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Full text of "Illinois Catholic Historical Review (1918 - 1929)"

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NOT TO BE TAKEN FROM THIS ROOl 



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Illinois 

Catholic Historical 

Review 



CONTENTS AND INDEX 
VOLUME VII 



Published by 

The Illinois Catholic Historical Society 

Chicago, Illinois 



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 



http://www.archive.org/details/illinoiscatholic07illi 



ILLINOIS 

CATHOLIC HISTORICAL 

REVIEW 



CONTENTS AND INDEX — VOLUME VII 



ARTICLES 

Page 

Aboard the Special for Chicago, Mary Glynn 42 

Account of Ceremony, N. C. W. C. News Service 12 

Account of the Second Voyage of Father Marquette, Bev. Claude J. Dablon, 

S.J 291 

Address at Auditorium, Cardinal Mundelein 70 

Address at Corner Stone Ceremony, Cardinal Mundelein 82 

Address of Welcome, Pope Pius XI 14 

An Artist's View of Father Marquette, Thomas A. O'Shaughnessy 210 

An Early Exercise of Tolerance, Rev. Henry S. Spalding, S. J 175 

Appeal for the Poor, Cardinal Mundelein 86 

Announcement of Home-Coming, Et. Bev. Edward F. Rohan, D. D 27 

A Tribute from a Bigot, John Louis Morris 302 

Bishop Muldoon 's Tribute, Bt. Bev. P. J. Muldoon, D. D 58 

Book Reviews 374 

Cardinal's First Address in Chicago, Cardinal Mundelein 56 

Chicagou — The Grand Chief of the Illinois, Joseph J. Thompson 332 

Civic Reception at Auditorium, Gertrude A. Kray 66 

Early History of Sisters of Charity, A Sister 356 

Editorial Comment 164, 280, 366 

Elevation and Investiture of Cardinal Mundelein, Joseph J. Thompson 3-94 

Father Marquette's Second Journey to Illinois, Joseph J. Thompson 144 

General Orders for Parade, Col. Marcus Kavanagh 28 

Gleanings from Current Periodicals, Bev. Paul J. Foik, C. S.C 170 

Gleanings from Current Periodicals, William Stetson Merrill 284, 378 

Historic Old Shantytown, Anon 140 

History of Law in Illinois, Joseph J. Thompson 99 

History in the Press, Teresa L. Maher 338 

Honors for Priests and Laymen, Chancellary 87 

In Rome, Msgr. Bernard J. Sheil 9 

Louis Phillipe 's Gifts to Bishop Flaget, Bev. E. S. Spalding, S.J 383 

Martin H. Glynn, Eaelen King, M. A 368 

Marquette and Illinois, Eon. Quin 'Brien 212 

Miscellany 187 

Our Cardinal, Editor New World 4 

Persons and Places Associated witli History of Father Marquette, Joseph J. 

Thompson, LL.D 203 

3 



4 ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTOEICAL REVIEW 

Prize Winning School Essays, Gertrude Lorraine Conley 178 

Rt. Rev. Julian Benoit, A Pioneer Priest 309 

Saints of Special Honor in California, William Stetson Merrill 172 

Sermon at the Pontifical Mass, Bev. James J. Mertz, S.J 198 

Story of the Chicago Portage, Liuius M. Zeuch, M. D 276 

Taking Over Titular Church, Msgr. Bernard J. Sheil 16 

The Cardinal at St. James Chapel, H. HilUnbrand 79 

The Cathedral Program, Bev. Francis A. Eyan 49 

The Catholic Clergy in Illinois, Joseph J. Thompson 155 

The Catholic in American History, Eita Freehauf 181 

The Corner Stone Ceremony at Area, Gertrude A. Kray 80 

The Emigration of a Family, Helen McCalpin 323 

The Great Ceremony, Msgr. Bernard J. Sheil 10 

The Only Monument to Father Marquette in Illinois, E. P. Brennan 95 

The Spirit of Marquette, Eev. Herbert C. Noonan, S. J 221 

The Temporal and Spiritual Work of Father Marquette, Hon. William E. 

Dever, Mayor of Chicago 211 

The Unification of the Ursulines, S. M. M 134 

Tribute to Cardinal Mundelein, Et. Eev. F. C. Kelley, D. D 75 

Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary History of Illinois, J. J. Thompson . . 360 
Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Arrival and Sojourn of 

Father Marquette on the Site of Chicago 195 

Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary History of Illinois, Joseph J. Thomp- 
son, LL.D 227 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Archbishops George William Mundelein, D. D., and Patrick Joseph 

Hayes Opposite 4 

Cardinal Decorated with the Cross of Malta Opposite 19 

Cardinal Mundelein Blessing the Multitude Opposite 57 

Cardinal Mundelein Presiding at the Corner Stone Ceremonies of 

the University of St. Mary of the Lake Opposite 80 

Cardinal Mundelein, Rodman Wannamaker, New York, and Dennis 

F. Kelly, Chicago Opposite 21 

Chapel of the University of St. Mary of the Lake Opposite 84 

Church of Sancta Maria Del Populo, Rome Opposite 8 

Delegation Urging Preservation of Portage Site Opposite 272 

His Eminence Cardinal Mundelein on Rear Platform of His Private 

Car Opposite 32 

His Eminence George Cardinal Mundelein Opposite 48 

His Eminence George Cardinal Mundelein Opposite 76 

His Holiness Pope Pius XI Frontispiece 

Hon. Quin O'Brien Opposite 216 

Hon. William E. Dever Opposite 200 

Hon. Ross A. Woodhull Opposite 201 

interior. Chapel, University of St. Mary of the Lake Opposite 88 

Interior, Church of Sancta Maria Del Populo Opposite 16 

Marquette Cabin at Entrance to Chicago River Opposite 208 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 5 

Members of the Chicago Reception Committee Opposite 26 

Bight Reverend Bernard J. Sheil Opposite 92 

The Birthday of the Church in Illinois Opposite 290 

The Chicago Portage Site in 1924 Opposite 280 

The Great Parade Forming Opposite 64 

The Marching Thousands Opposite 68 

The Marquette Cross Opposite 224 

The only Monument to I'ather Marquette in Illinois Opposite 96 

The 250th Anniversary of the Arrival and Sojourn of Father Mar- 
quette in Chicago Opposite 232 

William E. Devcr, Mayor of Chicago Opposite 40 

NECROLOGY 

Martin H. Glynii 368 

EDITORIALS 

A Brief History 281 

A Decision Much to be Regretted 281 

Catholic Schools to Observe Marquette Anniversary 165 

Discover Traces of Well Dug by Trappist Monks 281 

For an Institute of Church History 282 

Is History Popular ? 366 

Prize Essay 164 

Seven Years of Effort 280 

The Church in Illinois Two Hundred and Fifty Years Old 366 

The Marquette Anniversaries Thus far 280 

Two Hundred and Fifty Years 164 



MISCELLANY 

Diamond Jubilee of Rev. Constantino J. Lagae, S. J 191 

Early Illinois and Chicago Doctors 187 

Louis Phillipe's Gifts to Bishop Flaget of Bardstown, Kentucky 383 

The Only Monument to Father Marquette in Illinois 95 

CONTRIBUTORS 

A Pioneer Priest ^^" 

A Sister 356 

Brennan, E. P ^^ 

Chancellary ° 

Conley, Gertrude Lorraine 1 ' ° 

Dablon, Rev. Claude J., S. J 291 

Dever, Hon. William E., Mayor of Chicago 211 

Folk, Rev. Paul J, C. S. C 1^0 

Freehauf , Rita ^^^ 

Glj-nn, Mary 



6 ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 

Hillinbrand, H 79 

Hoban, Rt. Rev. Edward F., D. D 27 

Kavanagh, Col. Marcus 28 

Kelley, Rt. Rev. F. C, D. D 75 

King, Kaelen, M. A 368 

Kray, Gertrude A 66, 80 

Maher, Teresa L 338 

McCalpin, Helen 323 

Mertz, Rev. James J., S. J 198 

Merrill, William Stetson 172, 378 

Morris, John Louis 302 

Muldoon, Rt. Rev. P. J., D. D 58 

Mundelein, Cardinal 56, 70, 80 

News Service, N. C. W. C 12 

New World, Editor of 4 

Noonan, Rev. Herbert C, S. J 221 

O 'Brien, Hon. Quin 212 

O 'Shaughnessy, Thomas A 210 

Pope Pius XI 14 

Ryan, Rev. Francis A 49 

Shell, Msgr. Bernard J 9, 10, 16 

S. M. M 134 

Spalding, Rev. Henry S., S. J 175 

Thompson, Joseph J., LL. D 3, 94, 332, 360, 203, 227, 99, 144, 155 

Zeuch, Lucius M., M. D 276 

BOOK REVIEWS 

Fifteen Hundred Years of Europe, Bev. Julius E. De Vos 375 

The Church in Virgina (1815-1822), Bev. Peter Giiilday 375 

The Jesuits in New Orleans and the Mississippi Valley, Hon. W. 0. Hart, . . 376 

The Rockford Diocese in History, Bev. Cornclkis J. Eirkfleet, 0. P 374 



GENERAL INDEX — VOLUME VII 



A 

Abbots at Cardinal Mundelein Re- 
ception 50 

Abenake Indians and Father Rale, 

S. J 157 

Agnew, Rev. William H., 8. J., 
President of Loyola Univer- 
sity 198, 218 

Aldermen at Cardinal Mundelein 

Reception 40 

Algonquins, greatest Indian family, 

description of 100, 254 

Father Marquette among 299 

Allegheny Mountains 4, 14, 122 

Allouez, Rev. Claude J., S. J., Mis- 
sionary in Illinois. . . .155, 238, 360 
Successor to Father Marquette. . 251 

Missionary career of 250 

Death at Fort Miami 253 

Alton, 111., Ursulines at 135 

Painting of monstrous Thunder 
Bird, described by Father Mar- 
quette 233, 343 

Alvord, Historian, reference to ... . 

