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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

EDITED BY \^^J 

T. E. PAGE, Lin-.D. 
E. CAPPS, rn.D., LL.D. W. H. D, ROUSE, litt.d. 



HOMER 

THE ILIAD 
I 



®od^ ^.omertbe ju fctn, aud& nut aU lehtn, ift fc^en.-GoETHi 



HOMER 

THE ILIAD 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION 



A. T. MURRAY, Ph.D. 

PEOFESSOR OV CLASSICAL LITERATURK, STANFORD UNIVERSITIT, 
CALIFORNIA 





LONDON : WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 
NEW YORK: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

MCMXXVIII 



Pa 

ho 2.5 

OrO if 



First Printed 1924 
Heprinted 1928 



Printed in Oreat Britain 







l^ 



THE ILIAD OF HOMER ^"^^^^^^ 




VOL. I 



lAIAAOS A 

Mijvcv aeiSe, Oed, YlrjXrj'CdSeco ^Ax^Xi^os^ 
ovXofJbevTjv , rj jjivpi' A)(aLois dXye* eOrjKe, 
TToXXds 8' L(f)dlfjLOVs ifjvxois "A'CBl TTpotaijjev 
rjpcocov, avrovs Be iXdtpia revx^ Kvveaaiv^ 
oloivolai T€ Tracrt/ Aios S' ireXeiero ^ovXfj, " 

e^ ov St] to. TTpcbra SLaaTijrrjv iptaavre 
^ArpetSrjs re dva^ dvSpcov /cat SXos ^A^lXXcv?. 

Tis t' dp a(f)Ct)€ decov eptSt ^vverjKC p,d)(^ea6 ai; 
Ar}TOVs Kal Aios" vlos' 6 yap ^aaiXifi ^(oXioQeis 
vovaov dvd arparov coporc KaKrjv, oXckovto Se Aaot, 1^ 
ouVe/ca Tov ^pvcrrjv rjTLfiaaev dprjrrjpa 
'ArpetSi^s" o yap rjXde dods em vrjas ^Axatdiv 
Xvaofxevo? re Ovyarpa (j>epoiV t dTrepeiaC dnoiva, 
aTcp^ixar* exojv eV x^P^''^ eKrj^oXov 'AttoXXojvos 

1 In the edition of Apellicon the opening line of the poem 
was given in the form Moi/cras det'Sw kuI 'Air6\\uva k\vt6to^ov, 
and in the place of lines 1-9 some ancient texts gave, 

"EcTTrere vdv fioi, Mouaai, 'OXvfJLina dw/jLar' ^xo^'CO-h 
Sttttws St] iJ.rjvis re x<i^oj 6' i\e WrfKf'Cuva, 
ArjTovs T a-yKabv x>li)V ■ 6 yap ^acnXrj'i xoXudels 

' Lines 4 f. were rejected by Zenodolus. 

' iraffi : Saira Zenodotus. 



TO 

MY CHILDREN 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME I 



Introduction 

Book I. . 
Book II. 
Book III, 
Book IV. 
Book V. 
Book VI. 
Book VIL 
Book VIII. 
Book IX. 
Book X. 
Book XL 
Book XII, 



Vil 

2 
50 
116 
152 
194 
262 
302 
338 
382 
436 
480 
544 



INTRODUCTION 

In rendering the Iliad the translator has in the 
main followed the same principles as those which 
guided him in his translation of the Odyssey. He has 
endeavoured to give a version that in some measure 
retains the flowing ease and simple directness of 
Homer's style, and that has due regard to the 
emphasis attaching to the arrangement of words in 
the original ; and to make use of a diction that, 
while elevated, is, he trusts, not stilted. To attain 
to the nobility of Homer's manner may well be 
beyond the possibilities of modern English prose. 

Matters of a controversial nature have as a rule 
not been touched upon in the notes to this edition, 
and the brief bibhography is meant merely to sug- 
gest books of high interest and value to the student 
of the Iliad. Few of those which deal primarily 
with the higher criticism have been included, because 
the ti'anslator is convinced that such matters lie 
wholly outside the scope of this book. 

In the brief introduction prefixed to his version of 
the Odyssey the translator set forth frankly the fact 
that to many scholars it seems impossible to speak 
of Homer as a definite individual, or to accept the 
view that in the early period either the Iliad or the 
Odyssey had attained a fixed form. At the same 
time he laid stress upon the further fact that one of 

vii 



INTRODUCTION 

the significant results of the Homeric studies of 
recent years has been the demonstration (for it is 
nothing less) that the foundations upon which de- 
structive critics have based their work have been 
insufficient to support the superimposed weight — in 
short, that both the methods and the results of the 
analytical criticism of the nineteenth century were 
misleading. It seems fitting that he should now 
give, if not a confession of faith, at least a state- 
ment of the basic facts upon which his faith rests. 
These may be stated briefly in the following pro- 
positions. 

I. The proper method of approach to the Homeric 
problem, and the only one that can possibly lead to 
an understanding of Homeric poetry, is to recognize 
that in dealing with the Iliad and the Odyssey we 
have to do with poems each clearly evincing the 
constructive art of a great poet (whether or not the 
same for both poems is a separate question). We 
should study them as poems, and in order to under- 
stand them we must first of all apprehend clearly 
the poet's subject, not in any limited sense, but 
with all its imphcations. Given the Wrath as a 
theme, we must grasp clearly both the origin and 
the nature of that wrath, and must formulate a 
conception of the character of Achilles. For unless 
we are clear in our minds as to what manner of man 
he was we cannot hope to understand the ovXofiivij 
firji't'i or the poem of which it is the theme. Only 
when we have fully apprehended the nature both 
of the man and of his wrath, and have followed 
both through the preceding books, can we venture to 
take up such a problem, for instance, as that con- 
nected with the sending of the embassy in the ninth 

viii 



INTRODUCTION 

Iliad ; and if the poet has convinced us that the 
wrath was too fierce and awful a thing to break 
down at the first set-back of the Greeks ; if tlie 
situation at the end of Book VIII. in no sense cor- 
responds to what Achilles craves and in no sense 
satisfies his hate ; if we have found Achilles pour- 
trayed as one that will not be bought ; then the 
assumption that " in the original poem " the promise 
of Zeus to Thetis was at once followed by a Greek 
defeat, and that the whole content of the Iliad from 
the early part of Book II. to the battle scenes of 
Book XI. is a later insertion will be to us an im- 
probable one. Nor will it matter how many or how 
learned may be the scholars who hold that view. 
The poet has taught us better, and the poet is our 
guide. 

Similarly, in the case of the Odyssey, if we have 
clearly apprehended all that the Return implies — 
the adventures of the hero on his actual journey 
home, the lot of the wife, beset by ruthless wooers 
in his absence, and of the boy, of whom we would 
know whether he will make head against those who 
seek to drive him from his heritage, and stand by 
his father's side as a worthy comrade when the great 
day of reckoning comes — if we have regard to all 
this and all else that is implied in the great story, 
then we shall look with incredulity upon those who 
would take from the original Odyssey the pourtrayal 
of these very things, and who ask us to see in the 
first four books — the so-called " Telemachy " — a 
separate poem having neither beginning nor end, 
and quite inexplicable save as a part of the Odyssey. 
The Homeric criticism of the century foUomng the 
publication of Wolf's Prolegomena (1795), for all the 



INTRODUCTION 

keenness of its analytical studies, lost sight almost 
wholly of the poet as a creative artist. It is time 
that we came back to the poetry itself and to the 
poet, who alone can interpret it aright. 

II. No less necessary to a right understanding of 
the Iliad and the Odyssey is it that we should com- 
prehend the poet's technique, and especially the way 
in which this was conditioned by the fact that the 
poems were recited, not each in its entirety, but in 
successive rhapsodies. Here much work remiains to 
be done, but we may safely assume that each 
rhapsody had a starting-point and an end, and that 
it was intended to be intelligible even to those who 
had not heard what immediately preceded. When 
this fact is taken into consideration the difficulties 
caused by the council of the gods at the opening 
of the fifth book of the Odyssey, or by that at the 
opening of the eighth Iliad, vanish away. They are 
simply incidental to the method of presentation in 
rhapsodies, and while a strictly logical analysis may 
feel them as difficulties, they cannot justly be used 
as arguments against the integrity of the poems. 
For logical analysis is not necessarily the best 
criterion for judging a work of creative imagination. 
We should certainly not close our eyes to difficulties, 
but if what we learn of the poet's technique explains 
their occurrence, they cease to be stumbling-blocks. 
The above illustrations are but two out of a multitude 
that might be cited, and the more closely the poet's 
technique is studied, his manner of meeting and 
surmounting obstacles incidental to the presentation 
of his matter in narrative form, the problems con- 
nected with the opening and closing of successive 
rhapsodies, the necessity of narrating in sequence 



INTRODUCTION 

events which we should naturally think of as occurring 
simultaneously, etc. — the more closely we study 
these things, the less significance shall we be led to 
attach to purely logical difficulties. As a guide for 
the solution of the problem of the Homeric poems 
merely analytical criticism leads nowhither ; the 
phantasy of the artist, working under the laws 
governing the form in which his creation expresses 
itself, cannot be controlled by logic. Yet critics 
have seemed to hold the contrary view, and in the 
case of difficulties have not even asked why the 
poet chose the course which entailed them, or even 
whether any other course was open to him, but have 
at once concluded that no explanation is to be 
thought of except that some bungling hand has 
disturbed the original sequence of events. 

III. Incidental contradictions in detail occurring 
in the Iliad or the Odyssey may not legitimately be 
regarded as proofs that we have to do with the work 
of various hands, for the simple reason that such 
contradictions occur repeatedly in imaginative works, 
the literary history of which is so well known that 
the assumption of diversity of authorship is excluded. 
Those that occur in the Homeric poems are for the 
most part of such a nature that we may well doubt 
whether either the poet or his auditors were conscious 
of them. Only in the case of a contradiction so glaring 
as to demonstrate a radically different conception of 
the events or the characters of the poem should we 
be driven to the conclusion that we were dealing 
with the work of different hands, and even in such 
a case we should find it difficult to explain how the 
resulting chaos was allowed to stand. But such 
contradictions are not to be found in either poem. 



INTRODUCTION 

True, many, perhaps most, Homeric critics hold that 
the speech of Achilles to Patroclus at the opening 
of the sixteenth book of the Iliad is out of harmony 
with the fact that in Book IX an embassy had been 
sent to Achilles by Agamemnon proffering the return 
of Briseis and rich gifts besides, if he would aid the 
Greeks in their evil day. But the mere fact that 
without his rejection of the embassy Achilles would 
not be Achilles, nor his wrath the fitting subject of 
an epic, should have led to a closer and, one is fain 
to say, a saner study of the facts. To have refused 
Agamemnon's attempt to buy his help at a time 
when his foe had not as yet known the bitterness 
of utter defeat, is in no sense incompatible with a 
willingness on Achilles' part, after the very state 
of things for which he had prayed had come 
about, to accept gifts and recompense Trpos TravTwi/ 
Aavawi/. 

IV. The repeated lines or passages present a 
complicated problem which every student of Homer 
must face, but, however they are regarded, nothing 
can be clearer than that the assumption that a passage 
is original in the place where it seems best to fit the 
context, and that other occurrences are later borrow- 
ings, is a most unwarranted one, although this notion 
vitiates the work of almost every one of those who 
have been looked up to as guides in Homeric criticism. 
Yet the theory is patently false, as Rothe demon- 
strated years ago {Die Bedeutung der Wiederkolungen 
fur die hovierische Frage, Leipzig, I89O), and per- 
sistence in the habit of relying upon it does httle 
credit to the candour of an investigator. Borrowings 
there doubtless are, and here and there manifest 
interpolations, but the use of so-called borrowed 



INTRODUCTION 

passages to disprove unity of authorship has led to 
no sure results, nor will it lead. 

V. With reference to problems of a purely philo- 
logical nature the student of to-day has peculiar 
need to preserve his sanity of judgment. The 
evidence regarding a supposedly original epic dialect 
is so complicated, and our knowledge of the tribal 
or racial situation obtaining in the Greek world in 
the period with which we are concerned is so incom- 
plete, that one must constantly guard against the 
tendency to accept hypothesis for estabhshed truth. 
We must frankly recognize that the poems passed 
through a modernizing process before attaining their 
present form, but the blending of old and new defies 
analysis into strata which may be said with anything 
like certainty to belong to different periods. One of 
the most tangible results of the Homeric criticism of 
the last few decades has been the demonstration 
that the " evidences " of later date, based upon 
linguistic and grammatical phenomena, are about as 
frequent in the confessedly " older " parts of the Iliad 
as in the supposedly " later " portions. 

VI. Similarly, attempts to assign various parts of 
the poems to different periods on the basis of sup- 
posed cultural differences have failed to estabhsh any 
sure results. The knowledge of iron and of objects 
wrought of iron— singularly few, and fewer in the 
Odyssey than in the Iliad — the differences in armour, 
and those in ethical and religious conceptions — all 
these have failed to demonstrate diversity of author- 
ship or diversity of date. 

VII. In one important matter of literary tradition 
one must in an especial sense be on one's guard 
not to go beyond the evidence. That a com- 



INTRODUCTION 

mission of scholars in the time of Peisistratus in 
some way established the text of the poems and 
provided for their recitation at the Panathenaea in 
an officially regulated order, seems a well-attested 
fact, although attempts have been made to brush it 
aside as supported only by relatively late and un- 
trustworthy evidence. But to grant that the com- 
mission existed and that it presumably established 
an official text in no sense compels the conclusion 
that the poems were until then in a chaotic or fluid 
state, and that the commission thus " created " the 
unity of the Iliad, e.g. as we know it. Those who 
believe in the constructive art of the poet himself will 
see in the activity of the commission no more than 
the rescuing of a pre-existent unity. For it is 
patent that individual rhapsodists may often have 
yielded to the temptation to introduce new matter 
of their own composition into the poems ; and the 
papyrus fragments show clearly how corrupted the 
popular texts came to be, and what need there was 
of the establishment of an authoritative text. 

VIII. Lastly, he who would know Homer must 
approach him with an open mind and lend himself 
to the guidance of the poet himself. He must not 
come to the study of the poems with a preconceived 
notion of the processes by which they have come 
into being, or of philological or archaeological criteria 
for determining the relative age of this episode or of 
that. The reconstructed Iliads are all figments of 
the imagination ; the existent poem is a tangible 
fact. To this extent the unbiassed student starts as 
a " unitarian." If he but yields himself to the spell 
of the poem, he will become the more confirmed 
in his faith ; and though he may find much of the 



INTRODUCTION 

learning of the world arrayed against him, yet he 
will none the less be standing in a goodly company 
of those whom the Muse has loved, and will himself 
have heard the voice of the goddess and looked upon 
her face. 

Athens, April 1923. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Manuscripts 

Pap. — Numerous Papyrus fragments ranging in date from 
the third century b.c. to the fifth century a.d. 

Syr. — A Syrian Palimpsest of the sixth or seventh century 
in the British Museum, containing 3873 lines. 

Ambr. Pictus. — A MS. of the fifth or sixth century in 
the Ambrosian Library at Milan, containing illustra- 
tions of the Iliad with portions of the text, about 
800 lines in all. 

Venetus A (Codex Marcianus 454). — - A iws. of the tenth 
century in the library of San Marco at Venice, con- 
taining the entire Iliad, with introduction and scholia. 

Venetus B (Codex Marcianus 453). — A ms. of the eleventh 
century also in the library of San Marco at Venice, 
and like the Venetus A containing the entire Iliad 
with scholia. 

Laur. C (Codex Laurentianus xxxii. 3). — A ms. of the 
eleventh century in the Medicean Library at Florence, 
containing the entire Iliad. 

Laur. D (Codex Laurentianus xxxii. 16). — A ms., also of 
the eleventh century, in the Medicean Library at 
Florence, containing the entire Iliad. 

Printed Editions 

Editio Princeps, by Demetrius Chalcondyles, Florence, 
1488; Aldine, 1504; Heyne, Leipzig, 1802-22; Wolf, 
Leipzig, 1804-7 ; Bekker, Berlin, 1843 ; and Bonn, 1858 ; 
La Roche, Leipzig, 1873 ; Nauck, Berlin, 1874-79 ; 
xvi 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Christ, Leipzig, 1884 ; Fick, Gottingen, 1886 ; Ludwich, 
Leipzig, 1902 ; van Leeuwen and da Costa, Leyden, 1895. 

Chief among the editions with exegetical commentary 
are those by Ameis-Hentze, Leipzig (in many editions 
since 1868) ; Duntzer, ed. 2, Paderborn, 1873 ; La Roche, 
Leipzig, 1879-1880 ; Pierron, ed. 2, Paris, 1883 ; Faesi, 
Berlin, 1887 ; Leaf, ed. 2, London, 1900; van Leeuwen, 
Leyden, 1912-13. 

The most convenient text editions are those in the 
Oxford and the Tcubner series ; that by Monro (Homeri 
Opera et Reliquiae) ; that by Cauer, Leipzig ; and that 
by Piatt, Cambridge. 

The Greek scholia have been edited by Dindorf, Oxford, 
1855, and by Maas {Scholia Townleyana), Oxford, 1888 ; 
and the commentary of Eustathius was published in 
Berlin in 1825. 

Besides the poetical versions of Chapman, Pope, Cowper, 
Worsley-Conington, Lord Derby, Bryant, and Way, there 
are prose versions by Lang, Leaf and Myers (Macmillan), 
by Purves (Percival and Co.), and by Samuel Butler 
(Longmans). 

General Books 

M. Arnold : On Translating Homer. 

Belzner: Homerische Probleme. Leipzig and Berlin, 

1911-1912. 
Bethe : Horner, Dichtung, und Sage. Leipzig and Berlin, 

1914-1922. 
Browne : Handbook of Homeric Study. Longmans, 1905. 
Cauer : Grundfragen der Homerkritik. ed. 3, Leipzig, 1921, 
Chadwick : The Heroic Age. Cambridge, 1912. 
Drerup : Homerische Poetik. New York, 1921. 
Geddes : The Problem of the Homeric Poems. London, 

1878. 
Jebb: Homer, an Introduction to the Iliad and Odyssey. 

Glasgow, 1887. 
Lang : Homer and the Epic. Longmans, 1893. 
„ Homi'.r and his Age. Longmans, 1908. 
„ The World of Homer. Longmans, 1910. 

xvii 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Leaf: Troy, a study in Homeric Topography. Macmillan, 

1912. 
„ Homer and History. Macmillan, 1915. 
Murray : The Rise of the Greek Epic. ed. 2, Oxford, 1911. 
Rothe : Die Bias als Dichtung. Paderborn, 1910. 

„ Die Odyssee als Dichtung. Paderborn, 1914. 
Schuchhardt: Schliemann's Excavations. Macmillan, 1891. 
Scott : The Unity of Homer. Univ. of California Press, 1921. 
Seymour: Life in the Homeric Age. Macmillan, 1907. 
Tsountas and Manatt : The Mycenaean Age. Macmillan, 

1897. 
vanLeeuwen: Commentationes Homericae. Leyden, 1911. 
Wilamowitz-M Ollendorff: Die Ilias und Homer. Berlin, 

1916. 

Books on the Alexandrian Critics 

La Roche : Homerische Textkritik in Alterthum. Leipzig, 

1866. 
Lehrs : De Aristarchi Studtis Homericis. ed. 3, Leipzig, 

1882. 
Ludwich: Aristarchs Homerische Textkritik. Leipzisr, 

1884-1885. 
Ludwich : Die homerische Vulgata als voralexandrinisch 

erwiesen. Leipzig, 1898. 
Roemer : Aristarchs Athetesen. Leipzig, 1912. 

Lexicographical and Grammatical Works 

Bechtel : Lexilogus zu Homer. Halle, 1914. 

da Costa : Index Etymologicus Dictionis Homericae. 

Leipzig, 1905. 
Ebeling: Lexicon Homericutn. Leipzig, 1871-180.'). 
Monro: Grammar of the Homeric Dialect, ed. 2, Oxford, 

1891. 
van Leeuwen: Enchiridium Dictionis Epicae. ed. 2, 

Leyden, 1918. 
Gehrin^: Index Homericus. Leipzig, 1891. 
Cunliffc : A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect. London, 1924. 



THE ILIAD 
BOOK I 

The wrath do thou sing, O goddess, of Peleus* son, 
\chilles, that baneful wrath which brought countless 
voes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades 
nany valiant souls of warriors, and made themselves 
to be a spoil for dogs and all manner of birds ; and 
thus the will of Zeus was being brought to fulfilment ; 
— sing thou thereof from the time when ^ at the first 
there parted in strife Atreus' son, king of men, and 
goodly Achilles. 

Who then of the gods was it that brought these 

two together to contend ? The son of Leto and 

?,eus ; for he in wrath against the king roused 

iiroughout the host an evil pestilence, and the folk 

ere perishing, for that upon the man Chryses, his 

riest, ha d the son of Atreus wrought dishonour. 

i»r he had come to the switt ships of the Achaeans 

I free his daughter, and he bore with him ransom 

tst counting ; and in his hands he held the fillets 

■ Apollo, that smiteth afar,^ on a staff of gold, and 

1 Others connect i^ oS directly with ireXeieTo, " was being 

ought to fulfilment from the time when." 

'^ The epithets eK-q^oXos (e/carTj/SoXos) and eKdepyoi, with the 
lortened form g/caro?, seem prevailingly to refer to Apollo as 
.1 Archer god, the sender of pestilence ; but the words may 
t demand convey the idea of Apollo's being the averter of 
1^ (so perhaps most clearly in i. 474). It has seemed best, 
i iwever, to give everywhere a literal rendering. 

S 



HOMER 

Xpvaeq) dva aKrJTrrpo), Kal Xlaaero iravras 'A;^aious', I 
'ArpetSa Se /xaAtcrra hvco, Koaix'^rope Xaayv 

'ArpeiSat re /cat aAAoi evKV^niSes 'A;^aiot, 
y/xtP' //.ep' ^eoi Sotet' '0Au/X7rta 8c6/xaT exovres 
eKirepaat llpta/xoto ttoAlv, ev o oiKao iKeaoav 
TTaXSa 8' e/x.ot Auaatre <f>tXr]v, ra 8' aTroit'a SexeaOai,, 2 
d^ofjuevoL Aio? i^tof iKr)^6Xov ^ATToXXcDva." [■ 

"Et'^' d'AAoi )Ltev TrdvTe? eTrev^rjpbrjaav ^A)(aiol 
alhelaOai 6* Uprja koc dyXad hexdo.i airoiva' 
dXX ovK 'ArpetSry * Ayafxe/JiVovL i^vSav'e Ovfico, 
dXXd KaKOJs d(f>L€i, Kparepov 8' evrt fivdov ereAAes 
" )Lt7^ o-e, yepov, KolXrjcnv iyoj napd vrjval KLxeici' 
7} vw BrjOvpovr^ fj varepov avrts lovra, 
fXT^ vv roL ov xP^k^H'V crKrJTTTpov /cat crremjia 
deolo. G/^'-'<^ 

K,Tr]v 8' eyct) ov Xvaay rrptv fxiv /cat yrjpa? eTTCLcnv^ 
' %>rjiJ,eT€pcp ivl oiKCp, iv "Apye'C, r'qXodi TTdTprjs, J 

larov cTTOLXoijievrjv /cat ifiov Aep^o? dvTLOcocrav 
"dAA' t^t, fjiiq II ipeOi^e, aacorepog co? /ce verjat." 

"n? e^ar', eSSeicrei' 8' d yepcov /cat eTreiQero 
jxvdco' 
^rj 8' d/cecov^ Trapd diva 'noXv<j)XoLa^oLO OaXdacrrjs' 
TToAAd 8' eneir* drrdvevde KLd)V rjpdd o yepaLos 
^AttoXXcovl dvaKTL, rov rjVKop,os t€K€ ArjTO)' 
" KXvdi fiev, dpyvporo^^ , os \pvcrr]V dfxcfyL^e^rjKas^ 
KtAAav re ^aderjv TeveSoco re L<j>i dvdaaeL<s, 
HfxtvOev, et TTore roi x'^pievr* €tti vrjov epeipa, 
T] el S-q TTore rot Kara Triova ptrjp" e/CT^a 

* Lines 29-31 were rejected by Aristarchus. 
■ a.Ki(j)v : axiup Zenodotus. 

^ Lit. •' Mouse-god," a title given to Apollo as the god 



THE ILIAD, I. 15-40 

e made prayer to all the Achaeans, but most of all 

() the two sons of Atreus, the marshallers of the 
ost : " Ye sons of Atreus, and ye other well- 
i,reaved Achaeans, to you may the gods who have 
lomes upon Olympus grant that ye sack the city 
^ )f Priam, and return safe to your homes ; but my 
'ear child do ye set free for me, and accept the 
msom out of awe for the son of Zeus, Apollo, 
lat smiteth afar." 

Then all the rest of the Achaeans shouted assent, 
Iding reverence the priest and accept the glorious 
som, yet the thing pleased not the heart of 
Agamemnon, son of Atreus. but he sent him away 
ha'*shly, and laid upon him a stern command : " Let 
me not find thee, old man, by the hollow ships, 
either tarrying now or coming back hereafter, lest 
thy staff and the fillet of the god protect thee not. 
But her will I not set free : ere that shall old age 
come upon her in our house, in Argos, far from her 
country, as she walks to "and fro before the loom 
and tends my couch. Nay, get thee gone ; anger 
me not, that so thou mayest go the safer." 

So he spake, and the old man Was seized with fear 
and hearkened to his word. Forth he went in silence 
along the shore of the loud-resoupSing sea, and 
earnestly thereafter, when he had gone apart, did 
the old man pray to the prince, Apollo, whom fair- 
haired Leto bare : " Hear me, thou of the silver bow, 
who dost stand over Chryse and holy Cilia, and dost 
rule mightily over Tenedos, thou Sminthian,^ if ever 
I roofed over a shrine to thy pleasing, or if ever I 
burned to thee fat thigh-pieces of bulls or goats, 

who had delivered some local community from a plague of 
field-mice. 



HOMER 

ravpcov 178 alywv, roSe /aoi Kpi^iqvov ieXhcop' 
riaeiav Aavaol e/xa SaKpva aolai ^eXeaaiv." 

"^? e^ar' evxofjievog, rod 8' e/cAue Ooi^o 
'AttoAAcov, 
jS"^ 8e /car' OuAy^Troto Kaprjvcov -x^uiQ^ievos Krjp, 
ro^^ ojfjLOLaiV exct^v dix(f)rjp€(f)ea re ^apirpiqv. 
CKXay^av 8' a^' otcrToi eTr' cofxcov xf^opJvoLO,^ 
avTov KtvrjdevTos. 6 8' •^'le vvktl ioiKwg.^ 
e^er erreLT* a-ndvevde vewv, p,erd 8' lov er^KC 
SeLVT) Se /cAayyi^ yever' dpyvpioio jStoto. 
ovprfas fiGV vpojTov eTrajp^ero /cat /cwaj apyous", 
avrdp CTretT* auroiCTt jSeAoj ix^^revKes e^ieis" 
^aAA • atei Se TTvpal veKvcov Kalovro dajxeiai. 

^Kwrjfjiap fjbev dvd arparov wx^to KrjXa deoio, 
rfj SeKOLTT] 8' dyopiqvSe KoXeaaaro Xaov 'A;^iAAeus 
TO) yap eTTL (fjpecrl drJKc did XevKcoXevog "Wprf 
K-^Sero yap Aavacov, otl pa dvfjaKovras opdro. 
OL 8 CTret ovv rjyepdev opir^yepeeg' r* iyeuovro, 
Tolai 8' dviarajxevos [X€T€(f)rj noSag d)Kvs 'A;;^iA- 

X€VS<- 

ArpetSr], vvv dfjUfxe TraXtp^TrXayxdivTa^ otoi 
dtp aTTOvoaTiqaeLV , et Kev ddvarov ye ^vyoijxev, 
el hrj o/jiov TToXep^os re 8a/xa /cat Aot/AOS" 'A;i^aious 
dAA' dye hrj rtva puavriv epeiofxev rf leprja, 
7J /cat dveipoTToXov, /cat yap t' ovap c/c Atos" iomVj 
09 K eiTTOi 6 ri roaaov ex(i>craro Oot^o? 'AttoA 

Xojv, 
eiT ap by evxci)Xrjs e7rt/xe/x(^eTat ei,'^' eKarofi^r^s 
at Kev TTCos dpvojv Kvlcrqs alyojv re reXeiojv 
^ovXerat dvrijxag.s rjfjilv dno Xocyov dfxvvai." 

^ Lines 46 f. were rejected by Zenodotus. 
* ioiKu)$ : iXvaOeis Zenodotus, 



THE ILIAD, I. 41-67 

fulfil thou for me this prayer : let the Danaans 
pay for my tears by thy shafts." 

So he spake in prayer, and Phoebus Apollo heard 
him. Down from the peaks of Olympus he strode, 
wroth at heart, bearing on his shoulders his bow 
and covered quiver. The arrows rattled on the 
shoulders of the angry god, as he moved ; and his 
coming was like the night. Then he sate him down 
apart from the ships and let fly a shaft : terrible was 
the twang of the silver bow. ' The mules he assailed 
first and the swift dogs, but thereafter on the men 
themselves he let fly his stinging arrows, and smote ; 
and ever did the pyres of the dead burn thick. 

For nine days' space did the missiles of the god 
fare throughout the host, but on the tenth Achilles 
let call the folk to the place of gathering, for so had 
the goddess, wlrite-armed Hera, put it in his heart ; 
since she pitied the Danaans, for that she saw them 
dying. So, when they were assembled and met 
together, among them arose and spake Achilles, 
swift of foot : " Son of Atreus, now methinks shall 
we be driven back and return with baffled purpose, 
should we e'en escape death, if so be that war and 
pestilence alike are to waste the Achaeans. Nay, 
come, let us ask some seer or priest, yea, or some 
reader of dreams — for a dream too is from Zeus — 
who may haply tell us for what cause Phoebus 
Apollo hath conceived such anger, whether it be 
because of a vow that he blames us, or of a hecatomb ; 
in hope that perchance he may accept the savour of 
lambs and unblemished goats, and be minded to 
ward off from us the pestilence." 

^ Line dS was rejected by Zenodotus. 



HOMER 

Jrl Toi o y oi? eLTTcov /car a/) €4fT^o* roicri o . 
aveCTTT^ 
KaA;^as'^ SearopiSrjs, olcovottoXcov 6^ dptaros, 

05 rjSr) rd t iovra rd t' eaao/xsva Trpd r' edi^ra, 70 
/cat I'l^ed'cr' r)yrj(jaT^ ^A^^aicov "IXiov elao) 

Tjv hid fjbavroavvqv , rrjV ol Trope Oot^os' ^AttoX^wv. 

6 a(f)LV ill (f)pov€OJV dyoprjoaro /cat /xereetTrei/*^ 
' a> 'A;!^tAeu, /ce'Aeat ^e, Au(l)iXe, fivd'qaaadai 

jjLTJVLV ^AttoXXojvos eKaTTj^eXeTao dvaKTos' 75 

roiydp iydyv epeco' ai) he avvdeo /cat /xot 6p.oaaov 
rj jxev pLOL Trp6<l)p(x)v eTreaiv /cat ■)(epalv dpri^eiv 
rj yap otopbat dvSpa x'^Xcuarepiev, os pceya vdvTcov 
^Apyeiojv Kpareei /cat ol Treidovrai A;^atot, 
Kpeiaacov ydp ^aatXevs, ore ;)^66creTat avSpi x^PV'^-^ ^^ 
et TTep ydp re x^Xov ye /cat avTi]pi,ap KaraTreijjrj, 
aAAa re /cat p^eromadev e;\;et /cdrov, 6cf)pa reXeacrrj 
iv arT]dearaiv eolcri. ai) he (jtpdaai et /Ae aacoaeis." 

Tov 8' aTTapLei^opLevos Trpoa€<f>r) TTohas (JoKVS 
'AxtXXevs' 

dapcqaas p-dXa elrre deoTrpomov 6 n olada- 85 

ov pid ydp ATToXXcova hd(f)iXov, S re av, KaA- 

evxopLevos Aavaotcrt OeoTrpoinas dva(j>aLveLS, 
oh ns epLev ^covros /cat e77t ;)(^ovt hepKopiivoio 
aoL KOiXrjs TTapd U7]vaL ^apeias x^^P^^S eTroiaei 
avpLTrdvrcov Aavaojv, ouS' •^i' ^ AyapiepLvova etTTfj^, 90 
_os" vvv TToXXov dpiaros ^Axo-lmv* evxerai elvac." 

Kat rore hrj ddparjoe /cat i^u'Sa pbduris dpLvpi,cov 
" ovr dp* d y' evxojXrjs i7npiepL(f)erai, ovd* eKarop^^rjs, 

^ KdXx"* : fxdi^Tis Zenodotus. 
* Line 73 was given by Zenodotus in the form, 

8s juv dfieipofievos ^wea irTepbcvra it pojyjvSa.- 

8 



THE ILIAD, I. 68-93 

When he had thus spoken he sate him down," and 
among them uprose Calchas son of Thestor , far the 
best of diviners, who had knowledge of all tilings that 
were, and that were to be, and that had been before, 
and who had guided the ships of the Achaeans to 
Ilios by his soothsaying that Phoebus Apollo had be- 
stowed upon him. He with good intent addressed 
their gathering, and spake among them : " Achilles, 
dear to Zeus, thou biddest me declare the wrath of 
Apollo, that smiteth afar. Therefore will I speak ; 
but do thou take thought, and swear that verily 
of a ready heart thou wilt defend me with word 
and with might of hand ; for methinks I shall make 
wroth a man who rules mightily over all the Argives, 
[and whom the Achaeans obey. For mightier is a 
king, whenso he is wroth at a baser man. If so be 
he swallow down his wrath for the one day, yet there- 
after he cherishes resentment in his heart till he 
bring all to pass. Consider thou, then, if thou wilt 
keep me safe." 

Then in answer to him spake Achilles, swift of foot : 
" Take good heart, and speak out what oracle soe'er 
thou knowest, for by Apollo, dear to Zeus, to whom 
thou prayest, Calchas, and declarest oracles to the 
Danaans, no one, while I live and have sight on the 
earth, shall lay heavy hands on thee beside the hollow 
ships, no one of the whole host of the Danaans, not 
even if it be Agamemnon thou meanest, who now 
declares himself far the best of the Achaeans." 

Then the blameless seer took heart, and spake, 
saying : "It is not then because of a vow that he 

® Line 80 was rejected by Zenodotus. 



i 



HOMER 

aAA €V€K* dprjTTJpos, ov TjTLfMrja' 'Aya/xe/xi/cov 
oi)5' OLTTiXvae dvyarpa Kal ovk aTreSe^ar' aTTOiva, 
TovveK dp* dXye' eScoKev CKrj^oXos 17S' en Sdjcret 
ov8 6 ye TTplv Aavaolatv deiKea Xoiyov aTTcoaei, 
TTpiv y aiTO TrarpL ^iXcp Bofievai eXiKcomSa Kovprji 
OLTTpcdTrjv dvavoLVOV, dyeiv 6* leprjv eKaTO/jL^'qv 
is ^pvarjv rore Kev pnv IXaaadp^evoi TTeTridoLpbev .' 
'H Tot o y' ws emcbv /car' ap' e^ero' rolcri 8 
avearrj 
rjpcos ^ArpetSrjs evpv Kpeicov ^Ayafxefivojv 
d)(yvixevos' fieveos 8e fxeya (f>p€ves dfi(f}l fieXaivai m 
TTiixTrXavT* , oaae 8e ol TTvpl XajXTterooiVTi eLKTrjv.I 
K.dXx(xvra irpciyTLara KdK oaaojxevos Trpoaeenre' 

" pidvTL KaKCJV, ov TTO) 7TOT€ piOi TO KpiqyVOV CLTTaS 

aiei TOL TO, /ca/c earl (j)iXa <f>pecn jxavTeveadaL, 
eadXov 8' ovre ri ttu> elnas eiros ovr* ereXeaaas. 
/cat vvv ev AavaolarL deorrpoTrecov dyopeveis 
ws 817 TOvS* ev€Kd a^iv eKiq^oXos dXyea rev)(ei^ 
ovveK eydi Kovpr]s ^pvarjtSos dyXd' dnoLva 
OVK edeXov hi^aadaL, eTrel ttoXv ^ovXofiaL avrrjv 
OLKOi ex^i'V. Kal ydp pa KXvTaLfiVQorrprjs irpo^e- 

^ovXa 
KovpL^iris dXoxov, eTrel ov idev eari xepeiuiv, 
ov 8e)u.as' ovhe ^viqv, ovr' dp (f)pevas ovre tl epya. 
dXXd Kal cu? edeXoj Sofievai irdXiv, el to y 

dpueivov ' 
^ovXop,* eydj Xadv aoov ep.p.evai 7) diroXeaQai? 
avrdp epiol yepas avri^ eroipidaar' , d(f)pa fir] otos 
ApyelcDV dyepacTTos ecu, eTrel ovhe eot/ce* 

* Lines 95 f. were rejected by Aristarchus. 

* Line 1 10 was rejected by Aristarchus. 

' Line 117 was rejected by Zenodotus. 

10 



THE ILIAD, I. 94-119 

blames us, nor a hecatomb, but because of the priest 
to whom Agamemnon did dishonour, and did not 
release his daughter nor accept the ransom. For 
this cause the god that smiteth afar has given woes, 
yea, and will give them, nor will he drive off from the 
Danaans the loathly pestilence, until we give back 
to her father the bri^it-eyed maiden, unbought, 
unransomed, and lead a sacred hecatomb to Chryse : 
then haply might we appease his wrath and persuade 
him." 

When he had thus spoken he sate him down, and 
among them uprose the warrior, son of Atreus, wide- 
ruling Agamemnon, sore vexed ; and with rage was 
his black heart wholly filled, and his eyes were 
like blazing fire. To Calchas first of all he spake, 
and his look boded bane : " Prophet of evil, never 
yet hast thou spoken to me the thing that is good ; 
ever is evil dear to thy heart to prophesy, but a word 
of good hast thou never yet spoken, neither brought 
to pass. And now in the midst of the gathering 
of the Danaans thou utterest thy prophecies, and 
declarest that forsooth it is for this cause that the 
god that smiteth afar is bringing woes upon them, 
for that I would not accept the glorious ransom for the 
maid, the daughter of Chryses, seeing I am minded 
far rather to keep her in my home. For, know 
you, I prefer Jier before Clytemnestra, my wedded 
wife, since she is no whit inferior to her, either in 
form or in stature, or in mind, or anywise in handi- 
work. Yet, even so will I give her back, if that be 
better ; rather would \ have the folk safe than 
perishing. But for me do ye make ready a prize 
forthwith, that I may not alone of the Argives be 
without a prize, since this were not even seemly ; 

U 



HOMER 

Aevcrcrere yap to ye Trdvres, o /xot, ye pas epxerai 
dXXr]." 

Tov 8 rjjxet^er^ eneira 7To8dpKrjs Sto? 'A;^tAAeus* 
ArpetS-q KvSiare, (f)iXoKTeav(jjTaTe ttovtcov, 
TTcbs yap TOi hwaovcTi yepas pLeyddvpLoi ^A^^aLcn; 
ovSe ri ttov iSfxev ^vviqCa Keifieva TToXXd, 
aAAa rd fxev ttoXlcuv e^eTrpdOQ/jiev, rd SeSacrrai, ] 
Aaovs 8 ovK erreoLKe TraXiXXoya ravr' eTrayeipew. 
aAAa cry pf^v vvv rrjvhe deep irpoes' avrdp 'A;^aiot 
rpLTrXfj TerpairXfj r' dTToriaop.ev , at kI ttoOl Z,evs 
Swai TToXiv TpoLTjv ivreixeov i^aXaTrd^at." 

Tov S' d7Tap,etP6p,evo9 7rpo(xe(f)r] Kpeimv 'Aya- 
p,ep,v(jov' ] 

"p,7j Srj ovTOJS, ay ados Trep ecov, deoeUeX 'A;^tAAei;, 
/cAeVre voco, enel ov TrapeXevaeai ovSe p.e Treiaeis. 
rj eOeXeis, ocj^p' avros ^XU^ y^po-s, avrdp epj" avrcos^ 
rjaOaL hevopLevov, KeXeai he pie tt^i^S' dirohovvai; 
aAA' el pev hdjoovai yepas pieyddvpoi 'A;^aiot, ] 
dpaavres Kara Qvpiov, ottcos dvrd^tov earat,- 
el 8e Ke [j^ huicoaiv, eycj he Kev avros eXcopLai 
7) reov 7] Aiavros Icbv yepas, t] ^OSvorjos g 

d$o) eXiov 6 he Kev KexoXwaerai, ov Kev t/cco/xaiP 
aAA rj roi piev ravra pLera(f)paa6p,eada Kal avris, 1 
vvv h' dye vrja ^ueAaivai/ epvaaop,ev els dXa Sta t^. 
ev S eperas emnqhes dyeipopiev , is h' eKar6p,^'qv 
deiop^ev, dv 8' avrr]v X.pvarjtha KaXXnrdprjov^ 
^TjCTopev ets he ris dpxos dvrjp ^ovXri<l>6pos 

ear CO, 
ri Alas r} ^Ihopuevevs 7] htos *Ohvaaevs 1 

* Lines 133 f. were rejected by Aristarchus, 

* Line 139 was rejected by Aristarchus. 

* Line 143 was rejected by Zenodotus, 
12 



THE ILIAD, I. 120-145 

for ye all see this, that my prize goes from me 
otherwhere." 

Then in answer to him spake goodly Achilles, 
swift of foot : " Most glorious son of Atreus, thou 
most covetous of all men, how shall the great-souled 
Achaeans give thee a prize ? Naught do we know 
of wealth laid up in common store, but whatsoe'er 
we took by pillage from the cities hath been appor- 
tioned, and it were not meet to gather these things 
back from the folk. Nay, do thou give her up at 
the god's behest, and we Achaeans will recompense 
thee threefold and fourfold, if ever Zeus grant us 
to sack the well- walled city of Troy.^ " 

Then in answer to him spake lord Agamemnon : 
" Not on this wise, valiant though thou art, godlike 
Achilles, do thou seek to beguile me by thy wit ; 
for thou shalt not outstrip me nor persuade. 
Wouldest thou, to the end that thou mayest thy- 
self keep thy prize, yet have me abide thus in want, 
seeing thou biddest me give her back ? Nay, if 
the great-souled Achaeans give me a prize, suiting 
it to my mind that the recompense be equal ! — but, 
if they give it not, then will I come myself and take 
thy prize or that of Aias, or that of Odysseus will I 
seize and bear away. Wroth will he be to whom- 
soever I shall come. Howbeit, of these things will 
we take thought hereafter ; for this present let us 
launch a black ship into the bright sea, and therein 
gather a due tale of rowers, and place on board a 
hecatomb, and embark on it the fair-cheeked 
daughter of Chryses herself. And let one that is a 
counsellor take command, Aias haply, or Idomeneus, 
or goodly Odysseus, or thou, son of Peleus, of all 

* Or, as Aristarchus, " a city of Troy-land." 

13 



HOMER 

^e crv, HrjXetSr}, irdvrojv e/CTrayAoTar' avhpwv, 
6(f>p rjfilu eKaepyov tXdacreat, Upd pe^as." 

Tov 8 dp VTToSpa IScbv 7Tpoa€(f)7] TToSa? (Lkvs 

'A;^tAAeys'" 
" oJ /xot, dvaiSeLrjv iTneLf.iev€, KephaXe6(f>pov , 
TTcos Tt's" TOt Trp6(f>poiv eiTeaiv TT eidrjra i 'A;^aiajv 150 
Tj ohov iXOefievai, t] avSpdcrtv l<j)i fjidx^adai; 
ov yap iyoj Tpwcov eVe/c' yjXvdov alxP'fJTdcov 
Sevpo [j,a)(rja6fjL€VOs , eVet ov ri puoi airioi elaiv 
ov ydp TTCx) ttot' e/xa? ^ovs rjXaaav ovSe fbky "ttttovs, 
ovSe TTOT* iv ^Olt) ipi^d)XaKi ^coriaveLpj) 155 

KapTTov e8r]X7]aavT* , cttcl rj pudXa ttoAAo, /xera^u 
ovped re OKioevra ddXacrad re rjXfjeacra' 
aAAa aoL, a> fxey avaLO€9, ap, eairopiea , ocppa av 

Xo.ipr]S, 
TLfJLrjv dpvvfxevot MevcXdcp aoi re, KvvojTra, 
npos Tpcocov Tcov ov n p,€TaTp€7rr) oi5S' aAeyt- 

^ei9-^ ' IGO 

Kal brj p,oi yepas auTo? acffaip-qaeaOai aTreiAei?, 
w em TToXXd p,6yrjcra, Soaav Se p,OL vies *A)^aLdju. 
ov pL€V aoi TTore laov e^oi yepag, ottttot' *A)^aiol 
Tpdxov eic^epaojo' ev vai6p,evov TrroXiedpov 
dXXd TO fxev TrXetov TTO^diKos noXefioLO 165 

X^^P^S ifxal hieTTOva' drdp rjv irore Saajxos Ikt]- 

rai, 
aoi TO yepas rroXif pbeit,ov, eyoj 8' oXiyov re <j)iXov re 
epxopj* e^oiv errl vrjas, eTrei Ke Kdp^io noXep^i^cov. 
vvv 8' et/xi 0^trjv8', errel r^ ttoXv <j)eprep6v eariv 
ot/ca8' 'ip,ev avv vrjval Kopcoviaiv, ovSe a' dtco 170 

evddh* drip^os ecbv dcfyevos Kal rrXovrov d(f>v^etv." 
Tov 8' r]p.ei^er erreira dva^ dvBpd>v 'Aya- 

fxep,vajv' 
14 



THE ILIAD, I. 146-172 

en most dread, that thou mayest offer sacrifice 
id appease him that worketh afar." 

Then with an angry glance from beneath his brows 
take to him Achilles, swift of foot : " Ah me, thou 
othed in shamelessness, thou of crafty mind, how 
lall any man of the Achaeans hearken to thy bidding 
Lth a ready heart either to go on a journey or to 

ht amain with warriors ? I came not hither to 

ht by reason of the spearmen of Troy, seeing they 
e no whit at fault toward me. Never harried they 

any wise my kine or my horses, nor ever in deep- 
iled Phthia, nurse of men, did they lay waste the 
■ain, for full many things lie between us — shadowy 
ountains and sounding sea. But thee, thou shame- 
ss one, did we follow hither, that thou mightest 
i glad, seeking to win recompense for Menelaus 
id for thee, thou dog-face, at the hands of the Tro- 
ns. This thou regardest not, nor takest thought 
lereof ; and forsooth thou threatenest that thou 
ilt thyself take from me the prize wherefor I toiled 
ucli, and the sons of the Achaeans gave it me, 
ever have I prize like to thine, when the Achaeans 
ck a well-peopled citadel of the Trojans ; nay, 
le brunt of tumultuous war do my hands bear, but 
ever an apportionment cometh, thy prize is greater 
r, while I go to my ships with some small thing, 
;t mine own, when I am grown weary Avith fighting. 
ow will I go hence to Phthia, seeing it is better far 
) return home with my beaked ships, nor am I 
inded here in dishonour to draw thee thy fill of 
oods and wealth." 
Then made answer the king of men, Agamemnon : 

^ Line 160 was rejected by Zenodotus. 

15 



HOMER 

* <f)€V'y€ iiaX , e? rot dv/xos eTreaavraL, ovSe a 

lyoi ye 
Xiuaofxai €LV€K efJbeXo fieveiv irdp" €[ji,ol ye /cat a'AAot 
OL Ke fie rifjLTJaovat, [xaXLcrra 8e iirjTLera Zeu?! 
e-)(dt(yros 8e /xot ecrai Si.orp€(f)ea>v ^aaiXn^wv 
alel yap roi epis re ^iXr] TToXefxol re /xa;)^ai re} 
el fxaXa Kaprepos eaai, 6e6s ttov aol ro y eScoKev, 
o'l'/caS' Icov arvv vrjvai. re afjs koI cfqIs erdpoLai^^ 
MvpfiihoveacLV dvaaae, aedev 8' eyoj ovk oAeyt^oi 
ovS' oOofiat Koreovros. dTreiXi^aa} Se roi cSSe* 
(Jjs e/x' d(f>acpelra(, ^pvarjtSa Oot^o? 'AttoAAcov, 
rrjv fjiev eycb avv vrjt r ijJbfj Kol ifiols erdpoiai 
TTefju/jo), eyoj Se k* dyco J^picrrjtBa KaXXnrdpr^ov 
avros lojv KXicrirjvSe, ro gov yepas, ocjyp' ev elSfjs 
oacrov (j>eprep6s elpii aedev, arvyer] Se kol dXXos 
laov efxol ^daOcLi /cai ofxoLOjdriiievai dvrrjv." 

"O? (f)dro' IlrjXetojvL 8' a^o? yever* , ev 8e ol rjrop 
arrideaaiv Xaaioiat hidvhi^^a pbepfx-^pi^ev, 
rj o ye (f>dayavov o^v epvaadfxevos Trapd firjpov 
rovs p-ev dvaarrjoeiev , 6 8' 'ArpetSrjv evapi^oi, 
rje x^^ov TTavaeiev eprjrvaeie re dvfiov.^ 
rjos 6 ravd^ wpfxaive Kara <^peva /cat Kara Ovfiov, 
eXKero 8' e/c KoXeolo fxeya ^l(f>o9, riXde 8' ^AdrjVT) 
ovpavodev Trpo yap rJKe Bed XevKcoXevos "Hprj,^ 
a/x(/)Ct> opbdjs Ovfxo) (faXeovad re Kr]Sop,evr] re. 
arrj 8' orrtdev, ^avdrjs 8e KOfJLTjS eXe HrjXetojva 
o'lo) ^aLvofxevT]' rcov 8' dXXoiv ov ris opdro. 
ddfi^-qaev 8' 'A;\;tAeus', puerd 8* erpdrrer* , avriKa 

8' eyvoi 
OaAAaS' *A6r)valr)V' Beivoj 8e ol oaae (jidavOev 

1 Line 177 ( = v. 891) was rejected by Aristarchus. 
• Line 192 was rejected by Aristarchus. 

16 



THE ILIAD, I. 173-200 

" Yea, flee, if thy heart bids thee ; I beg thee not to 
remain for my sake. With me are others that will 
do me honour, and above all Zeus, the lord of counsel. 
Most hateful to me art thou of the kings, nurtured 
of Zeus, for ever is strife dear to thee and wars and 
fightings. Though thou be very valiant, a god, I 
ween, gave thee this. Get thee home with thy 
ships and thy men, and lord it over thy Myrmidons ; 
for thee I care not, neither reck of thy wrath. And 
this shall be my threat to thee : seeing that Phoebus 
Apollo taketh from me the daughter of Chryses, her 
with a ship of mine and men of mine will I send back, 
but I will myself come to thy hut and take the fair- 
cheeked Briseis, that prize of thine ; that thou may est 
know full well how far mightier am I than thou, and 
another too may shrink from declaring himself my 
peer and likening himself to me to my face." 

So he spake, and grief came upon the son of Peleus, 
and within his shaggy breast his heart was divided 
in counsel, whether he should draw his sharp sword 
from beside his thigh, and break up the gathering, 
and himself slay the son of Atreus, or should stay 
his wrath and curb his spirit. While he pondered 
thus in mind and heart, and was drawing from its 
sheath his great sword, Athene came from heaven, 
sent forth of the goddess, white-armed Hera, for in 
her heart she loved them both alike and had care of 
them. She took her stand behind him, and caught 
the son of Peleus by his golden hair, making herself 
to be seen of him alone, and of the rest no man 
beheld her. And Achilles was seized with wonder, 
and turned him about, and forthwith knew Pallas 
Athene ; and terribly did her eyes flash. Then he 

• Lines 195 f. ( = 208 f.) were rejected by Aristarchus. 
VOL. I c 17 



HOMER 

Kai fxiv (f)OJV-qaas eVea Trrepoevra TTpoarjvSa' 
" tittt' aur', alyioxoLO Ato? reKos, elXi^Xovdas ; 
"^ Iva v^piv iSrjs ^Ayafxefjivovos 'ArpetSao; 
dAA' €K roL ipico, ro 8e koL reXeeadai otw 
fjg vnepoTrXirjai rdx civ TTore dufiov oXeaarj'' 

Tov 8' avre TrpoaeeiTre dea yXavKa)7ns 'Ad'qvr]' 
" '^XOov iyo) TTavaovua reov fxevos, at Ke TTidrjaL, 
ovpavodev irpo Se /x' rjKe dea XevKcLXevos "YLpr], 
dpLcfiCjD ofiws dvfiw (f)iX€ovad re KrjSojJievrj re. 
dAA' aye Xrjy' epthos, pbrjhe ^i^o? eXKeo x^^P^\ 
dAA' rj rot, eneacv [xev oveiSiaov cos eaerai rrep' . 
cSSe ydp i^epew, to 8e /cat rereXeafievov earai. 
Kai TTore rot, rplg roaaa Trapeaaerai dyAad Scopa 
vppLog eiveKa rrjaoe' av o ictx^o, Tretoeo o rjjxiv. 

TrfV 8' d7Ta[jL€L^6fjL€VOS Trpoae^rj TroSa? cjkvs 
'A;^tAAei;s"" 
" XP'^ H'^v a(f)cotrep6v ye, 6ed, eirog elpvaaaadai 
Kal fjidXa vep BvpLco KexoXajfievov cos" yap dp^eivov. 
OS K€ deols iTTiTTetOrjrai,, fxdXa t' ckXvov avrov.' 

'H Kal €7r' dpyvpirj kcottt^ ax^d^ X^^P^ ^apelav^ 
difj 8' is KovXeov (Lae fxeya ^l(/)os, ovS^ aTTiOrjae 
fxvdcp ^Adrjvairjs' rj 8' Ot'Ai'/Lt7roi^8e ^e^7]KeL 
Sayfiar^ is alyioxoio Ato? fxerd haipLovas dXXovs. 

YiiqXethiqs 8' i^avrcs draprrjpols iTreeaatv 
Arpethrjv TTpoaeenre, Kal ov tto) Xijye ;^oAoto* 
" olvo^apes , Kvvos opLpuar exoiv, KpaSirjv 8' eAa- 

<f)OLO,^ 

^ In the place of lines 219 f, Zenodotus gave, 

C&S eiTTuv irdXiv Siae /jAya ^i<po% oi'S' awidrjae 

* Lines 225-233 were rejected by Zenodotns. 

^ In other words, " Cast in his teeth what the issue will be." 
18 



THE ILIAD, I. 201-225 

spake to her with winged words, and said : " Why 
now art thou come again, daughter of Zeus, who 
beareth the aegis ? Was it that thou mightest see 
the insolence of Agamemnon, son of Atreus ? Nay, 
I will tell thee, and methinks this shall verily be 
brought to pass : through his own overweening 
pride shall he presently lose his life." 

Then the goddess, flashing-eyed Athene, answered 
him : "To stay thine anger, if so be thou wilt 
hearken, did I come from heaven, and the goddess, 
white-armed Hera, sent me forth, for in her heart 
she loves you both alike, and hath care of you. 
Nay, come, cease from strife, and let not thy hand 
draw the sword. With words indeed do thou taunt 
him, even as it shall be ^ ; for thus will I speak, and 
verily this thing shall be brought to pass : hereafter 
shall glorious gifts thrice and four times as many be 
brought to thee by reason of this despite. Refrain 
thou, therefore, and hearken unto us." 

Then in answer to her spake Achilles, swift of 

foot : " Needs must a man, goddess, observe the 

words of you twain, how wroth soever he be at heart, 

(for so is it^better. Whoso obeys the gods, to him 

do they gladly give ear." 

He spake, and stayed his heavy hand on the silver 
hilt, and back into its sheath thrust the great sword, 
and disobeyed not the word of Athene ; but she was 
forthwith gone to Olympus to the palace of Zeus, 
who beareth the aegis, to join the company of the 
other gods. 

But the son of Peleus again addressed with violent 
words the son of Atreus, and in no wise ceased from 
his wrath : " Thou heavy with wine, thou with the 
front of a dog but the heart of a deer, never hast 

19 



HOMER 

ovT€ TTOT* e? TToXejxov oifjia Aaoj Oojp-qxdrjvai 
ovre XoxovS' livai avv apiarrjeaoLV 'Axaicbv 
TerXrjKas dvfjbo)' to 8e tol Krjp etSerat eivai. 
■^ TToXv Xco'iov ean Kara arparov evpvv ^A)(aLa)V 
ScDp' oLTToaipeladai os tls aeOev avriov enrr)' 2 

Brjfxo^opos ^aaiXevs, eVet ovTcSavolaiV avdaaeis' 
•^ yap av, ^ Krpethr], vvv varara Xco^'^aaio. 
aXX' €K roL ipeo) /cat inl pieyav opKov opbovfiai' 
val fia ToSe aKrjTrrpov, to /xev ov ttotg <{)vXXa /cat 

o^ovs 
(f>va€L, €7Tel hr) Trpayra roiMrjv iv opeacn XdXonrev, 2 
ou8' dvadrjXi^aer Trepl yap pa. i p^aA/cos eXeipe 
(f>vXXa re /cat (f)Xoi6v, vvv avre fXLV vies 'A;(ata)»' 
iv TTaXdjxr^s (jiopiovai SiKaanoXoL, ot re depnaras 
TTpog Aios elpvarat' 6 Se rot fieyas kaaeraL opKOS' 
rj nor* 'A;)^tAA7^o? TTodr] i^erai vlas 'A;\;aiaiv 2 

avfjiTTavras' rore 8' ov ri ^vvT^aeai dxi'Vfievos TTcp 
XpacafMeXv, eur' dv ttoXXoI ixj)* "E/cropos" dvBpo- 

<f)6vOLO 

OvrjOKOVTe^ TTiTTTOxn' av 8' evSodc Ovpuov dpiv^eis 
Xcodfievos o t' dpiarov 'A;^ata>v ovhev eriaag. 

'^Q.s (fidro nT^Aei^T^s", ttotI 8e aKrJTTTpov ^diXe ycLLrj 2 
Xpvaeioig -^Xoiai ireTrappievov , et,ero 8' avros' I 
'ArpetSrjs 8' irepwOev ifnqvLe' roZat 8e NeorTCop 
•qZveTTr]? dvopovae, Atyu? YivXicov dyoprjrrjs, 
rod /cat aTro yXcoacrqg /xeAtro? yAu/ctcuv peev auSry. 
ra> 8' 1^87^ 8i;o /itei' yeveal fiepoTTWv dvOpcoTTOjv 
e<j)6iad\ ol ol Trpoadev S.[xa rpd(f)6V •)}8' iyevovTO 
20 



THE ILIAD, I. 226-251 

thou had courage to arm thee for battle with thy 
folk, or go forth to an ambush with the chiefs of the 
Achaeans. That seemeth to thee even as death. 
In sooth it is better far throughout the wide camp 
of the Achaeans to take for thyself the prize of him 
whosoever speaketh contrary to thee. Folk-devour- 
ing king, seeing thou rulest over men of naught ; 
else, son of Atreus, wouldest thou now work insolence 
for the last time. But I will declare my word to 
thee, and will swear thereto a mighty oath : verily 
by this staff, that shall no more put forth leaves or 
shoots since at the first it left its stump among the 
mountains, neither shall it again grow green, for 
that the bronze hath stripped it of leaves and bark, 
and now the sons of the Achaeans that give judg- 
ment bear it in their hands, even they that guard 
the dooms by ordinance of Zeus ; and this shall be 
for thee a mighty oath : — verily shall a longing for 
Achilles some day come upon the sons of the 
Achaeans one and all, and in that day shalt thou 
in no wise be able to help them for all thy grief, 
when many shall fall in death before man-slaying 
Hector. But thou shalt gnaw thy heart within thee 
in wrath that thou didst honour no whit the best 
of the Achaeans." 

So spake the son of Peleus, and down to the earth 
he dashed the staff studded with golden nails, and 
himself sate him down ; while over against him the 
son of Atreus continued to vent his wrath. Then 
among them uprose Nestor, sweet of speech, the 
clear-voiced orator of the men of Pylos, he from 
whose tongue flowed speech sweeter than honey. 
Two genei'ations of mortal men had he ere now seen 
pass away, who of old had been born and reared with 

21 



HOMER 

€V HvXcp rjyaOer), fxera 8e rpirdroLaiv civaaaev. 
6 a(f)LV iv (f)povecov ayop-qaaro /cat fxereenrcv 

d> TTOTTOL, rj ixeya irevdos 'A)(^au8a yalav LKavef 
rj Kev yiqOriaai YlpLafxos IT/Dta/xoio re TratSes' ; 

aAAot re Tpwes /xe'ya k€v Kexapoiaro Ovfia), 
el a<f)a)'Cv rdhe rravra TTvdoiaro fxapvafxevouv, 
ot rrepl fxev ^ovXrjV Aai'acDv, Tvepl S' eare /xa;^e- 

cr^at. 
aAAa rridead^' a/x(^a> he vecjrepco earov efxelo. 
7]hr] yap ttot' eyoj /cat dpeioaiv rje irep vfilv^ 
dvSpdaiv co/xtA-^CTtt, /cat ov TTore ^' 61 y' ddepLt,ov. 
ov ydp TTOJ roLOVs iSov dvepas ovSe tScofxai, 
olov UeipiOoov re Apvavrd re, TTOLpueva XaiJbv, 
KatP'ea r 'E^a8tov re /cat dvrideov WoXv^-qixov , 
Srjaea r* AiyetSrjv, emeiKeXov ddavdroiaLv.'^ 
ndpricrroL Sr^ Kelvot e7TL)(dovicov rpd^ev dvSpcov 
KdpTiaroL p,ev eaav /cat KapriaroLs epbd^ovro, 
(fiTjpalv opecrKcpoiai, /cat eKirdyXcxis djroXecraav. 
/cat iiev rolaiv eycj piedopiiXeov e'/c "i^IuAou eXOcov, 
rrjXoOev e^ aTrtrys" yatT^s" KaXeaavro ydp avroi. 
/cat fiaxdiJirjv Kar ep, avrov eycL' /cetVotat S' dv ov 

r<x>v ot vvv ^poroL elaiv eTn-)(d6vtoL p,ax€OLro' 
Kal p,ev p,eu ^ovXecov ^vvtev TrelOovro re p.vda>. 
aAAa TTideade /cat u/Lt/xe?, eTrei Treideadai dpt,eLVov. 
p'qre av rovh ayadog rrep edtv drroaipeo Kovp-qv, 
aAA' ea, oj? ot Trpdjra Soaav yepas vies 'A;^ata)V 
p^-qre av, UrjXetSr], edeX epit,ep.evcL ^acriXrj'C 

^ vfiiv : Tjixlv Aristarchus. 

* Line 265 ( = Hesiod, Scut. 182) is omitted in most mss. 

* The phrase suggests that Nestor fought independently 
22 



THE ILIAD, I. 252-277 

him in sacred Pylos, and he was king among the third. 
He with good intent addressed their gathering and 
spake among them : " Fie upon you ! In good sooth 
is great grief come upon the land of Acliaea. Priam 
verily would rejoice and the sons of Priam, and the 
rest of the Trojans would be right glad at heart were 
they to hear all this tale of the strife of you twain who 
are chiefest of all the Danaans in counsel and chiefest 
in war. Nay, hearken unto me ; ye are both 
younger than I. Ere now have I consorted with 
warriors that were better men than ye, and never 
did they set me at naught. Such warriors have I 
never since seen, nor shall see, as Peirithous was 
and Dryas, shepherd of the host, and Caeneus and 
Exadius and godlike Polyphemus, and Theseus, 
son of Aegeus, peer of the immortals. Mightiest 
were these of all men reared upon the earth ; mighti- 
est were they, and with the mightiest did they fight, 
even with the centaurs that had their lairs among 
i\\e mountains, and in terrible wise did they destroy 
them. With these men I had fellowship, when 
I had come from Pylos, from afar from a distant 
land ; for of themselves they called me. And in 
fight I took my part as mine own man ^ ; but with 
them could no man fight of all mortals that now are 
upon the earth. Aye, and they hearkened to my 
counsel, and gave ear to my words. Even so do ye 
also hearken, for to hearken is better. Neither do 
thou, mighty though thou art, seek to take from 
him the girl, but let her be, even as at the first 
the sons of the Achaeans gave him her as a prize ; 
nor do thou, son of Peleus, be minded to strive with 

of tiie Lapiths, but it may mean no more than that he took 
part in battle as a 7rp6/ta;^os, or individual combatant. 

23 



HOMER 

avTt^Lrjv, eTTel ov ttoO^ ofxoirjs efifxope rifirjs 
(TKrjirrovxos ^acriXevs, w re TLevs kvSos cScokcv. 
el Se crv Kaprepos iaai,, dea Se ae yeivaro fxrJTrjp, 28 
ot»j>»' aAA' oSe (fidprepos iariv, €7ret TrXeoveaaiv dvdarcrei. 

^ArpetSirj, ai) Se Traue reov fxivos' avrdp iyo) ye t^* 
Xiaaofji 'Ap^tAAT^l" fxedipiev x^Xov, os pceya Trdaiv 
epKos 'Ap^atotcriv TreAerai TToXefxoto KaKolo." 

Tov 8' OLTrafiei^ofjievos 'npoai(j)'q Kpeiiov 'Aya- 
fjLepbvcov 28 

•^~ " vat Sr] ravrd ye Trdvra, yepov, Kara pLolpav eeirres. 
dXX oS' dvTjp edeXei vepl Trdvrcnv e/x/xevat dXXoov, 
Trdvrcov fxkv Kpareetv ideXei, Trdvreaai 8' dvdaaeiv 
Trdai 8e crrjpLaiveiv , d rtv' ov TreiaeaOai otu). 
el he fxiv alxP'rjTrjv eOeaav deol alev eovres, 2t 

TovveKd ol TTpodeovatv ovelSea fivd-^craadat, ; " 

Tov 8 a/j' VTTO^X'qSrjv rj[xei.^ero Slos 'AxiXXevs' 
" -q ydp Kev heiXos re /cat ovriSavos KaXeoLp,7]v, 
ei hrj aol irdv epyov VTrel^OfiaL dm Kev eLTTTjS. 
dXXoiaiv Brj raur' eTTireXXeo, fxrj ydp ep,oi ye 21 

aT]f-iaiv • ov yap eyoj y en aol Treiaeadai, olch} 
dXXo he Tot epeoi, av 8' evX <\>pea\ ^dXXeo afjai' 
;)^e/r)CTt p,ev ov rot eycx) ye fxaxijcrofiai etveKa Kovp-q? 
ovre aoi ovre toj dXXo), eTret /x' d(f>eXeade ye hovres'^ 
TcDv 8 aAAcov a /xot ean dofj napd vrjc fxeXalvrj, 3( 
rcov ovK dv TL (f)epoLS dveXojv deKovros efxelo. 
el 8 aye /Jirjv Treiprjaai, Iva yvcocoai /cat oi8e" 
alijja roi alp,a KeXaivov epiorjaei Tvepl hovpi." 
Q.S rid y dvTi^ioiat ixaxeaaapbevco etreeaaiv 
^ Line 296 was rejected by Aristarchus. 

Zenodotus. 

^ The form irpoOiovaiv is anomalous, if connexion with 
24 



THE ILIAD, I. 278-304 

a king, might against might, for it is no common 
honour that is the portion of a sceptred king to 
whom Zeus giveth glory.. Though thou be vahant, 
and a goddess mother oare thee, yet he is the 
mightier, seeing he is king over more. Son of Atreus, 
do thou check thy rage ; nay, even I beg thee to 
let go thine anger against Achilles, who is for all 
the Achaeans a mighty bulwark of evil war." 

Then in answer to him spake lord Agamemnon : 
" Yea, verily, old sire, all this hast thou spoken 
according to right. But this man is minded to be 
above all others ; over all is he minded to hold sway 
and be king among all, and to all give orders ; where- 
in there is one, methinks, that will not obey him. 
If the gods that are for ever made him a warrior, 
do they therefore set him on ^ to utter revilings ? " 

Then goodly Achilles brake in upon him, and said : 
" Aye, for I should bear the name of coward and 
man of naught, if I am to yield to thee in every 
matter, howsoe'er thou bid. On others lay thou 
these commands, but give no orders to me, for me- 
thinks I shall obey thee no more. And another 
thing will I tell thee, and do thou lay it to heart : 
by might of hand will I strive for the girl's sake 
neither with thee nor with any other, seeing ye do 
but take away what ye gave. But of all else that is 
mine by my swift black ship shalt thou take or bear 
away naught in my despite. Nay, come, make 
trial, that these too may know : forthwith shall thy 
dark blood flow forth about my spear." 

So when the twain had made an end of contending 

Ti6T]fj.i be assumed. Aristarchus took oveidea as subject (so 
Ameis and Monro), in which case we must render, "Do his 
revilings dash forward for utterance?" 

25 



HOMER 

avariqTiqv, Xvaav 8' dyoprjv irapa vrjvalv 'A;^aic5j'. 3 
YlyjXetSi-js ixev inl /cAtcrta? Kal vrjas itaas 
T^te avv re MevoLndSrj /cat ols irdpoiatv 
'ArpetSTjs S' dpa vrja Oorjv oAaSe irpoipvaaev, 
ev S iperas CKpivev eeiKoaiv, is S' iKaTOfif^rjV 
^rj<7€ deep, dvd 8e X/Jucn^iSa KaXXiTrdprjOV 3 

etaei^ aycov eV S' dp)(os c^rj 7ToXvp,rjrLs 'OSuaaeuj. 

Ot /xet' €Tr€Lr' dva^dvres eTTeTrXeou vypd KeXevda, 
Xaovs 8' 'ArpetSr]? dTToXvp^aiveadai dvcoyev 
ol 8' aTTeXvpLaivovTO Kal etV a'Aa Au/xara ^dXXov, 
ephov 8' 'AttoAAojp'i reX-qiaaas eKaTOfx^asy 3 

ravpcov 1^8' alywv rrapd 6lv' dXos drpvyeroLO' 
Kvlcrr] 8 ovpavov Ik€V eXtacropjevq irepl Kanvco. 

"O? 06 /xet' TO, TrevovTO Kara arparov oj58' 'Aya- 
/xe/xi/oji' 
Ai^y' epihos, TTjV TTpdJTOV eTrT^TretArjCT' 'A^^iAt^i, y^ ^^ 
aAA' o ye TaXdv^LOV re /cat Fivpv^drrjv Trpoaienre, 3 
Tci ot ecrav KiqpvKe /cat OTprjpd> Oepdnovre' 
" epx^aOov KXLolrjv HrjXrj'CdSeco ^Axi'Xrjos' 
X^Lpos eXovr dyepev BpiarjtSa KaXXL7rdpr)OV' 
el 8e K€ pLTj ScoTjcrtv, iyd) 8e k€v avros eXojfJLat 
iXOdjv avv TrXeovecraf to ol /cat plyiov earai." 3 

12? eLTTCOV 7TpOL€L, KpaTCpOV O CTTt flvUoV €TeAA€ . 

Toj 8' deKovre ^drrjv Trapd dlv' dXos drpvyeroio, 
}\'[vpiJiih6va)V 8' em re /cAtcrtas" /cat vija? iKeadrjv. 
rov 8' evpov irapa re KXtalrj /cat t'Tjt peXaLvr) 
'^p,€vov oyS' apa tco ye t8tov yqdrjcrev 'AxiXXevg. 3 
Tco /xei^ Tap^iqaavre /cat alBopbdvo) ^aaiXrja 

^ Others render " unvintaged " or " unharvested '* (rpir^iu)^ 
but it seems better to connect the word with the root rpv-^ 
•' rub," " wear out." 

26 



1 



THE ILIAD, I. 305-331 

with violent words, they rose, and broke up the 
gathering beside the ships of the Achaeans. The 
son of Peleus went his way to his huts and his shapely 
ships together with the son of Menoetius, and with 
his men ; but the son of Atreus let launch a swift 
ship on the sea, and chose therefor twenty rowers, 
and drave on board a hecatomb for the god, and 
brought the fair-cheeked daughter of Chryses and 
set her in the ship ; and Odysseus of many wiles 
went on board to take command. 

So these embarked and sailed over the watery 
ways ; but the son of Atreus bade the host purify 
itself. And they purified themselves, and cast the 
defilement into the sea, and offered to Apollo 
acceptable hecatombs of bulls and goats by the shore 
of the unresting ^ sea ; and the savour thereof went 
up to heaven, eddying amid the smoke. 

Thus were they busied throughout the camp ; 
howbeit Agamemnon ceased not from the strife 
wherewith he had at the first threatened Achilles, 
but called to Talthybius and Eurybates, who were 
his heralds and ready squires, saying : " Go ye to 
the hut of Achilles, Peleus' son, and take by the 
hand the fair-cheeked Briseis, and lead her hither ; 
and if he give her not, I will myself go with a larger 
company and take her ; that will be even the worse 
for him." 

So saying, he sent them forth, and laid upon them 
a stern command. Unwilling went the two along 
the shcff"e of the unresting sea, and came to the huts 
and the ships of the Myrmidons. Him they found 
sitting beside his hut and his black ship ; nor was 
Achilles glad at sight of them. And the twain, 
seized with dread, and in awe of the king, stood, 

27 



HOMER 

ar'qTrjv, ovSe tl fiiv TTpoae<f>a)veov ovh^ ipeovro' 
avTap o eyvco fjaiv ivl (f)p€al ^ojvrjaev re* 
" ;!(atpeT€, KiqpvKes, Ato? d'yyeAot rjSe /cat avSpcov 
aacrov lt • ov ri fioi y/x/xe? eTratrtot, aAA' 'Aya- 

fiefJLVwv, 3'. 

o a(f)a)'C TTpotei Jipia7]t8os eive/ca Kovprjs. 
aAA' aye, Sioyeves HarpoKXees, e^aye Kovprjv 
Kai a(f}<xi'Cv So? dyeiv rco 8' avroj ndprvpoL earajv 
77/309 re ^ea>v fiaKoipcov rrpos re dvqrwv av9pa)Tr(jov, 
Kai TTpos rod PaacXrjos aTrrjveos, €l 7tot€ Srj avre 3' 
XP^^^ e/xeio yivrjrai aeiKea Xoiyov dfivvai 
TOLS aAAoi?. rj yap 6 y oXoifjcrt. (j)peal Ovei, 
ovhe TL oiSe vorjcrai djxa TTpoaarw /cat oTriaao), 
OTTTTios ol rrapd vrjual croot fjia)(€oiVTO 'A^j^atot." 

"D? <j)d.ro, lidrpoKXos he (f)iXq) iireTretOed^ draipcp 3i 
e/c 8 ayaye KXiairjs BpLcrrjtSa KaXXnrdpr^ov , 
hcjKe 8' ayeit'' toj 8' avris tr-qv napd vrjas 'Axaicov. 
"q 8' deKova a/xa rotat yvvi] kUv. avrdp 'Ap^tA- 

Aeu? 
daKpvcras irdpwv d^ap et,€ro v6crcf)L Xiaadeis, 
Olv^ 60' ctAos" TToXtrjs, opocov inl oXvotto} ttovtovI 3' 
TToAAct 8e [X7]rpl (f>iXrj rjpT^aaro x^tpas opeyvvs 

/jLTJTep, CTret //.' ereKes ye pnvvvddhiov irep eovra, 
TijXTjV TTep fjLot o^eAAef ^OXvfnrios iyyvaXi^ai 
Zeu? vtJji^peiieTrjs' vvv 8' ou8e' fie rvrdov ercaev 
Tj yap p,' 'ArpetSrjs evpv Kpeiiov ^ AyafxepLVcov 3c 

7]rip,iqaev' eXojv yap ep^et yepas, avros dirovpas." 

^ iwi oivowa : in' direlpova Aristarchus. 
' dpeyvvs : dfaTrrds Zenodotus. 



THE ILIAD, I. 332-356 

and spake no word to him, nor made question ; but 
he knew in his heart, and spake, saying : " Hail, 
heralds, messengers of Zeus and men, draw near. 
It is not ye that are guilty in my sight, but 
Agamemnon, who sent you forth for the sake of the 
girl, Briseis. Yet come, Patroclus, sprung from 
Zeus, bring forth the girl, and give her to them 
to lead away. Howbeit, let these twain themselves 
be witnesses before the blessed gods and mortal 
men, aye, and before him, that ruthless king, if 
so be hereafter there shall be need of me to ward 
off shameful ruin from the host. In good sooth 
he rageth with baneful mind, and knoweth not at 
all to look at once before and after, that so his 
Achaeans might wage war in safety beside their - 
ships." 

So spake he, and Patroclus gave ear to his dear 
comrade, and led forth from the hut the fair-cheeked 
Briseis, and gave her to them to lead away. So 
the twain went back beside the ships of the Achaeans, 
and with them, all unwilling, went the woman. 
But Achilles forthwith burst into tears, and withdrew 
apart from his comrades, and sate him down on the 
shore of the grey sea, looking forth over the wine- 
dark deep ; and earnestly did he pray to his dear 
mother with hands outstretched : " My mother, 
seeing thou didst bear me, though to so brief a span 
of life, honour' surely ought the Olympian to have 
given into itiy hands, even Zeus that thundereth on 
high ; but now hath he honoured me, no not a whit. 
Yea verily, the son of Atreus, wide -ruling Aga- 
memnon hath done me dishonour ; for he hath 
taken away and holdeth my prize through his own 
arrogant act." 

29 



HOMER 

Cls (fxiTO BaKpv xecov, rov 8' e/cAuc TTorvca 

rjfievT] €v ^evOeaatv dXos Trapa Trarpl yipovrr 

KapTTaXi/xcos 8' dveSv ttoXitjs dXos rjvr' opiLxXr), 

Kai pa rrdpotd^ avroZo /ca^e^ero BaKpv p^eovros", ! 

p^eipt re /xtv Karepe^ev, eiros t e^ar' e/c r' dvo/xa^e* 

" reKvov, TL /cAaiei?; rt 8e cre (j)pevas lkcto irivOos; 

i^avSa, fiTj Kevde voip, tva etSofxev dp,(f)0)." 

Trjv Se ^apv arevd^oiv 7Tpoa€cf)rj TrdSa? cokvs 

' A^^iAAeus" * 

" olada. TL •^ TOi ravra IBvirj iravr dyopevco; ; 

(h)(op,ed^ is Sri^r]v, leprjv ttoXlv 'Herttovos", 

Trjv 8e SieTTpddofjLev re /cat TJyofxev ivOdSe Travra. 

/cat rd picv ev Sdaaavro fxerd a(f)l,cnv vies 'A;^ata)v, 

e/c 8' eXov ^ArpetSTj yipvarjtSa KaXXLTrdprjov . 

^pvar]s 8' avd^ lepevs eKarrj^oXov 'A'JtoAAcdvos 

rjXOe dods €771 v^a? 'A;^ata)t' )(aXKOxi'TOiVO)v 

Xvaofxevos re Ovyarpa (f)epa)V t' dTrepeioi aTTOiva^ 

cTrepbp,ar e-)(^cjjv ev ;^e/)CTtt' eKiq^oXov ^ KttoXXcdvos 

Xpvaeo) dvd aKajTrrpco, /cat Xiaaero Trdvras 'Ap^atou?, 

'ArpetSa 8e fidMcrra hvco, Koan'qrope Xaojv. 

evd^ dXXoi [lev Trdvres e7Tev(f)'qfir]crav 'A;;(atot 

alhelaSal 6^ leprja /cat dyAaa Bexdo-i' aTTOiva' 

aAA' ovK ^A^rpetSj] 'Aya/ze/xvovt i^VSai^e dvficp, 

dXXd KaKws d(f)iei, Kp arepov 8* eTrt fi vdov ereX Xe. 

XOJOfievos. 8' d yepcov iraXiv q)xero' roio 8' 'AttoA- 

Acoi/ 

ev^apievov rjKovaev, eTrel pt,dXa ol ^iXos rjev, 

^jKe 8' ctt' 'ApyetotCTt /ca/cdv ^eXos' ol 8e ru Aaoi 

1 Lines 373-379 ( = 12-16, 22-25) were rejected by 
Aristarchus. 

30 



THE ILIAD, I. 357-382 

So he spake, weeping, and his queenly mother 
heard him, as she sat in the depths of the sea beside 
the old man, her father. And speedily she came 
forth from the grey sea like a mist, and sate her 
down before his face, as he wept ; and she stroked 
him with her hand, and spake to him, and called 
him by name : " My child, why weepest thou ? 
What sorrow hath come upon thy heart ? Speak 
out ; hide it not in thy mind, that we both may 
know." 

Then with heavy moaning spake to her Achilles,- 
swift of foot: " Thou knowest. Why, in truth, 
should I tell the tale to thee who knowest all ? 
We went forth to Thebe, the sacred city of Eetion, 
and laid it waste, and brought hither all the spoil. 
This the sons of the Achaeans divided aright among 
themselves, but for the son of Atreus they chose 
out the fair-cheeked daughter of Chryses. Howbeit, 
Chryses, priest of Apollo, that smiteth afar, came 
to the swift ships of the brazen-coated Achaeans, 
to win freedom for his daughter, and he brought 
ransom past counting, bearing in his hands the 
fillets of Apollo, that smiteth afar, on a staff of gold, 
and he made prayer to all the Achaeans, but most 
of all to the two sons of Atreus, the marshallers of 
the host. Then all the rest of the Achaeans shouted 
assent, bidding reverence the priest and accept the 
glorious ransom ; yet the thing pleased not the heart 
of Agamemnon, son of Atreus, but he sent him 
away harshly, and laid upon him a stern command. 
So the old man went back again in wrath ; and 
Apollo heard his prayer, for he was very dear to 
him, and sent against the Argives an evil dart. 
Then the folk began to die thiick and fast, and the 

31 



HOMER 

OvrjaKOV iTTaaavrepoi, ra 8' iTTMX^TO KrjXa ueoto 
TTOVTrj ava arparov evpvv 'A;!(ata)V. dfifiL 8e 

fJLoivTLS j 

ev elScbg dyopeve OeoTrpoirlas e/caroto. 
avTLK iyo) 7Tpd)ros K€X6[jbr]V Oeov IXdoKead ai' 
^Arpetwva 8' eVetra xoXos Xd^ev, alifjd 8' dvaQras 
rjTTeiXr^aev fMvdov, 6 Srj rereXeapLevos earf 
TTjv pikv yap avv V7]C 6ofj iXiKWTres 'A;!^ato^ 
es" ^pva7]v TTepLTTOvaiv, dyovac 8e Bcopa avaKTi* 
TTjV 8e veov KXiairjOev e^av K-qpvKes dyovreg 
Kovp'qv Bpicrrjos, rrfv pt,ot, Soaav vies ^Axo-lcov. 
dXXd av, el Svvacrai ye, Trepiax^o iraihos ioio^ . 
iXBovd' OvXvpLTTovSe Ata Xiaat, ei ttotc B'q ri\ 
T] eVet cjvqaas KpahirjV Ato? ije koX epyw. 
TToXXaKL yap creo Trarpos ivl pbeydpoiaiv aKovaa? 
evxofievrjs , or* €(f)rja9a KeXaivecjieC Kpovtcow 
017) iv dOavdroLGtv det/cea Xoiyov dpt,vvai, 
OTTTTOTc pLiv ^vvhrjuai, 'OAy/XTTioi rjdeXov dXXoi, 
"Uprj t' r)he YloaeiBdcov /cat ITaAAds" ^Adtjvq.' 
dXXd av rov y iXOovaa, ded, vireXvaao heap,6Jv, 
d>x' eKaToyx^ipov KaXeaaa is fxaKpov OXvp^nov, 
ov Bpidpeojv KaXiovai deoi, dySpes Se re 7TavT€S 
AlyaicDV*' 6 yap avre ^trj ov Trarpos dp,€LVCov' 
OS pa napd KpovLCovt. KaOei^ero Kvhe'C yaiwv 
Tov teal VTTeSSeiaav fidKapes deal ovSe t' eBrjaav. 
Tcov vvv pLLV pLViqaaaa Trape^eo /cat Xa^e yovvcjv, 
at /ceV TTiDs eOeXjjaiv iirl Tpweaaiv dprj^ai, 

^ ioio : erjoi. 
* Lines 396-406 were rejected by Zenodotus. 
' ITaWds 'Adrjfrj : *ot/3os 'AiruWwf Zenodotus. 

32 



THE ILIAD, I. 383-408 

shafts of the god ranged everywhere throughout 
the wide camp of the Aehaeans. Howbeit to us 
the prophet with sure knowledge declared the oracles 
of the god that smiteth afar. Forthwith, then, I, 
the first, bade propitiate the god, but thereafter 
wrath laid hold of the son of Atreus, and straight- 
way he arose and spoke a threatening word, that 
hath now been brought to pass. For the bright- 
eyed Aehaeans are taking the maiden in a swift 
sliip to Chryse, and are bearing gifts to the god ; 
while that other have heralds but now taken from 
my hut and led away, even the daughter of Briseus, 
whom the sons of the Aehaeans gave me. But, 
if so be thou hast powet, guard thou thine own 
son ; hie thee to Olympus anfl make prayer to Zeus, 
if ever thou hast made glad his heart by word or 
deed. Full often have I heard thee glorying in the 
halls of my father, and declaring that thou alone 
among the immortals* didst ward off shameful ruin 
from the son of Cronos, lord of tliie dark clouds, 
on the day when the other Olympians were* fain 
to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and 
Pallas Athene. But thou caifiest, goddess, and 
didst loose him from his bonds, when thou hadst 
with speed called to _ high Olympus him of the 
hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all 
men Aegaeon ; for he is mightier than his father.^ 
He sate him down by the side of the son of Cronos, 
exulting in his glory, and the blessed gods were 
seized with fear of him, and bound not Zeus. This 
do thou now bring to his remembrance, and sit thee 
by his side, and clasp his knees, in hope that he 
may haply be minded to succour the Trojans, and for 

^ His father was Poseidon. 
VOL. I D • 33 



j^,d^ HOMER ^^'^ 

Toii? Se Kara Trpvjxvas re /cai a^* dXa eXaat 

'A;^aious" 
Kr€ivo[jL€vovs, Iva TTOLPTes iTravpcovrat ^aaiXrjos, 
yvo) Se Kol ^Arpeihris evpv Kpeiiov 'Aya/xe)u.vcoi' 
7Jv arrjv, 6 r dpiarov ^A-)(aid)V ovSev eriarcv." 

Tov 8' rjixei^er eireLra ©erts" Kara haKpv 
X^ovaa' 
" o) [xoL reKvov efjuov, ri vv a erpe^ov olva. rcKovcra; 
aW^ o^eXes Trapd vrjvaly dhaKpvros /cat dTnjjxcov 
■^jodai, eVet vv roi atcra fJLivvvdd Trep, ov rt.fJbdXa 8-qv 
vvv 8' dfxa T (lyKVjxopos /cat dcl,vp6s Trepl iravTcov 
eirXeo' Tto ae KaKrj alajj t€kov eV pieydpoiai. 
TOVTO 8e rot epiovaa erros Att repTTiKepavvoj 
et/x' avTT) TTpos "OXvfiTTOv dydvvi^ov, at /ce Trid-qraiJ < 
aAAa ai) {xkv vvv vrjval Trapuj/xevos coKviropoiaL j 
fi-qvL* ^A)(aLolaLv, TroAe/xou 8' dTTonaveo Trdfnrav 
Zey? yap is ^Q.K€av6v [xer dfivfiovas AWLOTrrjas 
^Qi't^S ^i6r] Kara Salra, Oeol 8' a/xa iravres errovTO'^ 
ScoSeKdrrj 8e roi avns iXcvaerat, OvXvfXTTovSe, '. 
/cat TOT* eneLTa rot, et/zt Ato? ttotl x^XKo^ares 8o), 
/cat fiLV yovvdaojxai /cat p,iv Tretaeadat otco." 

"n? apa (f)a>vriaaa dne^'^aeTo, tov 8e AtV avrov 
Xcoofxevov Kara Ovfjbov e'ii^cuvoio yvvaiKos, 
rrjv pa ^ir) deKovros dn-qvpcov avrdp ^OSvaaevs i 
is y^pvcr-qv iKavev dycvv leprjv iKaroix^rjV . 
ol 8' OTG Br) Xi/JLCvos 7ToXv^€v9eos ivros^ ikovto, 
iCTTia iJi€V arelXavro , deaav 8' iv vtjl jxeXaivr), 
laTOV o icTToSoKr) TTeXaaav Trporovoiaiv V(f)evT€S 

^ iirovTo : eirovrai. Aristarchus. 
^ ivrbs: iyyi/s Aristarchus. 

34 



THE ILIAD, I. 409-434 

those others, the Achaeans, to pen them in among 
the sterns of their ships and around the sea as they are 
slain, to the end that they may all have profit of 
their king, and that the son of Atreus, wide-ruling 
Agamemnon may know his blindness in that he 
honoured no whit the best of the Achaeans." 

Then Thetis made answer to him, shedding tears 
the while : " Ah me, my child, why did I rear thee, 
cursed in my child-bearing ? Would that it had been 
thy lot to abide by thy ships without tears and with- 
out grief, seeing thy span of life is brief and endureth 
no long time ; but now art thou doomed to a speedy 
death and withal art compassed with sorrow above all 
men ; therefore to an evil fate did I bear thee in our 
halls. Yet to tell this thy saying to Zeus who 
hurleth the thunderbolt will I myself go to snowy 
Olympus, in hope that he may hearken. But do 
thou tarry by thy swift, sea-faring ships, and continue 
thy wrath against the Achaeans, and refrain thee 
utterly from battle ; for Zeus went yesterday to 
Oceanus, to the blameless Ethiopians for a feast, 
and all the gods followed with him ; howbeit on the 
twelfth day he will come back again to Olympus, 
and then will I go to the house of Zeus with threshold 
of brbnze, and will clasp his knees in prayer, and 
methinks I shall win him," 

So saying, she went her way and left him where 
he was, wroth at heart for the fair-girdled woman's 
sake, whom they had taken_fronyhim by force in his 
despite ; and meanwhile Odysseu s came to Chryse 
bringing the holy hecatomb. When they were now 
got within the deep harbour, they furled the sail, 
and stowed it in the black ship, and the mast they 
lowered by the forestays and brought it to the 

35 



HOMER. 

KapTTaXijxoJS , rrfv 8' els opfxov Trpoepecraav iperpots. 4 
eK 8' €vvas e^aXov, Kara 8e Trpvpivriai ehiqaav' 
e/c 8e /cat avrol ^alvov inl pr)yp,XvL daXdaaT]£, <*• 
e/c 8' €Kar6p,^rjv ^rjaav eK-q^oXo) ^ AttoXXcdvl' 

€K Se XpUCTTJtS' VTjOS ^7] TTOVTOTTO pO LO . 

rrjV p,€v CTTeiT errl ^cop.6v aycov 7ToXvp,r]TLS 'OSua- 

aevs 4 

Trarpl (jilXco iv X^P^'' '^^^^^> f^^^ H-^^ TrpoaeeiTTev 
" d) \pvarj, TTpo /a' e7T€p,iJjev dva^ dvSpwv 'Aya- 

p.epA>oiV 
iralta re aol dyep^ev, Ooi)8aj d"" teprjv eKar6p,^riv 
pe^ai vTTcp iS.avaa)v, 6cf)p' lXacr6p,€a9a avaKra,^ 
OS vvv ^ Apyeioiai TToXvarova /cr^Se' ecf>TJK€V.' i 

"Q-S elTTOJV iv X^P^'- T^d^''> o 8e hi^aro x^-^P^^^ 
7rar8a ^iXriv rol 8' cu/ca deep lep-qv^ eKarop^^rjv 
e^eirjs ecrrrjaav ev8p,rjrov rrepi ^cjopbov, 
XepvLifjavro 8' erreira /cat ovXoxvTas dveXovro.-^ 
Tolaiv 8e XpvoTjs p^eydX evx^ro ;)(etga? dmor;)(a>i'* < 
" kXvOl piev, dpyvp6ro$\ os Xpvar]v dpl^i^e^T]Kas 
Kt'AAav re ^aOerjv TeveSoio re l<j)i dvaaaeis' 
rjBr] p,ev TTor epiev Trdpos eKXves ev^ap,evoio, 
Tlp,r]aas pLev e/xe, piiya 8' 'iipao Xaov 'A;(ata)v* 
178' €Tt /cat vvu pLOL T08' iTTLKp-q-qvov eeXSojp'j < 

7]hr] vvv AavaolaLV aet/cea Xoiyov apiv vpv . ' ' 

"O? e<f>ar ^vxop-evos , rod 8 e/c Aye ^ol^os 'AttoA- 

I Xwv. 

\a.vrdp erret p ev^avro /cat ovXoxvras rrpo^aXovro, 
avepvaav p,ev Trpcbra /cat ea(f>a^av /cat eBeipav, 

1 Line 444 was rejected by Aristarchus. 
2 For lines 446 f. Zenodotus read, 

u)S eiVwy (efire*' ?) rol 8' w/ca ^e^j iep7]v iKaT6fi^r]v 

26 



THE ILIAD, I. 435-459 

crutch with speed, and rowed her with oars to the 
place of anchorage. Tlien they cast out the mooring- 
stones and made fast the stern cables, and themselves 
went forth upon the shore of the sea. Forth they 
brought the hecatomb for Apollo, that smiteth afar, 
and forth stepped also the daughter of Chryses from 
the sea-faring ship. Her then did Odysseus of 
many wiles lead to the altar, and place in the arms 
of her dear father, saying unto him : " Chryses, 
Agamemnon, king of men, sent me forth to bring 
to thee thy daughter, and to offer to Phoebus a 
holy hecatomb on the Danaans' behalf, that there- 
with we may propitiate the king, who hath now 
brought upon the Argives woes and lamentation." 

So saying he placed her in his arms, and he joyfully 
took his dear child ; but they made haste to set in 
array for the god the holy hecatomb around the well- 
built altar, and thereafter they washed their hands, 
and took up the barley grains. Then Chryses lifted 
up his hands, and prayed aloud for them : " Hear 
me, thou of the silver bow, who dost stand over 
Chryse and holy Cilia, and dost rule mightily over 
Tenedos. Even as aforetime thou didst hear me 
when I prayed — to me thou didst do honour, and 
didst mightily smite the host of the Achaeans — 
even so now do thou fulfil me this my desire : ward 
thou off now from the Danaans the loathly pestil- 
ence." 

So he spake in prayer, and Phoebus Apollo heard ^ 
him. Then, when they had prayed, and had 
sprinkled the barley^ grains, tliey first drew back 
the victims' heads, and cut their throats, andnETayeH 

37 



HOMER 

ixrjpovs t' e^erafxov Kara re Kvlarj eKoXvifjav ' 

hlrrrv^o- TTOtrjaavres , eV avrcbv 8' wfiodirrjaav. 
Kale 8' eTTL crx^^V^ ° yepcov, evrt 8 aWoTra oluov 
Xel^e' veoi 8e rrap' avrov e^ov TrefiTTw^oXa ■)(ep(nv. 
avrap evret Kara iirjp' eKarj /cat arrXdyx'^^ eTraaavro, 
fXLGrvXXov t' (Ipa rdXXa Kal dficf) o^eXolaiv eTreipav, . 
coTTrrjadv re Ttepi^pahicos , ipvaavro re TrdvraA 
avrap iirel -navaavro ttovov rervKovro re Sacra, 
Saivvvr' , ovSe rt dvfj,6s eSevero Satros" etcrrjg. 
avrap errel ttoulos Kal eSrjrvos e^ epov evro, 
Kovpoi [lev Kp'qrijpas eTTeareiJjavro vroroto, 
vcoixr^aav 8' dpa Trdaiy eTTap^dpievoi Serrdeaaiv 
ol 8e TTavrjfiepLOL fjuoXTrfj deov IXdoKovro, 
KaXov deihovres TraLifjOva, Kovpoc ^A^^aicbv, 
fieXnovres eKdepyov 6 he (f)peva repwer dKovcov} 
^HfJios 8' TjeAto? KareSv Kal enl Kve<f)as rjXOe, 
817 rore Koijxrjoavro Trapd Trpvfivijaia yrjQS' 
rjfxos 8' rjpiyeveta (jidurj poSoBaKrvXos llios, 
Kal ror eireir dvdyovro jxerd arparov evpvv 

^ A-)(^aicbv' 
rolaiv 8' iKfievov ovpov "ei eKaepyos 'AttoAAcov , 
01 8' larov arrjuavr* dvd 9^ laria XevKa rreraaaav , 
iv 8' dvefjiog Trprjcrev fxeaov lariov, d/.t^t he KVfta 
■Jareipj) 7Top(f)vpeov fieydX* ta;(e vrjos lovarjs' 
7] 8' edeev Kara KVfia hiaTrp-qaaovaa KeXevBov. 
avrap eirei p iKOvro Kara arparov evpvv 'A;^aict;v, 
vrja [lev o'i ye fxeXaCVdv en r^Treipoio epvcraav 
mjjov eTTL ifiap-ddois, vtto 8' epp,ara /xa/cpd rdvuaaav, 
avrol he OKchvavro Kara kXiolos re veas tc. 

* Line 171. was rejected by Aristarchus. 
38 



THE ILIAD, I. 460-487 



them, and cut out the thighs and covered them with 
a double layer of fat, and laid raw flesh thereon. 
And the old man burned them on billets of wood, 
and made libation over them of flaming wine ; and 
beside him the young men held in their hands 
the five-pronged forks. But when the thigh-pieces 
were wholly burned, and they had tasted of the 
inner parts,^they cut_iip the rest and spitted it, and 
roasted it carefully, and drew all off the spits. Then, 
when they had ceased from their labour and had 
made ready the meal, they feasted, nor did their 
hearts lack aught of the equal feast. But when 
they had put from them the desire of food and 
drink, the youths filled the bowls brim full of drink 
and served out to all, first pouring drops for libation 
into the cups. So the whole day long they sought \ 
to appease the god with song, singing the beautiful \ 
paean, the sons of the Achaeans, hymning the god j 
that worketli afar ; and his heart was glad, as he / 
heard. 

But when the sun set and darkness came on, they 
laid them down to rest by the stern cables of the 
ship, and as soon as early Dawn appeared, the rosy- 
fingered, then they set sail for the wide camp of 
the Achaeans. And Apollo, that worketh afar, 
sent them a favouring wind, and they set up the 
mast and spread the white sail. So the wind filled 
the belly of the sail, and the dark wave sang loudly 
about the stem of the ship, as she went, and she sped 
over the wave, accomplishing her way. But when 
they were come to the wide camp of the Achaeans, 
they drew the black ship up on the shore, high upon f 
the sands, and set in line the long props beneath, and f 
themselves scattered among the huts and ships. 

39 



HOMER 

AvTcip 6 jxi^vLe vrjval rrap-qnevo^ (hKvnopoiai} 
hioyevrjs WiqXrios vlos, TToSas (Lkv^ 'A^iXXevs' 
ovre TTOT €is ayoprjv TTCoAea/cero Kvhidveipav 4) 

ovre TTOT is TToXepiov, aAAa (fydivvOeaKe (f>iXov Krjp 
avOt fi€VO)V, TTodeeaKe 8' avr-qv re TTToXefMov re. 

AAA ore or] p eK tolo ovcooeKaTT] yever rjcos, 
/cat TOT€ Sr) TTpos "OXvfiTrov loav deol alev iovres 
TTOLvres a//.a, Zey? S' ^PX^- ©ert? S' ov XrjQer 

€(f)6Tfxea)V f 41 

rraiSos eov, dAA' rj y dveSvacro KVjxa daXdacrrjs , 
'qepirj S dve^rj /xeyav ovpavov OvXvfMTTov re. 
evpev 8' evpvoTTa KpoviSrjv drep -rjfjievov dXXcov 
dKpordrr] Kopv<f)fj TToXvhetpdSos OvXvfMTTOio' 
Kai pa Trdpoid' avrolo Kadet^ero, /cat Aa^e yovviov 5( 
oKaifj, Severe pfj 8' ap' vn^ dvdepeojvos eXovaa 
Xiaaofxevrj Trpoaeenre Aia Yipoviojva dvaKra' 

"Lev vdrep, et ttotc 8r^ ae fier ddavdrotaiv ovrjaa^ 
7] eirei i] e/ayo), robe fxoL Kpr^r^vov eeAocop' \\^^ 
rip^rjaov fxoi vlov, o? cti/cu/LtopcoraTO? dXXcov ^'^r 5< 
eTrAer'' ara/a /xtv vvv ye dva^ dvhpcjv 'Aya- 

p,ep.vojv 
'qrip,7](Tev eX(x>v yap ej^ei yepas, avros drrovpag. 
aAAa CTW irep pnv rlaov, 'OAu/XTTte p,iqriera TLev' 
ro^pa 8 eVt Tpcuecrat rt^et Kpdros, 6(jip' dv 'A;^atot 
vlov epiov (riacoaiv 6^eXXa>aiv\re e rififj." 5J 

"Qs" (j>dro' rrjv 8' ot» rt n^oae^rj ve^eXr^yepera 
Zevs, 
dAA' aKecov Srjv ^<jro' GeVts" 8' ais" rji/jaro yovvwv, 
ojs cx^r^ ijj,TTe<l)Vvta, Kal e'ipero hevrepov avris' 

^ Lines 488-492 were rejected by Zenodotus. 
40 



THE ILIAD, I. 488-513 

But he in his wratli abode beside his swift-faring 
ships, the heaven-sprung son of Peleus, Achilles, 
s-wift of foot. Never did he go forth unto the place of 
gathering, where men win glory, nor ever unto war, 
but made his own heart to waste, as he tarried where 
he was ; and he longed for the war-cry and the 
battle. 

Now when the twelfth morn thereafter wa» come, 
then unto Olympus fared the gods that are for ever, 
all in one company, and Zeus led the Avay. And 
Thetis forgat not the behest of her son, but uprose 
from the wave of the sea, and at early morn mounted 
up to great heaven and Olympus. There she found 
the son of Cronos, whose vpice is borne afar, as he 
sat apart from the rest upon the topmost peak of 
many-ridged Olympus. So she sate her down before 
him, and laid hold of his knees with her left hand, 
while with her right she clasped him beneath the 
chin, and she spake in prayer to king Zeus, son of 
Cronos : " Father Zeus, if ever amid the immortals 
I gave thee aid by word or deed, fulfil thou me this 
prayer : do honour to my son, who is doomed to a 
speedy death beyond all men beside ; yet now hath 
Agamemnon, king of men, put dishonour upon 
him, for he has taken and keepeth his prize by his 
own arrogant act. But do thou show him honour, 
Olympian Zeus, lord of counsel ; for thus long do 
thou give might to the Trojans, even until the 
Achaeans do honour to my son, and magnify him 
with recompense." 

So said she ; howbeit Zeus, the cloud-gatherer, 
spake no word to her, but sat long time in silence. 
Yet Thetis, even as she had clasped his knees, so 
held to him, clinging close, and questioned him again 

41 



HOMER 

" v-qfxepres fx^v Brj fioi vttogx^o /cat Kardvevaov, 

■q aTToetv , eTret ov roi em oeos, o<pp ev etoea> o 

oaaov iyo) /xera vdcnv aTt/xoTcirrj deos €l[j,l. 

Trji' 8e juey' o;;^0T7CTas' 7Tpoae(f)r] ve^eArjyepera 

■' -^ 897 Xoiyia 'ipy' 6 re ju' ixOoSoTrrjaaL icfi-^aeis 
"Upr], or* dv /z' epeOrjaiv oi^eiSetots' eTrleucnv. 
rj Se Kat avrcos p^' alel iv ddavdroiat, deolai 5 

i/et/cet, Kttt re pie ^rjoi pidxr) Tpcoeaaiv dprjyeiv. 
ttAAo. av piev vvv avris d-noarix^, p-i] ri} voT]arj 
"llp-q- epiol Se /ce ravra pbeXt^aerat,, 6(f)pa reXeaoco. 
el 8* dye rot, Ke(f)aXfj Karavevaopiai, 6(f>pa TTeiTOidrjs' 
Tovro yap e| epLeQev ye pier ddavdroiat p^eyicrrov 5 
TeKpiOjp' ov yap ip,6v TraXivdyperov ou8' aTrarriXov 
ovh* dreXevrrjrov , 6 ri Kev Ke^aXfj Karavevaco." 
*H Kal Kvaverjaiv eV o^pvat vevae l^poviojv 
dfi^poGLai 8' dpa ;'(atTat eTreppwaavro dvaKros 
" KfiQXPS dir' ddavdroLO' pieyav 8' eXeXi^ev "OXupivov. 5 
To) y ws ^ovXevaavre Sterpiayev rj fiev eveira 
els dXa dXro ^aOelav drr" alyXrievros ^OXvp,TTOV, 
Zeus" 8e eov rrpos Sojpia- deol 8' dpca ndvres dvearau 
i^ ehecov a(f)ov rrarpos evavriov ovhi ris erXrj 
pLelvai eTTepxopievov, dAA' dvrioi earav airavres, f 
a)S 6 piev evOa i<aOet,er eirl Opovov ovhe pnv "Yipt) 
riyvoirjaev iSouct' on ol (Tvpi(f)paaaaro povXas 
dpyvpoTTet^a Qerts, Ovydrrjp dXloio yepovros. 
avriKa Kepropiioiai Ata ¥>.poviciiva TTpocrrjvSa' 

^ ri Aristarchus : ae wss. 
42 



THE ILIAD, I. 514-539 

a second time : " Promise me now this thing in 
very sooth and bow thine head thereto, or else deny 
me, for there is naught to make thee afraid ; that I 
may know full well liow far I among all the gods 
am honoured the least." 

Then, greatly troubled, Zeus, the cloud-gatherer 
spake to her : " Verily here will be sorry work, 
seeing thou wilt set me on to engage in strife with 
Hera, whenso she shall anger me with jw.unting 
words. Even now is she wont ever to upbraid me 
among the immortal gods, and to declare that I 
give aid to the Trojans in battle. But do thou 
for this present depart again, lest Hera mark aught ; 
and I will take thought for these things to bring all 
to pass. Nay, come, I will bow my head to thee, 
that thou may est be certain, for this from me is the 
surest token among the immortals ; no word of 
mine may be recalled, nor is false, nor unfulfilled, 
whereto I bow my head." 

The son of Cronos spake, and bowed his dark brow 
in assent, and the ambrosial locks waved from the 
king's immortal head ; and he made great Olympus 
to quake. 

When the twain had taken counsel together on 
this wise, they parted ; she leapt straightway into the 
deep sea from gleaming Olympus, and Zeus went 
to his own palace. All the gods together rose from 
their seats before the face of their father ; neither 
did any dare to await his coming, but they all rose 
up before him. So he sate him down there upon his 
throne ; but Hera saw, and failed not to mark 
how that silver-footed Thetis, daughter of the old 
man of the sea, had taken counsel with him. Forth- 
with then she spake to Zeus, son of Cronos, with 

43 



HOMER 

" TLS Si7 au roi, hoXoixy]ra, dewv crvfi(f)pdcraaTO 

^ovXds; ^ I 

aiei rot (f}iXov iarlv ifxev dnovoacfjiv iovra 
KpvTTrdhia (jypoveovra St/ca^e/xei'* ovSe ri ttco /xot 
TTpocfypojv rirXr^Kag eLTTCtv eiros ottl voi^ays." 

Tt)i^ 8' rijiel^eT eTretra Trarrjp dvSpcov re dewv re' 
" "Hpr], ixrj Srj rrdvras ifiovs eVie'ATreo fivdovg t 
elSijaeLV ■)(^aXeTroi roi e.aovr' dAo;;^aj Trep eovaj]- 
dXX' ov fJL€v /c' eTTiet/ces' aKovejJiev, ov ti? erreira 
ovre decov Trparepos rov y* eiWrat ovr avOpcomov 
ov §e k' iywu dirdvevde deoju edeXcofxi, vorjaai, 
IXTj rt CTV ravra e/cacrra Stet'/aeo pirjSe fierdXXa." i 

Tov 8' rjpLei^er^ eireira ^ocottis" TTorvia ' Wpr]' 
" alvorare KpoviSr], ttoIov rov fxvdov eei7re?;;;,«M 
fyti^ Kol Xlrp/ ae rrdpos y ovr etpo/xat ovre fjberaXXco, \ 
dXXd fJidX* evKTjXos rd cfypd^eai daaa deXrjada. 
vvv 8' alvix)s heihoiKa Kara <fipiva jMrj ae Trapenrr) < 
dpyvpoTTet^a Qens, dvydrrjp dXioio yepovros' 
riepi T] yap aoi ye irapet^ero /cai Xd^e yovvcov 
rfj a o'CcxJ Karavevaai irT^rvfxov cos ^AxiXrja 
rLpirjurjs, oXearjs 8e TToXeas im vrjvalv 'A)(aia)v. 

Tr]v 8' dTTap,ei,^6jX€Vos 7Tpoa€(f)r] v€<f)€Xr)y€p€ra 
Zeus'" ' 

oaLfiovLT), atei fiev oieai, ovoe cre A-quo)' 
TTpTJ^aL 8' epiTTris ov ri hwiqaeai, aAA' diro Ov/jlov 
fxaXXov ifjLol eaeat* ro 8e' rot /cat piyiov earai. 
et 8' ouTW tout' iariv, ifiol jiteXXei <j>iXov elvai. 
. -' i ■ . 

^ The word Sai/^iiftos properly means "under the influence 
of a dalfjiuiv." It is used in the vocative in cases where the 
person addressed is acting in some unaccountable or ill- 
omened way. Hence the tone varies from angry remonstrance 
to gentle expostulation, or even pity. 

44 



THE ILIAD, I. 540-564 

mocking words : " Who of the gods, thou crafty 
one, hath now again taken counsel with thee ? 
Ever is it thy good pleasure to hold aloof from me, 
and to give judgments which thou hast pondered 
in secret, nor hast thou ever brought thyself with a 
ready heart to declare unto me the matter which 
thou dost purpose." 

Then made answer to her the father of men and 
gods : " Hera, think not that thou shalt know all my 
words : hard will they prove for thee, my wife though 
thou art. Nay, whatso it is fitting thou shouldest 
hear, this none other shall know before thee, whether 
of gods or men ; but what I am minded to purpose 
apart from the gods, of all this do thou not in any 
wise make question, nor ask thereof." 

Then made answer to him the ox-eyed, queenly 
Hera : " Most dread son of Cronos, what a word 
hast thou said ! Yea, verily, of old have I not been 
wont to ask thee nor make question, but at thine 
ease thou devisest all things whatsoever thou wilt. 
But now I have wondrous dread at heart, lest silver- 
footed Thetis, daughter of the old man of the sea, 
have beguiled thee ; for at egrlydawn she sat by 
thee and clasped thy knees. To her, methinks, 
thou didst bow thine head in sure token that thou 
wilt honour Achilles, and bring many to death 
beside the ships of the Achaeans." 
V Then in answer to her spake Zeus, the cloud- 
gatherer : " Strange queen,i ever art thou imagining, 
and I escape thee not ; yet shalt thou in no wise 
have power to accomplish aught, but shalt be the 
further from my heart ; and that shall be even the 
worse for thee. If this thing is as thou say est, then 
must it be my good pleasure. Nay, sit thee down 

45 



HOMER 

oAA* OLKeovaa Kadrjao, ifxcp S' eTnTreldeo [ivOo), 
fit] vv rot ov ;^patCT/xcoaiv' ocrot Oeoi. etcr* iv 'OAu/xttw 
daaov lovd^ , ore k€v tol adirrovs ^elpas i(f)ei(x)." 

"D? e(f)ar , ehSeuaev Se ^ocottis TTorvia "Hpr], 
Kai p OLKeovaa KaOrjaro, eVtyvct/xi/'acTa (f)iXov Krjp' 
6')(Qriaav S' dvd Scofia Ato? 6eol Ovpaviojves' 
TolcTLV 8' "H^atCTTOS" KXvTOT€)(yrjs ^PX d.yop€V€iv, 
[XT]Tpl (fiiXrj eTTL rjpa (f>epa)V, XevKCoXevoj "Hpr^'t 
" 'q Srj Xoiyia epya raS' eaaerai oi)S' eV dveKrd, 
el Srj a(f)a) evcKa Ovtjtojv ipLSalverov cSSe, 
iv be deolat koXcoov eXavverov ovSe tl Satros" 
iaOXrjs eaaerai rjhos, enel rd X'^peiova vlkS.. 
[xrjTpl 8' iyoj 7Tapd(f>7]fjiL, /cat avrij nep voeovcn), 
narpl <J)lXco ctti rjpa ^epeiv Ait, o^pa fir) avre 
veiKeirjai Trarrjp, avv 8' i^/xti' Satra rapd^rj. 
€t 776/3 yap K edeXj^atv *0Xv[X7nos darepoTTTjTrjs 
e^ eSecov arv(f>eXi^aL' 6 yap ttoXv (f)epTaT6s eariv. 
dXXd av Tov y eireeaai KaOdirreaOaL pbaXaKolcrtv 
avTLK CTret^' tAao? 'OAu/xTTtos' eaaerai, rjp^lv." 

"Qs dp* €(f)r], Kal dvat^as S^Tras" dp,(j)LKV'neXXov 
IX7]TpL (fjiXr} ev X^i/Jt ridei, Kai pnv Trpoaeenre' 
" TerAafi^ l^'^'^^P ^H-Vt '^cii dvdax^o Kr]8ofj,efr) nep, 
p.-)] ae <f>iXrjv rrep eovaav ev 6(f)6aXp,olaiv t8a>/xat 
6eivopevT]v, Tore 8' ov tl 8vvq(jop,aL d^vv/jLevos Trep 
Xpaiapielv dpyaXeos yap *OXvp,7nos dvTi(f>epeadaL. 
rihrj ydp p,e Kai dXXor dXe^epevai p.ep,adjra 
pdifte TToSog rerayajv aTTO ^rjXov OeaTrealoto, 
ndv 8' "Tjp-ap ^epo/XTjv, dfia 8' -f^eXiw KaraBvuri 
46 



I 



THE ILIAD, I. 565-592 

in silence, and hearken to my word, lest all the gods 
that are in Olympus avail thee not against my 
drawing near, Avhenso I put forth upon thee ray 
irresistible hands." 

He spake, and ox-eyed, queenly Hera was seized 
with fear, and sate her down in silence, curbing her 
heart. Then troubled were the gods of heaven 
throughout the palace of Zeus, and among them 
Hephaestus, the famed craftsman, was first to speak, 
doing pleasure to his dear mother, white-armed 
Hera : " Verily, here will be sorry work, that is no 
more to be borne, if ye tw^in are to wrangle thus 
for mortals' sakes, and set the gods in tumult ; 
neither will there any wise be joy in the goodly 
feast, seeing worser things prevail. And I give 
counsel to my mother, wise though she be herself, to 
do pleasure to our dear father Zeus, that the father 
upbraid her not again, and bring confusion upon 
our feast. What and if the Olympian, the lord of 
the lightning, be minded to dash us from our seats ! 
for he is mightiest far. Nay, bespeak thou him 
with gentle words ; so shall the Olympian forthwith 
be gracious unto us." 

So saying, he sprang up and placed in his dear 

mother's hand the doubje cup, and spake to her : 

Be of good cheer, my mother, and ehdure for all 

thy grief, lest, dear as thou art to me, mine eyes 

behold thee smitten, and then I shall in no wise be 

able to succour thee for all my sorrow ; for a hard 

foe is the Olympian to meet in strife. Yea, on a 

time ere this, when I was fain to save thee, he 

:!aught me by the foot and hurled me from the 

leavenly threshold ; the whole day long was I borne 

leadlong, and at set of sun I_ fell in Lemnos, and 

47 



HOMER 



^^; 



KOLTTTTeCrOV €V Atj/JiVq), oXtyOS 8 €TL OvfJiOS €V'i]€V 

evda fjb€ SiVrie? dvSpes d(f)ap KOfJi,laavTO TTeaovra." 

'^Q.9 (f)dro, ixeih-qaev Se dea. XevKoyXevos "Yiprj, 
pLeihrjoaaa he TratSo? eSe^aro X^^P^ KvireXXov 
avrdp 6 Tols aXXoiai Oeolg ivSe^ta Trdatv 
olvo^^oei yXvKV veKrap dno Kp-qrrjpos d<f)vaaoiv, 
dd^earos 8' ap' evajpro yeXcos fiaKapeaat Oeolcrtv, 
(Ls tSov "H^aicrrov 8ta. Sd)p,aTa TTonrvdovTa. 

"O-s t6t€ p,kv TTpoTTOV "^fJLap is rjeXiov i^araSvura 
aivvvr , ovoe rt tfvfios eoevero oatros" eLcrq?, 
ov [xev <f>6pfj,iyyos irepiKaXXios , rjV e^ 'ATroAAcoi/, 
M.ovadaiV 0', a? dethov dfiei^o/xevai, ottl koXtj. 

Avrdp eTTCt KareSv XafMTTpov (j)dos rjeXiOLO, 
ol fJt,€V KaKKeiovres e^av oIkovSc eKacrros, 
■^^i eKdarip hd)p,a Trepi/cAuros' dfj,(f)Lyvrj€LS 
"H^atcTTOs TToir]aev ISvirjcrt, TrpaniSecrat' 

evs oe TTpos ov Ae^os 171 UAvfXTnos aarepoTrrjTr)?, 
evda Trdpog Koifxdd^ ore jjllv yXvKvs vrrvog iKavoL' 
evda Kadevhi' dva^ds, irapd 8e ^(fivaoB povos "Wpt], 



48 



i 



THE ILIAD, I. 593-611 

but little life was in me. There did the Sintian folk 
make haste to tend me for my fall." 

So spake he, and the goddess, white-armed Hera, 
smiled, and smiling took in her hand the cup from 
her son. Then he poured wine for all the other 
gods from left to right, drawing forth sweet nectar 
from the bowl. And laughter unquenchable arose 
among the blessed gods, as they saw Hephaestus 
puffing through the palace. 

Thus the whole day long till set of sun they 
feasted, nor did their heart lack aught of the equal 
feast, nor of the beauteous lyre, that Apollo held, 
nor yet of the Muses, that sang, replying one to 
the other with sweet voices. 

But when the bright light of the sun was set, they 
went each to his own house to take their rest, where 
for each one a palace had been builded with cunning 
skill by the famed Hephaestus, the god of the two 
strong arms ; and Zeus, the Olympian, lord of the 
lightning, went to his couch, where of old he was 
wont to take his rest, when sweet sleep came upon 
him. There went he up and slept, and beside him 
lay Hera of the golden throne. 



VOL. IE 49 



lAIAAOS B 

"AAAoi fiev pa deoi re /cat avipes iTTTTOKopvcrrai 
evSov TTavvvxioL, Ata 8' ovk ex^ vt^Sv/jlos^ vttvos, 
dAA' o ye /xep/xTjpt^e Kara ^plva (hs 'A^^tAi^a 
rijjirjar], oXear] Se rroXeas Ittl vqvalv ^Axaicov. 
rjSe 8e ol Kara Ovfxov aplarrj (j>aiv€ro ^ovXt], 
7re/xi/rat evr' 'ArpetSrj ^ AyapiepLvovi ovXov oveipov 
/cat /xtv (fxjovTjaas errea Trrepoevra 7TpoaT]voa' 
" ^aoK Wi, ovXe oveipe, Boas iirl vrjas 'A;^aia)»'* 
iXdcbv €9 KXiairjV 'Aya/xe/xvovo? 'ArpetSao 
TTavra fxaX drpeKecos dyopevefxev ws eTTiriXXoi' 
dcoprj^al i /ceAeue Kapr] KOfxocovras *Axat,ods 
TTovavhir^' vvv yap Kev e'Aoi ttoXiv evpvayviav 
Tpcocov ov yap er d[j,(j)Lg 'OAu/xrrta Scojxar k^ovres 
dddvaroL (f)pdt,oi>raL' erreyvap^ipev yap aTravTas" 
"HpT^ Xt,aaofX€vr]y Tpojeaai Se Kiqhe* €(:}>rjrrrai. 

"Q? <j>dro, ^7) 8' dp' oveipos, €7ret rov jxvdov 

aKOVCTG' 

Kap7TaXip.cx)S 8' iKave dods irrl vrjas 'A;)^atctJt', 
pi] 8' ap' eV ^ArpetSrjv 'Aya/xe/xvova* rot' Se 

/ct^avet" 
evSov'r' €V KXiairj, vepl 8' dpL^pocrios Ke^vd vttvos. 
arrj 8' a/a' WTrep Ke(f)aXrjs NrjXrjtcp vh ioLKCvs, 
NecTTO/oi, Tov /ja fxdXiara yepovrcxiv rl' 'AyafiepiViov' 

^ For vrjSvuos^ijSvi see the note on Odyssey iv. 793. 
50 



BOOK II 

Now all the other gods and men, lords of chai'iots, 
slumbered the whole night through, but Zeus was 
not holden of sweet sleep, for he was pondering in 
his heart how he might do honour to Achilles and 
lay many low beside the ships of the Achaeans. And 
this plan seemed to his mind the best, to send to 
Agamemnon, son of Atreus, a baneful dream. So 
he spake, and addressed him with winged words : 
" Up, go, thou baneful Dream, unto the swift ships 
of the Achaeans, and when thou art come to the hut 
of Agamemnon, son of Atreus, tell him all my 
word truly, even as I charge thee. Bid him arm 
the long-haired Achaeans with all speed, since now 
he may take the broad- way ed city of the Trojans. 
For the immortals, that have homes upon Olympus, 
are no longer divided in counsel, since Hera hath 
bent the minds of all by her supplication, and over 
the Trojans hang woes." 

So spake he, and the Dream went his way, when 
he had heard this saying. Forthwith he came to 
the swift ships of the Achaeans, and went his way 
to Agamemnon, son of Atreus, and found him 
sleeping in his hut, and over him was shed ambrosial 
slumber. So he took his stand above his head, in 
the likeness of the son of Neleus, even Nestor, whom 
above all the elders Agamemnon held in honour ; 

51 



HOMER 

TO) fjLLV €€LadfJi€vos 7Tpoae(f)a)V€€ detos^ oveipos' 
" evSeis, 'Arpeos vie Sat<f)povos t777ro8a^oto* 
ov XPV T^ovvvxiov evheiv ^ovXrj<f)6pov dvdpa, 
(L XaoL r eTTiTerpa^arai /cat roaaa /xe/x7jAe. : 

vvv 8' epiidev ^vves coKa' Ato? 8e roi ayyeXos elfxi, 
OS orev avevdev id)V fjueya Ki^Serai rjB^ eXeaipei.^ 
Ooiprj^ai ae KeXevcre Kaprj Ko/xocuvras ^A^aiovs 
TravavhCj}' vvv yap k€V eAoi? ttoXiv evpvdyviav 
ipojcov OV yap er afxcpLS UAvfiTTLa ocofxaT exovres ', 
dddvaroL (f)pdt,ovraL' eTreyvapujjev yap dnavras 
"Uprj Xicraopievr], Tpcoeaai. 8e KTySe' e^ryTrrai 
eV Aios" aAAa crv afjaiv e;\;e (jipeai, firjSe ae X-qdr) 
alpeira>, eur' S.v ae fxeXicfypcov vttvos dv^rj." 

"Qs" dpa <f)(jov'r]aas aTre^r^aeTO , rov 8' eXnr avrov ', 
rd (f)poveovT* dvd OvfMov d p ov reXeeadat efieXXov. 
(f)rj yap 6 y alp-^aeiv Ylpidpiov ttoXlv rjjjiarL Ketvcp, 
vr^TTios, ovhk to, rjhrj d pa Ze?)? pLt^Sero epya' 
OijaeLV yap eV efieXXev ctt* dXyed re arovay^ds re 
Tpcoai re /cat Aafaotct 8ta Kparepds vafiivas. < 
eypero o eg vttvov, veirj be fiiv apbcpe^vr o/Ji^r]. 
et,ero 8' dpdcodeis, fxaXaKov 8' evSvve ;\;tTCtJva, 
KaXov vrjydreov, rrepl he fxeya ^dXXero <j)dpos' 
TToaal 8' VTTO XiTTapolaiv ehrjaaro KaXd TreSiAa, 
a/x(^i 8' dp' dj/jbOLatv ^dXero ^l.(f>os dpyvporjXov i 
ct'AcTO 8e aKrJTTTpov Trarpco'Cov, dcf)6i,Tov alei- 
avv TO) e^rj Kara vrjas ^Axaicx)v xaXKoxLTWvcov. 

^ 6e7os : oOXoj. 
" Line 27 ( = xxiv. 174) was rejected by Aristarchus. 

* Derivation and meaning of vriyireos are alike uncertain. 
Others render, " newly-wrought." The word recurs in 
xiv. 185. ,> 

52 



THE ILIAD, 11. 22-47 

likening himself to him, the Dream from heaven 
spake, saying : " Thou sleepest, son of wise-hearted 
Atreus, the tamer of horses. To sleep the whole 
night through beseemeth not a man that is a 
counsellor, to whom a host is entrusted, and upon 
whom rest so many cares. But now, hearken thou 
quickly unto me, for I am a messenger to thee from 
Zeus, who, far away though he be, hath exceeding 
care for thee and pity. He biddeth thee arm the 
long-haired Achaeans with all speed, since now thou 
may est take the broad- way ed city of the Trojans. 
For the immortals that have homes upon Olympus 
are no longer divided in counsel, since Hera hath 
bent the minds of all by her supplication, and over 
the Trojans hang woes by the will of Zeus. But do 
thou keep this in thy heart, nor let forgetfulness lay 
hold of thee, whenso honey-hearted sleep shall let 
thee go." 

So spake the Dream, and departed, and left him 
there, pondering in his heart on things that were 
not to be brought to pass. For in sooth he deemed 
that he should take the city of Priam that very day, 
fool that he was ! seeing he knew not what deeds 
Zeus was purposing, who was yet to bring woes 
-and groanings on Trojans alike and Danaans through- 
/out the course of stubborn fights. Then he awoke 
from sleep, and the divine voice was ringing in his 
ears. He sat upright and did on his soft tunic, 
fair and glistering,^ and about him cast his great 
cloak, and beneath his shining feet he bound his fair 
sandals, and about his shoulders flung his silver- 
studded sword ; and he grasped the sceptre of his 
fathers, imperishable ever, and therewith took his 
way along the ships of the brazen-coated Achaeans. 

53 



HOMER 

'Hco? /xeV pa Qea trpoae^rjaero jxaKpov "OXv[Jinov, 
'Liqvl (f)6o)s ipeovaa /cat aAAoi? adavaroiaiv 
avrap 6 KrjpvKeaai Xi'yv(f)d6'yyotcn KeXevae S 

KTjpvaaeiv ayoprivhe Kaprj KOjxocovTas *A)(^at,ovs' 
ol p.ev eKiqpvaaov, rol 8' rj-yetpovTO fidX' tS/ca. 

BovXrjv Se TTpajTOV fieyadv/jbwv f^e yepovrcov 
l^earoper] Ttapa vrjt YlvXoLyeveos ^aaLXrjos' 
Tovs o ye avyKaXeaas TrvKLvrjv aprvvero ^ovX-qv^ t 
" kXvt€, (f)iXof Belos fjiot ivvTTViov rjXOev oveipos 
dfx^pomrjv Scd vvKra' pLaXiara Se Ndaropi Stoj 
elSos re fieyedos re ^vrjv r' dyxtcrra eoj/cet. 
arrj 8' d'/a' vnep Kecf)aXrjs /cat fjie Trpos fxvdov eenrev 
' evSeis, ^Arpeos vie Sat(/)povos iTnroSdfxoLO'^ i 

ov XPV Travvvx^ov evSeiv ^ovXrj^opov dvhpa, 
& Xaoi t' eTTirerpd^arai /cat roacra ixep/rjXe- 
vvv 8' ifiedev ^vves a»/ca* Aio? 8e rot dyyeXos ei/JLt, 
OS aev dvevdev ecov fxeya KrjSerac 7^8' iXeaipei' 
d<oprj^at ae KeXevae Kaprj KOfiocovras 'A;^atoi)s' < 
TTavcrvScrj ' vvv ydp Kev eXois ttoXlv evpvdyviav 
Tpcocov ov ydp eV d/x^t? 'OAujLtTTta hiop^ar* e^ovres 
dOdvaroL <f>pdl,ovraL' eTreyvapufjev ydp diravras 
"H/37^ Xtcraofjbevq , Tpcoeaoi 8e /o^Se' ecfyrjirrai 
€K Atds" dAAd av a-^aiv e^e (jipeaivJ cu? 6 /xev ecTTOJV ' 
<PX^'^^ dTTOTTrdpLevos, ip^e Se yXvKvs vttvos dvrJKev. 
aXX' dyer\ at Kev ttojs Oojp'q^opiev vlas 'A;;^'ata)i'' 
TTpdJra 8' eyd)v eirecrLV 7Tei,p't]aop,aL, rj depas eari, 

^ For line 55 Zenodotus read, 

avrap iirei p ijyepOei' 6/j.rjyep^ei r' iy^vovTO, 
Toiiffi 5' dviffTd/xd'os fMeriipr} Kpelwv 'Aya/Mnvwf 

2 For lines 60-70 Zenodotus read, 

rivibyei ere warrjp v\l/i^vyos aiOipi valwv 

Tpuxrl iJ.axv<^cL<rOai. irpori "IXtoc ' (is 6 fJ.iv eliruy 

54- 



THE ILIAD, II. 48-73 

Now the goddess Dawn went up to high Olympus, 
to announce the Ught to Zeus and the other immortals, 
but Agamemnon bade the clear-voiced heralds 
summon to the place of gathering the long-haired 
Achaeans. And they made summons, and the men 
gathered full quickly. 

But the king first made the council of the great- 
souled elders to sit down beside the ship of Nestor, 
the king Pylos-born. And when he had called them 
together, he contrived a cunning plan, and said : 
" Hearken, my fi-iends, a Dream from heaven came 
to me in my sleep through the ambrosial night, 
and most like was it to goodly Nestor, in form and 
in stature and in build. It took its stand above my 
head, and spake to me, saying : ' Thou sleepest, 
son of wise-hearted Atreus, the tamer of horses. , 
To sleep the whole night through beseemeth not a 
man that is a counsellor, to whom a host is en- 
trusted, and upon whom rest so many cares. But 
now, hearken thou quickly unto me, for I am a 
messenger to thee from Zeus, who, far away though 
he be, hath exceeding care for thee and pity. He 
biddeth thee arm the long-haired Achaeans with all 
speed, since now thou mayest take the broad-wayed 
city of the Trojans. For the immortals that have 
homes upon Olympus are no longer divided in 
counsel, since Hera hath bent the minds of all by her 
supplication, and over the Trojans hang woes by the 
will of Zeus. But do thou keep this in thy heart.* 
So spake he, and was flown away, and sweet sleep 
let me go. Nay, come now, if in any wise we may, 
let us arm the sons of the Achaeans ; but first will 
I make trial of them in speech, as is right, and will 



55 



HOMER 

/cat (fyevyeiv avv vr)val TToXvKX-i^'iat KeXivaco' 
vfxets 8' dXXodev dXXos iprjTveiv eTreecrcrLV ." 7i 

xl rot, o y <x>'5 enrtov kojt ap eQero, tolgl o 
dviaryf 
Necrrco/j, 6s po. ITuAoto dva^ r^v rjixaOoevros' 
6 <7(f)LV iv (f)pov€cov dyopTjaaro /cat ixereenrev 
" c5 <f}l\oi, ^ApyeicDV rjyi^Topes rjSe /LteSovres", 
et [xev ns rov oveipov 'A)(^aLOJV aAAos' evLanc, 8( 
i/j€v86s K€V 0at)u.ev /cat voa<j)it,OLpLeda /xaAAov. 
vvv S' Ihev OS jxey* dpiGTOs 'A;;^ata)v^ evx^Tai elvai. 
aAA' dy€r\ at /ceV tto)? 9a)p7]^ofi€V vlas ^A)(^aLa)v. 

"Qs dpa (f)iov')jaas ^ovXrjs e^ VPX^ vieadai, 
ol S' eTTaveaTTjaav TreidovTO re TToipiivL Xacbv gi 

OKTjTTTOVxoi, ^acxiXrjes' irreaaevovro 8e Aaot. 
>7]VT€ edvea eiai pbeXiaaacov aSivacov, 
TTerprjs ck yXa(f)vp7Js ai'et veov epxopievdcov 
^orpvhov 8e irerovrai ctt' dvdeaiv elapivolaiv' 
at fi€V t' €v6a dXts TreTTOTTyarat, at Se re ev^a* 9< 
cSs TcD;' edvea TroAAa ^^ecoi/ (xtto /cat /cAtatacDV 
lytop'o? TTpOTTapoiOe ^adeirjs earixpoivro 
IXahov els dyop-qv p^erd 8e a(f)Laiv "Ocraa SeSrjet 
OTpvvova leVat, Atos" dyyeXos' ol 8' dyepovro. 
rerpiqx^i 8' ayopi^, utto Se arevaxi^ero yala 9i 

AacDv l^ovrcov, op,aSos 8' Tyi/. evvea he acfyeas 
KTipvKes ^oocovres eprjrvov, et ttot' dvrijs 
axoiar* , dKovaeiav 8e St,oTpe(/)eojv ^aaiXrjiov . 
aTTOvhfj 8' el,eTO Xaos, epiqTvdev 8e /ca^' eSpas 
TTavadpLevoi KXayyrjs- dvd 8e Kpeiwv 'Ayap,ep,vcov 1( 
€0T7y aKrJTTrpov ex(Ji>v, to /xev* "H^ataTOS" /ca^e 
Teu;)(a>v. 

* Lines 76-83 were rejected by Aristarchus. 

* 'Axa'w*" : ii'i cxTpaTtp, 

56 



THE ILIAD, II. 74-101 

bid them flee with their benched ships ; but do 
you from this side and from that bespeak them, 
and strive to hold them back," 

So saying, he sate him down, and among them 
uprose Nestor, that was king of sandy Pylos. He 
with good intent addressed their gathering and spake 
among them : " My friends, leaders and rulers of 
the Argives, were it any other of the Achaeans that 
told us this dream we might deem it a false thing, 
and turn away therefrom the more ; but now hath 
he seen it who declares himself to be far the mightiest 
of the Achaeans. Nay, come then, if in any wise 
we may arm the sons of the Achaeans." 

He spake, and led the way forth from the council, 
and the other sceptred kings rose up thereat and 
obeyed the shepherd of the host ; and the people 
the while were hastening on. Even as the tribes 
of thronging bees go forth from some hollow rock, 
ever coming on afresh, and in clusters over the flowers 
of spring fly in throngs, some here, some there ; 
even so from the ships and huts before the low 
sea-beach marched forth in companies their many 
tribes to the place of gathering. And in their midst 
blazed forth Rumour, messenger of Zeus, urging them 
to go ; and they were gathered. And the place of 
gathering was in a turmoil, and the earth groaned 
beneath them, as the people sate them down, and 
a din arose. Nine heralds with shouting sought to 
restrain them, if so be they might refrain from uproar 
and give ear to the kings, nurtured of Zeus. Hardly 
at the last were the people made to sit, and were 
stayed in their places, ceasing from their clamour. 
Then among them lord Agamemnon uprose, bearing 
in his hands the sceptre which Hephaestus had 

57 



HOMER 

ll(f)aiaros fxkv htoKe Att Y^povicovi avaKrt,, 
avrap apa Zeu? Soj/ce SiaKropcp dpye'CcfjovTrj' 
'Ep/Aeta? 8e ava^ 8a)K€V YleAoTTi irXiq^iTTTTa) , 
avrap 6 avre lldXoi/j 8a>/c' 'ArpeC, TTOi/jLevi AacDi'- 1 
'Arpeus" 8e OvjjaKOiv eXnrev iroXvapvi Qvdcrrrj, 
avrap o avre Qvear* ' AyafMefxvovL AetTre (f)opTJvatj 
TToAXfjaiv vrjaoioi Kal "Apye'C rravrl avdaaetv. 
rep 6 y epeiad/xevos eVe' 'Apyetoiai /xeriyuSa- 
" CO <j)lXoi, TJpojes Aai'aot, Oepdirovres "Ap-qog, 1 
Zeu? /xe fjbeyas^ KpovlSyjs drr) iueSrjcre ^apetry/ 
CTp^erAio?, o? Trptv /xeV /xoi vrriax^ro Kal Karevevaev 
'IXiov eKTTepaavr^ ivretx^ov aTTovieaOai, 
vvv he KaKYjV dndrrjv ^ovXevaaro, /cat /xe KeXevei 
SvoKXea "Apyos iKeadai, eVet ttoXvv ojXeaa Xaov. 1 
ovrco TTOV All fieXXei vrreppieveC (fiiXov etvat, 
OS or] TToXXdcov TToXioiV KareXvae Kaprjva 
rp en /cat Xvaei' rov yap i<pdrog earl p,eyiarov. 
ataxpov yap rode y'^ icrrl Kal e(jaopi.evoLai. 

TTvdeadai, 
fjbdi/j ovrco TOtovSe roaovSe re Xaov 'A;)^ata)i' 1 

d7Tpr)Krov TroXepbov TToXejxit,ei,v 7]he pidxeadai 
avhpdai Trav porepoioL, reXos S' ov tto) n rre^avrai,. 
et TTep yap k edeXoip,ev 'A;^atot re TptDe? re, 
opKia TTiarrd rafxovres, dpidpL-qdr^pievat, a/x^a»,* 
TpcDa? p-ev Xe^aaOat e^earioi oaaoi eacrti', 1 

r]piels S' e? Se/caSa? hiaKoapurjdelpiev 'A;^aiot, 
Tpcoojv 8 dvSpa eKaaroL eXoip,eda olvoxoeveiv, 
TToAAat /cej' Se/caSe? Seuotaro olvoxooio. 

^ fiiyas Aristarchus : fieya Zenodotus, siss. 

* Lines 111-118 were rejected by Zenodotus. 

^ alaxP^" y^P 7'<55e y' : Xd^rj yap rdde y Zenodotus. 

* Line 124 was rejected by Aristarchus. 

58 



THE ILIAD, II. 102-128 

wrought witli toil. Hephaestus gave it to king 
Zeus, son of Cronos, and Zeus gave it to the 
messenger Argeiphontes ; and Hermes, the lord, 
gave it to Pelops, driver of horses, and Pelops 
in turn gave it to Atreus, shepherd of the host ; 
and Atreus at his death left it to Thyestes, rich 
in flocks, and Thyestes again left it to Agamem- 
non to bear, that so he might be lord of many isles 
and of all Argos. Thereon he leaned, and spake 
his word among the Argives : " My friends, Danaan 
warriors, squires of Ares, great Zeus, son of 
Cronos, hath ensnared me in grievous blindness 
of heart, cruel god ! seeing that of old he promised 
me, and bowed his head thereto, that not until I 
had sacked well-walled Ilios should I get me home ; 
but now hath he planned cruel deceit, and bids me 
return inglorious to Argos, when I have lost much 
people. So, I ween, must be the good pleasure of 
Zeus, supreme in might, who hath laid low the 
heads of many cities, yea, and shall yet lay low, 
for his power is above all. A shameful thing is this 
even for the hearing of men that are yet to be, how 
that thus vainly so goodly and so great a host of the 
Achaeans warred a bootless war, and fought with 
men fewer tlian they, and no end thereof hath as yet 
been seen. For should we be minded, both Achaeans 
and Trojans, to swear a solemn oath with sacrifice, 
and to number ourselves, and should the Trojans be 
gathered together, even all they that have dwellings 
in the city, and we Achaeans be marshalled by tens, 
and choose, each company of us, a man of the Trojans 
to pour our wine, then would many tens lack a cup- 

59 



HOMER 

roaaov eyd) (^rjfxi rrXeas efifievai vlag 'A;^ata>P' 
Tpcoojv, OL vaiovai Kara tttoXlv dAA' eiriKovpoi} 1 
TToXXecov CK TToXicov iyx^CTTTaXoi, dvhpes taaiv, 
OL fie jxeya TrXd^ovai, /cat ovk eld)a ideXovra 
IXiOV eKTTepaai ev vaiojxevov TTToXUdpov. 
evvea Srj ^e^daat Atos" [xeydXov iviavTOi, 
/cat 8r] Sovpa aicrrjire vecbv /cat OTrdpra XiXwraf \ 
at he TTOV rjixerepaC t' dXo)(OL /cat vqTna reKva 
Tjah- ei/i aeydpoLS TTOTiheyixevox- a/z/xt he epyov 
avTCos aKpdavTov, ov etveKa hevp* LKo/jiecrda. 
aAA' dyed', d)s dv iyd) eiTTOJ, TreLdcofieda TrdvTes' 
(f)evy(jop,ev avv vrjval (f)iXr^v is Trarpiha yalav l 

ov yap eVt Tpoirjv alprjuopiev evpvdy viav."^ 

Q.S (j)dro, roloL he dv/xov evl arr]deaaLV opive 
Trdat jxerd TrXrjOvv, daoi ov ^ovXtjs eTrdKovaav.^ 
KivrjOr] 8' dyopr] (f>rj* Kvpuara fiaKpd daXdacrqs, 
TTovrov 'I/captoto, to, jxev r Eu/jos" re Noto? re i 
ojpop eTTat^as irarpos Alos €k v€(f)eXdcov. 
d)S S' ore KLvqaj) Ze^upos" ^aOv X'^'Cov eXdwv, 
Xd^pos eiraiyi^uiv , Ittl r rj/jiveL dara)(yeaaLV^ 
<x)S rd)v irda dyoprj Kivr/drj' roc 8' aAaAT^roi 
vijas eiT* eaaevovro, rrohdyv 8' virevepOe Kovirj \[ 

tcrrar' deipofxevrj- rol S' aAATyAotat KeXevov 
anreaOac vqcov r)h* eXKepuev els dXa hlav, 
ovpovs r* e^eKddaipov dvrrj 8' ovpavov iKev 
OLKahe lefievojv vtto 8' jjpeov ep/xara vrjojv. 

"Eivda Kev 'ApyeloLaiv vrrepixopa voaros irv^drj, It 

^ Lines 130-133 were rejected by Aristarchus. 

' Line 141 was rejected by some ancient critics. 

' Line 143 was rejected by Aristarchus. 

* ^i] Zenodotus : wj mss. 

60 



THE ILIAD, II. 129-155 

bearer ; so far, I deem, do the sons of the Achaeans 
outnumber the Trojans that dwell in the city. But 
allies there be out of many cities, men that wield 
the spear, who hinder me mightily, and for all that 
I am fain, suffer me not to sack the well-peopled 
citadel of Ilios. Already have nine years of great 
Zeus gone by, and lo, our ships' timbers are rotted, 
and the tackling loosed ; and our wives, I ween, and 
little children sit in our halls awaiting us ; yet is our 
task wholly unaccomplished in furtherance whf :e- 
of we came hither. Nay, come, even as I shall 
bid, let us all obey : let us flee with our ships to 
our dear native land ; for no more is there hope 
that we shall take broad-wayed Troy." 

So spake he, and roused the hearts in the breasts 
of all throughout the multitude, as many as had 
not heard the council. And the gathering was 
stirred like the long sea- waves of the Icarian main, 
which the East Wind or the South Wind has raised, 
rushing upon them from the clouds of father Zeus. 
And even as when the West Wind at its coming 
stirreth a deep cornfield with its violent blast, and 
the ears bow thereunder, even so was all their 
gathering stirred, and they with loud shouting 
rushed towards the ships ; and from beneath their 
feet the dust arose on high. And they called each 
one to his fellow to lay hold of the ships and draw 
them into the bright sea, and they set themselves 
to clear the launching- ways, and their shouting went 
up to heaven, so fain were they of their return 
home ; and they began to take the props from 
beneath the ships. 

Then would the Argives have accomplished their 
return even beyond what was ordained, had not 

61 



HOMER 

et [xri *AdrjvaLr]v "Hpry Trpos fivdov eeinev^ 

CD TTOTTOL, alytoxoLO Atos TeKo^, 'ArpvTcovrj, 
ovrco Srj oiKovSe (f)lXrjv is TrarptSa yalav 
'Apyeloi c/iev^ovTai iir* evpea vcora daXdcrarjs ; 
KttS Be K€v evxcoXrjv Ylpid/jLix) /cat Tpcocrt XiTTOiev^ 
Apy€L7]v 'KXevTjv, 1^? eivcKa ttoXXoI ^Axollcov 
ev 1. poLTj CLTToXovTO, (f)LXrjg OLTTO TTttT/otSos' a'lrjs. 
aAA' Wi vvv Kara Xaov 'Ap^^atoiv x.aXKOXi'TioviDV' 
aols ayavoLS iireeaaiv iprirve (fycora eKaurov,^ 
/xTySe ea vrjas d'AaS' eXKCfiev dpi(j)LeXiaaas ." 

O? e^ar', ouS' dmOyjcre Oed yXavKOJTns 'AdrjvT), 
^rj Se /car' 0vXvp,7TOto Kaprjvcov dt^acra' 
KapTToXipiiDs S' iKove Oods eVt vrjas ^Axai.a)u.* 
eijpev kireLT Ohvarja, Alt firjriv drdiXavrov, 
ecrraoT • ovBi' 6 ye vrjos ivcraeXpiOLO pueXatvrjs 
UTTTer , €7761 ^tv dxos KpaSirjv /cat 6vp,6v iKavev 
ayxov 8 larapt^evrj 7Tpoa€<f)7] yXavKOJiris ^Adrjvq' 

hioyevks AaepridBr], TToXvpn/jxcv^ ^08vaaev, 
ovTco Srj OLKovSe (f)LXr)v is Trarpiha yalav 
(f)€V^€ad^ iv vTjeaai ttoXukXtjCgi Treaovres; 
KaS Si K€V evxcoXrjv ITpia/xo) Kal Tpcoal XiTTOire 
^ApyeLrjV 'EiXivrjv, -^s elveKa iroXXol *AxaiG)v 
ev I poLT] aTToXovTO, (f)LX7]s aTTO irarpihos a'irjs; 
aXX Wl vvv Kara Xadv ^AxaiaJv, /xt^S' eV ipcoei, 
aoLS 8 ayavoLs eTrieaaLv ip-qrve (fjwra eKaarov, 
fxr^Se ea vrjas d'AaS' iXKefiev dix(f)LeXiaaas ." 

Q.S <f>d6' , 6 8e ^vverjKe Beds dira <f)a)vr]adcrr)s , 

^ For line lUS Zenodotus read, 

et M'? 'Adrjvair) Xaoaaboi JjXO' ciTr' 'OXij/xttov, 
omitting lines I.IT-IGS. 

2 Lines lfiO-162 ( = 176-178) were rejected by Aristarchus. 

* Line 164 ( = 180) was rejected by Aristarchus. 

* Line 168 is omitted in many mss. 
62 



THE ILIAD, 11. 156-182 

Hera spoken a word to Athena, saying : " Out upon 
it, child of Zeus that beareth the aegis, unwearied 
one ! Is it thus indeed that the Argives are to flee 
to their dear native land over the broad back of the 
sea ? Aye, and they would leave to Priam and the 
Trojans their boast, even Argive Helen, for whose 
sake many an Achaean hath perislied in Troy, far 
from liis dear native land. But go thou now through- 
out the host of the brazen-coated Achaeans ; with 
thy gentle words seek thou to restrain every man, 
neither suiFer them to draw into the sea their curved 
ships." 

So spake she, and the goddess, flashing-eyed 
Athene, failed not to hearken. Down from the 
peaks of Olympus she went darting, and speedily 
came to the swift ships of the Achaeans. There 
she found Odysseus, the peer of Zeus in counsel, 
as he stood. He laid no hand upon his benched, 
black ship, for that grief had come upon his heart 
and soul •, and flashing-eyed Athene stood near him, 
and said : " Son of Laertes, sprung from Zeus, 
Odysseus of many wiles, is it thus indeed that ye 
will fling yourselves on your benched ships to flee 
to your dear native land ? Aye, and ye would leave 
to Priam and the Trojans their boast, even Argive 
Helen, for whose sake many an Achaean hath 
perished in Troy, far from his dear native land. 
But go thou now throughout the host of the Achaeans, 
and hold thee back no more ; and with thy gentle 
words seek thou to restrain every man, neither suffer 
them to draw into the sea tlieir curved ships." 

So said she, and he knew the voice of the goddess 

63 



HOMER 

^rj 8e dieiv, airo he yX^^^^v ^dXe' ttjv 8e KOjxiaa^ 
KTJpv^ JLvpv^drrjs 'WaKujaios, os ol ornqheL. 
avros 8 'ArpetSeo; ^ Ayafxefjbvovos dvriog iXOcbv ] 
oe^aro ol aKrjTTrpov TTarpco'Cov, d(f)9tTOV ater 
auv TO) e^Tj Kara vrjas 'A;)^aiajv ;^aA/<:o;^tTajp'cuv. 

Oi' TLva fM€V ^acnXrja /cat €^o)(ov dvSpa klx^it}, 
rov S dyavoig eVeecrcriv ep-qrvaaaKe Trapaards' 

oaifiovi' , ov ae eoiKC KaKov ws SeiSiaaecfOaL, ] 
aAA avTos re Kd9r)ao /cat dXXovs IBpve Xaovg. 
ov yap 7T0J ad(f)a olad^ olos voos 'Arpetajvos' 
vvv p,ev Treipdrai, rd^a S' ti/rerat vlas *K-)(aiibv} 
€V ^ovXfj 8' ov ndvres aKovaafiev olov eenre; 

dvpLos he fxeyag earl hiorpe(f)ewv fiaaiX-qcov, 
ri/XTj h €K A to? eVrt, «^iAet 8e e firjriera Zcuj." 
Ov 8' av hrjixov t' dvhpa tSot ^oocovrd r e^evpoi, 
rov aKrjTTrpa) eXdaaoKev opbOKXYjaaaKe re fxvOuj' 

haifxovi', drpijxas rjao /cat dXXiov fxvdov aKove, ^ 
ot areo ^eprepoi elai, ai) 8' dvroXepiog koX dvaXKig, 
ovre TTor ev TToXefiu) evapidpnos ovr* evl ^ovXfj. 
ov fiev TTCOS TTavres ^aaiXevarofxev ivddh* 'A;)^aiot* 
ovK ayaOov iroXvKotpaviiq- els Koipavog earco, 
el's ^aaiXevs, & hoJKe Kpovov Trdis dyKvXofiijreco 2 
aKrjTTrpov r 7]he Oefxiaras, tva a<j)iai ^ovXevrjai."^ 

' Q.S o ye Koipaveojv hieve arparov ol 8' dyoprivhs 

^ Lines 193-197 were rejected by Aristarchus; who also 
transferred to this place lines 203-205. 

* Line 206 is omitted in many mss. For ^ovXevriai (Dio 
Chrysostoraus) the mss. give the unmetrical ^aa-iXedji. 
64 



THE ILIAD, II. 183-207 

as she spake; and set him to run, and cast from him 
his cloak, which his herald gathered up, even Eury- 
bates of Ithaca, that waited on him. But himself 
he went straight to Agamemnon, son of Atreus, 
and received at his hand the staff of his fathers, 
imperishable ever, and therewith went his way along 
the ships of the brazen-coated Achaeans. 

Whomsoever he met that was a chieftain or man 
of note, to his side would he come and with gentle 
words seek to restrain him, saying : " Good Sir, it 
beseems not to seek to affright thee as if thou wert 
a coward, but do thou thyself sit thee down, and make 
the rest of thy people to sit. For thou knowest not 
yet clearly what is the mind of the son of Atreus ; 
now he does but make trial, whereas soon he will 
smite the sons of the Achaeans. Did we not all hear 
what he spake in the council ? Beware lest waxing 
wroth he work mischief to the sons of the Achaeans. 
Proud is the heart of kings, fostered of heaven ; for 
their honour is from Zeus, and Zeus, god of counsel, 
loveth them." 

But whatsoever man of the people he saw, and 
found brawling, him would he smite with his staff, 
and chide with words, saying, " Fellow, sit thou 
still, and hearken to the words of othei's that are 
better men than thou ; whereas thou art unwarlike 
and a weakling, neither to be counted in war nor in 
counsel. In no wise shall we Achaeans all be kings 
here. No good thing is a multitude of lords ; let 
there be one lord, one king, to whom the son of 
crooked-counselling Cronos hath vouchsafed the 
sceptre and judgments, that he may take counsel 
for his people." 

Thus masterfully did he range through the host, 

VOL. I V Q5 



HOMER 

avTLS ineacrevovro vecov oltto /cat KXtaiacov 
rixf}) <^S ore /cv/ta TToXv(f)\oia^oLO daXdacrrjs 
alyLaXcp {xeydXa) ^pefierai, afxapayeX Se re ttovtos. 

