl-0-Uf ppiap6Sf ^pirfprvos 
(X 521), ^p6iy etc. ; see ppl in L. and S. 
Others refer it to 0/9pit. In any case 
the first m of the constantly recurriug 
variant dfJifipifios seems to have no justifi- 
cation. The unusual preponderance of 
Mss. in its favour here is due to the idea 
that in this passage it means rain-water 
(6m^Pos). Cf. r 357. 

454. KpouNd^N he JULcrdXodN seems 
simply to denote the great body of 
water *fed from mighty springs.' The 
XapddpH will be the ravine leading 
down to the fu(rydyK€La. The simile is 
imitated in Virg. Aen. ii. 307, xii. 523. 

455. thX6cc : the use of the temiiau^ 
ad qucm instead of a quo is frequent in 
cases like this ; the reaching to a distance 
is regarded as a property of the power 
of hearing, not of the sound, IT 515 
b^voLffai 8i (Til TrdMroa* dKoveiv, cf. A 21 
veOdero ydp K&irpovde fiiya k\4os. Of 
course the converse is common too, 
I 572 iK\v€V i^ •Ep^/3f(r0u', A 603 KXiffirj- 
dev dKoCffas, 

456. n6N0€, Ar. for 06/3of of mss., 
because he held that 4»6pos in H. always 

means flig?U not fear, and in the pre- 
sent case flight has not yet begun on 
either side. So Lehrs Ar» p. 76. 

457. Antilochos the son of Nestor has 
not before been mentioned. CXcn, in 
pregnant sense, as very often in //., 
slew; see note on A 328. Kopucn^N, 
itifuH arvimir^ on the analogy of BwpriK- 
T^s, d(nri<rT^s, alxp^riri^ (on this formation 
see II. G. § 116. 2). In the compound 
lTnroKopv<m^v, however, the termination 
-rrjs seems to have the usual transitive 
force, *arrayer of chariots,' and Paley 
suggests that the simple form may here 
mean 'an officer, one who marshals, 
/copwrcret, his troops.' 

459-61 = Z 9-11. nftw. he plunged 
the spear — the active irifiyuvfu is not 
intrans. in H. except in the perf. Tr^mrr^, 
For 96X0C see Ap]). B. 

462. On cbc br€ without a finite verb 
see B394. 464 = B 541. 

465. 69pa is i)erhaps to be taken with 
XcXiHU^oc, com])are E 690 \e\irjfUvot 
6<ppa TdxKffa Cxrcur 'Apyeiovs, r 367 
dpuifievos eloi tKoto : see also Z 361, II 653. 
In the second case, however, as well as in 
the present passage, it is {wssible to make 
\€\irifiivoi= eagerly (as M 106, II 552 
^dv p idifs Aapaufy XeXir^fidyoi^ 6(f>pa going 
with the principal verb. Compare also 
note on A 133, and H. O. § 307. 

lAlAAOC A (iv) 


rev^ea <ru\i]<T€i€' filvvvOa Si ol yived^ opfirf 
vcKpop yap ipvovra IBq}v /jL€yddvfio<: ^Ayijvayp 
irXevpd, rd ol KvyjravTi irap dairlho^ i^e^adpBrj, 
ovrqae ^varm '^aXKi^pei, \v<t€ Sk yvla. 
0)9 Tov fjL€v XiTre BvfjLo^, eir avr&v S' epyov ervj^^drj 
dpyaXeov Tp(o(ov koI 'Aj^atcii/' ol Sk \vkoi a»9 
aXKijXoi^ iiropovaav, dvijp S* avBp* iBpo7rd\t,^€P. 
€V0^ eySaX' 'Ai/^e/ucoi/o? vlop TeXafuoPCO^ Afa?, 
riWeop BaXepop ^cfjLoeltnop, op irore p^rjTrjp 
"^ISffOep Kariovaa irap Sj^^Orjcaiv StfioePTO^ 
yeivar , iirei pa tok€v<tlv afi eoTrero firjXa Iheadai' 
Tovvexd fJLiv xdXeop ^ifMoeiaiop' ovBc roKevai 
Operrrpa <^t\oi9 aTriBeoKc, fiiPUpOdBio^ Bi ol aioav 
eirkeO^ vir Atapro^ fieyaOvfiov Bovpl hafieprc, 
irp&TOP yap fiip topra iSdXe arrjOo^ irapa fia^op 
Be^iop, dvTLKpv Be Bl Afiov *)(aKKeop eyj^o? 
fjXdep' S* ip fcoplrjcai yap^l irecep alyeipo^ 0)9, 
T] pd T ip eiafievrji eXeo^ /jLcydXoio 'n'€<f>vKr)i 




467. rdp p* [AHMS] Harl. a. || ^piioNTG : CXkontq I), 468. t6 o\: ri ol 
P. 469. sucrdbi: xo^K&i Cant. 471. Ax°>^'** daNa&N P. 472. 6XXi^- 
Xouc Pap. 7. li te6pouccN Pap. y. || &NondXuEc(N) Vr. a, Apoll. Lex. Zonar. Lex. 
478. bie*: in b' K. 475. 6xe<na GQ. 476. Xncro J. 478. ep^Tpa 

Ar. Q : epima Zen. JOPQRSU Par. b d f ^ k, Vr. b c, Mosc. 3. 482. fiXuecN T. 
488. dojucNcT L {su]>r. A) R. || nc9iiKHl coiij. G. Hermann : nc90KC U : nc90KCi Q. 

466. For JuiNUNea as predicate cf. A 

467. r6p: vulg. ydp p\ which is at 
best a clumsy compound (though it is 
found a few times) and not required by 
either sense or metre ; for ipCovra. origin- 
ally began with f, and the caesura 
alone in this part of the line would 
suffice to lengtnen the short syllable. 
The particle has similarly invaded nearly 
all Mss. in B 342. 

46S. nXcupd : ncut. only here, and 
probably A 437, elsewhere vXevpaL Cf. 
A 122 P€vpa by vevpi^ (bowstring), wapiffioy 
by Trap€id, nap' Acnidoc; were exposed 
beside his shield. 

470. auT^i, the body, as opposed to 
the departed dvfi6% : see on A 4. The 
neglect of the F of FiproH is rare (about 
18 cases out of 250, Kniis de diij. p. 
96, 10 of which can be easily corrected). 

472. idNondXizcN, sliook^ an obscure 
word recurring only ^ 512 rd <rA p6.Kea 
dvoiraM^eif, apparently 'thou shalt 

flutter, flaunt thy rags,' al. 'shalt 
clothe thee.* Neither interpretation 
throws much light on tlie present 
passage. No convincing derivation has 
been suggested. 

474. With Cuiocfaoc cf. Sdrvios, a 
contracted form for 'LarviotUnoi S 443, 
and ZKa/udvd/EMos Z 402, all proper names 
of Trojans derived from rivers. 

478. Cf. P 302. ep^Tpa, recompense 
for rearing him ; compare the irX6ica/Lios 

'Ij'dxciH dpcTTT'fifM.oi of Aisch. Cho, 6. 

479. For On* AYqntoc doupi see V 436. 

480. npd^TON, here local, in tlie fare' 

483. cIoju^Hi, laicland, apparently 
from root :7s, to sit, for Ti<rayAvTii cf. 
T)pAvm iv x^pwt Theok. xiii. 40. (Curt. 
Et. no. 568.) It will then be a false 
transcription of UEAMENEI = ijafiiirrii. 
nc90KHi is Hermann's conjecture for 
ire^iJ*cet of all Mss. ; the pluperf. is 
entirely out of place in a simile, and of 
course the authority of mss. as between 


lAlAAOC A (iv) 

Xeiri, ardp re oi o^oi eir aKpoTdrrji 7r€<f>vaac' 

TTjv fjAv 0* dpfJbaroTrrjyo^ dvrjp aXOayvi tTLhrjpcoL 485 

i^erafi, 6^pa Irvv xafiyfrrji TrepcKaXXil 8i<l>p(i)i' 

Tf fM€v T a^ofievrj KeiTav irorafiolo irap o-^Qwi* 

Toiov ap ^AvOefu^v ^ifMoeiaiov i^evdpi^ev 

Afa? Svoyepj]^. tov S* ''AvTV<f>o^ cdoXodcopr}^ 

TIpiafiiBrj^ Ka0* ofiCKov aKovrKrev o^ei iovpL* 490 

TOV fi€v a/jLapd\ 6 Se AevKOP ^OBuaaio^ eaffXov kralpov 

Pe^rjKei ^ov^cjpa vixvp krepcaa ipvopra' 

fjpcTre S' dfjL<l>^ avrm, P€Kp6^ Se oi cKTreae '^€ip6<:, 

TOV S' 'OSucei? fidXa 0vfi6p aTTOKTafiepoio j^oXdoOr], 

^rj Se SicL 7rpofid)(^cop K€K0pv6fi€P0^ atOoTn yaXK&L, 495 

(TTTi hk fidX* iyyv^ l(OP, koI aKOPTcae Sovpl ^aetpwi 

dfuf>i ? TraTTTiJi/a?. vtto Se TpoSe? KexdBoPTO 

dpSpb^ aKOPTiaa'apTO^. o S' oi^ SXlop ySeXo? ffxep, 

484. aOtdp M. || itKp&roTxn Q. || nc9UKaa G. 486. 69P* Z>GP. Ii K6u^m Q. 
487. noTOJUoO napd G. 489. ToO : t6n Vr. a. 490. doupf : x^^^ ^' il 

AK6Nncc doup) 9aciN& Q (so iv &\\ufi A). 491. fijuapr' J. || 6ducoiodc />JMQ. 

493. aCrrbu N. || &cncce : Ibc9urc Par. c {siipr. Ibcnccc) g, yp, and Kard -nva rwv 
dPTiypd<p<av Eust. 

€L and 17(1) iu nil. La R. quotes a 
number of iustances where the perf. 
subj. hafl been thus corrupted into the 
plup., A 477, n 633, P 435, a 316, <r 
133, X ^^^' 'fc4>vK€i could be defended 
only as a secondary pres. from *ire0t/Ka>, 
of. dvorya — dyc^ci, etc., H. G, § 27. 
XXcoc : cf. p 208 alyeipujv ifdaTorp€(f>iuiv. 

484. Mure quotes 'the practice, still 
common in Southern Europe, of trim- 
ming up the stem of the ])opIar to 
within a few feet of the top, which, left 
untouched, preserves the appearance of 
a bushy tuft,' so that the comparison 
is between this tuft and the warrior's 

485. The use of so soft and weak a 
wood as poplar for the felloe of a wheel is 
certainly curious. The wood is suited to 
the purpose, however, by its flexibility and 
elasticity. Ameis suggests that the bronze 
tire {iTrlaaufTpov) would supply the re- 
<|uisite hardness. Probably the Homeric 
carpenter had not learned to bend tough 
wood by the aid of steam, and was 
therefore driven to the use of the weaker 
kinds for purposes such as the present. 

487. uhi Tc in place of the usual 64 
re, to add the final touch to a simile, is 
very rare. Of., however, E 556. 

488. 'ANecuidHC, from the short form 
of 'AvdefduiP (473), like AevKaXidrjs from 

489. aioXoecbpHZ, vnth Jl-ashing 
armour ^ does not imply a breastplate. 
It refers perhaps ratner to tlie quick 
movement of the wearer (cf. irbiai 
a/6Xot) than to the brightness of the 
armour itself. 

491. 'Oducc^oc for 'Odi;<r<r^f is found 
only here, with 'O^uo-eDs w 398, ^OHvaaia 
p 301. Cf. on 441. 

492. BcfiXi^Kci : the plpf. is an in- 
tensive iniperf., nuuU his hit {ff. G. 
§ 28). But, as Delbriick remarks 
{Grumlr. iv. 227), in use the word gives 
the impression rather of an aor., while 
iTrivXrirfov is used as imperf. It has 
been iu fact suggested by Brugmann 
that the plpf. forms in -ea were origin- 
ally aorists {ibid.), ir^podcc, to Ou other 
sidCf from Antiphos' point of view. 

497. KOcddoNTO (hero and 574) is 
referred to x^^^o^ioi, gave wuy^ the gen. 
dNdp6c being ablative. The act. K€Kaduv 
(A 334), K€Kadifi<rei {<f> 153) iu the sense 
separate from are the same word, but it 
is not clear why the x ^^ become k. 
Perhaps the real forms are KexdSotrrOt 



a)OC viov Upidfioio voOov fiaXe ArjfjMKOcjvra, 

09 01 *AfivS60€v TjKBe, irap nnrcjv onKeidcov' 500 

TOP p ^OBva€v<; krapoLO y(^o\a)crdfi€VO<; fiaXe Sovpl 

KOparjv t) S* iripoio Sia Kporcu^oio iriprjcrev 

aiyjir) yaXK^ir}' tov Se ctkoto*; ocrcre /caXtr^e, 

Boinrrjcrev Sk wecrcov, apd/Srjcre Sk rev^e hr aifTcii, 

'^(oprjcrav S* inro re irpoiiaypi xal (f>aiBifio^ ''E/cto)/)* 505 

^Apyeiot Se fiiya iaj(pv, ipvaavro hk veKpov^, 

Wvcrav Sk ttoXu irporipo). v€fJLi(njcr€ S* 'AttoXXwi/ 

Tlepyd/JLOV iKKaTiB(!>v, Tpcoecrcri Sk xefcXer dv<ra^' 

*' opvv<rd\ ImroBafioi T/ocSe?, fiv^* etxere x^PH'V^ 

^Apyeioi^, iirel ov a<f>i \L0o<; %pa)9 ovZk aiBrjpo<; 510 

y^aXKov dvaaj(^ea-0at rafMeai'^^poa fiaWofiivot(rtv, 

ov fiav ovS" 'Aj^tXeu? 0€TtSo9 Trai'? '^v/cofioio 

fidpvaraiy aXX' errl vrjvcrl j(p\ov dvfiaXr/ia ireaaei^ 

&<; ^dr diro irroXto^ Seivo^ 0€o^' avrap 'Aj^atou9 
&par€ Ato9 OuydTTjp KvhLarri rptroykveia, 615 

ipy^ofiivT) KaO^ ofiiKov, oOi fieOUpra^ tBotrq. 

evB* ^AfiapvyKetBijv Ai(op€a fiolp* iwiSfjae' 

499. npiduou Q. !> dimoKdcNTa J. 600. fiXec: Akc Q. 501 om, 0^. |j 

t6n P* : t6n d' O"". 502. K6pcHc H. || ^rdpoio U. 504. aOr&i : Huamn M. 
606. xxira AG : ju^* Q. II cYqxon Pap. y. || dpiioanro J : ipp^canro Vr. c, 
Yen. B, Mosc. 1 3. 508. k^kXut* J. 509. Ykctc J. 510. dprdcoN 

sitpr. : dprdouc Pap. y. || Xpoabc oOhk Pap. 7. 512. juljin GQ. 513. Ncud 

Pai>. 7. 514. noXioc Q. 616. uceiorra N : jumoi^ntcc M. 517. &uapir- 

rcioHN Q {ftujtr. k over second r). |! uoTpa n^dHCC Ar. : uoTpa ^^dHcc P. 

500. YnnooN : apparently Priam kept a 
stud-farm at Abyaos ; compare O 548 
with note. His horses were of the 
famous breed of Tros, for which see 
E 265-72, T 221-30. It would be simpler 
to understand 'beside his chariot j* like 
Trap &<nri8oi above (468 ; so Monro) ; 
but the order of the words is against 
this. In the Catalogue (B 836) Abydos 
is given to Asios, not to Priam. 

508. mprajjuoc the citadel of Troy, 
where was the temple of Apollo, E 446 ; 
afterwards called t6 lUpya/jLoy (cf. "IXtov 
by Homer's "IXtos) or tA lUpyafia. The 
tragedians use it in its primitive sense 
as a common name, ' citadel ' ; it is 
doubtless conn, with irifpyos. Germ. 

515. Tprror^aa, also 9 39, X 183, 
7 378 ; derived by the Greeks from a 
river IViton, variously located in Boiotia 
or Thessaly, or from the lake Tritonis in 

Libya. All these words are possibly 
connected with a stem rptro-f meaning 
ivaUr, which appears in rplrutfy 'AfufnrplTTjt 
Skt. trita (Fick). Ameis suggests that 
this may contain an allusion to the 
myth that all the gods were children of 
Okeanos and Tethys (S 201) ; Athene 
has no special connexion with water. 
Another derivation (Eustath. ) from an 
alleged TpiTvb = ?iead (i.e. born from the 
head of Zeus) lacks all trustworthy con- 
firmation. The original significance of 
the epithet is not now to be discovered. 
See note on drpin-favrfy B 157. 

516. juicei6rixic violating the F of 
FidoiTOj is ap|>arently wrongly adapted 
from fuSi^ra in N 229. We can of 
course read the sing, here with one MS., 
but it is not Homeric to apply the par- 
ticiple to the 8fu\os at large. See note 
on 232. 

517. in^dHcc i.e. prevented his 


lAlA^OC A (IV) 


•k\jj*\ .A7r*;i\4;«,f/u>sv o itttio? ev Kovirjiai 

*u?pn>*rif«*. Jm*^ \«:a^ ^^i"? erdpOKTi irerda'aa^, 

."'i//kWA' u7ro'?rff:tu>v. o S' €TriSpafJL€v 09 ^* e^aXAv irep, 

lUiiJ^iafv. acVa <$«' dovpl Trap opAfMkov' ix S* dpa iracrai 525 

^li^r^^ ^a/Mii )^o\u&:v. Tov Be (tkoto^ oaae KaXvyjre* 

'Ok 3i ^a< XltwX!^ direcravfievov ySaXe Bovpl 

.i i^fjifoif iTTfiij ua^oiO^ Trdrfq B iv irvevfiopi y^aXxo^:, 

\y\^if,t.oXoi^ S^ oi vXt^€ ©oa^, iic S' o^pifjLOv €7^09 

^o iitiAjaro tTT^pvQio^ ^pvcaaro Be ^i^o^ o^v* 

xoi, o ye yuixrepa Tvy^ fiearfv, ix S* olvvto Ovp^ov. 

ti'^cu (5* oi'K direBiMTe* irepiar'qaav yap eratpoi, 
^ii^xt^ uKpoKOfMOi BoXi^^ €y^€a ^^e/xrli; e^ovre^, 
\ s .«c7ai' 7rt:V i^oiTa xal l<l)0tfiov koX dr^avov 
Jua^ .t7ro Kj^iufif' Q Be ^aaadfjLepo^ ireXepX^di], 



U^ o^|M«MNn CMlorKS Tap. 7. 520. nefpcoc : ftpcoc Strabo. |; 5c p 

\x "iA^AuwiKi >,*. 533. dnHXXoiHCCN CP Vr. a: AnHXXoicoccN L: dnH«Xo(GdccN 

I .\44. OiMd|KUA«N Pap. >. ntp : JuuN GNS. 527. dnccciiJULCNON GMOTU 

^. iai:. i S« !\i. l>^ c', Ma*H\ 3: ^cccOjucnon 12: dncccOucNON or incco^ 

-.*A^ V . *tx-^- Wd. Onip: 0n6 M (Onip Harl. a), i' nXcujuoNi Phot. Lt\r 

^riL :>uApuM H OKUIJMO^PQ. 531. aTNUTo: fipNirro P. 535. 

•xA«%k*j^u<\ ^ > -lit'. 

\'. ^V|^f^, 1.^ 1)0 ici^Uu^ of all Mss. 
.... :* <.'ti« 'iMu^li iu U S44 the 

>sKy«ii% II. ^cuvTiilly ust's tlie 
.^^...... l\ 'iviu .i bi'lief that the 

... ,'«k .^<k.. \^c;u lu I mint, rdyra rd 

■ X, «:..>. i>jk\ \}utffH>t \<7e(, Ar. 

« .. \ ^k)M. ^KMfaMc rtciUss ; 

..:.!. v»itii« iu*arer to the 

\ .1 ... .ul.»|cvi w uo ai9v^ for 

.' i..ia.«iuJ. Ooiuivare X 

^x •. N\nv>ci. liiciu iH no mtiiua- 

' -« .....L. ivlUf^ ;iiiv harm to a 

>^ .,^,' ..isl 'Aw laiiiouA de^erip- 

', U;..' 'i Sih^^pho**, \ 598. 

\ u. 1 1 ' liioucious this 

lu ..uiUuiioa of human 

Va. -.'I *ii>» P 5^i>, in 

'«, * ^..i^u y-*( ^s>\iudii (the 

^ .c^'ooitiou with gen. 

<r 370 only). It .seems to mean utterly, 
though this creates some difficulty iu 
the explanation of P 599, q.v. 

524. p* evidently represents a lost F 
= if him, 

527. dncccujucNON : vulg. iveaa, ; but 
the advance of Peiroos is completed in 
524, so it is more natural to sup{)08e 
that he was now retreating. The usual 
word, however, is dmdirra (N 567, S 409, 
etc.), and A-wtaffviicvov seems rather 
strong for mere retreat. Hence itrtaav- 
/icfoSf the alternative read by Ar. in one 
of his editions, is perhaj)3 more suitable, 
especially as Peiroos is wounded in the 
breast, not in the back. 

533. 6kp6kouoi: cf. B 542 "A^vret 
6iri0€if K0fi6(i)pT€s, and note there, i'^t- 
Xatrat Avdpes, Pind. P. iv. 172, perhaps 
means the same thing. 

535. ncXcuixoH. stiiqgcrrd ; was shaken 
by the attack, cf. 8 443, 11 612. 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 


W9 T(B 7' iv Koviffto'i Trap* dWi]\oia^ rerdaOrjv, 
^ Tot 6 fiev &prjtK(!)V, 6 S' 'ETretwi/ 'x^aXKOjf^LTtovcov 
-qycfjMve^;' woXKol Se irepLKreivovro koI aXXoi, 

evOd K€v ovK€Ti cpjov avrjp ovocraLTo fiereXdofv, 
09 Tt9 €T affkrjTo^ Kol dvovraros o^ii j(a\K&t 
Bivevot Kara fiiaaov, dyot Be e TlaXKd^ ^A0i]V7) 
^€t/)09 iXova, avrdp /SeKicov direpvKOi ipcDi^v 
TToWol yap Tpcocov xal *Ay(ai&v fifunc kclvcdi 
7rpr)P€€^ iv KOvir)iai trap aKhJ]KjQi,<Ti reravTO. 


536. TCO r* : oY r* G. || ncrdic»HN 2>J {e corr.) Q. 589. oO, k^ ti (Ar.?) A. || 
d* iproN 0. 541. diNcOa GH. || fira GN {supr. 01) PC^ : bm {mpr, 01). 

542. iXoOca Mip Eiist. : iXoOc* Ardp A {ntpr, a over c and u over t) G {supr, a 
over c) HJM?) QR: iXoOca aOrdp OT. || Ancpi^Ka JDQ. 

539. For oOk^ there was a curious 
variant 06 k€ ti ; it is not quite clear 
from the scholia whether Ar. adopted 
it or not. If so, he probably did it on 
the analogy of Av kcv in N 127. Tlie 
repetition of k€v would be quite un- 
Homeric, and wKiri gives a perfectly 
good sense, viz. *it had now come to 
this, that none could make li^ht,' as 
might conceivably have happened before. 
See I 164 and note. ucrcXocbN, etUcnny 
the fight. 

540. ABXhtoc by missiles, dNoi>raToc 
by thrust, as usual. 

542. The MS. readings seem to point 
to an orimnal iXovca drdp, whicti is 
supported hy the fact that avrdp always 

has the first syll. in arsis. But the 
hiatus is not allowed in this place ; in 6 
503, A 732, "P 694, and other cases 
where hiatus occurs before drdp, it is 
always in the principal caesurae. ipoai^N, 
rush, impetus. 

543. Hentley and He^ne, followed by 
Nauck and others, consider the last two 
lines of the book as spurious. The words 
fijuLom KciNCON, in combination with the 
plupf. T^TONTo, certainly look as though 
they belonged to the end, not to the 
beginning of a day's fighting, and may 
therefore have been a rhajtsodist's ' tag,' 
meant to wind up the end of a day's 
recitation, and omitted when A was im- 
mediately followed by E. P. Knight 
suspects 539-42 as well. 



With this book we come upon the first of the ari^eiat, sections of the Iliad 
in which a single hero comes to the front and for a shorter or longer time 
assumes a prominence which does not elsewhere belong to him. The title 
ALOfirjSov^ dpurT€ia is as old as Herodotos, who quotes by that name 
Z 289-92 (ii. 116). The restriction of the name to E dates of course only 
from the present division into books, and the wider use recognises the fact 
that E and Z are a continuous narrative. In the early part of Z Diomedes 
is as prominent as in E, and the account of Hector's visit to Troy is based 
entirely upcm a state of things in which Diomedes has struck more terror 
into the Trojans than ever Achilles did (Z 96-101). 

But though the narrative of the two books now forms a single story — 
at least with the exception of two episodes, the duel of Sarpedon and 
Tlepolemos in this book, and the meeting of Diomedes and Glaukos in the 
next, for these are but loosely interwoven into the texture — yet none the 
less the structure of this part of the Iliad presents a most difficult problem. 
Leaving for later consideration one of the most glaring contradictions in the 
Iliad, that between the acts of Diomedes in E and his words in Z 128, we 
find in the former book itself such confusion of motive and peculiarity of 
style and contents as forbid us to regard it as a single and harmonious 

The natural division of the book is into three parts : (i.) 1-463, 
Diomedes makes havoc of the Trojans, and, though wounded by Pandaros, 
returns to the fight, and drives Aphrodite bleeding from the field ; (ii.) 
454-710, Ares and Apollo rally the Trojans, and Diomedes for a while 
retreats to the background ; the principal episode is the killing of Tlepolemos 
by Sarpedon ; (iii.) 7 1 1-909, Hera and Athene come to the aid of the 
Greeks, and Diomedes wounds Ares with the assistance of Athene. 

The general plan of the Iliad is observed only in the fact that Achilles 
does not appear on the scene. On the other hand, it is certain that the 
balance of the whole story is seriously impaired by the deeds of Diomedes, 
who far outdoes any achievements of Achilles, the hero of the Wrath. Nor 
is there any clear allusion to the immediately preceding duel of Menelaos 
and Paris ; the words of Pandaros indeed in 207 contain such a reference, 
but they are betrayed as a later addition by the fact that they are an obvious 
expansion of the preceding line 188. As ^ey stand they do little more 
than emphasise the complete silence of Diomedes about the gross treachery of 

lAIAAOC E (y) 193 

his victim, or of the poet who misses the imperative duty of calling 
attention to the swift retribution which overtakes the violator of the truce. 
It is patent that the Diomedeia was composed in complete independence of 
the two preceding books, and the passage 206—8 was only added afterwards 
when the Iliad was reaching its present shape. 

The duel of Sarpedon and Tlepolemos again stands by itself, and is 
never alluded to elsewhere. The introduction of so important a figure as 
Sarpedon in 471 is singularly abrupt^ and the Herakleidai are elsewhere 
conspicuous by their absence from Homer. The episode, like the death of 
Sarpedon himself in IT, is full of vigour, but like it is easily detachable 
from its context^ and may have been originally x^omposed for almost any 
part of the Tale of Troy. 699 is evidently meant to follow 606 (cf. 702 with 
604), and the Tlepolemos episode unnaturally breaks the sequence. 

But it is when we come to the large portions of the book which deal 
with the intervention of the gods that the real difficulties are felt They 
begin early. The short colloquy of Athene and Ares in 29-36 is 
entirely devoid of motive, and the allusion to the wrath of Zeus seems to 
imply the command to the gods to abstain from battle which does not in 
fact come till 6. Athene again intervenes in 122, when Diomedes has 
been wounded in the shoulder. After the prayer of Diomedes in the 
preceding lines, we should suppose that Athene merely healed the wound, 
as a god, from afar. Her unexpected presence on the spot and the instruc- 
tions she gives to Diomedes to attack Aphrodite are in preparation for the 
important episode which begins with 330. Up to that line the rescue of 
Aineias by his mother runs the ordinary course of such rescues in Homer 
(see for instance 1. 23) ; Aphrodite saves Aineias, and no more need be 
said. But with the attack on Aphrodite herself, we enter an episode 
which stands quite apart from the rest of the Iliad. We find ourselves in a 
world of myths of which we know nothing elsewhere. It is not here a 
matter of contradictions or inconsistencies, though they are to be found ; we 
are surprised, for instance, to find Athene in Olympos when her personal 
presence on the battle-field has just been insisted on ; and the poet is clearly 
much troubled with the question of the continuance of the fighting over 
Aineias, when that hero has been removed to Troy. Diomedes too thrice 
attacks Apollo in strange forgetfulness of the injunctions Athene has laid 
on him. In fact the return to earth from Olympos is beset with such 
difficulties that the sudden introduction of Sarpedon is almost a relief from 
obvious embarrassment. But more serious than all such minor difficulties 
is the un-Homeric atmosphere which reigns till we return to the original 
stream of narrative in 519. 

The third section, beginning with 711, bears a most suspicious resem- 
blance, with its exaggeration of divine faculties to the verge of grotesqueness, 
to the buffoonery of the Theomachy in <l>. It is pretty obviously a deliberate 
attempt to outbid the wounding of Aphrodite, and various peculiarities in 
the language all seem to point to a late period of the Epos. Further- 
more it will be seen that the episode contains a large number of 
obviously borrowed lines. 763-4 come from A 498-9, and make nonsense 
here, for the goddesses have left Olympos. 791 is from N 107, where it is 
in place ; here it is simply untrue that the Greeks are fighting *^ at the 


194 lAIAAOC E (v) 

ships." The arming of the goddesses in 719-52 is largely identical with 
6 381-96, though the latter book is itself such a free borrower that little 
stress can be laid on this. But the description of the armour bears a strong 
resemblance to that at the beginning of A, a notoriously late passage ; and 
is in all probability expanded by a late hand. 

The whole book then seems to illustrate the process of concretion and 
expansion which mark the Iliad as a whole. To a real Aristeia of Diomedes 
as a nucleus, in which there was no intervention of the gods beyond the 
healing of Diomedes* wound, there are additions on the one hand of the 
Sarpedon episode, which may have originally been composed for some other 
place, and on the other hand the two woundings of Aphrodite and Ares, 
which can only have grown up where they now stand, one on the top of the 
other. And as usual we find that the more personal and human the 
interference of the divine element, the more suspicion of late origin 
accompanies it 

But after all is said, these weaknesses touch only the general stmcture 
of the book, and in no way affect the beauty of the episodes, which, though 
confined within narrow limits, are in the highest degree vivacious and 
varied. Sarpedon, the most striking of the few new characters to whom we 
are introduced, is here, as on the rare occasions when he reappears, a 
remarkable picture, drawn in few and strong lines, of the purest aristocrat, 
with all the chivalry and not a little of the morgue of his more than princely 
place. In strong contrast to him we meet another new personage in Ares, 
the Olympian Porthos, whose deification is little more than an exaggeration 
of the swashbuckler's less attractive attributes ; it is the human Diomedes 
who typifies all the nobler qualities of pious heroism. 

Aiojuii^douc dpicTc(a. 

€vd^ ai TvSetBrft ^LOfirjhel YlaXKks ^AO-qvrj 
B&Ke fjUvo^ Kol Odpero^, Xv €KSrj\o^ fiera iraaiv 
^Apyeiocci yivoiTO iSk kXeo^ icrffXov apoiTO, 
BaU oi Ik KopvOo^ re kol aairiho^ aKafiarov irvp, 
aarep oiroipivtoi ivaXifyKtov, 09 re fidkioTa 
Xafrrrpov 7rafi(f>aiv7)i(rt XeXovfievo^ 'fl/ceai/oto * 
Toiov oi irvp Salev dirb Kparo^ re kol AficDV, 
aypae Be fuv xarci fieaaov, o0t irkela-rot KKoviovro, 
fjv Be Tt9 iv Tpcoeaai Adprj^ d(f>V€i6<i dfiv/uov, 

3. fthk GJ. 4. dat^ ol : datbi oi Par. e : daicdcoi Ambr. and tlv4s ap, 

Eust. II Ik 0771. Q. 5. dcT^pi G Ambr. (A supr.) aud yp. Eust. || iNciXImoN Q. 
6. ncui9a{Ha R^ 8. kXonIonto : xai fipicroi H^ 

4. daf^ oi is added epexegetically to 
duKc, and hence without a conjunction, 
as e 234 1 etc. But the variants daU 54 
oi ix KbpvBoi and baU oi xdpvdoi may point 
to an older daU 54 ol ir6p., or rather, as van 
L. suggests, date 54 F'{oi) 4k K6p. For 
the idea cf. 2 206-14, and X 134-5. The 
fire seems to be rather a symbol of in- 
vincible fury than a physical Dame ; for 
it is not remarked in the sequel by friend 
or foe. 

5. This fine simile is essentially like 
that of X 26-9, whence we see that the 
star of summer is Seirios, ' the dog of 
Orion.' For 6no»piN6c, which hence 
must mean the * dog-days,' the time of 
the heliacal rising of Seirios, rather 
than what we call autumn, cf. also II 
385, 4> 346, \ 192 (re^aXwa, as the 
season of fruit). The Homeric division 
of the year is into spring, early summer 
{64poi)t late summer {6irJjprj\ and winter, 
and corresponds with the fact that the 
transition from the heat of summer to 
the cold of winter is in Greece extremely 

rapid. The scansion dinapludif though 
invariable in H., is strange beside ^aptvut 
with r. Cf. dyxt(rriyot. A very con- 
jectural explanation and etymology will 
l)e found in Schulze Q. £. p. 474. For 
the elision of -i of the dat. cf. H. O, 
§ 376 (3). 

6. XcXouu^oc, as S 489 \oerpup 
'QKcatfoto. For the gen. cf. Z 508, etc. 
ncLU9aiNHia : the usual subj. in relative 
clauses of similes (138 and often). Nitzscli 
curiously read ira/jL<paUyTjai as indie — an 
impossible form of course. 

7. Schol. A on this line is interesting 
as giving one of the few extant specimens 
of the method of Zoilos, the famous 
'OfiripofidffTi^ — *'ZwtXof 6 *Eip4aios Karrj- 
yopti ToD T&irov tovtov^ koI /x4iJL<f)€Tai tQi 
iroirjTTJi 5tl \lav ycXolus vewolrfKev ix rdv 
&fjLit)v ToO AioiJLi^5ovs Koudficyop wvp' 4Ktv- 
5vv€v<TC yd.p Slp xara^Xex^^^ai 6 ijpias.** 
The strokes of the lash do not seem to 
have been very formidable. 

9. For this exordium cf. P 676. 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

ipeif^ 'Hc^aierroto • Bvco Be ol viie^ fiarriv, 10 

^ijyev^ 'ISaro9 T€, fid')(r}^ Of elBore irdari^' 
T(o oi aTTOKpLvdeme ivavrieo opfirjOijTrjv 
TO) fi€v a<f>* imrouv, 6 S' dwo j(j9ovo^ &pvvTO Trefo?. 
oi S' ore Bij cyeBov ^aav eir aXKrfKoiaiv lovre^, 
^rj^ev^ pa irporepo*; wpotei BoXi^ocKtov eyj^o?* 15 

TvBetBeo) S' vwep &fjbov dpiarepov fiKv0* aKeoKrf 
^^€09, ovS* efiaX^ avrov. 6 B varepo^ &pvvro ^aXica>t 
TuSeiSiy?* rov S* ou^ iTuov /SeXo? €K<f>vy€ yei,p6^, 
aXX' efiaXe arrjOo^ fiCTafid^tov, 3}ae S* dif> Linrcov. 
lBalo<i S' airopovae Ximoiv irepiKoXKea Bi(f>pov, 20 

ouS' €tXi7 ireptfiijvai aB€X<f>etov Krafievoio* 
ovBe yap ovBe kcv avro^ vireK^vye xijpa fieXaivav, 
dXX' "H<^ato-T09 epvTO, crdeoae Be vvktX KaXvyjca^, 
ft)9 S?7 oi fiff irdyyy yeptov aKa'^rj/uLevo^ etrj. 

10. icpciic GHJMOPQ. || uMc» L. || ficTHN : Hthn D {p. ras.) JL : ftcoNN NQ 
{supr, or) : ficoN C. 11 om, Q. || idore Ambr. 12. dnoKpuie^crc AHP : 

dnoKpie^rrac OQ (Harl. a supr.) : 6noKpie6n-c Q. || InqntCco ACDJLT Ambr. : 
^cmrioN Q. || 6pJULHei)THN DLNOQ Ambr.: upuHOi^TMN Q (including A, T.W. A.). 
13 07/1. C^. 15. npdTKpON Q. 16. Tudcidou G. 17. d* OcTCpoc : dk 

dci>rcpoc Vr. a. 20. ^6poucc N. || dn6pouccN Id^N P. 21. ncpuitffMcn 

PQR. II ddcXtpcoO Q. 

10. Hephaistos, like Athene, though 
represented as allied with the Greeks, is 
worshipped in Troy. ficfHN: here only. 

12. dnoKpiNo^NTC, separating them- 
selyes from the throng, ol : for the dat. 
after ivavrlos cf. I 190, A 67, but it is 
only here used of hostile meeting, in 
which sense the gen. is commoner. 

17. ci0t6n seems to bo used in the 
later weak sense = /uv, not to contrast 
the man with something else. Van L. 
conj. ipdXip F\ b S^ de&repoif on the 
ground that, except in the identical II 
479, deuTcpos, not firrepos, is always used 
in this sense. 

19. JUicrcuidzioN=/Arrd toU fial;^oht be- 
tween the breasts. For similar cases, 
where an adjective compounded with a 
preposition and a substantive expresses 
the same idea as a preposition governing 
a case, we may compare /xeraddprioi 
{fAirh. bbprov) 6 194, fieradi^fjuos, Kara- 
BvfuoSf viru)p6<l>ios, ^iro/i^dXiov (H 267), 
and others ; and for the special use of 
fierdf expressing * between ' two or more 
things, compare in later Greek fiercUxfuoi^ 
furaKdfffuoSf fieraKOfuot, lurairbpyioif. The 

word here (as in H 267) is rather a 
neuter used as an adverb than an ad- 
jective agreeing with criidos. 

20. dn6poucc, either in order to escape, 
when oCd^ = ' aiid . . not ' ; or to 
defend his brother, when oitbi = *bui 
. . not' (so Schol. A). JcaTinro/oet «reU 
TOVTOv rod rdirov 6 ZwtXos, iri Xiar, 
0T7(rf, ye\ol<ai irexolrjKtP 6 iroiriTijs t^w 
'IScuoy dro\iir6tn-a roi>$ tirirouj Kod rb 
dpfjLa <p€vyeiv '^56vaTO ydp fxaWor irl 


21. For ddcX9cioO Ahrens, no doubt 
rightly, reads d5€\<p€6o : this alteration 
can always be made wherever dSeX^uw 
occurs, and all other cases are from 
ddeXipeds in Homer. 

22. On the double oOd^ Schol. A 
rightly remarks, iirrip ij pia pJtv ixl rw 
irpdyfiaTiKy Baripa Bi iirl tov Tpoatiwov : 
i.e. the second oifdi goes with a<>r6f and 
contrasts the two persons ; the first 
contrasts the two events (one real, the 
other hypothetical). Cf. B 708, Z 180. 

24. ot, i.e. his old priest, their father. 
dKOYi^ucNoc, according to the traditional 
explanation, is a perfect with *Aeolic 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


L7nrov<; S' i^eXdaa^ fieyaOvfJMv TvBio^ v/09 25 

B&K6V kraipoiaiv Karar/etv fcol\a^ cttI vrja^. 

Tpwe? Be fieydOvfiOL iirel ISov vU AdprjTo^; 

Tov fiev akevdfievov, top Se Krdfievov trap* 6^€<r<l>L, 

iraaiv opivOr} Ovfio^* drap yXavK&in^ ^KOrjvr} 

^€tpo9 ehjova iirieaai TrpocrrjvBa dovpov Apr)a' 30 

**^Ap€<;, "A/oe^ fipoToKoirye, /Mat(f)6v€, TeL^ea-cirXiJTa, 

ovK av Bf) Tpcm^: /lev idaatfiev koI 'A^atou9 

fidpvacr0\ oinrorepoiat warrjp Zev? kvBo^ ope^r^i ; 

v&i Be ya^cofieaOa, At09 S* dXeoifieda firjvtv.*^ 

0)9 ehrovaa fidyrj^ e^'qyevye Oovpov ^Kpr^a, 35 

TOV fiev eTretra KaOeiarev eir ^ioevri XKafmpBpcji, 
Tp(ba<; S €K\ivav Aavaoi' eXe S' dvBpa Skooto^ 
rjyefiovcDv. Trparrof; Be dva^ dvBpSiv * Ayafiifivayv 
dp^ov 'AXt^coveov, ^OBiop fieyav, CK^aXe Bi<\)pov* 
wpayrcot yap oTpe^Oevri, fi€Ta<f>pev(i)i ev Bopv irij^ev 40 

cifjLCOv fieacffyv^, Bta Bk aTi^0e(r<f>cv eXaaae, 
loovirffaev oe ireacov, apaprjae oe Tev^e eir aurwt.J 

27. d^ : d^ G'^. 28. dXcuducNON : 6XcuducNON Au. (in lemma ; Ar. ? v. 

444). 29. 6p<iH9H MR {sujn-. 1). || aOr^ip MQ. 30. iXoOca Cneca G. 81. 
TdxcciBXAra Zen. King's^ (Par. a 9upr. d supr.)^ yp. : Tcixca nXAxTa D. 82. 

k&cKouMH P. 33. 6p^xci CMQ Vr. a^ c : 6p4boi L {sujir. h). 84. j(QXiiujM»ai 

DG^PQ : x<izduflea R. 86. Xkbi InciTQ : uci^nciTa S. || KaudNdpco(i) C Cp. 

raa.) GLQR^. 38. np^^TOC : np6Tcpoc H. 41 ortu Lips.^ || dSuoo J. 42 

om. ACT^ Eton.t 

accent ' ; and so the infin. d.K6.xn<^^<"" 
Bat it would seem preferable to regard 
these forms as non- thematic presents 
{H. O, § 19) of the e- stem djcaxc-, of 
which we have a trace in the aor. 
dKdxn<ff' There is a perf. of different 
formation in dKTjx^darai P 637, dKtjx^y^vos 
S 29. The redaplication in this verb 
extends through all forms. iXiX-qcBai. is 
an analogous case. 