115, 204, 305 

American Cardinals in Rome. . .15, 77 

American College, Rome 8, 18 

American Indians by Haine, refer- 
ence to 102, 335 

American tribes, civil government 

of 102 

Anderson, Leon, and Cardinal Mun- 
delein 20 

Anniversary, 250th of Establish- 
ment of Church in Chicago. . . 
73, 95, 338, 366 

Anniversaries connected with 

Father Marquette 164, 195, 377 

Apostolic Delegation at Wasliing- 

ton, D. C 9, 12 

Archbishops at Cardinal Mundelein 

Reception 52 

Archdiocese of Chicago, develop- 
ment of 5 

Area, 111. St, Mary of the Lake, 

Scminarv at 23, 50, 63, 80 

Arkansas River 200, 215 

Arkansas, Akamsea, Indian village 237 

Arriago, Spanish Minister of the 

Indies, quoted 381 

Associated Catholic Charities of 

Chicago 68, 85 



Auditorium Theatre, Chicago, Civic 
Reception of Cardinal Munde- 
lein at 23, 66 



B 

Badin, Rev. Vicar General of 
Bardstown and Cincinnati, first 
priest ordained in America... 314 

Baltimore, St. Marv's Seminary at 

'. 42, 310 

Bancroft, George, Historian, quoted 

305, 218 

Banquet Committee, Cardinal Mun- 
delein Reception 25 

Bardstown or Louisville, Diocese, 
Rt. Rev. Benedict Joseph 
Flaget, first Bishop of 162, 175 

Battandier, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Proto- 
notary Apostolic and Consultor 
of Sacred Congregation, Rome 135 

Baxter, Mr., and the Grape Indus- 
try at Nauvoo, 111 346 

Benedict XV, and the Knights of 

Columbus Welfare Foundation 8 

Beuoit, Rt. Rev. Julian, Msgr., 

sketch of 309 

Berengaria, Steamship . . .6, 19, 38, 41 

Binateau, Rev, Julian, S. J., Mis- 
sionary in Illinois 155, 364 

Biloxi, first white settlement in 

Louisiana 379 

Bissonnette, Catherine, Sister of 
Charity of St. Augustine; 
reference to 358 

Bivier, Rev. Albert Hubert, S. J., 
Author of ' ' The Jesuits in 
New Orleans and the Missis- 
sippi Valley " 377 

Black Hawk War, Heroes in. ,100, 347 

Blanchard, Author of "Discovery 
of the Northwest, ' ' quoted , , . 
161, 182 

Blois, France, Ursulines at 134 

Bossu, quoted 334 

Bourbon, Princess Maria Immacu- 

lata of 12 

Bradsby, William, M. D., in Illi- 
nois 190 

Brennan, Edward P., and Mar- 
quette Monument 95 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Breese, Judge, Author of "Early 

History of Illinois," quoted.. 107 

Brooklyn, N. Y., Rt. Rev, G. W. 
Mundelein, Auxiliary Bishop 
of 41 

Brute, Rt. Rev. Simon William, 
First Bishop of Vincennes, 
lud 309 

Bruyas, Jesuit Missionary, quoted. 303 

C 

Cahokia, Holy Family Mission. 100, 155 

Cahokia, Illinois Indians, belonging 

to Algonquin Family 100 

Calumet, its effects 232 

Calvi, Ursulinrs at 135 

Campbell, Rev. T. J., Author of 
' ' Pioneer Priests in America, ' ' 
reference to 250 

Canadian Historical Review and 
"Notes on the Fate of the 
Acadians " 379 

Canadian Historical Society 

launched 168 

Cardinal Gasparri, Secretary of 

State to the Vatican 8 

Cardinals in Rome, list of 12 

Carolina, North and South, charter 

of colony ceded 122 

Carroll, Rt. Rev., Bishop of Balti- 
more 159, 376 

Carroll, Charles of Annapolis, Day 

Books and Letters published. . 380 

Carry, Edward F., K. C. S. G., 

Sketch of 92 

Cartwright, Rev. Peter, Methodist, 

and the Slavery Controversy. . 339 

Cathedral, Chicago, Program, Car- 
dinal Mundelein 's Return 49 

Catholic Daughters of America, 

Gift to Cardinal Mundelein. . . 65 
Delegation to Welcome Cardinal. 64 
Church Extension Society, His- 
tory of 44, 58 

Order of Foresters, Gift to Cardi- 
nal Mundelein 29, 32, 66 

University, Wash., D. C 43 

Catholics in U. S 15 

Cavalier, Rev. Jean ; Sulpitian Mis- 
sionary 364 

Cayugas, Illinois Indians belonging 

to Iroquois tribe 254 

Ceremonies in Rome, at Creation of 

Cardinal 8, 12 

ChachagAvessiou, 111., Indian Chief 
instructed by Father Mar- 
quette 147, 235, 333 

Charleston; Rt. Rev. England, 

Bishop of 310 

Rt. Rev. Reynolds, Bishop of... 310 
Chester, 111., Judicial Records in 

Court House 127 



Chicago, Archdiocese, Development 

of 5 

Crisis of Church 9 

Preparing for Home-Coming of 

Cardinal Mundelein 22 

Parade to Welcome Cardinal 

Mundelein 26, 47 

Donations to Cardinal Mundelein 62 
Civil Reception at Auditorium.. 66 
Associated Catholic Charities of. 68 
Tribute of Extension Society to 

Cardinal Mundelein 73 

Generous Contributions to Semi- 
nary 80 

Honors for Priest and Laymen 
on Cardinal Mundelein 's Re- 
turn 87 

Enforcement of Indian Laws in. 103 
First White Inhabitants of . .145, 242 
The Great Western Metropolis. . 18 
Visited by Father Marquette and 

Joliet 145, 195, 276 

Name of river and city; argu- 
ment about 336 

Chicago River, Original Course and 

New Channel 146, 208, 292 

Chicagou, Illinois Indian Chief at 

Paris 334 

Chickasaw Indians and Father 

Senat 158 

Clark, Geo. Rogers, Conquest of the 

Northwest. .114, 125, 159, 343, 353 
Clergy in Early Illinois, List of.. 

155, 162 

College of the Propaganda Fidei, 

Rome 16 

of Cardinals, its history and 

prominent members 75 

Collet, Rev. Leonard Philibert 

(Luke) Missionary in Illinois. 158 
Collet, Rev. Hyppolyte, Missionary 

in Illinois 158 

Committees assisting in welcome to 
Cardinal Mundelein, List of.. 

25, 31 

Continental Congress passing Ordi- 
nance of July 13, 1787 123 

Constitution of Virginia, quoted.. 116 
Connelley, William Elson, and the 

Huron Religion 167 

Coolidge, President, and Marquette 

Anniversary Celebration 196 

Crevecoeur, Fort built by La Salle 268 
Croce, Benedetto, Italian historical 

philosopher 302 

Cross, Lateran bestowed upon Chi- 

cagoans 88, 93 

Crusade of Charity in U. S 13 

Cruzat, Heloise Hulse, "The Ursu- 

lines of Louisiana, address by 378 
Curley, Rt. Rev. Daniel J., Bishop 
of Syracuse 21 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Currey, John Seymour, Historian, 

on Father Marquette 

Czarnecki, Anthony, K. S. G., 

sketch of 

Dablon, Rev, Claude, S. J., on 
Father Marquette's journey. . 

144, 

Daoion, Rev. Anthony, and the 
Seminary of the Foreign Mis- 
sions 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion to Celebrate Centenary of 

Lafayette 's Last Visit 

Davidson, Alexander, quoted 

Dearborn Garrison, Fort, Soldiers 

of 146, 

De Charlevoix, Rev. Francis Xav- 
ier, S. J., and grave of Father 

Marquette 

De Goesbriand, Rev. Louis, and the 
Sisters of Charity of St. 

Augustine 

De La Ribourde, Rev. Gabriel, 

Martyr in Early Illinois. .156, 

De La Salle, Robert, explorer. .167, 

Journey through Illinois 

Conspiracy against 

Death of 

De La Valiniere, Rev. Peter Huet, 
Vicar General for Illinois 

country 

Delegation, Apostolic, in Washing- 
ton, D. C 

De Sainte Cosme, Rev. Francis 
Buisson, Missionary in Early Illi- 
nois 156, 

De St. Pierre, Rev. Paul Mission- 
ary 

De Soto, Spanish Explorer 

Des Plaines River 207, 

De Tonti, Henry, first Governor 

of Illinois 

Account of De La Salle 

156, 263, 301, 361, 

and the Civilization of Indians. 
Dettmer, Rt. Rev. John, Monsignor, 

sketch of 

Dever, Hon. Wm. E., Mayor of 
Chicago at Cardinal Mundekiu 

Reception 

and Marquette Anniversary Cele- 
bration 

De Villiers, Baron Marc, Author of 

"AHistory of the Foundation 

of New Orlean," reference to 

De Vos, Rev. Julius E., Author of 

"Fifteen Hundred Years of 

Europe," reference to 

Donahue, Rt. Rev. Stephen, Secre- 
tary to Archbishop Hayes . . . 
Donations to Cardinal Mundelein 
for Seminary at St. Mary of 
the Lake 



149 
92 

301 

364 



339 

107 

196 



250 



357 

271 
262 
206 
268 
363 



160 

8 

265 

159 

237 
276 

300 

365 
360 

89 

44 

207 

379 

375 
6 

63 



Douay, Rev. Anastasius, Recollect. 364 

De Bourg, Rt. Rev. Wm., First 

Bishop of New Orleans 162 

Ducharme, Colonel, and Foundation 

of Shantytown 141 

Dunn, Rt. Rev. John J., Adminis- 
trator and Auxiliary Bishop of 
New York 6, 20 

Dunne, Rt. Rev. J., D. D., Msgr., 

sketch of 90 

E 

"Early History of Illinois" by 

Judge Breese 108 

England, Rt. Rev. Bishop of 

Charleston 310 

Erie Canal under Construction. . . . 310 
Eppig, Mrs. Theodore, Sister of 

Cardinal Mundelein 7, 54 

' ' Evangeline, ' ' reference to 380 

Extension Society and Tribute to 

Cardinal Mundelein 273 

F 

Flaget, Rt. Rev. Joseph Benedict, 

first Bishop of Bardstown.162, 175 
Ford, Thomas, Governor of Illinois, 

reference to 109 

Ford, C. H., and the Marquette 

Monument 96 

Foresters, Catholic Order of 179 

Delegation to welcome Cardinal 

Mundelein 64 

Foresters, Catholic Order of 

Women 66 

Foreign Missions, Fathers of ... . 