"AAAot [xev p et^ovro, ep-qrvdev Se /ca^' eSpas' 
Qepairrjs 8' ert fiovvos dixerpoeTrrjg CKoXcoa, 
OS eVea ^peai fjaiv aKoa/JLO. re ttoAAcx re jj^fj, 
fjidifj, drdp ov Kara KoapLOV, ept^e/xev'ai ^aaiXevaiv , 
aAA' o Tt ot etcraiTO yeXouov 'ApyeioicrLV 
epupLevai. a'iaxicrro's 8e dvr^p vtto "lAiov rjXde' 
(f)oAKos erjv, x^^^^S o erepov TTOoa' roi oe oi co/xco 
Kvprco, €7tI arrjdos avvoxojKore' avrdp vnepOe 
(J)o^6s €7)v K€(f)aX't]V, ifteSvrj 8' eTrev-qvode Xdxvrj. 
exdi-CTTOs 8' 'A;;^tA'>^t pdXiar* rjv 178' ^OSvaffC'^ 
TU> ydp veiKeUoKe' ror aur' ^Ayap^epvovt 8ta» 
o^ea KeKXijycov Xey ovelSea. tw 8' dp* ^Axaioi 
CKTrdyXcos Koreovro vepLeaarjOiv r Ivl dvpicp. 
avrdp 6 paKpd ^ocov * Ayap,epi,vova veiKee fxvOw' 

^ArpetSrj, reo Srj avr* eTnpLep(f>€ai rjhk ;\;aTt^ei?; 
rrXelai rot xo-^'<ov /cAicrtai, rroXXal 8e yvvaiKes^ 
elalv ivl /cAtatTy? i^alperoL, dg roi ^AxclloI 
TTpcoriarcp SlSopev, evr* dv TrroXUdpov eXiojxev, 
ri eVt Koi xp^crov imSeveaL, ov kc ris otcrei 
Tpoiujv LTTTTohdpLCov €^ 'lAtou vtos aTTOiva, 
dv Kev iycb Srycras" dydyco 7) aAAo? 'Ap^atcDv/ 
rj€ yvvaiKa ve-qv, iva /.uayeai, iv (f)t,X6rr]rL, 
7]v r avros dtrovoai^L KarLorx^o.t' ; ov fiev eoiKCV 
dpxov iovra KaKOJV cm^aaKep^ev vlas ^AxaidJv. 

* Lines 220-223 were rejected by Zeiiodotus. 

' TToXXai 5^ yvpoiKes : ir\e7at S^ yvvaiKCov Zenodotus, who 
rejected lines 227 f. 

' Lines 231-23t were rejected by Zenodotus. 
66 



THE ILIAD, II. 208-234 

and they hasted back to the place of gathering 
from their ships and huts with noise, as when a 
wave of the loud-resounding sea thundereth on the 
long beach, and the deep roareth. 

Now the others sate them down and were stayed 
in their places, only there still kept chattering on 
Thersites of measureless speech, whose mind was 
full of great store of disorderly words, wherewith to 
utter revilings against the kings, idly, and in no 
orderly wise, but whatsoever he deemed would raise a 
laugh among the.Argives. Evil-favoured was he 
beyond all men that came to Ilios : he was bandy- 
legged and lame in the one foot, and his two shoulders 
were rounded, stooping together over his chest, and 
above them his head was warpen, and a scant stubble 
grew thereon. Hateful was he to Achilles above all, 
and to Odysseus, for it was they twain that he was 
wont to revile ; but now again with shrill cries he 
uttered abuse against goodly Agamemnon. With 
him were the Achaeans exceeding wroth, and had 
indignation in their hearts. Howbeit with loud 
shoutings he spake and chid Agamemnon : 

" Son of Atreus, with what art thou now again 
discontent, or what lack is thine ? Filled are thy 
huts with bronze, and women full many are in thy 
huts, chosen spoils that we Achaeans give thee first 
of all, whensoe'er we take a citadel. Or dost thou 
still want gold also, which some man of the horse- 
taming Trojans shall bring thee out of Ilios as a 
ransom for his son, whom I haply have bound and 
led away or some other of the Achaeans ? Or is it 
some young girl for thee to know in love, whom 
thou wilt keep apart for thyself ? Nay, it beseemeth 
not one that is their captain to bring to ill the sons 

67 



HOMER 

to TTeiTOves, KaK eAeyxG , A^^acLoes, ovKer A^aioi, 
ot/caSe TT€p crvv vrjval vecofieOa, rovSe 8' iojfiev 
avTov ivl TpoiT] yipa Treaaefxev, 6<f)pa tSrjrat 
T] pa ri ol -xriixel? Trpoaafxvvofiev, rje /cat ou/ct* 
OS Kal vvv Ap^tA-^a, eo fxey* apieivova (fitbra, 
r]rip.7]a€V' eXwv yap ex^t yepas, avros dvovpag. 
aAAa /xaA' ovk ^AxiXrj'C ;)^oAo? (f)p€mv, dXXa fie- 

^ yap dv, ^ArpetBr], vvv vcrrarfi Xco^T]aat,o ." 

"Q? (fydro veiKeiojv ^Ayap,€fxvova, ■7TOLp,eva AacSt', 
QepcTLTT]?' Tcp 8' wKa TTapiaroTO hlos 'OSvcraevs, 
/cat p,LV VTToSpa ISojv p^aAeTro) rjVLTTaTre pcvOcp- 
" ©epariT dKpLr6p,vQe, Atyw Trep iojv dyoprjrrjs, 
lax^o, p,7jS* eOcX olos ipit,ep,evai ^aaiXevaiv. 
ov yap iyd) aeo (f)r]pX x^P^^'Orepov ^porov aXXov 
e/i/xevai, oceaoi dp,' 'ArpetSrjs vtto "lAtov rjXdov. 
Tco OVK dv ^aaiXijas dvd aTop,* e^cov dyopevots, 
/cat a(f)iv dvelSed re 7Tpocf)€pois, voarov re ^vXdaaois . 
ovhe ri mo ad(f)a lhp.ev ottcos earai, rdSe epya,^ 
7] cS rje /ca/ccus" voaT7]aop,€V vies 'Ap^aicDv. 
TcD vvv 'ArpetSr) 'Ayap,€p,vovL, TTOip.4vi Xaa)v, 
■^aat ovet8t^a>v, otl ol p,dXa ttoAAci 8t8oycrti' 
"qpcoes AavaoL' av 8e K€prop,ictiV dyopeveig. 
dXX €/c rot epeoj, to 8e /cat rereXecrpLevov carat • 
61 /c eVi a' d<f>paLVOVTa Kixrjaropbat, a>s vv Trep t58e, 

^ Lines 252-256 were rejected by Aristarchiis. 
68 



THE ILIAD, II. 235-258 

of the Achaeans. Soft fools ! base things of shame, 
ye women of Achaea, men no more, homeward let us 
go with our ships, and leave this fellow here in 
the land of Troy to digest his prizes, that so he may 
learn whether in us too there is aught of aid for him 
or no — for him that hath now done dishonour to 
Achilles, a man better far than he ; for he hath 
taken away, and keepeth his prize by his own 
arrogant act. Of a surety there is naught of wrath 
in the heart of Achilles ; nay, he heedeth not at all ; 
else, son of Atreus, wouldest thou now work insolence 
for the last time." 

So spake Thersites, railing at Agamemnon, 
shepherd of the host. But quickly to his side came 
goodly Odysseus, and with an angry glance from 
beneath his brows, chid him with harsh words, 
saying : " Thersites of reckless speech, clear- voiced 
talker tliough thou art, refrain thee, and be not 
minded to strive singly against kings. For I deem 
that there is no viler mortal than thou amongst all 
those that with the sons of Atreus came beneath 
Ilios. Wherefore 'twere well thou shouldest not 
take the name of kings in thy mouth as thou pratest, 
to cast reproaches Upon them, and to watch for 
home-going. In no wise do we know clearly as yet 
how these things are to be, whether it be for good 
or ill that we sons of the Achaeans shall return. 
Therefore dost thou now continually utter revilings 
against Atreus' son, Agamemnon, shepherd of the 
host, for that the Danaan warriors give him gifts 
full many ; whereas thou pratest on with railings. 
But I will speak out to thee, and this word shall 
verily be brought to pass : if I find thee again playing 
the fool, even as now thou dost, then may the head 

69 



HOMER 

fX7]KeT eTTetr' ^OBvcrrjt Kapr] wfxoiaiv eTreLTj, 
lJiT]S en T7]X€iJ,dxoLo Trar-qp K€KXr]ix€Vos etrju, 
€L /JbTj iyo) ere Xa^ojv drro fxkv <^iAa et/jbara Svaco, 
xXalvdv t' rjSe )(iTa)va, rd r' alSaJ diJi(f>iKaXv7TT€L, 
avTov Se KXaiovra dods €7tl vijas d^rjoco 
TTeTrXriyoiv dyoprjOev deLKeacn TrX-qyijaLV ." 

Lis ap €(pri, aKTjTTTpa) oe fieTa(ppevov rjoe /cai 

djfJbO) 

TrXrj^ev' 6 8' ISvcoOrj, daXepov 8e ol CKveae SdKpv 
cfMcbSt^ S' aljjbaroeaaa /xera^peVou e^VTraviarrj 
CK'^TTTpOV VTTO )(pva€OV . 6 S' dp' €l,€ro rdp^7]a€V T€, 
dXyT^cras 8 , d)(^p€LOV IScvv, dTrofxop^aro BdKpv. 
ol 8e /cat dxvvfxevoL Trep en' avrco rjSv yeXaoaav 
d>he Be Tts" etTTeuKev ISojv is TrX-qmov dXXov 
" o) TTOTTOi, rj Br] pLvpi' 'OBvaaevs eadXd eopye 
^ovXds T e^dpxcov dyadds TToXepbov re Kopvaaojv 
vvv Be roBe jxey' dpiarov ev 'Apyeioiaiv epe^ev, 

05 TOP Xco^TjTTJpa errea^oXov ea^ dyopdcuv. 
ov drjv jXLV TrdXiv avris dvqaei, dvfxos dyqvojp 
veiKeieiv ^aaiXrjas dvecBeloLS eTreeaaiv." 

"Q.S (fidaav rj TrXrjdvs' dvd 8' d TTroXirropdos 
'OBvaaevs 
earrj aKrJTrrpov ex^cov' Trapd Be yXavKcoms 'AO'^vrj 
elBofxevr] KtjpvKL aLCOTrdv Xaov dvcoyet, 
(x)s dfxa 6' ol TTpdjTol re /cat vararoi vies 'Axclloju 
jxvOov dKovaeiav /cat enKfypaaaalaTO ^ovX-^v. 

6 a^tv ev (f)poveojv dyop-qoaro /cat pLeTeemev 
'ArpetBr], vvv Bij ae, dva^, edeXovaiv 'A;^atot 

rrdatv iXeyxi'CrTOV dejxevai fxepoTreacn fipOTolcnv, 

70 



THE ILIAD, 11. 259-285 

of Odysseus abide no more upon his shoulders, nor 
may I any more be called the father of Telemachus, 
if I take thee not, and strip off thy raiment, thy 
cloak, and thy tunic that cover thy nakedness, and 
for thyself send thee wailing to the swift ships, 
beaten forth from the place of gathering with 
shameful blows." 

So spake Odysseus, and with his staff smote his 
back and shoulders ; and Thersites cowered down, 
and a big tear fell from him, and a bloody weal rose 
up on his back beneath the staff of gold. Then he 
sate him down, and fear came upon him, and stung 
by pain with helpless looks he wiped away the tear. 
But the Achaeans, sore vexed at heart though they 
were, broke into a merry laugh at him, and thus 
would one speak with a glance at his neighbour : 
" Out upon it ! verily hath Odysseus ere now wrought 
good deeds without number as leader in good counsel 
and setting battle in array, but now is this deed far 
the best that he hath wrought among the Argives, 
seeing he hath made this scurrilous babbler to cease 
from his prating. Never again, I ween, will his 
proud spirit henceforth set him on to rail at kings 
with words of reviling." 

So spake the multitude ; but up rose Odysseus, 
sacker of cities, the sceptre in his hand, and by his 
side flashing-eyed Athene, in the likeness of a herald, 
bade the host keep silence, that the sons of the 
Achaeans, both the nearest and the farthest, might 
hear his words, and lay to heai't his counsel. He 
with good intent addressed their gathering and spake 
among them : " Son of Atreus, now verily are the 
Achaeans minded to make thee, O king, the most 
despised among all mortal men, nor will they fulfil 

71 



HOMER 

ovBe rot cKreXiovaiv inroax^aiv rjv rrep VTriarav 
iv6d8 en crreiXOVTes o.tt' "Apyeos ltttto^otolo, 
"IXiov eKTTeparavT evT€L)(^ov aTTOvieadat. 
cSs" re yap rj Tralhes veapol XVP^'' '^^ yvvatKeg 
a?<X-^Xotaiv oSvpovraL oiKovSe veeadat. 2 

ri fxrjv /cat vovos larlv dvirjOevTa vleadai' 
/cat yap ris 6^ eva iirjva fxivwv diro rjs dXoxoio 
dcrx^^Xda avv V7]t rroXvl^vycp, dv nep aeAAai 
X€L[X€pLai elXewaiv dpLvofxevq re OdXaaaa- 
T^/xtv S' e'ivarog icxri TrepirpoTTeoov iviavros 2 

ivddSe pupLVovTeaai' rcb ov ve/xeat^o/x.' ^Axatovg 
daxo-Xdav irapd vrjval Kopcoviaiv^ dXXd /cat efXTrrjs 
alaxpdv TOL Srjpov re fxevciv Keveov re veecrOai. 
TXr]re, <f)[XoL, /cat /LtetVar' irrl xpdvov, 6(f)pa Sacofiev 
7] ireov KdXxas fiavreveraL, r^e /cat ovkl. 3 

eS yap Srj roSe Ihjxev ivl (j)peaiv, iark 8e irdvTes 
jjidprvpoi, ovs firj Krjpes €^av davdroio (j>epovaai' 
X^f-^o, re Kal rrpcott,' , or' es AuAiSa vrjes ^Axatcov 
rjyepedovro /ca/ca ITpta/xo) /cat Tpcuat (f)epovaat,' 
TjpieZs 8' a/Lt^t TTepl Kprjvrjv Upovs Kara ^uypiovs 3 
ephopLCV dOavdroia-L reXrjeaaas eKarop^as, 
KaXfj V7t6 TrXaraviarcp , ddev piev dyXadv vSwp' 
ev6* e^dvrj p,eya crrjp,a' hpdKcov €7rt vwra 8a</>otvo?, 
ap,ephaXeos, rov p avrds 'OAu/xttios' rJKe (j)6a>ahe, 
^a)piOV virat^as Trpos pa TrXardvLarov dpovaev. 3 
evda 8' eaav arpovdolo veoaaoi, v-qma rcKva, 
o^o) eV dKporaTCp, TrerdXois VTroTreTrrrjcioTes , 
oKTio, drdp- p-TJrrjp evdrrj rjv, ^ re/ce reKva. 

^ acxoKdav , . . Kopwviffiv : dtrxaXdav iMfivhyreaai. {/xlfjivovT' 
iirl vrifo-ff' ? ) Zenodotus. 

^ Others prefer to render, " When the ships had been 
gathering but one day or two in A nils." 

72 



THE ILIAD, II. 286-313 

the promise that they made to thee, while faring 
hitherward from Argos, the pasture-land of horses, 
that not until thou hadst sacked well-walled Ilios 
shouldest thou get thee home. For like little 
children or widow women do they wail each to the 
other in longing to return home. Verily there is 
toil enow to make a man return disheartened. For 
he. that abideth but one single month far from his 
wife in his benched ship hath vexation of heart, even 
he whom winter blasts and surging seas keep afar ; 
but for us is the ninth year at its turn, while we 
abide here ; wherefore I count it not shame that the 
Achaeans have vexation of heart beside their beaked 
ships ; yet even so it is a shameful thing to tarry 
long, and return empty. Endure, my friends, and 
abide for a time, that we may know whether the 
prophecies of Calchas be true, or no. For this in 
truth do we know well in our hearts, and ye are all 
witnesses thereto, even as many as the fates of death 
have not borne away. It was but as yesterday or 
the day before, when the ships of the Achaeans 
were gathering in Aulis,^ laden with woes for Priam 
and the Trojans ; and we round about a spring were 
offering to the immortals upon the holy altars 
hecatombs that bring fulfilment, beneath a fair 
plane-tree from whence flowed the bright water ; 
then appeared a great portent : a serpent, blood- 
red on the back, terrible, whom the Olympian 
himself had sent forth to the light, glided from 
beneath the altar and darted to the plane-tree. 
Now upon this were the younglings of a sparrow, 
tender little ones, on the topmost bough, cowering 
beneath the leaves, eight in all, and the mother 
that bare them was the ninth. Then the serpent 

73 



HOMER 

ev6* o ye rovs iXeeiva Karrjadie TerptycSras"* 

firjTfjp 8 a^<f>nTordro ohvpojxevn] (jyiXa re/cva* 3 

rrjv 8 iXeXi^dfievos Trripvyos Xd^ev dixcfyiaxvlav. 

avrdp eTTcl Kara reKV^ e<j)aye arpovdoZo Koi avTiqv, 

TOP p,ev dt^rjXov^ 6'fJKev deos, os Trep e^r^i/e* 

XSiav yap /xlv eOrjKe J^povov Trd'Cs dyKvXop.'qTeoi'^ 

Tjixeis 8' iaraores davpLd^oficv otov irv)(drj. 3 

CO? ovv 8etm rreAcopa Oeaiv elarjXO^ e/caro/xjSa?, 

Yi.dX)(as 8' avrLK eireira deoTrpoTrecov dyopeve- 

'tittt' area) eyeveade, Kdprj KOfioMvres A;^atot; 

r)[MXv fji€V ToS' e(f>7]ve repas jxeya fxr^rUra Zeu?, 

oiffLfJiov, oijfireXearov , oov AcAeo? ov ttot oAetrat. 3 

(lis OVTOS Kara tckv^ e^aye arpovdolo /cat auTT^v, 

OKTCo, drdp pb-^rrjp ivdrrj ^v, rj t€K€ T€Kva, 

a)s rjixels roaaavr eVea TrroXejxi^opLev avdi, 

rep Se/caro) 8e ttoXlv alprjaofxev evpvdyviav' 

Kelvos Tws dyopeve' rd 8r] vvv ndvra TeAeirai. 3 

aAA' aye, fxifivere Trdvres, ivKv-qfjuSes ^A)^aiOL, 

avTOV, els o kcv darv /xe'ya Ylptd/Jioio eXcojJiev." 

"Qs" €<f)aT* , 'Apyetoi 8e /u,e'y' taxov, dp.^1 Se r^e? 

ap^ephaXiov Kovd^rjcrav dvadvrojv utt' 'A;;^atci)i', 

fivdov eTTaiviqaavres ^Ohvaarjos deioio. 3: 

ToZai 8e /cai fxereeiTre TepijvLos iTnTora Nearcop' 

" (X) TTOTTOi, ri Bt) TTaialv ioLKores dyopdacrde 

vr)7Tt,d)(ots , ols ov tl /xeXei TToX€pi.r]'Ca epya. 

Trfj 81J avvdeaiai, re /cai opKia ^rjaerai 'rjfiiv; 

iv TTvpl Srj ^ovXai re yevoiaro fx-qSed t' dv8pa)i>, 3 

^ T£TpiywTas : rirl^oi/ras Zenodotus. 
* dt^r]\ov : dpi^rjXov, dpidrjXov Zenodotus. 
' Line;}!}) was rejected by Aristarchus. 

74 



THE ILIAD, II. 314-340 

devoured them as they twittered piteously, and the 
mother fluttered around them, waihng for her dear 
httle ones ; howbeit he coiled himself and caught 
her by the wing as she screamed about him. But 
when he had devoured the sparrow's little ones 
and the mother with them, the god, who had brought 
him to the light, made him to be unseen ; for the 
son of crooked-counselling Cronos turned him to 
stone ; and we stood there and marvelled at what 
was wrought. So, when the dread portent brake 
in upon the hecatombs of the gods, then straightway 
did Calchas prophesy, and address our gathering, 
saying : ' Why are ye thus silent, ye long-haired 
Achaeans ? Tp us hath Zeus the counsellor shewed 
this great sign, late in coming, late in fulfilment, 
the fame whereof shall never perish. Even as this 
serpent devoured the sparrow's little ones and the 
mother with them — the eight, and the mother that 
bare them was the ninth — so shall we war there for 
so many years, but in the tenth shall we take the 
broad- wayed city.' On this wise spake Calchas, and 
now all this is verily being brought to pass. Nay, 
come, abide ye all, ye well-greaved Achaeans, even 
where ye are, until we take the great city of Priam." 
So spake he, and the Argives shouted aloud, and 
all round about them the ships echoed wondrously 
beneath the shouting of the Achaeans, as they 
praised the words of godlike Odysseus. And there 
spake among them the horseman, Nestor of Gerenia : 
" Now look you ; in very truth are ye holding 
assembly after the manner of silly boys that care 
no whit for deeds of war. What then is to be the 
end of our compacts and our oaths ? Nay, into the 
fire let us cast all counsels and plans of warriors, 

75 



HOMER 

OTTOvhai T aKpTjTOL Kal Septal, fjs iTreTndfxev 
avTcos yap eTreeaa eptSaiVo/xev, oi5Se ri fiyjxos 
€vp€fX€vaL BvvdfxeaOa, ttoXvv ^povov ivddS iovres. 
^ArpetSr}, crv 8' e^' cLs rrpiv e-)((x)v acrre/x^ea ^ovXrjV 
apx^v ' ApyeloiCTL Kara Kparepas vajxivas, 3 

Tovahe S' ea (f)divv6eiv, eva Kal Svo, roi kcv ^Axaicov 
v6G(f)LV jSouAeuojcr' — dvvais 8' ovk eaaerac avrwv — 
TTplv "ApyoaB* iivai, irplv Kal Ato? alyioxoio 
yva)fj,evai et re t/jevBos UTroo^ecris", et re /cat ou/ct. 
(jii^jxl yap ovv Karaveuaai vrreppL^vea Yipovicova 3 
rjixari raJ ore V7]valu iv WKVTTopoKnv e^awov 
'Apyetot TpcoeacTL (f)6vov Kal K-r)pa (f>€povr€S' 
darpaTTroJv iinBe^i , ivaiorLfMa ar^iara (/>aiv(x)v. 
rw p.'q rts rrplv erreiyeadd) oiKovhe vieadai, 
TTpiv rLva rrap' Tpioojv dXoxip KaraKOini^drjvat., 3 
riaaaOai 8' *^XevrjS opfji-^ixard re arovaxds re. 
el 8e ris eKnayXaJS eOcXet oiKovBe veeaOai, 
drrreadco rjs vqos evaoeXp.oio fxeXalvrjs, 
6(j)pa npoad^ dXXcov ddvarov Kal TTorp^ov emaTrrj, 
dXXd, dva^, avros r ev fxtjBeo Treldeo r dXXco' 3 
ov roL aTTo^Xrjrov erros eacrerai, 6m Kev elnoi' 
KpXv* dvBpas Kara (f)vXa, Kara <^prirpas, *Ayd- 

fiefivov, 
cos <f)p'^rpr] (l)p'qrprj(f)LV dpi^yrj, (f)vXa he cJjvXols. 
el Be Kev (x)s ^pij]? Kal rot, ireldcovrai ^Axatol, 
yvcocrr) eVet^' os 9^ rjyefiovcov KaKos os re vv Xadjv, 3 
rjB* OS K eadXos erjoi' Kara a^eas yap p^axeovrai' 

^ Possibly, " the strivings and groanings of Helen." So 
some ancient critics, who held that in the Odyssey Helen 
is represented as having left her home willingly, whereas in 
the Iliad she is regarded as having been taken away by 
force. These critics referred the two poems to different 
authors. 

76 



THE ILIAD, II. 341-366 

the drink-offerings of unmixed wine, and the hand- 
clasps wherein we put out trust. For vainly do we 
WTangle with words, nor can we find any device at 
all, for all our long tarrying here. Son of Atreus, do 
thou as of old keep unbending purpose, and be 
leader of the Argives throughout stubborn fights ; 
and for these, let them perish, the one or two of the 
Achaeans, that take secret counsel apart — yet no 
accomplishment shall come therefrom — to depart 
first to Argos or ever we have learned whether the 
promise of Zeus that beareth the aegis be a lie or 
no. For I declare that Cronos' son, supreme in 
might, gave promise with his nod on that day when 
the Argives went on board their syi^ift-faring ships, 
bearing unto the Trojans death and fate ; for he 
lightened on our right and shewed forth signs of 
good. Wherefore let no man make haste to depart 
homewards until each have lain with the wife of 
some Trojan, and have got him requital for his 
strivings and groanings for Helen's sake.^ Howbeit, 
if any man is exceeding fain to depart homewards, 
let him lay his hand upon his black, well-benched 
ship, that before the face of all he may meet death 
and fate. But do thou, O king, thyself take good 
counsel, and hearken to another ; the word what- 
soever I speak, shalt thou not lightly cast aside. 
Separate thy men by tribes, by clans, Agamemnon, 
that clan may bear aid to clan and tribe to tribe. 
If thou do thus, and the Achaeans obey thee, thou 
wilt know then who among thy captains is a coward, 
and who among thy men, and who too is brave ; 
for they will fight each clan for itself.^ So shalt thou 

^ That is, the fact that the glory of success will accrue to 
his clan, will be an incentive to each man to do his best. 

77 



HOMER 

yvoioeai S' et Koi Oecnreair] ttoXlv ovk aXaTra^ei? , 
•q dvSpcov KaKOTTjTL /cat a(f)pahir^ TToXefxoLO ." 

Tov 8' dTTa/jLeL^o/jievos 7Tpoa€(f)rj Kpeia>v 'Aya- 

" rj fidv avT dyopfi viKas, yepov, vtas K-)(^cu(JoV' 3 
at ydp Ze£» re irdrep /cat ^Adrjvalrj Kal "AttoXXov 
TOiovroL 8e/ca /xot avfjL(f)pdSp,oves elev 'A;^at6Dv 
Tw K€ rdx' rjixvaeie ttoXis IlpidfxoLO dvaKro<; 
^^epcTLV v(f>' rjfjberep'r^crtv dXovad re TrepOofxevrj re. 
dAAa jLtot alyioxos ¥LpovlSrjs Zeu? a'Aye' eScoKev, 5 
OS /Lte /xer' dTTprjKrovs epiSas /cat veiKea ^dXXei. 
Kal ydp iycbv ^A)(^lX€vs re fxax^cradixed^ elveKa 

Kovprjs 
dvri^ioLs eireeaaiv, eycb 8' rjpxov "xP-XeTraivcov 
el 8e ttot' e? ye ixiav ^ovXevaofjiev, ovKer eVeira 
Tpcjoalv dvd^Xriais /ca/coy eaaerai, 01)8' rj^aiov. j 
j'W 8' ep^ead eTTi helirvov, tva ^vvdycofxev "Apiqa, 
ev fiev Tts" 8opu Orj^dadoi, ei) 8' dcTrtSa OecrOco, 
ev 8e Tt? tTTTTOto'tP' 86177^01^ 80x0^ WKVTToheaaLV , 
ev he ns dpfiaros afi(f)ls lSd)V TToXe/xoLO jjieheadco, 
a)S Ke TTavrjjjLepiot, arvyepo) KpLva)fied* "Aprji. c 

ov ydp TTavacoX'q ye pbereaaerai, ovhi* rj^aiov^ 
el fir] vv^ eXdovaa SiaKpiveei fjuevos dvSpdJv. 
Ihpcxiaet fxev rev reXapLwv dfj,(f)l ariqdeaij^iv 
damSos dp,(f)t.Pp6rrjs, Trepl 8' ^yx^i X^^P^ Kafxeirai* 
IBpcoaei 8e rev tmros ev^oov dpfia riraivcov. i 

ov 8e K* eycbv dndvevde fidx^js edeXovra voiqao} 
fxcfMvd^eLV rrapd vrjvat KopojvLaiv, ov ol erretra 
dpKtov eaaelrai ff>vyeeLV Kvuas rjB olcovovs. 
78 



THE ILIAD, II. 3G7-393 

know whether it is even by the will of heaven that 
thou shalt not take the city, or by the cowardice of 
thy folk and their witlessness in war." 

Then in answer to him spake the king, Agamem- 
non : " Aye verily once more, old sir, art thou pre- 
eminent in speech above the sons of the Achaeans. 
I would, O father Zeus ' and Athene and Apollo, 
that I had ten such counsellors ; then would the city 
of king Priam forthwith bow her head, taken and 
laid waste beneath our hands. But the son of 
Cronos, even Zeus that beareth the aegis, hath 
brought sorrows upon me, in that he casteth me into 
the midst of fruitless strifes and wranglings. For 
verily I and Achilles fought about a girl with 
violent words, and it was I that waxed wroth the 
first ; but if e'er we shall be at one in counsel, then 
shall there no more be any putting off of evil for the 
Trojans, no not for an instant. But for this present 
go ye to your meal, that we may join battle. Let 
every man whet well his spear and bestow well his 
shield, and let him well give to his swift-footed 
horses their food, and look well to his chariot on 
every side, and bethink him ore lighting ; that the 
whole day through we may contend in hateful war. 
For of respite shall there intervene, no, not a whit, 
until night at its coming shall part the fury of 
warriors. Wet with sweat about the breast of many 
a man shall be the baldric of his sheltering shield, 
and about the spear shall his hand grow weary, 
and wet with sweat shall a man's horse be, as he 
tugs at the polished car. But whomsoever I shall 
see minded to tarry apart from the fight beside the 
beaked ships, for him shall there be no hope there- 
after to escape the dogs and birds." 

79 



HOMER 

"Q? e^ar*, 'Apyetoi 8e /xey' ta;)(ov, cy? ore wru/xa 
OLKTrj i(f)' vifjr]Xfj, ore Kivqarj NdTO? iXdcov, 3 

TTpo^XrJTi GKOTTeXq)' rov 8' oy Trore KVfiara Aeivrei 
TTavrolojv dve^cov, or* av evd^ r] evda yivcxivr at. 
avardvres S' opeovro KeBaaOevres Kara vijas, 
icaTTVLcrcrdv re Kara KXiaias, kol Selwov eXovro. 
dXXo£ 8' a'AAoj epe^e 6ea>v aleLyeverdcov , i 

evxdfJ'evos ddvarov re <j)vy€lv koX jxioXov "Aprjos. 
avrdp 6 ^ovv Upevaev dva^ dvhpcov ^Ayafiepn'cov 
TTLOva TTevrair'qpov vnepfJieveC Kpovicovc, 
KLKXriaKev 8e yepovras dpLorrrjas Havaxo.t'djv, 
NeWopa pb€V TTpojriara /cat ^\hopi,ev7]a dvaKra, <■. 
avrdp eVeiT' Aiavre hvcx) kol Tvhiog vlov, 
€KTOV 8' ayr' ^OSvcrrja, Ait fMrjnv drdXavrov. 
avTOfxaros 8e ol rjXde ^otjv dyadds MeveXaos' 
TiSee yap Kara dvfiov a8eA^eov cos" eTroveiro. 
^ovv 8e Trepiar-qaavTO /cat ovXoxvras dveXovro' 
ToZaiv 8' €VxdfJi€vos iieT€(f)'q Kpeiojv 'Aya/xe/xvcov 
" Zeu /ci;8tcrTe pLeyiare, KeXaive<j>e? , aWepi vaicov, 
fjbrj irplv eiT* rjeXiov Sui^at /cat eVt /ci^e^a? iXOeiv, 
rrpiv jLte /cara irp-qves ^aAeeti' Opta/xoto fxeXadpov 
aWaXoev, Trprjcrai^ Be rrvpos Sr^toio dvperpa, 
*E/CTopeov 8e p^troiva Trept crrrjOeaai Sat^ai 
XO-Xkw pcoyaXeov TToXees 8' a/it^' ayrop' iraZpoL 
7Tpr]V€es iv Kovirjaiv oBd^ Aa^otaro yatai^." 

"Q? €<j)ar* , ou8' apa ttco ot eTTCKpaaive Kpovlcov, 
dAA' o ye 8e/CTO /Liei' i/aa, ttovov 8' dixeyaprov^ o^eXXev. 

^ TTprjffat : ir\rj<rai Aristarchus {cf. ix. !243). 
* d/xiyapTov : oKiaffrov Aristarchus. 

80 



THE ILIAD, II. 394-420 

So spake he, and the Argives shouted aloud as a 
wave against a high headland, when the South 
Wind Cometh and maketh it to swell — even against 
a jutting crag that is never left by the waves of all 
the winds that come from this side or from that. 
And they arose and hasted to scatter among the 
ships, and made fires in the huts, and took their 
meal. And they made sacrifice one to one of the 
gods that are for ever, and one to another, with the 
prayer that they might escape from death and the 
moil of war. But Agamemnon, king of men, slew 
a fat bull of five years to the son of Cronos, supreme 
in might, and let call the elders, the chieftains 
of the Achaean host, Nestor, first of all, and king 
Idomeneus, and thereafter the twain Aiantes and the 
son of Tydeus, and as the sixth Odysseus, the peer 
of Zeus in counsel. And unbidden came to him 
Menelaus, good at the war-cry, for he knew in his 
heart wherewith his brother was busied. About 
the bull they stood and took up the barley grains, 
and in prayer lord Agamemnon spake among 
them, saying : " Zeus, most glorious, most great, 
lord of the dark clouds, that dwellest in the heaven, 
grant that the sun set not, neither darkness come 
upon us, until I have cast down in headlong ruin 
the hall of Priam, blackened with smoke, and have 
burned with consuming fire the portals thereof, and 
cloven about the breast of Hector his tunic, rent with 
the bronze ; and in throngs may his comrades round 
about him fall headlong in the dust, and bite the 
earth." 

So spake he ; but not as yet would the son of 
Cronos grant him fulfilment ; nay, he accepted the 
sacrifice, but toil he made to wax unceasingly. 

VOL. 10 81 



HOMER 

avrap inet p ev^avro /cat ovXa^VTas irpo^aXovrOf 
avepvaav fxev Trpcora Kal €a(f)a^av /cat eSeipav, 
fiTjpovs t' i^erafxov Kara re Kviarj cKaXvifjav 
Binrvxci TTOcqaavres , ctt' avrcov 8' wfjuoderrjaav. 
/cat TO, fjiev ap cr^it^riaiv a.(f)vXXot,(TiV KareKaiov, 
anXdyxva S' d'/a' dfXTreipavres vneipexov 'Hc^at'aroto. 
avrdp inei Kara f^i^p* e/cary /cat o'TrXdyxy' indaavro , 
fjiiarvXXov r* dpa rdXXa Kal d/x</>' o^eXoZaiv CTreipav, 
(VTrrrjadv re Trepi(f)pabecos , ipvaavro re nravra. 
avrdp enel rravaavro ttovov rervKovro re Baira, 
halvvvr*, oi5Se rt dvjxos eSevero Sairos etarjg. 
avrdp eTTel Troaios Kal eSr^rvos i^ epov evro, 
Tots" dpa p,v9(x}v "^px^ Tepijvios iTnrora Near cop' 

ArpetSr] KvStcrre, dva^ dvBpci)v Aydfie/jLvov, 
fjLTjKeri vvv hrjd^ avdi} XeyMfieOa, /xt^S' eVt S'qpov 
djx^aXXioiieda epyov, o Srj deog eyyvaXil^ei. 
dXX dye, KXjpvKes fiev 'A;)(atci)i' ;)^aA/co;(tTajra;i' 
Aaoi' KTjpvaaovres dyeip6vra>v Kara vrjag, 
'^fJiets 8' ddpooc c58e /card arpardv evpvv 'A^^atajt* 
lOfiev, 6(f)pa Ke Odaaov eyeipofxev o^vv "Aprja." 
"Q? ecjiar , ovh^ drrldrjaev dva^ dvhpcov 'Aya- 
fxeixvoiv. 
avrLKa KrjpvKeaai Xiyvij)06yyoL(n KeXevae 
KTjpvaaeiv TToXefiovSe Kdprj KO/jLocovrag *Axaiovg' 
ol jxev eKTipvaaov, rol 8' rjyeipovro fidX^ coKa. 
ol 8' dfi(f>^ ^ Arpet(x)va hiorpe(f)ees ^aatXrjeg 
9vuov Kpivovres, p-erd 8e yAau/ccoTTt? Adrjvq, 
alyiS' exova* epirtpiov dyiqpaov ddavdrrjv re, 

' vifv drjO' aC^t : vuv 5rj ravra Zenodotus. 
82 



THE ILIAD, II. 421-447 

Then, when they had prayed and had sprinkled the 
barley grains, they first drew back the victims' 
heads and cut their throats, and flayed them ; and 
they cut out the thigh-pieces and covered them with 
a double layer of fat, and laid raw flesh thereon. 
These they burned on billets of wood stripped of 
leaves, and the inner parts they pierced with spits, 
and held them over the flame of Hephaestus. But 
when the thigh-pieces were wholly burned and they 
had tasted of the inner parts, they cut up the rest 
and spitted it, and roasted it carefully, and drew all 
off the spits. Then, when they had ceased from their 
labour and had made ready the meal, they feasted, 
nor did their hearts lack aught of the equal feast. 
But when they had put from them the desire of food 
and drink, among them the horseman, Nestor of 
Gerenia, was first to speak, saying : " Most glorious 
son of Atreus, Agamemnon, king of men, let us now 
not any more remain gathered here, nor any more 
put off the work which verily the god vouchsafeth 
us. Nay, come, let the heralds of the brazen-coated 
Achaeans make proclamation, and gather together 
the host throughout the ships, and let us go thus in 
a body through the broad camp of the Achaeans, that 
we may with tlie more speed stir up sharp battle." 

So spake he, and the king of men, Agamemnon, 
failed not to hearken. Straightway he bade the 
clear-voiced heralds summon to battle the long- 
haired Achaeans. And they made summons, and 
the host gathered full quickly. The kings, nurtured 
of Zeus, that were about Atreus' son, sped swiftly, 
marshalling the host, and in their midst was the 
flasliing-eyed Athene, bearing the priceless aegis, 
that knoweth neither age nor death, wherefrom 

83 



HOMER 

T-^S" eKarov Ovaavoi Tray^pvaeoL 'qepeOovrai, 
7TavT€s ivTrXeKees, eKarofji^oLos Se eKaaros. 
avv rfj 7TaL(f>dcraovaa hiiaavro Xaov 'A;)^atcov 
orpvvovcr leVaf iv Be aSivos (Lpaev iKaara) 
Kaphirj aXXrjKTOv TToXepbi^eiv rjBe fxdx^crdai,. 
TotCTt 8 d(f)ap TToXe/xos yXvKLOJV yiver* ije vieadai 
€V V7]vcri yXa<j)vpfj(jL ^iXrjV is TrarplBa yaXav. 

Hvre TTvp diB-qXov CTrt^Aeyct daTrerov vXrjV 
ovpeos iv Kopv(j)fjs, CKaOev 8e re (fiaiverai avyrj, 
cos Twv ep)(onivoiv drro X'^Xkov deoTreaioio 
a'tyXr^ Trafx^avocjaa Bl aWepos ovpavov LKe. 

idjv B , a>s t' opvidiDV 7T€T€rjvdjv edvea TToXXd, 
X^vdjv Tj yepdvcov t] kvkvcov BovXixoBeipcov, 
Actio) eV XcLfidJvi, Kavarptov dp,^! peedpa, 
kvda Kol €v6a Trorcuvrai dyaXXofieva VTepvyecrai, 
KXayy7]B6v TrpoKadL^ovrcov, a/xapayei Be re XeL/xcov,^ 
o)S rcjv edvea noXXd vedJv drro /cat KXiaidcov 
es TTeBiov TTpo)(eovro TiKap^dvBpLOV avrdp vtto xdwv 
a/jiepBaXeov Kovd^i^e ttoBcov avrdJv re /cat Ittttwv. 
earav B iv XeipLWVi S/ca/iavSpto) dvBepLoevri 
fivploi, ocraa re <f)vXXa /cat dvOea yiyverai (^pfj. 

Hvre fividcov dBivdojv edvea TToXXd, 
at re Kara araOpiov TTot/jLvq'Cov rjXdcrKovaLV 
oiprj €v elapLvfj, ore re yXdyos dyyea Bevei, 
roacroi enl Tpcoeaat Kdpr) Kop.6covres 'A;(atot 
€V ireBio) icrravro BiappaZaai p,epbacbres. 

^ Xei/iwc : ya'ia Aristarchus. 

* That is, "the whole body moves forward by the con- 
tinual advance of single birds who keep settling in front 
the rest " (Leaf), 
84 



1 



THE ILIAD, II. 448-473 

are hung an hundred tassels all of gold, all of them 
cunningly woven, and each one of the worth of 
an hundred oxen. Therewith she sped dazzling 
throughout the host of the Achaeans, urging them 
to go forth ; and in the heart of each man she roused 
strength to war and to battle without ceasing. 
And to them forthwith war became sweeter than to 
return in their hollow ships to their dear native land. 
Even as a consuming fire maketh a boundless 
forest to blaze on the peaks of a mountain, and from 
afar is the glare thereof to be seen, even so from 
their innumerable bronze, as they marched forth, 
went the dazzling gleam up through the sky unto 
the heavens. 

And as the many tribes of winged fowl, wild 
geese or cranes or long-necked swans on the Asian 
mead by the streams of Caystrius, fly this way and 
that, glorying in their strength of wing, and with 
loud cries settle ever onwards,^ and the mead re- 
soundeth ; even so their many tribes poured forth 
from ships and huts into the plain of Scamander, 
and the earth echoed wondrously beneath the tread 
of men and horses. So they took their stand in 
the flowery mead of Scamander, numberless, as are 
the leaves and the flowers in their season. 

Even as the many tribes of swarming flies that 
buzz to and fro throughout the herdsman's farm- 
stead in the season of spring, when the milk drenches* 
the pails, even in such numbers stood the long- 
haired Achaeans upon the plain in the face of the 
men of Troy, eager to rend them asunder. 

85 



HOMER 

lows' o , coy T atTToAta TrAare atycjov acTToAoi 

avSpeg 
pela hiaKplvcoaiv, eTret /ce vofio) jxiyccoaLV, 
cos Tovs rjyefxoves hieKoapi^ov evda /cat evda 
vafiLvrjvB* livai, fxera 8e Kpeccov 'AyafMe/xviov, 
ofifiara /cat Ke(f)aXrjv t/ceAo? Att repTTLKcpavvo), 
"Ape'C Se l,a)vr]v, aripvov 8e YVoaethdajvi. 
rjVT€ ^ovs dyeX7](f)L /xey' e^oxos eVAeTO iravrcov 
ravpos' 6 yap re ^oecrcn iieraTrpeTrei aypojjLevrjai,' 
TOtov dp* 'ArpetSrjv drJKe Zeu? rjfxaTi kglvco, 
€KTTpeTTe iv TToAAotCTt /cttt e^oxov rjpa)€crai,v. 

"EcTTrere I'Uf [xol, Moucrat 'OAu/xTrta Sco/xaT 

exovaai}— 
viiels ydp Beai eare, TrdpearTe re, tare re vrai'Ta, 
rjjxeis Se /cAeos" oiov dKovo/xev ovde tl iS^ei/ — 
ot Tit'e? rjyeiJioves Aavacov /cat Kotpavoi '^aav. 
ttXtjOuv 8' ou/c at' e)/t*> fxvO'^aofxai oi)8' ovofjui^voj, 
ou8' et /xot 8e/ca ftet' yAcoaaat, 8e/ca 8e arop^ar etev, 

(fxjjvrj 8' dpprjKTOs, x^^'^^'^^ ^^ H'^'' V'''<^P ^^^^V' 
el p^rj 'OAuyLt7rta8e9 Movaai, Ato? atytd^oio 
dvyarepes, p,vr]uaiad* oaoi vno "lAtov ■^Xdov 
dpxovs CLV vrjcbv ipdu) vrjas re rrpoTraaas. 
BoLcoTcov p,ev YlrjveXeoiS xal Arjiros rjpxov^ 

^ 'OXvfj.ina . . . ^xoi'"''*'- '• 'OXvixiridSei ^olOvkoXwoi Zenodotus. 
* Lines 494-877 are omitted in some mss. and in a few 
are placed after the end of xxiv. 

1 The catalogue that follows enumerates the various 
contingents which made up the Greek forces at Troy in the 
following geographical order : (1) those from the mainland of 
Greece south of Thermopylae and from the adjacent islands ; 
(2) those from the islands of the Southern Aegean from 
Crete to Cos and the Calydnae ; and (3) those from Northern 
Greece, i.e. from the region extending from Thermopylae 
to Mt. Olympus. 
86 



THE ILIAD, II. 474-494 

And even as goatherds separate easily the wide- 
scattered flocks of goats, when they mingle in the 
pasture, so did their leaders marshal them on this 
side and on that to enter into the battle, and among 
them lord Agamemnon, his eyes and head like unto 
Zeus that hurleth the thunderbolt, his waist like unto 
Ares, and his breast unto Poseidon. Even as a bull 
among the herd stands forth far the chiefest over 
all, for that he is pre-eminent among the gathering 
Icine, even such did Zeus make Agamemnon on that 
day, pre-eminent among many, and chiefest amid 
warriors. 

Tell me now, ye Muses that have dwellings on 
Olympus — for ye are goddesses and are at hand 
and know all things, whereas we hear but a rumour 
and know not anything — who were the captains 
of the Danaans and their lords. But the common 
folk I could not tell nor name, nay, not though ten 
tongues were mine and ten mouths and a voice 
unwearying, and though the heart within me were 
of bronze, did not the Muses of Olympus, daughters 
of Zeus that beareth the aegis, call to my mind 
all them that came beneath Ilios. Now will I tell 
the captains of the ships and the ships in their 
order .1 

Of the Boeotians Peneleos and Leitus were 

The total of ships listed is 1186, and from the data given 
the troops would appear to have numbered from 100,000 to 
120,000. 

The catalogue is by many regarded as of later origin than 
the original Iliad, although there are valid grounds for 
assigning it to a very early date. For special studies of the 
problems involved reference may be made to Leaf, Homer 
and History (Macmillan, 1915), and to Allen, The Homeric 
Catalogm o/ Ships (Oxford, 1921). 

87 



HOMER 

^ApKcatXaos T€ YlpoOoi^vcop re KXovlos re, 
61 6^ 'ICpirjv ivefxovro /cat AuAtSa TreTprjeaaav 
1j-)(^oIv6v re S/coiAov re TToXvKvrjfjiov t' ^Erecovov , 
Qeaneiav Tpaldv re Kal evpvxopov MuKaArjcrcrov, 
oi T a/A0 ■^PH' ^vepLOvro /cat liitAecrtov /cat 

^^pvdpas, 
oi r' 'EAectii'' ef^iov t^S' "YXrjv /cat IleTeaii'a, 
'D.KaX€rjv MeSecovd t', ivKTifjuevov TTToXUdpov, 
KcoTra? ^vrprjOLV re TToXvrprjpcovd re Sia^rjv,'^ 
ot T€ K.op(x)V€iav /cat TTOLrjevd' ' AXiaprov, 
61 re riAaratat' e'x'-"^ ''?^' ^^ FAiCTap'T' evepLOvro, 
61 6* 'Ynodrj^as clxov, evKripievov TTroXUdpov, 
^Oyx^CTTOv 0' lepov, HoaihrfCov dyXaov dXaos, 
61 re 7ToXvard(f>vXov "Apvrjv^ ^X^^> ^^ '^^ MtSetai/ 
Ntcrctv re l,a9er]v ^AvOrjSova r eaxo-rocxiaav . 
rcov fiev Trevrt^Kovra vees kLov, ev he eKdarrrj 
KovpoL BotojTcDt' CKarov /cat et/coat ^alvov. 

Ot 8' 'AcTTrAr^Sova vaXov i8' ^Opxop^evov Mivveior, 
rcbv rjpx 'Acr/coAa^o? /cat 'laA/Ltevo?, yte? "Ap-qo^, 
ovs reKev ^Aarvoxrj 8o/xa> "AKropos 'A^ei8ao, 
irapdevos alhoirj, VTrepco'Cov elcrava^daa, 
"AprfC Kparepa>' 6 8e ot irapeXe^aro Xddprj. 
roLS 8e rpirjKovra yXa<f>vpal vees eartxoojvro. 

Avrdp ^cDK-qcov TiX^Slos /cat 'Ei7TLarpo(f)OS "^pxov, 
vies 'I0tTOU ixeyadv/xov Nav^oXtSao, 
ot KuTTCtpto'crov e;;^ot' riu^aii'a re Trerprjeaaav 
¥ipL(xdv re ^aderjv /cat AayAt8a /cat IlavoTr'^a, 
ot T ^ Avepbojpetav /cat 'YdfinoXiv diK^Lvejxovro, 
61 r dpa nap irorapiov K.7](/)ia6v Slov evatov, 
61 re AiXaLav e^ov Trrjyfjs em K.rj(f)icroLO . 
TOLS 8' dfia reaaapdKovra fxeXaivai vrjes eTTOvro, 

* Qiff^Tjv :■ Miffffriv Zenodotus. 
88 



THE ILIAD, II. 495-524 

captains, and Arcesilaus and Prothoenor and Clonius ; 
these were they that dwelt in Hyria and rocky 
Aulis and Schoenus and Scolus and Eteonus with 
its many ridges, Thespeia, Graea, and spacious 
Mycalessus ; and that dwelt about Harma and 
Eilesium and Erythrae ; and that held Eleon and 
Hyle and Peteon, Ocalea and Medeon, the well- 
built citadel, Copae, Eutresis, and Thisbe, the haunt 
of doves ; that dwelt in Coroneia and grassy Hali- 
artus, and that held Plataea and dwelt in Glisas ; 
that held lower Thebe, the well-built citadel, and 
holy Onchestus, the bright grove of Poseidon ; and 
that held Arne, rich in vines, and Mideia and sacred 
Nisa and Anthedon on the seaboard. Of these there 
came fifty ships, and on board of each went young 
men of the Boeotians an hundred and twenty. 

And they that dwelt in Asple'don and Orchomenus 
of the Minyae were led by Ascalaphus and lal- 
menus, sons of Ares, whom, in the palace of Actor, 
son of Azeus, Astyoche, the honoured maiden, 
conceived of mighty Ares, when she had entered 
into her upper chamber ; for he lay with her in 
secret. And with these were ranged thirty hollow 
ships. 

And of the Phocians Schedius and Epistrophus 
were captains, sons of great-souled Iphitus, son of 
Naubolus ; these were they that held Cyparissus 
and rocky Pytho, and sacred Crisa and Daulis and 
Panopeus ; and that dwelt about Anemoreia and 
Hyampolis, and that lived beside the goodly river 
Cephisus, and that held Lilaea by the springs of 
Cephisus. With these followed forty black ships. 

* "Apvrjv : 'AffKprjv Zenodotus. 



HOMER 

ot fiev OojK'qcov arixois taraaav afx^ierrovTe?, 
BoLCOTCov S' efMTrXrjv k'n dpLarepa dcopiqaaovro. 

AoKpoJv S' riyepiovevev ^O'CXtjos ra^vs Ataj, 
fj,€cci)v, ov TL Toaos ye oaos TeXafxcovios A'las^ 
dXXa TToXv fMetojv. oXlyos fxev 'irjv, Xivodcopr]^, 
iyX^irj 8' eKCKaaTO Ilav€/\Xr]vas /cat 'A;!^atous" 
ot Kvvov t' ivip^ovr ^OTToevrd re KaAAtapot' 
Brjacrdv re HKdp(f)r)v re /cat Auyeta? ipareiuds 
Tdp(f)rjv re Qpoviov re Boayptou dpL(f)t peed pa. 
TO) S' a/xa reaaapdKovra fxeXaivat vrjes cttovto 
AoKpcov, ot vaiovai Treprfv Uprjg EiV^olrjg. 

Ot 8' EiV^OLav exov fxevea irveiovres "A^avreg, 
XaA/ctSa T Yilperpidv re TToXvard^vXov 0^ 'lartaLav 
K^ijpivOov r e(f>aXov Alov r oIttv TrroXiedpov, 
61 re Kdpvarov €Xov t}S' ot Hrvpa vaterdacrKOv, 
rdJv avd^ rjyepLovev' *KXe<f)TJva)p, 6t,os "Aprjos, 
XaA/ccoSovTtaSTy?, p^eyadvpucov dpxos ^A^dvrcov. 
ra> 8' dfi "A^avres enovro Qooi, omdev Kop,6uivres, 
alxP''f]Tal fiefiacores opeKrfjcrLV pbeXirjai 
dcoprjKas pri^eiv Srjtwv dfj,<f)l arr^deaai. 
ro) 8 a/xa reaaapaKovra /xe'Aati^at vrjes eTTOvro. 

Ot 8' a/a' 'A^T^vas- et^^op-, evKrip,evov irroXiedpov, 
hrjixov ^Eipexdyjos jjbeyaXrjropos, ov TTor ^Adtjvri 
dpetjje Alos dvydr-qp, reKe 8e ^elScopos dpovpa- 
/ca8 8' eV ^Ad-qvrjs elaev, eo) ev ttLovl vrjO)' 
evda 8c fiLV ravpoiai /cat dpveiols IXdovr at 
KovpoL Adrjvaicov TrepLreXXofxevcov iutavrajv 
rojv avd' -qyeixovev* vlos Herecbo Meveadevs. 
* Line 528 was rejected by Zenodotus. 

90 



THE ILIAD, II. 525-552 

And their leaders busily marshalled the ranks of 
the Plioeians, and made ready for battle hard by 
the Boeotians on the left. 

And the Locrians had as leader the swift son of 
Oileus, Aias the less, in no wise as great as Tela- 
monian Aias, but far less. Small of stature was he, 
with corselet of linen, but with the spear he far 
excelled the whole host of Hellenes and Achaeans. 
These were they that dwelt in Cynus and Opus and 
Calliarus and Bessa and Scarphe and lovely Augeiae 
and Tarphe and Thronium about the streams of 
Boagrius. With Aias followed foi-ty black ships of 
the Locrians that dwell over against sacred Euboea. 

And the Abantes, breathing fury, that held 
Euboea and Chalcis and Eretria and Histiaea, rich 
in vines, and Cerinthus, hard by the sea, and the 
steep citadel of Dios ; and that held Carystus and 
dwelt in Styra,— all these again had as leader 
Elephenor, scion of Ares, him that was son of Chalc- 
odon and captain of the great-souled Abantes. 
And with him followed the swift Abantes, with 
hair long at the back, spearmen eager with out- 
stretched ashen spears to rend the corselets about 
the breasts of the foemen. And with him there 
followed forty black ships. 

And they that held Athens, the well-built citadel, 
the land of great-hearted Erechtheus, whom of old 
Athene, daughter of Zeus, fostered, when the earth, 
the giver of grain, had borne him ; and she made 
him to dwell in Athens, in her own rich sanctuary, and 
there the youths of the Athenians, as the years roll 
on in their courses, seek to win his favour with 
sacrifices of bulls and rams ; — these again had as 
leader Menestheus, son of Peteos. Like unto him 

91 



HOMER 

rw 8' ov TTCJ Tt? ofioLog eTTix^ovios yever avrjp^ 
KOCTfirjcrat Ittttovs re /cat avepas aCTTrtStcuras" 
f^earcop otog epit,ev 6 yap Trpoyevearepog rjev. i 
rep 8' afia Trevrr^Kovra /xeXaLvai vrjeg enovro. 

A'ias 8' €K HaXap, Lvog ayev hvoKaihcKa vi]as, 
arrjae 8' aycov iv' ^Adrjvalojv tcrravro cfxiXayyes.^ 

Ot 8' "Apyos t' elxov TlpvvOd re reL)(ioecraav, 
'-ISipfiiovrjv ^Aatvrjv re, ^aOvv Kara koXttov exovaas, i 
Tpot^ryv' 'Hlova? re koI apLireXoevr* 'Em8au/)ov, 
ol r exov AtyLvav MdarjTa. re Kovpoi 'A;)^ai<3v, 
r(x)V av6^ rjyeixoveve ^orjv dyados ^lo/jiTqS'qg 
Kal HOeveXos, Karravrjos aya/cAetrou ^t'Aoj vlos. 
roiat 8' dpi Eu/auaAo? rpiraros Kiev, laoOeos (f>(jos, I 
M.r]Kt.Grreos vios TaXa'CovtSao dvaKros' 
(TvpiTTdvrajv 8' rjyeiro ^orjv dyados A.toiJirjSr)s . 
rolai 8' a/A* oyhMKovra pbeXawai vrjeg eirovro. 

Ot 8e Mu/CT^va? €^lxov, evKrip,evov nroXieOpov, 
d(f)vet6v re KopivOov eiiKrifxevas re KXeojvds, i 

^Opveids r evepiovro 'Apaidvperjv r ipareivrjv 
Kal ILiKvaJv*, od^ dp" "ASprjoros TrpdJr* ep-PaalXevev, 
OL 0' 'YTTepr^mrjv re Kal alTreivrjv Tovoeaaav 
rieAAr^vTjv t' elxov 7^8' A'iyLov dp,(f)Lvep.ovro 
AtyiaXov t' dvd ndvra Kal d[j,(f>' 'EiXlktjv evpelav, i 
Tcuv eKarov vqojv rjpx^ Kpeiojv ^ Aya/xepivcov 
*Arpet8r]s. dfxa rat ye ttoXv irXeZaroi fcat apLcrroL 
Xaol errovr'' iv 8' avros eSvaero vaypona ;)(aAfcoj/ 
Kvhioojv, ndaiv Se piereTTperrev rjpojeaoLV,^ 
ovveK dptaros er]v, ttoXv 8e TrAeiaroi'S' dye Xaovs. i 

or 8' elxov KolXrjv AaKeSaifiova KrjTcoeoraav , 



* Lines 553-555 were rejected by Zenodotus. 

* Line 558 was rejected by Aristarchus. 
" Lines 579 f. were rejected by Zenodotus. 



92 



THE ILIAD, II. 553-581 

was none other man upon the face of the earth for 
the marshalhng of chariots and of warriors that bear 
the shield. Only Nestor could vie with him, for 
he was the elder. And with him there followed fifty 
black ships. 

And Aias led from Salamis twelve ships, and 
stationed them where the battalions of the Athenians 
stood. 

And they that held Argos and Tiryns, famed for 
its walls, and Hermione and Asine, that enfold the 
deep gulf, Troezen and Eionae and vine-clad Epi- 
daurus, and the youths of the Achaeans that held 
Aegina and Mases, — these again had as leaders 
Diomedes, good at the war-cry, and Sthenelus, 
dear son of glorious Capaneus. And with them came 
a third, Euryalus, a godlike warrior, son of king 
Mecisteus, son of Talaus ; but leader over them all 
was Diomedes, good at the war-cry. And with 
these there followed eighty black ships. 

And they that held Mycenae, the well-built 
citadel, and wealthy Corinth, and well-built Cleonae, 
and dwelt in Orneiae and lovely Araethyrea and 
Sicyon, wherein at the first Adrastus was king ; and 
they that held Hyperesia and steep Gonoessa and 
Pellene, and that dwelt about Aegium and through- 
out all Aegialus, and about broad Helice, — of these 
was the son of Atreus, lord Agamemnon, captain, 
with an hundred ships. With him followed most 
people by far and goodliest ; and among them he 
himself did on his gleaming bronze, a king all- 
glorious, and was pre-eminent among all the warriors, 
for that he was noblest, and led a people far the 
most in number. 

And they that held the hollow land of Lacedaemon 

93 



HOMER 

^dpiv T€ ^TTaprrjV re TToXvrprjpcovd re ^leaar^v, 

Bpyaeias" r evepuovro kol Avyeias ipareivds, 

61 T dp' 'A/xu/cAa? €ixov "EAo? t\ e^aXov ttto- 

XieOpov, 
ot re Adav etxov rjS' O'irvXov dixj)evepL,ovTO, 
Tcov ol dheX<j)e6'5 ^PX^> ^orjv dyado? Mei^e'Aao?, 
e^rjKovra vedJv dirdrepde 8e dcoprjoaovro. 
iv 8' avros kUv fjat Trpodvpiir^aL 7r€7Tot,9a)S, 
orpvvcov TToXefjbovSe' jxdXiara 8e lero OvjJia) 
Tiaaadai 'EAeVry? opfn^fxard re arova^ds re. 

Ot 8e YlvXov r evefMovro /cat 'Ap-qvrjv eparewr^v 
Koi Qpvov, 'AA^eioto TTopov, /cat evKrirov AIttv, 
/cat K^VTrapiaa-qevra /cat 'A/x^tyeWtav evaiov, 
/cat UreXeov /cat "EAo? /cat Awpcov, evda re 

Moucrat 
avro/jievai SapuvpLV rov QpT^'iKa rravaav doihiis, 
Olxo-Xlrjdev lovra Trap' Y^vpvrov Olxo-Xirjos' 
arevro yap evxojJievos viKTjaepiev, et rrep dv avrai 
Moucrat aeiSoter, Kovpai Ato? aiyto;(oio* 
at 8e xoXojadfjLevac Trrjpov deaav, avrdp doi.BrjV 
6ea7T€mr]v d^eXovro /cat CKXeXaOov Kidapiarvv 
rcbv av6 rjyepLoveve Tepi]VLOs LTnrora ^earcop' 
rw 8' evev^Kovra yXa<j)vpal veeg eanxdoivro. 

0? 8' exov ' ApKahlrjV vtto KuAATyv'rj? opos aiirv, 
AiTrvriov TTapd rvpu^ov, lv' dvepes dy;)^t/x,a;^7^Tat, 
ot ^eveov t' evepbovro /cat 'Opxojievov 7roXvp,T]Xov 
'PtTTT^r re Ttrparlrjv re /cat rjvep,6eaaav 'Kvia7nr]V, 
/cat Teyerjv etxov /cat If^lavriverjv epareiVT^v, 
Yirvfx<j)rjX6v t' etxov /cat ria/a/oacrtT^v' evefiovro, 
ra)V ripX ^ AyKaioLO Trdis, Kpeioiv 'Ayan-qvcop, 

94 



THE ILIAD, 11. 582-609 

with its many ravines, and Pharis and Sparta and 
Messe, the haunt of doves, and that dwelt in Bryseiae 
and lovely Augeiae, and that held Amyclae and 
Helus, a citadel hard by the sea, and that held Laas, 
and dwelt about Oetylus, — these were led by Aga- 
memnon's brother, even Menelaus, good at the 
war-cry, with sixty ships ; and they were marshalled 
apart. And himself he moved among them, confident 
in his zeal, urging his men to battle ; and above all 
others was his heart fain to get him requital for his 
strivings and groanings for Helen's sake. 

And they that dwelt in Pylos and lovely Arene 
and Thryum, the ford of Alpheius, and fair-founded 
Aepy, and that had their abodes in Cyparisseis and 
Amphigeneia and Pteleos and Helus and Dorium, 
where the Muses met Thamyris the Thracian and 
made an end of his singing, even as he was journey- 
ing from Oechalia, from the house of Eurytus the 
Oechalian : for he vaunted with boasting that he 
would conquer, were the Muses themselves to sing 
against him, the daughters of Zeus that beareth the 
aegis ; but they in their vvrath maimed him, and 
took from him his wondrous song, and made him 
forget his minstrelsy ; — all these folk again had as 
leader the horseman, Nestor of Gerenia. And with 
him were ranged ninety black ships. 

And they that held Arcadia beneath the steep 
mountain of Cyllene, beside the tomb of Aepytus, 
where are warriors that fight in close combat ; and 
they that dwelt in Pheneos and Orchomenus, rich 
in flocks, and Rhipe and Stratia and wind-swept 
Enispe ; and that held Tegea and lovely Mantineia ; 
and that held Stymphalus and dwelt in Parrhasia, 
• — all these were led by the son of Ancaeus, lord 

95 



HOMER 

i^-qKovra vecbv noXees 8' iv vr]t eKaarr) 
*ApK(xhes avhpeg e^aivov, iTnarajxevoi TToXefiL^eiv . 
avros yap acjiiv hwi<€V dva^ dvSpcov 'Aya/xe/ivcov^ 
vrjas eiiaaeXfiovs Trepdav iirl oivoTra ttovtov 
^Arpeth'qs, irrel ov a(f)i, daXdaaia epya pi€p,i]Xei. 

Oi 8' dpa BovTTpduLov re Kal "HAtSa 8tai/ evatov 
oaaov €(f)' 'Ypfxtvr] /cat Mvpcrivos iaxo-Tocoaa 
TTerpT) T ^QXevir] kol 'AX-^ctlov ivTos eepyei, 
Tcov av reaaapes dp)^ol eaav, 8e/ca 8' dvhpi eKaara 
vrjes €7TOvro doai, iroXees 8' efx^aivov 'ETietot. 
TCOV fjbev dp^ * AiJi(f)ip,axos Kal QaXnios rjyqadaOrjV 
vies 6 [jbev KreaTou, o 8' ap' HvpvTov, 'A/croptcuve 
Tcijv 8' ^ AfiapvyKctS-qs 'QPX^ Kparepog Aicxjprjs' 
Tcbv Se rerdpTcov '^px^ YloXv^eivos deoeiSrjS, 
vios ^Ayaadeveos Avyrj'CdSao dvaKTOS. 

or 8' e/c AovXixioLO 'E;^tvaci)r 6^ lepdiov 
vqacov, at vaiovm Treprjv dXos "HXihos dvra, 
Tcbv av9* rjyefjioveve Meyrjs drdXavros "Aprj'C 
^vXetSrjs, ov TLKre Stt^tAo? LTrrroTa ^vXevs, 
OS TTore AovXiXi-ovS* aTrevdaaaro Trarpl xoXcodeig. 
TO) 8 dfxa reaaapdKovra /xe'Aatrat vrJes" eirovro. 

Avrdp ^Ohvaaevs i^ye Ke^aAAi^v^a? [xeyaOvfiovs 
at p* ^WdKrjv elxov /cat ^iqpirov eivoai^vXXov , 
Kal Kpo/cuAet' evefiovTO Kal AlyiXiTTa Tprjx^'iav, 
oi T€ ZjdKvvdov exov 178' ot Sa/xov dpL(f)evep,ovro , 
ol t' 7]7T€l,pOV €XOV YjS* avTiTTepai' ivep,ovTO' 
TCOV jX€V ^OSvarcrevs 'fjpx^ '^'•^ ixrJTiv ardXavros. 
to) 8' dfxa vi]€9 eirovTO 8uc(j8e/ca pnXroTrdprioL. 
^ Lines 6 12-0" 14. were rejected by Zenodotus. 

96 



THE ILIAD, II. 610-637 

Agapenor, with sixty ships ; and on each ship 
embarked full many Arcadian warriors well-skilled 
in fight. For of himself had the king of men, 
Agamemnon, given them benched ships wherewith to 
cross over the wine-dark sea, even the son of Atreus, 
for with matters of seafaring had they naught to do. 

And they that dwelt in Buprasium and goodly 
Elis, all that part thereof that Hyrmine and Myrsinus 
on the seaboard and the rock of Olen and Alesium 
enclose between them — these again had four leaders, 
and ten swift ships followed each one, and many 
Epeians embarked thereon. Of these some were 
led by Amphimachus and Thalpius, of the blood of 
Actor, sons, the one of Cteatus and the other of 
Eurytus ; and of some was the son of Amarynceus 
captain, even mighty Diores ; and of the fourth 
company godlike Polyxeinus was captain, son of 
king Agasthenes, Augeias' son. 

And those from Dulichium and the Echinae, the 
holy isles, that lie across the sea, over against Elis, 
these again had as leader Meges, the peer of Ares, 
even the son of Phyleus, whom the horseman 
Phyleus, dear to Zeus, begat — he that of old had gone 
to dwell in Dulichium in wrath against his father. 
And with Meges there followed forty black ships. 

And Odysseus led the great-souled Cephallenians 
that held Ithaca and Neritum, covered with waving 
forests, and that dwelt in Crocyleia and rugged 
Aegilips ; and them that held Zacynthus, and that 
dwelt about Samos, and held the mainland and 
dwelt on the shores over against the isles. Of these 
was Odysseus captain, the peer of Zeus in counsel. 
And with him there followed twelve ships with 
vermilion prows. 

VOL. 1 H 97 



HOMER 

AltcoXcov 8' rjyeiTO Qoas 'AvSpalfiovos vlog, 
oi IlXevpojv^ ivefjiovTO /cat "Q.Xevov rjSe YlvXtjvrjV 
XaAKTiSa t' dyxict-Xov K^aXvScovd re Trerprieaaav 
oi) yap eV OtVTjo? fxeyaXrjropos vlees^ rjcrav,^ 
ouS' a/a' eV avrog erjv, ddve he ^avdos MeXeaypos' 
rep 8' enl Travr* ereraXro dvaaatfiev AlrcoXoZai. 
rep 8* a/xa recraapaKovra /xeAatvat VTye? enovro. 

l^prjrcbv 8' 'ISo/iei'eus' Soypi/cAuTos' rjyefiovevev, 
ot K^ucoaov r el^ov Toprvvd re reix^oeaaav, 
AvKrov MiAt^tov re /cat dpyivoevra AvKaarov 
^aiarov re 'PyViov re, TToXeis iv vaierocoaag, 
dXXoL 9* ot K/OT^Ti^v eKarofiTToXLV dfjL(f)evepLovro. 
rGiv pbev dp^ ^ISop^evevs SovpuKXvros 'qyep.oveve 
lS/[r)pL6vr]s r drdXavros EvvaXlo) avSpei(f)6vrrj . 
roLCL 8' d'/x' oySa)Kovra fidXaivai, vrjes errovro. 

TXrjTToXefxos 8 'H/3a/cAet87^S" "qvs re pLeyas re 
€K *Po8ou evvea vrjas dyev 'PoSicov dyepcoxojv, 
ot 'Po8ov dp.cf)evepbovro 8id rpixo- KoapbriOevres, 
Aivhov ^\rjXva6v re /cat dpyivoevra VLdpbetpov. 
rcov puev TXrjTToXep^os SovpiKXvros 'qyepiovevev, 
ov reKev 'Aarvoxeta ^Irj 'Hpa/cAr^etTy, 
rrjv dyer^ i^ 'E^upTjs" 7Torap,ov aTTO Tie?<X'qevrog, 
TTepaas darea iroXXd SLorp€(f>ea)v al^rjcbv. 
TX-qnoXepios 8' eTvel ovv rpdcj)* ivl pi,eydpcp ivTnJKro), 
avriKa -narpos eolo <f>iXov pirjrpcoa /care/era 
"r^hri yrjpdoKovra AiKvpbVLOV, 6t,ov "Aprjos. 
alijja 8e vrjas eTrrj^e, rroXiiv 8' o ye Xaov dyeipas 

^ Lines 641 f. were rejected by Zenodotus. 
98 



THE ILIAD, II. 638-664 

And the Aetolians were led by Thoas, Andrae- 
mon's son, even they that dwelt in Pleuron and 
Olenus and Pylene and Chalcis, hard by the sea, 
and rocky Calydon. For the sons of great-hearted 
Oeneus were no more, neither did he himself still 
live, and fair-haired Meleager was dead, to whom 
had commands been given that he should bear full 
sway among the Aetolians. And with Thoas there 
followed forty black ships. 

And the Cretans had as leader Idomeneus, famed 
for his spear, even they that held Cnosus and 
Gortys, famed for its walls, Lyctus and Miletus and 
Lycastus, white with chalk, and Phaestus and 
Rhytium, well-peopled cities ; and all they beside 
that dwelt in Crete of the hundred cities. Of all 
these was Idomeneus, famed for his spear, captain, 
and Meriones, the peer of EnyaHus, slayer of men. 
And vdth these there followed eighty black ships. 

And Tlepolemus, son of Heracles, a valiant man 
and tall, led from Rhodes nine ships of the lordly 
Rhodians, that dwelt in Rhodes sundered in three 
divisions — in Lindos and lalysus and Cameirus, 
white with chalk. These were led by Tlepolemus, 
famed for his spear, he that was born to mighty 
Heracles by Astyocheia, whom he had led forth out 
of Ephyre from the river Selleis, when he had laid 
waste many cities of warriors fostered of Zeus. 
But when Tlepolemus had grown to manhood in 
the well-fenced palace, forthwith he slew his own 
father's dear uncle, Licymnius, scion of Ares, who 
was then waxing old. So he straightway built him 
ships, and when he had gathered together much 

99 



HOMER 

prj (f>€vyoJV inl ttovtov aTreiXrjaav yap ol aXXoi 

vlees vloivoi re ^irjs 'HpaKXrjeirjs. 

avrap^ 6 y' e? 'PoSov l^€v dXcofxeuos , dXyei 

TrdaxfJ^V' 
rpLxdd 8e tpKrjOev Kara^vXahov , 7^8' e^iXr^dev 
eK Aio?, OS re deolai koL dvdpa)7roicrt,v dvdacret,^ 
/cat a(f)iv deuTTeaiov ttXovtov Kare^^ve K^povicov. 

Ntpeu? av Tiv/x'qdev dye rpeis vrjas itaas, 
ISvpevs *AyXatr)9 vlos XapoTroio t' dvaKTOS, 
Nipevs, OS KaXXiaros dvrjp vtto "lAtov "^Xde^ 
TOJv dXXcov Aavadjv fier* dp,vp,ova YiriXetcova. 
aXX dXairahvos erjv, Travpos Se ol elrrero Xaos. 

Ot 8' dpa Nicrvpov t elxov K-pdrraOov re Ka 

GOV T€ 

Kol Kcov KvpvTTvXoio TToXiv vqaovs re K.aXvSvas, 
rcov av Oet8i7r7ros' re Kal "Avrtcjios 'qyr)ad(jdr]u, 
SeaaaXov vie Svco *Hpa/cAet8ao dvaKros. 
rols Se rpiriKOvra yXa^vpal vees earixdcovro. 

Nw av rovs oaooi ro IleAaayt/coi' "Apyoi 

" i 

evaiov, 

ol r "AXov ol t' 'AAottt^p' ot re Tprjxtv* evep.ovro 

ol r elxov ^Oltjv tJS' 'EAAaSa /caAAtywat/ca, 

M-vpfxiSoves 8e KaXevuro /cat "EiXXrjves Kal 'A;)^atot 

rcL>v av rrevrriKovra veojv rjv dpxos 'AxtXXevs. 

dAA' ot y' ov TToXefMOCO Svcrrjxeos epLVCJOvro'^ 

ov yap erjV 6s ris a(f)tv enl arixo.s r^yiqaairo. 

Kelro yap ev vijeaaL noSdpKTjs Bios ^AxtXXevs, 

Kovprjs ;!^a>o/>t€i'os' BpiorqtSos r^VKOfiOLO, 

TTjV €K AvpvTjaaov e^eiXero TToXXd p,oyrj(jas, 

^ avrap : al^a Zenodotus. 

* Line 669 was rejected by Aristarchus. 

8 Lines 673-675 were rejected by Zenodotus. 

100 



THE ILIAD, 11. 665-690 

people, went forth in flight over the sea, for that 
the other sons and grandsons of mighty Heracles 
threatened him. But he came to Rhodes in his 
wanderings, suffering woes, and there his people 
settled in three divisions by tribes, and were loved 
of Zeus that is king among gods and men ; and upon 
them was wondrous wealth poured by the son of 
Cronos. 

Moreover Nireus led three shapely ships from 
Syme, Nireus that was son of Aglaia and Charops 
the king, Nireus the comeliest man that came beneath 
Ilios of all the Danaans after the peerless son of 
Peleus. Howbeit he was a weakling, and but few 
people followed with him. 

And they that held Nisyrus and Crapathus and 
Casus and Cos, the city of Eurypylus, and the 
Calydnian isles, these again were led by Pheidippus 
and Antiphus, the two sons of king Thessalus, son 
of Heracles. And with them were ranged thirty 
hollow ships. 

Now all those again that inhabited Pelasgian 
Argos, and dwelt in Alos and Alope and Trachis, 
and that held Phthia and Hellas, the land of fair 
women, and were called Myrmidons and Hellenes 
and Achaeans — of the fifty ships of these men was 
Achilles captain. Howbeit they bethought them 
not of dolorous war, since there was no man to lead 
them forth into the ranks. For he lay in idleness 
among the ships, the swift-footed, goodly Achilles, 
in wrath because of the fair-haired girl Briseis, 
whom he had taken out of Lyrnessus after sore toil, 

* Line 681 was altered by Zenodotus, who gave, 

ot 8' 'Apyoi eixov rb UeXaa-yLKdv, oWap apovprjs, 

* Lines 686-694 were rejected by Zenodotus. 

101 



HOMER 

Avpvqaaov StaTTopdijcrag /cat re'fx^ea Qrj^rjs, 

/ca8 8e Mwtjt' e^aXev Kal 'EiTTicrrpocfyov eyx^eai- 

fMwpovs, 
vUas Kv7]voXo SeATyTTtaSao avaKTOS. 
rrjs o ye Kelr^ d)(€(jDV, rdy^a S' dvcfTiqcreaO ai efieXXev 

Ot S' elxov ^vXoLKr^v /cat Uvpaaov avdepioevTa. 
A'^fXTjrpos r€fM€VOS, "Ircovd re fjurjrepa p.'r]X<x)v, 
dy^ioXov t' ^ Kvrpa>va IBe YlreXeov Xex^TToirjv, 
Tcov av UpcorealXaos dpi^'Cos Tjyefxoveue 
^coo? icov Tore 8' -^'817 ex^v Kara yala fxeXaiva. 
rod 8e /cat djx(j)ihpv(f>rjs aXoxos ^vXaKj] e'AeAetTrrc 
Kal SoyLtos" rjfxireXnjs' rov 8' e/crave AdpSavos dvqp 
VTjos aTrodpcpaKovra ttoXv Trpoiriarov ^A^aiajv. 
ovBe puev ovh^ ol dvapxpi eaav, irodeov ye fiev 

dpxov 
dXXd a(f)eas Koafirjae YloSdpKrjs, o^os" "Aprjos, 
'I^t/cAou vtos 7ToXvpL7]Xov OyAa/ct8ao, 
avTOKaaLyvrjros pieyadvjxov WpcorecnXaov 
OTrXorepos yevefj' 6 8' a/.ta Trporepos /cat apeiojv 
rjpcos UpojTeaiXaos dp-q'Cos' ovBe n Xaol 
BevovO^ 'qye/jLovos, irodeov ye fxev eadXov eovra. 
ra> 8' ajLta reaaapaKovra fxeXaivai vrjes eirovTO. 

Ot 8e Oepas evepLOvro Trapal Bot^7yt8a XiixvrjV, 
BoL^iqv Kal TXa(f)vpas Kal evKTijxevqv lacoXKOv, 
T(x)v Tjpx * ASfx'qroLO (f)iXo? Trd'Cs eVSe/ca vqcov 
EvpbTjXos, rov utt' 'A8/x7yTa> re'/ce 8ta yvvat,Kcov 
"AXK'qoTLS, rieAtao dvyarpajv elSos dpLcrrrj. 

Ot 8' dpa M'q6a)vr]v Kal QavfxaKLrjv evefiovro 
Kal MeXi^oLav exov Kal 'OAt^oip-a rpr]xeLav, 

^ The meaning is that, although married, Prptesilaus 
left no son ; hence his 86/ios was incomplete. Others 
render, " his bridal chamber but half-built." 

102 



THE ILIAD, II. 691-717 

when he wasted Lyrnessus and the walls of Thebe, 
and laid low Mynes and Epistrophus, warriors that 
raged with the spear, sons of king Evenus, Selepus' 
son. In sore grief for her lay Achilles idle ; but soon 
was he to arise again. 

And they that held Phylace and flowery Pyrasus, 
the sanctuary of Demeter, and Iton, mother of flocks, 
and Antron, hard by the sea, and Pteleos, couched 
in grass, these again had as leader warlike Protesilaus, 
while yet he hved ; howbeit ere now the black 
earth held him fast. His wife, her two cheeks torn 
in wailing, was left in Phylace and his house but 
half established,^ while, for himself, a Dardanian 
warrior slew him as he leapt forth from his ship by 
far the first of the Achaeans. Yet neither were his 
men leaderless, though they longed for their leader ; 
for Podarces, scion of Ares, marshalled them, he 
that was son of Phylacus' son, Iphiclus, rich in 
flocks, own brother to great-souled Protesilaus, and 
younger-born ; but the other was the elder and the 
better man, even the warrior, valiant Protesilaus. 
So the host in no wise lacked a leader, though they 
longed for the noble man they had lost. And with 
him there followed forty black ships. 

And they that dwelt in Pherae beside the lake 
Boebeis, and in Boebe, and Glaphyrae, and well- 
built lolcus, these were led by the dear son of 
Admetus with eleven ships, even by Eumelus, 
whom Alcestis, queenly among women, bare to 
Admetus, even she, the comeliest of the daughters 
of Pelias. 

And they that dwelt in Methone and Thaumacia, 
and that held Meliboea and rugged Ohzon, these 



103 



HOMER 

Twv he OtAoKTTyrrys' "^pX^^ ro^cov iii elSws^ 

enra vecbv iperai 8' iv eKaarrj TrevT-qKovra 

ifx^e^aaav, ro^cov iii elSores i(f>i fxdx^adai. 

aAA' o fi€V iv v-qcrcp Kelro Kparip' dXyea irdax'^v, 

Arjfiva) iv rjyaOer], o6i pbiv Xlttov vies 'Axaiojv 

eXKe'i pi,oxdit,ovra KaKcp 6\o6(^povos vSpov. 

€v6^ 6 ye Kelr" dxiojv rdxa Se fxvrjaeaOai efieXXov^ 

^ApyeloL irapd vrjval OtAoKryyTao dvaKTos. 

ovhe fiev ovS^ ot dvapxoi eaav, irodeov ye fiev 

dpxov 
dXXd MeScov KOG/jLTjaev 'OlA^o? vodos vtos, 
rov p ereKev 'Vrjvri vtt' 'OiAt^i TTroXnropOa). 

Ot 8' etxov TpiKKTjv Kal 'Wcofirjv KXiofxa- 
Koeaaav, 
ot t' exov Olxo-Xiiqv, ttoXlv YivpvTOV OlxcXtrjos, 
Tcov avd^ Tjyeladrjv ^AarKXrjTTiov Svo TraiSe, 
IrjTTJp^ dyado), YloSaXetptos rj8e Ma;:^a6Di'. 
Tols 8e rpiriKovra yXa(f)vpal vees iarixdcovro. 

Ot 8' exov 'OppievLov, ot re Kpi^vqv '^Trepeiav, 
ot t' ix''-'^ 'Aarepiov Tirdvoio re XevKa Kdprjva, 
rcbv Tjpx ^vpvTTvXos Eivatpiovos dyXaos vlos. 
to) 8' dp,a TeaaapdKovra p,eXaLvai vrjes eTTovro. 

Ot 8' "Apyiuaav exov /cat Tvprcovqv ivepiovTO, 
' OpOrjV WXojvrjV re ttoXlv t' ^OXooaaova XevKr^v, 
ra>v avd rjyejpCoveve pLevenToXep^os HoXv7TOLrr]s, 
vlos Ilei/ot^doto, Tov dddvaros rcKero Zeiis" 
Tov p VTTO Yleipidoo) TCKero kXvtos 'iTnrohdpLeia 
rjpLari, rep ore <f>ijpas iriaaro Xaxyrjevras, 
rovs 8' e/c ni^Atou tocre /cat AldiKeaat rreXaaaev 
OVK olos, dpua rep ye Aeovrevs, ot^os "Ap-qos, 

^ Line 718 was given by Zenodotus in the form, 

Twv ad i]yefi6y€ve ^iXoKTTqrrjs dybs avdpwv 

104 



THE ILIAD, II. 718-745 

with their seven ships Avere led by Philoctetes, well- 
skilled in archery, and on each ship embarked fifty 
oarsmen well skilled to fight amain with the bow. 
But Philoctetes lay suffering grievous pains in an 
island, even in sacred Lemnos, where the sons of 
the Achaeans had left him in anguish with an evil 
wound from a deadly water-snake. There he lay 
suffering ; yet full soon were the Argives beside 
their ships to bethink them of king Philoctetes. 
Howbeit neither were these men leaderless, though 
they longed for their leader ; but Medon marshalled 
them, the bastard son of Oileus, whom Rhene bare 
to Oileus, sacker of cities. 

And they that held Tricca and Ithome of the crags, 
and Oechalia, city of Oechalian Eurytus, these again 
were led by the two sons of Asclepius, the skilled 
leeches Podaleirius and Machaon. And with these 
were ranged thirty hollow ships. 

And they that held Ormenius and the fountain 
Hypereia, and that held Asterium and the white 
crests of Titanus, these were led by Eurypylus, the 
glorious son of Euaemon. And with him there 
followed forty black ships. 

And they that held Argissa, and dwelt in Gyrtone, 
Orthe, and Elone, and the white city of Oloosson, 
these again had as leader Polypoetes, staunch in 
fight, son of Peirithous, whom immortal Zeus begat — 
even him whom glorious Hippodameia conceived to 
Peirithous on the day when he got him vengeance 
on the shaggy centaurs, and thrust them forth from 
Pelium, and drave them to the Aethices. Not alone 
was he, but with him was Leonteus, scion of Ares, 

* Lines 724- f. were rejected by Zenodotus. 

105 



HOMER 

vtos VTrepOvfJioio It^opcovov l^aivetSao. 

Tols S' a/xa reaaapaKovra fieXaivai vrjeg cttovto. 

Tovvevs S' e/c K^v(j)OV rjye Svw Kal eiKocrL vrjas' 
rw S' ^JLvtrjves enovro jjieveTTToXefiot re Uepai^oi, 
OL irepl AojSiovTju hvax^ip,epov oIkl edeuro, 
ol T d/Z(jf)' IpLeprov Y iTapr](Ta6v epy ive/xovTO, 
OS p €S IlrjV€i6v TTpo'Ui KaWippoov vhcxip, 
ovK 6 ye Y\.7jveia) uvpLpLlayeTai apyvpohivQ, 
aAAa re pnv KaOvirepOev eVippe'et rjvr^ eXaiov 
opKov yap Secvov Hrvyos vharos icrnv aTToppo)^. 

MayvrJTCOV S' rjpx^ Upodoos TevOprjSovos vlos, 
ot TTepl Yli^veiov /cat IlTyAiov elvoaicfivXXov 
vaUaKov. r<x)v [.lev Upodoos 6o6s rjyepLoveve, 
TO) 8' a//,a reacrapaKovra /xeAaivat vrjes enovTO. 

OvToi, dp^ rjyepLoves Aavacbv /cat Koipavoi rjaav. 
ris T ap rcov 6^ dpiaros erjv, av /jlol evveire, 

Movaa, 
avTcov TjS* Ittttcov, ot a/x' 'ArpetSr^atv eTTOVTO. 

"liTTTOi pJev /xiy* dpiarai ecrav ^rjprjTcdSao, 
ras lEiVfJL'qXos eXavve TToScoKeas opvidas to?, 
6rpLXO.s olereas, <7Ta(f>vXrj eTTt vcotov itaas' 
TOLS iv Ylr]p€Lr]^ dpiijj' apyvporo^os ^AttoXXojv, 
dfjb(f)a) drjXetas, (f >6^ov "Aprjos (f>opeovaa s. __ 
dvSpcov av /xey' apLcrros erjv 1 eAa/xcuwos" Ataj, 
6(f>p^ 'A;^tAei'? fjbT^VLev 6 yap ttoXv (f)epTaTOS ^ev, 
L7T7TOL d\ at (f)op€€aKov dfxv/xova riT^Aetoji^a. 
dAA' o [xev h> vqeaai Kopotiviat irovroTropoicri, 
KeZr d7TOpL7]VLcras 'Aya/jiefxvovi. Trot/xeVt Xadjv 
^ArpetSrj- Xaol 8e rrapd prjyfilvL daXdaarjs 
StaKOLaiv repTTOvro /cat alyaver^acv levres 

* llijpelig : Iheplji. 

106 



THE ILIAD, II. 746-774 

'the son of Caenus' son, Coronus, liigh of heart. And 
with them there followed forty black ships. 

And Gouneus led from Cyphus two and twenty 
ships, and with him followed the Enienes and the 
Peraebi, staunch in fight, that had set their dwellings 
about wintry Dodona, and dwelt in the ploughland 
about lovely Titaressus, that poureth his fair-flowing 
streams into Peneius ; yet doth he not mingle with 
the silver eddies of Peneius, but floweth on over his 
waters hke unto olive oil ; for that he is a branch of 
the water of Styx, the dread river of oath. 

And the Magnetes had as captain Prothous, son 
of Tenthredon. These were they that dwelt about 
Peneius and Pelion, covered with waving forests. 
Of these was swift Prothous captain ; and with him 
there followed forty black ships. 

These were the leaders of the Danaans and their 
lords. But who was far the best among them do 
thou tell me, Muse — best of the warriors and of 
the horses that followed with the sons of Atreus. 

Of horses best by far were the mares of the son 
of Pheres, those that Eumelus drave, swift as birds, 
hke of coat, like of age, their backs as even as 
a levelling line could make. These had Apollo 
of the silver bow reared in Pereia, both of them 
mares, bearing with them the panic of war. And 
of warriors far best was Telamonian Aias, while 
yet Achilles cherished his wrath ; for Achilles was 
far the mightiest, he and the horses that bare the 
peerless son of Peleus. Howbeit he abode amid 
his beaked, seafaring ships in utter wrath against 
Agamemnon, Atreus' son, shepherd of the host ; 
and his people along the sea-shore took their joy 
in casting the discus and the javeUn, and in archery ; 

107 



HOMER 

TO^oicriv 6'- Ittttoi 8e Trap' app.aaiv otaiv eKaaros 
XcoTov ipeTTTo/jLcvoL iXeoOpeTTTov re aeXtvov 
earaaav dp/xaTa 8' ev TreirvKaapiiva Keiro avaKTiov 
€V KXiair^s. ol 8' dpxov dpr]t(f)LXov TToOeovres 
(f)OLTCuv ev9a Kal evda Kara arparov ov8e [xaxovTO. 

Ot 8' dp' laav d)s et re irvpl x^div rrdaa vifJuoLTO- 
yaia 8' VTrecrrevax^^e Att cS? repTTiKepavva) 
Xioofievcp, ore r dii(j)l Tv^ctii'C yalav ip^aaarj 
elv ^Apijxois, dOi <f)aai Tv(f)a)eos efjufxevat. ewas* 
d)S dpa rdJv VTTo TTOcral fxiya arevaxi'^^TO yaZa 
ipXopbevojv pbdXa 8' (5/ca BteTrprjaaov 7re8toio. 

Tpcoalv 8' ayyeAos' "^XOe irohriveixos co/cea \pis 
Trap Aio? alyioxoio avv dyyeXij] dXeyeivfj' 
ol 8' dyopds dyopevov eirl npia/Aoto Ovprjai 
TTavres opuqyepees, rjfiev veoL rjSe yepovres. 
dyxov 8' larapievrj 7Tpoae(f)rj TToSas co/cea 'Ipt?* 
etaaro 8e (l)doyyrjv vtC IlpLapLOLO IloXlrrj,^ 
OS" TpdiOJV aKOTTOS r^e, TToScoKeirjai TreiTOLucos, 
Tvpi^a) eV dKpordrcp Ataur^rao yipovros, 
Seyfievos oTTTTore vav(f)iv dif)opfjir]0€i€V 'AxaioL 
Tip fMLV ieiaafxevrj Trpoae^rj TTohas cu/cea ^IpiS' 
" d) yepov, alei roL p,vOoi ^tAot aKpiroL elaiv, 
CO? ttot' €7r' elp-qvTjS' TToXefio? 8 aAtaaroj opcopev. 
rj p,€V Srj /i.aAa TroAAa fxdxo.'S elaiqXvdov dvBpdJv, 
dAA' ou TTOJ TOLOvSe roaovSe re Xaov orrcoTTa' 
Xlrjv yap (f>vXXoLcrLV ioiKores rj ijjapidOoLaiv 
epxovrai ttcSlolo fiaxTjcropievoL Trpori darv. 
"KKTop, aol 8e ixdXiar eVtreAAo/zat, c5Se 8e pe^ar 

^ Lines 791-795 were rejected by Aristarchus. 
108 



THE ILIAD, II. 775-802 

and their horses each beside his own car, eating lotus 
and parsley of the marsh, stood idle, while the charioU^ 
were set, well covered up, in the huts of their 
masters. But the men, longing for their captain, 
dear to Ares, roamed hither and thither through 
the camp, and fought not. 

So marched they then as though all the land were 
swept with fire ; and the earth groaned beneath 
them, as beneath Zeus that hurleth the thunderbolt 
in his wrath, when he scourgeth the land about 
Typhoeus in the country of the Arimi, where men 
say is the couch of Typhoeus. Even so the earth 
groaned greatly beneath their tread as they went ; 
and full swiftly did they speed across the plain. 

And to the Trojans went, as a messenger from Zeus 
that beareth the aegis, wind-footed, swift Iris with 
a grievous message. These were holding assembly 
at Priam's gate, all gathered in one body, the young 
men alike and the elders. And swift-footed Iris 
stood near and spake to them ; and she made her 
voice hke to that of Polites, son of Priam, who was 
wont to sit as a sentinel of the Trojans j trusting in 
his fleetness of foot, on the topmost part of the barrow 
of aged Aesyetes, awaiting until the Achaeans 
should sally forth from their ships. Likening herself 
to him swifted-footed Iris spake to Priam, saying : 
" Old sir, ever are endless words dear to thee, now 
even as of yore in time of peace ; but war unabating 
is afoot. Verily full often have I entered ere now 
into battles of warriors, but never yet have I seen a 
host so goodly and so great ; for most like to the 
leaves or the sands are they, as they march over the 
plain to fight against the city. Hector, to thee 
beyond all others do I give command, and do thou 

109 



HOMER 

TToXXol yap Kara aarv fxeya Tipidfjiov imKOvpoi, 
dXXr) 8 dXXojv yXoJaaa iroXvaTTepicov avOpdmcov 
roiCTLV €Kaaros dvrjp arjfxaLveraj olai nep dpx^t, 
rd)V S' e^rjyeiadct) KoapLTjadpievos TToXn^ras ." 

"D? €(f)a6\ "EiKTwp S' ov TL dedg erros 'qyvolrjaev, 
ali/ja Se Xvar* dyopi^v' iirl rev)(€a 8' iaarevovro' 
TTaaai S' dnyvvvro TTvXai, ck S' eaavro Xaog, 
Tre^ot 6^ iTTTTTJes re* ttoXvs S' 6pvp,ay86s opdjpei. 

"Ecrri 8e ris TrpoTrdpoide ttoXlos aiTreZa KoXdivrj, 
ev TreStoj dirdv^vQe, irepthpopios evda koI ev6a, 
Trjv 17 TOL dvSpes Barceiav KLKXijaKovaw, 
dOdvaroL Be re arjpia TToXvoKapOpoio Mvpivrj^. 
evda Tore Tpdjes re BieKpLdev tJS' erriKOvpoi. 

Tpcjal p,€V rjyepioveve pueyas KopvOaioXos "E/ctoi/j 
HpiapiLSrjs' dpia rco ye ttoXv TrXelaroi /cat dpiarot 
Xaol Ocop-qcraovro pbepuaores eyxeirjcn. 

AapSavLwu avr '^px^^ ^u? Trai? 'Ayxtcrao, 
Alveias, rov v-n ^Ayxicrr] reKe St' * A(f>po8i.r7] , 
"ISrjs iv KvqpLoZai Oed ^porw ewrjdeXcra, 
ovK olos, dp,a rip ye Svo) 'Avr'qvopos vie, 
*ApxeXoxos t' 'A/cajLta? re, p^dxf)S eu elhore Trdcrqs. 

Ot 8e Ze'Aetai' evaiov VTrai rroSa veiarov "18?^?, 
d<j>v%oi, TTivovres vScop pLeXav AlaiJTToio, j 

Tpd>es, rdjv aJJr' "^px^ AvKaovos dyXaos uios", 
UdvSapos, (L /cat ro^ov ^ AttoXXcov avr6<i ehcoKev. 
110 



THE ILIAD, II. 80S-827 

even according to my word. Inasmuch as there are 
allies full many throughout the great city of Priam, 
and tongue differs from tongue among men that are 
scattered abroad ; let each one therefore give the 
word to those whose captain he is, and these let him 
lead forth, when he has marshalled the men of his 
own city." 

So spake she, and Hector in no wise failed to 
know the voice of the goddess, but forthwith brake up 
the gathering ; and they rushed to arms. The 
gates one and all were opened wide, and forth the 
folk hasted, both footmen and charioteers ; and a 
great din arose. 

Now there is before the city a steep mound afar 
out in the plain, with a clear space about it on this 
side and on that ; this do men verily call Batieia, 
but the immortals call it the barrow of Myrine, 
light of step. There on this day did the Trojans 
and their allies separate their companies. 

The Trojans were led by great Hector of the 
flashing helm, the son of Priam, and with him were 
marshalled the greatest hosts by far and the goodliest, 
raging with the spear. 

Of the Dardanians again the valiant son of Anchises 
was captain, even Aeneas, whom fair Aphrodite 
conceived to Anchises amid the spurs of Ida, a 
goddess couched with a mortal man. ] Not alone was 
he ; with him were Antenor's two sons, Archelochus 
and Acamas, well skilled in all manner of fighting. 

And they that dwelt in Zeleia beneath the 
nethermost foot of Ida, men of wealth, that drink 
the dark water of Aesepus, even the Troes, these 
again were led by the glorious son of Lycaon, 
Pandarus, to whom Apollo himself gave the bow. 

Ill 



HOMER 

Ot 8' ^ABp-qcrreidv t elxov /cat Srj/xov 'ATratcroUj 
/cat IltTuetav e^ov /cat TrjpeLrjs opog anrv, 
rGiV r\pX "■^^P'^^f^TOS re /cat "A.pi<l>LOS XivoOwprjg 
vi€ Svco MepoTTOS IlepKojmov, os irepl ndvTcov 
jjSee fJiavToavvas, ovSe ovs TratSa? eacr/ce 
areix^iv is noXefiou (hQicr-qvopa. ro) Se ot ov ri 
TTetOeaOrjv Krjpes yap dyov [xeXavos Oavdroto. 

or 8' dpa IlepKa)T7]V /cat IlpaKTiov d[ji(f)€V€pLovTO 
/cat St^cttov /cat "A^vSov e^pv /cat Stai' *ApLa^7]v 
rojv avd^ 'TpraKihris rjpx' "Aaios, opxa-fMos dvbpcov 
"Agios 'YpraKiSrjs, ov 'Apta^rjdev t^epov Ittttol 
aWoives /zeyaAot, Trora/xou oltto Ti€XXi]€VTOs . 

'IttttoOoos 8' aye (f>vXa YleXaayaJv iyx^cnixcopcov 
Tcov ot Adpiaav ipi^coXaKa vaieraaaKov 
ra>v ripx 'IttttoOoos re nuAaid? t\ o^os "Aprjos 
vie Svo) A-qdoio IleAacryou TeuTajLit8ao. 

Avrap Qprj'CKas 177' 'A/cctjua? /cat Hetpoos rjpojs 
oaaovs 'EiXXrjaTTOVTOs dydppoos ivTOS iepyet. 

FiV(f)7]ixos 8' dpxos Klkovojv rjv alxtMriTdajv 
vlos Tpot^T^v-oto hiorpe<j)ios Kea8ao. 

Avrdp YivpaixP'f]^ dye Ylaiovas dyKvXoro^ovg, 
T-qXodev i^ ^Apivhcovos, d'n 'A^tou ^vpv peovros, 
^A^Lov, ov KdXXiaTOV vScop eTTt/ctSvarat atav. 

Yla(f)Xay6vo)v 8' rjyciTO YlvXaifieveos Xdaiov Kiji 
e^ 'Evercijv, odev rfpLLovcov yevos dyporepdcov, 
ol pa KuTOJ/aov f-xov /cat 27^cra/xov dpL^evep,ovro 



^ The use of the periphrasis, so common in Homer, mad 
it necessary that the epithet Xdaiov, indicative of manl; 
vigour {cf. i. 189), should here go directly M'ith Krtp. Th 
phrase recurs in xvi. 554. 

112 



THE ILIAD, II. 828-853 

And they that held Adrasteia and the land of 
Apaesus, and that held Pityeia and the steep mount 
of Tereia, these were led by Adrastus and Amphius, 
with corslet of linen, sons twain of Merops of 
Percote, that was above all men skilled in prophesying, 
and would not suffer his sons to go into war, the bane 
of men. But the twain would in no wise hearken, 
for the fates of black death were leading them on. 

And they that dwelt about Percote and Practius, 
and that held Sestus and Abydus and goodly Arisbe, 
these again were led by Hyrtacus' son Asius, a 
leader of men — Asius, son of Hyrtacus, whom his 
horses tawny and tall had borne from Arisbe, from 
the river Selleis. 

And Hippothous led the tribes of the Pelasgi, 
that rage with the spear, even them that dwelt in 
deep-soiled Larisa ; these were led by Hippothous 
and Pylaeus, scion of Ares, sons twain of Pelasgian 
Lethus, son of Teutamus. 

But the Thracians Acamas led and Peirous, the 
warrior, even all them that the strong stream of the 
Hellespont encloseth. 

And Euphemus was captain of the Ciconian 
spearmen, the son of Ceas' son Troezenus, nurtured 
of Zeus. 

But Pyraechmes led the Paeonians, with curved 
bows, from afar, out of Amy don from the wide- 
flowing Axius — Axius the water whereof floweth 
the fairest over the face of the earth. 

And the Paphlagonians did Pylaemenes of the 
shaggy 1 heart lead from the land of the Eneti, 
whence is the race of wild she-mules. These were 
they that held Cytorus and dwelt about Sesamon, 
and had their famed dwellings around the river 

VOL. I I 113 



HOMER 

d/Li^t r€ UapOevLOV TTorafMov kXvtol ScojJbara vaiov 
K/360/xvav t' AlyiaXov re Kol vifjr)Xovs E>pv9ivovs. 

Avrap 'AXit^iovcvv 'OSt'oj kol ^Fimarpocfios "rjpX^^ 
TTjXoOev €^ 'AXv^Tjs, odev dpyvpov earl yevldXt}. 

MucrcDv 8e X/oo/zt? ^ipx^ '^"^ "Evvo/zo? olcovLarrjS- 
oAA' ovK olojvotatv ipvaaTO Krjpa ixiXawav, 
aXX ihapbrj vtto xepcrt rroScoKeos AlaKiSao 
iv TTorapLcp, 60 l irep Tpcoa? KepaCt,€ /cat aAAou?. 

^opKvs av ^pvyas '^ye /cat 'Aa/cavtos' ^eoetSi]? 
TT^A' ef ^AcTKavi-qs' p,ip.aaav S' vapXvi, pidx^crOaL. 

Mi^ocnv av MeadXrjs re /cat ''AvrL(f)OS rjyiqadadrjv , 
VL€ TaXaLpbeveos, ro) Tvyalrj rcKC Xlpivr}, 
ot /cat M'^ovas "^yov vtto TpicoXo) yeyacoras. 

Ndarrjs av K.ap(i)V r^yrjcaro Pap^apo(f)(x)VCOv, 
ot MLXrjrov exov ^dipcov r opos dKpir6(f>vXXov 
yiaidvhpov re pods MvKdXrjs r atrreLvd Kaprfva. 
rcov piev dp* 'A/x^t/xa;\;os' /cat NaCTTTj? rjyrjcrdcrdrjv, 
NacTTTj? * Api(f)ipbax6s re, No/xtovo? dyAaa reKva, 
OS /cat p^pucrov exojv TroXepLovS 'lev rjvre Kovpr], 
vqTTios, ovSe ri ot ro y' eTTrjpKeae Xvypov oXedpov, 
dAA' eSdpbr) vtto X^/aori TToScoKeos Ata/ctSao 
iv TTorapLO), ;\;puCTOv 8' 'A;;^tAeus' eKopaaae hai<pp(x)V. 

HapTTTjSojv S' rjpxev AvkIojv /cat TXavKos apivpbcov 
rr)X66ev e/c AvKirjs, B.dvdov dno Sivi^evros. 

^ Presumably Nastes, as the principal leader, althoii/rh 
the pronoun would more naturally refer to Amphimachus. 

114 



THE ILIAD, II. 854-877 

Parthenius and Cromna and Aegialus and lofty 
Erythini. 

But of the Halizones Odius and Epistrophus were 
captains from afar, from Alybe, where is the birth- 
place of silver. 

And of the Mysians the captains were Chromis 
and Ennomus the augur ; howbeit with his auguries 
he warded not off black fate, but was slain beneath 
the hands of the son of Aeacus, swift of foot, in the 
river, where Achilles was making havoc of the Trojans 
and the others as well. 

And Phorcys and godlike Ascanius led the 
Phrygians from afar, from Ascania, and were eager 
to fight in the press of battle. 

And the Maeonians had captains twain, Mesthles 
and Antiphus, the two sons of Talaemenes, whose 
mother was the nymph of the Gygaean lake ; and 
they led the Maeonians, whose birth was beneath 
Tmolus. 

And Nastes again led the Carians, uncouth of 
speech, who held Miletus and the mountain of 
Phthires, dense with its leafage, and the streams 
of Maeander, and the steep crests of Mycale. These 
were led by captains twain, Amphimachus and 
Nastes — Nastes and Amphimachus, the glorious 
children of Nomion. And he ^ came to the war all 
decked with gold, like a girl, fool that he was ; but 
his gold in no wise availed to ward off woeful destruc- 
tion ; nay, he was slain in the river beneath the 
hands of the son of Aeacus, swift of foot ; and Achilles, 
wise of heart, bare off the gold. 

And Sarpedon and peerless Glaucus were captains 
of the Lycians from afar out of Lycia, from the 
eddying Xanthus. 

115 



-_ u 



' lAIAAOS r 

A^rap cTret KocfirjOev aix rjyefjioveaaLV cKaaroij 
Tpcoeg jxev KXayyfj t ivoTrfj r laav, opvtOeg co9s 
^vre Trep KXayyrj yepdvcov TreAet ovpavoOi Trpo, 
at T eVet ovv \^i[iGiva (f>vyov /cat adia^arov 

ofi^pov, 
KXayyf] rai ye ireTovrai eV ^Q.Keavolo poacov, 
dvSpdac HvyfxatoLai (f)6vov Kal Krjpa (f)€povcrai,' 
rjepiaL 8' dpa rai ye KaKTjv epiba Trpo^epovrai. 
ol 8* dp' laav oiyfj fxevea 7TV€lovt€s *A-)(aioi, 
€V dvixoj fMCfiacbreg aAefe/nev dXXrjXoLaiv. 

Ewt' opeos Kopv(f)fJGL NoTo? KaT€x^v€V onlx^V^i 
TTOLfxeatv ov rt (f)LXr)v, KXeTTTj} Se re vvKTog ap^eLVCo, 
roaaov rls t eTrCXevoaei oaov t cttI Xdav irjaiv 
cu? dpa rdjv vtto TToaal KoviaaXos opvvr deXXqg 
ep)(oixivoiV' fjbdXa 8' c5/ca hieTrprjaaov TreSioio. 

Ot 8' ore Srj ax^^ov T^crav eV dXX7]Xoiat,v lovreg, 
Tpcoalv [xev TTpop,dxi^^v ^AXe^avSpos deoeiSr]?, 
7TapSaXer)v ayjxoiaiv e^cov /cat KafXTTvXa ro^a 
/cat $l(f)09' avrdp 6 Sovpe Sua) KeKopvOfieva xo-Xkco ' 
TrdXXcDV ^Apyelcov TrpoKaXi^ero Travras aptarovs ' 
divrL^iov fiaxeaaadai iv alvfj Brj'CorrjrL. 

* Lines 18-20 were rejected by Zenodotus. 

* Lines 19 f. were rejected by Aristarchus. 

116 



n 



- U U 



BOOK III 

Now when they were marshalled, the several com- 
panies with their captains, the Trojans came on 
with clamour and with a cry like birds, even as the 
clamour of cranes ariseth before the face of heaven, 
when they flee from wintry storms and measureless 
rain, and with clamour fly toward the streams of 
Ocean, bearing slaughter and death to Pigmy men, 
and in the early dawn they offer evil battle. But 
the Achaeans came on in silence, breathing fury, 
eager at heart to bear aid each man to his fellow. 

Even as when the South Wind sheddeth a mist 
over the peaks of a mountain, a mist that the shepherd 
loveth not, but that to the robber is better than 
night, and a man can see only so far as he casteth a 
stone ; even in such wise rose the dense dust-cloud 
from beneath their feet as they went ; and full 
swiftly did they speed across the plain. 

Now when they were come near, as they advanced 
one host against the other, among the Trojans there 
stood forth as champion godlike Alexander, bearing 
upon his shoulders a panther skin and his curved 
bow, and his sword ; and brandishing two spears 
tipped with bronze he challenged all the best of 
Argives to fight with him face to face in dread 
combat. 

117 



HOMER 

Tov 8' (Ls ovv ivorjcrev dprjt(f)LXos MeveAao? 
ep)(oix€vov TrpoTTapoidev ofxlXov [xaKpa ^L^dvra, 
ws re Xeojv ^X'^PV /^eyaAo) inl acoixari Kvpaas, 
cvpcbv rj eXa(j)ov Kcpaov rj dypiov alya 
TTeivdcov jjbdXa yap re Kareadiei, ci rrep dv avrov 
aevcovrai rax^^S re /ewe? daXepoi r alt,7]oi' 
cos ^xdpr] MeveXaos ^AXe^avSpov OeoetSea 
6(f)daXfji,olaLV IScov (f>dTO yap riaaaO ai dXeiTrjv. 
avTLKa 8' i$ ox^ojv avv revx^oiv dXro ;^a/xa^e. 

Tov 8' <1)9 ovv evorjcrev ^AXe^avSpos OeoeiSrjs 
iv TTpojjidxotfn cf)av€vra, KaTeTrXrjyrj <^iXov rjrop, 
difj 8' erdpiov els edvos exdl^ero Krjp' dXeeivcov. 
cos 8' ore TLS re hpaKovra Ibojv TraXivopaos aTreaTr] 
ovpeos iv firiaarjS, vtto re rpofios eXXa^e yvla, 
dip 8' dvex(^pf]'y^v, (x>xpds re pnv eiXe irapeias, 
6(J9 avris Kad' ojxiXov ehv Tpcocov dyepcoxojv 
Sei'cra? ^Arpeos vlov ^ AXe^avSpos OeoeLSrjs. 

Tov 8' "E/cTcop veiKeaaev Ihcjv alaxpols eveecraiv 
" AvaTTapL, ethos dpiare, yvvaifxaves, 'qTreponevrd, 
aW^ 6(f)eX€s dyovos r e^xevat, ayapbos r airoXeadai. 
Kai Ke ro ^ovXotpbrjv , /cat Kev ttoXv KepStov rjev 
ri ovro) X(x}^7]v r epuevai /cat vttoiIsiov dXXcov. 
fj 7TOV Kayxo-XoaxJL Kaprj Kopiocovres 'A;^atot, 
(f>dvres dpccrrrja irpopLOv efip,evai,, owe/ca KaXov 
elSos en* , aAA' ovk earn ^ltj (f)pecrlv ovSe ris dXKrj. 



^ In this line the future rlaeffOai is commonly read, 
*' thought he should get him vengeance." The aorisi 
seems, however, more vigorous ; cf. Odyssey xx. 121. 

^ The epithet Ayovos should properly mean " childless " j 
118 



THE ILIAD, III. 21-45 

But when Menelaus, dear to Ares, was ware of 
him as he came forth before the throng with long 
strides, then even as a Hon is glad when he lighteth 
on a great carcase, having found a horned stag or 
a wild goat when he is hungry ; for greedily doth 
he devour it, even though swift dogs and lusty 
youths set upon him : even so was Menelaus glad 
when his eyes beheld godlike Alexander ; for he 
thought that he had gotten him vengeance ^ on the 
sinner. And forthwith he leapt in his armour from 
his chariot to the ground. 

But when godlike Alexander was ware of him as 
he appeared among the champions, his heart was 
smitten, and back he shrank into the throng of his 
comrades, avoiding fate. And even as a man at 
sight of a snake in the glades of a mountain starteth 
back, and trembling seizeth his limbs beneath him, 
and he withdraweth back again and pallor layeth 
hold of his cheeks ; even so did godlike Alexander, 
seized with fear of Atreus' son, shrink back into the 
throng of the lordly Trojans. 

But Hector saw him, and chid him with words of 
shame : " Evil Paris, most fair to look upon, thou 
that art mad after women, thou beguiler, would that 
thou hadst ne'er been born^ and hadst died unwed. 
Aye, of that were I fain, and it had been better 
far than that thou shouldest thus be a reproach, and 
that men should look upon thee in scorn. Verily, 
methinks, will the long-haired Achaeans laugh aloud, 
deeming that a prince is our champion because a 
comely form is his, while there is no strength in 
his heart nor any. valour. Was it in such strength 

but the sense " unborn " is demanded by the context, and 
is supported by Eur. Fhoen, 1598. 

119 



HOMER 

•^ TOtocrSe iojv iv TTOvroTTopoiai veeaai 
TTOVTOV eTTLTrXwaas , erdpovs epi-qpas dyeipag, 
fiixd^ls aXXoSaTTOLGL yvvalK eueiSe" dvrjycs 
ef aTTL-qs yac7]s, vvov dvSpwv alxiJ'r)rdcov, 
TTaTpi re acp fxeya Trrjfxa TToXrjt re Travri re Bt^jxco, 
8vafj,€veaLV fxev x^PI^'^> KanqtjyeirjV 8e aot avrco; 
OVK dv Srj ybeiveias dpr]t(f)LXov MeveXaov; 
yvoirjs x^ °"°^ <J)0)t6s '^X^^^ OaXeprjv vapaKoirLV 
OVK dv Toi xp<^l'Orf^T) K^^^^P''^ "^ct re ScDp' ^K(j)pohirr]s, 
rj re Kop^r] ro re elhos, or iv Kovirjai ixtyeirjs. 
aXXd p,dXa Tpcoes 8etST7juove?-^ rj re Kev 17817 
Xd'Cvov eaao ;^iTcDi'a KaKcbv evex daaa eopyas. 

Tov 8' avre TrpoaeeiTrev 'AAe|av8po? deoeihris' 
" "EKTop, eVei fxe /car' ataav iveUecras ovB* virep 

alaav, — 
alei rot Kpahirj ireXeKVS ojs eariv dretp-qg, 
OS r elaiv 8ta Bovpos vtt* dvepos, os pd re rexvrj 
vqCov eKrdpivrjaiv, 6(f)eXXeL 8' avSpos epcorjv 
ws crol ivl arrjQeaaiv drdp^iqros voos earc — 
/X17 /xot ScDp' epard Trpo^epe XP^<^^''1^ " A(f)poSi,rr]S' 
ov roL drro^X-qr earl Oecov epiKvSea BdJpa, 
oaaa Kev avrol Scijatv, eKwv 8' ovk dv ns eXoiro. 
vvv aSr* el p! edeXets 7ToXep.tt^€iv rjhe p.dx'^odaL, 
dXXovs P'€V Kddiaov Tpwas kol rrdvras ^Axaiovs, 
avrdp e/x' iv pLeaau) /cat dprjt(f)LXov MeveXaov 
avpifidXer dpi(f>^ 'EAeVj^ /cat Krrjpbaat Trdai p,d- 

;^e(T0ai. 

* BeiSrifioves : deiX-fj/jiOves, iXeri/iovei Zenodotus. 

^ Lit. •'daughter-in-law of"; Helen becomes the 
" daughter " of all the nation into which she marries. 

* The phrase " don a coat of stone " is to be understood 

120 



THE ILIAD, III. 46-70 

as this that thou didst sail over the main in thy 
seafaring ships, when thou hadst gathered thy 
trusty comrades, and, coming to an ahen folk, didst 
bring back a comely woman from a distant land, 
even a daughter of ^ warriors who wield the spear, 
but to thy father and city and all the people a 
grievous bane — to thy foes a joy, but to thine own 
self a hanging down of the head ? Wilt thou indeed 
not abide Menelaus, dear to Ares ? Thou wouldest 
learn what manner of warrior he is whose lovely 
wife thou hast. Then will thy lyre help thee not, 
neither the gifts of Aphrodite, thy locks and thy 
comeliness, when thou shalt lie low in the dust. 
Nay, verily, the Trojans are utter cowards : else 
wouldest thou ere this have donned a coat of stone ^ 
by reason of all the evil thou hast wrought." 

And to him did godlike Alexander make answer, 
saying : " Hector, seeing that thou dost chide me 
duly, and not beyond what is due— ever is thy 
heart unyielding, even as an axe that is driven 
through a beam by the hand of a man' that skilfully 
shapeth a ship's timber, and it maketh the force of 
his blow to wax ; even so is the heart in thy breast 
undaunted— cast not in my teeth the lovely gifts 
of golden Aphrodite. Not to be flung aside, look 
you, are the glorious gifts of the gods, even all that 
of themselves they give, whereas by his own will 
could no man win them. But now, if thou wilt 
have me war and do battle, make the other Trojans 
to sit down and all the Achaeans, but set ye me in 
the midst and Menelaus, dear to Ares, to do battle 
for Helen and all her possessions. And whichsoever 

as a euphemism for death by stoning ; cf. x^cis •)(\aj.va^ 
Aesch. Ag. 872. 

121 



HOMER 

OTTTTorepog 8e Ke viKj^ajj Kpelcracov re yiv-qrai, 
Krrjjxad iXwv iv iravTa yvvaiKOL re ot/caS' dyiaOoj' 
OL S aAAoi (j)i\6rrira Kol opKia Tnara rafxovres 
vaione TpoirjV eptjScoAa/ca, rot 8e veeaOojv 
"Apyos is Itttto^otov koI 'A;^att8a KoXXcyvvaiKa." 

"Qs" €(f)a6\ "E/CTcop 8' avT€ X^PV H'^Y^ {Mvdou 
oiKovaas, 
/cat p eg p,4aaov lojv Tpd)Ojv dveepye (f)dXayyaSf 
fxeaaov Sovpog eXcov rot 8' ISpvvdrjcrav dnavTes} 
to) 8 i7T€To^d^ovTO Kdprj KOfJLocovTes ^Ax<xi,ol 
Lolaiv re rcrvcrKOfjbevot, Xdeacrl r e^aXXov. 
avrap o /xaKpov dvcrev dva^ dvSpojv ' Ayajxefivcov 

Lcxxead' , ^Apyeloi, fMrj ^dXXere, Kovpoi 'A;^ataii'* 
orevTai ydp rt eVo? epieiv KopvdaioXos "E/crcop." 

iaavfievcos' "E/CTCop 8e yuer' dpL^orepoiaiv eetTre* 
" K€KXvTe fiev, Tpa)€s Kal ivKV-qfiiSes 'A;)^aiot/ 
fxvdov ^ AXe^dvhpoio , rod etveKa veiKos opcopev. 
dXXovs fJiev KeXeraL Tpcoas Kol Trdvras 'A;^atou? 
Tey;)^ea /caA' aTroOeadai, iirl ;(^ovt TTOvXv^oreiprj, 
avTov 8' ei/ fjiecrcrq) /cat dpiqtj)iXov Mei^eAaoi' 
otous" a/A0' 'EAeVi7 /cat KT-q/jiacn Ttdcn fidx^aOai. 
OTTTTOTepos 8e K€ viKrjcrr] Kpeiaacov re ycp-qrai, 
KT-qp^aO* iXd)V iv Trdvra yvvaxKd re ot/ca8' dyiadoi' 
ol 8' (xAAot (l>iX6rrjra /cat op/cta TTtCTxa rdfxojfxev." 
12? e^ac/ , ot o apa Trai^re? a/C7yi/ eyev-ovro 

(nCOTTTJ' 

TO tort 8e /cat /xereeiTre jSoi^i' dya^o? Meve'Aaoy 

* lane 78 is omitted in some Jiss. 
* After line 86 many siss. add, 

122 



THE ILIAD, III. 71-96 

of us twain shall win, and prove him the better man, 
let him duly take all the wealth and the woman, 
and bear them to his home. But for you others, 
do ye swear friendship and oaths of faith Avith 
sacrifice. So should ye dwell in deep-soiled Troy- 
land, and let them return to Argos, pasture-land of 
horses, and to Achaea, the land of fair women." 

So spake he, and Hector rejoiced greatly when 
he heard his words ; and he went into the midst, 
and kept back the battalions of the Trojans with 
his spear grasped by the middle ; and they all sate 
them down. But the long-haired Achaeans sought 
the while to aim their arrows at him, and to smite 
him, and to cast at him with stones. But aloud 
shouted Agamemnon, king of men : " Hold, ye 
Argives, shoot no more, ye youths of the Achaeans ; 
for Hector of the flashing helm makes as though he 
would say somewhat." 

So spake he, and they stayed them from battle, 
and became silent forthwith. And Hector spake 
between the two hosts : " Hear from me, ye Trojans 
and well-greaved Achaeans, the words of Alexander, 
for whose sake strife hath been set afoot. The 
other Trojans and all the Achaeans he biddeth to lay 
aside their goodly battle-gear upon the bounteous 
earth, and himself in the midst and Menelaus, dear 
to Ares, to do battle for Helen and all her possessions. 
And whichsoever of the twain shall win, and prove 
him the better man, let him duly take all the wealth 
and the woman, and bear them to his home ; but for 
us others, let us swear friendship and oaths of faith 
with sacrifice." 

So spake he, and they all became hushed in 
silence ; and among them spake Menelaus, good 

123 



HOMER 

" KCKXvTe vvv /cat efxelo' fxaXcara yap aXyos LKoivei 
dvfiov ifxov, (f)pov€CO 8e ScaKpivdijfievai TJSr] 

Apyeiovs Kal Tpa>as, CTret Ka/ca ttoAAo. Trenacrde 
etveK ifJbrjs eptSo? Kal 'AXc^dvBpov cVe/c' dp^rjs.^ 
rjfxeojv S' OTTTTorepcp ddvaros Kal fMoXpa rervKrai,, 
redvatrj- aAAot Be BiaKpivdeZre Ta;(i(7Ta. 
otCTere dpv^ , erepov XevKov, ireprjv 8e fxeXaivav, . 
Trj re Kal 'HeAiw' Att 8' rjfjbels olcrojxev dXXovJ 
a^ere Se Y{pidp.oLO ^irjv, o(f)p' opKta rdjxvQ ' 
ainos, enei ol nalSes VTTep<^laXoi Kal aTTiaroi, 
firj ris VTrep^acrir] Aio? opKia 8r)XT]ar)Tat. 
alel 8' oTrXordpcov dvSpojv <f)pev€s rjepedovTaL'^ 
ots 8' o yepcov jxerer}GLV, djxa irpoaaoj /cat OTrtcrcra) 
Aeucraet, otto)? o;^' dpiara pier* dp,(f)OT€poLat. 
y€V7)Tai." 
"D? €(f>ad^, ol 8' ixdprjaav 'A;^atot re TpcDe? re 
eXnopLevoL Travaaadat oitvpov TToXejxoio. 
Kai p LTTTTOVs p,€V cpv^av inl aTLXO-S, e/c 8' e^ai^ avroc, 
revved r i^eSvovro' rd pukv KaridevT inl yairj 
TrXrjaiov aAA'^Aa)v, oXiyrj 8' rjv dp,(f)ls dpovpa. 

E/CTOjp Se TTporl darv 8vo) K'qpvKas enepLTTe 
KapTraXipicos dpvas re (j)epeiv Ylpiapiov re KoXeaaai. 
avrdp 6 TaXdv^LOV Trpotei Kpeicov ^Ayapiep,vcov 
vrjas €771 yXa(f>vpds leVat, rjB^ dpv* eKeXevev 
OLaepLevai' 6 8' ap' ovk dnLdrja^ ^ AyapLepiVOVi Stoj. 
'IpLS 8' aSd^ 'EiXevT) XevKOjXevo) dyyeXos rjXOev, 
elBofMevT) yaXocx), ^ AvrrfVopiBao hdpLapri, 
rf)v * Avrrjvopihrjs etx^ Kpeioiv 'EAt/cctcDV, 

* dpX^s : <!^T'?s Zenodotus {cf. vi. 35() and xxiv. 28). 
* Lines 108-110 were rejected by Aristarchus. 

^ Or perhaps, *' the unprovoked sin of Alexander ; " cf. the 
frequent use of dpxofJLai to denote the aggressor. 
124 



THE ILIAD, III. 97-123 

at the war-cry : " Hearken ye now also unto me, 
for upon my heart above all others hath sorrow come ; 
my mind is that Argives and Trojans now be parted, 
seeing ye have suflPered* many woes because of my 
quarrel and Alexander's beginning thereof.^ And 
for whichsoever of us twain death and fate are 
appointed, let him lie dead ; but be ye others 
parted with all speed. Bring ye two lambs, a white 
ram and a black ewe, for Earth and Sun, and for 
Zeus we will bring another ; and fetch ye hither 
the mighty Priam, that he may himself swear an 
oath with sacrifice, seeing that his sons are over- 
weening and faithless ; lest any by presumptuous 
act should do violence to the oaths of Zeus. Ever 
unstable are the hearts of the young ; but in 
whatsoever an old man taketh part, he looketh both 
before and after, that the issue may be far the best 
for either side." 

So spake he, and the Achaeans and Trojans 
waxed glad, deeming that they had won rest from 
woeful war. So they stayed their chariots in the 
ranks, and themselves stepped forth, and did off 
their battle-gear. This they laid upon the ground, 
each hard by each, and there was but little space 
between. And Hector sent to the city heralds 
twain with all speed to fetch the lambs and to 
summon Priam. And Talthybius did lord Agamem- 
non send forth to the hollow ships, and bade him 
bring a lamb ; and he failed not to hearken to goodly 
Agamemnon. 

But Iris went as a messenger to white-armed 
Helen, in the likeness of her husband's sister, the 
wife of Antenor's son, even her that lord Helicaon, 
Antenor's son, had to wife, Laodice, the comeliest 

125 



HOMER 

AaoSlKrjv, ITpia/xoto dvyarpojv eiSo? aptcrTrjv. 
TTjv 8' evp^ €V fieydpo)' rj Se fxeyav larov v(f)aLve, 
StVAa/ca 7Top(f>vp€rjv,^ rroXias 8' ivenaaaev aeOXovs 
Tpwoiv 6^ iTTTTohoLficov /cttt 'A;!^aiajp' ^(aXKOxi'Tcovcov, 
ov£ eOev elveK eTraaxov vn "Ap-qos TraXa/xacov. 
dyxov 8' laTafxevr] 7Tpo(7e(f)7] TroSa? co/cea 'Ipis' 
" hevp' Wl, vvix(f)a (ftiXr], Iva OeoKeXa epya 'iS-qai 
Tpcowv 6^ iTTTToSafxcov Kal 'A;)^ata)i/ xi'^XKoxirdiVoyv 
ot TTplv eTT* aAAi^Aoicri (jtipov rroXvhaKpvv "Aprja 
€v rrehicp, oXoolo XiXaiopievoL TToXeixot o, 
OL St) vvv earai cri'yfjy 7rdAe/xo? oe TTerravrai, 
daTTLGL KeMXiyuiv-O^y-'natQa ,8' eyx^o. /xaKpa TreTnrjyev. 
avtdp ^AXe^avhpos /cat dprjt(f)(,Xof MevcXaos 
fjiaKpfjs iyx^t'ljcri' fiax'^crovraL Trept aelo' 
rqj 8e /ce VLKt^aavrt ^lXtj KCKX-rjarj aKOirig. 

"Os" eLTTOvaa Bed yXimvv ifiepov e/x^aXe Oufxa) 
dvBpos re Trporepov /cat dareos t^ To/CT^corj 
avTLKa 8' dpyevvfjat KaXvipajxevr] odovpaiv 
oppidT e/c OaXdfxoLO repev Kara SdKpv x^^^^^t 
ovK OLTj, dfia rfj ye /cat dfx<f)L7ToXoL 8v errovTO, 
A'iBprj, UtT^T^os' Ovydrrjp, HXv/xevrj re ^ocottis'^ 
alifja 8' eVet^' iKavov 66 1, D/caiai TruAat rjaav. 

Ot 8' a/Lt(^t IlpLapiov /cat Hdvdoov rjBe Qv/jLolttjv 
AdpLTTOv re KXvrlov 0^ 'I/ceraot'a r', o^ov "Aprjos, 
OvKaXeyojv re /cat ^Avrr]V(jop, TTeTrvvpLevco dpbcfxo, 
rjaro SrjfioyepovTes ctti S/catTjat TTvXrjai, 
yrjpa'C 817 TroAe/xoto Trevrau/xeVot, aAA' dyoprjral 
iadXoL, T€TTLyeaai.u eoiKorcs, ot T€ Kad vXr]v 

^ Trop(pvp^.riv : fxap/j.apir]!'. 
* lAnc 144 was rejected by Aristarchus. 

126 



THE ILIAD, III. 124-151 

of the daughters of Pi'iam. She found Helen in 
the hall, where she was weaving a great purple web 
of double fold, and thereon was broidering many 
battles of the horse-taming Trojans and the brazen- 
coated Achaeans, that for her sake they had endured 
at the hands of Ares. Close to her side then came 
Iris, swift of foot, and spake to her, saying^\" Come 
hither, dear lady, that thou mayest behold the 
wondrous doings of the horse-taming Trojans and 
the brazen-coated Achaeans. They that of old were 
wont to wage tearful war against one another on 
the plain, their hearts set on deadly battle, even 
they abide now in silence, and the battle has ceased, 
and they lean upon their shields, and beside them 
their long spears are ifixed. But Alexander and 
Menelaus, dear to Ares, will do battle with their long 
spears for thee ; and whoso shall conquer, his dear 
wife shalt thou be called." 

So spake the goddess, and put into her heart 
sweet longing for her former lord and her city and 
parents ; and straightway she veiled herself with 
shining linen, and went forth from her chamber, 
letting fall round tears, not alone, for with her followed 
two handmaids as well, Aethra, daughter of Pittheus, 
and ox-eyed Clymene ; and with speed they came 
to the place where were the Scaean gates. 

And they that were about Priam and Panthous 
and . Thymoetes and Lampus and Clytius and 
Hicetaon, scion of Ares, and Ucalegon and Antenor, 
men of prudence both, sat as elders of the people at 
the Scaean gates. Because of old age had they now 
ceased from battle, but speakers they were full good, 
like unto cicalas that in a forest sit upon a tree and 



127 



HOMER 

SevSpect) i(f>€^6fj,€VOL ona Xetpioecraav lelcri' 
TOLOL dpa Tpojoiv rjyqropes rjvr eTrt Trvpyco. 
Oi 8' CO? ovv etSovd^ 'KXevTjv eVt -nvpyov lovcrav, 
•^jKa TTpos dXX'qXovs eVea TnepoevT dyopevov 
" ov vdfxeatg TpoJas /cat ivKvi^fxtBas *A)((icovs 
TOILS' dfjL<f)l yvvatKt ttoXvv xpov^v dXyea Trdax^^v' 
alvcos ddavdrrjai Oeijs els d)Tra eoLKev 
dXXd /cat cos roirj rrep eova* eV vqval veeaOco, 
firjS* rffxlv T€K€eacr[ t' omcrcTOJ rrrjfjLa Xlttoito. 
"^Q-S dp* €(f>av, Ylpiafjios 8' 'EAevTyv eKaXeaaaro 
(f)covfj' 
" hevpo irdpoid^ eXdovaa, ^iXov tckos, t^eu e/Lteio, 
6(f)pa LTjs TTporepov re ttoolv tttjovs re (f)iXovs 

re — 
ov ri /xoi air 17) eaai, Oeoi vv fxoL atnot eto-tv, 
ot fioL i(f)d)pp,rjcrav TToXefJLOv TToXvSaKpvv 'A;^ataii' — 
a)s {Moi /cat TovS' dvSpa TreXiLpiov e^ovojjirjvrjs, 
OS ris ob^ iarlv 'Ap^ato? dvrjp rjvs re fieyas re. 
•q rot jxev Ke^aXfj /cat iieit,oves dXXoL eacrt, 
KaXov 8' ovrc) €yd)v ov ttoj lSov 6<j>daXp,olaLV, 
oi58' ovroj yepapov ^acnXrj'C yap dvhpl eot/ce. 
Tov 8' 'EAeVry fxvOoLGiV dfiel^ero, 8ta yvvaiKcov 
atooto? re fiOL eacrt, (pt,Ae eKvpe, oeivos re. 
(OS 6(f)eXev ddvaros p-oi aSetv' /ca/co? oiTTTore Sevpo 
vleC ao) eTTOfjbrjv, ddXaixov yvcorovs re XiTTOvaa 
■n-atSa re rrjXvyerrjv /cat 6fu,r}XiKL7]V ipareivrjvl 
dXXd rd y' ovk eyevovro' ro /cat KXaiovaa rerrjKa. 
rovro 8e rot epeco, 6 fi dveipeai r]he fxeraXXas' 

^ The adjective " lily-like " applied to the voice seems 
but a striking instance of the transference of an epithet 
from one field of sense-perception to another, which often 
meets us ; cf. Hesiod, Theog. 41 ; and ApoU. Rhod. iv. 903. 

1^8 



THE ILIAD, III. 152-177 

pour forth their lily -like ^ voice ; even in such wise 
sat the leaders of the Trojans upon the wall. Now 
when they saw Helen coming upon the wall, softly 
they spake winged words one to another : " Small 
blame that Trojans and well-greaved Achaeans 
should for such a woman long time suffer woes ; 
wondrously like is she to the immortal goddesses 
to look upon. But even so, for all that she is such 
an one, let her depart upon the ships, neither be 
left here to be a bane to us and to our children 
after us." 

So they said, but Priam spake, and called Helen 
to him : " Come hither, dear child, and sit before me, 
that thou mayest see thy former lord and thy, 
kinsfolk and thy people — thou art nowise to blame 
in my eyes ; it is the gods, methinks, that are to blame, 
who roused against me the tearful war of the Achaeans 
— and that thou mayest tell me who is this huge 
warrior, this man of Achaea so valiant and so tall. 
Verily there be others that are even taller by a 
head, but so comely a man have mine eyes never 
yet beheld, neither one so royal : he is like unto 
one that is a king." 

And Helen, fair among women, answered him, 
saying : " Revered art thou in mine eyes, dear 
father of my husband, and dread. Would that evil 
death had been my pleasure when I followed thy 
son hither, and left my bridal chamber and my 
kinsfolk and my daughter, well-beloved,^ and the 
lovely companions of my girlhood. But that was 
not to be ; wherefore I pine away with weeping. 
Howbeit this will I tell thee, whereof thou dost ask 

2 I adopt uniformly the meaning " well-beloved " for 
this doubtful word. 

VOL. I K 129 



HOMER 

ovros y' ^ATpetSrjS evpv Kpetwv 'Ayafie/Jivcov, 
d/JicfiOTepov ^aaiXevs t' dyados Kparepos t* al- 

ha'^p ayr' ifios eoKC KWUiinhos, et ttot erjv ye." 18 

"D? <f)dro, rov 8' o yipoiv rjydaaaro (fxLvrjaev re* 
" c5 fxaKap ^Krpethrj, pboip-qyeves , oX^c6Sai[j,ov, 
rj pd vv roL 77oAAot SeSpi'qaTO Kovpot ^A)(aLdjv. 
TJSr) Koi ^pvyi,r]v elaiqXvdov dpuTreXoeaaav, 
€v9a tSov TrXelarovs ^pvyas dvepas oIoXottcoXovs , 18 
Xaovs ^Orprjos Kal MvySovos dprideoto, 
oi pa TOT* iarparocovTO Trap 6)(das Hayyapioio' 
Kal yap iycov irriKOvpos edjv puerd ToZaiv iXe)(9rjv 
rjpiari tw ore t' rjXdov ^Afia^oves avTidveipaf 
dXX ovK ol roaoi rjaav oaoi eAt/cwTre? 'A;^atot." ij 
Aevrepov avr' ^OSvaija ISojv epeeiv' 6 yepaios' 
eiTT aye fiou /cat rovoe, (piAov reKos, o? ns oo 
eoTf 
ixeicov fxev Ke^aXfj * Ayapuepivovos 'ArpetSao, 
evpvrepos 8' wp,oLaiv ISe arepvoiaiv IheaOai. 
revx^a piiv ol KeXrat em x^'^^'' TTOvXv^oreipr^, jt 

avros Se ktlXos cos iTnrrcoXelTai aruxas dvSpaiv' 
dpvecip pLiv eyojye itaKW irrjyeaipidXXo} , 
OS T* olcjv p,eya ttwv Si€px€rat dpyevvdayv." 

Toi' S' rjpbel^eT^ eireiO^ 'EAeViy Atoj eKyeyavla' 
" oStos 8' aS AaepTLdSrjs 7ToXvpi,rjTis 'OSvaaevs, 2( 
OS Tpd(f)7] ev hrjp,(p 'IdaKTjs Kpavaijs irep eovarjs 
elBoJS TTavroiovs re hoXovs Kal p.rjhea TTVKvd." 

Tr^v 8' avr ^Avr'qvcop TreTrvvpLevos dvriov rjvSa' 
" cL yvvai, ^ /LiaAa rovro eiros vqjiepres eenres' 
130 



THE ILIAD, III. 178-204 

and enquire. Yon man is the son of Atreus, wide- 
ruling Agamemnon, that is both a noble king and 
a valiant spearman. And he was husband's brother 
to shameless me, as sure as ever such a one there 
was." 

So spake she, and the old man was seized with 
wonder, and said : " Ah, happy son of Atreus, 
child of fortune, blest of heaven ; now see I that 
youths of the Achaeans full many are made subject 
unto thee. Ere now have I journeyed to the land 
of Phrygia, rich in vines, and there I saw in multitudes 
the Phrygian warriors, masters of glancing steeds, 
even the people of Otreus and godlike Mygdon, 
that were then encamped along the banks of San- 
garius. For I, too, being their ally, was numbered 
among them on the day when the Amazons came, 
the peers of men. Howbeit not even they were as 
many as are the bright-eyed Achaeans." 

And next the old man saw Odysseus, and asked : 
" Come now, tell me also of yonder man, dear child, 
who he is. Shorter is he by a head than Agamemnon, 
son of Atreus, but broader of shoulder and of chest 
to look upon. His battle-gear lieth upon the 
bounteous earth, but himself he rangeth like the 
bell-wether of a herd through the ranks of warriors. 
Like a ram he seemeth to me, a ram of thick fleece, 
that paceth through a great flock of white ewes." 

To him made answer Helen, sprung from Zeus : 
" This again is Laertes' son, Odysseus of many wiles, 
that was reared in the land of Ithaca, rugged though 
it be, and he knoweth all manner of craft and cunning 
devices." 

Then to her again made answer Antenor, the 
wise : " Lady, this verily is a true word that thou 

13J 



HOMER 

'^S-q yap Kal Sevpo ttot' rjXvde hlog 'OSycrcreys' J ^ 
aev eVe/c' ayyeXiiqg avv dpr]'C(f)lXcx) MeveXdw'j 
Tovg 8' iyd) i^eivLcraa /cat iv jxeydpoiai (f)iA-qaa, 
dii4>0Tipwv 8e <j)vriv ehdrjv /cat /XT^Sea ttvkvo.. 
dXX ore St] Tpcoeaatv iv dypofj,evoi,aiv eyLLj^dev, 
cnrdvTcov fiev MeveXaos vneipex^v evpeas a>p,ovs, 5 
dfJL(f)a) 8' e^o/xero) yepapcorepos rjev 'OSvacrevs. 
aAA' ore 817 [xv9ovs /cat [JirjSea Trdaiv V(j)aivoVf 
rj roL jxev MeveXaos eTnTpoxdSrjv dyopeve, 
navpa p-ev, dXXd p,dXa Xiyecos, inel ov 7ToXvp,v6og 
oyS' d^ap^apToeinqg , el /cat yeveL varepos rjev. i 
oAA' ore 8r] TroAu/XTyrt? avat^eiev ^Ohvaaevg, 
ardcTKev, vrral Se tSecTKe koto, x^ovos o/i/xara 

TTVi^as, 
aKrJTTTpov 8' ouT^ cnriaoi ovre TrpoTrprjves eVcu/.ia, 
oAA' darepi(j)es ex^aKev, dtSpe'C (fxjorl eocKcos' 
<j)air]'5 Ke l^dKorov re tlv^ e/x/xevat d<f)povd t' avrcog. i 
dAA' ore 817 ova re p,eydXrjv bk ari^deos etr] . ^jf^ * 
/cat eVea vL(/)d8eaaiv eoiKora ;(et/xept7^atv, jrt '«*' 

ou/c a^' eVetT* '08uCT^t y' epiaaeie Pp6>^'? dXXoS' 
ov Tore y c58' '08uct77o§' dyacradp,ed^ elSos ISovreg." 
To rpirov avr* AXavra Ihdiv epeeiv* 6 yepaios' i 
TtS" T ap 00 aAAos Axaios avrjp rjvs re fieyag 
re, 
e^o)(OS ^Apyelcov Ke(j>aXrjv re /cat evpeas a>fj,ovg;" 
Tov 8' 'EiXevrj ravvneTrXos dp,ei^ero, 8ta 
yvvai,Kcov 
" ovrog 8' Ata? earl TreXcopios, epKog ^Axaicbv 
^IbofJieveus 8' erepojOev evl Kp-qreaai deog cSj i 

132 



THE ILIAD, III. 205-230 

hast spoken, for erstwhile on a time goodly Odysseus 
came hither also on an embassage concerning thee, 
together with Menelaus, dear to Ares ; and it was 
I that gave them entertainment and welcomed them 
in my halls, and came to know the form and stature 
of them both and their cunning devices. Now when 
they mingled with the Trojans, as they were gathered 
together, while men stood up Menelaus overtopped 
all with his broad shoulders ; howbeit when the twain 
were seated Odysseus was the more royal. But 
when they began to weave the web of speech and of 
counsel in the presence of all, Menelaus in truth 
spake fluently, with few words, but very clearly, 
seeing he was not a man of lengthy speech nor of 
rambling, though verily in years he was the younger. 
But whenever Odysseus of many wiles arose, he 
would stand and look down with eyes fixed upon 
the ground, and his staff he would move neither 
backwards nor forwards, but would hold it stiff, in 
semblance like a man of no understanding ; thou 
wouldest have deemed him a churlish man and 
naught but a fool. But whenso he uttered his great 
voice from, his chest, and words Uke snowflakes on 
a winter s day, then could no mortal man beside vie 
with Odysseus ; then did we not so marvel to 
behold Odysseus' aspect." 

• And, thirdly, the old man saw Aias, and asked : 
" Who then is this other Achaean warrior, valiant 
and tall, towering above the Argives with his head 
and broad shoulders ? " 

And to him made answer long-robed Helen, fair 
among women : " This is huge Aias, bulwark of 
the Achaeans. And Idomeneus over against him 
standeth amid the Cretans even as a god, and about 

133 



HOMER 

^arrjK , a/j,cf)l 8e fiiv KpajrcDv dyot -qycpcdovrai, 

7ToXXdi<L fXLV ^elviaaev dp'qt(f)LXos MeveXaos 

OLKO) iv rjfJLerepo), oTTore Kpi^rrj^ev lkolto. 

vvv 8' dXXovs fxev Trdvras 6pd> iXiKCOTras ^Axaiovg, 

ovs K€V iv yvolrjv /cat r' ovvopia p,v9rjcraLiJi,r}V' 23 

BoLoj 8' ov ^vvapLaL Ihieiv KocrfiriTope XadJv, 

Kaaropa ^' LTnrohafxov /cat ttv^ dyadov IloXv- 

SevKea, 
avroKaaiyvrirco , tco fxoi p.ia yeivaro jx'qrrjp. , 
^ ou;^ ioTTeadriv AaKeBalpiovos ef ipareivrjs, 
rj hevpcx) fiev enovTO veeaa eve TTOvroTTOpoLai, 24 

vvv avr' ovk iOeXovat pidxriv /caraSJ/xevat avhpcjv, 
aiax^d oeiotores" /cat ovetoca ttoAA a puot eorivJ • 

"Q? (f>dro, Tovs 8' 1787^ Kdrex^v (f)vai^oos ata 
iv AaKeSaipbovL avOi,, ^iXr^ iv TrarptSt yonj)- 

VirjpvKes 8' d^d darv OecH^v d)ipoy ojo/cia, Trio-ra, 24 
a/at'e 8ua) /cat otvoj^ iv(f>povd,^ KapTrdtL^ovpinSt 
dcr/coj ev alyelo)' <f>€p€ 8e Kpy]rrjpa <j>aeivdv 
KTJpv^ 'ISalos rjBe ;\;/3i;CTeta KUTreAAa* • 

OTpvvev 8e yipovra TTapLdrdficvos iveeaaiv 
" opaeo, AaofMeSovTidSr] , KaXiovaiv dpiaroi 25 

Tpa)cov 6^ LTTTToBdixcDV /cai 'A;;^atd)v xaXKoxtrcovcov 
is TTehiov Kara^rjvai, iv' op/cia inard rdfirjTe. 
avrdp ^AXe^avBpos koI dprjt<j)iXos MeveAao? 
fMaKpfjs iyx^^Tl^'' piaxqcrovT dpi<f>l yvvaiKi' 
T(p Be K€ viKTiaavTL yvvrj /cat KTi^puad* enoiTO' 25 

ot 8' dXXoL (f)iX6Tr]Ta Kal opKiajmsx^ rapLovres 
134. 




THE ILIAD, III. 231-256 

him are gathered the captains of the Cretans. Full 
often was Menelaus, dear to Ares, wont to entertain 
him in our house, whene'er he came from Crete. 
And now ajl the rest of the bright-eyed Achaeans 
do I see, whom I could well note, and tell their 
names ; but two marshallers of the host can I not 
see. Castor, tamer of horses, and the goodly boxer, 
Polydeuces, even mine own brethren, whom the same 
mother bare. Either they followed not with the host 
from lovely Lacedaemon, or though they followed 
hither in their seafaring ships, they have now no 
heart to enter into the battle of warriors for fear of 
the words of shame and the many revilings that are 
mine." 

So said she ; but they ere now were fast holden 
of the life-giving earth there in Lacedaemon, in 
their dear native land. 

Meanwhile the heralds were bearing through the 
city the offerings for the holy oaths of the gods, 
two lambs and, in a goat-skin bottle, wine that 
maketh glad the heart, the fruit of the earth. And 
the herald Idaeus bare a shining bowl and golden 
cups ; and he came to the old king's side and roused 
him, saying : " Rise, thou son of Laomedon, the 
chieftains of the horse-taming Trojans, and of the 
brazen-coated Achaeans, summon thee to go down 
into the plain, that ye may swear oaths of faith 
with sacrifice. But Alexander and Menelaus, dear 
to Ares, will do battle with long spears for the 
woman's sake ; and whichsoever of the twain shall 
conquer, him let woman and treasure follow ; and 
we others, swearing friendship and oaths of faith 
with sacrifice, should then dwell in deep-soiled Troy, 



135 



HOMER 

vaioiiiev TpolrjV ipi^cvXaKa, toI 8e viovrai 
"Apyos is LTTTTO^OTOV /Cat 'Ap^attSa KaXXiyvvaiKa. 

"Q? (f)drOy piyrjaev 8' o yepojv, eKeXevae 8 
iraipovs fi^O'^^ 

LTTTTOVS l^evyvvfxevai' rol 8' orpaXecos iTridovro. 26< 
av h^ a^e^T] IT/ata/xos", /cara 8' 'r]via reZvev oTriaato' 
Trap oe ol 'Avrijvwp TrepiKoXXia p-^aero hi<j)pov' 
rco 8e 8ta JlKaLcov 7re8iov8' exov WKeas lttttovs. 

'AAA' ore 87^ p' LKOVTO fxera Tpcoas /cat 'A;;^atoi;s", 
i^ L7T7TOJV aTTO^dvres ctti ^Bova TTOvXv^oreipav 26. 
e? fidaaov Tpcocov /cat 'A^^aicov ecrTi;^octJVTO . 
opvvTO 8' avTLK eireira dva^ dvSpcov ^Ayafiejxvcov, 
av 8' '08yaeus" TToXviirjTis- drdp KT]pvK€S dyavot 
opKia TTLard BedJv avvayov, Kp-qrijpL 8e oivov 
fiiayov, drdp ^aaiXevuiV vda)p eVt xelpas ex^vav. 27i 
'ArpetSrjs 8e ipvaad/xevos ;)(etpeCTCTt pudxcupav, 
rj 01 Trap ^i(j>eos fieya KovXeov alkv dcopro, 
dpvcbv €/c K€(f)aXea)v rdfive rpixo-S' avrdp eVeiTa 
KTjpVKes Tpd)(iiv /cat 'A;)^atC()v vei/xav dpiarois. 
rolaiv 8' 'ArpetSrjg fxeydX' evx^^o ^^tpa? avao-;)(;aji/* 27 
" Zeu Trdrep, "I8i]9ev [xeSecov, KvSiare, p^lyiare, 
'HcAtos" ^', o? ttcivt' e^opas /cat ttcij/t' irraKoveLS, 
Kttt TTorafiol /cat yata, /cat ot virivepde /ca/xovras" 
dvdpa>7TOVs rivvaOov, oris k eTrlopKov ofioaarj, 
VfxeLS jJidprvpoL eare, ^vXdaaere 8' opKia mard'] 28 
€t /xeV /cei' Meve'Aaov 'AAe^ai/8/oos' KaraTre(f)vr), 
avros eVet^' 'EAeVTjP' ex^Tio koL Krrifxara Trdvra, 
rjfjLeZs 8' iv vrjecrat vecofieBa TTOvroTTopoiaiv^ 
et 8e /c' 'AAefav8po;' Krelvr) ^avdos Mei^eAao?, 
Tpcoas eVet^' 'EAeVT^p* /cat Krrjpiara Travr aTTohovvai, 28 

136 



THE ILIAD, III. 257-285 

but they will depart to Argos, pastureland of horses, 
and Achaea, the land of fair women." 

So spake he, and the old man shuddered, yet bade 
his companions yoke the horses ; and they speedily 
obeyed. Then Priam mounted and drew back the 
reins, and by his side Antenor mounted the beauteous 
car ; and the twain drave the swift horses through 
the Scaean gates to the plain. 

But when they were now come to the Trojans 
and Achaeans, they stepped forth from the chariot 
upon the bounteous earth, and went into the 
midst of the Trojans and Achaeans. Straightway 
then rose up Agamemnon, king of men, and Odysseus 
of many wiles, and the lordly heralds brought 
together the offerings for the holy oaths of the gods, 
and mixed the wine in the bowl, and poured water 
over the hands of the kings. And the son of Atreus 
drew forth with his hand the knife that ever hung 
beside the great sheath of his sword, and cut hair 
from off the heads of the lambs ; and the heralds 
portioned it out to the chieftains of the Trojans and 
Achaeans. Then in their midst Agamemnon lifted 
up his hands and prayed aloud : " Father Zeus, 
that rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, and 
thou Sun, that beholdest all things and hearest all 
things, and ye rivers and thou earth, and ye that in 
the world below take vengeance on men that are 
done with life, whosoever hath sworn a false oath ; 
be ye witnesses, and watch over the oaths of faith. 
If Ale xander slay Menelaus. then let hijrn keep 
H elen ^and "all her treasure ; and we will depart Jn 
ouL &gafaring^hi ps. But i f so be fair^aired Menelau s 
shal l slay Alexander , then let the IVojans give back 

^ Line iiSS is omitted in some mss. 

137 



HOMER 

TifJiT^v 8' 'Apyeioij dTTOTLvejjiev -qv ruv eoLKev, 
1J T€ Kal iaaofidvoLaL fier avOpcLiroiai TreXrjrai. 
el 8' ai' ifiol TifJbTjV UpiafMos UpLoifjLoio re TratSey 
riveiv ovk ideXcoatv 'AAe^av8poio Treaovros, 
avrap ey<h Kal eTretra p,ax'rj(Topiai eiveKa ttolvtjs 2£ 
au^t fxivojv, Tjos k€ reXos TToXlpLoio kix^lco." 

*H, /cat OLTTO aroixdxovs dpvcov rdpie vqXeC ;)(aA/coj' 
Kal Tovs P'^v KaredrjKtv eirl x^^vos daTraipovras , 
6vp,ov SevofMevovs' dno yap p,ivos eiAero ;^aA/co?. 
olvov 8' €K KprjTrjpos d<^vuG6p,evoi heTr deaa iv 2i 

€KX€ov, rjS^ evxovTO Beols aleiyeverrjaiv .^ tn^Zu^mo.-^ 
c58e hi TVS €.liTeai<€V ^Axo-icbv re TpcLcov re' 

Zeu /cuStO'Te p^eyiare, Kal dddvarot, deol aAAoi, 
OTTTTorepoi TTporepot VTrep opKta Trrjp.rjveiav , 
wBe acj)' iyK€(f)aXos ^a/xaSi? peoc d)S oSe otvos, 3( 
avTcov Kal reKecov, dXoxoi 8' d'AAotcri Sap^elev} " 

"Q? e(f)av, o?58' apa ttco a(j)iv eireKpdaive KpovLCOv. 
roiai 8e AaphavL8r]s Ilptap,os fierd fjbvOov eenre' 
" KeKXvre fiev, Tpwes Kal ivKv^p,LSes ^Axator 
^ rot eydiV elpbt TTporl "IXiov rjvefxoecraav 3( 

difi, errel ov ttco rXiqaop.^ ev o(f)daXp,ol(nv opdadai, 
p,apvdp,€Vov (j)iXov vlov aprj'C(f)lX(x) MeveXdcp' 
Zeu? p-ev 7TOV to ye olSe Kal dOdvaroi, deol ctAAot, 
OTTTTorepcx) Oavdroio reXos 7Te7Tpcop,€vov iariv." 

*H pa, Kal is hi^pov dpvas diro Icrodeos (fxjos, 3] 
dv 8' dp* e^atv* avros, Kara 8' rjVLa Telvev orriaao)' 

* dafxelev : fxiye^ev. 

