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First Edition 1886 
Second Edition 1900 




By the rewriting of large portions of the notes, and the addition 
of an Apparatus Criticus and Appendices, the present vohime has 
grown almost into a new work. The thirteen years which have 
elapsed since the first edition appeared have naturally brought 
with them many modifications in the opinions then expressed, as 
well as many corrections of error. But the Homeric problems 
still present themselves substantially in the same aspect as 
they did in 1886, and the only serious change in point of view 
between this volume and its predecessor is that involved in the 
full acceptance of the Peisistratean recension as an all-important 
factor in the constitution of the Iliad. 

Among books which have appeared since 1886 I am con- 
scious of particular debts to van Leeuwen's EnchiricUum, Cauer's 
Grundfragen, Erhardt's Entstehung der Homerischen Gedichte, and 
Schulze's Quaestiones Epicae. Prof. J. A. Piatt has by his 
published papers again put me under many obligations, among 
others in calling attention to Brandreth's edition of the Iliad, 
which in 1841 surprisingly anticipated many recent conjectures 
of the " forward " school. It is impossible to specify obliga- 
tions to papers in periodicals, but I have satisfaction in thinking 


that the proportion of valuable contributions from English scholars 
has largely increased of late years. 

My warmest thanks are clue to the French Ministry of 
Education, and to M. Delisle of the Bibliotheque Rationale, for 
lending to the British Museum for my use the three valuable 
MSS. quoted in this edition as P, Q, E. I must add, with deep 
regret, that my sense of obligation is all the greater because 
England refuses similar courtesy to continental students. 

I have to express my special gratitude to the Eev. 
M. A. Bayfield of Eastbourne College, who has read the proof- 
sheets and assisted me with many invaluable criticisms and 
suggestions beyond those to which his initials are appended ; to 
Mr. T. W. Allen for much valuable information from his un- 
rivalled knowledge of the mss. of the Iliad; and lastly to the 
scholarly care and accuracy of Mr. Webb, Messrs. E. & E. Clark's 

December 9, 1899. 


The object of the present edition of the Iliad is to offer a guide 
to students anxious to know more of Homer than they can learn 
from elementary school-books. It must be confessed that, when 
once the strict limits of a verbal commentary are passed, it is hard 
to know which path to choose from the many which open into the 
world revealed to us by the Homeric poems. We find ourselves 
at the starting-point of all that has given Greece her place in the 
world — of Greek history, of Greek art, of Greek philosophy, 
theology, and myth. The poems are our ultimate resource for 
the study of the history of the Greek language, and it is to them 
that we owe all our knowledge of the one great school of Greek 
criticism. An editor may be pardoned if, at the risk of apparent 
superficiality and discursiveness, he attempts, not of course to 
follow all or any of these roads, but barely to indicate the 
direction in which they lead. 

Unfortunately for the English student, the works which he 
must study if he wishes to pursue these lines of inquiry are 
almost entirely in German ; unfortunately also for the editor, 
who can hardly escape the appearance of pedantry when he has 
to be continually quoting works in a foreign language. The 
difficulty is one, however, which it lies with English scholars 
themselves to remove. 


Where the acumen and industry of Germany have been for 
nearly a century so largely devoted to the Iliad and Odyssey, it 
is not to be expected, or even desired, that in a commentary for 
general use a new editor should contribute much that is really 
original. The proper place for new work is in the pages of 
philological journals and dissertations. Indeed it is not possible 
for any man to be sure of the novelty of any suggestion he may 
make, so vast is the mass of Homeric literature which has been 
annually poured forth since Wolf revived the study. While 
believing therefore that some few improvements on old interpre- 
tation will be found in the following pages, I am at no pains to 
specify them, and shall be quite content if I see them adopted 
without acknowledgment. On the other hand, I have freely 
taken wherever I have found, only acknowledging in the case 
of recent work which has not yet passed into the common stock, 
and reserving for this place a general statement of the great 
debts which I owe to previous authors. 

Prominent among these ^ I must place Ameis's edition of the 
Iliad, and more particularly Dr. Hentze's Appendix thereto ; the 
references given in it are of inestimable value to the student. 
Heyne's large Iliad, and the editions of Pierron, Dlintzer, Paley, 
La Koche, Christ, N"auck, ISTagelsbach, Fasi, and Mr. Monro, have 
all been consulted ; the last two continually and with especial 
respect. Pteferences to notes on the Odyssey have, as far as 
possible, been confined to Merry and Eiddell's edition of the first 
twelve books, but here again Ameis and Hentze have been valued 
guides. Ebeling's great Lexicon Homericum, at last completed, has 

^ If I do not place Mr. Monro's Homeric Grammar in the first place, it is 
because I trust that the continual references to it will keep before the reader my 
immense debt to it. 


been of course an indispensable companion, though often usefully 
supplemented by Seller's smaller dictionary. The other principal 
authorities will be found in the list at the end of the Introduction ; 
isolated papers and monographs can hardly be enumerated. 

I have further to express my thanks to Mr. J. A. Piatt, 
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, who has been so good as to 
read through the proofs, and contribute many valuable remarks. 

Finally, I have to name with affectionate remembrance my 
friend, the late John Henry Pratt, Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. The eight years which have elapsed since his 
lamentable death by drowning in the lake of Como have so 
greatly modified the work which I inherited from him that I 
have no right to make him responsible for any opinion expressed 
in the following pages ; but I would emphatically say that their 
existence is entirely due to him, and that it is my earnest hope 
that I have said nothing which would not have met with his 
approval had he lived. 

\_April 1886.] 






Side view of a Mykenaean warrior ..... 

Front view of a I\Iykenaean warrior ..... 

(These two figs, were drawn to Mr. Bayfield's instructions by Miss 
Alice Knox on materials from Reicliel's Horn. Waffen) 

Mykenaean battle-scene ...... 








(Figs. 3 and 4 are from gold intaglios on rings found in the tombs 
atMykene; Schuchhardt figs. 178, 221, pp. 197, 221) 

Diagram of the Mykenaean shield (M.A.B.) . 

Dagger-blade froniMykene, representing a hunting-scene. The picture 
is formed by differently coloured alloys in the bronze blade. 
An admirable reproduction in colours will be found iuPerrot and 
Chipiez, Hist, clc VArt, vol, vi. See also Schuchh. pp. 229 ff". . 

Back view of Mykenaean shield (M.A.B.) . . . . 

Fragment of silver bowl from Mykene, representing a sortie from 
a besieged city ; reproduced from 'Etpv/^- '-^PX- 1891 

Fragments from two sides of a large vase found at Mykene, 
representing warriors marching out, and warriors engaged in 
battle; Schuchh. p. 280.) ..." 

Gold leg-guard found at Mykene ; see Schuchh. p. 228 

Plan of the Homeric house .... 

Cup from Mykene ..... 

Cup from Caere ..... 






U^. f. 


I. — The Origin of the Iliad 

It is impossible to approach either the textual criticism or the 
exegesis of Homer without some theory as to the way in which 
the Iliad and Odyssey reached their present form. The Homeric 
question can here be but briefly touched upon ; no more will be 
attempted than to give the main points of the hypothesis adopted 
by the present editor ; it will be stated in a categorical form for 
convenience only, and with no desire to disguise the undoubted 
fact that it is but one among many scores of theories, all of 
which have had equal attraction for their own authors. It is 
here put forward as a working hypothesis, which appears to 
answer the conditions of the problem. 

G-reek tradition knows that the Iliad and Odyssey, with 
various other poems, were the work of a historical poet called 
Homer, whose birth, residence, and death are placed in various 
cities and islands, but by a preponderating authority are attri- 
buted to Asia Minor, and in particular to Smyrna or Chios. For 
reasons wdiich will appear, the one poet can no longer be regarded 
as historical; but this much at least is certain — that in the fifth 
century and later nothing was known of any Epic poetry older 
than that of the Ionian cities of Asia. As for date, we have the 
definite opinion of Herodotos^ that Homer and Hesiod lived "400 
years before me, and no more." 

When we come to examine the poems themselves, however, 
we find that they do not ostensibly shew signs of Asiatic origin. 
The scene of the Iliad is of course laid in the Troad, but its 
point of view is professedly that of dwellers in Greece proper; 

1 ii. 53. 


it is there that the heroes have their homes, and thither that 
they return after the war. The poems profess a close 
acquaintance with the topography of Greece, and almost com- 
pletely ignore that of Asia. And in particular, there is no overt 
mention of the great movement of peoples, generally called the 
Dorian invasion, which led, according to a tradition which has 
every sign of truth, to the presence of Greeks on the eastern 
coasts of the Aecraean. 


Eude mountaineers from the North, it was said, had 
descended into central and southern Greece, and had dispossessed 
the ancient lords of the soil, driving them eastwards in successive 
waves. Eecent discoveries have borne out this tradition. They 
have shewn us that there was in Greece proper, and indeed 
through most lands bordering on the Aegaean, an extremely 
ancient civilization, the zenith of which is now commonly 
supposed to have fallen between 1500 and 1200 B.C. We 
can in the remains trace the end of this culture, and its dis- 
placement by far ruder elements, which only slowly grow into 
the more perfect form which we call Hellenic. 

That the poems, when professing to depict the prae-Dorian*. 
age, are as a whole actually contemporary with it, has probably 
never been maintained. There can be no question that, at least 
in great part, they merely bring back in imagination the " good 
old days " which have passed away. In so doing they touch on 
countless details of daily life, which we can to some extent 
control by the monuments. We can give some sort of answer to 
the question whether they reproduce the real circumstances of the 
old time, or only clothe the old tales with the garb of their own 
days. For an uncritical age the latter supposition is a 'priori the 
most probable ;, but it is not entirely borne out by facts. There 
is, on the whole, a striking similarity between the life of Homer's 
heroes in its material aspect and the remains which have been dis- 
covered at Tiryns, Mykene, and elsewhere. The two cultures are 
not identical, but, beyond a doubt, the Homeric resembles in the 
main the Mykenaean rather than that of the "Dipylon" (so far as 
we know it) or the archaic Greek. The ancient tradition is on 
the whole truly kept in the Epos. Yet in many points we can see 
traces of apparent anachronism. But it is very difficult to say 
whether a departure from the Mykenaean culture as we know it 
in the monuments is due to a later development of that culture 


itself, or to an unintentional introduction of elements from the 
very different conditions of later Greece. In discussing such 
questions it is well always to remember that the epoch of 
Mykenaean civilization with which we are best acquainted, that 
of the " shaft-tombs " of Mykene, is far from the end of the whole 
Mykenaean age. The Homeric stage is certainly later than the 
" shaft-tombs," but it does not necessarily follow that it is post- 
Mykenaean. It is quite possible that certain notable differences 
between the poems and the monuments, in burial, for instance, and 
in women's dress, may be due to changes which arose within the 
Mykenaean age itself, in that later part of it of which our know- 
ledge is defective — almost as defective as it is of the subsequent 
" Dipylon " period. On the whole, the resemblance to the typical 
Mykenaean culture is more striking than the difference. 

The inevitable conclusion seems to be that Epic poetry had 
its roots in the Mykenaean period, and that this true tradition 
of the departed grandeur was carried across the Aegaean in lays 
which were the progenitors of the Homeric poetry. The whole 
scenery of the poems, the details of armour, palaces, dress, 
decoration, must have been so long the subjects of song before the 
Dorian invasion that they had become stereotyped, and formed a 
foundation which the Epic poet dared not intentionally sap, easily 
though he slipped from time to time into involuntary anachronism. 
How far these oldest songs may have actually left traces of them- 
selves in our '■' Homer " it is naturally impossible to say; but it is 
not beyond the bounds of possibility that some part of the most 
primitive Iliad may have been actually sung by the court 
minstrel in the palace whose ruins can still be seen in Mykene. 

The Epic dialect lends some countenance to the belief that 
the lonians were not the originators of the Epos. It has always 
been recognized that the dialect is not pure Ionic, such as would 
be expected from the reputed birthplace of the poems ; and the 
presence of " Aiolic " elements has been generally admitted. Fick 
published in 1882 and following years elaborate disquisitions to 
shew that the older parts of both Iliad and Odyssey had in fact 
been composed in pure Aiolic, and translated into Ionic, only 
those Aiolic forms being left untouched which were fixed by the 
fact that the Ionic equivalent differed metrically ; and that only 
the later portions were composed in Ionic. The theory involves 
too many arbitrary alterations of the text to be accepted in the 


form in which he states it; but it remains probable that the 
dialect is in fact the resultant of older poems composed in a 
dialect which may, in the vaguest sense, be called Aiolic. The 
peculiarly non-Ionic forms point rather to the Thessalian and 
Arkadio-Kyprian dialects, however, than to that of the Asiatic 
Aiolis as the precursor of the Epic. But it must be admitted, 
after all the discussion which has taken place, that our knowledge 
of the early state of the Greek dialects is far too imperfect to 
enable us to base any far-reaching conclusions upon such 
hypotheses. It can only be said that they seem to correspond 
with the probabilities of the case, and in particular with the 
localization of " Homer " at Smyrna, the city which was taken by 
the rising Ionic race from the decadent Aiolians. 

We assume, then, as a probable hypothesis that the old 
Greeks, expelled from their homes by the invading Dorians, carried 
with them across the sea a body of Epic poetry, the outcome of 
so long a development that it had already stereotyped much 
of what we find to-day in Homer ; that this poetry dealt with 
the legends of Greece proper, in particular the Trojan War, 
including the return of the heroes, the tale of Thebes, perhaps the 
adventures of Herakles, and doubtless legends of the gods ; that 
it was taken over by the lonians from the descendants of these 
emigrants, and cultivated by them on their own account, much of 
the old being faithfully preserved, though adapted to new hearers, 
but much new being added ; that the same scenery, spirit, and 
phraseology were retained, though with the admission of occasional 
anachronisms, which, of course, grew more frequent as time went 
on ; and that this Ionian development lasted from, perhaps, the 
ninth century B.C. to the seventh. But in all probability the corpus 
of Epic poetry had been brought substantially to completion some 
time before the latter date ; as the creative and imaginative forces 
of the Ionian race turned to other forms of expression, it is 
probable that but small and unimportant additions were made to 
" Homer " after the end of the eighth century or thereabouts. 

The poems were all this time handed down orally only, by 
tradition among the singers who used to wander over Greece 
reciting them at popular festivals. Writing was indeed known 
in some form through the whole period of Epic development ; but 
it is in the highest degree unlikely that it was ever employed to 
form a standard text of the Epos or any portion of it. There can 


hardlj hare been any standard text ; at best there was a con- 
tinuous tradition of those portions of the poeius wliich were 
especiallj popular, and tlie knowledge of wliich was tlierefore a 
valuable asset to the professional reciter. 

By the end of the seventh century there niu.^l have heeii in 
existence a large amount of such Epic j>oetry, concerning itself 
chiefly, so far as we know, with the subjects jireviously named. 
But the tale of Tniy must have been infinitely the most im- 
portant, and the Iliad and Odyssey the most imjiurtant poems on 
Troy. Some scholars have spoken as though they regarded the 
whole mass of this poetry as equally " Homeric" in the eyes of men 
of that day, and as approximately homogeneous in quality — a 
floating mass of which lengths were cut off more or less by 
chance, and labelled Iliad and Odyssey . For such a supposition 
there are no grounds ; that parts at least of the mass had long 
b^ore attained complete solidity and permanence is amply proved 
by the fact that the Iliad is notably earlier in language than the 
Odystey. The kernel of it must therefore have attained its 
permanent form at a time materially earlier than the beginning 
of the Odyssey. But though the kernel was thus solid, it was 
surrounded by a great deal of later addition which was in a more 
or less fluid state. The rhapsodist, like the modern concert-giver, 
had to consider his hearers' liking for " old friends " on the one 
hand, iffld their wish for novelty on the other. He sought to 
reconcile the two by inventing fresh episodes to continue and 
extend those tales which every one knew. Here and there such 
a new episode would survive and come into such general repute 
as to eiwttre its permanence. But it is easy to see how the 
repertoires (A. various rhapsodists would dififer, though all were 
based on the same original story. 

We CKO. now understand the reasonableness of such a pro- 
riflkm as that ascribed by a widely spread tradition to the Attic 
^tosmen of the sixth century, a i)rovi8ion that the Iliad and 
Odyuey should be recited at the I'anathenaia in a regular and 
officially recognized order ; and we can also see that such a rule 
iBTolved a new constitution of the text. The most widely 
acoej^ed tradition attributed the recension to Peisistratos. But 
S<don is named in a famous passage of Diogenes Laertios {Life of 
SoUm, i 67): rd r€ 'Ofii'jpov ef vTro^oXff<{ yey pa<p€ payjron- 
BeUrBai, olov oirov 6 -npajTO^ tKrj^ev eKeiOev ap^ecrdai tov 

xviii THE ILIAD 

evofxevov. fiaWov ovv ^oXtav Ofirjpov €<f>wTicr€v fj Wetvi- 
(TTparo^, &k <f>ricn Atef^i'Sa? iv Trefnrrayi ^\eyapiKU)v. ^v Be 
fiaXicTTa ra eirri ravra' oi o ap AUrjva^i €i')(ov, Kai, ra 
f|v9 (li 546-58). There is uufortunately something lost in 
this passage, asserting explicitly the interpolation of the lines 
jnentioned. Tlie reference is to the arbitration between Athens 
and Megara for the possession of Salamis, when each side brought 
forward lines from Homer, the Athenians relying on B 558 as 
we have it, tlie Megarians accusing them of falsifying the text 
and ]tntting forward a difVeruiit version. The natural sense of 
the passage as it stands is this: " it was not I'eisistratos, as is 
generally supjiosed, but Solon who collected the scattered Homer 
of his day ; for he it was who interpolated the lines in the 
Catalogue of the Shi])s " ; so that we should add something like 
this after TleiaL(rTpaTo<; : — €K€ipo<; yap rjv 6 to. eirtf €i<i rov 
KardXoyoi' (fiTroiijcra^i, Kal ov JleiaiarpaTo^i. Kitschl, however, 
gives the whole passage a quite different turn by inserting (in the 
same ])lace) — oa-irep <TvWe^a<; to. 'Ofii'fpou iveiroi-qae rcpa etV 
tt;;' ^ Adrjvaioiv ^"/Jtt'. This has been accei)ted by Wilamowitz 
and Cauer, but is clearly wrong. Tradition unanimously held 
that the recovery of Salamis took place in the time of Solon, 
while I'eisistratos was still a buy. Oieuchidas, giving the 
Megarian version, must therefore have attributed the interpolation 
to Solon, and concluded that the compilation of the Athenian 
copy was due to him and not to his successor. But in any case 
the ])assage shews that the tradition about reisistratos was 
current in the fourth century i».c., when, as Wilamowitz has 
shewn, Dieuchidas must have written. There was yet another 
version which ascribed the collection to ]Ii})parchos ; ^ but for us 
the names are comparatively a matter of indifference ; the 
essential element is that all tradition points to Athens of the 
sixth century. This tradition is prol)a]»le enough in itself, and if 
once accepted it explains many a difficulty. The great problem 
for those who maintain the gradual growth of the poems by a 
process of crystallization has been to understand how a single 
version came to be accepted, where many rival versions must, 
from the necessity of the case, have once existed side by side. 
The assumption of a school or guild of singers has been made ; 
but the rare mention of 'Op.r)pihat, in Chios gives no support 

' rueudo-Pkt. Ilijrjxirclios 228 c. 


to this hypothesis, whicli lacks any other confirmation. The 
Peisistratean recension is the only source, other than the 
autograph of a real Homer, which will account for the unity of 
the vulgate text. It agrees, too, with the constitution of the 
Iliad itself, which in several places ^ shews such a piecing 
together of parallel narrative as can hardly be credited to natural 
growth in the hands of irresponsible rhapsodists, but involves the 
deliberate work of a literary editor based on a written text. 
This, too, accounts for the numerous traces in our text of an 
unobtrusive but sufficiently clear Attic influence. It agrees with 
the position of Athens as the first book-mart of Greece. It 
agrees with the evidence that the archetype of the vulgate was 
written in the old Attic alphabet. In fact we might almost 
reconstruct the necessity of such a " codification " of the text from 
the conditions. An official copy of some sort is implied by the 
transformation of fluctuating oral compositions into such a vulgate 
as we possess ; it must have taken place at Athens, the head of 
the intellectual Greece and the centre of the publishing trade ; it 
must have been created before the fifth century, for Herodotos 
and Plato already have Homer as we know him ; it must have 
taken place after the seventh, to which we can date some of the 
latest additions to the Iliad ; therefore an official copy of Homer 
was made in Athens in the time of Solon and Peisistratos. 

Belief in the recension of Peisistratos was not so long ago un- 
fashionable ; but in the last few years a clear reaction has set in.^ 
The chief reason for scepticism has been the complete silence of 
the Aristarchean scholia respecting any edition of Peisistratos, 
This has been held to shew that the tradition is no more than a 
late invention absolutely unknown to Aristarchos. But now that 
Wilamowitz has shewn that Dieuchidas wrote in the fourth 
century, it is no longer possible to hold that Aristarchos had 
never heard the story — which is moreover involved in the allusion 
to the Salamis arbitration by Aristotle (see note on B 558). It 
follows, therefore, either that Aristarchos deliberately ignored 
the tradition — which is hardly like him — or that he dealt with 
it in his lost works. The argument from silence is especially 
deceptive in the case of an author like Aristarchos, of whom we 
have nothing whatever preserved beyond excerpts of second-hand 

^ See Introductions to B, N, T. 
- Dating, I think, from Seeck's Die Quellen dcr Odysscc, 1887. 


accounts of liis commentaries, with some titles of lost works. It is 
likely enough that he dealt with the Attic recension somewhere, 
and having settled the matter one way or the other found no 
need to refer to it in his critical notes. On the other side of the 
account we must set the facts that he believed Homer to have 
been an Athenian, and that he often assumes the transliteration 
of the poems from the old Attic alphabet into the new — indirect 
proofs at least that he held the vulgate text with which he dealt 
to have reached him from purely Attic sources. The scholia 
can therefore count neither one way or the other ; and the 
hypothesis of the Peisistratean recension appears so highly 
probable that it will be adopted as a postulate in the following 

The Peisistratean text is identical with the vulgate, which 
has held its own through all time. Eecent discoveries in 
Egypt have shewn, indeed, that there was a time when different 
texts, altered from the vulgate chiefly by the insertion of 
additional lines of no intrinsic importance, had attained a great 
vogue, at least in Egypt. This is certain to be the case with all 
highly popular books reproduced in large quantities for an 
uncritical public. The rise of criticism at Alexandria put an end 
to these commercial texts, and established tlie vulgate in its 
rightful position again. In this sense only can Aristarchos and 
his predecessors be said to have altered the Homeric text ; they 
did not work upon these inferior copies and decide which lines 
were to be expelled, but they gave the weight of their authority 
to a demand for copies of MSS. of approved antiquity and correct- 
ness. The position of Aristarchos was, in fact, precisely that of a 
critic who would make a correct text of Firdausi's SJiahnamalt 
to-day. The variation between different copies of the Persian is 
incomparably greater than that between the prae-Aristarchean 
papyri and the vulgate, though here there was undoubtedly one 
common source in the poet's own MS. Even the unbroken 
existence of a written tradition has not been able to save 
Eirdausi from the interpolations of popular reciters ; the task 
of the Persian Aristarchos will be to point out which MSS, 
contain the ancient and pure tradition, and to stop the demand 
for copies of any others. 

Such as the vulgate was before the days of Aristarchos, such 
it still remains. In only an infinitesimal number of cases can 


it be shewn that he produced any effect upon the current reading. 
Lines of which he disapproved remain uncancelled ; the readings 
he preferred do not therefore in any appreciable degree supplant 
those which he held inferior. The MSS. in our libraries differ 
from one another in the same degree as those of Aristarchos, 
and with fresh collations the number of variants which we know 
through Aristarchos alone is constantly dwindling ; it iiiay not 
be long before we are able to point to an existing MS. 
representative of almost every variant mentioned by Didymos 
and Aristonikos. The great addition to our knowledge of the 
tradition made by the discoveries of papyri has shewn how 
wonderfully tenacious and correct was the mediaeval scribe. 

II. — Analysis of the Iliad 

Two cardinal assumptions have been made in the preceding 
section : first, that the Iliad was not composed by a single poet, 
but was the growth of a long period ; and secondly, that this 
growth took place by gradual accretion or crystallization about a 
central nucleus, which was from the first something fixed amid 
later expansions and accretions of a more or less fluctuating 
nature, though some of these in time gained a solidity almost 
equal to that of the original kernel. 

The arguments on which these two assumptions are founded 
are set out in detail in the commentary which follows. With 
regard to the first it is sufficient to say here that the discrepancies 
and contradictions which seem to disprove unity of authorship 
are those which go deep into the structure of the poem, not 
casual mistakes of detail to which all authors are liable. The 
most significant of these is undoubtedly the contradiction involved 
in the Embassy of the ninth book, which is completely ignored 
in the eleventh and sixteenth. The tenth book is so loosely 
inserted into the Iliad that doubts as to its rights date from 
very early days. Wider but perhaps less glaring discrepancy is 
involved in the fact that the promise of Zeus to Thetis is 
entirely forgotten from the first book to the eleventh, and that 
the whole balance of the story is disturbed by the way in which 
the exploits of Achilles, the real hero, are outdone by Diomedes 
in E. 

The kernel of the Iliad is, beyond a doubt, the story of the 
VOL. I c 


Wrath, the M7jvc<; which is announced in the Prologue. This tale 
is given in the following books — A, A, O, 11, T-X, or rather in 
parts of them, for there is not one which has not received 
large additions. The plot is as follows : — Agamemnon has 
received as part of his booty from a foray the daughter of 
Chryses, priest of Apollo, and refused her to the petition of her 
father, who thereupon prays to his god for vengeance. Apollo 
answers his prayer by sending a pestilence upon the Greek army. 
An assembly is held to discuss the position, and Kalchas the 
augur explains why the host is suffering. Achilles calls on 
Agamemnon to appease the god by sending Chryseis back. This 
leads to a quarrel ; in the issue Achilles withdraws in anger, and 
through his mother Thetis obtains a promise from Zeus that, to 
satisfy his wounded pride, the Trojans shall defeat the hitherto 
victorious Greeks (Book A). Agamemnon is therefore lured to 
battle by a deceptive dream, which promises him victory 
(B 1—50). He begins by driving the Trojans before him. 
Presently, however, he is wounded and has to leave the field ; 
the other chief Greek heroes suffer the same fate, and the whole 
army is driven back to the ships, which are attacked by Hector. 
Aias alone holds his ground (A). He is at length disarmed for 
a moment, and fire is set to the ship of Protesilaos (O 592 ff'.). 
Achilles thereupon, though he will not fight himself, relents so 
far as to send Patroklos with the Myrmidons to the rescue. 
Patroklos drives the Trojans back, and among many others slays 
Sarpedon; but he presses his advantage too far, and is himself slain 
by Hector (H). Achilles on hearing of his death sallies forth to 
avenge it, and after making havoc of the Trojans, chases Hector 
thrice round the walls of Troy, and finally slays him (parts of 
T, ^, X). The story ends with the dragging of Hector's body 
(X 404). 

This is the backbone of the Uiad as we have it, whether or 
no it be the earliest portion of it historically ; it is the main plot 
to which all else stands in an episodical relation. That it is 
also the oldest kernel I feel no doubt. The conditions of the 
M7jvt<i have been imposed on all the rest of the book. The 
absence of Achilles from the field is everywhere either tacitly 
assumed or expressly alluded to. It is in the story of the Wrath 
that the real unity of the Uiad is to be found. Here, at least, 
we need not hesitate to see the work of a single poet, perhaps 


the greatest in all the world's history. How far he may have 
made his poem from pre-existiii,c;' materials it is beyond our 
powers of analysis to say.^ The story is organically and 
indissolubly bound together ; the arguments which are still 
brought forward to separate the Patrokleia and the death of 
Hector from the earlier part, the M?}yt<> proper, seem to me 
wholly inadequate and improbable. 

From the several Introductions to the books, it will be seen 
that the main episodes included in this volume are (i) the duel 
of Menelaos and Paris, and the treachery of Pandaros in F— A ; 
(ii) the Diomedeia in E and Z, itself a composition shewing 
continuous growth from the earliest days to the latest ; (iii) the 
duel of Aias and Hector in H ; (iv) the Embassy to Achilles in 
I with its prologue, the defeat of the Greeks in ; (v) the 
Doloneia in K ; (vi) the battle at the wall in M, with an 
introduction, the building of the wall in H. The relation of 
these episodes and the M?}i/t9 to one another and to the whole 
structure of the Iliad will be more conveniently discussed in the 
next volume. 

III. — The Text of the Iliad 

From what has been said, the aim of an editor of the 
Homeric text clearly follows. He must endeavour to reconstitute 
the Attic text as transliterated into the new alphabet from the 
oiticial Athenian original. Farther back than this it is useless 
for him to attempt to go, for this is the earliest date at which 
the Iliad, as we know it, existed. It is true indeed that many 
portions of the Iliad bear signs of greater antiquity ; we can 
trace with confidence not only the older form of the story, but 
remains of an older form of dialect, corrupted in the course of 
transmission in the mouths of rhapsodists and editors, to whom 
it was virtually a dead language. But it is a complete error to 
try, from these indications, however numerous and clear, to 
introduce into Homer a uniformity of " Proto-Epic " language. 
In Homer, as Ave know it, no such uniformity can ever have 
existed. The later parts of the poems, such for instance as the 

1 On one point only do I now feel form of the Wrath did not contain the 

hesitation. It will be seen from the promise of Zens to Thetis ; it was a 

Introduction to B that there is some tale played exclusively on the earthly 

ground for supposing that the oldest stage. 


Doloneia, were in all probability composed originally in almost 
exactly the same form, allowing for the difference of alphabet, 
as that which we now have. Even if it were not so, our means 
do not permit us to reconstruct the more ancient dialect with 
any approach to confidence. Our only guide in so doing is the 
metre ; and though in many matters this is a safe test, yet it is 
impossible for us to say in how many others it may leave us in 
the lurch. To take an obvious instance, it enables us to restore 
an initial digamma in a large number of cases, but leaves us 
almost always uncertain as to whether .we should at the same 
time restore the letter internally. For these reasons all attempts 
to introduce the digamma without exception in all words where 
we know it once to have existed are interesting and instructive 
philological exercises, but lie outside the province of the 
commentator. His business is to take the text as he finds it, 
and to indicate from time to time where it shews traces of a 
more ancient form, but to accept as a part of it the constant 
inequalities and anachronisms with which it abounds. 

The materials for the constitution of the text are found in 
(1) MSS. of all ages; (2) the scholia, especially the excerpts from 
the works of Didymos and Aristonikos on the writings of 
Aristarchos ; (3) quotations in ancient authors. On these the 
present text is entirely based. Little weight is given to the 
evidence of quotations ; interesting though they often are, it is 
impossible to be sure in any case of the accuracy of the author 
who is quoting. Of MSS. of the Iliad some hundreds exist, from 
the third century B.C. to the sixteenth a.d. Of most of these 
very little is known ; of complete MSS. only thirteen have been 
collated throughout, and of these five are now for the first time 
published. Of fragmentary mss., however, earlier than the 
Venetus A, we have full information ; the papyri are now 
so numerous that we know something of the tradition of every 
century since the third B.C., with the exception of the two or 
three which intervene between the Syrian palimpsest in the 
seventh and A in the tenth a.d. 

The value of the various MSS. and scholia will be treated in 
detail in the next volume. It may be said here that readings 
of Aristarchos are taken as equal to those of the best mss. ; read- 
ings of Zenodotos are treated as of the second rank. Between the 
variants thus attested we are at liberty to choose with the aid of 


modern critical lights. Only in an extremely small minority of 
cases will any reading be found which has not the certificate of 
one or other of these authorities, and then generally in matters 
where the MS. tradition leaves us in doubt. It is, for instance, 
almost indifferent even to our best MSS. whether they write et 
or 7]i, or whether they write a liquid single or double. Thus 
readings such as TrecpvKTjc for TrecpvKec (A 483), or tmv ijSf/xo? 
for Tb)v v7]Svfjio<i (K 187), can hardly be regarded as departures 
even from our mss. ; the two readings would certainly have 
been indistinguishable in the old alj^habet. The most serious 
departure from tradition is the acceptance of Nauck's ico/mo 
for iKco/xat of all MSS. in I 4 1 4 ; I could not make up my mind 
to leave the unmetrical reading, though I have endured eco? as a 
trochee rather than go to pure conjecture and write €lo<; or ■^09.^ 
Generally speaking I have endeavoured to choose in each 
particular case what seemed to me to be the best reading among 
those current in the fifth century ; and I have not hesitated in 
many cases to give a reading in the text which is described in 
the notes as clearly wrong — a corruption, that is, as old as the 
fifth century, of an older form which we can confidently restore. 

For the adscription in place of the subscription of t in the 
diphthongs di, rjt, col no apology is needed — at all events I shall 
offer none. It is curious that a twelfth -century device for 
correcting the blunders of copyists should have been so far 
canonised as to lead the unthinking to suppose that it has some 
ancient authority. It is typographically ugly as well as philo- 
logically misleading. 

IV. — The Appaeatus Cpjticus 

In compiling the Apparatus Criticus I have aimed at 
compression and brevity, not only from considerations of space, 
but in a firm belief that for the purposes of the critic a small 
selection of readings is more useful than approximate completeness. 
I have therefore omitted as a rule all variants which affect 
only orthographical questions, or which, to the best of my 
judgment, were mere blunders of no critical interest. The 
omissions under the head of orthography include all such 

1 The only other readings in the text the ttjl /jltji. or V^t of the mss. (compare 
for which no ancient authority can be A 608) ; and laraaav for ^araaav or 
quoted are, I believe, tTji ep-rji. in I 654 for 'iaraaav M 56. 


matters as accentuation, breathings, omission or addition of v 
ic^eKKVcTTiKov or iota subscript, single or double writing of A,, yu,, v, 
(7, p, itacism, confusion of o and co, and many cases of difference 
in the division of words, especially such forms as 8' ifMoi or Se 
fjboi, S' i^e/SovTO or Se (pe/dovro, Trdvroa etaTjv or Travroae t(n)V. 
In all these the testimony of mss. is practically indifferent, and 
it is waste of space and energy to accumulate it ; our choice has 
to be made on other grounds. 

It is in the omission of what I believe to have been mere 
copyists' mistakes that I may have neglected something in 
which acuter eyes than my own might detect traces of a genuine 
variant. The risk of this must be preferred, however, to 
the accumulation of ridiculous blunders such as would make it 
difficult to see the wood for the trees. 

For similar reasons, namely, at once to save space and to give 
a clearer view of the weight of testimony, I have as a rule 
quoted only one of each group of related mss. My P and La 
Eoche's L, for instance, are so closely connected, coming evidently 
from a common archetype, that I have not quoted L except where 
it differs from P. So I quote only G- and omit its satellites 
" Mor Bar " except where they differ from it ; the three can only 
be weighed as a single MS. 

Thus though my Apparatus seems brief in comparison with 
La Eoche's, I feel confident that it gives all that is really of 
importance for the constitution of the text, and indeed adds a 
very considerable amount of new matter. Our knowdedge of the 
MSS. will soon be greatly enlarged by other hands ; but in the 
meantime there can be no loss in this humble contribution to a 
strangely neglected field of Homeric criticism. 

V. — Manuscripts 

The MSS. quoted in the Apparatus Criticus are the following : — 

A. Papyri 

Pap. a = Petrie, Hawara Biahmu and Arsinoe, pp. 24-8 (collated also by 
myself) ; contains part of B 1-877. 5th cent. a.d. 

„ 6 = British Museum cxxvi. (Classical Texts from Papyri in tlie B. M. p. 
81) ; B 101-A 40. 4th or 5th cent. a.d. 

„ r = B. M. cxxxvi. (Class. Texts p. 93); parts of V 317-A 544. 3rcl 
cent. A.D. 


Pap. 5 = Bodleian d 20 (Grenfell An Alexandrian Erotic Fragment and other 

Greek Papyri p. G) ; parts of 6 G4-75, 96-116. 2nd cent. a.d. 
,, e = B. M. dclxxxix. (Grenfell Greek Papyri, Second Series p. 4) ; 

e 217-9, 249-53. 3rd cent. B.C. 
,, z = Mahaffy Flinders Petrie Papyri PI. iii. (4) ; fragments from A 

503-37. 2nd cent. B.C. 
,, H = Genavensis ; Nicole Eev. de Philologie, Jan. 1894 (Kenyon G. E. viii. 

pp. 134-6); small fragments from A, A, and Z, and A 788-M 

11. 2nd cent. b.c. ? 
„ e = Louvre; La Roche Homerische Textkritik p. 448; N 1-175. 1st 

cent. B.c. ? 
,, 1=13. M. cvii. (Harris Papyrus); Catalogue of Ancient MSS. in the 

B. M., part i. : Greek, pp. 1-6 ; 2 1-218, 311-617. 1st cent. B.C. 
„ K = B. M. cxxvii. (Glass. Texts p. 98); small fragments from E, Z, 2. 

3rd or 4tli cent. a.d. 
,, X = Bodleian b 3 (Grenfell Greek Papyri, Second Series p. 5); fragments 

of <!>, X, ^. 3rd cent. B.C. 
„ Jui = B. M. cxxviii. {Class. Texts p. 100 ; J. P. xxi. pp. 17-24, 296- 

343) ; large parts of ^ 1-79, 402-12 759. 1st cent. B.C. 
„ N = B. M. cxiv. (Bankes Papyrus) ; Catal. of Anc. MSS. p. 6, Phil. 

Mus. i. p. 177, and my own collation ; 12 127-end. 2nd cent. a.d, 
,, 3 = Grenfell and Hunt Oxyrhynchus Papyri p. 46 ; B 730-828. 2nd 

cent. A.D. 
„ o = B. M. dccxxxii. (Hunt A New Homeric Papyrus in /. P. xxvi. pp. 

25-59) ; most of N 2-775, S 120-522. Ist cent. a.d. 
„ n = Grenfell and Hunt Oxyrhynchus Papyri ii. p. 96 ; E 1-303 and a 

few fragments from E 329-705. Beginning of 3rd cent. a.d. 

For readings see App. F. 

B. Uncial 

Amlir. = Amhrosianus Pictus, saec. v.-vi., a ms. at Milan consisting of leaves 
containing illustrations of the Iliad and accompanying portions 
of the text. It contains pieces from all the books except T, 2, 
T, Y— 800 lines in all. Published by Angelo Mai, 1819, Iliadis 
fragmenta antiquissima cum incturis. 

Syr. = B. M. Add. 17, 210 ; Catal. of Anc. MSS. p. 6, and Fragments of the 
Iliad of Homer from a Syriac Pcdimpsest. Edited by TV. Gureton 
(saec. vi. or vii.). It contains 3873 lines from M to 12. See 
Hoffmann, i2i««« und S^*'"'' Buch der Ilias pp. 3 ff.. La R. H. T. 
p. 454 no. 5. 

C. La Roche's MSS. 

A = Venetus 454, in the Marcian Library at Venice, saec. x. First 
published by Villoison Homeri Ilias ad veteris codicis Veneti fidem 
recensita. Scholia in cam aiitiquissima . . . 1788. La Roche's 
collation in Homeri Ilias (1873-6) is followed ; but I have to 
thank Mr. T. W. Allen for some valuable additions and corrections, 
which are distinguished by his initials. (Hoffmann pp. 12 ff.) 

xxviii THE ILIAD 

A = portions of the above MS. which have been supplied by a later hand, 
the original leaves having been lost. The supplements consist of 
E 336-635, P 277-577, 729-61, T 126-326, i2 405-504. 

C = Cod. Laurentianus xxxii. 3, in the Medicean Library at Florence, saec. 
xi. La R. Horn. Textkritik no. 14 p. 460, Hoffmann p. 28. 

D = Cod. Laurentianus xxxii. 15, saec. xi.-xii. La R. ibid. no. 15, Hoffmann 
p. 31. 

£> = portions of the above supplied by later hands. These are not 
mentioned by La Roche or Hoffmann. Mr. T. W, Allen has 
kindly given me the following valuable list of the passages thus 

"(1) A hand coeval or nearly so with D, though markedly 
different from it ; 388-11 167. 

(2) A hand of s. xii. or xiii. ; books A-A and N 96-160. 

(3) A hand of s. xv. ; G 390-525, P 359-2 192, 593-T 
38, ■^ 652-719, 854-12 85, 219-348, 754-804. 

(4) Another s. xv. hand supplies !i; 326-93 and 538-92." 
[E] {Note. — La Roche's E refers to the printed text of the Roman edition 

of Eustathius, 1542, and is not quoted here as it is of no critical 

Gr = Vindobonensis 39, saec. xiv. La R. H. T. p. 472 no. 92. First 

published by Alter, Vienna 1789. 
H = Vindobonensis 117, saec. xiii. La R. H. T. p. 473 no. 95, Hoffmann 

p. 33. From ^ 648 to the end is in another hand, noted as H.^ 
L = Vindobonensis 5, saec. xiv.-xv. La R. H. T. p. 476 no. 105, Hoffmann 

p. 40. This MS. is almost identical with my P, and is only 

quoted when it differs from P. 
M = Venetus 456, saec. xv. La R. H. T. p. 477 no. 107. La R. has 

published a collation of three books only, A-Z. This MS. is 

almost identical with Harl. a ; I have ascertained that they agree 

for all readings of M given in my Apparatus, except where a 

difference is noted. 
K" and = Venetus 459, which consists of portions of two MSS., one (N) 

containing A 1-H 392 (saec. xv.), the other (0) A 214-M (saec. 

xiv.). La R. H. T. p. 459 no. 10. The collation of books A-Z 

only has been published. 
S = Stuttgartensis 5 (saec. xv. ?). La R. H. T. p. 478 no. 111. La R. 

follows the collation of the Iliad published by Rieckher in Eos, 


D. Manuscripts now Added 
(See /. P. XX. pp. 237-51. The first five are collated by myself.) 

J = B. M. Harley 1771 — a late xv. cent, ms., with glosses in red and black 
ink, mostly rhetorical and grammatical. Leaves have been lost 
containing A 622-653, 31-62, fi 719-end. 

1 I regret that I overlooked Hoffmann's different hand. H should therefore be 
statement that Book A is also in a read for H througliout this book. 


P = Paris, grec 2766 — late xv. cent, (so dated Ly Sir E. Mauiide Thompson 
I'roni the watermark). The ms. is nearly identical with L. The 
writing is often very small, and ei, 7;, and a are frequently 
almost or quite indistinguishable from one another. La R. H. T. 
p. 471 no. 88. 

Q = Paris, grec 2767. A 1-118, 204-233, fi 673-end are missing, and a 
good many lines have been lost by mutilation of the lower margin, 
xiv. cent, (so Catalogue ; rather, late xv.). La R. ibid. no. 89. 

E = Paris, grec 1805, saec. xv., written 1)y Georgios Gregoropulos, in a neat 
clear hand. La R. p. 470 no. 80. 

T = Townleianus, B. M. Burney 86 ; saec. xiii. ? This was very imperfectly 
collated by Heyne in 1802; my own collation is independent, but 
I have used (and checked) Heyne's as well. See Heyne voL iii. 
p. c. ; E. M. Thompson in C. R. ii. p. 103 ; La Roche H. T. p. 467 
no. 65 ; Maass in Scholia Graeca in Honieri Iliadem Tovmleyana i. 
(vol. V. of the Oxford ed.) pp. vii. ff. ; Gardthausen Gr. Palaogr. p. 
405 ; myself in G. R. iii. p. 156. I have occasionally named John 
Rhosos of Crete as responsible for some added lines, etc., as his 
handwriting is unmistakable. 

U = Genavensis, for which I have of course followed the laboriously minute 
collation of Nicole Scolies Genevoises de Vlliade ii. pp. 219 ff. The 
MS. is exhaustively described in the Introduction to that work. 

J7 = portions supplied by later hands, viz. A 1-54, 109-66, B 506-877, 
214-565, I 1-63, 706-13, K 1-50, 576-617, Q. 707-62. 

All the Mss. hitherto named except M, N, O have been collated through- 
out. In all that follow the collation is presumably or certainly only partial. 

HarL a=:B. M. Harl. 5693 ; saec. xiv.-xv. This is the " Harl." of Heyne, 

who took his readings from Bentley's ms. notes (vol. iii. pp. xcvii. 

ff.). See also G. R. iii. 295. I have repeated Heyne's readings 

where I found them correct, after checking the whole with the 

MS. — a very necessary precaution — and added a few of my own. 

In A-Z Harl. a is quoted only where differing from M (see above). 
The following B. M. and Paris mss. I have collated only in 

selected passages (about 2000). 
„ b = HarL 5600, by John Rhosos, finished 16th May 1466. It is 

based on T and another MS. not yet identified. 
,, c = HarL 5672, also in the hand of Rhosos. Contains A, B 1-9, 

490-594, r 123-461, A 1-246. This is not based on T. 
,, d = Harl. 5601, saec. xv.-xvi. 
King's = B. M. King's 16. Written in 1431. 
Par. a = Paris, grec 2681, saec. xiv.-xv.? The MS. has large gaps filled up 

in another hand on different paper (./. P. xx. p. 244, La R. H. T. 

p. 470 no. 81). 
„ b = Paris, supplement grec 497, saec. xiii. (?) ; a fragmentary ms., see 

/. P. XX. p. 250 ; not in La R. 
„ c = Paris 2894, saec. xiii. (?) (La R. H. T. p. 475 no. 103). 
„ d = Paris 2680, saec. xv. (La R. H. T. p. 476 no. 100). 
„ e = Paris 2682, saec. xiv.-xv. (La R. H. T. p. 471 no. 82). 


Par. f= Paris 2683, saec. xiv. (La R. H. T. p. 471 no. 83). 

,, g = Paris 2684, saec. xiv. (La R. p. 471 no. 84 is wrong; A 1-583 
are supplied by another hand, but the MS. contains the whole 
„ h = Paris 2685, saec. xv. (La R. p. 471 no. 85). 
. „ j = Paris 2768, saec. xiii. (??) (La R. p. 472 no. 90). 

„ k = Paris 2697 (not in La R.), 'saec. xiii.' (?). Contains A-M only; 
I is in a different hand (/. P. xx. p. 246). 

(Note. — Paris suppl. grec 144 is in the hand of George 
Gregoropulos, like R, and is identical in its readings with that 
MS. as far as Y 367. After that line it is practically identical 
with P as far as the end of ^, and apparently to the end of Q,. 
It is therefore not quoted here.) 

E. Hetne's MSS. 
("Harl.," see Harl a above ; "Town!.," see T.) 

Vr. a = Vratislaviensis 1 a (La R. H. T. p. 477 no. 106). Heyne does 
not give any date. Contains A-Z 356 and the Odyssey. 
„ b, ace. to La R. {H. T. p. 469 no. 72) saec. xiii.-xiv. 
„ c (no date) contains A-K 377, with Eustathios. 

„ d (no date) contains N-I2. It is practically identical with La Roche's H. 
,, A, written by Michael Apostolis, who died a.d. 1472. Contains Iliad 
and Odyssey. 

The above mss. were collated for Heyne by Prof. F. Jacobs of 
Gotha (voL iii. pp. Ixxxvii. if.). 
Mosc. 1, in the Archives of the Imperial College at Moscow, saec. xiv., 
contains A-0 434 (La R. H. T. p. 470 no. 76). 
,, 2, in the Library of the Holy Synod, saec. sii. (?), contains A 195-331, 
604-B 304, 391-406, 424-40, E 438-Z 97, 234-301, 438- 
H 24, A 65-133, 340-M 60, H 237-522, 11, Y-0 475. 
„ 3 (" recentior " Heyne), in the Library of the Imperial Archive, 
contains A-B 26, V 1-323, A-A 688. 

For these three Heyne used a collation made by C. F. Matthaei 
(vol. iii. ]Dj)- xc. ft'.). 
frag. Mosc, portions of a ms. of which we are told nothing more, con- 
taining M 61-467, 0, P, 2, T. These fit so exactly into lacunae 
of Mosc. 2 that one would naturally suppose them to belong to 
that MS. ; but Heyne does not suggest this. The collation is due 
to Heyne's pupil Nohden (ibid. p. xci.) 
Eton., in the Library of Eton College, saec. xiii. (?), contains A-E 84. 

Collated by Nohden (Heyne iii. p. ex.). 
Mor. (saec. XV.), called from its owner, John More, Bishop of Ely ; at his 
death it was bought by Bentley, and is now in the Library of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. This ms. and the next coincide so 
closely with G that only their diff'erences from it are quoted. 
Heyne's collation is from Bentley's notes (iii. p. xcvi.). 

^ Vratislavia is the Latin name of Breslau. 


Bar., Baroccianus 203 in the Bodleian at Oxford, collated by T. Hearne 
(Heyne iii. p. xl.). 

Laud., Laudianus (from the library of Abp. Laud), in the Bodleian, no. 731, 
contains, with other matter, A-B 493. 

Cant., in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. This contains 
Iliad and Odyssey. It was first used by Barnes, and afterwards 
by Bentley, on whose notes Heyne's readings seem to be based 
(iii. pp. xl., xcvi.). It is almost identical with S, and is quoted 
only when differing. 

Lips. = Lipsiensis 1275. This consists of two jaarts, A-P 89 and P 90-i2, 
on different paper and from different sources. The former is the 
older — about 1300 ace. to Hoffmann ; the latter, here distinguished 
as LiiJs., about 1350. It was collated by Ernesti for his ed. of 
Clarke's Iliad; Heyne follows him with additions from Bentley, 
who apparently had notes from Mencken or Bergler ; Heyne iii. 
p. c. See Hoffmann pp. 46 ft". Lips, is closely related to P, and is 
quoted only in the rare event of a difference. 

Ven. B = Venetus (Marcianus) 453, saec. xi. See Hoffmann p. 22, La K. 
H. T. p. 458 no. 7. Heyne rarely cites this lis., and it is not 
clear whence he got his readings. Hoffmann has given a full 
collation for ^ and X — as in the case of the other Mss. for which 
his name has been cited above, viz. Syr. AC DHL Lips. 

Vat. Heyne quotes occasional readings under this title, but I have been 
unable to find anything to identify the ms. referred to. He mentions 
Vatican mss. on pp. xlii., xlvii., c, but none of them seems to 

VI. — Explanation of Signs and Conteactions 

An. = Aristonikos (the excerpts in the scholia from his book irepl twv 

ApLcrrdp^ov cn^peLMv). 
Antim. = Antimachos. 
Ap. Lex. = Apollonii Sophistae Lexicon. 
Ap. Rhod. = Apollonios Rhodios. 

{Note. — In the scholion on I 153 'ATroAAoji/tos (" Apollon.") is 

probably a mistake of the ms. for 'A;ro/\AoSa>pos, which Schol. 

L reads.) 
Aph. = Aristophanes Byzantius. 
Ar. = Aristarchos. 
Argol., Chia, Cypr., Mass., Sinop., the ancient editions quoted in the 

scholia as i) ' KpyoktK'q, Xta, KvTrpta, MacrcraAtwrt/cTy, 26VC07rtK7j. 
Dem. Ixion, Aij/jLi'^rpios o 'I^low -. Dem. Skeps., Demetrios of Skepsis 

Did., Didymos (the excerpts in the scholia from his work Trepl tt^s 'Apc- 

<Trap\eLov Siop^wcrews). 
Dion. Sid., Dionysios Sidonios (see Ludw. i. 50), to be distinguished from 

Dion. Thrax (ibid. p. 49). 
Et. Mag. = Etymologicum Magnum. 

xxxii THE ILIAD 

Et. Gud. = Etymologicum Gudianum. 

Herod. = Herodianos (generally the excerpts in the scholia from his 'IXtaKr} 
7rpoa-0)t,8 to). 

Nik. = Nikanor (the excerpts from his Trepl trrty/xTjs). 

Porph. = Porphyrios (the fragments of his Zi^ry^/xaro. 'OixijpiKa). 

Ptol. Ask. = UToXe/xaios 6 'AcrKaAcovtrr^s : Ptol. Oroand. = IXroAe/^iatos 6 
'OpodvSov, also called IItoA. Ilti/Saptwr (Ludw. i. 50) ; both to 
be distinguished from IlToAe/iaios 6 'ETrt^er^^s (ibid. 48). 

Rhi. = Rhianos. 

Sosig. = Sosigenes. 

Zen. = Zenodotos. 

6©. = duereL, dOerovcTL. 

rp. = ypct^eTat, ypdcjiovcri, ypairreov. 

dixcoc indicates different readings in the two editions of Ar. 

ap. = apud ; generally of readings mentioned or implied, but not adopted, 
by an author. 

om. = omittit, omittunt. 

supr. = supra scriptum, supra scripto. 

C^ etc. = the first hand of C ; D^ etc. = the second hand of D. 

Gr* = G in the text, G" = G in the margin, 

[H], the square brackets indicate a reading of one of La Roche's mss, 
inferred from his silence only — i.e. he does not quote the ms. for 
any other alternative. The inference is, however, often highly 

n indicates, according to circumstances, " all mss." or " all mss. other than 
those explicitly quoted for a different reading " — in both cases, of 
course, with the qualification " so far as I am aware." 

*, the asterisk indicates erasure of one letter. 

All " suprascript " readings, on account of their generally secondary 
value, are enclosed in parentheses when occurring in a series of quotations. 
They are to be understood as implying (where no explicit statement is made) 
that the MS. itself agrees with 12 or the text. A similar reference is implied 
in C\ D2 etc. So also H*, P^^^ imply a reading of R"^, P*, which will be 
clear on the same grounds. 

All parentheses in a series of mss. (when they do not themselves include 
the name of a MS.) refer to the MS. immediately preceding, and to no other. 

Take then the following (imaginary) note : "999 o?n. CD* || CTcixei Ar. 
12: CTeixH(i) D'l^G^HiJ (yp. creixei) (L supr.) P (siqn-. ei), eV aAAwt 
A, yp. Harl. a." 

This conveys the following statements : — 

C omits the line entirely. 

D omits the line in the text but has it supplied in the margin. 

Aristarchos reads crretxei (as in the text), and so do all mss. (so far as I 
am aware) other than those which follow. These read either crTeixv- or 
crrdxii (which for the purposes of this Apparatus need not be distinguished) : 
namely : — 

The line supplied in the margin of D (probably by a later hand, though 
information on this point is too often deficient). 


The second liaud of G — but the iirst hand had trT€t;^€t. 

The first liand of H — but the second hand has altered it to crTet;(€i. 

J — but with o-Tct'xet given as a marginal variant. 

P — but with et written over 7]{i). 

L, while reading o-ret'xet, has (rreixvi'-) or simply 7/(6) written over it. 

A and Harl. a, while reading crrecx^i, have the marginal variant 
o-TetX'>y(t), introduced in one case by ev uAAwt, the formula peculiar to A, in 
the other case by the ordinary yp. 

J 1 


Ahrens Beitrdge. — Beitiiige zur griecliischen inid lateinisclien Etymologie, von 

H. L. Ahi'eiis. Erstes Heft. Leipzig, Teubner, 1879. 
A. J. P. — American Journal of Philology (from 1880). 
Ameis. — Homers Ilias flir den Schulgebrauch erkljirt von K. F. Anieis. (Recent 

editions, which are numerous, are " besorgt von Dr. C. Hentze.") 
,, Anil. — Anhang zu Homers Bias, Schulausgabe von K. F. Ameis. (Third 

ed. of part i. , second ed. of subsequent parts, "besorgt von Prof. Dr. 

C. Hentze." Frequently cited as "Hentze" only.) 
Bekker H. B. — Homerische Blatter, von Imman. Bekker. Bonn, vol. i. 1863, 

vol. ii. 1872. 
Bergk P. L.'^ — Poetac Lyrici Graeci. Tertiis curis recensuit Th. Bergk. Lipsiae, 

Teubner, 1866. 
Brandreth. — 'O/j-rjpov FiXtas littera diganima restituta ad metri leges redegit et 

notatione brevi illustravit Thomas Shaw Brandreth. London, 

Pickering, 1841. 
Brugman(n) Prob. — Ein Problem der Homerischen Kritik vind der vergleichenden 

Sprachwissenschaft. Von Karl Brugman {sic. The author is however 

identical with tlie Brugmann of the following work). Leipzig, 1876. 
,, Gr. — Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der Indogermanischen 

Sprachen (vols. i. and ii.). Strassburg, Trlibner, 1886-92 (see 

Delbriick Gr.). 
Buchholz H. P. — Die Homerischen Realien. Von Dr. E. Buchholz. Leipzig, 6 

parts in three vols. 1871-85. 
Buttmann Lexil. — Lexilogus . . for Homer and Hesiod. By Philip Buttmann. 

Translated and edited by the E.ev. J. R. Fishlake. 5th edition. 

London, 1861. 
Cauer Grundfr. — Grundfragen der Homerkritik. Von Paul Cauer. Leipzig, 

Hirzel, 1895. 
C. I. = Corpus Inscriptionum Graecariim. 

Gierke (Miss) Fam. Studies. — Familiar Studies in Homer. By Agnes M. Gierke. 

Longmans, 1892. 
Cobet M. C. — Miscellanea Critica. Scripsit C. G. Gobet. Lugd. Batavorum, 1876. 
Collitz. — Sammlung der griecliischen Dialekt-Lischriften. Herausg. von Dr. 

Hermann Collitz. Gottingen, Vandenhoeck, 1884 on. 
C. R. — Classical Review; London, D. Nutt, 1887 on. 

Curtius Et. — Grundziige der griechischen Etymologie, von G. Curtius. 5th ed. 

Leipzig, 1879. 
,, JH:). — Das Verbum der gr. Sprache, seinem Baue nach dargestellt. Vou 

G. Curtius. Vol. i., 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1877 ; vol. ii. 1876. 
,, St. — Studien zur griechischen und lateinischen Grammatik, herausg. von 

G. Curtius. Leipzig, 1868-78. 

1 This index is not intended for a complete list of works cited in the notes, much less for a 


Darbishire Rr.lL I'lill. — Kulli(iuiae I'hilologicae, or Kssay.s in Comparative 

Pliilology, by tin; late H. D. Darbibhire. Edited by R. S. Conway. 

Caiiibrid<,'e, 1895. 
Delbriick H. F. — Syutaktisclio Forschungeii, von B. Delbriick und K. Windiscb. 

i, l)er (iebrauch des Coiijriiictivs und Optativs iin Sans^krit und 

Griechisc'hen, von P>. Dolliriick ; Halle, 1871. iv, Die Grundlagen der 

griechischen Syntax, erortert von B. Delbriick, 1879. 
,, Or. — Grundriss der vergl. Gramm. der Indogermanisclien Spraclien (see 

under IJrugniann Gr.), vols, iii., iv., 1893, 1897. 
Doderlein ftloss. — Honierisclics Glos.sariuin, von L. DixbHlein. Eriangen, 1850-58. 
Erhardt. — Die Entstehung der Honierisehen Gedicbte. Von Louis Erhardt. 

Leipzig, 1894. 
Fasi. — Homers Iliade. Erkliirt von J. U. Ftisi. Fiinfte Auflage besorgt von 

F. R. Franke. Berlin, 1871. 
Franke. — Do. do. 

Frazer Paus. — Pausanias's Description of Greece, translated with a commentary by 

J. G. Frazer. 6 vols. London, Macmillan, 1898. 
Gladstone, J. M. — Inventus Mundi, the Gods and Men of the Heroic Age. By the 

Right Hon. William Ewart Gladstone. London, Macmillan, 1869. 
H. — Homer, 

H. G. — A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect. By D. B. Monro ; second 

edition. Oxford, 1891. 
Hartel H. S. — Homerische Studien . . von Wilhelm Hartel. Zweite Auflage. 

Berlin, Vahlen, 1873. 
Hehn. — Kulturpflanzen und Hausthiere . . Historisch-linguistische Skizzen 

von Victor Hehn. Fiinfte Auflage. Berlin, 1887. 
Helbig //. E. — Das Homerische Epos aus den Denkmiilern erliiutert. Archiio- 

logische Untersuchungen von W. Helbig. Zweite Auflage. Teubner, 

Leipzig, 1887. 
Hentze. — See Ameis. 
Hinrichs Horn. El. — De Homericae elocutionis vestigiis Aeolicis. Scripsit G. 

Hinrichs. Jena, 1875. 
J. P. = Journal of Philology. 

J. H. S. = Journal of Hellenic Studies. 
Knos de dig. — De diganimo Homerico quaestiones. Scripsit Olaus Vilelmus 

Knos. Upsala, voL i. 1872, ii. 1873, iii. 1878. 
Kiihner. — Ausfiihrliche Graminatik der griechischen Sprache von Dr. Raphael 

Kiihner. Zweite Auflage. Hannover, 1869, 1870. 
L. and S. — A Greek-English Lexicon compiled by H. G. Liddell . . and Robert 

Scott . . Seventh edition. Oxford, 1883. 
Lange EI. — Der homerische Gebrauch der Partikel EI. Von Ludwig Lange. 

i, Einleitung und el mit dem Optativ. Leipzig, 1872. ii, e'i Kev (av) 

mit dem Optativ, und el ohne Verbum Finitum, 1873. (No more 

La R. H. T. — Die Homerische Textkritik im Altertlium, von Jacob La Roclie. 

Leipzig, Teubner, 1866. 
,, H. U. — Homerische Untersuchungen von Jacob La Roche. Leipzig, 1869. 
Lehrs Ar. — De Aristarchi Studiis Homericis. Scripsit K. Lehrs. Editio recognita. 

Lipsiae, 1865. 
Ludw. — Aristarchs Homerische Textkritik nach den Fiagmenten des Didymos 

dargestellt und beurtheilt von Arthur Ludvvich. Leipzig, Teubner, 

voL i. 1884, vol. ii. 1885. 
,, H. V. — Die Homer vulgata als voralexandrinisch erwiesen von Arthur 

Ludwich. Teubner, 1898. 
M. and R. — Homer's Oilyssey, edited . . by W. W. Merry and the late James 

Riddell. Vol. i., Books i.-xii. (all published). 'Oxford, 1876. 
M. and T.— Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb. By W. W. 

Goodwin. Macmillan, 1889. 
Meister Dial. — Die griechischen Dialekte . . dargestellt von Richard Meister. 

Gottingen, Vandenhoeck. Vol. i. 1882, vol. ii. 1889. 
Menrad Contr. — De Contractionis et Synizeseos usu Homerico. Scripsit Jos. 

Menrad. Munich, Buchholz, 1886. 

xxxvi THE ILIAD 

G. Meyer Gr. — Griechische Gramuiatik von Gustav Meyer. Dritte Auflage. 

Leipzig, Breitkopf, 1896. 
Milchhofer Anf. d. Kunst. — Die Anfauge der Kiuist in Giiechenland. Studien von 

Dr. A. Milchhofer. Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1883. 
Nagelsbach H. T. — C. F. von Niigelsbach's Homerische Theologie. Dritte Auflage, 

bearbeitet von Dr. G. Autenrieth. Niirnberg, 1884. 
Nitzsch Erkl. Anm. — Erklarende Anmerkungen zu Homer's Odyssee. Von G. W. 

Nitzsch (3 vols. ). Hannover, 1826-40. 
Preller G. M.* — Griechische Mythologie von L. Preller. Vierte Auflage bearbeitet 

von Carl Robert. Erster Band, Berlin, 1894 (Zweiter Band, dritte 

Aufl. bearb. von E. Plew, 1875). 
Reiehel IT. TV. — Ueber Homerische Wafi'en. Archaologische Untersuchungen 

von Wolfgang Reiehel. Wieu, 1894. 
Roscher Lex. — Ausfiihrliches Lexicon der griechischen und romischen Mythologie 

. . herausg. von W. H. Roscher. Leipzig, Teubner (in progress, from 

Schrader Handclsg. — Linguistisch-historische Forschungen zur Handelsgeschichte 

und Warenkunde von Dr. 0. Schrader. Erster Teil. Jena, 1886. 
,, S. und U. — Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte . . von Dr. 0. 

Schrader. Jena, 1883. 
,, Porph. — Porphyrii qnaestionum Homericarum ad Iliadem pertinentium 

reliquias coUegit disposuit edidit Hermannus Schrader. Teubner, 

Schuchh. — Schliemann's Excavations, an Archaeological and Historical Study, 

by Dr. C. Schuchhardt. Translated from the German by Eugenie 

Sellers. Macmillan, 1891. 
Schulze Q. E. — Quaestiones Epicae. Scripsit Guilelmus Schulze. Gueterslohae, 

Studniczka. — Beitrjige zur Geschichte der altgriechischen Traclit, von Franz 

Studniczka. Wien, 1886. 
Thompson Gloss. — A Glossary of Greek Birds, by D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson. 

Oxford, 1895. 
Tsountas-Manatt. — The Mycenaean Age : A Study of the Monuments and Culture 

of Pre-Homeric Greece. By Dr. Chrestos Tsountas and J. L-ving 

Manatt. Macmillan, 1897. 
Van L. — Homeri Hiadis Carmina cum Apparatu Critico ediderunt J. van 

Leeuwen J. F. et M. B. Mendes da Costa. Editio altera. Lugd. 

Batavorum, 1895, 1896. 
,, Ench. — Enchiridium Dictiouis Epicae. Scripsit J. van Leeuwen J. F. 

Lugd. Batavorum, 1894. 
Veitch. — Greek Verbs Irregular and Defective . . by William Veitch. New 

ed. Oxford, 1871. 
W.-M. //. U. — Philologische Untersuchungen herausgegeben von A. Kiessling und 

U. von Wilamowitz - Mollendorff'. Siebentes Heft. Homerische 

Untersuchungen [von Wilamowitz-MollendorfF]. Berlin, Weidmann, 

,, Her. — Euripides Herakles erklart von Ulrich von Wilamowitz-MoUendorff. 

Zweite Bearbeitung. Berlin, Weidmann, 1895. 

Note. — The books of the Iliad are referred to by the capitals, and those of the 
Odyssey by the minuscules, of the Greek alphabet. 


The problem of the composition of the Iliad meets us in a peculiarly subtle 
and difficult aspect on the very threshold of the poem. The first book 
seems, even to a careful reader, to be a perfect and indivisible whole ; yet 
it is here that the severest battles of the critic have been fought. Lachmann 
and his school have rightly felt that if the book could once be disintegrated 
in spite of its apparent solidity, the task of separation would be dis- 
proportionately facilitated for the rest of the Iliad. 

The weak points on which Lachmann fixed are two. The first is the 
inconsistency involved in 423, where it is said that all the gods went 
* yesterday ' to the Aethiopians ; whereas Apollo is elsewhere conceived as 
still shooting his darts at the Greeks, and in 474 as present at Chryse ; 
while Hera and Athene are watching the strife in the assembly, the latter 
descending to Troj^ and returning to Olympos fjiera Sat/xovas aXXovs. The 
second is found in Jk to to 493, which refers back, not to the day indicated 
in the preceding lines, as we should expect, but to the interview between 
Thetis and her son which ended in 424, and since which at least one night, 
and apparently several, have passed. 

The conclusion drawn by Lachmann is that the first book consists of an 
original 'lay,' 1-347, with two 'continuations,' (a) 430-92, (6) 348-429 
and 493 to the end. Of these he thinks that (a) may be by the poet of the 
original lay, but that (6) is certainly of different origin, and not very skilfully 
adapted to the place where it is found. 

"We will first take (a), the episode of the restoration of Chryseis. The 
vague reference of ck roto, though not indefensible (as the preceding lines 
naturally lead the thought back to the point to which €k toio belongs, cf. 
488 with 422), is certainly not what we should expect. Further, the whole 
episode can be cut out without being missed — we have only to make 490 
follow 429 immediately — and is of no importance to the story. A large 
portion consists of lines which are found in other parts of the Homeric 
poems ; and of these one at least, 463, seems to be more at home in the 
third book of the Odyssey than here, while 469-70 are not in harmony 
with a well-marked Homeric custom. According to the usual Greek ritual, 
the purifications of 312-17 should not precede but follow the removal of 
the plague by Apollo. There is therefore very strong ground for holding 
that Lachmann is right in saying that ' continuation (a) ' is not an integral 
part of the original lay ; but if the two are once separated, we can no 


2 lAIAAOC A (i) 

longer admit the possibility that they are by the same author ; the continua- 
tion must, from the evidence of borrowing, be of a very much later date. But 
it is most skilfully introduced into a j)ause in the main action, and offers 
a pleasing contrast, with its peace and feasting, to the stormy scenes with 
which the book opens and continues. 

This, however, is a subordinate matter ; the real question is, whether 
the original story of the Menis contained the promise of Zeus to Thetis that 
he would bring disaster upon the Greeks to revenge the insult offered to 
Achilles. The inconsistency as to the whereabouts of the gods cannot be 
denied ; is it inexplicable 1 We can hardly say so. The consistency 
with which the Epic poet, composing for hearers and not for readers, is 
concerned, is the consistency of the moment. The consistency of details in 
different scenes is of less importance, so long as they are not conspicuous 
enough to affect our understanding of the main story. This is not the only 
place where the poet may have hovered vaguely between the divine power 
\y of omnipresence and the limitations of the anthropomorphic body. We will 

say, then, that the contradiction is real and disquieting, but not convincing. 

That Lachmann's original lay was ever really an independent poem, 
as he would have us believe, it is hard to think, and few are now found 
to hold that a great poet, such as he who comjjosed this debate, would have 
left the quarrel truncated and without a conclusion. That the opening of 
the book, prologue and all, is the beginning of a poem of the Wrath, which 
went on through the defeat of the Greeks and the death of Patroklos to the 
slaying of Hector, seems as certain as anything in this thorny and obscure 
matter can be certain. But we must not forget that the more ancient any 
portion of the Iliad is, the more it has been exposed to weathering ; and 
that one effect of the continual process of growth and adaptation has been 
to obscure and smooth down the rough joints. Hence in this oldest portion 
critical analysis is peculiarly difficult. But one consideration must be added 
which lends some weight to Lachmann's separation of ' continuation (b).' In 
the Introduction to B it will be pointed out that there is some evidence of 
a different continuation of the quarrel scene ; a continuation in which the 
dispute is laid at once before an assembly of the whole army, and the visit 
of Thetis to Zeus left unnoticed. This version was a parallel one, and 
A, as it stands, may have been adapted from the two. It is not in our 
power to say which of the two was older ; time has effected a union which 
shews but the slightest scar, yet we cannot deny the mark, and can only 
interpret it in the way which seems best to account for the facts. And the 
facts are certainly to be accounted for on this supposition. The first part 
of A really belongs closely to a certain part of the assembly scene in B, 
especially to the speech of Thersites ; it does not belong so closely to the 
scenes between Achilles and Thetis, and between Thetis and Zeus. In this 
form of the story it was the mere absence of Achilles from the field, not the 
interposition of Zeus, which brought about the rout of the Greek army in A. 
This is mere hypothesis, but it is a possible hypothesis, and it agrees with 
much that we shall find later, all pointing to the gradual composition of the 
Iliad by the more or less perfect fusion of different versions, knitted together 
from the first by the fact that all alike are outgrowths from the Story of the 
Wrath, but otherwise independent. 


Aoiu6c. Mhnic. 

M.7]viv aeihe, Bed, Tlrj\rjid8e(o A^tX?}p? 

ov\0fi€V7]v, 7] /jbvpL ^A'^aLOi<i clXje' edrjKe, 

TToXXa? 8 l<f)difMOV<; -^v^a^ At'St irpota-^ev 

■^paxov, auTOV'i Se_ €\(opia tev'^e Kweacriv 

olwvolal T€ irdcn, Ato<i 8 eVeXeiero ^ovKr], 5 

1. ri de doKoiiffa dpxata 'IXtds, f; Xeyoixivq 'ATreWiKuivTos {dir' eXiKi^vos MS. corr. 
Nauck), irpooifjLiov ^x^' rovTo' Movicac deidco kqi 'AnoXXcoNa kXutotohon, ws Kal 
'NiKo.vwp ixeixvrjTaL Kal Kpdrr/s €v toTs SiopOwTiKols' 'ApLCTTO^evos 5' ev a' 11 pa^ida/iavriwi' 
(prial Kara Tivas ex^'" "Ecnere nOn juioi, MoOcai 'OXujunia Scojuax' ^xo^cai, onncoc 3h 
xjiHNic xe xoXoc e' ^Xe RHXeicoNa, AhtoOc t* arXabN uidN" 6 rhp SaciXm xoXcoeeic, 
Osanii xinec. Romaivum p.- 5. 3. noWac : noXXwN Matranga Anec. 500. || 

l};uxcic : Ke<paXiic Ap. Rliod. ; cf. A 55. 4-5 ad. Zen. 4. d' eXXcopia 

CHPST al. 5. naci : Zen. aaTxa ? {v. infra) \\ BouXh : BouXfii Nik. ap. Eust. 

1. eed, the MoOira of a 1, who tells the 
poet the history which he has to relate ; 
see B 484-92, and compare x 347 
avTodibaKTOS d' el/mi, debs 34 fxoL iv (ppealv 
OLfias TvavTolas €vi<pv(xev, and 6 44, 64, 
488 ?) ffi ye '^iova edida^e, Aios irdcs, ■^ ere 
7' 'AwoWwv. riHXHVddeco, originally no 
doubt Ily]\T]id8a'{o). This is one of a class 
of patronymics formed with a double 
suffix, the adjectival -lo- and the purely 
patronymic -adrj-s : while the commoner 
form n.r]\e-L5ri-s has only one. Cf. B 566. 

2. ouXojmeNHN, accursed ; it bears 
the same relation to the curse '6\olo as 
6vT}fxevos {(B 33) to the blessing ovaio, and 
means ' that of which we say bXoco. ' 
It is best regarded as a purely metrical 
variant of oKbfxevos, which occurs in the 
same sense in Trag. (Eur. Hel. 231, 
Phocn. 1029, Or. 1363, Here. 1061) ; see 
Schulze Qu. Ep. pp. 192 ff. uupia, 
countless; in its later sense, 10,000, the 
word is accented fivpioi. 

3. 'i9eiJuioc here, as in 24 other places 
(Kniis), does not admit an initial F and 
never requires it. Thus connexion with 
Fis, Fi(pios is impossible, in spite of the 
nearness of sense. For a suggested 
etymology see Collitz in AJP. viii. 
214-7. The feminine IcpdiiJL-q is also 
found, but only applied to women — e.g. 
T 116. "AY3i, a metaplastic dative of 
'A'i5r;s, which in H. always means the 
god, not his realm — with the exception, 
apparently, of 'I' 244. npotaijfe : irpo 
implies 'forth on their way,' as in -wpo- 
Tr^fjLweiv, irpoiivaL (195, 442, etc.). laTr- = 
iac-, so that Trpota\f€v=pro-iec-it exactly. 

4. auxouc : the body is to Homer the 
real self, the i/'i'X'J is a mere shadow ; 
cf. ^ 65, where the soul of Patroklos is 
irdvT avTwi. eUvia, like the I'eal man. 

5. naci, i.e. all that chose to come : 
a perfectly natural expression. The 
reading dalra ascribed to Zen. is not 
mentioned in the scholia, which merely 

lAIAAOC A (i) 

i^ ov Br) ra irpoira ScaarT^Trjv epicravTe 
Arpethrj^ re ava^ dvBpcov /cal 8to<; 'A^tA,A,ei/9. 

Tt9 rap acfxoe 6eo)v epiSi ^vver]Ke p^ci'^eaOat ; 
ArjTov'i Kal Ato? vi6<;. 6 yap ^acTLkrj'i '^dXwdel^ 
vovaov ava crrparbv oopae KaKrjv, oXeKovro he \aoi, 
ovveKa rov ^pvarjv '^n/jiacrev aprirripa 
ArpetSr)';. o yap rjXde doa'i eVl vPia<i ^A'^aicov 
Xvcrofievo'i re Ovyarpa (j)€p(ov r cnrepeicn airoiva, 
<TT€fj,fjLaT e^cov ev '^epalv eK7]/36Xov 'AttoXXwi/o? 


6. TLves yp. biii cththn epicaNTO Eust. 8. c9coY(n) Zen. and others. 

11. HTiJUiaceN ARTi(?) Ambr.^ Lips.- Vr. a: htIuqc' L: AxijuiHceN D^Ambr.-: 
HTiuHc' Q. 14. CTeJuumar' Ar. fi : cx^uuid x' Eton. Vr. a. 

say that he athetized 4-5. The only 
authority for the statement is Athenaeus 
(i. p. 12), on whom no reliance can be 
placed. But the reading is in itself 
vigorous and poetical. In fact the 
metaphor is so natural that we cannot 
even argue with confidence that Aischylos 
had dalra before him when he WTote 
(Supp. 800) Kvalv 5' 'iireid^ eKwpa kclttl- 
X'Jpi-ot.s I 'opviaL deiTTvov o^k dvaii'OfiaL 
TTsXelv : or Eur. ITcc. 1077 a(pa.KTav 
Kval T€ (poviav Sair' dvr)p.epov, Ion 505 
TTTO-voh e^u>pLae dolvav di^pffl re (poiviav 
SatTtt (Soph, is neutral, Aj. 830 pL(pdui 
Kvalv 7rp6/3X7jTos olcovoh 6' eXcup). In all 
these cases there is an apparent echo of 
the present passage, and dalra if a real 
variant is much older than Zen. The 
argument against it in Athenaeus (often 
ascribed, though without ground, to 
Ar.), that H. never uses Sais except of 
human banquets, is not even based ou 
fact, see fl 43. On the whole Salra 
seems intrinsically a better reading, but 
we have no right to leave the uniform 
tradition of the Mss. 

6. ^s ou may refer to the preceding 
line, ' the will of Zeus was being ful- 
filled from the time when ' (so Ar. ) ; or 
better, to deide in the first line, ' take 
up the song from the point when,' as in 
6 500 (palve 5' doib'qv, evOev eXiov, ws ol 
fxev, kt\. The extraordinary variant 
5td (TTTjTTjv {ipiaavTo) was explained to 
mean ' on account of a woman ' ( !) 

8. x(4p : an enclitic particle recognised 
by Herod, (and perhaps Ar.), from r &p, 
as yap from y' dp. It does not of course 
make any perceptible diff"erence here if 
we write t' dp (with mss. except A) ; 
but see 65, 93. The combination is a 

favourite in questions ; B 761, T 226, 
A 656, etc. ^pi9i goes with ^vviy)Ke, 
'pitted them in strife. ' C9cae : according 
to the rule of Ar. this foi-m belongs to 
the 3rd person. Zen. here and elsewhere 
read c^icDi', which Ar. confined to the 2nd 
person. It is, however, possible that the 
distinction is a mere fiction. Cf. Brug- 
mann Gr. ii. p. 804, and App. A. 

11. Both aTLfxaw and drt^cifw occur 
in our texts, but the aor. is elsewhere 
only riTifXTjcrei', and drt/icifw is peculiar 
to the Odyssey. Rhythm, how- 
ever, is a strong argument here in 
favour of AxiuaceN in place of the 
vulgate iJTtVw'. Nauck indeed wishes 
to expel drt^idw from the text of Homer 
altogether ; but v. Curtius Vb. i. p. 341 n. 
x6n XpucHN . . dpHxApa : a use of 
the article which ' is scarcely to be 
paralleled in Homer.' In other ex- 
amples with a proper noun it is used 
with an adversative particle (avrdp, fxiv, 
5e), and only of a person already men- 
tioned, e.g. B 105 (Monro). It would 
simplify this passage if we could take 
Xpwrjs as an appellative, ' that man of 
Chryse, even the priest'; but there 
seems to be no other instance either of a 
local name thus formed in --qs, or of a 
person addressed directly by a local name, 
as in 442 cD Xpvar). Payne Knight conj. 
Toi., Nauck rod, for rbv. 

13. Xuc6ueNoc: the mid. of the person 
who offers the ransom, the act. of him 
who accepts it, e.g. 20. 

14. ^x^'' is subordinate to the preced- 
ing participles, indicating a detail, and 
not co-ordinate with Xvao/jLevos, expressing 
the main object of his journey. It is 
therefore best to retain the vulg. instead 

lAIAAOC A (i) 

ypvaicot ava aKi^irrpwi, Koi Xlaaero 7rdvTa<i A^atou?, 
^ArpetSa 8e /xciXtara 8vco, /cocr/xryrope Xacov 

" ^ArpeiSac re Koi aXKoi evKviifxthe^ A^atot, 
vfilv jJiev Oeoil Solev ^OXvfjiiria Scofiar €'^ovt€<; 
iKTrepcrai Tlptdfioio ttoXlv, iv h oiKaS CKecrdac 
iralSa S' i/xol Xuaaire (^ikrjv, to, 8' drroiva Se'^eadai, 
d^ofjbevoi Ato? vlov eKij/BoXov ATroWcova. 

ev6^ dXkoi fxev rfrdvT6<i eTrevcfiijfjLrjaav Aj^aiol 
alSelcrOai 6' lepr^a koI dyXad he'^Oai dnroiva' 
aXX' ovK ^ ATpethrji WjafiefivovL r]vhave OvfiMi, 
dWd KaK(b<i d(f)iet, Kparepov 8' eVl fivOov ereXXe • . 
" /xi] (T€, <yepov, K0i\7]Laiv iyai nrapa V7]vcrl Ki^etco 
Tj vvv SrjdvvovT rj varepov avTL'i lovra. 



15. XiCCeTO AT (supr, c) : 4:XicceTO fi. 16. rives ArpeiQac An. 20. 

euoi : ^uhn F. || Xucaxe CZ>PT Vr. c : Xuca^xe R. || dexcceai AZ>H (sw^w. e) 

J^T IT (sujrr. e) Vr. c : 3execee fi : to oe 5execeai avrl irpoaTaKTiKov aTrapefxtpaTOv 
Schol. T. 24. 'Axpeldeco 'ArajaejuNONOC Zen. 27. aueic CHR Bar. 

of reading ore/x^a r' with Bentley (to 
agree with arifxixa in 28). The cxejuuua is 
the Apollinis infiila of Aen. ii. 430, a 
wreath of wool wrapped round the staff 
in token of suppliautship ; cf. the ipio- 
areTTTOs /cXaSos of Aisch. Svpp. 23. It is 
probably the fillet worn, in ordinary 
circumstances, by the priest himself, or 
possibly, as has been suggested, the 
wreath from the image of the god. 

15. See on F 152. Xiccero is preferable 
to eXiaaero, as it is very rare to find a 
vowel left short before the first letter of 
this word {ff. G. § 371). But v. II 46. 

18. Bentley conj. iifxixL deoi /jl^v doiev, 
as the synizesis of deds in H. is very 
improbable (f 251 is the only other 
case) ; but Piatt points out that this 
puts fih in the wrong place. He suggests 
TOL for Oeol (which can be spared, cf. E 
383, 115, etc., and particularly Hymn. 
Ccr. 135). But Plato had deoi, Rep. iii. 
393. Brandreth 5olev fj.ev deoi v/x/iii'. 

20. Mss. are divided between Xiicaire 
and Xvaare. The former is practically 
equivalent to XvaaL re, the reading of 
Apio and Herodoros adopted by Wolf. 
This involves changing xd 5' into rd t 
(with Wolf) or /cat (with Ap. and Her. ). 
Bentley conj. Xvaavre. But the text 
may |)ass, as the opt. is well suited to a 
suppliant. As between dexecrde and 
Sixeo'doLi there is nothing to choose ; in 
either case the change of mood is rather 

harsh. See M. G. § 299 b, and for the 
article to. 5' d-n-oiva, ' on the other hand 
accept ransom,' § 259. 1. 

22. eneu<})i4uHcaN, gave j)ious assent, 
probably by shouting ; hardly by silence, 
as in the later use of the word. For the 
use of the infin. to express purjwsc, 
H. G. § 231. 

24. euu(£)i is not a ' whole and part ' 
construction with 'Ayafie/jLvovi, but a 
locative, i?i his soul, as appears from 
numerous other passages. 

26. For Kixeico many would read 
KLxv^, but we have no right to neglect 
the consistent ancient rule by which in 
such forms et is written before w and o, 
as it may represent a real difference of 
pronunciation {ff. G. App. C). It is not 
necessary to supply any verb before ^117, 
which is an independent prohibitive 
particle ; the literal meaning is ' Far be 
the thought that I shall find thee.' 
ff. G. § 278; Delbriick S. F. i. 22. 
Tlius the constr. supplies the missing 
imperative for the 1st person {M. and 
T. § 257). The same explanation can 
be given in 28, though here the ya')7-clause 
is obviously far on its way to become 
subordinate. The progress of /xtj ov to 
complete subordination may be followed 
through 565, K 39, O 164, fi 569 (the 
only other cases in H. of jxy) ov with 
sub).) to the change of mood in Q 584 
[M'. and T. § 263). 

lAIAAOC A (i) 

fji^T} vv TOi ov '^paiafirji crKrJTrTpov koX crrefifia Oeoto. ^ 
rr)v S' iyo) ov \vcrw irpiv /jliv koI 'yripa<i eTreiaiv 
r]/xeT€p(i)i €vl o'iKcoi iv "Apyel, TrjXodi 7raTpr]<i, 
larov iTroLYOjjiivrjv koX ep,ov A-e^09 avnowaav. 
aX\' Wl, fiT] jji epeOi^e, aacorepoi; w? /ce verjat. 

w? €(f)aT, eBBeicrev S' 6 yepcov koX iireidero fivdcoL, 
/St} 8' cLKkwv irapa diva 7ro\v(j)\oL(r^oio 0d\acrarj<i. 
TToWa 8' 67r€LT aiTavevOe klwv rjpad o <yepaLO<s 
^AttoWcdvc dvaKTt, top '^vko/xo'; re/ce At^tco' 
" kXvOl [xev, dpyvp6ro^\ o? ^pva-7)v dfjL(pi/3el3yKa<; 
K.iWdv re ^aderjv TeveSoio re lcf)t avdcra-ea, 
-^fiivdev, et TTore rot ■^^^aptevT iirl vrjov epe-^a, 



29-31 0.0. Ar. (see below). 33. coc 90x0 L. ! €5&eiC€(N) : eSeiccN Ar. ? 

(see Did. on 123). 34. dxecoN Zen. 39. epejj/a : [^pejsa H'". 

28. xpa'cuHi : app. an aor., but irreg- 
ular in stem {11. G. § 32, 3). There is 
no clear evidence for a pres. xp^'-'^l^'^j 
though we have fut. xpat(7,Lt?7(ret (T 296), 
and aor. xpattr/x'^o-at (A 120, etc.). 

29-31 aderovvTai., on avoKiovcn 
eTriraffiv rod pov Kal ttjv a.TreiXrji'. 
fffieviae yap /cat 6 Xpvaijs etVoi/crijs 

awovarjs ? Cobet) avrfjs rGii jSactXe?. 




TTpewes de Kal to tov 'Ayafie/xvova roiavra 
'Keyeiv. ' Quod autem dixit patri gratum 
esse filiam suam esse Regis concubinam, 
Alexandriae fortasse in aula dissoluta 
verum esse poterat, sed non apud heroicae 
aetatis homines ' — Cobet {M. C. p. 230, 
in an amusing essay on dTrpe-rrfj). It is 
in such judgments that Ar. appears at 
his worst. 

31. dNTidcocQN with ace. only here ; 
of. Soph. Aj. 491 TO aop \exos ^vvrfkdov, 
Track. 159 dyGivas e^id)v {going forth to 
meet), Pind. N. i. 67 Sraj- Oeol yiyavTecraiv 
lidxcv avTM^OKTiv , Eur. Phoen. 817 rj de 
^vvaiij.oi' Xexos 9j\0ev. This suggests that 
the ace. is that of the end, after the im- 
plied verb of motion {coming to my heel to 
meet -me), rather than the ' adverbial ace' 
of JETS'. §136(1). ^noixoJuieNHN implies the 
walking backwards and forwards which 
was necessary with the ancient loom. 

33. edeiceN if read by Ar., must be 
a piece of genuine tradition from the 
form ISFeiaev. For the article in 6 
r^puN and 6 repai6c see If. G. § 261, 3. 

37. Killa is placed by Strabo on the 
gulf of Adramytteion, near Thebe. The 
historical Chryse was on the west coast 

of the Troad, though others, hard put to 
it to explain why Chryseis was captured 
at Thebe (see 366), knew of a Chryse 
close to Killa, afterwards deserted (Strabo 
pp. 604, 612-3). The alternative explan- 
ation was that she was on a visit to rela- 
tives at Thebe. Cf. note on 184. iixx<p\- 
BeBHKQC, staiulest round about, as protect- 
ing deity, like a warrior protecting a fallen 
friend, e.g. P 4. Cf. Aisch. Sept. 174 lii 
(pIXoi dalfxoves \vTrjpLOi d/j.(pLJ3dvT€i irokiv. 

38. dwdcceic, protectest by thy might, 
rather than 7-ulest ; see note on Z 402. 

39. ZuiNecO, lit. ' Mouse-god ' ; Apollo 
was worshipped under this title in the 
Troad, as at Smyrna as " Locust -god,' 
Uapvdirios. Strabo (p. 606) knows of 
several places named Smintliia, as far as 
Rhodes. The Sminthian temple near 
Cape Lekton existed to historical times ; 
and even on late coins of Alexandria 
Troas Apollo appears with a mouse at his 
feet. Mr. Lang argues that this indicates 
the amalgamation of the Greek Apollo 
with a local mouse -god, originally a 
tribal totem. The common explanation 
is that the word is a familiar abbreviation 
of ^fiLv0o(p96pos, destroying the field-mice 
or voles which ravaged the vineyards : 
oi yap Kp7]T€s rovs p-vas cr/xlvdovs KaXovcnv 
Schol. A (see Frazer's note on Pans. x. 
1 2. 5). Only a few years ago Thessaly was 
seriously injured by an invasion of these 
little pests. Others see in the mouse 
the symbol of plague, which would be 
especially suitable here. In Herodotos the 
destruction of the arrav of Sennacherib 

lAlAAOC A (i) 

■^7 €1 S»7 TTore roc Kara iriova /u.r;pt eKrja 
ravpwv 77S' aljMV, roSe jxoi Kpijrjvov ie\S(op- 
rlaeiav Aavaol e/xa huKpva aolcn ^eXeaatv. 

ft)? e(l)aT ev'xpijbevo'i, rov 8' ^/cXfe 4)ot^o9 'KiroWijov, 
^rj Se Kar OvXvfiTroio Kapi]V(Ov '^coo/jLevo'i KTjp, 
t6^^ MfioiaLV e')(oov afx(f)7]p€(f)€a re cf)apeTprjv. 
eKXay^au 8' ap' 6l(XtoI eV MfMcov ^wofxevoio, 
avTOV Kivri6hno<i' 6 8' rjie vvktI ioiK(o<;, 
e^er' eiretr airdvevOe vewv, fiera S lov erjKe- 
Becvrj Se KXa'yyr] •yiver dpyvpeoto /Scoto. 
ovpr]a>i fiev irpwrov e7roii')(eT0 kol Kvva<; dpyov^, 
avrap eiTeir avrolai ^e\o<i e'p^eTreu/ce? e'^tet? 
/3aX.A.'* alel Be irvpal v€kvu>v Kaiovro Oafieiai. • 

evvrjjjbap fiev dvd cTTparov wf^eTO KrjXa deolo, 
TrJL BeKarrji 8' djopt^vSe Kokeacraro \aov 'A^iWef?" 
TO)i yap eVl (fypeal OrjKe 6ea XevKooXevo^i ' Hp?; • 




41. Tode 
46-7 6.6. Zen. 
M 463). 

t6 "di Ar. 42. TiceiaN Zen. (?) fl: xicaieN Ar. ? (see Ludw. ad loc). 
46. €K\asaN T^ Lips.^ 47. loiKCOC : ^Xuceeic Zen. (Schol. 

51. 6^\oc r S. II d9ieic S Mosc. 3. 

is attributed not to a plague but to a 
host of field -mice which gnawed the 
Assyrian bow-strings in the night. A 
somewhat similar story connected with 
the colonization of the Troad is told by 
Strabo (p. 604). In 1 Sam. vi. 4 golden 
mice are offered as a propitiation when 
visited by a plague (W. Robertson Smith 
Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia 
p. 302, where further evidence is given 
for a Semitic mouse-god). ^pei(»a seems 
to indicate the most primitive form of 
temple — a mere roof to protect the image 
of a god standing in a grove ; for it was 
to groves, not to buildings, that sanctity 
originally belonged. Temples are rarely 
mentioned in H. ; we hear only of those 
of Apollo and Athene in Troy, and of 
Athene at Athens. See note on E 446. 
XapieNTa seems to be proleptic, for thy 
2)leasure. For the construction of the 
prayer cf. E 115. 

40. nioNa uHpia : see note on 460. 

42. For the form rlaaiev, probably 
read here by Ar., see note on ft 38. 

47. aCiToO, ' he ' emphatic, ' the 
god ' ; a use which reminds us of the 
Pythagorean avrbs 
have expected the 
opposition to some 


We should 
to imply an 
person as in 

51 ; merely to contrast the god with 
the arrows seems weak. It was probably 
this which induced Zen., followed by 
Bentley and Fjekker, to athetize this 
and the preceding line ; but the couplet 
is too fine to be sacrificed. 

50. entoixero, visited ; the word is 
used in this sense only of attacks made 
by a god or under immediate divine 
inspiration ; v. note on K 487. 

51. qOtoTci, the men. 

52. The position of B6lK\' is the most 
emphatic possible ; the same effect is 
obtained by Milton, ' Over them tri- 
umphant death his dart | Shook ; 
delayed to strike.' ^xeneuK^c, 
having sharpness. For the form of 
compound see H. G. § 124 d. irevK 
doubtless conn, with Lat. pug-, pungo, 
cf. TTspLTrevKes A 845, irevKedavos K 8. 

53. The rhythm of this line is very 
strange ; the connexion of the preposi- 
tion with its case is so close as hardly to 
admit a caesura ; but there is no other 
in the third or fourth foot, cf. 2 191. 
fiNNHJuap . . THi ScKdxHi : the regular 
formula for a vague number of days ; 
Z 174, fi 610, and elsewhere often. 

55. Tcoi eni <pped ewKe : so 6 218, 
\ 146 ^TTOs tpeoo Kal iirl (ppeal drjau, etc. 





lAIAAOC A (i) - 

KrjSero yap Aavacov, otl pa OvrjLcxKOVTa'i oparo. 

oi 8 eVei ovv -rjyepdev 6fjiT]'yepi€'i re yevovro, 

Tolai 8 dvLcrTd/u,evo<; /j.eT6(j)7] ttoSo.? co/cy? 'A^tWei/? ' 

" ArpetSr), vvv apbjxe ttoXcv 7r\a<y^6evTa<i olco 

a'\Jr aTTOvoarrjaeiv, e't Kev ddvarov ye (^vyotpbev, 

el hrj ofiov TroXeyLto? re Sap,dt Kal \oi/jLo<i 'A^atoy?. 

aXX dye 81'] rcva (xdyriv epeiofxev i) leprja 

i] Kal ovetpoTToXov, Kal ydp r ovap e/c Aio<? eanv, 

69 K e(,7roi ort, rocraov e^Mcraro ^ol^o<; W.7r6WQ)v, 

et rap 6 y ev-^oiKrji; i7n/j,€p,(f)erai ^S eKaro/ju^rjii- 



56. 6pHT0 Zen. 59. naXiJuinXa(r)xeeNTac fi (-tq S : naXinXaxeeNxac D : 

naXiunXare- P). 60. oY ken Zen. : aY kcn C. 61. n6Xejutoc 9' dug Mosc. 1 

(noXejuoc daudg ?). 62. ciXXd re P (this variant is almost always found in some 

MS. and will not be again recorded). 63 dd. Zen. 64. eYnH H (siq)}'. 01) L. 

65. €1 rap Herod. A : eY x Sp fi. || h5' fi (Ha' A). [All printed edd. hitherto 
have read eY t' csp' . . eY e', but eY e' appears to have no MS. authority whatever, 
and is presumably a conj. of Demetrius Chalcondylas, editor of the editio ririnceps, 
1488. Cf. on 93.] 

A rather commoner phrase is ktii cppeal 
{dvfxwi., (TTTideaai), which shows that iwl 
(ppeai is to be taken in a locative sense. 

56. Note the variant oprJTo {opyjTo) 
ascribed to Zen., and compare SpTjat 
^ 343. The form in -??- agrees with 
the Ionic colouring of our present text ; 
oparo would be the old non- thematic 
form, but oparo is more probably due to 
Attic influence than to a survival from 
a prae-Ionic text. 

59. nXarxocNTac, foiled, lit. driven 
from the course ; cf. B 132 o'i fxe fxiya 
irXd^ovcTL. The MSS. write iraXL/xTrXayx- 
devras in one word, which is so far right, 
as it indicates that irdXiv is to be taken 
in a purely local sense. There is an old 
and wrong explanation, that irdXiv means 
' once again, ' and contains an allusion 
to the legend, unknown to Homer, of 
a previous expedition against Troy in 
which the Greeks had lost their way, 
and invaded Mysia by mistake. See 
note on B 276. 

60. eY KeN with the opt. assumes as a 
mere supposition, which is expi-essed as 
unlikely ('remoter and less emphatic,' 
M. and T. § 460), while in the next line 
et with the future indie, assumes as a 
vivid probability. After oi'w dwovoaTT)- 
ffeiv it comes in like a sudden correction 
of a too confident expression. 

62. IpeioJUEN is an anomalous form, 
and should come from a present * epyjixL 
{H. G. § 80). The -0- cannot, of course, 

stand in the pres. subj. of a thematic 
form. Nauck writes ipihixeOa (cf. 6 133), 
Schulze ip-qofiev, Fick ipei/o/jLev, as aorist 
{epevai like xeOat). The iepeuc is men- 
tioned merely as an authority on ritual 
(65), not as a diviner ; for the Homeric 
priest as such seems to have had no 
functions of divination ; there are no 
omens from sacrifices. 

63. oNeiponoXoc, either a dreamer of 
dreams, one who has converse with the 
god in sleep ; or an interpreter of the 
dreams of others. In the absence of any 
other mention of professional dreamers 
or interpreters in H. (which doubtless 
led Zen. to reject the line) we cannot 
decide between the two. The root ttoX 
seems to have been a very primitive word 
for agricultural and pastoral duties ; cf. 
olwvowdXos beside ai-TrSX-os {^ov-koX-os is 
probably from the same root kar, Curt. 
M. p. 470). It thus means ' one who 
attends to dreams,' or perhaps, as we 
might say, ' cultivates ' them ; compare 
the double significance of Lat. col-ere. 

64. oTi is the rel. pron., not the ad- 
verb, and is, like roacrov, an adverbial 
ace, expressing the content of fxaxraro : 
cf. e 215 fj.rj fjLOL Tode xweo, and E 185. 

65. For rap see on 1. 8. Herodianos 
expressly read it here, not r' 5.p, on the 
ground oCik iariv 6 re awdeafj-os' evecpepero 
ydp cLi> erepos re. He thus distinctl}' 
excludes the accepted but purel}' con 
jectural reading et d' for ijS'. Granting 

lAIAAOC A (i) 

at Kev 7rco<i dpvcov KVLcn]<; alycov re reXetcov 
^ovXerat dvTLdaa<i i)/xiv diro Xotyov dfivvai. ' 

7} rot 6 y o)<i elirodv Kar dp e^ero, rolau S dvecnrj 
KaXva? ^)e(TTopLhr)<i, olwvoiroX.oyv 6'^ dpiaro'^, 
09 Tfihr] rd t eovra rd r iaaojxeva irpo r eovra, 
Kal vrjecra i)yrj(TaT A'^atcav IXiov elaw 
rjv 8td [xavToavvrjv, Tr}v ol Trope ^oc/3o<; AiroWcov 
6 (Tiptv iv (fipovecov dyoprjaaTO Kal pbereei'Trev' 
" CO 'A^tXeO, KeXeai /xe, hd(^iKe, p.v6r](raa9ai 
fxrjvtv 'AttoA.Xwi'OS', eKaT7]/3e\eTao dvaKTO<;- 
Tocydp eycbv epeco, crv 8e avvdeo kul /xol o/xocraov 
rj jxev iJbOL 7rpo(f)p(ov eirecnv Kal '^epcrlv dprj^eiv. 


66. KNICHC Ar. : KNic(c)HC 12 : knicchc R : rwh knIchic is implied in Did. 68. 
dKaeezexo Zen. 69. KdXxciC : juw4ntic Zen. 70. fiaei Jip Mor. Vr. b, 

Mosc. 1-. 73. o Ar. ACD'GT al. : oc /)"HJPi (?) Ambr. al. : oc juin dueiBoucNoc 

Snea njepoeNxa npocHu9a Zen. 76. ^rcb peco J^. 

the existence of rap — and the analogy of 
yap shews that it is at least possible — 
there is no reason for disregarding the 
unanimous tradition. The case is pre- 
cisely the same in 9-3, where the corres- 
ponding conj. oi'd' has supplanted the 
only attested reading ovd'. For the use 
of the gen. cf. H. G. § 151 c, and for other 
cases of res pro rei dcfedu (vow and 
hecatomb not paid) E 178, 'I' 457. A 
colon is put at the end of the line (with 
Cauer), because the following al' /ce is 
not a continuation of the preceding line, 
but recurs to the opening of the sentence 
(62), 'in the hope that.' 

66. It will be observed that the 
rams and goats seem to represent the 
'hecatomb,' which here does' not con- 
sist of 100 or of any oxen. It may 
indeed be doubted if the -/S?; represents 
jSous at all. (Piatt explains the word as 
'one hundredth of the oxen' a man 
has ; but even that does not suit this 
place. ) 

67. BouXerai after at kev must be 
subj., and is therefore an erroneous 
form, as the subj. of thematic verb- 
stems must have the long vowel {H. G. 
§ 82). Read ^ovXrjr' with P. Knight 
and Curtius ( Fb. ii. 72). 

69. ox' : a word which only occurs in 
the phrase o'x' dpiaros, and is of quite 
uncertain origin. It is generally com- 
pared with e^oxos, where, however, the 
idea of eminence is given by the e^. 

71. Hreojaai, with dat. = to guide, as 

X 101, \p 134, etc. ; with gen. = to com- 
mand. eYcco is a pure adv., the ace. 
giving the idea 'to Ilios' (H. G. § 140, 
4), and et(rw being added — inside. 
This is always the use of eto-w in II., 
and virtually makes ei'(rw = ets. In Od. 
there is one instance {d 290) of the 
' quasi -prepositional ' use with gen. 
familiar in later Greek. The earlier 
history of the expedition is evidently 
presumed as a familiar story. The 
/jLCLVTis was in historical times a regular 
official in every Greek army. 

73. eu 9poNecoN may be either (1) ivith 
(food seiise, opposed to a(ppoviwv, 104 ; 
or (2) tvith good intent, opposed to KaKws 
(ppoveuiv. This double meaning runs 
through later Greek: e.g. (1) Aisch. 
Prom. 385 Kepdiarov ed (ppovovvTa fi^ 
doKelu (ppoveZv, and (2) Ag. 1436 AXyiffOo'i 
(is TO irpbadev ev (ppovQv e/jLoi. 

74. It would seem natural to write 
Aa </)tXe as two words {H. G. § 124 /), 
but for the analogy of SaTrerijs, where 
the second element cannot have been 
independent. Probably, therefore, the 
combination was at an early date felt 
as a real compound. So also we have 
dprfi<paTOS beside dprjiKTafievos {"A-prjC 
KTCL/j-evos), TTvpiTjKris bcsidc dovpiKXvTos, 

76. Cf. Z 334, o 318, tt 259. cuNeeo, 
mai'k my xvords, as T 84, p 153. 

77. H jueN is the regular Homeric 
formula of swearing, Att. ^ fi-qv. The 
short vowel is confirmed by the metre in 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

rj yap olofxat avSpa yoXaxrefMev, b? fieya iravroiv 
^Apyeiojv Kpareet kul ol TreiOovrai Kyawt. 
Kpeiacroiv yap ^acrtXev'i, ore '^(ocreraL dvSpl %e/0'?t' 
el' Trep yap re yoXov ye Kal avTTjfxap KaraTre^lrrji, 
dWd T€ Kal fxeTOTnadev e'^ei kotov, 6<^pa rekecrarji, 
iv cmfjOeacnv eoicrc. crv 8e cfipdaac, et fxe aacocrei^. 

rov S' d7rafMei^6fievo<; Trpoaecj^tj 7ro8a9 o)Kv<i ' Ap^tWei"? • 
" 6ap(T^aa<; fjbdXa elite OeoTrpoinov, on dlada' 
ou fid yap ^ ATToXXwva Sdcfiikov, ml re crv, KaX^az^, 
evyojuievo^ Aavaotcn deo7rpo7rLa<; ava(f)aLvet^, 
ov Tt? i/jL€v ^oiVTO<i Kal eirl '^dovl BepKO/xevoLO 
<rol KOi\r]c<; irapd vrjval /3apeia<; ■^eipa'i eiroia-ei 
a-vjjbTTdvTWv ^avawv, oi)8' riv ^Aya/xe/uuvova et7n]L<i, 
o? vvv TToWov dpiaro<; ^A-^aicov ev'^erat eivai. 

Kal Tore 8r) ddparjcre Kal 7]v8a fj,dvTi.<; d/jbv/jiwv 




81. KQTaneij/oi (CsH^j?-.) Laud. Vat. : Kaxanejunj/H S 
(sitpr. Ol). 82. Ve A[Z)]U Eton. • " <^ «-'' moarow 7pn. Par. fl. II cacdCHC 

80 dd. Zen. || Kpekcco Zen. 

D\ 85. oiceac Zen. ? 

KoiXaic G. II €9Hcei Vr. a. 
Sosigenes [S ?] : eui cTpaT(2>i fi 

re Q. 83. 9pdcoN Zen. Par. d. || caobcHC 

86. KdXxa Zen. D Par. c. 88. zcoontoc D. 89. 
90. eYnoic R. 91. axatcoN Ar. Zen. Aph. 

3 275, T 261. fiev and /jiriv are of course 
only two forms of the same word. 

78. QNdpa is of course the object of 
the transitive xoXwo-e/xey. 

80. X^P"'' • another form of xepeiovt, 
with the weak comp. stem -ua- or -la- 
(cf. -iff-Tos and Lat. mag-is, mag-is-ter). 
See H. G. § 121 and note on the 
analogous TrXees, B 129. x^P'J'iWill then 
stand for x^/'"'; " being altered to -q on 
the analogy of the other forms mentioned 
in H. G. App. C, 4. See also A 400, S 

81. Kaxan^ij/Hi, swallow down, lit. di- 
gest, as we say 'stomach.' Cf. on B 237, 
and Pindar 0. i. 55 /car. /xeyav oK^ov. 
x6XoN, as sudden anger, is contrasted 
by ye Avith k6ton, enduring resentment. 
o(ppa may mean until, but the omission 
of Ke indicates rather that it is iinal. 
e'l n^p re . . dXX<4 te : Tehere marks the 
two sentences as being correlative ; so 
K 225 Iq.v.), A 161. 

83. 9pdcai, consider ; neither act. nor 
mid. means say in Homer. 

85. eeonp6nioN : the neuter form 
occurs only here in H. (and possibly Z 
438, where however it is merely a 
question of accent), and seems harsh in 

the immediate neighbourhood of the 
commoner deoTrpoiriy] (87). Hence both 
deoTrpoTTLwu and -iriwv {Nauck, as 109) 
have been conjectured here. But 
deoirpd-mov is well established in Herod. 
(e.g. i. 54, 68). Oeoirpoiros is probably 
one who prays to a god (irpoir- is perhaps 
conn, with Lat. pi-ec-, j)rocus, etc.). In 
Herod, it is used of one who consults 
an oracle (i. 67). (Cf. [^]to7rpo7ri'ocros 
Olvox^Sao, Collitz 494, 17, from Or- 

88. Cf. TT 439. ^Xeireiv is commonly 
used in Attic in the sense of living ; e.g. 
Eur. Ale. 143 Kal ttiDs ai' avrbs Karddvoi 
T€ Kal /SXfTTot ; This line and the next 
contain three sins against old Epic 
prosody, the contracted e/j-eu and j'wvros, 
and Koi\7]is for KoiX-rjiai. Van Leeuwen 
and others have removed them, but only 
by rewriting the couplet after the model 
of the line in tt, which has the older 
forms {oiiTLs trot irapa fTjiial ^ap. x- iTroicrei, 
j'woj'Tos y' ifxidev /cat e. x^- ^O- 

91. eXiferm does not imply any boast- 
fulness in our sense of the word, but 
merely a naive consciousness of his 
position. False modesty is unknown to 
the Homeric hero. 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


" ou rap 6 7 ei^^wA,?}? eTTifie/jbcfyeTaL ov8 eKaro^jBrj'^, 

aXk! eW/c' dprjTTjpo'^, ov rjTifirjcr Ayafiefivcov (rr^ "VVvoJt 

ovB' aireXvae 6v<yarpa kuI ovk inrehe^ar ctiroiva, 95 

TovveK ap aXye eocoKev eKTjpoXo'i rjo ere ouxjec. 

ouS 6 ye Trplv Aavaolaiv deiKea Xoiyov dTrcoaet, 

Trpiv 7 aTTo Trarpl (jilXwt Bofjuevai kXiKianTiha Kovpriv 

dirpidrriv dydiroivov, ayetv 6^ leprjv eKarofi/3')]v 

69 ^pv(T7]v TOT€ Kev jjbiv IXaaadfievoi TreTrvdoifiev. 100 

Tj rot, 6 7 W9 eliroiv Kar ap' e^ero, rolcn h dvecrrr) 
i]pco<; \rp€'i8r}<; €vpu Kpelcov ^Ayafiefxvcov 
d'^vv/jbevo^;' pbeveo'i he /xeya (f)pepe<; d/xcpl fxekaLvai 

93. Oli Tap Herod. : oOt' Hp' (Bp) fl. || oub' fl : oOe' [G ? U ?] : oOt' J. See 

on 65. I can find no explicit statement that oOe' appears in any MS. 94. 

Hxiuac' LS. 96 ad. Ar. || eKaxHBdXoc S. 97. boNaoTciN aciKca XoiroN 

cincbcei Ar. Rhianos Massil.: XoiuoTo Bapeiac x^^pac CKpesei Zen. fi. 100. 

t6t€ : aY Zen. 

93. See on 6.5. 

94. htIuhc' — Nauck T^rt^atrcr' : see on 

97. AaNQoTciN aeiKca \oir6N ancocei : 

so the editions of Ar. and Rliianos, and 
the Maa-traXtojrt/cTj. MSS. give \oifxoio 
^apelas xf'P'^s dcpe^ei, he will not with- 
hold his hcnulsfrom the pestilence, whicli 
is meaningless. To translate 'he will 
not keep off (from ns) the heavy hands 
of the pestilence ' involves a very un- 
Homeric personification of \ol/j.6s, which 
is not much improved by Markland's 
conj., KTjpas for x^'pcts (cf. i' 263, (p 548) ; 
moreover this leaves no subject for the 
verbs in the next line. Still, in face of 
the almost unanimous tradition, the text, 
like Zen.'s (pl\ov ^jrop in Z 285, looks very 
like a bold ancient conj. to avoid an 
obvious difficulty. 

98. eXiKconiQa, with the masc. eXt- 
KWTres ('Axa'ot), has been variously ex- 
plained : (1) by the ancients black-eyed, 
but eXiK-6s in such a sense has no better 
authority than the glossographers, weakly 
supported by a quotation from Kalli- 
machos ; (2) ivith round eyes, ?Xtt = 
curved ; but eXt^ rather means 'twisted,' 
and is not used of a circular curve ; (3) 
rolling the eyes ; (4) sparkling-eyed, (root 
creX- of o-eXas : SO Ameis). The choice 
lies between (3) and (4), of which the 
former seems preferable. The epithet 
well expresses a vivacious keen spirit, 
such as the Greeks were conscious of 
possessing ; while, as applied to a woman, 

it will imply eagerness and youthful 
brightness. It is therefore needless to 
look beyond the familiar sense of FeXiK- 
for an interpretation. eXiKojBXecpapoi' 
' AcppodLTT]!' in Hesiod Th. 16 must imply 
a loose use of ^Xecpapov as = B/xpLa, cf. 
eyd} CTKOTwao} pXicpapa /cat dedopKora, 
Soph. Aj. 85 and elsewhere in Trag. 

99. dnpidxHN and ONdnoiNON were 
regarded by Ar. as adverbs — perhaps 
rightly. airpiaTijv is certainly so used 
in ^ 317 ; for the form cf. avTi^iy^v, etc. 

103. hxxiyX u^XaiNai is the Alexandrine 
reading ; most edd. give dfj.(pi/xe\aivai. 
The phrase recurs in P 83, 499, 573 
(5 661 is probably imitated from this 
passage). It means literally his midriff 
black (with anger) ivas full of fury on 
both sides (above and below). This 
connection of dficpL with (ppeves is 
common ; e.g. T 442 epos (ppevas dficp- 
eKoXvxj/e, Z 355 ttovos (ppevas dficpi^e^TiKe, 
and other instances in II. G. § 181 ; 
(ppevas diJi(pLy€yrj6dbs Hym. Ayoll. 273. 
For the epithet ueXaiNai, as expressing 
deep emotion, cf. Aisch. Fers. 113 raOrd 
/U.ot iJ.eKay)(lTijiv <ppr\v dixvcrfferai (pb^wL. 
Cho. 413 fftrXdyx^'^ ^^ ("■<" KeKaLvovrai., 
Theog. 1199 KpaSirjv eTrdra^e fieXaivav, 
as well as the Homeric Kpadlrj iropcpvpe. 
This (Autenrieth's) explanation seems 
much superior to the ordinary inter- 
pretation of d,u(pL/ji,€\aiva(. as ' lying in 
the midmost darkness of the body," 
which is 'hardly Homeric either in 
thought or expression ; but the com- 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

TrifiTrXavT , oaae Be ol Trvpl XafXTrerocovrt iiKxriv. 

K.aX'^avTa TrpcoTicTTa kcik ocrcro/xevo^ TrpoaeecTre- 

" /uidvTt KUKwv, ov TTco TTOTe fjiOL TO Kpijyvov etTTa?  

alec TOi TO, KUK ecrrl (f)i\a (ppecrl pbavTeveaOai, 

iadXov S ovre ri irco etTra? e7ro9 out ereXeaaa^;. 

Koi vvv iv AavaoicTi deoTrpoirewv dyop€V€i<;, 

ft)? Br) TovB' eveKci crcpiv e/CT/ySoXo? ak<yea revyei, 

ovveK iyoi Kovpr]<; ^pucn]tBo<; dyXa diroiva 

ovK eOeXov Be^aaOai, — eirel iroiXv jBovkop^ai avrrjv 

OLKOc 6'^eiv. Kol yap pa KXvraLp.vrjcTTp'rj'i TrpojSe/SovXa, 

KOvpLBirj<i ciko^ov, eirel ov iOev iart 'yepeiwv, 



106. eTnac Ar. East. : cTnec A Cant. Vr. c A, Lips. : eemec CJTU^ : ieinac 12. 
108. oiire Ti Ar. Apli. fi: othi ti A svp)-. (T.W.A.) DU^ : oCjt' ^ti Bar. || emcc 
Dtt^T I out' ereXeccac Ar. Aph. : ou3' cxeXeccac fi. 110 dO. Ar. 113. 

pa om. Lips, il KXuTaiJUNHCTpHC : A has two dots above the n to mark it as 

pound may be explained as j>roleptic, 
' so as to become darkened all about ' 
(with anger). Although in P 499, 573, 
anger is not in question, yet both refer 
to moments of strong emotion. The 
metaphor seems to come from the surface 
of water darkened by a breeze blowing 
over it ; cf. fi 79, and especially S 16 
ws 6're wopcpvprj weXayos . . &s 6 yepuv 
ibpixaive. So KoXxo-ivetv in Soph. Ant. 
20, where see Jebb's note. 

105. kok' 6cc6u€noc, otl diro tQv 
offcrcjv KaKUJS vindo/xevos, ovk dirb ttjs 
oaarjs, rrjs (poovTJs, KaKoKoyrjaa^, Ariston. 
The verb is always used of the mind's 
eye in the sense of boding ; dvfios is 
generally added, e.g. k 374, a 154, 2 

106. KpHruoN, a doubtful word ; it 
evidently means good, though in late 
Greek it is sometimes used in the sense 
of true. But the line labours under 
many suspicious irregularities — the use 
of the article, the neglected F of f etTras, 
and the lengthening of to by position 
in the fourth thesis. Furthermore, to 
Kpriyvov in the sense that which is good 
is Attic, and unexampled in H. rd 
KaKd in the next line, those evil things 
of thine, is entirely ditferent. Hence 
Bentley's ra Kp-qyva is but a partial 
remedy, and there seems to be some 
grave corruption. As we know nothing 
of the origin of Kprjyvov, the i» may, for 
all we can tell, have been long ; we 
could then read oi" tpui vore fj-oL Kprjyvov 

eeiwas, and the MS. variants may point 
to something of the sort. For the form 
efnac see ff. G. § 37. 

107. For the personal constr. 9iXa 
ecTi uaNTeueceai cf. A 345 <pL\' oTTToKea 
Kpea. ^8/x€vai., p 347 at'Sws ovk dyaOr] 
KexpyjiJ-ivLoi. dv5pl Trapelvai, etc. ; see II. G. 
§ 232. 

112. BouXojuai, "prefer, as in 117, A 
319, ^ 594, and often ; and with ttoXi^, 
P 331. This sense is still more em- 
phatically brought out in the following 
compound, 7rpo/3e'/3oi»Xa (the perf. is ott. 
Xe7. in Greek outside the Anthology). It 
is in this sense of choice that ^ovKofxai. 
differs from edeXoi, not in any subtle 
difference as to the efiicacy of the wish. 
aoTHN, emphatic, as opposed to the 

113. This is the only occurrence of the 
name of Ivlytaimnestra in the Iliad. It 
will be seen that A has an indication of 
what is now generally acknowledged to 
be the correct form, KXvraLfiriffTpT], given 
by the best mss. of Aischylos and 
Soph., though the rest have the faulty 

114. K0upi3iHC, a difficirlt word; the 
most plausible, but not entirely satis- 
factory, explanation is that of Curtius 
{Stud. i. 253), who derives it from Keipu, 
and refers it to the custom of cutting 
the bride's hair before marriage ; hence 
' wedded. ' So Kovpos from the custom 
of cutting the TrXiKa/Mos dpewTripios at the 
age of puberty. 

lAIAAOC A (i) 

01) 8€fjua<; ouSe ^vi]v, ovt ap ^p€pa<; ovre tl epya. 

dWa Kal CO? ideXw hopbevat iraXiv, el to 7' dp^etvov 

^ovXopb iyo) \aov croov epupbevat i] ciTroXeaOat. 

avrap €p,ol yepaf; aurt^' eToip,daar, 6(f)pa /x?) oio'^ 

^Apyelojv d'yepaaTO'i eo), eVei ovSe eocKe- 

Xevacrere yap to ye 7rdvTe<i, 6 p,oi yepa<i ep'^CTai uWtji. 

TOP B' rjp,€L^€T eireiTa 7roSdpKri<; Slo<; 'A^tWei"?* 
" ^ATpei'Sr) KvSicTTe, (f)i\oKT€avcoTaT€ irdvTOiv, 
TTw? Tap TOi Sdocrouat, yepa<i pueydOvp^oi A^atot ; 
ovhe Tt TTCt) Xhpuev ^vvi'fia Kelpueva iroWd, 
dXXa TO. piev ttoXlwv e^eirpdOopiev, tcl hehacrTat, 
\aov<; 8' ovK eireoiKe 7ra\iWoya TavT eTrayeipetv. 
dXka ail puev vvv TrjvSe Oeoa 7rpo€<;, avTap 'Amatol 
TpiTfKrji, T€Tpa7r\r]i, t diroTiaopiep, at /ce ttoOl Zev? 




116. aueiNON : SpicTON L. 117 dd. Zen. || c6oN (cuboN) fi : ccon Ar. : 

cdoN Apoll. dc Colli. 120. Xeucaxe G : Xcucexc muUi. \\ to re : t6t£ Vr. a. 

122. 9i\oKT€aNecTaTe Aph. (ace. to Seleukos ap. Eust.). 123. Tap A: rdp fi. 
124. nco : nou Ar. Aph. (A sitpr. but ou dotted, T.W.A.). 

115. The distinction of S^uac and (puti 
is not quite clear. From phrases like 
Sefxas irvp6s it would seem natural to 
take 5^/nas as ' outward appearance ' 
generally; (pvn as 'growth,' i.e. 'stat- 
ure.' But this latter meaning belongs 
to Befias in E 801 Ti)5ei;s roi fiiKpos ixev 
It]v 5e/Lias. Perhaps we may render 
' stature and figure ' with about the 
same degree of vagueness. Cf. N 432 
KaXKeC Kal epyoKnu 18^ (ppeai. 

117. OTi ZrivodoTOS avTov rjdirTjKev (lis 
TTJs SLavolas evr]dovs ovcrrfs. 01) del Si avrbv 
idiaL wpoipepecrdai, dXKa avvaTTTeLV tols avw 
iv Tvapevdiffei. (MS. ev ijdeL) yap XeyeraL, 
Ariston., rightly. (For the emendation 
of ev ijdeL see Verrall on Eur. Med. 148 ; 
so in SchoL A on A 234, E 150.) cdoN 
is preferable to the aQv of Ar., a con- 
tracted form not elsewhere found in H. 
except in the nom. (tws in X 332. But 
the correct form is (tclos : see note on 
I 424. 

118. r^pac, the gift of honour to the 
king, set aside before the division of the 

119. oubk eoiKE, perhaps 'it is not 
even decent,' much less reasonable. 

123. Tap : see on 8. It is to be pre- 
ferred as the rarer form, and has prob- 

ably often been supplanted by yap in 
similar passages. 

124. KEJJueNa noWd go together, a 
common store laid up in abundance. 
HUNiiTa recurs as an adj. in 4^ 809. nco 
here, as often in H., in any ivisc ; it is 
not restricted, as in later use, to the 
sense yet. 

125. Td JU.^N is here the relative, what 
we have plundered oiit of the towns, that 
is divided. But this use of rd is not 
consistent with the usual practice by 
which the art. when used as a relative 
nwist follow the noun or pronoun to which 
it refers, and we ought probably to read 
aXXd 6' cL flip (see II. G. § 262). Even 
then e^eTrpdOofiev is curious ; elsewhere 
wepdeiv is used only with city, not booty, 
as the object. The preceding ten years 
of war have been mainly occupied in 
plundering neighbouring toAvns ; Achilles 
counts twenty-three such forays in I 328, 
and they are alluded to elsewhere. 

126. Xaoiic is perhaps to be taken 
after enareipeiN, in the sense to gather 
again from the people, with the double 
ace. usual after verbs of taking away. 
iiri.- thus expresses, as often, the idea of 
going over a space, or round a number 

of people, e.g. ewLveLfxai, 
iinaTpucpdv (Paley). 



lAIAAOC A (i) 

ScotaL TToXiv Tpoirjv evrei'^eov i^oKaTrd^at.' 

Tov 8' aTrafMet/Sofx.evo'i irpocre^ri Kpeicov Aja/xe/xvcov 130 
" fiT) S' ovT(i)<;, d<ya6o<i irep icov, deoeLKeX" A^cWev, 
Kkeirre vooit, eVel ov irapeXevcreat ovSe pie iretcreL^. 
r) i6e\eL<;, ocpp' auro? e')(rii<i yepa<;, avrap e/M avrco'i 
rjadai hevofxevov, Kekeat Be p,e rrjvh^ aTroSovvai ; 
aXk' el fjiev Bcocrovac yepwi p.e'yd6vp,oi W'^ulol, 135 

apaavTe^ Kara dvfiov, 07ra)9 dvrd^iov ecrrac- 

129. TpoiHN Zen. : TpoiHN Ar. 132. NOCOI : noon U. 

133. ex€ic C. 136. SpcaNxec Ar. A. 

133-4 dd. Ar. 

129. Ipot-qv, Ar., as an adj., a city of 
Troas, not 'the town of Troy.' It 
might appear in that case better to read 
Tpojtijj', the usual form of the adj. (v. 
Cobet 31. C. 252) ; but as Tpwtos 
generally, though by no means always, 
stands with the first syllable in thesis, 
it is probable that it should itself be 
written Tpolbs : see van L. Ench. p. 84. 
Ar. held that H. does not use the ex- 
pression TToXts Tpoi?? for ' the town of 
Troy,' birt ttoXis Tpciwi/, though in A 
510 TToXts TpotT? (Ar. Tpotri) must mean 
' Troy ' ; and there seems no reason to 
reject this sense here. Zoilos, the famous 
'OfjLT]pofjLdaTL^, accused Homer of solecism 
in this line for using a plural verb 
instead of a singular ; he must therefore 
have read SQai, which was probably 
indeed the original form of the 3rd sing, 
subj., answering to ^ddt, not a contraction 
of 5iI}7]iaL : see H. G. § 81, and Mulvany 
in G. a. X. p. 25. Brandreth after P. 
Knight reads 8dn]ia-L Tpoitjv. 

131. nep seems hereto have merely 
its original force of ' very,' rather than 
of 'though,' which indeed belongs pro- 
perly to the participle. The meaning is 
'Being a very great warrior (the Horn. 
sense of 1170^65), be content with that, 
and do not attempt to outdo me in 
cunning too.' 

132. n6coi is here instrumental rather 
than locative ; lit. ' by thought ' as 
opposed to brute force. Cf. Soph. EL 
56 \6yo}t KKiiTTOVTes, and 3 217 irdp- 
(j>a(JLS, Tj T ^KXetj/e vbov iriKa irep (ppovebv- 
Tiijv : and for TrapeXe^aeai, v 291 /cepSaXeos 
k' eiri Kal eTrlKXairos, 6s ere jrap^Xdoi, e 104 
wape^eXdelv Aids vbov. So Theog. 1285 
SoXojt irapeXeiJaeaL. 

133. Three ways of translating this 
line have been proposed, (a) ' Wouldest 
thou, while thou thyself keepest thy 

prize, have me for my part sit idle with 
empty hands ? ' ih) ' Wouldest thou, 
in order that thou mayest keep,' etc. 
(c) ' Dost thou wish that thou shouldest 
keep thy prize, but that I should sit,' 
etc. In favour of the construction of 
idiXeiv with 6(ppa instead of the infin. in 
(c) E 690 is quoted, XeXnju^vos ocppa 
Taxtcrra &aaLT 'Apyeiovs, and so A 465 ; 
but in neither of these passages is it 
necessary to join 6<ppa with the participle. 
Cf. also Z 361 dv/ iirecravTai 6(ppa. 
In n 653 6(ppa with the opt. seems to 
be epexegetic of ehai : but that single 
passage does not justify our assuming so 
harsh a construction here, especially as 
there is nothing in the way of the 
natural construction avrbs fiiv ^x^'"- 
Both (a) and {b) give a good sense, (a) 
referring to the distance of time at which 
the recompense is to be made (128), (b) 
to Achilles' refusal to accord the resti- 
tution at all. But (b) is preferable, 
firstly, because 6(ppa when it stands 
alone is commonly a final particle ; in 
the sense of iws it is regularly followed 
by Tb(ppa (not always, v. "^ 47, A 346 ; 
H. G. § 287) ; and secondly, because for 
^XV-^ we want in this sense ^x^is (which 
C reads). The aOrdp is not of course 
logical, but the interposition of an ad- 
versative particle to accent the contrast 
between the two persons is a perfectly 
natural anacoluthon. A very similar 
instance is V 290 ei d' Ev . . avrap eyw. 
K^Xeai is paratactic = seeing that thou 
biddest one. Ar. athetized the two lines 
on subjective and insufficient grounds. 

136. It seems natural to take Sncoc 
6nt. ecrai in the sense ' be sure that 
the recompense is adequate ' ; but this 
construction, though found in Herod, 
and Attic, is not Homeric ; and the 
clause dpaavres Kara dvfxbv should come 

lAlAAOC A (i) • 15 

el Be K€ fxi] Scowaiv, eyw Se Kev avTO<; eXw/xat 

17 reov T) Xtavro<i loov 'yepa'i, ?) '08varjo<i 

a^co e\(t)v 6 Be Kev Ke^oXcoo-erai, ov Kev iKOD/xai. 

aX)C rj TOO fiev ravra fieracfypaa-o/xeada koI avrc^, 140 

vvv S' a<ye vrja fiiXatvav epvaaofxev el<i aka Slav, 

ev 8' epera'i e7nT7]heq dyeipop,ev, e? 8' eKaTOfi^Tjv 

deiofxev, av 8' avrrjv ^pvarjtha KaXXiiraprjiov 

^rjaofjbev eh 8e Tt<; ap'xp'i avrjp ^ov\ri<^opo<i €(tt(o, 

rj Ata? ^ 'lSofxevev<i -rj Slot; '08vaaev<; 145 

rje (TV, IlTjXetST], Trdvrwv eKTrayXoTUT dvSpoov, 

6(^p rjjxlv eKuepyov IXdaaeai lepa pe^a<i. 

Tov 8' a/a' VTToSpa ISoov irpoae^ri TroSw; w/cu? 'A^tWeu?- 
" Mfioi, dvaiheiriv eTrietfieve, KepSdXeocf)pov, 

TTW? Tt9 TOO 7rpocl)pQ)v eirecTLV TtetOriTaL A'^aitov 150 

77 6S0V eXOefjuevaL i) dvSpdcriv l(f)i [id'^eaOac ; 
ov yap eyu) Tpcocov eveK 7]\v6ov al^firjraoiv 
Sevpo fjuayrjaofxevo'i, eVel ov n /moi, al'rioc etaiv' 

137. acbcouciN G Par. h (k stqjr.). 139 dd. Ar. 140. aueic CD. 142. 

In &' eperac Ar.: ^c b' eperac i2 (eic Vr. b). Cf. 309. 143 dd. Zen. ; quth 

L. 147. HUiN Herod. AT^U. 149. Kep5aXe6q)pcoN Q Yr. c. 150. nefeoiTO S. 
151. eXeejuGNai t' S. 

in the apodosis rather than the protasis. unobjectionable. 139 was rejected by 

We may take dXV (135), in connexion Ar. as superfluous and ev-qdes. This 

with what precedes, as ' Very well, if athetesis is accepted by those who would 

they will give me a prize, such that the banish k€ with the fut. ind. from the 

recompense is fair (I will do so).' Bay- te.^t of Homer ; but the grounds given by 

field ingeniously suggests that dpaavres Ar. are not convincing, and the omission 

Kara dvfj.6v is itself the apodosis, the of the line would damage the effect, 

verb 5l56vtwv being supplied from the 140. JuieTa<ppac6iiecea, i.e. we will 

protasis, let iliem give it to meet my wish. postpone the consideration of this for 

The idiom by which a verb common to the present. 

two clauses is expressed in one only is 144. apxoc is predicate : let one, a 

not rare in later Greek (Klihner ii. member of the council, be in command. 

p. 1079) ; but clearness requires that For those who had the right to be sum- 

the two clauses should be distinctly moned to the royal /SouXt? see B 404. 

separated,by particles or otherwise, which 146. ^KnarXoc is not entirely a word 

is not the case here. Nor does the of blame, cf. S 170. It is perhaps for 

idiom recur in H. with the doubtful eK-irXay-'Kos (root nXaK-), meaning ' vehe- 

exception of I 46 (q.v.). But there is ment,' 'violent.' 

no doubt that this gives the best sense. 149. ^nieiu^NC : cf. t 214 /xeyd\t]u einei.- 

dcdcouci (135) echoes Achilles' Swaova-L [xivov d\K7)v, 7 205 Uvafiip TrepLdelvai, to 

(123). Note that there is no appreciable cZo^^e as with armour. K€pdaXe69poN, 

difference between ei with fut. ind. and greedy, or perhaps crafty ; cf. Z 153 

et K€ with aor. subj. ^iavcpos, 8 Kepdiaros yeper' dvbpQv. 

137. There is some doubt as to the 150. neloHxai : a .subjunctive express- 
punctuation here, some putting a colon ing submission, how is any one to obey r 
after eXwfxat, but this makes the repeti- Cf. H. G. § 277. 

tion of the participles libv . . eXdip very 151. 6a6N, whether military or diplo- 

awkward. That given in the text is matic. T91 : v. V 375. 

16 f lAIAAOC A (i) 

ov <ydp TTQ) TTOT ifiu'i l3ov<; rfXacrav ovhe f^ev l'7r7rov<;, 
ovSe TTOT ev ^dliji epLJBoiXaKi l3(OTiaveip7]i 155 

KapTTOv ihrjKrjcravr , eTrel rj fxaXa iroWa fiera^v, 
ovped re (TKLoevra OaXacrcrd re r^'^rjeaaa' 
a}Cka (TOi, CO //-e^y dvai8e<i, a/ju ea7ro/uie6\ o(j)pa av ■^aiprji'i, 
Tifirjv dpvv/jievoL MeveXdcot croi re, Kwcoira, 
7rpo<i Tpcocov TMV ov TL fMeraTpeTTrji ouS' d\€yL^€i<i' 160 

Kat, Sr] pLOL yepa'i avTo<; d(^aiprjaea6at direiXeL'^, 
Sit €771 TToWd /jLoyrjaa, hoaav he puot vle<i ^ X^aiwv. 
ov puev croi rrore laov e^co yepa^;, ottttot W^aiol 
Tpcocov €K7repacocr ev vatofievov TrroXiedpov 
dWa TO piev ifKelov 7ro\vaiKO<i iroXepboto 165 

S'^'xxQ X^^P^'^ ifxal Sceirova, drdp 7]v rrore Sacrpbb<; iKrjrat,, 

' aol TO yepa^ ttoXv p,el^ov, ejo) S' oXlyov re (f)l\ov re 

ep'^opb C'y^cov eirl vrja<;, eirei Ke Kdp^co 7ro\ep.l^(ov, 
vvv 8' elpiL ^9irivh\ eVel rj ttoXv (peprepov eariv 

157. CKiocoNTQ Ar. 158. xa'P^'C Q. 159. apNuueNoc Zen. 160 dd. 

Zeu. II dXerlzHc Vr. a. 162. noXXa JUorHCa Ar. : noW cjuorHca Q. 163. 

onnor' : oiib' 8t' Zen. 165. nXeToN : nXeTcroN Vr. b. 166. auxdp T. 

168. €nei K€ Kduco Ar. Herod. : Inku KCKduco (or linHN kc Kduco) : ^nei 
KeKduu Et. Giul. 169. nOn cTjuii U. || 9eiHN&' Ar. Zen. Q : a variant 9eiHN 

is implied, and attributed to Zen. in Schol. P : (peiHNSc dnei Draco de Metr. || 
9€pT€poN : XcoYoN Plato Hipp. Min. 370 c. 

156. Bekker and others write jue- mean oi'x ?|w, and 166 ff. obviously refer 
(rj77i''(s), on the insufficient fjround that to repeated experience in the past. 
fxera^v does not recur in H. 166. fiw : read et, the contraction of 

157. CKioeNxa is very expressive of el av not being Homeric, and &v itself 
the importance of shade in a sunburnt doubtful. H. G. p. 329 (where, how- 
land. The variant crKiowura, which in ever, the restriction of el av, el Kev to 
spite of the authority of Ar. is in- particular statements is at least dis- 
defensible, is explained by Fick a.s due putable). 

to a primitive SKIONTA, which could 167. oXfroN xe 9iXoN xe, a proverbial 

be interpreted either as crKtoC!!'Ta = cr/ct6£j'ra expression; f 208 Socrts 6X1777 re fpikrj 

ov (TKiwvTa = ffKiduivra. re: Touchstone's 'a poor virgin, an 

158. xaipmc, subj., because the pur- ill-favoured thing, but mine own.' 
pose expressed by eaTrofxeda is still pre- 4>L\os here indeed is little removed 
sent, hence also the present participle from its apparently original sense ' own.' 
dpvv/jievoL follows. xiJUHN, recompense. 168. The vulg. fTTT?!/ KeKdfua is con- 
The heroic point of honour is not ab- demned by the non-Homeric contraction 
stract ; it requires to be realized in from eTrel av. kne.1 kg. Kduco can equally 
the shape of ransom or material recom- be read e-rrel KeKa/xw, though it is curious 
pense. The present dpNUJUCNOi implies that there should be no trace of the 
' trying to win. ' redupl. form except in passages equally 

163. 6nn6xe is here whenever, and ambiguous (H 5, P 658). The choice 

TpcbcoN nxoXieepoN = a town of tlw Tro- is not easy ; see H. G. § 296. The 

janland, stQ notn onl2^. Homer never rhythm perhaps favours KeKdfiw, but 

uses Tp. TTToXiedpov of Troy, but Tpcbwv cf. B 475, <!> 483, 575 (?), ^ 76, fi 423, 

TToAis or 'IXlov TTToXledpov. Indeed the d 554, o 277, p 111, a- 150 (van L. Ench. 

expression oiS iroTe ^x'^ cannot possibly p. 20). 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


oiKaK tfiev crvv vtjval Kopwvicnv, ovhe a otw 170 

evOciK arifio<i eoiv a(f}evo^ Kal ifkovrov a(f)v^€LV.'' 

TOP S' rjfjbel^er eTreira ava^ dvSpMV ^Ayafiefxvcov 
" <j)€vye fMaX", el' tol 6v/xo^ iireacrvrai, ovSe a iyo) ye 
Xlaaofjuai eiveK e/xeio fxeveiv irap epuoi ye Kal aXkoi, 
oX Ke fie Ttfiijaovai, fidXia-ra Be fjbrjriera Zeu?. 175 

e'^diarof; Be /xol eaai BioTpe(f)ect)v ^aaiXrjwv 
alel yap rot epa re (^iXrj iroXefJuol re /xd'^at re. 
el fidXa KapTepo<i eacri, Oeo^; irov aol to y eBcoKev. 
olKaB Icbv avv vrjvcri re arji<; Kal aoL<i erdpoicn 
M.vp/uiLBovea(rcv dvacrcre, aedev 8' eyoi ovk aXeyl^oi 180 

ovB odofiac KoreovTO<i' aTTeikrjcro} Be roc uiBe' 
ft)? €fi d(paipelrat, ^pvcrrjtBa ^ol^o<; AttoWcov, 
rrjv fiev iyco avv vrjt r e/nrji Kal e/xoi? erdpotcrt 
irefji'^a), iyco Be k ayco UptcnjiBa KaWiTrdprjiov 

171. a9eNON (,,) Bar. Mor. Mosc. 1-. 173. Htoi Z> (Scliol. ?>) : ei ti Q. || 

IneccuTQi : yp. keKbcrai Schol. T. 175. oY re Lips. Bar. j tiuhcwci R Schol. T. 
176. aiOTpoq>^coN J. 177 d9. Ar. 1| rdp coi H. 178. robe 5(2)KeN S. 179. 

caTc Vat. 

170. c', i.e. aoL : tliis elision does not 
reeur (except possibly <J> 122), but is 
sufficiently supported by /jl' for fioi, which 
is found several times. Van Leeuwen 
{Ench. pp. 68 ff. ) has shown good reason 
for thinking that it was originally 
commoner, but has been expelled as 
against the rules of later prosody. The 
sense is, ' I have no mind to draic 
wealth for you,' like a slave set to 
draw water from a well for his master. 
The fut. d</)(;^aj beside aor. ijKpvaa is 
abnormal ; it occurs only here, and 
perhaps should be dipvaaeiv, or d(pvaeiv 
{a(pvffija, /3 349). 

173. JudXa, ironical, 'run away by all 
means ' ; cf. 85. 

175. 8c KG with fut. indie, seems 
equivalent, wherever it occurs, to oare, 
Att. ouTLs {ff. G. § 266), and describes a 
class, 'men who will honour me.' 
Those who are engaged in the task of 
expelling from H. all instances of Ke 
with fut. iudic. (an attempt which I 
regard as wholly mistaken) would do 
well to"write here ol' re (not ot ye with 
van L.) rather than rifjirjcrcjai. For 
other instances of this use of os /ce 
see B 229, I 155, K 282, * 587, X 70, 
^ 675, € 36, TT 438. See note on 
X 66. 

177 was athetized by Ar. liere, as 
wrongly interpolated from E 891 ; TroXe^ot 

and fj.dxai are no rebuke to a hero in the 

179. NHUci Te CKic, a case in which it 
is impossible to restore the long form of 
the dat. plur. in -ai without some violence 
{v7]t re (jTJi Nauck, arjia' 18^ van L.). But 
it is in these monosyllables that the short 
form seems first to have arisen. 

182. The thought with which the 
sentence starts is, ' As Apollo takes 
Chryseis from me, so will I take Briseis 
from you.' But the second clause is 
broken up into two, correlated by fxev 
and 5e. A very similar sentence with a 
double antithesis will be found in 268- 
72. (It might appear simpler, though 
losing the emphasis in efie, to take tbs = 
since. But this causal use is found in 
Homer only when ihs follows the prin- 
cipal verb of the sentence, and is thus 
equivalent to on ovtws.) ke in 184 indi- 
cates that ayw is contingent upon we/uLxl/u, 
virtually meaning "' and then I will 
^ " ff. G. § 275 a. 

184. The origin of the name BpiCH'i'c 
(or rather of Bpiaevs) is uncertain. Fick 
writes Bpijayj'ts, referring it to Bresa, a 
town in Lesbos, where there was also a 
Chryse, lidding that in the oldest legends 
both ladies were captured in a raid on 
Lesbos; see 1 129, 660. To Homer, how- 
ever, Briseis comes from Lyrnessos, not 
far from Thebe (T 291-300) ; see on 37. 



lAIAAOC A (i) 


avro<i Icov K\i(Ti7]vB€, to (Jov fyepa^, 6<J3p ev etSr}f9 
oaaov ^eprepo^i eljxi aeOev, cnvyerji, he Kal dWo<i 
Icrov ifjbol (pdcrOac koL ofioicoOij/Jbevac avTTjv. ' 

&>? (jjaTO' UrjXeiaivi 8' a'^o<i yever, ev he ol rjrop 
cmfjdeacnv XacrloLcn hidvho'y^a fiepfiypi^ev, 
?) 6 ye (pdcryavov o^v epvcrad^evo'^ irapd fxripov 
Tov'i jxev dvaaT7]aecev, 6 h Arpethijv evapll^ot, 
rje yoXov iravcreLev eprjTvaeLe re dvfxov. * 

ea)9 o ravB" MpjxaLve Kara <^peva Kal Kara Ovfiov, 
ekKeTO 8' e'/c Kokeolo jxeya ^i<^09, rp^de S' ^A67]vr) 
ovpavodev Trpo yap rjKe Bed \evK(t)\evo<; "Hpi], 195 

d/ji(f)(o ofioi^ Ov/jbcoc (f)t\€OV(Td re Krjhofievr] re. 
art) S' oTTiOev, ^av6i)<i he K6^'q<i e\e TiTfkeLoiva, 
01(01 ^aivofj,evr), rcov 8' dWcov ov rt? opdro. 
6dfx/3T](Tev h' 'A'^iXevf, jxerd 8' irpd'Trer, avriKa 8' eyvco 
HaWdh' ^ AOiqvairjV' heivoD hi ol oaae (pdavdev. 200 

/cat fXLV (j)covr](Ta<; eirea TrrepoevTa irpocnjvha' 

186. CTureei JPR : CTureoi Bar. 189. uepuiHpizeN GHL Cant. 191. 

eNapisoi H^JPRST : ^Napisei G Vr a. ' 192 d9. Ar. (see note on 188 below). 

193. SpuaiNC D. 195-6 d.0. Ar. 197. soNeHN bk k6juhn . . nHXeicoNoc 

Tives (Zen.?) An., Par. c siqn: 198. BpHxo U: 6pHTo Zen. C. Of. 56. 

185. t6 c6n may be an Attic cor- 
ruption : Teov P. Knight (see 207, 
Z 407, 490, n 40, S 457). But the 
article has a certain emphasis, 'that 
yepas of thine.' 

187. ICON is an adverb, laayoprjaal fxoi. 
(schol.), not an adj., as it would then 
rather be Icros. Cf. o 377 dvria deffTroivijs 

188. eN is here still an adverb, within, 
' his heart iu his shaggy breast.' Xacioici, 
according to the Schol. A, because they 
cover the heart, e;' ^t earl to irvpwdes Kal 
depixbv KOI fxaviKov ttjs ypvxv^  • V 
dip/xr) yap alria ttjs iK<pv(reu3s tQv rpix^v. 
So Hentze quotes Galen, de Temp, d 
TLS 'iKavuis etyj daaus rd aripva, dvfiiKov 

189. aidfNdixa juepuHpiseN : see note 
on 167, (6 6/3£X6s) on 56o efxepifivnaev 
oi)K evavria dWrjXoLs, oirep eKKa^uiv tls 
irpoffe9T]Kev "rje x^^o" Travaeiev," and on 
192, OTi eK\v€Tai rd rrjs opyiis (the picture 
of passion is weakened) • Oto dderelraL — 
Ariston. These remarks are perfectly 
right ; didvdLxa /j.ep/j.ripi^€v means ' he 
had "half a mind,'" and does not 

require two alternatives expressed ; and 
192 entirely spoils the picture. 

191. 6 bi as often repeats the subject 
of the first clause ; the contrast is with 
rot's /CteV. 

193. Scoc scanned as a trochee repre- 
sents of course an original ^os {elos ace. 
to the rule of our Mss. ), clearly by an 
error in transcription of an old Attic 
(H)E02;. This is the only scansion of 
the word in II. except in P 727 ; the 
alternative form ei'ws is equally fjos (but 
recosisv^-in T 189, i^ 658). In Oc?. the 
scansions ^ — or — (synizesis) are com- 
moner. See van L. Ench. pp. 550/. 

195-6 were rejected here by Ar. as 
wrongly anticipated from 208-9 (which 
Zen. athetized) ; it is not for the poet 
but for the goddess to give this in- 
formation. * 

197. CTH, came up ; this is the usual 
sense of the aor. 'iaT-qv. 

200. oi may refer to Athene — lier eyes 
gleamed terrible ; or to Achilles — terrible 
shone her eyes on him. Cf. T 17, which 
is in favour of the former view. 

lAlAAOC A (I) 


" TiTTT avT , alyio^oLO Ato9 reico'i, elXijXovOaii ; 
r) iva v^piv tSrji'i ' Ayafxe/jivovo^ ^ ArpetSao ; 
aX)C €K roL epeco, to 8e koI reKeeadat, oico' 
r)L<i v7r€po7r\L7]C(To Tci'^ av irore Ovfxov oXeaarjt. 

Tov S' avre irpoaeenre 0ea <y\avK0)7rc<i ^A9r]vr)' 
" rjXdov iyco Travaovaa reov fxevo^, aX Ke TTidrjai,, 
ovpavodev irpo he fi rJKe Oea XevKcoXevo^i ' Upr), 
a/ji(f>(o 6/J,(t><; dufiMC (jiiXeovcrd re KrjSo/jbevr) re. 
aXX' aye \y)y^ €pcSo<;, firjSe ^L(f)o<i ekKeo %etpt' 
aXA,' rj TOi eireatv fiev oveiSicrov &)? eaerai irep. 
Sihe yap e^epeco, to Se Kal TeTeXea/jiivov ecrTat- 
Kai TTore tol Tpl<i roaaa Trapecrcrerai ayXaa Scopa 
v^pco<i eXveKa Trfcrhe' av 8' Icr'^eo, ireideo h 7)p,LV. 



202. oOt' 

afl PS Mosc. 2. 203. YdHlc Zen. GJR Par. c f: Y^hi Ar. fi. 

204. TcXeeceai Ar. Par. f: reTcXeceai fi: re reXecju^NON ecrai Zeu. 205. 

oX^ccai (A ?)Ci3(Ri ?)STU Harl. bi. 207. T€6n Harl. c d, Par. cl e h, Eiist. : 

t6 c6n O. 208-9 dd. Zen. 212. TereXeceai 6ico Zen. 213. TOI : coi H. 

202. afire, again, an expression of 
impatience, implying 'one vexation after 
another.' Cf. 540. 

203. The vulgate l5t}i for Y3hic might 
be accepted if written i.'5?;'(at), but the 
contracted form is late. Ar. preferred 
it, though in this verb there appears to 
be no distinction whatever in sense 
between the active and middle voices. 
(Cf. particularly idov . . tSw/uat, 1. 262.) 
In the subj. the latter is commoner, 
except in the 1st pers. pL, where Idw/j-eda 
is not found. See also P 163, A 205, 
N 449, O 32. The hiatus after IVa and 
the neglected F of FlSy^LS suggest that 
v^piv is wroirg, especially as the word is 
almost purely Odyssean, recurring in //. 
only in 214 {v^pi^ovres A 695, v^pLcrrrjia-L 
N 683, both very late passages). 

205. Toxa, soon, never ' perhaps ' in 
Homer ; but the word has little force. 
For ac with subj. as a solemn threat see 
H. G. § 275 h. For the scansion of 
uneponXiHici (T in thesis) cf. rpiTjKocrc' 
A 697 and note on A 678. This seems 
to be a late licence. The various diffi- 
culties in this short speech, and the dis- 
respectful tone, strongly contrasting with 
216-8, suggest that 201-5 may be a later 

206. rXauKcbnic, either ' bright-eyed ' 
or ' blue-(grey-)eyed.' See Pans. i. 14. 6 
of the statue in the temple of Hephaistos, 

t6 Si ayaXfia bpQiv ttjs 'Adrjvas YXavKoi'S 
^XO" To^^ 6<p6a\/uiov?, Kt^vwv tov fj.vdov 
ovra evpiaKov. toijtols yap e<rTt.v elpy^ixivov 
IIotreiStDi'os Kal XifJLvqs Tptrwj'fSos dvyaripa 
elvai, Kal 5ta touto yXavKovi elvai waTrep 
Kal tQl IloaecdQvL tovs dcpdaXfxoi^/s. Cicero 
(N'at. Dear. i. 30, 83) says that Neptune's 
eyes were sky-blue, which is in favour of 
blue rather than grey as the colour of 
Athene's eyes. See Frazer's note ad loc. 
As with other colour - vrords, we have 
considerable latitude of explanation. The 
simple yXavKos is used in H. only once, 
of the sea (H 34), with y\avKi6wv T 172, 
which can have no distinct reference to 
colour. As the owl is Athene's bird, 
some would translate 'owl-eyed,' and 
explain by an owl-totem identified with 
the goddess. But any such sense must 
liave completely disappeared by Homeric 
times. See on 39. 

211. cbc ecerai nep is the object of 
6vei5i.(yov, cast in Ms teeth hoiv it will 
be, what will follow, as Achilles pro- 
ceeds to do. Cf. 9!) 212 <x(pQiCv 5' ws ^(rerai 
wep 6.\r}9eLy)v KaTa\it,w, and so r 312, 
7 255 ; and for the construction of ovei.- 
Si^eiv, B 255 6v£L5i^eLV 6tl . . didovffiv : 
cf. I 24, cr 380. opeidi^eiv occurs without 
an expressed object only in H 95 (where, 
however, see note). 

213. napcccerai, shall be laid before 
thee. Tpic Tocca : cf. fi 686. 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

" XP^ 1^^^ (T(f)0)trepov ye, ded, eTTO? elpvacracrOai, 
KoX /jLuXa irep Ou/xwl Ke'^oXoifxevov Si<i yap afieivov 
09 Ke deoL'i i'mrrelOrirai,, fiaXa t ckXvov avrov. 

rj Kot eir apyvperjt Konrrju cryeQe ")(/ipa ^apelav, 
ayjr S e? KovXeov wae [ikya ^l(j)o<;, ovS' airlOrjcre 
fivOoii ^A67)val7]<;' 7} 8' OvXvfMTTOvSe /3el3r]K€t 
hoifxaT e<? alyLoyoio Aio'i fxera Saijjbova<i aWovi. 

Ilrj\€tSr]<i S' e^avTi<i aTaprripol<i eireeaaiv 
^ATpetSrjv irpoaeetTTe, Kal ov rrrco Xrjye '^oXoio' 
" olvo/3ape<;, kvvo^ o/xfiaT ey^cov, KpaSlrjv 8' i\d(f)oio, 
ovre TTOT e? iroXe/xov d/xa Xacoi Ocoprj'^OfjvaL 
0VT€ \6')(^ovS levai avv dptaTrjeaaLv A'^aicov 




216. xxktt : jue G. 219-20. cic cinojN ndXiN dice ixera Hi<poc, ou&' finloHce 

Zen. 222 dvvarai dBereTa-dM Schol. BL (Ar. ?). 223. feaOeic C. 225-33 

dd. Zen. 

216. c9CijtTepoN, because Athene speaks 
for Here as well as for herself, clpiic- 
caceai, to observe, from {cr)pv, ((T)epC = Lat. 
serv-are. It is now generally recognised 
that this is the root, and that the verb 
has nothing to do with Fepvoi = draw, 
though the forms are very similar, 
and in the numerous cases where the 
verb is used of the dead and wounded 
drawn away or saved from the enemy 
either root gives an equally good sense. 
The chief forms of the verb are (1) non- 
thematic pres. puixdai, pVar, pvcTKev. 
(2) thematic p^ofiai {v and v) : (3) aor. 
ippv(TaTO, pijcracrdai., fut. pvcrofiai {from apv) : 
(4) aor. elpvcrdfxrjv (i-aepv-), €pv(T{a)aa9at, 
etc., fut. ipijcTaerai, ep^eadai: (5) perf. 
eipvfiai, etc. {=se-sru-viai). This leaves 
eipixraaadai here and elsewhere, elpvcraovTaL 
S 276, dpvoiiecrOa, to be explained as due 
to the analogy of eipujaat regarded as a 
present. The varying quantity of the i- 
naturally arises from the mutual influence 
of the forms {(T)pv and {(T)€pv. (So Schulze 
Qu. Ep. 325-9 ; cf. also van L. Ench. 
p. 406.) None of these forms require, 
and few admit, a F, which is rarely 
absent where the verb means to draio 
(i 194 = /c 444 is apparently a mistaken 
adaptation of | 260 = p 429). The active 
forms are all from Fepv-, to draw. The 
ambiguous forms are chiefly those of 
the 1 aor. middle, and the perf. and 

218. The t' is called a 'gnomic' re. 

It may, however, be for toi (cf. 170) ; or 
possibly we should read 6s re for 6s /ce, in 
which case the repeated re will simply 
mark the correlation of the two clauses, 
as often in gnomic lines ; v. on 81, and 
H. G. § 332. The auxoO at the end, 
however, seems so weak as to raise a 
more serious doubt as to the authenti- 
city of the line, which is in itself rather 
flat, and precisely of the sort which would 
be likely to be interpolated in the age 
of Hesiod or the ' seven sages ' (Doder- 
lein conj. av rod). 

219. cx^ee must be taken here as aor., 
not imperf. (see note on N 163), as h kq! 
always introduces an action coincident 
with the words : he stayed his hand. 

221. BeBHKei: 'the pf./Se^Tj/ca expresses 
the attitude of walking, the step or 
stride ; hence ^e^riKei, " was in act to 
go," comes to mean "started to go" (not 
"had gone").' — Monro. 

223. SrapTHpoTc, a word of doubtful 
origin ; Hesych. draprarat' \vjrei, ^Xdw- 
T€L. Cf. /3 243 MevTop draprajp^. 

225. For the dog as the type of shame- 
lessness cf. 159, and the curious compar. 
Kvvrepos. oiNoBap^c : cf. t 374 oivo^apdwv , 
7 139 OLVwi /3e/3ap7;a)S, r 122. 

226. Observe the distinction between 
■n-bXijjLos, open battle in which the whole 
host (\a6s) is engaged, and Xoxos, the 
heroic 'forlorn hope,' reserved for the 
elite {dpLffT^es). As a test of courage the 
Xoxos is vividly described in N 275-86. 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


reT\riKa<i Ovfxoii,' to Se rot Krjp etSerac elvai. 

7] TToXv Xcoiov ian Kara arparov evpuv Ayatcov 

Swp aTToaipelcrOai, 09 ris" creOev avriov etirrji- 230 

Srj/xo/Sopo'i I3acn\ev<i, eTrel ovTiSavolaiv avdacr€i<i' 

■^ yap av, Krpethrf, vvv varara \(o/3t]aaio. 

aSX €K rot epeo) koX eirl p,kyav opKov ojxovyiai' 

vol fxa ro8e crKrjTrrpov' to p,ev ov Trore (f)vWa koI 6^ov<i 

(pvcrec, eTrel Srj TrpcoTa To/xrjv ev opeacrc XeXoiTrev, 235 

ou8 dvadrjXijaec irepl yap pa, e yakKO'i eXe-yfre 

(f)vWa T6 Kat ^Xoiov vvv avTe fiiv vle<; ^Ayaicov 

ev 7raXa/x7]i'i (popeovcn hiKacTTroXoi oX re Qep,i,(TTa<i 

7rpo<i Ato? elpvaTai' o Se too [xeya<i ecrcreTai opKO<;' 

rj TTOT W^iWP)o<i TToOi] i^CTac vla'i 'An^atwy 240 

avfjuiravTa^' TOTe 8' ov tl Svvijaeat d'^vvjjbevo'i Trep 

-^pata/xeiv, evT av ttoWoI v(f)' "FjKTopo<i dv8po(f)6voio 

230. 3copa ci9aipeTceai G. || eYnoi R (and S supr. 

ciNaeH\HCH Q : aNaeaXhicei S (sup): h over ei). 
Harl. c d, Par. b f j, Et. Mag. : naXduaic fi. 
nor' S. 241. HuunaNxac Q. |! t6t€ Ar. A 

SuNHCHi PR Vr. a\ Mosc. 1 2. 

235. 9uei P. 


II ^pei|»e{N) LS. 238. naXciJuiHic 

239. BpKoc ^ceiTai G. 240. eY 

ToTc 12 (Par. k has toTc in ran.). || 

228. Ki^p : cf. r 454 laov yap acpcv irdaiv 
aTrrjxdeTo Krjpl p.€\aivT]i.. 

230. anoaipeTceai : so 275, but dcpai- 
pelrai, 182, etc. There is no plausible 
explanation of these occasional signs of 
an evanescent initial consonant, and the 
contraction is suspicious. (Brandreth 
conj. diraeip€<T6aL, but there is no 
similar use of the word in Greek, cf. 