155, 207, 364 

Fort Chartres, Capitol of Early 

Illinois 112 

Fort Crevecoeur, La Salle's. . .269, 333 
Fort Miami, Death of Father 

Allouez, S. J., at 253 

Fort St. Louis and Henry De Tonti 360 

Fort Vancouver, Wash 354 

Fort Wayne, Rt. Rev. Julian 

Benoit at 311 

Fox Indians in Illinois 101, 255 

Fox River and Father Marquette . . 

200, 207 

Fox, Rt. Rev. E. J., Msgr., sketch 

of 90 

Franciscan Missionaries in Early 

Illinois 155, 270 

Franklin, Dr., quoted 103 

French Settlers in Kaskaskia, 111.. 107 
Frontenac, French Governor of 

Canada 2, 15,229,262 



10 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



G 

Gage, Thomas, General, in Early 

Illinois 11-t 

Gagnon, Rev. Joseph, Missionary 

in Early Illinois 158 

Garraghan, Rev., Historian, refer- 
ence to 104 

Georgia and South Carolina 169 

Gibault, Rev. Pierre, S. J., in Early 

Illinois 159, 179 

Gibbons, Rt. Rev. Archbishop, in- 
viting Father Benoit to Na- 
tional Council at Baltimore. . . 318 

Gibbons, Cecilia, later Mrs. Mc- 

Alpin, sketch of family 311 

Gordon, Very Rev. Francis, C. R., 

sketch of 92 

Gorman, Thomas F., D. D. S., 

Lateran Cross bestowed upon. 93 

Government in Early Illinois 99 

Glynn, Martin H., sketch of 368 

Grant, Ulysses S. at Fort Van- 
couver 351: 

Gravier, Rev. Jacques, S. J., Mis- 
sionary, successor to Father 
Allouez 307, 362 

Guilday, Rev. Peter, Author of 
"The Church in Virginia," 
reference to 281, 375 

Gundlaeh, John H., and the Louisi- 
ana Purchase 351 

Guthrie,Ossian, Engineer, and the 

Marquette Monument 

96, 150, 204, 219 

H 

Haine, Author of "American In- 
dians," quoted 102, 335 

Harrison, William Henry, first Gov- 
ernor of Indiana 315 

Hayes, Most Rev. Patrick J., D. D., 

Created Cardinal 13 

Henry, Patrick, Governor of Early 

Illinois, reference to 114, 159 

Hennepin, Rev. Louis, O. F. M., 
Discoverer of Niagara Falls . . 
155, 178, 269 

Henni, Rt. Rev. Archbishop of Mil- 
waukee 310 

High Schools, List of, Representa- 
tives to welcome Cardinal Mun- 
delein 53 

Hines, Ralph J., Chicago, Member 

of Papal Household 82 

Hines, Edward, knighted by Pope 

Benedict XV -'3 

Historical Societv of Illinois, Presi- 
dent Dr. O. Schmidt. .150, 202, 216 

Historical Society of Chicago and 



Marquette Anniversary Cele- 
bration 196, 210 

Historical Society of Missouri and 

the Louisiana Purchase 351 

Hoban, Rt. Rev. Edward F., D. D., 
Bishop and Vicar General of 
Chicago 6, 22, 28 

Hoffmann, William J., Lateran 

Cross bestowed upon 93 

Holy Name Society and Cardinal 

Mundelein Reception. . .29, 47, 179 

Hoyne, Thomas M., former Mayor 

of Chicago 204 

Hubbard, Gurdon Saltonstall, Trad- 
er in Early Illinois, quoted.. 
" 103, 250 

Hughes, Rt. Rev. John, Archbishop 

of New York 310 

Hull, Mrs. Arthur, Sister of Car- 
dinal Mundelein. 7, 54 

Huron Indians and Father Mar- 
quette 223, 299 



Icarians at Nauvoo, Socialistic 
Government in Early Illinois. . 

100, 

Illinois Indians, meaning of term, 

and various tribes of 101, 

Laws 

Family life 

Religion of 

Warfare of 

Father Marquette among 

145, 199, 216, 

Illinois, Jesuit Missions in. . . .291, 
Illinois River and Father Mar- 
quette 207, 

Illinois State of. History and His- 
toric Spots " 100, 

Government and various tribes 

of 

Under French Government 

Under English Government 

Under Virginia Constitution .... 
As territory of the United States 

Early Laws of 

First Clergymen in 

List of Governors 

Two hundred and fiftieth anni- 
versary 227, 

Indian Mounds or Cahokia Mounds 
purchased by State of Illinois 

Indiana, Territory of 124, 

Indians, Abenakis . . 

Algonquins 100, 254, 298, 

Cahokia 

Cayugas 

Chickasaw 

Foxes 101, 

Hurons 228, 



346 

254 
101 

254 
260 
259 

360 
306 

238 

352 

101 
106 
112 
115 
123 
127 
155 
348 

336 

340 
130 
364 
299 
100 
254 
158 
255 
299 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REWEW 



11 



Illinois. . .100, 145, 199, 216, 293, 360 

Iroquois 101, 217, 254, 360 

Kankakee 364 

Kaskaskia 100 

Kickapoo 101, 255, 364 

Kiskakon 217, 249, 297 

Manistee 104 

Miami 224, 243, 313, 332, 360 

Mitcliigamea 100 

Ojibway 332 

Oneidas 254 

Onandagas 254 

Peoria 100, 239, 255 

Piankeshaw 101, 255 

Potowatomi 101, 147, 332 

Sacs 101, 255 

Senecas 254 

Shawuees 360 

Sioux 101, 239, 255 

Tamaroa 100, 255 

Weas 101, 255 

Iroquois, Illinois Indians 

101, 217, 254, 300 

J 

Jacker, Rev. Edward and Relics 

of Father Marquette 223, 249 

Jesuits, first ClergjTiien in Illinois, 

list of 155 

First Historians in Illinois 302 

Medical Practitioners in Illinois 187 

Missionaries, list of 305, 364 

''Jesuits in New Orleans and The 
The Mississippi Valley" by 
Rev. Albert H. Bivier, S. J., 

reference to 377 

Jesuit Relations and Allied Docu- 
ments by Thwaites, reference 

to 146, 240, 302 

Jolliet, Louis, and Father Mar- 
quette 195, 229 

K 

Kankakee Indians 364 

Kaskaskia Indians 100 

Kaskaskia, Present City of Utica, 

La Salle Co 101, 108, 112 

Visit of General La Fayette to. 340 
Preamble of its history 110 

Kavanaugh, Marcus, Cardinal Muu- 

delein Reception 28 

Kealy, Rt. Rev. J. G., Msgr., D. D., 

sketch of 91 

Kearns, Rt. Rev. Thomas A., Msgr. 

sketch of S8 

Kelley, Rt. Rev. F.C., Msgr., Trib- 
ute to Cardinal Mundelein ... 75 

Kellog, Louise Phelps, Ph. D., 
Author of "Early Narratives 
of the Northwest" 240, 2S4 



Kelly, Dennis F., knighted by Pope 

Benedict XV 93 

Kenton, Simon, Popular Hero.... 125 

Kenny, Father, Historian, refer- 
ence to 204 

Kerfort, H. S., and the Marquette 

Monument 250, 204 

Kickapoo Indians 101, 255, 364 

Kiley, Rt. Rev. Moses E., Msgr., 

D. D., sketch of 91 

King, Rufus, Ambassador to Great 
Britain, and the Louisiana 
Purchase 351 

King, Julia Anna, educator in 

Mich., reference to 170 

Kinzie, Mrs. John, Author of 

"Waubmi," reference to 336 

Kirkfleet, Rev. Cornelius J., Author 
of the History of the Diocese 
of Rockford, reference to.... 374 

Kiskakon Indians 217, 249, 297 

Knight, Robert E., Engineer. ,205, 276 

Knights of St. Gregory 20, 87 

of Columbus 8, 21, 29, 48, 179 

Kruszas, Rt. Rev. Michael, Msgr., 

sketch of 89 

L 

La Fayette's Last Visit to Amer- 
ica, Centenary of 161, 339 

Laffont, Dr. Jean B., in Illinois,. 187 

Lagae, Rev. Constantine, S. J., Dia- 
mond Jubilee of 191 

Lake Michigan 229, 239, 266 

Lamprecht, Munich Artist, Picture 

of Father Marquette 224 

Laon, Home of Father Mar- 
quette 196, 223 

Lateran Cross, bestowed upon Chi- 

cagoans 88, 93 

Lavasseur, Col., La Fayette's pri- 
vate secretary 340 

Le Castor, Jacques and Father 

Marquette 144, 219, 241 

Legge, Thomas, in Early Illinois. , 114 

Lemen, Rev. James, Baptist Min- 
ister, and the slavery contro- 
versy 338 

Lemius, Rev. Joseph, Treasurer of 
Oblates of Mary, and the Uni- 
fication of the Ursulines 135 