188 



THE ILIAD, III. 286-311 

Helen and all her treasure, and pay to the Argives 
in requital such recompense as beseemeth, even such 
as shall abide in the minds of men that are yet to 
be. Howbeit, if Priam and the sons of Priam be 
not minded to pay recompense unto me, when 
Alexander falleth, then will I fight on even there- 
after, to get me recompense, and will abide here 
until I find an end of war." 

He spake, and cut the lambs' throats with the 
pitiless bronze ; and laid them down upon the 
ground gasping and failing of breath, for the bronze 
had robbed them of their strength. Then they 
drew wine from the bowl into the cups, and poured 
it forth, and made prayer to the gods that are 
for ever. And thus would one of the Achaeans and 
Trojans say : " Zeus, most glorious, most great, and 
ye other immortal gods, which host soever of the 
twain shall be first to work harm in defiance of the 
oaths, may their brains be thus poured forth upon 
the ground even as this wine, theirs and their 
children's ; and may their wives be made slaves to 
others." 

So spake they, but not yet was the son of Cronos 
to vouchsafe them fulfilment. Then in their midst 
spake Priam, Dardanus' son, saying : " Hearken 
to me, ye Trojans and well-greaved Achaeans. I 
verily will go my way back to windy Ilios, since I 
can in no wise bear to behold with mine eyes my 
dear son doing battle with Menelaus, dear to Ares. 
But this, I ween, Zeus knoweth, and the other im- 
mortal gods, for which of the twain the doom of 
death is ordained." 

So spake the godlike man, and let place the lambs 
in his chariot, and himself mounted, and drew back 

139 




HOMER 

Trap 8e ol 'AvT'qvojp nepiKaXXea ^ijuero hi(j>pov. 
roi fxev dp' aijjoppoi Txporl "Wiov dvoveovTO' 
"EiKTCop 8e UpLdpLOLo TTttl's' /ctti Slos ^OSvcTuevs 
Xcopov fjL€V TTpojTov Si€pb€Tp€ov , avrdp eTTeira 
KX'qpovs €v Kvver] ■)(aXKrjpe'C ttoXXov eXovres, 
OTTTTorepos 8r) rrpoaOev dcf)€L7] ■)(aXKeov ^yxosl 
Xaol S' rjpi^cravro, OeoXai Be x^lpas dviaxov, 
c58e 8e TLS eLTTcaKev 'A)(aLCJov re Tpcocov re' 
" Zeu Trdrep, "ISrjdev pLeSetov, KvSiGre, p,iyiare, 
OTTTTorepos rdhe epya pier dp,(j)orepoioiv edrjKe, 
rov Bos d7TO(f)di,fi€vov Bvvat, B6p,ov "Altos' etaco, 
\r)u,LV 8' av (faXorrjra /cat opKta mard yevea6ai."\ 

"Qs" dp' e(j)av, TToXX^ Be pueyas KopvQaioXoj^-YiKrcJp 
aip opooiv Yldpios Be^dooJs e/c K^^£os opovaev. 
ol pLev erreiO* ll,ovro Kara arixo.?, rjx^ eKdarcp 
iTTTTOt, depaiTToBes /cat Trot/ctAa rev^ea Kelro. 
avrdp 6 y' d/x^' wpboiaiv eBvaero rev^ea KaXd 
8 to? 'AXe^avBpos, 'EAeVTy? TToaig rivKop^oio. 
KvrjpilBas p,a^ ■npojra^TTepl'KvriariaLV. eO^Ke 
KaXds, dpy^emaW^frtc^^lnot^a^a^^ 
Bevrepov av dcoprjKa irepl ariqdeaGiv eBvvev 
OLo Kacriyvrjroto AvKdovos' rjppioae 8' avro). 
dpLcf)L 8 dp aipiotaiv ^dXero $L(f)os dpyvporjXov^ 
XdXKeov, avrdp eVetra adKos /xe'ya re ari^apov re' 
Kparl 8' €77' l^dipbo) Kvveriy evrvKrov eOrjKev 
LTTTTOvpiv Beivdv Be Ad^o? KaOvTvepOev evevev 
elXero 8' dXKifxov ey^os, d ol TraXdp^rjcfiW dprjpei} 
a)s 8' avrcos MeveXaos dp-q'Cos eVre' eBvvev. 

01 8' eTTel ovv eKarepOev opiiXov du}piq)(Or]aav, 

^ Lines 334 f. were rejected by Zenodotus. 
* After 338 Zenodotus added a line, 
&ix.<pl S' &p CiixoKTiv ^dXer i<nrl5a repcavb«r<Ta,v. 
140 



THE ILIAD, III. 312-340 

the reins, and by his side Antenor mounted the 
beauteous car ; and the twain departed back to 
lUos. But Hector, Priam's son, and goodly Odysseus 
first measured out a space, and thereafter took the 
lots and shook them in the bronze- wrought helmet, to 
know which of the twain should first let fly his spear 
of bronze. And the people made prayer and lifted 
their hands to the gods ; and thus would one of the 
Achaeans and Trojans speak : " Father Zeus, that 
rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, which- 
soever of the twain it be that brought these troubles 
upon both peoples, grant that he may die and enter 
the house of Hades, whereas to us there may come 
friendship and oaths of faith." 

So spake they, and great Hector of the flashing 
helm shook the helmet, looking behind him the 
while ; and straightway the lot of Paris leapt forth. 
Then the people sate them down in ranks, where 
were each man's high - stepping horses, and his 
inlaid armour was set. But goodly Alexander did 
on about his shoulders his beautiful armour, even he, 
the lord of fair-haired Helen. The greaves first he 
set about his le'^s ; beautiful they were, and fitted 
with silver ankle-pieces ; next he did on about his 
chest the corselet of his brother Lycaon, and fitted 
it to himself. And about his shoulders he cast his 
silver-studded sword of bronze, and thereafter his 
shield great and sturdy ; and upon his mighty head 
he set a well-wrought helmet with horse-hair crest 
— and terribly did the plume nod from above — 
and he took a valorous spear, that fitted his grasp. 
And in the self-same manner warlike Menelaus did 
on his battle-gear. 

But when they had armed themselves on either 

14-1 



HOMER 

is fxiaaov Tpaxxiv koL 'A;^ata;t' iarixocovro 
Seivov SepKOfxevof Odfjifios 8' ex^v elaopoojvras 
Tpcoa? ^' LTTTToSafiovs Kal eiJKvrjpbihas 'Ap^atou?' 
Kai p iyyvg ar'iqr7]v hiaiierprjroj iut, x^^PV 
aeiovT iyx^io.s dAAr^Aoto-tv Koreovre. 
TTpoade S' 'AXe^avSpos TTpotei SoXtxoaKiov cyxos, 
Kat ^dXev 'ArpeiSao /car' acr77i8a navToa ita7]v, 
ou8' eppyj^ev ;;^aA/<:os", dveyvdpi^drj 8e ol cuxP-'T) 
acrTrt8' ivl Kparepfj. 6 Se Sevrepov opvvro ;)^aA/ca; 
^ATpetSrjs MeveXaos iTrev^dpievog Ad TrarpSk 
" Zeu dva, 80? rlaaaO at 6 fxe nporepos KdK eopye, 
hlov *AXe^avSpov, Kal efifjs vtto X^pat hdixaaaov ,^ 
ocfipa tl's ippiyrjGi, /cat oi/jtyovcov dvdpcoTTCov 
^€lvo86kov KaKOL pe^ui, 6 K€v (^iXorrrra^TTapdaxj)'' 

^YL pa, /cat dpiTT€7TaXd)V Trpotei SoAt^ocr/cior ey^os", 
/cat jSaAe YlpLapLtSao /car' dcrTTiSa Trdvroa itarjv. 
Sid fX€V daTriSos riXde (f)a€i.vrjs o^pi/xov eyxos, 
/cat 8ta dcoprjKos TToXvSaiSdXov rjpijpetcrTO' 
dvTLKpi^i 8e Tzapal XaTrdprjv '•Stdfirjcre x'''^djva 
eyXos' d 8' eKXivdr] /cat oAevaro Krjpa fxeXaivav. 
^ArpetSrjs 8e epvcrcrdfxevos ^i^os dpyvporjXov 
TrXrj^ev dvacrxdfievos Kopvdos (f)dXov dficfyl 8 dp 

avrcp 
rpixdd T€ Kal rerpaxOd hLarpv<f)kv CKneae x^t/30?. 
^ATpetSrjs 8' (x)fjLco^€v IScbv els ovpavdv evpvv 

Zi€V irdrep, ov Tts ere to Oecov oXocorepos dXXos' 
•^ t' i<f)dfxr}v riaaadai * AXe^avSpov KaKorrjTOS' 

^ Line 352 was rejected by Aristarchus. 

* We must render Trdfroa' i'tarjv in some such way as this, 
as the reference is presumably to the huge Mycenean shield 
which was not " equal in all directions," i.e. circular. 

142 



THE ILIAD, III. 341-366 

side of the throng, they strode into the space between 
the Trojans and Acliaeans, glaring terribly; and 
amazement came upon them that beheld, both 
the Trojans, tamers of horses, and the well-greaved 
Achaeans ; and the twain took their stand near 
together in the measured space, brandishing their 
spears in wrath one at the other. First Alexander 
hurled his far- shadowing spear, and smote upon 
the son of Atreus' shield that was well balanced on 
every side ^ ; howbeit the bronze brake not through, 
but its point was turned in the stout shield. Next 
Atreus' son, Menelaus, rushed upon him with his 
spear, and made prayer to father Zeus : " Zeus, our 
king, grant that I may avenge me on him that was 
first to do me wrong, even on goodly Alexander, 
and subdue thou him beneath my hands ; that many 
a one even of men yet to be may shudder to work 
evil to his host, that hath shown him friendship." 

He spoke, and poised his far-shadowing spear, 
and hurled it ; and he smote upon the son of Priam's 
shield, that was well balanced upon every side. 
Through the bright shield went the mighty spear, 
and through the corselet, richly dight, did it force 
its way ; and straight on beside his flank the spear 
ihore through his tunic ; but he bent aside and 
scaped black fate. Then the son of Atreus drew 
lis silver-studded sword, and raising himself on 
ligh smote the horn of his helmet ; but upon it 
lis sword shattered in pieces three, aye, four, and 
■ell from his hand. Then the son of Atreus uttered 
bitter cry with a glance at the broad heaven : 
' Father Zeus, than thou is no other god more 
)aleful. Verily I deemed that I had got me 
vengeance upon Alexander for his wickedness, but 

143 



HOMER 

vvv 8e /not iv x^ipeCTcrtv dyr] ^L(f)og, e'/c Se [xoi, eyxos 
'qtxOrj TraXd[J,rjcf)LV erwaiov, ou8' e^aXov fiiv.^ 
^H, Kal enat^as Kopvdos Xd^ev LTnTohaueif]? , 
\ e'A/ce S' eTTiarpeifjas /xer' eii/cvTj/xiSa? 'Axatou?- 
^ ■ ayx^ Se jJLLV TToXvKearos IjJbds dTraXrjv vtto heip-qv, 
^ OS ot utt' dvdeped)vos ox^vs reraro rpv(f)aXeLrjs. 

Kai vv K€V e'ipvaaiv re Kal doTrerov -qparo kvSos, 
el jxrj dp' 6^1) voriae Ato? Ovydryjp ^k^pohiry], 
7] ol p-q^ev Ifidvra /Soo? t<^t KTajxevoio- 
K€iV7] 8e rpvcfidXeia d[M ccrneTO yeipl Traxetrj. 
TYjV [xev eVei^' T^poj? /xer' ivKV-q/JLthag ^Axaiovs 
plifj' iTTiBivqaas, KOfiiaav 8' ipi-qpes iratpor 
avrdp 6 dip eTTopovae KaraKrdp,€va(, fxeveaivcov 
eyx^'C xaA/cetoj- rov 8' i^-qpira^' ^AcppoSirr} 
pela /xctA' a)S re 9e6s, eKoXvifjc 8' ap' 176^1 TroXXfj, 
KaS 8' eta iv daXdfxo) evwSe'C KrjcoevTC. 
avT-q 8' avd^ ''EXev'r]v KaXeova te* Tr]v 8' eKixave 
TTVpycp i(f)^ vip-qXo), TTepl 8e Tpcpal dXis "^aav^ 
X^^pi' S^ veKTapeov iavov iriva^e Xa^ovaa, 
yp-qt 8e fXLV eiKvla TraXaiyeyeC TTpocreeLvev 
clpoKOfxa), 17 ot AaKehaifxovL vai^acoarj 
rjoKeiv eipta KaXd, fidXia^a Se ^/xcv (piXieoKi' 
TT) p.iv eeLaafxevrj TrpoaejxLvee 8t' * Atppohirri' 
" Sevp* W*' ^AXe^avBpos ere /caAet oLKovSe veeadai. 
Kelvos o y iv OaXapLO) Kal SLVcoTolcn Xexeaai,, 
KaXXet re ariX^cnv Kal etpuaaiv ovSe Ke (pairjs 

1 ovd' i^aXov HIV : ovS" iSdfxaa-aa Aristarchus. 

1 This meaning suits all passages in Homer in which 
Kfjueii occurs (c/. cavus) ; in vi. 483, however, K7/w5f i' musi 
mean "fragrant." 
144. 



THE ILIAD, III. S67-392 

now is my sword broken in my hands, and forth 
from my grasp has my spear flown in vain, and I 
smote him not." 

So saying, he sprang upon him, and seized him 
by the helmet with thick crest of horse-hair, and 
whirhng him about began to drag him towards the 
well-greaved Achaeans ; and Paris was choked by 
the richly-broidered strap beneath his soft throat, 
that was drawn tight beneath his chin to hold his 
helm. And now would Menelaus have drag*ged him 
away, and won glory unspeakable, had not Aphrodite, 
daughter of Zeus, been quick to see, and to his cost 
broken in twain the thong,""cut from the hide of a 
slaughtered ox ; and the empty helm came away 
in his strong hand. This he then tossed with a 
swing into the company of the well-greaved Achaeans, 
and his trusty comrades gathered it up ; but himself 
he sprang back again, eager to slay his foe with 
spear of bronze. But him Aphrodite snatched up, 
full easily as a goddess may, and shrouded him in 
thick mist, and set him down in his fragrant, vaulted ^ 
chamber, and herself went to summon Helen. Her 
she found on the high wall, and round about her in 
throngs were the women of Troy. Then with her 
hand the goddess laid hold of her fragrant robe, 
and plucked it, and spake to her in the likeness of 
an ancient dame, a wool-comber, M^ho had been wont 
to card the fair wool for her when she dwelt in Lace- 
daemon, and who was well loved of her ; in her like- 
ness fair Aphrodite spake : "Come hither; Alexander 
calleth thee to go to thy home. There is he in his 
chamber and on his inlaid couch, gleaming with 
beauty and fair raiment. Thou wouldest not deem 

VOL. I L 145 



HOMER 

avSpl yLax^oadjxevov rov y iXOelv, aAAot x^P'^^^^ 
epx^ad^, rj€ x^P^^^o viov Xrjyovra KadliC,eiv." 

"Q? <f)oiro, Tjj 8' apa Ovfxov ivl crrrjOeacnv opive' 39* 
Kai p CVS ovv ivorjae deds TTepiKaXXea Beip-qv 
arriQed 6^ Ifxepoevra /cat ajjif-iara ixapjxaipovra, 
ddjx^rjaev t' ap' eVeira eVo? r' €(f)ar^ e/c t' ovofxa^c 
" SatfxoviTj, ri fxe ravra AiAateai riTrepoireveiv ; 
rj TTTj fie irporepco ttoXlojv €V vaiopievdoiv 40( 

d^€LS, 7] ^pvyir]s rj y[rjOvt't)s ipareLvfjs, 
ei TLS roL Koi Keldi <^i\os fiepoTrtov avdpojTTOiV 
ovveKa Br) vvv hlov ^AXe^avBpov MeveXaos 
viK'^cras eOeXet arvyeprjv ifxe oi/ca8' dyeaOai. 
Tovv€Ka Srj vvv Bevpo BoXo^poveovaa Trapearr)?. 40i 
i^cro Tra/a' avTov lovaa, dewv 8' aTToet/ce KeXevuov, 
/X7j8' ert CTOiCTi TToBeaatv VTToarpdifjeLas "OXvfXTTOv, 
oAA' atet Trepl Kelvov dt^ye Kat 4 (f)vXaacre, 
els o K€ a ri dXoxov TTOit^aerai, rj o ye BovXriv. 
Keiae 8' eycov ovk et/xt — vefieaarjrov Be k€V eirj — 4i( 
Keivov TTopaaviovaa Xexos' Tpcoal Be jx oTriaao} 
ndaat ficofi'qaovTaL' exo) 8' ax^' d-Kpira Bvpi.a>. ' 

Tr]v Be xoXcoaa/xevr] TrpoaecfxLvee BV ^ A^poBirr]' 
" fi-q /x' epede, ax^rXirj, fir] x^ora/xeVr; ae piedeioi, 
Tios Be 0-' dTtexdrjpoi ojs vvv eKTrayXa (f)iXr]aa, 4IJ 
fxeaaoi 8' dpL(fiorepix>v ixrjrLaofxaL exd^o. Xvypa, 
Tpuxvv Kal ^avacvv, crv Be Kev KaKov oltov oXr^ai. 

"D? e<f)aT , eBBeiaev 8' 'EXevr) Aid? eKyeyavla, 

^ dv6eiK€ KeXevOov Aristarchus : aTrdeiire Kf\(vOovi Mss. 



* This is the only passage in Homer in which the word 
Sal/j-wv is used to denote a definite god or goddess ; but as 
Aphrodite is present in person, we can hardly render, " her 
fate led her on." 
146 



THE ILIAD, III. 393-418 

that he had come thither from warring with a foe, 
but rather that he was going to the dance, or sat 
there as one that had but newly ceased from the 
dance." 

So spake she, and stirred Helen's heart in her 
breast ; and when she marked the beauteous neck 
of the goddess, her lovely bosom, and her flashing 
eyes, then amazement seized her, and she spake, 
and addressed her, saying : " Strange goddess, why 
art thou minded to beguile me thus ? Verily thou 
wilt lead me yet further on to one of the well- 
peopled cities of Phrygia or lovely Maeonia, if there 
too there be some one of mortal men who is dear 
to thee, seeing that now Menelaus hath conquered 
goodly Alexander, and is minded to lead hate- 
ful me to his home. It is for this cause that thou 
art now come hither with guileful thought. Go 
thou, and sit by his side, and depart from the 
way of the gods, neither let thy feet any more 
bear thee back to Olympus ; but ever be thou 
troubled for him, and guard him, until he make 
thee his wife, or haply his slave. But thither 
will I not 'go — it were a shameful thing — to array 
that man's couch ; all the women of Troy will 
blame me hereafter ; and I have measureless 
griefs at heart. 

Then stirred to wrath fair Aphrodite spake to 
her : " Provoke me not, rash woman, lest I wax 
wroth and desert thee, and hate thee, even as now 
I love thee wondrously ; and lest I devise grievous 
hatred between both, Trojans ahke and Danaans ; 
then wouldst thou perish of an evil fate." 

So spake she, and Helen, sprung from Zeus, was 
seized with fear ; and she went, wrapping herself 

147 



HOMER 

^rj 8e Karacrxo/xcvT) eavcv apyrjrt, (f)aeivcp 

aiyfj, TTaaas Se Tpcpas Xddev rjpx^ 8e SaLfMOJvJ 4' 

At 8' or* ^AXe^dvSpoio Sojjiov TrepiKoXXe lkovto, 
api^LTToXoi fiev eVeira Oows evrt epya rpavovTO, 
rj 8' els vi/j6po(f)ov OdXafiov kU hla yvvaiKcxiv } 
rfj 8' apa Slcjipov iXovcra ^tAo/x/xetSi^S" ' A(f)poSLrrj 
olvtC 'AXe^dvSpoio Bed Karidrjice (pepovaa. 4! 

evda KdOii,* 'EiXevT], Kovprj Ato? alyioxpio, 
oaae ttoXlv KXtvaaa, ttogiv 8' rjVLTraTTe pivdco' 
" rjXvdes €/c TToXepbov (Ls axfieXes avrod* oXeadai, 
dvSpl Bafxels Kparepco, os e/xo? Trporepos Troai? rjev. 
rj fjb€V Sr] TTpiv y evx^ dprj'CcfiLXov MeveXdov /h» *• 
GTJ re ^L-Tj Kal X^P^^^ '^"^ ^YX^'' 4'^pT^po'S elvau 
^Q aAA' Wl vvv TTppKaXea aai, dp7]t(f)i,Xov Meve'Aaov* 
*.^ e^avris piax^croLorO ai ivavriov dXXd a kydi y€ 
V TTaveaOai KeXojxai, pi-qhe ^avBix) MeveAao) 
dvri^LOV TToXe/jbov rroXepbit^eiv rjhe pidx^oOat *• 

d(f)paS€OJS, pbTj TTOJS Tdx V'n avrov Sovpl 8apir)rjs." 
Trjv 8e Ildpis fxvdoLCTLV dpLCL^opievos Trpoareenre' 
" pLTj pie, yvvai, ;i^aAe7rorcriv oveiheai Ovpiov eviirre. 
vvv pLev yap MeveXaos eviKirjaev avv ^AOrjvrj, 
Keivov 8' avrLS eydy Ttdpa yap Oeoi elai Kal r^pilv. 4A 
aAA' dye Srj (f)cX6r'r]rt rpaTretofiev evvrjdevre' 
ov ydp TTCi) TTore )U.' cSSe y' epiog cf)p€vas dpL(f>- 

eKdXvif/ev, 
oi58' ore ae irpcorov AaKeSaipLovos e^ eparetvijg 
enXeov dpird^as ev TTOvroTTopoLcn veeaai, 
VTjcrcp 8' ev Kpavafj ipLLyrjV (fnXorr^n /cat evvfj, 44 
CO? oeo vvv epa/xai Kal, fxe yXvKvs tpiepos alpel.' 
^ In place of lines 423-12() Zenodotus gave, 
avrri S' dvrlov Ij^eu 'AXe^dvSpoio dva/croy. 
* Lines 432-436 were rejected by Aristarchus. 
148 



THE ILIAD, III. 419-M6 



r 



in her bright shining mantle, in silence ; and she 
was unseen of the Trojan women ; and the goddess ^ 
led the way. 

Now when they were come to the beautiful palace 
of Alexander, the handmaids turned forthwith to 
their tasks, but she, the fair lady, went to the high- 
roofed chamber. And the goddess, laughter-loving 
Aphrodite, took for her a chair, and set it before 
the face of Alexander. Thereon Helen sate her 
down, the daughter of Zeus that beareth the aegis, 
with eyes tm-ned askance ; and she chid her lord, 
and said : " Thou hast come back from the war ; 
would thou hadst perished there, vanquished by a 
vahant man that was my former lord. Verily it 
was thy boast aforetime that thou wast a better 
man than Menelaus, dear to Ares, in the might of 
thy hands and with thy spear. But go now, 
challenge Menelaus, dear to Ares, again to do 
battle with thee, man to man. But, nay, I of myself 
bid thee refrain, and not war amain against fair- 
haired Menelaus, nor fight with him in thy folly, 
lest haply thou be vanquished anon by his spear." 

Then Paris made answer, and spake to her, say- 
ing : " Chide not my heart, lady, with hard words 
of revihng. For this present hath Menelaus van- 
quished me with Athene's aid, but another time 
shall I vanquish him ; on our side too there be gods. 
But come, let us take our joy, couched together in 
love ; for never yet hath desire so encompassed my 
soul — nay, not when at the first I snatched thee 
from lovely Lacedaemon and sailed with thee on 
my seafaring ships, and on the isle of Cranae had 
dalliance with thee on the couch of love — as now 
I love thee, and sweet desire layeth hold of me." 

149 



HOMER 

*H pa, KoX apx^ Ae;^0CT8e Ktcov dfia 8' etzrer* 

aKOCTLS. 

Ta> fxev dp iv rp'qrolai KarevvaaOev Xe^ieaoLV, 
ArpetSrjs 8' dv 6p,i\ov e^olra drjpl eoiKws, 
et TTOV icra6p7]a€L€V 'AXe^avSpov deoeihia. 4' 

dAA' oij. TLs Svvaro Tpcocov KXeuTcov r iTriKovpcov 
Bel^at, ^AXe^avSpou ror dprjCJ)iXcp Mei^eAaw. 
ov p.ev yap (f)i,X6TrjTi, y eKevdavov, et rt? t8oiro' 
tcrov yap a^iv Trdaiv dn'qx^^'^'^ K7]pl ixeXaivr). 
roZai 8e kol /xereetTrev dva^ dvhpcov ^ AyapLep^vcov 4i 
" KCKXvre p,€V, Tpcoes Kal AdpSavoL lyS' eTTiKovpoi* a 
VLKTj fx€v Brj ^atVer' dprfi^iXov McveAaou, ^^K) 

vp-eXs 8' 'Apy€L7]v 'KXevrjV Kal Krrjp.ad^ dfx avrfj 

CkSoTC, Kal TLHTjV dTTOTlV€p,€V tJv Tiv' €OLK€V, 

7) re Kal iaaofxevoiai jjuer* dvOpconoicrL TrdXr^TaL." 4( 
"Qs e^ar* *Arpet8r]S, irrl 8' rjveov dXXoi ^A^aiOL. 



150 



r 

THE ILIAD, III. 447-461 

He spake, and led the way to the couch, and with 
him followed his wife. 

Thus the twain were couched upon the corded 
bed ; but the son of Atreus ranged through the 
throng like a wild beast, if anywhere he might 
have sight of godlike Alexander. But none of 
the Trojans or their famed allies could then discover 
Alexander to Menelaus, dear to Ares. Not for 
love verily were they fain to hide him, could any 
have seen him, for he was hated of all even as black 
death. Then the king of men, Agamemnon, spake 
among them, saying : " Hearken to me, ye Trojans 
and Dardanians and allies. Victory is now of a 
surety seen to rest with Menelaus, dear to Ares ; do 
ye therefore give up Argive Helen and the treasure 
with her, and pay ye in requital such recompense 
as beseemeth, even such as shall abide in the minds 
of men that are yet to be." 

So spake the son of Atreus, and all the Achaeans 
shouted assent. 



151 



lAIAAOS A 

Oi Be 6eol Trap "Zrjvl Kadrjfievoi rjyopocovro 
Xpvcreo) iv BaTreSo), fiera Be a(f)L(n TTorvta "H^rj 
veKrap eojvoxoet- rol Be ;!^puCTeots' BeirdeaaL 
BeiBe^o-T^ aXXriXovSt Tpcucov ttoXlv elaopocovres. 
avTLK eVetparo KpovtBrjs epeOi^efiev "Hprjv 5 

KeprofiLOis CTree CTcri, TTapa^XijBrjv dyopevcov 
" Boial fjLev Mei'eAaa; dprjyoves elal dedojv, 
"Hpy) t' ^Apyeirj Kal ^AXaXKO/jLevrjl's ^AO-qvTj. 
oAA' ^ rot, rat voa^i Kad'qfievai elaopocoaat 
T€p7rea6ov Tip 8' avre (f>iXop.p,eLBrjS ^ AtjjpoBlrr^ 10 
aiet TTappiepL^XcoKe Kal avrov KTJpas dpuvvei' 
Kal vvv e^ecrdcoaev o'Cofievov Oaveeadai. 
dAA' "q roi VLKT) p,ev dprj'C^iXov M.eveXdov' 
rjp^els Be <f)pat,cop,ed' ottcos earai TdBe epya, 
rj p avris TToXefiov re KaKov Kal cjjvXomv alvrjv 15 
opaofxev, ^ ^tAoTr^ra /uer' dp^cfiorepoiai ^dXcofiev. 
el 8' av 7TC0S ToBe Trdai, (j)iXov Kal T^8y yevotrOf 

^ TOL p,€V OLKeOLTO TToAl? Tlpld/JiOLO dvaKTOS , 

avTLS 8' ^Apyeiii)V 'EAeVr^v Mei'e'Aaos' dyoiTO." 

"Qs e^a^', at 8' €7Tep,v^av 'Adrjvalr) re Kal "llpyy 20 

^ The epithet " Alalcomenean " is derived from a place- 
name (Alalcomenae, in Boeotia). It may well, however, 
have in this context no local force, but mean rather " the 
guardian " or " defender." 

152 



BOOK IV 

Now the gods, seated by the side of Zeus, were 
holding assembly on the golden floor, and in their 
midst the queenly Hebe poured them nectar, and 
they with golden goblets pledged one the other as 
they looked forth upon the city of the Trojans. 
And forthwith the son of Cronos made essay to 
provoke Hera with mocking words, and said with 
malice : " Twain of the goddesses hath Menelaus 
for helpers, even Argive Hera, and Alalcomenean ^ 
Athene, Howbeit these verily sit apart and take 
their pleasure in beholding, whereas by the side of 
that other laughter-loving Aphrodite ever standeth, 
and wardeth from him fate, and but now she saved 
him, when he thought to perish. But of a surety 
victory rests with Menelaus, dear to Ares ; let us 
therefore take thought how these things are to be ; 
whether we shall again rouse evil war and the dread 
din of battle, or put friendship between the hosts. 
If this might in any wise be welcome to all and their 
good pleasure, then might the city of king Priam 
still be an habitation, and Menelaus take back 
Argive Helen." 

So spake he, and thereat Athene and Hera 

153 



HOMER 

TTXrjaiai at y' rjaOr^v, Ka/ca Se Tpcoeaat [xehead'qu 
■^ TOL ^AdrjvaLTj OLKeoiv 'qv ovSe ti etTre, 
OKVI^Ofxevr] Ad Trarpi, ;\;dAos' Se pav aypios jjpei,' 
"Hpyj S' ovK exdSe (jTrjOos ;;^oAot', aAAa TTpocrrjvSa 
" alvorare KpovtSr], ttolov top fjbvdov eenres' 
Tra>9 ideXeis dXtov OeZvai ttovov iJS' ariXearov, 
ISpo) 6^ ov thpojaa {xoycOy Kapiirriv hi fxoi lttttol 
Xaov ayeipovuT], Yipidixcp KaKo, rolo re Traicriv. 
l/t)8'' drdp ov roL iravres eTracveofiev deol dXXot." 
Trjv Se fxey* oxOtjcras Trpoai^rj v€(f>€.X'r]y€pirc 

7i€VS' 

" BaifiovLT] , ri vv ae UpiafMos IlpidpLOLO re 7ratSe< 
Tocraa KaKo, pe^ovcnv, 6 t dairepX'^S fxcveaiveis 
'lAtoy e^aXaTrd^ai, evKrip-^vov TTToXUOpov; 
el Se av y eiGreXdovaa TTvXas Kal relx^a fiaKpd 
d)ix6v ^e^pcodois Ylptafiov YIpidixoLo re TratSa? 
dXXovs re T/acSa?, rore Kev x^Xov i^aKeaaio. 
ep^ov OTTCOS eOeXeLS' p>rj tovto ye veXKos omaaa 
aol Kal ep,ol jxey* epiafxa fxer* dpL^orepoiai yevrjrai, 
aAAo Se TOL epeo), crv S' evl (fypeal ^dXXeo aijcnv 
OTTTTore Kev /cat eyd> fxefxacbs ttoXlv i^aXand^ai, 
Tr}v iOdXo) odi TOL (f)iXoL dvipes eyyeydaac, 
[juij TL Siarpi^eLV rov ifiov ;!^dAop', aAAa /u.' idcrat 
Kal yap eyd) aol ScD/ca eKd>v aeKovri ye dufico. 
at yap vn* rjeXco) re Kal ovpavw aarepoevri 
vaierdovai TToX-qes eTTixdovioiv dvdpcoTTOJV, 
rdcov /xot Trept Krjpt. rieaKero "lAto? Iprj 
Kol HpiafMos Kal Xaos evpLfieXtco Hpidpioto. 
154 



THE ILIAD, IV. 21-i7 

murmured, who sat side by side, and were devising 
ills for the Trojans. Athene verily held her peace 
and said naught, wroth though she was at father 
Zeus, and fierce anger gat hold of her ; howbeit 
Hera's breast contained not her anger, but she spake 
to him, saying : " Most dread son of Cronos, what 
a word hast thou said ! How art thou minded to 
render my labour vain and of none effect, and the 
sweat that I sweated in my toil, — aye, and my 
horses twain waxed weary with my summoning the 
host for the bane of Priam and his sons ? Do thou 
as thou wilt ; but be sure we other gods assent not 
all thereto." 

Then, stirred to hot anger, spake to her Zeus, 
the cloud-gatherer : " Strange queen, wherein do 
Priam and the sons of Priam work thee ills so many, 
that thou ragest unceasingly to lay waste the well- 
built citadel of Ilios ? If thou wert to enter within 
the gates and the high walls, and to devour Priam 
raw and the sons of Priam and all the Trojans besides, 
then perchance mightest thou heal thine anger. 
Do as thy pleasure is ; let not this quarrel in time to 
come be to thee and me a grievous cause of strife 
between us twain. And another thing will I tell 
thee, and do thou lay it to heart. When it shall 
be that I, vehemently eager to lay waste a city, 
choose one wherein dwell men that are dear to 
thee, seek thou in no wise to hinder my anger, 
but suffer me ; since I too have yielded to thee of 
mine own will, yet with soul unwilling. For of all 
cities beneath sun and starry heaven wherein men 
that dwell upon the face of the earth have their 
abodes, of these sacred Ilios was most honoured 
of my heart, and Priam and the people of Priam, 

155 



HOMER 

ov yap jtxot irore ^ojfxos iSevero Sairo? itar]?, 
XoL^rjs re Kviarjg re' to yap Xdxofxev yepas rjiMels." 

Tov 8' rjfiei^eT eVetra ^ocottis TTorvia "Yipiq- t 
" "^ rot ifxol rpets fMev ttoXv (jyiXrarai elcri ttoXt^gs, 
"Apyos re TiTrdprrj re /cat evpvdyvia M.VKr]vr)' 
ras hiaTTepcrai, or' dv roi aTrexOcovrai irepl Krjpf 
rdcDV ov rot, eyd) TrpoaO^ tarafiaL ovSe fieyaipo). 
et TTep yap <f)dov€a) re Kal ovk elcj StaTrepaat/ i 
ovK dvvoj (f)doveova* , enel •j^ ttoXv ^eprepos eaai. 
aXXd ■)(prj Kal epuov defxevai ttovov ovk dreXearov 
Kal yap eyoj Oeos eljxi, yevos Se /xot evdev odev aoi, 
/cat jxe TTpea^vrdrriv reKero Kpovos" ay/cuAo^r^ri^?, 
afi(f>6repov, yevefj re Kal ovveKa arj TrapdKOLris ( 
K€KXr]fjLat, av he Trdai pier* ddavdrotaiv dvdaaeis. 
dXX ri rot, p.€V ravd* V7ToeL^op,ev aAAT^Aotcrt, 
trot fxev eyco, av o epboi' em o eipovrai ueoL aAAoi 
addvaroi' av he ddaaov ^AOrjvaLT] eTTirelXai 
eXdelv is Tpcocov Kal 'Ap^atcDv' (f)vXo7Tiv alvqv, ( 

TTeipdv h cos K€ Tpdies VTrepKvhavras *A)(^aiovs 
dp^ojort TTporepoL virep opKia hrjXrjaaaOaL." 

Q.S €(^ar\ ovh' dmdrjGe Trarrjp dvhpojv re Oeojv 
re' 
avTLK* *A6r]va{,r]v errea rrrepoevra irpoarjvha' 

aiipa fxaA es arparov eAtfe puera Ipcua? Kai 
'A^atovs, ^ 

Treipdv 8' uis Ke Tpihes VTrepKvhavras *A-)(^aiovs 
dp^cjat TTporepoc virep opKia hriXrjaaadai." 

^ Lines 55 f. were rejected by Aristarchus. 
156 



THE ILIAD, IV. 48-72 

with goodly spear of ash. For never at any time 
was mine altar in lack of the equal feast, the drink- 
offering, and the savour of burnt-offering, even the 
worship that is our due," 

Then in answer to him spake ox-eyed, queenly 
Hera *. " Verily have I three cities that are far 
dearest in my sight, Argos and Sparta and broad- 
wayed Mycenae ; these do thou lay waste when- 
soe'er they shall be hateful to thy heart. Not in 
their defence do I stand forth, nor account them 
too greatly. For even though I grudge thee, and 
am fain to thwart their overthrow, I avail naught 
by my grudging, for truly thou art far the mightier. 
Still it beseemeth that my labour too be not made 
of none effect ; for I also am a god, and my birth is 
from the stock whence is thine own, and crooked- 
counselling Cronos begat me as the most honoured 
of his daughters in twofold wise, for that I am 
eldest, and am called thy wife, whilst thou art king 
among all the immortals. Nay then, let us yield 
one to the other herein, I to thee and thou to me, 
and all the other immortal gods will follow with us ; 
and do thou straightway bid Athene go her way into 
the dread din of battle of Trojans and Achaeans, 
and contrive how that the Trojans may be first in 
defiance of their oaths to work evil upon the Achaeans 
that exult in their triumph." 

So said she, and the father of men and gods 
failed not to hearken ; forthwith he spake to Athene 
winged words : " Haste thee with all speed unto 
the host into the midst of Trojans and Achaeans, 
and contrive how that the Trojans may be first in 
defiance of their oaths to work evil upon the Achaeans 
that exult in their triumph." 

157 



HOMER 

Lis €L7T(jbv oTpvve TTOLpos ficfxavXav ^Adiqvrjv, 
^rj 8e /car' OvXvfJiTroLO Kapqvcov dt^aua. 
oiov S darepa ■^Ke Kpovov Trd'Cs d'yKvXop,'qT€(x), [ 
rj vavTrjGL repas rje arparoj evpi'C Xawv, 
XapLTTpov rod he re ttoAAoi drro aTnvOrjpes levrai' 
ro) e'LKvV yj'C^ev eirl x^ova IlaAAa? ^AO-qvrj, 
/caS 8' edop^ is p,eaaov dd/x^os S' ex^v elaopowvras, 
Tpcods 6^ iTTTToSd/xovs Kal evKviqiiihas ^Axon-ovs' i 
cbSe be ns eiTreaKev Ihcov es rrXrjaLOV dXXov 
" Tj p avris TToXepios re kukos Kal ^vXottls alvrj 
eacrerai, tj ^iXorrjra pier* dp(f>or€poLcn riOiqai 
TLevs, OS t' dvdpcoTTOiv rap^lrjs TToXepoio rervKrai.' 

"Q-S dpa ns eliTeaKev ^Axollcov re Tpcocov re. 1 
7) o avopL LKeArj ipcowv Kareovaeo op^iAov, 
AaoSoKO) ^Avrrjvopihri, Kparepcp alxjMi^T'fj , 
UdvSapov dvriOeov Bi^rjp^evrj, e'i ttov e(jievpoi} 
evpe AvKdovos vlov dp,vp,ovd re Kparepov re 
earaor*' dp,(f)i 8e p,t,v Kparepal arlxes damcrrdcov \ 
XaoiV, 61 ol enovro (Xtt' AlarjTTOio podcov. 
dyxov 8' larapievq evrea Trrepoevra Trpoaiqvha' 
" rj pd vv pbOL ri ttLOoio, AvKdovos vie Bat(f)pov; 
rXairjs Kev MeveXdo) eTTLTrpoep^ev raxvv lov, 
Tract 8e /ce TpcLeaai X^P^^ '^^^ Kvhos dpoio, \ 

CK Trdvrcov Be /xaAiara ^ AXe^dvSpo) Paai,Xrj'C. 
rov Kev Brj irdpLTrpcora Trap* dyXad Scopa (f>€poLO, 
at Kev tSj] MeveXaov dp-^'Cov 'Arpeo? vlov 
aw ^eXe'i Bp,rj9evra fTvprjs eVt^avr' dXeyeivrjs. 
dXX ay' otarevaov MeveXdov Kv8aXLp,OLO, 

' ft Tov i</>evpoi : €vpe Si rovSe Zenodotus, who omitted 89. 
158 



THE ILIAD, IV. 73-100 

So saying, he stirred on Athene that was already 
eager, and down from the peaks of Olympus she 
went darting. Even in such wise as the son of 
crooked-counselling Cronos sendeth a star to be a 
portent for seamen or for a wide host of warriors, 
a gleaming star, and therefrom the sparks fly thick ; 
even so darted Pallas Athene to earth, and down she 
leapt into the midst ; and amazement came upon 
all that beheld, on horse-taming Trojans and well- 
greaved Achaeans ; and thus would a man say with 
a glance at his neighbour : " Verily shall we again 
have evil war and the dread din of battle, or else 
friendship is set amid the hosts by Zeus, who is for 
men the dispenser of battle." 

So would many a one of Achaeans and Trojans 
speak. But Athene entered the throng of the 
Trojans in the guise of a man, even of Laodocus, 
son of Antenor, a valiant spearman, in quest of god- 
like Pandariis, if haply she might find him. And 
she found Lycaon's son, peerless and stalwart, as 
he stood, and about him were the stalwart ranks 
of the shield-bearing hosts that followed him from 
the streams of Aesepus. Then she drew near, and 
spake to him winged words : " Wilt thou now 
hearken to me, thou wise-hearted son of Lycaon ? 
Then wouldst thou dare to let fly a swift arrow upon 
Menelaus, and wouldst win favour and renown in 
the eyes of all the Trojans, and of king Alexander 
most of all. From him of a surety wouldst thou 
before all others bear off glorious gifts, should he 
see Menelaus, the warlike son of Atreus, laid low 
by thy shaft, and set upon the grievous pyre. Nay, 
come, shoot thine arrow at glorious Menelaus, and 



159 



HOMER 

evx^o S' ^AttoXXcovl AvKrjyeveC kXvtoto^co 
apvcjv TTpcoroyovcov pi^eiv KXeirrjv €Kar6fi^r]v 
OLKaSe voaTT]cras Uprjs els aarv ZeXelrjs." 

"i^? (fxir' ^AdrjvaLrj, to) 8e (jipivas d<f)povi, TreWev. 
avrtK eavAa rogov evgoov LgaAov aiyos 
aypiov, ov pa ttot avros vtto arepvoio rvxTjoas 
TTerprjs eK^atvovra SeSeypuevos iv TtpohoKfjcn 
^e^XrjKei irpos arrjOos' 6 8' vtttlos e/x7recre Trirprf. 
Tov Kepa e/c K€<f)aXrjg e/c/catSe/caScopa 7T€(f)VK€r 
Kal ra piev acTKn^aas Kepao^oos rjpape reKTCov, 
TTdv 8' ev AefJ^i/a? XP^'^^V^ i7Te9r]Ke Kopcovrjv. 
Kal TO pLev €v KareOrjKe ravvacrdpievos ttotI ycLLj 
ay/cAiVas" Trpoadev he aaKea axedov icrOXol eraZpot, 
pLT) TTplv dvat^eiav dprfioi vies 'A;^aicDv, 
TTplv ^XrjaOai yieveXaov dprfCov ^Arpeos vlov.^ 
avrdp 6 avXa Trcu/xa (f)aperprjs, e/c 8' e'Aer' lov 
d^XrJTa Trrepoevra, pueXaivecov eppi ohvvdojv^ 
aliffa 8' €771 vevpfj KareKoapbet, TriKpov oCarov, 
evxero 8* 'AnoXXcovi AvKrjyeveC kXvtoto^co 
dpvcov TrpojToyovcov pe^eiv KXeLxrjv eKaTopi^-qv 
OLKaSe voarijaas lepras els dcrrv XeXeLr^s. 
eA/ce 8' opLov yXv(f)L8as re AajScot' Kal vevpa ^oeia 
vevpTjV p,ev /xa^oi TreXaaev, ro^co 8e aihrfpov? 
avrdp CTTcl Srj KVKXorepes pieya ro^ov ereive, 

^ 'Arpios vl6y : dpx{>v 'Axa'<2»' (cf. 195 and 205). 

* Line 117 was rejected by Aristarchus. 

' Lines 123 f. were given by Zenodotiis in inverse order. 

^ This seems the most natural rendering of the epithet 
Connexion between the wolf and Apollo is completeh 
established. Others prefer to render " light-born," o 
" light-begetting," and still others, " born in Lycia." 

* The word ipua is very obscure. In Homer it mean 
" a prop," and the plural occurs in the sense of " earrings ' 
160 



THE ILIAD, IV. 101-124 

vow to Apollo, the wolf-born ^ god, famed for his 
bow, that thou wilt sacrifice a glorious hecatomb of 
firstling lambs, when thou shalt come to thy home, 
the city of sacred Zeleia." 

So spake Athene, and persuaded his heart in his 
folly. Straightway he uncovered his polished bow 
of the horn of a wild ibex, that himself on a time 
had smitten beneath the breast as it came forth 
from a rock, he lying in wait the while in a place 
of ambush, and had struck it in the chest, so that it 
fell backward in a cleft of the rock. From its head 
the horns grew to a length of sixteen palms ; these 
the worker in horn had wrought and fitted together, 
and smoothed all with care, and set thereon a tip 
of gold. This bow he bent, leaning it against the 
ground, and laid it carefully down ; and his goodly 
comrades held their shields before him, lest the 
warrior sons of the Achaeans should leap to their 
feet or ever Menelaus, the warlike son of Atreus, 
was smitten. Then opened he the lid of his quiver, 
and took forth an arrow, a feathered arrow that had 
never been shot, freighted ^ with dark pains ; and 
forthwith he fitted the bitter arrow to the string, 
and made a vow to Apollo, the wolf-born god, famed 
for his bow, that he would sacrifice a glorious heca- 
tomb of firstling lambs, when he should come to 
his home, the city of sacred Zeleia. And he drew 
the bow, clutching at once the notched arrow and the 
string of ox's sinew : the string he brought to his 
breast and to the bow the iron arrow-head. But when 
he had drawn the great bow into a round, the bow 

(xiv. 182, and Odyssey xviii. 297). The word occurs in 
later Greek in the sense of " ballast," and this may give a 
clue to the meaning here. 

VOL. I M l6l 



HOMER 

Aty^e ^iog, vevpr) Se /xey' 'lo-x^v, dXro 8' o'Caros 
o^v^eXiqs, Kad' ofxiXov eTniTreoOai fieveaivcov . 

Ot)8e aedev, M^eveXae, Oeol [xoLKapes XeXdOovTO 
dddvaroi, TTpiorr] Be Ato? Ovydrrjp dyeXelr], 
17 TOi vpoade ardaa ^eXos ix^TrevKcs dpivvev. 
Tj 8e Toaov pLCV eepyev a.7ro xpoos", a*? ore pi'rjr'rjp 
TratSo? ^^pyjl p-v^o.v, 69* 'qSeC Xe^erai vttvcx), 
avrrj 8' aur' Wvvev odi t^coarrjpog oxijes 
XpvcreioL avvexov /cat hmXoos TJvTero dwpr]^. 
iv 8' erreae ^coarri^pL dprjpoTi TTiKpos o'Caros' 
8ia piev dp ^(joarijpos eXr^Xaro SatSaAeoio, 
KOI 8ta dcoprjKos TroXvSaihdXov rjp-qpetaro 
piiTprjs 6\ ■^v i<f)6p€L epvpLo} xP^^^t epKos dKovrcov, 
7] ot TrXelcrrov epvro' hian p6 8e etaaro /cat Trjs. 
dKporarov 8' dp* oCaros eiTeypaijie XP^^ (fxoros' 
avTLKa 8' eppeev alpLa KeXaive(f)es e'^ (hreiXrjs.^ 

*Q.s 8' ore rig t' eAe^avra yui^ <f>oivLKL pt'tijvrj 
Mrjovls rje Kaetpa, Traprfiov e/i/xevat ittttcov 
Kelrai 8' eV daXdpicp, TToXees re puLV rjp'^aavro 
tTTTrrjes (jiopeeiv ^aaiXrj'i 8e Kelrai ayaA/xa, 
dfi(f)6r€pov Kocrpbos 9* Ittttcx} eXar-qpi re kvSos' 
TOLOL roL, ^leveXae, pLi,dv9r]V aipuarL purjpol 
€V(f)ve€s KVTjpiai re i8e a^vpd KdX VTTevep9e. 

^Viyrjoev 8' dp* erreira dva^ dvSpdJv Aya- 

piepLvcov, 

<I)S elSev pbeXav af/xa Karappeov e^ (x)r€i.Xrjs'^ 

^ ^pvfia : fXvfjLa Zenodotus, Aristophanes. 
* Line 140 was rejected by Aristarchus. 
' Line 149 was rejected by Aristarchus. 

* The fiirpr) appears to have been a short kilt-like piece of 
armour, covering the abdomen and the thighs. It is men- 
tioned only here (with 187 and 216) and in v. 857, but cf. 
the epithets aloXonlrpris (v. 707) and &/j.iTpoxiTwi>€s (xvi. 419:. 

162 



THE ILIAD, IV. 125-149 

twanged and the string sang aloud, and the keen 
arrow leapt, eager to wing its way amid the throng. 

Then, O Menelaus, the blessed gods, the im- 
mortals, forgat thee not ; and before all the daughter 
of Zeus, she that driveth the spoil, who took her 
stand before thee, and warded off the stinging 
arrow. She swept it just aside from the flesh, even 
as a mother sweepeth a fly from her child when he 
lieth in sweet slumber ; and of herself she guided 
it where the golden clasps of the belt were fastened 
and the corselet overlapped. On the clasped belt 
lighted the bitter arrow, and through the belt 
richly dight was it driven, and clean through the 
curiously wrought corselet did it force its way, and 
through the taslet ^ which he wore, a screen for his 
flesh and a barrier against darts, wherein was his 
chiefest defence ; yet even through this did it 
speed. So the arrow grazed the outermost flesh 
of the warrior, and forthwith the dark blood flowed 
from tlie wound. 

As when a woman staineth ivory with scarlet, 
some woman of Maeonia or Caria, to make a cheek- 
piece for horses, and it lieth in a treasure-chamber, 
though many horsemen pray to wear it ; but it 
lieth there as a king's treasure, alike an ornament 
for his horse and to its driver a glory ; even in such 
wise, Menelaus, were thy thighs stained with blood, 
thy shapely thighs and thy legs and thy fair ankles 
beneath. 

Thereat shuddered the king of men, Agamemnon, 
as he saw the black blood flowing from the wound, 

For a full discussion of the problem see Helbig, Das 
homerische Epos^, 290 ff. ; Reichel, Homerische Waffen^, 
74 f., 91 f., and Leaf, Iliad^ i. 579 f. 

163 



HOMER 

ptyrjaev 8e Kai auro? aprjt^iXos Met'eAao?. ] 

(hs Se 'ihev vevpov re Kal oyKov; eKros eovrag, 
difsoppov ol dvjjiog evl arr]deaaLV ayepOr], 
TOLS Se ^api) arevd-)(CDv p^erecfyrj Kpeicov 'AyafjLefjLvcjv, 
X^tpos e^oiv Meve'Aaov, eTrearevaxovro 8 iralpoi' 
" <j)iX€ KaaiyvrjTe, ddvarov vv rot opKL erap.vov, ' 
olov Trpoarrjaa's irpo 'A;)^atct)V Tpojoi /-idx^adai, 
CO? or' e^aXov Tpd)€s, Kara 8' opKia iriara 7TdT7](jav. 
OX) fiev TTCos dXiov TriXei opKiov atfid re dpvcov 
OTTOvhai T dKprjTOL Koi he^iai, fjs eTreTTidfiev. 
€1 7T€p ydp T€ Kal avriK *0Xvp,7nos ovk ereXeaaev, 1 
€K re Kal oi/je reXel, avv re fxeydXcp aTTeriaav, 
avv atjifjOLV Ke(f>aXi]ai yvvai^i re Kal reKeeaaw . 
€v ydp eyd) ro'Be otSa Kara (f>peva Kal Kara dvfxov 
ecraerai rjfxap or dv ttot oAcoAt^ "lAto? Ipr] 
Kal ripta/xo? Kal Xaos evp.p,eXioj Y[pidp,OLO, 1 

Zeu? 8e cr^t KpovtSry? vifjL^vyos, aldepi vaioiVf 
avros eTTiaaeirjaLV epep^vrjv alyiSa Trdat 
rrjah* aTTdrrjs Korecov rd jxev ecraerai ovk dreXeara' 
aXXd [XOL alvov dxos credev eaaerai, a> yieveXae, 
at Ke 6dvr)s Kal Tr6rp,ov^ dvaTrXiqarjs ^loroio. i 

Kai Kev eXeyxi-crros ttoXvSli/jlov "Apyos iKoipiriv 
avriKa ydp jjivqaovrai ^Axaiol Trarpihog atrjg' 
/caS 8e Kev evxoiXrjV Ylpcdf^icp Kal Tpwal XtTroiixev 
^Apyeirjv 'EiXevr^v aeo 8' oarea rrvaeL dpovpa 
Keifievov iv TpoLrj dreXevrT^rcp enl epyco' j 

* irbrfiov Aristarchus : fioipav jiss. 



^ By which the arrow-head was fastened to the shaft. 
164 



THE ILIAD, IV. 150-175 

and Menelaus, dear to Ares, himself likewise 
shuddered. But when he saw that the sinew ^ and 
the barbs were without the flesh, back again into 
liis breast was his spirit gathered. But with a 
heavy moan spake among them lord Agamemnon, 
holding Menelaus by the hand ; and his comrades 
too made moan : " Dear brother, it was for thy 
death, meseems, that I swore this oath with sacrifice, 
setting thee forth alone before the face of the 
Achaeans to do battle with the Trojans, seeing the 
Trojans have thus smitten thee, and trodden under 
foot the oaths of faith. Yet in no wise is an oath 
of none effect and the blood of lambs and drink- 
offerings of unmixed wine and the hand-clasps, 
wherein we put our trust. For even if for the moment 
the Olympian vouchsafeth not fulfilment, yet late 
and at length doth he fulfil them, and with a heavy 
price do men make atonement, even with their own 
heads and their wives and their children. For of 
a surety know I this in heart and soul : the day 
shall come when sacred Ilios shall be laid low, and 
Priam, and the people of Priam, with goodly spear 
of ash ; and Zeus, son of Cronos, tlironed on high, 
that dwelleth in the heaven, shall himself shake 
over them all his dark aegis in wrath for this deceit. 
These things verily shall not fail of fulfilment ; yet 
dread grief for thee shall be mine, O Menelaus, if 
thou shalt die and fill up thy lot of life. Aye, and 
as one most despised should I return to thirsty 
Argos, for straightway will the Achaeans bethink 
them of their native land, and so should we leave to 
Priam and the Trojans their boast, even Argive 
Helen. And thy bones shall the earth rot as thou 
Uest in the land of Troy with thy task unfinished ; 

165 



HOMER 

Kai Ke Ti? c58' ipeei Tpcvcov VTrep-qvopeovrcov 

rv/Jb^tx) iTTidpcvaKOJV MeveXdov KvBaXijxoio' 

' at^' ourcos" irrl ndai ;^oAov reXiaei 'Aya/Jbefivcov, 

ws Koi vvv aXiov arparov -qyayev ivddS^ A)(aLcov, 

Kal 817 6)817 oLKovhe (f)lXrjv is Trarpiha yalav 11 

avv KeLvfjatv vrjvai, Xlttcov dyaOov MeveXaov. 

c5s" TTore Tis ipeer rore p-oi xdvoi evpeXa x^^^- 

Tov 8' imdapavvcov 7Tpoae(f)rj ^avOos MeveXaos' 
" ddpaei, iJ,r)8e rl ttco 8et8tcrcreo Xaov 'A;j^aicDi/* 
OVK iv Kaipicp o^v Trdyq ^eXos, aAAa irdpoidev 1; 
elpvaaro ^axrr'qp re iravaioXos 178' virevepde 
l,a)pbd T€ Kal ixirpy], tyjv x<^^kV^^ Kdpiov dvSpes. 

Tov 8' aTTafiei^ofievog Trpoal^T] Kpeiojv 'Aya- 

fJ,€HVCOV 

" at yap Sr} ovrcos eir], (jiiXos to Mei^eAae* 

eA/co? 8' Irjrrjp iTnfxdaaerai 178' eTTiQ-qaet 1 

i^dpfxax , a Kev Travarjcn fxeXaivdcov 6Svvaa)V. 

^H, /cat TaXdv^tov, delov KiqpvKa, TrpocrqvSa' 
" TaXOv^i', OTTt rdxt'OTTa Ma;\;aova Bevpo KoXeaaov, 
(f)a)T ^A(XKXr]7nov vlov, dpLvpiovos IrjTrjpos, 
6<f)pa iSrj MeveXaov apryiov ^Arpeos vlov, 1 

ov Tt? o'Carevaas e^aXev, ro^cxiv iv elSojs, 
TpcLojv rj AvKLCOv, rev fxev xrAe'o?, a/x/xt 8e Trevdos." 

"Qs" e^ar', ouS' dpa ol Krjpv^ dmdrjaev aKovaas, 
jSry 8' teVat Kara Xaov 'A;;^ata;i' ;;^aA/co;)(tTaJva)v 
TTaTTTaivcov rjpcoa Map^aova- rov 8 ei'dTjaej/ 2 

earaoT' d/x</>t 8e /xtJ/ Kparepal arix^s daTnardojv 
Xa(x)v, 01 ol eTTOvro TpiKiqs i$ liTTroPoroio. 

1 Lines 19.5-197 ( = 205-207) were rejected by Aristarchus. 

'Arpioi viov : OLpx^" 'Axatwi' (c/. 115 and 205). 

166 



THE ILIAD, IV. 176-202 

and thus shall many a one of the overweening 
Trojans say, as he leapeth upon the barrow of glorious 
Menelaus : ' Would that in every matter it may be 
thus that Agamemnon may fulfil his wrath, even as 
now he led hither a host of the Achaeans to no 
purpose, and lo ! he hath departed home to his 
dear native land with empty ships, and hath left 
here noble Menelaus." So shall some man speak 
in aftertime ; in that day let the wide earth gape 
for me." 

But fair-haired Menelaus spake and heartened 
him, saying : "Be thou of good cheer, neither 
affright in any wise tlie host of the Achaeans. Not 
in a fatal spot hath the dart been fixed ; ere that my 
flashing belt stayed it, and the kilt beneath, and 
the taslet that the coppersmiths fashioned." 

Then in answer to him spake lord Agamemnon : 
" Would it may be so, dear Menelaus. But the 
leech shall search the wound and lay thereon simples 
that shall make thee cease from dark pains." 

Therewith he spake to Talthybius, the godlike 
herald : " Talthybius, make haste to call hither 
Machaon, son of Asclepius, the peerless leech, to 
see warlike Menelaus, son of Atreus, whom some 
man well skilled in archery hath smitten with an 
arrow, some Trojan or Lycian, compassing glory for 
himself but for us sorrow." 

So spake he, and the herald failed not to hearken, 
as he heard, but went his way throughout the host 
of the brazen-coated Achaeans, glancing this way 
and that for the warrior Machaon ; and he marked 
him as he stood, and round about him were the 
stalwart ranks of the shield -bearing hosts that 
followed him from Trica, the pastureland of horses. 

167 



HOMER 

dyxov 8' lardixevos eVea Trrepoevra Trpoarjvoa' 
" opa , * AaKX-qTTLOiST] , /caAeet Kpeicov ^ Ayap,€fiv(x)V , 
6(f)pa 'iSris MeveXaov dp-q'iov dp^ov ^Axo-idjv, < 

6v TLs oiGTevaas e^aXev, ro^cov iv elBcLs, 
Tpcoojv r) AvKicov, TO) jxev kXcos, d.fJi[XL Se irevOos. 

"Qs <f)dro, TO) 8' dpa dvfiov ivl ariqdeaaiv opive- 
Pdv 8' levac /ca^' o/xiXov dvd arparov evpvv ^A^aLiov. 
aAA' ore Brj p Ikovov g9i ^avdos MeveXaos ' 

^Xrjuevos rjv, irepl 8' avTOV dyrjyepaO' oaaoi 

dpiaroL 
kvkXoo y 6 8' ev /xecrcroto't TTapiararo laodeos 

(/>cos, 
avTLKa 8' €K ^axTTTJpos dprjporos cXkcv o'Carov 
rov 8' i^eXKOfxevoLO TrdXiv dyev o^ees oyKoi. 
Xvae 8e ol ^coarrjpa iravaioXov 1)8' vnevepde ' 

^ojfjbd re /cat /xLrprjv, rrjv ;!(aA/<:^es' Kafiov dvBpes- 
avrdp eirel IBev cXkos, od^ cfXTreae niKpos oiaros, 
alfx eKfxv^T^aas ctt' dp^ -rjirta 0ap/i,a/ca etScu? 
Ttdaae, rd ol irore rrarpl ^iXa </)pov€cov nope 
Xetpcor. 

"O^/aa rot djX(j)eTT€.vovro ^orjV dyadov MeveXaov, ; 
r6<f)pa 8' €7tI Tpcotov arix^S rjXvdov daTnardcov 
ol 8' avns Kara revx^* eSvv, fivqaavro 8e xdpp-r^S- 

"Ev0' ovK dv ^pit,ovra 'ihois ^ Ayajjiefxvova Slov, 
ovSe Karairroiaaovr' , oi58' ovk ideXovra [xdx^odat, 
dXXd jxdXa OTTevSovra fidx^jv is KvhidveLpav . \ 

iTTTTOvs piev yap eaae /cat dpp^ara Trot/ct'Aa ;^aA/caj* 
/cat rovs p-ev Oepdncov dndvevd^ exe (f)voi6a)vras 
^vpvpLeScov, VLOS UroXepiaLOV YletpatSao' 

^ apx^y 'A.xa-iQv: 'Arp^os vl6i> (cf. 115 and 195). 
168 



THE ILIAD, IV. 203-228 

And he came up to him, and spake winged words, 
saying : " Rouse thee, son of Asclepius ; lord 
Agamemnon calleth thee to see warhke Menelaus, 
captain of the Achaeans, whom some man, well skilled 
in archery, hath smitten with an arrow, some Trojan 
or Lycian, compassing glory for himself but for us 
sorrow." 

So spake he, and roused the heart in his breast, 
and they went their way in the throng throughout 
the broad host of the Achaeans. And when they 
were come where was fair-haired Menelaus, wounded, 
and around him were gathered in a circle all they 
that were chieftains, the godlike hero came and 
stood in their midst, and straightway drew forth 
the arrow from the clasped belt ; and as it was drawn 
forth the sharp barbs were broken backwards. And 
he loosed the flashing belt and the kilt beneath and 
the taslet that the coppersmiths fashioned. But 
when he saw the wound where the bitter arrow had 
lighted, he sucked out the blood, and with sure 
knowledge spread thereon soothing simples, which 
of old Cheiron had given to his father with kindly 
thought. 

While they were thus busied with Menelaus, 
good at the war-cry, meanwhile the ranks of the 
shield-bearing Trojans came on ; and the Achaeans 
again did on their battle-gear, and bethought them 
of war. 

Then wouldst thou not have seen goodly Aga- 
memnon slumbering, nor cowering, nor with no 
heart for fight, but full eager for battle where men 
win glory. His horses and his chariot adorned with 
bronze he let be, and his squire, Eurymedon, son of 
Peiraeus' son Ptolemaeus, kept the snorting steeds 

169 



HOMER 

to) fJbdXa TToAA' eVeVeAAe Trapiax^/J'^v, ottttotc 

KeV fXLV 

yvta Xd^T] Kafxaros, TToXeag 8id Koipaveovra' 
avrdp 6 TT€t,6s ea>v tVeTTCDAetro otlxols dvSpcbv. 
Kai p ovs fiev a7T€vSovras tSot Aai^awj' raxp- 

TTioXcOV, 

Tovs /LtaAa dapavv€crK€ Trapictrdpievog eTrieaaiv 

'Apyetoi, jxr] iroi rt fieOUre dovpihos aA/c^s" 
ov yap €771 ifjevSccrcTL Trarrjp TLevs eaaer* dpcoyos' 
aAA' ot nep TTporepoi virep opKia SrjX'^GavTO, 
rojv 17 rot avrcov rlpeva X/^oa yuTrej ehovrai, 
Tjixels civT* dXoxovs re (j)iXas Koi vqma riicva 
d^o/jiev iv vqecraiv, CTTrjv TrroXleOpov eXco/xev." 

Ovs TLvas av fieOievras tSot arvyepov TroAe/xoto, 
rovg fidXa veiKeUoKe x^^XcoTolatv iireeacriv 

'Apyetot lopbcopoL, iXeyx^es, ov vv ae^eaOe; 
Ti(j)d^ ovrojs earrjTe redrj-nores rjvre ve^poC, 
at t' cTret ovv eKafiov ttoXcos TreSioto Oeovcxai, 
icrrdcr' , ovS* dpa tls o<j)i /xera (fypeal yiyverai dXi<rj' 
ojs vp,€ts earr^Te redrjiTores , ouSe fxdx^crde. 
^ fidvere Tpcoag ax^Sov iXdefiev, evda re vrics 
elpvar evirpvp^voi, TToXirjs enl Oivl daXdaarjs, 
6<f)pa 'iSrjT^ at /c' vpLp.LV vTrepcrxf} X^^P^ KpovLO)v; 

"iQ? o ye KotpavicDV eTreTTcoXelTO cttlxo-s avSpdJv 
rjXOe S' eVt Kpryreaai Ki(hv dvd ovXapiov dvSpcov. 
ol 8' a/x0' 'ISo/xei^T^a hatfjipova Ocop-qaaovro' 
*lhopi€vevs p.€V €VL npopbdxois, crvt et/ceAo? dXKTjv, 
MrjpLovrjs 8' ctpct, ot nvpidras corpwe (jydXayyas. 

^ I render the text in its traditional form, as given above, 
but we should almost certainly read the contemptuous 
neuter, A^7xea, " things of shame," as in ii. 285, v. 787. 
viii. 228, xxiv. 260. 
170 



THE ILIAD, IV. 229-254 

withdrawn apart ; and straitly did Agamemnon 
charge him to have them at hand, whenever weariness 
should come upon his hmbs, as he gave commands 
throughout all the host ; but he himself ranged on 
foot through the ranks of warriors. And whomsoever 
of the Danaans with swift steeds he saw eager, to 
these would he draAV nigh, and hearten them 
earnestly, saying : " Ye Argives, relax ye no whit 
of your furious valour ; for father Zeus will be no 
helper of lies ; nay, they that were the first to work 
violence in defiance of their oaths, their tender flesh 
of a surety shall vultures devour, and we shall bear 
away in our ships their dear wives and little children, 
when we shall have taken their citadel." 

And whomsoever again he saw holding back from 
hateful war, them would he chide roundly with 
angry -words : " Ye Argives that rage with the bow, 
ye men of dishonour,^ have ye no shame ? Why is 
it that ye stand thus dazed, like fawns that, when 
they have grown weary with running over a wide 
plain, stand still, and in their hearts is no valour 
found at all ? Even so ye stand dazed and fight not. 
Is it that ye wait for the Trojans to come near where 
your ships with stately sterns are drawn up on the 
shore of the grey sea, that ye may know if haply 
the son of Cronos will stretch forth his arm over 
you ? " 

Thus ranged he giving his commands through the 
ranks of warriors ; and he came to the Cretans as he 
fared through the throng of men. These were arm- 
ing them for war around wise-hearted Idomeneus ; 
and Idomeneus stood amid the foremost fighters like 
a wild boar in valour, while Meriones was speeding 
on the hindmost battalions. At sight of them 

171 



HOMER 

Tovs Se iSd>v yqOrjaev dva^ avhpcov 'AyafJi,€fj,vcov, 
avTLKa 8' 'ISofievrja TrpoarjvSa iieiXix^oiaiv 

'I8o/xeveu, TTepi fxev ae tloj AavaoJv ra^VTrcoXco] 
Tjixiv ivl 7Tro}€fjbcp rj8* aX)oi(x) eVt epyo) 
T^S' eV 8ai0', ore Trep re yepovcTLOV aWoTra olvov 
Apyeiiov ol apiaroi ivl Kprjrrjpt. Kepcovrai. 
ei TT€p yap t' oXXol ye Kaprj Ko/xocovTes 'A;)^ato 
SaLrpop TTivcoaLV, aov Se TrAetoj^ hirras aiei 
eaT7]X , <^S TTep ijxoi, Trteetv ore dvjxos avMyoi. 
aAA' opaev TroAe/xoVS', ofos" ndpos evx^o.i' elvai.' 

Tov 8' aur' 'I8o/xevei)s' Kpr^roiv ayos dvTt'ov rjvSa 
" ^Arpe'ihrj, fidXa pudv rot eywv ipirjpos iralpos 
ecraofxat,, d)S to Trpcorov VTriarrjV /cat Karevevaa' 
dAA' d'AAous" orpvve Kap-q Kopboojvras 'A;^aiou?, 
o^pa Td;^icrra /xa;)(c6/xe^', tVet crw y' op/ct' e^^vai 
TpcDes" TotaiP' 8' au Odvaros /cat /C7^8e' oiriacroi 
eaaer , eTret Tvporepot virkp op/cta STyAi^aavTO. " 

"D? e^ar , * ArpetSrjs 8e Trapcpx^To yrjOocrvvoi 

•jyA^e 8' ctt' AtdrTCCTcrt /ctcoi' di^d ovXap,6v dvSpcov 
T(h 8e Kopvaaeadrjv, dfxa Se ve<f)os elTrero Tret,a)v 
(1)9 8 or aTTO aKOTTLTJg eiSef V€(f>os alTToXos dvrif. 
ip)(6fj,€vov /card Trwrov t57r6 Ze^upoio iojt^s" 
T<p 8e' t' avevOev eovrt^ fxeXdvrepov rjvTe iriaaa 
(f>aiv€T lov Kara ttovtov, dyei 8e re XaiXaTra 

ttoAAt^v 
piyrjaiv re tScoj/, utto re aveo^ TJXacre fjirjXa' 
rolai dii Aldvreaai hLorpe(f)i(x)v al^rjajv 
8t]'Cov is TToXefxov TTVKCval kLvvvto <f>dXayy€s 

* ioi/Ti : ISvTi Zenodotus. 
172 



THE ILIAD, IV. 255-281 

Agamemnon, king of men, waxed glad, and forth- 
with he spake to Idomeneus with gentle words : 
" Idomeneus, beyond all the Danaans with swift 
steeds do I show honour to thee both in war and in 
tasks of other sort, and at the feast, when the 
chieftains of the Argives let mingle in the bowl the 
flaming wine of the elders. For even though the 
other long-haired Achaeans drink an allotted portion, 
thy cup standeth ever full, even as for mine own 
self, to drink whensoever thy heart biddeth thee. 
Come, rouse thee for battle, such a one as of old 
thou declaredst thyself to be." 

To him then Idomeneus, leader of the Cretans, 
made answer, saying : " Son of Atreus, of a surety 
will I be to thee a trusty comrade, even as at the 
first I promised and gave my pledge ; but do thou 
urge on the other long-haired Achaeans that we 
may fight with speed, seeing the Trojans have made 
of none effect our oaths. Death and woes shall 
hereafter be their lot, for that they were the first 
to work violence in defiance of the oaths." 

So spake he, and the son of Atreus passed on, 
glad at heart, and came to the Aiantes as he fared 
through the throng of warriors ; these were arming 
them for battle, and a cloud of footmen followed 
with them. Even as when from some place of 
outlook a goatherd seeth a cloud coming over the 
face of the deep before the blast of the West Wind, 
and to him being afar off it seemeth blacker than 
pitch as it passeth over the face of the deep, and it 
bringeth a mighty whirlwind ; and he shuddereth 
at sight of it, and driveth his flock beneath a cave ; 
even in such wise by the side of the Aiantes did the 
thick battalions of youths, nurtured of Zeus, move 

17S 



HOMER 

Kvdveai,^ aa/cecrtV re /cat eyx^ai Tre^piKvlai. 
Kol rovs /iev yrjdriaev IBcbv Kpeicnv 'Ayafxefjivcov, 
/cat a(f}€as (ficovijcras eVea Trrepoevra irpoarjvSa' 
" Atat'r', ApyeLcov rjyT^rope ;i^aA/co;^tT66v6t)i', 
cr^oJt /xeV — oi) yap eot/c' orpvvefiev — oy rt KeXevoj' 
avTOj yap pbdXa Xaov dvcoyerov i(f)t ixax^adai. 
at yap, Zey re Trdrep /cat ^Adrjvair] /cat "AttoAAoi^, 
TO to? Trdaiv dvp^os ivl anjOecrai ylvoiro' 
TO) /ce rdx i^/xuaete TroAt? Ilpta/xoto dvaKTos, 
X^pcrlv vcf)^ rifxeTeprjcrcv dXovad re TrepdopLevrj re." 

'^^S' etTTcoj^ TOWS' piev AtVev auTou, ^t^ 8e /act* 
aAAous" 
ev^' o ye NeaTop' ererpie, Xi,yvv HvXlcjv dyoprjrrjv, 
ovs irdpovs areXXovra /cat OTpvvovra p,dx^cr9ai, 
dpLcf)L pbeyav IleAayoi'Ta ^AXdcrropd re ^popiiov re 
AipLovd re Kpeiovra Bt'avTa re, TTOtp,eva Xaojv. 
LTTTTrjas piev Trpcora avv ImToiauv /cat o;\;€CT^t, 
rret,ovs 8' i^omde crrrjcrev TToXeas re /cat eadXovs, 
epKos epuev iroXepioio' /ca/coi)? 8' eg piiaaov eXaaaev, 
6<f>pa /cat ovK edeXo)v ris dvayKalr) 7ToXepiit,oi. 
LTTTTevatv pbkv TTpojr eTTereXXero' rovs yap dvioyet 
acfiovs Ittttovs ep^e/xev /iT^Se KXoveeadai opLiXo)' 
" pLTjSe res iTTTToavvT) re /cat rivopeiq^i TreTTOidajs 
olos irpoad^ dXXwv pLepudro) Tpcoeaai pidx^adai, 
p.rjS' dvaxojpeiroj' dXaTrahvorepoi yap eaeaOe. 
OS Se K dvTjp drro cov ox^cov erep* dppLad* iKrjrai, 
eyx^i ope^dadco, eTrel rj ttoXv (fiiprepov ovroj. 
d)he /cat ot irporepoL TToXeas /cat Teip^e' irropdeov, 
rovSe voov /cat dvp^ov evl arrideaaiv exovres." 

"Oj 6 yepoiv orpvve TToXai iroXeixcDV ev elScos' 

* nvdi'eai. : ijpwwv Zeiiodotus. 

174 



THE ILIAD, IV. 282-310 

into furious war — dark battalions, bristling with 
shields and spears. At sight of these lord Aga- 
memnon waxed glad, and he spake and addressed 
them with winged words : " Ye Aiantes, leaders of 
the brazen -coated Argives, to you twain, for it 
beseemeth not to urge you, I give no charge ; for of 
yourselves ye verily bid your people fight amain. 
I would, O father Zeus and Athene and Apollo, that 
such spirit as yours might be found in the breasts 
of all ; then would the city of king Priam forthwith 
bow her head, taken and laid waste beneath our 
hands." 

So saying, he left them there and went to others. 
Then found he Nestor, the clear-voiced orator of 
the Pylians, arraying his comrades and urging them 
to fight, around mighty Pelagon and Alastor and 
Chromius and lord Haemon and Bias, shepherd of 
the host. The charioteers first he arrayed with 
their horses and cars, and behind them the footmen, 
many and valiant, to be a bulwark of battle ; but 
the cowards he drave into the midst, that were he 
never so loath each man must needs fight perforce. 
Upon the charioteers was he first laying charge, and 
he bade them keep their horses in hand, nor drive 
tumultuously on amid the throng. " Neither let 
any man, trusting in his horsemanship and his valour, 
be eager to fight with the Trojans alone in front of 
the rest, nor yet let him draw back ; for so will ye 
be the feebler. But what man soe'er from his own 
car can come at a car of the foe, let him thrust forth 
with his spear, since verily it is far better so. Thus 
also did men of olden time lay waste cities and walls, 
having in their breasts mind and spirit such as this." 

So was the old man urging them on, having know- 

175 



HOMER 

Kal rov fxev yy^O-qaev IBcbv Kpetcov * Ayafxefjivcov , 
/cat fjbLV (f)(x}V'qaag eirea TtrepoevTa TrpoarjvSa' 
" CO yepov, eW , co? dvfjios ivl arrjdeacn (jyiXoLaiv, 
cos roL yovvaO^ eTTOiro, ^lt] hi rot, e/jLrreSos e'ir]. 
dXXd ae yrjpas reipet ofjboiiov cos ocjieXeu rts" 
dvSpaJv dXXos ^x^tv, crv Se KOvporipoioL fxereXvai." 

Tov S' rj[ji€L^€T' eVetTa Tep^vios tTTTTora Ne'crrwp* 
ArpetSr], ytiaAa fxev roi iycl)V iOeXoipn, Kal avros 
ojs efjbcv cos oT€ Slop 'KpevOaXicova KareKrav. 
aAA' ov 7TCOS dfia Trdvra Oeol Socrav dvOpcoTTOtatv 
el Tore Kovpos ea, vvv avri fxe yrjpas oTrd^ei} 
dXXd Kal <x)s iTTTTevai fierccraofxai rjSe KeXevcrco 
^ovXfj Kal fivdotai' to yap yepas icnl yepovrcov. 
alxP'ds S' alxP'daaovai vecLrepoi, ol irep lp,elo 
OTrXoTcpoL yeydaoL TreTToidaaiv re PLr](f)LV." 

"D? e^ar', 'ATpetSrjs Se TTap(x>x^TO yrjOoavvos 

eSp* vlov IleTeaJo MeveaOrja TrXTq^LinTov 

iaraor'' dpicjA 8' Ad-qvaloi,, fiijcrTcopes dvrrjs' 

avrdp 6 TrXrjaLOV iaTifjKeL TToXvfxrjTLS *OSv(Tcrevs, 

nap 8e Ke^aAAr^t'cov dfj,(f)l arix^s ovk dXarrahval 

earaaav ov ydp ttco a<j>LV dKovero Xaos dvrrjs, 

oAAo, v€ov avvopivopLCvai klvvvto cfxiXayyes 

Tpcocov LTTTrohapLcov Kal ^AxcLtcov ol he jxevovres 

earaaav, omrore rrvpyos Axaicov dXXos erreXdoiV 

TpcxiCDV oppbrjoeie Kal dp^eiav rroXepiOLO. 

^ dirdfet : iKava (of. viii. 102). 

^ The adjective ofioU'os is certainly to be distinguished 
from ofiotos, and the traditional rendering, " common to 
all," is not particularly apt as applied to yfjpav, and Is 
quite inappropriate in connexion with TroXt/tos, etc. The 
word occurs in Homer only as an epithet of war, strife, 
old age, and death. It seems best to follow the ancient 

176 



THE ILIAD, IV. 311-335 

ledge of battles from of old. At sight of him lord 
Agamemnon waxed glad, and he spake, and ad- 
dressed him with winged words : " Old Sir, I would 
that even as is the spirit in thy breast, so thy limbs 
might obey, and thy strength be firm. But evil^ 
old age presseth hard upon thee ; would that some 
other among the warriors had thy years, and that 
thou wert among the youths." 

To him then made answer the horseman, Nestor 
of Gerenia : " Son of Atreus, verily I myself could 
wish that I were such a one as on the day when I 
slew goodly Ereuthalion. But in no wise do the 
gods grant to men all things at one time. As I was 
then a youth, so now doth old age attend me. Yet 
even so will I abide among the charioteers and urge 
them on by counsel and by words ; for that is the 
office of elders. Spears shall the young men wield 
who are more youthful than I and have confidence 
in their strength." 

So spake he, and the son of Atreus passed on glad 
at heart. He found Menestheus, driver of horses, 
son of Peteos, as he stood, and about him were the 
Athenians, masters of the war-cry. And hard by 
stood Odysseus of many wiles, and with him the 
ranks of the Cephallenians, no weakling folk, stood 
still ; for their host had not as yet heard the war-cry, 
seeing the battalions of the horse-taming Trojans 
and the Achaeans had but newly bestirred them to 
move ; wherefore these stood, and waited until 
some other serried battalions of the Achaeans should 
advance to set upon the Trojans, and begin the 

glossographers and understand the word as an equivalent 
of KUKos, although we need not go so far as to read dXoaos, 
with Nauck, 

VOL. I N 177 



HOMER 

rovs 8e IBojv vecKcaaev aVa^ avSpwv ^AyafiefxvcDV 
/cat a(f)eas (f)Cov'rjaas eVea inepoevra TrpoarjvSa' 

CO vie Ylereojo hLorpe(j)eos ^acnXrjog, 
/cat av, KaKolaL SoAotcrt /ce/caa/xeVe, KephaXeo^pov , 
TL7TT€ KaraTTTOJcraovres d(f)earar€, pt,ipLveTe S 

d'AAou?; 
a(f)iJL)LV fxev T* eTTcoLKe [xeTa irpuiroiaLV eovras 
iardixev i^Se P'O-XV^ KavaT€tp7]S avrL^oXyjaar 
TTpixiTio yap /cat SatTO? OLKovdl^eaOov ep,elo, 
OTTTTore Satra yepovaiv e^OTrAt^oj/xev 'A;;^atot. 
eV^a ^t'A' oTTTaAea /cpea eS/JLevat rjSe KvireXXa 
otvov TTivepLevaL fxeXLTjSeos, 6(f)p edeXrjTov 
vvv 8e <j)iXois X opocpre /cat et 8e/ca irvpyoi 'A;)^ata) 
vpbeiwv TTpoTrdpoiOe /xa^^otaro vr^Aet ;)(;aA/ca)." 

Tov S' dp' VTToSpa ISojv TTpoaltjirj 7ToXvp.7]TL 
'OSvacrevs' 
" 'ArpeiSi^, TTotov tre eVo? (fivyev epKos ohovTOJV ; 
TTcD? 817 ^i^? TToAe/xoto fiediefJiev, ottttot^ 'A;;^atot 
TpcoCTtv e^' LTTTToSapLoiaLV eyeipopbcv o^vv "Apr^a; 
oipeai, 7]v edeXrjada /cat at k€v roi rd p,€fjii]Xrj, 
TrjXepidxoLO (jyiXov irarepa Trpop.dxoiai payevra 
Tpwcov LTTTToSdpiojv ov 8e raur' dvepicoXia ^d^eis. 

Top 8' eTTipieihrjaas TTpooe<j>'q Kpeicov 'Aya/xe/x-vcov 
<x)S yvGi ;!^a)OjLteVoio* TrdXiv 8' o ye Aa^ero pLvdov 
" Sioyeves Aaepridhrj, iroXvpirjxav* ^Ohvaaev, 
ovre a€ vet/cetCD Trepicoaiov ovre KcXevo)' 
otSa yap (x>s rot dvfios evl aTT]9eaai ^iXoiaiv 
rjTna hr^vea otSe* rd ydp (j>pove€i^ d r eyoj nep 
dAA' t^t, ravra 8' oinadev dpeaa6p,ed\ et rt /ca/c6; 

eXprjrai, rd 8e irdyra Oeoi p^erapuLvLa detev. 

^ KepdaXedippof : <pai5t/x' 'OSvcrcreu Zenodotus. 
178 



THE ILIAD, IV. 336-363 

battle. At sight of these Agamemnon, king of men, 
chid them, and spoke, and addressed them with 
winged words : " O son of Peteos, the king nurtured 
of Zeus, and thou that excellest in evil wiles, thou of 
crafty mind, why stand ye apart cowering, and wait 
for others ? For you twain were it seemly that ye 
take your stand amid the foremost, and confront 
blazing battle ; for ye are the first to hear my 
bidding to the feast, whenso we Achaeans make 
ready a banquet for the elders. Then are ye glad 
to eat roast meat and drink cups of honey-sweet 
wine as long as ye will. But now would ye gladly 
behold it, aye if ten serried battalions of the Achaeans 
were to fight in front of you with the pitiless bronze." 

Then with an angry glance from beneath his 
brows Odysseus of many wiles addressed him : " Son 
of Atreus, what a word hath escaped the barrier of 
thy teeth ! How sayest thou that we are slack in 
battle, whenso we Achaeans rouse keen war against 
the horse-taming Trojans ? Thou shalt see, if so be 
thou wilt and if thou carest aught therefor, the 
fjither of Telemachus mingling with the foremost 
fighters of the horse-taming Trojans. This that thou 
sayest is as empty wind." 

Then lord Agamemnon spake to him with a 
smile, when he knew that he was wroth, and 
took back his words : " Zeus-born son of Laertes, 
Odysseus of many wiles, neither do I chide thee 
overmuch nor urge thee on, for I know that the 
heart in thy breast knoweth kindly thoughts, seeing 
thou art minded even as I am. Nay, come, these 
things will we make good hereafter, if any harsh 
word hath been spoken now ; and may the gods 
make all to come to naught." 

179 



HOMER 

Q.S cIttcov tovs fxev Xirrev avrov, ^rj he [xer* dXXov? 
evpe he Tvheos vlov, virepdv^ov Aiofjiiqhea, 
earaoT kv 6 LiTTTOiat /cat dpfxaai, KoWrjTolar 
Trap Be ol eariqKeL UdeveXos, KaTravTytos' vlos. 
Koi rov fjiev veiKeaaev Ihcbv Kpeicjv 'AyafiefivcDV, 
Kai fiiv (f)0)vrjcras enea irrepoevra Trpoaiqvha' 
CD fiOL, Tvheos vie Sat(f)povos l7nToSd[ioLO, 
TL TTTcoaaeis, ri 8' oTrnreveLs TToXe/xoio ye<f)vpa^; 
ov jxev Tvhei y* c5Se <f>iXov TTr(joaKat,ep,ev rjev, 
dXXd TToXv TTpo (f)LXo)V irdpoiv hrfCoiai /xctp^ea^at, 
U)s (f)daav ot pav Ihovro 7Tovevp,evov ov yap eycoyt 
rjVTrja^ ouSe lSov Trepl 8' aAAcDi' (/)aal yeveadai. 
•^ TOi fjLev yap drep 7ToXep,ov elcrfjXOe MvK'qvas 
^eivos dfM avTiOeu) HoXweLKe'C, Xaov dyeipcov 
ol he TOT earparocovd^ lepd irpos retx^a Qrj^r]S, 
Kai pa p,dXa Xiaaovro hofxev KXeirovs emKovpovs' 
ot, S' edeXov h6p,evaL Kai irrrjveov (Lg eKeXevov 
aXXd Zeu? erpeijje vapaLcria aqpuara (f)aLva)V. 
ol 8' erret ovv a>-)(ovro Ihe Trpo ohov eyevovTO, 
AawTTov 8' LKOVTO ^adva)(oi,vov Xex^TroirjV , 
evd^ awr' dyyeXirjv enl Tvhij areiXav 'A;^aioi. 
avrdp 6 ^rj, TToXeas he KLXTJcraro ViahfMetcovas 
haivvfjievovs Kara hd>p,a ^trjs 'Ereo/cATyetT^?. 
ev6^ ovhe ^elvos irep ecov iTnrrjXdra Tvhevs 
rap^et, fjiovvog ecbv TToXeaiv jxeTa KahfieloLcnv, 
aXX 6 y dedXeveiv TrpoKaXi^ero, Trdvra 8' eviKa 
prj'ChiOJS' TOLTj ol eTTippoOos "^ev ^Adrjvq. 
ol he xoXcoadfjievoi KaS/xeioi, Kcvropes lttttcov, 
dxj) dp' dvepxofMevcp ttvklvov Xoxov elaav dyovres, 

^ The phrase denotes the lanes between the opposing 
armies, the ranks on either side being Hkened to causeways 
or dykes, yeipvpa does not mean " bridge" in Homer. 
180 



THE ILIAD, iV. 364-392 

So saying he left them there and went to others. 
Then found he the son of Tydeus, Diomedes high 
of heart, as he stood by his horses and jointed car ; 
and by his side stood Sthenelus, son of Capaneus. 
At sight of him too lord Agamemnon chid him, and 
spake and addressed him with winged words : " Ah 
me, ihou son of wise-hearted Tydeus, tamer of 
horses, why cowerest thou, why gazest thou at the 
dykes of battle ^ ? Tydeus of a surety was not wont 
thus to cower, but far in advance of his comrades 
to fight against the foe, as they tell who saw him 
amid the toil of war ; for I never met him, neither 
saw him ; but men say that he was pre-eminent over 
all. Once verily he came to Mycenae, not as an 
enemy, but as a guest, in company with godhke 
Polyneices, to gather a host ; for in that day they 
were waging a war against the sacred walls of Thebe, 
and earnestly did they make prayer that glorious 
aUies be granted them ; and the men of Mycenae 
were minded to grant them, and were assenting even 
as they bade, but Zeus turned their minds by showing 
tokens of ill. So when they had departed and were 
got forth upon their way, and had come to Asopus 
with deep reeds, that coucheth in the grass, there 
did the Achaeans send forth Tydeus on an embassage. 
And he went his way, and found the many sons of 
Cadmus feasting in the house of mighty Eteocles. 
Then, for all he was a stranger, the horseman Tydeus 
feared not, all alone though he was amid the many 
Cadmeians, but challenged them all to feats of 
strength, and in every one vanquished he them full 
easily ; such a helper was Athene to him. But the 
Cadmeians, goaders of horses, waxed wroth, and as 
he journeyed back, brought and set a strong ambush, 

181 



HOMER 

Kovpovs TTevT-qKovra' Svco 8' rjyqropes rjcrau 
M.ata)v AlfMovlSrjs, eTTLCLKeXos dOavdroicnv, 
vlos T AvTOcjiOVOlO , neveTTToXefjLos IloXv(f)6vT7]s . 
TvSeijs /xev /cat ToXcriv aet/cea ttot/xov i<f)rjK€' 
TTOVTas eiTetpv , eva o otov tet olkovoc veeaaar 
Matoi'' dpa 7Tpo€7]K€, decov repdeaat, Tnd-qGa^. 
rolos erjv TvSeus' AircoAtos" aAAa rov vlov 
yeivaro elo )(ipeia fidxjj, dyopfj 8e t' dfieivo)." 
"^Q? <f)dro, Tov 8' ov TL 7Tpoa€(f)rj Kparepos Ato- 

alSeadels ^aacXrjos iviTTrjv alSoioLO' 

rov 8' vlos KaTTavrjos dfjLetifjaro /cu8aAt)u.oto* 

^ArpetBrj, firj tpevSe iTnardp,evos ad(f)a elireZv. 
rjfxets rot, Trarlpoiv p,iy dfietvoves evxdjxeO* etvat.' 
rjfMeXs Kol Qij^rjs eSos ciXofiev iTrraTTvXoio , 
TTavporepov Xaov dyayovO^ vtto retxos dpeiov^ 
TTeidopievoi repdecraL decov Kal ZiTjvos dpcoyfj- 
KelvoL 8e a(j>eTepr^aiv draadaXirjaiv oXovro' 
ru) pLij fJiOL Trarepas ttoO^ ofioir) evdeo rifjifj." 

ov o ap VTTOopa locov Trpoa€(prj Kparepos 
Atofji'qBrjs' 
" Terra, cricoTrfj ^ao, ifxcp 8' iTTLTreiOeo fivOo)- 
ov yap eydi re/xeacD ^Ayajxejxvovi, TroLfxevt AacSi', 
orpvvovTi fidx^adaL ivKv^fxiBas ^A)(aLovs- 
Tovro) fiev yap kvSos dp,' eifierai, ei K€v 'A)(aiol 
TpdJas hrjcLacxjaw eXcoai re "IXiov Iprjv, 
TOVTcp 8' av p,eya rrevdog 'AxaidJv hrjwdevrcov. 
dXX dye Stj Kal vco'i fJbeScop^eOa dovpiSos dXKrjs." 
H pa, Kal e^ oxecov cruv revxeaw dXro ;^a/xd^€* 

^ Lines 407-409 were rejected by Aristarchus. 
182 



THE ILIAD, IV. 393-419 

even fifty youths, and two there were as leaders, 
Maeon, son of Haemon, peer of the immortals, and 
Autophonus' son, Polyphontes, staunch in fight. 
But Tydeus even upon these let loose a shameful 
fate, and slew them all ; one only man suffered he 
to return home ; Maeon he sent forth in obedience 
to the portents of the gods. Such a man was Tydeus 
of Aetolia ; howbeit the son that he begat is worse 
than he in battle, though in the place of gathering 
he is better." 

So he spake, and stalwart Diomedes answered 
him not a word, but had respect to the reproof of 
the king revered. But the son of glorious Capaneus 
made answer : " Son of Atreus, utter not lies, when 
thou knowest how to speak truly. We declare 
ourselves to be better men by far than our fathers : 
we took the seat of Thebe of the seven gates, when 
we twain had gathered a lesser host against a 
stronger wall, putting our trust in the portents of 
the gods and in the aid of Zeus ; whereas they 
perished through their own blind folly. Where- 
fore I bid thee put not our fathers in like honour 
with us." 

Then with an angry glance from beneath his 
brows stalwart Diomedes addressed him : " Good 
friend, abide in silence, and hearken to my word. 
I count it not shame that Agamemnon, shepherd of 
the host, should urge on to battle the well-greaved 
Achaeans ; for upon him will great glory attend, 
if the Achaeans shall slay the Trojans and take 
sacred Ilios, and upon him likewise will fall great 
sorrow, if the Achaeans be slain. Nay, come, let us 
twain also bethink us of furious valour." 

He spake, and leapt in his armour from his chariot 

183 



HOMER 

Seivov 8' e^pax^ x^Xkos ctti OT'qOccraiv dvaKTOS 
opvvfievov VTTO K€V TaXaoi^povd nep Seo? etXev. 
Os" S or^ €u alyiaXo) iroXvrjxi'i Kvp-a daXdacrqs 
opvvT eiraaavrepov Ze^upou vtto KLV^aavros' 
TTOVTO) jxev re Trpcjra Kopvacrerai, avrdp eVeiTa 
X^pcTio prjyvvfMevov fxeydXa jS/je/xei, dpi^l Se t 

aKpas 
Kvprov iov Kopv^ovTai, aTTOTrrvet, S' dXos dxvqv 
COS TOT enacrcrvTepai, Aai^acov kivvvto (f)dXayy€S 
VioXe/JLeajs TToXefMovSe' KeXeve 8e olatv eKaaros 
rjyepLovojv ol S' aAAo6 dKr^v laav, ovhl K€ (j)airjs 
rocraov Xaov eneadaf, exovr* iv arrjOeaiv avS-qv, 
otyfj SeiStoTe? ar)p,dvropas' dfxcjn, Se irdai 
revx^a ttolklX^ eXajXTre, to. eifievoi idTLXoojvTO . 
Tpco€S 8', a)S t' otes" TToXvTrdfjLovos dvSpos iv avXf^ 
fxvpiai iarrjKaaiv dfjbcXyofjievai. ydXa XevKov, 
c^rjxes jxefxaKvlai aKovovaat oTra dpvdJv, 
COS Tpcocov dXaXrjTos dvd arparov evpvv opcopei' 
ov yap TTavTcov "^ev o/jlos dpoos ou8' "a yrjpvs, 
aXXd yAoJcrcr' ifxefxiKTO, ttoXvkXttjtol 8' eaav dvSpes 
copae 8e rovs fMev "Aprjs, rovs 8e yXavKWTns 

'Ad-qv-q 
Aei/Lios" t' TjSe ^o^os /cat "Kpts dfxorov {jbefxavla, 
Apeos dvhpo(ji6voio KaatyvrjTT] irdpr] re, 
7] T oXiy-q fi€v TTpcora KopvaaeTai, avrdp eneira 
ovpavw eariqpL^e Kdprj /cat ctti x^^^'- jSatVet* 
7] a(f)iv /cat Tore vclkos ojxouov ep,^aXe /xecraa* 
epxofJLevr] Kad^ djxiXov, 6<j}4XXovaa arovov dvSpcov. 
184 



THE ILIAD, IV. 420-445 

to the ground, and terribly rang the bronze upon the 
breast of tlie prince as he moved ; thereat might terror 
have seized even one that was steadfast of heart. ^_^ 
As when on a sounding beach the swell of the sea | 
beats, wave after wave, before the driving of the s 
West Wind ; out on the deep at the first is it gathered | 
in a crest, but thereafter is broken upon the land 
and thundereth aloud, and round about the headlands 
it swelleth and reareth its head, and speweth forth 
the salt brine : even in such wise on that day did the 
battalions of the Danaans move, rank after rank, 
without cease, into battle ; and each captain gave 
charge to his own men, and the rest marched on in 
silence ; thou wouldst not have deemed that they 
that followed in such multitudes had any voice in 
their breasts, all silent as they were through fear 
of their commanders ; and on every man flashed the 
inlaid armour wherewith they went clad. But for 
the Trojans, even as ewes stand in throngs past 
counting in the court of a man of much substance 
to be milked of their white milk, and bleat without 
ceasing as they hear the voices of their lambs : even 
so arose the clamour of the Trojans throughout the 
wide host ; for they had not all like speech or one 
language, but their tongues were mingled, and they 
were a folk summoned from many lands. These 
were urged on by Ares, and the Greeks by flashing- 
eyed Athene, and Terror, and Rout, and Discord 
that rageth incessantly, sister and comrade of man- 
slaying Ares ; she at the first rears her crest but 
Uttle, yet thereafter planteth her head in heaven, 
while her feet tread on earth. She it was that now 
cast evil strife into their midst as she fared through 
the throng, making the groanings of men to wax. 

185 i 



HOMER 

t o or^ or] p es ;\;6i>pov eva gwiovrcs lkovto, 
avv p e^aXov pivovs, crvv 8' ^YX^^ '^^^ /x.eVe' dvS/acai/ 
XO.XK€o9a)pTJKO)V' arrap daTTiSes 6ix(f>aX6€craaL 
enXrjVT^ dXXTJXrjat, ttoXvs 8' opvfJLaySos opcopei. 
evda 8' dyu olfxojyrj re /cat evxcoXrj ireXev dvSpcbv 4S 
oAAwTcov re /cat oAAu/xeVcov, pee 8' ai/Ltart yaia. 
CO? 8' ore x^^f^^ppo^ Trorafxol /car' opea^i peovres 
is fiicrydyKeiav avfM^dXXerov o^pifMov vhiop 
Kpovvoiv e/c fieydXcov kolXtjs evroade xP-pabpris, 
TU)V 8e' re TT^Aoae 8o£;7rov iv ovpeatv e/cAue TTOifX'^u- 4f 
cu? TcDv fMLoyofxevcov yivero la)(i] re ttovo?^ re. 
npcoro? 8' 'AvTi,Xo)(os Tpaxjov eXev dvSpa 
Kopuar'qv 
iadXov ivl TTpofJbdxoLcrc, QaXvatdSrjV ^Kx^ttojXov 
Tov p e^aXe Trpojros KopvOos (f>dXov ImrodacreLrjs , 
iv 8e /xeTcoTTOJ Trrj^e, rriprjae 8' ap' ocrreov eicro) 4( 
cdxP'ri xctA/cetr^ • Toi' 8e cr/coro? oaore KaXvifiev, 
rjpLTre 8', co? ore TTvpyog, ivl Kparepfj vajjiivr). 
rov 8e Trecrovra ttoScov e'AajSe Kpeicov 'EAec^Tyvojp 
XaA/ca;8ovTta87^S", pbeyaOv/xcov dpxos ^A^dvrojv, 
eA/ce 8' U7re/c ^eXecov, AeAirj/xeVo? o^pa Ta;(tCTTa 4( 
Teu;^ea cryATJaete* p,ivvv9a 8e ot yeved' op/XT]. 
V€Kp6v yap ipvovra I8d)v fMeyddvjjbos ^Ayi^vcop 
nXevpa, rd ot KViftavri Trap* damSog i^e<j)advdr] , 
ovTTjae ^vcrru) ;)(aA/CT^pet, Aucre 8e yuta. 
a>s TOV p,kv Xl7T€ OvfMos, err' avTw 8' epyov irvxOi) 4' 
dpyaXeov Tpioojv /cat 'A^^atcDf ot 8e Xvkoi cS? 
(xAATyAot? iTTopovaav, dvrjp 8' avS/>' e8i'07raAi^ei'. 

^ iroyos Aristarchus : <p6^os. 
186 



THE ILIAD, IV. 446-472 

Now when they were met together and come into 
one place, then dashed they together shields and 
spears and the fury of bronze-mailed warriors ; and 
the bossed shields closed each with each, and a great 
din arose. Then were heard alike the sound of 
groaning and the cry of triumph of the slayers and 
the slain, and the earth flowed with blood. As when 
winter torrents, flowing down the mountains from 
their great springs to a place where two valleys meet, 
join their mighty floods in a deep gorge, and far off 
amid the mountains the shepherd heareth the 
thunder thereof; even so from the joining of these 
in battle came shouting and toil. 

Antilochus was first to slay a warrior of the 
Trojans in full armour, a goodly man amid the fore- 
most fighters, Echepolus, son of Thalysius. Him 
was he first to smite upon the horn of his helmet 
with crest of horse-hair, and into his forehead drave 
the spear, and the point of bronze passed within 
the bone ; and darkness enfolded his eyes, and he 
crashed as doth a wall, in the mighty conflict. As 
he fell lord Elephenor caught him by the feet, the 
son he of Chalcodon, and captain of the great-souled 
Abantes, and sought to drag him from beneath the 
darts, fain with all speed to strip off his armour ; 
yet but for a scant space did his striving endure ; 
for as he was haling the corpse great-souled Agenor 
caught sight of him, and where his side was left 
uncovered of his shield, as he stooped, even there 
he smote him with a thrust of his bronze-shod spear, 
and loosed his limbs. So his spirit left him, and 
over his body was wrought grievous toil of Trojans 
and Achaeans. Even as wolves leapt they one upon 
the other, and man made man to reel. 

187 



HOMER 

"Kvd^ e'jSaA' * A.vdejxiojvo's vlov TeXa/jUcovtos Ata?, 
rjtdeov daXepov Hi[j,0€i.ai,ov, ov ttotg fiT^rrjp 
"l^TjOev Kariovaa Trap oxdjjcrtv TiLfioevros ' 

yeivar* , eTret pa roKevaiv oifi ecTTrero p,rjXa ISeadar 
rovvcKa pnv KoXeov TiLfioeiaLov ovSe roKevai 
dpenrpa (f)lXois aTreSoj/ce, pnvvvdahios 8e ol alwv 
eirXed^ vtt' K'iavros p,eyadvp,ov hovpl hapbivri. 
TrpcoTOV yap fiiv lovra ^dXe arrjdos 77apa (j.at,6v '. 
Sc^Lov dvTLKpv 8e St' ojfjbov y^aXKeov eyxos 
^Xdev 6 8' eV KovirjCfi ;^a/xat niaev (xiyeipos <x)S, 
"q pd T* iv elaixevfj eXeos fxeyaXoio 7T€(f>VK€i 
Xeirj, drdp re ol 6t,oi in* aKpordrrj ire^vaai' 
TTjv fxev 9 dp/jiaTomrjyos dvrjp aWwvi aiSrjpcp < 

i^erafx* , o(f)pa ltvv Kdp^ifjj] TrepLKaXXeC hl<l>pcp' 
7] [xev t' dl,ofjLevr) /ceirai Trora/ioto Trap* ox^as. 
roLov dp* ^AvQefJii'brjv HLfxoetaiov e^evdpi^ev 
Ata? hcoyevrjS' rod 8' "AvTL(f)os aloXoddypif]^ 
UpiafjLLSrjs Kad* ojxiXov aKovriaev o^ei Sovpi. i 

Tov fjbev dfjLap9\ 6 8e AevKOV, 'OSucraeos' iaOXov 

iralpov, 
Pe^X-qKct, ^ov^ojva, veKVv irepcoa* ipvovra' 
rjpLTre 8 ayu,^' avro), veKpos 8e ol cKTreae ;^etpo?. 
TOV 8' 'OSycreu? fidXa dvpLov aTTOKTapbivoio x^' 

Xcodrj, 
^rj 8e 8td TTpop.dx(JOV K€Kopvdp,€Vos atOom ;^aA/ca>, 4 
arrj 8e fjidX' iyyvs ld>v kol aKovriae Sovpl (fyaeivo) 
dpL(f)l e TraTTTTyvaj* vtto 8e Tpcoes KCKdSovro 
dvSpos aKovriaaavros . 6 8' ovx oXlov jSeAo? ^K€V, 
dXX vlov UpidpLoio vodov jSctAe Arj/jLOKOcovTa, 
OS ol ^A^vSodev "^Xde, nap' Ittttojv coKetdcov. t 

188 



THE ILIAD, IV. 473-500 

Then Telamonian Aias smote Anthemion's son, 
the lusty youth Simoeisius, whom on a time his 
mother had born beside the banks of Simois, as 
she journeyed down from Ida, whither she had 
followed with her parents to see their flocks. For 
this cause they called him Simoeisius ; yet paid he 
not back to his dear parents the recompense of his 
upbringing, and but brief was the span of his life, 
for that he was laid low by the spear of great-souled 
Aias. For, as he strode amid the foremost, he was 
smitten on the right breast beside the nipple ; and 
clean through his shoulder went the spear of bronze, 
and he fell to the ground in the dust like a poplar- 
tree that hath grown up in the bottom-land of a 
great marsh, smooth of stem, but from the top 
thereof branches grow : this hath some wainwright 
felled with the gleaming iron that he might bend 
him a felloe for a beauteous chariot, and it lieth 
drying by a river's banks. Even in such wise did 
Zeus-born Aias slay Simoeisius, son of Anthemion. 
And at him Priam's son Antiphus, of the flashing 
corselet, cast with his sharp spear amid the throng. 
Him he missed, but smote in the groin Odysseus^ 
goodly comrade, Leucus, as he was drawing the 
corpse to the other side ; so he fell upon it, and the 
body slipped from his grasp. For his slaying waxed 
Odysseus mightily wroth at heart, and strode amid 
tlie foremost warriors, harnessed in flaming bronze ; 
close to the foe he came and took his stand, and 
glancing warily about him hurled with his bright 
spear ; and back did the Trojans shrink from the 
warrior as he cast. Not in vain did he let fly his 
spear, but smote Priam's bastard son Democoon, 
that had come at his call from Abydus, from his stud 

189 



HOMER 

Tov p Ohvaevs erdpoio ■)(oXa)aa.ixevos jSaAe hovpi 
Koparjv 7] S' irepoto 8ia Kpora^oio Treprjaev 
alxp'r) ;^aA/<:et7^* rov 8e gkotos oaae KaXvifte, 
BovTTrjcrev 8e rreaoiv, dpd^Tjae 8e Teu;\;e' €77 aura). 
X<x>priaav 8' utto re 7rpo/xa;^ot /cat ^atSt/nos' "E/crcD/a* 
'Apyeiot 8e /xeya ta;^ov, ipvaavTO 8e vcKpovs, 
Wvaav Se ttoAu TTpoTepco' vefxearjcre 8' 'AttoAAcov 
Ile/aya/xou eKKariScov, Tpcoeaai, 8e KeKXer duaas" 
" 6pvva6\ iTTTrdSa/Liot Tpoie?, />t'>78' €LK€T€ ■xp.pp/qs 
'Apyetot?, eVet ou (T<^t At^o? XP^S" o?}8e aiSrjpos 
XO-Xkov dvacrxeaOaL ra/jLeaixpoa ^aXXofxevoicnv 
OX) p.dv oi58' 'A;)^iAei;s", 0eTi8o? Trar? rjVKopLOLO, 
fidpvarai, aAA' ctti v7]vgI x^Xov OvfiaXyea Treaaei. 

"0.5 (f)dr^ dno tttoXlos Beivos deos' avrdp 'Axon-ovs 
copae Alos Ovydrrjp KvhiaTTj Tpnoyeveia, 
ipXOfievT] Kad^ ofxtXov, o9i pbeOievras lSolto. 

"Ev0' ^ AiMapvyKeiSrjv Aicopea fMoXp^ eTreBrjae' 
X^pP'O.Sio) yap ^Xrjro irapd a<j)vp6v oKpioevri 
Kvrjfirjv he^iTeprjv ^dXe 8e Qpr^Kcov dyos" dvSpojv, 
Uetpcos 'Ifi^paalSrjs, os ap' AlvoOev elX-qXovOei,. 
afji(f>oT€pco 8e revovre /cat oaria Aaa? dvaihris 
a.xpf-9 dTTrjXoi'qaev 6 8' vtttlos iv Kovlrjai, 
KaTTTTeaev, dp,(j>ix) X^^P^ (ftiXois irdpoiat TTcrdaaa?, 
dvfxov drroTTveiajv 6 8* eTreSpafxev os p e^aXiv nep, 
Ylelpcos, ovra 8e 8ot»/)i Trap' ofM(f)aX6v' e/c 8 dpa 

Tvaaai 
XVVTO ;^a/Ltat ;\;oAd8(;S", rov 8e gkotos oaae KdXvif/e. 

Tov Be Qoas AiTotAo? dTreaavficvov jSdAe 8oi;pt 
190 



THE ILIAD, IV. 501-527 

of swift mares. Him Odysseus, wroth for his com- 
rade's sake, smote with his spear on the temple, and 
out through the other temple passed the spear-point 
of bronze, and darkness enfolded his eyes, and he 
fell with a thud and upon him his armour clanged. 
Then the foremost warriors and glorious Hector 
gave ground ; and the Argives shouted aloud, and 
drew off the bodies, and charged far further onward. 
And Apollo, looking down from Pergamus, had 
indignation, and called with a shout to the Trojans : 
" Rouse ye, horse-taming Trojans, give not ground 
in fight before Argives ; not of stone nor of iron is 
their flesh to resist the bronze that cleaveth the 
flesh, when they are smitten. Nay, and Achilles 
moreover fighteth not, the son of fair-haired Thetis, 
but amid the ships nurseth his bitter wrath." 

So spake the dread god from the city ; but the 
Achaeans were urged on by the daughter of Zeus, 
most glorious Tritogeneia, who fared throughout the 
throng wheresoever she saw them giving ground. 

Then was Amarynceus' son, Diores, caught in the 
snare of fate ; for with a jagged stone was he 
smitten on the right leg by the ankle, and it was 
the leader of the Thracians that made the cast, 
even Peiros, son of Imbrasus, that had come from 
Aenus. The sinews twain and the bones did the 
ruthless stone utterly crush ; and he fell backward 
in the dust and stretched out both his hands to his 
dear comrades, gasping out his life ; and there ran 
up he that smote him, Peiros, and dealt him a wound 
with a thrust of his spear beside the navel ; and 
forth upon the ground gushed all his bowels, and 
darkness enfolded his eyes. 

But as the other sprang back Thoas of Aetolia 

191 



HOMER 

arepvov inrep fia^olo, Trdyrj 8' eV iruev/xovi ;^aAACos'* 
a'y)(LiJioXov Se ot "^Xde ©oa?, eV S' o^piiiov ^yxos 
eaTTacraro arepvoio, epvaaaro Se ^i(f)os o^v, 5 

Tcp o ye yacrrepa rvifje pLea-qv, e/c 8' atVuro dvpLov. 
Tevx^oL S' ouAC aTreSucre' Trepianqaav yap iraXpot 
Spy]LK€s aKpoKopiOL, hoXix ^yx^^ ;\;e/3CTtv' exovres, 
OL e pieyav rrep iovra /cat L(f)dip.ov /cat ayauov 
ctxrav (1770 a^eicov 6 he ;\;acrcra|Ltet'os' TreXepuix^r] . 5 
cos TO) y ev KOvirjaL Trap* aAA?^Aotcrt reTda9r]V, 
•>y TOi o /xev SprjKcov, 6 8' 'ETretcDv ;\;aA/co;^iTcovwv, 
rjyepioves' ttoXXoI Be rrepl Kreivovro /cat aAAoi. 

Ev-^a /cev ovKeri epyov dvr]p ovoaano p,ereXdoiv, 
OS Tis eV d^XrjTos /cat dvouTaTo? o^ei' ;!^aA/ca) 5 
8iv€U0t /caro. p^eaaov, dyoi 8e e naAAas 'A^t^i't^ 
X^i-pos eXova* , avrdp ^eXecov direpvKOL ipoii^v 
TToAAot yap Tpcocov /cat ^AxaiaJv rjpart Keivo) 
TTprjvees ev kovltjoi, ■nap' aAAi^Aotai reravTO, 



192 



THE ILIAD, IV. 528-544 

smote him with a cast of his spear in the breast 
above the nipple, and the bronze was fixed in his 
lung ; and Thoas came close to him, and plucked 
forth from his chest the mighty spear, and drew his 
sharp sword and smote him therewith full upon the 
belly, and took away his life. Howbeit of his armour 
he stripped him not, for about him his comrades, men 
of Thrace that wear the hair long at the top, stood 
with long spears grasped in their hands, and for all 
that he was great and mighty and lordly, drave him 
back from them, so that he reeled and gave ground. 
Thus the twain lay stretched in the dust each by 
the other, captains the one of the Thracians and 
the other of the brazen-coated Epeians ; and about 
them were others full many likewise slain. 

Then could no man any more enter into the 
battle and make light thereof, whoso still un- 
wounded by missile or by thrust of sharp bronze, 
might move throughout the midst, being led of 
Pallas Athene by the hand, and by her guarded 
from the onrush of darts : for multitudes of Trojans 
and Achaeans alike were that day stretched one by 
the other's side with faces in the dust. 



VOL. I O 193 



lAIAAOS E 

"Ev^' av TvSetSr] ALO/ji-qSe'C Tiaras ^Adrjvr] 
SoJKe [xevos Kal ddpaos, Iv* eKB-qXos fxera Traaw 
^ApyeloLat yevoiro tSe kXcos eaOXov apoiro. 
Sate ol CK KopvBos t€ /cat acTTrtSos" aKapiarov Trvp, 
darep^ OTTOJpivcb evaXiyKiov, 6s re pLaXiCTTa 
Xap,7rp6v 7Tafji(f)aLvr]cn XeXovp^evos *O.K€avoLO' 
TOLov ol TTVp Saiev oltto Kparos re /cat a>p,cov, 
copae Se /Lttv Kara pueaaov, 06 l TrXelaroi KXoveovro. 

'^Hi' Be Tt? iv Tpcjeaai Adprjs, d4>v€L6s dfivpicov, 
tpevs ncpaiaroLO' ovoj oe ol vuees rjarrjv, 
^r]yevs 'ISaid? re, p-dx^S ev elSore vracny?. 
rco ol aTTOKpivdevre evavrico 6pp,rj9T^T7]V' 

TO) p,eV d(f)* LTTTTOUV, 6 8' ttTTO X^^^^S OpVVTO 776 ^O?. 

OL o ore 07J ax^oov rjaav ctt aAArjAoLcnv lovres, 
^7]yevs pa Trporepos irpotei SoXlxoctkiov eyxos' 
TuSetSeo) S' VTTcp copuov dptarepov rjXvd* aKCOKT) 
eyx^os, ouS' e/SaA* avrov 6 S' varepos opvvro xo-Xkco 
TuSetSrjs" rov 8' ovx dXiov ^eXos eK(f)vye x^''Pos, 
dXX e^aXe arrjdos p,erap,d^iov, oJae 8' d(f)* tTnTUiv. 
'ISaioj 8' diTopovae Xlttojv rrepLKaXXea hi(f)pov. 



19* 



BOOK V 

And now to Tydeus' son, Diomedes, Pallas Athene 
gave might and courage, that he should prove 
himself pre-eminent amid all the Argives, and win 
glorious renown. She kindled from his helm and 
shield flame unwearying, like to the star of harvest- 
time that shineth bright above all others when he 
hath bathed him in the stream of Ocean. Even such 
a flame did she kindle from his head and shoulders ; 
and she sent him into the midst where men thronged 
the thickest. 

Now there was amid the Trojans one Dares, a 
rich man and blameless, a priest of Hephaestus ; 
and he had two sons, Phegeus and Idaeus, both 
well skilled in all manner of fighting. These twain 
separated themselves from the host and went forth 
against Diomedes, they in their car, while he charged 
on foot upon the ground. And when they were 
come near, as they advanced against each other, 
first Phegeus let fly his far-shadowing spear ; and 
over the left shoulder of the son of Tydeus passed 
the point of the spear, and smote him not. Then 
Tydeus' son rushed on with the bronze, and not in 
vain did the shaft speed from his hand, but he smote 
his foe on the breast between the nipples, and thrust 
him from the car. And Idaeus sprang back, and 
left the beauteous chariot, and had no heart to 

195 



HOMER 

ouS' ctXtj TTCptPrjvaL dSeX(f)€Lov Krafxivoio' 
ovhe yap ovSe kcv avros inreKt^vye Krjpa fxeXaLvaVf 
aAA' "H^atCTTOS' 'ipvro, crdcocre Se vvktI KaXvijtas, 
(hs S^ ol fJirj TToiyxv yepoiv d.Kax'^P'CVOs etr]. 
L7T7TOVS S' e'^eAacras" fxeyaOvfiov TuSe'o? vlos 
hcijKev iralpoiaLV Kardyeiv KoiXag iirl vrjas. 
TpoJes 8e ixeydOvfioi €7rei 'iSov vie AdprjTO? 
Tov fjL€V dXevdfJbevov, top 8e Krdficvov Trap* 6)(€crcf)i, 
TTaaw opivdrj Ovfxos' drdp yXavKcJovLS 'Ad-qvrj 
X^i'pos eXova CTree crat TrpoarjvSa dovpov "Aprja' 
" "^A/ae? "Apes ^poroXoiyi, /xtat^ove, Tet;)(eCTt7rAi^Ta/ 
OVK dv hr] Tpdjas fxev idaai/jbev /cat ^A^aLovs 
fjLdpvaad\ OTTTTorepoiai TraTTjp Zew? kvSos ope^rj, 
vcb'C 8e -xP-t^^ixeada, Ato? 8 aXecofieda pLrjvLv; " 

"Q-S etTTOvaa fJ'dxr]S i^'qyaye Oovpov "Apr)a. 
TOV fiev erretra Kadelaev ctt' rfCoevri UKafMdvSpcp, 
Tpdjas 8' eKXivav Aavaor e'Ae 8' dvSpa eKaajos 
rjyejjiovajv TrpcoTos 8e dva^ dvSpcov 'Aya/xe/xvcuv 
dpxov 'AXi^wvcov '08iov /Jbcyav CK^aXe hl(f>pov' 
■npojTcp yap arp€(f)devTL /xera^/aeVo* ev 86pv Trrj^ev 
(jjfxojv ixecrcrqyvs, 8ta 8e aT'q9ea(f>i.v eXaaae, 
SovTrrjaev 8e Treacov, apd^-qae 8e Teu;^e' evr' auroi.^ 

^ISojjieuevs 8' a/)a OatcrTov ivqparo M-^ovos vlov 
Bcopoy, o? e/c Tdpvr]s epi^coXaKos elXrjXovOet. 
TOV fiev dp' 'ISofJbevevs SovpLKXvTos ^yx^^ fxaKpco 
vv^' iTTTTCov iTTi^rjaofievov KaTa Be^Lov ajfxov' 
rjpiTTe 8' e'^ ox€(ov, OTvyepos 8' dpa p.iv okotos etXe. 

Tov piev dp* 'ISofxevrjos iavXevov Oepdnovres' 



* Tfix^<jLir\7}Ta : Teixeffi^XiJTa Zenodotus. 
' Line 42 is omitted in the best mss. 



196 



THE ILIAD, V. 21-48 

bestride his slain brother. Nay, nor would he 
himself have escaped black fate, had not Hephaestus 
guarded him, and saved him, enfolding him in 
darkness, that his aged priest might not be utterly 
fordone with grief. Howbeit the horses did tfte 
son of great-souled Tydeus drive forth and give to 
his comrades to bring to the hollow ships. But 
when the great-souled Trojans beheld the two sons 
of Dares, the one in flight and the other slain beside 
the car, the hearts of all were dismayed. And 
flashing-eyed Athene took furious Ares by the 
hand and spake to him, saying : " Ares, Ares, thou 
bane of mortals, thou blood-stained stormer of walls, 
shall we not now leave the Trojans and Achaeans 
to fight, to whichsoever of the two it be that father 
Zeus shall vouchsafe glory ? But for us twain, let 
us give place, and avoid the wrath of Zeus." 

So spake she, and led furious Ares forth from the 
battle. Then she made him to sit down on the sandy -V!^ 
banks of Scamander, and the Trojans were turned 
in flight by the Danaans. Each one of the captains 
slew his man ; first the king of men, Agamemnon, 
thrust from his car the leader of the Halizones, 
great Odius, for as he turned first of all to flee he 
fixed his spear in his back between the shoulders and 
drave it through his breast ; and he fell with a thud, 
and upon him his armour clanged. 

And Idomeneus slew Phaestus, son of Borus the 
Maeonian, that had come from deep-soiled Tame. 
Him even as he was mounting his chariot Idomeneus, 
famed for his spear, pierced with a thrust of his long 
spear through the right shoulder ; and he fell from 
his car, and hateful darkness gat hold of him. 

Him then the squires of Idomeneus stripped of 

197 



HOMER 

viov 8e 1jTpo<j)toio TiKafxdvSptov, aifxova drjpt]^, 
^ATpetSr]^ MeveXaog e'A' eyx^'C o^voevTt, 
iaOXov dr]pr]rrjpa- SiSafe yap "Aprefxcs avrrj 
^aXXeiv aypia Trdvra, rd re Tpi^ei ovpeaiv vXrj. 
dAA' ov ol Tore ye ■)(paZajJi,^ "Aprepus lo^eaLpa^ 
ov8e eKiqfioXiai, rjoiv ro irpiv y' eKCKacrro' 
dXXd (XLV ^ArpetS-qs BovpiKXeLros ^leveXaos 
rrpoadev kdev (f)evyovra fxerd(f)pevov ovraae Sovpl 
djfjbCjov fxeaarjyvs, 8ta Se arrjdea^iv eXaaaev. 
TjpiTTe Se Trprjvqs, dpd^rjae Se revye eir* aino). 

^IrjpLovTjs Se Q>€peKXov evqparo, rcKrovos vlov 
'ApfMovlSeoj, OS ;;^e/3atv eTriararo SatSaAa Trdvra 
revxeiv e^oxo- ydp pnv e(f)iXaro IlaAAas' 'A^iyviy* 
o? /cat ^ AXe^dvhpcp reKr-qvaro vrjas etaas 
dpxeKdKOVs, at Trdcri KaKov TpcLeaai yevovro 
ot T avrcp, erret ov ri Ueojv e/c ue<x(j>ara Jjor]. 
rov fiev MrjpLovTjs, ore 817 Kare/xapTrre hiiOKOJV, 
Pe^X-qKei yXovrov Kara Se^Lov rj Se SiaiTpo 
avriKpv Kara Kvanv vtt oareov rjXvd^ aKcoK'q' 
yvv^ 8' eptTr' olpLcv^as, Odvaros Se fitv d/ji(f)eKdXvilfe. 

IlT^Satqv 8' ap' e7Te(/)ve Meyrjs, 'Avrtjvopos vlov, 
OS pa vodos fJiev er)v, irvKa 8' erpe^e Sla Qeavu) 
tcra (j)iXoiai reKecrai, xc-pi^ofievrj Troae'C S. 
rov fxev ^vXetSr]s SovpiKXvrog eyyvOev eXdd>v 
^e^XrjKei Kei^aXrjs Kara Iviov d^eC Sovpi' 
dvriKpv 8' dv' oSovras vtto yXcoacrav rdfie ;;^aA/cos" 
rjpnre 8' ev kovItj, iftvxpov 8' eXe ;^aA/coj/ oSovaLV. 

1 Xpo-laix" Aprefjiis loxtaipa : xpato'/iiej' davdroto wiXupa Zeno- 
dotus. 

^ Line 64 was rejected by Aristarchus. 



^ The great tendon at the back of the neck which holds 
the head erect. 

198 



THE ILIAD, V. 49-75 

his armour ; and Scamandrius, son of Strophius, 
cunning in the chase, did Atreus' son Menelaus slay 
with his sliarp spear, even him the mighty hunter ; 
for Artemis herself had taught him to smite all wild 
things that the mountain forest nurtureth. Yet in 
no wise did the archer Artemis avail him now, 
neither all that skill in archery wherein of old he 
excelled ; but the son of Atreus, Menelaus famed 
for his spear, smote him as he fled before him with 
a thrust of his spear in the back between the 
shoulders, and drave it through his breast. So he 
fell face foremost, and upon him his armour clanged. 

And Meriones slew Phereclus, son of Tecton, 
Harmon's son, whose hands were skilled to fashion 
all manner of curious work ; for Pallas Athene 
loved him above all men. He it was that had also 
built for Alexander the shapely ships, som-ce of ills, 
that were made the bane of all the Trojans and of 
his own self, seeing he knew not in any wise the 
oracles of the gods. After him Meriones pursued, 
and when "he had come up with him, smote him in 
the right buttock, and the spear-point passed clean 
through even to the bladder beneath the bone ; 
and he fell to his knees with a groan, and death 
enfolded him. 

And Pedaeus, Antenor's son, was slain of Meges ; 
he was in truth a bastard, howbeit goodly Theano 
had reared him carefully even as her own children, 
to do pleasure to her husband. To him Phyleus' 
son, famed for his spear, drew nigh and smote him 
with a cast of his sharp spear on the sinew of the 
head ;i and straight through amid the teeth the bronze 
shore away the tongue at its base. So he fell in the 
dust, and bit tlie cold bronze with his teeth. 

199 



HOMER 

KvpvTTvXos 8' ISivaifjiovLSrjs 'Yifji^vopa Slov, 
vlov VTT€pdvixov AoXoTTLOVos , OS pa HiKajJiOLvSpOV 
dprjTrjp erervKTO, Oeos 8' cS? riero Sry/xo), 
rov [xev dp^ KvpvrrvXos, Kvai/Jiovog ayAao? vios, 
TTpoaOev Wev <f)€V'yovra fxeraSpofidSrjv e'Aacr' wfiov 
(f)aaydva) dt^ag, diro 8' e^eae X^^P^ ^apelav. 
atfiaroearaa 8e ;)(etp irehicp ireae' rov 8e /car 

oaae 
lAAa^e TTop^vpeos ddvaros /cat fxolpa Kparacq. 

'^ils ol p.kv TTOveovTO Kara Kpareprjv va/juvrjv' 
TvSeLSr]v 8' ovK dv yvoi'qs TTorepoiai ficTetrj, 
rje fierd Tpcheaaiv opLiXloi r] pier* 'A^^atots". 
dvve yap dp. ttcSlov TTorap,(x> TrXiqdovrL iotKO)? 
X€cp.dppcp, OS t' cS/ca pewv eKeSaacre y€(f}vpas' 
rov 8' ovr' dp re ye^vpai eepyp,evai laxavooiaiv, 
ovr* dpa epKca lctx^l dXcodwv epLdr]Xeojv 
eXQovr* e^anlv-qs, or eTTi^piar] Aios 6p,^pos' 
TToXXd 8' utt' avrov epya Karrjpnre koX aL^r^aJv. 
CO? VTTO TvSetSrj TTVKival KXoveovro ^dXayyes 
Tpcoojv, ov8^ dpa fjbtv p,ip,vov TToXees Trep iovres.. 

Tov 8' d)S ovv ivoTjae AvKaovos dyXaos vios 
dvvovr dp, TTehiov rrpo edev nXoveovra (ftdXayyas, 
ati/f' €771 TvSetSrj iriralvero KapurvXa r6$a, 
Kal ^ctA' errataaovra rv^div Kara he^iov wp,ov, 
6d)p7]Kos yvaXov 8ta 8' enraro rriKpos dCaros, 
dvriKpv 8e 8iecr;^€, naXdcraero 8' at/xari Ocoprj^. 
ro) 8' CTTt p,aKp6v diJae AvKaovos dyXaos vtos' 
" opvvaQe, Tpd)es p.eyddvp,oL, Kevropes lttttcov 
^e^Xr^r ai yap dptaros ^Axaidyv, ovBe e (f)T]p,t 
200 



THE ILIAD, V. 7G-103 

And Eurypylus, son of Euaemon, slew goodly 
Hypsenor, son of Dolopion high of heart, that was 
made priest of Scamander, and was honoured of the 
folk even as a god — upon him did Eurypylus, Euae- 
mon 's glorious son, rush with his sword as he fled 
before him, and in mid-course smite him upon the 
shoulder and lop off his heavy arm. So the arm 
all bloody fell to the ground ; and down over his eyes 
came dark death and mighty fate. 

Thus toiled they in the mighty conflict ; but of 
Tydeus' son couldst thou not have told with which 
host of the twain he was joined, whether it was 
with the Trojans that he had fellowship or with the 
Achaeans. For he stormed across the plain like 
unto a winter torrent at the full, that with its swift 
flood sweeps away the embankments ; this the 
close-fenced embankments hold not back, neither 
do the walls of the fruitful vineyards stay its sudden 
coming when the rain of Zeus driveth it on ; and 
before it in multitudes the fair works of men fall 
in ruin. Even in such wise before Tydeus' son were 
the thick battalions of the Trojans driven in rout, 
nor might they abide him for all they were so many. 

But when the glorious son of Lycaon was ware 
of him as he raged across the plain and drove the 
battalions in rout before him, forthwith he bent 
against the son of Tydeus his curved bow, and with 
sure aim smote him as he rushed onwards upon the 
right shoulder on the plate of his corselet ; through 
this sped the bitter arrow and held straight on its 
way, and the corselet was spattered with blood. 
Over him then shouted aloud the glorious son of 
Lycaon : " Rouse you, great-souled Trojans, ye 
goaders of horses. Smitten is the best man of the 

201 



HOMER 

S'qO^ avax'qoeadai, Kparepov ^eXos, a ereov [jl€ 
copuev dvo.^ Ato? vlos drTopvvfxevov AvKLrjOev. 

"O? e^ar' evxop'^vos' rov 8' ov jSeAo? cu/cu 
Sdfjcaaaev, 
dAA' dvaxojprjcras TTpoaO* lttttouv /cat o;(€cr<^tP' 
earrj, /cat S^eVeAop' 7Tpoa€(f)rj, K^aTravi^'Cov viov 
" opao, 7T€7Tov KaTTavTytaST^, Kara^Tjaeo h(.<j)pov, 
6(f)pa fxoL i^ a>pLOLO ipvaaj]? TTiKpov o'Carov. 

"O? ap' e^T^, S^eVeAo? Sc /ca^' itttto;!' aAro 
^a^ta^e. 
Trap 8e cttci? ^eXos (Lkv 8ta/x77epe? i^epva a>[jbov' 
alfia 8' dvrjKovTLl^e 8ta arpeTrrolo ;)(tTcDp'oj. 
817 tot' eVetT* rjpdro ^otjv dyados Atop.7yS7js" 
" /cAu^t jLteu, atyto;)(oto Ato? reKos, ^ATpvTcovrj, 
et TTOTe p,ot /cat Trarpl </>tAa ^poveofcra TrapeaTrjs 
Srjto) iv TToXeficp, vvv avr^ ifie ^iXai, ^Adrjvr]' 
86s 8e Te jLt' dvSpa iXetv /cat eV oppirjv eyx^os 

iXOelv, 
OS fx e^aXe cfjOdfievos /cat iirevx^rai, ovhi fxe 

h-qpov eV oipeadaL XapiTrpov <f)dos rjeXioio. 
"Qs e<f)aT €Vx6fJi€vos' rov 8* e/cAue HaAAa? 

yuta 8' e9r]K€V iXa(f)pd, TToSas /cat ^^ tpa? vnepOew 
dyxov 8' laTa/jievr] eVea Trrepoevra Trpoarjvda' 
" dapacov vvv, Atop,i^8e?, €7rt Tpcuecrai, fidx^odar 
iv yap rot cmjOeaai, p.evos irarpojCov ^Ka 
drpofxov, otov ex^oKe aaKeaTraXos tmrora TuSeus* 
202 



THE ILIAD, V. 104-126 

Achaeans, and I deem he will not for long endure 
the mighty shaft, if in very truth the king, the son 
of Zeus, sped me on my way when I set forth from 
Lycia." 

So spake he vauntingly ; howbeit that other did 
the swift arrow not lay low, but he drew back, and 
took his stand before his horses and chariot, and 
spake to Sthenelus, son of Capaneus : " Rouse thee, 
good son of Capaneus ; get thee down from the car, 
that thou mayest draw forth from my shoulder the 
bitter arrow." 

So spake he, and Sthenelus leapt from his chariot 
to the ground, and stood beside him, and drew forth 
the swift arrow clean through his shoulder ; and the 
blood spurted up through the pliant^ tunic. And 
thereat Diomedes, good at the war-cry, made prayer : 
" Hear me, child of Zeus that beareth the aegis, 
unwearied one ! If ever with kindly thought thou 
stoodest by my father's side amid the fury of battle, 
even so do thou now be likewise kind to me, Athene. 
Grant that I may slay this man, and that he come 
within the cast of my spear, that hath smitten me 
or ever I was ware of him, and boasteth over me, 
and declareth that not for long shall I behold the 
bright light of the sun." 

So spake he in prayer, and Pallas Athene heard 
him, and made his limbs light, his feet and his hands 
above ; and she drew near to his side and spake 
to him winged words : " Be of good courage now, 
Diomedes, to fight against the Trojans, for in thy 
breast have I put the might of thy father, the 
dauntless might, such as the horseman Tydeus, 

^ Others render " woven," or " woven of twisted yarn." 
Aristarchus took the arpeTrrbs xtTciv to mean a coat of mail. 

203 



HOMER 

ax^vv 8 av roL aTr' 6(j)daXjxa)V eXov, r] -rrpiv enrjev, 
6(f)p' ev yiyvwaKTjs r^xev deov rjSe /cat dvSpa} 
rco vvv, a'i K€ Oeos TrecpcofMevog ivOdS* iK-qrai, 
lirj re av y ddavdroLcrt deols dvriKpv fidx^crOat 
rdls ctAAots" drdp et Are Aio? Bvydrrjp ^AcfjpohirT) 
eXdrjcr^ ig TroXe/jLov, nqv y* ovrdpbev 6^4't p^aA/caj. " 

'H [,iev dp* ojs elnova aTre^r] yXavKCOTTts* AOh^vt], 
TvSetSrjs S' i^avTis 1<jov Trpop^dxotcnv eixixdf], 
/cat TTplv irep dvjxcp /xe/^aois" Tpdjeaat fidx^crOac 
Sr] Tore pav rpls rocraov eXev p,evos, <x)S re Xiovra, 
ov pd re TTOipirjV dypw in elpoiroKOLS oteaai 
XpoLVcrrj p,ev r avXrjs vrrepaX^evov ovhk Bap.da(jrrj' 
rov puev re aOevos copaev, eneira he r ov Trpoa- 

ap,vveL, 
dXXd Kara aradfiovs Sverai, rd S' €prjp,a i^o^elr at' 
at /xev r ayp^tcrTivat en dAAT^Aiycrt Kexvvrai, 
avrdp 6 epLpLefxaajs ^aderjs i^dXXerat avXrjs' 
(S? /xe/xaco? Tpcoeacn p.iyrj Kparepos ALOpL-qSrjs. 

"Evd* eXev ' Aarvvoov /cat 'Ynetpova, noipbeva Aacur, 
rov [jLeu vnep p,a^olo ^aX(l)V ;^aA/c7y/3€t hovpi, 
rov 8' erepov ^i(f)e'C pbeydXo) /cAyytSa nap* (ZfMOV 
nXi]^\ dno 8' avx^vos (Lpt,ov iepyadev rjB' dno v(Lrov. 
rovs fJiev eacr*, 6 8' "A^avra fxer(Lxero /cat IloAu- 

ihov, 
vleas l^vpvSdfjiavros, ovecponoXoio yepovros' 
rots ovK epxop.evois 6 yepcov eKpivar oveipovs, 

^ i]di Kal &v8pa : ijd' AfOpuirov Zenodotus. 
204 



THE ILIAD, V. 127-150 

wielder of the shield, was wont to have. And the 
mist moreover have I taken from thine eyes that 
afore was upon them, to the end that thou mayest 
well discern both god and man. Wherefore now if 
any god come hither to make trial of thee, do not 
thou in any wise fight face to face with any other 
immortal gods, save only if Aphrodite, daughter of 
Zeus, shall enter the battle, her do thou smite with 
a thrust of the sharp bronze." 

When she had thus spoken, the goddess, flashing- 
eyed Athene, departed, and the son of Tydeus 
returned again and mingled with the foremost 
fighters ; and though afore his heart had been eager 
to do battle with the Trojans, now verily did fury 
thrice so great lay hold upon him, even as upon a 
lion that a shepherd in the field, guarding his fleecy 
sheep, hath wounded as he leapt over the wall of 
the sheep-fold, but hath not vanquished ; his might 
hath he roused, but thereafter maketh no more 
defence, but slinketh amid the farm buildings, and 
the flock all unprotected is driven in rout, and the 
sheep are strewn in heaps, each hard by each, but 
the lion in his fury leapeth forth from the high fold; 
even in such fury did mighty Diomedes mingle with 
the Trojans. 

Then slew he Astynous and Hypeiron, shepherd 
of the host ; the one he smote above the nipple 
with a cast of his bronze-shod spear, and the other 
he struck with his great sword upon the collar-bone 
beside the shoulder, and shore off the shoulder from 
the neck and from the back. These then he let be, 
but went his way in pursuit of Abas and Polyidus, 
sons of the old man Eurydamas, the reader of 
dreams ; howbeit they came not back for the old 

203 



HOMER 

aAAa a^eas Kparepos Aio/lit^Stjs" i$evdpi^e' 
^ij Se fjiera 3dvdov re Socovd re, OatVoTro? vie, 
d[X(l)ix) rrjXvyeTw 6 8e reipero y-qpa'C Xvypaj, 
viov S' ov t€K€t' dXXov CTTL KTedreacTi XirrecrOat. 
evO 6 ye rovs evdpi^e, <f)i,Xov S' i^aivvro 9vp,6v 
dfi(/)OTepa>, TTarepi Se yoov /cat K-qSea Xvypd 
AetTr', eTTet ov t,d)ovre fMdxr]S e/c voar'qaavTe 
Se^aro' ;\;7^pa)crTat 8e Sto. Krijacv SareovTO. 

"Kvd^ vlas YlpidfJLOLO Svco Xd^e AapSaviSao 
elv €vl hi^pcp iovras, 'lLx€fipiovd re ^pofxiov re. 
(1)5 Se Xecov ev ^oval Oopcjv e^ ay^eVa d^-Q 
TToprios^ rj€ ^oos, ^vXo)(ov Kara ^oaKOfievdcov, 
ws rovs dp,(f)orepovs ef ittttcov TvSeos vtos 
^rjae kukcos deKovras, erreira Se rev^^* eavXa' 
L7T7TOVS S' ols erdpoLOL SlSov jxerd vijas eXavveiv. 

Tov 8' tSev Alveias dXaTid^ovra arixo-S dvhpcov, 
^rj S' Ljxev dv re p.dx'qv /cat dvd kXovov eyx^i-dcov 
IldvSapov dvrideov Si^'qfievos, et ttov e(f>evpof 
evpe AvKdovos vlov dfjLVfiovd re Kparepov re, 
arrj Se Trpoad' avroio e^nos re fxtv dvriov rjvSa' 

IldvSape, TTOV roL ro^ov iSe Trrepoevres oCorol 
/cat kXcos ; co ov ris rot, epil,erai evOdSe y' dvrjp, 
ovSe Tts ev AvKLT) aeo y evxerat. elvat, ajxeivcxiv. 
oAA dye ToiS' e^es dvhpl ^eXos, Ait ;^et/)a? dva- 

ax(i>v, 
OS ris ohe Kpareei /cat 817 /ca/ca ttoAAo, eopye 
Tpojas, inel TToAAcut' re /cat iaOXcov yovvar^ eXvaev 
^ irdpTios : j3ovk6\ov Zenodotus. 

* The Greek may equally well mean, "howbeit the old 
man interpreted no dreams for them as they went forth." 

206 



THE ILIAD, V. 151-176 

man to interpret dreams for them,i but mighty 
Diomedes slew them. Then went he on after 
Xanthus and Thoon, sons twain of Phaenops, and 
both well beloved ; and their father was fordone 
with grievous old age, and begat no other son to 
leave in charge of his possessions. There Diomedes 
slew them, and bereft them of dear life, both the 
twain ; but for the father he left lamentation and 
grievous sorrow, seeing they lived not for him to 
welcome them on their return ; and the next of 
kin divided his goods. 

Then took he two sons of Priam, Dardanus' son, 
Echemmon and Chromius, the twain being in one 
car. Even as a lion leapeth among the kine and 
breaketh the neck of a heifer or a cow as they graze 
in a woodland pasture, so did Tydeus' son thrust 
both these in evil wise from their car, sorely against 
their will, and thereafter despoiled them of their 
armour ; and the horses he gave to his comrades 
to drive to the ships. 

But Aeneas was ware of him as he made havoc 
of the ranks of warriors, and went his way along 
the battle amid the hurtling of the spears in quest 
of godlike Pandarus, if so be he might anywhere 
find him. He found the son of Lycaon, goodly and 
valiant, and took his stand before his face, and 
spake to him, saying : " Pandarus, where now are 
thy bow and thy winged arrows, and thy fame ? 
Tlierein may no man of this land vie with thee, nor 
any in Lycia declare himself to be better than thou. 
Come now, lift up thy hands in prayer to Zeus, and 
let fly a shaft at this man, whoe'er he be that pre- 

faileth thus, and hath verily wrought the Trojans 
luch mischief, seeing he hath loosed the knees of 
207 



HOMER 

el ixri Ti? Qeos ioTt KoreaardfMevos Tpcoeaaiv 
IpaJv fjbTjviaas' ;)^aAe7n) 8e deov em fxrjvLS." 

Tov S' avre TrpocreetTre Avkolovos dyXaos vlos' 
" Alveia, Tpcoojv ^ovX7]cf)6p€ ;)(aA/co;)^iTc6t'a»j/, 
TvBetSr) fjLLV eycoye hat<j)povi Trdvra itaKco, 
dcTTTtSt yiyvojaKcxiv avXcjinhi re rpv(f>aXeir^, 
IrrTTovs t' elaopocov aa(f>a 8 ovk oiS' el Oeos ecrriv} 
ei o o y avr]p ov (prjfjbL, oaicppcov 1 voeos vlos, 
ovx o y' dvevde deov rdhe pLaiverai, aXXd ris dy)(i 
euTTjK ddavdrojv, ve(f>eXrj elXvfievos cofxovs, 
OS rovTov jSeAo? (x)Kv Kiyrip-evov erpaTrev dXXr).^ 
tJSt] ydp ol ecfirJKa ^eXos, /cat fMiv ^dXov ajfxov 
Se^cov dvriKpv hid OcjprjKos yvdXoto' 
/cat fjiiv eytoy e<^dp,r]V 'AtScor'^t TrpoidiffetVt 
epLTTrjs 8' OVK eSdfMaaaa' Oeos vv ris ean Korrjeis. 
iTTTTOt 8' ov TTapeacrt, /cat dpfiara, rcov k eTn^air^v 
dXXd 7TOV ev iieydpoiai AvKdovos evSeKa hicfjpoi 
KoXol TTpojTOTrayels veorevxees' d/x^t Se TrenXoi 
TTeTTravrai' Trapd 8e cr<^iv eKdarco hit,vyes ittttoi 
eardai Kpl XevKov epeTrrofievoi /cat oXvpas. 
•q fjbev p.oL fxdXa TToXXd yepcov alxP't^rd AvKdco* 
epxofievcp eirereXXe 8o/xotS' eVi TTOirjTotcnv' 
iTTTTOiaiv jj,* eKeXeve /cat dpfiaaiv ep^^e^aajra 
dpxeveiv Tpcoeaai Kara k pare pas vafxivas' 
dAA' eyoj ov TnOofirjv — t^ t' dv ttoXv KepSiov ^ev-~ 
L7T7TOJV (fietSopievos , pi'q pLOL Sevoiaro (f)op^ijs 
dvBpojv elXopL€V(x)v, elcodores eSpievai dSrjv. 
a>s XLttov, avrdp Treves' es "lAtov etAr^Aof^a 

^ Line 183 was rejected by Aristarchus. 
* Line 187 was rejected by Zenodotus. 

208 



THE ILIAD, V. 177-204 

many men and goodly ; if indeed he be not some 
god that is wroth with the Trojans, angered by 
reason of sacrifices ; with grievous weight doth the 
wrath of god rest upon men." ^ 

To him then spake the glorious son of Lycaon : 
" Aeneas, counsellor of the brazen-coated Trojans, 
to the wise-hearted son of Tydeus do I liken him in 
all things, knowing him by his shield and his crested 
helm, and when I look on his horses ; yet I know not 
surely if he be not a god. But if he be the man I 
deem him, even the wise-hearted son of Tydeus, 
not without the aid of some god doth he thus rage, 
but one of the immortals standeth hard by him, his 
shoulders wrapped in cloud, and turned aside from 
him my swift shaft even as it lighted. For already 
have I let fly a shaft at him, and I smote him upon 
the right shoulder clean through the plate of his 
corselet ; and I deemed that I should send him forth 
to Aidoneus, yet I subdued him not ; verily he is 
some wrathful god. And horses have I not at hand, 
neither car whereon I might mount — yet in Lycaon's 
halls, I ween, there be eleven fair chariots, new- 
wrought, new-furnished, with cloths spread over 
them ; and by each standeth its yoke of horses 
feeding on white barley and spelt. Aye, and as I 
set out hither the old spearman Lycaon straitly 
charged me in our well-built house : he bade me be 
mounted on horse and car, and so lead the Trojans 
in mighty conflicts. Howbeit I hearkened not — • 
verily it had been better far ! — but spared the horses 
lest in the multitude of men they should lack fodder, 
they that were wont to eat their fill. So I left 
them, and am come on foot to Ilios, trusting in my 

^ Possibly, " and the wrath of a god be heavy upon us." 
VOL. I P 209 



/^ )> 



HOMER 

ro^oiaiv TTiavvos' to. Be /x ovk ap' e/xeAAov ovi^aeiv. '. 
7]or] yap SoLolaiv apiarrieaauv i(f)rJKa, 
TvSetSj) re /cat ^ArpetSTj, e/c 8' dix(f)orepouv 
arpcKes ai/x' ecraeva ^aXoiV, TJyeipa he fxdXXov. 
rcb pa KaKTJ alarj diTO TraaaaXov dyKvXa ro^a 
Tjixari, Tip eXofJiTjV ore "IXiov els epareivrjV '. 

rjyeofirjv Tpcoeaac, (f)epcov ^aptv "E/cropt Sta». 
€1 Se Ke voar-^ao) /cat ea6ijjop,ai 6(f)daXfxolai 
TrarptS' ifirjv dXoxov re /cat viljepe(f)es /xeya Bcofia, 
avTiK eTTeiT an* ifielo Kaprj rdpioi dXXorpuos (fxos, 
ei piT) eyoj rdSe ro^a ^aeivcp ev TTVpl Oei-qv 
^^fpct Sta/cAacrcras'* dvepLioXia ydp pioi. OTrrjSet. 

ov o avr Aivecas Ipcowv ayos avriov rfvoa' 

pLTj Srj ovrcos dyopeve' Trdpos 8' ovk eaaerai aXXcos, 
Ttpiv y era vdi tojS' dt'Spt avv linTOiaiv kol op^CCT^tv 
avri^Lr)v eXOovre avv evreai TTeipr^BrjvaL. 
aXX dy epbojv oxeojv eTn^r]aeo, 6(f)pa iBrjai, 
oloL Tpcuibt iTTTTOi, eTTLardpbevoL TreStoto 
KpatTJvd pi,dX evda /cat evda SiojKep,ev rjSe (f)4^e(x6aL' 
Tio /cat vdj'C 7roAiv8e craaxrerov , e'i irep dv avre 
l^evs em Ti'8et8i7 Aio/xr^8ei kvBos ope^r). 
aXX dye vvv pidariya /cat i^vt'a atyaAoet'Ta 
Se^at, eyoj 8' lttttcov aTTO^Tjao/xat/ o^pa /ia;^a>/u.ai* 
7}e av rovBe BeSe^o, pieXrjaovcriv 8' ep,ol lttttol. 

Tov 8' avre Trpoaeenre AvKdovos ayAao? uto?" 
' Alveia, av p,ev avros e)^ rjvia /cat recj Ittttw 
pidXXov v(f)* rjvioxip eloidori KapLTTvXov dpp,a 
oiaerov, et nep dv aSre (f)e^(jjpLeda TvBeos vlov 
fiT) rd) piev Beiaavre pLarijaerov, oi38' ideXrjrov 

^ drrofii^aofJLM : iirip-Ziaofiai Zenodotus. 
210 



THE ILIAD, V. 205-2S3 

bow ; but this, meseems, was to avail me not. 
Already have I let fly a shaft at two chieftains, the 
son of Tydeus and Atreus' son, and smitten them 
fairly, and from them both of a surety I drew forth 
blood, yet did I but arouse them the more. Where- 
fore with ill hap was it that I took from the peg my 
curved bow on that day when I led my Trojans 
to lovely Ilios to do pleasure to Hector. But if so 
be I shall return and behold with mine eyes my 
native land and my wife and great, high-roofed 
palace, then may some alien forthwith cut my head 
from me, if I break not this bow with my hands 
and cast it into the blazing fire ; for worthless as 
wind doth it attend me." 

To him then spake in answer Aeneas, leader of 
the Trojans : " Nay, speak not thus ; in no wise shall 
matters be made good before that we twain with 
horses and chariot go to face this man, and make 
trial of him in arms. Nay, come, mount upon my 
car, that thou mayest see of what sort are the horses 
of Tros, well skilled to course fleetly hither and 
thither over the plain whether in pursuit or in 
flight. They twain will bring the two of us safely 
to the city, if again Zeus shall vouchsafe glory to 
Tydeus' son Diomedes. Come, therefore, take thou 
now the lash and the shining reins, and I will dis- 
mount to fight ; or else do thou await his onset, 
and I will look to the horses." 

Then made answer to him the glorious son of 
Lycaon : " Aeneas, keep thou the reins thyself, 
and drive thine own horses ; better will they draw 
the curved car under their wonted charioteer, if so 
be we must flee from the son of Tydeus. I would 
not that they take fright and run wild, and for want 

211 



HOMER 

€K<f)ep€fji€V TToXefjLoio, Teov ^doyyov TTodiovre, 
vGii 8' iiTat^as fieyaOvfxov TvSeos vlos 
avro) T€ Krelvr) /cat iXdaarj fMwvvxd? lttttovs. 
aAAa av y auro? e'Aauve re apfxara ical red) lttttco, 
Tovoe o eyojv eTTLovra oeoegofiai o^ei oovpi. 

"Q? dpa ^ixivrjaavre? , is dpfxara TTOt/ciAa ^avres, 
e/^/ze/xacor' inl TvSetSrj e^ov (I)K€as ittttovs. 
rovs Se i-'Se S^eWAos", KaTravT^lb? dyXaos vlos, 
aii/ja Se TvSeiSrjv eVea irrepoevra TrpocrqvBa' 

TvSetSrj AiofxrjSes, efxcp Ke)(api(jp.eve dv/jbO), 
dvSp' opoco Kparepd) eTrl aol /xe/xacDre pudx^adai, 
tj' arreAeupov exovras' o fxev rogcov ev eLOcos, 
UdvSapos, vlos S' avre AvKaovos evx^rai etvar 
Alvelas S' VLOS fiev dpbVfxovos^ ^AyxLcroLO 
evx^raL eKyeydfxev, p^rirrfp Se ol ear* ^A^poSirT). 
aAA' dye Srj ;)^a^c6/xe0' e0' lttttojv, {jLtjSe (jlol ovrco^ 
Ovve Slo. Trpofxdxoiv, jxiq ttcos ^lXov rjrop oXeaarjs." 
ov ap VTTOopa loojv irpoaecprj Kparepos 
ALOfJLtjSrjS' 
" fxij Tt (f)6^ovS* dyopev* , eTrel ovSe ae TreLcrefxev olco. 
ov ydp fjLOL yevvoLOV dXvoKd^ovTL yLdx^<ydo.L 
ovSe KaraTTTwaaeLV erL fxoc fxevos epureSov eariv 
OKveLU) S' LTTTTCOV eTTL^aLvefxev, dXXd /cat avrcos '■ 
dvTLOV et/x avrcov rpeXv {jl* ovk ea HaAAa? ^Ad-qvr). 
TOVTO) S' ov TrdXw avTLS dnoLaerov oiKees lttttol 
dpL^xjo d<f>' rjpLeiojv, e'i y' ovv erepos ye (f)vyr]aLV. 
dXXo Se TOL epeoj, av 8' evl (f)peaL ^dXXeo crfjaLV 
a'i Kev fjLOL ttoXv^ovXos 'Adujvr] kvSos ope^r) '. 

apicjiorepco KTelvai, av Se rovaSe jxev coKcas lttttovs 
avTov epvKaKeeLV e^ dvrvyos rjvla reivas, 

^ ixiv afj.vp.ovos : neyaKrjTopos. 
* Lines 249 f. were rejected by Zenodotus. 
212 



THE ILIAD, V. 234-262 

of thy voice be not minded to bear us forth from the 
battle, and so the son of great-souled Tydeus leap 
upon us and slay the two of us, and drive off the 
single-hooved horses. Nay, drive thou thyself thine 
own car and thine own horses, and I will abide this 
man's onset with my sharp spear," 

So saying they mounted upon the inlaid car and 
eagerly drave the swift horses against the son of 
Tydeus. And Sthenelus, the glorious son of Ca- 
paneus, saw them and straightway spake to Tydeus' 
son winged words : " Diomedes, son of Tydeus, dear 
to my heart, I behold two valiant warriors eager to 
fight against thee, endued with measureless strength. 
The one is well skilled with the bow, even Pandarus, 
and moreover avoweth him to be the son of Lycaon ; 
while Aeneas avoweth himself to be born of peerless 
Anchises, and his mother is Aphrodite. Nay, come, 
let us give ground on the car, neither rage thou thus, 
I pray thee, amid the foremost fighters, lest thou 
haply lose thy life." J ^^^^ ^^ 

Then with an angry glance from beneath his^ ^ 
brows mighty Diomedes spake to him : " Talk not ^ 

thou to me of flight, for I deem thou wilt not persuade ""^ / 
me. Not in my blood is it to fight a skulking fight 
or to cower down ; still is my strength steadfast. 
And I have no mind to mount upon a car, but even 
as I am will I go to face them ; that I should quail 
Pallas Athene sufFereth not. As for these twain, 
their swift horses shall not bear both back from us 
again, even if one or the other escape. And another 
thing will I tell thee, and do thou lay it to heart. 
If so be Athene, rich in counsel, shall vouchsafe me 
this glory, to slay them both, then do thou hold here 
these swift horses, binding the reins taut to the 

213 



HOMER 

Aii/etao 8' CTrai'^at fjbefxvqjjbevos iTnroiv, 

e/c eXdaai, Tpwoiv //.er' ivKV-qiicSag 'A;^atoys'. 