31. *fytc, *'Apcc : see Appendix D for 
the scansion of Apijs, and for the effect 
of the first arsis in lengthening a short 
syllable. The name is found with long 
d chiefly in the last foot, but occasion- 
ally in the first (518, 594, A 441, etc.), 
more rarely in the second (827, 829), and 
fourth, Z 264 ; in all cases in arsi. 
Bekker, following Ixion, wrote the second 
word dp4if taking it as the adj. of which 
the compar. and superL dpeUjp and 
dpurrot are familiar, but it cannot here 
be separated from the proper name. It 
is, however, remarkable that H. nowhere 

else repeats a word without change twice 
in immediate succession, common though 
the practice is in later poets ; a long 
list of instances is given by Bekker 
H. B. 194. The most similar phrases in H. 
are alv6$€v alvQSf olbOev cHo^j and others 
which will be found in the exhaustive 
catalogue given by Bekker I.e. Tcixca- 
nXAro, earning near to walls, in hostile 
sense, like iir\f)VT dXXT^Xrytcri A 449, 

33. 6nnoT£poici, i.e. to see to which 
party Zeus will give. 

36. AY6cNn : a word of quite unknown 
signification, occurring in this place 
only. The obvious derivation from ^ilt^i' 
is hardly possible for phonetic reasons ; 
and ijCthv is always used of the shore of 
the sea, not of a river, ^iri FlUvtl 
Brandreth ; cf. Et. Mag, irapd rb tov 
ISeis Kai irXeovoff/MCoL tov 17 ^'iden, 

37. IkXinqn, as Lat. inclinare aciem, 
40. npc£rroai cTpc9e^NTi, Le. turning 

to flee before all the others. 


■■s ^'^/^e'i fiaKpo)i 

:jii flip (TKOTO^ elXe. 
.• :■ ^epuTTOi'Te';' 
iluova Ot'jpTj^y 

^LOt'VTl, '-0 

\jT€fll<s aVT7} 

- :^sbei ovpeaiv vKi-j. 
\ :rtfjLi'<i lo^ea [pa , 

V tKeKaaro • 


%.-.,.-*:'c ' : ♦NHpoTO K € /// ///</. uaioNOC 

^(.-vX CK t' tipNHC li.l C.-lllt. : ix 6pNHC 

.^^"wi \a\Kw .IL. 47. ck6toc : uopoc MX. 

.t^-tfACl . 49. CTp09i0U .1. KQUdNdplON <' 

51. auTH : ccoXh r«,». 62. rd : 

.%. c..«.N eoNGiTOio neXcopa '/.ni. 54. aTci H. 

>.ilisf;H'torv rtviuoluiTV of eitlnr w.iid 
r»0. 63u6eic : : : <;tai0Lnx6fLS X OSri) : 

llnlil'l .'/. I nith, llniii. ill -ftS '/• v.' ' .-f ''■:■■! 

nil foriiis in -<is are •!« rivi'<l lr.>iu <u^- 

1 : >tanlivt'>. ami thus tln-M- t\v«» wnnls iiiu»>t 

i'i c-oiiH' ficiii till' mutiT (»!' the a-lj. iisi-iisuh- 

'.:< staiitively : oi^i u'.a - jHriiish*'/ '•/■'/■ #»/{ 6^i . 

..'.:■ i.e. shar]> ]M)iiit : «;>ai5iU'>(5---# ,i./,'* ..' </■.?/« 

.«; -. V'"''^'"ci. i.f. ^h-ainiiii: aiiiioiir. Oui- ol-.i 

. .: lit ri\aliniMva> fiDiu u^- T7, 'maif .»t !.. .-..1;. 

■ ».> ".n W'linl," but til"- t«Tuiinati(in -'ts luvt.r 

■■.>:>o iinlii'ates malarial; aii«i tlio >j>rai'i nt 

■ ■:i.::. lluimr are always maile. not ■■!, 
i^nnt is, hut ni abh. l»ut s'-e Kur. //> f ■■, i.i. 7'J7 

v. a«* Tn''\y} ^uu^\,'^, >':/•» *>' ivt^'s ''■;■■ vx-. and 

V •. a'' Artljil. "/>. Srhnl. ]*» riirj-hyiin^ Z "J'Jl 

••: Il.e i"; ' t] Toraro. 

.'•."». Zi. iji**!. In-r*- liail ihf ii-iuaik.ibh' 

< ill n aililii^ X/>anTu»v ''araroio TrtXw^'ci, which 

. luro li"' 'an hanlly havt- inv»ii;iMi ; for a 

■ iial" '^HiiH.what similar us*- iil" ttiXwi-^ vo 

\\:;.> ii'. iii:i:ht (•«.»ni|'ai» U •'I'Jl o-ii-d TrcXuv-a ''fiT-j. 

•'ii:'- ]i"r.i lit',* and a> tin' wonl in 

•i-i I!:- H. i> alN\ays usfl ui lixim: ii. iTures 

. ;•" i: Tuav he I'lr.ilh-Ii-.l hv H:}«'2 kr,.#s ''asi- 

•.i\.' rvio. It i"* a sriii»u.> nue.Ntii'n it" ihi.s 

^ . . is imt a i-.i-'f \\hrr»^ 'tacilit»ii lii-ti'»ni 

MiM.^ ]»ra'-.'T »t (lilU^ ilii'i." loxcaipa. ;<'■•/•. /■ .;' 

'. ». u:-. " '•. ' f. •'1'^ '*■«. .-J.- i\*iai' : n<>i, of 


lAIAACX: E (y) 


aXKd fjnv ArpetBrf^ BovpcfcXeiTo^ Mei/eXao^ 65 

irpoaOev eOev <f>€vyovTa fjL€Td<f>p€vov ovraae Sovpi 
[Aficov fi€aar}yv<;, Bca Be arrjOecf^iv ekaa<r€v\ 
Tip Lire Be Trpr^vrj^, apd^rfae Be rev^e' iir avr&i. 
M.7jpLovr)(; Be ^epeKKov hnjparo, TeKTOvo^ viov 
' ApfiopiBeo), 09 'x^epalv e7ri<rraro BaiBaXa iravra 60 

rev^eiv* e^O'^a yap fiiv i<f>lXaTO UaXKcL^ *Xdi]vrj' 
09 Kol ^ AXe^dvBpcoL reKTrjvaro vria^ etag,^ 
cipj^eKaKov^it cu Traai KUfcbv Tpcoeaai, yevovro 
ol T avT&i, eVel ov ti 6eS)v ex 0ea<\)ara rjiBrj, 
rov fJL€v Mr)pt6vr)<;, ore Brj KarifiapTrre Blcokcdp, 65 

0€^7)K€L yXoVTOP KUTU Be^lOV TJ Bk BiaTTpO 

dvTLKpv Kara Kvariv x/rr oareov fjKvO clkcokti, 
yvv^ 8' epiTT olfuo^a<;, Oavaro^ Be fiiv apA^eKaXxr^e, 

WriBatov S' dp €7re(f>ve Meyrf^, ^ Avrijvopofi vlov, 
09 pa p60o<; fjuev erjv, irvfca S' eTpe<f>e Bia &eav(o, 70 

laa <f>L\oiaL reKeaai, j(^apL^ofi€vr) iroael wt. 

56. doupiKXcirbc DP : doup), kXut6c A : doupixXurbc Q. 57 om, AH^DN^T^ 
(added in T°> by Khosos) Lips. || juccchKi R. 58. d^ npHNl^C : d* km b^ixan 

MS Harl. a {yp. npHN^c MS Harl. a). 60. dpuoNfdao G. || ndirra and noXXd 

Ar. bix^^' 61. TCUSC1N J {supr. X«n). || 9iXcrro N : l9iXHCC S : yp, ki^\kHC€ 0. 
64 M. Ar. II fiidH : fi(i)dci CMNPQ (and J s^ipr,), 65. Kcrr^uapnc Q. 66. 

Ad^ J. 68. pnOc p. 69. uI6c Q. 70. Mrpa^ FT. 

59. T^KTONOC seems to bo a proper 
name derived from its owner's calling, 
like Tia^os H 220, AaiSaXos, BovKoKliav 
Z 22, 4>Tj/ztoj TefyiridSrji the minstrel x 
330. So the name of the father "Ap/iwv 
means the joiner. In 6 114 we have the 
patronymic TeKToviSrjs. he in 60 and 62 
no doubt refers to the principal person, 
Phereklos ; so that the craft is repre- 
sented as hereditary in three generations. 

60. dafdaXa : always a subst. in H. , 
the adj. being daiSdXeo^. 

63. Herodotos was obviously thinking 
of this line when he said of the ships 
which the Athenians sent at the request 
of Aristagoras to help the lonians against 
the Persians, a^rrat al vies dpxh icaKup 
iyivovro "EXXryo'^ re Koi ^ap^dpoiatf V. 97. 

64. Schol. A dderciTatj 6rt ovx vyiu>s 
i^iHjjvoX^i oX Traai Kaxbu Tpwecro"* yivovro 
eairrCbi re. ^5et ydp ajVrwt re. if 5i 
ol dpOoToyeTrai vvv 5iA r^v dpx^v. This 
scholion contains two different views : 
the first — down to aiVcDi re — is that of 
Aristonikos and Ar., that ol standing at 
the beginning of the line must be ortho- 

tone and therefore reflexive (see ff, Q, 
§ 253) ; but that the reflexive sense is 
inadmissible here, because the subject 
of the clause is vijes : hence the line 
must be spurious. The second opinion 
is probably that of Herodianos, that the 
ol is really anaphoric, not reflexive 
(= ai>TcDt, not ^airruw), but that it is 
orthotone because it stands at the begin- 
ning of the line (5tA t^v dpx^y)» The 
latter view is taken by La Roche (ff. U. 
141). It is, however, possible to take ot 
avTwi as reflexive = sUd ipsif Le. to 
Phereklos, who is the subject of the 
principal sentence though not of the 
relative clause. Schol. A says, 'EWdviKds 
<pr}<Ti x{"l<^y^^v BodrpKu ToUTp(i)ffipdirix€<r$ai 
fi^v vavTiXlaSf ycupyLcu, 5k irpotr^ctv, fiii 
TTJi BaXdaarfi "Xfi^iifi^voi dvoXitrutriv iavroOs 
re Kal rijy irdXiif. Observe that ec&N 6c 
goes closely with ^^(r0ara, cf. BeQy Aro 
fi-^Sca €l5(as f 12. 

70. OcQNCib : see Z 298, A 224. Paley 
compares £ur. Andr. 224 jccU fxatrrbv Ijdrf 
voXKdKis p6doi(n aoU iiri<rxov, Ivo. coi 
firjd^y ivdoLrjy iriKp6p, 


lAIAACX: E (v) 



Tov fikv 4>v\€t(Si79 BovpLk\trro<; eyyvOev i\0a>v 
fi€^i]K€t K€<f>a\7j^ Kara IvLov o^el Bovpi' 
avTiKpi) S av 6B6vTa<; vtto yXxbaaav rdfie ^oXko^. 
fjpLire S' iv Koviqi, -y^v^ov S' IXe yciXKov oBovcriv. 

ISiifpvTTvXo^ S' *Eivai,fJLOviBrf<{ 'Tyjrijpopa Blov, 
vlov vTrepOvfjbov AoXoiriopo^, 09 pa Xxafid^Bpov 

dprfnjp €T€TVKTO, ^€09 S' &9 Tt€TO Bl]/JUOt, 

TOV /ikv ap EvpvTTvXo^ ^^vaip^ovos arfKao^; vlo^ 
irpoaOev €0€V (f>€vyovTa fieraBpopABrfv eXaa ayp^ov 
<\)aarr^dv(OL at^a^, airo S' e^eae X^tpa fiapelav. 
alfiaroea-a-a Se xel/o ttcBlcdi iriae' tov Se kot oaae 
eXXafie 'irop<f>vp€o^ 0dvaTO<; koI fiolpa KpaTaii], 
(£9 01 p^v TTOveovTO KaTcL KpaT€pr)v vapXvrjv 
TvSetBrjv B ovK &v yvoit)^ TroTepoca-t p^Tcir), 
r/k p>€Td Tpdyeaatv opiCKeoL fj p^T 'A^atot^. 
0vv€ ycLp A/i ireZiov TroTapxot irXrjOovTL ioi^KO)^ 
'Xjeip^dppcDt, 09 T &Ka peoDV iKeiaaae yef^vpas' 
TOV S' out' dp T€ y€<f>vpat iepypivai ia')(av6(oaiv, 

72. doupiicXciT6c P. 73. doup( : x<=^^ ^^ {supr. doupi : Harl. a has doup( 
only) Vr. b. 75. KOlffHi : KONiH(i)c(i) ADH^PQRT Par. ig: iv dXXwt Rpinc V 

kK 6x^N A. 77. KOJudNdpou C (p. ras.) GLcJR {mpr. c) Vr. b. 78. Were 

DMP. 79 om. Q. 81 am. Q^. || 6nod^cXc M (not Harl. a). 86. AjuUXccn 
R : AuiXici 6Q Vr. a (P seems to have AuIXccn altered to -coi). 89. icpju^ai 

Ar. Par. h : ^rju^Nai P. 


73. turfoN, the great tendon at the 
back of the neck which holds the head 
upright ; K 456, S 495. The blow was 
thns given from behind. 

74. 0n6 TtujM, cut away at the root 
(Cauer conj. dir6, which is needless). 
dud, up through the teeth. 

77. 8c, Dolopion, not Hypsenor ; for 
the priests do not appear ever to fight in 
H. dpHTi^p : cf. 4> 131 for the worship 
paid to the river-god Skamandros. 

81. j^^— fore-arm^ tiS oit^n, 

83. nopfOpcoc, dark ; used of what 
we call the ' cold ' colours, from blue to 
violet Cf. T 418 veipiXri di /uiv dfupexd- 
\wJ/€ Kvavif). Thus the metaphor may 
be taken from the approach of a thunder- 

85. oOk Sn PNoiHC : cf. V 220. 

88. xcuA^ppoau tHiUer - tarrenty of 
sudden winter rains or melting snow. 
For 6c^daocc Naber and Nauck conj. 
iKiaffffij splits (11 347) ; but this would 
be more in place of the bursting of a 
reservoir ; here the picture is rather 

that of the gradual carrying away of the 
banks. But compare the imitation in 
Virg. Afiii, ii. 496 aggcrihus rupiis mm 
spumeus amnis^ etc. 

89. icprjui^ai, fenced close, drawn so 
as to make a fence to the stream. The 
r^9Upai are evidently here embankmctitt 
along the sides of the torrents ; and this, 
not * bridge,' is the regular meanine of 
the word in H. This, Fiisi's explanation, 
is sufficiently defended, ]>erhap8, by II 
481 <f>piv€i fpxoLTai dfnp* ddivdv /c^p, tJie 
midriff foTTiis a fence about the heart, 
ippdffffeiv similarly has a double use, (1) 
to fence in a space ; (2) to tnaJce a fence 
of e.g. N 130 {<f>pd^aLVT€i rd yippa Herod, 
ix. 61) ; and so also xaXi^irrcu, cf. note 
on 315 below. Compare also Virgil 
A en. ii. 497 opposiias evicit gvrgite moles 
(spumeus amnis). Most editors have 
adopted Ar.'s reading ^cpuiNcn, which 
is explained either * joined together in 
long lines,' or 'bound' in the sense of 
irvKiifCjs dpapvtai. Neither of these is 
very satisfactory ; €tp<a always means * to 

lAIAACX: E (v) 


ot/T apa epxea tercet aXcDcicov iptdrjXicDv 
eKJdovT e^airivrj^, or iTTL/Spiarji At09 Ofi/3po^' 
TToXKa S' utt' avrov epya KaTTJptTre /caK* al^rj&v. 
0)9 UTTO TvBetBfjt irvKLval k\ov€ovto <f>d\a/fy€^ 
Tpdxav, ovB apa fuv fiifivov wdXee^ irep iovre^, 
TOP S' ft)9 oJn/ ipoTjae Avkuovos 07X009 vio^ 
0VVOVT &fi ireZLov irpo eOev kXoviovra <f>d\a/yya^, 
cuyjr iirl TvSetBt)!, iri/raivero icapnrvka ro^a, 
Kal fidX* hratacrovra, rv^oav Kara Se^tov &fiov, 
0(op7]KO^ yvaXov BtcL S' eirraro iriKpo^ olaro^, 
dvTVKpif Be BUaye, iraXdaaero S* aXpxvn Ocoprj^. 
ra)L S' cttI /laKpov avae Avfcdovo^ 07X009 v/o9' 
" opvvaOe, T/3c!>€9 fieydOvfwi, Kevrope^ lttttcdv 
^effkrjrai yap apcaro^ ^Ayai&v, ovBe e <f>VH^ 
Brj6* dva-'xriaeaOai, Kparepov /8eXo9, ei ereov fi€ 
Sypaev dva^ Ato9 t;/o9 diropvvp^vov AvKlr)0€v, 





90. ifnoH\6uoN OPiQ. 91. ^ifipkxi CDLMQ: ^ifipOcci P: foifipi^cci U. 

92. d* : e* P. II KdXX' Q. 93. rukno) S. 96. Bxx : An T. || npo^ecN U^ : 

np6cecN U^ Vr. c. 97. Tuecideco Vr. b. 98. tux^n N. 104. bM An- 

CXl^ceceai Ar. O : bneh cxi^ccceai NOSU Par. b c g^ (and yp. J) : dQe* atq(i)ccc- 
eai J : bAe' dNacxi^ccceai CLMQ Par. f, Lips. Mor. : bneti dNacx^ceai G. || fi^oc 
Ar. O : uiHOC U^ (^ UKoc V% 

connect together by a rope or string ' (cf. 
o 460, <r 296 6p/xop xp^^^^^i "fiX^icrpounv 
^epfiiifoify strung tcUh amber beads)^ and 
the transition from this to the sense 
required for the text is not very simple. 
There is a possible alternative, to read 
iipy/j£vai as an in fin. ; the datrts do iiot 
hijld it back, so as to keep it within 
bounds ; but the order is not natural. 

90. <pKca Ycxci: f f<rx(t Brandreth, 
van L. But the regular order of words 
calls rather for F tpMd, In any 
case one hiatus is left. It is unlikely 
that tpKOi ever had f ; the only strong 
evidence is (t 102 irori ipKiov ai^X^s. In 
all other cases the f is either superfluous 
or impossible. 

92. ipro, agricultural works, especially 
tilled fields ; see B 751. 

95. AincdoNoc uI6c, Pandaros, see A 
89, etc. 

99. The ocbpHKoc rOaXoN causes 
difficulty. There is no doubt that it 
means the (front) plaJU of the cuirass ; 
but later on (112-3, 795-9) it seems 
clear that Diomedes is not wearing a 
cairass at all. It seems necessary to 
suppose that 99-100 were interpolated at 

a time when it was a matter of course 
that the hoplite wore a Oitfprj^t and the 
mention of it therefore seemed in- 
dispensable. See App. B. 

100. dt^cYCt held mi its way through^ 
cf. N 519 5t Cjfiov 5' t^pifiov Hyxos f<TX(- 

105. The country of Pandaros is called 
AukIh here and 173 oiily ; the inhabi- 
tants are always Tpioa (e.g. 200). Else- 
where we only hear of the city of Zeleia 
as Pandaros' home (e.g. B 824). It is 
impossible to say how the name of Lykia 
was attached to this obscure town. The 
only links with the well-known Lykia 
seem to be the name of Lykaon, the 
epithet XvKTiycv-fis given to Apollo ( A 101 ), 
and the fact pointed out by Fellows that 
in Lykia proper there was a city Tlos 
and a tribe of TXwej. "Whether there 
was any tradition which connected these 
with the Tpwes we cannot say. Of course 
it is possible that two sections of a 
Lykian tribe bearing that name may 
have settled in distant regions ; but it 
is more probable that the coincidence of 
name is merely accidental, especially as 
\6kios was not a native name (see note 
on A 101). 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

aXX' dvaycop'qa'a^ wpoad* tinrouv Koi oj(€a'<f>Lv 

eoTT), Kal XOivekov 7rpoa€<fyrf Kairavqiop viov 

" 6p<ro, ireirov KairavrjldBt), KaTafirjaeo Bi<f>pov, 

o<f)pd fwi i^ Afioio ipv(r(njt^ iriKpov otcrroi//' 110 

0)9 a/)' ec^iy, S^ei/eXo? hk Kaff Xmroyv SXro ^afia^e, 
TTcLp Sk ard^ fiiXo^ onKif SuifiTrepk^ i^epva Afjuov 
alfia S' dvrjKOVTL^e hid cnpeiTTolo yirSyvo^. 
S^ tot' €W€iT rjparo fioijv dyaOo^ Atofii]Bf)<i* 
" tcXvdi /JLOL, alrfLoypu} Ato? T€/co9, drpvrdvrjf 115 

€? irori fioi, Kal irarpl <f>C\a <f>pov€ovaa irapicrrr}^ 
Btftcoi iv TToXifuoL, vvv air ifik <f>TKai, ^AOiji/rj* 
So^ Se T€ fi avSpa eXetv xal €9 opfirjv ey^eo? i\0€a/, 

106. 9dT* focux^JULCNOc MPRU Vr. b. i, dbxCf : yp, 6x0 'Sch. Vrat. et Mosc. 1' 
(Heyne). 107. dNGXOOpi^Gac : dNaxacGdjmcNoc P. 109. 6pcc S Vr. A: bpoto 
NO Vr. a c, Mosc. 3. 110. &uoiYn Q. 112. &uxon NQ. 115. JUOl : jucu 
JNOQ Cant. : uou M Harl. a. 117. 9TX<n (9iXai) ANST* Mosc. 1, Bust, (and 
yp. 0) : 9TXa U^: 9{Xa V^: 9iXc* 0. 118. b6c bi ri Xk* : r^ hi ri u* is 

given as a variant in a corrupt Schol. A : v, Ludw. ad loc. 

109. n^ON is here evidently not a 
^rm of reproach (see B 235), but merely 
a form of courteous address. Cf. Z 55, 
I 252. KOToBi^cco : cf. 46. 

112. diauncp^ right through the 
wound, in order not to have to pull the 
barbs backwards ; the shaft of the arrow 
is of course cut off. Cf. A 213 for the 
opposite process ; the barbs not being 
buried in the flesh the arrow is pulled 
out backwards. It is apparently implied 
that Diomedes wore no cuirass ; for we 
should have to suppose either that 
Sthenelos took off the back -plate, or 
that the arrow had pierced tnis also^ 
and was drawn through it 

113. Here again the mention of the 
XiTcbN alone seems clearly to shew that 
Diomedes has no breastplate ; for it 
would be strange if the blood were said 
to spurt througii the tunic concealed by 
the breastplate while the visible breast- 
plate itself is passed over in silence. The 
meaning of CTpcrrF6c applied to the 
chiton here and ^ 31 is very uncertain. 
According to the old interpreters it 
meant either * woven' — a sense which 
cannot be got out of the word or its use 
— or else, and this was apparently the 
view of Aristarchos, a 'coat of mail/ 
chain or scale armour ; but this is un- 
tenable, as such armour is absolutely 

unknown both to H. and to the old 
monuments. Ace. to Studniczka it 
implies a mode of weaving in which an 
extra twist was given to the threads, 
thus producing a crapy or crinkled 
surface (Studn. Beitr. p. 64). But it 
is far sinii)ler to understand it to mean 
no more than pliant^ as in I 497, O 203, 
T 248. 6nhk6ntizc darted vp ; the 
metaphor is imitated in Hero<l. iv. 181 
dvaxovW^ei ix pAaov tov dXds Obiop yj/vxp^^ 
Eur. IIcl. 1587, etc 

115. uou dat as Q 335 (kXvcs Ck k' 
idiXrjurSaf 11 516 dKodeip dv4pi Ktfdofiivui, 
Theog. 4. 13, Solon 13. 2 ; cf. K 278, 
etc. — all cases of a god hearkening to 
prayer. ArpuitbNH, B 157. 

116. uoi and narpi of course go to- 
gether, 'my father,' in contrast to the 
emphatic ifii, 

117. 9iXai : this middle aor. is only 
used of the love shown to mortals by 
gods, see 61, K 280, T 304. 

118. The variant r^v 64 (or rStfde) is 
accepted by some on the ground that d6c 
may have been inserted to explain the 
construction of ace. and iniin., for which' 
see B 413. The change of subject in 
iXeciN, if it means ' that A« may come,' 
is very violent, but no emendations are 
acceptable. It is simple enough to 
translate ' that / may come within spear- 

lAIAACX: E (v) 


Brjpov €T oylteerOod, Xafiirpov (f>do^ rjeXloio,** 120 

A? €(f>aT eif^ofievo^, rov S* €k\v€ IlaWa? *A0i^vfj, 
yvia S' edrjKcv €ka(f>pd, 7roSo9 /cat yelpa^ virepOev' 
ary^ov S larafievrj lirea irrepoevra irpoarivZa* 
'* 0apaa)v vvv, AiOfirjBe^, iirl Tpdecrcrt fid')(€a6aL' 
iv yap Tot (mjOeacrt fiivo^ Trarpcoiov fJKa 125 

drpofiov, olov ej^ecr/ce aaKeairaXo^; iinroTa TuSeu?* 
d')(kvv 8* ai rot air d(f>0a\fi€i)v SXov, fj Trplv iirrjev, 
o<pp €V yivcoaKfjif; rifjuev ueov rjoe Kai avbpa. 
T(o vvv, at K€ Oeb^ wetpco/ievo^ iv0dS' 'Ifctfrat, 
p/q TL (TV y dOavdrotai 0€ol^ dvrtKpif pA^eadat 130 

Tot9 aWot^' drdp et K€ Ato? dvydrrjp ^K<^pohirri 
eXurjLa e? TroKepLOVy Triv y ovrap^v ofei j(a\K(OL, 

r/ piv ap* 0)9 elirova dirifirj yXavKtoTTis *A0i]Vij, 
TvBetBrf^ S* efauTt? Icdv wpopbd'^oiaiv ip^i-xOrj' 
Kol irpiv irep 0upo)i papains Tpcoeaai pd')(ea0aL, 135 

120. Ic6i|rcceai T. 121. 96x0 P. 127. d' mn, Q. 128. HNCibcKHIC 

H^ {9upr, 01) MNK)^T : nrNcbacHic N*0' : nNcboccic Q : n(r)NcbcKoic O. || Mk Kai 
flNdpa : Ad' fiNopoanoN Zen. 130. uA Tl Cli r* : uJi ci^ re NS : uJk cOncp 

M. 131. aOrdp JM. 132. Ti^N r* and tAn Ar. Bix^ • tAn d' JM Par. d : 

Ti^ r' o6rrdoai Zen. 134. ixaOeic C. 136. Koi ncp nplN G. 

cast of him.' iXdTN, kill, is put first 
by a slight prothysUronf cf. 206, A 251, 
and Virgil's moriamur et in media anna 
ruamus. In all cases the second mem- 
ber, though precedent in time, is only 
secondary in importance. The hiatus 
is illicit ; there is no other evidence of 
an initial f, and very many passages 
exclude it. dvip i\€w (Heyne) or Av^p 
i\€€lv (Brandretli) are simple conjectures. 

126. oaK^cnaXoc is proparoxytone, 
though the verbal element of the com- 
pound is employed in a transitive sense ; 
the converse is the case with /uai06vos. 

128. The subj. nNcbcxHic is undoubt- 
edly right after Aoi', because the object 
of the past action is still future ; H. 0. 
§ 298. 2. It is noteworthy that the 
M8S. have with hardly any exception re- 
tained the forms yivuxrKOi and yivoficn. 
against the old Attic 747^-. 711'- is 
common to Ionic, Doric, Thessalian, 
and Boiotian, and appears to represent 
a primitive Greek assimilation, through 
the stage gingn- (Brugm. Gr. i. p. 364). 
On the other hand, it prevailed also in 

the later Koiviif which may of course have 
aflfected the mss. 

129. ncipcibiUCNOC, making trial of thee ^ 
220, etc. 

130. dNTiKpu is found with the last 
syllable short only here and 819 ; this 
may be counted among the linguistic 
peculiarities of the passages dealing with 
the wounding of the gods. 

135. JUCAAGcbc, a nominatiims pemlenSf 
the construction being changed in the 
following line, cf. Z 510. Kai is here 
probably not ami, but even, and is to be 
taken closely with ncp, as elsewhere 
when the two words occur together ; the 
line being thus added asyndetically in 
explanation of 134. Yoi koI . . irepat 
the beginning of a sentence see v 271 
Koi x*^fT6i' ir€p ibvTo, 5cxwA^^a fivdop, 
'Axaiol. In all other instances Kai irep 
follows the principal verb. Hence many 
edd. place the comma after ifjUxOrf, and 
the colon after fjidxe<rdat, so that fufiaths 
agrees with TvSetdrjs in 134. But this 
gives an entirely false antithesis ; Dio- 
niedes does not return to the battle 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

Brj t6t€ fitv Tpl^ Toararop eX^p fj^po^, cS? re Xeopra 
OP pd T€ irotfirjp arfp&t eir elpoiroKOc^ otearari 
'Xpavarrjt /juip T au\^9 inrepaXfiepop, ovSe hapAatrqi' 
Tov flip T€ aOepo^i iparep, eireira Be t ov 'jrpoaafivpei, 
aXXct Kara aTaOfiov^ BvcTat, tcL 8' iprjfia i^oPelrai' 140 

ai fjAp T cuy^furrlvai iir dWijkrftat Ke'xypTai, 
avTctp 6 ifJL/jb€fuict}^ fiaffirf^ i^dWerai avXrj^:' 
6^9 fi€fjuiw Tpdeaai filrfq Kparepo^: Atofii]Brf^. 

€P0* SXep ^Aarvpoop koL "Tireipopa iroifiipa \a&p, 
TOP flip xnrkp fia^olo fiaXoDP 'xaXjci^pel Bovpi, 145 

TOP 8' erepop ^L(f>€i fieyd\(t}t KKrfiha irap (Ofiop 
TrX^f , ttTTO o av')(epo^ tofiop eefjyauep r}0 airo pa>Tov, 

136. bk t6tc : Kai d^ Par. f. || ^CN : Itxp* Ptol. Oroand. 138. XP^^^^ca 

CO. II daudcco CQT^U : daudca Vr. A. 141 am. M {Jiai>. Harl. a). || &rxic- 

tTngi DJQR : ArxHCTiNai or ArxicrflNai Q. \\ AXXi^oia DHQR Vr. c, Mosc 1 2 : 

AXXi^aia G. 144. On^Nopa MN : OndNopa PQ. 146. doupf : x^^^ ^ (7P- 
doup{). 146. ToO d* tripou Zen. || fiXXoN Vr. b {yp. CrcpON). 147. udanxoN P. 

aUhoughy bat because, he was eager 

137. Arp^i, i.e. away from the habita- 
tions of men. 

138. xpa6cMi : prob. conn, with the aor. 
(^)4xpciw, fxpae, e 396, 11 352, * 369, 
etc., and meaning grazed. But Ahrens 
would separate the two, and explains 
Xpo:0(a to mean ' strike,' comparing 
Herod. vL 75 iwij^Mve is t6 TrpScunrov 
rb ffKTjirrpoy, and Hesych. XP^^^V- ' Ko-Ta- 
^varfi, irXi/i^rfi, a6XAc here = the wall of 
the steadins ; from 140 it would seem 
that the stalls are regarded as arranged, 
with the shepherds' huts, around a court- 
yard ; cf. 2 589, from which it is clear 
that such a 'sheep-station' must have 
been rather extensive. 

140. As the line stands rd must be 
the subject, 'they (the sheep) are put 
to flight, being left alone. ' The change 
from the fern, otcca to the neuter, and 
then immediately back to the fern, al, is 
however very harsh, far more so than in 
the passages which are (quoted as parallel : 
II 353 fi^Xujv . . at tc, A 244 x^^«a • • 
alyas 6fiod Kal tfl's, rd ol dinrera iroifial- 
vovTOy * 167 rG>L 5* iripioi . , ij di. H. 
moreover elsewhere uses kpfkiioc (this is 
the traditional Epic accentuation) only 
of places. If we reject 141-2 (see below) 
we can take the neuter in a vague sense, 
' everything is deserted and put to flight. ' 
But it is tnen tempting to read rd 8i 
fi^\a. b6€Tai : the nom. may be either 

the shepherd, hides ; or the lion, enters 
in. The associations of the frequent 
dvpou 6fu\oPf TT^Xe/Aov, etc., are in favour 
of the latter. 

141. drxicrTNcn, elsewhere only with 
(irnrToy (P 361, x 118, w 181, 449), are 
thrown down in Jieaps. Many Mss. read 
dTx^crrivat, perhaps on the analogy of 
IT pofjLvrjar tyai, \ 233, but the word is 
evidently a secondary formation from 

142. Ajuuciiac&c answers to fufiaun in 
135 ; the lion, like Diomedes, is only 
the more aroused by the wound, cf. P 
735. Bentley, feeling natural difficulty 
in the conjunction of ififiefjuubs with the 
retreat implied in ^^dXXrrcu, conj. ififia- 
viujiy cf. 836 ; but the inconsistency 
lies in the word i^dXKeroi in its relation 
to the next line. It is feeble to say * as 
furiously as a lion retreats, so furiously 
did D. attack.' Hence Bayfield would 
reject 141-2 as an awkward addition 
meant to supply ififiefxau)s to answer 
fufiadijs in 135 ; the real answer being 
sufficiently implied in aSivos tbpaev. 
There is no doubt that the omission 
makes the simile more effective ; but in 
the Epic style one would expect to be 
told the fate of the sheep. Ckiq^c, as i 
239 ^aOelffs fKTodiv ai)\^$ : we should use 
the converse * high. ' 

147. nXftec : a change from the parti- 
cipial construction, as P 80. i^proMCN: 
so A 437. 

lAIAAOC E (y) 


Toif^ fikv €a<r\ 6 8' ^Afiavra fi€T(oi')(€To koX TloXviBop, 
viia^ ^vpvBafiavTO^ oveipoTToKoio yepovro^' 
Tot9 ovK ip'xofi^vot^: 6 yipayv ixplvar opeipov^, 
dWd a<f>€a^ Kparepo^ AiofiijSrj^ i^evdpi^e, 

fit) Bk IX€TCL 'SdvOoV T€ &6(i)pd T€ ^CUPOWO^ vtc, 

dfKfxo TfjXvyeTCi}, 6 S' ireipero yijpal Xvyp&t, 
vlov S* ov T€K€T oXXop iirl KTedreaai TuireaOai, 
€V0* 6 ye TOL'9 ipdpc^e, <f)i\op 8' i^aipvro Bvfiop 
dfi(f>0T€p(i), iraript Be yoop Kal Ki]Bea \vypa 
Xelir, iirel ov ^a>0PTe fid'yr)^: iKPoarrjaapre 
Bi^aTO' ^rjpfoaTai Bk BccL KTrjaiP BareopTO, 

ep0* vla^ Uptdfioto Bvco \dj3e AapBapiBao 
elp €pI Bi<l>p(i)t eopra^i, ^^t^ififJLOpd Te Xpofiiop Te, 
ci>9 Be Xecop ep JSoval ffopoyp ef avj(€Pa d^r)t 




148. Toiic : t6n P (supr, toOc). || noXiiodoN GN^O^ST (Eust says that both 
-d- and -1- were ancient). 149. cOpuju^doNTOC M. 162. eiMN& JN. 163. 

6d' ^rdpcnx) H. 164. t^cn H : t^c« U. 166. 6«dpac D^MNOQR {e corr.) 
S Vr. a b A, Mosc. 1 3. 166. 6jui90TipcoN Zen. JMNPT Harl. b, Par. f, Cant. 
\'r. b : djui^»oi^poiN King's, Par. j. || noT^pl hk : norrp) uukn re G. || xiidcY A. 
168. doT^NTai Herakleides. 169. diio GH. 160. Idicrac : 46ntc Aph. ? cf. 
on A 103. 161. ttxei CJ (L sujn-.) NR: idzci Q. 

150. This line is susceptible of two 
diiTerent interpretations : (a) the old man 
iiiterpreUd no dreams for them when they 
were coining (to Troy), i.e. had he fore- 
seen their fate he would have kept them 
from the war ; (b) they came not back for 
the. old man to interpret dreams for thein. 
Though the second has found defenders, 
yet there can be no doubt that the 
first is right. The use of ipx^ucNoc is 
exactly the same as in 198 ; and the 
sense is quite what is wanted, though 
the next line is added in a way which is 
not usual in Homer, as we should have 
expected to find it explicitly stated, * if 
he had they would not have been killed.' 
But in the second alternative the mention 
of the discerning of dreams seems quite 
otiose, unless we are prepared to suppose 
that the old man thought that a specimen 
of his peculiar skill would be the best 
welcome for his returning sons. More- 
over, the word for return ho^ne is not 
ipXfffOcu but vlff<T€<T0ai or vo<rr€iv, A 
third possibility is given by the Schol. 
A, their father prophesied to them thai 
they wovM not come ha^Jc. But even 
if such a construction of the participle 
could be admitted it would still remain 

a fatal objection that we should want a 
future, not a present. 

163. THXurcru : sec ri75 ; it is obvious 
here that the word cannot mean ^cnily 

158. Cf. Hes. Theog. 606 diroipeifUvov 
di 5tA KTTjciv SaTiovrai XVP^<^^^' The 
general meaning of tlie word '^{fipifacmi 
is sufficiently evident from the context, 
'inheritors of the bereaved father,* i.e. 
the next-of-kin, cl fjuiKpSOev ffvyyeveh 
(Hesych.). The form of the word, how- 
ever, is not so easily explicable ; it 
should have an active sense, perhaps 
originally 'those who divided up the 
estate of the bereaved* for distribution 
among the tribe at large. But we have 
no evidence whether in Homeric days 
the reversion of property (i.e. chattels, 
not land) belonged to the family or the 
tribe ; nor does the word itself recur, 
except in the two passages named, and 
in Qu. Smyrnaeus. £ust. explains it by 
dfxpapiaral, guardians^ used by Soph. Aj\ 
512, and identical in form. 

161. Mr. Auden {C. R x. 107) calls 
attention to the accurate observation 
embodied in this line, quoting Selous 
Big Grame Shooting (Badminton Library) 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

iroprco^ rjk l3o6^, ^vXo'Xpv Kara jSoaKOfievdcov, 

C&9 T0U9 afufxyripov^ ef imrtov TvSeo? vlb<: 

jSrja'e KaKto^ aixovra^, eirecTa Be rev^e iarvXa' 

LTTTTOv^ 8' oh krdpoiai BiBov fierct, vrja^ ikavveiv, 165 

Tov B* iBev Alveia^ oKaTrd^ovra <rri')(a^ avBp&v, 
fit} S' tfi€v aV T€ fici')(7)v Koi dva kXovov iy^^etdcov 
ndpBapov dvrideov Bt^i]fi€vo^, et irov i<f>evpoi, 
evpe AvKdopo^ viov diivfiovd re xparepov re, 
{TTrj Bk irpoaO* avroio hro^ re fitv dvriov rjvBa* 170 

" ndpBape, irov roi fo^ov IBk Trrepoevre^ olotoI 
Kal k\€0^ ; a>t ov ri^ rot ipL^erai evOdBe y dmjp, 
ovBe Tt? €1/ AvKLTfi aeo y ev^erat elvat dfieivcop, 
d\\* arf€ r&iB^ €(f>€^ dpBpl jSiXo^, Ail %6f/>a9 dvaa^cov, 
09 Tt9 oBe xpareet xal Bi) kukcl iroWa eopye 175 

Tp&a^, iirel ttoW&p re kol eaffX&v yovvar eXvaev 
el fiTj Tt9 ^€09 ecrrt Koreaa-dfievo^: Tpdeaaip, 
ip&v firjviaa^y ')(aXeirr) Be deov em firjpi*;,*^ 

162. n6pTloc: Bouk6Xou Zen. 166 07n, 0^. |! AXandsoNra P. 167. BA 

p' P. 169. €0p€ bk MOPT. 172. r* om, Jg. 173. r' orn. Q. 174. 

a9cc G.I {yp. l9€c) PQ Vr. a. 178. tep^N G. 

i. 327 ' A single large male lion will kill 
a heavy ox or a bafTalo cow without 
using his teeth at all, by breaking its 
neck, or rather causing the frightened 
beast to break its own neck' in the 
manner there described. So also A 

162. For Ai Bentley conj. iiSi, on the 
ground that the point of the simile lies 
in the double slaughter, and hence the 
plural poffKOfievduw, which may, how- 
ever, with a slight but natural irregu- 
larity, be taken to mean *as they (i.e. 
one or other of (hem) are feeding.' 

164. KQKdic seems to go closely with 
d^KovTaSf as 698 KaxCos KeKatfnjdra Ovfidv, 
(i 266 KaKiot inreprjvopdoyres. 

165. oTc : ad Ueyne, aS^ Brandreth, 
to save the F. 

168-9. See A 88-9. 

170. HDda : only here with double 
accus., which is, however, often found 
with Trpoa-rftida and irpoaiiare. We have 
'Ep/te^av dyHoy riOSa € 28, and "Eicropa 
€lirc M 60. 

171. noO TOi t6son : cf. 440 irov v<i 
Toi lol ; In the next line &\ may refer 
either to rb^ov or to K>Aot in the sense 
of 'famous skill' 

175. 8d€, predicative =A^« ; cf. T 117 
klvilai 6S' ipTff a 185 yrivs Se fioi ^}8' 
iarriKep. 175-6 = 11424-5. 