231. dHJuoBopoc, devourer of the com- 
mon stock. For drjixos in this sense com- 
pare B 547, A 704, S 301. For the 
exclamatory nom. H. G. § 163. outi- 
daNoTci, men of naught ; cf 293-4, which 
explain the 7cip, 'else,' in the next line. 
For the form compare rjiredavos by ijinos. 
For XcoBhcqio we should rather have 
expected the aor. indie. ; cf. on A 223, 
E 311. 

234. The CKfinTpoN does not belong to 
Achilles, but is that which is handed by 
the herald to the speaker as a sign that 
he is 'in possession of the house.' See 
K 321, S 505, ^ 568, /3 37. So in the 
EUice Islands in the Pacific Ocean the 
natives ' preserved an old worm - eaten 
staff, which in their assemblies the orator 
held in his haiid as the sign of having the 
right to speak ' (Tylor Anthropolof/y p. 

374). Virgil imitates the passage in Aen. 
xii. 206-11. He may have read Kdfirjv for 
TofjL-qv, pos^dtque comas et brachiaferro. 

235. npwTa, at the first, i.e. once 
for all, just as in T 9 ; cf. A 6, Z 489, 
7 18-3, 320 (with M. & R.'s note). So 
uhi pirimum, ' as soon as ever. ' 

238. diKQcnoXoc, qui jus colit, see on 
63 ; the a, however, is strange, as com- 
pounds are very rarely formed directly 
from the ace. See, however, H. G. 
§§ 124/. Brugmann, Gr. i. 172, compares 
/noyocFTOKos for fxoyovs - tokos. e^Juicxac 
eipuarai, guard (216) the traditions, which 
are deposited as a sacred mystery in the 
keeping of the kings. So in old Iceland 
and Ireland law was a tradition preserved 
entirely by the special knowledge of a 
few men ; the plur. dlfuares is used 
exactly in the sense of our ' precedents.' 
See note on I 99. 

239. np6c Aioc, like de par Ic Roi, by 
commission of Zeus. Of. | 57 irpos yap 
Atos eicn ^elvoi., and I 99. Or we may 
take it with deixLaras, laws given by 
Zeus. opKoc is here used in the primi- 
tive sense of the object sworn by. 

242. Ono, because irlwTwai is in sense 
a passive, as P 428 ; so also with (pevyw, 
Trdcrxw, etc. 

22 lAIAAOC A (i) 

dvr}L(TKOvre<i TTiTrrcocn' av h evhodt Ovjiov d/jiv^ea 
^o)o/jievo<i, 6 T dpcarov ^A'^aicov ovSev ertaa<i." 

w? ^dro Tl'rjXetS't]^;, irorl 8e aKr]7rTpov /3a\e yair)t 245 

■)(^pva€Loi,<i r]\oLai, ireirapfjievov, e^ero S' avTO<i' 
Ar^eiS?;? 8 erepoiOev i/ji7]VLe. rolat he ISiiarcop 
rj8ve7r7]<i dvopovcre, Xiyu'; TIvXlcov d'yop7]Ti']<;, 
rod Kai diTo 'yXcoaarj'i /ieX-tro? yXvKtcov peep avSi]. 
rait 8' t/St; Svo fiev jeveal ixepoiroiv dvdpciiiroiv 250 

i(f)6iad , ol ol Trpoadev dfxa Tpdcfyev rjhe yevovro 
ev IluXfOi 7)'^ader\i, fierd he rpLTdroLcnv dvaaaev. 
6 a(f3iv iu (ppovewv d<yopr}craTO Kol fieTeenrev 
" o) TTOTTOL, rj fie<ya 7revdo<i ^A^adha yaiav LKavet' 
Y] Kev >yr}6i](Tai Tlplafio<; Ylptdixoio re 7ralhe<f,  255 

dWol re Tpwe? fMeya Kev Ke-^apolaro duficot,, 
el a(f)cb'iv rdhe rrdvra irvdoiaro /juapvafxevouv, 
01 irepX fiev /SovXrjv AavaMV, irepl 8' ecrre fjid^ecrdai. 

245. nHXe'i'dHC : x"°"«^noc Athen. xi. 488. 247. bk: 3* 6 J. 249. 

rXcoTTHC CP. j rXuKico Zen. 251. aY oi Zen. 253. o Ar. i2: 6c H^PQ. 

254. axafSa JP : dxaiTd^a C. 255. thghch (C supr.)'P(R siqir.) : rHOHcei Q(H 

supr.). 258. SouXhn Ar. A (supr. ^ i, T.W.A.) C^Q Par. d: BouXfii 12 (C 

supr.). II jmdxeceai : uaxHxai Et. Mag. 

244. S t', sc. 6 re = OTL re. On the noi mean 'articulate,' fiepli^ovres ttjv 

difficult question of the elision of oVt see 6Tra, as in so ancient a word the F of 

ff. G. § 269 ad fin. FS^I/ would not be neglected. The other 

246. The ' golden nails ' here seem to derivations which have been proposed 

be a mere ornament ; in the case of the are quite problematical. 
sword in A 29 they doubtless fasten the 251. Tpd9eN fibk rewoNTo : for the 

blade to the handle. See Helbig H. E." varepov -n-pbrepov cf. ix 134 dpi-'paaa 

pp. 377, 333/. T€Kov(xd. T€ /J-yjTrjp, and elsewhere. 

249. The Kal is very unusual as intro- ecpeiaTo is })robably plpf., but it might 
ducing a purely epexegetic sentence — in be aor. Tpd9eN : see ou B 661. 

this case merely an expansion of what 252. Hrdeeoc, an epithet, like ^ddeos, 

has already been said. Compare, how- applied only to places ; no doubt both 

ever, T 165 with note. mean 'divine,' as they are only applied 

250. Nestor is represented as having to localities connected with particular 
lived through more than two generations, gods. We should perhaps read dyddeos 
and still being a king in the third; i.e. (from dyap), the first syllable being 
between his 70th and 100th years, if lengthened metrically : see App. D. 157. 
with the Greeks we count three yeveai to is used of Pytho {9 80), Lemnos (B 722), 
a century. In 7 245 he is said to have and i^varjiov (Z 133). Some take it to 
reigned over three generations, which be another form of dyadb^, which is, 
seems to be an instance of the growth however, never applied to localities. 

of the legendary into the miraculous. 257. For the construction TrvOecrdai 

JueponcoN, an epithet of which the real tipos for Tvepi tlvos (lit. ' if they were to 

sense was in all probability forgotten hear all this about you fighting') cf. 

in Homeric days, as it is used only \ 505 HtjXtjos afxiip-ovos ovtl Treirva/xai, 

in purely stereotyped connexion with 224, etc. ; so X 174 elirelv tlvos, A 357 

avdpojTTOL (exc. B 285, q.v.). We can ojs ypQ x^of^^^'o'-o : cf. If. G. § 151 fZ. 
only say with confidence that it does 258. Construe irepUare fiiv /SodXV Aa- 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


a\Xa TTideaO • d/Mcfxo Be vecorepo) earov ifxelo. 
i]8r) yap ttot iyco koL dpeioaiv rje irep vfilv 
avSpdaiv MfjbiXrjaa, kul ov irore p, o'l y ddepi^op. 
01) yap TTO) roLOv<i thov dvepa<; ovSe i8(op,ai, 
olov Hetpcdoov re Apvavrd re TTOLp.eva Xaow 
Kaivia r 'E^aSiof re Kal dvriOeov Ho\v(f)r]p,ov 
[Hrjaea r Aly€t8'T]v, eViet/ceXoz/ dOavdrotac]. 

KdpTKTTOL St] KelvOL ilTL'^dovlcOV Tpd(f)€V dvSpCOV 

KdpTtaToi p,ev hcrav Kac KapTLaroi^ ipbd'^ovro, 
(pripcLV op€(TK(otoLcn, Kai eKTrdyXco'i dTroXeaaav, 
Kal p,ev TolcTiv iyo) p.e6op.iKeov €k TLvXou ekdoiv, 
TTjXoOev i^ diTLrj'^ yaii^'s' KaXecravro yap avro'f 




259. cuoTo S Yr. b. 260. ^rwN P. [[ ujuTn Zen. CGPU {suirr. h) : huTn 

Ar. i2. 265 om. Q, : habent H"iJ {vbdos 6 arlxos oiitos) RT™ Harl. a, Vr. a, 

Mosc. 2 {ma7i. rec), Par. j. 268. eflpciN PQ'^T- Lips. Vr. b. || opecKcoccci G. || 
^KnsdrXcoc T. 269. er&jN P. 

pawf, TrepUdTe 8e /u-dxecrdaL : cf. r 326 
TvepieLiJu. yvvaiKQiv. For the co-ordinatiou 
of substantive and infin., O 642 d/jLelvuv 
TravToias dperds, ijfxev TroSas ijSk fidxeadai. 
260. ujuiTn, so Zenod. ; Ar. read riij.iv, 
thus saving Nestor's politeness at the 
cost of his point. Ar. objected to Zen.'s 
reading etpv^pLaros 6 \6yos : in other 
words, he wished to import into heroic 
language the conventional mock-modesty 
of the Alexandrian Court. The whole 
meaning of Nestor's speech is that he 
himself is the peer of better men than 
those he is advising (v. Cobet J/. C. 
p. 229). 

262. Cf. t 201 ovK e'a-6'' oOtos dvrjp 
diepb's ppoTos ovde yivrjTaL. The sub- 
junctive being a more archaic form of 
the fut. perhaps suggests a solemn and 
prophetic tone. 

263. oToN rieipieooN : accus. by attrac- 
tion to the case of toi'oks, for oios fiv 
Ileipidoos. The names are those of the 
chiefs of the Lapithai. 

265. This line, which is quoted by 
Pausanias x. 29. 10, is found also in the 
pseudo-Hesiodean 'Shield of Herakles,' 
182. Theseus is mentioned again only 
in X 322, 631, both doubtful passages ; 
the latter indeed is expressly said by 
Hereas of Megara (ap. Plutarch, TJies. xx.) 
to be an interpolation of Peisistratos to 
please the Athenians. It is, however, a 
question if the same may not be equally 
said of the whole reference to the 

Lapithai ; it is doubtful if there ever was 
a Peirithoos in any but Attic legend. 

268. The fight of the Centaurs and 
Lapithai is mentioned at some length -in 
<p' 295-304, and is alluded to in B 743, 
where the word cjiripes is again used. It 
is commonly said to be an Aeolic 
form for drjpes, ' wild men ' ; but for 
this there is only the authority of 
grammarians, and both H. and Pindar 
seem to use it as a tribal name. The 
identification with dr)p may well be a 
later fancy (Meister Dial. i. 119). 
There is no allusion in H. to the 
mixed bodies of the later legend, and it 
is possible that he conceived them as 
purely human beings (note, however, 
the opposition to avdpes in (p 303) ; the 
myth may very likely refer to ancient 
struggles with a primitive race of 
autochthones. The present passage 
seems to imply the existence of a 
prae - Homeric epic dealing with the 
story. The last half of the compound 
opecKuioi is possibly connected with 
Kol-TOi {Kei/uLai), and means ' couching 
in the mountains ' ; or else with kiSj 
or /coos = a cave (Hesych.) ; cf. i 155 
alyas opecKwiovs. In that case we should 
read opeuKb'ios for -k6F-los. opecrKoos 
occurs in Aisch. Sept. 532. 

270. dniHc is generally derived from 
dir6 as = distant ; but there is hardly 
a Greek analogy for such a formation. 
It is used by Aisch., Soj)!!., and others, 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

KOI jJLa-^ojjbrjv Kar e/x avrov ijo)' Ketvotai S av ov ti<; 

TWV, 01 vvv /3poTOL elcTiv eTTl'^OoVOOL, fXaj^eOLTO. 

Koi jxkv fxev /SovXecov ^vvtev TreidovTo re fJuvOwL. 
ak\a irlOecrOe koI u/x/xe?, eVet TreideaOai, afxeivov. 
fMrjre av rovS^ djado^ rrep eoov diroaipeo Kovprjv, 
dW ea, M<i ol Trpcora Soaav yepaii vte? 'A-^ulmv 
fjLrjTe av, YiTfkethri, 6e\ ipi^efxevai ^aaCkrji 
dvTL^LTjv, eVel ov iroO' o[jioiri<i efip-ope rt/x?}? 
aKTjTTTov^O'i ^aaiKeix;, mc re Zeu? kvSo<; eBcoKev. 
el Se av KapTep6<i eaat, 6ea Se ae yeivaro pi'qTqp, 
a)OC ohe (j)eprep6<; eariv, iirel ifKeoveaaiv dvdaaet. 
^ArpetST], av Se irave reov p.evo'^' avrap iyo) ye 
Xtcrcro/i' A'yiXX,i]i /xeOe/jiev '^o\ov, b? fieya Trdatv 



271. ^u'auTON Ar. : ^ucout6n Zen. 272. uax^oiNXO DH^U-. 273. SUNICN 

Ar. A[H] Par. e^ (?) fi (?) : eunion ft (hunhTon P). 275. ton r' Eton.: t6n E. 
277. nnXeia' fieeV AQ(R?)U Lips. Eton. 281. b re GL. 

as a name of Pelopounesos {dwia yij), 
and may be the same here in spite of the 
difference of quantity. For a suggested 
etymology see Curtius M. p. 469. 

271. kot' eu' auTON, ' for my own 
hand,' as we say ; as a champion acting 
independently. Cf. in a slightly differ- 
ent sense B .366 /card crcpeas /naxeovTai. 

272. BpoToJ 4:nix©<SNioi together form 
the predicate, uax^oixo, like jj-axeoivro 
344, is a highly doubtful form ; the stem 
yu,axe(s) is implied in ixax€cr{<T)ojxai, but 
nowhere else appears in the pres. The 
best emendation is Piatt's /xaxecratTo, 
looulcl have foioght {J. P. xxiii. 211) ; this 
use of the opt. to express past time 
{H. G. § 300 c) appears to belong pro- 
perly to the aor. (A similar case is T 
171, where many MSS. give /maxeeadai for€craa0ai.) See note on B 311. 

275. 6noaipeo : for this syncopated 
form (for -peeo) cf. H. G. % 5 (and 
Fritzsch in Curt. Stud. vi. 128) ; so 
fl 202, /3 202, etc. awaeipeo Brandreth. 
See note on 230. 

277. Aristarchus read HrfKeldi^deX, or, 
as we should write it, liyfkeiSri edeX, on 
the ground that edeXeiv is the only 
Homeric form. But it is better to admit 
the possibility of a single appearance of a 
form so common in later Greek than to 
have recourse to an unparalleled crasis, 
rendered the harsher by the slight pause 
after n-qXetdTj. (See R. G. § 378.) 

278. oux 6uo1hc — ' very different ' 
(from common men) ; litotes, cf. E 441 ; 

noil simili poe^iut, Aen. i. 136. It has 
been objected, with force, to this line 
and the next that they are a pointless 
generality here, as Achilles is just as 
much a o-kt^tttoOxos paaiXevs as Aga- 
memnon ; the real ground for his 
j'ielding is given by 281. For the 
form eimope see H. G. § 23 (2). 

280. The antithesis of Kapxcpoc and 
9epT€poc ('in greater place') is the 
same as in 178, 186. The similarity of 
the terminations has its effect, though 
they are of course different in origin and 
meaning as well as accent. 

282-4. The connexion of thought in 
these three lines is not very clear, and 
has given rise to suspicions of interpola- 
tion, which do not seem justifiable. The 
reiterated entreaty, the almost pathetic 
appeal to personal influence, is entirely 
in accordance with Nestor's character, 
human nature, and the necessities of the 
situation, which is not one whei'e we 
need demand strict logical consistency. 
Nestor, after appealing equally to both, 
ends witli an especial prayer to Agamem- 
non, who is obviously the offending party. 
avrixp erco re, ' Nay, it is I, Nestor, 
who ask it. ' There is no antithesis with 
av 5e, which is merely the common i;se 
of the pronoun after a vocative ; aurdp is 
not adversative except in so far as it 
marks the transition to a new line of 

283. 'AxiXXhT may be taken with 
x6\ov (thine anger xcith Achilles), or 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


€pKO<i A^aioicrtp TreXerai TroXefxoio KaKolo. 

TOP 8' tt7ra/iet/3oyu,ei'09 irpocrecjirj Kpelcov Ayafj^i/Mvcov 
" val 8r) rauTu ye TTcivra, yepov, Kara /xolpav e'et7re<?. 
aXk 68' avTjp iOeXei irepl iravraiv epufjievai dXXcov, 
TrdvTcov ixev Kpareeiv ediXec, irdvreacn h dvdaaeiv, 
TTCKJi he arj/jbaivecv, d top ov ireiaeaOai oico. 
el Se fiiv al^/ui'TjTrjv eOeaav deol alev e6vre<i, 
rovvcKd 01 trpoOeovaiv ovelhea fxudijaacrdat ; " 

TOP 8 dp v7ro^\i]8rjv rjfjbei^ero hlo<i A^^iXXei/?' 
" rj ydp K6V SecXci re kol ovTi8avo<i KoXeoifirjv, 
el 8i] aol irdv epyov VTret^ofiai, ottI Kev eiinji'i- 


286. ^emac PQRSU Mosc. 1 2. 287. ndNxcoN nepieujueNai Eust. 289. 

neieeceai Mosc. 1. 293. Ke Q. || deiXbc {om. re) PQ. 

better, on account of the order of the 
words, with ixedifxev as a sort of dat. 
coramodi, relax in favour of Achilles. 
Cf. <p ^n fxiOiev xaXeTTOio ^o^o'" TTjXe- 
fidxi^i. ixira is perhaps an adverb, 
such as continually precedes iravres : 
cf. 78 jue7a TrdvTwv 'Apyeicov Kparea, 
and e6 Travra, fxaXa wavra, afxa TrdvTa, 

287-9. The tautological repetitions of 
these three lines are very suitable to 
unreasoning fury ; they have to do duty 
for arguments. 

289. CHJuaiNGiN with dat. =: to give 
orders, as B 805. tinq, one, a general 
expression in form, though Agamemnon 
is of course thinking of himself. Nagels- 
bach compares Soph. Ant. 751 y\b' odv 
Oavelrai Kal Oavova' oXe'i rivd (sc. ejui). 

291. npoeeouciN — (17 SittX'^) 6ti avurjdws 
eavTUL TTpodeovcri to. oveidr], i.e. the plural 
verb with the neuter plural is in accord- 
ance with the poet's practice. This 
shows that Ar. took oveidea as nom., but 
we are not told how he explained the 
line. Ameis (followed by Monro) 
takes the words to mean ' do his 
revilings therefore dash forward (like 
spearmen themselves, cf. the phrase 
TToXii TrpodeeffKe X 459) for him to speak 
them ?' Monro compares, for the 'half- 
personified ' oueidea, Herod, vii. 160 
oveidea Kariovra dv9pu)Tru3L (piXeei iwavd- 
yei-v Tov Ovfibv (though the other passage 
which he quotes from i. 212, Karidvros 
rov o'ivov e's rb aCiixa, seems to weaken the 
relevancy of this, as shewing that the 
metaphor is material, not personal) ; and 
for the use of irpodiw, w 319 dvd plvas . . 

5pi/j.v fxivos wpovTv\p€ (where again fxevos 
is rather a physical conception than a 
personification, cf. jxivos irveiovTes). The 
extreme harshness of this metaphor has 
led most recent editor.s to regard oveidea 
as the object, and -rrpodeovai. as another 
form for wpoTideaaLv, ' do they set before 
him (i.e. allow him) revilings for him to 
utter ? ' This certainly gives a better 
sense, but no satisfactory analogy for 
the form of the verb has been given 
(there is a doubtful dveOei in an Ionic 
inscription, C. I. 1195 ; see Curtius Verb. 
i. 213). Bekker suggests Trpodeuac as 
aor. subj. The mood might be explained 
as one of expectation : ' are we to look 
for them to suggest words of insult ? ' 
But the form with the short stem-vowel 
is entirely unexampled, and I see no 
choice but to regard the passage as 
hopelessly corrupted. 

292. unoBXHdHN, interrupting ; viro- 
/SaXwj' TOV idLov \6yov Schol. B. Cf. 
ii^j^dWeiv T 80, and for the form 
irapa^\rjS7]v A 6. Observe that Achilles 
begins without the usual formula of 

294. uneizouai : future rather than 
aor. subj., cf. 61. There is a slight 
change of attitude, as so often happens, 
after the opt. KaXeoiix-rjv : what Achilles 
in 293 conceives only as a supposition 
he here vividly realizes as an admitted 
fact (this is of course the same, however 
we take v-n-ei^o/xai). Oneinojuiai should 
be inroFei^o/jLaL, and various conjectures 
have been proposed to restore the full 
form, but none seem satisfactory {vvi- 
(Txo/^ai Brandreth). 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

dWotaiv 8r) ravT iTnreWeo, /xr] yap ifioi ye 295 

aijfiaiv' ov yap iyco y en croc ireLaea-dai otco. 

ctXXo Be TOL epew, au 3' evl <^peal ^dWeo arjtcrv 

'^epal fxev ov rot eyco ye /jLa-^yjaofMai etveKa Kovprj<; 

ovre crol ovre tool aXkooi, eVet yu,' ac^ekeade ye Sovre'i' 

roiv S' aXkcov, a /jlol ecrn dorji Trapa vrjl' /xeXaivrji, 300 

TMV ovK av TL (f)epoi<i dveXcov deK0VT0<i ep,eio. 

el 8' aye fjurjv Treiprjaat, iva yvoiuxii Kal olSe' 

al-yird rot alfxa KeXatvov ipcorjaei, irepl Sovpl. 

&)<? Tcii y' dvTL^LOiaL fia'^eaaa/jbevo) eTreeacriv 
dvaT7]T7]v, Xvcrav B dyop')]v irapd vrjvcrlv A'^aiwv. 305 

Tl7}\et8ri<; p,ev eVt K\icyia<i Kal vr}a<; ilaa'; 

296 dd. Ar. (6 \oyy'i:uos irepiacrov (prjai tovtov tov cttIxov J'"). || crcore ri QR 
Vr. a, Mosc. 2. |1 neieeceai H Mosc. 1. 298. outi GHPRSU. It JuaxHCOJuai 

Ar. Aph. Antimaclios, Mass. Argol. Sinop. ACi^JT Vat. Vr. a, Mosc. 1 2 : juiax^c- 
cojutai GHPQESU. li ouweKa J. 299 om. Q. |i enei p' ceeXeic a<peXeceai Zen. 

301. (pepHc LHJ Par. f ^ (?) h. il Sn eXwN AT Bar. || euoTo PQS. 304.€CcajuieNCO Q, : JuaxHcaucNco Ar. 

295. {t} dnrX-rj) otl koivov to eniT^Wco 
Kal 6 rdp irepiffaos. ourws 5^ yiverai. 
irepiaabs b e^TjS- 5i.b ddereiTai, Ariston. 
(emended by Cobet) ; i.e. Ar. obelized 
296 on the gi-ound that had 
been added in order to supply a verb 
which was wrongly supposed to be re- 
fjuired by the second clause of 295. 
This is a fertile source of interpolation 
of whole lines ; e.g. Q 558, "I" 570. 

298. xepd xiiu, as though he meant 
to continue, ' but by abstention from 
war I will.' But in 300 the course of 
thought is changed, and tQv aXXwi' is 
made the antithesis to Kovp7]s. The mss., 
as often, vary between jmaxHCOJuai and 
/jLaxecrcrofiat. But the weight of tradi- 
tion, confirmed by the mss. of Herodotos, 
is strongly in favour of (Ionic) fut. 
/xaxv<^ofxai, aor. fj,axe<T{<x)aadaL. See 
Schulze Q. E. p. 450, H. G. § 63. Ar. 
preferred -ijo-- for both tenses, but this 
takes no account of the short form 

299. a9eX€cee re Sontcc : Achilles re- 
cognizes that the yepas is a free gift, not 
a matter of right, like the share of the 

302. In ei h' 'are. the el is clearly inter- 
jectional, as in I 46 ei be . . (f>e\iybvT03v. 
Lange calls it an ' adhibitive ' particle, 
by which the speaker appropriates, as 
by the ' prohibitive ' fx-r] he puts away, a 

thought, supposition, or, as here, com- 
mand. Nikanor, followed by van L., 
however, separates the el here from et, if, 
writing eV (eta) for et 5'; cf. Lat. eia age. 
H. a. § 320. For the 5' see on 340. 

303. epwHCC! only in this line ( = 't 
441) means /o^y. The connexion of this 
with the usual sense, to hang hack, .and 
of both with the subst. epuij, is very 

306. ^icac, a form found only in the 
fem. with cases of vy)vs, dairls, dais : in Od. 
only with (ppivas, and once besides B 765. 
In the last passage it clearly means i'craj, 
and with vqvs and dairis this gives a 
good sense, 'even,' i.e. trim of the 
ship, wcll-lalanced of the shield. (To 
take ■wdvToc eicrrj as ' equal in all direc- 
tions,' i.e. circular', is intolerably mathe- 
matical and prosaic. That the ponderous 
Mykenean shield should be 'well- 
balanced on every side' was a matter 
of life and death to the wearer.) With 
oat's it cannot mean strictly, if we push 
the word, equally divided (see on H 
320), but a banquet where some receive 
a larger portion in virtue of their dignity 
may yet be 'fair.' Still this account 
of the word has not satisfied all com- 
mentators ; anciently it was often ex- 
plained to mean 'good' {elcrov dyaObv, 
Hesych. ) ; recently it has been pro- 
posed to refer it to root Fik, ' seemly ' 

lAIAAOC A (i) 27 

tjie <Tvv re M.€votrtdBr]i koi ol<; erdpoiaiv, 

'ATpetS?79 S' apa vr/a dorjv oKahe Trpoepvaaev, 

ev 8' epera^; eKpivev eeiKOcnv, i<i B eKaTO/x^rjv 

/Sfjae OeoiL, dva 8e Upvarjtha KaX\t7rdpj]iov 310 

etaev aycov ev 8' ttp%09 e/Sr] 'jroXvfjirjrL'i OBvcr(Tev<;. 

ol fiev eTreLT dva^dvTe<i iireifKeov vypa Kekevda, 
\aov<i 8' WTpetS7j<i diroXvpLaiveaOai civwyev. 
ol 8' dTreXv/JbalvovTO koI el<; oka XvfiUT e/3aWov, 
ephov 8' ^ XiroXKwvi reXTjecrcra'i €Kar6fi^a<; 315 

ravpcov rjS' aljMV irapa dlv d\b<i drpvyeroio- 
Kvia-rj 8' ovpavov Ik€V eKiaaoixevrj irepi Kairvcot. 

w? ol fiev TO. irevovro Kara arparov ovS Aya/jbe/jivcov 
\riy eptSa, rrjv irpcoTOV eTrrjTreiXrja ^A.'^iXrjl, 
a)OC 6 ye Takdv/SLOV re koI ^vpv^dr7]v TrpocreetTre, 320 

rco ol eaav KrjpvKe Kol orprjpa) depdirovre' 
" epyeadov kKktitiv UijXTjldSeo) ^A'^l\7]0<;' 
yetpo'; eXovr dyepuev Bptcr?;tSa KaWiTrdpTjLOv 
el Be Ke fxr] S(t)r]i<Tiv, eyo) Si Kev avro'i eXcofxat 
iXOcov arvv TrXeoveaai' to ol koX piyLov earat. 325 

c59 elnrvdv irpotei, Kparepov 8 eVl fivdov ereWe. 

309. CN &' Ipe'rac Ar. Par. k : Sc a' fi. 311. Sn b' GP Harl. a, Yr. A : itsbi 
y S. 312. anen\eoN Vr. a^. 314. anoXuualNONTO GH. |1 Xouara BdXXoN 

Ar. U. 317. KNiCH ATU: knIcch fi. i hkcn i^HQR. 324. acbcociN GH 

{svpr. h). 326. Kparepbc L. 

(the form haao^ is found in Doric), or dir6xpobsl/J.ep6evTos\viJ.aTaTrdi>TaKdd7]p£v. 

Fid, 'conspicuous' (?). All this seems Thus it is meant that they washed in the 

needless. sea, not that they washed on land and 

307. The story of Troy is regarded as threw the defiled water into the sea. 

familiar, even apart from the Iliad ; for Of. KaddpfMara in Aisch. CJw. 98. The 

Patroklos, like Agamemnon in 1. 7, is Neapolitans used to practise an annual 

lirst introduced by his patronymic alone. lustration in the sea down to 1580 a.d., 

313. tiNCore is in form an imperf from doubtless a survival from Greek times. 
dvdiyeLv, which is a secondary pres. from 317. nepJ KanNui : for we pi meaning 
the perf dvwya. In use, however, it is inside cf X 95, of a snake, eXiaffd/xevos 
an aor. and is so found in the famous rrepl xetiji, and IT 157 Trepl cppecrlv daweTOS 
Cypriote inscr. from Idalion (CoUitz aXK-q. So irepl del/xan, <pb^m, etc.,_ lit. 
no. 60), 'RdaXUFes dvujyov 'Ovdaikov kt\. compassed hy fear, Pind. P. v. 58, Aisch. 
A sigmatic aor. occurs in 295, k 531, Pers. 696, Hymn. Ccr. 430, etc. Cf. A 46. 
Scut. Her. 479 {dvCb^aC). See van L. 320. Both these names are legendary 
Ench. p. 468. names of heralds generally ; for the 

314. Perhaps the Greeks had abstained hereditary heralds of Sparta were called 
from ablution during the plague in sign Talthybiadae, and Eurybates is the 
of mourning, and now typically threw herald also of Odysseus, B 184. 

off their sin, the restitution having been 325. ^iriow: a comparative (cf. piV^™ 

made, eic aXa, because ddXaaaa. KKi'^et. E 873) formed directly from the substan- 

wdvTa Tdvdpuirwv /ca/cd (Eur. I.T. 1193). tive plyos, cf. Kwrepos, ix^'-^v, KvdiffTos, 

Xvijaara, defilement, as in S 170 ("Upv) KepOLov. 

28 lAIAAOC A (i) 

TO) 3' aeKOvre ^drrjv nrapa dlv aXb^ arpvyeroto, 

MupfiiSovoiv S' eVt re K\i,crLa<i Koi vrja^ iKeadrjv. 

TOP 8' evpov irapd re Kkicrlrjc koL vrji /jueXaivrji 

rjfxevov' ouS' apa too 'ye ISmv yijOrjcrev A^tWew?. 330 

TOD fxep rap^rjcravTe Kol alSofxevo) ^aaiX.r]a 

aTtjTTjv, ouSe TL [Jbiv 7rpoae(j)cov€ov ovS epeovro' 

avrdp 6 e<yvoi rjcaiv evX (fypeat (f)u>vr)aev re* 

" -^aipere, K7]pvKe<;, Ato? dyjeXoL rjSe koL avSpcov 

acrcrov lt ' ov rl fiot i;yu./i.e<? eTratTioi, dW AyafJiefivoyv, 335 

(T(f)Mi irpoteL Bpto-^/i'So? e'lveKa Kovpr)<;. 

dX>J aye, 8ioyeve<; ITarpo/cXet?, e^aye Kovprjv 

KUL a(f)0)'iv So9 ayeiv. too 8' avroi fxaprvpoi earoiv 

7rp6<i re Oewv fiaKapoiV 7r/309 re Ovrjroiv dvOpoiiroiv 

Koi rrpo^; rov ^a(TikrjO<; drrrjveo'i, et irore S avre 340 

ypeioi ifMelo yevrjrat decKea Xoiyov afjuvvai 

rol^ aWoa. T) yap 6 y o\oir]Lcn (ppeal Ovei, 

ouSe n olhe vorjaac dp.a Trpocrao) Kai OTTicrao), 

328. 5' om. P. 332. Ou5e TI Ar. : ouSe Te cq). Did. I npoce9cbNOUN S. 

333. 6^; T. 335. unairioi H-QS Laud. 336. o Ar. [A]CR[S]T Lips. Mosc. 1^ : 
Be fi. li C9wTn Zen. (A supr.) Haii. c d, Par. a^ h j, Mosc. 1 : c(pcoe King's. 337. 

naypoKXeec :\Ior. : naxpoKXAc IJi. 338. c<pu)i U. |i udprupec G : udpTupe C. 

340. anHN€OC : -^XevKos ev rrji TroXwTi'xwt yp. aNOiaeoc Did. 341. ^uoTo 

PQS Vr. b. I! auuNciN C [yp. 6juiONai mem. rec). 342. 6Xoifi(l)ci AT: 

6\oh(i)ci(n) 0. 343. Tl : toi J siqn: : o\sb' en IJ. 

331. TopBHcaNTC : the aor. seems to 340. toO BaciXftoc anHNeoc, Mvi the 

mean ' struck with alarm ' at his look kirig untoward. The order of the words 

{deivbi dvrip • tclxo. k€v Kai avalriov airio- shews that rov is not the article. oinH- 

WLTO, Patroklos says, A 654) ; while the nhc, lit. 2vith averted face (cf. Skt. «?ia = 

pres. aldofj-evu implies their permanent mouth, face ; irp-qv-qs, inrrjvr] = that which 

respect. For the juxtaposition of the is under the mouth), of one who turns 

two ideas compare the favourite Setvos away from the suppliant ; opposed to 

aidolos re. Trpoayjvijs. It seems best to follow the 

334. Aibc arreXoi : cf. G 517 KrjpvKes unanimous MS. tradition in writing 

dd<pi.\oi. The herald has no connexion 5' aure, though the 5' must represent Stj. 

with Hermes till post-Homeric times. But the vowel so often coalesces with 

336. For the difference between cqxaV another that it is necessary to assume 

and C9C0YN (338) see on 1. 8. that dri had a weak form de (cf. fxiv by 

339. np6c, &f/<»'ci;7^e/«cco/; the phrase /j.r}v}, the spelling drj being retained to 

occurs occasionally in later Greek, e.g. distinguish it from the adversative 

Xen. Anah. i. 6, 6 jBovXevS/xevos 6 tl particle when the vowel was not elided 

diKaLOv icTTt. Kai rrpos OeQv kol -rrpos dvOpw- (cf. van L. Ench. p. 587, and H. G. § 

■Kuiv. Hence the use in oaths and en- 350, where it is noted that the 5' in ei 

treaties, -irpbs irarpos yovvd^o/j-aL, etc. It 5' dye is the same). auTe, hereafter, as 

seems to be derived from the purely local E 232, H 30, etc. 

sense, as in wpbs dXoj, 'in the direction 343. 'To look before and after' is, 

of the sea,' npos Atos eipvarai 239, q.v. ; as in Hamlet, the prerogative of reason, 

cf. Z 456. which argues from the past to the future. 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


OTTTTft)? ol Trapa vrjval aooi fia'^eoivro A-^atol. 

w? (jjaTO, IldTpoK\o(; Se cfiiXcoi, eireTreiOed iraupwi, :j4r) 

e/c 8' ay aye K\iaiT]<i Vtpicnylha KaXXiTrdprjiov, 
B(OK€ S' dyeiv. tco S' avra 'lttjv irapd vrja<; A'^atMP, 
rj B' cteKova cifxa TOiac yvvt] Kiev. avrdp A^iWei"? 
SaKpvaa^; erdpcov d(f)ap e^eTO voacfa Xiacr0el<; 
6lv e(f) d\o<; TroXii)?, opowv eirl olvoira ttovtov 350 

irdXXd he fx,r)Tpl (f)L\r]i rjpijo-aTO '^elpa<i opeyvv^' 
" /xrJTep, eire'i jx ere/ce? ye jjiLvvvddhiov irep iovra, 
Tt/ji7]v irep fMOt 6<peX\.ev 0\v/x7rio<; eyyvaXi^au 
Zeu? v-^ij3pefierri<;' vvv 8 ovSe /jue rvrdov ericrev. 
rj ydp fjb ArpetSr]^ evpv Kpeicov ^Ayafie/jivcov 355 

rjTi/jbrjaev eXcov ydp e^et yepa<i, avTo<i d7rovpa<i. 

w? (jidro Sd/cpv ^ecov, rov S' e/cA-ve iroTvca fi'qrijp 
r)fi€vi] ev /SevdecraLV d\o<i irapd irarpl yepovn. 

345. enineieer' L. 346. are PT. 

kn aneipoNQ Ar. 351. Apdccaxo G. 

niTNdc Cobet) : tlv€s aNacxcoN Schol. T. 
Vr. a. 355. r6p {(rm. u.') H. 

347. aueic C. 

350. em oiNona 

operNUC : ONanToic Zen. ( ? X^^P cinq- 

352. re : re S. 


344. Snncoc : here an adv. of mannei", 
' how his men can fight, ' clearly shew- 
ing the transition to the final use. 
juaxeoiNTO is quadruply wrong : (1) the 
hiatus is intolerable ; (2) -olvto for -otaro 
is not Homeric ; (3) iJ-axe- is not the 
pres. stem (see on 272) ; (4) the opt. is 
the wrong mood (J/, and T. % 322). 
Barnes's conj. /xaxeotar' removes only 
the first two difficulties. Porson conj. 
fiaxi^vTai, Thiersch /xaxeojrat (fut. 
indie, B 366) ; the latter is best, cf. 
H. G. § 326 (3). 

350. kn\ oYNona : so MSs. ; Ar. e7r' 
dweipova, perhaps on the ground that 
otVoTra is inconsistent with iroKirjs. But, 
if the epithets are to be pressed, it might 
be urged that there is very vivid truth 
in the contrast of the ' purple deep ' 
with the greenish grey of the sliallow 
water near the shore, which is almost 
always the meaning of d\s. $ 59 is al- 
most the only exception. Ameis thinks 
that the ' infinite ' sea intensifies the 
feeling of despair and desolation — a 
German rather than a Greek idea. 

352. There seems to be a mixture of 
two trains of thought in this speech. 
It opens as though fiLu. irep iovra were 
a parenthetical complaint, ' Mother — 
for you did give me life, of however 

short a span.' But this apparently 
subordinate clause is then made one 
part of the emphatic antithesis of the 
entire sentence, ' since my life is short, 
it should at least be glorious.' The 
sentence, like the ' two-sided ' similes (see 
on M 151), buds out into new relations 
while it is being uttered. It is possible, 
but more prosaic, to leave /jllv. Tvep 
ihvra out of sight altogether as a mere 
parenthesis, and take ireKts as involv- 
ing the claim, the divinity of his mother 
being understood: 'since you, a goddess, 
bore me, the gods should have dealt 
better by me.' 

353. o9eXXeN = w0etXe, not to be con- 
fused with the quite distinct 6(peWu — 
augeo. See note on Z 350. 

356. auToc, by his own arljitrary 
will, not in the name of justice. 
anoupac = dwd - Fpa - s, root Fep, short 
form Fpa ( = Fp) ; the long form is found 
in dwo-Fepae, etc., Z 348, <P 283, 329 
(van L. Ench. p. 379, ff. G. § 13). 

358. The naxHp repcoN or dXios yepuv 
is known to later mythology as Nereus, 
but is never named in Homer. (In 5 
Proteus also is called dXios yepwv.) The 
nymphs are named 'NTjpTjides only in a 
passage of doubtful authenticity, S 38, 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

Kap7ra\L/ji(a<i 8' aveSu TroXtyj'i aA.09 '>]vt o/jn-^Xr}, 

Kai pa irdpoiB' avrolo Kade^ero haKpv '^€ovto<;, 360 

X^''P^ '^^ H'''^ Karepe^ev, eVo? t e^ar ck t ovofMa^e- 

" TeKvov, ri K\a[ei<; ; ri he ae (f)peva<; iKero Trevdo'i ; 

e^avoa, fjui] Kevue vococ, iva eioo/xev aficpco. 

rrjv he /Bapv (TTevdj(a)V Trpoaecj)!] 7roha<; to/cu? A^tWei;?' 
" olcrda' Ti rj rot, ravT elhvirji iravr dyopevco ; 365 

oii'^o/jbed^ e? ®rj^riv, lepjjv ttoKlv 'Herteoi/o?, 
Tr]V he 8L€7rpd6ofiev re Kal 7]'yo/u,€v evOdhe irdvTa. 
Kol rd fxev ev hdaaavro fierd cr(f)iaiv ule? A'^atcov, 
CK 8' e\ov WTpethr]L ^pvcrrjtha KaWnrdpijt.ov. 
Xpi/o-?;? S' av6' cepev<; eKarrj/SoXov ^ A7roW(ovo<i 370 

•^Xde dod'i eVt vija^ A'^aiayv '^aS.KoytTdiVwv 
\va6/x€vo^ re OvyaTpa (f)epQ)v r direpeicn diroiva, 
arefifiar e')(aiv ev -^epalv eK7]/3o\ov A7roWo)vo<i 

359. Hue" ouixXH Vr. a- b. 362. ce : cou Q. 365. aropeucco QT 

Eton. Vat. Lips. 366-92. dWorpioL oi iTrKpepofievoi arixoi eiKOcn enTO. An. 

366. iepiiN R. 370. aue' : aij A {sxi-in: & T.W.A.) Vat. 

361. KaxepesE, stroked, so E 424 
Kappe^ovaa. This can hardly be con- 
nected with the ordinary sense of 
(f )pefw : Autenrieth refers it to root reg 
of 6-piy-ixj. 

365. TaOx' eiduiHi, i.e. raura FLdvirji. 
This, the only correct form of the fern, 
part. , has been preserved by some of the 
MSS. in the phrase Idvirjiai wpairlSeffai 
(608, 2 380, 482, T 12), but is elsewhere 
I'estored by conjecture only. Cf. I 128. 

366-92 were condemned by Ar. as 
superfluous, and contradictory of 365. 
The real objection is, of course, that they 
are not required, at least from 368, for 
the sake of the hearer. But the frequent 
verbal repetition of messages shews what 
the Epic poet and his hearers liked. 
For 0h6h see notes on 37, B 690, Z 397. 
Why Chryseis was taken here instead 
of in her own home we are not told. 

iep6c, holy, because a cit}' is an in- 
stitution to which men submit without 
asking why ; it is a bond imposed by 
a higher power, and is hence dedicated 
to a deity. So lephv r^Xos K 56, of 
a dignity. 'The impersonal and in- 
animate, when it exercises power, is 
divine . . Sea, river, and night are 
divine as well as iepSv . . The fish 
that breathes in water where men die 

is iepos . . Human power and soul, 
ascrilaed to an indefinite godhead, are 
the lepbv fxivo%, kings are dioyeveis. The 
official, as his insignia denote, is dedi- 
cated ; he belongs not to himself but to 
his office, the impersonal divine which 
we call duty' (W.-M. H. U. p. 106). 
But it must be admitted that this is 
not satisfactory as regards the fish ; it is 
tempting to seek, with Frazer, a less 
subtle explanation in a ' taboo ' or re- 
ligious scruple against the eating of fish, 
which agrees with the well-known fact 
that Homeric heroes do not eat fish 
except as a last resource (see 'Taboo' 
in Eiicycl. Brit.). Some would recur to 
the supposed primitive sense of lepbs, 
strong (Skt. isMras) ; but in Greek any 
such meaning, if it ever existed, must 
have long died out, for all the derivative 
forms (cf. iepeiyo;) are entirely restricted 
to the sense sacred. Those who are not 
satisfied with this explanation will find 
ample discussion from other points of 
view in Schulze Q. E. 207 ff., Mulvany 
J. P. XXV. 131 ff. 

367. HrojaeN is properly used of living 
things ; here, in spite of the neuter 
irdvTa, Achilles is thinkii;g mainly of 
the captives. 

372-79 are verbatim from 12-25. 

lAlAAOC A (i) 31 

ypvaecoL dva a-KrjiTTpwi, Kat Xicraero 7r(ivra<i A^aiov'i, 

^ArpeiSa Se /xdXtara Svco, Koa/ubi]Top€ Xawv. 375 

evB' clWoi ixev 7rdvT€<i i7r€V(f)7]/jirjaav 'A^^atot 

alSeiadal 6^ iepPja koI dyXaa hej(6ai diroiva' 

dXfC ovK ^ATpetSrjc ^Ajafie/^vovi rfvhave dvfXMC, 

dWa KUKM'i d(f)iei, Kparepov S' eVl fivdov ereXXe. 

yaofievo'i 8' 6 yepoyv nrdXiv Mi^ero' tolo 8 AttoXXcov 380 

€V^afx,6vov ijKovaev, eVet fiaXa oi ^tXo? yjev, 

rjKe 8' eV Apyeloiat kukov jBeko^' ol he vv \aol 

dv-fJLcrKOv eiraacrvTepoL, to, 8' eTTcoi'^eTo KrjKa deolo 

iravTrji dva arparov evpvv A^aicov. dfifit 8e fidvri^ 

ev et8ct)9 uyopeve OeoTrpoTrla^ eKaroio. 385 

avTiK iyo) Trpcoro^; KeXofirjv deov CXaaKeaOai' 

^ Arpetoova 3' erreira ^o\o<i Xd/Sev, al-ylra 8 dva<TTa<i 

i)7reikriaev fivOov, o Stj rere'Xecrfievo'i icni. 

rrjv fjiev yap crvv vrfC Oorjc eXt/c&)7re9 A'^aLot 

e? l^pvaTjv irefXTTOVcnv, dyovat, 8e Scopa dva/CTi' 390 

TTjv Be veov KXtairjOev e/Sav Ki'jpvKe^ dyovT€<i 

Kovpi]v Bpt(7?)o9, Tryi' fxoc hocrav vle<; A^ai(ov. 

dXXd cry, el hvvaaai ye, irepua'^eo iracSo'i eoio' 

eXOova OvXv/jbTTovSe Ato. Xlaai, el ttotc St; tl 

-i) eirei Mvqaaf; Kpahirjv Aio<i rje Kal epycoi. 395 

TToXXaKL yap creo irarpo'; evl [jueydpoLcnv aKOvaa 

evyojjievr)^, or ecpyada KeXaLvecf)ei K^povicovi 

374. Xiccero Ar. AT Lips. : eXiccero ii. 375. arpeiaH H. || (After this line 

Q repeats lines 17-21.) 377. e' om. G. 381. JudXa : pa nu in the 'Cyprian 
and Cretan ' aec. to Seleukos a}). Did. 383. cnaccuxepoN Q (glossed hukno- 

TepoN). 388. o bk Kai Z)R. || TexeXecjueNON H. 393. cu : cu re P. i| loTo 

Zen. HL Cant. Vr. b, Harl. c d. Par. a d^ (efioc in ras.) e (in, ras. ?) f j k {yp. choc), 
and yp. JPR Par. e : efioc (efioc) Ar. O. 396. CNiuJuercipoiciN U. 396—406 

dd, Zen. 

383. ^naccurepoi: usually derived from two spondees filling the two first feet — 

dyxi- ; cf. do-crorepw, p 572, t 506. The i; is almost unique in Homer, and some 

is called Aeolic. But Brugmann refers it suspicion attaches to v e<j>. added to make 

to iir-av-(j{e)v{(>i), separating it from atrixov. position. /j.udov iTr-qivdX-qaev Nauck, cf. 

The sense is much the same, close upon v 127. 
or hurrying up. 393. loTo, thy : see App. A. 

385. €KdToio, a short and almost 396. ceo must go with aKova-a. naxpoc 

familiar form {Kosename) for eKarri^dXas. =-»(,?/ father's (Peleus'). Zenod. athetized 

Pick has shewn that this method of 396-406, probably on the ground that it 

shortening is one which has very largely was superfluous for Achilles to tell his 

prevailed in the formation of Greek mother what she had done. But here 

proper names. of course the enlightenment of the 

388. The rhythm — a single word of reader is sufficient justification. 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

olr} iv aOavdroLCTiv aecKea Xoiyov a/jivvai,, 
oTTTTore fXiv ^vvhrjaai 'OXvfiTrtoi I'jOeXov aWoi, 
'Uprj T rjSe HoaecSdcov Kol ITaXXa? '\6rjvri. 
dXka (TV rov <y ekOoixra, $ed, virekvaao Secr/jbcov, 
Si-y eKaroy^eipov Kokeaaa e? fiaKpov "OXv/xttov, 
ov Bpidpecov KoXeovaL Oeol, avSp€<; 8e re irdvre'i 
Alyalcov- 6 jdp avre ^irjt ov 7raTpo<; dfxeivwv 
6<i pa Trapa Kpovio)Vi Kude^ero Kvhel jalajv 
TOP Kol virehheicrav p,dKape<; Oeol ovSe r ehrjaav. 
Twv vvv iJLLV fxvy](Ta(ja irapel^eo koI \aj3e ^ovvoav, 



400. riaKXac 'Aohnh: 4>oT6oc 'AndXXcoN Zen. 401. t6n {pm. r ) 1). 402. 
eKQTorxeipa Q : CKaxoNxeipoN 7>P. 403. BpidpeoN Mosc. 3. li eeo4 r awepec S. || 
QN&pec : aWoi Q. 404. Bihi : BIhn Ar. : Zy]vbhoTO^ ypacpei o rdp auTC Bihi 

noXu 9epTaTOC hen toon (MS. 9epTaToc AndNxcoN, corr. Bentley) onocoi Naiouc' 
unb TdpTapoN eupcoeNxa An. 405. Kaeizero Vr. b. 407. JULiN : Juoi Q (so 

Dion. Hal. Ant. p. 106). || nOn jmiuNHcaca G. 

400. As tbe Scholiast remarks, these 
three divinities were the allies of the 
Greeks, which would be a strong argu- 
ment for Thetis' prayer for helji to the 
Trojans. For FlaXXdc 'Aohnh Zenod. 
read ^di^os 'AiroWwv, which, as Ariston. 
remarks, d<paipe2Tai rb indavbv, spoils the 
effectiveness of the appeal. 

403. The other instances in Homer 
of double names in the language of men 
and gods are B 813 tt]v ij tol avSpes 
Bartetaf KiKk-qaKovcnv, dddvaroi 5e re arj/xa 
TToXvaKapO/xoLo Mvpivvs, S 290 ipvidi, 
Tjv T iv bpeaaL xa\/ct5a KiKXrjffKovai. deoi, 
avOpe^ 5e Ki'/fiivSiv, T 74 dv ^.d-vdov Ka- 
Xeovai 6eoi, avSpes Se 'Z.Kafiavdpov. Cf. 
K 305 fJLLoXv 5e /j-lv KaXeovcri. deol, /j. 61 
ilXayKTas drj tol rds ye deol /xd^■apes 
KoKeovffiv. The natural supposition 
would be that the 'divine' words are 
archaic survivals, perhaps fi'om an older 
race. It is sometimes said that the 
divine name has usually a clearer mean- 
ing than the human, and that the Greeks 
therefore regarded their own tongue as 
divine, and others as the languages of 
mere men. But this is only the case 
with the xti^^''s and kv/j,lv5is, and possibly 
'Sdudos and '^Ka/j.avdpos, which, however, 
look like diflerent renderings of the 
same foreign word. fiQiXv is not a Greek 
form, nor is the theory borne out by 
isolated instances elsewhere, e.g. Diog. 
Laert. i. 119 eXeyev (6 ^^epeKvdris) on 
ol deol Trjv Tpdwe^av eucopbN kclXovjiv. 
Again the Pelasgian Hermes was called 

"IpLJipos : compare with this the state- 
ment of Steph. Byzant., 'Ep/xov, 8p 
"IfxjSpov Xeyovcri /xaKapei. Both Bptdpews 
and Aiyaiiov may be equally referred to 
Greek roots {(BpL of ppiapos, j3pidv^, and 
alyls, cf. Aiyaiov weXayos). The father 
of Briareus was, according to the legend, 
Poseidon, who himself was sometimes 
called Alyaliav or Alyaios. — The legend 
is one of a number referring to revolts 
against tlie Olympian gods, as of the 
Titans, Prometheus, etc. auTe, again : 
as Poseidon, in union with the other 
gods, was stronger than Zeus, so his son 
again was stronger than he. To avoid 
the synizesis in Bpidpeiov van L. suggests 
Bpidp7]v, the gen. of which, Bpidpyjo, is 
(quoted from Ibykos. 

405. raicoN occurs only in this phrase, 
E 906 of Ares, 51 and A 81 of Zeus. 
The line in E was rejected by Ar. on the 
gi'ound that Ares could hardly be said 
to 'rejoice in his glory' immediately 
after his ignominious defeat by a mortal. 
But Hentze suggests that kv8os may refer 
rather to the outward splendour of a 
divinit}' (cf. Kvdaivw E 448), so that the 
phrase means ' brilliant with splendour.' 

406. oiibi r eBhcon : read ovSi f 
^d-rjaau. The loss of f ' = e can be traced 
in many places — nowhere more clearly 
than in ii 154, q.v. The fact was first 
discovered by Brandreth, and has been 
systematically investigated by van 
Leeuwen. See R. G. §^391. 

lAIAAOC A (I) 33 

al K6V 7rft)9 eOeXtjicrii' eVl Tpcoeaaiv apij^ai, 
TOV<; Be Kara 7rpv/jbva<; re koI dfi^ oka eXcrai Ap^atou? 
KT€ivo/jbevov<;, Xva iravre^ eTravpoyvrat, l3a(Ti\i]0<i, 110 

yvMi Be Kal 'ArpetS?/? evpv Kpelcov WyafxefMVcov 
fjv arrjv, 6 r dptarov 'A'^atMV ovBev ertae. ' 

rov S' rjfie'i^er eiretra (H)eTt? Kara BuKpv ^eovaa' 
" M fioi, reKVOV ifxov, rl vv a erpe^ov alva reKovcra ; 
aW^ o</)eXe<? irapa vrjvcrlv aBdKpvro<i Kal uTn^fiwv 415 

TjcrOai, errei vv rot alcra jxivvvOd irep, ov n [xdXa Bi'jv 
vvv 8' apba r WKVjJbopo^i Kal 6i^vp6<i irepl irdvroiv 
eirXeo- tw (xe KaKtji alarjt rmov ev /jbeydpoiac. 
rovro Be roc epeovaa e7ro9 Att repiriKepavvwi 
etfi avrr] tt/jo? "OXv/jlttov d<ydvvi^ov, a'i Ke TnOijrac. 420 

dWa (TV fjbev vvv vrjvcrl iraprjpi.evo^; (OKViropoicrL 
firjvi ^Ayaiolatv, iroXejiov S' diroTraveo Tra/XTrav 
Zev'i <ydp €<i ^riKeavov fMer dfjbv/uiova<i KWiOTrr)a<i 
;^^t^o9 ejBri Kara Baira, Oeol 8' dfjua 7rdvre<; eirovro' 

409. SXsai G. 414. TCKoOca: naeoOca Schol. A 31. 417. cbnujuiopoc re kqi 
Q. 419. &€ TOl : V €Ti P. 420. nieHOi (>. 421. nGn : cun T. 423. 

€C : en' C. II TLvi's yp. xxerh jui^junonoc (ueuNONac A) aieionfiac Schol. AT. 
424. Kara Ar. Aph. Antim. Mass. Sinop. Cypria al., Par. c-: ixerbi fi. Il enoNTO : 
gnoNTQi ap. Did. (not Ar., v. Ludw. ad loc.) : ONecraN Par. c. 

409. au.<p' S\a, round the bay, where /ned' alariL, H 218 vpoKaXeacraTO x^PfJ-Vh 
the ships were drawn up. Kar6, as <I> and perhaps 11 203 xo?^wt dpa a' 'irpecpe 
225 TpJias ^Xcrat Kara darv, 'in the fJ-wvP- oTca is one of the Homeric 
region of the sterns, which were drawn words which the Cyprian inscriptions 
up towards the land. have shewn us yet alive in the primitive 

410. dnaupcoNTOi, ironical, 'that sense of meresMrc : tQ Aios tw Foivw alcra 
they may have profit of their king.' M y xoes (CoUitz no. 73). Cf. also 
Cf. N 733 eiravpla-KovTaL. Hegesandros «;;. Athen. viii. 365 d 

412. The Homeric idea of dry) is best 'ApyeioL . . KaX^ovai . . tt]v fiepida alaav. 

 explained by Agamemnon himself in tco, not rcDt, is the reading of A in all 

T 85-136. Dawes would restore the passages where it means therefore ; and 

form a{F)a.Tri to Homer throughout (cf. with this grammatical tradition agrees. 

Pind. avdr-q), but this is impossible in It seems to be a genuine relic of the old 

T 88, ft 28 ; and the contracted forms of ablative ; compare ww with ttws, and 

the verb HcraTo T 95, Sere X 61 (late pas- ]ierhaps ovrco with ovtws. (M. L. Earle 

sages all) are opposed to it. o T' = 6Tt re, in C. R. xi. 243 would read rcis here, 

see note on 244 and H. G. § 269 (3). so ill-starred did I hear thee. This 

414. aiNd, adv., cursed in my child- seems very probable; there is no place 

karm(/, the same idea as /ca/c^t atcrryt in418. for an inferential particle here.) 

416. The omission of the substantive 423. For the theories which have been 

verb with an adverb is perhaps unique. founded on the absence of the gods here 

For the use of adverbs with ei^xi see Z as compared with 222 see the Introduc- 

131 brjv riv, H 424 diayvdvai. xciXe'n-ws rji', tion. For the journey of the gods to the 

I 551 KovprirecraL /ca/cuis 7]v, and cf. A 466 Aethiopians compare a 22-26, where 

fiLvvvda. 5e oi yeved' opfirj. Poseidon alone is entertained by them. 

418. KOKHi a'l'cHi must have the same They dwell on the extreme limits of the 

sense as alcra above, and therefore mean world, by the stream of Ocean. 

to an evil fate; cf. X 477 t??t apa yeifd- 424. Kaxd Ar., fxeTO. MSS. Kara 


34 lAIAAOC A (i) 

ScoSeKarrjc Se TOi avrt^ iXevaerat OvXv/XTrovBe, 425 

Kal TOT eVetra toc eljXL Ai6<; irorl j^akKojBare'i Sco, 
Kai fjLLV yovvdao/jiai, Kal fitv ireiaeaOaL otco.^^ 

a)<i apa (^wvi'^aaa aire^rja-ero, rov S" e\t7r' avrov 
'^coofjuevov Kara Bv/mov iv^covoco 'yvvaiK6<;, 

rrjv pa ^irji aeKovro^ airrjvpwv. avrap 'OSvaa€V<i 430 

e'l? Upvcrrjv iKavev aycov lep-qv eKaT6/ji/3r)v. 
ol h ore Stj \i/jL€VO^ iTo\vj3ev6eo'^ ivro^i Xkovto, 
IcTTia fiev arelXavTO, Oecrav 8' ev vr]i' pbekaivqi, 
laTov 8 laroSoKTjc irekaaav Trporovoicriv v(f)evTe<; 
KapTraXifiax;, rrjv S et? opfiov nrpoepeaaav eper/jidi^;. 435 

e/c 8' €vva<; e^aXov, Kara he 7rpvp,v7]at eSyaav 
€K Be Kal avTol ^alvov eirl pri<yfjuvi 6a\dacr7]<;, 
eK B eKarofM^rjv I3r)aav cktj^oXcol ^AttoWcovi,' 
eK Be XpfcTT/t? v'r}o<i (Br] TrovToiropoto. 

T7]v fiev €7retT iirl /Bco/mou djcov 7roXvfjb7]Tt<i 'OSucrcret'? 440 
irarpl (jjikcot ev %e/3crl rlOet, Kai /mv Trpoaeeiirev 
" S) ^pv<T7], irpo p, €7rep,ylrev dva^ dvBpwv ^ A.<yap.efjiV(av 
TralBd re crol d'yep.ev ^oljBooi G' leprjv eKarop^^rjv 

425. aueic C. 428. A ukt* ap' oic dnouc' J. || dneBHCoTO Z'GH'JPQU. 

429. x"<5"eNOC L. 432. CNTOC : erriic Ar. 434. U9eNTec Zen. (2 : a9eNTec 
Ar. 435. npoepeccaN Ar. Argol. Sinop. Sosigenes : npoepuc(c)aN fi. 443. 

coi : CHN J-Q. 

means 'in the matter of a banquet,' pleonastic expression, 'in spite of him 

cf. H. G. § 212 (3); fierd would be 'to unwilling.' We cannot construe deKoz'ros 

look for' a banquet, Avhich is a some- with a.Tn]6pwv, as verbs of robbing take 

what undignified expression as used of a a double ace. 

god. The variant eirovTo.!. for enoNxo, 432. For eNxdc Ar. read ^77!^?, but 

mentioned by Did., is an attempt to get this is not necessary, asbpuoN in 435 is 

over the contradiction of the line with the mooring -place inside the harbour, 

the presence of the gods in the camp : and is not identical with Xifiriv, as he 

' they are folloiving (going to follow) probably considered, 

him (to-day?).' But 'eireffdaL in Greek 433. creiXaNTO : the mid. may mean 

always means 'to accompany,' or some 'furled their sails,' but in this sense it 

immediately related notion. It never occurs only here. areiXdv re has been 

means ' to follow ' at an interval. conjectured by Wakefield. 

426. deb is generally explained as 434. The icTo96KH was a crutch, a 

= 5w;it, an old ?;i-stem, cf. h8ov = iv forked piece of wood at the stern of the 

Sofx. Brugmann, Gr. § 223 ad fin., ship, into which the mast was lowered 

mentions the suggestion that it is by slackening the forestays. See diagram 

originally = our to, Germ, zu, a heavier and Excursus in M. and R. pp. 541-3. 

form of the enclitic -5e, and got the 436. The eCiNai are heavy stones with 

meaning ' house ' only from its acci- hawsers thrown out to moor the bows of 

dental resemblance to StD/^a in the the ship, while the stern is secured by 

common phrase Tjf/^repov dQ = rifiiT€p6v Be. the stern ropes {7rpv/j.vrjcna) to moorings 

430. On the question of the genuine- on shore, probably to a stone with a 

ness of this episode (to 489) see Intro- hole set up for the j)urpose (t/jt/tos XiOos 

duction. BiHi dcKONTOc seems to be a v 77). 

lAIAAOC A (i) 35 

pe^at inrep Aavaojv, 6(f)p iXaaop,ea$a uvaKra, 

o? vvv Wpyeloiac iroXvarova K7]8e' €cf>i]K€v." 445 

w? etTTOiv iv %epcrt Tidet, o Se Se^aro -^aLpcov 
TraiSa (f}i\r]v. rol S' mku Oemi KXecrrjv eKaTOfjb^rjp 
€^eLr]<; earrjaav evhp^rjrov irepl ^co/jUov, 
"^epviy^avTO 8 eiretra Kal ouXo^vrwi dvekovro. 
Totcrcv Se ^pua7]<i /jueyaX' eu^ero ■^ecpa^ avaa'^oov 450 

" kSuvOL fxev, dpyup6T0^\ 09 ^pvarjv dfjL(f)L/3e^r]Ka<i 
KiXXay re ^aderjv TeveSoco re l<pL dvdaaei,<i' 
i]8r] fiev TTOT efiev irdpo<i e/cXue? ev^Ufxevoio, 
Ti/u,r)aa<i /xev ifie, fieya B l-yjrao Xabv W^aioiV 
^8' ert Kal vvv fioi toS' e7nKpi)rivov ieXSwp' 455 

TjSr) vvv /^avaolcTiv deiKea Xotyov a/jivvov. 

CO? e<paT €V'^o/ji€vo<;, tov 8' e/cXue '^oi/3o<; W.7t6XX(ov. 
avrdp iirel p ev^avro Kal ovXo^vra^ irpo^aXovro, 
avepvcrav f^ev irpwra Kal ecrcjia^av Kal eSeipav, 

444 de. At. || iXac6uecea ACHR al. : iXacccouee' P {stqyr. o) Vr. b A 
iXaccbuee' Vr. a : iWacccojuiee' S : iXacccojueea G : iXac6uece' Lips. : iXacoueea D 
iXacojuee' U : iXaccouieea Q : iXacouee' T^ 445. nOn en' dpr, Q. ]| Kwde' 

nHuar' J. 446-7. oic einuN (eTneN Wolf) toJ 9' wkq eedii iepHN CKarouBMN 

Zen. 447. TOJ : 01 Ambr. H kXcithn O : icpHN Ar. 449. QNeXoNTO : npo- 

BdXoNTO Eust. 451. ueu : juoi ry). Did. 453. ei dn xxku Q : ft ii^n bk Schol. 
2 75 (Au^N bk seems to be Bekker's conj. from 11 236). 458. npoBdXoNTO : 

ON^XoNTO R. 459. auepucON AG : dNepucoN Eust. and yp. J : afi ^pucuN 0. || 
edHpaN Q. 

449. x*^pNi4»ciNTO, a ctTra^ Xeydfievov 459. aCrepucaN, for dF-Fepvaav by 

in Homer, unique in form among Greek assimilation from dv-Fep, 'they dreio 

compounds. The pres. xepyiTrroyttat back, lifted up (the head) ' (Att. dvappvui) 

occurs frequently in Attic, e.g. Aristoph. partly {)erhaps for convenience of cutting 

Pax 961. ouXoxuTQC, barley grains ; the throat, partly in sign of dedication 

so oiXai 7 441, the Attic 6\ai. They to the heavenly gods. (Compare di'atrxo- 

appear to have been merely bruised — ,(xei/os ^ 425, d!'eX6i'Tes 7 453.) So victims 

a relic, such as often appears in ritual, to Chthonian powers were killed into a 

of a forgotten time before grinding was pit, oiiroi yap Ovovai roh x^oi'iots, toTs 

invented. The usual course seems to Se ovpavioLs dvoj dvaffTpi<povTes rhv 

have been to cast them into the fire, rpaxv^o" cr(pd^ovaLv (schol. Ap. Rhod. 

but occasionally they were thrown on I 587) : Kv/xaicoi' 8e eOos, a'lToivTwv rbv 

the victim's head. 458 below would debv dirb tQv Karu ewi to. dvw avrovs 

suit either. ^NeXoNTO, ' took up in their eXKeiv (Schol. B here). Of. also Cecil 

hands from the basket.' Compare the Smith's paper on 'Nike sacrificing a Bull,' 

whole description of the sacrifice in 7 J. If. S. vii. 275 sqq. (See Schulze's. 

430-63, and in Aristoph. P«a! 948 sqq. excellent discussion, Qu. Ep. 56-60.) 

454. TiJuiHcac, an 'explicative ' asynde- In Pindar 0. xiii. 80 dvapv-qi is ex- 
ton, merely expanding the sense of eVXi^es. plained by the .Schol. a(pd^7]i, Ovrji. 
Bekker would read TipLrjcyas, which how- Most Mss. give ad ^pvaav, which cannot 
ever is not necessary. Yij/ao, dulst smite. be right, as ad never = KarowLffde : in 
Lat. ic-ere ; cf. iiroiiixevos, crushed doivn, 9 324-5 the rej^etition of a5 would be 
Aisch. P. r. 365. So I'l/'erat B 193. intolerable. 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

fi7]pov<; T i^erafxov Kara re Kviarji eKciXvyp^av 
SiTTTV^a 7roL')']aavr€<;, eir avroyv 8' ODfioOerrja-av. 
Kate S" iirl a'^l^rji^ o yepwv, eirl 8 aWotra olvov 
Xei/Se' veoL he irap avrov e^ov 7re/x7rco^o\a '^epaiv. 
avrap iirel Kara ixrjp eKcir} Kal crifKa'^yy' liraaavTO, 
liL(TTvXKov r apa raWa Kal ci/jicf) 6/3e\otcnv eireipav, 
MTTTtjcrdv T€ 7r€pi(j)pa8€Oi<i, ipvcravTO re iravra. 
avrap iirel iravcravTO ttovov rervKovro re halra, 
haivvvr , ovSe n 6vp,o<i eSevero Sairo^ elcrrjf;. 
avrap iirel irocno'i Kal iS'rjrvo'i e^ epov k'vro, 
Kovpoo fiev Kp7]rr}pa'i eirecrre'^avro rrorolo, 
v(i0fM7]aav S' dpa Trdcriv eTrap^dfjuevoi herrdecrcnv, 




462. cxizaic G. 463. After this add 463*^ cnXdrxNa 9' ap' auneipaNTCC 

uneipexoN (unepeTxoN J) A9aicToio ( = B 426) JLQRT'" Hail, b, Par. d f'". 464. 

uHpe KOH Ar. (? see Ludw. cul loc). \\ cn\<4rxNa ndcasTo Ar. 465. eneipoN 

SU. 468. oxihi xe P : oOkcti Eust. : oij9' en Vat. ilor. F)ar. 470. Kpayfipac 

QR : Kaparfipac J. i ccxeijjaNTo J. 471. enapxojuiCNoi Cram. Epim. 107. 27. 

460. JLXHpouc, the thigh bones with the 
flesh adhering. These are covered with 
a layer of fat doubled over them, and 
pieces of flesh from other parts of the 
tiody are laid upon them {(hixodirelv, from 
(hixos, cf. ^ 427) in order to symbolise an 
ofl'ering of the whole animal, uinpa in 
464 seems to be identical with fx-qpovs, 
but, like the commoner fi-npla, is only 
i;sed in the sacrificial sense ; so B 427, 
7 179, fx 364, V 26. 

461. dinruxa, ace. singular, ' making 
it (the fat) into a fold.' 

462-3. Cf. 7 459, where the lines are 
certainly more appropriate, as the veoi 
there are Nestor's sons, who help him 
with the sacrifice. Here the idea of young 
men is not in place. The nejuncoBoXa 
must have been five-pronged forks stuck 
into the meat to hold it over the fire. 
Eustathios says that the use of five 
prongs for the purpose was peculiar to 
Kyme in Aiolis, the other Greeks using 
only three. (Engelmann has shewn, 
Jahrb. d. d. arch. Inst. vi. 173, that 
the forks figured in Helbig, H. E.- 354-5, 
are kitchen utensils used for fishing 
boiled meat from the caldron, cf. 1 
Sam. ii. 13, and could not have been 
used for Homeric sacrifices, which are 
always roast.) 

464. For ufip' ck^h there is a curious 
old variant, said to have been approved 
by Ar., ixrjpe kclt], where /x^pe is supposed 

to be a dual = fjLTjpJ}. The 'tasting' of 
the entrails at this stage seems to have 
been symbolical, unless it means simply 
that they were more rapidly cooked than 
the other parts, and thus formed a 
'first course.' 

465. 0x19!, an adverb ; they pierced 
them with spits on both sides, i.e. so 
as to make the sj^it project on both 

468. For eicHC see on 306. 

470. cn€CTe\]iaNTO, ^filled to the brim; 
cf. iiriaTe<pia% olvolo 9 232, /3 431. It 
was a misinterpretation which led to 
Virgil's socii cratera coronant, and the 
actual crowning of the goblet with 

471. endpxeceai denotes the libation 
of a few drops taken by a ladle from the 
mixing bowl, KpTjT-rjp, and poured into 
the drinking cups (SeTrdetro-tc being a 
locative dat. ). apxeadai is particularly 
used of ritual acts of all sorts, and eTrt 
implies ' going round ' the guests. 
They first poured out these drops to the 
gods and then had their cups filled to 
drink. (See Buttmann Lexil. p. 169, 
and M. and R. on 7 340.) The diffi- 
culty here is that the libation is men- 
tioned when the drinking is ended 
(TTocrtos 469), contrary to the rule. The 
whole passage from 451 to 486 entirely 
consists of lines or phrases appearing 
elsewhere, except 456, 472, 474, 478 ; 

lAIAAOC A (i) :}7 

ol Be iravrjixepLOL jj^oXirriL Oehv IXdaKovTO, 
KoKov aeihovTe<i 7rau]ova, KovpoL A^atwy, 
/jLeXTTOvre'i eKaepjov 6 Se (ppeva repTrer ukovwv. 
»}/i09 5' rje\LO<i KareSu koI eirl Kpe(f)a<i rfkOe, 47r. 

Brj Tore KOt/jLijcravTo irapa 7rpvp,vi]ata vr]o<;. 
r)fio<i 8' Tjpiyeveta (fxivy poSoSaKTvXo^i H069, 
Kal TOT eiretT avdyovTo fxcTa cTTpaTov evpvv ^A'^atwv 
Tolaiv 8' 'iK/xevov ovpov Xet eKaepyo'i AttoWcop. 
ol 8' IcTTOv aTrjcravT dvd 6^ laTla \evKa TreTaarcrav' 180 

iv S' av€/jbo<{ irprjcrev fiecrov IcttIov, dfi(f)l Se Kv/ma 
aTelprji Trop^vpeov fieydX '^(^X^ vrja lovarj'i' 
7) S' eOeev KaTO, KVfia SiaTrpijaaovaa KeKevdov. 
avTap eirel p ikovto kuto, crTpaTOv evpvv A^atwi', 
inja fjuev ol je fMe\acvav eV iQireipoio epvcrcrav 485 

v-yjrov eirl -^a/jiddoL'i, viro h epfiaTa pbaKpd Tdvvcrcrav, 
avTol S iaKiSvavTo kutu KXcata'i re vewi re. 
avTcip 6 fjbrjVLe vrjval Traprjfievo'i oiKviropotcn 

474 ad. Ar. 481. In 5' : ^Ne' J. 484. Kara Ar. fi : u-erh AjQGT 

Harl. a, Cant. Vr. A Lips. ]\Iosc. 1 Vat. Bar. 486 om. T^. || ij;audeoio JPQRT"', 
Mor. Cant. Lips. Vr. a b : i};ajudeou G Vr. c, Mosc. 3. |j ^prjmara H-Q. 488- 

92 Ti-qv. rjOerriKev, rbv Sk oiiTe nor' kc noXcuoN (491) oi)5e €-^pa<p€v. 

and it seems to be betrayed by this here in II. Whatever the derivation it 

oversight as an unskilfull}'' made cento must mean 'favourable.' 

— -unless, with Diintzer, it be preferred 480. cxHcaNTO, like areiXavTo 433. 

to reject 469-74 altogether. Ar. Here we could equally read arrjffdv r'. 

athetized 474 partly because he did not 481. npficcN : the word means to puff, 

allow the meaning sing to fieXireLv {see on sjm-t out, bloiv, and is used (1), as here, 

N 637), partly on account of the taut- of air; (2) of iire = burn, Trvpi or irvpos 

ology; and the two participles, with KoOpot being generally added in Homer ; (3) of 

'Axatu)v interposed evidently by an adap- fluids, e.g. IT 350 {alfxa) . . dva crrofxa 

tation of X 391, are certainly awkward. Trprjae x'^"'^"- Only the sigmatic forms 

472. noNHJutepioi must = 'all the 7-cst are found in H., with the exception of 
of the day ' in which the assembly and eviwpy]dov I 589. 

voyage to Chryse have already happened. 482. crdpHi, the stem ; the solid beam 

For this use compare Travvvxlf] ^ 434 which had to take the shock when the 

(with 388), waf rjfxap S 453. vessel was beached. nopcpupcoN, a word 

473. naiHONQ, a hymn of rejoicing, which seems to be properly used, as 
not necessarily to Apollo, see X 391. to here, of the dark colour of disturbed 
Ka\6N clvtI too koKQs, Ariston., rightly. waves; of. notes on 103, E 83, S 16 

474. eKdeproN, here apparently Aver- {jropcpipeLv), 11 391. 

runcus, the ' keeper afar ' of pestilence ; 483. Sianpi^ccouca here, with the 

the opposite and complementary function addition of KeXevdov, shews the transi- 

to that of 'E/crj/SoXoj, and iitly mentioned tion from the primary meaning ' to pass 

now that his anger is appeased. over ' (root Trpa of irepd-o} etc. ) to that 

477. HpireNCia, early -born; rjpL = of 'accomplishing.' 

i]ep-i from ditser-i, whence also dpiarov, 486. epjuara.s/iores, either large stones 

the early meal. or beams of wood, set so as to keep the 

479. Ykucnon, a word of unknown ship upright. The line seems to come 

origin, found four times in Od. but only from Hymn. A]}. 507. Cf. B 154, A 117. 



ovre TTOT €19 arjoprjv TTwXecrKeTO KvBuivecpav 

ovre TTOT e<i TroXe/jiov, dWa (jiOcvvdecrKe <^ikov Krjp 

avdt jxevuiv, iroOeea-Ke 8' avrrjv re irroXefxov re. 

aXX ore or) p e/c tow ovcooeKarq <yev€T »)&)?, 
Kol Tore Srj 7rp6<; ^'OXvfJLTrov laav deol alev eovre^ 
Travre^; ap^a, Zev? 8' VPX^' ®^Tt<? 8 ov Xtjder icperp^eoyv 
TraiSo? eov, a}OC rj 7' avehvaero Kupia da\dcr(Tr)<i, 
rjepirj 8' dve/Sr] p.eyav ovpavov OvXvp.irov re. 
evpev S' evpvoTra }^povl8r)v drep rjp^evov dXkwv 
aKporaTrji Kopv(f)^]i 7ro\vSeipd8o<i Ov\vp,iroio. 
Kai pa irdpoLd avroco KaOe^ero koI \d/3e <yovv(ov 
(JKairji, he^ireprjL S' dp^ vtt dvOepewvo'^ eXovcra 
Xbcr(Top,evr} TrpoaeetTre A.ta J^povicova dvaKra' 




489. nHXftoc Haii. a, Mosc. 1 : nHXeoc [AL]HiJ : nHXccoc 0. 490. OUTC 

nor': oOa^nco P^ : ouSe nor' LP-. i| ec Q. 491. eic HJKU. !i noXeuoN r' 

Draco de Mctr. 492. duTHN Kai P. |i nroXcJUlON [ACS] : noXeJuoN V.. 493. 

This line has the obelos in A, but no Scliol. to explain it ; possibly Ar. athetized 
(Ludw. adloc). 495. €9eTJudcoN H. 496. eoTo Q. i| dNeducero Ar. Mosc. 1 
(A su'pr.) : 6N€au(c)caTo ft. 497. ouXujunoNBe ,T {su^n-. tc) PQ. 501. 

&' ap' : bk Eust. : b' aiS L. 

489. ui6c as an iambus, see P 575. 
In the older Attic inscriptions i-os and 
vlos are used indifferently ; in the later 
i'os is the regular form, the t becoming 
semivocalic and then falling out ; G. 
Meyer &r. § 130. The synizesis of 
UrfXius or UrjXios is not Homeric. 

490. KuSidNGipaN, elsewhere an epithet 
of /J-dxy] only ; cf. I 441 a/yopiwv tva t' 
dvdpes dpnrpeTrhs reXidovcnv. These 
assemblies and battles must be taken 
as falling within the twelve days after 
the quarrel. 

491. 9iXoN in this and similar phrases 
simply = /ws own, ebv : see on 167. 

493. €< ToTo, sc. from the interview 
with Thetis. This vague reference be- 
comes far more intelligible if we omit 

496. The ace. kOuq is strange, cf. 359, 
€ 337, where we find the gen. which we 
should expect. pipLcpa and Kov(pa have 
been conjectured. 

497. AepiH either = tjvt' 6/i'X^'? (359), 
or better ' in the early morning,' from 
?)pi, see 477. This is clearly the meaning 
in I 52. Cf. also 557, T 7. 

498. It has been debated from old 

times whether eupuona is from Fd^J/ 
voice, or from root ott to see. The 
former would of course express the far- 
reaching voice of the thunder. In 
favour of this it may be said that the 
compounds of ott make -wwa, not -oTra, 
cf. eXiKUTTLS, evdiwida, etc. ; and there can 
be no doubt of the derivation from Fo^p 
in Pindar's Kpovidav ^apvbwav crrepoirdv 
TTpvTavLv, p. vi. 24. The word is gener- 
ally a nom. On the analogy of ^apv6- 
Traj' we ought perhaps to read evpviirav 
for the accus. Otherwise we must 
assume a second nom. *€vpi>o^. 

500. aCiToTo : cf. avroO in 47. For the 
suppliant's attitude cf. 8 371 yovvar' 
(Kvaae /cat AXajSe x^'P' 7f ''^'Oi; : in K 454 
the touching of the chin only is men- 
tioned. This act perhaps symbolises the 
last resource of the disarmed and fallen 
warrior, who can only clasp his enemj''s 
legs to hamper him, and turn aside, his 
face so that he cannot see to aim the 
final blow, until he has at least heard 
the prayer for mercy. 

501. On the analogy of 371 ^XXa/3e 
Xeipi yeveiov it would seem that un6 is 
here an adverb, 'taking him by the 
chin beneath.' 

lAIAAOC A (i) 39 

" Zev irdrep, el irore Srj ere /xer aOavdroiaiv ovrjcra 

?) eVei rj epycoL, roSe jxoi Kprjrjvov eekhiop • 

Tifirjaov fioc viov, o? coKV/JLopcoTaro'i ciXkcov 505 

eTrXer'' drdp /jutv vvv <ye dva^ dvhpwv Wya/uLe/xvcop 

TjTLfiTjcrev' e\a)V yap e^et yepa';, avTO<; dirovpa^i. 

dXkd crv irep /jUV rlaov, 'OXv/uuTTLe firinera ZeO* 

rcxbpa S' eTrX Tpooeaat ridei Kpdro'i, 6(pp civ A-^aioi, 

viov epiov naaxrcv 6(f)eWcocrLV re e ri/juiji. 510 

ft)9 (pdro' Tr]v 8' ov n 7rpoae(j)r] vecf)e'\,7]'yepeTa Zei;?, 
dXk" uKecop Byv rjcTTO. ^)eTi<i 8 w? ^]^|raTO <yovv(Ov, 
(W9 e^j^er' ifMTrecpvvla, teal elpero Sevrepov avri'i- 
" vrjjjbepre'i fxev hrj pboi vTroa'^eo koI Kardvevcrov, 
rj awoecTT , eirei, ov roi eirc oeo'?, o(pp ev eiooi 515 

ocraov eyco fxerd Trdatv dri/JLordrr} 6eo<i eifjui. 

r7]p Se /jLey 6')(6r)cra<i 7rpo(re(f)7] vecjieXiryepera Zeu9* 
" 7] 8r} Xoijca epj, o re fM e')(6ohoTTr}(7ai e(f)7](Tec<i 
Uprjc, or dv fi epeOrjiaLV ovecSeloi^ eireeacnv, 
rj Se Kol avT(o<i pu alel ev dOavaTOiai Oeoiat, 520 

505. UOI : Juou HP. 510. tijuhn DJQ {supr. h) Vr. b, A. 512. axecoN 

V^r. a. 513. Hpexo HPRU^ : 6 o 'I^i'wj/ cTpe t6 (erpero, Scliol. Lips.), i, aueic 
G Ambr. 515. oOxi C^DGF. || eni : ^cxi PU-. || eiafiic Suid. i. 2. 519. HpH 

Ar. (? see Ludw. acl loc). || dNeiaioic Z^HyPQT^ (a constantly recurring variation). 

505. The uoi long in thesi can hardly kritos' ws loov, Sis eixav-qv, Virgil's Ut vidi 
be right. Nauck conj. viia fxoi rifiTjaov, ut pcrii, seem to rest on a misunderstand- 
Menrad rlfi-qubv av jxoi. viov, Piatt TipLT^trov ing. See, however, note on H 294. 

drj fJ.'{oL) viov. For aXXcoN after the 513. dun€9uuTa, a hyperbolical ex- 
superlative cf. Z 295, 'I' 532, e 105, pression for 'clinging close,' as in ev 8' 
Soph. Ant. 100 KaWicTTOv tQv irporipuiv dpa oi cpv x^'P^i ^^'^ ^^ irepKpvcra. r 416, 
<paos (with J ebb's note), 1212 bvarvx^- Trpocrepvs fj. 433. 

(TTo.r'qv KiXevdov epirui tGiv irapeXdovaQv 515. 3eoc, «oreaso?i<o/c«r (any superior 

bSQiv, and numerous others. The gen. court of appeal). Cf. M 246 trot 5' ov 

means ' doomed to swiftest death as com- deos ivr diroXiadai., and d 563. 

pared with all others ' ; it is ablatival, 518. Xoiria ^pra, an exclamation, 

and ' ex])vesses the pomt from luhich tJie 'sad work,' as we say; it is hardly 

higher (here the highest) degree of a necessary to supply ^crrat if we read 

quality is separated,' H. G. § 152. o xe with Bekker ; ore gives a rather 

506. InXexo, ' he was made before . . weaker sense. See H. G. § 269 ad fin. 
but now in addition.' otw XolyC ^aeffdai occurs in $ 533, 

510. 6<pe\\coci xiUHi, generally trans- ^ 310. ex^o^"""'^*^' • ^""a^ elprj/j-evov, 

lated augcant cum honore, ' exalt him but ex^odoiros occurs in Attic, and seems 

with honour ' ; but Hentze suggests that to be related to e'x^os as dXXoSaTros to 

TifXTJi. is rather the fine paid ; so that ctXXoj. Ar. is said to have put a stop 

the words mean 'make him rich with after e^Tjuets, and read "Upr) for "Kprji 

recompense.' This is a thoroughly (but Ludwich doubts this). In any case 

Homeric idea, see note on 158. 69^XXeiN such an order of the words would not 

is not elsewhere used with a personal be Homeric, 
object. 520. kqi auxcoc, even as it is ; compare 

512. cbc . . wc, 'as she had em- the use of Kal dXXws, 'even at the best 

braced him, so she clung to him.' Theo- of times.' 


lAlAAOC A (i) 

veiKel, Kai re fxe (f)7]aL fidx^^ Tpcoecraiv apri<yeLv. 
aXka av fiev vvv avTt<; a7roaTi')(e, /u,?; n vor]a7]c 
"UpT]- ifjLol Se K€ ravra /xeXrjcreTai,, b(f)pa TeKeacrw. 
el 8' a^e rot KecpaXyjt Karavevaopbai, ocfipa TrenTolOr^L^- 
TovTO yap i^ ifxeOev ye fxer aOavdroLcn fieyiarov 
T6K/jiu)p' ov yap ifiov iraXivdypeTOV ov8 dTrarrjXov 
ouS' dreXevTTjTov, on Kev Ket^aXrji KaTavevcrco. 

r) KOI Kvaverjccnv enr o<^pv(TL vevae J^povLcov 
dfi/3p6(Tiat, 8' apa '^alrat iireppooaavTO dvaKTO'^ 
Kparo<; aTT dOavdroio, fxeyav S' ekeXi^ev "OXv/xttov. 

T(o y (5? ^ovXevcravTe BceTfiayev rj fjuev e'Tretra 
€i<i oka aXro ^aOelav dii alyXrjevro^ 'OXv/jLTTov, 



522. aOeiC CGQ. |i JUIH Tl at dpto-Tcipxou Kal al ciXXat axedov ditacrai. diopddicreLS 
Did. : u.^k ce fi. 524. TOl : thi Vr. a, Eust. 11 eniNeucouai aj}. Did. and Atheii. 
ii. 66. 1 neneieeic Q : neneiewc L {supr. oi). 526. xeKuap H (siyjr. to) R (TeKJUcop 
R'"). 527. OTI K€N : 8nep Hn Stob. FL xi. 6. 528. KuaNeoiciN CH {siqir. h) 
.rPR. 529. cncppcooNTO East. || awaKTi Harl. a. 530. KpwTbc Zen. 531. 
5l€TJUiareN Ar. Q : aieTuaroN GPQR (U'-^ su2}r.) Lips. Vr. a^, A Mosc. 1- 3^. 

525. eueecN re : Zeus perhaps means 
that he alone is not required to swear ; 
even Hera has to take an oath (S 271, 

526. TCKUcop : see note on H 30. euoN, 
anything of mine (or possibly any reK/xup 
of mine). This use is, however, very 
strange ; e/noi would seem more natural. 
naXiNdrpexoN, from aypio3, which is said 
to be the Aiolic form of alp^us. But it 
occurs in Aisch. Ag. (lyric), Archilochos 
and Theognis, as well as in Sappho and 
Aiolic inscriptions. (The identity of 
the two words is very doubtful. Smyth's 
attempt to prove it, A.J. P. vii. 382, takes 
no account of aypa.) For the use of 
' take back ' — revoke compare A 357 TrdXii' 
5' o ye Xdj'eTO fivOov. 

528. eni - NeOcc go together in the 
sense of Karavevw above (Did. mentions 
indeed a variant iinveiKjoixaL in 524). 
KuaNCHiciN can mean only ' dark ' ; cf. 
O 94 KoXvufia . . Kvaveov, rod 5' ov tl 
IxeKdvTepov 'iifKero 'icrdos. These lines are 
said by Strabo to have inspired Pheidias 
with the conception of his famous statue 
of Zeus at Olympia. 

530. ^XeXiscN : Dawes explained the 
verb as a mere blunder for eF^XL^ev, and 
it appears that in almost every case in 
H. sense requires and metre permits 
some form of FeXicracj. Tlie three ex- 

ceptions are this line, 9 199, X 448, 
where the sense needed is shook, which can 
hardly be got out of FeKlffaeiv. It seems 
necessary, therefore, to postulate for these 
cases, and for eXeXtx^wi' (Pind. P. ii. 4, 
vi. 50, Soph. Ant. 153) a verb eXeX/f eti' = 
shake. dcrrepoTrav eXeXt'^ats Pind. iV. ix. 
19, ^7xos . . creidfMevov eXeXtKTo N 558 
are ambiguous, as the two verbs come 
near together in the sense 'brandish.' 

532. The hiatus at the end of the first 
foot without a pause is harsh, though 
not unexampled (see on B 87). Darbishire 
{Bell. Phil. p. 51) would read FdXro, 
swooped, deriving it from root uel of 
dXets, vol-v-o etc. From the meaning 
' to gather one's self together ' he deduces 
that of sivooping, through phrases like 
ot/j.7](Te dXeis, and swooped is more natural 
than ' leapt like a hawk ' in ipyj^ ws 
§.\to S 616. Still it is rather violent 
to say that Thetis 'gathered herself 
together into the sea.' Moreover, the 
only other case where the digamma 
would be useful is H 15, where iindXixevos 
certainly means jumping, not swooping. 
All other forms of the word (not of 
course including idXrjv, etc.) are neutral or 
reject the digamma, even in some places 
where we should equally like to say 
swoo2}ed. Tradition varies as to the 
accent and breathing of the word ; the 

lAIAAOC A (i) 41 

Zeu? 8e eop irpo'i hoifia. deol 8' aixa iravre^ avecrrav 

e^ eSecov, a(f)ov 7rarp6<i evavriov ovhe Ti<i erXr] 

fxetvac €7rep'y^ofx€vov, aXX" avriot earrav aTravre<;- 535 

ft)9 fiev evda Kadel^er eVt Opovov ovSe fJbtv ' M/ot; 

7]<yvoii]aev ISoua on, ot avfi(f>pdaaaTO /3ov\a^ 

dpyvpoTre^a ©ert?, Ovydrrjp aXioto yepovro<i. 

avTiKa KeprofJLLOiai Aca ^povicova TrpoarjvSa' 

" Tt? 8 av TOi, SoXo/jiTjra, Oewv avficjipdaaaro /3ov\d<; ; 540 

alec rot (^iKov iarlv ifxev dirovoac^Lv eovra 

KpvTTTaSia (ppoveovra SiKU^efxev ouSe tl tto) fioi 

7rpo(ppo)v TerXrjKaf; elrrelv e7ro<i, ottl vo7](77]i<;. ' 

T)]v 8' yfiel/SeT eirena irarrip dvhpoiv t6 6eo)v re- 
" ^prj, fX7) Si] 7rdvra<i e/iou? eTneXireo fjbv6ov<=; 545 

€l8i](J6iv' ^oXeTTOi TOL ecTOVT dXo^coi irep iovarji. 
dW bv fxev k e'meLKe<i dKovefxev, ov rt? eirena 
ovre dewv irporepo^ top y eicreraL ovr dvOpcoiraiv 
ov Se K iya>v dirdvevOe Oeoiv eOekoifXi vof]crai, 
ixrj TL (TV ravra eKacrra Sielpeo /xrjSe //-eraXXa." 550 

533. ONeCTON : enoNTo Eust. 534. eapetON GHPR^ and rivh Scliol. AT. 

535. ONTiON T : eNQNTiON E. |1 CCraN : HfieLvov hXoon ypdcpeiv Schol. BT. 536. 

ewe' diKaeezer' H. 539. KepTOJufH(i)ci JP. 540. cuju9pdcceTO H. After this 
P repeats 538. 541. TOi : ti J : coi Eust. | euoO G. 543. NOHCHIC 

[AZ>]JQRTiU: nohccic fi. 546. xaXenoJ rdip Q. 549. be k' : 9' on Eust. || 

crd) Q. II leeXcoJUi Q {supr. oi) : deeXoiJui fi. 550. juh re cu L Vr. 1). || 

diHpGO D. I! UHTE JuerdWa P. 

regular form would of course be oKto, edvra. For the participle in the ace, 

but the best ancient authorities decide though toi has preceded, cf. R. G. § 

for the anomalous SXro. 240 ; eovTi would give the meaning 'when 

533. The hiatus in the middle of the you are apart frommeyoVi\i\iQ to decide.' 
first foot is inexcusable, and the zeugma 542. diKaz^ucN, to give decisions, as 

is harsh, though it is not impossible 431. KpunrdSia goes with 9poN^ONTa. 
to supply ' went ' from ' leapt ' or 543. np69pcoN, of free will, ultro. It 

' swooped.' The simplest correction is is always used as a predicate, never as 

Brandreth's Ze^s 5' te 6V or t eov (i-econ- an epithet, enoc, a matter, as when used 

.lectured forty years later by Fick and with reXiaaaL 108. 
again by Agar). 547. For k' Wakefield conj. cr', which 

540. For xic 5' aS Bekker and others makes the sentence clearer, and is adopted 
read tIs 5ri ad. See on 340. The change by van L. The omission of the subj. 
is the less necessary as questions often ^?jt is rare, cf. E 481. Sneira, as though 
begin with an unelided 5e, e.g. O 244, d Tiva had preceded instead of the 
247. On the other hand, the position of equivalent ov. 

the word seems to shew that 5' stands 549. ceeXcouii now has MS. authority ; 

for 5?j in H 24 Tiirre av 5' ad. au ex- it has been hitherto adopted only on 

presses vexation, like aSre 202. Hermann's conj., but was possibly read 

541. It is impossible to say whether by Ar. ; cf. Didymos on 9 23 edeXoifii., 
dirb v6a<piv or anoN6c9iN is best ; the 'Apiarapxos ideXcj/ju. The 1st pers. in 
authority of grammarians is in favour of -w/xl for -w is an analogical formation, 
the first (cf. B 233), taking diro witli after -tjktl beside -ijt. In the Mss. it has 



rov 8' Tj/j^ei^er eirena ^omttc'; irorvta "Yiprj- 
" abvorare K.povi87), irolov rov fiv6ov eeiTre?; 
KaL \ir)v ere 7rdpo<i j ovr ecpofiat ovre /xeraWo), 
aWa jjbcik €VK7]\o<i ra (f)pd^eai acra iOeXrjicrOa- 
vvv 8' alvM^ SeiBoLKa Kara (ppiva, fjurj ae TrapeiTrrji 
dpyvpoTre^a (P)eTL<i, dvydrrjp ciXioto 'yepovro<;' 
rjepcT] <yap ctol <ye Trapi^ero koI Xd/Se yovvcov 
rrji (T 6t(o Karavevcrat iri^Tvpbov, o)? 'A^tXrJa 
TifMr](rei<i, oXecret? 8e iro\ea<; iirl vrjvalv 'A^aiwt'." 

TTjv h aTra/xeL^ofievo^ 7rpoae(f)r] ve^ekrj'yepera Zeu9' 
" SaifiovLT], alel [xev oteai, ovhe ae \i]6co, 
irprj^ai, h efjurrj^; ov n Supijaeat, dTOC aTro 6v[xov 
PjClWov efJiOL kaeai' to 8e tol koI plyiov earai. 
el h ovTU) TOUT ecrriv, ifiol /jbeXXeL (f>iXov elvac. 



552. eeinac PS. 553. XiaN H. || r' om. U. || ndpoc t' Mor. Bar. il Hpouai 
D. II cure Ar. Aph. Rhi. fi : oijbk ap. Did. 554. ace' : yp. a k J. [| om 

eeXwicea Dion. Sid. 559. TlUHCeic JJ^LQ' : oXeceic i'iQ(?): tijuhchic . . 

oXecHic fi. II noXeac : noXcTc Zen. (noXOc ? see on B 4). || napa nhucIn R. 
560. yp. THN bk xxir 6xeHcac A. 563. TOl : ti P, om. Q. 

been almost entirely superseded by the 
familiar opt. in -ol/xi. Both here and in 
9 23 the opt. is, however, defensible. 

553. Kai XiHN, viost assuredly ; 9 358, 
etc. For ndpoc with pres. cf. A 264, 
e 36 etc. 

555. On the analogy of e 300 deidoj /xt] 
87] irdvTa Oea vy^fxepria eiTrev and the 
regular Attic use we should have ex- 
pected here the past tense of the indie, 
to express a fear that something has 
already happened. This use of ixij with 
indie, however, seems to be a com- 
paratively late development, and there 
is no other case in H. Fear indeed 
naturally refers to something future ; 
when we say ' I fear that a thing has 
happened,' we mean ' I fear that it will 
prove to have happened.' Thus it is 
natural to use the aor. subj. as in K 98, 
538, S 8 ; see particularly X 455-6-7 
SetSo) fir] 8rj . . diriTai, Kal drj jxiv Kara- 
TrawTji (see M. aiid T. § 93, 307-8). The 
neglected F of TrapFeiir-qL has led to 
Bentley's irapeXdrji and other conjectures. 
Brandreth suggests juij ae TrapaL<prjL, fxr] 
irapaF dir7)L, fx-q <j apa (or ai ye) Trelff7)i. 

559. The fut. indie, here gives the 
simplest sense, cbc (lit. 'how') express- 
ing the content of the promise. The 
subj. however is defensible, and is classed 

by Goodwin with Maao/xai oirws (7 19, 
6 344), ' 2)romising to act taking the 
same constr. as entreating to act ' {M. 
ami T. § 359, cf. H. G. § 285 [2]). 

561. daiu6Nioc seems to mean properly 
one who is under the influence of a dai/xuv 
or unfavourable divine intelligence ; that 
is, one whose actions are either unac- 
countable or ill-omened. Hence it some- 
times means ' fool ' (dai/xovioL, /xaiveade, 
<T 406), B 200, I 40, N 448, 810, 5 774 ; 
or indicates severe remonstrance, B 190, 
V 399, A 31, Z 326, 521, tr 15, t 71, and 
here (this shade of meaning is hardly 
translatable ; we say colloquially ' I am 
indeed surprised at you ' or ' what 
possesses you ') ; or tender remonstrance, 
Z 407, 486, K 472, i/ 166, 174, 264 ; in 
194, I 443, it perhaps expresses pity, 
'ill-starred.' (This is Nagelsbach's 
explanation, //. 7^. p. 73.) 6'ieai, 'you 
are always fancying, supposing,' an 
allusion to 6tw in 658. 

562. iSinb euuoO, far away from my 
good will ; cf. e/c Ovfxov irecrieiv ^ 595, 
d-rrodirfxia 3 261. For d-Tro =far from 
cf. 9 213, I 353, 437. 

564. toOto, sc. that of which you 
accuse me. JU^XXei, you may he sure it 
is my good pleasure ; cf. the same phrase 
in B 116 ; so O 46, 5 377, cr 19. 

lAIAAOC A (i) 43 

aXX aKeovaa KaOrjcro, e/jucoi S' iiriTreideo fivdcoc, 565 

fjLT] vv TOO ov '^pala/xoi(7iv baoi deol ela eV OXi/fjurwi, 
aaaov lovd\ ore Kev rot auirTOVi '^elpa^ icftetco." 

w? €<f)aT, eSSeiaev Be /3o(t)7rt<; irorvta ' Uprj, 
Kat p (iKeovaa Kadfjcrro, iTTL'yvd/jb'^lraaa (f)i\ov Krjp. 
co'^Orjcrav 8 ava Sco/ia Ato? Oeol Ovpavi(ove<i' 570 

rolatv 8' ' V{(f)aiaTo<i KXvTOTe'^vr)^; VPX ('"'jopevetv, 
firjTpl <f)l\rjL eVl rjpa (pepcov, XevKcoXevwc "Uprjf 

r] 07) XoLyia epya rao ecrcrerat ovo er aveKra, 
el Bt) a(f)io eveKa 6vrjT(ov eptBaiverov oiBe, 

iv Be OeolcTL koXcoiov eXavverov ovBe tc Satro? 575 

ecrO\7]<; eaaerat rjBc;, eirel ra ^epeiova vlkoll. 
fiTjrpl B eyo) irapdc^rifjii, koX avrrjL irep voeovcTTjL, 
irarpl (fiiXcot eirl rjpa (^epeiv All, 6(f)pa /xrj avre 
veLKeirjiaL irarrjp, avv B i-jfuv Bacra rapd^rjL. 
ec nrep <ydp k e6e\t)i(yiv 'OXu/xTTto? darepo7rriTr)<i 580 

e^ eBecov aTV(f)e\L^ai ' o yap ttoXv (fyepraro^i eartv. 

566. €ic' €N : elciN G. 567. foNe' A : Ionte Zen. (e/c TrXrjpovs) Eust. i| 

adnTOUC denxouc Aph. (see Ludw.). 569. 6^Kouca U^ Vr. b. |1 ^m- 

TNdijjiaca JjFS Laud. 570. 8xeHcaN JT Eton. Lips. 572. XeUKCoXcNCOl 

HpHI : dfjieivov ypd(p€i.v xeTiHueNHi HTOp Scliol. T. 573. yp. h3h irrl /ueWovros 

Jm SO Eust. Et. Mag. al. 578. oijtic R. 581. eBpecoN G(R S2ipr. ) Cant. ; 

cp. 534. II 9epTepoc Cramer An. Far. iii. 109. 

567. accoN ioNe', otl ZtjuoSotos ypd<f>et 'not to be dealt with or handled,' i.e. 

S,affov Idvre. ovk ^cttl 5e, dW avrl tov irresistible, daffov i€i'ai = attack,cf.O 105. 

IdvTos. (Tvyxel di Kai rh dviKdv — Ariston. 572. eni Spa 9epuN, doing kind 

That is, Zenodotus took I6vd' to be for service to his mother ; a very ancient 

lovre in the sense of idvres, agreeing with phrase, appearing in the Vedic varum 

deol. His theory was tliat the dual and bhar, lit. to hi'ing the vnshes. At. read 

plural were interchangeable — a theory ivi-r)pa as a neut. pi., Kat eireKpdT-qcrev 17 

which has been held also by some modern ' XpicfTdpxov, /catrot \byov ovk exoutra, 

philologists, and receives some support Schol. A. For S 132 ripa (pepovres with- 

from several passages in Homer ; see E out ewl is decisive against him ; cf. also 

487, 9 74. Aristarchos opposed this view, (pipeiv x^-pi-^ ii^ the same sense, I 613, 

and took Ihvd' here for ibvra (sc. e^e, ace. etc. Frjpa is an ace. singular, root var, 

after xpaiV^wcrt;') : dvTL tov Iovtos meaning to choose, desire. 

that we should have expected a gen. 575. koXcoi6n, din ; cf. B 212 Ko\u}Ldv : 

absolute, 'when I come near,' as the conn, with koXoios, 'the noisy ' jackdaw, 

construction xpaKr/tie?;' tlvL rtva, 'to So KoXovdv GopvlSeiv Hesych. 

ward one person off another,' is not 576. rh x^peioNa : cf. 107 rd KaKd 

found elsewhere, though we have xp^'- for the use of the article. 

a/xetv TLvi Ti (e.g. H 144), which is perhaps 577. napd9HJuii, to advise ; else only in 

sufficient analogy. Bentley conj. daaov aor. (mid.) to ^^revail upon. 

Iwv, while Diintzer would eject the line 579. cun of course goes with rapd^T]!., 

altogether, adnxouc : Aristoph. de-n-rovs, not with tj/'. 

which is perhaps to be jn-eferred ; it 581. It is not necessary to supply any 

will stand for d-a-eir-rovs, from eVw, apodosis after el' Tre'p k' ideXruaL : it is a 


lAIAAOC A (i) 

aWa (TV Tov <y eTreecrat KaOdiTTeadai fiaXaKolcriv' 
avTiK eireiu i/^ao<i yJKvfnno^ eaaerao r]/iit^'. 

co<? ap e(f)r], koI avat^a^ SeTra'i dfi(f)i,KV7r€X\ov 
fjLrjrpl (jiLXrjt iv X^^P'' '^'^^^''y '<^(^^ 1^^^ TrpocreeiTre- 585 

" reT\a6i, /xrJTep i/X'y], koX dvacrx^eo Kt]8o/ji€Pr] irep, 
/jbr] ae (piXr/v irep eovcrav iv ocpOaXfjuolcnv cScofiai, 
Oeivofievrjv Tore 8 ov n 8vp7]aop,ai d^vvfievofi irep 
Xpatcrixelv dpya\.eo<i <ydp 'OXvyLiTrto? dvTLcjiepecrOai. 
rjhrj yap p,e Koi dWoT aXe^eixevai fiefjuaajra 590 

plyjre ttoSo? reraycbv diro ^rfkov OeairecrioLO. 
irdv S' rjixap (f)€po/jLr)v, dfjua S rjeklwL KaraSvvrc 
KaTTirecrov iv Ai'j/jLvcoc, 6XLjo<i 8' en 6vfx6<; ivrjev 
evOd fxe XtVrte? avSpe<i dcpap KOjjiiaavTO nrecrdvrar 

CO? (fxiro, fiecSijaev Se 6ea \€VK(i)\evo<i ' Hp?;, 595 

fieiSrjaacra 8e 7raiSo<; eSe^aro ^etpl KvireWov. 

585. yeipi Ar. Aph. Sosig. ]\Iass. [S] : x^pci fi. 
Did. ae Ti HP Eton. Mosc. 3. 594. cIntioi G. 

593. TLves ec Xhjunon 

supposition made interjectionally, ' only 
suppose he should will to drive us 
away ! ' Bentley's (jTv<peki^ei, to supply 
the apodosis, is far weaker. Cf. ^ 567, 
(p 261. Brandreth writes (rrvcpeXi^ai, 
6 y ap. 

582. KaednTeceai is used here in a 
neutral sense, to address ; and so /3 39, 
K 70 ; but it more generally means to 
attack, revile. Cf. y 345. 

583. YXaoc elsewhere has d (I 639, T 
178), but d (or rather t] -. 'lXtjos is found in 
Ionic inscr. ) is according to the analogy 
of words wliich have -ecos in Attic. 

584. 6jLJi9iKunGXXoN, double - handled. 
This interpretation, due to Aristarchos, 
is decisively supported by Helbig H. E. 
pp. 358-71. He derives it from *KviTi\rj, 
conn, with kJ^wt], handle, as an Aeolic 
form (cf. Latin capulus) ; hence an adj. 
KVKek-10% = KinreWos. The explanation 
of Aristotle, followed by Buttmann and 
otliers, that it meant 'a double cup,' 
i.e. a quasi -cylindrical cup divided in 
the middle by a horizontal partition, 
so that each end would serve either as 
a foot or a cup, he shows to be quite 
untenable. The two-handled type is the 
commonest of all forms of drinking-cup 
from the earliest times — Hissarlik and 
Mykenai — till the latest. 

590. dXezcucNai, to keep him off, ap- 
parently in defence of Hera ; the allusion 
seems to be the same as in 18-24. 

For another different legend of the fall 
of Hephaistos from heaven see 2 395. 

591. Cf. 23 pLTTTaaKov Terayibv airb 
^rjXov : TC-xar-coN is connected witli Lat. 

593. Lemnos was sacred to Hephaistos 
on account of what was called the 
' Leranian Fire ' on Mount Mosychlos. 
This is commonly taken to mean that 
Mosychlos was a volcano. But the 
present state of the island forbids the 
assumption of volcanic agency, and the 
fire was probably only a jet of natural 
gas, such as may have existed for a time 
and then disappeared. (See de Launay 
in Hev. Arch, for 1895, pp. 304-25. 
For the references to the Lemnian Fire 
see Jebb on Soph. Phil. 800, and pp. 
242-5. The supposed disappearance of 
the ' volcano ' Mosychlos is geologically 
untenable.) The Sti/rtes are named as 
inhabitants of the island by Hellanikos 
fr. 112, while Thuk. ii. 98, 1 speaks of 
the 2ivT0L as a tribe on the coast of 
Thrace. What their connexion may 
have been with the ' Pelasgian ' in- 
habitants of Lemnos expelled by Mil- 
tiades about 500 B.C., or with the authors 
of the (Etruscan ?) inscription recently 
discovered on the island, we naturally 
cannot say. 

596. naiboc, from her son ; X*^'P'' ^^"^^ 
her hand (not ' at her son's hand ' ; the 
dat. is used after d^^aadai, 87, etc., 

lAIAAOC A (i) 


aurap 6 TOi<i dWoccrc deol^ evSe^ia iracnv 
oivoyoei yXvKV veKrap, dnro KpijrTjpo'i d(j)vcra(op. 
aa/3€aT0<i 8' ap' evwpro <yeK.w^ /jbaKupecrai deoLcrip, 
ft)9 iSov "}i.(j)aiaTOv Sia huijjLara TroiTrvvovra. 

ft)? T0T6 fiev iTpoirav rjixap e? rjeKiov Karahvvra 
SatvvvT, ovSe tc dvfMo<i iSevero Satro? eicn]>i, 
ov fiev (pupfMiyyo^; TrepiKaWeo^i, rjv e^ AttoWcov, 
M.ovadcov d\ at aeihov cifxei^ofievai ottI KaXrji. 
avrdp eirel KareSv \afi7rpov (pcwi rjeXtoio, 
ol fiev KaKK€LOVTe<i €/3av oiKovSe eKaaro^i, 

"li(f)aLcrro<; iroirjaev ISvLTjiac TrpaTruSeaai, 
Zeu? Se 7rpo<? ov Xe^o? i]i O\v/ji7rto<i aaTepo7r7]T7j<i, 
evOa 7rdpo<i KOipbdd\ ore pav jXvKV'i v7rvo<; iKdvoi- 
evOa KaOevS' dva^d^;, irapd he '^pvcrodpovo<i "Uprj- 




598. oiNOX<5€l Ar. Aph. Zen. Antira. Argol. Mass. King's : ecoNox^ei Q : 
cd(i)NOXoei ii. Kparfipoc G. 600. noinNiicaNTa ai vrdaaL (Ar. ? see Ludw. ). 

602. oOa" CTi 1) : oiibe re G. 603. JUieN : uhn A- Mosc. 3. 606. oi ju^n 

bk KcioNTCC ovTOj Trdcrac Did. |i eKQCTOC : Neeceai Q. 608. noiHCCN iduiHlCl 

Ai . AL Anibr. : nofHceN eiduiHci P Eiist. : noiwc' eiauiH(i)ci ii (and yp. A). 609. 
ON : 8 (ou Sch. T) Zen. Par. e^ (n add. e'-). 610. iitdNci Q Vr. a. 611. Sng' 

eKdeeud' Zen. 

but only of persons, being a sti'ict dat. 
ethicus). For the gen. cf. S 203 de^dfievoL 
"Peiris, I 632, A 124, and particularly 
il 305 KL'TreWov eSe^aro i]S oKoxoio. 

597. ^NQeHia, a much disputed word ; 
see note on M 239. Of course it implies 
the ' lucky ' direction, whatever that 

598. oiNoxoei is applied to nectar by 
a slight generalisation such as is common 
in all languages ; so T 221 tiriroi j3ovko- 
\eovTo, naves acdificare, etc. (cf. the 

'in Cape Town the tops of the 
are all copper - bottomed with 

lead '). 


Bentley's 7eXos for reXcoc is no 
right here, and similar forms 
be restored in other passages, 
and so with 'ipos. The only cases found 
are dat. yeXui. cr 100, ace. 7^0; or yeXiov 
(read 7^01-) cr 350, v 8, 346. For ^pws 
see note on F 442. From this passage 
comes the phrase 'Homeric laughter.' 

603. The absence of a conjunction is 
curious ; cf ovS^ fxev in 154. Brandreth 

conj. ovS^ re, adding ' M.S. unus ovbi ye 
habet' (?). 

604. Cf. w 60 fiovaai 5' ivvio. Trdaai 
dfiei.^ofjiei'aL oirl KoKiji, where, however, 
the mention of nine muses is one of 
many proofs of the later origin of w. 
For dueiB6uGNai cf. Virgil's amant 
alterna Camenae, Ec. iii. 59. 

607. i5iU9iruHeic, a disputed word, 
generally explained 'ambidextrous,' or 
uti-inquG validis artubus instruetus, which 
overlooks the fact that there is nothing 
in the word to express validis. Probably 
the word really means ' with a crooked 
limb on each side' = KvWoTrodliov, from 
a noun *7!77; = crook (cf. yv-qs in Lexx. ). 
This comes to the same as the old der. 
from yvtos, 'lame of both feet.' Cf. 
also dfKpiyvos N 147, etc. 

611. KaeeuSco occurs only here in II. 
See note on B 2. 609-11 look very much 
like a rhapsodist's tag for the purpose of 
winding up A in recitation. Note the 
rare neglect of F in {F)6v in 609 (fs Fdi^ 
Brandreth, e-n-' cFov Bekker). B 1 
follows 608 quite naturally. 


The second book falls naturally into two parts so markedly distinct that 
most Mss. of the Iliad divide the Catalogue from the rest by a fresh rubric. 
Some, as will be seen, omit it ; but the fact has no critical significance. It 
is due merely to the wish to reduce the cost of copying by leaving out 
matter which most purchasers would regard as unreadable. This is clearly 
shewn by the fact that all mss. retain the prologue 484 - 93, which can 
never have been composed apart from the Catalogue. Leaving the Catalogue 
then for the present, we turn to the first part. 

In the first book we found a marked unity of conception and develop- 
ment, marred at most by a somewhat superficial contradiction in a secondary 
point. With this book the case is very different ; hardly any portion of 
the Iliad has caused such trouble to the defenders of the unity of composi- 
tion. The opening lines are simple enough ; with a discrepancy even more 
unimportant than that already noticed, the sending of the Dream carries 
on the story of the first book. In order to fulfil his promise to Thetis, 
Zeus proceeds, as a preliminary to the defeat of the Greeks, to bring them 
into the field against the Trojans. Elated by the dream, as we are led to 
suppose, Agamemnon summons the army — to lead them into battle ? 
Nothing of the sort ; he calls them to assembly, and proposes that they 
shall return to Greece ! The only preparation for this astounding step is 
a most meagre and puzzling account of a council before which he lays his 
dream, and his decision to ' tempt ' the army -i) Oe/xt^ icrrc, whatever that 
may mean. The proposal is a disastrous failure ; the temptation is taken 
in earnest as it well might be. We suppose, however, that the chieftains 
being forewarned will at once do as they have been bidden, and step forward 
to stop the incipient rout. Again, nothing of the sort. The council is 
altogether forgotten, and nothing is done till Athene by a special inter- 
position arouses Odysseus to intervene. By her aid he brings all back to 
their places, and the assembly is resumed in a speech from Thersites. This 
speech makes no allusion whatever to the extraordinary events which have 
just taken place, but turns only on the conduct of Agamemnon a fortnight 
before in taking Briseis from Achilles, as though this were a matter hardly 
over, and the cause of all the difficulty. When Thersites has been silenced, 
the question of retirement is once more discussed, but in terms which seem 
to imply that the proposal has not come from Agamemnon at all, but from 
his antagonist Thersites. Finally, Agamemnon sums up the debate in 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 47 

Ijrave words which are chielly reinarkal)le for the fact that tliey do not 
shew the least consciousness, much less contain any explanation, of the 
diametrically opposite tone which the king of men had employed when last 
on his feet. 

How, then, are we to explain this wonderful medley of inconsistent and 
self-contradictory motives 1 The conclusion seems inevitable that we have 
a fusion of two quite different continuations of the first book. The Dream 
is the continuation of the promise of Zeus to Thetis. It is followed by, the 
description of the arming of the host for battle, by the triumjihaut career 
of Agamemnon, and the sudden peripeteia in A. Eead in order B 1-50 
443-83, and then go on with A 56 ff., and you have a narrative masterly 
in conception and smooth in execution. 

But there must have been an alternative continuation of the story from 
the point where Agamemnon and Achilles parted in anger in A. In this 
version the immediate consequence of the quarrel of the chiefs was, naturally 
enough, an assembly called to consider the altered state of affairs. On the 
meeting of the army Thersites, before any one else can speak, rises and attacks 
Agamemnon for his lustful greed in terms strictly appropriate to the occasion ; 
87-99 were immediately followed by 212-42. It is Thersites who proposes 
flight, and breaks up the assembly; 242 was originally followed by 142- 
210 (143 and 193-4 we shall j)resently account for). By divine suggestion 
Odysseus stays the rout, and when the assembly is again collected replies to 
Thersites; 244-399 follow 210 with the change of a word or two, e.". 
Gepo-m/i 8e /xaA' wKa TraptarraTO ktX. We have now got a consistent scene 
in the assembly. There is no longer anything surprising in the tone which 
Agamemnon adopts in 370-93, and the famous words of Odysseus in 203-5 
gain a fresh significance. As the book stands, there has been no TroXvKOLpaviij 
at all, the army has but obeyed the commander-in-chief. But if Thersites 
has taken the word out of his mouth and made the proposal which the host 
adopts, then indeed it is time to say that ' one must be king.' 

So far, then, we have found two continuations of the tale of the quarrel, 
consistent in themselves, but irreconcilable with one another. But as the 
Iliad crystallized, and had to be reduced into one official form for public 
recitation, it became needful either to sacrifice one of the versions, or to weld 
them together perforce. Happily for us, the latter course was adopted. The 
' diaskeuast ' hit upon the ingenious device of the ' temptation.' Nothing short 
of such an extreme device could have served him. He set to work by borrow- 
ing the speech of Agamemnon in I 17-28 ( = B 110-8, 139-141), where the 
situation was somewhat similar ; he expanded it by adding 119-38, which 
are a clever suggestion that the proposal was not in earnest, because the 
natural conclusion from the numerical superiority of the Greeks is that they 
should fight it out. With this expanded speech he made Agamenmon open 
the assembly, transferring that of Thersites to its present place, immediately 
preceding the reply of Odysseus. He introduced further the preparatory 
idea of the temptation in the council, while shewing us, in the anxious 
repetition of the superfluous and suppression of the essential, the straits to 
which he was reduced. It was hopeless to attempt to make the idea of the 
temptation probable ; he took the best course in suggesting it in the fewest 
possible words, and trusting to the excellence of the material he was welding 

48 lAlAAOC B (ii) 

to cover the gaping imperfection of the joints. His work might just pass 
muster with hearers who had been trained to acquiesce in the inequalities of 
a growang Epos. We who read must shut our eyes now and then, to open 
them again as soon as the ring of the true metal calls our attention to the 
splendid narrative and characterization which are at the bottom of the 
exjiansion of the Menis into the Iliad. 

This hypothesis, which is largely founded on Erhardt's analysis, is but 
one out of many which have been suggested in order to bring order into 
the present chaos. It is violent ; but no gentle measures will suffice. 
Whether it be approximately right or wholly wrong, the important thing 
to notice is that the present state of the book can hardly be explained as 
the result of natural growth and gradual interpolation of a ' Volksepos.' 
We seem to have before us the work of an arranger, working with a definite 
literary aim on the fusion of most intractable materials. We shall in some 
of the later books come on similar phenomena, though in a less aggravated 
form. In these phenomena lies the strongest internal evidence for such a 
deliberate official arrangement as that commonly ascribed to Peisistratos. 
Further indications of an Attic influence at work upon the book will be 
found in the notes. 



oNeipoc. didneipa. 

aWoL /jiiv pa deoi re kol avep€<i liTTroKopvaraX 
evSov Travvv'^ioi, Aia B ovk e-^ev )jSvfio<i v7rvo<;, 
dW 6 ye jxepiiy^pL^e Kara (fipeva, fo)9 A^tA-Tya 
TL/jL7'](T7]i, 6\ea')]L Se TToXea? eirl vrjvcriv K'^aiwv. 

1. aWoi : Zeii. wXXoi. 2. eyeN Hduuoc 7p. J, rti/^s Eust. : exc N^auuoc Ar. 


3. 6 re : bSe C. 

4. TiJUHCHi Nikanor fl : tiui^chi AT. li oXeCHi Q, 

oXecHi T (tiuhcci' evKriKov to de oXecHi viroraKTi-Kov Scliol. AT), i; noXeac : noXOc 
Zen. (MS. noXiic). Cf. A 559. 

2. There is a slight inconsistency 
between this line and A 611, which it 
has been proposed to avoid by taking 
^Xf to mean ' did not keep hold ' all 
night long ; i.e. Zeus awoke after going 
to sleep. But 'ix^ implies only the 
presence of sleep (cf. 4^ 815), and this 
pregnant sense cannot be read into it in 
the absence of fuller expression. After 
aU 'sleep' and 'pass the night' are 
interchangeable expressions in A 611, cf. 
the use of iavew (note on I 325). It is 
better either to assume that A 609-11 
are of the nature of a movable tag (see 
the note there), or to admit such a 
small inconsistency as would hardly be 
noticed at a point which forms a natural 
break in the narrative. K 1-4 follows 
I 713 in precisely the same manner, but 
the contradiction there is insignificant 
(see note), and in any case proves 
nothing, in view of the doubts as to 
the position of K in the original poem. 
For Hduixoc mss. give vrjov/jLos, a word 
which has never been satisfactorily ex- 
plained, and no doubt arose, as Buttmann 
saw, from the adhesion of the w which, 
in seven cases out of the twelve where 
it occurs, ends the preceding word ; a 
phenomenon which may be paralleled in 
English, e.g. a nickname for an ekcname, 
mmclc from mine uncle (Fr. taate from 

ta ante), a newt for an eict (other in- 
stances in Skeat's Dictionari/ under N, 
and Wordsworth J. P. v. 95. So in 
mod. Greek 6 vavSpas from tov avSpa). 
ijdvjjLos itself was in use as a poetical 
word in much later times ; the scholia 
quote Simonides and Autimachos as 
employing it, and Hesiod, Epicharmos, 
and Alkman are attested by others. It 
is also in the Hymns, Merc. 241, 449 ; 
xix. 16. MS. evidence for it will be 
found (for what it is worth) also in 5 793, 
fx 311. It is used by Ap. Rhod. (ii. 407), 
and "ASi'^os occurs as a proper name in 
an inscr. from Phthiotis (Collitz 1470). 
Ar. read ^'tjSi'/xoj, it may be presumed, 
because of the hiatus in IT 454, ^u 366, 
V 79 ; of course he could not know that 
Frjdu/xos began with F. There is no inde- 
pendent evidence for the form v-qovfios, 
except Hymn. Ven. 172. For the form 
7;5i//xos by i}5vs cf. KaWi/j-os by koKos, 
(paLSiixoi by <pai.dp6s (van L. Ench. 
p. 162 n.), and numerous cases of 
adjectives formed from other adjectives 
by secondary suffixes without apparent 
differences of meaning, (paidinoeis, drfKv- 
repos, etc. etc. 

4. It would be easy here to read 
TLfx-qaeC with the edd., did not this 
involve oXfVai, with the rare term, -at 
(A 255, H 129, 130, M 334, T 81 are the 



lAIAAOC B (ii) 

TJSe Se ol Kara 6v/xbv apiarr] (jiULveTO /3ov\r], 
Trefxylrai iir A-Tpethrji Ayafie/jivovL ovXov oveipov 
Kai fiLV (f)covt]aa<; eirea irrepoevra TrpoarjvSa- 
" /SciaK idt, ovXe ovetpe, 6oa<i iirl vi]a<i A'^aiMV, 
iXdoiv e? KkicrtTjv AyafMe/xvovo<; ArpetSao 
iravra /xdX cnpeKeoi^ a<yopevefxev, co? eTrtreXXcy. 
Owprj^al e KeXeve Kciprj KO/JLoeovra^ 'Ap^atou? 
iravavhirit,' vvv yap Kev eXot iroKiv evpvayviav 
Tpcocov ov yap er dfiipl^ OXv/xTTLa honfiaT e^oi'Te? 
addvarot (f)pd^ovTat' eTreyvafx-ylrev yap dTravraf 
tipi] Xicrcrofievr], ipooeaaL be K7]6e eiprjirrai. 

w? (f)dTO, firj S' dp' 6veipo<i, iirel rov /xvOov aKovae' 
Kap7ra\LfX(o<; 8 'iKave 6od^ iirl vrja^i A'^aioiv. 
^rj S' dp CTT ^ArpetSrjv ^ Ay a/nefivov a- rov S' eKi'^avev 
evhovT iv KkiaiTji, irepl 8' djji/3poaio^ Ke^vO^ v7rvo<;. 



6. arpelSHN araueuNOwa GS. 9. Ic : b' ec CGS Laud. Vr. a. 10. eni- 

TcWco : dropeuco P. 12. naccuaiH GJLS Hail. a. ii e\oi Zen. fl : e\Hi G : 

eXoic Av. (?). 14. €nerNa4;e{N) C^DPRTU Lips. 15. rpcoecci . . e9HnTai : 
SiSojuieN 3e oi euxoc apeceai Aristot. Poef. 25, So2}7i. El. 4 (cf. * 297). 

only clear cases in 11. ; see van L. Ench. 
p. 291). On the other hand, the subj. 
after the historic tense is equally rare 
in H. though so common later {M. and T. 
§§ 318-20, and particularly^. G. § 298). 
A precisely similar question arises in 
n 646-50, q.v. As between Tifirjo-Tji, 
-€i, -ei', MS. authority is nil, but with 
oXeo-ot and oKea-qi it counts for some- 
thing. See also A 558-60, which has, 
of course, had an influence on the present 
passage, only it seems impossible to say 
whether it was on the mind of the poet 
or of later copyists. In spite of its 
rarity in H. the subj. (or fut. ?) is a 
very natural and vivid way of repre- 
senting what is passing through the 
mind of Zeus. The form iroKvs here 
attributed to Zen. is etymological)}^ 
correct (for ttoKvus, H. G. § 100), and is 
probably preferable in all cases to TroXeTs 
or iroXeas. 

6. ouXoN, baneful, as E 461, 717, 
4> 536. It is presumably conn, with 
oXKiifML (for 6\-i>os ?). Cf. ovXlos A 62 n. 
It appears to be only the particular 
dream which is personified ; there is no 
trace in Homer of a separate Dream- 

8. To avoid the hiatus illicitus we 
may with Lange and Naber read ov\os 

6peLpe, cf. A 189 (piXoi Si Mei/eXae, H. G. 
§ 164 {ddffaov conj. Bentley). 

13. 6u9ic, 071 ttvo sides, i.e. divided 
in counsel ; N 345. 

15. ^^Hnxai, lit. 'are fastened upon 
the Trojans,' i.e. hang over their heads. 
So Z 241, H 402, * 513. The variant 
form of the end of the line twice given 
by Aristotle (see App. Grit.) is note- 
worthy in its bearing on the significance 
of ancient quotations, as it is certainly 
not a lapse of memory. It appears from 
what he says that critics were offended 
by the downright lie put into Zeus' mouth 
by the word didofxev, and that Hippias of 
Thasos ' solved the problem ' by reading 
SL56fj.€v, infin. for imper., thus leaving 
the actual falsehood to the dream. 

19. cijji6p6cioc, fragrant, as sleep is 
commonly called jXvkvs, besides being 
ijdvfios and /xeXicppoov in the compass of a 
few lines. So uti^ afx^poalTj, because it 
gives men sleep, or perhaps because of 
the peculiar fragrance of a still warm 
night. Verrall has shewn that the idea 
of fragrance is alivags suitable to the 
use of dfx^pdcrios, while there is no clear 
instance of its meaning immortal only. 
It is probably not a pure Greek word 
at all, but borrowed from the Semitic 
ambar, ambergris, the femous perfume 

lAIAAOC B (n) 51 

crTtj 8 ap virep /ce^aXr}? NTjXrjicoi vlt eoiKOi<i 20 

NecTTOpi, TOP pa fidXtcrra yepovTCOv tT Aja/xifivcav 

roii fjuiv ieicrdfjievo^ Trpoaecfxoveev ovXo^ 6v€ipo<i' 

" €vS€i<;, Arpeo'i vie 8at(f)povo^ iTTTroSd/iiOLo ; 

ov '^prj iravvv'^iov evSeiv jBovKrj^opov dvSpa, 

Oil, Xao'i T i7rcT€Tpd(f)aTai koX roaaa fxefjurfke. 25 

vitv S' i/jiedev ^vve'i mku- Aio? Se toc dyyeXoii elpbt, 

09 aev civevdev ewv [xe'ya Ki]8eTai ?}§' iXeaipet. 

dayprj^al a eKeXevae Kdprj KOfi6(ovTa<; A.'^aLov^ 

Travavhirjf vvv 'yap Kev eXot? ttoXlv evpvdjvtav 

Tpaxov ov yap eV dyu.</)t9 ^OXvfMTTta 8(6p,aT e')(ovTe<i 30 

aOdvaroi cfjpd^ovrai' i'iTeyva[jb^\rev yap d7ravTa<i 

' ^prj Xcaao/xivr], Tpcoecrai Be ki]8€ i(f)rj7rraL 

eK Ato9. dXXa crv arjiacv ep^e (fipeac, /ji7]8€ ere XrjOri 

aipeiTO), evT civ ere /jLeXicppcov v7rvo<; dvr]7]i." 

w? dpa cl)(ovi]aa<i dTrejSrjcrero, top 8e XtV avrov 35 

rd (f>poveovT dvd dvjjbov, d p ov reXeeadat efxeXXov. 
<^?7 yap 6 y alprjcreiv Upidfiov ttoXiv rjp^an iceivoii, 

22. npoce9CONe€N ouXoc A supr. (T. W.A. ) Par. d, Mosc. 2 and yp. J : npoc- 
e9cbNee eeToc il. 23. axpecoc CDGQR Mosc. 1. 25. t' om. L. 27 ad. 

Ar. 28. c" eKeXeue HT Lips. : ce KcXeue D. 29. naccuaiH GJLS. 31. 

€n^rNai}/e(N) DPRTU Hail. a. 34. ixain Pi Vr. b, A : dNHcei Q. 35. dn- 

eBHCCTO AC^T Mosc. 1 2 : dneSHcaro Q,. 36. a {om. p) G. || eJUeXXoN Ar. G : 
euGXX(e)N Zen. fl. 37. npiduoio PT. 

to wliicli Oriental nations assign mythical (pdivee. ouXoc is preferable to Oelo^, which 

miraculous properties, so that d^/3pocrta in the II. retains the original scansion 

has taken the place of the old Aryan OeCos, dei- being always in thesis, cf. 41, 

Soma. aix^poTos, though in some of 56 (^ 689 is no exception), but deio^ 

its uses it undoubtedlj' means immortal, doidds is common in Od. 

in others is a synonym of d/jLJipoaios, the 27. This line occurs in fi 174, and was 

two senses being thus from different rejected by Aristarchos here and 64, as 

sources and only accidentally coincident the ' pity ' seems out of jilace. ecu is 

in sound (0 365 d/x^p. ^Xaiov, e 347 gen. after Kriderai, not dvevOev. ae is of 

Kprjdef/.vov, 11 670 dfxara, X 330 v^^ course to be supplied to eXeaipei, from 

diM^poTos, and S 78 vv^ deport] = viyf aev. 

dfi^pocjiT)). That the epithets are chiefly 33. It is not usual for Homeric 

restricted to divine objects is clearly the messengers to exceed the words of their 

result of popular etymology. message. In © 423-4 a similar addition 

20. NhXhVcoi uTi, an unusual expres- is suspected for other reasons. 

sion, with which we may compare 36, eueXXoN : so Ar. for ifxeWe. He 

TeKafxihvie ircu Soph. Aj. 134. So also preferred the plural wherever the choice 

N 67. was possible, relying on passages such as 

21. repoNTcoN, members of the royal B 135, H 6, 102, and others, where the 
council, without regard to age ; see 53. verb cannot be in the singular. As the 
Young men like Diomedes and Achilles tendency of corruption would be towards 
belonged to the council. the more familiar idiom, he is no doubt 

22. JuiiN is of course ace. after irpoae- right. 

52 lAIAAOC B (ii) 

vrj'TTLO'i, ovSe ra ijiSrj, a pa Zeu? fi7]B€To epya' 

drjaetv yap er epueKkev eV aXjed re crropa'^d^ re 

Tpcoai re Kal Aavaolcri Slo, Kparepa^ vcr[jiiva^. 40 

eypero b e^ virvov, oeirj be jjllv ajxcpe^vr ofMcpi]. 

€(^ero S' opdwOel'^, pbokaicov 8' evSvve ^Lrcova 

tcdXov v7}<ydreov, irepl he pie<ya jBaXXero (j)dpo<i- 

TToaal 8' vTTo \i7rapoiaiv ehr^aaro Ka\d TreStXa, 

dfi(f)l 8' dp MfxoicTLv ^dXero ^i(po<i upyvpoTjXov 45 

eTXero Be aKrjTrrpov irarpdiiov, d^dirov alei' 

avv Tcbc e^rj Kara vy]a<i 'A^atcoy '^aXKO'^iroovoiv. 

'Hft)<? fjuev pa Bed irpoaej^rjcrero fiaKpov "OXvfiTrov 
'Zrjvl (howi epeovaa Kal dWoi<i dOavdrotaiv 
avrdp 6 K7)pvK€crat \iyv(f)do'yyoLcn KeXevae 50 

KTjpvaaeiv dyoprjvBe Kdprj KO/xooyvTa'i A^aiou9' 
ol puev eKr]pvacrov, rol B rjyeipovro fjudX oiKa. 

/3ov\r)v Be irpoiTov ixeyaOvp^wv l^e yepovrcov 

38. TQ : Td p' J (7p. oObk Td). ij itbei IfiJQS Mor. |1 pa : p' 6 Mor. Bar. 
40. b\a : yp. Karb J. 43. be: 9' au P Harl. a d, Par. a (^j. ras.) k {p. ras.). 

44. unai GJPQR^ (altered to isnb) and ap. Eust. I! uneai^caTO Q. i' nedHXa Z>iGQ. 
48. npoceBhicaTO CZ'HJPQRU : npoceBHccaro O. 49. 96COC : <pdoc G. 50. 

KeXeue(N) CDGJRST. 53. BouXhn Zen., ai Koival, 0: BouXh Ar. Apli. J (yp. 

BouXhn) and yp. Par. a. 

40. 3id, either through the whole course Goebel derives from vrj- priv. and 
of battles, as we iind 5id vvKra in a ayaraffdaL = pXcLTTTeadai. (Hesych.) in 
temporal sense ; or better by means of, the sense integer, fresh, not worn. 
like fiv dta fxavrocrvvriv A 72, ota iJ.r)Tiv Similarly Diintzer refers it to root 1x7 
'Adrjvrjs K 497, battles being Zeus' of 0705 = pollution, as meaning ' un- 
instrunient for working his will. defiled.' 9apoc, the luxurious linen 

41. &xj.<pix\jTO, surrounded him, i.e. robe of royalty, not the common xXar^/a 
rang in his tars. 6ju.<pH in Homer is of wool. Cf note on 221. 

always accompanied either with Oelr] or 45. aprupdHXoN : cf notes on A 24G 

deov, deu)v. and A 29, whei'e the same (?) sword has 

43. NHrdreoN occurs only here and S nails of gold. The discrepancy would 

185 in a similar phrase. The exact hardly deserve mention were it not the 

meaning of the word is doubtful ; it is occasion for the excellent remark of Ar., 

generally derived from v^os and ya- for ra rotaOra Kvpiws ov Xiyerai, dWa Kar 

y{e)v- of yiyvoixai, as meaning ' newly inKpopdv iari ■n-oirjTLKTJs dpeaKeias. 

produced ' ; but it may be questioned 46. a9eiT0N, as the work of a god 

whether the root 7^1'- is ever employed to (seel. 101) and the symbol of a divine 

express the yiroduction of manufactured authority. 

objects, and verj- from veFo- never 49. ep^ouca, heralding the approach of 

coalesces to vrj-, least of all in a genuine light ; so ^ 226 'Eoja(p6pos elai. (pocos ip^wv 

Homeric word. A derivation now widely eTri yaTav. 

accepted is that of Schmalfeld from 53. For BouXhn of Zenod. and Mss. 

Skt. suih, oiled, and thus shining^ ; cf. Aristai'chos read (iov\r), taking :fe as in- 

note on S 596. Monro {J. P. xi. 61) transitive, as is usual in Homer (e.g. 11. 

refers it to a subst. *vrjyap from *i'rjy(x), 96 and 792). The transitive use of the 

related to i/fw to spin, as T/j-riyw to refj-vo} )iresent stem appears to recur only in 

(r/xe). Thus vfiydreos = of spun work. ^ 553. The ^ov\y] was composed of a 

lAIAAOC B (ri) 53 

Nearopeijt, Tvapa vrj'l [lvXocj€V€o<i /3acri\.i]0'i. 

TOv<? 6 ye avyKoXecra^ 7rvKt,vr)v rjprvvero ^ov\i]v 55 

" k\vt€, (f)i\oi- Oeio^ fjioi evvirviov rjXdev oveipo^; 

dfi/3pocrL7]v Slo, vvktu, fiaXia-ra 8e Necrro^t Sttut 

€2S6<; re fieyeOo^ re <pv)']v r ay^Lara iwtKei. 

ari) K ap virep Ke(f}a\r]<i, Kai fxe 7rpo<; fjuvOov eeiirev 

' euSet?, 'Aryoeo? vie Sai(f}povo<i (TTTroSdfxoto ; 60 

ov ^/9J; Travvv'^iov evSeiv ^ovXrjcfiopov dvhpa. 

Oil \aol T e7nT€Tpd(f)aTat koI roaaa pbe^irfke. 

vvv K ifxeOev ^vve<^ mku' Ato9 Se rot dyyeXof eljxi, 

09 aev dvevdev eo)v fjbeya K)]8eTai 7)8 eXeaipet' 

6copi)^at cr eKeXevcre Kapr] KOfxo(ovTa<^ A-^atoix; 65 

iravcrvhiriL- vvv yap kcv eX-ot? iroXiv evpvdyviav 

Tptocov ov yap er diii(f)l<i ^OXv/xTria Soofxar e^ovre'^ 

dddvaroi (fypd^ovrac €7reyva/ji'\lrev yap aTravra^ 

'Hp/; Xccrao/xevr}, Tpcoeaai he Krjhe' ecjiijirrat 

e/c Ato<». dWd av crrjicnv e^e (^pealv.^ w? 6 jxev elircov 70 

wt^er' dTroTTTdfievo^, e/^e Se yXvKV'i {/ttz^o? dvrjKev. 

dXX! dyer , at Kev ttw? dcop7]^o/jiev vla<; W-'^aicov. 

irpwra h eywv erreaiv '7reipi]ao/jLai,, 7) 6efxt<; ecni, 

54. N€:cTopiH(i) GHKTRS. || nuXoireNCOC (Ar. ?) [A]H''TU (»i ms.) : nuXwrcNeoc 
12. 55. auT^p ^nei p' HrepecN ouHrep^ec t' creNONTO, toTci 5' aNicT<ijueNoc 

ueTeq>H KpeiooN arauejuiNCON Zeii. 56. eeToN Zen. || ^nuhnioc D. 58. [eTdoc] 

re : t' aO PR. 60-70 contracted by Zen. into HNCorei ce naxHp uij;izuroc aieepi 
NoiuN Tpcoci uaxHcaceai npoxi YXion. cic 6 uku einuN kt\. 60. Arpecoc CDQ. 
62. t' om. L. 64 d0. Ar. 65. c' CKeXeue HT Lips, (and A'", T.W.A.): ce 

KeXeue JJ. 66. naccuaiH GJLS. 68. ^nerNaij;e(N) Z>PRTU. 72. arere k^n 
ncoc Q. 73. ercor' S. ji neipdcouai H. 

small number of the most important stantive, and accordingly Zenod. read 

chiefs {yepovres) specially summoned ; de7ov here. 

see note on 194. 57. JudXicra — arxicxa : rather tauto- 

54. NecTopeHi = N^crropos, as XijXiji'wt, logical, though the two words do not 

1. 20 ; for the addition of the gen. cf. perhaps mean exactly the same ; jactXicrTa 

VofyyelT) Ke<pa\T] deivolo -rreXdipov E 741. = to Nestor 7nore than to anif other, 

No reason is given for the meeting at d^xttrra = verij closely resembled. But 

Nestor's ship, as thougli it Avere a matter 58 = f 152, and has probably been 

of course ; we should have expected to adopted by the interpolator without 

find Agamemnon's ship — or hut — the due care. For 9UH cf. A 115. 

meeting-place of his council. 60—70. The third repetition of the 

56 = ^ 495. ewiinNioN, which does not message is really too much ; Zen. had 

recur in Homer, is an adverbial neut. of good reason for condensing it into two 

the adj. evinrvios (like ^\6ov evaiaifMoi' lines. 

Z 519), and is so found in Ar. Vesp. 1218 73. The idea of tempting the army has 

evimviov i<TTi.u)p.eda. Compare the Attic been compared with a similar story told 

use of ovap. In later Greek, however, of Cortes ; a proposal on his part to 

ivvwviov was generally used as a sub- return was made merely to excite the 


lAIAAOC B (ii) 

Kal ^evyeiv crvv vrjvcrl TrdXyKXryiat Kekevaw 
vfj,€t<i 8' aWodev aWo<; iprjrveiv iireeacnv. ' 

■q rot 6 7' 60? eiir oiv kut ap' et^ero, rolcn S' avearrj 
^ecrrwp, 6<; pa UvXoio ava^ rjv rjfiado€VTO<;' 
6 a(f)tv ii) (f)pov€Q)v ayop^craTO Kal ^ereeLirev' 
" 0} (f)i\ot, ^Apyelcov rjyi'jrope^ rjSe /xe8ovTe<i, 
el fxev Tt^ rov ovecpov X^aicov aX\o<i evccnre, 
■\jrevSo<; Kev ^atfiev Kal vocrcfiL^oi/jieOa /jloXXov 
vvv S' thev 09 fxey apiaTO<; A'^aiMV evj^erai elvai. 
aX)C dyeT, at Kev irw^ dwpi^^ojxev vla<; A'^aicov.' 

ft)9 apa (})(0VT](Ta<i ySoyX?}? e^ VPX^ veeaOac, 
01 8' eTravearrjcrav ireidovro re TroL/xevc \acjv 
aKriTTTOvyoi ^aaL\rje<i' erreaaevovTO Se \aoL 
rjvre edvea elcrt /jieXicrcrdcov ^nvLvdoiv, 




74. KeXeuco Et. Mag. 518, 44. 76-83 dd. Ar. 78. o : oc GPQ. 82. 

axaicoN : ^nJ crpaxcbi PQR Par. a f (cf. A 91). 83. areri ken ncoc Q. 85. 

Tives naNecTHcaN ypa.<f>ovcn, rjroi Trdyres opdoi earyjaav Eust. ^ 

spirits of his followers, and met with 
complete success. fi e^iiic ecri, as 
the words stand, can only apply to the 
verb Treiprjaofxai., but it is impossible to 
see how such a temptation can be an 
'established' or 'rightful custom.' 
It is usual to join them with e7w;', 'it 
is rightful for me as king to do so ' ; 
but this gives a hardly better sense, and 
is against the order. The whole con- 
clusion of the speech can only be ex- 
plained by supposing that the author 
is trying to hurry over an impossible 
task, suggesting the idea of the temptation 
in words whose exact bearing is to be 
foi'gotten as quickly as possible. 

75. To ^pHTiieiN the scholia supply 
ifie as object ; but the words hardly 
admit of any other object than 'Axatof's. 

81. 9aTjui^N KEN is potential, ' we 
might deem it a delusion.' Homeric 
usage permits us to translate 'we should 
have said ' ; but the phrase ' belongs 
to the borderland between past and 
future conclusions,' M. and T. § 442. 
NOC9izoiuGea, Jwld aloof from the plans 
founded on it. 

82. The idea clearly is that the supreme 
king has an innate right to communica- 
tions from heaven on behalf of the 
people at large. Nestor's silence with 
respect to Agamemnon's last proposition 
may perhaps be explained as due to dis- 
approval of a resolution which he sees 

it is useless to resist. But the speech is 
singularly jejune and unlike the usual 
style of Nestor ; 1. 82 seems much more 
in place in 222 ; and Aristarchos re- 
jected 76-83 entirely, on the gi'ound that 
it was for Agamemnon and not for Nestor 
to lead the way out from the council. 

87. dSiNdcoN (or, as Aristarchos seems, 
from a scholium of Herodianos on this 
passage, to have written the word, dSt- 
vd(j3v), busy. The word seems to express 
oi'iginally quick restless motion, and 
is thus applied to the heart (II 481, 
T 516), to sheep (a 9'2, 5 320), and to 
flies (B 469) ; then to vehemence of 
gi'ief ("^ 225, CO 317, and often), and to 
the passionate song of the Sirens (vi* 326). 
According to the explanation of the 
ancients, adopted by Buttmann, the 
primary sense is de7ise ; but this 
gives a much less satisfactory chain of 
significations. It is then particularly 
hard to explain the application of the 
word to the heart ; few will be 
thoroughly satisfied with the supposi- 
tion that it means 'composed of dense 
fibres,' while a more probable epithet 
than ' busy ' or ' beating ' could not 
be found. 

It may be noticed that both eeNea 
efci (which Bentley emended ^dve' i'ao-t) 
and a'l be xc ^Nea (1. 90 : al 8e Kal ivda 
Brandr.) are cases of hiatus illicitus ; 
i.e. they occur at points where there is 

lAIAAOC B (u) 


TreTprjii e/c <y\a(f>vp}]'i alel veov ip'^o/xevdcov 

/3oTpv8ov Se irerovraL iir avdeaiv elapivolaLV 

at fiev T evda aXa TreTTOTt^arac, al Se re evOa- 90 

0)9 ro)V edvea iroWa veoiv airo Kat KXiaLucov 

r}l6vo<i TrpoTTcipoide ^adeirj^ e(TTi')(0(ovTO 

IXahov eh Iv^opriv ixera he acfuaiv oaraa hehrjec 

orpvvova Uvai, Ato? dyyeXof;' ol S' arfkpovTO. 

T€Tp7]-y€L S' ayopy'], vtto 8e aTeva-^i^ero <yaia 95 

\aoiV l^ovTcov, 6/jiaSo<i 8' 7]v. ivvea Se (7(^ea<i 

KijpvKe^ ^oowvTe<i ipi'^rvov, el ttot avri]<; 

a-yoiar, aKovaeiav 8e Siorpecfieoiv /SaaiXTjcov. 

cnrovhrji S' el^ero Xaof;, epr^rvOev he Kad^ €hpa<i 

7rav(JUfJbevoL KXa'y'yrj<;. ava he Kpeiwv 'Aya/xefivcov 100 

earrj aKrJTTTpov eywv to jxev "Yi(^aLaTO<i Kci/u^e Tev^wv. 

"Hc^atcTTO? /xev hoJKe Atl K^povlcovi avaKTC, 

avrap apa Zeu? hoiKe hLaKTopcot dpje'icpouTijL' 

88. ae\ T. |1 apxoueNdiajN J. 89. BorpuaoN tg QR. 95. CT€Naxiz€TO 

ARU : CTONQxizCTO il. 96. c<pac CG. 98. aioTpocp^coN (JJ. 99. epHTUON 

P(,)R (7p. epHTuecN R'»). Ii Kaeeapac Ci'GHJPQRT. 100. KXarKHC g. 103. 
aiQKTopi Pap. jS^. It aprei96NTY Q. 

no caesura nor any tendency to a break 
in the line which might account for 
them. Of the hfty-three cases of such 
hiatus in Homer, twenty-three occur at 
the end of the second foot, and twenty- 
one in or at the end of the hfth ; six 
are found in the first, two in the third, 
and only one in the fourth. Of the 
twenty-one in the fifth foot, all are in 
the trochaic caesura except this, A 678 
{=^ 100), N 22, S 285, 358, ^ 4, e 257, 
t 553, /c 68. (See note on 2 4.) A com- 
})lete list will be found in Knijs Be 
digammo Homcrico p. 47. The hiatus 
is legitimate if found (1) in the trochaic 
caesura of the third foot ; (2) in the 
bucolic diaeresis ; (3) at the end of the 
first foot, though this is much rarer than 
the other two, and is perhaps only per- 
missible when coinciding with a pause in 
the sense ; van L. Ench. ])p. 77-78. See 
also note on 105. (In reckoning cases of 
hiatus Kn<)s omits genitives in -ao and 
-010, which in his opinion do not suffer 
elision, and words like Tvepl, ti, and others, 
which certainly do not.) 

88. N€ON, 'in fresh relays,' as A 332, 
H 64. 

89. 6oTpu56N naturally reminds us of 
the settling of a new swarm of bees, 

hanging down in a solid mass like a 
bunch of grapes. But avdeaiv rather 
indicates that no more is meant than 
the thronging of them upon the flowers 
in the eager search for honej-. 

90. aXic is here used in its primary 
sense, in throngs, from Fe\, squeeze 
[FelXeLv, d-oW-^es, etc.); it is thus 
almost identical with IXaSov, 1. 93. 

93. BeaHci : this metaphor is a favourite 
one with Homer, especially of battle (cf. 
(Ss OL fxef fxapvavTo 5e/j.a,s Trvpos aidofxevow 
Z 1, and the word Sai's) ; it is applied 
even to oifj-toyri in v 353. For the per- 
sonification of occa, heaven-sent rumour, 
cf. ixi 413, and see Buttmann Lexil. s.v. 

95. T£TpHX€i, plpf- intrans. , from ra- 
pdcxau). The form recurs in H 346. 

99. cnouafii, 'with trouble,' a locine, 
hardly. So E 893, A 562, w 119, etc. 

103. SiaKTopwi apreT96NTHi : these 
names of Hermes are obscure. The 
former perhaps means 'the runner,' 
from 6ta/c-, a lengthened form of 5t-a-, 
root 5t to run, whence also didiK-oj : cf. 
diaKovos. ' ApyeXtpovTTjs is traditionally 
explained slayer of Argos ; but the 
legend implied is evidently later than H. 
and may have arisen from the name 
itself. Even in ancient times an 

56 lAIAAOC B (ti) 

'Epfielai; 8e ava^ Bmksv HeXoTn 7r\i]^c7r7rcoi, 
avrap o avre ITeXo-v/r Zmk 'Arpei iroifxevt \ao)v 105 

'Ar/oeu? he 6vi']L(tkwv eXiirev irokvapvi SveartjL, 
avrap o avre Byecrr' 'Ayafie/nvovL Xetire (^oprjvai, 
iroWrjccTiv vijaoiai Kal "Apye'i Travrl avdaaeiv. 
ro)i 6 7 ipetadfjbevo'i ewe 'Apyeloiai p,eTi]v8a- 
" d) (f)i\oc 'tjp(0€<i AavaoL, Oepdirovre'^; "Aprjo^, no 

Zeu? ixe fjiiya'^ Kpovi8T}<i drijo iveBrja-e jSapelrji, 
a-)(^eT\io<i, 09 Trplv fiev p,oi uTrea^x^ero Kal Karevevaev 
\\,iov eKTrepcravr ivTel-^eop diroveeadai, 
vvv Be KaKrjv dirdr'qv ^ovXevaaro, Kai fxe KeXevei 
SvcTKXea "Apyo'i iKeaOai, eVel ttoXvv coXecra Xaov. . 115 

ovTw TTOv Atl fMeWec vireppbevei (f>iXov elvai, 
b? By-j TToXXdcov ttoXlcov KareXvae Kaprjva 
rjB^ en Kal Xvcrei- rov yap Kpdro^; ecrrl fxeyiarov. 

105. ciTpeV : OTpeco Pap. /3. 108. aNdcccoN \ r. a\ 110-119 ZrjvoSoros 

avvrefxvfL cb 91X01 HpcoGC 3aNaoi, ecpdnoNTCc apwoc. XcoBh rdp Td3e r' ccri KaJ 
eccoueNoici nueeceai. 111. juerac Ar. (see Ludw. i. pp. G6, 205) Par. j and yp. 
Vr. b : uera fi. 112. JUL€N om. Pap. /3. || dnfcxero Q. 114. dndrHN : qthn S. 
115. noXuN : ndNT (?) Pap. /3. 116. 91X0N elNai : kponIconi R. 

alternative der. from ip-yos and (palvu) 111-18 = 1 18-25.- ju^rac : so Ar. 

was current, and was accepted by Ar., (ace. to Did. in a most explicit and 

in the sense sivift ajjpcaring. For want important schol. ; the contradictory 

of a better it may pass ; but the ei statement of An. is clearly wrong), 

and are unaccounted for, the proper The adj. is more natural than the adv.' 

form being evidently dpyKpavr-ns, if any. thus separated from the verb, though 

(Generally speaking, these mythological the latter may be defended by A 78. 

names are inexplicable to us. (See no n-ii ^ • -i • • , 

Roscherif.r. i. 2384.) ,""• ^^'^ "^"' Vl'"" '' gjven by ck- 

105. Notice the hiatus at the end of "^'l-'^I''; 'Tnf T l T' f S^ 'Jr"^^ 

the first foot here and 107 ; there are no ^t Inl Jl 1  r''*"^ r^lr^ 

less than fifteen cases after avrhp 6 in J!^".^''- ^' ^^^ ^■'^-"^^»' ^'^^°'»- (^f. A 

this place (van L. Unch. p. 78). These *;; . . , . 

two may be written 8 F' (Brandreth), -^^^- o^cKAea, i.e. 5w/cXee(a), .see ZT. &'. 

and so F 379, <I> 33, with F' for Foi. In § 1°^' '^- ^he supposed ' hyphaeresis ' 

the other eleven cases we can write 07' ^" "^^^^ ^^^^^^'^ '^ J"*^ as mythical as the 

or OS (Brandreth), or admit that the ' syncope' of TrXeas for TrXeovas (129). 

hiatus was allowable after 6, which can- 116. nou JueXXei, nmst, it seems, as 

not be elided. The m.s. tradition is <l> 83 yti^XXw wov direxdeadai Ad irarpL 

strongly in favour of the latter choice. Bekker brackets 116-18, urging that such 

108. Argos here, from its opposition an appeal to Zeus as destroyer of cities 

to the islands, can hardly mean less contradicts what Agamemnon has just 

than the whole of the mainlaiid over been saying. This, however, actually 

wliich the suzerainty of Agamemnon ex- weakens the passage ; for surely the 

tended. See the remarks of Thucydides, thought that Zeus has so often ' over- 

i. 9, where he calls this passage the thrown fenced cities' heightens the 

aKrjWTpov irapddocns. This famous line bitterness of the drrj which Agamemnon 

seems to have reached even the Jforfc says has come upon him. For KdpHwa 

d' Arthur — 'king he was of all Ireland used of cities compare the frequent 

and of many isles,' i. 24. epithet evaricpavos. 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


alaypov yap rohe j ecrri koX eaa-ofxevotcn, Trvuecruai, 
yLta-v/r ovT(o roLovSe roaovSe re \aov A^^atwv 
aTrprjKTOV iroke^ov iroXefil^ecv i^Be /jud-^eadaL 
dvSpdat Travprnepoiai, t€\o<; 8' ov ttoo re Tretpavrat. 
e'i irep ydp k eOeXoifxev W-^atoi re Tpwe<? re, 
opKia TTiard rap.ovre<i, dpi6fMT]dr]/j,€PaL d/j,(f)0), 
TpMe<; p,ev Xe^aadat, icjiecrrtot ocraoi eaaip, 
y/jiec<i 8' e? 5e/caSa9 SiaKoafirjOei/jiev 'A^aioi, 
Tpcocov S' dv8pa eKaaroi eKoifxeda otvo'^oevecv, 
TToWai Kev Se/caSe? hevoiaro olvo'^ooto. 
roacrov iyoo (jjrj/jbi 7rXea<? ep^fxevat vla'^ A'^acMV 
Tpcoojv, OL valovai Kara rrroXiv aW eTTLKOvpoL 
TToWecov eK rroXicov iy^ecTTraXot dvSpe'i kvecai-v, 
oi yu-e pkya 'rrXd^ovat Kal ovk eioia ideXovra 




119. r' om. G. || meeceai (,>. 120. re ojh. LQ Pap. j3: reG. 123. rdpT'K. 
124 dd. Ai. 125. Tpobec Ar. {h Tiaiv dvTiypdfpOLS evprjrai Tpcoac ii. 

126. aiaKocjUHefijuieN CL Vr. 1) (and <i2\ Schnl. T) : SiaKOCUHecoueN I'R- (co 
iii,ras.): SiaKocuHeeiHueN />Q : KaxaKOCJuiHeeTjucN J. 127. eKQCTOi Ai. : ckq- 
CTON Ixion ft. 130. noXm HQ. 130-3 dO. Ar. 131. noXXdcoN R. I! CNCICIN 
Ar. (in one edition) Kallistratos : eaciN ft. 

124. x\r. athetized the line on the 
good ground that in a mere hjqiothesis 
the supposition of details to render it 
]iossihle is i[nite out of place. 

125. Xesaceai, to mimiber themselves. 
e9ecTioi, i.e. citizens in the town, as 
opposed to the allies from other lands ; 
ef. Scraai fxev Tpdiojv Trvpbs icrx^P'^'- K 418, 
with note. Tpwec Ar., Mss. Tpcias, 
which would mean ' to muster the 
Trojans.' After TpcDey above the noni. 
is more natural, ' the Trojans to muster 
themselves.' For ei' inp . . k€ with 
opt. see Lange EI p. 195, H. G. § 313, 
M. and T. % 460 ; it differs only by a 
shade from the simple et with opt. For 
the sentiment compare Virg. Aen. xii. 
233 vix JiostcTn, alterni si congrediamur, 

126. P. Knight followed by van L. 
reads Si.aKoaibi.ri9ri/j.€v' (intin.), which is 
probably right ; the mss. give only 
•rjuoA for this termination before a 
vowel, but it seems that -tj/jl^v' should 
always be restored (van L. UncJi. p. 319). 