TT^? yap rot yeveijs, '^g Tpcut Trep evpvoira Zey? 2 

S<SX ^"'S' TTOLVTjv Tavv/jL-qBeos, ovveK apiaroi 

LTTTTOJv, oaaoi eaaiv vtt -r^Gi r rjeXiov re. 

rfjs yeverjs eKXeifiev dva^ dvSptbv ^Ay^icrqs, 

XdOpr) AaofieSovro? vttogxojv di^Xeas iTTTTOvg. 

TU)v ol ef lyivovro evl fxeydpoLat yevedXr). j 

rovg fxev reaaapas avros e^iov drtVaAA' e-nl <f)drvrj, 

roi 6e hv AtVeta hcjKev, fnjarcopG^ (f)6^0LO. 

et rovTco /ce Xd^oifxev, dpoipiedd /ce /cAeo? icrOXou." 

12? Ol fxev roiavra Trpos SlXXt^Xovs dyopevov, 
rco Se rdx eyyvOev rjXdov eXavvovr diKcas lttttovs. 2 
rov rrporepos npoaeeLTre AvKdovos dyXaog vlos' 

KaprepoOufjie, Sat(f)pov, dyavov TvSeos vie, 
rj fiaXa a ov ^eXos (Lkv Safidoraaro, iriKpos otcTTOs" 
vvv avr eyxeir} Treipiqaofiai, at k€ rv^Oiixi." 

'H pa, /cat apbTreiraXajv vpoteu BoXt)(dcrKLOv ey)(ps 2 
/cat ^dXe Tvhethao /car' ocrTrtSa* rrj9 Se hiavpo 
o.i'Xf^V X^^'^^^V '^TO.fjLevTj OcoprjKL TreXdaQiq- 
rep S' eVt fxaKpov dvae AvKdovog ayAao? vlos' 
" ^e^X-qat, Kevecova Sia/jbTrepes, ovSe a dta> 
8r)p6v er dvaxriaeadai' ifiol he jxey* evxos eScoKas." 2 

Tov S ov rap^rjaas TTpoa4(f)r] Kparepog Aio/jb'qBrjS' 
" Tjn^pores ov8^ ervxes' drdp ov fxev a^cDt y' dta> 

"• fMrjCTTupe : firjaTOifpi. 



* This phrase is everywhere else (except in the parallel 
passage, viii. 108, where the mss. are divided) applied only 
to warriors ; hence many favour the easy change of the 
text in these two passages. Compare, however, ii. 767. 
214 



THE ILIAD, V. 263-287 

chariot rim ; but be mindful to rush upon the horses '^^^^ 
of Aeneas and drive them forth from the Trojans to-^Cyr- 
the host of the w ell-greaved Achaeans. For they are 
of that stock wherefrom Zeus, whose voice is borne 
afar, gave to Tros recompense for his son Ganymedes, 
■for that they were the best of all horses that are 
beneath the dawn and the sun. Of this stock the 
king of men Anchises stole a breed, putting his 
mares to them while Laomedon knew naught thereof. 
And from these a stock of six was born him in his 
palace ; four he kept himself and reared at the 
stall, and the other two he gave to Aeneas, devisers 
of routA Could we but take these twain, we should 
win us goodly renown." 

Thus they spake on this wise one to the other, 
and forthwith drew near those other twain, driving 
the swift horses. And Lycaon's glorious son spake 
first to him, saying : " Thou son of lordly Tydeus, 
stalwart and wise of heart, verily my swift shaft 
subdued thee not, the bitter arrow ; now will I 
again make trial of thee with my spear, if so be 
I may hit thee." ^ u^-h-^oAj^ ^/C 

So saying, he poised and hurled his far-shadowing 
spear, and smote upon the shield of Tydeus' son ; 
and straight therethrough sped the point of bronze 
and reached the corselet. Then over him shouted 
aloud the glorious son of Lycaon : " Thou art smitten 
clean through the belly, and not for long, methinks, 
shalt thou endure ; but to me hast thou granted great 
glory." 

Then with no touch of fear spake to him mighty 
Diomedes : ** Thou hast missed and not hit ; but 

215 



HOMER 



> 5 



TTpiv y aTTOTTavaeauai, Trpcv y r] erepov ye Trecrovra 
aifiaros aaai "Aprja, raXavpuvov TToXejxiarrjV ." 

"Q? (f)d[Ji€Vog TTpoerjKe- ^eXos 8' Wvvev ^Adiqvrj 2' 
plva Trap o(f)daXfx6v, XevKovs 8' irrepr^aev oSovras. 
rod 8' ttTTo pbkv yXwaaav Trpvfivrjv rdpie ^(aXKOs 

dreipyjs, 
o.i'Xl^'^ 8' i^eXvdyf' Trapd vcLarov avdepeatva' 
'qptne o eg o^^ajv, apapiqae oe revx^ ^tt avrco 
aloXa 7ra/jb(f)av6covTa, Traperpectaav Se ol Ittttol 2' 
(hKVTTohes' rod 8' au^t Xvdrj f/'v^^ "^^ fMevos re. 

Alveias 8' drropovae crvv darrihi hovpi re fxaKpio, 
heiaas fJ-ij ttco? ol epvaaiaro veKpov 'A^^aiot. 
dix(f)i 8' dp' avro) ^atve Xecov ou? aA/ct ttcttoiOws, 
npoade 8e ot 8d/3u t' ecr;)^e /cat dairiha rravrocr* 

etarjv, 31 

Toi' Krdfxevai /xe/xacu? o? rt? tou y' avrto? eXdoi, 
afiepSaXea ld)(^CDV' 6 he x^PP'dSiov Xd^e ^eipt 
Tu8ei87^S", fieya epyov, o ov Bvo y' dvhpe (jyepotev, 
oloL vvv ^poroi ela ' 6 Se pnv pea TToXXe kol otos". 
rep ^dXev Alveiao /car' laxiov, evda re firjpos 3( 
laX^V ^vcrrpe(f>erai,, KorvXrjV he re fiLV KaXeovcn' 
dXdcrae Se ol KorvXrjv, irpos 8' dp,<f>o) prj^e revovre' 
coae S' aTTO pivov rprj^vs Xldos. avrdp 6 y' -^pajs 
earrj yvv^ epLirow koI epeiaaro x^^P*- '^^X^^V 
yaLrj<;- dfX(f)l he oaae KcXaivrj vv^ eKdXvifte. 31 

Kat vv K€v evd* aTToXoiro dva^ dvhpcbv Alveias, 
el fir) dp^ d^v vorjae Atos dvydrrjp ^A^pohirrj, 
fxijrrjp, tJ fjLtv utt' ^AyxloT) reKe ^ovKoXeovrc 

^ i^eXtL/O-q Aristarchus: i^e^vdr] Zenodotus. 
216 



THE ILIAD, V. 288-313 

ye twain, I deem, shall not cease till one or the other 
of you shall have fallen and glutted with his blood 
Ares, the warrior with tough shield of hide." 

So spake he and hurled ; and Athene guided the 
i^pear upon his nose beside the eye, and it pierced 
through his white teeth. So the stubborn bronze 
shore off his tongue at its root, and the spear-point 
came out by the base of the chin. Then he fell 
from out the car, and his armour all bright and 
flashing clanged upon him, and the swift-footed 
horses swerved aside ; and there his spirit and his 
strength were undone. {^z^^a^ < 

But Aeneas leapt down with shield and long / ^ 
spear, seized with fear lest perchance the Achaeans c^,.'/. 
might drag from him the dead man. Over him he 
strode like a lion confident in his strength, and before 
him he held his spear and his shield that was well 
balanced on every side, eager to slay the man whoso- 
ever should come to seize the corpse, and crying a 
terrible cry. But the son of Tydeus grasped in his 
hand a stone — a mighty deed— one that not two men 
could bear, such as mortals now are ; yet lightly / lo^ 
did he wield it even alone. Therewith he smote •-^^^^^^ 
Aeneas on the hip, where the thigh turns in the ^-^-^^-^ 
hip-joint, — the cup, men call it— and crushed the y^'^ 
cup-bone, and broke furthermore both sinews, and 
the jagged stone tore the skin away. Then the 
warrior fell upon his knees, and thus abode, and with 
his stout hand leaned he upon the earth ; and dark 
ni^ht enfolded his eyes. O^^^ ^...^^ 

S_KvA now would the king of men, Aeneas, have ,j/^ 
perished, had not the daughter of Zeus, Aphrodite, ^ 
been quick to mark, ^ven his mother, that conceived 
him to Anchises as he tended his kine. About her 

217 



HOMER 

a/X(^t 8' iov (f)lXov VLOV ix^varo Tnjx^^ XevKO), 
Trpoade Be ol TTinXoLo (f)a€cvov nrvyix' eKoXvipev, j 

epKOs €jj,€v ^eXecov, jxrj ris Aai/acov raxvirayXcov 
XO-Xkov ivl arr]OeaaL ^aXojv e/c OvfJiov e'Aotro. 

'H fiev iov <j)iXov vlov vne^e^epev TToXeiioio' 
oi5S' vlos K.a7Tav7]os eXiqOero avvdeaiacov 
rdcov Sis eTTereXXe ^orjv dyados AiofX'^Brjg, ; 

oAA' o ye Tovg fzeu iovs rjpvKaKe fjLdovvxo-S Ittttovs 
voa^LV 0.770 (jiXoia^ov, i^ dvrvyos rjVLa reivas, 
Alveiao 8' €TTa'i^as KaXXirptxas ittttovs 
i^eXaae Tpcocov fxer^ evKV-qp^ihas *Axo.lovs, 
ScS/ce Se ArjLTTvXcp, irdpcp ^iXcp, ov nepl TTaarjs ; 
TL€V ofirjXiKLrjs, OTC ol (f)p€alv dpria yjSr], 
VTjvalv €771 yXacfiVpfjatv iXavvefj,€V. avrdp 6 y rjpcos 
a>v LTTTTCov eTTt^ds eXa^' rjvia aiyaXoevTa, 
atilia 8e TvdetSrjv fxedeTTC Kparepcovvxas ittttovs 
epjjxepiaios • d he KvTTpiv eVaSp^ero vi]XeC ;(aA/ca), • 
yiyvcoaKOjv o t dvaXKis erjv Beds, ovSe dedcov 
rdojv at t' dvhpiov TToXepLOV Kara Koipaveovaiv , ■ 
OVT* dp* ^AO-qvaLT] ovre TrroXiTTopdos 'Evyco. 
dAA' ore Sij p eKixcive ttoXvv /ca0' dpaXov OTTa^cov, 
evd* eTTope^d/xevos fieyaOvfiov TvSeos vlos i 

aKprjv ovraae X^^P^ p-erdXpLevos o^eC 8ovpl 
d^XrjXprjv eWap Be Bopv XP'^^S dvTerdp7]aev 
dp^poaiov hid nenXov, ov ol XapiTes" Kdp,ov avrai, 
TTpvpvov VTTep devapos' pee 8' dp,^poTov atpa deolo, 
lxd>p, olos TTep re peei paKdpeaat deoicriv 3 

ov yap alrov eBovcr\ ov ttIvovg* aWova otvoVf 
218 ■ 

I 



THE ILIAD, V. 314-341 

dear son she flung her white arms, and before him 
she spread a fold of her bright garment to be a 
shelter against missiles, lest any of the Danaans with 
swift horses might hurl a spear of bronze into his 
breast and take away his life,"___l ,J//U^^^:^'i■*o M 

She then was bearing her dear son forfli from out /. 
the battle ; but the son of Capaneus forgat not the / 
commands that Diomedes good at the war-cry laid -^^or-^^ 
upon him. He held his own single-hooved horses 
away from the turmoil, binding the reins taut to 
the chariot rim, but rushed upon the fair-maned 
horses of Aeneas, and drave them forth from the 
Trojans into the host of the well-greaved Achaeans, 
and gave them to Deifpylus his dear comrade, whom 
he honoured above all the companions of his youth, 
because he was like-minded with himself; him he 
bade drive them to the hollow ships. Then did the 
warrior mount his own car and take the bright reins, 
and straightway drive his stout -hooved horses in 
eager quest of Tydeus' son. He the while had gone in 
pursuit of Cypris with his pitiless bronze, discerning / t<ri- 
that she was a weakling goddess, and not one of "^ , 
those that lord it in the battle of warriors, — no J 
Athene she, nor Enyo, sacker of cities. But when ^•^^'^^ 
he had come upon her as he pursued her through <^2/dx» 
the great throng, then the son of great-souled 
Tydeus thrust with his sharp spear and leapt upon 
her, and wounded the surface of her delicate hand, 
and forthwith through the ambrosial raiment that 
the Graces themselves had wrought for her the 
spear pierced the flesh upon the wrist above the 
palro • and forth flowed the immortal blood of the 
goddess, the ichor, such as floweth in the blessed 
gods ; for they eat not bread neither drink flaming 

219 



HOMER 

TovveK avaifxove's etcri /cat dddvaroL KaXeovrat. 
rj 8e fJLeya Id^ovaa diro eo Ka^^aXev vi&f^' 
/cat Tov fxev fxerd x^P'^i'V ipvaaro Oot^o? ^AttoAAcov 
Kvavej] ve(j>iXrj, fxij rt? Aavaoiv raxv7ra)Xu)V 2 

XO-Xkov ivl arrjOeaai ^aXcov e/c dvfxov eXoiro' 
rfj 8' CTTL fiaKpov diJae ^orjv dyaOos Ato/XT^S-*^?' 
" €LK€, Ato? dvyarep, TToXd/xov /cat SrjiorrJTOS' 
7) ovx aAt? OTTt yuvat/ca? at'ctA/ctSa? r]rrepoTT€veL? ; 
€1 Se au y' e? TToXefiov TrajXijaeai, rj re a oto) a 
piyiqaecv TToXefiov ye /cat et x' eVepco^t vvO-qai.' 
"D? ecf)ad^, rj 8' aAuoycr' dire^rjaeTO , relpero 8' 
atvcDs" 
n7V /xev ap' *Ipt? eXovaa TToS-qvepiog e^ay' o/xtAot; 
dxOofxevr]v oSvvrjai,, fieXalvero 8e XP'^^ /caAov. 
eupei' erreiTa fidx^]? ctt' dpiarepd dovpov "Aprja 3 
rjfjievov, rjepi 8' eyxos eKeKXiro /cat ra^e ltttto). 
r) Se yt'u^ epiTTOvaa Kaaiyvqroio <j)iXoio 
TToXXd Xiaaoixevr] ;)^/3uaaju.7ru/cas' rjTeev lttttovs' 
" (f>tXe KaaiyvrjTe, /co/xtcrat re /xe 8o? 8e /iot 

l777rOl»S", 

o^p' eV "OAu^TTOV iKOijxai, iv* ddavdrcov eSos ecm. 3 
Xirjv dxOojxai eXKog, 6 fxe ^poros ovraaev dvqp, 
TvSetSrjs, OS vvv ye /cat dv Att rrarpl jxaxoLTO. 
"Q? <f)dro, rfj 8' ap' "Aprjs ScD/ce ;)^pi;<Ta/X7ry/ca9 

LTTTTOVS' 

7^ 8' e? Bi(f)pov e^aivev dKrjxe/Jievri (f)i,Xov rjrop, 
Trap 8e ot ^Ipi? e^SatP'e /cat ?^vta Aa^ero ;)(e/Dat, 3 
fjidari^ev 8' eXdav, tco 8' ou/c denovre rrereadrju. 
alijja 8' eVet^' lkovto Oecov e8os", alrrvv "OXvfXTTOV 
evd LTTTTOVS earrjae TToB-qvefMos co/cea ^I/sis' 

220 



THE ILIAD, V. 342-S68 

wine, wherefore they are bloodless, and are called 
immortals. She then with a loud cry let fall her 
son, and Phoebus Apollo took him in his arms and 
saved him in a dark cloud, lest any of the Danaans 
with swift horses might hurl a spear of bronze into Ji<^ 
his breast and take away his life, j But over her /ic^-v 
shouted aloud Diomedes good af " the war-cry : /^a/ 
" Keep thee away, daughter of Zeus, from war and ' 
fighting. Sufficeth it not that thou beguilest weak- 
Ung women ? But if into battle thou wilt enter, 
verily methinks thou shalt shudder at the name 
thereof, if thou hearest it even from afar." // 

So spake he, and she departed frantic, and was •^ , 
sore distressed ; and wind-footed Iris took her and 
led her forth from out the throng, racked with pain, 
and her fair flesh was darkened. Anon she found 
furious Ares abiding on the left of the battle, and 
upon a cloud was his spear leaning, and at hand 
were his swift horses twain. Then she fell upon her 
knees and with instant prayer begged for her dear 
brother's horses with frontlets of gold : " Dear Jf 
brother, save me, and give me thy horses, that I ' 
may get me to Olympus, where is the abode of the -^^'-^ 
immortals. For sorely am I pained with a wound <^ 
which a mortal man dealt me, Tydeus' son, that Art^ 
would now fight even with father Zeus." /fi/ ^ 

So spake she, and Ares gave her his horses with ' ' 
frontlets of gold ; and she mounted upon the car, 
her heart distraught, and beside her mounted Iris 
and took the reins in her hand. She touched the 
horses with the lash to start them, and nothing 
loath the pair sped onward. Straightway then they 
came to the abode of the gods, to steep Olympus ; / 
and there wind-footed, swift Iris stayed the horses 

221 



HOMER 

Xvaaa^ e| ox^cov, irapa 8' dfi^poaiov jSaAev dBap- 
7] 8' eV yovvaai ttItttc Alwvtjs 8t' *A(l)poSLTr], 
fiTjrpos erjs' rj 8' dy/ca? eAct^ero dvyarepa -^v, 
X^i'Pi' Tc /ill/ Karepe^ev eiros r e^ar' e/c t' ovofxa^e' 
TLS vv ae TotaS' epe^e, (jyiXov reKos, Ovpaviwvcov 
}iaifjLhicx>g , (hs et ri KaKov pe^ovaav ivojTrfj; " 
Trjv 8' 7)ixei^€T eTrena (l>i,XoiJt.fX€iSrjs ^ A(f)pohirif]' 
ovrd fX€ TvSeos vlos, VTrepdvfxos AiOfx-qSris, 
ovveK eycb ^iXov vlov VTte^e^epov TroAe/ioto, 
Atveiap', Off e/xot navrajv ttoXv (jiiXraros icrnv. 
ov yap en Tpaxjjv /cat ^Axaicov <jivXoiTi,s alvq, 
aXX rjSr) Aavaoi ye koX ddavdroiai fidxovraL." 
iTjv 8' rjfJieL^er' eiTeira Aicovrj, 8ta dedwv 
rerXadiy t€kvov ifxov, Koi dvdax^o K7]Sop,€vr] Trep' 
TToXXol yap St] rXrjfiev 'OXvjXTna hcctp^ar* exovres 
€^ avBpcov, x^XeTT* dXye eir' aAA?^Aoio-t riQivTes. 
rXrj fxev "Ap-qg, ore pnv '^O.ros Kparepos r' 

E^taArr;?, 
TTalBes 'AXa>rjog, Srjaav Kparepw evl BeapbO)' 
XO-Xkco) 8' eV Kepdjjbip SeSero rpiGKaiheKa fxrjvas' 
/cat vv Kev ev6^ dTtoXoiro "Aprjs dros TroAe/xoto, 
et jx-q p.r]rpvirj, TreptKaXXrjs 'Hept^ota, 
'Fipfiea e^riyyeiXev 6 8' i^eKXei/jev "Aprja 
r]Br] T€Lp6fxevov, x'^Xenos 8e e Bearfiog iSdfJLva. 
rXrj 8' "Hpr), ore fxiv Kparepos Trd'Cs *AiJt,<^Lrpv(jt}vos 
oe^trepov Kara jxal,6v oCarip rpiyXioxivi 
pe^X-qKei' rore Kai fxiv dv-qKearov Xd^ev dXyos. 
rXrj 8 AtSrjs €V rolat jreXcopios (Lkvv o'Carov, 
evT€ fiiv tovros dvqp, vlos Ato? alyioxoLO, 
222 



THE ILIAD, V. 369-396 

and loosed them from the car, and cast before z' 
them food ambrosial ; but fair Aphrodite flung ^'^ ' 
herself upon the knees of her mother Dione. She ^t-r^ 
clasped her daughter in her arms, and stroked her v,^^t 
with her hand and spake to her, saying : " Who 
now of the sons of heaven, dear child, hath entreated 
thee thus wantonly, as though thou wert working 
some evil before the face of all ? " ^//r>.^ ' /u.c.<M^ o-t 

To her then made answer laughter-loving Aphro- ^^'■^f^ 
dite : " Tydeus' son, Diomedes high of heart, r^,^ 
wounded me, for that I was bearing forth from out ^ 
the war my dear son Aeneas, who is in my eyes far 
the dearest of all men. For no longer is the dread 
battle one between Trojans and Achaeans ; nay, the 
Danaans now fight even with the immortals." 

To her then made answer Dione, the fair goddess : 
"Be of good heart, my child, and endure for all thy 
suffering ; for full many of us that have dwellings on 
Olympus have suffered at the hands of men, in bring- 
ing grievous woes one upon the other. So suffered 
Ares, when Otus and mighty Ephialtes, the sons of 
Aloeus, bound him in cruel bonds, and in a brazen 
jar he lay bound for thirteen months ; and then 
would Ares, insatiate of war, have perished, had 
not the stepmother of the sons of Aloeus, the 
beauteous Eeriboea, brought tidings unto Hermes ; 
and he stole forth Ares, that was now sore distressed, 
for his grievous bonds were overpowering him. So 
suffered Hera, when the mighty son of Amphitryon 
smote her on the right breast with a three-barbed 
arrow ; then upon her too came pain that might in 
no wise be assuaged. And so suffered monstrous 
Hades even as the rest a bitter arrow, when this 
same man, the son of Zeus that beareth the aegis, 

228 



HOMER 

ev IlvXco €V veKveaat ^aXojv 6Svvr)(nv eScoKcv' 
avrap 6 ^rj Trpos ScDjita Aio? koI fxaKpov "OXv/jlttov 
KTJp ax^MV, oSvvrjaL TTe7rapp,ivos' avrap 6'iaros 
ajfjicx) evi ari^apo) i^At^Aoto, Ky]he he dv/xov. 
Tw 8 cTTt HaLrjajv 6dvv'q(f>aTa (f)dppiaKa Traaawv 
rjKeaar*' ov fxev yap ri KaraOurjros ye rirvKro. 
ay4.r\io<5, o^pifjioepyog,^ os ovk oOer* aiCTuAa pel^cov, 
OS ro^oiaiv eKrjSe Oeovs, ot "OXufXTTOv exovai. 
croL 8' €771 rovrov avrJKe dea yXavKWTTLS ^KOrfvr]' 
VTjTTtos", oj38e TO otSe Kara ^piva Ti'8eos" vtos, 
orri fxaX ov Srjvaios os adavdroLai fjbdx'fjTai, 
ovSe TL fjLLV TTalSes ttotI yovvaai 7ra7T7Tdt,ovaiv 
eXOovr^ e/c TroAe/xoto /cat alvrjs hrj'Corrjros. 
rco vvv TvSetBrjs, el /cat fxdXa Kaprepos ecrrt, 
(f)pa^€a9a) pLrj tls ol dpieivcuv aelo ixd^rfrai, 
fj,rj hrjv AtytaAeta, Trepi^pcxiv ^ASprjarLvrj, 
i$ VTTVOV yoooiaa (f>[Xovs OLKrjas iyeiprj, 
KovpiSiov TTodeovaa ttoctlv, tov dpiarov ^A)(aLcov, 
l(l)6LpL'r) aXoxos AiofMtjSeos iTnroSdfjbOLO ." 

'H pa, /cat dfj,cf)0T€pr]aLV a.7r' l^co X^'-P^^^ ojxopyvv 
dXdero X^^P> o8wat 8e KaTrjmocovTO ^apelai. 
at 8' aur' elaopooiaai ^AOrjvatr] re /cat Hpry 
KeprofXLOLS erreeaaL Ata l^povtSrjv epeOt^ov. 
rolat he puvOajv rjpxe 9ed yXavKcbms ^AO'jvq' 
" Zeu rrdrep, rj pd ri /xot KexoXaxjeai, orri K€V eLrno; 
■^ jxdXa hrj riva KuTrpi? 'A^^atiaScoj' avielaa 
Tpojalv a/uLa arreaOai, rovs vvv eKTtayXa (f)iXr}G€, 

^ 6^pifjLOfpy6s : al<rv\o€f)y6s Aristarchus. 
' Xeipbi : x^P<^^^ Zenodotus. 
224 



THE ILIAD, V. 397-423 

smote him in Pylos amid the dead, and gave him over 
to pains. But he went to the house of Zeus and to 
high Olympus with grief at heart, pierced through 
with pains ; for into his mighty shoulder had the 
shaft been driven, and distressed his soul. But 
Paeeon spread thereon simples that slay pain, and 
healed him ; for verily he was in no wise of mortal 
mould. Rash man, worker of violence, that recked 
not of his evil deeds, seeing that with his arrows 
he vexed the gods that hold Olympus. And upon 
thee has the goddess, flashing-eyed Athene, set 
this man — fool that he is ; for the heart of Tydeus' 
son knoweth not this, that verily he endureth not 
for long who fighteth with the immortals, nor do 
his children prattle about his knees when he is come 
back from war and the dread conflict. Wherefore 
now let Tydeus' son, for all he is so mighty, beware 
lest one better than thou fight against him, lest in 
sooth Aegialeia, the daughter of Adrastus, passing 
wise, wake from sleep with her long lamentings all 
her household, as she wails for her wedded husband, 
the best man of the Achaeans, even she, the stately 
wife of horse-taming Diomedes." 

She spake, and with both her hands wiped the 
ichor from the arm ; the arm was restored, and 
the grievous pains assuaged. But Athene and Hera, 
as they looked upon her, sought to anger Zeus, son of 
Cronos, with mocking words. And among them the 
goddess flashing-eyed Athene was first to speak : 
" Father Zeus, wilt thou anywise be wroth with me 
for the word that I shall say ? Of a surety now 
Cypris has been urging some one of the women of 
Achaea to follow after the Trojans, whom now she 
so wondrously loveth ; and while stroking such a 

VOL. I Q 225 



HOMER 

rwv riva Kappe^ovaa ^A)(audSiov evTreTrXoiV 

TTpos XP^^V '^^povj) Karafxv^aTO X^tpa apairjv." 4 

'^Q.S (fxxTO, fxeiSrjcrev 8e TTarrjp dvhpoJv re Oecov re, 
Kai pa KaXecradfxevog TTpoae(j)rj xp^o'^v 'A<f)poSLTrjV 
" ov rot, reKVOv ipbov, SeSorat TroAe/xi^la epya, 
dXXd av y l/jbepoevra fierepx^o epya ydpuoLo, 
ravra 8' "Aprj'C dow Kol ^AO^vrj Trdvra fieXrjaei,." 4 

"Qs" ol fxev TOiavra rrpos dXXijXovs dyopevov, 
Alveia 8' eTTopovcre ^orjv dyados Aioni^Srjs, 
yiyvoiaKcov 6 ol avros vrreipex^ x^^P'^^ ^AttoXXcjv 
aAA o y ap ovoe oeov jjieyav a^ero, tero d atet 
Alveiav KTelvai Kal 0.770 ktAuto. Teu;^ea Suaat. 4 
T/at? p-ev eTTeir eTTopovae KaraKrdpLevai p,€veaivoiv, 
rpls 8e ol cCTTU^eAife (f)a€ivr]V dcTTrtS' 'AttoXXcjov. 
aAA' ore St) to reraprov eTreacrvTO SaifMovt, taos, 
heivd 8' opiOKXi^aas 7Tpoa€(f)ri eKdepyos ^AttoXXcov 
" (l)pd^€0, TvSetSr), Kal x^C^o, fxrjhe deolaiv 4 

fa' edeXe <f)pov€€i,v, CTret ov ttotc (f}vXov ojxoZov 
ddavdriov re deihv ;\;a/xat epxopiivcov t' dvOpcoTTOJV." 

"O9 <f)dTO, Tu8ei8r^S' 8' dvexd^ero rvrdov omcrcroj, 
fjLTJvtv dXeudp^evos eKarrj^oXov ^ AttoXXojvos . 
Alveiav 8' aTrdrepOev ofxlXov OrJKev ^AttoXXwv 4 

Hepydixo) elv lepfj, 66 1 ol vrjos y erervKro. 
^ TOi Tov Ar)T(x) re Kal "Aprep.is loxeaipa 
iv fjLeydXcp dBvro) dKeovro re Kvhatvov re' 
avrdp 6 etSojXov rev^^ dpyvporo^os ^AttoXXcdv 
avrcp r* Alveia iKeXov Kal revxecrt roXov, 4 

dpL<j)l 8' a/a' elhoiXo) T/acoej Kai 8 tot ^Axaioi 

226 



THE ILIAD, V. 424-451 

one of the fair-robed women of Achaea, she hath 
scratched upon her golden brooch her deUcate 
hand." 

So spake she, but the father of men and gods 
smiled, and calling to him golden Aphrodite, said : 
" Not unto thee, my child, are given works of war ; 
nay, follow thou after the lovely works of marriage, 
and all these things shall be the business of swift 
Ares and Athene." 

On this wise spake they one to the other ; but 
Diomedes, good at the war-cry, leapt upon Aeneas, 
though well he knew that Apollo himself held forth 
his arms above him ; yet had he no awe even of the 
great god, but was still eager to slay Aeneas and 
strip from him his glorious armour. Thrice then he 
leapt upon him, furiously fain to slay him, and thrice 
did Apollo beat back his shining shield. But when 
for the fourth time he rushed upon him like a god, 
then with a terrible cry spake to him Apollo that 
worketh afar : " Bethink thee, son of Tydeus, and 
give place, neither be thou minded to be like of 
spirit with the gods ; seeing in no wise of like sort 
is the race of immortal gods and that of men who 
walk upon the earth," 

So spake he, and the son of Tydeus gave ground 
a scant space backward, avoiding the wrath of 
Apollo that smiteth afar, Aeneas then did Apollo 
set apart from the throng in sacred Pergamus 
where was his temple builded. There Leto and 
the archer Artemis healed him in the great sanctuary, 
and glorified him ; but Apollo of the silver bow 
fashioned a wraith in the likeness of Aeneas' self 
and in armour like to his ; and over the wraith the 
Trojans and goodly Achaeans smote the buU's-hide 

227 



HOMER 

Srjovv aXX'qXojv afji,(f)L arrjQeaai, jSoeta? 
daTTtSas' evKVKXov? Xaiarj'id re Trrepoevra. 
8r) Tore dovpov "Aprja TTpocrrjvSa Oot^o? 'AttoAAcov 
" ^Apes "Apes ^pOToXoiye, [jiiaL(f)6ve , Tetx^aLTrXrJTa, 4 
ovK av hr) rovh^ dvSpa fidxr]? epvaaio fxeTeXdcov, 
TvhetSrjv, OS vvv ye /cat av Ait irarpl fiaxoiro; 
KuTrptSa fxev Tvpojra ax^-hov ovracre X^'p' ^7rt Kap7Tu>, 
avrap eVetr' aura; p,OL eirecravTO Sat/xovt laos." 

"0.5 eLTTcov avros ixkv e(f)el,ero Hepydfxo) aKpr), 4 
Tpq)ds Se arixo-S ovXog "Aprjs orpvve pLereXdojv, 
elBofxevos 'A/ca/^avrt doco rjyrjTopL Qpr^Kcov 
vldai he Yiptdpioio hLorpe(f)eeaai KeXevev 
" (L vleis ripta/zoto, SiOTpe(f)eos ^aaiXijos, 
is rl en Kreivead ai edaere Xaov 'Amatol?; i 

rj els o Kev dix(jil ttvXtjs ev TTOirjrfjai fidxiovTai ; 
/cetrat dvrjp ov tcrov eriopbev "E/cro/at hicp, 
Alveias, vlos fieyaXiJTopos ^Ayxioao' 
dXX dyer Ik <^Xoia^oio aawaofiev eaOXov eralpov." 

"Q? elirajv orpvve fxevos Kal Ovfxov eKdarov. 4 
evd^ av HapTTTjSojv pudXa veiKeaev "E/cropa Siov 
" "E/CTop, Trfj S-q roL jxevos otx^Tac o Trplv ex^oKes; 
(f)rjs 7TOV drep AacSv ttoXlv e^efiev 7)8' einKovpoiV 
olos, avv yafx^polat, KaatyvTJrotai. re aoZai. 
ru)v vvv ov Tiv* eyo) Iheeiv hvvapu ovhe vorjuai, 4 
dXXd Kararrrcjaaovai Kvves 0)S d/xcf)! Xeovra' 

^ The "KaLffrjiop appears to have been (at least originally) 
nothing more than an undressed hide, the hair of which 
fluttered about its edges as a fringe — a human counterpart 
of the fringed, or tasselled, aegis of Zeus. 

228 



THE ILIAD, V. 452-476 

bucklers about one another's breasts, the round 
shields and fluttering targets .^ Then unto furious 
Ares spake Phoebus Apollo : " Ares, Ares, thou 
bane of mortals, thou blood-stained stormer of walls, 
wilt thou not now enter into the battle and withdraw 
this man therefrom, this son of Tydeus, who now 
would fight even against father Zeus ? Cypris first 
hath he wounded in close fight on the hand at the 
wrist, and thereafter rushed he upon mine own self 
like unto a god." 

So spake he, and himself sate him down upon 
the height of Pergamus, and baneful Ares entered 
amid the Trojans' ranks and urged them on, in the 
Hkeness of swift Acamas, leader of the Thracians. 
To Piaa«t^ sons, nurtured of Zeus, he called, 
saying : " Ye sons of Priam, the king nurtured of 
Zeus, how long will ye still suffer your host to be 
slain by the Achaeans ? Shall it be until such time 
as they fight about our well-built gates ? Low 
lieth a man whom we honoured even as goodly 
Hector, Aeneas, son of great-hearted Anchises. 
Nay, come, let us save from out the din of conflict 
our noble comrade^T^ 

So saying he'aTcmsed the strength and spirit of 
every man. And Sarpedon moreover sternly chid 
goodly Hector, saying : " Hector, where now is the 
strength gone that aforetime thou hadst ? Thou 
saidst forsooth that without hosts and allies thou 
wouldst hold the city alone with the aid of thy 
sisters' husbands and thy brothers ; howbeit of 
these can I now neither behold nor mark anyone, 
but they cower as dogs about a lion ; and it is we 

229 



HOMER 

rjfiels 8e /xa;^o/xecr^', ot Trip t' eVt/coupoi eveLfiev. 
/cat yap iyojv eTTiKOvpos io)v fxaXa rr^Xodev tJkco' 
rrjXov yap AvKirj, B.di'Ocp em Stvi^evTL, 
kvd dXoxov re (fylXrjV eXnrov Kal vrJTnov viov, ii 

KaS he KTrnxara iroXXdy rd eXherat 6s k cTriSeui^?. 
dAAot /cat a)s Avklovs orpvvo) /cat fiefiov* avTOS 
dvSpl fiax'ijcro-crOaL- drdp ov rl pbOi ivOdSe rolov 
olov K Tje (^epoLev 'A;)(aiot 17 Kev dyoiev 
Tvvrj 8* earrjKas, drdp ouS' aAAotcrt /ceAeuet? 4i 

Aaotatv jxevepLev /cat dp,vv€fMevai copeaai. 
117] TTOiS, cos difjlat, Xivoi dXovre Travdypov, 
dvSpdai hvap,eveeaaiv eXcop /cat Kvpfxa yevqaOe' 
ol 8e rdx' eKirepaova ev vaioixevrjv ttoXcv vfi-qv. 
aol Be XPV "^^^^ Trdvra fxeXeiv vvKras re /cat "^fiap, 4 
dpxovs Xiaaopievct) rrjXeKXeircov eTTiKovpcov ■_ _ _ 
vcoXefiecos exGfxev, Kpareprjv^ S' aTTodeadai evmriv." 
"Q? ^dro Yiap7T7]hojv yhdKehk (f)pevas"^KropL p,v6os' 
avriKa 8' e^ 6xea)v avv revx^criv dXro ;)^a/xa^e, 
TTCtAAoiv 8' dfe'e Sovpe Kara arpardv ajp^ero Trdvrr], 4 
orpvvcov jxax^croLcrdav, kyeipe 8e <J)vXottiv atvqv. 
OL 8' iXeXixOrjcrav /cat evavrioi earav ^Axaicov 
^ApyeloL 8' VTTefxeivav aoAAees ovS^ it^o^rjdeu. 
d)S 8' dvefjios dxyas ^opeei lepds Kar aAcoa? 
dvhpcov XiKiiojvrcov , ore re ^avOrj Arjp,-qr7)p 51 

KpivT] iireLyofievajv avefiojv Kapirov re /cat dxyas, 
at 8' VTToXevKaivovraL axvpfxtai' cjs ror Kxo.ioX 
XevKoX VTTepOe yevovro KoviudXco, ov pa 8t' avrojv 
ovpavdv is 7toXvxo.Xkov eTreTrXrjyov noSes lttttcov, 
difj empLiayopiivoiV' vtto 8' earpe^ov rjviox'fj^S' 6( 

^ Kpareprjv : x'*^"'"'}/*', 
230 



THE ILIAD, V. 477-505 

that fight, we that are but allies among you. For 
I that am but an ally am come from very far ; afar 
is Lycia by eddying Xanthus<;^here I left my dear 
wife and infant son, and my great wealth the whichX 
every man that is in lack coveteth. Yet even so urge. ' 
I on the Lycians, and am fain myself to fight my man, 
though here is naught of mine such as the Achaeans 
might bear away or drive ; whereas thou standest 
and dost not even urge thy hosts to abide and defend 
their wives. Beware lest thou and they, as if caught 
in the meshes of all-ensnaring flax, become a prey 
and spoil unto your foemen ; and they shall anon 
lay waste your well-peopled city. On thee should 
all these cares rest by night and day, and thou 
shouldest beseech the captains of thy far-famed 
allies to hold their ground unflinchingly, and so put 
away from thee strong rebukings," 

So spake Sarpedon, and his word stung Hector 
to the heart. Forthwith he leapt in his armour from 
his chariot to the ground, and brandishing his two 
sharp spears went everywhere throughout the host, 
urging men to fight, and roused the dread din of 
battle. So they rallied and took their stand with 
their faces towards the Achaeans ; and the Argives 
in close throng abode their coming and fled not. 
And even asi^fhe wind carrieth chaff about the sacred ^ 
threshing-floors of men that are winnowing,^ when 
fair-haired Demeter amid the driving blasts of wind 
separates the grain from the chaff, and the heaps of 
chaff grow white ; even so now did the Achaeans 
grow white over head and shoulders beneath 
the cloud of dust that through the midst of the 
warriors the hooves of their horses beat up to the 
brazen heaven, as the fight was joined again ; and 

231 



HOMER 

OL Se fxevos x^^P^^ ^^^S (f)epov d[jb(f)L 8e vvKra 
dovpos "Aprjs eKaXvi/ie lio-XU Tpweacnz/ dpn^ycov, 
TTavToa e7TOixo[X€Vos' rod 8' eKpdaivev e(j)eTjxds 
OoL^ov ^AttoXXcjovos ;)^pi'CTao/)ou, os fMiv dvcoyei 
Tpujalv dvfiov iyecpat, cTrel iSe IlaAAaS' ^Adrfv-qv £ 
otxofievqv rj yap pa TreXev AavaotaLV dprjywv. 
avTos 8' Alvetav /xaAa ttcovos e^ dSvroLO 
rJKe, Kal iv arrjOeaai pbivos ^dXe TTOijxevi Xaa)V. 
AiveLas o erdpoLOL pLeOiararo' roi S' ixdprjcrav, 
ios elSov lojov re Kal dprep-ia TrpocrLovra S 

/cat iiivos iadXov exovra. pi,€TdXXrjadv ye puev ov rt* 
ov yap ea ttovos dXXos, ov dpyvporo^os eyetpev 
"Aprjs T€ ^poToXoiyog "EpLs t dp.orov fxep^avla. 

Tovs 8' AtWre Svoj /cat 'OSvaaevs /cat Aio^TySi^S' 
orpvvov Aavaovs TroXepnt^epiev' ol 8e /cat aurot S 
ovre ^tas Tpcocov VTreheihiaav ovre tcu/cas", 
aXX efievov v€<l>4Xrjaiv ioLKores, as re Kpovtaiv 
vrjveijbLTjs earrjaev e-n aKponoXoLcnv opeaaiv 
arpefias, o^p* evBrjat fxevos IBopeao Kal dXXcov 
t,axpei(x)V dvep,a)v, ot re v€(f)€a OKioevra g 

woifjaiv Xiyvpfjoi Bi,acrKiSvdatv devres' 
cos Aavaol Tpcoas fxevov ep^nchov ovh^ i(f)e^ovTO. 
^ArpetSrjs 8' dv* opLiXop i^oira vroAAa KeXeviov 
" (L (fiiXoL, dvepes eare Kal aXKLpcov rJTop eXeaOe, 
aXXrjXovs T alSeiade Kara Kparepds vapbivas' 5 
atSopLevcov dvSptov rrXeoves aooi rje 7T€(f)avrai' 
^evyovroiv 8' ovr* dp /cAe'o? opvinai ovre ns dA/c7i." 

232 



THE ILIAD, V. 506-532 

the charioteers wheeled round. The might of their 
hands they bare straight forward, and about the battle 
furious Ares drew a veil of night to aid the Trojans, 
ranging everywhere ; so fulfilled he the behest of 
Phoebus Apollo of the golden sword, who bade him 
rouse the spirit of the Trojans, whenso he saw that 
Pallas Athene was departed ; for she it was that 
bare aid to the Danaans. And Apollo himself sent 
Aeneas forth from out the rich sanctuary, and put 
courage in the breast of the shepherd of the host. 
And Aeneas took his place in the midst of his com- 
rades, and these waxed glad as they saw him come 
to join them alive and whole and possessed of valiant 
courage. Howbeit they questioned him not at all, for 
toil of other sort forbade them, even that which he 
of the silver bow was stirring, and Ares the bane of 
mortals, and Discord that rageth without ceasing. 

On the other side the Aiantes twain and Odysseus 
and Diomedes roused the Danaans to fight ; yet 
these even of themselves quailed not before the 
Trojans' violence and their onsets, but stood their 
ground like mists that in still weather the son of 
Cronos setteth on the mountain-tops moveless, what 
time the might of the North Wind sleepeth and of 
the other furious winds that blow with shrill blasts 
and scatter this way and that the shadowy clouds ; 
even so the Dajiaans withstood the Trojans stead- 
fastly, and fled not. And the son of Atreus ranged 
throughout the throng with many a word of command: 
' My friends, be men, and take to you hearts of 
valour, and have shame each of the other in the 
fierce conflict. Of men that have shame more are 
saved than are slain, but from them that flee cometh 
neither glory nor any avail." 

233 



HOMER 

H, Kol OLKovTiae Sovpl Oocos, ^dXe 8e TrpofMOV 
dvSpa, 
Klveiu) erapov [xeyaOv/xov, ArjiKocovra 
HepyaalSrjv, ov Tpajes ofiaig Il/aia/xoio reKeaai S 
TLOV, eTTel 9o6s ea/ce fiera TrpcoroiaL p,dx€cr9at. 
TOP pa /car' aaTrtSa Sovpl ^dXc Kpeicov 'Aya/xe/xvcuv'' 
7] S' ovK eyxos epvro, StaTrpo 8e eiaaro ;^aA/cds', 
veiatpr] 8' iv yaarpl 8ta t,(jocrTrjpos e'Aacrcre' 
Bov7rr]aev 8e Treacov, dpaP-qcre 8e revyj^ ctt' auroj. 5 

"Et'^' aur' Alvetas Aavatov eXev dvSpas dpiarovs, 
vie AiokXtjos, J^pijdcovd re ^OpoiXoyov re, 
Tci)V pa Trarrjp [xev evatev evKTipLevr] ivl ^rjprj, 
d(f)vei6s jStoToto, yevos 8' rjv ck TTorap^oto 
'AA(/ietou, OS r evpif peeu UvXlojv 8ta yairjs, 5 

OS reKer ^OpaiXo)(ov^ TToXiecra' dvhpeaoLv dvaKra' 
^OpaiXoxos 8' ap' eriKre Ato/cAi^a fxeydOvfiov, 
CK 8e AiOKiATyo? 8i8u/xaov€ 7rar8e yeveadrjv, 
K/OTj^cor ^ paiXoxps re, [xd^'i^S ev elSore Trdaiqs. 
TO) p,€V dp* Tj^ijaavre fieXaLvdcov im vriiJov 5 

"lAioi^ els evTTCoXov dp,* * Apyeioiaiv eneaOrjv, 
TipbTjv ^ArpetS-DS, *Aya[j,ep,vovi, /cat MeveXdw, 
dpvvfxevo)' rd> 8' avdi, reXos davdroio KdXvipev. 
olco T(x) ye Xeovre hvo) opeos Kopv(f)ija(,v 
irpa(f)€Trjv vno fiT^rpl ^adeirjs Tdp<f)ecnv vXrjs' 6 

TO) p,ev dp* dpTrdt^ovre ^oas /cat t(^ta p,rjXa 
aradp,ovs dvdpcoTTCov Kepa'C^erov, 6<j)pa /cat aura) 
dvhpcbv ev TraAa/xr^crt KareKraOev o^ei x'^Xkco' 
Toict) TO) ;)^et/3ecrcrtP' vtt* Alveiao hap^evTe 
KaTTTTeaerrjv, eXdrrjaLV eoiKores viprjXfjai,. 5 

Tci) Se TTeaovT* eXerjaev dprfC<j)iXos Mei^eAao?, 

* 'Opal\oxov : 'OprlXoxov Zenodcitus, who also gave 'Oprl- 
Xoxos in the following line ; c/. Odyssey 'in. 489. 

234 



THE ILIAD, V. 533-561 

He spake, and hurled his spear swiftly and smote 
a foremost warrior, a comrade of great-souled Aeneas, 
Deicoon, son of Pergasus, whom the Trojans honoured 
even as the sons of Priam, for that he was swift to 
fight amid the foremost. Him did lord Agamemnon 
smite with his spear upon the shield, and this stayed 
not the spear, but clean through it passed the bronze, 
and into the lower belly he drave it through the 
belt ; and he fell with a thud, and upon him his 
armour clanged. 

Then Aeneas slew two champions of the Danaans, 
the sons of Diodes, Crethon and Orsilochus, whose 
father dwelt in well-built Pherae, a man rich in 
substance, and in lineage was he sprung from the 
river Alpheius that flows in broad stream through the 
land of the Pylians, and that begat Orsilochus to be 
king over many men. And Orsilochus begat great- 
souled Diodes, and of Diodes were born twin sons, 
Crethon and Orsilochus, well skilled in all manner of 
fighting. Now when the twain had reached manhood, 
they followed with the Argives on the black ships to 
Ilios famed for its horses, seeking to win recompense 
for the sons of Atreus, Agamemnon and Menelaus ; 
but their own selves in that land did the doom 
of death enfold. Like them two lions upon the 
mountain tops are reared by their dam in the 
thickets of a deep wood ; and the twain snatch 
cattle and goodly sheep and make havoc of the 
farmsteads of men, until themselves are slain by 
the hands of men with the sharp bronze ; even in 
such Avise were these twain vanquished beneath the 
hands of Aeneas, and fell like tall fir-trees. 

But as they fell Menelaus dear to Ares had pity 
for them, and strode through the foremost fighters, 

235 



HOMER 

^7] Se 8ia TTpofxaxcov KeKopvO/xevos aWoTn p^aA/coi, 
aeiiov iyx^^V^' '^ov 8' orpvvev [xevos "Aprjs, 
TO. (j)pov€Cx)V, Lva ;]^epcrtv vtt* Alveiao Safxeir]. 
Tov 8' tSev ^AvtlXoxos, jxeyadvpiov Nearopos vlos, I 
^i] 8e Bia TTpojjbdxoiv . Trepl yap 8te TTOipLevi, Xacbv, 
p.'q Tt irddoi, fxeya 8e a(f)as d'noa<j>riXeie ttovolo. 
TO) p,€V Srj ;)^etpas' re /cat ey^ea o^voevra 
dvriov dXXrjXcjov ix^rrjv /xe/xacDre fxax^odai' 
^AvtlXoxos 8e jLtaA' ayx'' 'n'O-pLoraro Trot/xeVi Aacor. ' 
Alveias 8' ou [xeive, doos Ttep iojv TToXepnar'qs, 
<x)S elSev Bvo (/icoTe Trap aXXriXoioi fievovre' 
ol 8' eVet ovv veKpovs epvaav pbeTa. Xaov 'AxaLoJv, 
roj fxev apa SeiAco ^aXerrjV iv x^P^^^^ eraLpojv, 
avrctj 8e aTpe(f)d€VT€ fierd Trpojroiai pLax^adr^v. t 

"Kv6a rivAat/xeVea eXerrjV drdXavrov "Aprj'C, 
dpxov Wa^Xayovcjv fxeyadvpicov daTTLcrrdcov. 
rov fiev dp* 'ArpetS'qs BovpiKXeiros MeveXaos 
iaraor* eyx^t vv^e /caret KXrj'iha rvxrjcras' 
* AvTiXoxos 8e M-vhiova jSctA', rjvtoxov depdvovra, t 
iadXov ^Arvp^vidSr^v, 6 8' inrearpecfie fxcovvxo-S lttttovs, 
XepfiaSLO) dyKcova tvxcov puiaov e/c 8 apa x^f-pdiV 
rjvia Aey/c' €X€4>a.vrt. ;^a/xat ireaov iv Kovirjatv . 
*AvTtXoxos 8' dp* eTTa't^as ^t^ei rjXaae Kopa-qv 
avrdp 6 y daOp^aivcov evepyeos e/CTreae Si,(f)pov ^ 

KV/xj^axos iv KOVLTjcnv iirl ^pcxp-ov re Koi co/xovs. 
SrjOd p,dX* ecrrr^/cet — rvx^ ydp p dpiddoio ^adeir^g — 
o^p* Itttto) TrX'q^avre ;\;a/Aat ^dXov iv KOVLTjaf 
Tovs ipLaa* * AvriXoxos , fierd 8e arparov rjXaa* 

*Axoiidjv. 
236 



THE ILIAD, V. 562-589 

harnessed in flaming bronze and brandishing his 
spear ; and Ares roused his might with intent that 
lie might be vanquished beneath the hands of Aeneas. 
But Antilochus, son of great-souled Nestor, beheld 
him, and strode through the foremost fighters ; for 
greatly did he fear for the shepherd of the host, 
lest aught befall him, and he utterly thwart them of 
their toil. Now the twain were holding forth their 
hands and their sharp spears each against the other, 
fain to do battle, when Antilochus came close beside 
the shepherd of the host. Then Aeneas abode not, 
swift warrior though he was, when he beheld the 
two holding their ground side by side ; and they, 
when they had dragged the dead to the host of the 
Achaeans, laid the hapless pair in the arms of their 
comrades, and themselves turned back and fought 
amid the foremost. 

Then the twain slew Pylaemenes, peer of Ares, 
the leader of the great-souled Paphlagonian shield- 
men. Him as he stood still, the son of Atreus, 
spear-famed Menelaus, pierced with his spear, 
smiting him upon the collar-bone ; and Antilochus 
made a cast at Mydon, his squire and charioteer, 
the goodly son of Atymnius, even as he was turning 
the single-hooved horses, and smote him with a stone 
full upon the elbow ; and the reins, white with 
ivory, fell from his hands to the ground in the dust. 
Then Antilochus leapt upon him and drave his 
sword into his temple, and gasping he fell forth from 
out the well-built car headlong in the dust on his head 
and shoulders. Long time he stood there — for he 
lighted on deep sand — until his horses kicked him and 
cast him to the ground in the dust ; and them Anti- 
lochus lashed, and drave into the host of the Achaeans. 

237 



HOMER 

ovs o hiKTCop evoTjcte Kara arixo.s, wpro b 
> > > \ 

€TT aVTOVS 

KeKXy^ycov dfia Se Tpcoojv clttovto (idXayyes 
Kaprepai' rjpx^ S' dpa acftLV "Aprjs Kal ttotvC 'Evuci, 
■T] p,€V exovaa K^vSoip^ov dvaiSea SrjXorijros, 
"Aprjs 8' iv 7TaXdp,r}a(, TreXcopiov ey^os ivdypia, 
(f)Otra S' dXXore fiev Ttpoad^ "KKTopos, dXXor 
omade. 

Tov 8e Ihojv pcyqae ^orjv dyados Aio/at^St^s" 
CO? 8' or* dvrjp dTrdXafjUvos, lojv TToXeos irehioio, 
arrjT] ctt' coKvpoco TTorapLcp dXaSe rrpopiovrL, 
d(f>pa) p,opp,vpovra IBcov, dvd r* eSpa/i' OTriaaco, 
COS rore LvoeLorjs avexaC,ero, enre re Aacp' 
" CO (J)lXol, olov Srj Oavp-d^ofxev "E/cropa 8 tov 
alxP''f]T'qv r efxevai Kal OapaaXeov ■noXefiLcrr'qv 
rep 8' atet irdpa els ye ded)v, os Xoiyov dp.vvei' 
Kal vvv ol Trdpa KeXvos "Ap-qs, ^porw dvBpl eoLKios. 
dXXd TTpos Tpd>as rerpap,p,evoL alev oiriaacx) 
eiKere, p,r]he Oeots p-eveaivep^ev l(j>i p^dxeadai." 

"Cls dp* e<f)rj, Tpdies 8e pbdXa axeSov rjXvdov 
avrcov. 
eV0' "Ektcop hvo <f)d)re KareKravev elSore x^Pt^V^t 
elv evl hi(j)pcp eovre, MeveaOrjv *AyxtaX6v re. 
TO) 8e TTeaovr* eXerjoe p.eyas TeXaixwvios Atas" 
arrj 8e /xaA' eyyvs Icov, Kal dKovriae Sovpl cfyaetvco, 
Kal pdXev "ApLf^iov, SeAayoy vlov, os p evl Ilataa) 
vale 7ToXvKri]p,a>v 7toXvXi]los' aAAa e fioZpa 
rjy* eTTiKovprjaovra fierd Fl/ata/xov re Kal vtas. 
rov pa Kara ^coarrjpa ^dXev TeXafxcovios Atas, 



* KvSoiiJ.6s appears here to be personified, as in xviii. 535. 
In the light of xi. 4, however, it is at least possible that 
238 



THE ILIAD, V. 590-615 

But Hector marked them across the ranks, and 
rushed upon them shouting aloud, and with him 
followed the strong battalions of the Trojans ; and 
Ares led them and the queen Enyo, she bringing 
ruthless Din of War,^ while Ares wielded in his 
hands a monstrous spear, and ranged now in front 
of Hector and now behind him. 

At sight of him Diomedes, good at the war-cry, 
shuddered ; and even as a man in passing over a great 
plain halteth in dismay at a swift-streaming river 
that floweth on to the sea, and seeing it seething 
with foam starteth backward, even so now did the 
son of Tydeus give ground, and he spake to the 
host : " Friends, look you how we were ever wont 
to marvel at goodly Hector, deeming him a spearman 
and a dauntless warrior ; whereas ever by his side 
is some god that wardeth from him ruin, even as now 
Ares is by his side in the likeness of a mortal man. 
But with faces turned toward the Trojans give ye 
ground ever backwards, neither rage ye to fight 
amain with gods." 

So spake he, and the Trojans came very close to 
them. Then Hector slew two warriors well skilled 
in fight, Menesthes and Anchialus, the twain being 
in one car. And as they fell great Telamonian Aias 
had pity of them, and came and stood close at hand, 
and with a cast of his shirting spear smote Amphius, 
son of Selagus, that dwelt in Paesus, a man rich in 
substance, rich in corn-land ; but fate led him to 
bear aid to Priam and his sons. Him Telamonian 
Aias smote upon the belt, and in the lower belly 

^Xoi'^a means "bearing in her hands," rather than "bring- 
ing in her train," and that by Kvdoifids we are to understand 
some symbolic attribute of Enyo. 

239 



HOMER 

vetaiprj 8* iv yaarpl Trdyrj SoXixoctklov ey)(os, 
hovirrjoev he Treawv 6 8' eTreSpafjie ^atSt/xo? Aca? 
revx^a avX'qaiov Tpcoes 8' evrt Soupar' e^evav 
o^ea TTaix^avocovra- uolkos 8' aveSe^aro ttoXXo.. 
aurap 6 Xa^ Trpoa^as e/c veKpov )(dXK€ov ey^os ' 
eaTTaaar^' ovS' ap* eV aAAa hvvrjaaro rev^ea KaXa 
wfiouv d(j}eX€adai' eireiyeTO yap jSeAeeaat. 
8etore 8' o y' dpLi^l^aaiv Kpareprjv Tpcocov dy€pa>x(ov, 
ot TToXXoL T€ Kol ecrOXoi ecjyearaaav eyx^* exovres, 
61 i fxeyav rrep eovra /cat '[(f^Oiixov /cat dyavov < 
(Laav diTO a(f)€LOJV' 6 Be p^aacra/ievos" TreXepbixOf] . 
"n? OL fxev TTOveovro Kara Kparep-^v vafilvqv 
TXr^TToXefjiov 8' 'HpaKXetSrjV, rjvv re fjueyav re, 
(Lpaev eii dvrideo) ^apTrrjBovt fioipa Kparaixj. 
ol 8' ore hrj cr;^e8ov ■^crav err dXX'qXoiaLV lovres, ( 
vlos 0^ VLCOvos re Ato? ve(f)eXr]yeperao, 
rov /cat TXriTToXepLOS irporepos npos jxvdov eenre' 
" TiapTTrjSov, AvKicDV ^ovXrjt^ope, ris rot dvdyKT] 
TTroiaaeiv evBdh^ iovri pt'dx^js dSa'qfiovi <j)Oiri; 
ifjevBofxevoL 8e ae (fyaat Atos" yovov alyioxoio ( 

eivai, eirel ttoXXov kcIvcov eTnSeveat dvhpaiv 
Ol Ato? i^eyevovro €7rt irporepcxiv dvdpdjTTOJV 
dXXolov^ rivd <f)acrL ^irjv 'YipaKXrjeirjv 
elvai, ifiov narepa dpacrbixepivova OufxaXeovra' 
OS TTore 8eu/)' eXdd>v evex lttttcov AaofieSovros ( 
e^ oLr)s crvv V7]vai /cat dvSpdcri Travporepoiaiv 
'lAiou e^aXdna^e ttoXlp, p^T^pcoae 8' dyvids' 
aol Be /ca/co? /xej/ dvfxos, d7TO<f)9i,vvdova(, Be Xaoi, 
ovBe rl ae Tpu)eaaiv otofjuai. aA/cap ecreadai 

^ dWoUf : dW ol6i>, 
240 



THE ILIAD, V. 616-644 

was the far-shadowing spear fixed, and he fell with 
a thud. Then glorious Aias rushed upon him to 
strip him of his armour, and the Trojans rained upon 
him their spears, all sharp and gleaming, and his 
shield caught many thereof. But he planted his 
heel upon the corpse and drew forth the spear of 
bronze, yet could he not prevail likewise to strip 
the rest of the fair armour from his shoulders, for he 
was sore pressed with missiles. Furthermore, he 
feared the strong defence of the lordly Trojans, 
that beset him both many and valiant with spears 
in their hands and, for all he was so tall and mighty 
and lordly, thrust him from them ; and he gave 
ground and was made to reel. 

So these toiled in the mighty conflict, but Tlepo- 
lemus, son of Heracles, a valiant man and tall, was 
roused by resistless fate against godlike Sarpedon. 
And when they were come near as they advanced 
one against the other, the son and grandson of Zeus 
the cloud-gatherer, then Tlepolemus was first to 
speak, saying : " Sarpedon, counsellor of the 
Lycians, why must thou be skulking here, that art 
a man unskilled in battle ? They speak but a He 
that say thou art sprung from Zeus that beareth 
the aegis, seeing thou art inferior far to those 
warriors that were sprung from Zeus in the days of 
men of old. Of other sort, men say, was mighty 
Heracles, my father, staunch in fight, the lion- 
hearted, who on a time came hither by reason of 
the mares of Laomedon with but six ships and a 
scantier host, yet sacked the city of Ilios and made 
waste her streets. But thine is a coward's heart, 
and thy people are minishing. In no wise methinks 
shall thy coming from Lycia prove a defence to the 

VOL. I R 241 



HOMER 

eXdovT* e/c AvKtrjs, ovS' et yuctAa Kaprepos iaai, 
aAA V7T* ifjbOL SixTjOevra TTvXas 'AtSao rreprjaeiv." 

lov o av ZiapTTTjBcbv Avklojv dyos olvtlov iquSa' 
" TXrjTToXefx , rj rot Keivog a-najXeaev "YXiov lpr)V 
avepos a.(f)paSLrj(nv dyavov AaofxeSovros, 
o? pa fiiv eS ep^avra kukco rjVLnave fMvdq), 
ovo aTrlhaix ^ttttovs, oJv etveKa rrjXodev rjXOe. 
croi o eyo) ivOdSe (f>rj[xl (f)6vov Kal Krjpa fieXaivav 
ii ifieOev rev^eadai, ept,a> 8' vtto Sovpl Bafxevra 
evxos efxol hioaeiv, i/jvx^v S' "Al'St kXvtottioXo)," 
lis (paro ZiapTTrjScvv, 6 8' dveax^TO pieiXivov ey^os 
TX'qTroXefios' Kal raxu fiev apbaprij Sovpara pbaKpd 
e/c x^f'P^v rj'i^av 6 p,ev ^dXev au;!^eVa fiecraov 
llap7T7]8a>v, alxfirj 8e Sta/xTrepe? t^A^' diXeyeiv)^' 
rov Se /car' o^OaXpiwv ipe^ewr) vii^ e/coAu^e. 
TXrjTToXe/jios 8' dpa p,7)p6v dpiarepov €yx€'C fxaKpo) 
^e^Xi]K€iv, alxP'r] 8e SieaarvTO fxaL/icocoaa, 
oarreu) eyxptfic/iOeLaa, Trarrjp 8' eri Xoiyov dp,W€V. 

Ot /xev dp* dvriOeov HapTrrjSova Slol iraXpoi 
e^€J)€pov TToXefjiOLO- ^dpvve 8e fMtv Bopv (xaKpov 
iXKOjxevov TO jxev ov rts inecfipdaaT* oi58' ivorjce, 
fxrjpov i^epvaai 86pv pieiXivoVy 6(l>p* eVt^SaiTy, 
airevBovTcov roiov yap ^xov ttovov dpL(f)L€7T0vr€s. 

TXrjTToXefxov 8' irepoidev ivKvqfxiSes 'A;^aiot 
e^ecpepov TToXe/xoio' vorjae 8e Sio? 'OSvaaevs 
TXrjpiova Ov/jlov ex^ov, fialfirjcre 8e oi (f>LXov rjrop' 
fiep/x'^pL^e 8' €7T€i,Ta Kara ^p4va /cat /card dvfxov 

242 



THE ILIAD, V. 645-671 

men of Troy, though thou be never so strong, but 
thou shalt be vanquished by my hand and pass 
the gates of Hades." 

And to him Sarpedon, captain of the Lycians, 
made answer : " Tlepolemus, thy sire verily destroyed 
sacred Ihos through the folly of the lordly man, 
Laomedon, who chid with harsh words him that had 
done him good service, and rendered him not the 
mares for the sake of which he had come from afar. 
But for thee, I deem that death and black fate 
shall here be wrought by my hands, and that van- 
quished beneath my spear thou shalt yield glory to 
me, and thy soul to Hades of the goodly steeds." 

So spake Sarpedon, and Tlepolemus lifted on 
high his ashen spear, and the long spears sped from 
the hands of both at one moment. Sarpedon smote 
him full upon the neck, and the grievous point 
passed clean through, and down upon his eyes came 
tlie darkness of night and enfolded him. And 
Tlepolemus smote Sarpedon upon the left thigh 
with his long spear, and the point sped through 
furiously and grazed the bone ; howbeit his father 
as yet warded from him destruction. 

Then his goodly companions bare godlike Sarpedon 
forth from out the fight, and the long spear burdened 
him sore, as it trailed, but no man marked it or 
thought in their haste to draw forth from his thigh 
the spear of ash, that he might stand upon his feet ; 
such toil had they in tending him. 

And on the other side the well-greaved Achaeans 
bare Tlepolemus from out the fight, and goodly 
Odysseus of the enduring soul was ware of it, and 
his spirit waxed furious within him ; and he pondered 
then in heart and soul whether he should pursue 

243 



HOMER 

"^ TTporepoi Ato? vlov ipiyhovTroio SidoKoi, 
•^ o ye rwv TrXeovojv Avkiojv oltto OvfMov eXoiTO. 
oi58' a/a' 'OSuCTCTT^t jjbeyaXrjropL iiopatpiov rjev 
L(f>di,fMov Alos vlov airoKTapiev o^i'i -)(a\Kcp' ' 

T(x) pa Kara ttXtjOvv Avklojv rpdire Ou/jLov *Ad-qvrj. 
evd 6 ye K.olpavov elXev * KXdaropd re X^pofxtov re 
AXKavSpov 6* "AXlov re Noi^/^ova re Upvraviv re. 
Kai vv K en rrXeovas Avklcov Krdve 8 to? ^Ohvaaevs, 
ei pLTi ap' 6^v v67]cre /xeyag KopvOaioXos "E/crco/a* < 
^7] he hid TTpofjidxoiv KeKopvdfievos aldom xoXkco, 
oelfia (f>€p(ov Aavaotai. x^PV ^' ^P^ °' irpoaiovri 
TiapTrrjhcbv Alos utos", eiros 8' 6Xo(f)vhv6v eecrre' 

HpiafiiBrj, 1X7] h-q p,e eXiop AavaoioLV edcrrjs 
KeZadai, aAA' eTrdfivvov erreird /xe /cat XLttoi alojv i 
ev 770 Aet vfxerepr], eTret ovk dp^ ejxeXXov eyco ye 
voarrjoas oiKovhe (f>iX'r]v is Trarpiha yalav 
ev(f)pave€Lv aXo^ov re (j)iXriv /cat vqinov vlov. 

"Q? (f>dro, rov 8' ov ri 7Tpoae(f>rj KopvdaioXos 
"E/cra)/t), 
dXXd rraprjC^ev, XeXLr]fievos 6(f)pa rd^iara 
ajCTatr' ^Apyeiovs, iroXecov 8' diro dv/xov eXoiro. 
OL jxev dp* dvriOeov TiapTrrjSova 8tot eralpoL 
eiaav vtt* alyi6)(oio Aids TrepiKaXXei (f)'r]ya)' 
e/c 8' dpa ol ix7]pov Sopv fxelXivov (Lae dvpa^e 
IcfiOtfxos IleXdyojv, os ol ^t'Ao? rjev eralpos. 
rov Be AtVe '/'u^'/y, /caret 8' 6^6aXpLU)v Kexvr ap^^Aws". 
aurt? 8' dpLTrvvvQrj, Trepl 8e ttvoltj Bopeao 
t,o)ypei eTTLTweiovaa /ca/caj? KeKa(f)rj6ra dvp.ov. 

'Apyetoi 8' VTT* "AprfC /cat "E/CTopt xaAKOKO/JuoTT^ 
ovre TTore Trporperrovro fxeXaivdwv em VT]d)V 

244 



THE ILIAD, V. 672-700 

further after the son of Zeus that thundereth aloud, 
or should rather take the hves of more Lyciaris. 
But not for great-hearted Odysseus was it ordained 
to slay with the sharp bronze the valiant son of 
Zeus ; wherefore Athene turned his mind toward 
the host of the Lycians. Then slew he Coeranus 
and Alastor and Chromius and Alcandrus and 
Halius and Noemon and Prytanis ; and yet more of 
the Lycians would goodly Odysseus have slain, but 
that great Hector of the flashing helm was quick to 
see, and strode through the foremost fighters 
harnessed in flaming bronze, bringing terror to the 
Danaans. Then glad at his coming was Sarpedon, 
son of Zeus, and spake to him a piteous word : " Son 
of Priam, suff"er me not to he here a prey to the 
Danaans, but bear me aid ; thereafter, if need be, 
let life depart from me in your city, seeing it might 
not be that I should return home to mine own native 
land to make glad my dear wife and infant son." 

So spake he, yet Hector of the flashing helm 
spake no word in answer, but hastened by, eager 
with all speed to thrust back the Argives and take 
the lives of many. Then his goodly comrades 
made godlike Sarpedon to sit beneath a beauteous 
oak of Zeus that beareth the aegis, and forth from 
his thigh valiant Pelagon, that was his dear comrade, 
thrust the spear of ash ; and his spirit failed him, 
and down over his eyes a mist was shed. Howbeit 
he revived, and the breath of the North Wind as it 
blew upon him made him to live again after in 
grievous wise he had breathed forth his spirit. 

But the Argives before the onset of Ares and 
Hector harnessed in bronze neither turned them to 
make for the black ships, nor yet could they hold 

245 



HOMER 

ovre TTOT* dvT€(f)€povTO iJidxn, aAA' alev oTriaaoi 
XOiCov6\ d)S invdovTO fxerd Tpcoeaaiv "Aprja. 

' Evda TLva TrpaJTOv, riva 8' vararov e^evdpL^av 
"Ektcop re Ylpidixoio ird'Cs /cat ^(aXKeos "Aprjs; 
avrideov Tevdpavr* , cttI Se TrXiq^LTTTTOV ^Opearrjv, ; 
Tpijxov t' atxfJ''r]Trjv AircoAtot' OlvofMaov re, 
OlvoTrlSrjv 6* "KXevov /cat ^Opea^iov aloXofjiirp-qv, 
OS /)' ev 'TA17 vaieaKe fxeya ttAoutoio fi€[X7]Xcos, 
Xi/Jivrj KeKXifievos KTy^tatSt* Trap Be ol dXXoi 
valov BotcoTot fJbdXa iriova hrjfiov exovres. "i 

Toils 8' cos ovv ivorjae ded XevKcoXevos "H/37^ 
^ Apyeiovs oXeKovras ivl Kparepfj vufiLvr), 
avriK Adrjvairjv enea Trrepoevra Trpocrrjvda' 
" o) TTOTTOL, alytoxoio Aios reKOs, 'Arpvrcovr], 
77 p' dXiov rov fjLvdov V7T€urrjfj,ev MeveXdo), ' 

"IXlov eKTTepaavr evreix^ov dTTOvieaOai, 
el ovrco fxaiveadaL edaofxev ovXov "Ap-qa. 
dXX' dye 817 Kat vdJ'C /xeSco/xe^a dovpiSos dXKrjS' 

"Qj €(f)ar\ ovS^ drrid-qae ded yXavKcoms 'AO-qvrj. 
rj fiev eTTOLXofievr] ;;(puo'a;u,7ry/cas' evrvev lttttovs ' 
"Hpr], TTpea^a ded, dvydrrjp fieydXoLO Kpovoio. 
"li^r] 8' dficf)^ oxeeaac docos ^dXe KafxirvXa /cu/cAa, 
p^aA/cea OKraKvqfxa, aihr^pecp d^ovi apL(f)LS. 
rcov "q rot, XP'^^^V '^'^^^ d(f)diros, avrdp vnepOe 
XdXxe* eTTiaacorpa Trpoaaprjpora, OavfMa Iheadav '; 
TtXrjpbvai 8' dpyvpov elal TreplSpofjLOL dfX(f)orep(x>dev' 
SL(f)pos 8e ;^/>uo-€otcrt /cat dpyvpeocaLV Ipidaiv 
ivrerarai, 8oiat 8e TrepiSpofioL dvrvyes elai. 
rov 8' €^ dpyvpeos pvpids 'neXev avrdp ctt' aKpco 
246 



THE ILIAD, V. 701-729 

out in fight, but they ever gave ground backward, 
when they heard that Ares was amid the Trojans. 

Who then was first to be slain and who last by 
Hector, Priam's son, and brazen Ares ? GodUke 
Teuthras, and thereafter Orestes, driver of horses, 
Trechus, spearman of Aetolia, and Oenomaus, and 
Helenus, son of Oenops, and Oresbius with flashing 
taslet, he that dwelt in Hyle on the border of the 
Cephisian mere, having great care of his wealth ; 
and hard by him dwelt other Boeotians having a 
land exceeding rich. 

But when the goddess, white-armed Hera, was 
ware of them as they made havoc of the Argives in 
the fierce conflict, forthwith she spake winged words 
to Athene : " Out upon it, thou child of Zeus that 
beareth the aegis, unwearied one, verily it was for 
naught that we pledged our word to Menelaus, 
that not until he had sacked well-walled Ilios should 
he get him home, if we are to suffer baneful Ares 
thus to rage. Nay, come, let us twain likewise 
bethink us of furious valour." 

So spake she, and the goddess, flashing-eyed 
Athene, failed not to hearken. Then Hera, the 
queenly goddess, daughter of great Cronos, went to 
and fro harnessing the horses of golden frontlets, 
and Hebe quickly put to the car on either side the 
curved wheels of bronze, eight-spoked, about the 
iron axle-tree. Of these the felloe verily is of gold 
imperishable, and thereover are tires of bronze 
fitted, a marvel to behold ; and the naves are of 
silver, revolving on this side and on that ; and the 
body is plaited tight with gold and silver thongs, 
and two rims there are that run about it. From the 
body stood forth the pole of silver, and on the end 

247 



HOMER 

Srjae ^^puaeiov KaXov l,vy6v, iv 8e XerraSva 1 

KctA' e'jSaAe p^puaei'* vtto 8e ^uyoi' -i^yayev "Hp^y 
iTTTTOUS' ci/cuTroSas", fiefiavV epiSos Kal dvrrjs. 

Avrap ^AOrjvairj, Kovpr] Ato? atytd;j^oto, 
7T€7tXov fjiev Karex^vev eavov Trarpos ctt ouSei/ 
ttolklXov, ov p avTT] TTOL-qaaro Kal KOLfxe ^epaiv 'J 
r] he ;^tTa>t'' evhvaa Atos vecfieXrjyeperao 
T€V)(€ai,v is TToXe/JLOV dcopT^aaero BaKpvoevra. 
afx^l 8' ap' (jopLOLOLV ^dXer^ alyiSa dvaaavoeaaav 
BeLvqv, Tjv TTepl fxkv Trdvrrj Q)6^os i<TT€cf)dvcor ai, 
iv 8' "Epi?, iv 8' 'AAicTy, eV 8e Kpvoeaaa 'Ico/ct], 'i 
et* 8e T€ ro/oyeti^ K€(f)aXrj Seivolo ireXdipov, 
heivri re afxepSvrj re, Atos repay ai'yio;)^oto. 
Kparl 8' ctt' dp,(f)L<f)aXov Kvverjv dero reTpa<f)dXiqpov 
XpvaeLTjv, eKarov ttoXlcov TrpvXieaa dpapvlav. 
is 8' o;^ea c^Xoyea iroai ^rjcrero, Aa^ero 8' eyp^os" 'J 
^piOi) fiiya ari^apov, rep hdp.vqai ari-)(as avbpcjv 
rjpivcov, olalv re Korecraerai o^pipLOTTdrpy]. 
"HpT^ 8e p,d(TTiyi dou)S iTrefiaier' dp' Ittttovs' 
avTOjxaTai he TTvXai fxvKov ovpavov. Sis ^xov ^Q.pai, 
rfjs iTTirerpaTTrai [xeyas ovpavos OvXvp^TTos re, 7 
Tj/xev dvaKXlvai ttvklvov ve(j>os 1^8 iindetvai. 
rij pa St^ avrdcov KevrprjveKeas exov Ittttovs' 
eSpov 8e J^povLOjva dewv drep rjp^evov dXXcov 
aKpordTTj Kopv(l)fj TToXuheipdhos OvXvjxttolo . 
h^d^ Ittttovs arriaaaa Bed XevKcoXevos 'H/dt^ 7 

Ziijv* VTTarov l^povihrjv i^eipero koI TrpoaeeiTTe' 

* Lines 734 f. were rejected by Zenodotus. 

^ The (pdXoi of the Homeric helmet appear to have been 
horns (a survival from an earlier period in which a beast's 
head served as a helm), and the (pdXapa metal bosses. 

248 



THE ILIAD, V. 730-756 

thereof she bound the fair golden yoke, and cast 
thereon the fair golden breast-straps ; and Hera 
led beneath the yoke the swift-footed horses, and 
was eager for strife and the war-cry. 

But Athene, daughter of Zeus that beareth the 
aegis, let fall upon her father's floor her soft robe, 
richly broidered, that herself had wrought and her 
hands had fashioned, and put on her the tunic of 
Zeus, the cloud-gatherer, and arrayed her in armour 
for tearful war. About her shoulders she flung the 
J;ass elled aegis, fraught with terror, all about M'hich 
Rout is set as a crown, and therein is Strife, therein 
Valour, and therein Onset, that maketh the blood 
run cold, and therein is the head of the dread monster, 
the Gorgon, dread and awful, a portent of Zeus that 
beareth the aegis. And upon her head she set the 
helmet with two horns and with bosses four,^ wrought 
of gold, and fitted with the men-at-arms of an hundred 
cities. Then she stepped upon the flaming car and 
grasped her spear, heavy and huge and strong, 
wherewith she vanquisheth the ranks of men^of 
warriors with whom she is wroth, she, the daughter 
of the mighty sire. And Hera swiftly touched the 
horses with the lash, and self-bidden groaned upon 
their hinges the gates of heaven which the Hours had 
in their keeping, to whom are entrusted great 
heaven and Olympus, whether to throw open the 
thick cloud or shut it to. There through the gate 
they drave their horses patient of the goad ; and 
they found the son of Cronos as he sat apart from 
the other gods on the topmost peak of many-ridged 
Olympus. Then the goddess, white-armed Hera, 
stayed the horses, and made question of Zeus most 
high, the son of Cronos, and spake to him ; " Father 

249 



HOMER 

" Zeu TTOLTep, ov vefieat^rj "Aprj rdSe Kaprepa epya, 
oaaaTiov re /cat oXov OLTTcoXeae Xaov 'A;^ata)P' 
fiaip, arap ov Kara Koa/xov, e/xot 8' axos, ol Se 

e/CTjAot 
repTTOVTai KyTrpt? re /cat dpyvporo^os 'AttoAAojv, 7 
d(f)pova Tovrov dvevres, os ov riva otSe Oefjuara; 
ZeiJ TTOLTep, rj pa ri /jlol KexoXcoo'eai, at /cet* "Aprja 
Xvypios rreTrXrjyvia fJiOL)(y]S €$ olttoS tco fxai ; " 

Trjv h^ a.TTaiiei^6jxevosTTpoae(f)ri vecfieXrjyepera Zeus" 

ay pet fxdv ol eTvopcrov ^AdT]vaLr)v dyeXeirjv, 7 

1^ € /AaAtcrr' etco^e KaKjjs oSwrjac TreXd^CLV." 

"Qs" e^ar* , oi58' dTrWrjae ded XevKcoXevos "Hprj, 
fidoTL^ev 8' ITTTTOUS" TO) 8' ou/c deKovTC TTereadrjV 
fjLeaarjyvs yairjs re /cat ovpavov darepoevros . 
oaaov o rjepoeioes avrjp toev o(pvaApbOLaiv 7 

rip^evos ev aKOTTifj, Xevaawv im oivona ttovtov, 
r oaaov eTndpipaKovai decbv vifjrj)(ees Ittttol. 
aAA ore orj ipoLt^v igov TTorafxoj re peovre, 
rj^i pods StjLtoets' avii^dXXerov rjBe ^KdfiavBpos, 
evd^ iTTTTOVs earrjae ded XevKcoXevos "11/37? 1 

Xvaaa* e^ ox^ojv, Trepl 8' r]epa ttovXvv e^^ve' 
rolaiv 8' dfi^poairjv Si/xdets' dvereiXe vepieadat. 

At 8e ^drrjv rp-^pcoat TreXeidaiv Wp,ad^ 6p,olai, 
dvBpdaiv ^Apyeioiaiv dXe^efievau pbepLavlat' 
dXX ore Srj p Xkovov ddt, TrXelarot /cat dpiaroi "; 
earaaav, dpi^l ^irjv Atop^-qSeos ImroSdpiOLO 
elXopievoL, Xeiovaiv eoiKores (hpLO^dyoioLV 
Tj aval KdrrpoiaLv, ra>v re aOevos ovk dXairahvoVf 
evda arda' rjijae Bed XevKotXevos "Hprj, 
250 



THE ILIAD, V. 757-784. 

Zeus, hast thou no indignation with Ares for these 
violent deeds, that he hath destroyed so great and 
so goodly a host of the Achaeans recklessly and in 
no seemly wise to my sorrow ; while at their ease 
Cypris and Apollo of the silver bow take their joy, 
having set on this madman that regardeth not any 
law ? Father Zeus, wilt thou in any wise be wroth 
with me if I smite Ares in sorry fashion and drive 
him out of the battle ? " 

Then in answer spake to her Zeus, the cloud- 
gatherer : " Nay, come now, rouse against him 
Athene, driver of the spoil, who has ever been wont 
above others to bi'ing sore pain upon him." 

So spake he, and the goddess, white-armed Hera, 
failed not to hearken, but touched her horses with 
the lash ; and nothing loath the pair flew on between 
earth and starry heaven. As far as a man seeth 
with his eyes into the haze of distance as he sitteth 
on a place of outlook and gazeth over the wine-dark 
deep, even so far do the loud-neighing horses of the 
gods spring at a bound. But when they were come to 
the land of Troy and the two flowing rivers, where 
the Simois and Scamander join their streams, there 
the goddess, white-armed Hera, stayed her horses, 
and loosed them from the car, and shed thick mist 
about them ; and Simois made ambrosia to spring 
up for them to graze upon. 

Then the goddesses twain went their way •with. 
steps like those of timorous doves, eager to bring 
aid to the Argive warriors. And when they were 
come where the most and the bravest stood close 
thronging about mighty Diomedes, tamer of horses, 
in semblance like ravening lions or wild boars, whose 
is no weakling strength, there the goddess, white- 

251 



HOMER 

Hrevropi elaaixevrj jjceyaX-qropi ;^aAAceo(^aji^a>, '' 

OS Toaov avhiqaaax oaov a'AAot TTevrr^Kovra' 
" alSa)s, 'Apyetot, kolk^ iXeyx^^) etSos ayqroi' 
6(f)pa fxev is TToXeixov TTCoAeWero 8 to? ^AxtXXevs, 
ovSe TTore Tpcoes irpo TrvXdojv AapSavtacov 
OLXveaKov kclvov yap eheihioav 6^pip,ov kyxos' 'i 
vvv Se eKOLS ttoXios koIXtjs eirl vrjvat /xaxovrat,. 
"Q? elrrova orpvve jxevos /cat dv/xou e/caarou. 
TvBetSrj 8' inopovae dea yXavKw-ms ^Ad-qvr]- 
edpe 8e rov ye avaKra Trap' Ittttoluiv /cat oxecr^tv 
cXkos dvailfvxovTa, to pav j8aAe IldvSapos t^. ' 
IBpojs yap pLLV ereipev vtto TrXareos reXap,a)vos 
doTrihos cvkvkXov tu> reipero,^ Kdp,ve 8e X^^P^> 
dv 8' Lox^^ reXapbcova KeAatve^e? at/Lt' dTTOfxopyvv. 
LTTTTeiov 8e ^ea t,vyov rjifjaro (fxLvqaev re* 
" -^ oXiyov 61 TratSa iotKora yelvaro Tvoevs- ^ 

Tvhevs roL piiKpos p^ev er)v hepias, aAAa p-axrjrrjs' 
/cat p' ore irep pnv eyto TToXejxit^eiv ovk e'laoKov 
ou8' €K7TaL(f)d(xa€iv, ore r rjXvde v6a(f)tv A^aio)!' 
dyyeXos is Qiq^as iroXeas p.erd KaS/xetcovas" 
haivvadai pnv dvcoyov ivl pbeydpoiaLV eK7]Xov I 

avrdp 6 dvpbov excov ov Kaprepov, cos to Trapos rrep, 
Kovpovs KaS/xetcov Trpo/caAt^ero, Traj/ra 8 eviKa 
prj'iSitos' Toirj ol iyd)V iniTdppodos rja. 
aol 8' -q Toi p,ev iyoj irapd 6^ to-ra/itat T}8e (f)vXaaaoj, 
Kai ae Trpoc/jpovecos KeXop^at Tpcoeaat pdxeooaf i 
dAAa aev rj Kapuaros rroXvai^ yvla BeBvKev, 

^ Line 786 was rejected by some ancient critics. 
* relpero : Tpifiero, >'^- • 

8 Line 808 was omitted by Aristarchus. 

252 



THE ILIAD, V. 785-811 

armed Hera, stood and shouted in the hkeness of 
great-hearted Stentor of the brazen voice, whose 
voice is as the voice of fifty other men : " Fie, ye 
Argives, base things of shame, fair in semblance 
only ! So long as goodly Achilles was wont to fare 
into battle, never would the Trojans come forth even 
before the Dardanian gate ; for of his mighty spear 
had they dread ; but now far from the city they are 
fighting at the hollow ships." 

So saying she roused the strength and spirit of 
every man. And to the side of Tydeus' son sprang 
the goddess, flashing-eyed Athene. She found that 
prince beside his horses and car, cooling the wound 
that Pandarus had dealt him with his arrow. For 
the sweat vexed him beneath the broad baldric of 
his round shield ; therewith was he vexed and his 
arm grew weary, so he was lifting up the baldric 
and wiping away the dark blood. Then the goddess 
laid hold of the yoke of his horses, and said : " Verily 
little hke himself was the son that Tydeus begat. 
Tydeus was small in stature, but a warrior. Even 
when I would not suffer him to fight or make a show 
of prowess, what time he came, and no Achaean 
with him, on an embassage to Thebes into the midst 
of the many Cadmeians — I bade him feast in their 
halls in peace — yet he having his valiant soul as of 
old challenged the vouths of the Cadmeians and 
vanquished them in everything full easily ; so 
present a helper was I to him. But as for thee, I 
verily stand by thy side and guard thee, and of a 
ready heart I bid thee fight with the Trojans, yet 
either hath weariness born of thy many onsets 

253 



HOMER 

Tj vv ae TTOV Seo? 'iax^i aKripiov ov av y' eVetra 
Tvheos cKyovos iaai hai(f)povos OlvetSao." 

TrjV B^ a7TafJi,€i^6fxevos7rpoae(f)'q Kparepos ALOfJLrjSrjS' 
yiyvcoaKO) ere, 6ed, Ovyarep Ato? alyioxoLO' ; 

TO) roL 7Tpo(f)pov€a)s ipeo) eiros ovh^ eTTLKevcrco. 
ovre Tt fxe Beos tcr)(€t aKrjpiov ovre tls OKVog, 
aAA* In aecov fxifivruxai e<^erixiwv, as iirereiXas' 
ov fx etag /ia/cctpecrcri deols avriKpv ixax^oQai 
rots aAAois" drap e't i<€ Ato? dvydryjp ^A^pohirri \ 
eXOrja* is iroXepiov, ri^v y ovrd/jiev o^eC ■xaXK(v. 
TOVveKa vvv avros r dvaxdt,ofxaL i^Se /cat dXXovs 
Apyelovs CKeXevaa dX-qfievai ivOdSe Trdvras' 
yiyvayoKOi yap "Apiqa pid^qv dvd Koipaveovra." 
Tov 8' T^/zet^er' eVeira Oed yXavKcJoins ^AQ-qvr]' [ 
Tvhethr] AtofXTjSes, ip-cp Kexa.piap,eve 6vp,a>, 
p^-qre av y "Ap-qa to ye SelStOi p,rjTe riv^ aXXov 
adavdrtov tolt] rot iy ojv eTTirdppoOos €lp,L' 
aXX ay ctt "AprfC Trpcora) e^e p,iovv)(as tmrovs, 
rvi/jov 8e ax^Bi-qv /xt^S' a^eo Oovpov "Ap-qa, \ 

rovTOV piaLvofievov , tvktov KaKov, oXXmrpoaaXXov, 
OS TTpcpTjv p,€V ipbOL TC Kal "H/JT^ OTevT* dyopevoiu 
Tpcoal piaxtjcreaOaL, drap ^Apyeiotaiv dp-q^eiv, 
vvv Se p.erd TpcLeacriv ofiiXeX, rwv 8e XeXaarai.'* 

"Qs ^apbivT] UdeveXov p^ev d^^ Imroiv utae ;^a/xa^e, i 
;\;etpt TtdXiv Ipvaaa , 6 8' a/a' e/x/xaTreo)? d-nopovaev 
7] S €S hi^pov e^aive rrapal AiOjjb-qSea Blov 
e/z/xe/xauta Oed- p,eya 8' ef^pax^ (f}rjyi,vos d^cov^ 

* Lines 838 f. were rejected by Aristarchus. 
254 



THE ILIAD, V. 812-838 

entered into thy limbs, or haply spiritless terror 
possesseth thee. Then art thou no offspring of 
Tydeus, the wise-hearted son of Oeneus." 

Then in answer to her spake mighty Diomedes : 
" I know thee, daughter of Zeus that beareth the 
aegis ; therefore with a ready heart will I tell thee 
my thought and hide it not. In no wise doth spirit- 
less terror possess me nor any slackness, but I am 
still mindful of thy behest which thou didst lay upon 
me. Thou wouldest not suffer me to fight face to 
face with the other blessed gods, but if Aphrodite 
the daughter of Zeus should enter the battle, her 
thou badest me smite with the sharp bronze. There- 
fore it is that I now give ground myself and have 
given command to all the rest of the Argives to be 
gathered here likewise ; for I discern Ares lording it 
over the battle-field." 

And the goddess, flashing-eyed Athene, answered 
him, saying : " Son of Tydeus, Diomedes, dear to 
ray heai-t, fear thou not Ares for that, neither any 
other of the immortals ; so present a helper am I 
to thee. Nay, come, at Ares first drive thou thy 
single-hooved horses, and smite him in close fight, 
neither have thou awe of furious Ares that raveth 
here, a full-wrought bane, a renegade, that but now 
spake with me and Hera, and made as though lie 
would fight against tTieTrpJaris but give aid to the 
Argives ; yet now he consorteth with the Trojans 
and hath forgotten these." 

So saying, with her hand she drew back Sthenelus, 
and thrust him from the car to earth, and he speedily 
leapt down ; and she stepped upon the car beside 
goodly Diomedes, a goddess eager for battle. 
Loudly did the oaken axle creak beneath its burden, 

255 



HOMER 

^pt,9oavvr)' Scivr^v yap dyev deov dvSpa t' dpiarov. 
Xd^ero Se fMauriya /cat rjvla naAAa? *A9-qvr}' S 

avTiK eV "AprjL Trpdrro) €X€ fMoyvvxctS ittttovs. 
7) Tot o fxev lieptcfiavTa TreXcopiov e^evdpt^ev, 
AiTcoAcDv ox^ dpiarov, ^Ox'^^criou dyXaov vlov 
rov jxkv "Aprjs ivdpt,t,€ ixiai<j>6vos' avrdp 'AO'qvrj 
Bvv' "A'iSoS KVV€7]V, p.ifj fxiv tSot o^pipLOS " Aprj£ . J 

*Q.S Se iSe ^poroXoiyos "Aprjs Ato/ArjSea Slov, 
rj TOi 6 jxev Il€pL(f)avTa TreXcopiov avrod kacre 
KelaOai, odi Trpcorov KTeivajv e^aivvro Ovfiov, 
avrdp 6 ^rj p Idvs ^iop,riBeos^l7rTrohdp,OLO. 
OL o ore orj ax^oov rjaav en aAA'qAoiaLV lovres, i 
TTpoaOev "Aprjs (hpl^aO^ vrrep t,vy6v -qvia 6* lttttcov 
eyx^C ;\;aA/ceia», ixejxaws aTTO dvp,6v iXeadai' 
Kal ro ye X^'^P^ Xa^ovaa 6ed yXavKd>Tris ^AOt^vt) 
waev V7T€K hi<j)poio ercjcrLOV d'Cxd'rjvai,. 
Sevrepos av9^ coppLaro ^orjV dyados Aiofi-qBrjS i 
eyx^'i^ ;^aA/ceta)' enepeiae Be IlaAAa? ^Adrivrj 
veiarov is KevewPa, odi ^ojvvvaKero fiirprj' 
rfj pa fiLV oSra rvx^ov, 8ta Se XP^^ KaXov eBaipev, 
eK Se 86 pv arrdaev avris' 6 8' e^paxe x^'^^^^ 

"Aprjs, 
oaaov T* evvedxt'Xot erriaxov rf heKaxf-XoL ^ 

dvepes ev TToXepLO) epuBa ^vvdyovres "Aprjog. 
rovs S' a/a' vtto rpopuos elXev ^Axo.iovs re Tpcoas re 
Seiaavras' roaov e^pax "Aprjs dros rroXepioio. 

OtTy S' €K ve(f}ea)V epe^evvr] (f)aiverai drjp 
Kavfjiaros e^ dvepioio Svaaeos opvvfievoio, { 

Tolos TvSetBr] Aio/x7j8ei ;^aA/<:eo? "Apr^s 
256 



THE ILIAD, V. 839-866 

for it bare a dread goddess and a peerless warrior. 
Then Pallas Athene grasped the lash and the reins, 
and against Ares first she speedily drave the single- 
hooved horses. He was stripping of his armour 
huge Periphas that was far the best of the Aetolians, 
the glorious son of Ochesius. Him was blood-stained 
Ares stripping ; but Athene put on the cap of 
Hades, to the end that mighty Ares should not 
see her. 

Now when Ares, the bane of mortals, was ware 
of goodly Diomedes, he let be huge Periphas to lie 
where he was, even where at the first he had slain 
him and taken away his life, but made straight for 
Diomedes, tamer of horses. And when they were now 
come near as they advanced one against the other, 
Ares first let drive over the yoke and the reins of the 
horses with his spear of bronze, eager to take away 
the other's life ; but the spear the goddess, flashing- 
eyed Athene, caught in her hand and thrust above the 
car to fly its way in vain. Next Diomedes, good at 
the war-cry, drave at Ares with his spear of bronze, 
and Pallas Athene sped it mightily against his nether- 
most belly, where he was girded with his taslets. 
There did he thrust and smite him, rending the fair 
flesh, and forth he drew the spear again. Then 
brazen Ares bellowed loud as nine thousand warriors 
or ten thousand cry in battle, when they join in the 
strife of the War-god ; and thereat trembling came 
upon Achaeans alike and Trojans, and fear gat hold 
of them ; so mightily bellowed Ares insatiate of 
war. 

Even as a black darkness appeareth from the 
clouds when after heat a blustering wind ariseth, 
even in such wise unto Diomedes, son of Tydeus, did 

VOL. I S 257 



HOMER 

(jyalved^ ofiov V€(j)eeaaiv lojv els ovpavov evpvv. 
KapTTaXi/jLcos S LKave Oeayv ehos, alirvv "OXv/xttov, 
Trap Se Att UpovlcovL Kade^ero Qvjxov a^^vcov, 
hel^ev 8' dfi^poTOV alfj,a Karappeov e^ (hTetXrjs, 
/cat p oXo(f)vp6fJi,€Vos e-nea irrepoevTa TrpocrqvSa' 
" Zey TTarep, ov vefxeoL^rj opiov rdSe Kaprepd epya ; 
atet TOt piyLGTa deol rerXrjOTes elfxev 
dXXriXoiV loTrjTt,, X^P^^ ^' divSpeaai (fyipovres. 
aoL TTavres fiaxd/JieaOa' crv yap reKes d<f>pova Kovpr^v 
ovXofJievrjv, rj r alev di^avXa epya pbdii-qXev. 
dXXoL puev yap Trdvres, oaoL Oeoi ela iv 'OAu/LtTTO), 
GOV T eTTiTTeidovrai /cat SeSfiijfxeada eKaaros' 
ravTrjv S' ovt* eVet TrpoTL^dXXeai ovre tl epycp, 
aAA' dvLcXs, eTrel avros eyeivao TratS' dih7]Xov' 
rj vvv Tvheos vlov, VTrep<l>iaXov Ato/X7^8ea, 
pLapyaiveLV dverjKev ctt' ddavdroiai deolai, 
KuTrpiSa pikv vpcorov cr;^eSov ovraae X^tp' ctti KapTTw, 
avrap eneir atrrw fxoL eTreaauro Sat/xovL laos' _ 
dAAa n* VTTrjveLKav rax^eg ttoBcs' '^ re k€ Srjpov 
avTov TT-qfiar eiraaxov iv alvfjOLV veKdheaaiv , 
Tj K€ t,(l)g dfxevrjvos ea ;)(aA/coto rvTrfjcn." 

lov o dp VTToSpa IScbv Ttpoae^rj ve^eXr^yepera 
Zeus'" 
" p,ri tL fiOL, dXXoTTpoaaXXe, TTapet,6iievos jxivvpi^e. 
exOicrros Se fioi eaai OedJv ot "OXvpiirov exovaiv 
atet yap roi epis re ^tAry TToXefjuoi re pudxat, re. 
fxrjrpos TOL fievos earlv ddax^Tov, ovk eTneiKrov, 
'Wpris- TTjv fxev eyoj aTTovSfj Sdpbvqp,^ eTreeaai' 
rdj a oiu) KeLvrjs rdSe Trdax^iv evveairjcnv. 
258 



THE ILIAD, V. 867-894 

brazen Ares appear, as he fared amid the clouds 
unto broad heaven. Speedily he came to the abode 
of the gods, to steep Olympus, and sate him down 
by the side of Zeus, son of Cronos, grieved at heart, 
and shewed the immortal blood flowing from the 
wound, and with wailing spake to him winged words : 
" Father Zeus, hast thou no indignation to behold 
these violent deeds ? Ever do we gods continually 
suffer most cruelly by one another's devices, whenas 
we show favour to men. With thee are we all at 
strife, for thou art father to that mad and baneful 
maid, whose mind is ever set on deeds of lawlessness. 
For all the other gods that are in Olympus are 
obedient unto thee, and subject to thee, each one 
of us ; but to her thou payest no heed whether in 
word or in deed, but rather settest her on, for that 
this pestilent maiden is thine own child. Now hath 
she set on the son of Tydeus, Diomedes high of heart, 
to vent his rage uponimmortal gods. Cypris first 
he wounded with a thrust in close tight upon the hand 
at the v^rist, and thereafter rushed upon mine own 
self as he had been a god. Howbeit my swift feet 
bare me away ; otherwise had I long suffered woes 
there amid the gruesome heaps of the dead, or else 
had lived strengthless by reason of the smitings of 
the spear." 

Then with an angry glance from beneath his 
brows spake to him Zeus, the cloud-gatherer : " Sit 
thou not in any wise by me and whine, thou renegade. 
Most hateful to me art thou of all gods that hold 
Olympus, for ever is strife dear to thee and wars 
and fightings. Thou hast the unbearable, unyielding 
spirit of thy mother, even of Hera ; her can I 
scarce control by my words. Wherefore it is by her 

259 



HOMER 

aAA OX) fxdv cr' eVt 8r)p6v are^o/xai a'Aye' eyovra' 
€K yap ejLiey yevos iaai, i/xol he ere yetvaro fXT^rrjp' 
€t 8e reu e^ aAAou ye ^eoit' yevev c58' diSTjAos', 
/cat /cev 817 TTCiAat ■j^a^a iveprepos^ OvpavLcovcov." 

D.^ (fxiTO, /cat YlaiT^ov* dvcoyeiv Irjuaod at' 
TO) 8' €7rt IlatT^coi' 6hvvri(f)ara (fxxpfxaKa Trdaacov^ 
7]KecraT • ov fiev yap ri KaTaOvrjros y' irervKTO. 
d)S 8' or* OTTOS ydAa Aeu/cor eTreiyofievos crvveTTiq^ev 
vypov eovXj^dXa 8' cS/ca Tre/atrpe'^erat kvkocovtl, 
COS apa KapTTaXtfiojs liqaaro dovpov "Aprja. 
rov 8 "VL^rj Xovaev, •)(api€vra 8e et/xara eaae' 
Trap 8e Ait K^povlcovL Kade^ero KvSe'C yaioiv? 

At 8 aurt? TT/aos' Sojfxa Atos fxeydXoLO veovro, 
"Upr) t' ^Apyeirj /cat ' AXaXKOjxevrjts 'Adiqvr], 
TTavaaaai ^poroXoiyov "Apyf dvSpoKTaaidojv . 

^ iviprepos : hipraros Zenodotus. 

* vdffffwv : Trdcro-ej' Aristarchus, who omitted the following 
line. 

' Line 906 ( = i. 405) was rejected by Aristarchus. 

^ The words may be taken to mean, " lower than the 
sons of Uranus," i.e. than the Titans imprisoned in Tartarus ; 
but this would be contrary to Homeric usage. 



260 



THE ILIAD, V. 895-909 

promptings, meseems, that thou sufFerest thus; 
Howbeit I will no longer endure that thou shouldest 
be in pain, for thou art mine offspring, and it was to 
me that thy mother bare thee ; but wert thou born 
of any other god, thus pestilent as thou art, then 
long ere this hadst thou been lower than the sons 
of heaven. "1 

He spake, and bade Paeeon heal his hurt ; and 
Paeeon spread thereon simples that slay pain, and 
healed him ; for verily he was in no wise of mortal 
mould. Even as the juice of the fig,^>feedily maketh 
to grow thick the white milk that is liquid, but is 
quickly curdled as a man stirreth it, even so swiftly 
healed he furious Ares. And Hebe bathed him, 
and clad him in beautiful raiment, and he sate him 
down by the side of Zeus, son of Cronos, exulting in 
his glory. 

Then back to the palace of great Zeus fared 
Argive Hera and Alalcomenean Athene, when they 
had made Ares, the bane of mortals, to cease from 
his man-slaying. 



261 



lAIAAOS Z 

Tpaxjov 8' olcoOrj Kal ^A)(aicov <j)vXoTns alvq' 
TToXXa 8' d'/a' evda Kal evd' Wvae fJidxr] Trehioio 
aX\rjX(jov Wvvofxevcov ;\;aA/c7^/)ea Sovpa, 
fjLeaarjyvs Hifjioevros i8e B^dvOoio podcov} 

A'ias 8e TTpcoros TeXafxcoviog, epKos 'A;^aia>v, i 
Tpcocov prj^e <f)dXayya, (f>6(jos 8' irdpoiaLV edrjKev, 
dvSpa ^aXojv os dpiaros ivl QpfjKeaai rervKro, 
vlov ^FiVCTdcopov, 'A/ca/iap'T' rjvv re fieyav re. 
Tov p e^aXe Trpcdros Kopvdos (f)dXov LTTiTohaaeiri^ , 
€V 8e fxeTiuTTCp rrij^e, Trep-qae 8' dp' oareov etcrco : 
alxP''^ X(^Xk€L7]' tov Se ctkotos oaae KoXvijjev. 

"A^vXov 8' d/)' eiTe<j>ve ^orjv dyados ALOfiijSr^s 
TevOpaviS-qv, os evaiei' ivKTifievrj iv ^Apia^rj 
d<l)V€i6s ^LOTOio, <f)tXos 8' rjv dvOpcoTTOLcri' 
Trdvras ydp (fyiXieaKev 6ha> em OLKca vaiiov. 
dXXd ol ov TLS rcov ye tot rjpKeae Xvypov oXedpov 
•npoaOev viravTidaag, dAA' dp^cjico OvpLov dnrjvpa, 
avTov /cat depdnovTa KaATjcrtor, o? pa Tod' tTTTTOJV 
eaKcv v<f)7]VLOxos' to) S' dp.<j)0) yalav iSvTrjv. 

Aprjaov 8' EivpvaXos Kal 'O^eArtor e^evdpi^e' ! 

^ Aristarchus at first gave this line in the form, 

/xeffcrrjyds iroTa/j.o'io 1iKa/xdv8pov Kal crTo/xaKlnvrji. 
Chaeris gave, 

TTOTa/jLoio '^Kafidi'Spov kuI 'ZifihiVTOi. 
262 



BOOK VI 

So was the dread strife of the Trojans and 
Achaeans left to itself, and oft to this side and to 
that surged the battle over the plain, as they aimed 
one at the other their bronze-tipped spears between 
the Simois and the streams of Xanthus. 

Aias, son of Telamon, bulwark of the Achaeans, 
was first to break a battalion of the Trojans, and to 
bring a light of deliverance to his comrades, for he 
smote a man that was chiefest among the Thracians, 
even Eiissorus' son Acamas, a valiant man and tall. 
Him he was first to smite upon the horn of his helmet 
with thick crest of horse-hair, and drave the spear 
into his forehead so that the point of bronze pierced 
within the bone ; and darkness enfolded his eyes. 

And Diomedes, good at the war-cry, slew Axylus, 
Teuthras' son, that dwelt in well - built Arisbe, 
a man rich in substance, that was beloved of all 
men ; for he dwelt in a home by the high-road 
and was wont to give entertainment to all. Howbeit 
of all these was there not one on this day to meet 
the foe before his face, and ward from him woeful 
destruction ; but Diomedes robbed the twain of 
life, himself and his squire Calesius, that was then 
the driver of his car ; so they two passed beneath 
the earth. 

Then Euryalus slew Dresus and Opheltius, and 

263 



HOMER 

^TJ 8e /xer' A'icrrjTTOv Kal XltjSaaov ovs ttot€ vvyi^ri 
V7]ts A^ap^aper] reK dfjLVfxovt BovkoXicovl. 
BovKoXicov 8' "^v vios dyavov Aao/jieBovTog 
TTpea^vraros yevefj, okotlov hi i yeivaro pb-qT-qp' 
TTOipiaLVCDV 8 677* ocacTt, pityrj <j)iX6rrjri /cat ^vvfj, 
7] 8' V7TOKV(7ap,€vrj SiSvpidove yeivaro vratSe. 
/cat p,€V Tcov VTTeXvare puevos /cat <^ai8t/xa yuta 
M.r)KL(XT'r)LdSr]s Kal drr^ copnov revx^^ iariXa. 

'AarvaXov 8' dp* €'7T€(f)ve pieveTrroXepios HoXv- 

TTOLTTjS' 

Ili8vTr]v 8' 'OSucreu? TlepKcvaiov i^evdpL^ev 
cy;^et ;(aA/cetaj, TevKpos 8' 'Aperdova Slov. 
AvtlXoxos 8' "A^Xrjpov ivrjparo Sovpl <f>a€Lva> 
NeaTopCBrjs, "EAarov 8e ava^ at'8/3a)i' 'Aya)ue/x- 

vate 8e Sa-rvtoevTOS" ivppeiTao vap* oxdas 
IlTJSaaov alTTeivrjv. (^vXaKov 8' e'Ae AtjI'to? rjpojs 
<f)€vyovT'' ^vpVTTvXos 8e MeAav^toi' i^evdpi^ev. 

"ASprjcTTOv 8' a/a' eVeira ^0171' dya^o? Mei/eAaoj 
^coov eA'* Ittttco ydp ol dTvt,op,ivcti ttcBlolo, 
6t,cp eVi pXa(f)6€VT€ pLvpiKLVO), dyKvXov dppLa 
d^avr' iv TTpcLro) pvpLO) avrd) pbkv i^T^r-qv 
TTpos TToXtv, fj irep ol dXXoL drv^opLevoi (f)ofieovTO, 
avros 8 €/c hi^poLo irapd rpoxov i^eKvXiadrj 
TrprjVTjs iv Kovirjaiv irrl o-rd/xa. Trap Si ol earr} 
^ArpetSrjs McveAaos", exoi^v 8oAt;^dcr/ctof iyxos. 
ASprjOTOs 8' dp* €776 tra Xa^d)V iXiaaero yovvcav ■ 
" t,o}ypeL, *Arpios vli, av 8' a^ta hi^ai diroLva' 
TToAAd 8' ei' d(f)V€LOV narpos /cet/xT^Ata /cetrai, 
p^aA/cdj TC ;(/3UCTd? re TToXiiKpu-qros re alSrjpos, 
rcov Kev roi ;(;apt'CTatTO Trarrip dTrepeiat aTTOiva, 
« /cei/ e/ic ^ojoi' nenvdoiT* iirl vrjvcrlv ^AxcLidJv." I 
264 



THE ILIAD, VI. 21-50 

went on after Aesepus and Pedasus, whom on a 
time the fountain-nymph Abarbarea bare to peerless 
Bueolion. Now BucoUon was son of lordly Lao- 
medon, his eldest born, though the mother that 
bare him was unwed ; he while shepherding his 
flocks lay with the nymph in love, and she conceived 
and bare twin sons. Of these did the son of 
Mecisteus loose the might and the glorious limbs 
and strip the armour from their shoulders. 

And Polypoetes staunch in fight slew Astyalus, 
and Odysseus with his spear of bronze laid low 
Pidytes of Percote, and Teucer goodly Aretaon. 
And Antilochus, son of Nestor, slew Ablerus with his 
bright spear, and the king of men, Agamemnon, 
slew Elatus that dwelt in steep Pedasus by the banks 
of fair-flowing Satnioeis. And the warrior I/Citus 
slew Phylacus, as he fled before him ; and Eurypylus 
laid Melanthius low. 

But Adrastus did Menelaus, good at the war- 
cry, take alive ; for his two horses, coursing in terror 
over the plain, became entangled in a tamarisk 
bough, and breaking the curved car at the end of 
the pole, themselves went on toward the city whither 
the rest were fleeing in rout ; but their master rolled 
from out the car beside the wheel headlong in the 
dust upon his face. And to his side came Menelaus, 
son of Atreus, bearing his far-shadowing spear. 
Then Adrastus clasped him by the knees and be- 
sought him : " Take me alive, thou son of Atreus, 
and accept a worthy ransom ; treasures full many 
lie stored in the palace of my wealthy father, bronze 
and gold and iron wrought with toil ; thereof would 
my father grant thee ransom past counting, should 
he hear that I am alive at the ships of the Achaeans." 

265 



HOMER 

Q,g (f)aro, rat 8' apa Ovfiov ivl ariqdeaatv eTret^e** 
Kal 817 fJiLV rdx' e/xeAAe 9oas inl vijas 'A^atcDv 
Bdyaeiv co depairovri Kara^e/xev aAA' ^ Ayafxefivcov 
avTtos rjXde 6ecov, Kal ofxoKX-qaas eVo? rjvSa' 
CO 7T€7Tov, o) M€V€Aa€, Ti 7] 06 (7U Kiqoeai ov- 

TCOS 51 

dvSpojv; rj aol dpLarra TreTTOtryrat /cara oIkov 
TTpos Tpdoojv; row pLt] ns VTreK^vyoi alTTVV oXeOpov 
X^ipds 0' Tjiieripas, pbiqK 6v rtva yaarepi, jji'qTTjp 
Kovpov iovra ^e/>ot, /^i^S' os (j)vyoi, aAA' a/xa Travres 
'lAtou i^aTToXotar aKi^Searot, Kal d(f)avTOi." 6( 

"Cl? eiTTcov erpeijjev dSeXcfieiov <j)pivas rjpcos, 
aiaiptja TTapenTUiV 6 8' drro edev (xxraro X'^^P'' 
TJpoj' " Khp7](JTOv Tov he Kpeiojv ^ Ayap,epLVU)V 
ovra Kara XaTrdprjV' 6 8' dverpdirer' , 'ArpeiSrjs 8e 
Aa^ iv GTiqdeai ^ds i^earracre fxeiXivov eyxos. 6i 

Necrrojp 8' ^Apyeloiatv eKeKXero fiaKpov avaas' 
" a> (j)iXoL rjpcoes Aavaoi, depdnovres "Ap-qos, 
fiT^ ris vvv evdpcov imj^aXXopievos fxeTomaOe 
puixviro), o)s K€ TrXelcrra cf)€pojv cttI vrjas iKrjrat, 
aAA' dvSpas KT€LVCojX€V €7Teira Se /cat rd CKrjXot 7( 
veKpovs dp, ttcSlov avXiqaere TedvrjdjTa^." ^ 

'^Q.S eiTTcbv 6rpvv€ p,evos Kal dvpuov eKdarov. 
evda K€V avT€ Tpcoes dprfi^iXcov vtt* ^Axaicov 
"IXlov claave^Tjaav dvaXKeirjcn hap^evres, 
el p.rj dp* Alveia re Kal "E/cropt etTre Trapaaras 7i 
llpiapbiSrjs "EAevos", oIcovottoXcov ox dpiaros' 
" Alveia re Kal "E/cro/a, iirel ttovos vp,p,L p,dXL(jra 
Tpwojv Kal AvKuov ey/ceVAtrai, ovveK dpicrroi 

^ ineide : 6pive. 

• Zenodotus gave this line in the form, 

Tpwui' difx, ireSlov avXricrofJ-ev ^crea vcKpovs. 

266 



THE ILIAD, VI. 51-78 

So spake he, and sought to persuade the other's 
heart in his breast, and lo, Menelaus was about to 
give him to his squire to lead to the swift ships of 
the Achaeans, but Agamemnon came running to 
meet him, and spake a word of reproof, saying : 
" Soft-hearted Menelaus, why carest thou thus for 
the men ? Hath then so great kindness been done 
thee in thy house by Trojans ? Of them let not 
one escape sheer destruction and the might of our 
hands, nay, not the man-child whom his mother 
bears in her womb ; let not even him escape, but 
let all persish together out of Ilios, unmourned 
and unmarked." 

So spake the warrior, and turned his brother's 
mind, for he counselled aright ; so Menelaus with 
his hand thrust from him the warrior Adrastus, and 
lord Agamemnon smote him on the flank, and he 
fell backward ; and the son of Atreus planted his 
heel on his chest, and drew forth the ashen spear. 

Then Nestor shouted aloud, and ■ called to the 
Argives : " My friends, Danaan warriors, squires 
of Ares, let no man now abide behind in eager desire 
for spoil, that he may come to the ships bearing the 
greatest store ; nay, let us slay the men ; thereafter 
in peace shall ye strip the armour from the corpses 
that he dead over the plain." 

So saying he aroused the strength and spirit of 
every man. Then would the Trojans have been 
driven again by the Achaeans dear to Ares up to 
Ilios, vanquished in their weakness, had not the son 
of Priam, Helenus, far the best of augurs, come up 
to Aeneas and Hector, and said to them : " Aeneas 
and Hector, seeing that upon you above all others 
rests the war-toil of Trojans and Lycians, for that 

267 



HOMER 

TTaaav eV IQvv lare jxdx^oOai re ^povieiv t€, 
aTrjT avTOV, /cat Aaoi' ipvKaKere rrpo TTvXacov ^ 
TTavrr) i7TOtxo[xevoL, Ttpiv avr* iv X^P'^'' y^vaiKOiV 
(f)€vyovTas Treaeeiv, hrjioiaL Se ;)^ap/xa yeveaOai. 
avrap eVei /ce (f)dXayyas eTTOTpvvrjrov aTraaa?, 
rjfiels fiev Aaraotat pLaxricr6p,ed^ av9i /xevovres, 
Kol fxdXa T€i,p6[X€VOL TTep- dvayKair] yap CTrelyei- J 
"E/cTop, drdp av TToXivde /xerepx^o, elire 8 eTreira 
pbrjrepL afj koX i/xfj- rj 8e ^vvdyovaa yepaias 
vrjov 'Adrival-qs yXavKcoTTiSos iv TToXei aKprj, 
OL^aara kXtjcSl Ovpas lepolo SofioLO, 
TriirXov, 6s ol So/ceet ;(aptecrTaTos' i^Se fieyLcrros I 
etvat ivl fxeydpu) /cat ol ttoXv (jyiXraros o-vrfj, 
detvat ^Adrjvacrjs irrl yovvaaiv -qvKOfxoLO, 
/cat ol viToaxicrdat Syo/cat8e/ca ^ovs ivl vrjo) 
yjvis rjKeaTas Upevaifiev, at k iXeijar] 
darv re /cat Tpcocov dXoxovs /cat VTJrrLa reKva, 
at K€V TvSeos vlov d-noaxx] 'lAtou Ipy^S, 
dypiov alxP'rjr'i^v , Kparepov p,rjcmx)pa (f>6^oio, 
ov Br) iyd) Kdpriarov ^Axaicov cf)rj[j,c yeveaOai. 
ou8' *AxtXrjd TTod' wSe y idelSLjjiev, opxap'OV dvdpa)V, 
ov nip <f)aaL Oeds i^ €fjb[M€vai,' dAA' oSe Xi-qv 
/xatVerat, ovBi ris ol SvvaraL fxivos laocfiapLl^civ ." 
"n? e(f)a9\ "E/CTo;/) 8' ov ri Kaatyvqro) dTriOrjaev. 
avriKa 8' i$ dx^cov avv revx^cnv dXro x^l^dt,€, 
TToXXiov 8' o^e'e hovpe Kara arparov cpx^ro Trdvrrj, 
orpvvojv p,axioaadai, eyetpe Be ^vXottiv aivqv. 
268 



THE ILIAD, VI. 79-105 

in every undertaking ye are the best both in war 
and in counsel, hold ye your ground, and go ye 
this way and that throughout the host and keep 
them back before the gates, or ever in flight they 
fling themselves in their women's arms, and be made 
a joy to their foemen. But when ye have aroused 
all our battalions, we verily will abide here and 
fight against the Danaans, sore wearied though we 
be, for necessity weighs hard upon us ; but do 
thou. Hector, go thy way to the city and speak 
there to her that is thy mother and mine ; let her 
gather the aged wives to the temple of flashing-eyed 
Athene in the citadel, and when she has opened with 
the key the doors of the holy house, the robe that 
seemeth to her the fairest and amplest in her hall, 
and that is far dearest to her own self, this let her 
lay upon the knees of fair-haired Athene, and vow 
to her that she will sacrifice in her temple twelve 
sleek heifers that have not felt the goad, if she 
will have compassion on the city and the Trojan's 
wives and their little children ; in hope she may 
hold back from sacred Ihos the son of Tydeus, that 
savage spearman, a mighty deviser of rout, who 
has verily, meseems, proved himself the mightiest 
of the Achaeans. Not even Achilles did we ever 
fear on this wise, that leader of men, who, they say, 
is born of a goddess ; nay, this man rageth beyond 
all measure, and no one can vie with him in might." 
So spake he, and Hector was in no wise disobedient 
unto his brother's word. Forthwith he leapt in his 
armour from his chariot to the ground, and brandish- 
ing his two sharp spears went everywhere throughout 
the host, urging them to fight ; and he roused the 
dread din of battle. So they rallied, and took their 

269 



HOMER 

ol 8' iXeXixOrjcrav Kal ivavrloL earav ^ K-^^aioiV. 
^Apyeloi 8' v7T€xcopr]crav, Xfj^av Be <f)6voLo, 
(j)av he Ttv' ddavdrojv e^ ovpavov darepoevros 
T/3cocrtv dXe^iqaovTa KareXOepbev, cos eXeXtxdev. 
"EiKTCop 8e TpcoeaaLV eKeKXero fiaKpov dvaas' ] 
" Tpcue? VTTepdvfxoc TrjXeKXeLToC t eVt/coupot, 
dvepes eare, ^iXoi, ixviqaaode he dovpihos dXKTJs,^ 
6(f)p^ dv iyd) ^iqix) Trporl "lAtov, rihe yepovaiv 
eLTTOJ ^ovXevrfjaL /cat rjfxereprjs dXoxoicri 
haipboaiv dpiqcraadai, vnoaxeadaL 8' e/caTo/x^a?." ] 

'^Q.S dpa (f)CL>v7]aas drre^rj KopvdaioXos "EiKTCop" 
dix(f)l he fJLiv a(f)Vpd rvTrre /cat aj);)^eVa hepfxa KeXaivov, 
dvTV^ rj TTVfidrr] deev aoTTchos oficfiaXoeaarjs. 

TXavKos 8' 'IttttoXoxolo va'Cs /cat Ti»8eos" vlos 
is jxeaov dp,(j)orepa>v avvirrjv jue/xacure [xdyeaOat. ] 
OL 8' ore hr] ux^hov rjaav Itt* dXXr\Xoi(yiv lovre, 
Tov TTporepos Trpoaeenre ^orjv dyaOos Aio/xt^St^s" 
" TLS he av eaai, <j)epiaTe, Karadurjrcov dvOpcoTTCov; 
ov [xev yap rror OTTtona P'dxjj eVi KvhLaveipr] 
TO TTpiv drdp puev vvv ye ttoXv Trpo^e^rjKas aTravrajv ] 
acp Odpaei, 6 t' epLOV hoXixooKiov eyxos efxeivas. 
hvar'qvojv he re Tralhes efio) /xeVet dvnocooLV . t^-u-V 
el he ris ddavdrtov ye /car' ovpavov elXr^Xovdas, 
ovK dv ey<x)ye deoZaiv eTTOvpavioiai fiaxoifirjv. 
ovhe yap ovhe Apvavros vlos, Kparepos AvKoepyos, 1 
hrjv rjv, OS pa deolatv eTTOvpavioiaiv epi^ev 
OS TTore pLaivop^evoLO Atcovvaoio rtOqvas 
aeve Kar 'qyddeov Nvcr'^'iov at 6' a/xa Trdaat 

^ <pL\oi . . . dXKTJs : Oooi Kal d/xwerov Aare'C XJi^rjv Zeno- 
dotus.,' 

^ The huge Mycenean shield was swung behind the 
warrior's back when he turned from the foe. C/. xi. 545. 

270 



THE ILIAD, VI. 106-133 

stand with their faces toward the Achaeans, and the 
Argives gave ground and ceased from slaying; and 
they deemed that one of the immortals had come 
down from starry heaven to bear aid to the Trojans, 
that they rallied thus. And Hector shouted aloud 
and called to the Trojans : " Ye Trojans, high of 
heart, and far-famed allies, be men, my friends, and 
bethink you of furious valour, the while I go to 
Ilios and bid the elders that give counsel, and our 
wives to make prayer to the gods, and promise 
them hecatombs." 

So saying, Hector of the flashing helm departed, 
and the black hide at either end smote against his 
ankles and his neck,^ even the rim that ran about 
the outermost edge of his bossed shield. 

But Glaucus, son of Hippolochus, and the son 
of Tydeus came together in the space between the 
two hosts, eager to do battle. And when the twain 
were now come near as they advanced one against 
the other, Diomedes, good at the war-cry, was 
first to speak, saying : " Who art thou, mighty one, 
among mortal men ? For never have I seen thee in 
battle where men win glory until this day, but now 
hast thou come forth far in advance of all in thy 
hardihood, in that thou abidest my far-shadowing 
spear. Unhappy are they whose children face my 
might. But and if thou art one of the immortals 
come down from heaven, then will I not fight with 
the heavenly gods. Nay, for even the son of Dry as, 
mighty Lycurgus, lived not long, seeing that he 
strove with heavenly gods — he that on a time 
drave down over the sacred mount of Nysa the 
nursing mothers of mad Dionysus ; and they all 

271 



HOMER 

OvadXa xo-jJioX Karex€vav,VTT^ dvSpo(f)6voio AvKOvpyov 
Oeivoixevat ^ovTrXijyt' ALwvvaos 8e (fio^rjOels^ 1 

Svaed^ dXos Kara KVfjia, 0eri? 8' vrreSe^aro koXttco 
SeiSiora* Kparepos yap ex'^ rpopLos dvSpos ofMOKXfj. 
Tcp fiev 'irreLT ohvaavro deol pela l,u)ovres, 
Kai fxiv TV(f)X6v edrjKe Kpovou Traty ovS^ dp^ en hrjV 
rjv, 67761 ddavdroLCTLV d7Ti]xd€TO Trdai dediaw 1 

ouS' dv iyoj p,aKdpeaai deols iOeXoL/xi fxdx^crOai. 
el Se' TLS eaai ^porujv, ol dpovpr]s Kapirov eSovacv, 
dacrov W\ cS? Kev Odaaov oXedpov Trelpad* iKrjai." 
Top S' avd^ 'IttttoXoxolo TrpoarjvBa ^atSi/tos" vios' 
" TvSetSr] fieyddvp,€, rirj yeverjv epeelvets; 1 

otri TTep (f)vXXcov yeveij, roCrj Se /cat dvSpcov. 
(f}vXXa rd /xev r' dvepLos ;)(a//,a8ts" X^^^> ct^<* ^^ 

d^ vXt] 
TrjXeOocoaa (f)V€i, eapos S' ertiyiyveTaL wpr]'^ 
a)S dvSpcov yeverj rj jxev (f)V€L rj 8' dTToXrjyei. 
ei o eueAeig, Kai ravra oarjfievaL, ocpp ev eLof]9 1 
rjp.ereprjv yeverjV, ttoXXol 8e /xii/ dvhpes 'iaaaiv. 
eoTi TToXig *K(f>vp7j ixvx(^ "Apyeos Itttto^otoio , 
evda 8e Jjlcrv(f)os eoKev, o KepBtaTOS yever dvBpdJv, 
Hi(TV(l>os AloXlSrjS' 6 8' apa TXavKOV rcKed* vlov, 
avrdp TXavKos tlktcv dpuvpLOva BeXX€po(f>6vT'r)V. I 
TOJ 8e 9eoL KaXXos re Kai rjvoperjv epareivriv 
(vTTaaav avrdp ol Upotros /ca/ca fi-qaaro dvpbco, 
OS p e/c h-qixov eXaaaev, eTrel ttoXv <l>eprepos 176V', 

* (l)o^r)6eU : xo^w^elj Zenodotus. 
* ibpr] : &py Aristophanes. 



^ The word irflpara plainly means "ropes'' or " rope- 
ends" in Odyssey xii. 51, 162, 179, otherwise the analogy of 
272 



THE ILIAD, VI. 134-158 

let fall to the ground their wands, smitten with an 
ox-goad by man-slaying Lycurgus. But Dionysus 
fled, and plunged beneath the wave of the sea, 
and Thetis received him in her bosom, filled with 
dread, for mighty terror gat hold of him at the man's 
threatenings. Then against Lycurgus did the gods 
that Uve at ease wax wroth, and the son of Cronos 
made him blind ; and he lived not for long, seeing 
that he was hated of all the immortal gods. So 
would not I be minded to fight against the blessed 
gods. But if thou art of men, who eat the fruit of 
the field, draw nigh, that thou may est the sooner 
enter the toils of destruction." ^ 

Then spake to him the glorious son of Hippo- 
lochus : " Great-souled son of Tydeus, wherefore 
inquirest thou of my Uneage ? Even as are the 
generations of leaves, such are those also of men. 
As for the leaves, the wind scattereth some upon 
the earth, but the forest, as it bourgeons, putteth 
forth others when the season of spring is come ; 
even so of men one generation springeth up and 
another passeth away. Howbeit, if thou wilt, hear 
this also, that thou mayest know well my lineage ; 
and many there be that know it. There is a city 
Ephyre in the heart of Argos, pasture-land of horses, 
and there dwelt Sisyphus that was craftiest of men, 
Sisyphus, son of Aeolus ; and he begat a son Glaucus ; 
and Glaucus begat peerless Bellerophon. To him 
the gods granted beauty and lovely manliness ; but 
Proetus in his heart devised against him evil, and 
drave him, seeing he was mightier far, froni the 

tAos davdrov might suggest the rendering " destruction unto 
the uttermost." The translation given above is furthermore 
supported by vii. 402, and xii. 79. 

VOL, I T 273 



HOMER 

^ApyeioiV Zcu? yap ol inro aKrjTTTpcp iSdfJbacrae . 
rw 8e yvvr] Wpoirov iTrejX'qvaTO, St' "Avreia, 
KpyTTTaSir] ^lAdrrjTi [xiyr^fievat' aAAa rov ov tl 
7T€l9* dyaOa ^poveovra, hat^pova B€)^epo(f)ovTT]V. 
rj Be ifjevaafievT) Ylpotrov ^aaiXrja Trpoa-qvha- 
' redvat-qs, a> UpoiT*, rj KOLKrave BeXX€pocf)6vr7jv, 
OS pi eOeXev (f)LX6Trjri fiiyqpievaL ovk eSeXovaj).' 
u)S (fyoLTo, rov 8e dvaKxa x^Xos Xd^ev olov aKovae' 
KTelvai p,€V p dXeeive, ae^daaaro yap to ye 6vp,(x), 
TTepiTre hi fMiv AvKLrjvSe, TTopev 8' o ye arjp.ara 

Xvypd, 
ypdifjas ev TrivaKi tttvktcp 6vpiO(f>96pa TToXXa, 
Set^ai 8' rjvwyeLV <L irevdepo), 6(j)p' aTToXoiro. 
avrdp 6 ^rj AvKLrjvBe deaxv lyn dp.vpLOVi TTOfnrfj. 
dAA' ore Br) Avkltjv l^e EdvOov re peovra, 
7Tpo(f)povecos piv rlev dva^ AvKi-qs evpeiiqs' 
iwrjp,ap ^eiviaae /cat evvea ^ovs tepevaev. 
dXX ore Br) BeKdrr) e(f>dvr) poBoBdKruXos ^Hcos, 
/cat rore p,iv epeetve /cat '^ree arjp,a IBeadai, 
oTTt pd ol ya/xjSpoto Trapa Ylpoiroio (f)epoLro. 
avrdp errel Br) arjfia KaKov irapeBe^aro yap,^pov, 
7Tpa>rov fxev pa Xty^tatpav ajLtat/ia/ceVryv eKeXevae 
7re(j>vep,ev. r) 8' dp* er)V delov yevos, ovB* dvdpcjTTOiV, 
TTpoaOe Xewv, omOev Be BpdKwv, fxeaar) Be x^piat-pa, 
Beivov aTTOTTveiovaa rrvpos pievog aiOopievoio. 
/cat rr)v fxev KareTre^ve Oecov repdeaai TnOr)aas. 
Bevrepov av HoXvpLoiai /Ltap^eWaTO Ku8aAi/xotCTf 
Kaprlcrrr)v Br) rr)V ye p-dx^jV (f)dro Bvpievai, dvBpwv. 
TO rpirov av KareTTe<j)vev 'Ap,a^6vas dvr lav eipas . 

^ This is the only passage in Homer which suggests 
knowledge of the art of writing. 

274 



THE ILIAD, VI. 159-186 

land of the Argives ; for Zeus had made them 
subject to his sceptre. Now the wife of Proetus, 
fair Anteia, lusted madly for Bellerophon, to lie 
with him in secret love, but could in no wise prevail 
upon wise-hearted Bellerophon, for that his heart 
was upright. So she made a tale of lies, and spake 
to king Proetus : * Either die thyself, Proetus, 
or slay Bellerophon, seeing he was minded to lie 
with me in love against my will.' So she spake, 
and wrath gat hold upon the king to hear that word. 
To slay him he forbare, for his soul had awe of 
that ; but he sent him to Lycia, and gave him 
baneful tokens, graving in a folded tablet many 
signs and deadly,^ and bade him show these to his 
own wife's father, that he might be slain. So he 
went his way to Lycia under the blameless escort 
of the gods. And when he was come to Lycia and 
the stream of Xanthus, then with a ready heart 
did the king of wide Lycia do him honour : for 
nine days' space he shewed him entertainment, and 
slew nine oxen. Howbeit when the tenth rosy- 
fingered Dawn appeared, then at length he ques- 
tioned him and asked to see whatever token he bare 
from his daughter's husband, Proetus. But when 
he had received from him the evil token of his 
daughter's husband, first he bade him slay the 
raging Chimaera. She was of divine stock, not of 
men, in the fore part a lion, in the hinder a serpent, 
and in the midst a goat, breathing forth in terrible 
wise the might of blazing fire. And Bellerophon 
slew her, trusting in the signs of the gods. Next 
fought he with the glorious Solymi, and this, said 
he, was the mightest battle of warriors that ever 
he entered ; and thirdly he slew the Amazons, 

275 



HOMER 

TO) 8' ap' dvepxofievci) ttvklvov SoXov dXXov vcpatve' 
Kpivas €K AvKLrjs €vpetr]s cfjajras dpicrrovs 
elae Xoxov rol 8' ov rt TrdXiv olKOV^e veovro' 
TrdvTas yap KaTeTT€<f>vev dfiv/xcov BeAAepo^ovri]?. 
dAA' OT€ hrj ytyvojaKe Oeov yovov r)vv eovra, 
avTov fiLV KarepvKe, 8t8ou 8' o ye dvyarepa iqv, 
8co/ce 8e ol TL/xijs ^a(Ji,Xr]tBos rjixiav Traa-qs' 
Kal fxev ol AvKioi refxcvog rdpiov e^o^pv dXXcov, 
KaXov <f)vraXL7Js Kal dpovprjs, 6<f)pa ve'ju-otro/ 
7} 8' eT€K€ tpia reKva 8at(f)povL BeAAepo^ovrry, 
"laavhpov re /cat 'IttttoXoxov /cat AaoSa/xeiav. 
AaoSafieirj fiev irapeXi^aro pLit)riera Zeu?, 
7] 8' eVe/c' dvTldeov 'LapTT'qhova x<^XKOKopv(jrrjV. 
dAA' ore Brj /cat Kelvos dTrrixdero TTaat deolatv, 
rj TOL 6 KaiT irehiov ro 'AArytop' olos dXdro, 
ov Bvjxov KareScuv, irdrov dvdpcoTTCOv dXeecvcov 
"laavBpov Be ol vlov "Aprjs dros TToXefxoio 
fxapvdfxevov HoXvfioLai /care/crave KvBaXifioiai,' 
TTjv 8e ;)(oActJO-aju,eV'>7 XP^^I^'-^^ "Apreyuis e/cra. 
'IttttoXoxos 8e pL eriKre, /cat e/c rod (f)7jpi yeveaOai 
7Tepi7T€ Se pt,* is Tpoi7]V, /cat p,OL pidXa ttoAA' en 

ereXXev, 
alev dpiareveiv /cat vrretpoxov epupevai dXXcov, 
prjBe yevog Trarepiov alaxvvepev , ol pey* dpiaroL 
ev t' ^K(f>vpr] eyevovro /cat ev AvkIt) evpeir]. 
ravrrjs rot, yeverjs re /cat alpaTog evxop^ai etv'ai. 
*'0.s (f>dTO, yridr]aev Se jSoi^v dya^o? Aiop'qSrjS' 
eyxos pev KaTenrj^ev enl ;\;0ovt TTOvXv^oTetpr), 
avrdp 6 pLeiXixioiai TrpoorjvSa irotp.eva Xacov 

^ 6(ppa viixoiTo : Trvpo(p6poio, 

276 



THE ILIAD, VI. 187-214 

women the peers of men. And against him, as he 
journeyed back therefrom, the king wove another 
cunning wile ; he chose out of wide Lycia the 
bravest men and set an ambush ; but these returned 
not home in any wise, for peerless Bellerophon slew 
them one and all. But when the king now knew 
that he was the valiant offspring of a god, he kept 
him there, and offered him his own daughter, and 
gave to him the half of all his kingly honour ; more- 
over the Lycians meted out for him a demesne 
pre-eminent above all, a fair tract of orchard and 
of plough-land, to possses it. And the lady bare to 
wise-hearted Bellerophon three children, Isander and 
Hippolochus and Laodameia. With Laodameia lay 
Zeus the counsellor, and she bare godlike Sarpedon, 
the warrior harnessed in bronze. But when even 
Bellerophon came to be hated of all the gods, then 
verily he wandered alone over the Aleian plain, 
devouring his own soul, and shunning the paths of 
men ; and Isander his son was slain by Ares, 
insatiate of battle, as he fought against the glorious 
Solymi ; and his daughter was slain in wrath by 
Artemis of the golden reins. But Hippolochus begat 
me and of him do I declare that I am sprung; 
and he sent me to Troy and straitly charged me 
ever to be bravest and pre-eminent above all, 
and not bring shame upon the race of my fathers, 
that were far the noblest in Ephyre and in wide 
Lycia. This is the lineage and the blood whereof I 
avow me sprung." 

So spake he, and Diomedes, good at the war- 
cry, waxed glad. He planted his spear in the 
bounteous earth, and with gentle words spake to 
the shepherd of the host : " Verily now art thou a 

277 



HOMER 

" "q pd vv fioi ^eXvos Trarpio'Cos iaai TraAatos" 
Olvevs yap irore Sto? dfjiv/xova 3€XXepo(f)6vr'rjv 
^eivia ivl p^eydpoiaiv ieiKoutv rjfjLaT^ ipv^as' 
oi Se /cat dXX'qXocai TTopov ^eivqia KaXd' 
Olvevs fxev t,(joaTrjpa StSou ^oiviKi (f)a€Lv6v, 
BeAAe/ao^ovTTys' Se ;)(/3yaeov SeTza? djji^iKVTTeWov , 
Kat fxiv iy oj KariXenrov tcov iv Stofjbaa e/xotat. 
TfSea 8' ov fjiefxvrjfjLai, eirei /x' eVi tvtOov eovra 
KdXXi(f>' , or' iv Qri^rjatv aTTOiXero Xaos 'A;^aiaii'. 
ru) vvv aol fxev iyoj ^elvos (f>tXos "Apyet fxeaaco 
ei/Jii, av 8' iv Avkct], ore K€V rcbv Srjijiov iKOJfiai. 
eyx^a 8' oAAT^Aajv^ dXecopbeda /cat 8t' ofMiXov 
TToXXol jxev yap ip,ol Tpcoes kX^itoL t' imKOvpoi, 
Kreiveiv ov /ce deos ye TTopr] /cat Trocrcrt /ct;^eta>, 
TToXXol 8' ay CTOt 'A;;(atot ivaipijxev ov /ce 8wT]at. 
revx^a 8' aAAi^Aotj eTrafiCLi/jofxev, 6<j>pa /cat otSe 
yt'cDo'tv OTt ^elvoL Trarpcoiot ev^ofied^ elvai,." 

"0.5 dpa (f)(jjvrjaavre , Kad^ ittttojv di^avre, 
X^tpas T aXXijXcov Xa^irrjv /cat TTtaTcoaavTO' 
evd^ avT€ TXavKO) KpoviSrjg (f)pevas i^eXero Zeu?, 
OS TTpos TuSetST^v Ato/x7y8ea Teu;)(e' ayLtet^e 
Xpvcrea ;!^aA/cetajf, iKar6p,^oC ivvea^olcov. 

' EiKTCop 8' ct)? S/cata? re TruAa? /cat (firjyov^ iKavev, 
dficf)* dpa fxtv Tptoojv dXoxoi deov i^Se Ovyarpes 
€ipofM€vai TTalSds re /caatyi'Tyrous' re era? re 
/cat TToatas'" o 8' erreira deols €VX€<ydcLt dvwyei 
iraaas i$eir]S' TToXXfjai, 8e /C7^8e' i(f)rj7TTO. 

^ (jX^"- 5' dWiJXw;' : iyxeffi S' clXXt^Xovs Zenodotus. 
* (jiTjybv : TTiupyov. 

278 



THE ILIAD, VI. 215-241 

friend of my father's house from of old : for goodly 
Oeneus on a time entertained peerless Bellerophon 
in his halls, and kept him twenty days ; and more- 
over they gave one to the other fair gifts of friend- 
ship. Oeneus gave a belt bright with scarlet, and 
Bellerophon a double cup of gold which I left in 
my palace as I came hither. But Tydeus I remember 
not, seeing I was but a little child when he left, 
what time the host of the Achaeans perished at 
Thebes. Therefore now am I a dear guest-friend 
to thee in the midst of Argos, and thou to me in 
Lycia, whenso I journey to the land of that folk. 
So let us shun one another's spears even amid the 
throng ; full many there be for me to slay, both 
Trojans and famed allies, whomsoever a god shall 
grant me and my feet overtake ; and many Achaeans 
again for thee to slay whomsoever thou canst. And 
let us make exchange of armour, each with the 
other, that these men too may know that we declare 
ourselves to be friends from our fathers' days." 

When they had thus spoken, the twain leapt 
dovnn from their chariots and clasped each other's 
hands and pledged their faith. And then from 
Glaucus did Zeus, son of Cronos, take away his 
wits, seeing he made exchange of armour with 
Diomedes, son of Tydeus, giving golden for bronze, 
the worth of an hundred oxen for the worth of nine. 

But when Hector was come to the Scaean gate 
and the oak-tree, round about him came running 
the wives and daughters of the Trojans asking of 
their sons and brethren and friends and husbands. 
But he thereupon bade them make prayer to the 
gods, all of them in turn ; yet over many were 
sorrows hung, 

279 



HOMER 

'AAA' ore Srj Ilpia/AOto SofMov TTcpLKoXXe i/cave, 
^eaTjjs aldovarjci rervyfjievov — avrap iv avrcp 
TtevTriKovr eveaav OdXajjiOL ^earolo XlOolo, 
TrXyjalov aXX-qXcov SehfJbrjfxevoi,- evda 8e TratSes' 2^ 

KoiiJbcovro YiptdfjiOLo irapd fxvrjaTfjs dXoxocar 
Kovpdcov 8' irepcodev ivavrloi evSodev avXijs 
8a>8e/c' eaav reyeoi ddXapbOi, ^earrolo XiOoio, 
ttXtjglov aAAT^Acot' 8e8/>t7^/AeVof evda Be yafi^pol 
KOipLCJvro HpidfjiOLO Trap* alBotrjs dXoxoicnv — 2J 

evda ol rjTnoSojpos evavrir] r]Xvde fi'qTrip 
AaoSiKTjv eadyovaa, Ovyarpcov elSos dpicrrrjv 
€v T apa Ol (pv X^tpt enos r e<par e/c r ovop.aL,€' 
" TCKVov, TLTrre Xlttcjv TToXefiov Opaavv elXi^Xovdas ; 
-q jxdXa Brj reipovai Bvacovvfxoi vies 'A;^ataji/ 2j 

fxapvdjxevot, Trepl darv ae 8' evddhe dv/xos dviJKev 
eXOovr' i^ aKprjS ttoXlos Ad ;^et/3as' dvaaxetv. 
dXXd fMev\ 6(f)pa /ce rot fieXirjBea olvov eVetVo), 
COS aTrelcrrjs Ait Trarpl Koi dXXois ddavdroLac 
TTpaJrov, CTTeira 8e Kavros ov^aeat, at kc TrirjaOa. 2i 
dvhpl he KeKfiTjcoTL ixevos fxeya olvos de^ei, 
ws rvvT] K€KiJ,7JKas dfxvvojv aolaiv erriai." 

liriv 8' rjixei^er* eTretra fxeyas KopvQaioXos "E/crcup* 
" fxrj fjLOL olvov deipe pLeXi(f)pova, rrorvia fxrjrep, 
fi-q /x' aTToyvuoajjs , fieveos 8' dXKrjs re XddojfJiai,- 2( 
j^eptrt 8' dviTTroLULV Ad Xei^eiv aldoira olvov 
d^ofjLai' ovSe tttj eari KeXaive^eC KpovLojvi, 
atfxari. /cat Xvdpco rreTraXayfjievov evx^rdaadai. 
dXXd ail fxev rtpos vtjov *A6r]vatrjs dyeXeirjs 
280 



THE ILIAD, VI. 242-269 

But when he was now come to the beauteous 
palace of Priam, adorned with pohshed colonnades 
— and in it were fifty chambers of pohshed stone, 
built each hard by the other ; therein the sons of 
Priam were wont to sleep beside their wedded 
wives ; and for his daughters over against them on 
the opposite side within the court were twelve 
roofed chambers of polished stone, built each hard 
by the other ; therein slept Priam's sons-in-law 
beside their chaste wives — there his bounteous 
mother came to meet him, leading in Laodice, 
fairest of her daughters to look upon ; and she 
clasped him by the hand and spake and addressed 
him : " My child, why hast thou left the fierce 
battle and come hither ? Of a surety the sons of 
the Achaeans, of evil name, are pressing sore upon 
thee as they fight about our city, and thy heart 
hath bid thee come hitherward and lift up thy hands 
to Zeus from the citadel. But stay till I have 
brought thee honey-sweet wine that thou mayest 
pour libation to Zeus and the other immortals first, 
and then shalt thou thyself have profit thereof, if 
so be thou wilt drink. When a man is spent with 
toil wine greatly maketh his strength to wax, even 
as thou art spent with defending thy fellows." 

Then in answer to her spake great Hector of the 
flashing helm : " Bring me no honey-hearted wine, 
honoured mother, lest thou cripple me, and I be 
forgetful of my might and my valour ; moreover 
with hands unwashen I have awe to pour libation 
of flaming wine to Zeus ; nor may it in any wise be 
that a man should make prayer to the son of Cronos, 
lord of the dark clouds, all befouled with blood and 
filth. Nay, do thou go to the temple of Athene, 

281 



HOMER 

(-.px^o avv Ovieacnv, doXXtaaacra yepaias' 27 

TTe-rrXov 8', os ris rot ;^apieCTTaTos' ijSe fxeytarog 
eoTiv eVt fxeydpo) /cat rot ttoXv <j>iXTaTos clvtjj, 
rov des ^AOrjvalrjs inl yovvaaiv riVKOjxoio, 
/cat ol VTTocrx'^odai 8uo/cai8e/ca ^ovs eVt vqco 
tJvls rjKearas Upevaefxev, at /c' eAei^OT^ 27 

aCTTW re /cat Tpcocov dXoxovs Kal m^TTia rcKva, 
at /cei* TuSeos" vtoi' drroaxi} 'lAtou tpTys", 
dypiov alxP'f]T'y}V , Kparepov fiTJarcopa (f)6^oio. 
dXXd av pikv TTpos vrjov ^Adrjvai-qs dyeXeC-qg 
cpx^v, iyd) 8e Ilaptv ^eTeXevaojxai 6cf>pa KaXeaao), 2J 
at K €ueAr]cr €L7Tovtos aKovefiev cos kg ol avui 
yaXa xdvoi' fjbdya yap /.uv 'OAu/XTTto? €Tp€<f)€ Trrjfia 
Tpcoal T€ /cat riptajLta) fxeyaX-qropi rolo re iraiaiv. 
el KeXvov ye tSotfii KareXBovr* "AtSo? eiao), 
<f)atrjv K€V <j>iXov rjrop^ oC^vog eKXeXadecrdat. 2! 

"0.5 €(f)ad\ 7) 8e /jLoXovaa ttotI jxeyap* dp,<j)nT6Xoiat 
KeKXero- rat 8' dp* doXXiaaav Kara darv yepaias. 
auTi7 8' is ddXafMov Kare^rjaeTO KYjcoeyra, - \«-»-Sf 
ev6^ eaav ol TreTrXoi TrajXTToiKiXa epya yvvaiKCJV 
1Ll8ovlo)v, rds avros ^AXd^avSpos OeoeiSrjs 21 

rjyaye Tithovtrjdev, eTrtTrAco? evpea ttovtov, 
TTjV 686v Tjv 'EAeViyv TTep dvqyayev evTvaripeiav . 
rwv ev* deipa/xevr] 'E/cajSi] <f>€pe ScJopov 'Ad-qvr], 
OS /caAAtCTTO? er)v TTOLKtXfxacriv "qSe fieyLaTos, 
daTTjp 8' a>s dTTeXafiTTev e/cetro 8e veiaros dXXcov. 21 
^rj 8' teVai, TroAAat Be fxereaaevovro yepaiai. 
^ K€v (piXov ^Top Zenodotus : (ce <})piv arep-rrov Mss. 
282 



THE ILIAD, VI. 270-296 

driver of the spoil, with burnt-offerings, when thou 
hast gathered together the aged wives ; and the 
robe that seemeth to thee the fairest and amplest 
in thy hall, and that is dearest far to thine own 
self, this do thou lay upon the knees of fair-haired 
Athene and vow to her that thou wilt sacrifice in 
her temple twelve sleek heifers that have not felt 
the goad, if she will take pity on Troy and the Trojans' 
wives and their httle children ; in hope she may 
hold back the son of Tydeus from sacred Ilios, that 
savage spearman, a mighty deviser of rout. So go 
thou to the temple of Athene, driver of the spoil ; 
and I will go after Paris, to summon him, if haply 
he will hearken to my bidding. Would that the 
earth might straightway gape for him ! for in grievous 
wise hath the Olympian reared him as a bane to 
the Trojans and to great-hearted Priam, and the 
sons of Priam. If I but saw him going down to the 
house of Hades, then might I deem that my heart 
had forgotten its woe." 

So spake he, and she went to the hall and called 
to her handmaidens ; and they gathered together 
the aged wives throughout the city. But the 
queen herself went down to the vaulted treasure- 
chamber wherein were her robes, richly broidered, 
the handiwork of Sidonian women, whom godlike 
Alexander had himself brought from Sidon, as he 
sailed over the wide sea on that journey on the 
which he brought back high-born Helen. Of these 
Hecabe took one, and bare it as an offering for 
Athene, the one that was fairest in its broiderings 
and amplest, and shone like a star, and lay under- 
most of all. Then she went her way, and the throng 
of aged wives hastened after her. 

283 



HOMER 

At 8' OT€ vrjov Ikovov ^Ad-qvrjs iv rroXei, aKpr), 
rfjdL dvpas oil'^e Qeavw KaXXiTrdprjos , 
KiaaTjt's', dXoxos 'Avri^vopos I'mTohdp.oio' 
rrjv yap Tpcoes edrjKav ^Adr]vatrjg lipeiav. 30C 

at 8' oXoXvyfj Trdaai ^Adrjvr] ;)(etpas' dveaxov 
rj 8' dpa TTerrXov iXovaa ©eavco KaXXiTrdprjos 
drJKev 'Ad'qvatrjs enl yovvaaiv 'qiJKOfioLO, 
evxofMevTj 8' TjpdTO Ato? Kovprj ixeydXoio' 
" TTorvi ^ AQ-qvalf], pva'ntroXi, %la dedcov, 30£ 

d^ov Sr] eyxos Ato/xi^8eos', rj^e /cat avrov 
irp-qvia 86? Treaeeiv S/catcor TrpoTrdpoide TTvXdcov, 
6(f)pa roi avTLKa vvv Suo/catSe/ca ^ovs €vl V7](p 
tJvls rjKearas Upevaofxev, at k' iXe'^crrjs 
darv re /cat Tpaycov dXa^ovs /cat V7]Tna TCKva." 31C 
COS" e(f)aT^ evxofJievrj, dviveve 8e ITaAAa? Adrjvt)} 

"Ds" at /-teV /a' €vxovto Ato? Kovprj {xeydXoLO, 
"E/CTwp 8e TT/oo? 8co/xaT' ' AXe^dvBpoLO ^ejSr^/cet 
KaAa, Ta p' auro? erev^e avv dvhpdaw ol tot 

dpiCTTOi 

rjcrav ivl Tpoirj cpt^cLXaKi t4ktov€9 avSpe?. 31* 

ot ot irroLrjaav ddXafiov /cat Scofia /cat ayAi^p' 
iyyvdi T€ Il/ota/xoto /cat "EKTopo?, eV TToAet aKprj. 
evd' "E/CT6o/a eiariXde Su(f)lXos, iv 8' apa ^^t/ot 
eyxos ^x ivheKdTrrjXV Trdpoide 8e XdfJiTTero Sovpos 
alxp^'^ X<^XKeirj, Trepl 8e XP^^^^^ ^^^ TTopKTjs. 32c 

Tov' 8' e^/a' ev daXdjJicp Trept/caAAea Tevx^ evovTa, 
darriha /cat dwprjKa, /cat ay/cvAa rd^' d<j>6oiVTa' 
*ApyeLrj 8' 'EAeVry /xer' apa SfKvfjac yvvai^lv 
•^OTO, /cat dpi^iTToXoKJi, Trept/cAyra epya KeXeve. 
Tou 8' "E/CTcap vet'/ceacrev 180/1^ alaxpols €77eecraf 32s 

^ Line 31 1 was rejected by Aristarchua. 
284 



THE ILIAD, VI. 297-325 

Now when they were come to the temple of 
Athene in the citadel, the doors Avere opened for 
them by fair-cheeked Theano, daughter of Cisseus, 
the wife of Antenor, tamer of horses ; for her had 
the Trojans made priestess of Athene. Then with 
sacred cries they all lifted up their hands to Athene ; 
and fair-cheeked Theano took the robe and laid it 
upon the knees of fair-haired Athene, and with 
vows made prayer to the daughter of great Zeus : 
" Lady Athene, that dost guard our city, fairest 
among goddesses, break now the spear of Diomedes, 
and grant furthermore that himself may fall headlong 
before the Scaean gates ; to the end that we may 
now forthwith sacrifice to thee in thy temple twelve 
sleek heifers that have not felt the goad, if thou 
wilt take pity on Troy and the Trojans' wives and 
their httle children." So spake she praying, but 
Pallas Athene denied the prayer. 