178. Ip^N JULHNicac like cf rap 6 y 
€i)xw\^5 iirifUfMiperai i)5* iKardfifiris A 65, 
q.v. The exact connexion of the clause 
XaXcn^ . . jllAnic is not clear ; it may 
mean the torath of a god weighs heavy 
ujton meny or it may go with the pre- 
ceding, and the wrath of the god he heavy 
upon us. The former will give a reason 
why, if this enemy be a god, it is not 
well to provoke him further, the latter 
will explain why a god should condescend 
to such .slaughter. Hut Ameis-Hentze 
read, with Ar., iirifirfvn, taking iiri- to 
indicate wrath aimttd in a particular 
direction ; on the ground that in all 
other cases where iin^^iireaTi it is used 
of the ajtual presence of something with 
a distinct relation to some person. This 
is a strong argument against taking the 
clause as a general reflexion ; but it 
leaves untouched the alternative of taking 
it closely with the preceding eZ-clanse, 
and perhaps this is the most probable 
explanation, as iinfi^vis is a compound 
which can hardly be supported by 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


TOP S* aire irpoa-eeiire Avkclovo^ 07X009 i;/o9' 
** Alveia, Tpdcav j3ov\rj<l>6p€ j^oX/coj^tTcii/ft)!/, 
TvBetBrfi fiiv iyd> ye haii^povi iravra itcKto, 
aairLSt yivdxTKCDV avXtowcBi T€ Tpv<f>a\€ii]c, 
Ittttou? t elaropofov ad<^a S' ovk olS* el 6eo^ earriv, 
el S* o y avrjp ov (fyrjfit, Bat<f>pa)v TvBio^ vio^, 
ov^ o y avevde Oeov rdSe fialverai, dXKd Tt9 oiyx"' 
e(TT'T)K ddavdrcov ve<l>eXi]t etKvfievo^ &fiov^, 
09 TOVTOv j3eXo<: a>KV Kt'xi]fievop erpaTrev dWrjt, 
'qBrj ydp oi i^iJKa ^eXo?, xai fiiv j3d\ov &fjbOv 
Se^iov, dvTLKpv Bid d(opr)KO^ yvdXoto, 
Kal ficv iyd y e<f>dfi7jv ^AiBcoinji wpoldy^eiv, 
efiirrf^ 8' ovk eBdp.aaaa' 6e6^ vv Tt9 iam Korijei^, 
Linroi B* ov irapeaai xaX dpfuna, r&v k einfiairiv 
dXKd irov iv fieydpoLori Avxdovo^ evBexa Bi(f>poc 
KoXol TrpeoTOTTor/el^ veoTev')(ee^, d/jL<f>l Be ireirKoi, ' 




181. JU.IN : ujkH G (0 supr,) Harl. d ; Ar. d(x<^> 182. nNobacu P: nrNcb- 
occoN CJLM^jSP^U. 183 &e. Ar. || Ynnouc d* MQ. || 0690 oCk Q. 184. V : 

e' J. II b r' : (»' JP Cant. 186. & r* : W Qi be' J. 187 ad. Zen. |1 

Kixt^JUMNOC S supr. 188. rdp p D. 191. Nli : di4 J {yp. nu). || TIC : toi C. 

193. ucrdpoic HT. 194. ZrjvdSoros fieHdrjKcv An. (Ludw. conjectures that Zen. 
omitted the line and >vrote npcoronarcTc for n^Tairrai in 195). 

181. The variant fi^v for juun may 
point, as Piatt says {J. P. xvii. 129), 
to an older fiii^ iyu> Ft, 

182. There is no distinct trace in H. of 
the devices home on shields which play 
so prominent a part in the Septem of 
Aischylos, and are frequently repre- 
sented on vase-paintings ; nor of course 
can the mention of the helmet be taken 
to indicate anything like the mediaeval 
crest. But every chieftain would be 
sure to adopt some peculiarity in the 
shape of his shield and helmet. Cf. A 
526 c5 3^ luv (ypojv eOpd ydip dfitp* 
C)puoi<nv tx€i cdKos, For Tpu9aXciMi see 
on r 372. 

183. d ec6c 4cnN : we say ' if he is 
9iot a god ' ; the words imply a slight 
disposition to accept the affirmative. 
Cf. 7 216 tIs d' old' €t k4 irore <r0c 
/3/at diroTlfferai i\6u>v ; Ar. needlessly 
athetized the line, on the ground that 
Pandaros has really no doubt, l^ut the 
very next words obviously imply at least 
a rhetorical uncertainty. 

187. (^ HivXri irepieariyfUpri) 6ti 7jrjv6' 
Soros ifiirriK€¥ airrbv. oif ydp irpdircTO 

AWrii rb /S^Xoj, dXX' ir\r)(€v airrov. ou 
\^ei S^ Bn Ka06\ov dirirvxiv^ dXX* 5x1 
iirl KoUpiOP Tbirov <l>€p6fi€ifov irap^pe^ey. 
But this explanation seems forced, and 
most edd. agree with Zenod. in reject- 
ing the line. Nor is it a satisfactory 
resource to take Ih-pancN AXXhi as = 
brought to naught ; such a derived sense 
of dXXoj is rather Attic than Homeric, 
and is not sufficiently supported by A 
120. For the gen. TOi>rou, away from 
him, we may compare irdXiy rpdired' vlos 
eoTo S 138. Or we may take it, as gen. 
of hitting, with kixi^Julcnon, just as it 
was reaching him. 

189. An interpolated line to bring in 
the cuirass ; see on 99. 

190. *AYdcoNAY npoYdiifCiN, as 'Aide ir^. 
tayj/ev A 3. The name 'At5wi'ei)j occurs 
again only T 61 in H. ; it is not Pindaric, 
but appears rather to be a word of the 
tragedians. For npoYdiifciN La R. would 
prefer irpoid\l/ai, * I thought I had dis- 
patched him.* 

194. npcoTonarcTc (with the rare con- 
traction), generally explained 'joined 
together for the first time,' i.e. newly 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

weirravTai* irapa Be a^^tv eKdarrcoi, Stf 1/769 linroc 

iardart Kpl XevKov ipeTrro/ievot kcu oXvpa^, 

fj fiiv fiot fidXa iroXXa yeptov alj(jjLr}Ta AvkcUov 

ip'^ofieveot iireTeWe Bofioi^ evt TroirjTourcv 

Xiriroialv fi eKekeve xal apfuurtv i/JLJSe^a&ra 

ap^€V€LV Tpd}€<r(rt Kara Kpareph^ varfiiva^' 

a\V iya> ov iridofirjv, ff r av iroKv KepBtov ^€V, 

iTTTTCiyv <f>€cB6fi€Vo^, fiTj fioL BevoUiTO <f>op/3rj<; 

avBp&v etkofiepcov, elcoffore^ eBfievai aBrjv. 

w? Xlttov, avTctp Trefo? €? "IXtoi; elXijXovda, 

TO^oiaiv irlavvo^' ra Be fi ovk ap efieWov omjaetv, 

^Bf) yap Boiolaiv dpiamjeao'iv i^Ka, 

TvBetBi]!, T€ Kol ^KrpetBriL, ck S* dfi<l>OT€pouv 

aTpeice^ alfi earaeva j3a\(op, rjyeLpa Bk fidWov. 




198. hn : cO Yr. a. 199. u* ix^cucc : t' ix^cuc H. || ^inicua^&ra 

Mor. Vr. c (and 80 apparently nifis ap. Did.). 201. fi T* Qn : yp, cTt' An 0. 

203. fi^HN Ar. D^R^U : ttddHN otliers (and Q). 204. drdp DO : aCrrhp 8 P. || 
ic oni. O : dc CMNO. i| AXiiXouea O. 206. fip' : hn Q. |i CucXXcn ADO. 

made. Cf. fi 267. In 35 we have 
vria TTpurrdirXoovt which is also translated 
'making her first voyage.' But this is 
a doubtful compliment to a ship ; the 
alternative, ^a first-rate sailer/ suits the 
context better, and so here * of first-rate 
build/ priinarie compadi (Doderl.), 
avoids the awkward tautology with veo- 
T€vx^€i which made Zenod. athetize the 
line. Unfortunately neither the simple 
•KpCrroi nor any of its compounds seems 
to involve the pregnant meaning of 
primariuSt so that wo have to acquiesce 
in the ordinary explanation. The same 
ambiguity is found in TrporrdTXovSj Eur. 
Rd, 1531. (Compounds of TpSnw are 
very uncommon in classical Greek.) 

195. For the practice of covering 
chariots with cloths when not in use cf. 

200. For 6pxc0ciN with dat. see B 345. 

202. For tne crowding within the city 
walls compare S 286-7. 

203. ttdHN only here with d, though 
we have <l8ij<rete, <idi7i:6T6s, etc. The 
variation in quantity is unexplained ; 
it is possibly here due to the sixth arsis, 
see Schulze Q. E, p. 452. SZjiv, which 
Ar. read, will be right if the word comes 
from root sa {sa-tuTy etc. ) ; but this is 
not certain. See note on K 98. 

204. The neglect of the F of ''IXion is 

rare. Brandreth conj. Trends iutv is f tXcor 
fiKOov, comparing A 231, A 230, 721. 

205. ttp CucXXoN (or -ei^) is the 
traditional reading ; but the rule against 
the trochaic caesura in the 4th foot would 
require Upa fUWov, and presumably Ar. 
read this in accordance with his custom 
of omitting the augment ( ' " Ia*cwf *') when 

208. (rrpmic : this simple form recurs 
in H. only ir 245 oih* hp Scirdj irpexis 
oiVe Sv olai, where it is an adverb ; the 
form oLTpeK^iijs is of course familiar. The 
original meaning of the word is not 
certain ; if it be conn, with rpiirta (Curt. 
Gr, Et. no. 633) and mean 'directly,' 
*not swerving from the straight line,' 
it can here hardly be an epithet of oT/ao. 
On the other hand, it cannot be taken 
with ^a\u)Vy which is too far off, and 
does not require an adv. to qualify it^ as 
of itself it implies 'hitting the mark' 
{on Tpcboac, Kal oif />L\ffas dirXcDf r6 ^\ot). 
We must therefore take it with icctva, 
* I tmily^ surely y brought forth blood.' 
So Schol. B 6vrl rod drpcKiun eldof 
ainrby ovk -fiTrdTrjfiai. But 206-8, which 
contain a feeble repetition of 188-91, 
are almost certainly interpolated for the 
sake of the allusion to the 'Opxlufw 0t^- 
Xwnsy an episode which is evidently un- 
known to the author of this book, who 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


rSi pa KaKrjt aiarjc cltto iraaaaXov cuyicvXa ro^a 

rjfiarc Ttoi eXjOfiTjv, ore "'IXtoi/ 6t9 ipareivrjv 210 

rjyeofiTjv Tpayearat, (f>€pa)v X'^P^^ '^^KTopc Bicoc, 

el Be K€ voa-Tijao) koX eao'^ofiai 6(f>da\fiotac 

TrarpiS* ifirjv aXo^pv re Koi xr^epe^e^: fieya S&fia, 

avTLK erreiT air eyueto Kapr\ rdfioi aXKoTpLO^ <^<tt9, 

el fit) iyo) rdBe To^a <l>a€tv&i iv irvpX deiriv 215 

XJ^pa-X BtaKXaaaa^' dvefuoXta yap fiot oTn/Set." 

TOP S* atfT Alveia^ Tpaxov 0709 dvriov rjvSa* 
" fit) S* ovTco^ d/yopeve • irdpo^ 8' ovk eaaerav oXXg)?, 
irpiv 7* iirX vib r&iB* dvBpX avv tmroi^o'iv xaX 6x€0'<l>tv 
dvTil3ii]v i\06vT€ aifv evrearc iretprjOrjvai. 220 

aXX' ay* ifi&v o^itav iwipriaeoy S<f>pa ISrjat 
otoi Tpto'ioi Linrot, emardfievoi ireBloio 
KpaiTTva ybdyC €v6a koX ev6a BtcoKCfiev '^Be ^^iPeadai' 
TO) KaX v(oi TToXivBe aa^aerov, el irep dv ainre 
Zev9 €7rt TvBetBrjt Aiofii^Bel kvBo^ opi^iji. 225 

a\V dye vvv fidarvya KaX TjvLa avyaXoevra 
Be^ai, iy(o 8' LTnrcov dTro/ST^aofiai, 6<f>pa fidx<^f^'^t'' 
rjk (TV TOvBe B^Be^o, fieXriaovaiv 8' ifioX Xmroi" 

210. Stc t* CR : eirc r' G. II Ac Q. 211. Xicropi dfooi : innodduioiciN nvh 
ap. An. 213. 6i|npC9^c GJL^M : OipHpc9te DNOPR (h in ras.) Lips. Vr. b c. 

214. iuoTo JN {p. ras.) PQS. || TdjuHi Vr. a. 216. d : Sn G. 218. Ccccn Q. 
219. T&ld* : T^ D. 220. nopaeANcn M (not Harl. a). 224. n6XiN : yp. 

ndXiN J. II ncp Bn : kcn Vr. a. 225. dp^sci OQ {supr. h). 226. nOn : d^ 
MN. 227. imoMcoum Ar. 0: AnocoBiicouai Par. g: teiBiicouai Zen. CO^S 
{9upr, An©) King's, Par. d j^, Vr. c, Mosc. 1 3, and yp. Harl. a, Par. b. 228. t6n 
r€ N. 

otherwise could not have failed to allude 
to it again. 

209. KcncAi aToo, A 418. 6n6 nac- 
cdXou: cf. 53, Penelope (v0€v dpe^a- 
fdJyri dirb ir(urad\ov atpvro t^w. 

212-6 are to be compared with ir 
99-103, where 214 is not only repeated, 
bat stands also in exactly the same 
position, as an apodosis with ttoo pro- 
tases, one preceding, the other follow- 
inff. It is possible to take Nocri^ccd and 
icoqpoucn as aor. subjunctives ; compare, 
for another instance of an aor. form 
*ui\l^tiyjiVy Q 704, where tyj/ecde is more 
natural if it be taken as aor. imper. 
than as fut. indie. But there is no valid 
reason against regarding them as fut. 
indie, except that such a constr. is not 
Attic. In any case there is no appreci- 
able difference in sense. The second 


protasis has the opt. under the influence 
' of the pure wish rduoi : we might 
equally have had fut. indie, as B 259 
firjKiTi . . efi;!', €l fi}} . , St&ffot^ where 
again the constr. of the sentence is the 
same. dXXdrpioc : a foreigner is of course 
an inferior, and therefore defeat from 
such is the deepest degradation. 

218. oCk Coccrai oXXooq no c?iange 
will be miade^ nothing will be effected, 
till, etc. dXXcjt has the connotation 
'better' in e 176, v 211, and cf. also 
A 391. The euphemism by which dXXci;t 
= KaKiOi is not Homeric. 

219. Ncb for vGiC here only in H. (in o 
475 read v(a). irplv pufirmd* Brandr. (with 
ictus-leiigthening), ^l vCX rwi d. van L. 

222. TpdbYoi, the breed of Tros. Cf. 
265, A 597, T 230, ^ 291, 377. 
227. dnofii^oauoi, i.e. when the time 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

TOP S* aire TrpoaeetTre Avkoovo^ 07X009 u/o?" 
*' Alpeia, aif fikv OUT09 ej^' ^via koX t€c!> iinra) • 
frnXXov vif)' '^vcax^coi elcodori KafiTrvXop apfia 
otaeroPf el irep &p afire <f)€l3d>fJL€da TvSeo? viop' 
firj Tft> fi€P heiaapre futn^aerop, ovS* iOiXrjrop 
€K<f)€p€fi€P iroXefjLoio, T€OP <l>06yyop iroOiopre, 
p&l S' eTToiffo? fji^aOvfiov TvSio^ uto? 
avTco T€ KTeLprjt koI ikcurarjt fuopvjfa^ Jttttoi;?. 
o\XA (TV y OUT09 eKavpe t£ apfiara koI reo) iTnrto, 
TOi/06 €ya}p einoPTa oeoe^ofuu o^€l oovpi. 

0)9 cipcL <f><opri<TaPTe €9 dpfiara iroiKCka j3dpT€ 
ififjL€^&T cttI TvSetBrjc e'^pp d>K€a^ Ittttov^, 
T0U9 Bk IBe SdepeXo^ Ko7roi/?;to9 07X009 v/09, 
atylra Se TvSetBi^p eirea irrepoepra TrpoarjvBa' 
" TvSetSrj Aio^Be^f ifJLwi KC'yapiafiipe 0vfL&c, 
apip opoci) Kparepo} iirl aol /i€fui&T€ fid'^earffai, 
Ip' diriXeffpop e^opTe' 6 fjJkp to^cop iv elBd^, 
JldpBapo^, vto9 S' ofire Avkoopo^ efij^erot elpat* 
Aipela^ 8' vto9 fiep dfivfiopo<: Ay^^Lcao 
ev')(€Tat ifcyeydfi^p, fi'^rrjp Se oX eW *A<f>poSiTr}. 





231. cicoe6n Ar. {xal <rx,€d6v Airairres) 0: dcoadrc P. 232. 8n (mu Q. 

234. noetoiTTcc DPQ East. 236. icrdNci . . ^dcoi G. 287. AXX* a&rbc 

cO K C. 289. 9C0NiicaifTC . . BdNTC GJP Mosc. 1 : ^omiioaNTcc . . Bdicrac 
O. 240. 4uucua^^Tcc HM. 242. aTi|ra bk: aTijr* M L. 246. Ix^"^ 
GMN Mosc. 1, Vr. b : Cx^ntcc Q : Cxontqc 0. 247. b" om. U : a' C. |i jubl 

&u<}jAONOC : ucraXiWopoc (A 8upr. ) DHSU. 248 atn. Vr. a. 

comes I will dismoant to fight, impiffffeo 
(221) referring to the present moment, 
mount the chariot in onier to reach the 
scene of action. This entirely agrees 
with the Homeric style of fighting, 
where the heroes use their chariots only 
for movement from one part of the field 
to another, and do the serious work on 
foot. Compare especially P 480, where 
the reading is certain. The variant 
iiri^'fiffoficu 18 due no doubt to the fact 
that in the sequel (275 ff., 294) Pandaros 
does make his spear - cast from the 
chariot. That, however, is an irregular- 
ity which Aineias does not contemplate. 
It is curious that Ar. while reading 
dirofiijaofxai gave the perverse interpreta- 
tion oTor T^s finrbir ^poyrlSos, I wUl 
r$8ign the ectire qf the horaee. 

230. Cxc goes with both ^(a and 
tiTTrta by a slight zeugma, hold the reins 
and drive the horses. Compare the 
difference in the sense of ^^at,=.take^ 
and d48€^o=aiDait the attack, above. 

232. ^tOdukna, flee from, cf. 228. 

233. uotAcmtoh, grow urild, ' lose their 
heads ' as we say ; cf. n 474. In "ir 510 
it means 'lost no time.' Compare also 
Aisch. Sept. 37, P. V. 57. 

236. JucbNuxac, with single (solid) 
hoofe ; not from fUivoi (Hom. fjuodvoi) bat, 
as is now generally agreed, for '^^^t-ifiru^ 
where <r/i = «re/i- of tU (<r€/A-t), HmpUst^ 
etc. (Brugm. Gr. i 171). Compare 
Virgil's 80I0 ungula comu, 

248. Cf. 335 Tarpbf a* i^ 6,yuBw 
y4vos ei^erat (fifiefcu i/26f, for the use of 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


aXK wye otf 'xa^a>fjb€u €9 nnr(ov, firfoe fioi, ovro) 

0vv€ BuL irpofm^cov, fii] 7rft)9 (f>t\/)v fjrop oXiaarjv^J'* 260 

Tov B ap^ vTToSpa lBa}v irpoai^ Kparepo^ Aiofi'qBi]^ * 
" fiV '^^ <f>6l3ovS* ayopev, iirel ovBi ae wecaifiev otay* 
ov ydp fioi yewatov aXv</Kd^ovTi, fidj(€a'0ai, 
ovo€ Katar7rT€oaa'€tv €Tt fjLot fievo^ efiirebov earriv 
oKveLO) S' Ihnriov iinficuveficv, oKK^l koI avro)^ 255 

avTiov eifJL avT(ov rpeiv fi ovk ecu llaXXa9 Aurjvrf, 

249. doKet ZmivdSoTOi toOtou xal rhv i^i ijderrjKivau An. || I9* YnnoON Ar. 0: 
there was a variant, bat Scliol. A does not say what ; probably 69* YnncoN rather than 
^9' Ynnouc. || JUOl : ikkn G. 261. fip*: aO J. 262. 9660N t' P^R: 9660N 
u' L. II oHldi juc S. 263. rdp iuo) S Mosc. 1. || AXuacdzoNn ^ AXuacdzomti 

Eust. 266. teiBiijuLCNcn M East. |1 oOt«oc T Lips. 266. Airrioc S. || ju.' : 

5* S. II lb Herod. ATU. 

liCTeyd/cici'. But the line, which is 
omitted by one Ms., looks suspiciously 
like an interpolation. 

249. 8oK€i Zrfv68oTOS tovtov xal rbv 
i^tfi iidenjK^yatf Ariston. ; an important 
remark, as it shows that the later Aris- 
tarchean school knew Zenodotos only at 
second hand. ^* YnncoN, &n *ATTiKujt 
i^i^vox^y di'Ti ToO wj iirl rods t-mrovs (in 
\he direction of the chariot)^ ibid. For 
the Attic use compare ix' otKov=home'' 
boards, 17 iirl "^a^vXCivoi 6S6s Xen. Ch/r. 
7. 3. 45, etc It occurs also in H., e.e. 
n 6, B 700. But it is hardly possible 
;hat this should be the sense here, for 
^e cannot suppose that Sthenelos, whose 
unction is tnat of charioteer, can have 
eft the horses so far as to advise Dioraedes 
» retreat in their direction. We must 
:herefore take it in the ordinary sense, 
retreat upon the chariot ' (as 356). 

252. 966oNd'Ar6pcuc : for this pregnant 
186 we may compare II 697 0t>^df 
tPibotrro. It is easily derived from the 
iteral sense which we have in 9 139 
^^0^8* ix^ /jubfvx^^ tirirovSf and may be 
^mpared with such phrases as elireiyy 
iv$€ur0eu els dya0d, I 102, Sk 305 ; thus 
t means 'say nothing in the direction 
if, tending to, flight.' 96B0C is of 
ourse an exaggeration, as Sthenelos 
nerely meant nim to fight in the 
hrong, not among the irpSfxaxoi. ^u- 
xdzoNH and KcrraiTrclbocciN are equally 
Qvidioos names for retirement to the 
fuXot, where an individual was protected 
>y numbers (cf. Z 443). So Idomeneus 
ays, N 262 oO ydp dtu dvbpClnf Hwrtuviiav 
icdr Urrdfi€ifos ToKcfd^euf. aObi cc : so 

Ptol. Ask. ; Herod, oi^di o-^, not even 
thee. But it is more Homeric to take 
oifbi with the whole clause, for neither 
do I think that thou w^Ut persuade me, 

253. rcNNaToN, a Hit. Xcy, in Homer ; 
nor does he use yivpa. or yewdta : 
arjfxeiovifTai rivf s &ri oOtcjs ctpTfrai iyyepis^ 
Trdrpiov Schol. A. It is practically 
indifferent whether we explain the word 
thus, 'it is not in my blood,' or in the 
later sense ' it is not honourable for me 
to shirk ' ; this sense is immediately 
derived from the former, as with our 
word * high-bred,* worthy of a man of 
family. To a chieftain whatever is 
hereditary is honourable as a matter of 
course, rb yevvaibv iari rb fi^ i^nrrd- 
fjuevov iK TTis auTov if>6ac(as Aristot. H, A, 
i. 1. 14. 

256. This line is a compendium of 
sins against Homeric diction — the weak 
oArdSN = the-m^ TpcTN for rpdeiv^ and 
worst of all iQi in one syll. for ida in 
three. The couplet may be an Attic 
interpolation, though it does not look 
like it If it is to be restored to 
archaic form, violent measures must be 
employed. Of many conjectures perhaps 
the best is van Leeu wen's dprLos elfw 
Tp4€iv fi OVK efae IL 'A. In the old 
Attic alphabet, with contractions, this 
would be Tf>€ip /xov/cea 11., which would 
easily assume its present form with 
airrtay^ a gloss imported to fill up the 
apparently deficient measure. The well- 
attested ^a supports this. For the 
imperf. cf. 819. (Synizesis of the first 
syll. of id(a is found in our texts in E 
344, where see note, and 233, yff 77.) 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

TOUT© S* ov irdXiv aZri^ airolaerov a>/c^€9 XinroL 
dfjL(f)(i) a<l> r)fieL(jdVy el 7' ovv Srepo^ ye <f>vyrjtatv. 
aWo Be roi epeeo, av S* ivl <f>p€<rl l3d\\eo arjto'iv 
at K€V fjLOi 7ro\i})8oi;Xo9 ^A0i^vrj kvSo^ ope^t 
afKporipci} /crelvat, av hk TOvaBe fj^v a}K€a^ tmrov^: 
avTov ipvKaKeeiv, ef dvrvyo^ fivia reiva^, 
AiveLao S' CTrdl^ai fiefJLvrjfievo^ imrcov, 
€K S* iXAcai Tpaxov fier ivKPi]ficBa^ 'A^atou9. 
T^9 yap rot yevei]^, ^9 Tpcot irep evpvoira Z€U9 
BSy)^ vlo<; TTOiinjv Tavv/JLi^Beo^, ovv€k apiaroi 
iTrrrcov, oaraot eaar^v xrrr ri& t fjekLov re- 
T^9 yeverj^ exXeylrev ava^ dvBp&v ^Ay^iarj^;, 
XdOprji, Aao/Lci8oi/T09 uttoctj^o)!/ Oi^Xea^: iTnTov^' 
tS)v oi If eykvovTo ivl p^eydpotat yeveffXr)* 




267. TO&noM M (not Harl. a). H cSnc^c Tnnouc C {mpr. 01 over ouc) R tupr, 
268. cT r* oSn Ar. d&d toO y : others cT k* oOn ? 260. dpimoi P. 26S. 

aiNckoo Zen. || fatitkac Q. |i JUCUNHuiNOC : xaXXfrpixac S^ {inuunujubnc S^). 
264. ixcXdoai A (supr, k d*). 270. rcN^XHC N supr., yp, J^ : mdaka 

Vr. b. 

258. For the double re cf. n 30 M 
ifjii y opy o5r<ii 7^ Xd/3(H x^XoJ. 287-8 
and X 266 are doabtful cases. Schol. 
A (Didymos) remarks, oCn-uts poOn did rod 
y *AplffTapxoi: this perhaps indicates 
the existence of a variant et k* otv^ which 
is at least auobjectionable, perhaps prefer- 
able, and is conjectured by Heyne. 

261. ToOodCp pointing to his own 
horses, which must therefore be close at 
hand ; an additional argument in favour 
of the explanation adopted in 249. 

262. It is not uncommon in vase- 
pictures of a chariot about to start to 
see the reins fastened to the front of the 
ILvTv^ or rail which ran round the car 
and formed a handle behind by which 
the riders could mount. This again 
seems clearly to shew that Sthenelos at 
the moment is in the car and holding 
the reins. 

263. YnncDN may be gen. after ^al^cu, 
cf. N 687 iira.t<f<Tovra yetov and other 
genitives after verbs of aiming {ff. O. § 
151 c). ucuNHuiNoc is then added as 
in T 153 ihUi ris v^uiojv fiefu^fUvos dfdpl 
fMx^o'0<af both lines being instances of 
the common Greek habit of expressing 
by the participle what we give in the 
principal verb : *<io not for^fet to spring 

at the horses.' On the other hand j 
iTratffffeiy is commonly used absolutely, 
so that it is equally possible, though 
less idiomatic, to muce iTirunf dependent 
on fufunriijjpos, * spring forward thinking | 
only of the horses.' 323 is in favour : 
of this ; there, however, iwai^t may | 
directly govern tTwouf (cf. H 240, M 
308 ; it Ukes the dat. also, k 322, ( 281, 
^ 64 ?). 

265. Ac, an ablatival gen., expressing 
the source, as Z 211 rajSrijs roi Tcre^ re 
Kal alfiaros iiyxpfXM. elyeu, and rift Tere^ 
fK\€\ff€ below. The attraction ifs for 
ijv assumed by some is not Homeric, 
Hesiodic, or Pindaric. Bekker {If, B. 
ii. 12) instead of supplying tlaiv after 
yevtri^ takes it with iK\^t in 268, 
regarding yevcijs there as a mere re- 
sumption after the parentlietical 1ft . . 
iliXiiv re, and putting a comma at the 
end of 267. He would also read 1^ for 
^t, but this seems needless. 

266. oOncko, because. For Ganymede 
see T 231-5. 

269. XdapHi Aoou^doNToc, O 72. 
ei^Xcac, as SrjXvs iipcri e 467, 'H^ny ^Xvt 
iovira T 97. Others read ^X^ar for 
^^Xe/as, with the Doric d of the ace 
plur. fern. ; but this is not an epic form. 

270. rcN^AXM, a stock, ttucL 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


/ »> 

T0U9 fjL€v reaaapa^ auT09 ^wi' artTaW' iirl <f>dTV7fi, 

TO) 06 ot; Aiveiai o<ok€v, fii]a'T(op€ q>opoLO. 

el TovTQ) K€ XafiocfieVi dpolfieOd k€ xXio^ ia-ffkop. 

CM9 ol fikv Touivra irpo^ dWi]\ov<: cuyopevov, 
TO) he TCL'^ irffidof fj)s£ov ekavvovr co^ea? nnrov^. 
Tov irpoTepo^ irpoaeeiire Avkoovo^ ar/kao^ vlo^* 
" KaprepoOvfj^e Bat<f>pov a/yavov TvSio^ vie, 
tJ fidXa a ov jSiXo^ a}KV Bafuzaraaro, irvKpb^ oiaro^: 
vvv air eyyelrn ireipija-ofiai,, at k€ Tu;^ft)/LW." 

?7 pa KoX diiireiraXfbv irpoteu BoXt'^oaKtov eyyo^, 
KaX I3d\e TvBetBao Kar dcnrLBa' t^9 Be Biairpo 
al')Qir) ')(aKKeLri irrafUvq 0(oprfKt ire\da0rj, 
rm K iirX fiaKpov dvae AvKdovo<: 07X009 v/09' 
" l3el3\i]aL K€veS)va BuifjLirepe^, ovBe a 6t(o 
Bripov €T dva'^fTjaeaOai' ifwl Bk fiiy evj(p^ eBtoxa^^ 




271. Toiic: T^^ M. 272. ui^crwpi S (supr, c) T^?) Par. j, Plato Laches 

.91 B. 273. 6paijuc0a M. 274. of : to) Q. 276. t6n : Td> Mosc. 1 : t6^ 
^. 277. Kaprcpduuoc P. 278. ft : d T>. 279. TI^XOMU A Schol. T : 

tWoiJUu 0. 280. npotH Vr. a. 282. ecbpaxi G. || n^aooc Q. 286. Ano- 

iXHCCceai PQ : yp. dNacx^cooi J. 

272. Bekker, Nauck , Chris t, and others 
Lave adopted the variant /xi^a;/>i in pre- 
erence to the vulg. juu^croopc: it was 
"ead by Plato L<ich. 191 b ; Kal a^6v 
'dv Altfclau jrard tovt* iveKUffdaae, irard 
~J^ TOV <p6pov iirurriifiTiv, koX etirey a^bv 
hftu fi'^iTTuypa <f>b^oio. There can be no 
ioabt that Homeric usage is on the 
tame side, for fiif<rr<ap <p0oio is always 
laed of heroes (Z 97, 278, M 39, 4^ 16, 
:f. fi-ffffrutp dvTTjf N 93, etc.), except in 
;he parallel passage 6 108, where the 
iS. authority is more evenly divided. 
The nearest Homeric analogy is in the 
ate passage B 767 <p6pov "Aprjos <f>op€o6' 
rat, of the horses of Eumelos. Wo may, 
lowever, accept the phrase here as an 
inUBually exaggerated encomium ; the 
lorses in virtue of their divine descent 
ire actually put on a level with human 

278. For the first k€ (here and 9 196) 
Qost edd. (including Bekker, Nauck, 
kod Christ) follow J. H. Voss in his 
:onj. 76 : but the change is needless, as 
ippears from the considerable number 
»t cases of ef k€ with opt in protasis 
laoted in ff. O. % SIS. The separation 
»f c^ . . K€ is found again in the same 
>Iirase 9 196, and in ^ 592; the 

particles are still far from coalescing into 
an Attic idv. See also M. and T, § 461. 
274. For this line see note on 481. 

278. Schol. A mixes up in his note 
two interpretations, according to one of 
which we should read A as a particle of 
asseveration ; the other would take ii 
dMTl TOV el. Though the former view is 
doubtless right, yet it may be said that 
the parataxis of the two clauses shews 
exactly how the use of cl with the 
indicative arose, to express a concession 
made unconditionally. 

279. The form tuycoui has as usual 
been almost universally corrupted to the 
more familiar Hxoi-tu, The opt. with 
ire is quite out of place in these con- 
ditional protases expressing a hope. So 
also H 243. 

281. For tAc d< La R. suggests (and 
Nauck and Christ adopt) ^ Biy comparing 
E 66, H 260, T 276. This is no doubt 
right, as ^ ^^ would be likely to be 
changed, in order to avoid the (perfectly 
normal) hiatus in the bucolic diaeresis. 

282. ecbpHKi may here mean the 
tdrpnfi : see App. B. 

285. intra is here to be taken as an 
adv. (cf. A 78), thou hast given me my 
wish to the full. If it is closely con- 


lAlAAOC E (v) 

It jl 

TOP S' ov rapfirjaa^ irpoaei^ Kparepo^ Aio/jlijStj^' 
fifil3pOT€^, oifS* ervj^e?* arcip ov fiev a^^&t y otm 
irplv aTrowavaeaOai, irplv fj erepov ye ireaovra 
al/uiTO^ aacu Aprja roKavptPov iroXefitaTi^v. ' 

W9 <f>dfJL€VO^ 7rpO€1JK€' )8iX09 S' 10VV6V ^AffrjVT) 2M 

piva Trap* 6<f)0a\/jL6v, XevKOv^ S' iiriptfaev oBovra^, 
Tov 8' airo fiev yX&araav irpvfivijv rdfie j^aX/co9 dreiprj^, 
aly(/ifi S* i^eXvOrj iraph veLarov avdepe&va. 
rfpLire o ef oj^cwi/, apaprfore 0€ reu^e €7r avT(oi 
aloXa irafi<^av6<i)vra, waperpeaaav Be oi Xmroi, 295 

wKviroBe^' TOV S' aiOi XvBtj '^v^rj re fievo^ re. 
Alveia^ S' diropovae avv dairiBi hovpL t€ fuiKp&i, 

288. np)N ^on. P: np{N r' 0. || dnonaOccceoi (A 9u;)r.) DNU: 
c»cecn (including T). I| np)N ft LU : np(N r* A 0. 289. ToXaOpioN PR 

293. ^zcXlioH Ar. AHM Mor. Bar. Cant. Vr. o, Harl. a, Par. a b e f ^ (X in ras,) 
j : AxcXdeH S {supr. u) : iscxiieH Mosc. 1 (in ras. ), Par. h k : imicuro T Lipg. 
Harl. b: txmoieH Zen. 0. 296. nciJUi9aN6cNTa G. 297. te6pouoc PRSnP 

(H siipr.) : focbpoucc N. 

nected with e^ot as epithet, it produces 
the forbidden trochaic caesura in the 
fourth foot 

288. The fourfold repetition of re in 
the vulg. led Barnes to drop it after 
either irplv, and the Mas. give some 
supi)ort. npiN was originally long by 
nature (cf. irpeiu in the Gortynian inscr. ), 
and though it is occasionally short in 
H. (nineteen times), yet it remains long 
in thesis in Z 81, and some eight other 
passages. It is true that irplv has a 
specifld affinity for yc, the combination 
occurring nearly thirty times in Homer, 
yet Z 4C5 (?), 74, a 210, 8 255, 17 196, 
<r 289 are the only passages where the ye 
is not elided ; this very small proportion 
and the preponderance of passages in the 
Odyssey are in favour .of the omission. 
See Hartel H. S. 109, La Roche H. U. 
256. For dnonoiiocoeai and airoTraiuaa- 
ffdai see note on F 28 ; and for 
ToXaOpiNON H 239. 

291. The course of the dart has given 
great trouble to critics ancient and 
modern. Some thought that the dart 
being miraculously guided need not 
pursue a natural course ; others, that 
randaros was leaning forward to see the 
effect of his shot ; otners, that the plain 
was not level, and that the chariots ran 
on the lower ground while the footmen 
fought from tne heights (!). None of 

them seem to have hit on the absardly 
simple explanation that Pandaros may 
have attempted to 'duck,' bending his 
head forward a moment too late. The 
result would obviously be what Homer 
describes. (This explanation was, I 
find, first given by Braudreth.) 

293. ocXOeH was explained by Ar. 
TT)i ip^rjs iiravoaro, which the word 
cannot mean ; i^ta-jjOi} of Zen. and vnlg. 
=i issued forth. But there can be little 
doubt that Ahrens, Brandreth, and Christ 
are right in restoring i^iXvBe — i^\$t. 
The form with e for 77 is not elsewhere 
found, but has very likely been sometimes 
suppressed in favour of the more familiar 
flKdov. The misunderstanding will of 
course have arisen in transcription from 
the old Attic alphabet. This is an 
interesting, because evidently accidental, 
proof that in the oldest form of the Epic 
poems the ictus in the penthemimeral 
caesura sufficed to lengthen a fijud 
short syllable without the aid of the v 
4<p€\Kv<mK6vy which originally was not 
used to make position. (See also on A 

295. napirptccaN, swerved (zsicU. For 
the canon of Ar. that in H. rpcijr means 
*/tt^eref non timere* see Lehra Ar» 77 
sqq. Hence Aineias leaps down (297), 
because his horses are runnine away. 
But the variant irbpovce is equaUy good. 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


Seia-a^ fiij Trci? ol ipvaaiaTo vexpov ^Aj^atoL 

dfuf}! S* ap* avT&t 0aiv€ Xecov &9 oXkI irerroiffw, 

irpoaOe Be ol Bopv r ear^e koI aairlZa irdvToa itarjv, 300 

TOP KrdfJLepac fjb€ficm<: 09 Tt9 rov y dvTLO^ ?kdoi, 

afiepBaXia Id'^cov, 6 Si '^epfidSiov Xdfie %6£pl 

TvBetSrj^, fjUya epyop, h ov hvo y avhpe <f)ipoi,€P, 

otot vvp jSpoTol ei<T' 6 he fitv pea TraXXe Kal olo<;* 

T&t fidXev KiveLao kot la")(iov, ivdd re fir}po<; 306 

l<Tj(La)t ivaTpe<l>€Tai, KorvXrjv Be re fiip KaXiovat* 

OXdaae Be ol kotvKtjp, irpo^ B afufxa prj^e repopre' 

(oae o airo pipop rptf^v^ Xiuo^, avrap o y rjp(o<: 

earrrj ypv^ epiiriop koX ipelaaro X^tpl 7ra')(€Lr]t 

yaiTjs' dfi<l>l Be 6aae KeXaipt) pv^ eKdXw^e, 310 

Kal pv K€P Ip0* diroKjoiTO apa^ dpBp&p Alpela^, 

801. ToO r* : ToOa* Mosc. 1. I| etirrfoN DHRS. || IXeM(i) NQ {supr. 01) R Vr. A. 
808. diko Q. II r* om, D. || flNdpcc JT. 306. iNea re G Mosc. 1. 806. IcxioN 
Par. b : iNfooi Cram. An, Ox. ii 372. 307. T^noNra Q aupr, 308. Tpax^c P. 

810. di : d< ol East. 

300. oi is dot, ethicus, np6o8C a pure 
adverb, as in 315, etc. The prepositional 
use with gen. is commoner. 

301. -roO K ANTfoc : cf. P 8 ; the ex- 
pression is very strange, and might easily 
be emended io drr/os, the hiatus being 
normal in the bucolic diaeresis. As it 
stands, rod must mean ' the dead man.' 

803. xUra SproN, a great feat, added 
parenthetically, 'in apposition to the 
sentence,' as it is usually called, though 
it really forms part of the complement 
of the verb Xd/Sc. "We may compare A 
294 irav tpyov virei^ofxai, and similar 
usages which will be found in If. G, 
§ 186. 2-4. There is nothing in Homeric 
usage to justify us in taking ^^701^ in 
apposition with x^pM^^o''* ^ though = 
a great thing ; or in comparing such 
Herodotean phrases as fiiya XPVM^ ^^<* 
y^poicN : for this ' concessive ' or poten- 
tial opt. without Ay see ff. 0. § 299 /, 
where reference is made to the similar 
use in a principal clause, j>€ia. deds y* 
iOihav koX rrjXMev Avdpa aatixTcu. The 
hiatus after 6 suggests 6 k od (P. 
Knight), or 6 7' ov d6o k* (van L.), but 
the ire is not grammatically necessary. 

304. oToi nOn BpoTo{ cfa: compare A 
272. The phrase occurs four times in 
the Iliadt but not in the Odyssey. 

806. kotOXh, the acetabulum of Roman 
and modem anatomy ; the socket, suffi- 

ciently like a shallow cup, bv which the 
head of the femur is articulated to the 
pelvis. Compare the use of KorvXriSufu 
of the cuttle-fish's suckers in e 433 (also 
of the acetabulum in Ar. Vesp. 1495). 

310. ra{HC : the gen. is compared in 
ff. O. % 151 a with rolxov too iripoio 
1 219, and with the gen. after verbs of 
taking hold of. But it must be admitted 
that the analogy is not verv satisfactory, 
and the use is strange. The line recurs 
in A 356, and is there generally con- 
demned as an interpolation ; it may 
fairly be suspected here too. The last 
part looks hke an adaptation of the 
lamiliar rbv Si «car' 6<p$a\fiuy ipe^evv^ 
vif^ iKd\v\l/€v. For d^ Brandreth and 
others conj. d^ F\ where F would natur- 
ally represent fe : but 5^ ol in Eust. 
looks as though some mss. in his time 
still retained a tradition of f ot, which is 
of course possible. Cf. the 6i of Ambr. 
in 1. 4. 