127. eKocTOi, i.e. each set of ten. 
The MSS. all give eKatrrov : the text 
is more idiomatic and vigorous, and 
from the way in which Did. quotes 
Ixion as the only authority for eKaaroi' 

it niiglit seem that eKaaroi was the old 

129. nXeac, a comparative form = 
wXeovas, for wXe-eas = TrXe- jea- as : see 
note on A SO. The form remained in 
use in more than one dialect to historical 
times, being found in an inscription 
from Mytilene (CoUitz no. 213, 9), 
Tttis apxaLS waLaaiS rals ep. M[i'TiX7?]i'at 
TrX^as r[Q)'\u aifiiaewv, and in the great 
inscription from Gortyn, in the forms 
•n-Xtes, TrX/a, irXiavs. The nom. TrXe'es 
is found in A 395. 

130-33 were athetized by Ar. on the 
ground that all the 'barbarians,' Trojans 
and allies together, are elsewhere always 
said to be fewer than the Greeks. The 
objection rather is that elsewhere the 
Trojans always play the prominent part 
in the defence, while the allies are of 
secondary importance. See especially 
P 221. 

131. CNeiciN : so one of the editions of 
Ar., as in E 477 oi' -rrep r eirlKovpoi 
'iveip-ev, and this gives a better sense 
than ^aaiv of mss. 

132. nXdzouci, lead vw astray, drive me 
vide of the mark ; cf. TrdXii' wXayxOevras 
A 59. cicoci, i.e. idovcn. eldv is a mere 
figment, cf 165. 



1\lov eKirepaai ev vaiofievov TrroXieOpov. 
ivvea Brj ^e^daai Ato9 fieydXov eviavroi, 
Kol hrj Sovpa creaijTre veoiv koI aTrdpra XeXvvrai' 
ac de TTov ij/Merepat r dXo^oi koI vijirLU reKva 
eiaTttL iv fxeydpoi<i TroTLSey/xevat' dfjcpui, Se epyov 
aiiTox; uKpdavTov, ov eiveKa hevp iKopueada. 
iCKK ayed , &>? av iyco eiirco, Treidcofieda Trdvre^ • 
(f)€vyco/u,€v auv vrjvcrl (f)L\r]v e? TrarpiSa yalav 
ov yap en TpolT]v aip7]cro/jb€v evpvdyviav." 

ft)9 (paro, rolcn 8e dv/xov evl arijdecrcnv opive 
iraat fterd ttXtjOvv, oaoc ov /3ov\rj<i iiraKOvaav. 
Kivr]6r) 8' dyopr) (f)r) KVfiara fiaKpa Oakdaar]^, 


133. iXiou : YXiON Ar. J {supr. ou). 134. &h : hk J. 136. t' om. S. 

137. e'larai cn Heiakleides PQR : eYax' ^n A {yp. eVar' ku\) I) : eYaro ew G : gYqt' 

.-,,,Tr„ " ' "■ '' ' ' " 139. erwN (>. 141. 

144. 9H Zen. : tie Ar. 12. 

^Ni CHJT Had. a, Lijas. Vr. b c A, Mosc. 1 
(peperai ovtos 6 crrixos Scliol. T. 143 dd. Ar 

ev TLffiv ov 

133. 'IXiou: so Mss.; Ar. "IXtov. Both 
constructions are found ; the ace. in line 
501 and passim in the Catalogue, the 
gen. in B 538, E 642, a 2 Tpoirjs lepbv 
TTToXUdpov, o 193, etc. 

135. Observe the neuter plurals followed 
by one verb in the sing, and the other 
in the plur. cndpra, apparently ropes 
made of common broom ; see L. and 
S, s.v. Hemp was hardly known 
in Greece even in the fifth century ; 
V. Herod, iv. 74. Yarro, perhaps 
rightly, took the word to mean thongs 
used to bind the timbers together : 
Lihurni plerasque naves loris siiehant : 
Graeci macjis cannabo et stupa, caetcrisque 
sativis rebus, a quibus airdpTa appclla- 
bant {ap. Cell. xvii. 3). This suits the 
context rather better than to take (nrdpra 
= cables, a less vital matter. (A cable is 
called ^v^Xivos in (p 391 ; the rigging is 
of leather, /3 426. ) 

141. The reason why this line was 
rejected by 'some' (see above) is that 
dvaipd Ty]v d/xtpLJBoXiav. Agamemnon's 
speech hitherto has been studiously 
ambiguous, as becomes a welpa. While 
suggesting flight, he has ingeniously 
suggested also both the shame and the 
Heedlessness of flight. This line undoes 
all by its open declaration of opinion. 
The objection is well founded, but applies 
equally to 140. It may be said that 
139-41 are wrongly added from I 26-8 ; 
but the difiiculty is really inherent in 
the idea of the temptation. If 139-41 

are omitted, the eflect of the speech 
becomes inexplicable. 

143 was rejected by Aristarchos as 
involving unnecessary repetition ; the 
irXr^Ovs of course knew nothing of the. 
council. For juerd with ace. = among 
compare I 54, tt 419, and 5 652 (though 
in the latter passage fxed' i]fji.4as may 
mean ' next to us ') ; and also nera 
Xecpas, Herod, vii. 16. 2, Thuc. i. 138, 
etc.^ See H. G. § 195. Van L. reads 
Kard, which we should have expected ; 
the two are constantly confused in Mss., 
see App. Grit, on 163, 179 below, and 
A 424. 

144. Aristonikos has here preserved for 
us the reading of Zenodotos, 9H for (is of 
MSS. ; and there can be no doubt that it 
is correct, though Ar. rejected it with the 
brief comment ovdewoTe "0/j.Tjpos to cp-q 
dvrl Tov ws Teraxef. This merely means, 
that the word had generally dropped out 
of the MS.s. in his day ; it is found again 
in A 499 6 Se (pij K^ideiav dvaax^^i', where 
it was written (pij, and, in defiance of 
Homeric idiom, translated 'said.' The 
word has survived also in Callim. HeJcalc 
(col. iv. 5 C. It. vii. 430} Kvdveov cpi) 
Triaaav, in ^77 yepdvotai quoted from Anti- 
machos, and, by certain emendations, 
in Hipponax (fr! 14, 2, Bergk P. L. G.^ 
p. 755), where (prj glossed ilis has been 
turned into ws (prjai : and Hymn. Merc. 
241 (Barnes, for drj or dri, .see Allen 
in ,/. H. >S'. xvii. p. 260). 

lAIAAOC B (u) 

irovrov \KaploiO' ra fiev t Evpo<; re N0T09 re 
oypop €7rai^a<i Trarpb^ Ato? eK vet^eXdoyv. 
a)<f h ore KivrjarjL 'Ae(f)vpo'i ^a6v Xy'iov eXOoov, 
XdjBpo's eTracyi^cov, iirl r r^^vei uara^veacnv, 
fo)9 rcov Trda dyopy Kivr^Orj, rot 8' dXaXrjTMo 
vr]a<i eV icrcrevovro, ttoSmv 8' virevepde kovlt] 
XaTar deipojuuevrj. rot S' dXki]\oLat KeXevov 
dirrea-dai, vtjoov ?}8 eX-Kefiev et? dXa hlav, 
ovpov'i T i^eKaOaipov avrrj S" ovpavov Ik€v 
oiKa8e lefievcov viro S' i]ip€ov epfiaTa vtjmv. 

6v6d K€v ^ApyeLOicriv vTrepfiopa vocno^ eTv-^07], 
el fiT} AdrjvatTjv ' Hprj 7rpb<; [jlvOov eeiirev 





147. KIN14CH1 [AZ)]JR: KiNi^ceifi. 148. XaBpbN Par. li. i| enairizcoN : enatcccoN 
Aph. ij Hjuu T^ in. ras. : Auuei T'-. 153. t' : 5' Pap. j3. \\ auTH &': quthn Pap. 
(3. [I Skcn H. 156-69 Z-rjvodoTos ffvvT^T/jLrjKev ei xxk 'AeHNaiH Xaocc6oc fiXe' 

an' "OXuunou. eupcN eneix' "OSucfia kt\. 156. aeHNaiHN : deHNaiw Pap. /3'. 

145. 'iKapioio, so called from a small 
island near Samos {Hymn, xxxiv. 1, 
Strabo p. 639). noNxou seems to be in 
apposition witli da\d(T(Tr]s, as the part to 
the whole. 

146. dipope, transitive, as 5 712, xj/ 
222 (r 201 ?). In N 78, 6 539 it is intrans. 
The usual form of the trans, aor. is of 
course Qpae. The singular shews that 
E5p6s re N6toj re must go together as 
'the wind of East and South,' the later 


Some edd. have taken unnecessary 
offence at the two similes. They seem 
to express rather different pictures ; that 
of the stormy sea bringing before us the 
tumultuous rising of the assembly, while 
the cornfield expresses their sudden 
bending in flight all in one direction. 
For the multiplication of similes cf. infra, 
455-83. If either is to be rejected it 
is the first, 144-46, both on account of 
the rather awkward addition of irovrov 
'iKapioio after da\d.(Tcr7]s, and also because 
it indicates a familiarity with the Asian 
shore of the Aegaean sea, which is a note 
of later origin. 

148. Hjuuei, the crop bends ivith its 
ears. cni, before the Mast. For the 
change from subj. to indie, compare 
I 324, A 156. But the junction of the 
two by re is very liarsh ; we ought to 
read either e-n-l 5' or rj/jLvrji, So in A 156 

Heyne read TravryjL d\ For the character 
of Z€(pvpos as a stormy wind see 'ir 200. 

152. 5TaN : here in its primitive sense, 
bright. So of the aidrip, H 365, t 540, 
and dawn, I 240, etc. It is twice used 
of the earth, S 347, ii 532 ; in the latter 
passage the epithet seems somewhat 
otiose, but in the former ' bright ' is 
obviously appropriate. In relation to 
men and gods it appears to mean 
illustrious, either for beauty or noble 
birth ; but here again it becomes otiose 
as applied to the swineherd Eumaios in 
the Odyssey. 

153. oupoiic, 'the launching- ways,' 
trenches in the sand by which the ships 
were dragged down to the sea ; 'ipxxaja, 
the pi'ops, probably large stones, placed 
under the ships' sides to keep them 
upright, see A 486. The former word, 
which does not recur in Greek in this 
sense, may possibly be the same as ovpos 
= opos, the boimdccry being originally the 
trench marking the divisions of the 
common field. No weight can be laid 
on difference of accent. 

155. unepuopa, a rhetorical expression 
only : nothing ever actually happens in 
Homer against the will of fate, as a god 
always interferes to prevent it. For 
similar expressions compare P 327, T 30, 
336 ; and also H 780, and a 34, with 
M. and R. 's note ; and for irn-€p = against, 
vwip opKia r 299, etc. 


lAIAAOC B (ii) 

" ft) TTOTTOi, alyLO'^OLo Aio9 reKO<;, arpvToovT], 
ovTO) 8r] OLKovSe, (f)iXrjv 69 TrarptSa yaiap, 
^Apyeioi (f)€v^ovTai i'/r' evpea vwra Oakdaa-rj'^ ; 
KaS 8e Kev ev'^coXrjv T[pidixa>i koL 'Ypcoal XiTTOiev 
Xp'yetTjv ¥u\evr]i>, 779 e'lveKa ttoWoI W.'^aiMv 
ev 'YpoLrjL diroXovTO, (fiiXrj^ cltto irarplSo'i alri^. 
dXX Wi vvv Kara Xaov AyaiMV yaXKoyLTcovcov, 
croi<; d<yavoi<i eTreecrcnv ip/jTve (fywra eKacnov, 
/jbijSe ea vrja^ dXaS^ eXKefxev dfi(j)ieXL(T(Ta<i" 

(1)9 e(j)aT , ouS' dTTidrjae 6ed yXavKCOTTii? ^A67]vr]- 
^rj 8e Kar OvXvfiTTOto Kapr)V(ov di^acra. 



157. TeKOC : TCKNON H. 158. 5h : bt Pap. (3'. 160-2 dd. Ar. 161. 

apreiHN e' Zen. 163. Kara Ar. 12 : ixerrii /AJPRU Pap. /3, Harl. a d, King's 

Par. b d g j k. [| XQXkoxitconcon : ixHbe. r epcoci Pap. j3^. 164 dd. At. || 

COIC Ar. ai xtt/Die(TTarai Kai ri ' ApLUTocpdvovs : coTc 5' 0. 

157. drpuTcaNH : one of the obscure 
titles of gods, of which we cannot even 
say with confidence that they are of 
Hellenic or Indo-European origin. The 
common explanation is that it means 
'unwearied one,' from rpi'w to rub (in 
the sense ' to wear out '). It is equally 
likely that it may be connected witli the 
first element in the equally obscure 
TpLToyifeia, for which see note on A 515. 
(Reference may also be made to Auten- 
rieth, App. to Nagelsbach's Horn. Theo- 
logic ed. 3, p. 413.) 

159. The punctuation of 159-62 is 
rather doubtful. Some edd. put one 
note of interrogation after olitjs, and 
another (or a comma, which is the same 
thing) after daXdcrarjs : while others have 
no note of interrogation at all. In H! 
88, 201, 553, e 204, ovto: dri introduces 
an indignant question ; and this cer- 
tainly gives the most vigorous sense 
here. In 5 485, X 348, oDtu dr/ occurs 
indeed in direct statements ; but there 
it does not stand in the emphatic position 
at the beginning of the sentence. On 
the other hand, it seems better to place 
a simple full stop after airjs, because the 
opt. is not suited to the tone of re- 
monstrant questioning. Thus Se in 160 
almost = our ' Why ! ' For euxcoXti = 
subject of boasting compare X 433 o fioi 
. . €iixcj\i} Kara &(ttv ireX^aKeo. 

164. Ar. not without reason regarded 
this line as interpolated from 180 ; the 

task is more suited to Odysseus than 
Athene, and is entirely committed to 
him. Ar. equally obelized 160-62, as 
being in place only in 176-78. This, 
however, does not seem necessary. 

165. xxubk 2a, i.e. fnjd' lae. 


similar cases of hiatus before edw (0 428, 
P 16, X 339, ^ 73, 5 805, k 536, <7 420) 
can be cured by reading the open form, 
and there is no other trace of an initial 
F. (fi-nSe r ea Brandr.) Cf. 132. 
du9ie\kcac is a word of somewhat 
doubtful meaning, as it is only applied 
to ships. The traditional explanation, 
rowed on both sides, is insufficient, as 
there is no ground to suppose that 
eXiVo-w (feX-) was ever used for epiacru} 
(root ^p-), from which we actually have 
dfjL(pripT]s, Eur. Cycl. 15. Nor will 
rolling both ways do, for iXicraoj is not = 
craXevo}. The two meanings which are 
generally adopted are (1) curved at both 
ends, i.e. rising at both bow and stern 
(see note on Kopuviai, 1. 771 below) ; 
or (2) with curved sides. Against 
both these it may be urged that eXia- 
(T€iv never seems to imply 'curving,' 
but always 'turning round,' ' M-hirling, ' 
and the like, a very different idea ; and 
further, with regard to (1) dficpi strictly 
means 'at both sides,' not 'both ends. 
The only sense consonant with the use 
of the word eXicraio is wheeling both ways, 
i.e. easily turned round, handy. Cf. 
note on ci/ii'aXoy 705. 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


[KapiTaXL/ubo)^ 8' iKave 6oa<i eirl vija'i A^atwt'.] 

evp€V eiretr ^OSvarija Ad ixrjTLv aruXavrov 

ecnaoT' ouS' o 76 vrjoq evaaeXfioio /u.eXalvrj'i 170 

aTrrer', iirel fxiv cl'^o^ Kpahliiv koI 6v/jiov \Kavev. 

aiy^oO S' larafxevri 7rpoae(f)7] j\avKM7rL>i XOi^vrj- 

" Sioyeve'i AaepruiSi], TroXv/xij-^av^ ^OBvcraev, 

ovTO) Sr] oiKovhe, (piXtjv e<> irarpiha ^aiav, 

(f)€v^ea6^ ev vi^ecrat iroXvKKrjlai, irecrovTa ; 17') 

KaS Se Kev €v^(oXt]v HpuifKoc koI Tpcoal XtTrotre 

'Ap<ye[7]v 'FjXevrjv, ?;<? eXveKa iroWol W.'^accbv 

iv Tpolrjt airoXovro, cf)lXr)<; diro TrarplSo'; aL7]<;. 

dXX^ Wi vvv Kara Xaov ^A-^acMP, yti^S' er eptocL, 

crot? dyavot<i eTreeaatv epi]TV6 (pMTa eKacnov, 180 

yLrjhe ea vriwi aXaS' eXKe/xev d/jLcpceXiaaa'^. 

ft)9 cf)d6\ 6 8e ^vverjKe ded<i oira (f)cov7]ada7]<;, 
^7) he deeiv, diro Se -^alvav ^dXe' rt]v S' eKopiLcrae 
KTjpv^ JLvpv/3dTri<; ^16aKi']aL0<;, 09 ol oin'jhei. 
avTO'i S' ^ ArpetZeoi ^A<ya/xe/iivovo<; dvTLO<i iX6(bv 18") 

Se^aTO ol (TKrjTrTpov Trarpco'iov, d(p6cT0v ai,ei' 
avv rS)t e^T} Kara, vr}a<i ^ A'yatoiv '^aXKO'^ircovcov. 

6v TLva [xev /SaacXrja Kal e^o'^ov civSpa Kij^eirj, 
Tov h dyavoc^; iireecrcnv iprjTvaaaKe Trapaard^;' 

168 om. ACDt T* U* Pap. a /3, Vr. a b, Mosc. 2, Eton. 169. eupe V Vr. b. 

170. £ctcot' L. !| ou9e re Q. 171. anxex' supr. h over Q H. 172. enea 

njcpoeNTO npocHuda PR. 178. Tpoia J. 179. Kara Ar. A[G]PR : juerd S2 

(cp. 163). [| JUiHd' €t' CT Lips. Bar. : uHQe t' fi. \\ kpdiu U. li xa^KOxiTOJNCON Pap. 
jSi (cp. 163). 180. CoTc Ar. : coTc S' ft. ij 9cbTa : aubpa Eust. 184. ondaei 
piRi. 185. ONxioN HS. 187. cBh : 66c Zen. 188. KixeiHi GT : nvks kixoIh 

Scliol. T. 189. cpHTiiecKe Bar. : epHTiiacKe Vr. a^ 

168 was unknown to Nik., for liis 
scliolion speaks of the asyndeton after 

175. necoNTec implies tumultuous and 
disorderly fiight ; so Z 82 iv xeptrt ywai.- 
kQv cpevyovras Trecreeiv, et al. The phrase 
eV vrjval weaieiv is, however, also used of a 
violent attack upon the ships, and hence 
an ambiguity frequently arises ; e.g. I 
235 (.see note), A 311 (cf. 325), M 107, 

179. epcbei, refrain not, hold not back. 
The verb is generally used with the gen., 
TTokifioLo, xdp/i7;s, etc. ; but it occurs 
without a case, /a 75, X 185, ^ 433. In 
N 57 it is transitive, 'drive back.' In 

a similar sense ipixiri {iroXiiiov) is used, 
' cessation,' II 302, P 761 ; but ipuiri in 
its ordinary meaning of 'swing,' 'im- 
petus,' must be an entireh' different 
word ; and so also epwricrei in A 303. 

186. This is the sceptre described in 
46, 101-9. It is of course handed over 
as a sign to all that Odysseus was acting 
on behalf of Agamenmon. or, ' at his 
hand,' a datirus ethicus. See note on 
TraiSos eSe^aro X^'P' KinreWoi' A 596. 

188. ucN is answered by 5' a5, 198. 
The asyndeton at the beginning of a 
fresh stage in the narration is unusual. 
Hence Zenod. removed the full stop 
after xaX/coxt'''tii'ajc, reading ^ds for ejBy). 


lAIAAOC B (ii) 

"Sacfiovi', ov ere eoiKe kukov co? SecSlaaecrdai' 
aXX" avTO<; re Kadrjao Kol dWovi I'Spve \aov<;. 
ov yap TTco adcfia olcrd , olo? voo^ A.Tpeioivo<i • 
vvv fiev Treipdrac, rd-^a S lylreTat vla<i 'A'^atMV. 
ev ^ovXrjt B ov iTdvTe<i dKovcrap-ev olov eecrre ; 
/j,7] TL '^o\(jOcrd/jL€vo<; p€^'r]C kukov fta? ^A'^aiojv. 
dvfio^ Se [xeya^ ecnl SiOTpe(f>e(ov /3aai\i]cov, 

Tlfxi] S' €K AtO? icTTL, (f}C\€L Be € jJ,7]TLeTa Zeu9." 



192. drpeicONOC Ar, Aph, Dion. Sid, Ixion, at xo-P'-^'^Tepat, L : arpeiSao fi. 
193-7 6.6. Ar. 195. p^sei Q. 196. hk : r6p GP : bk Cant. |i 5lOTpe9€CON 

(aioTpo9^coN) BqciXhcon Zen. Z'GHJLP^RU Aristot. Rhet. ii. 2 : aioTpe(p^oc BqciXhoc 

190. 9ei8icceceai is uniformly transi- 
tive in Homer, and tbere is no reason 
why it should not be so here ; Odysseus 
actually ' territies ' the common sort 
into the assembly (199), but will not 
employ more than persuasion to the 
chiefs. We must therefore write ov ere, 
not 01' ae, to emphasize this contrast ; 
and so Herodianos thought, though the 
' usage ' was against him (17 fj-ev dKpi^eia 
opdoTOvet, iyKkivei Se y) avvrjOeia). Monro 
{Joxrn. Phil. xi. p. 127) rightly compares 
196 X^P"'' ^^ /"•'? ''"' /"•^ irdyx'^ KaKov ws 
beiBiaaeudw, and A 286 tr^wi' fj-ev ov yap 
^OLK oTpwe/jt-ev. Schol. B adds deidicrcre- 
ffOai. avrl rod €v\aj3e2a-9ai., a wrong inter- 
[iiotation, which has been generally 
adopted. Among the solecisms derided 
by Lucian, Pseudosoph. 564, is that of 
using beblTTOfiai in the sense of ' fear ' ; 
Trpos 5e Tov eiirovra, AedirTopLai rbv av8pa 
Kol (pevyoj, '^v, e(p7], Kal orav Tivd ev'Xa- 
^■ndriLs, dLu^TjL. The ellipse of thought 
implied in aXXd (191) is very simple : 
' but this I do say — sit still, ' etc. This 
is, in fact, the common use of dWd in 
appeals, with imper. (A colon is put at 
the end of 190 to bring this out.) 

193. Aristarchos rejected this and the 
following four lines as direoLKores Kal ov 
TrpoTpewTiKol els KaracrroX-qv — a not very 
convincing remai'k. On the other hand, 
he inserted here 203-5, as being evidently 
addressed to the kings, not to the 
common folk. But as spoken to chiefs 
203-5 would eminently be ov irpoTpeTrrLKol 
fis KaraffToXrjv, and likely rather to arouse 
the spirit of independence and opposition ; 
they gain in rhetorical significance if 
addressed to the multitude, to whom 
they can cause no offence. 193-4 are, 
however, clearly an insertion due to the 

same hand which gave us the scene in 
the BovXt]. 192 becomes literally true 
if in the first form of this scene Aga- 
memnon has not as yet had a chance 
to speak (v. Introd. ). For Yij/erai see A 

194 is commonly printed without a 
note of interrogation ; but ' by reading 
it as a rhetorical question ' (an alternative 
given by Schol. B) ' the connexion of 
the speech is considerably improved. 
Odysseus has begun by explaining the 
true purpose of Agamemnon. Then he 
affects to remember that he is speaking 
to one of the "kings" who formed the 
council. ' ' But why need I tell you this ? 
Did we not all — we of the council — hear 
what he said 1 " '—Monro J. P. xi. 125. 
This also suits line 143 irdcn fierd itXtjOvv, 
oaoL ov l3ov\rjs iwaKovaav. On the other 
hand, there is no doubt that the council 
is always regarded as consisting only of 
a small number of 'kings,' not as in- 
eluding all the chiefs. Nine persons, 
Agamemnon, Menelaos, Odysseus, Nestor, 
Achilles, the two Aiantes, Diomedes, and 
Idomeneus, ' are the only undeniable 
kings of the Iliad, as may appear from 
comparing together B 404-9, T 309-11, 
and from the transactions of K 34-197. 
Particular phrases or passages might raise 
the question whether four others, Meges, 
Eurypylos, Patroklos, and Phoinix, were 
not viewed by Homer as being also 
kings.' — Gladstone Juv. M. pp. 417-18. 
This is clearly too small a number to be 
expressed by line 188, and this considera- 
tion no doubt led to the rejection of the 
note of interrogation. 

196. It looks as though Ar. preferred 
the gen. sing, to the plural on the ground 
that the latter involved the use of e as 

lAlAAOC B (ii) G3 

ov S' av StjfMov avhpa 'Ihot, ^oooivra r i(f)evpoL, 
Tov aKrjTTTpoot eXdaacTKev o/Ji.oK\7]cracrKe re fMvdcof 
" Sat/jbovL, arpefjua^ rjcro Koi aXk(ov fxvOov aKove, 200 

dl creo (^eprepol elai, av S' dirroXe/xo'i koI civakKi^, 
ovre TTOT eV TroXe/xwt ipapi6fiio<i ovr evl j3ov\r}i. 
ov fxev TTWi TTcivre^ ^aa-LKevcrofiev evddK 'A^atot. 
ovK ciyadov iroXvKoipaviri' et? Kotpavo'i earw, 
eh ySao-tXeu?, ml Bo)K€ Kpovov Trai'? dyKvXofiijreo) 20r. 

[aKr]7rTp6v t rjSe $6fMLcrTa<;, 'iva acjilac /SaatXevrji].^^ 

w<? o 76 Kocpavecov StWe arparov ol S d'yop7]vSe 
avTi<i eireacrevovTO veSiv diro Kai KXiatacov 
rjyrji, CO? ore KVfxa 7ro\v(^\oL(T^oio Oakaaar]'^ 
alyLaXoit fic'ydXcoi ^pefierai, crfMapayel Se re ttoi'to?. 210 

dWoi fiev p e^ovTO, iprjrvOev 8e Kad' eS/oa?, 
®ep(JiTr)<i 8' eVt fjbOvvo<i a/ierpoeTrr/? eKoXcoLa, 

198. au : Sn Eust. !1 dliJUOU anbpa AST Far. h, Bar. Laud. Eton : bnuou r' 
oNbpa ft. II YSh Q. II e9eupei Q {stqn-. oi). 199. uuecoi : euucbi Yr. a. 201. 

anoXeuoc Et. Mag. 202. oiibe nor PR Paj). /3. jj out' : ou&' Paj). /3. 203. 
ncoc : nep Lips. 205. 5cbK€ Ar. Harl. b : -ScoKe T : eacoKc ft. 206 oi/i. ft : 
habcnt GJPQ™R Harl. a>" Vr. b. Ij C91CIN R Yr. b : C91CIN AreuoNeuH Harl. a>" : 
C91C1 BouXeuHici Dio Chrys. || BaciXcuei Q"'. 207. oi d' : h^" (^ (s;;;),-. oY). 

208. aueic Pap. j3. 211. epHTueoN Q. |i Kaeeapac CZ>GHJPQRT. 212. 

©apc'iTHC Pap. j3. || be ti U. || duapToenwc Plin. Ep. i 20, 22. 

a plural (see App. A). It is, however, fiev is virtually = /x,?^;', and has no ad- 

c^uite possible to retain the plural used versative force here. For the neut. 

o-enerically, and yet take e as sing, used ayadov in the next line cf. triste liqnis 

of a particular instance, as is proved by stahulis, Yirg. Ec. iii. 80. 

691 — 206 is apparently inserted in order to 

„ . . , s, a' a„^,\^,„, supply an object to SdJKe, which does not 

„.,, .. d , o " ''\\' ^^,\''^ need one (see on A 29o), and IS clunisilv 

aXXo. . exea.pV^<Tc /Spora,., aXXo. « <pc\ocy,. ^^^^^.^^^ ^^^^^^ j ^g^ apparently at a time 

Compare Eurip. And. 421— when the sense of metre was dying out. 

, „ It is, however, as old as the age of 

oiKTpa yap ra dvcrjvxv ^ Trajan, for Dio Chrysostom {Or. i. p. 3) 

ppoTols ixiraaL, k^v dvpacos ihv Kvpr,i. j.,,,^^^,^ i^_ jj. jg jj^^^.^jy ^^,^^.^5^ ^^.j^jj^ ^.^ 

(Monro ut sup. and H. G. § 255. 1.) discuss the reference of (xcptai, which may 

198. Shuou QN^pa : the r' is probably have been supposed = vfi^v, or simply 

inserted only to avoid the hiatus, which transferred from I 99 without further 

is rare in this place. We should rather consideration. If the line is to be 

read drifiot' (and so in "^ 431, ft 578). corrected, Dio Chrysostom's ^ovXevijiai is 

For the elision of o of the term, -oto see better than Barnes's ifj-^acrCk^vrji. 

note on A 35. If xe be retained, we 209. On coc ore in similes see 394. For 

must with Bekker, H. B. ii. 165, explain uerdXcoi Bentley conj. fxeydXa, with 

' every one whom he both saw to be of much probability ; cf. A 425. 

the common sort and found shouting,' 212. ©cpcixHC, like QepaiXoxos P 216, 

which is not very satisfactory. is from the Aeolic Oipcros = dpdaos, a 

202. ouTG . . . ENapieuioc, in nidlo name made to suit the man, cf. IToXu- 
mimero, 'not counted.' depcTeidtjs (piXoKepro/jLOi x^^T- eKoXwia : 

203. ou u^N=:Att. ov OTjirov, as 233; see A 575. auieTpoenHc (cf. d^a^a/jroeTTTjs 



09 p eirea (^pecrlv rjio-tv ctKoafid re iroWd re ^jtSt], 
fMayjr drap ou Kara Koajjbov ipi^e[ievai /daaLXevcrtp, 
aW o n 01 elcracTo 'yeXoLtov Apyeioiaiv 
kf^fievac. at(T'^i(7T0<i Be dvrjp viro "\\lov rjXde- 
(po\KO^ eT]v, '^co\b<? S' erepov iroha- rw he ol oip.w 
KvpTOi, eiTi (7Ti]6o<; avvo'^WKore' avrdp virepde 
(po^o'i erjv Ke^aXrjv, -yJreSvr] 8' e7revy]vode Xdyvrj. 
kj(dL<TTO<i S A^tX?;t fJudXicrT rjv ?)S' ^Ohvarjl' 



213. oc : o 1) : occ' Pap. ^ {om. p'). i! H(i)aei CDG^. 214. aurdp Q. .l 

BqciXhi Q. 216. 3' ONHp CG Laud. Eton. 217. 90X.K6C : 9opK6c S. 218. 

cuNOXHKoxe Mor.'-^ (h in ras.) Vr. c: cuncox^Xote Q {supr. o over tirst co) : cun- 
OKcox6Te He.sycli. : cuNox&JK^ec Pap. ^. 220-3 ad. Zen. 

r 215, aKpLTOjxvdos B 246) is illustrated 
by Soph. Phil. 442— 

QepalTTjs TLS 9jt> 
OS ovK Siv el'Xer' eladTra.^ direlv oirov 
/xrjBeis ewtT?, 

where see Jebb's note. 

214. The infin. in this line is epexe- 
getic, and is qualified by /xtxp drap ov 
Kara Koafiov. For aKocxid xc noWd re 
we should have in Attic TroWct re Kal 
aKO(j/j.a, and for drdp ou, ov5e. For the 
litotes 00 Kara k6cjuon cf. wXriyels ov 
Kara k. 9 12, and 06 Koafxwt M 225. 
Sehol. A rightly TroWd re Kal draKra 
X^yeiu TjiriaraTO, Cbare fidTTji' /cat ov irpbs 
\6-yov (piXoveiKeiv rots /SacriXeOiTtJ'. In the 
next line we may understand XaXelv or 
the like after dXXct. 

The scholiasts give two curious legends 
about Thersites : one that having been 
Homer's guardian, and in that capacity 
robbed him of his inheritance, he is 
thus caricatured in immortal revenge ; 
the other that he had been crippled by 
Meleagros, who threw him down a pre- 
cipice because he skulked in the chase of 
the boar of Kalydon. They also jioint 
out that Homer mentions neither his 
father nor his country, in order to 
indicate his base origin. In the Aithiopis 
and Quintus he is killed by Achilles for 
insulting him and the corpse of Penthe- 
sileia. He is the only common soldier 
mentioned by name in the Iliad. 

217. 9oXk6c, 9os6c, ij/e^Ndc are all dir. 
\ey6fj.eva in Homer, and it is impossible 
to be sure of their derivation and mean- 
ing. The first seems never to recur in 
all existing Greek literature. <po\k6c 
6 TO, (par} eiXKvfffievos 8 icTLv ecrTpafj.ij.iv as 

(i.e. squinting), Schol. A. This ety- 
mology was universally accepted by 
antiquity, but it is of course untenable. 
Buttra. Lcvil. p. 536 points out that 
the order of the adjectives clearly shews 
that (poXKos refers to the feet or legs. 
He is probably right in explaining 
'bandy-legged,' but not in connecting 
it with valgus. It goes rather with 
(pdXK7]s, the rib of a ship, Lat. fal.v, 
falco. 90s6c is explained as meaning 
strictly ' warped in burning,' of pottery 
(0o|d Kvpiujs elai to. irvpLppayTJ oarpaKa, 
Schol., who quotes Simonides, avr-q 8e 
(po^LxfiXos 'ApyeiT) kvXl^), and hence with 
a distorted head. In this sense ' the 
works of the old physicians shew that 
it continued in constant use, not merely 
as a poetical word, but as one of daily 
occurrence' (Buttm. 1.1.). Perhaps conn, 
with (pJjyu, bake (Buttm., Curt.), in the 
sense of orcrbaked. i{jedN6c, Trapd to 
••pQ, 6vo/J.a prifxaTLKOV \peOvbs 6 /J.a8ap6s, 
Schol. L (i.e. falling away, sparse). 

218. For cuNoxcoKore Valckenaer is 
doubtless right in reading with Hesych. 
avvoKuxoTe (Cobet M. C. 304), cf. okwxv, 
dvoKioxv, SioKwxv, KaroKuixv. For avvexfi-v 
=join (or intrans. vicef) cf. A 133. 
cneNHNoee is a doubtful form. dv/jvoDe 
A 266 is from root dued-, whence avdos, 
and we should probably with Brandreth 
read eiravrji'ode here ; in p 270 most 
Mss. have dvfjvode, but Ar. read ivfjvoOe. 
In the Od. {d 365, p 270) it is a perf. ; in 
11. it must be a plupf. (K 134, A 266) 
with the secondary person-endings {H. G. 
§ 68). The sense is sjnovied or simply 
appeared on the surface (see on A 266, 
and cf. iovXovs dvdrjdai X 320). \dxNH, 
stubble, bristles ; cf. Xaxj'7;etj, of swine, 
I 548. 

lAlAAOC B (ii) 


Tfo) 'yap veLKelecTKe. tot avr ^ K<^aix^\xvovi hiwi 

o^ea K€KA7)yoD<i key ovecoea' roa o ap A-^atot 

iK7rdy\co<; Koreovro ve/meaarjOev t evl Ov/xmi. 

avrap o /xaKpa j3owv ^ Kya\xe\juVova vetKee fivOcof 

" ^ArpetSr], reo S' avT iTTifie/iKpeat tjSe '^^cirl^ei.'i ; 225 

irXelai toc ya\KOv KXtcnai, ttoWoI Be yvvalKe^ 

elcrlv ivl K\L(TL7]L<i e^atperoc, a^ rot A^o-tot 

7rpcoTi(TT(ot StSo/jiev, evT av irToXledpov eXcofiev. 

rj en koI -^pvaov eTrtSeveai, ov Ke Tt<i otaei 

Tpciocov iTTTToSafx^cov i^ 'Wlov vlo<; airoiva, 230 

6v Kev eyoo Sijaa'i dydyco ij aXXo<; A^atcor, 

^e yvvalKa verjv, Xva [Xiayeai ev (^lKottjtl, 

rjv r avTO<i dirovocrt^i Karia^eao ; ov fiev eoiKev 

iipj(ov eovra kukmv iin^aaKefiev vla^ A'^aioyv. 

Si ireirove^, kclk iXey^e", A'^adSe<{, ovKer 'Ap^atot, 235 

221. Tcb Ar. fi : tc2> Z)Q : toOc Pap. a (3. || OUt' : au GPS. 224. fiouN : 

BiBdc Vr. a. 225. 5' aur' : "bk aOr' Zen. 226. nXeTai "dk ruNaiKbbN Zen. 

227 8 6.0. Zen. 227. kXicIh J Cant. : KXiciaic Bar. Mor. : kXicihcin PR. 229. 

oYcHi G. 231-4 ad. Zen. 231. crcoN L. 1 drdroiu' Eust. 233. hn k' S : 

Hn V Pap. /31. 235. axa^ec S. 

222. Xere in the strict Homeric .sense, 
counted out, enumerated, dibitait scs 
injures. twi is clearly Agamemnon. 
Thersites is at the moment the accepted 
spokesman of the mob, who are indig- 
nant with Agamemnon for his treatment 
of Achilles ; and it is by a subtle piece 
of psychology that they are made ashamed 
of themselves, and brought to hear reason 
by seeing their representative exhibited 
in an absurd and humiliating light, and 
their own sentiments caricatured till they 
dare not acknowledge them. 

225. Teo : the sen. is the same as A 65 
evxwXfjs €Tnfji.€/j.(p€Tai. Thersites pretends 
that avarice is Agamemnon's only reason 
for wishing to continue the war. He 
assumes that he will do so, and makes 
no allusion whatever to the proposal to 
return home. 

228. eur' on, as often as we take any 
Trojan stronghold. But we should 
probably read evre, cf. A 163. Thersites 
purposely alludes to Achilles' words, as 
again in 242. 

229. H, can it be that. For 8c kg 
with the fut. indie, cf. note on A 175. 
Similarly 231 8n ken drdrco, ' sicch as I 
shall bring. ' 

232. ruNoTKa n^hn is strictly co-or- 

dinate with xp^<^°^ (229), and ought 
therefore to be gen. The intervening 
ace. in the preceding line no doubt 
caused the change, which is natural 
enough to a speaker, uicreai and kqt- 
icxeai must be subj. ; but the short vowel 
cannot be right. Read fiia-yr]' and 
Ka.Ticrxv , like j3ov\7]t' A 67, and cf. 
note on A 380. 

233. oO jueN, as 203. Bentley conj. ov 
ere, Heyne ov8^, Christ ovtl. 

234. KaKcoN eniBacKGJueN, bring into 
trouble. This causal sense is probably 
not elsewhere found with the verb-sufiix 
-<XK-. Cf. e 285, I 546, xp 13. Zenodotos 
rejected 227-8 (reading irXelai de yvvai- 
kQv) and 231-4, apparently thinking 
them beneatli the dignity of Epic poetry. 

235. n^noNcc : this word is found in 
H. only in the voc. It is generally a 
polite address, sometimes with a shade 
of remonstrance, such as is often ex- 
pressed in our ' My good sir ! ' It is 
always found in the sing, except here 
and N 120, and in these two passages 
only it has a distinctly contemptuous 
meaning, 'weaklings.' ^X^rxea, an ab- 
stract noun used as a concrete. Monro 
{H. G. § 116) compares o/j-riXidri = o/j-iiXi^ 
X 209, 5rjixoi' iovTa, one of the common 


lAIAAOC B (ii) 

OLKaSe nrep avv vrjvcrl vecofieda, rovBe S ew/xez/ 

avTOv ivL TpoirjL jepa Trea-ae/xev, 6(f)pa iSrjTat, 

i] pd Ti ol p^' yfiel^; TrpocrafjLvvofiev rje koI ovkl' 

o<? Kol vvv ^K'^iXria, eo ixe<y dp^eivova (pcora, 

riripL7]aev' ekwv yap e'^et 'yepa<;, avTO<; dirovpa'^. 240 

aXka p,dX ovK A'^lXtjC '^o\o<i (fypeaiv, dWd fiedrjficov 

Tj yap dv, ^ArpecST], vvv varara Xco/Stjaaco.' 

CO? (fydro veLKetwv ^ A.y a fxefjiv ova iroijxkva \awv 
©epcrtT?;?* Twi 8' oiica irapiararo Slo<; 'OSvcraeixi, 
Kai fXLv vTToSpa I8u>v -^aXeTrcot i^vLiraTre fivOwf 245 

" ^epcrtT uKpiTO/jivOe, Xiyv^; irep iu>v dyoprjr^^;, 
icr^eo, prjS' edeX' olo<; ipc^efievac jBaaCKevacv. 
ov yap iyoi aeo (fyij/xl -yepeiorepov /SpoTov dWov 
efXfievai, ocrcroi dfi ^ArpetSijc^; vtto ^'YKvov rfkOov. 
T(o OVK dv I3acn\r}a<i dvd cnopb e^cov dyopevot<i, 250 

236. T6u'bi t' J. 237. CNl : *n S. 238. y' om. G. || OUKI 5cd toO k, 

ov Sia Tou X (oi^xO -'^i- 239. ^oO Zen. 245. H]NOinan£ Pap. a. 249. 

drpeidH PQ Pap. j3^. 250. aropcueic DQ {supr. oi). 

read tov 5' ia.ijiij.ev 
' to digest, gorge 

so>-t, M 213. It should be substituted for 
iXeyxeei in A 242, q.v. So to, d' eXiyx'^^'- 
wavTa XiXeLTTTai 12 260. 'Axaildec, oukct' 
'Axaioi = H 96, iniit. by Virgil, Aen. 
ix. 617 o verc Phrygiae, 7ieque enim 
Phryges. Thersites evidently regards 
the suggestion of a return to Greece as 
entirely his own ; after his attack on 
Agamemnon it would be absurd to con- 
clude with a proposal to do just what 
the king has himself ordered. 

236. oYKaSe nep, ' let us have nothing 
short of return home ' (Monro H. G. § 
353). T6Nae 5' ^(2)ueN : 
(P. Knight). 

237. repa necceucN, 
himself on, meeds of honour,' enjoy 
them by himself. Cf. A 81. 

238. oi x' HueTc, i. e. Kai. Some read di 
X (i.e. /v-e). But npocauuNOUCN must be 
the pres. iudic. ; if it were aor. subj. it 
would mean ' if we shall help him,' a 
sense clearly precluded by the nature of 
Thersites' proposition. There is no clear 
case of Ke with pres. indie, in H. kqI 
must be taken closely with hucTc, we 
also of the common sort, as well as great 
chiefs like Achilles. So 9 111 daerai, d 
Kai i/xbv dopv jualverai.. The second Kai is 
that commonly used to give emphasis to 
•one of two alternatives in an indirect 
disjunctive question, e.g. 300. On the 
.question of crasis or elision see Z 260 

241. JudXa goes with ovk, as in Germ. 
gar nicht. These two lines are an ob- 
vious allusion to the dispute in the 
assembly, Achilles' very words being 
quoted, tovto irpbs to dreXh ttjs ^/.cpovX- 
Kias (pTjalv, Schol. B. It has been 
pointed out in the Introd. that the nOn 
in 242 is meaningless as the speech now 
stands, spoken at a long interval after 
the quarrel of the kings. 

245. HNfnane, a strange reduplication, 
like TjpvKaKe. The subst. iuiwri is common, 
but the pres. eviirTco is doubtful ; see T 
438, fi 768, where van L. {jEnch. p. 480) 
would read ^i>iaae, evLcraoi.. On the 
cognate evivnre see H. G. p. 397. 

246. ^KpiTOJUuee : see 796 aid toi fivdoi 
(piXoL aKpiToL daiv, 6 505 &KpiTa irbXX' 
dydpevov. The latter passage shews 
that the word means indiscriminate, in- 
consistent, rather than countless ; a sense 
which it would not be easy to derive 
from Kpivio. So aKpLTOfivdoL oveipoi, r 
560, hard to he discerned, dxe &KpiTa 
(r 412, il 91), dKpcTov TrevdrifievaL {<r 174, 
T 120), of grief which is not brought to 
a determination, endless ; aKpiT6(pvXXos B 
868, with confused foliage. Xiruc is a 
word of praise (A 248) used ironically. 

248. X^P^^'OTepON virtually = xepe/oi'a. 
See A 80. 

250. oOk Sn dropeuoic, you may not 
(i.e. 7nust not) chatter with kings' names 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


Kal a(f)LV ovelhed re 7rpo(j>epoi^ voarov re cf)v\d(Taoi<i. 
ov8e Ti TTO) aa(^a Xhfiev, ottco'; ecrrai rdSe epya, 
i] ev rje KaKoSs' voari'jcroiJbev vle<i \j^aioiv. 
TOO vvv ^ATpeiSrji Ayafxefxpovi, TroifMevt \aoiV, 
rjarac oveiSl^cov, on oi fiuXa ttoWo, BiSovatv 
ijpwe'i ^avaoi' crv he Keprofxecov djopeveiii. 
dX)C CK TOi ipeco, to Be Kal rereXea/Mevov earac 
et K €Tt a d^palvovra KC^ijcrofxat, w? vv irep coSe, 

fjurjKeT eirecT 


ucn]t Kapi] M/jbocaiv eireLrj, 

251. npofepeic JP. ][ n6cton hk Pap. ,8. || 9uXdccHc J : 9u\dcceic (or -oic ?) P : 
<puXdTTOic C. 252-6 ad. Ar. 258. cY k' €TI Ar. .' : ei d' ^ti Zen. ? : eV k^ ti 

RU Harl. a : d xai ti PQS Par. c. || kixhcoucn Pap. jS^ : Kixeico Et. Mag. : 
Kixeiouai Ptol. Ask. 1] coc NU nep a>5€ Ar. 12 : tbc t6 ndpoc nep Siiiop. : licrepoN 
auTic Mass. : cn daNaoTciN Philemon. (The scholia on the line are corrupt and 
contradictor}^ : v. Ludw. ad loc. ) 

on yotir tongue ; so S 126, i; 135 
(^ironical courtesy,' H. G. § 300 /3 ; but 
practically it means 'you sha'n't'). 
Or we may take tCj as virtually a pro- 
tasis, 'if that were not so.' For the 
phrase cf. Eur. El. 80 Reel's e'xwi' dva 

251. npo9^poic, caM in their teeth, 
as r 64. n6cton 9uX<4ccoic, he on the 
watch for departure. The next two lines 
refer to this ; but they hardly seem in 
place here, and would come more suitably 
after 298. Lehrs would put 250-1 after 
264. Ar. rejected 252-6. The repeated 
Tw (250, 254) has all the appearance of 
a double version, such as we should 
expect if the speech has been displaced 
as suggested in the Introduction. If 
any lines are to be rejected, 250-3 
should go. 

255. Ar. objected against this line 
that Thersites was standing when he 
spoke (cf. 211-2), and therefore the word 
ficai could not be properly used. But 
it is frequently found with a participle 
in a weak sense, meaning no more than 
to ' keep on ' doing a thing ; e.g. A 134, 
B 137 ; see also A 412 (comp. with 366). 

258. Kixi^couai : fut. indie. The aor. 
subj. is Ki.xeiw (or -ijw), A 26. There 
are several other clear cases of the constr. 
in _H. (see H. G. § 326. 5). There is no 
serious ground for disputing k€ with fut. 
indie, except that it is not known in 
Attic ; and aor. subj. and fut. indie, are 
so closely connected both in form and 
sense in H. that the use with one tense 
almost inevitably implies that with the 
other. See note on X 66. By its 

nature ne is indeed particularly suitable 
for use with the fut. indie, in the very 
frequent case where a future contingency 
has to be expressed. The wonder is not 
that H. so uses k€, but that later Greek 
does not so use av. 

259. The apodosis here, as in E 212 
sqq., virtually consists of a whole con- 
ditional sentence, a second condition 
occurring to the mind of the speaker as 
he rhetorically expands the simple 
Xa/Sw:/ ae a.Trod6aw which would form the 
logical continuation. Teleniachos is 
mentioned in the II. only here and A 354, 
q.v. , in an equally curious phrase, o^x 
eavTwi. vvv dparac, dXXa tul iraidl. Kal 
icTTiv 7] fiev Trpu)Tr] Kardpa Kara tov 'OSfcr- 
cr^cos, 7] de Bevrepa Kara tov Tr]\efxdxov " 
ei yap aTroXoiTO 6 irais, oVKeri iraT-qp ecTTiv 
'OSvcraevs (Schol. A). It is possible that 
the origin of the expression may be more 
recondite, and lie in the strange but 
wide - spread use among savages of 
' paedonymics ' instead of patronymics. 
E.g. ' In Australia when a man's eldest 
child is named the father takes the 
name of the child, Kadlitpinna the 
father of Kadli ; the mother is called 
Kadlingangki, or mother of Kadli, from 
ngaoigki a female or woman. This 
custom seems very genei-al throughout 
the continent. In America we find the 
same habit . . In Sumatra the father 
in many parts of the country is dis- 
tinguished by the name of his first child, 
and loses, in this acquired, his own 
proper name . . The women never 
change the name given them at the time 
of their birth ; yet frequently they are 


lAIAAOC B (ii) 

firjB €Ti TrjXefxd^oto irarrip K€K\r]fxevo<i eirjv, 260 

et /jLTj eyco ae \a^o)v airo fx,€v (f)lXa e'i/u,ara Svaco, 
'^Xalvdv T TjSe '^troiva, rd r alSco ciixc^LKaKvinei,, 
avTov he Kkaiovra 6od<i eirl vrja<; dcf)i']aa> 
•7r€7r\7]ja)<; dyop'ijOev deoKecra-i irXriyr^Lcnv.^ 

6i<i dp €(fi7], aicr)7rTpwi he /Jberdcppevov rjSe Kol cofio) 265 
7r\i]^ev S' ISvcoO?], OaXepov Se ol eicrreae BaKpv. 
(7fi(b8i^ S ai/juaTO€craa /xeratppevov e^vTravearrj 
(TK7]7rrpov viro y^pvcreov o 8' dp^ el^ero Tdp/3r](riv re, 
d\'yi'}aa<i S', d'^petov IBcov, dTrofiop^aro BaKpv. 
ol Se Koi d'^vu/jievoL Trep eir avrwi rjBit <ye\aacrav' 270 

&Se Se Tt9 etTrecTKev IBoov e? ttXtjctlov dXkov 
" CO TTOTTOL, T) Si] jjbvpi 'OSucrcreu? ecrdXd eopye 
/3ovXd^ T e^dpyoiv d'ya6d<; iroXep.ov re Kopvaacov 

260. iXHbe. Ti HQ. [j THXejuidxou re G. 261. cr&jN Q. || diico L^. 262. 

TCI &' Pap. /3^ 264. nenXHrcbc : Tives nenXHrcoN Schol. B. || dropfiei G. || 

cieiKeXiHic R. 265. wuon J. 266. eaXepoN : 6\uk6n Zon. Lex. \\ cKncce : 
eK<pure Ar. 267. Ju.eTd9peNON Pap. jS^. 269. anouopzQTO ACJT^U : 6n- 

ejuopsaro O. 

called through courtesy, from their 
eldest child, "Ma si ano," the mother 
of such an one ; but rather as a polite 
description than a name.' — Lubbock 
Origin of Civilization p. 358. The same 
is the case among the Kaffirs (Theale 
Kaffir Folk- Lore p. 117). Odj^sseus 
thus means, ' may I lose my proudest 
title.' 'A\6ala. MeXeaypis (Ibycus, fr. 
14) is another instance of a paedonymic 
(quoted in Geddes Prob. of Ham. Poems 
p. 84 n. 5), but I am not aware of 
materials sufficient to prove that the 
custom was ever prevalent in Greece ; 
or that there are any relics there of the 
savage's reluctance, for fear of magic, to 
reveal his real name, with which it is 
not improbably connected. 

262. rd t' of course refers to x^aiva 
and x'''"'^'' ■• i*- cannot be trans. ' and 
that which,' as some have done, under- 
standing it to refer to some other articles 
of dress i/J-l-Tpr] ? or fcDjua ?). 

266. ea\ep6N, big ; apparently from 
the idea 'well-grown,' 'flourishing,' in 
which the word generally occurs (but 
always of men, their limbs, grief, and 
the like ; never in the most literal sense, 
of growing trees). 

269. axpeioN fScoN, ivifh helpless look ; 
a 163 dxpe'cc 6' eye\a<X(T€, 'she laughed 

an idle unmeaning laugh,' not being 
really gay. So here the word seems to 
imply a dazed ' silly ' expression, as 
though Thersites could not recover from 
the sudden shock and grasp the position. 
So Schol. B, aKaipuis vwo^\i\pas. For 
the use of iBcoN cf. vwodpa iSihv. Philetas 
absurdly read IbQv for ocpdaX/xQi/. The 
F is neglected ; dxpeia Bentley. 

270. The assembly are vexed to see 
themselves humiliated in their spokes- 
man's person, and to lose their hope of 
returning home ; but Odysseus has 
gained his point by getting the laugh 
on his side. 

271. For TIC as the 'public opinion' 
of Homer reference may be made to 
Gladstone J. M. p. 436. The passages 
are— r 297, 319 ; A 81, 85, 176 ; Z 459 
479 ; H 87, 178, 201, 300 ; P 414, 420 ; 
X 106, 372 ; /3 324 ; 5 769 ; f 275 ; 
Z19, ; K Z1 ; V IQ7 ; p 482 ; <t 72, 400 ; 
17 375 ; (^ 361, 396 ; i/' 148. 

273. csdpxeiN elsewhere in H. alM-ays, 
takes the gen. : 76010 S 51, etc., /xoXtt^s' 
2 606 [5 19], and in mid. KaKrjs i^-qpxero 
l3ov\^s n 339 (cf. also fi 721). The ace. 
depends no doubt on a reminiscence 
of the familiar /SouXas ^ovXe^eiv : the 
meaning is 'taking the lead in giving 
counsel,' whereas with the gen. it means 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


vvv Se ToBe fjiiy aptcrrov ev 'Apyeiotaci' epe^ev, 

o? TOP Xw^rjrfjpa eirea^oXov ea'^ dyopdcov. 276 

ov 6))v fJbiP TTuXiV avra dv/jcret, dvfio<; dyyjvcop 

V€iK€i€iv /3a(ri\^]a<i 6v€i8eioi<; eireecrcnv. 

w? (fxicrav 7) 7r\r]0v<i' dva 8e 7rTo\i7ropdo<i 'OSucrcrei/? 
ecTTT] (TKrjTTTpov e'^cow irapa he yXavKCOTri'i A6r]vr) 
elBo/jiiv7] K)]pvKi (TKOTrdv \abv dvcoyec, 280 

ft)? dfia 6^ ol TrpMTOL re koI vcrraroi ule? A'^acoiv 
/jiv0ov dKovaeiav koI iirccfypacraaiaTO j3ov\r]v. 
6 (T(j)ip eij (f)pov6(ov dyop7]aaTO Kol fieTeecTrev • 
" ^ATpeiSrj, vvv By] ere, dva^, i6e\ov(riv 'Ap^aiot 
irdcnv ekey^iarov Oefjuevai fiepoTrecraL ^porolcnv, 285 

274. T6be : t6 hk PR : T6h' au Bar. Harl. a. 275. dropeuwN J. 276. 

aueic CDQt Pap. /31. 278. 5e Vr. a and rives cq). Did. (Harl. a has bk in outer 
margin) : b' 6 Ar. fi. Ij nroXieepoc Q Pap. (S^. 281. wee* T Eton. || npcoxoi re 
(sic) P. 283. O Ar. O : oc GHQ Par. a e g h k and yp. J. 284. &H : rdp 

Ar. : hi J. 

rather ' beginning,' ' starting.' So Hymn 
xxvi. 18 i^dpxovaa x°po^'^i ^nd often in 
later Greek ; see Lex. We may compare 
bSbv Tiyrjaaadai, deOXovs roiis iireLp-qaavr' 
'OdvcTTJos 23, and other exx. in Monro 
H. O. § 136. 

275. For the order of the words cf. A 
11 : that insuUer, scurrilous that he is. 

276. t6 niv ndXiN is Tovwlcru] to de 
auTic xpovcKoi' €^ varipov, Schol. A. 
Aristarchos repeatedly insisted that 
TToXiv in H. never means ' a second 
time,' but always 'back again,' in the 
local sense ; but it requires some forcing 
to make the present passage consistent 
with the theory (e.g. 'his heart will 
not bring him back to the assembly '). 
There is no doubt that the temporal 
grew out of the local sense, through the 
idea of ' going back again ' to a former 
state of things ; and it is better to 
recognise in such phrases as this in- 
stances of the transitional use than to 
attempt to force an arbitrary rule on 
Homer. So tt 456 woXlv TroLTjae yipovra. 
an^Ncop may be ironical, as it is gener- 
ally a word of praise ; but as applied 
to Achilles in I 699, to Laomedon $ 
443, and perhaps to the suitors in the 
Odyssey, it may have conveyed a shade 
of blame. So schol., avdaS7]s v^piarijs 
Kai dpacrvs. 

278. nxoMnopeoc recurs in II. as an 
epithet of Odysseus only K 363. In 
Od. it is of coiirse common, in allusion 

to the capture of Troy by his cunning, 
see X 230 aTji 5' t^Xoj povXrji Ilpid/xov 
7r6\ts evpvdyvia. In II. it is frequently 
applied to Achilles, and once each to 
Enyo E 333, Oileus B 728, Otrynteus 
T 384, and Ares T 152. 

281. The e" is perhaps inserted to 
prevent hiatus ; which is ju'obably allow- 
able at the end of the first foot (see 
on 87), without the necessity of taking 
oi for the pron. Fol, with Nauck. If ^' 
is to be kept, Doderlein's explanation 
seems the most satisfactory, viz. that 
there is a confusion between a^a re 
TrpwTOt Kal vcrraTOi., and dfxa irpQiToi re koI 
V. : in other words, dixa has, as often, 
attracted a re into its neighbourhood 
from its proper place in the sentence, e.g. 
I 519, ^ 403 ; but the word is again 
repeated, just as we sometimes find dv 
occuring twice, once in its right place, 
and once following a word which it is 
desirable to emphasize. npc2»Toi and 
licraToi are used in a local sense, those 
in front and those behind. 

284. For nOn 5h Aristarchos seems to 
have read vvv yap, ^' 'idos de aurcDt (sc. 
'Ofji-qpioi.) dirb rod yap apx^ffdat." (e.g. H 
328, K 61, 424, ^ 156). In all other 
cases, however, the yap is either in a 
question or in an explanation by antici- 
pation {H. G. § 348, 2) ; it is far less 
natural here in a principal sentence. 
Piatt suggests 7' dp, but rap is more 
likely ; see on A 123. 


lAIAAOC B (ii) 

ovBe TOL eKTeXeovacv vTroa'^^ecrtv, tjv irep vTriarav 

iv$aS' €Tt crTeij(^ovr€^ air "Apyeo^ Itttto/Sotoio, 

' iXtov eKirepcravT evrei')(eov airoveeaOac. 

ft>9 re <yap rj 7raiBe<i veapol XVP^'' '^^ yvvatK€<; 

aWrj\oicnv oSvpovrai, OLKovSe vieaOai. 

7] firjv Kol irovo^ earlv avtrjOevra veeaOai. 

Kai <yap TL<i 6 k'va fxrjva fxevwv airo ri<i aXoyoio 

acryaXaai crvv vrj'i TroXv^vycot, ov irep aeXkat, 

')(^et/ji6pLai ecXecoatv opivofievrj re daXacraa' 

rifuv B etvaTO<; ecrrt TreptrpoTrewv ivcavro^ 



286. TOI : Ti CLS Bar. || hn : h Pap. ^. 287. iNe6bi tT P Lips. : ewedae 

re G : ^Nedd' ^nicTeixoNxec Q Cant. 292. e' om. G. 293. fiizurcoi Pap. /3i. || 
HNncp CGJ (7p. Sn) P2 (? also HNnep P™) S. 294. xeiuepioi Vr. c Lips. || 

iX^cociN At (elX^cociN A"! T.W.A.) Cant. : dXeociN PR: yp. <popea>ci H. 295. 

X' Aju.Tn b' Q. 

289. The H . . re of mss. is an ob- 
vious difficulty. Bentley proposed el 
for if, so that ios re yap ei = &s ei re : but 
Cos el are never separated in H. Nauck 
writes rivre ydp for ware yap ij, Ameis, 
after Bekker, 9j, as y 348 tos re rev ^ 
irapa irdfiirav dveifiovos 7j8i irevLXPOv, and 
T 109 ciis ri rev rj (BacnXrjos, in both which 
passages the mss. have ij, though it is 
clearly out of place (in the former 
passage mss. also have ije, not ijSi). 
But there does not seem to be any 
certain case of this use of ^ in a simile — 
where indeed so strongly affirmative a 
particle seems out of place. Still it is 
adopted in the text as an only resource, 
better than taking the sequence ij . . re 
as a very violent anacoluthon. 

290. For this pregnant use of ddupo- 
ixai cf. "*■ 75 6\o(pvpofx,ai. The iutin. 
N^eceai in fact stands in the place of 
the accus., found in e 153, v 379 vocttov 
odupeffdai, ;< 219 6 5' odvpero varpiSa 

291. The obvious sense of this line, 
if it stood alone, would be, ' Verily it 
is a trouble even to return home in 
grief.' But this does not cohere with 
■what follows, and the only interpreta- 
tion which really suits the sense is that 
given by Lehrs {Ar. p. 74), and probably 
by Aristarchos (who noted that irhvos 
is used in the true Homeric sense of 
labour, not grief): 'truly here is toil 
to make a man return disheartened.' ^ 
lxT]v Kai thus introduces an excuse, just 
as in I 57. The difficulty is the very 
bare use of the ace. and infin. with a 

violent change of subject. Lehrs com- 
pares ;3 284 0^5^ Ti 'icraaiv ddvarov Kai 
KTJ'pa pi,e\ai.vav | 6s drj ccpL (TX^^^v iariv, 
eir' 7J/iiaTL irdvTas oKeadai, a not very satis- 
factory parallel. Monro {Joiirn. Phil. 
xi. 129, H. G. § 233) adds ixoip' earlv 
dXij^ai, iipr] eiideiv, and other similar 
phrases, and we may add A 510, H 
239, and the infin. after rows, etc. ; but 
none are really quite parallel. Various 
emendations have been proposed ; the 
most attractive is van L.'s dvlrj r iv6^ 
dvexeadai. (after Mehler's dvirjOivr' dvexe- 
aOai, where the aor. part, will not do) ; 
for dvl-n cf. 7] 192, v 52, The only 
alterations are the interchange of and 
T and the insertion of x, and the cor- 
ruption is easily accounted for by vieadaL 
in the previous line. 

295. This line seems at first irreconcil- 
able with 134, where it is said that nine 
years of Zeus have passed. But it is to 
be noticed that the word used here is not 
the usual wepLirXo/xeuos or TrfpireWofievos, 
but nepiTponecoN, which is not elsewhere 
applied to the year. The word is to be 
explained not as the revolving year, but 
as the year on the ticrn, i.e. at the very 
point of changing from one year to 
another. Secondly, Prellwitz has shewn 
good reason for supposing that this is 
the primitive sense of iviavrbs, as being 
the moment at which the heavens are 
again evl avrwi, ' in the same position ' ; 
the word represents not a period but an 
epoch. And in the Gortynian inscr. 
ifiavrui actually means ' at the year's 
end.' Trepirpoiriui' is in fact to be con- 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


ivOdSe fjLt^vovTecrcri. tw ov ve/jL€crl^o/ji 'A^atou? 
da'^aXdav irapa vrjval Kopoyviacv dWa Kal efjLTnjfi 
alcT'^pop Toc Zrjpov re fxeveiv Keveov re veeadac. 
rXrjTe, (f)i\oc, Kal fjieivar iirl '^povov, 6(f)pa Saay/Jiev, 
rj ireov KaX^^a? fiavTeuerac rje Kal ovkL 
ev yap or] Tooe io/uuev evi (ppeacv, eare oe iravTe^ 
[xdprvpot, ov<i /uL7] KT]p€<i e^av davdroto (fyepovaac 
■^di^d re Kal Trpco'i^ ot e? AuXtSa vrje^; Ayatoiv 


297. napa NHUci KopcoNfciN : JufjuNONx' knX Niiecc' ? Zen. (jumN6NT€ccp ra 
■w\ri6vvTiKa 5vlkui^ e/c0^pwi' Ms. ). 299. Ini : cti Zen. |1 Xp6NON : \p6uov R {knl 

Xp6non Ri"). 300. ft Ar. A'R : ei fi {A. supr.). 302. udprupec Zen.: judp- 
Tupe Q. 303. ot' €C : Sre R. 

nected with Tpoir-fi, which from HesiocI 
onwards means the solstice. The sailing 
from Aulis must have been at the 
summer solstice ; the action of the Iliad 
is fixed as happening at the summer 
solstice exactly nine years afterwards. 
With this time of year, of course, the 
pestilence sent by Apollo well agrees. 
So the epoch of the Odyssey is clearly 
fixed to the winter solstice. Aischylos 
too, as Verrall has well observed, fixes the 
date of the Agamomio^i to the winter 
solstice {Agam. 817 and p. xli. note). 
Evidently either turn of the year is 
regarded as the proper moment for a 
great turn of fortune. Aischylos places 
the fall of Troy at the (cosmical) 'setting 
of the Pleiades ' late in October, four 
months after the opening of the Iliad. 

299. ln\ xp<5non, as n 407, ^ 193, o 
494, etc. Zenod. in, " awiOdvws" (Schol. 
A). 3aciiueN : a non-Homeric form for 
Saeiofxev. Brandreth conj. Fidwfiev, and 
so van L. 

300. The choice between el and H 
in the first clause of subordinate dis- 
junctive questions is not easy. Generally 
speaking, MS. authority is for el and Ar. 
for if. In a few cases (e.g. a 175, v 
95, T 525) 7]€ is fixed by metre, or one 
would be inclined always to write el as 
in single clauses. The ambiguity prob- 
ably dates from the earliest days of the 
written poems. Cf. H. G. § 341. 

302. This is the only clear case in H. 
of the use of juh for oi) in a 'quasi-condi- 
tional ' relative clause with the indie. 
Cf. 143, 338, H 236, S 363 {H. G. § 
359). The Kppec, ace. to Rohde, are the 
demons, originally themselves ghosts, 

who hover about the earth to carry off 
the spirits of the departing to Hades, 
The cult of the dead had its origin in 
the wish to appease this malignant 

303. X6'z<i Te Kai npcoVzd : a pro- 
verbial expression, more common in the 
form irpdiTju re Kal x^^s, as in Hdt. ii. 
53 /x^xP' 01' ■""p. T- K. x^^^j until very 
lately. So Ar. Itan. 726 and Plato. 
There are three leading explanations : 
(1) the principal verb is e(pa.v7) (308), 
but the construction of the sentence is 
virtually forgotten in the subordinate 
clause 6Ve . . (pipovcrai and the quasi- 
parenthetical ^/xels . . v8u)p, and is 
resumed by evda. In this case the 
phrase is used to make light of the long 
duration of the war, ' it is as it were but 
yesterday, when,' etc. Or (2) ^v is to 
be supplied after irpwtfct, 'it was a day 
or two after the fleets had begun to 
assemble in Aulis.' Nag. and Aut. 
support this at length, comparing y 
180 rerparov fjixap ^rju ot' iv "Apye'C vijai 
^icras I Tvdeidei!} 'irapoi Aiofxrjdeos itttto- 
ddfioLO I 'iaraaav, $ 81 ^ojs 5^ /xoi eariv j 
rfie dvudeKarrj 8t ei "IXiov elXrfKovda. 
The passages they quote for the omission 
of ^f are insufficient, for they are all in 
rel. or subord. clauses. (3) Lehrs, Ar. 
p. 366, takes x^- '''^ "'''■' irpoiC^d with 
vyep., transl. vix cum Aulida advecti 
eramus, turn (v. 308) portentum accidit. 
This is far the best ; the interpretation 
coincides with (2), ' when the ships had 
been gathering but a day or two in A.' 
This omen cannot fail to recall the 
famous portent of the eagles and the hare 
in Again. 115-20, told of the same place 
and time. 


lAIAAOC B (ii) 

':]y€pedovTO kukcl Upidficoi, kol Tpcoal (pepovaai' 

r)fiel<i S a/ji(f)l irepl Kpi]vr}v iepovi Kara /3(i)fxov<; 305 

ephojjbev ciOavdrotat T€\r]ecrcra<i €KaT0/x/3a<i, 

Ka\.r)i, vTTo TrKaraviarwi, oOev peev dyXaov vhcop' 

evd' €(pdv7] /j,eya arjixa' SpdKcov eVl vwra Ba(f)oivo<i, 

afjiepSaXeo<;, tov p avTO<i 'OXv/ATrto? r/Ke (pococrSe, 

/3(o/jiov uTrat^a? Trpo? pa TrXardvcarov opovaev. 310 

evOa 8' eaav arpovOolo veoaaoi, vyjina reKva, 

6^0)1 eV aKpoTdrcoi, 7reTd\ot<; v7roTre7rT7]a)T€<i, 

OKTco, drdp firjTrjp ivdrr] rjv, t) re/ce reKva. 

evd^ 6 <y€ Tot'9 iXeeLvd KaTr]adie TerpiyMra^' 

firjTTjp 8' dfi^eTTordro oSvpofjuevrf (f)i\a reKva' 315 

Tr]v 8' eXeXi^d/iievo'i Trrepvyo'^ XdjSev dfKpta'^VLav. 

avrdp eVel Kara reKv e<j)aye arpovdoLO Kal avrrjv, 

307. p€€N : NeeN Pap. /3^. 308. ^Nea q)dNH Mosc. 1. 309. TON p' : t^n 

3' PR Pap. /3 : t6n^ U. !| <}><icoc5e P' (cpococSe P') : 96ocae D. 311. ewe' ecoN 
CGQT. 314. TexpurcoTac JPR : rerpHrcoTac CT^ : xixizoNTac Zen. 315. 

aju9inoTaTO G. || 69up6jmeNa Pap. /3^. 316. 9' cXisdJueNOC Pap. /3. ii auq>ia- 
XoucQN Ambr.' 317. xexNa <pdre Mosc. 1. 

305. Not only was this spring shewn 
at Aulis in Pavisanias' day, but part of 
the plane-tree (307) was preserved as a 
relic in the temple of Artemis (ix. 19. 7). 

308. 3a - 90In6c : 5a- = fa-, for dia- 
intensive. (pomos, II 159, is apparently 
for (poPLos, gory, i.e. blood -red. Of. 
(polvLov ff 97, (poLvqeis M 202, (poifi^. 
Rendel Harris (ffo)neric Centones p. 4) 
has called attention to the curious echo 
of thi.s line in Rev. xii. 1, 3 Kal arjij-elov 
/jieya w(p0Tj iv tQil ovpavCoi . . Kal l5ov 
dpoLKWv fieyas iriippos, kt\. 

311. Observe how the word reKNa 
(and T€Ke) is repeated so as to give a sort 
of human pathos to the passage. Cf. M 
170, TT 217, and 9 248, H 265, P 133 
(r^Kos). Ni^nia especially emphasizes 
this association. Notice also the rimes, 
311-3-5 and 312-4. This phenomenon, 
though not rare in H., is so sporadic 
that we have no ground for supposing it 
to have been in any case intentional, even 
if it was consciously observed. 

312. OnonenTHcbTec, st. tttt;, as in 9 
136 KaTaTTTrjrTjv, the only form found 
beside the pf. part, (v 98, ^ 354), other 
parts being supplied from the secondary 
stem wT-q-K (TTTTjcrtrw). 

314. 4:\eeiNd, adv. with TerpiyuiTas, 
cheeping in piteous fashion. 

315. In the principal caesura the 
hiatus is ' licitus ' ; we do not therefore 
need Bentley's conj. dfxrpeTroTciT' o\o4>vpo- 

316. eXeXisduGNOc (the original eXt^d- 
fievos has survived in Pap. j3, though 
perhaps only by a blunder ; see A 530), 
'coiling himself up for the spring.' 
au9iaxuTaN : an anomalous form. We 
have a root fax, strong form Frix in Frixv, 
pres. stem idx<^ = FiFdxio. From this we 
may perhaps have a perf. part, without 
redupl. Faxvla, like iSv'ia {H. G. 
§ 23. 5). Schulze has ingeniously 
conj. an aor. (€)Faxov to explain the 
numerous cases where F is neglected, 
reading ixiya Fdxov, iwl 8^ Fdxov, em- 
Faxof for /j.iy' iaxov kt\. Of this aor. 
dfx(pL{F)axoua-ai', read by Ambr., would 
be the regular participle. The scholion 
of Herodianos on the accent of nrepuroc 
is characteristic : irapot^vrbvus. Kal 6 fj.€v 
Kavuv ^Aet irpoirapo^vrbvoj^, lis 5o18vkos. 
dX\' e7rei57j ovtws 8ok€l rovi^eiv run 
' ApiaTdpx<^'; Tr€i66/J.€6a avrCii cos Trdi'i; 
dpiffTLOi, ypafi/mariKQi. 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


rov fiev dt^i]\ov dfJKev deo^;, 09 Trep ecjirjve' 
\dav yap fxiv eOijKe K.p6vov Trat? dyKvXo/jiTjTeo)' 
rjfjiel'i S' ea-Taore^ Oav/jt,(i^o/j,€v, olov irv^^^drj. 
0)9 ovv Secva 7re\(opa Oeoiv ela)]\6^ €KaTOfji^a<i, 
KaA,^a9 S' avTLK eireira OeoTrpoirewv dyopeve' 
'tlttt^ avewi iyeveaOe, Kaprj Ko/xocovres A^atot ; 
r}/Mv jjuev roZ" e(fir]V€ r€pa<i jxeya fnjTlera Zeu9, 
oyjriijLov 6-\^ire\e(Trov, oov K\eo<i oh iror oXecrat. 
0)9 ovTO<; Kara reKV €(f)ay€ arpovdolo koI avTt]v, 
OKTco, drap fJii^rrip ivdrrj rjv, y) re/ce reKva, 
fo)9 rjfi,€L<i ToaaavT erea TTToXe/xi^o/jbev av9i, 



318. U€N : Jucr' Vr. b. i| ai'zHXoN Ar. (0. Luclw. ad lor.) Ambr.^ (dizHXoc 
a3H\oc Hesych. ) : 6€(zh\on Ap. Lex. : diaHXoN Et. Mag. : apizHXoN Q, : dpiSHXoN 
Zen. II ceHKEN Ambr.i || ojcnep Bar. Scliol. w? T 407. |i €9HNe : 'iheise Q. 319 
dd. Ar. (An. says the line was added by Zen.). 320 om. TK 322. 5' om. 

GST. II eeonponscoN T^ {i in ras. T^) : eeonpenecoN Pap. ^^. 324. U€N : ju^n 

Pap. ;S'. 325. on/iTeXeuTON Vr. b. || 8 ou (with hyphen) A (T.W.A.): o ou (?) Q. 
326. tekn' e9are ii (t^knq G) : t^kno qi&re Ar. (?). 328. toccqOt' : re 

TocaOx' GRS : TocaOx' C^l)QT\ || nToXeulzojucN Z>U : noXeuisojueN C^QTi : 
noXeuizoueN JPR Lips. Vr. a. 

318. dtzHXoN, 6Vt (sc. Ar. marked the 
line with the SlttX^ irepieaTiy/xivr], because) 
Z'qv65oTos ypdcpei. dplbrjXov koI tov 
ix^iiJ'-evov (the next line) Trpoa^drjKev. to 
yap dpL8y)\ov dyav ifxcpaves, owep dirLdavov. 
6 yap edv irXdarji tovto dvaipei (i.e. what- 
soever a god creates, that he brings to 
naught again. But there seems to be 
some lacuna in the quotation). Xiyei 
, fji^vTOc ye OTL 6 (prjvas avrbv debs Kal &8rf\ov 
'■\iTroLrjaev, Ar. It seems clear therefore 
( that Ar. read di'^riXov (or dWrjkov) ex- 
plaining invisible, and athetizing 319. 
diSijAos recui's several times in H. , but 
always in the sense destructive, which 
will not suit here. The best course 
seems therefore to read di^rfKov, as 
phonetically equivalent to dtd-qXov, but 
in a pass, sense, removed from sight 
{d'l^TjXos dcpavTos Et. Mag.). Cf. deideXa 
in the same sense, Hesiod, fr. 136 (of 
Autolykos the thief) 8ttl /ce xepo-i \d/3e- 
(TKev, deideXa iravra rldeffKev. Cic. , who 
translates 299-330 in Dir. ii. 30. 63, 
took the word in the same way — 

' Qui luci ediderat genitor Satuniius, idem 

Hinrichs suggests dtd-qXos = ever visible, 
at — dei as in d'iirdpdevos (Sappho), and 
often in Aeolic inscriptions. The sense 
is thus the same as with the alternative 

dpl'^rjXov, and would be 'god who created 
him made of him an evident sign,' which 
is comparatively weak. (Cf. however the 
fate of the Phaeacian ship, ;' 156 deivaL 
Xidov eyyvdi yaiijs i'tj'I dorji iKeXov, 'Iva 
Oavixd'^ijiatv diravTes. ) 

319. rejected by Ar., was known 
to Cicero, Abdidit, et duro firinavit 
tegmina saxo, and Ovid Met. xii. 23 Fit 
lapis et serva.t scrpentis imagine saxum. 

320. oToN here preceded by davfid'^ofxev 
shews the origin of the exclamatory use, 
e.g. H 455 o) TTOTToi, ivvoaiyai evpvadevis, 
olov Genres, where we must supply such 
a suppressed thought as ' the thing is 
marvellous, such as you have spoken.' 
See H. G. § 267. 3. The arguments 
there given seem decisive against the 
paratactic origin of these phrases. 

321. Cauer, with Cicero, puts a comma 
at the end of 320, and regards the line 
as an expansion of olov irvxOyi, ' hoiv the 
portent came in.' This, however, does not 
seem very Homeric ; but the connexion 
with 322 is also unsatisfactory as the 
text stands. Bekker and Nauck con- 
demn the line altogether. 

325. Sou : doubtless an error in tran- 
scription for 6'o, an intermediate form of 
the gen. which has disappeared froip 
Mss. but may often be restored with 


lAIAAOC B (ii) 

roii SeKarcot, 8e irdXiv alprjcro^ev eupudyviav. 
K6ivo<i T(W9 dyopeve- ra 8r) vvv Trdvra reXeirat. 
dW dye fil/jiveTe Trdpre^;, ivKvrjfiiSe^ A'^atoL, 
auTOv, et? 6 Kev dcrrv pueya TLpidfioco eXcofiev. 

609 €(f)aT, 'Apyeioi Be jxey la'^ov, d/x(f)l Se vrje^ 
(TfiepBdXeov Kovd/Srja-av dvadvrcov vir A'^aicop, 
fivOov e'TraivrjaavTe'i O8v(Tai]0<i deloto. 
rolat Be koX fxereetTre TepijvLO^; (ttttoto. ^earcop' 
" fo> TTOTToi, rj Br) Traialv e'ot/core? dyopdaade 
V7j7rtd^oi<i, ol? ov Ti pbe\ei iroXefjiyfia kpya. 
irrji Brj avvdecriai re Kal opKia ^rjaerat rjpZv ; 
ev TTvpl Br] /3ov\ai re yevoiaro pb-qBed r dvBpcov 




330. TOJC Ar. ? (The scholia are contradictory. A says 'Apia-rapxas dia toO t : 
Schol. TU give tcIoc to Herod., e' cic to Ar, ; the Et. Mag. and Anec. Ox. i. 234 give 
e' abc to Herod., t6cc' to Ar.) : 3' dbc R : e' cic Herod. ? fi. H &h : hk Q. 332. 
auToi H. 333. JuexiaxoN Pap. /3'. 334. KONdBiccaw J : KOwdBicaN Q. 335. 

enaiNec(c)aNTec P Pap. a (enaiNe[ ) : enaipHcaNTGC S. 337. Aropdacee Pap. ^^. 

339. Te om. S. 340. hk : bk G. 

confidence. So also in a 70, and cf. f-qs 
n 208. See lines 518, 731, and H. G. 

329. Tcoi : on this use of the article 
with numerals see H. G. § 260 c. 

330. Tcbc : cf. S 48, a 271, where MSS. 
are divided between rcis and 0' (is. The 
word recurs only V 415, r 234, but has 
very likely disappeared by corruption in 
other places ; cf. on A 418. 

332. The F of FeXwfxev is very doubt- 
ful in H. ; out of very many instances 
only one other (E 118) requires it and 
most reject it, though there is evidence 
for it from Elean inscriptions. Bentley 
conj. FaKd)7]i. 

335. For a participle belonging to the 
leading clause of a sentence, after a 
virtual parenthesis, we may perhaps 
compare A 153, where x"-^'^'^'- S7]i6ooi>t€$ 
seems to belong to Imreh S' iTTTTTjas in 151. 
But the construction is very awkward. 

336. ^ep^^Nloc is traditionally ex- 
plained as a local name from a river 
or town in Elis where Nestor was 
supposed to have been brought up when 
expelled for a time from Pylos. The 
story is attributed to Hesiod (fr. 34, 
35, Rzach), but Strabo p. 340 makes it 
clear that no ' Gerena ' or ' Gerenia ' was 
known to him, and that he regarded the 
supposed sites as fictions (cf. Paus. iii. 
26. 8, who identifies the Gerenia of his 

time with the Homeric Enope, I 150). 
The alternative which makes yeprjVLos 
only a lengthened form of yipoov is also 
known to the scholia. Another ex- 
planation, evTLf.Los, seems to imply a der. 
from yepas. The title is evidently so 
old that the real meaning of it had been 
lost in prehistoric times. Steph. Byz. 
mentions a village T^pr]v in Lesbos, named 
from Tip-qv Tov IlocreLSCivos, who may have 
had a place in the Neleid genealogy. 

337. For the long o of dropdacee 
cf. airovieadaL 113, 288, etc., adavaro^ 
306, etc., Svvafxevoio a 276, and other 
instances, which will be found enumerated 
and discussed in App. D. It is due to 
the ictus, and is confined to forms which 
would not otherwise suit the verse. 
dyopdop.aL occurs elsewhere in H. only 
in impf. and aor. 

338. For oi!i a later writer would prob- 
ably have used jxr;, but the only instance 
in H. of such a use of ^utj with the rel. is 
in line 302 (q.v.). ov shews that the 
claim is added as a general description 
of a class, while in 302 pi.ri is used to 
make an exception to what the speaker 
has already said {R. G. § 359). 

339. Cf. 286, Virgil Aen. iv. 426. For 
^N nupi cf. E 215. He means of course 
' all our oaths are so much useless 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


cTTTOvBai T aKprjTot Kol Serial, rji'i i'jreTriO/jLev' 
avT(o<; yap eVeecrcr' epcSaivo/iev, ovSi tl yu-^'/^o? 
eupefievuL Bvvd/jieaOa, irdXvv '^povov evOuK eovre-i. 
^ArpetSr}, <xv 8' e'^', ci)<? Trpiv, e')(wv darefKpea /3ov\t]v 
apyev ^Apyeioiac Kara Kparepd'i vafjLLva>i, 
TouaSe 8' ea (pOtvvdetv, eva koI hvo, tol Kev Aj^auoyv 
v6(Tcf)iv Bovkevodcr , dvvai<i 8' ovk eaaerat avrcov, 
irplv "ApiyoaS' levac, irplv Kol ^to^ acywy^oto 
yvu>/xevat et re -v^euSo? viroa'^eaa et re Kat ovkl. 
<f)7]fj,l yap ovv Karavevcrai vTrepfievea K.povLcova 
ripban rwi, ore vrjvalv ev ooKviropoLcriv e^aivov 
^Apyeloi TpdoeacTi (^ovov Kal Ktjpa (f)epovTe<i, 
daTpdiTToov eViSe^i , ivalat/jba cnifjuara ^aivcov. 



341. file : aTc GP. 342. rap PR : r<4p ^' 0. 344. &' ee' [A] : hi e' a | 
aueju.9^a P. 345. apreioiciN cin6 (pseudo-)Plut. 117. 40. 346. touc h' ea JQ. 
KCN : xxkn R (kcn R"'). 347. BouXeuccoc' L Vr. a b A : BouXeuouc' Eust. 

aCiToTc Vr. c (Lips. supr.). 348. aprocd' : aproc Pap. ^S^. 349. e'l T€ Koi 

Hk Kai PR. II oukJ Ar. (not oOxi). 351. CN A7)PQR : ^n* fi. 353. eNaiciJua 
aiN^ciua GR. || 9HN[ac Pap. j3^. 

341. ^KpHTOi, solemnised with un- 
mixed wine, as A 159. See, however, 
r 269, with note. Peppmiiller corij. 
aKpavTOL here and in A ; but the Homeric 
form is aKpdavTos. cnoN^ai here includes 
botli the literal meaning of ' liljation ' 
and the metaphorical ' ratification of 
agreement.' desiai : handclasping as the 
sign of a pledge is mentioned Z 233, 
4> 286. It is of course familiar in later 
Greek ; e.g. Se^tas (pepuv irapd twos, to 
bring a pledge from a man, Xen. Aii. ii. 
4. 1. dn^nieueN : for the rather rare 
non-thematic plpf. see IT. G. § 68. 

344. dcreuKp^a: see Curt. Et. no. 219; 
lit. ' not to be squeezed ' {(tt4/jL(Pv\ov — 
pressed olives), hence unflinching, im- 
movcMe, as V 219. 

345. dpxeiiciN : only here and E 200 
with dat., as apxeiv E 592, d 107, 
riyefjioveveLv B 816, y 386, etc., i]yei(r6ai 
A 71, X 101 ; always of 'shewing the 



T0uc9e, if the reading were 
would shew that Thersites is 
at, not, as some commentators 
have thought, Achilles and Patroklos, 
for it must indicate some who are 
present. • But we must read with P. 
Knight Toiis 5' ^ae (cf. on 165), and then 
the reference is clearly to Achilles and 

his friends ; Thersites cannot be said to 
take counsel v6<T(pLv ' Axo-lQiv. 

347. auTWN : it is hard to say whether 
thi.s is masc. or neut. (sc. ^ovXevfidruv or 
the like). avTos is so rarely used of things 
in H. that the presumption is in favour 
of the former, which we must then under- 
stand to mean ' there will be no fulfilment 
071 their part.' This clause is paren- 
thetical, Uvai. depending on povXevwcrL. 

349. eY TE . . eY tc : cf. note on 300. 
There is no authority here for rj re in the 
first clause ; and we have no right nor 
need to desert the tradition and write 
ij re . . 7j re (or rji) with Bekker, though 
there is no other clear case of eiVe . . eiVe 
in an indirect question. eiVe . . ovk is 
found even in Attic in similar cases, e.g. 
OTTWS idriis I etr' iv5ov etr' ovk 'ivSov 
!Soph. Aj. 7, where see Jebb's note. 
In the purely hypothetical statement of 
a fact {ei with indie, here iarl to be 
supplied) et ov seems to be the original 
and more natural construction, though 
it was afterwards superseded by et /utj by 
force of analogy. See note on A 160, 
and B. G. §§^316, 341. For the pre- 
dicative use of ij/eOdoc cf. I 115. 

353. dcrpdnxcoN : a very natural ana- 
coluthon, the thought in the speaker's 
mind being Kar^vevcre Kpoviwv. For the 



roi fxij TC<; irplv eiret'yecrOco olKovhe veeaOai, 

irpiv TLva Trap Tpcocov ako^oot KaraKoifirjdTjvat, 355 

TLaacrdat S' 'EXet'7;9 opfi/jfiard re arova'^d'? re. 

el Se Ti9 eKTrdyXo)^ eOeXet, oiKovBe veeadat, 

cnneadai r}^ V7]o<i evacrekpbOLO ixe\aiV7]<i, 

6(f>pa Trpoad' dWwv Odvarov koI iroTfxov iTriairrji. 

dWd, ava^, avro^ t iv fx-qheo ireideo t aWcoc 360 

ov TOt, aTTO^XrjTov e7ro<f eacrerat, ottI k€V elVw 

Kplv avSpa<i Kara <pv\a, Kara cfipr]Tpa<;, ^Aryd/xe/jLvov, 

355. nap : 
ouTi i'GHJP. 

nep Ar. 356. 5' : e' Pap. jS^. 357. ee^oi Vr. b. 361. 

362. <ppHTpac t" G : <pHTpac JQ Vr. A. 

sense of 4:ni3esia (rather than errl de^id, 
of. ivde^La) see on M 239. But Heyne 
rejected the line as made up from I 236 ; 
and the mention of such a vague omen 
is intolerably flat after the elaborate 
account in Odysseus' speech. When the 
line is omitted, Nestor also will refer to 
that portent. 

355. TiNQ, as though eKaarov, like 382, 
n 209, etc. 

356. A much disputed line. It is 
highly probable that Heyne is right in 
regarding it as interpolated here from 590, 
where the explanation is comparatively 
simple. The xwptfosTes of Aristarchos' 
time took it to mean 'Helen's searchings 
of heart and groanings,' and urged that 
this view of Helen's resistance to her 
abduction was peculiar to the 11. , while 
the poet of the Od. represented her as 
going willingly with Paris. Aristarchos 
replied, 6tl ovk eariv iir' avTTjs 6 \670s 
dX\ ' 'i^wdev ■trpbdeffi.v r7]v ' irepl ' SeZ 
\a^e7v, iv' Tjc 'wepi 'EXevijs.' The scholiast 
goes on, Kai 'earLv 6 \6yos, Ti/j,u}piav 
\a^eiv dvd' &v earevd^afj-ev Kai ifx.epLp.vrj- 
aa/xev irepl ''EiKivyjs- TrapaXenrrcKOS (fond 
of omitting) yap irpodeae^v eariv o 
Troir]Tris. Apart from the gratuitous 
insertion of the preposition there can 
be little doubt that this view is right, 
if the line is to be regarded as in place 
here at all. The sense is all the fighting 
and groaning about (caused by) Helen 
(not, of course, ' our (mental) struggles 
and groans ' of sympathy, as some have 
taken it). Whatever excuse might be 
found for Helen in the guile of Aphrodite, 
there can be no doubt that Homer repre- 
sents her as having deserted her husband 
voluntarily as far as the outward aspect 
of her action went ; and she could not 
therefore be regarded by the Greeks as 

a victim whose sufferings were to be 
avenged. The chief passages in H. are 
5 145, 260, r 164, 399 ff., [^p 218-24]. 
See also Mr. A. Lang's note to Helen 
of Troy. For the gen. compare axos 
7)vl6xolo, grief for the charioteer, 1 24, etc., 
axos aidev A 169, xo>^ov vlos 138, Trivdos 
Traidbs dTro(p6i.fji€voio 2 88, and others 
in H. G. § 147. 1. 6pjuHuaTa recurs 
only in 590 ; it evidently means the 
struggles of war, op/xdw and op/xdoixai 
being used chiefly of the rushes of close 
conflict. (In the alternative expl. we 
should compare bpixaivu, always used of 
mental eflbrt.) 

357. CKndrXcoc : cf. /3 327 'ierai alvus, 
a curious parallel to some expressions of 
modern slang. 

359. This line is a threat, 'let him 
so much as touch his ship, he shall im- 
mediately be slain before the face of the 
rest.' (The alternative explanation, 
' he will start homeward only to perish 
on the road sooner than the others,' is 
clearly inferior.) 

862. This tactical counsel, like the 
advice to build a wall round the ships in 
H 327-43 (q.v.), is singularly out of 
place in the last year of the war ; it is 
the first of many such didactic passages 
put into Nestor's mouth, and is meant 
at once to present him as the leading 
counsellor of the Greek army, and to 
introduce the coming Catalogue. For 
9pi4Tpac, clans, lit. brotherhoods, cf. I 63 
d<ppi)T(j}p : the word does not recur in H., 
but is only slightly disguised in the 
Attic (pparpia, and is used by Herod, 
i. 125, where, as here, some Mss. give 
the form (t>y)Tpy), perhaps by confusion 
with the Dor. Trdrpa. So in Attic 
(parpia has some support from gram- 
marians and late authorities (see Lex.). 

lAlAAOC B (ii) 


CO? (f)prjTpT] (f)p)}Tp7](f)iv dp/iyrji, cf)v\a Be (fiiiXoa. 

el Se Kev co? ep^rjL<i kul rot TreiOwvrai, 'A^atoi, 

yvcoarji €7rec6\ 6<; 6^ rjyefiovcov KaKO^ 09 re vv Xawv, 36i> 

•^8' 09 K ea6\o<i erjiai' Kara (T(^ea'i yap fia-^eovraf 

yvoicreai 8', el Kal deaireairii, itoXlv ouk a\a7ru^ei<i 

rj dvSpcbv KaKorrjTi koI dippaSirji iroXefioio. 

TOP 8' d7ra/j.ei^ofj,€vo<i 7rpoae(j>ri Kpelwv ^ Ayafjueixvcov 
" rj pLCtv avT dyoprji, viKdi<;, yepov, vlwi 'A^atwi/. 370 

at yap, Zev re Trdrep Kal ^ KOrivalrj Kal "AiroWov, 
ToiovToi SeKa fioi avfji(f>pd8/jiove'i eiev K'^aioiV 
TM Ke Tay^ r^ixvcreie 7r6\t<; IIptdp,oio dvaKTO<i 
yepalv vcf)' rj/xereprjccnv d\ov<Td re TTepOofjuevrj re. 

363. 9i4tph 9HTPH91N JQ Vr. A. 1! cipHrei D^PQS. 364. epseic PQR Vr. c. || 

Koi col G. il neieoNToi CZ'HPQRT Pap. (3^ Lips. Vr. b A, Eton. AIosc. l^. 366. 

8c t' Q. 11 JuaxeoNTo (,) : jmaxeoiNxo Scliol. ad A 368. 370. JUaN : inkN G : xxkN 
Par. y. II dropHi : apexfii Schol. ad B 350. 373. K€ : hk Pap. /3. 

There can, however, be no doubt of the 
connexion with /rater, etc. The word 
seems to be a relic of the patriarchal 
time when the family, not the tribe, 
was the unit. 

363. <ppHTpH9iN is evidently meant to 
be a pure dat. , an unexampled use of the 
term. -(piu. The only alternative is to take 
it, with MoUer, as an (ablat.) gen., cf. 
N 109 d/uLrjveii' vtjQjv, II 522 TratSos dfj.vv€i, 
etc., and then write <pv\wv for (pvXois. 
But as van L. remarks, we ought to hear 
that the object of the arrangement is not 
that clan may help clan, but that clan>t- 
man may help clansman. But all the 
military advice of which Nestor is the 
spokesman is strongly suggestive of 
Athens under Peisistratos, who claimed 
to be his descendant ; and here we seem 
to have an echo of the political re- 
organization so supremely important in 
the seventh century in Attica. 

365. After each 8c we must apparently 
supply K ^7)1(71 from the next line ; iari. 
would almost make Nestor call in 
question the existence of brave men 
while insisting on the presence of cowards 
(Ameis). rNcocHi : rather yi'u}ae'{ai), as 
the contraction is not Homeric. In 367 
Mss. all read yvwcreai with synizesis in 
place of contraction. Barnes omitted 
the 5' in 367, but it can hardly be dis- 
pensed with iinless we omit 365-6 as a 
doublet of 367-8. 

366. Karii c^eac : cf. fxaxoM" '^'^t' 
^/a' avTov eych A 271, 'they will fight 
each tribe on their oivn accoimt,' and so 

every man will have a motive for ambi- 
tion in the glory which will accrue to 
his tribe or family from success. Cf. 
' Quodque praecijiuum fortitudinis in- 
citamentum est, non casus neque fortuita 
couglobatio turmam aut cuneum facit, 
sed familiae et propinquitates,' Tac. 
Germ. 7 ; ' Batavi Transrhenanique, quo 
disci'eta virtus manifestius spectaretur, 
sibi quaeque gens consistunt,' Hist. iv. 

367. eccneciHi, a substantivized adj., 
like many others in H. ; afx^pocxLt] 
dvayKair) iOela Iffy) rpacpepi) vyp-q, and 
cases used as here adverbially, olvti^Ltjv 
dirpidr-qv (see A 99) d/j.(padiT]v (Ameis 
Anh. to a 97). There is no need to 
supply any ellipse. dXandneic : fut. in 
potential sense (cf. Z 71, N 260), or 
perhaps as taking up with some slight 
irony Agamemnon's despairing tone, ov 
yap €TL IpoiTji' aip7]<T0/j.€v evpvdyviav 141. 
Bekker's conj. dXa-Trd^eis is needless. 

371. This formula (also A 288, H 132, 
II 97, and several times in Od.) gives a 
typical instance of the similarity between 
' wishing-clauses,' followed by a para- 
tactic clause expressing the result, and 
regular conditional sentences ; 371-2 
stand independently as a wish, as the 
appeal to the gods and the parallel 
passages shew, but by putting a comma 
at the end of 372 we could treat them 
as the protasis of a regular conditional 
sentence. //. G. § 318. 

374. unb xepciN : this instrumental 
use of vTTo with dat. is developed from 


lAlAAOC B (ii) 

aWd jJLOt al'ylo'^o<; K.povlSrj'i Zeu? aXye' eScoKev, 375 

09 fMe fM€T airprjKTOV'i epiSa^ koX veLKea ^aXkei, 

Kol yap ijMv ^A^iXeix; re ^aa^ecrcra/xe^' eiveKa Kovpr]<i 

dvTL/3lot<i iireeaaiv, ejo) 8' rjp-^ov '^aXeiraivcov 

el 8e TTOT e? ye fxiav ^ovXevcrofxev, ovkct eireira 

Tpcocrlv dvd/3Xr]aL<; kukou eaaerai, ovB rj^aiov. 380 

vvv S' ep-^ecrd^ eirl SecTrvov, Xva ^uvdycofMev "Aprja. 

ev fxev TL<i Sopv Orj^daOoi, ev h dcnriha Oecrdco, 

ev he Td LTTTToiaiv heliTvov Soto) diKviroheaatv, 

ev Be Ti9 dp[xaTO<i <x/i<^i9 Ihcov 7roXe/u,oio fjuehearOoi, 

(y<? Ke 7rav7]/Jbepi0i arvyepcoi KpLvcofxeO' "ApjjL 385 

ov yap iravaoiXy'] ye fxerecrcrerai, ov8 rj^atov, 

el /jLTj vv^ eXOovaa StaKpiveet /ji€vo<; dvSpcov. 

ISpcoaei fxev rev reXafMobv dficj)! cnrj9e(j<^iv 

dairlSo'i dfji(f)i,/3p6r7j(;, irepl h ey')(el %eZ'pa KajxelraL' 

375. zeuc : Kpaxep' S. || ^bcoKCN : eeHKCN Pap. /3\ Eust. 376. JUCt' : kqt' 
J. II anpHKTOc S. 377. Juax€c(c)duee' fi : JuaxHcduee' Ar. 378. yaiKz- 

naiNeiN G. 383. WKunopoiciN Pap. /3^. 385. coc re Yr. a. || noNHixepioic 

Pap. j8. 388. CTHOec^iN ACHiP(jR Vr. b c, Mosc. 1 : CTHeecci(N) [i9G]J[S]TU 
Pap. jS, Ambr. 389. nepi : nap6 H. |1 X^i^P^ • X«^'P ^« U- (pa in ras.). 

the local by a transition which is quite 
easy in phrases like the present, where 
' subjection ' or ' falling prostrate ' is 
the leading idea ; in inrb dovpl rvn-eis, virb 
vovcTiOL (p6i(rdai (N 667), i^Trj'wt vwoyXvKepwi 
TapTrtb/xeda, the local sense almost fades 
away, but never quite disappears. Obs. 
dXoOca, aor. of the moment of capture ; 
nepeou^NH, pres. of a continuing state. 

376. dnpHKTOuc: fruitless, not condu- 
cing to any result ; cf. fi 524 ov yap tis 
TTpTj^is TriXerai Kpvepoio yboio, j3 79 dirpi)- 
KTovs (55iVas. 

379. jmiaN, sc. (SovXrif, to be supplied 
from the verb ; so f 435 tt]v iav, supply 
fjLoipav from diefxaipdro. 

380. H6ai6N occurs only in this phrase, 
and always at the end of a line, except 
t 462 iXdlivres S' -q^aibv dirb (jTveiov%. It 
would seem that some of the ancients 
preferred to write oi'5' ^ ^aibv or ov drj 
^aLov. The origin of the word and its 
relation to /3ai6s are quite uncertain. 

381. suNdrcoueN "Apna, committere 
praelimn; compare H 149, 448, II 764, 
for similar phrases. 

382. eececo, not here in the later sense 
of 'grounding arms,' but place ready, 
bestow well, as I 88 ridevro dopwa : so 

eS diffdai oTrXa, to keep armour in order, 
Xen. Cur. vi. 5. 3 ; eh drjpiv idevro 6irXa 
Epigram ap. Dem. 322. 6. 

384. djLJi9ic : so Mss. ; Bentley dpi(pi, 
which is, however, found with gen. in H. 
only n 825, 6 267. Monro H. G. § 184 
comp. Att. TrepiopQ/xai with gen. = to look 
round after, take thought about (Thuc. 
iv. 124), and also the gen. with dix(}>i- 
/j-dxeadai II 496, etc. dfi^ls with gen. 
appears elsewhere always in the sense 
'aside from.' 

385. KpiNcbueea, measure ov,r selves ; 
cf. the same root in de-cern-ere, cer-tamen. 
From the primary idea of separation (by 
sifting, etc.) conies that of two parties 
standing in opposition. So diaKpiNeci, 
imrt, 387 ; cf. 362, V 98, w 269 ixivos 
Kpivr]Tai"Apr]os, cr 264, w 507. 

387. Jui^Noc dNdpcoN, a periphrasis for 
' brave warriors, ' as n^vos 'AXkcvooio, etc. 

388. Teu virtually = fKaarov, at least 
for purposes of translation, as in 355. 
We must in the next line supply ns as 
subject to Ka/j.eLTai. This passage may 
be added to those in If. G. § 186, in 
which it is doubtful whether irepi is 
prep, or adv. { = exceedingly) ; cf. H 289. 
For ajuL9i6p6TH see App. B, 1, 2, 3. 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


iSpcocret Be rev itttto^ ev^oov apfia TLTaivwv. 
ov Se K iycDV airdvevde ^d'^r}<i edekovra vorjcro) 
/jiLfivd^eLi' irapa vtjvctc Kopcovicriv, ov oi erreira 
apKLOv eaaelrai (puyeecv Kvvwi 778' olcovovi. 

w? e(f)aT, ^Apyeloi Be fxey Xa'yov, co? oTe Kvpua 
aKTrji i(f) v-yjrrjXyi, ore Kivr](T7]i Noto? iXOcov, 
7rpo/3Xi]Tc cTKOTreXcot' toi> S' ov irore Kvfiara Xenrei 
iravTOiOiv dpe/jLcov, or civ evd^ i) evOa ykvwvTai. 
dvaTdvTe<i 8' opeovro K€BaaO€VT€<i Kara vrjaf, 
KdirvKTcrdv re Kara KXicrlwi koI Belirvov ekovro. 
dWa 3' dWcoL epe^e 6eMV aleiyeverdcov, 




391. bi K : a' Sn U Ambr. Vr. a. |1 kra Vr. a. || eeeXoNxa : nrcbccoNTa 
Aristot. Eth. JV. iii. 11. 393. h5' : 60&' Q. 395. kinhcci CHPQRT. 396. 
TON b' : 8n r'G. 397. rCNCONTai Ar. fi: t(;^^s r^NHxai Did. 398. QNCTaNTec 
Ar. il : ficcTdNTEC others. |! opeONTO : dpowNTO C : 6p6oNTO Cant. 1! CKeSace^Nxec 
Q. II Kara : i:n\ Eiist. 400. epese Vr. b. 

391. Nojicco : in sense ' perceive ' voelv 
takes a partic. ; 'to think over,' 're- 
member,' an infin. E 665, X 62, etc. 

393. SpKioN, ' there shall be nothing 
on which he can rely, nothing to give 
him any well-grounded hope of escaping 
the dogs and birds,' Buttm. Lex. pp. 
163-4, comparing 502 vuv apKiov 7) 
aTTokicrOat. \ -qe aaoidrjvaL. He deduces this 
sense from the verb dpKelu, through the 
sense 'sufficient,' 'able to help,' and 
thence ' that on which one can rely. ' 
So K 304 fiLadbs Si ol apKios 'iaraL, his 
reward shall be certain (see, however, note 
there). The passage of course means 
' he shall certainly be slain and left un- 

394. On wc ore without a finite verb 
see L. Lange EI ]ip. 134, 234, where it is 
compared with the similar use of ws el 
in similes. He argues that there is no 
need to supply any ellipse ; the fire is 
really indef. , 'as on a time,' and is, 
strictly speaking, superfluous. It seems 
more likely, however, that there is an 
unconscious ellipse ; see M. and T. § 475. 
The construction recurs A 462, M 132, 
N 471, 571, O 362, 679, H 406, S 219, 
^ 712, e 281, \ 368, r 494. For the 
simile itself cf. 144 and 209. 

397. 6n^ju.con : for this use of the gen. 
cf. V 99 dvefiwu dvcrarjcjov fiiya Kv/ma, A 305 
vicpea. dpyecrToio N6roto, and t 411 vovaov 
Alos, a sickness sent fro7n Zeus, p^ncon- 
xai : sc. dv€/jioi (but Ar. thought KVfjLara, 
and some actually wrote yivrjrat). 

400. Speze : the F is neglected as in 
T 150 apeKTOv, ^ 570 ipe^a^, w 458 

From here eleven consecutive lines 
have the trochaic caesura, which is 
commoner than the penthemimeral in H. 
(about 54 "5 per cent of the lines have it 
in II. and 58 per cent in Od., see Van 
L. Ench. p. 14 note), and was perhaps 
originally invariable. For the genesis 
of the Homeric hexameter reference 
may be made to a very interesting paper 
by F. A. Allen of Cincinnati, in Kiihn's 
Ztsch. xxiv. 558 (1879), where it and the 
Saturnian verse, as well as the typical 
old German measure, are traced back to 
a common origin still found as a metre 
in the Zend-Avesta. Another view is 
taken by Usener, A Ugriechischer Versbau. 
He takes the original form of the hexa- 
meter to have been a couplet of which 
the second half had an anacrusis, long 
or short — 

— \^\^ — v.^v^ — ^^ 

and of this doubtful length he holds 
that traces still remain in numerous 
cases of ' neglect of F ' and other irregu- 
larities after the trochaic caesura. But 
the evidence is not decisive enough to 
raise this above the level of an attractive 
hypothesis ; and it gives no explana- 
tion of the importance of the bucolic 


lAlAAOC B (ii) 

€v^6/ji€vo<; Odvarov re (fivyetv koI fioiKov "Aprjo^. 
avrap 6 jBovv iepevaev ava^ avSpcov ^ Arya/xe/xvcov 
TTiova irevrairripop vTrepfievei K^povlcovt, 
KiKXrjarKev 8e 'yepovrm api(TTrja<; Tiava'^aLOiv, 
^earopa fxev Trpcoriara koX ^ISo/juevrja avaKra, 
avrap eireir Kiavre ovco Kai Ivoeo^ viov, 
CKrov 8 avr OSvaija Ail fjLTjriv drdXavrov. 
avrofiarot; Se ol rj\de /Sorjv dja66<; Met-eXao?' 
•ijiSee <ydp Kara Ovfiov d8e\<p€ov, to? eiroveiro. 
/Sovv Se Trepiarrjaavro Kai ovXo'^vra'i dvekovro. 
rolatp 8' evj(op.evo^ fxere^rj Kpeucov AyafMefivoov 
" Zed Kvhiare /jueytare, KeXaLvecl)e<;, aWept vaiwv, 
fjbr} irplv eV rjeXiov Svvai Kai eVl Kvec})a<i ekOelv, 
irpiv p,e Kara nrprjve'i /3a\eei,v TlptdfjiOLO jxeXaOpov 
aWaXoev, irpriaai he irvpo'^ hrjtoio dvperpa, 




406. auo PQR. 407. h' om. D. || aue' C. 408. oi : re G. 409. Sus- 
pected ace. to Atli. p. 177. 412. ^v riai y^ypaTTTai zeO ndxep YQweeN uedecohr 
<;Ku9iCTe juencTO An. 415. npAcai : ev rah irXeiaTais 5ia rod X [i.e. nXficai], 
Kai ai 'Apiardpxov Did. |j eupcTpo : JueXaepa Pap. (i^. 

409. 6&eX9e6c is the only Homeric 
form (cf. E 21) ; so S^udpeoi', never 
d^vdpov (cf. however on T 152). 

410. nepicTHCONTO, so all ms.s. But 
the aor. mid. is always transitive in H. 
(see A 480, /3 431, etc.). 2 533, i 54 
{uT-rjadfievoi 5' e/jLaxovro /xaxri") are am- 
biguous, but no doubt are also trans., as 
Herod, also says crTrjaaa-dai ttoX^/jlovs. 
Hence Bekker conj. ■mplffTy^adp re, 
followed by most edd. ; so also in fx 356, 
cf. A 532. But possibly the word may 
have some old ritual significance now 
lost to us. ooXoxuTac, A 449. 

412. Ke\aiNe9ec, apparently for /ceXat- 
vove(prjs, god of the black doitd. The 
epithet is also applied to blood, dusky, 
the significance of the second element 
having been weakened — a phenomenon 
familiar in the Tragedians but very rare 
in H. 

413. I;nf, ' that the sun set not ujmu 
us,' a pregnant expression which is 
virtually an anticipation of the etti 
immediately following, and may be com- 
pared with Eph. iv. 26 6 ijXios jj-tj emdv^Too 
ivl tCol TrapopyKT/xQi vjxQv. See also 9 
487 Tpwcrii' fxev p d^Kovaiv ^8v (pdos. Some 
have, without necessity, conj. ^t' or y' 
in place of iw' : La R. thinks that the 
word was inserted when it was forgotten 

that irpiv was originally long by nature 
(Cretan Trpeiv, Brugm. Gr. ii. p. 406). 
For xxik with in fin. expressing a prayer 
see R. O. % 361. ix-fj appears funda- 
mentally to express the idea ' away with 
the thought that,' 'let us not suppose 
that,' and may thus be properly used 
with the infin. without the need of sup- 
plying any ellipse of 56s or the like. Cf. 
r 285, H 179, p 354, where the infin. 
expressing the mere thought indicates, 
by the form of interjectional utterance, 
a strong wish ; and also the use of the 
infin. as an imper. The idiom is common 
in later Gk., e.g. Aisch. Sept. 253 Si 
deol iroXiTai, fxri fie dovXeias rvxeiv, and 
other instances in 31. and T. § 785. 
(It is virtually a case of the use of ixrt 
without a finite verb, such as we find in 
A 295 and ore ^^="' except' ; see Lange 
EI p. 162 (468), where the key to the 
question is given.) 

415. nup6c : for this use of gen. see 
H. G. § 151 c, where it is classed as a 
' quasi - partitive ' use, as though the 
idea of material used implied a stock 
drawn upon ; so H 410 irvpbs fxeiXia-crefiev, 
7i 331 TTvpbs deprjrai. npflcai, A 481. 
9hToc with irvp, in the lit. sense blazing, 
conn, with daiw : so G 217 Trvp KrjXeou 
{Kalcj). See note on I 674. 

lAIAAOC B (ri) 81 

E/cTopeoi/ Se '^trayva irepl arijOeaat Sac^at 
'^oK.KML pcoyaXeov TroXee? S d/ji(p' avrov eraipoi 
'jrprjvee^ ev Kovirjicnv 68a^ Xal^oiaro jalav. ' 

609 €(f)aT , ov8^ iipa rrco ol eireKpaaive J^povlcov, 
a\X' 6 ye SeKTO fxev Ipd, ttovov 8' dfieyapTov 6(f)€W€v. 4'20 
aurap eirei p eu^avTO koI ovXo'^vTa^ Trpo/SdXovro, 
auepvaav fiev irpoira Kal €a(f)a^av Koi eheipav, 
fMTjpovi T e^erafxov Kara re kvlcttjl eKaXv-y^av 
BiTTTvy^a 7roL7]aavTe<;, eir avTcov B mfiodeTrjcrav. 
Kol TO, fiev ap a'^i^Tjtatv d^vWoiatv KareKaiov 425 

(Tirkdy^va S' dp dfiTreipavTe^; vTrelpe'^ov \i<^ai(noio. 
avrap eirei Kara fjurjp' eKdrj koL aifXdyyy lirdaavro, 
jiLarvWov r dpa TaWa Kal d/jL<f> ojSeXoiatv eireipav, 
WTTTtjadv re irepK^paheay'i epvaavro re TrdvTU. 
avrdp cTrel iravaavro irovov rervKovTO re Salra, 430 

SaivvvT, ovSe ri Ou/jLO<; eSevero Sairo^ eicrrj'i. 
avrdp iirel Troaco^ Kal eSrjTvo^i e^ ep v evro, 
Tot<? dpa fivdcop rjp-^e Tep7]VL0<i iTTiroTa Necrrcop • 
" Arpei'S?; KySiare, dva^ dvSpcov ^Aydfiefxvov, 
firjKeri vvv Br) ravra Xeydifxeda, jjbrjB^ ert Sr/pov 435 

416. adTsoN H. 419. eneKpdaiNe Pap. a : ^ncKpaaNC Pap. /3 : ^ncKpaiaiNc 
fJ. 420. o re : o de Q. |i noNON : 96NON Et. Gud. |l ajucraproN : aXiacxoN 
Ar. 421. npoBdXoNTO : oneXonto GS (cf. A 449). 422. auepucQN AG : 

aO ^pucQN fl : ciNepucaN J (cf. A 459). i| eSHpaN Q. 423. Te : bk Pap. jS^. || 

KNiccH(i) C/^PQR. 425. a9uXXHCi Q. || KareKHON J. 426. cnX^xNa P. || ^u- 
neipaNTec G Eust. 427. uPpa (Ptol. Jufipe) Kdw kqJ cnXdrxNa ndcuNxo Ar. 

(cf. A 464) II cnXdxN' P. 433. toTci bk S. 435. bk xaOra Zen. : dHeaura 

Pap. j3i : dfix' aijei CPHl: dwe' afiei Ar. il (Pap. /3-) : bk nun aSei Kallistratos : 
bk auei others. || unbe (uh bi) ti AHJQST. 

417. fxoraMoN, proleptic ; as 11 841 other shews that he is deliberately de- 

alfiaroevTa. But aFeaXdcN, 415, seems to ceiving Agamemnon, 

be a standing epithet of the hall ; see 421-4 = A 458-61 ; 427-32 = A 464- 

X 239. 69. 

419. The correct form ^ncKpdaiNe is 426. 'H9a(cToio = 7rup6j, as 'AfitpiTpiTr) 
preserved here by the papyri, and in =da.\aaaa fu. 97, ' A.(ppo5'nr] = evvq x 444, 
E 508 by P. Kpaiaii>u3 is a mere figment, "Apijs = TroXe/nos passim. Cf. I 468 
a supposed case of ' Ei)ic diectasis'; cf. 0X076$ 'H^i. 

aKpadvTov, K€KpdavTai. /fpatVw and Kpaaivo} 435. The reading of Zen. given in the 

are related as Kpdr- and Kpdar-, head ; cf. text is the only one consistent with 

dvo/xar-: ovofiaivoo (van L. Ench. p. 494). Homeric usage; cf. N 275, 292, T 244, 

420. Ar. read dXlatXTov as a X^^ts etc. Ar. explained the vulg. o-qd' adOi 
ifitpavTiKwrepa, but the litotes in duerap- thus : bneit ttoXiV x/'oi'dc, auei avrov, 
TON is thoroughly Homeric, cf. X 400. Xercoueea crwadpoi^ib/j-eda, 'let us not 
Hentze points out that elsewhere a god now long remain gathered here,' which 
either accepts the sacrifice and fulfils the is unsatisfactory enough, though it takes 
prayer, or refuses both. That Zeus account of the fact that Xeyecrdai is never 
should accept the one and deny the used absolutely in H. = <o co?i^-erse. The 



lAIAAOC B (ii) 

afi^aWco/jieOa epyov, o Brj ^eo? iyyvaXi^ec 
aXX' dye KrjpvKe<i fMev K-^aiSiv '^oXko'^ltcovcov 
\aov KTjpvaaovre'i ajetpovrcov Kara vrja^, 
Tjfiel'i S' aOpooi Sihe Kara crrparov evpvv A'^aicov 
Xofxev, 6(j)pd Ke Oacraov iyelpo/xev o^vv "Aprja. 

fo)9 e^ar , ouS' aTTiOrjaev dva^ avSpcov Ayafieixvcov 
avTLKa K7]pv/c€(Tai Xiyuipdo'y'yoiai Kekevae 
KTjpvacreiv TroXe/xovSe Kuprj KOfMO(i>vTa<i 'Ap^atou?. 
ol jxev eKijpvcraov, rol 8' rj^eipovro fxaX! SiKa. 
ol 8' a/i.^' ^Arpeioiva SiOTpe(f)6e<; ^aaikr}e<; 
dvvov KpivovTe<;, /juera Be yXavKcoTrL^; Adijvrj 
alylB^ e-yova ipiTifjiOV, dj7]paov dOavdrrjv re' 
rr}? eKarov Ovaavoi iray^pva-eoi rjepedovrat, 


436. IrruaMzei Ar. Aph. Ap. Rhod. A : ^rruaXfsei {supr. oi L) : ^rruaXfeHi 
Vr. a. 440. dreipoucN PRT. 442. K^Xeue GQ Vr. b\ 444. KHpuccoN S : 
cKHpuccaN Q. 447. firHpwN Ar. Aph. : arHpco t' PR. 448. Hep^eoNxo Zen. 
GHJQRST and A suiir. (T.W.A.). 

difficulty in the text, which led to the 
alteration and this sti'ained interpreta- 
tion, is obvious ; how can Nestor talk 
about ' continuing this conversation ' — 
for this the words must mean — when no 
conversation has been mentioned ? Epic 
practice forbids us to understand it of 
the conversation 'which had naturally- 
taken place at the table, though the poet 
does not mention it' (Buttmann). And 
though it is true that fi-rjK^TL does not 
necessarily imply that the conversation 
has begun (Gildersleeve in A. J. P. vii. 
p. 271), yet ravra clearly does so. The 
key to the whole crux is to be found in 
the fact, which seems obvious when 
pointed out, that the words of Nestor 
here really belong to his former speech, 
in place of 362-8, which are condemned 
on so many grounds, and that they 
have been displaced to make room for 
that awkward interpolation. The only 
question is whether we should simjjly 
replace 435-40 after 361, omitting the 
formal 434 and making some little altera- 
tion in 441, so that it may follow directly 
on 432, or whether 362-433 are not an 
interpolation altogether. Either alterna- 
tive seems admissible. 

447. For the aegis see also A 167, E 
738, 308, P 593 ; it clearly symbolizes 
the storm-cloud, and as such belongs 
properly to Zeus ; Apollo wields it 
318, 361, fi 20 ; Athene here, E 738, 
S 204, <t> 400. It is no doubt rightly 

explained by Reichel {Horn. Waffen, 
p. 69) as a Xaia-qiov or skin with the hair 
left on, whence the epithet dfjL(pidd<T€i.a, 
309, covered with hair. This skin 
shield is the primitive form, superseded 
in Homer for the heroes by the solid 
shield overlaid with metal, but still 
carried by the common folk. But from 
its antiquity it remains as the divine 
armour. There is no ground for sup- 
posing it to have been of metal, except 
that it is made by Hephaistos the smith 
in O 309. But the smith in his capacity 
of armourer may well have undertaken 
leather as well as metal work, and the 
mention of the golden tassels here and 
elsewhere in any case gives a reason for 
the intervention of the metal-worker. 
The dvaavot are presumably a fringe with 
pendants, serving at once to adorn the 
edge, where the hair alone would make 
it look ragged, and to protect it where 
it was most liable to wear. So a belt is 
finished off with tassels in S 181, These 
pendants developed later, under the in- 
iiuence of the Gorgoneion, into the snakes 
of Athene's aegis in classical art. ixrn- 
paoN and aeaNdxHN being co-ordinated 
by re are epexegetic of eplrifj-ov. 

448. i^ep^eoNTQi : so Ar. ; Zenod. -ovro. 
The present is quite in place in describ- 
ing the immortal gear of the gods ; 
see a striking instance in E 726-8 
compared witli 729. 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 83 

Trayre? ivirXeKee';, €KaTOfM/3oto<} Se eKacrro^' 

avv TYji 7rat(f)da(Tovaa StecrcrvTO \aov ^ Xyatoyv 450 

orpvvova levac iv Se aOevo^ wpaev eKacnaii 

KapSirji,, aWrjKTOv TroXefil^eiv ^Se fid^eadai. 

Tolcrc S d(j)ap TroXeytto? jXvklcov yever rie veeaOai 

iv VTjvcn <yKa(^vprjLCTL (ptXrjv e? TrarpCSa jatav. 

rjvre Trvp dthrfKov eTTLcfiXeyet daTrerov vXrjv 455 

ovpeo<i iv Kopv(f)i]i^, €Kadev he re (^aiverai avyrj, 
&)9 TO)v ip'^ofxevayv diro '^oXkov OeaTrealoio 
acyXr} Tra/iKpapocoaa Si aWepo^ ovpavov Ik€. 

T(ov S\ oj? t' opviOwv TrererjvMV eBvea iroXXd, 
'^Tjvwv rj yepdvQiv rj kvkvcov SovXi'^oSelpoyv, 460 

AcTiO) iv XeifjiMvt, J^avarplov dfx^l peedpa, 
€v6a Kol evda iroTcovTai dyaXXofxeva irrepvyecrai, 

451. ^KdcTOu (pseudo-)Plut. 136. 41. 452. icpaafHi CGPQRT. || SAnkton 

COGHJPQRU. 454. rXa9upoTci Q. 456. Kopu9fi G : Kopu9HCi Q : Kopu- 

<fa\c Par. d : ex Kopu9HC Vr. a. 1 9aiNeTO P. 457. tconQ' Vr. a. 458. nau- 

9aN6ecca H. || Akg H. 460. BoXuxoBeipcoN i}. 461. 6cico Ar. Ptol. Ask. 

Herod. : dcicoi CG. "462. neroNTai (pseudo-)Plut. 14. 38. || ara\X6ueNa 

Ar. AGHRS (swpr. ai) Harl. a, Eton.i Vr. b c A : draX\6juieNai CZ>JPQTU : 
draXXouQNai Pap. /3 : ucnq! [sic) A°^ (T.W.A.). 

450. nai9dccouca, dazzling, here and the characteristic use of Be re in similes 
E 803 only, perhaps by intensive re- (456 and 463) to introduce an additional 
duplication from a secondary form of touch, often, but not always, containing 
root (pa.-, (pav- (cf. Tn<pav<TKi.}). the tertium coviparationis. 

451. oxpuNouca, clearly not by words, 461. 'Acico: so Ar., who regarded it as 
but by her invisible presence and the the gen. of a proper name 'Aaias (for 
supernatural power of the aegis. 'Aaieu), said to have been a king of 

455-83. The accumulation of similes Lydia. So Herod, iv. 45 Kai tovtov /xiv 

has given much offence to critics, and fieraXafx^dvovTai rod ovvofxaros Av8oi, 

most edd. reject one or more. But each <pd/n€voi iirl 'AaUu tov Kotvos tov Mdvew 

is vivid and Homeric, and refers to a KeKXrjaeai. t7]v 'Aaiav. Virgil, on the 

particularly striking point in the aspect other hand, clearly read 'Atrtwt : 
of the Greek host, the gleam of their 

weapons (455-8), the clamour of their ^irTum' ^ °' volucres, et quae Asia 

advance (459-66), their countless number Dulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri.— 

(467-8), their multitudinous unrest Geor^r. i. 383. 

(469-73). Then follow two describing Ceu quondam nivei liquida inter nubila cycni 

the leaders in general and Agamemnon Cum sese e pastu referunt et longa canoros 

in particular. The effect is that of a ^'■^^^ Per coHa modos, sonat amnis et Asia 

majestic prologue, and would be greatly vnl^f^lxis.-Aen. vii. 699. 
enhanced if the direct action of the 

poem followed on immediately, and This is the only passage in the Biad 

were not interrupted by the Catalogue. indicating knowledge in detail of any 

The mention of the Trojans in 472 part of the coast of Asia Minor beyond 

particularly requires that the two armies the Troad. 

should be actually face to face. d'I'dHXoN, 462. araXXdjuewa, perhaps here in the 

lit. 'making invisible,' d<pavi^wv, i.e. primitive sense (root 7a\ to shine), 

destroying; cf. note on 318. 'preening themselves.' The variant 

456. For this use of eKoecN, where we dyaWd/xevai. would be perfectly good 

say '^0 a distance,' see II 634. Observe Greek but for the masc. irpoKaOi^ovTuv 

84 lAIAAOC B (ii) 

KXayjTjSov TrpoKaOi^ovrwv, a/xapayet Be re Xeifxoov, 

CO? T(ov eOvea iroWa veoiv arro kul KXiacacov 

e9 Trehiov irpo'^eovTO SKafidvSptov, avrap inro ^dcov 465 

afxepSaXeov Kovd/3c^€ ttoSmv avTMV re koI lttttwv. 

ecrrav 8' ev XeifMcbvc ^Ka/jbavSptcoi civdefioevrt, 

/jLvptoL, oaad re (f)vX\a koL dvdea <^iverai Mprjc. 

rjvre fivLacov dhtvdwv kdvea iroWa, 
at T€ Kara aTadfx,bv TroifMV^jlov rjkdaKovaiv 470 

&p7}i iv elapivrjL, ore re jXdyo'; dyyea Sevei, 
Toacroi eVl Tprwecrcrt Kdprj KOfiocovTe<i A'^aiol 
iv ireSiooc icrravTO ScappalcraL /jL€/jiacoTe'i. 

Tov<i B\ (0? t' atTToXta irXare alywv alirdXot dvSpe^ 
peta htaKpivcocnv, eirei /ce voficoi fiiyewcnv, 475 

c5<? TOV'i rjyefjbove'i hteKoafxeov ev6a Kal evOa 
va-fiLvrjvS' levai, fxerd Se Kpeiwv ^ KyapLepivwv, 
ofjifjcara Kal Ke^aXrjv tVeX.09 Ait repTTLKepavvwL, 
"Apei Se ^covrjv, crrepvov Be TIoaetBdcovi. 
r)VTe j3ov<i dye\'r](f)L puey^ ^'^0^09 eirXero TrdvTcov 480 

463. XeiJUCON : raTa ap. Did. (Ar. objected that the final short syllable 
weakened the sonnd of the line ; Schol. T.) 465. npoxeoNTO R (siqn: o). || 

KQJuu^NdpioN G J LT {post r as.) HslyI. a^, Lips. 466. KONdBHce S. 467. eNcroN 
Pap. /3\ II KauaNSpicoi C (post ras.) GPQT {post ras.) Harl. a\ Lips. .468. 90X0 
H. II reiNGTai copH A"^ (T.W.A.). II copHl : yp. fipi L {man. rec). 469. JuudooN 
P^T^U. 470. AXdcKOUCiN : iXdcKONxai Pap. /3. 471. OT€ re : Sre hk Pap. 

^ : re ore G : re om. HR. || 9euH PR. 475. SiaKpiNouciN GJ : diaKpiNecoci(N) 

PRU. 476. Toiic r' G. 477. ucJuie[iNHN Pap. a. 479. apeV re Harl. a. 

in the next line. noTc2)NTai : weTovTai 471 also recurs. Homer has another 

van L. striking simile of the fly in P 570. 

463. npoKOGizoNTCON, a pregnant ex- 47L It has been noted that this 

pression, ' keep settling ever forwards ' ; simile implies that only sheep's and 

the whole body moves forward by the goats' milk was used in Homeric, as in 

continual advance of single birds who modern Greece, cattle being employed 

keep settling in front of the rest. as beasts of draught ; and lurther, that 

cuapareT may here, as in the two other the milk was obtained only in the 

passages where it occurs (210, 'I' 199), be spring, the natural breeding - time of 

taken to refer either to bright light or wild animals, instead of all the year 

loud noise, but the latter is generally round by an artificial stimulating life, 

adopted, and suits the simile best. ^n was om. by Bentley because of the 

465. uno must go with ttoSc.^, the ^-^^ nXoT^a, because of the wide 

gen. indicating a transition from the g ^^^^ ^^,^^^^1^ ^j^ . g_ 

local to the causal meaning of the pre- 479^ ^^^„^^ fj^^ ^^^^-^^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ 

position. Cf. A 285 ttoSco^ vtto with T 234, the word is elsewhere used only of 

363 i^TTo TToaffiv. ^ woman's girdle. 

469. a^iNdcoN, busj/. See on 87. The 480. enXero : for this use of the aor. in 

simile indicates both the multitude of similes as virtually a present cf. H 4, 

the Greeks and their restless eagerness etc. ; and for 6oOc raOpoc cf. ads Kairpos, 

for their object ; cf. IT 641-3, where line I'pijf KipKos {v 86), 6pviOes aiyvwioi (H 59). 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 85 

ravpo'i' jcip re /3o€aat /jueraTrpeTrei ciypofiivrjLaL' 
rotov ap ^ ArpetSrjv OyjKe Zeu? rffjuarc KelvwL, 
€K7rp€7re ev iroWolat Kat e^o^ov ripcoecraLv. 

ecnrere vvv /xoc, fiovcrat ^OXvfiTria Scofiar e'^ovcrai, 
vfi€i'; yap Oeai ecne irdpecne re tcrre re irdvTa, 485 

?;/xet9 Se /cXeo? olov aKovojjbev ovSe n cSfiev, 
oX Tive'i yyefioveii Aavacov /cat Koipavoi rjaav. 
irXrjdvv 8' ovK av iyo) p,vdi]<TOfiai ouS' 6vo/iii]vco, 
ovS €i /xoc SeKa [xev yXoiaaac, SeKa Se aropbar elev, 
(j}Q)V7] S' dppTjKTO'i, '^akKeov Se p.oi rjrop iveirj, 490 

el jxrj 0\v/ji7r td8e<i /jiovaai, At09 alyw^oio 
Ovyarepe^, pLvrjaaiaO oaoi viro ' \\,lov rfK.0ov. 
dp^ov<i av vrjMV epeoy vP]d<; re Trpoirdcra^. 

481. drpou^NOici CGH-Q. 482. ap' : 5' H. 483. eCinpen^' S {siqn: eic). 
484. 7p. Kal eNcncTG dwb rod ^Nicnere Schol. T. |[ oXuunia Scouot' exOUCai : 
oXuunidBec 6aeuKoXnoi Zen. 485. ndpecxe Kai Yctg G : napflcre nves Au. 

487. Placed before 485 in HJ (the same order indicated by letters in Veu. B) : om. 
C. 489. eTcN : fiew Cram. Aii. Ox. iv. 318. 490. 9CONH t' Rekk. An. 771. 

21. It apHKTOC PQR. 493. cipxouc rdp au (}. 

483. It would hardly be possible in 488. For on with aor. subj. as apodosis 
Homeric language to join noXXoTci with to a clause containing d with opt. cf. 
HpcoGcciN : rather ' pre-eminent in the A 386, and the equivalent fut. indie, 
multitude and excellent amid warriors.' ea-a-elrai with ore /jltj ^^a/SdXoi, N 317 (so 

484. Scnexe : either a redupl. aor. for I 388, and other instances in M. and T. 
(je-air-eTe, or more probably for ev-cnr-eTe § 499). Possibly ixvO-qaofxai is fut. indie, 
(which some read, v. supra), root cxeir = and ovo/mrivw is independent of dv, as in 
sek, our say. The pres. ^vfewe^ivaewe, A 262 ovde idoj/mai. dv here seems to 
Lat. insece {virum mihi, Camcna, insece enforce the contrast, see H. G. § 276 i. 
mrsittum is Liv. Andr.'s translation of Virgil imitates the passage, G. ii, 42, 
a 1 dvdpd fioL ivveire, MoCo-a). The Aen. vi. 625. 

other aor. forms all take the full form of 

the prep. ivL-av-eiv, etc. Observe the 490. firop, Lat. animus, primarily of 
rime fiovaai — ^xoi"''"'- ndpecxe, either vitality, as here; then, as most com- 
'are present at all that happens,' or monly, of the passions. Though the 
'stand at the poet's side.' The Muses word ]>robably comes from aw ^0 Z*rea<Ac, 
are particularly appropriate in such a it would be quite against all Homeric 
place as this, for they are goddesses of use to understand it, as some comment- 
Memory (MoCcra = Movrja, root men ; ators have done, of the lungs, 
see Curt. Et. no. 429), though the 

legend which made them daughters of 492. UNHcafaro, made mention of, as 

Mnemosyne is post-Homeric. Cf. Virg. 5 118, 400. npondcac, all from end 

Aen. vii. 641. to end ; so Trpbtvav ^fiap, etc. 

BoicoTia ft KardXoroc nccon. 

The Catalogue of the Ships, as modern critics have almost unanimously- 
recognized, was not composed for its present place, but has been adapted to it. 
The phraseology throughout suggests a description of the assembling of the host 
in Aulis, such as ApoUonioS Rhodios gives at the opening of the Argojimiticd;, rather 
than a review of the army before Troy. Expressions such as Hye vijas, vees etrr:- 
xbwvTo, are out of place when used of ships which have for ten years been drawn 
up on land. When circumstances have changed, as witli Achilles, Philoktetes, 
Protesilaos, the adaptation to the Iliad is made in the most superticial manner. 
Moreover, the Catalogue does not agree with the Iliad in the names of heroes and 
tribes. Not merely do many tribes, cities, and heroes named in the Catalogue not 
reappear in the Iliad, while cities named in the Iliad (e.g. the whole list of I 
150-52) are not mentioned in the Catalogue ; but the whole perspective of the 
Catalogue is entirely different from that of the Iliad. Here Boiotia takes the first 
place, both in order and in the number of cities named ; elsewhere it hardly receives 
a passing notice. The Arkadians, never named again, here bring the large con- 
tingent of sixty ships ; and so with many other cases. But it has been pointed out 
by Niese that all the heroes named in the Catalogue played their parts in other 
portions of the Epic Cycle. The conclusion is that the Catalogue originally formed 
an introduction to the whole Cycle, and was composed for that portion ol' it which, 
as worked up into a separate poem, was called the Kypria, and related the beginning 
of the Tale of Troy, and the mustering of the fleet at Aulis. 

Another point essential to observe is that in the Catalogue alone the localization 
of the heroes is consistently carried out. Elsewhere in the Iliad they are heroes 
of Greece at large, not of particular towns, save as rare exceptions, notably 
Odysseus and Idomeneus. Agamemnon himself is only three times brought into 
connexion with Mykenai (H 180, I 44, A 46), Aias once with Salamis (H 199). 
Diomedes never has a kingdom at all, but is called an Aitolian, who has had to 
flee from his home. The whole Catalogue contains an appropriation to the difterent 
Creek states of the heroes of Troy. This can hanlly have been founded on old 
local tradition ; for it is noteworthy that few Trojan warriors received local honours 
in Greece proper ; Diomedes was worshipped in the cities of Italy, Achilles on the 
shores of the Black Sea. It would seem, therefore, that the partitioning was not 
carried out till after the early days of colonization. 

Moreover, it is clear that considerable difficulty was felt in the apportionment. 
Though Agamemnon is 'king of all Argos and many isles,' the realm of Diomedes 
is carved out of his kingdom of Argos and contains the chief island. Achilles 
receives only three towns, one of which (Trachis) is in Lokris, and should therefore 
belong to the Lokrian Aias ; another (Alos) is in the very middle of the towns 
ascribed to Protesilaos. The Phthians are followers of Philoktetes and Protesilaos, 
not of Achilles, in N 686-99 ; cf. B 695, 704, 727. So the towns given to Eurypylos 
(734 ff.) lie in the midst of those of Eumelos ; indeed, as Strabo notes with astonish- 
ment, the Fountain Hypereia given to Eurypylos lies inside the town of Pherai 
which belongs to Eumelos. Philoktetes has the towns in Magnesia, but the 
Magnetes, who are expressly located in the same district, come separately under 
Prothoos. So again the towns given to the Lapith Polypoites are all Perrhaibian, 
but the Perrhaibians appear separately under the leadership of Gouneus. All these 
difficulties, it will be seen, occur in Thessaly ; the rest of Greece is at least not 
discordant with itself, though the name and city of Eurytos of Oichalia are trans- 
ferred bodily from Thessaly to the Peloponnesos. So far as the Catalogue goes. 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 87 

therefore, appearances are decidedly against the theory wliich has lately found much 
support, thrtt all the heroes of the Iliad were originally Thessalian, and had been 
only at a later date s})read over all Greece ; it seems that it was precisely in 
Thessaly that there was least clear local tradition. 

It is impossible to discuss here the historical (juestions raised by all these 
perplexities. It must be sufllcient to point out that on the whole the author of 
the Catalogue studiously preserves an ante-Dorian standpoint. It is only in one 
or two slight indications that he betrays any knowledge of the change brought 
■ibout in Greece by the Dorian invasion. The clearest of these is the presence of 
the Herakleid Tlepolenios in Rhodes, with the characteristic three-fold division of 
his peoide. And Thucydides long ago pointed out the difficulty caused by the 
|)resence of the Boiotians in Boiotia ; for according to the legend they settled 
there only twenty years before the Dorian invasion, and sixty years after the fall 
of Troy. He concludes that an d-n-odaa/jids must have come in advance of the main 
body, and taken part in the Trojan war. 

it seems hojjeless with our present means to give even an approximate date 
for the composition of the Catalogue. There can be little doubt that some of 
the material at least is old, though in its present form it must have been 
worked over at a late date. For the unmistakable traces of Athenian influence see 
the Prolegomena. 

The canonical position held by the Catalogue in Greece in matters of inter-state 
law is best illustrated by the famous story alluded to by Aristotle {Rhet. xv.), that 
the possession of Salamis was disputed between Athens and Megara, and after a war 
was referred to the arbitration of Sparta. The Athenians urged in their pleadings 
the evidence of B 557-8 (ot fxkv olv iroWol rQn "ZbXwvi crwaywviaaffdai Xiyovcri ttjv 
'Ofiripov 86^av' i/x^aXovra yap avrbv ^iros eis vewv Karakoyov iirl ttj^ 81k7)S dvayvwvai' 
Alas de kt\. Pint. Solon x. 2). S(^hol. B adds other instances, saying that Abydos 
gained Sestos from Athens by quoting 1. 836, that Miletos gained Mykalesos from 
Priene by the aid of 868, and that Homer ' presented Kalydon to the Aitolians, in 
a dispute with the Aiolians, by mentioning it in the Aitolian Catalogtie ' (640). 
There seems to be no independent confirmation of any of these stories, however. 

It will be seen that the Catalogue is arranged on a sort of concentric system, 
the enumeration i)assing from Bointia NW. to Phokis, then E. to Euboia, S. to 
Attica, W. through the islands to Mykene and Sparta, Pylos, Arkadia, Elis, and 
the Western Islands and Aitolia. Then a fresh start is made with Crete, and a 
round is taken by Rhodes and the Sporades (no mention being made of the Cyclades) 
to Thessaly, which ends the list. 


BoicoTia H KOTaXoroc nccon. 

BotcoTMV fiev lLlr]ve\e(i}<i koX A.rj'iro'^ rjp'^ov 
^ApK€a[\ao<; re YlpoOorp^cop re KXovtO'i re, 495 

01 0' Tplrjv evefiovTO koI AuXiSa irerpijeaaav 
%'^olvov T€ 2tK0)\6v re iroXvKvrifxov t ^Erecovov, 
^eaTTCuav Vpalav re koI evpv^opov ^uKoXrjaaov, 
oi t' ap,(^ Ap^^ ivefiovTo koI Et'Xecrtoj' koX 'Fjpv6pa<i, 
01 T EiXecjv ei%oj^ r;S' ' T'Xrjv Kol YieTeSiva, 500 

flKaXerjv M.eSeMvd r , ivKriixevov irroXleOpov, 
}L(ti'Tra<i EvTpr}(Tiv re iroXvTprjpwvd re ^ia-/3rjv, 
OL re K.opoL)vetai' koI irou^evO' ' AXiaprov, 
OL re JlXdraiav e-^ov rjB o'l VXlaavr^ evefxovro, 
o\ 6 T7ro67]/3a<i el-^ov, evicrifxevov rrroXledpov, 505 

Oy-^ijarov 0^ iepov, Tlocnhrilov dyXabv dXao<i, 
OL re TToXvardcpvXov "Apvrjv e-^ov, o'l re yilSeiav 

494-877 om.Z>TU Pap. /3 (506-877 added in ^by later hand). 496. oY euplHN 
TLvis Sehol. A {v. Ludw.). 497. noXuKNHUON : noXuKpHUNON Bekk. An. 

865, 25. 498. eecneipoN P. I| eupuxwpoN GH.IP. 500. eixoN : <2okoun P. || 
qXhn J {yp. uXhn). 502. eicBHN : jueccHN Zen. : eecBHN P. 503. noii<€NT' 

aXlapTON PR. 505. 6n6 ewBac CJPR Strabo (and ol irXeiovs Eust. ). 506. 

aXcoc : Sctu Schol. Ap. Khod. iii. 1242. 507. apNHN : Hckphn Zen. : ^pioc 

rdpNHN ap. Strabo, p. 413. 

496. The available information about 505. 'TnooHBac, apparently meant for 

the following towns will be found in a lower Tliebe.s iu the plain, an offshoot 

Frazer's Pausanias vol. v., viz. : Hyria from the great city which we are to 

p. 68, Aulis 72, Skolos 21, Thespeia remind as still lying waste after its de- 

140, Mykalessos 66, Harma 62, Erythrai struction by the Epigoni. 

2, Eleon 65, Kopai 131, Thisbe 162, .506. For the grove of Poseidon at 

Koroneia 170, Haliartos 164, Plataia 8, Onchestos, and the curious customs 

Glisas 60, Onchestos 139, Ariie 208, connected with it, see iTywjw. ^jjoZ^. 230, 

Mideia 567, Anthedon 92, Aspledon 195, and Allen J.H.S. xvii. p. 247. 

Orchomeniis 180. 507. No Arne was known in Boiotia 

502. noXuTpi^pcoNo : Chandler was led in liistoiical times, the only known Arne 

to the discovery of the ruins of Thisbe being iu Thessaly. Sti'abo takes this to 

(near the coast of the Corintliian gulf) be the prehistoric name of Ptoon, 

by the number of pigeons which haunted Pausanias of Cliaironeia (Frazer v. 

them, as they do to this day (Frazer v. p. 208). Zen. read "AcKp-qv, but Ar. 

p. 162). objecteil that Hesiod's birthplace, x^^t^-"- 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 89 

^ladv T€ ^aderjv AvdrjSuva r ea^arooiaav 

TO)v fi€p irevri^Kovra vie<; klov, iu Se eKuarrji 

Kovpoi J^oiwTMV e/carov koI eiKoat /Satvov. 510 

01 S' ^Aa7r\i]Sova valov W Op-^ofievov l^ivveLov, 
Twv »}p%' AaKciXa^o^ Kol la\fievo<i, ute? 'ApT^o?, 
ov<i T€Kev ^Aarvo'^rj Sofifot "A/cropo? ^A^etSao, 
7rap6evo<; alSoir], virepdolov elaava/Bdaa, 

" Aprj'i Kparepcoi' o Se ol irapeXe^aro XcWprjc 515 

TOL<i 8e rpirjKOVTa j\a(f)vpal vee<; ecrTf^ooyvTO. 

avrap ^(oki]cov ^T^eS/o? Kal ^J^7rLcrTpo<f)0'i rjp'^oi', 
ftee<? 'I(j)iTov /Jicy a6v/xov Nav/3o\iBao, 
ot }^v7rdpiacrop e^ov UvOcovd re irerp'^ecrcrav 
l^ptcrdv re t^aOerjv Kal AavXiSa /cal Tlavorrrja, 520 

ol T Aveficopeiav Kal Td/xTroXLV d/xcpeve/jiovTO, 
oX r dpa Trap Trorafiov K.i](f)ia6v Stov evaiov, 
OL re AlXaiav e')(ov 7rr)<yr)t<i em K.7](f)iaoio' 
Tot9 8' dfia rearaapdKOVTa fieXaLvai vi)e<i eirovTO. 
ol fiev (i>(OK7]0)v (TTL'^a^; icrracrav a/x^teTroi^re?, 525 

BoLcoTMV S' e/jLTrXrjv eV dpccrrepa Owpr^craovro. 

508. nTcon : NiccQN HPS: Icon, KpeOcdiN, NucdN, <papdc re ■z.aeiacaiy. Strabo. 
511. acnXHaoN* ^nqion CGJQC/" Eton. Mosc. 1, Vr. b (-nXHSoN*). 512. TCON : 

TojNa' Cant. 516. ToTc Ar. 0: t<2)n A [supr. oic) HPRSC/. || rpidKONxa G. 

517. 9COKHCON and 9COKeicoN Ar. 5tx<^? : <pcoKHCON H {sap7\ ei over h). 518. 

uTec GS. il ai6oX'i9ao J {2Mst ras., yp. Nau6o\i9ao J™) : NauoXidao Bar. 520. 

KpiccaN P (second c inserted) QS Eust. || dauXida : rLvh tSiNaKpiaa Schol. Soph. 
0. T. 733. il naNOnfta : naNOnxicoN (?)Zen., cf^erpo;/ TTotuJcr^j'o-rtxoi' (An.). 521. 

TLvis dNEUcbXeiaN Strabo. 522. Qp R. || kh9icc6n PQK || eBaiNON L (PM corr. 

to ^nqion). 523. RHraTc G. || KH91CC0T0 PQf/ Strabo. 524. d' om. P. || 

TcccepdKONTO A : TeTxapdKONTa L. 525. gcxacaN CP (corr. from ^cracaN) S : 


KaK-f), dipei apyoKir], could not be called 'EpxoiJ.ev6s : cf. note on 605. Ares was 

Tro\varTd(pv\os. The Thessalian Arne was the tribal god of the great tribe of the 

the original home of the Boiotians, ace. Minyai, and hence the two chiefs claim 

to Thuc. i. 12. descent from him. 

508. ^cxaxococaN, as lying on the 514. aiaoiH, there was no dishonour in 

Euboic sea. No Nisa in Boiotia was the love of a god. Cmep. eicaN. goes with 

known in the classical period ; hence the t^ke in the sense conceived, as 742. 

conjectures recorded by Strabo. The Compare II 184. 

name suggests Nisaia, the port of 518. 'I<plTou : read 'Icplroo by a certain 

Megara ; this territory, not named restoration ; the second syllable of the 

elsewhere in the Catalogue, may once name is short, see P 806. For this 

have belonged to Boiotia. Cf. Paus. form of the gen. see H. G. § 98, and for 

i. 39. 5 TTji. TToXet Me7apa bvofia yeveadai, lengthening of the short vowel before 

Trpdrepov N/crat Ka\ov/j.iv7]i. initial fi, § 371. 

511. The territory of the Minyai was 519. Kyparissos, ace. to Paus. x. 36. 

afterwards part of Boiotia. For Orcho- 5 the later Antikyra. Pytho is of course 

menos see I 381. The local name was Delphi. For Krisa see Frazer Paus. 

90 lAIAAOC B (ii) 

AoKpMV S rjy€fiov€V€v ^0'iXrjo<i Ta')(v<i Am?, 
[xeidov, ov TL Tocro'i ye o(TO<i Te\afMa)Vt,o<; Ata?, 
aXka TToXv fxeioiv o\iyo<; fiev erjv, XtvoOcopT]^, 
iy^eirji B eKeKacrro TlaveWriva<; Koi ^ P^'^aiov^;' 530 

o? ^vvov T evefjbovT Oiroevrd re J^aWlapov re 
J^Tjcradv re SKcipcfirjv re Kol Avyeia'i ipaTeiva<i 
Tdp(f)7]v re %poviov re J^oaypiov d/ji(f)l peed pa' 
rojt 8' a/xa reaaapaKovra pbekaivat vr)e<i eirovro 
Ao/cpcdV, ot vaiovai ireprjv leprj^; ^^v^oirjf;. 535 

dt h ^^vjBoiav eyov fievea irveiovre'i "A^avre<;, 
^dXKiSa r J^lperpidv re 7ro\vcrrd<pv\ov 6 'Ycrr'taiav 
K.7jpLvdov r e^aXov Atou r alrrv rrroXieOpov, 
ol re }s.dpvcrrov e')(ov rjh^ ot %rvpa vacerdeaKov, 
roiv av6 yye/jLOvev K\e(f)7]V(op o^o'i "Aprjo<;, 540 

^aXK(johovrLdhrj<i, fxeyadvixoiv dp'^o^ ^A/Sdvrcov. 
rcot 8 dfi "A/3avre<i e'lrovro dooi, oiridev KO/ji6(ovre<;, 

527. oVXfioc Ar. fi : 6 'I\hoc Zen. G. 528 (i.e. 528-30) d0. Zen. 529-30 

dd. Ar. 529. JueizcoN H. 1[ XiNoecopas CG(,). 530. nONeWHNac : An' 

eWHNOC Scliol. Thuc. i. 3. 531. KiipwoN L. || oY xe kunon ^n. G. 532. BhcAn 

Zen. GPR Vr. b, Mosc. 1, Laud. : cBficcaN C Eton. 534. Tcoi : twn G. 535. 
nepHN : noXiN Q : nepoN G. 536-7. oY d' euBoiaN e'xoN kqJ x<^XKiaa t* 

elpexpiaN xe Strabo. 537. x^XkO' epexpeidN xe Steph. Byz. i| x' icxiaiaw A (e 
icxiaiaN A™, T.W.A.). 538. Kl^ple6N PQR. 539. NaierdeCKON QR : 

NOierdacKON ii. 540. xcon b' GO. 11 au G. 542. TCOI : xwn J. 

V. p. 459, Daulis 222, Panopeus 216, 535. nepHN, over against, as XaX/ct'Sos 

Hyampolis 442, Lilaia 410. -jripap Aisch. Ag. 190. It might, how- 

528-30 were rejected partly on account ever, mean ' beyond,' if we suppose that 

of the obvious tautology, partly because the poet's point of view is that of an 

of the word riaN^XXHNac, which implies Asiatic Greek. 

the later extension of the name of the 537. 'Icxiaiaw, trisyllable by synizesis, 

Thessalian "EXX?;!'es to all the Greeks. as Ai7ii7rTtas I 382, 5 83. Cf. 'lanaieijs 

XiNoecopHs, which recurs in 830, seems /x' dviO-qKev at the beginning of a hexa- 

to mean ' wearing a linen chiton instead meter in an inscr. from Delphi ; where, 

of a breastplate.' Paus. saw such linen however, we should naturally have 

'breastplates' at Olympia (vi. 19. 7) supposed that the diphthong is shortened 

and elsewhere (i. 21. 7, with Frazer's before the following vowel, as in olos 

note) ; cf. Alkaios, fr. 15. 5. Iphikrates N 275, yai-fioxos Hes. Theog. 15, etc. 

armed the Athenians with linen instead 540. 8zoc "Apwoc, commonly expl. 

of metal breastplates to make them scion of Ares, cf. ^pvo$ sproiit, thence 

more rapid in movement ; and this agrees child, Pind. and Trag. ; so Orjereida cifw 

with the character of light infantry and 'Ad-qvGiv Eur. Hcc. 125. But it is far 

bowmen which is attributed to the more probably explained by Schulze 

Lokrians in N 714, but is hardly con- {Q. E. p. 498) as companion, follower 

sistent with the praise of Aias the Less as {6- = S.fia, cf. on 765, -f- = (r5-, *sed, root 

a spearman; in N 712 he, as a hoplite, of 656s: cf. Hesych. o^da' Oepdireia, 

is separated from his followers. He does doi'oL- vTrrjp^Tai). 

nothing in actual battle to justify the 542. <5nieeN KOJui6coNxec : to. oTrlao) fiipTj 

praise in 530. t^s KecpaXrjs KOfxCovres dvdpeias x'^P'-^- '^Siov 



al'^rjrai, fxeixaMTe^i opeKrrjcaiv jjbekii^iat 

dwprjKa^ prj^etv hrjtwv dfi(f)l anjdecraf 

t6)l S' a/xa TeaaapuKovra /xeXaivat vrje^; eirovTO. 

dl 8 ap Kdr}va<^ €*%o^j ivKTifievov irroXUOpov, 
Sfj/j,ov 'Epep^^>}o9 ixe'^aXrjTopos, ov ttot Adr]V7] 
Ope-^e Atoii dvydrrjp, re/ce Se ^elSwpo'i dpovpa' 
KaS S' eV ^Kdrjvrit<i elcrev, ecoL evl ttlovl vrjMf 
evda he fitv ravpoicrc Kal dpv€toi<; IXdovrai 
KOvpOL ^Adrjvaicov TrepcreWofievcov evtavTMV 
Tcov av6^ Tjje/juovev uto? Herewo Me^ecr^eu?. 



543. 6peKToTci Q. 544. ecbpaKac P. || pi^cceiN Strabo. || CTHeec<pi(N) PR. 
549 ovi. Pap. a. || doHNH P : 6eHNaic G. || €Ni : dN ACHQS Eton. Laud. Vr. a b. || 
NHCO : Shjuico P {yp. nhc2)i) E : nqco U {supr. h). 550. iXdcKONxai P Vr. A : 

iXdoNTO S stqrr. 552. twn 5' CGJQ Eton. || afi G Eton. 

5^ TOVTO rri% TUP Ei'/3o^wv Kovpds, to 
6inadiv TCLS Tpixo-^ jiadeias ^xeif , Scliol. A. 
So of two Libyan tribes, ol /jl^v Mdx^ves 
TO, OTTtcrw Kofieovai ttjs Ke^aXyjs ol de Awe'es 
TO. ^/xvpoade, Herod, iv. 180. Compare 
Qprjl'Kes oLKpdKo/jLOL A 53.3 ; tlie Abantes 
themselves seem to have been a Thracian 
tribe, Strabo x. 445, Herod, i. 146. 
These seem all to indicate that part of 
the head was shaved according to a tribal 
fashion, such as is familiar to us in the 
case of the Chinese, whereas the usual 
Greek practice was to let the hair grow 
long all over ; the Kdpij Ko/mocovrei 'Axaioi 
being thus distinguished from many or 
most of their barbarian neighbours. 
Compare Sir A. Lyall's description of 
the Rajput chief, ' girt with sword and 
shield, and having the usual tail of 
clansmen with their whiskers knotted 
over the top of their heads . . as 
particular about his eponymous ancestor 
as if he were a Dorian Herakleid ' 
{Asiatic Studies p. 154). 

543. Strabo aptly refers to this line in 
connexion with the curious compact 
between Chalkis and Eretria in the 
Lelantine war, T7jXe/36Xois ij-t] xpvc^o-i- 

544. It seems necessary here to scan 
dHtooN as an anapaest ; otherwise the 
line is dwdeKacrvWajSos. See note on 
I 674. 

547. 9huon : here in the strict local 
sense, realm. It probably comes from 
root 5a- of 5atw and mt-ans the common 
land of the tribe apjicn-tioned for tillage 
among the tribesmen, as is still done 
in the Slavonic village communities ; 
cf. on M 422. So Nausithoos ebdaaar 

dpoijpas f 10. In a still earlier stage 
drj/xos indicates a yet more complete 
communism, meaning the common stock 
of what we should call ' personal ' 
property, e.g. t 197 Sri/j.ddev, A 704 es 
Sriixov, and P 250 orj/xios, A 231 drj/xo^opos, 
2 301 KaTadTjfio^opTjaaL. (Mangold in 
Curt. St. vi. 403-13.) 

548. TCKE — apoupa is of course paren- 
thetical — an allusion to Athenian 
autochthony — and 'AOrjVT] is the subject 
of elffe. The temples of Athene Polias 
and Erechtheus were always under one 
roof. So 7] 81, where Athene repairs to 
Athens, she duveu ^'EpexOvo^ irvKivhv dd/xoi'. 
This of course means that two different 
worships, one presumably pre-Hellenic, 
had been fused ; only the character of 
Athene and the pride of autochthony 
alike precluded the usual device by 
which the older hero or god was made 
the son of the Olympian. zeiQcopoc, 
the graingiver, from j'eid, not, of 
course, life - giving. nioNi, sc. with 

550. JuiN, Erechtheus ; for cows and 
ewes were offered to female goddesses. 
The festival where these offerings were 
made was the (annual) ' lesser Pan- 
athenaia,' in honour of the two founders 
of agriculture. This naturally finds 
mention in the poems whose final 
redaction it appears to have occasioned. 

552. rieTecoo, gen. of Jlerews, as S 489 
n-rjveXecoo. The three following lines 
were rejected by Zenodotos, as was 558 
by Aristarchos also, in obedience to the 
jiersistent tradition, evidently founded 
on truth (see Prolegomena), that they 


lAlAAOC B (ii) 

Tcoi S' ov TTM Ti9 o/LLolo<; CTTL'^doviO's jeveT avr]p 
Koa/j.i]aaL lttttov; re koI avepa<i acnriStcoTa^' 
NecTTwp olo^i ept^ev o yap irpoyevearepo^ rjev. 555 

ro)i 8' afia TreprijKovra fieXaivac vrj€<; eirovro. 