Thus were these praying to the daughter of 
great Zeus, but Hector went his way to the palace 
of Alexander, the fair palace that himself had 
builded with the men that were in that day the 
best builders in deep-soiled Troy ; these had made 
him a chamber and hall and court hard by the 
palaces of Priam and Hector in the citadel. There 
entered in Hector, dear to Zeus, and in his hand 
he held a spear of eleven cubits, and before him 
blazed the spear-point of bronze, around which 
ran a ring of gold. He found Paris in his chamber 
busied with his beauteous arms, his shield and his 
corselet, and handling his curved bow ; and Argive 
Helen sat amid her serving-women and appointed 
to them their glorious handiwork. And at sight of 
him Hector rebuked him with words of shame : 

285 



HOMER 

" BaifiovL*, ov fxev KoXa ;\;oAoi/ rorS' evdeo dvfxa>. 
Xaol fxev (f)dLvv9ovaL rrepl tttoXlv uIttv re reixos 
fxapvdjjievoL' aeo 8 eti'e/c' dvT'^ re TTr6\ej.L6s re 
darv ToS' a/x^tSeSr^e* av 8' dv fxax^aaco /cat aAAcu, 
ov riva 7TOV fJieOtevra lSocs arvyepov TToXefxoio. 33 
aAA' dva, firj rd-)(a darv rrvpog Sr]tot,o dep-qrai." 
Tov 8' avre rrpoaeenrev 'AXe^avSpos deoeiS-qs' 
'Ekto/3, eTTei fxe /car' alaav iveiKeaas oyS' VTrep 
alaav, 
rovveKa roi epioi' av 8e avvOeo /cat /xev aKovaov. 
ov roL eyd) Tpcocov roaaov ;^oAaj ovSe vejxeaai 33, 
ripL-qv ev OaXdfMcp, edeXov 8' a;^et TrporpaTreaOat,. 
vvv 8e fxe Trapenrova* dXa^os /xaAa/cot? eTreeaaiv 
opfXTja es TToXefiov 80/ceet 8e fioL coSe /cat avrco 
Xco'Cov eaaeaOai' vlkt] 8' eTra/xet^erat dvSpag. 
aAA aye vw eTTLfietvov, dprj'Ca revx^o. hvu)' 34< 

17 tt7 , eyco be piereipLi' /ci;)(7^crecrc/at be a olco. 
Q.? (f)dro, TOV 8' ov re rrpoae(f>ri KopvOaioXos 

"E/CTCOp* 

TOV 8' 'EAevT^ jxvOoiaL rrpoarjvSa ixetXix^oiar 
" Sdep efjLeio kvvos KaKopirjxdvov OKpvoeaar]?,^ 
cos p> 6<j)eX rjpLari r<2> ore fxe Trpcorov reKe [xi^rr^p 34i 
o'iX^oOaL Trpo(f>epovaa KaKrj dve/xoio dveXXa 
et? opos 7} els Kvp,a TToXv^Xoia^oio daXdaarjs, 
evda fie KVfx dvoepae rrdpos rdSe epya yeveoOai. 
avrap errel rdhe y Sihe 9eol /ca/ca reKfiy^pavro, 
avSpos eTTeir a>(f)eXXov dfxeivovos elvaL dKoiris, 35( 
OS '^St] vepbealv re /cat aiaxea ttoAA' dvdpcovcov. 

* The original text must have had KaKo^x-qx'^voo Kpvoiirar)^, 
as 6Kpvoi(xc-qi is meaningless. The corruption was clue to 
unfamiliarity with the genitive ending -00. 

286 



THE ILIAD, VI. 326-351 

" Strange man, thou dost not well to nurse this 
anger in thy heart. Thy people are perishing 
about the town and the steep wall in battle, and it 
is because of thee that the battle-cry and the war 
are ablaze about this city ; thou wouldest thyself 
vent wrath on any other, whomso thou shouldest 
haply see shrinking from hateful war. Nay, then, 
rouse thee, lest soon the city blaze with consuming 
fire." 

And to him did godlike Alexander make answer, 
saying : " Hector, seeing that thou dost chide me 
duly, and not beyond what is due, therefore will I 
tell thee ; and do thou take thought and hearken 
unto me. Not so much by reason of wrath and 
indignation against the Trojans sat I in my chamber, 
but I was minded to yield myself to sorrow. Even 
now my wife sought to turn my mind with gentle 
words and urged me to the war : and I, mine own 
self, deem that it will be better so ; victory shifteth 
from man to man. But come now, tarry a while, 
let me don my harness of war ; or go thy way, and 
I will follow ; and methinks I shall overtake thee." 

So said he, and Hector of the flashing helm 
answered him not a word, but unto him spake Helen 
with gentle words : " O Brother o f jge tkat am a 
dog, a contriver- of .mischief and abhorred of all, I 
would that on the day when first my mother gave me 
birth an evil storm-wind had borne me away to some 
mountain or to the wave of the loud-resounding sea, 
where the wave might have swept me away or ever 
these things came to pass. Howbeit, seeing the 
gods thus ordained these ills, would that I had been 
wife to a better man, that could feel the indignation 
of his fellows and their many revilings. But this 

287 



HOMER 

TOVTCO 8' out' ap vvv (f)pev€s €fj,7TeSoL ovr dp OTTtaao) 
eaaovraf rcb Kai fxiv i7TlavpT]aea6ac otco. 
dAA' dye vvv etaeXde /cat e^eo tojS' inl hi(j)po}, 
Sdep, €TT€i ae //.aAtcrra ttovo? <j)pevas dp.j)L^e^r]K€V 3 
elveK ifM€LO kvvos Kal ^AXe^dvSpov eVe/c arry?/ ^^ 
otcrtv em Zeus drJKC KaKov p.6pov, cos" /cat OTnaao) 
dvdp(x)TTOiai TreAco/ze^' dotStju-ot iaaofjbdvotai. 

Tr]v S' rjixei^eT^ erreira fieyas KopvdaioXog "KKTCjp' 
" fjii]lJL€ Kddit,\ 'EAe'vT^, (j)iXeovad Trep- ou8e'/xe rreiaeis' 3 
"^'817 yd/3 jLtot Ov/jLos eTTeaavraL 6(f>p' eTra/Jivvoj 
Tpcoecrcr', ot /ie'y' e/aeto iTodrjV drreovTog exovaiv. 
dAAd (TU y' opvvQi tovtov, iTTeiyeaOco 8e /cat auro?, 
CO? /cev epL* evroadev ttoXcos Karaixapiftr) iovra. 
/cat yap iyojv oIkovSc eXevaojxaL, 6<^pa tSoj/Liat 3 
oLKijas dXo)(6v T€ <^iXr]v /cat vr^Trtov utov. 
ov yap 0I8* et ert a(f)i,v VTTorpoTTOs t^ofiai, avns, 
rq rjSr] pi* vtto X^P^'' ^^^'' ^o.p,6oiaiv AxaidJv. 

"Os" dpa (f)a)vqcras aTre^r} KopvdaioXos "E/CTcap* 
at^a 8' eVet^' t/cave 8o/xoi;? eu vaierdovTas, 3 

ou8' e^p' ' AvSpopudxrjv XevKcoXevov iv fxeydpoiaiv, 
dAA' 17 y€ $vv 7rat8t /cat dfX(f>i,7T6Xcp ivrreTrXo) 
TTvpyu) e<j)eaTriK€L yoocoad re p,vpop,evrj re. 
"E/CTCop 8' CO? ou/c evSov dfxvpiova rerp^ev dKoiriv, 
eoTT] ctt' ovhov Icov, p,erd 8e BpicpfjaLV eenrev 3 

" et 8' dye p.ot, hpapai, vTy/xepre'a pivOr^aaade' 
-nfj e^T) ^AvSpopbaxT] XevKcoXcvos e/c pieydpoio; 
■fji TTT] e? yaAdcov -^ elvarepcDV euTreVAcoi', 
17 e? *A9r]vaL7)s e^oixerai, evda irep dAAat 
Tpojat e'uTrAo/ca/xot 8etvi)i' ^eov IXdaKovrai; a 

^ (itTTjj : <i/3X'/s Zenodotus (c/. iii. 100). 
^88 



THE ILIAD, VI. 352-380 

man's understanding is not now stable, nor ever will 
be hereafter ; thereof I deem that he will e'en reap 
the fruit. But come now, enter in, and sit thee 
upon this chair, my brother, since above all others 
has trouble encompassed thy heart because of shame- 
less me, and the folly of Alexander ; on whom Zeus 
hath brought an evil doom, that even in days to come 
we may be a song for men that are yet to be." 

Then made answer to her great Hector of the 
flashing helm : " Bid me not sit, Helen, for all thou 
lovest me ; thou wilt not persuade me. Even now 
my heart is impatient to bear aid to the Trojans 
that sorely long for me that am not with them. 
Nay, but rouse thou this man, and let him of himself 
make haste, that he may overtake me while yet 
I am within the city. For I shall go to my home, 
that I may behold my housefolk, my dear wife, and 
my infant son ; for I know not if any more I shall 
return home to them again, or if even now the gods 
will slay me beneath the hands of the Achaeans." 

So saying. Hector of the flashing helm departed, 
and came speedily to his well-built house. But 
he found not white-armed Andromache in his halls ; 
she with her child and a fair-robed handmaiden had 
taken her stand upon the wall, weeping and wailing. 
So Hector when he found not his peerless wife within, 
went and stood upon the threshold, and spake amid 
the serving- women : " Come now, ye serving- women, 
tell me true ; whither went white-armed Andro- 
mache from the hall ? Is she gone to the house 
of any of my sisters or my brothers' fair-robed 
wives, or to the temple of Athene, where the other 
fair-tressed women of Troy are sfeeking to propitiate 
the dread goddess ? " 

VOL. I u 289 



HOMER 

T6v 8' aur' orp-qprj rafxir) Trpos nvdov eenrev 
" "Ekto/s, €7761 jLtaA' oivcoyas aXrjdea fivOTJaaadat,, 
ovre TTTj is yaXocov ovt' elvarepcov ivTreTrXiov 
ovr* is ' A9r]vaL7]s i^oLX^rai, evOa trep aAAat 
Tpcx)a\ ivTrXoKafxot SeLvrjv deov IXdaKOVTau, 
aAA' inl TTvpyov e^r] /xiyav 'IXlov, ovvck aKovae 
retpeaOaL Tpcoas, [xeya Se Kpdros elvat, A)(ai(JijVs 
7) fxev St) TTpos relxos eVetyo/xeVTy d(f)iKa.vei, \ .'^ 
IxaLVOpbivj) iiKvla- (f)ipei 8' a^a TratSa Tidrjvrj. 

*H pa yvvTj ra/jLirj, 6 8' OLTTeaavTo Bco/xaros 

"E/CTCOp 

rrjv avTTjv oBov avris ivKrtpiivas /car ayvias. 
€VT€ TTvXas i/cave hiepxapievos fxeya darv 
TiKatds, T7J dp^ e/xeAAe 8te^t/xevat TreStovSe, 
€v6^ dXoxos TToXvScopos ivavrtrj rjXde deovaa 
^AvSpofxdxf], Ovydrrjp p.eyaX-qropos 'Hericovos, 
^Hericov, OS eVaiev vtto IlAa/ca) vX-qiacrrj, 
Q'q^rj 'YTTOTrXaKLr), KtAt/cecrcr' dvBpeacnv avdaacov 
rod 7T€p Srj dvydrrjp e;^e0' "E/cropt ;^aA/coKopuaT^. 
rj ot enecT^ rjvTrja' , a/xa 8' dpL^iTToXos Kiev avrfj 
TTtttS' €771 koXtto) exovo* draXd<f)pova, vJttlov avrcos, 
'^KTopihrjV dyaTTrjTov, dXtyKLOv daripL koXo), 
Tov p "E/CTCo/3 KoXiecTKe TiKa/jidvSpLov, avrap oc 

dXXot 
AoTvavaKT • oios yap epvero lAiov YhKruip. 
rj rot 6 fxev [xetBrjaev ISdiv is TraXSa aiconfj' 
'Avbpofidxf] Be ol dyx*- Trapiararo hdKpv x^ovaa, 
ev t' dpa ol (f>v X^^'P'' ^^°S" t' e<f>ar e/c t' ovopLaL,^' 
" Sai/xovie, <f)dt,aei, ere to gov fievos, 01)8' iXealpeis 



^ The name Astyanax occurs again in Homer only in 
xxii. 500 and 506. The connexion with the name Hector is 

290 



THE ILIAD, VI. 381-407 

Then a busy house-dame spake to him, saying : 
" Hector, seeing thou straitly biddest us tell thee 
true, neither is she gone to any of thy sisters or thy 
brothers' fair-robed wives, nor yet to the temple 
of Athene, where the other fair-tressed Trojan 
women are seeking to propitiate the dread goddess ; 
but she went to the great wall of Ilios, for that 
she heard the Trojans were sorely pressed, and great 
victory rested with the Achaeans. So is she gone 
in haste to the wall, like one beside herself ; and 
with her the nurse beareth the child." 

So spake the house-dame, and Hector hasted 
from the house back over the same way along the 
well-built streets. When now he was coine to the 
gate, as he passed through the great city, the Scaean 
gate, whereby he was minded to go forth to the 
plain, there came running to meet him his bounteous 
wife, Andromache, daughter of great-hearted Eetion, 
Eetion that dwelt beneath wooded Placus, in Thebe 
under Placus, and was lord over the men of Cilicia ; 
for it was his daughter that bronze-harnessed 
Hector had to wife. She now met him, and with 
her came a handmaid bearing in her bosom the 
tender boy, a mere babe, the well-loved son of- 
Hector, like to a fair star. Him Hector was wont 
to call Scamandrius, but other men Astyanax ; for 
only Hector guarded Ilios .^ Then Hector smiled, 
as he glanced at his boy in silence, but Andromache 
came close to his side weeping, and clasped his 
hand and spake to him, saying : " Ah, my husband, 
this prowess of thine will be thy doom, neither hast 

plain in this passage (Plato, Cratyl. 393 a 6 -yap &va^ koI 6 
(KTwp crxeddv ti raurdv (rrj/j.aii'ei), although Hector was &pa^ of 
Troy only in the sense of being its guardian or defender. 

291 



HOMER 

TratSa re vrjmaxov /cat e/x' a/x/jLopov, t] tolxol XVPl 
aev kaofxaf Taxo. yap ere KaraKraveovaiv 'A;^aiot 
ndvres i(f>opfMr)devT€S' ip-ol 8e /ce KepScov e'lrj 4^ 

arev d(f)ap.apTovcrr) x^^^^ BvfievaL' ov yap eV dXXr] 
earat daXTTiopr], evret av ay ye ttot/xoi/ eTriaTrr^s, 
dAA' a;^e'* ouSe' /iot ecrrt Trarijp /cat Trort'ta purjTqp. 
^ TOt ya/3 Trarep' a.jLtot' drriKrave 8 to? 'A^j^^tAAey?, 
e/c 8e TToAiv Tripaev KtAt/ccot' eu vaierdovaav, ., 

Qrj^rjV viJii'TTvXov' Kara 8 CKravev 'Yleruova, 
ovBe jxiv e^evdpc^e, ae^daaaro yap to ye dvfia), 
aAA' a/aa />ttv Kare/CT^e crut' evreat SatSaXeotaLV 
r^o €7Tt CTT^/Lt e;^;eei'' Trept oe TTTeAea? e^vrevaav 
vopL^ai opearidBes, Kovpai Aio? atyto;)^oto. ^^ 

ot 8e /xot CTTTa KaaiyvrjToi, kaav iv fieydpoiaLV, 
ol jxev TrdvTes Ico klov TJfMan "AtSo? etcro)' 
irdvTas yap /careVei/tve irohdpK-qg 810? 'A^^tAAeu? 
^ovalv I'u etAtTToSeaat /cat dpyevvfjs diecrcrt. 
uiqrepa 8', -^ ^aaiXevev vtto IlAa/ca) vXrjeaar), 4^ 
n^i' eTret ap 8eu/3 rp/ay d'/it ctAAoicrt Kredreacnv, 
aijj 6 ye tt^v aTreXvac Xa^cbv aTre/aetcrt' aTTowa, 
narpos 8' ep* fieydpoLat, /8dA' "Apre/it? lox^aipa. 
"E/CTop, drdp au /xot eaat TTarrjp /cat Trorvia fx'qrrjp 
"qSe KaaiyvrjTOs , crv 8e /xot daXepos Trapa/cotTTys" 4J 
dAA' dye t'W eAe'atpe /cat aurou jxi/jiv* ent nvpyu), 
p,r) TratS' 6p(f)aviK6v drjrjs XVPW "^^ yvvaiKa' 
Xaov 8e arrjcrov Trap ipiveov, evda fidXicrra^ 
d/AjSaTo? CCTTt TToAi? /Cat eTTtSpofiov CTT-Aero Tet;^os'. 
rpts ydp T^ y' iXdovres eTreLprjoavd^ ol dpiaroi 4j 
dp.^' Atarre Suco /cat dya/cAurov 'ISo/xei/i^a 
)J8' dp.^' ^ ArpetSag /cat Tu8€'os' dXKifj,ov vlov 

1 Lines 433-439 were rejected by Aristarchus. 

292 



THE ILIAD, VI. 408-437 

thou any pity for thine infant child nor for hapless 
me that soon shall be thy widow ; for soon will the 
Achaeans all set upon thee and slay thee. But for 
me it were better to go down to the grave if I lose 
thee, for nevermore shall any comfort be mine, 
when thou hast met thy fate, but only woes. Neither 
father have I nor queenly mother. My father 
verily goodly Achilles slew, for utterly laid he 
waste the well-peopled city of the Cilicians, even 
Thebe of lofty gates. He slew Eetion, yet he 
despoiled him not, for his soul had awe of that ; 
but he burnt him in his armour, richly dight, and 
heaped over him a barrow ; and all about were 
elm-trees planted by nymphs of the mountain, 
daughters of Zeus that beareth the aegis. And 
the seven brothers that were mine in our halls, all 
these on the selfsame day entered into the house 
of Hades, for all were slain of swift-footed, goodly 
Achilles, amid their kine of shambling gait and 
their white-fleeced sheep. And my mother, that 
was queen beneath wooded Placus, her brought he 
hither with the rest of the spoil, but thereafter set 
her free, when he had taken ransom past counting ; 
and in her father's halls Artemis the archer slew 
her. Nay, Hector, thou art to me father and 
queenly mother, thou art brother, and thou art my 
stalwart husband. Come now, have pity, and remain 
here on the wall, lest thou make thy child an orphan 
and thy wife a widow. And for thy host, stay it 
by the wild fig-tree, where the city may best be 
scaled, and the wall is open to assault. For thrice 
at this point came the most valiant in company 
with the twain Aiantes and glorious Idomeneus and 
the sons of Atreus and the valiant son of Tydeus, 

293 



HOMER 

T) TTOV ris (7(f)iv eviOTTe deoTTpoTTLOJV iv etScaj, 
7} vv Kal avrcov OvfMos eTTorpvvei /cat dt'ojyet. 
Tt^i/ S' avre Trpoaienre fxeyag KopvdaioXos 

"Ektc/j/3* 4^ 

" rj Kal ip^ol rdBe Trdvra /xe'Aet, yvvav dAAo, /u-ctA' 

alvojs 
aiBdofxai, Tpcbas Kal TpcpdSas iXKecmreTrXovs , 
at K€ KaKos Ci)s voacjyiv dAucr/cd^O) TToAe/xoio' 
ovSe /xe dvp,6s avojyev, eirel piddov ep,pi€vai iaOXog 
atet /cat TrpcoToicrt, fierd Tpayeaai. ixd\eadai, 44 

apvvfxevos Trarpos Te fxeya /cAeos" i^S' e/xov avrov. 
ev yap iyw roSe oiSa /card ^peva /cat /card Ov/xov 
eaaerai "^/Jiap or* av- ttot oXcvXt) "lAtos" Iprj 
Kal Hpiapios Kal Xaos eiZ/XjueAto) lipidfMoio. 
dAA' ov fioL Tpa)cov Tocraov [xeXei dXyos ontaaw, 4{ 
OVT^ ayrijs 'E/cd^rys" ovre Fl/atd/ioto dvaKTos 
ovre KauLyvrjrcjv , ol Kev iroXieg re Kal iadXol 
iv KOVLTjai TTcaoiev vtt* dvSpdai, Bvafjueveeaatv, 
oaaov crev, ore Kev rt? A;^^^^^*' ^aXKOxi-Tajvcov 
haKpvoeaaav dyrjrai, eXevdepov rjixap drrovpas. *' 
/cat Kev ev "Apyei eovaa npos dXXris lorov u^atVot?, 
/cat Kev vSatp ^opeois ^\eaar]thos r] 'YTrepeirjs 
TToXX* deKat^opLevrj, Kpareprj 8' emKeiaer dvdyKrj, 
/cat TTore rts" eiTrrjaiv ISojv Kara SdKpv ■)(eovaav 
' "Ekto/sos" Tjhe yvvq, os dpiareveuKe fidxeadat, 4( 
Tpioiov L7T7To8dp,o)v , Ore "lAtov dp,(f)€fj,dxovro .' 
ws TTore ris epeei' aol S' av veov eaaerai dXyos 
p^'^ret TOLOvB' dvSpos dfjLvveiv BovXiov rjfxap. 
dXXd fie redvTjcora xutt) /card yata KaXvTrroi, 
TTpiv yen crrjs re ^orjs crov 6^ eXKrj9p,OLO rrvdeoOai." 46 

294 



THE ILIAD, VI. 438-465 

and made essay to enter : whether it be that one 
well-skilled in soothsaying told them, or haply their 
owTi spirit urgeth and biddeth them thereto." 

Then spake to her great Hector of the flashing 
helm : " Woman, I too take thought of all this, 
but wondrously have I shame of the Trojans, and 
the Trojans' wives, with trailing robes, if like a 
coward I skulk apart from the battle. Nor doth 
mine own heart suffer it, seeing I have learnt to be 
vaUant always and to fight amid the foremost 
Trojans, striving to win my father's great glory 
and mine own. For of a surety know I this in heart 
and soul : the day shall come when sacred Ilios 
shall be laid low, and Priam, and the people of 
Priam with goodly spear of ash. Yet not so much 
doth the grief of the Trojans that shall be in the 
aftertime move me, neither Hecabe's own, nor king 
Priam's, nor my brethren's, many and brave, who 
then shall fall in the dust beneath the hands of 
their foemen, as doth thy grief, when some brazen- 
coated Achaean shall lead thee away weeping and 
rob thee of thy day of freedom. Then haply in 
Argos shalt thou ply the loom at another's bidding, 
or bear water from Messeis or Hypereia, sorely 
against thy will, and strong necessity shall be laid 
upon thee. And some man shall say as he beholdeth 
thee weeping : ' Lo, the wife of Hector, that was 
pre-eminent in war above all the horse-taming 
Trojans, in the day when men fought about Ilios.' So 
shall one say ; and to thee shall come fresh grief in 
thy lack of a man hke me to ward off the day of 
bondage. But let me be dead, and let the heaped- 
up earth cover me, ere I hear thy cries as they hale 
thee into captivity." 

295 



HOMER 

"Qs" eiTTcov ov TTaiBos opl^aro (f)ai,BLfjLos "E/CTCop* 
aj/f 8' o Tral? Trpo? koXttov €vI,covolo rid-qvqs 
eKXivOrj Id^ojv, irarpos <f)iXov oj/hv arv^Q^t'S, 
rap^'^aas ;;^aA/cov re tSe Xocfiov L7nno)(alTrjV, 
Beivov (xtt' aKpordrrjs Kopvdos vevovra vo'^aas. * 
e/c 8' iyeXaaae TTarrjp re (f)iXos /cat Trorvta /Jirjrrjp- 
avTiK (XTTo Kparos Kopvd^ eiAero ^ai8i//.os" "Ektoj/j, 
icat Ti^v /xer KaredrjKev eTrt -xdovl Traficfyavocoaav 
avrdp 6 y' ov <j>iXov vlov irrel Kvae TTTjXe re ^epatv, 
€L7T€V eTTev^dpievos Alt' t' d'AAotCTtv re dedlac 4 

Zeu ctAAot re ^eot. Sore 8i) Kat rdvSe yeveadai 
7rar8' ip,6v, ws /cat eyo; Trep, dpiTrpcTTea Tpcoeacnv, 
coBe ^LrjV r dyadov, Koi 'lAiou i^t dvacrcreiv 
Kat TTore ti? etTTot * Trarpos y' d8e TroAAdt' apbcivcov 
e/c TToXepLov dviovra' <^ipoi 8' evapa ^poroevra 4 
KTeivas St^iov dvSpa, x^P^^V ^^ <l>p€va p.'qrrjp.' 

'^Q.S etVcov dAd;!^oto ^t'Arys ev ;(epCTti/ eOrjKC 
Trato cov ■)) o apa /u,tv Krjcooei oe^aro koAtto) 
BaKpvoev yeXdaaaa' ttogis 8' iXerjae voiqaas, 
;^etpt re /xtv Karepe^ev enos r e^ar' e/c t dvd/xa^e • 4 
" SainovLTj, fxrj not n Xltjv d/ca;!(t^eo dvfxcp' 
ov ydp TLS p,' VTrkp alaav dvrjp "AtSt Trpoiai/jei' 
pLolpav 8' ov rcvd <f)r]p,i, vecfivyp.evov e/x/xevai dvSpcvu, 
ov KaKov, ovBe p.kv iaOXov, CTrqv rd irporra yevr^rai,. 
dXX' els oXkov lovaa rd a* avrijs epya /cd/xt^e, 4 
larov r* rjXaKdrrjv re, /cat dpi^iTToXoLaL KeXeve 
epyov eTToix^adaL' rroXepLos 8' dvBpeaat. pbeXrjaei 
Trdcrt, /LtdAtCTTa 8' e/xot, rot 'lAt'o) eyyeydaatr." 

296 



THE ILIAD, VI. 466-493 

So saying, glorious Hector stretched out his arms 
to his boy, but back into the bosom of his fair- 
girdled nurse shrank the child crying, affrighted at 
the aspect of his dear father, and seized with dread 
of the bronze and the crest of horse -hair, as he 
marked it waving dreadfully from the topmost helm. 
Aloud then laughed his dear father and queenly 
mother ; and forthwith glorious Hector took the 
helm from his head and laid it all-gleaming upon 
the ground. But he kissed his dear son, and 
fondled him in his arms, and spake in prayer to 
Zeus and the other gods : " Zeus and ye other gods, 
grant that this my child may likewise prove, even 
as I, pre-eminent amid the Trojans, and as valiant 
in might, and that he rule mightily over Ilios. And 
some day may some man say of him as he cometh 
back from war, ' He is better far than his father ' ; 
and may he bear the blood-stained spoils of the 
foeman he hath slain, and may his mother's heart 
wax glad." 

So saying, he laid his child in his dear wife's 
arms, and she took him to her fragrant bosom, 
smiling through her tears ; and her husband was 
touched with pity at sight of her, and he stroked her 
with his hand, and spake to her, saying : " Dear 
wife, in no wise, I pray thee, grieve overmuch at 
heart ; no man beyond my fate shall send me forth 
to Hades ; only his doom, methinks, no man hath 
ever escaped, be he coward or valiant, when once 
he hath been born. Nay, go thou to the house 
and busy thyself with thine own tasks, the loom 
and the distaff, and bid thy handmaids ply their 
work : but war shall be for men, for all, but most of 
all for me, of them that dwell in Ilios." 

297 



HOMER 

"D? apa (f)Covi^cras Kopvd^ etAero ^atSt/ios' 'E/crcup 
tmrovpiv dXoxos 8e <^tAi7 oi/covSe ^e^rjKeL 495 

ivTpo7TaXtt,ofi€vr], OaXepov Kara SaKpv )(€Ovaa. 
atifja 8' eVet^' lK•a^'e So/xovs' eu vaierdovTas 
"E/CTopos" dvSpo(f)6voio, /ci;)^7y(TaTO 8 evSodi TToAAas 
djx^iTToXovg , rfjcnv 8e ydov Trdarjoiv ivcopaev. 
at ^ei' ert ^cow yoov "E/cropa oj evt olkco' qqq 

ov ydp fxiv eV e(f)avro vnorpoTTOV e/c TToXefioio 
t^eaOai, 7Tpo(f>vy6vTa fievos Kal x^^P^^s ^Axo.iu)v. 

Ou8e Hapt? ^ridvvev iv vilj7]XoLai BofJboiaiv, 
dAA' o y', CTTct KaTe8y KrAura revx^a, TTOLKiXa 

XO-Xkco, 
creyar' eTretr' ara darv, ttooI Kpanrvolai TreTToidoiS . 505 
CO? 8' ore Ti? araros lttttos, aKoar-qcras inl (ftarvj], 
SeafMov drroppiq^as deirj TreStoio Kpoacvojv, 
elcodcos XoveaOat iijppuos TTorapboio, 
KvSioojv vifjov 8e Kdprj e;^et, dfX(^l 8e p^acrai 
oj/aot? atcraovTaf o 8' dyXatr]^i TTeiroiQojs, 510 

pip,(j)a i yovva (f)€peL [xerd r yjdea Kai vofxov lttttcov • 
ws vlos HpidixoLo HdpLS Kara Hepydfxov dicp-qs 
revx^oi TTajxcfiaivcov ws t' T^Ae/crcop e^e^rjKei 
KayxaXocov, rax^^S 8e ttoScs (fiepov alifja 8 eTreira 
"EKTopa 8ror ereTfiev d8eX(f)e6v, evr dp* e/xcAAe 515 
arpeipeaO* ck x^PV^ ^0'' ?? octp^^e yvvaLKt. 
Tov TtpoTepos 7Tpoa€€LTT€V ^AXc^avhpog deoeiS-qs' 
"rjdef, •^ fidXa hrj ae Kal eaavp^evov KaTepvKco 
Srjdvvcov, oi5S' rjXdov evaiaijMov, cos eVe'Aeues"; " 

Tov 8' aTra/xet^o/xevoj TTpoa€(j)ri KopvdaioXos 
"E/CTCup- 520 

" Sat/MOi'i', ovK dv TLS rot, dvqp, os ivaiaip.os €ltj, 

298 



THE ILIAD, VI. 494-521 

So spake glorious Hector and took up his helm 
with horse-hair crest ; and his dear wife went 
forthwith to her house, oft turning back, and shedding 
big tears. Presently she came to the well-built 
palace of man-slaying Hector and found therein 
her many handmaidens ; and among them all she 
roused lamentation. So in his own house they 
made lament for Hector while yet he lived ; for they 
deemed that he should never more come back from 
battle, escaped from the might and the hands of the 
Achaeans. 

Nor did Paris tarry long in his lofty house, but 
did on his glorious armour, dight with bronze, and 
hastened through the city, trusting in his fleetness 
of foot. Even as when a stalled horse that has 
fed his fill at the manger breaketh his halter and 
runneth stamping over the plain — being wont to 
bathe him in the fair-flowing river — and exulteth ; 
on high doth he hold his head, and about his shoulders 
his mane floateth streaming, and as he glorieth in 
his spTen3oTn'7 "his" knees nimbly bear him to the 
haunts and pastures of mares ; even so Paris, son 
of Priam, strode down from high Pergamus, all 
gleaming in his armour hke the shining sun, laughing 
for glee, and his swift feet bare him on. Speedily 
then he overtook goodly Hector, his brother, even 
as he was about to turn back from the place where 
he had dallied with his wife , Then godlike Alexander 
was first to speak to him, saying : " My brother, 
full surely I delay thee in thine haste by my long 
tarrying, and came not in due season, as thou 
badest me." 

Then in answer to him spake Hector of the 
flashing helm : " Strange man, no one that is right- 

299 



HOMER 

kpyov aTifM-qcreic fjLdx''r]S, iirel aA/ct/xos" eucrr 

aAAa eKcbv fiediels re Kal ovk iOiXets' ro 8' ifxov 

axvvrai ev Ovfiw, od* vnep aeOev atax^^ olkovo) 
irpos Tpcocov, OL exovai ttoXvv ttovov etveKa ere to. 52 
aAA lofiev ra 8' omadev dpeaa6pi€d\ at /ce ttoOl 

Tievs 
Scorj eTTOvpavioLCfi Oeols aleiyeveT'Dai 
Kp-qTTJpa arrjaaaOat iXevOepov ev fxeydpotaLV, 
e/c Tpoirjs iXdaavras iiJKViqixihas 'A;(atoi;s'." 



soo 



THE ILIAD, VI. 522-529 

minded could make light of thy work in battle, for 
thou art valiant ; but of thine own will art thou 
slack, and hast no care ; and thereat my heart is 
grieved within me, whenso I hear regarding thee 
words of shame from the lips of the Trojans, who 
because of thee have grievous toil. But let us go 
our way ; these things we will make good here- 
after, if so be Zeus shall grant us to set for the 
heavenly gods that are for ever a bowl of deliverance 
in our halls, when we have driven forth from the 
land of Troy the well-greaved Achaeans." 



301 



lAIAAOS H 

"Q? etTTCov TTvXecov i^ecravTO <^at8t/i,o? "E/crcup, 
Toj 8' dfx ^AXe^avSpos k" dSeA^eoj- eV S' dpa 

diJb(f)6TepoL {Mefxaaav TToXefxi^cLV rjSe fxdx^adai. 
d)S 8e deos vavrr]aiv ieXSofievotaLV ehcjOKev 
ovpov, 67761 K€ Ka/xojatv iv^eaTTjs iXdrrjcrL I 

TTOVTOV iXavvovres, Kapidrcp 8' vtto yvla XeXwrai, 
d)S dpa r<j} Tpweaauv ieXSofxevoiai (jiavqrrjv. 

"Eivd^ iXerrjv 6 p,€V vlov 'Ap-qCdooio dvaKTOs, 
"Apvr) vaterdovra Vleveadiov, ov Kopvvqrrjs 
yeivar ^Ap-qtOoos Kal ^vXop,€Sov<ja ^ocoms' 1 

"E/CTCo/o 8' ^H'Covrja jSaA' eyx^'C o^vocvtl 
avx'^v VTTO are^dv-qs cvxdXKOv, Xvae^ 8e yvia. 
TXavKos 8' 'IttttoXoxolo Trd'is, Avklcov dyos dvSpcov, 
*l<f)lvoov pdXe Sovpl Kara Kpareprjv vaixivi]v 
Ae^tdSrjv, LTTTTcov eTndXfievov ojK^idojv, 
(Ljxov' 6 8' e'^ LTTTTCDV xo-f^dSis 7T€a€ , XvvTO 8e yvla. 

Tovs 8' d)S ovv ivoiqae ded yXavKOJTns ^AO-qvq 
^Apyeiovs oXeKovras ivl Kparepfj vanivj), 
^7] pa Kar* OvXvpLTTOio KapT]uojv dt^acra 
"IXiov els Up-qv Tfi 8' avrios opvvr ^ AttoXXcov '. 
llepydfJLov eKKanhojv , Tpweaai Se ^ovXero vIktji^. 

* \vffe: \vvTo Aristarchus. 

302 



BOOK VII 

So saying, glorious Hector hastened forth from 
the gates, and with him went his brother Alexander ; 
and in their hearts were both eager for war and 
battle. And as a god giveth to longing seamen a 
fair wind when they have grown weary of beating 
the sea with polished oars of fir, and with weariness 
are their limbs fordone ; even so appeared these 
twain to the longing Trojans. 

Then the one of them slew the son of king 
Areithous, Menesthius, that dwelt in Arne, who 
was born of the mace-man Areithous and ox-eyed 
Phylomedusa ; and Hector with his sharp spear 
smote Eioneus on the neck beneath the well-wrought 
helmet of bronze, and loosed his limbs. And Glaucus, 
son of Hippolochus, leader of the Lycians, made a 
cast with his spear in the fierce conflict at Iphinous, 
son of Dexios, as he sprang upon his car behind his 
swift n^res, and smote him upon the shoulder ; so 
he fell from his chariot to the ground and his limbs 
were loosed. 

But when the goddess, flashing-eyed Athene, 
was ware of them as they were slaying the Argives 
in the fierce conflict, she went darting down from 
the peaks of Olympus to sacred Ilios. And Apollo 
sped forth to meet her, for he looked down from out 
of Pergamus and beheld her, and was fain to have 

303 



HOMER 

dXX'qXoiai Be no ye avvavrcadiqv irapa (jirjyco. 
TTjv TTporepos TTpoaeenrev dva^ Ato? vlos 'AttoAAojv 
" TLTTTe av brj av fiepiavla, Ato? dvyarep fjLeydXoio, 
rjXdes drr^ OvXvfjiTTOLO, fxeyas 8e ere Ovfxos dvrJKev; 2i 
rj Lva 87} Aaraotcrt P'O-X'^S irepaXKea vtKrjv 
8a)s; iirel ov n TpoJas dTToXXvfxevovs iXeatpeis. 
oAA €t fjiOL ri TTivoio, ro Kev ttoAv Kepotov evr]' 
vvv iiev TTavaojfJiev TToXepLOV koI Srj'CoTrjra 
aT^fiepov varepov avre [xax'^^crovT* , els o k€ reKfxcop 'A 
'lAiou evpojaiv, irrel ws <f>iXov eTrXero dvfxco 
Vfuv ddavdrr^ai,^ Si,a7Tpa6eetv roSe darv." 

Tov 8' a^re rrpocreenre Bed yXavKcbms ^Adu^vrj' 
" SS^ earo), eKdepyc rd yap ^poveovaa /cat avrr] 
rjXOov (Xtt' OvXvfiTTOLO fxerd Tpcoas /cai ^A^aiovs. 3 
dAA' dye, ttcos piejxovas TToXefxav KaraTvavaeixev 
dvSpdiv; " 

TrjV 8' avT€ TTpoaeenrev dva^ Aio? vlos 'AttoAAcov 
" "E/CTopo? opacofxev Kparepdv }ievos iTnrohdpioio , 
tJv rivd 7TOV Aavatov tt poKoXeaaer ai olodev olos 
dvTL^LOv {xax'^oaaOaL ev alvfj Sr]'CoTrJT(,, 4 

ol 8e k' dyaaadfjievoi x^^XKOKV^fxiSes 'A;)^atot 
otov eiropaeiav TToXefit^eiv "E/<rropt Sioj." 

"^? e^ar* , 01)8' dTTiOrjae 6ed yXavKOJTns*' AO'qvq' 
T(i)v 8' "EAet'os", Opia/xoto ^iXos rrals, avvdero dvfia> 
^ovX-qv, rj pa Oeolaiv e<j)rjvhave firjTLOwai' 4 

arrj Se Trap' "E/CTO/a' lojv /cat fitv irpos p-vOov eeLTrev 
" "EiKTop, vie Upidfxoto, Ati fxrjriv drdXavre, 

^ d^acdrjjfft : aOavdroiffi Zenodotus : d.fi(poT^pr](ri Aristo- 
phanes. 
304 



THE ILIAD, VII. 22-47 

victory for the Trojans. So the twain met one with 
the other by the oak-tree. Then to her spake first 
the king Apollo, son of Zeus : " Wherefore art thou 
again come thus eagerly from Olympus, thou 
daughter of great Zeus, and why hath thy proud 
spirit sent thee } Is it that thou mayest give 
to the Danaans victory to turn the tide of battle, 
seeing thou hast no pity for the Trojans, that 
perish ? But if thou wouldst in anywise hearken 
unto me — and so would it be better far — let us now 
stay the war and fighting for this day. Hereafter 
shall they fight again until they win the goal of 
Ilios, since thus it seemeth good to the hearts of 
you immortal goddesses, to lay waste this city." 

And in answer to him spake the goddess, flashing- 
eyed Athene : " So be it, thou god that workest 
afar ; with this in mind am I myself come from 
Olympus to the midst of Trojans and Achaeans. 
But come, how art thou minded to stay the battle 
of the warriors ? " 

Then in answer to her spake king Apollo, son of 
Zeus : " Let us rouse the vahant spirit of horse- 
taming Hector, in hope that he may challenge some 
one of the Danaans in single fight to do battle 
with him man to man in dread combat. So shall 
the bronze-greaved Achaeans have indignation and 
rouse some one to do battle in single combat against 
goodly Hector." 

So he spake, and the goddess, flashing-eyed 
Athene, failed not to hearken. And Helenus, the 
dear son of Priam, understood in spirit this plan 
that had found pleasure with the gods in council ; 
and he came and stood by Hector's side, and spake 
to him, saying : " Hector, son of Priam, peer of 

VOL. I X 305 



HOMER 

'^ pd vv jJiOL Tt mOoio; Kaaiyvrjros Se roi elixi. 
aXXovs fxev Kadiaov TpcSa? Kal jravras A)(aLovg, 
avTos 8e TTpoKoXeaaai ^A-)(cucov os Tis apioTos 
dvTL^LOV ixa)(e(raadaL iv alvfj Srj'CorrJTi. 
ou yap 7Tc6 roL fiolpa davelv /cat TTorfiov eTnaTT^lv 
<JL)S yap iywv ott' aKOvaa Oewv atetyeverawv." ^ 
"^Cls ecf)a9^, "FiKTOjp 8' aur' ix'^PV fJ'^yo- [jlvOov 
OLKOvaas, 
Kai p is fxeuaov lojv Tpwcov dveepye (fxxXayyas , 
fjbeaaov Sovpos eXcov ol 8' Ihpvvdrjaav aTravreg, 
KaS 8' ^ Kyajj,ep,vcov etaev evKvrjpiihas 'A;;^atoi;s'. 
/ca8 8' ap' ^AOrjvaLT] re Kal dpyvporo^os ^AttoXXojv 
i^eardrjv opviaiv ioiKores alyvinoiat 
(f>r)y(p i(f>^ vi/j7]Xfj TTarpos Aio? atyto;^oio, 
dvBpdai repiToixevov rcov 8e anx^s rjaro TTVKvai, 
dairiai /cat Kopvdeaai /cat eyx^OL TTe<f)piKViai. 
otr) 8e 7j€(f)Vpoio ix^varo ttovtov em cf)pli 
opwixevoio veov, fxeXdvei 8e re ttovtos vtt avTTJs, 
Totat apa gtix^s rjar^ ^Kxaicbv re Tpojcov re 
ev TTeSiO)' "E/CTC(jp 8e jxer* dpL^orepoiaiv eenre- 
" KeKXvri jxev, Tpibeg Kal ivKvqfjaSes 'A;^atot, 
6(f)p' etrroi rd fxe dvp,6s evl ar-^deacfL KeXevei. 
op/cta pbev KpoviSrjs vi/jii^vyos ovk ereXeaaev , 
dXXd /ca/ca (j)poveo)V TeKfxaipeTai dp,(f)orepoccrLV, 
€t9 o Kev 7] Vfjuels TpoirjU evirvpyov eXrjre, 
7J avTol irapd vulval hajxrjere TTOvroiropoiaiv . 
VfXLV 8' ev yap eaaiv dpLorrrjes nava;^ata>;'* 
Tcbv vvv ov TLva dvpuos ifiol fxaxicracrdat avojyei, 
8eup' tVct) e/c TTOVTUiv Trpofios e/x/zevai "E/cropt Step. ' 
<58e Se fivOeofxai, Zeu? 8' a/x/x' ejrl jxdprvpos earco' 

* Line 53 was rejected by Aristarchus. 
806 



THE ILIAD, VII. 48-76 

Zeus in counsel, wouldst thou now in anywise 
hearken unto me ? foi' I am thy brother. Make the 
Trojans to sit down, and all the Achaeans, and do 
thou challenge whoso is best of the Achaeans to do 
battle with thee man to man in dread combat. Not 
yet is it thy fate to die and meet thy doom ; for thus 
have I heard the voice of the gods that are for ever." 
So spake he, and Hector rejoiced greatly when he 
heard his words ; and he went into the midst and 
kept back the battalions of the Trojans with his 
spear grasped by the middle ; and they all sate 
them down, and Agamemnon made the well-greaved 
Achaeans to sit. And Athene and Apollo of the 
silver bow in the likeness of vultures sate them upon 
the lofty oak of father Zeus that beareth the aegis, 
rejoicing in the warriors ; and the ranks of these 
sat close, bi-istling with shields and helms and spears. 
Even as there is spread over the face of the deep 
the ripple of the West Wind, that is newly risen, 
and the deep groweth black beneath it, so sat the 
ranks of the Achaeans and Trojans in the plain. 
And Hector spake between the two hosts : " Hear 
me, ye Trojans and well-greaved Achaeans, that I 
may speak what the heart in my breast biddeth me. 
Our oaths the son of Cronos, throned on high, brought 
not to fulfilment, but with ill intent ordaineth a 
time for both hosts, until either ye take well- walled 
Troy or yourselves be vanquished beside your sea- 
faring ships. With you are the chieftains of the 
whole host of the Achaeans ; of these let now that 
man, whose heart soever biddeth him fight with 
me, come hither from among you all to be your 
champion against goodly Hector. And thus do I 
declare my word, and be Zeus our witness thereto: 

307 



HOMER 

et fjb€v K€V €fji€ Ketvos eXrj ravaiqKei ^aA/co), 

rev-)(ea avXrjcras ^epera> KoiXas eirl vrjas, 

acojxa he otVaS' efxav Sofxevat ttolXlv, 6(f)pa TTvpos fxc 

TpoJes Kai Tpcocov aXoxoi XeXd^ojai davovra. 

el 8e K* iyoj rov eAco, Swrj 8e fxoL evxos 'AttoAAcoi/, 

Tcvyea. avXr^aas otcrco TTporl "IXlov Ipriv, 

/cat KpepuocD Trporl vrjov * AttoXXcovos eKOLTOio, 

Tov 8e veKvv eTTi v^a? iiJaadXpLovs aTToSwao), 

6(j>pa i rapxvaojat Kaprj Kopuocovres 'Ap^atot, 

aijixd re ol ;j(eua)CTiv em TrAaret "EiXXrjaTTovra) . 

/cat TTore rts e'LTrrjai /cat oilnyovcov dvdpcoircoVf 

vrjt TToAu/cAi^tSt TrXecov ctti otVoTra ttoi'tov 

' dvhpos pL€V ToSe crqpLa TraAat KararedurjcoTos, 

ov ttot' dpiarevovra KareKrave ^aiSt/xos' "E/crcop.' 

60? TTore Tts" ipeec to 8' e/AOV /cAeo? ou ttot' oAetrat." 

"Qs" €(f)a6\ ol 8' apa Travres" (XKrjv iyevovro crtcoTrfj' 
aiSeaOev p.ev dv^vaadai,, Setaav 8' viroSexdoLi'' 
oifjk 8e hy) MeveAao? dviaraTO koI pbeTeenre 
V€LK€L dvetSt^cov, /xeya Se arevaxi^ero QvpLcb' 
" a> pLOL, dTTeiXrjTTJpes, 'A;^ati8es', ovKer* ^Axollol' 
rj pLev Srj Xoj^r] rdhe y* ecrcreraL alvoOev alvojs, 
el puri Tt? Aat'ttcav vvv "EiKTopos dvrlos elcrtv. 
dXX vpiets p,ev Trdvres vhcop /cat yata yevoiade, 
7]pievoL av9i eKaaroi dKrjpLOi, d/cAee? avrcos' 
Twhe 8' eyd>v avTos Ocoprj^op^aL' avrdp virepOe 
VLKrjs TTelpar* exovrai ev dOavdroLGi deolaiv." 

'^Qs dpa (fjcovi^aas Karehvaero revx^a /caAct. 



* This is tantamount to a curse : " May ye rot away 
into the elements out of which ye were made " ; irdvres yap 
yairji re Kai vdaros eKyevdfxeada (Xenophanes). C/. Hesiod, 
Op. 61, and Herodas ii. 28 f. 

308 



THE ILIAD, VII. 77-103 

if so be he shall slay me with the long-edged bronze, 
let him spoil me of my armour and bear it to the 
hollow ships, but my body let him give back to my 
home, that the Trojans and the Trojan wives may 
give me my due meed of fire in my death. But if 
so be I slay him, and Apollo give me glory, I mIU 
spoil him of his armour and bear it to sacred IHos 
and hang it upon the temple of Apollo, the god that 
smiteth afar, but his corpse will I render back to 
the well-benched ships, that the long-haired Achaeans 
may give him burial, and heap up for him a barrow 
by the wide Hellespont. And some one shall some day 
say even of men that are yet to be, as he saileth in 
his many-benched ship over the wine-dark sea : ' This 
is a barrow of a man that died in olden days, whom 
on a time in the midst of his prowess glorious Hector 
slew.' So shall some man say, and my glory shall 
never die." 

So spake he, and they all became hushed in 
silence ; shame had they to deny him, but they 
feared to meet him. Howbeit at length Menelaus 
arose among them and spake, chiding them with 
words of reviling, and deeply did he groan at heart : 
" Ah me, ye braggarts, ye women of Achaea, men 
no more ! Surely shall this be a disgrace dread 
and dire, if no man of the Danaans shall now go to 
meet Hector. Nay, may ye one and all turn to 
earth and water,i ye that sit there each man with 
no heart in him, utterly inglorious. Against this 
man will I myself arm me ; but from on high are the 
issues of victory holden of the immortal gods." 

So spake he, and did on his fan- armour. And 

809 



HOMER 

€v9a K€ rot, MeveAae, (f)dv7) ^lotolo reXevrrj 

E/CTOyOOS" iv TTaXoLfXTjaLV , €7761 TToXv <j>epT€pOS rj€V, 

et fjirj dvat^avres eXov ^aaLXrjes 'A^^auwv, 
avTos r 'ArpetSrjs evpv Kpeitov ^ Ayafxefxvcjv 
Se^LTcprjs eXe p^etpos" erros t' e^ar' 6K t' ovofxa^ev' 

acf)paiveLS, Mep'eAae Siorpe^e'?, ouSe rt ae ;!(pT^ 
ravTTjs d(f)poavvr]S' am 8e o'X^''' KiqbopLevos Trep, 
^irih^ edeX l^ epihos oev dpieivovL (ftcorl p,dx^crdaL, 
"EiKTopL YlpiaixiSr], rov re arvyiovat /cat a'AAot. 
Kai 8 A;)(tAei)s' toutoj ye fMdxj] eVt KvSiaveipfj 
^ppf-y avri^oXrjaaiy 6 nep cre'o TroAAov dp,eivci)V. 
aXXd av [JL€V vvv I'^eu lojv fierd edvos eraipojv, ] 
Tovrcp 8e Trpofjbov dAXov dvaarrjaovatv ^A)(ai,OL. 
€t TTep aSetry? t iari /cat et fxodov ear* dKop-qros, 
<f>ripii jjLiv daTTaaiois yovv Kd/xifjeiv, at /ce (ftvyr^cri. 
hiftov e/c TToXefioLO /cat alvrjs Srj'CoTTJros ." 

Qs €l7Td)v TTapcTTeiaev dSeX(f>€iov (f)p€vas rjpios 1 
aiaijxa napeLTToyv , 6 8' eneiOero. rov fxeu eTreira 
yrjooavvot, OepdirovTes dn^ a)p,(x)v Teu;^e' eXovro' 
NeWoip 8' 'ApyeloLaiv dvicrraTo /cat fiereenrev' 

CD TTOTTOi, '^ fieya irevdos A^ciuSa yacav t/cai'ci. 
77 /ce /Lte'y' olfxcjo^eLe yepcov iTTTTT/ActTa nTjAeus", 1 

eCT^Aoj Mu/c)jLtt8ovcoi' ^ovXrj(f)6pos 178' dyoprjTi^s, 
OS TTore /a' elpo/xevos /xe'y' eyrjdeev^ w eVt ot/co), 
TTarrcor 'Apyelcov ipeojv yeverjV re to/coi/ re. 
Touj vw et TTTOicraovTas V(f)* "E/cropt travras dKOvaat, 
TToXXd K€v ddavdroiai (fylXag dvd ;^;erpa? aet'pai, i 
dvpLov (XTTO /jueXecov Swat So/xov "A'CSos etaco. 

* /*' elpdfievos fjiiy iy-qOeev : fMeipd/Aevos fieydX' iarevev Zeno- 
dotus. 

310 



THE ILIAD, VII. 104-131 

now, Menelaus, would the end of life have appeared 
for thee at the hands of Hector, seeing he was 
mightier far, had not the kings of the Achaeans 
sprung up and laid hold of thee. And Atreus' son 
himself, wide-ruling Agamemnon, caught him by 
the right hand and spake to him, saying : " Thou 
art mad, Menelaus, nurtured of Zeus, and this thy 
madness beseemeth thee not. Hold back, for all 
thy grief, and be not minded in rivalry to fight 
with one better than thou, even with Hector, son 
of Priam, of whom others besides thee are adread. 
Even Achilles shuddereth to meet this man in battle, 
where men win glory ; and he is better far than thou. 
Nay, go thou for this present, and sit thee amid 
the company of thy fellows ; against this man shall 
the Achaeans raise up another champion. Fearless 
though he be and insatiate of battle, methinks he 
will be glad to bend his knees in rest, if so be he 
escape from the fury of war and the dread conflict." 
So spake the warrior and turned his brother's 
mind, for he counselled aright ; and Menelaus 
obeyed. Then with gladness his squires took his 
armour from his shoulders ; and Nestor rose up and 
spake amid the Argives : " Fie upon you ! In 
good sooth is great grief come upon the land of 
Achaea. Verily aloud would old Peleus groan, the 
driver of chariots, goodly counsellor, and orator 
of the Myrmidons, who on a time questioned me 
in his own house, and rejoiced greatly as he asked 
of the lineage and birth of all the Argives. If he 
were to hear that these were now all cowering before 
Hector then would he lift up his hands to the im- 
mortals in instant prayer that his soul might depart 
from his limbs into the house of Hades. I would, 

311 



HOMER 

at yap, ZeO re Trdrep Kal ^AOrjvatr] /cat "AttoAAoj/, 
■j^/Soi/x' COS" OT^ e7r' (OKvpocv KeAaSovri fjidxovTO 
aypofievoi IIuAtot re Kal 'Ap/caSe? iyx^crifxcopoi,, 
Oeias" 7ra/) retx^craLv, ^lapSdvov dfj,(f)l peedpa. 
Toiai S' 'Eyoey^aAiajv rrpofjios lararo, Icrodeos (fxos, 
T€vx^* ^X^^ (^P'OiOLV ^AprjWooto dvaKTOs, 
Slov *Apr]'C66ov, rov iTTLKXrjaLV Kopvvi^Trjv 
dvSpes KLKXrjaKov Ka)\XiiC,o)voi re yvvaiKes, 
ovveK dp^ ov TO^OLOL fiaxeaKero hovpi re jxaKpco, 
aAAa aiSrjpetj] Kopvvr) pijyvvaKe (fidXayyas. 
rov AvKoepyos eTre^re SoAo), ov tl Kpdret ye, 
areiviOTTih ev oha>, 66 dp* ov Kopvvr] ol oXeOpov 
XpaZajxe aihripeirj' irplv yap AvKoepyos V7TO(f)dds^ 
Bovpt fxeaov Trepovqcrev, 6 S' vtttlos ovSei ipeiaOr]' 
T€vx€a 8' i^evdpi^e, rd ol nope ;(aA/c€o? "Aprjg. 
Kal rd fM€V avTos eVetTa ^dpet /iera fidjXov "Aprjos* 
avrdp eTTcl AvKoepyos ivl jxeydpoiaiv iy^pa, 
ScD/ce 8 Epeu^aAtcovt ^t'Ao) OepdrrovTb ^opi^vai. 
rov o ye revxe exoiv TipoKaXit^ero rrduras dpicrrovs' 
ol 8e jLtaA' erpofieov koI iSelScaav, ovSe ris erXr], 
oAA e/xe dvfios dvrJKe 7roXvrXrjp,cx)V noXep^l^eiv 
Oapae'C (L' yevefj 8e veioraros ecKov dndprajv. 
Kal fiaxdixrjv ol eyw, ScoKev 8e /xou evxos ^Adrjvq. 
rov Srj firiKiarov Kal Kdpriarrov Krdvov dvSpa' 
TToXXos ydp Tt? €K€Lro 'napT]opos evda Kal evda. 
eW^ CO? rj^cooip,i, ^lt) Be fioi, efnreBos etr]' 
rG) Ke rax avrTjaece fMdxrjS KopvQaioXos "E/CTCop. 

* {nro(p0ai : dvao-rdj Aristarchus. 
312 



THE ILIAD, VII. 132-158 

O father Zeus and Athene and Apollo, that I were 
young as when beside swift-flowing Celadon the 
Pylians and Arcadians that rage with spears 
gathered together and fought beneath the walls of 
Pheia about the streams of lardanus. On their 
siae stood forth Ereuthahon as champion, a godlike 
man, bearing upon his shoulders the armour of 
king Areithous, goodly Areithous that men and 
fair-girdled women were wont to call the mace-man, 
for that he fought not with bow or long spear, but 
with a mace of iron brake the battalions. Him 
Lycurgus slew by guile and nowise by might, in a 
narrow way, where his mace of iron saved him not 
from destruction. For ere that might be Lycurgus 
came upon him at unawares and pierced him through 
the middle with his spear, and backward was he 
hurled upon the earth ; and Lycurgus despoiled 
him of the armour that brazen Ares had given 
him. This armour he thereafter wore himself amid 
the turmoil of Ares, but when Lycurgus grew old 
within his halls he gave it to Ereuthalion, his dear 
squire, to wear. And wearing this armour did Ereu- 
thalion challenge all the bravest ; but they trembled 
sore and were afraid, nor had any man courage to 
abide him. But me did my enduring heart set on 
to battle with him in my hardihood, though in years 
I was youngest of all. So fought I with him, and 
Athene gave me glory. The tallest was he and the 
strongest man that ever I slew : as a huge sprawling 
bulk he lay stretched this way and that. Would 
I were now as young and my strength as firm, then 
should Hector of the flashing helm soon find one to 

818 



HOMER 

Vfxioiv 8' o" 7T€p eaaLV dpLorrjes rTavap^atcov, 

oi}S' ot TTpo(f)pov€cos pbifxad^ "E/CTopo? avriov eXBelv. 16 

"O? veiKeaa 6 yepcuv, ol 8' ev'vea Travres avearav' 
copro TToXv TTpcoTOS fxev dva^ dvSpdJv ^Ayafiepivcov, 
TO) 8' 6771 TvSetSrjs wpro Kparepos ALOfirjSrjs, 
rdlai 8' ctt' Klavres, Oovpiv eVtetju-eVot cxAkt^v, 
TOtCTi 8' e7r' 'I8o/xevei)s" /cat OTrdiov ISofievrjog, 16 
Mt^piwtjs", araAavros' 'Ei^uaAtoj avhpeL(f)ovTr], 
roloL 8' eV EupvTruAo?, Euat/^tov'os' dyAao? uio?, 
dv 8e ©oa? ^AvhpatfxoviSrjs /cat 8to? '08uCTcrei;?* 
TTavres dp* ot y edeXov TroAe/At^etv "E/cropt 8ta). 
Tots' 8' ayris' /xereetTrc re/jTyrio? iTTTroTa Nearcop* H 
" kXt^po) vvv TTeTrdXeaOe hiafXTrepes, os /ce Xdxjjcri'V' 
ovTos yap Srj ovrjaeL ivKvqp^iBas 'A;^atovs', 
/cat S' ayro? 6v dvfxov oviqaeraL, at /ce (jyvyrjcrt 
Srjtov €K TToXefJiOLO /cat alvrjs Sr]'CoTrJTOs ." 

"Oj €(f)ad\ ol 8e kXtjpov €(T7][jL'qvavTO e/caaTos", i; 
ev 8' e^aXov Kvver] * Ayafidfivovos 'ArpeiSao* 
Aaot 8' rjpijaavTo, deolai 8e ;)^etpas' dveaxov. 
a>8e 8e rt? etTrea/cei/ t8wv et? oupavot' evpvv 

Zeu Trdrep, ^ Atavra Aa;\;etv, •^ Ty8eos' utoi', 
■^ auTov ^aaiXi^a TToXv^pvcroio MvK7]vr]s-" l! 

"D? ap' e(^av', TraAAev 8e Tepj^vios LTTTTOTa Nearcop, 
€K 8' edope kXtjpos Kvverjs, ov dp' rjOeXov avroi, 
Atavros' Krjpv^ 8e <f>epcjov dv* 6p.iXov drravTr) 
8er^' ivSe^ia Trdaiv dpcar-qeacrtv 'A;^atcDv 
ol 8' ov ycyvwaKOVTes dTTrjvqvavTO eKaaros. I 

S14 



THE ILIAD, VII. 159-185 

face him. Whereas ye that are chieftains of the 
whole liost of the Achaeans, even ye are not minded 
with a ready heart to meet Hector face to face." 

So the old man chid them, and there stood up 
nine in all. Upsprang far the first the king of 
men, Agamemnon, and after him Tydeus' son, 
mighty Diomedes, and after them the Aiantes, 
clothed in furious valour, and after them Idomeneus 
and Idomeneus' comrade Meriones, the peer of 
Enyahus, slayer of men, and after them Eurypylus, 
the glorious son of Euaemon ; and upsprang Thoas, 
son of Andraemon, and goodly Odysseus ; all these 
were minded to do battle with goodly Hector. Then 
among them spake again the horseman, Nestor of 
Gerenia : " Cast ye the lot now from the first unto 
the last for him whoso shall be chosen ; for he shall 
verily profit the well-greaved Achaeans, and himself 
in his own soul shall profit withal, if so be he escape 
from the fury of war and the dread conflict." 

So said he, and they marked each man his lot 
and cast them in the helmet of Agamemnon, son of 
Atreus ; and the host made prayer, and lifted up 
their hands to the gods. And thus would one say 
with a glance up to the broad heaven : " Father 
Zeus, grant that the lot fall on Aias or the son of 
Tydeus or else on the king himself of Mycene rich 
in gold." 

So spake they, and the horseman, Nestor of 
Gerenia, shook the helmet, and forth therefrom 
leapt the lot that themselves desired, even the 
lot of Aias. And the herald bare it everywhither 
throughout the throng, and showed it from left to 
right to all the chieftains of the Achaeans ; but 
they knew it not, and denied it every man. But 

315 



HOMER 

aAA ore or) rov iKove cpepcov av ofitAov aTTavrrj, 
OS fnv iTTiypanltas Kwej] ^aXe, (^atSi/xos" Ataj, 
t] rot VTTeax^de X^^P* > ° ^' ^p' ^fJ'^ciXev dyxi- napa- 

ards, 
yvGi 8e KK-qpov crfjp,a IBcov, y-qO-qae 8e dvfxcp, 
TOP fjuev Trap ttoS' iov ;)^aju.a8ts" jSaAe cfxjovrjaev re- ij 
" c5 (j)iXoL, 17 rot KXrjpos i/xos, ;(ai/3a> Se /cat auros 
dvpiO), CTret SoKreco VLKTjaefxev "E/cropa Stoi'. 
dAA' ayer', o^p' ai/ eyo) TToAe/XT^la revx^oi Suca, 
To^p' u/xet? eu;^eo'^e Att KpovLcovi dvaKTi, 
oiyrj i<f)' vfjbeLcov, tva fjur] Tpcjes ye TTvdoi)VTai,^ Ij 
T]e /cat dp,^ahir]v, eTret ou rtva 8et8t/>iev e/LtTrr^s'. 
ou yap Tt? /xe jSt'r^ ye CKOiV^ deKovra SirjTat,, 
ouoe Tt LOpeiTj, cTret oyo e/xe vrjioa y ovtcos 
eXnofiaL ev SaAa/u.ti't yeveadai re rpa(f)ep,ev re." 

'^Q.S e(f)ad\ ol 8' ei'xovro Att Kpop'tcovt dvaKri' 2( 
c58e Se Tt? etTTCCT/cev tScoi' etj oypai'ov evpvv 

Zeu TTarep, "IBrjdev fMeSecov, KvSiare fxeyiare, 
bos viKTiv AXavri /cat ayAaov' evxos dpeadaf 
el 8e /cat "E/CTopa Trep <j>LXeeis /cat /c'^8eat aurou, 
ten]]/ dp,(f}orepoL(Jt ^L'qv /cat /cuSo? OTracrcrov." 2( 

"£^9 ap' €(f)av, Atas 8e Kopvaaero vcoponL xo-Xku)' 
avrdp eVet 8?) Travra Trept XP°*' eo-craTo revxea, 
aevar CTret^' oioy tc TreXcopLos epxerai "Aprjs, 
OS t' €tcrtv TToAe/xdi'Se /mct' dvepas, ovs re Kpovicjv 
OvfJbO^opov epiSos fxeve'C ^vverjKe fxdx^adac. % 

roZos dp^ Alas (Lpro rreXcopios, epKos 'AxaLcbv, 

* Lines 195-199 were rejected by Zenodotus, Aristophanes, 
and Aristarchus. 

* fKwv : iXwv Aristarchus. 

316 



THE ILIAD, VII. 186-211 

when in bearing it everywhither throughout the 
throng he was come to him that had marked it and 
cast it into the helm, even to glorious Aias, then 
Aias held forth his hand, and the herald drew near 
and laid the lot therein ; and Aias knew at a glance 
the token on the lot, and waxed glad at heart. The 
lot then he cast upon the ground beside his foot, 
and spake : " My friends, of a surety the lot is mine, 
and mine own heart rejoiceth, for I deem that 
I shall vanquish goodly Hector. But come now, 
while I am doing on me my battle gear, make ye 
prayer the while to king Zeus, son of Cronos, in 
silence by yourselves, that the Trojans learn naught 
thereof — nay, or openly, if ye will, since in any case 
we fear no man. For by force shall no man drive me 
in flight of his own will and in despite of mine, nor 
yet by skill ; since as no skilless wight methinks 
was I born and reared in Salamis." 

So spake he, and they made prayer to king Zeus, 
son of Cronos ; and thus would one speak with a 
glance up to the broad heaven : " Father Zeus, 
that rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, 
vouchsafe victory to Aias and that he win him 
glorious renown ; or if so be thou lovest Hector too, 
and carest for him, vouchsafe to both equal might 
and glory," 

So they spake, and Aias arrayed him in gleaming 
bronze. But when he had clothed about his flesh 
all his armour, then sped he in such wise as huge 
Ares goeth forth when he enters into battle amid 
warriors whom the son of Cronos hath brought 
together to contend in the fury of soul-devouring 
strife. Even in such wise sprang forth huge Aias, 
the bulwark of the Achaeans, with a smile on his 

317 



HOMER 

ficiSioojv ^Xocwpoiai rrpoawTTaai' vepOe Be TToaaiv 
rfCe fxaKpa ^i^ds, Kpahdcov SoXlxooklov eyxos. 
rov 8e /cat 'ApyeloL ixkv eyiqdeov elaopocovres, 
TpoJas Se rpofios alvos vn'qXvde yvla eKaarov, 
"EiKTopl t' avTU) dvjxos ivl ar-qdecrac Traraacrev . 
oAA' ov TTOiS €Ti ei^ev VTTorpecraL ovh* dvahvvai 
aip AacDv e? o/xtAov, CTret TTpoKaXiaaaro )(dpixrj. 
Aias 8' iyyvdev rjXOe ^epcov craKos rjvre nvpyov, 
xdXK€OV eTTTa^oeiov, 6 ol Ty;^tos' /ca/xe revxoiv, 
aKVToroiicov o^ dpiaros, "^Xrj eVi ot/cta vaicov, 
OS ol iiroLTjcrev aaKOs aloXov eTrra^oeiov 
ravpoiv t,aTpe(f)€cov, eVt S' oyhoov 'qXaae ;^aA/coi'. 
TO TTpoaOe arepvoLo (ftepojv TeXaficovios Atas 
arrj pa puoX "EKTopos' eyyvs, OLTreLX-qaas Se irpoa- 

rjvSa' 
" "E/CTop, vvv fJi€U Br] ad(f)a eicreat oloOev olos 
oToL Kal Aavaolcnv dpicrrrjcs fiereaat, 
/cat /ier' 'A;^tAA^a p7]^Tijvopa OvfioXeovra. 
oAA' o /j,€v iv vrjeaai Kopcoviai TTOvroTTopoLai 
K€LT* dTTOfiTjvlaas ^Ayapuepivovi, TTOt/xevt XauiV 
rj/jLcls 8' elfiev roZoi ot av aedev dvTtdaaifxev 
Kol TToXies' dXX dpx^ P'dx'rjS "^Be TTroXep.oLO .' 

Tov 8' avre Trpoaeenre [xeyas KopvdaioXos "E/crcop" 
" Alav Bioyevkg TeAa/xdSv'te, KOipavc Xacov, 
firi Tt jxev r]VT€ TraiBos d(f)avpov Tretpy^Ti^e, 
r)€ yvvaiKos, rj ovk olBev TtoXep,rfCa €pya. 
avrdp eyojv ev otBa /i,a;^as' r avBpoKTaaiag re. 
olo eTTL oegut, old en apiarepa vcofxrjcraL pojv 
d^aXerjv, to fxoi, earu raXavpivov TToXefitleiv 
318 



THE ILIAD, VII. 212-239 

grim face ; and he went with long strides of his feet 
beneath him, brandishing his far-shadowing spear. 
Then were the Argives glad as they looked upon 
him, but upon the Trojans crept dread trembling 
on the limbs of every man, and Hector's own heart 
beat fast within his breast. Howbeit in no wise 
could he any more flee or shrink back into the 
throng of the host, seeing he had made challenge 
to fight. So Aias drew near, bearing his shield that 
was like a city wall, a shield of bronze with sevenfold 
buU's-hide, the which Tychius had wrought with 
toil, he that was far best of workers in hide, having 
his home in Hyle, who had made him his flashing 
shield of seven hides of sturdy bulls, and there- 
over had wrought an eighth layer of bronze. This 
Telamonian Aias bare before his breast, and he came 
and stood close by Hector, and spake threatening : 
" Hector, now verily shalt thou know of a surety, 
man to man, what manner of chieftains there be 
likewise among the Danaans, even after Achilles, 
breaker of the ranks of men, the lion-hearted. 
Howbeit he abideth amid his beaked seafaring 
ships in utter wrath against Agamemnon, Atreus' 
son, shepherd of the host ; yet are we such as to 
face thee, yea, full many of us. But begin thou 
war and battle." 

To him then made answer great Hector of the 
flashing helm : " Aias, sprung from Zeus, thou son of 
Telamon, captain of the host, in no wise make thou 
trial of me as of some puny boy or a woman that 
knoweth not deeds of war. Nay, full well know I 
battles and slayings of men. I know well how to 
wield to right, and well how to wield to left my shield 
of seasoned hide, which I deem a sturdy thing to 

319 



HOMER 

OLoa o CTraig'at fioUov lttttcov coKeiautv 2 

otSa 8' ivl arahiri Srjtco ixeXireadai, "Ap-q'C. 
dAA' ot) yap ct' iOeXw ^aXeeiv roiovrov iovra 
XdOpr] oTTLTTevaas, aXX* ap,(l)ah6v, at /ce rvy^cxipn." 

*H pa, Kal CLfiTreTTaXcbv npotei SoXcxooKtov ey^os, 
/cat ^dXev PsHavros hetvov cra/co? eTrra^oeiov 2 

OLKpoTarov Kara ^aXKov, os oyhoos riev ctt' avrw. 
e^ 8e Sta 7rTJ;)(a? •:^A0e Bat^cou ;)^aAKOS' dretprj?, 
et* T7y S' e^Sojjidrrj pivo) ax^ro. Bevrepos avre 
Atas" SioyevTjs -npotei hoXi^oaKiov ey)(os, 
Kal ^dXe YlptafjiiSao icar' dairiha iravToa etarjv. 2 
Bid fiev doTTLBos r^Xde (^aeivrjs o^ptp^ov cyp^o?, 
/cat Stct dcoprjKos TroAuSatSdAou 'qprjpeiaTO' 
avTLKpv Be TTapal XaTrdprjV BidpLiqae ;)^tTdiv'a 
eyxos' 6 8' eKXivdrj Kal dXevaro Krjpa jxeXaivav. 
ro) 8' CKCTTTacraapLevai BoXtx^ ^Vx^* x^P^'-^ ^H'^ d/x^a»^ 2 
aw /d' €7T€crov Xeiovaiv eoiKores (hp^o^dyoiaiv 
Tj aval KdrrpoiaiVy rcbv re adevos ovk dXarraBvov. 
UpLap^iBrjs fiev eireira p,eaov adKos ovraae Bovpi, 
ovB^ epp-q^ev ;^aA/cds', dveyvdp,(f)9rj Be ol alxP'i^' 
Atas" 8' dCT77t8a vv^ev eTrdXp^evos' rj Be Bi.a7Tp6 2 
rjXvOev eyx^if], arv^eXi^e Be p.iv p^efxaaJra, 
rpLrjBiqv 8' ay;^eV' eTrrjXde, p,eXav 8' dveK-qKiev alp,a. 
aAA' ovB* a>s aTTeXrjye p,dx'f]S KopvdaioXog E/crco/a, 
dAA' dvaxO'Oadp.evos Xidov etXero X'^^P^ '^^X^^V 
Keip,evov ev ireBicxj, pi,eXava, rprjxvv re p,eyav re' 2 

* Lines 255-257 were rejected by Zenodotus. 

^ The line is obscure, and perhaps corrupt. It may 
also be rendered, " that is in my ej'es to fight as warrior 
with tough shield of hide " — to play the part of 'Apiji 
raXaiy/JiJ'os, 

320 



THE ILIAD, VII. 240-265 

wield in fight ; ^ and I know how to charge into the 
mellay of chariots drawn by swift mares ; and I 
know how in close fight to tread the measure of 
furious Ares. Yet am I not minded to smite thee, 
being such a one as thou art, by spying thee at 
unawares ; but rather openly, if so be I may hit 
thee." 

He spake, and poised his far-shadowing spear, 
and hurled it ; and he smote Aias' dread shield of 
sevenfold bull's-hide upon the outermost bronze, 
the eighth layer that was thereon. Through six 
folds shore the stubborn bronze, but in the seventh 
hide it was stayed. Then in turn Zeus-born Aias 
hurled his far-shadowing spear, and smote upon 
the son of Priam's shield, that was well balanced 
upon every side. Through the bright shield went 
the mighty spear, and through the corselet, richly 
dight, did it force its way ; and straight on beside his 
flank the spear shore through his tunic ; but he 
bent aside, and escaped black fate. Then the twain 
both at one moment drew forth with their hands 
their long spears, and fell to, in semblance hke 
ravening lions or wild boars, whose is no weakling 
strength. Then the son of Priam smote full upon 
the shield of Aias with a thrust of his spear, howbeit 
the bronze brake not through, for its point was 
turned ; but Aias leapt upon him and pierced his 
buckler, and clean through went the spear and 
made him reel in his onset ; even to his neck it 
made its way, and gashed it, and the dark blood 
welled up. Yet not even so did Hector of the 
flashing-helm cease from fight, but giving ground 
he seized with stout hand a stone that lay upon 
the plain, black and jagged and great ; therewith 

VOL. I Y 321 



HOMER 

Tw ^aXev Alavros Setvov aaKOS iiTra^ocLOV 
fieaaov ivoiJicfjdXLOv' Trepi'^xV^^^ ^' ^P^ ;\;aAKOS". 
Sevrepos aur' Ata? ttoXv fiei^ova Xdav detpa? 
■^/c' eTTiSiviqaas, eVepetcre Se a*' aTreXedpov, 
etcroj 8' ao-TTtS' ea^e ^aXcov fjLvXoeiSeC ireTpcp, 21 

/SAai/f6 Se ot 0tAa yovva9^' 6 8' vtttlos i^eravvadrj 
dcTTTtSt 6y;)(pi/x^^eis" tov 8' at^' a>pdcoa€v AttoXXojv. 
/cat I'u Ace Si) ^i(f)€eaa ai5roo-;^e8ov ovrat,ovTo , 
el fxr] K-^pvKes, Aio? ayyeAot i^Se /cat dvSpcSv, 
':7A^ov, d /Ltev T/scocov, d 8' 'A;!^atd)v ;^aA/<:o;^iTa>va>v, 2'/ 
TaXdvpLos T€ Kal '18010?, TTeTTVVfJbevo) d/i^cu. 
fxiaacp 8' d/x^oTcpcov GKijirrpa ax^dov, etTre re fivdov 
Krjpv^ 'ISaio?, TTeTTVVfJidva /XT^Sta ei8ajs" 
" fji7]K€TL, TTOiSe (jilXio, 7ToXefj,L^€r€ /AT^Se fidx^aBov 
dpL^oripci) yap cr<^col' ^lAei ve^eAryyepera Zeu?, 2S 
dfjicfxx) 8' alxiM'rjTd' ro ye 897 /cat i8/xev aTravres. 
vv^ 8' •^87] reXeder dyadov /cat vu/cti TTidiadai.' 

Tov 8' OLTTapLei^ofxevos TTpoae(f)7] TeXafxcovios Atas' 
" 'I8at', "E/cTopa ravra /ceAeuere pLvOrjoaadax' 
avros yap X^PP'T) '^poKaXdaaaro Trdvras dpiarovs. 28 
dpxdru)' avrdp iyo) /xdAa Tretao/xat ^ Trep av* ouros'. 

Tdv 8' aure Trpoaeeinc fjueyas KOpvOatoXog "E/CTCop" 
" Afat', eTret rot 8d>/ce ^eoj fxeyedos re ^trjv ri 
Kal TTWvrrjV, irepl 8' ey;)^et 'A;^aidiv ^epraros eaai, 
vvv fjLev 7rav(Jcofjb€a^9a f^dx^is Kal Srj'CoTrJTOs 2^ 

arjixepov varepov avre fxaxT]cr6p,€d\ els o kg haijxcov 
djjbjxe hiaKpivTj, hiLrj 8' irepoiai ye viKrjV. 
vv^ 8' "t^^ri reXdOer dyadov Kal vvktI iriddaOai, 
322 



THE ILIAD, VII. 266-293 

he smote Aias' dread shield of sevenfold bull's-hide 
full upon the boss ; and the bronze rang about it. 
Then Aias in turn lifted on high a far greater stone, 
and swung and hurled it, putting into the cast 
measureless strength ; and he burst the buckler 
inwards with the cast of the rock that was like unto 
a mill-stone, and beat down Hector's knees ; so he 
was stretched upon his back, gathered together under 
his shield ; howbeit Apollo straightway raised him 
up. And now had they been smiting with their 
swords in close fight, but that the heralds, messengers 
of Zeus and men, came, one from the Trojans and 
one from the brazen-coated Achaeans, even Tal- 
thybius and Idaeus, men of prudence both. Between 
the two they held forth their staves, and the herald 
Idaeus, skilled in prudent counsel, spake, saying : 
" Fight ye no more, dear sons, neither do battle ; 
both ye twain are loved of Zeus, the cloud-gatherer, 
and both are spearmen ; that verily know we all. 
Moreover night is now upon us, and it is well to 
yield obedience to night's behest." 

Then in answer to him spake Telamonian Aias : 
" Idaeus, bid ye Hector speak these words, for it 
was he who of himself challenged to combat all our 
best. Let him be first and I verily will hearken 
even as he shall say," 

Then spake unto him great Hector of the flashing 
helm : " Aias, seeing God gave thee stature and 
might, aye, and wisdom, and with thy spear thou 
art pre-eminent above all the Achaeans, let us now 
cease from battle and strife for this day ; hereafter 
shall we fight again until God judge between us, 
and give victory to one side or the other. Howbeit 
night is now upon us, and it is well to yield obedience 

323 



HOMER 

ws (TV T ev(j)prjvr]S rravTas Trapa V7]valv *A)(0.t'OVS, 
GOVS re [xdXiaTa eras Kal eraipovs, ot rot eaaiv^ 29 
avrap eyoj Kara dcrrv fxeya Ilpta/xoto avaKros 
Tpcbas ev(f)paveo) Kal TpojctSa? eXKeanreTrXovs , 
at re fMoi evxofxevat delov hvaovrai aycbva. 
Scopa S' ay' aAAT^Aotcrt TrepiKXvra Swofjbev a/x^a>, 
o(f)pa ns cu8' eLTTrjcTLV 'A;^aia)V re TpoiOiV re' 30 

* r]ixev efxapvdaQfjV epiSos irepi Ovfxo^opoLO, 
TjS* avr ev (jiiXonqri hierpbayev apOfirjaavre. 

"Qs" apa (jxjivrjaas ScoKe $i(f)OS dpyvporjXov, 
avv KoXea> re (f)epojv Kal evrfX'qra) reXafxaJvc 
Atas 8e ^coarrjpa BlSov ^oiviKi (j)aewov. 30 

roj he SiaKpivOevre 6 pueu fxerd Xaov ^K^o-ic^v 
Tji , 6 8' es Tpojcov ofxadov kU. rol 8' exot-prjaav, 
<x)s etSov l,co6v re /cat dprefxea Trpoaiovra, 
A'lavros 7Tpo(f)vy6vra [xevos Kal ■)(^eZpas dd-nrovs' 
Kal p rjyov rrporl dcrrv, deXTrreovres aoov etvai. 31 
Kiavr add' erepcoQev eii/cvrj/xtSe? 'A;)(atot 
els ' Aya/xepivova hlov dyov, Ke)(^apri6ra vlkt]. 

Oi 8' ore 817 KXiair^aiv ev 'ArpetSao yevovro, 
roLGL Se ^ovv lepevaev dva^ dvhpcjv *Ayapiept,v(x)V 
dpaeva rravraer-qpov VTrepp-eveC UpovLOJVC. 31 

rov Bepov dpL<f>i 6' eirov, Kai pnv hie-)(evav aTravra, 
[xiarvXXov r' dp' eTnarapLevtos rrelpdv t' OjSeAotatv, 
oTTrrjadv re Trepi^pahecos , epvaavro re navra. 
avrdp eTTel iravaavro ttovov rervKOvro re oaXra, 
Saivvvr, ovSe ri dvpios eSevero Sairos itarjs. 32 

* Line 295 was rejected by Aristarchus. 

^ The gods are thought of as meeting to receive their 
worshippers. 
324 



THE ILIAD, VII. 294-320 

to night's behest, that thou mayest make glad all 
the Achaeans beside their ships, and most of all the 
kinsfolk and comrades that are thine ; and I through- 
out the great city of king Priam shall make glad 
the Trojan men and Trojan women with trailing 
robes, who because of me will enter the gathering 
of the gods ^ with thanksgivings. But come, let us 
both give each to the other glorious gifts, to the end 
that many a one of Achaeans and Trojans alike 
may thus say : ' The twain verily fought in rivalry 
of soul-devouring strife, but thereafter made them a 
compact and were parted in friendship.' " 

When he had thus said, he brought and gave 
him his silver-studded sword with its scabbard and 
well-cut baldric ; and Aias gave his belt bright with 
scarlet. So they parted, and one went his way to 
the host of the Achaeans and the other betook him 
to the throng of the Trojans. And these waxed 
glad when they saw Hector coming to join them alive 
and whole, escaped from the fury of Aias and his 
invincible hands ; and they brought him to the city 
scarce deeming that he was safe. And Aias on his 
part was led of the well-greaved Achaeans unto 
goodly Agamemnon, filled with joy of his victory. 

And when they were now come to the huts of 
the son of Atreus, then did the king of men, Aga- 
memnon, slay them a bull, a male of five years, for 
the son of Cronos, supreme in might. This they 
flayed and dressed, and cut up all the limbs. Then 
they-Tshced these cunningly, and spitted them and 
roasted them carefully and drew all off the spits. 
But when they had ceased from their labour and 
had made ready the meal, they feasted, nor did 
their hearts lack aught of the equal feast. And unto 

325 



HOMER 

VMTOiaiv 8' AXavTa Bir^veKeeaat yepaipev 
rjpws 'ArpetSrjs, evpv Kpeicov 'Ayaju,e/>tva»v. 
avrap eTret ttoctlos kol iSrjrvos i^ epov evro, 
rots 6 yepojv TTajXTTpcoTos v(f>aiveiv ripyero ixrjriv 
Nearcop, ov /cat rrpoadev apiarrj (j>aiveTO ^ovXij. 35 
o a(f)i,v iv <f)pov€cov ayoprjuaro Kol pLereeLTrev 

^ArpetSrj re /cat aAAot apiarrjes Ylavaxai'Cov, 
TToAAot yap redvdai Kcipr) KOfxocovTes A;^atot, 
TOJv vvv at/xa KeXaivov evppoov api<j>l S/ca^avSpov 
ccr/ceSacr' o^vs "Kp-qs, ijiV^oX 8' "AtSocrSe KarrjXdov 3c 
TO) ae XPV TToXepiov puev a//.' i^ot Travaai *A)^aicbv, 
auTOt 8' aypofievot KVKXrjaopiev ivddSe veKpovs 
^oval /cat rjpiiovoiaw drap KaraKT^ofiev avTovs 
rvrdov diTOTrpo vecov, u>s k doria Traicrlv €Kaaro<;^ 
ot/caS' dyr], or* dv avre vewpieda Trarpiha yaZav. 3c 
rvpu^ov 8' dix<j>L TTvprjV eVa ^^vopiev i^ayayovres 
aKpirov e/c irehiov^' ttotI 8' avrov Seip^o/Jbev cD/ca 
TTvpyovs vifjiqXovs , elXap vrjcov re /cat avTcov. 
iv 8' avTolai irvXas TTOitjaofxev €V dpapvias, 
6(f)pa 8t' avrdcov iTTTTrjXaairj ohos elrj' 34 

€KToadev 8e ^aQeiav dpv^opLev iyyvOi Td<j>pov, 
rj x* tTTTTOV /cat Xaov ipvKaKOL dpi^is eovaa, 
fxrj TTor eTTi^piar] iroXepbos Tpcocov ayepd>x<^v. 

"O? i(f)ad^, ot 8* apa iravres iTrrjvrjaav ^aaiXrjes. 
Tpcocov aur' dyoprj yever* 'lAtou Iv iroXeL aKprj, 34 
heLvrj rerpfixola, irapd Hpidfioto OvprjOL. 
Tolaiv 8' ^Avriqvcop 7T€7TVVfjievos rjpx' dyopeveiv 

^ Lines 33i f. were rejected by Aristarchus. 
* iK nediov : iv ireSicp Aristophanes (c/. 436). 

^ This meaning of i^ayaydvres is perhaps justified by 
Thucyd. i. 93. Aristarchus took the word to mean " march- 
ing out." 
326 



THE ILIAD, VII. 321-347 

Aias for his honour was the long chine given by the 
warrior son of Atreus, wide-ruhng Agamemnon. 
But when they had put from them the desire of 
food and drink, first of all the old man began to 
weave the web of counsel for them, even Nestor, 
whose rede had of old ever seemed the best. He 
with good intent addressed their gathering and 
spake among them : " Son of Atreus and ye other 
princes of the hosts of Achaea, lo, full many long- 
haired Achaeans are dead, whose dark blood keen 
Ares hath now spilt about fair-flowing Scamander, and 
their souls have gone down to the house of Hades ; 
therefore were it well that thou make the battle 
of the Achaeans to cease at daybreak, and we will 
gather to hale hither on carts the corpses with 
oxen and mules ; and we will burn them a little way 
from the ships that each man may bear their bones 
home to their children, whenso we return again to 
our native land. And about the pyre let us heap a 
single barrow, rearing ^ it from the plain for all alike, 
and thereby build with speed a lofty wall, a defence 
for our ships and for ourselves. And therein let 
us build gates close-fastening, that through them 
may be a way for the driving of chariots ; and 
without let us dig a deep ditch hard by, which shall 
intervene and keep back chariots and footmen, lest 
ever the battle of the lordly Trojans press heavily 
upon us." 

So spake he, and all the kings assented thereto. 
And of the Trojans likewise was a gathering held 
in the citadel of Ilios, a gathering fierce and 
tumultuous, beside Priam's gates. Among them 
wise Antenor Avas first to speak, saying : " Hearken 



327 



HOMER • 

K€kAvt€ fxev, 'TpoJes /cat A.dpBavot. 1)8' eTTLKOVpoi, 
6(j)p eiTTOi TO, fie dvfjios evl arijdecrut KeXevei. 
Seur' oyer , 'ApyeiTjv 'EAevryv koI KTrjpLad^ dp/ avrfj 3i 
Sa)op,ev ^ATpetSrjaiv dyeiv. vvv 8' opKia TTiara 
tpevadp,€Voi pbaxopbeaOa' rd ov vv tl Kephiov rjp,tv 
eXTTOpiai eKTeXeeaOai, tva p.r) pe^opiev tSSe."^ 

H rot o y ws €LTTOJV Kar* dp' e^ero' roiai 8' dviarrj 
hlos 'AXe^avBpos, '¥!iXev7)s rroais rjiJKopLOLO, 31 

OS p,t,v dpi€i^6p,€vos €7Tea Trrepoevra TrpoarjvSa- 

AvTTjvop, av pLev ovKer epbOL (piAa ravr 
dyopevecs' 
olaOa Kal dXXov pivOov dpbeivova rovhe voijaai. 
€L 8' ireov 817 rovrov drro anovhrjs dyopeveis, 
ig dpa 87^ tol eTretra Oeol <j)pevas coXeaav avToi. 3( 
avrdp iyoj Tpweaai pied' iTnroSdpLOts dyopevaco' 
avTiKpv 8 dTr6(f)rjpLL, yvvaiKa p,kv ovk aTToScocrct}' 
KTrjpiaTa 8 oacr' dyopLrjV i^ "Apyeos '^pberepov 8a) 
TTavT edeXco Bopievat, Kal oiKodev dXX' imdetvai." 

H Tot o y' ojs eiTTcbv /car' dp' e^ero' roZai 8' dviarr) 3f 
AapSavLSrjs YlptapLOs, d€6(f)i,v piijcrTCop drdXavTos, 
o a<f)LV iv (ffpoveojv dyop-qaaro Kal pLeTeenre' 

KeKXvre pLev, Tpcoes Kal AdphavoL rjS' eTTLKOvpoi^ 
o<j)p' eiTTOi rd pL€ dvp,6s ivl anqOeaat KeXevec. 
vvv pikv hopiTov eXeade Kara tttoXiv,^ cos to Trdpos Trep, 37 
/cat (f)vXaKrjs pLV^aacrOe Kal eypr^yopde e/caaros" 
TjojOev 8* 'I8atos" troj KoiXas cttI vrjas 
etiripiev 'ArpetBys, ' Ayap,epivovi Kal Mei^eAaoj, 
pivdov 'AXe^dvhpoLO, rod eiv-e/ca vet/CDs' opojpe. 
/cat Se t68' elvepbevaL ttvkivov erros, at k' iOeXojac 37 

* Line 353 was rejected by Aristarchus, 

• Lines 368 f. are omitted in some mss. 

' TrriXtc : ffrparov, 

328 



THE ILIAD, VII. 348-375 

to me, ye Trojans and Dardanians and allies, that I 
may speak what the heart in my breast biddeth me. 
Come ye now, let us give Argive Helen and the 
treasure with her unto the sons of Atreus to take 
away. Now do we fight after proving false to our 
oaths of faith, wherefore have I no hope that aught 
will issue to our profit, if we do not thus." 

When he had thus spoken he sate him down, and 
among them uprose goodly Alexander, lord of 
fair-haired Helen ; he made answer, and spake to 
him winged words : " Antenor, this that thou say est 
is no longer to my pleasure ; yea thou knowest how 
to devise better words than these. But if thou 
verily speakest this in earnest, then of a surety 
have the gods themselves destroyed thy wits. 
Howbeit I will speak amid the gathering of horse- 
taming Trojans and declare outright : my wife will 
I not give back ; but the treasure that I brought 
from Argos to our home, all this am I minded to 
give, and to add thereto from mine own store." 

When he had thus spoken he sate him down, and 
among them uprose Priam, son of Dardanus, peer 
of the gods in counsel. He with good intent ad- 
dressed their gathering, and spake among them : 
" Hearken to me, ye Trojans and Dardanians and 
allies, that I may say what the heart in my breast 
biddeth me. For this present take ye your supper 
throughout the city, even as of old, and take heed 
to keep watch, and be wakeful every man ; and at 
dawn let Idaeus go to the hollow ships to declare 
to Atreus' sons, Agamemnon and Menelaus, the 
word of Alexander, for whose sake strife hath been 
set afoot. And let him furthermore declare to 
them this word of wisdom, whether they are minded 

S29 



HOMER 

TTavaaadai TroAe'/xoto Svcrrjx^os, etS" o kc vcKpovs 
Ki^ofxev varepov avre ixaxr)crofi€d\ els o /ce SaifXMV 
d/Jbiie SiaKpivT], 80617 S' erepoiai ye VLK-qv." 

"O? e(f)a9^, ol 8' d'/aa tou /xaAa fjiev kXvov tJS' 
em^ovTO, 
BopTTOV eVei^' etAovTO /irard arparov iv reXeeaaiv^ I 
rict>d€v 8' 'I8atos' 1)87^ KoiXas ctti I'T^aj" 
Tous" 8' eup' etV dyopfj Aavaovs OepdrrovTas "Aprjos 
V7]t Trdpa TTpvfJbvfj ^AyafMefxvovos' avrdp 6 rolai 
ards iv jxeaaoLOiv [xeTecjxjoveev rjTTVTa Krjpv$' 
" ^Arpethy] re koX dXXoc dpiarrjes Yiava-)(^aid)v ,^ '< 
rjvcoyei, npia/xd? re Kal d'AAot Tpcjes dyavol 
eLTTelv, at /ce Trep Vjxpn, <^iXov /cat 178?) yei'otTO, 
jjLvOov 'AAe^dv8/)oto, Tou etv'e/ca vet/co? opcope. 
KT-qixaTa pbkv da 'AXe^avSpos kolXtjs eVt vrjvGiv 
Tjydyero TpGirjvh* — (hs irplv oj^eAA' aTToXeadai — '< 
TtdvT ideXei Sd/xevat /cat eV oiKodev dAA' eirtdelvaL' 
Kovpihirfv 8' dAo;\;ov MeveAdou KvhaXipioio 
ov (brjauv 86t!>cretv ■i^ jiti^i' T/odie's' ye KeXovrai. 
/cat oe TOO rjvojyeov ctTTCLV erros, at k eaeArjTe 
TTavaaaOat, TToXefxoto Bvcrq^^eos, els d /ce veKpovs \ 
KrjofJLev varepov avre fxax'r)<j6[jied\ els d /ce 8at/xa>v 
dpLfxe SLaKpivrj, Scvj] 8' erepoiai ye VLK-qv." 

"Q-S ecf>ad\ ol 8' dpa mdvres dK-qu eyevovro aicoTrfj. 
dtpe 8e 8rj fxereenre ^orjv dyados AtofitjSrjs' 
" lirjT dp Tcs vvv KTrjfxaT* 'AXe^dvBpoLO BexecrOco < 
fii]6^ 'KXevrjv yvojTov Be /cat os pidXa v-qmos iariv, 
COS" "qBr] Vpweaaiv dXedpov Trelpar* e(f)rJ7TTai." 

'^Q.S e(f)ad\ OL 8' dpa Trdvres e-TTtaxov vies 'A;(atd>v, 



* Line 380 is omitted in some mss. 

* Line 385 is omitted in some mss. 



3S0 



THE ILIAD, VII, 376-403 

to cease from dolorous war till we have burned the 
dead ; thereafter shall we fight again until God 
judge between us, and give victory to one side or 
the other." 

So spake he, and they readily hearkened to him, 
and obeyed ; then they took their supper throughout 
the host by companies, and at dawn Idaeus went 
his way to the hollow ships. There he found in 
the place of gathering the Danaans, squires of 
Ares, beside the stern of Agamemnon's ship ; and 
the loud-voiced herald took his stand in the midst 
and spake among them : " Son of Atreus, and ye 
other princes of the hosts of Achaea, Priam and the 
other lordly Trojans bade me declare to you — if 
haply it be your wish and your good pleasure — the 
saying of Alexander, for whose sake strife hath been 
set afoot. The treasure that Alexander brought to 
Troy in his hollow ships — M^ould that he had perished 
first ! — all this he is minded to give, and to add 
thereto from his own store ; but the wedded wife 
of glorious Menelaus, he declares he will not give ; 
though verily the Trojans bid him do it. Moreover 
they bade me declare unto you this word also, 
whether ye be minded to cease from dolorous war 
till we have burned the dead ; thereafter shall we 
fight again until God judge between us and give 
victory to one side or the other." 

So spake he, and they all became hushed in silence. 
But at length there spake among them Diomedes, 
good at the war-cry : " Let no man now accept the 
treasure from Alexander, nay, nor Helen ; known is 
it, even to him who hath no wit at all, that now the 
cords of destruction are made fast upon the Trojans." 

So spake he, and all the sons of the Achaeans 

331 



HOMER 

fivdov dyaaadfjievoi AiojX'qSeos LTrrro^dixoio . 

Koi tot' dp* ^YBalov 7Tpoae(f)r] Kpeicov ^Ayafjuefxvcov 

ISat', rj roL p,vdov 'A;^aic5v avros aKoveis, 
COS Toi VTTOKpivovrat' ifiol 8' iTnavSdvet ovrojg. 
afi(f)l Se veKpoZaiv KaraKatefxev ov n fxeyaipco' 
ov ydp ns <^et8co vckvcov KaTaredvrjMTCov 
yiyver , CTret /ce Odvcoat, TTvpos /x.etAtacre/>tev cS/ca, 
opKia Se Zeu? tarco, ipiySovTTos ttools "H/orj?.' 

"Ds" etTTCov TO aKrJTTrpov dveax^de Trdai deolaiv, 
dijjoppov 8' '180105" e^r] Trporl "lAtoi^ Ip'qv. 
ol 8' ear' elv dyopij Tpcoes /cat AapSavicove?, 
Trdvres ofxr^yepees, TTorihiyp,evoi ottttot dp'' eXOot 
loaios' o o ap rjAoe Kai ayyeAi'r]v aireenre 
ards iv fxeaaoLcnv' rol 8' orrAt^ot'TO fJbdX coKa, 
dpu^orepov , veKvdg t' dyefiev, erepoi 8e pied* vArjv. 
'Apyetot 8' irepcoOev ivaaeXp^cov diro vqcbv 
orpvvovro vckvs t' dyijxev, erepoL 8e /te^' vXrjv. 

'HeAio? /xet* eneira viov npoae^aXXev dpovpag, 
€^ aKaXappeiTao ^advppoov *Q.K€avoLO 
ovpavdv elaavtcov ol 8' TJvreov dXX'qXoLcnv. 
evda Siayvcovat ^aXeTTOJS rjv dvSpa eKaarov 
aAA vhari vl^ovres diro ^porov alfxarocvTa, 
SdKpva depfjid -)(^eovT€s d/xa^dcov indeipav. 
ovS* eta KXaUiv YlpLap,os p-eyas' ol 8e auoTrfj 
vcKpovs TTvpKa'Crjs eTrevqveov dxvvp,€VOi Krjp, 
iv 8e TTvpl TTp-qaavres e^av Trporl "IXlov IprjV. 
a)S 8' avTcos irepcodev ivKV'qp,t,S€s A)(aiol 



332 



THE ILIAD, VII. 404-430 

shouted aloud, applauding the saying of Diomedes, 
tamer of horses. Then to Idaeus spake lord Aga- 
memnon : " Idaeus, verily of thyself thou hearest 
the word of the Achaeans, how they make answer 
to thee ; and mine own pleasure is even as theirs. 
But as touching the dead I in no wise grudge that ye 
burn them ; for to dead corpses should no man 
grudge, when once they are dead, the speedy 
consolation of fire. But to our oaths let Zeus be 
witness, the loud-thundering lord of Hera." 

So saying, he lifted up his staff before the face 
of all the gods, and Idaeus went his way back to 
sacred Ilios. Now they were sitting in assembly, 
Trojans and Dardanians ahke, all gathered in one 
body waiting until Idaeus should come ; and he 
came and stood in their midst and declared his 
message. Then they made them ready with all 
speed for either task, some to bring the dead, and 
others to seek for wood. And the Argives over 
against them hasted from the benched ships, some 
to bring the dead and others to seek for wood. 

The sun was now just striking on the fields, as 
he rose from softly-gliding, deep-flowing Oceanus, 
and climbed the heavens, when the two hosts met 
together. Then was it a hard task to know each 
man again ; howbeit with water they washed from 
them the clotted blood, and lifted them upon' the 
waggons, shedding hot tears the while. But great 
Priam would not suffer his folk to wail aloud ; so 
in silence they Heaped the corpses upon the pyre, 
their hearts sore stricken ; and when they had burned 
them with fire they went their way to sacred Ilios. 
And in like manner over against them the well- 
greaved Achaeans heaped the corpses upon the 

333 



HOMER 

V€Kpovs TTvpKa'Crj? eirLV-qveov a-)(yv}xevoL Krjp, 
ev 8e TTvpl TTpyjaavTCS e^av KolXas irrl vrjas. 

^H/^to? 8' ovT^ dp TTCO rjcos, eTL 8' dpi(j)i\vK'q vvg, 
Trjfios a/>' djx(f)l vvprjv Kptros eypero Xaos ^Axo-tcov, 
rvpi^ov 8' d/x(^' avTTjv cva iroieov i^ayayovres 
d-Kpirov e/c Tre8toy/ ttotI 8' avrov reZxos eSet/xav, 
TTvpyovs 9^ vifj-qXovs, etXap vtjcov re Kal avriov. 
iv 8' avTolai 77uAas' iverroUov €V dpapvias, 
o<ppa OL avracov nT7Tr]Aaair] ooos eL-q- 
CKToaOev 8e ^adeiav eV aura) rd(f)pov opv^av, 
evpeXav pieydXrjv, iv 8e OKoXoTras KareTrrj^av. 

"n? oi fxev TTOviovTO Kdprj KOfxocovres 'A;!^aioi* 
ot 8e ^eot TTtt/) Xrjvl KaOijfMevoL dcjTepoTnjrfj^ 
OrjevvTO fieya epyov 'A;^ataiv' x^^'^^xI'TCovcov . 
rdlaL 8e fivdcov "^px^ T[o(7€i,Bda>v evoaixQ^v 
" Zeu rrdrep, r] pd ris eari ^pord)v ctt aireipova yalav 
OS Tis" er' ddavdroiai voov /cat firJTLV iviipei; 
ovx opdas oTi Brj avre ndprj KOpLocovres 'A;\;atoi 
TeXxos ireix^crcravTO vecov virep, dpL(j>l 8e ra(f)pov 
rjXaaav, ov8e deolai hoaav /cAetTO,? e/caro/Lt^a? ; 
rov 8' Tj rot, /cAe'o? earai daov r imKiSvarai -qcvs' 
rod 8' imXiqaovrai, 6 r eycb Kal ^ol^os 'AttoAAcov 
'^pcp AaopieBovrt TroXiaaap^ev ddXrjaavre." 

Tov 8e /xey' 6xdi](^o.s Trpoai^T] v€(l>€Xr}y€pera Zei;?. 
" CO TTOTTOt, ivvoaiyai evpvaOevesj oiov eeiTrey. 
aAAoj /ceV Tt? Toyro Oecov 8eiacte vor^pLa, 

^ Ik veBiov : ^i' TreSiV Aristophanes (a/. 337). 
* Lines 443-464 were rejected by Zenodotus, Aristophanes, 
and Aristarchus. 

334. 



THE ILIAD, VII. 431-456 

pyre, their hearts sore stricken, and when they had 
burned them with fire they went their way to the 
hollow ships. 

Now when dawn was not yet, but night was still 
'twixt light and dark, then was there gathered 
about the pyre the chosen host of the Achaeans, 
and they made about it a single barrow, rearing it 
from the plain for all alike ; and thereby they built 
a wall and a lofty rampart, a defence for their ships 
and for themselves. And therein they made gates, 
close-fastening, that through them might be a way 
for the driving of chariots. And without they dug 
a deep ditch hard by, wide and great, and therein 
they planted stakes. 

Thus were they toiling, the long-haired Achaeans ; 
and the gods, as they sat by the side of Zeus, the 
lord of the lightning, marvelled at the great work 
of the brazen-coated Achaeans. And among them 
Poseidon, the Shaker of Earth, was first to speak : 
" Father Zeus, is there now anyone of mortals on 
the face of the boundless earth, that will any more 
declare to the immortals his mind and counsel ? 
Seest thou not that now again the long-haired 
Achaeans have builded them a wall to defend their 
ships, and about it have drawn a trench, but gave 
not glorious hecatombs to the gods ? Of a surety 
shall the fame thereof reach as far as the dawn 
spreadeth, and men will forget the wall that I and 
Phoebus Apollo built with toil for the warrior 
Laomedon." 

Then greatly troubled, Zeus, the cloud-gatherer, 
spake to him : " Ah me, thou Shaker of Earth, 
wide of sway, what a thing thou hast said ! Another 
of the gods might haply fear this device, whoso was 

335 



HOMER 

o? aio TToXkov d(j)avp6T€pos ;\;et/3as" re fJievos re' 
GOV 8' rj rot kXcos earat ogov t' eTn/ctSvarat tjco?, 
dypei fxdv, or* o.v avre Kaprj KopLocovres 'A;;^aiot 
oix(ovrac avv vrjval (jyiX'qv is TrarptSa yalav, 
relxos dvappr'j^as to pLev els aAa Trdv Karax^vaL, 
avTLS 8' rj'Cova pieyaXrjV ifjapbdOoiaL KaXvipai, 
a)S Kev Toi piiya relxos d[j,aXSvvrjTaL ^Axcitdjv. 
'^Q.S ol pLev roiavra irpos dXXriXovs dyopevov, 
Svaero 8' rjeXioSy rereXearo 8e epyov ^Axo-i-cov, 
^ovj>6veov 8e Kara KXcatas /cat SopTTOv eXovro. 
vijes 8' 6/c AajpuvoLO Trapiaraaav olvov dyovaai 
TToXXai, rds TrpoerjKev 'IrjaoviSrjs ^vvqos, 

f ty » > t-vt //\f>>T/ ' \ ^ . 

rOV p €T€X llfJLTTVAr) VTT irjUOVl, 7TOipi,€VL Aaojv. 

X<i>pi'S 8' ^ArpetSrjs, ' Ayapuepivovc /cat MeveXdo), 
8djK€V 'lrjaovLSr]s dyepLev pbeOv, ;!(tAta pbdrpa. 
evdev olvit,ovro Kapr) Kopb6(x)vr€S 'AxaioL, 
dXXoL pi€V ^aA/co), aAAo6 8' aWcovi, aihrjpcp, 
dXXoL 8e pLvoXs, dXXoL 8' avrfjai ^oeacriv, 
dXXot 8' dvSpaTToSecjGt' rWevro 8e 8arTa 6aXei,av} 
iravvvxt'Oi piev eVeiTa Kdpt] KopLowvres 'AxaLol 
SalvvvTO, Tpojes 8e /caret tttoXiv rjS emKovpoL' 
TTOVvvx^'OS 8e a^iv /ca/ca pLrihe.ro purjrUra Zci»? 
apLcpSaXea Krvnecov, rovs 8e ;^;Acup6i' Seos fiP^i'' 
olvov 8' eK hcTrdcov ;\;a/^a8t? X^'°''» ou8e ri? erAry 
TTplv TTteetv, Trpiv Aeti/rat VTreppbCveC Kpovicovt. 
KoipLrjaavT dp' eTretra /cat vttvov ScJopov eXovro. 

* Line 475 was rejected by Zenodotus, Aristophanes, and 
Aristarchus. 

* Line 482 was omitted by Zenodotus. 



336 



THE ILIAD, VII. 457-482 

feebler fai- than thou in hand and might ; whereas 
thy fame shall of a surety reach as far as the dawn 
spreadeth. Go to now, when once the long-haired 
Achaeans have gone with their ships to their dear 
native land, then do thou burst apart the wall and 
sweep it all into the sea, and cover the great beach 
again with sand, that so the great wall of the 
Achaeans may be brought to naught of thee." 

On this wise spake they, one to the other, and the 
sun set, and the work of the Achaeans was accom- 
plished ; and they slaughtered oxen throughout the 
huts and took supper. And ships full many were at 
hand from Lemnos, bearing wine, sent forth by 
Jason's son, Euneiis, whom Hypsipyle bare to Jason, 
shepherd of the host. And for themselves alone unto 
the sons of Atreus, Agamemnon and Menelaus, had 
Euneiis given wine to be brought them, even a 
thousand measures. Trbrrl~ these ships the long- 
haired Achaeans bought them wine, some for bronze, 
some for gleaming iron, some for hides, some for 
whole cattle, and some for slaves ; and they made 
them a rich feast. So the whole night through the 
long-haired Achaeans feasted, and the Trojans 
likewise in the city, and their allies ; and all night 
long Zeus, the counsellor, devised them evil, thunder- 
ing in terrible wise. Then pale fear gat hold of 
them, and they let the wine flow from their cups 
upon the ground, neither durst any man drink until 
he had made a drink-offering to the son of Cronos, 
supreme in might. Then they laid them down, and 
took the gift of sleep. 



S37 



lAIAAOS 

'Hco? fJ^ev KpoKoneTrXos iKiBvaro Trdaav in* atav,^ 
7j€VS Se Oeojv dyoprjv TTOvqaaTO repTTLKepavvos 
aKpordrj] Kopv(f)7J TToXvSeLpdSos OvXv/jLttoio' 
avTOS Se CT0' dyopeve, deol S' vtto Trdvres aKOVov. 
" K€KXvr€ ixev, TrdvT€S re deol Tracrat re diaivai, 
6<j>p' e'lTTOi rd fxe dvpLos ivl ar'^Oeaai KeXevet.^ 
fxi]T€ ris ovv O'qXeia deos to ye firJTc tis" dparjv 
TTeipdroi 8ia/ce/3crai ipi^ov eVos", aAA' a/xa Trdvres 
aiveZr* , 6(f)pa rd^Lara reXevT'qaoj rdSe epya. 
ov 8' dv eyd>v dirdvevde decov edeXovra voijacu 
eXdovr* ^ Tpojeaaiv dpriyefxev rj Aavaolcrt, 
TrXrjyels ov Kara Koapiov eXevaerat OvXvfiTTOvSe- 
rj fjLLV eAcov pii/fo) is Tdprapov rjepoevra, 
rrjXe fxdX* , rjxt' ^ddiarov vtto ■)(dov6s iari ^epedpov, 
evOa OLhripeiai re TTvXai /cat )(dXKeos ovSos, 
roaaov evepd^ 'AtSecu daov ovpavos ear^ cxTro yairjS' 
yvcoaer eTreid oaov elpX decov Kdpriaros aTTavrcDV. 
el S' dye rretpijaaade, Oeoi, Iva e'lhere Trdvres. 
aeiprfv ■)(pvaeiriv e^ ovpavoOev Kpep^daavres 
TTavres r i^aTrreade 6eol Tracrat re Oeaivaf : 

aXX ovK dv ipvaair* e^ ovpavodev rrehiovhe 
Zrjv VTTarov fx-^arcop* , ouS' el jxdXa TroAAa /ca/iotre. 
^ This line was placed by Zenodotus after 52. 
* Line 6 is omitted in many jiss. 
338 



BOOK VIII 

Now Dawn the safFron-robed was spreading over 
the face of all the earth, and Zeus that hurleth the 
thunderbolt made a gathering of the gods upon the 
topmost peak of many-ridged Olympus, and himself 
addressed their gathering ; and all the gods gave 
ear : " Hearken unto me, all ye gods and goddesses, 
that I may speak what the heart in my breast biddeth 
me. Let not any goddess nor yet any god essay 
this thing, to thwart my word, but do ye all alike 
assent thereto, that with all speed I may bring 
these deeds to pass. Whomsoever I shall mark 
minded apart from the gods to go and bear aid either 
to Trojans or Danaans, smitten in no seemly wise 
shall he come back to Olympus, or I shall take and 
hurl him into murky Tartarus, far, far away, where 
is the deepest gulf beneath the earth, the gates 
whereof are of iron and the threshold of bronze, as 
far beneath Hades as heaven is above earth : then 
shall ye know how far the mightiest am I of all 
gods. Nay, come, make trial, ye gods, that ye all 
may know. Make ye fast from heaven a chain 
of gold, and lay ye hold thereof, all ye gods and all 
goddesses ; yet could ye not drag to earth from out 
of heaven Zeus the counsellor most high, not though 
ye laboured sore. But whenso I were minded to 

339 



HOMER 

dAA ore Srj /cat iyoj TTpG(f)p(X)V eQeXoiju epvaaai, 
avTjj K€v yuij) ipvaaifj,' avrfj re daXaaarj' 
aeLprjV fiev Kev eTreira Trepl piov 0vXv[X7toio^ 2 

h-qaaijxiqv , rot 8e k avre fxer'^opa Trdvra yivoiro. 
Toaaov iyo) irepi t' et/xt decbv rrepi, t et/x av- 

OpiOTTCOV. 

"Q? e(f)a9', ol 8' dpa Trdvres aKTjV iyivovro aLCOTrfj^ 
fjivdov dyaaadjxevor jxdXaydp Kparepcos ayopevaev. 
d«/re Be Brj /xereetTre ded yXavKcoTTis ^AOt^vt)- 3 

" c5 Trdrep rjf.i€r€p€ Kpoi/tSTy, vnare Kpeiovroiv, 
€v vv /cat r]{jL€LS tS^ev d rot aOevos ovk eTTLecKTOV 
dAA' e/XTTTjs' Aai'adiv 6Xo(f)vp6fjL€9^ at;^jLt')7Tacov, 
ot /cev 817 /ca/cov otrov dvaTrAT^CTavre? oXuivrai. 
dAA' 7^ rot TToAe/xou /xei' d.(f)€^6p,ed\ ws av KeXeveis' 3 
^ovX-qv 8' 'ApyeioLS V7rodr]a6[jL€d\ tj ris ovrjaei, 
di? /lit) Trdvres oXcovrat oBvaaafievoio reolo.' ^ 

Ttjv 8' iTTifieiS-qaas 7Tpocre(f>rj ve<^eXr]y€pira Zef?' 
" ddpcrei, TptToyeWta, ^iXov reKOS' ov vv tl dv/xcp 
7Tp6<f)povi pivOeojxai, eOeXco 8e rot tjitlos etvat. 4 

"^j ei7rd)v utt' d;^ecr^t TLTVcrKeTO x^^XkottoB' lttttco, 
WKVTTera, ^^pvacrjaiv idelprjaLV KOfiooJvre, 
Xpvaov 8' auTo? €8yv€ Trept XPo^*> y^vro 8' l[idaBXr\v 
Xpva€Lr)v ivrvKTOv, iov 8' eTn^i^aeTO hi<ppov, 
fidarc^ev 8' iXdav r<h 8' oi5/c deKovre Treriadiqv 4 
fieacr-qyvs yatTjs" re /cat ovpavov aaTcpoevros • 
"18171/ 8' i/cavev TToXvTrihaKa, jx-qrepa drjpaJv, 
Tdpyapov, evda re ol T^iievog ^cjfxos re ^UTjet?. 
€j/^' tTTTTOU? eaTTjCTe irarrjp dvSpdJv re Oecov re 
Xvaas e^ oxecov, Kara 8' i^epa ttovXvv ex^vev. 5 

1 Lines 25 f. were rejected by Zenodotus. 

* Lines 28-40 were rejected by Aristarchus. 

' Line 37 was omitted by Zenodotus. 

340 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 23-50 

draw of a ready heart, then with earth itself should 
I draw you and with sea withal ; and the rope should 
I thereafter bind about a peak of Olympus and all 
those things should hang in space. By so much am 
I above gods and above men." 

So spake he, and they all became hushed in 
silence, marvelling at his words ; for full masterfully 
did he address their gathering. But at length there 
spake among them the goddess, flashing - eyed 
Athene : " Father of us all, thou son of Cronos, 
high above all lords, well know we of ourselves that 
thy might is unyielding, yet even so have we pity 
for the Danaan spearmen who now shall perish and 
fulfil an evil fate. Yet verily will we refrain us 
from battle, even as thou dost bid ; howbeit counsel 
will we offer to the Argives which shall be for their 
profit, that they perish not all by reason of thy 
wrath." 

Then with a smile spake to her Zeus the cloud- 
gatherer : " Be of good cheer, Tritogeneia, dear 
child. In no wise do I speak with full purpose of 
heart, but am minded to be kindly to thee." 

So saying, he let harness beneath his car his 
bronze-hooved horses, swift of flight, with flowing 
manes of gold ; and with gold he clad himself about 
his body, and grasped the well-wrought whip of 
gold, and stepped upon his car and touched the 
horses with the lash to start them ; and nothing 
loath the pair sped onward midway between earth 
and starry heaven. To Ida he fared, the many- 
fountained, mother of wild beasts, even to Gargarus, 
where is his demesne and his fragrant altar. There 
did the father of men and gods stay his horses, and 
loose them from the car, and shed thick mist upon 

341 



HOMER 

avTOS 8' ev Kopv(f>fjat Kade^ero KvBe'C yaucov, 
eLoopooiv Tpcocov re ttoXlv /cat vrjas *A)(aicov. 

Ot S dpa SeLTTVOv eXovro Kap-q KOfMoojvres 'A;^aiot 
pLpi(f)a Kara /cAtCTta?, oltto S' avrov dajpn^aaovro' 
Tpcoes 8 ay^' irepojdev dva tttoXlv oTrAt^ovro, 5; 
TTavporepoL' pbefxacrav 8e /cat cSj vapulvi fidx^odac, 
Xp€tol dvayKaiT], TTpo re Traihcov /cat irpo yvvaiKcav. 
TTttcrai 8' (htyvvvTO TTvXai, e/c 8' eaavro Aaos", 
Tre^ot ^' iTTTTTJes re* ttoAus" 8' opvfjLaySos opcLpeL. 

t o ore 017 p €S xoipov eva gwiovres lkovto, g( 
aw p epaAov pivovs, avv o eyx^a /cat fieve avopcov 
XCiXKeodcop-qKOiV drdp daTTiSes 6p,(f)aX6eaaai 
enXrjVT* d?<X'qXrjai, ttoXvs 8' opv/xayBos opcopei. 
evOa 8' apb* olncoyt] re /cat eix'^oXr] ireXev dvhpix>v 
oXXvvrcxiv re Kat oXXvpLevojv, pee 8' aifMari yala. Q[ 

"0(f>pa jxev rjajs tjv /cat de^ero lepov "^fiap, 
r6(f)pa /xaA' dp,(f)OTepcov ^eAe' rfTTTero, TrtTTTe 8e Aaoj. 
■^[xos 8' 'HeAtoj fxeaov ovpavov dfxcju^e^rjKei, 
KoX Tore Brj ;^/3ucreia Trarrjp crtratve rdXavTa^ 
iv Se TtdeL Svo Krjpe ravrjXeyeos 6avdroio, 7( 

Tpdntiv 0' LTTTToSafxcov /cat 'A;i^atcDt' ;^aA/co;^tT66i'wt', 
eA/ce 8e [xeaaa Xafia>v. peme 8' (xioi\xov r\p,ap ^Kr^aiGiv. 
at /xei^ 'A;)(ataji/ Krjpe? em ;^^ovt TToyXv^OTeiprj^ 
€l,ea6rjv, "Tpcocov 8e tt/jos" oypai'ot' evpvv depdev. 
avTOS 8' e'^ "ISt^S" pieydX eKTvrre, Saiofxevov 8e 7i 
^/ce CTeAa? fierd Xaov 'A;j^ata>i'* 01 8e ISovTeg 
ddfx^Tjaav, /cat rrdvTas vtto x^^^P^v Seos elXev. 

* Lines 73 f. were rejected by Aristarchus. 
842 ' 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 51-77 

them ; and himself sat amid the mountain peaks 
exulting in his glory, looking upon the city of the 
Trojans and the ships of the Achaeans. 

But the long-haired Achaeans took their meal 
hastily throughout the huts, and as they rose up 
therefrom arrayed them in armour ; and in like 
manner, the Trojans, on their side, armed themselves 
throughout the city ; fewer they were, but even so 
were they eager to contend in battle through utter 
need, for their children's sake and their wives'. And 
all the gates were opened, and the host hasted forth, 
footmen alike and charioteers ; and a great din arose. 

But when they were met together and come into 
one place, then clashed they their shields and 
spears, and the fury of bronze -mailed warriors ; 
and the bossed shields closed each with each, and a 
great din arose. Then were heard ahke the sound 
of groaning and the cry of triumph of the slayers 
and the slain, and the earth flowed with blood. 

Now as long as it was morn and the sacred day 
wa§_^a2iingj.5oJ©ng-the missiles of either side struck 
home, and the folk kept faUing. But when the sun 
had reached mid heaven, then verily the Father 
lifted on high his golden scales, and set therein two 
fates of grievous death, one for the horse-taming Tro- 
jans, and one for the brazen-coated Achaeans ; then 
he grasped the balance by the midst and raised it, 
and down sank the day of doom of the Achaeans. 
So the Achaeans' fates settled down upon the boun- 
teous earth and those of the Trojans were raised aloft 
toward wide heaven. Then himself he thundered 
aloud from Ida, and sent a blazing flash amid the 
host of the Achaeans ; and at sight thereof they were 
seized with wonder, and pale fear gat hold of all. 

343 



HOMER 

Ev9 ovr ^ISofxevevg rXrj fxlp^veiv ovt ^Ayafxefivajv, 
ovre Sv' Aiavres [xeveriqv, depaTTOvres "Apy^og- 
NeCTTOJ/a olos e/xi/jLve Tep-qv^os, ovpos ^Axatcuv, 8( 
ov Tt eKcov, aAA' lttttos ireipeTO,^ rov ^aXev icD 
Stos- 'AAe^avSpoj, 'EAcVt^? TToais rjVKOfjLoto, 
aKprjv KOLK Kopv^rjv, odi re TTpiorai rplx^s iTrncov 
KpavLCp efi7Te(f)vaai,, jxakiora 8e Kacpiov eariv. 
aXyriaas 8' averraXro, ^iXos 8' els iyKi(f)aXov hv, 8J 
avv 8' LTTTTOvs irdpa^e KvXtvSouevos Trepl vaA/cai. 
Oipp o yepoiv lttttolo TraprjopLas airerapLve 
(f)aoydva) d'iaacov, ro^p' "E/cropos (VKeeg lttttoi 
rjXoov dv IcoxP'OV dpaavv 'qvtoxov (j)op€ovTes 
EiKTopa. /cat vv K€v evd^ 6 yepcDV dno dvfxov oXeaaev 9( 
et fjir] dp* ofu vorjae ^otjv dyados Aiop,'rj8'qs- 
OfiepbaXeov 8' i^orjaev eTTorpvvcuv 'OSvafja- 
" Bioyeves AaepridSr], 7ToXvp.rjX<xv' ^Ohvaaev, 
irfj <f>€vy€LS fjuerd vcora ^aXwv kukos ojs eV ofxiXcp; 
fXT] TLS rot (/)€vyovTL fxeracfypevcp iv Sopv Trrj^rj. Qi 
dXXd p.ev* , 6(f)pa yepovros dTTiocrofiev dypiov dvBpa." 
Q.S k(f>ar , oi58' iaaKovae TroXvrXas Sto? 'OSua- 
aevs, 
aXXd naprjC^ev KoiXas em vrjas ^Axatcbv. 
TvSetSrjs 8' avTos irep id)V Trpofidxoiaiv ifiixdr], 
arrj 8e irpoad* lttttcov f^rjXrjLdSao yepovros, IC 

/cat fjLLV (ficovqaas enea Trrepoevra TrpoarjvSa' 

CO yepov, rj fxaXa S'q ae veoi reipovai piaxrjrai, 
ar] 8e ^ii] XiXvrai, x'^^'^ov 8e ere yrjpas OTra^ei,^ 

* irelpero : iMfiva,To Aristarchus. 
^ (Jirdfet : hdvei {cf. iv. 321). 



^ Such is probably the meaning. The Greek would 
admit of the rendering "gave no ear," i.e. "heard, but 
344 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 78-103 

Then had neither Idomeneus the heart to abide, 
nor Agamemnon, nor yet the Aiantes twain, squires 
of Ares ; only Nestor of Gerenia abode, the warder 
of the Achaeans, and he nowise of his own will, but 
his horse was sore wounded, seeing goodly Alexander, 
lord of fair-haired Helen, had smitten him with an 
arrow upon the crown of the head where the fore- 
most hairs of horses grow upon the skull, and where 
is the deadliest spot. So, stung with agony the horse 
leapt on high as the arrow sank into his brain, and 
he threw into confusion horses and car as he writhed 
upon the bronze. And while the old man sprang 
forth and with his sword was cutting away the traces, 
meanwhile the swift horses of Hector came on through 
the tumult, bearing a bold charioteer, even Hector. 
And now would the old man here have lost his life, 
had not Diomedes, good at the war-cry, been quick 
to see ; and he shouted with a terrible shout, urging 
on Odysseus : " Zeus-born son of Laertes, Odysseus 
of many wiles, whither fleest thou with thy back 
turned, like a coward in the throng ? Let it not 
be that as thou fleest some man plant his spear in 
thy back. Nay, hold thy ground, that we may 
thrust back from old Nestor this wild warrior." 

So spake he, howbeit the much-enduring goodly 
Odysseus heard him not,^ but hasted by to the hollow 
ships of the Achaeans. But the son of Tydeus, 
alone though he was, mingled with the foremost 
fighters, and took his stand before the horses of the 
old man, Neleus' son, and spake and addressed him 
with winged words : " Old sir, of a surety young 
warriors press thee sore ; whereas thy might is 

would not hearken," and the phrase was so taken by 
Aristarchus. 

345 



HOMER 

rjTTeSavos 8c vv tol OepaTTiov, ^paSees Se rot Ittttoi. 
aAA ay e/xcuv o;^ecov' empiqcreo , ocppa LO-qaL 1 

ofot Tpco'CoL L7T7TOI, iiTLcrrdfjbevoi, TTeSloLO 
KpaiTTva fidX evda /cat ev6a 8ta>Ke/xev i^Se (f)4^ea6at, 
ovs ttot' air' Alvetav iXofjurjv, fxijarrajpe^ (f)6^oio.^ 
TOVTCO fxev OepdiTovre KOfjuetTcov, Tc68e 8e vcij'C 
Tpcoalv i(j)* LTTTTohdixoLs Wvuofi€V, 6(f>pa Kal "Ekto)/? 1 
etcrerat et /cat e^oi' 8dpt' /xatVerat ev naXafXTjatv ." 

"Ds" e^ar', ouS' dTTiO-qae Tepn^vLos LTTTTora ^ecTTCop. 
NecTTopea? juev eVet^' tTTTroy? depdnovre KO/xeiT-qVy 
'i(f>dijJbos^ TideveXos re Kal ^vpvpbeScov dyaTTiijvcop' 
TO) 8' et? dfj,(f)OTep(jD Ato/^T^Seo? dpfxara ^iJTrjv. 1 
NeWcop 8' ev ■)(eLp€aai Aaj8' i^v-ta CTtyaAoevra, 
fidari^ev 8' tTTTTouj* Ta;^a 8' "E/cTopo? ayx^ yeVov'TO. 
Tou 8' t^u? /xejuacoTO? a/covrtae Tu8eo9 yto?* 
/cat Tou jLtet' p' d(f)dfj,apT€V , 6 8' rjvioxov depdnovra, 
VLov VTrepdv/jiov Grj^aiov YLviOTrrja, 1 

i7T7TO)v rjvC eyovra jSaAe aTrjdos Trapd fxa^ov. 
TjpiTre o eg oxecov, vnepojiqaav oe ot lttttol 
wKVTTodes' rov 8' au0t Au^tj ^^XV "^^ p-eVo? re. 
"E/CTopa 8' atvot' a;\;os' 7ru/cacre (f)pevas r)vi,6)(OLO . 
rov jX€V eVetr' etacre, /cat a;^vyp.evds' Trep eraipov, i 
Keladai, 6 8' rjvioxpv p,e0e7re dpaavv oi)8' ap' eVt 81^1^ 
Ittttoj Seveadrjv crrjpidvTopos' alijsa yap evpev 
*l(f)LrL87]v ^ ApxeTTToXefiov Opacrvv, ov pa rod lttttojv 
(LkvttoScov eTrejSr^cje, 8t8oi; 8e ot i^t'ta ;^epCTtP'. 

"Ev^a /ce Aotyos" er^i' /cat dfnjxO'Va epya yevovro, y 

^ tj.-Q<TT(i}pe : fi-ficTTupa (cf. v. 272). 
* Line 108 was rejected by Ai-istarchus. 

S46 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 101-130 

broken and grievous old age attends thee, and thy 
squire is a weakhng and thy 'horses slow. Nay, 
come, mount upon my car, that thou mayest see of 
what sort are the horses of Tros, well skilled to 
course fleetly hither and thither over the plain 
whether in pursuit or in flight, even those that once I 
took from Aeneas, devisers of rout. Thy horses shall 
our two squires tend, but these twain shall thou and 
I drive straight against the horse-taming Trojans, 
that Hector too may know whether my spear also 
rageth in my hands." 

So spake he, and the horseman, Nestor of Gerenia, 
failed not to hearken. So the mares of Nestor 
were tended by the two squires, valiant Sthenelus 
and Eurymedon the kindly ; and the other twain 
mounted both upon the car of Diomedes. Nestor 
took in his hands the shining reins, and touched the 
horses with the lash, and speedily they drew nigh to 
Hector. Upon him then as he charged straight at 
them the son of Tydeus made a cast : him he missed, 
but his squire that drave the chariot, Eniopeus, son 
of Thebaeus, high of heart, even as he was holding 
the reins, he smote on the breast beside the nipple. 
So he fell from out the car, and the swift-footed 
horses swerved aside thereat ; and there his spirit 
and his strength were undone. Then was the soul 
of Hector clouded with dread sorrow for his charioteer. 
Yet left he him to lie there, albeit he sorrowed for 
his comrade, and sought him a bold charioteer ; 
nor did his horses twain long lack a master, for 
straightway he found Iphitus' son, bold Arche- 
ptolemus, and made him mount behind his swift- 
footed horses, and gave the reins into his hands. 

Then had ruin come and deeds beyond remedy 

347 



HOMER 

Kai vv K€ aiqKaodev Kara "IXiov rjvre dpveg, 
el ,ui^ dp o^v vorjae Trarrjp dvSpwv re Oecov re. 
PpovTijaas S' dpa SeLvov d(f)rJK^ dpyrjra Kepavvov, 
KaB Se rrpoad lttttcov Aio/zT^Seos' rjKc )^afidt,€' 
BeivTj 8e 0Ao^ djpro Oeeiov Kaiop^evoio, ] 

TO) S' iTTTTCxi heiaavre KaTaTTTTJrrjv vtt' o;^co"^i. 
Nearopa 8' €k ■)(eipcx)v <^vyov rjvia aiyaXoevra^ 
Setae 8' o y' ef Ovpicp, Ato/x7y8ea Se Trpoaienre' 
" Tvhethrj, dye 8rj avre (fio^ovBi' ex^ fxa)VVXO-S lttttovs. 
rj ov ytyvdyoKeis 6 rot eK Ato? ovx eTrer' aA/C7y; ] 
vvv fjLev yap tovtco UpovLSrjs Xevs kvSos OTrd^ec 
arjixepov varepov avre Kol rjfJbXv, at /c' edeXrjai, 
Swcrei. dvrjp 8e Kev ov n Atos" voov elpvaaairo 
ovoe fxaA L<puLp,os, eiret rj ttoAv (peprepos eari. 

Top 8 Tjixei^eT eVetra ^or^v ay ados ALOfii^SrjS' ] 
" vol Br] ravrd ye rravra, yepov, Kara puolpav eeines. 
dAAa roB* alvov d^os KpaBCrjv /cat Ovpiov LKaver 
"EiKrcop yap rrore (j)iqaei evl Tpojecra dyopevcov 
' Ti»Sei87ys' V7T* ejxelo (f)o^evfievos iKero vrjas.' 
COS" ttot' aneiX-qaeL' rore p,oi ;(avot evpeZa xdd>^-" 1 

Top 8 rjfxei^er^ erreira Tep-qvLog Imrora Necrrcup* 

CO fiot, 1 voeos Vie oaL(ppovos, otov eetTre?. 
et rrep yap ct' "E/crcop ye KaKov /cat avaA/<t8a <f>')jcreL, 
aAA' oi) TTeiaovrai TpCbes /cat AapBavicoves 
/cat Tpcuojp' aAo;^ot jjLeyadvjxcov dcTTnardcov, ] 

rdixiv ev KovirjGL ^dXes daXepovs rrapaKoCras ." 

*^Q.S dpa <f}OJV'qaas (jivyaBe rpdrre fxcvvvxcis lttttovs 

S48 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 131-157 

been wrought, and they had been penned in Ilios 
like lambs, had not the father of men and gods 
been quick to see. He thundered terribly and let 
fly his white lightning-bolt, and down before the 
horses of Diomedes he hurled it to earth ; and a 
terrible flame arose of burning sulphur, and the two 
horses, seized with terror, cowered beneath the 
car. Then from the hands of Nestor slipped the 
shining reins, and he waxed afraid at heart, and 
spake to Diomedes : " Son of Tydeus, come now, 
turn thou in flight thy single-hooved horses. Seest 
thou not that victory from Zeus waited not on thee ? 
Now to yon man doth Zeus, the son of Cronos, 
vouchsafe glory for this day ; hereafter shall he 
grant it also to us, if so be he will. But a man may 
in no wise thwart the purpose of Zeus, be he never 
so valiant ; for in sooth he is mightier far." 

And in answer to him spake Diomedes, good at 
the war-cry : " Yea, verily, old sir, all this hast 
thou spoken according to right. But herein dread 
grief Cometh upon my heart and soul, for Hector 
will some day say, as he speaketh in the gathering 
of the Trojans : ' Tydeus' son, driven in flight before 
me, betook him to the ships.' So shall he some day 
boast — on that day let the wide earth gape for me." 

And in answer to him spake the horseman, Nestor 
of Gerenia : "Ah me, thou son of wise -hearted 
Tydeus, what a thing hast thou said ! For though 
Hector shall call thee coward and weakling, yet 
will not the Trojans or the Dardanians hearken to 
him, nor the wives of the great-souled Trojans, 
bearers of the shield, they whose lusty husbands thou 
hast hurled in the dust." 

So spake he, and turned in flight his single- 

349 



HOMER 

aVTlS OLV LOJXJJ'OV' €7Ti Oe IpCUeS" T€ /cat hiKTCOp 

-22213 G^o^TTeaiTj ^e'Aea CTTOP-oevra ■)(eovTO. 
rcxi S' CTTi fxaKpov dvae fxdyas KopvdaioXos "E/ctco/d* 
" TvSetSrj, Trepl piev ere rtov Aavaot ra^VTrcoXoL 
eSpj] re Kpiaaiv re ISe TrXeiois SeTraecrcn' 
vvv Be a a.TLpi'qarovar yvvaiKos dp^ dvrl rerv^o. 
eppe, KaKTj yX'^vr), eTrel ovk et^avros epielo^ 
TTvpycov rjixerepcov eTri^iqaeai,, ovhe yvvaiKas 
d^eis ev vrjeaat' irdpos tol Baijxova Scocrco.^" 

"D? (f)dTO, TvSetST]s 8e StavStp^a pieppirjpL^ev , 
LTTTTOvs re arpei/jai Kal evavri^iov pcaxeaaadai. 
rpls pev peppLTjpL^e Kara <^peva Kal Kara dvpov, 
rpls 8 dp' aTT Ihaiwv opecvv KrvTre prjrUra T^evs 
crrjpa rideis Tpcoeaai, p^d^T]? erepaXKea vLKr]v. 
"EiKrcop he TpcLeacriv CKeKXero p.aKp6v dvaas' 
" Tpioes Kal AvKtoi, Kal AdpSavoi dyxi'P'CLX'']TaL, 
dvepes eare, ^lXol, pivr^aaade he dovpihos dXKrjs. 
yiyv(x)(TKa> 8' ore p,OL Trpo^piov Karevevae ¥ipovLa)v 
vtKTjv Kal p,eya Kvhos, drdp Aavaotai ye 7Trjp,a. 
vqTTLOt., ot dpa hr] rdhe relx^a p,rj)(av6ajvro 
d^Xrixp' ovhevoacopa- rd 8' ov p,ePOS dp,6v epv^ef 
Ittttoi he pea rdi^pov vnepdopeovrai, opvKr-qv. 
dAA' ore Kev hrj vrjvalv eVt yXa(f>vpf]at, yevcopLai, 
pvrjpoavvT] ris eneira TTvpos hrjtoio yeveadco, 
COS" TTvpl vrjas eviTTp-^GO), Kreivm he Kal avrovs 
'Apyetovs rrapd vrjvalv drvt,opevovs vtto KaTTVOu." ^ 

"n? elnwv ImTOiaiv eKCKXero <j)(x)V7]G€V re* 

^ Lines 164-166 were rejected by Aristophanes andArist- 
archxis. 

^ Salfiova ddiaw : wbrfxav i<f>ricru Zenodotus. 
" Line 183 is omitted in the best mss. 

350 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 158-184 

hooved horses, back through the tumult ; and the 
Trojans and Hector with wondrous shouting poured 
forth upon them their darts fraught with groanings. 
Over him then shouted aloud great Hector of the 
flashing helm : " Son of Tydeus, above all others 
were the Danaans with swift steeds wont to honour 
thee with a seat of honour and meats and full cups, 
but now will they scorn thee ; thou art, it appeareth, 
no better than a woman. Begone, cowardly_puppet ; 
since through no flinching of mine shalt thou mount 
upon our walls, and carry away our women in thy 
ships ; ere that will I deal thee thy doom." 

So spake he, and the son of Tydeus was divided 
in counsel whether he should not wheel his horses 
and fight him face to face. Thrice he wavered in 
heart and soul and thrice from the mountains of 
Ida Zeus the counsellor thundered, giving to the 
Trojans a sign and victory to turn the tide of battle. 
And Hector shouted aloud and called to the Trojans : 
" Ye Trojans and Lycians and Dardanians, that 
fight in close combat, be men, my friends, and bethink 
you of furious valour. I perceive that of a ready 
heart the son of Cronos hath given unto me victory 
and great glory, and to the Danaans woe. Fools 
they are, that contrived forsooth these walls, weak 
and of none account ; these shall not withhold our 
might, and our horses shall lightly leap over the 
digged ditch. But when I be at length come amid 
the hollow ships, then see ye that consuming fire be 
not forgotten, that with fire I may burn the ships 
and furthermore slay the men, even the Argives 
beside their ships, distraught by reason of the 
smoke." 

So saying he shouted to his horses, and said : 

351 



HOMER 

aavde re Kal av, Hohapye, Kal AWcov AdfjuTTC 
re Sie/ ] 

vvv /not T-^v KOfxthrjv (XTTOTLveTOV, T^v /xctAtt ttoXXtjv 
^ AvSpofxaxT] Ovydrrjp fxeyaXi^ropos ^VLerlcovos 
Vfuv Trap TTporepotcn p.eXi^pova irvpov edrjKev 
OLVov T eyKepdaaaa TTielv, ore Bvjxos dvcoyoi,^ 
Tj efJbOL, OS 7T€p ol OaXepos iroais ei';^o/>iat elvai. 1 
aAA' e.(f)oixaprelrov Kal aTrevSerov, 6(f)pa Xd^cofxev 
aamSa Nearoperjv, rrjs vvv kXcos ovpavov i/cei 
Trdaav ;)^pucref»^i/ e/xevai, Kavovas re /cat avr-^v, 
avrap air wfxouv Ai.opL'qSeos tTTTToSct/zoto 
SatSctAeov OwprjKa, rov "H</»atcrTOS' Kdfxe revxojv. i 
el roijro) Ke Xd^oipiev, eeX7TOLfjb7]v Kev 'Axaiovs 
avrovvxl vy)cov eTTL^-qaepiev oi/cetacov." 

"iQ? ej)ar evx6p,evos, vepiecnrjae Se TTorvia "Yipr], 
aeiaaro 8' elvl dpovo), eXeXi^e he puaKpov "OXv^ttov, 
/cat pa Uoaeiddcova pueyav deov dvriov rjvSa' i 

' CO TTOTTOt, evvoaiyaC evpvadeves, ovSe vv aoL irep 
oXXvuevcov Aavacov 6Xocf)vperat ev <f)peal dvpLos. 
ol Be rot els *EAt/cr^v re /cat Atya? ScDp' dvdyovai 
TToXXd re /cat ;^a/3i€VTa* av 8e a^iai fiovXeo vlktjv. 
el rrep yap k eOeXoipiev, oaoi Aavaolaiv dpuiyoi, 5 
Tpdias" aiTCocraaOai, /cat epvKepuev evpvona Z^rjv, 
avrov K ev9 aKaxoiro Kadr^pievos^ olos ev "ISrj." 

Tr}v Se puey^ oxdiqaas 7Tpoae(f)r] Kpeicov evoalx^^'^V' 
" "Uprj aTTToenes, ttolov rov puvdov eet,7Tes. 
ovK av eyto y edeXot,p,L Att KpovlcovL p^dx^aQai i 
r)pieas rovs aXXovs, eirel r] ttoXv (fyeprepos eariv." 

^ Line 185 was rejected by Aristarchus. 

^ Line 189 was rejected by Aristophanes and Aristarchus. 

"• ivd' aKdxoiTO Kadrj/xefos : ivOa. Kadoir' d.Kax'^fi-fvos Zeno- 
dotus. 
352 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 185-211 

" Xanthus, and thou Podargus, and Aethon, and 
goodly Lampus, now pay me back your tending 
wherewith in abundance Andromache, daughter of 
great-hearted Eetion, set before you honey-hearted 
wheat, and mingled wine for you to drink when 
your souls bade you, sooner than for me, that avow 
me to be her stalwart husband. Nay, haste ye in 
pursuit, that we may take the shield of Nestor, the 
fame whereof now reacheth unto heaven, that it is 
all of gold, the rods alike and the shield itself ; and 
may take moreover frorp the shoulders of horse- 
taming Diomedes his breastplate richly - dight, 
which Hephaestus wrought with toil. Could we but 
take these twain, then might I hope to make the 
Achaeans this very night embark upon their swift 
ships." 

So spake he vauntingly, and queenly Hera had 
indignation thereat ; she shook herself on her 
throne and made high Olympus to quake, and to 
the mighty god Poseidon she spake, saying : " Ah 
me, thou Shaker of Earth, wide of sway, not even 
hath the heart in thy breast pity of the Danaans 
that are perishing. Yet in thine honour do they 
bring to Helice and Aegae offerings many and 
gracious and hitherto thou didst wish them victory. 
For did we but will, all we that are aiders of the 
Danaans, to drive back the Trojans and to withhold 
Zeus whose voice is borne afar, then, in vexation 
of spirit, would he sit alone there upon Ida." 

Then, his heart sore troubled, the lord, the 
Shaker of Earth, spake to her : " Hera, reckless in 
speech, what a word hast thou spoken ! It is not 
I that were fain to see us all at strife with Zeus, 
son of Cronos, for he verily is mightier far." 

VOL. 1 2 A 353 



HOMER 

Q? OL fxkv TOLavra Trpos dXXrjXov^ dyopcvov 
rwv 8 , oaov €K vqwv aTTO^ TTVpyov Td(f)pos eepye, 
TrXrjdev o/xca? iTTTrajv re Kal dvBpojv damardcov 
eiXofMeviov elXet 8e Oocp drdXavros " Kprj'i 
"E/CTOJ/j Wpiajxihrj?, ore ol Zeu? Kvhog eSco/ce. 
Kal vv K eveTTp-qaev nvpl KrjXeu) vijas itaas, 
€t fX7] CTTt (f)p€(Ti OrfK ^Aya/xefivovi TTorvca "Hpry 
avro) TTonTvvaavTL docos drpvvat, ^A)(aiovs. 
^rj S' levai irapd re KXiatas Kal vrjas ^Axatcbv 
7Top(f)vp€ov fieya (j)dpos e^^cov iv xetpt Trax^ir], 
OTrj 8' eV *OSvaarjos fxeyaKi^re'C vrjt fxeXaivrj, 
7] p iv pLeaodrcp eoKe yeycovefiev dix^oripioae, 
rjfxev eiT* Atavro? KrAtcria? TeXapuxividhao^ 
i^S eV 'A;;^tAA^os", rot p eaxara vrjas itaas 
eipvaav, rjvopirj ttlctvvol Kal Kdpre'C ;\;€ipci>v 
7)vaev 8e hiaTrpvoLov Aavaolat, yeycovixiS' 

' alSios, ^ApyeloL, KdK iXiyx^a, ethos dyrjroi' 
TTTJ e^av evxojXai, ore Br) (j)dpiev elvai dpiaroi, 
as OTTor iv A'qfivip Keveavxees rjyopdaade, 
eaOovres Kpea ttoAAo, ^ocbv opdoKpaipdwv^ 
TTLVOvres Kprjrrjpas iTnare(l)eas olvolo, 
Ipcjojv avd eKarov re hirjKoaioiv re eKaaros 
arrjaeaO^ iv TToXepno' vvv S' oi)8' evos d^ioi elfjiev 

E/CTopo?, OS rdxa vrjas ivinp-^aei irvpl KrjXeo).* 
Zeu irdrep, r) pd ruv* rjSr) VTrep/xevecov ^aaiX-qcov 
rfjS* drr) dacras Kai fjbiv fxeya kvSos aTrrjvpas; 
ov fiev S-q TTore (f)rjixt reov irepiKoXXea ^cofxov 

^ dirb : Kal Zenodotus. 

■ Lines 22*-226 are omitted in the best mss. 

' Line 231 was rejected by Aristarchus. 

* Line 235 was rejected by Aristophanes and Aristarclius. 

354 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 212-238 

On this wise spake they, one to the other ; and 
now was all the space that the moat of the wall 
enclosed on the side of the ships filled alike with 
chariots and shield-bearing men huddled together : 
and huddled they were by Hector, Priam's son, the 
peer of swift Ares, now that Zeus vouchsafed him 
glory. And now would he have burned the shapely 
ships with blazing fire, had not queenly Hera put 
it in Agamemnon's mind himself to bestir him, 
and speedily rouse on the Achaeans. So he went 
his way along the huts and ships of the Achaeans, 
bearing his great purple cloak in his stout hand, and 
took his stand by Odysseus' black ship, huge of hull, 
that was in the midst so that a shout could reach to 
either end, both to the huts of Aias, son of Telamon, 
and to those of Achilles ; for these had drawn up 
their shapely ships at the furthermost ends, trusting 
in their valour and in the strength of their hands. 
There uttered he a piercing shout, calling aloud to 
the Danaans : " Fie, ye Argives, base things of 
shame, fair in semblance only ! Whither are gone 
our boastings, when forsooth we declared that we 
were bravest, the boasts that when ye were in 
Lemnos ye uttered vaingloriously as ye ate abundant 
flesh of straight-horned kine and drank bowls brim 
full of wine, saying that each man would stand to 
face in battle an hundred, aye, two hundred Trojans ! 
whereas now can we match not even one, this Hector, 
that soon will burn our ships with blazing fire. 
Father Zeus, was there ever ere now one among 
mighty kings whose soul thou didst blind with 
blindness such as this, and rob him of great glory ? 
Yet of a surety do I deem that never in my benched 
ship did I pass by fair altar of thine on my ill- 

355 



HOMER 

VTit TToXvKXrj'Chi TTapeXdefMcv iuOdSe eppcuv, 
aAA' CTTt Traai ^ocJov Br^/jiov Kal fJt,r]pC eKrja, 
lefxevos TpoL7]v evTetx^ov e^aXaira^ai,. 
dAAa, Zey, roSe Trep /xoi eTTiKprir^vov eiXhcop' 
avToiJs 8'>7 7T€p eaaov inT€K<j>v'y€€i,v /cat dXv^at, 
fxrjB^ ovTO) Tpa)€craiv ea Sd/xvaadaL ' A)^ai,ovs ." 

"Qs" (f)dTO, Tov Se TTarrjp dXo(f>vparo hdKpv )(eovTa, 
vevae 8e ol Xaov ooov e/x/zevat oi38' dnoXiaQai. 
avTLKa 8' alerov ^/ce, TeAeioTarov TTererjvwv, 
ve^pov exovT* ovvx^ool, tckos eXd<j)oio rax^irj^' 
Trap he Ato? /Sw/uo) TrepiKaXXeC /ca^^aAe ve^pov, 
evda 7Tavo[jb(f)aLCp Z^rjvl pe^eaKOV *Axo.loL 
ot o CO? GUI' etooi^c; o t ap ck Zaio? 7]Avo€V opvts, 
pdXXov 6771 TpcoeCTCTt dopov, ixvqaavro Se )(dpfirjs. 

"Kv9* ov TLs TTporepos Aavacov, ttoXXcov rrep eovruiv, 
ev^aro TvSetSao -ndpos a-)(ip.ev cu/cea? tmrovs 
rd<j)pov T* i^eXdaai Kal evavTi^iov fxaxeaaaOai,, 
oAAa TToXv TTpcoTOs Tpcocov eXev dvSpa Kopvcmjv, 
^paSfioviSrjV 'AyeAaov. o {xev (f)vyaS* erpanev trr- 

7TOVS' 

TCp 8e fji,€Taarpe(/)d€VTt, pbera^pevco ev Sopv Trrj^ev 
wfxcov ixeaaTjyvs , Sid Se (Trridea<j)LV eXacraev 
ijpLTTe o eg ox^cov, apaprjae oe revx^ eir avru). 
Tov he p.€r* 'ArpetSai, 'Aya/xe/xvcov /cat MeveXaos, 
rotai 8' ctt' Aiavre? dovpiv emeifxevoL aA/CT^v, 
TotCTt 8' €7r' 'I8o)Ltej/eys' /cat OTrdcjv ^ISo/jLcvrjos 
M.r]pt6vr)s, drdXavros 'EryaAiO) dvSp€L(f>6vTr), 
Tolai 8' ctt' EupuTryAo?, Euat/xoi^os' ayAaos" uto?* 
Tey/c/jos' 8' eifaro? riXOe, rraXivTova ro^a TLTaivcjv, 
S5^ 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 239-266 

starred way hither, but upon all I burned the fat and 
the thighs of bulls, in my eagerness to lay waste 
well-walled Troy. Nay, Zeus, this desire fulfil thou 
me : ourselves at least do thou suffer to flee and 
escape, and permit not the Achaeans thus to be 
vanquished by the Trojans." 

So spake he, and the Father had pity on him as 
he wept, and vouchsafed him that his folk should be 
saved and not perish. Forthwith he sent an eagle, 
surest of omens among winged birds, holding in his 
talons a fawn, the young of a swift hind. Beside 
the fair altar of Zeus he let fall the fawn, even 
where the Achaeans were wont to offer sacrifice to 
Zeus from whom all omens come. So they, when 
they saw that it was from Zeus that the bird was 
come, leapt the more upon the Trojans and be- 
thought them of battle. 

Then might no man of the Danaans, for all they 
were so many, vaunt that he before the son of Tydeus 
guided his swift horses to drive them forth across 
the trench and to fight man to man ; nay he was 
first by far to slay a mailed warrior of the Trojans, 
even Agelaus, Phradmon's son. He in sooth had 
turned his horses to flee, but as he wheeled about 
Diomedes fixed his spear in his back between the 
shoulders, and drave it through his breast ; so 
he fell from out the car, and upon him his armour 
clanged. 

And after him came the sons of Atreus, Aga- 
memnon and Menelaus, and after them the Aiantes, 
clothed in furious valour, and after them Idomeneus 
and Idomeneus' comrade, Meriones, peer of EnyaUus, 
slayer of men, and after them Eurypylus, the 
glorious son of Euaemon ; and Teucer came as the 

357 



HOMER 

OTTJ 8' ap' V7T* A'lavros aoLKe'C TeXafnovtdBao. 
kvd Aias" ^ev V7T€^€(f)€p€V aoLKOs' avrap o y TJpcos 
TraTTT'qvas, eVet ap tlv* oCaTevaag Iv ofxiXcp 
^e^XriKOL, 6 p,€V avOt Treadtv airo dvp,6v oXeaaev, ' 
avrap o avns tcov Trd'Cs ws vtto jxrjrepa hvcjKev 
etV A'iavO^' 6 Se }ilv CTCt/cel" KpvTrraaKe (f)a€tvw. 
'KvOa TLva npajTov Tpcocov eXe TevKpos dp,vp,u)v; 

OpaiXoxov fxev Trpojra Kal "Oppbevov i^S' 'O^e- 

Xearrjv 
Aairopd re ^pop^tov re /cat dvrideov AvK0(f)6vr-qv i 
Kol IloXvaLpLOVLSrjv 'A/xoTrctoi^a Kal MeXdvtTTTTOv. 
ndvras inaaavrepovs ireXaae x^ovl TTovXv^oreiprj } 
rov Be IBcbv yrjdrjaev dva^ dvSpcov ^Ayapiepivcov, 
ro^ov drro Kparepov Tpcocov oXeKovra (f)dXayyas' 
arrj Be Trap* avrov lojv Kai fxiv Trpos p,v9ov eenre' 5 
" TevKpe, (f)iXri Ke^aXrj, TeXafxcovte, Koipave Xacov, 
jSoAA' ovrcos, at /ceV re (jiocos Aavaolai yevrjat, 
rrarpi re aco TeAa/xcDvt, o a erpe<f)e rvrdov eovra, 
/cat ae vodov irep eovra Kopiiaaaro cp evl olkco'^ 
rov /cat rr]X69* eovra evKXeirjg €TrL^7]aov. 2 

aot 8 eyd) e^epeco cos /cat rereXeapbivov ear ai' 
at Kev /xot ocor\ L,evs r aiyLo^os Kai AUrjvq 

IXlov e^aXaird^aL evKripievov rrroXUdpov, 
irpcorcp rot p^er ep.e TTpea^iqCov ev x^P'' ^rjaix), 
rj rpirroB' 'qe Bvco lttttovs avrolaiv 6x€(T<f)LV 2 

r]e yvvalx ^ rj Kev rot opiov Xexos elaava^aivoi." 
Tor 8' drrapiei^opievos 7Tpoae(f)covee TevKpos dp,v- 
/xcov 

^ Line 277 is omitted in most mss. 