311. 6n6Xorro for the diri^Xrro which 
is normal in Homeric as in later Greek ; 
see H. O. § 300 c, M, and T. § 440. 
The opt. is in itself merely concessive or 
potential, without reference to past or 
present ; but the need for a more exact 
expression of time clearly led early to 
the prevalence of the indicative. Hence 
the opt. is almost confined to a few 
formulae, such as this (repeated in 888), 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

el fit) ap* o^if vorjare Aio? Ovydrrfp *A<f>poBlT7j, 
fiTfTfip, fj ficv VTT ^Ay^larji rixe /SovkoXcovti' 
afi<\>X S' eov <f)L\ov viov i'xevaro '7ri])(€€ Xev/ca>, 
'jrpoade Be oi iriifKoto ^aeivov mv^fi eKoKxr^ev, 815 

epKO^ efiev /SeXitov, p/rj Tt9 Aava&v ra'xywdoiXxov 
^oXkov €pI oTijdea'ai ficCKoav €k 6vpi>v ekotro, 
f) p^kv eov <f>i\ov viov V7re^€<f>ep€v iroXep^oio* 
ovS' vl6<: Ka7rai^09 eKrjBero awOeatcuov 

Tcuov &9 eirereWe l3or)V ar/adb^: Aiop,^Br)^, 820 

dW' o 7€ T0U9 p>€v €oif<; '^pvKCUce p,a>vv')(a^ Xmrov^ 
v6a'<l>iv ttTTo (f>\oL<rfiov, cf avrvyo^ fivia reLva<i, 
Aiveiao S* eirat^a^ xaWLrpfxa^ hnrov^ 
e^eKaae Tpdxov p^T ivKv^pLiBaf; 'Aj^atouv, 
B&/c€ Bk AtjIttvXcoi irdpcoc <I>, hv irepl iraari^i 325 

Ttei/ op/qXiKi'q^y on oi <f>p€<rlv apria rjLBrj, 
VTfvarlv eiri, y\a<f>vprjL(rcv ikavvip^ev, avrhp o y ffpco^ 
&v imrcov eirificL^ eXajS* r^via a-cyaXoevra, 
cdyfra Be TvBetBijv peOeire Kpareptavv^a^ ittttou? 

817. Ik : Ano T. || XXm-cn NQ Par. c g : 6Xoito Ar. (?). 818. khn I Tcbir 
Mosc. 1. II rrroXluoio N. 323. alNote Zen. (cf. 263). 324. ialXacc : <k V 
IXaooc T. 826. ftido C. 327. noucIn P. 329. KpcrrcpooNOxccT Tnnoic Zeo. 

ovK &y (o6 Kt) iSoiSf o6 k€v dvlxravro^ and is 
much commoner in II, than Od, 

818. T^c conceived ; cf. B 741, 820. 

814. Ix<^^>^^* ^^' ^ ^^^ dfjLifKxvdcIs 
Trarip* iaffkbv, 

315. IxdXuipcN, put as a covering ; so 
P 132, * 321, X 313. Cf. note on 

320. For the position of rdcoN cf. 332 
and /3 119. For amecadcoN, (igreementy 
-cf. B 339 Triji ^ avvOcffLai ; 

323. See note on 263. 

326. For the phrase fipna fiidH cf. II 
72 ct fiM Kptliav AyafUfUfUif ifTria elSeirf. 
dpTios seems to be the opposite of dv- 
dpa-ios, and to mean 'friendly,' agree- 
ing with his wishes. But in S 92, 
240, dpTia ^d^etp means ' to speak suit- 
ably, to the point,' and so it might be 
here ; ol would then be an ethic dative, 
' because he found him have apt know- 
ledge.' Bat this is a less Homeric use 
of elS4vaif which is regularly used to 
express disposition of character ; compare 
numerous phrases such as atai/M (0 207), 

dOefiiariaf Aypia elShfaif and the fuller 
Ovfibs ifirta Si^v€a olde A 361. 

327. For the dat instead of the aoc. 
after verbs of motion cf. the common 
phrase ^ir* dWiffXaiaiy U^yreSf and others. 
H. O. § 198 ad fin. 

329. u^eenc with a double accus. only 
here ; in II 724 we have IlarpdicXwi 
(<p€V€ KfKLT. lirirovs. The word ivw^ 
from its primary sense * handle/ came 
to imply 'handling' or managing a 
team of horses, and hence =cfr»ve. But 
it is not necessary to follow von Christ 
in reading fiid* iv€ : the constr. ' drove 
the horses after T.' may be justified by 
such common constructions as fuerUwm. 
riva and the like, combined with the 
constr. of 9 126 invloxov fUOexe ^pa«iV, 
' drove in quest of a charioteer/ where 
the direct object trirovs is omitted in 
Greek as in English. Compare also 
tiTTOvt vvdy€iv l^'ybv 11 148. It must, 
however, be admitted that Tudetdi^c would 
be a more usual constr. The readinff of 
Zen. (v. supra) is not to be commended, 
as it introduces the short form of the 
dat. pi. Xxiroii for tvironn^ 

lAIAAOC E (v) 217 

i/jLfjL€fia(o^. 6 Be JS^VTrpiv eTrcwtj^CTO vr^Xei ')(a'\jc&i, 330 

yivcixTKcov o T opoKKt^ €7fp Oco^, ovBk deotov 

Tcuov, ai T avtp&v iroXcfiov Kara KOipaviovarLV, 

ovT ap ^AOrjvcUrj ovre irroXLiropdo^ 'Ei/uai. 

aW' ore htj p ixi'^fave iroXvv KaO^ OfuKov oird^eop, 

evff* iirope^dfievo^ fi€ya0v/M)v TuSeo? uto9 335 

aKprjv ovraare X^^P^ fJL€Td\/M€vo<: o^il Bovpl 

al3\7jj^i]v eWap Be Bopv ')(poo^ dvreropriaev 

dfilSpoo'LOv But ireifKov, ov oi liApcre^ Kafiov avrai, 

Trpvfivov virep Oevapo^, pie B ufi^porov alfia 0eolo, 

331. riTNcibcKoaN LN. || ec6 G. 334. ph idxoNC G. 886. (Hence to 1. 635 
is a lacuna in A, supplied by a later hand, quoted as A, ) doup) : x^i^k^ H Lips. 
337. 6juBXhxp^n LRS. || d6pu : di6 PQ. 

330. The name Kiinpic is used only 
in this episode (422, 458, 760, 883), and 
the Cyprian worship of Aphrodite is not 
elsewhere alluded to in the Iliad. Her 
connexion with Paphos appears, how- 
ever, in the certainly late passage 362, 
which in several respects may be com- 
pared with the adventures of the gods 
recorded in the present book. In the 
sequel Kypris is made the daughter of 
Dione (371), an ancient goddess, prob- 
ably pre -Hellenic, the wife of the 
Pelasgian Zeus at Dodona. It is certain, 
therefore, that the name cannot be 
meant to imply the Cyprian origin of 
the goddess. Enmann {Kypros p. 21) 
suggests that the name is really European, 
and compares the Italian Dea Cupra (of 
whom we know nothing but the title) ; 
and that the Greeks named the island 
from the goddess, not vice versa^ when 
they colonized it, and, in their usual 
fashion, identified their Aphrodite with 
the Phoenician Astarte whom they found 
in possession. Cyprus is alluded to in 
H. only in d, ^, p, and the clearly late 
passage A 21, but Aphrodite is fully 
established as an Olympian, and shews 
no sign of Phoenician parentage. 

332. Compare 824 fJi^xv^ ^^^ Koipa- 
wiorra, and F 241 fi^xv^ difdpQv, ^183 
dydpQv irTo\4fiovs, from which it is clear 
that ioidpAn here is gen. after irdXcfiov, 
not after KOipaviownv, 

334. 6n6zcoN: cf. 9 341 u)t "Ektup 
&ra^€ Kdffti K0fi6iayTas 'Axatoi^, and P 
462. The word seems to be closely 
conn, with iirtiv (compare the use of 
iipiir€iw)y and means pressing hard. It 
recurs in this sense in the metaphorical 

phrase yyjpai 6irdi:€i 9 103, A 321 ; else 
it is always causal, 'to cause to attend 
upon,' i.e. to attach to. 

337. dBXHXpi^N, a word of doubtful 
origin and sense, cf. d^rfxfi^s Odvaroi 
{easy ?) X 135, ^ 282 ; here apparently 

feeble {ol fiiv diraXi^Vf ol Si daOevrj Ap. 
Lex.). Herodianos on 9 178 mentions a 
form pXrfxpl^s in the same sense ; cf. 
/3Xd| (and fxaXaxdi ?). ANTcrdpHCCN may 
be either dv-rtrbpriaev or dvr-erbfniaev^ 
probably the former. The reduplicated 
reropelv is given by Hesych. and dm- 
seems to have no particular force here. 
Cf. d^-ireiraXc&y, and see K 267. 

338. The very rare neglect of the F of 
foi led Heyne to conj. 6 for 6vy though 
7r4irXov as neuter is not found in H., nor 
indeed anywhere except in the form 
WtXo in very late authors (cf. on Z 90). 
Another easy correction, made by Nauck 
and others, is ai for ol. Still better, 
perhaps, is Brandreth's 6v Ap, cf. 6^ /^' 
aMj TToiiiffaTo 735. But in a fragment 
of the Kypria we find ttfULTa fUv xpo^ 
taro rd ol Xdpirii re xal *ilpai irolrjaaVf 
and this is certainly the more Homeric 
construction, cf. 3! 178 d^i^obaiov iavbv 
faa0\ 6v ci *Adi^vrj f^va dfficfyTaaa. 
(similarly An. Rhod. iv. 424). The 
line is superfluous, and as we should not 
expect the garment to cover the irpv/xyby 
Bivapoiy it may well be interpolated. 

339. npujuLNbN Oncp e^apoc must be 
the same as x^V ^^^ KapxQi 458. Oivap 
appears to mean ' the palm of the hand.' 
npujuLN6N is here taken to be a substan- 
tive, the 'root of the palm.* But it is 
very tempting to read xp^a for XP^^ 
in 337 with van L. (altered to avoid the 


lAIAAOC E (v) 


hc^P' 0^^? ^^/^ '^^ P^^^ fJuiKapeaat Oeoiaiv 340 

ov yctp alrov eBova, ov mvova aXdoira olvov 

rovv€K dvaifjLovi^ elai koI addvarot KoXiovrcu, 

fj hk /ieya Id'^ovara aTTo eo Ka/SlSaXev vlop* 

Kol TOP fJL€P fjb€rh j(€palv ipvaaro ^olfio^ ^AiroWoov 

Kvapirjt P€<l>e\i]L, fii] Tt9 Aapa&p Ta')(ir7r(oXa}p 

^uXkop ivl aTTjOeao't fiaXobp ix Ovfiop ekotTO* 

TTJc B* iirl fJUiKpop avare fiorjp dr/ado^ Ato/JLtjSrj^' 

V cIkc, Ato9 Ovyarep, iroKepxtv k<u SrjiorfJTo^' 

fj ovy^ aXt? OTTt yvpaiKa^ dpdXxtBa^ ^Trepoirevet^ ; 

el Be av y 69 iroXe/JLOP ircoXTjaeai, ff re a otoD 

piyijaeip iroKefiop yCy Kal el ;^' erip(odi irvOrjai,** 

C&9 €<f>a0', ff S' dXvova d7rej3'qa'eT0, reipero 8* alpw, 
Tr)p fj^p ap *I/3t9 eKovaa iroBijpefio^ e^ar/ ofiLXov 
dj(Oofi€Pi]p oBvpTjiai, /jLeXaipero Be XP^^ kcCKop, 
eipep erreira /ia%i79 eir dpiarepd Oovpop "Xprja 355 


343. JU^ra [D]J[NO]PQR : u6-' 0. || xduBaXcN ^CNPQST. 346. CXiffrai 

CHQ. 347. Tftl : t6&i Vr. a. 348. aurdrHp CJNO. || noX^uoio JO. 860. 
cO r* : Iv n<rt 7p. kq) Schol. T. 361. n6Xcu6N dc C {supr, re) DNQR : ndXc- 
u6ntc Vr. b. || cYr' U. Il ^Sin^cciN kq) d x* ^r^poMi nu«Hi n6Xcu6N re G. 862. 
^cBi^cCTO AD^Q, Vr. b^ c : 6ncfii)c*T0 M Harl. a : Ancfii^GaTO Q. || TdpcTO V : 
TtTp€ rdp U. 

hiatus, and perhaps with the idea that 
dfi8po<rlov belongea to it) ; then Tpvfiu6v 
will be an adj. as usual, the spear pierced 
tfie flesh to the bottom ('to the bone') 
above the palm. And it maj be ques- 
tioned whether we should not give the 
same explanation even with xP^^i taking 
TTpufiMdv as an adv. Cf. also P 619, 
where the same constr. is possible. If 
Xpo6f is kept, it would bo better to read 
did for Wpu with PQ. 

340-2 appear to be a very poor inter- 
polation. ix^P ^ mentioned again only 
in 416 in an anomalous form. It is used 
by Aisch. Ag. 1480 in the sense of 
' blood ' simply ; in later writers it 
means the senim of the animal juices of 
all sorts, including blood. Thus the 
appropriation of it to the divine blood, 
wnich is not adopted by any later poets, 
seems due to a mistaken attempt to 
reconcile 416 with 339 by this interpola- 
tion. 342 is a meaningless non sequUur ; 
and with it 341 must be condemned. 

344. ipiiooTO, savedf see A 216. 

349. fi oOx ttXic, rather oO FdXis : the 
^ is superfluous and the synizesis in- 
tolerable (so Brandreth). 

350. The original reading must sorely 
have been ^e av 7' is TrdXcfiw irwXi^eou ; 
fj t4 <r' dtut kt\, : 'wilt thou frequent 
the battle-field)' The mistake was 
easily made in transcription from old 
Attic ; Hartmann's oi> a6 y* (t* it ir. 
adopted by van L. is very violent, and 
gives a less vigorous sense. As the text 
stands, the two clauses beginning with 
el are evidently not co-ordinate or even 
consistent, ^\e can only explain them 
by supposing that the train of thought 
is, * if you mean to frequent (cf. A 490) 
the battle-field, you will (be taught to) 
dread the battle if you so much as hear 
the sound of it anywhere ' ; which is 
possible, but not very satisfactory, 
nue^ceai is probably used of direct 
hearing, not m the sense of 'hearing 
battle talked about,' cf. 379 iwveorro 
KT^iroPf 224 fxdxv^ iiri&dovro, 

354. ucXa(Ncro, i.e. Aphrodite was 
stained by the fii\aM aXfia (or /x^P^)* 
The scholia take it to mean grew livid, 

355. h\ 6picTCpd : it seems most 
natural to suppose that the Greek poet 
always looks at the battle from the 
Greek side. The left would then mean 



fi Se yifi)^ epiTTova-a Kaa-iyvqToio (f>tKoio 

" (f>i\€ Ka<rLyvr)T€, KOfiiaai ri fie, 809 Se fioi twirov^, 
6<l>p* €9 "OXvfiTrov iKtofiai, Xv ddavdrtov €(809 i<rrL 360 

Turjp a')(0oficu IXko^, o fie /S/>oto9 ovraaev avrfp, 
TvSetSf)^, S9 vvv y€ koX &v Ad irarpl fidj(piTO,*^ 

c59 <l>dTO, riji S* ap ^^ B&k€ jfpvo'dfnrvKa^ iirirov^. 
Tj S* €9 SUf>pov Ificuvev dKrfj(€fjL€vr) (f>i\ov ffrop, 
iriip Be oi ^\pi^ e^aivc xal fjvia Xa^ero X^P^^' ^^^ 

fidoTi^ev S* i\dav, to) S' ovk dixovTe Trerea-Or^v, 
alyjra S* hreiff* Xkovto Oe&v €So9, aiirvv "OXvfiTrov 
€vO iTTTTov^ exTTqae iroSijvefio^ wxea *lpi^ 
Xvcaa ef o^iayv, iraph S' dfA^poxriov fidXev elBap* 
17 S €1/ yovvaai, irline Aicovrj^ SV *A(f>poSiTi], 870 

868. iXiccou^H S. 869 om. Lips.^ || xadrNHT* ixxduioai AC^FQ (app. corr. 
from ixKdjuucoN) RU Lipe.i» : KadrNHT« ixxduiccn S. || d^ liC G. || d6c bi : d6c 
T^ C. 861. XloN G. 863. fip* (rni. ^DMNPT. 864. AxaxcuiNH H^R: 

AxaxHubiH GJPQ (S supr.) T. 366. udcnzc(N) LN^. || A^ONTC GOP Cant. : 
fiKONTC 0. 369. ndp G Cant. 

the part of the battle most distant from 
the Skamander, on the right bank of 
which the fighting must, according to 
the actual geography, have taken place. 
Bat this wm be inconsistent with 1. 36, 
where Ares is left beside Skamander. 
However, it has been shewn by Hercher 
that it is impossible to reconcile Homer's 
geographical statements either with 
themselves or with the reality. The 
Skamander in particular is an arbitrary 
quantity, sometimes treated as running 
transversely between the city and the 
ships, sometimes as lyin^ alongside the 
field, and often forgotten altogether {Horn. 
AvfmUze pp. 50 sqq. ; cf. Ribbeck in 
BJiein, Mua. xxxv. 610). 

856. ixiicXrro can hardly be right, 
for in the first place the idea of a 8i)ear 
leaning upon mist is quite un-Homeric ; 
and in the second it can only applv to 
Tnnco by a violent zeugma, for which 
support can hardly he found in F 327 
tmroi i^pfflirodes xal TOiKiKa tc^x^* Hkcito 
(see note). Various emendations have 
been proposed, from Hentley's ^pt 8' 
Apfi iKa\&irT€To on ; but none are satis- 
factory. Some of the schol. derive the 
word from /cXefw, teas enclosed. 

357. KoarNi^io is of course to be 

taken with tmrovs, not with /ftreei', 
which would require an accusative. 
XiccojuiNH : for the lengthening of the 
preceding short vowel see on A 15. 

359. For d6c bi Barnes and most 
following edd. read d(n re. But the 
collocation of re and d4 is not very rare 
in H. ; a very similar instance is O 430 
oi!rr6i' re />v<rcu, xi^yj/ov 84 fic cirv 7e 
QidliSiv : so also ^ 178, t 432, and 
{according to many Mss.) t 140 ; and 
12 368 oUrt . . 84. This seems sufficient 
defence for the traditional reading here. 
The 84 makes the second clause more 
emphatic, because it is contrasted, in- 
stead of being co-ordinated, with the 
first ; there is a slight anacoluthon, but 
vigour of expression is gained. 

361. I^KOC : the accus. of a subst. is 
found only here with dx^o/xcu, but we 
have a neut. pronoun in Z 523 (cf. I 
77) ; and the accusative of a participle N 
352. We might comi>are also E 757 tub 
ycfuaL^ 'Aprji Td8€ Kapnpii ^py^- Per- 
haps, however, in this case it is to be 
regarded rather as an accusative of the 
part affected, * I have pain in the wound,' 
like dx^o/Mii x^^P^' 

370. Dione appears only here in 
Homer ; she is named incidentally, 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

firjrpo^ 6^9* 17 S' ar/Kci^ eXafero Ovyaripa ffv, 

X^^P^ *>"€ fJI'f'V KaT€p€^€V, €7r09 t' €(f>aT €K T OVOfLO^C 
** Tt9 VU Ce TOuiS* €p€^€, (f>L\OV T€KO^, OvpaVlfOVtOV 

fia'^ihUo^, a>9 €t rt tcaxov pi^ovcav ivtoTrrji ; *' 

Tr)v S' fifieLper hrevra ^t\o/x^tS^9 ^A<f)poBiTi]' 875 

" ovra /!€ Ti;S609 v/09 inripOvfio^ Aiofii]Sr)^, 

OVV€K 670) <l>tk0V viou V7r€^€(f>€pOV TToXiflOLO 

Aiveiav, S9 c/irol irdvrtov irdkif ^IXraTo^ i<mv, 
ov yctp Ihi Tpdayv koI *A^a(a)i/ (f>v\07n^ aivrj, 
oKK fjhTi Aavaoi ye koI dOavdroio'i fidxpm'ai.^* 380 

TT)v S' rifiei^er eireira Aicovr) Sla dedmv 
" T€T\a0i, rixvov ifiov, koX dydc^so Kfjoofjuivr) irep • 
TToXkol ydp Bi) T\ijfi€v ^QXvp/jna hoafurr €)(Ovt€s:^ 
ef dvBp&v, xaKhr d'X/ye • eV aXKriKoKTb tl0€VT€^. 

tXt] fJL€V ''Aprj^, 0T€ fllV <*ftT09 KpaTCpO^ T 'E^AaXT179, 385 

iralSe^ 'AXa>^09^ Srjaav Kparep&i ivl BecfjUoi* 
0(a\K€(i)i S' iv /ctpd/jLioi) BeBero rpiarkaiBeKa fjLtjva^, 

872. K<n^pci|rcN 6. 874. hnnk Q (so rtvis Schol. B L) : ^ dm) Harl. b : 

iHoml Par. d, and yp. JO. 876. 9iXoJULiidHC Q. 877. nroX^uoio N. 880. 
re om. R : TC Vr. a b. 888. noXXd OS. 

among other daughters of Okeanos and 
Tethys, in Hesiod T?uog. 353, and as 
present at the childbearing of Leto, 
Hymn. Apol. 93. These appear to be 
only attempts to connect with the 
Olympian system an earlier goddess who 
did not really belong to it. Her cult 
seems to have been Thesprotian and 
connected with that of Zeus at Dodona, 
where she was his ffdwaos. She also had 
an altar in Athens near the Erechtheion 
(with Zci>f fhraros ? See Preller G. M.* 
i. 125), which all points to an antiquity 
more remote than that of Hera. The 
name itself is probably connected with 
Lat. DiuTUij and in formation it resembles 

374. ^confti only here (and 4» 610 ?) ; 
it evidently means openly^ in the sight 
of all. 

383. Of. 873-4. tMUjmm, with the 
usual punctuation after i^ dvdpwp, is 
here used absolutely ; but this is hardly 
to be paralleled in H., the expression 
rXriTe^ ^IXoij B 299, being rather different 
It would perhaps be better, as suggested 
by Heyne, to take dX7ea as the omect of 
T\rjfjLep as well as of iiriTiOiirres. For the 
use of the latter verb cf. B 39. Fulda 
( UrUers, aber die Sprache der Horn, Oed, 

224) says that AXyoi was originally used 
of mental pain only, and that the three 
passages in which it is used of bodily 
pain (here, 895, B 721) are of late origin. 
He might have added X 582. 

385. For the legend of Otos and 
£phialtes, the youthful giants who piled 
Pelion upon Ossa, see X 308 sqq. The 
traditional explanation makes them a 
personification of the triumph of agri- 
cultural pursuits ('AXowi^ from dXiin^) 
over warlike passions. toM *A\(aeldat 
ipoffl KaraTawrcu rbv t6\€/jlov koX rdt 4s 
airrbv Trapa<TK€vds, Kod iv elfr^^nji xotrfceu 
PioTev€tv rot); dydpunrovs, SchoL D on X 
308. Mr. Frazer {G. K ii. 222) suggests 
that the idea of imprisoning the war- 
god was rather to make sure of his 
presence when needed. However that 
may be, the legend — which is at home 
in various parts of Greece, particularly 
in Boiotia and Naxos — seems to m 
founded on a vegetation - myth. See 
Preller G, M.* i. 103-6. The thirteen 
months are of course a lunar vear. As 
to why Ares was imprisoned mytho- 
graphers differ. 

387. The K^pauoc reminds us of the 
enormous jars, auito large enough to 
hold a man comfortably, found by Dr. 

So also Pind. 01. ix. 81-5 : 

iurriov irGti Kv Tpi65oirros *H.p€Uc\i7js CK&ra- 

kvU' dfi<f>l H^Xov ffraOtU ffpeide Ilixretdav, 

lAIAAOC E (v) 221 

Kcd vv K€v h/0* airoXoiTO "Aprj^ 5to9 Trdkifioio, 

el fit) firfTpVLT) TrepiKuWrf^ 'Hept/Sota 

'Epfieai e^rjyyeiKev' 6 S' i^iKXeyjtev "Aprja 390 

ijBtj T€ip6fi€Pov, j(a\€7r6^ Bi i Becfib^ iBdfiva. 

tXt] S' "Hpjy, ore fitv Kparepo^ irdl^ ^Afi(f>iTpv<ovo^ 

Se^iTcpov Karct fjM^bv oloT&i rpiyXdj^ivi, 

388. &TOC : &TOC P. 890. ipUMka AC : ipxUi S : ipuAa i^ M. 

Schliemann at Hissarlik ; see the illus- 
trations to Ilios pp. 33, 378, 589. These 
jars are of course of earthenware. The 
epithet x^^^^oc is added in accordance 
with the usual practice of describing 
the utensils of the gods as made of 
the more yaluable metals, while men 
used baser materials ; cf. 724 sqq. 
Eurystheus, according to the le^nd, of 
which representations on archaic yases 
are not uncommon, lived in a brazen 
Kipafwi sunk in the ground, for fear of 
Herakles. Ace. to the EU Mag. (98. 
31) K^pafios was the Cyprian name for 
* prison' (our slang 'jug ). 

388. For the construction see 311. 

389. JUHTpuii^ of the sons of Aloeus, 
apparently ; but according to others, of 
Hermes. But it is evidently meant that 
the step -mother does what she can to 
thwart ner step-sons. Their mother is 
called Iphimedeia in X 305. 

391. cdduNa: rather ^dd/u^ij, as Nauck 
suggests, from SdfiMrjfu (893). Cf. how- 
ever TiCSay which, as Fick has remarked, 
is an analogous form from ai^drjfu ( Aeol. ? 
aifdafu), not a contracted imperfect. 

393-400 have an obvious echo in the 
Henulea of Panyasis (fr. 16) T\rj fi^v 
Arjfi'fynipf t\tj di kXvrbs dfjufnyvi^eit. Prob- 
ably enough they are adapted from some 
older epic dealing with Herakles ; cf. 
T 95 flf They seem to belong to the 
legend of the campaign of Herakles 
against Pylos, which recurs, but without 
the divine elements, in A 690, where 
the schol. says, 'UpaKKrjs frapey^vero els 
Ht/Xoy 'xjirfy.^tav KaOapaiiav ^ ol hk JIi^Xioi 
dwoKkticarres tAj xiJXay oifK tUt^i^avTo 
a^r6v* i^* (hi dpyurdeis 6 ffpu^t iir6p$rj<T€ 
Il6\oif. ffwefidxovv di tCji fiiv NT/Xet 
rpeis 0€olf TLo<r€i8Qy "Hpa 'AtSwvct^, tQi 
di 'HpaxXei 86ut, "A0Tjva Kal ZeOs, Accord- 
ing to Hesiod, Scut, Her. 359-67, Ares 
was among the victims on the same 
occasion : 

i^dri fiiv ri ? 0i7/u koX dXXorc Teifyrfdijvai 
lyX^^ -^/KT^pov, 60* \nrkp ni5Xou iifia06€VTos 
dirrlot (ffTTj ^fxeiOf fidxns AfMrrop luveaivutv. 

(Cf. Apollod. ii. 7. 3, and Pausanias vi. 
25. 3.) The legend no doubt belongs 
to the journey to Hades, to recover 
Alkestis or to bring back Eerberos. 
There was clearly some primitive idea 
that Pylos (here the Elean, not the Mes- 
senian, v. on B 591) was the gate of the 
under -world; a cult of Hades there 
is mentioned by Pausanias, Lc, as being 
founded on the gratitude of the Pylians 
for his alliance with them against 
Herakles on this occasion. But Schol. T 
says *Apl(TTapxot "iriJXwt" wy x^^^*- **' 
i<nr4p<oif i.e. Ar. took iri/Xos to be not 
the name of a town but=T(^Xi7, like 
x6Xof and i<nrepos beside x^^^ <^nd iajripa, 
and understood it to mean * in the gate 
of the underworld.' This is not im- 
possible, for the gates of hell are often 
spoken of (cf. 646, 1 312, and the epithet 
irvXdprris applied to Hades), and a masc. 
tC\os = TijXrj is actually found in a 
Thessalian inscription (see H. W. Smyth 
in A. J. P. ix. 491). But this appears 
to be the only other case in Greek, 
and H. uses only the pi. irt/Xat. It 
seems therefore practically certain that 
the word is really local, though it is of 
course possible, in view of the chthonian 
myths connected with Pylos, that the 
name of the town meant, or was supposed 
to mean, the gate of Haides. Ar. s diffi- 
culty arose presumably from the fact 
that the Hades legend was not attached 
to the Messenian Pylos. hi Nociicca 
would most naturally mean 'in the 
country of the dead,' and this would 
agree with such a double sense of EdXciM, 
but there is no strong reason why it 
should not be the same as 4y P6irdde(r<riv, 
886. In any case it can hardly go with 
/9aXi6v, which means ' hitting him ' ; 


lAIAAOC E (y) 

fiefiX'^Kec* t6t€ kcU fiiv avrfKeoTOv Xd^ev aXr/o^, 

rki] S' *AtBr)^ iv rola-i ireX^pio^ diKifV oiarov, 395 

eCre fiLV (outo^ CLvrjp, vlo^ At09 alyto'^Oio, 

iv UvXcob iv veKveaai ^aXtav oByvrjifriv cBcokcv. 

avrkp 6 fit) irpo^ S&/ia A^9 /cat fuiKpov ''OXufJurov 

KTjp ar^kfovy oBvvi)i<n ireirapfievo^, avrctp oIoto^ 

&fi(ot €vi (TTt^apm i}X?;XaTO, /c^Be Bk Ovfiov* 400 

T&i B^ iirl Hcw^tov 6Bvvij<l>aTa (fxipfjuiKa irdao'tov 

rjKeaaT' oif fiev yap ri tcaraOvrjro^ y irervKTO. 

a"^€T\io^, ofipifioepyo^, 09 ovk S0€t atcvka pi^oiv, 

89 TO^oiaiv €KrjB€ 0€ov<;, ot "OXvfnrov lj(ov<ri. 

col S' iirl TOVTOv dvrjfc€ Oea yXavKAiri^ ^AOrjVT}' 405 

vqino^, ovBk TO olBe Kard (f>p€va TvBio^ vio<;, 

OTTi /JLa)C oif Br)vai6^ 89 ddavaTOici, fjuij(rjTac, 

ovBi tI fiiv TralBe^ ttotI yovvaai irainrd^ovaLv 

ikOojrr ifc iroXifioio koI aivrj^ BtjIottjto^. 

T& vvv TvBetBrj^, el Koi fiaka Kaprepo^ iari, 410 

(f>pa^€<rO(o firi rh oi d^lvaov aelo fid'^rjTai, 

fit} Brjv AlyidXeta irepi^ptov ^ABprjarivrj 

894. Kof julih: k6i juun Ar. {iu riji irepai) HMNOPTU Harl. b d, King's Par. 
a b f k : kOuYn Harl. a : k6i ucn J : Koi ncp C {yp. k6i juun) K Par. c {supr. juun) 
d g b : k6i ncp Q : Koi juun ncp G. |! cGxoc N {supr. fiXroc). 896. nAtoptOM Q. 
397. 6d6NaiaN 6. 899. 6dONaia G. 400. ^i^oto P: ^i^Xoto MNOQ (Harl. 
a supr.) Vr. a b A. || xAdc d* C euu^ G. 402. Kord onhtoOc ap. East. 403. 
AuBpLUOcprbc ^CG Par. e : 6fipuioupr6c S : atcuXocprbc Ar. || 8c : dtd rov r 8 t* 
Ar. (?) : 5c T* P. 406. Tud^oc ul6c : xal Kord ouju6n Eust. 407. juuix«itai 
Q : JudxoiTO ^CGJORSU. 408. Tl and tc Ar. dix^s. 411. AjumIncd goTo S. ii 
juuixcTrai Q : jul^xoito Vr. a. 412. AdpacriNH G. 

for tbere is no Homeric analogy for 
translating it 'casting him among the 
dead.' ooOt6c for 6 aMt, here only — an 
obviously late form, for which we can at 
once write the Homeric a^6s, or still 
better odros. See note on Z 260. 

401-2 = 900-1, q.v. flcni^ooN is only 
mentioned again by Homer in 899 and 
d 232, where he is the progenitor of the 
race of physicians ; see Solon fr. 13. 57, 
and Pindar F. iv. 270 i<ral «' lar^p 
iiriKOipdraTOt, Hatdy 9i <roi ti/jmi ipdos. 
He is apparently not identical with 
Apollo, who in Homer has no healing 
function (cf., however, H 514-29). So 
schol. on d 232, duuf>4p€i 6 Hanffuw 
'AxdXKtopot (ji)S Kal *H.(rlo8ot fiaprvpeT, ** el 
fi^ *ATo\K(j)r $o(/3of inr^K ^avdroto ffa(Sxrai, 
^ Kcd Hati^wy, (it dirdrrwp ^pfutKa oXbtv." 

403-4. For the exclamatory nom. see 

vi^irtos 406, and A 231. But in all 
other cases the adj. immediately follows 
the mention of the person referred to, 
whereas here Horakles has not been 
mentioned since 397. This suggests that 
398-402 have been rather violently inter- 
polated. Heyne remarks that Olympos 
is not the home of Hades. For 66piJuoc|p- 
r6c Ar. seems to have read cUcrvXoepT^r, 
which to our taste does not go well with 
the aXffvKa immediately following. But 
cf. note on 8 527. 

407. Cf. Z 130. JuidXa goes with the 
whole clause, *of a surety.' Cf. B 241. 

408. nanndzouciN : so Nausikaa calls 
her father xdrira, ^ 57 ; compare alao 
fi 42, and for the addition of the parti- 
ciple in the next line the similar Z 480. 

412. Aigialeia, wife of Diomedes, was 
the youngest daughter of Adrestoa^ and 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


ef VTTvov yoofoca (f>L\ov^ olxtja^ iyciprji, 

Kovpihiov TTodiova-a ttoo'lv, tov apurrov ^Aj(ai&v, 

l(f>Oifiij a\oj^o<; Atofi'ijBeo^ iinroBdfioioJ** 415 

^ pa Kol afjufxtTeprfKriv air l'x& j(€ipo^ ofiopyvv 
d\0€To X^^P' ^^^^0,1 Be KarrjirioayvTo fiap€iai. 
ai S* aJfT elaopoaycat *A0rjvair) re koI '^Upr) 
KcpTo^oi^ hreea-a-i Aia J^ovlBrjv ipidi^ov, 
Tol<n Be fivdwv fipx^ ^^^ yXavK&in^ ^Adijvf)' 420 

** Zev IT are pi ff pd ri fioi KexoKdceai, ottL k€v el7r<o ; 
^ fidXa Bi] Tiva KuTT/ot? *Ax(iudBa)P dvcelca 
Tpaxrip afia (nrea-Oai, tou9 vvv exTrayX* iipiXfja-e, 
T&v TLva Kappe^ovaa ^AxaudBoov iviriTrXayv 

418. ArdpHi Lips. Mosc. 1. 416. AjuifOT^pcnciN G. || ix& AJ {yp, Ix^p) NS 
(IX^) Ambr. Mor. Yen. B £t. Mag. at. : Ix^p (Ix^p) O (Ix^pa Q) {rb 8i 7/>d0eiy 
iX^p iuerd TOV p , , oif irdvv dp4ffKei rocf iraXcuoif Eust.). || X^P^ ^^' ^' X'P^I* 
Zen. II 6juu>pscN £t. Mag. 417. aX9CT0 H. 418. fipo P. 422. AxaYddooN 
P. il cNicica Ambr. 428. ttju* icrkcaai ^LOS Lips. Ambr. : fijuux niccc^ai P. || 
IbcnarXa 9iXHCc P. 424. Ax^^'^^^ P. 

aunt of her husband ; for Tydeus had 
married her elder sister Deipyle, see S 
121. So in A 226 Iphidamas is married 
to his maternal aunt. This seems to 
shew that relationship through the 
mother alone ceased to oe recognized in 
Greece at an early date ; though Mr. 
M'Lennan thought that traces of it 
existed till historic times, and that the 
change to the reco^ition of paternal 
kinship is recorded in the trial scene in 
the Eumenides, If this be the case, it 
must have been a peculiar instance of 
survival in Attica. It may be said 

fenerally that in Homer the idea of 
inship is almost the same as our own, 
though relationship through the mother 
is not quite so close as with us. bAn 
must go with robcoca, loith long lament ; 
but this is not very appropriate. Perhaps 
the original reading was 01% P, lamenting 
him. For the feminine patronymic 
'AdpHcrtNH cf. I 557 Ei>77Wvi7, Z 319 
* AKpuruifinj. 

415. This line seems to be an inter- 
polation, and out of place, like 408-4 
above. If it is to be accepted at all it 
evidently ought to come after 412. For 
i9«luM cf. A 3 ; as used of women it is 
an Odyssean word, except T 116. 

416. M88. are divided between Ix^i 
(X<^t And Ix^p, ^ the word is masculine 
in 340 and elsewhere in Greek, the first 
form is preferable. Barnes conj. d^t^- 

418. The return of Athene from the 
battle-field to Olympos has not been 
mentioned; see 510. The 'taunt' — 
which almost descends, it must be ad- 
mitted, to the level of 'chaff' — looks 
like a conscious allusion to A 7-12. For 
421 cf. E 762, a 158. 

423. Tlie choice between cn^cecn and 
iaxiaBai (i.e. <re-<nr-^<r^at, reduplicated 
aor.) is not easy. The former is fixed 
by metre in x 324, with <nretb in K 285. 
But MSB. prefer forms in 4<nr- wherever 
l)08sible (K 246, M 395, N 570, fi 349, 
T 579, 77 unanimously ; M 350, 368 
by a majority ; here and in 8 38 alone is 
there a majority for Afia <rTi<rdai)j though 
they are in H. invariably preceded by 
elision, so that those in ax- can always 
be substituted. In compounds the form 
in (nr- alone is known throughout Greek. 
In Rndar both (rxofUvav {P. iv. 40) and 
HffirrjTai (0. viii. 11) are certain ; in 
Attic ffwiffBai (Eur. Phoen. 426) and 
iaird/irip (or iavb^tiv ? Soph. Track. 563). 
This points to the forms in o-t- being the 
older, those in ^<nr- a later introduction ; 
we need not be surprised to find them 
side by side in K 285, but are justified 
in preferring the shorter where tradition 
permits. ff. O. § 36 (6). to6c nOn 
tmcarX' i^iXHCc : cf. F 415. 

424. tAn UNO takes up tlvo. *AxoMdS<ap 
above. Fiisi has remarked that the 
speech seems to shew something of the 



7r/>09 XPt»<r?}* Trepovrjt Karafiv^aro X^^P^ apaci^vJ** 425 

0)9 (f>dTO, fieiSfjcev Bk irarrip avBp&v re 0€<av re, 
Kai pa KaXeaadfjLevo^ irpoai^ j^i;<r^v *A(f>poSLTrfV' 
** ov Toty T€Kvov ifiov, BeBoTui irokefiTjla epya, 
aKXA (TV 7* Ip^poevra fieripx^o epya ydfioto, 
ravra S' ''Aprjl 0o&i xal ^Adi^vrji iravra fi€\i]a€L*^ 430 

eS? oi fJL€v TOiavra irpo^ ak\i]\ov^ dr/opevov, 
Aivelai S' iiropova-e ^orjv drfado^ Aiofii^Sr}^, 
yivcoaKCDv, 5 oi avro^ vTreipex^ x^lpa^ ^AttoWodv 
aW o y ap ovo€ ueov fieyav a^ero, lero o cuet 
Alveiav Kretvai koI diro Kkvrh T€ir)(€a hvaai, 435 

rpk fJi^v hreiT iiropova-e /caraxTdfievai //aledivwv, 
Tpl^ Si oi i^TV<j>€\i^€ {(f>a€ivi)V d^rrriSI 'AttoXXo)!/. 
aW' 0T€ Btj to reraprov iiriaaxno ^Saifiovi Z(ro^ 
B€^vd S' ofidicKriaa^ 7rpoa'€d>rj (^eKqkpyo^ 'AttoWcbi/) 
" <f>pd^€o, TvSetSrj, teal x^^^» firjSe (Oeolaiv 440 

Z(r) €0€\€ (f>pove€Lv, iirel ov irore <pvXov ofiolov 
dOavdrwv re 0€&k) (j(afial ip^Ofievoyv r dvOpdyrrtovy* 

426. KcrraJULOzciTO Ar. JNT: Kcrrcuiizcrro Q. 433. m-NcbaccMi ^LN. i 

X^pa OK. 434. &XX* 6 r fip* : 6XX' 8 re G : 6XXd riip Q : AXX' 8 rdp 

CDLM (6 r' fip Harl. a) ORT Lips. Mosc. 1. 437. cru9^izc P. 438-9 om. 
A, 439. doNd r' Mosc. 1. 441. Tea e^c 6J0. || oOnoo' ftumoN 9OX0N Q. 

freedom of familiar conversation. t^Sn 
for r&wf is a late form. 

425. Apcni^ Ar., dpai^y vuZgo, The 
word must once have begun with a con- 
sonant, probably f, on account of the 
hiatus here and Z 411, T 37 ; the two 
other places where it occurs, 11 161, k 90, 
prove nothing. No plausible etymology 
has been suggested. The soft breathing 
probably arose from the idea that the 
word meant destruetivef and came from 
&p^ or l>alu: but this is not tenable. 
The vulg. irare/ii^^aro shews the strong 
tendency of the scribes to insert the 
augment. The verb is of course AftX/ffffto 
(A 248, T 284). The ncp6NH is the 
fibula with which the old Greek (* Doric*) 
ir^Xos was fastened over the shoulder, 
so that iinr^irXuy is something more 
than an otiose epithet. 

431. This formal line occurs seven 
times in i/. and sixteen in Od. It is a 
' tag' especially useii for a return to scenes 
on eartn after colloquies in Olympos, 
which commonly shew signs of later 
insertion ; see H 464, 6 212, Z 368, 
^ 514. It is therefore sufficient in itself 

to throw suspicion on the whole preoed* 
ing section 352-430, with its carious 
wealth in mythology elsewhere strange 
to H. The last portion, 418-30, with 
its half-comic churacter, bears a suspicioos 
likeness to the buffoonery of the Btoftaxio- 
in O. 

436-42. Compare the parallel passages 
n 702-11, 784-6, T 445-64, witi notes 

439. 8': r Brandreth and van 

440. The very marked aasonance is 
curiously overlooked by Bekker in the 
full list of similar phenomena given in 
H, B, i. 185-95. 