Ata? 8' GK Xa\apZvo<i ayev SvoKalSeKa vt]a<i' 
crrrjae 8' ayoiv Iv ^ Adrjvaicov '{aravTO (f)dXayy€<;. 

ot 8' "Ap709 T ei'^ov TlpvvOd re rei-^toeaaav, 
^piiiovrjv ^ K<TLV7]V T€ /3a6vv Kara koXttov ej^ovaa<i, 560 

553-5 ad. Zen. 553. 5' om. R. 554. Kocjuftcai e' PR. 555. N^CTCop 

&' L. 557. arCN duOKaideKO : rivis are TpiCKaiQeKa East. 558 om. AH^C/ 
Pap. a, Cant* Vr. b (Iletcrtcrrparos -rrapiypaipe tov arixov tovtov evravda, ocnrep ovk 
dpiaKei Toh KpiriKoh Par. a). || YcTaNTO : cthconto L. 560. epuidNHN t' PR. || 

dc'iHN Ccrtainen Hovi. et Hes. 282. 

were an Athenian 'interpolation.' They 
must, however, be regarded as an integral 
portion of our (Attic) text. Herodotos 
mentions them (vii. 161), and Aischines 
{Ktes. 185) quotes the inscription set up 
by the Atlienians in honour of the 
victory over the Persians at the Strymon, 
beginning — 

^K wore rfjade itoKtjos afi 'ArpeiSryicri 
rjyeiTO ^ddeov Tpwl'Kov dfx Trediov, 
6v TTod' "0/J.rjpos €(f>ri \avau)v irvKa 
Koa/JL7]Tr]pa fidxv^ e^oxou dvdpa fj-oXeiv. 

There can be little doubt that they have 
ousted an older version of this part of 
the Catalogue, in which the various 
independent denies of Attica, especially 
Eleusis, were mentioned by name. The 
praise given to iMenestheus in no way 
corresponds to the rest of the Iliad. In 
A 326-48 Agamemnon depreciates him, 
and he is named again only M 331, 373, 
N 195, 690, ' 331, always among 
secondary heroes. There seems to have 
been no genuine Attic legend about him 
at all. 

558. Here again criticism attacked 
the text at an early date (see Prolego- 
meim), and seems, from the number of 
Mss. which omit the line, to have 
affected the tradition inprae-Aristarchean 
times. But the text was certainly current 
in the time of Aristotle, who alludes 
{Ehet. i. 15) to the story about the 
arbitration with Megara, to which 
the line is essential. According to 
this, Solon and not Peisistratos must 
have produced the interpolation as 
existing in the already established text. 

But no doubt the whole story of the 
arbitration is a fiction, and the Athenians 
won Salarais. by force of arms. Strabo 
evidently doubts the tale (ix. 394), oi 
fxev odv 'AdyjvawL TOiavTTjv rtca ffKTjxpaffdai 
jxapTvplav Trap' 'OpLripov doKOucriv  oi 5e 
Meyapeis di/TLTraptoLd-rjaai avrols oiJrws' 

At'as 5' e/c 'EaXa/Mvos dyev veas €k re 


^K t' Aiyfipovaarjs ^iffairjs re TptTToSwj' re. 

It is evident from this that the Attic 
version had supplanted all others at an 
early date, and that the Megarians had 
no authentic version of their own, but 
could only suggest what might have 
stood here. The fact that tlie line can- 
not be original is j)atent from the fact 
that Aias in the rest of tlie Jliad is not 
encamjied next the Athenians, see A 327 
ff., N 681. Indeed, the way in which 
the great hero is dismissed in a couple 
of lilies, without even his father's name, 
sounds like a mocking cry of triumph 
from Athens over the conquest of the 
island of tlie Aiakidai. No line in the 
Iliad can be more confidently dated than 
this to the sixth century. 

559. TeixioeccQN: the 'Cyclopean' walls 
of Tiryns are as great a mat vel at the 
present day as in the time of Homer. 
But this is the only mention of the 
town in H. ; the fame of it must have 
died out long before the end of the 
Mykenaean epoch. 

560. KOTexoiicac, enfolding the deep 
(Saronic) gu/f. The word applies of 
course to the territories, not the cities. 
There is no sufficient analogy for taking 
^Xot'cras by itself as intrans. =lying. The 
Argive domain, viz. that centring in 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


TpoL^rjv' 'Htot'a? re kuI afxirekoevr ^FjTrtSavpov, 

oi T fc'%ov Aty ivav ^IdarjTa re Kovpot A-^aiMV, 

roiv avd' i)yefiuv€V6 j3oi]v d<ya6b<i AiofM7)ST]<; 

Kol '^deveko'i Ha'TravPjo'i dyaKXecrov (f)i\o<i vlo<i' 

TolcTi 8' dpi Fjupvd\.o<i rpLTaTO<; Kiev, IcroOeo'i (f)co<i, 565 

yirjKLareo)'; f/o? TakaiovlSao dvaKTos. 

(Tvp.7rdvT0)v S' I'jyeLTO jBorjv dyaOo^ Ato/xtyS?;?* 

Toiai S' dfi oyScoKOvra pueXaLvat vf]e<; eTrovro. 

Oi Se M.vK7]pa<; el'^ov, ivKrlpievov inokUOpov, 
d(f)V€L6v re }^6pivdov ivKTipL€va<i re KXe(ovd<i, 570 

'Opi/eta? T ivepiovTO ^Apai6vpei]v t eparetvrjv 
Kol %LKV(hv\ 60^ dp* "A8p7]a-ro<i irpoir epij3a<Ti\evev, 
oi 6 "Tirepiqa-iriv re kol aiTreivrjv Vovoeaaav 
UeWijvrjv r el'^ov, r]K Alytov d/x(f)evefiovro 

562. OI t' exON : nhc6n t' ajJ. Strabo p. 375, Cert. Rom. 284 and yp. J. 563. 
TMN 5' CGQ. II au G. || After this is added TuQeidwc ou narpbc e'xcoN ucnoc oiNcidao 
in Cert. Horn. 286. 565. eupunuXoc Cert. Hum. 288. 566. juhkict^oc [AG]J 
{sapr. co). 568. After this In b' aNdpec noXejuoio dawjuoNec ecnxocoNTo, apreToi 
XiNoecopHKec K^Nxpa nxoXejuioio Cerf. Horn. 292-3. 571. opNCidc : apNcidc J. || 
dpaieupcHN t' : t' om. JP : napaieup^HN t' Zen. 572. ciKudiNa PQR. || ap' 
om. PR. II a&pacToc GV^. \\ eSaciXeueN QRZ7: dBadXeuccN CGS : luBaciXeuccN 
J Lips. Vr. a. 573. CinepHceiHN GHJ Pap. o, Eton. Lips. : CrnepeiciHN Qf/ {siipr. 
h) : uneppaciHN Schol. Ap. Rhod. i. 176. || roNdeccQN : doNoeccaN ' before 
Peisistratos,' ace. to Pausanias vii. 26. 

the plain of Argos, is split into a western 
and an eastern half, to provide a king- 
dom for Diomedes, and the name "Apyos 
is evidently used of the city, which 
became known only in Dorian times, 
after the fall of Mykene. For the 
following towns see Frazer Paus. : Her- 
mione iii. 293, A.sine and Eionai iii. 299, 
Troizen iii. 273, Epidaoros iii. 259, 
Mabes iii. 298, Kleonai iii. 82, Orneai 
iii. 217, Araithyrea iii. 76, Sikyon iii. 
43, Hyptresia, identified with Aigira iv. 
176 (Gonoessa, see Pans. ii. 4. 4), Pellene 
iv. 181, Aigion iv. 159, Helike iv. 165. 

564. draKXeiToO, as one of the Seven 
against Thel>es, A 404-10. 

566. TaXaToNiSao, son of Talaos. This 
is one of a number of patronymics 
formed with a double termination ; 
another case of -twi' + i5r?s is 'laTrfrtoi/i'Sr/s 
(Hes.). Forms like HrfKri'CdSris, ^-qp-qTidSyts, 
etc., are quite similar ; they contain the 
sufF. -Lo- (which itself is capable of being 
used for a patronymic, as TeXafidivios Mas) 
+ d8r]s : cf. on A 1. For the double suffix 
compare KopLvB-La-Ko-s (Angermann C. 

St. i. 1). MHKicrecoc, 

See on A 489. 

i.e. M-qKicrTTJos. 

568. The second added line (v. supra) 
seems to come from a seventh century (?) 
oracle, given in Anth. Pal. 14. 73. Cf. 
note on 528. 

570. Ar. observed that when the poet 
speaks in his own name (here and N 664) 
he calls the city 'Corinth' ; bat puts in 
the mouth of the hero Glaukos the older 
name 'E(pvpr], Z 152. See, however, note 

572. npcoxa : Adrastos, originally a 
local god, had according to the legend 
been driven from Argos, and dwelt with 
his grandfather in Sikyon, where he 
gained the royal power, but afterwards 
he returned and reigned in Argos. The 
worship of Adrastos at Sikyon was 
vigorous in the time of Kleisthenes 
(Herod, v. 67), and is also found at 
Megara (Paus. i. 43. 1), but the legends 
all locate him at Argos. Sikyon (locally 
SeKi'UJj') seems to be a later name for 
the older MrjKCbvri (Hes. Tfieog. 536). 


lAIAAOC B (ii) 

AlyiaXov T ava irdvra Kol a/t^' 'FiXlktjv evpelav, 

TWi^ eKarov vrjMV VPX^ Kpeiwv ^ K<yajjieixvcov 

^ Krpethrj'i. ajxa tml ye ttoXv ifkelaroL kul apicTTOt 

Xaol eirovT' iv 8' avro'i eSvaero vcopoTra '^oX.kov 

KvSiocov, iracriv he fiereTrpeTrev rjpcoeaaiv, 

ovveK apicno<i er)v, ttoXv 8e 7r\eiarov<i aye \aov<i. 

01 8' elvov KOiXrjv AaKeSal/xova KijTcoecrcrav 
^apiv T€ 'SirdpTTqv re irdXvTprjpwvd re 'M.e(T(T7)v, 
Bpvaeia<i t ive/xovTo Kol Avyeia<; epareivd';, 
OL T ap 'A/jiVK\a<i el')(ov "EXo? t' e^aXov -TnoXiedpov, 
oX re Adav eiyov rjS' OtrvXov dpi(^evep.ovTO, 
TOiv ol aSeX^eo? ^p%6, ^or]v dya6o<i MeveXao^, 
e^7]K0VTa vewv dirdTepde he dcoprjcrcrovro. 
iv 8' avTO<i Kiev rJLcrt 7rpo6v/jiLr]iaL 7re7roi6d)'i, 
oTpvvcov TroXefjLovhe' /jidXiCTTa he lero OvfXMC 
Tiaaadai 'J^Xevi^i opfjuyfiard re crrova'^d'i re. 

oi he HvXov T eve/jbovTo koI 'Aprprjv epareivrjv 





578. e&uccTO Ar. AH : yp. [eau]cceTO J : eaiicaTO fi. 579-80 d.6. Zen. 

579. nSciN 5e Ar. (in one ed.) Zen.: Kai naci H Par. k: oti naci(N) fi. 581. 

TLv^s KaieT<ieccaN (Zen. ? v. Ludwich). 582. 9dpHN Gf/ (and to. TrXetoj rCov dv- 

Tiypdcpuv Eust.). II JueccHN : jugcthn U {supr. H iieccHN) : eicBHN Max. Tyr, 
583. Bupceiac GJ. || aureiac t' G. 585. o'lTuXoN : ftruXoN J : oY TiiXoN Tyrannio 
P (and yp. J) : oY TU90N R (9 in ras.). 

575. Aina\6N, the N. shore of Pelo- 
ponnese, afterwards called Achaia. twn 
is gen. after vrjici', ships of these folk. 

578. Ncbpona is found six times in II. 
and twice in Od. (w 467, 500), always as 
an epithet of xaX'coj'. It is generally in- 
terpreted gleaming, shining, but the 
derivation of the word is quite uncertain, 
and of many interpretations that have 
been proposed none is convincing. 

581. KoiXHN A. KHTcbeccaN, L. lying 
low among the rifted hills. K-qriheaaav 
perhaps refers to the numerous ravines 
wliich are characteristic of the Laconian 
mountains. There was another reading, 
attributed to Zen. by the scholiast on 
5 1, Kaierdecrcrau, which was explained 
to mean ' rich in Kaieros ' (said to be = 
KoXa/XLvdos, mint), but might equally 
mean 'full of clefts,' from Kaieroi {oi dwo 
tCiv a€La/j.Qv pwxp-oi, Strabo) ; cf. Kaiara 
= opvy/j-ara 7) rd inrb <TeL<jfxQiv Karappayevra 
Xwpta, Hes., and /catdSas, the gulf into 
which political criminals were cast at 
Sparta. See M. and R. on 5 1. 

587. Andxepee, i.e. Menelaos' contin- 

gent was independent of that ruled by 
his brother. For 590 see 356. The 
line, whatever be the interpretation of 
the gen. "EKiv-qs, is far more naturally 
used of the chief sufferer Menelaos than 
of the Greek army at large. 

591. The site of Nestor's Pylos was 
disputed from the earliest days between 
three cities of the name in W. Pelopon- 
nesos, one in Elis, one in Messenia (the 
modern Old Navarino), and one between 
the two in Triphylia. The present pas- 
sage, and the localities named in Nestor's 
narrative, A 670 ff., seem clearly in 
favour of the Triphylian, which lay 
near the Alpheios. So too the mention 
of Alpheios in E 545 points in the same 
direction. On the other hand, the 
journey of Telemachos and Peisistratos 
from Pylos to Sparta with Pherai as a 
halfway halt, in 7 485, 5 1, is only 
consistent with the Messenian Pylos ; 
and the epithet rj/xad6ei.s implies a 
situation on the sea-shore, while both 
the Elean and Triphylian towns were in 
hilly places. So again the legends of 

lAIAAOC B (ir) 



Koi K.V7rapi(rcrt]evra kul Afji(f)iyev€iav evatov 

Kal llTeXeov /cat ' l^Xo? Kat, Acoptov, kvdd re /xovaac 

(ivTOfxevac ^)dfjLvpiv top ^pi'fiKa iravcrav uoiSt]^;, 


592. llJiKTITON : luKTijucN* CG {.mpr. on) ; 
neXebN S. || ^Noa re G. 595. edjUUpiN : 

cOkticton VU: 
yp. auupiN J. 



the migration of the Minyan Neleus 
from Thcssaly all take him to Triphylia ; 
yet Pindar .speaks of him a.s 'Mecrffdvios 
■yepwv, and the Mes.seuiau site was clearly 
that generally accepted by the fifth 
century. It is natural to suppose that, 
so far as the legends may have a 
historical basis, the Triphylian Pylos 
was originally the home of Nestor, 
but that, in consequence perhaps of 
the Aitolian invasion, which took 
place in the W. Peloponnesos about 
the same time as the Dorian in the 
E. and supplanted the Epeians by the 
later Eleians, the Neleid clan were driven 
southward . out of Triphylia, and took 
with them their legends and local 
names to a new home in Messenia. Some 
hypothesis of the sort seems required to 
account for the frequency of duplicate 
names in the region. The Homeric 
poems then contain traces of both the 
older and newer state of things. See 
M. and R. on 7 4, K. 0. Mlilier 
Orchomenos pp. 357 ff. , Strabo viii. 
339 tf., where the problem is fully 
discussed. So far as they can be 
identified, all the towns here named are 
Triphylian, and Messenia is entirely 
ignored, unless with the scholia we 
take Messe (582), named among the 
towns of Lakonia, to mean Messene. 
But Pans. iii. 25. 9 testifies to a Messe 
near Tainaron, evidently the town here 
mentioned, though Strabo viii. 364 
seems not to know of it. Christ has 
suggested that the list of Messenian 
towns named in I 149-56 may come 
from a lost part of the Catalogue dealing 
with Messenia. For the remaining sites 
see Frazer : Arene iii. 481, AiVi/ (Aipeia) 
iii. 448, Kyparisseis iii. 462, Helos iii. 
380, Dorion iii. 445, Oichalia iii. 408. 

592. ©piioN, evidently the Qpv6e<j(ra 
TToXts of A 711. 

595. t6n ©phTko, that Thracian. 
Thamyris, like Orpheus, was one of the 
legendary Thracians who dwelt in Pieria 
at the foot of Olympos, and from whom 
the cultus of the Muses was said to come. 

In llhesos 921-25 the Muses speak of 
the time 

6t' ij\do/j.€v 7^s xpv'^^^^^o'^ f'^ XeVas 
Ildyyaioi' opydvoLaiv e^rjcrKrj/jLevaL 
Movcrai, fieyi<rr7)v eis ipLV pLeXcoidias 
SfLi'WL (TO<picrTfji QprjiKi. Ka.TV(p\waaiJ.ev 
Qd/jLvpii', 6s ijfj.Qi' TToW' idevvaaei' Te'x^Tjc. 

It will be noticed that the Ehesos places 
the scene of the meeting in Thrace, and 
beyond question the legend was origin- 
ally a northern one, transplanted south- 
wards, perhaps, in the course of the 
same tribal migrations which carried the 
name of Olympos from Thessaly to Elis. 
In 1. 730 below Eurytos and Oichalia 
are placed in Thessaly ; and there also, 
according to Steph. Byz., Hesiod made 
Thamyris at home, in Autlov, the Dotian 
{ilain, a name which bears a curious 
resemblance to Auipiov. Commentators 
have generally tried to save the con- 
sistency of the Catalogue by supposing 
that Thamyris was a wandering bard, 
who found himself at Dorion, far away 
from the Thessalian Oichalia, in the 
course of his travels southward. But, 
apart from the fact that Homer knows 
nothing of wandering minstrels, and 
tells us only of bards attached to a 
particular chieftain's court, there is 
clear evidence that the Oichalia legend, 
which played an important part in the 
later E})os, was localized in Peloponnesos 
as well as in Thessaly ; see <p 13 tf. (cf. 
d 224) and Pherekydes in the scholia on 
Soph. Track. 354. Pausanias iv. 2. 2 
says that the Messenians claimed, in 
proof that theirs was the real Oichalia, 
possession of the bones of Eurytos. 
There was, however, yet a third claimant, 
near Eretria in Euboia, which was 
generally recognized by later poets, the 
Oi'xaXi'a? "AXcocris attributed to Kreo- 
phylos, Soph. Track. 237 and Ap. 
Rhod. i. 87. We may therefore easily 
admit that the Catalogue recognizes two 
different localizations of the same legend, 
in preference to supposing, with Niese, 
that the compiler has fallen into a mere 


lAIAAOC B (ir) 

Ol-^aXirjOev lovra irap J^vpvTov Ol'^a\Lrjo<;- 
arevro yap evxofievo^ vcKijcrefMev, el irep av avral 
fiovaai detSoiev, Kovpac Ato? alycoyoio' 
al Se ■x^oXcocrdfievaL irripov Oeaav, avrap doiSrjv 
Oecrireairjv d^eXovro koI eKkeXaOov KiOapLcrrvv. 
TMv av6' rjjefioveve Tep7]vw<; iTTTrora Nearcop- 
TO)t o 6vevr]Kovra yXacpvpal yee? eaTcyocovro. 

o't 8 e^ov 'ApKaSlrjv vtto ^vXkrjviTi 6po<t alirv, 
AiTTVTCov irapd tv/u,^ov, %v dvepe^; dy^L/jia-^rjTai., 
o\ ^eveov r evefxovro kol 'Op-^ofievbv 7ro\vfM7]\ov 
'Viinqv re 2,rpaTi,r]v re koI r)ve[ji6ecr<Tav ^^vio-irrjv, 
Kol 'Yeyerjv el-^ov koX M.apTtve7]v ipareLvrjv, 
ZtTVfK^rfKov T ei^ov kol Ylappacrirjv evep^ovro, 
TOiv ^}/3%' AjKULOLO TTat? Kp€L(ov ^ Ayairiqvwp 
e^rJKOvra veow TroXie'i S' eV vtjI eKdarrji 
ApKdSe<i civSpa e/Baovov eirLardfievoi TroXefiil^eiv. 
avTo^ ydp (T(^lv ScoKev dva^ dv^poiv ^ Ayayik^vwv 




597. ^px^ueNoc C. 600. KieapicTHN GHJPQ?7 (S sitpr.) Vr. b, Mosc. 1. 

601. TcoN V CQ. !| au G. 602. Tcbi : toon S. 603. kuXXi^nhn S Vr. b. 

608. napNadaN G. 612-4 ad. Zen. 

blunder through mistaking the name 
Dotion for the Messenian or Arkadian 
Dorion. The localization of this place 
is purely conjectural (Strabo viii. 350). 
The southern Oichalia was placed at or 
near Andania. 

597. CTEUTO, boasted, see on S 191. 
This is the only case in H. of d av with 
opt., but there are 26 (or 28) of e'i Ke {M. 
and T. § 460, H. G. § 313). It is 
difficult to see that any particular shade 
is given by the particle. In accordance 
with Homeric usage it is more likely 
that the original sentence is to be con- 
ceived as VLK-qaw, eiwep oLv deidoiev than 
to regard the opt. as representing a subj. 
of direct speech. 

599. nHp6c, a doubtful word, tradition- 
ally explained Mind, as in Aesop 17 
dvrjp Trrjpds : cf. (Tv<p\ib(Ta/j.€v in Bhes. 
ut sup. Others say maimed, deprived 
either of voice (so Ar.) or of the right 
hand, or more vaguely helpless ; and in 
this general sense the word is common 
in later Greek. This certainly gives a 
better sense, for as Ar. says, comparing 
6 64, blindness does not disable a bard. 
Indeed, music is always the natural pro- 
fession for the blind. The rvcpXos dvrip, 

olKelde Xiuievi Tranra\o^ffar]i. (Kynaithos?) 
of Hymn. Apoll. 172 naturally suggests 
itself. Teiresias, Daphnis and Stesichoros 
are other blind bards, ace. to the legends. 
auTdp is continuative, as 465, etc., atid 
moreover. ^KX^XaeoN : for this trans, 
use of the redupl. aor. cf. O 60, and 
\e\axdv always (H 80, X 343, etc.). 

604. The Arkadians are never men- 
tioned again in H. except H 134 in a tale 
of Nestor's, though their sixty ships 
formed one of the largest contingents to 
the army. The tomb of Aipytos son 
of Elatos is mentioned by Pausanias 
(viii. 16. 3) as being still shewn at the 
foot of the mountain ^rjwia. See Find. 
01. vi. 33. For Pheneos see Frazer 
iv. 235, Orchomenos 224, Tegea 422, 
Mantineia 201, Stymiihalos 268, Par- 
rhasia 306. 

605. Coins and the inscription on the 
famous Plataian Tripod shew that, as 
with the Boiotian town (511), the old 
local name was 'Epxo/j.ev6s. 

61 2-4 were obelized by Zenodotos ; 
but they are obviously designed to meet 
a possible 'historic doubt,' and cohere 
with the rest of the paragraph. Nothing 
of the sort, however, is suggested for the 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


vrja<i €vaae\fiov<; irepdav eVl otvoira ttovtov, 
'Arpei'ST/?, eVel ou acf)c Oakdcraia epya fxefjbrjkei. 

dl 5' dpa Vtovirpciaiov re koI "IlXtSa hlav evatov, 615 

ocraov e<^' 'Tpfiivrj koI y\vpaLvo<i eo-^arowaa 
Trerprj t flXevlr) koI 'AXecaiov €VTo<i eepyei, 
Tcov av rea-aape'i dp'^ol eaav, SeKa 8 dvSpl eKaaroit 
vy]e<i eirovTo doai, •jroXee'; 8 efi/Satvov ETreiot. 
TCOV fjikv dp* ^A/ji(pL/jLa-^o^ fcal C^aXTTto? rjjrjadadrjv, 620 

i/te? fih' J^redrov, 6 8 dp" ^vpvTov, ^AKTopuoive' 
TMV 8' ' Ap,apvyKei87]<i VPX^ Kparepo'^ AcMprj'i' 
rwv Be TerdpTcov ^]px^ IloXv^eivo<i 6€oet8rj<i, 
ut09 ^Ayaadeveofi AvyrjldSao dvaKTo<i. 

ot 8 eK AovXi'^ioio ^li^'^ivdojv 6^ lepdwv, 625 

V7]a(ov a'i vaiovcn Treprjv dXo<i, "HXtSo? dvra, 
Twv avd^ rjjefioveve M.eyrj'i drdXavro^; "Aprjl, 
^vXet8r]<i, ov rt/cre 8d(f)LXo<; liriroTa ^vXev'i, 

616. 69' : U9' Q Eton. Mosc. 1 : h G. || OpjufwHi Zen. || ^cxaxoecca R Vr. a. 

617. oXhcion Steph. Byz. a}}. Eust. : aXicioN Ar. on A 757. || ceproi Vr. b-. 

618. apxai J- 619- eBaiNON PR. 621. ap' om. CQ {yp. o 'dk eupuTou 6. J). || 
CfKTOpicONe Ar. A(S siqyr.)!! Va,v. e^ g^ : dKTopicoNoc fl. 622. cumapurKXeidHC 
R (6juiapurKei&Hc R^^^). 624. araceeN^ooc PR. 626. ai : oY Zen. || nepoN G. 
627. TcoN a' CP Vr. A. i| aS G. 

Thessalian tribes, some of whom are as 
landlocked as the Arkadians. 

615. See A 756 for Buprasion, the 
Olenian rock, and Aleisiou as landmarks 
of Elis, and Frazer Paxes, iii. p. 466 for 
Hyrmine. The four localities in 616-7 
seem to be regarded as being at the four 
corners of the valley known as koi'Xt; 
"HXts. There is a slight confusion of 
construction in oaaov evl . . ivTos 
eipyei, or, in other words, the object of 
iipyei is not, as we should expect, and 
as we tind in 12 544, daaov, but "HXida, 
to be supplied from the previous line. 
Instead of baaov eiri, the usual phrase 
is offov T i-n-i (r 12, H 451, 358, etc.). 
The distance of e-rri from the verb for- 
bids explanation by tmesis, nor is 
eireipyeiv found elsewhere in H. There 
would seem to ha've been a fourfold 
tribal division of Elis. 'Eneioi was tlie 
proper name for the inhabitants of Elis, 
A 671, the name 'HXetot having probably 
come in after the Dorian and Aitolian 

621. 'AKTopicoNe is properly the title 

of Kteatos and Eurytos (not of course 
the same as in 596), as ' sons of Aktor,' 
at least as putative father. But the 
patronymic is here, as often, transferred 
to the grandsons ; AlaKidrjs is a familiar 
case, and Priam is Aapdavidi^s from a 
yet more remote ancestor. The vulg. 
'AKTopiwfos probably comes from N 185 
wliere only one brother is mentioned ; 
here it is less suitable than the dual. 
For the curious legends about the sons 
of Aktor see A 709, 'I' 639. 

626. aY, Zen. o'l : but rj 29 (do/xos) valei 
and tlie analogy of vaierdav as applied 
to places by a sort of personification 
(A 45, a 404, etc.) are sufficient to justify 
the reading of Ar. and mss. So Soph. 
Aj. 597 S) KKeLva ZaXa/xt'f, av yUeV irov 
vatsLS dXiTrXa/cros kt\. The Echinean 
islands as a matter of fact lie opposite 
Akarnania, a considerable distance N. of 
Elis ; but the Homeric geography of the 
W. coast of Greece is apparently based 
on imperfect hearsay, not on knowledge. 
Dulichion cannot be identified. It can 
hardly here be Leukadia (Sta. Maura). 



lAIAAOC B (ii) 

09 TTore AovX.i'^iovS^ arrrevdaaaro Tvarpl -^oXcoOet,^' 
TO)i S' ajJua reaaapcLKOvra fxeXaivat vrje<i eirovro. 

avrap 'OSucrcreu? rj'ye Yie<^aX\rjva<i /jieya6v/jL0v<i, 
o'l p ^IdaKtjv el-^ov Kol ISlyjpiTOv elvoalc^vXkov, 
Kol K.poKvXet, ivefiovTO koI AljiXcTra rprj-^eiav, 
OL re ZaKvvdov e^oy ^8' ot zdfiov dp,(f)evejjiovTO, 
OL T rjiretpov e%oz/ ^S avrLirepai evefiovTO' 
Tcov fj,€v 'OSfO"creL'9 VPX^ ^^'' H'V'^^^ drdXavTO<i' 
rcot 8' cifia vri€<i eirovro SvcoSeKa fitXroTrdprjioi. 

AIto)\(x)v S' ^jyelro &oa<; AvSpaifiovo^ fto?, 
01 TlXevpotyv^ ivefxovro Kal ' flKevov ^8e UvXtjvtjv 
XaX/ctSa T dy^laXov K.a\vB(bvd re irerprjecrcrav 




629. aouXix'ON GS Lips. Vr. a, Mosc. 1. || hnen^kcaro R : dneNdcaro PR™. 
631 ad. Ar. ? (A has obelos but no schol.). 632. etyoN om. PR, adding t' ookoun 
at end of line. 633. kpokuXhn Eton. || xpaxeTaN GJ (supr. h) U {sujrr. h). 

634. cduHN Zen. {afxerpof -kolCov An.). || yp. h&' aY cduoN du9iN^juoNTO Par. d. 

635. H&' : oY h' QS : oY t' H. || dNxm^paN Vr. c, Mosc. 1 : dNxinepa S. 

629. Phyleus had to leave his home 
because he bore witness against his 
father Angelas, who endeavoured to cheat 
Herakles of the reward promised him 
for the cleansing of the stables. See 
Pind. 0. xi. 31. In N 692, 519 Meges is 
still king of the Epeians ; the legend of 
his migration northwards to the coast of 
Aitolia looks like a reflex of the migration 
of the Aitolians S. to Elis. Such in- 
vasions were commonly justified as 
bringing back an expelled family to 
their old realm. The case of the 
Herakleidai is the most familiar, but 
there are many others. 

632. eiNod9u\XoN = ev-foo-t-, fromfo^, 
root of ihdfoo, etc. ; 'making its foliage to 
shake,' i.e. with trembling leafage. So 
Hesych. Kivqa'KpvWov, and cf. evvoalyaLos. 
NiipiTON, V 351, I 21. The four places 
named in these two lines seem to be all 
on the island of Ithaka {'IdaK-q being the 
chief town), though the Greek geographers 
located Krokyleia and Aigilips on the 
mainland. Cdixoc is Kephallenia. 

635. dNTin^paia, the coast of the 
mainland opposite Ithaka (regarded as 
part of Elis). That the inhabitants of 
the islands had such possessions on 
the mainland is consistent with 5 635, 
where Noenion speaks of crossing over 
to Elis, evda fioi 'iwiroi. | ddideKO, drjXeiai, 
virb 5' Tifj.loi'OL ToKaepyol. But there can 

hardly have been KecpaWrjves there. This 
was no doubt the ground for the (prob- 
able) athetesis of 631 by Ar. 

637. JuuXxondpHioi (here and t 125), 
with cheeks painted with vermilion. 
This does not indicate so much a 
personification of the ship as a literal 
painting of a face upon the bows, the 
red paint being used as a primitive 
approximation to the colour of flesh. So 
(poiviKOTrdprjios \ 124, \p 271. Though this 
practice is not expressly recorded other- 
wise in H., there can be little doubt that 
it existed then as it did, and still does, 
all over the world, from Chinese junks 
to Mediterranean and Portuguese fishing 
boats, to say nothing of its survival in 
the 'figure-head.' In early vase-paint- 
ings the ship of war has an animal's 
head for the bows, generally a pig's snout. 
The original idea seems to have been 
to give the ship eyes with which to see 
its way. (See Assmann Jahrb. d. d. 
arch. Inst. iv. 100, Torr Ancient Ships 
pp. 37, 69.) Of course the actual 
painting may in Homer's ships have 
degenerated into a purely conventional 
daub ; but the epithet in question shews 
that even in that case some consciousness 
of its origin had survived. Ar. remarked 
t^St) 7/ €K xpoi/idrwi' fx'i^LS r)v eTrnroXdcraaa 
TTpds Trjv ^(jiypa<pLK7]v. Cf. Herod, iii. 58 
rb 8e TraXaiov wdaai at vrie% ^aav /u\t- 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


ov yap €T Olvr]o<i /jL€ya\7]Topo<i mee? r^aav, 
ouS' ap' €T avTO<i erjv, Odve he ^avdo<i MeXeaypo'i 
TMt 8 eVl TTc'ivr ererakro avaaaejxev AlrcoXolaf 
Tcoi 8' ci/jua reaaapuKovTa fieXaivac vrje<; eirovro. 

KprjTMV S' 'ISoyu-ej'eu? SovpiKXvTO^ r)y€fji,ov€uev, 
oi K.vQ)crov r ^iyov VopTvvd re Teij^Loecrcrav, 
AvKTov MtA,7^T0z/ re Kal dpjivoevTa AvKaarov 
^aicrrov re 'Vvriov re, TroXet? iv vaieracoawi, 
aXXoi 6\ 01 K.p'qrrjv eKaTO/xTroXiv d/jL(f)ev€/jbovTO. 
TMv fiev ap' 'lSofi€vev(; SovptKXvro^ 'riyefjioveve 
M.rjpcovT]^ T drdXavTO^; EiVvaXlcoi dv8p€i(f)OVT7]i- 
Tolcru 8' dfjb oyScoKovTa /xeXacvai vf}€<; eirovro, 

TXtjiroXefjiO^ 8' 'HpaKXetSr)'; r)v<i re /jie ja<i re 



641 2 dd. Zen. 642. Mosc. (1 ?) adds kqi Tu9euc [^n] euBaic '6t' dncbXero 

Xabc cixaicoN. 643. ^t^tqkto JR'"S Lips. 644. Tcii e ,] {post ras.). 645.5' 

om. L. 646. knoocc6n CG1IJQ^(so Tryplion). 647. apnoeNxa S. j; Kukqcton : 
KdueipoN H {supr. H Xukqcton) : yp. KduipoN J. 648. noXic A. 651. 

aNdpH96NTH R : dN9pi96NTH G. 653. 5' om. P. 

641. For the Homeric legend of Oi- 
neus and Meleagros see I 529 sqq. Zenod. 
obelized 641-2, apparently because Mele- 
agros alone is named of all the sons of 
Oineus. The inserted line (v. supra) 
testifies to the surprise naturally felt at 
the omission of Tydeus, the most famous 
of them. As the scholiast remarks, 
auxdc may refer either to Oineus or to 
Meleagros, according to the punctuation. 
Tail 94 sc. Thoas. 

645. The en\imeration having passed 
from Boiotia S. and W. through Pelo- 
ponnesos and the Western islands to 
Aitolia, now takes a fresh start from the 
S. of the Aegaean Sea and passes through 
the islands to Thessal)'. The Cretan 
towns named are all at the foot of Ida 
in the middle of the island. See r 172- 
7 for the Homeric account of Crete. 

646. Kncococ, 2 591, r 178. 

647. MiXhtoc, said to be the metro- 
polis of the famous Ionic Miletos. 

649. In T 174 Crete is said to contain 
ninety cities ; a divergence on which, as 
we learn from the .scholiast, the xwpt- 
('oures founded one of their arguments. 

651. 'ENuaXicoi aNapeT<p6NTHi : if this 
reading is right there is a violent synizesis 
of -wt dv- into one syllable. But we 
ought to write ddpL<p6vTr]i. (or rather 
ddpo^ovTTji), where ddpi- is a lighter form 
of dv8pi- : and so XtTroOcr' ddoorriTa II 857 

(where see note), X 363, for dvSporriTa, 
like a^poT-q dfKpt-^poTos, where the /3 has, 
like the 5 of dvopi, arisen from the nasal, 
which then disappeared (//. G. § 370 n.). 
Similar foi'uis are a{fi)7r\aKrj/jLaTa Aisch. 
Eum. 934, dvd{fj.)Tr\dKT]Toi So{)h. 0. T. 472, 
d{n)ir\aK{hv Eur. Ale. 242, where also the 
Mss. mostly give the yit. Of. dSpl- dvdpi, 
Hesych. In the Cyprian inscriptions the 
nasal is regularly omitted before a con- 
sonant (and so often in mod. Greek, 
e.g. AdpwTros). 

653. In spite of this elaborate pane- 
gyric the Rhodians are not again men- 
tioned in H. TIepolemos enters only to 
be killed in E 628 ff. His connexion 
with Rhodes is not there alluded to. It 
is impossible to suppose that a Dorian 
colony was ever admitted by tradition to 
the Trojan war ; but tlie triple division so 
characteristic of the Dorians is pointedly 
alluded to in 668. It is possible, of 
course, that the prae- Dorian Rhodians 
had their share in the early history of 
Greece, and that the Dorians only re- 
colonized an island already Greek. The 
intention here may be to give the Dorian 
hero an earlier possession of the island, 
and bring him there not by the Dorian 
invasion but by a private quarrel ; but 
the author manages to betray himself 
by the word rpixdd. Bergk suggests 
that the high praise of the Rhodians 

100 lAIAAOC B (ii) 

€K 'P080V ivvea vrja<i a<yev 'Vohiwv dyepay^cov, 

01 'V080V dfi(f)eve/xovTO Sta rpi-^a K0(jfir]6evT€<i, 655 

AivSov l7)\vcrov re kol dpytvoevra J^dfietpov. 

TOiv jjbev T\7]7ro\efx.o<i BoupiK\vTO<i rjyefjioveuev, 

ov reKev ^ Kcnvoj^eia fBirji HpuKXrjeLrjL, 

Tr]v ayer e^ ^J^(f)vp7]<;, irorafiov oltto XeWtjevro^;, 

Trepcra^ dcrrea TroWd Siorpecpecov al^rjoyv. 660 

T\7)7r6\€fio<i S\ eVel ovp Tpd(f) evl /jLeydpcoi evrrrjKTWL, 

avTLKa 'jrarpo'i eolo (f)i\.ov fjujrpwa KareKra 

rjhiq y7]pdcrK0VTa, AtKVfiviov ol^ov "ApT^o?. 

al-ylra 8e vrja<i eirrj^e, irdXvv 8' ye \aov dyeipa<i 

^Yj (f)evycov eVl irovTOv direiXrjaav yap ol dWoc 665 

ui'ee? vlwvoi re ^tr/? '}ipaK\7]€ir)<i' 

avrdp y e? 'VoSov l^ev d\dip,evo'^ dXyea iracT'^cov' 

rpc^Od Se MiKrjdev KaTa(f)v\aSov, '))8e ^iK.'qOev 

656. dpnoeNTQ S. || KdjuipoN CJPR Bar. Eton. Vr. b c A. 658. AcruSdincia 
Sehol. Find. 0. vii. 24. || ApaKXeidH Q : HpoKXeiHi Zen. (d/j-erpov ttolwv An.). 659. 

THN arer' : TH\6e€N Strabo vii. 328, viii. 339. 660. aioTpo9ecoN HL. 661. 
Tpd(peN €Ni PQR Vr. A : Tpd9' €n Vr. a : Tpdq)eT' ^n ]\Ior. Bar. Vr. c : Tpd9H 
^N G. 663. ozoc U (supr. n) A™ (T.W.A.). 665. ^u tictl 6h <peureiN Schol. 

Pap. a (v. Ludwich ad loc). 666. ApaKXelHc QK 667. auTop : aTij/a 5' 

Zen. II HKeN G: fisew Mor. Bar. 668. Ka9<puXad6N Vr. a. || oY 3' e9iXHeeN Cant. 

points to the time of their naval supre- citing Avonder (Schmalfeld) ; (10) = d7^- 

raacy, perhaps about 900 B.C. The legend \avxo^, the bull proudly leading his 

of Tlepolemos is given in Pindar 0. vii. herd ; Bergk {Gr. Lit. i. p. 129). 

654. drepcoxcoN, apparently a desperate 659 = 531. This river Selleeis (dif- 

word ; many derivations have been pro- ferent of course from that mentioned 

posed, but not one carries conviction. 839, M 97, in Asia) was according to Ar. 

It is applied by Homer to the Trojans, in Thesprotia, in the country of the 

the Mysians, and once to an individual, 2eXXot (IT 234) ; others said it was in 

Periklymenos, X 286. In Homer and Elis, and that Herakles took Astyocheia 

Pindar it seems to be a word of praise, when he overthrew Angelas (so Strabo). 

but later writers use it to mean 'over- For the name 'E9UPH see note on Z 152. 

bearing,' 'haughty.' Pindar applies it 661. The aor. Tpd9e is here, as always 

to things, N. vi. 34, 0. xi. 78, P. i. 50. It (cf. ■^ 84, 90), intrans., and should appa- 

is common in Polybios, Plutarch, Philo- rently be sui)stituted for the pass. Tp6.<pr} 

stratos, etc., though not found in pure which occurs only in Y 201, A 222 (note 

Attic. I give without comment a number the reading of G here). So Tpd<^e!' should 

of proposed etymologies. (1) ayav yepao- be Tpd(poi' in A 251, 266, ■>!' 348. 

Xos (Ar. ) ; (2) dwo rod ayav enl yepuis 662. Likymnios was brother of Alk- 

oxe'ia-dai {Et. May.) ; (3) 5id to dyeipeiv mena. See Piud. 0. vii. 27. The homi- 

oxvv, TOVTe(TTi TpocpTjv : (4) dyeipeiv 6xovs, cide was committed in a fit of anger 

assemblers of chariots (Doderlein) ; (5) according to Pindar, but another legend 

dyeipeiv, ihKvs, swiftly gathering (Bott- (ap. Schol. A) made it purely accidental, 

cher) ; (6j dya{v) epwrj (suff. -xo-), violent, 665. yap oi, MSS. with Ar. ; but the 

impetuous (Gobel) ; (7) dya-, ^pa, ^x'^, neglect of the digamma in the pronoun 

having much land (Suidas) ; (8) dyavpws oi is so rare that it is better to read rdp 

?xetv, holding themselves proudly (Pott) ; oi. oi dWoi is common enough in H. ; 

(9) adj. dyepds, root £17, to admire, hence e.g. A 75, 264, 524, 540, and many 

dyepwacrei (Hesych.), and d7^pwxos = ex- other cases ; see Z 90. | 

lAlAAOC B (ii) lui 

eK ^i6<;, 09 re deolcrt koX avOpuiTrotaiv dvdaaei. 

Kai (r(f)iv OeaTreatov ttXovtov Kare^eve Kpovicov. 670 

Ntpei"? av SiifjirjOeu dye rpet? vrja'i eiaa^, 
^ipev'i WyXaiTji; u/o? ^apoiroiu r dvaKTo<;, 
Ntpeu?, 09 KaK\.L(TTO<i dvi-jp viro \\lov rfkde 
TMV dW(ov Aavawv [xer dfiv/xova Ilt]\et(ova' 
tlXX' d\a7ra8vb<i erjv, iravpo'i he ol eiirero \ao<i. 675 

dl 8' dpa ^iavpov r el'^ov KpdTradov re Y^^dcrov re 
Kol Kmv ^vpvirvkoLO ttoXlv vr]aov<i re K.dX.vSva'i, 
rMV av ^etSt7r7ro9 re Kal ' Avri<po^ ijjrjcrdaOrjp, 
©ecrcraXoO fie Svco 'HpaKXetSao dvaKro<;' 
rMV 8e rpt7]Kovra 'y\acf)vpal vee<; ecrrt^ocovro. 680 

vvv av rov<i, ocraoc ro HeXacrycKov "Apyo<; evatov 

669 ad. Ar. 671. Nipeuc 5" QR?7. || aicuuHeew QS Vr. b: ccuuHeeN PR™f/ 
Vr. A. 672. t' om. Q. 673, 675 aO. Zeii., 674 ovde 'iypatpev. 674. twn 9' 

RS. 675. rdp oi enexo G. 676. KdcON : KpdcoN P. 677. KCON : Kcb L 

{post ras.). 678. tcon a' CGQR Eton. Vr. c. 680. TCON AH J {yp. xoTc) VU 
Pap. a : toTc 12. 681. ZijvddoTos pLeriypacpei' oV 3' "Aproc t' eTxoN t6 FleXacriKON, 

oQeap apoupHC An. 1| nOn av Toi/C : oY x" aOxoi Q,{supr. nOn ()'-) 1!(nOn au 
xouc R'") S Par. e (yp. nun aCixouc) j : oi B" auxoi Mosc. 1 : nOn &' auxouc J Vr. 
a c A : NUN auxoi Vr. b : nun xouc cpHui ocoi G. 

670. There was a legend of a literal descent looks as if these lines came from 
rain of gold sent by Zeus upon Rhodes, the same source as the Rhodian episode 
apparently founded upon this passage ; above. All the islands were Dorian 
cf. TToXw v(Te X9^'^°^ Pind. 0. vii. 50, colonies, but Kos at least had legends 
^pexe xpi'^f'^'5 vKpdSecrai ttoXiv ib. 34. of colonization from Thessaly, whence 
Kaxax^eiN is very often used metaphori- Thessalos is brought into the genealogy, 
cally, e.g. x^P'" ^ 1^, etc., eXeyxet-nv This is again an anachronism, as the 
^ 408, and so it may be here ; but Pindar's Thessalian name is elsewhere ignored 
mention of the ^av^cti^e^eXa shews that he in H. 

understood the verb in its literal sense. 681. It is hardly possible to read this 

But this line, according to a scholion on and the two following lines without 

Pindar, was obelized. There is no feeling tliat originally Achilles was the 

mention of this in Schol. A, where we find, leader of the whole of the Thessalians, and 

however, that Ar. obelized the preced- that his restriction to three paltry towns 

ing line, taking (pi\if}d€v to mean ' they in 682 is merely a device to make room 

were friendly to one another in spite of for the localization of other Thessalian 

the tribal division,' and regarding 669 heroes. As it stands, the effect is almost 

as inserted in order to give another like ' all the peoples of Britain, who 

explanation of (plX-qdev : the line with dwelt in Greenwich and Woolwich and 

its obvious padding certainly bears out Blackheatli, and were named Saxons and 

the idea. English and Danes.' The Pelasgian 

671. Nireus is not mentioned again. Argos, properly the central plain of 
The double cpancdepsis is unique in H. Thessaly about Larissa, a long way from 
For xciN aWcoN after a superl. cf. A 505. Phthia, is in the sequel stretched to coni- 

676. These are small islands among prise Thessaly in the widest sense, and 

the Sporades, only Kos having attained even Dodona in Aitolia. There can be 

any subsequent importance ; the Cyclades little doubt that Hellenes, Myrmidons, 

are not mentioned at all. Pheidippos and Achaians were originally three dis- 

and Antiphos again are named only tinct tribal names of Thessaly, all under 

here ; the mention of their Herakleid the suzerainty of Achilles, as the South 


lAIAAOC B (ii) 

OL T Kkov 01 T AXoTTTjv 01 r€ IpTj'^iv evefMOvro, 

OL T el'^ov ^dirjv rj8 EA-XaSa KaWtyvvaLKa, 

M.vp/ji,i86ve<; 8e Kokevvro koX "EXX.'/;z/e9 koI A-^aioi, 

roiv av TreprrjKovra veoiv 7]v ap-^o'^ A^tXXei/?. 685 

aXK o'i 7' ov iTo\kp,OLo hvarj'^eo'i efivcoovro- 

ov yap erjv, 09 rt? cr^iv eirl crTt'^a? r)<yi]aatro. 

KecTO yap iv vrjeacri 7roSdpKrj<; Sto<i A^tXA-ey? 

KOvprj<i '^(o6/jL€VO<; ^pLcrrjtSo^; rjVKop^oio, 

TTjV eK Avpv7]craov e^elXero ttoXXo, fjuoyrjawi, 690 

Avpv7]a(70v hiairopOiqcra'i koI rei'^ea ®r)^ri<;, 

KaS Se M.vvr]T ej3a\ev Kol ^^'7rL<TTpo(f>ov iy^eaifxcopov^;, 

vlea<i ^vrjvoio l^eXrjTrtdSao avaKT0<i' 

682. TPH)(Tn' (rpHxeiN Paj). a) eNCJULONTO fl : xpHxiNQ weuoNTO Ar. || oi d^ 
ypd(povaii' oY o' "AXon oY e' 'AXioOns' oY t€ Tp. ^n. Strabo. 683. <peeiHN Pap. 
a. 684 om. P*' Lips. Vr. A. Ij be : te Q. |j KaXeONTai <} : KaXouNTai (i. 685. 

TWN &' P. II au : Qp P^. 686-694 dd. Zen. 687. eHN, 6c TIC : cctin 8tic Q. 1| 
tic: TiCHU. 690. 4n XupNHcccbi Zen. 692. uunhtq BdXeN G. || efiaXcN : 

gXaBe R. 

was under the .suzerainty of Agamemnon. 
In I 447 Hellas, the home of Phoinix, is 
clearly distinct from Phthia, the home of 
Achilles. But in I 395 the Achaians 
seem to include the inhabitants of both 
Phthia and Hellas, a first step to tlie use 
of the Achaian name for all prae-Dorian 
Greeks. Similarly the Myrmidons are 
identical with the inhabitants of Hellas 
and Phthia in X 496. The confusion 
that reigns in the use of the names is a 
reflexion of the intermixture consequent 
on the great migrations from North to 
South, of which the Dorian and Thes- 
salian invasions were a part. See Burv 
in J. H. S. XV. 217 ff. This is the only 
case in H. where the name Hellenes 
occurs, except in 530 Uav^XK-qves. The 
introductory words nOn aO are evidently 
used to mark a new and important 
section of the whole. Toiic is used as 
though the poet meant to continue with 
^(TTrere or ipio). 

682. These towns are all in the extreme 
south of Thessaly, round the head of 
the Malian gulf, in the same district 
as that assigned to Protesilaos (695 fl". ). 

686-94, athetized by Zen., are evidently 
added to adapt to present circumstances 
a passage originally describing the 
mustering of the whole host. So also 
699-709, 721-28. ^uncoonto, i.e. efivd- 
ovTo = iJ.iij,vrjaKovTo. The only other form 
from this pres. stem, in the sense remem- 

687. HriKcaiTO, 
Tis without dv, 
instances in 
cxlxac, into 
battle. So 

be?; is fivwo/xevos, 5 106, o 400 ; elsewhere 
/j-vdeixdai means to woo a wife. SucHxeoc, 
from dxos, KaKO. &xv TrepiiroiQv, the vowel 
being lengthened, as so often in com- 
pounds, at the point of juncture. Cf. 
dvarjXeyrjs from 01X70?. The alternative 
der. from {F)y]xv, as if Iwrrisonus, takes 
no account of the F ; and even if we 
wrote iroXe/xov dvaFTjxeos with van L. 
the epithet would not suit Odvaros 
(n 442, etc.). 

potential opt. after 6s 
as X 348. (Other 
M. and T. § 241.) ^nJ 
the ranks drawn up for 
T 353 fwl (TTlxas SXro, 
r 113 iTTTTOvs ^pv^av iirl crTLxas, brovght 
them into line. 

690. For the original home of Briseis 
see on A 184. Mynes was her husband 
according to the tradition, though there 
is nothing in H. to shew it. She was 
captured on the same raid as Chryseis, 
A 366. 

692. For the termination of crxeciuco- 
pouc see A 242. The anticipation of the 
future course of the story in 694 is 
paralleled in 724, but is not in the 
Homeric style ; the Epic poet occasionally 
speaks of future events as prophetically 
known to his characters, but foreshadows 
them in his own words only in suspicious 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 103 

Ti]<i 6 <ye Kelr d-^ewv, rd-^a S' dvcrrijcreadaL eyLteXXei/. 

ot S' eJ-^ov ^vXaKTjv koI Ylvpacrov dvOe/noevTa, 695 

A')]/ii7}Tpo'i refievo'^, "Ircovd re /jbrjTepa jxifKoyv, 
dyytaXov t Avrpcova tSe TlreXeov Xe^eTroLrjv, 
Twv av UpcoTecrlXao'i dpi]'io<i riyefioveve 
^«i)09 icov Tore 8' ijSt] e'^ev Kara yaia /xeXaiva. 
Tov 8e Koi dp,(f)iSpv(f)r]<; aXo-^o^ ^vXdKrjL iXeXenrro 700 

KoX 86/xo'; i)ixiTeXri<i'^ tov S' eKrave AdpSavo'i dvrjp 
vr]o<i diroOpMLaKovra ttoXv TrpoiTLarov A'^aioiV. 
ovSe fiev 01)8^ ol dvap'^ot ecrav, iroOeov ye fxev dp'^ov 
dXXd a(f)6a<i Koafirjae UoSdpKTj^ o^o^ ' Apr/o?, 
l(f)lKXov vl6<; 7roXvfM))Xov ^vXaKihao, 705 

avTOKaai<yvT]TO'i jxeyaOu/jbov TlpoorecnXaov 
OTrXorepo^ yeverjL' o 8' dfjua Trporepo<i koI dpeicov 
rjpa)<i TlpcoTeaiXao^ dpi]ios' ouSe to Xaol 
SevovO^ r^yefxovo'i, irodeov <ye fiev icrdXov eovrw 
TMi 8' d/j.a reacrapaKovra fxeXaivai, vfj€<; CTrovTO. 710 

694. dNCTi^caceai U (e su]yr. over ac) : 6cTHceceai (or d(N)cTiHicaceai ?, ms. 

aNardcaceai) Zen. 697. drxidXHN Zen. || dNdpcoNO J. [ h5^ GQ. [| ex^"°'^^'^ Q- 
700. hk Koi : hi KeN U. 701. ddpdaNOC imnp : 9aidiJuoc e'KTcop Deni. Skeps. 
ap. Schol. Lykopliron 531. 707. reNCHN Sehol. A 60. j| djua Ar. : apa fi. 

708. ou5' en H Vr. a. 709. re JUieN : re uXt* G : Be juiin S. 710. tcj e' J. || 
TeccepdKONTO A. 

696. The asyndeton shews that Ai^juh- Cf. also A 227 ynfxas d' (k daXdfioio . . 

Tpoc T^ueNoc must be in apposition with I'/cero. But 86/ji.os cannot mean 'wedding- 

Pyrasos, and is not the town Arj/xriTpiov, chamber.' The AdpdaNoc dNi^p was 

explained by Ar. as distinct from Pyrasos. variously said to have been Aineias, 

See Strabo is. p. 435, and cf. 506 Hoaidri'i'ov Euphorbos, or Hector ; the latter was 

dyXabv dXcros in apposition with Onchestos. the name given by the Kypria, Demetrios 

These towns surround Alos at the head of Skepsis (vide supra), and Soph. (fr. 

of the Malian gulf. 443) ; but Ar. held that it was certainly 

699. KdrexeN, as V 243. Protesilaos' wrong, as Hector was not a Dardanian 
ship plays a prominent part in the fight- strii'tly speaking. 

ing later on, N 681, 705, 11 286. 703. o'bhk xxku oiia' oi, yet neither 

700. ajui<pi9pu<pi4c, explained by A 393 iverc they ; an emphasis is thrown on 
TOV 5e yvi'aiKos /J.ei> r' a.fx(p'idpv(poi elai the ol, which is not easily explicable, for 
Trapeial. there does not seem to be any striking 

701. HuixeXHC ijVot dreKvos f) dcji-qip-q- contrast with some other leaderless band 
/xei'os TOV ETipov tCov SeavoTQiv -i) dTekeiio- such as the words would imply. In 
To%- ^dos yap rjv toIs yrj/xaaL ddXapLov 726 they come naturally, as two lost 
oiKodofxeicrdaL (Schol. A). The first ex- chieftains have already been mentioned, 
planation is best ; he has only half com- The line is simply copied here from 726. 
pleted his household, as, though married, 708-9 look like a gloss intended to 
he has left no son. Cf. Soph. 0. T. 930 explain the apparently ambiguous 6, and 
iravTeXrjs ddfiap, ' because the wife's estate filled up from previous lines so as to 
is crowned and perfected by the birth of make two hexameters. 

children ' (Jebb). The last is founded The towns following (711-5) lie N. 

upon Odysseus' description of his bnihling and (716-7) E. of the head of the Paga- 

his own marriage-chamber, tp 189 sqq. saean Gulf. 

104 lAlAAOC B (ii) 

ot 8e ^epa<i ive/iovro wapal ^oi^r^tZa Xifivrjv, 
HoIIBtjv koX V\aj)vpa^ kol ivKTt/Jievrjv ^IucoXkov, 
roiv 'Tjpx 'A8/A7^Toto ^tXo? 7rai'9 evSeKa vrjcov, 
Ey/iT^Xo?, Tov vir ^ASp,-^T(Oi t6K€ Sla 'yvvaiKcov 
"A\Kr]aTt<;, TleXlao dvyarpSiv elSo^ apiarrj. 715 

ot 8' apa M-ridcavr^v koI ©avfxaKirjv evep^ovTO 
Kol MeXi^OLav e^ov Koi 'OXi^Mva Tprj-^elav, 
TMV Se ^LkoKTr]T7](; VPX^^> '^^^^^ ^^ etSco?, 
eTTTa vecov eperai 8' ev eKaarrji, TTevrrjKovTa 
efx^e^aaav, to^cov iv elSoreii i(f}t fMcix^o-dat. 720 

aX)C 6 fxev iv v^acoc Kelro Kparep aXjea Trd(T'yo>v, 
A.rjfxvwi ev rjjaderjL, 66i fiiv Xlttov vie? A^atcoy 
eX/cet /jbO-ydi^ovTa KaKcoi 6Xoo(fipovo<i vSpov 
ev6^ 6 ye icelr aykwv Tciya he p.vr}(xea6aL efieWov 
^Apjelot irapa vrjval ^L\oKT7]Tao avaKToq. 725 

ovhe fiev ovB' ol avapxpt ecrav, iroOeov ye jjuev ap^pv 
aXKa yiehcav Koap^'qaev, ^Ol\r]0<i v66o<; vi6<;, 
TOV p ereKev 'Vrjvrj vir OiXr^l wToXiiropuwi. 

ot 8' elyov TpLKKTjv Kol I6co/jLr]v KXcofiaKoeaaav, 
oi T eyov OlyaXlriv ttoXlv ^upvrov OtT^aXt?}©"?, 730 

TMV avd' rjyeladrjv AaKXrjiTiov hvo iralSe, 

711. napai BoiBH'i'Sa Xiunhn : kut eviovs idk kpi^nhn CinepeiaN Schol. Pind. 
P. iv. 125. 712. euKTljueNON G Harl. a. || {qoXk^n GPR Harl. a. 713. tcon b' 
Vr. a. 715. neX4&ao J. 717. ueXiBoiaN : niTiieioN Steph. Byz. 1| dXizHNa 

J. II TpaxeioN G. 718. tcon au AreuioNeue 9i\okththc, aroc 6Nbpu)N Zen. 

724-5 (6 ?) dd. Zen. 724. b' dNCTHceceai H {supr. xiNHceceai). || djueWcN Pap. 

a\ siqyi'- o- 727. aXXa : touc bk Zen. 728. un6 IXflT J {yp. Cm' oYXflT). 

729. KXiJuaKoeccaN A Pans. iv. 9. 2: KXHJuaKoeccaN G (and Rm^jr.): KXcouaroec- 
CQN P. 731. Tc2>N au G IP Vr. b. || HrHceHN Q. || naidec P. 

719. Sophokles evidently follows this came the cultus of Asklepios, which in 
line {Phil. 1027), -n-Xevaavd' eirTO, vavcri historical times had its chief seat in 
vav^aT-qv. Epidauros, though the temple at Trikka 

720. For T91 Bentley conj. -^5^, perhaps was always famous. (The oldest myth 
rightly ; but see note on Z 478. takes us to Lakereia on the Boiheian lake, 

723. 6X069PCON is used in II. only of which we have just left, 711.) Homer 

animals (0 630, P 21), in Od, only of does not represent him as anything more 

men (a 52, k 137, X 322). There is no than a mortal chieftain, A 194. kXcojuq- 

other allusion in H. to the story of KdeccaN [air. \ey.), tt]v rpaxdav Koi 6pri 

Philoktetes, but it must have been per- ^x^^'^^'V Suhol. B, ttoXAo, dTroKXifj-ara 

fectly familiar as an essential part of tlie ^xoi'^'a") Kpyj/nvuidij Hesych. Der. and 

legend of Troy. Zen. athetized 724-6 on reading are alii<e uncertain. KXi/maKd- 

the same grounds as 686-94. Medon eaaau might perhaps be used of terraced 

appears again in N 694, but there he is hill-sides, like staircases. For Oichalia 

leaderofthePhthianswithPodarkes(704). and Eurytos see on 595. 

729. There is now a jump from the 731. 'AckXhrioO : read 'A(TK\rjin6o, see 

SE. to the W. of Thessaly, whence on 518. 

lAlAAOC B (a) 105 

i7]rrjp^ dyadco, UoBa\€ipio<; lijSe ^ia^doiv 
TOi<i 8e rpajKovra yXacfjvpai i^ee? icrTt^ocopro. 

ot 8' e'x^op ^^pfjueviov oX re Kpi]VT)v "Tirepeiav, 
oi T e'^ov ^AcTTeptov ^irdvoio re XeuKa Kciprjva, 735 

TMV ypx ^vpv7ru\o<i ^Kvaifiovo-i dyXao<i viO<i • 
ro)i K d/xa reaaapaKovra fjueXaivat vr]e<i errovro. 

ot S' "Apytacrav e'^ov koI TvproovTjv evefjbovro, 
"OpOrjv 'llX(il)V7]v re ttoXlv t OXooaaova XevKi'jv, 
TMV av6' ^lyefjioveve pLeveirroXeixo^; YVoXvTroiTrj'i, 740 

u/o? Tleipidooio, Tov dddvaTO<i reK€TO Zevi, 
Tov p VTTo Hecpidocoi TCKero kXvto^ 'l7r7ro8d/j,eta 
ij/jbart TWL, ore (fyrjpa^ erlaaTO Xa'^vrjevra^i, 
TOiJi; 8' e/c UtjXlov Mcre koI KWiKeaai TreXaaaev 
ovK o2o9, d/xa TMi ye AeovT€v<i o^o<i "Aprjo^i, 745 

vlo'i vTrepdvfxoco K.opcovov l^acvetSao • 
rot? 8' dfia reacrapd/covTa jxeXaivai vrje<; eirovTO. 

Vovvev<i S' eK Ku0ou rjye hvw Kal eiKocri vrja^- 
TOiL 8' 'Ez/tTjfe? eTTovro jjueveirroXeixoi re TLepat^oL, 

732. iarfip' E, ; iHXHpc KaXw G. 733. twn bk ap. Did. 735. oi 5' P. 

737. xeccepaKONxa A. 738. apreicaN AGIIR Va\t. a : cipncaN CQ Bar. Lips. 

Vr. a: yp. apreiaN J East. {aTrdvLo. nva tSsv dvTiypa<pwv). 740. twn V S. || aC 

G. 741. aedNQTON Zen. 744. aieiKccci : aieionecci Demokiines. 747. 

Tco P {supr. die). \\ coxa : apa Vr. c. || TeccepdKONTa A. 748. KOI e'lKOCI : 

] KQi dcK [ Pap. t- 749. eNiHNCC : yp. ap' icoXoi Stepli. Byz. (?). 

734-5. We make another jump back 742. k\ut6c, fern., cf. e 422, S 222, 

to Magnesia, this group of towns being T 88, and even 5 442 oXowTaros 65[j.y]. 

among those assigned to Eumelos, 711-5 : H. G. §§ 116 (1), 119. 

7) 5' 'Twepeca Kprjv-r] iariv iv fiiarji ttjl 744. The Aithikes apparently dwelt 

^epaiuv wdXei Straho ix. 439. See note in Piudos, to the W. of Thessaly. One 

on Z 457. For KdpHNQ of cities cf. 117. Demokrines actually read KWicnreaaL, 

738. We now go to the N. of Central putidissime. 

Thessaly, the home of the Lapiths (M 749. No Peraibian towns in Thessaly 

128), near the later Larissa. Oloosson are mentioned, as they have been already 

is said to be still, under the name of given to the Lapiths. The explanation 

Elassona, conspicuous for its white lime- of Strabo is that these Peraibians are a 

stone rock. Strabo says (439) that all portion of the tribe who had been driven 

these towns were Peraibian till the out of their old homes in the plain, and 

Lapiths seized them. Here it is the lived scattered among the mountains, 

^rjpes who are driven out. while the bulk of the tribe lived mixed 

741 is a very clumsy line as the text up with the Lapiths. If this is meant, 

stands ; 742-4 seem meant to supplant, it would seem that some of them must 

not to follow, 741, and to bring in the have crossed into Aitolia, for there can 

later myth of the Centaurs and Lapiths, be no question that it is the Aitolian 

of which Athens made so much. As the Dodona which is named ; though, on the 

fight took place at the wedding of other hand, it is hard to escape the 

Peirithoos and Hippodameia, clearly suspicion that the poet of this passage 

T^Kero = conceived. For the other al- supposed it to lie in Thessaly. The 

lusions to the tale see on A 263. Thessalian Achilles prays to the Pelasgian 


lAlAAOC B (ii) 

01 TTepl Aq)Scov7]v Sva-^eLfiepov oIkl eOevro, 
o'C r dfi.cj)' Ifieprov Tirapr^crLOv epy ivi/iovTO, 
09 p e? TIr]V€Lov irpolel KaWippoov vScop, 
ovS' 6 ye UrjveiMC cru/^/xlayerac dpyvpoSivrji, 
dWd re /uuiv KaOvirepdev eirippeeL r^vr eXatov 
ooKov yap Setvov 2TL"yo9 vSar6<i Icttlv diroppco^. 

yVayyy'jroiv 8' rjpxe T\po6oo<; Tev6p7]Sovo<i vlo'^, 
oi irepl Tlrjvetov Kai Tl-ifK-iov eivocncpvWov 
vaieaKov tmv fiev Tlpodoo'i 0oo<i rjye/xoveve, 
Tcot S' a/jia recrcrapaKovTa fieXaivau vrje^ errovTO. 

ovToi ap rjyefi,6v€<i Aavaayv Kal Kolpavot rjcrav. 




751. epr' eNEJULONTO ii -. ^pra n^uonto Ar. 754. enippei Pap. t- 756. 

TcpepHSoNoc S : TcuepH^ONOc L sitpr. 759. reccepdKONxa A. 760. HCQN : 

^coN C, supr. c over c. 

Zeus of Dodona in II 233, and this may 
liave caused the mistake. There was 
indeed a legend that the oracle of Dodona 
had been transferred there from Skotussa 
in Thessaly, but of this .Strabo, p. 329, 
in an unfortunately mutilated passage, 
speaks with marked incredulity. There 
must, however, have been some early 
religious connexion between Thessaly and 
Dodona, which may have led to the 

751. TiTopt^cioN, the later Europos. 
Bentley's liTap-qaaov is most tempting, 
because of Fepya, and of the analogy of 
other place-names in -tjctctos : cf. Lucan 
vi. 376 Dcfcndit Titarcssos aquas. But 
unfortunately it contravenes the rule 
that lengthening by position of a vowel 
short by nature is not permitted before 
the bucolic diaeresis. What idea the 
poet had in his mind about the meeting 
of the rivers it is liard to say. It is said 
that the Europos is a clear stream which 
is easily to be distinguished for some 
distance after it has joined the Peneios 
white with chalk ; but ciprupoSiNHi is a 
strange epithet to use for a river if the 
emphasis is laid on its want of clearness. 
The connexion of the river with the 
Styx is no doubt due to the existence of 
some local cultus of the infernal deities 
of which we know nothing. 2pra, tilth, 
as M 283, in a purely local sense of 
tilled fields. The word is of course 
common in Homer in the pregnant sense 
of agriacUural labour. 

755. 6pKoc here, as often, means the 
object sworn by, the ' sanction ' of the 
oath. Cf. O 38 to Karei^o/mevov ^rvybs 

vdwp, 6s re fi^yicrTos | 6'p/cos deivdraros re 
iriXei fxaKapecrcri Oeolai.. For the origin 
of the oath by the Styx see Frazer 
Paus. iv. p. 253. The water was supposed 
to be fatal to life, so that the oath was 
originally ' a sort of poison-ordeal ; the 
water would kill the man who forswore 
himself, but spare the man who swore 
truly.' In Herod, vi. 74 there is a case, 
the only one recorded in history, where 
the Arkadians are asked to swear by the 
Styx ; so probably ' when the poets 
made the gods swear by Styx, they 
were only transferring to heaven a prac- 
tice which had long been customary on 
earth.' For cinoppcoH cf. k 514 KcOku- 
Tos 6', Ss dri '!^Tvybs i'lOaros ecmv airoppd)^, 
and see M. and R.'s note there on the 
rivers of the infernal regions. 

756. Once more we make a jump back 
to the E. ; and again we have a tribe, 
the Magnetes, without any cities, as the 
towns of Magnesia have been already 
enumerated and apportioned among 
various chiefs, Philoktetes, Eumelos, 
and Eurypylos. And here no theory of 
a separation of the tribe will help us, as 
these Magnetes are expressly located 
about Pelion and the Peneios, the very 
country that we have already been 
through. Strabo fairly gives up the 
puzzle in despair : iolKaaiv ovv {ol vixTepov 
avOpuTToi) dia ras crvvexeh fxeTaffrdcreLs /cat 
eJaXXd^ets twu -jroXiTeiGiv Kai eTri/xi^eis 
ffvyxelv Kal to. ovofiara Kal to, Wv-q (ix. 
442), which is a mere admission of the 
impossibility of any historical criticism 
of this part of the Catalogue. 

760. The ships enumerated amount to 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


Tt9 Tap roiv o^ apiaro^; erjv, (rv fiot evveire, ixovcra, 

auTMV ?;S iTTTTCov, OL dfji Krpe'iZT^icnv eirovro. 

'iTTTTOt fxev yu-ey apiaraL ecrav ^\>r]p7)Tui8ao, 

Ta<i Eu/it;\o9 eXavve 7ro8u)Kea<i opvtOa^ w?, 

orpi'^a'; oleTea<i, aracfivXrji iirl vmtov iiaa^' 765 

ra<i ev TltepiTji, dpe'*^ apryvpoTo^o>i AiroWcov, 

afi(pQ) 67]\6ia<i, (f)o^ov "Ap7;o9 (popeovaai;. 

avhpwv av p,ey apiaro^i erjp TeXa/jbciyvco'i Ata<?, 

o(f>p' 'A^tXeu? ixrjvtev o yap ttoXu (f)6pTaT0<i r^ev. 

761. Tap A : rhp S Vr. b : t' Sp 12. 762. ATpeOaiciN G. 

CQR. 765. icex^ac P(Rszy7?-.): icoereac iMor. Bar. 766. CN . .»_. „ 

mepiHl : nHpeiH Pap. a, J {supr. ei over Hp : yp. In niepJH J^) I'.ust. : nHepiwi 
A (nicpiH A"', T.W.A.): 9HplH Hail. d. 768. dNSpciN b' HQ 7fiQ 

9epTaTOC Ar. ft : 9epTepoc JQS Hail, d, Par. d e f h, Vr. b. 

763. ficQN 
Kai Par. h. 

1186. Thuc. i. 10 sup;gests that by 
taking a mean between 120, the largest, 
and 50, the smallest number mentioned 
for a ship's crew (see 510 and 719), we 
may gain an approximate idea of the 
numbers of the Greek army. The mean 
being 85, the total on this plan will 
come to just over 100,000. 

763. ♦HpHTiddao, another 'pappo- 
nymic' (see on 621). Eumelos was son 
of Admetos, son of Pheres. It is of 
course possible that the poet meant that 
the horses were the horses of Admetos, 
and only lent to Eumelos by his father, 
or inherited, as in the case of the 
NryXTji'at 'lttttol of Nestor, A 597 ; but this 
is not likely, of. ^ 376. 

765. oxpixac olereac, one in coats and 
in years. The 6- is the same as in 
dirarpos, A 257, but the relation of it to 
the commoner a- (for sm-. short form of 
sem-, one) is not clear. Cf. also oydcrTcjp  
6tJ.oydcrTU}p by the side of dydaTopes • 
dd€\<pol di8v/j.oi in Hesych., and o/xos by 
ctjua. The -i- of oierea'S presurnablj' 
represents only the lengthening by ictus 
before F of oFerias. Cf. Hesych. averyj- 
rd avToerfj beside deria- rd rwt avrQi 
eVft yevvihfxeva, and again iierrjs- 6 avro- 
errjs. Wackernagel's explanation oiFo- 
FeTrjs {olFos = o7ie) leaves the other forms 
unaccounted for. See Schulze Q. E. 
p. 495. CTa9u\H (distinguished by 
accent from a-Ta<pv\ri, a bunch of grapes) 
is explained by Schol. A as Xao^oi'/cos 
Sia^TjTrjs, 8s d/xa irXdros Kal vipos fierpel, 
i.e. the still familiar mason's level, con- 
sisting of a plummet hanging in a 
T-square, The sense is that the two 

mares were exactly of equal height at 
every point as measured bj^a level across 
their backs. Reichel remarks {H. W. 
22) that such equality was important 
when horses were harnessed to the same 
yoke across their necks. 

766. The reading here is doubtful. 
n.ripeLT]L seems to be merely an itacistic 
variant ; though Steph. Byz. and 
Hesychios mention a town of that name 
in Thessaly, nothing more is known of 
it, and it is probably onl}^ a deduction 
from tliis line, supported by the fact 
that the position of Pieria is clearly too 
far north. Besides, the horses were 
evidently bred ' by Apollo during his 
service with Admetos at Pherai. Hence 
Valckenaer conj. ^rjpeLrjL, which has a 
shade of ms. support, and would be 
satisfactory but for the fact that the 
Thessalian town is ^epai (711), ^ijpai 
being in ilessenia. But the patronymic 
^7]pT]Tidd7]s points to some variation of 
quantity, as it is evidently connected 
with the name of the town. 

767. 9660N "ApHOc 9opeoucac, carry- 
ing the panic of war into the ranks of 
the enemy. Cf. note on E 272 ix-qarwpe (?) 

769. This and the next line are an 
awkward interpolation, apparently in- 
tended to bring the Catalogue into 
harmony with lines such as ^ 276. 
Schulze Q. E. p. 349 has shewn that the 
scansion fx-qvle is purely Attic, the pen- 
ultimate being always short in H. He 
suggests with great probability that 768 
originally ended TroSas Cokv% 'Ax'XXeiJs, 
and was followed by 771. Euripides 


lAIAAOC B (ii) 

iTTTTOi 6\ di (^opee<TKOV a[JiviJbova HrjXetcova. 

aX)C 6 /juev ev vtjecrai, Kopcovlcrt, irovTOiropoiai 

KeiT aTrofjbr]VL(Ta<i W.ya/j,efivovc Trot/Jievi \aoiv 

^ATpetSrjL, Xaol Be Trapa prjyfitvt, 6a\.dcrcr7]<i 

SiCTKOicnv reprrovTo koI alyaperjicriv levT€<i 

To^oialv 6^' iTTTroi 8e Trap' apfiacriv olcnv eKaaro'^ 

XcoTov ipeTTTOfjuevoc iXeodpeirrov re creXivov 

ecTTacrav ap/juaTa S' ev ireirvKaapjeva Kelro avaKTWV 

ev K\Lcrt7]i^- ol S' ap'^v ap7]C(f)i\ov 7ro6eovTe<; 

<f>OiTCt)v 6v9a Koi evOa Kara arparov ovSe fjud-^ovTO. 

ol S' dp' taav, ft)9 ei re irvpX ')(6oiv Trdaa ve/JiocTO- 
yala 8' vTrecrTevd-^i^e Atl &)<? TepiriKepavvcoL 
yayofJbevwL, ore r d/x<pl Tv(f)(oel yalav ifjudaarji, 




772. dnouHNidcac Bar. Mor. H nojui€[Ni Pap. |. 773. napaJ H : nepi U supr. || 
pHrjixeiNi Pap. a. 777. b' eO : 3' au PR : 9^ U. \\ qnoktoc Pap. a. 778. oi 

a' : Ad' Vr. b. 780. YcoN : ^ccaN P. 781. unecroNdxize JPQRS Pap. a 

Harl. a: unocTONdxize GH. 782. -^COOlxiNCO} : dpiarapxcs ovtcos- rives x<a6xj.eNOC 

cbs cltt' (iWTjs dpxvs Schol. Pap. a (Did.). || T om. G : r' Schol. on 17. li TU9cbNi P : 
TUfcoea Pap. a. 1| ludccei CGQ(f e corr.) Vr. a. 

Iph. Aid. 206-26 clearly had the passage 
before him, but knows of no horses 
fleeter than those of Eumelos, with .which 
Achilles competes in speed of foot. 

771. KopwNici, a word recurring only 
in the phrase vrjval k. No doubt the 
ordinary expl., curved (of the upward 
curve at bow and stern), is correct ; cf. 
Kopiivrj, of the curved handle or hook on 
the door (a 441, etc.), and the tip of the 
bow (A 111). (A few ancient commen- 
tators e.i{plained ' black as crows ' !) 

772. SnojuHNicac: the dTro- here seems 
to be intensive, as in our vulgar phrase 
'raging away,' giving full vent to his 
anger. So also H 230, I 426, T 62, tt 
378. Cf. r 415 direxdaipeLv, T 183 
dirapeacrairOaL, I 309 aiiroenreiv, f 49 diro- 
6avu.daai, anil Lat. desaevire, etc. 

774 = S 626. airaNeHiciN, either from 
ai^, as a spear for hunting goats, or from 
dtauii} : the former derivation is supported 
by I 156, where they are actually used 
against goats. 

777. ncnuKOCueNa, wrapped up with 
covers, weirXoi, as E 194, to keep them 
clean while not in use. In ^ 503 the 
word seems to be used in a hyperbolical 
sense, 'hidden by its ornaments.' 

780. We have two more short similes 
describing the march to battle, in addi- 
tion to those of 459 sqq., to be followed 

by others at the beginning of T. 780 
seems to be an exaggeration of 455, and 
to refer to light, which is as great as if 
the whole earth were on fire. The idea 
is not tlie same as in A 596 /Mapvavro 
di/ irvpbs aWofxevoio. neuoito is pass, 
only here. The act. means to deal out 
or drive to pasture (t 233) ; the mid. to 
feed upon (of fire, ■^ 177), to inhabit, or 
to possess (Z 195). 

781. The connexion of Zeus repinKe- 
pavvos with the phenomena of a volcanic 
district has been thought to allude to 
the violent electrical disturbances which 
often accompany eruptions. "Apiua is 
said to be a volcanic region in Kilikia, 
or, according to others, in Mysia, Lydia, 
or Syria. The latter name suggests 
Aram, the native name of Syria. 
Evidently Arima or the Arimoi are 
best located in mythland. A, perhaps 
following Ar. , gives 'Elvapiixois, and so 
Virgil must have read, Aen. ix. 716 
' durumque cubile Inarime lovis imperiis 
imposta Typhoeo.' The metaphor of 
lashing reappears in the story of the 
defeat of Typhoeus by Zeus in Hes. 
Theog. 857, where he is described as a 
monster with a hundred snake's heads 
spitting fire, the son of Gaia and Tartaros. 
So also Pindar, in a magnificent passage 
oi Pyth. i., where his birthplace is given 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


eiv ApifMotf;, bOi (paai Tvcpcoeoi; e/jifievat evpci^- 
ft)? apa TO)V viro iroaal fie'ya aTevw^tl^eTO yala 
ep-^ofievoiv fidXa S' mku hieirpriaaov irehioio. 

TpMaiv 8 ayyeXot; rjXOe TToSr/i/e/zos' (OKea 'lpt<; 
Trap Ai09 aljio'^oio avv dyyeXlriL aXejeivrjf 
ol S' dyopd<; djopevov eVt Tlpidfj^oio OvpTjtat 
'Trdvre<i o/xTjiyepee*;, rjfiev veoi 7]8e <yepovTe<i. 
dyyov S iaTa/j,evrj Trpocrecpi] TroSa? co/cea ^Ipi'i' 
etcraro 8e (f)6o<yyrjv vu Upid/jioio UoXlttji, 

b? Tp(0(OV CTKOTTO^ 1^6, 7roScOK€i7]lCri TT eiT i6 (0<i , 

rvfjb/3a)t eV dKporaTcoL Klav/jrao yepovro<i, 
Sey/jievo'i oirirore vaviptv dcfiopfM-rjOelev 'A^atot* 



783. Some add x<^pc>3i ^ni dpuocNTi, "T3hc &n nioNi di^jucoi Strabo. 784. 

CTONQxizeTO CGHPl^RC^ Harl. a (with € supr. over e instead of o). 789. 

6juiHrupeec P Vr. a. 790. JueTeq>H Vr. b (and H supr.). 791-5 ad. Ar. 791. 

icQTO Pap. a. Ij de : rdip S Vr. b. |j eicauewH Eust. il uieT AR Vr. a : uieT J Pap. a. 
792. noacoKeiaici G. 793. aicuiHTao Pap. a. IJ repONTOC : aNOKTOc Pap. ^ Q 

(and 7p. J'")- 

as Kilikia, but his prison as beneath 
Cuniae and Aetna. 

785. 9ienpHccoN nedioio : for this local 
gen. see H. G. § 149; it 'expresses a 
vague local relation {within, in the sphere 
of, etc.).' 'This use of the gen. is 
almost confined to set phrases ; accord- 
ingly it is only found with the gen. 
in -010 (the archaic form').' Cf. 801, and 
264 'iva Trprjffawfxei' 6do?o, and note on 
A 483. 

786. We now come to the Catalogue of 
the Trojans and allies, introduced by a 
short narrative. 

788. The gate of the king's palace has 
always been the place of justice and of 
audience among eastern nations ; a 
familiar example is the ' Sublime Porte.' 

791-5 were obelized by Ar. on good 
grounds : ' if the advance of the Greeks 
was all that had to be announced, there 
was no need of the goddess ; but if 
the Trojans lacked courage and had to 
be persuaded to advance, the goddess 
must appear in person. When the gods 
take human shape, they are wont to 
leave at their departure some sign by 
which they may be known. The message 
is not adapted to the tone of a son 
speaking to his father, but is intense 
{eTTLTera/xeuoL) and reproachful ; and the 
words of 802 do not suit Polites ; it is 
Iris herself who should impose the 
command.' On the other hand, 1. 798 

is rather suited to a human warrior than 
to a goddess. But the whole passage 
seems forced, and out of place. 804-5 
should belong to a description of the first 
landing of the Greeks (compare the 
similar advice of Nestor -362-8, and the 
building of the wall in H 337-43) ; and 
it has been remarked that as a matter of 
fact the numbers of the enemy must 
have been largely reduced by the tenth 
year of the war, especially as the Myr- 
midons are no longer among them. 
Robert {Bild u. Lied p. 17) has shewn 
that Polites was probably the Trojan 
sentinel in the Kypria, so that the 
whole passage probably comes thence 
with the rest of the Catalogue. 

793. The tomb of Aisyetes is not 
again named as a landmark ; but other 
barrows are mentioned in a similar man- 
ner, e.g. 811, and the a-Tj^a'lXoi/ K 415, 
A 166, 371, ft 349. 

794. 9erueNoc, apparently a perf. part, 
with irregular accent. So also I 191, 
S 524, i; 385, TTOTideypLevos H 415, I 
628, K 123, viroSiyixevos v 310, tt 189. 
Cobet would read dexfJ-evos (a form 
mentioned in the Etym. M. and found 
as a variant on I 191 in A) as a non- 
them. pres. His objection to the text. 
however, applies only to the ordinary 
view that diyfievos is an aor. form 
(idey/xriv) which is plainly unsuitable to 
the sense tvaiting. For other cases of 

110 lAIAAOC B (ii) 

Tci)c fJLLV ieLaafxevT] irpoae^rj iToha<i wKea 'Ipi?* 795 

" Si yepov, alei roi /jlvOol <f)LXot aKpcroi eicrtv, 
W9 TTOT eV €lpr)v7]<i' TroXe/xo'i S' dXtacrTO? opcopev. 
7} fiev hr) fjboXa ttoWo, fMd^a<; elcrrfKvOov dv8po)V, 
dX)C ov iT(o roLovhe rocrovSe re \aov birwira' 
Xltjv jdp (j)vWoLaLv iocKore'i rj ylra/xadoLaiv 800 

ep-^ovrat irehiOio fjLa')(rj(TOfievoL irporl acnv. 
"l^KTop, (Tol Se ixaXiar eirLTeXkojiai, a)Se Se pe^ac 
TToXXol yap Kara acnv p^eya Tipidfjiov eiriKOvpoL, 
dX\,7] 8' dXkfov ryXcoacra TroXva-Trepecov dvOpmirwv 
TOiatv €Ka(Tro<; dvrjp arj/xatveTO), olcn irep dp^ei, 805 

TO)V S' i^rjyeLado), Koa/jLTjcrdfievo^; TroXtrjra'i. ' 

CO? €<pad\ "F^KTcop 8' ov Ti 6ed<; eVo? rj<yvoi7]a€v, 
alyjra S' eXva dyoprjv iirl reu^ea 8 iaaevovro. 

795. JUIN : c]9iN Pap. t, : C91N J {yp. juin). !| eicaueNH Pap. a. 1| npoce9H ACP 
Vr. a : ueTe9H fl (and yp. A). 797. COC nor' cn' : coc t^ nor Pap. a : wc re 

noT Pap. ^ : wcnep €n' G. 798. fiSH ju^n Ar. (A supr., T. W.A.) S Hail, d, Par. e 
j, Vr. b : H ain jui^n Par. li (and yp. i^). After 798 Pap. f adds eNea iQon n[XeiCTOuc 
9purac ajNepac aio[XonwXouc = F 185. 799. toT6n te U. 800. XiaN J {yp. 
XIhn) : XeiHN Pap. f. 801. npori Ar. Zen. Aph. {ksupr., T.W.A.): nepJ a 

802. wSe 5^ : cbae re [(t]J : Sibe. ti L. 803. Kara : n[€pi ? Pap. f. 804. 
noXucnop^coN S. 806. 5' vm. U {add. U^). || esHrHceco Q. 807. c9aT Pap. 

a. II ArNCOHCCN H : HPNOiHiceN Pap. a. 

perf. without reduplication see H. G. than widely scattered, and even so is not 

§ 23 (oi5a, ^pxarai, ecraai, ? lepevro appropriately used of certain definite 

fj 125, and one or two other doubtful tribes, instead of mankind at large, 

forms). Or dey/j-evos itself might be a But if the passage is to be saved from 

syncopated present ; there is ])robably ludicrous weakness, we must omit both 

no reason for supposing that the atfec- 803 and 804 ; the injunction then be- 

tion of X by /x is confined to aor. and comes, not an absurdly obvious piece of 

perfect stems. This is apparently the tactical advice, but a call to immediate 

view taken by van L. Ench. p. 384 ; action, such as the context requires : 

S^Xarat may then also be a nou-theni. 'let each commander give his men the 

pres. = Mx-vTai. (M 147). Na09iN : this word (to advance) and lead them against 

form of vavs occurs only for an ablatival the enemy.' As Greeks and Trojans 

gen., with a specially locative sense. always talk freely together, it is absurd 

H. G. §§ 154-8. to suppose that the Trojans and their 

795. uiN in this phrase is to be taken allies had difl[iculty in understanding 
with npoce9H. one another's language. Cf. note on 

796. 9IX01 is pred., aicpiToi {eiuUess, 867. 

see on 246) goes with fx-vdoi. 805. For chuqin^tco cf. A 289. 

802. "Ektop, coi 5e : for the use of 5e „^,. . , tt 1 t *■ i. 

n „„, ' s' A- „T, D,. ir Q 806. noXiHToc, a Herodotean form not 

ci. acbaiffTe, aoi oe, Aisch. rr. y. 6, . . '  c a 1 

n \ 1 o (A Kin recurring 111 H. ; ttomttis is lound only 

and notes 011 A 340, 540. r\ rro v A.-^n ioi nna 

804. Cf. A 437-8; and \ 364-5 old re « ^^8, X 429, 77 131, p 206. 
TToWovs ^bffKei yaia ij.i\aiva iroXvairepias 807. ArNOiHceN, ' the word which led 
a.vdpiS)irovs, where the epithet is more in astray the interpolator of 791-5,' accord- 
harmony with the metaphor of men as ing to Ar., may quite well mean 'did 
fed by the soil ; here it means no more not ignore,' i.e. disobey (Schol. A). 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


Trdcrai 8' dotyvvvro TrvXai, e'/c S' eaavro Xao^i, 
Tre^Oi iTTTTJ/e? re* ttoXi)? S opv/xaySo^i opoopet,. 

eari 8e ra irpoTrdpoiOe ttoXio? altreia koXmvt), 
iv rrreSicot anrdvevde, TrepiSpofio^ evda koI evda, 
TTjv T) rot, dv8pe<i Harleiav KtK\/]aKovatv, 
dddvaroL 8e re arifxa TroXvo-KcipO/jLoio M.upcvTj'i' 
evtfa Tore Iptoe? re oieKpiuev rjo eiriKovpoi. 

Tpft)crl p.ev 7]<y€fi6v€ve fMeyaf; Kopv6aLoXo<i "^KToop 



810, opurjuaabc COHJPRfT. 
Pap. a. 813. BaxeiaN Pa[>. a. 

811. poXhoc J (1 supr. over h) L- : n6Xic U 
814. noXucKdpjuoio P. 

809. nacai avrl rod oiXai (and so M 
340) Ai\ , i.e. the gates were tlirowu loide 
open ; because, with the doubtful excep- 
tion of E 789 irvKal Aapdauiai, H. does not 
seem to have conceived Troy as having 
any gates except the Skaian. But in all 
the other phrases (A 65, N 191, 408, 
548, etc., and even i 389) to which Ar. 
referred to support his theory of ttSs = 
6\os, the emphasis lies on the fact that 
the whole of something is affected when 
it might have been only a part ; the 
difficulty here obviously is that we can 
hardly conceive a ^)«/'< of a gate being 
opened ; iraaai could at the most mean 
that both the aavides were opened, not 
one only, and then it would obviously 
be an unnatural phrase. It is better to 
consider the poet as conceiving Ilios, 
like all great towns, as many -gated, but 
as only naming the one gate wdiich was 
specially recorded by his tradition. 

811. The tomb of Myrine, like that of 
Aisyetes, is not again named in the 
Hiad ; but both names are probably 
traditional, and do not look like the 
invention of an interpolator. Myi'ine is 
said to have been one of the Amazons 
who invaded Phrygia (F 189). She is 
evidently the eponym of the Aiolic 
town Myrina ; Kynie and Smyrna 
equall}' derived their names from 
Amazons, Strabo 550, 623, 633. For 
the language of gods and men see A 
403 ; TTjv fiev Sij/nwdeaTepav dvOptbTrois t7\v 
8e oKridrj deals Trpoadwrei, Schol. B. 

813. Barleia = Brier hill. 

816. The Catalogue of the Trojans 
differs notably from that of the Greeks 
in the evident want of detailed know- 
ledge of the countries with which it 
deals. Three groups of towns are given, 

two without an}'^ tribal names (828 f., 
835 f., 853 f.), all lying along tlie Helles- 
pont and the south shore of the Eusine. 
Niese suggests that these may probably 
be taken from an early form of the 
Argonautic legend, as they all lie on 
the course there taken. The rest of 
the Catalogue contains only names of 
tribes with occasional mention of a 
single city. The arrangement of the 
allies is radial, not concentric, along 
four lines running NW. (844-50), E. 
(851-7), SE. (858-63), S. (864-77), 
the extremity of each line being marked 
by rrjXe or Tr]\6dev. The Trojans and 
allied tribes form a central group 
(816-43). There are serious differences 
from the rest of the Hiad ; for instance in 
K 428 tr. we have a list of Trojan allies 
omitting the Paphlagonians (who do 
not reappear in the Iliad) and Kikones 
(P 73 only, and Od.), but including 
the Leleges and Kaukones whom this 
Catalogue omits, though they are named 
again in T 96, 329, 4> 86. Ennomos 
(860) and Nastes and Amphinomos (875) 
are not slain by Achilles in tlie fight 
at the river as we have it in <i>. In S 
511 the leader of the Mysians is not 
Chromis or Ennomos, but Hyrtios. On 
the other hand, several lines seem to be 
taken from the Iliad, e.g. 822 from M 
99 f., 837-9 from M 95-7, 831-4 from A 
329-32. This all seems to point to 
older material worked up and partly 
adapted to this place. KopueaioXoc ex- 
plained 6 aldWuV, 6 KLVWV TTjV Kopvda 

waving the helm, or more simply with 
sparkling helm, cf. note on E 707. 
Grammarians and mss. vary in the 
accent, many writing -atoXos as in the 
simple adj. 

112 lAlAAOC B (ii) 

TlptafXiS7]<i' afia tcoi ye iroXv ifKelcrroL kul aptaroL 
\aol d(op7]crcrovTo fxe/xaoTe<; iy^eirjLat. 

AapSavicov avT rjp'^ev eu? Trai'? Ay^icrao 
Alveia<;, rov vir Ay-^iarjc t€K6 SV 'AcppooLrrj, 820 

"IS?/? €V KV7]/u.0LcrL deu /SpoTMt evvrjOelcra, 
ouK olo?, afia rcot ye Svco ^AvT7]vopo<i vie, 
'Ap^eXoT^o9 T 'A/ca/ua? re, /xa^T/? ev elSore Trdai]^. 

ot Se ZeXeiav evaiov viral iroBa vetarov IS?;?, 
acfivetoL, irivovTe^ vScop /xeXav Aia7]7roLo, 825 

Tpcoe?, TMV avT ^/3%e Au/caofo? ayXao'i vto? 
Ildv8apo<i, ML Kol To^ov 'AttoXXwv auT09 e8(0Kev. 

ot 8' ^A8pi'](TTecdv T el^ov kuI SP]/xov AiraLcrov 
KOL JIiTveLav e^ov kul TrjpeiTj'i 6po<i atirv, 
TMV ripx ' ASpT]aTO<; re Koi A/xc^to? \Lvo6(op7]^, 830 

vie 8i;&) Me/307ro9 TlepKcoaiov, 09 irepl iravrcov 
rjihee fMavTO(Tvva<i, ovBe 01)9 7ral8a<; eaaKe 

817. Tobl re: Tdbae P. 818. ueuacbrec CHJPQf/. 819. aSr' : t' qut* 

P : 3' out' U: t' au L : t' R. 820. drxeiCH . . a9po3iTHi Pap. a^ (-hi . . -h 

Pap. a-). 821. KNHiiHci Q : knhuqici G. 823. apxiXoxoc R. [| t' oin. Pap. f. 

824. NiaTo[N Pap. a. 825. neiNONTec Pap. a ^. 826. xobN x' P Vr. A. || aQ 

Vr. A. 828. oi 5' apa 5pHCTeidN PR {tlv€s ap. East.) : oY 3' ap' aSpHcreidN YLU: 
oY t' 69pHCT€iaN J {yp. oY 3' ap' ddpdcreiaN). || 63pdcT€iaN G {om. t). 829. 

nixuaN exoN G : nlxuoN eTxon Strabo. t| xupefwc GP. 830. a9pacx6c G : 

aNapHcxoc S. II au9eioc Pap. a. 831. nepKCOciou : KepKoniou G. 832. oub' 
eouc ACGHJPQR Vr. a b A : oxibk eouc U Lips. Eton. Vr. c : ou3' eouc Ambr. : 
oude6uc Pap. a. 

818. ueua6xec : for the variation in A 106 sqq. A similar phrase is used 

quantity compared with yote/xawres N 40 of Teukros, O 441. 

see H. G. § 26. The partic. is used 828. These towns lie at the extreme 

without an intin. = eager, N 40, 46 (78 N. of the Troad, where the Hellespont 

tJLaifji.Q(nv), 276, etc. opens out into the Sea of Marmora. 

-,„ „ ^^ T-. J  /I Pityeia is possibly the later Lampsakos. 

819 For the Dardamans (whence Adiasteia was a local goddess = Nemesis, 

Dardanelles ) see T 215 sqq. ^^^^ Adrastos perhaps originally a god 

821. Cf. E 313 ; and for eeh Bpoxwi identical with the Adrastos of Sikyon 

euNHeeTca II 176. (see note on 572). It is certainly curious 

nr^, mi m - X 1 that he should appear here with Am phios, 

824 These Tp^es are a separate c an .e^ti ^ ,]^^^[^ fo^m of Amphiaraos 

who had doubtless split off from the .rdosely hound up with Adrastos in the 

Trojans proper, and settled a short dis- ^heban legend. Amphios of Paisos or 

tance away to the NE. See also note j^ -^^^ -^ ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ g^j ^^^ 

on E 105. The Aisepos runs into the x.NoecbpHs see 529. 

Sea ot Marmora near Kyzikos. NeiaxoN. gg^^ ^ ^ ^^^_^^^ j^^ both -places 

nethermost wheve Ida runs down to the ^^^^ ^-^^ ^ .3, -^^^ f^^. ^^^^ ^.^ ^^^^^^^^ 

sea ; vide A 381. Merops seems to have migrated from 

827. x6hon, the bow, in the sense of Perkote (see 835), or rather the name 

skill in archery, ace. to Schol. A ; for points to some hero-worship common to 

Pandaros had acquired his bow himself, all the district ; cf. Ap. Rhod. i. 975. 

lAIAAOC B (ri) 


cneiYeLV e? iroXefiov (fidi<Ti'jvopa- rco 8e ol ov re 
•Keideadrjv • Krjpe<; yap ayov jxeXavo^ Oavdroto. 

ol S' apa YlepKcoTTjv /cal II paKTCOv dfi<peve/jiovTo 835 

Kol Srjcrrov Kol "A^vSov €j(ov Kol hlav ^ Apia^rjv, 
rSiv avd' 'TpTaKl8r}<; ^;/3%' "Ao-to? 6p-y^afxo<; dvhpdv, 
' Aato<i "TpraKihri<i, ov ^ Apla^rjdev (pepov Ittttol 
aWcove^ jxeyakoi, irorapiov diro ^eW'>]€VTO>;, 

'Itttto^oo? 8 dye (j}v\a UeXacrychp iy^eatficopcov, 840 

TMV Oi Adpiaav ipi^ciiXaKa vaceTaeaKOV 
Twv '^]px 'l73"7ro^oo9 re llvXaia t 6^o<i ' Ap7]o^, 
vie Suoi ArjOoLo TleXaayov TevTa/j,i8ao. 

avrdp ^ptjiKa^; rjy A/cayLia? Kat Tl€ipoo<i r]po)<i, 
oa(Tov<i '¥jW7]a7rovTO<; dydppoo<i ivTO<i iepyei. 845 

^v(f)r]/xo<i 8 dp^o'i }\iK6va)V rjv al'XfiTjTdcov, 
UtOf TpOL^1]VOLO 8t,0Tp€cf)€0^ KeaStto. 

835. nepKcbnHN G Vr. b. 837. tcon 3' au G. 841. XdpiccoN GJP?7 sw^j?-. : 
XdpTccaN A (T.W.A. ). |t NQieraeCKON G.IPQ : NaierdacKON O. 842 om. Pap. a. |1 
ozco (!. 844. neipcoc J Eust. 847. 9ioTpo9eoc GJ. 

regarded as lying within the dominion 
of Priam, though having their own 
chiefs ; cf. ii 544-5, where the limits 
given include all the towns hitherto 
named. (So Leleges and Kilikes, not 
nametj here, lived in Troas, from a com- 
parison of T 92, Z 397, with I 329.) 
The Larissa should then be that known 
as Kad' 'A/j.a^LToi', only twenty-five miles 
from Troy (Strabo p. 620). But this does 
not suit P 301, where this same Hippo- 
thoos dies ttjX' dirb Aapi<n}s. On this 
ground Strabo decides for Larissa near 
Kyme in Aiolis. The simplest explana- 
tion is to suppose that the Catalogue 
speaks of the Trojan Larissa, but that 
the poet of P was thinking of another. 
This he might easily do, as no less than 
eleven towns of the name are recorded 
by Steph. Byz. and Strabo (p. 440). 
The name is always brought into con- 
nexion with the Pelasgians — whether as 
a historical fact or as a mere hypothesis 
we are not in a position to say. 

845. £nt6c kipre.1, of a boundary on 
one side only, see 617, M 201, and 
544. The Thracians seem to be limited 
to the Thracian Chersonese and neigh- 
bourhood ; Peiroos comes from Ainos, 
A 520. Iphidanias the Thracian leader 
(A 221) is not named here. 

846. For the Kikones see l 39 sqq. 
They lived on the coast of Thrace 

836. As Niese remarks, it is natural 
that in a TrepiTrXovs such as that of 
the Argonauts Sestos and Abydos, on 
opposite sides of the Hellespont, should 
be joined together, but not that in a 
geographical list they should be put 
under the same ruler. Sestos on the 
N. shore must have belonged to the 
Thracians (844). Ace. to Schol. B, 
however, Sestos was awarded to Abydos 
in a dispute with Athens on the authority 
of this line. The other towns are on 
the S. shore. 

839. aYecoNcc, apparently sorrel or 
brown. The epithet is used to mean («) 
shining, especially of iron or bronze, 
(&) reddish-coloured or tawny, of animals 
(cf. fulv'us from fulg-eo), especially the 
lion, the bull (H 488), and eagle (0 690). 
Others understand it to mean ' of fiery 
courage,' others (see Ameis on a 372) 
'shining' with sleek coats or feathers. 
It is hardly possible to decide between 
these ; the only important argument 
urged is that in 185, where Hector's 
four horses are Sdy^os, tloSapyos, MOwv, 
and Adfiwos, the two first clearly refer 
to colour ; but the last name would 
support Ameis's interpretation. 

840. ^rxeciucbpcoN, see on A 242. The 
Pelasgians are introduced as though 
they were inhabitants of the Troad, all 
the preceding nations being evidently 

114 lAlAAOC B (ii) 

avrap Ilvpal'^fx,7)<; aye ITaiova? ayKvXoTo^ov^ 

TrjXoOeV i^ 'AyU-uSwt'O?, UTT A^LOV €VpV pioVTO^, 

A^iov, ov KaWicTTOv v8(op eTTLKthvarai, aiav. 850 

Tlacp^ajovcov S riyelro Yivkaifxeveo'; Xdarcov Krjp 
i^ Fivercov, odev rjfjuLovcov <yevo<i ajporepdcov, 
oi pa l^vTwpov e'^ov Kal Srjcra/jiov dfM(j)€vefM0VT0 
d/ji(f)i re Uapdeviov Trorafiov KKvra Scofiar kvaiov, 
J^pco/xvav T AljiaXov re Kal v'\Jrr}\ov<; ^pvdivov;. 855 

aiirdp ^ AXl^mvcov 'OS/o? Kal K7rL(TTpo^o<; ypx^^ 

848. Some added riHXerdNOc e' ul6c nepiSesioc 'AcTcponaToc (Eust.). 849. 
auudcoNOC : dBuaclbNoc Steph. Byz., Suidas. 850. aTaN : qYh Harl. b, Par. d^ 
(StTTcDs ■>} ypa.(pri Eust.). Others wrote 'A., a>i k. li. e. AYhc (Strabo) or 'A. oO k. 
u. k. ATa (Eudoxos ajT. Scliol. A 239. atoN nvh ov tt)v yfjv ei'dTjcrav dXXd riva Tnjyriv 
Eust.). 851. nauq)Xar6NcoN R. || &' 07n. S. || nuXaiuoN^oc R. 852. es : Kai 
G. II ^NCTHC (or ^N€THc) Zeu. 854. bcoJUiaT' eNQlON : epr' eN^oNTo Strabo : 
^NQON J. 855. KpcojuiaN JR : rtf«s KpcouNaN KcoBiaX6N xe Strabo (cf. Ap. llhod. 
ii. 942 Kpoj^iaXov KpQ/j.i'av re). \\ dpieuNouc PQ : epueeiNouc Pap. a. || Kallisthenes 
added after 855 KauKcoNac <d'> aGx' fire floXuKXeoc uf6c qjuujuicon, oY nepi 
riapeeNioN noTaubN KXurii Qcouax' eNaiON (Eust.). 856. oi fxiv 'AXazcoNCON, ol 5' 
'AjuazcoNCON, TO 5' is 'AXuBhc, €2 'AXonwc rj is 'AX66hc Strabo. ypd(pei ["E<popos] 
ovTws aux6p 'AjuazcoNcoN 'O. kqi "E. fipxcN, ^Xe6Nx' ks 'AXvinHC, be 'AjuazoNiScoN 
r^Noc ecxiN ideia. 'OXizconcon and XoXuBhc are also mentioned by Eust., but all 
these variants are 'conjectures in the teeth of the old Mss.' (Strabo). 

till the time of Herod, (vii. 59, 108, ' mules ' in the literal sense is of course 

110). a physical impossibility. Hehn thinks 

848. The Paionians are elsewhere de- that the Enetoi made a trade of breeding 
scribed as spearmen and charioteers, mules and sold them ' unbroken ' to 
i.e. heavy -armed soldiers, not archers their neighbours, but dyporipa cannot 
(except K 428). Herod, mentions the =d5/jL7]$. However, the discovery of the 
legend that they were of Trojan lineage, breeding of mules is attributed to the 
v. 13 (vii. 20, 75). Asteropaios is not Mysians, who were neighbours of the 
mentioned among their leaders, although, Paphlagonians and gave Priam his mules ; 
according to 4> 156, he must, by a strict see note on ft 278. In historical times 
reckoning of days, have been in Ilios the only known 'Everol (or 'EveroL as 
at the time which the Catalogue is made Strabo writes) were Illyrians (sub- 
to suit. The praise given to the Axios sequently the founders of Venice). It 
(W. of the Strymon in Macedonia, now was concluded that they must have 
the Vistrizza) caused great difficulties, as it emigrated W. from Paphlagonia very 
is and always was, apparently, a very soon after the Trojan war. Mules are of 
dirty stream. The variants given above course commonly mentioned in the 11., 
testify to the attempts to evade the though the ass is only once named 
difficulty by transferring the eulogy to (A 558, where see note). 
' Aia, ' which was said to be the name of 855. The lines added by Kallisthenes 
the main spring of the Axios, and to be (vide supra) are of course intended to 
clear and bright. remedy the omission of the Kaukones, 

851. XdcioN KHp : cf. A 189. Plato who appear among the Trojan allies in 

quotes the phrase, Theaet. 194 E. The K 429, T 329. Other Kaukones in Elis 

' wild mules ' are supposed to be Jag- are mentioned in y 366 (cf. Herod, i. 

getais of Tartary (equus hemionus, Linn.), 147). 

a species intermediate between the horse 856. In this line we ap^^ear to reach 

and the ass, of which some rumours fairyland. The conjectural readings of 

must have come westward along the the ancients (vide supra) shew that no 

coast of the Euxine. A breed of wild identification with historical regions was 

lAIAAOC B (ii) 


rifkodev i^ A\v/3rj(i, odev up'yvpov earl ryeveOXr). 

M.v(T(bv 8e Xpoyu.t9 VPX^ '^'^^ "Eivvo/j,o<i olwvLcnrj^' 
aXV ovK olcovolacv epvauTO Krjpa pbeXaivav, 
aX>C iSd/jbi] inro X^P^'' TroSoj/ceo? AlaKiSao 860 

iv TTorafXMi, ode nrep Tp6i)a<; Kepai^e koI aX\ov<i. 

^6pKv<; av ^pvya<; rjye koI ^AaKavio'i deoecSij'i 
T7]\ i^ ^A(rKavL7]<i' /jbefiaaav S' vapuvL fid'^eaOac. 

M.7]tocnv av Mecr^X?;? re Kal "AvTi(f)o^ rjyrjadadrjv, 
vie Td\aifieveo<;, t<w Tvyairj re/ce Xcfxpr), 865 

oi Kol M.i]cova<; rjyov vtto T/jbcoXoyi yeyaMTa^. 

NacTTT^? av lLapo)v riyrjcraro jBap^apo^oivwv, 

ot M.i\,7]T0V e-^OV ^6ipO)V T 6pO<i (IKpiTOcfivWoV 

858. xpo"'oc J {yp. xp<5"ic). 860-1 dd. At. 861. Kepdize Koi : Kcpaf- 
zCTod. 862. au : a^ Stiabo. 863. ucJueTNi Pap. a: ucuiNH{i) GPQC/i 864. 

JLieceXHC : nves M^CTpHC Eust. || re om. P. 865. nuXaiJU^NCOC S U: nuXaiu^NOC Q : 
nHXeucNeoc G : yp. xeXejuieN^oc J (sujn: a\ over Xeju). || ruraiH : TuraiH P (and 
H S'upr.) : iv Ticn rupaJH Schol. Pap. a (so Mass. ap. Eust.). || XIjuinhi Chairis and 
Diodoros. 866. irpoaypd<f)ovai rivh {r) Kar' EvpLTrl5r]v Eust.) TucoXcoi un6 Ni96eNTi, 
"T&HC 4n nioNi dHUCoi Stiabo, Eust. (= T 385). 868. o i : oY 3^ R. || juciXhton 
Pap. a. I! (pejpcoN ACG Vr. h : 9eeipcL>N fi. 

possible. 'AXvprj, as Strabo says, may- 
be XaXi'^T? : the Chalybes in historical 
times were famous miners, but produced 
iron only, not silver, Xen. Anab. v. 5. 
1, Strabo pp. 549-51. Armenia how- 
ever, close to them, was the home of 
silver (see 0. Schrader SpracJiv. und 
Urgesch. pp. 258 fi". ). reN^eXn = birth- 
place only here. Paley compares dpyvpov 
■rniyrj of the silver mines of Laurion in 
Aiscb. Pers. 238. 

858. These Mysians are Asian, and 
geographically, at least, distinct from 
those of Thrace, see on N 5. Ghromis 
is called Chromios in P 218, 494, 534. 
Four others of the name are mentioned. 

861. iu noTaucbi, sc. "#>15sqq., where 
Ennomos is, however, not named (but 
see P 218) ; hence Aristarchos obelized 

863. The Askanian lake was in 
Bithynia, by the later Nikaia. This 
district lies close to the Propontis. 

865. FuraiH XiuNH, near Sardis, Herod, 
i. 93 ; cf. T 391. Strabo says it was 
afterwards called Ko\6ri. The name 
obviously has to do with the familiar 
Gyges. The mother was of course the 
N?;ij or nymph of the lake. Cf. Z 22, 
3 444, T 384. There is no other case in 
H. of maternity attributed to a lake, 

though rivers are often fathers (e.g. ^ 
159). The variant \ijj.vqL (locatival) was 
meant to avoid this objection, by making 
ri;7a^7; the name of the nymph. 

867. 6apBapo9coNa3N seems to refer 
only to the harshness of the dialect, as 
Thuc. remarked (i. 3). H. does not 
make any broad distinction between 
Achaians and barbarians. So Sicrtas 
dypio^dbvovs 9 294. This marked refer- 
ence to the days before the colonization 
of Asia Minor may indicate that the 
line is really very old ; but, on the other 
hand, we must admit that the poet could 
not well have given a more effective 
touch to indicate the extreme remote- 
ness of the heroic times from his own, 
had he lived in Miletos itself, than by 
this casual allusion, made as though a 
matter of course, to the days when the 
great and famous city was no more than 
a dwelling of the despised barbarians. 

868. 6kpit69uXXon, i.e. with foliage 
massed together, so that the eye could 
not distinguish separate trees ; see note 
on 246. According to the scholia the 
small cones of the pine were called 
(pdeipes from some fancied resemblance 
to those insects ; but the best ancient 
authority is for the reading (pdlpuv or 


116 lAIAAOC B (ii) 

M.aidi^8pov re f)oa<; M.vKa\,7]<; t alireiva Kaprjva' 

rwv fxev ap 'Ayu-^t/zap^;©? koI NacTTT;? rjyyja-daOrjv, 870 

^dcrrr}<i ^\fjb^ifjLa')(o<; re, ^ojxiovo'i dyXad reKva, 

09 Kal '^vcrov e'^cov iroXefiovB 'lev rjvre Kovprj, 

vrjiTLO^;, ovhe rl 01 to 7' eTrrjpKeae \vypov oXeOpov, 

aXX iSdfxrj vtto -^epcrl 'rroScoK€o<i AlaKiSao 

iv irora/jiMi, ypvaov 8' 'A^tA-eu? eKOfiicrae 8ac(f>pcov. 875 

'ZapTTTjScOV 8' '^TPX^^ AvKiCOV Kal T\aVKO<i d/jLV/MCOV 

TrfKoOev €K AvKLTj^;, advdov diro hLvrjevro'i. 

870. NaiicTHC C (and ap. Bust.)- 871. NOJueioNOc HR. 872. KQi : hk G. 

874-5 ad. Ar. (The Hues have the obelos in A— in Pap. a it is aiSxed to 875-6 — 
and their rejection follows on that of 860-1, but the scholion is missing.) 

872. 8c would naturally refer to Am- they are certainly not wanted, though 

phimachos as the last named, and so there is no obvious reason for their 

Ar. took it ; but Schol. A says that insertion. XP"*^*^^ evidently means 

Simonides held it to mean Nastes as golden ornaments, such as Euphorbos 

the principal leader. Perhaps L. Midler wore, P 52. Neither of these leaders is 

is right, therefore, in thinking that named in the fight in the river in 4> ; 

Simonides did not read 870-1 at all ; cf. on 860-1. 


With the third book begins a distinct section of the Iliad, extending to 
A 222 : the story of the duel of Paris and Menelaos, and its sequel, the 
treacherous wounding of Menelaos by Pandaros in spite of the treaty. The 
section contains two subordinate episodes : the Tet;>(0(rK07rta or interview 
between Helen and Priam on the walls of Troy (121-244), and the scene 
between Paris and Helen after the duel (383-448). 

Within itself the whole story is consistent, plain, and straightforward ; 
it is indeed one of the most brilliant and picturesque pieces of narrative 
in the Iliad. As the second book gave us a picture of the general scenery 
of the poem, so the third takes us back to the causes of the war ; as the 
second shewed us the state of things in the Greek camp, the third sets us 
among the Trojans. We have a whole gallery of fresh persons brought 
before us with extraordinary truth and vivacity ; Menelaos and Paris, Priam, 
Pandaros and the Trojan elders, and above all, Helen, the cause of the 
whole war, a marvellous study of a complicated woman's heart, oscillating 
between repentance and love, her heart full of desire for her former home 
and husband, yet dominated by the power of her temptress the goddess 
Aphrodite. There can be little doubt that we have here a poem composed 
with a single aim and in one piece by a most gifted aiithor, preserved 
practically intact. 

But when we come to relation of the section to the rest of the Iliad, the 
question is by no means so simple. Achilles is indeed assumed to be absent 
from the battle, and so far the framework as already laid down is assumed. 
But there is no other reference to the state of affairs as pictured in the last 
two books. After the pompous description of the march out of the two 
armies which accompanied the Catalogues, it is certainly surprising to find 
that they no sooner meet than a truce is made, and instead of the general 
engagement we have been led to expect, a single combat is proposed as a 
settlement of the whole war. It is impossible not to feel the force of the 
argument that the action seems to belong rather to the first than to the 
tenth year of the siege. Not only would the duel be then better in place, 
but the whole of the Teichoscopy assumes an ignorance on the part of Priam 
unaccountable, according to prose and logic, after ten years of war. With 
regard to this, however, it is enough perhaps to say that for the hearer or 
reader this is the opening of the war ; the convention to which he has to 
adapt himself is infinitely less than the conventions of drama which through 

118 lAIAAOC r (ill) 

familiarity we accept without a murmur. More serious, however, is the 
fact that the breach of the truce by Pandaros is ignored throughout the 
rest of the Iliad, that we have a doublet of the duel in H, and that the 
purpose of Zeus to bring about the defeat of the Greeks to the glorification 
of Achilles passes entirely out of sight for five whole books. These 
points have been dealt with in the Prolegomena, and need only be briefly 
mentioned here. They are, however, amply sufficient to prove that this 
part of the Iliad had no place in the story of the Menis ; whether it was 
composed for this place, as the absence of Achilles seems to imply, or was 
violently inserted into it from some other source, is a matter on which 
critics must form their own conclusions. It is not likely that any con- 
vincing arguments on such a point will ever be found, and the question 
must be decided only by the general view taken of the composition of the 
Iliad. My own belief is that in the natural course of the development of 
the story the duel between Aias and Hector, now in H, stood here, and was 
displaced in order to make room for the combat of Paris and Menelaos, which 
originally stood at an earlier point in the tale of the siege. We must at 
all events recognize that in the two duels we have two parallel stories which 
cannot have o;riginally been meant to follow in sequence — a point which 
will be further discussed when we come to H. 


opKOi. TcixocKonia. 'A\esdN&pou Kai MeNeKdou uoNOJuaxia. 

avTap eVel KoajjbrjOev a^i rj'yefxovecrcnv eKaarot, 
Tpcoe? fiev KXayjfjL t evoirrji r tcrav 6pvcde<; &)<?, 
rjVT€ irep KXayyt] yepdvcov TreXet oupavout irpo, 
at r eVet ovv '^Gifjbwva (pvyov koI adea(^aTov bfi^pov, 
Kkayyrji rai ye Trerovrai inr TlKeavolo podcov 
dvSpdcrt TivyfiaioKTi (f)6vou Kol Ktjpa (f)epovaaL' 
rjepiai S' dpa rai ye KaKrjV eptha irpocpepovTac- 

2. K\arrH(i) t' CZ)JQRS : KXarrH(i) ii. 3. oupaNdeeN Par. b j (and rivh 

ap. Apoll. de Adv.). 5. neTcoNxai D : nexaNxai Schol. B on E 249. 6. 

9epoNTec J {yp. 9epoucai). 7. 5' apa : eaxih Vr. a^. 

1. The tale is taken up from B 785 or 
810. ^KacToi, each tribe, not ' Trojans as 
well as Greeks.' Cf. B 805. 

3. The simile is copied by Virgil, 
Aen. X. 264 sqq. — 

Quales sub nubibus atris 
Strj'iiioniae dant signa grues, atque aethera 

Cum .sonitu, fugiuntque notes clamore 


Cf. also vi. 311, Juvenal xiii. 167. 
oupaNdei np6, be/ore the face of heaven, 
irpo goes with the locative instead of the 
gen. in two other phrases, 561 'I\i66i 
wp6, A 50 riQeL -rrpb. H. G. § 225. 

4. 9uroN : observe the aor. in the 
simile — a sort of ' gnomic ' aor. followed 
by the present. The voice of the crane 
in the sky is a sign of winter in Hes. 
Op. 450. ' The crane is in Greece a 
bird of passage only . . it breeds 
farther north, in Macedonia and on the 
Danube,' Thompson Gloss, p. 41. See 
Herod, ii. 23, where this passage is 
partly quoted. For cieec<paTOC see Buttm. 
Lex., where the word is explained as a 
hyperbole, ' such as not even a god could 
utter ' ; but such hyperbole is not 
Homeric. Rather ^not according to an 

utterance of the gods, hence vaguely 
portentous, unblest ' (Monro). But the 
form of the word is unexplained. 

5. ^n( with gen. — towards, as E 700 : 
R. G. § 200 (3). The streams of ocean 
seem to represent the bounds of the 
earth, not any particular direction. 
Cf. Herod, ii. 23. The war of cranes 
and pigmies (' Thumblings') does not 
reappear in H., but is very common in 
later literature, both Greek and Latin ; 
the reff. are collected in Thompson Gloss. 
p. 43. 'The legend of the Pigmies 
appears in India in the story of the 
hostility between the Garuda bird and 
the people called Kirdta, i.e. dwarfs . . 
It is quite possible that this fable has an 
actual foundation in the pursuit of the 
ostrich by a dwarfish race' (ibid.). We 
know from recent travels that such a 
dwarfish people lives in the heart of 
Africa ; some report of them may well 
have reached even prehistoric Greece 
through the ivory trade. See also 
Miss Gierke Fam. Studies p. 145. Ace. 
to Eust. the pigmies lived in Britain ! 

7. epi3a npo9^poNTai, apparently our 
* oifer battle,' or bring strife ; so 6 210 ; 
cf. f 92, and A 529 'ipiSa irpo^aXdvres : 

^ \\-^j^t-j\/\.A*^ 


\>;v. ^^ 



lAIAAOC r (ill) 

ol S ap tcrav aiyijL fievea 7rveL0VT€<; A^atot, 
iv dv/juo)i fxe^aoire^ aXe^e/xev aW7]\oiaiv. 

evT 6peo<; Kopv(f)j]iai N0T09 Kare-^evep ofii'^'rjp, 10 

TTOLfjieaLV ov TL (^iXrjv, Kkeirrrji he re vvkto^ a/jieiV(o' 
roaaov rt? r' eVl Xevaaet, baov r ein \dav iTjacv 
ft)9 apa TMV vTTo irocral KoviaaXo^ wpvvr aeWrj'; 
ip'^o/jievfov ' fjbCiKa 8 w/ca SieTrprjaaov ireSioio. 

OL S ore Sr) cr^eSov rjaav eV aXXyjXoicnv iovre<i, 15 

'Ypcoalv fxev Trpo/jid^i^ev ^A\e^avBpo<i 0eoeiSi]'i, 
iraphaX.erjv M/jbotaiv e^^cov Kol KapbirvXa ro^a 
Koi ^L(j>oi;, avTap 6 Sovpe 8vo) KeKopv0p,eva '^akKoa 
irdWoiv ^Apyeicov irpoicaXi^eTO iravra'? dpicnov^ 
dvTijBiov fjia^ecracrdaL ev alvrjL hrjloTrjTi. 20 

10. €Ut' Ar. fi : die t' G : Aure opeuc Chia Mass. al. \\ Kopuq>aTci G. 11. 
oOtc L: oCj toi p. il rtv^s AjaeiNCON An. 12. oc(c)on (ohi. t') Z^S. 
13. KONiccaXoc PR Par. d : KONicdXou Aph. || hpuvr P. 15. Ycon Q. 17. 

napdaXJHN S. 18. 6 om. Ar. Aph. Zen. al. and at xapteo-Tepat. 18-20 dO. Zen. 

19-20 dd. Ar. 

see also B 506, K 479. A^piai, in early 
morning, A 497,- i 52, though the 
significance of the epithet here is not 
very clear. Virg. Gcorg. i. 375 seems to 
have thought, jierhaps rightly, that it 
meant 'flying high iu the air' ; aeriae 
fugere grues. 

8. The silence of the Achaian advance 
is contrasted with the Trojan clamour 
again, A 429-36, and is one of the very 
few signs by which H. appears to mark 
a national difference between the two 
enemies, who are always represented as 
speaking the same language. Compare 
B 810 and note on N 41. In A 50, 
however, clamour is ascribed to the 

10. There seems to be no choice here 
but to accept the vulgate eux' in the 
sense of rivre, like as ; though the only 
other instance of it is T 386 (q. v. ). The 
reading of the Massaliot, rjvTe {tjijt) 
opevs, introduces a non - Homeric con- 
traction, as Ar. jjointed out ; the few 
other instances of it are very suspicious 
{"Ep4pevs, 6dpcrevs, dipevs, ddfx^evs, see 
H. O. § 105. 3). The reading of G, 
ws t', adopted by van L., is merely 
another instance of the passion of that 
MS. for the introduction of Attic forms 
into the text. ijure and evre are ob- 
viously different forms of the same word, 
cf. ^w by ed : there is indeed nothing to 

prevent our writing tjSte at once, as 
in the old alphabet they were in- 
distinguishable. And the two senses 
as and whe7i pass into one another with 
the greatest ease, just as with cIjs. Some 
ancient commentators took edre in the 
ordinary sense, wJien, making 12 into 
the apodosis ; but such a form for the 
expression of a simile is quite without 
parallel in H. 

12. T£ . . xe, as often, indicate merely 
the coi-relation of clauses. The enf, 
which regularly follows Touaov and oaaov 
(see on B 615), is construed with it ; but 
according to the canon of Ar. does not 
throw back the accent on account of 
the intervening particle. 

13. aeWAc seems to be the same word 
as doXX^fs, dense, lit. crowded together, 
root Fe\ of FiWoi, FeiXew, etc., the 
variation of stem being similar to that 
between dlKcDs and det/cTjs {R. G. § 125), 
doubtless affected by the analogy of the 
subst. (ieXXa. The reading KovicraKov 
attributed to Aph. seems to imply that 
he read also deXXa for deWyjs. 

19-20 were obelized by Ar. (and Zenod. 
included 18 also) on the ground that a 
warrior would not be arrayed with a bow 
and panther-skin if he were challenging 
heavily-armed foes to combat. But this 
objection would equally apply to irpo/uLd- 
Xtfey above. Ar. and most of the other 

^lAIAAOC r (in) 

rov 8' ft)? ovv evorjaev aprji^iKo^i Mei^eXao? 
ipyofxevov TrpoTrdpocOev ofJuiXov fxaKpa /Si/Boyvra, 
CO? re Xecop e-^dprj fxeydXcot iirv cKofiart Kvpaa<i, 
€vpo)v rj eXacpov Kepaov rj dypcov aiya, 
ireivdwv /xd\a <ydp re Karecrdlei, e't irep dv avrov 
aevcovrao Ta^ee<i re kvv€<; daXepol r at^TjOf 
fo)<? iX'^ipri MeveXao? ^A\e^av8pov Oeoethea 
o(p6aKfjiolatv IScov (pdro jdp riaeaOaL dXeiTijv. 
avTLKa 8' ef oykwv avv revyeanv dXro ■^aixd^e. 



23. ooc re : c&cnep Q. 25. 
eeoeidfi C. 28. Ticeceai A^G 

ras.). II aXelTQC Zen. 

jmdXa : ju^ra J. 26. ceuoNTaiZ)JiPRU. 27. 
Ticaceai fi (and A^, T.W.A.) : xk^fceai P (a in 

of the general 


the only admissible 


sense of 

ancient critics also omitted the 6 in 18, but 
Didymos for once ventures to disagree, 
remarking that Homer frequently em ploys 
phrases like 6 Si, etc., without any change 
of subject. He quotes t 374, which is not 
to the point ; but see appropriate in- 
stances in H. G. § 257. 1. aCirdp is 
here merely a particle of transition ; if 
the adversative sense is to be pressed it 
must mean that though he has the skin 
and bow of the archer, yet he has also 
the pair of spears of the hoplite. For 
the use of a skin in place of the shield 
cf. App. B, viii. Observe that Paris is 
not challenging to a duel properly 
speaking, but only to a combat in the 
this is 

23. The idea seems to be that the lion 
comes upon a quarry just killed by a 
hunting party, and eats it under the 
eyes of the hunters and hounds. Similar 
pictures of the intruding lion occur in 
A 480, N 198. Some of the old critics 
objected that the lion will not eat any 
animal he has not killed himself, and 
therefore took ccojaaxi = fciwt, a living 
animal. But Ar. was clearly right in 
saying that H. never uses crwyua of the 
i living body. It is likely enough that 
the poet was not acquainted with this 
habit of the lion ; or it may be that the 
lion's repugnance does not in fact extend 
to an animal out of which the life has 
hardly gone, as is notoriously the case 
with lions in captivity. Cf. S 161. It 
has also been suggested that the emphatic 
position of neiN<SooN means that the lion 
is driven by stress of hunger to an un- 
usual meal. 


$ 24. eY nep 

25. JLxdXa, amain, 

QN, even if, B 597. 

28. Here, as in several similar passages 
(112, 366, T 85, X 118, 120, and others 
collected in H. G. § 238), the Mss. vary 
between the aor. and fut. infin. The 
same phrase recurs in v 121 — Mss. 
rlffaffdai. only ; in co 470 they are nearly 
unanimous for TiaeaOai. A has rlaeaOai 
here, but TlaaadaL in '366. The question 
is an old one, as appears from the scholia 
on X 118, /3 373, and the testimony 
of the MSS. on such a point carries 
In most of the'^e cases 
the more natural, and 
others would read it 
But the aor. is quite 

little weight, 
the fut. is 
Madvig and 


here the 


sense would be 
that he had now got his 
revenge. After words of saying (in- 
direct discourse) there is no question 
that the tense of the infin. must follow 
that of the verb in the direct statement. 
In other cases there are exceptions where 
the idea of futurity is especially vivid — 
see the instances in M. and T. § 113. 
' Verbs of hoping, expecting, piromising, 
swearing, and a few others . . regularly 
take the fut. infin. in indirect discourse, 
but they also allow the aor. and even 
the pres. infin. (not in indirect discourse) 
like verbs of wishing,' M. ami T. § 136. 
Hence the possibility of two renderings 
in 98, and of two readings in 112, 366, 
and other passages. Where the idea to 
be expressed so easily shades ofi' on the 
one side to emphasis of the futurity of 
the subordinate verb, on the other to 
the mere thought of accomplishment, it 
is useless to lay down a rigid rule as 
the purists do. 


lAIAAOC r (hi) 

Tov S' ft)? ovv ivorjaev A\€^av8po<; OeoeiSrj'i 30 

ev Trpo/xd^oicri (fjavevra, KaTeTrXTjyr) <pi\ov rjrop, 
ai^r 8' irdpcov et? e6vo<i i^d^ero Krjp' aKeelvwv. 
ft)? S' ore Tt? re SpuKovra IScov 7rd\.LVopao<i direcrrrj 
ovpeo<; ev ^rjcrcrriiq, vtto re Tp6fji,o<i eXXa/3e yvla, 
ay^r 8' dvej(u>pri(Tev, &'^p6<i re /jllv eiXe irapeta^;, 35 

&)<? avTt<i KaO^ o[Xikov ehv Tpooav dyepco^cov 
Setcra? 'Arpeo? viov ^A\€^avSpo<i OeoeiSyj-i. 
Tov 8' ' ^KTcop veiKeaaev Ihoov ala'^pol<i inreecrcn • 
" AucTTrapt, el8o'i ap tare, <yvvat/Mave<; rjirepoirevrd, 
atff" 6(f)eXe<; ayovof; t e/xevac dya/xo^ r aTroXeadai' 40 

Kai Ke TO /3ov\oL/x7]v, Kai Kev ttoXv KepSiov 7]ev 
r) ovTw \(i)^7]v r e/xevai Kai viro^lnov ctWcov. 
Tj TTOV Kay^aXowac Kdprj KOfjLoo)VTe<i A^atot, 
<f)dvT€<i dpLarrja Trpofxov e/x/mevaL, ovveKa koXov 

31. KaxenXdrH CiHJPQR Vr. b. 33. T€ om. GHPQRT : re J. 34. Biiccaic 
G : Bhchic DKV Pap. /3. 35. napeid Herod. (Ar. ?) : napHid Dion. Sid. (i.e. fem. 
dual ace. to Dem. Ixion ; Schol. calls it neuter). 36. aueic Ci^H Par. k. || e5u : 

SBh Q. 37. drpecoc C {siipr. o) DQ. 40. o9eXec t* QS. Dion. Skytobrachion 
added xxube ti rouNaciN oTcin e9eccaceai 9iXoN ui6N (= I 455) (Eust.). 41. HeN: 
eYH J {yp. cTen). 42. enoijiioN Aph. 

33. naXlNopcoc, only here in H. ; on 
account of the a it seems distinct from 
root op of TraXivdpfj.evos (or TrdXiv 6.) A 
326 ; Curt. conn, with root C7's-, Lat. 
err-o ; so a^poppos {Et. p. 556). The 
simile is, copied in Virg. Aen. ii. 379. 

36. For arepcoxcoN see B 654. 

38. alcxpoTc rots aiax'^^V^ iveyKeiv 
Bvva^j.ei'OLS Hesych. So ^ 473 atVxpcD? 

39. Cf. A 385. Aucnapi, so fJirjTep 
dvafiTjTep \j/ 97, AutreXe^'a Eur. Or. 1388 ; 
cf. 'Ipos "Ai'pos <r 73, KaKotXiou t 260, 
AlvdirapLs Eur. Ilec. 944, and AOcnrapLS 
AlvoTrapis, KaKbv 'EXXdSt ^uiriaveiprji 
Alkman ap. Schol. A. 

40. aroNOC should mean childless, 
and so Augustus understood the line 
when he applied it to his daughter 
Julia ; but this sense does not suit the 
passage, for it was not through his 
offspring that Paris harmed the Trojans ; 
indeed we hear of no child of his by 
Helen except in an obscure tradition 
mentioned by Schol. A, and even that is 
inconsistent with 5 12. The only good 
sense that could be got out of the word 
would be ciirsed by heaven (with sterility) 
as I 454, which is too weak and indirect 

to suit the context. The alternative is 
to translate unborn ; and so Eur. Phoen. 
3 598— 

Kai irplv es <pu>s /xrjTpbs e/c 7ov^s fJLoXdv 
ayovov 'AiroWcov Aa'iwi fi' ediainae 
(povia. yeveadai warpds. 

For TE . . TE we should rather have 
expected rj . . ij: but as neither wish is 
possible of fulfilment there is a certain 
gain of rhetorical force, with the loss of 
logical accuracy, in combining both into 
one vehement wish. 

42. On6i];ioN, an object of contempt or 
hatred, lit. 'looked at from below,' i.e. 
with the feelings intimated by the 
familiar vwodpa. Aph. eTr6\f/Mv, con- 
spicuous, in the sight of all men. For 
a similar formation cf. <t> 397 Trav6\j/Los. 

44. Apparently dpicrfia is subj., 
npdixoN predicate ; saying that a prince 
is our clmmpion (only) because his favour 
is fair. Else it must be deeming (i.e. 
having at the first moment deemed) 
that it toas a princely champion (whom 
they saw). irpo/jLos = primus, a superl. 
of irpb : in use it = Trp6fj.axos. KaX6N is 
predicate, as its position, separated from 
its subst. by the end of the line (cf. on 

lAIAAOC r (in) 

e28o<i eir , ctXh! ovk ean /Slt) c^pecrlv ovSe n^ uXki], 

rj TOiocrSe icov ev irovToiropoicn veeaat 

TTovrov €7ro7r\coaa<;, erdpovi ipi7]pa<i a'yetpa'q, 

IxLvdel^ aWohairolcTL fyvvaiic evetSe dv7]y£<i 

e|- d7rirj<; jait]'?, vvov uvSpcov ai'^/iiTjTdcov, 

irarpl re (tml fie'^a Ttrj/Jia ttoXtjo re iravri re Srj/jbtoi, 

8v(T/jU6V€cnv fxev '^dppba, KaT'r}(f)el7]v Se aol avroa ; 

OVK dv hrj [xeiveia^ dprjt^ikov ^evekaov ; 

>yvolrj<; y oiov (f)0)TO<i e^€i<i Oakeprjv TrapaKOtriv. 

OVK dv roc j^paLO-pbrji Kidapa rd re Scop 'A^poStrr;?, 



45. oOt^ tic D. 47. dpinpac Q Bar. Eton. 

53. x' • ®' Eton. Vr. A (and J supr.). 54. TOl : coi 
Tivks Kidapic An. 

51. KaTH<peiH Zen. Par. k. 
P : Ti Q East. 11 Kieapic : 

N 611), shews ; but we natnrally trans- 
late it as an epithet. 45 may represent 
the words of the Achaians. 

46. i^, not H, is the reading of Herodian 
and Nikanor ; but there is no opposition 
with what precedes. The question in 52 
goes closely with that in 46-51 : ' can it 
be that thou couldst bring . . ? and now 
canst not thou dare ? ' 53 then expresses 
the result, 'then wouldst thou find.' 
It is equally possible, however, to abolish 
the note of interrogation at the end of 
51 (Bayfield), and to understand 'truly 
you were such a one (as I say, i.e. a 
mere flashy weakling) when you stole 
Helen ; can you not now meet her 
husband '? ' But the sarcasm of the text 
is more biting : ' were you, such as you 
are, brave enough when it was a question 
of stealing a woman, and now dare not 
face her husband ? ' ToiocSe koiu, hiatus 
illidtus, cf. B 8, E 118, T 288, ^ 263, 
7 480, f 151, T 185. It is the less 
justifiable because rowade (like 6'5e) 
regularly refers to the speaker, such as I ; 
here we require such as thou art, toiovtos 
(like oSros, iste) or to26s irep (van L. Ench. 
p. 266). Bentley conj. both, cf. 159. 
Tolos St] p. Knight, roiSad' dp Brandreth. 

49. ciniHc, see A 270. Observe the 
alliteration in the next line. In Greek 
poetiy, unlike Latin, this phenomenon 
is sporadic and apparently accidental ; 
some of the most marked instances in 
Homer occur in places where no parti- 
cular effect can well be aimed at, e.g. 
S 288, T 217. ONapcoN, plur. because 
Helen is regarded as having married into 
the nation ; nu6c ij yeyaix-qfjAvrj rots rod 
ya/ji-TjcravTos oUeioLS Ap. Lex. 

51. Cf. P 636, f 185 ; and for KaTH9eiH, 
11 498. The ace. vaguely exjjresses the 
result of the preceding actions ; cf. 
A 207 and other instances in H. G. 
§ 136. 4. 

54. The correlation of subj. and opt. 
is the same as in A 386-7 — 

el ixiv di] dvTljSLOV avv revx^ci- TreLprjOeii]?, 
OVK av TOL xpaic/xTjio-t /3t6s Koi Tapipies io'i. 

In both there is an apparent logical 
inconsistency, for the subj. expresses 
confident anticipation {H. G. % 276), 
which is however based upon a con- 
dition considered as less probable ; we 
are accustomed to obsei've the strict 
rule of thought, and to make the conclu- 
sion as supposititious as the condition on 
which it is based. But the confidence 
expressed in these two passages is relative 
rather than absolute ; if the condition be 
once granted, then the result is certain. 
See also on X 42. As far as the lines 
before us are concerned, indeed, we 
might say that Hector, though, he 
chooses to put the case of Paris' fall as 
hypothetical only, yet at any rate for 
rhetorical purposes clearly means to in- 
timate that he does expect it ; but this 
explanation would not apply so well to 
A 386. That passage proves that we 
must not alter the text by reading either 
Xpaifffioi. with some critics, or fuydrjis 
(subj.) with others. See also note on 
B 488. P. Knight remarked, as an 
illustration of the deictic use of the 
article, that it is added to what can 
be pointed at, Kbp.7j and elSos, but not 
to KidapLS, which Paris has not with him. 



lAIAAOC r (ill) 

r/ re KOfxrj to t€ etSo9, ot ev Kovlrjiai fiLjeirj';. 55 

aWa fidXa Tpwe? SetSj^/zot'e? • rj re Kev 'rjSr) 
Xdlvov ecrao '^iTMva kukmv eVe^', oaaa eop<ya<i. 
TOP 8 avre irpocreenrev ^A\€^av8po<; 6eo€L8r]<;' 
" FiKTop, eirei p,e Kar olcrav iv€iKeaa<i ovB inrep aicrav 
alei TOi KpahiTj vreXe/ci;? w? ecrrcv aTeiprj^, 60 

o? t' elcTLV hid Sovpo<; vir dvepo<;, o'i pd re re-^vrjt 
vifiov eKrdfivrjiaiv, 6(peX\€i S' dvSpo<i epcoijv 
fo>9 crol ivl crT7]decraiv drdpjBriTO^; voo^ ecrri' 
fit] fioL Sa)p^ ipard irpocpepe -^pvai)^ AcjipoBiTrjii' 
]/ ov TOI dTTo/SXrjT iaTi 6eo)v ipiKuSea hSipa, 65 

ocrad Kev avrol hoiatv eicdiv S' ovk dv rt? eXoiTO. 
vvv avT, et fi e^eXe/f TrdXepbi^eiv rjhe fid'^eadac, 

56. BeiXHUONec DRTU (-ciX- in ras.) Harl. b, Vr. a^ (and P Par. g supr.) : 
eXcHjuoNcc Zen. !l ft pd kcn G. 57. ecco Ar. ft : elco Pap. j3. 61. OC t' : 

oc G. 62. CKTdjuHici T. 63. toi GJPQRT. 65. oJiri i>GJPQS Vr. a. || 

^piKcpdea Lips.^ 

57. Of. 453. It is pretty clear from 
the context that the ' robe of stone ' 
indicates public execution by stoning, 
such as the Chorus fear for Aias, 7re</)6- 
^Tlfxai XiddXevaToi' "Aprj in Soph. Aj. 253. 
The phrase itself is precisely similar to 
one which is common in later poetry, 
but only as a euphemism for burial ; 
e.g. Pind. Nem. xi. 16 70,1' iTneacro/xevos, 
Ap. Rhod. i. 691 yaiav €<picr<T€ff6ai. But 
the two ideas come to the same, because 
the heap of stones by which the male- 
factor is slain foruis his tomb as well 
(Studniczka JBcitr. p. 62). Cf.— 


TToWrji' avuidev, rrfv kcltu} yap ov Xeyia, 
X^ovos TpifxoLpov ■x)^olvav e^rjvxfi- Xa^uiv, 
aTTaf eKaaTUJL KardavLov iJ.op(pd3/j.aTi. 

Ag. 870-3. 

(F)ecco, plpf. without reduplication, H. G. 
§ 23. 5. To save the digamma Bentley 
conj. \a.iov for XaCCvov. 

59. The thought is, ' Since thy rebuke 
is just, I will say no more than this — 
Cast not in my teeth the gifts of the 
gods' (64) ; the apodosis is not expressed, 
cf. note on Z 333. 60-63 are a paren- 

60. axeipHC, so xa^^o" o.t. T 233. 

61. un' ciN^poc, as though elaiv were a 
passive verb ; as often with iriirTeiv, etc. 
So Kctret Toi irpbs reKvuv, thou shall he 
brought hack by thy children, Eur. 3Ied. 
1015 (em. Porson). 

62. The subject of ocpeXXei is of course 
irfKeKvs. ^pcohi, effort, as N 590. Paris 
clearly speaks partly in anger and partly 
in admiration of Hector's straightfor- 
wardness, which thrusts aside without 
relenting {ardp^rp-os) all conventional 

64. np69epe, as B 251. So Herod, i. 
3 Trjv MrjdeLTjs apirayqv a(pi rrpocpipeiv, 
iii. 120 elTrelf rivi irpocpipovTa — to speak 
tauntingly. XP*^^"^ i^ ^^^re the unani- 
mous reading of mss., xp^'C^V^ being 
occasionally found in other places. Edd. 
generally read XP^'^^V^, l^wt (unless we 
are prepared to say that the quantity of 
the i; is variable, as in later lyric poetry) 
there is nothing gained by the change ; 
synizesis is just as doubtful in H. as con- 

65. dnoBXHTOc = abiectus, contempt- 
ible, as B 361. 

66. Cf. oiiK avdalpeTOi ^porols ipiores 
Eur. Frag. 340. The line is somewhat 
of a commonplace, and rather weakens 
the eflei't of the preceding ; it is rejected 
by van L. after P. Knight, on the ground 
also that bu>a is not the Homeric form 
{oaa avToi ddiwtTi Brandreth ; but see 
ff. G. § 81, and A 129). iKcoN too is 
not used in its ordinary sense ; it must 
be taken either participially, hy wishing 

for them, or better, as a matter of choice. 
This all points to the line being one of 
the gnomic additions of which there are 
so many traces in the text. 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 


aWovi fiev Kadio-ov Tpwa^ Koi irdvra'i 'A^^atou?, 

avrap ejM iv fMeaawi koi dp't]t(f)iXov ^leveXaov 

av/x^dXer dficfi' 'EXey?/i Kal Krrjfjiaac irdat [xci'^eadaL. 70 

oTTiroTepo^ Se «e vtKr^arji Kpelaawv re yevrjrai, 

KTrjfxad' e\a)V iv iravra yvvaiKa re o'UaS' dyeado)' 

ol 8' dWoi (j)i\6T7]Ta Kal opKta Triard rafiovre'i 

vaioire Tpoii]v epc/SoiXaKa, rol Se veeadoiv 

"Apyo'i 69 iTT'iro^orov koI A'^atiSa KoKXiyvvaiKa. 75 

«o? €(f)a6\ "FjKTwp 8' avT ix^ipt] \ikya /xvdov d/covaa<;, 
Kal p 69 fieacrov loov Tpcocov dveepye (f)a\a'yja<i, 
fiecrcrov Sovpo<i eXcov toI 8' IhpvvOrjcrav diravre'^. 
TMC 8' iiTeTo^d^ovTO Kaprj KO/jbooivre<; 'A^atot, 
lolcriv re mvaKOfxevoi Xaeaai t e^aWov. 80 

avrdp o fxaKpop dvcrev dva^ dvhpwv Ayap^eixvcov 
" Xa-)(ecr9\ 'Apyeloi, pur] ^dWere, Kovpot 'A-^aiMV 
arevrai jdp tl e7ro9 epeecv KopvOaioXo^ ' FiKTCOp. 

W9 e(f)a6\ ol 8' ea-'^ovro pd^t]^ dveda re jevovro 
iaavfjievo)<;. "^KTcop 8e per dp(f)OT€pot(Tiv eeinre' 85 

" KeKXvri p^ev, T^(we9 Kal €UKV7]pi8€<; 'Amatol, 
pvdov ^AXe^dvSpoto, rov eXveKa velKO<; opwpev. 

68. xpobac K<ieizoN Pap. ,8. 70. gXenhn D. 71. Kpeiccco Zen. 72. 

£ireceai H Vr. c. 74. NoioiueN Zen. Pap. (3^ 75. axai'9a LR. 77. KQl p': 

a ^' S. 78 om. AU*. il ju^ccon G. H toi &' : oY 9' H. Ii IdpueHcaN HJ Pap. /3. 
80. T€ 07n. CZ)GPR. || rXdecci J. 83. ctcOto Q. || ti : toi P. 86. After this 
add o9p' e'l'nco t<5 ue eujui6c enI cxHeecci KcXeuei (= H 349) CGJP™TU™ Cant. 
Lips. Harl. a, Par. a e, Eton, (^c Tidiv avTiypdcpois 6 cttlxos ou Tiderai. T™). 

72. 4u seems to go with the verb, 78. Possibly borrowed from H 56. 
'aright,' i.e. diKaius. Paley quotes Hector holds his spear horizontally in 
Aisch. Supp. 77, 528 dXevaov avSpGiv order to press back the advancing ranks. 
v^piv ed (TTvyriaas. Some however take For the 'quasi -partitive' gen. doup6c 
it with ndNTQ as though fji.a.\a Travra, see H. G. § 151 a. 

quite all. There certainly seems to 80. The construction passes from the 

have been a tendency to join iu wdvTes partic. to the finite verb, as though not 

together, but there is no case in H. to include stone - throwing under the 

where we cannot take ev with the verb ; general head of eTTLTo^d^eaOai. 

in <p 369 we must {rdx ovk ev irdffL 83. CTeOrai, has set himself to say 

TTi^Tjcreis, thou wilt not do ivcll to obey the something. See on S 191. 

multitude). 86. KexXuxe jmeu juOeoN : this con- 

73. The sentence begins as if ol fiev or struction is used only here in the sense 
v/jie^s fikv . . oi 34 were to follow in hear from me ; KKieiv tl — hear (a 
distributive apposition as in w 483 ; but sound) ; A 455, etc. The ordinary 
the change made is a very natural one. phrase is KeKXvre /j.ev /xidwu, k 189, 311, 
9i\6THTa goes with^a/x6j'Tes by a rather etc. We also have k\v€lv tivl dprjs 
violent zeugma. 5 767, where the dat. is ethical. Hence 

74. NaioiTE, either a concessive opt. van L. reads here Ke/cXyre /j.oi, which is 
admitting a possibility (see IT. G'.§ 299/), almost certainly right as avoiding the 
or a real opt. expressing a wish. contracted /xeu for fieo. 

126 lAIAAOC r (ill) 

aWov<i fiev KeXerat Tpcoa<; koX Travra^; 'A^atou? 

rev^ea koX airoOecrdai, iirl '^dovl TrovXv^oreipiji, 

avrov S' ev fieacrayc kol aprjtc^iKov M.eve\aov 90 

OLOVi dfjicf) '^XevrjL koL Kn^fxaa-c Traai fid'^ecrdac. 

oTTTTorepo^ 8e K€ VLKrjarji Kpelcrawv re yevrjTac, 

KT7]/jLad^ eXcbv ev iravra 'yvvoLKa, re otKaS dyecrOo)' 

01 h aWot (piKoTrjTa koX opKia iricna rd/jioofxev. 

(W9 €(f)ad , ol S' dpa nrdvre^ dKijv ejevovro (ncoirrji. 95 

rolat he Kol /u^ereetTre ^orjv d<ya6b<; MeveXa.o9* 
" KGKkvTe vvv Koi ifieio' fidXtara yap dXyo'i iKavec 
dvfMOV e/jiov' (ppoveoi Be SiaKpivd7]/u,evaL 77877 
^ApjeLov<i Koi Tp(ba<i, eVel KaKo, TroWd TreiraaOe 
eXveic eyur]<^ epiSo<; Kal WXe^dvSpov eveK dp'^rj';. 100 

r)/u.e(i)v S' OTTTroTepoji Odvaro^ Kal /xolpa rervKrac, 
Tedvalr}' dWoi Se StaKpLvOeiTe ra-^iara. 

89. noXu6oTefpH(i) Z'QRTU'. 90. €c ueccoN Vr. a (yp. Hail. a). 91. oYouc 
3' D. 92. Kpeiccco Zen. : KpeixrcoN L. 93. ruNoTKdSe H. 94 om. Pap. 

;3t. II TduoiucN G. 96. 5^ om. R. 97. ^JmoTo HPQR Cant. Vr. b. 98. 

diaKpieHJUCNai C^DGhQ Pap. j3, Hail. a^. || H&H : aju<pco S Harl. a (7^. PidH). 99. 
apreToi Kai xpcoec Zen. It ncnacee Ar. A supr. : nenoNcee Par. f: nenoicee S: 
nenocee Q. 100. €UHC : eueio GT. || apxHC Ar. CI : qthc Zen. 101. 6nno- 
T^pcoN Pap. j3. 102. ^laKpieeTxe GLQ Pap. ^ : 3iaKpi(N)eHTe CP^ (R sujjr.) U 

Vr. a A, Bar. Eton. 

98. 9poNecomay be taken in two ways: 6 dywt' eyivero. So dpxeiv = to be the 
(1) ' My mind is that Argives and Tr. be aggressor ; davarcoi rlaas awep fjp^ev Aisch. 
at once separated,' i.e. I desire to see Ag. 1529, Eur. Here. 1169, Frag. 825; 
them sepai'ated ; (2) 'I deem that they cf. Soph. El. 553. Zenod. a.T7)s, to 
are already separated,' i.e. I accept the which Ar. objected iarai aTroXoyovfiepos 
challenge, and think that an end has Mev^Xaos Sridr-rjc wepi^Treaev 6' AXe^avdpos. 
thereby been put to the war. Of these drTj, however, is often = sm, and regarded 
the former best suits the simplicity of as deserving moral condemnation ; see 
Homeric expression and the ^nd of the e.g. I 510-2 ; and certainly Achilles is 
next line ; for tlie use of cppovieLv, not ' apologising ' for Agamemnon in 
virtually =3 ^0 hope, cf. P 286 (ppopeov 5e A 412. In il 28 Ar. himself read drrjs 
/xdXicrra | Aarv irdri ffcp^repov epieiv Kal (though there was a variant dpxv^), and 
Kvdos dpiffdaL. See note on 28. so Z 356. A more serious objection is 

99. ncnacee, for ireiradTe, see H. G. that ar?; is for dFarrj, and that the con- 
§ 22. 7, and compare the participle tractedformisfoundonly in late passages, 
TreiradvM, p 555 ; vulg. iriwocrde, which the first syllable being usually in thesis. 
Curtius takes to be for Tri-irovd-re {Vb. See on A 412. 

ii. 165) ; but the strong stem is wrong 102. xeeNaiH, 7)iay he lie dead, as 

in the plural. The -de is, however, r^dvadi X 365, spoken to the dead 

taken by Brugmann as a middle term. Hector. Compare reOvai-qs Z 164. Both 

for ireiraO-crde, Gr. ii. 1358 (?). The optatives are ' pure,' expressing a wish, 

word recurs in the same phrase only The accent of diaKpiNeeTTC is due to the 

K 465, xp 53. idea that it is contracted from -eiyjTe. 

100. ixpfHc, the unprovolced aggression ; This is of course not the case; before 
a pregnant sense, for which compare the 'heavy' endings the opt. stem is 
Herod, viii. 142 irepl ttjs vfxerip-rjs dpxvs formed with -t- only, not -it]- {H. G. §83). 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 


otaere apv , erepov XevKOv, krepriv he ^ekatvav, 

yrji re Kal rjekiwi' Ail S' rifxel^ oiaofiev aXXov. 

a^ere Be Tlpuip^oLO /BlrfV, 6(})p opKLa rdfjuvrji 105 

avT6<i, eTvel ol TratSe? vTrepcpioXoi kul ciTrtaTOf 

fij] ra vTrep^aalrjL Aio^ opKca STjXijarjrat. 

alel S' oirXorepcov dvSpcbv (fipeve^ rjepiOovrai- 

0I9 8' o yepoyv /xeTerjcaiv, afia irpoaau) Kai oTrLcrcrco 

\evaaei, OTro)? 6'^ dpiara pber dixtjiOTepoiai, <yevrirai,^^ 110 

fo)9 e(f)ad\ ol 8' i'^dprjaav ^A'^aioi re Tpwe? re, 
iXTTOfievoL "Travcraadac oi^vpov TroXe/moio. 
Kai p i'7r7rov<; [xev epv^av errl ari'^as, e/c 8 e^av avrol 

103. oYc€Te Pap. /3- (oYcer '(S'): oYcere 3' il. 104. &' : t' Pap. ^3. 105. 
SsQTC G : ^s£Te Pap. j8. H xduNei Q [supr. h) : t<4uh H : TdjuiNOi A]i. Lex. 108- 
110 ad. Ar. 108. 6ei G. 110. Xeiicei DJRQ. 112. euxo"^Noi H (si/^r. 

eXnd). 113. epucoN S. 

103. oYcere and aseTe (105) are aor. 
imper. For the sigmatic aor. with the 
thematic vowel see U. G. § 41. The cases 
are enumerated in Curt. Vh. ii. 282-4, 
and explained as due to the analogy 
of the non- sigmatic (strong) aorists 
which prevail in Epic Greek. In Alex- 
andrian times the converse phenomenon 
is found, as the non -sigmatic aorists 
constantly take a as thematic vowel 
(e.g. -^X^a) on the analogy of the sigmatic 
aorists, which by that time were far 
commonest. The only cases of this in 
H. are elira's, etTrare, and ijveiKa (with 
its various forms). See note on 262. 

Bpn' is probably for apve, but it may 
be for dpva. The F of Fdpv- is well 
attested {H. G. p. 364, van L. Bnch. 
p. 163) ; the omission of 5' before it, 
proposeel by Heyne, is now confii'med by 
the Papyrus. 

104. Considerable suspicion attaches 
to this line, rfi for yala is a rather late 
form (only three times again in II. , O 
24, T 259, <I> 63 (cf. P 595), seven times 
in Od., but often in Hes.). AueTc (or 
Tjfjiies ?) is metrically assured in only 
three other places, S 369, a 76, 7 81, the 
older form being probably yj/j-h uncon- 
tracted (Menrad Co)itr. p. 106). Finally, 
the mention of the third lamb on the 
part of the Greeks is curious ; in the 
sequel it would seem that Trojan lambs 
only are used. The line may have been 
added because Zeus is jH-ayed to in 276, 
and it was thought that he too ought to 
have his lamb. Without this line we 
should naturally suppose that the white 

lamb was for the heavenly, and the black 
for the infernal deities in general (276- 
9). On the other hand, the mention of 
the male and female lamb suits the male 
and female deity (cf. A 729), and the 
question is not at all clear. 

105. SpKia TdjuNHi, in the meta- 
phorical sense, as elsewhere, make the 
treaty, for the actual slaughtering is 
done by Agamemnon. 

107. For the subj. QhXhchtqi with 
the irregular long vowel see M. G. § 82, 
and Mulvany in 0. R. x. 27. The 
expression Ai6c 6pKia is unique, and the 
line could well be spared. 

108. Hep^ooNTQi, lit. 'flutter,' are 
blown aljout by the wind (B 448), i.e. 
cannot be trusted, the opposite of (ppives 
^/jLTredoi Z 352 ; so deaicppuv T 183. Cf. 
•f" 386. Ar. obelized this line and the 
two following ; the only reason given is 
that aTToKo-yLa iarlv ai'iTTj vvep ruiv irapa- 
j3dvTojv npLapudun'. This, of course, is 
insutticient ; the lines quite suit the 
eminently courteous character of Mene- 
laos. oTc (109) is left without a very 
accurate reference by the change of sub- 
ject to 6 yepcov (which seems to be 
employed in a generic sense, not for 
Priam only — an Attic, not an Epic, use of 
the article). It is best taken as a neut. 
in the case where ; cf. the analogous 
uses of the neut. pi. in H. G. § 161. 

112. See note on 28. Here the Mss. 
all read vavaaadac, and we can translate 
either hoping to win, or to have won, 
rest. Almost all edd., however, read 



reu^^ea r e^ehvovro' ra fiev KaTedevr eVl '^/ai7]t 
'7r\7](Tiov dWijXQyv, oXiyr) B rjv dfjL(pl<i apovpa. 
"^KTwp he irporl aarv hvto K7]pvKa<; eVe/iTre 
KapTToXijiwi cipvd^ re (pepetv Tlpiapiov re KoXeacrai. 
avrap o Ta\6v/3iov irpotei Kpelcov ^Ayafie/jivcov 
vrja'i eiTt 'yXa(j)vpd<; levai, •^S' apv eKeXevev 
olaefxevai' 6 8' ap' ovk d'TTidrjcr ^ AyafxefxvovL Bicoc. 
^IpL<i S' av6' 'Ei\evr]L XevKcoXevwL dy<ye\o<i rfkOev 
elSofievr) yakoooL, ^AvrrjvopiSao Sdfjbapri,, 
rrjV ^Avrnqvopihr)^ ^^X^ Kpeicov ^\i,Kdo)v, 
AaoSiK7]V TIpid/xoio OvyarpMV elSo^ dpta-rrjv. 
rrjv S' evp^ ev fieydpcoo' ?; Se /xeyav larov v(pacve, 
SiirXaKa 7rop(pvpe7]v, TroXea? S' eveiracraev ded\ov<; 
TpCOCOV & ITTTToSd/uiCOV Kol ' A'^aiMV '^uXKO'^iroovcov, 
ov<; edev eXveic eiracr'^ov vir 'Aprjo^ TraXafidcov. 
dyyov S' IcrrafievT] 7rpoa€(f)7] TroSa? d>Kea 'JpL<;' 
" Seyp' Wi, vvpL(^a ^ikrj, iva 6eaKe\a epya tBrjai 





114. ^KaiioNTO Pap. /3. 116. noxi Q. 
119. €K€\eueN AHU Pap. /3 : CKeXcuccN Vi. 
Ar. Aph. Zen. PU King's : JutapiiapeHN fi. 