* Line 284 was rejected by Zenodotus, Aristophanes, and 
Aristarchus. 

^ Ywatx' : 'I^ttiji' Zenodotus. 
358 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 267-292 

ninth, stretching his back-bent bow, and took his 
stand beneath the shield of Aias, son of Telamon. 
Then would Aias move his shield aside from over 
him, and the warrior would spy his chance ; and 
when he had shot his bolt and had smitten one in 
the throng, then would that man fall where he 
was and give up his life, and Teucer would hie him 
back, and as a child beneath his mother, so betake 
him for shelter to Aias ; and Aias would ever hide 
him with his shining shield. 

Whom first then of the Trojans did peerless 
Teucer slay ? Orsilochus first and Ormenus and 
Ophelestes and Daetor and Chromius and godlike 
Lycophontes and Amopaon, Polyaemon's son, and 
Melanippus. All these, one after another, he 
brought down to the bounteous earth. And at 
sight of him Agamemnon, king of men, waxed glad, 
as with his mighty bow he made havoc of the bat- 
talions of the Trojans ; and he came and stood by his 
side and spake to him, saying : " Teucer, beloved, 
son of Telamon, captain of hosts, shoot on in this 
wise, if so be thou may est prove a light of deliverance 
to the Danaans and a glory to thy father Telamon, 
who reared thee when thou wast a babe, and for all 
thou wast a bastard cherished thee in his own house ; 
him, far away though he be, do thou bring to honour. 
Moreover, I will declare to thee as it verily shall be 
brought to pass. If Zeus that beareth the aegis, 
and Athene shall vouchsafe me to lay waste the 
well-built citadel of Ilios, in thy hand first after mine 
own self will I place a meed of honour, either a tripod 
or two horses with their car, or a woman that shall 
go up into thy bed." 

Then in answer to him spake peerless Teucer : 

359 



HOMER 

Arpethrj KuStcrre, rt jxe OTTevSovra /cat avTOV 
orpvveis; ov ixev rot oaiq hvvafxis ye Trdpeari, 
TTavofiaL, dAA' e^ ov Trporl "IXtov (hadpieO^ avrovs, 2! 
€K rod Srj ro^oiat SeSeyfievos avSpas ivaipoj. 
OKTO) Sr) TTpoerjKa TavvyXa))(Lvas o'Carovs, 
TTOLvreg 8 ev XP^^ vrjxd^v dprj'Cdoojv alt^rjoov 
TOVTOV 8' ov Swa/xai jSoAeetv Kvva Xvacrrjri]pa." 

H pa, Kal dXXov o'Carov dTTO vevprj^iv laXXev 3( 
YiKTopos dvriKpv, ^aAeeiv Se e lero OvfjLos' 
Kal Tov fji€v p d(f)dfxapd\ 6 8' dfj,vp,ova Topyvdicova 
vlov ivv YlpLdfxoLo Kara arrjOos ^dXev Icp, 
rov p €^ AlavfXTjdev OTTVLOfMevrj reKe p-rirr^p 
KaXrj Ys^acfridveipa Sc/xas i'lKVia defjoL. 3( 

fiT^KCov 8 CO? irepcoae Kdprj ^dXev, rj t' ivl kt^ttco, 
KapiTU) ^ptdofjievrj vorir^ai re elaptvfjCfLV , 
a>s irepojo* 7Jp,vae Kdpr] Tn^XrjKi ^apvvdev. 

TevKpos 8' dXXov o'Carov diro vevprj(f)Lv laAAev 
"E/CTopos' dvriKpv, jSaAe'etv 8e e lero dvpbos. 3. 

dAA' o ye Kal rod^ dfiapre' TTapea^7]Xev yap 'AttoA- 

Xcov 
dAA ' ApxeTTroXe/xov , dpaavv "^Kropos rjvioxija, 
Ufxevov TToXepLovde ^dXe crrrjdos Trapd /xa^ov' 
TjpLTTe 8 i^ dyeoiv, virepcorjaav 8e ol Ittttoi 
OiKVTTohes' rov 8' avdi Xvdrj i/jv^''] Te p^evos re. 3] 
"E/CTopa 8 alvov d)(os rrvKaae (f>pevas rjvtoxoLo- 
rov p,ev 67retT etaae Kal dxyvfievo^ irep eralpov, 
K.eppLovTjV 8' eKeXevoev dSeX(f)e6v eyyvs eovra 
"ttttcov rjVL eXelv 6 8' dp' ovk d'nid'qaev dKovaas. 
avros 8' e/c hi(f>poLO ;(ayuat dope 7Tap(f>av6o)vros 3i 
ap.ephaXea IdxoiV 6 he ;^e/3/Ad8ioj^ Ad^€ X^^P^> 

i 

360 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 293-321 

" Most glorious son of Atreus, why urgest thou me 
on, that of myself am eager ? Verily I forbear not 
so far as might is in me, but from the time when 
we drave them toward Ilios, even from that moment 
I lie in wait with my bow and slay the men. Eight 
long-barbed arrows have I now let fly, and all are 
lodged in the flesh of youths swift in battle ; only 
this mad dog can I not smite." 

He spake, and shot another arrow from the 
string straight against Hector ; and his heart was 
fain to smite him. Howbeit him he missed, but 
peerless Gorgythion he smote in the breast with 
his arrow, Priam's valiant son, that a mother wedded 
from Aesyme had born, even fair Castianeira, in form 
hke to the goddesses. And he bowed his head to 
one side hke a poppy that in a garden is laden with 
its fruit and the rains of spring ; so bowed he to one 
side his head, laden with his helmet. 

And Teucer shot another arrow from the string 
straight against Hector, and his heart was fain to 
smite him. Howbeit he missed him once again, 
for Apollo made his dart to swerve, but Arche- 
ptolemus, the bold charioteer of Hector, as he hasted 
into battle he smote on the breast beside the nipple. 
So he fell from out the car, and the swift-footed 
horses swerved aside thereat ; and there his spirit 
and his strength were undone. Then was the soul 
of Hector clouded with dread sorrow for his 
charioteer. Yet left he him to he there, though he 
sorrowed for his comrade, and bade Cebriones, his 
own brother, that was nigh at hand, take the reins 
of the horses ; and he heard and failed not to 
hearken. And himself Hector leapt to the ground 
from his gleaming car crying a terrible cry, and- 

361 



HOMER 

Pij S' Wvs TevKpov, ^aXeeiv Se i Qviios avcoyei. 
7] TOL o fxkv (fyaperprjs i^elXero TTiKpov oCotov, 
6i]K€ 8' eTTt vevpfj- rov 8' av KopvOaioXos "FtKTcop 
avepvovra 77ap' (LfMov, odi kXtjis OLTToepyet, 
ay;)(eva re arrjOos re, /xaAiara Se Kaipiov iari, 
rfj p en ot /xejuacora ^dXev Xidco oKpioevTi, 
prj^e Be ol vevprfv vdpKrjae 8e ;^et/) eirl KapTTOj, 
OTTJ Se yvv^ epLTTOiV, to^ov 8e ol eKTreae ^^ipos. 
Alas 8' ovK dfxeXT]ae KaacyvqroLo Treaovros, 
dXXd deojv TTepilSr] /cat oc aaKOs dix^eKoXv^e . 
rov fJLev €7T€Ld* VTToBvvTe Bvco iptrjpes eraipoi, 
^rjKLarevs 'Ep^toto Trd'Cs koX Bios 'AXdcrrcop, 
vrjas eiTL yXa(j)vpds ^eperr]v ^apea arevdxovra. 

Kifj 8' avTLs Tpd>eaaiv 'OAy/xzrios' ev fievos wpaev 
ol 8' Wvs rd(f>poLO ^aOeirjs (Laav 'A;)^aious" 
"E/cT6u^ 8' ev TTpaiTOKTL kU odlve'C ^Xepieaivoiv . 
(hs 8' ore ris re kvcov avos dypiov ije Xeovros 
dTTrrjrai KaroTriade, ttooXv rax^ecrac Bkokojv,^ 
laxia re yXovrovs re, eXicrcrofMevov re BoKevei, 
ojs "E/CTCop (jjTTa^e Kdprj KOfxoojvras *AxaLovs, 
alev aTroKrelvcov rov omararov' ol Be (f>e^ovro. 
avrdp eirel Bid re OKoXoiras Kal rd(f)pov €^r]aav 
<f>€vyovres, ttoXXoI Be Bdpiev Tpcocov vno ;\;e/)(nV, 
ot fiev Bt] irapd vrjvalv iprjrvovro fxevovres, 
oAAT^AotCTt re KeKXofjcevoi, Kal irdai deolai 
X^Tpas aftCT;)(0VT€9 p^eydX evx^rooivro eVaaro?* 

* didjKwv : weiroiddis. 
362 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 322-347 

seizing a stone in his hand made right at Teucer, 
and his heart bade him smite him. Now Teucer had 
drawn forth from the quiver a bitter arrow, and laid 
it upon the string, but even as he was drawing it 
back Hector of the flashing helm smote him beside 
the shoulder where the collar-bone parts the neck 
and the breast, where is the deadliest spot ; even 
there as he aimed eagerly against him he smote 
him with the jagged stone, and he brake the 
bow - string ; but his hand grew numb at the 
wrist, and he sank upon his knees and thus abode, 
and the bow fell from his hand. Howbeit Aias 
was not unmindful of his brother's fall, but ran 
and bestrode him and flung before him his shield 
as a cover. Then two trusty comrades stooped 
beneath him, even Mecisteus, son of Echius, and 
goodly Alastor, and bare him, groaning heavily, to 
the hollow ships. 

Then once again the Olympian aroused might in 
the hearts of the Trojans ; and they thrust the 
Achaeans straight toward the deep ditch ; and amid 
the foremost went Hector exulting in his might. 
And even as a hound pursueth with swift feet after 
a wild boar or a lion, and snatcheth at him from 
behind either at flank or buttock, and watcheth for 
him as he wheeleth ; even so Hector pressed upon 
the long-haired Achaeans, ever slaying the hind- 
most ; and they were driven in rout. But when 
in their flight they had passed through stakes 
and trench, and many had been vanquished 
beneath the hands of the Trojans, then beside their 
ships they halted and abode, calling one upon the 
other, and lifting up their hands to all the gods they 
made fervent prayer each man of them. But Hector 

363 



HOMER 

"EiKTcop 8* dfjb(f)i7T€pLarpco(f)a KaXXirpixo.^ lttttovs, 
Vopyovs ofifMar"^ e-)(a}v i^Se ^poroXoiyov "Ap-qo?. 

Tovs Be iSoucr' iXerjae dea XevKcoXcvos "¥lpr], 
aiifja 8' AOrjvalrjv errea irrepoevTa TrpocrrjvSa' 

u) TTOTTOt,, alytoxoLO Aio? reKos, ovkcti vco'C 
oXXvfjievcov Aavacui' K€Ka8rjcr6p,€9* vardriov irep; 
61 Kev Srj KaKov oltov dvaTrX-^cravTes oXcovrai 
dvhpos ivos pt'TTrj, 6 8e p.aiverai ovKer* dveKTcos 
"EiKTOjp UpLafjutSrjs, Kal St) /ca/ca noXXd eopye." 

Trjv 8' avT€ TTpoaeeiTTC Bed yXavKCJins ^Adrjvrj' 
" Kal Xcrjv ovros ye fxevos dvp,6v t' dAeaete, 
;(€/3att' VTT* ^Apyeiojv ^dip^evos ev TrarpiBi yair]' 
dXXd TTarrjp ovp,6s (f)peal jxaCveraL ovk dyadfjat,, 
(TxerXios, alev dXtrpos, ip,cJov p^eveojv dnepwevS' 
ovSe Tt, Tcbv p,epvrjTat, 6 ol pdXa TToXXaKLS viov 
reipopevov aoieoKOV vtt* ^vpvadrjos dedXojv. 
•q Tot, 6 pev KXaieaKe irpos ovpavov, avrdp epe Zeu? 
Tcp eiraXe^rjaovaav dn ovpavodev TrpotaXXev. 
el yap eych rdSe jjSe^ evl (f>p€al TrevKaXiprjaiVf 
evre piv els 'AiSao vvXaprao Trpoimepijjev 
e^ 'E/oe^efS" d^ovra Kvva arvyepov 'AtSao, 
OVK av VTTegecpvye lurvyos voaros aiira peeupa. 
vvv 8' epe p,ev OTvyeei, QeriBos 8' e^rjvvae ^ovXds, 
rj ol yovvar* eKvaae Kal eAAa^e x^'-P'' y^veiov^ 
Xtaaop,evrj TLprjaat, ^Axi'XXrja TTToXiTTopdov. 
earai pdv or dv avre ^iX-qv yXavKcoTTtSa eiTrrj. 

^ 6fifiar' : of/uar' Aristarchus. 
• Lines 371 f. were rejected by Zenodotus and Aristarchus. 

364 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 348-373 

wheeled this way and that his fair-maned horses, 
and his eyes were as the eyes of the Gorgon or of 
Ares, bane of mortals. 

Now at sight of them the goddess, white-armed 
Hera, had pity ; and forthwith spake winged words 
to Athene : " Out upon it, thou child of Zeus that 
beareth the aegis, shall not we twain any more 
take thought of the Danaans that are perishing, 
even for this last time ? Now will they fill up the 
measure of evil doom and perish before the onset 
of one single man, even of Hector, Priam's son, who 
now rageth past all bearing, and lo, hath wTought 
evils manifold." 

Then spake unto her the goddess, flashing-eyed 
Athene : " Yea, verily, fain were I that this fellow 
lose strength and life, slain beneath the hands of 
the Argives in his own native land ; howbeit mine 
own father rageth with evil mind, cruel that he is, 
ever froward, a thwarter of my purposes ; neither 
hath he any memory of this, that full often I saved 
his son when he was fordone by reason of Eury- 
stheus' tasks. For verily he would make lament 
toward heaven and from heaven would Zeus send me 
forth to succour him. Had I but known all this in 
the wisdom of my heart when Eurystheus sent him 
forth to the house of Hades the Warder, to bring 
from out of Erebus the hound of loathed Hades, 
then had he not escaped the sheer-faUing waters 
of Styx. Howbeit now Zeus hateth me, and hath 
brought to fulfilment the counsels of Thetis, that 
kissed his knees and with her hand clasped his 
chin, beseeching him to show honour to Achilles, 
sacker of cities. Verily the day shall come when 
he shall again call me his flashing-eyed darling. 

365 



HOMER 

aAAo. av fxeu vvv vat'Cv eTrivrve ynovvx^S lttttovs, 
ocJ)p* av iyoj Karahvaa Ato? 86[xov alytoxoLO J 

Tevx^CTLV is TToXcfiov Qoiprj^oixai, 6(/)pa I'Sco/xat 

7^ VCO'C UpidlJiOLO TTOLLS KOpvOaioXoS "EiKTCOp 

yrjd'^aeL 7Tpo(j>avivr€ avo, TTroXijxoio y€(f)vpas. 
"^ Ttff Kal Tpcxicov Kopeei Kvvas i^S' oliovovs 
Srjfjbcp Kal adpKeaaiy ireawv ertl vqvalv 'A;)(aia)V'." J 

"Qs e^ar , ovh^ dmdrjcFe Bed XevKcoXevos "Hpr]. 
7) fjbev iTTOixofievT) p^puCTa/XTru/cas" evrvev lttttovs 
"Hpr], TTpea^a ded, dvydrrjp fieydXoLO KpouoLO'^ 
avrdp ^Ad7]val,7j Kovprj Ato? alytoxoio 
7T€7tXov pt.kv Kardx^vev iavov rrarpos e-n ovSei^ i 
ttolklXov, 6v p avrrj TTOLtjaaro Kal Kdpue yepaWf 
7] 8e -)(^bTCx)v ivhvaa Alos ve<j>eXriyeperao 
revx^'yi'V €s TroXepbov dcjp-qaaero BaKpvoevra. 
€S 8' ox^a (f)X6yea Tioal ^rja^ro, Aa^ero S' eyxos 
^pidi) pbeya ari^apov, rip hdpivqai cttlxols dvSpdJv^ I 
rjpcocov, rolaiv re Koriaaerai o^pip-OTrdrprj. 
"VLpT] Se fidaTiyi Oocos eTre/iater' dp* ittttou?' 
avTopiaraL Se TruAat jjlvkov ovpavov, as €xov ^Qpai, 
rfjs eTTiTerpaTTrai pueyas ovpavos OvXvpiTTos re, 
rjp,ev avaKXlvai ttvklvov V€(f)os i^S' eTndelvai. J 

rrj pa St* avrdcov KevrprjveKeas ^xov lttttovS' 

Zj€vs 0€ narrjp iorjuev €7ret loe ;^6i>craT ap aivcoSt 
Ipiv S' wrpvvc ;^/0i;ad7rTe/3oi' dyyeXeovaav 

jSacr/c' Wi, ^Ipt rax^la, TrdXiv rpeire pi,r]S^ ea dvrqv 
epx^ad ' ov yap KaXd avvoia6p,e6a TrroAe/idi'Se. 4 

* Line 383 is omitted in some mss. 

• Lines 385-387 were rejected by Zenodotus, Aristophanes, 
and Aristarchus. 

' Lines 390 f. ( = v. 746 f.) were rejected by Aristarchus. 
S66 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 374-400 

But now make thou ready for us twain our single- 
hooved horses, the while I enter into the palace of 
Zeus, that beareth the aegis, and array me in armour 
for battle, to the end that I may see whether Priam's 
son. Hector of the flashing helm, will rejoice when 
we twain appear to view along the dykes of battle. 
Nay of a surety many a one of the Trojans shall 
glut the dogs and birds with his fat and flesh, when 
he is fallen at the ships of the Achaeans." 

So spake she, and the goddess, white-armed Hera, 
failed not to hearken. She then went to and fro 
harnessing the horses of golden frontlets, even Hera, 
the queenly goddess, daughter of great Cronos ; but 
Athene, daughter of Zeus that beareth the aegis, 
let fall upon her father's floor her soft robe, richly 
broidered, that herself had wrought and her hands had 
fashioned, and put on her the tunic of Zeus the cloud- 
gatherer, and arrayed her in armour for tearful war. 
Then she stepped upon the flaming car and grasped 
her spear, heavy and huge and strong, wherewith she 
vanquisheth the ranks of men, of warriors with whom 
she is wToth, she the daughter of the mighty sire. 
And Hera swiftly touched the horses with the lash, 
and self-bidden groaned upon their hinges the gates 
of heaven, which the Hours had in their keeping, 
to whom are entrusted great heaven and Olympus, 
whether to throw open the thick cloud or shut it 
to. There through the gate they drave their horses 
patient of the goad. 

But when father Zeus saw them from Ida he 
waxed wondrous wroth, and sent forth golden- 
winged Iris to bear a message : " Up, go, swift 
Iris ; turn them back and suffer them not to come 
face to face with me, seeing it will be in no happy 

367 



HOMER 

(SSe yap i^epeco, ro 8e /cat rereXea^-Livov ecrrai* 
yviuiao) /xeV acfxoLV V(j) apfxaaiv coKeag lttttovs, 
avras 8' e/c hij)pov jSaAeco /caret ^' dpfiara a^co' 
ovhi K€v is ScKarovs TrepireXXofidvovs iviavrovs 
lA/ce' diraXO-qacaOov, a k€V ixapiTTrjat Kepavvos' 
6(f>pa Ihfj yXavKcoTTLS or' dv <S Trarpl iidx^iTai. 
*Hpi7 8' ov TL roaov v€jJbeait,ofxaL ovhe xoXovfiar 
atet yap fxoL ecoBev ivLKXdv ottl K€V elircx)} " 

"Q? e(j)a.r , (Lpro 8e ^Ipi? aeAAoTTO? dyyeXeovaa, 
^ij 8' e^ 'I8ata)V opecov is /xa/cpov "OXvfnrov} 
TTpojrrjcnv 8e TrvXrjGt, ttoXvtttvxov OvXvpLTTOio 
dvTOfievT] KarepVK€, Atoj ^e a(f)^ evveire pLvdov 
" rrij pbefiarov; ri a^oj'Cv ivl (f)p€crl fjualverai, '^rop; 
ovK ida KpovlSrjs iirapivvipiev ^Kpyeioiaiv. 
c58e yap rjveLX'qae Kpovov ird'Cs, fj reXeei Trep, 
yvLcoaetv fxev a(f>d)'Cv v^' dpfxaatv a>/cea? Ittttovs, 
avrds 8* e/c hi(j>pov ^aAeciv /caret 0' dpfiara d^eiv 
ovBi K€V is ScKdrovs TTepLreXXofMevovs ivtavrous 
eA/ce' dTTaXO-qaeaOov, a K€V fxdpTTTTjaL Kcpavvos' 
6(j>pa I8fjs, yXavKcJoTTL, or dv ad) Trarpl pidxf]o.i? 
"Hpry 8' ov ri roaov V€fJieail,erat. ovSe ;!^oAo{;raf 
atei yap ol ecoOev iviKXdv orri kcv etirrj.^ 
aAAa av y alvordrr], kvov dSees, cl ireov ye 
roA/Lti^o-et? Aios dvra neXcopiov €yxos delpai." 

^ K€v etiro) Aristarclms : vo-{)(T(j} (cf. 422). 

* Line 410 is omitted in some mss. 

• Lines 420-424 were rejected by Aristarchus. 

* Kev elirrj : vo-qarj {cf. 408). 

368 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 401-424 

wise that we shall join in combat. For thus will I 
speak and verily this thing shall be brought to pass. 
I will maim their swift horses beneath the chariot, 
and themselves will I hurl from out the car, and will 
break in pieces the chariot ; nor in the space of ten 
circling years shall they heal them of the wounds 
wherewith the thunderbolt shall smite them ; that 
she of the flashing eyes may know what it is to 
strive against her own father. But against Hera 
have I not so great indignation nor wrath, seeing 
she is ever wont to thwart me in whatsoe'er I have 
decreed." 

So spake he, and storm-footed Iris hasted to bear 
his message, and went forth from the mountains of 
Ida to high Olympus. And even at the entering-in 
of the gate of many-folded Olympus she met them 
and stayed them, and declared to them the saying 
of Zeus : " Whither are ye twain hastening ? Why 
is it that the hearts are mad within your breasts ? 
The son of Cronos suffereth not that ye give succour 
to the Argives. For on this wise he threateneth, 
even as he will bring it to pass : he will maim your 
swift horses beneath your chariot, and yourselves 
will he hurl from out the car, and will break in 
pieces the chariot ; nor in the space of ten circling 
years shall ye heal you of the wounds wherewith 
the thunderbolt shall smite you ; that thou mayest 
know, thou of the flashing eyes, what it is to strive 
against thine own father. But against Hera hath 
he not so great indignation nor wrath, seeing she 
is ever wont to thwart him in whatsoe'er he hath 
decreed. But most dread art thou, thou bold and 
shameless thing, if in good sooth thou wilt dare to 
raise thy mighty spear against Zeus." 

VOL. I 2 B 369 



HOMER 

rl fxev ap a;? enrova aTreprj TTOoas ojKea Ipig. 
avrap 'A6rjvaL7]v "Hpy} Trpos [xvOov eenrev 

w TTOTTOi, acyioxoLO Atoy tckos, ovKer* lyoj ye 
vGi'i io) Aio? avra ^poroJv evcKa TTroX€p.il,eiv 
TUJv dXXos fiev aTTO^OiaOo), dXXos 8e jStajrco, 

OS K€ TVXy}' K€LVOS 8e TO. O. (f)pOV€COV ivl OvflCp 

TpcoGL re /cat AavaotCTC St/ca^erco, cu? eTnetKes." 
*^Cls dpa (jxxtviqcfaaa ttoXlv rpiire fxcovvxas lttttovs 
rfjaiv 8' 'Q.pat, pbkv Xvaav KaX\iTpL)(^as lttttovs, 
/cat Tovg jJLev KaTeBrjaav in* dfx^pocrLrjcn KaTTr^aiv^ 
apfxaTa 8 eKXivav Trpos ivcoTTta 7rafj,(f>av6ojPTa' 
avral 8e ;^/3i;creotati' eVt KXtafiolaL Kadlt^ov 
jxiyh dXXoiari Oeoloi, <J)lXov reTirjixivai rjrop. 

Zevs 8e TTorrip "\h7]d€v ivrpoxov dp/xa /cat lttttov? 
OvXvfjLTTOvSe hioiKe, Oecov 8' i^iKero Ocjkovs. 
TO) 8e /cat iTTTTOvs fxev Xvoe kXvtos evvoaiyaios , 
dp/jLara 8' a/x ficojxolai riOei, /caret Atra -nerdaaas' 
avros 8e ;^pi;a6tov €7rt dpovov evpvorta Zeu? 
e^ero, ra> 8' utto iroaal jxeyas TTeX€ixil,€T "OXvpLTTOs. 
at 8' otat Ato? dfx(f)ls ^AO-qvair] re /cat "H/ai^ 
Tjadr^v, ovSe rt /xtv 7Tpoae<f>d)veov oj58' epeovTO' 
avrdp o eyvo) fjaiv ivl ^peal (/)d)vrjaev tc 
" TL(f)d* ouToj TeTLTjodov, ' A6r]vair] re /cat "Hpr^; 
ov fiev drjv Kafxerov ye fJidxZj evi Kvhiaveiprj 
oXXvaai Tpcoas, rolaiv^ kotov alvov eOeaOe. 
TTavTcos, olov ifiov ye fxevos /cat X^^P^^ daTTTOi, 
ovK dv pie rpeif/et,av oaoi Oeoi ela* iv 'OAu/atto). 
a(f)d)'Cv he irpiv Trep rpojxos eXXa^e ^aihipa yvZa, 

* rolaw : toIov Aristarchus. 
370 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 425-452 

When she had thus spoken swift-footed Iris 
departed ; but Hera spake to Athene, saying : " Out 
upon it, thou child of Zeus that beareth the aegis ! 
I verily will no more suffer that we twain seek to 
wage war against Zeus for mortals' sake. Of them 
let one perish and another live, even as it may befall ; 
and for him, let him take his own counsel in his 
heart and judge between Trojans and Danaans, as 
is meet." 

So spake she, and turned back her single-hooved 
horses. Then the Hours unyoked for them their fair- 
maned horses, and tethered them at their ambrosial 
mangers, and leaned the chariot against the bright 
entrance wall ; and the goddesses sate them down 
upon golden thrones amid the other gods, with sore 
grief at heart. 

But father Zeus drave from Ida his well-wheeled 
chariot and his horses unto Olympus, and came to 
the session of the gods. And for him the famed 
Shaker of Earth both unyoked his horses and set 
the car upon a stand, and spread thereover a cloth ; 
and Zeus, whose voice is borne afar, himself sat upon 
his throne of gold, and beneath his feet great 
Olympus quaked. Only Athene and Hera sat apart 
from Zeus, and spake no word to him nor made 
question. But he knew in his heart and spake, 
saying : " Why are ye thus grieved, Athene and 
Hera ? Surely ye twain be not grown weary with 
making havoc of the Trojans in battle, wherein men 
win glory, seeing ye cherish against them wondrous 
hate ! Come what will, seeing I have such might 
and hands irresistible, all the gods that are in 
Olympus could not turn me ; and for you twain, 
trembling gat hold of your glorious limbs or ever 

371 



HOMER 

TTpiv TToXefjiov re ISetv TToXdfxoLo re jxepfxepa epya. 
fSSe yap i^epeco, to 8e k€V TereXecrfxevov rjev 
ovK av i(f)' vfxerepojv ox^cov TrXiqyivre Kepavvcp 
aifj €s "OXvfJbTTOv LKeaOov, lv^ dOavdrcov eSos iartv." 
Q.S e^a^', at 8' eTrefjiv^av ^AOr^valr] re /cai "Hprj' 
TrXiqcfiai at y' -rjaOrjv, /ca/ca 8e Tpayeaai p.eheaO'qv } 
Tj roi AOrjvaLT) aKecov rjV ovSe rt elTre, 
aKv^ofievr] Att Trarpi, ;\;dAos' Be fiiv dypios jjpei,' 
Hpj) S' OVK e;)^a8e arrjdos ;yoAoi', aAAa TrpocrrjvBa' 
aLVorare KpovlBr), rrolov rov /xvdov eenreg. 
ev vv /cat rjpLeLs Ihjxev 6 rot adevos ovk dXaTraSvov^ 
aAA' e/iTTTy? AavadJv 6Xo(f)vp6fjied^ alxp,7]rdojv , 
OL Kev Br) KaKov olrov dvairXiqaavres oXojvrai. 
aAA' ■^ rot TToXefiov fiev di^e^ofieO^ , et av KeXeveis'^ 
^ovXrjv 8' 'Apyetot? VTroOrjaoixeO^ , -q ns" ovT^aei, 
OJS fiT] TTOvres oXcovrai oBvacrafxevoio reolo. 

Tr^v B^ dTTapbet^ofievos 7Tpoaecf)'q ve(f)eXr)y€pera Zeus" 
7]ovg Bt) /cat fxdXXov vrrepfxevea Kpovlcova 
oipeaL, at /c' edeXr^aOa, f^owm? TTorvia "Wpt], 
oXXvvr* ^Apyeiojv ttovXvv arparov atji^/iTyraajv 
ov yap vplv noXe/jbov dTTOTravaerai o^pipLOS "E/crojp, 
irpiv opOai napd vav(f)t TroSdj/cea Ilr]XeLcova, 
rjjxari rep or* dv ol fxev eTTc TrpvpLvrjat. {xaxoiVTai* 
areivet ev alvordro) Trepl HaTpo/cAoto davovros, 
COS yap 9ea(f)ar6v eari. aedev 8' eydi ovk dXey i^o) 
XOJOfievrjs, ovB* et /ce rd veiara rreipad* tKrjai 
yairjs /cat irovroLO, tv* 'laTrero? re Kpovos re 

^ Line 158 is omitted in some mss. 

* dXaTraSfdv : iwtfLKTdv. 

• Lines 466-468 arc omitted in most mss. 

* Lines 475 f. were rejected by Aristarchus. 

372 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 453-479 

ye had sight of war and the grim deeds of war. 
For thus will I speak, and verily this thing had been 
brought to pass : not upon your car, once ye were 
smitten by the thunderbolt, would ye have fared 
back to Olympus, where is the abode of the im- 
mortals." 

So spake he, and thereat murmured Athene and 
Hera, that sat by his side and were devising ills for 
the Trojans. Athene verily held her peace and 
said naught, wroth though she was with father Zeus, 
and fierce anger gat hold of her ; howbeit Hera's 
breast contained not her anger, but she spake to 
him, saying : " Most dread son of Cronos, what a 
word hast thou said ! Well know we of ourselves 
that thine is no weakhng strength ; yet even so 
have we pity for the Danaan spearmen who now 
shall perish and fulfil an evil fate. Yet verily will 
we refrain us from battle, if so thou biddest ; howbeit 
coi«isel will we offer to the Argives which shall 
be for their profit, that they perish not all by reason 
of thy wrath." 

Then in answer spake to her Zeus the cloud- 
gatherer : " At dawn shalt thou behold, if so be 
thou wilt, O ox-eyed, queenly Hera, the most 
mighty son of Cronos making yet more grievous 
havoc of the great host of Argive spearmen ; for 
dread Hector shall not refrain him from battle 
until the swift-footed son of Peleus be uprisen 
beside his ships on the day when at the sterns of the 
ships they shall be fighting in grimmest stress about 
Patroclus fallen ; for thus it is ordained of heaven. 
But of thee I reck not in thine anger, no, not though 
thou shouldst go to the nethermost bounds of earth 
and sea, where abide lapetus and Cronos, and have 

373 



HOMER 

-^[xevoi ovr avyfjs ^rrepiovos 'HeAioto 
ripnovr ovr' avijioiai, ^aOvs 8e re Tdprapos d/ji(f)LS. 
ovB' T]V evd* d(j>iK7]aL dXcofxevrj, ov aev iyo) ye 
aKvl,ojJLivr]'S aAeyco, eTret ov ado Kvvrepov dXXo." 

"Os (f)dTo, Tov 8 ov TL 7Tpoa€cf)7) XevKwXevos "llpr]. 
iv S' eVecr Q.Keava> XajXTrpov (j)dos rjeXioLO, 
'4Xkov vvKra jxeXaivav inl ^ecScopov dpovpav. 
Tpioalv [xev p deKovuiv ehv (f)dos, avrdp 'A;;^atot? 
daTraatrj rpDO^iaros eTTijXvOe vv^ ipe^evvq. 

Tpcocov avT ayoprjv TTonjcraro 0atSt/xos" "E/crcop, 
v6a(l)L vecov dyaywv TTorafio) em Siv^evri, 
iv KaOapcp, 66l Srj veKvoiv Ste^atVero )(^a)pos. 
i^ LTTTrcov 8' dno^avres em )(d6va pivOov aKovov, 
TOV p "Yaktwp dyopevc hu(j>iXos' iv 8' dpa X^'P^^ 
eyxos i-X ^vBeKaTT-^xv' irdpoide 8e XdpbTrero Sovpos 
alxP''^ XO-XKeirj, Trept 8e xp^<^^os Oie nopKrjs. 
TCp o y ipetadp^evos eVea TpcoecraC^ pLerrjvSa- • 
" KCKXvTe fxev, T/acoe? /cat AdpSavoi t}8' iTTLKovpoi' 
vvv i(f)d[jir]v vrjds r oXeaas /cat Trdvras 'Axaiovs 
dijj aTTOVoaTqaeiv irporl "\Xlov rjvefxoecraav' 
dXXd TTplv Kvi(f>as "^Xde, to vvv iadcoae pLoXiara 
*Apyeiovs koL vrjas inl prjyp^LVL OaXdaarjs.^ 
dAA' rj TOL vvv p,ev 7ret^c6/xe^a vvktI pieXaivrj 
Boprra t' i(f)07TX(,a6p.€ada- drdp KaXXirpixo-S lttttovs 
XvaaO^ vrrk^ oxicov, Trapd Be ct^icji ^aXXer iBwBrjV 
iK TToXios 8' decade ^oas Kal L(f)ia {xrjXa 
Kap7TaXip,a}g , olvov Be p,eXi<j)pova olvi^eade 
(jItov r CK {xeydpojv, eVt Be ^vXa TroAAa Xeyeade, 

* Lines 493-496 were omitted by Zenodotus. 

* Tpioecffi : irTepoeyra, 
• ^nl p-qy/juvi 6a\dffar]s : ivel Atij irpdirero <l>p^v Zenodotus. 
374- 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 480-507 

joy neither in the rays of Helios Hyperion nor in 
any breeze, but deep Tartarus is round about them. 
Thougli thou shouldst fare even thither in thy 
wanderings, yet reck I not of thy wrath, seeing there 
is naught more shameless than thou." 

So said he ; howbeit white-armed Hera spake 
no word in answer. Then into Oceanus fell the 
bright hght of the sun drawing black night over the 
face of the earth, the giver of grain. Sorely against 
the will of the Trojans sank the daylight, but over 
the Achaeans welcome, aye, thrice-prayed-for, came 
the darkness of night. 

Then did glorious Hector make a gathering of 
the Trojans, leading them apart from the ships 
beside the eddying river in an open space, where 
the ground shewed clear of dead. Forth from their 
chariots they stepped upon the ground, to hearken to 
the word that Hector dear to Zeus spake among them. 
In his hand he held a spear of eleven cubits, and 
before him blazed the spear-point of bronze, around 
which ran a ring of gold. Thereon he leaned, 
and spake his word among the Trojans : " Hearken to 
me, ye Trojans and Dardanians and allies : I deemed 
but now to make havoc of the ships and all the 
Achaeans, and so return back again to windy Ilios ; 
but darkness came on ere that might be, the which 
above all else hath now saved the Argives and their 
ships upon the beach of the sea. So then for this 
present let us yield to black night and make ready 
our supper ; loose ye from the cars your fair-maned 
horses, and cast fodder before them ; and from 
the city bring ye oxen and goodly sheep with speed, 
and get you honey-hearted wine and bread from 
your houses, and furthermore gather abundant 

375 



HOMER 

a>s K€V TTavvvxi'Oi fieacj)^ rjovs rjpiyeveirjs 
Kalcofxev irvpa ttoXKo,, aeXas 8' els ovpavov lkt), 
fii] TTCOS /cat Slot vvKra Kapr] KojJLOWVTes 'A;^atot 
<f)€vy€LV opfi'qacovTaL ctt' evpea vcbra OaXdaarjs. 
fiT) fjbav daTTOvSl ye recDv eTnBalev eKrjXot, 
aAA' a)S Tts TOVTCov ye ^eXos Kal olkoOl Treaar], 
jSAi^/xevos" rj Icp rj eyxe'i o^voevri 
VTjos €7710 pcpaKcov, Iva Tts arvyerjOL /cat aAAo? 
Tpojcrlv i(f>' LTTTToSaifioLaL (jyepeLV TToXvBaKpvv "Ap-qa. 
K'qpvKes S' dvd darv Su<^lXol dyyeXXovTojv 
TTalSas TTpcoB-q^as iroXioKpord^ovs re yepovras 
Xe^acrdai vepl darv 9eo8[Ji,iijrwv ctti TTvpycov 
OrjXvrepai he yvvalKes evl fxeydpoLcrtv eKdarrj 
TTvp jxeya Kaiovrcov <f)vXaKrj 8e rts epLrreSos earco, 
puTj Xoxos elaeXdrjOL ttoXlv Xacbv d-neovriov . 
c5S' earcx), T pates pieyaXrjTopes, d)S dyopevco' 
fivOos S' OS fiev vvv vycrjs elprjfievos earco^ 
rov 8 7]ovs Tpcoeaai jxed^ linTohdixoLS dyopevaco. 
ev^pixai iXTTOfievos^ Att t' dXXoiaiv re deolaiv 
i^eXdav evdevBe Kvvas Kir]peaai<^oprjTovs , 
ovs KTJpes (jtopeovai jxeXaivdcov errl vqcov.^ 
aAA r) roL evl vvktI (f>vXd^op,ev rjfxeas avrovs, 
TTpco'C 8 VTrrjOLOt avv revyeai QoipriyQevres 
VTjvalv €7rt yXa(f)vpfjaiv eyelpofxev o^vv "Aprja, 
ei'ao/Aat et /ce p,' 6 TvSetSrjs Kparepos AiofX'^Brjs 
Trap vrjcjv nrpos rel^os dTraxreraL, rj k€v iyoj rov 
XO-Xko) hrjcLaas evapa ^poroevra (j)epcop.ai. 
avpiov 7jv dperrjv Biaelaerai, el k ifiou eyxos* 
fjielvrj eTTepx6p.evov dXX ev Trpojroiatv, otto, 
^ Lines 55^4 f. were rejected by Aristarchu.s. 
^ ef^xoMci' i\ir6/jL€vos : eXTro/xai fuxo/xtvos Zenodotus. 
" Line 528 was rejected by Zenodotus and Aristarchus. 
* Lines 535-537 were omitted by Zenodotus. 

376 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 508-536 

wood, that all night long until early dawn we may 
burn fires full many and the gleam thereof may 
reach to heaven, lest haply even by night the long- 
haired Achaeans make haste to take flight over 
the broad back of the sea. Nay, verily, not without 
a struggle let them board their ships neither at 
their ease ; but see ye that many a one of them 
has a dart to nurse even at home, being smitten 
either with an arrow or sharp-pointed spear as he 
leapt upon his ship ; that so others may dread to 
bring tearful war against the horse-taming Trojans. 
And let heralds, dear to Zeus, make proclamation 
throughout the city that stripling boys and old 
men of hoary temples gather them round the city 
upon the battlement builded of the gods ; and for 
the women folk, let them build each one a great 
fire in her halls ; and let a diligent watch be kept, 
lest an ambush enter the city while the host is 
afield. Thus be it, great-hearted Trojans, even as 
I proclaim ; of counsel, good and sound for this 
present, be this enough ; but more will I proclaim at 
dawn amid the horse-taming Trojans. I pray in 
high hope to Zeus and the other gods to drive out 
from hence these dogs borne by the fates, whom 
the fates bare on their black ships. Howbeit for 
the night will we guard our own selves, but in the 
morning at the coming of dawn arrayed in our 
armour let us arouse sharp battle at the hollow 
ships. I shall know whether the son of Tydeus, 
mighty Diomedes, will thrust me back from the 
ships to the wall, or whether I shall slay him with 
the bronze and bear off his bloody spoils. To- 
morrow shall he come to know his valour, whether 
he can abide the on-coming of my spear. Nay, 

377 



HOMER 

Keiaerai ovrrjdeis, rroXees S' d/i(^' aurov eratpoi, 
TjeXlov dvtovTos €s avptov. el yap iycov cos 
e'irjv dddvaros /cat dyajpaos rj/juara Trdvra, 
rioLfx,7]v 8' (hs Tier ^Adrjvairj Kal 'AttoAAcov/ C- 

<I)S vvv rjixiprj rjSe KaKov (fyepei ^Apyeloiatv.' 

"n? "E/CTCop dyopev* , CTrt 8e Tpajes" KeXdSrjcrav. 
oi 8' 17T7TOVS fMev Xvoav VTTO t,vyov ISpcoovras, 
8i]aav 8' IfiavreaaL Trap* dp/xaaiv olaiv e/caaro?" 
e/c TToXios 8' d^ovro ^oas Kal 'i<j)ia ixrjXa 5- 

K'apTTaXijKxiS , olvov 8e p,eXi(f)pova olvii,ovro, 
alrov T e/c pieydpoiv, em Se ^uAa TroAAa Xeyovro, 
epBov 8' ddavdroiai TeXrjeaaas iKarofi^as .^ 
Kviarqv 8' e/c 7re8tou dvefzoL (l)€pov ovpavov eLuo} 
'qBetav rrjs 8' ou rt Oeol fxaKapes SareovTo/ 5J 

oi)S' edeXov fidXa yap a(f)iv dirr^xd^TO "lAtoj Iprj, 
Kal Upiafios Kal Xaos eu/i/xeAto) ITpia/ioto. 

Ot 8e fjbeya <f)pov€ovres €ttI TrroXip.oio y€(f)vpas 
-qaro 7Tavvv)(ioi, TTvpd 8e cr^tcrt /caiero TroAAa. 
cuj 8' ot' iv ovpavcp darpa (j)aeivrjv dpicjA aeXrivrji 5i 
^aiV€T dpLTTpeirda, ore t eVAero vrjveixos ald-qp- 
c/c r €(f)av€V irdaai aKontal Kal Trpdioves aKpoi^ 
Kal vdnai' ovpavodev 8' ap' VTreppdyrj daneTos aWi^p, 

^ Line 540 was apparently not read by Aristarchus. 

" Lines 348 and 550-552, not found in the mss. of the 
Iliad, are found in [Plato,] Alcib. II. 149 d. 

* Lines 557 f. were rejected by Zenodotus, Aristophanes, 
and Aristarchus. 

378 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 537-558 

amid the foremost, methinks, shall he lie smitten 
with a spear-thrust, and full many of his comrades 
round about him at the rising of to-morrow's sun. 
I would that mine own self I might be immortal 
and ageless all my days, and that I might be honoured 
even as Athene and Apollo, so surely as now this 
day bringeth evil upon the Argives." 

So Hector addressed their gathering, and thereat 
the Trojans shouted aloud. Their sweating horses 
they loosed from beneath the yoke, and tethered 
them with thongs, each man beside his own chariot ; 
and from the city they brought oxen and goodly 
sheep with speed, and got them honey-hearted wine 
and bread from their houses, and furthermore 
gathered abundant wood ; and to the immortals 
they offered hecatombs that bring fulfilment. And 
from the plain the winds bore the savour up into 
heaven — a sweet savour, but thereof the blessed 
gods partook not, neither were minded thereto ; 
for utterly hated of them was sacred Ilios, and 
Priam, and the people of Priam with goodly spear 
of ash. 

These then with high hearts abode the whole 
night through along the dykes of war, and their 
fires burned in multitudes.'- Even as in heaven 
about the gleaming moon the stars shine clear, 
when the air is windless, and forth to view appear 
all mountain peaks and high headlands and glades, 
and from heaven breaketh open the infinite air,^ and 

^ The meaning of vireppdyn is clearer in the parallel 
passage, xvi. 300, where clouds hanging over a mountain 
peak are, as it were, rent asunder, thus admitting a burst of 
light from the highest heavens. In the present passage the 
familiar idiom should be noted whereby the Greek has 
"from heaven," where we should say " unto heaven." 

379 



HOMER 

TTOLVra Se etSerat darpa, yiy-qOe 8e re ^peva TTOifxrjV' 
Toaaa /JLearjyv vecot' rjSe 'RdvOoLO podcov 

TpCOCJOV KaiOVTOJV TTVpd (f)aLV€TO 'lAtd^t 77/30. 

;^tAt'^ dp* iv TreSio) iTvpd KaUro, Trap he eKaarcp 
Tjaro TTevT-qKovra aeXa irvpos aWofMevoto. 
Xttttoi 8e KpZ XevKov epeTrrofxevoi /cat oXvpag 
earaoTCs Trap 6x€G(f>iv ivdpovov 'HcS fxlfxvou. 

^ X'^'' ' M'M' Zenodotus. 



880 



THE ILIAD, VIII. 559-565 

all stars are seen, and the shepherd joyeth in his 
heart ; even in such multitudes between the ships 
and the streams of Xanthus shone the fires that the 
Trojans kindled before the face of Ilios. A thousand 
fires were burning in the plain and by each sat fifty 
men in the glow of the blazing fire. And their 
horses, eating of white barley and spelt, stood 
beside the cars and waited for fair-throned Dawn. 



581 



lAIAAOS I 

'^Cls ol fxkv Tpctje? (f)vXaKas e^ov avrap ^AxaLOVS 
OeaTTeairj e;^e 0u^a, <j>6^ov Kpvoevros eraiprj, 
TrivOe'C 8' arX-qrco ^e^oXijaro Travres apiaroi. 
cos S' dvepiOL Svo ttovtov opiverov Ixdvocvra, 
BopeT]s /cat Zj€(f)vpos, tco re Qp-^Kr^dev drjTov, 
eXdovr i^aTTLvrjs' ol/jlvSls Se re Kvpua KeXaivov 
KopOverai, ttoXXov Se Trapk^ dXa (f)VKOs ex^vev 
cos iSatl^ero OvpLOS ivl art^deaaiv 'A^OLt'Cov. 

*ArpetS7]s 8' dix^'C fxeydXaj ^e^oXrjixivos rjrop 
(fiOLTa KrjpvKeaat Xiyv^doyyoLai KeXevcov 
KXi]Br]v els dyoprjv KiKX-^crKeLV dvhpa eKaarov, 
fjbTjSe ^odv avros 8e fxerd TrpcoroiGi TTOveiTO. 
ll,ov 8' elv dyopfj reTiriores' dv 8' ^ AyafMejjiVCJV 
lararo SaKpv ;^ea>v a>s re Kprjvr) fxeXdvvSpos, 
rj re /car' alyiXnros TreTprjs hvo^epov ;;^eei vScop' 
UJS d ^apii arevdxojv^ eW 'Apyeioiai ixerrjvSa' 
" a> (f)iXo(,, ^Apyeicov rjy-qropes rjSe fxeSovres, 
Zeu? pie pieyas^ }^povlSr)s drrj eveSrjae ^apeij], 
(tx^tXios, OS TTplv pLev pLOL VTreax^TO /cat Korevevaev 
"IXlov eKTTepaavr' eijreix^ov aTTOveeadai, 
vvv he KaKTjv dTrdrrjV ^ovXevaaro, /cat pue KeXevet 

^ ibs re . . . ffTevdxfJ" '• Zenodotus omitted these words 
and for ^ne' . . . fi€Tr]v5a read /xera 5' ' Apyelotaiv ^eiirev. 
* fi^yas Aristarchus : yu^7a (t/. ii. Ill ). 

S82 



BOOK IX 

' Thus kept the Trojans watch, but the Achaeans 
Were holden of wondrous Panic, the handmaid of 
numbing fear and with grief intolerable were all 
the noblest stricken. Even as two winds stir up 
the teeming deep, the North Wind and the West 
Wind that blow from Thrace, coming suddenly, and 
forthwith the dark wave reareth itself in crests and 
casteth much tangle out along the sea ; even so 
were the hearts of the Achaeans rent within their 
breasts. >,■ t- - ;- 

But the son of Atreus, stricken to the heart with 
sore grief, went this way and that, bidding the clear- 
voiced heralds summon every man by name to the 
place of gathering, but not to shout aloud ; and 
himself he toiled amid the foremost. So they sat 
in the place of gathering, sore troubled, and Aga- 
memnon stood up weeping even as a fountain of 
dark water that down over the face of a beetling 
cliff poureth its dusky stream ; even so with deep 
groaning spake he amid the Argives, saying : " My 
friends, leaders and rulers of the Argives, great Zeus, 
son of Cronos, hath ensnared me in grievous blindness 
of heart, cruel god ! seeing that of old he promised 
me, and bowed his head thereto, that not until I 
had sacked well-walled Ilios should I get me home ; 
but now hath he planned cruel deceit, and biddeth 

383 



HOMER 

SuCT/cAea "Apyos iKecrdai, ivel ttoXvv ojXecra Xaou. 
ovTCo TTOV Att iieXXei virepixeveC (J)lXov ett'at/ 
o? Sr] TToXAdcov ttoXlojv KareXvcre Kdpr]va 
TjS eVi /cat Xv(7€f rod yap Kpdrog earl ixiyiarov. 
dXX dy€d\ CO? du iy oj cittoj, TreLdcofxeOa ndvres' 
(f>€vyo)fjb€v ovv v-qvcrl (f)LXrjv eV Trarpiha yaXav 
ov yap krt Tpoirjv alpijaofxev evpvdyviav." 

Q,g €(f>ad\ OL S' dpa ndvres aKr^v eyevovro aicoirfj. 
8-^v 8' dVeoj "^aav rern^ores vUg 'Axat'dJv 
oi/jc 8e Brj fxerdeiTTe ^orjv dyado? Aio/XTySyj?* 
" ^ArpetBrj, crot Trpcora /jLaxrjoofiai d<f)pahiovrL, 
7] Oejjiis eariv, dva^, dyopfj- av he jx-q rt ;\;oA(o07^s. 
aXKTjV fxev fxoi, rrpcorov ovetStaa? eV Aavaotai, 
<l>ds efxev (XTrroAe/xov /cat avaA/ctSa* ravra 8e rrdvra 
laaa' 'Apyelcov rjfjiev veoi r]8e yepovres.^ 
aoL 8e 8tav8i;(a ScoKe l^povov Trd'Cs dyKvXofjbi^reci}' 
UKT^TTrpci) fiev rot 8cD/ce rertixrjadai Trepl Trdvrcjjv, 
aXKTjv 8' ov roL ScoKev, 6 re Kpdros earl jxeyiarov. 
haijxovi' , ovrco rrov fxdXa eAvreai vlas 'A;^ata>v 
dTTroXefiovs r efxevat /cat dmA/ct8as', <hs dyopeveis ; 
el Be roL avrcp OvpLos eTveaavrai cS? re veeadai, 
epx^o' Trap roi oBos, vrjes Be roi dyxt OaXdaarjs 
iarda\ at roi. eirovro MvK-qvrjdev /xdAa TroAAai.^ 
dAA' dAAot fieveovai Kdprj Koixocovres 'A;^atot 
et? o Ke TTep Tpotrjv BiaTrepaofxev. el Be /cat avrol 
<f)€vy6vra)v avv vrjval (f>iX7]v is narplBa yaiav 

^ Lines 23-25 were rejected by Aristophanes and Arist- 
archus ; in place of 23-31 Zenodotus gave, 

iJTOL 8 y &s elwij}!' Kar dp' ^fero du/xbv dxei'w, 
ToiJi 5' dctcTT-d/^ie/'oj fji(T^<pr} Kparepbs ALO/x^orjs' 
384 



THE ILIAD, IX. 22-47 

me return inglorious to Argos, when I have lost 
much people. So, I ween, must be the good pleasure 
of Zeus supreme in might, who hath laid low the 
heads of many cities, yea, and shall lay low ; for 
his power is above all. Nay, come, even as I shall 
bid let us all obey : let us flee with our ships to our 
dear native land ; for no more is there hope that we 
shall take broad-wayed Troy." 

So spake he, and they all became hushed in 
silence. Long time were they silent in their grief, 
the sons of the Achaeans, but at length there spake 
among them Diomedes, good at the war-cry : " Son 
of Atreus, with thee first will I contend in thy folly, 
where it is meet, O king, even in the place of gather- 
ing : and be not thou anywise wroth thereat. My 
valour didst thou revile at the first amid the Danaans, 
and saidst that I was no man of war but a weakling ; 
and all this know the Achaeans both young and 
old. But as for thee, the son of crooked-counselling 
Cronos hath endowed thee in divided wise : with 
the sceptre hath he granted thee to be honoured 
above all, but valour he gave thee not, wherein is 
the greatest might. Strange king, dost thou indeed 
deem that the sons of the Achaeans are thus un- 
warlike and weaklings as thou sayest ? Nay, if 
thine own heart is eager to return, get thee 
gone ; before thee lies the way, and thy ships stand 
beside the sea, all the many ships that followed 
thee from Mycenae. Howbeit the other long-haired 
Achaeans will abide here until we have laid waste 
Troy. Nay, let them also flee in their ships to their 
dear native land ; yet will we twain, Sthenelus and 

^ rj/j.^u . . . y^povTes : i]yrjTop€s 7]5k /jLeSovres Zenodotus. 

' Line 44 was rejected by Aristarchus. 
VOL. I 2c 385 



HOMER 

vco'th\ iyoj HOeveXos re, naxT^ao/xeO* els o K€ reKfJicop 
lAtou evpcofxev avv yap dea> eiX'qXovd/jiev." 

Qs ecjiad*, ol S' apa Trdvres iiriaxov vies 'A;^ata>i', i 
fivdov dyaacrdjjLevoi, AiofX'^Seos iTTTToBapoLo . 
Tolai B dvt,ardp,€vos p^ere^coveev LTnTora Nearcop' 
' TvBetSrj, Trept fxev noXepco evt, Kaprepos eaai, 
Koi ^ovXfj p,erd Trdvrag opi^XiKas errXev dpiaros. 
ov TLS TOL rov p,vdov ovooaerai, oaaoi 'A;^aiot, i 
ovBe TrdXtv ipder drdp ov riXos lkco pLvdiov. 
•^ puev /cat veos iaai, epos Be kg /cat rrd'Cs €ir)s 
OTrXoraros yere^^tv drdp TreTTvvpeva jSa^etj 
Apyeicov ^aaiXi^as, CTrei Kara poipav eenreg. 
dAA' ay' iycov, os crelo yepairepos ev^opai elvai, ( 
e^eiTTCo Kol Trdvra Bd^opai' ovBe /ce rls pot 
pbvdov drip^rjaei' , ovBe Kpeioiv ^Ayapepvcov. 
a(pprjTcop adepiaros dvecmos iariv eKelvos 
OS TToXipov eparai. €7nBr)pLov OKpvoevros. 
oAA' ^ rot vvv pkv TTetdcopeOa vuktI peXaivT) ( 

BopTra T ecpoTrXiaropcada' (f)vXaKT7Jp€s Be e/caoroi 
Xeqaadcjv irapd rd^pov opVKrrjv relx^os cktos. 
KovpoioLV pev ravT* eTTLTeXXopbar avrdp eireira, 
ArpetBr], av pev dpx^' ov yap ^aaiXevTaros eaai. 
Baivv BaZra yepovaiv eoiKe roi, ov rot, deiKes. 7 
TrXelai rot oXvov KXiaiai, rov vrjes 'Axaiiov 
TjpdTtai QprjKr]6ev eV evpea ttovtov dyovar 
Trdaa roi ead VTToBe^irj, TToXeeaai S' dvdaaets. 
TToXXoiv o aypopeviov rco Treiaeai os k€V dpLarrjv 
§ovXr)v ^ovXevarj. pdXa Be XP^^ iravras ^ Axaiovs 7 
eadXrjs koi ttvkivtjs, on. St^Ioi iyyvOi V7]ix)v 
386 



THE ILIAD, IX. 48-7(5 

I, fight on, until we win the goal of Ilios ; for with 
the aid of heaven are we come." 

So spake he, and all the sons of the Achaeans 
shouted aloud, applauding the word of Diomedes, 
tamer of horses. Then uprose and spake among them 
the horseman Nestor : " Son of Tydeus, above all 
men art thou mighty in battle, and in council art 
the best amid all those of thine own age. Not one 
of all the Achaeans will make light of what thou 
sayest neither gainsay it ; yet hast thou not reached 
a final end of words. Moreover, thou art in sooth 
but young, thou mightest e'en be my son, my 
youngest born ; yet thou givest prudent counsel 
to the princes of the Argives, seeing thou speakest 
according to right. But come, I that avow me to 
be older than thou will speak forth and will declare 
the whole ; neither shall any man scorn my words, 
no, not even lord Agamemnon. A clanless, lawless, 
liearthless man is he that loveth dread strife among 
his own folk. Howbeit for this present let us 
yield to black night and make ready our supper ; 
and let sentinels post themselves severally along the 
digged ditch without the wall. To the young men 
give I this charge; but thereafter do thou, son of 
Atreus, take the lead, for thou art most kingly. Make 
thou a feast for the elders ; this were but right and 
seemly for thee. Full are thy huts of wine that the 
ships of the Achaeans bring thee each day from 
Thrace, over the wide sea ; all manner of entertain- 
ment hast thou at hand, seeing thou art king over 
many. And when many are gathered together thou 
shalt follow him whoso shall devise the wisest counsel. 
And sore need have all the Achaeans of counsel 
both good and prudent, seeing that foemen hard by 

387 



HOMER 

Kaiovaiv TTvpa TroAAa* tls ojv raSe yrjd-qacte; 
vvg o Tjo rje oiappaiaei arparov rje aacoaet,. 

"Q? €(f)a9^ , ol 8' apa rov fxdXa jxev kXvov tjS 
eTridovTO. 
€K 8e (j)vXaKTrjp€S crvv revx^cnv icraevovTO 8( 

d/x^t re NecrTopiSi^v Spaavp^T^Sea, tToip.iva Xawv, 
1^8' ap(j>' 'AcTKaAa^ov Kol ^ldXp,€VOV, via? "Aprjos, 
dp(f)i. re M-qpLovTjV *A(f)aprjd re ArjiTTvpov re, 
rjB^ dp,(f>l Kpeiovros viov AvKop,'i^B€a SXov. 
eTTT eaav rjyepoves (f)vXdKOjv, e/carov 8e eKdarco 8J 
Kovpoi api eareix^v BoXix' ^yx^a xe/aatv exovres' 
kolB Be p,iaov Td(f>pov Kal reix^os lt,ov lovres' 
evda Be irvp K-qavro, riOevro Be Bopira eKaaros} 

'ArpetBrjs Be yepovras^ doXXeas rjyev 'A;^ata>v' 
is KXtai-qv, Trapd Be a(f)i ridei pievoeiKea Balra. 9( 
ol 8' evr' oveiaQ^ iroXpia rrpoKeipeva ;)^erpa? laXXov. 
avrdp eirel iroaios Kal eBT]rvos e^ epov 'Ivro, 
rots 6 yepcov TrdpLTrpajTos xx^alveiv rjpx^ro pLrjrtv, 
Neo-Tcop, ov Kal vpoadev dptarrj (f)aiveTO ^ovXi^. 
6 a(f)cv ev (f)pov€0)v dyop^aaro Kal pLeTeenrev di 

" ^ArpetBr) KvBcare, dva^ dvBpojv * Aydp.epLVOv , 
ev aol p,€v Xrj^o), aeo 8' dp^op,ai, ovveKa ttoXXcx)v 
XacL)V eaai dva^ /cat rot Zei)? eyyvdXi^e 
aKrJTTTpov T TjSe depnaras, tva acftlaL ^ovXevrjaOa. 
Tcb ae XPV "^^P^ H-^^ (f)dadai enos rjB CTra/coucrai, K 
Kprjrjvai Be Kal dXXcp, or* dv riva Ovptos dvcoyj) 
eiTTelv els dyadov aeo 8' e^erai, ottl Kev dpxij- 

* dopira ^Kaaros : daira ddXeiav Zenodotus. 
" yipovras t apunias Aristurchus. 

888 



THE ILIAD, IX. 77-102 

the ships are kindling their many watchfires ; what 
man could rejoice thereat ? This night shall either 
bring to ruin or save our host." 

So spake he, and they readily hearkened to him 
and obeyed. Forth hasted the sentinels in their 
harness around Nestor's son Thrasymedes, shepherd 
of the host, and Ascalaphus and lalmenus, sons of 
Ares, and Meriones and Aphareus and Deipyrus, 
and the son of Creon, goodly Lycomedes. Seven 
were the captains of the sentinels, and with each 
fared an hundred youths bearing long spears in 
their hands ; then they went and sate them down 
midway betwixt trench and wall ; and there 
they Idndled a fire and made ready each man his 
meal. 

But the son of Atreus led the counsellors of the 
Achaeans all together to his hut, and set before them 
a feast to satisfy the heart. So they put forth 
their hands to the good cheer lying ready before 
them. But when they had put from them the desire 
of food and drink, first of all the old man began to 
weave the web of counsel for them, even Nestor, 
whose rede had of old ever seemed the best. He 
with good intent addressed their gathering and 
spake among them : " Most glorious son of Atreus, 
Agamemnon, king of men, with thee will I begin 
and with thee make an end, for that thou art king 
over many hosts, and to thee Zeus hath vouchsafed 
the sceptre and judgments, that thou may est take 
counsel for thy people. Therefore it beseemeth 
thee above all others both to speak and to hearken, 
and to fulfil also for another whatsoever his heart 
may bid him speak for our profit ; for on thee will 
depend whatsoever any man may begin. So will 

389 



HOMER 

avrap eyojv epico clt? p-oi 80/cet etvai apiara. 

Gv yap Tis voov aXkos dp^euvova rovSe vo-qcxet,, 

oiov eyo) voeca, rjpev TrdXai t^8' ert kol vvv, 

i^ €Ti, rod ore, hioyeves, BpLcrrjtSa Kovp-qv 

X<joop,€vov 'Ap^iA^o? e^rjs KXiaiiqdev dirovpa^ 

ov TL Kad rjpL€r€p6v ye voov pbdXa ydp roi iyco ye 

TToAA' aTTepvdeopirjV ov Se ao) p^eyaX^qropi, 9vp,q) 

e'l^as avhpa (j)ipiarov, ov dddvaroL irep enaav, 

•qTipbrjaas' eAcot' ydp ep^ets" yepas' aAA' eVt /cat vvv 

(f)pal,a)p,€a6^ (x>s kcv p,iv dpeaadp^evoi 7Temdojp,€V 

hoipoiaiv r dyavolaiv CTTeaai re /MeiAt;^toiat.".,_^ 

Tov 8' aSre Trpoaeenrev dva^ dvSpcov 'Ayap,€p,vojv' 

" cS yipov, ov TL ipevSos €p,ds drag KareXe^as. 

dacrdp,rjv, ouS' ayros" dvaivopat. dvrl vv ttoXXcov 

Xacov eariv dvrjp ov re Zey? /crypt <j>iXrjar], 

<1)S vvv rovrov eriae, hdpiaaae 8e Xaov 'A;^atcai^. 

dAA' CTret dacrdp,rjv (fipecrl XevyaXerjai ntd'qaas, 

dijf ideXio dpiaai Sofxeval r* dnepeiai aTToiva. 

Vfuv 8' iv TTOvreacn rrepiKXvrd SdJp ovop,-qvu), 

Ittt' dvvpovs rpiTToSas, 8e/ca 8e ;\;pyCToro rdXavra, 

aWcovas 8e Xe^rjras eeiKOcri, ScoSeKa 8' lttttovs . 

Trrjyovs ddXo(f>6povs, ot dedXia ttoooIv dpovro. 

ov K€V dXij'Cos eit] dvrjp & roaaa yevoiro, 

ovhe K€v dKrrip,ojv ipirup^oto ;i(pi;aoto, 

oacra fioi rjveLKavro didXia pnovvx^s hriroi. 

hcjao) 8' inrd yvvaiKas dfjivp^ova epya ISvtas, 

Aea^lSas, as ore Aea^ov evKripiiv-qv eXev avrds 
390 



THE ILIAD, IX. 103-129 

I speak what seemeth to me to be best. No man 
beside shall devise a better thought than this I 
have in mind from old even until now, even since 
the day when thou, O king sprung from Zeus, 
didst take from the hut of the angry Achilles the 
damsel Briseis and go thy way — in no wise according 
to our will. Nay, for I, mine own self, urgently 
sought to dissuade thee ; but thou didst yield to 
thy lordly spirit, and upon a man most mighty, whom 
the very immortals honoured, didst thou put dis- 
honour ; for thou tookest away and keepest his 
prize. Howbeit let us still even now take thought 
how we may make amends, and persuade him with 
kindly gifts and with gentle words." 

To him then spake in answer the king of men, 
Agamemnon : " Old sir, in no false wise hast thou 
recounted the tale of my blind folly. Blind I was, 
myself I deny it not. Of the worth of many hosts 
is the man whom Zeus loveth in his heart, even as 
now he honoureth this man and destroyeth the host 
of the Achaeans. Yet seeing I was blind, and yielded 
to my miserable passion, I am minded to make 
amends and to give requital past counting. In the 
midst of you all let me name the glorious gifts ; 
seven tripods that the fire hath not touched, and ten 
talents of gold and twenty gleaming cauldrons, and 
twelve strong horses, winners in the race, that have 
won prizes by their fleetness. Not without booty 
were a man, nor unpossessed of precious gold, whoso 
had wealth as great as the prizes my single-hooved 
steeds have won me. And I will give seven women 
skilled in goodly handiwork, women of Lesbos, 
whom on the day when himself took well-built 
Lesbos I chose me from out the spoil, and that in 

391 



HOMER 

e^^Xofxrjv, at /caAAet eviKcov ^vXa yvvaiKOJV. \ 

rag fiev ol Scoaco, fzera 8' eacrerai rjv tot' (XTTrjvpcoVy 
Kovpt) Bpiaijos' Kal cttI fxeyav opKov ofxovfiaL 
fjLri TTore ttjs evvrjs eTTi^iqpievai rjhe payrivai, 
7] ddfiLS dvdp(x)7TCOv TreAet, dvSpcov rj8e yvvaiKwv. 
TavTa p,€V avTLKa TrdvTa TrapeaaeTar et Se kcv avTC 1 
ctCTTU fieya liptdjjLoto Oeol Sdocoa' dXarrd^ai, 
vrja d'At? XP^^^^ '^^'' X^^'^'^^ vrjrjadado) 
elaeXdojv, otc Kev SaTecofieOa XrjtS' 'Axo-ioi, 
T poj'Cdhas Se yvvcuKas ieiKoaiv avTos iXeaOco, 
at K€ fxcT* 'Apy€i7]v 'FiXevTjV KoXXiOTai eojatv. 1 
et Be K€v "Apyos t/cot/xe^' ^Axo-ukov, ovdap .dpovpris , 
yafi^pos Kev fxoi eov tlgoj he fxiv tuov 'OpeaTj], 
OS fJioi TTjXvyeTos Tpe(f)eTaL daXirj evi ttoXXtj. 
Tpels he fiOL elat OvyaTpes evl fieydpo) evTTr]KTCp, 
Xpucro^e/xts" /cat AaohtKT] /cat 'I<^tai'a<7cra, 1 

Tacov rjv k edeXrjcrL (jiiXriv dvdehvov dyeadco 
TTpos oXkov IlTyA^os" eyd) 8' eVt /iet'Ata hcvuoj 
TToXXa jLtaA , ocrcr' ov ttw tis efj eTrehcoKe dvyaTpL 
eTTTa he ol hwaco ev vaiofxeva TTToXieOpa, 
KaphaixvXrjv 'KvoTrrjv re /cat 'Iprjv Ttoirjeaoav , 1 
^Tjpds Te iC,adeas rjh^ "Avdeiav ^aOvXeL/jiov, 
KaX-qv r' AlVetai/ /cat Ylrihaaov dp,TTeX6eaaav . 
TTCtcrat 8' eyyvs dXos, veaTac IlvXov rjjjiadoevTOS' 
ev 8' dvhpes vaiovat TToXvpprjves voXv^ovTai, 
ol /ce e hcoTLvrjori, 9e6v cos TLpuiqaovcji. 1. 

/cat Ol V7TO GKrjTTTpo) XiTTapds TeXeovai dep,iaTas. 
TavTa /ce ot TeXeaaifxi, fieTaXXt^^avTi xdXoLo. 
hpirjO-qTCO^ — 'Athrjs rot dp^eiXixos r]h* aSa/xaaros" 
row€Ka /cat re ^poToZai 6edJv exOiaTOs dirduTOiV — 

^ 5/j.7]6r]ro) : KafKpdi^Tu Zenodotus and Aristophanes. 
392 



THE ILIAD, IX. 130-159 

beauty surpass all women folk. These will I give 
him, and amid them shall be she that then I 
took away, the daughter of Briseus ; and I will 
furthermore swear a great oath that never went I 
up into her bed neither had dalliance with her as 
is the appointed way of mankind, even of men and 
women. All these things shall be ready to his hand 
forthwith ; and if hereafter it so be the god grant 
us to lay waste the great city of Priam, let him then 
enter in, what time we Achaeans be dividing the 
spoil, and heap up his ship with store of gold and 
bronze, and himself choose twenty Trojan women 
that be fairest after Argive Helen. And if we return 
to Achaean Argos, the richest of lands, he shall 
be my son, and I will honour him even as Orestes 
that is reared in all abundance, my son well-beloved. 
Three daughters have I in my well-builded hall, 
Chrysothemis, and Laodice, and Iphianassa ; of these 
let him lead to the house of Peleus which one he 
will, without gifts of wooing, and I will furthermore 
give a dower full rich, such as no man ever yet gave 
with his daughter. And seven well-peopled cities 
will I give him, Cardamyle, Enope, and grassy Hire, 
and sacred Pherae and Antheia with deep meadows, 
and fair Aepeia and vine-clad Pedasus. All are 
nigh to the sea, on the uttermost border of sandy 
Pylos, and in them dwell men rich in flocks and rich 
in kine, men that shall honour him with gifts as 
though he were a god, and beneath his sceptre shall 
bring his ordinances to prosperous fulfilment. All 
this will I bring to pass for him, if he but cease from 
his wrath. Let him yield — Hades, I ween, is not 
to be soothed, neither overcome, wherefore he is 
most hated by mortals of all gods. And let him 

393 



HOMER 

/cat /xot VTToarr\r(x>y oaoov ^acriXevTepos elfxt, K 

rjS' oaaov yevefj Trpoyevearepos evxofJ'O.i elvai' 

Tov 8' rj fleeter* eneiTa Tep'qvios LTnTora Nearcop' 
" 'ArpetSrj kuSlcttc, dva^ dvSpwv *Aydfi€p,vov, 
Sdjpa fxev ovKcr ovoard hihdls ^Ay^bXifi dvaKrc 
dXX' dyere, kXtjtovs orpvvopiev, 61 K€ rd)(i(Tra H 
eXdojq' is KXtaiTjv IlrjXr]idh€co ^AxiXfjos. 
el S' dye, tovs dv iyd) err loi/jo fiat,, ol Be irtdeaOcov. 
^oXvt^ [j,ev 7Tpd)rL(TTa BucfyiXos rjyrjudaOoj, 
avrdp eTTeiT Ata? re fxeyas /cat Bios ^OBvaaevs' 
KTjpvKcov 8' 'OStos re /cat ^vpv^dTTjs dp, eTreadcov. I' 
(f)epTe Be x^P^'-^ vBcop, €V(f>'r]pLrjaai, re KeXeade, 
6cf)pa Att KpovcBr] dp7]a6p,e9\ at /c eXe'qarj. 

"O? (f)dro, Totcrt Be Trdaiv eaBora fxvdov eenrev. 
avTLKa KTjpvKes p-ev vBcop evrt p^etpa? ex^vav, 
KovpoL Be Kpr]T7Jpas eTreareijjavro ttotoIo, V 

vct)p.7]aav 8' apa Trdaiv errap^dp^evoi Benaeaatv. 
avrdp 67761 OTTeladv t eTTiov 9' oaov rjdeXe dvpios, 
(l)pp,d)VT e/c KXiai-r]S ^ Ayap,ep,vovos ^ArpetBao. 
Tolai, Be TToXX irrereXXe TeprjVLOs LTTTTora Necrrcop, 
BevBlXXcov is eKaarov, ^OBvaarj'C Be /LtaAtara, li 

TTeipdv d)S TTeTTidoLev dp,vp.ova Ili]Xetcjova. 

To) Be pdT7]v Trapd Olva 7ToXv(f)XoLa^oio daXdaarjSt 
TToXXd p,d)C evxofjbevoj yatrjoxcp ivvoatyaicp 
prfiBioJS rreiTiOeLv p^eydXas ^pevas Ata/ci8ao. 
Mvpp,i,B6va)V 8' €771 re /cAtcrtaj /cat vrjas iKecrOrjv, 
TOV 8' evpov (j)peva reprrop^evov (j)6pp,iyyi Xiyetr), 

* The dual number is consistently used of the envoys, 
so that Phoenix cannot be regarded as strictly a member 
of the delegation. Probably we are to assume that he was 
sent in advance of the others (c/. irpdiriaTa and ^Treira) ; so 
Aristarchus. 

394 



THE ILIAD, IX. 160-186 

submit himself unto me, seeing I am more kingly, 
and avow me his elder in years." 

Then made answer the horseman, Nestor of 
Gerenia : " Most glorious son of Atreus, Aga- 
memnon, king of men, the gifts that thou offerest 
the prince Achilles may no man any more contemn. 
Come, therefore, let us send forth chosen men to go 
forthwith to the hut of Peleus' son, Achilles. Nay, 
rather, whomsoever I shall choose, let them consent. 
First of all let Phoenix, dear to Zeus, lead the way, 
and after him great Aias and goodly Odysseus ; and 
of the heralds let Odius and Eurybates attend them. 
And now bring ye water for our hands, and bid keep 
holy silence, that we may make prayer unto Zeus, 
son of Cronos, if so be he will have compassion 
upon us." 

So said he, and the words that he spake were 
pleasing unto all. Then heralds poured water over 
their hands, and youths filled the bowls brim full 
of drink, and served out to all, pouring first drops 
for Ubation into the cupsr. But when they had 
made libation and had drunk to their hearts' content, 
they went forth from the hut of Agamemnon, son 
of Atreus. And the horseman, Nestor of Gerenia, 
laid strait command upon them with many a glance 
at each, and chiefly upon Odysseus, that they should 
make essay to persuade the peerless son of Peleus. 

So the twain ^ went their way along the shore of 
the loud-resounding sea, with many an instant 
prayer to the god that holdeth the earth and 
shaketh it, that they might easily persuade the great 
heart of the son of Aeacus. And they came to the 
huts and the ships of the Myrmidons, and found 
him delighting his soul with a clear-toned lyre, fair 

395 



HOMER 

KaXfj SatSaXej], €7tl 8' dpyvpeov l^vyov rjev, 
rrjv a/aer' e^ iudpcov ttoXlv 'HeTiajvos oAeacra?. 
T7J 6 ye dvfjLov erepTTev, aetSe 8' dpa /cAea dvhpa)V' 
nctrpo/cAos' 8e ol olos evavrios rjaro glcdtttj, 
S4y[j,evos AlaKiSi^v, orrore Xiq^eiev delScov. 
TOJ Se pdrrjv TrpoTepo), rjyeiTO 8e hlos 'OSucraeu?, 
urdv 8e Trpoad^ avrolo' ra(f)d)V 8' dvopovaev 'Ap^^tAAeus' 
awTTy ayt' (^oppnyyi, Xittcov eSos evda ddacxaev 
a)s 8' avrojs HdrpoKXos, irrel i8e (f)WTas, dvearrj. 
TO) /cat 8et/cvu/xevo? 7rpocr€(f)T] TToBas (hKvs 'A;)^tAAeus'. 
" ■)(^aipeTov' rj (jyiXoi dvSpes iKdverov — rj ri jxdXa 

XP^oy— 
ol pbOL cTACu^o/xeVco TTcp 'A^^atcav (^lAxaTOt earov.' 

"Q.S dpa (fxjovrjaas TTporepco dye hlos 'A;;^tAA€i;s", 
elaev 8' iv KXiapiolaL TdTn]ai re TTop<f)VpioLaiv 
alijja 8e naTpo/cAov rrpoaecjxhveev iyyvs eovra' 
" piei^ova Srj KprjTrjpa, Mevotrtou vie, Kadiara, 
^coporepov 8e Kepaie, SeTra? 8' evrvvov eKdarcp' 
ol yap (f)LXraroi dvbpes epLO) vneaat fxeXdOpcp." 

"D? (jidro, IldrpoKXos Be ^t'Aoj eTrerreiOed^ eraipcp. 
avrdp 6 ye Kpelov fxeya Kd^^aXev ev nvpos avyfj, 
ev 8' dpa vcoTOV eOrjK o'Cos Kal movos alyos, 
ev Be avos atdXoLO pd^i'V reOaXviav dXoL(f)fj. 
TO) 8' ex€V AvrofxeBcjov , rdfxvev 8' dpa Bias 'A;)(tAAeJs". 
Kal rd fxev ev p^iarvXXe Kal dp,<f}^ o^eXoXaiv erreipe, 
TTVp Be MevoLTidBrjs Balev fxeya, laoQeos (f>a)S. 
avrdp ivel Kara irvp e/cctr^ Kal <j>X6^ ifiapdvdrj, 
dvdpaKLTjv aropeaas o^eXovs e(f)V7T€p6e rdvvcrae, 

^ fl Ti fjidXa x/'fw : rmirepbvSe Aristarchus. 
396 



THE ILIAD, IX. 187-213 

and richly wrought, whereon was a bridge of silver ; 
this had he taken from the spoil when he laid waste 
the city of Eetion. Therewith was he delighting liis 
soul, and he sang of the glorious deeds of warriors ; 
and Patroclus alone sat over against him in silence, 
waiting until Aeacus' son should cease from singing. 
But the twain came forward and goodly Odysseus 
led the way, and they took their stand before his 
face ; and Achilles leapt up in amazement with the 
lyre in his hand, and left the seat whereon he sat ; 
and in like manner Patroclus when he beheld the 
men uprose. Then swift-footed Achilles greeted 
the two and spake, saying : " Welcome, verily ye 
be friends that are come — sore must the need be — 
ye that even in mine anger are to me the dearest 
of the Achaeans." 

So saying, goodly Achilles led them forward and 
made them sit on couches and rugs of purple ; and 
forthwith he spake to Patroclus, that was near : 
" Set fortW a larger bowl, thou son of Menoetius ; 
mingle stronger drink, and prepare each man a cup, 
for these be men most dear, that are beneath my 
roof." 

So he spake, and Patroclus gave ear to his dear 
comrade. He cast down a great fleshing-block in 
the light of the fire and laid thereon a sheep's back 
and a fat goat's, and the chine of a great hog withal, 
rich with fat. And Automedon held them for him, 
while goodly Achilles carved. Then he sliced the 
meat with care and spitted it upon spits, and the 
son of Menoetius, a godlike man, made the fire 
blaze high. But when the fire had burned down 
and the flame was abated, he scattered the embers 
and laid thereover the spits, and sprinkled the 

397 



HOMER 

Ttdaae 8* dAo? deioio Kparevrdajv eTraeipas. 
avrdp inei p a)7Trr)a€ /cat elv eXeolaiv e;^eye/ 
WdrpoKXos fxev aXrov iXojv eTreveifxe rpaTre^rj 
KaXoLS ev KaveoLOiv, drap Kpea velfiev 'A;!(iAAey?. 
avTos 8' dvrlov l^ev ^OSvaarjos deioio 
roi^ov rod eripoio, OeoZai 8e dvaai dvcoyet 
HdrpoKXov, ov iraXpov 6 8' iv rrvpl ^aAAe dvrjXas. 
OL 8' 677* oveiad* iroliia rrpoKeipieva x^ipag taXXov. 
avrdp 67761 TTOCTLOS Kal iSrjrvos i$ epov evro, 
V€va Ata? OotVtKf voTjoe 8e 8to? ^OSvaaevs, 
TrXrjadp^evos 8' olvolo SeTras SeiSeKr* ^Axi'Xrja' 
" X'^^P' > 'A;!^tAey* Satro? p.€.v etcrrjg ovk eVtSeuer? 
rjfjiev ivl KXiairj ^AyafjuefMvovos 'Ax/aetSao 
rjhe kal ivOdSe vvv ndpa yap fievoeiKea TToXXd 
Baivvcrd* . dAA' ov 801x0? ernqparov epya jxefMrjXev, 
dXXd XirjV fjieya Trrjfia, htorpe^es, elaopocjvres 
8ei8t/xep'* Iv hoLjj 8e aacoaepbev 7] aTToXeadai 
vrjas ivaaeXfJLOVS , el pur] av ye Svcreai dXk-qv, 
iyyvs yap vqcov Kal relx^os avXiv edevro 
T/Dcoes' VTTepdvfxoL rrjXeKXeLroL x' eTTiKOvpoi, 
K7]dp,evoL TTvpd TToXXd Kara arparov, ovh ext <^acrt 
(Tp^T^CTecT^', dAA' ev vqval p^eXaivrjatv ireaeeadaL. 
Zeu? 8e' a(f)t KpovLSr]s evhe^ia arjpiara (f>aLVCov 
dorrpdnrei' "EKxcop 8e fieya adeve'C ^Xepiealva)V 
fxaiveraL e/CTrdyAco?, ttlctvvos Att, ovSe xi xtet 
dvepas ovSe deovs' Kparepr) 8e e Xvcrcra BeBvKev. 
dpdrai 8e rdxi'Crra ^avrjp.evai 'Hd) hlav 
arevrai yap vr)a>v drroKo^eiv aKpa Kopvpi^a 

* Possibly, " that we shall no more hold our ground, 
but fling ourselves (in rout) upon our black ships." The 
same ambiguity is found also in parallel passages. 

398 



THE ILIAD, IX. 214-241 

morsels with holy salt when he had set them upon 
the fire-dogs. But when he had roasted the meat 
and laid it on platters, Patroclus took bread and 
dealt it forth on the table in fair baskets, while 
Achilles dealt the meat. Himself he sate him down 
over against godlike Odysseus, by the other wall, 
and bade Patroclus, his comrade, offer sacrifice to 
the gods ; and Patroclus cast burnt-offering into the 
fire. So they put forth their hands to the good cheer 
lying ready before them. But when they had put 
from them the desire of food and drink, Aias nodded 
to Phoenix ; and goodly Odysseus was ware thereof, 
and filling a cup with wine he pledged Acliilles : 
" Hail, O Achilles, of the equal feast have we no 
stinting, either in the hut of Agamemnon, son of 
Atreus, or now in thine ; for here is abundance that 
satisfies the heart to feast withal. Yet matters of 
the delicious feast are not in our thoughts, nay, 
Zeus-nurtured one, it is utter ruin that we behold, 
and are afraid ; for it is in doubt whether we save 
the benched ships or they perish, except thou clothe 
thee in thy might. Hard by the ships and the wall 
have the Trojans, high of heart, and their far-famed 
alhes set their bivouac, and kindled many fires 
throughout the host, and they deem that they shall 
no more be stayed, but will fall upon our black ships.^ 
And Zeus, son of Cronos, shows them signs upon 
the right with his lightnings, and Hector exulting 
greatly in his might rageth furiously, trusting in 
Zeus, and recketh not of men nor gods, for mighty 
madness hath possessed him. His prayer is that 
with all speed sacred Dawn may appear, for he 
declareth that he will hew from the ships' sterns 
the topmost ensigns, and burn the very hulls with 

S99 



HOMER 

avrds r eixTrprjaew^ fxaXepov irvpos, avrap ^A^aiovs 
brjcoaeLV irapa rfjaiv opwoixivovs^ vtto KaTTVov. 
ravT alvois SelSoLKa Kara (f)peva, pi'q ol OLTreiXas 
e/creAecrcoCTt OeoC, rjfxiv Se Br] aiaLfiov etr) 2 

(f)9La9aL ivl TpOLT] e/caj "Apyeos iTnTO^oroto. 
dAA' ava, el fiefiovds ye /cat oifje Trep vlas 'A^^atcDv 
r€Lpop.€vovs epveaOai vtto Tpcoajv opvfiaySov. 
avro) rot fxeroTnaO* dxos eaaerat, ovSe ti fJ''>]XOS 
pexd^vros /ca/cou ecrr^ clkos evpelv aAAa ttoXv rrplv 2 
(jypdtev O7TC0S Aavaolaiv aAe^T^aet? KaKov rjfjiap. 
c5 7T€7TOV, 7^ p.€V ooi ye TTarrjp eTrereAAero U-qXevs 
rjfiaTi TO) ore a e'/c ^Olrjs 'Aya/ie'^tvovt TrefXTre' 
' reKVOv ijjiov, Kapros fxev 'AOrjvaLT] re /cat "^IpfJ 
BaxTovcr^ , at /c' edeXcoai, cri) Se fjieyaX'qropa Ovjjlov 2 
ta;)(etv ev aTqdeaaL' (j}LXo(f)poavv7) yap djxeivcov 
XiqyefievaL 8' eptSo? KaKop,7]xdvov, 6cf)pa ae fidXXov 
TLCoa^ 'Apyetcuv rjp^ev veoi rjhe yepovres.' 
COS enereXX 6 yepcov, ai) Se Ai^^eai. aAA' ert /cat vvv 
TTttue', ea 8e ;^dAoi/ dvp,aXyea- aol 8' * Ayajxefivajv 2 
a'l^ta 8a»pa 8t8ajcrt p,eraXXrj^avrL ;^oAoto. 
et 8e av fiev jxev d-Kovaov, eycb Be /ce rot KaraXe^co 
oaaa rot ev KXiair^atv vireax^TO Ba>p* 'Ayap-ep.vojv' 
eTTT* aTTVpovs rpLTToBas, Se'/ca Be xP^^oio raXavra, 
aWojvas Be Xe^rjras eet/coat, BwBeKa 8 lttttovs 2 
7Trjyov9 ddXo(f)6povs, ot deOXia Troaalv dpovro, 
ov Kev dXriCos eir] dvrjp a> rocraa yevoiTO, 
ovBe Kev aKTT^fjLOJV epiripoio xp^^^olo, 
oaa* * AyafjL€fxvovos Ittttol dedXta noacriv apovro. 
Bcoaei 8' eVra yvvaiKas dfivfiova epya IBuias, 2 

* i/jLirpTfi<T€iv : iu.Tr\r]<r€if AHstarchus (c/. ii. ilB). 
* dptvofiivom : drffo/u^j/ons {ef. viii. 183). 

400 



THE ILIAD, IX. 242-270 

consuming fire, and amidst them make havoc of the 
Achaeans, distraught by reason of the smoke. This 
then is the great fear of my heart, lest the gods fulfil 
for him his boastings, and it be our fate to perish 
here in Troy, far from horse-pasturing Argos. Nay;^- 
up then, if thou art minded even at the last to save 
from the war-din of the Trojans the sons of the 
Achaeans, that are sore bested. To thine own self 
shall sorrow be hereafter, nor can healing be found 
for ill once wrought — nay, rather, ere it be too late - 
bethink thee how thou mayest ward from the Danaans 
the day of evil. Good friend, surely it was to thee that 
thy father Peleus gave command on the day when he 
sent thee to Agamemnon forth from Phthia : * My 
son, strength shall Athene and Hera give thee if 
they be so minded, but do thou curb thy proud 
spirit in thy breast, for gentle-mindedness is the 
better part ; and withdraw thee from strife, con- 
triver of mischief, that so the Argives both young 
and old may honour thee the more.' On this wise 
did that old man charge thee, but thou forgettest. 
Yet do thou cease even now, and put from thee 
thy bitter wrath. To thee Agamemnon ofFereth 
worthy gifts, so thou wilt cease from thine anger. 
Nay come, hearken thou to me, and I will tell the 
tale of all the gifts that in his hut Agamemnon 
promised thee : seven tripods, that the fire hath 
not touched, and ten talents of gold and twenty 
gleaming cauldrons, and twelve strong horses, winners 
in the race, that have won prizes by their fleetness. 
Not without booty were a man nor unpossessed of 
precious gold, whoso had wealth as great as the 
prizes Agamemnon's horses have won by their 
speed. And he will give seven women skilled in 

VOL. I 2d 4<01 



HOMER 

Aea^lSas, as ore Aea^ov ivKTifievrjv eXes avTog 

egeXeO , at Tore KoXXei iviKcou <^vXa yvvaiKwv , 

ras fJiev roi Swaei, jLtera S' eaaerai rjv tot' aTrrjvpa, 

Kovprj BptCT^os" enl Se jxiyav opKov ofxelrai 

fj,-)] TTore rrjs evv^s eVi^i^/xej/at rjSe ixiyijvai, 27 

rj defies eariv, dva^, rj r dvdpcov rj re yvvaiKOJV. 

Tavra fiev avriKa rravra Trapeaaerav el Se k€v avre 

darv jxeya ITpia/xoto Qeol hcLoia dXaTrd^ai, 

vrja dXis ;^puCTOu /cat -xoXkov vqrjaaudai 

elaeXOcLv, ore Kev Barecv/xeOa XrjtS^ ^Axaiol, 28 

TpcD'CdSas Se yvvdiKas eetKOOLV avros eXeadai, 

at Ke jxer ^Apyetrjv 'KXev7]v KdXXiarai ecDcriv. 

el Se Kev "Apyos LKoijxeO^ ^A-)(aiCK6v, ovdap dpovprjs, 

yafx^pos Kev ol eois' riaei Se ae laov ^Opearrj, 

OS ol rrjXvyeros rpe<j)er ai OaXlj) evi ttoXXjj. 28 

rpets Se ol elcrt Ovyarpes evl /xeydpo) evmJKTO), 

^pvaode/xLS /cat AaoStKr] /cat 'I(^iavacrcra' 

rdiov rjv k edeXr^ada (fjiXrjv dvdeSvov dyeadat 

TTpos OLKOv Il'r]Xrjos' 6 8' ayr' eVt pieiXia Saxrei 

TToXXd fidX , oaa ov tto) ris efj eVeSco/ce Ouyarpl. 29( 

eTTTo, Se rot Swaei ev vaio/xeva irroXieOpa, 

KapSajjbvXrjv 'Fiv6Trr]v re /cat 'lp7]v rroirjeaaav 

^-qpds re t,adeas 178' "Ai^^eiav ^aOvXetfxou, 

KaXrjv r Al-neiav /cat Yi-qSaaov dpLTreXoeaaav . 

Trdaai 8' eyyvs dXos, vearai UvXov rj/xadoevros' 29i 

ev S dvSpes valovac TToXvpprjves rroXv^ovrai, 

OL Ke ae SwrlvpaL Oeov cos rLfi'^aovaL 

/cat roL V7t6 crKrjTrrpcp XLTvapds reXeovai Oefxtarag. 

ravrd Ke roi reXeaeie fieraXXtj^avrL ;^oAoto. 

402 



THE ILIAD, IX. 271-299 

goodly handiwork, women of Lesbos, whom on the 
day when thou thyself tookest well-built Lesbos he 
chose him from the spoil, and that in beauty sur- 
passed all women folk. These will he give thee, and 
amid them shall be she whom he then took away, 
the daughter of Briseus ; and he will furthermore 
swear a great oath, that never went he up into her 
bed, neither had dalliance with her, as is the appointed 
way, O king, of men and women. All these things 
shall be ready to thy hand forthwith ; and if here- 
after it so be the gods grant us to lay waste the great 
city of Priam, do thou then enter in, what time we 
Achaeans be dividing the spoil, and heap up thy 
ship with store of gold and bronze, and thyself 
choose twenty Trojan women that be fairest after 
Argive Helen. And if we return to Achaean Argos, 
richest of lands, thou shalt be his son, and he will 
honour thee even as Orestes, that is reared in all 
abundance, his son well-beloved. Three daughters 
has he in his well-builded hall, Chrysothemis, and 
Laodice, and Iphianassa ; of these mayest thou lead 
to the house of Peleus which one thou wilt, without 
gifts of wooing ; and he will furthermore give a 
dower full rich, such as no man ever yet gave with 
his daughter. And seven well-peopled cities will 
he give thee, Cardamyle, Enope, and grassy Hire, 
and sacred Pherae, and Antheia, with deep meadows, 
and fair Aipeia, and vine-clad Pedasus. All are 
nigh the sea, on the uttermost borders of sandy Pylos, 
and in them dwell men rich in flocks and rich in kine, 
men that shall honour thee with gifts as though 
thou wert a god, and beneath thy sceptre shall 
bring thy ordinances to prosperous fulfilment. All 
this will he bring to pass for thee, if thou but cease 

403 



HOMER 

et Be roL ^ArpetSr^s [xev dTn^x^^TO KrjpoOi fiaXXov, 
avTos /cat Tov ScDpa, ai) 8' aXXovs rrep Ilavaxo-tovs 
retpof^evovs eXeaipe Kara arparov, 61 ae deov cos 
riaova' rj yap /ce acfii fidXa fxeya kvSos apoio. 
vvv yap X "^Krop* eXoLS, evret dv juaAa rot ax^Sov 

eXdoL 
Xvaaav exoiv oXorjV, CTret ov rivd (l>r)ai,v ofiolov 
ot e/xevat Aavacov, ovs ivddSe vrjes eveiKav." 
Tov S' dTTafjbei^ofJLevos 7Tpoae(f)7] rroSas cokvs 

^Ax^XXevs' 
" Sioyeves AaepridSrj, TroXvpL'qx^^* ^OSvaaev, 
Xprj P'^v Sr) TOV pt,vdov dTrrjXeyecDS dTToenretv, 
fj Trep 817 ^poveoj^ re /cat co? rereXeapLevov ecrrai, 
d)S pirj p,oi rpv^rjre Trapi^p^evoL dXXodev aAAo?. 
exOpos ydp /xot KeZvo? opucos 'AtSao TTvXrjaLV 
o? x' ^T^pov puev Kevdr] evl (f)peaiv, dXXo 8e eLTrrj. 
avrdp eyojv epeoj ws p-oi 80/cet etvat apicrra. 
ovr epie y *Arpei8rjV * AyapuepLvova Treiaepiev otto 
ovr* dXXovs ^avaovs, eVet ovk dpa rt? X^P''^ V^^ 
pidpvaaOaL SrjtoiaLV ctt' at'Spacrt vcoXep,es aiei. 
tar] pbotpa p,evovri, /cat et p,dXa ris 7ToXep,il,oi' 
iv 8e i^ 'Ti'P'fj rjP'^v /ca/cos" r/Se /cat eaOXos' 
Kdrdav* opidjs d r depyos dvr)p re iroXXd copy cos. 
ov8e Tt /Ltot Trepi/cetrat, eTret TrdOov dXyea Ovfio), 
alel ipirjv xjivx^v Trapa^aXXopievos TToAe/xt^eiv. 
COS" 8' opvts dnrijai veoaaolai TTpo(f)€pr)ai 
pidaraK , eirei /ce Xd^rfai, KaKcos 8' dpa ol rreXei avrrj, 
u)S /cat iyd) rroXXas piev dvirvovs vvKras lavov, 
TJpLara 8' alpbaroevra hieTrprjaaov 7ToXef.u^a>v, 
dvhpdai pLapvdp,evos odpcov eveKa a(f)erepaa)V. 

1 (Ppoviw : Kpaveuj. 
404 



THE ILIAD, IX. 300-327 

from thy wrath. But if the son of Atreus be too 
utterly hated by thee at heart, himself and his gifts, 
yet have thou pity at least on the rest of the 
Achaeans, that are sore bested throughout the host ; 
these shall honour thee as though thou wert a god, 
for verily shalt thou win great glory in their eyes. 
Now mightest thou slay Hector, seeing he would 
come very nigh thee in his baneful rage, for he 
deemeth there is no man like unto him among the 
Danaans that the ships brought hither." 

Then in answer to him spake swift-footed Achilles : 
" Zeus-born son of Laertes, Odysseus of many wiles, 
needs must I verily speak my word outright, even 
as I am minded, and as it shall be brought to pass, 
that ye sit not by me here on this side and on that 
and prate endlessly. For hateful in my eyes, even 
as the gates of Hades, is that man that hideth one 
thing in his mind and sayeth another. Nay, I will 
speak what seemeth to me to be best. Not me, I 
ween, shall Atreus' son, Agamemnon, persuade, nor 
yet shall the other Danaans, seeing there were to 
be no thanks, it seemeth, for warring against the 
foemen ever without respite. Like portion hath he 
that abideth at home, and if one warreth his best,- 
and in one honour are held both the coward and the 
brave ; death cometh alike to the idle man and to ■ 
him that worketh much. Neither have I aught of 
profit herein, that I suffered woes at heart, ever 
staking my Ufe in fight. Even as a bird bringeth . 
in her bill to her unfledged chicks whatever she may 
find, but with her own self it goeth ill, even so was 
I wont to watch through many a sleepless night, 
and bloody days did I pass in battle, fighting with 
warriors for their women's sake. Twelve cities of 

405 



HOMER 

ScoSe/ca 8t^ avv vrjval TroAet? aXaira^^ dvdpwTTOjv, 
776 ^o? 8' eVScKct <f)rjfXL Kara Tpoirjv epi^wXov 
rdojv e/c iraaiiov KeLfirjXia ttoAAcx /cat icrdXd 
e^eXofxrjV, Koi Trdvra cj^epcov ^Ayafxe/jivovL Soctkov 
'ArpetSi]' o 8' omade fxevoiv Trapd vrjval dofjai 
8e^dp,evos 8ta iravpa haadaKero, TToXXd 8' e)(eaK€V. 
dXXa 8' dpLaT'qeaaL 8t8ou ye/aa /cat jSaatAeucrt, 
yrotai /xev" e/X7re8a Kelrai, i/xev 8' 0,770 puovvov 'A;^ataji' 
etAer', e;)^et 8' dXoxov dvfiapea. rfj napiavcov 
repTTeadoj. ri 8e Set TroAe/xt^e'jLtevat Tpcoecrcrti' 
*Apy€LOvg; ri 8e Aaop' avT^yayei' evOdS* dyeipas 
^ Arpethrjs ; 'q ov^ 'EXevrjs eVe/c' 'qvKOfMOLO ; 
rj [xovvoL (^iXeova dX6)(ovs fxepoTrcov dv9pa)7TCov 
'ArpeiSat; eTret oj Tt? dvrjp dyados /cat ix€(f>pcov 
TTjv avTov ^iXeei /cat /CT^Serat, 06? /cat eycb tt^i' 
CK Ovjjiov (jiiXeov, BovptKTrjTijv irep eovcrav^y-^ 
vvv 8' CTTCt e/c ■)(€Lpcx)v ycpas etAero /cat /x' aTrdrrjae, 
puri jxev 7T€ipdrcx) iv elSoros' ovSe fie Tretcret. 
dAA', 'OSuCTeu, oxiv CTOt re /cat aAAotatt' ^aaiXevat 
(f)pai,ea9cx) vqeaatv dAe^e/xerat Si^toi' ttu/j. 
rj fxev 817 pidXa ttoXXol TTOvqaaro v6a(f)i,v ifielo, 
/cat St) relxos eSet/xe, /cat rjXaae rd(f>pov ctt' aura) 
eupetav fieydXrjv, eV Se cr/coAoTras" KareTTiq^ev 
dAA' oi58* oj? Swarat adivos "E/cropos" dvhpo(j>6voLO 
Lcrx^i'V. 6(j)pa 8' eyd> jtxer' 'A;^aiotcriv TToXefXL^ov 
ovK iddXeaKC /xdp^i^v dTTO relx^os opvvfxev "E/croi/a, 
dAA' ocroi' e'? S/catd? re TiuAa? /cat (f>rjy6v iKavev 
evda TTor* olov efxipLve, fioyis he puev eK^vyev opfx-qv. 

^ Many scholars put a full stop after dXer', on the ground 
that Achilles must not be assumed to speak of Briseis as his 
wife {&\oxo^). This, however, is to spoil the splendid 
rhetoric of the passage. 

406 



THE ILIAD, IX. 328-355 

men have I laid waste with my ships and by land 
eleven, I avow, throughout the fertile land of Troy ; 
from out all these I took much spoil and goodly, and 
all would I ever bring and give to Agamemnon, this 
son of Atreus ; but he staying behind, even beside 
his swift ships, would take and apportion some small 
part, but keep the most. Some he gave as prizes 
to chieftains and kings, and for them they abide 
untouched j^/4)ut from me alone of the Achaeans 
hath he taken and keepeth my wife,i the darling of 
my heart. Let him lie by her side and take his joy— 
But why must the Argives wage war against the 
Trojans ? Why hath he gathered and led hither his 
host, this son of Atreus ? Was it not for fair-haired 
Helen's sake ? Do they then alone of mortal men 
love their wives, these sons of Atreus ? Nay, for 
whoso is a true man and sound of mind, loveth his 
own and cherisheth her, even as I too loved her 
with all my heart, though she was but the captive 
of my spear .^ But now, seeing he hath taken from 
my arms my prize, and hath deceived me, let him 
not tempt me that know him well ; he shall not 
persuade me. Nay, Odysseus, together with thee 
and the other princes let him take thought to ward 
from the ships consuming fire. Verily full much 
hath he wrought without mine aid ; lo, he hath 
builded a wall and digged a ditch hard by, wide and 
great, and therein hath he planted stakes ; yet 
even so availeth he not to stay the might of man-- 
slaying Hector. But so long as I was warring amid 
the Achaeans Hector had no mind to rouse battle 
far from the wall, but would come only so far as the 
Scaean gates and the oak-tree ; there once he 
awaited me in single combat and hardly did he 

407 



HOMER 

vvv 8' evret ovk ideXw TToXefjit^efiev "EKTopi Step, 
avpiov Ipa Alt pe^as Kal Trdai Beolui, 
vrj-qaas iv vijas, inrjv aAaSe Trpoepvaaco, 
oijjeat,, at k iOeXrjaOa /cat at k4v tol ra fiejji'qXrj, 
ripi /xaA' 'JLXXrjaTTOvrov en IxOvoevra irXeovaas 36C 
vr]a£ ifjids, iv 8' dvSpas epeaaipievai pbepiacbras' 
el 8e Kev evTrXoirjv Sd)rj kXvtos evvoaiyaios , 
rifxari Ke Tpirdrw ^diriv ipi^coXov LKOipirjV. 
eari he /xot /xaAa 77oAAa, tcl KoXXiTrov evddSe eppcov 
aAAov 8' evdevhe p(/)i;<Tot' /cat ;\;aA/cov epvOpov 36£ 

')^8e yyvai/caj evt,(x>vovs ttoXlov re aihripov 
d^opuaL, daa eXa^ov ye* yepas 8e /xot, o? Trep eSoj/cei', 
auTt? e(j)v^pit,cov eXero Kpeicov ^ AyapuepLvcov 
'ArpetSiys" to) ttovt' dyopevep,ev, cos eTTireXXoi, 
dpb<j)ah6vy o(f)pa /cat d'AAot emaKv^covTai 'A;^atot, 37( 
€t Ttt'ci TTov Aavacov en eXTrerat e^aTrariqaeLV , 
alev dvatSetr^j' eTneipievos . ouS' dv epcoL ye 
rerXair) Kweos Trep ed>v els wira IheoBai. 
ovSe ri ol ^ovXds avpLcf)pdaaopLai,, ovSe pcev epyov 
€K yap b'q /x' dTrdrrjae /cat rjXLrev. oi38' dv eV auris' 37i 
e^aTTCt^otr' eTreeaaiv dXis Se oi. dAAd eKTjXos 
ippeTOJ' e/c ydp ol <f)pevas eiXero pb-qrUra Tievs. 
exdpd 8e piOL rod Scopa, rtco Be pnv iv Kapds atar]. 
oi)8' et pLoi 8e/cd/cis' re Kal elKoadKis roaa Bolt] 
oaaa re ol vvv eart, /cat et irodev dXXa yevoiro, 33 
ovo OCT es \Jpxop-evov Trorivtcrerat, ovo oaa {yrjpas 
AlyvTTrlas, odi TcXeZara Bopbois iv /CTTy/xara Kelrat, 

^ The precise meaning of Kap6i is uncertain, but con- 
nexion witli Keipu] is probable. The word does not recur. 
408 



THE ILIAD, IX. 356-382 

escape my onset. But now, seeing I am not minded 
to battle with goodly Hector, to-morrow will I do 
sacrifice to Zeus and all the gods, and heap well my 
ships, when I have launched them on the sea ; then 
shalt thou see, if so be thou wilt, and carest aught 
therefor, my ships at early dawn sailing over the 
teeming Hellespont, and on board men right eager 
to ply the oar ; and if so be the great Shaker of the 
Earth grants me fair voyaging, on the third day 
shall I reach deep-soiled Phthia. Possessions full 
many have I that I left on my ill-starred way hither, 
and yet more shall I bring from hence, gold and 
ruddy bronze, and fair-girdled women and grey 
iron — all that fell to me by lot ; howbeit my prize 
hath he that gave it me taken back in his arrogant 
pride, even lord Agamemnon, son of Atreus. To 
him do ye declare all, even as I bid, openly, to the 
end that other Achaeans also may be wroth, if haply 
he hopeth to deceive yet some other of the Danaans, 
seeing he is ever clothed in shamelessness. Yet not 
in my face would he dare to look, though he have 
the front of a dog. Neither counsel will I devise 
with him nor any work, for utterly hath he deceived 
me and sinned against me. Never again shall he 
beguile me with words ; the past is enough for him." 
Nay, let him go to his ruin in comfort, seeing that 
Zeus the counsellor hath utterly robbed him of his 
wits. Hateful in my eyes are his gifts, I count them 
at a hair's ^ worth. Not though he gave me ten 
times, aye twenty times all that now he hath, and 
if yet other should be added thereto I care not 
whence, not though it were all the wealth that goeth 
in to Orchomenus, or to Thebes of Egypt, where 
treasures in greatest store are laid up in men's 

409 



HOMER 

at 6^ eKaToiiTTvXoi etVt, hirjKoaioL S' av* e/cctara? 
auepes i^oix^evai avv tmroLcnv /cat ox^crcfuv 
oi38' et [xoi rocra boirj oaa ifjdfxados re kovls re, 
ovhi Kev a)s eVt Ovfiov e^iov rreiaei ^AyafMejjivcov, 
TTpiv y' (XTTo TTaoov ifMol Sofjievai, dufxaXyea Xco^rju, 
KovpT]V 8' ov yafxeoj 'Ayajjbefivovos 'ArpetSao, 
ouS' el XP^^^^J) ^ A^pohirrj koXXos ept'^ot, 
epya 8' ^AOrjvalrj yXavKcoTnSi icroc^apt^of 
ovSe jxiv ws ya/xecu" o 8' 'A;\;aia)t' aXXov eXeaOco, 
OS Tts" ot t' ineoiKe /cat oj ^acnXevrepos eartv. 
"qv yap 8?^ //.e aacbcri deal kol oi/ca8' t/ca)/.tat, 
nr^Aey? ^^f />tot eVetTa yvvalKa ye pidaaeTai^ avros. 
TToXXal ^AxaitSes elalv av' 'EAAaSa re ^Oltjv re, 
Kovpai, dpLanjcov, ot re rrroXtedpa pvovrai, 
rdoiv rjV k eOeX<x)p,i (f){,Xr]V TTOirjcropb a/cotrtv. 
eV^a 8e p,oi fxdXa ttoXXov erteaavro 6vp,6s dyriviop 
y-qpiavra pLvrjarrfV dXoxov, eiKvlav aKouriv, 
Krrip,acn repireadai ra yepcov eKri^craro HrjXevs' 
^ ov yap ep,ol ^vx'rjs dvrd^iov oi)8' oaa (f)a(nv 
"IXiov eKri^adai, ev vaio/xevov TrroXledpov, 
ro TTplv e.'n elp-qvrjs, Trplv eXdelv vlas 'A;^atajv, 
ou8' oaa Xd'Cvos ovhos dc/y-qropos evros eepyei, 
^OL^ov^ * AttoXXcdvos , riu^ot eVt Trerp-qeaarj. 
XrfCarol p,ev ydp re ^oes /cat t<^ta p,'qXa, 
Krr]rol 8e rpiTToSes re /cat lttttcdv ^avdd Kaprjva' 
dvBpos 8e ijjvx'q TrdXiV eXdelv ovre Xe'Carrj 
ovd^ eXer-q, eTrel dp Kev dp.eiiperai epKos dhovrojv. 
fiijrrjp ydp re p,e (fyrjai ded Qerts dpyvpoTret^a 
8t;^^a8ta? Krjpas (f)epep,ev Oavdroio reXoahe. 

^ 76 fiaafferai Aristarc'hus : yati^aaerai. Mss. 
* ^oi^ov : vr}ou Zenodotus. 
410 



THE ILIAD, IX. 383-411 

houses, — Thebes which is a city of an hundred gates 
wherefrom sally forth through each two hundred 
warriors with horses and cars ; — nay, not though he 
gave gifts in number as sand and dust ; not even 
so shall Agamemnon any more persuade my soul, 
until he hath paid the full price of all the despite 
that stings my heart. And the daughter of Aga- 
memnon, son of Atreus, will I not wed, not though 
she vied in beauty with golden Aphrodite and in 
handiwork were the peer of flashing-eyed Athene : 
not even so will I wed her ; let him choose another 
of the Achaeans that is of like station with himself 
and more kingly than I. For if the gods preserve 
me, and I reach my home, Peleus methinks will 
thereafter of himself seek me a wife. Many- 
Achaean maidens there be throughout Hellas and, 
Phthia, daughters of chieftains that guard the 
cities ; of these whomsoever I choose shall I make my 
dear wife. Full often was my proud spirit fain to 
take me there a wedded wife, a fitting helpmeet, 
and to have joy of the possessions that the old man 
Peleus won him. /For in my eyes riot of like worth 
with life is even all that wealth that men say Ilios 
possessed, the well-peopled citadel, of old in time of- 
peace or ever the sons of the Achaeans came, — nay, 
nor all that the marble threshold of the Archer 
Phoebus Apollo encloseth in rocky Pytho. For by 
harrying may cattle be had and goodly sheep, and 
tripods by the winning and chestnut horses withal ; 
but that the spirit of man should come again when 
once it hath passed the barrier of his teeth, neither 
harrying availeth nor winning. For my mother the 
goddess, silver-footed Thetis, telleth me that two- 
fold fates are bearing me toward the doom of death : 

411 



HOMER 

et fjiev K avOi fxevcov Tpojoiv ttoXiv djxcfytfidxfjofxai,, 
coAero fiev fjbOL voaros, drdp kXcos d<f>d(,Tov earai' 
€L oe Kev oi/caS' iKajfiL (f)iXrjV is Trarpiha yatav, 
ojAero [xoi kXcos eadXov, em Srjpov Be fioL alcbv 41 
eaareraL, ovSe /ce fx cu/ca reXos davdroio Kix^irj} 
peat o av TOLS aXXoiauv iyd) TrapafjivOrjaaLpbr^v 
I OLKao aTTOTrXeUiv , CTret ovkItl hrjcre reKpLOip 
lAtou atTTeivTJs' /xaAa ydp idev evpvoTra Zeu? 
Xei/)a €17^ VTTepecTxc, redaparjKaat 8e Aaoi. 42 

aAA vpi,€is fxev lovres dpiariqeaaiv 'A;(aicDp' 
CLyyeXir]v d7T6(f>aad€^-r6 ydp yepag iurl yepovrojv — 
o(f)p^ dXX-qv (f)pd^covTai, ivl ^peal purfrtv dp,€LVCo, 
7] K€ cr(f)LV VTJds re aao) /cat Aaoi' 'A;!^atajv 
VTjvaLV €.TTi yXa(f)vpfJ9, erret ov a<^iaiv rjhe y eroiixr), 42 
rjv vvv €(f)pdaaavTO epLev dTTopbr^vLaavrog. 
OotP'tg- o ay^t Trap' dp,pLi pbevcou KaraKoipirjO^TO}, 
o^pa p.01 ev vrjeaai ^iX-qv is irarpiBi' eTrrjraL 
avpLov, 7]v ideXrjaLV dvdyKrj 8' ov rl piiv d^oj." 

Lis e(f)a6\ ot 8' dpa Trdvres aK'qv iyevovro aicoTrfj 43 
ixvvov ayaaadpLevof pt,dXa ydp Kparepcbs aTTeenrev. 
oipe he Srj pLerienre yepcov iTnrrjXdTa Oott'i^ 
SdKpv* dvavprjaas' Trepl ydp 8te vrjvalv *Axat.cbv' 
" et p.ev 8r) voarov ye p^erd ^peai, ^aiStjit' 'A;;^iAA€i', 
paXXeai, ovSe ri TrdpLnav dp,vv€iv vrjvul Oofjcrt 43J 

TTVp eOeXeis dt87]Xov, iirel ;(dAos' ep^neae dvpio), 
7TCOS dv eTTeir aTTO aelo, (f>iXov reKos, avOi Xi,7TOLp,r]v 
oios; aoi Se p.' eTrepLve yepcov iTnrrjXaTa HrjXevs 

^ Line 416 was rejected by Zenodotus and Aristarchus. 
412 



THE ILIAD, IX. 412-438 

if I abide here and war about the city of the Trojans, 
then lost is my home-return, but my renown shall 
be imperishable ; but if I return home to my dear 
native land, lost then is my glorious renown, yet 
shall my life long endure, neither shall the doom 
of death come soon upon me. Aye, and I would I 
counsel "you others also to sail back to your homes ; I 
seeing there is no more hope that ye shall win the 
goal of steep Ilios ; for mightily doth Zeus, whose 
voice is borne afar, hold forth his hand above her, 
and her people are filled with courage. But go ye 
your way and declare my message to the chieftains 
of the Achaeans — for that is the office of elders — 
to the end that they may devise some other plan 
in their minds better than this, even such as shall 
save their ships, and the host of the Achaeans 
beside the hollow ships ; seeing this is not to be 
had for them, which now they have devised, by reason .^ 
of the fierceness of my anger. Howbeit let Phoenix 
abide here with us, and lay him down to sleep, that 
he may follow with me on my ships to my dear-- 
native land on the moiTow, if so he will ; but perforce 
will I not take him." 

So spake he, and they all became hushed in 
silence, marvelling at his words ; for with exceeding 
vehemence did he deny them. But at length there 
spake among them the old horseman Phoenix, 
bursting into tears, for that greatly did he fear for 
the ships of the Achaeans : "If verily thou layest 
up in thy mind, glorious Achilles, the purpose of 
returning, neither art minded at all to ward from 
the swift ships consuming fire, for that wrath hath 
fallen upon thy heart ; how can I then, dear child, 
be left here without thee, alone ? It was to thee 

413 



HOMER 

Tjixari rep ore a' eV ^Oltjs 'Aya/jiefxvovL TrefXTre 

VrjTTLOV, OV TTiO €tSo0' OflOitoV TToXejJLOlO , 4J 

oi)S dyopecov, tva r avhpes apiTrpeTrees" reXedovat., 

TovveKa pie TrpoerjKe StSacr/ce/xevat rdSe Travra, 

p,vda>v T€ p-qrrjp^ ep^evai, TTprjKrijpd re epycov. 

oj£ av eTTeir* diro aelo, (j>iXov reKog, ovk 'edeXoipn 

Xe'iTTead^ , oj58' el Kev pioi VTroaracrj deos avros 44 

yrjpas aTTO^vaas drjaew veov rj^coovra, 

oiov ore Trpcorov Xlttov 'EAAaSa KoXXiyvvaiKa, 

^evycov veiKea nrarpos ^Apivvropog ^Oppbcvihao, 

OS pLOi TTaXXaKiSos Trepi-)(a)aaro KaXXiKopioto, 

rrjv avros ^iXeeoKev, dripidl^eaKe 8' dKoiriv, 4£ 

p,r]rep epi'qv. rj 8* alev epLe XiaaeoKero yovvcov 

77aAAa/ct8i TTpopiLyrjvat, iv' exdrjpeLe yepovra. 

rfj 7TLd6pi7]v Kal epe^a' narrjp 8' ifxos avriK oCadels 

TToXXd Karrjpdro, arvyepds 8' eVe/ce/cAeT' 'Eptvus', 

//.T^ TTore yovvaatv olaiv e</»ecraecr^at ^iXov vlov 4c 

€^ efiedev yeyadJra- Oeol 8' ireXeiov eirapds, 

Zevs re Kara^QovLos koX enaLvrj Ilepae(f)6v€ta. 

rov {xev eyd> ^ovXevaa KaraKrdjjiev o^eC p^aA/co)-^ 

aAAa ns dOavdrcov rravo-ev x^Xov, os p evl 6up,a) 

SrjpLov diJKe (/)driv /cat ovelSea ttoAA' dvOpcoircjv, 46 

CDS" pit] TTarpo(f)6vos p-er* 'A)(aLOLaLV KaXeoipLrjV. 

evd epLol ovKert, TrdpiTrav iprjrver' iv (f)peal Ovfios 

Trarpos ;)(a)o//.eVoto Kara /xeyapa arpia^dcrOai. 

rj p.ev TToXXd erai Kal dveiftiol dp,<j)ls eovres 

avrov Xtaa6p,evoi Karepijrvov iv p,eydpoLGi, 4C 

^ Lines 4.'>8-461, not found in the ]»iss, of the Jliad, are 
given by Phitarch, De and. poet. 8. 
414 



THE ILIAD, IX. 439-465 

that the old horseman Peleus sent me on the day 
when he sent thee to Agamemnon, forth from 
Phthia, a mere child, knowing naught as yet of evil 
war, neither of gatherings wherein men wax pre- 
eminent. For this cause sent he me to instruct thee 
in all these things, to be both a speaker of words 
and a doer of deeds. Wherefore, dear child, I am 
not minded hereafter to be left alone without thee, 
nay, not though a god himself should pledge him 
to strip from me my old age and render me strong 
in youth as in the day when first I left Hellas, the 
home of fair women, fleeing from strife with my 
father Amyntor, son of Ormenus ; for he waxed 
grievously wroth against me by reason of his fair- 
haired concubine, whom himself he ever cherished, 
and scorned his wife, my mother. So she besought- 
me by my knees continually, to have dalliance with 
that other first myself, that the old man might be 
hateful in her eyes. I hearkened to her and did 
the deed, but my father was ware thereof forthwith 
and cursed me mightily, and invoked the dire Erinyes 
that never should there sit upon his knees a dear 
child begotten of me ; and the gods fulfilled his 
curse, even Zeus of the nether world and dread 
Persephone. Then I took counsel to slay him with 
the shai-p sword, but some one of the immortals 
stayed mine anger, bringing to my mind the voice 
of the people and the many revilings of men, to the 
end that I should not be called a father-slayer amid 
the Achaeans. Th^n might the heart in my breast 
in no wise be any more stayed to linger in the halls 
of my angered father. My fellows verily and my 
kinsfolk beset me about with many prayers and 
sought to stay me there in the halls, and many 

415 



HOMER 

ttjAAo, 8e i(f)ia fxrjXa /cat eiAtVoSa? eAi/ca? ^ouj 
k'acfya^ov, ttoXXoI Se aye? OaXedovres aXot(f)fj 
€ii6jj.€VOt, ravvovTO Sta <f>Xoy6s 'H^atcroio, 
TToXXov S' e/c K€pdfjia)v /xeOv Trivero roio yepovro^. 
eLvavvx^s 8e /xot d/x0' avro) Tra/aa vy/CTa? tavov 
OL /xev diJi€i^6fji€V0L 0uAaKa? c'xo;^, ouSe ttot' ea/87^ 
TTup, erepov pukv vtt' aWovar) evepKeos avXrjs, 
aAAo 0' ei^t TTpoBopicp, TrpoaOev OaXdpioio dvpdcov. 
aXX OT€ Sr) SeKdrr) fxot CTn^XvOe vv^ ipe^evvq, 
Kat TOT eyd) daXd/xoLo dvpas ttvklvcos dpapvtas 
prj^a^ e^rjXdov, /cat vndpdopov epKiov avXrjs 
peia, Xad(x)v <j)vXaKds t dvSpas Sficodg re yvvacKas. 
<f>evyov eTTeiT drrdvevde 8t' 'EAAaSo? evpvxopoio, 
(^6l7]v 8' i^iKOfiTjv ipi^coXaKa, ixrjTepa fxi^Xojv, 
es H-qXrja dvaxO^' 6 Be fie 7rp6(f)pojv vrreSeKTO, 
Kttt /J, e(f>iXria cos et re TraTrjp ov 7rar8a ^iXiqari 
fj-ovvov T7]XvyeTov TToXXolaiv cttI KredreaaL, 
/cat p, d^veiov edrjKe, rroXvv 8e puoi (vnaae Xaov 
vaiov 8' eaxo.Ti.riv ^Oirjs, AoXoTreaacv dvdaaojv. 
fcat ae roaovrov edrjKa, Oeols eTneiKeX ^AxiXXev, 
eic 6vp,ov <f)iXe(xiv, enel ovk eOeXecKes dp,' dXXcp 
ovT eg Salr levai ovt ev pLeydpoiai Trdcraadat,, 
npiv y ore 817 a e-n epolaiv ey<h yovveaai KaOlaaas 
oifjov r daaipLL Trporapbcbv koI olvov emcrxoiv. ^ 
TToXXaKi poL KaTeSevaas eirl ar'qdecrcri, x''Tdjva 
olvov aTTO^Xvl,oiv ev vrjTTter] dXeyetvfj. 
o)S eTTL croi p,aAa ttoAA eTraoov /cat ttoAA ep,oyr]cra, 
rd (f>povea>v, 6 p,ot ov tl deol yovov e^ereXeiov 
e^ epev. dXXd ae TratSa, deols eineiKeX 'Ax^XXev, 
7T0Levp,<qv, Lva /xot ttot' deiKea Xoiyov dp,vvr)s. 

416 



THE ILIAD, IX. 466-495 

goodly sheep did they slaughter, and sleek kine of 
shambling gait, and many swine, rich with fat, were 
stretched to singe over the flame of Hephaestus, 
and wine in plenty was drunk from the jars of that 
old man. For nine nights* space about mine own 
body did they watch the night through ; in turn 
kept they watch, neither were the fires quenched, 
one beneath the portico of the well-fenced court, 
and one in the porch before the door of my chamber. 
Howbeit when the tenth dark night was come upon 
me, then verily I burst the cunningly fitted doors 
of my chamber and leapt the fence of the court full 
easily, unseen of the watchmen and the slave women. 
Thereafter I fled afar through spacious Hellas, and 
came to deep-soiled Phthia, mother of flocks, unto 
king Peleus ; and he received me with a ready 
heart, and cherished me as a father cherisheth his 
only son and well-beloved, that is heir to great 
possessions ; and he made me rich and gave much\ 
people to me, and I dwelt on the furthermost border 
of Phthia, ruling over the Dolopians. And I reared 
thee to be such as thou art, O godlike Achilles, 
loving thee from my heart ; for with none other 
wouldest thou go to the feast neither take meat in 
the hall, till I had set thee on my knees and giveiv 
thee thy fill of the savoury morsel cut first for thee, ] 
and had put the wine cup to thy lips. Full often I 
hast thou wetted the tunic upon my breast, sputter- 
ing forth the wine in thy sorry helplessness. So 
have I suffered much for thee and toiled much, ever 
mindful of this that the gods would in no wise 
vouchsafe me a son born of mine own body. Nay, 
it was thou that I sought to make my son, O godlike 
Achilles, to the end that thou may est hereafter save 

VOL.1 2e 417 



HOMER 

aAA , A;^tAeu, Sa/xaaov dvfiov jxeyav ovSe ri ae y^pr^ 
vqXees "^Top e^'^iv' arpeTTTol 84 re Kal deol avroi, 
rwv 7T€p Kal fiei^cov aperrj tl/xiJ re jSitj re. 
Kal fxev Tovs Oveeaac Kal 6v;)(ajA7ys" dyavfjai 
XoL^fj re Kviarj re TraparpcDTTcoa^ dvdpcoTroi & 

Xiaaopievoi, ore Kev ris VTrep^rjr] Kal dixdprrj. 
Kal ydp re Airal elai Alos Kovpai, fMeydXoco, 
XcoXai re pvaai re Trapa^Xwrres r' 6(f)daXixa), 
at pd re Kal pLeromad^ "Arr]s dXeyovai Kiovaat. 
Tj 8' "Arry adevap-q re Kal dprirros, ovveKa rrdaas 6< 
TToXXov VTTeKTTpodeei, <f)ddvei Se re irdaav err' alav 
PXdrrrova dvdpwTTOVS' al 8' e^aKeovrac oTTiaaoj. 
OS fiev r alSeaerat Kovpas Alos daaov lovaas, 
rov 8e fley' covqaav /cat t' ckXvov evyopievoio' 
OS 8e K* dvT^VTjrat /cat re arepecJos dTToeiirrj, 5! 

Xiaaovrai 8' dpa rai ye Ala Kpoviwva Kiovaai 
rd) "Arrjv a/x' eTreodai, Iva ^Xa<f)dels dTToricrrj. 
oAA', *A)(i,Xev, TTope Kal ai) Alos KovprjoLV eireaOai 
rLpLTjv, rj r dXXwv irep eTTLyvdfiTTrei voov eaOXdjv. 
el pLev ydp pLT) SdJpa (f>€poL, rd 8' OTTLod' ovopid^oL 5] 
^ArpetS'qs, aAA' atei^ €7TL(,a(f)eXd)s ;)(aAe7ratVot, 
ovK dv eyu) ye ae pLrjvLV dTTOpplifjavra KeXolp,7]v 
^ApyeloLGLv dpLVvepievaL x^reoval rrep epLTrrjs. 
vvv 8' a/xa r' avrlKa TToXXd BlSol, rd 8' OTTLodev 

xmecfru], 
dvSpas 8e XlaaeadaL eTTLTrpoerjKev dplarovs 5i 

KpLvdp.evos Kara Xaov AxaLLKov, o'l re aol avrco 



^ Because the offender dares not look in the face of the 
one he has wronged. 

* The meanings of &tt) range all the way from moral 
blindness to the sin resulting therefrom, and, even to the 
ruin that ultimately ensues. That the abstract idea becomes 
418 



THE ILIAD, IX. 496-521 

me from shameful ruin. Wherefore Achilles, do 
thou master thy proud spirit ; it beseemeth thee 
not to have a pitiless heart. Nay, even the very gods 
can bend, and theirs withal is more excellent worth 
and honour and might. Their hearts by incense 
and reverent vows and libations and the savour of 
sacrifice do men turn from wrath with supplication, 
whenso any man transgresseth and doeth sin. For 
Prayers are the daughters of great Zeus, halting 
_and wrinkled and of eyes askance,^ and they are ever 
mindful to follow in the steps of Sin. Howbeit Sin 
is strong and fleet of foot, wherefore she far out- 
runneth them all, and goeth before them over the 
face of all the earth making men to fall, and Prayers 
follow after, seeking to heal the hurt. • Now whoso 
revereth the daughters of Zeus when they draw 
nigh, him they greatly bless, and hear him, when he 
prayeth ; but if a man denieth them and stubbornly _ 
refuseth, then they go their way and make prayer 
to Zeus, son of Cronos, that Ate ^ may follow after 
such a one to the end that he may fall and pay 
full atonement. Nay, Achilles, see thou too that 
reverence attend upon the daughters of Zeus, even 
such as bendeth the heax-ts of all men that are 
upright. For if the son of Atreus were not offering 
thee gifts and telling of yet others hereafter, but 
were ever furiously wroth, I of a surety should not 
bid thee cast aside thine anger and bear aid to the 
Argives even in their sore need. But now he offereth 
thee many gifts forthwith, and promiseth thee more 
hereafter, and hath sent forth warriors to beseech 
thee, choosing them that are best throughout the 

personified in the present passage is in harmony with the 
methods of Homeric thought. 

419 



HOMER 

<f>LXTaroc *ApyeL(jov' tcjv fxrj av ye fjuvOov iXey^rjs 
firjSe TToSas" Trplv 8 ov ri vefxeacrr^Tov KexoXcoadai. 
ovro) Acat ra>v Tvpoadev iTrevdo/xeda /cAea dv^pcov 
TjpcLcov, ore /ceV tlv* e7ri^a</>eAo? ;)(dAos' lkol' 55 

SojpTjTOL re TTeXovro 7Tapdppr]TOL t* eTreeaat. 
p,eixvr]fiai, rdSe epyov eyoj TrdXai, ov n veov ye, 
d)S rjv ev 8' VfxZv ipeoj Travreaai (jilXotai. 
}iovprJT€s T ipidxovTO /cat AltcoXol fievexdppLai 
dfji(f)l TToXtv KaAi;8aiva /cat aAAT^Aou? ivdptl^ov, 51 
AtTcoAot /xev dfxvvofxevoL K.aXv8a)vos epavvijs, 
Kouprjre? 8e hiair pad eeiv fxefxawres "AprfC. 
/cat ydp Tolai KaKov ■)(pva6d povos " Kprefxis a>pae, 
)(coaaixevr] 6 ol ov ri daXvaia yovvco dXcjorjs 
Olvevs e/D^'* aAAot 8e deoi haivvvd^ eKarojx^as, 5; 
0117 8' ovK eppe^e Aid? Kovpr) fxeydXoio' 
•^ XdOer ri ovk evoriaev ddaaro he fieya dv[ji,a>. 
rj 8e ■xpXcoaapievri hZov yevos loxeaipa 
oJpcrev eVt ;^Aow7jv avv dypiov dpyiohovra, 
OS /ca/ca ttoAA' epheoKev edcDV Olvrjos dXcoijv 5< 

TToAAo. 8' o ye TTpoBeXvjJiva )(ap,al jSaAe Bevhpea 

fxaKpd 
avrfjacv pi^r^ai /cat avrols dvOeai fx-^Xcuv. 
rov 8' utd? Olvrjos aTieKTeivev M.eXeaypos, 
TToXXecov €K TToXiojv Orjp-fjTopas dvSpas dyeipas 
/cat Kvvas' ov [xev ydp /ce 8a/XTj Travpoiai ^poTolar 5< 
Toaaos erjv, ttoAAouj 8e irvprjs eTre^rjo' dXeyeivrjs. 
rj 8' d/A0' avTcp OrJKe ttoXvv KeXaSov /cat dvTrjv, 
djx^l avos KecjiaXfj /cat BeppbaTt, Xax^i^evrL, 

^ lOwu is generally taken to mean simply, "as the wont 
of boars is " ; but the word is glossed by (iXdwrui'. 
420 



THE ILIAD, IX. 522-548 ! 

host of the Achaeans, and that to thine own self 
are dearest of the Argives ; have not thou scorn of 
their words, neither of their coming hither ; though 
till then no man could blame thee that thou 
wast wroth. Even in this manner have we heard 
the fame of men of old that were warriors, whenso 
furious wrath came upon any ; won might they be 
by gifts, and turned aside by pleadings. Myself 
I bear in mind this deed of old days and not of 
yesterday, how it was ; and I will tell it among you 
that are all my friends. The Curetes on a time were 
fighting and the Aetolians staunch in battle around 
the city of Calydon, and were slaying one another, 
the Aetolians defending lovely Calydon and the 
Curetes fain to waste it utterly in war. For upon 
tlieir folk had Artemis of the golden throne sent a 
plague in wrath that Oeneus offered not to her the 
first-fruits of the harvest in his rich orchard land ; 
whereas the other gods feasted on hecatombs, and 
it was to the daughter of great Zeus alone that he 
offered not, whether haply he forgat, or marked it 
not ; and he was greatly blinded in heart. Thereat 
the Archer-goddess, the child of Zeus, waxed wroth 
and sent against him a fierce wild boar, white of 
tusk, that wrought much evil, wasting ^ the orchard 
land of Oeneus ; many a tall tree did he uproot and 
cast upon the ground, aye, root and apple blossom 
therewith. But the boar did Meleager, son of 
Oeneus, slay, when he had gathered out of many 
cities huntsmen and hounds ; for not of few men 
could the boar have been slain, so huge was he ; 
and many a man set he upon the grievous pyre. 
But about his body the goddess brought to pass much 
clamour and shouting concerning his head and shaggy 

421 



HOMER 

Kovp-qrtov re fjuecrrjyv kol AItojXcov ixeyaOvfxcov . 

// 6(j)pa jxev ovv MeAeaypo? apiqt(j)iKog TroAe/xt^e, 55 

T6(f)pa 8e K.ovpT^Tcaai KaKcbs rjv, oi)8' eSvvavToi^ 
reix^os eKToadev pbipLveiv iroXies rrep eovres. 
dAA' ore br) MeXeaypov eSv x^Xos, o? re Kal dXXojv 
olSdvet, ev arrjdeaai voov irvKa rrep ^poveovrcov , 
r] roL 6 pb-Tjrpl (f>iXrj ^AXOairj x^ofxevos KTJp 65 

Ketro rrapa pLvqarfj aXoxco, KaXfj KXeoTrdrprj, 
Kovprj MapTTTjCTCTTjs" KaXXLcr(f>vpov lLv7]VLvrjs 
ISeco 6', OS Kapnaros irnxdovLajv yever dvSpwv 
rGiv rore, Kal pa dvaKros evavriov elXero ro^ov 
^oi^ov ^ AttoXXcovos KaXXia(j>vpov elveKa vvp,(j)7]s. 66 
TTyv he ror ev fxeydpoLUL Trar-^p Kal TTorvia p,r}r7]p 
^AXkvovtjv KaXeeoKov e-ncovvpLOv, ovveK dp* avrrj 
fir^r'qp aXKVovos TToXvirevOeos olrov exovaa 
KXalev 6 pn,v eKdepyos dvT^pTraae OotjSos" 'AttoAAcoi^. 
rfj o ye napKareXeKro x^Xov OvfiaXyea Treacrcov, 56 
e^ apecov p,rjrp6s KexoXcopievos, rj pa deolat 
TToAA dxeova* rjpdro KaaLyvqroio ^ovoio, 
TToXXd he Kal yalav 7ToXv(f)6p^7]v x^P^''^ dXoia 
KLKXnqoKova 'AiStjp' Kal eTraivrjV Y{epae(f)6veiav , 

r' TTpoxvv Kade^opLevrj, hevovro he hdKpvai koXttol, 67 
TratSt hofjiev ddvarov rrjs 8' rjepocjiolrLS 'Epiv'US' 

^ ovd' idi'^vavTo : ov5' id^XeffKOf Aristophanes. 

^ Meleager was son of Oeneus, king of the Aetolians, and 
Althaea, daughter of Thestius, king of the Curetes. After 
the slaying of the wild boar that wasted Calydon, strife arose 
between Meleager and the brethren of his mother, because 
they had taken from Atalanta the spoils of the boar which 
Meleager had given to her; and Meleager slew them. For 
this he was cursed by his mother. 

* Idas had carried away Marpessa from her father 
Evenus, but Apollo sougiit to take her from Idas, whereupon 

422 



THE ILIAD, IX. 549-571 ' 

hide, between the Curetes and the great-souled 
Aetohans. Now so long as Meleager, dear to Ares, 
warred, so long went it ill with the Curetes, nor 
might they abide without their wall, for all they 
were very many. But when wrath entered into 
Meleager, wrath that maketh the heart to swell in 
the breasts also of others, even though they be 
wise, he then, wroth at heart against his dear mother^ 
Althaea, abode beside his wedded wife, the fair 
Cleopatra, daughter of Marpessa of the fair ankles, 
child of Evenus, and of Idas that was mightiest of 
men that were then upon the face of earth ; who 
also took his bow to face the king Phoebus Apollo 
for the sake of the fair-ankled maid.^ Her of old in 
their halls had her father and honoured mother 
called Halcyone by name, for that the mother 
herself in a plight even as that of the halcyon-bird 
of many sorrows,^ wept because Apollo that worketh 
afar had snatched her child away. By her side lay 
Meleager nursing his bitter anger, wroth because 
of his mother's curses ; for she prayed instantly to 
the gods, being grieved for her brother's slaying ; 
and furthermore instantly beat with her hands upon 
the all-nurturing earth, calling upon Hades and 
dread Persephone, the while she knelt and made 
the folds of her bosom wet with tears, that they 
should bring death upon her son ; and the Erinys 
that walketh in darkness heard her from Erebus, 

the mortal dared to face the god in strife. But Zeus bade 
Marpessa choose between the two, and she chose Idas. 

^ The mother, stricken with grief at the loss of her 
daughter, is likened to the kingfisher {aXKvwv), whose 
plaintive note seemed to the ancients the expression of 
desolate sadness. Hence the name Halcyone was given to 
the daughter. 

423 



HOMER 

eKXvtv ef 'Kp€^€a(f)LV, dfieiXixov rJTop exovaa, 
Tcbv Be Tax oifi,(f)L TTvXas o/xaSo? Kai Sovttos opcopet 
TTVpycov PaXXofievcov rov he Xiaaovro yepovres 
AltcoXcov, TTe/XTTOv Se Oecov leprjas apiarovs, 57 

e^eXdelv koL dfMVvai, vnoaxofievot fxeya Saypov 
OTTTTovi TTLorarov TTeSlov l^aXvSaJvos epavvrj^, 
evda fMLv rjvojyov refxevos TrepiKaXXes eXeaOai 
TTevTrjKovToyvov , ro fiev rj^xLuv olvoTreSoio, 
rjfiicrv 8e i/jiXrjV dpoaiv TreStoio Tafxeadai. 68 

TToXXd he jjiLV Xtrdveve yepcov LTnrrjXdTa Olvevs 
ovhov eTTepL^e^aaJS viljr]pe(f)eos 6aXdp,oio, 
aeiwv KoXXT)rds aavihas, yovvovpievos vlov 
TToXXa he Tov ye Kaaiyvrjrai kol Trorvia firjrrjp 
eXXtaaovO^' '^ "^^ ■^XXm- d.v'^l^>ero' iroXXd S' erat/oot, 68i 
ot oi Kehvoraroi kol <j>iXTaTOL Tjoav aTTovTcov 
tlAA' oj58' ws rov OvpLov evl orrjOeaaLV eireiBov, 
vpiv y ore hrj ddXapLos ttvk e^dXXero, rol S' eirl 

TTVpyOJV 

^OLvov Kovprjres /cat eveTrpr]dov fieya darv. 
Kat, rore hrj MeXeaypov ev^covos Trapdnoirig 5^* 

AtcTCTer' ohvpopLevT], Kai ol KareXe^ev drravra 
KTjhe , OCT* dvdpcoTTOLaL TTeXet rdjv darv dXcvrj' 
dvhpas p,ev Kreivovai, ttoXiv he re TTvp dp,aOvvei, 
reKva he r dXXot^ dyovat ^adv^covovs re yvvacKas. 
rov h (hpivero dvfios aKovovros KaKa epya, 5^' 

prj 8' levat, xpot 8' eVre' ehvarero TrafMcfiavocovra. 
cos 6 p,ev AlrcxjXoZaiv drr'qpivvev KaKov rjpi,ap 
e'l^as o) dvpLO)- TO) 8' ovKeri hcop* ereXeaaav 
TToXXa re kol x^pi^vra, KaKov 8' 7]p,vv€ Kai avrcos. 
aXXd cri) pufj piOL ravra voet, (f)peai, pLrjhe ae haipLcov 60C 
evravOa rpeifjeie, (f)iXos' KaKiov he Kev etrj 

^ t' dWoi : 5^iot Zenodotus. 
424 



THE ILIAD, IX. 572-601 

even she of the ungentle heart. Now anon was the 
din of the foemen risen about their gates, and the 
noise of the battering of walls, and to Meleager the 
elders of the Aetolians made prayer, sending to 
him the best of the priests of the gods, that he 
should come forth and succour them, and they 
promised him a mighty gift ; they bade him, where 
the plain of lovely Calydon was fattest, there choose 
ihim out a fair tract of fifty acres, the half of it vine- 
\land, and the half clear plough-land, to be cut from 
out the plain. And earnestly the old horseman 
Oeneus besought him, standing upon the threshold 
of his high-roofed chamber, and shaking the jointed 
doors, in prayer to his son, and earnestly too did his 
sisters and his honoured mother beseech him — but 
he denied them yet more — and earnestly his com- 
panions that were truest and dearest to him of all ; 
yet not even so could they persuade the heart in 
his breast, until at the last his chamber was being 
hotly battered, and the Curetes were mounting 
upon the walls and firing the great city. Then 
verily his fair-girdled wife besought Meleager with 
wailing, and told him all the woes that come on men 
whose city is taken ; the men are slain and the city 
is wasted by fire, and their children and low-girdled 
women are led captive of strangers. Then was his 
spirit stirred, as he heard the evil tale, and he went 
his way and did on his body his gleaming armour. 
Thus did he ward from the Aetolians the day of 
evil, yielding to his own spirit ; and to him thereafter 
they paid not the gifts, many and gracious ; yet 
even so did he ward from them evil. But, friend, let 
me not see thee thus minded in heart, neither let 
heaven turn thee into this path ; it were a harder task 

425 



HOMER 

vrivcTLV KaiofxevrjOLV afMVvefxev dAA' 6771 Batpcov 
epx^o' taov yap ae 9ecp rlcrovatv 'Ap^aiot. 
el 8e /c' drep hoipoiv TToXefxov (f)9t(njvopa Svrjs, 
ovKed^ ofiojs TiiMTJs eaeat TToXe/jiov irep aAaA/cciSv.' 6 

Tov 8' aTTajxei^ofievo? Trpoai^rj TroSa? (Lkvs 
'A;(tAAeus" 
" Ootvt|^, drra yepaie, hiorpe^is, ov ri fxe ravrrjs 
p^/aeco rcfjurjs' (j>povicx) 8e reriiirjadai Ato? atcrr], 
■fj fi e^et TTapa vrjval Kopojvlaiv, els o k dvTfxr) 
iv ari]deacrL fJievr] Kai pioi (f)i,Xa yovvar opcoprj. 6 
ctAAo 8e Toi ipdoj, au 8' evl <f>p€al ^dXXeo afjaf 
fxri fjboi, avyx^i' Ovfiov oSvpofievos /cat d)(€vwv,^ 
^ArpetSj) -rjpco'C (f)epa)V ;\;aptv oi)8e ri ae XPV 
TOV <f)LX€€LV, tva ^,7] fxoi dTrixOrjai ^iXiovTi. 
KoXov rot avv ifMol tov KijSeiv os" /c' ifie K'qSrj. 6 
taov ifjiol ^aaiXeve /cat rjixiav fieipeo rt/x.'^S'. 
ovTOL 8' dyyeAeouat, av 8' avToOi Xi^eo fiifivcov 
evvfj eVt fxaXaKjj' d/xa 8' ijot (f)atvop,€vrj(f>L 
(fjpacraofxeO^ rj k6 vecofieO icf)* rjfieTep' rj k€ 
ixevcopiev." 

*H, /cat ITarpo/cAaj o y eV o^pvai vevae aiajTrfj 6 
OotVt/ct oTopiaai ttvklvov Xexos, o(f)pa TaxtcTTa 
€/c KXiair]s vooTOLO ixehoiaTo. rotcrt 8 dp' Atas 
dvTiOeos TeXafMcovidSrjs fJiCTa fxvdov eeme' 
" 8toyeve? AaepTidSrj, TToXvpL-qxav' ^Ohvaaev, 
top,€v ov yap (jlol 8o/ceet /JivOoio TcXevTr) 6 

TTjSe y' d8ai Kpaveeodaf diTayyelXai 8e rdp^; terra 
;)^p')^ fxvQov AavaoiGL /cat oi5/c dya^oi' 7re/3 iovTa, 

* 6dvp6fifvos Kal dxfv'^f : ^»'i (TTrjdeaa'n' dxei^wc Aristarchus ; 
6dvp6/ji.epos Kivvplj^wv Zcnodotiis. 

426 



THE ILIAD, IX. 602-627 

to save the ships already burning. Nay, come 
while yet gifts may be had ; the Achaeans shall 
honour thee even as a god. But if without gifts 
thou enter into the battle, the bane of men, thou 
shalt not then be in like honour, for all thou mayest 
ward off the battle." 

Then in answer to him spake Achilles, swift of 
foot : " Phoenix, old sire, my father, nurtured of 
Zeus, in no wise have I need of this honour : honoured 
have I been, I deem, by the apportionment of Zeus, 
which shall be mine amid the beaked ships so long 
as the breath abideth in my breast and my knees 
are quick. And another thing will I tell thee, and 
do thou lay it to heart ; seek not to confound my 
spirit by weeping and sorrowing, to do the pleasure 
of the warrior, son of Atreus ; it beseemeth thee not 
to cherish him, lest thou be hated of me that cherish 
thee. Well were it that with me thou shouldest 
vex him whosoever vexeth me. Be thou king even 
as I am, and share the half of my honour. Howbeit 
these shall bear my message, but abide thou here 
and lay thee down on a soft couch, and at break of 
day we will take counsel whether to return to our 
own or to tarry here." 

He spake and to Patroclus nodded his brow in 
silence that he should spread for Phoenix a thick 
couch, that the others might forthwith bethink them 
to depart from the hut. But among them Aias, 
the godlike son of Telamon, spake, saying : " Zeus- 
born son of Laertes, Odysseus of many wiles, let us 
go our way, for the fulfilment of the charge laid on us 
will not methinks be brought to pass by our coming 
hither ; and it behoveth us with speed to declare the 
message, though it be no wise good, to the Danaans, 

427 



HOMER 

o? TTOV vvv earat TroTiheyiievoi. avrap A)(iAA€V5 
dypiov iv ariqdeaai dero [xeyaXriTopa OvjJiov, 
gx^tXios, ovhe fierarpeTTerai (fiiXorrjTos eraipcov ( 
rijs 27 fitv TTapa vrjvalv eriop,ev €^oxov dXXcov, 
VTjX'qg' Kal fxiv ris re Kaaiyv^Toio (f>ovrjos^ 
TTOivrjV 7) ov TratSos" eSefaro redvrjoJTOs' 
/cat p' o fjiev iv hiqixcp fxeveL avrov ttoXX aTToricras, 
Tov 8e t' ipr]TV€Tai Kpahit] Koi dvp,6s ayrjviop ( 
TTOLVTjv he^afxevo)' aol S' dXXrjKrov re kukov t€ 
dvfxov ivl arrjdeaai Oeol Oecrav etveKa Kovprjg 
otr)S' vvv 8e tol CTrra Trapiaxpixev k^ox apLcrrag, 
dXXa re ttoAA' ctti rfjai' av S' IXaov evdeo dvpiov, 
aiSeacrai Se fxeXadpov VTTa)p6(j)L0i 8e rot etjuev ( 
TrXrjdvos e'/c Aaj^acSv, fxefxafjiev 8e tol e^oxov dXXcov 
KT^SiaroL r efxevat Kal (jyiXraroi, oaaoi 'Axaioi." 
Tov 8' d7Ta[j,eL^6[JL€Vos Trpoae(f)r] rroSas (okvs 
^AxiXXevs' 
" Aiav Stoyeves TeXaficovie, Koipave Xadjv, 
TTOvra ri fxoi, Kara dvjxov ieiaao jxvdrjcraaQat' ( 

dAAa /xot olhdverai Kpahirj XoAoj, omroTe Keivcov 
pLvqaopiai, cog fx* dav(f)rjXov iv ^ Apyeioiaiv epe^ev 
^ At peth-qs, (hs et riv* dTtfj,r]TOV fxeravdaTiqv . 
dXX y/xet? epx^aOe /cat dyyeXtrjv drrocjiaade' 
ov yap Trplv TroAe/xoto /xeSr^cro/xat alfjiaroevTOs, ( 
TTptv y vlov Wpidyioio 8aL(f)povog, "E/cropa Stoi', 
MvpfXiSovcov iirl re /cAtata? /cat vrjag iKeaOat 
Kreivovr ^Apyeiovs, Kara re afxv^ai TTvpl vrjag. 
dp,<f>l 8e rot rfj ifjbfj KXiairj /cat viqt fxeXaivrj 
"E/CTO/aa /cat /xe/xacDra /xax^^S ax'>]creadat ota». ( 

* <poi>rjos ; (pdvoio. 
428 



THE ILIAD, IX. 628-655 

that, I ween, now sit waiting tlierefor. But Achilles 
hath wrought to fury the proud heart within him, 
cruel man ! neither recketh he of the love of his 
comrades wherewith we ever honoured him amid 
the ships above all others — pitiless one ! Lo, a man 
accepteth recompense from the slayer of his brother, 
or for his dead son ; and the slayer abideth in his 
own land for the paying of a great price, and the 
kinsman's heart and proud spirit are restrained by 
the taking of recompense. But as for thee, the gods 
have put in thy breast a heart that is obdurate and 
evil by reason of one only girl ; whereas we now offer 
thee seven, far the best that there be, and many 
other gifts besides ; nay then, take to thee a heart 
of grace, and have respect unto thine hall ; for 
under thy roof are we come from the host of the 
Danaans, and we would fain be nearest to thee and 
dearest beyond all other Achaeans as many as 
there be." 

Then in answer to him spake Achilles, swift of 
foot : " Aias, sprung from Zeus, thou son of Telamon, 
captain of the host, all this thou seemest to speak 
almost after mine own mind ; but my heart swelleth 
with wrath whenso I think of this, how the son of 
Atreus hath wrought indignity upon me amid the 
Argives, as though I were some alien that had no 
rights. Howbeit do ye go and declare my message, 
for I will not sooner bethink me of bloody war until 
wise-hearted Priam's son, even goodly Hector, be 
come to the huts and ships of the Myrmidons, as 
he slays the Argives, and have smirched the ships 
with fire. But about my hut and my black ship I 
deem that Hector will be stayed, eager though he 
be for battle." 

4>29 



HOMER 

"O? e^a^', ol 8e eKaaros iXojv Beiras a/x,^t- 

.KV7T€XXoi> 

arrelaavTes napa vrjas tcrav TrdXiv "^px^ §' 'OSucr- 

aevs. 
HdrpoKXos 8' irdpoiatv ISe hjxcpriai KeXevae 
OoiVt/ci aropiaai ttvklvov Xe^ps ottl rdxicrra. 
at S' iTnTTeiOofxevat aropeaav Xexos cLs CKeXevae,^ 6 
Ku>ed re pTJyos re AtVoio re Xenrov dcorov. 
€vd' 6 yepcov KardXeKro Acat 'Hcu Star epLLfjivev. 
avrdp 'Ap^tAAeu? ei58e pivx^> KXiatiqs evTrr^KTOv 
rep 8' apa irapKareXeKTO yvviq, rrjv^ Aea^odev rjye, 
^op^avTos dvydrrjp, AiopLTjBr] KaXXtTrdprjos . 6 

UdrpoKXos 8' eTcpcuOev iXd^aro' Trap 8' dpa Kal to) 
*I</>i? evt,(x>vos, riqv ol Trope Slos 'A;)^tAAei)s' 
YiKvpov iXcbv aljrelav, 'Ei^yT^o? TrroXiedpov. 

Ot 8' ore 817 KXtairjaLV iv ' ArpetSao yevovro, 
rovs fJ'^v dpa ;)(pu(7eotai KVTreXXoLS vies 'A;;^ataji/ 6 
8et8e;^aT' d'AAo^ev dAAo? di^acrraSot', €k t ipeovro' 
TrpdJTOs 8' i^epeetvev dva^ dvBpcov ^Ayapbefxvcov 

eiTT aye /u- , a> TroAuatv Uouaey, /ueya kvoos . 
*Axo.Lcdv, 
't) p ideXet VT]€aatv dXe^epLevai 81^10^ TTvp, 
^ aTreetTTe, x^Xos 8' eV €X€l fieyaX-qropa dvjxov; ' 6 

Tov 8' aure TrpoaeeLrre TToXvrXas hlos ^Ohvaaevs' 

^ At pethf] KvSiare, dva^ dvSpcov ^Aydfiefivov, 
KCLvos y ovK edeXei a^eaaai xoXov, dAA' en fxaXXov 
TTLpLTrXdverat /xeveos, ak 8' dvaiverai rj8e aa 8a)pa. 
avTov ae (f)pdl,€adaL iv ^ Apyeioiaiv dvcoyev ^ 

07T7TCOS Kev vfjds T€ Gacps Kal Xaov 'Ap^atoit'' 

* u)S ^K^Xevare : iyKoviovaai. Zenodotus. 