Leo XIII, and the Unification of 

the Ursulines 134 

Levadoux, Rev. Michael, Sulpitian 

Missionary 160 

Lewis, Francis J., K. S. G., sketch 

of 92 

Lewis, William S., Memoirs of Fort 

Vancouver 354 

Lewis and Cla-rk expedition. Mem- 
orial park in honor of 353 



12 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



List of Archbishops at Cardinal 

Mundelein Reception 52 

Bishops at Cardinal Mundelein 

Reception 51 

Abbots at Cardinal Mundelein 

Reception 50 

Monsignors at Cardinal Munde- 
lein Reception 50, 87 

Committees at Cardinal Munde- 
lein Reception 25, 31 

Catholic Leaders in Army and 

Navy 183 

Clergymen in Early Illinois . 155, 162 

Governors in Illinois 348 

Martyrs to the Faith in Early 

Illinois 156 

Members of Historical Society of 

Illinois 206 

Prominent French LajTnen at 

Fort St. Louis 364 

Livingston, Robert, American am- 
bassador to France, and the 

Louisiana Purchase 351 

Lockport, 111., Rt. Rev. Julian 

Benoit at 311 

Louis XIV, Council and Code 

of 107, 112 

Louisiana, Governor of 107 

Anniversary of first Jesuit Mis- 
sion 377 

Jesuits and Capuchins in 378 

Spanish Public Schools in 381 

Louisiana Purchase and Robert 

Livingston 351 

Loyola University, Chicago, and 
Father Marquette Anniversary 

Celebration 196 

Ludington, Mich., Death of Father 

Marquette at. . . .154, 217, 225, 299 
Luers, Rt. Rev. John H., first 

Bishop of Fort Wayne Diocese 316 
Luttrcll, Rt. Rev. Daniel, sketch 

of 89 

M 

Manistee Indians 103 

Marest, Rev. Gabriel, S. J 

155, 178, 364 

Margery Collection of Indian Laws 106 
Maria Immaculata, Princess of 

Bourbon 12 

Marquette, Rev. Jacques, S. J., 

among the Illinois Indians. . . 144 
Visit to Chicago as the first 

white man 145, 164, 229, 242 

Instructs Illinois Chief Chachag- 

wessiou 147, 235, 333 

Establishment of first Church in 

Illinois Country; first Mission 

of the Immaculate Conception 



at Kaskaskia present site of 
Utica..73, 195, 217, 245, 293, 366 

Sketch of 199, 213, 250 

Spirit of 221 

.Journal quoted 151 

Chronology of Journeys of 229 

Description of Monstrous Thun- 
der Bird at Alton, 111 223, 343 

Biography and Bibliography of 280 
Death at Ludington, Mich.. 154, 217 
Monument in Chicago, in honor 

of _ 95, 204, 218, 284, 293 

250th anniversary of establish- 
ment of Church in Chicago . . 73 
Anniversaries connected with. . . 

164, 195, 280, 377 

Pageant at 250th anniversary of 

landing near Chicago 196, 219 

MaitjTS to the Faith in early Illi- 
nois 156 

Maryland, charter of colony ceded 122 

Maskouten Indians 147, 239 

Mason, E. G., address before the 

Illinois Bar Association 11 

Matre, Hon. Anthony, knighted by 

Pius X 93, 207 

McAlpin, Cecilia, sketch of family 311 
McClellan, Gen. George B., at Fort 

Vancouver 354 

Mcllvane, Caroline, executive secre- 
tary of Chicago Illinois His- 
torical Society, reference to . . 

150, 204 

Melody, D. D., Msgr. Jolin W., 

sketch of 88, 366 

Members of the Sacred College 

of Cardinals 76 

Membre, Rev. Zenobius, Martyr in 

Texas 156, 265 

Merici, Angela, St., Founder of 

Ursuline Order 134 

Mermet, Jean, S. J., Missionary in 

early Illinois 155 

Merritt, Percival, Author of "An 
Account of the Conversion of 
Rev. John Thayer "...... 166, 380 

Meurin, Rev. Sebastien Louis, S. J., 
Missionary in early Illinois . . 

155, 179 

Miami, Fort, Death of Father 

Allouez at 253 

Miami Indians 224, 24.3, 313 

Miami dialect and the name Chi- 
cago 

Michigan Lake 196, 

Milwaukee, Rt. Rev. Henni, Arch- 
bishop of 

Mission of Guardian Angel 

Holy Family, Cahokia 

Immaculate Conception 

St. Francis Xavier at De Pcre, 
Wis 



332 
277 

310 
208 
155 
246 

239 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



13 



St. Ignace, Mackinac 199 

Sault St. Marie 215 

Missionaries, Jesuits and Francis- 
cans 155 

Mississippi River, discovered by 

Father Marquette 195, 238 

Missouri River or Pekeskatanoui . . 235 

Mitchiganien, Illinois Indians 100 

Mohawk Indians 254 

Monarchy absolute in Illinois 106 

Limited in Illinois 112 

Monette, Author of "History of 
the Mississippi Valley, ' ' refer- 
ence to 335 

Monsignori, List of newly selected 

50, 87 

Montigny, Rev. Francis Jolliet, of 
the Seminary of Foreign Mis- 
sion 364 

Montreal, Documents of Father 

Marquette in 199, 301 

Morgan County, Preparation for 

Centennial at 352 

Mormons at Nauvoo, 111 100 

Moorehead, Dr. Warren R., and the 

investigation of Indian Mounds 341 

Moses, Mr., quoted 112 

Mounds, Cahokia, purchased by 

State of Illinois 340 

Mount Joliet 239 

Mudd, Frank and Mrs.; gift to 

Cardinal Mundelein 63 

Muldoon, Rt. Rev. Peter J., D. D., 
Bishop of Rockford, 111., pay- 
ing tribute to Cardinal Mun- 
delein 58, 374 

Mundelein, George Cardinal, DD., 

third Archbishop of Chicago . . 4 
Training, character and 

achievements 5 

In audience with Pope Pius XI 

9, 12 

Received in Sacred College of 

Cardinals 10, 1-^ 

Taking over Titular Church, 

Santa Maria del Populo 16 

Chicago's Prince of the Church 27 

First message to Chicago 42 

Welcomed in Chicago parade. . 44 
Welcomed in Chicago Cathedral 49 

Donations offered as tribute 62 

Speech of ^^ 

Cornerstone Ceremonies of 
Chapel at St. Mary of the 

Lake Seminary 80 

and the Marquette Anniversary 
Celebration 1^^ 



N 
Nauvoo, Mormons and Icarians at 



New Orleans, French Province of 

106, 162 

Jesuits in • 377 

News Service of Ceremonies, Cardi- 
nal Mundelein Reception 12 

New York, Archbishop of 1 

Administrator of Archdiocese, 

Rt. Rev. J. J. Dunn 20 

Cathedral, St. Patrick's at. . .21, 41 
Program for Reception of Car- 
dinals 20, 21 

Nomination of Cardinals by Pope 

Pius XI 12 

Noonan, Rev. Herbert C, S. J., 
and the Marquette Anniver- 
sary Celebration 221 

North American College, Rome 8 

Northwestern Territory, Govern- 

ment of- 109. 1^3 



O 

O'Brien, Rt. Rev. Wm. D., Msgr., 

sketch of 

O'Brien, Quiu, orator at Marquette 

Anniversary Celebration 

Officers of Holy Name Division, 

Chicago 

O'Hern, Rt. Rev. Msgr., President 
of American College in Rome 

Ohio River • • 

Ojibway or Chippewa dialect and 

the name Chicago 

Onahan, William J., first president 
of the Illinois Catholic Histor- 
ical Society 

Oneidas, Illinois Indians 

Onondagas, Illinois Indians 

Order of Catholic Foresters...... 

Order of Parade to Welcome Car- 
dinal Mundelein 29, 

Order pro Ecclesia et Pontifice... 
Ostrowski, Rt. Rev. Francis G., 

Msgr., sketch of • 

O'Shaughnessy, Thomas A., and 
Father Marquette . . ..... . . . • 

73, 150, 196, 

Ottawa County, Saul St. Marie in. 
Ottawa Indians 



90 
213 

48 

8 
123 

332 



206 

254 

254 

64 

47 
87 

89 



210 
199 
223 



Palmyra, HI., fate of city . . ...... 349 

Papal household, new members of. 8^ 

Papal honors for Chicagoans . . .81, 9^ 
Parade, Cardinal Mundelein Recep- 

tion, Committee of... •■• ^^ 

Arrangements m detail. . ... .^o, '±i 

Outlined by Rt. Rev. E. 1. 