[ 'incjsi^e CGRST Lips. Eton. Vr. a A. 

123. THN 5' U. 126. nop9upeHN 

dNenacccN Pap. /3. 130. NUU9H Q. 

115. 6\Xi^XcoN refers to revxeo; and 
au9ic means ' there was but little 
ground (uncovered) between the heaps 
of arms.' (This interpretation is clearly 
established by Buttm. Lex. s.v. dfx<pis, 
as against the tradition that dWrjXwv 
referred to'Trojans and Achaians, so that 
apovpa meant the fieraixfJ-i-ov between the 
armies.) See also note on H 342. 

119. A&' apN* : read Kal Fdpv' (P. 
Knight) ; I5k Fdpv' Heyne, but see on 

120. oic^ewai, aor. as 103. La R. 
strangely makes it fut., saying that the 
infin. of these aor. forms is not used ; a 
very unwarrantable assertion in the face 
of ^ 111, 564, fi 663, and four or five 
other passages. He seems hardly to be 
conscious of any distinction in sense be- 
tween the fut. and aor. infin. 

121. Iris is introduced as acting on 
her own mere motion, against the usual 
rule that she only goes at the bidding 
of the gods. But cf. ^ 199, B 786. 

124. Cf. Z 252. AaoaiKHN, ace. for 
dat. by attraction to the case of the 

126. 3inXaKa, large enough to be worn 
double ; cf. K 134, fi 230, v 224, t 226. 

It is opposed to the smaller dwXois fi 
230, w 276 (see Studniczka Beitr. p. 73). 
iNenacccN, as X 441 ; the word is used in 
connexion with weaving in a way which 
shews that the art was so highly de- 
veloped in early days as to permit of the 
weaving of pictures. This was presum 
ably done by inserting coloured threads 
by hand as the weaving went on, as the 
Indian carpet-weaver makes his patterns 
by inserting tufts of coloured wool. One 
cannot but be reminded of the Bayeux 
tapestry, on which the ladies of Nor- 
mandy embroidered their duke's victories. 
130. NUJUKpa is the name by which a 
Greek woman still speaks of her brother's 
wife ; so also 7iuse in Albanian, properly 
bride. The form is to be classed with 
cru^cDra, rjirepoTrevrd, To^ora, etc., as an 
instance of the old vocative of the -a 
declension, which survived only in Aiolic. 
Sappho has & ALko, fr. 78, vifitpd fr. 105. 
The statement of Schol. A, 'IwviKa vi'ifitpa 
ToKfia, lacks all confirmation. See H. G. 
§ 92 and p. 390. eecKcXa, strange, a 
word of unknown origin recurring >!' 107, 
X 374, 610. Of course the old derivation 
deoh 'Uekos is impossible ; but we natur- 
ally think of the equally obscure diacpaTos. 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 


ot irplv eV aWt]\oiai <f)epov iroXvZaKpvv "ApT]a 

iv irehiWL, oXoolo XtXaiOfievoL iroXefJiOLO, 

ol hrj vvv earai ai'yrji, TroXep.o'i Se TreTravrat, 

aaiTLcrt KeK\Lp,evoi, irapa S ey^ea jxaicpa Treirrj'yev. 

avrap ^ A.\e^avhpo<i koX dp7]i(piXo<; MeveXao? 

fjLaKprjL'i i<y'^€LriLai /jua'^rjcrovTat nrepl aelo' 

TML Se Ke vncrjcravTi (^i\rj KeKX^jcrrji ciKOLTi^. 

CO? elirovcra dea jXu/cuv ifjuepov e/ut,/3aX€ dvficoL 
dvSpo^ re irpoTepoto koI acn60<i rjhe toktjwv. 
avTLKa 8 dpyevvi^tai KaXv^^ajxevrj odovrjicnv 
(opfxdr eK daXa/xoio repev Kara SdKpv '^eovaa, 
ovK otj), djjia TTji <ye koL dficfuTToXoi 8v eirovTO, 



133. nToXeJuoio S. 134. noXeudc xe U. 135. dcnOi R. 137. jmaxpoTc 

GR. 11 crxeioici G. j coTo PQ. 138. Ke : re P. j ^iXh : tunh II [yp. (^Wh). 
143. THi re : th(i) &e QS. 

133. This is a ' Leonine ' verse, with 
a rime in the middle. 

131. earai for eiarai — TJaTai (ijcr-prai), 
with shortening as in Kearai for KeiaraL, 
veas for vfjas, xP^''<''fos for XP'^^'f'^, and 
other cases in van L. Ench. p. 85. So 
earo H 414. Cf. on 153. 

138. Ke goes with kekXi^chi (fut. 
indie.) ; to him who conquers thou shalt 
{then) he assigned. The order of the 
words is the same as in H 41 ot 5e' k 
dyairadfj.evoi . . (42) It seems 
unnatural to us here, because we are 
accustomed to the Attic use of the art. 
with the participle, where no word from 
another part of the sentence can be 
interposed. But here tcoi is still an 
independent pronoun, lit. ' to him, 
having conquered,' etc. The difficulty 
arises of course from the reference being 
not to one definite person, but to either 
of two (cf. IT. G. § 260). This shews 
that the Attic use has practically been 
reached in all but the stereotyped order, 
cf. Tov j3acn\TJos dTrrjvios, etc. There are 
very few other instances in H., perhaps 
only $ 262, ^ 325, 663, 702, beside the 
parallel 255 below (q.v. ). It has been 
proposed, on the analogy of oiriroTepos 
de K€ viK-Tjcrrji. (71), to take Ke with the 
participle here ; but in practice the Ke 
(ac) is inseparable from the relative in 
such sentences for H. as for later Greek, 
and no analogous case has been quoted. 
At best we could refer to the instances 

of a repeated av where the first often 
attaches itself to a participle represent- 
ing a conditional clause, but is not con 
strued with it (instances in lU. ami T. 
§ 224). There seems to be no case of 6 
uLKTjcras av, and even if it were found it 
could only mean ' the man who would 
have conquered.' Van Leeuwen evades 
the dilficulty by reading ye for Ke, with 
P ; but this is intolerable. xeKXHCHi, 
i.e. KeK\rjffe\aL). 

140. TOKHCON, Leda and Tyndareos, 
though Helen is Atoy eKyeyavia, see 199, 
426, 5 184 ; the legends vary as to the 
paternity of the children of Leda, see 
X 298 (M. and R.'s note), and on 238 

141. oeoNH, lme7i veil, see S 595. 
Ka\ut];aueNH : this reflexive use of the 
middle, in which the agent is the direct 
object of the action, is comparatively 
rare ; R. G. § 8 (2). 

142. TepcN, round; Lat. tcr-cs. The 
word is used by H. (1) of flesh, A 237, 
N 553, S 406; (2) of tears, here, 
n 11, T 323, w 332 ; (3) of leaves, jN" 
180, fi 357 ; (4) avdea ttoLtis i 449. The 
ordinary explanation, ' tender,' does not 
suit either (1) or (2), for the flesh to 
which it is api)lied is always that of 
stalwart warriors, not of women or 
children ; it rather indicates the firm 
rounded muscles (cf. Lat. tor-us). As 
applied to leaves and bloom it means 
' swelling with sap,' full of fresh life. 



lAlAAOC r (ill) 

AWprj TltT6f]o<; Ovydrrjp KXvfievrj re /SocoTTi?- 
al^a S' eireid^ 'iKavov, 66t "ZKatal irvKat rjaav. 

ol 8' a/A^l Upia/jbop Kol Udvdoov riSe Sv/xolti^v 
Ad/ubTTOp re KXvTiov B" 'iKerdovd r o^ov ' Ap7)o<i, 
OvKoXiyaiv re koI ^Avrrjvcop, Treirvvfievco a/icjbct), 
eMTO hrjfjiO'yepovTe'^ eirl ^Kairjiat irvXriicn, 
jijpa'i 8r) TToXe/xoto ireTravpievoi, aXX' dyoprjTal 
eaOXoi, reTTijecrcriv eoLKore'^, oX re Kad vXrjv 
SevSpeo i(f)€^o/ji€vot onra Xeipcoecrcrav lelcri' 



144 ad. Ar. (see below). 145. Ykqngn P. 147. 
e" ozoN T. 148. Te om. G. || nenNoiucNco T. 

150. THpaY : repai S : yp. /cat THpeY ws ovSe'C A. |j &H 
Zen.: Bewdpecoi Ar. fl: 3eN9pco P Par. k {'post ras.). \\ 
G. 11 YHcaN (?) Pap. ;3- : Yecaw /3\ 

XdunoNTa G. || t' OZON : 

149. CKQiaTci nuXaici G. 

; 9^ G. 152. dcNdpei 

dzduewoi S. || XupioeccoN 

144. This line is a clear case of inter- 
polation of a later myth. The story was 
that Aithra, daughter of Pittheus, was 
the mother of Theseus. Theseus having 
stolen Helen while yet a child, her 
bi'others, the Dioskuri, invaded Attica 
during his visit to Hades, and recovered 
Helen, carrying off Aithra to be her 
slave. At the taking of Troy, the sons 
of Theseus, Demophon and Akamas, 
found their grandmother there among 
Helen's handmaids, and took her back 
to Athens. The legend was dealt with 
in the 'IXiou ir^pcns ascribed to Lesches 
(Pans. X. 25. 5), and is at least as old as 
the Chest of Ky])selos, see Paus. v. 19 
AWpa 5e rj Xltr^^ws Owb T77S 'E\4vris tois 
■iroaiv els ^8a(pos Kara^e^Xy^ixevq fxiXatvav 
exovcrd iariv iffdrjTa. eTrlypa/j-fia de err' 
avrois Ittos re e^d/jLerpov, Kal ovS/xaTos 
iffTLV eubs iTri tG}i e^afxeTpbii. vpocrd-fjKr] • 

Tvvdaplda '^Xivav tpiperov, MOpav 6' 


The recovery of Aithra was a regular 
episode of the Iliupersis on Attic vases 
of the fifth century (Robert Bild u. Lied 
c. ii), and was painted by Polygnotos in 
the Lesche at Delphi (Paus. x. 25), 
where the two handmaids of Helen were 
named Elektra and Panthalis. But 
Homer is, of course, ignorant of the 
Theseus myth in all its branches. The 
Alexandrine critics were troubled by the 
chronological difficulty of the age which 
must be assigned to Aithra : dindavbv 
ydp iffTLv 'EX^j'7;s dfxcp'nrokov elvai ttjp 
ovTUis inr€papxoi.ia.v, rjv ovk kKtroLel (it is 

not possible) ^tjv bid rb fxriKos rod xpij'ou 
(Schol. A). That, however, must be 
put to the account of the myth-maker. 
More serious indications of interpolation 
here are the fact that Homer does not 
name handmaids on similar occasions 
{a 182 is the only case), and that the 
epithet IBowttls belongs to Hera alone, 
H 10 and S 40 being the only exceptions. 
The latter, at least, is a doubtful passage. 
The line was evidently composed at a 
date when the old tradition had died 
out, if it is true that the epithet ori- 
ginally came from the time when gods 
were worshipped in animal form, and 
was no mere cpitheton ornans. Cf. on 
yXavKunns A 206. 

146. of 6JU19J npia.uoN, the party con- 
sisting of Priam and the rest. The idiom 
by which a man is included in 'those 
about' him is familiar in H. as well as 
in Attic ; see B 445, A 295, Z 436, 301, 
etc. The change to the nominative in 
148 is merely for the sake of convenience, 
and does not indicate that Ukalegon and 
Antenor were in any way different from 
the rest. The three names in 147 are 
ace. to T 238 those of sons of Laomedon, 
and therefore brothers of Priam. 

149. 5HjaorepoNTec : the word recurs 
only A 372, where it is applied to Hos, 
the eponym of Ilios. There is no reason 
to suppose that it is in any way different 
from the simple yipwv : it means merely 
member' of the council of elders of the 
5^/xos or community. Cf. the yepoi'icios 
bpKos X 119 note. 

152. XeipioeccQN : so Hes. TJieog. 41, 
and cf. oTTtt Xeipiov Ap. Ehod. iv. 903 ; 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 


TOioi cipa Tp(i)Q)v 7)y)]Tope'i rjvr eTTi irupycoi. 

01 S' ft)? ovv ecSovd^ RXevrjiJ eVl irvpyov lovcrav, 

rjKa 7rpo<; aX\.7]\ou<i eirea irrepoevr dyopeuov 155 

" ov vefM€cri<i Tpcoa^ zeal ivKVjj/juSa^ A^atou? 

TotrjcS' dfi(f>l yvvaiKi iroXvv '^povov aXjea Trda-^eLv 

alvcb's ddavuTr]i(TL OerJL'i et9 Mrra eocKev. 

ciWa Kol CO?, Tolrj irep eovcr , ev V7]varl veeadco, 

/jLtjS I'jfitv reKeecrai r OTriacrco irrjfjba \nrono. 160 

CO? ap' €(f)av, Tlpiaixo'i 8' 'EX.evr)v eKaXecrcraTO (fxovijf 
" Bevpo irdpoiff' ekOovaa, (j)i\ov rr€KO<i, l^ev e/jueio, 
6cf)pa t'8?7t9 Trporepov re ttoctlv irrjov^ re (pi\ov<i re* 
ov r'i fjioi alnri ecrai, 6eoi vv fxoc atrcoi etaiv, 
oX jjioi i(f)a)p/jirj(7av iroXepbOV 7ro\vSaKpvv A'^aiMV 165 

153. ToTciN G. II eTnt' G. || nuproN Q {snjn: co) : niiprooN Schol. ad 10. 

154. efaoN G(,)T : cTdoNe' RS Hail, a : YdoNe' U : Y5on I'ap. (3. 155. hko : 
WKQ Zen. Krates : rives wko Par. a. 156. xpcbdc xe Kai HPQR. 158. aea- 

Ndroici P. I eeaic G. || ccokei P East. 159. nhI' Vr. A. 160. XinHxai P {yp. 

Kai nflua Mnoixo). 162. xgknon J. ji Yzou G. || moTo PQRS Vr. b. 163. 

'I'&HIC Zen. CGJRST Pap. /3, Harl. a b, Par. d e^ f h j : YShi Ar. fi. 165. e96p- 
juHcaN Lips. : e<pa)puicaN P. || axaicoN : apHOc Pap. /S^. 

but it is hard to say how a voice can be 
'lily-like,' or, to be literal, 'full of lilies.' 
Commentators generallj' are content to 
say that the idea of delicacy is transferred 
from the flower to the sound. The schol. 
explain iinOv/j,7]Trjv, riSelav. The Gi'eeks 
felt particular pleasure in the voice of 
the cicada (cf. particularly the charming 
lines in Scut. Her. 393 tf. ), and we can 
understand the 'chirruping' of the old 
men being compared to it ; but that 
does not bring us nearer to the meaning 
of the epithet. Xetpioets is applied to the 
skin in N 830, but the lily is not else- 
where mentioned by H., and appeal's 
first in Hymn. Cer. 428. It looks as 
though some different word of forgotten 
meaning had been corrupted into a more 
familiar form ; but it is hardly safe to 
trust to the gloss of Hesych., who explains 
Xetpos by Icrx^os (Paley). \eLpiwv oixfxdroiv 
in Bacchylides (xvii. 95) cannot be said 
to throw any fresh light on the question. 
9eN5pei, so Zen. The form is well 
attested in Attic and Herod, vi. 79. 
8evdp€ov is certain in N 437, 5 458 ; but 
here the simultaneous synizesis and 
shortening in the vulg. devdp^uL are in- 
tolerable. (In A 15 xpi'o'^'^' '^^"' (^KrjTT- 
TpwL we may read either a.v with Lehrs 

or ffKriTTTpwi avh Xjoi'o'^wt with Brandreth.) 
The other Homeric forms, d^vSpea and 
devdpewv, are ambiguous. devdpewL efo- 
/jLsvoc is possible, but ill attested. 

153. fiNTO, a unique form for etaro, T^aro, 
due to the similarity of -fj/xai (i7cr-^at) to 
the vocalic stems, which admit both -vto 
and -aro after r] {^efSX-rj-aTai — ^vfi^\r]-VTO 
H. G. p. 5). 

Lessing, in a well-known passage of 
the Laokoon (ch. xxi.), quotes the 
admiration of the old men as a supreme 
instance of the manner in which poetry 
can convey the idea of exceeding personal 
beauty without any attempt to describe 
a single feature. 

156. 00 Neuecic, ' there is no place 
for indignation that,' as S 80, o 350, 
just as we say 'Small blame that' ; so 
v€/j.€(r(r7]T6v r 410, etc. 

160. Xinoixo, rcmam, as I 437. nfiua, 
in apposition, as 51, etc. 

162. The order is 8evpo eXdovaa 'i^ev 
ndpoiO' i/xelo, and cbc (166) is co-ordinated 
with S<ppa YShic, 164-5 being parenthet- 
ical. HHOuc, kinsfolk by marriage, ex- 
plained in d 582 yafx^pos i) vevdepb?, o'l 
re fxaXLara | k7)Sl(jtol reXedovcn fied' alfjid 
T€ Kai yevos avrQv. 



C09 //'Ot Kol TovS^ avhpa ireXcopiov i^ovo/jb7]V7jt,<;, 

09 Tt9 08 ecrrlv A^^ato? avrjp rjv'i re jji.e'ya<i re. 

7] Tot, fiev Ket^aXrii koI fji€i^ov€<; oXXol eacri, 

Ka\ov 8' ovTco iycov ov ttco iBov 6(1)6 aXfiolatv 

ouS' ovTU) yepapov ^acrtkrji yap avSpl eoiKe.'' 170 

Tov 8 '}L\6V7] [jbvOoiaiv afiel^ero, Bia yvvatKcov 
" al8oio<; re fiot iacro, (piXe eKvpe, 8et,vo<i re* 
ft)9 6(f)e\ev ddvaTO<i fxoi aheiv kuko^, oTnrore Seupo 
vtei <TO)i eTTOfjbrjv, OaXa/juov yvo}Tov<i re XiTrovcra 
TralSd T€ TTjXvyirrjv kol 6/ji7]\tKi7]v epareivrjv. 175 

aXka TCI 7' ovK eyevovro' to koI KXatovaa TerrjKa. 
rovTo Se rot ipeo), o fi dveipeat i^Se /u,eraWdt<i' 
ovro<; y W^rpetSr]^ evpv Kpelcov 'Aya/xe/mvaiv, 
dficporepov, /SacriXev^ r dya9o<i Kparepo<; r at^/x?;T?;9* 
Sarjp avr i/xof; eaKe KVvco7ri8o<i, ec iror erjv ye.^ 180 

169. e'idoN 6<pea\uoTc H. 170. repaoN Pap. /S^. || rap : 5e Athen. xiii. 566. 
174. rNcocTouc DXS. 176. TO r' : xd kg, yp. 5e Kai rd re Schol. A. || KXeiouca 
Pap. p. 178. r' om. G Pap. jS : t' U. 

168. KaJ jixeizoNec, even greater, not 
merely equal. Ke9a\Hi, by (the measure 
of) the head. 

172. <pi\e eKupe : the aF of {(jF)€Kvpi 
lengthens the e as in ovSe {aF)ovs B 832. 

173. edNQTOC . . d9eTN, a curious 
phrase apparently founded on the 
familiar -tivdave /SouXtj. The neglect of 
the F of d&eTN (svad-) is very rare ; ws 
p.'{oi) 6<pe\€v ddvaros FaSiecv is a clearly 
right correction required by the order of 
the words (Monro ; R. G. p. 337). Yet 
even so the verb is. a curious one to use, 
and thei'e is no exact piarallel. eX^eiv, 
Xa^eeiv were not likely to be corrupted. 

175. nataa, sc. Hermione, 5 14. thXu- 
rexHN : the explanation of this much 
disputed word which now seems to be 
the most generally accepted is that 
given by Savelsberg in the Rhein. Mus. 
1853, p. 441. It is explained at length 
by M. and R. on 5 11. The conclusion 
there arrived at is that the word means 
adolescens, lit. ' grown big,' from *t7j\vs 
= great, and that it indicates an age of 
from thirteen to twenty or thereabouts. 
This suits the statement of Sophokles as 
quoted by the schol. on 5 4, and 
Eustath., who say that Hermione was 
given in marriage while Helen was in 
Troy, so that she could not have been 

very young when her mother left her. 
But it is only an uncertain guess. 

178. ouToc is 'anaphoric,' not 'deic- 
tic ' ; in other words it means ' he of 
whom you ask,' while Priam (167) uses 
ode, 'this warrior whom I see.' 

179. This was a favourite line of 
Alexander's, Plut. 3Ior. i. 331. See 
also Xen. Mem. iii. 2. 2. dAJi96TepoN, 
exactly our idiom, ' both a good king 
and.' So Pindar 0. vi. 17 d/j-cpoTepov 
udvTiv T dyadbv /cat dovpl /ndpvaadai. 

180. e'l nor' chn re: this phrase occurs 
in five other places, viz. A 762, ft 426, 
268, T 315, w 289. It is always, 
except in O and w, preceded by some 
form of elvaL. It is commonly taken to 
mean 'if indeed it is not all a dream,' 
si unquamfuit quod non est amplms, i.e. 
si recto did potest fuissc qxiod ita sui 
factum est dissimile ut fiiisse mmquam 
credas, G. Hermann. The doubt would 
then be a rhetorical way of emphasiz- 
ing the bitter contrast between the past 
and the present. Monro compares el' 
TTore in prayers (e.g. A 39, 394), where 
there is no doubt expressed ; ' the effect 
is that of an assurance that the past to 
which the speaker looks back was once 
really present; "if there was an Aga- 
memnon [as there was], he was my 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 


609 ^UTO, TOP S yepcov 7]<ydaaaT0 (f)(ovr]aev re* 
" 0) /jbuKap 'ATpeL'Srj, /j,0Lp7]yeve<i, 6\f3io8ai/jiov, 
rj pa vv rot, iroWol SeS/mijaro Kovpoi W-^aiMV. 
ijSr) KOi ^pvylrjv elcn'fKvOov afiTreXoecraav • 

evda tSov TrXecarov^ '■\^pv<ya<i dv6pa<; aloXo7rcoXov<i, 185 

Xaov<i ^Orpyjo'i koI Mi/'ySot'o? dvTiOeoio, 
o\ pa TOT ecTTpaTOOiVTO Trap* 6'^0a<^ ^ajyapuoio' 
KOi yap iycop iiTLKOvpo^ icov fieTa Tolaiv eXe'^Orjv 
■i]fiaTi TMi, OTe T rfkOov ^Afj,a^ov€<i avTidveipat,' 
dW ov8 oi Tocrot rjaav oaoc e\i/C(ji7r€<i A^atot. 190 

BevTepov avT ^08vaj]a IScov epeetv' o yepato<i' 
ecTT aye fxoc Kat Tovoe, cpiXov TeK0<i, o? rt? oo ecxTi, 
fxeicov fiev /cecfiaXrji, Ayafie/jivovo<i ATpetSao, 
€vpvT€po<; S Mfxoccrcv I8e (XTepvoiatv ISiaOab. 
Tcv^ea [xev ol KeiTat iirl '^OovX TrouXv/SoTeiprji, 195 

avTO'^ he KTuXoq &)<? eTrtTrooXetrat aTi'^a<i dvSpoJv 
dpveiML /biiv eyct) ye iiCTKco TrrjyecrLfxdWcot, 
o<? T OLwv pbeya ttmv hiep-^eTat dpyevvduiv.^ 

186. \aouc t' J. 187. licTpareuoNTO jpi (-6onto P^). 188. ercoN : £con 

Pap. j8^. II cXeruHN Strabo. 189. t' om. GR. 190. OU&' oi : ou 3h Q. 

191. ai5©' C. 193. Keq>a\^N Ar. H Par. g". 194. iidk GPQ. 195. Teuxe<i 
oi JU^N JR. II noXuBoxeipHi DT Pap. jQi. 196. enencoXeixo Pap. /3. 197. JUIN : 
uku S. 

brother - in - law." ' But the phrase 
belongs to a class of sentences in which 
el is not conditional at all, but merely 
calls attention to a concomitant circum- 
stance, of which the .so-called 'protasis' 
is independent. See note on A 321. 
The sense is rather ' Do not forget that 
he was ' than ' if he was. ' To bring out 
this sense Curtius would read h ttot' 
'iriv ye, ^surely once he was,' which is 

182. JuioipHrcNec, child of fortune, 
born to a happy fate. Doderlein ex- 
plains 'born for destruction (of enemies),' 
on the ground that iJ.oipa means evil fate. 
But this is only the case in phrases like 
fj-olpai davaroLo and others ; in u 76 it is 
opposed to dfiixoplr), and clearly means 
' good fortune ' ; fiolprit yevdfievos would 
answer to the KaKiji atcrrji t^kov of A 418. 

183. SeQjUHaTO, i.e. 'are, as I now 
see, subject to you ' ; the plpf. being 
used like the imperf. in rj/j-eWov, ^v (apa), 
etc. Cf. er^Tv^o e 163, M 164. 

185. The rhythm shows that 4>purac 
ONepac go closely together. aioXoncoXouc : 

cf. TTodas ai'oXo? I'ttttos T 404, tvith nimble 
horses. nXeicxouc is predicate, with 

188. eX^xsHN, either 'was mimbered 
among them' (Xe7-) or 'lay down 
(bivouacked) among them' (Xex-). The 
same ambiguity is found in 519, I 67. 
H. mentions the Amazons once again, 
Z 186 ; cf. also B 811. 

193. KCipaXfii, as 168. Ar.'s KeipoX-qv 
follows the analogy of 227. 

196. KTiXoc, the ram who leads the 
flock, 'bell wether' ; the simile is given 
again, at full length, in N 492. In 
later Greek the word seems to be used 
only as an adj.=<«??if. Cf Pind. P. ii. 
17 tepea kt'CKov 'Acppodiras. 

197. nHrccijmdXXcoi, thick -fleeced ; cf. 
7r7776s of horses and waves, I 124, e 388. 
The formation of the word is hard to 
explain ; the analogy of TawaiTTTepos, 
eX/cecrtTTeTrXos, ra/jiecrlxpoos, depcrtTroSes, and 
many others, shews that it must be 
derived from the verb -stem vriy-, not 
from -rry^ybs (cf., however, IIpwretT-tXaos). 
H. G. § 124 c. 


lAlAAOC r (III) 

Tov S' rjfiel/3eT eireiB' 'EXivTj Ai09 iKyejavia- 
" ovTO<i B' av AaepTuiSr]^; 7rdXvfMrjTC<; 'OSucrcrev?, 
09 Tpd(f)'r) iv 8i]fion, '\6dKr}<; Kpavarj'i irep iovcr7j<; 
elSoo'i iravTolov; re SoXov<; koX /xijSea irvKva. 

rrjv S' avT ^KvTrjvwp Tre'Trvufxevo'i avnov rjvSa' 
" 0) yvvat, rj fidXa tovto eTTO? V7)fjb€pT€(; eetTre?* 
ijSr] yap KoX Sevpo ttot rfkvOe Sio<; 'OSvaa€v<;, 
a€V ev€K dy<y6\i7]<?, avv dprj'icpiXfoi, ^levekacoc 
Tov^ 8' eycb i^elvicrcra kol ev fieydpoiat, (plXTjaa^ 
dfMcfiOTepwv Se <^vi]v iSdrjv Koi fxijBea irvKvd, 
dW' ore Srj TpcoeacrLV ev dypofievocaiv €/XL^6ev, 
ardvTMV fiev MeveXao<i V7reipe')(ev evpea<i cofj.ov<i, 
d/xcj)0) 8' e^o/jbevo), yepapd)Tepo<i rjev 'OSfcrcrei;?. 




203. au P Lips. 204. eeinac GL Vr. a\ Lips.i 206. cfic Zen. Par. b.^ 

207. TOUC 5' : T0uc3e 5" P. |1 erojN eseiNicca J. || seiNica PQ. || jmerdpoic e9iXHca 
Pap. /3. 211. ^zoueNOJN Zen. DTU Harl. a^ c d, King's, Par. e, Eton. 

201. dHJUcoi, 'realm' in local sense, 
see B 547. nep : the idea seems to be, 
' poor tliongh the soil of Ithaka be, yet 
it has succeeded in producing a great 
man.' Of. 5 605, t 27 Tprjx^^' aX\' 
dyadr] KovpoTp6<pos. Tpd9H, read Tpd(pev 
or Tpd(p' ivi, though here the MSS. are 
unanimous ; see on B 661. 

206. arrcXiHC avrl tov dyyeXos, Ar. , a 
much disputed doctrine. In the present 
passage we may well take dm as 
governed by eveKa (as tt 334 Trjs avTTJs 
^veK dyyeXirj?) and ceO as an objective 
gen. after it (as k 245 dyyeKi7)v erdpwv 
ipewv). So A 384 dyyeXiriv eTrl Tvoij 
(TTelXav 'Axatot is ambiguous, for iwi 
may be taken with the verb (see note 
there) ; and A 140 Islev^Xaov . . dyyeki-qv 
i\66vTa, with the analogy of e^effiijv 
iXdovTL Q, 235, 4> 20 (hence Bentley, 
followed by van L., read dyyiXl-qv here). 
But in X 252 rje rev dyyeXirjs /xer' ^n' 
7j\v6es, 640 8s 'EupvaOrjos didXuv 
dyyeXiTjs o'lxveffKe ^itjl 'llpaKXT]€lrii, we 
must either make the word a nom. with 
Ar., or read dyyeXLr]v with Zenod., or 
extend the ' causal ' use of the genitive 
beyond all analogy, even in the freedom 
of Homeric usage. The termination 
-Ltjs recurs only in veyivlt]!, rafil-qs, in the 
latter case with the fem. ra/^t?; beside it, 
though this is not an abstract noun. 
For the formation of such masculines 
of the -a declension from abstract 
feminines see H. G. § 116 (2). There is, 
therefore, a certain amount of analogy 

for the doctrine of Ar., establishing at 
least the possibility of it ; the conclusion 
in the last resort depends on the tradi- 
tion of the text in N and O. (See also 
Delbriick Ch\ iii. pp. Ill, 368.) There 
can be no doubt that on the whole the 
nom. masc. gives the best sense here, 
' au envoy concerning thee.' The gen. 
would rather mean to get (or more 
naturally to bring) a message of thee, 
which is not what is required. Odysseus 
and Menelaos came as envoys from 
Greece, to obtain the surrender of Helen 
by peaceful means before the opening of 
the war, as was related in the Kypria. 
This is again alluded to in A 138, q.v. 
aris, the reading of Zen., is no im- 
provement on ceO, and would have to be 
taken in the same objective sense, cf. 
T 336 i/xriv TroTibeyfj.€vov alel \ Xiiyprji' 

209. arpojueNOici, sc. when they first 
made their appearance in the dyopd. 

210. ctcSntcon seems to refer to the 
whole multitude ; the dignity of Odysseus 
is emphasized by his being more stately, 
when they sat down, even than the man 
whose shoulders stood out not only above 
his, but above all the Trojans. Bentley 
read arduTes on the analogy of i^o/j-epu 
below. uneipexeN is probably intrans., 
with gen. as -fjeXios {nrepiax^Se yairjs 
A 735 ; vTrep^x^'-" in the trans, sense 
means ' to hold over,' e.g. B 426, which 
is possible here, but seems less natural. 

211. There is an anacoluthon here; 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 


aXX" ore 8i] /jbvOov<i koI fi'>]hea ttCktiv vcjiaivov, 

rj TOO fjbev MefeXao? €7rtrpo'^dS'i]v dyopeve, 

Travpa fiev, dWd fid\a \i<ye(o<;, eVet ov 7ro\v/jiv6o<;, 

ouS' d(f)a/jiapToe7n']<i, el koI 'yevei va-repo'i rjev. 215 

uX)C ore St] 7ro\v/i7]Ti<; dvat^eiev 'OSucrcreu?, 

ard(TK6v, vTral Se iBecTKe Kara '^dovo'i ofifiaTa 7rjy^a9, 

aKTj'TTrpov 8' ovr ottkjm ovre TrpoTrprjve'i ivco/xa, 

aXA-' dcrT€fX(f)e<; e-^eaKev, diSpe'i (J)(otI eot/ccti?' 

<paii]<; Ke ^dKorov re nv' eixfjuevai dcfipovd r auTco?. 220 

d/VX' ore Sj) oira re fieydXTji' eK ari'jdeo^ e'lrj 

215. ei : H AT Eton. {yp. Hail, a) : h Pap. /S^ : H or fi Nik. 219. a'Capi 

DiST A^r. b, Pap. /3\ 220. xe tin': tinq S {yp. J): tin' Q. || e' auTcoc Jg. 

221. eYh Ai)U : Yei GP Had. a : Yei CHJL : Yh Lips. 

the construction is just like K 224 <tvv 
re 5i" ipxofJi-ivw, Kai re Trpb 6 rod evSriaev. 
In both cases the sentence begins as if 
d/ii^io {8vo) were to be continued in dis- 
tributive apposition (dTro 6\ov eh iJ-iprj) 
by an 6 jxlv . . 6 5i (as a 95 St) tot 
dvaaxofJ-evo} o fxev rjXacre de^wv &fiov | 
'Ipoj, 6 5' avx^v' 'iXaaaev, H 306, M 400, 
etc.). But here the second member is 
forgotten altogether ; in K the two are 
run together into irph 6 tov. Of. also fx 
73 oi S^ 8vo} ffKSTreXoi. 6 jj-iv . . followed 
by rbu 5' eTepov 101. Zenod. read 
i^ofievuv, apparently regarding d/xcpcj as 
indeclinable (it is not found in H. except 
in nom. and ace). 

212. For tiqjaiNON Casaubon conj. 
ecpaivov, cf. S 295, 9 499. But the 
metaphor of weaving speeches is too 
natural to be objected to. For the dat. 
nSci cf. ToiffL 5' du€(TT7] (locatival). 

213. kn\TpQy(j(ibHN, fluently (as cr 26), 
not stumbling for want of words ; it is 
explained b^y the whole of what follows, 
naupa being taken up by ov Tro\vfxv6oi, 
and Xirecoc (which seems to mean clca?- 
in utterance) by oi'5' dcpafxapToeirri'i, ' no 
stumbler in words either' (cf \ 511 
ovx ij/ndpTave jmOwv, and N 824 
dfxapToewis) . I.e. Menelaos spoke con- 
cisely, but what he did say he said 
clearly and without stumbling, cf. 
da(pa\iiji^ dyopevet d 171. In the 

of Menelaos' speech on this 

as conceived by Bacchylides 

can hardly be said that the 

character, ov ttoXv/xvOos, is 


(XV.), it 



215. Though the ms. testimony is 
strong in favour of el here, the scholia 
only discuss rj and -/;' as variants. The 

latter is inadmissible here ; the former, 
preceded by a colon, may be defended by 
passages where it introduces short paren- 
thetical sentences, as H 393, A 362, 
X 280 (H. G. § 338). All these cases 
are, however, so far different that 7^ 
retains its original force of strong 
affirmation, and in none of them could 
el be substituted without detriment to 
the sense. Here, however, there is no 
need of asseveration about the relative 
age of Menelaos, and if fj is right, it 
means no more than ei, which it is 
therefore better to retain. 

217. \ina\,from londer as usual {H. G. 
§ 201), not doivn, which is jcard. So 
vvSdpa of the glance of a man from 
under eyebrows contracted in anger. 
Hei'e ojuumara refers to the face rather 
than the eyes ; Odysseus keeps his face 
turned to the earth and looks up from 
under his brow, virb jBXecpdpwv T 17. Cf. 
Ovid Met. xiii. 125 Laertius Jwros 
Adstitit atquc ocnlos paullum tellure 
morcdos Hustulit ad proceres. ciNa'l'seieN, 
rose to speak, cf. yjcaaov S 506. The opt. 
is iterative. 

220. zdKOTON : the idea seems to be 
what we call ' sulky ' ; kStos implies 
resentment rather than open anger, and 
is thus contrasted with xoXos in A 82. 
Odysseus, by not employing the outward 
signs of appeal and persuasion, looks 
like a man who in deep resentment 
chooses to hold aloof from his fellows. 
Te tin' : TLvd F' Brandreth (see the 
variant). The caesura is insufficient in 
any case. For <pafHc kg = diceres, eredc7'es, 
cf. 392, A 429, 697, etc. a(iTcoc, a 
mere simpleton ; A 133. 

221. We can choose between gYh and 


lAIAAOC r (m) 

KoX eirea vicpaSeaaLv ioLKora yeLfxepi'qicnv, 

ovK av eTTeLT 'OSvaPji y iptaaete /Sporo^ aWo<;' 

ov Tore y wS' 'OSuctj^o? djaaaafxed e2So9 l8ovT€'i. 

TO rplrov avT Acavra ISoiv epeeiv o yepato<i' 
" Tt9 rap 68' aXXo9 'A^^ato? avrjp rjv^ re fieya'i re, 
e^oyo<i 'Apyeicov K€(j)a\i]V rjS evpea^; a)fiov<; ; 

rov S' '^XevT] Tavv7r€7r\o<; afxei^eTO, Bia yvvaiKcov 
" ovTO<; S' Ata.9 icrrl TreXcopto?, epKo^ ^K^aioiv 
'ISoyu-eyeu? 8' krepwOev evl }s.p7]T€acn ^eo9 &>9 
ecrrrjK, a/xcpl Be p.iv }s^pT]TO)v dyol rjjepedovraL. 
TToWuKt fjbiv ^eivLaaev dpi]t^i\o<; MeveXao9 
oiKWi iv rj/jbeTepwi oTTore Kpijnjdev 'lkolto. 
vvv 8' aX\ov<; jxev 7rdvTa<; opw e\LKC07ra<; 'A^a60U9, 
0U9 Kev iv yvoLrjv Kal r ovvofxa /u.v97](Tat/jb7]v • 
Boio) 8' ou BvvafiaL IBeeLV Kocrfjcrirope \ao)v, 
Ys^dcTTopd 6' iTTTroBa/jiov Kal irv^ dyaOov Tlo\vBevKea, 




222. Kai p' T-. || xe'"epfoici Q Yr. c. 226. Tap A : rhp Trypho G : t' ap' 
ft. 1! cixai6c oh' aXXoc Q. || ixerac he. R. 227. h5' : xe Koi Ar. Aph. : xaJ Q 
(and this the SchoL of Did. implies as a variant). 229. 5' om. ET. 230. 
Kpi^Tecci : epi^Kecci Pap. ;3^ 231. ArepeeoNTai ACJPRU Harl. a : Arcp^eoNTo 
i>GH {post ras. ) LQST Vr. a b : AepeeoNTai Pap. ^. 234. 6p«2> ndNxac Q. !| 

eXiKcbnac : kqi ndNxac Pap. /3\ 235 om. Pap. [3^. \\ kqi rouNOJua CH : Kai k' 
ouNOJua G {sic La R; G?) T. 236. bua piQS (auto? T). 237. noXudeuKHN CS. 

UL (it?) even apart from ms. variation ; 
but the opt. in 216 is evidently in favour 
of the former. 

224. The line was condemned by 
Bentley. It is most awkward as well 
as tautological, and the digamma of 
root Fid is twice violated. Giseke re- 
marks that it would come better after 
220 ; but it seems to be only a variant 
of 223, added by way of recapitulation 
of the whole speech. a>9e must then 
mean ' so much as we did before ' ; 
whereas the proper sense is ' so much as 
we do now.' 

227. fib' : the reading of Ar. re Kal 
introduces the forbidden trochaic caesura 
in the 4th foot (cf., however, P 719). 
Ahrens thought that the old reading 
was Kai (vide supra), the length being 
preserved by the bucolic diaeresis. 

228. TQNunenXoc seems to mean nearly 
the same as eX/ceo-tVeTrXos (Z 442, etc.), 
VJith long (or %uide) rohe (lit. stretched 
out), cf. €KTa8ir] K 134. See Studniczka 
Beitr. p. 116, Helbig JI. E."- p. 205. 

229. It is remarkable that Aias should 

be dismissed in one line (cf. on B 557), 
and Diomedes altogether omitted ; the 
name of the latter indeed does not occur 
at* all before A 365, except in the 
Catalogue, B 563, 567, and he drops 
entirely out of the action after A, 
except in the games in ^ and one speech 
in 2 (109 sqq. ). It is not impossible that 
Idomeneus, who is frequently the object 
of disproportionate praise, has here 
supplanted the description of the more 
famous warriors. 

235. TNoiHN, ' I could recognise and 
name,' a sort of assimilation of the first 
clause to the second, for 'whom I re- 
cognise and could name ' (Monro). Or, 
in other words, yvoi-qv Kal = yvov<Ta : cf. 
' whose shoe's latchet I am not worthy 
to stoop down and unloose,' Aisch. Sci^t. 
272 iKiffdai K(xi = LKoiJ.€vovs (M. A. B.). 

237. For another (and later 1 ) legend 
of Kastor and Polydeukes see X 300 
sqq., the only other place where they 
are mentioned in H. That passage 
is clearly inconsistent with 243-4, as 
they are said to have shared immortality 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 


avroKaaiyvijTO), rco fu,ot fiia <yeivaTO n7]T7]p. 

Yj ov'^ ecnreaOriv AaKeSal/xovo'^ i^ iparetvr}<i, 

i) Sevpo [xev errovro veeaa eve irovToiropoLcn, 240 

vvv avr ovk iOeXovcrc /xd'^rjv KaraSvfxevac avSpciyv, 

ata'^ea S€i8iOTe<; kol ovelhea ttoXX', li /xot eVrty." 

609 (pc'iTO, Tov^i S' 't'jS'r] Kclre'^ev (f)vaL^oo<i aia 
iv AafceSalfiovi avOi, (fiCX-rjt iv iraTplht jairjc. 

K7]pvK€<i 8' dva darv Oecov cfyepov opKia iricrrd, 245 

dpve hv(o KOL olvov eix^pova, Kapirov dpovpT]^;, 
dcTKML ev alyelcoi' <^epe he Kprjrrjpa (paetvov 
KTJpv^ ISaio? ^8e '^pvcreLa KvireXka' 
MTpvvev Se yepovra 'jrapcard/xevo^ iireecraiv' 
opaeo, Aao/neSovTidSr], KaXeovcrLV dpicrroL 250 

" i' 

239. €cn€ceHN [A]R[S]T : ein^ceHN T: en^ceHN fi. 240. SeOpo HJPiQRTU^ 
{in ras.) Harl. a {yp. pco) b c d, King's, Par. a^ b (?) h j : Seupco ACGL[S] Vr. a'', 
Par. c d e f g : aeOpco D. 241. nOn b' CGPRS. || aQ Vr. a. || udyHN : ronon 
East. 242. ONeiSe' <i noWd J {yp. kqJ ONeidea no\K6 uoi). 243. h5h om. 

P. :i KaTecxe(N) J {yp. Kdxexe) PQ. 1 <pvjdz<j3oc I)V. \\ a\a : apoupa Q. 244. 

9i\HN €c naxpOa raToN 1). || <pi\Hl : efii Zen. 247. be : bk Lips, ij Kpaxfipa 
GE. 249, oTpuNGN Vr. a. 

after death by alternate days. The 
synizesis in noXu5euKea is suspicious ; 
perhaps the variant lloXudevKriv is right, 
Zen. explained the absence of the 
brothers from Troy by supposing that 
they had been left as regents of Greece 
{SLoi.K7]Ta.9 TTJs 'EXXdSos Schol. T), But 
their death was related in the Kyjyria. 

238. auTOKQCirNHTCO according to the 
grammarians means 'whole brothers'; 
we have not evidence enough of the 
early forms of the Dioskuri myth to say 
if Homer regarded them both as children 
of Zeus ; in \ they are distinctly made 
sons of Tyndareos, and it is probable 
that Helen herself may have been to H. 
really his daughter, and only in a more 
distant degree descended from Zeus. 
But see on 140. uia = i] avr-q as 
T 293 ; juoi goes with it, ' the same 
as me.' 

240. 9e0po has the last syll. length- 
ened by ictus. The 5ei'/pw of a few 
Mss. is an imaginary form not else- 
where found. If we write H . , h with 
Nikanor, the two suppositions take the 
form of alternative assertions ; Herod- 
ianos preferred h . . ft, when we must put 
a note of interrogation after 'iarw. See 
H. G. § 340. 





aure = 5e, 

A 237, etc. 


aYcxea, 6Nei3ea, in objective 
the insults and revilings of men. 

Observe the way — to our idea 
inappropriate — in which the conven- 
tional epithet 9ucizooc is introduced; cf. 
<t> 63, note. 


aQei, there, i.e. in 

their own 


For 9iXHi Zenod. 

read erji, 

' their, 

' see App. A. 


opKia here and 269, 


ings, including wine as well as victims, 
the e]iithet nicxd being curiously trans- 
ferred from the abstract sense. In the 
phrase UpKia rdixveLv, 252, the victims 
alone are signified, properly speaking ; 
but the original signification of the 
phrase became so conventional that 
ultimately 6pKia. = a treaty, cf. 94, 256, 
A 269, and even the sing. opKiov is found, 
A 158. Buttmann has an excellent 
article on the Greek conception of oaths 
{Lexil. s.v. ). The significance of the 
verb rdfiveiv may be well illustrated by 
the note in Frazer Paus. iii. 367, where 
it is shewn that in many oaths, Greek 
as well as savage, the actual division of 
the animal into two or more parts is an 
essential element of the ceremon}'-. 


lAIAAOC r (ill) 

Tpcocov 6' Linrohdfjbwv Kol 'A^aiwy '^oXko'^ltmvcov 
e? irehiov Kara^rjvaL, Xv opKca iricrra rafiyjre' 
avrap 'A\e^av8po<i kol ap7]t(j)i,\o'i MeyeXao? 
p,aKpi]L<; ey^elrjicri, /xa'^J]aovT ajju^i yvvatKi' 
TMi Si Ke vtKyjaavTi yvvrj koL Krrjfxad eiroLTO- 
01 S' aWoL (fitXorriTa Kal opKia irLcrra ra/j.ovTe<i 
vaioifiev TpoLTjv ipi/BookaKa, toI 8e veovrat 
"Ap'yo'i e? iTTTro/SoTOV Kal 'A^ailSa KaWiyvvaiKa. 

w? ^dro, plyijaev 8' 6 yepcov, eKekevcre h kraipovi 
L7r7rov<i ^evyvu/jievai' toI S' orpaXew^; einOovro. 
av 8' ap ejBri Hpiapi.o'^;, Kara S' -i^vla Telvev oiriacrw 
Trap Be ol 'AvTTjvayp irepLKaWea ^ijaaro hi^pov. 
Tco he 8t,d SKatoJv TreSiovS' e^ov oiKea<i ittttou?. 
dX)C ore 8)] p 'lkovto fierd Tpcoa? Kal Ap^atot"?, 
i^ "iTTTfov ciTTo^civTe'^ iirl yQova irovKv^OTeipav 
e? jxeaaov Tpcocov Kal ^ A'^atoiV ean-x^ocovTO. 




251. e' om. P. 252. ^n nedicoi U. H rauHai DHJS. 254. uQKpoTc erxei- 
oici G. 257. NeececoN GJP (-ececoN app. man. 2 in ras.) QRS Pap. /S^. 258. 

axa-raa P. 259. eraipouc GJPSU Pap. /3 (and A^\ T.W.A.): exdpouc Q: 

exaipoic Ar. Zen. fi. 262. Bhcoto Ar. (.see below) A S2cpr. CGJQ : BHCcaxo H : 
Bhcgto il. 263. ne&ioN Lips. 264. YkontO : Ykonon Pap. /3. 265. noXu- 

BoTeipoN PTi Pap. ;8. 

255. See note on 138. 

259. craipouc is better than erat'pots 
as avoiding the rare dat. in -ois for -oun. 
KeXeveiv takes both constr. in H., but 
the dat. is less common ; it is found 
oftener in II. than Od. , and survived in 
Attic only as a rarity. 

261. TeiNCN, drew back, taking them 
from the front rail to which they were 
attached when no one was in the car ; 
E 262, etc. 

262. Shcoto : TrpoKpLvei fJ-iv ttjv 5ta tov 
e ypa4>y]v Bhcgto, tt\7]v ov fieTaridr^aiv 
dWa 5td TOV a ypd(pei 6 'Aplarapxos, Did. 
The statement is highly important, as 
evidence of a variation in Ar.'s authorities 
which he did not feel ut liberty to 
disregard, in spite of his desire for 
uniformity. Our Mss. bear abundant 
testimony to the uncertainty as to the 
correct form of these sigmatic aorists ; 
e.g. they constantly vary between dvaero 
and dvcraTo. In o 475 dva^-qadfj.evoL is 
causal, but there is no other evidence 
of such a use of the aor. mid., which, 
indeed, does not seem to occur elsewhere 

in Greek, except in the variants now 
under consideration. (The subj. Kara- 
prjcrerai (0 382) is, however, from the 
-era- form.) The wisest course is to 
admit the variation in our texts, as the 
uncertaintj' goes back to a period as 
remote as our current text itself. At 
the same time we may, with Ar., prefer 
the forms in -e-, on the ground that the 
tendency of analogy must always have 
been to change them into the more 
familiar -a- forms of the ordinary sigmatic 
aorist. A is the only ms. which con- 
sistently follows Ar. ; the -a- forms have 
generally invaded the rest, spreading no 
doubt since Alexandrian days (note on 
103). See more in R. G. § 41, van L. 
H'nch. § 152, Caner Gmndfr. p. 27. 

263. CKavwN M'ithout TrvXSiv only 
here. The suspiciously contracted -Qiv 
recurs in 273. '^yfiu, drove, as often. 

265. 63 YnncoN, out of the chariot. 
'linroL is continually used in this sense, 
even with adjectives which properly 
apply only to the horses ; e.g. P 504 
err' 'Ax'XX''}os /caXXirptxe ^rifievai (.'ttttw. 



MpvvTO 8' avTLK eTTeiTU civa^ di'Spcov Ayafie/xvcov, 
av S' 'OSf creu? TroXv/xrjri^' cnap K7]puKe^ d'yavol 
opKia TTiard 6eMV avva<yov, Kp7]T)]pi 8e olvov 
fxia'yov, drap /BacrtXevcrtv vScop eVl ')(elpa'^ €j(^evav, 
^A.rpethi^<i he epvcradfxevo^; ■^elpeaat ixd^aipav, 
77 ol irdp ^t(f)eo^ /xeya KovXebv alev ciopro, 
dpvoiv €K K6(f)a\€a}p Tdfxve rpi'^a'i' avrdp eiretra 
iC7]pvKe(; TpMcov kol Ky^aiMV velfxav dplaroa. 
Tolaiv 8' Arpei'S?;? fieydX" ev-^ero ■^elpa^; dvaa-^oov 
" Zev iraTep, ^'IBijOev /xeSecov, KvScare ixeyLcrre, 
r]eXLO<i 6 , 09 irdvT i(f)opdi<i koI iravT eTra/couei?, 
Kol TTora/xol koI yata, koI 01 virevepOe Ka/JLOVTa<; 



267. opNUToP: icipNUT Q{om.b'). 268. aurdp PQ. 270. ^x^^^o^ Ar. CHPST 
(A- supr.) Lips. Vr. c, Veil. B. 272 om. Pap. j3\ \\ aopTO JjGLQ and Kara 

Tivas Eust. : QcopTO Q. 273. apNecoN Zen. || Ke<paXc£)N JQPi. 274. neTuon 

T Lips. Eton. : NcTjuieN Pap. /3. 276. zeO Ku9icTe jm^ncre, KeXaiNe<pec, aieepi 

NaicoN Herakl. All. 3 and 23. 277. hcXioc 5' Seliol. /j. 374. i| ecpopai Pap. fi-. \\ 
cnoKouei Pap. /3. 278. KauoNTec Herakleides, Pap. /3'-, Par. j stipr. 

270. The wine used in treaties was 
not mingled with water (see B 341, A 
159). The scholia explain that here the 
Trojan aud the Achaian wine is all 
mixed in one bowl, and the obvious 
typical .significance of such an act 
renders the explanation most probable. 
Compare the scene of the oath in Virg. 
Ae7i. xii. 161 sqq. ex^vov, read here by 
Ar., must have been taken for another 
instance of a mixed aor. (or imperf., to 
agree with fuayov ? H. G. ut supra). 

271. Judxaipa, the sacrificial knife, 
never mentioned by H. as a weapon, 
and not to be confused with the sword, 
^i4>os or (pd<yyavov. See note on 2 597. 

272. ciopTO is clearly the correct form, 
not the entirely anomalous ctwpro (cf. 
dopT-qp : root dFep of deipu : for the sense 
hang doivn cf. irap-^epd-r) IT 341). It 
appears to be a plpf. without redupl., 
though the -0- stem is very rare in the 
pass. Cf. H. G. § 25 (eTr-wx-aro X). 

273. This cutting off a lock of hair 
from the victims' heads is called Tpixas 
aTrdpxecrdai in tlie parallel pass., T 254 ; 
cf. I 422 dTrapxo/xevos ^'€<^aX^?s rpixo-s iv 
TTvpl j3d\\€v. The hair is regarded as a 
foretaste of the victim, and was no doubt 
a devotion of the whole body to the gods 
(see 310, and note on ^ 135). It is not 
burnt here, because no fire is used in the 
oath-sacrifice. Every one of the chieftains 
takes a portion of the liair in order to 

participate in the sacrifice. Zeii.'s dpviwv 
he explained as an a.(}i}.=dpveiojv (cf. 
LTnreiwv A 536). 

276. Zeu , . HeXioc is often quoted as 
an instance of a rule, found in Skt. also, 
that 'where two persons are addressed 
connected by re, the second name is put 
in the nominative,' H. G. § 164. But 
T 406 is an exception, if the text is right, 
yajji^pbs e/ Ovyar^p re, and there are 
some instances of voc. in -os, e.g. (plXos 
& Mei'eXae {H. G. ibid.) ; where this 
elasticit}' is possible the metrical difficulty 
of 7]^\i€ may well be decisive (see Gilder- 
sleeve in A. J. P. ii. 88). For the oath 
compare T 258. Here Zeus is named 
the god of Ida, and the Rivers, which 
are local divinities, are included, no 
doubt because the Trojans are parties. 

278. KQuoNTac used to be explained 
' those that have passed through the 
toil of life,' as though k€kij.7jk6t€s, labori- 
hus fundi; or 'men outworn,' dp-evrivol, 
of the feeble .shadows of the dead ; 
Niigelsbach, ' those that endured ill in 
life' = 5etXot ^porol as opposed to the 
happy gods. But Classen explains 'those 
that grew weary, succumbed to the toils 
of life ' = ^a^'ovres : so KOWLaaas, G. I. 
6509. This best suits the aor. part., and 
is now generally accepted ; see M. and R. 
on \ 476. The phrase recurs also ^ 72, 
u 14. oY . . TiNuceoN must mean Zei^s 
re KaraxdovLos Kai eTraivri liepffecpoveia (I 


lAlAAOC r (ill) 

av9pa)7rov<i rlvvadov, oth; k iirlopKOV ofioaarji, 
yyu-et? pbcipTVpoi eare, (fiuXdcrcrere 8 opKia TriaTa' 
el fxev K€v yievekaov ^ A\e^avSpo<; KaTa7r€(f)vrii, 
avro^ eireiO' '^Xevrjv e^ero) Koi KTt]/jiaTa travra, 
rj/j,€L<i 8' eV V7j€craL veco/xeOa irovro'KopoLaLV' 
el 8e K 'AXe^avSpov Kreivrjc ^avOo^ Met-eXao?, 
Tp(ba<; eireiO' 'FjXcvtjv koL KTrjixara iravr airohovvat, 



279. TiNucee H supr.: riNNUceai Rhct. Gr. viii. 659. 17. [| OTIC AJ Harl. a 
[p. ras.) : octic fi. !| k' om. T Eton. 280. iidpTupec Zen. Par. e {supr. oi). 

282. €X€TCO : arerco Pint. Symp. 742 A. !l kthjuot '6xjl' quthi Pap. /3- ? 283 o?h. 
C'Ti Lips. Eton. 284. KxeiNei QE. 

457). "We should have expected the 
''EpLvves, as in the parallel passage, T 259 
'FipLvves at 6' vtto yaiav dvOpilnrovs rivvvrai., 
OTIS k' iirlopKov dpLoaarjL (the whole of 
that passage, with the notes, should be 
compared with this). Zenod., who re- 
garded the dual and plural as identical, 
said that the avengers were Minos, 
Rhadamanthos, and Aiakos, hut this is 
certainly not Homeric. And if the 
Erinyes are to come in, we must read 
rivvade. It seems very probable indeed 
that Tivvffde otls is original, and rlwcrdov 
Stls, rivvad' ocms (v. supra) two different 
resources to remove the hiatus. But 
Nitzsch, in his note on X (Erkl. Anm. 
iii. p. 184 sqq. ), raises a more serious 
question as to this present passage. He 
says that the idea of punishment after 
death is entirely alien to Homer's con- 
ception of the under-world ; vengeance 
for sins is taken by the gods in this life 
only. The punishments of Tityos, Tan- 
talos, and Sisyphos (\ 576-600) occur 
in an interpolated passage. The two 
oaths (here and in T) are the only in- 
consistent places ; and in T he would 
take VTTO yaiav with at re, not with the 
verb, they that, dwelling beneath the earth 
(for which see I 568), ptaiish men, a 
possible construction, though a very 
harsh one (it would be better to excise 
T 260 entirely). If this be so, it follows 
that Kafiovras in this passage cannot be 
right. 'Expectatur fere /mevovTes' van L. ; 
but here again no remedy short of 
omitting 278-9 removes the difficulty. 
The lines may be an interpolation from 
the period of the spread of the religion 
of the mysteries in Greece, in the 7th 
cent, (see W.-M. H. U. 206 ff.). Rohde, 
however (Psyf/tc p. 60), finds here as else- 
where in H. traces of two distinct systems 

of belief. The older regards the spirits 
of the dead as active and often malignant 
agencies, to be appeased by the living (cf. 
note on B 302) ; the later, that generally 
prevalent in the poems, as poor harmless 
shadows, neither punished nor punishing. 
As he says, an oath-ritual is exactly the 
place where an obsolete belief might be 
expected to survive. If this is right, we 
clearly should read Kap-ovTes . . rivvade, 
the powers appealed to being all the 
world of spirits. 

285. Tpwac anoSoONOi : compare the 
cases of ace. and infin. in prayers, as B 
413, H 179, p 354. It is evidently a 
case here of the ' infin. for imper.' though 
in that idiom the subject when in the 
2nd person is in the nom., E 124 
dapaCiv fxdxecrdai, X 259 cDs 5e cri) peieiv, 
and once even in the 3rd person, Z 87-92 
^ 8^ . . deivai (in ^ 247 Xtirr/cr^e shews 
that tlie 2nd person is in the speaker's 
mind). Whatever the origin of the 
constr. it is clear that, while a person 
directly addressed is vividly present to 
the speaker's mind as the subject of the 
verb, and hence naturally is in the 
nominative, when he is only spoken of 
indirectly in a prayer he becomes in a 
sense the object of the prayer. Thus the 
Trojans here are regarded virtually as 
objects in relation to the gods of the oath, 
who are called upon to be the active 
parties. Hence we can see that even if 
the nom. was the original constr. it was 
certain to be attracted by the commoner 
class of accusatives with the infin. In 
the case of prayers the constr. is commonly 
explained as due to an 'ellipse of 56s,' 
or ace. to Ar. of ei'rj or yevoiro. H. G. 
§ 241, M. and T. §§ 784-5, van L. Ench. 
§ 124. 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 141 

Ttfjbrjp 8' 'Apyetoa ciTrorivefMev, i]v riv eoiKev, 

7] re Kol iaaofxevoccrt fier dvOpoiiroLai ireXiirai. 

el 8' av ifiol TtfirjV Ylpiaixo^ llpidfioio re 7ral8e<; 

Tiveiv ovK iOeXwcnv ^ AXe^dvSpoio 7re(T0VT0<i, 

avrap eyco koI eiretra /jia^rjcro/xai eiveKa ttoivP]*; 290 

av6c fxevojv, et'o)*? Ke reXo? 7ro\e/xoLo Kc-^eio}. 

rj KoX CLTTO aTO/jbd-^ov? dpvoiv rdfjue vifKel yakKun. 
Kol rov'i [xev KaTeOrjKev eTrl ■^6ovb<; dcnralpovTaq, 
Ovfxov hevofjievov^' diro yap /xevo'i eiXeTo yakKO'^- 
olvov 8' e'/c Kp7]Tr]po<; d^vaao[xevoi ScTrdeaaiv 295 

eKyeov, rjh^ ev^oi'To deol^ aleiyeveTrjicrLv. 
whe 8e Tt<> elrreaKev ^A'^aicov re Tpcowp re* 
" Zev KvSiare fiejiare Kol dddvaroL deol dXkoi, 
oiriTOTepoi Trporepoi virep opKia irT^fjby-jveiav, 
oihe (T(f)' i'yKe(f)a\o'i '^a/jid8t(; peot, &)■? o8e olvo<i, 300 

286. TiJuiHN t' DHJQS Mosc. 1 3. 287. KOI : kgn Lips. Cant. 288. npia- 

ixoc TiUHN Vr. a. 289. xeiNeiN U. |I ceeXouciN GQ Pap. j3. 290. uaxec(c) 
GHJPQRTU. 292. ano Ar. ft : ^ni at ^rXei'oi's ap. Did. 295. &' €K : bh Harl. 
a. li a9UCc6u€NOi Ar. CHJRT Harl. a, Lips.^ Eton. Mosc. 1 (and A snpr.): 69ucc<i- 
jucNOi fi. 297. axaicoN T€ rpcocoN T€ : iScoN €:(i)c ovpaubs cOpuN H {yp. a^. 
re jp. re) JQ and yp. Vr. b. 299. nHUHNeiON : awXHcaNTO (corr. to ShXhcqinto) 
Mosc. 1. 300. ^eei (}^ (corr. Q^). 

287. neXHTOi goes closely with yuerd, wine in small cups from the Kp-qT-qp of 

lit. 'go about among men.' Of. KKayyr) 269. 

iriXei. ovpavbdi vp6 V 3, a^o 5' e/c rdde 299. on^p bpKia, by transgressing tlie 

TrdvTa iriXovTai X 632, ataxos XdijSri re oaths (cf. vTrep^aai-q 107, and inrep 

fier' dvdpwTToiaL wiXoiro a 225, where the alaav) : nHUHNeiaN, the object is seen to 

nouns are subjects, as here, not predi- be ' the other party,' from A 66 'Axaiovs 

cates. See also Z 358 dvdpihiroKn TreKdj/xed' virkp opKia 5rj\7](ra<rdai : so also A 236. 

aoidLjxoi. For the subj. in a relative Mss. here and in A give virepbpKia as an 

final clause see H. G. § 322, M. and T. adv. ; but this is not a likely compound, 

§ 568 ; it is very rare without Ke (460, in spite of the analogy of inripixopa. The 

E 33, <j 335 only ? ). We might of course opt. shews that the infraction of the 

read ksv for Kai, but /cat iffcrop-ivoiaL is the treaty is regarded as an unlikely case 

regular phrase. (or possibly there may be an attraction 

289. Observe the very rare i;se of oO to the following opt. piot, the prayer 

after et 6.v (/cec) with subjunctive ; the being the uppermost thought in the 

negative goes very closely with the verb, speaker's mind. Cf. clis dwoXoiTo Kal 

as OVK ddm T 139. H. G. § 316 ad fin. aWos orts TOtaOrd ye pe^oi a 47, and 

'AXesdNQpoio necoNxoc does not seem to Z 59). 

be quite a gen. absolute, though it nearly 300. The original symbolism of the 

passes into one ; it depends on TLp.7iv, libation was merely that of drink given 

though the connexion is rather loose, to the gods to please them, e.g. _H 480. 

' pay me the price arising from the fall The occasion here suggests a different 

of A.' thought, which, however, we can hardly 

295. dq)ucc6juieN0i, so Ar. ; al. -d/j-evoi : suppose to have been inherent in the 

but the pres. (imperf.) participle better libation at an oath. Cf., however, Liv. 

expresses the continued repetition of the i. 24 si prior defexit publico consilio dolo 

act by many people. They take the malo, tu illo die Iiippitcr pop%dum 


lAIAAOC r (ill) 

avTcov Kal reKecov, ako'^oi K oKkoiai /jbLjetev. ' 

60? €cf>av, ovS apa trco cr(f)cv iireKpaaive K.povL(ov. 
Tolcn Be AapSavlS'}]'; Upia/jio^; /xera fivdov eenre' 
" KeKXvre fiev, Tyowe? kuI evKvij/ncSe'i ^A'^aior 
rj rot eycov eifjbi irporl "IXiov T^vefioeaaav 
ay\r, eVel ov ttco rXrjaoix ev ot^OaKpLo'tcnv opdcrdat 
fxapvdjxevov <^i\ov viov dp7)'icf)L\o)t, ^leveXdcof 
Zeu? fxev ttov to ye olSe Kal ciOdvaroL Oeol dXXoL, 
orrnrorepwi Oavdroto reKo<i ireirpcopuevov e<TTiv. ' 

Tj pa Kal e? Zlc^pov dpva^ Oero laoOeo^ <f)ct)^, 
dp 8' a/)' 6J3aiv avTO<i, Kara S rjvta relvev oiriacra)' 
Trap he ol AvTTJvcop TrepiKaWea /3'>]creT0 hlcppov. 
TO) fjuev dp d'^jroppot TrpoTi "IXlov aTroveovTO' 



301. JULireTcN : BaueTeN AT Hail, b, Par. e, and yp. Harl. a. 302. e<paT' Q Pap. 
p, Par. d, Eust. ll eneKpdaiNC : eneKpdaNe Pap. /3 : ^neKpaiaiNc Q : yp. encKpHHNC 
J (see note on B 419). 305. noxi JQR Mori. 306. tXhcou' cn : TXHCojuai 

Eust. 308. ueN : rdp Eust. !| TO r€ : rode DQ Pap. /3, Par. j. 310. eic Q 

Pap. jS. 311. ap' eBaiN' : ONeBaiN' R. 312. Bhcqto CGJQRT. 313. noxi 

Romanum sic fcrito ut ego hunc porcum 
hie hodie feriam, and similarly xxi. 45 
2)rccahis deos ita se mactarent quern ad 
modum ipse agnum mactasset ; compare 
also the oath 'by the stone,' si sciens 
/alio turn me Dicspitcr salva urbe arceque 
bonis eiciat uti ego hunc lapidem (Roscher 
Lex. 1187). 

301. auTCON after acpL, as X 75, not . . 
avbpbs dvarrj-^oio. The construction is 
common with participles, e.g. S 26, 
f 157. See JI. G. § 243. 3 d, and for 
the dat. tiXXoici with the pass, verb, 
K. G. § 143. 5. The variant dap.e'iev looks 
like the prudery of a more fastidious 

305. On HNGJuocccaN Prof. Virchow 
(App. to Schliemann's Ilios p. 682) 
makes the following comment : ' Our 
wooden huts (at Hissarlik) which had 
been put up at the foot of the hill, well 
below the level of the old city, looked 
straight down upon the plain from a 
height of at least 60 feet, and the winds 
blew about us with such force that we 
often felt as if our whole settlement 
might be hurled down the precipice.' 
HNGUoeccoN, i.e. dve/xdeacrav. So rjyepe- 
Oovrai, 7jp.ad6eis, and one or two more (van 
L. Ench. § 21). But the change to rj is 
irregular ; see App. D. 

306. oU no3 — ov ttws, in no loise. The 

two forms were of course originally 
identical (cf. ovtu by outws), and their 
differentiation is not complete in Homer. 
It is only by great violence that the 
sense 'not yet' can be brought in. 
Cf. also M 270, t 102, etc. Some would 
always read ttws in this sense, but the 
tradition is strongly in favour of main- 
taining the difference ; later usage would 
tend to abolish, not to introduce it. 

310. The taking away of the victims 
is strange ; the scholion says '4dos ijv to, 
eirl TOis opKOLS yLyvofieva iepela Toiis fiev 
iyX<^pi-ovs yrji TrepiariWeLV, rovs Si iirriXv- 
5as els Tr]p BaXacraav piwreiv. This is 
probably only a deduction from the 
present passage and T 267, q.v. Perhaps 
the victims were supposed to carry with 
them the power of vengeance, and were 
kept at hand to watch over the fulfil- 
ment of the oath. 

311. Observe ^BaiNe here compared 
with ^^Tj 261 and jSriaero 312. It seems 
hypercritical to attempt to draw a dis- 
tinction here between the two tenses. 
See the excellent remarks in 31. and T. 

313. The scholion on this line is a 
delicious specimen of the spirit in which 
Porphyries and his school invented and 
solved their 'Homeric problems.' 5id 
Ti xwpi'j'erat 6 Ilpta/xos ; Kal ol jxev (paaiv 

lAIAAOC r (hi) 


"l^KTCop Se Upcdfioio TTai'? Kal Sto? 'OSucrcreu? 

j(o)pov jjuev rrpMTov Sce/jLerpeov, avrap eireira 315 

K\/]pov<i iv Kvver-ji ^aXKijpe'i irdWov eXovre'i, 

OTTTTOTepo^ Brj irpoadev dcfieirj '^u\k€OV 67^09. 

\aol 8 7]p7]aavTO, 6eolcn Se '^elpa<i dvecy^ov 

fo)Se he Ti<? ecTrecTKev ^A^aiMv re Tpoocov re' 

" Zev irdrep, "iSrjdev fxehewv, /cvSta-re /xeycare, 320 

OTTTTorepo'; rdSe epya fier afMcporepoiaiv edrjKe, 

rov So? drro^Oifxevov hvvat So/xop 'Ai'So? et'crtw, 

rjfxtv S' av cj)i\oTrjTa Kal opKta inard yeveaOac. 

609 cip ecpav, irdWev Se fieya'? Kopv9alo\o<; EtKTcop 
ayjr opocov Ildpio<; Se 6o6i<i e'/c K\rjpo<i opovcrev. 325 

01 /jiev eVet^' l^ovto Kara arl'^a';, rj'^t, eKdaroiC 
LTTTTOL depaL7roSe<i Kal iroLKiXa rev-^e eKeiro' 
avrap 7' dp.^ wjjioiaLV iSvaero rev-^ea Ka\d 
Slo<i ^A\e^avSpo<;, Fj\evrj<? 'Trocn<; rjVKOfMOLO. 

KV7]/jLtSa'i jjbev irpcora rrepl Kvr]fMi]iatv edrjKe 330 

Kd\d<;, dpyvpeoLcriv i7na(f>vpiOL<; dpapvia<;' 

317. ci9iei DJQRT- Vr. a b, Mosc. 1 (H sujjr.). 318. eeoTc- \M Nik. CS Lips. 
Vr. c : eeoTc, nbk G. 319. e'lnecKCN : OnecxeN Vr. a. 323. b' om. Pap. /3. 

326. fiKdcTou Ar. : GKdcTCON R. 327. eKciNTO CS Schol. T : Teux^a kgTto Bar. 
328. 6 r': ox' G. II eSucero A* : eBHcaxo T: eaucayo (and A™, T.W.A.) 
(cp. on 262). 331. aprupioici J : eni c9upioic ZTR (-oicin). 

6rt IVa d(^' vxpovs Kpelacrov deojprqffrii dnb 
Trjs TToXeus rrjv /xovo/naxi-o.", ol de, 'iva 
(pvXd^riiTaTeixv- &}<\ol Be rriv '0 fx-qpLK7]v 
Xvffiv -K potaxovTat, to " oiVw tXtjctoix 
ocpdaXfj-olffiv bpdadau" o-nrep djj.eLvov. 

316. ndXXoN : the actual shaking np 
of the lots, which is always done by one 
person, comes in 324 ; hence it has been 
proposed to read ^dWov from H 176, 
but there is no authority for the change, 
which is not necessary. The line is in 
fact a formal one, recurring ^ 861, k 

317. Ci<peiH seems to represent a de- 
liberative subj. of the or. recta. We 
might be inclined to read here dcpelrjL or 
d^TjTjL, but for I 331 Tre-iraKdadai dviayov 

I 6s Tis ToKjX'qaeLev. 

318. Nikanor read rjprjcravTo deois, loe, 
but only the frivolous reason is given 
that the text would imply that they 
were praying to others than the gods to 
whom they lift their hands : ojs erepois 
'iaovTai deols dvareivavTes rds xetpas. The 
phrase recurs H 177 (cf. Z 257, G 347, 
T 254, and Bacchylides xv. 45 deoh d' 

dvLcrxovres x^P^^ ddavdrocs eijxovTO watj- 
aaaOac 8vdv). A serious argument against 
Nikanor's reading is that Id^ occurs 
practically only after trochaic caesura 
in the 3rd foot, as an iambus. The 
only exceptions are S 175, 2 589, T 285 
(for a suggested explanation of this rule 
see van L. JEnch. p. 556). 

325. riapioc, the only instance of a 
case from this stem except nom. and ace. ; 
the gen. and dat. are elsewhere always 
'AXe^dvdpov -ul. 

327. eKGiTO belongs to revxea only, 
both in syntax and sense ; wdth I'ttttoc 
supply 9jffav. Cf. K 407 ttov de oi ivrea 
KeiTM dprjCa. ttov 8e ol iTnroi, <l> 611, f 291, 
etc., and see note on E 356. 

330 sqc|. Cf. A 17 sqq., H 131 sqq., 
T 369 sqq. The six pieces of armour 
are always mentioned in the same order, 
in which they would naturally be put 
on, except that we should expect the 
helmet to be donned before the shield 
was taken on the arm. For the arming 
generally and for enic9upia see App. B. 

144 lAIAAOC r (hi) 

Sevrepov av OcoprjKa irepl arrjOeaaiv ehvvev 

olo KacnyvtjTOio AvKdovo<i, 'tjp/jLoae 8 avro)i. 

d/jL(f)l S ap' M/biOiaiv /SdXero ^Lcf)o^ dpjvpo'i]\ov 

'^akKeov, avTCLp eireira craKO^ jxk'^a re aTijBapov re- 335 

Kparl B eV l(f)6L/ui,o)t Kvverjv ivrvKrov eOi^Kev 

cTrTrouptv Scivov 8e \o(f)o<; KaOvirepOev evevev. 

eiXero 8' oKklixov ey^o?, b ol 7ra\dfi7](pLV dpt]pei. 

<W9 o avT(o<; MeyeAao? apr]to<i evre eovvev. 

ol 8' errel ovv eKdrepOev o/jLlXov d(op7]'^6i]aav, 340 

€? fiecrcrov Tpcowv Kat, A-^aicov ecrrt'^ocovTO 
hetvov Sep/co/xevof 6dfi/3o'i 8 e')(ev elaopocoprwi, 
Tpa)d<i B' liriTohdpuov^ Kal ivKvi^jJuha^ 'A^aiou?. 
Kai p iy<yv<i aTr]Trjv Sia/jueTpijTMi ivl ■^copooo 
aelovT iy-^ela';, dWrjXoicnv Koreovre. 345 

irpoade S' A\e^avSpo<i irpoteL SoXi'^octklov eyyo?, 
Kal ^dXev ArpetSao Kar daTriha irdvToa iia-i-jv 

334-5 a.0. Zen., reading 61x9) 9' ap' diuoiciN fidXey' acniQa TcpcaNoeccaN after 
338. 333. na\<ijuiHC9iN J. || 6 . . dpHpei : iv aXXwi OKOXJueNON oseY xa^KCoi 

A. 339. 5' om. Pap. /3. 342. ecxeN G. 345. ceToN h' Pap. /3. [| KoreoNTec 

Q Pap. /3. 347. n<SNTOce Ychn ACDU (the variation is constantly found, and will 
not be again recorded). 

333. Lykaon's cuirass, because Paris Autenrieth quotes in defence of this 
himself is light-armed ; 1. 17. Hpuoce interpretation from a German review of 
probably trans., 'he made it fit him- an edition of the Makamat-ul-Hariri, 
self.' It may, however, possibly be in- 'the Arabs declare that the shadow of 
trans. ; there are two other ambiguous the lance is the longest shadow. Before 
passages, P 210, T 385, q.v. the first morning light the Arabian horse- 

334. It will be seen that Zen. (supra) man rides forth, and returns with the 
left out the sword, perhaps on the ground last ray of evening : so in the treeless 
that Paris, unlike Menelaos, does not level of the desert the shadow of his 
use it in the sequel. It is more natural lance appears to him all day through as 
too that the ponderous shield should be the longest shadow.' But this loses all 
taken last of all. The word xepcaNoeccaN special significance for the Greek ; more- 
is not known elsewhere ; it may be a over, as Mr. Rouse has remarked (C. R. 
mistake of the MS. arising from a con- iv. 183), the epithet is almost always 
fusion between rep/xioecraai' (see 11 803) used of spears brandished or hurled, not 
and dvffavoeacrav, the latter being, how- standing upright. Hence various alter- 
ever, only applied elsewhere to the aegis. native explanations have been proposed, 

336. KUNEHN, simply helmet, nothing -oaKL- being compared to our ash, or 

being implied as to the material ; see on ocrxos (this, however, does not suit either 

K 258. _ form or sense). Rouse (ibid.) better 

340. CKoxepeeN, explained by the glos- compares Zend darcgha-arstaya, from 

saries e^ eKarepov fiipovs, eKarepcodev, oil arsti = spear, shaft, an epithet in the 

ciY/icr sitZe of the throng, i.e. either com- Avesta of Mithra and his worshippers. 

batant retiring to the rear of his own There are obvious phonetic difficulties in 

army. the equation, but an entirely antiquated 

346. aoXixocKioN has caused difficulty do\ix-o{p)(rTLos may have been changed 

both to ancient and modern critics, and by popular etymology to make an in- 

the idea of shadow does not seem telligible compound, 

particularly appropriate to a spear. 347. ndNxoc' cIchn : see on A 306. 

lAIAAOC r (III) 145 

ovS" epprj^ev '^a\Ko<i, dveyvd/xcfyOi] Se ol al^^i] 

acTTTtS ivl KparepPji. o Be Bevrepo^i oypvvTO -^^clKkml 

^ArpetBrj^ MeveXaot;, eirev^dfievo'i Ail irarpi' 350 

" ZeO dva, 8o<i Ticracrdat, o /xe irporepo^ kuk eopje, 

Stov ^KXe^avZpov, koX ep,rji'i viro 'X'^pcrl Bdjjbacraov, 

6(f)pd Ti? eppcyrjiaL koI oyjrcyovcov dvOpoiiroiv 

^etvoBoKOP KaKa pe^ai, b k€V (pLXorrjra Trapda'^rji.'^ 

rj pa Kal dixTrerrakcbv Trpoteo SoXi'^octklov £7^09, 355 

Kal /3d\e Upca/jiiSao kut dcnriha TrdvToa iiarjv. 
Sea jjuev ucr7ri8o<; rfKde cpaeivP]'? o^ptpuov 67^09, 
Kal Sid 6(t)pT]Ko<i TToXvSaiSdXov rjp7]p€icrro' 
dvTiKpii Se TrapaX XaTrdprjv hidixrjae yiroiva 
67^09 • 6 h eKXivdr] Kal dXevaro Krjpa /MeXacvav. 360 

ArpetBrji; 8e ipucradfievo^ ^i(^o<i dpyvporjXov 
irXrj^ev dvacr'^o/xevo^ KopuOo<i (fydXov d/bicpl 8 dp avrrji 
rpc^Od re Kal rerpa^Od Siarpvcpev eKirecre '^etpoq. 

348. xo^l^oc Ar. AD'^QS^TU^ Vr. a : x^^i^^n fl. || 6NerN69eH R : 6NeKduq>eH 
D : aNerNdu9H H. 349. dcnib' eNl L Mor. Bar. : acnOi €ni JPQRT Cant. 
Mosc. 1 : cicnidi cn ACDGH Pap. (3 Eton. || SpNUTO Q. 351. o : 8c GR 1| lie : 
uou p. 352 dd. Ar. |] ^JuaTc G Pap. ^3. || dauHNOi Ar. and 7/5. T. 354. 

seiNo96icou J. I 8c kgn D. 357. oJui6piJu.oN CGHJQ^ Pap. (3. 359. nap6 

BT Vr. a. 360. GKKXlNeH J : ^nkMnsh Pap. /3\ 361. x^'P^cci judxaipaN Q. 

362. auTHi Ar. and at xap'^c"'"epa', A stcpr. (T.W.A.) : aCiToO L : aOTwi O. 363. 
5iaTpu9e^N CGHPRT Lips. Vr. a (La E.'s 9ia&pu9efeN is a misprint). 

The form iiarj is established in several Appendix D, H. G. § 386, and notes on 

other phrases, particularly B 765, and it A 205, A 155. mss. vary as usual between 

is impossible to decide between the two SBpiuioN and 6/j.l3pL/xov : the weight of 

forms TrdvToa' e{F)i(yr}v and TrdcToo-e evidence is for the former, though Heyne 

{F)i<n]v (see, however, Piatt in J. P. considers 6/j.ppL/ji.ov antiquius, horridms 

xviii. 128). d potcntius. Cf. note on A 453. 

348. X'l^'^'^c is better than xaXA.-o;', 358. inpHpeicTo, forced its way. epei- 
because the woi'd by itself is regularly Seiv properly = to press; the sense 'to 
used of weapons of offence, not of the lean ' one thing upon another is second- 
shield ; e.g. 349, A 528, E 292, etc. ary. 

(Cf. however H 267.) The same question 360. ^kXInoh, better eKKXivdi], bent 

arises in H 259, P 44. aside (from the coming blow). As 

351. £opre [F^Fopyev) : ^pe^e Bentl. Reichel remarks (p. 83), this implies 

352. Obelized by Ar. on the ground that no breastplate was worn, and 358 
that it is not necessary, and that Mene- mustbealater interpolation (see App. B). 
laos should not apply the word BTon to 362. dNacxoucNoc, lifting Ids liatul ; 
his foe. But the epithet is purely con- so X 34 /ce^aXr;;/ 5' 76 Kb\paTo x^pc''' | 
ventional, see X 393, Z 160, 7 266, and v\p6(7' dvaax^f^^^os, and of two boxers 
cf. djxv/jiixiv a 29. For 9duaccoN Ar. ' S(;[uariiig up,' 4^ 660 irv^ yitdX' dvaaxo- 
read dapLrjvai., which Ameis supports /U^cw, and ^ 686. 9d\oN : see App. B 
mainly on the ground that it gives more vii. 2. quthi, the bodtj of the Kopm as 
force to M.'s words that he should pray opposed to the <pd\os. The vulg. avrQi. 
to be himself the conqueror, not a mere is a very natural corruption, caused by 
tool in the hands of Zeus. the proximity of the masc. <pd\os, but 

357. 3i<i : the lengthening of the l is by Homeric usage it would rather mean 
due to the ictus in the first foot ; see the man himself, Paris. 



146 lAlAAOC r (ill) 

'Arpei'ST;? 8' onfioo^ev IScov et? ovpavov evpvv 
" ZeO Ttdrep, ov tl<; aeio Oewv oXowTepo'; aWo'i' 
rj T i(f)dfMT]v TiaacrOai AXe^avSpov KaKOTrjTO^' 
vvv 'Be fiot, ev '^(eipeaatv ayq ^i(f)o<;, i/c 8e /xoi £7^09 
rjtyOrj iraXdiJi't^c^LV irdocnov, ouS' e/SaXov /jliv. 

rj KoX 67rai^a<i KopvOo^ \dj3ev lirTroSacreiT]'?, 
e\K6 8' e7n,aTpe-^a<; /xer ivKvi]fMiSa<i A'^ULOVi' 370 

dyye Be fiiv 7roXvKe(TTO<; Ifia^ cnraXrjv viro Beiprjv, 
o? ol VTT dvdepewvo'^ 6-^ev^ reraro rpv^aXeir)'^. 
KUb vv Kev elpvaaev re koI daireTOV yparo /cOSo?, 
el jXT] dp o^v vorjae Ato? Ovydrrip ^A(f)poBLTr}, 
7] OL prj^ev l/jidvTa ^oo'i l^i Kra/xevoLO' 375 

KecvT) Be rpvcpdXeia dfi ecnrero ^etpl Trw^^eitji. 
TTjv fxev eiretO' i']pco<i p^er evKv^]p,iBa<; 'A^atoy? 
pl'^lr eTTiBivijaaf;, Kop^taav B epi7]pe<i eralpoL. 
avrdp dyjr iiropovcre KaraKrdp^evai fieveaivcov 

364. cOpuN : ainuN Zen. 365. coTo PQ. 1| dXooxepoc DP. 366. rfccceai 
U. 367. arei Q. 368. Apparently Ar. in one ed. had eSduacca for e6aX6N 

JUiiN {v. Ludw. ad loc). 369. dNafsac P. |1 XdBcN : <pd\oN Pap. (3^. 370. 

eIXkc Pap. jS. 371. dnaXfic 6n6 [Seipfic] Pap. ji\ 373. e'lpucceN re : csei- 
pucc€ Aph. 379. 6 om. Q. 1] enoupouce Q. 

365. For similar chiding of the gods vjzor. But the quantity of rpii is against 
in momentary ill-temper of. M 164, N this. The word may possibly = reTpd- 
631, V 201 ; and for oXocorepoc = ?)tore (paXos, from T{e)rpv = qiuidru-, of. rpciTrefa 
baneful, mischievous, ejBXaypds /j.', eKdepye, for rerpaTrefa. 

Oeuiv oXowrare wdvTUiv X 15. 373. ftparo seems to be another case 

366. Ticaceai : see on 28. Either aor. of the invasion of a- forms in the aor. 
or fut. is eipmlly suitable, the former (cf. on 262), on the analogy of aipcj, which 
meaning ' I thought, when dealing the of course is a different word ; so Tipdixeda. 
blow, that I had (now) got my ^ 393, iipa{o) co 33. All other lorms 
venc^eance ' ^^® thematic, dpofirjv dpiadai, etc. (Cobet 

„° ■, , 11 „, zT n M. 0. p. 400, van L. i:7ich. p. 373). 

368. naXajuiHmiN : abl. gen., U. G-. „ A i +i -1,4.1 a ^ a 
^-,^0 mi • i >s' -sV^ „, „.v,„ Hence Brandreth rightly read i^pero. So 
S 156. The variant 01^5 eda/j-aaaa seems , wki^ ^i^- Pm'T * 

I T T ± J.-L. J- + j,-„<-;^., also £, 510, 2. Ibo, 5 107, etc. 

to be due to the apparent contradiction _ -, ' ', ' , 

.?' «o A -j-i, o'c n- -r. i,^„.«„„,. 3/5. 191 KTajmeNoio, because such 

ovS iBoKov with 3o6. It is, however, , ,, ^ 1 1 , , ^/ ^i 4.1 ^ <• 

J " V , , . . TT X leather would be better than that of 

defended by Ameis-Hentze. . , -i  \ \ a a- a e a- 

•' an animal which had died 01 disease. 

369. Kopueoc, hrj the helmet, as it a 'Hence in Hes. 0pp. 541 shoes are 
part of the man ; of. H 406 gX/ce 5e ordered to be made of the hide /3o6s Z0t 
dovpbs eXibv. ^ Krap-evoio ' (Paley). T91 looks like an 

371. noXuKCCTOC for TroXv-Kevr-ros "6 instrumental of Fis = vi-s; but the stem 
TToKvKivT-qTos- (K Se TovTov 6 ttolklXos in Greek seems to be Fiv- (ijlur. Ives). 
OTjXovTai (leg. 8t]Xov6tl) Sm rds paipas," Moreover IcpL never requires, and often 
Ariston., embroidered. Cf. /ceo-Tos of the (6 times) will not admit an initial F, 
girdle of Aphrodite, S 214 ; and rjK^crTas while the adj. Fi4)Los often requires and 
Z 94. always admits it, and ,Fis itself rejects 

372. Tpu9aXeiHc : properly an adj., sc. it only twice (P 739, # 356). Thus 
Kbpvdos. Generally explained as = having l(pL like tcpdi/mos (see on A 3) remains a 
a peak pierced for the eyes, a sort of fixed puzzle. See note on Z 478. 

lAIAAOC r (ill) 147 

e7^€t ^a\/ce/&)f tou S' e^/jpira^^ 'Acj)po8tT7} 380 

peia flak , cos" re deo<;, eKciXv^^e 8' lip 7)ept TroWijt, 

Ka8 B' etcr ev OaXdfxcot euooSe'i KrjMevTL. 

avTt] B av6 Ei\h'7]v KoXeova Te* rrjv S' eKiyave 

irvpywi i(f) vylrijXwi, irepl Be Tpcoial a\i^ rjaav. 

^etyal Be veKrapeov eavov irlva^e \a/3ovaa, 385 

7/37;i' Be fxiv iiKvia TraXaiyepeC irpoaeeiTrev 

eopoKo/jbcoi,, rj ol AaKeBatfjiovi vaieraovaTji 

YjaKeLV elpia KoXd, fiaXLara Be /xtv (f>t\eeaKe' 

rfji ficv eeicrafievT] irpocrecpcovee BV ^A(f)poBiT7)' 

" Bevp^ W\ W\e^avBp6<i ere Kokel olKovBe veeaOai. 390 

Kelvo'i o <y ev da\dp,wL koI Bivcotoictl Xeyeaai 

KaWe'i T6 anX/Scov koI eXpuacTLv' ovBi /ce (fyatT)^ 

dvBpl /xa'^eaad/xevov rov y eXOelv, dXka ■^opovBe 

ep^eaO^ r}e ^opoLO veov '\.7]ryovTa Ka6i^eiv." 

ft)? ^aro, Tt]i B dpa Ovfiov evl (m^deaaiv opive' 395 

381. eeoc r' Vr. a. 382. etc' CN : Tc' ^n ApoU. Sijnt. : eTce(N) S Mosc. 1 : 
cTcEN €N T. 383. au L. || KaXecouc' P. 387. elpon6Kwi T {yp. elpoic6juico). || 
Nai€TaouCH(l) P : NaieTacocH(i) : NoieTdcoca Par. 388. ficKei U^GRPQ, {p. 

ras.)RLips.'^ II Ka\d : noKKix S Vr. b. || 9iXe€CKe: KaX^ecKCN Pap. /3.i 391. 
aeiNCOToTci AG. || Xexeecci HR. 393. iiaxHcdueNON Ar. Vr. a- (A has juaxecc-, 

T.W.A.). II TON r': t6n b' HQ Pap. j3 Vr. a. 

380. 2rxeT : apparently a second spear k\l(t'i7]v divurrji' e\i(pavTL Kal apydpuit. 
(of. 1. 18), though only one is named i^i Ariston. explains i^roi dia rb Teropvevadai. 
the arming of Paris, 338 ; but the (turned in a lathe) rois woSas, ^ 5ia rrju 
Homeric warrior regularly carries a ^vracriv tQp 1/j.dvTwv (i.e. apparently, 
pair (A 43, etc.).^ that the leathern straps— for which see 

381. u>c re eeoc, as being a goddess, as yp 201 — were tightened by twisting or 
may be expected of a goddess. Cf. S 518. winding them). But this latter does 

382. KHcocNTi: apparently from *K-77foj not suit the chair in r, while the idea 
= incense {Kai(:j), i.e. fragrant, cf. KT]wdT]s of 'turning' is not easily connected 
Z 483. But the tautology ^vdide'C, Kyjobevri, with ivory and silver ornament. In N 
has led some to derive it from */cafos= 407 a shield is pivolcn (Solop kclI vupo-m 
cavus, as if = 'vaulted.' XaXKwt | Strwrijc where the circular plates 

383. KaXeouca: fut., of which only the of the shield are meant. The most 
part, is found in H. probable explanation of the word here is 

385. NCKTapeou, fragrant, like d/j.- ' adorned with circles or spirals ' of 

^poaioi, cf. B 19. silver or the like, inlaid. This pattern 

388. ftcKeiN : so Ar. apparently; but is of high antiquity, being found e.g. by 

there is no other case in H. of the parag. Dr. Schliemann at Mykenai in profu- 

V in the contracted form of the third sion. See the illustrations in Murray 

sing, imperf. It is sometimes found. Hist. Gr. Sculp, pp. 38-40, 'the forms 

however, in Mss. in the analogous third which most naturally arise from copper 

sing, plupf., e.g. E 661, 899. But of working are spirals and circles, into either 

course the original reading was ijaKeeu. of which a thread of this metal when 

The subject of 9iXeecKe is Helen, not released at once casts itself.' The use of 

ypavs. d/j,4>L8e5ii'T]Tai. is similar in 9 405, ^ 562. 

391. keTnoc, as though pointing to 395. euubN opiNe, stirred her anger, 

'm ; T 344, etc. SincotoTci : cf. r 56 as elsewhere. Ar. explained Trapupfiriae, 


lAIAAOC r (in) 

Kal p o}<; ovv evorjae 6ed<i irepLKaWia]v 

aT7]ded 6' ifjbepoevTa Kal opLpbara /Mapfiatpovra, 

vajxprjaev r ap eireira, €7ro<; t ecpar e/c r ovofxage' 

" SaLfiovLTj, Ti [xe ravra XtkaUai riirepoTreveiv ; 

^ TrrjL fie irporipoo ttoXlwv iv paiofievdcov 400 

d^€L<; i) ^pvycT]^ ?) ^IrjioviT]^ iparetvi)'^, 

el TL<i TOi KOi KeWi (f)i\0<i /xepoTTfov dvdpcoTTcov, 

ovveKa hr] vvv Blov WXe^avSpov MeyeXao? 

vcK^aa<; ideXet arvyeprjv e'/xe oIkuS' dyeaOuL' 

TOVveKa 87] vvv Bevpo 8o\o<ppoveov(Ta 7rapeo"T7?9. 405 

rjao Trap' avrov lovcra, deo)V h diroenTe KeXevOov? 

396. p* added above the line Pap. /3. 396-418 dO. Ar. 398. ednBHCCN 

t' ap' : edjuiBHceN 5' ap' P Pap. /3 : edjuBHc' auThp Vr. a. i| ^ncua b' ^noc 
'i(far' G. 400. npoT^pcoN R Pap. [3 Eust. 401. asHic G. 402. KOI KcTei 

Ar. AGHT : KdKcTei 0. 403. bk om. P. 404. eeeXoi G. i o'lKab' : oTkon 
Pap. /31. 405 o;;i. Pap. /3t. 1| 6h nOn : nOn bk U: bk om. C. 406. anoeine 
KeXeueouc : 6n6eiKe KcXcueou Ar. {v. infra). 

excited her to love, holding that the 
following passage (see next note) was 
interpolated from a misunderstanding of 
the words. But there is clearly no 
reason for departing from the usual 
sense of the phrase. 

396. Aristarchos rejected 396-418 on 
the grounds (1) that the goddess could 
not in the person of an old woman have 
the outward beauty described in 396-7, 
(2) that 406-7 are ^Xdacprj/jLa, (3) that 414 
is evTe\r]s Kara Ty\v didvoiav, beneath the 
dignity of the goddess. These argu- 
ments are not weighty enough to prevail 
against lines which are spirited and 
thoroughly Homeric. With regard to 
(1) it may be remarked that the goddess 
takes a disguise primarily in order to 
remain unknown to the bystanders, not 
to Helen ; the gods in such cases often 
give some sign which reveals them to 
those to whom they speak, see N 72 
dpiyvuTOL 8^ deoi irep, where Poseidon 
has ap))eared in the character of Kalchas. 
396 was apparently before the author of 
Htjmn. Veil. 182 cbs 8k ISev deiprjv re Kal 
o/x/xara KaX' 'A0po5tT7;s. It is, however, 
true that this intimate converse of a 
goddess with a mortal, even after 
recognition, is such as we find only in 
the later strata of the 11. (Cauer Grundfr. 

399. For the double ace. with Anepo- 
neueiN cf. Xen. Anab. v. 7. 6 tovto v/j.5.s 
i^aTraTTJccLi., lis. 

400. noXicoN may be a partitive gen. 
after rhi, but it is more in accordance 
with Homeric use to take it in the vague 
local sense, lit. ' lead me any farther on 
in the region of cities, whether of 
Phrygia or Maionia.' These regions of 
course are mentioned as being farther 
eastward, away from home. 

400-5. The punctuation is that of 
Lehrs and Ameis. IMost editors follow 
Nikanor and put notes of interrogation 
after dvdpdnrujv and irapidT-qs, and a 
comma after dyeffdai. But ovveKa 
regularly follows the clause of which 
it gives the explanation ; Lehrs {Ar. p. 
57 n.) denies that two clauses correlated 
by ovfeKa . . . rovveKa occur in Homer ; he 
would also put a full stop after epya in 
N 727-9, q.v., and cf. A 21-3. d by 
itself with indie, also appears not to 
occur in an interrog. sentence (Hentze, 
Anh.). Thus the victory of Menelaos 
is made a reason for supposing that 
Aphrodite will immediately wish to take 
further measures for removing Helen. 
As Lehrs says, after the removal of the 
notes of interrogation, multo acerbior 
cvadit ironia. 

406. All Mss. give dn6eine KcXeueouc, 
renounce the paths of the gods. But 
Didymos says ' Apiarapxoi dirbeLKe did tov 
K, Kal X'^P's TOV <r KeXevdov. davfidaeie 
5' dv TLS 7] eripa 5ta rod ir irbdev Trap4dv 
oi'ire yap iv racs 'ApiarapxeioLS ovre iv 
iripaL rCov yovv fierpiuv iiri<pep6fJ.evov 

lAIAAOC r (in) 


fj-rj^^ en crolai rroZeaaLV viroarpe^eia'^ "OXu/jlttov, 
dXX,' alel irepl Kelvov OL^ve Kai e (pvXacrae, 
et? Ke (T i) ako'^ov Trocijaerat, rj 6 ye SovXrjv. 
Kelcre S' iyoov ovk el/xi, vefjbeaarjrov he Kev etrj, 
Kelvov TTOpcraveovcra Xe^09' TpwLoi he fM OTrtacro) 
irdcrat fiQ)/j,7]aovTat, e^<w h a-^e aKpura Ov/xml. 

rrjv he ^oXwcra/xet'?; Trpocrecficovee hi A(ppohirri' 
" pLT) jM epede, a)(^erXli], fii] j^coaafxevrj ere /jbeBetco, 
TW9 he (J a7rej(d}]po3, co? vvv eKirayXa (f)i,\7]aa, 
fiecrcrcoi, 8' cificfyoTepoiv pLrjTLcrofiaL e^Oea Xvypd, 
Tpaxov Kol Aavacov, crv he Kev kukov oItov oXrjai. 



407. ToTci (t. 408. nap' ckcTnon P. i| 9uXaccoN H. 409 dO. Av. \] K€ 

c' ft : Ke xxku G: ken H Yr. a^, Mosc. 1. 1| noiHcei P. 410. 4rco U. || eYhn J. 
411. nopcONeouca Ar. AZ'STU Vr. b A, Mosc. 1 : nopcuNcouca 12 {yp. nopcoN- 
^XOucoN K). 412. OKpiTQ eUJUcbl : dKpixdjuuea I). 413. npoce9CJN€i H. 

415. ^KnarXa 9i\HCa Av. T Bar. Lips. Eton.: ^KnarX* ^<piXHca Q. 416. 

jui^c(c)oN Z>H. ; €X©ea : ax®^" -A^^. CD: ax®^° (aYcxca Schol. T), QXrca, dixi^sTLvh 
aXrea Schol. A. 

Tr4<f)VKev. Kai ov fj-bvov iv rais endbaecnv 
dXXa Kai ev Tots <Tvyypd/j.iJ.a(Tiv (the 
dissertations of Ar. ) dTra^ciTraz'Tes outws 
iKTidevTai. This very vehement asser- 
tion, it will he seen, applies only to the 
' editions ' and dissertations, not to the 
Ms.s. of Ar., of which Did. had plainly 
no knowledge. It is clear that the 
vulgate tradition was dirbeLTre, not merely 
from the consensus of our own Mss. but 
also from the fact that An. quotes it in 
his schol. on 396. In other words, we 
have to deal with a case of critical 
opinion on the one hand, and MS. 
tradition on the other, though what we 
know of Ar. will induce us to believe 
that the reading of the critics had a 
foundation in the mss. which has not 
survived. The critical objection to 
diroeiire KeXevdovi was presumably that 
the verb, in the sense renoimce, is else- 
where used only of a thing which is re- 
nounced in words (T 35, 75 p-rfVLv) not in 
deeds ; and further, that the plur. of 
KeXevdos is usually KeXevda (but see K 66, 
N 335, € 383, v 272 ?, k 86). Neither of 
these has very great weight. For the 
use of KeXevdos cf. Trdrov dvdpdnroiv Z 202. 

407. OnocTp^ij/eiac : intrans., as M 71, 
9 301, etc. "OXujunoN : aec. of the 
terminus ad quern, H. G. § 140. 4. 

408. dtzue KaKoirddei raXatTrdJpet Schol. 
D ; i.e. suffer anxiety. So -^s (Tpot7?s) 

e'iveK OL^vofiei' KaKa TroXXd S 89, and 5 
152, i// 307. 

409. 8 re might seem to emphasize 
the second clause, 'or even his slave.' 
But in other passages it merely resumes 
the original subject, as /3 327 ■f} Tivas e/c 
IIi'Xoii ct^et . . fj 6 ye Kai ^wdpTijdei' : 
so y 214, M 239, etc. ; ' nunc dextra 
ingeminans ictus, nunc ille sinistra,' 
Virg. Aen. v. 457. The scholia on 5 12 
note ^ouXh as a suspicious word for the 
regular dfiwirj. It occurs only in tliese 
two places (but Soi^Xtor ^/J.ap Z 463, f 340, 
p 323, SovXeiov w 252, SovXoavvq x 423). 

411. MSS. here (as in Pindar, etc.) 
vaiy between nopcaNeouca and Tropa-vve- 
oi/cra : in y 403, tj 347 they give only 
the form with -vvo}, but Ar. read irSpaai-ve 
in the last passage, and this is found 
also in Hymn. Cer. 156, and Ap. Rhod. 
For the phrase see M. and R.'s note on 
7 403, where the origin of it is deduced 
from the fact that ' no one but the wile 
had free access to the husband's chamber, 
and so she actually "prepares" his bed 
for the night's rest.' Of course it passed 
into the sense of ' sharing ' the bed. 

414. cxerXiH : the short syll. before 
rX is Attic, not Homeric. 

417. cu 9e KeN ktX. : an independent 
clause, the Kev showing its original 
force, 'and in that ease thou wilt 
perish.' Aphrodite means that she 


lAIAAOC r (ill) 

c5<? ecj^ar, eSSetaev 8' 'EXevr) Ato? eKjejavta, 
/Srj 8e Karaa^o/jievri eavoa ap'yijTt (paetvcoi 
crcyrji, 7rdaa<i Se Tp(oia<; XdOev rjp-^e Se Saificov. 

at 8' or ^AXe^dvSpoio Sofxov irepLKaXXe^ lkovto, 
dficpLTroXoi fiev eTrecra 6oo)<i eVl eprya rpdirovro, 
7] 8' et9 vylr6po(f)ov ddXafiov klg 8la yvvuLKcov. 
TTji 8' apa Sl(f)pov eXovaa (f)(Xo/xfietBr]<; AcfipoSiTT) 
dvrC ^AXe^dvSpoio 6ea KareOrj/ce (fyepovaa- 
ev6a Kadi^' 'KkevT] Kovprj Aio? alyio^oio, 
ocrcre TrdXcv Kkivacra, Troatv 8' rjViTraTre /j,v6cof 
" ■)]Xv6e<; eK TroXefiov &)? co0e\e<? avroO' oXeadao 



418. drrcrauTa T Pap. ^3. 419. KaracxoiieNH : KaXuif/ajueNH Q. 421. 

oY &' P. 423-6 om. Zen., writing aoxH 5' ciNTioN Tzcn 'AXesdNapoio aNOKToc. 
424. 9iXoju.HdHC Q. 426. 3i6c a{ri6xoio ^KrerauTa G : Bi6c eKrerauTa Vr. a. 

428. noX^uoio Pap. /3. |i cbc : cY ©' G. 

will embitter the strife between Trojans 
and Achaians, so that Helen, ' Troiae et 
patriae communis Erinnys,' will become 
intolerable to those around her. But 
the phrase seems weak after ten years of 
war, and the line might well be spared. 
416 will then mean ' I will stir up hatred 
instead of love between you both,' i.e. 
Paris and Helen. 

419. Kaxacxou^NH, covering herself, 
like KaXvxpa/xevT} 141, and cf. Tjepi yap 
KaTexovTaL = are hidden, P 644. 

420. aaljucoN : only here of a feminine 
goddess ; nor tloes it appear to be used 
anywhere else of a definite god present 
in his own person. The plur. is used as 
= d€ol in general, A 222, Z 115, ^ 595 ; 
in T 188 we have the phrase rrpos daifxovos 
eTTiopKrjati}, and similarly o 261, e 396 
(where no god has been specified) ; and in 
all other cases it is used either in the yet 
more general sense of 'the will of heaven' 
or ' fate ' (cf. daifiova dwaw 9 166), or 
in the metaphor eiriaavro daifiovi laos. 
See M. and R. on ^ 134, where, however, 
the singularity of the present passage is 
not brought out. If it were not for 
the presence of Aphrodite in the follow- 
ing lines, it would indeed, by Homeric 
usage, be necessary to translate ' her 
destiny, the divine power, led her on,' 
as in dydyoi. de i 8aifiwv (p 201. 

423-6. Zenodotos rejected these lines, 
writing instead " aiiTT] 8' avrlov l^ev 
'AXe^dvSpoio dvaKTos"' dwpeTres yap avrui. 
((palvero to rrji 'EXe'cTjt T7]u 'A(ppo8lTr]v 
8L<ppov jSacrTdi'eiv. €TrL\^\T]aTai de on ypat 
e'UacFTai, Kai ravTrji ttji fxapcpiji rd irpoa-q- 

KovTa eTn.T7j5evei, Ariston. Cobet has 
an amusing chapter on the question of 
propriety as it appeared to the Alex- 
andrian critics. Misc. Crit. 225 - 39. 
(Schol. T quotes r 34, where Athene 
carries a lamp for Odysseus.) Romer 
suggests that Zen. may have considered 
that Aphrodite, being disguised as au 
d/jLcpiiroXos, must have gone off with the 
rest in 422. 

426. The title KoiipH Ai6c a!ri6xoio is 
elsewhere reserved for Athene alone. 

427. occe ndXiN KXiNaca, the aversa 
tuetur of Acn. iv. 362. This is a most 
instructive j^iece of Homeric psychology, 
shewing the struggle of the weak human 
mind against the overpowering will of 
the gods. From the outward point of 
view, as distinct from the presentation 
of such secret springs of action, Helen 
is dejjicted to us, Nagelsbach says, as 
the counterpart of Paris — vacillating 
between repentance and love, as he 
between sensuality and courage. 432-6 
were obelized by Ar. as Treforepot /cat toTs 
yoTjfjLaiXL \pvxpol Kal aKaTaWrfKoL. With 
this judgment it is impossible to agree. 
432 is spoken in bitter irony. The 
sentence beginning with dXkd a iyu ye 
may be taken in the same tone as a 
bitter taunt ; ' but no, you had better 
take good care of yourself — you might be 
killed ' ; or we may take it as seriously 
meant, as marking tlie point at which 
the old love suddenly resumes its sway, 
in fear lest the taunt may really drive 
Paris to another duel. The former is 
more consonant with the reply of Paris, 

lAIAAOC r (III) 151 

dvSpl Sa/X€l<; Kparepcoi, o? e/io? Trporepo^ irocrL'i rjev. 
Yj fiev Br) irpiv y ^^X^ dpr]icf)l\ov M.€V€\dov 430 

(Ti]t re /3i'>]c Kol xepal koI 67%et (j)epTepo<i elvaf 
dX)C Wi vvv irpoKaXeacrai dpr]t(j)CKov IsJieveKaov 
e^avTL<; fiax^f^cicrOai evavrlov. dXkd cr iyco <ye 
iraveaQat Ke\op,ai, fiySe ^avOwL Me^eXawt 

dvri^iov TToXe/jiov TroXefil^ecv '^Se fidx^crOat 435 

d(fipaS€Q}<i, fi7] TTW? "^^'^X ^'^ avTOV Sovpc Safit]T]t'i. 
rrjv he Yidpi'i fMvOotatv d/xei/3o/jievo<i TrpocreetTTe' 
" /i7] fie, yvvai, x^^^'^otaiv ovecSeac dvixov evLTne. 
vvv fiev yap Met'eX-ao? iviKrjaev aw Adr]vr)i, 
Kelvov 8' avTL<; eyco' irapa yap Oeoi elat Kal rj/jblv. 440 

dW aye 8r) <^LK.or7}Ti rpairelopiev evviiOevre' 
ov yap irco TTore fi c5Se epo9 (f)peva<; d/j,(peKd\v\lrev, 
ou8' ore (76 rrrpoiTov AaKeSai/jiOVO<; ef epareivrj^ 
eirXeov dpTrd^a<i ev TTOVTOTropoiat veeaac, 
vrjowi S' ev K-pavdrjc ifxlyTjv (f)iXor'r}TC Kal evvrji,, 445 

429. nporepoN Q Eiist. , 430. r' om. CD. \\ eOxou G. || apH'i^iXco ueNcXdco 
Q. 431. CHI : THi G. 432-6 dd. Ar. 433. feaOeic C. H jmaxececeai Cant. 
434. naueceai Ar. GHP ]'>ar. Mosc. 1, Eton. : naiiccceai R Cant. Lips.: naiicaceai 
il. 436. SauHHic Ar. : 5ajuiaceHic AU Pap. (3, Par. g (King's S7i]ir.) : 3auaceeTc 
King's ^ : aaueiHc U. 438. xoX^enoTciN : JuueoiciN T. H euuoN : juOeoN D. || 
cNicne DGPR Pap. /3, Vr. a, Mosc. 1 : eNine HQ Lips. 440. aueic C. 441. 
9iX6THTa GP. II eCiNHeeNTec i)HQ(?)TU Vr. a, Mosc. 1. 442. <£>5e or u>b' 

DHJPQRT Pap. /3, Par. d f g j k : a>d^ r A (the reading of CGS is left uncertain 
by La R., but is probably co9e without r'). 1| epoc {Kara nvas (ppinac epoc Eust.): 
epuc fl. 443. npcoTON : nporepoN CRT. 444. dpndcac DJ. \\ €N : iui Vr. a. 

but it cannot be said that either is TepviKepawos, from rpewoo. Other in- 

' prosy, frigid, and inconsistent.' stances are abundant, e.g. Kapdirj Kpadir], 

435. dNxiSioN by Homeric use must Kaprepds Kparepbs, ddpaos dpaavs, etc., 
be an adverbial ncut., not agreeing with either ap or pa being tlie Greek re- 
ei or ir6\€fj.ov. presentative of vocalic r. 

436. La R. considers that ijn6 goes 442. epoc : Mss. epojs, and so S 294 ; 
with Soupi, auToO being simply 'his,' but we must read ^pos in S 315 (though 
comparing ^/xcDt vtto 5ovpl Safxi^vai E 653, even there most mss. have ^pus), and 
etc. But this use of avroD as a simple as the cases are always formed from 
possess, gen. is very rare (see 11 405), this stem (f'pwt a 212, ^pov passim) there 
and it is more natural to construe ' by can be little doubt that Bothe and 
him with his spear. ' Heyne are right in restoring it here after 

438. ^NinxciN always takes a person Eustath. The earliest trace of ^pws 

only as object elsewhere, except u 17 seems to be the ace. ^pura in the 

KpaSlriv rjuiiraire fxudSn. Homeric Hymn. Merc. 449. So yeXos, 

440. auTic, 'some day,' sc. vik7}<ju3. not yeXws, is the Homeric form, 

441. TpaneiojuGN : metathesis from generally disguised by the mss. See 
Tapireio/xev, let us take our pleasure. note on A 599. 

So S 314, 292 X^KTpovde rpa-rreio/jLev 445. KpawdH according to Pausanias 

ivv-qdhres, where see M. and R. A (iii. 22. 1) lay in the Laconic gulf opposite 
converse metath. seems to take place in Gytheion. Others made it Kythera, as 

152 lAIAAOC r (III) 

W9 aeo vvv epafxat Kai fxe <y\vKv<i 'LfX€po<i aipel. 

rj pa Kol ap'^e Xe'^ocrSe Ktoov ap,a 8 eiTrer aKOiri^. 

TO) fiev cip iv rpTjrolcn KarevvaaOev \e')(eecraLV, 
ArpetSrj^ S' ay' ofXikov icfiolra drjpl ioiKco<?, 
el TTOV laaOprjcreLev ^AXe^avSpov deoeiSew 450 

aX)C ov Ti9 Svvaro Tpcooyv k\€Ito)v t iiriKovpcov 
Bel^aL AXe^avhpov tot apr)l^'\Xwi yieveKawi. 
ov jxev <yap ^CKottjtL j eKevOavov, el Ti? Xoolto' 
Icrov <ydp acpiv Trdatv anrriydero KT]pl fieXaivrjc. 
Totcn Se KOL fiereeiTrev ava^ avBpMV ^Aya/xefivcop- 455 

" KeKkvTe p,ev, Tpwe? koI AdpSavoi rjS eirlKovpoi' 
VCKT] jxev Srj (palveT dpvicpbKov M.eveXaov 
v/jiel'i 8' ^Ap'yelrjv '^Xevrjv Kol KTrj/jLud' d/x avrrjc 
eKSore, koI TLfxrjv diroTivefiev, rjv tlv eotKev, 
rj re Kol icr<TOfievoL(TL /xer dvOpooTTOtcrt TreXrjTai. 460 

609 ecpar AT/JetS?;?, eVl S' ■r]Lveov ciXXoc A'^ulol. 

447. 5' : T Pap. /3. 448. ueN : rhp P. |1 KaxcuNacee Z>JQ. 450. ecoeiaft 
PT2 Mosc. 1. 451. kXutcon G. '1 t' : b' Pap. (3. 453. r ovi. G Pap. 0. || 

^KeueaNCN Pap. j3. 456. ddpdaNOi h5' eniKOupoi : cuKNHJu.idec axaioi G. 

459. anoTiNCJUieN : anoTiNcxoN Zen. il hn tin' eoiKCN : hn eneoiKeN P : hn t* 
^neoiKe JIosc. 1 : yp. Kal hn ncp coikcn J. 461. 6x°'"'^ ^• 

the dwelling of Aphrodite. These of 453. Not for love were they trying to 

course are mere guesses ; the island was hide him, should any see him. ' The line 

unknown, and some read Kpavarii as represents in narrative form the thought 

adi. 00 KevddvovaLv, fjv tl's idrjraL, they are not 

448. TpHToTci: see M. and P. on a 440, for hiding (will not hide) him, if any 

where it is explained to mean morticed, shall see him' (M.A.B.). r<4p explains 

on the strength of Plat. Pol. 279 E tQiv dk the use of Bunoto, ' for it was a matter 

crvvdeTwv to. fxev Tp-qTo., to, de avev rprjcrewi of poiver, not of will.' This is satis- 

(rOvBera. But Plato can hardly be quoted factory grammatically ; but the violation 

as a decisive authority on Homeric of the F of lSolto and the form Kevdavoj 

archaeology ; and the following passage (instead of *Kvv0dvco) for k€v6w have 

from \p 196-201 is strongly in favour raised grave suspicions against the 

either of the interpretation ' pierced couplet. Various remedies have been 

with holes through which straps were proposed ; one fault is cured by Heyne's 

passed to support the bedding,' or still ^xeii^ov fii', the other by Brandreth's ei' xis 

better ' pierced with holes by which to oparo or van Herwerden's d Fe Fidovro. 

rivet on the ornamental plates or disks ' But all these conjectures are far from 

(v. on dLvwTo'iai 391) :— satisfactory. 5' €K pi^T]s Trporafxwv dficp^^eaa 4.57. ^aiNexai, with gen., as we say 

XoXkuil 'is declared for M.' The construction 

ed Kal eTTLffTaiuLeuus, Kal i-irl ffrddixriv Wvva, with the gen. is essentially the same as 

ip/juv' dcTKricras- Terprjva 8i Travra with adjectives {dp'icTTTj (palvero 0ov\r), 

repiTpoji. etc.). 

e/c 5^ rov apx^fj-evos \^x°^ ^s«<"'j o0p' 459. For 6noTiNeueN Zen. read aTo- 

iriXecrcra, ' rluerov, on his theory of 'dual for 

SaiSdXXcj;' Xpi'o''^' ''"« i^o.l dpyvpioi ijd' i\i- plural.' We might easily read dTTortVere, 

(pavTi. • as the hiatus is ' licitus ' in the bucolic 

ef 5' iravvaa' l/navra /3o6s (poivLKi. <paei.v6v. diaeresis ; but see A 20. 


Book IV. falls obviously into three divisions : (1) the wounding of Menelaos 
by Pandaros (1-219) ; (2) the revie\y of the Greeks by Agamemnon (220- 
421) ; (3) the beginning of the general battle (422-544). 

The first episode is clearly a continuation of the story of the preceding 
book. It can never have stood alone, nor can the third book well have 
ended as it does without some such continuation to enable the battle to 
begin after the truce. There is no serious difficulty within the story itself, 
though the relation of it to the rest of the Iliad is fraught with many 
thorny questions. 

In the first place, the colloquy of the gods with which the book opens 
is cryingly inconsistent with the intention of Zeus and his promise to Thetis 
in A. Here the course of the war seems to be an open question, and 
vengeance for Achilles is never thought of. Again, it is strange that the 
flagrant crime of the Trojans should never again be mentioned in the course 
of the Iliad, except in a few lines patently interpolated for the purpose of 
bringing it in (see E 206-8, H 69, 351). Some allusion seems imperatively 
demanded in the case of the death of the arch- traitor Pandaros (E 286-96), 
which so soon follows his oftence. 

The whole story, in fact, from F 1 to A 219, admirable as it is in 
narrative, cannot belong to the original Iliad. More perhaps than any 
other part, with the exception perhaps of K, it produces the impression of 
a distinct poem, composed for its own sake, and without any regard to the 
place it would hold in a continuous tale of the fall of Troy ; suited, too, 
rather to the first than to the tenth year of the war. An unconscientious 
compiler might have adapted it to this place by stopping at the end of F, 
and simply saying that, as the duel had not been brought to the proposed 
conclusion by the death of either champion, the truce was simply at an end. 
But we could ill afi'ord to lose such a famous passage as the account of the 
bow-shot ; and there can be little doubt that the whole episode was 
originally composed as a single piece. To hold, as some have done, that 
the Pandaros episode is a later extension of the duel, leads to the obvious 
question, ' Why should a compiler or continuator have introduced a new 
motive which must infallibly lead to all the difficulties in the sequel which 
have been pointed out ? ' 

The second portion, the iTrnrtok-i^cn?, is in some ways puzzling. The 
allusions to the breach of the treaty shew that it was composed to follow 

154 lAIAAOC A (iv) 

tlie duel ; on the other liand, the way in which the simple and modest 
character of Diomedes displays itself under severe provocation can hardly be 
meant for anything but a preparation by contrast for his exploits in the 
next book. The whole ejiisode, though Tiot without considerable vivacity, 
prolongs beyond measure the delay in the opening of the battle, at a point 
where rapidity seems essential to the story, and the speeches are unreasonably 
prolix in the crisis of the attack. The gratuitous insults which Odysseus, 
like Diomedes, has to undergo are strangely at variance with the services he 
has rendered in B, nor do they accord with the character of Agamemnon. 
The clear allusion in I 34-36 to 370-400 here shews that the episode is 
certainly earlier than that book ; it may well be by the same hand. It 
would seem, therefore, that it was composed at a time considerably earlier 
than the Attic recension, in order to join the duel to the rest of the exploits 
of Diomedes. 

About the last portion of the book there is little to be said. It consists 
mainly of battle ' vignettes ' of no unusual interest, such as could no doubt 
be turned out impromptu to any extent by the practised bard. The similes 
with which it opens are incomparably the best portion of it. 


6pKicoN ciirxucic. 'AraueuNONOc enincoXHCic. 

ol Se deol Trap Zr]vl Kad/jfievot rjyopocovro 
ypvcrecot ev SaireScoi, /xera Se a(f)tai iroTVia ' H/S?; 
veKTap ewivo-^oei' rot he '^pvcreoi'^ heiraeacTi 
heihe^ar aXXifKov<i, Tpcowv ttoXlv elaopowvre'^. 
avTLK iireLparo K.povL87j<; ipedt^efxev ]ip7jv 
K€pT0fXL0t<; iireecrcn, irapa^Xi^h'qv dyopevcov 
" Soial [xev ^eveKawi aprj'yove^ elaX deacov, 
"Hprj T W.p'yeirj Koi 'A\aA./coyU.ei/7;'t9 ^AdjjvT]. 

2. Swdan^dcL) J. 
Yr. a : Seiaixar' H. 

3. £Na5iNOX<4ei Zen. ] 
6. napaKXhidHN Lips. 

{rives Schol. T). 

4. 9ei9^KaT' 

1. Arop6coNTO, held assembly, as B 
337 Traicrlt' eoi/cires dyopdacrde. Ar. acc. 
to Porphyrios in Schol. B explained the 
word by -qdpoi^ovTo, but it implies debate 
as Avell as mere gathering together. 

2. "H6h reappears only in E 722, 
905, and the post- Homeric passage \ 
603, where, as in the later legends, 
she is the wife of Herakles. For the 
golden floor see Helbig H. E.^ 115-7, 
where 1 Kings vi. 30 is compared. 

3. k<j3\Hoy6e.\ : of course a false form 
for ioLvoxoei, of. irjvSave, and see A 

4. 3ei9^x*''''° • generally referred to 
deiKuvfiai., v. I 196 deiKvii/j-evos {H. G. §§23 
(6), 24. 3), 'pledging' ; in that case it must 

•be a secondary sense derived from the 
custom of pointing to the person whose 
health is to be drunk. But both form 
and meaning present difficulties, and 
the word may be independent. Cf. 
5€LKav6wvTO 86, deKavdrai- daTrd^eTai 
Hesych., and the Odyssean deLdiaKo/j-ai, 
which may point to a root dFiK (van L. 
JEnch. p. 345, Schulze Q. E. p. 155). 

6. napaB\H3HN : variously explained 
maliciously (with a side meaning) ; by 
way of retort (so Ap. Rhod. ii. 60, 448, 

etc., seems to have taken it) ; by ^uay of 
invidious comparison between Aphrodite 
and the two goddesses. None of these 
is satisfactory ; I would suggest by 
way of risking himself ('drawing her 
fire 'in modern metaphor), i.e. wilfully 
tempting her to retort upon himself ; 
hence provokingly (cf. irapai^HXa Kepro- 
fieovaiv of teasing boys, Hymn. Merc. 
56). This sense of vapa^dWea-dai is 
(with the exception of the purely literal 
meaning) the only one which occurs in 
H. (see I 322), and remained attached 
to the- word throughout Greek literature 
(v. L. and S. s.v. ). 

8. 'AXaXKOueNH'i'c : Pausanias (ix. 33. 
5) testifies to a cultus of Athene at 
Alalkomenai, near the Tritonian lake in 
Boiotia, down to the times of Sulla. 
The local hero was 'A\a\Ko/j.€vevs, and the 
name is evidently connected with some 
very primitive cult ; cf. the interesting 
fragment in Bergk P. L.^frag. adesp. 83 
( Pindar ? ) xaXtTro;' 5' i^evpeiv eiVe Botoirots 
'A\<a\> KOfievevs vwep Xlixvtjs Kr/epiai- 
5os dviax^ TrpuiTOS dvdpuTrwv e'lre kt\. 
(followed by a list of local myths about 
the origin of man). The local fem. form 
is 'A\a\KOfX€via, one of a trio of local 



aW i) Toc rat voa^i Kadtj/jLevai eltropocoaac 
repirecrOov' toh h aure (j)i\o/u,fiei8r]^ WcppoSirr} 
aiei 7rap/jLefi/3XcoK€ koI avrov Ki]pa<i d/juvvei, 
Kac vvv i^eaaooaev olofxevov OaveeaOaL. 
aW rj TOi VLK7] fiev dp7]'i(f)lXov Mez/eXaof 
rj/jiei'i Se (ppai^cofied ottco? ecrrai rciSe epya, 
7] avTC<; TToXe/jbov re kukov koI (^vXoitlv alvy-jv 
opaofxev, rj (pcXoTrjra fxer d/x(f)orepoLac ^dXco/jbev. 
el 8' av TTft)? ToSe irdai (plXov koL i)hv >yevoLTO, 
rj roc [xev oiKeotro TroXt? UpLu/xoio avaKTO<i, 
avTL<i S ^Xp'yeirjv '^\ev7]v Mez^eXao? ayoiTO." 

&<; e(f)a6 , at S' eTre/xv^av ' AOrjvalr] re koX "Hp?;, 
irXr^aLai a'i y I'jcrdrjv, KUKa, Se Tpcoecrac /xeSeadrjv. 
■)] roL AOrjvai'T] aKecov rjv ovSe n elrre, 
a-KV^ofievT] Ail irarpi, ')(^o\o'i he /llcv aypio<i yLpec 
"}ipT]i B ovK €')(^a8e crrrjOof; '^oXov, dWd irpoarivZa- 
" alvorare K.povL8i], rrolov rov fivdov eetTre? ; 
TTw? ede\ei<; aXiov Oelvai irovov rj8^ dreXecrrov, 
ISpco 6 ov ISpcoaa /xoycoi, Ka/j,er7}v Se fioc ittttoi, 





10. 9iXouHaHc i). 15. H (h) P Pap. y: it f>' a \\ aueic C. 17. au 

ncoc Ar. : au xcbc Aph. : outcoc Par. d : aDxcoc (auxcoc) fl. || rcNOlTO Aph. i2 : 
n^XoiTO Ar. (? v. Ludwich) : reNHxai Par. f. 19. aueic C. 20. e9aT' Pap. y. 
21. nXHcioN Eton, stcpi: \\ a'i r : a'i b' 0. 22. fi TOi : A ju^n G. 23. 

cxuzouENH Pap. y. 24. ou Kcxaae HT (and ij TrXeiuv xp^o-'J tQv dvTiypd4>wv 

Eust.). 25. 'iemac N Vr. a. 27. KaucTHN : ^ ^KauoN Eust. || Vnnco S. 

(chthonian ?) goddesses, absorbed as 
usual by the Olympian (Pans. ibid.). 
The name becomes here attributive 
rather than local, meaning ' the guardian.' 
It recurs in literature only E 908 (the 
only other place in H. where Hera is 
called 'ApyeiT]) but is found in Chios 
on an inscr. Hence also the Boiotian 
month 'A\a\Ko/j.€i'ios. 

11. napjuteuBXcoKE = 7rap/ue/x\w/ce from 
{lJi)^\w<7K(j} {fj.\o = fjLoX, from ml-). au- 
ToO : the usual construction of d/j.vveiv 
is Tt Tivi, not Tivos. But M 402 Zeis 
KTJpas dfii've I TTttiSos eov, 4> 539 Tpiccov 
iVa Xoiybv dXdXKOi. And the cases where 
d7r6 is added are essentially similar, 
veuif aTTo Xoiybv d/xvvwv II 80, etc. H. G. 

18. oiKeoiTO . . SroiTO : potential op- 
tatives, but illustrating how the ' wish- 
ing' opt. shades off into this sense with- 
out dv : valoiTe Y 74, in the mouth of one 

who desires peace, is a little nearer the 
pure idea of ' wish.' We exactly ex- 
press the ambiguity in translating ' then 
■may the city of P. be a habitation.' 
Zeus is here not expressing a wish, but 
only putting as a possibility the result 
of his second alternative in 1. 16. 

20. uiizeiN, to ' mutter,' ' murmur,' 
a family of words derived onomatopoetic- 
ally from an imitation of the sound of 
the voice when the lips are closed. 
20-5 = e 457-62. 

22. 6k^con is indeclinable here and 9 
459, and </> 89 dKiuiv daifUffde Kad-qfxevoL. 
Elsewhere it is always declined like a 
participle, and it is hard to see what 
else it can be. Of course dKiova could 
easily be restored here, with Brandreth, 
or, as van L. and Agar {J. P. xxiv. 
273) suggest, fxev dKrjv, but there is 
nothing to explain how such a corrup- 
tion could have originated. 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 157 

\a6v dyetpovcrrji, TlptdfMcoi KaKa roto re iraKTii) ; 
epS'' (trap ov rot '7rdvTe<i eTrcuveo/jiev Oeol dXXoi.^ 

rrjv Se fiej op^^?;cra9 irpoaecf)')] ve^ekrj'yepeTa Zeu?* 30 

" haifjbovirj, rt vv ere Tlpcap^o'; lipcu/jioto re TratSe? 
Tocraa kuku pe^ovaiv, 6 t dairep'^e'i fxeveaivea 
'IXtou e^aXaird^at ivKTi/Juevop indXied pov ; 
el he (TV 7' elaeXdovcra irvXa'i kul rei'^ea [xaKpa 
wjjiov ^e^p(iodot<i Upiafiov UpLdfioio re iraiha^ 35 

dWovi re Tpwa?, rore Kev ■^o\ov e^aKeaaio. 
ep^ov 07r&)9 e'^eXet?* /x-?; tovto ye velKO^ oiricxaoi 
crol KOI ifiol [xey epicrfxa fier dp,(f)OTepoiaL yevrjrai. 
dWo he rot epeco, <jv 8' evl cf)peal /SdWeo crrjcaiv 
OTTTTore Kev koI eyed /ze/z-aco? ttoXiv e^aXaird^ai 40 

rrjv eOekfO, ode rot, (f)[\ot dvepe^ eyyeydaai, 
p,i] Tt SLarpt/SeLV rov ifMov j(o\ov, dX\.d pJ edaat,' 
Kol yap 67C0 aol hwKa eKoov deKovri ye dvp^Mi. 
at yap uvr' rjeXicoL re Kal ovpavcoc darepoevTi 
vaierdovat TroXrje^; ewc^dovicov dvOpooircov, 45 

29. ep&'* axap: 'ipbe. hp G. || oOti JMNQ. | enaiNecoucN Mosc. 1 : enaiNoOjucN J. 
35. BeSpcbeeic QR {supr. 01) Mor. 38. ^peicua DK}. 41. Irrerdaci(N) AJQT 
Vr. b, Mosc. 1 3 (e corr. ) : ^Krerdaci(N) Q. 42. iacoN G. 43. erco toi S. || 

9a>K' cieKcoN Trypho. |j re : tg {siqn: re). 44. un' : en Q. \\ re oni. Q. 

45. NaieTdwci IJ. 

28. KaKO, accusative, ' in apposition to p. -307). Moreover, the simple aiv^u 
the sentence,' as it is generally called ; makes aiv-fjcro} in H. (tt 380, 403), cf. 
i.e. 'expressing the sum or result of an eir-qLv-qaav S 312. 

action ' {H. G. % 136. 4) ; so 1. 207 ov tls 32. o re implies 'as I must conclude 

^jSaXei/ . . TcDt fisv /cXeoj, d/ifXL 5i wev- they do, because, ' etc. acnepxec: appa- 

dos : fl 735 pi\l/ei xeipos e\wv cltto Trvpyov, rently for dvcnrepxes, cnrepxid 'to press,' 

\vypov 'oXedpov. The construction is only lit. hastening, pressing on (so Curt. Et. 

found after a verb governing an accus. no. 176 h, and Clemm in C. St. viii. 95). 

'of the external object' either expressed 35. For similar expressions v. X 347, 

or implied, and may be regarded as an fJ 212, and the words of Xenophon to 

extension of the construction pi'^eiv tlvo. his soldiers, Anab. iv. 8. 14 tovtovs, ijv 

Tt. ¥oT Kafiveiv Ti = to make cf. 216, etc. ttcos dwih/xeda, Kal di/xovs del Karacpayeiv 

The peculiarity here is that in the (and Hist. iii. 3. 6). BeBpcoeoic seems 

j)rincipal clause the verb is used in- to be a perf. in -da like (yprjyopdaai, v. 

transitively — a sort of zeugma. If. G. § 22 (10), and note on (9). The 

29. ndNTCC is the emphatic word. It more usual form ^e^pwKibs is found in 
is indifferent as to the sense whether we X 94, x 403, where it may have sup- 
take enaiNeoJUEN as fut. or pres. ; but it planted the rarer /3e/3pw(9wj. 

must be the latter according to Cobet's 43. ^kwn aeKONTi re euuwi, not under 

canon, that in verbs where e is not compulsion, but yet not of my own lik- 

changed to 7/, if the preceding syllable ing, as the Schol. explain : ttoXXix Trapa 

is long, the fut. takes <r, but where the wpoalpecnv ttjs ^vxv^ irpaTTofiev irpbs rb 

ante[)enult. is short the a always dis- KexapLap-^vov twv neXas. 

appears ; thus aldeao/uiai, dpK^aw, vnKiffw, 45. Naierdouci, have their place, see 

but TcX^w, yajxiii), Kop^cj, etc. {M. C. B 626. 


lAlAAOC A (iv) 

Tacov fioi irepl Krjpt neaKero "IXto? Ipr] 
KUi Tlpia/jLo<; koI \ao<; evfXfieXuo Uptd/xoLO' 
ov jdp fxoi irore yScoyu-o? ihevero Sairo'i etcn]^;, 
\oi^r]<; re KViar)<; re* to yap Xd'^op,ev jepa^; r}yu,et9." 

Tov 8' yfiei^CT eireLra /Bocottl'; iroTVia "Uprj • 
" rj Tot ifiol rpel<i fxev ttoXv (piXrarai elai TroXrje'i, 
"Apyo'i re ^irdpTT] re koI evpvdyvia Mu/c^^y?^' 
Ta<i StaTrepauL, or dv tol dirkyOwvTai irepX Ki]pi' 
Tawv ov TOi eyoi) irpocrB' laraf^ac ovSe fxejaLpco. 
et vrep jap (f>dove(o re Kal ovk clm SiaTrepaai, 
ovK dvvco (j)9oveova , eirel rj ttoXv cjieprepo'i eacri. 
dXXa -^pr) Kol e/jLov OefjuevuL ntovov ovk dreXecrTov 



46. xdcON : e.K TCON G. 47. eiiuJueXiou L. 48. BcojUOC : eujuibc Eust. 

51. 9iXTaToi N Vr. a. 53. aidnepcoN G. [| TOI : ti Q. |j dnexeoNxai i)R. 

54. OUTOI : ouTi GMQS. 55-6 dO. Ar. 56. 9epTaT6c Z>P (and A'"). 

46. nepJ Kfipi : on this disputed phrase 
see If. G. % 186. 2, where the evidence 
is fully given. Monro takes the dat. 
as a locative, in the heart ; and with 
much hesitation -n-epl as = exceedingly ; 
' Trept KTjpi may have been meant in the 
literal sense, — the feeling (fear, anger, 
etc.) being thought of as Jilling or 
covering the heart. On the whole, how- 
ever, the evidence is against this view 
— unless indeed we explain Trept KTJpc as 
a traditional phrase used without a 
distinct sense of its original meaning.' 
The sense exceedingly is obviously suit- 
able here, but less so in 53 ; and TrepL = 
inside is supported by A 317, q.v. 

47. eujuiJuieXico, ivith good spear of ash, 
TOV ed TTore T?jt pLeXiai xpT^cra^^voi', ttoXe- 
/jLLKov, Schol. ; a somewhat strange ejdthet 
to apply to Priam, who is not repre- 
sented as a warrior in Homer (except 
r 188) ; hence van L. writes iv/x/j.e\L7]s 
here and in the three repetitions of the 
line (165, Z 449, [0 552]), thus also 
removing the contracted gen. -w for -ew. 
The epithet is also applied to the sons 
of Euphorbos in P (9, 23, 59), and to 
Peisistratos, y 400. 

52. The clear mention here of the city 
of Argos, like the epithet 'Apyelij applied 
to Hera in 1. 8, marks this passage as 
composed after the Dorian conquest — 
one of the few cases in Homer where 
the traditional prae-Dorian character of 
the poems has been forgotten. It was, 
of course, that invasion which created 
the city of Argos at the expense of 

Mykenai ; the two can never have 
existed side by side as they are re- 
presented here. The hearer is naturally 
expected to apply the words only to 
the fall of Mykenai, represented as the 
price paid for the conquest of Troy. 

55. 9eoN^co and ei<j!> are taken by 
Ameis as subj. ; he compares a 167 audi 
Tis Tj/j-li' I daXirwpT], d irep ris einx6ovLo}v 
dvdpwTTwv I (pTJiaiv iXeijcreadai, but this is 
essentially different, as it refers to a 
repetition of anticipated cases ; so A 261 
el' Trep yap r aXkoi . . daiTpov irivwaLv. 
Hera is here stating a fact which she 
admits, in order to base another state- 
ment upon it, and for this the indie, is 
the proper mood ; cf. H 117 el' vep ddei-rjs 
T ecTTi, and note on A 321. It is also 
more natural to find ov after et with the 
indie, than the subj. ; H. G. % 316, and 
V. on B 349, A 160, though it is true 
that we do find et ou with subj., e.g. T 
139 OVK elQaL, where the neg. coheres 
closely with the verb. In the next 
line ONuco may be either pres. or fut., 
I shall do no good. 55-6 were obelized by 
Ar. , on T7)v xdpti' dvaKvovaiv, el Kal fjLT) 
TTpoderjdels dvvarac tovt ^xet;', i.e. Hera 
is not doing Zeus a favour if Zeus can 
work his will without asking her. But 
this ground is quite insuflicient ; the 
turn of thought is natural enough, ' have 
your way ; you know I cannot prevent 
it.' The dXXd following (57) also clearly 
refers to 56, 'though you are more 
mighty, yet I am not to count for 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 


Kal yap e7tt) ^eo? elfii, <yevo<i he fioi evOev 06 ev aoi, 

Kai fie TrpecT^vTciri^v reKero Kpoi/o^ dyKvXop,i]Tr](;, 

d/LLcporepov, yevefji re koI ovveKa arj 7rapdK0iTC<i 60 

KeKKi]fxat, (TV 8e irdai fxer cidavaTotaiv dvdacreL^;. 

aXV Tj roi [xev ravd viroei^o/xev dWyjXotai, 

(TOt fxev eyco, av o e/xof ein 6 eYovTat oeoi aXXot 

dOdvarot. av he Odaaov Adrjvatiji enmeTXai 

eXOelv €9 Tpcocov Kal A-^aioiv (pvKo'mv alvrjv, 65 

Trecpdv S oj? Ke Tpcoe? V7repKv8avTa<i A^atou? 

ap^cocrc Ttporepoi virep opKia hrj\i'}aaa6ai" 

&)? e(f)aT , ovS diriOrjae iraT-qp dvBpo)v re 6eo)v re* 
avTLK A6i]vai7]v eirea irrepoevTa TrpoarjvSa' 
" al^p^a fxaX! e? (rrparov eXOe fieTo, Tpoi)a<; Kal 'An^atou?, 70 
Treipdv B C09 Ke Tpwe? vTrepKvhavra^ A^aiov<; 
dp^axTi Trporepoi virep opKia hrfXi^craadat.^ 

&)9 eliTOiv corpvve 7rdpo<; fiefxaviav ^AOt^vriv, 
^7) he Kar OvXvfiTTOio Kaprjvcdv dt^acra. 
olov h darepa rJKe K^povou Trai'? dyKvXo/x7]re(o, 75 

59. Jue : JLioi H. i| arKuXojUHTic Mor. 60. CH : coi Q. 61. kckXhtqi Pap. 
7. 62. toOt' anoeisojmeN J {yp. xaOe* unoeisoueN) : tqOt' cnieisoucN Apoll. 

Synt. : xauT" unoeizoJueN Pap. 7. 65. cic 0. 66. b' om. P. 67. npoxepoN 

JQ. 68. €9aT" : 9dT[o Pap. 7. 71-2 om. J. 72. npdxepoN 0. 

59. npecBuxdTHN, senior in dignity, 
not merely eldest, as tlie second clause 
of 60 clearly shews ; of. the use of 
Tvpeff^a, irpea^riLov 9 289, sign of honour, 
etc. So yepwv, councillor, is used without 
respect of age, like seigneur, sir. Ac- 
cording to the legend in Hes. Theog. 
454 Hera was actually older than her 
brothers, and thus yevejJL here probably 
means age, though it may equally well 
be taken to mean jmrentage. 

66. CrnepKuQaNxac : probably an adj. 
like oLKafias dddfxas, from stem kv5 (not 
KvSecr) like Kvd-pos. It recurs only Hes. 
Theog. 510. Cf. /neyaKevdavros (?) in a 
Cyprian inscr. (Collitz 31). 

67. See r 299. It is clear here that 
opKia is governed by virdp, not by 5?jXt?- 
aacrdai.. Here also Mss. give uirepopKia. 

75. dcrepa hke : so Mss. ; Bentley 
affrip' 'eriK€. The place, just before the 
caesura Kara rplrov rpoxcuov, is the most 
unlikely for an hiatus, so that the 
conjecture is almost certainly right. 
See B 87. It is not easy to make out 
exactly what the people saw and mar- 
velled at (79) ; the metaphor clearly 

indicates more than the mere swiftness 
of descent, and implies at least a visible 
flash, though we cannot suppose that 
Athene actually changed herself into a 
' fire - ball ' or meteorite ; but on the 
other hand Homeric gods are not in the 
habit of appearing to multitudes in their 
own person. Of course the sparks in 77 
are merely part of the description of such 
a meteor, and do not belong to the com- 
parison. A very similar passage is P 
547 sqq., which describes the descent of 
the same goddess clothed in a cloud like 
a rainbow, spread by Zeus r^pas eufxevai 
■?! TToXepLOLo t) Kal xe(|U(2i'oy. 82 shews 
that the jaeople did not know what had 
happened, but only expected some divine 
interference in a decisive way, whether 
for good or ill. The edd. compare Hymn. 
Apoll. 440— 

€vd' €K VTjbs 'opovcrev ct^'a^ tKaepyos 'AwdWuv 
darept eiSopLfvos fieawc ij/xari  tou S' dnb 

(TTTLvdapides ttcotQvto, aeXas S' eis ovpavbv 


where Apollo is actually surrounded by 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

rj vavTTjLcn repa^ ?}e arparon evpei Xawv, 

\a/ji7rpov rov he re ttoWoI citto (T'7Tivdripe<i levrai' 

rwL iiKvl ifi^ev eirX 'yQova naWa? Ps.Oi]vr], 

icao o eoop €9 fMeaaov uafxpo<i o e^ey etcropocovra'i 

Tpwa? 6 iTrTroSdfxovi Kol evKvrjfjbiha<i A.'^aiov<i' 80 

oihe he ra eXirea-Kev Ihoov e? TrXrjaiov aXkov 

" rj p avTi<; 7roA,eyu-o<? re kuko'^ koI (pvXoTTL'i alvi] 

ecraeTat ; ?) (J3t\.0Tr]Ta yu-er a/xcporepoiao Tidrjcn 

Zey?, 09 T avdpoiTTwv rafxir]^ TroXefMOLO rervKTat ; " 

CO? apa Ti9 eXirecTKev X.'^aiwv re Tpcocoz/ re. 85 

?) o avopi iKeKt) Lpcocov Karaovaeo o[xla.ov, 
AaohoKWc AvTijvoplhiji, KparepSn al'^fxriTyc, 
Hdvhapov dvTideop hi(^7]/u,eprj, et ttov ecfievpot. 
evpe AvKdovo<; vlov d/jivfiovd re Kparepov re 
ecrraoT • d^(^\ he fxiv Kparepal aTl')(^e<i daTrccrrdcov 90 

\ao)v, 01 oi eirovTO avr' Al(T7]7roio podoiv. 
d'y^ov K larafievT] eirea Trrepoevra Trpocrrjvha' 
" ?; pd vv pLoi TL TTiOoLO, Au/cdovo<i vie hat^pov ; 
T\,ai7]<i Kev ISJleveXdcdt, eirc Trpoe/xev ra'^vv lov. 

76. NQUTOici P : NQUTaici G. 78. eVkuT' : ikcXh L : FkcX' P. 79. ^cxcn 

G. 82. aSeic 0. 84. aNepcbnoic M. || xauiac G. 86. KOxaducee' A 

{supr. a over e, T.W.A. ): KOTeaucee' NTU Vr. b: KaTeBuc(c)ae' fi. 87 om. 
Tt. II Kpaxaio) 0. 88. e'l nou €<peupoi : eupe "bk rdNSe Zen. (omitting 89). H 

e:<peupei Q {suiir. oi) : c<peupH {supr. oi). 89. eupc 5e Z'GP. 91. ^noN- 

xai Qi (and supr. 0). 92. enea nrepoeNTO npocHuSa : npoce^H rXauKconic 

'AeHNH NS and yp. 0°^ (G ? v. Heyne). 

a blaze of fire ; the author of these lines, 
however, clearly had the present passage 
in his mind. 

82. Nikanor takes the two clauses 
introduced by 17 as questions, and accents 
accordingly ; this seems to give the best 

84 = T 224. For the genitive 
ONepwncoN of. A 28 repas dvOpubinov, a 
portent in the eyes of men. It would 
thus seem to depend on Ta/j.i7]s, not 
iroXe/jLOLO. But cf. E 332 di>5pu>v iroXepLos. 

86. Observe the long i of dNdpi : this 
is possibly the primitive quantity of the 
dat. sing., If. G. § 373, van L. Ench. pp. 
61, 80. But see Schulze Q. E. p. 229. 

88. eY nou, in the hope that. Zenod. 
was offended at the doubt which he 
thought was expressed as to the certainty 
of the goddess finding him, and wrote 
evpe 5k TovSe, omitting 89 altogether. 

But efipe is commonly found beginning 
a sentence asyndetically, e.g. "b 169, 
A 327, E 169, 355, A 197, 473. 

90. Cf. \aoi aypoiGiTai A 676. But the 
division of dcnicrdcoN | Xqc^n suggests 
that they should be taken as substantives 
in apposition, not as adj. and subst., the 
comma after XaCiv being removed. Notice 
the rime. For 91 cf. B 824-27. 

93. The question here implies a wish, 
the opt. being potential ; lit. coidd you 
listen to vie ? So we have the simple^f 
irldoib fxoi 8 193, p-ray listen to me, which- 
shews that the interrogative form is not 
necessary liere {If. G. § 299 b). We have 
the same form in H 48, but ovk dv is 
more usual, T 52, K 204, x 132. ken 
is virtually an apodosis, as though el . . 
■nridoio had preceded, as in jN' 55, 180, 
etc. (see H. G. § 318). 

94. eni npoejueN Ar., eirivpoiixev MSS. 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 161 

irdcrt Be Ke Tpcaecrcn '^dpiv koI kvSo<; apoio, 95 

e'/c TTiivrcov Se ixakiara ^AXe^dvSpwt ^aaiXrJL. 

Tov Kev Bi] irdfjiirpoiTa irap dyXaa Bcopa (pepoLO, 

at Kev 'iBrjL M.eve\aov dpifiov 'Arpeo? vlov 

aoit /3e\e'i Bf^rjOevra 7rupi]<i eTTL^dvr d\ejeLvi]<i. 

a)OC dy olcTTGVcrov MeyeXaof KvBa\.[fxoio, 100 

evyeo B AttoXXcovc XvKtj'yeveC kXvtoto^wl 

dpvcbv TTpcoToyovcov pe^eiv KXeirrjv eKaropbjBrjv 

oiKaBe voarrjaa^ i€pi]<i eh dcrrv ZeXecT)^. 

95. Ke 07)1. C. II apHQi Q. 98. Yaoi 0. || drp^coc Z'GNOPQR. 99. nupfic 
t' G Vr. a : nupfic b' L. 102. npcoTOTOKCON M. Gud. 103. eic aCTU : acrii 
re P. 

Cf. X 8 ^''■' 'Ai'rtj'owt WvviTo. Ameis 
prefers the double compound iwiirpoUvpn 
which is used in the simple sense of 
'sending forth in a certain direction,' 
I 520, P 708, S 58, o 299. In these 
cases, however, the direction of sending 
is purely local, and the separate Sni 
better conveys the idea of hostility. 

95. Tpcoecci, at the lucnds of the Tro- 
jans, apparently a locative sense {H. G. 
§ 145. 7 c). So I 303 ^ yap /ce (T<pi 
fidXa jxiya kvSos dpoLO, X 217 OLaeadai 
jxiya KvSos 'Axaiotcrt, compared with 
KKios iffdXbv ei>i Tpdieacriv dpeadai P 16. 
But this use is rare with the singular ; 
'A\e^dvSp(in seems to be added as an 

analogical extension of the constr. rather 
than as a true dative. 

97. The simplest construction of napd 
is with TOV, but the rhythm is in favour 
of joining the participle with the verb, 
as the line is otherwise divided into two 
equal halves (for which, however, Fasi 
compares B 39 drjcreiv yap ^t' ^/xeWev 
eir' dXyed re arovaxds re). Cf. II. G. § 
192. There appears (ace. to Veitch and 
the lexx.) to be no other instance in 
Greek of the mid. of irapacp^peLv, though 
Trpo(j<p^pea9ai. occurs in Attic. 

99. eniBoNTa : cf. I 546 ttoWovs 5e 
TTVprji ewe^ricr' dXeyeLVTJs. The expression 
is very natural, even as used of the dead. 

101. \uKHreNi4C, wolf-born, an epithet 
which, according to Lang and others, 
points to an earlier stage of animal 
worship (see on A 39, and Frazer Paus. 
ii. p. 195). The wolf was sacred to 
Apollo and was sacrificed to him at 
Argos (Schol. Soph. El. 6), and the 
name AvKehs was widely spread, being 
found, among other jilaces, in Argos, 

'hens [Lyceum), Epidauros, Lemnos, 


Sikyon, Megara. According to the 
legend in Aristotle H. A. vi. 35 Leto 
was changed into a wolf at the time of 
his birth (cf. also Eust. on this line). A 
statue of a wolf was set up by the altar 
in Delphi. (See Verrall on Aisch. 
Sept. 132.) Another connexion with 
the Avolf is implied in the epithet 
\vkokt6vos Soph. £1. 6 ; compare "Zfuvdeis 
beside crfxivdocpdopos. There were, how- 
ever, two alternative etymologies in 
ancient times, both of which still find 
defenders : (1) the name is derived from 
* XvKT], light, and means born of light, or 
begetting light, of the Sun -god. But 
this is not an early character of Apollo ; 
the second derivation is also excluded 
l)y the uniformly passive sense of forms 
in -yevrjs. (This explanation is as old 
as Macrobius ; see Sat. i. xvii. 36-41, 
pp. 96-7. J. A. Piatt.) (2) Born in 
Lykia. But this would entirely separate 
the adjective here from AvKelos, obviously 
a native name. Lr fact it is not im- 
probable that the name Lykia is itself 
derived from the title of the god ; the 
primitive inhabitants called themselves 
Termilai, not Lykians. Still it must 
be admitted that the author of this 
passage may have had such a derivation 
in his mind, for, as we shall see in the 
next book (105), Pandaros is in one 
version of the story actually made out 
to be a Lykian. 

102. npcoToroNcoN, apparently Ji7'st- 
lings, the first - born of the year, the 
irpbyovoi of i 221. The word, however, 
suLfJCests the Hebrew custom of offering 

• 1 mi 

the first offspring of every animal. The 
analogy of irpcoTO-rrayeTs E 194 suggests 
also the possibility of translating 7uiv- 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

CO? (par ^KOrjvaLrj, tml 8e (f)peva<; clcppovL rrelOev 
avTLK icrvXa ro^ov iv^oov l^aXov atyot; 
dypiov, ov pd ttot avT6<i viro crrepvoio TV)(i]cra<i 
7reTprj<; eK^aivovra, 8eSe<yfjievo<; ev TrpoBoKrjiai, 
^elS\y)icei 7rpo<; arrjOo';- 6 8' vtttlo^ epbireae ire.Tp'qt. 
rod Kepa i/c K€(j)a\r]<i cKKaiSeKaScopa 7re(f)VKei' 
Kol rd jxev d(JK^)aa<i Kepao^oo<; ijpape t6ktcov, 
irdv S' ev Xectjva'i y^pvcrerjv eTredrjKe Kopooprjv. 
Kal TO fiev ev KUTeOrjKe ravvcradixevo^ ttotI jaiTjc 
dyK\lva<i' irpoaOev he crdKea a'^edov ecr&Kol eralpoc, 



106. cxepNOici Schol. B (Porphyrios) on B 827. 
npoQoKaici G. 108. enece ]\I(,» (cjuinece Hail, a), 
112. raiwN Q. 113. crKXiNac HP Lips. Eton. 

II TuyHcac : kixhcqc Q. 107. 

111. XlHNQC KpUCCHN Ambi'. 

Yr. a. 

105. liciiXa, ' stripped ' the bow of 
its covering; in 116 'stripped the lid 
off the quiver,' the object in one case 
being the thing uncovered, in the other 
the covering itself. The two uses of 
KokvwTeLv are exactly similar. For the 
bow-case {•YwpvTos) see ^54. It is not 
clear if isdXou is an adj. (of the wild 
goat, cf. £, 50 lovddSos dypiov aiyos) or a 
speciiic name, as in /Sous ravpos, etc. It 
is pretty certain that the animal meant 
is the ibex or steinbock, an animal still 
found in the Alps, though it appears to 
be extinct in Greece. It was, however, 
in historical times an inhabitant of 
Crete ; and Milchhofer has published 
{Annali 1880, p. 213, A7if. cl. Kunst p. 
169) a bronze plate from that island 
representing two huntsmen, one of 
whom bears on. his neck an ibex, while 
the other carries a bow evidently made 
of ibex-horns ; it clearly shews the 
rings, see note on 109. For toson airoc 
cf. lyudiras /3o6s ^ 684. unb crepNoio 
TUXHcac is added parenthetically, and 
8n is governed by /Se/SXTj/cet, for tux"!' 
is not found in H. with an ace. of the 
object hit, as in later writers. Cf E 579, 
M 189, 394, etc. 

108. ^junece, apparently fell into (a 
cleft of) the rock — an odd expression. 
a/JLTreae, fell back, has been suggested ; 
cf. Aisch. Ag. 1599. 

109. Kepa, i.e. Kepa for K^paa or Kepae. 
CKKaideKadcopa : dutpof KaXe'iTai 6 iraXai- 
arrjs, 6 eaTiv eKracns rOiv rrjs x^^po^ recrad- 
pojv oaKTvXwv, i.e. a palm, four fingers' 
breadth, or about three inches. The 
horns would then be four feet long, 
which appears to be beyond the recorded 
size of the horns of the ibex, and would 

obviously make an unwieldy bow ; hence 
either H. is exaggerating, or he means 
that the united length of the two was 
sixteen palms, which would be rather 
small, dibpov in this sense seems not to 
recur, but we have Arkad. ddpis- aTnda/xri 
(Hesych. ; cf. Albanian dore, hand ?) ; 
some have suggested that it may mean 
the rings on the horns, by which the 
animal's age is known. 

110. 6cKHcac expresses any artificial 
preparation, e.g. of wool F 388, a mixing- 
bowl ^ 743, gilding of horns y 438, etc. 
ftpape, joined with a handle (vtjxvs) in 
the middle. The KopcoNH is the tip 
with a notch, into which the loop is 
slipped in stringing (cf. <p 138, 165 ; 
elsewhere of a door-handle). At the 
other end there must have been another 
KopiJovr] into which the string was per- 
manently fastened, or else a hole through 
the horn. 

113. arKXlNQc must be in close sub- 
ordination to ravvacrd/jLevos, but the exact 
meaning is not certain. It is commonly 
taken with noxi raiHi, he bent the boiv by 
leaning it (tho end to which the string 
was permanently attached) upon the 
ground. This is of course the way in 
which the modern long-bow is strung, 
but Reichel {Horn. Waffen p. 130) objects 
that the method is not suitable to the 
short bow. This was strung by placing 
the bow under the left and over the 
right knee and then bending it upward, 
the string passing over the left knee. 
He accordingly takes the words nori 
raiHi with KaTcewKe, 'he laid the bow 
on the ground after stringing it by bend- 
ing it up.' This is no doubt possible ; 
but if the preceding statement as to the 

lAlAAOC A (iv) 


/XT) irplv avat^eiav dprfioi fte? A-^aiMV, 

irplv /SXrjcrdaL M.€V€\aov apifiov Arpeo^ vlov. 

avrap 6 avka rroifjua (^apeTprj'i, e'/c S' eXer lov 

ajBXrjTa irrepoevra, ixeXatvewv epfju oSuvdcov 

alyjra S' eVl vevprjt KareKoa/xee iriKpov oiarov, 

evyero 8' ^KirdXKcovi XvKTjjevei k\vtot6^(oi 

dpvwv TTpoiToyovcov pe^ecv KXetrrjv eKaTo/jb/Brjv 

olKahe vocTT'qaa'; Uprj^ el<; darv ZeXet?;?. 

eX/ce 8' ofiov y\v(f)L8a<i re Xa^cov koI vevpa /3oeia' 



114. ONO'l'seieN QU : dNappt^seiaN Yr. a : anaTseiaN (corr. from -eieN) Pap. y. 
115 om. Etoii'. 11 BeBXficeai N : 6\HeHNai G. H arpecoc i'GQ. || arpeoc uioN : 
fipX^N dxaicoN CRT and yp. Harl. a. 116. Ik : er Pap. y. \\ cXee' ibu JQR 

Vr. c. 117 dd. Ar. 1| ja€XaiN€CON Ar. AU : ueXaiNdcoN fi. 118 21 om. Q. 