*- tQ 8' dpa TrapKaT^XfKTO yvvrj, rriv : ry ck yvv^ wapiXiKTO 
Kdeip' fjv Zenodolus. 
430 



THE ILIAD, IX. 656-681 

So spake he, but they took each man a two- 
handled cup, and when they had made libation went 
their way along the lines of ships, and Odysseus led. 
JBut Patroclus bade his comrades and the handmaids 
spread forthwith a thick couch for Phoenix ; and 
they obeyed, and spread the couch, as he bade, 
fleeces and a rug and soft fabric of linen. There 
the old man laid him down and waited for bright 
Dawn. But Achilles slept in the innermost part 
of the well-builded hut, and by his side lay a woman 
that he had brought from Lesbos, even the daughter 
of Phorbas, fair-cheeked Diomede. And Patroclus 
laid him down on the opposite side, and by him 
in like manner lay fair-girdled Iphis, whom goodly 
Achilles had given him when he took steep Scyrus, 
the city of Enyeus. 

But when the others were now come to the huts 
of the son of Atreus, the sons of the Achaeans stood 
up on this side and that and pledged them in cups 
of gold, and questioned them, and the king of men, 
Agamemnon, was the first to ask : " Come, tell me 
now, Odysseus, greatly to be praised, thou great 
glory of the Achaeans, is he minded to ward off 
consuming fire from the ships, or said he nay, and 
doth wi*ath still possess his proud spirit ? " 

Then much-enduring goodly Odysseus answered 
him : " Most glorious son of Atreus, Agamemnon, 
king of men, he verily is not minded to quench his 
wrath but is filled yet more with fury, and will have 
none of thee, or of thy gifts. For thine own self he 
biddeth thee to take counsel amid the Argives how 
thou mayest save the ships and the host of the 

431 



HOMER 

avros 8' riTreiXriaev a/x' i^ot tjyaivojxevrj^L 

vrjas ivaaeXfjiovs aAaS' iXKCfiev aii^ieXiaaas . 

KoX 8' av roLS dXXoLGLV €(f>rj TrapafivOrjcraadat, 

otVaS' OLTTOTrXeUtv , irrel ovKert, Si^ere reKfxcop 6 

'lAtou alTTetvrjs' fJidXa yap iOev evpvoTra Zei)? 

^^eipa ir]v VTrepea^^, reOapa'^Kaai 8e Aaot. 

U)S e(f)aT*' elal /cat oi8e Ta8' emiyiev, ol fMOi 

€7TOVTO,^ 

Ata? Kal KTipvKe hvco, TreTTVVfxevco dfji(f)co. 
^oilvt^ 8' avd^ 6 yepojv KareXe^aro, ws yap dvcoyei, 6 
6(f)pa ol iv viqeaai (^iXrjV is TrarpiB' eTTT^rat 
avpiov, rjv eUeArjaiv avayKfi o ov tl fiiv ageu. 

"Q? €(f)a6\ OL 8' dpa TTOvres aKTjv eyivovro aicoTrf] 
fivOov dyaacrdfjLevoL' pudXa yap Kparepcjs dyopevae.^ 
Srjv 8' dveo) rjaav rer trior es vleg 'A;^atcDv 6 

oi/re 8e 817 jxere^nTe ^orjv dyaOog AiofjbTJSrjS' 
" * At petSrj KuSiCTre, dva$ dvSpcov ^AydfxefivoVf 
fjbrj 6(f>eX€9 XiaaeaOai dp^vpLOva YlriXetcxyva, 
p,vpLa Bcbpa htSovs' 6 8' dyi^vcop iarl /cat aAAco?" 
vvv av p.iv TToXv p,dXXov dyrjvoplrjaiv ivrJKas. 7 

dAA' rj TOi Kelvov p,ev idaofxev, rj k€V LrjOLV, 
Tj /ce P'ivjj' Tore 8' avre /xa;^7ycrerat, OTnrore Kev 

fXLV 

dvpLOS ivL arrjBeaaiv dvayyr) /cat 9e6s oparj. 
dXX dyed^ , (hs dv iych etVo), Treidajpieda Travres' 
vvv p,€V Kot[MT]aaa9€ rcrapTTop^evoi ^iXov r^rop j, 

airov /cat otVoto* to yap piivos iarl /cat aA/C7y* 
aurap iirei k€ (f>avfj KaXrj poBoSdKrvXos Hcos", 

^ Lines 688-692 were rejected by Arisbirchus. 
* Line 692 was rejected by Zcnodotus. 
' Line 694 was rejected by Zenodotus, Aristophanes, and 
Aristarchus. 

432 



THE ILIAD, IX. 682-707 

Achaeans. But himself he threateneth that at 
break of day he will launch upon the sea his well- 
benched curved ships. Aye and he said that he would 
counsel the others also to sail back to their homes, 
seeing there is no more hope that ye shall -win the 
goal of steep Ilios ; for mightily doth Zeus, whose 
voice is borne afar, hold forth his hand above her, 
and her people are filled with courage. So spake 
he, and these be here also to tell thee this, even 
they that followed with me, Aias and the heralds 
twain, men of prudence both. But the old man 
Phoenix laid him down there to rest, for so Achilles 
bade, that he may follow with him on his ships to 
his dear native land on the morrow, if he will, but 
perforce will he not take him." 

So spake he, and they all became hushed in 
silence, marvelling at his words ; for full masterfully 
did he address their gathering. Long time were 
they silent in their grief, the sons of the Achaeans, 
but at length there spake among them Diomedes, 
good at the war-cry : " Most glorious son of Atreus, 
Agamemnon, king of men, would thou hadst never 
besought the peerless son of Peleus, nor offered 
countless gifts ; haughty is he even of himself, 
and now hast thou yet far more set him amid 
haughtinesses. But verily we will let him be ; he 
may depart or he may tarry ; hereafter will he 
fight when the heart in his breast shall bid him, 
and a god arouse him. But come, even as I shall 
bid, let us all obey. For this present go ye, to your 
rest, when ye have satisfied your hearts with meat 
and wine, for therein is courage and strength ; but 
so soon as fair, rosy-fingered Dawn appeareth, 

VOL. I 2 F 483 



HOMER 

KapTTaXijxcos rrpo veojv exefxev Xaov t€ /cat lttttovs 
OTpvvcov, /cat S' avTos ivl npcorotai, fidxeadaL." 

Q.S €^a^', ot S' apa navres CTT'^uTjaav ^aaiXijes, 71 
fxvdov dyaaad/xevoi AtofirjSeos L7T7To8dp,oto . 
/cat TOT€ St) (T77etcravTe? e^av /cAtatr^j/Se e/caoroj, 
ei/^a Se Koiix-^aamo Kal vttvov dcopov gXovto, 



484 



THE ILIAD, IX. 708-713 

forthwith do thou array before the ships thy folk 
and thy chariots, and urge them on ; and fight thou 
thyself amid the foremost." 

So spake he, and all the kings assented thereto, 
marvelling at the words of Diomedes, tamer of horses. 
Then they made libation, and went every man to his 
hut, and there laid them down and took the gift 
of sleep. 



485 



lAIAAOS R 

AAAoi fxev Ttapa vrjvalv dpLCXTTJes Tl avaxdioiV 
eitSov Travvvxi'Oi,, fxaXaKco SeSfXTj/Jievoi, vttvu)' 
aAA ovK 'ArpetSrjv 'Aya/ze/Ltvova, TTOi}iiva Xawv, 
V7TVOS ex€ yXvK€p6s TToAAot <j)p€alv opfxaivovra. 
cos S' or* av darpoLTrrr] ttogls "Uprjs rjiJKOfjioio, I 
revxiov t] ttoXvv opb^pov ddea^arov r^e ■)(<iXai[,av 
7] VKJierov, ore irep re p^icoi' irraXwev dpovpas, 
rje TTodi TTToXefioLO fxeya arofjia TrevKeSavolo, 
COS" 7TVKLV iv arrjOeaaiv d.vearevdxi'C 'Aya/xe/zrcov 
veioOev e/c KpaStrjs, rpofxeovro Se ol (jtpives ivros. J 
rf TOL or is irehiov to Tpw'iKov dOprjceie, 
Oavfxa^ev Trvpd TToXXd, rd KaUro ^IXtoOt irpo, 
avXcbv avpiyy ojv t' ivo7Tr)V ofxaSov t' dvBpioTTCOV 
avrap or' is vrjds re t8ot /cat Xaov ^Axdtcov, 
TToAAa? eK Ke(f)aXrjs rrpoOeXvpLVOvs eXKero x^iras 1 
vifioO' iovri Alt', pieya 8' eareve KuSaXtfiov Krjp. 
'qSe 8e ol Kara Ovpbov dpiarrj ^aivero ^ovXrjf 
Necrrop' em rrpcorov NtjXt^'Cov eXdifxev dvSpibVf 
ei riva ol avv fjLijnv dpivpiova reKrijuairo, 
7] rLs aXe^LKaKos Trdaiv AavaoZcn yevoiro. i 

opOojQels 8' evSvve rrepl ariqBeaaL ;)^iTcova, 

^ The connexion is obscure, but the underlying thought 
seems to be that lightning, unaccompanied by rain or hail 
or snow, must be in a special sense a portent — assumed 

436 



BOOK X 

Now beside their ships all the other chieftains of 
the host of the Achaeans were slumbering the whole 
night through, overcome of soft sleep, but Aga- 
memnon, son of Atreus, shepherd of the host, was 
not holden of sweet sleep, so many things debated 
he in mind. Even as when the lord of fair-haired 
Hera lighteneth, what time he maketh ready either 
a mighty rain unspeakable or hail or snow, when the 
snow-flakes sprinkle the fields, or haply the wide 
mouth of bitter war ^ ; even so often did Agamemnon 
groan from the deep of his breast, and his heart 
trembled within him. So often as he gazed toward 
the Trojan plain, he marvelled at the many fires that 
burned before the face of Ilios, and at the sound of 
flutes and pipes, and the din of men ; but whenso- 
ever he looked toward the ships and the host of the 
Achaeans, then many were the hairs that he pulled 
from his head by the very roots in appeal to Zeus 
that is above, and in his noble heart he groaned 
mightily. And this plan seemed to his mind the 
best, to go first of all to Nestor, son of Neleus, if so 
be he might contrive with him some goodly device 
that should be for the warding off" of evil from the 
Danaan host. So he sate him up and did on his tunic 

naturally to be a sign portending war. The phrase iroXduov 
ffrdiM recurs in xix. 313, and xx. 359. 

437 



HOMER 

TToaal 8' V7t6 XiTTapoiaLV ihrjaaro /caAo. TreStAa, 
d/x^t 8 eTreira Ba(f)oiv6v ieaaaro 8ep/xa Xeovros 
aWcovos fieyaXoLO TrodrjveKes, eiAero 8' eyxps. 

"O? 8 avTcos MeveXaov e)(€ rpoixos — ovhk yap 
avTO) i 

VTTVos iTTL ^Xe(j)dpoiaiv i<f)(,t,av€ — [Xi^ tl ndOoiev 
'Apyetot, rol Brj edev etve/ca ttovXvv e^' vyprjv 
rjXvdov is TpoiTjv TToXefxov dpaavv opfialvovres. 
TTapSaXer) fiev Trpcora fxerdcfypevov evpv KaXvifje 
TTOLKiXri, avTap em aT€(f>dvr]v Ke(f)aXrj(f)LV deipas J 
OrjKaro )(aXK€Lrjv, Bopv 8' etXero X^^P"^ '^^X'^^V- 
^T) 8' iixev dvar'qaojv ov a8eA0eor, 6s fxeya TTOVTOiV 
'Apyeicov 'qvaaae, deos 8' U)S rUro Sijficp. 
Tov 8' evp ap,(f> (vpLOLOTL Tid'qfxevov eVrea KoXd 
VTjL TTapa TTpvfJLvrj' rep 8 doTrdaios yever* eXddyv. J 
TOV TTporepos TrpoueetTre ^orjv dyaOos Meve'Aao?* 
" rL(f)d^ ovTOJS, rjdete, Kopvaaeai; rj rtv' iraipoiv 
orpweets Tpcoeaacv imaKOTTOv; dXXd p,dX alvG>s 
SeiSoj p,rj ov ris rot VTToaxrjTat, roSe epyov, 
dvhpas Bvaixeveas aK07nat,ep.ev olos €7T€Xdd>v ^ 

vvKra 8i' dp.^po(TLrjv' fidXa tls OpaavKdpStos earai." 

Tov 8' d7Taix€i^6p,€Vos 7Tpo(T€(f)r] Kpcicov ' Aya- 
IxipLVOiV 
■' XP^^ PovXijs ifie /cat ae, hioTpe(f>es- a> Meve'Aae, 
KephaXiris , rj tls kcv ipvaaeTai rjSe aacoaa 
*ApyeLovs Kal vrjas, inel Ato? iTpdirero <f>pTJv. < 
'E/CTO/aeots dpa jxaXXov eirl ^piva Orjx l^poLOiv. 
ov yap TTO) L86p,r)v, ouS' €kXvov avS-qaavros, 
avSp* €va ToacrdSe fiepfiep^ ctt' TJfiari firjTLaaadaif 
oaa "EiKTiop kppe^e du(f)i,Xos vlas 'A^^atoii/, 

<tS8 



THE ILIAD, X. 22-49 

about his breast, and beneath his shining feet bound 
his fair sandals, and thereafter clad him in the 
tawny skin of a lion, fiery and great, a skin that 
reached his feet ; and he grasped his spear. 

And even in like manner was Menelaus holden 
of trembling fear — for on his eyehds too sleep 
settled not down — lest aught should befall the 
Argives who for his sake had come to Troy over the 
wide waters of the sea, pondering in their hearts 
fierce war. With a leopard's skin first he covered 
his broad shoulders, a dappled fell, and lifted up 
and set upon his head a helmet of bronze, and grasped 
a spear in his stout hand. Then he went his way to 
rouse his brother, that ruled mightily over all the 
Argives, and was honoured of the folk even as a god. 
Him he found putting about his shoulders his fair 
armour by the stern of his ship, and welcome was 
he to him as he came. To him first spake Menelaus, 
good at the war-cry : " Wherefore, my brother, art 
thou thus arming ? Wilt thou be rousing some 
man of thy comrades to spy upon the Trojans ? 
Nay, sorely am I afraid lest none should undertake 
for thee this task, to go forth alone and spy upon 
the foemen, through the immortal night ; right 
hardy of heart must that man be." 

Then in answer to him spake lord Agamemnon : 
" Need have we, both thou and I, O Menelaus, 
fostered of Zeus, of shrewd counsel that shall save 
and deliver the Argives and their ships, seeing the 
mind of Zeus is turned. To the sacrifices of Hector, 
it seemeth, his heart inclineth rather than to ours. 
For never have I seen neither heard by the telling 
of another that one man devised in one day so many 
terrible deeds, as Hector, dear to Zeus, hath wrought 

439 



HOMER 

avrcos, ovre deds vlos (fyiXos ovre Oeolo. 50 

epya 8' epe^'' oaa (f)r]fJiL ixeXrjaefxev ^ Apyeioiai} 
8rj9d T€ /cat hoXixov roaa yap /ca/ca [x-qaar* 'A^aiovs. 
aAA' Wl vvv K'iavra /cat 'ISo^Ltev^a KoXeaaov 
pL[X(f)a Odojv rrapa vrjas' iyco 8' 67rt Nearopa 8Xov 
elfXL, Kttt orpvveco dvCTTT^jLtevat, at k ideXrjcnv 55 

iXdelv is <f)vXdKOJV lepov reXos 178' eTTiTetAat. 
Keivcp yap k€ jxaXiara indoiaro' rdio yap vlos 
orjfxaLvei, (^vXaKeaai, Kal \hoixevrjOS ottohjov 
M.r]pi6v7js' roLGLV yap eTTerpd7Top,ev ye pbdXiara." 

Tov 8' r)H€L^€T* eWtra ^or)v dyados Meve'Aaos" go 
" TTcbs ydp p.01 fivdcp cTTtTeAAeai rjSe KeXeveis ; 
avOi iiivcx) nerd Tolat, heheypievos els o Kev eXOrjS, 
rje Oeco fierd <t' aurt?, eTrrjv ev toIs eTnrelXco;" 

Tov 8' avre Trpoaeenrev dva^ dvSpcbv ^AyafMefivcov 
" avOi fxeveiv, fiij ttcos aPpord^ofiev d?^7jXouv 66 
ipXOjJievo)' TToXXal ydp dvd arparov elat KeXevdoi. 
(f)6eyyeo 8' fj Kev trjada, Kal eyp'qyopdai dvcoxdi, 
TrarpoOev e/c yeverjs 6vofj,dl,a>v dvSpa eKaarov, 
TTOVTas Kvhaivcov fxrjBe fieyaXil^eo dvpicp, 
dXXd /cat avToi irep TroveiofieOa- c58e ttov dfxfii 70 
Zeus' €77t yiyvofievoLacv tei KaKorrjra ^apelav." 

"Q? elTTOJV dneTTefXTTev dBeX(f)€6v ev eTnreiXas' 
avrdp 6 ^rj p levat /xera Necrropa, TTOt/u-eVa Xacov 
TOV 8' evpev Trapd re KXialrj Kal vrjt fxeXalvr] 
evvfj evt fiaXaKjj' Trapa 8 evrea ttolkLX e/cetro, 75 

^ Lines 51 f. were rejected by Aristophanes and Arist- 
archus. 

440 



THE ILIAD, X. 50-75 

upon the sons of the Achaeans, by himself alone, 
he that is not the dear son of goddess or of god. 
Deeds hath he wrought that methinks will be a 
sorrow to the Argives for ever and aye, so many 
evils hath he devised against the Achaeans, But 
go now, run swiftly along the lines of ships and call 
hither Aias and Idomeneus, and I will go to goodly 
Nestor and bid him arise, if so be he will be minded 
to go to the sacred company of the sentinels and give 
them charge. To him would they hearken as to 
no other, for his son is captain over the guard, he 
and Meriones, comrade of Idomeneus ; for to them 
above all we entrusted this charge." 

Then made answer to him Menelaus, good at 
the war-cry : " With what meaning doth thy word 
thus charge and command me ? Shall I abide there 
with them, waiting until thou shalt come, or run 
back to thee again, when I have duly laid on them 
thy command ? " 

And to him did the king of men, Agamemnon, 
make answer, saying : " Abide there, lest haply we 
miss each other as we go, for many are the paths 
throughout the camp. But lift up thy voice where- 
soever thou goest, and bid men be awake, calling 
each man by his lineage and his father's name, 
giving due honour to each, and be not thou proud 
of heart but rather let us ourselves be busy ; even 
thus I ween hath Zeus laid upon us even at our birth 
the heaviness of woe." 

So spake he, and sent forth his brother when he 
had duly given him commandment. But he went 
his way after Nestor, shepherd of the host, and found 
him by his hut and his black ship on his soft bed, 
and beside him lay his armour richly dight, his 

441 



HOMER 

danls Kai 8vo Bovpe (f)a€iv'q re rpv(f>aXeia. 

Trap Se i,ojGTr]p kclto TravaioXos , & p 6 yepatos 

t,(x}wvO^ , or* is TToXefjLOV ^diarjvopa dcoprjaaoiTO 

Xaov aycov, irrel ov fxep eTrirpeTre yqpa'C Xvypcp. 

opdaydels S' d'p' €7r' ayKuyvos, K€(f)aXrjv eTraet/aas", i 

^ArpetS-qv Trpoaienre /cat e^epeeiveTO jjivOcp' 

" ris 8* ovTOS Kara vrjas dva err par 6v epx^at olos 

vvKTa St' op(f)vaLr]v, ore 6* evBovac ^porol dXXoi, 

rje riv* ovp-qoiv hil,'qp.evos , 7] nv* iralpcov;^ 

(pUeyyeo, ixrjo aKcojv eir ep, epx^o. rnrre oe a€ 

Tov 8' r]p,€i^er erreira dva^ avSpojv Ayap,€p,voiV' 
" c5 Ndarrop Nr]Xr]id8r], jxeya kvSos 'Ap^aicDi/, 
yviocreai * Arp€LBr)v ^Ayafidfivova, rov Trepl TravroiV 
Zeu? ever^Ke ttovolctl hiap^Trepes , et? 6 k avrfirj 
iv arrjQeacn P'^vrj Kai jxol (f)iXa yovvar opwpr]. ' 
7rXdl,op.at cS8', eTret ov p.oL err* o/x/xaai vrjSvp^os vttvos 
l^dvei, dXXd fxeXei TToXepLog Kai /C7y8e' 'A;;^ataJi'. 
alva)S yap Aavacbv irepiheihia, ovhe pLOi rjrop 
efiTTehov, dAA' dXaXvKrrnxai, KpaStr] 8e [xot e^co 
arrjdecov eKdpcpaKei, rpopLeei 8' vtto 0at8t/xa yvla. 
dXX el Ti hpaiveis, enel ovSe ere y vttvos cKdvei, 
Sevp* is rovs (f)vXaKas Kara^rjonev, 6(f)pa Ihcofxev, 
firj rol fJbev Kap^drco dBrjKores rj^e /cat^ vttvo) 
KOLfi-qaojpraL, drdp (f)vXaKrjs eVt ndyxv Xddcovrai. 
hvap,evees 8' dvSpes cr;(€86j/ rjaraL' ouSe ri tBp,€V 
fji'q TTOis Kai 8td vvKra p.evoivqacocri fjidxeadai. 

Tov 8' T^/u.et/3eT' erreira TeprjVLOs LTnrora Niorcop' 
** 'ArpetSr] Kv8tcrre, dva^ dvSpcbv * AydpLepuvov , 

* Line 84 was rejected by Aristarchus. 
* -qU KoX : r)UC Zenodotus. 

442 



THE ILIAD, X. 76-103 

shield and two spears and gleaming helmet. And 
by his side lay the flashing girdle, wherewith the 
old man was wont to gird himself, whenso he arrayed 
him for battle, the bane of men, and led forth his 
people, for he yielded not to grievous old age. He 
rose upon his elbow, lifting up his head, and spake 
to the son of Atreus, and questioned him, saying : 
" Who art thou that art faring alone by the ships 
throughout the camp in the darkness of night, when 
other mortals are sleeping ? Seekest thou one of 
thy mules, or of thy comrades ? Speak, and come 
not silently upon me. Of what hast thou need ? " 

Then made answer the king of men, Agamemnon : 
" Nestor, son of Neleus, great glory of the Achaeans, 
thou shalt know Agamemnon, son of Atreus, whom 
beyond all others Zeus hath set amid toils continually, 
so long as the breath abideth in my breast and my 
knees are quick. I wander thus, because sweet 
sleep settleth not upon mine eyes, but war is a 
trouble to me and the woes of the Achaeans. 
Wondrously do I fear for the Danaans, nor is my 
mind firm, but I am tossed to and fro, and my heart 
leapeth forth from out my breast, and my glorious 
limbs tremble beneath me. But if thou wouldest 
do aught, seeing on thee too sleep cometh not, 
come, let us go to the sentinels, that we may look 
to them, lest fordone with toil and drowsiness they 
be slumbering, and have wholly forgot their watch. 
The foemen bivouac hard by, nor know we at all 
whether haply they may not be fain to do battle 
even in the night." 

Then made answer to him the horseman Nestor 
of Gerenia : " Most glorious son of Atreus, Aga- 
memnon, king of men, of a surety not all his purposes 

443 



HOMER 

ov 6r)v "E/CTopt TTavra vorjyiara inqrieTa Zeu? 
CKTeAeet, oaa ttov vvv eeXiTerai' dAAa ^Jbiv olu> IC 
/CTySeat fxoxdijcreLV /cat TrAetocrtv, ei /cev 'A;)(;tAAeus' 
e/c ;;(oAou apyaXeoto fMeraaTpeifjr] (f)iXov rjrop. 
aol Se /xaA' eifjofi* iycx)' ttotl S' au /cat eyeipofiev 

dXXovs, 
rjfjbev Tvhetbrjv hovpiKXvrov i^S' 'OSucnya 
7^8' Atarra rap^yv Kat OuAeo? ctA/ct/xov uidv. 11 

aAA' et Ti? /cat ToucrSe pL^roixopbevos /caAeaetev, 
avrideov r Atavra /cat 'ISo/xei'T^a dvaKra- 
rcov yap vrjes eaaiv eKaardrcxi, ovhk /xdX eyyvs. 
dAAa ^iXov TTcp iovra /cat atSotoi' MeveXaov 
veiKeaoi, et Trep puoi vefxeariaeai, ouS' eVt/ceuCTO), 1] 
COS" ewSet, crot 8' oio) eTvirpeipev rroveeadat,. 
vvv d^eXev Kara Trdvras dpLarrja? iroveeadai 
Xiaaopievos' XP^''^ Y^P ^xdverai ovKer dveKTOs. 

Tov 8' avre TrpoaeetTrev dva^ dvBpojv ^ Ayajxep,v(ji)V' 
" (3 yepov, dXXore fxiv ae koI alridaadai dvcoya' i; 
TToAAd/ci yap /xe^tet re Kal ovk ideXei -noveeadai, 
ovr* oKvcp eLKOJV ovr* d^pahLrjcri voolo, 
dXX e/Lte t' elaopoojv /cat e}iriv 7ToriSeyp,evos 6pp,'qv. 
vvv 8' ifxeo TTporepos /u,dA' eTreypero /cat pLOt eVeWr^ ' 
Tov* /Ltep' iyoj irpoerjKa KaX'qp^evat ovs ov /xeraAAas". 1' 
dAA' iopiev' Keivovs 8e Ki,x'^cr6p,€da irpo rrvXacov 
iv ^vXdKeaa , Iva ydp acf)LV eire^pahov rjyepeOeaOat." 

Tov 8' Tjpiei^er* eWiTa Teprivios iTnrora Nearwp' 
" OVTCOS ov tIs ol vep.ear]aerai ovh dTTLOrjaei, 
'Apyeicov, ore kcv riv^ iTTorpvvrj koI dvcoyj].' i; 

"ils eiTTCDV evSvve irepi ariqOeaaL p^iroJi'a, 



* That is, Meges ; see ii. 627. 
444 



THE ILIAD, X. 104-131 

shall Zeus the counsellor fulfil for Hector, even all 
that now he thinketh ; nay methinks he shall labour 
amid troubles yet more than ours, if so be Achilles 
shall turn his heart from grievous anger. Howbeit 
with thee will I gladly follow, but let us moreover 
arouse others also, both the son of Tydeus, famed 
for his spear, and Odysseus, and the swift Aias, and 
the valiant son of Phyleus.^ And I would that one 
should go and summon these also, the godlike Aias 
and lord Idomeneus, for their ships are furthest 
of all and nowise nigh at hand. But Menelaus will 
I chide, dear though he be and honoured, aye, 
though thou shouldest be angry with me, nor will 
I hide my thought, for that he sleepeth thus, and 
hath suffered thee to toil alone. Now had it been 
meet that he laboured among all the chieftains, 
beseeching them, for need has come upon them that 
may no longer be borne." 

And to him did the king of men, Agamemnon, 
make answer, saying : " Old sir, at another time 
shalt thou chide him even at mine own bidding, 
seeing he is often slack and not minded to labour, 
neither yielding to sloth nor to heedlessness of mind, 
but ever looking to me and awaiting my leading. 
But now he awoke even before myself, and came to 
me, and myself I sent him forth to summon those 
of whom thou inquirest. But let us go ; we shall 
find them before the gates amid the sentinels, for 
there I bade them gather." 

Then made answer to him the horseman, Nestor 
of Gerenia : "So will no man be wroth at him or 
disobey him of all the Argives, whenso he urgeth 
any man or giveth commands." 

So saying he did on his tunic about his breast, 

445 



HOMER 

TToaal S* v7t6 XnTapolaiv iS-^aaro KaXa TreStAa, 
aix(f)l 8' dpa x^ouvav TrepovrjcraTO (f)oivi,K6€aaav 
SLTrXrjv eKTaSirjv, ovXrj 8' iTrevqvode Xdxvrj. 
ctXero 8' dXKLfjbov eyxos, a./ca;^/x,eVov o^eC xcXkcv, 13 
^rj 8 Idvat Kara vrjas 'A;)(aia)i' ;(aA/co;^iTa;t'a)v. 
TTpcoTOV CTretT 08ucnya, Att [xrJTLV drdXavTOV, 
€$ V7TVOV dveyeipe Vep'qvLOS iTnrora Nearwp 
(fiOey^dfjuevos' rov 8' ali/ja irepl (f)p€vas rjXvd^ Icorj, 
€K 8 rjXde kXiul7]s Kai a^ea? Trpos [xvOov eenre- 14 

TLcpd ovTCo /caret, vrjas dvd arparov otoi, dXdcrOe 
vvKTa 8t' dfM^poaiTjv, o ti Srj XP^''^ roaov i/cet; " 
Lov 8 rjfxeL^eT* eVetTa Tepn^vios tTnrora ^ ear cop' 
St.oy€V€s AaepridSr], TToXvfi'qx'^v^ ^OSvaaev, 
fXT) v€p,iaa- rolov yap dxog Pe^LrjKfu 'Axatovs. 14 
aAA' eVe', 6(f)pa /cat dXXov eyeipojxev , 6v r' eTreoiKe 
^ovXds ^ovXeveiv, r^ (j^evyejiev rje p,dx^odai." 
Q.9 (j)d6\ 6 Se KXiaLrjvSe kcojv 7ToXvp,r]ri,s '08ua- 
aevs 
ttoiklXov djjLcj)' wfxoLcrc adKOs diro, ^rj 8e //.er' avrovs. 
Pdv 8' 6771 TvBetSrjV ALOfJi-qBca' rov 8' eKixo-vov 15 
eKTos ano KXiairjs avv revx^ocv' d/xcj)! 8 iraipoi 
euooi', UTTO Kpaaiv o ^xov aainoas' ^yx^^ "^ cr^tv 
O/30' CTTt aavpojrrjpos iX-qXaro, rrjXe he ;:^aA/co9 
Xdficf)* u)S re areponr] Trarpos Aids, avrdp d y* 

rjpojs 
eSS' , VTTO 8' earpcoro pwov ^oos dypavXoio, 16 

avrdp VTTO Kpdr€a<f)i rdrrqs rerdvvaro (f)aeiv6s. 
rov TTapard? dveyeipe Veprjvios iTTTTora Nearojp, 
Xd^ TToSl KLvrjaas, orpvve re veiKeae t' dvrrjv 
" eypeo, Ti;8€os" vU' ri ttovvvxov vttvov dcorels; 

446 



THE ILIAD, X. 132-159 ' 

and beneath his shining feet bound his fair sandals 
and around him buckled a purple cloak of double 
fold and wide, whereon the down was thick. And 
he grasped a mighty spear, tipped with sharp 
bronze, and went his way among the ships of the 
brazen-coated Achaeans. Then Odysseus first, the 
peer of Zeus in counsel, did the horseman, Nestor 
of Gerenia, awaken out of sleep with his voice, and 
forthwith the call rang all about his mind and he 
came forth from the hut and spake to them, saying : 
" How is it that ye fare thus alone by the ships 
throughout the camp in the immortal night ? What 
need so great hath come upon you ? " 

Then made answer to him the horseman, Nestor 
of Gerenia : " Zeus-born son of Laertes, Odysseus 
of many wiles, be not thou wroth, for great sorrow 
hath overmastered the Achaeans. Nay, follow, that 
we may arouse another also, whomsoever it behoveth 
to take counsel, whether to flee or to fight." 

So spake he, and Odysseus of many wiles went 
to the hut and cast about his shoulders a shield richly 
dight, and followed after them. And they came to 
Tydeus' son, Diomedes, and him they found outside 
his hut with his arms ; and around him his comrades 
were sleeping with their shields beneath their heads, 
but their spears were driven into the ground erect 
on their spikes, and afar shone the bronze like the 
hghtning of father Zeus. But the warrior was 
sleeping, and beneath him was spread the hide of an 
ox of the field, and beneath his head was stretched 
a bright carpet. To his side came the horseman, 
Nestor of Gerenia, and woke him, stirring him with 
a touch of his heel, and aroused him, and chid him 
to his face : " Awake, son of Tydeus, why slumberest 

447 



HOMER 

ovK ate6? (x)9 Tpa)€S eVt Opcoafxco TreStoio 
"^'arat d'yX'' vewv, oAtyo? S' eVt x^P^s ipvKet,; " 

Q.S (pad , 6 8' e^ VTTVoto fidXa KpamvaJs avopovae, 
Kat jiLv (ficov-qcras cTrea Trrepoevra 7Tpo<jr]v8a' 

axerXios iacri,, yepate- av jxev ttovov ov ttotc Xi^yeLS. 
ov vv /cat aAAot eacrt vedorepot, vies 'Axatcov, 
OL Kev eiTeira CKacrrov iyetpeiav ^aoiX-qoiv 
TTavTT) eTTOLXop-evoi; av S' apbrfxavos iaai, yepaie." 

lov 8' avre TTpoaeenre Tep-qvios ImTOTa Nearcop' 

vat 817 ravrd ye rravra, ^iXos, Kara fiolpav eenreg. 
etaiv fiev [xot TvatSe? dixvjjioves, elal 8e Aaot 
/cat TToXees, rcov /ceV Tt? i7TocxoiJ,evos KaXeaeiev. 
aXXd pudXa fieydX-q XP^^^ ^e^irjKev ^Axaiovs. 
vvv yap Srj Travreaaiv eirl ^vpov tcrrarat dKfiTJs 
7) ixaXa Xvypos oXedpos ^Axaiols rje ^icDvat. 
aAA' t'^t vvv A'lavTa raxvv /cat ^vXeos vlov 
avcrrrjaov, av ydp iaac vecorepos — et /x' iXeatpei?." 
Q.S (pau ,6S^ d/>i0' a>fjLOLaiv ieaaaro Sepfia Xiovrog 
aidwvos fxeydXoio TToSrjveKes, clXcto 8' eyxos. 
prj o tevat, rovs 8* evOev dvaar'qaas dyev -qpco?. 

Ot 8 oT€ Srj (j)vXdKeaaiv iv dypofxevoLaiv e/xt- 

ovo€ fX€V evoovras (f>vXdKcov rjyrjTopag evpov, 
aXX iyp-qyoprl avv revx^aiv rjaro Trdvres. 
d)S 8e Kvves TTcpl fjirjXa Svacjp-qacovrai, iv avXfj 
UTjpos dKovaavres Kparepo^povo? , os re /ca^' vXt]V 
epx^jraL 8t 6pea<f>L' ttoXvs 8' dpvuaySos eV avrco 

448 



THE ILIAD, X. 160-185 

thou the whole night through in sleep ? Knowest 
thou not that the Trojans on the rising ground of 
the plain are camped hard by the sliips, and but 
scant space still holdeth them off ? " 

So said he, but the other right swiftly sprang up 
out of sleep, and he spake and addressed him with 
winged words : " Hardy art thou, old sir, and from 
toil thou never ceasest. Are there not other sons 
of the Achaeans that be younger, who might then 
rouse each one of the kings, going everywhere 
throughout the host ? But with thee, old sir, may 
no man deal." 

Then the horseman, Nestor of Gerenia, answered 
him : " Nay verily, friend, all this hast thou spoken 
according to right. Peerless sons have I, and folk 
there be full many, of whom any one might go and 
call others. But in good sooth great need hath 
overmastered the Achaeans, for now to all it 
standeth on a razor's edge, either woeful ruin for 
the Achaeans, or to live. But go now and rouse swift 
Aias and the son of Phyleus, for thou art younger 
— if so be thou pitiest me." 

So spake he, and Diomedes clad about his 
shoulders the skin of a lion, fiery and great, 
a skin that reached his feet, and grasped his spear ; 
and he went his way, and roused those warriors 
from where they were, and bi'ought them. 

Now when they had joined the company of the 
sentinels as they were gathered together, they 
found not the leaders of the sentinels asleep, but 
all were sitting awake with their arms. And even 
as dogs keep painful watch about sheep in a fold, 
when they hear the wild beast, stout of heart, that 
cometh through the wood among the hills, and a great 

VOL. 1 2 Q 449 



HOMER 

dvhpaiv rjhe kvvcov, oltto re a^iatv vttvos oXcoXev 
<jL)s rcjv vqbvfjLos VTTVos OLTTO ^Xecfxxpouv oAcoAet 
vvKTa (fivXaaaojxevoiai KaKrjv TreSiovSe yap alel 
TeTpd(f)a6\ OTTTTOT eTTt Tpcocov atoL€V lovrcov. 
Tovs 8' o yepcov yi^O-qaev ISojv ddpavve re p,v9q) 1 
Kai a(f)eas (fxjjvi^cras eVea Trrepoevra 7Tpoa7]v8a'^ 
" ovTO) vvv, (jiiXa reKva, (jyvXdaaere' firjBe riv* vttvos 
alpeiTOi, fx-q ;(ap/xa yevc^ixeda hvajxevieaaiv ." 

''Q.s eiTTOiV rd(j)poLO hieacwro' rot S' ayu,' errovro 
'Apyeiojv ^aaiXfjes, oaoc KeKXr^aro ^ovX-qv. i 

roLS 8' dfia Mr]pi6vr)s Kal Nearopos dyXaog vlos 
TJ'Caav avTol yap KoXeov avp^fxrjTLdaadaL. 
rd(f>pov S' eKSia^dpTCs opvKTTjV eSpLocovro 
iv KaOapu), oOi hrj vckvcov Siec^atVero x^jpos 
TTiTTrovTCDV 60 ev avTis direr pdTTer* o^piixos "E/crcop 2i 
oXXvs ^Apyeiovs, ore 817 Trepl vv$ eKaXvipev. 
evOa Kadet,6p,evoi eire aXXr^Xoiai m^aucr/coi/* 
roioi 8e fivdcov rjpxe VeprivLos Imrora Necrrcop' 
" (L (j)iXoL, ovK dv hrj ris dvqp TreTridoid^ id) avrov 
6vp,a) roXp^rjevrt, fierd T/acDa? fxeyaOvfiovs 2i 

eXdelv, et rivd ttov Stjlcov eXot, eaxaroojvra, 
7] rivd TTOV Kat (f)rjij,tv evi Tpdyeaai TTvdoiro, 
dcraa re firjriocoaL puera a(j)iaLV, rj p.ep,daaw 
avOi p,€V€LV TTapd vqvalv dTTOTrpodev, rje TToXivSe 
dijj dvaxoiprjOOVOLV , eTrel hapidaavro y ^A^aiovs; 2 
ravrd /ce Trdvra TrvQoiro, Kal dtf; el? rjpieas eXOoi 
daKr^OrjS' jxeya Kev ol vrrovpdviov nXeos etrj 
Trdvra^ ctt' dvdpcjJTTOvg, Kai ol 8ocri? eaaerat eadX-n- 
oaaoi yap vjeaaiv eTTiKpareovacv dpiaroL, 

* Line 191 is omitted in many mss. 
450 



THE ILIAD, X. 186-214 

din ariseth about him of men and dogs, and from 
them sleep perisheth ; even so from their eyelids 
did sweet sleep perish, as they kept watch through 
the evil night ; for toward the plain were they ever 
turning if haply they might hear the Trojans coming 
on. At sight of them the old man waxed glad and 
heartened them, and spake and addressed them 
with winged words : " Even so now, d«;ar children, 
keep your watch, neither let sleep seize any man, 
lest we become a cause of rejoicing to our foes." 

So saying he hasted through the trench, and 
there followed with him the kings of the Argives, 
even all that had been called to the council. But 
with them went Meriones and the glorious son of 
Nestor ; for of themselves they bade these share 
in their counsel. So they went through and out 
from the digged ditch and sate them down in an 
open space, where the ground shewed clear of dead 
men fallen, even where mighty Hector had turned 
back again from destroying the Argives, when night 
enfolded him. There they sate them down and 
spake one to the other, and among them the horse- 
man, Nestor of Gerenia, was first to speak : " My 
friends, is there then no man who would trust his 
own venturous spirit to go among the great-souled 
Trojans, if so be he might slay some straggler of the 
foemen, or haply hear some rumour among the 
Trojans, and what counsel they devise among them- 
selves, whether to abide where they be by the ships 
afar, or to withdraw again to the city, seeing they 
have worsted the Achaeans ? All this might he 
learn, and come back to us unscathed : great would 
his fame be under heaven among all men, and a 
goodly gift shall be his. For of all the princes that 

451 



HOMER 

Tcx)V TTavTcov ol CKaoTos o'Cv Sa>aovai fxeXacvau 2 
drjXvv VTTopprjvov rfj fxev Krepas ovSev ofxdiov' 
alel 8' ev Satrrjcri /cat elXaTTivrjOi irapiaTai." 
"Q? e(j)ad\ ol 8' apa iravres oiKrjv iyevovTO 

aiCOTTTJ. 

Toiat, Se /cat fxereenre ^orjv dyaOos Ai,op,TJ8r]S' 2 
" NeoTop, efi orpvvei KpaSirj /cat dvp,6s dy-qvcop 
dvdpcbv Suafievecov Swat arparov iyyus iovrcov, 
TpdxiiV aAA e't rt? /xot dvr]p dpj' eTTOiro /cat aAAos", 
fxdXXov daXTTCopr] /cat dapaaXecorepov ear at. 
avv re 8u' ipxofMevo), /cat re irpo o rod ivorjcrev 2 
OTTTTCos KepSos €rj' jjiovvos 8* et TTep re vo-qar), 
dXXd re ol ^pdaacov re voos, Xeirrr] Se re pLTJrtg." 

"O? e(f)ad\ ol 8' edeXov Ato/x7^8et TroAAot erreadai. 
rjdeXerr^v Atavre Sua), depdirovres "Apryos", 
rjOeXe M-qpcovrjs, fxdXa 8' rjdeXe Nearopos vlog, 2 
rjdeXe 8' 'ArpetSr]? Soypt/cAetro? Mei/e'Aao?, 
rjdeXe 8' o rXt]p,cov 'OSvaevs Karahvvai opuXov 
Tpoiiov alel ydp ol evl <j>peal dvfios eroXfxa. 
rdiai Se /cat p^ereenrev dva^ dvSpiov *Ayap,ep,vo}p' 
" TuSetSry Ai6p,r]Ses, ifxcp Kexa-piop^eve dvp,a>, 
rov p,ev 8r] erapov y alp-qaecxi, ov k edeXjiada, 2 
(j)aivopievct)V rov dpiarov, enel /xe^Liaacrt ye rroXXoi. 
fMTjSe av y' atSo/xevo? afjai (f>peal rov fxev dpelco 
KoXXeiTTeLV, av Se ^^et'poi/' ondacreaL atSot eiKCvv, 
€? yever)v opooiv, fMrjB* el ^aaiXevrepos eariv." 

^Q? e^ar', eSSetcrev 8e vrept ^av^o) Met'eAao*.* 24 
Tot? 8' aurt? /xere'etTre /Soi^i/ dya^oj Aiopi.-qSrjs' 
" el jxev Srj erapov ye KeXevere /x' avrov eXeadai, 

* Line 2U) was rejected by Zenodotus and Aristarchus. 
452 



THE ILIAD, X. 215-242 

hold sway over the ships, of all these shall every 
man give him a black ewe with a lamb at the teat — 
therewith may no possession compare ; — and ever 
shall he be with us at feasts and drinking-bouts." 

So said he, and they all became hushed in silence. 
Then spake among them Diomedes, good at the 
war-cry : " Nestor, my heart and proud spirit urge 
me to enter the camp of the foemen that are near, 
even of the Trojans; howbeit if some other man 
were to follow with me, greater comfort would there 
be, and greater confidence. When two go together, 
one discerneth before the other how profit may be 
had ; whereas if one alone perceive aught, yet is 
his wit the shorter, and but slender his device." 

So spake he, and many there were that were fain 
to follow Diomedes. Fain were the two Aiantes, 
squires of Ares, fain was Meriones, and right fain 
the son of Nestor, fain was the son of Atreus, Mene- 
laus, famed for his spear, and fain too was the stead- 
fast Odysseus to steal into the throng of the Trojans, 
for ever daring was the spirit in his breast. Then 
among them spake the king of men, Agamemnon : 
" Diomedes, son of Tydeus, dear to my heart, that 
man shalt thou choose as thy comrade, whomsoever 
thou wilt, the best of them that offer themselves, for 
many are eager. And do not thou out of reverent 
heart leave the better man behind, and take as thy 
comrade one that is worse, yielding to reverence, 
and looking to birth, nay, not though one be more 
kingly." 

So said he, since he feared for the sake of fair- 
haired Menelaus. But among them spake again 
Diomedes, good at the war-cry : " If of a truth 
ye bid me of myself choose me a comrade, how 

453 



HOMER 

TTOJS av €7retT* *0hva7Jos eycb deioio Xadotfi-qv, 
ov rrepi fiev TTp6(f>pojv KpaSir) /cat dup-os dyqvcjp 
ev TravTeacTL rrovoicri., ^lAet 8e e IlaAAa? *Ad-qvr). 2'. 
rovTov ye a7Top,€voio /cat e/c irvpos aldop,evoio 
dp,(f>a) vocrTi]aaip,€V , eTret TreptoiSe vorjaai." 

Tov 8 avre Trpoaeenre TToXvrXas Slog 'OSucraeus" 
' TvSetSr), pi'^T* dp pb€ pLoX a'tVee pLrjre tl vet/cei* 
eiSdat yap rot ravra jLter' 'Apyetot? dyopevei'S. 2{ 
aAA 'iopbev p,dXa yap vv^ dverai, iyyvdi S' t^cos", 
darrpa Se St) Trpo^€^r]K€, TrapoixoJKev 8e 7rAea>v 

TcDv 8yo p,oLpdcov, rpirdrrj 8' eVt pbolpa AeAetTrrai."^ 

Q? elrrovd* oirXoLcnv evi S€tvolacv ihvrrjv. 
Tvhetbrj pL€v 8w/ce p^eveTTToXepLos Qpacrvp,ij87]g 21 

<l)dayavov dpi(f>rjK€s — to 8' eoi^ Trapd vrjt XeXenrro — 
/cat adKos' dp,^l 8e ot Kvvdrjv Ke^aXri<j)LV edr]K€ 
ravpeirji', d^aXov re /cat dXXo(f)OV, rj re KaraZrv^ 
/ce/cATyrai, pverai 8e /ca/DT^ OaXepcbv al^rjcbv. 
Mrjpiovrjg 8' '08ucr^t 8i8ou jStov i^Se </)ap€Tp'rjV 2f 
/cat ^i(/)og, a/x0t 8e ot Kvverjv K€<f>aXrj(f)Lv edr^Ke 
pivov TTOLrjTT^v TToXicTLV 8' evToodev Ipbdacv 
evreraro arcpedjs' eKroade 8e Aeu/coi oSovres" 
dpyto8pp'Tos' vos dapbies ^xov evda /cat evda 
€v Kal iTTiarapiivoiS' piecrarj 8 ivl rrlXos dp-qpei. 2( 
rrjv pd TTor' e^ 'EAccDro? * Ap,vvropos ^OppieviSao 
e^e'Aer' AutoAu/cos" TTL'/cti^ot' BopLov avTirop-qaas, 
YiKO-vheiav 8' apa hd)Ke }^vdrjpicp 'Api(l>LSdpbavTi,' 
* Apb(f}LSdp,ag 8e MoAoj 8a)/ce ^eLvqiov eluai, 
avrdp 6 MrjpLovr) Bcokcv cS 7rat8t ^oprjvav 21 

817 tot' 'O8uao^o9 TTVKacrev Kdp-q dp,^LTedeZaa. 

^ Line 253 was rejected by Zenodotus, Aristophanes, and 
Aristarchus. 

454 



THE ILIAD, X. 213-271 

should I then forget godhke Odysseus, whose heart 
and proud spirit are beyond all others eager in all 
manner of toils ; and Pallas Athene loveth him. If he 
but follow with me, even out of blazing fire might we 
both return, for wise above all is he in understanding." 

Then spake unto him much enduring goodly 
Odysseus : " Son of Tydeus, praise me not over- 
much, neither blame me in aught : this thou sayest 
among the Argives that themselves know all. Nay, 
let us go, for verily the night is waning and dawn 
draweth near ; lo, the stars have moved onward, 
and of the night more than two watches have past, 
and the third alone is left us." 

So saying the twain clothed them in their dread 
armour. To Tydeus' son Thrasymedes, staunch in 
fight, gave a two-edged sword — for his own was 
left by his ship — and a shield, and about his head he 
set a helm of bull's hide without horn and without 
crest, a helm that is called a skull-cap, and that 
guards the heads of lusty youths. And Meriones 
gave to Odysseus a bow and a quiver and a sword, 
and about his head he set a helm wrought of hide, 
and with many a tight-stretched thong was it made 
stiff within, while without the white teeth of a 
boar of gleaming tusks were set thick on this side 
and that, well and cunningly, and within was fixed 
a lining of felt. This cap Autolycus on a time stole 
out of Eleon when he had broken into the stout- 
built house of Amyntor, son of Ormenus ; and he 
gave it to Amphidamas of Cythera to take to 
Scandeia, and Amphidamas gave it to Molus as a 
guest-gift, but he gave it to his own son Meriones 
to wear ; and now, being set thereon, it covered the 
head of Odysseus. 

455 



HOMER 

Tct) S' eTTel ovv ottXolciv evi heLvdlaiv iSvrrjv, 
^dv p levai, XnTerrjv he /car' avrodt Trdvras apiarovS' 
rolai he he^iov rJKev ipcoSiov iyyvs oSoto 
naAAa? ^A6r]va{,r)' rol 8' ovk tSov 6<^6aXpiol(n 2 
vvKTa 8t' 6p(f)vaLrjv, dXXd KXdy^avros aKovaav. 
^^aipe 8e rco opvtO' ^OSvaevs, rjpdro 8' ^Kdrjvri' 
" KXvdi p.ev, alyioxoio Ato? t€Kos, 17 re fMOi aiet 
iv Trdureaai ttovolgl Trapiaraaai, ovhe ere Xr]doi 
Kbvvfjb€vos' vvv avT€ fidXiard p,€ <^tAat, 'A^i^i/r^, 2 
hos 8e ttoXlv cttI vrjas eu/cAeia? dj)iKeadai, 
pi^avras fxeya epyov, 6 k€ Tp(x)eaai pieXiqar]. 

Aevrepos avT* rjpaTO ^orjv dyaOos AiO[j,rjS'qs' 
" K€kXv9l vvv /cat €H€LO, Alos T€Kos, ^Arpvrdovr]' 
CTTreto fxoi, (Ls ore irarpl dp,* ecrTreo Tu8€i" 8ia) 2 
is Qrj^as, ore re npo *K-)(ai6jv dyyeXos jjei. 
rovs S' dp* err* 'AcrwTTcp Xirre ■)(a.XKO)(^iru)vas 'A;^aioi;s', 
avrdp 6 pbeiXixi-ov p,vdov (f>€p€ Ka8/u,etoi(Tt 
Keia'' drdp di/j aTrtcov pudXa puepp^epa pLiqaaTO epya 
avv aoL, 8ra 6ed, ore oi Trpocfypaaaa Trapearrjs. 2 
cos vvv p,oi eOeXovaa irapiarao /cat pie (f)vXaaae} 
aol 8' av iyd) pe^co ^ovv rjviv evpvpierojTTOv, 
dSpi'qrrjv, 'r]v ov ttoj vtto iC,vy6v rjyayev dvrip' 
rrjv rot eyoj pe^co XP^^^^ Kepaatv rrepix^vas." 

Q.S e(f)av evxdp.evoi, rcov 8' c/cAue naAAas ^Adt^vr]. 2 
ol 8' irrel rjpTJaavro Acos Kovprj p,eydXoio, 

^ Kal fie (f>ij\a<T(Te : Kai TrSpe Kvdos Zenodotus. 

* That is, the slaying of the ambush, as narrated in 
iv. 392-397. 

456 



THE ILIAD, X. 272-296 

So when the twain had clothed them in their 
dread armour, they went their way and left there all 
the chieftains. And for them Pallas Athene sent 
forth on their riglit a heron, hard by the way, and 
though they saw it not through the darkness of 
night, yet they heard its cry. And Odysseus was 
glad at the omen, and made prayer to Athene : 
" Hear me, child of Zeus, that beareth the 
aegis, thou that dost ever stand by my side in all 
manner of toils, nor am I unseen of thee where'er 
I move ; now again be thou my friend, Athene, 
as ne'er thou wast before, and grant that with 
goodly renown we come back to the ships, having 
wrought a great work that shall be a sorrow to the 
Trojans." 

And after him again prayed Diomedes, good at 
the war-cry : " Hearken thou now also to me, child 
of Zeus, unwearied one. Follow now with me even 
as thou didst follow with my father, goodly Tydeus, 
into Thebes, what time he went forth as a messenger 
of the Achaeans, Them he left by the Asopus, 
the brazen-coated Achaeans, and he bare a gentle 
word thither to the Cadmeians ; but as he journeyed 
back he devised deeds right terrible i with thee, fair 
goddess, for with a ready heart thou stoodest by 
his side. Even so now of thine own will stand thou 
by my side, and guard me. And to thee in return 
will I sacrifice a sleek heifer, broad of brow, un- 
broken, which no man hath yet led beneath the 
yoke. Her will I sacrifice to thee and will overlay 
ner horns with gold." 

So they spake in prayer and Pallas Athene 
heard them. But when they had prayed to the 
daughter of great Zeus, they went their way like 

457 



HOMER 

^dv p t/xev <Zs T€ Xeovre Svco Sta vvKra ixiXaivav^ 
afi ^ovov, av veKvag, Sia t' eVrea Kal fxeXav at/xa. 

Ovhe fxkv ovhk Tpa>as dy^vopag etacrev "FtKTOjp 
evSetv, dAA' df^vSis KiKXtjarKero Trdvras dpiarovs, 
ocraoL eaav TpcocDV r^yrjTopes i^Se fiedovres' 
Tovs o ye avvKaXeaas ttvkivtiv dprvvero BovXriv 

TVS K€V /xot Tooe €pyov VTToaxpixevos reAeaeie 
h(I)po} em fxeydXcp; pbiados Be ol dpKios earai. 
0(x)(Tco yap S{,(f)pov re Svco r ipiavxevas lttttovs, 
61 K€v dpiuroL ecuGL Oofjg em vqvalv 'A;\;aia)i'/ 
OS TLS K€ rXair], ot r' avrcp kvBos dpotro, 
VTjcbv (x)KVTr6p(jov ax^Bov iXdefxev, e/c re irvdeadai 
•qe <j)vXdaaovraL vrjes doal ibs ro Trdpos Tre/o, 
V V^V X^^P^^^''^ ^^^ TjfJieTeprjaL Ba/xevres 
(f)v^LV ^ovXevovat fxerd a<f)iaLV, ovB^ edeXovai 
vvKTa (f)vXaaa€iJ,€vai, Kandrcp dBrjKores alvco." 

Qs e(f)ad^ , ol 8' dpa Trdvres dK-qv eyevovro oicotttj. 
r]V Be Tis ev Tpcoecrac AoXcov, ^vfiTjBeos vlos 
K-qpvKos deioLO, noXvxpvaos iroXvxaXKOs , 
OS B-q TOL elBos fxev erjv KaKos, dXXd 7ToBa>K7]s' 
avrap o piovvos e-qv p^erd irevre KaaiyvqTjjcnv .^ 
OS pa Tore Tpajatv re /cat "FiKropt, p,v9ov eenrev 

E/CTop, e^' orpvvet KpaBlrj /cat dvp,6s dy-qvcop 
vrjdjv OiKVTTopcov axeBov eXdepLev e/c re TTvOeadat. 32 
aAA aye p.oi ro OKqirrpov avacrx^o, /cat jLtot op,ocraov 
•q p,ev rovs lttttovs re Kal dppcara Trot/ctAa ;^aA/ca) 
Ba)aep,€v, ot (f)opeovaiv dp,vp,ova HrjXetojva, 
crol 8' eycb ovx dXtos okottos eaaofiat, oi58' aTTO 
Bo^TjS. 

* Line 306 was given by Zenodotus in the form 

avToi>s ot (popiovijiv dfiOfiova llrjXeluva, 
' Kacnyv-qT-fiaiv : Ka.<xiyvriTOi<riv Zenodotus. 
458 



3] 



THE ILIAD, X. 297-324 

two lions through the black night, amid the slaughter, 
amid the corpses, through the arms and the black 
blood. 

Nay, nor did Hector suffer the lordly Trojans to 
sleep, but he called together all the noblest, as 
many as were leaders and rulers of the Trojans ; 
and when he had called them together he contrived 
a cunning plan, and said : " Who is there now that 
would promise me this deed and bring it to pass 
for a great gift ? Verily his reward shall be sure. 
For I will give him a chariot and two horses with 
high arched necks, even those that be the best at 
the swift ships of the Achaeans, to the man whoso- 
ever will dare — and for himself win glory withal — 
to go close to the swift-faring ships, and spy out 
whether the swift ships be guarded as of old, or 
whether by now our foes, subdued beneath our 
hands, are planning flight among themselves and 
have no mind to watch the night through, being 
fordone with dread weariness." 

So spake he and they all became hushed in 
silence. Now there was among the Trojans one 
Dolon, the son of Eumedes the godlike herald, a 
man rich in gold, rich in bronze, that was ill-favoured 
to look upon, but withal swift of foot ; and he was 
the only brother among five sisters. He then spake 
a word to the Trojans and to Hector : " Hector, my 
heart and proud spirit urge me to go close to the 
swift-faring ships and spy out all. But come, I 
pray thee, lift up thy staff and swear to me that 
verily thou wilt give me the horses and the chariot, 
richly dight with bronze, even them that bear the 
peerless son of Peleus. And to thee shall I prove 
no vain scout, neither one to deceive thy hopes. 

459 



HOMER 

TO(^pa yap is arparov etftt SiajLtTrepc?, o(f)p^ av LKCo/xai 
vif ' Ayap,€fjbvov€r]v , odt ttov pbeXXovatv dpiarrot 
^ovXas ^ovXeveiv, 7) ^euye/xev' 7]€ nax^crOai." 

"n? (f)d9\ 6 S' iv xe/sat aKrjiTTpov Aa/Se Kat ot 
ojjioaaev' 
" 'iaro} vvv Zeu? avros, iplySovTTOS ttools "Uprjs, 
jXTj fjbev rots iTnroiaLV dvrjp iTTOXTJcrerac aAAo? 
Tpdxov, dXXd ae (jnqfxi SiafXTrepes dyXa'CeXaOat. 

"Q? (f)dTO Kai p CTTiopKov eTTOipioae ,r6v 8' opodvvev. 
avTLKa 8' d/x0' a)fj,oi,cnv i^dXXero KafirrvXa roga, 
eaaaro 8' eKToadev pivov ttoXiolo Xvkolo, 
Kparl 8' €776 KTihlrjV KVV€7]V, e'Ae 8' o^vv aKovra, 
firj 8' levai Trporl vrjag diro arparov- ovh' dp epieXXev 
iXdojv eV vrjdJv difj "EiKropi [xvdov dTTOiaeiv. 
aAA ore orj p ittttcov re /cat avopcov KaAAicp oixiAou, 
^TJ p dv* ohov /zeftacos" rov he (f)paaaro irpoaiovra 
SioyevTjs ^OSvaevs, ALajXT^Sea 8e TTpoaeenrev 
" ovros Tt?, Aid/X7y8es', aTro arparov epx^rai, dv^p, 
ovK olS^ 7] vrjeaauv eTriaKorros rip^ereprjaiv , 
7] rtva avXi]acjov veKvcov KarareOurjcorcov . 
aAA' edjfxev pnv npcora Trape^eXdelv irehioio 
rvrOov eireira 8e k avrov eTrat^avres eXot/xev 
KapTTaXificos' el 8' a/x/xe 7Tapac/)daLr]at TToSeaaiv, 
alei pLiv €7tI vfjas diro arparo^i TrporietXetv, 
eyx^i- eTTataaojv, fxi] ttojs Trporl darv dXv^rj." 

"Os" dpa (fxDvrjaavre irape^ ohov iv veKveaai} 

* In place of line 349 Aristophanes gave, 

Cis itpar' ov5' awlOriffe ^07]v dyaObs AiofiriSrji, 
iXddvres d' eKarepOe irapi^ odoO iv v€Kve<r<Ti 

460 



THE ILIAD, X. S25-349 

For I will go straight on to the camp, even until I 
come to the ship of Agamemnon, where, I ween, 
the chieftains will be holding council, whether to 
flee or to fight." 

So spake he, and Hector took the staff in his 
hands, and sware to him, saying : " Now be my 
witness Zeus himself, the loud-thundering lord of 
Hera, that on those horses no other man of the 
Trojans shall mount, but it is thou, I declare, that 
shalt have glory in them continually." 

So spake he, and swore thereto an idle oath, 
and stirred the heart of Dolon. Forthwith then 
he cast about his shoulders his curved bow, and 
thereover clad him in the skin of a grey wolf, and 
on his head he set a cap of ferret skin, and grasped 
a sharp javelin, and went his way toward the ships 
from the host ; howbeit he was not to return again 
from the ships, and bear tidings to Hector. But 
when he had left the throng of horses and of men, 
he went forth eagerly on the way, and Odysseus, 
sprung from Zeus, was ware of him as he drew nigh, 
and spake to Diomedes : " Yonder, Diomedes, 
cometh some man from the camp, I know not 
whether as a spy upon our ships, or with intent to 
strip one or another of the corpses of the dead. 
But let us suffer him at the first to pass by us on the 
plain a little way, and thereafter let us rush forth 
upon him and seize him speedily ; and if so be he 
outrun us twain by speed of foot ever do thou hem 
him in toward the ships away from the host, darting 
after him with thy spear, lest in any wise he escape 
toward the city." 

So saying the twain laid them down among the 

461 



HOMER 

KXtvdiqrrjv 6 8' ap* c5/ca TrapeSpafjuev a<^pahirjaiv. 3 
aAA' ore Stj p (XTrei^v oaaov t' iirl ovpa ireXovrai 
rjfjLLOvcjov — at yap re ^ocov TTpo^epearepai elaiv 
eAfce/xevat veiolo ^adeirjs ttt^ktov dporpov — 
Tcb fxev eTTeSpafierrjv, 6 8' ap' earT] Sovttov aKovaag' 
eXneTO yap Kara OvpLov aTToarpeipovras iraipovs 3 
CK Tpwiov levai, ttoXiv "E/CTopo? orpvvavrog. 
dAA' ore Sry p aireaav SovprjVCKes "^ /cat eXaaaov, 
yvco p dvSpas Srjtovs, Xanjjrjpd 8e yovvaT ivco/xa 
<j)evyep.evai' rot 8' alijja 8ta)/cetv 6pp,r)6r]aav. 
d)S 8' ore Kapxcupohovre Svo) /ewe, et8dTe d-qprjs, 3 
■^ K€[j,dS^ T^e Aaywov eTreiyerov ifxixeves atet 
^copov dv* vX'q€v9\ 6 8e re Trpoderjai p.epLr]K(x}s, 

(S? TOV Tl>8et87yS' ')78' O TTToXlTTOpOoS ^OBvGGeVS 

Xaov dTTOTfjurj^avre SicoKerov e/i/zeve? atet. 
dAA' ore 817 Ta;:^' efxeXXe fxiyqaeadai, ^vXdKeaaL 3i 
(f>evya)v is vrjas, rore Br) p,€Vos epi^aX ^AB-qvq 
Tu8et8i7, Iva fxij tls 'Axaucov x^^XkoxI'Twvwv 
(f)6air] i7T€v^dfj,€Vos jSaAeeiv, o 8e Bevrepos eXOoi. 
Bovpl 8' eTTataacov TTpoai<j)7] Kparepos ALOpurjBrjS' 
" T^e pidv* , rjd ere 8oy/9t KL-)(/}aopLaL, ovBe ad j>rjpn. 3' 
Brjpov ip,7Js (XTTO x^^'P^S dXv^cLV aiTTVV oXedpov." 
*H pa, /cat €yxos d(f)rJK€v, eKOJV 8' rjp,apTav€ 

(fxjOTOS' 

Be^Lrepov 8' UTre/) cSjUOV iv^ov Bovpos dKa)Krj 
iv yairj eTrdyq. 6 8' dp' ecrrTy rdpPrjaev re 
Papb^aivcDV, dpa^os Be 8td aropia yiyver' oBovrcjv, 3' 
xXojpos VTTal Beiovs' toj 8' daOp^aivovre KixrjTrjV, 
X^Lpcov 8' dipdadrjV' 6 Be BaKpvaas cttos rjvBa' 

1 The word probably denotes the length of the furrow cut 
before a turn was made; c/. Od, viii. 124, and •' furlong " = 
" furrow-long." 

462 



THE ILIAD, X. 350-377 

dead apart from the path, but he ran quickly past 
them in his witlessness. But when he was as far off 
as is the range of mules in ploughing ^ — for they are 
better than oxen to draw through deep fallow land the 
jointed plough — then the two ran after him, and he 
stood still when he heard the sound, for in his heart 
he supposed that they were friends coming from 
amid the Trojans to turn him back, and that Hector 
was withdrawing the host. But when they were a 
spear-cast off or even less, he knew them for foemen 
and plied his limbs swiftly in flight, and they speedily 
set out in pursuit. And as when two sharp-fanged 
hounds, skilled in the hunt, press hard on a doe 
or a hare in a wooded place, and it ever runneth 
screaming before them ; even so did the son of 
Tydeus, and Odysseus, sacker of cities, cut Dolon 
off from the host and ever pursue hard after him. 
But when he was now about to come among the 
sentinels, as he fled towards the ships, then verily 
Athene put strength into Tydeus' son, that no man 
among the brazen-coated Achaeans might before 
him boast to have dealt the blow, and he come too 
late. And mighty Diomedes rushed upon him with 
his spear, and called : " Stand, or I shall reach thee 
with the spear, and I deem thou shalt not long 
escape sheer destruction at my hand." 

He spake, and hurled his spear, but of purpose 
he missed the man, and over his right shoulder 
passed the point of the pohshed spear, and fixed 
itself in the ground ; and Dolon stood still, seized 
with terror, stammering and pale with fear, and the 
teeth clattered in his mouth ; and the twain panting 
for breath came upon him, and seized his hands ; 
and he with a burst of tears spake to them, saying : 

463 



HOMER 

" QcoypcLT , avrap iytov ifxe Aucro/xat* cart yap evBov 
p^aA/cd? T€ xP^^os re TToXvKfjbiqTog re crlSrjpos, 
Tcov K vp,[Xiv p^aptWiTO TTaTTjp aTTepGicC dnoiva, 3 
€t Kev e/jLe ^coov TreTTvOoLT irrl vrjvalv 'Axaicov." 

Tov S' OLTTafMei^ofxevos Trpoaecfyrj 7ToXviJ,r)Tt,s 
'OSuCTffeu?' 
" Odpaei, jjLTjSe ri tol ddvaros Karadvpnos earo). 
oAA' dye fjiOL rdSe eivre Kal drpeKccos KaraXe^ov 
TTTJ 07] ovrojg em vfjas oltto arparov epxeat olos a 
vvKra 8i' 6p(f>vaL7]v, ore 6* evSovai ^porol aAAoi; 
rj Tiva avXrjcroiv veKvcov KaTareOurjioTcov ; ^ 
r] a 'E/CTWp TTpoiriKe StaaKOTTLaaOat e/caara 
vrjas evL yXa(/)vpds; rj a a.vrov Ovfxos dvrJKe; " 

Tov 8 7]ixei^eT' eireira AoXcov, vtto 8' erpe/jue yvla' 3 
" TToXXfjmv fji' drr^ai irapeK voov rjyayev^ "E/ctco/j, 
OS fJiot, Ilr)Xetwvos dyavov pbcovvxas lttttovs 
Bcoae/xevaL Karevevae koI dpfxara TTOiKiXa ;(aA/cai, 
rjvcvyei 8e yu.' lovra Oorjv 8ta vvKra fxeXatvav 
dvSpd)v SvofMevecov axeSov eXdefiev, e/c re TTvdeaOai 2 
"qe <f)vXdaaovTai vrjes Ooal cos ro irdpos irep, 
'q TJSr] ;(et/)ecratr u^' rj/xeTeprjat Safxevres^ 
(jjv^LV ^ovXevovai fxerd a(J)iaiv, ovS' edeXovcn 
vvKTa (jivXacradfjLevaL, Kapbdrco dSrjKores alvo)." 

Tov 8 eTTt/xetST^cra? TTpoae<j>'q TToXvpi^ris '08ya- 
aevs' 4 

" rj pd vv rot, pbeydXcov Scopcuv eVc/xatero dvp,6s, 
iTTTTOiv AlaKLSao Sat(f)povos' ot 8' dXeyewol 
dvSpdac ye dvrjrolai Bapi'qpLevai rjS* ox^eadai,, 

* Lines 387 f. were rejected by Aristophanes and Arist- 
archus. 

' ijyayep : ijira<p€v Aristophanes. 

464 



THE ILIAD, X. 378-403 

"Take me alive, and I will ransom myself; for at 
home have I store of bronze and gold and iron, 
wrought with toil ; thereof would my father grant 
you ransom past counting, should he hear that I am 
ahve at the ships of the Achaeans." 

Then in answer to him spake Odysseus of many 
wiles : " Be of good cheer, and let not death be in 
thy thoughts. But come, tell me this, and declare 
it truly. Whither dost thou fare thus alone to the 
ships from the host in the darkness of night, when 
other mortals are sleeping ? Is it with intent to 
strip one or another of the corpses of the dead ? 
Did Hector send thee forth to the hollow ships to 
spy out all, or did thine own heart bid thee ? " 

To him then Dolon made answer, and his limbs 
trembled beneath him : " With many infatuate 
hopes did Hector lead my wits astray, who pledged 
him to give me the single-hooved horses of the 
lordly son of Peleus, and his chariot richly dight 
with bronze ; and he bade me go through the swift, 
black night close to the foemen, and spy out whether 
the swift ships be guarded as of old, or whether by 
now our foes, subdued beneath our hands, are plan- 
ning flight among themselves, and have no mind to 
watch the night through, being fordone with dread 
weariness." 

Then smiling upon him Odysseus of many wiles 
made answer : " Verily now on great rewards was 
thy heart set, even the horses of the wise-hearted 
son of Aeacus, but hard are they for mortal men to 

' Lines 397-399 were rejected by Aristophanes aad Arist- 
archus. 

VOL I 2 H 465 



HOMER 

aXXo) y r] 'A;^tA7^t, rov adavdrr) reK€ fX'qT'qp. 
aAA dye fxot robe elite /cat drpeKecos KardXe^ov 41 
TTOv vvv hevpo KLcbv XiTTes "E/CTopa, TTOLjjLeva Xa&v; 
1T0V Se ol evrea Kelr ai dprfCa, ttov Se ol Ittttoi; 
TTtog S ai ra)v dXXoiv Tpcocov <j)vXaKai re koX evvai; 
aaaa re ixrjTLocjac /jberd a^iaiv, -q fiepidacnv^ 
avdi /jieveLV Trapd vr]valv diroTrpodev, rje TToXivSe 4] 
aifj dvaxcop-qaovacv, eVet haixdaavro y 'A;^atous'." 
Yov 8' avre Trpoaeenre AoAcdv, Ey//,7y8eo? vlos' 

roiyap eyco rot ravra /xaA' drpeKews KaraXe^o). 
CiKTCop fiev fjberd rolaiv, ocroi ^ovXricjiopoi elm, 
^ovXds ^ovXevei Oelov Trapd arnxari "YXov, 4] 

voa(f)iv aTTo <j>Xoia^ov ^uAa/ca? 8' a? etpeat, rfpcos, 
ov TLs KeKpLfjbevrj pverai arparou ovSe (f)vXdaaei. 
oaaat fjuev Tpcocov TTVpog iaxdpai, olaiv dvdyKrj, 
OL 8 eyprjyopOacrt <f)vXaaaep.evaL re KeXovrai. 
aXXrjXoLS' drdp avre TToXvKXrjroi eTTiKovpoi 4S 

evoovai' Tpcoalv ydp emrpaTreovat ^vXdaaeiv 
ov yap a<f>Lv TralSes ax^^ov rjarai ovSe yvvalKes." 

Tov 8 dTrafxeL^ofievos TTpoae(j>7] TToXvfxrjris *OSva- 
aevs' 

TTws yap vvv, Tpcoeaai fiefXLyfxevoL iTTTroSa/ioicrtv 
ev8ovor\ 77 drrdvevde; hienre pLOi, 6<f>pa Saeto)." 45 

Tov 8' ripLei^er* eTreira AoXcov, Kvp.'qSeos vlos' 

roiyap eyoj /cat ravra fidX arpe/cew? KaraXe^co. 
irpos fiev dXos Kdpes /cat Haloves dyKvXoro^oi 
/cat Ae'Aeye? /cat KavKcoves Siot re YleXaayol, 
rrpos SvfJL^prjs 8' eXaxov Av/ctot Mvaol r dyepcoxoi 4S 
* Lines 409-4.11 ( = 208-210) were rejected by Aristarchus. 

466 



THE ILIAD, X. 404-430 

master or to drive, save only for Achilles whom an 
immortal motlier bare. But come tell me this, 
and declare it truly : where now, as thou earnest 
hither, didst thou leave Hector, shepherd of the 
host ? Where lies his battle-gear, and where his 
horses ? And how are disposed the watches and the 
sleeping-places of the other Trojans ? And what coun- 
sel devise they among themselves ? — to abide where 
they be by the ships afar, or to withdraw again to 
the city, seeing they have worsted the Achaeans ? " 

Then made answer to him Dolon, son of Eumedes : 
" Therefore of a truth will I frankly tell thee all. 
Hector with all them that are counsellors is holding 
council by the tomb of godlike Ilus, away from the 
turmoil ; but as touching the guards whereof thou 
askest, O warrior, no special guard keepeth or 
watcheth the host. By all the watch-fires ^ of the 
Trojans verily, they that needs must, lie awake and 
bid one another keep watch, but the allies, summoned 
from many lands, are sleeping ; for to the Trojans 
they leave it to keep watch, seeing their own children 
abide not nigh, neither their wives." 

Then in answer to him spake Odysseus of many 
wiles : " How is it now, do they sleep mingled 
with the horse-taming Trojans, or apart ? tell me at 
large that I may know." 

Then made answer to him Dolon, son of Eumedes : 
" Therefore of a truth this likewise will I frankly 
tell thee. Towards the sea lie the Carians and the 
Paeonians, with curved bows, and the Leleges and 
Caucones, and the goodly Pelasgi. And towards 
Thymbre fell the lot of the Lycians and the lordly 

^ The word ^crxapai should mean " hearths," or by a 
natural transfer, " families," but it is difficult so to render 
it in this context. 

467 



HOMER 

Kai ^pvyes LmTofjiaxot^ /cat M^oves tTTiTOKopvaTat, 
aAAa TL rj c/xe ravra Sie^epeeaOe CKaara; 
ei yap Srj pbip,arov Tpdocov KaraSvvai ojxiXov, 
Sprjuces otS' (XTTdvevOe veijXvBes, eaxciToi, dXXojv 
€V Se a^iv 'Prjcros ^amXevs, TraCs ^H'iovijos. < 

rov OT] KaXXicrrovs Ittttovs tSov rj8e fxeyicrrovs' 
XevKorepoi x''Ovos, Oeieiv 8' dve/JLOLmv ojxdloi. 
apfia oe oi XP^'^V "^^ '^^'' dpyvpcp ev 7JaK7]rai' 
revxea 8e ;\;/3yo-eta TreXcopia, davfxa ISeaOai, 
rjXvd excov. rd p,ev ov rt Karadv-qroZaiv eoiKev t 
dvSpeaaLV ^opieiv, aAA' ddavdroLcri deolaiv. 
aAA €//,€ piev vvv vr^vcn ireAaaaerov ajKVTTopoiatv, 
r)€ p,€ Si^cravres AiTrer' avToOt vrjXeC Sea/xo), 
ocppa K€v eXdr]Tov /cat TreLprjOrJTOv ep^elo, 
rj€ /car alaav eenrov ev vfilv, rje /cat ovkl. '. 

iov 8 ap' VTToSpa IBcov 7Tpocr€(f>ri Kparepds Aio- 

fJ-T] S-q pLOL (f)v^iv ye, AoAoiv, ipi^dXXeo Ovpucp, 
ecruXa rrep dyyeiXas, iirel i/C€o x^^P'^S ^^ dp,d£. 
et p,ev yap /ce ae vvv dnoXvcropLev rje p^edcopiev, 
rj re /cat varepov elada dods eVi vrjas *Axa.icov, 4 
7)e OLOTTrevaojv rj evavri^tov TToXepLL^cov 
et oe K epifjs vtto X^P^'' SayLtet? o-tto 6vp,6v 6Xecra~r)s, 
ovKer eireiTa av 7Trjp,d ttot* eaaeai 'Apyeioiaiv." 
H, /cat o pLev p,iv e/xeAAe yevelov X'^^P'' "^^X^^V 
aifidpLevos Xiaaeadai, 6 8' avxeva pueaaov eXaoae 4 
(fyaaydvcp dt^ag, dnd 8' dp,(f)Ct) Kepae revovre' 
(f>d€yyop,€Vov 8' apa rov ye Kaprj Kovirjaiv epiixOi). 
rod 8' dird pueu KTLSerjv Kvverjv K€(f)aXrjj>LV eXovro 

* lirv6/ji,axoi : iinrdSafioi. 
468 



THE ILIAD, X. 431-458 

Mysians, and the Phrygians that fight from chariots 
and the Maeonians, lords of chariots. But why is it 
that ye question me closely regarding all these 
things ? For if ye are fain to enter the throng of 
the Trojans, lo, here apart be the Thracians, new 
comers, the outermost of all, and among them their 
king Rhesus, son of Eioneus. His be verily the 
fairest horses that ever I saw, and the greatest, 
whiter than snow, and in speed hke the winds. And 
his chariot is cunningly wrought with gold and silver, 
and armour of gold brought he with him, huge of 
size, a wonder to behold. Such armour it beseemeth 
not that mortal men should wear, but immortal gods. 
But bring ye me now to the swift-faring ships, or 
bind me with a cruel bond and leave me here, that 
ye may go and make trial of me, whether or no I 
have spoken to you according to right." 

Then with an angry glance from beneath his 
brows, spake to him mighty Diomedes : " Nay, I 
bid thee, Dolon, put no thought of escape in thy heart, 
even though thou hast brought good tidings, seeing 
thou hast come into our hands. For if so be we 
release thee now or let thee go, yet even hereafter 
wilt thou come to the swift ships of the Achaeans, 
either to spy upon us, or to fight in open combat ; 
but if, subdued beneath my hands, thou lose thy life, 
never again wilt thou prove a bane to the Argives." 

He spake, and the other was at point to touch 
his chin with his stout hand and make entreaty, but 
Diomedes sprang upon him with his sword and 
smote him full upon the neck, and shore off both 
the sinews, and even while he was yet speaking his 
head was mingled with the dust. Then from him 
they stripped the cap of ferret skin from off his head, 

469 



HOMER 

Kal XvK€r]v /cat rofa TraXivrova /cat hopv fxaKpov 
/cat rd y' ^Adrjvatrj ATjtrtSt Stoj ^Ohvaaevs 4* 

vipoa^ dveax^d^ X^''P'' '^^^ eu;^o/>tep'os' eTro? rjvBa' 
" ■)(alp€, ded, rolaSecrcTL' ae yap Trpcorrjv ev 'OXufXTTip 
Trdvrojv ddavdrcov e7rtj8a)crd/xe^' •'^ dXXd /cat aurt? 

TTefXlfjOV eTTt SpiJKCOV dvSpdjV L7T7TOVS T€ /Cat €Vvds ." 

'^Q.S dp' icjxovrjcrev, /cat 0,770 eOev vijioa deipas 41 
OrJKev dvd fji,vpLKr]v SeeXov 8' em cr^/xa r' edrjKe, 
crujJiiJLdpipas bovaKas fJLvpiKrjs t ipidiqXias 6t,ovs, 
jjbrj XdQoL avTLS tovre dorjv Sid vvKra fxeXaivav. 
rd) Be ^drrjv Trporepoj 8ta t' evrea /cat fxiXav at/xa, 
atiffa 8' CTTt QprjKcbv dvhpcov reXos l^ov lovres. 4' 
ot 8' eu8ov Kafjbdro) dSrjKores, evrea Be a(f>iv 
KaXd Trap* avroZai ;;^^ot't KeKXiro ev Kara Koafxov 
rpiaroLX^' Trapd Be a<f)LV eKaarco Bit,vyes Ittttol. 
'Vrjaos 8' ev p,eacp evBe, Trap* aura) 8' oiKees Ittttoi 
e^ eTTiBicj^pidBos TTVfJidrrjs lp,dat BeBevro. 4- 

rdv 8' ^OBvaevs TrporrdpoiOev IBcbv ^lOjxrjBe'C BeZ^ev 
" ovros TOt, Ai6p,r]Bes, dv^p, ovroi Be rot Ittttoi, 
ovs vojLV 7r[,(f>avaK€ AoAcov, ov eTTe<l>vo^ev rjp,eLS. 
dAA' dye Brj TTp6(f)ep€ Kparepov fievos' ovBe ri ae 

XPV 
eardpbevat p,eXeov avv revxecriv, dXXd Xv* lttttovs' 4 

rje av y dvBpas evaipe, fieX-qaovaiv 8' e/Ltot ittttol." 

"Q? (fidro, ro) 8' efXTTvevcre fxevos yAay/ccoTrt? 

KreZve 8' eTTiarpo^dBrjV rd)v Be arovos opvvr 
deiKTjs 

* iinP(t><r6iJ.t$' : iindw(r6fie6' Aristarchus. 
470 



THE ILIAD, X. 459-483 

and the wolf's hide, and the back-bent bow and the 
long spear, and these things did goodly Odysseus 
hold aloft in his hand to Athene, the driver of the 
spoil, and he made prayer, and spake, saying : 
*' Rejoice, goddess, in these, for on thee, first of all 
the immortals in Olympus, will we call ; but send 
thou us on against the horses and the sleeping-places 
of the Thracian warriors." 

So spake he, and lifted from him the spoils on 
high, and set them on a tamarisk bush, and set 
thereby a mark plain to see, gathering handfuls of 
reeds and luxuriant branches of tamarisk, lest they 
two might miss the place as they came back through 
the swift, black night. But the twain went forward 
through the arms and the black blood, and swiftly 
came in their course to the company of the Thracian 
warriors. Now these were slumbering, foredone with 
weariness, and their goodly battle-gear lay by them 
on the ground, all in due order, in three rows, and 
hard by each man was his yoke of horses. But 
Rhesus slept in the midst, and hard by him his swift 
horses were tethered by the reins to the topmost 
rim of the chariot. Him Odysseus was first to 
espy, and shewed him to Diomedes : " Lo, here, 
Diomedes, is the man, and here are the horses 
whereof Dolon, that we slew, told us. But come 
now, put forth mighty strength ; it beseemeth thee 
not at all to stand idle with thy weapons ; nay, 
loose the horses ; or do thou slay the men, and I 
will look to the horses." 

So spake he, and into the other's heart flashing- 
eyed Athene breathed might, and he fell to slaying 
on tliis side and on that, and from them uprose 
hideous groaning as they were smitten with the 

471 



HOMER 

aopi deivoybivcxiv, ipvdaivero 8' at/xari yaXa. 

0)S 8e Aectjv }xr]XoLaiv aarjiidvroiaLV eireXQayv, 4{ 

aiyeaiv tj oteaai, /ca/ca (f>pov€cov ivopovaj], 

<vs fi€V Qp'qLKas dvSpas irrMX^ro TuSeos" vlos, 

6(f)pa SvcobcK* €7T€(f)vev' oLTap TToXvfJLTjris *OBvGaevs, 

ov Tiva TvhetSrjs dopt TrXi^^ete Trapacrrds, 

Tov S' 'OSvaevs jxeroinade Xa^ihv ttoSos" e^epvaacrKe, 4{ 

TO, <f)povea)v Kara dvfjbov, ottcos KaXXlrpLx^s lttttol 

pela BteXdoLev [irjSe rpoixeoiaro dviicp 

V€Kpols e/x^atVovres" drideaaov yap eV avrcov. 

dXX ore Srj ^aaiXrja KL-)(r}oaro TuSeo? vlos, 

TOV rpLaKaiScKarov /xeAiTySea Ov/xov drrrjvpa 4{ 

aadfjiaivovra' KaKOv yap ovap Ke(j)aXri(j)LV eTrearrj 

rrjv vvKr^, OlvetSao Trd'Cs, Sid firjriv ^AOi^vrjs} 

r6(f)pa S' dp* 6 rXy^jxiov 'OSycreu? Xve ixd)vv)(as ittttovs, 

ovv 8' yjcLpev IfMaai Kal i^T]Xavv€v 6p,iXov 

To^o) CTTLTrXi^crcrcov, CTxet ov p^dariya (j)aetvr]v 5( 

TTOLKiXov e/c hi<j)poio voT^aaro x^palv eXeadat' 

poil^rjaev 8' dpa Tn^avoKOiv AtopL-qSe'C Stoj. 

Avrdp 6 fxepfxiqpL^e jxevatv 6 ri Kvvrarov epBot, 
7] o ye St(f)pov eXcov, o6i TTOiKiXa revx^* eKelro, 
pvfJLOv e^epvoL t] eK^epoi vi/joa' deipas, 5( 

^ en rcov TrXeovcov QprjKwv (ztto dvfiov eXoiro. 
"^os 6 ravd* wpfjLaive Kara (fypeva, ro^pa 8' ^Ad-qvri 
iyyvdev larafxevrj vpoaecfiT] Aiofx-^Sea Slov 
" voarov 8rj fxvijaai, fjLeyadvfMov TvSeos vie, 
vijas eiTL yXacf)vpds, fxrj Kal 7Te(f)o^rjfJievos eXdrjS, 6] 
fj,-^ TTOV ris Kal TpdJas eyetprjcnv 6e6s dXXos." 

^ Line 497 was rejected by Zenodotus, Aristophanes, and 
Aristarchus. 

^ Tydeus, father of Diomedes, was son of Oeneus. 

472 



THE ILIAD, X. 484-511 

sword, and the earth grew red with blood. And 
even as a lion cometh on flocks unshepherded, on 
goats or on sheep, and leapeth upon them with fell 
intent, so up and down amid the Thraeian warriors 
went the son of Tydeus until he had slain twelve. 
But whomsoever the son of Tydeus drew nigh and 
smote with the sword, him would Odysseus of the 
many wiles seize by the foot from behind and 
drag aside, with this thought in mind, that the 
fair-maned horses might easily pass through and not 
be affrighted at heart as they trod over dead men ; 
for they were as yet unused thereto. But when the 
son of Tydeus came to the king, him the thirteenth 
he robbed of honey-sweet life, as he breathed hard, 
for like to an evil dream there stood above his head 
that night the son of Oeneus' son,^ by the device of 
Athene. Meanwhile steadfast Odysseus loosed the 
single-hooved horses and bound them together with 
the reins, and drave them forth from the throng, 
smiting them with his bow, for he had not thought 
to take in his hands the bright whip from the richly 
dight car ; and he whistled to give a sign to goodly 
Diomedes. 

But he tarried and pondered what most reckless 
deed he might do, whether to take the chariot, 
where lay the war-gear richly dight, and draw it 
out by the pole, or lift it on high and so bear it 
forth, or whether he should rather take the lives 
of yet more Thracians. The while he was pondering 
this in heart, even then Athene drew nigh and 
spake to goodly Diomedes : " Bethink thee now of 
returning, son of great-souled Tydeus, to the hollow 
ships, lest thou go thither in full flight, and haply 
some other god rouse up the Trojans." 

473 



HOMER 

*^D.S (l)dd\ 6 8e ^vverjKe Beds orra <f>a)V7]adGrr]g, 
/cap7raAt/xw? 8' Ittttcov eTre^iqaero- Koifje 8' 'OSuct- 

aevs 
To^cp' Tol 8' ineTOVTO Bods irrl vijas 'A;!^ata>>', 

Oy8' dXaoaKOTTirjv elx dpyvporo^os 'AttoAAcoj^, 5 
CO? t8' ^Adrjvairjv iierd TuSeo? vlov eirovaav 
rrj Koreoiv Tpcocov KareBvaero ttovXvv ofxiXov, 
Jjpcrev 8e QprjKwv ^ov\y]^6pov 'iTTTTOKocovra, 
'Pt^ctou dveipiov iadXov. 6 8' e| vttvov dvopovcras, 
d)S t8e )^co/0ov iprjfiov, od^ earacrav ci/ce'e? lttttol, 5; 
dvBpas r daTTatpovrag iv dpyaXerjarL (f>ovfjcr(,v, 
o)p,co^iv T dp" €7T€LTa (f)lXov T 6v6p,r]vev iralpov} 
Tpcocov Be KXayyrj re /cat daireTos wpro KvBocfjbos 
Ovvovrcov dfMvBiS' drjevvro Be jxepjxepa epya, 
oaa dvBpes pe^avres e^av KoiXag eVt vrjag. 5 

Ot 8' ore B-q p Ikovov o9l okottov "EKropos 

eKrav, 

evd^ ''OBvaevs [xev epv^e Bu(f)LXos cti/cea? CTTTTOvg, 

Tu8et8r;? 86 x^H-d^^ dopdiv evapa ^poroevra 

iv ;^etpe(TCT' *OBvarj'C ridei, eTre^rjaero 8' Ittttcov 

[xdcrrL^ev 8' lttttovs,^ rd) 8' ovk deKOvre TTerea6y]v 5 

vr\as eVt yXa(f)vpds' rfj yap (f)LXov €77 Aero Ovp.(h? 

^earcop Be vpcoros KrvTTOV die ^oovrjaev re- 

" c5 ^lAot, *ApyeLCOv rjy-qropes r)Be fxeBovres, 

iJjevaoiJbat, -^ ervfiov ipeco; KeXerac Be p,e dvfjios.* 

Ittttcov fx d)KVTT6Bcov dpi.(j)l KrvTTOS ovara jSaAAei. g 

at ydp Brj ^OBvcrevs re /cat o Kparepos AiopfqBrjs 

* Line 522 was placed by Zenodotus before 520. 

* 'iTTTTovs : 'OSv<T<revs. 

' Line 531 is omitted in the best mss. 

* Line 534 was omitted by Zenodotus. 

474 



THE ILIAD, X. 512-536 

So spake she, and he knew the voice of the goddess 
as she spoke, and swiftly mounted the horses ; and 
Odysseus smote them with his bow, and they sped 
toward the swift ships of the Achaeans. 

But no blind watch did Apollo of the silver bow 
keep, when he saw Athene attending the son of 
Tydeus ; in wrath against her he entered the great 
throng of the Trojans, and aroused a counsellor of 
the Thracians, Hippocoon, the noble kinsman of 
Rhesus. And he leapt up out of sleep, and when 
he saw the place empty where the swift horses had 
stood, and the men gasping amid gruesome streams 
of blood, then he uttered a groan, and called by name 
upon his dear comrade. And from the Trojans 
arose a clamour and confusion unspeakable as they 
hasted together ; and they gazed upon the terrible 
deeds, even all that the warriors had wrought and 
thereafter gone to the hollow ships. 

But when these were now come to the place 
where they had slain the spy of Hector, then 
Odysseus, dear to Zeus, stayed the swift horses, 
and the son of Tydeus leaping to the ground placed 
the bloody spoils in the hands of Odysseus, and 
again mounted ; and he touched the horses with 
the lash, and nothing loath the pair sped on to the 
hollow ships, for there were they fain to be.^ And 
Nestor was first to hear the sound, and he spake, 
saying : " My friends, leaders and rulers of the 
Argives, shall I be wrong, or speak the truth } Nay, 
my heart bids me speak. The sound of swift- 
footed horses strikes upon mine ears. I would that 
Odysseus and the valiant Diomedes may even thus 

^ The line appears to be an interpolation from xi. 520. 
Why should Thracian horses be eager to reach the Greek 
camp ? 

475 



HOMER 

ojo a<pap e/c TpcLwv iXaaataro ficovvxcts Tttttovs* 
aAA alvojs SetSotKa Kara (f)peva /xt] re Trddcoaiv 
Apyeicov ol apiOTOi vtto Tpcoojv opvpbaySov ." 

Ov 7TO) TTav e'lp-qro enog, or* dp^ rjXvdov avrol. 5 
/cat p ol fxev Kare^rjaav iirl x^ova, tol 8e ;)(apeVTes 
Se^ti^ r]a7Tdt,ovTO eVecro-t re ix€iXix^olgl. 
TTpcoTos S' i^epeeive Tep'qvLos linTora Nearcop' 
€L7T dye p, , to ■noXvaiv' 'OSyaey, /xeya kv8o9 

OTTTTOiS rovab lttttovs Xd^erov KaraSvvres opuXov C 
Tpcocov; -^ TLS cr(f)oj€ TTopev deos avTi^oXijaas ; 
atvco? aKTivecraiv iocKores rjeXioLO. 
atei p,ev Tpweaa e77t/xtoyo/iai, ovhe ri (f)r)p,i 
/At/xva^eir TTapd vrjval yipcov irep eojv TToXepnoTris' 
dXX ov TTCo TOLovs iTTTTOvs tSov ovS' ivoTTjaa. £ 

aAAa Ttv'' tyi/x' otio Bop^evat Oeov dvTidaavra' 
ap,(f)orepoj yap crcfxjj'L <j)iXeZ vc^eXrjyepiTa Zeu? 
Kovpr) T alyioxoto Atos" yXavKOJTTLS ^KO-qvn)." 
Tov 8' dTrafieL^ofxevos 7Tpoa€(f>rj 7ToXvp,r]Tis 'OSfor- 
aevs' 
" Jj NecTTop NrjXr)'CdSr], p,iya Kvhos ^Axatcbv, jj 

peia Oeos y' ideXcov /cat dp^eivovas rje Trep otSe 
LTTTTOVs ocopy^aaLT , CTTel '^ TToXv ^iprepoi elaiv. 
LTTTTOL 8' olhe, yepaU, ver^Xvhes, ovg epeeiveis, 
QprjLKLOi 'Tov 8e a<f)iv dvaKT* dyados ALop.-qSrjs 
CKTave, Trap 8 erdpovg BvoKaiSeKa Trdvras dpioTovs. 5 
TOV rpLCTKaiSeKarov gkottov elXopev iyyvdt vrjojv, 
TOV pa hioTTTrjpa arpaTov €p,p,€vat, rjp,€T€poi,o 
EiKTCop T€ vpoerjKc Kal dXXoi Tpcoes dyavoi.** 
Q.S etTTOJV Td(f>poLo Bi'qXacrc p,a)VVxo.s tmrovs 

476 



THE ILIAD, X. 537-564 

speedily have driven forth from among the Trojans 
single-hooved horses ; but wondrously do I fear at 
heart lest those bravest of the Argives have suffered 
some ill through the battle din of the Trojans." 

Not yet was the word fully uttered, when they 
came themselves. Down they leapt to earth, and 
the others were seized with joy and welcomed them 
with hand-clasps and with gentle words. And the 
horseman, Nestor of Gerenia, was first to question 
them : " Come tell me now, Odysseus, greatly to 
be praised, great glory of the Achaeans, how ye 
twain took these horses. Was it by entering the 
throng of the Trojans ? Or did some god that 
met you give you them ? Wondrous like are they 
to rays of the sun. Ever do I mingle in battle with 
the Trojans and nowise methinks do I tarry by the 
ships, old warrior though I be ; howbeit never yet 
saw I such horses neither thought of such. Nay, 
methinks some god hath met you and given you 
them ; for both of you twain doth Zeus the cloud- 
gatherer love and the daughter of Zeus that beareth 
the aegis, even flashing-eyed Athene." 

Then in answer spake unto him Odysseus of many 
wiles : " Nestor, son of Neleus, great glory of the 
Achaeans, easily might a god that willed it bestow 
even better horses than these, for the gods are 
mightier far. But these horses, old sir, whereof 
thou askest, are newly come from Thrace, and their 
lord did brave Diomedes slay, and beside him 
twelve of his comrades, all them that were the best. 
And for the thirteenth we slew a scout near the ships, 
one that Hector and the other lordly Trojans had 
sent forth to spy upon our camp." 

So spake he, and drave the single-hooved horses 

477 



HOMER 

KayxoL^ocov a/Lta S' aAAoi taav ■)(aLpovr€s 'A;(atot. 
ol S' ore TuSetSeco KXial-qv ivrvKTOV lkovto, 
imrovs fJiev KareSrjcav evrixr]roiaLV LjJbdac 
(fxirvrj i(f)' tTTTreti^, odi. Trep A.iofX'qSeos lttttol 
ecrraaav (l)KVTTo8es fJLeXcqhea irvpov ehovTes' 
vr^t 8' ivl TTpvuvfj evapa jSporoevra AoAcuvog 
drJK ^Ohva^vs, 6<^p' Ipov eroiiiaaaaiar ^Ad-qvrj. 
avrol 8' tSpcD ttoAAoi/ aTT€vit,ovro daXaacn) 
ia^dvres Kvqixas re IBe X6(f>ov d)U.0t re fjbrjpovs. 
avrap CTret a<j)iv /cu/xa OaXdacnqs ISpcb ttoXAov 
viijjev drro ;)^pa>Tos kol dveifjvxOev j>iXov rJTop, 
€S p daaixivQovs ^dvres ev^iaras Xovaavro. 
Toj 8e Xoeaaajjievoj /cat aAeu/'a/xeVo) Ai'tt' eAato) 
SeLTTVO) €<jiLiC,aver7]V , dno 8e KprjTrjpos ^Adi^vrj 
•nXeiov d^vaaoiievoi Xel^ov fieXirjSea olvov. 



478 



THE ILIAD, X. 565-579 

through the trench, exultingly, and with him went 
joyously the rest of the Achaeans. But when they 
were come to the well-builded hut of the son of 
Tydeus, the horses they bound with shapely thongs 
at the manger where stood the swift-footed horses 
of Diomedes, eating honey-sweet corn. And on 
the stern of his ship did Odysseus place the bloody 
spoils of Dolon until they should make ready a sacred 
offering to Athene. But for themselves they entered 
the sea and washed away the abundant sweat from 
shins and necks and thighs. And when the wave 
of the sea had washed the abundant sweat from their 
skin, and their hearts were refreshed, they went 
into polished baths and bathed. But when the 
twain had bathed and anointed them richly with 
oil, they sate them down at supper, and from the 
full mixing-bowl they drew off honey-sweet wine 
and made libation to Athene. 



479 



lAIAAOS A 

Hco? o e/c Xex^cov Trap* dyavov TiOcovoTo 
opvvO^ , IV* dOavdroLai (f)6a)g (f)€poL r)8e ^porolai' 
Zeus" 8' "E/OiSa rrpotaXXe 6ods eVt vi]as 'Ajj^atcDi^ 
apyaXerjv, TToXejxoio repas fierd y^epalv exovaav. 
arrj o eir OSvacrrjos fMeyaK-qre'C VT]t fxeXaivr), 
7) p ev fiecradTO) eaKe yeyajvepiev dfX(f)OT€pojae, 
7)p,€V €77 A'iavTos /cAtcTta? TeXafjiCtividSao 
7]o €77* 'AxtXXrjoSy roi p eaxara vrjas itcras 
CLpvaav, Tjvoper] niavvoi kol Kapre'C ;^eipaii/. 
€v6a araa rjiJae ded fieya re Seivov re 
op9i , ' AxacoldLV Se fieya adevos e/x^aA' eKdaro) 
KapStr), dXXrjKrov TToXepbi^eLV rj8e ndx^adaL. 
roXcn 8 d(f)ap ■noXep.os yXvKicou yever' rje veeaOat} 
ev vrjval yXacf^vpfjai <f)iX'qv eg Trarpiha yalav. 

ArpetSrjs 8' i^orjaev I8e t^wvvvaOai dvcoyev 
Apyeiovs' ev 8' avros eSvaero vcopoTra x^^Xkov. 
KvrjiJuBas fiev Trpcora irepl Kvrjjxr^aiv edrjKc 
KaXas, dpyvpeoiatv eTn(T(f)vpioLg dpapviag' 
oevrepov av duip-qKa irepl crrrjOeaaiv eSvve, 
rov TTore ot K.ivvprjs SdJKe ^eivq'Cov etvai. 
nevOero yap KvirpovSe fieya /cAe'o?, ovveK ^Axdiol 
is TpoL-qv vrqeaaiv dvairXevaeaOai e/xeXXov 

^ Lines 13 f. ( = ii. 453 f.) were rejected by Zenodotus, 
Aristophanes, and Aristarchus. 
480 



BOOK XI 

Now Dawn rose from her couch from beside 
lordly Tithonus, to bring light to immortals and to 
mortal men ; and Zeus sent forth Strife unto the 
swift ships of the Achaeans, dread Strife, bearing 
in her hands a portent of war. And she took her 
stand by Odysseus' black ship, huge of hull, that 
was in the midst so that a shout could reach to 
either end, both to the huts of Aias, son of Telamon, 
and to those of Achilles ; for these had drawn up 
their shapely ships at the furthermost ends, trusting 
in their valour and the strength of their hands. 
There stood the goddess and uttered a great and 
terrible shout, a shrill cry of war, and in the heart 
of each man of the Achaeans she put great strength 
to Avar and to fight unceasingly. And to them 
forthwith war became sweeter than to return in 
their hollow ships to their dear native land. 

But the son of Atreus shouted aloud, and bade 
the Argives array them for battle, and himself amid 
them did on the gleaming bronze. The greaves 
first he set about his legs ; beautiful they were, 
and fitted with silver ankle-pieces ; next he did on 
about his chest the corselet that on a time Cinyras 
had given him for a guest-gift. For he heard afar 
in Cyprus the great rumour that the Achaeans were 
about to sail forth to Troy in their ships, wherefore 
VOL. I 2 1 481 



HOMER 

TOVveKOL OL Tov Sco/ce ;!^a/5t^o/xeros' ^aaiXrj'C. 

rov 8' "^ rot 8e/ca ol/jbOL kaav fieXavos Kvdvoio, 

ScuSe/ca 8e ■)(pvaolo koL e'lKoai /caacrtTepoio* 

KvdveoL he SpaKovres opcopexo-TO^ irporl heipr^v 

rpets eKarepd^ , cpiaaiv^ ioiKoreg, as re Kpovlcov 

iv ve^e'C ariqpL^e, repag fiepoTTCov dvOpwTTCOV. 

dfji(f)l S' dp* copLoiaiv ^dXero ^l(f)OS' iv Be ol rjXoL 

XpvcreiOL 7TdfjL(f)aivov , drdp nepl KovXeov r^ev 

dpyvpeov, ;)^pi;creoicrit' dopr-qpeaatv dprjpos. 

dv 8' eXer* d[j,(f)L^p6rrjv TroXvSaiSaXov dairiha Oovpiv, 

KaX'qv, T^v rrepi /xev kvkXol SeKa ;^aAAceot rjaav, 

ev Be ol opi(f)aXoi rjaav eeiKoat Kaaairepoio 

XevKoi, ev Be jxeaoiaiv erjv fxeXavos KvdvoLO. 

rfj 8' 6771 fxev Topyd) ^XoavpatTns iare(f)dvcoTo 

Betvov BepKOfievT), Trepl Be AeifMos re ^o^og re. 

rrjs 8' e^ dpyvpeos reXap,d)V "^v avrdp ctt' avrov 

Kvdveos eXeXiKro BpdKcov, Ke(f)aXal Be ol '^crav 

rpels dp,(f>t(jrpe<f)€€s, evos avx^vos eKTre^vviai. 

Kparl 8' ctt' dfi(f)L(f)aXov Kvverjv dero rerpa<f)dX7]pov 

LTTTTOvpLV Betvov Be X6(f)os KadvirepOev evevev. 

elXero 8' aA/ct/ia Bovpe Bvco, KeKopvOfxeva xo^Xkoj, 

o^ea' rrjXe Be ;)^aA/<:o? (xtt' avr6(f)iv ovpavdv elaoj 

Xdp,7T*' eTTL 8' eyBov7Tr)aav ^AOrjvair) re /cat "Hprj, 

rifxcocrat, ^aatXrja TToXvxpvaoio MvK-qvqs. 

'I{vi6x<p P'^v erretra id) iirireXXev eKacrros 

iTTTTOVs ev Kara Koapiov ipvKep.ev avd* eVi rd^po), 

^ Kvdveoi . . . dpup^x"'''''' '• ff/J-fpSaX^oi , , . iXeix/J-'^i'To Aris- 
tophanes. 

* tpiffffiv : ipldecrffLv Zenodotus. 

^ A blue enamel, or glass paste, imitating lapis lazuli; 
cf. Od. vii, 87. 

^ This is one of the very few passages in which the poet 
seems not to seek to give a clear picture, but to be content 

482 



THE ILIAD, XI. 23-48 

he gave him the breastplate to do pleasure to the 
king. Thereon verily were ten bands of dark cyanus,^ 
and twelve of gold, and twenty of tin ; and serpents 
of cyanus writhed up toward the neck, three on 
either side, like rainbows that the son of Cronos 
hath set in the clouds, a portent for mortal men. 
And about his shoulders he flung his sword, whereon 
gleamed studs of gold, while the scabbard about it 
was of silver, fitted with golden chains. And he 
took up his richly dight, valorous shield, that sheltered 
a man on both sides, a fair shield, and round about 
it were ten circles of bronze, and upon it twenty 
bosses of tin, gleaming white, and in the midst 
of them was one of dark cyanus. And thereon was 
set as a crown ^ the Gorgon, grim of aspect, glar- 
ing terribly, and about her were Terror and Rout. 
From the shield was hung a "baldric of silver, and 
thereon writhed a serpent of cyanus, that had three 
heads turned this way and that, growing forth from 
one neck. And upon his head he set his helmet 
with two horns and with bosses four, with horsehair 
crest, and terribly did the plume nod from above. 
And he took two mighty spears, tipped with bronze ; 
keen they were, and far from him into heaven 
shone the bronze ; and thereat Athene and Hera 
thundered, doing honour to the king of Mycenae, 
rich in gold. 

Then on his own charioteer each man laid com- 
mand to hold in his horses well and orderly there at 

with the suggestion of something mysterious and awe- 
inspiring, the details of which are left to the imagination ; 
cf. the description of Atiiena's aegis and helm In v. 738-744. 
Note further the vagueness of the mysterious " portent of 
war " which Eris bears in her hands (line 4). Cf. also the 
note on v. 592. 

483 



HOMER 

avrol Be TrpvXies avv revx^oi dajpr^xd^vres 

pcoovr ' da^cGTos Se ^017 yiver* rjcJodc Trpo. C 

<j>9av hk fxey'^ lttttt^cov cttl Td<f)pq) Koarfxrjdevre?, 

IrrTTrjes 8' oXiyov fiereKLadov. ev Se kvSol/jLov 

wpae KaKov J^poviSrjg , Kara 8' v^oOev rJKev eepcra? 

alpLari pivhaXeas i^ aWepos, ovveK e/xeAAe 

TToAAas" L(f>dip.ovs K€cf)aXds "Al'St Trpo'CdilfeLV, 6 

Tpcoes 8' avd^ irepcodev evl dpcoapbcp TreStoio, 
'lEiKTopd T d[X(f>l [xeyav /cat dpLVpiOva IIoyAySa- 

/xat'Ta 
Alveiav d\ os Tpcoal deog oj? rUro 8i^/xa>, 
rpeZs T* *AvTr]vopLSas, IloXv^ov /cat ^Ayijvopa Slov 
rjtOeov T A/ca/xavr', eTrtet/ceAov ddavdroiaiv. 6 

"E/CTCop 8 ev TTpcoTOtai (f)€p^ daniSa irdvToa itar)v. 
OLOS 8 e/c ve(f)€(x)V dva^atVerat ouAto? dar-qp 
7TafJi(f)aLva>v , rork 8' aurt? e8y vecjiea CKLoevra, 
ws "EiKTCop ore p.iv t€ fierd Trpioroiai (f)dveaKev, 
dXXore 8 ev TTV/JbdroLcn KeXevcov rrds 8' apa ;)^aA/caj 6 
Xdix(j>' cus re arepoirr] narpos Alos alyioxoLO. 

01 8', cu? t' dixTjTTJpes evavTiOi dAAi^Aotcrii' 
oy/xov iXavvcoaiv dvSpos pidKapos /car' dpovpav 
TTvpdJv 7) Kpi6d)V rd 8e Spdy p,aTa rap<^ea TTiTTTer 
cus" Tpcues" /cat 'Ap^aioi evr' dAATyAotcrt Oopovres 7 
St^oui/, o?)8' erepoi /xvcoovt' oAooto (f)6^oLO. 
tcras 8 varpbLVT] K€cf)aXds €)(€V, ol 8e Au/cot to? 
Ovvov. "Ept? 8' d/ja X^^P^ TToXvarovog elaopocoaa' 

^ fx^y' Aristarchus : /leO'. 



^ The only possible way of reconciling ^^^70 and dXiyov is 
to follow the scholiast in taking the former of time and the 
latter of sj)ace. 

* This strange phrase probably means no more than that 
484 



THE ILIAD, XL 49-73 

the trench, but themselves on foot, arrayed in their 
armour, ranged swiftly forward, and a cry un- 
quenchable rose up before the face of Dawn. Long ^ 
in advance of the charioteers were they arrayed at 
the trench, but after them a little space followed 
the charioteers. And among them the son of 
Cronos roused an evil din, and down from on high 
from out of heaven he sent dew-drops dank with 
blood, for that he was about to send forth to Hades 
many a valiant head. 

And the Trojans over against them on the rising 
ground of the plain mustered about great Hector 
and peerless Polydamas and Aeneas that was 
honoured of the folk of the Trojans even as a god, 
and the three sons of Antenor, Polybus and goodly 
Agenor and young Acamas, like to the immortals. 
And Hector amid the foremost bare his shield that 
was well balanced upon every side. Even as from 
amid the clouds there gleameth a baneful star, all 
glittering, and again it sinketh behind the shadowy 
clouds, even so Hector would now appear amid the 
foremost and now amid the hindmost giving them 
commands ; and all in bronze he flashed like the 
lightning of father Zeus that beareth the aegis. 

And as reapers over against each other drive 
their swathes in a rich man's field of wheat or 
barley, and the sheaves fall thick and fast ; even 
so the Trojans and Achaeans leapt upon one another 
and made havoc, nor would either side take thought 
of ruinous flight ; and equal heads had the battle,^ 
and they raged like wolves. And Strife, that is 
fraught with many groanings, was glad as she looked 

both the contending lines remained erect, neither going 
down before the other. 

485 



HOMER 

OLTj yap pa Oewv Trapervyxave ixapvai-LevoLaiu, 
ot o aAAot ov a(f)LV vrdpeaav deoi, dAAa eKrjXoi 1 
OLaiv evL fieydpocai Kadr^aro, '^x^ e/cacrro) 
hojjjLara KaXa rervKro Kara Trrvxas OvXv/jiTTOio. 
Travres S' r]ri6a>vro KeXaive^ea Ys^povicova^ 
ovvcK dpa TpojeaoLV e^ovXero kvSos ope^ai. 
Twv [xev dp* ovK aAeyi^e TTarrjp- 6 8e v6a(f)L XiaaOels S 
Tojv dXXcov dndvevde Kade^ero KvSe'C yalcov, 
eioopoojv TpcLcov re ttoXlv /cat vrjas 'AxatdJv 
XoXkov re arepoTrr^v , oXXvvras t' 6XXvp,evovs re. 

"0(f)pa fxev rjojs rjv /cat de^ero tepov rjp,ap, 
T6(f)pa [j,dX^ apbcjioripcov ^e'Ae' rJTTTero, TTiTTre 8e Xaos' i 
rjfios 8e SpvTOfjbos irep dvrjp (hiTXiaaaro SelTTVov 
ovpeos iv ^iqaar^crLV , CTret t* eKopeaaaro p^etpa? 
rdpLVCxiV SevSpea /zct/cpa, dBos re jxlv t/cero dvpiov, 
aiTov re yXvKepolo Trepl (fypevas Ijxepos alpel, 
rrjjjios a(f>7J dperfj Aavaol prj^avro (j)dXayyas, £ 

KeKXopievoL irdpoKjL Kara arixas. iv 8' 'Aya- 

fxeixvojv 
TTpdJros opova , e'Ae 8 dvSpa Bi-qvopa, TTOifieva Xad)v, 
avrov, eWtra 8' iraplov 'OtAi^a ttXtJ^lttttov. 
■^ roL 6 y* i^ iTTTTCDV KarendXpLevos dvrios earrj' 
rov 8 idvg fiepiacbra pbercoTTiov o^eC Sovpl i 

vv$', ovbe ar€<f)dv7] Sopv ol crxe'^e p^aA/co/Sapeia, 
aAAa 8t avrrjs rjXde /cat dariov, iyK€(f>aXos 8e 
kvBov drras TTeirdXaKro' BdpLaacre 8e /xtv piefxaaJra. 
/cat rovs fiev Xirrev avOi dva^ dvhpcov ' Ayapicpuvcov 
arrjdeai 7ra/x0atVovTa?, eirei irepthvae p^troip'as"^ ] 
avrdp 6 ^rj p '^laov re /cat "Avrc(f)OV i^evapi^ajv, 

* Lines 78-83 were rejected by Zenodotus, Aristophanes, 
and Aristarchus. 

* wepidvae X'^'''^''^^ '• k^I'to, revxe A-n-qvpa. 

486 



THE ILIAD, XI. 74-101 

thereon ; for alone of the gods she was with them 
in their fighting ; whereas the other gods were not 
among them, but abode in peace in their own halls, 
where for each one a fair palace was builded amid 
the folds of Olympus. And all were blaming the 
son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, for that he 
willed to give glory to the Trojans. Howbeit of 
them the father recked not ; but aloof from the 
others he sat apart exulting in his glory, looking 
upon the city of the Trojans, and the ships of the 
Achaeans, on the flashing of the bronze, and on the 
slayers and the slain. 

Now as long as it was morn and the sacred day 
was waxing, so long the missiles of either side struck 
home, and the folk kept falling; but at the hour when 
a woodman maketh ready his meal in the glades of a 
mountain, when his arms are grown tired with felling 
tall trees, and weariness cometh upon his soul, and 
desire of sweet food seizeth his heart, even then 
the Danaans by their valour brake the battalions, 
caUing to their fellows through the lines. And 
among them Agamemnon rushed forth the first and 
slew a warrior, Bienor, shepherd of the host, — himself 
and after him his comrade, Oileus, driver of horses. 
Oileus verily leapt down from his chariot and stood 
and faced him, but even as he rushed straight upon 
him the king smote him on the forehead with his 
sharp spear, nor was the spear stayed by his helm, 
heavy with bronze, but passed through it and through 
the bone, and all his brain was spattered about 
within ; so stayed he him in his fury. These then 
did Agamemnon, king of men, leave there, gleaming 
with their naked breasts, when he had stripped off 
their tunics, and went on to slay Isus and Antiphus, 

487 



HOMER 

fie ova) UpLoifjioio, vodov /cat yvT^aiov, afx,(f>a) 
€iv €VL oi(f)pip eovras' 6 /.lev v69os 'qviox^vev, 

AvTt(f)os av Trape^aoKe TreptKXvTos . co rror 

'Ajj^iAAet)? 
"Ih-qs iv KvrjfjLolat St'Sry pboaxotcrt Xvyoiat, i 

TTOifxatvovr' in* oeaai Xa^cov, /cat eXvaev airoivcov. 
07j Tore y' 'ArpetS-qs evpv Kpeiiov 'Aya/xe'/xvojv 
rov fikv VTTep pLa^olo Kara arrjOos fidXe Sovpt, 

Avri(f)ov av irapa ovs e'Aacre ^i(j>ei, eV 8' e'jSaA* 

L7nT(X)V. 

aiTepxofxevos S' oltto touv iavXa revx^a KaXd, 1 
yiyvojcTKcvv Kal yap a^e rrdpos Trapd vqval dofjaiv 
etoer, or e^ "ISrjs dyayev TroSas" co/cu? 'AvtAAeu?. 
OJS" oe Aecov €Aa(poLO rax^trjs vrjTna rcKva 
pr]'C8LO)s avvea^e, Aa^coi/ Kparepoiaiv ohovoLV, 
eXooiv et? euj/T^v, ctTraAop' re cr^' -i^Top aTrrjvpa' i 
•>7 o et Trep re rvx'Qat fidXa crxeSov, ov Svvarai. a(f)(, 
Xpo-icfxelv avrrjv ydp pnv vno rpofxog alvos tVai'et* 
Kap7TaXi/j,a>s 8' rj'i^c 8id hpvpid WKvd /cat vXr]v 
aTTevoovcr* ISpcoovcra Kparaiov B-qpos v(f>* opfirjs' 
cos apa roLS ov ris hvvaro ;\;paio-;Lt7^CTat oXedpov i; 
ipcoojv, dXXd /cat aurot vtt' 'ApyetotCTt (I)4^ovto. 
Avrdp 6 Ileiaav8p6v re Kal 'IttttoXoxov fieve- 

utea? * AvTifxdxoio Sat(f)povos ,^ os pa fidXicrra 
Xpvcrov ^AXe^dvSpoio SeSey/xeVo?, ayAaa Swpa, 
ovK elaax 'EAeVTjr Sd/xevat ^avOip MereAaw, 1< 

rov TTep 8r] Svo TratSe Aa^e Kpeioiv 'Ayafxefivcov 
etV ei't hi^pcp eovras, 6fjt,ov 8' exov cu/cea? lttttovs' 

* 8at<(>poyos : KaK6<ppoyoi Zenodotus (c/l 138). 
488 



THE ILIAD, XI. 102 127 

two sons of Priam, one a bastard and one born in 
wedlock, the twain being in one car : the bastard 
held the reins, but glorious Antiphus stood by his 
side to fight. These twain had Achilles on a time 
bound with fresh withes amid the spurs of Ida, 
taking them as they were herding their sheep, and 
had set them free for a ransom. But now the son 
of Atreus, wide-ruling Agamemnon, struck Isus on 
the breast above the nipple with a cast of his spear, 
and Antiphus he smote hard by the ear with his 
sword, and cast him from the chariot. Then he made 
haste to strip from the twain their goodly battle- 
gear, knowing them full well, for he had seen them 
before by the swift ships, when Achilles, fleet of 
foot, brought them from Ida. And as a lion easily 
crusheth the little ones of a swift hind, when he 
hath seized them with his strong teeth, and hath 
come to their lair, and taketh from them their tender 
life, — and the mother, though she chance to be very 
near, cannot succour them, for on herself too cometh 
dread trembling, and swiftly she darteth through 
the thick brush and the woodland, hasting and 
sweating before the onset of the mighty beast ; even 
so was no one of the Trojans able to ward off destruc- 
tion from these twain, but themselves were driven 
in flight before the Argives. 

Then took he Peisander and Hippolochus, staunch 
in fight. Sons were they of wise-hearted Anti- 
machus, who above all others in hope to receive 
gold from Alexander, goodly gifts, would not suffer 
that Helen be given back to fair-haired Menelaus. 
His two sons lord Agamemnon took, the twain 
being in one car, and together were they seeking to 
drive the swift horses, for the shining reins had 

489 



HOMER 

e/c yap a^eas x^^P'^^ (f)vyov rjvia aiyaXoevTa, 
Toj 8e KVKTjOrjTTjv 6 8' ivavTLOV cvpro Xecov ws 
ArpetSrjs' toj S' aur' eV hi^pov yovva^ead-qv 13 
" t,a)ypeL, ^Arpeos vU, av 8' afta 8efai d-rroLva- 
TToAAo. 8' eV ' AvTifxaxoio Sofxots^ Ketfx-qXta /cetTat, 
;^;aA/cos" re xpvaos re TToXvKfi-qrog re aihiqpos, 
Tcov K€V roL ;i^aptcratTO TTarrjp aTTepeicri diroLva, 
ei V(JL)'C ^coovs TTeiTvBoiT eTTL vrjvcrlv ^Axoiicov." 13 

Q.S TO) ye KXatovre TrpocravB-qTrjv PaaiXrja 
fieiXix^OLs eTTeeauLV ajxeiXiKTOv 8' ott' aKovaav 
" el fiev Srj ^Avrifxaxoio hat^povos:^ vlees earov, 
OS TTOT evi Tpaxov dyopfj MeveXaov dvcoyev, 
dyyeXl-qv eXdovra avv dvTiOeo) 'OSvarj'C, 14 

au^t KaraKrelvaL jxrjB^ e^efxev dtp is 'A;^atou?, 
vvv fiev Sr) rov narpos deiKea r'laere Xd)^rjv." 

'H, /cat Weiaavhpov fxev d(f>^ iTnroiv (Lae X'^l^d^e 
Sovpl paXojv rrpos arrjdos' 6 8' vtttlos ovSei 

epeiaOrj .^ 
'IttttoXoxos 8' diTopovae, rov av ;^ayu,at e^evdpi^e, 14 
X^lpag arro ^i^e'C rp,r]^as dno r avx^va Koifjas, 
oXfiov 8 d)S eaaeve KvXivheaOai 8i' ofxiXov. 
rovs iiev eaa • 6 8' odi TrXelarai KXoveovro (f>dXay- 

ttJ P evopova , d[xa 8' aAAot evKV-qpiihes *AxaiOL, 
rre^oi fiev Tre^ou? oXeKov ^evyovras dvdyKrj, 15 

iTTTTels 8' LTTTrrjas, vtto he a(/)taiv copro kovLtj 
e/c rrehiov, rrjv ojpaav epiyhovnoi 7ro8e? iTnrcoUf 
XO-Xko) 8T]'C6a)vres • drdp Kpeiojv 'Ayafxefjivojv 
alev aTTOKreivcov eVer' ^ Apyeioiai KeXevuiV. 

^ dofioif : waTpbs Zenodotus. 
* 8at<ppovoi : KaK6(ppoi'os Zenodotus (cf. 123). 
' oC'dei ipdadri : o55as ipeiffty Aristarchus {cf. xii. 192). 

490 



THE ILIAD, XI. 128-154 

slipped from their hands, and the two horses were 
running wild ; but he rushed against them like a 
lion, the son of Atreus, and the twain made entreaty 
to him from the car : " Take us alive, thou son of 
Atreus, and accept a worthy ransom ; treasures 
full many he stored in the palace of Antimachus, 
bronze and gold and iron, wrought with toil ; thereof 
would our father grant thee ransom past counting, 
should he hear that we are alive at the ships of the 
Achaeans." 

So with weeping the twain spake unto the king 
with gentle words, but all ungentle was the voice 
they heard : " If ye are verily the sons of wise- 
hearted Antimachus, who on a time in tlie gathering 
of the Trojans, when Menelaus had come on an 
embassage with godlike Odysseus, bade slay him 
then and there, neither suffer him to return to the 
Achaeans, now of a surety shall ye pay the price 
of your father's foul outrage." 

He spake, and thrust Peisander from his chariot 
to the ground, smiting him with his spear upon the 
breast, and backward was he hurled upon the earth. 
But Hippolochus leapt down, and him he slew upon 
the ground, and shearing off his arms with the sword, 
and striking off his head, sent him rolling, like a 
round stone, amid the throng. These then he let 
be, but where chiefly the battalions were being driven 
in rout, there leapt he in, and with him other well- 
greaved Achaeans. Footmen were ever slaying 
footmen as they fled perforce, and horsemen horse- 
men — and from beneath them uprose from the 
plain the dust which the thundering hooves of horses 
stirred up — and they wrought havoc with the bronze. 
And lord Agamemnon, ever slaying, followed after, 

491 



• HOMER 

cos S ore TTVp dtSrjXov iv a^vXco ifXTrear] vXr], U 
TTavrrj t eiXvcfyoajv avefios (ficpei, ol hi re Odfjivot, 
TTpoppi^oL TTLTTTOvatv iTTetyofxevot TTvpos opfifj- 
ojs dp vn* 'ArpetSr) ' Ayafxifjivovi, mTrre Kaprjva 

ipaxxiv (jyevyovrwv , ttoXXoX S' ipiavx^ves LTnrot 
Keiv ox^d Kpord\Ll,ov dvd TrroXipioio ye(f)vpas, 1( 
rjVLoxovs 7TodeovT€s djjLVfjbovas' ol 8' cttl yatrj 
Ketaro, yvireacnv ttoXv ^tArepot •^ dXoxoLcriv. 

'^KTopa S' e/c ^eXiiov viraye Zeu? e/c re Kovcrjg 
€K T avSpoKTacrirjs ck 6^ aifxaros e/c re KvSotp,ov' 

ArpetBrjs 8' enero a<^ehav6v Aat^aotat KeXevoiv. If 
OL he Trap* "YXov arjfia TraAatou Aaphavihao 
fxeaaov Kair irehiov nap* epiveov iaaevovro 
Lefxevoi TToXios' 6 he KeKXrjydjs ener alel 

Arpethrjs, XvOpcp he TraXdaaero x^^P^^S ddnrovs- 
aXX ore hr] 2/catas" re rrvXas Kal (^rjyou iKovro, 1' 
kvd dpa hrj laravro koL dXXrjXovs dvefxifjivov . 
OL 8 ert KCLfj, fieacrov irehiov (fio^eovro ^oes (x)S, 
as re Xecov e(f)6P'qcre fxoXdjv ev vvKrds dfxoXyoJ 
TTaaas' rfj he t' Ifj dva(j)alverai alnvs oXedpos' 
rrjs 8' e^ avx^v* ea^e Xa^cbv Kparepolaiv ohovai l"! 
TTpcorov, eireira he d^ alfxa Kal ey/cara irdvra 

Xa^vaaei' 
cos rovs Arpethrjs e^erre Kpelcov 'Ayap,€p,vcov, 
aiev aiTOKrelvcov rov OTrlararov ol 8' e^i^ovro. 
TToXXol he TTprjveis re Kal vrrnot, eKTreaov lttttcov^ 

Arpetheoj vtto ;\;6pcrr TTepLirpo yap eyx^i dvev. \i 
dXX ore hrj rdx e/xeXXev vtto nroXtv alnv re 
relxos 

^ Lines 179 f. were rejected by Zenodotus and Arist- 
archus. Line 180 was rejected by Aristophanes. 

492 



THE ILIAD, XL 155-181 

calling to the Argives. And as when consuming 
fire falls upon thick woodland, and the whirling wind 
beareth it everywhither, and the thickets fall utterly 
as they are assailed by the onrush of the fire ; even 
so beneath Agamemnon, son of Atreus, fell the heads 
of the Trojans as they fled, and many horses with 
high-arched necks rattled empty cars along the 
dykes of battle, lacking their peerless charioteers, 
who were lying upon the ground dearer far to the 
vultures than to their wives. 

But Hector did Zeus draw forth from the missiles 
and the dust, from the man-slaying and the blood 
and the din ; but the son of Atreus followed after, 
calling fiercely to the Danaans. And past the tomb 
of ancient Ilos, son of Dardanus, over the midst 
of the plain, past the wild fig-tree they sped, striving 
to win to the city, and ever did the son of Atreus 
follow shouting, and with gore were his invincible 
hands bespattered. But when they were come to 
the Scaean gates and the oak-tree, there then the 
two hosts halted and awaited each the other. How- 
beit some were still being driven in rout over the 
midst of the plain like kine that a lion hath scattered, 
coming upon them in the dead of night ; all hath he 
scattered, but to one appeareth sheer destruction ; 
her neck he seizeth first in his strong teeth and 
breaketh it, and thereafter devoureth the blood and 
all the inward parts : even in like manner did lord 
Agamemnon, son of Atreus, follow hard upon the 
Trojans, ever slaying the hindmost, and they were 
driven in rout. And many fell from their chariots 
upon their faces or upon their backs beneath the 
hands of Atreus' son, for around and before him he 
raged \vith his spear. But when he was now about 

493 



HOMER 

'i^eaOai, Tore Sry pa Trarrjp dvSpojv re Oecov re 
"ISrjS eV Kopvcf)fjaL Kadd^ero TnSrjecra-qg, 
ovpavoOev Kara^ds' exe S' dorepoTrrjv jxerd x^palv. 
'Ipiv o orpvve xpvaoTrrepov dyyeXiovaav 18j 

" ^daK Wi, '^Ipi raxela, rov "E/cro/jt pLvOov eviaire' 
6(f)p* dv ixiv K€v opa 'Aya/xe/xvova, Trot/xeVa Aacur, 
Qvvovr iv TTpopidxoiaiv, ivaipovra o-rt^as" dvhpciov, 
ro^p' dvaxixipeiro), rov S' aXXov Xaov dva>x0o) 
fjLdpvaaOac hrfCoiat. Kara Kparep-qv vaixivqv. 19( 

avrdp CTret k rj Sovpl rvTrels ^ ^Xrip^evog Ico 
els LTTTTOvs dXerai, rore ol Kpdros eyyvaXi^o} 
Kreivew, et? o /ce v^aj ivaaeXpiovs d(/)LK7]rai 
BvTj r TjeXios Kal eirl Kvd(f>as Upov eXOrj." 

"D? e(f)ar , ou8' dnidifjae TToStjve/jLos (VKea ^Ipts, 191 
^rj 8e /car' 'ISatcuv opecou is "IXlov Ipijv. 
evp* VLOv UpLdfjbOLo Sat(f)povos, "E/cropa 8iov, 
iaraor* ev 6^ ImToiai, Kal dppiaai KoXX-qrolatv 
dyxov S' larap^evTj 7Tpoa€(f)'r] 77080? co/cea ^Ipts' 
" "EiKrop, vie Ylpia/jLOio, Ad /jLijriv drdXavre, 20( 

Zevs fie TTarrjp irpoe-qKe retv rdSe pivO-qcraadai. 
6(f)p' dv p,€V Kev opas 'Ayapiepivova, Troi/xeVa Aaoii^, 
dvvovr* iv TTpopbdxoiaiv, ivaipovra arlxas dvhpdiv, 
r6(f)p' VTToeiKe pidx^jS, rov S' dXXov Xaov dvcoxOt. 
pidpvaaOai Stjiolgl Kara Kpareprjv vapbivr^v. 20i 

avrdp iirei k rf hovpl rvnels ^ ^XrjpLevos la> 
els LTTTTOVS dXerai, rore rot Kpdros iyyvaXl^ei 
Kreivetv, els d Ke vijas iiiaaeXpLovs d(f}LKr]ai 
BvT] r TjiXios Kal em Kve(f>as lepov eXdrj." 
494 



THE ILIAD, XI. 182-209 

to come beneath the city and the steep wall, then, 
verily, the father of men and gods came down from 
heaven, and sate him down on the peaks of many- 
fountained Ida ; and in his hands he held the thunder- 
bolt. And he sent forth golden-winged Iris to bear 
his message : " Up go, swift Iris, and declare this 
word imto Hector : So long as he shall see Aga- 
memnon, shepherd of the host, raging amid the fore- 
most fighters, laying waste the ranks of men, so 
long let him hold back, and bid the rest of the host 
fight with the foe in the fierce conflict. But when, 
either wounded by a spear-thrust or smitten by an 
arrow, Agamemnon shall leap upon his chariot, 
then will I vouchsafe strength to Hector to slay and 
slay until he come to the well-benched ships, and 
the sun sets and sacred darkness cometh on." 

So spake he, and wind-footed swift Iris failed not 
to hearken, but went down from the hills of Ida to 
sacred Ilios. She found the son of wise-hearted 
Priam, goodly Hector, standing by his horses and 
jointed car ; and swift-footed Iris drew nigh him 
and spake unto him, saying : " Hector, son of 
Priam, peer of Zeus in counsel, Zeus the father hath 
sent me forth to declare to thee this message. So 
long as thou shalt see Agamemnon, shepherd of the 
host, raging amid the foremost fighters, laying 
waste the ranks of men, so long do thou give place 
from battle, but bid the rest of the host fight with 
the foe in the fierce conflict. But when either 
wounded by a spear-thrust or smitten with an 
arrow Agamemnon shall leap upon his chariot, then 
will Zeus vouchsafe strength to thee to slay and 
slay until thou come to the well-benched ships, and 
the sun sets and sacred darkness cometh on." 

495 



HOMER 

H fiev ap* CO? eliTova drre^r) TrdSa? co/cea ^Ipts, 21 
E/CTOjp 8' i^ ox^cov avv rev^^aiv aX.ro ;^a/xa^e, 
TToXXoiV 8' o^ee hovpe Kara arparov a))(ero rravrrj, 
orpvvojv fiax^aacrdai, eyetpe 8e ^vXottiv alvijv. 
OL 8 €XeXtxdf}crav /cat ivavrloL earav ^Axatcov, 
'Apyeloi 8' irepcoOev eKaprvvavro (f)dXayyas. £] 

dprvvdr) 8e /xa;^7y, orra)/ 8' dvrioi,' iv 8' 'Aya- 

fxenvcov 
TTpoJros opova*, eOeXev 8e ttoAu 7rpo/ta;(ecr0ai 

(XTravTCDt'. 
"EcrTrere vw /u,oi, Moucrat, 'OAu/XTTta Sto/iar* 

e^oycrai, 
oj Tij 8")^ TTpaJros * AyafidfMVovos dvriov ^XOev 
r) auTcDv Tpaxov rje KXctrcbu eTTLKOvpcov . 2: 

'I^iSa/xa? ^Avr-qvoplSrjg, rjvs re fxeyas r€, 
OS rpd^T] iv QprjKrj epc^coXaKL, firjrepu [mtJXcov^ 
Ktcrcreu? toi/ y' eOpeifje So/xoig eVt rvrdov iovra 
IxrirpoTrdrcop, o? ri/cre 0eaj/a> KaXXLirdprjov . 
avrdp €7ret p' 17/87^? IpiKvhios Ik€to fierpov, 2 

auTou /u-tv KarepvKe, hihov 8' o ye Ovyarepa 7]v' 
yrjixag 8' e/c OaXdfxoio fxerd /cAeo? t/cer' 'A;;^a6a>i' 
crj)i' 8uo/cat8e/ca vrjval Kopoiviaiv, at ot errovro. 
rds fiev 'irreir iv HepKwrr) Xlttc vrjas itaas, 
avrdp 6 7Tet,6s i<hv is "lAiov ciXrjXovOef 2: 

OS pa ror 'ArpetSeo) ^AyapbipLvovos dvriov rjXOev. 
Ot o ore 07] ax^oov rjaav ctt aAAy^AoiaLV Lovres, 
^ ArpetSr^s P'€v dpiapre, rrapal 8e ot irpdirer ey^os, 
^l(f)LSdp,as 8e /cara t,a)vrjv du>pr)Kos evepOe 
vv^*, irrl 8' auro? epeLcre, ^apetrj X^i/ai Trt^T^aas" 2' 

* /xr/Xojf : ^Tjpwi/ Zenodotus. 
496 



THE ILIAD, XI. 210-235 

When she had thus spoken swift-footed Iris 
departed ; and Hector leapt in his armour from his 
chariot to the ground, and brandishing his two 
sharp spears went everywhere throughout the host, 
urging them to fight, and roused the dread din of 
battle. So they rallied, and took their stand with 
their faces toward the Achaeans, and the Argives 
over against them made strong their battalions. 
And the battle was set in array, and they stood over 
against each other, and among them Agamemnon 
rushed forth the first, and was minded to fight far 
in advance of all. 

Tell me now, ye Muses, that have dwellings on 
Olympus, who it was that first came to face Aga- 
memnon, either of the Trojans themselves or of 
their famed allies. It was Iphidamas, son of Antenor, 
a valiant man and tall, that was nurtured in deep- 
soiled Thrace, mother of flocks, and Cisseus reared 
him in his house while he was yet but a little child, 
even his mother's father, that begat fair-cheeked 
Theano. But when he came to the measure of 
glorious youth he sought to keep him there, and 
offered him his own daughter ; howbeit, a bridegroom 
newly wed, forth from his bridal chamber he went 
after the rumour of the coming of the Achaeans, 
with twelve beaked ships that followed him. Now 
these he had left at Percote, the shapely ships, but 
himself had come by land to Ilios ; he it was that 
now came to face Agamemnon, son of Atreus. And 
when they were come near as they advanced one 
against the other, the son of Atreus missed, and his 
spear was turned aside, but Iphidamas stabbed him 
on the girdle beneath the corselet, and put his 
weight into the thrust, trusting in his heavy hand ; 

VOL. I 2 K 497 



HOMER 

ovo krope t,a>aTrjpa navaioXov , aAAa ttoXv npXv 
apyvpcp avrofiev-q /xoXl^os <x)S erpaTreT alxP''^- 
/cat TO ye %et/3i Xa^ojv evpv Kpeicov ^AyafiefMvcov 
€Ak €771 OL ixejxacos COS T€ Als, €K o apa ^ftpos" 
OTTaaaaro' rov 8 aopi ttXtj^' au;^eVa, Xvae 8e yvXa. 2 
COS" o /xei/ au^i Txeacxjv Koip,rjaaro x'^Xk^ov vttvov 
OLKTpos, ttTTO /jivrjaTrjs dXoxov, darolaLV dp-qycov, 

KOVptSiT]^, -^S OV Tt X^-P''^ '■^^» TToXXd 8' cSiOKe' 

TTpcoO^ €Kar6v jSou? Sco/cev, eTreira 8e X'-'^''' VTrearrj, 
atyas ofiov /cat ot's", ra ot daTrera TTOLfiacvovTO. 2 
orj Tore y' 'ArpeiSr;? ' Aya/jLefivcov i^evdpL^e, 
prj oe (jiipojv dv* opuXov 'Axoaiov revx^a KaXd. 

lov 8 (Ls ovv ivo-qcre Kocor, dpiheiKeTog dvhpa>v, 
Trpea^vyevTjs 'AvTrjvopi.8r]s, Kparepov pd e Trevdog 
o<f>daX[Movs CKaXvipe Kaaiyp-qroio Treaovros. % 

arrj 8 evpd^ cruv Sovpl Aa^cbi' ^ AyafMefivova btov, 
vv^e 8e piiv Kara xetpa jjiearjv dyKOJVOS evepOe, 
avTLKpv 8e Siecrx^ <f)aeLVov Sovpos a/cco/c7]. 
piyqaev t' ap' eTreira at'a^ at'8pcov ^ Ayap,€fj,va)V 
aXX oyS' COS" (iTreAr^ye fidxf]? i^Se TTToX4p.oio, 2i 

aAA CTTopovcre Koojvt e;^^!/ dvepLorp€(f)es eyxos. 
7] TOt o l(f}i,8dfxavTa Kaaiyvqrov /cat oirarpov 
kXK€ TToBos fiefxaws, /cat awret Trdurag dplarovs' 
rov 8 eXKovr* dv* ojxiXov vtt* danlSos opL^aXoeaarj'; 
ovrrjae ^varcp ;;^aA/c')7pei, Auae Se ywa* 2( 

Toto 8' ctt' 'I^tSa/xavTt Ka/37^ dTreKoifje Trapaards. 

^ The sleep of death binds men as it were with bonds of 
brass; cf. Virgil, Aen. x. 'li\^5 ferreus somntis. 

* The grain of the wood was thought to be toughened by 
the buffeting of the winds ; r.f. xvii. 5.5, and Tennyson's "a 
spear of grain storra-strengthened on a windy site ' (Leaf). 

498 



THE ILIAD, XL 236-261 

howbeit he pierced not the flashing girdle, for long 
ere that the spear-point struck the silver, and was 
bent like lead. Then wide-ruling Agamemnon 
seized the spear in his hand and drew it toward him 
furiously like a lion, and pulled it from the hand of 
Iphidamas, and smote him on the neck with his 
sword and loosed his limbs. So there he fell, and 
slept a sleep of bronze,^ unhappy youth, far from his 
wedded wife, bearing aid to his townsfolk— far from 
the bride of whom he had known no joy, yet much 
had he given for her ; first he gave an hundred kine, 
and thereafter promised a thousand, goats and sheep 
together, which were herded for him in flocks past 
counting. Then did Agamemnon, son of Atreus, 
strip him, and went through the throng of the 
Achaeans bearing his goodly armour. 

But when Coon, pre-eminent among warriors, 
eldest son of Antenor, marked him, strong grief 
enfolded his eyes for his brother's fall, and he took 
his stand on one side with his spear, unseen of goodly 
Agamemnon, and stabbed him full upon the arm 
below the elbow, and clean through went the point 
of the shining spear. Thereat shuddered Aga- 
memnon, king of men, yet even so he ceased not 
from battle and war, but, wind-nurtured^ spear in 
hand, leapt upon Coon. Now he was eagerly draw- 
ing by the foot Iphidamas, his own brother, begotten 
of the one father, and was calling upon all the 
bravest, but even as he dragged him through the 
throng Agamemnon smote him with a thrust of his 
bronze-shod spear beneath his bossed shield, and 
loosed his limbs ; and he drew near and struck off 
his head over Iphidamas. There then the sons of 



I 



499 



HOMER 

€v6* *AvTi^vopos Vies VTT* ^Arpethrj ^aaiXrj'C 
TTOTfiov avaTrXrjaavres eSvv ^ofiov "AlSos" ecaa). 

Avrap 6 rcbv dXXcov ineTTCoXeLTO arixo.? avSpaJv 
^yx^t t' dopt re pLeyaXoiai re ;;^e/3/ia8toicrtv, 2 

b<f)pa ol aljx en Qepjjbov dvrjvoOev e^ (hreiXrjs. 
avrdp evret ro jiev cXkos irepcrero, Travaaro 8 

alfjia, 
o^elaL 8' dSwat Svvov fievos ^ArpetSao. 
CO? o or av cooivovaav exj) peAos ogv yvvaiKa, 
Bpijxv, ro re TTpo'ielai pLoyoaroKOL EiAet^ytat, 2 

"Hprjs dvyarepes TTiKpds (LSlvas exovaai, 
CO? o^ei oovvai bvvov fievos Arpeioao. 
is hi^pov 8' dvopovae, /cat r]VL6x({i errereXXe 
vqvcTLV 6771 yXa(f>vpT]aiv eXavvepbev tJx^^'^o Y^P ^VP- 
rjiJaev 8e SiaTrpvcriov Aavaolcri yeycovcos' 2 

" c3 (f>iXoL, Apyelcov rjyT^ropes rjBe fieSovres, 
vpLels P'^.v vvv VYjvalv dpivvere irovroTTopotaL 
^vXoTTLV dpyaXirjV, CTrel ovk e/xe purjrUra Zeu? 
etaae TpcoecroL TravrjpiepLov TToXepbit^eiv ." 

"£^? e(j)a6 , TjVLOXos 8' tp,aa€v KaXXcrpLxo-S tmrovs 2 
vijas em yXa<f)Vpds' tco 8' ovk deKovre Trereadqv. 
d(f)peov Be ari^Oea, patvovro 8e vepOe kovltj, 
reipopLevov ^aaLXrja p^dx'rjs dndvevOe (f)epovres. 

"E/CTCup 8' CO? ivoTja ' Ayap,epbvova v6a<j)i KLOvra, 
Tpcoac re koI AvKiotaiv eKeKXero fxaKpov dvaas 2 
" Tpcbes Kal AvKLOL Kal AapSavot dyxip,axrir at, 
dvepes eare, (j>iXoL, pivrjaaaOe 8e OovpiSog dA/c^?. 
OLX^'^* dvrjp copiaros, ifMOi Be piey* evxos eBcoKe 
500 



THE ILIAD, XI. 262-288 

Antenor beneath the hands of the king, the son of 
Atreus, fulfilled the measure of their fate, and went 
down to the house of Hades. 

But Agamemnon ranged along the ranks of the 
other warriors with spear and sword and great 
stones, so long as the blood welled yet warm from 
his wound. But when the wound waxed dry, and 
the blood ceased to flow, then sharp pains came upon 
the mighty son of Atreus. And even as when the 
sharp dart striketh a woman in travail, the piercing 
dart that the Eilithyiae, the goddesses of childbirth, 
send — even the daughters of Hera that have in their 
keeping bitter pangs ; even so sharp pains came 
upon the mighty son of Atreus. Then he leapt 
upon his chariot and bade his charioteer drive to 
the hollow ships, for he was sore pained at heart. 
And he uttered a piercing shout, and called to the 
Danaans : " My friends, leaders and rulers of the 
Argives, do ye now ward from the seafaring ships 
the grievous din of battle, for Zeus the counsellor 
suffereth me not to war the whole day through 
against the Trojans." 

So spake he, and the charioteer lashed the fair- 
maned horses towards the hollow ships, and nothing 
loath the pair sped onward. With foam were their 
breasts flecked, and with dust their bellies stained 
beneath them as they bore the wounded king forth 
from the battle. 

But when Hector saw Agamemnon departing, to 
Trojans and Lycians he called with a loud shout i 
" Ye Trojans and Lycians and Dardanians that 
fight in close combat, be men, my friends, and 
bethink you of furious valour. Gone is the best 
of the men, and to me hath Zeus, son of Cronos, 

501 



HOMER 

Zisvs KpovlBr]s' dAA' Wvs iXavvere (jlcovvxcils cttttov? 

KpOifiCDV AavacDv, tv' vneprepov evxos dprjade." 2£ 

iis" eLTTcbv orpvve fievos /cat dvfxov eKaarov. 
cos 8 ore 7T0V ris 6r]p-r]Trjp Kvvas apyiohovras 
aevTj 677 ayporepcp avt KaTrpico rjk Xiovri, 
cos €77 A)(aLOiatv creue Tpcoas fxeyadvfMOVs 

EiKTCop npta/LtiSTy?, ^poToXotyw taos "A.prfC. 2£ 

avTos S eV TTpdiroiai fieya (f)povccov i^e^rJKei,, 
€v o €7T€cr vapiivrj inrepaeC laos aeAAr^, 
rj re KadaXXofjLevq loeiBea ttovtov opivei. 

Civda riva irpcbrov, riva 8' vararov i^evdpi^ev 

E/cTco/a IlpLafiiSrjs, ore ol T^evs kvBos eScoKev; 30 

Aaalov p,€v irpcora /cat Avrovoov koX ^OttIttjv, 
/cat AoAo7ra KXvtlStjv /cat ^0(j)eXriov t^S' 'Aye'Aaov, 
Atavfivov T "^Qpov re /cat 'Ittttovoov iievexo-pp-fiv . 
rovs ap 6 y rjyefjbovas Aav-acDv eXev, avrdp eVetra 
ttXtjOvv, d)s 6tt6t€ vi(f>ea 7ji<f)vpos aTV(f)eXL^r] 30 

apyeardo Noroto, ^a^etry XaiXain tvtttcov 
ttoXAov 8e Tp6<f)t KVfxa /cuAtVSerat, vifioae 8' ax^"*? 
a/ctSrarat e^ dve/xoto 7roAi;7rAdy/cToto tco^?' 
w? d/aa 7ri»/cvd Kap-qad' ixj)' "E/cropt Sdfxvaro Xad)v. 

Evoa K€ Xoiyos €7]v /cat dfit^^^ava epya yevovro, 31( 
/cat vu /cer ei/ t'l^ecrcrt Triaov (j)evyovTes ^A^aiol, 
et /ii^ Ty8etS7y Ato/x7^8et k4kX€t' ^OBvaaevs' 

TvBetBr], ri TraOovre XeXdafxeda OovpiBos dXKrjs; 
aAA dye Bevpo,Tre7Tov,Trap^ €/x' Larao- 8r) yap eXey^os 
eaaerai, ei Kev vi]as eXrj KopvdaioXos "EKrcop." su 

502 



THE ILIAD, XL 289-315 

granted great glory. Nay, drive your single-hooved 
horses straight towards the vahant Danaans, that ye 
may win the glory of victory." 

So saying he aroused the strength and spirit of 
every man. And even as when a huntsman sets 
his white-toothed hounds upon a wild boar or a lion, 
so upon the Achaeans did Hector, son of Priam, peer 
of Ares, the bane of mortals, set the great-souled 
Trojans. Himself with high heart he strode among 
the foremost, and fell upon the conflict like a bluster- 
ing tempest, that leapeth down and lasheth to fury 
the violet-hued deep. 

Who then was first to be slain, and who last by 
Hector, Priam's son, when Zeus vouchsafed him 
glory ? Asaeus first, and Autonous, and Opites 
and Dolops, son of Clytius, and Opheltius, and 
Agelaus, and Aesymnus, and Orus, and Hipponous, 
staunch in fight. These leaders of the Danaans he 
slew and thereafter fell upon the multitude, and 
even as when the West Wind driveth the clouds of 
the white South Wind, smiting them with a violent 
squall, and many a swollen wave rolleth onward, 
and on high the spray is scattered beneath the blast 
of the wandering wind ; even so many heads of the 
host were laid low by Hector. 

Then had ruin come, and deeds beyond remedy 
been wrought, and now would the Achaeans in 
flight have flung themselves upon their ships, had 
not Odysseus called to Diomedes, son of Tydeus : 
" Tydeus' son, what has come over us that we have 
forgotten our furious valour ? Nay, come thou 
hither, good friend, and take thy stand by my side, 
for verily shame ^vill it be if Hector of the flashing 
helm shall take the ships." 

503 



HOMER 

Tov 8' aTTafiei^ofJievos 7Tpoae(f)r] KpaTcpos Ato- 

" T^ TOi iy<h /xerew /cai rXijaofMaL- dXXa yuivvvda 
rjfjbecov eaaerai rjhos, eirei ve^eXiqyepera Zey? 
Tpcoalv Srj jSdAerat Sovvai, Kpdros rji Trep r^pXv." 

'^H, /cat Qvp,^paLov fxev dcji" Ittttodv loae ;)(a/Lta^e, 320 
Sovpl jSaAcov Kara /xa^ot' dpiarepov avrdp 'OSuct- 

cret)? 
dvriBeov depairovra MoXlova rolo dvaKTO^. 
roijs P'^v CTTeiT eiaaav, eirel TToXipuov aTTeTTavaav 
rd) 8' dv opbiXov iovre Kvhoip,eov , dis ore Kanpcu 
iv Kval OTjpevrfjat p,eya (f)poveovre TTearjTov 325 

COS" oXeKOV TpdJas irdXiv dpp,4voi' avrdp 'A;\;aiot 
darraaLtos (f>€vyovr€s dveTTveov "E/cropa 8 tov. 

"Ev^' iXerrjv hi^pov re koI dvepe 8-qp,ov dpiaro), 
vie hvoj MepoTTO? YiepKuxjiov , o? irepl iravroiv 
fjhee pbavroavvas, ovSe ovs TratSa? eaa/ce 330 

aretx^iv is iroXepiOV ^Qiarjvopa' rd) Se ol ov ri 
■neideaOrjv KTJpes ydp dyov p^eXavos davdroto. 
rovs p.ev TvhetBris hovpiKXeiros ALop,T^B7js 
dvpLOV /cat iffvx'TJS KeKahdjv /cAura revye dTrrjvpa' 
'iTTTToBapov 8' ^OSvaevs /cat 'Yneipoxov i^evdpc^ev. 335 

"Kvda cr(f)LV Kara taa pid^^jv erdvvaae ¥s.povicov 
e^ "187^? KaOopojv rol 8' aAArjAoy? ivdpi^ov. 
rj roL TySeos" vlos ^ Aydarpo^ov ovraae hovpl 
Ylaiovihrjv rjpcoa /car' Icrxiov ov Se ol Ittttol 
eyyvs eaav TTpo(j)vyeZv, ddaaro Se ^e'ya OvpLw- 340 
rovs p-ev ydp depdncov dirdvevd^ ^X^^> avrdp 6 ne^os 
dvve 8t.d 7Tpop,dx(JOVf -^os <f>lXov oJAeae dvp,6v. 



504 



THE ILIAD, XI. 316-342 

Then in answer to him spake mighty Diomedes : 
" Of a surety will I abide and endure, howbeit but 
for scant space shall be our profit, for Zeus, the 
cloud-gatherer, plainly willeth to give victory to the 
Trojans rather than to us." 

He spake, and thrust Thymbraeus from his 
chariot to the ground, smiting him with his spear 
on the left breast, and Odysseus smote Molion, the 
godlike squire of that prince. These then they let 
be, when they had made them cease from war ; 
but the twain ranged throughout the throng, making 
havoc of it, as when two boars with high hearts fall 
upon hunting hounds ; even so they turned again 
upon the Trojans and slew them, and the Achaeans 
gladly had respite in their flight before goodly Hector. 

Then took they a chariot and two men, the best 
of their people, sons twain of Merops of Percote, 
that was above all men skilled in prophesying, and 
would not suffer his sons to go into war, the bane 
of inen ; but the twain would in no wise hearken to 
him, for the fates of black death were leading them 
on. These did the son of Tydeus, Diomedes, famed 
for his spear, rob of spirit and of life, and took from 
them their goodly battle-gear. And Odysseus slew 
Hippodamus and Hypeirochus. 

Then the son of Cronos stretched evenly for them 
the line of battle, as he looked down from Ida, and 
they kept slaying one another. Tydeus' son 
wounded the warrior Agastrophus, son of Paeon, on 
the hip with a thrust of his spear ; nor were his 
horses near at hand for him to flee, but he was 
greatly blinded at heart, for his squire held the 
horses withdrawn apart, and he on foot was raging 
amid the foremost fighters until he lost his life. 