Hoban, D. D g 

Order of ^^ 

Parish units of g 

Hospital units of 



14 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Paris, treaty of 106, 112 

Parrisli, historian, quoted 182 

Parkman, historian, quoted 

182, 203, 264, 302 

Peck, John Mason, and the Slavery 

Controversy 339 

Pennsylvania, charter of colony 

ceded 122 

Peoria Lake, 111 239, 267 

Peoria, 111., Jesuit mission at 

101, 156, 306 

Peoria Indians 100, 239, 255 

Periods of Government in Illinois 100 

Piankeshaw Indians 101, 255 

Piasa Bird, Monstrous, Painting at 

Alton, 111., description of.... 341 
Pinet, Rev. Francois, S. J., estab- 
lished Mission of the Guardian 

Angel 208 

Pocahantas Indians, Algonquin 

Women 101 

Pope Pius XI and Creation of new 

Cardinals 4, 10 

Pius X and audience of Car- 
dinal Mundelein 9 

and monument of Father Mar- 
quette 284 

and Unification of Ursulines 137 
Leo XIII and Unification of Ur- 
sulines 134 

Potowatomi Indians 101, 147, 332 

Potowatomi dialect and the name 

Chicago 332 

Prairie du Chien, Wis., Father Mar- 
quette at 215 

Purcell, Rt. Rev. Msgr., reference 

to 206 



Q 

Quaife, historian, and Father Mar- 
quette 204 

Quarter, Rt. Rev. Wm. D. D., First 
Bishop of Chicago 

Quealey, Rt. Rev. Msgr., accom- 
panying Cardinal Mundelein. . 6 

Quebec Hotel Dieu, Jesuit Mission 

House 145 

Quebec, Province and Governor of 

106, 114 

Quigley, Edward, Archbishop of 

Chicago 74 

Quiglev Preparatory Seminary, 

Chicago 22, 29, 50, 53 

Reception of Cardinal Mundelein 79 
Marquette Anniversarv Celebra- 
tion \ 202, 220 

Quille, Rt. Rev. C. J., Msgr., sketch 

of 90 



B 

Rale, Rev. Sebastian, S. J., Mission- 
ary in early Illinois 157, 307 

Rappe, Rt. Rev., Bishop of North- 
ern Ohio 356 

Reception, Civic, of Cardinal Mun- 
delein at Auditorium 66 

Reynolds, Rt. Rev., Bishop of 

Charleston 310 

Reynolds, John, Author of ' ' The 
Pioneer History of Illinois," 

reference to 109, 130 

Author of "My Own Times" 

quoted '. 160 

Richard, Rev. Gabriel, Sulpitian 

Missionary 160, 250 

River, Arkansas and Father Mar- 
quette 200 

Chicago and Father Marquette. 207 
Des Plaines and Father Mar- 
quette 207 

Fox and Father Marquette 207 

Illinois and Father Marquette.. 207 
Mississippi, Father Marquette's 

description of 238 

La Salle 's first glimpse of . . . 272 
Missouri and Father Marquette. 235 
Ohio or Ouaboukigou and Father 

Marquette 235 

Wabash (Ohio) and Father Mar- 
quette 235 

Wisconsin and Father Marquette 207 

Rockford Diocese in History 274 

Rocky Mountains 100 

Rome, Church of Santa Maria del 

Populo 12, 49, 54 

Piazza del Populo 16, 18 

College of the Propaganda Fidei 

9, 14 

St. John. Lateran Church 17 

Vatican 21 

Palace Hotel 22 

St. Peters S 

General Assembly of Ursulines in 

1900 ■. 136 

Rousselet, Rev. Louis, Missionary 

at Boston 166 

Russia, Starving Children of 12 

Rvan, Rt. Rev. John J., Msgr., 

sketch of 89 

Ryan, Dr. Lawrence J., M. D., Lat- 
eran Cross bestowed upon. .93, 164 



S 



Sachenis, representative of Indian 

Tribes 101 

Sacs Indians 101, 255 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



15 



Santa Maria del Populo, Titular 
Church of Cardinal Mundelein 
12, 49, 54 

Satolli, Rt. Rev., Cardinal Pro- 
tector of Ursulines 134 

Sault St. Marie in Ottawa County 199 

Sault St. Marie, Father Marquette 

at Mission of 199, 215 

Schmidt, Dr. Otto L., President of 
the Illinois State Historical 
Society, reference to 150, 341 

Secretary of Vatican, Cardinal Gas- 

parri 8, 43 

Seminary, Quigley Preparatory. ... 50 

Senat, Rev. Antonius, S. J., Mis- 
sionary in Illinois. . . .158, 307, 334 

Senecas, Illinois Indians, belonging 

ing to Iroquois tribe 254 

Shantytown and Colonel Joseph 

Lee Smith 140 

Sliawnees, Illinois Indians and 

Henry de Tonti 366 

Shea, John Gilmary, Author of 
' ' Discovery and Exploration of 
the Mississippi," reference to 

203, 240, 250, 282, 282 

Author of "History of the Cath- 
olic Church in U. S.", quoted 379 

Sheffield, Delia B., "Memoirs of 

Fort Vancouver" reference to 354 

Shell, Msgr. B. J., and Cardinal 

Mundelein 6 

Sheridan, Phil., General at Fort 

Vancouver 352 

Siedenburg, Rev. Frederick, S. J., 
President of the Illinois Cath- 
olic Historical Society 206 

Sioux Indians 101, 239, 255 

Small, Governor of Illinois 67 

Smith, Col. Joseph Lee, founder of 

Shantytown 140 

Smith, Valentine, and Marquette 

Anniversary Celebration. ..204, 219 

Sommerville, Robert caused Boul- 
der Monument to be erected in 
honor of Father Marquette . . 
96, 205 

Spalding, Most Rev. Archbishop, 

quoted 182 

State Historical Society of Illinois 133 

St. Augustine, Sisters of Charity of 350 

St. Claire, Sisters of, in Shanty- 
town 142 

St. Cosme, Father of the Foreign 

Missions, reference to.... 303, 364 

Steamship Berengaria and Cardinal 

Mundelein 6, 19, 38, 41 

St. Francis Xavier Mission at De 

Pere, Wis 239 

St. Gregory, Knights of 20 

St. Ignatius, Founder of the So- 
ciety of Jesus 199 



St. Ignatius Church, Chicago, ob- 
servances in honor of Father 

Marquette 197, 202 

St. Louis, Rt, Rev. Rosati, first 

Bishop of 162 

St. Mary of the Lake University. . 208 
St. Mary of the Lake Seminary at 

Area, 111 23, 50, 63, 80 

St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore43, 310 
St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York 41 
Sweitzer, Robert M., K. S. G., 

sketch of 92 



Talon, intendant of New France . . 229 

Tamaroa, Illinois Indians 100, 255 

Thayer, Rev. John, first pastor at 

Boston 166 

' ' Thayer 's Conversion " or " An 
Account of the Conversion of 
Rev. John Thayer" by Perci- 

val Merritt, reference to 380 

Thompson, Joseph J., Editor of 
Illinois Catholic Historical Re- 
view, Speech of 203 

Thwaites, Reuben Gold; Author of 
' ' Jesuit Relations, ' ' reference 

to 203,240, 302 

Trappists, home of 281 

Treutanovi, Florentine sculptor of 
statue of Father Marquette . . 

224, 284 

Tuscaroras Indians, Cherokees . . . . 235 



U 



University, Catholic, Washington, 

D. C 43 

Loyola, Chicago 53, 196, 218 

De'Paul, Chicago 53 

St. Marv of the Lake 208 

State of Illinois 342 

Ursuline Order, foundress of 134 

First General Assembly at Rome 135 
Second General Assembly at 

Rome 136 

Provinces of 138 

Ursulines of Louisiana 378 

Utica in La Salle County, site of 
Kaskaskia, Indian village,... 
101, 217,239, 366 



Vanutelli, Cardinal, and the Uni- 
fication of Ursulines 135 

Vatican Basilica, ceremonies at 
Creation of Cardinals 8 



16 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Vauden Broch, Rev., Missionary in 

Shantytown 142 

Vincennes, Ind., captured by 

George R. Clark 114 

Seat of Government in Indiana 124 
Rt. Rev. S. G. Brute, Bisliop of 

162, 309 

Virginia, Brute, Rt. Rev. W. Ga- 
briel, first Bisliop of 162 

Capitol at Williamsburg 114 

Cession of State 108 

Constitution of 116 

Government of H^ 

Legislature of 1^8 

Plymouth Colony 100 

Series of Illinois historical col- 
lection at 115 

W 

Wabash (Ohio) River 235 

Wabash and Erie Canal under Con- 
struction 210 

Wallace, W. S., and the Canadian 

Historical Bibliography 168 



Waller, Elbert, quoted and refuted 338 
Watrrn, Rev. Philibert, Missionary 

in early Illinois 155, 179 

"Waubun" early history of Chi- 
cago by Mrs. Kinzee, refer- 
ence to 335 

Washington, D. C, Catholic Univer- 
sity at 43 

Weas Indians 101, 255 

Whitney, Daniel, opening first store 

in Shantytown 142 

Wilkins, Colonel, in early Illinois. 113 
Williamsburg, capitol of Virginia. 116 
Wisconsin River and Father Mar- 
quette 200 

Wisconsin, acknowledgment to 

Father Marquette 284 

Wolf, Rt. Rev. Herman, Msgr., 

sketch of 91 



Zeuch, Dr. Lucius M., finding 
portage site mentioned by 
Father Marquette 205, 276 




Photo by Lavecclia 

HIS HOLINESS POPE PIUS XI 

Who raisctl the two American Archbishops, George William Mundeleiu 
and Patrick Hayes to the Cardinalitial Dignity, on April 24, 1924. 



Courtesy State Council Knights of Columhus. 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical 

Review 

Volume VII JULY, 1924 Number 1 



(Sllittats Olattialtc ^tstoncal ^acii^ty 

617 ASHLAND BLOCK, CPIICAGO 



HONORARY PRESIDENTS 

His Eminence George Cardinal Mundelein, Chicago 

Rt. Rev. Peter J. Muldoon, D. D., Rockford Rt. Rev. Henry Althoff, D. D., Belleville 

Rt. Rev. Edmund M. Dunne, D. D., Peoria Rt. Rev. James A. GriiTin, D. D., Springfield 

OFFICERS 

President Financial Secretaey 

Rev. Frederic Siedenburg, S. J., Chicago Francis J. Rooney, Chicago 
First Vice-President 

Rt. Rev. F. A. Purcell, Chicago Recording Secretary 

Second Vice-President M.argaret Madden, Chicago 
James M. Graham, Springfield 

Treasurer Archivist 
John P. V. Murphy, Chicago Rev. Joseph P. Morrison, Chicago 

TRUSTEES 

Rt. Rev. J. W. Melody, Chicago Michael F. Girten, Chicago 

Very Rev. James Shannon, Peoria James A. Bray, Joliet 

Rev. William H. Agnew, S. J., Chicago Frank J. Seng, Wilmette 

Mrs. Daniel V. Gallery, Chicago Mrs. E. I. Cudahy, Chicago 

D. F. Bremner, Chicago Edward Houlihan, Chicago 



(Slllinob (!Iat[|o!ic ^tsturical ^rluc^i 

Journal of the Illinois Catholic Historical Society 
617 Ashland Block, Chicago 

EDITORS 
Joseph J. Thompson, William Stetson Merrill 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Rev. Frederick Beuckman Belleville Kate Meade Chicago 

Rev. J. B. Culemans Moline Rev. Francis J. Epstein Chicago 



Published by 

The Illinois Catholic Historical Society 

Chicago, III. 