118. Ini : enei G. 
rXu(pi&' auTG G. 

KareKOCJUiee NS : KaTeK6cjuiei 0. 

122. rXu9i5ac T€ : 

length of the horns is to be taken 
literally, it would seem that even if the 
sixteen palms covered the entire length 
of the bow it would still be a long rather 
than a short bow, and it is open to 
question if it could be conveniently 
strung in this way. However, in view 
of the fact that there is no evidence for 
other than the short bow on the most 
ancient monuments, it is better to regard 
the length of the horns as a mere poetical 
fiction, and to hold that the author of 
the lines had in view only the short bow. 
As Eeichel points out, the Mycenaean 
monuments always represent the archer 
as shooting in a crouching attitude, with 
one knee almost or quite on the ground. 
This is well seen in the well - known 
dagcrer- blade with the lion-hunt, and in 
the scene with the siege from the 
Mycenaean silver bowl. The attitude 
is of course particularly suitable for an 
archer who, like Pandaros, shoots from 
behind the shelter of his companions' 
shields. It plainly excludes the use of 
a long bow. eu KaxeeHKe, laid carcfuUy 
doxvn ; the great deliberation of Pandaros' 
movements, and the attention he gives 
to the selection of his arrow, a new one, 
'never yet shot,' are insisted upon. 

117. epua : a well-known crux, not 
easily explicable from an}^ other uses of 
the word. These are in Homer (1) the 
^;ro/; put under a ship drawn up on 
land, A 486, B 154, (2) metaphorically 
'ipfia. 7r6Xi7os, prop of the city, 11 549, 
^ 121 ; (3) in pi. earrings, S 182, a- 

297. The senses ballast and reef come 
in later Greek. The usual explanation 
is from 2, foundation of woes. But Ar. 
felt this to be so unsatisfactory that he 
athetized the line, yeKdiov yap (prjaLf 
^peifffxa tGiv odvvQv XiyeirdaL. In favour 
of the athetesis we might add the 
synizesis of -eiov {-duv) ; but on the 
other hand Ap. Rhod. imitates the line, 
which clearly has respectable antiquity 
(iii. 279 rS^a ravvcrcrcis lodoKrjs dpXijTa 
woXvaTovov e^iXer' lov). No really 
satisfactory explanation has been given. 
Curtius derives from a root meaning to 
floiv, Skt. sar, comparing opix-q and 
translating spring, source ; but there is 
no other trace of such a sense in Greek. 
The sense ballast suggests at least the 
possibility of understanding it of a 
cargo, charge, freight, of woes ; compare 
Aisch. Suiyp. 580 Xa^oOaa 5' epfia Atov 
. . yeiuaro ttoio' dfiefKprj, of the child in 
the womb. 

122. rXu9idac : cf. (p 419 eXKev vevpriv 
yXv(pi5as re. The word is generally 
taken to mean the notch in the arrow 
into which the string fitted, and so Ap. 
Rhod. understood it (iii. 282 yXvcpioas 
fj.e<jarii evLKdrdero vevprji). But the plur. 
is then unexplained, and this sense 
does not suit Herod, viii. 128 ro^ev- 
/iiaros wapd (we pi ?) rds yXv(pi8as TrepLeiXi- 
^avres. Hence it has been conjectured 
that there were two notches near the 
ends of the arrow, meant to give a 
hold for the fingers. This would give 
a good sense ; but there is no evidence 


lAlAAOC A (iv) 

vevprjv fxev yu-a^cot irekacrev, to^col Se aihrjpov. 
avrap eVel St) KVKXoreph /xeja ro^ov eretve, 
Xly^e ^i,6<;, vevpr] Se /xey 'la-^ev, aXro 8' 6'i(TT0<i 
o^v^e\r]<i, Ka9' ofiiXov eTmneadaL fieveaivwv. 

ovSe aedev, M.evekae, Oeol pidicape<i \e\d6ovTO 
dOdvaroL, Trpdorrj Be Ato? Ovydrrjp dyeXelr), 
T) roi, TTpoaOe ardcra ySeXo? e')(e7revKh dfivvev. 
7] Se roa-ov fjuev eepyev diro XP^^'^> '^'» ^'''^ M'^VP 
iratSo^ eepyrji jjivlav, 66^ rjSel Xe^eTUL virvwi' 
avrr) 8' avT Xdvvev o6i ^coa-rijpo'i 0%>}e9 
ypvcreioi avveyov koI StTrXoo? r^vrero Odoprj^. 
iv 6' eireae ^(ocnrjpi dpr/pori 7nKpo<i o'iaTO<i- 
Bed fiev dp ^(ocrrrjpo^; eXtjXaro SatSaXeoio, 
KOI hid 6(op7]KO<i TToXvSuLSdXov ijpijpetaro 
fiLTprj'i 6\ Tjv e^opet epufMU XP^^'^' '^P'<^^'^ dKovTWV, 




123. Zen. placed this line after 124. 127. ^XdeoNTO Q. 129. TOl : oi Q 
(and so ap. Did. oiirw ^era tov t) : re G (ace. to Heyne). 131. eeprwi AMPRT : 
^^prei a |] X^HQTO Mosc. 3 (e corn). 133 om. Rt, y ecopas G. 136. ApHpicTO 
RU : epHpicTO D. 137. ufxpH L {-p. ras.). \\ Q : 5' M. |1 cpujua Ar. Q, : gXuJuta 
Aph. Zen. 

for sncli an arrangement, and it is 
doubtful if the Greeks shot with the 
arrow tightly held (see Seaton in C, H. i. 
p. 244 and App. B, x.). It is possible, 
however, that two longitudinal grooves 
may have been used to give a better hold. 
Neupa only here = vevpv, bowstring made 
of a bull's sinew ; see 151 for a different 

123. ci^HpoN, the point of the arrow, 
wliich was fastened to the shaft by a 
thong, 151. This is the only instance 
of iron used in weapons in H. (except 
the club of Areithoos, H 141). On this 
ground some critics condemn the line — 
a perfectly arbitrary step. The mention 
of iron is one of many signs that this 
book belongs to the later period of Epic 

124. KUKXoTep^c is predicate, bent into 
a (semi-) circle. Zenod. inverted the 
order of this line and 123, but not well. 

125. XirHC seems to be an imitative 
word ; it does not occur again in Greek. 
Notice the personification of the weapons, 
iaxef, SXto, ixeveaivoiv. So XiXaid/xeva 
Xpobs &<xai A 574, etc. In (p 411 
Odysseus' bowstring koKov dei-ae, ^eXiSovt 
eiKiXri av5rjv. 

128. npcoTH, as if an affirmative had 

preceded, ' remembered, ' instead of ' for- 
gat not.' dreXelH, she who leads the 
spoil {dyo}, Xe/a) as goddess of forays. 
This traditional interpretation is sup- 
ported by the epithet Xrjircs K 460. The 
word is used only of Athene. 

130. t6con, J7ist a little, see on X 
322, S^ 454. The word is not correlative 
with (lis, for the point of the simile is 
the watchful affection, not the distance 
to which the arrow or the flj'' is driven 

1-31. X^sexai : subj. , root Xex- 
132. For the following passage see 
App. B. Taken in connexion with 186-7 
and 213-6 it seems clear, as Reichel has 
pointed out, that 136 is an interpolation 
made at the time when the breastplate 
was an essential part of the hoplite's 
eciuipment, and that in 133 the word 
ecopHS means not breastplate but armour 
generally, and refers to belt and filTprq. 
136 is a formal line, occurring in three 
other passages. 

134. niKp6c : cf. Pindar's oxymoron 
yXvKvv OLffTov, 0. ix. 12. 

137. epujua : so Ar. ; cf. Xen. Cyr. iv. 
3. 9 OibpaKas ipv/jLara (TisifxaTcop. But 
Aph. and Zen. read ^\vfia, " oldvei e'iXv/ia " 
{a tvrap, covering, f 179) Did. ; and 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 


■)'] ol TrXelarov epvro- BiaTrpo 8e elaaro koI rr}<i. 
aKporarov S' ap 6laTo<i iire'ypa'^e 'xpoa (^wto?* 
avriKa 8 eppeev alfia Ke\at,ve(f)e'; i^ (wretXi}?. 140 

CO? 8' ore Tt? T e\e(f)avTa juvrj (f)Oii'iKt /xtijvrji, 
M.7]L0vl<; rje K.deipa, iraprjlov ejxp^evai ittttcov 
Kelrat S iv daXd/ncot, TroXee? re fxtv rjprjcravTO 
iTTTrrje'i (popeecv, /SacrtXiii 8e Keirat ciyaXfMa, 
d/ji(f)OTepov, Koa/jLO<i 6^ Xtvkwl k\aTr]pi re kvSo<;' 145 

Tolol TOL, Met'eXae, fMidvOrjv aljiarc fnjpol 
ev(pue€<; Kvrjixai re ISe a(f)vpd /caX' virevepOe. 

139. ap' oYcTOC : apa y^aKyibc Zen. 140 ad. Aw 141. t' om. LOQ. 

142. H€ : Hdk 8. II YnncoN : Ynnco(i) Aph. (?) J Par. b (and yp. 0) : Ynnou Eust. : 
<YnnwN Kai> Ynnco {sic: Ynncoi ?) Ar. 8lxCos (see Ludw.). 143. 36 uin HP. 

145. YnncoN i»OU. |i eparfipi U. || T€ : 3^ Vr. b. 146. TOl : tc HPQR, H 

uidNOH LT' : uioNecN GR. 

as this form does not recur it is likely 
to be the original reading altered to the 
familiar epvfxa. There is no obvious 
reason for the contrary change. 

138. ^puTO with dat. like dfj-vveiv tlvl 
(rt), but there is no other instance of 
this construction. We find the ace. of 
the person N 555 N^irropos vibu ^pvro, of 
the thing E 538 ij 5' ovk ^yxos ipvro, 
etc. ; without an object expressed E 2-3 
d\X' "H0atcrros ^pvro. Here we may 
supply oCaTov as object. eYcaro, hastened, 
FeicraTO from F'ufxai.. The more correct 
form would be Fiaaro, the spelling -ei- 
being due probably to the similar aor. of 
root Fed. Ahrens was the first to point 
out that this verb has nothing to do with 
iTjIJU {<n-ari-ij.L, root se) or elixL, with both 
of which it has been confused. The 
original meaning seems to be ami at. 
The F is always necessary or possible 
when this sense is appropriate, exc. 
(N 90 = P 285 ?), 2 501, (fi 462 ?), /3 327, ' 
Kr246, t 142, (o 213 X). 

139. For ap' oYctoc Zen. read apa 
XaX/c6s, which Ar. rejected on the ground 
that the point of the arrow was of iron 
(123). The reading is naturally adopted 
by the critics who reject 123. Ar. also 
obelized 140, because cbreiXH ought to 
mean a wound given, not by a shot, 
but by a thrust or cut, to which senses 
the verb ovra^tji is limited. So also 149. 
This, however, is surely hj^percritical. 

141. JUiiHNHi : imitated by Virg. Aen. 
xii. 67 — 

Indum sanguineo veluti violaverit ostro 
Si quis ebur. 

So (pdeipu and degrade are used of mixing 

142. YnncoN and IVyrwi suit the sense 
equally, the pi. iTrwwv being general, 
practically = 'lttttlov. It is not clear 
what Ar. and Aph. read, as the schol. 
of Did. is corrupt, but it is possible that 
there was a variant ittttolv : the dual 
suits the Homeric use of horses in pairs 
rather than in threes or fours. 

143. eaXdjmcoi, of the treasure chamber, 
/3 337, Z 288, etc. 

145. l:\aTHpi in H. is used only of the 
driver in a chariot race, A 702, 4' 369 ; 
the connotation of the word is thus very 
appropriate to an ornament which would 
be used for purposes of display rather 
than of warfare. 

146. JuidNOHN, a form which has not 
been satisfactorily explained. Buttmanu 
took it to be a dual for eixidv-adiqv, but 
the middle terminatiou is out of place. 
The terminations -av, -ev, -vv of the 3rd 
pi. are lengthened only in arsis in H. 
and that but rarely, cf. e 481, t 413, ir 
358. On the other hand, as they re- 
present an older -clvt, -evr, -wt, they were 
once long, and the termination -7]v for -eu 
is in fact found in Doric inscriptions of 
the 2nd century B.C., while a relic of the 
quantity remains in the Doric accentua- 
tion eXiyov. But in the complete 
absence of analogous cases we cannot 
draw conclusions from Doric to Epic, 
and must leave the problem unsolved. 
See G. Meyer Gr. § 534, van L. Ench. 
p. 294, Schulze Qu. Ep. p. 426, H. G. 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

plyrjcrev S' dp' eiretra dva^ avSpcov \\.'ya/i€fjLvcov, 
&)9 elSev jjuekav alfia Karappeov e'f wretX?}?" 
plyrjaev Se koX aino<i a.p7]t(f)L\o^ Me^eXao?. 150 

0)9 8e tBev vevpov re koX 6yKou<i eKTO'i eovTa<;, 
d-\^oppov ol dv/jiOi; ivl aryOecrcnv dyepOT]. 
Tot? 8e ^apv arevd-^oov p.ere(f)r] Kpeiwv ^A.'yafxe^voiv, 
y(^eLpo<; ex^^ M.evi\aov' eTreaTevdyovTo S kralpoi' 
" ^i\e KacrlyvrjTe, Odvarov vv tol optct' krafivov, 155 

olov 7rpoaTi](Ta<; irpo ^ Axatoiiv Tpwal ixdx'^cTdaL, 
0^9 o"' e/SaXop Tpcoe9, Kara 8 opKia Tncnd irdrrjaav. 
ov fji€V 7r&)9 dXtov TreXet bpKiov alfxa re apvoiv 
cTTTOvhai T dKprjTOi koX he^iat, rja inTeTnO^ev. 
el Trep jdp re Kal avTLK '0\v/jL7rto<i ovk eTeXeaaev, 160 

e/c re koI oyjre reXet, <jvv re p^e'^juXwi dirknaav. 

148. pirHCGN t' J (7p. pirHCCN 3') KQi (Tap) U King's. 149 aQ. Ar. 151. 

de i5eN : &" eiae(N) CDN Q-S : a* oTae (f. 153. t6n ^k. GNP^Q and 7p. J 

Harl. a. || npoce9H CNQS. 154. cnecTON^xoNTO GHJPQ. 155. erauoN N 

(7p. 0). 157. cbc {om. c) DGS. 158. ncoc : ncp S. li aTud re : aTua kot 
M. 159. Hic : aTc GO. 161. xeXeT : TeXecei Zen. (?). li cineTic(c)e(N) P 

{supr. on) R : ticoucin Zen. : aNericaN Pap. 7^. 

151. NcOpoN, by whicli the base of the 
tip was ' whipped ' to the shaft, ofkouc, 
barbs {itncos) ; there were probably three 
such, the point having three edges ; 
Helbig H. Er p. 341 ; v. oCaTCii TpLyKd>xi-vi. 
E 393, A 507. Only the actual point 
has penetrated the flesh, the rest of the 
head remains in the armour. 

155. 9i\e : a trochee, as E 359, <l> 308, 
and so (piKai, (piXaro. The lengthening 
in the verb is, of course, regular : in the 
adj. it appears to be due solely to the 
first arsis, and is a real metrical licence, 
as in the case of did (F 357, etc. ) and enei 
{"ir 2, etc.). See App. D under C 1. 
The der. of (piXos is unknown ; but 
there is no instance of l in Greek 
except in a few late imitations of this 
phrase. For the long e of KOcfrNHxe 
see H. G. § 387. edNaxoN : ace. ex- 
pressing the result of the action, IT. G. 
§ 136. 4. 

158. opKioN, sing, only here, an oath- 
sacrifice generically ; cf. T 245. 159 = 
B 341. 

160. el . . ouK. This is clearly a 
case like 162, T 129, O 296, etc., 
where the negative does not coalesce 
with the verb into a negative word, but 
applies to the whole sentence. The use 
of ei OVK with the indie, seems to be 

primitive, and only to have been ousted 
by ei firj through analogy. The use of ei 
with the indie, is to place a statement 
in the form of a supposition merely to 
the intellect, i.e. without any indication 
of wish or purpose on the part of the 
speaker ; whereas /jltj appears originally 
to have indicated a ' mood ' in the 
strictest sense, i.e. the active putting 
aside of a thought {prohibitiau) ; so that 
ei fXT) with the indie, was at first im- 
possible. "We find firi with the indie, 
without d in the phrase ixt) wcpeXov, and 
also O 41, K 330, T 261 (?) (ff. G. § 
358), where the speaker not only denies 
a fact, but repudiates the thought of it : 
a categorical expression not suited for 
hypothetical clauses. (See the notes 
there and IT. G. §§ 316, 359 c, where 
Vierke's rule is given, viz. that ' with ei 
and the indicative ov is used when the 
clause with ei precedes the principal 
clause,' except in i 410. The custom 
is probably due to the fact that this is 
the older order, and the more primi- 
tive expression of thought, and is thus 
associated with the older construction ; 
ei /XT] with indie, is a use which grew up 
later by analogy, and was employed in 
the more artificial order of ideas.) 

161. eK xe : Bekk. conj. ^k de, but 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 


avv (T(j)i]i<Ti,v KecpaXtjtai, yvpai^o re koX TeKeecraiv. 

ev yap eyco roSe olSa Kara (j)peva koI Kara Ov/jLov 

eaaejat, 7}^ap_JiJi.-dp ttot oXooXtjl "iXio? cprj 

Kol IlpLafio>i Kol \ao<; ev^ifieXioi Upcdfxoio, 

Zev<i Se (T(f)i Kpovi.Srj'i vy\rii^v'yo<i, aWept valwv, 

avTO<i €'maaei7}iaLV epe/xvrjv alylSa irdcrL 

rrjah^ d7rdTr)<i Korewv. ra fMev ecrcrerat ovk dreXeara' 

dXXd fJLOc alvov a%09 creOev eaaerat, co M.6ve\ae, 

at K6 6dvr]L<i Kal ttot/xov dvairXi^cTTji^ jSlotolo. 

Kal K€v iXej^ccTTO'i TroXvStyJriov "Apjo'i ikol/xtjv 

avTLKa yap fivrjaovraL 'Amatol iraTpiZo'^ alri'^' 

KaS 8e icev ev^cdki-jv TipidjjboJL Kal Tpwal XiiroLfiev 

^Apyelrjv 'FjXevrjv aeo S' oajea irvaei dpovpa 



164. oXcoXei NQ. 165. eiiuueXiou L. 166. 5e : rdp N. 169. ecexai 
c^eeN Et. Mag. 170. eY kg J. || noTUON Ar. [S] Par. k {yp. JuoTpaN), and 7/3. 

H : uoTpaN fi (and al Koivai Did.). 171. eKerxiCTOC and eXerxicxoN Ar. dix^s. \\ 
noXulifioN or noXu b' Yif/ioN ap. Eust. 173. XinoiCN CiJGNPQRS Lips. Eton. 

174. apreiHN e" Zen. (cf. on B 161). || apoupaN Pap. 7. 

tliis is probably a case of the primitive 
use of re . . re to express mere correla- 
tion, not conjunction, precisely as in 
the similar sentence in A 81, q.v. It 
might be referred also to the gnomic 
use of re, H. G. § 332, but it is hardly 
possible to separate the re in the 
apodosis froin that in the protasis. The 
conjunction of the present reXeT with 
the gnomic aor. anericaN is not un- 
natural. Zen. cannot of course have 
read reXeaei for reXe? (see App. Crit.) as 
the context stands ; possibly he only 
meant to explain that re\e? is a fut. 
But the contracted form is later and 
suspicious. The subject to dw^TLaav 
is general, ' transgressors ' ; but Zen. 
read rlcrovaiv, and made it refer to the 

163-5 = Z 447-9. Some critics con- 
sider the lines interpolated here, but 
the supposition is quite gratuitous. 
Appian says that Scipio, at the sight of 
the ruins of Carthage, used these words 
with reference to Rome. For the con- 
struction of 164 cf. e 373. The subj. 
gives a solemn tone (see on A 262). The 
QN here can neither be removed nor 
changed to /ce without great violence. 
The collocation with nore shews that it 
generalizes rather than particularizes 
(see JET. G. § 289. 1 h) ; but the pure 
subj. seems more natural, as in <i> 111. 

166. uijiizuroc' 17 fj-erafpopa dirb tu>v iv 
favai ^vywv, i(p' Sjv KaOi^ovraL oi ipiaaov- 
res Schol. A. Cf. aiX/xa aefxvbi' rifievoi 
Aisch. Ag. 183, and ibid. 1618. 

170. noTjmoN : so Ar. ; mss. jj-otpav, 
cf. A 263 TrSrfxov avaTrXrjaavTes, 9 34 
KaKov oItov dvaifKijaavTes, 132 KaKO. 
TToWd dvair., e 207 Krjdea. We use 
precisely the same metaphor, ' to fulfil 
one's destiny.' 

171. noXu3ii}/ioN : so 

X06va Eur. Ale. 560. 

"Ap70i;s OLiplav 

The epithet 

the old com- 

caused some trouble to 
mentators, as the plain of the Inachos 
was reputed well-watered (cf. linrb^oTov 
B 287). They were inclined to explain 
it woKvitoOt^tov, much thirsted after, or to 
read 'wo\vL\piov = destructive (so Strabo), 
bid Toiis TToXe/iODs. Some preferred, how- 
ever, to explain it by a legend (found 
also in a fragment of Hesiod) that Argos 
was waterless till Danaos came with his 
daughters ; and that Poseidon or Athene 
provided it with wells. And in fact the 
Inachos and Charadros, which flow by 
the town of Argos, are almost waterless 
in summer ; the reputation of abundant 
supply seems to have been based upon 
an elaborate system of irrigation, to 
which the legends allude. See Pans, 
ii. 15. 5, and Frazer iii. p. 96. 
173. See B 160. 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

Keijxevov iv 'Ypoirji cneKevTrjTcoi enrt kpycoL. 
Kai Ke Tt<; w8' epeet Tpoocov vTreprjvopeovrwv 
tv/jL^coc iTTidpoiicrKWV yieveKdov KvSaXtfioco' 
'aW^ ovrax; eVl Trdat ')(o\ov reXeaec ^A<yafjbe/u,va)v, 
ft)9 Kal vvv aXiov cnparov ry^a^ev evOdS Kyaiwv, 
Kol Sj] e/Sr] otKovhe ^iXrjv e<? irarplha 'yalav 
crvv Keivrjicrcv vtjvctl, Xlttmv d<ya6ov ^\eve\aov. 
bi<i TTore Ti<? ipeei' t6t6 /jlol '^dvot evpeia '^dcov. 

TOP S' eTTidapavvcov irpoae^T) ^av6o<i Mei^eXao?* 
" Odpaet, fiTjSi tl ttco SetSiaaeo Xaov 'A-^aicov • 
ovK iv Kaipioit o^v 'Trd'y'q y3eXo9, dWd TrdpooOev 
elpvcraro ^wcrrrjp re 7ravaio\o<; r}3' virevepde 
^cofid re Kol fXirpr), rrjv ')(CikKrje<i Kd/xov at-Spe?." 




175. KeuuENcoi Pap. 7. 178. reXecoi N(Q?) : TeXecax 8 supr. 181. KeiNaTci 
G. II Naud GQR : weud Pap. y : x^pci S {sujyr. nhucJ). 183. cnieapcHcac Yr. c. 
184. Jui^ a' ^Ti LMQU (juhB' exi Harl. a) : juhketi R. |i nco Ar. fi : nou nves ap. 
Did. 185. 7p. o(j eHN KaipiON osO BeXoc ndrH Hail, a (interlined). 187. 

KQUON : rduoN P. 

175. dTcXcuTHTOOi €n\ eproji: so tt 111 

dvriv6crTui. erri ^pywL, and 178 below, fTri 
7ra(7t 'in all cases.' This use of eiri is 
more common in Attic, e.g. Soph. 0. C. 
1554 fTr' evirpa^laL fie/Jivrjcrde fiov, Ant. 
556 eir' dppijTois \6yois 'with words 
unsaid,' Eur. Io7i 228 evr' dacpaKTOis 
fiTjXoKTL. i-rr' dpwyrji., ^ 574, is similar. 

176. For KE with fut. indie, see on X 66. 
178. aYee, whatever its derivation— 

and some regard -0e as a shortened deoi 
—gives much the same idea as our 
' Would to God,' i.e. a sort of hopeless 
despairing wish. Thus its use here, 
in a phrase which really expresses a 
triumphant taunt, intensely emphasizes 
the bitter irony of the imaginary words 
(L. Lange EI 343). 

184. nw = 7rws, v. T 306. 

185. KQiplcoi, a deadly spot. The 
sense of Kaipios is quite clear in H. ; 
it is always used in the phrase (to) 
Kalpiov as here (9 84, 326, A 439 1) ; but 
the traditional derivation from Kaipos 
appears highly unsatisfactory. In the 
first place neither Kaipos nor any other 
derivative occurs in H. ; in the second, 
a transition from ' opportune ' to ' fatal ' 
seems quite alien from the directness 
of Homeric language. Indeed even 
' opportunity ' is not the original significa- 
tion of Kaipos, for in Hesiod Ojip. 694, 
and Theognis 401, where it makes its 
first appearance, it means only 'due 

proportion,' in the proverb Kaipbs S' 
eiri irdffLv apLaros. These two considera- 
tions taken together seem to be convin- 
cing ; for the transition of meaning, 
though not quite incredible in itself, 
could be excused only if the word were 
quite familiar in its primitive use. We 
need not go far for a more satisfactory 
etymology. The exact sense required 
is given bv the word Krjp (Curt. Ut. no. 
53, p. 148), 'Skt. kar to kill, kdras 
death - blow. ' Homer himself supplies 
us with the negative adj. in dKrjpios 
'unharmed,' p. 98, f 328. Possibl}', 
therefore, we ought in H. to write 
K-rjpiov, not Kaipiov, the word being 
confused with the adjective Katpios = 
timely only in later Greek. Indeed 
were it not for a single passage which 
possibly stands in the way {ov yap is 
KaLpbf Tvireis' irvyxave Eur. Andr. 
1120), K-qpios might be written for 
Kalpios, I believe, at least in all the 
tragedians and Pindar, whenever it 
occurs in the sense ' deadly. ' 

ndpoiecN, in temporal sense, before it 
got so far. Others take it locally, with 
^wa-T-fip, 'the belt, etc.. in front of (i.e. 
protecting) my flesh.' It does not stand 
in opposition to virevepde, which is 
added independentl)^ as in the phrase 
TroSes Kal x"^^ s vwepdev : this is clear 
from 215. 

187. See App. B. 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 





TOP 8' a7rafM€C^6fjievo<i irpoaecfiri Kpelwv 'Aya/jue/jivwv' 
"at jap Srj ovTco<i ecrj, 0tA,o9 & MeveXae- 
eX/co'i S' hiTiip eTTifidaaerat ?}S' e7rid?](jei 
(bdp/xay, d Kev iraiKTrjicri pueKaivawv oSupdcov. 

r] Kal TaXOv^iov Oelov Kr]pvKa TrpoarjvSa- 
" ^aXdv^i , OTTL rd-^iara Ma^aoi/a Sevpo KdXeacrov, 
(f>c!)r \\.crK\7}7nov vlov dp.vpiovo'i l7]T?]po<i, 
ocppa iSrjc ^leveXaop dpiqlov ^Arpeoii vlov, 
6v TL<; oiaTevaa^ ejSaXev ro^cov iv ei8c6<;, 
Tpoocov i) AvKicov, roii piev KXeo^, dp,p-L 8e irevOo'^. 

ws" ecpar, ovS^ dpa ol Ktjpv^ aTriOrjaev dKOvaa<i, 
y8>} S' Uvat Kara \aov Aj^aioiv -y^aX/co'^LTcovcov 
TrairraLVcov rjpaa ^la-y^dova, rov 8' evorjaev 
earaoT ' dp,(pl Se p.ip Kparepal aTi'^€<i dcnriarawv 
XaMP, oi ol eiTOpro TpiKTj^ i^ iinro^oToco. 
dyyov 8' fcrra/xet'o? eVea Trrepoevra 7rpo(T7]v8a' 
*' 6pcr\ WcTKXrjTridSr], KaXeei Kpeiwp Wyap^ep.pcop, 
ocppa t8?;i? yiepeXaop dpifiop dp'^op ^A'^aicop, 
OP Tt? oi(Trevaa<i ej3a\ev to^wp iu et'Sco?, 
Tpoowp i) AvKiwv, TOii pbev K\eo<;, dfip-t Se 7rep6o<i.'' 

CO? (fidro, TML 8' dpa Ovpcop epl arrjOecratv opive- 

191. K€N : nep P. II naucHici : naiicHi ce G: naiicHi tc Mosc. 3 (." corr.). 
195. 69P' CGRT Yen. B. || arpeoc uioN ANT : dxpecoc uion D : apx^N axaicoN 
fi (and -yp: A). 195-7 ad. Ar. : 196-7 om. DO^V. 196. on tin' C^. || t6son R 
(SM^J?-. con) : TOHco U^ 202. TpiKHC [GO]Q^R[S]T^ : ©pHKHC D Vr. A : xpiKKHC 

ft. 203. npoCHu5a : yp. 6r6peucN A. 204. opce' S Vr. A : opceo il (and 

yp. Harl. a). 205. 'i'dH(i)c GLMNOQRS : YShi Ar. fi (and Harl. a^). || apxoN 


axai<2>N : arpeoc uibN Z>GMOPSU : ixrpiuic uion J. 
R. 208. Tcbl : ToO N. 

206. on tin' C II t6=on 

189. For the combination of nom. 
and voc. see H. G. § 164, and notes on 
B 8, r 276. (piKoi is voc. also in I 601, 
$ 106, 'I' 313. 343, 627. 

191. With naucHici we must of course 
supply ere as object ; the constr. Traveiv 
Tiva. TLvos occurs in B 595, etc. Van L. 
follows G in reading wavarji ere. 

194. 9coTa and ui6N in apposition as 
4> 546, cf. (f> 26 0(5^' 'Hpa/c\^a, 5 247 
0WTt denT-QL, the latter of which passages 
shews clearly that the addition of (pw^ 
does not imply anything like ' manly ' 
or 'heroic' avrip is used in just the 
same way, cf. Avopa Jiirjvopa A 92, E 649 ; 
and so 8Qpov dudpbs "EiKTopos Soph. AJ. 
817. It is needless to say tliat Pausanias 

(ii. 26. 10) is wrong in taking it to mean 
' human son ' as opposed to his divine 
father. See on B 731. 

197. The Lykians here are doubtless 
the chief allies of the Trojans, Sarpedon's 
army, not the followers of Pandaros 
from Zeleia (see on E 105). kX^oc : 
ace. expressing the result of the action, 
as 155. 

202. See note on 90, and for TpiKHC 
B 729, where the name is IpiKK-q as 
always elsewhere in Greek. 

204. 8pc', i.e. 6p-<xo, from the non- 
sigmatic aor. *ihpbixT}v : while 6p(iev 264 
is opa - ev, from the ' mixed ' aor. 
*up(T6fj.riv : cf. X^^eo by Xe^o. 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

^av 8' levat KaO' ofxCKov ava arpaTov evpvv 'A^atwi/. 

aXV ore Si] p 'Uavov o6i ^av6o^ MeveXao^ 

^Xrjixevo^ -qv, irepl 8' avrov a^rj'^epaO^ ocraoL apiaTot 

kvk\o(T, o S' ev /jbeacroicn iraptcrTaro la6deo<; (f)(t><i, 

avTiKa 8' eK ^(oaTi]po^ ap'qporo^ e\K€V olarov 

Tov S' e^eXKOfievoto ttoXcp ajev ofee? oyKOi. 

\v(T€ Be ol ^(ocnrjpa iravaloXov rjS' virevepde 

l^co/jid re Kol ixirpriv, rrjv 'xakKYje'^ KUfiov avSpe^. 

avrap eVel tSev e\KO^, 66' e/jiireae iriKpcxi 6laT6<;, . 

aliJb €KfMv^r]a-a'i eV ap' r^ina (f)dp/j,aKa etSw? 

irdcrae, rd ol irore Trarpl (f)i\a cppovecov Trope Xeipcov. 

6<^pa Tol dfM(f)e7revovTO ^orjv dyaObv MeviXaov, 
To^pa 8' eirl Tpcocov (7Tixe<i ijXvdov dcrirta-rdwv' 
ol S' avTi<; Kara reu^e' eSvv, ixvrjo-avTo 8e ^^ap/x?;?. 




213. &' €K : bk Pap. y. II €Xk€N Ar. and al nXeiovs, P (Par. b ?) : eTXKCN fi. 
216. zcoJULO: yp. zcicjuia Had. a. |i tojuon U (KduoN Harl. a) : *<iuoN (k in ras.) 
P ; see 187. 220. Toi : ti R : oY 0. 222. aueic CQ. 
K II gauNON 0. 

KQTd t' eNTe' ^9UNT0 

212. For kuk\6c' Ar. strangely read 
Kiy/cXos as = kvkXos yevofievoL, comparing 
dyp6fji€voi ttSs dijfj.o's T 166. But, as 
Herodianos remarks, this is a quite in- 
sufficient analogy, as kvkXos is not a 
noun of multitude like 5^^o?. He there- 
fore supports Nikias and Ptolemy of 
Askalon in reading kvk\6(t'. Cf. P 392. 
ic6eeoc 9c6c is more naturally taken to 
mean Llachaon than Menelaos ; TrapiaraTO 
as usual signifying 'came up,' and the 
apodosis beginning with 6 de. 

214. n<S\iN may be taken with e^eX- 
Kop.ivoio, ' drawn back the way it had 
entered ' ; or with d7ei', ' were broken 
backwards.' The barbs of course stick 
in the hard armour. They have to be 
cut out of the flesh in the case of 
Eurypylos, A 844. There is an obvious 
inconsistency with 151, where the barbs 
are outside — hardly serious enough, 
however, to justify Heyne in rejecting 
this line. 

219. oi . . naxpi, as P 196 a ot deol 
Ovpaviwves | warpi ^LXwl ^iropov. In these 
and many similar phrases oi = his ; but 
Bentley's FQi. is tempting. Cheiron 
is mentioned again as having taught 
medicine to Achilles in A 832, and as 
having given Peleus the ' Pelian spear,' 
n 143, T 390, but none of the other 
legends about him are alluded to by 

221. The line is not very suitable to 
the present context, as the aor. fiXueoN 
puts the Trojan attack as a point of 
time, not as a continuing process. Hence 
it should be followed at once by the 
actual conflict, and there is no room for 
the next episode, the long eimruA-qaLS of 
Agamemnon. In other words, the episode 
of the duel of Menelaos and Paris once 
ended here, and was followed imme- 
diately by the general engagement ; the 
iirnrih\ri(jLs, though composed for this 
place, is a later addition. There is no 
reason to suspect 221 as an interpola- 
tion, as Heyne and others do ; an 
interpolator would obviously use the 
imperf., not the aor., if he had the 
iTrnriL\r)(TLs before him. 

222. x<^P""c, generally explained the 
haUle-joij, and this is supported by X 82 
xdpiJ.r]t y-qObcrvvoL ttjv a(piv debs ^yU/SaXe 
dvp.Q>i. But it is very remarkable that 
Homer never represents his heroes as 
taking any delight in battle, except by 
immediate instigation of a god, as in 
the above passage, B 453, A 13. On the 
contrary, he lavishes all epithets of 
hatred upon war, \vypbs, iroXvdaKpvos, 
dvarjXeyrjs, dva7]xvs, aivbs, etc., and in 
E 891 (A 177) fondness for battle appears 
as a severe reproach. It seems, there- 
fore, most unlikely that he should have 
made one of his commonest names for 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 


€v6' ovK av /Spi^ovra i8oi<; ' A'^/a/jie/xvova Blov 
ovSe KaTaTTTMO-aovT ouS' ovk ideXovra ixd-^eaOai, 
dXka fJidXa (Tirevhovra fJid-^V^ e'*> KvStdvetpav. 
'lttttov^ f^ev yap eacre kol apfxara iroiKiXa '^oXkcoi' 
Koi Tov'i fiev depdircov dirdvevd'' e-)(e (f)uato(i)vra<; 
ILvpvixehoiv vio<i WroXeixalov lieipacSao, 
TML fidXa TToXX' iireTeWe Traptcr'^efxev, oTrnrore Kev [xiv 
yvla \d^r)c Kd[xaro<i 7ro\ea<; Bid KOipaveovra- 
aurdp 6 Tre^o^i ecov iTreircoXelro <JTl'^a<^ dvhpow. 
Kai p ov^ ixev aireuSovTa'i cSoc Aavacov raynjTTooXwv, 
TOV<; /jidXa OapavvecrKe 7rapiaTdfxevo<i eTreeaacv 
"'Apjeloi, fiT] TTO) Ti /jbedUre dovpiSo'; aX/cf;?* 
ou yap eVl -y^evheacn Trarrjp Zeu? eaaer dpcoyo<i. 




223. Bpi^oNTQ P. i! YSh J {supr. oic) : VaHC NPi(?)Q Vr. a. 228. noX[euafou 
Pap. 7. il neipaiaoio U. 229. napacxejaeN Ci)JMPQ(U^ ?) Cant. Mor. Vr. A, 

Mosc. 1. 230. XoiBoi M Eust. 234. UHnco toi G : uinnco to H. ueeeieTC 


it out of a word which originally meant 
'joy,' but which has entirely lost its 
connotation except in a single passage. 
Curtius would explain it as ' the glow, 
burning flame' of battle (root ghar), 
like 5ats from oalcj : compare the ex- 
pression fxapvavTO 5e/xas irvpbs aiOofxevoio. 
"VVe could then explain N 82 as meaning 
'the glow, the fire, which the god had 
put in them.' This, however, does not 
account for x^PI^V = spear-point (Stesieh. 
fr. 94, with xaX/coxapA"^?, ( 
in Pindar, (Lyxo-pf^ov avoo<pepri rrji' alxM" 
Hesych. ; see Schulze Q. E. p. 141). 
Hence Postgate's reference {A. J. P. iii. 
337) to root ghar = prick, tear, is better ; 
battle is called tearing of flesh and 
shields, and the phrase in N 82 is due 
to confusion with the different root 
ghar =^ rejoice. 

223. oCiK Qn Y9oic expresses poten- 
tiality in the past, like ovSi /ce (pah-js 
r 392, A 429, etc. 

228. Eurymedon is Agamemnon's 
charioteer here only in H. ; but the 
later tradition accepted the name, for 
Pausanias says that he was slain with 
Agamemnon. Eurymedon is also Nestor's 
charioteer, 114, A 620. Cf. note on 
Eurybates, A .320. 

229. napicxeJUGN, to have his horses 
at hand. For the subj. XdBHi after an 
imperf. v. H. G. § 298 ; it is used 
because ' the action expressed by the 
subordinate clause is still future at the 

time of speaking ' ; but this difl'ers from 
the passages there quoted in that they 
all give the actual words of a speaker to 
whom the subordinate action is really 
future ; but here the poet himself is the 
speaker, and to him the action is neces- 
sarily past, so that he has to put himself 
in imagination into the place of Aga- 
memnon giving the order. See note on 
B 4. 

231. For cncncoXeTTO cf. T 196, of 
Odysseus, ktLXos lis eTrtTrwXetTat (XTixas 

232. Wakefield read &v fj-ev cTwevoovra. 
FlooL, and so 6v nva 5' ai fj.edi.ivTa 240. 
Cf. 516, M 268, N 229. 

234. nco here again = ttws, as 184, 
r 306. 

235. iffeudccci (^eCSos) Hermappias, 
xpevdeacTL (xpevdris) Ar. ; on which a scho- 
liast characteristically remarks /xdWov 
Treiariov 'Api.aTdpx<j}i- t) tQi ''EpfiainriaL, ei 
^■at doKei ak-qdeveiv. It is true that 
apriyeiv and cognate forms are elsewhere 
only used by H. with personal datives, 
not with abstract words like \pev5os : but 
the idea of being 'a helper for lies' is 
not impossibly bold, and adjectives in 
■rfs, from -es stems, with the single 
exception of vyLrjs (9 524 only), are 
elsewhere in H. entirely restricted to 
compounds, such as (f)L\o^evB-r]s {H. G. 
§ 116. 5) ; the Homeric word for liar is 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

aW Oi Trep irporepoL vTrep opKta BrjXTjaavro, 
Tcov 7] TOL avTMV Tepeva XP^^ yvTre'i ehovrai, 
rjixel<i S' avT aXo^ovi re (ptXa^ Kal V7]7na reKva 
d^ofxev iv v^eacrtv, eirel irroXieOpov eXcofiev.^' 
ou? TLva<i av iiie6c€vra<; tSoi crrvjepov 'iroXefxoio, 
TOv<i fiaXa veiKelecTKe ^pXcoTolaiv eireeaaiv 
" ^Apyeioi lofxwpoL, iXej^^e^, ov vv ae/SeaOe ; 
Tt</)^' ouTO)^ €(Tr7)T€ redr}TTOTe<i rjvTe ve^poi, 


238. d' om. At. U, 
NQ. 11 YdH J. 242. 
Nsupoi GU. 

239. Inei Q : enwN fi. || eAoJueN (^>. 240. 5' au 
ceuccee H. 243. qJjtwc Scliol. B on X 1. i| NeSpoi : 

236. 6nep 6pKia : see on V 299. 

237. Tepesa : see on T 142. 

238. The omission of 5' (Ar.) is not 
material, avre being often used as a 
conjunction like ad in 240 (if the text 
is right). Observe 6\6xouc contrasted 
with auTWN, the men, 

239. asouEN, carry off as captives ; 
cf. Z 426, and the phrase ILyeiv Kal 

242. ioucopoi: a word of uncertain 
sense and derivation I'ecurring only S 
479. We have €yxe(TliJi.wpos B 692, y 
188, etc., vXaKOfXiopot of dogs ^ 29, and 
(Tivdixiiipos in Herod, and Attic. (1) The 
analogy of eyxe<Ti/ji.wpos makes it probable 
that the first element of the word is ios, 
an arrow, though this always has t in H. ; 
we find, however, toxeaipa in Pindar (P. 
ii. 9). (2) Others refer it to id, Irj, 
voice, a rare word found in an oracle in 
Herod, (i. 85) and once or twice in 
Trag. iiXaKo/j-upoL is then analogous. 
(3) Dod. iov, of the dark colour of the 
hair, comparing loTr\6Kafj.o?, but this is 
improbable. The second element is 
equally uncertain ; the derivations sug- 
gested are (a) smar, /nep, to think of, 
cf. ixvrjffavTo 5e x°-Pf^V^, thinking of 
arrows, i.e. devoted to fighting with the 
bow. To call a hoplite an archer was to 
accuse him of cowardice, see the taunt 
of Diomedes to Paris, A 385-7 ; cf. also 
N 713-21. For the vowel cf. StD^a by 
8i)xw. Curt, compai-es for the weakened 
sense of the root the compounds of (pprif, 
fi€\i(ppui', etc. (b) flap of /xdpvafiaL, 
fighting vnth arrows, or with shouts ; 
but this hardly suits either vXaKo/xupos 
or ffivd/j.upos. (c) /xap, to glitter, /xap- 
fMalpw, etc. So Ameis and Goebel with 
(2), eminent in shouting (and nothing 
else). (c/) Skt. muras, stormy, eager, 
earnest (Fick, Brugmann), for fioF-pos, 

conn, with Latin mov-eo (cf. /j.wpov 
TO o^v, Kt/TTptot Hes. , M. M.), eager with 
arrows. This latter sense appears to 
suit all uses best, if the Skt. analogy 
can be relied upon, which is far from 
certain, ^erxeec, mss., but the correct 
form is certainly eXeyxea, things of 
shame ; the neuter adds a sting. The 
phrase recurs in B 235, E 787, 8 228, 
Q, 260, and so we should read in fl 239. 
iXeyxies is apparently a mere fiction 
invented to avoid a hiatus which is per- 
fectly legitimate in the bucolic diaeresis ; 
it is besides open to the same objection 
as \j/ev5iff(n, 235. 

243. ecTHxe : so Ptolemaios, ear-rjTe Ar. 
The testimony of mss. is of course 
indifferent. The former is supported 
by T 178 Aheia, ri av roaaov 6/j.iXov 
iroXXbv iweXOwv ^(tttjs ; and cf. B 323 
TiTTT dvewL eyeveade ; k 64 ttcDs TfKdes, 
'OSweO; {H. G. § 76). There is no 
analogy for the lengthening of the vowel 
in perf. (cf. eaTaTe A 340, T 354). Bekk. 
compares ewiarqTaL II 243 by iwiffTarai. 
(but that is a subj.), /3dr7;v by ifi-f]T-qv, 
and some other forms which, however, 
prove nothing. {H. B. 95. 11.) The 
difficulty is to see how the idea of a 
point of time, such as the aor. seems to 
imply, can be introduced. Agamemnon 
in fact asks, ' Why have you stopped ? ' 
when the sense required is, ' Why do 
you not start ? ' For the same reason 
the following simile is not appropriate ; 
243-6 seem to have been originally com- 
posed for a sudden check in pursuit, not 
for this place. In the passages quoted 
above, B 323, T 178, the sense come to 
a stand suitably expresses the sudden 
silence of the Greeks before the portent, 
and the appearance of Aineias to Achilles. 
Monro {H. G. § 76) regards the aor. as 
characteristic of 'impatient questions.' 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 173 

ai r eVel ovv eKajJiov 7ro\eo<; irehioLO Oeouaai, 

ecrrda, oyS' apa rt? a(f)i fieTa cJ3p€al 'yiveTai oXki]' 245 

CO? vfxel<; eanjre redrjTroTe'i ovSe fiu'^ecrOe. 

rj fxevere T^awa? a-^eSbv iXOifiev, evOci re vije'i 

elpvar evTrpvfivoc TroXt?}? iirl dtvl 6a\dacn}<;, 

ocppa thrjT at k vfifMCv vTrepa-yi^ X^^P^ KpovLoov ; " 

609 ye KOipavecov eTreTrcoXecro arl-^aii dvSpcov. 250 

rj\6e S' eVl K.p7]Tea<Ti klmv dvd ovXafiov dvhpdv. 
ol 8' a/x<^' 'ISo/iet'T^a SaL(ppova dcopj'jaaovro' 
^lSo/jLevev<i /xep ivl irpofjud'^oi^, avi et/ceXo? a\K7]v, 
^7]pt6v'T]<; 8' clpa ol Trvfidra^; Mrpvve (fidXayya';. 
Tov'i Se iSayv yqOrjaev dva^ dvhpoiV ^ Kyapukfivwy, 255 

avTiica 8' ^ISojjuevPja TrpoarjiiSa fMeiki'^lotcriv 
" 'ISofievev, Trepl jxev ere rlco AavuMV ra^uTTcoXcov 
TjiJbev ivl irroXeixwi r)h dXXoicot, eirl epywc 
■j^S' iv ha'iO , ore vrep re yepouacov aWoira olvov 
'Apyelcov ol dptarot ivl Kp7]T7]paL KepcovTac 260 

€c wep ydp t dXXol ye Kdprj KO/jbO(ovTe<i 'Amatol 
Bairpov TTLVCOcriv, crov Be TrXelov 8€7ra<i alel 

245. TIC Ar. 12 : t1 JMNQRT (c add. man. 1 ? sii,p7\ aiiv tu>l c to tic) U Harl. a 
{p. ras.) h c, King's, Par. a (p. rets.) beg. || C91 JueTa : C91N kui Q. jj rirNexai 
LN : reiNexai A*- (with riNexai in marg., T.W.A.). 248 om. Lips.* 249. aY 
X' -DM Mosc. 3. 251. fiXee d' : fiXecN Eust. || KpHxeciN icon Mosc. 1 in ras. 

253. Ini : tn\ G. || YKeXoc GMNO (P supr.) QRU. 254. nuajidrwc R. 258. 
noX^juco JQ (R-i*. ras.). 259. In : dni Q : ^c Vr. a. i| daie' : aaixi A {-svpr. e') 
D Pap. 7. 260. KpHTfipi Ar. : KpaTfipci JP : KpHTHCi U. 261. re : re J. 

244. neSioio : see note on B 785. of the counsellors. So j' 8 offtroi. . . 

249. For the metaphor cf. E 433, I yepomiov aWoTra dlvov alel wlvere. 

420 (where we have the gen. ed^p instead 260. KpHrfipci : Ar. Kp-r^rripi, on the 

of the dat., and so Q, 374). ground that there was only one mixing- 

253. There is a slight anaeolnthon, as ^''^^ ""} ^ /'^as*^- ^ut the pi, may be 

'laoueNGiic has no verb, which can how- general, referring to many leasts. Cf. 

ever easily be supplied from the following °". 14^ "^ttw^. KepwNxai have the wine 

clause, e.g. 7rpc6r<xs airpu^e 4>6Xo.yyo.s. '^'^f^rjled ; the^ form implies a present 

For the Homeric idea of the boar's '^fP'^M^' (cf. 5vvwixaL_ from Uvafxai), not 

courage see P 21. elsewhere found ; it is expressly sup- 

„.» , . , . , 4.1 1 1 ported by Schol. L. The other similar 

257. nepi IS here lust on the boundary k„„,, „„„ r > , a 

t. \ , ^ J '' 1 1 ■^- •' forms are irom Kepacj}, e.g. Kepaaade 

Ime between an adverb and preposition, 333 ^ ^^^^ „ ^qq' ^4_ ^^^J ^^^^ 

X 728, with rrep. iravru^u e„fxeva, A 287. 262. hanp6u, an allotted portion. For 

It is unimportant which ^^■e call it though ^^^ ^^^^^^^_^ ^j. ^^^,^^^,.- ^ ^^^^^ ^ keep- 

its position rather separates it irom the i„„ i,,-„ „„„ a,ii „f a i«i > ' ' 

i , . , . ' . r. mg ills cup lull CI. t) Ibl irept ixev ere nov 

sen., which in any case is a gen. oi a ' ' \ i -s ^ " . ,., 

comparison (ablative) not partitive, ^^^,^^^ Se^deaac, and so M 311. Com- 

wepc meaning beyond ; R. G. § 185. ^^^^ 'Benjamin's mess,' and H 321, 5 65. 

259. repoucioN, i.e. at the assembly con: Bentley conj. o-of, to answer to e/iot. 


lAlAAOC A (iv) 

earr]^ , w? irep ifMol, irieeiv ore 6vfi6<; avcoyot. 
aXX opaev TroXefxovS , olo<i 7rdpo<i ev'^eac eivat. 

Tov 8' avT ^lSofxevev<i }^pT]TMV djo<i dvrlov tjiiSw 265 

" ^ArpetSr}, jjuaXa jjuev tol iycov ipi7]po<i eTaipo<; 
eaaofxat, o)<; to irpcoTOv virecnr^v Kai Karevevcra' 
a)OC dWov<; orpvve Kapri Kopbowvra^ ^K'^aiov^, 
6(j)pa Tci'^KTTa fMa^c6fjied\ iirel avv 7' opKL 6'^euav 
Tpwe<?* roiCTiv 8' av 0dvaTO<; koX Krjhe oiriaaoi 270 

eacrer , eirel Trporepoc virep opKta hriX-r'^cravTO. 

609 e(paT, 'ATpet8r]<; Se jrapcoL'^eTO yrjdoavvo^ Krjp. 
rfkOe S' eV Pudvreaai Ktmv dvd ovXa^ov dvZpoiv 
TG) 8e Kopvaaeadrjv, a/xa 8e ve(f)0<; elirero Tre^cov. 
ft)? 8 OT diro crK07nrj<; elSev ve(j)o<i atTroXof dvrjp 275 

ep'^oiMevov Kara ttovtov vtto Zecpvpoio iwrj^;- 
TML Be T dvevOev iovri fieXdyrepov rjvre Trtcrcra 

263. nieeiN : noieeiN J : nieiieN N. || ONcorei L^NOQ Vr. a b-. 264. eOx^^o 
(A supr. T.W.A.) GHJMQRT Harl. a. 265. euQa Tap. 7. 266. crw M. || 

dpiHpoc n. 268. (ibxpuNe MQ Pap. 7^ 269. exeucoN Vr. a : opKia "xeuaN 

Q. 270. 5' au : hk C. 271. opKi' c&hXhcqnto Vr. a. 272. S* unepwxero 

M. 273. wXee &' : fiXeeN Eust. 274. Tcb r' ^KopucceceHN M. 277. twi 
&' ondNcueeN N Par. f. || de t' : 9' ex' H. |1 eoNTl Ar. : ionti Zeii. M S Harl. 
a, Par. h. 

263. aNCoroi : cf. ^ 374 ei fxrj . . eXde- 
fiev oTpvvrjLffiv, 6t' ayyeKirj ivoOev 'iXdoi. 
The opt. if right implies a slight shift 
of thought ; Ag. puts his case generally, 
to include the future, but shews that he 
is thinking chiefly of experience in the 
past. But it must be admitted that we 
should expect Bekker's av^y-qi., and in 
such a matter mss. count for little. It 
is not unlikely that a reminiscence of 
9 189, 6 70, where the opt. is necessary, 
may have misled rhapsodists or copyists. 

264. For ndpoc with the pres. of a 
state of things continuing up to the time 
of speaking cf. A 553 ; and for the 
pregnant use of oToc, 11 557. 

269. The re belongs to the whole 
sentence ; cf. A 352. 

273. The Aiantes are always repre- 
sented as fighting side by side, N 701 

274. Necpoc : for this metaphor cf. H 
66, P 755, ^ 133. It is here expanded 
into a fine simile. 

276. !coH is again used of the blowing 
of wind in A 308, and of the rushing 
of flame n 127 ; in K 139, p 261 (twT? 
<p6pfj.Lyyos), of sound. 

277. JueXdNxepoN Hure nicca, blacker 

than pitch. This is the only instance 
of the use of ijiJTe in this sense ; prob- 
ably we ought to read -nere, as Brandreth 
and Bekker suggest, on the analogy 
of TT 216 kXocov de \iyeus, ddLvwrepou 
7} T oiojvoL (where Buttmann would 
read tjCt'). It is not possible to get a 
natural sense if we take Tjiire in its 
regular meaning ; we can only make it 
mean 'growing blacker and blacker, like 
pitch,' or else 'all the blacker because 
of its distance ' (so Ameis and Fasi), 
neither of which alternatives is satis- 
factory. But Ap. Rhod. seems to have 
taken the passage in this way, i. 269 
KXaiova' ddivioTepov, rjvre Kovprj 
jj-iperai. The meanings 'as' and 
' than ' are so closely allied that we 
need not be surprised to find a word 
capable of taking both, like the German 
wie, als, Latin quam, and as in O.E. 
{New Engl. Diet, as, B. i. 4). Hentze ob- 
jects that ' blacker than pitch ' is merely 
hyperbolical and therefore un-Homeric ; 
but cf. Xei'/corepot xiocos K 437. Besides, 
a heavy thunder-cloud may seem really 
blacker, because dead in hue, than pitch, 
which always has its darkness relieved 
by bright reflexions from its surface. 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 


<^aiveT lop Kara irovrov, ayei 8e re Xaikaira iroWijv 

plyTjcrev re IScov vtto re crTreo? ijXaae fjbrfka- 

Tolai afji AlavrecrcTL ScoTpe(f)6cov al^TjMV 

Br'fiov 69 TToXe/Jiou nrvKival klvvvto (fydXayye'i 

Kvdveat, aciKeatp re koI ey^ecri 7r€(ppiKviai. 

Kol Tou? p,ev y)]d7](T€V ISoov Kpetcov ^AyafMe/Jivcov, 

Kal acf)€a<i (fxovijcra'; eirea Trrepoevra TrpoarjvSa' 

" AtavT, 'Apjeioiv i]<yr]Tope j^oXko-^itcovwv, 

a(fi(b'i fiev ov jap eoiK orpvvefiev, oh n KeXevto' 

avTO) >yap fMoXa \aov dvcoyerop l(f)L fjidyeaOaL. 

al jdp, Zev re irdrep Kal ^AdrjvaLi] Kal "AttoXXov, 

roio<i TTcicnv 6vfib<; ivl ari]decrat yevooro' 

rot) Ke Ta^ rj/jLvcreie TroXt? UpLd/xoto ctvaKro^ 

yepcrlv vcf)^ t'^jxereprjiaLv oKovcrd re rrepdoixevi] re. 

CO? elrroiv rov<i fiev Xtirev avrov, /St] Se [xer dWovi- 
evO' 6 je NeVrop' erer/xe, Xcyvp UvXloov dyopTjnjv, 
ov<i erdpov<; areWovra Kal orpvvovra fid'^eadat, 
d/jb(J3l fxeyav UeXdyovra ^ AXdcrropa re l^pofxtop re 
AHfjiovd re Kpelovra Utavrd re rroip^eva \ao)v. 
iTTTrPja'i jjiev rrpwra avv iTTTroccnp Kat b^ea(f)t, 
Tre^ou? 8' e^oTTide arrjaep iroXea^ re Kal ea6\ov^, 
6pK0<i e/xev TToXefxoio' KaKov<i 8 e? pceacrov eXaaaev, 
6(ppa Kal ovK edeXcov ri? dvajKanjc TroXe/Jbi^ot. 





280. ToToi C {siqrr. ai). || al(^)<4NTecciN dpHTedcoN HP (yp. J). |i aioTpo<pecoN 
GJS Lips. 281. nuKNQi S. 282. KuaNeai : ApcocoN Zen. || n€9piKuTai 

and BeBpieuTai Ar. Stx^s. 283. kqi jugn touc L Pap. y. 286. xeXeucco Yr. 
b su2)r. : KeXeueco Vr. c. 290. Auuceice U. 294. drpUNeoNxa C. 295. 

XpouiON : cxeSioN P. 296. eocoNd re aH'inupoN xe Ap. Lex. 14. 9 (cp. N 92). 

297. npcoTO : npcoTON M : npcoTicra Vr. b c, Mosc. 1 3. 298. cthcqn M. 

299. eXacceN Ar. fi: dWoL 5e eepreN Did. 300. noXeuiizH(i) i^JMNOKSU (Q 

supr.) : noXeiiizei Q^ : noXeuizeiN L : noXeui oi P. 

279. Note the characteristic Epic way 
in which the human element is intro- 
duced into a simile taken from a purely 
natural phenomenon ; a still more striking 
example is 559. 

282. For Kudweai Zen. read i^puiujv, 
feeling no doubt that blackness is not 
a physical attribute of an army march- 
ing to war. The comparison with the 
thunder-cloud is justified less by the 
external appearance than by the moral 
ten-or of ruthless onset produced by the 
blackness of the approaching storm. 

286. For the anticipatory use of rdp 
see H. G. § 348, 

287. For Tq>i without F see on Z 478. 

288-91 : see B o7l-4. 

299. eXacccN : Didymos mentions an 
old variant eepyev. The KaKoi, it is to be 
presumed, are a section of the ire'^ol, of 
whom the best are kept as a reserve. 
There does not seem to be any other 
allusion to a formation in more than a 
single line. The schol. accordingly 
explains that irpQra means ' on the right 
wing,' e^oTTide 'on the left,' and says 
that ' one KaKos is placed between two 
di'dpeM,' not a very likely thing {inl 
yap /j.£Tilnrov Taaffei rriv cpdXayya, ov Kara 

176 lAIAAOC A (IV) 

I'mreixTiv fiev irpcor iTreTeXkero' tov<; jap cipcoyei 

a(j)ov<; Xttttov^ i'^ifxev /jLrjSe KkoveecrOat ofiiXwi' 

" /jirjSe Tt? lirTTocrvvijc re Kol rjvoperi^i Trerrocuoif; 

olo'i 7rp6a6' aWcov fxe^dro) TpcaecraL /jid'^eadaL, 

fjiTjS' dpaycopeLTQ)' dXaTrahvorepoi yap eaecrOe. 305 

09 Se K dvrjp aTTO o)v oykwv erep dpfiaO iKrjrai, 

eyyei ope^dadco, eVel ?} ttoXv (peprepov ovrco, 

o)8e Kol ol irporepoL iroXia^; Kal ret'^e' eiropOovv, 

rovBe voov Kal Ovfxov evl cnrjOea-aLV e-^ovre'i" 

0)9 o jepcov wrpvve irdXat TroXifKOV iv eiSco?. 310 

Kal TOP fiev yrj6r]aev ISoov Kpeiwv ^Xyaixeixvwv, 
Kal fXLV ^(ovr)(Ta<i eirea Trrepoevra TrpoarjvSa' 
" 0} yepov, eX6\ 0)9 Oufio^ evl cnrjOeaai ^ikoto-iv, 
o)9 roL yovvaff' eirocTO, ^lt) Se roc e/i,7reSo9 eirj. 
dWd ae yr]pa<; reipei, ofioiiov o)9 6(f)e\ev Tt9 315 

dvhpwv aXXo^ ^X^^^' ^^ ^^ Kovporepoiat [xeTetvat. 

301. eniTcXXero S. || rap : uJku A {supr. rixp) Z^MNOP Cant. Vr. a b and yp. 

J. II T has an erasure (three letters) between Toi/c and rijp. 303. innocuNHl Te: 

innocuNH{i)ci Z^U Pap. 7. 305. ONaxcopHTCO JR. 307. oiixcoc J. 308. 

osbe : 6l»c dfe D. \\ noXwac P : noXeic N : n6Xeac Ar. A* (n6Xiac A™) H : noXeac 

Pap. 7. II enopoouN : enopeeoN ATU. 310. orpuNe HJMR. 311. Kai jucn 

t6n 0. 312. npoccviaa Pap. 7. 314. wc Koi G. || be TOI : ^e coi M. 

301. The implies that some advice expression of the thought is far from 
to the foot-soldiers is to follow ; but this clear, and the style of lighting is not 
never appears. Epic, for Homeric heroes as a rule use 

302. efixxen here evidently to hold in chariots only to move from place to 
hand, not to drive, as usual. KXoN^eceai, place, and dismount in order to fight. 
to he entangled. There are, however, some exceptions, 

303. This sudden change from oratio E 13, 294, etc. 

ohliqua to recta is very strange, the only 308. oi np6Tepoi : here only for the 

parallel in H. being ^ 855, a very weak Homeric irpoTepoi dvdpwTroL. The use of 

authority. There seems to be something the article and the Attic contracted form 

wrong about the present passage, as enopeouN well accord with the Attic 

308-9 refer apparently to siege opera- origin of the passage. 309 is weak and 

tions, and should be addressed rather tautological. 

to the Trefot than the tTrir^es. The 315. ojuoiioN : this form is elsewhere 
whole passage 297-310 is weak and out always used of strife or battle, except 
of place, and is one of the numerous ddvaros 7 236. Nauck would in every 
instances where inopportune tactical case read oXoUos. The sense of ' common 
lucubrations are put into Nestor's mouth, to all ' (which itself is not very appro- 
doubtless under Athenian (Peisistratean) priate as a general epithet of war in 
influence ; see on B 362. The advice .spite of ^vvbs ewdXios 2 309) is not 
in 304-5 recalls P 357-9, where it is supported by any use of bjxoios. Pind. 
given to foot-soldiers. Nem. x. 57, which is quoted, is not in 
306. cin6 CON oxecoN, i.e. from his own point, for there Trbr/xov 6/j.olov obviously 
chariot, staudiug in its proper place in means ' the sayne fate ' for the two 
the ranks, he is at liberty to attack any brothers (like o/xoirjv yaiav epevcrai S 329), 
one within the range of his spear. Ykh- and is explained by the following lines. 
xai, can reach an enemy's chariot. The There is therefore an undoubted case 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 


rov S' rifiei^€T eireLra VeprjiJco^: CTnrora Necrrco/a* 
" ^ArpetSr], f^aXa fjuev rot eyoiP eOeXotfiL koI avro'i 
fo)9 e/xeu ft)? 6t€ Slop '\Lpev6a\io)va KareKrav. 
aXV ov TTft)? a/xa iravra Oeol hoaav avOpcoiroicriv 320 

el Tore Kovpo<i ea, vvv avre p,e <yripa<i cKiivec. 
dWa KoX 609 lirirevaL [xeTecrcrofJiat rjhe KeKevcroi 
^ov\)]L Kal fMvOoicn- to jap jepa'i earl jepovroiv. 
aty/xa? 8' al'^fidacrovai veoorepoc, ol irep ifxelo 
orrXorepoi jejdacn rveiroiOacriv re ^[7](j)iv." 325 

ft)9 e^ar , 'ATpei'S?;? Be Trapcoi'^ero jridoavvo<i Krjp. 
evp vlov TiereMO ^ieveaOr^a TrXi'^^iTrrrov 
ecrraor ' d/uucfil S' A.6rjvaloi, /xijarcope^; dvrrj^' 
avrdp ttXtjctlov €aT7]Kec TroXvfitjn^ ^OBvo-aev^;, 
Trap 8e Js-ecfiaXXrjvcov a/x^t crrt^e? ovk dXairahval 330 

318. TOl : KEN JOP Pap. y. 319. K^TeKTON (A supr.) CU : KOT^Kxa JQ Par. 
f (p. ras., an) h, and ap. Scliol. A (Herod.). 320 d6. Ar. || ncoc : nto Q. 

321. ea : Shn N. [| iKaNei : iKONoi I) : ondzei Ar. (see Liidw.) Par. k {yp. kdNei). 

322. jmereicoiiai P. 323. BouXaTc H. !| repoNTCON : eaNONTCON Pap. y. 324. 
cuoTo G^JMNPQS. 327. nXHOinnoN Pa]). 7. 328. JUNHCxopec 0: JUHCTopec 
(,>RU. 329. 6 : oT N. I IcTHKCi Ar. AGH JPRT : eicTHKei fi. 

against oixoUos, wliich anyhow ought to 
be separated in the lexicons from dfxolos. 
Indeed Aristonikos says that the yXua- 
ffoypd(poL explained bixoUov = to kukov. 
But there is no obvious reason why it 
should have displaced a word so clear 
in meaning as oXouos. Christ, followed 
by Pick, conj. that the right form may 
be ofxiFiov, conn, with Skt. amlva = 
aerumna, and u)/x6s. For &>c van L. 
reads cos F' (sc. yripas), comparing for 
Fe as neuter fiiv in 143, Z 221, T 287, 

318. The reading Kev for xoi is natural 
but not necessary. The opt. is con- 
cessive, 'I admit that I wish,' H. G. § 
299/, and M. and T. § 240. Compare 
York's speech in King Richard the 
Second, ii. 3. 99, ' Were I but now the 
lord of such hot youth,' etc. 

319. For Nestor's story of the slaying 
of Ereuthalion see H 136-56. 

320 seems to be an adaptation of N 729- 
30, and was athetized by Ar. on this 
ground. The sense suits the passage 
well, and the line to be condemned is 
321, which is flat and empty enough. 

321. e! here expresses as a supposition 
what is known to be true, rhetorically 
pretending that it is a matter of doubt, 


and thereby throwing it into the dim 
distance as a forgotten thing like ei' ttot' 
^■qv ye r 180, ' I suppose I was young 
then, but now I am old.' The sentence 
is not in any sense conditional, any 
more than A 281, where 65e (p^prepos 
iffTiv is independent of the et'-clause in 
280. el here retains something of its 
interjectional force and merely calls up 
for consideration a concomitant fact. 
This line is therefore wrongly classed in 
M. and T. § 402 with a conditional 
sentence such as el i^povrrjae, Kal ijarpa- 
xpev. ea : a form recurring in E 887, 
f 222, 352 only, and, like other forms 
of the impf. of elfxl, not entirely ex- 
plained. The a seems to be treated as 
long by nature, though the ictus may 
account for this. 

324. aixudccouci, wield the spear, only 
here in H. The word is used in a similar 
but not quite identical sense in Soph. 
Aj. 97, Trach. 355, and Aisch. Pcrs. 
756 ; V. Lexica. 

327. For the asyndeton cf. 89 ; and 
for Menestheus B 552 sqq. 

328. UHCTCopec duxfic, lit. devisers 
of the battle - shout, usually applied to 
individual heroes, N 93, 479, II 759. 
Cf. on ix7)(jTU}pe (pb^oio E 272. 




earaaav ou yap iroi crcpLV aKovero \ao<; avT7J<i, 

a\Xa veov avvopLvofxevat klvvvto (paXayye'i 

Tpcowv iTTTroSdfjLwv Kol 'A'^aiMv, ol he /xevovre'i 

earaaav, omrore rrvpyo'^ A^aiMV dWo'i e7re\9u>v 

Tpcoo)v opp,7]a€ie Kal ap^eiav iroXeiJioiO. 

T0U9 he Ihoiv veiKeaaev dva^ dvSpcbv ^Aya/Jiep,v(ov, 

Kal. a(f)ea<i ^Q)V7']cra<i eirea irrepoevra Trpoo-rjvha- 

" Si vie Jlerecjo htorpecpeoi; /SaaiX.rjo'i, 

KoX av KaKolaL hoXoicn KeKaajieve, KephaXeocfypov, 

TLTrre KarainciiaaovTe'i cK^earare, fXi/jivere h dWov<i ; 

(7(f)0)iv /xev T eireoLKe fxera TrpcoTOtatv iovra'i 

eaTOfxev rjhe /xd'^r]^ KavareipiTi avTC^oX-rjaat' 

TrpcoTco <ydp Kal haiTo<; ciKovd^eadov ifieio, 



331. OU rdp : ou3e G. 332. ngcon M. || kinoOnto Vr. b. 333. TpcocoN 
Ar. Z'HJPQT : rpcocoN e' fi. 334. ccton I). \\ niiproc axaicoN : €v ttji 

TToXvo-Ti'xwt KCN TIC ^NaNTioN : (kgn TIC axait»iN Vr. b ?). 335. apseicN Vr. b and 
eV T^i TToXi'ffTixwi. 336. NeiKHCCN N. 338. uI6c Mosc. 1 e corr. j| 6iOTpo9eoc 

H. 339. boXoici : Xoroici Pap. 7. [| Kep3aXe69pcoN NQ {siqn: o) : 9a4&iu' 

'O9ucce0 Zen. 340. C9ecTaTe Q. 341. c9cbT JQR Vr. b. || npcoTOlclN 

loNTOC : TpcoecciN ioNTOc R (7/3. npcoTOiciN). 342. aOcTcipHC (?) pi, corr. P^. 

343. luoTo GPS. 

331. dKoucTO : the only case in H. of 
tlie middle Ibrni in the present or imperf. 
It is possible that this implies a con- 
scious listening rather than a mere 
physical hearing ; if they were not 
attending to the battle-cry, there is more 
ground for Agamemnon's rebuke than if 
they had not yet heard it. There seems 
to be a similar distinction in many cases 
between bpui and opuifxai, though they 
are often identical (cf. A 203). See 
E. G. §8. ^ 

334. dnnore goes with [xivovres, ' wait- 
ing till.' So after woTidiy/j-evoi H 415, 
etc. R. G. § 308 (2), M. and T. § 553. 
niiproc, a ivall or serried line of warriors ; 
cf. irvpyriUv M 43, X 152, 618. It is 
tempting to translate column ; but irtjpyos 
in H. maaiis fortification, not towe?-; and 
hunters (M 43) do not attack in column. 
Aristarchos strangely enough wished to 
make Tpujwv depend on wupyos and 
'Axatw;' on op/j.., waiting till a battalion 
of Trojans should attack the Achaians, 
because he thougTit that the delay of 
the Athenians ought to be due to their 
wish to see the Trojans put still further 
in the wrong by beginning the general 
engagement. On this ground he was 
inclined to prefer the variant /ceV tls 

evavTiov for irvpyos 'AxattD;', and dp^eiev 
for -eittj'. 

339. KCKacueNe : cf. t 395 {AvrdXvKos) 
6s dv0pu>Trovs €K€KaaTo | KKeirTOcrvvqL 6' 
opKwi re. 

341. JUEN t' : here fji.4v seems to answer 
to vvv S^ in 347. The exact sense of re 
(or rot ?) is not so obvious ; it perhaps 
emphasizes this clause as general, whereas 
vvv de takes a particular instance (H. G. 
§ 332). Observe eoNTac in spite of the 
dat. a(pQiCv, on account of its close con- 
nexion with the infin., as A 541 toi . . 
ebvra : H. G. % 240. 

342. KQUCTeipHc recurs only in M 
316 ; it is the feminine of *KavcrT-f]p. 
The grammarians wrongly accented Kav- 
areiprji, and held that it came from 
Kavareipds, supposed to be a dialectical 
form of KavcTTTipos. 

343. The sense of this line is clear, 
you are the first to receive my invitation , 
but the syntax hopeless. The gen. after 
verbs of hearing expresses '(1) the 
person from whom sound comes ; (2) the 
person about whom something is heard ; 
(3) the soimd heard,' B. G § 151 d. 
daiToc cannot be brought under any of 
these heads. /c^xXi'Te /nev /j.vdwv is clearly 
different, being a sort of ' whole and 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 


OTTTTOTe Salra yepovatp i(f)07rXi,^(OfMev Ay^aioc. 

evOa (f)iX^ oirrakea Kpea eS/juevac rjSe KVTreWa 345 

otvov irive^evai fi€\L'r]8eo'i, 6(j)p ideXrjrov' 

viiv he 0tX(y? ')^ opococre, koI el SeKa Trupyoc XyacMV 

vfjieioiv Trpoirdpoide /jua'^oiaTO vrfkel '^dX/ccot." 

TOP 8' a/o' vTToSpa IBoov Trpoaecfii] TroXvfMTjTCi 'OSucrcref?" 
" ^ArpetSr], irolov ere eTTO? (^v<yev €pKO<i oBovtcov ; 350 

TTw? 8r) (f)r)c<i TToK-e^iOLO fieOie/xev, ottttot 'A^aiot 
Tpcoalp i(f)' ImrohdiJiOLatv iyecpofiev o^vv ' Aprja ; 
O'Neal,, i)v ideXrjtaOa koI at Kev rot rd /uu6/ji7]X7]L, 
TijXe/jbd-^oLo (f)iXop irarepa Trpofid-^oLcn ficyevra 
Tpcocop iTTTToSd/xcov • (TV he ravT dve/xooXia /3d^ei^.' 355 

344. €90nXizcoueN AH [sup?: oi) : €<ponXizoueN P : e^onXizoiJueN S2. 345 

e5jui€Nai : euiueNai L. 347. Kai ei : e6N G. 349. ap' : au J. 351. 

xieeeieueN A {siqyr. i over ci, T.W.A.) NT. 353. HN : hn k' AT Pap. y. ] 

uguhXci NQ Vr. a : jmeuHXoi Vr. b. 354. xHXeudxou CtlRT Lips. 355. 

TpcocoN e' Lips. || dNcucoNia J. 

part' construction. The only possible 
explanation is, ' you hear lue about a 
banquet ' (or rather ' you listen to the 
banquet from me '), which is without 
analogy, and only gives the required 
sense by violence. Moreover Kai is 
meaningless. This, however, is the ex- 
planation of Ar., TrpcoTot fiov dKOvere irepl 
daiTos. It may be added that ' to hear 
from a person,' in the sense of receiv- 
ing a message, is a modern but not a 
Greek idiom. aKovd^eadaL, in the two 
other passages of Homer where it occurs 
(t 7, V 9), means ' to listen to,' as we 
might suppose from its form, which 
suggests a frequentative sense. The 
only remedy seems to lie in Nauck's 
trenchant conjecture KaXeovros for /cat 
daiTos, yoio are the first to listen to me 
when I am calling to a banquet, but 
when I call to war you have no ears. 
A minor ditficulty is that Menestheus, 
who even in this scene is a KUicpbv 
irpbffiinrov, never appears among the 
yepovres (see on B 53 ; and for feasts 
given to them, A 259 and B 404 sqq. ). 

345. <piXa, sc. eari, cf. B 796. This 
line and the next iv to'is VTro/j.vrjfj.aaiv 
(notes of Ar. ) ovk dderovvTai, dTraiTiQi'Tac 
8e avTOvs oi TifjArepoi (i.e. modern taste) 
(hs dTTpeiruis . . dveidi^ovros rod A.ya- 
/xefivovos Schol. A ; and see Cobet's 
commentary, J/. C. 231. If they were 
omitted, the point of the passage, the 
contrast of (pi\a . . <pi\us, would be lost. 

351. The punctuation given is men- 
tioned by Nikanor, who prefers an alter- 
native in which the note of interrogation 
is put after fxedu/xev, and a comma after 
"Aprja. JueeisucN refers to Odysseus and 
Menestheus in particular, while iu eyelpo- 
fj-ev Odysseus speaks as one of the army 
at large, meaning ' every case iu which 
we fight' (aor. subj.). If eydpofxev 
referred to a future event, /ce would be 
required (Monro). Moreover, it is un- 
usual in Homer to begin an entirely 
fresh sentence of several lines in the 
middle of a line (f 217 is the only case 
quoted) ; anil the asyndeton before 353, 
repeated in I 359, is less harsh than 
before oinroTe. 

353. An is of course a late (Attic) 
form which has supplanted ei' Ke (see on 
I 359). The variant Tjf k' is a relic of 
the older reading. 

354. For the phrase ' father of Tele- 
machos ' see on B 260. Here it is 
clearly impossible to give any appro- 
priate reason for the introduction of 
Telemachos except as a title of honour. 
Aristonikos mentions that Ar. noticed 
this ' foreshadowing of the Odyssey ' 
as a sign that it was by the author of the 

355. If dNEJucbXia is der. from &u€fx,os, 
it has entirely lost the primitive sense, 
as iu phrases like to^ov dve/j,uj\iov "t* 474 ; 
cf B 216, and the use of dvefjualos, Platu 
Theccet. 151 e, 161 A. 

180 lAlAAOC A (iv) 

TOP S' i7ri/ji€i8i]aa<; 7rpoae(f)'r} Kpeicov Aya/j,efxvci)V, 
ct)9 yvM ycoof^evoco' iraXiv 8' o 76 A-a^ero fj^vOov 
" Sioyeve'; AaepridSr], 'rro\v^r]j^av Ohvaareii, 
ovre ere vecKecco irepLcocnov ovre KeXevco' 

olSa yap w? rot 6v/jLo<i ivl aT7]de(rat (plXocacv 360 

TJirca Bi]vea olSe* ra jap ^poveei<; a r iyco irep. 
cOOC Wi, ravra 8' oiriaOev apeaaofjied', et tl KaKov vvv 
elprjTat, ra 8e iravra Oeol fMera/jLcovLa delev." 

CO"? eliTOiv rom fiev Xiirev avrov, ^1) Be /juer aXXovi. 
evpe Be TvBeo<; vlov vTrepdv/uiov AtofiyBea 365 

io-Taor ev 6" 'Ittitoicl kuI apfiaat koWijtoictl' 
Trap Be 01 earTjKec SOeveXo'i }^a7ravij'io<; vi6<i. 
Kal TOP fjbev veiKecraev IBoov Kpeimv ^Ayafie/xvcov, 
Kal /jbLV (f)0)V7'](Ta<i eirea irrepoevra irpocn^vBa' 
" w fioi, TuSeof vie Bat(f)povo^ iTTTToBd/JiOLO, 370 

TL TTTcocra-ei';, tl 8' ovriTreuet? TroXefioto <ye(f)vpa<i ; 
ov [lev T^vBel 7' S)Be (f)L,\ov rfrrooaKa^efMev rjev, 
dWd nroXv irpo (J)l\cov erdpcov Bijiotai fid'^ecrOai. 

357. juuecoi Vr. a. 359. OUT€ (ce) : outi M (oOre Hail, a) : oiibi Vr. a. |i 

cure (KeXeiioj) : o£;ti N : oiibk L. 361. bHNsa : JUH^ea H. 363. juera- 

JUCONia AGJN Eton. (T^U^?): JueraJucoYa Lips.^: jmerauwXiNa Q Lips.^: ueTojucoXia 
ft. 365. CinepjJiueoN J. 366. e' o«i. G. |j koXAcotoTci Vr. b : koXXotoTci Li])S.i 
367. eCTHKCi Ar. AGHJRT : cicxi^Kei ft. 368. Kai jucn t^n MQSU Pap. 7. 

369 om. A*. \\ npoceuaa Pap. 7. 371. onmeueic ACZ^NTU Lips.^: oneineuec 

Pap. 7: oninreueic ft. 372. r' : 9' Q. |1 nTCOKazeueN GLM (nrcocK- Harl. a) 

357. rNcb with gen., as (p 36, xj/ 109. mss. are in favour of ^era/twXta, perhaps 

This is common in the participle of olSa intiueneed by the similar sense of dve- 

in the sense ' to be skilled in,' e.g. /J-d-xv^, /j-dbXca above. Compare also the Odyssean 

d\KT]s, etc., but rare in the finite verb. dwo(pw\i.os, which is equally obscure. 
4^ 452 is possibly another case. See 366. Ynnoici here as often = chariot, 

IT. G. § 151 d. ndXiN Xdzero, just our and goes with apyuacrt by hendiadys. 419 

idiom 'took back his words.' Cf. rraXLu shews that Diomedes is standing mi the 

epeet = contradict, I 56. The phrase car, not merely amid the horses and 

recurs v 254 in a slightly different sense chariots, 
(took back what he was about to say). 371. noXejuioio re9upac : this phrase 

361. ftnia bnnea oiae, i.e. is M-ell recurs G 378, 553, A 160, T 427. From 
disposed towards me, as IT 73 et /jlol E 88-9 and 357 (cf. <^ 245) it appears 
Kpeiwu 'Ayafxe/iivuv fjivia eldei-r]. Cf. note that ye(pvpa implies a dam or cause- 
on E 326. &HNea, thoughts, apparently way rather than what we should call a 
from da^vaL. bridge. It is explained by the schol. 

362. apeccdueea, a<o?ie /or ; but where rds 8i65ovs tGiv <pa\dyyuv, the lines of 
an object is expressed it is elsewhere open ground between the moving masses 
always a person, conciliate. Cf. the act. of men, who are perhaps likened to 
dip dpiaa.1. I 120, T 138. flowing water. It is especially used of 

363. JuerajutcoNia occurs elsewhere only the space between the hostile armies, 
in Od. (/3 98, etc.). Both der. and form onineiieic, cycst, in a contemptuous sense, 
are quite uncertain ; the majority of implying hesitation to advance. 

lAlAAOC A (iv) 181 

o5<? (bdcrav oX [iiv 'i^ovTO Trovev^evov ov <yap eyco ye 

)]vTT^(T ovSe iSov rrepl 8' aXkcov (paal jeveaOac. 375 

rj rot, fiev yap arep 7ro\efiou elcrijXOe ^Ivkijvw:; 

^etvo'i afi avTiOecoc lloXvveLKei, Xaov ayetpcov. 

01 Se TOT icTTpaTOcovd^ lepa irpo'i Tei^ea 0?);Q??9, 

Kal pa /jboXa XlacrovTO S6/Jb€V k\€LTov^ eirvKovpov'i- 

ol 8' edeXov Sofjuevac koX iir^'jiveov od<; eKeXeuov 380 

dWa Zeu? €Tp€^6 nrapaiaia ar^pbaTa (^aivwv. 

ol 8' eVel ovv oiL'yovTfl ISe irpo ohov iyevovTO, 

'AacoTTOv S' Xkovto jSaOvcr'^OLVov \e')(e7roLriv, 

6v6' avT dyyeXinqv eirl 'Vvhr] aTelXav 'A^atoi. 

avTap /3/}, TToA-ea? he Ki')(i']aaT0 KaS/jbeto)va<; 

SaLvv/xevov^; KaTa Scopua ^irj^ ^^TeoKkrietri<=;. 

ev6^ ouSe ^elvo<i irep io)V 'nTirrjXdTa Ti^Seu? 

Tap^ec, fiovva icov TroXeaiv fxeTo, HaS/xeiotcrLV, 


376. uuKHNHc Q. 377. seiNOC : yp. Kal KeTNoc A. i areipcoN : areipac Q, 
and ap. Did. 378. oi 5e AJ {yp. pa) OrTU Pap. y : oY pa fi. 379. xxaka : 
juuiXicra J {yp. Kai pa udXa). 380. eKeXeueN Q. 381. napaiciua N (and 

Hesych.). 382. i5e : AQfe DJSU. || npo : npoc L. 383. acconoN e' Bar. 1| 

Ykonon U, 384. eNe' : €n d' P. It tu5h : tuSgT C"Z>GJ {supr. ft) L {supr. ft) 
pi (?) (S supr.) Cant. Vr. a c : TuSeT, bk creiXoN {sic) Q. 386. Kara: auit Q, 
388. Ka^JueicociN N. 

374. wc : so Ameis, for vulg. ws with way.' Cf. on wpo (pb^oio P 667, and 

comma after /xaxecrdai.. The regular for the hiatus after irpo K 224. For 

use in Homer of &s 'icprj, etc., is to XexenoiHN of. B 697. 
refer back to a completed expression 384. &ni : so Mss. and Ar. , thus con- 

of opinion ; there is no other case of necting it with the verb, and making 

ws ecf)-q = as he said. noNeuueNON, in ayyeXl-qv a masc. in apposition with 

special sense of fighting, as irbvo^, 456, TuS?), see note on V 206. Or we may take 

B 420 and often, of the toil of battle. d77e\t7;i' as fem., an internal ace. with 

378. ^iCTpaxdcoNTO (also F 187), were eViVretXar, like i^eaiyjv (XdeTp. Others 

on a campaign, either for idTparaovTO read 'i-m, and understand e7r' ayyeyi-r}v = 

or iarparoovTO. arpaToeadai is found in ' for an embassy. ' Nauck reads TvStj' 

Aisch. Ag. 132, (XTpardeadaL does not 'iareCkav, omitting iiri, as the couti-acted 

occur anywhere else in Greek. For the Ti^Si? is a late form. Another emenda- 

form 'OiovTo from an o-verb we may tion is iiri TvBeC retXa;' (Brandreth), 

compare N 675 drjtowvTo, 5 226 Srjiocouv, charged T. with a mission {ewiTiWeiv). 

i 108 dpdwaiv, which all follow the The following story is repeated in E 

analogy of stems in a-. But they are 802-8, where the phrase used is ijXvee 

of course false representations of the voacp'-v 'Axatwf &yye\os is 077/3as. It is 

old uncontracted verbs. See IT. G. §§ no doubt adapted from Epic poems of 

55, 56 (3). the Theban war. 

380. ol, Thyestes and the people of 387. scTnoc must here mean 'a 
Mykenai. eKeXeuoN, Tydeus and Poly- stranger,' i.e. virtually under the cir- 
neikes. cumstances an enemy, whereas in 377 

381. expeij/c, changed their minds. it means a friend. But the word never 
nopaicia only here, i^aicnos is more acquired in Greek the connotation of the 
common. Latin hostis, and in ordinary cases to be 

382. np6 is here an adv., and 6aoO a ^e?j'os in any sense was a reason for ex- 
a local genitive, lit. 'forward on the pecting friendly treatment, not treachery. 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

aXV o ly aeOXeveiv mrpoKoXl^eTO, iravra 8' evLKa 

prjiSico^;' tolt] ol eirippoOo^ r/ev ^Ad'tjVTj. 390 

OL Se '^oXcoaafievoL KaS/xetot, KevTope<i Ittttwv, 

a-^jr avaep-^ofxevwi ttvkivov Xo^ov elaav ayovre'i, 

Kovpov<; TrevrrJKovra- Svco 8' 7}<yi)Tope^ rjcrav, 

yiaiwv AlfioviZri<i eViet/ceXo? ddavdroKJiv, 

vlo<i T AvTO(f)Ovot,o fX€ve7rro\€/jio<; AvK0(f)0VT7)^. 395 

TuSeu? /xev koI rolaiv deLKea TroTfiov ecpfjKe' 

7rdvTa<; €7r€(j)v\ eva S' olov 'Ut olKOvSe veeaOai' 

Matot'' apa TrpoerjKe, decov repdecrcn TTLOrjcra'i. 

T0t09 €r]v Lvo6V<i AiTa>Xio<i' aXXa top vlov 

yelvaro elo '^epeia fid'^rji' dyopijc Se r dixetvoiv." 400 

CO? (fidro, rov 3' ov tl irpoae^rj Kparepo<i Aiofji7]Br]<;, 
al8eaO€l<; /3a(riXi]0<i evLirrjv aiSoLoio. 
TOP S' u/o? Ka7rai'?'}o9 dfietylraro KvSaXtfioto' 
" Arrpethrj, firj -v^euSe' eiriaTdixevo^ crd^a elirelv. 

390. Ol : Toi Q. I! eniT<ippoeoc Q. 392. Qi}; aNcpxoueNco(i) CZ)GMPQRS 

Harl. a, Lips. Yr. b c A, JIosc 1 3, Yen. B. Il XoxON : SoXon Q : Xexoc N {supr. 
o over e). |1 cTcaN : hcqn D. 395. noXucpoNTHc A {yp. Xuko<p6nthc): Xuko- 

9dNTHC G. 396. €9HKe : CNeTKe C. 398. apa npoeHKe : ONanpoeHKC Pap. 

y. II npoeeiKC U. 400. x^pn(')° C'-'GHJMNR Lips.^ Yr. A : x^P'° ^"i'- ^ (supr. 

h). II aueiNCON Ar. A* : cumeiNcoi Pap. 7: aueiNCO A"^ (T.W.A. ) i}. 

390. ^nippoeoc, lit. coming with shoxUs 
(to the rescue), is found only here and 
'i' 770 in H., and ace. to van L. is a 
mistake due to non-recognition of the 
fact that -OL of pronouns can be elided. 
He reads toLt] F'{oi) iwirappodos here, and 
so /".'CO i'^ ^' ^TTippodos is, however, as 
old as Hes. {Op. 560) and Aisch. Sept. 
368, and can therefore hardly be doubted. 
The difficulty is I'ather with eTrirappodos, 
for which see E 808. lu Soph. Ant. 413 
iivippodos is used in a completely differ- 
ent sense {abusive). 

392. For Sip 6NaepxoueNCoi most edd. 
write fti/' dp' (Bentl. ), af/rts (Brandreth), 
or d\f/ oi (Barnes) dvepx-, the first on 
the analogy of the similar line, Z 187 ; 
but apa has no sense here. For 
the hiatus cf. I 167 iirLbxpoixai, i 122 
KarataxiTaL, X 262 dTroaivv/, P 381 
eTioaaopLivij). nuKiNON, lit. dense, i.e. 
consisting of a large number, as in 
TTVKival (pdXayyes, etc. This sense does 
not suit X 525, but that line is inter- 
polated. eTcaN aroNTGC, tooJc and set, 
a7. being pleonastic. eTcoN, from 'ifw, 
A 311. 

394. The three names, AiuoNidHC, Aiir6- 
90NOC, AuKoq>6NTHC, are evidently meant 
to have a murderous ring (Fasi). MaiosN 
is a traditional name, not one invented 
for the purpose ; according to Statins 
he was an augur and priest of Apollo, 
which would explain OeHv Tepdeacn (398). 
Pans. (ix. 18. 2) says that according to 
local tradition at Thebes it was he who 
buried Tydeus. 

399. For ton, here used in a possessive 
sense, read 6i>. See App. A. 

400. x^P*:'** : on this word see A 80. 
The best mss. follow Ar. in writing 
X^pfta and xepetos, but X^PV^> X^PV^- 
cumeiNCON, sc. eari, so A with Ar. ; 
d/xeivu cet. The reading of Ar. seems 
best, for 5e re frequently introduces a 
clause added paratactically, with a con- 
struction of its own. S 106 is exactly 
parallel, ev Tro\4/j.wL, dyoprJL Be r dpLeivove^ 
elat Kal dXkoL. It must, however, be 
admitted that the omission of both 
subject and verb here is harsh. Com- 
pare Eur. Suppl. 902 (6 Tvdevs) ovk iv 
\6yois ^v \ap.Trpbs, dXX' iv dairldL. 

404. 0690, if taken with dwdv, must 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 



rj/jb€t<i rot TrarSpcov /juey' dfieivove^ ev'^o/jied' eipac 

?}//.et9 Kal 0^//8^? e8o<i ei\o[xev kinaTrvXoLo, 

iravporepov \aov dyayovd^ vtto rel-^o'^ dpetov, 

Treidoixevoi repdecrcn OeMV Kal Ztjvo'^ dpcoyrjf 

Kelvoi Se a(f)6Tep't]icriv draaddXirjLaip oXovro. 

TO) fJir] fxoi TraTepa<i Trod' o/jloltji evOeo TLfJurji." 410 

Tov 3 ap Inrohpa IScov 'jrpocre^rj KpaTepo^ Atofjii]8rj'i • 
" TeTTa, aiwirrji rjao, ifiMt S' eTTLTreiOeo /j,v6u)L. 
ov yap ijo) vejjbecroi 'AyafiefivovL Troipbevi Xacov 
OTpvvovTL ixd-^eaOai evKv/j/xiSa^ A^aiou?* 

TOVTOiL fj^ev yap KvSo<i dp. k'ylreTai, el k€v A'^aiol 415 

Tpwa? 8i]ia)(7(i>aiu eXcoal re "IXiov ip'>]v, 

407-9 aO. Ar. 408. Arwrfi P. 409. C9eTepaiciN ayaceaXiaiciN coXonto G. 

412. ciconfii : cirfl N. 413. Neixecwi Botiklos A"' (T.W.A.). 415. ixh* orn. 

M. ii rap om. CGT Lips. H aY ken NS : ei ju^n (!. 416. aHiocociN M: 

dHYoccociN Harl. a : 9h(i)cocoucin D Vr. A. It ^Xojci bk P. 

mean truli/ {\l/£vde being then \l/evdeo), 
but this is not the usual Homeric sense. 
The word is always used with verbs of 
kno^viiig, except three times in Od. with 
elireli', always in the sense 'giving a 
clear, certain report about Odysseus.' 
The two senses are, however, nearly allied 
(cf. Soph. £1. 1223 ^K/j-ad' el (ra(prj X^yw, 
Track. 387 ws rax ^f cracpyj Xe^ecev, 
Eur. 3fed. 72 fiudos ei crarpris ode, etc.), 
and it is better to translate truly here 
than with Fasi to do violence to the 
order by joining fxri xj/evS^a eiirelv, 
e'/rtcrrd/U.ej'os crd<f)a (that they are so). 
This expression is another case, ap- 
parently, of Attic use. 

406. Kai is expressed by the emphasis 
in 'we did take,' i.e. we did not merely 
besiege. This is the only mention in 
H. of the war of the Epigoni ; that of 
the ' Seven ' is rarely alluded to. 

407. cirar6Ne', dual, as he is thinking 
only of Diomedes and himself. QpeioN is 
taken by the Schol. as comparative, viz. 
TOV ev Tpoi'at ; for the sake of the anti- 
thesis it should rather mean ' a stronger 
wall than our fathers found,' as though 
Thebes had been strengthened in the 
interval. Cf. 736, 'a stronger wall' 
than that which is now being taken. 
There is no Homeric instance of apeios 
for the regular 'Apyfios, and in any case 
that would weaken the point of the 
line. Ar. obelized 407-9 on the ground 
that if the fathers were defeated by their 

own madness and the sons conquered 
only by obeying the gods, there is no 
ground for concluding that the sons are 
better warriors than the fathers were. 
It is an obvious reply that the best 
warrior is the one who takes every step 
to ensure victory, and that the first step 
is to win divine support. 

409. The OTaceaXiai may be illustrated 
from Aisch. Sept. 427 sqq., where it is 
said of Kapaneus — 

deov re yap diXovros CKTrepcreiv woKiv 
Kal ixTj diXovTOS (prjffiv, ktX. 

410. Observe the very rare use of xxh 
with aor. imper. ; so S 134 ytn; ttw Kara- 
8v(X€o, 0) 248 /j.r] . . ^vdeo. Schol. A 
quotes Aristoph. Thesm. 870 /xr; \pevaov, 
Si lev. See on this H. G. § 328. 

412. T^TTQ : a a-K. Xey. which divided 
the opinions of the ancient critics, some 
taking it as a Trpocr<pdii'ri(ris (pCXeTaipLKri, 
others as an iivipp-qixa ax^TXiaffTiKov. It 
is probably like drra (I 607, q.v.), a 
term of affection, perhaps borrowed from 
the language of infancy (for tF' arra, 
where tF' — reF', thine, as in French 
tante = tua amita ?). ' A friendly or 
respectful address of youths to their 
elders,' L. and S. ; but there is no ground 
for supposing Sthenelos to be older than 
Diomedes. fico, simply contimie, as 
often. The hiatus after ciconfii is un- 
usual, but there is no obvious emenda- 
tion {r^rXadi, (Tiyrji. d' ijao Bentley). 

184 lAlAAOC A (iv) 

TOVTCOL K av fieya 7r€vdo<i ^A'^aiMV Sijicodevrcov. 
aW aye Si] kol vcoi fieSco/xeda dovpcSo'^ aXKrj^." 

7} pa Kol e'f o'ykwv avv rev'^ecnv oXto ^a/xa^e* 
Betvov 8' e/3pa'^€ -^aXKO'i eirl arrjOecrcnv apaKTO<; 420 

opjwfMevov iiTTo Kev raXaaicjipovd irep Seo<; etXev. 

o)? B or iv alyiaXMc TrokvTj-^eC Kvfxa 6a\daar)(; 
opvvT iiracra-vTepov Ze(f)vpov vtto Kivt](TavTo^' 
rrovrwL yu,eV re irpwra KopvcrcreTai, avrap eTreira 
■^epacoL pr]yvvp,evov /xeydXa ^pe/JLec, dfji(^l Be r dKpa<i 425 

Kvprov lov Kopv(f)ovTai, diroTrrvei, S' dXo<i dyvrjv 
to? TOT eiracravTepai Aavacov klvvvto cf)d\ayye<i 
va)\e/<i 7ro\e/j,ovBe. KeXeve Be olaiv eKacrTO<i 
rjyefioi'cop' ol B' dXkoi dKTjv taav, ovBe /ce ^a[7]<i 
Toacrov Xaov eTreaOai e-^oin ev aTi'jOecrtv avBi'p, 430 

(TLyrjt, BeiBcoTe<; arjjjidvTopa<;' dfx(^\ Be irdai 
Tev^ea ttolklX eXafiire, tu elp^evoi iarcyocovTO. 
T/9coe? B , W9 T oie? Tr6\vTrdfxovo<i dvBp6<; ev avXrjt 

418. are: apa Pap. 7. 420. 61x9! cTHecciN Q. 424. JU€N TeAPUVr. a: 
is-iu TOi M: ukn t6 ft. 426. ioN k\\ {^i supr.): khu 0. 427. enaccuxepoN 

GJ (siopr. ai) : en' accuTepoi N. || kinunto : dipNUNTO Pap. 7. 428. noXeuoN 
B' ^K^XeueN oTcin H. || K^Xeuce N. 429. YcaN : ecoN T Hail, b (7/). Ycon) : 

HCQN i>i. 431. aeBi6Tec HQ : aeiaiorac Pap. 7. 433. noXundjuoNOC ARU 
(supr. ju), 5t' evbs /j. yp. Harl. a : noXundujjiONOC fi. 

421. 6n6 : explained by Am. and La less vigorous and picturesque, as it 
R. of fear seizing the knees, as T 34 utto leaves out of sight the movement of 
5e Tpofxos ^X\a/3e 7iua. But it is better the wave. 

to translate, with Fiisi, thereat, as 428. NcoXejuecoc, without cease, a word 

though = under the influence of the of unknown origin. 

noise. This is common in composition, 433. For the pointed contrast between 

e.g. iVorpew, to tremble at a thing; so the silence of the Greeks and the clamour 

v-rral di re Kbixiros odovrcov yiverai A 417. of the Trojans cf. T 1-9. Tpoiec is not 

TaXaci^poNo : cf. ^ojSos . . 6's r' ecpb^riae followed by any verb, the sentence being 

Ta\d(ppovd irep iroXe^iffT-qv N 300 ; and, interrupted by the simile, and taken up 

for the introduction of a supposed spec- in an altered form in 436. We have a 

tator, A 539, etc. similar case in v 81-4 rj 5', ws t . . &s 

422. kOuq is used collectively, as is dpa rrjs. noXunduoNoc, from *7rd-o^at 
shewn hy firaaavTepov. Cf. Kv/xa . . rd acquire (TriwafMai, i-rraadfxyjv, etc.). The 
T epevyerai e 438. The point of com- verb occurs in Pindar, Attic and Ionic 
parison is given by iiraaavrepov, see 427. poetry, and Xen., but not in H. IIoXi;- 
Here the der. from iw-av-ixe'uw, hastening TnjfxouioTis (w 305) is evidently a deriva- 
up in succession (see on A 383), is par- tive (W.-M. H. U. p. 70) ; " for the t? 
ticularly suitable. compare the Attic Tra/MTTTjcria, though d is 

424. ii^N T€ : vulg. fih rd. irpQiTa. otherwise kept throughout the verbal 

and TO. npQTa seem to be used indis- forms in all dialects. The alternative 

criminately (cf. 442 below), but the Tro\inrd/j./j,u>v is defended by Hinrichs as 

former is commoner, and the use of re Aeolic, for -irar-ixwv (cf. iror-via), but 

in similes is habitual, v. H. G. p. 302. there is no support for this (see, however, 

426. ioN : so Ar. ; the vulg. iov is far G. Meyer Gr. § 65). 

lAIAAOC A (rv) 185 

fivplat eaTy'jKao-LV d/jLe\yofxevai ydXa XevKov 

u^iT^e^i /jLe/xaKvlaL, aKovovaai orra dpvcov, 435 

6>? Tpcocov aXa\7]ro<i uva arparov evpvv opcopec 

ov yap 7rdvTQ)v rjev ofjLo<; 6poo<i ovh la jfjpv<;, 

dWa fyXwaa e/jLe/xiKTO, ttoXvkXtjtol 8' eaav civSpe^. 

wpae 8e Tov<i fiev "Aprj^, Tov<i Se <y\avKM7ri^ ^A6i']vr} 

Aetyu.09 T 7]8e 't>6^o<i KoX '"EjpL'i a/xorov fxefMavla, 440 

'A|0eo9 dv8po(f)Ovoio Kacnyvt^rr} erdprj re, 

Tj T oXiyrj fiev 'TvpCora KopvcrcreTaL, avrdp eirena 

ovpavML €aT7]pi^€ KdpT] Kol errl j(6ovl ^aivet. 

7) (r(f)iv KoX Tore veiKO^ o/xollov efilBaXe fxeacrcoi, 

ipy^ofievrj Ka6^ ojjbCKov, 6(f)eX\,ovaa cttovov avSpaJv. 445 

ol 8 ore Sj] p e? '^(opov eva ^vvLovre^ Xkovto, 
(Tvv p e^aXov ptvov<i, crvv 8 e^^ea koL pukve dvhpwv 
jfaXKeoOwprjKcov' drdp da7ri8€<i 6/ji(f)a\oea(TaL 
eTfkrjVT dW7]\7]Lcn, ttoXl"? S' opv/jia'ySo'i opcopet. 
evOa S djx olfjLOiyr] re koI eu'^coXrj TreXev dvSpcov 450 

oXKvvTcov re koI oWvfievcov, pee S' aifiarc yala. 
fo)9 S' ore '^eifiappoc irora/nol Kar opea^i peovTe<i 

434. ecTHKcociN A (T.W.A. ) JNS Vr. b, Pap. y, and yp. 0. 435. JueuuKuTai 

Q : JueuauTai Pap. 7^ 438. rXcocca ueinKTO P Vr. b. 441 om. T^ ; inserted 
by Rhosos iti margin. 442. H t' : h3' J. 443. KdpHN G. 444. jm^c(c)oN 

DQ. 445. ciN^pdc Q {supr. con). 446. Ykonto : Ykonon 0. 448. auT^p 

Z>PE. 449. dXXHXaici G : 6XXhXoici CDJNQ Yr. a b. i| opurjuaBbc 
(not Harl. a) PRU. || dpcbpH Vr. b e corr. 450. Ins' ajua GL : ewe' fiu' DNP. 
451. xe om. HQR : re M. 452. ^contc CJ. 

435. AzHXHc, incessant, from a-Sia- its personifications, unlike the old Epic 

crex-ijs, a.^a{a)exn^ (acc. to Schuize Q. E. manner, and consistently late, 

p. 471), the negative of 5t€X7?s, sep«m<e, 442. Cf. 424, and the well-known 

and so equivalent to o-u^'exTjs. (so Eust. ). imitation of the lines by Virg. Aen. iv. 

Cf. Si^crxof of intervals of time in Soph. 173 sqq. , especially Ingrcditiirque, solo 

0. T. 717. et ccqnit inter nubila condit. 

437. Cf. B 804. For Ya see note on f 43. Notice the aor. ^cTHpise and pres. 
Z 422. BaiNGi side by side, of momentary and 

438. hoXukXhtoi (cf. Ar.'s reading in continuous action as usual. 
A 564, TToXvyepees), called together from Wt' For 6uoiioN see 315. 

many parts. See note on E 491. . 448. ou<paX6eccai : see on A 34. ^ The 

A An mi, XT, 1 If •£ ] • -^ acnloec are merely a repetition of pivovs 

440. ihe three hali-personined spirits ni^ove j !: r 

of battle must not be regarded as siding ' , ,q' ^„\„,„„ ,,* fii^ ^„i„ t^voc in 
.,, .., , 1 i • 1-,'' 449. eriAHNTo, uiet. tlie onlv pres. m 

with either par y, but as arousing alike ^^^^ ^^- ^,^ ^^^^ ^^^,J^ ^^^^^^^_ ^ 

rovs M^" and rov, 5i. Cf. A i 3, N 299, ^^^,^^ f^ ^^,^^; ^j. 44 ig j^ a corrupt 

O 119, S 535, in none 01 which are thev fri e \ ' ;„ <>„„„,i 

, ,' • xi '' passage, ihe pert. ireirKTiiievos is found 

actual persons in the war. t. ?qq 

441. The gen. "Apeoc for "ApT^os recurs 450. Observe the chiasmus otjUWY?? . . 
only in T 47, 6 267 (late passages), and eiJxwXry . . oWvvtwv . . oWvp-ivuv. 

the line, which T omits, might be sus- 452. opec9i : locative, with /card as 

pected, were not the whole passage, with with irp6, T 3. 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

e? ^ia'yd'yKeiav cru/ji^dWeTov o/Spifiov vScop 

KpovvMV e'/c ixe<yaX(i)v koiX7]<; evroaOe '^apdSpTj'i' 

rwv Se T€ rrjXoae Sovttov iv ovpeatv eVXfe 7roi,/jUT]v' 455 

609 TMV fxicryofjievcov yevero la'^r] re irovo^ re. 

irpwTO'i S' AvtI\o'^o<; Tpcocov eXev avSpa Kopvcrrriv 
ead\ov ivl irpoixd'^oicn, %a\vcndS7]v ^Fj-^eTrcoXov 
Tov p e/SaXe 'TTpoiTO<i KopvOo<i (fidXov LTTTroSaaeiTj'i, 
iv Se fM€Too7rcoL irij^e, weprjae h ap' oareov etcrco 460 

alyfxrj '^okKeirj' tov he (rKOTO<; oaae KaXvyjrev, 
I'ipnre h\ ax; ore irvpyo^, ivl KpaTeprji, va/jilvyi. 
TOV Se TrecrovTa ttoSmv eXa/Se Kpelwv 'EXe^r/i/cop 
^a\K03BovTtd8ri<i, fieyaOv/jbwv dp'^o'^ A/SavTcov, 
€\k€ S' vireK ^ekeoiv XeXtTjfxevoi; 6(f)pa Ta-^icrTa 465 

453. MicrdrreiaN Z»GJNPQRTi. | oBpiJUON [AZ>S]T : BjuBpiJUON a 455. cbc 
V Ste Pap. 7^ : twn 9' Bxe Pap. 7". H TH\6ei P Par. b d h (Harl. b interlined) : 
7p. TH\6ce . . a/jLELvov 5e to THX6ei Scbol. PT (Ar. ? see Ludw.). 1| ^oOnoc Pap. 7. 
456. noNOC Ar. OP: 9660c Q. 458. eaXaccidaHN S. 461 om. Pap. 7. || bk: 
bk M. 463. eXaBe : eTXc S. || eXa9HNCop P. 465. t<4x"ctoc J. 

453. JuiicrotrKeiaN, loatersineet, place 
where two valleys (a7K:€a) join their 
streams {air. \ey-). Hentze remarks that 
the picture would be clearer if 454 
stood before 453. oBpiuoN : apparently 
from /3pt- of j3pi-6-w, jBpLapos, ^piijirvos 
(N 521), (Sapjys, etc. ; see ^pl in L. and S. 
Others refer it to v^pis. In any case 
the first ij. of the constantly recurring 
variant bfi^piixos seems to have no justifi- 
cation. The unusual preponderance of 
Mss. in its favour here is due to the idea 
that in this passage it means rain-ivater 
{6/j.^pos). Of. r 357. 

454. KpouNobN CK aierdXcoN seems 
simply to denote the great body of 
water 'fed from mighty springs.' The 
XapddpH will be the ravine leading 
down to the /JuaydyKeia. The simile is 
imitated in Virg. Ae7i. ii. 307, xii. 523. 

455. THX6ce : the use of the terminus 
ad qiiem instead of a quo is frequent in 
cases like this ; the reaching to a distance 
is regarded as a propert}' of the power 
of hearing, not of the sound, II 515 
ovvaaaL de crb TrdvToa' dKOV€i,v, cf. A 21 
Trevdero yap Ki'nrpovde jxiya kX^os. Of 
course the converse is common too, 
I 572 €K\vev ei; 'Ep^^eacpLV, A 603 KXicrir]- 
dev aKOvcras. 

456. noNoc, Ar. for (pofios of mss., 
because he held that (po^os in H. always 

means flight not fear, and in the pre- 
sent case flight has not yet begun on 
either side. So Lehrs Ar. p. 76. 

457. Antilochos the son of Nestor has 
not before been mentioned. 'eKeu, in 
pregnant sense, as very often in II., 
sleiv ; see note on A 328. KopucTHN, 
in full armour, on the analogy of duprjK- 
TTjs, dcrTTKTTTjs, aix/J-VTV^ (on this formation 
see H. G. § 116. 2). In the compound 
l-mroKopvaT-^s, however, the termination 
-r7?s seems to have the usual transitive 
force, ' arrayer of chariots,' and Paley 
suggests that the simple form may here 
mean ' an officer, one who marshals, 
Kopucraei, his troops.' 

459-61 = Z 9-11. nfise, he x>lu7iged 
the spear — the active ir-qyvviJ.L is not 
intrans. in H. except in the perf. iriirriye. 
For 96X00 see App. B. 

462. On cbc '6te without a finite verb 
see B 394. 464 = B541. 

465. 59pa is perhaps to be taken with 
XeXiHja^Noc, compare E 690 XeXirj/xevos 
6<ppa TaxiffTa wcrair' 'Apyeiovs, t 36/ 
dpthp.evo's elos iKoio : see also Z 361, II 653. 
In the second case, however, as well as in 
the present passage, it is possible to make 
\eXn]/j.^i>oi = eagerly (as M 106, II 552 
pdv p idvs AavaQv XeXirip-ivoi), 6(ppa going 
with the principal verb. Compare also 
note on A 133, and If. G. § 307. 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 187 

T€v^ea avXijcreie' jXivvvOa 8e ol yeveO' opfx/j- 
veKpov 'yap ipvovra ISwp /jb€ydOu/jio<i ^Ayy'jvcop 
ifKevpd, Tci ol Kv\frai>ri irap' da7riSo<; e^ec^advdrj, 
ovrrjae ^vcttmi '^a\K7]pei, Xvae Se <yvta. 

&)9 TOP f^ev XtTTe ^u/Lio?, eV avrcoi, 8 epyov irv^Oj] 470 

dpyakeov Tpcowv koI A^atwf ol he \vKot (O'i 
dW)]Xoi<i eTTopovaav, dvrjp S' dvSp' eSvorrdXi^ev. 
€v6' e/3aX' 'AvOe/jLtMvo^ vlov Te\a/j,covto<i Atav, 
rjiOeov OaXepov Itifioeicnov, op irore /j,7]T7}p 

"I8r]d6v Kanovaa irap 6-^07]iaLV %ifi6ePT0<i 475 

yelvar , eVet pa TOKevcrcv d/x ecnrero firjXa ISeadai • 
TOvveKd ficp KoX-eop ^ifjuoelaLov ovhe roKevcn 
Opeirrpa (f)l\oi<i direScoKe, fiLvvpddSio<i 8e ol aloip 
hifKeO VTT A-XaPTO'i jxeyaOvfJiov Sovpl 8ap,epri,. 
Trpcorop ydp fxip lopra /3aXe (TTrj9o<i irapd p,at,ov 480 

8e^Lop, dpriKpv 8e 8l co/jLov '^oXkcop €y^o<i 
TfXdep' 8' ev K0PL7]Lac ■^a/ Treaep atyeipo^; W9, 
Tj pa T ip elafjbeprji €\€o<; fxeydXoco 7r€(pvKrji 

467. rdp p' [AHMS] Hail. a. || epuoNTa : SXkontq B. 468. to oi : re oi 
P. 469. sucTcbi : xa'^Kcbi Cant. 471. axaicoN : SaNacoN P. 472. qXXh- 
Xouc Pap. 7. [i enopouccN Pap. 7^. || ISNondXiHe(N) Yr. a, Apoll. Lex. Zonar. Lex. 
473. eNo' : €N b' R. 475. Sxeaici GQ. 476. enexo J. 478. epenrpa 

Ar. ft : epenxa Zen. JOPQRSU Par. b d P k, A'r. b c, Mosc. 3. 482. fiXueeN T. 
483. eiajuENei L (siq))'. ft) R. \\ nc9UKHl conj. G. Hermann : ne9UKe U : ne<puKei 0. 

466. For JuiNUNea as predicate cf. A flutter, flaunt thy rags,' al. 'shalt 
416. clothe thee.' Neither interpretation 

467. rdp : vulg. yap p, which is at throws much light on the present 
best a clumsy compound (though it is passage. No convincing derivation has 
found a few times) and not required by been suggested. 

either sense or metre ; for ipvovra origin- 474. With Ciuoeicioc cf. 'Za.Tvios, a 

ally began with F, and the caesura contracted form for 'ZarvioeiaLos S 443, 

alone in this part of the line would and -^Ka/ndvdpLos Z 402, all proper names 

suffice to lengthen the short syllable. of Trojans derived from rivers. 

The particle has similarly invaded nearl)^ 478. Cf P 302. epempa, reco7npe7ise 

all MSS. in B 342. for rearing him ; compare the TrXoKafMos 

468. nXeupd : neut. only here, and 'Ivax^oL dpenTi'ipLos o? Aisch. Clio. 6. 
probably A 437, elsewhere TrXevpai. Of. 479. For un' Aiontoc Soupi see F 436. 
A 122 vevpa by vevprj (bowstring), T-apyjCov 480. np(2>TON, here local, in the fore- 
by Trapeid, nap' dcnidoc, were exposed front. 

beside his shield. 483. clajueNHi, loicland, apparently 

470. auTcbi, the body, as opposed to from root ■17?, to sit, for Tjaa/jLevri, cf. 

the departed 9vp.6s : see on A 4. The rifxivwi ev x^pwt Theok. xiii. 40. (Curt. 

neglect of the F of f eproN is rare (about Et. no. 568.) It will then be a false 

18 cases out of 250, Knos de dig. p. transcription of HEAMENEI = rjafxivrji. 

96, 10 of which can be easily corrected). n€<puKHi is Hermann's conjecture for 

472. eSNondXizGN, shook, an obscure iveipvKei of all ; the pluperf. is 

word recurring only ^ 512 rd crd paKea entirely out of place in a simile, and of 

avoir aXl^ei.'s, apparently ' thou shalt course the authority of MSS. as between 


lAIAAOC A (iv) 

Xeirj, drdp re ol o^oc iir aKpordrrji ireipvaaL' 

TTjv fiev 6 cipfxaTO'TTrj'yo'i dvyp aWwvi cnhr-jpoiL 485 

i^erafM , 6(f)pa Xtvv KapL'^^rrii irepiKaWel Sicppcoi • 

77 fjuev T d^o/xevT] Kelrat irora/jiolo irap' o-^dwi' 

rolov dp ^AvOe/xiSrjv ^t/noeiacov e^evdpi^ev 

A.Xa'i 8co<y€V'>]'i. Tov S' "Ayri^o? alo\o6(iopr)^ 

Tlpia/j,iS7]<i KaO^ OfxCkov aKovrtcrev o^ei hovpi' 490 

TOV fiev d/jiap6\ o 8e AevKov 'OSvcrcreo'; iaOXov eralpov 

^ejSXrjKei ^ou/3(t)va ve/cvv erepcocr epvovra' 

I'jpL'ire 8' a/i^' avrwi, veKpo^ 8e ol eKirecre '^ecpo^. 

TOV 8' OSfcref? ixd\a dvfMov diroKTaixevoLO ■^oXdiOrj, 

^rj he Sid Trpo/nd'^wv KeKopv6fjL€vo<; aWoirt -^aK-KOiL, 495 

(TTrf Se /xaX' iyyv'i Icov, Koi aKovnae Sovpl (fiaeivcoc 

dficjil 6 iraiTTrjva'i. viro he Tpoye<i KeKdhovTO 

dvhpo<; dKovriacravTO^. 8' ov^ dXiov /3eXo9 77/cey, 

484. auTdp M. || 6Kp6TaT0i Q. |[ n€:9UKaci G. 486. 69P' DGP. || Kouijjei Q. 
487. noTOJUioO naph G. 489. ToO : t6n Vr. a. 490. doupi : x^^"^"' -0- il 

QKONTice 3oupi 9aeiNc<i Q (so ev dWcoi A). 491. Suapx' J. |j oduccecoc BJMil. 

493. auxbN N. || CKncce : eK9ure Par. c {sup?\ cKnece) g, yp. ami Kara, nva twv 
dvTiypd(pwv Eust. 

et and 77(1) is 7iil. La R. quotes a 
number of instances where the perf. 
subj. has been thus corrupted into the 
plup., A 477, n 633, P 435, a 316, <r 
133, X 469. Tre(j)VK€t could be defended 
only as a secondary pres. from *Tr€(pvKcj, 
of. dvuya — dvuiyei, etc., //. G. § 27. 
SXgoc : cf. p 208 aiyeipoov vdaroTpeipeojv. 

484. Mure quotes ' the practice, still 
common in Southern Europe, of trim- 
ming up the stem of the poplar to 
within a few feet of the top, which, left 
untouched, preserves the appearance of 
a bushy tuft,' so that the comparison 
is between this tuft and the warrior's 

485. The use of so soft and weak a 
wood as poplar for the felloe of a wheel is 
certainly curious. The wood is suited to 
thepurpose,however, by its flexibility and 
elasticity. Ameis suggests t hat th e bronze 
tire (eTricTffujTpov) would supply the re- 
quisite hardness. Probably the Homeric 
carpenter had not learned to bend tough 
wood by the aid of steam, and was 
therefore driven to the use of the weaker 
kinds for purposes such as tlie present. 

487. JuieN re in place of the usual 5^ 
re, to add the final touch to a simile, is 
very rare. Cf., however, E 556. 

488. 'ANeeuOHC, from the short form 
of 'Avde/xiuv (473), like AevKaXiSTjs from 

489. aioXoecbpHH, with flashing 
armour, does not imply a breastplate. 
It refers perhaps rather to the quick 
movement of the wearer (cf. vrooas 
aioKos) than to the brightness of the 
armour itself. 

491. *03ucceoc for '05i/cr<T^os is found 
only here, with 'OSi'creOs w 398, 'Odvcraea 
p 301. Cf. on 441. 

492. BeBXHKei : the plpf. is an in- 
tensive imperf., made his hit {H. G. 
§ 28). But, as Delbrlick remarks 
{Grumlr. iv. 227), in use the word gives 
the impression rather of an aor., while 
eTretr'Xyjyov is used as imperf. It has 
been in fact suggested by Brugmann 
that the plpf. forms in -ea were origin- 
ally aorists {ibid.), ^yepcoce, to the other 
side, from Antiphos' point of view. 

497. KCKdaoNTO (here and 574) is 
referred to xdj'o/^tat, gave way, the gen. 
diNdpdc being ablative. The act. KeKaSuiv 
(A 334), KeKadrjcrei. {(p 153) in the sense 
separate from are the same word, but it 
is not clear why the % has become k. 
Perhaps the real forms are k^x^^'^^''''^^ 

lAIAAOC A (iv) 189 

aX\' viop TlpiafJ,oio voOov jBuXe AijfioKocovra, 

09 ol '\/3v866ev rjXde, Trap' iTTTrov MKeuKov 500 

TOP p 'OSucreu? erdpoio ydXwcrdixevo^ jBuXe Sovpl 

KopcTTjv' t) 8' erepoco Bid KpoTcicpoio Treprjcrev 

atVyu,?; '^aXKeLT]' rov he (tkoto<^ oaae KoXv^e, 

BovTrrjcrev Be irecroov, dpd/3r]cre Se rev^e' eV avrdoi. 

ydtprjcrav 8' viro re Trpo/jca'^ot Koi (f)aLSi/jLO<i ' FjKTOip' 505 

^Apyeioi Se /jieya la-^ov, ipvaavro Se vetcpov<i, 

XOvcrav he ttoXv Trporepco. vefxecrrjae h AttoWcov 

Ilepjap^ov eKKarihcov, Tpcoecrac he KeKXer dvaa^i' 

" 6pvva-d\ iTTTroha/jioi Tpcoe?, /i?;^' e'iKere ^apyu.?;? 

'Apjeioi<;, eVel ov cr^i \l6o^ %/3W9 ovhe (Tihrjpo^; 510 

yaXKov avaayeaQai i-apieai"^poa ^aXK.op.evoicnv. 

ov fidv ouS' 'A^iXeu? Siriho'i ird'C'; rjVKOfxoLo 

fMdpvarat,, aXX' eVl vrjual '^o\ov dvpLoXyea irecrcreL" 

(S? (hdr diro tttoXco^ hetvo<i ^eo?- avrdp Aj^aiOV<i 
oypcre Ato? OvydrTjp Kvhiarrj rpcToyeveta, 515 

ipYO/jbev)] Kad^ ofiikov, o6i /jbe6i€vra<i 'Ihoiro. 

ev6' ^Ap.apvyKetSrjv Atcopea pLolp" eirehr^ae' 

499. npidjuiou Q. II 5HJuioK6eNTa J. 500. fiXee : fiKe Q. 501 om. 0^. \\ 

TON p' : t6n V On\ 502. K6pcHc H. || erdpoio U. 504. auTcbi : (2oucon M. 
506. juera AG : uer' fi. |1 eYaxoN Pap. 7. I! eipucaNTO J : eppiicaNxo Vr. c, 
Yen. B, Mosc. 1 3. 508. KeKXux' J. 509. 'I'Kexe J. 510. apreicoN 

supr. : dpreiouc Pap. 7. || xP"^c oii'dk Pap. 7. 512. uhn GQ. 513. weuci 

Pap. 7. 514. n6Xioc Q. 516. JueeieNxa N : JueeieNxec M. 517. ajuapir- 

reiSHN Q {sutjr. k over second r). || juoTpa neSHce Ar. : JutoTpa cneawce P. 

500. YnncoN : apparently Priam kept a Libya. All these words are possibly 

stud-farm at Abytlos ; compare O 548 connected with a stem rpiro-, meaning 

with note. His horses were of the i/-a/er, which appears in rptrwy, 'A/a0trptT7;, 

famous breed of Tros, for which see Skt. trita (Pick). Ameis suggests that 

E 265-72, T 221-30. It would be simjiler this may contain an aUusion to the 

to iinderstand 'beside his chariot,' like myth that all the gods were children of 

Trap' dairiBos above (468 ; so Monro) ; Okeanos and Tethys (S 201) ; Athene 

but the order of the words is against has no special connexion with water, 

this. In the Catalogue (B 836) Abydos Another derivation (Eustath. ) from an 

is given to Asios, not to Priam. alleged rpLTib = head (i.e. born from the 

508. rieprajmoc, the citadel of Troy, head of Zeus) lacks all trustworthy con- 
where was the temple of Apollo, E 446 ; firmation. The original significance of 
afterwards called to Uepya/xov (cf. "IXiou the epithet is not now to be discovered, 
by Homer's "IXios) or to. Uepya/iia.. The See note on drpuTiCPT}, B 157. 
tragedians use it in its primitive sense 516. Jueei^Nxac, violating the F of 
as a common name, 'citadel'; it is Fldoiro, is apparently wrongly ada]>ted 
doubtless conn, with 7rLip7os, Germ. from fieOuuTa in N 229. We can of 
Burg. course read the sing, here with one MS., 

515. xpixoreweia, also 39, X 183, but it is not Homeric to apply the par- 

7 378 ; derived by the Greeks from a ticiple to the o/jllXos at large. See note 

river Triton, variously located in Boiotia on 232. 

or Thessaly, or from the lake Tritonis in 517. ^neaHce, i.e. prevented his 

190 lAIAAOC A (IV) 

yepfjuahioii yap l3Xi]T0 irapa cr(f)vpov oKpLoevn 

Kvy/jLTjv Se^trep'^v' ^aXe he ^prjiKwv a<yo<i avBpcor, 

Jleipco<i 'l/i/3pacri.8T]<;, 09 ap' AlvoOev eiXTfkovdei' 520 

a/j.<f)OTep(jo Se revovre Kol oarea \da<; avatSr)^ 

a.'^pL'i CLTrrfKoirjaev S vtttlo^ iv KOVirjiat 

KCLTT'TTecrev, ajK^w 'X^'ipG (piXoa erdpoLac 7reTacraa<i, 

dv/uLov aTTOTTveloiv. 3' eTreSpa/iiev 09 p e/3dXev irep, 

Tlelpco'i, ovra Be Sovpl Trap o^j^aKov eK h dpa irdaai 525 

yyvTO yapuoX yo\dBe^, rov Se <jkoto^ oaae Kakvy\re. 

Tov 8e S6a<i AIt(o\,o<; direaavixevov /3d\e Sovpl 

cnepvov virep [xal^olo, irciyr] S ev irvevpuovi ycCKKO'^. 

cuyylixoK-ov Be ol rfkde %oa<i, e/c 8' 6/3pifjiov ey^Of; 

ecTTrdcraTO arepvoto, epvaaaro Be ^t(f)o<; o^v' 530 

TMC 6 ye jaaTepa Ty'^jre fxeai^v, eic B' alvvro dufxov. 

rev^ea 8' ovk direBvae' TreplcrTrjcrav <ydp eraipoc 

®prjlKe<i aKpoKOfioc SoX.t^' ey^ea '^epalv e^ovTe<i, 

OL e p^eyav irep eovra Kat icfydi/jiou koL dyavov 

Mcrav diro a^eloiv Be '^aaadfievo<i Tre^eixi-^Orj. 535 

518. OKpuoENTi CJMOPRS Pap. 7. 520. neipcoc : Hpcoc Strabo. 1| '6c (t 

NS. 11 AXHXoueei (,). 522. dnHWoiHccN CP Vr. a: oinHXXoiojceN L : cinH*XoJcoc€N 
H. 524. uneapaAiEN Pap. 7. |i nep : juin GXS. 527. aneccujuieNON GMOTU 
{supr. k) Harl. a b, Par. b^ c^, Mosc. 3 : cncccuJueNON ft : dneccuuewoN or ^neccii- 
JUSNOC Ar. Six"^?. 528. unep : un6 M (un^p Hail. a). [| nXeiiuoNi Phot. Lex 
320. 529. ojuBpiuoN C^GtUMQiPQ. 531. a'iNUTO : apNuxo P. 535. 

noXeuixQH G.JLT. 

escape ; X 5 E/cropa 5' avrov /jLelvai. cr 370 only). It seems to mean utterly, 
oXotTj /xo?p' iireS-qffev. though this creates some difficulty in 

520. rieipcoc is the reading of all Mss. the explanation of P 599, q.v. 

here and in 525, though in B 844 the 524. i> evidently represents a lost f 

term is more correctly Iletpoos. _ . 7 . ^ ■' ' 

521. xeNONxe : H. generally uses the ' _ ' 

dual, apparently from a belief that the ,, ^^7. aneccuueNON: vulg. eTrea^. ; but 

tendons always went in pairs, ivdvra ra Y"-^, advance^ of Peiroos is completed in 

rerafxeua vevpa rhovTas"Op.-npos\iyeL, Ki: f'^^, so it is more natural to suppose 

on T 478 ; cf. X 396. aNaia)4c, reckless ; ^^^^\ \^ ^^^^ "^o^?^ retreating. The usual 

or perhaps inhuman comes nearer to the '^'oi^' i'owever, is airLovra (N 567, a 409, 

idea of the stone subject to no aiSws for ^^c.), and a7r€,T(n-^e;'oz' seems rather 

the opinion of mankind. Compare N strong for mere retreat. Hence iwe,Tav- 

139 (where, however, there is no intima- ^f °.^' ^^]': alternative read by Ar. in one 

tion of the stone doing any harm to a ^^ l^^^. editions is perhaps more suitab e, 

human being), and the famous descrip- especially as Peiroos is woundea m the 

tion of the stone of Sisyphos, X 598. ^^^^ast, not in the back. 
Aristotle {Rhd. iii. 11) mentions this 533. OKpoKouoi : cf. B 542 "A^avres 

as a case of the attribution of human ci'rt^ei' koij.6wvt€s, and note there. v\pL- 

qualities to lifeless objects. xairat &vSpes, Pind. P. iv. 172, perhaps 

522. axpic recurs H 324, P 599, in means the same thing. 

all cases in description of wounds (the 535. neXeuixeH, staggered ; was shaken 

form dxp' as a preposition with gen. by the attack, cf. 9 443, IT 612, 

lAlAAOC A (iv) 


C09 TW 7' iv Kovirjicn irap' uWifkoiau reraauTjv, 
?} rot 6 ^ev ^prjcKMV, 6 8' 'ETreicoy -^aXKO^iTdovwv 
r]y€/u,6ve<i' ttoWoI Se ireptKreLvovro koX ciWol. 

evdd K6V ovKeTL epyov dvrjp ovoaairo fiereXOcov, 
09 Tt? er d^Xr]TO<i koX dvovraroi; 6^ei -^oXkom 540 

hivevoi Kara /jueaaov, ciyoL Se e YlaWd'i A0t]V7) 
yeipo^ eXova, avrdp /BeXecov direpvKOi epcorjv 
TToWol yap Tpcocov Kal 'A^aiMV -i^/jiaTt Keivwi 
7rp7)ve€<i iv Kovlrjicrt, Trap dWriXoccrc reravro. 

536. TOO r' : oY r' G. || nerdceHN DJ {e corr.) Q. 539. oD, Ke ti (Ar.?) A. || 
a* eproN 0. 541. aiweuei GH. I| Qrei GN {supr. 01) F(} : arH {supr. 01). 

542. cXouca arhp Eust. : eXoOc* ariip A (supr. a over c and u over t) G {snpr. a 
over c) HJi(0 QK. : eXoOca auxdp OT. |i anepuKei BQ. 

539. For oOk^ti there was a curious 
variant ou /ce ti ; it is not quite clear 
from the scholia whether Ar. adopted 
it or not. If si>, he probably did it 011 
the analogy of S.v Kev in N 127. The 
repetition of k€v would be quite un- 
Homeric, and ovKen gives a perfectly 
good sense, viz. ' it had now come to 
this, that none could make light,' as 
might conceivably have happened before. 
See I 164 and note. uexeXGcoN, entering 
the fight. 

540. aBXHTOC by missiles, ONOUTaToc 
by thrust, as usual. 

542. The MS. readings seem to point 
to an original ekovaa drdp, which is 
supported by the fact that avrdp always 

has the first syll. in arsis. But the 
hiatus is not allowed in this place ; in 9 
503, A 732, ^ 694, and other cases 
where hiatus occurs before drdp, it is 
always in the principal caesurae. cpcoHN, 
rush, impetus. 

543. Bentley and Heyne, followed by 
Nauck and others, consider the last two 
lines of the book as spurious. The words 
HjmaTi kgIncon, in combination with the 
plupf. TexaNTO, certainly look as though 
they belonged to the end, not to the 
beginning of a day's fighting, and may 
therefore have been a rhapsodist's 'tag,' 
meant to wind up the end of a day's 
recitation, and omitted when A was im- 
mediately followed by E. P. Knight 
suspects 539-42 as well. 



With this book we come upon the first of the aristeiai, sections of the Iliad 
in which a single hero comes to the front and for a shorter or longer time 
assumes a prominence which does not elsewhere belong to him. The title 
Atop/Sous apto-reta is as old as Herodotos, who quotes by that name 
Z 289-92 (ii. 116). The restriction of the name to E dates of course only 
from the present division into books, and the wider use recognises the fact 
that E and Z are a continuous narrative. In the early part of Z Diomedes 
is as prominent as in E, and the accoiint of Hector's visit to Troy is based 
entirely upon a state of things in which Diomedes has struck more terror 
into the Trojans than ever Achilles did (Z 96-101). 

But though the narrative of the two books now forms a single story — 
at least w^ith the exception of two episodes, the duel of Sarpedon and 
Tlepolemos in this book, and the meeting of Diomedes and Glaukos in the 
next, for these are but loosely interwoven into the texture — yet none the 
less the structure of this part of the Iliad presents a most difficult problem. 
Leaving for later consideration one of the most glaring contradictions in the 
Iliad, that between the acts of Diomedes in E and his words in Z 128, we 
find in the former book itself such confusion of motive and peculiarity of 
style and contents as forbid us to regard it as a single and harmonious 

The natural division of the book is into three parts : (i.) 1-453, 
Diomedes makes havoc of the Trojans, and, though wounded by Pandaros, 
returns to the fight, and drives Aphrodite bleeding from the field ; (ii.) 
454-710, Ares and Apollo rally the Trojans, and Diomedes for a while 
retreats to the background ; the principal episode is the killing of Tlepolemos 
by Sarpedon; (iii.) 711-909, Hera and Athene come to the aid of the 
Greeks, and Diomedes wounds Ares with the assistance of Athene. 

The general plan of the Iliad is observed only in the fact that Achilles 
does not appear on the scene. On the other hand, it is certain that the 
balance of the whole story is seriously impaired by the deeds of Diomedjjs, 
who far outdoes any achievements of Achilles, the hero of the Wrath. Nor 
is there any clear allusion to the immediately preceding duel of Menelaos 
and Paris ; the words of Pandaros indeed in 207 contain such a reference, 
but they are betrayed as a later addition by the fact that they are an obvious 
expansion of the preceding line 188. As they stand they do little more 
than emphasise the complete silence of Diomedes about the gross treachery of 

lAIAAOC E (v) 193 

his victim, or of the poet who misses the imperative duty of calling 
attention to the swift retribution which overtakes the violator of the truce. 
It is patent that the Diomedeia was composed in complete independence of 
the two preceding books, and the passage 206-8 was only added afterwards 
when the Iliad was reaching its present shape. 

The duel of Sarpedon and Tlepolemos again stands by itself, and is 
never alluded to elsewhere. The introduction of so important a figure as 
Sarpedon in 471 is singularly abrupt, and the Herakleidai are elsewhere 
conspicuous by their absence from Homer. The episode, like the death of 
Sarpedon himself in IT, is full of vigour, but like it is easily detachable 
from its context, and may have been originally composed for almost any 
part of the Tale of Troy. 699 is evidently meant to follow 606 (cf. 702 witli 
604), and the Tlepolemos episode unnaturally breaks the sequence. 

But it is when we come to the large portions of the book which deal 
with the intervention of the gods that the real difficulties are felt. They 
begin early. The short colloquy of Athene and Ares in 29-36 is 
entirely devoid of motive, and the allusion to the wrath of Zeus seems to 
imply the command to the gods to abstain from battle which does not in 
fact come till 0. Athene again intervenes in 122, when Diomedes has 
been wounded in the shoulder. After the prayer of Diomedes in the 
preceding lines, we should suppose that Athene merely healed the wound, 
as a god, from afar. Her unexpected presence on the spot and the instruc- 
tions she gives to Diomedes to attack Aphrodite are in preparation for the 
important episode which begins with 330. Up to that line the rescue of 
Aineias by his mother runs the ordinary course of such rescues in Homer 
(see for instance 1. 23) ; Aphrodite saves Aineias, and no more need be 
said. But with the attack on Aphrodite herself, we enter an episode 
which stands quite apart from the rest of the Iliad. We find ourselves in a 
world of myths of which we know nothing elsewhere. It is not here a 
matter of contradictions or inconsistencies, though they are to be found ; we 
are surprised, for instance, to find Athene in Olympos when her personal 
presence on the battle-field has just been insisted on ; and the poet is clearly 
much troubled with the question of the continuance of the fighting over 
Aineias, when that hero has been removed to Troy. Diomedes too thrice 
attacks Apollo in strange forgetfulness of the injunctions Athene has laid 
on him. In fact the return to earth from Olympos is beset with such 
difficulties that the sudden introduction of Sarpedon is almost a relief from 
obvious embarrassment. But more serious than all such minor difficulties 
is the iin-Homeric atmosphere which reigns till we return to the original 
stream of narrative in 519. 

The third section, beginning with 711, bears a most suspicious resem- 
blance, with its exaggeration of divine faculties to the verge of grotesqueness, 
to the buffoonery of the Theomachy in 4>. It is pretty obviously a deliberate 
attempt to outbid the wounding of Aphrodite, and various peculiarities in 
the language all seem to point to a late period of the Epos. Further- 
more it will be seen that tlie episode contains a large number of 
obviously borrowed lines. 753-4 come from A 498-9, and make nonsense 
here, for the goddesses have left Olympos. 791 is from N 107, where it is 
in place ; here it is simply untrue that the Greeks are fighting " at the 


194 lAIAAOC E (v) 

ships." The arming of the goddesses in 719-52 is largely identical with 
6 381-96, though the latter book is itself such a free borrower that little 
stress can be laid on this. But the description of the armour bears a strong 
resemblance to that at the beginning of A, a notoriously late passage ; and 
is in all probability expanded by a late hand. 

The whole book then seems to illustrate the process of concretion and 
expansion which mark the Iliad as a whole. To a real Aristeia of Diomedes 
as a nucleus, in which there was no intervention of the gods beyond the 
healing of Diomedes' wound, there are additions on the one hand of the 
Sarpedon episode, which may have originally been composed for some other 
place, and on the other hand the two woundings of Aphrodite and Ares, 
which can only have grown up where they now stand, one on the top of the 
other. And as usual we find that the more personal and human the 
interference of the divine element, the more suspicion of late origin 
accompanies it. 

But after all is said, these weaknesses touch only the general structure 
of the book, and in no way aifect the beauty of the episodes, which, though 
confined within narrow limits, are in the highest degree vivacious and 
varied. Sarpedon, the most striking of the few new characters to whom we 
are introduced, is here, as on the rare occasions when he reappears, a 
remarkable picture, drawn in few and strong lines, of the purest aristocrat, 
with all the chivalry and not a little of the morgue of his more than princely 
place. In strong contrast to him we meet another new personage in Ares, 
the Olympian Porthos, whose deification is little more than an exaggeration 
of the swashbuckler's less attractive attributes ; it is the human Diomedes 
who typifies all the nobler qualities of pious heroism. 


AiojuHdouc apicTeia. 

evd^ av TvB6t87]L Aio/xijBe'i TlaWa'i A67]V7] 
Smk€ fi6vo<i Kal 6dpao<i, 'iv eK^rfko's [xera iraaLV 
ApjeiOiaL yevoiTO ISe /cXeo? ia6\ov apocro. 
Sale 01 eK Kopvdo^ re koI dcrTriSo^ dKcifiarop irvp, 
dcnep oircopcvMi ivaXlyKiov, 09 re fxd\i(7Ta 5 

XafiTrpov 7ra/jL(paLvr]iai XeXoufxevo'i VlKeavolo' 
Tolov ol TTvp halev diro KpaTo<i re Kal wjjlwv, 
ojpae 8e fxcv Kara [xecraov, o9l ifKelaTOt KKoveovro. 
r)v he Tt9 iv Tpcoecrcrt, /\dprj<; d(f)veio^ dfiv/jicov, 

3. fidk GJ. 4. 9aTe oi : 9aTeN of Par. e : 9aie3eoi Ambr, and TLvts ap. 

East. 11 Ik om. (}. 5. acrepi (i Aiiilir. {A siqrr.) and yp. Eust. 1| eNaXirrioN (.}. 
6. najuipaiHCi R^. 8. KXoNeONTO : Kai apicroi H'. 

4. date oi is added epexegetically to 
5uK€, and hence without a conjunction, 
as € 234, etc. But the variants 8aTe 8e 
oi iK KopvOos and Sate oi Kopvdos may point 
to an okler Sate 8e oi Kop. , or rather, as van 
L. suggests, 8aZe 5e f'(ot) e'/c Kop. For 
the idea cf. S 206-14, and X 134-5. The 
fire seems to be rather a symbol of in- 
vincible fury than a physical Hame ; for 
it is not remarked in the sequel by friend 
or foe. 

5. This fine simile is essentially like 
that of X 26-9, whence we see that the 
star of summer is Seirios, ' the dog of 
Orion.' For oncopiNoc, which lience 
must mean the 'dog-days,' the time of 
the heliacal rising of Seirios, rather 
than what we call autumn, cf. also II 
385, 'I' 346, \ 192 {TedaXvla, as the 
season of fruit). The Homeric division 
of the year is into spring, early summer 
{O^pos), late summer {o-n-wprj), and winter, 
and corresponds with the fact that the 
transition from the heat of summer to 
the cold of winter is in Gi'eece extremely 

rapid. The scansion oTrwp'ivos, though 
invariable in H., is strange beside eapivus 
with r. Cf. d7X"'"'"'''0'- -^ very con- 
jectural explanation and etymology will 
be found in Sehulze Q. E. p. 474. For 
the elision of -t of the dat. cf. H. G. 
§ 376 (3). 

6. XeXouueNoc, as S 489 XoerpQv 
'^Keauoh. For the gen. cf. Z 508, etc. 
najU9alNHici : the usual subj. in relative 
clauses of similes (138 and often). Nitzsch 
curiously read Traficpaivijcn as indie. — an 
impossible form of course. 

7. Sehol. A on this line is interesting 
as giving one of the few extant specimens 
of the method of Zoilos, the famous 
'O/j-ripo/xdaTLt, — " ZcotXos 6 'E<peaLos Karr]- 

yopet TOV TOTTOV TOVTOV, /cat /J.€fJ.(pfTai TWL 

TTOLTjTTji. OTL Xlav 'yeXot'ws TrenoirjKev e/c riZv 
uj/xwv TOV ALOfiT^dovs Kaibfievov irvp- iKLv- 
dvvtvae yap Slv KaracpXexdyji^aL 6 ijpus." 
The strokes of the lash do not seem to 
have been very formidable. 

9. For this exordium cf. P 575. 



tjoeu? HcfyalaTOiO' Sv(o 8e ol vle€<i ijarrjv, 10 

^7)jev(; 'ISat09 re, fxd'^r]^ iu elSore irdcrrj^- 
rco 01 cnroKpivOevre evavrio) op/j,7]di]T7]v 
TO) fiev d^ LTTTTOiLv, 8 diro '^dovo'i topvvro 7re^09. 
ol 8' OTC hrj (T'^ehov rjcrav iir d'KXn'jXoiatv I6vr€<;, 
^7jyev<i pa irpoTepo^ irpotei SoXl-^octklov 67^09 • 15 

TvSetSeo) S' vTrep Mfxov dpicrrepov rfKvO^ uKcoKr) 
€7^609, ouS' e/3a\ avTov. o B varepo^ copvvro ^aXKcoc 
TvSetSrjf;- rod S' ov-^ aXiov /3eXo9 eK^vye '^etp6<i, 
dW' e/SdXe crTT]6o<i /u,€Tafid^tov, Mae S' a^' 'ittttcov. 
18alo<i S' diropovae Xcttoop TrepiKaWea Bicppov, 20 

ovS^ ctXt) Trept^rjvai dSeXcfyeiov Kra/xevoio • 
ovSe jdp ovBe K€V avTo<i vTreKCJivye Krjpa pLeXatvav, 
dXX" ' Hcpacaro'i epvro, adwae 8e vvktI KaXvyjra^, 
&)9 81] oi fxr) ird'y^v jepcov dKa')^7]/u,€vo<; etrj. 

10. iepeuc GHJMOPQ. || uiee* L. || HCTHN : Athn D {p. ras.) JL : ikcQHU NQ 
{siqrr. ct) : hcqn C. 11 om. Q. 1| i^oxe Ambr. 12. anoKpiNeeNTe AHP : 

SnoKpieeNxec OQ (Hail, a supr.) : dnoKpieeNxe fi. |! cNaNTico ACDJLT Ambr. : 
eNQNTioN 0. li opJULHeHTHN DLNOQ Ambr.: cbpjUHeHTHN fi (including A, T.W.A.). 
13 0771. C. 15. np6TepoN Q. 16. TudeiSou G. 17. 5' ucTepoc : hk 

Seiixepoc Vr. a. 20. cnopouce N. !i 6n6pouceN idcoN P. 21. nepiueTNai 

PQR. i; a5e\(peo0 (,>. 

10. Hephaistos, like Athene, though 
represented as allied with the Greeks, is 
worshipped in Troy. Kcthn: here only. 

12. dnoicpiNe^NTe, separating them- 
selves from the throng, of : for the dat. 
after ivavrlos cf. I 190, A 67, but it is 
only here used of hostile meeting, in 
which sense the gen. is commoner. 

17. auTON seems to be used iu the 
later weak sense = [iiv, not to contrast 
the man with something else. Van L. 
conj. 'i^a\h F', 6 8e devrepos, on the 
ground that, except in tlie identical n 
479, devrepos, not iiarepos, is always used 
in this sense. 

19. JLieraAJidzioN =jueTa toZs /xa^o7s, be- 
tween the breasts. For similar cases, 
where an adjective compounded with a 
preposition and a substantive expresses 
the same idea as a preposition governing 
a case, we may compare /xeraddpirLos 
(/xera ddpwov) d 194, /j-eradrj/xioi, Kara- 

dvfltOS, VTTUpOCplOS, iTTOfKpdXiOV (H 267), 

and others ; and for the special use of 
/jLerd, expressing ' between ' two or more 
things, compare in later Greek ^leratxM'o^ 
fxeraKocr/j-Los, /xeTaKV/jiLos, ixeTairvpyLov. The 

word here (as in H 267) is rather a 
neuter used as an adverb than an ad-, 
jective agreeing with a-TTJdos. 

20. 6n6pouce, either iu order to escape, 
when oCide = ' and . . not ' ; or to 
defend his brotlier, when ovde = ' Met 
. . not ' (so Scliol. A). KaTTjyopel /cat 
Tovrov Tov Toirov 6 Zw'iXos, 6tl \iav, 
(p-qcrL, yeXoiws TreTroirjKev 6 Trotijrrjs rbv 
'IBaXov dTToKiiroPTa Toiis 'iTTirovs /cat to 
apfia (pevyeiv • ijdijyaTO yap fxaWov iirl 


21. For ddeX9eioG Ahrens, no doubt 
rightly, reads d5e\^e6o -. this alteration 
can always be made wherever d5e\<peiov 
occurs, and all other cases are from 
d5e\0e6s in Homer. 

22. On the double ooSe Schol. A 
rightly remarks, '^(ttlv 7/ /xia fj-ev ewl tov 
irpdyixaros, Oarepa 8e eiri rod Trpoailnrov : 
i.e. the second ov5^ goes with atros and 
contrasts the two persons ; the first 
contrasts the two events (one real, the 
other hypothetical). Cf. B 703, Z 130. 

24. of, i.e. his old priest, their father. 
dKQXHJueNoc, according to the traditional 
explanation, is a perfect with 'Aeolic 

lAIAAOC E (v) 197 

"irrrovi S' e^e\daa<; /xejaOvfiou TySeo? vlo<; 25 

Smkgv eralpoiaiv KardyeLV KOi\a<; eVl vrjwi. 

Tpoje? Be /ji£<yci6vfMoc ivrel cSov vie Auprjro'i 

Tov fiev dXevdfievov, top 8e Krd/uuevov irap' 6^ea(f)i, 

irdcnv opivOrj Ovfio*;' drdp <y\avK0)7rL<i A6r)V7] 

'V€ipo<i kXova eTreecrat Tvpoarjiiha Oovpov 'Aprja' 30 

"'Ajoe?, "Ape? /SporoXoiye, paaK^ove, rei'^eatTrXijTa, 

ovK dv hrj Tpcoa'i pblv edaaifiev koL A'^aiov'i 

fjbdpvaa6\ oTTTTOTepoLcrt Trarijp Zei"? Kv8o<i ope^rji ; 

vo)i Be '^a^co/xeaOa, Aco<; 3' dXecofxeda fjbrjVLV. 

609 elirovaa fid^t]'; €^i]<yaye Oovpov ' Aprja. 35 

TOP fiev erreLTa KaOelaev eV rjloevn ZKa/jidvSpcoi, 
Tpcoa*? 8' eKXtvav Aavaol' eXe 8' dvSpa eKaaro'i 
rjryefjbovcov. 7rp(OTo<i 8e dva^ dvBpoiv ^ Aya/xe/jivcov 
dp-^ov ' A\l^(i)V(ov, 'OSioi' jxeyav, eK/3a\e Slcppov' 
TrpcoTcoi yap arpecpdevn fieracppepcoi ev Sopv TrPj^ev 40 

M[X(ov fxeaariyv^, Bid Be (7T7]decr(piv eXacrae. 
[BovTTTjcrev Be ireaoov, dpdjBrjcre Be rev^e eV aurcot.] 

27. 5e : bk G'^. 28. aXeuducNON : aXeudueNON An. (in lemma ; Ar. ? v. 

444). 29. dpuNSH MR {supr. i). il aorbp ]\Li,). 30. cXoOca enecci (>. 31. 
xeixeciBXfiTa Zen. King's^ (Par. a S7ipr. d ^^npr.), yp. : reixeci nXfiKxa D. 32. 

edccoucN P. 33. 6p^sei CMQ Vr. a^ c : dpesoi L {si/pr. h). 34. xazcojueea 

DG^PQ : xaz6ju.eea R. 36. JUl€N eneiTO : jmeT^nciya S. 1| KauidN9pcL>(i) C (p. 

r«s.) GLQRK 38. npcoTOC : nporcpoc H. 41 om. Lips.* 1| &iicj3 J. 42 

'om. ACT* Eton.t 

accent ' ; and so the intin. a.Ka.xi')<ydai. else repeats a word without change twice 

But it would seem preferable to regard in immediate succession, common though 

these forms as uon- thematic presents the practice is in later poets ; a long 

{H. G. § 19) of the e- stem aKaxe-, of list of instances is given by Bekker 

which we have a trace in the aor. //. ^. 194. The most similar phrases in H. 

a.Kdx'n(^e. There is a perf. of different are alvbdev aivws, oioOev oTos, and others 

formation in aKrix^SaraL P 637, aK-rixefJ-evos which will be found in the exhaustive 

S 29. The reduplication in this verb catalogue given by Bekker I.e. reixeci- 

extends through all forms. dXdX-qcrdai. is nXfira, coming near to walls, in hostile 

an analogous case. sense, like i-rrXrjVT dWrfKiqun A 449, 

31. *Apec, "Apec : see Appendix D for etc. 

the scansion of "Apijs, and for the etfect 33. 6nnoTepoici, i.e. to see to which 

of the iirst arsis in lengthening a short party Zeus will give, 

syllable. Tlie name is found with long 36. HYdcNTi : a word of quite unknown 

d chiefly in the last foot, but occasion- signification, occurring in this place 

ally in the first (518, 594, A 441, etc.), only. The obvious derivation from -qXibv 

more rarely in the second (827, 829), and is hardly possible for phonetic reasons ; 

fourth, 2 264 ; in all cases in arsi. and rj'idljv is always used of the shore of 

Bekker, following Ixion, wrote the second the sea, not of a river. eiri Fidevn 

word dph, taking it as the adj. of which Brandreth ; cf. Et. Mag. irapd rb iov 

the compar. and superl. dpelwv and I'oets koL TrXeovacr/uLQi tov t) rjl'Sen. 

dpuTTos are familiar, but it cannot here 37. ckXinqn, as Lat. indinare aciem. 

be separated from the proper name. It 40. npcbrcoi cTpeq>eeNTi, i.e. turning 

is, however, remarkable that H. nowhere to flee before all the others. 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

'ISo/xeyeu? B' apa <i>al(nov ivt'^paro, M.rjL0V0<i vlov 
Hcopov, 09 e/c Tdpvt]^ ipi^(i)\aKO<i elXrjXovOei' 
TOP fjiev ap" ^18o/jb€vev<; 8ovpiK\vTo<i ey^ei fiaKpSn 
vv^ 'iTTiTwv eiri^iqcro^evov Kara Se^iov oijxov' 
imiTre 8' e^ oyewv, aruyepo^ 8 apa fjnv aKOTO<i el\e. 

TOP jxev ap 'lSo/xevi]o<; eavKevov 6epa7rovT€<;' 
vlov he %Tpo(f)iOLO ^KafjidvSpcov, alfiova drjpT]'?, 
''ATp€iS')]<; Meve\ao<i eX' eyx^ei o^voevri, 
iaOXov OrjprjTT^pa- hiSa^e yap "ApTep.i'i avrt] 
^dWeiv dypia irdvra, rd re rpe^et, ovpeaiv vXtj. 
dX)C ov 01 Tore ye '^^pala/M "ApTe/Mt<i lo^eaipa, 
ovhe eK7]^o\iat, rjiaiv to TrpiV y eKeKacrro' 



43. GpHpoTO Jt {e corr.) J'", yp. eNHpaxo J'" : *Ni4paT0 R (e in ra$.). \\ JutaioNoc 
C: TEKTONOC H (c covr.). 44. uicbpou Q. || Sk t' apNHC GJ Cant. : ^s apNHC 

Vr. a. il AXHXoueGi Q. 45. jmaKpcbi : x^^kw JL. 47. ckotoc : uopoc MN. 
48. ^ciiXeoN eceXoi exaTpoi MNS (aiceXoi). 49. CTpo9iou J. li KaudNdpiON C 

{p. ras.) GLQRS Vr. a, Mosc. 1 {c corr.). 51. auTH : eceXw ?(,). 52. TO : 

S Q. 53. re ora. GLNR. || xP^'^cjucn eaNdroio neXcopa Zen. 54. aTci G. || 
npiN {om. r) GLMQ. 

44. TdpNH, TToXts AuStas r] vvv SdpSeis, 
Schol. A. What ground there was for 
this assertion we cannot say. 

46. ^niBHcdueNON : on the question 
whether this form is really a future see 
H. G. § 41, where it is pointed out that 
in some cases the forms in -<T6fjL7]v are 
used as imperfects ; while in § 244 it is 
called a future. The latter better suits 
'^I' 379 aiel yap Si<ppov €Tri.priaofj.evoLa-tv 
e'CKTy}v : compare \ 608 alel (iaX^ovTi. 
eoLKibs. If it means 'as he was about 
to mount,' it is one of the few cases in 
H. where the fut. part, is used otherwise 
than predicatively with a verb of motion. 
See H. G. % 244. The words ftpinc es 
oxeoiN do not afford any criterion, as 
they might be used of one who, as 
about to mount, had one foot in the 

48. eepdnoNxec, here retainers in 
the wider sense ; generally each hero 
has only one depdiruv, an immediate 
personal attendant or 'squire,' who in 
the case of Idomeneus is Meriones. 

49. aYjuoNa: a word of doubtful mean- 
ing and derivation. Eur. Uec. 90 
evidently took it to mean ' bloody,' 
which will not suit here (Aisch. Su2)p. 
847 is hopelessly corrupt). It seems 
natural to connect it with al/j.v\os, and 
translate ' wily in the chase,' but no 

satisfactory etymology of either word 
has been given. 

50. osuoeic : o^vs : : 0ai5iyU,6ets (N 686) : 
(paidipLos : cf. also fxecrrjeis. According to 
Giibel {de ejrith. Horn, in -eis desineiitibus) 
all forms in -ets are derived from sub-, 
stantives, and thus these two words must 
come from the neuter of the adj. used sub- 
stantively : d^voeis = furnished icithan 6^u, 
i.e. sharp point ; (pai^LixbeLS = endued ivith 
(paiStfxa, i.e. gleaming armour. One old 
derivation was from o^vr], 'made of beech- 
wood,' but the termination -ets never 
indicates material ; and the spears of 
Homer are always made, not Af beech, 
but of ash. But see Eur. Heradeid. 727 
reixn k6/xi^€, x^'P' ^' ^"des o^vtjv, and 
Archil, ap. Schol. B (Porphyries) Z 201 


53. Zenod. here had the remarkable 
reading xpaZcr/xej' davdroLo veXwpa, which 
he can hardly have invented ; for a 
somewhat similar use of ireXupa we 
might compare B 321 deiva ireXwpa dedv, 
'dire portents,' and as the word in 
H. is always used of living creatures 
it may be paralleled by B 302 KJipes davd- 
Toio. It is a serious question if this 
is not a case where ' faciliori lectioni 
praestat difficilior.' iox^aipa, poitrer of 
arrows, cf. 618 dovpar' ^x^^'"-^ '• ^ot of 
course from xat'pw. 

lAIAAOC E (v) 199 

dWd fiiv ArpeiStj^i SovpiK\€iTo<; Mei'eXao? 55 

irpoaOev eOev (jievyovra fierdffipevov ovracre Sovpl 
[Mficop jxeaarj'yv'i, Sia Se arrjOeacfiiv eXaaaev]. 
-qpLire he 7rprjV7J<i, dpd^i]cr€ Se rev^e iir avTMi. 