441. For Tea 9poN^ciN compare A 187 
Vrov ifiol <pd<r6ai. 

442. x^^'^ ipxou6iooN go closely 
together in the sense of iinxBowLuv^ 
hence the position of re : so O 250 /3d^ 
iiyadiiiif re. Compare also phrases like 
"KpTfC KTdfievoSt which are commonly 
written as a single word (see note on A 
74). For the thought cf. P 447 6awd 
re yoMUf lir( irvelei re Kal fpwei. 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


W9 <l>dTO, TvBetBf)^ B* dv€')(d^€TO TxnOov oirlaaaa, 
fiTjVLV aXeva^vo^ cKarrj^oXov ^AiroXXcovo^, 
Alveiav S' dirdrepOev o^itkov 0rJK€v ^AiroXKayv 
TLepydfJMi elv Uprji, oBl oi vrjo^ 7' irerv/CTO, 
ff Toi Tov A17TC0 T€ KoX "'ApTCfii^ lo'^^iaipa 
€v fjieydXai dBvraoi dKeovro re KvSaivov re* 
avrdp 6 eiBwXov rcOf dpyvporo^o^ 'AttoXXcdv 
avT&L T AlveUn ikcXov koX Teuj^ect toIov 
dfjL<l>l 8* dp elSfoXaoi TpiZe^ koX Stot 'A^atot 
Stjiovv cIXXt/Xo)!/ dfjuf)! arrjOea'ai, fioeia^, 
d<rrriBa^ €vkvkXov<; Xaitrrjid re Trrepoevra. 



443. 'Aplffrapxot TUTobN oit noXX6N Schol. T, cf. 11 710. 444. AXcuducNOC 
Ar. ^GN (P supr.) STU Lips. Vr. a b, Mosc. 1 cU. 446. 6n6atw€M S. 446. 
ht CDJOR. II IpAi T^ II r* om. O : t' P. 448. Kiidcn6N P {supr. n). 450. T* 
am, NP : d' K. || toTo O.T {yp, toXom). 462. AXXi^oia Q. || cnWco^i D Yr. b. 

444. The choice between AXcudiicNoc 
and iXevdfifyos is not easy. In II 711 
the former has almost unanimous M8. 
support. If we read &\ev6fi€yot it 
must be taken as a fut. ; there is no 
pres. dXci^o/Acu, the aor. i7\eiki-ro being 
formed from i\i{F)ofJLai as fx^^^ from 
X^fa^. See note on A 549. 

446. The re here seems quite out of 
place, and was no doubt, as Heyne 
remarks, inserted into the original mfbs 
irh-vKTo from ignorance of the fact that 
the ictus was sufficient to lengthen a 
final syllable. Apollo, as often, shares 
a temple, mentioned again in H 83, 
with his mother and sister. This and 
the temples of Athene in Troy (Z 88 etc.) 
and Athens (B 549, 17 81) are the only 
temples mentioned in H., for the vnds 
of A 39 cannot be counted as such ; see 
note there. Vaguer allusions are found 
in j* 10 and fi 346. 80, too, the idea of 
the ttduTON, a holy place 'not to be 
entered' by the profane, belongs to 
an order of ideas foreign to Homeric 
thought. Elsewhere we hear only of 
the dX<rot, the rifuvoty and the ^fiot as 
the scene of worship (cf. , however, oiJ36j 
I 404, 80, which may imply a temple 
at Pytho). See particularly Cauer 
Orundfmgen pp. 197 ff. We seem, there- 
fore, to have clear evidence of the 
intrusion of later ideas into the primi- 
tive Epos. As Cauer remarks, the form 
nj^t agrees with this ; for in similar 
words which must have existed in the 
primitive poems the older -do- has not 


given way to the Ionic -170- : Xo6f, 
Arpetdao, Tdtav^ etc. 

448. KiidaiNON, they not only healed 
him, but made him even more glorious 
than before. This is worthy of gods 
when they tend a favourite. Compare 
T 33 ((TTOi XP^ ffitredos ij koX dpeluw, 
and the phrases A 405 etc. k68€i yaUav, 
$ 438 KCSaife Bvn&w, ir 212 Kvirjviu 
Ovifrbv Ppor6p. It is not necessary to 
adopt Herwerden's conj. ic/fdevov or Mme. 
Dacier's iri^deuvoy. (Hesych. KJidcdyei' 

449. The mention of the * wraith ' is 
not like Homer, nor does it appear on 
other occasions when a hero is snatched 
away by a go<l. It plays no further part 
in tne action, nor does there seem to be 
the least surprise shewn at the reappear* 
anee of the original Aineias in the field, 
1. 514. Apparently some rhapsodiat 
thought it necessary to explain wny the 
disappearance of Aineias did not stop 
the fight, and therefore added 449-53, 
the two latter lines from M 425-6. 
Compare the storv of Stesichoros and 
the wraith of Helen, which may have 
suggested the idea here. 

452. Bodac is the genus, Acnidac and 
Xaici^Ya the species, both being made of 
leather. For the meaning of the latter 
and of the epithet cOkukXoc see App. B 

453. mtpAorr^fiutiering, The epithet 
is elsewhere applied only to arrows and 
^Tca. The old explanation that it meant 
«rou0a, Aa0pd, is untenable. 


lAIAAOC E (v> 

Sfj t6t€ dovpov "Xfyqa irpoariv&a ^lHn0a9 *Avo3UUnr' 
**'Ap€9, "Ape? fipoToXoiyi, fuai^ve, r€*;^eo-*«-Xi}Ti, 
oifK &v 8rf TovS^ avSpa /ia^i79 ipwrtuo fMereXMtP, 
TvSetSrjVy §9 vuv ye kol &v Atl varpl fuLxptro ; 
KvTrpiSa pukv irp^Ta (r^eSoy ovrcure Xl^P ^^ icofifi 
axnap eireiT avT&i fioi hreaavro hcUftovi ttro^J' 

w elirmv auT09 fJ^v €(f>€^€TO TLepydfUKf^ ax/niip 
Tptoia^ Se aTL^a<; o&\o9 "Aprj^ atrpwc fJberekJBtMf, 
€ih6p>€Vo^ ^AKUfiavTi 0o<Si rjyiJTopi %pffuc£vn 
vidaL Se Hpidfioio Buyrp€<f>i€(ra'i xiXevo'ev 
'* & vUl^ Ilpidp,oio SioTp€<f>€o^ fiaaiXtjo^, 
€9 ri €TL KTeiveaOai idaere \aov *A^aio!9 ; 
7} €49 o tcev dfi<f>l TTvXrji^ ivTroirJTffiai ftdj^rnvTai ; 
KCirac dpr)p ov r laov iriofiev '^E/cropi Suai, 
Alveia^ vib^ fieyaXrjropo^ Arf^iacLO' 
aXX' dycT CK <f>\oi(T^oi,o aacoaop^v i<r0X6v erdipop,*' 

0)9 elirwy Arpwe pivo^ koX Ovpbv ixdo-Tov, 

457. udxHTOi Vr. b. 458. np^^roN JXOQRL- (cf. 883). 461. ' 

LDtim. Sinop. Cypr. C (rpcotac) ir^CJJNO, yp. Par. a : rp6bac D^RU {Sin 
pcap^ . . ^ ybip KTTjTiKws Tpcoidc . . il fiuWov Tfiorepunrw/uifwt ipAa 
pobcoN {yp. 0). :; ouXoc: Tiycs AX6c Cram. Ep. 442. 462. 9p 

63. \i\ia NP, yp. Harl. a. diOTpo9^cca G. || k^cucn [DHMS] Harl. a 
iOTpo9^oc GHJO. 465. dc .•/. il 6ficaTC T Bar. :; Ax^"^^ CM. 46 
I. I cunonhwa (cC noim-Aia) Zen. U: cu noiHToTa (cOnouiroia) Ai 
^r. b. 468. After this H Vr. b add cGxcrai ixrcrducN, juuhup d 

\9podfTH ( = £ 248 >. 469. 9XoicBou CO. 470. ftrpuNC Vr. b. 

455 = 31, which is also followed by 

461. TpoMdc is a donbtful form, as 
'po)i6s almost always has the first syll. 
1 thesis, and should probably be written 
*p6iot : cf. on A 129. Wilamowitz 
Herakles^ ii. 44) defends Tpdas as a 
^rm of the trxwo- 'Iuvik6p or 'whole 
nd part' figure. There are, however, 
ome eight passages in which the form 
'/xutdf (or TpCkos ?) cannot he altered, 
t is better, therefore, to accept it here, 
hough it must be admitted that Tpcikif 
lives the best ex]>lanation of the variant 
^puki;p, as an attempt to get rid of an 
in familiar and harsh construction. 

462. Ares, tlio Tlirncian god, naturally 
ssnnics the form of a Thracian chiei. 
ieo N 301. 

465. For the dat. after icrdNCCtai we 
nay compare the similar construction 
Iter ddftMOffSai (0 244), inroK\ov4€<r0<u 
^ 556), etc. The short form 'AxaioTc is 

not capable of emendation by 
less violent than van L.'a dTaw 

466. There is nothing to c 
tween the AunoHhwa of Zen. 
of Ar. ; in II 636 we have it 
while in y 434 the Mss. all ci' 
Tw {xvpdyprjif). So e£*{e«T<w 18 
both two and three terminati 
266 Ar. and Zen. were similar! 
Wc ought perhaps to read 
froiTfriJKn or ivrotifyrouTi. But 
jK)ssibilitv exists in Z 266, wl 
is a similar variation between 
and avlirroiffi. It is apparent!; 
sible to introduce uniformity 
practice of the Epic langua^ 
resj^ect. To avoid the harsh 
Nauck conj. ^ it 6 k\ while , 
omits ^ and the note of interr< 
the end of 465. 

470. This oft-repeated liii< 
presumably part of the anci 
in trade of the Epos, is remai 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


J %ap7rrjBaiv fiaXa v€lk€(T€V ' ExTOpa Slov 

)p, Trrjt Srj rot fiivo^ ot^ferai, o irpXv e'^ea/ce^ ; 

ov arep Xamv ttoXlv i^ifiev ^S' eirtKovptov 

vv yafifipol<rL KaatyvijroLai re <toI<tl' 

)v ov Tiv iycD IBeeiv ivvafi ovBe porjcai, 476 

fcaTaiTTaxra'ova'i, Kvve^ w ap^X Xeovra- 

Se pa')(^6p,€a'd\ ol irep r iwiKOvpoi eveip^v. 

p iycov eiriKovpo^ icop pA\a TrjXodev ffKoy 

yap AvfCLfj, SdvOeoi eiri Bipi]€Vti* 

Ko'^ov T€ (fyiXrjv eKiirov Koi vrjiriov vlov, 480 

KTrffiara TroXXa, rd t eXBerai 09 k iiriBex/Tj^; ' 
fcal 0)9 AvKiov^ orpvvto kclI p^efiov avTo<; 
fia'^eaacurOaL* drap oii tl fioc ivOdBe rolov, 

rje <f>€poi€v 'Amatol ^ K€v a/youp. 
>' €<rTr)Ka<i, drap ovS* dWoc<n KcXevei^ 486 

u p^vip^ev Kal dpLVvip^evai Apeaai- 
•9, 609 dylrtat \ivov aXovre iravdypov. 

i: htb' P. 472. nfli: no? JNP Vr. b, Mosc 1. 473. 9AC Ar. 

9^(i)c O. 474. raBpoTa G. 475. ird> GJMOPQU : ird>N U 

in lemma). Il ouhk : oOtc H. • 477. hk GJMRTU Lip.s. Mosc : rk 

. II T 07/1. N. 481. t6 t': Td y S. II 5c k*: Hct* CHMOQRSU 

L: ndc P. il teidcOci O. 483. juuixi^oacaai Ar. [LM] Harl. a: 

P : udxeceai HRU. 487. XiNOio iX6NTc £t, Mag, 183. 33. 

gleet of the F of FcKdffrov 
andr. , Ov/idv t€ Bentley). 
is the first entry in the story 
f course in the Catalogue B 
edon and his Lykians. 
ace. to tmdition, is imperf., 

}poTa, here brot1vcrs-in-la\Of 


: according to the unanimous 

the grammarians, generally 
} the Mss., the only Homeric 
, which Bekker accordingly 
lerc (v. La R. 7/. r. p. 287). 
jiv^en by MS8. in tlirec other 

406, V 825, o 329. To the 
txisting MS8. the difference 
graphical, and it is credit- 
r fidelity that the influence 
i the KOLvq should not have 
^Kia more generally, 
d^ US though /carAtToi' had 
Precisely similar oases will 

r 268, H 168, ^ 755. Sar- 
H of course that Ik; has left 

his wealth, forgetful of the protection 
which it would need against the raids of 
his needy neighbours. 5c k', sc. i-ni<n : 
see on A 547. 

484. Observe the effect of the * bucolic 
diaeresis' in preserving the length of the 
last syllable of 'Axcno( before a vowel. 
The other instances in the Iliad are B 
262, A 410, E 215, 9 120, A 554, 
23, n 226, * 111, >^ 441, O 641, several 
of which, however, are only instisinces of 
contracted forms which have ousted the 
full forms followed by normal hiatus. 
See van L. Eiu:h. pp. 75 f. 

486. &pcca should be 6dp€a<ri, cf. I 

487. The use of the dual here is hard 
to explain, unless it refer to the wives 
mentioned in the preceding line, and 
mean * caught in pairs, man and wife ' ; 
which seems highly improbable (so 
Schol. B vfieU koU al yvvatKes, see H, G. 
§ 170). Others make it = <n> koX 6 Xaoj : 
others explain it as a relic of the primi- 
tive origin of the plural from the dual, 


lAlAAOC E (y) 

Si) t6t€ Oovpov "Xfyqa irpoa-Tjvha ^oifio^ 'AttoWcbv 

**'Ap69, *'A^€9 PpOTCikoirfe, /Mai<l>6p€, T€L')(€(n7r\r]Ta, 

ovK &v 8rf TOPS' avSpa pA')(r)^ ipvaaio fi€T€X0a)v, 
TvBetBfjv^ 89 vvv ye koI &p Ad irarpl pA'Xpiro ; 
K^vTrpiBa pkv irptora aj^eBov ovrcure X^^P* ^^ /capir&i, 
ainkp eireir avr&i fioi iiriaavTo Balfiovc Za"09." 

W9 eiiriiv avro^ fikv i(f>e^€TO Hepydfuoi aKprji,, 
Tposict^ Se <rrtj^a9 ouXo9 ^Apfj<; Arpwe fi€T€\0(ov, 
elSofievo^ ^AxdfiavTi 0o£i rjyqropL ^prjcKcov. 
vidac he Upcdfioco Su>Tp€<f>€€a'a'i KeKevaev 
** S) vUl^ Upidfioio Bi,OTp€<l>io^ ^aciXijo^, 
€9 Tt €TL fCT€Lpe<rOai idaere \aov 'Aj^aA0t9 ; 
ff €19 o Kev dfi<f>l TTvXfji^ iuTTOi'^Trjca'L fid^J^VTaL ; 
Keirai dprjp ov t laov eriopjev ''ISiKTOpi Bicoi, 
Alvela^ u/o? fi€ya\r]Topo<; ^Ay^io'CLO- 
dXk aycT ix <f>\oi(r^oio aacoaofiev iaffXov eralpov.'^ 

e&9 eliriov Arpwe fiivo^ koI dvfiov eKdarov. 





467. udxMTcn Vr. b. 458. np^^roN JNOQRU (ef. 883). 461. Tpo>(i)^c 

Antim. Sinop. Cypr. (xpcotac) D'^UNO, yp. l*ar. a: rpdkic D^RU {dirrv ipiptrat 
yfxuff^ . . 1j y^p ktijtikCjs rpcoidc . . il fiaWov trpoTepiffTUfievufi rpdkic Eust. ) : 
TpdbwN {yp, 0). II odXoc: rwis AX6c Cram. Ep. 442. 462. epcnc^^ G. 

463. ulia NP, yp. Harl. a. ;| diOTpo9^ca G. || k^cucn [DHMS] Harl. a. 464. 
diOTpo9^oc GHJO. 465. dc A. \\ Mcorrc T Bar. '| Ax^i^x ^M. 466. nOXaic 
G. II cOnoiliTHia (cO noiHrAia) Zen. Q: cO noiHToTa (cOnoiih^ia) Ar. MNOT 
Vr. b. 468. After this H Vr. b add cGxcrai ^KrcrducN, ui^THp bi oY icr* 

'A9p^h-H ( = E 248). 469. 9XoicBou CG. 470. firpuNC Vr. b. 

455=31, which is also followed by 
odK bj> nil. 

461. TpoMdc is a doubtful form, as 
Tpb)L6s almost always has the first syll. 
in thesis, and shoula probably be written 
Tp6to5: cf. on A 129. Wilamowitz 
{HeraJeles^ ii. 44) defends T/xuaf as a 
form of the trxni^ *liaviKhif or 'whole 
and part' figure. There are, however, 
some eight passages in which the form 
Tpuids (or TpQios ?) cannot be altered. 
It is better, therefore, to accept it here, 
though it must be admitted that Ipioas 
gives the best explanation of the variant 
Tpilxovj as an attempt to get rid of an 
unfamiliar and harsh construction. 

462. Ares, the Thracian god, naturally 
assumes the form of a Thracian chiei. 
See N 301. 

465. For the dat. after icrdNCCtai we 
may compare the similar construction 
after ddfiyoffOai (6 244), vTOKXovieffOai 
(* 556), etc. The short form 'AxcnoTc is 

not capable of emendation by anything 
less violent than van L.'s dyav6y. 

466. There is nothing to decide be- 
tween the ^nouhnia of Zen. and -oiffi 
of Ar. ; in II 636 we have ivronjrduvy 
while in 7 434 the Mss. all ^ve iwolyf- 
Toy {irvpdyprjy). So €i}^€(TTos is used with 
both two and three terminations ; in Z 
266 Ar. and Zen. were similarly divided. 
We ought perhaps to read either ^i> 
fronjriiuri or ivroiifyroi<ri. But no such 
possibility exists in Z 266, where there 
is a similar variation between dylim}iai 
and dyiirrouri. It is apparently not pos- 
sible to introduce uniformity into the 
practice of the Epic language in this 
respect. To avoid the harsh syuizcsis 
Nauck conj. ij is 6 k\ while Braiidreth 
omits ^ and the note of interrogation at 
the end of 465. 

470. This oft-repeated line, though 
presumably part of the ancient stock 
m trade of the Epos, is remarkable for 

lAlAAOC E (v) 


hfS* av XapirrjScov fiaXa vcLKeaev FiKTOpa Blov 

"*'E#CTop, irrji iij rot /X6I/09 oXj(eTaLy o irpXv €)(€<rK€<; ; 

ifnj^ irov arep \aSv ttoXlv i^ifjuep ^S iirtKOvpcDv 

oUt^t avv yafilSpolo'c Kaa-iyinjTOca-l re aolai' 

tSv vvv ov Tiv iyoD IBieiv ivvafi oifBe porjaac, 475 

aXKa KaTairTcoa-a'ova'i, kvv€^ w? afjuf>l Xeovra' 

rjpsl^ Se pLaypp^trff y oX irep r imKovpot evecfiev. 

teal yap iywv iiriKOvpo^ iiov fioKa TrjXoOev fjfcw 

TrfKov yiup AvKLtj, HdvOwi eirc ScvijevTC 

€V0* SXo')(pv T€ (f>iXrjv eKtirov koX vriinov vlov, 480 

KoZ ik KTTjfiara TroXXa, tcl t eXSerai 09 k iiriSeur]^- 

oKXa fcal w Avklov^ OTpvvw Kai /juefiov avTo^ 

avSpl fLajfea'caa'dai' arap ov tl fioi ivOaZe rolov, 

olov K 17^ (f>€pOl€V A^a^ol 7] K€V OTfOieV, 

Tvvf) 5* icTTjKa^, arap ouB* aWocci K€\€veL<; 485 

\aoi(rcv jj£vifJL€v xal dfit/vifjuevat &p€<r<n' 
fiij 7rfi)9, ft>9 dyjrlai \lpov oXoptc iravdypov, 

471. llie': Ih&' p. 472. nfli: not JNP Vr. b, Mosc. 1. 473. 9AC Ar. 

CDH^PTU: 9#i(i)c O. 474. raBpoTa G. 476. irw GJMOPQU : *rwN tt 

{am. T, irdD in lemma). || ouhk : oDtc H. - 477. hk OJMRTU Lips. Mosc. : i^ 
C: d' oO a II t' om. N. 481. 1^ T : rd d' S. 11 5c k' : eScr' CHMOQRSU 
Vr. b : 8c L : ndc P. |i teidcOci 0. 483. uaxi^cacaai Ar. [LM] Harl. a : 

juaxAoacecn P : udxcceai HRU. 487. XiNoio iX6NTC EL Mag. 183. 33. 

the rare neglect of the F of FeKdcTov 
{ardmop Brandr. , $ufji6v re Bentley). 

471. This is the first entry in the story 
(excepting of course in the Catalogue B 
876) of Sarpedon and his Lykians. 

473. ^ACi ace. to tradition, is imperf., 
0i^f pres. 

474. rxLuBpoTo, here brotliers-in-lawy 
cl N 464, 466. 

478. fixco : according to the unanimous 
tradition of^the grammarians, generally 
confirmed by the mss., the only Homeric 
form is t/cw, which Bekker accordingly 
introduced here (v. La R. -fiT. T. p. 287). 
But ffxcii is given by Mss. in three other 
passages, 2 406, v 325, 329. To the 
scribes of existing M88. the difference 
was purely graphical, and it is credit- 
able to their fidelity that the influence 
of Attic and the «rou^ should not have 
introduced ^kw more generally. 

481. Kdd d^ as though KarfKLirov had 
preceded. Precisely similar cases will 
be found in F 268, H 168, ^ 755. Sar- 
pedon means of course that he has left 

liis wealth, forgetful of the protection 
which it would need against the raids of 
his needy neighbours. 5c k', sc. ^7;t<rt : 
see on A 547. 

484. Observe the effect of the ' bucolic 
diaeresis' in preserving the length of tlie 
last syllable of *Axaio{ before a vowel. 
The other instances in the Iliad are B 
262, A 410, E 215, 9 120, A 554, O 
23, n 226, * 111, >^ 441, O 641, several 
of which, however, are only instiEinces of 
contracted forms which have ousted the 
full forms followed by normal hiatus. 
See van L. Eiich. pp. 75 f. 

486. &pcca should be ddpeatrif cf. I 

487. The use of the dual here is hard 
to explain, unless it refer to the wives 
mentioned in the preceding line, and 
mean ' caught in pairs, man and wife ' ; 
which seems highly improbable (so 
Schol. B v/xeU xal al yvvatKe^, see If. G, 
§ 170). Others make it = <rj) Kai 6 Xouj : 
others explain it as a relic of the primi- 
tive origin of the plural from the dual. 


lAIAAOC E (y) 

avSpdct Svafievieaaiv eXap koL Kupfia yivrjaOc' 
01 Sk rd^ iK7rep<rov(r iv vaiOfiivrfv ttoKlv Vfj,rjv, 
(Tol hk j(pr) TaSe irdvra fiAXeiv vvktu^ re xal ^/lap, 
dpj(oif^ Xtaaofiivcot TrfKeKXeir&v iiriKovptov 


488. r^oicec C. 489. iKn^pcox:*(iN) CMQ Mosc. 2. || Ou(u)fN OQST Lips.^ 

491. thXckXht^n ^CGJMNO. || t* iniKodpcoH M: r* AnucoOpooN H. 49S. 

XdXcn^N ^HJ {yp. Kpcrrcp^N) NOPQSU Vr. a h and yp. Harl. a : KporrcpJiM Q. 

of which, however, the traces in Homer 
are excessively doubtful, see note on A 
567. (The passages bearing on the 
point are brought together by von Christ, 
Die liUerp. bei Hormr p. 19.5.) Monro 
suggests that a line alluding to the 
absence of Paris may have dropped out, 
80 that i\6¥T€ may mean 'you and 
Paris.' But there is no single case in 
Homer where the loss of a line can be 
assumed with reasonable probability ; 
the tradition was wonderfully tenacious 
of all it had got, as well as acauisitive 
of new matter. Again, the length of the 
a in Fa\6vr€ is almost without analogy ; 
it is true we have H\iav in Attic, but 
that is simply a case of double augment, 
like idapiou, i^dyri^) {H. G. § 67. 3). 
We find, however, dXwpeu with d in 
Hip{K)nax fr. 74. 1. Bentley's conjec- 
ture, \iyov iraifdypoio faX6rrcr, removes 
both difficulties ; but there is no trace 
of a tradition to support it, nor any 
obvious reason why it should have been 
altered to the text ; and there is no other 
case in Homer of a short vowel before 
ypf though it might be argued that the 
analogy of /3/> and dp would justify this. 
Unfortunately, owing to the lacuna in 
A, we have no evidence as to the 
Alexandrian view of the passage. Try- 
phiodoros, however, seems to have read 
It as it stands, for he writes (674) dXX* 
oi fiiy hidfurivTO X^wi Oo^6ltw.o iraufdypuH. 
It may be observed that the emendation 
\lvoio for \lyoVy though it removes the 
difficulty of the quantity, introiluces 
what is equally objectionable, an un- 
Homeric rhythm. H. G. {5 367 (2). 

Fishing with a net is mentioned again 
only in the simile in x 383 sqq., nor 
does fishing with an angle, wnich is 
several times mentioned in the Odyssey 
(5 368, fi 251, 832), occur in the Iliad, 
except in similes, H 406, O 80. This all 
seems in favour of supposing that at all 
events the lines 487-9, if not the whole 
speech of Sarpedon, do not belong to the 

oldest part of the Iliad. It cannot per- 
haps be proved, but it will I believe be 
felt, that the perii>hrase \i¥w wditaypoy 
does not sound like a genuine Homeric 
name for a net ; it is very different from 
the simple iiicrvw xoXi'dnroy of x 386, and 
reminds us rather of the Hesiodic style, 
in which periphrases are so common ; or 
even of the tragedians. Compare Aiach. 
Cho, 507 t6v iK ^vdov KXbfOTTjpa irc^jTMrrer 
\Lvou : and of the net cast over Troy, 
Agam. 357-61 (rrcyav^ 81kt\h» , . fjjya 
SovXeiai ydyyafiov, dn;? irayoXc^rov. The 
word A4fic is dir. Xe7. in Homer, and, in 
the sense of mesh, in all Greek till we 
come to Oppian. 

489. ixn^pcouc*. al. -om-', but the 
reversion to the principal construction 
is more epic. 

491. It is doubtful whether we should 
read THXocXcrrd^ or -xXi/Tcuy where 
the epithet is applied to the Trojan 
allies (also Z 111, I 233, A 564, M 
108). iro\iJK\rfToi, A 438, is decidedly in 
favour of the latter ; but the former 
alone is admissible in other cases, S 321, 
X 308, T 546. To our Mss. the two are 
of course practically identical. 

492. iNuiA is here, as always, reproof 
as felt by him to whom it is addressed, 
cf. A 402, Z 104, it 448. Hector is 
urged to * put away from himself,' 
silence, the rc])roach which is laid upon 
him by the allies. The expression is 
the converse of p 86 fuafxo¥ dwd^f^tu^ 
X 100 iXeyx^iriy dya0i/f<r€i. It is there- 
fore quite needless to follow Kanck 
in reading vTod^dai, ^accept their 
rebuke.' Paley compares Hes. Opp, 
762 <l>-^firj . . dpya\4ri ^peof x<^c^^ ^ 
drroOiffdai. Similarly Pind. 0. viiL 68 
diTf^iJicoTo . . OTLfioripav ykSwaap, x. 
40 P6?«:os ik Kp€<rc6viav dirodic0* &Top<w, 
The interpretation of the scholia, that 
Hector is urged * to give up the habit 
of severe rebuke ' towards his allies, ia on 
every ground untenable. 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


ca9 (fxiTo %apin]B(ov, Bdxe Se <j>p€va^ '^EKTOpt fivOo^. 
avTLKa S' cf 6)(i<ov ainf rev^eaiv SlKto ^^afia^e, 
TrdWayp 5' o^ia Bovpa Kara arparov Aiy^ero iravrqi 496 

orpvvfov fiajfea-aa-dat, eyeipe Bk <l>v\o7nv alvrjv. 
oi B ikeXi^Orja'av Koi ivavrioL earav ^A'^ai&v 
^Apyeloi S* inr€fM€ivav aoXXee^ ovS* i<l>6^rj0€P, 
a>9 B* dv€/jLO^ a'xya^ <l>opi€i lepd^ kot a\o)A9 
dvBp&v \iKfjLOi}VT(t)P, 0T€ T€ ^avOi] Afjfiifrrjp 600 

Kpivrji iireiyofUvtov dvifUDv Kapwov re koI dyya^* 
ai 5' xnrokevKaivovrai dyypfiLai' &^ tot 'Aj^atol 
"XevKoX irrrepOe yevovTO KOviaaKcoiy ov pa BC avT&v 
ovpavop €9 ttoXv^oXkov eireTrXrjyov ttoBc^ Xmrtov, 
ayfr iirip^UTyofievav' viro S* laTp€(f>ov iqvtoj^rje^* 606 

ol Be fUvo<; j(€ip&v I0v^ <f>€pov. dfi<j>l Bk vvKTa 
ffovpo^ *'Aprj^ iKdXinjre fJ^yrji Tpa>€a<n,v dprj^wVi 

496. lAOX^coeai P: u^xcceai K || fircipc R. 600. nroXf/tato} rohi StadcKa- 

ffvXkdpovi ffrlxovi iKTiBeif 4n}<n . . Kal toutop oUrut ypd<f>€(r0ou, cflr' fiN s. A. 
Schol. T. 501. KpfNO CDPN : Kp(Noi G. 602. OnoXcuxaiNOHTO P. 

495. doOpa : Bekker writes Sovpe, no 
doubt rightly ; cf. T 18, Z 104, A 43, 
etc. We need not also write d^ic with 
van L. The dual here expresses more 
than ' tioo spears ' ; it means the pair 
of spears which were regularly carried 
by the Homeric warrior, for in its orig^inal 
use it belongs properly only to things 
which go in pairs, such as eyes, hands, 
etc. It is curious that a scholion of Por- 
phyrios on F 379 quotes as evidence of 
the two spears Z 104, where as here Mss. 
all have 8ovpa. 

499. Icpdc, consecrated to Demeter ; 
cf. A 631 dX0<rov lepov &KTfiv. AXcoi^, 
here and N 688, T 496, threshing-floor ^ 
generally orchard. But the former 
meaning seems to be the oldest, cf. 
dX^w, iXodta^ AXwf, and other words 
with kindred meanings. The question 
whether the right form is iXorfi or dXwijJ 
is doubtful ; we have a similar variation 
between iXodw and dXocdo;, but the t in 
any case does not seem to be primitive, 
and it is therefore best to follow the 
MSS. in reading dXwdf, though La 
Roche prefers iXuniitt on the strength of 
the tradition of the ^mmarians. For 
another elaborate simile taken from the 
process of vrinnowing cf. N 588 sqq. It 
M not clear whether the wind used is 

created by a fan, or whether they took 
advantage of the natural wind ; but the 
probability seems in favour of the former, 
so that iireiyofUytap will be a passive. 

503. bC aOr&N, through the inen (as 
opj)Osed to the horses), i.e. the irpd/taxoi 
fighting in front of their chariots. 

504. noXiixciXKON, as 7 2 ; cf. x^^f^^oi 
P 425, (Ttd^pcos o 829. For the thematic 
pluperfect in^XHroN cf. H. G. § 27, and 
note on A 492. 

505. teLUicrou^NCDN seems to apply to 
the whole of the combatants, not to Xv- 
irtav, as generally thought. On^pcfON, 
kept wheeling about, as the line of 
frpdfiaxoi on w-hom they attended swayed 
backwards and forwards. Cf. 681. 

606. For u6ioc x^P^n '®^c 9^pON we 

may compare A 447 aOv />* (^a\ov . . 
fiive* avbpQ>Vj and V 7 ipiia xpoipipoyrai, 

607. u^XHi may go either with the 
preceding or the following words. The 
rhythm and the analogy of A 621 are in 
favour of the second alternative, while 
11 567 speaks for the first, and the 
omission of the object around which the 
darkness is cast produces a rather bare 
effect. Perhaps iiaxn*- niay be regarded 
as performing a double function, going 
both with («cdXv^e and iprfrftav. 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

irdvToa iiroc^^ofievo^y rov S' €Kpdacv€v i(f>€TfjLa^ 

^oi^ov 'A7roWa)i/09 'xpvaaopov, 09 fiiv avdtyei 

Tpwalv Ovfiov iyeipai, iirel the UaXKdS* ^A0i^vr)v 

ol')(pfi€vr)v r/ yap pa TriXev Aavaolaiv dprjydv. 

avTO^ o KiveuLv fiaXa ttlovo^ €^ abvroio 

fJK€, Kal €v OTi^dea'a-i pAvo^ fidXe irocfievi \a£)v, 

hiveia^ S' irdpOKTi p^eOiaraTO' rot S* ij(dpfjaav, 

a>9 elBov ^aov re xal dprepAa irpoaiovra 

KoX pAvo^ ia-ffXop €)(pvTa* p^rdWr^adv ye pAv ov ti 

ov yap ea irovo^ aX\o9, hv dpyvporo^o^ eyetpev 

''Api79 T€ PpOToXjOlTfO^ ''E/>t9 T dp,OTOV p^pXlVUl. 

T0t»9 S' AiavT€ Sua) Kal ^OBvaaev^ Kal AiopLi^Bt)^ 
cjTpvvov Aavaoif^ TroXepLi^ip^v oi Be Kal airrol 
ovT€ pia^ ipaxov vireoeLOKrav ovre iwku^, 
aW' epevov v€<f>€\rjiaiv ioiKore^;, a9 re Kpovimv 
vr)vepAT)<; earrfaev hr aKpoiroXoKriv opeaaiv 




608. ^pdaiNCN P: ^KpaiaiNCN Q. 610. ArcTpai Porph. on 9 2, Ru^K 

611. ApHnSc CDNR^ 614. napicrcnro K. || to) : oY M. 616. re juibi : d^ 

JuiCN Q. II oO Tl : odbkn D. 620. SrpuNON Q : ^puNON Mosc. 2. |i ol d^ : Adi 

QT Mosc. 1. 621. icOKdc : Icodc 0. 

508. For the i9crua{ in question see 
455. ixpdaiNCN: B 419. 

509. The epithet xp\K6opoc recurs 
only in O 256 in H. (also Hijmn. Ap, 
128, Hes. Opp, 771, Pind. R v. 104), 
and has caused some surprise, since the 
sword is not the weapon of Phoehus. 
So in the oracle of ' Bakis ' (Herod, yiii. 
77) Artemis, and in Hijinn. Cer, 4 even 
Demeter are called xp^^^^P^^i &^d ac- 
cording to the schol. on O 256 lllySapos 
Xpvffdopa *0p<p4a <f>7jaiv. Hence some 
of the old grammarians explained Aop 
as having meant originally 'imple- 
ment,' dxXop, in the widest sense, to 
include both the winnowing- fan of 
Demeter and the lyre of Apollo ; or, 
still more loosely, hung with golilj i.e. 
with the golden lyre. But there is no 
trace in Greek of such a wide meaning 
of the word &op. The epithet, like 
other archaic titles of gods, is beyond 
our knowledge. The ace. xP^^^^f^ ^'^ 
Pindar, H^fnin. Ap., and Hesiod shew^s 
that we should read xp^^^^P^ here. 
The alteration is evidently due to the 
hiatus in O 256. 

511. ofxou^NHN, somewhere between 
290 and 418; see note on the latter 

passage. But this whole episode 506-1 S 
IS highly suspicious. 508-11 do not 
agree with 455-9 to which they seem to 
refer ; they are in fact no more than 
a repetition of 461-70. The repetition 
d/M^wp (507) — ip7tyiJI>v (511) is clumsy. 
The * night' ca«t over the battle, with- 
out any apparent result, is a stock 
device of interpolators in later books (see 
O and P). 516-8 seem designed to evade 
the difficulty caused by the introduction 
of the wraith in 449. The intervening 
514-5 are i)erhaps adapted from H 

517. n6Noc fiXXoc is not a Homeric 
phriidie ; we can only explain it to mean 
* toil of different sort,' i.e. war as opposed 
to curiosity. Heyne has remarked that 
for dWos we should rather ex^tect an 
epithet such as alrvs, AprupdroBOC is 
not elsewhere used as a substantive, but 
we may compare yXavKQirn 8 373, etc, 
'/ipiy^veia x 197. The last half of 518 is 
from A 440. fa for ^ae is a doubtful 

523. NHNCuiNC : for this genitive of 
time see IT. O, § 150. We may also 
compare the use of the gen. with'^rl in 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


/ >» 

^aj^et^v dvefuov, oX t€ vi<f>€a aKioevra 525 

irvoLTjunv Xiyvprjiai BiacKiSvaa-iv aivre^' 

w Aavaol Tp&a^ pAvov ep^ireSov ovS* i<l>i^ovTO, 

^ At petBrf^ S* av op,CKov i<f>OLTa iroXKit KeXevtov 

** & <f>Ckoc, avepe^ eare KaX aXKip^p fjTop eKeaOe, 

aW'^Xou^ T aihelaOe Kark Kparepa^ vap^lva^, 530 

alBop.€V(ov avhptbv irXeove^ aooL ^€ irk^avrat, 

^vyovTtov S' ovT &p K\io^ 6pvvTai ovri Tt9 akKij' 

^ Kol aKOVTcae Bovpl Bow, fioKe Be irpop^v avBpa, 
Alveca erapov p^aOvp^v, ArflKowvra 

UepyaaiBr^v, hp Tp&e^ 6pM>^ Upidp^io riKea-ai 535 

TLOv, iirel Ooo^ eaxc p^rd irpdyroicri pAjfeaOai, 
TOP pa Kar cunrLBa Bovpl ^ake /cpeiayp ^Ayapepposp' 
rj S* ov/c €yj(p^ Ipirro, Biairpo Bk etaaro '^aX/co^, 
P€taLpr]C S* ip yaarpl Bid ^axrnjpo^ eXaaae. 
Bovinjaep Be ireadp, dpdfirjae Be Tevj(€* iir avr&i. 540 

€P0* avT Alpeia^ Aapa&p eXep apBpa^ dpiarov^, 
vie ^lOKkrio^ Kpi]0(opd re ^OpaiXo^op re, 
Ttop pa TraTTjp pep epaiev iv/CTLp^eptfi ipl ^rjprji 

626. zoxpo^N T* Q. 628. noXX^ ^ xtOKpii £u8t. 630. T* om. PQ. 

631. aidoJiiNCON Ar. OP Par. c : afbouiMtOH d* O. 632. ^pNurai C (svpr, o) Q. 
633. 6m6p6^ Q. 634. alNda' : crfNciao JOR : aiNdcu O. || ucrdeuuoN Q. || 

dHuoK6coNTa CH Vr. b. 638. x^^^ ^OPT Yen. B Bar. and yp, U Harl. a, 

Vr. b: Kol tAc Q, 640. bouHHCCN d^ ncccoN : fipinc bk npHN^c M Mosc. 1. 
642. KpfecoNd DQ. 643. Iff) 9HpAl : yp. <6i> A^i^pHiT(?). 

vi{F)oi is untenable, as the local sense 
of v4os is not to bo established from a 
few casual uses of Lat. novissiinuSj wheu 
it does not occur in all Greek, much less 
in Homer. Waroy (cf. 857, I 153), it is 
true, is used occasionally in Attic Greek 
= v€u)TaT0Sf but this is likely enough to 
hapi)cn, as a word in universal use is 
always apt to attract to itself sporadic 
archaic forms which resemble it. For 
the fern, suffix -cupa cf. lox^o-tpO' (frieipa), 
did zoocrApoc, as in A 187. Here there 
seems to be neither dd)prj^ nor fdrpij, 

543. ^HpAi, also in plur. ^palf in 
Messenia ; see 1 151, y 488, o 186. It is 
generally identified with the modern 
Kalamata, but Pemice would place it 
three miles farther E. at Janitza (see 
Frazer Paus, iii. p. 422). In the house 
of this Diokles Telemachofl lodges (7 489), 
and in the house of his father OrtUochos 

525. zaxpo^N: the nom. ^axpv^^t is 
found in M 847 (360), N 684, of men 
and horses. The variation between -«- 
before w and -^- before a is in accord- 
ance ¥rith the practice of mss. {H. O, p. 
384). The word is usually conn, with 
Xpa- (see 138), but this is doubtfdl. 

529. fiXxLuoN firop l^ccec only here ; 
but cf. dXKitMv fiTop txwv n 209, 264. 
The phrase has a superficial resemblance 
to our 'take heart.' In the repetition 
uf these lines O 561-4 we have alZG) 
diffO* ivX BvfiAM, For the contracted 
cridcffoec we should read otdeaBCf as 
alioiiiviav shews. 

538. See on A 138. 

539. NacrfpHU only with yacrfip (also 
616, n 465, P 519) conn, with viaroi, 
w€t60it in the sense 'lowest' (root ni, 
wldch is found in Skt in the sense 
* down *). The ordinary derivation from 


lAIAACX: E (v) 

cUf>V€i6^ jSioToio, yevo^ S* ^v iic iroTafiolo 
^Ak^iov, 09 T evpi) piet, HvXifov Sva yairf^, 
&9 ri/cer ^OpatKoj(pv iroXieaa avipeaaiv ava/cra' 
^OpaiKoyp^ S' ap^ ^TLKT€ AioKkrja jneydOvfiov, 
iK Se Aa>/cX^09 SiBvfidove iralSe yeviaOrfv, 
Kpi^Oayv ^OpaCko^o^ t€, fwij^iy? Of etSore irdarj^. 
TO) fiev ap fi^rjaavre fieXatvdcov ^l vff&v 
"IXaov 6A9 ivirccikov afi ^Apyelourtv eireadriv, 
Ti,fiT)v ^ArpetSrji,^ * Ayafiifivovi Koi Mei/eXocot 
apvvfihfto' TO) S' aiOi, T6X09 OavdroLO Kokvy^ev. 
oUo T(o ye \€OVT€ Bwo 6p€o^ Kopvifyfjiaw 
iTpa<l>€T7jv inrb fj/rjrpl jSadeirj^ Tdp(f>€atv vXtf^' 
TO) fiev ap* dpird^ovre jSoa^ koI l<f>i>a firjXa 
araO/Moif^ dvdponrtDv Kepat^erov, 6(f>pa koX axnio 




646. t6ccn Mosc. 2 : t^k' H. || dpriXoxoN (D mpr,) U {9upr. c) Harl. b (altered 
— by vmn. 1 ? — to 6pc) : 6p*fXoxoN T (t in rets, vian, 2, probably Rhosoa, the scribe 
of Harl. b) (TU Harl. b read the same in 547). See Schol. T 6 rp&ywos (546-7) 
acd rod r, 6 xats (542, 549) Sid rov a (Ar.) : but Zen. (Schol. on y 489) read dp- 
TfXoxoc in 549 (and 542). 661. dc : te 0. || &UL*: tt* T, u in nu. man. 1. 