CONTENTS 



Elevation and Investiture of Cardinal Mundelein, 

Compiled and Edited by . . . . Joseph J. 
Our Cardinal, Editor New World ..... 
In Eome, Msfjr. Bernard J. Shell ..... 
The Great Ceremony, Msgr. Bernard J. Shell . 
Account of Ceremony, N. C. JV. C. Netos Service 
Address of Welcome, Pope Fms XI .... 
Taking Over Titular Church, Msgr. Bernard J. Shicl 
Announcement of Home-Coming, Bt. Bev. Edward F. Hohan, D 
General Orders for Parade, Col. Marciis Kavanagh 
Aboard the Special for Chicago, Mary Glynn 
The Cathedral Program, Bev. Francis A. By an 
Cardinal's First Address in Chicago, Cardinal Mundelein 
Bishop Muldoon 's Tribute, Bt. Bev. P. J. Muldoon, D. D. 
Civic Reception at Auditorium, Gertrude A. Kray . 
Address at Auditorium. Cardinal Mundelein . 
Tribute to Cardinal Mundelein, Bt. Bev. F. C. Kelley, D. D. 
Tpie Cardinal at St. James Chapel, H. milinbrand 
The Corner Stone Ceremony at Area, Gertrude A. Kray 
Address at Corner Stone Ceremonies, Cardinal Mundelein 
Appeal for the Poor, Cardinal Mundelein . . 

Honors for Priests and Laymen, Chanccllary 
The Only Monument to Father Marquette in Illinois, E. P. 



Thompson 


3-94 




4 






9 






10 






12 






14 






16 


.D. 




27 
28 
42 
49 
56 
58 
66 
70 
75 
79 
80 
82 
86 
87 


Brcni 


lan 


95 



LOYOLA university PRESS 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical Review 



Volume VII JULY, 1924 Number 1 



MOMENTOUS MOVEMENT IN THE 
AMERICAN CHURCH 

TWO NEW AMERICAN CARDINALS 
CREATED AND INVESTED 

ARCHBISHOP OF CHICAGO HONORED 

[The press of the country devoted much space to every detail relating to 
the elevation of the two American Archbishops to the Cardinalatial dignity and 
the account following is largely compiled from the news stories of the periodicals 
of even date. The New World of Chicago has been heavily drawn upon and the 
special writers for that ably edited weekly have been quoted at length. The 
entire story has been submitted to eye-witnesses of the many events and subjected 
to the closest sciiitiny to insure accuracy as the important place the big events 
will take in history is fully realized. Foot notes have not been resorted to 
as the entire text is from contemporary accounts and sources.] (Ed.) 

In recent years no event of greater historic interest, especially 
concerning religion and education, has occurred than the creation 
of two new cardinals in the United States. At a consistory held in 
Rome on March 24, 1924, Most Reverend Patrick J. Hayes, D. D,, 
Archbishop of New York, and Most Reverend George William Mun- 
delein, D. D., Archbishop of Chicago, were raised to the cardinalatial 
dignity in the Catholic Church. 

I. CALLED TO ROME 

Early in March there were recurring rumors of the purpose of 
the Pope to name new members of the College of Cardinals and the 
names of Archbishops Hayes and Mundelein were connected with 

3 



4 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

the reports, but it was some weeks before confirmation was forth- 
coming. When the official notification was finally given the prelates 
named advised their people and averred that the honors and dignity 
were the reward of the good works of the faithful in their flocks. 
The great tidings were first communicated by Archbishop Mundelein 
to his diocese by means of the following letter read in all the pulpits 
of the archdiocese on Sunday, March 10, 1924: 

Archdiocese of Chicago. 
Chancery Oflfice, 
740 Cass Street. 

March 7, 1924. 
Eev. and Dear Father: 

It is with feelings of singular joy and gratitude that I announce to the 
clergy of this diocese the fact that I have been called to Rome by Our Holy 
Father to be raised to the Cardinalitial dignity in the coming Consistory on 
the 24th day of this month. I regret that it was not possible for me to 
gather the priests together before my departure to rejoice with them and to 
express in person to them my appreciation of the honor that has come to me 
through them and their people; but the time allowed me was too brief and 
moreover the message was held confidential. 

I have welcomed this signal mark of the Sovereign Pontiff's favor, because 
it comes not because of any personal merit of mine but as a recognition of 
the devoted loyalty of the clergy and generous co-operation of the people of 
Chicago in every undertaking for the glory of God and in the cause of Christian 
cJiarity and education. I am grateful and of that I shall be mindful at the 
moment of the Consistory when Pope Pius XI raises to the Cardinalitial dignity 
in my humble person the first representative of the Catholicity of the United 
States west of the Allegheny Mountains. 

I trust that the priests of Chicago and their people may keep me in their 
prayers during these days, that I may prove worthy of the honor conferred 
and mindful of its responsibilities and even a help and consolation to the 
Successor of St. Peter. 

Sincerely yours in Christ, 

GEOEGE W. MUNDELEIN, 

Archbishop of Chicago. 

Universal Gratification at the Appointment 

The elevation of Chicago's Archbishop to this greatest dignity 
of the Church save alone the papacy gave universal satisfaction not 
alone to Catholics but citizens of all creeds and beliefs. The press 
teemed with gratulatory and laudatory references. In no medium 
was the case put in better words, however, than in the New World 
which in its issue of March 14, 1924 contained the following editorial : 

Our Cardinal 

Eight years ago last February, there came to the city of Chicago its third 
archibishop, the Most Reverend George William Mundelein. He was the sue- 




1 iihriiiilidiial Xewsreel Photo. 



ARCHBISHOPS GEORGE WILLIAM MUNDELEIN, D. D., AND 
PATRICK JOSEPH HAYES 

Pliotograi^hed just as they left the residence of Archbisliop Hayes to embark 
for Rome in obedience to the call of the Pope. 



georgp: cardinal mundelein o 

cessor of a line of distinguished prelates. He was placed by the Holy See in 
one of the most important posts in the Catholic Church. The honor carried 
with it high responsibilities. Chicago differed from other cities of the country, 
because of its mixed population. A score of nations and tongues made up its 
fold. Unlike most dioceses, because of its youth and its spectacular growth, it 
was the gateway through which passed floods of Catholic immigrants from all 
quarters of the earth. Whilst this testified to the universality of the Church, 
it increased for the bishop his problems. It demanded, therefore, for its proper 
handling a Catholic minded prelate; one whose sympathy and understanding 
were as broad as that Church over which he was to preside. The training and 
antecedents of Archbishop Mundelein were guarantees sufficient that the Holy 
See had weighed carefully his selection. An American for generations, broadly 
trained in the best ecclesiastical schools, already tried in an exacting post, 
everything augured the success of the new archbishop. That he has met his 
exacting responsibilities, that he has conscientiously solved the huge problems 
placed before him, are a record marked by material and spiritual achievements 
that have never been duplicated in this country. The unceasing activity of 
His Eminence has brought his archdiocese to the highest point of efficiency. 
Every reservoir of its resources has been set to work for the honor of God, 
and for the welfare of mankind. Even dividing the eight short years into four 
equal parts, any two of these show an accomplishment that might well be a 
life work. An engrossing imagination, linked with practical acumen, have studded 
the archdiocese with monuments that will persist as long as the Church remains. 
Crowded activities that have signalized each passing year have neither blunted 
his zeal nor stayed his hand. Nor were his activities based on any personal 
motives; they had in view always the glory and grandeur of the Church that 
he represented. His charity was as broad as the Faith he professed. The record 
of his charities for the whole world has made his name known in every country 
of stricken Europe. It may be noted also, that he not only ministered to the 
needy, but he also was the first to point out the way of remedy. To Cardinal 
Mundelein is due, in greatest measure, not only the actual aid, but often the 
pointing out the methods for insuring this end. In more than one instance he 
was a pioneer whose example was generously copied by his colleagues in the 
hierarchy. There is no need to stress the patriotic part he played in the land 
of his forefathers during its recent crisis. The American traditions that were 
so^vn in his blood surged forth in deeds that made his diocese an outstanding- 
one in inspiring and stabilizing the flock committed to his care. Long after 
he has passed away the masterly speech that he delivered at the Red Cross 
meeting of Chicago vvill be a lasting testimony to undefiled love of country. 
To Chicago, as its foremost citizen, he has been lavishly generous. Not only 
has he contributed to its beauty by enduring monuments of art, but he has 
shouldered some of its pressing burdens in assuming responsibility for the care 
of its poor, its orphans and its widows. From the point of view of his accom- 
plishments there is little to wonder at in the elevation of the Most Reverend 
George William Mundelein to the purple. The Church that he loves and serves 
has set its seal of approval on his life and on his deeds. It is the earnest 
prayer of a united Chicago, of his brethren within and without the Church, 
that he may long grace his new station. It is even more prayerfully desired 
that his length of life may be an opportunity for the completion of those 
desires that are closest to his heart. 



ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 



Sails for Rome 



The Archbishop left Chicago on Thursdaj'^, March 7, on his long 
journey, attended by the Right Reverend Edward F. Hoban, D. D., 
the Rev. D. J. Dunne, D. D., and the Rev. B. J. Shell, chancellor. 

In New York on Friday the party was met by the Right Reverend 
John J. Dunn, D. D., auxiliary bishop, and the Rev. Stephen Donahue, 
secretary to Archbishop Hayes, who had been honored by the Holy 
Father with a similar call. They were driven directly to the episcopal 
residence where a conference took place. 