M.ript6vr]<; 8e ^epeKkov evrjparo, T€KTOvo<i vlov 
' ApfMoviSeco, 09 '^epalv eiricrTaTO SalSaXa Travra 60 

rev^eiv • e^o^a ydp fxiv i(f)tkaTO TlaWd'i A6i']V7] • 
09 Kul ^AXe^dvSpcoi T€KT^vaTo vi]a<; etaa^ 
dp'^€KdKov<;, at irdai kukov 'Tpcoeacri yepovTO 
ol T avTMi, eVei ov rt deSiv eK Oecrc^aTa TjtSr]. 
TOP fxev 'M.ripiovrj'i, ore hrj KaTefiapTrre Slcokcov, 65 

/3e/3A,?;/cet <y\ovTov Kdra Se^iov rj Be hiairpo 
dvTCKpv Kara KvaTtv vir ocrreov ifKvO dKWKi]. 
<yvv^ 8' epLTr' olfMco^a<;, 6dvaro<; Be jjulv diJi^eKd\v\\re. 

TinjBaLov 8' dp eirec^ve Me77;9, Kvrrjvopo'i vlov, 
6<i pa v6do<; jjuev erjv, irvKa 8' erpecfie Sla %eav(i}, 70 

Icra <f>i\oi<7i T€Kecrai, '^api^ofievrj iroael on. 

55. doupiKXeiTOC DP : Soupi, k\ut6c A : SoupiKXuToc fi. 57 om. A'^CDN^Tt 
(added in T"> by Rhosos) Lips. || JueccHri; R. 58. 5e npHNHC : &' es 6xecoN 

MS Harl. a {■yp. npHNHC MS Hail. a). 60. ApiioNiSao G. || naNTa and noXXd 

Ar. 5tx<Ss. 61. TCuseiN J {supr. X€:in). H 9i\aTo N : ^(piXHce S : yp. «:9iXHce 0. 
64 d0. Ar. II hi5h : ft(i)aei CMNPQ (and J supr. ). 65. Kareuapne Q. 66. 

A5fe J. 68. TNuc P. 69. uibc Q. 70. 'iTpa<pe PT. 

59. T^KTONOC seems to be a proper tone and tberefore reflexive (see S. G. 
name derived, from its owner's calling, § 253) ; but that the reflexive sense is 
like Tux'05 H 220, Aat'SaXos, '&ovKo\iwv inadmissible here, because the subject 
Z 22, ^rjfXLOs T^epwiddris the minstrel x of the clause is vrjes : hence the line 
330. So the name of the father "Apfj-wv must be spurious. The second opinion 
means the joiner. In 114 we have the is probably that of Herodianos, that the 
patronymic TeKTovidrjs. 8c in 60 and 62 ol is really anaphoric, not reflexive 
no doubt refers to the principal person, ( = avTwi, not eaurcDt), but that it is 
Phereklos ; so that the craft is repre- orthotone because it stands at the begin - 
sented as hereditary in three generations. ning of the line {did ttjv dpxn"). The 

60. daiSaXa : always a subst. in H. , latter view is taken by La Roche {H. U. 
the adj. being daiBdXeos. 141). It is, however, possible to take ol 

63. Herodotos was obviously thinking avrQi as reflexive = si&i ipsi, i.e. to 
of this line when he said of the ships Phereklos, who is the subject of the 
which the Athenians sent at the request principal sentence though not of the 
of Aristagoras to help the lonians against relative clause. Schol. A says, 'EXXd^/iKos 
the Persians, avrai ai vees dpxh KaKwv (prjcrixpvo'f^oi' dodrjvai.To'isTpiaalvdTr^x^'^^'^'- 
iyivovTO "E\\r}ai re Kal ^apjSdpoLcn, v. 97. jx^v vauTLXias, yewpylai 8^ Trpocrexei-v, firj 

64. Schol. A dOeTetrai, otl ovx vyius ttjl dakdcrcnqL xP'^f^^""'- diroXeauciv eavrovs 
i^evrjvoxev, aX ird<n KaKov Tpdeffai yivovTo re Kal Trjv iroKiv. Observe that eccbN €k 
eavTWL T€. Idee ydp avrui. re. t) 8i goes closely with diacpa-To., cf. Oewv ano 
ol opdoTovelrai vvv did t7]v dpxv"- This jj/qSea eldu)S f 12. 

scholion contains two different views : 70. ©eaNco : see Z 298, A 224. Paley 

the first— down to avrQi re — is that of compares Eur. Andr. 224 koi fiaarbv ij5r] 

Aristonikos and Ar., that ot standing at TroXXd/cts vbdoicn aois iiriffxoy, iVa cfoi 

the beginning of the line must be ortho- fi-qdeu ivdo'iw iriKpov. 

200 lAIAAOC E (v) 

rbv fxev ^v\.eihr]<i 8ovpcKXvro<; iyyvdev i\6u)V 

y8e/3\?;/cet K€(f)aXri<i Kara Iviov o^ei Bovpu' 

avTiKpv S' av 6B6vTa<; vtto yXcoacrav rdfjue ycCKKo^;. 

rjpnre 8' ev kovltji, yjrv^pov S' eXe ')(aXKOv ohovatv. 75 

^vpvTTvXo'i S' 'Fivai/xoviSr]'; 'T^^rjvopa hlov, 
vlov vTrepdvfjuov Ao\o7riovo<i, 09 pa '^Kafxciyhpov 
aprjTrjp eTervKTO, ^609 S' 009 rieTo hiqiiwc, 
TOP /j,€v ap ^vpv7rv\o<i 'Ei;atyu-oi'09 a<y\ao'i vio<; 
irpocrOev Wev ^evyovra fxeraSpofxaSriv eXac oifxov 80 

(paa-ydvcoi dt^a'^, d'TTO S' e^eae %eZpa /Sapelav. 
alfjiaroeaaa Se %et/3 ireSiWi Trecre* tov Se /car ocrae 
eWa^e Trop<^vpeo<=; ddvaTO<i koI [xolpa Kparaiy. 

&<; ol /juev TTOveovTO Kara Kparep^^v vafjbivrjv 
TvSetSrjv S' ovK av yvoir]<i Trorepotcri fxereLt], 85 

rje ixerd Tpdoecraiv 6p.i\eoL rj fxer 'A^atot9. 
6vve yap dfi nrehiov Trorafiwi 7r\7]6ovTt ioiK(t)<i 
yeLfidppcoi, 09 t' WKa pewv eKeBaaae ye(^vpa<i- 
TOV S' ovT ap re yecjiupai eepypbevat la'^avococnv, 

72. &oupiKXeiTbc P. 73. doupi : x°^^^ ^ {supr. Qoupi : Harl. a has Boupi 
only) Vr. b. 75. KONiHl : KONiH(i)c(i) ADH^PQRT Par. f g : ev &\\wl fipine &' 

fe 6x^coN A. 77. KajudNSpou C {p. ras.) GLQR {supr. c) Vr. b. 78. triero 

DMP. 79 om. Q. 81 om. Qt. I! inohi^eke M (not Harl. a). 86. oiiiXeeN 
R : 6uiX€ei GQ Vr. a (P seems to have djuiiXceN altered to -eoi). 89. lepueNoi 

Ar. Par. h : eprja^Nai P. 

73. iNioN, the great tendon at the that of the gradual carrying away of the 
back of the neck which holds the head banks. But compare the imitation' in 
upright ; K 456, 2 495. The blow was Virg. Acn. ii. 496 aggeribus mptis mm 
thus given from behind, spumeus amnis, etc. 

74. un6 Tdue, cut away at the root 89. ecprueNai, fenced close, drawn so 
(Cauer conj. airb, which, is needless). as to make a fence to the stream. The 
ixN6, up through the teeth. re9upai are evidently here embankments 

77. 5c, Dolopion, not Hypsenor ; for along the sides of the torrents ; and this, 

the priests do not appear ever to fight in not 'bridge,' is the regular meaning of 

H. apHTiAp : cf. * 131 for the worship the word in H. This, Fiisi's explanation, 

paid to the river-god Skamandros. is sufficiently defended,^ perliaps, by II 

81. \'E.\pa=fore-arm, as often. 481 (ppeves epxarai dficp' dStvov Krjp, the 

83. nop<pupeoc, dark; used of what midriff forms a fence about the heart. 

we call the 'cold ' colours, from blue to (ppdaaeiv similarly has a double use, (1) 

violet. Cf. T 418 v€(pe\7) 84 /jliv dfj.(p€Kd- to fence in a space ; (2) to make a fence 

'Kvxpe Kvav^rj. Thus the metaphor may of e.g. N 130 {(ppd^avres rd y^ppaRevod. 

be taken from the approach of a thunder- ix. 61); and so also koXvittw, cf. note 

cloud. on 315 below. Compare also Virgil 

85. oiiK Qn TNoiHC : cf. T 220. Aen. ii. 497 oppositas evicit gurgite moles 

88. y€.\ix6ppfc\, winter - torrent, of (spumeus amnis). Most editors have 

sudden winter rains or melting snow. adopted Ar.'s reading cepueNai, which 

For €K^&acce Naber and Nauck conj. is explained either 'joined together in 

e/ceacro-6, splits (II 347) ; but this would long lines,' or 'bound' in the sense of 

be more in place of the bursting of a TrvKLvu)s dpapvlai. Neither of these is 

reservoir ; here the picture is rather very satisfactory ; ei'pw always means ' to 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


ovT dpa epKea ta^et uXcodcov ipcdrfKewv 
iXOovT e^airivrj'i, or i7n/3pi(7r]c Aio? 6p,/3po<;- 
TToXka S' inr avrov epja Karypiire KciX" al^rjcov. 
w? VTTO TvSetSijL TTVKival KkoviovTO <f>(i\,a<yy€<; 
Tpcowv, ouS' apa fxiv fxl/xvov TroXee? irep €0VTe<;. 
Tov S' CO? ovv ii'orjae AvKaovo^ dy\ao<i uto? 
OvvovT dfi ireSiov irpo eOev KXoviovra cfydXayya';, 
al-ylr iirl TvBetSrjL iriralveTO KafxirvKa ro^a, 
Koi /3dX' eTrataaovra, tv-)^wv Kara Se^iov m/jlov, 
6(opr]K0<; yvaXov 8id B' eirraro 7rtKpo<; o'Caro'i, 
dvrcKpv he Siea'^e, iraXdacreTo h aipban 6(op7]^. 
T(OL 8' eVt jxaKpov dvcre AvKdovo<; dyXao'i Uf09" 
" opwaOe, T/3&)e9 fJieydOvfioi, Kevrope'i ittttcov 
/3e^\7]Tai yap dpiaTO<i 'A'^aicov, ouSe e ^ri/u.i, 
h]6' dva-^^y^creadaL Kparepov l3eKo<i, el ereop jxe 
wpcrev ava^ A.LO'i vl6<i diroppvpievov AvKirjOev. 





90. epieHXdcoN GP^Q. 91. 4niBpicei CDLMQ : ^niBpucei P: ^niBpi^cei U. 

92. 5' : e' P. II KdXV Q. 93. nuKNai S. 96. axx : on T. || npoeecN U^ : 

npoceeN U" Vr. c. 97. TuacOeco Yr. b. 98. tux^n N. 104. 5He' ciN- 

CXHCecaai Ar. ft : hueh cxHceceai NOSU Par. h c g^ (and yp. J) : hike aicxHcec- 
eai J : hno' ONacxHceceai CLMQ Par. f, Lips. Mor. : bneh ONacxeceai G. || fieXoc 
Ar. ft : u^Noc U^ (^ BeXoc U'^). 

connect together by a rope or string' (cf. 
o 460, <T 296 6pfxov xpi^a-eoz', rjkiKTpoLffiv 
£epfjJvov, strung icith amber beads), and 
the transition from this to the sense 
required for the text is not very simple. 
There is a possible alternative, to read 
eipyfievai as an infin. ; the dams do not 
hold it back, so as to keep it within 
boumls ; bnt the order is not natural. 

90. ^pKca Ycxei : F' t(rx« Brandreth, 
van L. But the regular order of words 
calls rather for dpa. F' epKea. In any 
case one hiatus is left. It is unlikely 
that epKos ever had F; the only strong 
evidence is tr 102 Trort epKiov aiiXrjs. In 
all other cases the F is either superfluous 
or impossible. 

92. ^pra, agricultural works, especially 
tilled fields ; see B 751. 

95. AuKdoNoc uioc, Pandaros, see A 
89, etc. 

99. The ecbpHKoc riiaXoN causes 
difficulty. There is no doubt that it 
means the (front) plate of the cuirass ; 
but later on (112-3, 795-9) it seems 
clear that Diomedes is not wearing a 
cuirass at all. It seems necessary to 
suppose that 99-100 were interpolated at 

a time when it was a matter of course 
that the hoplite wore a dibp-q^, and the 
mention of it therefore seemed in- 
dispensable. See App. B. 

100. Si^cxe, held on its way through, 
cf. N 519 5i uipLov 5' 'dppifj-ov 'iyxos ^cxe. 

105. The country of Pandaros is called 
AukIh here and 173 only ; the inhabi- 
tants are always TpcDes (e.g. 200). Else- 
where w'e only hear of the city of Zeleia 
as Pandaros' home (e.g. B 824). It is 
impossible to say how the name of Lykia 
was attached to this olaseure town. The 
only links with the well-known Lykia 
seem to be the name of Lykaon, the 
epithet XvK-rjyevrjs given to Apollo (A 101), 
and the fact pointed out by Fellows that 
in Lykia proper there was a city Tlos 
and a tribe of TXuies. "Whether there 
was any tradition which connected these 
with the TpcDes we cannot say. Of course 
it is possible that two sections of a 
Lykian tribe bearing that name may 
have settled in distant regions ; but it 
is more probable that the coincidence of 
name is merely accidental, especially as 
AvKios was not a. native name (see note 
on A 101). 


lAIAAOC E (v) 


CO? €(j}aT 6V'^6iM€Vo<;' Tov 8' ov /9eXo9 wKv Sa/xaaaev, 
aXX' ava'y^(opTi]aa<i irpocrO^ Ittttollv Kat 6'^ea<^iv 
ecrrr), koI %6evekov Trpoae^rf Karravi'fiov vlov 
" opcro, ireTTOV K^aTravTj'idSrj, Kara^rjcreo Stippov, 
6<ppd fxoc e'f coixoLO ipv(Ta7]L<i irticpov oiarov.^^ 

CO? a/a' €(f)7], S^eVeXo? Se Kad 'lttttcov oXto ^a/x,a^e, 
Trap 8e crra^ ^eko<; wkv Sta/iTrepe? e^epvcr wfiov 
alfjia 8' dvTjKOvri^e 8ia (TTpeinolo '^iTcovo'i. 
St) tot eireLT rjpaTO /Borjv dya6o<; AL0fii]8ri<;' 
" k\v6l fioi, alyio^^oLO Ato? TeKO<i, aTpuTcovrj, 
et irore /jloc koL iruTpl (f>i\a (f)pov60v(Ta 7rapeaT7)<; 
Srjtcot, €V iroXejJbooL, vvv avT e'yu-e ^cXac, ^AOijvrj' 
09 oe re /x avopa eXecv Kat 6<? op/xijv ey^€o<; eXUeiv, 

106. 9dT' eneuxoJUENOC MPRU Vr. b. \\ COKU : 7P- 6hu 'Sch. Vrat. et Mosc. 1' 
(Heyue). 107. QNOXCopHCac : ONaxaccdueNOC P. 109. opce S Vr. A: Spcco 
NO Vr. a c, Mosc. 3. 110. (jouoiVn Q. 112. (jojuicon NQ. 115. juoi : ucu 
JNOQ Cant. : Juou M Harl. a. 117. 91X01 {<fiKm) ANST^ Mosc. 1, Eust. (and 
yp. 0) : 9TXa U' : <^'iKa. W : ifike Ci. 118. bbc be TC u' : t6n Se re jui' is 

given as a variant in a corrupt Schol. A : v. Ludw. ad loc. 


109. n^noN is here evidently not a 
term of reproach (see B 235), but merely 
a form of courteous address. Cf. Z 55, 
I 252. KaxaBHceo : cf. 46. 

112. Siaunepec, right through the 
wound, in order not to have to pull the 
barbs backwards ; the shaft of the arrow 
is of course cut off. Cf. A 213 for the 
opposite process ; the barbs not being 
buried in the flesh the arrow is pulled 
out backwards. It is apparently implied 
that Diomedes wore no cuirass ; for we 
should have to suppose either that 
Sthenelos took off the back -plate, or 
that the arrow had pierced this also, 
and was drawn through it. 

113. Here again the mention of the 
XiTCON alone seems clearly to shew that 
Diomedes has no breastplate ; for it 
would be strange if the blood were said 
to spurt through the tunic concealed by 
the breastplate while the visible breast- 
plate itself is passed over in silence. The 
meaning of crpenxoc applied to the 
chiton here and <l> 31 is very uncertain. 
According to the old interpreters it 
meant either ' woven ' — a sense which 
cannot be got out of the word or its use 
— or else, and this was apparently the 
view of Aristarchos, a 'coat of mail,' 
chain or scale armour ; but this is un- 
tenable, as such armour is absolutely 

unknown both to H. and to the old 
monuments. Ace. to Studniczka it 
implies a mode of weaving in which an 
extra twist was given to the threads, 
thus producing a crapy or crinkled 
surface (Studn. Beitr. p. 64). But it 
is far simpler to understand it to mean 
no more than pliant, as in I 497, 203, 
T 248. dNHKONTize, darted 'up ; the 
metaphor is imitated in Herod, iv. 181 
avaKovTi'geL iK fx^aov rod aXbs vdiap ipvxpov, 
Eur. Hel. 1587, etc. 

115. uoi, dat. as 335 ^k\v€s cDt k' 
idi\7)L<jda, n 516 aKOveiv dvepi KrjSofjJvcoi, 
Theog. 4. 13, Solon 13. 2 ; cf. K 278, 
etc. — all cases of a god hearkening to 
prayer. drpuTcoNH, B 157. 

116. JUOi and narpi of course go to- 
gether, 'my father,' in contrast to the 
emphatic e/xe. 

117. <pTXai : this middle aor. is only 
used of the love shown to mortals by 
gods, see 61, K 280, T 304. 

118. The variant rbv 8e (or rdvSe) is 
accepted by some on the ground that 56c 
may have been inserted to explain the 
construction of ace. and infin., for which 
see B 413. The change of subject in 
^XeetN, if it means ' that he may come,' 
is very violent, but no emendations are 
acceptable. It is simple enough to 
translate ' that / may come within spear- 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


09 fji ejBaXe (f)Od/j,€vo<i Kal eirev'^eTai, ouSe [xe (prjac 

Srjpov er o^^eadai \a/uL7rpov (pdo<; rjeXioio.'' 120 

w? €(f)aT eu'^o/xevo'i, rod 8' €K\ve IlaXXa? WOtjvt], 
yvla 8 edrjKev eXacppd, iroSa'i Kal '^elpa^ virepOev 
d'^yov S lara/jievT] eirea Trrepoevra irpoarjiiSa' 
" OapcTMV vvv, Atoyu,7;Se9, eVt Tpooeacrc ixd-^eaOai- 
ev ydp TOi cmjdeacn /jL6vo<i TraTpcoiov rjKa 125 

UTpo/j^ov, olov e^eaKe craKeaTraXo^ liriroTa TuSeu?- 
d'^Xvv 8 av TOL diT o^daXp^wv eXop, rj irplv eirrjev, 
6<pp ev yivct)aK7)L<i r]p.€v 6eov rj8€ Kal av8pa. 
TO) vvv, at Ke Oeb'i iretpoopevo'; evddK 'iKriTat, 
p^r) TL (TV 7 dOavdroiao 6eol<i dvTiKpv p^d^eadat 130 

TOt<; aWoi<;' drdp e'c k€ Ato? dvydrrip 'Acf)po8iTri 
eXdrjicr' eV 7ro\epbov, ttjv y ovrdpuev o^ei ^a\Kcoi.^^ 

Tj p,6V dp 609 etVoOcr dire^y] yXavKMiri^ ^Adrjvrj, 
Tv8€i87]<i S' i^avTL<; Icov irpop^d'^oiaiv ipbL-^Orj' 
Kal irpiv nrep OvpbWi piep,aoi^ Tpcoeacri pd^eaOai, 135 

120. ec6»j/eceai T. 121. <pdTo P. 127. 5' ovi. Q. 128. riNcocKHic 

H' (supr. oi) i\IN-'0'T : nrNcocKHic N'O- : riNcocKeic Q : n(r)NcocKoic O. 1] H&e KQl 
ONdpa : h9' oNepconoN Zen. 130. UH ti cu r' : xxk cii re NS : juh cunep 

M. 131. auT6p JM. 132. THN r' and thn Ar. Sixw : thn b' JM Par. d : 

ti4n r' oCiTdcai Zen. 134. esaOeic C. 135. xai nep npiN G. 

cast of him.' eXeTN, kill, is put first 
by a slif^ht prothysteron, cf. f2 206, A 251, 
and Virgil's moriamur et in media anna 
ruamus. In all cases the second mem- 
ber, though precedent in time, is only 
secondary in importance. The hiatus 
is illicit ; there is no other evidence of 
an initial F, and very many passages 
exclude ib. avep eXetv (Heyne) or d.vdp' 
iXeelv (Brandreth) are simple conjectures. 

126. caKEcnaXoc is proparoxytone, 
though the verbal element of the com- 
pound is employed in a transitive sense ; 
the converse is the case witli /juaKpovos. 

128. The snbj. riNcocKHic is undoubt- 
edly right after eXoi', because the o])ject 
of the past action is still future ; If. G. 
§ 298. 2. It is noteworthy that the 
Mss. have with hardly any exception re- 
tained the forms yivibcrKO} and yivo/ 
against the old Attic yiyv-. ytv- is 
common to Ionic, Doric, Thessalian, 
and Boiotian, and appears to represent 
a primitive Greek assimilation, through 
the stage gingn- (Brugm. Gr. i. p. 364). 
On the other hand, it prevailed also in 

the later Koiv-q, wliich may of course have 
affected the mss. 

129. neipcojueNoc, making trial of thee, 
220, etc. 

130. dNTiKpii is found with the last 
syllable short only here and 819 ; this 
may be counted among the linguistic 
jieculiarities of the passages dealing with 
the wounding of the gods. 

135. ueuacoc, a nominativus pemlens, 
the construction being changed in the 
following line, cf. Z 510. xai is here 
probably not and, but even, and is to be 
taken closely with nep, as elsewhere 
when the two words occur together ; the 
line being thus added asyndetically in 
explanation of 134. For /cat . . irep at 
the beginning of a sentence see v 271 
Kal xaXeTTOj' irep eovra dex^fieda fjivdov, 
'AxaLol. In all other instances Kal wep 
follows the principal verb. Hence many 
edd. place the comma after ifxlxBr], and 
the colon after fxaxeffdai, so that fMe/uadis 
agrees with Tvdddrjs in 134. But this 
gives an entirely false antithesis ; Dio- 
medes does not return to the battle 


lAlAAOC E (v) 

Bt) rare fjuiv rpU rotraov eXev fxevo^, &s re Xeovra 
ov pa re Troi/xrjv aypaa eV elpoiroKOL'i otecrcn 
ypavar^L fxev t av\i]<i virepdX/xei'ov, ovBe 8a/xa(T(n]t' 
Tov fxev re (j6evo<i Sypcrev, eTreira 8e t ov TrpoaafMvvei, 
aWa Kara aradfj^ov^ Sverai, ra 8' ipfj/xa (fyo/Selrar 
al fiev T ay^io-TLvat eV aWtjX'rjcac Kej^yvrai, 
aurap 6 i/xfjbefjiaa)<; j3a6eri<i i^aXkerai av\rj<i' 
ft)? yLte/iacb? Tpooecrcn filyrj Kparepo^i AiofMi^Sr)^. 

ev6' eXev ^ hcnvvoov Kol "Tirelpova 'woifieva Xawv, 
TOV fiev vTTep fia^olo ^aXoov '^aXKi'jpel hovpt, 
TOV S' €T€pov ^i(f)ei /le'yaXwi kXtjISu Trap' Mfxav 
irXrj^\ airo 8' av^evo<; oyfiov iepyaOev ^S' cltto vcotov. 



136. bH t6t€ : KoJ dH Par. f. li eXeN : ^x^n Ptol. Oroand. 138. xpa^cci 

CO. II aaudccei CQI^U : aaudcei Yr. A. 141 o,n. M {7iab. Harl. a). Ij arxic- 

TiNQi DJQR : arxHCTTNOi or drxicTHNai fi. H 6X\h\oici DHQR Yt. c, Mosc. 1 2 : 
dXXiiXaici G. 144. 6nHNopa MN : OneiNopa PQ. 145. 5oupi : xo^kw J {yp. 
aoupi). 146. ToO a' exepou Zen. || QXXon Vr. b {yp. ^repoN). 147. nwtcon P. 

although, but because, he was eager 

137. 6rpwi, i.e. away from the habita- 
tions of men. 

138. xpaucHi : prob. conn, with the aor. 
{€Tr)^XPaoi', ^Xpae, e 396, H 352, 4- 369, 
etc., and meaning grazed. Bat Ahrens 
wouhi separate the two, and explains 
Xpauo; to mean ' strike,' comparing 
Herod, vi. 75 ev^xpaue is to Trpbcrioirov 
Tb (TK-qirTpov, and Hesych. XP'^'^'^V'- ' Kara- 
^varji, ir\ri^T]L. auXfic here = the wall of 
the steading ; from 140 it would seem 
that the stalls are regarded as arranged, 
with the shepherds' huts, around a court- 
yard ; cf. S 589, from which it is clear 
that such a ' sheep-station ' must have 
been rather extensive. 

140. As the line stands xd must be 
the subject, ' they (the sheep) are put 
to flight, being left alone.' The change 
from the fern, otecci to the neuter, and 
then immediately back to the fem. ai, is 
however very harsh, far more so than in 
the passages which are quoted as parallel : 
11 353 fjLTjXuv . . a'i T£, A 244 x''*^'a • • 
al7ay ofiov Kai 6'ls, rd oi aairera iroinai- 
vovTO, <!> 167 tGh 5' iripcoi . . i] 5L H. 
moreover elsewhere uses cpfluoc (this is 
the traditional Epic accentuation) only 
of places. If we reject 141-2 (see below) 
we can take the neuter in a vague sense, 
' everything is deserted and put to flight.' 
But it is then tempting to read rd 5e 
fjLTjXa. aiicrai : the nom. may be either 

the shepherd, hides ; or the lion, e7iters 
in. The associations of the frequent 
Suvai 6/jll\ov, TrdXe/xov, etc., are in favour 
of the latter. 

141. arxiCTiNai, elsewhere only with 
•iTTLirrov (P 361, % 118, w 181, 449), are 
throivH doivn in heaps. Many MS8. read 
a.yxfJ'^T'ivaL, perhaps on the analogy of 
irpoixv-ncT'lvai., \ 233, but the word is 
evidently a secondary formation from 

142. ^uucuacbc answers to ixe/jaiiis in 
135 ; the lion, like Diomedes, is only 
the more aroused by the wound, cf. P 
735. Bentley, feeling natural difliculty 
in the conjunction of e/x/jLefj.adjs with the 
retreat implied in e'fdXXerat, conj. (fx/j-a- 
Trecoj, cf. 836 ; but the inconsistency 
lies in the word i^dWerai in its relation 
to the next line. It is feeble to say ' as 
furiously as a lion retreats, so furiously 
did D. attack.' Hence Bayfield would 
reject 141-2 as an awkward addition 
meant to supply ifjL/jLe/jLadjs to answer 
ixefxaibs in 135 ; the real answer being 
sufficiently implied in crOevos Sipaev. 
There is no doubt that the omission 
makes the simile more eff'ective ; but in 
the Epic style one would expect to be 
told the fate of the sheep. Bae^HC, as t 
239 (iadelris ^KTodev avX^s : we should use 
the converse 'high.' 

147. nXfise: a change from the parti- 
cipial construction, as T 80. ^^praeeN : 
so A 437. 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


TOV<s fiev eaa , 6 S' "AfSavra ^eT(t)t')(eTO koX TloXvihov, 

vlea^ }Lvpv8d/xavTo<i oveipoTroXoio <yepovTO<i' 

Tot<; ovK ep^o/jLevoa 6 yepoof e/cpivar oveipovi, 

aXkd a(f)€a<; Kparepo'i AiofMijSr]'; i^evdpi^e. 

I3r} 8e /xera "Bdvdov re (Piowvd re <PaLV07ro<i vie, 

afji(f)co TtjXvyeTQ), 6 8' ereipero jr'ipa'c Xvypwi, 

vlov S' ov TeKer aXkov eVt KredreacrL \07recr6ac. 

evff' 6 <ye rov^ ivdpi^e, (^iXov 8' e^aivvro dufiov 

dfX(f)OTep(o, irarept 8e joov koI Kr^hea \ujpa 

Xetvr', eVel ov ^ooovre /Jid^rj^ eKvocni^aavre 

8e^aTO- '^TjpcocrTal Se 8ia KrPjaiv hareovro. 

ev6' vla<i IIpidfx.010 8uco XdjSe AapSavtSao 
elv evl 8L(f)p(i>c e6vTa<i, 'K'^efXfxovd re 'K.po/jiLOV re. 
fo)<f 8e Xe(ov ev jSovcrl Oopoov e^ av'^eva d^rji 



148. Touc : t6n P {supr. toi/c). || noXueiaoN GN^O^ST (East, says that both 
-ei- and -1- were ancient). 149. eupuu^doNTOc M. 152. eecoNd JN. 153. 

6S* CTdpoTo H. 154. TCKCN H: t^kc* U. 155. ^Ndpise D^iM NOQR (c corr.) 
S Vr. a b A, Mosc. 1 3. 156. aju.90TeptoN Zen. .JMNPT Hail, b, Par. f, Cant. 
\'r. b : au90TepoiN King's, Par. j. | narcpi 5e : naxpi ucn re G. || Kikbe'i A. 
158. SaT^oNToi Herakleides. 159. Suo GH. 160. eoNxac : contc Aph. ? cf. 
on A 103. 161. asei CJ (L sujn: ) NR : ^<Ssei Q. 

150. This line is susceptible of two 
different interpretations : (a) the old man 
interpreted no dreams for them when they 
were cmning (to Troy), i.e. had he fore- 
seen their fate he would have kept them 
from the war ; (b) they came not back for 
the old man to interirret dreams for them. 
Though the second has found defenders, 
yet there cnn be no doubt that the 
first is right. The use of dpx<5ueNoc is 
exactly the same as in 198 ; and the 
sense is quite what is wanted, though 
the next line is added in a way which is 
not usual in Homer, as we should have 
expected to find it explicitly stated, ' if 
he had they would not have been killed.' 
But in the second alternative the mention 
of the discerning of dreams seems quite 
otiose, unless we are yirepared to suppose 
that the old man thought that a specimen 
of his peculiar skill would be the best 
welcome for his returning sons. More- 
over, the word for return home is not 
€pxe<jdai but viacrecrdat. or voare'iv. A 
third possibility is given by the Schol. 
A, their father 2M'02]hcsied to thetn that 
they would not come back. But even 
if such a construction of the participle 
could be admitted it would still remain 

a fatal objection that we should want a 
future, not a present. 

153. THXur^Tco : see F 175 ; it is obvious 
here that the word cannot mean ^ only 

158. Cf. Hes. Thcog. 606 dirocpei/xevov 
Se oia KTrjaiv dariovrai xrjpwcrrai. The 
general meaning of tlie word ^Hpcjcrai 
is sufficiently evident from the context, 
'inheritors of the bereaved father,' i.e. 
the next-of-kin, oi fxaKphOev avyyeveh 
(Hesych.). The form of the word, how- 
ever, is not so easily explicable ; it 
should have an active sense, perhaps 
originally 'those who divided up the 
estate of the bereaved ' for distribution 
among the tribe at large. But we have 
no evidence whether in Homeric days 
the reversion of property (i.e. chattels, 
not land) belonged to the family or the 
tribe ; nor does the word itself recur, 
except in the two passages named, and 
in Qu. Smyrnaeus. Eust. explains it by 
oprpavLffTciL, giiardians, used by Soph. Jj. 
512, and identical in form. 

161. Mr. Auden (C. II. x. 107) calls 
attention to the accurate observation 
embodied in this line, quoting Selous 
Big Game Shooting (Badminton Library) 

206 lAlAAOC E (v) 

nTopTLO<i rje /3oo<;, ^vXo-^ov Kcira ^oaKOfievdwv, 

&)9 rov^ dfi(f>oTepovi i^ ittttcov Tv8eo<i v[6<i 

^rjae KaKco<; deKovrwi, eireira Be revye iaiiXa' 

LTTTTOvi S' oU erdpoLcn SlBou /jLerd vf]a<i eXavveiv. 165 

Tov 8 iSev AtVeta? dXairdi^ovra crTi^a<i dv8p6)v, 
^rj 8 I'fiev dv re fid^7]v koX dvd kXovov ey^eidcov 
HdvBapov dvriOeov Bi^yfievo-i, ec irov €(f)€upoi. 
evpe AvKaovo<i vlov dpuvjxovd re Kparepov re, 
arrj 8e Trpocrd' avrolo e7ro<; re fiov dvTiov r]v8a- 170 

" Ylav8ap€, TTOu TOi To^ov ISe Trrepoevre^ oiarol 
Kai K\eo<; ; c5t ov rt? tol ipL^erat evOdBe j dvtjp, 
ov8e Tt? eV AvKL7]L aeo 7' ev^^erai elvac dfieLvwv. 
dW dye tmiS' e^e? dv8pl /3e\o<;, AlI '^elpa^; dvaa-yonv, 
Of Tt9 o8e Kpareet koX 8r] kuku TroWd eopye 175 

Tp(oa<;, eirel ttoWmv re koI ecrOXoiv yovvar eXvaev 
ei fXT] Tt9 Oeo<i iari Korecrad/jbevo'^ Tpcoecrcrtv, 
ipSiv fxr]Viaa<i, '^okeTrr] 8e deov eirc fii]pi<;.'' 

162. noprioc : 6ouk6\ou Zen. 166 om. OK || dXandsoNxa P. 167. 6h 

^' P. 169. eOpe bk MOPT. 172. r' om. JQ. 173. r' om. Q. 174. 

Qqjec GJ {yp. 'iipec) PQ Vr. a. 178. kpwN G. 

1. 327 'A single large male lion will kill 175. bbe, predicative = Aej-e ; cf. T 117 

a heavy ox or a buffalo cow without Alvelas 6d' ip-q, a 185 vrjvs 8e /ulol 7?5' 

using his teeth at all, by breaking its earriKep. 175-6 = 11 424-5. 

neck, or rather causing the frightened 178. ipcoN juHwicac, like ei' rap 6 7' 

beast to break its own neck ' in the euxuX^s €Tnfi€/ji(peTai rjd' iKaTo/jLjSrjs A 65, 

manner there described. So also A q.v. The exact connexion of the clause 

1'5- ^ , X^^^n" • • ■"•HNic is not clear ; it may 

162. For He Bentley conj. 7]8e, on the mean the wrath of a god iveighs heavy 

ground that the point of the simile lies upon men, or it may go with the pre- 

in the double slaughter, and hence the ceding, and the xvrath of the god he heavy 

plural ^o(TKo/j.€vdu}v, which may, how- upon us. The former will give a reason 

ever, with a slight but natural irregu- why, if this enemy be a god, it is not 

larity, be taken to mean 'as they (i.e. well to provoke him further, the latter 

07ie or other of them.) are feeding. ' will explain why a god should condescend 

164. KQKWC seems to go closely with to such slaughter. But Ameis-Hentze 
aiKovras, as 698 /ca/icDs KiKacp-qoTa dvfxov, read, with Ar., €TrL/j.T}uis, taking ^ttl- to 
/3 266 kukQs vweprivopeovTes. indicate wrath aimed in a particular 

165. oTc : a.0 Heyne, aW Brandreth, direction ; on the ground that in all 
to save the F. other cases where Hiri = ewe<TTi it is used 

168-9. See A 88-9. of the actual presence of something with 

170. H\jha : only here with double a distinct relation to some person. This 
accus., which is, however, often found is a strong argument against taking the 
with wpoarjvda and irpoir^enre. We have clause as a general reflexion ; but it 
'Epfxelav avTiov Tjiida e 28, and "EKTopa leaves untouched the alternative of taking 
elire M 60.^ it closely with the preceding et-clause, 

171. noO TOI t6son : cf. 440 ttov vu and perhaps this is the most probable 
Toi loi; In the next line dbi may refer explanation, as eirifxiji'is is a compound 
either to to^ov or to /cXeos in the sense which can hardly be supported by 
of 'famous skill.' analogy. 

lAIAAOC E (v) 207 

TOP 8 avre TTpocreenre AvKdovo<i dyXao'i vio^' 
" AiV€ia, Tpcocov /3ov\'r](f)ope '^oX.KO'^tTcovcop , 180 

TvSeiSrjt fxtv eyo) ye Sai(f)povi irdvra iiaKco, 
da'TTiht 'yiV(ji}(7K03v avXcoTTiSi re rpvcfyaXeliji, 
iTTTrou? T eLaopocov adcjia 8 ovk olS el 6eo^ ianv. 
ei o o <y avrjp ov (prjfML, oaicppcov lvoeo<; vio<i, 
ov'^ 6 y civevOe Oeov rdSe pbaiverai, ciWd Ti? «7Yt 185 

eaTrjK ddavdrcov ve(j)e\rit el\vfMei>o>i w/xou?, 
09 rovTov ySeXo? ookv Ki'^i]fievov erpairev dXXrii. 
Tjhrj yap ol i(f>i]Ka ^e\o^, kul fxip /3d\ov m/jlov 
Se^tov, dvTLKpv Sid 6c6p7}KO<i yvdXoio, 

Kai fXiv eyoo 7' e(f)dfi7)v ^AlScopPji irpouf^eiv, 190 

efx,7ri]<i B OVK eSd/xaaaa' 6e6^ vv rt? ecrn KOT')]eL<i. 
'iirTTOi 3' ov Trapeaat Kal dpfiara, rwv k eiTi^aii]V' 
iiKXd TTOV ev ixeydpoicn AvKdovo^ evSeKa Sicppoc 
Ka\ol TrpcoTOTrayei^ veorev^eei;, dficfil 8e TreirXoi 

181. uiN : ueN G (0 sttjjr.) Hail, d ; Ar. Stx^s. 182. riNucKco P: rirNco- 
CKOON CJLM^N^U. 183 d9. Ar. || Ynnouc 9' MQ. 1| 0090 ouk Q. 184. 5' : 

o' J. II O r' : 85' JP Cant. 185. 6 r' : od' Q : oc' J. 187 a.0. Zen. \\ 

KiXHUCNOC S supr. 188. rap p D. 191. NU : 5h J {yp. nu). i| TIC : toi C. 

193. juerdpoic HT. 194. 7ir}voooTos fj.€Tedr]K€v An. (Ludw. conjectures that Zen. 
omitted the line and wrote npcoxonareTc for n^nxaNTai in 195). 

181. The variant fj,ev for uin may aXXr/i to /3eXos, dXX' ervxc ai/Tov. ov 
point, as Piatt says {J. F. xvii. 129), \iyei de Htl KaOoXov dveTuxei', dXX' ort 
to an older p-ev eyd) Fe. eirl Kaipiou Thirov cpepo/j.evov Trapirpexj/ev. 

182. There is no distinct trace in H. of But this explanation seems forced, and 
the devices borne on shields which play most edd. agree with Zenod. in reject- 
so prominent a part in the Scptcm of ing the line. Nor is it a satisfactory 
Aischylos, and are frequently repre- resource to take ^xpancN QWhi as = 
sented on vase-paintings ; nor of course brought to naught ; such a derived sense 
can the mention of the helmet be taken of dWos is rather Attic than Homeric, 
to indicate anything like the mediaeval and is not sufficiently supported by A 
crest. But every chieftain would be 1 "20. For the gen. toutou, aicay from 
sure to adopt some peculiai-ity in the him, we may compare wdXLv rpdved' vlos 
shape of his shield and helmet. Cf. A eoio S 138. Or we may take it, as gen. 
526 eC 5e /mv iyvoiv " cvpv yap afxcp" of hitting, with kixhucnon, just as it 
wfioiaiv ex^i adKos. For Tpu<pa\eiHi see was reaching him. 

on r 372. 189. An interpolated line to bring in 

183. ei ee6c cctin : Ave say ' if he is the cuirass ; see on 99. 

not a god'; the words imply a slight 190. 'AT9conhY npoYd^/eiN, as "Al'5i ^po- 

disposition to accept the affirmative. ta\{/ev A 3. Tiie name 'Albii^vivs occurs 

Cf. 7 216 tIs 5' oIS' ei' k€ Trore a(pL again only T 61 in H. ; it is not Pindaric, 

^las dTTOTlcreTai iXduiv ; Ar. needlessly but appears rather to be a word of the 

athetized the line, on the ground that tragedians. For npoTdij/eiN La R. would 

Paudaros has really no doubt. But the prefer wpol'd^ai, ' I thought I had dis- 

very next words obviously imply at least patched him.' 

a rhetorical uncertainty. 194. npcoxonareTc (with the rare con- 

187. (v diirXT] TrepLeaTLyixevrf) on lA-qvh- traction), generally explained 'joined 

Soros TjdeTrjKei' avrov. ov yap irpdneTO together for the first time,' i.e. newly 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

TreTTravTaf irapa Be crcpiv eKciarcoi St^y'ye? 'ittttoi 195 

eardai Kpl \evKov ipeTrro^evoi koX 6\vpa<;. 

7] fxev fiot fjidXa iroWa yipcov al^firjra, Avkucov 

ep-^o/juevcoL iwereWe So/jLol^ evi iroLrjTolcnv' 

LTTTroiaiv fM eKeXeve kol apfxacTLV efx/Se^acoTa 

ap-^evetv Tpcoeaai Kara KpaTepa<i vcr/jLLpa<i' 200 

a\X ijo) ov TrLOofirjv, rj t av ttoXu K€pSt,ov rjev, 

'lttttcov (f)eiSo/j,evo'i, fjurj fioi Sevoiaro cf)op^rj<i 

avhpoiv elXofievcov, elcodore^ eSfxevac ahrjv. 

CO? XiTTOv, avrap -rrel^o^ e<? "IXtof el\i]Xov0a, 

To^oicriv iTi(Tvvo<;' ra Se jm ovk ap efxeXXov ovrjcreiv. 205 

rj^T) yap Soioiacv apiaTt^eacnv e^rjKa, 

TvSei87]L re ical 'ATpet8')]t, eK 8' cifx(f)OTepoicv 

cnpeKe<i alfi ecraeva /SaXcov, ijyeipa Se /juaXXov. 

198. €Nl : eu Vr. a. 199. u' CKeXeuce : t' ^KeXeue H. ij ejuiiGJuacoTa 

Mor. Vr. c (and so apparently Tives ap. Did.). 201. H t' ON : yp. eir' Sn 0. 

203. a&HN Ar. D^R^TJ : aaawN other.s (and ft). 204. drdp DO : aurixp 6 P. || 
Ic OM. G : eic CMNO. || hXhAouoo 0. 205. ap' : ^n Q. |i eueWeN ADO. 

made. Cf. fi 267. In d 35 we have 
vf/a TTpixiToTrXoov, which is also translated 
'making her first voyage.' But this is 
a doubtful compliment to a ship ; the 
alternative, 'a first-rate sailer,' suits the 
context better, and so here ' of first-rate 
build,' ^''■"'^f'^'^''^ compadi (Doderl.), 
avoids the awkward tautology with veo- 
revx^es which made Zenod. athetize tlie 
line. Unfortunately neither the simple 
TTpuiTos nor any of its compounds seems 
to involve the pregnant meaning of 
primarius, so that we have to acquiesce 
in the ordinary explanation. The same 
ambiguity is found in TrpwroTrXous, Eur. 
Hel. 1531. (Compounds of wpwros are 
very uncommon in classical Greek.) 

195. For the practice of covering 
chariots with cloths when not in use cf. 

200. For apxeueiN with dat. see B 345. 

202. For the crowding within the city 
walls compare 2 286-7. 

203. qShn only here with d, though 
we have dST^ceie, dST/Korej, etc. The 
variation in quantity is unexplained ; 
it is possibly here due to the sixth arsis, 
see Schulze Q. E. p. 452. &ly\v, which 
Ar. read, will be right if the word comes 
from root sa {sa-tur, etc.) ; but this is 
not certain. See note on K 98. 

204. The neglect of the f of "IXion is 

rare. Brandreth conj. Trefos kwv h FIXlov 
^Xdov, comparing A 231, A 230, 721. 

205. Sp" ^JueXXoN (or -ev) is the 
traditional reading ; but the rule against 
the trochaic caesura in the 4th foot would 
require dpa /xAXoi', and presumably Ar. 
read this in accordance with his custom 
of omitting the augment ('"la/ctDs") when 

208. dxpeKEC : this simple form recurs 
in H. only tt 245 oiir' &p deKas drpeKes 
ovre 5v oml, where it is an adverb ; the 
form drpeK^ios is of course familiar. The 
original meaning of the word is not 
certain ; if it be conn, with rpiiru (Curt. 
Gri: Et. no. 633) and mean 'directly,' 
'not swerving from the straight line," 
it can here hardly be an epithet of alua. 
On the other haml, it cannot be taken 
with ^aXibv, which is too far off, and 
does not require an adv. to qualify it, as 
of itself it implies 'hitting the mark' 
{oTL Tpoacac, ^at oi) plxpas dirXus to /3^\os). 
We must therefore take it with eaaeva, 
' I trull/, stcreh/, brought forth blood. ' 
So Schol. B dvTi rod drpe/c^cos eldov 
avrd, OVK rjirdT7]fiai. But 206-8, which 
contain a feeble repetition of 188-91, 
are almost certainly interpolated for the 
sake of the allusion to the 'OpKiiov ai'iy- 
Xfo-is, an episode which is evidently un- 
known to the author of this book, who 

lAIAAOC E (v) 209 

TO) pa KaKi)i al'(T7]i utto iraaaaXov a<yKvK.a ro^a 

y/jLUTt TMi €\ofM7]v, or€ iXiov et? ipaTeivrjv 210 

rjj€6fX7]v Tpcoecrai,, <pepa)V X^^P^^ "KKTopi Bccoi. 

el he K€ voaryao) koI eao-^ofzat o(f)6d\,/xoiai 

iraTplK efirjv aXo^op re Kal u-v/repe^e? /xeya hoifia, 

avTLK eireiT air ifieio Kaprj Tufjuoi dWorpio^ <pct>^, 

el firj eyoi rdSe ro^a (ftaeivcoi iv irvpl deirjv 215 

yepal 8iaK\d(xaa<; ' dvefioiXta yap fioi OTrrjBel.^ 

TOP 8' avT A.lveia<i Tpaxov dyo<i dvnov rjvha' 
" jjbr] 8' ovT(o<; dyopeve • 7rdpo<; 8' ouk eaaerat dX\o)<;, 
Trplv y enrl vo) tmiS' dvSpl avv iTnroiaiv Kal 6xGa(f)iv 
dvTL^iriv eXOovre cruv evreat TretprjOijvaL. 220 

aW' ay' eficov ox^cov ein^i^creo, ocppa tSijdi, 
oloi Tpco'ioL fTTTTOi, eTrtcTTdfievoi irehloLO - 
KpaiTTi'd jjidX! evda Kal evOa SicoKefiev rjSe (^e^eadac 
Tft) Kal vmI TToXivSe aaooaeTOV, ec irep dv avre 
Zeu? eirl Tvhethr^t Aio/jii]Se'i KvSo'i ope^rji. 225 

aW' dye vvv pudcTTiya Kal rjvLa aiyaXoevra 
Se^at, ey(t} S' 'iinrwv drro^rjao/xat, 6(f)pa yu-aT^coyu-a/. • 
rje (TV Tovoe oeoe^o, fieXtjaovaiv o e/xoi lttttoi. 

210. Sxe t' C'R : Sxe r' G. || ic Q. 211. eKTopi dicoi : innodduoiciN rives 
ap. An. 213. ui}»ipe9^c GJL'M : ijtj;Hpe9^c DNOPR (h in ras.) Lips. Vr. be. 

214. cuoTo JN (^j. ras.) PQS. H t<4uhi Vr. a. 215. ei : Sn G. 218. eccai Q. 
219. Tcbl5' : Tcoi D. 220. neipaeflNai M (not Harl. a). 224. noXiN : yp. 

ndXiN J. II nep QN : kgn Vr. a. 225. opesei OQ {supr. h). 226. nOn : hk 

MN. 227. anoBHCOJULQl Ar. fi : dnocoBHCouai Par. g : l:ni6HCOJuai Zen. CO^S 

{supr. dno) King's, Par. d j^, Vr. c, Mosc. 1 3, and yp. Harl. a, Par. b. 228. t6n 
re N. 

otherwise could not have failed to allude protasis has the opt. under the influence 

to it again. of the pure wish xduoi : we might 

209. KaKHi qYchi, A 418. an6 nac- equally have had fut. indie, as B 259 

cdXou : of. (f) 53, Penelope evdev ope^a- fxrjKeTL . . eiTji', ei /j.t] . . dvaw, where 

fj.ev7) awb iraaaakov aivvro to^ov. again the constr. of the sentence is the 

212-6 are to be compared with tt same. dXXdrpioc : a foreigner is of course 

99-103, where 214 is not only repeated, an inferior, and therefore defeat from 

but stands also in exactly the same such is the deepest degradation, 
position, as an apodosis with tivo pro- 218. oOk eccexai aXXcoc, no change 

tases, one preceding, the other follow- icill be vidde, nothing will be effected, 

ing. It is possible to take nocthcoj and till, etc. dXXws has the connotation 

^c6ijiojuiai as aor. subjunctives ; compare, 'better' in 9 176, u 211, and cf. also 

for another instance of an aor. form A 391. The euphemism by which &Wuis 

*ih\pbixy)v, 12 704, where ixpecrde is more =/caKcDs is not Homeric, 
natural if it be taken as aor. imper. 219. nco for vCj'C here only in H. (in o 

than as fut. indie. But there is no valid 475 read vQi'). wplv vQlrQid' Brandr. (with 

reason against regarding them as lut. ictus-lengthening), eTrt j'cDi" rtDt d. van L. 
indie, except that such a "constr. is not 222. TpcoToi, the breed of Tros. Cf. 

Attic. In any case there is no appreci- 265, A 597, T 230, 4^ 291, 377. 
able difference in sense. The second 227. 6no6i4cojuai, i.e. when the time 


210 lAIAAOC E (v) 

Tov 8 avre irpoaeeLire AvKdovo<; ayXao'i vi6<i' 
" Aiveca, av fiev avTO<i ej(^ rjvia koX reo) ittttq} • 230 

fjboXkov v(f) 7]vio-^(ot elcoOoTL Ka\ji/TTv\ov apfjua 
oXaerov, el irep av avre (pe/Sco/jueda TuSeo? vlov 
fXT] T&) fiev Seicravre fiaTtjcrerov, ouS' ideXTjrov 
eK(f)€pefX6v TToXe/bLOio, reov (fydojyov iroOeovTe, 
vcb'i S' €7rat^a<i fieyadv/jiov TuSeo9 fio? 235 

avToo re KTelvrji koI eXdacrrjc /uiO)vv^a<; iTTTrou?. 
dXXa (TV <y avTO<; eXavve re ap/nara koI reoo 'ittitw, 
Tovoe o eyoov einovra oeoe^o/uiac o^ei oovpt. 

fo)9 apa (fxovrjaavTe e? dp/xara vroiKiXa j3dvT€ 
€/jL/jie/jbaa)T iirl TvSetSrji e'^ov ooKea<; iTTTTOv;. 240 

Tov^ Se 'iSe z6eve\o<; K(Z7raz^?;t09 dyXao<; vio^, 
al^jra Se TvSetSijv eirea irrepoevra TrpoarjvSa' 
" TvSe'iBrj AtoyLiT/Se?, e/Awt Ke-^apia^eve Ovfioji, 
dvBp' opoQ) Kparepo) eirl aol /j-efiaMre fjid'^ecrdai, 
iv direXeOpov e'^ovre' o ixev to^cov iv el8(i)<;, 245 

UdvBapo^, vlb<i S' avT€ AvKdovo<; ev'^erai elvac 
Ai,veLa<i B vio<i fxev dfivp^ovo^ Ayytcrao 
ev-^erat e.K'^e'^dpuev, yi>r)Trip Be oi ear ^ A^poBiTT]. 

231. eicoeoTl Ar. {koI axeSbv atravres) fl : eicoe6Te P. 232. an om. Q. 

234. noeeoNTcc DPQ Eust. 236. KTefNei . . eXdcoi G. 237. 6X\' aOrbc 

cu r' C. 239. 9CONHCaNT€ . . BoNxe GJP Mosc. 1 : 9coNl^caNTec . . BdNTcc 
ft. 240. euueJuacoTec HM. 242. oTij/a 5e : ait};' eni L. 245. evONTC 

GMN Mosc. 1, Vr. b : e'xoNTec Q : e'xoNxac fi. 247. 5' om. U : ©' C. || ixhi 

auuuONOC : ueraXHTopoc {k supr.) DHSU. 248 om. Vr. a. 

comes I will dismount to fight, iiri^riaeo 230. exe goes with both i^vla and 

(221) referring to the present moment, I'ttttw by a slight zeugma, hold the reins 

mount the chariot in order to reach the and drive the horses. Compare the 

scene of action. This entirely agrees difference in the sense of de^ai. = take, 

with the Homeric style of fighting, and 8€de^o = await the attack, above, 
where the heroes use their chariots only 232. cpeBcoJueea, flee from, cf. 223. 

for movement from one part of the field ooo ' ' ■,,.-, ., • 

to another, and do the serious work on , "f •. "^THceTON. grow wild, ose their 

foot. Cor;ipare especially P 480, where ^/^^' ^%T f ^ ' f" ".^M In ^ 510 

the reading is certain. The variant a-T^^, .7 °p ^rf^- Compare also 

• o ' ^ ] 1 1 i i j-u f i. Aisch. Sept. 37, P. V. 57. 

enipTjaoixai is due no doubt to the tact a 

that in the sequel (275 ff., 294) Pandaros 23°- ""nuxoc, with single (solid) 

does make his spear - cast from the '^°'^fi ' ^'^^ ^^'°^^ f^^vos (Horn, fiovfo^) but, 

chariot. That, however, is an irregular- '^^^^ ^^"^ generally agreed, for *a/M-d>i'v^ 

ity which Aineias does not contemplate. where c/a = ae^i- of eh ((refx-s), simplex, 

It is curious that Ar. while reading ^9- (Brugm. Gr. i. 171). Compare 

awo^-qcrofiai gave the perverse interpreta- Virgil s solo ungula cornu. 

tion olov TT]s 'iirirwv (ppovridos, I will 248. Cf. <f> 335 warpos d' e^ dyadov 

resign the care of the horses. yevos ei^xerat 'ififievai vlbs, for the use of 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


oaX wye or) '^ac.oofiea e<p nrirwv, /jbtjoe /juol ovto) 
6vv€ Sia TrpofMci'^cov, jxi] ttco? (puXov rjrop oXecrcrrjc';. 

TOP 8' dp' viroSpa ISoov irpoaei^ri KpaTepo<; Aio/i?;^?;"? 
" /A>7 Tt cpo^ovB' a.'yopev , eVel ouSe ae Treiae/jiev oio) • 
ov jdp fioL yevvalov uXvaKa^ovrt fiw^eadaL 
ovSe KaraTrrdoaaecv • en fioi fxevo^; €/jb7reSov eartv 
OKvelo) S' LTTTTCov €7n/3aivefi€v, dWa koI avrw^ 
dvrlov eljjb avrwv rpelv yH ovk idi UaWd^; 'AOrjvri. 



249. So/cet ZyfvoSoTOi tovtov /cat rbv i^ijs yjOeryjKivai An. |i e<p inncON Ar. fl : 
there was a variant, but Scliol. A does not say what; probably ci<p' YnncoN rather tlian 
^9* Ynnouc. |] Juoi : xjku G. 251. ap': aO J. 252. <p66oN t' P'R : 9660N 
ju' L. II oo9e u€ S. 253. riip euoi S Mosc. 1. || ciXucKdzoNTi ^ dXucKdzoNTa 

Eiist. 255. cniBHueNQi M Eust. || outcoc T Lips. 256. ONxioc S. || u' : 

a' S. II la Herod. ATU. 

CKyeydfjiei'. But the line, which is 
omitted by one MS. , looks suspiciously 
like an interpolation. 

249. doKet ZrjvodoTOS tovtov Kal top 
e^rjs TjOeTriKivai, Ariston. ; an important 
remark, as it shows that the later Aris- 
tarchean school knew Z^'nodotos only at 
second hand. £9' YnnooN, 6tl 'AttlkQs 
f^evrjuoxev olvtI tou ws irrl Toi/s 'iinrovs {in 
the direction of the chariot), ibid. For 
the Attic use compare i-n-' oiKov = home- 
wards, i] iiri Baj^nXuvos 6d6s Xen. Cyr. 
V. 3. 45, etc. It occurs also in H., e.g. 
r 5, E 700. But it is hardly possible 
that this should be the sense here, for 
we cannot suppose that Sthenelos, whose 
function is that of charioteer, can have 
left the horses so far as to advise Diomedes 
to retreat in their direction. We must 
therefore take it in the ordinary sense, 
'retreat upon the chariot' (as 12 356). 

252. 966oN3'ar6peue : for this pregnant 
use we may compare 11 697 (pvyaSe 
/j.viJiovTo. It is easily derived from the 
literal sense which we have in O 139 
(pb^ovS' 'ex^ fMihrnxas 'iinrovs, and may be 
compared with such phrases as elirdv, 
fjLvdeiaOai els dyadd, I 102, '^ 305 ; thus 
it means ' say nothing in the direction 
of, tending to, ilight.' 9660c is of 
course an exaggeration, as Sthenelos 
merely meant him to fight in the 
throng, not among the trpo/jLaxoi. 6Xu- 
CKdzoNTi and KaxanTcocceiN are equally 
invidious names for i-etirement to the 
o/xtXos, where an individual was protected 
by numbers (cf. Z 443). So Idomeneus 
says, N 262 ov ydp oico dvdpuiv dvff/J.ev^cov 
eKCLs 'KXTd/xevos TroXefMi^eLv. oud^ ce : so 

Ptol. Ask. ; Herod, ouoe ai, not even 
thee. But it is more Homeric to take 
oi)5^ with the whole clause, for neither 
do I think that thou wilt persuade me. 

253. rcNNQioN, a dir. \ey. in Homer ; 
nor does he use yhva. or yevvdic : 
<jy]fxeiovvTa.l Tives otl ovtus eipijTaL iyyeves, 
TrdTpiou Schol. A. It is practically 
indifterent whether we explain the word 
thus, 'it is not in my blood,' or in the 
later sense ' it is not honourable for me 
to shirk'; this sense is immediately 
derived from the former, as with oui- 
word 'high-bred,' wortliy of a man of 
family. To a chieftain whatever is 
hereditary is honourable as a matter of 
course, to yewatbv Iotl to fxr] i^tcTd- 
fxevov €K TTJs avTov (pvaews Aristot. if. A. 
i. 1. 14. 

256. This line is a compendium of 
sins against Homeric diction — the weak 
aOTcbN = them, rpeTw for Tpeetv, and 
worst of all ta\ in one syll. for idei in 
three. The couplet may be an Attic 
interpolation, though it does not look 
like it. If it is to be restored to 
archaic form, violent measures must be 
employed. Of many conjectures perhaps 
the best is van Leeuwen's avTios djju.- 
Tp^eiv fji OVK ei'ae 11. 'A. In the old 
Attic alphabet, with contractions, this 
would be TpeLv /xovKea II., which would 
easily assume its present form with 
avTUJv, a gloss imported to fill up the 
apparently deficient measure. The well- 
attested ^a supports this. For the 
imperf. cf. 819. (Synizesis of the first 
syll. of edw is found in our texts in K 
344, where see note, and (p 233, xp 77.) 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

TOVTO) 8' ov iroKiV avTi'i cnroicrerov w/cee? lttttoi 
afjicpQ) a(^' rjfxeicov, et j ovv €Tep6<; ye (j)vy'r}i,aiv. 
aXko Be rot epew, av 8 evl (f)pecrl (BaXkeo arjiaiv 
ai K€v /Jboc 7roXv/3ou\o'i ^AO^vrj kvSo^ ope^rjt 
dfKpoTepoi KTelvai, crii Se rovcrSe fiev oi}Kea<i tTTTTOu? 
avrov epvKaKeeiV, ef avrvyo<i 'qvia reivwi, 
Klveiao 8' eirdl^ai fxefivrj/xevo'^ iTrTTcov, 
e'/c 8' ekciaai Tpcocov fxer ivfcvTjfiiSafi 'A^aiou?. 
tt}? <ydp TOi yeverj'i, rj'i Tpcot nrep evpvoira Zeu9 
8wy' fIo9 TTOivrjv Vavv/jbij860<i, ovveK aptcrroL 
LTTTToyv, ocrcroi, eacrtv vir r]Oi t tjeXiov re* 
rr}? <yeverj<i eKke^^rev dva^ dpSpcov 'A^^tcTT^s', 
\d6prji A.aopbehovTO's vTroayctyv 6ifKea<i ittttou?* 
TOiv ol €^ eyevovTO evt fieyapoiai yevedXr)' 




257. TOUTCON M (not Harl. a). || cbiceac Ynnouc C {siqir. oi over ouc) R S7q)r. 
258. e'l r' OUN Ar. 5id tou y : others eY k' oun ? 260. 6peH0i P. 263. 

aiNeicoo Zen. || dnaisac Q. |1 jmejUNHJUieNOC : KaXXixpixac S* (jueuNHJUieNoc S^). 
264. diseXdcai A {supr. k b'). 270. reN^eXwc N supr., yp. J™: reuieka 

Vr. b. 

258. For the double re cf. U 30 fi^ 
ifii y oGp ovtos ye Xd./3ot xoXos. 287-8 
and X 266 are doubtful cases. Sehol. 
A (Didymos) remarks, oiirws toOn 8ia tou 
y ' ApicTTapxos : this perhaps indicates 
the existence of a variant ei' k' odv, which 
is at least unobjectionable, perhaps prefer- 
able, and is conjectured by Heyne. 

261. ToiicSe, pointins:; to his own 
horses, which must therefore be close at 
hand ; an additional argument in favour 
of the explanation adopted in 249. 

262. It is not uncommon in vase- 
pictures of a chariot about to start to 
see the reins fastened to the front of the 
dvTv^ or rail which ran round the car 
and formed a handle behind by which 
the riders could mount. This again 
seems clearly to shew that Sthenelos at 
the moment is in the car and holding 
the reins. 

263. YnncoN may be gen. after eTrdl^ai, 
cf. N 687 i-n-diaaovra veSiv and other 
genitives after verbs of aiming (H. G. § 
151 c). juejuNHJueNOC is then added as 
in T 153 S:5i tls vfjieiwv /jLe/j-vrj/xevos dvSpl 
fiax^ffdw, both lines being instances of 
the common Greek habit of expressing 
by the participle what we give in tlie 
principal verb : ' do not forget to spring 

at the horses.' On the other hand 
iirat(7(r€Lv is commonly used absolutely, 
so that it is equally possible, though 
less idiomatic, to make linroov dependent 
on fxe/xi'T^/x^i'os, ' spring forward thinking 
only of the horses.' 323 is in favour 
of this ; there, however, irrat^as may 
directly govern iTnrovs (cf. H 240, M 
308 ; it takes the dat. also, k 322, ^ 281, 
^ 64 '0. 

265. fie, an ablatival gen., expressing 
the source, as Z 211 TavTrjs toi 7ej'e'/5s re 
Kal ai/naTOS ei'xo^at ehai, and t-^s yeveijs 
^K\e\p€ below. The attraction ^s for 
■ijv assumed by some is not Homeric, 
Hesiodic, or Pindaric. Bekker {II. B. 
ii. 12) instead of supplying eiaiv after 
yeveris takes it with ^K\e\pe in 268, 
regarding yeveTJs there as a mere re- 
sumption after the parenthetical ^s . . 
rifKiov re, and putting a comma at the 
end of 267. He would also read rjv for 
fjs, but this seems needless. 

266. ouNCKa, because. For Ganymede 
see T 231-5. 

269. XtiepHi Aaou^SoNTOc, fl 72. 
ewXeac, as drjXvs eepcrrj e 467, "Hpri drjXvs 
iod(ra T 97. Others read 6r)\^as for 
d-rjXeia^, with the Doric a of the ace. 
plur. fern. ; but this is not an epic form. 

270. reNeeXH, a stock, sttid. 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


Tou? fJ'^v reacrapa^ aurb'i t'^wf driraW^ eVl (jxirprji, 

TO) 8e 8u Alvetat, hcoKev, jxijaroipe (f)0^0L0. 

el TOVTO) K€ Xd^oLfiev, dpoi/jbedd Ke K\,eo<^ iaOXov.'^ 

CO? OL fiev TOtavra 7r/?o9 dW7]\ov<; dyopevov, 
TOi 8e rd"^ i<y^v6ev rjXdov eKavvovr c6K€a<i lirirov^. 275 

Tov 7rpoT€po<i TrpocreeLire Avkuovo^ djXao'^ vi6<i' 
" Kaprepodvfie hatcppov dyavov TfSeo? vie, 
rj fjidXa (T ov ^eXo^ o)Kv Safidaaaro, TTLKpo^i oiaro'^' 
vvv avT ey'^eiTji Treip^jaofMai, at Ke tv^u)/u,i.." 

■q pa Kal dfi7re7ra\u>v TTpoteu SoXi'^octkiov €j^o<;, 280 

Kat jSdXe Tvhethao Kar dairlSa' t?}? Se SiaTrpo 
ai'^fir] '^aXKelrj TrrafxevT] OooprjKt ireXdadr]. 
TMi S' eVl fiaKpov avae AvKdovo<; d'y\ao<; vlo<^' 
" j3ep\7)ai Keveoyva hia[X7repe<i, ovSe a 6ia> 
8r]pov €T dvcr^/jaecrdai,' ifiol 8e /juey evj(o<; ehcoKa^;.^^ 285 

271. TOUC : T<£)N M. 272. uiHCTcopi S {supr. e) T'(?) Par. j, Plato Laches 

191 B. 273. apaijueea M. 274. o5 : Toi Q. 276. TON : toj Mosc. 1 : TobN 
N. 277. Kapxepojuuee P. 278. H : ei T-. 279. Tuxco"! A Schol. T : 

TuxoiJuii i2. 280. npolH Vr. a. 282. ecopoKi G. |] neXacce Q. 285. onq- 

cxHceceai PQ : yp. dNacx^ceai J. 

272. Bekker, Nauck, Christ, and others 
have adopted the variant /xqa-Tiopi in pre- 
ference to the vulg. JUHCTcope : it was 
read by Plato Lach. 191 B ; Kal avrbv 
rbv Alveiav /card tovt' ipeKoofiiaae, Kara 
rrjv rod (pb^ov eTrL<TT'qfi7)v, Kal etwev avrbv 
elvai fj.'rjo'Twpa (pb^oLo. There can be no 
doubt that Homeric usage is on the 
same side, for /j.rj(TTwp (pbjSoLo is always 
used of heroes (Z 97, 278, M 39, ^16, 
cf. /jLTjaTwp dvTTJs N 93, etc.), except in 
the parallel passage 9 108, where the 
MS. authority is more evenly divided. 
The nearest Homeric analogy is in the 
late passage B 767 (pb^ov "Aprjos <pop€ov- 
aas, of the horses of Eumelos. We may, 
however, accept the phrase here as an 
unusually exaggerated encomium ; the 
horses in virtue of their divine descent 
are actually put on a level with human 

273. For the first Ke (here and 196) 
most edd. (including Bekker, Nauck, 
and Christ) follow J. H. Voss in his 
conj. ye : but the change is needless, as 
appears from the considerable number 
of cases of el' Are with opt. in protasis 
quoted in R. G. § 313. The separation 
of et . . /ce is found again in the same 
phrase 9 196, and in ^I' 592 ; the 

particles are still far from coalescing into 
an Attic edv. See also 31. and T. § 461. 
274. For this line see note on 431. 

278. Schol. A mixes up in his note 
two interpretations, according to one of 
which we should read h as a particle of 
asseveration ; the other would take ij 
dvrl TOV ei. Though the former view is 
doubtless right, yet it may be said that 
the j)arataxis of the two clauses shews 
exactly how the use of et with the 
indicative arose, to express a concession 
made unconditionally. 

279. The form TvyxtiiM has as usual 
been almost universally corrupted to the 
more familiar tvxoi/jll. The opt. with 
Ke is quite out of place in these con- 
ditional protases expressing a hope. So 
also H 243. 

281. For THC ^i La R. suggests (and 
jSTauck and Christ adopt) v 5i, comparing 
E 66, H 260, T 276. This is no doubt 
right, as ij 8i would be likely to be 
changed, in order to avoid the (perfectly 
normal) hiatus in the bucolic diaeresis. 

282. ecopHKi may hei'e mean the 
fiirprj : see App. B. 

285. juera is here to be taken as an 
adv. (cf. A 78), thoio hast given me my 
wish to the full. If it is closely con- 


lAlAAOC E (v) 

t' '' 


Tov S' ov rap/Sijaa'i irpoaec^ri Kparepo'; ^io/ji^87]<i' 
r^jx^pore^, ouS" eru^e?' cirap ov fiev crcpMC y oco) 
irplv aTTOTravaeaOai, Trplv r) erepov <ye Trecrovra 
atfxaTO's aaat ' Aprja raXavpivov '7ro\efii(TT7]v. 

CO? <pdp,€vo^ irpoerjKe' ySeXo? S" Wvvev AOrjvrj 
plva Trap' oipddX/jLov, \evKov'i S eireprjaev 68ovTa<;. 
TOV S' aTTO fjuev yXMcrcrav 'rrpvfivrjv TUfie ^a\Ko<i aTecpr]^, 
al-^Qirj K i^eXvdri Tvapa velaTOV avdepewva. 
7]piTre S' €^ o'^ecov, apd/Brjae Se Tev^e eTr uvtmc 
aloXa Tra/ji(f)av6o)VTa, TrapeTpeaaav Se ot Ittttoc 295 

cb/cuTToSe?* TOV S' av6i XvOtj yjrv^T] t6 p,evo^ re. 

Klveia^ S' diropovcre crvv daTrihi hovpi re ixaicpMi, 

288. npiN anon. P: npiw r' fi. || cinonaucecem (A S2<^;r.) DNU : 6nonau- 
caceai fi (including T). H npiN H LU : npiN r' H fi. 289. raXaupioN PR. 

293. €se\ueH Ar. AHM Mor. Bar. Cant. Vr. c, Harl. a, Par. a b e f^ (\ in ras.) 
j: cseXdeH S [siqyr. u) : csexueH Mosc. 1 {in ras.). Par. h k: ^secuTo T Lips. 
Harl. b : ^secueH Zen. O. 295. najui9aN6eNTa G. 297. enopouce PRS-U- 

(H supr.) : ^ncopouce N. 

nected with eSxos as epithet, it produces 
the forbidden trochaic caesura in the 
fourth foot. 

288. The fourfold repetition of re in 
the vulg. led Barnes to drop it after 
either -Kpiv, and the MSS. give some 
support. npiN was originally long by 
nature (of. Trpelv in the Gortynian inscr.), 
and though it is occasionally short in 
H. (nineteen times), yet it remains long 
in thesis in Z 81, and some eight other 
passages. It is true that irpiv has a 
special affinity for -ye, the combination 
occurring nearly thirty times in Homer, 
yet Z 465 (?), O 74, a 210, 5 255, -q 196, 
<T 289 are the only passages where the ye 
is not elided ; this very small proportion 
and the preponderance of passages in the 
Odyssey are in favour of the omission. 
See Hartel H. S. 109, La Roche H. U. 
256. For dnonauceceai and dTroTraiVa- 
adai. see note on V 28 ; and for 
TaXaupiNON H 239. 

291. The course of the dart has given 
great trouble to critics ancient and 
modern. Some thought that the dart 
being miraculously guided need not 
pursue a natural course ; others, that 
Pandaros was leaning forward to see the 
effect of his shot ; others, that the plain 
was not level, and that the chariots ran 
on the lower ground while the footmen 
fought from the heights (!). None of 

them seem to have hit on the absurdly 
simple explanation that Pandaros may 
have attempted to 'duck,' bending his 
head forward a moment too late. The 
result would obviously be what Homer 
describes. (This explanation was, I 
find, first given by Brandreth.) 

293. ^seXiieH was explained by Ar. 
T^s opfj/qs eiravcraTo, which the word 
cannot mean ; i^eavd-r] of Zen. and vulg. 
— issued forth. But there can be little 
doubt that Ahrens, Brandreth, and Christ 
are right in restoring e^eXvde = e^^Xde. 
The form with e for yj is not elsewhere 
found, but has very likely been sometimes 
suppressed in favour of the more familiar 
TjXdov. The misunderstanding will of 
course have arisen in transcription from 
the old Attic alphabet. This is an 
interesting, because evidently accidental, 
proof that in the oldest form of the Epic 
poems the ictus in the penthemimeral 
caesura sufficed to lengthen a final 
short syllable without the aid of the p 
i(pf\KV(TTiKbv, which originally was not 
used to make position. (See also on A 

295. nap^xpeccaN, swerved aside. For 
the canon of Ar. that in H. rpelv means 
'fugere, non timere' see Lehrs Ar. 77 
sqq. Hence Aineias leaps down (297), 
because his horses are running away. 
But the variant iirbpovae is equally good. 



Selaa'i /x?; ttco? oc ipvaataro veKpov A-^atol. 
dfxcf)l S' ap^ avTMC /Salve \eoov w? akKi 7r€7roi6ct)<i, 
irpoaOe he o'l hopv r ecr^e koI aairiha iravroa etcrriv, 300 
Tov KTcifxevai fie/xaoo'i 69 rt? rod y avrlo^ e\doi, 
afiepSaXea Id'^wv. Se '^epfidSiov Xd^e %etpt. 

uoeioTj'i, fxeya epyov, o ov ovo 7 avope cpepotev, 
oloL vvv /SpoTol ela ' he fiiv pea TrdWe Kal oio<i' 
Tcot /3d\ev Alveiao Kar la'^lov, evdd re jjbrjpoq 305 

l(7j(iOii evcTTpe^erai, kotv\t]v he re ficv KaXeovaf 
OXdaae he ol KOTvkrjv, irpo'i h d/ncfxj) prj^e revovre' 
Siae h diro ptvov rprj-^i)^ XWo^;. aurdp 6 <y ypoof 
ecmj yvv^ epLTroov Kal epeiaaro %etpt 7ra')(eirn, 
yaLi]<;' dfxtj)! he ocrae Ke\aiV7] vi)^ eKd\v\^e. 310 

Kai vv Kev evO' diroXoiro dva^ dvhpwv AlveLa<i, 

301. ToO r' : ToO&' Mosc. 1. I| ONxioN DHRS. |1 eXeH(i) NQ {supr. 01) R Vr. A. 
303. auco Q. II r' om. D. || SNapec JT. 305. ^Nea re G Mosc. 1. 306. icxioN 
Par. b : InJcoi Cram. An. Ox. ii 372. 307. t^nontq Q supr. 308. rpaxuc P. 

310. 5^ : hi oi Eust. 

300. oi is dat. ethictis, npocee a pure 
adverb, as in 315, etc. The prepositional 
use with gen. is commoner. 

301. ToO r' dNTioc : cf. P 8 ; the ex- 
pression is very strange, and might easily 
be emended eo avrios, the hiatus being 
normal in the bucolic diaeresis. As it 
stands, tov must mean 'the dead man.' 

303. ju^ra eproN, a great feat, added 
parenthetically, ' in apposition to the 
sentence,' as it is usually called, though 
it really forms part of the complement 
of the verb Xd/3e. We may compare A 
294 wav epyov vTrei^, and similar 
usages which will be found in ff. G. 
§ 136. 2-4. There is clothing in Homeric 
usage to justify us in taking ^^701' in 
apposition with x^PM^^""'! ^s though = 
a great thing ; or in comparing such 
Herodotean phrases as /j.^ya XPVI^°- ^os. 
9epoieN : for this 'concessive' or poten- 
tial opt. without dv see R. G. § 299 /, 
where reference is made to the similar 
use in a principal clause, peta deos 7' 
ideXuv Kal r7]\odev dvdpa crawcrat. The 
hiatus after o suggests 6' /c' ov (P. 
Knight), or 7' ov dvo k (van L.), but 
the /ce is not grammatically necessary. 

304. oToi nOn BpoToi dci : compare A 
272. The phrase occurs four times in 
the Tliad, but not in the Odyssey. 

306. kotuXh, the acetahulwin of Roman 
and modern anatomy ; the socket, suffi- 

ciently like a shallow cup, by which the 
head of the femur is articulated to the 
pelvis. Compare the use of KOTvX-r^buv 
of the cuttle-fish's suckers in e 433 (also 
of the acetabulum in Ar. Vesp. 1495). 

310. raiHC : the gen. is compared in 
H. (?. § 151 ffl with Toixov TOV ir^poio 
I 219, and with the gen. after verbs of 
taking hold of. But it must be admitted 
that the analogy is not very satisfactory, 
and the use is strange. The line recurs 
in A 356, and is there generally con- 
demned as an interpolation ; it may 
fairly be suspected here too. The last 
part looks like an adaptation of the 
familiar tov 5e /car' 6(pda\/j.Qv epe^evvr} 
vv^ eKd\v\p€i'. For hi Brandreth and 
others conj. 5e F', where F would natur- 
ally represent Fe : but de ol in Eust. 
looks as though some Mss. in his time 
still retained a tradition of Foi, which is 
of course possible. Cf. the ol of Ambr. 
in \. 4. 

311. dn6XoiTO for the dTrwXero which 
is normal in Homeric as in later Greek ; 
see H. G. § 300 c, M. and T. § 440. 
The opt. is in itself merely concessive or 
potential, without reference to past or 
present ; but the need for a more exact 
expression of time clearly led early to 
the prevalence of the indicative. Hence 
the opt. is almost confined to a few 
formulae, such as this (repeated in 388), 

216 lAlAAOC E (v) 

€L /JLT) ap o^v vorjae Alo<; OvyaTiip ^AcfypoBlTrj, 
/jbr)T7]p, 7] fitv vir ^ K<^'yi(T7]i reKe ^ovKoXeovrt- 
afj,<pl S eov (f)i\op vlov i'^evaro irrj-^ee XevKoo, 
TrpoaOe he ol TrenrXoLO (fyaecvov irrvyfj,^ eKaXv^jrev, 315 

€pKo<i e/xev ^eXecov, fxr) Tt<? Aavacov TW^VTrooXwv 
^oXkov ivl aTrjdecrai ^akoiv ck Ovjxov eXotro. 
t) fjbev eov cf)i\ov vlov V7re^€cf)epev TroXe/xoio' 
ou8' vt6<; HaTravr^a e\rj6ero avvdeacdcov 

Tcicov a<i eTrereWe /3or]v a'yaOo^ Aiofjb7]87]<i, 320 

aW b ye tov; p,ev eov<; rjpv/caKe fioivv'^a'i 'iTrirovi 
voacfiiv aiTO (pXoicr^ov, i^ dvTvyo<; rjvla Teiva<i, 
Aiveiao 8 eVai'^a? KaWiTpt'^a'; Xirirov^; 
i^eXaae Tpcocov fier evKV7]/jLi8a<; 'Ayatou?, 

OMKe 8e ArjiTrvXoii erdpcoL ^iXun, ov Trepl 7rdarj<; 325 

Tiev ojjLTjXiKlrji;, on ol (ppealv apria rjihr], 
VTjvcTiv eTTc yXa^vprjLcnv e\avvep,ev. avrdp o <y 7706)9 
MV iTTTrcov eVty^a? e\a/3^ rjvla aiyaXoevra, 
alyira Se TvSet8r]v fieOeire Kparepcovv-^a'i L7r7rov<; 

317. Ik: dno T. [| ^Xhtqi NQ Par. c g: oXoito Ar. (?). 318. Ion: rebu 

Mosc. 1. II nToX^uoio X. 323. alNeicbo Zen. (of. 263). 324. IzlXace : ^k b' 
SXacce T. 326. fiiSei C. 327. nqucIn P. 329. KpaxepcoNiixec' Ynnoic Zen. 

<pal7]s Kev, ovde /ce (pairjs, ovk &v yvoiTjs, ddefxlaria, aypia eloevai, and the fuller 

ovK av {oi) Ke) i5ois, oij Kev ovSaaiTO, and is 6v/j.6s rjina d-qvea ol5e A 361. 

much commoner in II. than Od. 327. For the dat. instead of the ace. 

313. TEKe, conceived ; cf. B 741, 820. after verbs of motion cf. the common 

314. ^xeiiaxo : cf. w 214 dju^jixveds Phrase ctt' dWriXoicrLv Idvres, and others. 
warip' iffOUv. H- ^'- § 198 ad fin. 

315. ^K<4Xu4.eN, put as a covering ; so , ^^^^ "^«f "^^jjth a double accus. only 
P 132, 4. 321, X 313. Cf. note on ,f ^ ' '" "./^^ we have Harpo/cXcv 
go ecpeire Kpar. nnrovs. Ihe word eireiv, 

320. For the position of rdcoN cf. 332 ["""^ ^^', primary sense 'handle,' came 

and ^119. For cuNeecy6o,H, agreement, *« ""ply ' handling ov managing a 

cf. B 339 TTijc Sr, avud.aiac; *f.'" 0^ ^lorses, and hence = f;nrc. But 

„„„ o J r„.o ^^ IS "°* necessary to follow von Christ 

323. See note on 263. j^ reading /xed' '4we : the constr. 'drove 

326. For the phrase apria fiidw cf. 11 the horses after T.' may be justified by 

72 d fxoL Kpeiwv 'Aya/x€/j.uuiv ijirM eldeirj. such common constructions as ixercivai 

dpTLos seems to be the opposite of dv- TLva and the like, combined with the 

dp<j-ws, and to mean 'friendly,' agree- constr. of 126 iivioxov jj-idewe dpaaw, 

ing with his wishes. But in 2 92, ^ ' drove in quest of a charioteer,' where 

240, Apria pd^eLv means ' to speak suit- the direct object 'ivirovs is omitted in 

ably, to the point,' and so it might be Greek as in English. Compare also 

here ; o! would then be an ethic dative, IVttoi's vwdyeLv '^vyhv II 148. It must, 

' because he found him have apt know- however, be admitted that 1vM8-ni would 

ledge.' But this is a less Homeric use be a more usual constr. The reading of 

of emvai, which is regularly used to Zen. (v. supra) is not to be commended, 

express disposition of character; compare as it introduces the short form of the 

numerous phrases such as atmfia (0 207), dat. pi. tTTTrots for 'i-n-n-oLdL. 

lAlAAOC E (v) 217 

e/J,fM€/jLa(t)<i. 6 8e Kvirptv iTTcoL'^^eTO vyfKel '^oXkmi, 330 

yivcocTKcov 6 T ava\Kt<i erjv deo'^, ovhe Oedwv 

Tcicov, at T dvhpSiv iroXejiov Kara Kocpaveovacp, 

ovT dpi' ^AdTjvaiT] ovre TnoXliropOo'^ Vuvvoi. 

a\X' ore hrj p eKi^ave woXvv Ka9' o/juXov OTrd^cov, 

ev9^ eTTope^d/uuevo^; p^eyadvp^ou Tu8eo9 vto<i 335 

uKprjv ovraae X^^P^ pbeTd\p,evo<i o^eC Bovpl 

d^XrjXPVi'' eWap 8e Sopv %/3009 avreroprjaev 

dp,j3poaiov hid ireTrXov, '6v ol ^dpiTe<i Kdp^ov avrai, 

7rpvp,vov vnrep 6evapo<i. pee h dp,/3poTOV alpba Oeolo, 

331. nrNCbcKCON LN. || ee6 G. 334. ^6 Kixawe G. 336. (Hence to 1. 635 
is a lacuna in A, supplied by a later hand, quoted as A.) doupi : xa^'*'^' H Lips. 
337. liuBXHXpfiN LRS. || bopu : di6 PQ. 

330. The name Kiinpic is used only 
in this episode (422, 458, 760, 883), and 
the Cyprian worship of Aphrodite is not 
elsewhere alluded to in the Iliad. Her 
connexion with Paphos appears, how- 
ever, in the certainly late passage d 362, 
which in several respects may be com- 
pared with the adventures of the gods 
recorded in the present book. In the 
sequel Kypris is made the daughter of 
Dione (371), an ancient goddess, prob- 
ably pre -Hellenic, the wife of the 
Pelasgian Zeus at Dodona. It is certain, 
therefore, that the name cannot be 
meant to imply the Cyprian oi'igin of 
the goddess. Enmann {Kypros p. 21) 
suggests that the name is really European, 
and compares the Italian Dea Cupra (of 
whom we know nothing but the title) ; 
and that the Greeks named the island 
from the goddess, not vice versa, when 
they colonized it, and, in their usual 
fashion, identified their Aphrodite with 
the Phoenician Astarte whom they found 
in possession. Cyprus is alluded to in 
H. only in 5, 6, p, and the clearly late 
passage A 21, but Aphrodite is fully 
established as an Olympian, and shews 
no sign of Phoenician parentage. 

332. Compare 824 /J-a-xv '^'^^ Koipa- 
viovTa, and V 241 /J-axv avSpwi/, 183 
dvdpicv TTToX^/xovs, from which it is clear 
that dubpoas here is gen. after TroXe/ULOv, 
not after KOipaveovaiv. 

334. 6ndzcoN : cf. 341 ws "Ektwp 
iliira^e Kap-q Ko^bwvTas 'Axatoi5s, and P 
462. The word seems to be closely 
conn, with 'iireLv (compare the use of 
€(j>i-weLv) , and means pressiiig ha7-d. It 
recurs in this sense in the metaphorical 

phrase 775^05 d-rrd^ei 6 103, A 321 ; else 
it is always causal, ' to cause to attend 
upon,' i.e. to attach to. 

337. oBXhxphn, a word of doubtful 
origin and sense, cf. djSXTjxpos ddvaros 
(easy ?) X 135, \p 282 ; here apparently 

feeble {ol fxiv dirakrjv, ol de dcrdevrj Ap. 
Lex.). Herodianos on O 178 mentions a 
form j3Xr;xp6s in the same sense ; cf. 
p\dS, (and fxaXaKds ?). 6NT€T6pHceN may 
be either dv -Tirbprjaev or dvT-eTbprjaev, 
probably the former. The reduplicated 
reropeiv is given by Hesych. and dvn- 
seems to have no particular force here. 
Cf. d/j.-TreTToKuii', and see K 267. 

338. The very rare neglect of the F of 
Foi led Heyne to conj. 6 for 6V, though 
ireirXov as neuter is not found in H., nor 
indeed anywhere except in the form 
TT^TrXa in very late authors (cf. on Z 90). 
Another easy correction, made by Nauck 
and others, is at for ol. Still better, 
perhaps, is Brandreth's 8i> dp, cf. ov p 
avTT) TTotTjo-aro 735. But in a fragment 
of the Kypria we find eifiara /xeu xpo'i- 
'iff TO rd ol Xdpirh re Kal "fipat TToirjffav, 
and this is certainly the more Homeric 
construction, cf. 2 178 dix^pbaiov eavbv 
eaa0\ bv ol 'Adrjurj it,vff' dcTKrjffaffa 
(similarly Ap. Rhod. iv. 424). The 
line is superfluous, and as we should not 
expect the garment to cover the TrpvfjLvbv 
devapos, it may well be interpolated. 

339. npuuNbN linep oeNopoc must be 
the same as x^^P ^'"''^ xapirCbL 458. Qivap 
appears to mean ' the palm of the hand.' 
npujuN6N is here taken to be a substan- 
tive, the 'root of the palm.' But it is 
very tempting to read xp6a for \po6c 
in 337 with van L. (altered to avoid the 

218 lAIAAOC E (v) 

lX^P> ^^^^ '^^P "^^ M^^ fiaKapecrcn Oeolcnv 340 

ov yap criTOv eSova , ov irivova atdoTra oivov 

Tovveic avaifjiove<i elcrc kol addvaroi KoXeovrat,. 

7] Se fieya Id'^ovcra diro eo KajS/SaXev vlov 

Kol Tov fiev /juerd ^epcrlv ipvaaro 4>ot/3o9 AiroWcov 

Kvaverji vecpeXiji, fxr} rt? Aavacov Ta')(yTr(ii\,(ov 345 

j(a\Kov ivl (TTTjOecrcTL /3a\cov e'/c 6v/xov eXocTO- 

TYji 8' iirl fxaKpov avcre ^orjv dyaOo<; AtoyLt?;Sr;?* 

" etKe, Ato9 dvyarep, nroXefjbov koX h7]loTr)ro<i' 

rj ov'x a\t<; ottl yvpatKa^ dvoKKiha^ rj7repo7r€vei<; ; 

el he av y e'9 iroXefJiov irociXrjcreai, rj re a oiw 350 

ptyrjaeiv iroXefJuov ye, koI ei p^ erepcodo irvOrjat. 

CO? €(f)a6\ rj 8' d\vov<T cnrejSrjcreTO, relpero 8 alvw^. 
rrjv fMev ap 'Ipi<? eXovcra 7roS7]vefio<i e^ay opu'CXov 
aydoixevrfv ohvviiLai, /xeXaivero Se XP^'^ KaXov. 
evpev eTrecra fjua-xv^ ^tJ"' dptarepa Oovpov ^'Aprja 355 

343. uera [D]J[NO]PQR: xiir 0. i| KduBaXeN ^CNPQST. 346. SXHrai 
CHQ. 347. THi : Twi Vr. a. 348. eurdTHp CJNO. [| noXejmoio JO. 350. 
CU r' : €v TL<n yp. kqJ Scliol. T. 351. noXeuoN be C {supr. re) DNQR : noXc- 
ju6NTe Vr. b. || eYr' H. || ^irticeiN kqI el x' CTepcoei nueHi ndXeudN re G. 352. 
aneBHC€TO viDJQ Vr. y c : ane6HC«To M Harl. a : aneBwcaTO fi. [| reipeTO &' : 
xeTpe r6p U. 

hiatus, and perhaps with the idea that 350. The original reading must surely 

dfil3pocriov belonged to it) ; then Trpv/jLvdf have been •^e au 7' es irdXe/j.oi' iruArjcreaL ; 

will be an adj. as usual, the spear pierced fj ri a' dtoi kt\. : 'wilt tJiou frequent 

the flesh to the bottom, ('to the bone') the battle-field?' The mistake was 

above the palm. And it may be ques- easily made in transcription from old 

tioned whether we should not give the Attic ; Hartmann's ov av 7' ^r' is ir. 

same explanation even with xpoos, taking adopted by van L. is very violent, and 

TrpvfjLvov as an adv. Cf. also P 619, gives a less vigorous sense. As the text 

where the same constr. is possible. If stands, the two clauses beginning with 

Xpoos is kept, it would be better to read el are evidently not co-ordinate or even 

did for 36pu with PQ. consistent. We can only explain them 

340-2 appear to be a very poor inter- by supposing that the train of thought 

polation. ixcop is mentioned again only is, 'if you mean to frequent (cf. A 490) 

in 416 in an anomalous form. It is used the battle-field, you will (be taught to) 

bj' Aisch. Ag. 1480 in the sense of dread the battle if you so much as hear 

' blood ' simply ; in later writers it the sound of it anywhere ' ; which is 

means the serum of the animal juices of possible, but not very satisfactory, 

all sorts, including blood. Thus the nue^ceai is probably used of direct 

appropriation of it to the divine blood, hearing, not in the sense of ' hearing 

which is not adopted by any later poets, battle talked about,' cf. 379 ivvdovro 

seems due to a mistaken attempt to ktvwov, 224 /J.dxv^ eiridovTo. 
reconcile 416 with 339 by this interpola- 354. JueXafNero, i.e. Aphrodite was 

tion. 342 is a meaningless ?M)?iseg'Mi<i(y' ; stained by the fx^Xav al/xa (or I'xwp ?). 

and with it 341 must be condemned. The scholia take it to mean grew livid. 

344. cpucoTo, saved, see A 216. 355. ^n' apicrepd : it seems most 
349. H oux aXic, rather ov F.dXis : the natural to suppose that the Greek poet 

^ is superfluous and the synizesis in- always looks at the battle from the 
tolerable (so Brandreth). Greek side. The left would then mean 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


"jfievov, r^epi 8' t'7^09 eKCKXiTO koI ra-^e Iltttto)' 

7] Se yvv^ epiTTovaa Kacriyp/jToio (^lKolo 

TToXXa \taao/jiev7] ■^pvad/xTruKWi ijireev 'unrovi' 

" (j)iKe Kaaiyvr]Te, KopLtaai re [xe, So<i 8e fioi 'iirirov^, 

o(f)p^ €9 ' OXv/jUttop 'iKWfiai, Xv d$avuT(ov eSo? ecrrt. 360 

Xltjv d^do/jbai eX/co^, 6 /xe ^poro'^ ovracrev dv/jp, 

TvSetSiTi, 09 vvv ye koI av All irarpl pd'^oiTO.' 

ft)9 (f}aTO, TTji 8' ap^ ' Aprj<i SotiKe '^pvad[X'7rvKa^ Ittttov^. 
77 8' 69 Sicftpov e^atvev dKrj-^epevr] <^l\ov rjrop. 
Trap he ol 'Ipi'i ejSaive koI yvla Xd^ero '^epai, 365 

fidari^ev 8' eXdav, to) S' ovk deKovre irereaOriv. 
aJylra S' eiretO^ Xkovto Oewv eSo9, alirvv "OXv/xttov 
ev6 Ittttov^; earrjcre 7roS7]vefMO<; ooKea 'IpL^ 
Xvo-aa ef o^ecov, irapd 8' dfijSpocriov /SdXev eiSap' 
rj B iv jovvaaL TrtTrre Aicovr]<i St' ^ Ac^pohirrj, 370 

353. eXiccojueNH S. 359 om. Lips.* || KOcfrNHT* eKKOJUicai ^4C^PQ (app. corr. 

from ^kkouicon) RU Lips.™ : KacirNHxe ^KKOJuicai S. 1 hi jue G. |1 5bc 5e : 36c 
T^ C. 361. Uan G. 363. ap' o?rt. viDMNPT. 364. cxKay€u.hiH H^R : 

dKaxHU^NH GJPQ (S supr.) T. 366. JudcTiz6(N) LN^. [| acKONTe GOP Cant. : 
QKONxe f2. 369. ndp G Cant. 

the part of the battle most distant from 
the Skamander, on the right bank of 
which the fighting must, according to 
the actual geography, have taken place. 
But this will be inconsistent with L 36, 
where Ares is left beside Skamander. 
However, it has been shewn by Hercher 
that it is impossible to reconcile Homer's 
geographical statements either with 
themselves or with the reality. The 
Skamander in particular is an arbitrary 
quantity, sometimes treated as running 
transversely between the city and the 
ships, sometimes as lying alongside the 
field, and often forgotten altogether {Horn. 
Aufsiitze pp. 50 sqq. ; cf. Ribbeck in 
Eliein. Mus. xxxv. 610). 

356. ^k^kXito can hardly be right, 
for in the first place the idea of a spear 
leaning upon mist is quite un-Homeric ; 
and in the second it can only apply to 
Ynnco by a violent zeugma, for which 
support can hardly he found in V 327 
Ittttol aepffiirooes /cat TroiKiXa revxe ^k€lto 
(see note). Various emendations have 
been proposed, from Bentley's -rjepL 5' 
dpfj.' eKaXi/TTTero on ; but none are satis- 
factory. Some of the schol. derive the 
word from KXeico, was enclosed. 

357. KQCirNHToio is of course to be 

taken with 'iinrovs, not with ■fjireeu, 
which would require an accusative. 
XiccojuGNH : for the lengthening of the 
preceding short vowel see on A 15. 

359. For 96c 9e Barnes and most 
following edd. read 56s re. But the 
collocation of re and 5e is not very rare 
in H. ; a very similar instance is il 430 
avTov T€ puaai, Tr^fMipop de fie avv ye 
deoiffLV : so also ■>!' 178, tt 432, and 
(according to many mss.) tt 140 ; and 
Q 368 ouVe . . 8i. This seems sufficient 
defence for the traditional reading here. 
The de makes the second clause more 
emphatic, because it is contrasted, in- 
stead of being co-ordinated, with the 
first ; there is a slight anacoluthon, but 
vigour of expression is gained. 

361. ^Xkoc : the accus. of a subst. is 
found only here with axdo/mai, but we 
have a neut. pronoun in Z 523 (cf. I 
77) ; and the accusative of a participle N 
352. We might compare also E 757 ov 
veixeai{r)L 'AprjL rdde Kaprepd ^pya. Per- 
haps, however, in this case it is to be 
regarded rather as an accusative of the 
part afl'ected, ' I have pain in the wound,' 
like X'^^P"- 

370. Dione appears only here in 
Homer ; she is named incidentally. 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

fi7}Tpo<i e?}9* rj S a'^KCL^ iXd^ero 6vyarepa jjv, 
^etpt re fiiv Kurepe^ev, eVo? r ecfyar 6k r 6vo/u,a^€' 
" Ti'i vv ae rotdS" epe^e, (fiiXov T€KO<i, Ovpavicovcov 
/ia-v|^tSt&)9, 0)9 el' Ti KUKOV pe^ovaav ivcoTrrji ; 

rrjv Z rjfiei/3eT eireira (f)L\o/xfi€c8r}(; ^AcfipoSirrj' 375 

" ovTci fie TuSeo? vl6<i vTrepOvixo^ Acof^jBi]^, 
ovveK iyoi (^iKov vlov vire^ecpepov TroXe/xoio 
Alvelav, 09 ifiol irdvTwv ttoXv ^tA,TaT09 ecrriv. 
01) yap en Tpcooov koX A'^atcov (pv\o7rL<i alvi], 
dXk i^hrj Aavaob ye kol ddavdroiai fid'^ovrat. ' 380 

rrjv S rjfji€L/3eT eirecra Alcovt] 8ia dedcov 
" T€T\a0i, reKvov ifiov, Kai dvacryeo Kr}hop,ev7) irep • 
TroWol yap Sr] rXy/jiev 0\v/ji7rta Sdo/xar e)^ovTe<; 
i^ dvhpMV, '^aXeiT akye eV dWrfkoiaL ndevTe'i. 
tXt] fiev "Aprj^, ore fxtv '11x09 Kparepo<i r 'E0ia\T?79, 385 
7ratSe9 AX&)?}o9, Sticrav Kparepcoi evl Secrficof 
'^a\K€(0(, 8 ev Kepdfjiwi SeSero TpiaKaiheKa ixr)va<i. 

372. KOT^pciffeN G. 374. eNinfl Q (so Ttves Schol. B L) : ^n coni Harl. b : 

eNCon) Par. d, and -yp. JO. 375. <pi\ojuih3hc Q. 377. nxoXeuoio N. 380. 
re om. R : re Vr. a b. 383. noWd OS. 

among other danghters of Okeanos and 
Tethys, in He.siod Theog. 353, and as 
present at the chiklbearing of Leto, 
Hymn. Ajml. 93. These appear to be 
only attempts to connect with the 
Olympian system an earlier goddess -n-ho 
did not really belong to it. Her cult 
seems to have been Thesprotian and 
connected with that of Zeus at Dodona, 
where she was his a-vwaos. She also had 
an altar in Athens near the Erechtheion 
(with Zei)s I'TTttTO? ? See Preller G. M.* 
i. 125), which all points to an antiquity 
more remote than that of Hera. The 
name itself is probably connected with 
Lat. Diana, and in formation it resembles 

374. CNConHi only here (and ^ 510 ?) ; 
it evidently means openly, in the sight 
of all. 

383. Cf. 873-4. tXhugn, with the 
usual punctuation after e^ avdpCiv, is 
here used absolutely ; but this is hardly 
to be paralleled in H., the expression 
r\rjT€, (pLKoL, B 299, being rather different. 
It would perhaps be better, as suggested 
by Heyne, to take &\y€a as the object of 
TXrifxev as well as of iiriTidivTes. For the 
use of the latter verb cf. B 39. Fulda 
( Unters. iiber die Sprachc der Horn. Ged. 

224) says that dX7os was originally used 
of mental pain only, and that the three 
])assages in which it is used of bodily 
pain (hei-e, 895, B 721) are of late origin. 
He might have added \ 582. 

385. For the legend of Otos and 
Ephialtes, the youthful giants who piled 
Pelion upon Ossa, see X 308 sqq. The 
traditional explanation makes them a 
personification of the triumph of agri- 
cultural pursuits ('AXwei's from dXwi^) 
over Avarlike passions. roiis 'AXuielda^ 
<paffl Karawavaai tov iroKefxov Kal ras is 
avTov TrapacTKevds, Kal ev eiprjpriL iroirjcrai 
^coTevetv roiis dvdpihwovs, Schol. D on X 
308. Mr. Frazer (C. li. ii. 222) suggests 
that the idea of imprisoning the war- 
god was rather to make sure of his 
presence when needed. However that 
may be, the legend — which is at home 
in various parts of Greece, particularly 
in Boiotia and Naxos — seems to be 
founded on a vegetation - myth. See 
Preller O. M.* i. 103-5. The thirteen 
months are of course a lunar year. As 
to why Ares was imprisoned mytho- 
graphers differ. 

387. The K^pauoc reminds us of the 
enormous jars, quite large enough to 
hold a man comfortably, found by Dr. 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


Kai vv Kev evd' aTroXotro "Apr)<; aTo<i iroXef^oLo, 

el /Jit) fMr]Tpvt7) 7r€piKaWr]<i llept^ota 

'Rp/jiiai i^rjjyeiXev 6 8' i^eK\e-^ev "Aprja 

rj^T] retpo/xevov, p^aXeTro? 8e e Seo-/x.o9 eSd/xva. 

tXt] 8' 'Vi^pVj ore fitv KpaTepo<i irai'i 'Afji(f)tTpvo)vo<i 

Se^trepov Kara /xa^ov oiaTOiL rpL'yk(i}')(^LVi 


388. Stoc : coTOC P. 390. ^puciai AG : ^pueT S : epu^a t' M. 

Schliemann at Hissarlik ; see the illus- 
trations to llios pp. 33, 378, 589. These 
jars are of course of earthenware. The 
epithet x<^^>^«^oc is added in accordance 
with the usual practice of describing 
the utensils of the gods as made of 
the more valuable metals, while men 
used baser materials ; cf. 724 sqq. 
Eurystheus, according to the legend, of 
which representations on archaic vases 
are not uncommon, lived in a brazen 
K^pa/uLos sunk in the ground, for fear of 
Herakles. Ace. to the EL 3Iag. (98. 
31) Kipafios was the Cyprian name for 
'prison' (our slang 'jug'). 

388. For the construction see 311. 

389. JUHTpuii^, of the sons of Aloeus, 
apparently ; but according to others, of 
Hermes. But it is evidently meant that 
the step -mother does what she can to 
thwart her step-sons. Their mother is 
called Iphimedeia in \ 305. 

391. eSduNQ : rather eSd^i'??, as Nauck 
suggests, from MfJiv-qixL (893). Cf. how- 
ever 7?i!5a, which, as Fick has remarked, 
is an analogous form irom av5r]/j.i. (Aeol. ? 
avda/xi), not a contracted imperfect. 

393-400 have an obvious echo in the 
Heradea of Panyasis (fr. 16) tXt? ixkv 
AT]fxr]T7ip, tXt] 5^ kXutos aficpL-yvrjeis. Prob- 
ably enough they are adapted from some 
older epic dealing with Herakles ; cf. 
T 95 ff'. They seem to belong to the 
legend of the campaign of Herakles 
against Pylos, which recurs, but without 
the divine elements, in A 690, where 
the schol. says, 'HpaKX?;? wape-yiveTO eh 
TlvXov xpTjifcoc Kadapaiuv, ol Si HvXioi 
diroKXeiaavres ras TriiXas ovk elaedi^avTo 
avrbv i(p' cSt opyiadels 6 7?pws iTrSpdrjcre 
IIuXoj'. crvvefiaxovv di run ixkv NryXet 
rpets deol, YVoaeidCiv "Hpa 'Ai'Swceiys, rcDt 
5^ 'HpaKXet Si'/w, 'Adrjvd Kai Zevs. Accord- 
ing to Hesiod, Scut. Her. 359-67, Ares 
was among the victims on the same 
occasion : 

ijSy) fiiv re e 4>r]/JLi. Kai aXXore ireiprjOrjvaL 
'4yxeos rj/JLerepov, 30' inrep IlvXov rifiadbevros 
avrlos 'idTT) e/j-eTo, fJ-axn^ dfj.0T0i> ixeveaivwv. 

So also Find. 01. ir. 31-5 : 

dvTiov TTuJj hv TptdSovTos 'Hpa/cXe'ijs ffKvra- 

Xov Tiva^e x^p'^'-", 
avlK d/j.(pi IluXov aradeis ijpeide noaeiSdf, 
■fjpeidei' 5^ /j-lv dpyvpewi. t6^wi. TreXefii^wu 
<Poij3o$, ov5' 'AtSas aKiv-qrav ^xe pa[i56v. 

(Cf. Apollod. ii. 7. 3, and Pausanias vi. 
25. 3.) The legend no doubt belongs 
to the journey to Hades, to recover 
Alkestis or to bring back Kerberos. 
There was clearly some primitive idea 
that Pylos (here the Elean, not the Mes- 
senian, v. on B 591) was the gate of the 
under- world ; a cult of Hades there 
is mentioned by Pausanias, I.e., as being 
founded on the gratitude of the Pylians 
for his alliance with them against 
Herakles on this occasion. But Schol. T 
says ' ApicTTapxos " 7n;Xwt " ws xoXwt Kai 
ea-rr^pwi, i.e. Ai'. took ttijXos to be not 
the name of a town but = 7ri'X77, like 
x6Xos and 'iawepos beside xoXt? and eanepa, 
and understood it to mean ' in the gate 
of the underworhl.' This is not im- 
possible, for the gates of hell are often 
spoken of (cf. 646, I 312, and the epithet 
irvXaprris applied to Hades), and a masc. 
TTvXos = -rrvXr] is actually found in a 
Thessalian inscription (see H. W. Smyth 
in A. J. P. ix. 491). But this appears 
to be the only other case in Greek, 
and H. uses only the pi. 7ri/Xat. It 
seems therefore practically certain that 
the word is really local, though it is of 
course possible, in view of the chthonian 
myths connected with Pylos, that the 
name of the town meant, or w^as supposed 
to mean, the gate of Hades. Ar.'s diffi- 
culty arose presumably from the fact 
that the Hades legend was not attached 
to the Messenian Pylos. iti NCKuecci 
would most naturally mean 'in the 
country of the dead,' and this would 
agree with such a double sense of ITi'-Xwi, 
but there is no strong reason why it 
should not be the same as iv veKadeaaiv, 
886. In any case it can hardly go with 
jSaXibv, which means ' hitting him ' ; 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

^e^X7]KeL' Tore Kal fjuiv avyKecrrov Xd^ev aA.709. 

rXrj 8' 'At'S?;? iv Tolcn 7re\copL0<i ookvv o'iarov, 395 

evre /xiv covto<; dvijp, 1^/09 A/-09 al'yto'^oco, 

iv UvXwi, iv veKvecrai ^aXoov oSvvrjLcnv eScoKev. 

avrdp 6 ^i] Trpo? Sw/xa Ato? Kal [xaKpov "OXvfiTrov 

KTJp d'^ecov, oSvvrjiat 7re7ra/3yu-evo9, avrap olaTO<i 

iajjuWi evi aTij3apon rfX^fXaro, KrjSe Se 6vp,ov. 400 

TMi 8' iirX TlaLTi']Wv 6Bvvr](f)aTa (papfiaKa iraaaoov 

rjKecraT- ov jxev 'yap n Karadvriro^ 7 irervKTO. 

(TYerXio^, 6^pifjiO€p<y6<i, 09 ovk oder atcrvXa pe^oav, 

09 TO^OKTLV eKi-jhe 6eov^) o'l "OXvfiirov e-^ovat. 

crol 8' eVl TovTov dvrJKe 6ea yXavKCOTTL'i KOrjvrj • 405 

vr)7ri0<i, ovBe to olSe Kara (fypeva Tv8eo<; viO'i, 

om /xdX^ ov Srjvaib'; 09 dOavaTOicn p^a'^rfrai, 

ovSe Tt fiLV Tral8e<i ttotI 'yovvaai, TTaTnra^ovaiv 

iXdovT i/c TToXifioio Kal alvr}'^ Sr}'ioTf]TO<;. 

roi vvv 'Yv8ethri<i, el Kal fidXa Kaprepo's icm,, 410 

(f)pa^ecr6(0 fir] Tt9 ol dfieivuiv creio pa-^rjrat, 

/J.7] Sr)v AljidXeta 7r€pi(f>po)v ASpTjanvr] 

394. Koi JUiN : KCN juin Ar. {eu tyji erepai) HJINOPTU Haii. b d, King's Par. 
a b f k : kuuTn Hail, a : kgn jutes J : Kai nep C [yp. kcn juiin) R Par. c (supr. xx\n) 
(I g h : tccN nep Q : Kai uin nep G. J! euxoc N {supr. aXroc). 395. neXcopiON Q. 

397. dauNaiciN G. 399. oduNaici G. 400. ^nhXqto P: cXhXoto MNOQ (Harl. 
a Slip?:) Vr. a b A. i| KH9e 3' e eujucoi &. 402. Kaxd onhtouc ap. Eust. 403. 

ouBpiuoeprbc ACG Par. e : oBpiuouprbc S : aicuXoeprbc Ar. |i OC : dia rod t '6 t 
Ar. (?) : be t' P. 406. Tu5eoc ui6c : kqi Karh eujuibN Eust. 407. JuaxeiTai 
(} : judxoiTO ^CGJORSU. 408. TI and xe Ar. Slx^^s. 411. oueiNco coTo S. |1 

iiaxeTrai Q : udxoiTo Vr, a. 412. ddpacriNH G. 

for there is no Homeric analogy for 
translating it 'casting him among the 
dead.' co6t6c for 6 avros, here only — an 
obviously late form, for which we can at 
once write the Homeric ai'r^s, or still 
better offroj. See note on Z 260. 

401-2 = 900-1, q.v. riamcoN is only 
mentioned again by Homer in 899 and 
5 232, where he is the progenitor of the 
race of physicians ; see Solon fr. 13. 57, 
and Pindar P. iv. 270 icral 5' iarijp 
eiriKaipbraTos, Ylaiav Be (Toi ri/JLai (pdos 
He is apparently not 
Apollo, who in Homer 
function (cf. , however, 
schol. on 5 232, Siafpipei 6 IlaLTjwv 
'AttoXXojj'os (hs Kal 'Hcriodos fiaprvpel, "el 
fiTj 'AiroWwv ^oljSos {itt^k davdroio crauKrai, 
t) Kal Tlacrjwv, 6s airavTuiv (pdpfMaKa oldev." 

403-4. For the exclamatory nom. see 

identical with 
has no healing 
n 514-29). So 

vrjWLos 406, and A 231. But in all 
other cases the adj. immediately follows 
the mention of the person referred to, 
whereas here Herakles has not been 
mentioned since 397. This suggests that 
398-402 have been rather violently inter- 
polated. Heyne remarks that Olympos 
is not the home of Hades. For oBpiuoep- 
roc Ar. seems to have read alavXoepyos, 
which to our taste does not go well with 
the aiffvXa immediately following. But 
ef. note on 9 527. 

407. Cf. Z 130. JuwiXa goes with the 
whole clause, 'of a surety.' Cf B 241. 

408. nanndzouciN : so Nausikaa calls 
her father TrdTTTra, f 57 ; compare also 
/x 42, and for the addition of the parti- 
ciple in the next line the similar Z 480. 

412. Aigialeia, wife of Diomedes, was 
the youngest daughter of Adrestos, and 



e^ virvov <^ob(oaa <pLXov<; olK)]a<; iyeiprji, 
Kovpihiov iToOeovaa ttoctiv, top apiarov A-^aiaJv, 
l^Oi^ri a\o')(0<; Aio/ji7]Seo<; iTnroSd/JiOio. 

rj pa Kol a/jL<pOTep7]tcnv utt I^m '^€ipo<; o/xopyvv 
aXOero %e/p, ohvvac he KaT7]7n6covTO /Bapeiai. 
at 8' avT elaopocoaat ^AOijvair] re koI "^prj 
K€pTop,iOi<i enreeacn Ala KpovlSijv epeOi^ov. 
TOicn Se fivOcov '>]px^ ^^^ 'yXavKwira ^KOt^vry 
" ZeO Trdrep, rj pd ri fiot KC'^^oXcocreai, ottl k€v eliroi ; 
Tj fMoXa B'^ Tiva KwTrpt? Wyaudhwv dvielaa 
Tpcocrlv dp,a cnreaOat, rou? vvv eKirayX i(f)L\i]ae, 
T(ov Tiva Kappe^ovaa ^ A'^aadhcov evireifkoiv 



413. fireipHi Lips. Mosc. 1. 416. i5iU90T^paiciN G. || iyw A3 {yp. !x<^p) NS 
(iXcb) Ambr. Mor. Ven. B Et. Mag. al. : Ixwp (ix"p) {'X<^P° Q) ("^^ ^^ ypacpeiv 
■Xcop jJ-era tov p . . ov ttclvv apiffKet rots iroKaLoh Eust. ). |1 )(€ipoC Ar. il : x^pciN 
Zen. II 6juopseN Et. Mag. 417. 3X96x0 H. 418. fipa P. 422. axaTdawN 

P. II CNieica Aiiilir. 423. '6xx ecneceai ^LOS Lips. Anibr. : au.a necceceai P. || 
exnarXa 91Xhc€ P. 424. dxaTdacoN P. 

418. The return of Athene from the 
battle-field to Olympos has not been 
mentioned; see 510. The 'taunt' — 
which almost descends, it must be ad- 
mitted, to the level of 'chaff' — looks 
like a conscious allusion to A 7-12. For 
421 cf. E 762, a 158. 

aunt of her husband ; for Tydeus had 
married her elder sister Deipyle, see S 
121. So in A 226 Iphidanias is married 
to his maternal aunt. This seems to 
shew that relationship through the 
mother alone ceased to be recognized in 
Greece at an early date ; though Mr. 
M'Lennan thought that traces of it 
existed till historic times, and that the 
change to the recognition of paternal 
kinship is recorded in the trial scene in 
the Uicmenides. If this be the case, it 
must have been a peculiar instance of 
survival in Attica. It may be said 
generally that in Homer the idea of 
kinship is almost the same as our own, 
though relationship through the mother 
is not quite so close as with us. 3hn 
must go with ro6coca, ivith long lament ; 
but this is not very appropriate. Perhaps 
the original reading was 3h F\ lamenting 
him. For the feminine patronymic 
'ASpHcriNH cf. I 557 EvTjvivTj, H 319 

415. This line seems to be an inter- 
polation, and out of place, like 403-4 
above. If it is to be accepted at all it 
evidently ought to come after 412. For 
i9eiuH cf. A 3 ; as used of women it is 
an Odyssean word, except T 116. 

416. Mss. are divided between !x<2), 
I'xcip, and ix^P- As the word is masculine 
in 340 and elsewhere in Greek, the first 
form is preferable. Barnes conj. dp-cpo- 
T^p7]Lcr' Ix'^P o.irb xet/36s. 

423. The choice between cn^ceai and 
effirieOai (i.e. ae-air-eadai, reduplicated 
aor.) is not easy. The former is fixed 
by metre in x 324, with cnvelo in K 285. 
But MSS. prefer forms in iffir- wherever 
possible (K 246, M 395, JSf 570, m 349, 
T 579, 4> 77 unanimously ; M 350, 363 
by a majority ; here and in 5 38 alone is 
there a majority for apia ffiriadaC), though 
they are in H. invariably preceded by 
elision, so that those in aw- can always 
be substituted. In compounds the form 
in ffTT- alone is known throughout Greek. 
In Pindar both cnrop.€vav {P. iv. 40) and 
'iain)Tai {0. viii. 11) are certain ; in 
Attic a-ireadai (Eur. PJioen. 426) and 
eairofx-qv (or i(xir6p.riv ? Soph. Track. 563). 
This points to the forms in (ttt- being the 
older, those in eair- a later introduction ; 
we need not be surprised to find them 
side by side in K 285, but are justified 
in pi'eferring the shorter where tradition 
permits. H. G. § 36 (6). touc nun 
enKorX' e9iXHce : cf. V 415. 

424. tGm TiNO takes up riva ' AxaudScav 
above. Fiisi has remarked that the 
speech seems to shew something of the 



7r/309 '^pvarji, irepovqi Kara/xv^aro %et/3a apaiijv.'' 425 

&)9 (f)dro, /xeiSrjcrev Se TraTrjp avSpcov re Oecov re, 
Kat pa KaXeacrd/xevo^ irpoaicpr) j^pvarjv ^ A<^pohir7]v 
" ov Tot, T6KV0V €/x6v, BeSoTUL noXefjirjla €p<ya, 
dWa (TV 7' Ifiepoevra fxerip-^eo epya jdfMOio, 
ravra S' "Aprj'i 6omi koI ' Kdrivqi Trdvra fiekyja-ei." 430 

CO? 01 /x€P roiavra tt/oo? dW7]\ov<; dyopevov, 
Alvelac 8' eTTopovae ^orjv dya66<; AiofM7]8r]<i, 
yivaxTKcov, 6 ol avTO<i vireipe^e '^€ipa<; ^AiroWcov 
dW 6 y ap' ovSe deov p,eyav d^ero, lero S' aUl 
Acvelav Kreivai koI diro kXvtu rev-^ea Buaac. 435 

Tpa ixev eTTetr inropovae KaraKrd/xevat fxeveatvodv, 
Tpl<i Se ol iarvcfieXi^e (f)a6Lvr)v dcnrih' ' AttoWcov. 
dW ore Sr) to reraprov eireacrvTO Saufiovt l(ro<;, 
oeivd S 6fxoK\rj(Ta<i irpocrec^rj €Kdepyo<; 'AttoWcov 
" ^pd^eo, TvSetSj], kuI ^(^d^eo, /xrjSe deolcnv 440 

la eOeXe (ppoveetv, eVel ov irore cj)v\ov ofjiolov 
dOavdrcov re deMv X^f^^'' fp%o/AeV(Wi^ r dvOpooirav." 

425. KaxajuusaTO Ar. JNT : Kareuusaro fi. 433. nrNcbcKcoN ^LN. || 

XeTpa OR. 434. aW o r ap' : aXX' 6 re G : 6\Kii rdp Q: 6\\' 3 rbip 

CDLM (o r' «p Harl. a) ORT Lips. Mosc. 1. 437. CTU9eXise P. 438-9 o???. 
A. 439. deiNd r' Mosc. 1. 441. Tea eeXe GJO. || oJinoe' 6juoion 9OX0N Q. 

freedom of familiar conversation. xobN 
for Tawv is a late form. 

425. dpaiHN Ar., apai-qv vulgo. The 
word must once have begun with a con- 
sonant, probably F, on account of the 
hiatus here and S 411, T 37 ; the two 
other places where it occurs, 11 161, k 90, 
prove nothing. No plausible etymology 
has been suggested. The soft breathing 
probably arose from the idea that the 
word meant destructive, and came from 
d/377 or palio : but this is not tenable. 
The vulg. Karefui^aro shews the strong 
tendency of the scribes to insert the 
augment. The verb is of course afxvaaoi 
(A 243, T 284). The nepoNH is the 
fibula with which the old. Greek (' Doric') 
TTfTrXos was fastened over the shoulder, 
so that evireirXiiiv is something more 
than an otiose epithet. 

431. This formal line occurs seven 
times in 11. and sixteen in Od. It is a 
' tag' especially used for a return to scenes 
on earth after colloquies in Ol3'mpos, 
which commonly shew signs of later 
insertion ; see H 464, G 212, S 368, 
€> 514. It is therefore sufficient in itself 

to throw suspicion on the whole preced- 
ing section 352-430, with its curious 
wealth in mythology elsewhere strange 
to H. The last portion, 418-30, with 
its half-comic character, bears a suspicious 
likeness to the buifoonery of the deo/maxia 
in $. 

436-42. Compare the parallel passages 
n 702-11, 784-6, T 445-54, with notes 

439. 9' : F' Brandreth and van 

440. The very marked assonance is 
curiously overlooked by Bekker in the 
full list of similar phenomena given in 
If. B. i. 185-95. 

441. For Tea 9poNeeiN compare A 187 
Iffov i/jLoi (pdadai. 

442. x°ucii ^PXOJW^NCON go closely 
together in the sense of iirixOoviwv, 
hence the position of re: so fi 250 ^orjv 
ayaObv re. Compare also phrases like 
"ApTj'i KTd/ji.€vos, which are commonlj- 
written as a single word (see note on A 
74). For the thought cf. P 447 6Vffd 
T€ yaiav ^wi weiei re Kal ipwei. 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


&)? (fxiTO, TuSei'S?;? B dve'y^d^ero tvtOov oirlaao), 
firjviv d\evd/ji€VO<; €KaT7)/3o\ov ATroWcovo^i. 
Alvelav 8 dirdrepOev o^iXov 6?]Kev ^ AttoXKwv 445 

UepydfiMt, elv leprji, 66i oi prjwi j irervKro. 
7] TOi Tov A7]rct) T€ Kol " ApTe/jic<i lo'^eaipa ^ 
ev /xeydXcoi dBvTcot dKeovro re Kvhaivov re* 
avrdp 6 eiScoXov t€v^ dpyvpoTo^o<i ^AiroWwv 
avrwL T AlvelaL cKeXov Koi rev-^eac rolov 450 

afxcpi ap etooiKwi ipwe'i Kat, oiot Ay aioi 
Billow dWifkwv d/ji,(f)l crrrjdeaai /Soeta?, 
daTTiBa^ evKVKXovi Xaicry'fid re inepoevTa. 

443. 'Apiarapxas TUTeON ov no\X6N Schol. T, cf. 11 710. 444. (^XeudueNOC 

Ar. ^GN {? S2ipr.) STU Lips. Vr. a b, Mosc. 1 al. 445. 6n6NeueeN S. 446. 
In CDJOR. II ipfii Ti. || r' otu. G : t' P. 448. Kuaai6N P {svpr. n). 450. T* 

07n. NP : 9' R. || toTo GJ {yp. toTon). 452. 6XXh\oici Q. |i CTHoec9i D Vr. b. 

444. The choice between AXeudueNoc 
and dXevdfjLevos is not eas}'. In II 711 
the former has almost unanimous Mts. 
support. If we read dXevofievos it 
must be taken as a fut. ; there is no 
pres. d\€vo/nai, the aor. •^Xei/a-ro being 
formed from d\i{F)o/xai as e'xei/a from 
X^w. See note on A 549. 

446. The re here seems quite out of 
place, antl was no doubt, as Heyne 
remarks, inserted into the original i'tjos 
irirvKTo from ignorance of the fact that 
the ictus was sufficient to lengthen a 
final syllable. Apollo, as often, shares 
a temple, mentioned again in H 83, 
with his mother and sister. This and 
the temples of Athene in Troy (Z 88 etc.) 
and Athens (B 549, rj 81) are the only 
temples mentioned in H., for the v-qbs 
of A 39 cannot be counted as such ; see 
note there. Vaguer allusions are found 
in f 10 and iJi 346. So, too, the idea of 
the QduTON, a holy place 'not to be 
entered' by the profane, belongs to 
an order of ideas foreign to Homeric 
thought. Elsewhere we hear only of 
the dXeros, the re/xevos, and the ^co/xos as 
the scene of worship (cf. , however, ov86s 
I 404, 6 80, which may imply a temple 
at Pytho). See particularly Cauer 
Omndfragen pp. 197 tf. We seem, there- 
fore, to have clear evidence of the 
intrusion of later ideas into the primi- 
tive Epos. As Cauer remarks, the form 
V7)bs agrees with this ; for in similar 
words which must have existed in the 
primitive poems the older -do- has not 


given way to the Ionic -170- : Xa6s, 
'ArpeWao, rduiv, etc. 

448. KudaiNON, they not only healed 
him, but made him even more glorious 
than before. This is worthy of gods 
when they tend a favourite. Compare 
T 33 ^crrat X/"^s ^/xiredoi i) /cat dpeiuv, 
and the phrases A 405 etc. Kijde'i -yaluv, 
^ 438 KvSaLve dvfibv, w 212 KvSrjvcLL 
dv-qrov ^poTov. It is not necessary to 
adopt Herwerden's conj. K-qdevov or Mme. 
Dacier's Kridaivov. (Hesych. K-qdaivef 

449. The mention of the ' wraith ' is 
not like Homer, nor does it appear on 
other occasions when a hero is snatched 
away by a god. It plays no further part 
in the action, nor does there seem to be 
the least surprise shewn at the reappear- 
ance of the original Aineias in the field, 
1. 514. Apparently some rhapsodist 
thought it necessary to exjjlain why the 
disappearance of Aineias did not stop 
the fight, and therefore added 449-53, 
the two latter lines from M 425-6. 
Compare the story of Stesichoros and 
the wraith of Helen, which may have 
suggested the idea here. 

452. Boeiac is the genus, dcnidac and 
XaiCH'i'a the species, both being made of 
leather. For the meaning of the latter 
and of the epithet euKuxXoc see App. B 
§§ 1, 9. 

453. nrepocNTa, flutter ing. The epithet 
is elsewhere applied only to arrows and 
eVea. The old explanation that it meant 
Kovcpa, iXacppd, is untenable. 

226 lAlAAOC E (v) 

Br) Tore dovpov "Aprja TtpoarjvSa <I>ot/3o? 'AiroWoyv 
"'Ape<?, "Ape9 ^poroXoLje, /juaicfiove, T€Lx^cn7r\7]Ta, 455 

ovK av 87] TovB'' civSpa fidxV^ ipvaaio ixereXOoiv, 
TvBetSrjv, 0? vvv je Kol av Ad irarpl fMaxotro ; 
KvTrptSa ixev irpwra a^^hov ovracre x^^P' ^'^^ /capTTMi, 
avrap eiretr avrwi fMoi eTreaavTO Sai/xovt Zero?." 

ft)9 eiTTcbv avro<; fiev ecpe^ero Ilepyd/jbcot ciKprji,, 460 

'Tp(OLa<i Be o-Tixa'i ovXo<i "Aprj^ Mrpvve /xereXOwv, 
elB6fievo<i 'AKaiMavTL 6000 1 rjry)]Topi ®pr)t,KU>v. 
vidcri Be Hpui/jboio Biorpe^eecrcn Kekevcrev 
" (5 viel^ Upiufjioto BLorpe(f)eo<i ^aaLkr)o<i, 

e<? tI ert Kreivecrdai, idaere Xaov 'Axacoi<; ; 465 

T) et9 Kev cifxcjil 'Trv\'r]i^ evTTOirjTrnaL ixd^f^vrat ; 
Kelrat dvrjp 6v r laov irlofxev "J^KTopi Blou, 
Aivela<i vlo<; /jLeya\r]Topo<i AY^icrao- 
dW' dyer e'/c <^\oia/3oLO o-awcrofxev eadXov kralpov.''' 

w? el-TTOiV oirpvve /xei^o<? Koi 6v/jiov eKdarov. 470 

457. judxHTQi Vr. b. 458. npcoTON JNOQRU (cf. 883). 461. Tpco(l)ac 

Antiin. Siiiop. Cypr. C (rpcolac) D'-GJNO, yp. Pai'. a : Tpwac piRU {olttt) (peperai. 
ypa(pri . . ?) yap kttjtlkQis xpcoibc . . 7) /xdWov TrpoTr£piaTroj/j.evws Tpobac Eiist.) : 
TpcocoN fi {yp. 0). I! ouXoc : rtves hX6c Cram. Ep. 442. 462. epaKWN G. 

463 uieci NP, yp. Hail. a. : aiorpocpeecci G. || KeXeueN [DHMS] Harl. a. 464. 

dioTpo9eoc GHJO. 465. eic J. | edcaje T Bar. axaicoN CM. 466. niiXaic 
G. !l €unoiHTHlci (eu noiHXHici) Zen. ft : eu noiHToTci (eunoiHTOici) Ar. MNOT 
Vr. b. 468. After this H Vr. b add eux^Tai CKrerdjucN, UHTHp he oY €Ct' 

'A9poaiTH ( = E 24Sj. 469. 9X010600 CG. 470. orpuNe Vr. b. 

455 = 31, which is also followed by not capable of emendation by anything 

OVK cLv dri. less violent than van L.'s dyavoi'. 

461. Tpcoidc is a doubtful form, as 466. There is nothing to decide be- 
Tpwios almost always has the first syll. tween the eunoiHTHici of Zen. and -oto-t 
in thesis, and should probably be written of Ar. ; in 11 636 we have euTronjrdwi/, 
Tp6Cos : cf. on A 129. Wilamowitz while in 7 434 the Mss. all give ivTroi-q- 
{Herakles^ ii. 44) defends TptSas as a rov {irvpAyp-qv). So ev^earos is used witli 
form of the axni^'^ 'Iwvik6i> or ' whole both two and three terminations ; in Z 
and part ' figure. There are, however, 266 Ar. and Zen. were similarly divided, 
some eight passages in which the form We ought perhaps to read either ei) 
Tpcotos (or Tpuiios ?) cannot be altered. TroLTjTrjiffi. or eviroijjToiai. But no such 
It is better, therefore, to accept it here, possibility exists in Z 266, where there 
though it must be admitted that Tpwas is a similar variation between avlirTriKn 
gives the best explanation of the variant and aviirTOLcn. It is apparently not pos- 
Tpciwi/, as an attempt to get rid of an sible to introduce uniformity into the 
unfamiliar and harsh construction. practice of the Epic language in this 

462. Ares, the Thracian god, naturally respect. To avoid the harsh synizesis 
assumes the form of a Thracian chief. Nauck conj. 9i is & k', while Brandreth 
See N 301. omits ij and the note of interrogation at 

465. For the dat. after KxciNeceai we the end of 465. 
may compare the similar construction 470. This oft-repeated line, though 

after 8d/j.vaadai. (9 244), inroKXoveeirdai presumably part of the ancient stock 

(<l> 556), etc. The short form 'AxaioTc is in trade of the Epos, is remarkable for 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


€vd^ av ^apTTijScov fjidXa vetKecrev ' VjKTopa Slow 

"' EiKTop, TrrjL 8i] rot /xevo<i ot'^erai, o irplv e^eaKe<i ; 

(f)r]<; irov arep Xacov iroXcv e^e/juev 7)8 eTrcKoupov 

olo<i, aw ya/xf3polai Kaacyvi^roLai re aolai' 

tSv vvv ov tlv eyoi ISeeiv Svvafi ovSe voP]aai, 475 

dWa KaraTTTcoaaovai, Kvve'i w? dfi(f)l Xeovra' 

i1IJbel<i 8e /jLa'^ofi€(rd\ 01 irkp r eiriKOvpoi eveijxev. 

Kal <yap eycov eTTiKovpof eoov pudXa rrfkoOev tjko)' 

TrjXov <ydp Avklt], 'B<dv6coi em Blv7]6vtl' 

€vO^ dXo-^ov re (f)i\r]v eXcirov Kal vrjirtov vlov, 480 

Kah he KTij/jLara TroWd, rd r eXSerai 09 /c' i7riSev}]<i' 

aWa Kat (h<i AvKLOvi OTpvpco Kal pbepbov avro<i 

dvBpl /jLa-^eacraaOaL' drdp ov tl fxot evddSe rolov, 

olov K r^e cfyepoLev A^aiol i] Kev cu^oiev. 

Tvvrj K e(Tr7]Ka<i, drdp ouS' dWocai K€Xevet<i 485 

Xaolatv fjievep-ev Kal d/xwifievai copeacrf 

fjbT] TTO)?, ft)9 d-\jrlcn Xivov dXovre iravdypov, 

471. €No': ^nB' P. 472. nfil : noT JNP Vr. 1), Mosc. 1. 473. 9HC Ar. 

CDHiPTU : 9h(i)c 12. 474. raBpoTci G. 475. ercb GJMOPQU : crtoN ii 

{om. T, ^rd> in lemma). || oiibk : ouxe H. 477. 5e GJMRTU Lips. Mosc. : rfe 
C : a' aQ fi. II T om. N. 481. rd t' : rh d' S. ! oc k' : ocx' C'HMO(}RSU 
Vr. b : oc L : nac P. || ^niBeuei 0. 483. JuaxHcaceai Ar. [LM] Harl. a : 

uaxHceceai P : udxeceai HRU. 487. Xinoio eXoNre Et. Mag. 183. 33. 

the rare neglect of the F of FeKdarov 
{cLTrdvTwv Brandr. , dvfi6v re Bentley). 

471. This is the first entry in the story 
(excepting of course in the Catalogue B 
876) of Sarpedon and his Lykians. 

473. 9HC, ace. to tradition, is imperf. , 
^T?ts pres. 

474. rauBpoTci, here hr other s-in-laio, 
cf. N 464, 466. 

478. HKCO : according to the unanimous 
tradition of the grammarians, generally 
confirmed by the ms.s., the only Homeric 
form is i'/cw, which Bekker accordingly 
introduced here (v. La R. H. T. p. 287). 
But TjKoj is given by mss. in three ether 
passages, S 406, v 325, o 329. To the 
scribes of existing Mss. the difference 
was purely graphical, and it is credit- 
able to their fidelity that the influence 
of Attic and the KOivf] should not have 
introduced rjKia more generally. 

481. Kixh de, as thougli /careXtTro!' had 
preceded. Precisely similar cases will 
be found in V 268, H 168, ^ 755. Sar- 
pedon means of course that he has left 

his wealth, forgetful of the protection 
which it would need against the raids of 
his needy neighbours, oc k', sc. e-quji : 
see on A 547. 

484. Observe the effect of the ' bucolic 
diaeresis ' in preserving the length of the 
last syllable of 'Axaiof before a vowel. 
The other instances in the Iliad are B 
262, A 410, E 215, 9 120, A 554, 
23, n 226, * 111, ^ 441, ft 641, several 
of which, however, are only instances of 
contracted forms which have ousted the 
full forms followed by normal hiatus. 
See van L. Ench. pp. 75 f. 

486. <S}pe:cci sliould be ddpecrcn, cf. I 

487. The use of the dual here is hard 
to explain, unless it refer to the wives 
mentioned in the preceding line, and 
mean ' caught in pairs, man and wife ' ; 
which seems highly improbable (so 
Schol. B v/xeTs /cat al yvuaiKes, see H. G. 
§ 170). Others make it = (n' /cat 6 Xaos : 
others explain it as a relic of the primi- 
tive origin of the plural from the dual, 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

avSpda-c Svafieveecra-iv eXwp icai Kvpfia yevrjaOe- 
ol Se ray eKirepaovcr iv vaioixevrjv ttoXlv vpuy'iv. 
crol he yprj rdSe iravra fxeXetv vvkt^ re koX 'qjxap, 
dpyov'i \icraop,eva)t T7fkeic\eiT(>iv eiriKovpwv 
VQ)\efMeco<; i'^e/juev, •^aXeirriv S' dirodeaOao eviTTn^v. 


488. reNoicee C. 489. ^:Knepc<dc'(iN) CMQ Mosc. 2. il Cijui(ju)Tn OQST Lips.' 

491. THXeKXHTWN yiCGJMNO. || t' cniKOiipcoN M: r' eniKoupcoN H. 492. 

XaXenHN .JHJ {~fp. KpaxepHN) NOPQSU Vr. a 1> and yp. Haii. a: xpaxepfiN ft. 

of which, however, the traces in Homer 
are excessively doiibtful, see note on A 
567. (The passages bearing on the 
point are brought together by von Christ, 
Die Interp. hei Homer p. 19.^.) Monro 
suggests that a line alluding to the 
absence of Paris may have dropped out, 
so that a\6vT€ may mean ' you and 
Paris.' But there is no single case in 
Homer where the loss of a line can be 
assumed with reasonable probability ; 
tlie tradition was wonderfully tenacious 
of all it had got, as well as acquisitive 
of new matter. Again, the length of the 
a in FaXovre is almost without analogy ; 
it is true we have edXtxiv in Attic, but 
that is simply a case of double augment, 
like edbpwv, {edyr) ?) {H. G. § 67. 3). 
We iiiid, however, aXwvai with d in 
Hipponax fr. 74. 1. Bentley's conjec- 
ture, Xtpov wavdypoio Fa\6vTes, removes 
both difficulties ; but there is no trace 
of a tradition to support it, nor any 
obvious reason why it should have been 
altered to the text ; and there is no other 
case in Homer of a short vowel before 
jp, though it might be argued that the 
analogy of I3p and dp would justify this. 
Unfortunately, owing to the lacuna in 
A, we have no evidence as to the 
Alexandrian view of the passage. Try- 
phiodoros, however, seems to have read 
it as it stands, for he writes (674) dXX' 
oi fikv SiSfxtjvTO \lvuL davdroio wavdypwi. 
It may be observed that the emendation 
\lvoio for Xlvov, though it removes the 
difficulty of the quantity, introduces 
what is equally objectionable, an un- 
Homeric rhythm. H. d. § 367 (2). 

Fishing with a net is mentioned again 
only in the simile in % 383 sqq., nor 
does fishing with an angle, which is 
several times mentioned in the Odyssey 
(S 368, p. 251, 332), occur in the Iliad, 
except in similes, n 406, ft 80. This all 
seems in favour of supposing that at all 
events the lines 487-9, if not the whole 
^- speech of Sarpedon, do not belong to the part of the Iliad. It cannot per- 
haps be proved, but it will I believe be 
felt, that the periphrase Xij'oj' irdvaypov 
does not sound like a genuine Homeric 
name for a net ; it is very different from 
the simple SIktvov ttoXviottov of x 386, and 
reminds us rather of the Hesiodic style, 
in which periphrases are so common ; or 
even of the tragedians. Compare Aisch. 
Cho. 507 Tov ^K ^vdov KXwdTTipa ffLo^ovres 
\ivov : and of the net cast over Troy, 
Agam. 357-61 areyavbv Mktvov . . fxeya 
dovXeias ydyya/xov, arris TravaXthrov. The 
word 6i};ic is air. Xey. in Homer, and, in 
the sense of iiwsh, in all Greek till we 
come to Oppian. 

489. liKnepcouc', al. -ua, but the 
reversion to the principal construction 
is more epic. 

491. It is doubtful whether we should 
read THXcKXeiTcoN or -kXtjtCjv where 
the epithet is applied to the Trojan 
allies (also Z 111, I 233, A 564, M 
108). voXvKXrjTOL, A 438, is decidedly in 
favour of the latter ; but the former 
alone is admissible in other cases, 2 321, 
X 308, T 546. To our Mss. the two are 
of course practically identical. 

492. ENinii is here, as always, reproof 
as felt by him to whom it is addressed, 
cf. A 402, S 104, K 448. Hector is 
urged to ' put away from himself,' 
silence, the reproach wliich is laid upon 
him by the allies. The expression is 
the converse of /3 86 fiCop.oi> dvdipai, 
X 100 fXeyxeirj" dvaBrjcrei. It is there- 
fore quite needless to follow Nauck 
in reading inroSex^o-h ' accept their 
rebuke.' Paley compares Hes. 0pp. 
762 (pripiy} . . dpyaXer] (pepeiv x<iX€7r7; 5' 
dTTodeadai. Similarly Pind. 0. viii. 68 
aTredrjKaTo . . aTLfj-orepav yXCxjcrav, x. 
40 veiKos oe KpeaaSvcov dvoOecrd' diropov. 
The interpretation of the scholia, that 
Hector is urged ' to give up the habit 
of severe rebuke ' towai-ds his allies, is on 
every ground untenable. 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


(09 (puTO ^apTrr/Scov, Saxe Be (f)peva<i ' KKTopt fiv6o<;. 
avTLKa 8 ef o'^ewv avv rev^eaiv aXro '^afid^e, 
irc'iXXdov S' o^ea Sovpa Kara arparov Miyero TrdvTTjL 495 

orpvvcov fj,a^€(TaaOat, eyetpe Se (pvXoTriv alvr)v. 
vol B eXeXi-^dijaav koX ivavrlot, ecrrav W'^aiMV 
Apyeloi S' vTre/uuetvav doWee<i ovB' iipo/Srjdev. 
ct)9 B avefjLO^ a'^va<; ^opeet lepa^i kut aXo)a<; " 
avBpcov \iK/jicovT(ov, ore re ^avdrj A7]fM7]T'r]p 500 

Kpivrji €7ret<yo/j,evcov avefiwv Kaprrov re koI d'^va^' 
ai B viroXevKaivovrai a-^vpfxiai' (b<i ror 'Ayatol 
\evKol VTrepde <^evovro KovicraXfot, 6v pa Bt avroiv 
ovpavov e? TroXu'^aKKOv iTreTrXrjyov TroSe? lttttcov, 
ai^ iTTLfiLo-jo/jbevcov vtto S' earpecfiov rjvio^ije^;' 505 

ol Be fievof; ^eipoiv Wv^ <pepov. a/^cjil Be vvKra 
6ovpo<i "Ayc)779 eKoXv^e /j,d'^7]t Tpcoeacrcv dp^jycov, 

496. iiaxecceai P : udx^^^^^' 1^- II f<reipe R. 500. IlroXe^aros rot's Swoe/ca- 

crvXXdjSoi's (TTixovs eKTiffeis (p-qcn . . Kai tovtov ovtoi ypdcpeaOai, cut' 9n s. A. 
Schol. T. 501. KpfNei CDPN : KpfNoi G. 502. Cino\euicafNONTo P. 

495. 9o0pa : Bekker writes 8ovpe, no 
doubt rightly ; cf. T 18, Z 104, A 43, 
etc. We need not also write 6^4e with 
van L. The dual here expresses more 
than 'two spears' ; it means the ^raw' 
of spears which were regularly carried 
by the Homeric warrior, for in its original 
use it belongs properly only to things 
which go in pairs, such as eyes, hands, 
etc. It is curious that a scholion of Por- 
phyries on r 379 quotes as evidence of 
the two spears Z 104, where as here Mss. 
all have oovpa. 

499. iepdc, consecrated to Demeter ; 
cf. A 631 dXcpirov iepov aKTrjv. dXcoH, 
here and N 588, T 496, threshing-floor, 
generally orchard. But the former 
meaning seems to be the oldest, cf. 
dXew, d\odu}, £Xws, and other words 
witli kindred meanings. The question 
whether the right form is dXwij or dXwiTj 
is doubtful ; we have a similar variation 
between dXodw and dXoidai, but the t in 
any case does not seem to be primitive, 
and it is therefore best to follow the 
MSS. in reading dXcad^, though La 
Roche prefers dXwtds, on the strength of 
the tradition of the grammarians. For 
another elaborate simile taken from the 
process of winnowing cf. N 588 sqq. It 
is not clear whether the wind used is 

created by a fan, or whether they took 
advantage of the natural wind ; but the 
probability seems in favour of the former, 
so that iirei.yo/j.&wi' will be a passive. 

503. bi' aCiTcoN, through the men (as 
opposed to the horses), i.e. the wpd/xaxoL 
fighting in front of their chariots. 

504. noXiixaXKON, as 7 2 ; cf. xa^^eos 
P 425, (Tidripeos 329. For the thematic 
pluperfect 4;nen\HroN cf. H. G. § 27, and 
note on A 492. 

505. cniJuicrojuieNcoN seems to applj' to 
the whole of the combatants, not to IV- ' 
TTwi', as generally thought. OnecrpefoN, 
kept wheeling about, as the line of 
irpo/j-axoL on whom they attended swayed 
backwards and forwards. Cf. 581. 

506. For JUENOC x^'P^n ieuc 9epoN we 
may compare A 447 aijv p i^aXov . . 
/j,€ve' dvdpu)v, and P 7 epiBa irpotpipovrai. 

507. u^xHi may go either with the 
preceding or the following words. The 
rhythm and the analogy of A 521 are in 
favour of the second alternative, while 
n 567 speaks for the first, and the 
omission of the object around which the 
darkness is cast produces a rather bare 
effect. Perhaps fj-dxvi- may be regarded 
as performing a double function, going 
both with e/cdXui/'e and dprjyojv. 

230 lAIAAOC E (v) 

iravTotT €7rof^o/jL€vo<i, rod 8' eKpdatvev e(f)eT/jia<i 

't>oi^ov ^ ATToWcovof; ■^pucraopov, 09 fiiv avcoyet 

Tpcoalv dv/jiov iyelpat, eVel iSe UaWdS^ ^ Kdrjvrjv 510 

olyofjbevrjv rj yap pa ireXev Aavaotaiv dprjyoiv. 

avTo<; S' Klvelav fjbd\a 7rLovo<i i^ dSvroLO 

rjK€, Kol ev arrjOeaai p,evo<; l3ciK,e Troifievi \aS)v. 

Alvelwi 8 eTapoiat fieOiararo- rol 8' i-^dp7]crav, 

(jt)9 elSov ^o)6v T€ Kol dprefxea nrpocnovTa 515 

Koi fievo^ iadXov e'^ovra' /juerdWrjadp ye jxev ov ri- 

ov yap ea irovo^ aA-Xo?, bi^ dpyvporo^o^ eyetpev 

"Aprj^ re /3poToXoiy6<; "E^ot? t dfxorov fiefxavla. 

TOix; S Al'avT€ Svoi kul 'OSucrcreu? Kal Aio/ii')]Sr]<; 
corpvvov Aavaov<i TroXep^c^e/juev ol Be Kal avrol 520 

ovre ^ia<i Tpoowv vTreheiBLcrav ovre icoKd<i, 
dXX' efjbevov ve(^e\7}icnv ioiKore<;, a? re K^povlcov 
vrjve/Jiirj'; ecrrrjaev eV aKpoTroXotcriv opeaatv 

508. CKpaaiNCN P : eKpaiaiNCN il. 510. areTpai Porph. on 9 2, Eust. 

511. apHroc CDNR^. 514. napicTOTO R. i Toi : oV il. 516. re iieN : 9e 

JueN Q. j: OU TI : ouQ^N D. 520. oTpuNON tj : dbrpuNQN Mosc. 2. |i 01 5e : nbk 

QT Mosc. 1. 521. icoKdc : loi6c 0. 

508. For the e9eTuai in question see passage. But this whole episode 506-18 
455. eKpdaiNGN : B 419. is highly suspicious. 508-11 do not 

509. The epithet XP"C<^°P°'^ recurs agree with 455-9 to which they seem to 
onl}' in 256 in H. (also Hymn. Ap. refer ; they are in fact no more than 
123, Hes. 0pp. 771, Pind. P. v. 104), a repetition of 461-70. The repetition 
and has caused some surprise, since the dprjyuv (507) — dptjywv (511) is clumsy, 
sword is not the weapon of Phoebus. The ' night ' cast over the battle, with- 
So in the oracle of ' Bakis ' (Herod, viii. out any apparent result, is a stock 
77) Artemis, and in Hymn. Cer. 4 even device of interpolators in later books (see 
Demeter are called xpi^crdopos, and ac- and P). 516-8 seem designed to evade 
cording to the schol. on 256 IUvSapo^ the difficulty caused by the introduction 
Xpvadopa 'Op(pia (f>7]aLv. Hence some of the wraith in 449. The intervening 
of the old grammarians explained aop 514-5 are perhaps adapted from H 
as having meant originally ' imple- 307-8. 

ment,' owXov, in the widest sense, to 517. n6Noc aXXoc is not a Homeric 

include both the winnowing- fan of phrase; we can only explain it to mean 

Demeter and the lyre of Apollo; or, ' toil of different sort,' i.e. war as opposed 

still more loosely, hung with gold, i.e. to curiosity. Heyne has remarked that 

with the golden lyre. But there is no for dXXos we should ratlier expect an 

trace in Greek of such a wide meaning epithet such as aiirvs. dprupoTosoc is 

of the word Hop. The epithet, like not elsewhere used as a substantive, but 

other archaic titles of gods, is beyond we may compare -yKavKCoins 9 373, etc., 

our knowledge. The ace. xpi'^^op" i'l -rjpLyeueLa x 197. The last half of 518 is 

Pindar, Hymn. Ap., and Hesiod shews from A 440. ^a for eae is a doubtful 

tiiat we should read xpi"'''^opo' here. form. 

The alteration is evidently due to the 523. NHNejuiHC : for this genitive of 

hiatus in O 256. time see H. G. § 150. We may also 

511. oixo"€NHN, somewhere between compare the use of the gen, with iTrl in 

290 and 418 ; see note on the latter Attic. 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


dTp€fia<;, o(j)p' evhiiicn /xet-os" Mopeao kuI aWwv 
^aypeioiv avefjuwv, oi re V6(f)€a aKioevra 
TTVotriLcnv Xfyvprjicrt StacrKiSvdaiv devre<i' 
OK ^avaol Tpcow; /xevov efiireSov oi)S' e(f)el3ovro. 
W.Tpei'Srj'i 8' dv^ ofxtXov ecpolra TroWd KeXevcov 
" 0) (f)i\oi, dvepe>i eare Kol oXki/xov rjTop eKeade, 
dWrfKov<i T alSetcrde Kara Kparepd^ va/jbiva<i. 
al8o/jiev(ov dvSpcov TrXeove'i (tool tfe weipavrai, 
(pevjovTcov 8' ovT dp K\eo<; opwrau ovre rt? d\Ki]. 

y Kal dicovnae Sovpl 6oo)^, ^dXe Se irpofjiov dvhpa, 
Klveia erapov fieyadvfiov, AijLKooovra 
UepyaauS'rjv, ov Tpwe? o/U-w? Upidfjioto T€K€craL 
Tiov, eVet doo^ eaKe fxerd irpoirotaL pud'^eaOai. 
Tov pa Kar dairiha hovpl j3d\e Kpelwv W<yapep.p(ov 
7) 8' ovK ey'^a epvTO, hiairpo he etaaro ')(aXico^, 
vetalprji 8' ev jaarpl Sid ^(oaTrjpo'i eXaaae. 
SovTTijaev Be ireaoiv, dpd/Srjae Se reu^e' eV avroyi. 

ev6^ avT Alv€La<i Aavacov eXev dv8pa<; dptarovi, 
vie Aio/cXi/o? ^prjOcovd re 'OpalXo-^ov re, 
TMV pa irarrjp fiev evaiev evKTipLevrji ivl ^rjprji, 





525. zaxpeicoN t' Q. 528. noXXci t) JuiaKpd Ei;st. 530. t' om. PQ. 

531. ai&OJUi€NCON Ar. GP Par. c : aiaoueNcoN 9' ft. 532. &pH\na\ C {srqw. o) Q. 
533. ciN&pcoN y. 534. aiNeio" : aiNeiao JOR : afNeieco 0. |] juerdeuiAON Q. || 

aHUOKocoNTa CH Vr. b. 538. yaXKOC ./OPT Yen. B Bar. and yp. U Harl. a, 

Vr. b : Kai thc ft. 540. SounHCeN &€ neccoN : Hpine "dk npHNHC M Mosc. 1. 

542. KpiecoNci DQ. 543. CNi 9HpHi : 7p. <:eN> e9HpHiT(?). 

525. zaxpeicoN: the nom. j'axpT/ets is 
found in M 347 (360), N 684, of men 
and horses. The variation between -et- 
before w and --q- before et is in accord- 
ance with the practice of Mss. {H. G. p. 
384). The word is usually conn, with 
Xpa.- (see 138), but this is doubtful. 

529. oXkijuon firop ¥Xecee only here ; 
but cf. a\Ki/j.ov 9jTop ex'^v IT 209, 264. 
The phrase has a superficial resemblance 
to our ' take heart. ' In the repetition 
of these lines 561-4 we have alSG> 
6i<rd' ivl dvfMuii.. For the contracted 
aidcTcee we should read aWeade, as 
aido/j.ev(i}v shews. 

538. See on A 138. 

539. NCiaipHi, only with yaarrjp (also 
616, n 465, P 519) conn, with vearos, 
veibdi., in the sense 'lowest' (root ni, 
which is found in Skt. in the sense 
' down '). The ordinary derivation from 

v€{F)os is untenable, as the local sense 
of v^oi is not to be established from a 
few casual uses of Lat. novissinius, when 
it does not occur in all Greek, much less 
in Homer, vearos (cf 857, I 153). it is 
true, is used occasionally in Attic Greek 
= v€ihTaTos, but this is likely enough to 
happen, as a word in universal use is 
always apt to attract to itself sporadic 
archaic forms which resemble it. For 
the fern, suffix -aipa cf. loxeaipa (Trtetpa). 
bih zcocTHpoc, as in A 187. Here there 
seems to be neither Ocopy]^ nor /xirpr/. 

543. 4>HpHi, also in plur. 'i>r}pai, in 
Messenia ; see I 151, y 488, o 186. It is 
generally identified with the modern 
Kalamata, but Pernice would place it 
three miles farther E. at Janitza (see 
Frazer Paus. iii. p. 422). In the house 
of this Diokles Telemachos lodges (7 489), 
and in the house of his father Ortilochos 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

a^v€io<; jBiOTOLO, <yei>o<; S' ^y e'/c Trora/juoio 
'A\(f)€Lov, 09 t' €vpv peei YivXtoiV hta <yai7)'i, 
09 reKCT OpcTiko'^ov rroKeecrcr avSpeaatv avuKra' 
'OpalXo^O'i S' dp* 6TtKT€ AcoKkrja fieycidvfiov, 
€K Be AtoK\rjOf; StSvfidove TralSe jeveadrjv, 
}^pr]6a)V 'O^crt\o^o9 re, fxd^ri<i iv elSoTe 7raar]<;. 
TO) fjbev dp^ i)l3r}aavTe pbeXaivdoov iirl vrjcov 
"Wiov et9 ivTTcokov dfjb ApyeLOiaiv eTreo-drjp, 
Tifirjv ^Arp6thr]L<i ^Ayafie/jLvovc koX Me^eXawt 
dpvvfievco' TO) 8' uvOl Te\o9 davdroLo KdXvyjrev. 
olw rd) ye Xeovre 8v(o 6peo<; Kopv<^r)i(Tiv 
irpacjieTrjv viro fiTjTpl ^adeirj'i rdp^eatv v\r)'i' 
TO) fiev dp dpird^ovTC /3oa^ Kal L(f)t,a fiffXa 
cnaOpbov'^ dvdpdiiTOiv Kepatl^erop, 6(f)pa Kal avTa> 




546. T^KCN Mosc. 2 : t^k' H. || dpriXoxoN (D supr.) U (s^ipr. c) Harl. b (altered 
— by man. 1 ? — to 6pc.) : 6p*iXoxoN T (t in ras. man. 2, probably Rhosos, the scribe 
of Harl. b) (TU Harl. b read the same in 547). See Schol. T 6 irpoyovos (546-7) 
5ia rod t, 6 wals (542, 549) 5id tov a (Ar.) : but Zen. (Schol. on y 489) read 6p- 
xiXoxoc in 549 (and 542). 551. eic : tc 0. II au' : S* T, ix in ras. man. 1. 

555. eTpe9^THN J. 557. craeuoiic t' N. || aOxoi N (P supr.). 

(as the almost complete consensus of 
Mss. of the Odyssey calls him) Odysseus 
received his bow {(p 16). The variant 
'OpxiXoxoc in 546-7 is an attempt to 
reconcile the traditions of Iliad and 
Od. ; but it is not likely that the 
grandfather and grandson bore different 

553. apNuu^Nco: cf. note on A 159. 

554. oYco Tcb re as it stands must be 
for Tih ye, o'iw, by a violent hyperbaton, 
the phrase being thus an anticipation of 
roto) Tw in 559 ; or else it must mean 
'even as they, were two lions bred.' 
Neither alternative is agreeable, the 
second perhaps being the worst, as there 
is no case in H. where a simile is thus 
introduced as a direct statement, the 
relation of the thing illustrated and 
the instance illustrating it being re- 
versed. " drjpe ? " Nauck, for rd) ye : but 
then the corruption is inexplicable. 
The same may be said of Heyne's oi'w r' 
adre, and Forstemann's to; o'iw re. oiw 
aWwve conj. Diintzer, when the synizesis 
might explain the corruption but is itself 
unparalleled. Agar conj. rw re {J. P. 
xxiv. 276), where rib is dual of ris on 
the analogy of tov, toil. Cf. ws Sre ris re 
\iwv P 61, and so G 338, P 542. But 
there is no analogy for olos tis in a 

simile ; the only clear cases of it are 
quite different (t 348, v 377 ; see on 638 
below). The evil is probably past 
remedy, rdi ye representing some adjec- 
tive which was thrust out because it was 
unintelligible and forgotten. As to the 
dual Schol. B mentions the legend that 
two lion's cubs were always born at one 
birth, and that the lioness never had 
more. This is mere fiction ; litters of 
four are common, and six are not un- 
known. The dual probably implies a 
couple, lion and lioness. 