666. ^pcf^THN J. 667. craeuoOc t' N. || aOro) N (P supr.). 

(as the almost complete consensus of 
Mss. of the Odyssey calls him) Odysseus 
received his bow (0 16). The variant 
'OpriXoxoc in 546-7 is an attempt to 
reconcile the traditions of Iliad and 
Od, ; but it is not likely that the 
grandfather and grandson bore different 

553. dpNUubfOo: of. note on A 159. 

554. oToo Tcb re as it stands must be 
for rd> 7€, ci(i>, by a violent hyperbaton, 
the phrase being thus an anticipation of 
Tolta Tdl> in 559 ; or else it must mean 
*even as they, were two lions bred.* 
Neither alternative is agreeable, the 
second perhaps being the worst, as there 
is no case in H. where a simile is thus 
iutroduced as a direct statement, the 
relation of the thing illustrated and 
the instance illustrating it being re- 
versed. ** drjpe ? " Nauck, for rdl> ye : but 
then the corruption is inexplicable. 
The same may be said of Heyne's cX(i> t 
a&re, and Forstemann's tCj du) re. dta 
atdujve conj. Diintzer, when the synizesis 
might explain the corruption but is itself 
nni)aralleied. Agar conj. rdl> re {J, P. 
xxiv. 276), where rfit is dual of ris on 
the analogy of rov, row. Cf. un fire rlt re 
\iuy P 61. and so e 388, P 542. But 
th^ie is no analogy for Mi ris in a 

simile ; the only clear cases of it are 
quite different (t 348, v 377 ; see on 638 
below). The evil is probably past 
remedy, ru) ye representing some acgec- 
tive which was thrust out because it was 
unintelligible and forgotten. As to the 
dual Schol. H mentions the legend that 
two lion's cubs were always born at one 
birth, and that the lioness never had 
more. This is mere fiction ; litters of 
four are common, and six are not un- 
known. The dual probably implies a 
couple, lion and lioness. 

555. For the intransitive use of (rpa- 
<pov cf. B 661. 

556. 1910 : this adjective occurs only 
in the phrase l<pia /x^Xo. Unlike T^c (for 
which see note on Z 478) the word shews 
clear traces of F (Kniis p. 128). The 
nom. may be Fl<t*iOi or f2^s. It might 
be supposed that f0ta was formed by 
a mistake from T^t, wrongly supposed to 
be a neuter ; but this is highly improb- 
able in view of the fact that I^c has loet 
the f , and that the adj. occurs only in 
a single stereotyped ])hrase, which there- 
fore presumably is a {»art of the original 
furniture of Epic poetry. The whole 
question of the relation of the two words 
is very puzzling. Cf. also note on 
f0d(/AOf, A 3. 

lAIAAOC E (y) 


avBp&v €v iraXdfJuqtai KaTCKradev o^ii j^aXjcmv 

Toto) TO) j(€lp€aai,v inr Atveiao BafUvre 

/caTTireairrfv ikdrrji^ip iot/core {nfrrjXTjLa-i,, 560 

TO) Bk TreaopT ikirfaev aprit<f>CKo<i MeveXao?, 
pTf Bk Biii irpofid')((av K€Kopv0/i€Vo^ aXdo'tn '^aXjc&L, 
aeitov iy^eirfv tov S* torpwev fiAvo^ ''Aprf^, 
Tct <f>povi(ov, Xva %6/9crti/ \nr Alveiao BafieCrf. 
TOV S' IBev ^AvtCKo^o^ fie^advfiov ^iaropo^ vlo^, 666 

/Stj Be Bih irpofjLoxcov irepl yiip BU Trotfiivi \aS>v, 
fiTj Tt TrdOoL, fieya Bi <T(f>a^ diroinfyiiXeie irovoco, 
TO) fjhf Bf) "^elpd^ T€ Koi eyj^ea o^voevra 
dvriov ciXKrfKmv ej^enyi/ fJL€fJui&T€ fuij^eaOai,, 
'Ai/Tt\o;^o9 Bk fidX* ^7X^ irapiaraTo iroifjLevi, Xa&v. 670 

Alveiao S* ov fi€tv€, 6o6^ wep iwv Trdkefitan]^, 
(09 elBev Bvo (f>&T€ trap dTCKrjKoiai, pUvovre. 
ol S* iirel otfv vcKpoif^ epvcrav fiercL \aov ^Aj^acmv, 
TO) fikv apa BeiXo) ffaXirrjv iv j(€palv eraipoyv, 
avrio Be <TTp€<f>0evT€ fierd irpcoroLai /jui^iadrjp, 676 

€v0a TlvKatfievea iXerrfv drdXavrov "Aprfi, 
dpypv Tla(l>\ayova)p fieyadrificov dairLardtov 
TOP fiev dp ^ArpetBrjf; BovpiKXevro^ Mei/eXao? 
ioTOOT* ey^ei pv^e, xard KXrjlBa tv^V^o.^' 
'AjrrtXo;^09 Bk ^vBoopa ^d\* fiplo-^op Oepdiropra, 580 

ia0\op * At vfiPidBrjp, 6 S' V7r€a'Tp€(f>€ fi(OPi/)(a^ iirrrov^, 

669. tmoOtu Par. e {yp. Tofoo Td>). || Tcb : to) 0. || dcu&6«Tcc Mor. Bar. 660. 
Ioik6tc Ar. P Mosc. 1 (Par. e 9upr.) : loucdrcc O. || OipHXofa C. 661. ApHt- 

91X0C : QokM &rci06c T. 663. cdcoN t^ Q. || toO : t6^ Mosc. 1. 667. ndeoi 
LO: ndem O. |i c^cac ^CDNT. 668. 6n6cNTa S. 674. TCi} : toOc Q. 

676. crpa9«6«TC M : crpa96«TC {yp. crpC9e6iTc). 678. t6n : tu M. || 

doupixXciTbc [HO] P [S] : doupixXuT^c a 679. Korh : nop^i PT. 

567. Anoo9i^cic, dxorux^rv xoti^o-etev, 
Schol. B. For the word cf. 7 320 dvTiua 
trpSnov diro<r(p^\(»xriy deXXeu is iriXayos 
fUya rolw : and for the thought A 175. 
fidieoi is preferable to the vuig. iridriiy 
though not perhaps absolutely necessary ; 
see ^. G'. § 298. 09AC is found only 
here, elsewhere o-^eas (see, however, $ 
315). Ahrens conj. a<p€. 

574. ddXcb : for this phrase, which is 
not so much an expression of a sens^ of 
pathos on the poet's part as a euphemism 
for ' dead ' (so Dbderlein), cf. ^ 65, t 65, 
with X 76. 

576. ^^THN, in accordance with Ho> 

meric usage, can only mean ' slew. ' In 
N 658 (q.v.) this same Pylaimenes is 
alive, and weeping at the bier of his son. 
This inconsistency has caused infinite 
searching of heart to critics for hundreds 
of years. But it is really just such a 
slip as is often made even by authors 
who write ; in works which must at 
first have been recorded as well as con- 
ceived by the brain alone, it is only 
strange that more such errors are not 

581. The charioteer was following 
close behind his master, and seeing him 
slain was beginning to turn for flignt. 


lAIAAOC E (y) 

"^epfjLoBia)!, arfK&va rvyjoDV fUaov ix S' apa j(€ip&v 

fivia XevK eXi^ai/rt ^a/uil irkaov iv Kovirjiciv. 

^AvrtKo'Xp^ S* ap iirdt^a^ ^i(f>€i, ij/Kaae KoparjVy 

avrap 6 aa0fiaiv(ov ivepyio^ €K7r€<T€ iL<f>pov 685 

icvfMfiaj(p^ iv Kovl/quriv hrl Ppeyjiov t€ Kal Afiov^, 

Srjda fiak* ioTtjKei, tvj(€ yctp dfiddoLO jSaOelrj^, 

o<l>p* Xmrto ifKri^avre ^afial jSaXov iv Kovirjtai, 

T0U9 ifiaa ^AvTikaxp^, fiera Se arparov fjXaa 'A^oioiv. 

T0V9 S* E/crayp iv&qae Karct o"Ttj^a9, a>pTo B* iir avroif^ 
/C6/cXi77ft)9' cifia Si Tptotov eiirovro (f>d\arfy€^ 591 

Kaprepai' ^px^ ^* ^/'^ o'(f>Lv ''Aprf^ Kai ttqtvC 'Evtwi, 

682. xop^ ^'f- ^- <^S3. n^GCN L. 584. Ap* 07/1. NPQ: Bn R. \\ uiwlteic 

J. 685. 6: 8 P: 5 r* (2. 586. Bpcrjui^N {A supr.) NIP (r in ras,: supr. fpoxju^ 
IP) Cant. : BpcrxJU^N S. 587. Icn^KCl Ar. R : dcn^Ka 0. || rhp D^HJMNOPQ 
Yr. a, Mosc. 1 8' : d* Bp G : rdp p' O. |j tpcui^eoio ]>'HPQ. 590. To6c : t6n 

y J. 

582. TUX^N takes the genitive ; hence 
dyKuva must be construed with pd\e 
above, rvx^ff being used absolutely, 
'not missing him.' See H. O. § 151 c. 

583. ^^fcrnn : for the use of ivory in 
adorning harness see A 141. 

585. 6 for 8 y\ set* note on B 

586. Ki}jufiax^ ^ ^j- ^^^ Bpcxu6c 
arc &To| \€y6fi€va in Homer. The former 
recurs, however, in the sense of * helmet * 
in 536. Diintzer connects the two 
by explaining the adj. here to mean 
*in a curve,* and the substantive *the 
curved,' Le. vaulted part of the helmet ; 
of. K&irrut. Compare note on dvaKVft- 
PaXlal^oy 11 379. The Gramm. quote a 
doubtful mJ/Si; = t?ie head^ whence also 
Kv^iffrav n 745, S 605. Instead of 
/3/)€xm6s the forms ppeyfjUnj ^piytw., 
^ptxjia. are found in later Greek. 

587. The manner in which Mydon 
falls is not very obvious. The most 

J)robable event would be that he would 
all out of the back of the car ; for in 
any other direction the rail and frame- 
work of the car would support him. 
He might then lie with his feet still in 
the car, and his head and shoulders upon 
the ground. But then it is hard to see 
how the horses could be said to kick 
him : and the Homeric chariot was 
hardly large enough to hold the whole 
of the legs and part of the trunk of a 
man in a reclining position. It would 
seem, therefore, that he was standing 

sideways in the car, so as to look at his 
enemy while Le wheeled ; and when 
wounded fell backwards over the side of 
the car, his knees hooking over the 
dvTv^. The 'soft sand' explains why 
the car was brought for a while to a 
standstill ; it would bi* absurd to anp- 
|»ose, as some commentators have done, 
that his head dug a hole in the sand 
so as to keep him fixed, ydp p and 
y/zafiddoio seem to be mere makeshifts for 
the sake of the metre. The old glosso- 
graphers distinguish yf/dpadm sea-sand 
from dfxaOoi ditst ; but it is doubtful if 
the distinction is real. AfuiOos occurs 
also in Hymn. Ap, 439, but not else- 
where before A p. Rho<l. Compare dfi/iot 
(in Attic prose) by xj/dfifios, 

580. ToOc is apparently relative, 
though this is not very Homeric. The 
obvious Toi's 8' of all printed editions 
before La K set^ms to be a conjecture of 
Dem. Chalcondylas. 

592-3 look like an interpolation. For 
*ENU(b see 333, the only other passage 
where she is named. KudoiJUi6c seems 
to be another personification, as in Z 535, 
Hes. Scut. Her. 156, Ar. Pojr 255 ; com- 
pare dXicfi and Itaic/i E 740, and perhaps 
0i'^a I 2. Cyouca then means * having 
as her attendant.' But compare A 4 
"Epida . . iroX^fioio Hpas /ucrd X^P^ 
(xowrav : it is quite possible that m^oqUn 
may l)e an attnbute of Enyo, which she 
is regarded as carrying m her hand. 
The epithet dNoidi^c, which is some- 

lAIAACX: E (v) 


17 fjbkv e^ovaa KvSovfiov avcuSia Srjiorrjro^, 
"Aprf^ S* iv TToXtifirfiaL ireXoapLov ey^p^ iv(Ofia, 
(f>olTa S* aXXore fi€P irpoaB* "^ISt/cropo^, aXXor Siriade, 

TOP Be lB(OP piyqae ^orjv arfado^ A60/A17&79. 
a>9 i or aprjp diraXafiPO^, iiop ttoXAo^ ireBioto, 
(TT'qrji, err a>Kvpoa)i irorafim aXaBe Trpopioprt, 
a{f>p&L fjLopfivpopTa lB(OP, dpd r eBpafi oiriaao), 
a>9 Tore TvBetBrj^ dp€j(a^ero, elve re \a&v 
" & <f>!Xoi>y otop Brj davfid^ofiep ''EKTopa Blop 
alyjMryn]P t ep^epcu koX dapaoKeop iroXe^uarriP* 
rwi B* alel irdpa el^ ye Be&p, h^ Xotyop dfivpei,' 
KoX pvp oi irdpa xelvo^ ''Aprj^ ^por&i, dpBpl eoiKW, 
dWd vpo^ Tpata^ rerpafifiepot cUep 6rrL<ra(D 
eiKere, firfBe deol^ fieveaipifiep l(f>t fidj^^eaOai*^ 

0)9 dp* €<f>7f, Tp&e^ Be fidXa ayeBop fjKvOop avr&p. 
€P0 "EicTa>/5 Brio <f>S>re Karexrapep elBore X^Pf^^^' 
eip hii Bi(f>p(oi eopre, MepeaOrjp ^Ay^iaXoP re. 
TO) Be ireaoPT eKerjae fJLeya^ TeXafuopio^ Ata?* 
OTTJ Be fidX eyyif^ imp Kal dKOPriae Bovpl (f>aeipm, 
KoX I3d\ep "A/Lt^toi/ XeXd^ov vlop, 09 p ipl HaurAi 
pale Tro\vKT7J/M(OP TroXuXiyto?, .dXKd e fiotpa 
ify eiri^Kovprjaovra /jLerd Tlpiafiop re kov vla<;. 
TOP pa Kard ^axTTrjpa pdXev TeXaficopto^ A?a9, 






696. t6n : Touc M. 600. Anox^xcto S. Ii cTne bk P. 609. julcnccoAn Ar. : 
others jacn^cthn (jacn^««hn Par. a, co in ra3.). \\ krx^aK6tt JO. 612. djui9{aXoN 
H. \ 6c p": be K 0. necc^ P. 614. fir : Hk' C. 

times applied to inanimate objects (see 
on A 521), decides nothing. 

597. dndXauNOQ which occurs only 
here in H., may mean, as suggested 
by Autenrieth, * unable to swim/ sina 
palmis. But it is more likely to be 
shiftless, without resource, as in later 
Greek ( = dxdXa/uof, Hes. Opp, 20, etc.). 

601. oToN, neuter, used as an exclama- 
tion, 'how,' i.e. how wrongly, oaujuid- 
zoucN is probably an imperfect. 

603 = T 98. n6pa etc : the hiatus here 
can hardly be right ; van Herw. couj. 
ir&p dp* eUf Bentley irdpa rls ye (Brand- 
reth tIs re), Nauck irdp' his, a form 
which is found in Hesiod Theog, 145, 
but is evidently only a false case of 
' Epic diectasis.' The simplest change 
would be trip* I6s ye: IQi is found in 
Z 422 and is now recognised as a genuine 

form beside Irjs, Irji, tav. Thei-e is no 
reason why the nom. should not have 
been used, and the rarity of it would 
explain the corruption. 

004. k«Tnoc there ; V 391, cf. B 175, 
K 341, 477. 

606. JuiCNcaiN^ucK : -eiv Brandreth, -ere 
Bentley. But see on 556, Z 478. acofc: 
0eCji Nauck. 

612. naiG&i: this would seem to be 
the same as 'Aira«r6$ in 6 828. Of 
course vre might read iy 'Airai<ru)t here. 
Jiut the shorter form is sui)porteil not 
only by the Mss., but by Strabo and 
Steph. Byz. as well as Herod, and the 
£t. Afag, For 614 compare B 834 ; 
it is evident that the composer of the 
lines in B had this passage before him, 
though there Amphios is called son of 


lAIAACX: E (v) 

veialpffi S* iv yaarpl wdr/rf BoXi^oaKtov eyj^o?, 
BouTTTfaev Sk ireadv. 6 S* e/riSpafie (f>aiBifio^ Ata9 
T€vj(€a av\i]aa}P' Tpcje^ S iirl Bovpar e)(€vav 
o^ia '!rafjiAJ>av6(ovTa* acuco^ S* aveBi^aro TroXXd. 
ainhp o XA^ irpoa/Sa^ ck ve/cpov j(a\K€ov eyj^o? 
iairdaar*' ovB* ap €t aWa BwrjaaTO revyea koKcl 
Afiouv cuf>€\e(T0ai' iirelyero yap jSeXAea-ac. 
Bela-e S* o y apL<f>iPaa-i,v KpaTeprjv Tpdxav arf€p(o^a}v, 
ot iroWoi T€ Kol iaffKol i(f>€aTaaav ey^e e'^oine^, 
01 € fieyav irep iovra koL l<f>di,fiov Kal ar/avov 
(oaav avo (r<f>€ia)V' 6 Bk j^aaadfievo^ 7r€\€fuj(0ff. 

<59 oi fjL€v iroveovTO Kara KpaT€pf)v vapivqv 
TXtfiroXefiov S' HpaKXetBrjv rjvv re fieyav re 
(opaev err dvriOewi XapTrrfBovL fiolpa Kparai^rj, 
oi S" ore Bi] aj(€B6v ffaav iir aKKrjkoi^aiv lovre^, 

vlo^ 6" vlcOPO^ T€ At09 V€<l>€\T)y€p€TaO, 

TOP Kol TXrjTToXefio^ irporepo^ wpo^ fivOov eevwe* 
" SapinjBov, KvkUov fiov\7f<f>6p€y tl<; rot avdr/Kfj 
irraxraetv ivOdS* iovri fid)(ff^ dBwqfiovt (fxoTL ; 
ylt€vBo/i€Poc Bi <T€ <\>aai Ato9 yopop alyto'^oio 
elpai, eTrel ttoWop Keiptop cTrtBeveat iipBp&p 
oi Aao9 i^eyepoPTO iwl irpoTepayp dpOpdyircop' 
dWoLOP Ttpd (fyaav fiirjp ^lipaKXrjeirjp 





616. ndrcN L: ni^rH P. 618. cuXcOccDN(t) P^ 620. npofidc ^CDNOPQ 
Lips. 622. d&uoiciN P. 628. Kporcp&N Ap. Lex, 2/. 20. 626. noXcuSx^M 
GJL. 628. Mm : oIOn M (Harl. a e corn). 630. iv rrji iripai {rwv *Apiffrdpxov) 
I6ntc Schol. T. 632. npdrcpON Q : npdyroc Mosc. 1. 635. ificudducNON J. 

686. noXX^^S: noXO Q. || (From this line A is again by 9/ff/7i. 1). 638. AXXoT6n 
Tyrannio: AXX' oT6n Ar. Q: 6kk* oTon rivii Schol. T. || 9Ha M. |j ApaxXdHN Zen. 
(dfjUrpuK) G( >T. 

623. 4u9{BaaQ only here (but cf. 
TTpd^ajis ^ 75). It clearly means the d-c- 
fence of the fallen body by the Trojans ; 
cf. the use of the vert) in A 37 (where 
see note), etc. Duderlein is wrong in 
taking it to mean * he feared to l)e 
surroufided by the Trojans.' 

625-6 = A 534-5, q.v. 

627-98. For this very spirited episode 
sec the Introduction to this book. 

632. The koI here is awkward ; it 
does not elsewhere ocour after the often 
(twelve times) rejHfated formal line 630. 
iientley conj. toi<tiv, Heyne tQv Kal. 

638. The vulg. d\V dou may be taken 
in two ways : (1) exclamative, * but 

what a man do they say was H. ! * (2) 
' But (those sons of Zeus were) such as.' 
(2) involves an awkward ellipse, and 
in (1) the presence of dWd is hardly 
consistent with the sense assumed, clos 
when used exclamatively always Wgins 
a clause, e.g. 601, a 32, etc., and in the 
phrases d iroTot . . cloy ieiires H 455, 
cf. 286, etc. In 8 242, X 519, where 
dXX' dtoy begins a line, it is evidently 
subordinate to a preceding verb. Thus 
AXXoToN scums to be decidedly the 
best reading. The objections of Ameis, 
(ft) that dXXor6s ns are not elsewhere 
found together, {b) that dXXocot is not 
elsewhere in H. used of purely mental 



elvaL, ifiov Trarepa dpaavfiefivova OvfioXiovTa, 

09 irore Sevp* ikOwv €V€j(^ imrcov AaofieSovro^ 640 

e^ otrji^ aifv vrjval koI avBpdac TravporipOLatv 

'IXtoi; i^aXdira^e ttoXiv, XVpoxre S' dryvtd*;' 

aol Be KaKO^ fiev dvfio^, a'n'O(f>di,vv0ovai, Se \aoi. 

ovBi ri <T€ Tpcaeaacv otofiat SXKap eaeaOat 

iXdovT eK AvKiri^y ovS* el fiaXa Kaprepo^ iaai, 645 

aXX' VTT* ifjLol Bfirjdevra irvKa^ 'AtSao ireprjaeLV^ 

Tov B* av Sap7n)B(ov Avklcov aryo^ dvriov tfvBa' 
** TXriTroXefi , ^ tol Kelvo<i dircoXea-ev *'l\iov ipijp 
avepo^ d(f>paBi7ftatv dyauov AaofieBovTO*;, 

09 pd /jLtv ei ep^avra xaK&i i^vliraTre fivdcot, 650 

ovS* ttTreSo);^' iTTTTOV^, &V eXvefca rrjKoOev fjkde, 
aol S* €ya> evddBe (fyrffjbl (l>opov icai /crjpa fieXavvav 
i^ ifiedev Tev^eaOtu, ifi&t S' irrrb Bovpl Bafievra 
ev^o^ ifiol BdaaeiVy '^vy(rjv S' AiBi K\vT07r(o\(oi,*^ 

639. opacujLuiuoNa S. 640. 6c : ooc Ambr. 641. oThic cOn : oYHa(N) D 
Mosc. 1. 642. d* Aruidc : d^ ruMatKac Q : nmaTKoc S^". 644. odbi n : 

oud* tn HO. II Tf ce : nci M. 646. iuoO GJNOQRS. 647. afi : Bp Mosc. 1. 
650. ^^SQNTa Vr. a. || KOK^l : x<iXcn^ Q. 651. &N : t6^ A. || iNOca DQ. 

653. TCiiMceai U. || b* ain. PQ. !i dcu&bm N^O. 654. at^H NQ. 

qualities, are only weak special pleading. 
As for (a) the obvious retort is that otot 
itself out of nearly 200 places where it 
occurs is only twice joined with rtj 
(see on 554) ; dXXoTos recurs only three 
times altogether (A 258, x 181, t 265). 
The indefinite pronoun is hardly con- 
sistent with either explanation of dtos. 
And (b) is not true in the case of r 265. 
Finally, it is urged that dXKoUv nva is 
too weak an expression in this speech. 
This is a matter of taste ; in my opinion 
the sense 'another sort of man, they 
say ' is vigorous enough. For the mas- 
culine adj. with the periphrastic BIhn cf. 
A 690, etc. {H. Q. § 166. 1). 

639. opacujm^uNONa, here and X 267 
only, probably to be referred rather to 
fjuhoi Xiiituwa) than fiiveiv, Cf. 'A7a- 

640. For the legend that Herakles 
had saved Hesione, the daughter of 
Laomedon, from a sea-monster, and had 
then destroyed Ilios because defrauded 
of his recompense, the famous mares of 
the stock of Tros, cf. T 145. The 
yariant ofi/urti^ for oTmc cOn removes the 
short form of the dat., but the omission 

of the prep, is at least harsh. oTos avv 

646. Cf. ^ 71 ; 652-4, A 443-6, 
n 625. 

653. Twimmcmca, in passive signification, 
as r 101 diparos /cat fioTpa r^rujcrcu, 
M 345 rdxa rijiSe rcreiJIrrat alirifs SXcdpoi, 
and many similar instances. Ameis- 
Hentze strangely deny the possibility of 
the use of T€6^e<T0ai in this way, and say 
that it must be from rvyxdyeiy : but the 
only analogy which can be quoted is far 
from close : A 684, | 231 nJxc {T6yx<w€) 
iroWd. But the question is one of com- 
paratively small importance, as reOxu 
and Tiiyxdvu) are simply different forms 
of the same verb, the intrans. forms 
irvxoy Mxi^ffa TfTOxv^o- being said to 
' come from ' one present, the transitive 
iT€v^a TeiJ^w and the passive TereO^o/ieu 
rirvyfiai from the other. The present 
phrase shews exactly where the point of 
contact between the two lies. The 
passive fut. is not yet differentiated from 
the middle in H. ; cf. elpiffaerai in pass, 
sense, and see note on K 365. 

654. The epithet kXut6iicoXoq which 
recurs only in the parallel passages A 


lAIAACX: E (v) 

TXffTToXefio^' /cal r&v fikv dfiapTfJL Bovpara fuiKpa 
CK j(€Lpc^v fji^av 6 fjL€P jSdXev av^eva p^kaaov 
SapvrjSdp, cd'x^r) Bk BiafMireph ^\0* aXeyevvrj, 
TOP Bk Kar 6(l>da\fjL&v ipe/Sewt) vtf^ ^/caXt/^6* 
T\7;7ro\€/Lto9 S* apa /jLrjpbv dpiarepov €yj(€l /juiKp&i, 
jSeffXijKetVy aljQiij Bk BUa-avro fiaifiaxoaa, 
oorecot iyj^tfi<l>0€laa, irarrjp S' ert Xoiyov afivvev, 

oi fi€V ap avTiOeop SapTrrfBopa Bun eraipoi 
i^i(f>€pop TTclXefioLO' jSdpvpe Be fitp Bopv fiaxpop 
kXKOfJi^epop' TO fjL€P ov TA9 hre<f>pdaaT ovB* €p6rj<T€, 




666. uc(XlNOM : x^^i^co" 0, 666. &JuuipTA(i) DHOQRSTS yp. J and ap. 

Eust : duaprrk Ar. 667. fiYzaM Ar. Q : hukn Ambr. 669. d^^akubu (^. 

661. ficBXl^KClM Ar. U (Asupr.): 6cBXi^k« Q. 662. krxp^^9€lca DMQR> Vr. 

b c, Mosc. 3. il d* In : d< TC Vr. a : d^ Ti DGPS. 664. uaxpd^ Harl. a. 

666. t6 ukn : iv run t6 oI Schol. A (t6oon Schol. T). 

445, 11 625, may perbaus mean onlv tbat 
Hades, like an earthly king, has splendid 
horses as a sign of regal magniiicence. 
But as it is used of no other god it is 
possible that it indicates the connexion 
of the horse with the under -world. 
There is no other trace in Homer of such 
an idea ; but the god of death is 
commonly associated with the horse in 
Etruscan art, and the modern Greek 
death - god Charos is always in the 
popular imagination conceived as riding. 
So too the horse always has his place in 
the story of the rafM of Persephone, who 
is herself Xt^'Kiiriros in Pind. 0, vi. 95. 
So Pans. (ix. 23. 4) says of an ode of 
l^indar, otherwise unknown, dy ro&rui 
Twt Aifffuiri dXXou re es rby "Aidrfv fhly 
iriKXiiaeiif koI 6 xpuci^Nioc, SijXa u)s 4irl 
TTjs K6p7is TTJi dpTayi}i. For the bearing 
of this on the vexed question of the 
significanco of the horse in sepulchral 
monuments see Prof. P. Gardner s |>aper 
in J, H, S, V. pp. 114, 131. It is prob- 
able that we have here a trace of the 
religious ideas, not of the Greeks 
strictly speaking, but of the earlier nou- 
Aryau population whom they subdued. 
Verrall {J. U, S. xviii. pp. 1 IT.) objects 
to the traditional explanation (a) that 
irci)Xos in H. always means foal^ not 
horse ; (6) that Kkirrbi is, with one or 
two suspicious excel jtions, used only of 
works of handicraft, or of famed in- 
dividuals. There is some force in these 
objections ; but his proposal to read 

K\LT6iruj\os raiiyer of Vie cmiiJud (the 
dead) is not likely to command accept- 
ance. (This der. from xcuX^o/xoi is men- 
tioned by the scholia, and attributed to 
Ar. by Ai>. Zftc., 6 5^ 'ApUrrapxos erl roO 
**\pi'X. 5' A. k\." dKouei kXittjv iiriir6\rj<ruf 
{sic) 8id rb rods reXewQirras €^aKo6ea$<u 
did re rodi Opi^vovs Kal rds olfjuayds rds 
iT avroU, i.e. * the god of loud wakes.') 

656. dJuaprAi: dfiafm/i Ar., who lield 
it to be syncopated from dfiapHjdrfy. 
This is of course wrong, but very 
probably the omission of the t may 
be a genuine tradition of the fact that 
the adverb was originally not a dative 
but an instrumental. The accent should 
then l)e dfxaprrj. 

659. 69»aXjui&N: 6<p6a\fi(i) van L., 
which is clearly right. The een. is 
meaningless Jiere, and is prolmmy due 
only to a reminiscence of Kar 6^d\fiJ.y 
Kix^r' dxX«/s (696 etc.). Cf. 2 43S, 
11 325, 503. 

661. u au AcibcDca : for tlds ])ersonifica- 
tion of the spear cf. XiXatOMo^a A 574, 
317, and A 126. 

662. krypm^Uicxi^ grazing; the word 
is always used of close contact in 
Homer : k 516, H 272, N 146, P 405, 
413, 4^ 834, 338. For a full discus- 
sion of this and cognate verbs see 
Ahrens BHtnige pp. 12 sijq. fn : like 
674 a hint of the future death of 
Sarpedon at the hands of Patroklos. 

665. t6 anticipates i^cpOaai, *this, 
namely, to draw out.' 

lAIAACX: E (v) 




firjpov i^epvaai Sopv fieiTuvov, 6(f>p* iTrcfiairj, 
oTrevBovTcov rolov yctp €j(pv irovov dfKf>i€7rovT€^, 
TXrjiroXefiov S" kriptodev /"ivKvi^ficBe^ 'Aj^atot 
i^e<f>epov irdKkfioio* vorjae Se St09 ^OBva-aeif^ 

.rX'q/iova dvfiov €j(a)Vf^ fMcuarfae Be oi (f>LKov ^TOp' 
decmr)pi,p€ 8' hreLTa Kara Spiva koI Kara Oviiov 
Tf TTporepo) ^60C viov ^pcyoovTroLO ocoDKOt, 
rj o ye (r&v TrXeovcov AvkIoov aTro)(0vpi)v eXoiro^ 
ovB^ ap ^OBvaafji fieyaXrjTopi aopaifiov fjev 

^i<pucfiov ilco^ viov) airoKTafiev o^et -^aXKCot' -^ 
T& pa (Kara wXijdifv Avklcou^ rpdire diffiop ^AOijvt}, 
ev0* o ye JLoipavov etkev ^AKdcTopd re Kpofiiop re 
^ AXicavBpov 0* ^ AXlov re ^orjfiovd re YipvravLv re, 
KaL vv K €Ti irXeopa^ Avklcov Krdve Blo^ ^OBvaaev^, 
el fit) dp* o^if voriae fieya^ Kopvdaio\o<: "E/cto)/?. 
firj Be Btd Trpofjid^fov KexopvOfievo^ aWorm '^aXK&if 
BelfjLa <f)€pcop ^apaolat' x^PV ^' ^P^ ^^ irpoaiopTc 
Sap7n]Ba>p Ato9 u/09, ctto? S* 6\o(f>vBpop eenre* 
" TlpiafiiBr), fjLrf Bi] fie ikcop ^apaolatp idarfc^ 
KelaOcu, ttW eirdfivpop* eireird fie kol Xlttoc aiiop 
€P TToXec vfiereprjc, eVel ovk dp* efieWop iyd) ye 
poarrjaa^; ocKOpBe <f)i\7}P €<? irarpiBa yalap 
ev(f>pap€eip ako^pp re (f>L\rjp koI ptjitlop vIop^ 

670. JULcrfHCC H. 671. utpixApax LQ Vr. b. 672. dic&Kci MQT lips.^ 

674. O^* dp* : oO rdp R. 676. rp^c PR Mosc. 2. 678. t* fiXi6N PR. 

684. bA : d^ JNO. 686. Aucr^pHi MQR. || oud* fip* QS : oOk Hn R. 



666. ImBalH, stand on hi^ feet, cf. 
/i 434 o&re errfpl^tu Toalv (fiveSov oih* 
im^rivfu. The phrase, however, is a 
curious one, and Nauck and others are 
perhaps right in rejecting the line as a 

667. Ai&oi^ONTCc. dealing with him, 
lit. * handling him ' ; they had too 
much to do with the work of carrying 
and protecting him. Cf. on Z 321. 

670. tXAjmon, enduring, a variant of 
Odysseus' regular epithet iroXtrrXas, and 
so K 231. The sense wretched is post- 
Homeric JuaiuMCC here evidently in- 
dicates vioUnt rushing f as 661 ; cf. 
6 413 fudyerou fp-op. 

673. T&N nXc6N00N AukIcon: see 
H, O. § 264, ' the article marks contrast, 
but not definition, or shovZd take the 
lives of more Lykians instead. Here 

ol ir\ew€s does not mean **the greater 
number" but **a greater number," in 
contrast to the person mentioned.' But 
it must be admitted that Heyne's dye 
Kai or Nauck 's 7' fri sound more 
Homeric ; cf. 679, K 506. 

678. This line is taken verbatim by 
Virgil Aen. ix. 764, Ovid Met, xiii. 

683. For the constr. X^P^ ®' s®® ^ ^^^* 
^ 249, K 419, and with a j)articiple S504, 
a 705. The ace. is fouu.i in 6 378. On 
account of f^iros Bentley interchanged 
A169 vl6i and trpoffidyri, 

685. Kcfceai: the long at m thesi is 
perhaps excused by the strong diaeresis 
at the end of the hrst foot. Cf. A 532, 
B 87, H. G. § 380. But van L. reads 
K€iaBa.K, drdp A*'(oO» Brandreth KelpLcvoy^ 


lAIAACX: E (v) 

W9 <f>aTo, Tov S* ov Ti TTpoaiifyrj /copvOaioko^ "ISticrmp, 
oKKa iraprii^ev XeXtijfievo^ o<f>pa Td')(jLaTa 690 

AaatT ^Apyeiov^, iroXeoov 8' airb Ovfiov eXocro, 
ol fiev ap dpTideov ^apirrfBova Btoi iralpov 
eUrav vir alyi6j(pio Aio<: irepiKaXXii (l>rjy<»>i' 
iK S* apa oi firfpov Sopv fielXivov &a€ Ovpa^e 
l(l>0LfJLO^ HeKdrycov, 09 oi (f>i\oi fjev eratpo^' 695 

TOV B* eXcwe '^v^i], /card B 6<f)0a\fjL&v Kk-yyr dr^v^, 
airi,^ S' dfiirvvdrj, irepl Be Trvoitf Hopiao 
^dr/pec iirnrveiovaa KaKta^ KCKatfyrjoTa Bvfiov. 

^Apyeloi B utt' "Aprj'C kol ""'E^CTO/Jt j^aXKOKOpvar^c 
ovT€ TTOTc TTpOTpeTTovTO fieXaivdcov iirl VfJCOV 700 

ovT€ iroT dvT€<l>€p0PT0 fid)(i]i, ttXX' alev OTriaa-co 
')(d^ov0*, C09 iirvOovTo fierd Tpdea-atv "Apr^a. 
€P0a TLva irp&Tov, riva B* vararov i^evdpc^av 
ISiKTcop T€ Uptdfioto 7rai*9 ical ')(aXK€o^ "A/wy? ; 
dvriOeov TeuOpaPT, iirl Be irXij^nnroi' ^Opearrfp, 705 

696. ncXdrcoN : ccXdrcoN Ptol. Oroandae. 697. aOoic CJ. || &juliini^#h 

A {9iipr. N and yp. AauinOnoh) Schol. T (lemma) : AunNiiceH T King's Harl. b : 
duHNONOH Q: iunNONOH (f rial Schol. A (Ar. ; see Did. on X 475). 698. zc&rpo: 
ztibo P {yp. zcbrpci) and yp, R. 700. oCibi norc H. || npoTp^lONTO . . M 

Ar. O: nporpdnoNTO . . 6n6 ap. Did. 701. oCibi nor' H. || 6NTi9^poifTO G. . 

ju^X^'^ P (U^ »«pr.). 703. teNdpuoN Ar. ACGMU^ Lips.: fatNdpoECN 0. 

705. TcOepoNT* U. 

690. For the construction of XcXih- 
JU1610C see note on A 465. 

693. 9HrAi: this can hardly be the 
same as the oak which formed a landmark 
close to the Skaian gate (Z 237, I 354, 
A 170, 4> 549), as there is no hint that the 
fighting is near the walls. Any oak was 
equally sacred to Zeus. Cf. on H 22, 60. 

694. oOpcBC simply = (n^, as n 408, 
e 410, 422, etc. It can hardly be 
meant that the spear is thrust trough 
like the arrow in 112. 

697. 6juuiNii«H, came to ; so mid. d/x- 
TvvTo, see A 359,2486, X 475, e 458, « 349, 
in all cases after a faint. But the act. 
forms dvaTvetv, Miryevaaj afiirvvov mean 
to recover breathy of a panting warrior, 
A 327 and often (see esp. note on X 222). 
Ar. observed the distinction, and em- 
phasized it by writing ^fnrfvyOrj, ifiirvvTO 
in mid. and pass. ( = ifnryovs iyhfrro\ 
but, so far as we can tell, without any 
MS. support for the e (as for the v Ms. 
testimony is unimi)ortant ; see the vari- 
ants in forms like €/c\f (1^)^17, i.9€yvd{ji)<l>$ri. 

6{fi)(ipi/xos, etc. passim. In this case 
there is no justification for either p or a-, 
which are inserted evidently from the 
analogy of /Sa/x/v^i;, etc.). Schulze {Q. K 
322-4) is probably right, therefore, in 
separating dfiirvvro and dfiirp66if from 
irv4{F)(t>, and referring them to a root 
irvv, meaning originally to be vigorous 
(a) in body, (6) in mind. Hence xoc- 
irviLf€iy to bustlCj irewvvo'Oeu (of Teiresias 
rou re tppives ifiiredol eUriv, k 495), reww- 
pJvos (of the youthful Telemachos rather 
ingorous than sage) and Tii'vr6r, irtPvHi, 
dirivjjaa'euf (of a faint, O 10) from rvvrit 
{HfKppiaVf aCi^pujv Hesych.). 

698. zcbrpa, perhaps here from ^ 
and dy€lp€iy (or iytlpeiv), and thus a 
different verb from the commoner ^a- 
ypeiy = to take prisoner {i^u}6s-dypttp), 
ouu6n is object of KeKa0i76ra, as is clear 
from e 468 fiif fie . . Safidarji KCKa^&ra 
OvfiSv. Compare X 467 dird ^vxV ^^d- 
iriMrac. The verb means having breathed 
out; cf. Hesych. KiKri<f>c' riOwriKe, and 
KCKa^dra' iKTcxvevKdra. 

lAIAACX: E (v) 


^PVX^^ t' al)(jji/ryn)v AlrdiKiov Olvofiaov re, 
OlvoTriSrjp 0* ''FtXevov icaX ^Opitr/SifOP aloKofUTprjv, 
09 p iv ^'TXrjL vaU(TK€ fj£ya itXovtoio ficfirfKco^, 
\ifjLVfji, K€K\cfi€vo^ K.rj(f>talSi' TTctp Be oi aXXot 
valov Boi6>rot> fioKa irLova' Sijfiop I'^ovre^, 

T0V9 S' C09 oiv ivoffae Beet \€VK(!)\epo^ H^ 
^Apyeiov^ oKeKovra^ ivl KpaTCprji v<T/j,iin}L, 
avriK ^Adrfvaiijv eirea irrepoevra TrpoarfvSa* 
** & TTOiroi, alyto'^oio At09 riKo^, aTpvrddvrj, 
tJ p SXlop top /jLvdop vTriarrffiev MeveXacot, 
1X601/ eKTrepaavT iirreij^eov airoveeaOtu, 
el ovTO) fiaiveaOai, idaofjiev oSkop ^'Aptfa, 
aW^ aye Brj Kol va>i fJLeBdfieOa OovpiBo^ aX^9*'* 

0)9 €<f)aT\ ovB^ airiOriae 0ect y\avK&7n^ *\0T)V7f. 
7) fiev €7rotj^o/A€i/iy ')(pv<Tap,irvKa^ evrvev Xmrov^ 
'^Hprj IT pea pa Bed, dvydrrjp fieydXoio Kpovoto' 




707. On^pBiON {yp, dp^cBioN) JO : OnipBiON U^ mpr. 
711. To6c : t6n M. 718. d^ : dk M. || KHdduMa P. 
Cntuncn H^JLMNORS : hnwoitH P. 721. mAn N. 

708. 5Xhi: Odm Zen. 
720. hmrouhiH 0. || 

706. AlrwXbp Foiv, Bentley ; but see 
note on B 750. 

707. oioXouh-pHN : see App. B and note 
on A 489. 

708. nrXM with v also H 221, but v in 
B 500 ; Zeood. "t^i, but the name of 
the Boeotian town was certainly Hyle ; 
a Lydian 'Tdi; is mentioned in T 885. 
unucXflbc with gen. only here and N 297, 
469. The use may be classed with those 
mentioned in iT. O, % 151 e, d. So 
Aisch. Sept. 178 lUXeaOi ff Upwv SrifiUav. 
But the application of the verb to the 
person who feels the care, not to the 
thing which causes it, is rare ; hence 
Nanck fuftiiiis {=fiefixui>s). 

709. KOcXmJNOC, on the shore of, of. 
O 740 Tfntrw KtKXifihoif IT 68 AtVA"*'' 
BoKdffffTis K€K\larai. The word seems 
properly to be used of land sloping to 
the water's edge, d 608, y 235 dKri) kcW 
iXL k€k\iiUw7i. The Kephisian lake seems 
to be the Kopais as in Pind. P. xii. 27 ; 
see PauKan. ix. 38. 5. 