On Friday evening and Saturday hundreds of prominent clergy- 
men and laymen called at the residence of Archbishop Hayes to ex- 
tend congratulations and good wishes. The crowds grew as the time 
for sailing drew near. A squad of police was necessary to regulate 
traffic. Motorcyclists alone broke the way through the congested 
streets. 

A hastily formed procession took part in the entourage. Church 
societies fell into line. Children waving flags and cheering offered 
their tribute to the two native New Yorkers thus signally honored. 
Students of the Cathedral College shared place with gray haired 
graduates of the Christian Brothers schools and of Manhattan College 
who knew them as "Pat" and "George" in the days of real sport. 

Great crowds gathered so swiftly as to make regulation of traffic 
very difficult. Estimates place the number thronging the pier above 
5,000. Intimate friends of both prelates sought opportunity to wish 
them bon voyage. The staterooms of the party on the steamship 
Ber angaria were filled with gorgeous floral presentations, typical of 
esteem, respect, affection, from those who had known the cardinals- 
elect in varied capacity. 

It was New York's day. Both prelates were born in that city, 
grew up there, received their early education together in the same 
schools. Their associates, friends and neighbors clamored on Saturday 
to do them honors on this occasion, the greatest honor that has come 
into the lives of men distinguished for special patriotic and ecclesi- 
astical service. 

On the High Seas 

Passage was taken on the steamship Berengaria and the company 
made every provision for the comfort and convenience of the dis- 
tinguished passengers. In Archbishop Mundelein's suite were the 
Very Rev. B. J. Shell, chancellor, and the Right Reverend Monsignor 
Quealey of Rockville Centre, L. I., a lifelong friend. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 7 

With Archbishop Hayes were the Right Reverend Monsignor 
George Waring, vicar-general of New York ; the Rev. Stephen Dona- 
hue, secretary and a group of other priests. 

Among those occupying honored place at the pier to bid bon 
voyage were the Archbishop's two sisters, Mrs. Theodore Eppig of 
Rockville Centre, Long Island, and Mrs. Arthur Hull of Forest Hills, 
L. I. With their children about them, these ladies received the many 
congratulations from the crowds, mingling smiles of appreciation 
with their tears as they watched the stately steamship move from the 
pier. 

The six days on the water were restful but busy. Many hundreds 
of messages of felicitation and greetings were received by the prelates 
and much time was devoted to recognition and answers. The com- 
parative quiet of the ocean journey gave an opportunity for pressing 
work which was availed of and welcomed. The distinguished travel- 
ers proved good sailors and made the journey without the slightest 
indisposition. 

The Party in France 

The Archbishops reached Cherbourg Friday evening. Although 
the voyage from America was rough, they were not sick. Due to 
heavy sea, it was impossible to celebrate Sunday Mass on shipboard, 
but Rosary service was held instead in the Palm Court of the 
Berengaria. 

Owing to the hasty departure of the two cardinals-designate from 
New York, the French clergy were not notified of their coming in 
time to arrange a fitting reception ; consequently there was no formal 
welcome at the landing. Though tired, the archbishops immediately 
took the train for Paris, preferring rather to rest after paying their 
respects to the Papal Delegate and to the Cardinal Archbishop of 
Paris. 

In the French capital the prelates paid visits Saturday morning 
to the Papal Nuncio and in the afternoon to Cardinal Dubois, re- 
turning later to the residence of the Nuncio, where they had long 
and cordial conference with Archbishop Cerretti. Between their visits 
the archbishops enjoyed the first day of spring by walking along the 
banks of the Seine. Several members of the retinue of Archbishop 
Hayes went from Cherbourg to Lisieux to visit the shrine of the 
"Little Flower" there. 



ELEVATION AND IN\'ESTITURE 



II. IN THE HOLY CITY 



The distinguished travelers reached Rome March 17th. A splendid 
welcome was accorded the Cardinals-elect when they arrived. They 
were met at the station by the Eight Reverend Monsignor O'Hern, 
president of the American College, at the head of a representative 
delegation. 

The new cardinals were driven at once to their headquarters, ar- 
ranged for their stay here. Archbishop Hayes at the North American 
College, of which he is one of the directors. Archbishop Mundelein 
at the Palace Hotel. 

The prelates spent the day in necessary preparations for the 
ceremony, scheduled for ]\Iarch 24. Included in the program Avas 
the manufacture of the garments worn by cardinals in which they 
were invested during the ceremonies of the consistory. This was a 
matter of arrangement with a Vatican official who directs all neces- 
sary preparations. 

The first call of courtesy was made upon His Eminence Cardinal 
Gasparri, secretary of state to the Vatican. Then followed a round 
of other calls upon various dignitaries and friends among the officials 
of the Vatican. 

One of those to be visited was Cardinal Bonzano, formerly in 
charge of the Apostolic Delegation at Washington. 

Because of the unprecedented number of requests for admission 
to the public consistory at which the two American prelates were to be 
elevated, it was decided to hold this ceremony in the Vatican Basilica. 
For centuries consistories have always been held in the Vatican 
palace. Announcement of the change caused great satisfaction, espe- 
cially to the many American visitors to Europe who desired to 
attend. 

Cardinals at the Knights of Columbus Ceremonies 
On April 9, 192-1, the dedicatory ceremonies of St. Peter's oratio, 
the Knights of Columbus Welfare Foundation for youths, established 
at the request and instance of Popes Benedict XV. and PiusXI., took 
place and were attended by Cardinal Gaspari, representing the Holy 
Father and the principle Church dignitaries of Rome and also by 
Cardnals-designate, Mundelein and Hayes, both of Avhom participated 
conspicuously. 

It has been since announced by Monsignor F. Borgongini, Duca, 
Secretary for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical affairs, that His Eminence 
Cardinal Mundelein donated an organ for the boy's chapel in the 
Oratory. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 9 

A member of the Cardinal 's party described some of the activities 
of the prelates in Rome while preparing for the great ceremonies and 
afterwards : 

Strictly speaking, I am told, our archbishop was formally a cardinal on 
Monday when he received at his quarters at the College of the Propaganda, 
the emissaries dispatched officially from the Secret Consistory to notify him of 
his election. 

This action followed the nomination of the American prelates by the Holy 
Father. The announcement came to Cardinal Mundelein in the form of a docu- 
ment from Cardinal Gasparri, secretary of state to His Holiness. In his case 
it was presented by Monsignor Selvaffiano, formerly second auditor of the 
Apostolic Delegation at Washington. 

■ It was especially gratifying to Cardinal Mundelein that this message should 
be delivered to him by a friend of long standing, since their acquaintance dates 
back many years. One could only speculate about the feelings of His Eminence 
at this moment. His face was impassive during the reading of the document 
by the papal official. But it seemed that others present had difficulty like 
myself, in restraining themselves from display of emotions, q'jite excusable, 
I think, in such a crisis in the life of our cardinal and of the Church' in Chicago. 

There remained through the day only the visits of ceremony, the calls of 
congratulation from the many prelates, friends of His Eminence and from 
Americans who wished to pay their respects to him. In all of these affairs we 
were indebted to Chevalier Giulio Fumasoni-Biondi, brother of the American 
Apostolic Delegate, who acted in directive capacity for the many events. 

Yesterday took place the reception of the new cardinals by the Holy Father, 
on which occasion the biretta was bestowed upon them and other necessary 
details of the traditional ceremonies were carried out. 

During this assemblage the Pope delivered an alocution, copies of which 
were given to the cardinals present. In the publicity given to this papal address 
it is stated that the Holy Father took occasion to offer high tribute of praise 
to the loyalty of the Church in America, especially emphasizing the generosity 
of Americans in response to charitable appeals on so many different occasions. 

I was present when Cardinal Mundelein accorded a press interview, dis- 
cussing his earlier audience with Pope Pius XI, which is of interest in that it 
contradicted the rumor that His Holiness was in poor health. 

"There is no truth in the statement that the Pope is ill or that his strength 
is failing," said the cardinal. "I talked to him after he had returned from a 
walk of an hour and a half, in the Vatican gardens, and he was alert, vigorous 
and showed much energy, speaking with a calm and marked precision and great 
kindness. ' ' 

Continuing Cardinal Mundelein stated: "Twenty years ago when I was 
received by Pope Piux X, one of the greatest impressions made upon me in that 
audience was the extreme kindness of the Pope — an impression I did not expect 
to experience again. However, the supreme cordiality and graciousness, with 
which Pope Pius XI welcomed me, not only renewed but surpassed the former 
impression. ' ' 

Pope's Interest in America 

Cardinal Mundelein speaks eloquently of the keen interest manifested by 
the Pope in the Church in the United States. He told me of the special blessing 



10 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

to be sent by the Pope to the people of Chicago on the day of the public con- 
sistory. "I requested on the day of the public consistory that His Holiness 
send a special blessing to Chicago for the clergy, for Catholics and for all the 
people," remarked Cardinal Mundelein. "To which the Pope replied: 'Yes, 
according to all your intentions,' expressing the same deep sympathy and benevo- 
lence for America that he has ever shown in his messages and official documents 
to her." 

During the week the cardinal has lived quietly, giving attention only to 
the affairs which concern our archdiocese, which must be taken up with the 
various departments here. As reported last week his first messages were of 
special blessing for the people of Chicago and for his immediate relatives. Ac- 
knowledgement of the great shower of cablegrams and how adequately to perform 
this stupendous task is the especial worry just now. 

Pleasing features this week have been visits to the American College and 
to the Propaganda. His Eminence addressed the student bodies of both colleges 
in response to enthusiastic greeting. 

Yesterday it was our privilege to be received in audience by the Holy 
Father. We were introduced by His Eminence, Cardinal Mundelein to whom the 
Pope extended cordial greeting. 

It was the usual simple ceremony familiar to all Catholics, but while one 
may thus dismiss that feature, words fail to describe the sensation on first 
reception. "We were as the usual visitors, of course, anxious to have the Holy 
Father extend his blessing to us and to the friends at home. He was most 
gracious and pleasant and seemed to take a deep interest in all that concerned 
Chicago and its people. But of this more later. 