555. For the intransitive use of ^rpa- 
(pov cf. B 661. 

556. ¥910 : this adjective occurs only 
in the phrase L<pLa /j.T]\a. Unlike l(pi (for 
which see note on Z 478) the word shews 
clear traces of F (Knos p. 128). The 
nom. may be Fi(pios or Fitpis. It might 
be supposed that t^ta was formed by 
a mistake from t^t, wrongly supposed to 
be a neuter ; but this is highly improb- 
able in view of the fact that t^t has lost 
the F, and that the adj. occurs only in 
a single stereotyped phrase, which there- 
fore presumably is a part of the original 
furniture of Epic poetry. The whole 
question of the relation of the two words 
is very puzzling. Cf. also note on 
i'0^t/xos, A 3. 

lAIAAOC E (v) 233 

dvSpMv iv 7raXdfjb7}tai /careKTadev o^ei ^aX/cojf 

Toico TO) '^elpeacTLV vrr A.lvelao 8afj,evre 

KaTTTreaeTrjv iXaTrjiaLv eoiKore v-^rjXijicn. 560 

TO) Se ireaovr eXerjaev dp7]t(f)t\,o^ M.eveXao'i, 
^rj Se Bia Trpofid'^cov K€Kopu0/jb6vo^ aWoirt '^aXKoyi,, 
aeioiv i^'^eiriv rod S' corpwev fxevo'i ' Aprjii, 
TO, (jjpoveoov, Iva '^epcnv inr Alvetao hapbeLrj. 
TOP 8' cSev WvtlXo^o^ p.€jadvfMov Necrropo? vlo<;, 565 

^rj Se Sid irpopd-^oiv irepl yap Sle TTOip^evL \aS)v, 
fXTj Tt irdOoi, pukya Se (T(f)a<i diroa^ijXeie ttovolo. 
Tcb p,ev 8t] 'y^eZpd^ re koI ey^ea o^voevra 
dvTLOV dWrjXoiv i'^errjv fxefxacore p^d'^eadai, 
'Ai'Tt/Vo^o? Se /AttX.' cij^i rrapicrraro TTOi/mevL Xacov. 570 

Alv€la<i 8' 01) f^elve, doof; rrep ecov TroXepbicrrri'i, 
ft)? elSev 8vo (f)(ore irap dXXyfXoLcri p,evovre. 
ol S' eVel ovv ve/cpov<; epvaav p^erd Xaov ^A'^aicov, 
TO) p,€v dpa SetXoi) ^aXerrjv ev ^epalv eralpwv, 
avTO) 8e crrpecfiOivre puerd Trpcoroiat pua'^ecrOriv. 575 

evda YlvXaipbevea eXerrjv drdXavrov "Aprj'C, 
dpj(ov IIa(p^ayov(ov p^eyaOvpLcov dcnnardwv' 
rov puev dp" 'ArpetSrj^; SovpiKXeLro<; MeyeXao? 
ecrraor ey^ei vv^e, Kard kXtjiSu rv^i]cra<;' 
^AvriXo-^o<i 8e ^vScova ySaV rjvbo^op Oepdirovra, 580 

ea-dXov Ar up.vidSrjv, o 8' vrrearpe^e pi(i)vvya<i LTTTrovf, 

559. ToioiiTco Par. e {yp. Toiw xcb). || too : Toi O. || SaueNxec Mor. Bar. 560. 
eoiKOTC Ar. P Mosc. 1 (Par. asupr.): eoiKdrec ft. || Oi}/h\oTci C. 561. apH'i'- 

9l\oc : 6oHN ciraebc T. 563. ceicoN t' Q. || toO : tcoi Mosc. 1. 567. ndeoi 
LO : ndewi 12. |i C9e:ac ^CDNT. 568. osioeNTo S. 574. Tcb : touc i-l. 

575. CTpa9eeNT€: M : CTpa9^NTe {yp. CTpe9eeNTe). 578. TON : TCt> M. || 

doupiKXeiTOC [HO] P [S] : aoupiKXuxbc fi. 579. Kara : nap^ PT. 

567. 6noc9i^\eie, airorvxe'iv TroLr)(reiev, meric usage, can only mean 'slew.' In 

Schol. B. For the word cf. y 320 ovnva X 658 (q.v.) this same Pylaimeues is 

TTpCbrov airoacfirikoicnv deWai is TreXayos alive, and weeping at the bier of his son. 

fx.€ya Tolov : and for the thought A 175. This inconsistency has caused infinite, 

ndeoi is preferable to the vulg. Trddyjc, searching of heart to critics for hundreds 

though not perhaps absolutely necessary ; of years. But it is really just .such a 

see II. G. § 298. C9ac is found only slip as is often made eveii by authors 

here, elsewhere cr^eas (see, however, who write ; in works which must at 

315). Ahrens couj. a<p6. first have been recorded as well as con- 

574. deiXcb : for this phrase, which is ceived by the brain alone, it is only 

not so much an expression of a sense of strange that more such errors are not 

pathos on the poet's part as a euphemism found. 

for 'dead' (so DiJderlein), cf. 'I' 65, t 65, 581. The charioteer was following 

with X 76. close behind his master, and seeing him 

576. eX^THN, in accordance with Ho- slain was beginning to turn for flight. 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

'^€p/ji,a8i.o)L ay KMva rv^oov fieaov e/c S' a pa -^eipcov 
rjvia XevK eXecpavrt '^a/jual irecrov iv KoviT^tcnv. 
AvTiXo'^O'i S' ap' iirat^a'i ^L(j)ei, rjXacre Kopcrr^v, 
avrap o aadfiaivwv ivepyeoi; eKirecre 8L(f)pov 585 

/cu^/Sa^o? eV KOVLTjiaiv eirl ^pe')(^jjb6v re Koi m/jlov<;. 
hrjOa /jia)C karrjKei, rv'xe yap afjucWoco /SaOeiTTi, 
6(f)p iTTTTft) 7r\7]^avT€ '^afial /3aXov iv Kovirjiai, 
Toy's Xfiacr AvTL\o^o<i, fxera Se arparov rjXacr W.-yaioiv. 

Tov<i S' EiKTCop ivorjcre Kara crrl'^^a'i, wpro 8' eV avTOv<; 
K€K\r}yM<;- a/j,a 8e Tpcowv e'lirovro (f>d\ayy€'i 591 

Kaprepaf rjp'ye 8' apa crcjitv "Aprj^ Kal ttotvl 'Ei/i/<o, 

582. Y^apbc Vr. A. 583. nectN L. 584. ap' om. NPQ : An R. i| unaisac 

J. 585. 6:oP: 6 r' fi. 586. Rpe.rxi.6N [A sujn:) ^\]^ {r in ras. : su2}t. <fpa\ixbu 
\}-) Cant. : 6p€rxJa6N S. 587. ecTHKei Ar. R : eicTi^Kei fi. |1 rap D^HJMNOPQ 
Vr. a, Mosc. 1 3^ : 9' Sp G : rdp p fi. !| ij/ajuideoio D-HPQ. 590. TOUC : ton 

a' J. 

582. TuxeiN takes the genitive ; hence 
a-yKuiva must be construed with ^dX? 
above, tvxi^v being used absolutely, 
'not missing him.' See H. G. § 151 c. 

583. e\e<paNTi : for the use of ivory in 
adorning harness see A 141. 

585. 6 for 6 y, see note on B 

586. KuuBaxoc as adj. and Bpexuoc 
are aTra^ Xeyofj-eua in Homer. The former 
recurs, however, in the sense of ' helmet ' 
in 536. Dlintzer connects the two 
by explaining the adj. here to mean 
'in a curve,' and the substantive 'tlie 
curved,' i.e. vaulted part of the helmet ; 
cf KvwTw. Compare note on dvaKv/x- 
^a\ia'^ov 11 379. The Gramni. quote a 
doubtful Kv^Tj — the head, whence also 
Kv^Lcrrav 11 745, S 605. Instead of 
jSpex/J-os the forms ^peyfios, ^pey/ma, 
jSpex^ta are found in later Greek. 

587. The manner in which Mydon 
falls is not very obvious. The most 
probable event would be that he would 
fall out of the back of the car ; for in 
any other direction the rail and frame- 
work of the car would support him. 
He might then lie with his feet still in 
the car, and his head and shoulders upon 
the ground. But then it is hard to see 
how the horses could be said to kick 
him : and the Homeric chariot was 
hardly large enough to hold the whole 
of the legs and part of the trunk of a 
man in a reclining position. It would 
seem, therefore, that he was standing 

sideways in the car, so as to look at his 
enemy while he wheeled ; and when 
wounded fell backwards over the side of 
the car, his knees hooking over the 
dvTv^. The 'soft sand' explains why 
the car was brought for a while to a 
standstill ; it would be absurd to sup- 
pose, as some commentators have done, 
that his head dug a hole in the sand 
so as to keep him fixed, yap p and 
\j/aiJ.a6oLo seem to be mere makeshifts for 
the sake of the metre. The old glosso- 
graphers distinguish ypdfxados sea-sand 
from dfxaOos d^ist ; but it is doubtful if 
the distinction is real, dfiados occurs 
also in Hymn. Ap. 439, but not else- 
where before Ap. Rhod. Compare a/x/xos 
(in Attic prose) by ^d/ufios. 

589. Toiic is apparently relative, 
though this is not very Homeric. The 
obvious Toi's 5' of all printed editions 
before La R. seems to be a conjecture of 
Dem. Chalcondylas. 

592-3 look like an interpolation. For 
'Enuco see 333, the only other passage 
where she is named. KudoiJudc seems 
to be another personification, as in 2 535, 
Hes. Scut. Her. 156, Ar. Par 255 ; com- 
pare d\K7) and iwKTj E 740, and perhaps 
<t>vta. I 2. exouca then means ' having 
as her attendant.' But compare A 4 
EptSa . . TToX^/xoio T^pa's fierd x^P'^'^" 
^Xoi'O'av : it is quite possible that KvooLfj.6^ 
may be an attribute of Enyo, which she 
is regarded as carrying in her hand. 
The epithet 6Nai5>HC, which is some- 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


Tj [juev e')(ovaa kvSoi/jLov avachea h7]'iori)TO<i, 

"ApT]<; S' €P 7rdX.dfj,7]tac TreXcopiov t'7%0? evcofxa, 

(potra 8' aWoT€ fjikv irpocrO^ ' VjKTOpo^, aXkor oTTicrde. 595 

Tov he Ihwi) piy7](T€ /3or]v dyaOo'i AiO/U,?;^?;?. 
CO? 8' 6r^ dvrjp d7rd\afjbvo<i, Icov iroX-eo^ Trehioto, 
arrjrji iir voKvpowL TrorafiMC aXaSe TrpopeovTi, 
d(f)pct)t, /xopjiivpovTa IScov, dvd r eSpafi OTrtcrcrto, 
cof Tore TvSetSr]'? dve'^dt^ero, etTre re \aoyf 600 

" Si (f}i\oi, olov B>) davfid^o/jiev "EjKTopa Siov 
alyp.i'jTi'jV r, ejxevai, Kol BapaaXeov TrdXefJuaTi^v' 
Twt 8' alel irdpa eh ye 6eo)v, 09 \ot<yov dfxvvet' 
Kol vvv 01 irdpa Kelvo<i "Ap7]<; jBporoa di>hpl iocKM'i. 
dWd 7rpo<i Tpoja'i Terpafi/xevoi aVev ottIctgw 605 

eXtcere, firiSe Oeot'i fieveaivefiev 2(f>t pbd-^eaOai,. 

CO? dp €(f)r}, Tpwe? Be /xdXa a'^ehov rfkvOov avron>. 
ev6 "FjKTcop 8uo (pMTe KareKTavev elSore ■^dpfM7]<i, 
elv evl 8i(f)p(OL eovre, ^eveadrjv ^Aj^mXov re. 
TO) Be irecrovr eXerjcre /LL€ja<; TeXa/jbcoviO'? Ala<;' 610 

crri] 8e fxdX' eyyu'i loov koX aKovriae Sovpl (paeivMC, 
Kal I3d\ev "AfX(f)tov SeXdyov vlov, 09 p evl TlacaMi 
vale iroXvKr^^ficov 7roXu\i;to9, dWd e jxolpa 
rjy €7rLKovpi]crovra fxerd Uptafiov re Kal vla<i. 
rov pa Kara ^axrrripa ^d\ev TeXaixwvLO's Alas', 615 

596. ton: touc M. 600. ONaxf^zero S. || eine hk P. 609. iieNeceflN Ar. : 

others jmeNCCTHN (ueNe:;HN Par. a, ce iuras.). || erxiaXoN JO. 612. aucpiaXoN 

E. i be p' : 6c r" 0. necccb P. 614. fir' : hk' 0. 

times applied to inanimate objects (see 
on A 521), decides nothing. 

597. dndXauiNoc, which occurs only 
here in H., may mean, as suggested 
by Autenrieth, 'unable to swim,' sine 
palmis. But it is more likely to be 
shiftless, without resource, as in later 
Greek ( = dTrdXa/ttos, Hes. O}')!). 20, etc.). 

601. oToN, neuter, used as an exclama- 
tion, 'how,' i.e. how wrongly, eaujud- 
zoucN is probably an imperfect. 

603 = T 98. ndpa etc : the hiatus here 
can hardly be right ; van Herw. conj. 
Trap' ap' eh, Bentley irapa. tLs ye (Brand- 
reth Tt's re), Nauck irap eeis, a form 
which is found in Hesiod Theog. 145, 
but is evidently only a false case of 
'Epic dieetasis.' The simplest change 
would be Trap' i6s ye : luii is found in 
Z 422 and is now recognised as a genuine 

form beside Irjs, I^l, 'iav. There is no 
reason why the nom. should not have 
been used, and the rarity of it would 
explain the corruption. 

604. keTnoc, there ; T 391, cf. E 175, 
K 341, 477. 

606. jmeNcaiNeueN : -et!' Brandreth, -ere 
Bentley. But see on 556, Z 478. ecoTc: 
deCjL Nauck. 

612. riaiccoi: this would seem to be 
the same as 'ATratcros in B 828. Ot 
course we might read ev 'AwaiaQL here. 
But the shorter form is supported not 
only by the Mss., but by Strabo and 
Steph. Byz. as well as Herod, and the 
M. Mcuj. For 614 compare B 834 ; 
it is evident that the composer of tlie 
lines in B had this passage before him, 
though there Amphios is called son of 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

veLatprji S' ev yaarpl Trdyrj hoXi^oaKiov ey^O'i, 

BovTTijaev Be irecrdov. 6 S' eTrehpafxe ^at8i/xo9 Am? 

rev^ea (rvXyacov Tpo)e<i B i^rl Bovpar e'^^euav 

o^ea 7ra/j,(pavoQ)VTa' ad/co<i 8' dveBe^aro TroWci. 

avrap o \d^ 7rpoa^d<; eK veKpov ^aXKeov e7%09 620 

eairdcraT' ovS' ap er' dWa Bwrjaaro rev^ea Koka 

Mfjiouv d(pe\ea6at' eTrelyeTo <ydp /SeXeeaai. 

Belae B 6 <y dficfti/Saatv Kpareprjv T^acotai' dyepoy^wv, 

di TToWol re koX iaOXol icfiearacrap ey^e €-^ovTe<;, 

ol € /meyav Trep iovra koI 'i(f)difiov /cal dyavov 625 

waav diro a(f)€io)v 6 Be ■^aacrdfievo<; TreXe/ni'^dr}. 

&<; ol /aev iroveovro Kara Kpareprjv vafxivriv 
T\7)7ro\,e/jiov S' HpaKXeiBrjv rjuv re peyav re 
oypcrev eir dvrtOecoi SapTTTjBovt p^olpa Kparairj. 
ol 8' ore Brj a'^eBov rjcrav eir dWrjXoicrcv lovTe<i, 630 

via 0^ vl(ovo<; re Ato9 vec^eXrjyeperao, 
Tov KoX T\ri'iTo\e[jio<i Trporepo'i 7rp6<; [xvOov eetire' 
" 2,ap7rfjBov, AvKicov j3ov\7)^6pe, rl^ roc dvdyKt) 
TTTOiaaeiv evOdK eovri yu.a^?79 dBayfxovt (f>o}Ti ; 
■\\revBoixevoL Be ae ^acri Aio<f yovov alyio-yoLO 635 

eivai, cTrel ttoWov Kelvcov eTriBeueai dvBpwv 
o'i Aio? i^eyevovTO eirl Trporepcov dvOpoiirwv 
d'Kkolov TLvd (f)acn jSirjv 'iipaKXrjenjv 

616. ndrcN L: niirw P. 618. cuXeiiccoN (?) pi. 620. npoBdc ^CDNOPQ 

Lips. 622. (ijuoiciN P. 623. KpaTepdJN Ap. Lex. 27. 20. 626. noXejuixeH 
GJL. 628. HUN : aiuN M (Harl. a e corr.). 630. ev ttjl erepai {tu>v ' Xpujrdpxov) 

idNxe Scliol. T. 632. npdrepoN Q : npcoroc Mosc. 1. 635. ipeuBoiieNON J. 

636. noWcoNS: no\C( Q. tl (From this line A is again by ?h«?i. 1). 638. aWoToN 
Tyrannic: ixW oT6n Ar. ft: h\K ofoN TLvh Schol. T. || 9HCI M. |1 ApaKXeiHN Zen, 
(dfierpias) G(^T. 

623. aju9l6acic, only here (but cf. 
TTpd^acns ji 75). It clearly means the de- 
fence of the fallen body by the Trojans ; 
cf. the use of the verb in A 37 (where 
see note), etc. Doderlein is wrong in 
taking it to mean ' he feared to be 
surroumled by the Trojans.' 

625-6 = A 534-5, q.v. 

627-98. For this very spirited episode 
see the Introduction to this book. 

632. The Kai here is awkward ; it 
does not elsewhere occur after the often 
(twelve times) repeated formal line 630. 
Bentley conj. rolffiv, Heyne rcDv /cat. 

638. The vulg. dXX' otov may be taken 
in two ways: (1) exclamative, 'but 

what a man do they say was H. ! ' (2) 
' But (those sons of Zeus were) such as.' 
(2) involves an awkward ellipse, and 
in (1) the presence of dWd is hardly 
consistent with the sense assumed, otos 
\v'hen used exclamatively always begins 
a clause, e.g. 601, a 32, etc., and in the 
phrases ci irowoi . . olov eenres H 455, 
cf. O 286, etc. In 5 242, X 519, where 
dXX' olov begins a line, it is evidently 
subordinate to a preceding verb. Thus 
aXXoToN seems to be decidedly the 
best reading. The objections of Ameis, 
(a) that dWoTos tls are not elsewhere 
found together, (b) that dXXoios is not 
elsewhere in H. used of purely mental 

lAIAAOC E (v) 237 

eipac, ifiov irarepa dpaav/xe/jivova dvfioXeovTa, 
o? TTore 8evp' e\6cov eW^' I'ttttcov Aao/^eSoi'TO? 640 

e^ OLrjif; avv vrjvaX koX avhpdac iravpoTepoiaiv 
'IXtof e^aXdira^e ttoXiv, '^rjpaxre 8' djvid<i' 
aol he KaKO'i fxev Ovjxo^, d'Tro(^6ivv6ov(7L he XaoL 
ov8e TL ae Tpcoeaaiv oto/jLat aXKap ecreaOai 
' ekdovT e'/c AvKLT]^, ovS" el /xdXa Kaprepo'i icrai, 645 

aW' vrr' ep^oi hprjOevra TruXa? 'At'Sao 7rep7]aecvy 

Tov 8' av ^apirrjhoiv AvKiayv d<yo<; dvriov rjvha- 
** T\7)7r6\ep.\ rj rot Kelvo<i diroiKeaev "IXioy Ipr^v 
dvepo'i d4>paSi7]L(TLv djavov Aaop,e8ovTO<i, 

09 pd p.LV ev ep^avra kukmc rjVLTraTre pvOcdt, 650 

ovK aTreSft)^' 'iirTTOVi, mv elveKU rrjXodev rfkOe.-^ 
(Toi S' 6700 evOdhe cf)7]p,l (poi'ov Kac Krjpa p^eXacvav 
e^ epedev rev^eadai, ip^coi S' vtto Sovpl oap-evra 
eSvo? e'yaoi Saxretv, ■\jrv'^r]v S AcSl K\vro7rd>\.a)c" 

639. epacuui^uoNQ S. 640. 6c : 00c Ambr. 641. o'lHlc cilN : oYhci(n) D 
Mosc. 1. 642. d' aruidc : bk ruNaiKOC Q : ruNoTKac S™. 644. ou5e Ti : 

ouS* CTi HO. il Ti ce: tio M. 646. cuoO GJNOQRS. 647. au : Sp I\Iosc. 1. 
650. peHQNTa Vr. a. |1 KaKcbl : x°^^"^ Q- 651. a)N : tc2)n A. |1 ^nckq DQ. 

653. TeuHOceai U. 1| 3' om. PQ. ll aaueNTi N^O. 654. aihu NQ. 

qualities, are only weak special pleading. of the prep, is at least harsh. oTos avv 

As for (a) the obvious retort is that otos Fick. 

itself out of nearly 200 places where it 646. Cf. 4' 71 ; 652-4, A 443-5, 

occurs is only twice joined with ris 11 625. 

(see on 554) ; dXXoios recurs only tliree 653. reuHeceai, in passive signification, 

times altogether (A 258, tt 181, r 265). as V 101 ddvaros /cat fioTpa rervKrai, 

The indefinite pronoun is hardly con- M 345 rdxa TTJide Tered^erai aiirvs 6\edpos, 

sistent with either explanation of olos. and many similar instances. Ameis- 

And {b) is not true in the case of t 265. Hentze strangely deny the possibility of 

Finally, it is urged that dWotov nva. is the use of rev^eadai in this way, and say 

too weak an expression in this speech. that it must be from Tvyxdvetp : but the 

This is a matter of taste ; in my opinion only analogy which can be quoted is far 

the sense ' another sort of man, they from close : A 684, ^ 231 rvxe {rvyxave) 

say ' is vigorous enough. For the mas- TroWd. But the question is one Of com- 

culine adj. with the periphrastic BiHN cf. paratively small importance, as rei^xw 

A'690, etc. {H. G. § 166. 1). and rvyxdvu} are simply different forms 

639. epacujueuNONa, here and X 267 of the .same verb, the intrans. forms 
only, probably to be referred rather to ervxov (tvxV'^o. TeT^xvKa. being said to 
/j-evos {/xe/jLova) than fiiveiv. Cf. 'A7a- ' come from ' one present, the transitive 
fie/uLviov. ^rev^a rev^w and the passive rerev^ofjui 

640. For the legend that Herakles rirvynaL from the other. The present 
had saved Hesione, the daughter of phrase shews exactly where the point of 
Laomedon, from a sea-monster, and had contact between the two lies. The 
then destroyed Ilios because defrauded passive fut. is not yet differentiated from 
of his recompense, the famous mares of the middle in H. ; cf. elprjaeraL in pass, 
the stock of Tros, cf. T 145. The sense, and see note on K 365. 

variant otrjiaiv for oYhic cun removes the 654. The epithet KXuToncoXoc, which 

short form of the dat., but the omission recurs only in the parallel passages A 



(w? (paTO -.apTrrjScov, 6 8' avea'^ero /juecXivov e7%09 
TXTjTToXe/ubO'i • Koi roiv fxev afxaprfji Sovpara jxaicpa 
e'/c yeLpoiV i]i^av 6 fjuev /3aXev av^eva /u,€craov 
^apTTTj^MV, al'^fi-)] 8e 8ia/jL7repe<i tjXO aXeyeivr], 
Tov Be KaT 6(p6ak[xoiV ipe^evvrj vv^ eKoXvy^re' 
TX?;7ro\e/Ao? 8' apa /uiTjpbv dpiarepov ey^^^el fxaKpSiL 
jBepXrjKeiv, alxi^V ^^ Steacrvro /xaifKowcra, 
ocrrecot iy-ypcfMcfydelaa, irarijp 8' en Xoljov ctfivvei'. 

ol fxeu dp' avrWeov SapirijSova Slot eralpoL 
e^e<f}epov iroXi/jioco' ^dpvve he fxtv Sopu fxaKpov 
ekKOfjuevov to puev ou rt? eirecf^pdaaT ovB' evo-qcre. 




655. JUieiXiNON : yoKviGou 0. 656. 6juiapTH(i) DHOQRST\ 7p. J and ap. 

Eust. : 6uapTH Ar. 657. hYzon Ar. 9. : hisen Arnbr. 659. 69ea\ju.6N Q. 

661. BcBKhkcin Ar. V {A supr.) : BeBXHKei 12. 662. €rxpi9eeTca DMQR^ Vr. 

b c, Mosc. 3. II &' €Ti : be te Vr. a : de ti DGPS. 664. jmaKpw Hail. a. 

665. TO JUL6N : ^V TLffi t6 oi Schol. A (tocon Schol. T). 

445, II 625, may perhaps mean only that 
Hades, like an earthly king, has splendid 
horses as a sign of regal magnificence. 
But as it is used of no other god it is 
possible that it indicates the connexion 
of the horse with the under -world. 
There is no other trace in Homer of such 
an idea ; but the god of death is 
commonly associated with the horse in 
Etruscan art, and the modern Greek 
death - god Charos is always in the 
popular imagination conceived as riding. 
So too the horse always has his place in 
the story of the rape of Persephone, who 
is herself XevKL-mros in Find. 0. vi. 95. 
So Pans. (ix. 23. 4) says of an ode of 
Pindar, otherwise unknown, iv tovtwi. 
TM a.LaiJ.aTL dWat. re is tov "AtSTjj/ elalv 
iwiKXriaeLS, Kal 6 xpucHNioc, 5^\a ws eirl 
T-qs Koprjs TTji apTra-yTjL. For the bearing 
of this on the vexed question of the 
significance of the horse in sepulchral 
monuments see Prof. P. Gardner's paper 
in /. H. S. V. pp. 114, 131. It is prob- 
able that we have here a trace of the 
religious ideas, not of the Greeks 
strictly speaking, but of the earlier non- 
Aryan population whom they subdued. 
Verrall {J. H. S. xviii. pp. 1 S.) objects 
to the traditional explanation («) that 
:ri3Xos in H. always means focd, not 
horse ; (&) that kXvtos is, with one or 
two suspicious exceptions, used only of 
works of handicraft, or of famed in- 
dividuals. There is some force in these 
objections ; but his proposal to read 

/cXtTOTTwXos ranger of the coiiched (the 
dead) is not likely to command accept- 
ance. (This der. from TnoXeofiai. is men- 
tioned by the scholia, and attributed to 
Ar. by Ap. Lex., 6 5e 'Apicrrapxas eirl tov 
"^I'X. 5' "A. kK." cLKOvei K\vTr]v iTniroKy^cfLv 
(sic) 8ia TO Tods TeXevTQvTas e^aKoveadai 
5id re tovs dprivovs Kal rets oifx<j}yd.s ras 
eir' avToTs, i.e. 'the god of loud wakes.') 

656. ajmapTHi: afj.apTrj Ar. , who held 
it to be syncopated from afj.apT7j57]v. 
This is of course wrong, but very 
probably the omission of the t may 
be a genuine tradition of the fact that 
the adverb was originally not a dative 
but an instrumental. The accent should 
then be af.iaprfj. 

659. 69ea\uicoN : 6(p6a\fxui van L. , 
which is clearly right. The gen. is 
meaningless here, and is probably due 
only to a reminiscence of Kar' 6(pda\/ixZv 
Kexvr' dx\vs (696 etc.). Cf. S 438, 
II 325, 503. 

661. juaiuucdca : for this personifica- 
tion of the spear cf. Xi\ai.6fxeva A 574, 
317, and A 126. 

662. erxptUitfeGica, grazing ; the word 
is always used of close contact in 
Homer: k 516, H 272, N 146, P 405, 
413, ^ 334, 338. For a full discus- 
sion of this and cognate verbs see 
Ahrens Bcitriige pp. 12 sqq. &ri : like ,/ 
674 a hint of the future death of 
Sarpedon at the hands of Patroklos. 

665. ^6 anticipates e^epvcrai, ' this, 
namely, to draw out.' 

lAIAAOC E (v) 239 

fjbripov i^epvaat Sopv fxeiXiVov, 6(f)p iiri/SaLT}, 

aTTevhoVTfov rolov yap e')(pv irovov (ip,(f)LeTrovT€<i. 

TXrjTToXefiov 8' irepcoOev ivKV')]/JbiSe<; 'Amatol 

e^6(f)epov TToXe/xoto' vorjcre 8e Sco'i 'OSfcrcreu? 

rX^jfjbova OufMov €^(ov, /nal/jbrjcre 8e oi (jaXov -qrop' 670 

ixepjxrjpi^e 8' eTretra Kara (f)piva koI Kara dv^iov 

t) Trporepw Alo<; vlov ipiySovTroLO Sicokoi, 

rj 6 <ye roiv Tr\e6vcoi> Avklcov citto Ov/jlov eXocTO. 

ovS' dp^ ^OSvacrPfi fxeyakyropt, /jbopac/xop rjev 

i(f)0t/jiov Ato? v'lov aTTOKTcifiev o^ei ^aXKMf 675 

Tco pa Kara irXrjOvv Avklcov rpdire Ovfiov ^Kdrjvrj. 

ev6^ 6 j€ J^oipavov elXev 'AXdaTopd re X.po/jbLov re 

"AXKai'Spov 6'' " AXiov re ^orj/xovd re Ylpvravlv re. 

Kai vv K en irXeova^ Avklcov Krdve 8lo<i '08uaaev<i, 

el /jL7] dp' o^v vorjcre jjbeya'i KopvBaioXo<i ' E/crwp. 680 

^T) he Btd Trpofidy^cov KeKopvOfievo^ aWoiri -^aXKcoi, 

Selua (f)epo)v Aapaolao' X"'P^ ^' ^V^ ^'' TrpocTiovn 

SapTTrjScov At09 v't6<;, eTro? S' 6Xocf)v8vov eenre' 

" UpLafiiSr], fir) Sr] fxe eXcop Aavaotatv edarjL'i 

KelaOai, dXX' eTrdfivvov eiretrd fie koI Xlttol aloov 685 

ev TToXet vfiereprji, eirel ovk dp' efieXXov eyco ye 

vocmjaa'i oiKovhe (^iXrjv e? irarpiha yalav 

evcbpaveeiv dXo'^ov re (\)iXifv Kai v}]7rLov vlov. 

670. uaiHce H. 671. JuepjuiHpize LQ Vr. b. 672. dicoKei MQT Lips.^ 

674. Ou5' ap : ou rhp R. 676. rpene PR Mosc. 2. 678. t* aki6u PR. 

684. 5h : Se JNO. 686. AuerepHi MQR. |1 oiib" ap' QS : ook Sn R. 

666. eniBafH, stand on his feet, cf. ol irXeoves does not mean "the greater 
H 434 ovT€ cTTfpi^ai iroalv 'iixiredov ovt number" but "a greater number," in 
iin'firivai.. The phrase, however, is a contrast to the person mentioned.' But 
curious one, and Nauck and others are it must be admitted that Heyne's 676 
perhaps right in rejecting the line as a /cat or Nauck's 7' ^n sound more 
gloss. Homeric ; of. 679, K 506. 

667. au<pienoNT€c, dealing -with him, 678. This line is taken verbatim by- 
lit, 'handling him'; they had too Virgil Aen. ix. 76/, Ovid 3Iet. xiii. 
much to do with the work of carrying 258. ( 

and protecting him. Cf. on Z 321. 683. For the coustr. x<ip" o' see "^ 556, 

670. tXhjucon, enduring, a variant of /3 249, ^- 419, and with a partiei[)le S504, 

Odysseus' regular epithet ttoXiitXcls, and ft 705. The ace. is found in 9 378. On 

so K 231. The sense wretched is })0st- account of Feiros Bentley interchanged 

Homeric. JualJUHce here evidently in- Atos vlbs and irpocrioi'Ti. 
dicates violent rushing, as 661; cf. 685. xeTceai: the long at in thesi is 

e 413 fiaiverai fjTop. perhaps excused by the strong diaeresis 

673. TCON nXeoNCON Aukjcon : see at the end of the first foot. Cf. A 532, 

H. G. § 264, ' the article marks contrast, B 87, H. G. § 380. But van L. reads 

but not definition, or should take the Keladai, drdp ^'(ot), Brandreth Kei/xevou, 

lives of more Lykians instead. Here dW. 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

w? (j)a.TO, Tov 8' ov Ti 7rpoae(})i] Kopv6ai,o\o<i ' EiKTcop, 
dWa Trapr}l^ev XeXirjfxevo^ 6(f)pa rd^icrra 
oicraLT ^Apryeiov^;, iroXecov 8' cItto dvfjuov eXotro. 
ol fiev ap^ dvTideov ^apirrjSova Slot eralpoi 
eiaav vir' al'yio'^oio Aio<; TreptKaXke'i (pTjryoyc 
e'/c 8' dpa ol fjn-jpov Sopv fxeiKivov were Ovpa^e 
i^6Lfxo<; HeXdjoov, o? ol (jiiXo^ -qev eralpo^- 
TOV 8' eXiTre '^V'X^ij, Kara 8' 6(f)6a\fji6)v ks^vt d^\v^. 
avTi'i S' d/XTrvvdr], irepl he Trvoir) liopeao 
^(oypec, iTTtirvecovaa KaKW KeKa<p7]0Ta Ovfjuov. 

^ApyetoL 8' utt' "Aprji Koi "KKTopc '^aXKOKopvariji 
ovre iTore irpoTpeirovTO fieXacvdwv eVt vtjmv 
ovre ttot' dvTe<^epovTO /xd^rjt, aW aiep omcrcro) 
'vd^ovd\ &)? irrvOovro fxerd Tpcoecrcrtv "Kprja. 
ev6a riva irpSyrov, rlva 8' vararov i^evdpc^av 
E/CTwp re Uptdfioio Trai'? Kal ')(akKeo<i "Ap7)<; ; 
dvriOeov TevdpavT, eVt 8e TfKrj^i'mrov 'Opearrjp, 





695. ncXdrcoN : ceXdrcoN Ptol. Oroaudae. 697. aueic CJ. || aunNUOH 

A {supr. N and yp. cumnNUNeH) Scliol. T (lemma) : ajunNucsH T King's Harl. b : 
duHNUNOH il: ejunNUNeH ev TLffL Schol. A (Ar. ; see Did. on X 475). 698. zcorpei: 
zcbei P [yp. zcbrpei) and yp. R. 700. ouSe nore H. || nporpenoNTO . . €ni 

Ar. ii : npoTpdnoNTO . . 6n6 ap. Did. 701. oOae nor' H. || dNTi<p^poNTo G. |1 

udxHN P (U- supr.). 703. €Z€Ndpi=aN Ar. ACGMU^ Lips.: ^seNdpiscN 0. 

705. TeiiepoNx' U. 

690. For the construction of XeXiH- 
usNOc see note on A 465. 

693. 9Hrcoi : this can hardly be the 
same as the oak which formed a landmark 
close to the Skaian gate (Z 237, I 354, 
A 170, * 549), as there is no hint that the 
fighting is near the walls. Any oak was 
equally sacred to Zeus. Cf. on H 22, 60. 

694. eiipaze simply = out, as II 408, 
e 410, (p 422, etc. It can hardly be 
meant that the spear is thrust through 
like the arrow in 112. 

697. dunwueH, came to ; so mid. dfx- 
TTpyro, see A 359,S436, X475, e 458, w 349, 
in all cases after a faint. But the act. 
forms avairveiv, dviirvevaa, d/xirvijov mean 
to recover breath, of a panting warrior, 
A 327 and often (see esp. note on X 222). 
Ar. observed the distinction, and em- 
phasized it by writing efnruvvdrj, efxiri'VTO 
in mid. and pass, {—'ifiirvovs iyivero), 
but, so far as we can tell, without any 
MS. support for the e (as for the v m.s. 
testimony is unimportant ; see the vari- 
ants in forms like iK.\i{v)d7], dv€yva,{fj.)<l)dr], 

6(fji)^pi.jjLos, etc. |;assMft. In this case 
there is no justification for either v or cr, 
which are inserted evidently from the 
analogy oi ^apvvd-r), etc.). Schulze {Q. E. 
322-4) is probably right, therefore, in 
separating d/xirvvTo and an-wvidT) from 
Trv^{F)w, and referring them to a root 
TTvii, meaning originally to be vigorous 
(a) in body, (&) in mind. Hence ttoi- 
TTvveiv to bustle, TreTTPvadai (of Teiresias 
TOV re (ppives ifiTredot eicnv, k 495), Treirvv- 
fiivos (of the youthful Telemachos rather 
rigorotis than sage) and wivvrbs, irivvrr), 
diTLi'ijffaei.v (of a faint, 10) from wwtos 
{^/jL(ppo}v, cfihcppwv Hesych.). 

698. zcbrpei, perhaps here from ^urq 
and dydpeiv (or eyeLpeLv), and thus a 
dilfcrent verb from the commoner ^""0;- 
ypdv = to take prisoner {^wos-dypelv). 
eujuioN is object of KeKacp-rjora, as is clear 
from e 468 /xri fxe . . da/xdcTji KeKacpTj&ra 
6vfj.6v. Compare X 467 dnb '/"'X'?" ^i^"-- 
TTvaae. The verb means having breathed 
out ; cf. Hesych. KiK-rjipe' Tidv7}Ke, and 
KeKa<pr]6Ta ' eKweirvevKora. 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


T^p-rjyov T al'^^r]Trjv AItcoXiov Olvofxaov re, 
OlvoTTihiiv 6' "FjXevov koI 'Opecr^iov aloXofxirprjv, 
09 p ev "T\rjL vaieaKe fieya ttKovtolo fji€/x7]\o!)<i, 
\lfxvi]L K€K\i/J,evo^ }s.r)cf)iac8f irap Be ol aKkoi 
valov BoifWTOt, fxaXa irlova hrjfxov ey^ovTe^. 

TOv<i 8' CO? ovv evorjae Oea Xev/ccoXevo^ ^PV 
^ApyeLOVi oXeKovra^ ivl Kpareprji ua/XLvrjo, 
avrtK 'AOrjvalrjv eirea TTTepoevra irpoarivha' 
" 03 TTOTTOL, alyw^i^oio Ato? reKo^, drpvTcovr], 
rj p aXiov TOP [xvdov vTrearrifxev M.eveXdwi,, 
"Wiov GKirepaavT evrei'^eov diroveecrdai, 
el ovTQ) jjLaivecrOai edcro/xev ovKov "Aprja, 
aXX' aye Sr) /cal vml /u,eS(o/jue6a OovpLho'^ ciXkyj^, 

609 e(f)aT, ovS' aTTidrjae 6ed yXavKMrra WOrjvr). 
T) fjuev enroi'^oiievri '^pvcrdixirvKa'i evrvev lirTrov; 
"Hp?; 7rpea/3a 6ed, Ovjdrijp ixeydXoio J^povoLO' 




707. unepBioN {yp. opecBiON) JO : unepBioN U^ sicpr. 
711. TOUC : t6n M. 718. bk : bk M. |t KHdoueea P. 
ENTUNeN H-JLMNORS : eNTGiNGN V. 721. eccoN N. 

708. uXhi : U&HI Zen. 
720. eneiroju^NH 0. 11 

706. AiTuXbi' FoLv. Bentley ; but see 
note on B 750. 

707. aioXouirpHN : see App. B and note 
on A 489. 

708. "TXhi with v also H 221, but v in 
B 500 ; Zenod. "TSryt, but the name of 
the Boeotian town was certainly Hyle ; 
a Lydian "TSt? is mentioned in T 385. 
juieju.H\cibc with .<;en. only here and N 297, 
469. The use may be classed with those 
mentioned in H. G. § 151 c, d. So 
Aisch. Sept. 178 fxeXeadi 6' iepQv drjuiwv. 
But the application of the verb to the 
person who feels the care, not to the 
thing which causes it, is rare ; hence 
Nauck jxejxiqm { = ixefxaili's). 

709. KeKXiueNoc, on the shore of, cf. 

740 TTOVTWl KiKXlfMeVOL, 11 68 pTfyiUVi 

6a\da-<T7]s /ce/cXiarat. The word seems 
properly to be used of land sloping to 
the water's edge, 5 60S, v 235 dKT-J? KeW 
dXt K€K\ifj,ivr]. The Kephisian lake seems 
to be the Kopais as in Find. P. xii. 27 ; 
see Pausan. ix. 38. 5. 

710. Shjuon here evidently has the 
purely local sense territory ; for which 
see on B 547. 

711. For the following episode as a 
whole see Introduction to the book. It 


contains a large number of lines which 
occur elsewhere. 753-4 seem to be 
borrowed, not very appropriately, from 
A 498-9, and, as von Christ has re- 
marked, 791 from N 107. So also 
719-21 = e 381-3, 733-7 = 6384-8, 
745-52 = e 389-96. It can hardly 
be said positively that either jiassage 
is older than the other, so far as the 
evidence of borrowing goes ; but the 
general character of 9 would lead us to 
believe that the lines are originally in 
place here. Again 711-2 = H 17-18, 
713 = A 69, 714 = B 157, 716 = B 113, 
738 cf. B 45, 743 = A 41, 769 = 6 46, 
775-6 cf. 368-9, 782-3 = H 256-7, 787 = 
6 228. This is certainly a suspicious 
proportion of borrowed lines ; but on 
the other hand the style of the passage 
is spirited, and does not shew any weak- 
ness of imagination. 

715. For the use of the accusative 
with dnocTHNai cf. B 286, k 483 ; and 
see R. G. § 136 (3). t6n is here 
demonstrative, that. We do not hear 
elsewhere of any such promise made by 
the goddesses to Menelaos. It is prob- 
ably from the story of the Judgment of 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

"U^T] g' d/Ji(f> oxeea-cTL 6ooi<i /SdXe Ka/x-rrvXa kvkXu, 
'^okKea oKTUKvrjfMa, acS'Tjpeoic a^ovi dfi(f)i<i. 
TMV rj TOi 'xpvaerj iVu? d^diro^, avrdp virepae 
yaXKe eTTiaaayrpa Trpoaaprjpora, Oavjxa ISeadat- 
TrXrj/JbvaL 8' dpyvpou elal irepuhpofMOi d/xcfiOTepaydev. 
Bl(f>po<; Se xpvaeoLai kol dp<yvpeoicriv l^idaLv 
evTerarai, Soial Be TrepiSpofxoi dvrvye'i elcri. 
Tov S' e^ dpjvpeo'i pv/xb^ ireXev avrdp iir UKpcoo 
Sr](Te ypvaecov koXov ^vyov, iv Be Xeirahva 



722. oyeecci C: oxec9i Vr. a: 6xeec9i fi. 723 om. Pt. 1| oktouhno JQ. 

725. onlcccoxpa pi, yp. Hail, a, and ev Tiai Did. 727. ypuc^HC" ^ai aprupcHiciN 

]). 728. eici: 6u9k J {yp. eidN) N. 729. puubc : yp. zuroc ,1. i QKpcoi : 
auToi D. 

722. For a general account of the 
Homeric chariot see fi 266 ff. The 
body of the car was very light, and 
when not in use was taken to pieces 
and put upon a stand ; see 9 441 apfxara 
5' 'AfM ^uifiolcn Tidei, /card Xlra irerdaaas. 
Hence the first thing to be done in 
making it ready was to put on the 
wheels, as is done here. For 6x^ecci 
most Mss. read ox^effcpi, a false form for 

723. jiiknea: so Mss. ; Bentley conj. 
xdX/cet', but the hiatus is ])erhaps legiti- 
mate after the first foot. The usual 
number of spokes in the early Greek 
monuments, as well as in the Assyrian 
and Egyptian, is six or four ; but eight 
are found in the archaic sarcophagus 
from Klazomenai published in /. H. S. 
vol. iv. In any case, as Eust. remarks, 
the largest number possible would be 
attributed to the divine chariot, for it 
has all the parts made of metal which 
in the human car were of wood, even 
straps of gold and silver instead of 
leather. For OKT^KNHua Cobet reads 
oKTu^KVTifjia, but oKxa- is the commoner 
form from Hesiod {Oj^p. 425) onwards. 

725. enicccoTpoN, tire, from aCirpov, 
another name for the felloe, according 
to Pollux ; cf. e!^<r(TWT/3os fl 578. But 
here as elsewhere there is a well-attested 
variant dirlacrcoTpov, which would point 
to a der. from ottIctu). 

726. nepiapouoc is used here in a 
slightly difi'erent sense from 728, though 
we can translate both by 'running 
round.' Here it evidently means 
'rotating,' while in 728 it means 'sur- 
rounding'; B 812 gives yet a third 
meaning. Hesych. -n-epidpo/noL- irepL- 

(pepels, (TTpoyyijXoi., no doubt applies to 
726, but does not give so good a sense. 
djLi.90TepcoeGN, on both sides of the car. 

727. 9i9poc, here in the narrower 
sense of the platform of the car on 
which the riders stood. (Hence the 
breastwork which surrounded it in front 
and at both sides is called €TnSi(ppids, K 
475. 6xecL, which is always used in the 
plural, implies the whole complex body 
of the chariot, including axle, pole, etc.). 
This ])latform is composed of straps 
strained tight, and interwoven, which 
formed a springy surface such as would 
save the charioteer from the jolting of 
rough ground. This device is known to 
have been employed in Egyptian chariots, 
and gives a simple explanation of the 
phrase ^NTexaxai which has puzzled 
commentators (cf. also K 263, t 577, 
\f/ 201 ep d' irdwaff IfxavTa (Boos, to form 
a springy bed). See Wilkinson Ancient 
Egyptians i. p. 227, /. H. >S. v. 192. 

728. doiai, apparently because the 
avTv^ ran symmetrically round the car, 
forming a handle behind on both sides. 
There is no reason to suppose that there 
were two rails one above the other. 

729. neXcN : the transition from tlie 
descriptive to the narrative tense is 
made one step earlier than we should 
have expected. Hence Bentley conj. 
TreXei. But, as Hentze has remarked, the 
imperfect is justified by the fact that the 
pole was not an immovable part of the 
chariot, but was put in when the chariot 
was made ready : so that the word really 
l)elongs to the narration, not to the 
description. n^\eN is not simply = 
9jv, but means 'stood out.' 

730. aflce : for the details of the 

fAIAAOC E (v) 


KuX kjSaXe ^pvaet • vtto Be ^vyov i]>ya'yev ' Hp?; 
nrirovi (OKViroSaf;, /xe/xavT epcSo'i koI avTr]<i. 
avTap Adrjvaii] Kovprj Aio'i al'yLO'^oio 
TreTrXov fiep Kare^^evev eavov Trarpo^i eV ovSei 
TToiKiXov, 6v p avTt] rroi'qaaTo Kal Kajxe 'yepaiv 
r) Se '^iTMV evSvaa Aio? v€(f)€\i]'y€peTao 
rev-^eaiv e? TroXefxov Ocoprjacrero SaKpvoevra. 
d/jb(f)l S' ayo' 6)/jboiaiv /SdXer alyuSa Ovaavoeaaav 
heivr)v, Tjv Trepi fjuev iravrrji (^ojBo'-; iarecfxivcorac, 
ev o epi'i, ev o a\Kr], ev oe Kpvaeaaa oooKrj, 



731. KoX' : KdXX' JM : KaSd' H. || HrareN : ^BaXcN M : yp. fipapeN Yv. h. 
734. dnouaa M. 734 6 dl^. Zen. 736. H Se : Tiues ftbe Siliol. A. 738. 

BdXeN 0: 6dX' Lips. |i airiba : acniSa .Mor. Bar.'" 739. €CTe9dNWTo CDGJNOS 
{su/tr. ai) T and A s^opr. (T.W.A.). 740. B' OKpuoecca GJ. 

process by which the yoke was attached 
to the pole .see O 265-80. 

734. eoNON, pliant, as elsewhere when 
it i.s used as an adj. with a : it is not 
to be confused with the substantive 
Fe{(j)avbs (F 385, etc.) garment, and 
should perhaps be written eavds, as it 
may be derived from edw, in the sense of 
' yielding.' (See Buttmanu Lexil. s.v.) 

736. Athene dresses entirely in man's 
attire, and lays aside the long woollen 
peplos for the linen chiton whicli fitted 
closer to the body and was thus more 
suitable for active exertion. (Reicliel 
p. 107 objects that the ' Doric ' peplos 
could have been girt up, and that 
Athene is constantly represented in art 
as wearing it with armour. He con- 
cludes that she must here be conceived 
as wearing a prae-Dorian dress such as 
the flounced Mykenaean skirt. Bui 
this iufei'ence does not seem justifiable.) 
Zen. rejected 734-6 here as borrowed 
from 385-7 ; Ar. maintained the 

738. For the acyls see note on B 447. 

739-42. The whole of this passage, 
with 744, is open to the gravest doubt. 
It bears a most suspicious resemblance 
to the unquestionably late account of 
Agamemnon's pano})ly in A 1-46 ; note 
particularly the recurrence of the vague 
phrase Atos repas in A 4. It is im- 
possible to suppose that the author hael 
any clear idea of what he was describing. 
&Te<pdNCOTai, if we are guided by A 36, 

ought to be 

used of the central figure. 

which is ' set on as a crown ' (cf. S 485) ; 
but that from all analogy can only have 

been the Gorgoneion, as it is in fact in 
A. It is impossible to imagine that, as 
the words imj^ly, <pbjios is an allegorical 
figure depicted as a circular ring round 
the edge of the shield. At best it might 
be supposed that ^6;3os and the other 
personified spirits of battle in 740 (for 
which see A 440) are disposed in a 
circular row round the 6pi,(pa\6s : if this 
is meant, the chauge from irepi to ev in 
740 is a most unhap})y method of ex- 
pression. It is equally impossible to 
understand the description of the helmet 
— see note on 744 below. And finally, 
the lateness of the lines is proved by 
Furtwangler's demonstration (Roscher 
Le.i: i. col. 1703) that the Gorgon head 
is unknown to Greek art before the 7th 
century B.C. Porphyrios discusses the 
Gorgon head on B 447, and shows that 
the difficulty of the passage was felt in 
early days : (pTjai 8' ' Api.aTOT€\r]s, otl 
/j.7]TroT€ ev TTJi dcnrldi ovk avrrjv et^e ttjv 
Ke<pa\riv rrjs Vopy ova's, iocnrep ov5e t'jjv 
"Epiv ovde Tr]v Kpvoeacrav 'Iuktjv, dXXd to 
eK TTjs Vopydvos yiyv6/j.evov tols evopuiffi. 
wddos KaTairX-qKTLKOv, i.e. the slueld did 
not bear any figures, but carried dismay 
as though it were the Gorgon's head 
itself (see Schrader Porph. i. p. 44 note). 
So also Eust. on \ 633. The Gorgoneion 
was probably in its origin a device 
meant to terrify the enemy, like the 
hideous faces which Chinese warriors 
carry on their shields. From this it 
came in more civilized times to jje re- 
garded merely as an diroTpoTraLov or 
charm to avert the evil eye and otlier 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

ev he re VopjeLT] KecfyaXr) Seivoto ireXoopov 

heiv-q re afjiepSvi) re, Ai09 Tepa<; aljio^oio. 

Kparl 8' eV dfji(pi(pa\ov Kuverjv dero rerpacfidXTjpov 

ypva-etrjv, eKarov ttoXlcov TrpvXeeaa dpapvlav, 

69 S' ox^a (f)\6yea iroal ^ijcrero, Xd^ero S' e7%09 

^pidv fxeya aTi,/3ap6v, tmi hdfivrjai aTLxa^ dvhpwv 

i)p(iiO)v, Tolaiv re Korea-aerai o/SpiiMoirdrpT]. 

"Hpy Se fjbda-Tcyi Oow^ eire/xaLer ap" 'LTnTov^' 

avTO/jLaraL Se irvKai fjiVKOv ovpavov, a? e')(^ov ' flpai, 

Trji<; eTrirerpaTrrai /Meja'? ovpavo<i OvXvfiTro^ re, 

rjfiev dvaKklvai ttvklvov vecfio^ ^8' eiriOelvaL. 



744. noXlCON A (.s?yjr. c) OU : noXecoN fi. 745. Bhcoto 0. 

Ar. AHT. 747. oTci(N) t€ Ar. (Scliol. T) PQ : toTc.(n) 9^ J HO. 
CJQ. 749. auTouaToi Q Par. c e g, East. 

THC k' H. 

746. dduNHici 


750. tqTc G : 

743. 6jui9i9a\oN, , TeTpa<pdXHpoN : see 

App. B. 

744. The sense of this line is any- 
thing but clear, and it must share the 
suspTcion attaching to 739-42 above. 
dpapuTaN has been explained ' fitting the 
warriors of a hundred cities,' i.e. big 
enough for a hundred armies to wear. 
15ut this is too absurdly grotesque for 
Homer. The alternative is to make it 
= fitted loith, i.e. adorned with repre- 
sentations of the warriors of a hundred 
cities. Some think that this implies a 
battle - scene between two armies and 
their allies on a vast and supernatural 
scale, as a battle-scene was depicted by 
Pheidias on the shield of his Athene 
Parthenos. But that was a Giganto- 
machia in which Athene took a pro- 
minent part ; nothing of the sort is 
indicated here, nor does dpapvia seem 
a likely word to express the metallic 
adornment of the Homeric age, which 
consisted of inlaid work. With the i'wvT] 
eKarbv dvadpoLS dpapvia S 181, the ttoKis 
wvpyois dpapvia 737, and the d-n-qvi) 
vir€pTepiT]L dpapvia f 70, the case is evi- 
dently different, though they shew that 
dpapvia can mean ' provided with. ' Here 
we can only conceive the figures as riveted 
on. npuXeec is itself a word of doubtful 
origin and meaning ; it recurs A 49, M 
77, 517, * 90, and may mean either 
footmen, as opposed to cTnrrjes, or cham- 
pions. It is possibly connected with 
irpv\Li, the Cretan word for the war- 
dance, and may therefore have once 
meant champions who danced in front 
of the army to provoke the enemy. 

Eustathios and others have seen a further 
allusion to the hundred cities of Crete ; 
and the line may therefore be one of the 
passages which seem to have a special 
connexion with that island. See on S 
590. Zeus was of course the tutelary 
god of Crete ; and if we suppose that 
Athene takes his helmet as well as his 
chiton and aegis, the idea may be that 
he bears as his blazon chieftains repre- 
senting the subject cities of his island. 
But all this is mere conjecture, with no 
Homeric analogy to support it. 

745. 9X6rea : this adj. recurs only in 
the parallel 9 389 ; it probably means 
sparkling like fire with the bright metal. 
Homeric gods do not go, like the Semitic, 
with tiames of fire about them. 

746. Ar. read ddiJ.i>r]L(n : but the sub- 
junctive is out of place in a direct state- 
ment as to the use of the spear ; in 
other words we have here a particular 
statement, although the present implies 
iteration, not a general statement as in 
a simile, or as in the next line, where 
the subj. Koreafferai implies ' with tuhovi- 
soevcr she is wroth. ' 

749. Observe the freedom of the 
imagery by which the gate, though 
said to be a cloud in 751, is made to 

750. eniTCTpanxai : so ; eiriTt- 
Tpd<paTaL Bergk, from Athenaeus (iv. 
134, which is only a parody, not a 
quotation) ; but the singular is quite de- 
fensible, as ovpavbs and OCXi'/xttos if not 
identical are at least closely connected. 
For the construction of the following 
infin. seejy. G. §234 (1). 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


T/'/i pa hi avTucov KevTprjveKeaf; e-^ov 'ittttovs. 

evpov 8e K.povLcova 6eo)v tirep i^fievov dWcov 

aKporaTrji Kopv(f)f]L TroXvSetpdSo^ OvXvfMTroiO' 

ev9^ 'iTnTov<^ arrjcracra 6ed XeuKQ)\€VO<; 'Uprj 755 

Zrjv^ virarov KpoviSTjv e^eipero koI irpoaeeiTre' 

"ZeO Trdrep, ov vefieal^iji ' Xprji rdSe Kaprepd ep'ya ; 

oaauTtov re koL olov aTrooXeae Xaov A^ulmv 

fidyfr, drdp ov Kara Kocrfiov, efiol S' ci'^o'i, ol he eKrfkot 

repTTOvrat KuTT/at? re Kal dpyvporo^o'; ' AiroXkcov 760 

CKppova TovTov dvevTe<i, o<> ov riva olhe Oe/MicrTa. 

Zev irdrep, rj pd n /not Ke'^oXcoaeai, ai Kev ' Kpr^a 

Xvypco'i ireirXrj'yvla ixd-^rj^ e^ dirohiwixai ; " 

rrjv K aTrafiei/Sofievoii 7rpoae(f)7] vecfyeXriyepera Zeu<»* 
" dypei [xdv ol eiropaov ^ KOrjvalrjv dye\ei7]v, 765 

i] € ixdXicrr eiwOe KUfcPji^ ohvvrjLcn TreXd^eip.^^ 

CO? e^ar , ovK aTridrjae Bed \evKco\evo<i Upt]) 
fjbdcTTt^ev S' LTTTTOv^i' TO) S' ovK dcKOVTe TTeTeadrjv 

753. &€ KpoNicONa : B* eupuona N. 756. esHpexo CNPTU. |1 ueTeein£(N) 

U Mosc. 2, Eust. 757. zeO : w Ap. Lex. || apH(i) ADHN^U Hail, a, Par. e, 

Vr. 1, Mosc. 1 2 : apci fi. i| Td3e ^pr' 6i'3H\a Cant, and aj). Did. : t<4&' 6"1"9h\' 
epra S: Neuecizei 6p<2>N r6be epr' cil'9HXa Ap. Lex. 758. occdriON: oc**toi6n 
G. 764. THN 9' HueiBex' ^ncixa naxHp 6ubp€iN xe eecoN xe PQS Vr. 1), Mosc. 
1: ^vioi XHN 3' aux€ npoceeine n. a. xe e. xe Schol. A (An.). 765. juhn oi G: 

nOn juoi Ap. Lex. 766. KaxaTc dauNaici G. 768. udcxizeN Lips. || acKONTe 

GJN Vr. a : SKONxe fl. 

752. KeNxpHNeic^ac only here ( = 6 396), 
apparently enduring the goad. But in 
all similar compounds {dtrjveKris, iroori- 
veKTjs, 8ovpi]veK€s) the -rjveK- conveys the 
idea of reaching. This can hardly be 
introduced here without violence [luith- 
in range of the goad ?). For the Kivrpov 
see note on ^ 387. 

753-4 = A 498-9. It seems clear that 
tlie poet who borrowed the lines regarded 
the summit of Olympos as a half-way 
stage between heaven and earth. If so, 
he departed from the oldest Homeric 
tradition, which made the earthly moun- 
tain Olympos, and not any aerial region, 
the dwelling of the gods ; see note on 
9 25. Ar. tried to put him right by 
explaining OKpoxdxHi to mean ' on a 
very high peak, ' not ' on the tojmiost 
.summit ' ; but this is surely a cruel 

754. noXuaeipdaoc (also A 499, 3), 
according to Schulze {Q. E. 95) rocky, 
from deLpds, rock, not conn, with SeLpr}, 

neck. So also Pind. 0. viii. 52. In Attic 
8eLpds is familiar, and never takes the 
form depds as it would if related to oepij 
(see Jebb on Soph. Phil. 491). 

757. For the ace. epra after vefieai'^-qL, 
i.e. veix€(Ti^e{ai), see //. G. § 136. 3. 
Both "ApHi and "Apet are late forms for 
the older "Apr)L {"ApeC) ; the latter is found 
again only 6 276, the former ^ 431 (?); 

758. 6ccdxioN, only here ; the later 
Epics have TocxcrdTLov. Cf. /xeucrdrtos in 
Kallimachos, and vardTLOs by vcrraros. 

759. See B 214. ejutoi 9' ayflc, eitlier 
an accus. expressing the result, or, per- 
haps more simply, a nom. to which we 
may supply eVrt. ^khXoi, ironical. 

761. ciNeNxec, setting 07i like a dog at 
the quarry. 

765. cirpei: see on A 526. For the 
interjectional use we may compare Fr. 
tieiis. The plur. occurs in v 149. No 
form of the verb except the imper. 
occurs in H. 


lAlAAOC E (v) 

fiecraTjyv'i <yair)^ re Kal ovpavov aarepoevro'^. 
ocraov S' rjepoeiSe'i dvrjp iSev 6(f)6a\fJbol(7iv 
7]fji6VO'^ iv (TKOTTirji \ev(T(Twv €7rl oXvoira ttovtov, 
Tocraov iinOpaiicrKovcn 6eo)v vy\rri'^ee'^ 'iiTiroi. 
lOOC ore. 8i] TpoLTjp l^ov irorafico re peovre, 
hx^ j6oa<? %iixoei<i avfJi^aXkerov rjSe ^Kdjxavhpo'^, 
evB" 'iTTTTOvi eaT7)<T€ dea \evKOiKevo<i ' Hp?;, 
Xva-acr i^ o^^kwv, Trepl S' i^ipa irovkvv e^eve- 
roLcrtv S' d/xl3po(7ir]v Stfjb6ei<i dvereCKe vefxecrOai. 
al he /Sdrrjv Tprjpcoai TrekeuiaLV WfiaO ofiolai, 



769. JueccHPU R. || T€ cmi. G. 770. 8cc6n t' H. 772. 6i};Huxeec LQ (P 
supr.V): uipaux^ec G'^ Mosc. 1: uq/auxeNec cqy. [Loi]o;in.] Trept ii;/'oi)s and Schol. B. 
774. K<4juaNdpoc C (^J. ras.) GLM (P-?) Vr. A: vKduoNapoc Harl. a. 776. 

noXuN DGMOPQRT: yp. noXXHN .T. 777. ciBpociHN L: auBpociHC D. 11 

NCUECeai : N^eceai M. 778. tco . . ouoioj, see below. |j Yceuae' Q. 

770. Aepoeid^c : an adj. almost con- 
fined to tlie Od., especially as an epithet 
of tlie sea ; sometimes of avrpov or aweos, 
and once of -n-erpr], /j, 2-33, where it clearly 
means ' the rock so distant as to be 
like mist.' When used of the sea it 
seems to express tlie vague colour of the 
distant water, which the haze of distance 
almost melts into the semblance of the 
sky. So here, ' so far as a man sees in 
the haze of distance,' i.e. up to the 
utmost limit of human vi.sion. As to 
construction, it is simplest to regard the 
aci'. as adverbial, 'as far as a man has 
misty vision.' 

772. OijiHxeEC is generally taken to 
mean loud -neighing, cf. Virgil's /rewiiV, 
aJfr. But this is very doubtful ; the high is not the same as loud 
{vif/aydpas and vypc^pe/jLeTrjs are obviously 
dirt'erent), and rixv had a F. It is 
highly probable that the quotation in 
Louginus preserves the original, vfav- 
Xei'fs, though the mistake be very 
old. Evidently in some prototype the 
V was accidentally omitted, and the 
variants v\(/avxees, v\l/r]vxees record 
further steps in the corruption. Schol. 
B and M. Mag. both give v\j/avxeves as 
one explanation of vxprjxe^'s- Cf. ipiav- 
Xei/es and iitpov 5e Kaprj e'xet Z 509. The 
word recurs only in 'I' 27, q.v. 

774. Simoeis is mentioned again in A 
474-8, T 53 by itself, and is distinguished 
from Skamandros in Z 4, M 22, <l> 307. 
Of these the two latter are almost 
certainly of late origin, while in the 
first what is probably the old reading 

omits all mention of Simoeis. Thei-e is 
therefore very strong reason for sup- 
posing that there was only one river 
named in the original legend ; Simoeis 
may possibly, as Hercher thinks, be 
another name of the Scamander pre- 
served by tradition. If the two are dif- 
ferent, the only stream which can be 
identified with the Simoeis is apparently 
the pitiful brook of the Dumbrek-Su, 
which runs from E. to W. on the N. 
side of Hissarlik, and does not join the 
Mendere at all. It entirely ceases to run 
in summer (Schliemann). On the axv/^"^ 
'AXK/xaviKov, by which the plural (or, as 
here, dual) verb goes with the first of two 
nominatives, instead of following both, 
Aristonikos remarks toi^toh tQi idei. ire- 
irXebvaKe Kal 'AXk/j-clv • olo /cat KaXeTrai 
^ AXKfxavLKov, ovx on avros irpwros expTjcraro 
dW 8tl Twi TOLOVTuii ^dei TreifKeovaKev. 
He quotes other instances from T 138, 
K 513, t. 216. Thei'e is, however, no 
instance of it in the extant fragments of 
Alkman. See also Pindar F. iv. 179 
with the commentators. 

776. nouXuN is of course a feminine, 
as in K 27 ttovKvv e</)' vypi^v (q.v.) ; so 
fj. 369 rtS'Js, and drjKvs generally, a-r^p is 
never masculine in H. H. G. § 116. 4. 

777. On djuBpociH see note on B 19. 

778. All Jiss. give ai 'bi, but tJj oe is 
found quoted three times by scholiasts 
(Soph. El. 977, 0. C. 1676, Eur. Ale. 
902) ; there can be little doubt there- 
fore that this rare feminine form is the 
original, and was excluded because un- 
familiai-. So in G 378, 455 we have 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


dvSpdaiv ^Apyeioicrtv dXe^efievat fie/iiaviai. 

dW ore S?/ p Ikuvov 66i ifkelarot koI dpiaroi 

ecTTaaav, dfi(f)l ^ltjv Ato/xj^Seo? iTTTroSdfxoLo 

eVKojxevoL, Xeiovacv ioiKore^ M/xo(f)djoiaiv 

i) aval KUTrpoiaiv, row re a6evo<; ovk dXairahvov, 

ei'Oa arda^ i]vae 6ed XevKcoXevo'i H^?/, 

%revropt elaafxeprj fieydXijropi '^a\Keo(f)(t)V(oi, 

09 roaov avSrjaaa'^ baov dWoi irevrrjKovra- 

" alB(t)<;, Ap<yelot, kuk eXey-^ea, eZSo? dyrjroi- 

6(f)pa jxev eV iroXe/jiov irwXeaKero hlo<i 'A^tWeu?, 

ouSe TTore Tyocoe? rrpo TrvXdcov AapSavidcov 


785. eJ9oju^NH HS Vr. b : efcoJueNH L. 786. ^p riaiv ovk rjv 6 arixo^ Schol. 

A (see below). || 8c: H S. 787. eXerx^ec Ar. P. 1| arHToi : apicroi L Lips., 

Ar. Stx'^^- 788. cic O. 789. aapaaN(e)ioJN M Lips. : aapdaNiadcoN [Pint.] 
VH. Horn. 103. 33. 

feminine duals identical in form with 
masculine ; and also Hes. 0pp. 198-9. 
The word Yeuaya does not seem to recur 
(before Kallimachos) except in Hymn. 
Apoll. 114 ^av bk (Iris and Eileithyia) 
iroal Tpr)pw<n ireXeidcnv W/mad' o/noiaL, which 
is the passage quoted by Aristophanes 
Av. 575 ''IpLv 54 y' "O/u-ripos €(paeK iKeXrjv 
dvai TprjpuPL TreXeirji. There is perhaps 
a touch of the humour which is so often 
associated with the gods of Homer in 
the vivid comparison of the short and 
quick yet would-be stately steps of the 
two goddesses to the strutting of a 
pigeon, so unlike a hero /xaKpa ^LJids. 
But the word W/xa, a verbal subst. from 
root i, (JO, is vague enough to enable 
those who think this undignified to 
translate the flighf of doves ; cf. schol. 

TTjV OpfXriV Kdl Tr]V TTTTJcnV. 

782. The et in XciouciN is wrong. 
Hence Braudreth conj. XUaffiv {'^ FXiea- 
atv "), and so afterwards Nauck. Xis and 
Xlv are found (A 239, 480 etc.), and 
Xieffiv is quoted by JSt. Mag. from Kalli- 

785. Stentor is never named again by 
Homer, and there seems to have been 
no consistent tradition about him. Some 
called him a Greek herald ; Schol. A 
says TLves avTov QpaLKo. <pacri.v, 'Ep/nrji Se 
Trepl /j.eyaXocpojvias iplaavTa dvaipeOrivai, 
avTov Se eypety Kal rrjv 5id k6xXov ypa- 
(p-qv (sic : Schol. B /j.rjxavrji', the device 
of the speaking - tnimpet ; this is the 
rationalizing explanation), nvh Se 'Ap- 

Kaoa (paalv elvai tov ^revropa, Kal iv 
rwL KaraXbywL irXdrTovcn wepi avrov ari- 
Xovs. iv Tiai d^ OVK rjv 6 crTixos (sc. 786) 
did T7]i' vvep^oX-qv. \aKKe.6(^(iiH0C is not 
elsewhere found ; but compare B 490, 
2 222 '6iTa x^^^'fo''- The Stentorian 
voice was proverbial in the time ol 
Aristotle; see the well-known passage 
in the Fol. vii. 4. For other instances 
of the superhuman power of gods see 
859, S 148. 

787. For cXerxea see note on A 242, 
and cf. also B 235, A 314. a!9a)c is a 
nominative used interjectionally, appar- 
ently as a sort of imperative, aiSws €(7tco 
i'fuv, and equivalent to alSGi dead' evi 
dvfjiuii, 561, 661. The regular meaning 
of the word is of course sc7ise of honour, 
'recognition of the just rebukes of men ' ; 
it is not used in the sense of disgrace 
like ato-xos or alax'^"''!, either in Homer 
or later Greek. The phrase recurs in 
e 228, N 95, 502, II 422 ; and in a 
slightly varying form P 336 aldws f^ev vCv 
TjSe y . . "YKlov eicrava^rjvai, where we 
must take it to mean ' this is a thing to 
arouse a feeling of rebuke,' just as^ we 
say 'it is a shame to do so and so, ' 
meaning a thing to be ashamed of. 
eT9oc arHTof, like V 39 eZSos apiare (there 
is a variant dpicxToi here). 

789. Aristarchos held that the Dar- 
danian gate was the same as the Skaian 
Of course the question is insoluble ; but 
see note on B 809. The name recurs 
again in X 194. 


lAIAAOC E (v) 

olyyeaKov Kelvov yap iSeiSiaav 6/3pLfjbov eWo?* 
vvv Se €Ka<; ttoXio? KOiXrjt^; eVi vrjvcrl /Jbdyovrau' 

CO? etTToOcr wrpwe /x€vo<i koI Ov/mov eKaarov. 
TvSetSrji 8' iiTopovcre 6ea <y\avK(07rc<i 'AOtjvrj- 
evpe 8e rov ye avaKxa Trap' iTnrotaiv Kal 6-^ea(f)tv 
eXKO<i dvayjru^ovra, to jjulv /SaXe IidvBapo<; IwL. 
l8pQ)<i yap fjitv ereipev vtto TrXareo? reXapbwvo'i 
d(T7nSo<; evKVKXov tmi reipero, Ka/xve 8e j^elpa, 
dv h Xo-^(£)v re\ap,o)va KeKaive^h alp! diropiopyvv. 
LTriretov oe 6ed ^vyov TJ^Iraro (pcovijaev re* 
" rj oXiyov ol iralha ioLKora yeivaro 'Yvhev<;. 
Ti;Seu9 roc p,tKp6<i /juev erjv 8ep.a<i, dX\d p.aY7]Trj<i- 
Kal p ore irep fj,iv iyoo TroXepLt^eiv ou/c elaaKov 




790. diixNecKON Cant. |i SjuBpiuoN CGJ. 791. 5e CKOC Zen. Aph. ft: V 

CKdic DQ Lips. : 5' cKoeeN Ar. GHR. !| KoiXaic G. 792. eincoN H^. 793. 

TuaeiaHN NS. 794. t6n re : TONSe JO : t6n re H. 797. cukukXou ?) aju- 
9iBp6THc Eust. II Teipero Ar. fi: TpiBero (A supr.) CDGHMT Vr. b^ Mosc. 
1 2, Par. b e g2 h k. II X^'pa '• X«:pci D. 798. aN t* Vr. a. || 6cxwn Vr. c, 

Mosc. 3. II dneuoppNU DHMRST. 799. zuroO eed E,T. 801. JUlKpbc : -yp. 

uikk6c J. 802. noXeJuiz^juGN H. 

791. nOn 5t €Kdc is of course right, 
as iKa.% had F. But from a scholion by 
Didymos on N 107 it apjiears that Zen. 
and Aph. read vvv hk eKas, Ar. vvv 8' 
€Kadev : a clear proof that Aristarchos 
did not always know what was the best 
tradition, or else deliberately rejected it 
from preconceived notions. The ex- 
pression KoiXriLs iwl vTqvcrl is not appropri- 
ate here, as it is in N 107, where the 
Greeks have actually been driven back 
to the camp. It is evident that the 
line, which cannot be omitted, has been 
carelessly borrowed here. 

793. ^ndpouce, sprang to his side, cf. 
■•p 343 vTTvos eir., and P 481 dp/j.' ew- 
opovaas. Elsewhere it always indicates 
a hostile onslaught. 

795. It might have been supposed 
that Athene had healed the wound in 
122, but there is no explicit inconsistency 
betT^^een that passage and the present. 
See n 528 ; when a god miraculously 
heals a wound we are told so at length. 
Many critics, however, have made this 
supposed ' contradiction ' a fulcrum for 
breaking up this book. For the double 
ace. after BdXe cf. 361, 9 405, Q 421. 

796. There is evidently no OwprjKos 
yioKov here — nothing but the linen tunic 

which is of too little importance to be 
mentioned. The shield hangs on the 
left side, so the 'broad baldric' goes 
over the right shoulder. 

797. tGh naturally refers to ISpdis, not 
to T€\a/j.Qvos, the phrase being a restate- 
ment of idpilis fJLLv Irnpev. 

801. JuiKpdc recurs in H. only 7 296, 
a/j.LKp6s P 757, the Epic word being 

802. There is considerable doubt as to 
the punctuation of this passage. Fiisi 
takes 805 as a parenthesis, the apodosis 
beginning with avrdp, 806. Similarly 
Monro regards it as epexegetic of the 
preceding. Ameis less probably takes 
Kal p fire irep . . eKTraicpdcraeLV as a 
general protasis, which is superseded and 
forgotten in favour of the special case 
introduced by the second protasis, ore re 
. . Ka8/j.€twvas, 805 thus forming the 
apodosis. Heyne would reject 805 alto- 
gether as an interpolation suggested by 
A 386. I strongly suspect that the fault 
lies in 802, and that Kai p ore irep has 
sujjplanted an original dWore yap, 
wTongly taken to represent dXV fire yap, 
where dXXd . . ydp would obviously need 
correction. For dWore = once upon a 
time see A 590, T 90, 187. 

lAIAAOC E (v) 249 

ov8 iK7raL(f>aa(7€cv, ore t ijXvde puacjav A-^aiojv 

ajyeXo^ e? ^h]/3a<i iroXea^ fxera K.aSfMetwva'i • 

haivvcrdai fMiv dvcojov ivl /meydpotaiv eKrfKov 805 

avrap o dvfiov fc'%ft)t' ov Kaprepov, to? to 7rupo<; irep, 

Kovpov^ K.a8fi€L0)v TrpoKoKi^ero, iravra 8 eviKa 

ptfiSiQy'i' Toirj ol eyoiv iinrdppoOo'i rja. 

aol h YjroL fiev iycb irapu 6 'larafiai i^Se cfivXaaaw, 

Kai ce 7rpo(f)poveco<i KeXofxai ^pooeacn pai^ecrOaf 810 

aXKcL aev t) Kufxaro^ TroXvdl^ yula SeSvKcv, 

rj vv ere irov Seo? tcr'^et dKrjpLOV ov av y eireiTa 

1 uoeof eKyovo'i eaat oat(ppovo<i Utvecoao. 

rrjv 8' (iTra/jbei^ofievo'i irpoaecfiri KpaTepo<i Atofi7]8r)<;- 
" yivcoaKO) ere, dea Ovyarep Ato? alyco'^oio' 815 

TO) TOi 7rpo(f)poveQ)<; ipeco eiro^ ovB' iircKevaco. 
ovT€ rl fjbe heo<i Icry^^i dKiqpiov ovre ti<; 6kvo<;, 
dXX' en crcov ecfierp^ecov, a^ eVeretXa?' 
ov /Lt' eta? p^aKapeaat 6eoi^ dvTiKpv p.d^ea6ai 
TOi<i aXXoi^- drdp ei Ke Aio? dvydrrjp ^AcfipoSlrr) 820 

eXdijia e? iroXep.ov, T7]v y ourdp^ev o^ei '^oXkcoi. 
TovveKU vvv avTo^ r dva^d^op^aL rj8e koL dWov<i 
Apyelov^ eKeXevaa dX^jpuevai ivddBe irdvra';' 
yivdoaKOi yap "Aprja p^d'^r/v dvd KOipaveovraT 

808. Said to have been added by Zen. (Ztji/oSotos inroTaacreL An.), and not to have 
been found at all in the edd. of Ar. (Did.). || of om. Q : toi CT Vr. c, Mosc. 3 : bk 
G. II ercb DOPS. 809. e' : &' H. 810. C€ : yp. coi Harl. a. 811. aX\d 

ce G. II deduKCN : XeXuKCN P {yp. U'-) : XeSuKeN li (\ in ras., h supr.). 813. 

^rroNOC QU (rr in 7ns.) Vr. b {yp. cKroNOc). 814. ^viol thn b' auTe npoceeine 

An. 815. nrNcocKco LN. 817. ouxe Tic : oOae tic H( >. 818. CCON : 

cecoN Ar. 819. QNTlKpu : qntq T. 820. aCnbp PPi. 821. eXeH MOP 

Vr. b. II elc 0. H r' om. P ; of. 132. 824. nrNcbcKco LNU. 

803. €Knai9dcceiN, make display; see ^ajo," and it is obvious that in sense it 

B 450. N6C91N "AxaicoN is the same as is identical. Lykophron's rdppodos is 

fjLovvos iuv in A 388. doubtless a learned figment. Outside 

808. According to Aristonikos this Homer and the Orphic Hymns iwiTdp- 
line was inserted here by Zen. but podos is found only in an oracle iu Herod, 
omitted by Ar. on the just ground that i. 66, in the sense conqueror. 
Athene is here emphasizing her restraint, 818. To avoid the synizesis or con- 
not her support, of Tydeus ; the inter- traction cwn {aiwv) . . ^9eTJue&0N van 
polation destroys the effect of the follow- L. reads cttjj' . . €(peTfj.riv rjv, remarking 
ing line. But there is no trace of that jj-efivrifiaL takes the ace. in Z 222, I 
omission in the Mss. ; the statement 527. (La R. attributes this reading to 
about Zen. only means that he did not 'Schol. Z 129,' apparently in error.) 
like Ar. reject it as borrowed from A 819. ciNTiKpii : see on 130. 
390 (q.v.). ^niTdppoeoc : a word Avhich 824. jmaxHN in local sense, the battle- 
has never been explained. The ancients Jield. TroXe^os is never used iu this way. 
took it to be = eVt'ppo^oy, ''TrXeovaafiwi tov 6Nd should be dva, as it immediately 


lAIAAOC E (v) 




Tov 8' rjfiei^eT eirena dea jXavKMTTL'i AOrjvrj' 

fMi]T6 (TV J "Aprja TO 76 SelSidc fi7]Te tlv aWov 
aOavdrcov toItj tol iyoiv iirLrappoOo'^ et/Mi,. 
aW' ay eV "Aprjl TrpcoTcot e^e /Lia)vv-^a<; tTTTroi;?, 
TV\lroi> Se aj^ehiriv /^rjS^ a^eo Oovpov ' Aprja 
TovTov fjuaivofjievov, tvktov kukov, aWo'TrpoaaWov, 
o? TrpooiTjv fjuev ifioi re Kal 'Yiprji crrevT dyopevcov 
Tpcocrl fjua^rjaeadai, drdp Apyeioca-tv dprj^eiv, 
vvv he fjuerd TpcaecrcrtP ofitXel, roiv he XeXaarat, 

J)9 (f)a/jievT] %deveXov fxev d(j>' iTTTroiv Siae '^afid^e, 
p^et/3t iTokiV epvaaa' 6 S' dp ep.fjia'Treox; diropovaev. 
7] S' e? 8i(j}pov e/Saive irapaX Aio/j,')]Sea Slop 
ifx/jb€fxavca Bed- \xkya 8' e^pa')(e <^r]yivo<i d^cov 
^pi0oavv7]i' heivvjv yap dyev 6eov dvSpa 8' dpicnov. 

827. JUH Ti ciir' M. || t6 r€ : t6n re J {suqir. t6) OQT (R siqir.) Vrat. a^, 
East. : TON&e S Lips. Mosc. 3 : t6n JNI. ' aXXcoN P Cant. Vr. a. 828. ^r&j 0. 

833. JuaxHcaceai HLOP(?)QR Vr. A, Mosc. 3 : ix^yecem G {supr. ac) : uaxecaceai 
Vr. a. !i auT^ip ,IMQR. |1 dpHsei U. 834. X^XHcrai G. 835. C19' : Kae' N. 

836. eJLiuanecoc : yp. ejuumeuacbc Vr. 1). endpouccN N. 837. naph OQS'. 

838-9 ad. Ar. 838. 9HriNOC : <pX6rioc P {-yp. 9HriN0c) : ni^aiNoc Et. Mag. 

Hesych. and oi TraXatot (Eust. ). 839. eeiiN G. |! QNdpa 5' Av. P: aNSpd t' fi. || 
9epicT0N Par. c g. 

follows its case ; but Ar. refused to be 
consistent, on the ground that the word 
would thus be liable to confusion with 
the vocative of dra^ aud the imperatival = arise. In A 230 he wrote did, not 
dia, for a similar reasou. The whole 
theory of accentuation is full of ir- 
regularities, whicli in many cases no 
doubt represented a genuine usage, but 
were a subject of helpless groping after 
principles among the Alexandrian gram- 
marians. See IT. G. § 180. 

827. TO re, for that matter ; cf. p 401 
fMTjT' oPv fXTjrep' e/iiriv a^ev to ye fiiyre tlv' 
aXKov. But it looks almost as if the line 
were a reminiscence of S 342 yttijTe deQv 
TO ye deididi fJ.7jTi tiv dvdpQv oi/'ecr^at, 
where the to is probably governed by 

830. cxeaiHN : it is natural to supply 
irXrjyrjv, cf. M 192 avToaxeSiTjv. This, 
however, does not cover forms like dvTi- 
liir}v, dfKpadirjv, dirpidT7)v, and many in 
-OTjv, for which see H. G. § 110. 

831. aXXonp6caXXoN, double -faced, 
one thing to one person, another to 
another. This treachery of Ares is again 

alluded to in <l> 413 ovveK 'Axo-lovs Kd\- 
XtTres, avTCLp Tpucrlv virepcpiakoLaiv dfivveis, 
but no other trace of it occurs in Homer. 
tukt6n is another aTra^ Xeybp-evov in this 
sense ; it apparently means ' finished, 
wrought out,' i.e. coinplete ; cf. ^ 741 
TeTvy/jL&ov = ivcU ivrotight : so tvkttjkti 
^beff(TLv M 105, and in the sense of 
'artificially made' 5 627, p 169, 206. 
Van Herwerden's (ttvktov (cf. k 113, X 
502) is needless. 

832. npcoiHN : see B 303. cxeuTO, 
jiledged himself; cf. on S 191. 

834. TtoN de may be raasc, sc. 'AxaicDv: 
but perha])s it is rather more Homeric 
to take it as neuter, 'those promisps.' 

838-9. dderovvTai (ttLxol 8vo, 8ti ovk 
dvayKaloi Kal yeXoloi, Kal tl evavTiov exov- 
res. Tl yap, el xetptcrrot ^crav Tais ij/vxais, 
eveideis d^ Kal evaapKoi ; i.e. the fact that 
Diomedes and the goddess were dpiaToi 
does not involve their being heavier. 
But the couplet is quite in the spirit 
of the whole passage, which seems ex- 
pressly to exaggerate the physical quali- 
ties of the gods, e.g. 785, 860. We may 
compare Aeii. vi. 413 gemuit sub poiidere 

lAIAAOC E (v) 




\d^€TO 8e /jLuariya koI rjvia ITaA-Xa? Wdijvr}' 840 

avTiK eV '"Kprjt irpcorwi e-^^e /moivv-^a^ Ilttttov^^. 

7] TOi 6 fxev Ylepi<^avTa ireXoopiov e^evdpt^ev, 

AItco'Kmv o^' apicrrov, 'O^7;criou dyXaov viov 

TOP fMev "Ap7)<; ivdpi^e fMLat(j)6po<i' avrap ^Adrjpj] 

Bvv "Ai'So? Kvverjv, pm] pav thoi 6^pipbo<i ' Apr]';. 

o)? 8e tSe ^poToXocyo'i "Ap?;? ^iopbi'jhea hlov, 

7/ TOi p,ev TlepLcfiavTa ireXoopLOV avToO eacre 

Keiadat, o6i irpoirov ktclvcov e^alvvro dvpiov, 

avrap 6 /3>} p Wv<i AiofiijSeo'i iirTroZapiOLO. 

01 8' ore Si] (X'^eSbv rjcrav eV dW')]\oi,aLV Lovre<;, 

irpoaOev "Apr}<i wpe^ad' vrrep ^vyov rjvia 6 iTTTrMV 

eyy^e'i ^aX/cetfot, /Lte/xaft>9 <x7ro 6vp,ov eXeauai,' 

Kal ro ye %eipt \a/3ovaa Bed ykavKO)m<i ' A6r}vr] 

Sicrev virep hi^poLO ercoaLov di-^drivac. 

840. bk : aH G- : rdp H. 841. npcoTa (sic) P. |1 After 841, 846 is inserted 

by AC (M ?) Harl. a {if dWuit ovtos 6 arixos /J-era reacrapas arixovs Kelrai Sehol. A). 
842. ls€NdpiZ€N Ar. AD (Par. i supr.) : ^seNdpiscN 12 (ami nves An.). 844. 

jui^N om. q. ii CNdpise(N) DGJNOQR"'S Lips. \r. a c: csendpiHC MP Harl. a. 
845. 'ibn Q. || ouBpiJuioc C.T. 846. b' exbe {)E Yr. b : b' eYSe H c corr. : be 

o\be G : b' oibe Vr. A. 848. keTcg" 6ei npcoTON juiin NS Cant (uin npcoTON). || 
npcbxa C. 849. p' om. J. 852. eXeceai A.TNSU Aml)r. : 6Xeccai il (and 

yp. A). 853. TO re : t6t€ T Harl. a. 854. unep A : an' Ik Vr. A : on' ek 
(unfeK) fi and yp. A (T.W.A.). 

cyniba Sutili.^ (of Charon's boat). Vir<^il 
imitates 8:35-40 in Aen. xii. 469 tf. ; 
cf. also Geo. iii. 172 valido nitens sub 
pondeix fuginus axis Instrepat. The 
variant ir-qBtvos for 9HriNoc is explained 
to mean made of a wood called inqob^ (see 
Lex. ). 

842. This is the only case in H. where 
a god in person condescends actually to 
slay and despoil a human foe. 

845. "ATdoc kuneh, the ' Tarnkappe ' 
or ' Nebelkappe ' of northern mythology, 
not elsewhere mentioned in fl. It is 
alluded to, however, in the Scutv/in Her. 
227, and in Aristoph. Ach. 390, Plato 
Re}:). X. 612 B. It appears too in the 
legend of Perseus in Pherekydes, and is 
a piece of the very oldest folklore. Re- 
ferences will be found in Frazer Perns. 
iii. p. 346. The name 'Ai'5?;s here 
evidently preserves something of its 
original sense, the Invisible {'AFidijs). 
It is of course not necessary to suppose 
that the poet conceives Athene as liter- 
ally putting on a cap ; he only employs 
the traditional — almost proverbial — way 

of saying that she makes herself invisible 
to Ares. 

848. This line is perhaps intei']>olated 
by a rhapsode who read e^evdpi^ev in 842, 
and thought that an infinitive was re- 
(|uired after ^aaev. This idea led to 
other unmistakable interpolations, see 
T312, fi 558, (0 473?). 

851. zuroN, of Diomedes' chariot ; Ares 
is clearly on foot (he has lent his chariot 
to A])hrodite, 363). 

852. eX^ceai : vulg. oXeaaaL, but this 
by Homeric usage could only mean to 
lose his own life. 

854. Onep : vulg. vv' €k, which appears 
to be accepted by almost all edd., though 
no approximately satisfactory explana- 
tion has been given of the word, which 
can only mean 'from under.' Athene 
of course is on, not under, the chariot : 
and to suppose that she could direct the 
shaft from a place where she was not 
herself is to make her very unlike a 
Homeric deity. Still, the old idea seems 
to have been that Athene actually put 
her arm under the chariot, for Sehol. 

252 lAIAAOC E (v) 

Sevr€po<; avd' oop/xdro ^orjv ayado'; Atoyu,?;^?;? 855 

e7^ei' '^dX.Keiwi' eVepetcre 8e TlaXXaf ^AOrjvrj 

veuarov e? Keveoiva, 66 1 ^(ovvvaKero [xirpr^V' 

TTJL pd /jLiv ovra rv^cov, Bca Be %/coa koKov eBa-yjrev, 

CK Be Bopv airdaev avTi<;. 6 8' e^pa^e '^aXKeo<; "Apr}<;, 

baaov t ivved^iXoi iiria'^ov i) BeKci'^LXot 860 

dvepe<i ev TroXeficoi, epiBa ^vvdyovre^ "Aprjo^. 

Tov<i B dp viro TpofMO<i elXev 'A^atov? re Tpcoa? re 

BeicravTa'i' rocrov e^pa-^ "Ap7]<i droii iroXefjUoco. 

017) B' €K ve(f)€cov epe^evvrj (jjatverai di]p 
Kau/jiaTo<; e^ dvefioio Bv(Taeo<i opvvfievoLO, 865 

Tot09 TvBeiBrji AiofitjSel 'yd\Keo<i "Aprj^ 
(f)aive6^ ofiov vec^eeacnv Iwv eh ovpavov evpvv. 
KapTToXifiax; S' cKave Oecbv eSo9, alirvv "OXv/xttov, 
Trap Be Ail J^povlcovt Kade^ero 6v/jb6v d'^evcov, 
Bei^ev B' dp,/3poTov alfxa Karappeov e^ wretX?}?, 870 

KUL p 6\o(f)vpo/jbevo<i eirea irrepoevra TrpocrrjvBa' 
" "Lev irdrep, ov pe/xecri^TjL 6poi>v rdBe Kaprepd epya ; 

855. aeuTepON DS. || h' aue' JQ. || Spuaxo MNQ. 856. 4;nepese Vr. a : 

€nepHce: N siqir. 857. JuixpHi Ar. (uirpHN Harl. a, siqrr. hi lis dplcrTapxos) : 'iv 

TiffL Tuiv vTro/j.vTj/u.dTU}!' OGi CTcXXecKeTO JuirpHi Did. 859. eK : ^n AU. |! aSeic C. 
860. occoN a* Aph. T. || ^NwedxeiXoi . . ScK^xeiXoi (Ar. ? cf. S 148) S, yp. Eust. 
862. b" Old. P. 863 om. Q. 864. yp. epeBcNNcoN Vr. a. 865. ducaeoc : 
3ucHxeoc J {yp. 9ucaeoc). 867. eupu D. 868. d' om. Lips. 872. epr' 

aVaHXa N Cant, (rda* dtaHX' epra S), yp. Schol. T. 

B on 851 says of inrep there TLves clvtI picion is confirmed by the omission in (}, 

TTjs vTTo, iva Tpdjcrrji. avTov \adii>v. Ares' though there is no serious ground of 

' underhand ' stroke is met by Athene in objection against the line in itself, 
a similar \v;iy. With tlie reading of A 865. Kauuaroc is, afte?- hot loeathcr ; 

there is no difficulty whatever. so scholia. Cf. Herod, i. 87 e^' 5e aldpirjs 

857. Sti Kara rd KoiXa /J-epy) e^uivvvuro re ^-at]s <jvvdpap.elv i^avivris 
T7)v fxirpav • Kal e'crrt oi.8acrKa\iKbs 6 rdiros vicpea. It is hardly possible to get any 
(i.e. 'this is the locus dassieus'). For good sense if we join i^ with dvifioio. 
the nature of the ixiTpr] see App. B. For It is not easy to say what the phenome- 
jmixpHN of Mss. Ar. read pilTpiji : both non meant may be ; perhaps a whirl- 
cases appear to be equally Homeric ; see wind of dust raised by the scirocco. 
K 77, S 181. Others take it to be a thunder-cloud 

860. This hyperbolical distich recurs ' standing out to the eye from the other 
in S 148-9. The reading -x^l^ol ap- clouds.' Or it may simply mean 'a 
parently attributed to Ar. by Schol. T black darkness {onurky cdr) coming 
on S 148 is not of course from x«^os as from (i.e. caused by) clouds' of a thunder- 
absurdly explained ; x^'^'o' is the old storm. 

Attic and Ionic form on inscriptions, so 867. 6uo0 : best taken with icoN, with 

the diplithong may be right here. For clouds about him, cf. () 118 bp.ov veKveacn 

the last half of 861 compare B 381, H 448, (and so 5 723, o 365). Brandreth a^a, 

T 275. The metaphorical use of the cf. d/xa ttvoltjls dve/LLoio. 
word "Apr/OS (861) in this particular con- 871. p' : F' Brandreth, rightly no 

text is curious. doubt. Cf. k 265. 

863 is suspected by Nauck ; tlie sus- 872. See 757. 873-4 seem to be 

lAIAAOC E (v) 


alei TOO pcyiara Oeol TerXT^ore^ el/Mev 

aWrjXwv Iot7]ti, '^dpiv 8' avSpeaaL (pepovrei;. 

aol 7rdvT€'i fia'^ofjueaOa' av yap re/ce? cic^pova Kovprjv, 

ouXo/j.€V7]v, Tjt r alev drjcrvKa epya /xe/xrjXev. 

dWoi piev yap nravre^, octol deoi elcr ev 'OXvpurcoi, 

aol T eimreiOovrai Kal hehpnipietTOa eKaaro^' 

ravTrjv S' ovt eirel TrpOTL/SdWeai ovre ri epywt, 

dW dvi.r}<i, eiret, avTOt; iyelvao TratS' dtSrjXov 

r] vvv TuSeo? vlov vTrep^iaXov Aiop,)']8ea 

puapyaiveLV dverjKev tV ddavdroiai deolcn. 

Ys^virpiha pL€v TrpcoTOV a^eSov ovraae x^^P ^'^'' KctpTroji, 

avTap eireiT avTMi fioi eireacrvro Satpiovc lao<i' 

dWd yu. v7rr]V€iKap ra'^ie^ TroSe?* rj re Ke Srjpov 

avTov 7rt]p,ar erraa'^ov ev alvrjiaLv veKdSeaaiv, 




873. TOl : Ti HP. II TerKHKOxec N. || hugn Yr. b. 874. X°P'N 3* Ar. il : 

X<iipiN H.INOQT Mosc. 2i, Cant. Par. e^ k. 879. nori BdXeai ( K „ oude ti Q. 

880. aN^HC NO'-^S Lips." : dNeiHc M : hu\ac fi. 881. unepq>iaXoN Ar. DGLQ : 
onepeuuoN ai dij/jLibSeis il (iiicl. A, T.W.A.). 883. npcbra H Vr. b : npcoTHN Ef. 

Miiij. 885. unHNerKQN ,IXP<,). 886. aiNaTci (J. 

imitated from 383-4. They are rejected 
by Bekker and others, as being wide of 
the aim of the rest of the speech. 

876. ciHCuXa : so Mss. ; but there is 
little doubt, as Clemm has shewn, that 
the word, which is not found elsewhere, 
is only an itacistic mistake for dFiavKa, 
iniqua, from F?aos : hence the commoner 
contracted form ai'criiXos. 

878. SeSuHuecea, are subject, V 183, 
X 622. For the change of person cf. H 
160, P 250. 

879. npoTiBaXXeai : the mid. is not 
found again till Aj). Rhod. (iv. 1046) 
and Oppiaii. It is commonly explained 
attack, a sense found iu the act. and 
trpoff^oXr}. But, as Monro remarks, this 
is rather too strong for the context ; a 
more suitable sense is tliou 2)ayest no heed 
to her. The mid. /3dXXo/xat is constantly 
thus used of the mind in H., cf. £7rt- 
/3d,XX0|Uai Z 68, (idWeadat. evl dvfiuiL, 
fxerd (ppeaiv and Trpocr(:idWeiv o/x/mara, 
6\pLP in Attic (e.g. Eur. Med. 860), with 
no sense of violence. 

880. For ciNfHC the vulg. gives dvieis, 
which is wrong, as the accent would 
only suit the imperf. ; but a thematic 
dvLeh has the support of the 3rd pei'son, 
B 752 irpoid, K 121 jj.edi€i (cf. ridel IST 
732, a 192, didoh, 5t5ot). These are 
clearly due to invasion of the thematic 

forms by analogy ; an invasion which 
in these particular verbs Mas finally 
repulsed, though it overwhelmed many 
others. As the Mss. are of no authority 
in a matter such as this, it is impossible 
now to say whether tlie 2nd person 
succumbed like the 3rd, the metre here 
giving no help. See If. G. § 18. But 
the thematic forms are so rare that 
they should not be multiplied without 
necessity. aUToc, explained by Schol. 
B ii6vos, i.e. without the intervention 
of a mother ; and so Hes. Thcog. 924 
avTos d' e/c /ce^aX?}; yXavKdjirida yeivar 
'Adr}VT]v. The legend of the birth of 
Athene from the head of Zeus is found 
also in Hymn. Ap. 314, 323, but not 
elsewhere in H., unless it be in the 
obscure title rpiToy^eia (see on A 515) ; 
and the word here need mean no more 
than 'thou thyself didst beget (em- 
phatically) ; av reV-es aljove (875) is also 
ambiguous. aVdnXoN, destructive, as 
■Kvp B 455. (Welcker explains ' secretly 
born,' as without a mother. But see 

886. NeKd9ecciN, dir. Xeyo/j-evov. Cf. 
118 KeladaL o/uov veKvecrai /xeO' aifxari 
Kal KovirjiaLv, and IT 661 iv v^kvwv dyvpei : 
see also note on 397. Ares, being im- 
mortal, seems a little confused between 
his two alternatives ; the contrast to 


lAlAAOC E (v) 

TOV 8' dp VTToBpa ISoov 7rpoa€(f)7] v€(j}€\7]yep€Ta Zeu?' 
" jjb')] TV fJbOL, aXKoTTpocrdXXe, 7rape^ofj,evo<i fjuLvvpil^e, 
€'^6i(TT0<; 8e fioi iaai deSiv o'c "OXv/jLttov e-^^ovcnv' 
alel yap toc epc'; re (fttXr) iroXepbol re fxd'^ai, re. 
jxrjTpo'i TOL p.evo<i ecmv dacrj^erov, ovk eirieiKTOv, 
'^H^?/?- Trjv fiev eyoi cnrovhyp SdfxvrjfM iireeacn' 
TOi a 010) Kelvt]^ rdSe irda'^eiv evveairjtaiv. 
dX}C ov fjidv a en Srjpov dve^o/xao dXye e'^ovra' 
i/c yap efiev yevo'i eaai, e/xol 8e ere yeivaro /jiyjTijp. 
el 8e rev e^ dXkov ye 0eo)v yevev wS' ai'iS7;Xo9, 
Kal Kev St] TrdXai rjcrOk eveprepo^i Oupaincovcop.^' 



887. h: eV (H siqrr.) NOR: aY (^ (to h kcn ypacperai 5ta rod h irapa toIs 
aKpi^earepois East.)- II zcobc Q Mor. Vr. b. || x''^'*'°'''""<^^ci (i (witli hyphen). 
890. exeijuoc J. 891. TOI om. HP: tic N". 892. eCTlN : aiew i,7. May. || 

OUK : oCib' J. 895. JuidN : jucn Vr. b. 896. cccIn JMO. || ejuioi : eu-k Q (S 
su-pr.). 897. aXXoio C suj)/: {man. rec). || re om. CL : te H. 898. Aceac 

AD.JO^SU. il €N€pT€poc : eNepTQToc Zen. : NepTepoc T Lips. 

fws ea should of course be 'idavov : this 
being impossible he has to substitute 
the rather weak exjjression of the text. 

887. zcbc for '^ijiibs is a highly sus- 
picious form recurring only in the ace. 
\(j3v II 445 ; cf. the equally faulty am 
for a6os {(xdos) X 332. ^ fwos d^i. 
Brandreth, fwios k van L. 6juicnhn6c : 
only here in II. ; it occurs several times 
in Od. in the phrase veKioijv d/xei'rii'a 
Kap-qva, and once (t 562) of dreams. It 
appears to be conn, witli /xews, but the 
formation is not clear. '<ka : see on A 321. 

891. See note on A 177. 

892. ddcxGTON : the formation of this 
word, which recurs only in fi 708, is 
hardly explicable. According to Eekker 
it is for dv-avdffxeTos, through the stage 
d;'-d(;')(TxeTos, the second v being lost 
before the tr, and the first then having 
to follow suit, that the word might not 
be confused with dva-trxeTos in the 
opposite sense. If so, it is probably a 
late and wrong reading, for which 
di'do-xerov ought to be substituted liere 
(so Wackernagel) : mere possibilities of 
confusion do not set aside the ordinary 
laws of linguistic formation. According 
to another view we have a case of ' Epic 
diectasis ' for dcrxeT'os, cf. 11 549 dcrx^Tov, 
OVK eineLKTov. This is likely enough in a 
passage of late origin, and perhaps con- 
temporaneous with the formation on 

false analogy of opdais for opdeis through 
the stage opdis, etc. oiiK enieiKTON, uii- 
yiekUng, indomitahlc, as (3 32, etc. 

893. cnouSfii, as B 99, etc. 

894. CNNeciHiciN, a purely metrical 
form for eveairjiaLv, which could not 
otherwise be used. The word (from 
iv-i-qixi) is air. Key. in H. but occurs in 
Hes. Thcog.' 494 and Hymn. Cer. 30, 
and is mnch affected by Ap. Rhod. 

898. The variant rjaDas is probably 
a mere fiction to avoid hiatus, formed on 
the analogy of the common term, -as of 
the 2ud sing. (if. G. § 5). The two last 
words of the line apparently mean 
'lower than the sons of Uranos,' i.e. 
the Titanes imprisoned in Tartaros, as in 
225 ot Trep iveprepoi elai Oeol, Kpdvof 
d/j.(pLs iovres. This, however, is quite 
unlike the Homeric use of the word 
Oiipai'ioji'es, and may be another mark of 
later date ; the Titan myths, like those 
relating to Kronos, seem onl)' to have 
become part of the acknowledged belief 
of tlie Greek nation at large in post- 
Homeric times. If we take Ovpaviwves 
in its usual sense, we must either trans- 
late loujcr than the heavenly gods, or 
accept Zen.'s reading ivepraros, lowest of 
the heavenly gods ; either of which inter- 
pretations makes the passage intolerably 
weak. For the threat itself compare 
e 13-16 ; and for the Titanes 479, 

lAIAAOC E (v) 




w? (pdro, KoX WaLrjov avu>^eiv ujaaadac. 
TMt 8' eVl TlaiTjcov ohvvrj^ara (j)dp/j.aKa irdaaev. 
[y^KecraT • ov fiev 'yap ri KaTadvrjTo<i y €T€tvkto.] 
o)? S' 6t otto? <yd\a XevKov eirecyofjievo^i avveirri^ev 
uypov euv, fxdXa S' w/ca TreptrpecjieTaL kvkooovtl, 
609 cipa KapTraXifico^ IrjcraTO dovpov ' Api]a. 
Tov 8' "HyS^; Xoixrev, '^aplevra 8e eifiara ecrae- 
Trap he ^d Kpovicovo Kude^ero KvSei yaiwv. 

al 8' avrL<; irpb^ Bcofia Ato? /jueydXaco veovro, 
"Hp?; T ^Xpyelrj koI 'AX.aX/co/xet'T;/? AOrjvr], 
Travaaaat ^poroXooybv 'Apr] dyhpoKracndcav. 

899. ciNCoreiN ACTU : ONcorei fi : crNurcN D : oNcoreN and ciNobrei Eust. 
900. qxapjuQK' ^nacccN T. 1| ndcccoN GJMNO<jiRSU- Hail, a- (ndcccN Hail. a\) Vr. 
A. II ta/v-tDs <pdpJu.aKa ndcccN Ar., which shows that he did not read 901. 901 

om. C'DP''Tt' (added in marg. by Rhosos) Lips. Vr. A, Mosc. 1, Harl. a*, iv dWuii 
6 (ttLxos ovx eijp-nTat. A. || Kard eNHxdN T'" Vr. b : Kard eNHTOuc Vr. a. 902. 

XcuKdc Mosc. 2. li eneirojucNON DGS (T supr., man. rcc. ''.) ]\Io,sc. 1 2. 903. nepi- 
Tpe^erai Herod. (Par. d supr.) Ap. Le.v. Eust. : n€picTpe9eTai 12. 905. X^'P'- 

€NTd Te HPQRS Vr. a. 906 ad. Ar. (Zen.?). |i 5ii : zhnJ R. 907-9 om. Lips. 
909. naucaca {sic) Q: naucaceai P j\Iosc. 1, Schol. T. ; apH Cant. : apH A (n 
add. man. rec, T.W.A.) : apHa S: apwN ft. 

S 279, Hesiod Theoij. 720. The form 
eveprepos for the later veprepos (cf. 'ivepde 
by vepde) occurs only here and 22.'), 
and in Aisch. Clio. 286. 

901 is evidently interpolated here 
from 402 ; several of the which 
contain it nevertheless read irdaaev in 
900 with a (|uit9 intolerable asyndeton. 

902. onoc, fig -juice used to curdle 
milk for cheese, the Jdc ficulneum of the 
Romans (Heyne f[uotes Columella K. R. 
vii. 8. 1, Varro ii. 11. 4, Pliny xvi. 38). 
The juice of 'lady's bedstraw' {Galium 
verum) was used for the same purpose 
in Cheshire and other parts of England 
at the beginning of this century {JVotca 
and Queries, Sept. 21, 1889), but is 
now superseded by calf's rennet, which 
was also employed by the Greeks 
{TTveria, rdpLLaos). eneirojuieNOC might 
quite well be taken as a passive, being 
stirred ; but the common Homeric use 
of the participle is rather in favour of 
taking it as a mid. , makes haste to curdle 
(ef. Z 388 iireL'yofj.ivri dcpiKaveL. ^ 119, 
X 339) ; the point of the simile lies in the 
speed of the process, so that the 
of the same idea in /xciX' &Ka in the next 
line is excusable. 

903. nepiTpecpexai, curdles, M.sw. irepi- 
aTp€<p€Tai, which is obviously inferior, 
cf. t 477 aaKeeaac wepiTpe^ieTo KpijaraWos, 
where also several mss. give wepLffTpicpeTo, 
though it is meaningless. So t 246 iifji.Lav 
fiev dpeipas XevKoio ydXaKTOS. The idea 
evidently is that Paieon miraculously 
turned the flowing blood to sound and 
solid flesh. 

905. On this line Ar. remarked on 
irapdemKov to Xoveiv (it is always the 
maidens who give the bath) • ovk olSec 
dpa v<p' 'HpaK\€ovs aiV-Jji/ yeya/uLTjpLevTji', 
cI)S €v Tols TjOeTri/jLevoLS iv 'Oovaaeiai (viz. 
X 603) ; a characteristic specimen of the 
great critic's acumen, though the argu- 
ment is not in itself convincing to a 

906. This line was marked by Ar. 
with ' asterisk and obelos,' the former 
implying that it occurs elsewhere (viz. 
A 405, where see note), the latter that 
it is wrongly inserted here. The reason 
for the latter decision is that Ku9eY raicoN 
is out of place on an occasion wliere 
Ares has so little to be proud of. 

909. The vulg. "Aprjv is not a Homeric 
form. See on ^ 112, and cf. 757 


It has been pointed out in tlie Introduction to E that the two books are 
so closely connected that they must be treated on as one. Z 1 is only 
intelligible in immediate connexion with what precedes, and in fact forms 
the conclusion of the sentence in E 907-9. It is likely, indeed, that the 
name Aio/^r^Sovs apto-reia as used by Herodotos only extended as far as 311, 
where the repeated ws clearly indicates that a break was made in recitation. 
But this can have been only for convenience ; the subsequent narrative is 
no less closely connected with the whole position as described in E. 

After a series of single combats, " battle-vignettes " as they have been 
called (1-72), we come to the scene on which the subsequent action turns, 
the sending of Hector to Troy by Helenos. The ancient critics took 
objection to the employment on this errand of the chief Trojan warrior in 
the crisis of the battle ; but, of course, the subsequent narrative is more 
than abundant justification for this trifling violation of probability. The 
pause while Hector is going home is skilfully filled up by the scene between 
Glaukos and Dloraedes ; with the excejjtion of one point, to which we shall 
return, all that follows is so perfect in narration as well as in conception as 
to call for no criticism ; admiration is enough. But the colloquy between 
Glaukos and Diomedes has, of old time, been a source of much questioning. 
Like the duel of Sarpedon and Tlepolemos in the last book, it is not again 
alluded to in the Iliad ; it is an entirely indejieudent episode, which can be 
omitted without leaving a perceptible gap. We have, in fact, a remarkable 
scholion of Aristonikos, (r] SlttXtj) on /JLeTarLdeacri rive? dXXa)^6(Te ravT'qv 
TTjv (TvcrTaa-iv. Unfortunately we are not told who these critics were, nor 
to what place or on what grounds they trans230sed the colloquy. It is 
highly probable that we have merely the record of an opinion that it ought 
to come before the words of Athene in E 124-32, and the subsequent 
victories of Diomedes over the gods ; for with those words and acts the 
words of Diomedes in Z 123-43 are in crying contradiction — a contradiction 
perhaps the most patent in the Iliad, and one which can in no way be 
]mlliated. It is, indeed, highly pi'obable that the scene stood in the original 
Dioniedeia before that had been enlarged by the intervention of the gods ; 
but that any authentic tradition of a rearrangement existed in the days of 
Aristarchos is to the last degree improbable. In any case, the opening 
speech of Diomedes seems to have been enlarged by the addition of 130-40, 
betrayed by the repetition of 129 in 141. The opportunity for improving 

lAIAAOC Z (vi) 257 

the occasion was too good to be lost by some pious revivalist ; the Bacchic 
worship was unknown to the Achaian heroes. It must be noted that the 
famous line 146 is (quoted by Simouides — whether of Keos or of Amorgos 
we do not know for certain. If, as Bergk thinks, it is the latter, it is by far 
the oldest extant quotation from Homer. The line is there attributed to a 
Xtos dvijp. 

The remaining point to which it is necessary to call attention is the 
conversation between Hector and Paris in 326-41. We have not heard of 
Paris since the duel, at the end of T. He was there left in his chamber, 
and there again he is found ; so far all tits. But it is strange that Hector 
makes no allusion to the duel. Instead of treating Paris as a beaten man, 
Hector speaks to him about the indignation he is supposed to feel against the 
Trojans ; to which Paris replies that he is holding aloof more in sorrow than 
in anger. The deictic rovSe which Hector applies to the supposed anger 
seems clearly to imply some definite and immediately present cause for it ; 
but such there certainly is not as the Iliad now stands. But, as Erhardt has 
pointed out, w^e shall in the next book come upon such a cause, the proposal 
entertained in the Trojan assembly to give up Helen and her treasure to the 
Greeks. That scene (H 345-78) is now in a passage which shews every 
sign of lateness and patch-work ; it is hard to believe that the proposal to 
surrender Helen did not once stand in some place before this book, and that 
Paris is not alluding to such an event. This, of course, is mere conjecture ; 
but some such explanation is certainly needed. 



EKTopoc KQi 'ANdpojuidxHC ojuiXia. 

Tpcocov 8' ol(o07] KOL ^ K'^aLOiv (f)v\o7ri^ aivrj' 
TToWa 8' ap' €vda koI evd^ tdvcre iJio-X"! '^'ehioio, 
aWrfkwv Wvvo/uievcov '^aXKr/pea Sovpa, 
ixe(jcr7}'yv<i %c/ji6evT0<i ISe 'B^avOoto podcov. 

2. h' ap': rdp H. ll ^Nea Ye. DJMNOS. 3. ieuwdNTcoN S. 
noTQuoTo CKoudNSpou kqJ CTOJuiaXijuiNHC Ar. (see note infra). 

4. ueccHruc 

1. oicbeH, tvas left to itself by the 
departure of the gods, after the events 
of the last book. Cf. A 401. 

2. Note the suspicious trochaic caesura 
in the 4th foot. ne3bio, along the ■plain, 
as usual ; not a partitive gen. after 'ivda.. 
ieueiN is the regular word for 'charging,' 
A 507, A 552, etc., the parallel form 
iOvfeLv being used for the transitive. 
Tlie mid. lOvveadai recurs only e270, x 8. 
ieuNoueNOJN is gen. abs., the subject 
being easily supplied from the first line ; 
dXXiH[\coN is doubtless the gen. usual after 
verbs of aiming {E.G. § 151 c), and is 
not in agreement with the participle. 
Cf. N 499. 

4. The reading of this line is one of 
the most puzzling problems in Homeric 
textual criticism. The Mss., as will be 
seen, are unanimous for ueccHruc 
Ciu6eNToc Xbk EdNeoio ^o<4con. But 
Aristonikos says (t; SittXt?) otl iv rols 
dpxo-iois iy^ypaiTTO iJL€(ra7]yvs Trora/xoio 
S/cttjadj'Spou Kal (rTO/j.a\Lfj.vris- Slo 
Kal iv Tois VTTO/J.vrifj.aai (piperat.. iiarepov 
di TreptTreo-cbc ^ypa\pe (sc. 6 ' Apicrrapxcs) 
/jLecrcTTjyvs 'ZifioevTOS ISe 'SdvOoio 
poduv. Tols yap Trepi rod vavarddfxov 
tSttols 7} ypacpy] avficpepei, rrpos oi)s fJ,d- 
XovraL ('sc. hi versus ilia lectione 
retenta ' Lehrs). Further, Schol. T says 
TTporepov ey4y paiTTO fxeaffrjyvs irora- 
fMOio '^Kafjidvdpov Kal (XTOfxaXifJ.v'rjs- 
varepov de 'Apiarapxos ravrriv ttjv \i^LV 

(sc. the present vulgate) evpwv i-jriKpivev. 
Xatpts 5e ypd^ei. ixeacrriyvs TroTa/^oTo 
liKa^j.dvbpov Kal ^ifioevros. I.e. Ar. 
at first preferred the reading /jl. ttot. 2 k. 
/cat ffTOfiaXi/jLvris, and adopted it in his 
' notes, ' but afterwards changed his mind 
and introduced the text, presumably, 
into the second or both of his editions ; 
the ground for the change being that 
the vulg. better agreed with his view of 
the topography of the Greek camp, on 
which, as we know, he wrote a special 
dissertation. Now the consensus of our 
MSS. makes it practically certain that 
their reading was also that of Ar.'s 
vulgate. What then is the meaning of 
iv rols dpxalois 1 The phrase does not 
recur in the existing scholia of Did. or 
An. We find indeed ivtoi rQ>v dpxalcov 
^oted by An. as an authority on S 214. 
But the preposition ^v (not Trapd) forbids 
us to take the adj. as masc. here ; the 
only substantive we can supply is 
dvTiypdfpots. But then we are landed 
in the absurdity of supposing that Ar. 
was in possession of a whole class of mss. 
which could be described as ' ancient ' 
in comparison with his ordinary vulgate ; 
and yet that he paid so little attention 
to them that they are never again 
named. (The alternative supposition, 
that the 'ancient mss.' were in fact the 
vulgate, and that Ar. by his own 
authority succeeded in introducing a 


lAIAAOC Z (vi) 259 

At'a? 8e Trpayro^ Te\a/u,(ovco<;, €pKO<i A'^ulmv, 5 

Tpcooov pr]^e (paXayya, ^oco? 8' erdpoiaLV edi]Kev, 
avSpa jBaXoiv o? dpLaro^ ivl ^prjcKeacn rervKTO, 
vlov ^KvacTcopov A/cayu-ayr' '^vv re fxeyav re. 
Tov p e^ake Trpayro^ KopvOo^ (fxiXov 'iTnrohaaeLrj^, 
iv he fxeTooTTcoi Trrj^e, Treprjae 8 dp oariov etcrw 10 

alXI^V %«.A,«:et7;' tov he ctkoto^ oaae KaXv^^ev. 

"A^vXov 8 dp' €7re(f)ve ^07]v dyaOo'i Aioyu.?;^?;? 
TevdpainSrjv, o? evaiev evKTLfievi]L ev 'Apicr^ijL 
d(f)V€i6<i /ScoToto, <pi\o^ S' rjv dvOpcoTroiaf 

7rdvTa<; yap (piXeeaKev ohwi eirt olKia vaiwv. 15 

iiKXd 01 ov Tt? T(Ji)V ye tot ijpKecre \vypov oXedpov 
irpocrOev v7ravTidcra<i, aXX dfj,(p(i) dv^iov dirijvpa, 
avTov KoX OepdirovTa YiaXrjcrLOV, o? pa to6 ittttcov 
ecTKev vcfiTjviO'^o'i' too 8' dfj,(f)Oi yatav ehvTrjv. 

6. 960c P. 7. BaXcoN : XaBooN H. 9. ph 6<iXc G. 12. cizuXoN 

Vr. 1 (a ?). 15. rap : 3^ J. ii eni : cni HN. 16. toon re : ton re A. 

17. anHupcN G e corr. 19. U9HNioxoc [GH^NO^SJT : O9' hnioxoc i2. || to &': 
Tcb H : Tcor' G. 

new reading into the vulgate after his 
time, is so absolutely opposed to the 
general evidence of the documents that 
it need not be seriously considered.) 
Hence various attempts have been made 
to emend the words iv rois apxo-i-oLS : 
e.g. ev rols 'Aptcrrapx^'o" Lehrs, if rijL 
irpoTepai tQv ' Apiarapxdwv Sengebusch. 
But a much less drastic change will do 
all that is needed. I have little doubt 
that the correct reading is ev rats 
apxaiais, so. eK86ae<nv. The ' early 
editions ' are in fact mentioned in this 
way by Did. on I 657, (X-n-eicravTes- iv 
TTJi ere pat, tQv ' ApLardpxov Xeixpavres, 
Kal iv TToWais tQiv dpxaiwc. Whether 
or no these editions included those of 
Zen. and Aph. we naturally cannot say ; 
but it is clear that there was an authority 
in favour of the variant, which Aris- 
tarchos so highly regarded that for a 
time he preferred the variant to the 
vulgate, just as he did in I 657. And 
we, who are not troubled with his doubts 
as to the naval camp, may well agree 
with him as to the intrinsic superiority 
of the reading which names the 
(TTOfjLaXi/jLvr]. This ' estuary ' is not again 
mentioned, but modern evidence shews 
that such an estuary must have existed 
at the mouth of the Dumbrek Su 

(Schliemann Ilios p. 84) ; it is extremely 
unlikely to have been invented, but the 
unfamiliar word ran eveiy risk of being 
supplanted by the more familiar Simoeis, 
though we have had reason to suppose 
that this river was not recognized in the 
oldest form of the Trojan tradition (see 
on E 774). The word aTOfMa\ifj.vt] is used 
by Strabo (xiii. 595) of this particular 
estuary, and more generally of the delta 
of the Rhone. Theokritos has the form 
(XToixaXiiJivov . But the regular late Epic 
form (Ap. Rliod., Nonnus, Colutiius) is 
(TTdfia \ifxv7js : see Piatt in J. P. xix. 38. 

6. 96COC, help, as 9 282, A 797, II 95. 

7. For this Akamas see B 844. 
9. 96X0N : see App. B. 

14. BioToio : cf. E 544. 

15. 9iXeecKeN, used to entertain; cf. V 
207, and 74 XPV k^^vov -irapeovra (pi\e7v. 

17. npocecN unaNTidcac, standing be- 
fore him to meet his enemy. 

19. u9HNioxoc, a word not found else- 
where, is sufticiently defended by the 
analogy of 5 386 vTro8/j.u}s, 330 inrodpr]- 
crrrip ; and it avoids the awkwardness of 
the detached vw6 in the vulg. u^' rjvioxos, 
for which S 519 Xaot 5' vii oXl^oves ^aav 
is but a partial support. raTaN 69uthn, 
the realm of the dead being underground. 
Cf. 411, w 106. Schol. B explains it 

260 lAIAAOC Z (vi) 

^prjaov 8' Fivpva\o<i koL ^OcfyeXrcov i^evdpt^e' 20 

y8?7 Se fier AHarjirov koI IlrjSaaov, ou? Trore vvfx^rj 
vifc<i ^A/Sap^aper) t€K ajxvfiovL ^ovKoXlayvt, 
3ovKo\la)v 8' rjv vio<; dyavov AaofieSovTOf; 
7rp€(T^vraT0<; >yeve7]c, aKoriov 8e e yelvaro /iirjTTjp' 
TTOi/J^aivwv 8' eV oecrcrc [Jblyrj (f)L\,0T7]TL koI ivvrjL, 25 

17 8' viroKvcrafievrj BoSvfxdove yeivaro iralhe. 
Kol p,hv TOiv vrreXvae /iei^o<? koI (paiSifia yuta 
yLr)KLarT]'CdS7]<i koI air wixcov Tev'^e ecrvXa. 
^AcrrvaXov S' dp e7re(f>v€ fM€V€7rro\efio<; TIoXvTroiTrj'i' 
HiSvTrjv 8 '08i;crei'9 IlepKcoatov i^evdpi^ev 30 

eyyel '^dXKeicoi, TeO/cpo? 8' ^Aperdova hlov. 
'Ai^TtXo^o? h " A^Xripov ivTjpaTO Sovpl (fjaecvwt 
NecTTopiSTy?, "EXaToy 8e dva^ dvSpcov ^Aya/ji,e/u,va>v 
vale 8e XarvLoevTO'i evppelrao irap' 6^da<i 

U7]Sa(Tov alireLVTjv. ^liXaKov S' eXe Ar;i,'T09 ^pw? 35 

<f)€vyovT ' ¥ivpv7rv\o<; Se M.€\dv0Lov i^evdpi^ev. 

20. 3pHc6N t' H. 21. ol 6i dWoi IcrTopiKol (ot irepi 'Aplarapxov B) t6v 

nwdacON, THpexoN (nnpexoN B) KaXova-i Schol. T. 22. BapBap^H N. 27. xxkN Mosc. 1 (U supr.). || ^n^Xuce Mosc. 1. 30. nHauTHN JO Bar. 

Vr. a™: THaiirHN Vr. a*. || nepKdcioN Lips. 31. ^rxei : reuxeV J. || Hp irdoNa 
T (s?ipr. Six^is ^it ^T<4oNa) U Lips. Vr. h^ and a^. SchoL A, Eiist. 32. aDAwpoN 

JM : aOxXHpoN N : SBAHXpON QU. 34. NoTe bk : 6c NaTe (wde ?) Zen. (cf, 

N 172). II caTpidcNTOc P : nv^s ca9Ni6eNToc Strabo xiii. 606. || bxeaic Strabo ibid. 
35. 90\aKON : cxe5(oN Herod. 

6ti yfjv Ta<t>ivTe% evedvaavro, which is 24. ck6tion, by a secret amour = 11 

obviously inappropriate, as there is no 180 Trapd&ios. Cf. Aen. ix. MQfurtim. 

burying in question at all. The schol. compare Eur. Ale. 989 (?) 

21. AYcHnoc and nwdacoc are both (tkotloi. naldes deCov, and Phoen. 345 eyoj 
local place-names, see 35 below and B 5' ovre <tol Trvpos avrjxj/a (pm vdfXLfiov iv 
825, etc. Here they are evidently to he ydfiois. Ju.irH, so. Bukolion. 
regarded as personal eponyms of the 34. Naied^: Zen. 5s ^'ate, ace. to An., 
river and town, as their semi -divine who accuses the reading of 'cacophony.' 
parentage shews, in spite of the obvious On N 172 the same dilierence is noted, 
anachronism thus introduced into 35. and the charge becomes one of false 

22. NH'fc, lucicui : here and S 444, T quantity ; but the text of the schol. 
384, all in A. Minor, like the 1^11701:7 gives vde. Now vdu from root nas, to 
Xlixvri as mother in B 865, q.v. In v 104, dwell, would be just as possible by the 
356 the form is v-qXaSes. For nymphs side of vaiio, as is vdui to flow (for <Tt>dF-w) 
in general see T 8-9. The name by the side of paiu, l 222, in the same 
'ABapBap^H looks as though it might sense ; cf also 54pu by delpw. It is 
be conn, with (36p^opos, mud, and mean therefore possible that Zen. may have 
pellucid. found an old reading 3s vaie, representing 

23. It appears that Bukolion was an original 6s vdt, and defended it on the 
Priam's elder brother, though the name analogy of ^/iTratos, oTos (w^), etc. 

is not known in the genealogy of T 236. 35. For this riHdacoc in the Troad 

But all the names in this passage are cf. $ 87, T 92. Strabo calls it a 

merely invented for the nonce, and are city of the Leleges opposite Lesbos, 

not to be taken as containing tradition. and another legend identifies it with 

lAIAAOC Z (vi) 


' A8p7](TTOv 8 ap eireira ^orjv dyado^ MeveXao? 
^(oov eX"' iTTTTCt) yap ol aTV^ofievco irehioio, 
6^(i)L eve ^\a(f>devTe /jbvpiKivcoi, dyKvXov ap/xa 
ct^avT iv irpoiTWi pvfiMi, avro) fjuev efSrjrr^v 40 

irpo'i ttoKlv, ^t trep ol aWoi drv^o/jievot (po^eovro, 
avTo^ S' eK 8[<f)poto irapa rpo'^ov e^eKvXiaOr] 
7rp7)VT)<; ev Kovlrjcaiv eVi arofxa. Trap 8e ol eanj 
ATpei8rj<i Mez/eXao? e'^oiv 8o\i^ocrKtov cy^o^' 
"A8p7jaTO^ 8' dp' eireira Xa/3(bv iWlcrcrero yovvmv 45 

" ^wypei, 'Arpeo? vie, crv 8' d^ta 8e^ai dirotva. 
TToWa 8 iv d(f)veiov 7rarpo<i KeL/xrjXta Kelrai, 
'^a\KO'? re '^pvaa t€ 7ro\vKp,7)To<i re (Ti87]po<i- 
roiv K6V Toi '^apiaaiTO irarrjp aTrepeiai diroiva, 
e'i K€v ifxe ^coov ireirvOocr iirl vrjvalv 'A^atwi/." 50 

CO? (paro, TOiL 8 dpa Ovfiov ivl ar^Oecrcnv eireiOe. 
Kol 8t] fiLv Td')(^ e/uLeWe 6od<i eirl V7]a<i 'A'^aicov 
8(oaeLV wi OepdirovTL Kara^e^ev dX)C ' Ay a fxefjivwv 
avriof; rjXOe Oewv, Kal oyLio/cX^^cra? e7ro9 rjv8a' 

37. ineira : gne9Ne U. 39. oirKijXoN : KaunuXoN Q Vr. h {'e glossa'). 

40. a' Vr. b. 41. oYncp N Yr. a. 42. eseKuXiceHN H. 46. inpioac 
NQ. 47. keTntqi G. 49. tw 0^. [| K€N : Koi DJN. 50. aY ken Lips. (?): 

^c KEN J. 51. c'neiee : opiNe(N) (A sitpr.) C {yp. gneiee) GPT Mosc. 2, yp. 

Harl. a, 54. QNTioc Ar. fi : ^ntJon Zen. Q Vr. a b, King's, Par. a^ d f j. 

Adramyttium. More recently it has 
been identified with Assos. It is not 
recorded in the Catalogue. A town of 
the same name in Messene is mentioned 
in I 152, and there was a IlTjSaa-a near 

38. dxuzoiJi^Nco nedioio as S 7. 

39. BXaipe^NTE, entangled, cf. H 271, 
n 331, ^ 571. drKviXoN, like Ka/xTriiXov 
E 231, is only once used of the chariot. 
It doubtless indicates the curved form 
of the front. 

40. iu npcoTcoi ^uucoi probably means 
the end of the pole where the yoke was 
fastened, also called d'^cpos E 729 ; cf. 
n 371, 12 272. 

45. &' Qp' : 5^ f ' conj. Brandreth. 
rouNCON with \a^u)v, as A 407. 

46-50 = A 131-5, and cf. K 378-81. 

46. zcbrpei, take me alive. In E 698 
the meaning is quite different. The last 
syllable remains long because of the 
pause at the end of the first foot. 
Brandr. conj. t^ypei /x. The form 
d^sai is doubtful ; 5e|e'(at) van L. 

47. ^N narpdc, sc. Swyuari Z 378, fi 309. 

482, etc. The rather awkward dfNCioO 
norpdc indicates that the passage is 
borrowed from A 132 and not vice versa : 
' AvTi/j.dxoi.o 86fxoi.s there is natural. 

48. noXiiKJUiHToc, implements wrought 
with much labour. The working of 
iron was of course a difficult matter in 
early days, especially as by primitive 
methods of smelting it would be obtained 
not in the pure malleable condition, but 
combined with a certain amount of 
carbon, making it more like cast-iron, 
hard and brittle. 

51. enciee, endeavoured to persuade 
(observe the different sense of the aor. 
in 61). The variant 6piv€ is less 
appropriate ; for, as La R. points out, 
the appeal is not to Menelaos' emotions, 
but to his reason. The line recurs 
several times, always with 6pLve (B 142. 
r 395, A 208, A 804, N 468, p 150). 
See, however, X 78. 

53. Kaxas^ueN is of course aor., not 
fut. ; see V 120. 

54. dNxioc : so Ar. ; Zen. avrlov. In 
other passages Ar. seems to have pre- 

262 lAIAAOC Z (vi) 

" ft) ■jreirov, <w Mei^eXae, ri rj he crv Krjheai ovTw<i 55 

dvBpoov ; rj aol aptcrra TreiroiriTaL Kara olkov 

TTpb'i Tpcooov ; T(ov jjbrj ti<; vTreKcfyvyot aiTrvv okeopov 

^etpa? ^' rj/jberipa'i, fjLr)S' 6v riva yaa-repi MT'qp 

Kovpov iovra (pepoi, /xtjS' 09 (pvyoi, dW cifia iravTe<i 

'lA-toy i^aTToXolar dKijSeaTOi koI CKpavroL. 60 

fo)9 eliTOiv erpe-^ev ciSeXcfjeiov (f)peva'; r)pci3<;, 
alcnpba TrapecTrcov 8 drrro edev wcraTo %et/3t 
rip(d "ASprjarov. rov Be Kpeicov ^Aya/xefivwv 
ovra Kara XaTrdprjv 6 8' dverpaTrer , 'Arpei87]<; he 
\a^ ev (TTrjdeai /3a9 e^eairaae /jueiXivov e<y'^o<;. 65 

NecrT(i)p 8' ^Apyetoiaiv eKeKXero fxaKpov dv(Ta<i' 
" Si (piXoc r]p(oe<i Aavaoi, depdirovre'^ ' Ap7]o<i, 
fjbrj TL^ vvv evdpcov eiri^aWofMevo'; fieroTnade 
fiL/jLvero), W9 Ke nfKelara (f>epa)v eirl vrja<i iKrjrac, 
aXA,' dvhpa^ KrelvcofMev eTretra 8e koI rd cKrfkoi 70 

veKpov^ dfM "jreSlov avXijaere redvrjMra^. 

55. Ki4&eo Q {supr. ai). || OUTCOC : auxooc J Eust. 56. ncnofHNTai PT 

(nenoieaxai Zen. ? see Eust. 624. 20). 57. 6neK9urH S : On' 'iK<fvre Vr. a. 59. 
9epei NQ (A supr. T.W.A. and nvh Schol. A). || 9urHi Vr. a^. 61. erpeipcN : 

nap^neiccN AHJNOR Vr. a, yp. U (yp. 2Tpeij»eN AO). 62. aYcia Bekk. Ancc. 

831. 16. II 6naJ S Vr. A, Harl. d, and nvh Eust. 63. Hpcoc P. 64. dua- 

Tpdner* P : ANeTp^ner' U. 65. dn^cnace Vr. b. 69. Ke : kqi D : Qn 

supr. 71. NCKpovic ^' S. || rpcbcoN ajune9ioN cuXhcougn ^Nxea NCKpouc Zen. || 

TeeNH(l)cbTac Ar. A[HL]Q,T (0 supr.) : TeGNeicoxac fi. 

ferred the adverbial, Zen. the adjectival Agamemnon's fury makes him quite 

form. There is little or no ground of unreasoning. 

choice (La R. R. T. p. 193). 62. aYcuia : there are very few cases 

57. The note of interrogation after in the poems of a moral judgment of the 

TpcocoN is shewn to be Aristarchean by poet upon the acts of his characters, 

the remark of Herodian that the ^ is Against the present one we may set the 

5ia7ro/)7;Tt/c6s, interrogative. On the KaKo. (ppeffi fxT^Sero 'epya of the human 

whole it is more Homeric to have two sacrifice in ^ 176. aiaifxa does not in 

consecutive questions in a case like this fact imply an absolute moral standard 

than a question followed by an indignant (cf. on 162), beyond what is implied in 

exclamation : S 265, 245, ir 424, p due retribution (cf. on alaa A 418) for 

376 (Hentze). Qpicra is not an adv. but misdeeds. 

subject to ireiro'i-qTaL, for the impersonal 68. eniBaXXducNoc, throwing himself 

iroLeiTal tlvi KaKuis is not Homeric. v/pon the spoil, half in a physical, half 

59. 9epoi : opt. by attraction, as usual in a metaphorical sense. For the gen. 

in sentences expressing a wish. The Ameis compares x 310 'OSvcrijos iireaav- 

use of KoOpoc to signify , habe is quite jxevos. The word occurs in later Greek, 

unique ; it elsewhere connotes rather a e.g. Aristot. Pol. i. 9. 16 tov ed ^ijv em^., 

man in the prime of life. Dod. thinks with the purely mental sense ' desire 

it means 'of noble blood,' but this eagerly'; like A 173 iiria-crvTai. Cf. 

weakens the sentiment quite intolerably. the use of i<pkfiaL, desire. 

If, as we should suppose, it means ^male 71. cuXticerc, a potential or rather 

child,' we must regard the opt. as ex- permissive (J/, and T. § 69) fut. with 

pressing a hope, not a command ; unless double ace. (t<S, sc. ivapa). 

lAIAAOC Z (vi) 263 

a)<; ecTTcov oyrpvve /u,€PO<; koI du/xov eKciarov. 
kv9d Kev avre Tpwe? aprj'i^iXcav vir 'A^atwf 
"Wlov elcravef^rjcrav avaXKeirjicri Sa/xevre^, 

el fir] ap^ Alvecai re koL "EtKTopi elire irapacna^ 75 

Tlpia/xiS7]<; E\ez^09, occovottoXwv 6'^' apicrro^' 
" Alveca re Kal ' EiKTop, e-rrel 7rovo<i v/i/nc fxaXLara 
Tpcowv Kal AvKLCov €<yK€K\iraL, ovveK dpcaToc 
Trdaav eir Wvv ecrre fid^eadal re (ppoveeiv re, 
arrjT avrov, koI \aov epvKdKere irpo TrvXdcov 80 

TrdvTTjL eTTOf^o/jievoL, nrplv avr ev %epcrl yvvacKcbv 
(f)€V'yovTa<i Treaeeiv, S^jioiai Se -^dpfxa <^evkcrdai. 
avrdp iirei k€ (f)dXa'y'ya<i eTTorpvvrjTOV dirdaa^, 
I'lfjiel^i ixev Aavaotcrt /xa-^rjaofxed^ av6t fievovre^;, 
Kal fJbdXa reipofievol irep' dvayKalr] yap eirelyeL' 85 

E/cTO^, drdp (TV TToXivSe fierep'^eo, elire 8' eiretTa 
fjbrjTepi a7]i Kal efirji' i) he ^vvdyovcra yepaid<i 
VTjov Adrjpalij'i yXavKd>7ri8o<; ev TToXei UKprjc, 
ot^aaa KX7]'iSi dvpa^ iepolo Sofioio, 
TreTrXov 09 o[ SoKeec '^aptearaTO'; rjSe fji€yiaTO<; 90 

72. oxpuNC TU Lips.i Vr. a. 74. 6Na\KiHCi AJOQR. |1 aaudNxec }\K 76. 
'Afj-fiilivtos ws 'ApLaTapxeLov irpo<p4p€Tai. Kal TavT7]v t7jv ypa(pr]v judNTic t' oicoNonbXoc 
TC. ^pyov 8e rb (ra(p^s elirelv did Si^ws {i-<!- it must be recorded cas a variant) Did. 
82. SHtoici TC DQ. 84. ' juaxeccduee' (sic) et hie nonnulli ' Heyne. 86. aCrriip 
JTU. II uerepxoio U : ueroixeo Vr. a, Eust. 87. de : 9h Mor. Bar. || cuNorouca 
G Mor. Bar. || repapdc P : rLves repapdc Schol. T (rcpaipdc Schol. B). 89. 
K\H°fda Q supr. \\ lepoTo : creppoTo Mosc. 2. 

73. The situation seems to change of the vanquished, who by a bitter 

rather suddenly here ; the words of sarcasm are said to take refuge in their 

Helenos in 96-101 would naturally wives' arms. 

follow some such account of Diomedes' 83. cnei kc with aor. subj. = fict. 

exploits as we have had in E rather than cxachos, as A 191, 4' 10, a 150. 
the detached combats of the last 72 lines, 86. hihp cu : for the order cf. 429, tt 

in which he has appeared only as one 130. 

among many Greek heroes. All these 88. nh6n, sc. to the temple. Of. K 

combats are evidently such as must have 195 oaoL KeKK-qaro ^ov\r)v ; H.G. % 140. 4. 

formed the stock-in-trade of the Epic Schol. T remarks irepLaaol oi 8vo (88-9), 

poet for use wherever needed. They and Brandreth and van L. would reject 

may have been inserted here to form a 89, ou the ground that the contracted 

tiansition from the episode of the o'i^acra for 6t^. is not Homeric, that 

wounding of Ares. 73-4 = P 319-20. kXtjis in H. means bolt, not key, and that 

iin6, as F 61. Schol. B for once shews it is for Theano the priestess, not for 

a touch of humour : Xiav olde to rrjs Hekabe, to open the temple ; cf. 298. 

{i/j.ap/j.^vr]s 6 TTOLTiTr]?. The lines are not repeated by Hector, 

79. ieuN : cf. 5 434 olci. fxd'KuTTa ireiroi- cf. 270. 
dea. Traaav eir' idvv, for every enterprise, 90. 6c all Mss. and Herodian ; most 

lit. 'going.' edd. write 6 after Ben tley on account of 

• 82. nececiN: see note on B 175. Here the F of Fol, and there can be little 

it is clearly used of the tumultuous rout doubt that this is right. 6' must of 


lAlAAOC Z (vi) 

elvai evl fieydpcoi Kai ol ttoXv <f)i,\TaTO<; avrrji 

delvat ^ AdT)vaL'r]<i eVt jovuacriv rjVKo/j,oco, 

Kai ol virocr^eadai hvoKaiheKa /3ov^ evl vrjcot 

rjVL^ r]Kecna<i lepevae/xev, at k eXe^arjt 

aarv re Kai Tpoxov aXoj^ovi Kai vrjina reKva, 

at Kev TySeo? vlov aTrocr'^rjc IXlov lpri<;, 

a<ypiov al-^fj^T^rrjv, Kparepov ^rjaroipa (j)o/3oLO, 

ov St} eyoD KapTiarov ^A'^atwv (f)7]/ju yeveadai. 

ovS' 'A^tXr;a tto^' wSe 7' iSeiSL/juev, op'^afiov avhpwv, 


91. juerdpoici Eust. || Kai 8c L {yp. Kai oi). 
96. ai KCN : o&c KCN Ar. || dn6cxoi Vr. a. 

e3b' T. 

94. dK^crac G. |i ^XcHcei D^. 
99. dbbe r' : coBe Lips. Vr. b : 

course be taken as the masc. of the 
relatival article ; see note on E 338. 
The mention of the peplos carries our 
thoughts to the Panathenaic festival at 
Athens. But the idea of propitiating 
divinities by clothing their images with 
costly robes is not only one of the most 
natural and universal of primitive cults, 
but survives in full force to the present 
day in many parts even of Western 
Europe. (References will be found in 
FrazerPaMS. ii. p. 574.) It was particularly 
appropriate to the goddess who presided 
over feminine handiwork, including 
weaving, cf E 735. It is therefore 
needless to seek for Athenian inspiration 
in the present passage. Compare Pausan. 
iii. 16. 2 ixpaivovcn 5i Kara iros ai yvvalKes 
Tuji. 'AirSWcjivi x'-''''^va twl iv 'AfivKXais, 
and V. 16. 2 oia wiixivrov 5k v<paivovaLV 
^Tovs TTJi ' Hpai ireTrXov a'l eKKaloeKa 
yvvaiKes (in Olympia). 

The appeal to Athene is made not 
because she is a special guardian of 
Troy, but because she is recognized as 
the protector and strength of Diomedes ; 
only through her can his valour be 
abated. The title of ipvff'nvToXis (305) 
is general. In virtue of her warlike 
nature she is the guardian of citadels, 
where her temple stands. 

92. The words k.n\ rouNoci seem to 
imply a seated image ; that is, a rude 
wooden ^oavov such as survived in many 
Greek temples to historic times. Later 
legend connected such an image, the 
Palladium, with the fate of Troy. In 
view of the objection that such Palladia 
were always standing, not sitting, figures, 
Schol. I) after explaining iwL as = irapd, 
which is obviously wrong, quotes the 

authority of Strabo — who says (xiii. 
601) that ancient sitting images of 
Athene were found in Phokaia, Massalia, 
Rome, Chios, and several other places. 
Mr. Ramsay has found such archaic 
sitting figures in Phrygia {J. IT. S. iii. 
43). This is the only allusion to a cult- 
statue in H. Compare P 514 dewv iwl 
yoi!iva(n Keirac. eeiNai : the only instance 
in H. of the infin. for imper. in the 3rd 
person with its subject in the nom. (17 
87) ; as they are so distant from one 
another, it may be questioned if we 
ought not to assume an anacoluthon ; 
i.e. that when the poet began with r) 
he was thinking of continuing with 
derui. Cf. on F 285, H 79. 

94. ftwic according to the old expl. 
from.^fos (es'tai'r6s), ' one year old.' The 
word occurs only in this connexion (cf. 
K 292 = 7 382), so that the meaning can 
only be guessed. The same is the case 
with HK^crac, which recurs only 275, 
309, and is commonly explained U7i- 
touched by the goad, as if a-Kiara^ 
{Kivrew). But there is no excuse of 
necessity for the lengthening of the d, 
nor sufficient parallel for the change to 
17- (see App. D). 

96. For aY kcn Ar. read ws Kev, just as 
in T 83 he read -fjv ttws for fxr) ttojs, where 
it was preceded by another ju?;. As 
Hentze on r 83 points out, he seems to 
have done this in both cases in order to 
bring the second clause into logical 
subordination, sacrificing the vigorous 
but less formal parataxis given by the 
repetition of the particles. 

99. Ahrens, with some MS. support, 
would omit the r' as a needless stop- 

lAIAAOC Z (\ r) 265 

6v Trip (pacTL ^ea? e^efMfievat' uXX" oSe Xirjv 100 

fMaiverai, ovSe rt? ol hvvaTat, fxevo^ Icro^apL^etv. 

(W? €(f)ad\ "EiKTCop 8' ov TC Kaai'yvr]r(oi aTrtdrjaev. 
avTLKa 8' e^ oy^ewv cjvv rev-yeaLv aXro '^afid^e, 
irdWwv 8' o^ea 8ovpa Kara arparov coi^ero TrdvTTji 
orpvvcov fia^ecraaOai, eyeipe Se (pvkoTnv acvtjv. 105 

01 S' eXeXi^drjaav kol evavnot, earav A-^aLcov 
^Apyeloc 8' vTre^Qiprjaav, \f]^av Se (f)ovot,o, 
(f)dv Se Tiv dOavdrcdv e^ ovpavov darepoevTO<^ 
Tpwcrlv d\e^r}(TOVTa KareXOe/xev, o)? eA,eX,t^^et'. 
"^KTcop Se Tpcoeaaiv e'/ce/cA-ero fiaKpov dvaa<i- 110 

" Tpcoe? virepdvfiot rrfKeKXenol r irrlKovpoi, 
dvepe<; ecrre, (^IXoi, iMvrjcraade 8e dovpi8o<i dXKrj'i, 
o^pd K i<yo) ySeto) nrpoTl ^'Wlov rj8e yepovaiv 
eliro) /3ov\€VTr]iai kol rjfxereprjL^; dXo'^oiat 
8at/jioatv dpi^aacrOai, vTroa'^eaBat 8 €KaTOfx^a<i. 115 

fo)9 dpa (^(ji)vriaa<i dTre/Sr} Kopv0a[o\o^ ' l^KTOip • 
dfi(f)l 8e jXiv <T(f)vpd TVTrre kuI av'^eva 8epfia KeXaivov, 
dpTV^ 7] Trv/jbdrr] Oeev da7rL8o<i 6fi(})aXo€acn]<;. 

102. cic 9dTO P. 104. ndXXcoN : noXXcoN (,). 105. jmax^ccceai Par. g h : 
juax^eceai Eust. 106. ^NONTioN HJPR. 107. unoxobpHcaN S. 109. dXesii- 
CQNTa TU. II JuereXe^jueN L. 111. thXckXhtoi GJNOS {stq)r. ei) Lips. Vr. c, 

Mosc. 1 3. II TpdiEC Kai Xukioi kqi adpaoNoi arxiuaxHxai HPU. 112. iiNHcecee 
Vr. a. II ciN^pec 'icre eooi Kai dJuuNexoN ficxeT XcjBhn Zen. 113. 69pa K 

and 89P* 8n Ar. dixies : 8<ppa Vr. a : '6<pp' Sn fi. || noxi PQS. 

101. For oiibi xfc oi and ico9ap{zeiN 

most edd. now read oS rts ol and dfrt- 
(pepii-fLV (cf. 'J' 357, 411, 488) after 
Bentley on account of the double neglect 
of the digamma. It must, however, be 
confessed that tlie former change at all 
events is not satisfactory {ovde rts 5.p 

104. See note on E 495. 

109. cbc eXeXixecN avrl rod ovrus 
eXeXix^^ev Nikanor ; ' (is for 6tl ovtus ' 
as it is usually expressed. The con- 
struction is the same in ni7(i/^. G. p. 239). 
eXeXixsEN and eXeXixeHcaN above should, 
as elsewhere, be ef eX : see on A 530. 

112. Zen. read this line dvipes ^crre 
dool Kai dfjLvveTov darei XdipTjv. It certainly 
seems more probable that this should 
have been altered into the regular formula 
than vice versa. Of course for dfivverov 
we must read dfivvere. This will have 
been changed, in order to avoid the 
apparent hiatus, by those who believed 

that the dual could be used for the 
plui'al. For 606s used in this way cf. 
n 422. 

114. The word BouXeuxHC does not 
recur in Homer, but the jSovXrj was an 
integral part of the heroic polity. The 
members of it are usually called yipovres 
(see on B 53, A 259), and in the case of 
the Trojans dij/xoyepouTes, T 149, cf. X 
119. They are, however, not mentioned 
in the sequel. 

117. For the construction of the 
Homeric shield see App. B. The hides 
of which the body was formed were 
turned up at the outer edge of the 
shield to form a rim, and so prevent any 
friction against the edge of the metal 
facing. This rim is the cLvtv^. Hector 
walks with his shield hanging — probably 
at his back — by the reXa/xJov. 6xx<fi, on 
both sides, i.e. above and below (rather 
than ' both ancles ' ; see, however, 
If. G. § 181). nujudxH does not imply, 


lAIAAOC Z (vi) 


T\avKO<i 8' 'iTTTToXop^oio TTai? Koi TuSe'o? y<09 
e? fieaov d/jL<porep(ov avvinqv fiefiawre /xd^ea-Oai. 
ol 8' ore Sr) a-^eSov r^crav eV dWrfKoLcnv iovre^, 
Tov 7rp6Tepo<i irpoaeeiire ^oip dya6o<i AtofiTjSrj'i- 
" Tt9 8e (TV icrcn, (j)ept<Tr€, KaTaOvrjrwv dvOpcoircov ; 
ov fiev yap ttot' oirwTTa fJici'XTjt evi KvBiaveiprjt 
TO irpiv drap fjuev vvv ye ttoXv Trpo^e/SrjKa^ dirdvTtiiV 125 
awL 6dpaet, 6 t efiov SoXcxoctkiov ey^o^ efiecva^. 
hvcnrjvoiv he re iralSe'i epbOii jieveu dvTiowcnv. 
el Se T49 dBavdrwv ye kut ovpavov eiXtjXovOa^;, 
ovK av iyco ye deolaiv e-rrovpavloiai fMwx^oL/xrjv. 
ovSe yap ovSe ApvavTO<; vio<; Kparepb'i AvKoepyo'i 
Srjv rjv, 09 pa deolcnv eTTOvpavioicnv epc^ev, 
09 TTore fiaivo/ievoLo Akovvctolo ridrjva'i 


120. 6ju90Tcpco A (au90T^pcoN A™, T.W.A.)- il hunIthn J. 121. i6NTe Ar. 

Zen. Aph. ; cf. on E 630. 125. nun xxiu Vr. b. || re om. GL. || noXXoN P. 

126. o T kxxhn : Sxe u^n Vr. a. 128. re : ae H {supr. re). H ohpauhu Ar. 

G Par. d. 130. XuK6eproc JNQR {supr. oO) Vr. b : XuKoOproc P : XuKooproc 
fi. 132. aioNucoio NPQR (Tmi?r.): aioNuccoio LM : aioNiicio D. 

as some have thought, that there was 
more than one 6.vtv^, any more than 
■rrpu)Tos pvfios (40) implies more than one 

120. au90TepcoN, the two armies. But 
the variant dfj-tporepoj is perhaps better. 

129. For the inconsistency between 
this line and E see Introd. 

130. Tliere can be little doubt that 
the following passage, like the few 
others where Dionysos is mentioned in 
H. (3 325, X 325, cf. w 74), dates from 
the very latest part of the Epic period. 
Dionysos is an absolute stranger to 
the Homeric pantheon. The legend of 
Lykoergos is one of a series which tell 
of the introduction of the orgiastic 
worship of Dionysos, the opposition it 
encountered, and the punishment in- 
flicted on those who withstood it. The 
cult was of the nature of a mystic and 
spiritual revival, and passed into Greece 
from Thrace. In the present passage it 
is at home, for Lykoergos was king of 
the Edones, Soph. Ant. 955. This 
great religious movement s[)read over 
Greece apparently in the 7th cent. 
From its nature it cannot but have 
aroused the bitterest antagonism among 
the established authorities. It is highly 
probable that it absorbed, and in form 

was coloured by, more or less related 
popular village customs springing from 
a primitive nature and vegetation wor- 
ship (Bather in J. H. S. xiv. 244 sqq.), 
but that in this more spiritual form it 
was essentially foreign there can be 
little doubt (see Rohde Psyche 299 ff., 
and passim). Other forms of the legend 
occur in Thebes (Pentheus), Patrae (Pans. 
vii. 18. 3), Orchomenos (Minyadae), 
Argos (Proitidae). Of the forms Auko- 
eproc and Au/coopYos, the latter is de- 
fended by van L. on the ground that it 
is derived from the verb Fipyeiv {arcere) 
not from Fepyov. But cf. eKaepyos. The 
ordinary ' Epic dieetasis ' would account 
for -00- but not for -oe-. In the oracle 
in Herod, i. 65 the balance of authority 
seems to be for -oe-. 

131. bHN = d-r]vaL6s E 407 ; for the use 
of elfjii with adverbs see A 416, 

132. TieHNQC : this title recalls the 
maenads of later Dionysos-worship. It 
appears to have had a peculiar mystic 
significance, from the words of Soph. 
0. C. 1050 irbrviai aefiva TidrjuovvTai TeXrj 
OvaTolaiv. The maenads typified the 
nymphs who nursed Dionysos at his 
birth, Hijinn. Horn. xxvi. The word 
/xat^ds occurs once in H., in a simile — X 

lAIAAOC Z (vi) 


creve Kar rj'ydOeov ^var^iov al K a/xa iraaat, 

dvcrOXa ^a/jial Kare^evav, vir dv8po(f)uvoio AvKovpyov 

detvofxevat ^ov7r\rj<yt' At,a)vu(TO<i Se (f)o^r)det,<i 136 

Svaed' d\b<; Kara KVfxa, (^)eTt? 8' vTrehe^aro Kokiroa 

SeiSLora- Kparepo^; yap e-^e Tp6fio<; dv8p6<i o/mokXtjc. 

T(oc fiev eirecr oSuaravro Oeol pela ^ooovre'^, 

Kal fXLV rv(f)\6v edrjKe Kpovov 7rd'i<i- ouS^ dp' en orjv 

rjv, eVet dOavdroiatv d'm']j(6eT0 rrdcn deolcrtv. 140 ^ 

ovS" dv iyo) jxaicdpecraL 6eol<i ideXocfit /xd-^ecrOai,. 

el Se Tfc9 ecrat /Bporcov ot dpovprj^ Kapirov eoovatv, 

dcTcrov W , w? Kev Odacrov oXedpov irelpaO^ iKrjai. 

Tov 8' av6^ 'YTnToXo-^OLo TTpoarjvSa (^aihipiO'^ vi.o<i' 
" TvBetSr] jxeydOvixe, tl -q yeverjv epeelvea ; 145 

otr] Tvep (f)vWo)v yevet], tolt) Be koI dvhpwv. 
(f>vWa rd fxev t dve/JLO'i '^apbdhi'i %eet, dXka Be 6 vKrj 

133. nichTon P : nhchTon G. 134. KaxexeuoN O : KaT^x^"'^°N Porph. on 129. 
135. aioNucoc DN {supr. c over first c) QR. i| 9oBHeeic : xo^^^^'c Zen. 136. 

aviceN Q. II e^Tic e' R. 137. rdp exe : hk 'iyjs. Cant. 141. ou&' aN : ou 

r6p H. 142. ou H {supr. oY) : 5n J. 144. ton : tc2> N. 1I aue' : au H. 

145. epeeiNHC APU. 

133. NuchTon : the sacred mountain 
of Nysa was an integral part of the 
Dionysos legend, and was no doubt 
brought into etymological connexion 
with the name of the god. It is a 
mystic, not a geographical name. Schol. 
A says it stood for a mountain in 
Boiotia, Thrace, Arabia, India, and 
Naxos, a city in Karia and the Caucasus, 
and an island in the Nile (so Hymn. 
Horn. i. 8) ; it evidently went wherever 
the Bacchic cult was established. 

134. eiiceXa is another word whose 
exact meaning can hardly be ascertained. 
It would naturally mean the thyrsi, but 
the scholia explain it of varioiis other 
objects of mystic significance : ol fikv 
Toi)s /cXdSous, ot 5^ d/XTreXous, ot 5^ roi)s 
dvpaov^, ToureaTL rds BaKXt/cds dpaKas, a. 
ecrrt AiovvaiaKO, p.v<XTr)pLCf 'ivLOi 5e ttAvto. 
KOLvQis TO. Trpos Trjv TeXeTrjv. (This sense 
of 5pd| is not mentioned by L. and S. ) 
The same may be said of BounXHS, which 
does not again occur in Homer, and is 
explained either as ox-goad or pole-axe, in 
which sense later writers use it. It may 
possibly have some mystical connexion 
with ravpos as a name of Dionysos. 
Note how MSS. drop into the familiar 

contraction AuKoiiprou when possible. 
Read of course dudpoepdvov AvKoepyov. 

136. This line recalls the similar 
adventure of Hephaistos in 2 398, and 
is probably copied thence ; here Thetis 
is of no significance. 

138. ecoi peia zcoontcc, an Odyssean 
phrase ; 5 805, e 122. Tu<pX6c is a word 
of later Greek ; dXao? is the Homeric 
word. Cf Hymn. Apoll. 172. 

143. neipara, a doubtful expression ; 
either tlbc uttermost bounds, like t^Xos 
davdroLo : or the bonds, lit. ropes (cf. /m 
51, 162). See on H 102. For the 
assonance accoN . . eSccoN cf. E 440 
(ppd^eo . . X°'i'^°- 

146. This famous comparison has been 
as much imitated and quoted as any in H. 
Of imitations the earliest is in "I* 464, 
the most famous perhaps that of Ar. 
Aves 685. For the first quotation, that 
of Simonides, see Bergk P. L.^ p. 1146 ; 
the passage is preserved in Stobaeus. 
Clemens Alex. {Strom, vi. 738) says that 
Homer plagiarized it from 'Musaios,' 
quoting as the original of that mythical 
poet ws 5' avTUis Kai (pvWa cpvei ^eidwpoi 
dpovpa- dXXa fx^v iv jj-tKiy^LffLv divotpdivei, 
dXXa 5^ (pvei. 


lAIAAOC Z (vi) 

TrfKeOoooaa (pvei, eapo<i S' eTnyiverai utpr] • 

CO? dvSpcov <y€verj rj fiev (pvei, rj 8' aTToXtjyei. 

et, 6 €ueX€t<; Kai ravra oarj^evaL, o<pp ev etor^t? 

rjfieTeprjv yeverjv ttoWoI Be fitv avSpe^; tcraaiv 

earc TToA-t? ^^vprj /jlv^ml "Apiyeo? ImrofBoTOLo, 

evUa oe Ztcrucpo? eaKev, o KepoLaro'i yever avopcov, 

%i(TV(f>o<i Alo\i,87]<i' 6 8' apa TXavKov reKed^ vlov, 


148. THXeeoooNxa Aph. || d' om. P (space for one letter left) : t' L. || Sapoc 
8t€  * * riNexai G. || ^nirirNerai L : increiNaro Vr. a. || copHi Aph., so AHST-. 
149. HJu^N . . ftb' Alexio (so S Lips.). 150. 3^ e^Xoic Vr. a. 163. o: 6c 

MNOPQR: 8*c Harl. a. 154. t^kcn (J supr.) M Mosc. 3 : Teaew J^. 

this to a 

148. As the text stands Sapoc b' is 
added paratactically, when the season of 
spring sxicceeds. But Aph.'s reading (hp-qt 
is at least equally good, and they siicceed 
one another in the season of spring, cf. B 
468 6(j(jd T€ (piiWa koL dvdfa ylvfrai 

149. 9UCI seems to be intrans., though 
there is no other instance of such a use 
in Homer, and it appears specially harsli 
after the transitive in the preceding line. 
Moschos and Theokritos both use ^vovtl 
as intrans., perliaps in imitation of this 

It is of course possible to 
brings forth children,' but 
certain extent destroys the 
of the comparison. In any 
case the idea is the same : ' one genera- 
tion is in ful