710. dftjULON here evidently has the 
purely local sense territory ; for which 
see on B 547. 

711. For the following episode as a 
whole see Introduction to the book. It 


contains a large number of lines which 
occur elsewhere. 753-4 seem to be 
borrowed, not very appropriately, from 
A 498-9, and, as von Christ has re- 
marki-d, 791 from N 107. So also 
719-21 = 8 381-3,783-7 = 8 384-8, 
745-52 = 8 389-96. It can hardly 
be said positively that either passage 
is older than the other, so far as the 
evidence of borrowing goes ; but the 
general character of 8 would lead us to 
believe that the lines are originally in 
place here. Again 711-2 = H 17-18, 
713 = A 69, 714 = B 157, 716 = B 113, 
738 cf. B 45, 743 = A 41, 769 = 8 46, 
775-6 cf. 368-9, 782-3 = H 256-7, 787 = 
8 228. This is certainly a suspicious 
proportion of borrowed lines ; but on 
the other hand the style of the passage 
is spirited, and does not shew any weak- 
ness of imagination. 

715. For the use of the accusative 
with OnocrANoi cf. B 286, k 483 ; an^ 
see ff, G. § 136 (3). t6n is here 
demonstrative, thcU. We do not hear 
elsewhere of any such promise made by 
the goddesses to Menelaos. It is prob- 
ably from the story of the Judgment of 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

"H^Siy 8' afuf)* o')(iea<Ti 60 w /Sake KafnrvXa /cvKXa, 
j^aKxea OKTcifcvrjfia, ai,Brjp€(i}c a^ovc afJiAf>L^, 
T&v ^ TOL y^pvair) trv^ a(f>0LTO^, avrap virepde 
j(a\K€* eiriaaoyrpa irpoaaprjpora, Oavfia ISeaOav 
TrkfjfMvac S' dpyvpov elal irepiBpofiOL d/M<f)OT€p(i)0€V. 
Bl<I>po^ Sk j^vaioiai kol dpyupiouriv Ifmatp 
ivreraTac, Soval Se irepiSpofioi avrvyi^ eiai, 
Tov S' i^ dpyvpeo^ pvfi6<; iriKev avrap iir aKpeoc 
Srja€ ypvaei^ov koKov ^vyov, iv Be XeiraBva 



722. 6x^cca C: 2(x<C9i Vr. a: 6x^1091 0. 723 om, R || dxTdiuma JQ. 

726. dnlcooorpa P^ yp, Harl. a, and iy run Did. 727. xpuchia kq) dprupbocM 
D. 728. da : djuuplc J (7^. ddN) N. 729. pMJJubc : yp, zurbc J. || fiicpooi : 
qutA D. 

722. For a general account of the 
Homeric chariot see Q 266 ff. The 
body of the car was very light, and 
when not in use was taken to pieces 
and put upon a stand ; see 8 441 Apfiara 
8' Afi pcjfioiffi rldeif Karii XTra irerdaffai. 
Hence the first thing to be done in 
making it ready was to put on the 
wheels, as is done here. For dx^cca 
most M8S. read 6x^e<r0i, a false form for 

723. x^Kca: so mhs. ; Hentley couj. 
xd\K€i\ but the hiatus is perhaps legiti- 
mate after the first foot. The usual 
number of spokes in the early Greek 
monuments, as well as in the Assyrian 
and Egyptian, is six or four ; but eight 
are found in the archaic sarcophagus 
from Elazomenai published in J. H. S. 
vol. iv. In any case, as Eust remarks, 
the largest number possible would be 
attributed to the divine chariot, for it 
has all the parts made of metal which 
in the human car were of wood, even 
straps of gold and silver instead of 
leather. For dicrdKNiiua Cobet reads 
dKTufKyrifjMy but 6/cra- is the commoner 
form from Hesiod {0pp. 425) onwards. 

725. McoooTpON, tirej from (rGnpoVi 
another name for the felloe, according 
to Pollux ; cf. ^^ffffunpos Q 578. But 
here as elsewhere there is a well-attested 
variant 6iri(T<riaTpoVf which would point 
to a der. from dirlaoj. 

726. ncpfdpojuoc is used here in a 
slightly different sense from 728, though 
we can translate both by 'running 
round.* Here it evidently means 
' rotating,* while in 728 it means 'sur- 
rounding*; B 812 gives yet a third 
meaning. Hesych. irepldpofiof irepi- 

<f>€p€h, ffrpcrfY^Xoi, no doubt applies to 
726, but does not give so good a sense. 
&U90T^pCD«CN, on both sides of the car. 

727. dl9pOQ here in the narrower 
sense of the platform of the car on 
which the riders stood. (Hence the 
breastwork which surrounded it in front 
and at both sides is called iin6u^pii%, R 
475. 0x^<^> which is always used in the 
plural, implies the whole complex body 
of the chariot, including axle, pole, etc.). 
This platform is composed of straps 
strained tight, and interwoven, which 
formed a springy surface such as would 
save the cnarioteer from the jolting of 
rough ground. This device is known to 
have been employed in Egyptian chariots, 
and gives a simple explanation of the 
phrase ^NT^rorai which has puzzleil 
commentators (cf. also K 263, r 577, 
\j/ 201 iv 6* irdvvcff iyAwra /3o6$, to form 
a springy bed). See Wilkinson Ancient 
Egypiiam i. p. 227, J. H. S. v. 192. 

728. dotal, apparently because the 
Ayrv^ ran symmetrically round the car, 
forming a handle behind on both sides. 
There is no reason to suppose that there 
were two rails one above the other. 

729. n^cN : the transition from the 
descriptive to the narrative tense is 
made one step earlier than we should 
have expected. Hence Bentley coiy. 
irAei. But, as Hentze has remarked, the 
imperfect is justified by the fact that the 
pole was not an immovable part of the 
chariot, but was put in when the chariot 
was made ready ; so that the word really 
belongs to the narration, not to the 
description. n^cN is not simply = 
^jv, but means 'stood out.* 

730. dficc: for the details of the 

lAlAAOC E (v) 


koTC efiaXe )^va€i' viro Be ^vyov ijyayev Hpff 
JTTTroi;? ci)KV7roBa^, fMCfiavc epcBo^ koX avTTj^, 
avTCLp Adffvairj Kovprj A(09 alyc6j(pio 
irerrkov fiev Kari'^evev iavbv irarpo^ iir ovBcl 
TTOLKiKoVy ov p avTtj iroirjaaTO KaX Kafie X^P^^^' 
rj Be xf'T&v evBvcra At09 ve(f>€\r)y€p€rao 
revxea-cv €9 iroXefiov Ocop'^aaero BaKpvoevra. 
dfM(f>l S' a/)' &fiocaiv fioKer alyiBa dvaavdecraav 
Beivriv, fjv Trepi fiev Trdvrrft (f>6l3o^ eareifxivayrai,, 
€P o epi^, ev aXKTif ev oe Kpvoeaaa i^cokti. 



731. KdX' : KdXX* JM : Kodd' H. il firarcN : IBoXcn M : yp, ftpapcN Yr. b. 
734. teoiida M. 734-6 &$, Zen. 736. A di : rivii iihi Schol. A. 738. 

BdXcN 0: fidX' Lips. |i alHda : dcnfda Mor. Bar.™ 739. kcrm^wro CDGJNOS 
[supr. en) T and A *upr. (T.W.A.). 740. V dxpu^ccxa GJ. 

process by which the yoke was attached 
to the pole see 265-80. 

734. ^ON^, plianty as elsewhere when 
it is used as an adj. with a : it is not 
to be confused with the substantive 
F€{ff)iivin (r 385, etc.) ganntrU^ and 
ihould perhaps be written ia^bs^ as it 
may be aerived from ^do^, in the sense of 
' yielding.* (See Buttmann LcxU, 8,v,) 

736. Athene dresses entirely in man's 
ittire, and lays aside the long woollen 
peplos for the linen chiton which fitted 
I'loser to the body and was thus more 
suitable for active exertion. (Reichel 
p. 107 objects that the * Doric ' peplos 
K>uld have been girt up, and that 
dithene is constantly represented in art 
IS wearing it with armour. He con- 
iludes that she must here be conceived 
iS wearing a prae-Dorian dress such as 
;he flounced Mykenaean skirt. But 
;his inference does not seem justifiable.) 
Sen. rejected 734-6 here as borroweil 
■rom 8 385-7 ; Ar. maintained th<» 
K)n verse. 

738. For the actjis see note on B 447. 

739-42. The whole of this passage, 
irith 744, is open to the gravest doubt, 
[t bears a most suspicious resemblance 
o the unquestionably late account of 
igamemnon's {Miuoply in A 1-46 ; note 
Mtrticularly the recurrence of the vague 
)hrase Aid? Wpaj in A 4. It is im- 
>ossible to suppose that the author had 
jiy clear idea of what he was describing. 
STC9dNCdrrGn, if we are guided by A 36, 
lUght to be used of the central figure, 
vhich is * set on as a crown * (cf. 2 485) ; 
»at that from all analogy can only have 

been the Gorgoneion, as it is in fact in 
A. It is impossible to imagine that, as 
the words imply, <t>6§oi is an allegorical 
figure depicted as a circular ring round 
the edge of the shield. At best it miglit 
be supposed that 06/9ot and the other 
|>ersonified spirits of battle in 740 (for 
which see A 440) are disposed in a 
circular row round the dfjutfnXbs : if this 
is meant, the change from Te/>£ to iv in 
740 is a most unhappy method of ex- 
pression. It is equally impossible to 
understand the description of the helmet 
— see note on 744 below. And finsJly, 
the lateness of the lines is proved by 
Furtwangler's demonstration (Roscher 
Lex. i. col. 1703) that the Gorgon head 
is unknown to Greek art before the 7th 
century b.c. Porjihyrios discusses the 
Gorgon head on B 447, and shows that 
the difficulty of the passage was felt in 
early days : 0i7<ri 5 'Apta-rorAi;!, firt 
fAjproTe iv riJL dffiriSi ovk a&r^v elxe rijp 
KetpaXifu ttjs Yopydvoi^ Cnrirep o6di rV 
"Epiv ovS^ riiy Kpvbecaav 'Iwmjv, dXXd rd 
iK Tijs Vopybvo^ yiyydficvov rots ivopGxn 
irdOos KCLTCLir\y}KTiKbvj i.e. the shield did 
not bear any figures, but carried dismay 
as though it were the Gorgon's head 
itself (see Schrader Porph, i. p. 44 note). 
So also Eust. on X 633. The Gorgoneion 
was probably in its origin a device 
meant to terrify the enemy, like tlie 
hideous faces which Chinese warriors 
carry on their shields. From this it 
came in more civilized times to be re- 
garded merely as an dirorpbraiw or 
charm to avert the evil eye and other 


lAIAACX: E (v) 

ip Se T€ Topyeirf K€<f)a\rj Secvolo ireKtopov 

heyvrj re (r/xepSvii re, Aco^ ripa^ ahyioyovo. 

/cparl S* iir dfi(l>i(f>a\ov Kuverfp dero T€Tpa<l>d\rjpop 

')^v<T€irfp, eKarop troXUop TrpvXieaa dpapvlap, 

€9 S' S')(€a <f)\oy€a iroal firjO'CTO, Xa^ero 8' eyj^09 745 

jSpidif fiiya oTi/Sapop, t&l hdfiprjai crrtj^a? dpBp&p 

'^pdxap, toutIp t€ Koriaaerac o/SpifuyrrdTprj, 

'^Hprf Bk pAarTLyi, 0o&^ errcfialeT ap Xinrov^' 

auTO/Ltarat Zk trvkai, fivKOP ovpapov, &9 6^01/ *£lpat, 

Trji,^ eirireTpairrai fiiya^ ovpapov OSkvfiiro^ re, 750 

riphf dpaicKlpai trvKtPOP P€(f>o^ rjB^ iTTcdelpai. 

7M. noXfioOM A {supr, c) OU: noX^N Q. 746. BiicciTo 0. 746. ddjuwraa 

Ar. AHT. 747. oTd(N) tc Ar. (SchoL T) PQ : ToTa(N) d^ JHO. || AuBpiuondrpN 

CJQ. 749. a(n6uaTm Q Par. c e g, Eiist. : oOt^ukm Par. d^ 700. rate G : 
tAc k' H. 

748. (k U9iyfiXoN, , fcrpaydXMpoN : see 
App. B. 

744. The sense of this line is any- 
thing but clear, and it must share the 
suspicion attaching to 789-42 above. 
dpapuToN has been explained * fitting the 
warriors of a hundred cities/ Le. big 
enough for a hundred armies to wear. 
But this is too absurdly grotes<iue for 
Homer. The alternative is to make it 
= fitted vnihf i.e. adorned with repre- 
sentations of the warriors of a hundred 
cities. Some think that this implies a 
battle -scene between two armies and 
their allies on a vast and supernatural 
scale, as a battle'scene was depicted by 
Pheidias on the shield of his Athene 
Parthenos. But that was a Giganto- 
machia in which Athene took a pro- 
minent part ; nothing of the sort is 
indicated here, nor does dpapvia seem 
a likely word to express the metallic 
adornment of the Homeric age, which 
consisted of inlaid work. With the ^dnnj 
ixar^ Ovaivois dpapvla S 181, the t6\is 
TTvpyois dpapvta O 787, and the diHiinj 
virepreplTii dpapvla ^ 70, the case is evi- 
dently different, though they shew that 
dpapvla can mean ' provided with. ' Here 
we can only conceive the figures as riveted 
on. npuXicc is itself a word of doubtful 
origin and meaning ; it recurs A 49, M 
77, 517, * 90, and may mean either 
footinen, as opposed to iirr^j, or cham- 
pwns. It is possibly connected with 
irpi/Xis, the Cretan word for the war- 
dance, and may therefore have once 
meant champions who danced in front 
of the army to provoke the enemy. 

Eustathios and others have seen a further 
allusion to the hundred cities of Crete ; 
and the line may therefore be one of the 
passages which seem to have a special 
connexion with that island. See on ^ 
590. Zeus was of course the tutelar}' 
god of Crete ; and if we suppose that 
Athene takes his helmet as well as his 
chiton and aegis, the idea may be that 
he bears as his blazon chieftains repre- 
senting the subject cities of his island. 
But all this is mere conjecture, with no 
Homeric analogy to support it. 

745. 9X6rca : this aqj. recurs only in 
the parallel 8 389 ; it probably means 
sparkling like fire with the bright metal. 
Homeric gods do not go, like the Semitic, 
with flames of tire about them. 

746. Ar. read ddfurriuri : but the sub- 
junctive is out of place in a direct state- 
ment as to the use of the spear ; in 
other words we have here a particular 
statement, although the present implies 
iteration, not a general statement as in 
a simile, or as in the next line, where 
the subj. Koriaaerat. implies * with %ohom- 
soevcr she is wroth. * 

749. Observe the freedom of the 
imagery by which the gate, though 
said to be a cloud in 751, is made to 

750. terr^parrrai : so Mas. ; irvn- 
rpdiparai Bergk, from Atheuaeua (iv. 
134, which is only a parody, not a 
quotation) ; but the singular is quite de- 
fensible, a.H ovpayin and OffKvfiras if not 
identical arc at least closely connected. 
For the construction of the following 
infin. see//. O. §234(1). 

lAIAAOC E (y) 


rfji pa Bl avTcuop KevrfyrjveKea^ ^X^^ Imrov^, 

eifpov Be Kpovldjpa Oe&v arep fffievov oKKcov 

aKpOTaTfjL KOpv(f>r]L iroKvBetpdSo^ OvKvfjLiroio' 

€v0* Xmroxf^ (mjaaa-a Oect "KevKcolkevo^ ''Hpiy 765 

Zrjv* vTrarov KpoviStfV i^elpero koX Trpoa-ievrre* 

"ZeO irdrep, ov pefLea-i^rji, *'Aprfv tdBe Kapreph Ipya ; 

oaadriov re koX olov dirtiiKea-e \aov ^Aj^ac&p 

fidylr, arctp ov Karct Koafiov, ifiol S' a^09, oi Bk IktjXol 

repirovTai, Kvirpk re koX apyvporo^o^ 'AttoXXcoi/ 760 

a(f>popa TovTov avhrre^, S9 01; riva olBe Oi/jLurra. 

ZeO Trdrep, 1} pd ri fioi Kexp^Mceac, at K€V ''Aprja 

Xuypw 'treifK'qyvla fid^n^ If diroBicofiat ; " 

TTfv S' dirafJL€i,l3ofi€vo^ irpoaiifyrj v€<f>eKrjy€piTa Zev^' 
" arfpet fidv oi eiropaov *A0T)vairfv d/yeXelrfv, 765 

fj € fiaXiar €ta>0€ Katcrji^ oBuvrjuTt TreXafeti^." 

ft)9 €(f>aT, oifB* diriOrfae OecL \€VK(o\€VO^ *^PV> 
fidoTL^ev S* Jttttou?' to) S* ovk d^Kovre ircTeadijv 

768. bk KpOMfiooMO : d* cOpiiono N. 766. te^pcro CNPTU. 1| juct^cuic^n) 

U M08C. 2, £u8t 767. zcO.: & Ap. Lex, \\ ApH(i) ADHNm Harl. a, Par. e, 

Vr. 1, M080. 1 2 : ttpci a i| xddc Ipr* ditdHXa Cant and ap. Did. : xdd* dldiiX* 
%NXi S: Ncucdzci 6p6bH xddc Ipr* dtdHXa Ap. Lex, 768. 6ccdn6N: 5c**toi6n 
O. 764. rim d* AudBcr^ Incrra ncrr^p &Hbp6bM tc mAn tc PQS Vr. b, Mosc. 
1: (¥101 rkn d* aOrc npootonc n. 6. tc o. tc Schol. A (An.). 766. juu^n oI G: 
nOn juoi Ap. Lex, 766. KaxaTc ddONaia G. 768. JUidcnzcN Lips. || A^CONTC 

OJN Vr. a : Kkontc O. 

752. KorrpHNCKtec only here ( = 6 396), 
apparently endurifig the goad. Hut in 
all similar compounds (^mveicfiij Todri- 
vetcfp, dovpfrfPCKis) the -ly^e/c- conveys the 
idea of reaching. This can hardly be 
introduced here without violence {unth- 
in range of the goad ?). For the K^vrpov 
see note on 4^ 387. 

753-4= A 498-9. It seems clear that 
the poet who borrowed the lines regarded 
the summit of Olympos as a half-way 
stage between heaven and earth. If so, 
he departed from the oldest Homeric 
tradition, which made the earthly moun- 
tain Olympos, and not any aerial region, 
the dwelling of the gods ; see note on 
e 26. Ar. tried to put him right by 
explaining AKpordrHi to mean 'on a 
very high peak/ not 'on the topmost 
immmit ' ; but this is surely a cruel 

754. noXudcipddoc (also A 499, 8 3), 
according to Schulze {Q, E, 96) rocky ^ 
from 8€ipdst rock^ not conn, with ^(/r^, 

neck. So also Find. 0, viii. 52. In Attic 
deipds is familiar, and never takes the 
form depds as it would if related to S4p7j 
(see Jebb on Soph. Phil. 491). 

757. For the ace. ipra after yefieal^rii, 
i.e. v€ti€<rli:€' {ai), see //. G. § 136. 3. 
Both "'ApHi and "Apei are late forms for 
the older "Apryi* {"Apet) ; the latter is found 
again only $ 276, the former * 431 (?). 

758. 6ccdnoN, only here ; the later 
Epics have To<r<rdTioy. Of. fieaffdrios in 
Eallimachos, and {fardnos by Ocrraroj. 

759. See B 214. Aug) d' fix<x^ either 
an accus. expressing the result, or, per- 
haps more simply, a noro. to which we 
may supply i<m. ItKHkou ironical. 

761. ANbuTcc, setting on like a dog at 
the quarry. 

765. firpa: see on A 626. For the 
interjectional use we may compare Fr. 
tiens. The plur. occurs in v 149. No 
form of the verb except the imper. 
occurs in H. 


lAIAACX: E (v) 

fiea-aiffif^ yairj^ re teal ovpavov aoTepoevro^, 
oaaov £' rjepoecSk^ avTjp tBev 6(f>6a\fioi(nv 
fifievo^ iv aKoirtrjt \€va(T(DV eTTt olvoira ttovtov, 
Toaaov emOpmaKOvac Oe&v injrrj'xie^ iiriroc, 
dXV ore Btf Tpoiffv l^ov iroTafuo re peovre, 
flj(c pok^ Xcfioei^ avfi/SaXXerov ^Se XxafiavSpo^, 
€vff Xirrrov^; earrfae Oea Xcv/ccoXei/o? '^Upv* 
Xvaaa ef o^ecov, rrepl S* rjipa wovKvv e')(eve* 
rocaiv S" afijSpoa-iffv Xv/Moei^ avereCKe vifjueadac. 
ai ik fidrrjv Tp'qpooai, ireKetaaiv Wfia0* ofiolai, 



769. ucochKi R, W T€ <m. G. 770. bcc6N r H. 772. Oipiux^cc LQ (P 
supr. ?) : Oipaux^cc G^ Mosc. 1 : OtpoOycNCC ap. [Longin.] irepl {i^oy$ and Schol. B. 
774. Kdjucmdpoc C {p. rets.) GLM (P"?) Vr. A: *KdjuaNdpoc Harl. a. 776. 

noXCiN DGMOPQRT: yp, noXXkn J. 777. dBpodMN L: djuBpodHC D. 

N^cceai : n^ccsgi M. 778. Td> . . Auoloo, see below. |i Toeuao* Q. 

770. Acpocid^: an adj. almost con- 
fined to the Od,f especially as an epithet 
of tlie sea ; sometimes of ivrpov or airioSt 
and once of ir^/ny, fi 233, where it clearly 
means 'the rock so distant as to be 
like mist.' When used of the sea it 
seems to express the vague colour of the 
distant water, which the haze of distance 
almost melts into the semblance of the 
sky. So here, * so far as a man sees in 
the haze of distance,' i.e. up to the 
utmost limit of human vision. As to 
construction, it is simplest to regard the 
aco. as adverbial, 'as far as a man has 
misty vision.* 

772. 0<|iHX^cc is generally taken to 
mean lotud- neighing ^ cf. Virgil's f remit 
alte. But this is very doubtful ; the 
sense high is not the same as loud 
{v'paySpas and {f}f/i^p€fx4rrfs are obviously 
different), and i^i^ had a F, It is 
highly probable that the quotation in 
Longinus preserves the original, 6^at/- 
X(*'f(, though the mistake must be very 
old. Evidently in some prototype the 
V was accidentally omitted, and the 
variants u^ai'x^es, vyj/rivxi^i record 
further steps in the corruption. Schol. 
B and Et. Mag. both give vyl/a&x€V€s as 
one explanation of {/yfrix^ts- Cf. ipiaiL>- 
XeiTf and it^ov di Kdpri ^ei Z 509. The 
word recurs only in 4^ 27, q.v. 

774. Simoeis is mentioned again in A 
474-8, T 53 by itself, and is distinguished 
from Skamandros in Z 4, M 22, 4> 307. 
Of these the two latter are almost 
certainly of late origin, while in the 
first what is probably the old reading 

omits all mention of Simoeis. There is 
therefore very strong reason for sup- 
posing that there was only one river 
named in the original legend ; Simoeis 
may possibly, as Hercher thinks, be 
another name of the Scamander pre- 
served by tradition. If the two are dif- 
ferent, the only stream which can be 
identified with the Simoeis is apparently 
the pitiful brook of the Dumorek-Su, 
which runs from E. to W. on the N. 
side of Hissarlik, and does not join the 
Mendere at all. It entirely ceases to run 
in summer (Schliemann). On the axvf^ 
'AXKfiaviK^, by which the plural (or, as 
here, dual) verb goes with the first of two 
nominatives, instead of following both, 
Aristonikos remarks ro&r<ai rCk iOei tc- 
irXedvaKe koI *A\Kfidv 5i6 koI KaXeirai 
* A\KfiaviK6v^ oOx 5ti aiVdf irpurros ixP'h^o-'''o 
dXX' &ri tCh. TOiovTwi (Oei trttrXeot^aKev. 
He quotes other instances from T 138. 
K 513, ^ 216. There is, however, no 
instance of it in the extant fragments of 
Alkmun. See also Pindar P. iv. 179 
with the commentators. 

776. houXOn is of course a feminine, 
as in K 27 irov\i>y i<p* vyprffp (q.v.); so 
fi 369 ^3i/j, and drjXvi generally, diffp is 
never masculine in H. H. O. § 116. 4. 

777. On AuBpodH see note on B 19. 

778. All Mss. give al Bi but t« S^ is 
found quoted three times by scholiasts 
(Soph. E/. 977, 0. a 1676, Eur. Ale 
902) ; there can be little doubt there- 
fore that this rare feminine form is the 
original, and was excluded because un- 
familiar. So in 8 378, 455 we have 

lAIAAOC E (y) 


avSpcuriv ^Apyeiouriv aXe^ifjuevcu fie/iaviai. 

aW 0T€ brj p LKavov out irXeiaroi koI apiaroi 

earaa-av, a/J4f>l fiiTjv Aiofi^Beo^ iinroBdfjLOio 

elXofievot, Xelovaiv ioiKore^ d)fio<l)arfouriv 

Tj aval KOTTpoiatv, r&v re aOivo^ oxfK aXairaSvov, 

evOa arda* rjvae Oect XevKcoiKevo^ 'H/m;, 

^revTopi elaafjbipi] fieyaXip-opi ')(aXtc€o<f>€ova)t, 

S9 Toaov avhrjaaa^ oaov aXKoi irevT^KOvra' 

'* alBd)^, ^Apyeloi, kok eXeyj^ea, 4lho^ ar/rfrol* 

o<f>pa fi€v €9 TTokefjLOv 7r(o\iaK€T0 8Z09 'A^aXX€V9, 

ovBe TTore Tp&e^ irpo irvkdcov AapSavidcov 



785. ddouiNH HS Vr. b : dcoubm L. 786. iv rurtv oifK Ijv 6 trrlxot SchoL 
A. (see below). || 8c: AS. 787. ^crx^cc Ar. P. || iunToi: fipicroi L Lips., 
iLT. Sixdn- IBB. dc 0. 789. dapdaN(c)(€ON M Lips. : dapdcmiddcoN [Plut] 
VU. Hmn. 103. 33. 

feminine duals identical in form with 
masculine ; and also Hes. Opp, 198-9. 
The word Teuora does not seem to recur 
[before Kallimacbos) except in Hymn. 
Apoll. 114 piiy di (Iris and Eileithyia) 
roal rpr/ifxaci TrtKtiduiv tdfiaO* ofxoTaij which 
is the passage quoted by Aristophanes 
Ar, 576 *Ip«' 5^ 7* "Ofiripoi itpoffK iKiKrjv 
stvcu Tfjf^putyi TcXeirii, There is perhaps 
I touch of the humour which is so often 
associated with the gods of Homer in 
the viyid comparison of the short and 
quick yet would-be stately steps of the 
two goddesses to the strutting of a 
pigeon, so unlike a hero fxaKpd /3t/3dy. 
But the word f^/xa, a 'verbal subst. from 
root It gOf is vague enough to enable 
those who think this undignified to 
translate the flight of doves ; cf. schol. 
H^F 6pfi^p Kal T^v vTTjaiv, 

782. The « in Xdouan is wrong. 
Hence Brandreth conj. ydeaaiv {** FXiea- 
jiy "), and so afterwards Nauck. \ls and 
V^ are found (A 239, 480 etc.), and 
Ki€<riy is quoted by M. Mag, from Ealli- 

785. Stentor is never named again by 
Homer, and there seems to have been 
Qo consistent tradition about him. Some 
sailed him a Greek herald ; Schol. A 
»ys ru'^s Q.vrhv Opaixd tfMffiUy 'Epfxiji Si 
r€pl fieyaXoipuvlas iplaayra dvouped^vai, 
a^bv di eifpeiv xal Hjv Sid Kdx^ov ypa- 
(fr/jv {sic: Schol. B fxypcay^v, the device 
of (lie speaking-trumpet; this is the 
rationalizing explanation), rivi^ Si 'Ap- 

KdSa fpoffltf etvai rbv liTivTOpa, koX iv 
Tui KaraXdybH trXdrrovai Tcpl a^ov cri- 
Xom. ip run Sk o^k fpf 6 arlxos (sc. 786) 
Sid H\» xnrtp^oMiv, jokuw^^^noc is not 
elsewhere found ; but compare B 490, 
2 222 Sva x^^^eop. The Stentorian 
voice was proverbial in the time of 
Aristotle; see the well-known passage 
in the Pol, vii. 4. For other instances 
of the superhuman power of gods see 
859, S 148. 

787. For ^^ca see note on A 242, 
and cf. also B 235, A 314. aldtibc is a 
nominative used interjectionally, appar- 
ently as a sort of imperative, alSCji iffruj 
vfuv, and equivalent to alSQ diad* ivl 
Ovfiwi, 561, 661. The regular meaning 
of the word is of course sense of honour ^ 
* recognition of the just rebukes of men ' ; 
it is not used in the sense of disgrace 
like dttrxoi or ^^<nC'^^} either in Homer 
or later Greek. The phrase recurs in 
e 228, N 95, 502, H 422 ; and in a 
slightly varying form P 336 alSws fih pw 
ijSi y* . . 'IXiop elaapapijpai, where we 
must take it to mean ' this is a thing to 
arouse a feeling of rebuke,* just as we 
say 'it is a shame to do so and so,' 
meaning a thing to be ashamed of. 
cTdoc 6rHTo(, like T 89 elSos Apiare (there 
is a variant dpurroi here). 

789. Aristarchos held that the Dar- 
danian gate was the same as the Skaian 
Of course the question is insoluble ; but 
see note on B 809. The name recurs 
again in X 194. 


lAIAAOC E (y) 

oXyyeaKov* tceivov yiip iSeiSurav Xfiptfiov Sy;^09* 

VVV Bk €K€t^ 7roXi09 Kotkljl^ iwl VTfVal fiAyOVTCU^ 

e&9 eiirova Arpwe fiivo^ xal Ovpjov itcdoTOV. 
TvSel^i S* iwopovae Oek yXavKonn^ ^AO'qvtf' 
evpe Se top ye avatcra irap^ imroia-iv koI iyea^w 
iXxo^ avay^vjfpvra, to fuv fidXe HdvBapo^ l&i. 
iSpa>^ yap fuv ereipev vtto irXareo^ reXap^vo^ 
aairlZo^ €vkvk\ov' rm reipero, xcifive Be ^eZpa, 
&v B layfov reKapAva K€\aiv€<f>i^ alp! diropjoprpfv. 
hnrelov Bk Oek ^vyov fj^^aro tfrnvfjaiv re* 
"ff oXlyov ol TraiBa ioiKora yeivaro TvBev^, 
TvBev^ TOi p4,Kpb^ phf Irjv Bipa^, oXXiL /aa^^i/ti/^* 
Koi p St€ irip p^iv iyo) iroKep^ifytv ovk etaaxov 




790. &IXNCCKON Cant. || SuBpuiON C6J. 791. di ixbc Zen. Aph. O: V 

kKtKi DQ Lips. : d* Xkomn Ar. GHR. || KoiXoic G. 792. dn^Mt B}, T9S. 

TvdddHN NS. 794. t6n re : t6h^ JO : t6n tc H. 797. cOkOkXou 1j Au- 
9i6p6TMc East || rdpcro Ar. O: TplBcro (A supr.) CDGHMT Vr. b™, Mosc 
1 2, Par. b e g^ h k. || x<f pa : X<pc< I>* 798. fiN t" Vr. a. || Acx^tei Vr. c, 

Mosc. 3. li 6ncu6pnfu DHMRST. 799. zuroO th RT. 801. JUUKpbc : yf^, 

juukk6c J. 802. noXcuoiucN H. 

791. nOn d^ kK&c is of course right, 
as liraf had F. But from a scholion by 
Didymos on N 107 it appears that Zen. 
and Aph. read rCr 5i ixds, Ar. rCr i* 
fKadewi a clear proof that Aristarchos 
did not always know what was the best 
tradition, or else deliberately rejected it 
from preconceived notions. The ex- 
pression KolXfjis M pfjval \a not appropri- 
ate here, as it is in N 107, where the 
Greeks have actually been driven back 
to the camp. It is evident that the 
line, which cannot be omitted, has been 
carelessly borrowed here. 

793. 4n6pouo^ sprang to his side, cf. 
ip 343 Owvot ^., and P 481 dpfi iir- 
opw^as. Elsewhere it always indicates 
a hostile onslaught. 

795. It might have been supposed 
that Athene had healed the wound in 
122, but there is no explicit inconsistency 
between that passage and the present 
See n 528 ; when a god miraculously 
heals a wound we are told so at length. 
Many critics, however, have made this 
supposed 'contradiction' a fulcrum for 
breaking up this book. For the double 
ace. after MXc cf. 361, 8 405, O 421. 

796. There is evidently no SiipiiKot 
y6a\w here — nothing but the linen tunic 

which is of too little importance to he 
mentioned. The shield hangs on the 
left side, so the 'broad baldric' goes 
over the right shoulder. 

797. tAi naturally refers to Idptit, not 
to reXa/Aoivof, the phrase being a restate- 
ment of Idpdfs fuv (reipew, 

801. JuuKp6c recurs in H. only y 296, 
cw.Kp&i P 757, the Epic wora being 

802. There is considerable doubt as to 
the punctuation of this passage. Fasi 
takes 805 as a parenthesis, the apodosis 
beginning with cu^rdp, 806. Similarly 
Monro regards it as epexegetic of the 
preceding. Ameis less probably takes 
Koi /&' trr€ T€p . . iKvai^daneuf as a 
genercU protasis, which is superseded and 
forgotten in favour of the gpeeial case 
introduced by the second protasis, &rt re 
. . Kad/uetwi^af, 805 thus forming the 
apodosis. Heyne would reject 805 alto- 
gether as an interpolation suggested hy 
A 386. I strongly suspect that the fituft 
lies in 802, and that Koi />* &r€ rep has 
supplanted an original dXXore ydp, 
wrongly taken to represent dXX' drt ydp. 
where dXXd . . ydp would obviously need 
correction. For AXXorc = once upon a 
time see A 590, T 90, 187. 

lAIAAOC E (y) 


ovS' imriu^KuraetVy ore t riKvOe v6o'<f>i,v ^A-ycu&v 

ayyeko^ 69 Bif/Sa^ 7roXia9 fierct KaSfietcjva^' 

ScupvaBai fuv avtoyov ivl fi£ydpounv iferjKov' 805 

avrhp o Ovfibv l^coi' hv xaprcpov, c&9 to irdpo^ '/rep, 

Kovpov^ KaSfieiiov '/rpoKaXl^ero, iraina S* hfUa 

pTjiSlco^' TOLff oi iya)v hnrdppoOo^ j}a. 

aol S* fjroi fihf iyo) irapd ff tarafuu rjSk ^vkdaatOf 

Koi 0*6 7rpo<l>pov€(a^ Ki\o/iai Tpcoea-ai fidj(€<r0eu' 810 

dWd (T€v fj tcdfiaro^ iroXvaJL^ yvla BiSvxev, 

Yf vv ai irov Seo9 ta")(€i dxi^piov' ov av 7' hrei/ra 

Tvheo^ exyovo^ iaai Sat^povo^ Oti^eifSoo." 

rijv S" dirafiei^fiofievo^ irpoa-iffyrf Kparepo^ Ai,o^i^Sff^' 
" yivaxTKO) (76, Oeii Ovyarep A&09 airfvoypto* 815 

T& rot 7rpo<f>povia>f; ipeo) ?7ro9 ovS* hriKevo'to, 
ovri ri fie Bio^ ta-j(€t oKripvov oini ta9 Skpo^, 
oXX' Irt a&v /lifivrffuu i<f>€Tfi€(i)v, &9 iirereiXa^* 
ov fi eta^ fJMKdpeo'O'i, Oeot^ dvriKpv fidyeaOcu 
Tol^ aXXo&9' driip et k€ Aao9 OuydrTjp ^A^poSlrtf 820 

ekOrjia 69 irokejiov, t^v 7' ovrdfiev o^il j(a\K&i, 
Tovvexa vvv avro^ r dva'^^d^opMi rjSk koX SXKov^ 
^Apyeiov^ ixeXevaa aXrjfievcu ivOdZe Trdvra^' 
yiVioaKa) yhp ''Aprja tid')(riv dva KOipaviovra," 

808. Said to have been added by Zen. {Zrivddoros {fTordaffti An. ), and not to have 
been found at all in the edd. of Ar. (Did.). i| ol om, Q : toi CT Vr. c, Mosc 3 : d^ 
G. I, Mb DOPS. 809. •* : V H. 810. ce : yp, coi Harl. a. 811. dXXd 

OK 6. li bidUK€M : X^UKCN P {yp. IP) : X^ukcn R (X in ras,, d supr.). 818. 

irroNOC QU (rr in ras. ) Vr. b {yp. IxroNoc). 814. (vioi Tim d' a&rc npoo^cinc 

An. 816. nrNcbocco LN. 817. o(M TIc: oCihi tic HQ. 818. C&N : 

o^ftON Ar. 819. AllTIKpCf : ttimi T. 820. aOriip PR. 821. <X«h MOP 

Vr. b. II dc 0. II r* ow. Pj cf. 132. 824. nrNcbacu LNU. 

808. tenoifdccciN, tnake display ; see 
B 450. M6C91N *Axcn^^ is the same as 
fiovwos idfi^mA 388. 

808. According to Aristonikos this 
line was inserted here by Zen. but 
omitted by Ar. on the just ground that 
Athene is here emphasizing her restraint, 
not her support, of Tydeus ; the inter- 
polation destroys the effect of the follow- 
ing line. But there is no trace of 
omission in the Mss. ; the statement 
about Zen. only means that he did not 
like Ar. reject it as borrowed from A 
390 (q.v.)- farrdppoooc : a word which 
has never been explained. The ancients 
took it to he = iTlppo0otf "xXcoyeur/twi rod 

rap," and it is obvious that in sense it 
is identical. Lykophron's TdppoSot is 
doubtless a learned figment. Outside 
Homer and the Orphic Hymns ^xirdp- 
poBos is found only in an oracle in Herod, 
i. 66, in the sense conqueror. 

818. To avoid the synizesis or con- 
traction cd^N {aiuv) . . k^€TUjitMi van 
L. reads a^v . . ^^er/xi^y ^i', remarking 
that fUfivijfiai takes the ace. in Z 222, I 
527. (La R. attributes this reading to 
*Schol. Z 129,' apparently in error.) 

819. ANTiKpO : see on 130. 

824. ixdxHN in local sense, the battle- 
field. TrdXefjLos is never used in this way. 
6n6 should be Ara, as it immediately 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

TOP S* rj/Meifi€T hrena Oea y\avK&7n^ 'A^i;i/i7* 825 

"TvBet&yj AcofiffSe^, ifi&i Ke^apurjjiive 0vfi&i, 
/i^re (TV y ''Aprja to ye BeiStOt /iiyre tai/' aXKov 
aOavdTCJV Tolrj tol iya>v eiriTappoBo^ elfu, 
aXX' arf hr ''Aprji 7rpa>Ta>A €^€ fuovv^cL^ nnrov^, 
Tvyjtov Si ayehirjv ^rjS* a^eo Oovpov "Aprja 830 

TOVTOv fuuvofievov, TVKTOv KaKov, aWoTTpoaaWov, 
89 irpmTjv fjuev ifioi re xal ''Hprji oTevT arfopevtav 
Tpaxrl pMyfijaeaOai, oTap Apyeloiaiv aprj^eiVy 
vvv hk pjCTk Tpdea-aiv ofitXei, t&v Bk XiXcuTTcu,^* 

a>9 <f>afieprf ^Oevekov phf a<\> Xmrtov Sxre ^a/io^e, 835 

X^^P^ ''^oXtv epvaaa* 6 S* ap ififiaireo)^ airopovaev, 
rj £' 69 Bi<f>pov efiaive irapal Aio^^Bea Siov 
i^fjuefiavta Bed* pArfa B efipa^s <f>T]yivo^ a^(ov 
fiptOoa-vmji' Betvrjv yap ayev Oeov avBpa S' apKTTOv, 

827. xiA Ti air* M. || t6 r€ : t6n re J {supr. t6) OCJT (E aupr.) Vrat a\ 
East. : T6Ndc S Lips. Mosc. 3 : t6n M. I fiXXuN P Cant. Vr. a. 828. Mo 0. 

888. Juaxi^cac^ai HLOP(?)QR Vr. A, Mosc. 3 : uidxcceoi G {supr. ac) : uox^oioeai 
Vr. a. il aOriip JMQR. || iipAEn U. 834. X^Hcrai G. 836. 69* : Koe* N. 

836. iuAUin^oOC : yp, 4uueuad>c Yr. b. || h\6po\KXN N. 887. nap6 OQS\ 

888-9 dd, Ar. 838. 9l4nNOC : 9X6000 P {yp. 9i^nNOc) : ni^diNOC Bt. Mag. 

Hesych. and ol TaXa(o(( East.). 839. ec&N G. || Awdpa d* Ar. P: fiwdpd t* a || 
9^piCT0N Par. c g. 

follows its case ; but Ar. refused to be 
consistent, on the ground that the word 
would thus be liable to confusion with 
the vocative of Ava^ and the imperatival 
dva = arise. In A 230 he wrote did, not 
dUif for a similar reason. The whole 
theory of accentuation is full of ir- 
regularities, which in many cases no 
doubt represented a genuine usage, but 
were a subject of helpless groping after 
principles among the Alexandrian gram- 
marians. See H. O, § 180. 

827. Td PC, /or UuU matter ; cf. p 401 
fi-fyr* 0^ fMfjrip' ifi^v d^ev t6 ye fiifyri tip* 
dWop. But it looks almost as if the line 
were a reminiscence of 3! 342 fnffre OeCnf 
t6 ye 5el5i6i ii'/jri riv' dv^pdv tyj/eaOaiy 
where the r6 is probably governed by 

830. cxcd(HN : it is natural to supply 
irKjjyiiVj cf. M 192 avTfxrxe^iriv. This, 
however, does not cover forms like dim- 
Plriv, dfi<l>aSlrjVf dirpidrrpff and many in 
-Jip, for which see II. O. § 110. 