505 



HOMER 

"EiKTCop 5' o^v vo-qae Kara arixo-'i, (Lpro 8' ctt* 

auTou? 
KeKXrjyojv afxa 8e Tpo)0)v elrrovTO (f)dXayyes. 
TOP Se IScov piyrjae^ ^orjv dyados ALOfxiqSr^s, 
olijia S Ohvaarja 7Tpoae(f>(x)ve€V iyyvs eovra' 
" vwCv St) To8e TTrjfia /cuAiVSerat, o^pifxos "E/crcop* 
aAA dye 817 arecofxev /cat dXe^cLp^eoBa fxevovres." 
*H pa, /cat d^TTeTraAcut' Trpotei 8oAt;^oCT/ctov' 

/cat ^dXev, ou8' d(f)dfj,apr€ , rtrvaKOfievos Ke(f>aXrj(f)iv , 
aKprjv /ca/c Kopvda' TrXdyxdr] 8' 0,770 -xoXko^l 

XolXkos, 
ovh^ iK€To xpo^ /caAov ipvKaKe yap rpv(j)dXeia 
rpiTTrvxps avXwTTts, r-qv ol Trope ^ol^os 'AttoXXcdv. 
"EiKTCop 8' c5/c' aTTeXedpov dveBpa/xe, jxIkto 8 

OyLtt'Ao), 

ariy he yvv^ epiTTODV /cat epeiaaro x^''P'' "^^X^^V 
yairjs' dpu^l 8e oaae KeXaivrj vv^ eKoXv^ev ? 
o(ppa be 1 voeLorjs fiera oovparos tpX^'^ epojrjv 
rrjXe 8ta Trpofjidxojv, odi ol Karaeiaaro yatrjs, 
T6(f)p' "E/CTcop €p,7TVVTO, /Cat difj €S hi(fipov opovcras 
e^eXaa is ttXtjOvv, /cat dXevaro Krjpa fxeXaLvav. 
Sovpl 8' eTrataaoiv 7rpoae(f)7] Kparepos AiofMrjBrjS' 
" e^ av vvv e<f)vyes ddvarov, kvov rj re rot dyx*- 
rjXde KaKov vvv avre a epvaaro ^ol^os 'AttoAAcdv, 
<L pLeXXeis evxeadai ld)v is Sovttov dKovrcov. 
^ drjv a i^avvo) ye /cat varepov avri^oXiqaas, 
et 7TOV TLS /cat efxoiye dewv iTTirdppodos icrri. 
vvv av rovs aAAouj imeiaop^ai, ov /ce Kixeioi." 

^ piyrjcre : iv6r}<re. 

- Line 356 ( = v. 310) was rejected by Zenodotus, Arist 
phanes, and Aristarchus. 

506 



THE ILIAD, XI. 343-367 

But Hector was quick to mark them across the 
ranks, and rushed upon them, shouting, and with 
him followed the battalions of the Trojans. At 
sight of him Diomedes, good at the war - cry, 
shuddered, and forthwith spake to Odysseus that 
was near : " On us twain is this ruin rolling, even 
might}' Hector ; but come, let us stand, and ward 
off his onset abiding where we are." 

He spake, and poised his far-shadowing spear, 
and hurled it, nor missed he the mark at which he 
aimed, but smote him on the head, on the top of 
the helmet, but the bronze was turned aside by 
bronze, and reached not his fair flesh, for it was 
stayed by the threefold crested helm, which Phoebus 
Apollo had bestowed upon him. But Hector sprang 
back a wondrous way, and mingled with the throng, 
and he fell upon his knees and thus abode, and 
with his stout hand leaned upon the earth, and 
dark night enfolded his eyes. But while the son 
of Tydeus was following after the cast of his spear 
far through the foremost fighters, where he had 
seen it fix itself in the earth, meanwhile Hector 
revived again, and leaping back into his chariot 
drave forth into the throng, and escaped black fate. 
And rushing after him with his spear mighty Dio- 
medes spake to him : " Now again, thou dog, art 
thou escaped from death, though verily thy bane 
came nigh thee ; but once more hath Phoebus 
Apollo saved thee, to whom of a surety thou must 
make prayer whenso thou goest amid the hurtling 
of spears. Verily I will yet make an end of thee 
when I meet thee hereafter, if so be any god is 
helper to me likewise. But now will I make after 
the rest, whomsoever I may light upon." 

507 



HOMER 

*H, Kol YlaioviBr^v SovpiKXvrov e^ev(xpit,€V. 
avrap 'AXe^avSpos, 'KXevrjs ttoctis 'qvKonoLO, 
TvSetSr] em ro^a rLraivero, TTOtfxevt, AacDt', 3 

aTrjXrj KCKXifxevos dvSpoKfji'qTa) inl tv/zjSoj 
"IXov AapSavldao, TraXaiov hrjjxoyepovTos . 
rj TOi 6 fjiev OayprjKa *AyaarpG(j)ov l(f)dinoi,o 
a'ivvr arro anqdea^t TravaioXov aaTTtSa r a>fia)V 
/cat Kopvda ^piap-qv 6 Se ro^ov tttjxw aveA/ce 3 
/cat pdXev, oyS' apa fj,iv dXiov ^eXos eK^vye x^f-pos, 
rapaov Se^trepoXo ttoSos" 8ia 8' dfXTTcpes 16s 
iv yo.ir] KaTCTTrjKro' 6 Se jxaXa rjSv yeXdacrag 
€/c Xoxov dfXTT'qSrjae koI evxdfievos knos rjvSa' 
" ^e^X-qai, ovS' aAtov jSeAo? €K(f>vy€v cos 6<j)eX6v rot, 3 
veiarov is KevedJva ^aXchv e/c dvfxov eXecrOac. 
ovroj K€v /cat Tpcbes dvcTTvevaav KaKOTTjros, 
ot re ae 7Tecf)ptKa(n Xeovd' cos /xry/caSe? atye?." 

Tov 8' ov rap^rjaas 7rpocre(f>rj Kparepos Ato/i,i]87ys" 
" ro^ora, Xco^rjTT]p, Kepa dyXae, TTapOevoTTLira, 3 
et fjbev Br) dvTi^iov avv revx^oi TreiprjOeLrjs, 
ovK dv roL p^/aata/Ltrjat ^los /cat Tap<^ees ioi' 
vvv he /x' eTTLypaipas rapaov ttoSos evx^oa avrcos. 
OVK dXeyco, o)? et /xe yvvr) jSaAot •^ Trat? d^pcov 
KC0(f)6v yap jSe'Aos dvSpos dvdXKtSos ovriSavolo . 3 
•^ t' dXXcos VTT efxelo, /cat et /c oXiyov Trep eTravprj, 
o^v ^eXos Tre'Aerat, /cat dKijpiov alipa ridrjai. 
rov 8e yvvaiKos /xeV t' dpL(l>ihpv(f>oi elcti Trapeiai, 

^ That K^/)i? 07X0^ refers to a method of dressing the hair, 
and not to a bow of horn, is now the generally accepted 
view. See Helbig, Horn. Epos, p. 241 ; and cf. iii. 55 ; and 
(of Euphorbus) xvii. 52. 

508 



THE ILIAD, XI. 368-S93 

So spake he, and went on to strip of his armour 
the son of Paeon, famed for his spear. But 
Alexander, lord of fair-haired Helen, aimed an 
arrow at Tydeus' son, shepherd of the host, leaning 
the while against a pillar on the barrow that men's 
hands reared for Ilus, son of Dardanus, an elder of 
the people in days of old. Now Diomedes was 
stripping the gleaming corselet of valiant Agastrophus 
from about his breast, and the shield from off his 
shoulder, and his heavy helm, when Paris drew the 
centre-piece of the bow and smote him — for not in 
vain did the shaft speed from his hand — upon the 
flat of the right foot, and the arrow passed clean 
through and fixed itself in the ground ; and with a 
right merry laugh Paris leapt up from his lair and 
spake vauntingly : " Thou art smitten, not in vain 
hath my shaft sped ; would that I had smitten thee 
in the nethermost belly, and taken away thy hfe. 
So would the Trojans have had respite from their 
woe, who now tremble before thee as bleating goats 
before a lion." 

But with no touch of fear mighty Diomedes spake 
to liim : " Bowman, reviler, proud of thy curhng 
locks,^ thou ogler of girls ! O that thou wouldst 
make trial of me man to man in armour, then would 
thy bow and thy s^vift-falling arrows help thee not ; 
whereas now having but grazed the flat of my 
foot thou boastest vainly. I reck not thereof, any 
more than if a woman had struck me or a witless 
child, for blunt is the dart of one that is a weakling 
and a man of naught. Verily in other wise when 
sped by my hand, even though it do but touch, 
does the spear prove its edge, and forthwith layeth 
low its man ; torn then with wailing are the two 

509 



HOMER 

TTOtBes S' 6p(f)avLKOL' 6 8e 6^ atfJiarL yatav ipev6a)V 
TTvOerai, olcovol 8e nepl TrAee? T^e yvvaiKeg." I 

Q.S (fidro, rod 8' 'OSuaeu? hovpiKXvros iyyvOev 
iXOojv 
karri rrpood^ ' 6 8' oTnaOe KaOe^ofievog jSeAo? cl»/cu 
€/< TToSos cAk', o8w7] 8e 8ia XP^^^ -^A^' aAeyeti'T^. 
e? Si(f)pov 8' ai/opoucre, Acat rjvLoxtp ^TrereXke 
VTjvalv €771 yXacf)vpfjaLV eXavvepbev TJxd^TO yap Krjp. ■ 

Ola)9rj 8' '08i'creus" 8oupi/<-AL'Tos", ou8e Tt? aurcS 
Apy€t(ov napifxeivev , erret cf)6^os eXXa^e Trdvras. 
oxdijaas 8' apa ciTre Trpos ov fxeyaXiqropa dvp,6v' 
CO yLtot eyco, rt Trddco; fidya p,ev KaKov at /ce 

ttXtjOvv rap^'iqoa<;' ro 8e piyiov at /cev aAoico 
fxovvos' rovs 8' aAAoy? Aavaoy? i(f)6^r](je K-povicov. 
aXXd Ti 17 )UOi ravra ^tAo? SteXe^aro Ovfxos; 
of8a ya/3 otti /ca/coi /xej/ diroixovrai rroXipiOLO, 
OS Se K dpiarevrjOL nd-XJ] ew, rov 8e fxaXa XP^^ 
€arap,€vaL Kparepo)?, rj r epArjr i] r epaA aAAov. ■ 
Ho? o ravd^ a)pfj,aLve Kara cf)peva /cat Kara 

OvjJiOV, 

r6(j)pa 8' €7rt Tpcoojv arix^s rjXvdov daTTicrrdcov, 
eXaav 8' iv /xeaaotcrt, /Aerd a<j)iai, Trfjfxa rtdevres} 
CO? 8 ore KdnpLov dfx(f)l Kvves OaXepot r aXtpqoX 
aevcovrai, 6 8e t' etat /Sa^etrj? e/c ^vXoxoio 
dijycov XevKov oSovra fierd yvafiTrrfjat, yevvaaiv, 
afji(f)l 8e t' dtCTCTOvrai, UTrat 8e re kojxttos ohovrcDV 
yiyverai, ol 8e fxevovcnv d(f)ap Seivov Trep ioura' 

^ irTjixa TiddfTes; nrifxa di l\cai> Zenodotus. 
510 



THE ILIAD, XI. 394-418 

cheeks of his wife, and his children fatherless, while 
he, reddening the earth with his blood, rotteth away, 
more birds than women around him." 

So spake he, and to him did Odysseus, famed for 
his spear, draw nigh, and take his stand before him, 
and Diomedes sat down behind him, and drew forth 
the sharp arrow from his foot, and a sore pang shot 
through his flesh. Then leapt he upon his chariot 
and bade his charioteer drive to the hollow ships, 
for he was sore pained at heart. 

Now Odysseus, famed for his spear, was left alone, 
nor did anyone of the Argives abide by him, for 
that fear had laid hold of them all. Then mightily 
moved he spake unto his own great-hearted spirit : 
" Woe is me ; what is to befall me ? Great evil 
were it if I flee, seized with fear of the throng ; 
yet this were a worse thing, if I be taken all alone, 
for the rest of the Danaans hath the son of Cronos 
scattered in flight. But why doth my heart thus 
hold converse with me ? For I know that they are 
cowards that depart from battle, whereas whoso is 
pre-eminent in fight, him verily it behoveth to hold 
his ground boldly, whether he be smitten, or smite 
another." 

While he pondered thus in mind and heart, mean- 
while the ranks of the shield-bearing Trojans came 
on and hemmed him in the midst, setting among 
them their own bane. And even as hounds and 
lusty youths press upon a boar on this side and on 
that, and he cometh forth from the deep thicket, 
whetting his white tusks in his curving jaws, and they 
charge upon him on either side, and thereat ariseth 
the sound of the gnashing of tusks ; but forthwith 
they abide his onset, how dread soever he be ; even 

511 



HOMER 

CO? pa TOT afjLcf) ^OSvarja Att ^iXov iacrevovro 
ipcoes' 6 Be TTpcorov fiev dfivfMova ^rj'CoTTLrrjv 
ovTaaev ajfiov vrrepdev eVctA/zevos' d^et Sovpl, 
avrap eTveira Socova Kal "Evvo/jLov e^evapt^e. 
^epathdjxavra 8' eneira, Kad^ Ittttcov dt^avra, 
Bovpl Kara TrporfXTjaiv vtt* damSos 6p,<j)aXoeaa-r]S 
vv^ev 6 S' eV KouLTjGL TTecrojv eAe yatav ayoarco. 
rovs fJiev eaa , o o ap iTTTraaLorjv Aapon ovracre 

hovpi, 
avTOKaaLyvTjTov evrj^evios^ TtcoKOio. 
TO) 8' iTTaXc^TJaojv Hcokos klcv, IcroOeos (j)(x)£, 
arrj Se /iiaA' iyyvs ld)v /cat fxiv irpos /xvOov eetnev 
" CO OSvaev TToXvaive, SoXcov dr rjBe ttovolo, 
aripbepov r^ hoioiaiv eVeufeai 'iTTTraaLSrjcn, 
ToidSS' dvSpe KaraKreivag Kal revyj^ dirovpas, 
rj Kev €p,a> vtto Sovpl rvirels diro dv/xov oXeaar]^." 

Q.S elTTCJV ovTTjcre kot dcrmSa TrdvToa itcrqv. 
Sid fi€v dcTTLSos rjXOe (f)a€Lvrjs o^pi/xoi^ €y)(os, 
Kal Sid OcoprjKos TToXv^aiSaXov rjprjpetcrTO, 
iravra 8' (xtto TrXevpcov XP^^ epyaOev, ovS* ct eaac 
HaXXds AOrjvairj pif)(drnievai ey/caai (jxxiTos. 
yva> 8' ^Ohvaevs o ol ov rt ^e'Ao?^ KaraKaipiov rjXdev, 
dip 8' dvaxojpi^aas JlcoKov irpos pivOov eenrev 
" d 8eiA', 7] fMaXa St] ae Kixdverai alrrvs oXiOpog. 
•q Toi fX€V p e/i' enavaas inl Tpcoeaau fxax^adar 
aol 8' iyd) ivOdSe <f)r]iJLl (f)6vov Kal Krjpa /xeXaivav 
TjfJiaTL TcpS eaaecrdai, i/xo) 8' vtto Sovpl Safxevra 
evxos €fxol Scoaeiv, ipvxrjv 8' ''At8t KXvTOTTCoXip ." . 
'H, Kal 6 p,€v <j>vyaSi' avris VTroarpdipas i^e^-qKei, 

^ [3i\oi Zenodotus : rAos Arislarchus. 
512 



THE ILIAD, XI. 419-446 

so then around Odysseus, dear to Zeus, did the 
Trojans press. But first he smote peerless Deiopites 
from above in the shoulder, leaping upon him with 
sharp spear ; and thereafter he slew Thoon and 
Eunomus, and then Chersidamas as he leapt down 
from his car he stabbed with his spear upon the 
navel beneath his bossed shield ; and he fell in the 
dust and clutched the ground with his palm. These 
then he let be, but smote Charops, son of Hippasus, 
with a thrust of his spear, even the own brother of 
wealthy Socus. And to bear him aid came Socus, 
a godlike man ; close to Odysseus he came, and 
took his stand, and he spake, saying : " Odysseus, 
greatly to be praised, insatiate in wiles and in toil, 
this day shalt thou either boast over both the sons 
of Hippasus, for that thou hast slain two such warriors 
and stripped them of their armour, or else smitten 
by my spear shalt thou lose thy life." 

So saying, he smote upon his shield that was 
well balanced upon every side. Through the bright 
shield went the mighty spear, and through the 
corselet, richly dight, did it force its way, and all 
the flesh it tore from his side ; but Pallas Athene 
suffered it not to pierce the bowels of the warrior. 
And Odysseus knew that the dart had in no wise 
lighted on a fatal spot, and he drew back and spake 
to Socus, saying : " Ah wretch, of a surety is sheer 
destruction come upon thee. Verily hast thou made 
me to cease from warring against the Trojans ; but 
upon thee I deem that here this day death and 
black fate shall come, and that vanquished beneath 
my spear thou shalt yield glory to me, and thy soul 
to Hades of the goodly steeds." 

He spake, and the other turned back and started 

VOL.1 2l 513 



HOMER 

TO) 8e yicraaTpe(j)OivTL ixera^pevco iv Sopv Trrj^ev 
OJfMCov fjbeaarjyvs , Sta 8e arTqdeG^iv eXaaae. 
BovTTrjcrcv 8e neacxyv 6 8 eTrev^aro Sto? ^OSvaaevs' 
" a> ScDp^', 'Imrdcrov vie 8at(f)povos iTnroSdfioLO , 4 
<f>dT) ae riXos^ davdroio Kix^fxevov , ovh^ vrrdXv^as. 
a SclX* , ov jxev aoi ye rraTrjp kol irorvLa fX'^T-qp 
oaae Kadaiprjaovat davovri Trep, aAA' olcuvol 
(j!ilj,r]aTaL ipvovac, nepl irrepd ttvkvo. ^aXovres. 
avrap e)u,', et K€ Odvco, KTepiovat ye hloi 'A;^atot." '. 

''O.s eiTTcov Sco/coio Sat(f)povos o^pi/juov eyxos 
e^co re XP^^^ e'A/ce /cat daTrtSos 6pi(jiaXoeaar}S' 
alfxa 8e ol anaaOevTos dveaavro, KrjSe 8e dvjxov. 
Tpcoes 8e fxeydOvixoL eTrel tSov alpj ^Ohvarjos, 
KeKXofJbevoi Kad^ opuXov eir' avro) Trdvres e^rjorav. '■ 
avrdp 6 y e^OTTiao) dvexdt,eTO, ave 8' eratpou?. 
rpls fxev eTTeir* rjijaev oaov Ke(f>aXrj ;^a8e jycoros, 
rpls 8' d'Cev Id^ovros dp7)t(f>tXos MeveAao?. 
atifja 8 dp' Atavra Trpoaecjxxyveev eyyvs iovra- 
" Alav Stoyeves TeXafjLcovie, Koipave Aacov'j '■ 

dfKJyi fi* *OSv(Tcrfjos raXaaicfypovos LKer* dijrrj. 
Tip LKeXrj COS" et e ^icparo fiovvov eovra 
Tpcbes aTTorp^'q^avTes ivl Kparepfj vafiivr]. 
aAA' Lop,ev Kad' op^iXov dXe^ep,evai yap dp,eivov. 
SeiScx) p,ri Tt TrdOrjcriv ivl Tpcoeacri p,ovco9€Ls, ' 

eadXos ea>v, pieydXrj 8e tto^t) Aavaotcri yivrjrai." 
\Ls eLTTOjv o p.ev rjpx , o o ap, eanero Lcrooeog 

evpov eTTeiT Uovanrja ou<pi,Aov ap,(pi o ap avrov 
^ tAos : /3Aos Zenodotus. 

^ Literally, "as big (a shout) as his head could hold." 
Cf. the French cHer a pleine teie. 

514 



THE ILIAD, XI. 447-473 

to flee, but even as he turned Odysseus fixed the 
spear in his back between the shoulders, and drave 
it through his breast. And he fell with a thud, 
and goodly Odysseus exulted over him : " Ah 
Socus, son of wise-hearted Hippasus, tamer of 
horses, the end of death has been too quick in coming 
upon thee ; thou hast not escaped it. Ah, poor 
wretch, thy father and queenly mother shall not 
close thine eyes in death, but the birds that eat 
raw flesh shall rend thee, beating their wings thick 
and fast about thee ; whereas to me, if I die, the 
goodly Achaeans shall give burial." 

So saying he drew the mighty spear of wise- 
hearted Socus forth from his flesh and from his 
bossed shield, and when it was drawn out the blood 
gushed forth and distressed his spirit. But the 
great-souled Trojans, when they beheld the blood 
of Odysseus, called one to another through the 
throng and made at him all together. But he gave 
ground, and shouted to his comrades ; thrice shouted 
he then loud as a man's head can shout,^ and thrice 
did Menelaus, dear to Ares, hear his call, and forth- 
with he spake to Aias that was nigh at hand : " Aias, 
sprung from Zeus, thou son of Telamon, captain of 
the host, in mine ears rang the cry of Odysseus, 
of the steadfast heart, Hke as though the Trojans 
had cut him off in the fierce conflict and were over- 
powering him alone as he is. Nay, come, let us 
make our way through the throng ; to bear him 
aid is the better course. I fear lest some evil befall 
him, alone mid the Trojans, vaUant though he be, 
and great longing for him come upon the Danaans." 

So saying he led the way, and Aias followed, a 
godlike man. Then found they Odysseus, dear to 

515 



HOMER 

Ipojes eTTOvd^ d)s et re Sa^otvot Ocbe? 6pea(f>iv 
a^KJ) eAa^oV Kepaov ^e^Xrijxevov , ov r e^aA' avr^p 
to) ttTTo vevprjg- rov fxev t' rjXv^e TToSeacrt 
(f)ev'ycov, 6(f)p^ at)u,a Xiapov /cat yovvar* opcoprj- 
avrap cttgl hrj rov ye hap^daaerai cjkvs oCaros, 
ojpiO(j)ayoL fiiv dcoes iv ovpecri haphaTTrovaiv 
eu vep,eL (jKiepa)'^ eTri re Xlv rjyaye haipaov 
GLvrrjv' 9aj€s /tteV re SUrpeaav, avrdp 6 BdnreL' 
OJ? pa ror a/x^' 'OSua^a Bax^pova TTOiKiXop.ryvqv 
T/Dcoes" eTTOV ttoKKoI re /cat aA/ct/Ltoi, avrdp 6 y ripcos 
atoraojv w eyxet dp^vvero vqXeeg rjp,ap. 
Alas 8' eyyvdev rjXde <j)epo)v adKos rjvre nvpyov, 
arrj he irape^' Tpcbes 8e hierpecrav aAAuSt? aAAo?. 
•q TOi rov MeveAaos" dp-q'Cos e^ay dp^iXov 
■)(eipos eyuiv, rios Qepdmov a^^Sov rjXaaev Ittttovs. 

Ata? 8e TpioeaoLV eirdXp^evos elXe AopvKXov 
UpLa/jblS-qv, vodov vlov, eireira 8e TldvhoKov o^a, 
ovra 8e AvaavSpov /cat Hvpaaov rjSe YlvXdpr7]v. 
<I)S o oTTore ttXtJOcov irorapios rreSiovSe Kdreiai^ 
X€Lp,dppovs /car' 6pea(f>LV, 67Tal,6p,evo£ Ato? opi^pcp, 
TToAAas" 8e Bpvs d^aXeas, ttoAAo.? Se re rreu/ca? 
ea<j)eperai,, ttoXXov he r d(j)vayer6v elg dXa ^dXXei, 
(x>9 e(f)e7T€ kXov€<ov TTehiov rore <f>aLhip,os Ata?, 
Sai^cor Ittttovs re /cat dvepas. ovhe ttcj "YiKrcop 
TTevder , eVet pa P'dx'qs €7r' dpcarepd p,dpvaro TTdarjs, 
oxOas TTap TTorap,OLO HKap,dvhpov, rfj pa /ictAtora 
avhpdjv TTiTTre Kdprjva, ^orj h' da^earos opdipei j 

^ <TKup(^ : yXarpvpifi Zenodotus. 
* Kareiai : dlrjTai Zenodotus. 
516 



THE ILIAD, XI. 474-500 

Zeus, and round about the Trojans beset him, as 
tawny jackals in the mountains about a horned stag 
that hath been wounded, that a man hath smitten 
with an arrow from the string ; from him the stag 
hath escaped and fleeth swiftly so long as the blood 
flows warm and his knees are quick, but when at 
length the swift arrow overpower eth him, then 
ravening jackals rend him amid the mountains in 
a shadowy grove ; but lo, God bringeth against 
them a murderous lion, and the jackals scatter in 
flight, and he rendeth the prey : even so then did 
the Trojans, many and valiant, beset Odysseus 
round about, the wise and crafty-minded ; but the 
warrior darting forth with his spear warded off the 
pitiless day of doom. Then Aias drew near, bearing 
his shield that was like a city wall, and stood forth 
beside him, and the Trojans scattered in flight, one 
here, one there. And warlike Menelaus led Odysseus 
forth from the throng, holding him by the hand, till 
his squire drave up the horses and car. 

Then Aias leapt upon the Trojans and slew 
Doryclus, bastard son of Priam, and after him smote 
Pandocus with a thrust, and likewise Lysander and 
Pyrasus and Pylartes. And as when a river in 
flood cometh down upon a plain, a winter torrent 
from the mountains, swollen by the rain of Zeus, 
and many a dry oak and many a pine it beareth in 
its course, and much drift it casteth into the sea ; 
even so glorious Aias charged tumultuously over the 
plain on that day, slaying horses and men. Nor 
did Hector as yet know aught thereof, for he was 
fighting on the left of all the battle by the banks 
of the river Scamander, where chiefly the heads of 
warriors were falhng, and a cry unquenchable arose, 

517 



HOMER 

f^earopd r a/x</>6 fxeyav Kal dprj'Cov *lSofjb€vi]a, 
E/cTOjp fiev /xera tolglv ofxlXei, fiepfjiepa pei^cov 
eyx^t 9^ iTTTToavvrj re, vecov S' aActTra^e (fxiXayyas. 
ovS dv TTCx) xd^^ovTo KeXevdov Stot 'A;^atot, 
€t /JLT] 'AXe^av^pos, 'EAet'rj? ttogls rjVKOixoLO, 5( 

7Tav(J€v dpLorevovra M-axdova, TTOifxiva Aaoii/, 
la) TptyXwxiVL ^aXcbv Kara Se^iov (Lfxov. 
ro) pa Trepihheicjav fxevea TTveiovreg 'A;Yatot, 
/X7y TTcog jjLLv TToXcfjiOLo fxeraKXivdevTO? eXoiev. 
avTiKa 8' ^ISofxevevs TrpoaecjxLvee Nearopa Blov 5] 

CO Nearop NrjX'q'CdST] , fxeya kvBos *Axa.tcov, 
aypcL, adjv dxeoiv iin^iqaeo. Trap 8e Maxdcov 
^aiveroj, eg vrjas 8e rdx^'CFT e;\;e ixd)vvxo.s Ittttovs' 
LT^rpos yap dvrjp TToXXd)V dvrd^LOS dXXcov 
lovs t' €KrdfMV€LV em r' jjina (f)dpfxaKa rrdaaeLV."^ 51 

"Q? e(j}ar , o?38' diridriae VeprfVios LTTTTora Ne'crrcap. 
avTiKa 8' oiv dp^ecor em^'qaero , Trap 8e Ma;)(aa>p' 
^alv* , ^AaKXrjTTiov utds" dpLvpiovos Irjrrjpos' 
fidcTTL^ev 8' Ittttovs, t<1> 8' ou/c dcKovre TTereadriv 
vrjas €TTL yXa(f)Vpds' rfj yap <j>iXov €ttX€to 9vixa>. 5i 

K.e^pLovrjg 8e Tpa;a? dpivopiivovs evorjcrev 
Ekto/ji TTap^e^acos, /cat /niv 77/30? fMvdov eenrev 
" "EiKTop, vdJ'C pLev ivddK ofiLXeo/Jiev Aavadlaiv 
icrxarifj TToXefioio Svcr-qxeog, ol 8e S17 aAAot 
Tpoies" opivovrai eTTipLi^, Ittttol re Kai avroi. 5! 

Ata? 8e KXoviei TeXafxcovtos- ev 8e /xti' eyviov 

^ Line 515 was rejected by Zenodotus, Aristophanes, and 
Aristarchus. 

^ Such oxymora are common, and serve to enhance the 
griraness of pictures of combat. 

518 



THE ILIAD, XI. 501-526 

round about great Nestor and warlike Idomeneus. 
With these had Hector dalHance/ and terrible deeds 
he wrought with the spear and in horsemanship, 
and he laid waste the battalions of the young men. 
Yet would the goodly Achaeans in no wise have 
given ground from their course, had not Alexander, 
the lord of fair-haired Helen, stayed Machaon, 
shepherd of the host, in the midst of his valorous 
deeds, and smitten him on the right shoulder with a 
three-barbed arrow. Then sorely did the Achaeans 
breathing might fear for him, lest haply men should 
slay him in the turning of the fight. And forth- 
with Idomeneus spake to goodly Nestor : " Nestor, 
son of Neleus, great glory of the Achaeans, come, 
get thee upon thy chariot, and let Machaon mount 
beside thee, and swiftly do thou drive to the ships 
thy single-hooved horses. For a leech is of the 
worth of many other men for the cutting out of 
arrows and the spreading of soothing simples." 

So spake he, and the horseman, Nestor of Gerenia, 
failed not to hearken. Forthwith he got him upon 
his chariot, and beside him mounted Machaon, the 
son of Asclepius the peerless leech ; and he touched 
the horses vnth the lash, and nothing loath the pair 
sped on to the hollow ships, for there were they 
fain to be. 

But Cebriones beheld the Trojans being driven 
in rout, as he stood by Hector's side in his chariot, 
and he spake to him, saying : " Hector, we twain 
have dalliance with the Danaans here, on the skirts 
of dolorous war, whereas the other Trojans are driven 
in rout confusedly, both horses and men. And it 
is Aias, son of Telamon, that driveth them ; well 
do I know him, for wide is the shield he hath 

519 



HOMER 

€vpv yap dficf)' wfiotatv ex^t cra/cos" aAAa /cat i^jneij 
/ceta' L7T7TOVS re /cat d'p/i' Wuvofxev, evda fxaXiGra 
LTTTTrjes Tre^ot re KaKTjv eptSa Trpo^aXovres 
aAAi^Aou? oAcKoucri, /Soi^ 8' da^ecrrog opcopev.' 5 

"D? a/3a (^covqcras i/Jbaaev KaX\iTpf)(p.s Ittttovs 
fidanyL Xiyvpj]' rol 8e TrXrjyrjs dtovTe? 
ptfjicf)' €(f)€pov 6o6v dp[xa fjuerd Tpojas /cat 'A;)^atoys", 
arei^ovres veKvds re /cat affTrtSas" at/xart S' a^cov 
vepdev diras rreTrdXaKro /cat ai^Tuyes at Trepl hi^pov, 5 
as" a/o' a0' linTeicov OTrXecov paddp^iyyes e^aXXov 
at t' (xtt' e7na(TCL)rpojv. 6 Be tero Swat ojxtXov 
avSpo/jieov pi)^ai re fxerdXpievos' iv 8e KvhoipLOV 
TjKe KaKov AavaoLGL, iiivvvda he )(d!l,ero Sovpo?. 
avrdp 6 rdjv dXXcov eTreTTOjXeXro arixcis dvSpwv 5 
eyx^t r* dopi re pieydXotai re ;^ep/>ta8totcrtv, 
Atat'TOS' 8' aAeetve p-dx^jv TeXap,cx)vidhao} 5 

Zey? 8e narrjp Atav^' vijjit,vyos ev <j>6^ov apae' 5 
aT?y 8e ra(f)a)v, omdev 8e adKos ^dXev eTrra^oeiov , 5 
rpeacre Be TTa-nrrivas ecji' opiiXov, drjpl eot/cc6s", 
evrpo7TaXit,6p,evos , oXiyov yovv yovvos aixei^cov. 
ws 8' aWojva Xeovra ^ocov dno p.eaaavXoLo^ 
iaaevavro Kvves re /cat dvepes dypoLcorai, 
ot re p,iv ovK eldxn ^ocov e/c Trtap eXeadat. 5 

Trdvvvxot eypiqaaovres' 6 Be Kpeidyv eparit,(x}V 
Wvei, aAA' ov rt, Trp'qcraef Qap,ees ydp dKovres 
dv iov aiaaovai dpacreudajv dTTo ;)^et/3a)v, 
/cat ')p,evai re Berai, rds re rpel iaavp,ev6s nep' 

^ After line 542 Aristotle and Plutarch give a line not 
found in the >iss. of the Iliad, 

Zei/s ydp ol veiJ.4<Ta<rx' St' dfielvofi 0wri fiaxoiro. 

* Lines 548-557 were rejected by Zenodotus. 

520 



THE ILIAD, XI. 527-554 

about his shoulders. Nay, let us too drive thither 
our horses and car, where most of all horsemen and 
footmen, vying in evil rivalry, are slaying one another, 
and the cry goes up unquenchable." 

So saying he smote the fair-maned horses with 
the shrill-sounding lash, and they, feeling the blow, 
fleetly bare the swift car amid the Trojans and 
Achaeans, trampling on the dead and on the shields, 
and with blood was all the axle sprinkled beneath, 
and the rims round about the car, with the drops 
that smote upon them from the horses' hooves and 
from the tires. And Hector was eager to enter 
the throng of men, to leap in and shatter it, and 
an evil din of war he sent among the Danaans, and 
scant rest did he give his spear.^ Nay, he ranged 
along the ranks of the other warriors with spear 
and sword and with great stones ; only he avoided 
battle with Aias, son of Telamon. 

Now father Zeus, throned on high, roused Aias 
to flight, and he stood in a daze, and on his back 
he cast his sevenfold shield of bull's-hide, and -with 
an anxious glance toward the throng he gave way, 
Uke a wild beast, ever turning him about and re- 
treating slowly step by step. And even as a tawny 
lion is driven from the fold of the kine by dogs and 
country folk, that suffer him not to seize the fattest 
of the herd, watching the whole night through, 
but he in his lust for flesh goeth straight on, yet 
accomplisheth naught thereby, for thick the darts 
fly to meet him, hurled by bold hands, and blazing 
brands withal, before which he quaileth, how eager 

^ The phrase is of doubtful meaning ; possibly we should 
render, " for but scant space did he hold back from the 
spear (of the foe)." 

521 



HOMER 

fjojOev 8' d'7Tov6a(f>iv e^r] Terir^oTL Ovfiof 5 

(OS Atas" tot' oltto Tpcocov TeTLrjfxdvos rJTop 
TfCe TToAA' deKOjv rrepl yap Ste vrjvalv 'A;^atoav. 
COS S ot' ovos Trap' dpovpav lojv e^iiqaaTO TraiSa? 
vwd-qs, CO Srj ttoAAo. Trepl poiraX dfX(f)ls ^dyr], 
K€Lp€i T elaeXdojv ^adv Xi]tov' ol he re TraiSe? 5 

TVTTTOVmV pOTToXoLOL' ^L7] Sc T€ VTjTTLT] aVTCOV 

aTTOvSfj T i^rjAaacrav, inei t eKopecraaTO (f)op^rjs' 
(OS TOT eTTCiT* AtavTa fxiyav, TeXafxcovLOV vlov, 
Tpcoes VTTepOvfxoL TroXvrjyepees t eTTiKOvpoi 
vvaaovTes ^vaTolai fieaov uolkos alkv cttovto. 6 

Atas" 8' d'AAore fxev fivrjcrdaKeTO dovpiSos dXKrjs 
avTis V7TOcrTpe(f)deLS, /cat iprjTvaaaKC <f)dXayyas 

Tpcocov l7T7ToBdp,(OV , OTe Se TpCOndcTKeTO (f>€Vy€LV. 

TrdvTas Se rrpoeepye 9ods cttI vrjas oSeveiv, 
avTos Se Tpcocov Kal 'Axaicov dvve fxeorjyv 6 

LGTafievos. Ta Se Sovpa dpaaeidcov (xtto x^^P^^ 
aAAa fx€v iv crdKe'C fieydXcp Trdyev opfMeva npoaaco, 
TToXXd 8e /cat fjbecrcrqyv, Trdpos Xpoa XevKov irravpctv, 
ev yaiT] laTovTo, XiXaiofxeva XP^^S aaat. 

Tov 8' cos ovv ivorja' Euat/xovo? ayAao? vlos 5 
KvpvTTvXos TTVKivolat ^ta^o/jLevov jSeAeecTCTt, 
aTTJ pa Trap avTov icov, /cat a/covrtcre hovpi cf)a€ivcp, 
Kal ^dXe (^avaidSrjv 'ATncrdova, TTOLfxeva Xacov, 
■fJTTap VTTO TTpairihcov, eWap 8' vtto yovvaT* eXvaev 
ISivpvTTvXos 8' eTTopovcre /cat a'lvvTO rey;^e' drr' to/xajv. 5 
TOV 8' cos OVV ivoTjaev 'AXe^avSpos deoetSrjs 
Tevx^' dTTaivvfjLcvov 'Ainadovos, avTiKa to^ov 
522 



THE ILIAD, XL 555-582 

soever he be, and at dawn he departeth with sullen 
heart ; so Aias then gave way before the Trojans 
sullen at heart, and sorely against his will, for 
exceedingly did he fear for the ships of the Achaeans. 
And as when an ass that passeth by a cornfield 
getteth the better of boys — a lazy ass about whose 
ribs many a cudgel is broken, and he goeth in and 
wasteth the deep grain, and the boys beat him with 
cudgels, though their might is but puny, and hardly 
do they drive him forth when he hath had his fill 
of fodder ; even so then did the Trojans, high of 
heart, and their alHes, gathered from many lands, 
smite great Aias, son of Telamon, with spears full 
upon his shield, and ever press upon him. And 
Aias would now be mindful of his furious valour, and 
wheeling upon them would hold back the battalions 
of the horse-taming Trojans, and now again he 
would turn him to flee. But he barred them all 
from making way to the swift ships, and himself 
stood between Trojans and Achaeans, battling 
furiously. And the spears hurled by bold hands 
were some of them lodged in his great shield, as 
they sped onward, and many, ere ever they reached 
his white body, stood fixed midway in the earth, 
fain to glut themselves with flesh. 

But when Euaemon's glorious son, Eurypylus, 
saw him oppressed by thick-flying darts, he came 
and stood by his side and hurled with his shining 
spear, and smote Apisaon, son of Phausius, shepherd 
of the host, in the liver below the midriff, and 
straightway loosed his knees ; and Eurypylus leapt 
upon him and set him to strip the harness from his 
shoulders. But when godlike Alexander marked 
him stripping the harness from Apisaon, forthwith 

523 



HOMER 

eA/cer* ctt' KvpvTTvXo), /cat fJLtv jSaAc firjpov oicrToi 
Se^iw' eKXdaOr] 8e Sora^, e^dpvve 8e firjpou. 
a«/f 6 erapcov et? et/i'os' e;Ya^eTO /ci^p aAeetv'cov', 
TjiJaev Se hiaTrpvaiov Aai^aotat yeycDVco?- 
" tS (jiiXoL, ^Apyetojv riy-qTopes rjSe piehovres, 
ari^T* eXeXixQ^vres /cat dfivverc vrjXees rj^xap 
Atav9\ OS ^eXeeacrt jSta^eraf ovSe e ^t^jmi 
<l)€V^€ad^ e/c TToXepiOLO Svarj)(eos' aAAa jitaA' dvrr]v 
laraad^ dficf)^ Klavra {xeyav, TeXapaoviov vlov.' 

"Ds" €(f>aT* ^vpvTTvXos j3e^Arj/xeVo? ■ ot 8e Trap avrov 
TrXyjaioi ear'qaav, odKe co/xotui /cAiVavres", 
hovpar dvaaxofJievoi' tojv S' dvTtos' rjXvdev Aia?. 
CTT^ 8e pbera(Trpe<^deis, inel i/cero eSuos iraipcov. 

'^Q.S ol fiev fxdpvavro Sefias Trvpos aWop,€voio' 
NcCTTopa S' e/c TToAe/xoto (j)ipov NT^ATyl'ai Ittttoi. 
Ihpcjaai, rjyov Se Ma;^aova, TTOip,eva Xacjov. 
Tov Se iSaiv ivoTjae TToSapK-qs Sto? 'A;y^tAAei;s'* 
ianqKei yap errl Trpv/JLvrj fieyaKrjre'C vr]t, 
elaopoojv ttovov alirvv ia)/ca re haKpvoecraav, 
atiffa 8' iralpov iov HaTpo/cA^a Trpoaeenre, 
<f)d€y^dfji,€Vos TTapd vr]6s' 6 8e KXicrtrjOev dKovaas 
eKfioXev laos "Aprjt, KaKov 8' apa ot ttcXcv dp^T]. 
TOV TTporepos irpoaeenre Mevotrtoy aXKi/xos vlos' 
" riirri p.e /ct/cATycr/cet?, 'Axi-Xev; ri he ae XP^^ 

e/xeio; " 
TOP' 8' d7Tapi€L^6pi€vos TTpoae^rj TToSa? co/cu? 'A;!^tA- 

Xevs. 
" 8te Mei'otTta8i7, to) ifxco Kexo-pf-crp-^ve Ovfiu), 
vvv 6t(o TTepl yowar* ifxd arrjueadai ^Axcuovs 
524 



THE ILIAD, XI. 583-609 

he drew his bow against Eurypylus, and smote him 
with an arrow on the right thigh ; and the reed of the 
arrow brake, yet was his thigh made heavy. Then 
back he shrank into the throng of his comrades, 
avoiding fate, and he uttered a piercing shout, and 
called to the Danaans : " My friends, leaders and 
rulers of the Argives, turn ye and stand, and ward 
off the pitiless day of doom from Aias who is oppressed 
with darts ; nor do I deem that he will escape from 
dolorous war. Nay, verily, stand ye and face the 
foe about great Aias, son of Telamon." 

So spake the wounded Eurypylus, and they came 
and stood close beside him, leaning their shields 
against their shoulders and holding their spears on 
high ; and toward them came Aias, and turned 
and stood when he had reached the throng of his 
comrades. 

So fought they like unto blazing fire ; but the 
mares of Neleus, all bathed in sweat, bare Nestor 
forth from the battle, and bare also Machaon, 
shepherd of the host. And swift-footed goodly 
Achilles beheld and marked him, for Achilles was 
standing by the stern of his ship, huge of hull, 
gazing upon the utter toil of battle and the tearful 
rout. And forthwith he spake to his comrade 
Patroclus, calling to him from beside the ship ; and 
he heard, and came forth from the hut like unto 
Ares ; and this to him was the beginning of evil. 
Then the valiant son of Menoetius spake the first : 
" Wherefore dost thou call me, Achilles ? What 
need hast thou of me ? " And in answer to him 
spake Achilles, swift of foot : " Goodly son of 
Menoetius, dear to this heart of mine, now methinks 
will the Achaeans be standing about my knees in 

525 



HOMER 

Aiaaofjievovs' X/J^tco yap LKOLverai, ovkct* dvcKTOS. 
aAA' Wl vvv, YldrpoKXe Sit<^tAe, NeWop' epeio 
ov Tiva TOVTOv dyet ^e^XrjjJbevov e/c TToXipLOio- 
7] TO I fjL€V rd y oTTLode Maxdovi iravra eoLKC 
rep *AaKXr)7ndSr), drdp ovk ihov ofxpLara <f)Cor6s' 
LTTTTOi yap jxe Traprfi^av Tvpoaaoi fxepiaviaL." 

"i^S" (f>dro, YldrpoKXos 8e <j>i\a) eVeTret^e^' iraipo), 
^rj 8e deeiv Trapd re KXiULas Kal vrjas 'A;^a(.cDv. 

Ot 8' ore 817 K\iair]v NrjAT^laSeco d(f)LKOvro, 
avroL fiev p dne^-qaav eirl x^ova TTOvXv^oreipaVf 
iTTTTOVs o KvpvpbeScxiv OepaTTOJV Xv€ roZo yepovros 
i^ 6x€Ci)V' rol 8' cdpd) dneipyxovro ;)^tT6t;va)r, 
aravre ttoti ttvoltju Trapd dlv* dXos' avrdp eireira 
es KXiairjv iXOovres errl KX^apiolcri Kddc^ov. 
rolai 8e revx^ KVKetco ivirXoKajjios 'FiKa/jb-qSr], 
rr)v dper e'/c TeveBoto yipojv, ore rrepaev ^AxiX- 

Xevs, 
Qvyarep* ^Apatvoov pieyaX'qropos, "fjv ol 'Ap^atot 
e^eXov, ovvcKa ^ovXfj dptareveaKcv drrdvrwv. 
7] a(f)Cx>'Cv TTpcorov p,kv eTTCTTpotr^Xe rpaTre^av 
KoXrjv KvavoTTe^av eij^oov, avrdp I'n avrrjs 
xdXKeiov Koveov, errl 8e Kpojxvov irorip oipov, , 

rjoe fMeXt x^^pdv, Trapd 8' dXcjiirov lepov dKr-qv^ 
Trap he BeTras vepiKaXXes, o oiKoOev rjy^ 6 yepaios, 
XpvaeLOLS rjAoLcn TTeTrapfievov ovara o avrov 
reaaap eaav, 8oiat 8e 7reAeta8es' dfx<f>ig eKaarov 
Xpvaeiai vefiedovro, Svco 8' vtto TTvdp,€ves rjaav. 1 

1 A gold cup, very nearly answering to this description, 
but with two handles instead of four, was found by 
Schliemann at Mycenae (see Schuchhardt, Schliemanns 
Excavations, p. 271). A dove with outspread wings stands 
on the top of either handle, and from the lower part of the 
handles strips of gold extend to the outer rim of the base of 
526 



THE ILIAD, XL 610-635 

prayer, for need has come upon them that may no 
longer be borne. Yet go now, Patroclus, dear to 
Zeus, and ask Nestor who it is that he bringeth 
wounded from out the war. Of a truth from behind 
he seemeth in all things like Machaon, son of 
Asclepius, but I saw not the eyes of the man, for the 
horses darted by me, speeding eagerly onward." 

So spake he, and Patroclus gave ear to his dear 
comrade, and went running along the huts and the 
ships of the Achaeans. 

But when those others were come to the hut of 
the son of Neleus, they stepped forth upon the 
bounteous earth, and Eurymedon the squire loosed 
old Nestor's horses from the car, and the twain 
dried the sweat from their, tunics standing in the 
breeze by the shore of the sea ; and thereafter they 
went into the hut and sate them down on chairs. 
And for them fair-tressed Hecamede mixed a potion, 
she that old Nestor had taken from out of Tenedos, 
when Achilles sacked it, the daughter of great- 
hearted Arsinous ; for the Achaeans had chosen 
her out for him, for that in counsel he was ever best 
of all. She first drew before the twain a table, fair, 
with feet of cyanus, and well - polished, and set 
thereon a basket of bronze, and therewith an onion, 
a relish for their drink, and pale honey, and ground 
meal of sacred barley ; and beside them a beauteous 
cup, that the old man had brought from home, 
studded with bosses of gold ; four were the handles 
thereof, and about each twain doves were feeding, 
while below were two supports.^ Another man 

the cup. These correspond well to the irvd/i^vei mentioned 
in the text. The bosses may be merely ornamental, or else 
they are the heads of the rivets holding the several parts 
together. 

527 



HOMER 

aAAo? /xev iioyicxiv aTTOKivqaaaKe rpaTre^rjS 
ttXcIov iov, NeCTTOjp S' o yepcov d[xoyrjTt, aeipev. 
iv rep pd a<j)L KVKrjae yvvq i'lKvla Oefjaiv 
oivcp Upafivetcp, em 8' atyeiov kvtj rvpov 
KVT^ari jj^aA/cet'iy, eTrt S' dX(j>na XevKO. TrdXvve, 
TTivejxevaL 8e KcXevaev, eirei p coTrXiaae KVKeio). 
fu) 8' cTret ovv ttLvovt d(f)irrjv TToXvKayKca St^ai/, 
fivOoicriv repvovTO Trpog o.AAi^Aous' evenovTes , 
YidrpoKXos 8e dvprjGLV e^tWaro, laoOeog (fxjog. 
TOP Be I8(hv 6 yepaios duo dpovov wpro <f>a€ivov, 
is 8' dye x^i'Pos iXoiv, Kara 8' ehpidaadai dvcoye. 
TidrpoKXos 8' erepcodev dvaivero eiTre re fivdov 
" ovx eSos eari, yepaik hiorpe<j)es, ovhe p.e TrelaeLS. 
alhdlos vep.€cn]r6s 6 pue TTpoe-qKe rrvdeadai, 
6v riva rovrov dyeis ^e^Xr^pievov . dXXd /cat avros 
yiyvojaKCx), opoio Be Maxdova, 7Toip,eva Aaoii'. 
vvv Be eTTOS epecov TrdXcv dyyeXos elp,^ ^AxtXrj'C. 
ev Be (TV olada, yepaie BLorpe^es, olos eKelvog 
Beivos dv-qp' rd^o. Kev kol dvainov alrtocpro." 

Tov 8' rjpt,ei^er* eireira Yeprjvios InTTora Necrrco/j* 
"riTTre t' dp' cS8' 'A;^^'^^'^^' oXo(f>vperai vlas 'AxaidJv, 
oaaoL Brj ^eXeaiv ^e^Xrjarai; ovBe ri olBe 
TTevOeos, oaaov opcope Kara arparov oi yap dpiaroi, 
ev vrjvalv Kearai ^e^Xruievoi ovrdfxevoi re. 
Pe^Xrjrai piev 6 TvBetBrjs k par epos ALOpLrjBrjs, 
ovraarai 8' 'OBvaevs BovptKXvros rfi' 'AyapbepLVCDV 

528 



THE ILIAD, XL 636-661 

could scarce have availed to lift that cup from the 
table, when it was full, but old Nestor would raise 
it right easily. Therein the woman, like to the 
goddesses, mixed a potion for them with Pramnian 
wine, and on this she grated cheese of goat's milk 
with a brazen grater, and sprinkled thereover white 
barley meal ; and she bade them drink, when she 
had made ready the potion. Then when the twain 
had drunk, and sent from them parching thirst, 
they took delight in tales, speaking each to the 
other ; and lo, Patroclus stood at the doors, a 
godlike man. At sight of him the old man sprang 
from his bright chair, and took him by the hand and 
led him in, and bade him be seated. But Patroclus 
from over against him refused, and spake, saying : 
" I may not sit, old sir, fostered of Zeus, nor wilt 
thou persuade me. Revered and to be dreaded is 
he who sent me forth to learn who it is that thou 
bringest home wounded. But even of myself I 
know, and behold Machaon, shepherd of the host. 
And now will I go back again a messenger, to bear 
word to Achilles. Well knowest thou, old sir, 
fostered of Zeus, of what sort is he, dread man ; 
lightly would he blame even one in whom was no 
blame." 

Then made answer the horseman Nestor of 
Gerenia : " Wherefore now doth Achilles thus have 
pity for the sons of the Achaeans, as many as have 
been smitten with darts ? Nor knoweth he at all 
what grief hath arisen throughout the camp ; for 
the best men lie among the ships smitten by darts 
or wounded with spear-thrusts. Smitten is the son 
of Tydeus, mighty Diomedes, wounded with spear- 
thrust is Odysseus, famed for his spear, and Aga- 

VOL. 1 2 M 529 



HOMER 

^e^XrjTai 8e Kol FtvpvTTvXos Kara fjbrjpov o'CcxTCp' 
rovTov 8' aAAoi' eyco veov rjyayov eK TroAe/xoio 
Icp (XTTo v€vprjs ^e^Xripievov . avrap ^KxiXXevs 
eadXog icbv i^avacov ov /ci^Serat ovS eXeaipei. 
•q jxevei els o kc Brj vrjes Ooal ay^t daXdaa7]s 
^Apyeiojv aeKTjTi irvpos Srjtoio depcoprai, 
avTOL T€ /cretvcujLte^' iiriax^po^', ov yap eix-q t? 
ecr^' OCT] Ttdpos eoKev ivl yvafiTrrolaL puiXeaaiv. 
eW^ cjs Tj^cooL/JLi ^ii) he fioi e/XTreSo? etr], 
<x)S ottot' 'HAetoiCTi Kal rjixlv velKos eTVxOr] 
dfi(f)l ^o-qXaoLrj, or' iycb ktovov 'iTV/xovrja, 
iadXov 'YTTeLpoxl'hrjv, os iv "HAtSt vaLeraaaice, 
pvai eXavvofjievos' 6 S' dfivvcov fjcL ^oeaaLV 
e^Xr]r iv Trpcoroiacv e/jirjs avro ;^€ipos' aKovri, 
/caS 8' eireoev, Xaoi he TrepiTpeaav aypoiwrat. 
Xrjtha S' e'/c Trehiov crvveXdaaafxev rjXLOa ttoXXt^v, 
TTevrrjKovra ^ocov dyeXas, rdcra Tvcoea olcov, 
roaaa avcbv av^oaia, roa atTroAca irXare alycov, 
iTTTTOVS he ^avdds eKarov kol irevrriKOvra, 
Trdaas OrjXeLas, TToXXfjat he ttcoXoi VTrrjaav. 
Kol rd fxev rjXaadfieada IlvXov Nr]Xi]'Cov eiao) 
evvvxi'Ot, TTpoTL darv yeyiqdei, he (f>peva Nr^AeJ?, 
ovveKd ixot rvx^ ttoAAo. veco TToXefjUovhe klovtl. 
KTipvKes he Xiyaivov a/Lt' i^ot ^awopLeviq^L 
Tovs tfxev olai xP^^^s d(f>eiXer' ev "HAtSi Stry* 
ot he awaypopievoi YlvXiiov rjyqropes dvhpes 
hairpevov TToXeaiv yap 'ETretoi XP^^^^ 6(f)eiXov, 
COS rjpiets Travpoi KeKaKcofxevoi, ev UvXcp ^p.ev. 
eXOdiv ydp p eKdKOJoe ^i-q 'HpaKXTjeit) 

^ Line 662 is omitted in the best mss. 
530 



THE ILIAD, XL 662-690 

memnon, and smitten is Eurypylus too with an arrow 
in -the thigh, and this man beside have I but now 
borne forth from the war smitten with an arrow from 
the string. Yet Achilles, valiant though he be, 
careth not for the Danaans, neither hath pity. Doth 
he wait until the swift ships hard by the sea, in 
despite of the Argives, shall blaze with consuming 
fire, and ourselves be slain man after man ? For 
my strength is not such as of old it was in my supple 
Umbs. Would that I were young and my strength . 
were firm as when strife was set afoot between the 
Eleans and our folk about the lifting of kine, what 
time I slew Itymoneus, the valiant son of Hypeiro- 
chus, a man that dwelt in Elis, when I was driving 
off what we had seized in reprisal ; and he while 
fighting for the kine was smitten amid the foremost 
by a spear from my hand ; and he fell, and the 
country folk about him fled in terror. And booty 
exceeding great did we drive together from out 
the plain, fifty herds of kine, as many flocks of sheep, 
as many droves of swine, as many roving herds of 
goats, and chestnut horses an hundred and fifty, 
all mares, and many of them had foals at the teat. 
These then we drave into Neleian Pylos by night 
into the citadel, and Neleus was glad at heart for 
that much spoil had fallen to me when going as a 
stripHng into war. And heralds made loud pro- 
clamation at break of dawn that all men should 
come to whomsoever a debt was owing in goodly 
Elis ; and they that were leaders of the Pylians 
gathered together and made division, for to many 
did the Epeians owe a debt, seeing that we in Pylos 
were few and oppressed. For mighty Heracles had 
come and oppressed us in the years that were before, 

531 



HOMER 

ra>v TTporepojv irecuv, Kara 8' €Kra6ev oaaoi 

apiaroi. 
ScoSe/ca yap l!^r]Xrjos apbvpiovos vleeg rjfjLev' 
roiv olos XiTTOfjLrjv, ol S' a'AAoi Travres oXovto* 
ravO^ VTreprjcjiaveovreg 'ETretoi ;;^aA/<ro;)^tTCt)i'es", 
-Qfieas v^pi^ovreg, ardadaXa jx-qxavocovTO . 6 

€K S o yipcov dyeXrjv re ^odjv /cat ttcov fxey* oliov 
etAero, KpLvdfxevos rpiriKoaL rjSe vofxrjag. 
/cat yap rip XP^^^^ V^W oj)el\er iv "HAtSi Sltj, 
reacrapes ad\o<j)6pot, lttttol avrolaiv 6x€a(f)LV,^ 
eXuovres fxer dedXa' Trepl rpirroho^ yap e/xeAAov' 7 
devaeadaL' rovs S' ay^t dva^ dvSpcov Avyelas 
Kaax^de, rov S' eXarrjp' d^Ui dKaxrjpievov LTnroiV. 
rdjv o yepojv enecov K€XoXcop,€Vos rjSe /cat epycov 
e^eAcr' dairera TToXXd- rd 8' aAA' is S-qp^ov eScoKC 
Sairpeveiv, p^rj ris ol drep^^opievos /ctoi tcrrjs.^ 7 

rip,elg p.kv rd e/cao-ra StetTro/zei', dp,^i re dcrrv 
epSopiev ipd deols' ol 8e rpircp rjpiari, Trdvres 
rjXdov opLctJS avroi re rroXelg /cat p,covvxes lttttol 
TTOuavhirj' pLerd he a(f)L MoXtove Ocopi^aaovro 
7rat8 er' eovr' , ov ttoj pidXa elSore dovpLSog dXKrjg. 7 
ean 8e rtj Qpvoeaaa ttoXls, atVeta KoXcovq, 
rrjXov eV 'AA<^eta), vedrr] IlvXov rjp,ad6evros' 
rrjv ap,cf)earpar6(x}vro Stappatcrat pLepiacoreg. 
dXX ore rrdv rrehiov pLereKLadov, dpLpLL 8' ^AOrjvrj 
dyyeXos rjXOe deova aTr' ^OXvpiTTOV doiprjaaeadaL T. 
evvvxos, ovB* deKovra YlvXov Kdra Xaov dyeipev, 
dXXd pLdX* iaavpLevovs TToXepLL^eLV. ovSe p,e NrjXevs 
eta Ocop-qaaeadaL, dTreKpvi/jev 8e p,oL lttttovs' 

^ Line 699 was suspected in antiquity. 
* Line 705 ( = Odyssey ix. 42) was rejected by Zenodotus 
and Aristarchus. 

532 



THE ILIAD, XI. 691-718 

and all that were our bravest had been slain. Twelve 
were we that were sons of peerless Neleus, and of 
these I alone was left, and all the rest had perished ; 
wherefore the brazen-coated Epeans, proud of heart 
thereat, in wantonness devised mischief against us. 
And from out the spoil old Neleus chose him a herd 
of kine and a great flock of sheep, choosing three 
hundred and their herdsman with them. For to 
him a great debt was owing in goodly Elis, even 
four horses, winners of prizes, with their car, that 
had gone to the games, for they were to race for a 
tripod ; but Augeias, king of men, kept them there, 
and sent back their driver, sorrowing for his horses. 
By reason of these things, both deeds and words, was 
the old man wroth, and chose him recompense past 
telhng ; and the rest he gave to the people to 
divide, that so far as in him lay no man might go 
defrauded of an equal share. So we were disposing 
of all that there was, and round about the city were 
offering sacrifice to the gods ; and on the third day 
the Epeians came all together, many men and single- 
hooved horses, with all speed, and among them the 
two Moliones did on their battle -gear, though 
they were as yet but stripHngs unskilled in furious 
valour. Now there is a city Thryoessa, a steep hill, 
far off on the Alpheius, the nethermost of sandy 
Pylos ; about this they set their camp, fain to raze 
it utterly. But when they had coursed over the 
whole plain, to us came Athene, speeding down 
from Olympus by night with the message that we 
should array us for battle, and nowise loath were 
the folk she gathered in Pylos, but right eager for 
war. Now Neleus would not suffer me to arm myself, 
but hid away my horses, for he deemed that as yet 

533 



HOMER 

ov yap 7TCO tl ju, €<^r] 'iSfxev TToXejxrfCa epya. 
aAAa Acat cu? LTnrevcn fiereTrpeTTOV rjfjieTepoiat, "t 

/cat 776 ^o? 7T€p €cov, cTTel cej? dye vclkos 'AO^vtj, 
ecTTL Se TLS TTorafios Mtvvrj'Cos els dXa ^dXXcov 
iyyvdev ^Api^vrjs, odi jxeivaybev 'Hoi hlav 
LTTTTrjes HvXlojv, rd 8' ineppeov edvea Tre^cDv. 
evOev TTavavSiT) avv Tev')(^eai dojprjxOevres 1 

eVStot t/cd/xea^' lepov poov 'AA^etoio. 
evda Att pe^avres inreppbevet Upd /caAa, 
ravpov 8' 'AA^eto), ravpov he ITocrecSaajn, 
auTctp *Ad7]vatr) yXavKcomhi, ^ovv dyeXalr^v, 
SopTTOV eneid eXo/JieaOa Kard arparov ev reXeecrm, 7 
Kal KaT€KOLiJit]9r]fji€v ev evreaw olaiv eKaaros 
dp,(l>l pods TTorap,olo. drdp jxeyddvpLOi 'ETrecot 
dfjb(f)i.aTavTO Brj darv hiappalaaC- piejxacores' 
oAAa <J(f)i. TTpoTTapoide cfidvr) p,eya epyov "Ap-qos* 
€VT€ ydp rjeXios <j)aeOcx)v vnepecrxeOe yaL7]s, 7 

avix^epop^eada p^axj], A16 t' evxofxevoL /cat ^AOtJvt]. 
dXX' ore St) HvXlcov Kal 'EiTretdJv enXero veiKOS, 
TTpwTOS eycov eXov dvhpa, /co/iicrcra Se [xiovvxdS 

LTTTTOVS, 

MovXlov alxP''r]rriv' ya/x^pos 8' "^v Avyeiao, 
7Tpeu^VTdT7)v 8e dvyarp* elx^ ^avdrjv 'AyafMrjSrjv, 7 
rj Tocra (f)dpfxaKa jjSr] oaa rpe(j>et evpeia x^^^- 
TOP fiev eyco Trpocnovra ^dXov ;!^aA/C7ypet hovpi, 
rjpLTTe 8 ev Kovirjaiv eyoj 8' is Sicjipov opovaas 
arrjv pa fxerd Trpofxaxoiatv. drdp pieyddvfioi 

'ETretoi 
erpeaav d'AAuSt? aAAo?, eiret tSov' dvSpa neaovra 7, 
rjyepiov ittttt^cov, os dpiareveoKe /xaxecrdai. 
avrhp iyojv etropovaa KeXaivfj AaiAaTTt laos, 

* Stappai(Tai : diawpadiuv, 

5S4, 



THE ILIAD, XI. 719-747 

I knew naught of deeds of war. Howbeit even so 
I was pre-eminent among our horsemen, on foot 
though I was, for so did Athene order the fight. 
There is a river Minyeius that empties into the sea 
hard by Arene, where we waited for bright Dawn, 
we the horsemen of the Pyhans, and the throngs 
of footmen flowed ever after. Thence with all 
speed, arrayed in our armour, we came at midday 
to the sacred stream of Alpheius. There we sacrificed 
goodly victims to Zeus, supreme in might, and a bull 
to Alpheius, and a bull to Poseidon, but to flashing- 
eyed Athene a heifer of the herd ; and thereafter 
we took supper throughout the host by companies, 
and laid us down to sleep, each man in his battle- 
gear, about the streams of the river. But the great- 
souled Epeians were marshalled about the city, 
fain to raze it utterly ; but ere that might be there 
appeared unto them a mighty deed of war ; for 
when the bright sun stood above the earth we made 
prayer to Zeus and Athene, and joined battle. But 
when the strife of the Pylians and Epeians began, 
I was first to slay my man, and to get me his single- 
hooved horses — even the spearman Mulius ; son 
by marriage was he of Augeias, and had to wife his 
eldest daughter, fair-haired Agamede, who knew 
all simples that the wide earth nourisheth. Him as 
he came against me I smote with my bronze-tipped 
spear, and he fell in the dust ; but I leapt upon his 
chariot and took my stand amid the foremost 
fighters. But the great-souled Epeians fled one 
here, one there, when they saw the man fallen, 
even him that was leader of the horsemen and pre- 
eminent in fight. But I sprang upon them Uke a 



6S5 



HOMER 

vevT'qKovTa 8' eXov Si(f)povs, Bvo 8' dficfyls CKacrrov 
(f)a>T€S o8a^ eXov ovSas ifjiO) vtto hovpl Safxevres. 
/cat vv K€v ^Aktoplojvc MoXlov€ TratS' dXarra^a, 7 
el fXT] cr(f)a)€ TraTTjp evpv Kpeicov ivoaixOcov 
Ik TToXefxov iadojcre, KaXvifjas "^^pt TToXXfj. 
ev9a Zj€vs YlvXioLut, fieya Kpdros iyyvdXi^e' 
Tocfipa yap ovv eTTo/jieada 8ia cr7n8eo? TreSioio, 
KTCLVOvres t' avrovs dvd r evrea KaXd Xeyovres, 7 

6(j>p^ €7TL BoVTTpaaloV TToXvTTVpOV ^T^aa/XeV LTT7TOVS 

7T€Tpr]s t' 'Q.X€VLrjs, /cat 'AXr]aLOV evOa koXcovt] 
KeKXrjTaf 66 ev avrts aTrerpaTre Xaov ^Ad-qvr]. 
ev6* dvbpa Krelvas TTVpuarov Xlttov avrdp 'A;)^atot 
dxj} diTO BovTrpaatoLO UvXovS' ^X^^ co/ce'a? lttttovs, 7 
Trdvres 8' evx^Toojvro deojv Att Nearopi r' dvSpdJv, 
"^0,5 eov, et ttot' eov ye, fxer^ dvSpdaiv. avrdp 
'AxtXXevs 
olos TT^? dperfjs dTrovqaerai,' rj re pav otco 
TToXXd fieraKXavaeadai, eTret /c' aTro Xaos oXr^rai. 

(L 7T€7TOV, 7^ pb€V UOL ye MeVOLTLOS c58' €7TeTeXXev 7 

■^jLtart Tip ore a' e/c ^dirjs ' Ayapiep,vovi 7re)u.7re. 
vcot 8e evSov eovres, eyoj Kal Slos ^OSvcrcrevs,^ 
TTOvra fidX* ev pLeydpoLS rjKovop,ev u)s enereXXe. 
Ylr]Xrjos 8' iKopieada Sopiovs ev vaierdovras 
Xadv dyeipovTes /car' 'A;)(attSa TTOvXv^oretpav. 7 
evOa 8' eVet^' rjpwa Mevoiriov evpopev evhov 
rihe ae, vdp 8' 'Ap^tAiJa* yepcov 8' tTnrrjXdTa YlrjXevs 
TTiova pb7]pia Kate ^oos Att repiTLKepavvcp 
avXrjs ev x^prcp' e^c Be ;^puCTetoi' dXetaov, 
OTTevhoiV aWorra olvov eir* aWopLevois lepoalt. 1 

^ Lines 767-785 were rejected by Aristophanes and Arist- 
archus. 

5S6 



THE ILIAD, XL 748-775 

black tempest and fifty chariots I took, and about 
each one two warriors bit the ground, quelled by 
my spear. And now had I slain the two Moliones, 
of the blood of Actor, but that their father, the wide- 
ruling Shaker of Earth, saved them from war, and 
shrouded them in thick mist. Then Zeus vouch- 
safed great might to the men of Pylos, for so long 
did we follow through the wide plain, slaying the 
men, and gathering their goodly battle-gear, even 
till we drave our horses to Buprasium, rich in wheat, 
and the rock of Olen and the place where is the hill 
called the hill of Alesium, whence Athene again 
turned back the host. Then I slew the last man, and 
left him ; but the Achaeans drave back their swift 
horses from Buprasium to Pylos, and all gave glory 
among the gods to Zeus, and to Nestor among men. 
Of such sort was I among warriors, as sure as 
ever I was. But Achilles would alone have profit 
of his valour. Nay, verily, methinks he will bitterly 
lament hereafter, when the folk perisheth. Ah, 
friend, of a surety Menoetius thus laid charge upon 
thee on the day when he sent thee forth from Phthia 
to Agamemnon. And we twain were within, I and 
goodly Odysseus, and in the halls we heard all 
things, even as he gave thee charge. For we had 
come to the well-builded house of Peleus, gathering 
the host throughout the bounteous land of Achaia. 
There then we found in the house the warrior 
Menoetius and thee, and with you Achilles ; and 
the old man Peleus, driver of chariots, was burning 
the fat thighs of a bull to Zeus that hurleth the 
thunderbolt, in the enclosure of the court, and he 
held in his hand a golden cup, pouring forth the 
flaming wine to accompany the burning offerings. 

587 



HOMER 

a(f>a)'C fxeu dficf)! ^oos enerov Kpea, vaJ'C 8* eireira 
arrjfjLev evl TrpodvpoLcrt' racfiojv 8' dvopovcrev 

is 8' dye ;!^eipos' iXcov, Kara 8' eSpidaaOai, dvcoye, 
^etVta r' ev TrapedrjKev, d re ^eivoLS depus eariv. 
avrdp €Trel rdprnqpiev iSr^rvos rjSe 'ttottjtos, 71 

ripxov iydi pivdoLO, KcXevojv vpipi dp. eneadaf 
acfxh Se /zaA' rjdeXeTOV, rd) 8' dp,(f)Ci) ttoAA' ctt- 

eVeAAov. 
IlTyAeus" /^ev cS.TratSi yipuiv eTrereAA* ^AxiXrfC 
alev dpiarevetv /cat vrretpoxov epipLevai dWcov 
aol 8' avd^ c58' eTreVeAAe Mej/otTtoj, "AKropos vtos' 7i 
WeKVov ipiov, y^vefj p.kv viriprepos eartv ^A^iXXevs, 
TTpea^vrepos 8e cry eVcrf jSt?^ 8' o ye ttoAAoj/ 

djLietVcoi'. 
oAA' eu oi (f)da9at ttvkwov enos rjS* inrodeadai 
Kai ol arjpLaiveiv 6 8c TTecaerai eis ayadov irep.' 
d)s eVereAA' o yipoiv, av 8e Xridear dXX en /cat vw 7( 
ravT elTTOis 'A;^iA7jt Sat^pov't, at /ce TTLdrjrai,. 
Tt? 8' ot8' et /cev ot cruv 8at/xort dvpiov opivais 
TTapeiTTcov ; dyadr] 8e napai^acris ecrnv eraipov. 
el 8e Ttva (fipealv rjai, OeoTTpoTTLrjV aXeeivei} 
Kai TLvd ol Trap Z^rjvos inecfypaSe TTorvia /XT^TTjp, 7c 
dAAo. ae irep TTpoerco, dp,a 8' ctAAos" Aaos" eTreadco 
MvppLiSovcDV, at Kev tl (f)6a)s AavaoXut yevrjac 
Kai TOt revx^a /caAd 8oTa> TrdAe/xovSe cfjepeadai, 
at K€ ae r<x> toKOvres dTToaxoivraL TroAeyuoto 
Tpojes, dvavvevacoGC 8' dpTytot ute? 'A;3^ata)V' gC 

reipofjievoL' oXlyq Be r dvaTwevcns TroXe/xoio. 

^ Lines 794 f. were rejected by Zenodotua. 
538 



THE ILIAD, XI. 776-801 

Ye twain were busied about the flesh of the bull, 
and lo, we stood in the doorway ; and Achilles, 
seized with wonder, sprang up, and took us by the 
hand and led us in, and bade us be seated, and he 
set before us abundant entertainment, all that is 
the due of strangers. But when we had had our fill 
of food and drink, I was first to speak, and bade you 
follow with us ; and ye were both right eager, and 
those twain laid on you many commands. Old 
Peleus bade his son Achilles ever be bravest, and 
pre-eminent above all, but to thee did Menoetius, 
son of Actor, thus give command : ' My child, in 
birth is Achilles nobler than thou, but thou art the 
elder, though in might he is the better far. Yet 
do thou speak to him well a word of wisdom and give 
him counsel, and direct him ; and he will obey thee 
to his profit.' Thus did the old man charge thee, 
but thou forgettest. Yet even now at the last do 
thou speak thus to wise-hearted Achilles, if so be 
he may hearken. Who knows but that heaven 
helping thou mightest rouse his spirit with thy 
persuading ? A good thing is the persuasion of a 
friend. But if in his heart he is shunning some 
oracle and his queenly mother hath declared to him 
aught from Zeus, yet let him send thee forth, and 
with thee let the rest of the host of the Myrmidons 
follow, if so be thou mayest prove a light of deliver- 
ance to the Danaans ; and let him give thee his 
fair armour to bear into the war, in hope that the 
Trojans may take thee for him, and so hold aloof from 
battle, and the warlike sons of the Achaeans may 
take breath, wearied though they be ; for scant is 
the breathing-space in battle. And lightly might 



539 



HOMER 

pela 8e k' aKfjirJTes KeK/xTjoras dv8pag dvrf}^ 
d)aata9e Trporl dcrrv t'ectJi' (xtto /cai /cAtCTictcor." 

"^S" (fxiTO, TO) 8' apa dvjxov ivl ar-qdeaaiv opive, 
Prj 8e Oeeiv irapd vrjas en AlaKiSr^v 'A^t'^rja.. 
aXX ore Srj Kara vrjas 'Obvaarjos Oeioio 
l^e deiov riaTpo/cAos-, Iva ct^' dyoprj re Qijxis re 
"qriv, rfj Srj /cat a(f>L decov irerevxciTO jSco/xot, 
evOa ol ^vpvTTvXos ^e^Xrjjxevos avre^oX-qcre 
SioyevTjs FivaLpbovLSrjs Kara /jurjpov otcrra), 
aKdt,(j}V e/c iroXepbov. Kara 8e vonos peev I8pd)s 
(^jjicov /cat K€(f)aXrjs, oltto 8' eA/ceoj a/ayaAeoto 
atjLta /xeAav KeXapv^c voos ye /xei' e)u.Tre8o? Tyet*. 
TOi' 8e 1801)^ ojKTeipe Mei/otrtou aA/ci/xo? utds", 
/cat p' 6Xo(f)vp6pL€Vos eVea TTrepoeura Trpocrqvha' 
" d SeiAot, AavacDv 'qyrJTopes rjSe fxeSovres, 
d)S dp* e/ieAAere riyAe (f>iXcov /cat TrarpiSos a'irjs 
daeiv iv Tpotj] rap^e'a? Kvvas dpyeri Srjfio). 
dAA' aye /xot To8e etrre', 8tOT/)e0es' EvpuTryA' -^pcos, 
T] p en TTOV GXT^orovai TreXiopiov "EiKTop* *A)(aioi, 
rj tJSt) (fydiaovrat vtt* avrov Sovpl Sa/zeVre?; " 

Tov 8' avT KvpvTTvXos ^e^Xrjfievos^ dvriov •qvBa' 
" ovKeri, Sioyeves YlarpoKXees, a'A/cap 'A;^aia)M 
eaaerai, dAA' ei' vqval fieXaivpaiv ireaeovTai. 
ol [xev yap 8r) Trdvres, ocrot, irdpos 'qaav dpiaroi, 
iv vrjvalv /ce'arat ^e^Xrip.evoi ovrdpuevoi re 
^epcrlv VTTO Tpwcov rcov 8e aOeuos opwrai alev. 
dAA' ejxe /xev av adioaov dyojv enl vrja fieXaivaVf 
fxrjpov 8' e/cra/Lt' o'Ccrrov, dn* avrov 8' alfxa KeXaivov 

* Lines 802 f. (=xvi. 44 f.) were rejected by Aristarchus. 
540 



THE ILIAD, XI. 802-829 

ye that are unwearied drive men that: are wearied 
with battle back toward the city from the ships 
and the huts." 

So spake he, and roused the heart in the breast 
of Patroclus, and he set out to run along the line of 
the ships to Achilles, son of Aeacus. But when in 
his running Patroclus was come to the ships of 
godlike Odysseus, where was their place of gathering 
and of the giving of dooms, whereby also were builded 
their altars of the gods, there Eurypylus met him, 
the Zeus-born son of Euaemon, smitten in the thigh 
with an arrow, limping from out the battle. And 
in streams down from his head and shoulders flowed 
the sweat, and from his grievous wound the black 
blood was gushing, yet was his spirit unshaken. At 
sight of him the valiant son of Menoetius had pity 
on him, and with wailing spake to him winged 
words : " Ah ye wretched men, leaders and lords of 
the Danaans, thus then were ye destined, far from 
your friends and your native land, to glut with your 
white fat the swift dogs in Troy. But come, tell 
me this, Eurypylus, warrior fostered of Zeus, will the 
Achaeans haply still hold back mighty Hector, or will 
they now perish, slain beneath his spear ? " 

And to him again made answer the wounded 
Eurypylus : "No longer, Zeus-born Patroclus, will 
there be any defence of the Achaeans, but they will 
fling themselves upon the black ships. For verily 
all they that aforetime were bravest, lie among the 
ships smitten by darts or wounded with spear-thrusts 
at the hands of the Trojans, whose strength ever 
waxeth. But me do thou succour, and lead me to my 
black ship, and cut the arrow from my thigh, and 
wash the black blood from it with warm water, 

541 



HOMER 

vi^' vSari Xiapo), ctti 8* ■^Vta (fxipnaKa iraaae, 
iadXd, TO, ere Trpori <f)aat,v 'A;^tAArjos Se8tSa;\;0at, 
ov Xeipwv eStSa^e, StAcaioraTo? Kevrau/acuv. 
lr]Tpol p,ev yap IIoSaAetpio? rjhe Ma;^aa>t', 
Tov /Aet' evt KXiairjauv otoixai e'A/cos" kxovTa, 
XpT]'Cl,ovTa Kol avTOV dfjLVjJiovos IrjT-^pos, 
KeiaOar 6 8' iv TreSioj Tpojiov /xeWi d^w "Aprja. 
Tov 8' aure TrpocreetTre Mevomou dXKifios vlos' 
TTOJ? T ap eot Taoe epya; ri pegofMev, tivpviTvA 
'^pcos; 
epxofiat, 6(f)p' ^AxtXrj'C Bat<f)povt, fxvdov iviaTTO), 
ov Nearcop inereXXe VepijvLOS, ovpos 'A;^ataiv 
aAA' ovS* ws 7T€p aeco pbediqait) TeLpo/xevoio.' 

*H, /cat VTTO arepvoLO Xa^ojv dye Troi/xeva XaiJov 
is kXlgltjv' depdrrcov Se lSd)V vnex^ve jSoeta?. 
€v6a fjLiv CKTavvaas eK p,T]pov rdp.ve jxaxciiprj 
o^v ^eXos TTepiTrevKes, dv^ avrov 8' alp,a KeXaivov 
VL^* vSari Xtapo), cttl 8e pit,av jSaAe 7TLKpr)v 
X^P'^i' Siarptifjas, oSvv'q(f>arov, rj ol aTrdaas 
€ax dhvvas' to fxev eXxos iripaeTO, iravaaro 8' 
alp,a. 



54,2 



THE ILIAD, XI. 830-848 

and sprinkle thereon kindly simples of healing power, 
whereof men say that thou hast learned from Achilles, 
whom Cheiron taught, the most righteous of the 
Centaurs. For the leeches, Podaleirius and Machaon, 
the one methinks lieth wounded amid the huts, 
having need himself of a goodly leech, and the other 
in the plain abideth the sharp battle of the Trojans." 

And to him again spake the valiant son of 
Menoetius : " How may these things be ? What 
shall we do, warrior Eurypylus ? I am on my way 
to declare to wise-hearted Achilles a message 
wherewith Nestor of Gerenia, warder of the Achaeans, 
charged me. Nay, but even so will I not neglect 
thee that art in grievous plight." 

He spake and clasped the shepherd of the host 
beneath the breast, and led him to his hut, and his 
squire when he saw them strewed upon the ground 
hides of oxen. There Patroclus made him lie at 
length, and with a knife cut from his thigh the 
sharp-piercing arrow, and from the wound washed 
the black blood with warm water, and upon it cast 
a bitter root, when he had rubbed it between his 
hands, a root that slayeth pain, which stayed all 
his pangs ; and the wound waxed dry, and the 
blood ceased. 



543 



lAIAAOS M 

Cls o fxev iv KXiairjai, Mcvoltlov oXki^ios vlos 
idr ^vpvTTvXov ^€^X7]iJ,evov ol 8' i/JidxovTO 

Apyelot /cat Tpojes o/xiXaSov oyS' ap' e/xeAAc 
Ta(f>pos €TL axTJar^tv Aavad>v /cat retxos VTrepdev 
evpv, TO TToi-qaavTo recDv VTrep, d/x^l 8e Td(f)pov i 
rjXaaav, ovSe deolai Socrav /cAetra? e/caro/x^a?, 
6(f)pa a(j)LV vrjds re dods /cat XrjtSa ttoAAt^i/ 
evTo? e;\;oj/ pvoiro. decov 8' dcK-qri. rirvKTO 
adavdroiv to /cat oi» ri ttoXvv xpovov e/jUTreSov ■j^ev. 
o^pa fiev "FiKTOjp ^coos e-qv /cat ixrjvi 'Ap^tAAei)? ] 
/cat npta/ioio dvaKTOs dTTopdrjTO? ttoXls cttXcp, 
ro(j>pa 8e /cat /xeya relxos ^Kxcllcov e/x7re8oi/ i^ei/. 
axrrap eirel Kara p.kv Tpoiojv ddvov oacroi dpiaToi, 
TToXXoL 8 Apyeicov ol fxkv hdjxev, ol 8e AtTroj/ro, 
TTepdero Be Ylpidfioio ttoXcs SeKdru) Iviavrcp, 1 

'ApyeioL 8' eV vr^uat (f)LXr)v is Trar/atS' e^-qaav, 
Srj Tore fX7]Tt6ojvro noo-et8afoi' /cat 'AttoAAcoi' 
relxos afiaXSCvat, Trora/xcov jxivog elaayayovreg, 
oaaoi an ^IBalcov opecov dXaSe Trpopeovai, 

P'^aoj 6 YiTTTaTTopog re K.dpr)cr6s re 'PoSto? re j 
Tp-qviKos T€ /cat AicrrjTTog 8 to? re S/cayLtar8/50? 
/cat Sijuocts', o^i TToAAo. ^odypia /cat Tpv(f>dXeiai 
544 



BOOK XII 

So then amid the huts the vaUant son of Menoetius 
was tending the wounded Eurypylus, but the others, 
Argives and Trojans, fought on in throngs, nor were 
the ditch of the Danaans and their wide wall ab«ve 
long to protect them, the wall that they had builded 
as a defence for their ships and had drawn a trench 
about it — yet they gave not glorious hecatombs to 
the gods — that it might hold within its bounds 
their swift ships and abundant spoil, and keep all 
safe. Howbeit against the will of the immortal gods 
was it builded ; wherefore for no long time did it 
abide unbroken. As long as Hector yet lived, and 
Achilles yet cherished his wrath, and the city of 
king Priam was unsacked, even so -long the great 
wall of the Achaeans Ukewise abode unbroken. 
But /when all the bravest of the Trojans had died 
and many of the Argives — some were slain and some 
were left — and the city of Priam was sacked in 
the tenth year, and the Argives had gone back in 
their ships to their dear native land, then verily 
did Poseidon and Apollo take counsel to sweep 
away the wall, bringing against it the might of all 
the rivers that flow forth from the mountains of 
Ida to the sea:^Rhesus and Heptaporus and Caresus 
and Rhodius, and Granicus and Aesepus, and goodly 
Scamander, and Simois, by the banks whereof many 
)L. I 2 N 545 



I 



HOMER 

KOLTTTTeaov iv KovirjCTi /cat rjixidioiv yevos avSpaJv 
Twv TTOVTCov ofioGe aToybar' erpane Odl^os 'AttoA- 

Xo)v, 
ivvrjfiap 8 es relxos tei poov ve 8' dpa Zeu? 
avvex^s, 6(f)pa K€ ddaaov dXiirXoa reix^a delrj. 
avros 8' ivvocriyaios excov ;)^eipecrcrt rpiaivav 
7]yeZr , e/c 8' dpa Trdvra ^e/xet'Ata Kvp^aai 7re/x7re 
<j>LTpd)v Koi Xdwv, rd deaav /xoyeovres 'Axaiol, 
Aeta 8' iTToirjaev Trap* dydppoov 'EAAr^crTTOi'Tov, 
avris 8' rfCova [xeydXrjv i/jafxddoLat, "TfaXvipe, 
reixos dfiaXSvvas' TTOTapiovs 8' erpeifje veeadai 
Kap poov, fj TTep TTpoadev lev KaXXippoov vSojp. 

"D? ap' efieXXov omaOe Yioaeihdcov /cat 'AttoAAcov 
drj(T€[ji€var t6t€ S' a/x^t p-dxy] ivomj re 8e8rj(:t 
T€t;(os' ivSjJbrjTov, /cam;)^t^e 8e Sovpara irvpyajv 
^aXXofiev^' ^Apyeiot Se Ato? pidariyi Bapievres 
vqvalv em yXa^vpfjaw eeXp.evoi laxcvocjvTO , 
"E/CTopa 8€tStdTe?, Kparepov pi-qarci^pa ^o^oio' 
avrdp o y <ji<? rd TvpoaQev ep,dpvaro taos deXX-p. 
cos 8' or' dv ev re Kvveacn /cat dvhpdai Orjpevrfjai 
KaTTpios rje Xecov arpe(f)eraL adeve'C ^XepLealvcov 
ot 8e re rrvpyrjBov (j(f>eas avrovs dprvvavres 
dvrioi taravrac /cat dKovrit,ovaL OafMecds 
alxP'ds e/c x^^pd^^' '^'^^ ^' o^' "^ore KvSdXipiov Krjp 
rap^et ovBe (fio^elrai, dyrjvopiy) hi pLCV e/cra* 
rapcjiea re arpe^erai arixo-S dvSpujv TTeipr]ril,uiV' 
OTTTTrj t' Wvarj, rfj t* et/coucrt arix^s dvhpdyv 
OiS tiKrcop av opbtAov ux)V eAiaaeu eraipovs ■ 
rd(f)pQv irrorpwcov hia^aiveixev ovSe ol ittttoi i 
546 



THE ILIAD, XII. 23-50 

shields of buU's-hide and many helms fell in the 
dust, and the race of men half-divine — of all these 
did Phoebus Apollo turn the mouths together, and 
for nine days' space he drave their flood against the 
wall ; and Zeus rained ever continually, that the 
sooner he might whelm the wall in the salt sea. And 
the Shaker of Earth, bearing his trident in his hands, 
was himself the leader, and swept forth upon the 
waves all the foundations of beams and stones, that 
the Achaeans had laid with toil, and made all 
smooth along the strong stream of the Hellespont, 
and again covered the great beach with sand, when 
he had swept away the wall ; and the rivers he turned 
back to flow in the channel, where aforetime they 
had been wont to pour their fair streams of water. 

Thus were Poseidon and Apollo to do in the after- 
time ; but then war and the din of war blazed about 
the well-builded wall, and the beams of the towers 
rang, as they were smitten ; and the Argives, 
conquered by the scourge of Zeus, were penned by 
their hollow ships, and held in check in terror of 
Hector, the mighty deviser of rout, while he as 
aforetime fouglit like unto a whirlwind. And as 
when, among hounds and huntsmen, a wild boar or 
a lion wheeleth about, exulting in his strength, and 
these array them in ranks in fashion like a wall, and 
stand against him, and hurl from their hands javelins 
thick and fast ; yet his valiant heart feareth not 
nor anywise quaileth, though his valour is his bane ; 
and often he wheeleth him about and maketh trial 
of the ranks of men, and wheresoever he chargeth, 
there the ranks of men give way : even on this wise 
Hector went ever through the throng and besought his 
comrades, urging them to cross the trench. Howbeit 

547 



HOMER 

ToX/xcov wKVTToSes, fxdXa 8e XP^I^^'^''^^^ ^^* aKpa> 
^eiXei e<j)eara6res' cltto yap heihlaaero ra(j>pos 
€vpeZ^ , OUT* dp* virepdopeeiv ax^Sov ovre Treprjaai 
prfChir]' Kprjfxvoi yap eirripe^ees Trepl Trduav 
earaaav diJ,(f>OT€poj9€V, VTrepdev he CKoXoTrecrcnv 5 
o^€(jLV r^pripei, rovs laraaav vleg *A)^aLd)v 
TTVKVovs /cat fJieydXovs, S-qtcov dvSpdJv dXecop-qv. 
ev9* ov K€V pea ittttos ivrpoxov^ dpfia TLraivcov 
ia^air], Tre^ot 8e /xevoLveov el reXeovcn. 
87] rore rTouAuSa/xa? Opacrvv "E/CTopa etTre rrapa- 
ards- 6 

tiKTop T Tjo aAAoL Vpcooiv ayoL rjo eTTiKovpoiv, 
d(j)paheu)g hid Td(f)pov eXavvojxev d)Keas lttttovs' 
rj he jLtaA' dpyaXerj irepdav aKoXones ydp ev avrfj 
o^ees eardaiv, ttotl 8' avrovs relxos ^Axo-lcov. 
evd* ov TTCOS eanv Kara^TJfievai, ovhe fxdx^aOat 6 
iTTTTevaf areivos ydp, 66 1 rpdxreadai otco. 
el fiev ydp rovs ndyxv KaKa <l>pov€cov aAaTra^et 
Zeu? vifjc^pe/xerr]?, Tpweaai he ter'^ dpTiyecv, 
rj r dv eyoi y eQeXoi[ii koX avr'iKa tovto yevicdo.1, 
voiVvpLVOvs diToXeaQ at dir* "Apyeos evddh* *Axaiovs' 7( 
el he X VTToarpei/jcoat, TraXico^is he yeurjrai 
€K vrjdjv /cat rd^pcp eviirXrj^ojpjev opvKrfj, 
ovKer* eveir otco ovh* dyyeXov dnoveeadac 
difjoppov TTporl darv eXixOevrcov utt' ^Axaucov. 
dXX dyed , to? dv eyoj etVo), TreLdcvfieda Trdmes' ^^ 
LTT7T0VS p,ev Oepdnovres epvKovTOJV €7tl rd<j)po), 
avTol he TTpvXees avv revx^oi Ocoprixdevres 

' itrpoxov : ii^oov. 
® Ut Aristarchus : jio^Xer'. 
548 



THE ILIAD, XII. 51-77 

his swift-footed horses dared not, but loudly they 
neighed, standing on the sheer brink, for the trench 
affrighted them, so wide was it, easy neither to 
o'erleap at a bound nor to drive across ; for over- 
hanging banks stood all about its circuit on this side 
and on that, and at the top it was set with sharp 
stakes that the sons of the Achaeans had planted, 
close together and great, a defence against foenien. 
Not lightly might a horse, tugging at the wheeled 
car, get within that circuit ; but the footmen were 
eager, if they might achieve it. Then verily 
Polydamas drew nigh to Hector, and spake, saying : 
"^ Hector, and ye other leaders of the Trojans and 
alhes, it is but folly that we seek to drive across 
the trench our swift horses ; hard in sooth is it to 
cross, for sharp stakes are set in it, and close anigh 
them is the wall of the Achaeans. There is it no 
wise possible for charioteers to descend and fight ; 
for the space is narrow, and then methinks shall we 
suffer hurt. For if Zeus, that thundereth on high, 
is utterly to crush our foes in his wrath, and is minded 
to give aid unto the Trojans, there verily were I too 
fain that this might forthwith come to pass, that 
the Achaeans should perish here far from Argos, 
and have no name ; but if they turn upon us and we 
be driven back from the ships and become entangled 
in the digged ditch, then methinks shall not one 
man of us return back to the city from before the 
Achaeans when they rally, even to bear the tidings. 
But come, even as I shall bid, let us all obey. As 
for the horses, let the squires hold them back by the 
trench, but let us on foot, arrayed in our armour, 

549 



i 



HOMER 

EiKTopi TTOures iTTOJfMeO^ aoXXeeg- avrap 'A;)^atot 
ov ixeveova y el hrj (j(f)iv 6X49pov Treipar^ i(l)rJ7TTai ." 
Q.S (fxiTO TLovXvSdfMas, aSe S' "EiKropi fjbvdo^ 

avTLKa 8' i^ ox^cov avv revx^criv dXro ;(ayu,a^e. 
ovSe jjbev aXXoL FpcJoes e^' Ittttiov rjyepedovTO, 
aXX' OLTTO TTavres opovaav, irTel l8ov "E/cro/aa Stoi^. 
rjVLoxcp fiGV eireira ia> eirireXXev eKaaros 
iTTTTOVs €V Kara Koarfxov ipvKepLev av6^ irrl ra^po)* S 
oi Be Siaaravres, a<j>eas avTOVs aprvvavres , 
TTevraxo. KoafirjOevres a/x' rjyepboveaaiv enovro. 
Oi piev a/^' "E/CTO/a' taav Kal ap^vpuovi IIoyAySa- 

pLOvri, 
61 irXelaToi Kal apiaroL eaav, puep^aaau Se /xaXtara 
relxos prj^dfMevoL KolXrjs enl vqval pbdxGcrdai- S 

/cat a(f)tv Ke^piovrjs rplros elTrero' Trap 8' dp' 6xG<J(f)i,v 
dXXov K^e^pcovao ;)(epetot'a KaXXnrev "EiKTcop. 
Tojv 8' erepcov Ilapis' "^PX^ '^^^ 'AA/cct^oo? koI 

^Ay-qvayp, 
TOJV he rpiTcov "EiXevos /cat Ar]t(f)o^os Oeoethijg, 
vie Sv(x) UpLajjioto' rpirog 8' rjv "AcrLog rfpcjog, g 
Aato? 'YpTaKiSrjs, ov ^ Apia^rjdev ^epov Ittttoi 
aWcoves pieydXoi, TTorafiov arro YieXXrjevros . 
roiv 8e rerdproiv r^px^^ ^^S Trdis ^Ayxtcrao, 
Alveias, dfia tu> ye hvco ^AvTijvopos vie, 
*ApxeXox6s T* 'A/ca/xa? re, fidxr]S ev elSore Trda-qs. \ 
HapTTiqhtov 8 riyrjcrar* dyaKXeircov eTTiKovpojv , 
TTpos 8' eXero VXavKov Kal dprfCov * AarepoTralov 
ol yap ol elaavTO hiaKpthov elvai dpiaTOi 
Tcbv aAAcuv pierd y avrov 6 8' enpeTre Kal Sta 

TrduTOiv. 
OL 8' €7761 dXA-qXovs dpapov rvKrfjai ^oeaai, 1 

550 



THE ILIAD, XII. 78-105 

follow all in one throng after Hector ; and the 
Aehaeans will not withstand us, if so be the bonds 
of destruction are made fast upon them." 

So spake Polydamas, and his prudent counsel 
was well pleai>ing unto Hector, and forthwith he 
leapt in his armour from his chariot to the ground. 
Nor did the other Trojans remain gathered together 
upon their chariots, but they all leapt forth when 
they beheld goodly Hector afoot. Then on his own 
charioteer each man laid command to hold in his 
horses well and orderly there at the trench, but the 
men divided and arrayed themselves, and marshalled 
in five companies they followed after the leaders. 

Some went with Hector and peerless Polydamas, 
even they that were most in number and bravest, 
and that were most fain to break through the wall 
and fight by the hollow ships, and with them followed 
Gebriones as the third ; for by his chariot had Hector 
left another man, weaker than Gebriones. The 
second company was led by Paris and Alcathous 
and Agenor, and the third by Helenus and godUke 
Deiphobus — sons twain of Priam ; and a third was 
with them, the warrior Asius, — Asius son of Hyrtacus, 
whom his horses tawny and great had borne from 
Arisbe, from the river Selleis. And of the fourth 
company the valiant son of Anchises was leader, 
even Aeneas, and with him were Antenor's two 
sons, Archelochus and Acamas, well skilled in all 
manner of fighting. And Sarpedon led the glorious 
allies, and he chose as his comrades Glaucus and 
warlike Asteropaeus, for these seemed to him to be 
the bravest beyond all others after his own self, but 
he was pre-eminent even amid all. These then 
when they had fenced one another with their well- 

551 



HOMER 

pav p Wus Aav'acov XeXtrjuevoL, oyS' er' €cf)avTO 
ax'Tjcread , dAA' eV vrjval fxeXaivQcnv Treaeeadat. 
Kvo dXXoL Tpctjes TryAeKAeiTot t' etriKovpoi 
povAfj UovXvSdfxavTos ajxcopirjroio ttlOovto' 
aXX ovx 'TpraKLSrjs eOeX "Actio?, opxcu/Jiog dvBpiov, 1 
avoi AiTTelv lttttovs re /cat tjvloxov Oepdnovra, 
aXXd arvv avrolaiv iriXaaev vrjeaai Ooijcri, 
vrjTTios, ov8 dp* e/xeXXe /ca/cd? vtto Krjpas dAJ^a?, 
LTTTTOiaLV /cttt 6x^O(f>iv dyaXXofxevos Trapd vrjcbv 
aip aTTovoarrjueiv Tvporl "lAtoi^ 'qvepioeaaav . ] 

rrpoadev yap pav /xoipa hvcrcovvpios dpi(f)€KdXvtJj€V 
eyx^L l8opL€VTJos, dyavov AevKaXiSao. 
e'laaro yap vrjcov eV dpiarepd, rfj irep ^Axatol 
€K TTehiov viaovTO avv Ittttolgiv koI o;^eCT^f 
TTj p LTTTTOVS T€ /cttt dpua SniXaGcv, oi3Se TTvXriaLV 1 
evp €TnK€KAip.€vas aavtoas /cat pbaKpov ox'tjo., 
aAA avaTT€Tnap,4vas ^xov dvepeg, et nv* eraipcov 
€K TToXefiov (f)€vyovTa aacocreiav fierd vrjas. 
rfj p Wus (fipoveojv "ttttovs c'xe, rot 8' d/x' €ttovto 
ofea KeKX-qyovTes' e<f)avTO yap ovkct* 'A;^aioi)s" 1 
axrjaead* , dAA' eV vrjval pLeXaivrjaw TreaeeaOar 
VTjTTLOL, ev Se TTvXrjcn Sy' dvepe evpov dptWa*/ 
fte V7T€p9upbco AaTTtOdwv alxpt'Tfrdcov , 
TOP pt,€v IleLpiOoov via, Kparepov IloXvTToirriv , 
rov 8e AeovTTJa, ^poToXoiycp laov "Apr^'C. 1 

Til) piev dpa TTpoTTapoide wXacuv vijjrjXdcov 
earaaav d)s ore re Spves ovpeaiv vi/jLKaprjvoi, 
at T dvepLov p,lp,vov(7i /cat V€t6v rjfiara navra, 
pi^rjo-LV neydXyjac ^ir^veKeeaa dpapvlat' 

^ The dual in this and the following line is given by 
Zenodotus and Aristophanes ; the mss. have the plural 

552 



THE ILIAD, XII. 106-134 

wrought sliields of bull's-hide, made straight for 
the Danaans, full eagerly, nor deemed they that 
they would any more be stayed, but would fall upon 
the black ships. 

Then the rest of the Trojans and their far-famed 
allies obeyed the counsel of blameless Polydamas, 
but Asius, son of Hyrtacus, leader of men, was not 
minded to leave there his horses and his squire the 
charioteer, but chariot and all he drew nigh to the 
swift ships, fool that he was ! for he was not to 
escape the evil fates, and return, glorying in horses 
and chariot, back from the ships to windy Ilios. 
Nay, ere that might be, fate, of evil name, enfolded 
him, by the spear of Idomeneus, the lordly son of 
Deucahon. For he made for the left wing of the 
ships, even where the Achaeans were wont to return 
from the plain with horses and chariots : there drave 
he through his horses and car, and at the gate he 
found not the doors shut nor the long bar drawn, but 
men were holding them flung wide open, if so be 
they might save any of their comrades fleeing from 
out the battle toward the ships. Thither drave he 
his horses in unswerving course, and after him 
followed his men with shrill cries, for they deemed 
that they would no more be stayed of the Achaeans, 
but would fall upon the black ships— fools that they 
were ! for at the gate they found two warriors 
most valiant, high-hearted sons of Lapith spearmen, 
the one stalwart Polypoetes, son of Peirithous, and 
the other Leonteus, peer of Ares the bane of men. 
These twain before the high gate stood firm even 
as oaks of lofty crest among the mountains, that 
ever abide the wind and rain day by day, firm fixed 
with roots great and long ; even so these twain, 

553 



HOMER 

CO? apa TO) ;)^ei/)eacn ireTTOidores rjhe pL7]<f)L 
fit/xvov eTrepxo/uLevov jxeyav "Aaiov oj38' e^e^ovro. 
OL o Luvs npos reixos ivSpi-qrov jSoa? avag 
vifjoa* avaaxofxevoi ckiov /xeydXco dXaXrjTcx) 
Aaiov dfM(/)l dVa/cra /cat 'lajxevov /cat 'OpeoT-qv 
AatdSrjv t' 'ASa/zavra Qocovd re OlvopLaov re. 
OL S "^ TOL Tjog fjLev evKvqpLihas ^Axaiovg 
opvvov kvSov iovres djxvvead ai nepi vrjcov 
avrap enel Srj reZxos eiTeaavpievovs ivorjoav 
TpdJas, drdp AavadJv yevero laxr} re <f)6^os re, 
€K 8e T(l) dt^avre TrvXdoiv irpoade fJLaxdadrjv , 
ayporepoiat aveaaiv loiKore, rco t' Iv opeaaiv 
avopojv rjSe kvvcov hexoLTai KoXoavprov lovra, 
ooxpno r dtaaovre Tiepl a(f>iai.v dyvvrov vXrjv 

7TpVfJ,V7]V €KTap,VOVT€S, VTTal Sc T€ KOflTTOS oSoVTCOV 

ytyverai, els o /ce rt? re ^aXcbv e/c dvjxov eXrjTaL- 
cos ra>v KoiX7T€L x^^Xkos em ar-qdeaat <f>aeLv6s 
dvTTjv ^aXXofievajv p,dXa yap Kparepcos epidxovTOf 
Xaoiaw KadvTrepOe ireTTOiOores 'J^Se ^L7](f)iv. 
OL 8 apa ;\;e/3/ia8toi(Tti' evS/jLrjTcov 0,776 rrvpycov 
paXXov, djjLvvopLevoL a(f)a)v r avrcbv /cat KXioLdcov 
v-qdjv T (jtiKVTTopcov. vL(f)dSes 8' COS" TTLTTTou cpa^e, 
as r avefios C^^tJs, ve^ea oKLoevra Sowqcras, 
rap<j>eLds Karexevev eVt ;!^^ovt TTovXv^oTeipr^' 
ws Twv e/c x^'-pdjv ^eXea peov, rjfjLev 'A;^at(i)i' 
TjSe /cat e/c Tpaxxiv KopvOes 8' d/x^' avov dvTew 
^aXXofievaL^ fivXdKeaao /cat damSes 6fJi(f>aX6eaaat . 
S-q pa TOT (LjJLOi^ev re /cat co TreTrX-qyeTO p,r]pd) 
"AoLos 'YpTaKLSrjs, /cat dXacrTrjcras eTTOs rjvBa' 

^ ^aWSfievai. Zeuodotus : ^aWouifwv Aristarchus. 



THE ILIAD, XII. 135-163 

trusting in the might of their arms, abode the 
oncoming of great Asius, and fled not. But their 
foes came straight against the well-built wall, 
Hfting on high their shields of dry buH's-hide with 
loud shouting, round about king Asius, and lamenus, 
and Orestes, and Adamas, son of Asius, and Thoon 
and Oenomaus. And the Lapiths for a time from 
within the wall had been rousing the well-greaved 
Achaeans to fight in defence of the ships ; but when 
they saw the Trojans rushing upon the wall, while 
the Danaans with loud cries turned in flight, forth 
rushed the twain and fought in front of the gate 
like wild boars that amid the mountains abide the 
tumultuous throng of men and dogs that cometh 
against them, and charging from either side they 
crush the trees about them, cutting them at the root, 
and therefrom ariseth a clatter of tusks, till one smite 
them and take their life away : even so clattered the 
bright bronze about the breasts of the twain, as 
they were smitten with faces toward the foe ; for 
right hardily they fought, trusting in the host above 
them and in their own might. For the men above 
kept hurling stones from the well-built towers, in 
defence of their own lives and of the huts and of the 
swift-faring ships. And hke snow-flakes the stones 
fell ever earthward, like flakes that a blustering 
wind, as it driveth the shadowy clouds, sheddeth 
thick and fast upon the bounteous earth ; even so 
flowed the missiles from the hands of these, of 
Achaeans alike and Trojans ; and helms rang 
harshly and bossed shields, as they were smitten 
with great stones. Then verily Asius, son of 
Hyrtacus, uttered a groan, and smote both his 
thighs, and in sore indignation he spake, saying : 

555 



HOMER 

ZeO Trdrep, rj pa vv /cat av ^tAoi/reuSTy? irerv^o 
TTayxo fxaX • ov yap iyo) y iffxijjirjv TJpcoa^ 'Axaiov^ 
GxrjCJeiv rj/xerepov ye uevos Kal yeZpas ddnrovs. 
ot o , cos re a(f>r^Keg [xeaov aioAot rje {xeAiaaai 
oiKia TToirjacovTai oho) eVt TramaXoeaar], 
ovo aTToXeiTTOvaiv kolXov Sofxov, dXXd jxevovres 
avSpas 97]pr]Trjpas dfivvovrai irepl reKvojv, 
CDS OL y ovK iOeXovai vvXdcov /cat Bv eovre 
Xcaaaadai Ttpiv y* r]e KaraKrdpbev rje dXcouat. 

Lis ecpar , ovSe Atoj ireWe ^peva ravr dyopevcov 
E/CTopt ydp ol dvfjios e^ovXero kvSos ope^ai. 

AAAot 8' dfxcf)^ dXXrjcn lidxrjv efid^ovTO TTvXrjcnv'^ 
apyaXeov Se pue ravra Oeov cu? ttovt dyopevcrai' 
TTOurr] ydp Trepl Telxos dpcopet deamSaes irvp 
Xaivov Apyeioi Se Kal dxvvp,evoi irep dvayKT) 
v-qwv rip,vvovro- deol S' dKax'jo-ro dvp,6v 
TTOvres, ocroL Aavaotcrt p^dx'^S eTTirdppodoi rjaav. 
aw 8' e^aXov AaTTidai, iToXepiov /cat Srj'ioTiJTa. 

'Kvd av HeLpiOoov vtos, Kparepos YioXvTToirr^s , 
oovpl ^dXev Adp,aaov Kvveiqs 8ta ;^aA/co7rapr^ou- 
oi}8' apa ;!^aA/cetT7 Kopvs eaxedev, dXXd SiaTrpo 
O't-Xf^'h X^^'^^^V PV^^ oareov, eyKe(j)aXos he \ 

evoov arras TrerrdXaKTo- Sdfiaacre 8e [xiv pLepLawra. 
avrap eTreira UvXcova /cat "Oppcevov i^evdpi^ev. 
VLOV 8' *AvTLp,dxoLo AeovTevs , o^os "Ap-qos, 
iTTTTopiaxov ^dXe Sovpl Kara ^coarijpa rvxi^oras. 
avTis 8' e/c KoXeoio epvaadpt,evos ^i<j>os d$v 1 

^ Lines 175-181 were rejected by Zenodotiis, Aristophanes, 
and Aristarchus. 

* The adjective aWXos, which so often has reference to 
colour {cf. KopvdaloXos), appears in this context to denote 
rather the flexible nature of the slender waist of the wasp ; 
556 



THE ILIAD, XII. 164-190 

" Father Zeus, of a surety thou too then art utterly 
a lover of lies ! for I deemed not that the Achaean 
warriors would stay our might and our invincible 
hands. But they like wasps of nimble ^ waist, or bees 
that have made their nest in a rugged path, and 
leave not their hollow home, but abide, and in defence 
of their young ward off hunter folk ; even so these 
men, though they be but two, are not minded to give 
ground from the gate, till they either slay or be 
slain." 

So spake he, but with these words he moved not 
the mind of Zeus, for it was to Hector that Zeus 
willed to vouchsafe glory. 

But others were fighting in battle about the other 
gates, and hard were it for me, as though I were a 
god, to tell the tale of all these things, for everywhere 
about the wall of stone rose the wondrous-blazing 
fire ; for the Argives, albeit in sore distress, defended 
their sliips perforce ; and the gods were grieved at 
heart, all that were helpers of the Danaans in 
battle. And the Lapiths clashed in war and strife. 

Then the son of Peirithous, mighty Polypoetes, 
cast with his spear and smote Damasus through the 
helmet with cheek pieces of bronze ; and the bronze 
helm stayed not the spear, but the point of bronze 
brake clean through the bone, and all the brain was 
spattered about within ; so stayed he him in his fury. 
And thereafter he slew Pylon and Ormenus. And 
Leonteus, scion of Ares, smote Hippomachus, son 
of Antimachus, with a cast of his spear, striking him 
upon the girdle. And again he drew from its sheath 

cf. xix. 404 TToSas al6\os IVttos ; xxii. 509 al6\ai evXai. So in 
208 al6\os, used of the, serpent, seems to mean "writhing," 
rather than " with glancing scales." 

557 



HOMER 

^ AvTL<f)dT7]V fl€V TTpaJTOV, iTTOL^aS St* OfXlXoV, 

ttAtj^' avTocrx^Sirjv' 6 8' dp' vtttlos ovScl ipeiaOrj'*- 
avrdp eVetTa MeVcova /cat 'la/ievov koI 'OpiarrfV 
iravras eTTaaavrepovs Tre'Aacre ;;^0oi/t TTOvXv^oreiprj . 
"Oi^p' ol Tovs ivapil^ov aiT kvTea fiappLaipovra, 
r6(f)p' ot nouAt»8a/z.ai/rt /cai "E/cropt Kovpoi eTTOvro, 
ol TrAeicrrot /cat dpiaroi eaav, fidfiaaav 8e ixaXiara 
T€iXos T€ prj^eiv Kal evLirpiqaeiv rrvpl vrjas, 
OL p en ixepixrjptt^ov e^earaoTes napd rd<^pcp. 
opvLS yo-p a<j)LV eTrrjXde Treprjaefievat fiep^acooLV, 
aleros vijjnreTrjs in' dpLorepd Xaov iepycov, 
(f)0iv'^evra SpaKovra <f)epoiV ovvx^cfcti' TreXcopov 
^ioov eV danaLpovra' Kal ov ttoj Xrjdero xd-pfxr]?' 
Koipe yap avrov exovra Kara arrjOos irapd beiprjv 
iSvcodels oiriao)' 6 8' (XTro Wev rjKe x^l^dt,^ 
dXyqaas oBwrjcri, fxeao) 8' ivl Ka^^aX' opiiXcp, 
avros 8e KXdy^as TreVero TTi'Oifjs dve/xoLO. 
Tpcoes 8' ippiyqaav onois 'ihov aloXov 6j)iv 
KeCfxevov iv [xeaaoiai, Aio? repag alyioxoio. 
Brj rore UovXvSdfias dpaavv "E/cropa eirre irapa' 

ards' 
" "^KTop, del fiev ttcos p-oi eTTtTrX'qaaeLS dyopfjcnv 
eauXa (ppaC^oixevq), enei ovoe fxev ovoe eotKC 
hrjp^ov eovra irapk^ dyop€vip,ev, ovr' ivl ^pvXfj 
ovT€ ttot' iv TToAe/xo), aov Se Kpdros alkv di^etv 
vvv aSr' i^epioj u)S p-oi Bok€l etvai dpiOTa. 
fXTj tofiev Aai^aotcrt fxax'r]<yopL€VOL nepl V7]dJv. 
cS8e yap iKreXieadai otofiai, el ireov ye 

^ oi)8ei ipeiaOr] : oD5as Ipeiaey Aristarchus (c/. xi. 144). 
558 



THE ILIAD, XII. 191-217 

his sharp sword and darting upon him through the 
throng smote Antiphates first in close fight, so that 
he was hurled backward upon the ground ; and 
thereafter Menon, and lamenus, and Orestes, all of 
these one after the other he brought down to the 
bounteous earth. 

While they were stripping from these their 
shining arms, meanwhile the youths that followed 
with Polydamas and Hector, even they that were 
most in number and bravest, and that most were 
fain to break through the wall and burn the ships 
with fire, these still tarried in doubt, as they stood 
by the trench. For a bird had come upon them, as 
they were eager to cross over, an eagle of lofty 
flight, skirting the host on the left, and in its talons 
it bore a blood-red, monstrous snake, still alive and 
struggling, nor was it yet forgetful of combat ; for 
it writhed backward, and smote him that held it 
on the breast beside the neck, till the eagle, stung 
with pain, cast it from him to the ground, and let it 
fall in the midst of the throng, and himself with a 
loud cry sped away down the blasts of the wind. 
And the Trojans shuddered when they saw the 
writhing snake lying in the midst of them, a portent 
of Zeus that beareth the aegis. Then verily Poly- 
damas drew near, and spake to bold Hector : 
" Hector, ever dost thou rebuke me in the gatherings 
of the folk, though I give good counsel, since it 
were indeed unseemly that a man of the people 
should speak contrariwise to thee, be it in council 
or in war, but he should ever increase thy might ; 
yet now will I speak even as seemeth to me to be 
best. Let us not go forward to fight with the 
Danaans for the ships. For thus, methinks, will 

559 



HOMER 

TpMalv oS' opvis rjXOe TTcprjaefjievaL /xe/xacDatP', 
atero? inffnrdrrjs lit' apiarepa. \(xov kepytov} 
^oivr\evra SpaKovra cfjepcov ovvxcaai TreXcopov ; 

^(oov d(f)ap 8' dcf)€r]Ke irdpos (f)iXa oIkl iKeaOai, 
ovo ereXeaae ^epcDv hopievai reKeecraiv idlaiv — 
COS" rjfieXg, e'i Trip re TryAay /cat retxos 'A;!^atajt' 
p-q^ofieOa aOeve'C /jieydXq), el^ioai 8' 'A;\;atoi, 
ov KoapLCp TTapd vav(f)LV eXevaofied^ avrd KeXevda' '. 
TToXXovs yap Tpwcov KaraXetifjofxev, ovs k€v 'Ap^acot 
XO-Xkco Srjd)(T(jocri,v d/xwofxevoi vepl vrjcbv. 
c58e X VTTOKpivairo deonpoTTOs, os ad<f)a Ovfjuoj 
elSetr] repdcov /cat ol jreiOoiaro XaoL" 

Tov 8 dp* VTToSpa IScbv TTpoa€<l>rf' KopvOaioXog 

"EiKTCOp ' \ 

\[.ovXvhdp,a, av fxev ovKer ifiol (f)iXa rayr' 
dyopevets' 
oiaOa /cat dXXov fj,v6ov dfxetvova rovSe voijcraL. 
el 8 ereov Sr] tovtov dno aTTovSrjs dyopevets, 
eg dpa B-q tol CTretra 6eot ^pevas aiXeaav avroi, 
OS KeXeai TjTivos fxev ipiySoviroto XaOeadai i 

^ovXecov, as re fxot, avros vneaxero /cat Karevevae. 
rvvrj 8 oicovolaL ravvTrrep'uyeaai KeXeveLS 
TTeideadai, rcov ov tl ixerarpeTTOjx' ovh* aAeyt^oj, 
etT eTTt oeg-t tojcrt Ttpos rjO) t rjeAiov re, 
etT €7T apiarepa roi ye ttotl ^6(f)ov rjepoevra. 2 
rjfieLS Se fxeydXoLO Ato? TreidiopLeOa ^ovXfj, 
OS Tract dvrjTOLGi /cat ddavdroiOLV dvdaaei. 
.) eis olcovos dpiaros dpivveaO ai Trepl Trdrp-qs. 
TLTTTe au 8et8ot/ca? TToXefiov /cat Srj'ioTrJTa; 
€L TTep ydp r d'AAoi ye Trepl Kreivcofieda ndvTes 2 

^ Line 219 is omitted in the best mss. 

^ rbu . . , irpofficpt] : rbf 8 Tj/jLei^er' ^irura fiiyai ZenodotllS. 

560 



THE ILIAD, XII. 218-245 

the issue be, seeing that in sooth this bird has come 
upon the Trojans, as they were eager to cross over, 
an eagle of lofty flight, skirting the host on the 
left, bearing in his talons a blood-red, monstrous 
snake, still living, yet straightway let it fall before 
he reached his own nest, neither finished he his 
course, to bring and give it to his little ones — even 
so shall we, though we break the gates and the wall 
of the Achaeans by our great might, and the Achaeans 
give way, come back over the selfsame road from the 
ships in disarray ; for many of the Trojans shall we 
leave behind, whom the Achaeans shall slay with the 
bronze in defence of the ships. On this wise would 
a soothsayer interpret, one that in his mind had 
clear knowledge of omens, and to whom the folk gave 
ear." 

Then with an angry glance from beneath liis 
brows spake to him Hector of the flashing helm : 
" Polydamas, this that thou sayest is no longer to 
my pleasure ; yea, thou knowest how to devise 
better words than these. But if thou verily speakest 
thus ip. earnest, then of a surety have the gods 
themselves destroyed thy wits, seeing thou biddest 
me forget the counsels of loud-thundering Zeus, 
that himself promised me and bowed his head thereto. 
But thou biddest us be obedient to birds long of 
wing, that I regard not, nor take thought thereof, 
whether they fare to the right, toward the Dawn 
and the sun, or to the left toward the murky darkness. 
Nay, for us, let us be obedient to the counsel of 
great Zeus, that is king over all mortals and im- 
mortals. One omen is best, to fight for one's 
country. Wherefore dost thou fear war and battle ? 
For if the rest of us be slain one and all at the ships 

VOL. I 2 o 561 



HOMER 

VTjvatv €7T ApycLcov, aol 8' ov Seo? ecrr' dnoXeadai' 
ov yap rot, Kpahirj {xevehiq'ios ovhk /za^cr^/xcov. 
et he av SrjLorrjros a^e^eat, rjc nv* aXXov 
7rapcf)afievog eTreeaaiv oiTTorpeipeLS TToXipLoio, 
avTLK ifxa> vtto Sovpl rvTrels arro dvfxov oXeacretg." 

Q.S apa (fxovTJaas rjyi^aaTO, tol S' afi eirovTO 
VXfi d^oTTeairf' em he Zeu? repiTiKepavvos 
chpaev avr Ihaiwv opewv avepLOio OveXXav, 
7] p Wvs vrjcov KovLrjV ^epev avrap 'A;)(atajj/ 
deXye voov, Tpcoalv he /cat "EiKTopt Kvhos OTra^e. 
Tov TTep hrj repdeaat, ireTTOidoTes "qhe ^iri<j)i 
p-qyvvaOai fxeya relxos ^Axaicbv TreLpn^TL^ov . 
Kpoaaas fiev TTvpycov epvov, /cat epenrov eVaAfet?, 
aTrjXas re vpo^Xrjras ifxoxXeov, as dp^ 'Ap^atot 
TTpoiras ev yacr) deaav efMfJbevat exiio-ra "nvpycov. 
rds 61 y avepvov, eXnovro he reixos *Axacu>v 
piq^eiv ovhe vv ttco Aavaol x^Covro KeXevdov, 
dAA' ot ye pivoZat, ^ocov ^pd^avres endX^eis 
jSaAAov (xtt' avrdcDV hrjtovs vtto relxos lovras. 

Api(f)orep(o h' Atavre KeXevr(,6a)vr^ evrt irvpyaiv 
irduroae ^oirrjrriv, (levos orpvvovres 'A;^atc»v. 
dXXov fxeiXixiois, dXXov arepeols eTreeaai 
veiKeov, ov riva ndyxv f^dx^]? fieOtevra thoiev 
" d) (j)iXo(,, *ApyeLwv os t' e^oxos os re jxearjeLS 
OS re ;^ep€ioTepos", eTrel ov ttco Trdvres o/xotot 

^ It is impossible to fix with certainty the meaning of the 
word Kpdauai, which recurs in 444. In xiv. 35 we have the 
adjective TrpoKp6<T<ras, which apparently means " row behind 
row " (of the Greek ships drawn up upon the beach), and 
Herodotus once (ii. 125) uses Kpbaaai of the steps of the 
pyramids. We can do no more than accept the word as 
denoting some part of the fortification, which we are unable 
to define with precision. In 444 the Trojans mount upon 
562 



THE ILIAD, XII. 246-270 

of the Argives, yet is there no fear that thou shouldest 
perish, for thy heart is not staunch in flglit nor 
warhke. Howbeit, if thou shalt hold aloof from 
battle, or shalt beguile with thy words any other, 
and turn him from war, forthwith smitten by my 
spear shalt thou lose thy life." 

So spake he and led the way ; and they followed 
after with a wondrous din ; and thereat Zeus, that 
hurleth the thunderbolt, roused from the moun- 
tains of Ida a blast of wind, that bare the dust 
straight against the ships ; and he be^vildered the 
mind of the Achaeans, but vouchsafed glory to the 
Trojans and to Hector. Trusting therefore in his 
portents and in their might they sought to break 
the great wall of the Achaeans. The pinnets ^ of the 
fortifications they dragged down and overthrew the 
battlements, and pried out the supporting beams 
that the Achaeans had set first in the earth as 
buttresses for the wall. These they sought to drag 
out, and hoped to break the wall of the Achaeans. 
Howbeit not even now did the Danaans give ground 
from the path, but closed up the battlements with 
bull's -hides, and therefrom cast at the foemen, 
as they came up against the wall. 

And the two Ai antes ranged everywhere along 
the walls urging men on, and arousing the might of 
the Achaeans. One man with gentle words, another 
with harsh would they chide, whomsoever they saw 
giving ground utterly from the fight : " Friends, 
whoso is pre-eminent among the Danaans, whoso 
holds a middle place, or whoso is lesser, for in nowise 

the KpSffcrai, but these are distinct from the iiraX^is, or 
battlement, which appears to have been a wooden rampart, 
breaks in which coulc^ be closed up with hides (203). 

563 



HOMER 

avepes ev TToXefio), vvv evXeTO epyov aTraai' 
/cat o avrol rohe ttov yiyvcooKere. ixrj ns OTTiaaoi 
rerpacpoco ttotI vrjas ofioKXrjrrjpos aKovaas, 
aAAd TTpouoj teade koI aAAT^Aoicrt KeXeaOe, 
at Ke Zeu? Sojr^cnv 'OAu/xTrto? aar€poTT7]Tr]s 
veiKos 0.770) ja/xeVou? Stjious" nporl aarv hUadat." 
0.9 Tco ye TTpo^oaJvTe fidxf]v corpvvov 'A;!^atajv. 
ra>v h , a)s re VL(j)ahes ^^ovos TTiTTTiooL dafxeihX 
rjixari ■x^eipiepicp , ore r wpero firjrUra Zeu? 
vt(f)ejj,€v, avdpioTTOioi 7ncj)avaK6fievos ra d KrjXa' 
KOLpLTjaag S' dvefiovs ;!^eet e/xTreSov, 6(f>pa KaXvijjr) 
viprjXiov opicov Kopv(j)ds koL TrpcLovas aKpovs 
/cat irehia Xcorovvra /cat dvSpcbv mova epya' 
/cat T €^' dXos TToXtrjs /cep^urat Xipbeaiv re /cat d/crat?, 
/cty^a Se /xit' TrpoaTrXdl^ov epvKerar dXXa re irdvra 
eiAurat KaOvTrepO^, or eTTL^pcarj Ato? opu^pos' 
cos rcov dpi(f)orepojae XiOoi TTCordJvro dapbeiat, 
at piev dp* es TpdJas, at 8' e'/c Tpaxvu is ^Axcllovs, 
paXXop^evcov ro he relxps VTrep Trdv Sovttos opaypei. 
OyS dv rrco rore ye Tp&es koX <j)aihi,pbos "KKrcop : 
ret-xeos epprj^avro irvXas koX pbUKpov dxrja, 
et pLTj dp' vlov eov HapmrjSova pirjriera Zey? 
cbpcrev eTT ApyeioiaL, Xeovd* a>s ^ovalv eXi^tv. 
avriKa 8' da7rt8a piev npocrd' eax^ro Trdvroa etarjv, 
KaXrjv x(^XKeLr]v e^rjXarov,^ rjv dpa ;)(aA/ceu? i 

7]Xaaev, evroadev he ^oeias pdi/je dapieids 
Xpvaeirjs pd^hoiai hiriveKeaiv irepl kvkXov. 
nqv dp 6 ye irpoade axdp,evos, hvo hovpe rivdaaojv, 
^ i^TjXaTov Zenodotus : e^-^Xaroi' Aristarchus. 

* Possibly, " because he hath heard the shouts of the foe." 

* In interpreting pd^doiai as meaning " stitches " (of 
gold wire), I follow Reichel and Leaf.* 

564 



THE ILIAD, XII. 271-298 

are all men equal in war, now is there a work for 
all, and this, I ween, ye know even of yourselves. 
Let no man turn him back to the ships now that he 
has heard one that cheers him on ^ ; nay, press ye 
forward, and urge ye one the other, in hope that 
Olympian Zeus, lord of the lightning, may grant \is 
to thrust back the assault and drive our foes to the 
city." 

So shouted forth the twain, and aroused the 
battle of the Achaeans. And as flakes of snow fall 
thick on a winter's day, when Zeus, the counsellor, 
bestirreth him to snow, shewing forth to men these 
arrows of his, and he luUeth the winds and sheddeth 
the flakes continually, until he hath covered the 
peaks of the lofty mountains and the high headlands, 
and the grassy plains, and the rich tillage of men ; 
aye, and over the harbours and shores of the grey 
sea is the snow strewn, albeit the wave as it beateth 
against it keepeth it off, but all things beside are 
wrapped therein, when the storm of Zeus driveth it 
on : even so from both sides their stones flew thick, 
some upon the Trojans, and some from the Trojans 
upon the Achaeans, as they cast at one another ; 
and over all the wall the din arose. 

Yet not even then would the Ti-ojans and glorious 
Hector have broken the gates of the wall and the 
long bar, had not Zeus the counsellor roused his own 
son, Sarpedon, against the Argives, as a lion against 
sleek kine. Forthwith he held before him his shield 
that was well balanced upon every side, a fair shield 
of hammered bronze, that the bronze - smith had 
hammered out, and had stitched the many bull's- 
hides within with stitches ^ of gold that ran all 
about its circuit. This he held before him, and 

565 



HOMER 

prj p 'ijxev cos re Xeojv 6peatrpo(f)os, os t' im^evrjs 
Srjpov erj Kpeiojv, KeXerai hi i dvfxos ayr^vcop 
puTjXcov TTeip-qaovra /cat is ttvklvov Sofxov iXdelv 
e'i 7T€p yap x ^vprjat Trap avro^i ^coropas dvBpas 
avv Kval Kal Sovpeacn ^vXdaaovTas Trepl fxrjXa, 
ov pd T OLTTeLprjTos fxifiove aradfxolo hUaOai, 
aXX 6 y' dp' r^ rjpTra^e p^eraXp^evos , r^k /cat avros 
e^Xr)r iv Trpcorocai, doijs oltto ;^eipos" d/covrt* 
cos poL TOT avTideov Hapn-qhova dvpos dvi^KC 
T€LXos eTrat^at 8ta re piq^aadai indX^eLs. 
avTLKa 8e VXavKov 7Tpoai(l>rj, TratS' 'l7r7roAo;^oto* 

TXavKe, Tt '^ Br] vco'C T€Tip,ijp,€G9a pidXiaTa ; 

ihpri re Kpiaaiv re t8e irXeiois heTrdeaaiv 
iv AvKLrj, irdvTes 8e deovs cos elaopocoai; 
Koi Tcp^evos vep,6p,ea6a p^iya "Edvdoto Trap* 6xdct9, 
KaXov ^VTaXtrjs /cat dpovprjs 7Tvpo(f)6poto. 
Tcu vvv XPV Au/ctoicrt /xera TrpcoTOLaiv iovTas \ 

iaTdp,€V T^Se pdx'r]S KavaTeipiqs dvTLPoXrjcrai, 
6(/)pa Tis cSS' etTTT^ AvKicov TTVKa OcoprjKTdojv 
' ov p.dv d/cAeee? Avkltjv /cara Koipaviovaiv 
ripeTepoL ^acnXrjes, eSovac re Triova p^rjXa 
oivou T egaLTOv peAiiqoea' aAA apa /cat t? ; 

iadXr], €7T€t AvKLOiat p-eVa TTpcoToicrL p,dxovTaL,' 
cS TTCTTOV, el p,kv yap TToXepov nepl TovSe ^vy6vT€ 
aiet St) p,iXXoLp,€V dy-qpco t' dOavdTco t€ 
eaaead , ovtc k€V avTos ivl irpcoTOiai p,axoLp,'r]v 
ovT€ K€ ae OTiXXoipi pdxrjv is KvSidveipav ; 

vvv 8 epTTrjs yap Krjpes i^eoTaatv davdToio 
/Ltyptat, a? ovk ioTi cjivyeXv ^poTov oi)8' UTraAy^ai, 
iop,€V, Tji TO) evxos 6pi^op.€v, Tji tls ripblv." 

566 



THE ILIAD, XII. 299-328 

brandished two spears, and so went his way like a 
mountain-nurtured Hon that hath long lacked meat, 
and his proud spirit biddeth him go even into the 
close-built fold to make an attack upon the flocks. 
For even though he find thereby the herdsmen 
with dogs and spears keeping watch over the sheep, 
yet is he not minded to be driven from the steading 
ere he maketh essay ; but either he leapeth amid 
the flock and seizeth one, or is himself smitten as a 
foremost champion by a javelin from a swift hand : 
even so did his spirit then ui-ge godlike Sarpedon 
to rush upon the wall, and break down the battle- 
ments. Straightway then he spake to Glaucus, son 
of Hippolochus : " Glaucus, wherefore is it that we 
twain are held in honour above all with seats, and 
messes, and full cups in Lycia, and all men gaze 
upon us as on gods ? Aye, and we possess a great 
demesne by the banks of Xanthus, a fair tract of 
orchard and of wheat-bearing plough-land. There- 
fore now it behoveth us to take our stand amid the 
foremost Lycians, and confront the blazing battle, 
that many a one of the mail-clad Lycians may say : 
" Verily no inglorious men be these that rule in 
Lycia, even our kings, they that eat fat sheep and 
drink choice wine, honey-sweet : nay, but their 
might too is goodly, seeing they fight amid the 
foremost Lycians. Ah friend, if once escaped from 
this battle we were for ever to be ageless and im- 
mortal, neither should I fight myself amid the 
foremost, nor should I send thee into battle where 
men win glory ; but now — for in any case fates of 
death beset us, fates past counting, which no mortal 
may escape or avoid — now let us go forward, whether 
we shall give glory to another, or another to us." 

567 



HOMER 

D? €(f)aT , "ouSe FAay/co? dTrerpdner ov8 

aTTidrjue' 
TCi) S' Idvs PT]rrjv AvKLOJV fxeya eOvos dyovre. 3J 
Tovs 8e lSojv piyrjo^' vlos Uerecoo MeveaOevs' 
rod yap 8r) Trpos TTvpyov 'iaav KaKonqra (f)€povT€g' 
Trdmrjvev S' dvd rrvpyov ^AxcLtoJv, et tiv' tSotro 
rjye/jiovojv , os rCs ol dprjv erdpoiaiv dp,vvai' 
eg S' evoiqa AiWre hvco, TToXefxov dKop-^rco, 3c 

iaraoras, TevKpov re veof KXiairjOev lovra, 
iyyvdev aAA' ou ttco? ot er^v ^dyaavri yeyiovelv 
Toaaos yap ktvttos ■J^ev, duT?) S' ovpavov Ikc, 
^aXkop.ev(x>v caKectiV re koI iTmoKopnov rpv- 

(fjaXeLoJv 
Kal TTvXea)V' irdaai yap eTTa})(aro, rol he /car 

avrds 34 

lardpievoi TTeipcovro ^ir] prj^avres eaeXOeZv. 
alipa 8' €77* Atav'Ta irpoteL Kr)pvKa QocoT-qv 
" ep)(eo, Sle Qocora, 9ea>v Aiavra KoXeaaov, 
api(f)orepa> fiev [xdXXov o ydp k 6^ dpiarov 

dvdvTcjv 
e'irj, eTTel rdxa Tjjhe Terev^erat aLTTUS oXedpos. 34 
cohe ydp e^piaav Avklojv dyoi, ot to irdpos Trep 
t,axp'f]eLS reXedovai Kard Kparepds vafMivas. 
ei 8e a(l>LV /cat KeWi. ttovos Kal vecKos opcopev, 
dXXd vep olos iTOj TeXa/xcLvios aA/ctfto? Aias", 
/cat ot TevKpos a/xa aTreadco to^ojv eii elScos." ^ 35 

"^S e(j)ar* , oi58' dpa ol KTJpv^ dTTidrjaev aKovaas, 
^rj 8e deeiv napd relxos 'A)(aLcbv ;)^aA/co;^tTa>vcor, 
ari] 8e Trap' AldvreaaL klcov, eWap 8e TrpoarjvSa' 
' AtavT* , ^Apyeicov rjy^TOpe ;(aA/co;(tTco^ajj/, 
^ Line 350 was rejected by Aristophanes and Aristarchus. 
^ In taking Ude in a local sense, and in reading /cetae in 
568 



THE ILIAD, XII. 329-354 

So spake he, and Glaiicus turned not aside, 
neither disobeyed him, but the twain went straight 
forward, leading the great host of the Lycians. 
At sight of them, Menestlieus, son of Peteos, 
shuddered, for it was to his part of the wall that 
they came, bearing with them ruin ; and he looked 
in fear along the wall of the Achaeans, in hope that he 
might see one of the leaders who would ward off 
bane from his comrades ; and he marked the Aiantes 
twain, insatiate in war, standing there, and Teucer 
that was newly come from his hut, close at hand ; 
howbeit it was no wise possible for him to shout so 
as to be heard of them, so great a din was there, 
and the noise went up to heaven of smitten shields 
and helms with crests of horse-hair, and of the gates, 
for all had been closed, and before them stood the 
foe, and sought to break them by force, and enter 
in. Forthwith then to Aias he sent the herald 
Thootes : " Go, goodly Thootes, run thou, and call 
Aias, or rather the twain, for that were far best of 
all, seeing that here will utter ruin soon be wrought. 
Hard upon us here ^ press the leaders of the Lycians, 
who of old have ever been fierce in mighty conflicts. 
But if with them too yonder the toil of war and 
strife have arisen, yet at least let valiant Aias, son 
of Telamon, come alone, and let Teucer, that is well 
skilled with the bow, follow with him." 

So spake he, and the herald failed not to hearken 
as he heard, but set him to run beside the wall of 
the brazen-coated Achaeans, and he came and stood 
by the Aiantes, and straightway said : " Ye Aiantes 
twain, leaders of the brazen-coated Achaeans, the 

359, 1 follow Zenodotus. Most editors read ihde in both lines, 
giving it its common Homeric sense of " thus," 

569 



HOMER 



ir]va)yet Uereojo hiorpe^ios ^iXos vlos 

/cetCT Lfiev, 6(f>pa ttovolo fxivvvda trep dvTLdarjrov, 

djx<j)OTepcu fiev /xaXXov o yap k 6)^ dpiarov 



arravTOiV 



ilr], e-nel rdxa KeWi Terev^erai alnvs oXedpos' 
Kelae^ yap e^picrav Avklcov dyoi, ot to rrdpos nep 
l,axp'r]€is reXedovuL Kara Kparepds vapbtvas. 
€L 8e /cat ivddSe irep TToXepLos /cat veiKos opcopeVf 
dXXd TTcp OLos LTOJ TeXapLCL)VLOs dXKt,p,os Ata?, 
icat ot TevKpos a/xa aTrdadco to^ojv iv elSws."'^ 

"0.5 e(f}aT , oi)8' d7TLdr](76 /xeyas" TeXapLcovios Ataj. 
avTLK 'O'CXtdSrjv eVea Tnepoevra TrpooTjvSa' 
" Alav, a^ui'C piev avdt,, av /cat Kparepos Au/co/xt^St^S', 
ecrraores Aavaovs OTpvverov l<f>i pidxeadai- 
avrap eyoj KeXa et/zt /cat avTiow TToXepioio' 
anjja S eXevaopbat avris, enr^v iv Tot? eTTapivvco." 

"^S" dpa (fiojvqaas aTre^r] TeXapicovios Atas, 
/cat ot TevKpos dpi" ■^e KaaiyvrjTos /cat oirarpog-^ 
rots 8 a/xa Ylavhiwv TevKpov (f>€pe Kap,7TvXa ro^a. 
evre MeveaOrjos p,€ya6vp,ou TTvpyov iKovro 
Tet^eo? Ivros lovres — eTreiyopievoiai 8' cKovro — 
ot 8 CTT eVaAfet? ^aivov ipepivfj XaiXaTTi Icroi \ 
i(f)dcp,oi Avklcov rjyijropes r)Se pbihovres' 
aw 8 i^dXovro pidx^adai evavriov, copro 8' avri], 

A'las 8e TTpcoros TeXapicovios dvSpa KareKra, 
TiapTTT^Sovros iralpov, 'ETrt/cAi^a p,€yddvp,ov, 
pLappidpo) oKpioevri ^aXcov, 6 pa reix^os ivros i 
Keiro pLeyas Trap* enaX^LV inreprarog. ovSe Ke pnv pea 
X^t-p^(yo* dpL(f)or€prjs exoi dvrjp ovhk pidX rj^coVf 

^ Keiffe Zenodotus : iliSe siss. 
' Line 363 was rejected by Aristarchus. 
* Lines 371 f. were rejected by Aristarchus. 
570 



THE ILIAD, XII. 355-382 

son of Peteos, nurtured of Zeus, biddeth you go 
thither, that, though it be but for a Uttle space, 
ye may confront the toil of war — both of you, if 
so may be, for that were far best of all, seeing that 
yonder will utter ruin soon be wrought. Hard upon 
them there press the leaders of the Lycians, who of 
old have ever been fierce in mighty conflicts. But 
if here too war and strife have arisen, yet at least 
let vaUant Aias, son of Telamon, go alone, and let 
Teucer, that is well skilled with the bow, follow 
with him." 

So spake he, and great Telamonian Aias failed 
not to hearken. Forthwith he spake winged words 
to the son of Oileus : " Aias, do ye twain, thou and 
strong Lycomedes, stand fast here and urge on the 
Danaans to fight amain, but I will go thither, and 
confront the war, and quickly will I come again, 
when to the full I have borne them aid." 

So saying Telamonian Aias departed, and with 
him went Teucer, his own brother, begotten of one 
father, and with them Pandion bare the curved bow 
of Teucer. Now when, as they passed along within 
the wall, they reached the post of great-souled 
Menestheus — and to men hard pressed they came — 
the foe were mounting upon the battlements hke 
a dark whirlwind, even the mighty leaders and rulers 
of the Lycians ; and they clashed together in fight, 
and the battle-cry arose. 

Then Aias, son of Telamon, was first to slay his 
man, even great-souled Epicles, comrade of Sarpedon, 
for he smote him with a huge jagged rock, that lay 
the topmost of all within the wall by the battle- 
ments. Not easily with both hands could a man, 
such as mortals now are, hold it, were he never so 

571 



HOMER 

oloi vvv ^poTOL ela- 6 S' ap" vi/joOev e/x^aA' aetpa?, 
vAaaae Se Terpd(j)aXov Kvve-qv, avv 8' oare dpa^c 
rravT dfivSis K€(/)aXrjs' 6 8' ap' dpvevrrjpi eot/cco? 3 
KaTTTTea acf) vi/;r]Xov TTvpyov, Xlttc 8' oarea dvfios. 
TevKpos 8e TXavKov, Kparepov 7rar8' 'IttttoXoxoio, 
iw €TTeaavfi€vov /8aAe reix^os vipr^XoXo, 
fi p tSe yvpivcodevra ^pa^iova, rravae 8e x^^Pf^'V^' 
dip 8' a-TTO T€LX€os dXro Xadojv, tva fi-q tls 'A;)^aiait' 31 
PX-qpLcvov ddp-qaeie Kal evx^rocpr eirieaai. 
HapTT-qSovTL 8' dxos yevero TXavKov dinovTO?, 
avTLK eVet t evorjaev opLCJS 8' ou ATj^ero x^^PH'V^' 
aXX 6 yc QearopihrjV 'AA/c/xaova Sovpl rvx^qcrag 
vv^*, €K 8' eanaaev eyxos' 6 8' iaTTop^evos iriae 

Sovpl 3! 

trp-qviTj^, dp,(f)l 8e ot ^pdxe revx^o. TTOiKiXa xo-^i«P- 
HapTrrjScbv 8' dp' eiraX^LV eXcbv xe/3CTi ari^apfjaiv 
€^Xx , ij 8' eaTTero irdaa hiapLTrepes , avrdp vrrepde 
reixos eyvpiViodr], TToXeeaai 8e drJKe KeXevQov. 

Tov 8' Ataj /cat Teu/cpoj opiapriqcravO^ 6 p,kv up 4( 
Pe^X'^KCL reXapLOJva irepl ar-qdeaai, ^aeivov 
aamhos dpicjiL^porrjg' dXXd Zeu? Krjpas d/xuve 
TraiSos" iov, pur) vrjvalv evrt TTpvpLvfjat Sapbeir]- 
Atas 8' d<T77t8a vv^ev irrdXpLcvos, ovhe Siarrpo 
'qXvdev eyxGLT), crrvcpeXi^e 8e pbiv picp^acoTa, 4( 

X<^py]cr€V 8' dpa tvtOov indX^LOS' oi38' o ye TrdpLrrav 
Xd^€T* eTret ot Ovp,6s ieXneTo^ kvBos dpeaOai. 
KeKXero 8' dvrideoiaiv iXi^dpLevog Avklolglv 

cu Ay/ctoi, Tt r ap a»oe pbeUiere uovptoo? aAK-qs; 
dpyaXeov 8e /xot ecrri koL Icpdlpup Trep iovri 41 

* iiXweTo Aristarchus : iiXdero. 
572 



THE ILIAD, XII. 383-410 

young and strong, but Aias lifted it on high and hurled 
it, and he shattered the four-horned helmet, and 
crushed together all the bones of the head of Epicles ; 
and he fell like a diver from the high wall, and his 
spirit left his bones. And Teucer smote Glaucus, 
the stalwart son of Hippolochus, as he rushed upon 
them, with an arrow from the high wall, where he 
saw his arm uncovered ; and he stayed him from 
fighting. Back from the wall he leapt secretly, 
that no man of the Achaeans might mark that he 
had been smitten, and vaunt o\er him boastfully. 
But over Sarpedon came grief at Glaucus' departing, 
so soon as he was ware thereof, yet even so forgat 
he not to fight, but smote with a thrust of his spear 
Alcmaon, son of Thestor, with sure aim, and again 
drew forth the spear. And Alcmaon, following the 
spear, fell headlong, and about him rang his armour, 
dight with bronze. But Sarpedon with strong hands 
caught hold of the battlement and tugged, and the 
whole length of it gave way, and the wall above was 
laid bare, and he made a path for manyi 

But against him came Aias and Teucer at the one 
moment : Teucer smote him with an arrow on the 
gleaming baldric of his sheltering shield about his 
breast, but Zeus warded off the fates from his own 
son that he should not be laid low at the ships' 
sterns ; and Aias leapt upon him and thrust against 
his shield, but the spear-point passed not through, 
howbeit he made him reel in his onset. So he gave 
ground a Uttle space from the battlement, yet 
withdrew not wholly, for his spirit hoped to win 
him glory. And he wheeled about, and called to 
the godlike Lycians : " Ye Lycians, wherefore are 
ye thus slack in furious valour f Hard is it for me, 

573 



HOMER 

fjbovvo) prj^a/jLevo) deaOat napa vrjval KeXevOov 
aAA' e^ojxaprelre- TrXeovcov 8e re epyov dpieLVov." 

"0.9 e(/)a9\ ol Se dvaKTOs VTroSSecaavres opoKXrjv 
pidXXov erre^piaav ^ovXrjc/iopov dpi(f)l dvaKra, 
ApyeloL S irepcodev eKaprvvavro (f)dXayyas 
reix^os evToadev, p.eya 8e cr^iai ^atVero epyou. 
ovre yap 'i(f)dipLOL Kvkiol Aavacbv iSvvavro 
relxos pr)^dp,6voi decrOai napd vrjval KeXevOov, 
ovre TTOT alxP'rjTal Aavaol Avklovs ehvvavro 
reix^os diff axraa-Oac, iirel rd TTpcora TreXaaOev. 
aXX cjos t' dp(f>* ovpotai 8y' dvepe SrjpidaaOov, 
P'^rp' eV x^P^''^ exovres, em^vvo) ev dpovpr], 
oi T oXiyco ivl X^PV ^pi'C''^Tov Trepl larjs, 
CO? dpa rov9 hieepyov iirdX^Les' ol 8' vrrep avreojv 
St^ovv d?<X'qXojv dpi(/)L arr-qOeaai ^oeias ^ 

damSa^ cvkvkXovs XaLcnj'Cd re irrepoevra. 
TToXXol 8' ovrdt,ovro Kara xpoa vqXeC x^^Xko), 
rjpuev oreo) arpe(f)devri p,erd(f>peva yvpiviodeir] 
pLapvapbeviov , ttoXXoI 8e StapbTrepes damSos avrrjg. 
Trdvrr) hrj TTvpyoi koI eVaAfte? aipari (fnordyv i, 

eppdSar^ dp,j)orepo}dev diro Tpaycov Kal 'A;^aia))/* 
oAA' oyS' <x)S ehvvavro <f)6^ov Troirjaai ^KxataJv, 
dAA' €.xov cos re rdXavra yvvrj x^pvrfTis dXrjdr'js, 
■^ re araOpLov exovaa Kal e'ipiov dp,(j)ls dveXKei 
lad^ova , Lva rraialv deiKea pnadov dp-qrac a 

d)s p.ev rdjv eiTL laa pdxt] reraro 7Tr6X-ep,6s re, 
TTpLv y ore Sr) Zevs kvSos vneprepov "E/cropi 8dJK€ 
YlpiapitSr], OS TTpdJros ea-qXaro relxos *Axaid)v. 
574 



THE ILIAD, XII. 411-438 

how mighty so ever I be, alone to breach the wall, 
and make a path to the ships. Nay, have at them 
with me ; the more men the better work." 

So spake he ; and they, seized with fear of the 
rebuke of their king, pressed on the more around 
about their counsellor and king, and the Argives over 
against them made strong their battalions within the 
wall ; and before them was set a mighty work. For 
neither could the mighty Lycians break the wall 
of the Danaans, and make a path to the ships, nor 
ever could the Danaan spearmen thrust back the 
Lycians from the wall, when once they had drawn 
nigh thereto. But as two men with measuring- 
rods in hand strive about the landmark-st6nes in a 
common field, and in a narrow space contend each 
for his equal share ; even so did the battlements 
hold these apart, and over them they smote the 
bull's -hide bucklers about one another's breasts, 
the round shields and fluttering targets. And many 
were wounded in the flesh by thrusts of the pitiless 
bronze, both whensoever any turned and his back 
was left bare, as they fought, and many clean 
through the very shield. Yea, everywhere the walls 
and battlements were spattered with blood of men 
from both sides, from Trojans and Achaeans alike. 
Howbeit even so they could not put the Achaeans 
to rout, but they held their ground, as a careful 
woman that laboureth with her hands at spinning, 
holdeth the balance and raiseth the weight and the 
wool in either scale, making them equal, that she 
may win a meagre wage for her children ; so evenly 
was strained their war and battle, until Zeus vouch- 
safed the glory of victory to Hector, son of Priam, 
that was first to leap ^vithin the wall of the Achaeans 

575 



HOMER 

rjvcrev 8e hiaTrpvaLov Tpcxieacri yeyojvws' 

bpvvad , LTTTToSafMOL T/ocDes", prjyvvade 8e Tel)(os 

Apyeiojv /cat vrjvalv ivUre deamSaeg nvp." 

^S" (j>aT* €TTorpvv(jov, ol 8' ovaai Trdvreg olkovov, 
luvaav 8' inl relxos aoAAees" ot p,ev eneira 
Kpoaaaoiv CTre^aivov aKa^p^iva hovpar* exovres,^ 

E/cTcu/3 8' aprrd^as Xdav (f)€pev, os pa TTvXdiov 
earrjKGi Trpoade, rrpvpLVOs ira^vs, avrdp vrrepdev 
ogvs €7]v Tov o ov K€ ov avcpc dr]p,ov aptara) 
prjiBccos €77* dpba^av (xtt' ovBeos oxXtaaetav, 
OLOL vvv PpoToi ela' 6 8e pav pea TrdXXe /cat otos' 
TOV ol iXacfipov edrjKe K.p6vov Trd'Cg dyKvXop,i^T€Oj.^ 
COS" 8 ore 7TOLp,r)v pela (f>epeL ttokov dpaevos olos 
X^i'Pi' AajSoJV irepj], oXiyov re pnv dxOog erreiyei, 
CDS" 'E/CTcop Idvs aavihoiv (j>epe Xdav deipas, 
at pa TTvXas etpvvro vvKa crrt^apcos dpapvias, 
OLKXiSas vi/j7)Xds' SoLol 8' evroaOev dp^T^es" 
eixov eTTrjpLoi^oi, fiia 8e kXtjis eTTaprjpei. 
crr-fj 8e p,dX^ iyyvs l(x)v, /cat epeiadpievos jSctAe 

/xecrcras", 
ei) Bia^ds, iva pufj ol d^avporepov ^eXog eir], 
prj$€ 8' (xtt' dp.<^orepov£ daipovg- rreae Se At^os" etcrco 
^pidoavvrj, p,€ya 8' a/i^i TTvXai pLVKOv, ou8' dp' 

dxTj^? 
eax^Q^rrjv, aavihes he Bierpiayev dXXvhis dXXr] 
Aaos" V7t6 pirrrjs' d 8' ap' eadope (f)aiStpi,os "E/cTcap 
vvKrl Oofj drdXavros VTTCJTna' Aa/X7re 8e ;(aA/c<S 
apbepSaXeo), rov eearo rrepl xpot, 8ota. 8e X^P<^' 
Sovp* ex^v. ov Kev ris pnv epvKaKev dvn^oXT^aas 

^ ^Kaxn^va . . , ^;^o«'res: iirel Oeov ^kXvov avSrjv Zenodotus. 
* Line 450 was rejected by Zenodotus, Aristophanes, and 
Aristarchus. 

576 



THE ILIAD, XII. 439-465 

He uttered a piercing shout, calling aloud to the 
Trojans : " Rouse you, horse-taming Trojans, break 
the wall of the Argives, and fling among the ships 
wondrous-blazing fire." 

So spake he, urging them on, and they all heard 
with their ears, and rushed straight upon the wall in 
one mass, and with sharp spears in their hands 
mounted upon the pinnets. And Hector grasped 
and bore a stone that lay before the gate, thick at 
the base, but sharp at the point ; not easily might 
two men, the mightiest of the folk, have upheaved it 
from the ground upon a wain — men, such as mortals 
now are — yet lightly did he wield it even alone ; 
and the son of crooked-counselling Cronos made it 
light for him. And as when a shepherd easily 
beareth the fleece of a ram, taking it in one hand, 
and but little doth the weight thereof burden him ; 
even so Hector lifted up the stone and bare it straight 
against the doors that guarded the close and strongly 
fitted gates — double gates they were, and high, 
and two cross bars held them within, and a single 
bolt fastened them. He came and stood hard by, 
and planting himself smote them full in the midst, 
setting his feet well apart that his cast might lack 
no strength ; and he brake off both the hinges, and 
the stone fell within by its own weight, and loudly 
groaned the gates on either side, nor did the bars 
hold fast, but the doors were dashed apart this way 
and that beneath the onrush of the stone. And 
glorious Hector leapt within, his face like sudden 
night ; and he shone in terrible bronze wherewith 
his body was clothed about, and in his hands he held 
two spears. None that met him could have held 

VOL. I 2 P 577 



HOMER 

v6a(})i decjv, or iadXro TruAa?- TTvpl S' oacre SeSr^et. 
/ce/cAero 8e Tpcveaaiv eXi^dfJievos Kad^ o/xtAov 
relxos VTTep^aiveiv roi 8' oTpvvovrt iridovro. 
avTLKa 8' oi fJiev relxos vrrep^aaav, ol 8e /car 

auTa? 
TTOtTjra? iaexvvro TTvXas' Aavaot Se <f)6Pr]B€V 
VTJas dva yXa^vpds, ojuaSos 8' aAtaaros irvxdy]* 



578 



THE ILIAD, XII. 466-471 

him back, none save the gods, when once he leapt 
within the gates ; and his two eyes blazed with fire. 
And he wheeled him about in the throng, and called 
to the Trojans to climb over the wall ; and they 
hearkened to his urging. Forthwith some clomb 
over the wall, and others poured in by the strong- 
built gate, and the Danaans were driven in rout 
among the hollow ships, and a ceaseless din arose. 



579 



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APULEIUS. THE GOLDEN ASS (METAMORPHO- 
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APULEIUS. THE GOLDEN ASS (METAMORPHO- 
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