831. dXXonp6cciXXoN, double -faced^ 
one thing to one person, another to 
another. This treachery of Ares is again 

alluded to in 4> 413 ofjveK* 'Axatoi>f jrdX- 
Xtirer, airrdp Tpuxrly vrepipidKoKritf d/ui/FCis, 
but no other trace of it occurs in Homer. 
tuict6n is another Axa^ \ey6fiepop in this 
sense ; it apparently means ' finished, 
wrought out,* i.e. complete ; cf. 4^ 741 
TCTvyfUvoy = well vjrought : so Tvicr^<n 
^6e(T(Tiv M 105, and in the sense of 
* artificially made* 5 627, p 169, 206. 
Van Herwerden's arvtcrdp (cf. k 113, X 
502) is needless. 

832. npcbiHN: see 6 303. crdho, 
pledged himself \ cf. on S 191. 

834. Td&N dc may be masc., sc 'AxoicDy: 
but perhaps it is rather more Homeric 
to take it as neuter, ' those ])romi8es.' 

838-9. dderovvrai (rrlxoi 5iJo, 5rt oC'k 
dpayKaloi Kal yeXoToi, koI ti ivatrrloir ^or- 
rej. tI ydp, el x^^pwrro* Ijcof raus rf^vx^^h 
e^eidets 8i xal eUcrapKW.; i.e. the fact that 
Diomedes and the goddess were Apurroi 
does not involve their being heavier. 
But the couplet is quite in the spirit 
of the whole passage, which seems ex* 
pressly to exaggerate the physical quali- 
ties of the gods, e.g. 785, 860. We may 
compare Aeru vi. 413 gemuil subpondere 

lAIAAOC E (y) 


Xafero Be ftdartya koI rfpia IlaXXA? 'A^i;i/i7* 
avTiK err "Apiyt irpioroDi Ij^e ^w^a^ Jttttoi;?. 
fl Toi 6 fiev Il€pl<f>avTa freXdpiov i^evdpi^ev, 
AItcoIXj&v Sj(^ apioTov, 'Oj^iycrtov ayXabv vlov 
Tov fiev *'A|W79 ivdpi^e fuat^ovo^* avrhp ^AO'qvf) 
SOi/' "AtSo? Kvvh]v, firi fnv tSoi ofipifio^ "Aprj^, 
a>9 Be IBe fiporoXoiyo^ ''^PV^ Aiofii^Bea Blov, 
77 Toi 6 fjukv YlepUfniVTa ireXdpiov avToO eaae 
fceurOai, o0v irpSyrov Kreivcov i^aipvro 0v/jlov, 
axfrhp 6 fit) p 10 v^ Aiofi'^Beo^ iTnroBdfjLoio, 
oi S' ore Bif ajfcBov fftrav eir aXKriKonnv lovre^, 
7rp6a'0€v "A^wy? iape^aS* inrep ^uyov fivla 0* Xinroiv 
eyj^et ^aXic6ia>&, /iefuio)? diro 0vpi>v €'\Aa0aL* 
KaX TO ye X6tpl \a/3ovaa 0€a yXavK&irt^ ^A0i]vrf 
&a'€v inrep Bi<f>poLO iranrvov dl')(0riviu. 




840. Vki d^ G^ : rhp U. 841. npcSna {sic) P. || After 841, 846 is inserted 

by AC (M ?) Harl. a {iv AXXok oDtoj 6 trrixos AtrrA riatrapas arlxovs kcitcu Schol. A). 
842. Ixoi^pizCN Ar. AD (Par. f supr.): tEni6pmm (and ntt^ An.). 844. 

ajAh (ym. Q. II ^dpac(N) DGJNOQRinS Lips. Vr. a c : ^MNdpisc MP Harl. a. 
846. YdH Q. II SuBpuiOC CJ. 846. d' cTdc QR Vr. b : d' cYdc H e anr. : dc 

oTdc G : d' oYdc Vr. A. 848. KCToe* 8ei np^broN juun NS Cant, (juun np^broN). || 
np^^TO C. 849. p* om. J. 862. ^^ceoi AJNSU Ambr. : 6X^ccai (and 

yp. A). 868. t6 re : -rdrc T Harl. a. 864. Cmkp A : An* te Vr. A : On* kK 
(Ontoc) and yp. A (T.W.A.). 

cymba Sutilis (of Charon's boat). Virjjil 
iraitetes 835-40 in Aen, xii. 469 tf. ; 
cf. also Cfto, iii. 17*2 valido nitena sub 
povdtre fagintis axis Instrepat. The 
variant viibt,voi for ^i^nNOc is explained 
to mean made of a wood called ir-qbU (see 

842. This is the only case in H. where 
A god in person condescends actually to 
slay and despoil a human foe. 

845. ''Alfdoc KUN6f, the 'Tamkappe' 
or ' Nebelkappe * of northern mythology, 
not elsewhere mentioned in H. It is 
alluded to, however, in the SciUum Her. 
227, and in Aristoph. Ach. 390, Plato 
Jifp. X. 612 B. It appears too in the 
legend of Perseus in Pherekvdes, and is 
a piece of the veir oldest folklore. Re- 
ferences will be found in Frazer Paus, 
iii. p. 846. The name 'AtSiyj here 
evidently preserves something of its 
original sense, the Invisible {'AFLdri^). 
It is of course not necessary to suppose 
that the poet conceives Athene as liter- 
ally putting on a cap ; he only employs 
the traditional — almost proverbial — way 

of saying that she makes herself invisible 
to Ares. 

848. This line is perhaps interpolated 
by a rhapsode who read i^t^dpi^ev in 842, 
and thouglit that an infinitive was re- 
quired after iatrey. This idea led to 
other unmistakable interpolations, see 
T312, 568, (0 473?). 

851 . zur6N, of Diomedes' chariot ; Ares 
is clearly on foot (he has lent his chariot 
to Ai»hrodite, 363). 

852. ^^c^oi : vulg. 6\i(T(raiy but this 
by Homeric usage could only mean to 
lose his own life. 

854. dMp : viilg. vir* ^ic, which appears 
to be accepted by almost all edd., though 
no approximately satisfactory explana- 
tion nas been given of the word, which 
can only mean 'from under.' Athene 
of course is on, not under, the chariot ; 
and to suppose that she could direct the 
shaft from a place where she was not 
herself is to make her very unlike a 
Homeric deity. Still, the old idea seems 
to have been that Athene actually put 
her arm under the chariot, for Schol. 


lAIAAOC E (y) 

Bevrepo^ aiS* oDpfiaro fiorjp a/yaOo^ Atop^rjitff; 

l7X€t 'xaKjceltor hripeia-e Bk TloKKa^ *A0i]Vf) 

veiMTOV i^ K€V€&vch 00 1 ^a)vvv<r/c€TO fiirfyqv 

liji pa fiiv oira rv^iov, SiiL Sk XP^^ kclKjov eSayjrep, 

CK Bk Bopv airoATev aSri,^, 6 S' €fipaj(€ j(a\K€0^ "Aptf^, 

oaaov T ipved'^iXoL iwiaj(ov fj Se^a^tXot 

avipe^ iv iroXipLwi, IpiBa ^iipdr/ovre^ "Aprjo^, 

Tov^ B ap VTTO Tpofio^ clkev *Aj(aiov^ re Tp&d^ re 

Belaavra^* roaov Ifipaj^ "Apiy? 4x09 iroXifioio, 

oXr^ B* €K v€<f>€0»v ipefievvff <f>aLV€Tai, drip 
Kavfiaro^ i^ dvifwio Bvaaio^ opvvfiivoio, 
Tolo^ TvBetBffi ^Lop^rjBel j^aX#c€09 "Apri^ 
i^lveff* o/JLOv v€<f>€€a'a'iv la)V eh ovpavov evpvp, 
KapTraXlfMO)^ S' ucave Oe&v IBo^, cuirifv "OXvfiirov, 
Trap Bk All Kpovitovi KoOi^ero Ov/ibv d'^ewovt 
Bel^ev S* dp,/3pOTOP atfia karappeov ef ioreCKri^, 
KUL p 6\o<f>vp6fi€vo^ eirea irrepoevra irpoa-TjvBa* 
** ZeO irdrep, ov vc/Meai^rji op&v rdBe xaprepd epya ; 





866. dcOrcpoN DS. || d* aG«' JQ. || dfUiStro MNQ. 866. knipom Vr. a: 

In^HCC N 8upr. 867. utrpm Ar. (AifirpHN Harl. a, supr. hi uts iLpUrroLpxoi) : i^ 

Tiai Twv inrofUfrifidTtay 8oi crcXX^occro utrpm Did. 869. hn I In AU. H oOmc C. 
860. 5oc30N d* Aph. T. || ^NNcdxciXoi . . dcx^xoXoi (Ar. ? cf. S 148) S, yp. O East 
862. d' oni, P. 868 oin, Q. 864. yp, ^pcBcnnAn Vr. a. 866. dUGoloc : 
ducHX^oc J {yp. duoa^oc). 867. cOpO D. 868. d' om. Lips. 87S. 1^* 

AtdNXa N Cant, (rdd* 6tdHX* Xpra S), yp, Schol. T. 

B on 851 says of inrip there rivh irri 
TTjs wt6, tya rpiiffyji oArbv \aditjv. Ares* 
* underhand ' stroke is met by Athene in 
a similar way. With the reading of A 
there is no difficulty whatever. 

857. &Ti icard rd icoTXa fjJpri i^ibvvwro 
r^v fdrpay Kal icn biBwFKa\uc6% 6 rSvoi 
(i.e. 'this is the lociis classieus'). For 
the nature of the idrp^ see App. 6. For 
AifirpHN of M8S. Ar. read fdrpvfi: both 
cases appear to be equally Homeric ; see 
K 77, S 181. 

860. This hyperbolical distich recurs 
in S 148-9. The reading -x«X<m ap- 
parently attributed to Ar. by Schol. T 
on S 148 is not of course from x^^o' ^ 
absurdly explained ; x^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ 
Attic and Ionic form on inscriptions, so 
the diphthong may be right here. For 
the last half of 861 compare B 381« H 448, 
T 275. The metaphorical use of the 
word "Apiyo* (861) in this particular con- 
text is curious. 

863 is suspected by Nauck ; the sus- 

picion is confirmed by the omission iu Q, 
though there is no serious ground of 
objection against the line in itself. 

865. KaOjucrroc ii, a/Ur hot wecUher ; 
so scholia. Cf. Herod, i. 87 iK ^ aldpirp 
re Kol yrjv€fdris ffwdpafxeuf i^Tlprp 
v4ip€a. It is hardly possible to get any 

fooii sense if we join i^ with dy^/toio. 
t is not easy to say what the phenome- 
non meant may be ; perhaps a whirl- 
wind of dust raised by the scirocco. 
Others take it to be a thunder-cloud 
' standing out to the eye from the other 
clouds.' Or it may simply mean *a 
black darkness {murky air) comiuj^ 
from (i.e. caused by) clouds' of a thunder- 

867. 6duoO : best taken with kbic, trith 
clouds about him^ cf. 118 bfiov P€iaka<n 
(and so d 723, o 365). Brandreth A/ia, 
cf. AfM wvotijis dvifioio. 

871. p': r Brandreth, rightly no 
iloubt Cf. K 265. 

872. See 757. 878-4 seem to be 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


alei Toi pirfiara Oeol rerKqire^ elfjuev 

aXKi^Kcov loTfjTi, X^P^^ ^' avhpeaai <f>€povT€^, 

aol iravre^ fiaxofieaOa' av yctp rixe^ a^pova Kovprjv, 875 

ovXofiimjp, ^i T atkv arfavXa epya fiifirfKep, 

a\\oi fikv yap 7raj/T69, oaot Oeoi eia iv 'OXv/iTrwt, 

aoi 1 iirnreldovrat xal heh/JLrjfieo'Oa eKaaro^* 

Tavrr)v S* out eirei irporifidWeai ovre rt epycji, 

aXX' dviTj^, iwel aifro^ iyeivao iralK ai&rfkov 880 

^ vvv TvBio^ viov V7r€p<l)ia\ov ^lo^rjhea 

fiapyaivetv dpirfKcv err aOavdrourv BeoUru 

KvirpiBa phf irp&rov crj^cSoi/ ovraae X^^P* ^^ fcapTrm, 

airrdp lirevT avr&i fwi hreaavro Saifiovi 2cro9' 

dWd fi vTT'qveiKav rax^e^ iroSe^' ff ri K€ Srjpov 885 

avTOv iri^fuiT ^atrxov iv alvrjtaiv vcKdBeaaiv, 

873. TOI : Ti HP. II TcrXHxdrcc N. || Aucn Vr. b. 874. X^P*** ^* Ar. O : 

X^piN HJNOQT Mosc. 2\ Cant Par. e^ k. 879. nori O&kwca Q. j,' oOd^ n Q. 

880. &NfHC NO'S Lips.^ : AndMC M : iadmc 0. 881. OncpffoXoN Ar. DGLQ : 
unipmuAMOM al drifAU)d€is (iDcl. A, T.W.A.). 883. np^^ra H Vr. b: npcibrNN £t. 
J/ (Iff. 886. Oro^cncaN JNPQ. 886. abiaTa G. 

imitated from 383-4. Thev are rejected 
by Bekker and othero, as being wide of 
the aim of the rest of the speech. 

876. Ai^cuXa : so msm. ; but there is 
little doubt, as Clemm has shewn, that 
the word, which is not found elsewhere, 
is only an itacistic mistake for dFLcvXa, 
iniqua, from Fwot : hence the commoner 
contracted form aXavKoi. 

878. dcdyuuiucoea, are subjeetf T 183, 
X 622. For the change of person cf. H 
160, P 250. 

879. nponBdXXcai: the mid. is not 
found again till Ap. Rhod. (iv. 1046) 
and Oppiai). It is commonly explained 
aUaek, a sense found in the act. and 
rpoa^Xif, But, as Monro remarks, this 
is rather too strong for the context; a 
more suitable sense is thou payest no fused 
to her. The mid. /3dXXo/uu is constantly 
thus used of the mind in H., cf. iiri- 
^Wofiai Z 68, pd\\€(r0ai 4vl dvfxQi, 
/icrd ippeclv and TrpoffpdiWeiif tfifxara^ 
d^iv in Attic (e.g. Eur. Med, 860), with 
uo sense of violence. 

880. For 6m\hc the vulg. gives dpleiSf 
which is wrong, as the accent would 
only suit the imperf. ; but a thematic 
di^ieU has the support of the 3rd person, 
B 752 irpoiei, K 121 fuBui (cf. ridel N 
732, o 192, didoisy SlSoi). Tliese are 
clearly due to invasion of the thematic 

forms by analogy ; an invasion which 
in these particular verbs was finally 
repulsed, tnough it overwhelmed many 
others. As the Mss. are of no authority 
in a matter such as this, it is impossible 
now to say whether the 2nd. person 
succumbed like the 3rd, the metre here 
giving no help. See if. &. § 18. But 
the thematic forms are so rare that 
they should not be multiplied without 
necessity. aOrbc. explained by Schol. 
B /idvost i.e. without the intervention 
of a mother ; and so Hes. Theog. 924 
avrbs 5* iK KtipaXijs yXavKilfTida yelvar 
'kd-fivfiv. The legend of the birth of 
Athene from the head of Zeus is found 
also in Hypm, Ap, 314, 323, but not 
elsewhere in H., unless it be in the 
obscure title Tpiroyiueia (see on A 515) ; 
and the word liere need mean no more 
than 'thou thyself didst beget (em- 
phatically) ; ad riKfs above (875) is also 
ambiguous. dtdHXoN, destructive, as 
Tvp B 455. (Welcker explains * secretly 
born,' as without a mother. But see 

886. NOcddccQN, fiir. Xeyd/ievtw. Cf. 
O 118 KetaOai dfiov veta^eaffi fxeS* alfxari, 
Kcd KOPlrjKTiVt and 11 661 ^i' peici^up dyOpei, : 
see also note on 397. Ares, being im- 
mortal, seems a little confused between 
his two alternatives ; the contrast to 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

7] tee fft)9 afi€vr)vo^ la y^^aXxolo rvTrrjiai,** 

Tov S* ap inroBpa IBcav irpoaeffyq v€<f>€\7)y€p€Ta Zev? 
** fi^ TL /JLOi, dWoTTpoo'aWe, Trape^ofievo^ fiivvpt^e. 
€')(0ia'TO^ Si /lOL iaai Oe&v ot '^OXv/jlttov eyovavv 
aUX '^dp Toi €pv^ T€ <f>lXrj irokefiol re pM')(cu re. 
lirjTpos rot fievo^ iarlv ddo'^erov, ovk iinciKTOv, 
"H/>7;v Ttjv fi€V eyo) airovBrJL Sdfimjfi iireeao'i' 
TW a 6t(o tceivT)^ rdSe 7rdcrj(€iv ivpeairjiaiv, 
dW ov pAv a eri, Srjpov dve^ofiai aXrfe e^ovra* 
ix yap €/Lt€v 7€i'09 iaal, e/iol Si ere yeivaTO p/rfrqp, 
el Si T€v i^ aWov ye 6e<av yivev wS' dtSriXo^, 
KaL K€V Sij irdXat fiaOa ipiprepo^ Ovpapicovcop,^^ 



887. fi: cT (H sujpr.) NOR: aT Q (t6 R kcn ypd<l>eTai did roD h wafA rott 
dKpi^<rr4pois Eust.). II Ko6c Q Mor. Vr. b. || xc^i<>TunaTa G (with hyphen). 
890. <x**J^'L^ '^' ^^^' "^^^ *^"^' ^^ ' ""^ ^- 892. ta^N : oHm £L Mag. \\ 

oOk : oOd' J. 896. udN : ixhi Vr. b. 896. kodM JMO. || iuo) : kuk Q (S 
suprX 897. ttXXoio C sapr. {man. rcc,). \\ r€ om. CL : tc H. 898. 

ADJO^SU. II Mprcpoc : ^^praroc Zen. : N^fyrcpoc T Lips. 

fu>j ^o should of course be iOavov : this 
boing impossible he has to substitute 
the rather weak expression of the text. 

887. zcbc for ^m6% is a highly sus- 
picious form recurring only in the ace. 
^thv n 445 ; cf. the equally faulty (twj 
for ciwi {aiioi) X 332. fj ^ub^ d/x. 
Brandreth, i^utds k ran L. djucNHNdc : 
only here in //. ; it occurs several times 
in Od. in the phrase ve«n)wi' d/jievrivd, 
KdprjvcL, and once (r 562) of dreams. It 
appears to be conn, with fjJvos, but the 
formation is not clear. Ita : see on A 321. 

891. See note on A 177. 

892. AdcxcTON : the formation of this 
word, whicli recurs only in ft 708, is 
hardly explicable. According to Bekker 
it is for dv-avdo-xeroj, through the stage 
dp-d{v)<rx.^0Sf the second v being lost 
before the <r, and the first then having 
to follow suit, that the word might not 
be confused with dva-axerSi in the 
opposite sense. If so, it is probably a 
late and wrong reading, for which 
dvdax^^^ ought to be substituted here 
(so Wackeruagel) : mere i)ossibilities of 
confusion do not set aside the ordinary 
laws of linguistic formation. According 
to another view we have a case of * Epic 
diectasis' for dtrxfros, cf. II 549 Affx^rovy 
OVK imeLKT^if. This is likely enough in a 
passage of late origin, and perhaps con- 
temporaneous with the formation on 

false analogy of ipdais for dpdeis through 
the stage dpdHf etc. oOk Inicucrdii, ua- 
yielding^ indomUabley as 8 32, etc 

893. cnoudAi, as B 99, etc 

894. ^NcdHiQN, a purely metrical 
form for iv€aly\i<n.¥y which could not 
otherwise be used. The word (from 
iv-lrjfu) is dv. \ey. in H. but occurs in 
Hes. Thcog. 494 and Hymn. Cer. 30, 
and is much affected by Ap. Rhod. 

898. The variant ^ffOas is probably 
a mere fiction to avoid hiatus, formed on 
the analogy of the common terra, -as of 
the 2nd sing. {II. G. § 6). The two last 
words of the line apparently menn 
Mower than the sons of Uranos,' i.e. 
the Titanes imprisoned in Tartaroa, as in 
O 225 oi v€p ivifnepol elffi Beol, Kpdi'or 
dfjLfpU iittfT€i. This, however, is quite 
unlike the Homeric use of the word 
Ovpayl(i>v€s, and may be another mark of 
later date ; the Titan myths, like those 
relating to Kronos, seem only to have 
become j^art of the acknowledged belief 
of the Greek nation at large in post- 
Homeric times. If we take Ovpcu^lw^ts 
in its usual sense, we must either trans- 
late lower than Uu heavenly gods, or 
acce])t Zen.'s reading ivipraTOi^ lotoest of 
the heavenly gods ; either of which inter- 
pretations makes the passage intolerably 
weak. For the threat itself conifiare 
e 13-16 ; and for the Titanes 8 479, 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


£9 (fxiTO, Kol Hairjov* dvdyeiv lijacurOau 
Tcov S* iirl Hairjayv dBvvrjtpaTa (fxipfuiKa Trdaaev. 
[^/ceaar* ov fuv yap tl KaraOinjTo^ 7' irirvKTo,] 
a>9 8' OT o7ro9 yaXa \evKov iireiyofuvo^ auvemj^ev 
vypop iov, fidXa S* &Ka 7r€piTp€<f>€Tat kvk6o)vti, 
W9 apa KapiraXifioy^ IrfO'aTO Oovpov "Aprja, 
TOP S" "Hfirf 'Kovaev, '^(apievra Be eiiuvra ecrcre* 
Trap Se Atl Kpovicjvi xaOe^ero KvBei yalayp, 

al S* airi^ 7rpo9 B&fui A&09 fieyakoto veovro, 
Hpi; T ^Apyeiff xal *A\a\KOfi€vrjt^ AO'qvtf, 
Travaaaat, /SporoXoiyop "Aprf apBpoKTaaidayv, 



899. ANcbrciN ACTU : ANobro 0: An^^tcn D: liNurcN and Ancibrci Eust. 
900. 9dfuuiK* CnacocN T. Il ndoGUN GJMNOQRSU'^ Harl. a^ (ndcocN Harl. a*) Vr. 
A. ! laKus 9dpJuuiKa ndcocN Ar., which shows that he did not read 901. 901 

oin. C'DP^-'n (added in marg. by Rhosos) Lips. Vr. A, Mosc. 1, Harl. a^ ^ dWun 
b (rrixot o^ eUfnrrai A. || Korii •nht6n T™ Vr. b : Kcrrd •nhtoOc Vr. a. 902. 

Xcuk6c Mosc. 2. || ^orducNON DOS (T siipr., man. rcc, ?) Mosc. 1 2. 903. ncpi- 
Tp^9CTCll Herod. (Par. d s^ijyr.) Ap. Lex, East.: ncpiCTp^9CTai Q. 906. X°P'* 

€Ht6 tc HPQRS Vr. a. 906 dO. Ar. (Zen.?). || hl\ : zmnI K. 907-9 om. Lips. 
909. ncnkaca {sic) Q : naikac^oi P Mosc. 1, Schol. T. ;i fipH* Cant. : fipH A (n 
acUl. jnan, rec,^ T.W.A.) : fipHa 8 : fipHN Q. 

S 279, Hesiod Theoy, 720. The form 
iv4pT€poi for the later v4pT€poi (cf. iyepde 
by vipOe) occurs only here and 225, 
and in Aisch. Cho. 286. 

901 is evidently interpolated here 
from 402 ; several of the mss. which 
contain it nevertheless read vdaaey in 
900 with a quits intolerable asyndeton. 

902. 6n6c, fig -juice used to curdle 
milk for cheese, the IdcfieuZneum of the 
Romans (Heyne quotes Columella li. Ji. 
vii 8. 1, Varro ii 11. 4, Pliny xvi. 38). 
The juice of 'la<iy*s bedstraw* {Galium 
verum) was used for the same purpose 
in Cheshire and other parts of England 
at the beginning of this centuiy (NoUs 
and Queries, Sept. 21, 1889), but is 
now sujterseded by calif's rennet, which 
was also employed by the Greeks 
(vverk, rdtuaoi). InarducNOC might 
quite well be taken as a passive, Iteing 
stirred; but the common Homeric use 
of the participle is rather in favour of 
taking it as a mid., makes haste to curdle 
(cf. Z 388 ireiyoiUyij d^piKdvci. 4^ 119, 
X 339) ; the point of the simile lies in the 
speed of the process, so that the 
of the same idea in fidX u>Ka in tin; next 
line is excusable. 

903. ncprrp^9CTai, ainiles, Mss. ire pi- 
<TTpi<p€rai, which is obviously inferior, 
cf. f 477 (TaKieaai T€piTpi<f»€To KpOaraWos, 
where also several mss. give ir€pi<rTp^<f>€ro, 
though it is meaningless. So i 246 l^fuav 
fih dpiypai \iVKolo yd\aKTot. The idea 
evidently is that Paieon miraculously 
turned the flowing blood to sound anil 
solid flesh. 

905. On this line Ar. remarked &n 
vapdtvLKbv rb \o6€iv (it is always the 
maidens who give the bath) * oi>K oldev 
dpa v<p* 'Hpa«r\^oi;f airTiv yey a firjfjJvTjy, 
(1)S iv ToU riderrjfiivois iv *05v<r(Telai (viz, 
X 603) ; a characteristic specimen of the 
great critic's acutnen, though the argu- 
ment is not in itself convincing to a 

906. This line was marked by Ar. 
with 'asterisk and obelos,' the former 
implying that it occurs elsewhere (viz. 
A 405, where see note), the latter that 
it is wrongly inserted here. The reason 
for the latter decision is that xOdcY ratooN 
is out of place on an occasion where 
Ares has so little to be proud of. 

909. The vulg. "Aprpf is not a Homeric 
form. See on 4» 112, and cf. 757 


It has been pointed out in the Introduction to E that the two books are 
so closely connected that they must be treated on as one. Z 1 is only 
intelligible in immediate connexion with what precedes, and in fact forms 
the conclusion of the sentence in £ 907-9. It is likely, indeed, that the 
name Aio/it^Sovs dpiaT€La as used by Herodotos only extended as fkr as 311, 
where the repeated &s clearly indicates that a break was made in recitation. 
Hut this can haye been only for convenience ; the subsequent narrative is 
no less closely connected with the whole position as described in E. 

After a series of single combats, '* battle-vignettes '^ as they have been 
called (1-72), we come to the scene on which the subsequent action turns, 
the sending of Hector to Troy by Helenos. The ancient critics took 
objection to the employment on this errand of the chief Trojan warrior in 
the crisis of the battle ; but, of course, the subsequent narrative is more 
than abundant justification for this trifling violation of probability. The 
pause while Hector is going home is skilfully filled up by the scene between 
Qlaukos and Diomedes ; with the exception of one point, to which we shall 
return, all that follows is so perfect in narration as well as in conception as 
to call for no criticism ; admiration is enough. But the colloquy between 
Glaukos and Diomedes has, of old time, been a source of much questioning. 
Like the duel of Sarpedon and Tlepolemos in the last book, it is not again 
alluded to in the Iliad ; it is an entirely independent episode, which can be 
omitted without leaving a perceptible gap. We have, in fact, a remarkable 
scholion of Aristonikos, (ij SittXtj) on ^rariOkaxri rtvcs aWa\6(T€ ravrqv 
TTiv (TvoToxriv. Unfortuuately we are not told who these critics were, nor 
to what place or on what grounds they transposed the colloquy. It is 
highly probable that we have merely the record of an opinion that it ought 
to come before the words of Athene in £ 124-32, and the subsequent 
victories of Diomedes over the gods ; for with those words and acts the 
words of Diomedes in Z 123-43 arc in crying contradiction — a contradiction 
perhaps the most patent in the Iliad, and one wliich can in no way be 
palliated. It is, indeed, highly probable that the scene stood in the original 
Dioniedeia before that had been enlarged by the intervention of the gods ; 
but that any authentic tradition of a rearrangement existed in the days of 
Aristarchos is to the last degree improbable. In any case, the opening 
speech of Diomedes seems to have been enlarged by the addition of 1 30—40, 
betrayed by the repetition of 129 in 141. The opportunity for improving 

lAIAAOC Z (vj) 257 

the occasion was too good to be lost by some pious revivalist ; the Bacchic 
worship was unknown to the Achaian heroes. It must be noted that the 
famous line 146 is quoted by Simonides — whether of Keos or of Amorgos 
we do not know for certain. If^ as Bergk thinks, it is the latter, it is by for 
the oldest extant quotation from Homer. The line is there attributed to a 
Xtos dvijp. 

The remaining point to which it is necessary to call attention is the 
conversation between Hector and Paris in 326—41. We have not heard of 
Paris since the duel, at the end of F. He was there left in his chamber, 
and there again he is found ; so far all fits. But it is strange that Hector 
makes no allusion to the dueL Instead of treating Paris as a beaten man. 
Hector speaks to him about the indignation he is supposed to feel against the 
Trojans ; to which Paris replies that he is holding aloof more in sorrow than 
in anger. The deictic rovSe which Hector applies to the supposed anger 
seems clearly to imply some definite and immediately present cause for it ; 
but such there certainly is not as the Iliad now stands. But, as Erhardt has 
pointed out, we shall in the next book come upon such a cause, the proposal 
entertained in the Trojan assembly to give up Helen and her treasure to the 
Qreeks. That scene (H 345-78) is now in a passage which shews every 
sign of lateness and patch-work ; it is hard to believe that the proposal to 
surrender Helen did not once stand in some place before this book, and that 
Paris is not alluding to such an event This, of course, is mere conjecture ; 
but some such explanation is certainly needed. 



'ExTopoc Ka) *ANdpoJuUiXHC 6iuXki. 

Tpdxov S* ola>67) KoX *A')(ai&v <f>v\o7n^ alvrj* 
iroXKii S' ap^ evOa koX €v0* Wvae fid)(7) ireSiotx), 
a\\i]\a)v l6vpofiip(ov )(^a\/eijp€a Sovpa, 
fieaariyif^ Xifioevro^ IBe SdvOoio podoov. 

2. d' &p*: rhp H. || bf«a U, DJMNOS. 8. I^un^ntomi S. 
norouoTo CKOJUidNdpou Kcd crauaXiuNHC JLr. (see note infra). 

4. JUMomrOc 

1. okb«H, was left to itself by the 
departure of the gods, after the events 
of the kst book. Cf. A 401. 

2. Note the suspicious trochaic caesura 
in the 4th foot, ncdfioio, ahng the plain, 
as usual ; not a partitive gen. after ivBa. 
l«iiciN is the regular word for 'charging,' 
A 507, A 552, etc., the parallel form 
iOiveuf being used for the transitive. 
Tlie mid. lOivtaBai recurs only e 270, x 8. 
I«unoaUnqon is gen. abs., the subject 
beinc easily supplied from the first line ; 
AXXrKwn is doubUess the gen. usual after 
verbs of aiming {H.O. § 151 c), and is 
not in agreement with the participle. 
Cf. N 499. 

4. The reading of this line is one of 
the most puzzling problems in Homeric 
textual criticism. The Mss., as will be 
seen, are unanimous for uccoirOc 
Cuji6cNTOc Id^ SdNooio po6xaH, But 
Aristonikos says (^ BiirXij) &tl (p rots 
dpx^^o^^ ^7pairT0 fieaariydt Torafioio 
^Kafidyipov Kal ffTO/xaXl/iyns' Sib 
Kol iv Toiis inrofurfifuun 4>ipeTiu, Hirrcpov 
a ire/Hre<ru»' iyparf/e (sc. 6 * Aptarapxot) 
fieaariyin ^ifideyros ISi Zd^doio 
jiodiav, TOis ydp irepi tw yavffrdOfjLOv 
Tdiroit ii ypa^ avfupipei^ vpbs oOt fid- 
Xovrax (*sc. hi versus ilia lectione 
retenta ' Lehrs). Further, Schol. T says 
Tp&repoy ^yiyparro /xf(r<r>77i)f iroro- 
fxoto ^Ka/Advdpov Kal aro/AaXifivris' 
Oarepotf Si *kpUrrapxos Ta&njtf T-^r X^tr 

(sc. the present vulgate) eifpOnf iwiicpufev. 
Xatpcf Sk ypdipci ficairfjy^t frorafioio 
ISiKafidvSpov Kal ^ifidevros. I.e. Ar. 
at first preferred the reading /i. vor. Sk. 
Kal arofiaXlfjiyriSf and adopted it in his 
* notes,' but afterwards changed hia mind 
and introduced the text, presumably, 
into the second or both of his editions ; 
the ground for the change being that 
the vulg. better agreed with his view of 
the to[K)graphy of the Greek camp, on 
which, as we know, he wrote a special 
dissertation. Now the consensua of our 
M88. makes it practically certain that 
their readins was also that of Ar.'s 
vulgate. What then is the meaning of 
iv Toii dpxcdoitl The phrase does not 
recur in the existing scholia of Did. or 
An. We find inde^ iviot rwr dpxoiUiy 
quoted by An. as an authority on S 214. 
But the preposition iv (not rapd) forbids 
us to take the adj. as masc. here ; the 
only substantive we can supply is 
dvTiypd^s. But then we are landed 
in the absurdity of supposing that Ar. 
was in possession of a whole class of mss. 
which could be described as 'ancient' 
in comparison with his ordinary vulgate ; 
and vet that he paid so little attention 
to them that tney are never again 
named. (The fdternative suppoaition, 
that the ' ancient MSs. ' were in hct the 
vulffate, and that Ar. by his own 
authority succeeded in introducing a 


Tpdtov pr}^€ <f>d\arfya, <l>6to^ S* krdpoiatv iOrjKev, 
avSpa fiaXu>v 89 apurro^ ivl SprjiKea-ai, t€TV/cto, 
vlov ^Kvaadpov *AKdfiavr tjvp t€ fjUyav re, 
rov p ifiaXe irp&ro^ KOpvOos <f>d\ov iinrohaaeiq^, 
iv he fierdly/rayi irij^e, iriprjae S dp oariov elacj 
ai')Qir) y^aXKcli]' tov Si (tkoto^ oaae KoXxr^ev. 

"X^vkov h ap €ir€<f>v€ fioijv dr/aOo^ Aiofii^Srf^ 
TevOpaviBrjv, 89 ^vaiev ivKTifjuivfji iv 'Aptcr/Siyt 
d<f>v€ib^ fiu)Toio, <f>Lko^ S* ffv dvOpoiy/roKn* 
irdvra^ yap t^ChAeaKev oh&i, hn oixla vaitov. 
dXXd ol ov TA9 T&v ye tot rlpKeae \uypov SkeOpov 
TTpoaOev inrapTUura^, aXX' dfufxo 0vfiov dirrfvpa, 
ainov koX Oepdiroma KaXifcrtoi/, 09 pa toS" Xmrfov 
€<rK€v vffyqvLo')(ps' to) 8' ap^ifxo yalav iSvTtfv. 




6. 960c P. 7. 6ciXd>N: XaBd>N H. 9. pii BdXc G. 12. lixuXoN 

Vr. 1 (a ?). 16. rhp : d^ J. || Ini : ^1 HN. 16. r&n re : t^ re A. 

17. AniiOpcN G e carr. 19. 09HNfoxoc [GH^NG^S]! : O9' ANioxoc a || Tcb 5*: 

TOd 11 : TOM* G. 

new reading into the vulgate after his 

time, is so absolutely opposed to the 

general evidence of the documents that 

it need not be seriously considered.) 

Hence various attempts have been made 

to emend the words ^i' roif dpxct^ot' '» 

e.g. iv T<HS 'A^ttarapx^lois Lehrs, iv riji 

rpcripM Tuv *Apiffrapx€l(irv Sengebusch. 

But a much less drastic change will do 

all that is needed. I have little doubt 

that the correct reading is iv rcuf 

i.pXaLaiif sc iKd6<reaiy. The * early 

editions' are in fact mentioned in this 

way by Did. on I 657, <rirelffavT€S' iv 

Tiji iripai rGuv * Kpiordpxov Xelxf/avTes^ 

Kol iv roXXoTf tQv iLpxaJ-^ov. Whether 

or no these editions included those of 

Zen. and Aph. we naturally cannot say ; 

bat it is clear that there was an authority 

in favour of the variant, which Aris- 

tarchos so highly regarded that for a 

time he preferred the variant to the 

Tulgate, just as he did in I 657. And 

we, who are not troubled with his doubts 

as to the naval camp, may well agree 

with him as to the intrinsic superiority 

of the reading which names the 

ffTOfuOdfiPfj. This * estuary ' is not again 

mentioned, but modem evidence shews 

that such an estuary must have existed 

at the mouth of the Dumbrek Su 

(Schliemann Ilios p. 84) ; it is extremely 
unlikelv to have been invented, but the 
unfamiliar word ran every risk of being 
supplanted by the more familiar Simoeis, 
though we have had reason to suppose 
that this river was not recognized in the 
oldest form of the Trojan tradition (see 
on E 774). The word arofuiXlfivri is used 
by Strabo (xiii. 595) of this particular 
estuary, and more generally of the delta 
of the Rhone. Theokritos has the form 
oTOfidXifivov, But the regular late Epic 
form (Ap. Rhod., Nonnus, Coluthus) is 
(rrdfjia Xifunjs : see Piatt in J. P. xix. 38. 

6. 96CK. help, as 8 282, A 797, n 95. 

7. For this Akamas see B 844. 
9. 9dXoN : see App. B. 

14. Bi^TOio : cf. E 544. 

15. 9iX^caccN, used to entertain ; cf. P 
207, and 74 xM ^^"'ov irapedvTa ^nKeuf. 

17. np6cecN Onaumdcac, standing he- 
fore him to meet his enemy. 

19. 09HNioxoc, a word not found else- 
where, is sumciently defended by the 
analogy of 6 386 inrodfuiSf 330 {frodpti- 
ffrfip ; and it avoids the awkwardness of 
the detached \nr6 in the vulg. i>^ V^^ot, 
for which 2 519 Xou>i d' inr* dXi^ovts Ijffov 
is but a partial support. rqfoN IdihHN, 
the realm of the dead being underground. 
Cf. 411, u) 106. Schol. B explains it 



Aprjaop S' Evpva\o<s koX ^0<f>€\Tiop i^evdpi^e* 20 

/3rj Be fi€T Ala-TjTTOV kcll IliJSao-oi/, ov9 ttotc vv/jufnf 
vrjif; ^Afiap/SapiT) t^k afivfwvi ^ovkoXUovi. 
HovKoXicDv S' ffv vto9 ayavov AaofUSovro^ 
irpea^vraro^ yeverji, a-tcoriov Si e yelvaro f^vrrfp' 
iroifialvayp B* iir Sea-ac fiiyrf <f>CXjOTqri koI einnjt, 25 

^ B* vTTOKvaafiiinj BtBupAove yeivaro iralBc, 
Kal fiiv T&v vTreXvae fUpo^ koI <f>cUBcfia yvla 
l^Tj/cioTrfCdBr}^ kcu air wyMiv revye iavKa, 
^AoTvaXop B* ap* €7r€<f>v€ fievieTrrokefio^ HoXi/ttoIti]^' 
TLiBvrrjv 8' 'OSvcrei? HepKCDtriov i^evdpt^ev 30 

€y)(€i ')(aKK€lci)L, TevKpo^ S' ^Aperdova Blov. 
^AvTiKo'Xp^ S* "AffKripov iviqpaTO BovpX (j>a€tvS)i 
^earoplBrj^, "EXarov Bk ava^ dvBp&v ^AyapA^vaav 
vale Bk XarvioevTO^ ivppelrao irap iy6a% 
Wr\Ba(Tov aLTreiv^v, ^vXaKOV S' eXe Aiytro? ffpo)^ 35 

<f>€vyovT' EvpvTTvko^ Bc McKApOiov i^evdp^^ev, 

20. dpAo6N T* H. 21. ol 5i &\Xoi ItrropiKol {ol vepl *ApUn'apxw B) r6v 

ni^dacON, TiipcxoN (ni^pcxoN B) KoXovai Schol. T. 22. BapBapbi N. 27. 

jui^ : ukN Mosc. 1 (U supr, ). || Induce Mosc. 1. 80. nMdiimN JO Bar. 

Yr. ai° : THd^TMN Yr. a^ || ncpxdaoN Lips. 81. &^cY : tci^xcY J. |) fip Irdoiia 
T {supr. dixCji Kal MioNa) U Lips. Yr. b^ and ap. Schol. A, Eust. 32. aOXNpoN 

JM: qOkXhpon N: ftfiXHXpoN QU. 84. Nate di : 8c nqTc (Ndc?) Zen. (cf. 

N 172). II ocrrpidcNTOC P : nyii ca9Ni6cNTOC Strabo xiii. 606. || 6x«cnc Strabo ibid. 
36. 9iiXaK0N : cxcdfioN Herod. 

6ti yrjp Ta<f>4vT€i ivedi^aavro, whicli is 
obviously inappropriate, as there is no 
burying in question at all. 

21. ATcHnoc and lli^daooc are both 
local place-names, see 35 below and B 
825, etc. Here they are evidently to be 
re^^rded as personal eponyms of the 
river and town, as their semi -divine 
parentage shews, in spite of the obvious 
anachronism tlius introduced into 35. 

22. nhTc miiad : here and 3 444, T 
384, all in A. Minor, like the Tvyalri 
\lfjLV7j as mother in B 865, q.v. In v 104, 
356 the form is vriiddcs. For nymphs 
in general see T 8-9. The name 
*AfiapBap^ looks as though it might 
be conn, with j36pj3opos, r/iua, and mean 

23. It appears that Bukolion was 
Priam's elder brother, though the name 
is not known in the genealo^ry of T 286. 
But all the names in this i)assage are 
merely invented for the nonce, and are 
not to be taken as containing tradition. 

24. cx6noN, by a secret amour =11 
180 irapBiifiot. Cf. Aen. ix. 546 /uHm. 
The schol. compare Eur. Ale. 989 (?) 
(TKOTioi xoudes 0€(ov, aod Phoen. 845 iyui 
d' o(h€ aoi Tvpbs dvrj\f/a ^t phfufioif if 
ydfjLoii. JuirH, sc. Bukolion. 

34. nqTc bi: Zen. ds vaU^ ace. to An., 
who accuses the reading of 'cacophony.' 
On N 172 the same difference is noted, 
and the charge becomes