The Great Ceremony 

Chancellor, Very Reverend B. J. Shiel, who was a witness of the 
great ceremony that made the two American prelates Cardinals wrote 
a very interesting account as follows: 

"For the glory of Almighty God and the adornment of the Apostolic See, 
receive thou the red hat, the principal insignia of the dignity of Cardinal. It is 
a sign that even to the shedding of thine own blood for the exaltation of the 
Holy Faith, and the peace and quiet of the Christian world, and the increase 
and preservation of the Church, thou must show thyself without fear." 

When the Holy Father pronounced these words to each of the American 
prelates. Archbishop Mundelein of Chicago and Archbishop Hayes of New 
York today, they were taking part in the last of the very imposing ceremonies 
which this week raised them to place among princes of the Church, the Sacred 
College of Cardinals. 

This was the last feature of the ceremony at the Public Consistory, just 
concluded at St. Peter's Basilica, before one of the largest, most distinguished 
assemblages known to that Mstoric edifice. At least it seemed that this must 
be the case to one witnessing the grandeur of the ceremony, as old as the 
Church itself, and in the historic, old edifice built upon sacred ground where 
martyrs and saints of old gathered in the early days of Christianity. 

Preparations had been under way for days to accommodate the large crowds 
who implored permission to attend this public consistory. Stands were erected 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 11 

to care for the visitors who might at least in overflow gathering witness the 
imposing procession of prelates who escorted the Holy Father to the Basilica 
for the concluding ceremony. 

Those privileged to be close enough to follow in detail the dignified spectacle 
in the ancient St. Peter's, followed with keen interest the entrance of the 
procession, the filing to place of the cardinals representative of every nation, 
the arrival at his throne of the Holy Father and then, the preliminary ceremonies. 

But at the crucial moment one felt surging within his breast an emotion 
that thrilled the heart. All other considerations were forgotten. Eagerly, one 
concentrated upon the sight before him. 

Entering the holy place are the two cardinals-elect, each escorted by two 
older cardinals. Each makes profound obeisance before the Holy Father, seated 
on his throne, receiving in turn the ecclesiastical embrace. Each is then con- 
ducted about the benches where the other cardinals are seated, and similarly 
welcomed by them. 

The senior cardinal deacons then took up position about the pontifical throne 
and the new cardinals advance. The Pope then addresses them as quoted in the 
opening paragraph, presenting the Bed Hat. 

When he has done this, the hood of his Cappa Magna is drawn over the 
head of the new cardinal by the master of ceremonies. The Pope then places 
on the brow of each the head dress of scarlet cloth, folded in scarlet silk, 
with scarlet tassels, fifteen in number, and cords. 

Impressions op St. Peter's 

When I first saw St. Peter's, I suppose I was like all other visitors, sud- 
denly struck dumb with astonishment. I went first to the vestibule with every 
intention of fulfilling the request of the editor of the Neio World, namely, to 
tell the readers of our archdiocesan paper something of my impressions. 

But I was overcome. There are some places one cannot adequately describe. 
I think my amazement at the grandeur of it all is the best tribute that I can 
offer at this time. I am reminded of the description of one author whom I read 
en route from Chicago: 

"It is unparalleled in beauty, in magnitude and magnificence, and is one 
of the noblest and most wonderful works of man." 

But these sensations are not just those of a first visit. They swell anew 
v/ith each repeated visit. And if anything, an understanding of the new grandeur 
comes with participation in such a ceremony as it was my privilege to witness. 

One breathes a sigh as he realizes that the concluding part of this im- 
posing yet simple ceremony is drawing to a close. Looking about, there are 
evidences of emotion on other faces round about. All seem to be as much 
affected as myself. And all show evident signs of it as they kneel for the 
final benediction of the Holy Father. 

Of course, there is more. But again there is privacy. The whole Sacred 
College adjourns to the Sistine Chapel where the new cardinals prostrate them- 
selves before the altar. There is a short service, and a sermon by the dean of 
cardinals. 

Then there is another Secret Consistory in another room. It is here that 
the Pope addresses the new wearers of the purple. The traditional ceremony 
of the opening and closing of the mouth follows. The ring is placed on the 



12 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

finger and the title of the church to which the new cardinal is assigned is an- 
nounced. 

That to which our cardinal holds title is the Church of Sancta Maria del 
Populo. The ceremony then closed. As I write there remains only congratulatory 
receptions for tomorrow, Friday, and on Saturday the formal taking over of 
the titular church. 

(Rome, April 2) 

I have opportunity now to amplify my necessarily hurried account of last 
Thursday's consistorial event. Since then it has been my privilege to be pre- 
sented to many of the cardinals then present. Among them were Cardinals Van- 
nutelli, DeLai, Vico, Grantto, Pompilj, Cagliero, Cagiano, Gasparri, Van Eossum, 
Fruhwirth, Scapinelli, Gasquet, Giorgi, Laurenti, Lori, Ehrle, Sincero, Lucidi and 
Galli. 

The Prince Assistant to the Pontifical Throne who participated in the cere- 
monies was Prince Colonna. When the new cardinals advanced to receive the 
red hat, Cardinal Mundelein was escorted by Cardinals Bisleti and Lega and 
Monsignor Bonzzi as master of ceremonies. Cardinal Hays was escorted by 
Cardinals Billot and Gasquet and Monsignor Grano as master of ceremonies. 
The Right Rev. Louis Walsh, Bishop of Portland, Me., and Bishop Cossio, 
formerly auditor of the Apostolic Delegation at Washington, were among the 
prelates in attendance. In the boxes reserved for distinguished visitors were 
Marshall Foch and the Princess Maria Immaculata of Bourbon. Several relatives 
of the Pope occupied the same tribune with the former general-in-chief of the 
allied armies. 

News Service Account of the Ceremonies 

The official (N. C. W. C. News Service) account of the big events 
in which the Pope took part was as follows : 

"The ceremony known as the secret consistory, was a meeting 
of the Cardinals in Rome with the Poi^e at which the Holy Father, 
after delivering an allocution in which he voiced high praise for 
American charity, went through the traditional formality of asking 
the approval of the Cardinals for the nominations he announced. 
Only the Pope and the Cardinals were present. In his allocution 
the Sovereign Pontiff said: 

Nomination of the Cardinals by the Pope 

"In the immense family which God has confided to Us, there 
are brothers more favored by Divine Providence, who through the 
Father of all, come to the assistance of their less fortunate brothers 
in their trals and disasters. 

' ' Our heart is touched and at the same time exalted toward God, 
thinking of and beholding their magnificent acts of filial piety and 
fraternal charity. Wo find pleasure in expressing to them from this 
exalted place, in this distinguished assembly, a fervent declaration 
of Our gratitude, that of a Father who feels himself much indebted 
on behalf of his suffering children. 

"As soon as V\"e had lifted our voice to ask for help for the 
starving children of Russia, the episcopacy, the clergy and people of 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 13 

the United States responded with promptness, enthusiasm and gen- 
erosity which placed them and ever since has maintained them, in the 
front rank of this new crusade of charity. 

"We felt however, that something would be wanting in this 
expression of gratitude if special mention were not made of the 
position and part which tlic United States of America took and 
maintained in this concourse of charity. 

"This beneficence shown everywhere by all continued on for a 
long time; we can say that it even still continues, though gradually 
reduced in proportion as the days advanced in which the need 
diminished. 

"Later We intimated that fresh miseries and necessities had arisen 
in various parts of the world. It was only an intimation, as, indeed, 
discretion counseled, but it was sufticient to enkindle again, every- 
where, fresh ardor to bestow money and material according to the 
varying possibilities. 

"The slight intimation was sufticient to move the hierarchy, clergy 
and people not only to maintain their primacy but to push forward 
and upward, so they are seen to exceil even the grand and v/onderful 
deeds of charity they had previously performed. 

"It being an impossibility to express in words all that Our heart 
feels at this historical and epic wave of charity. We decided to ex- 
press Ourselves with a gesture which, touching as it does the very 
summit of the sacred hierarchy, shall be visible to all, and in its 
mute eloquence shall convey Our thought, first of all to that great 
and most noble people and country which in such a glorious task 
has been able to attain such an enviable primacy. 

"W^e have thought of raising to the honor of the sacred purple, 
and of your Sacred College tv/o prelates, who, for their personal 
qualities, for their zeal, for the importance of their sees and for 
the merits of their pastoral ministry are honored in the sacred 
hierarchy in the United States. 

"If this action is extraordinary, the reasons which inspire it are 
without parallel, and no less extraordinary." 

After he had continued his allocution, discussing other subjects 
of world interest the Pope proposed the names of Archbishops Munde- 
lein and Hayes for the elevation to the College of Cardinals. Having 
received the approbation of the Cardinals, expressed in such case by 
rising and bowing while removing the skull cap the Pope pronounced 
the words which formally created two new princes of the Church. 

"Therefore, by the authority of god, the father almighty, 
of the holy apostles, peter and paul, and by our own authority, 
we nominate the most reverend george mundelein archbishop 
of chicago, and the most reverend patrick hayes, archbishop of 
new york, cardinals of the holy roman church." 

When the Pope had concluded, the Cardinal Camerlengo rang 
a small golden bell — the signal for the Papal emissaries who awaited 



14 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

outside the closed doors of the Hall of the Consistory to start upon 
their mission of informing the Cardinals-designate of their nomina- 
tions. The emissaries carried the "Biglietti", the formal notifi- 
cations in Latin. From the moment a Cardinal-designate receives 
his "biglietto" he is actually a Cardinal and his nomination cannot 
be withdrawn. 

Cardinal Mundelein awaited the messengers from the Pope in 
the College of the Propaganda and Cardinal Hayes at the American 
College. Both were surrounded by a number of intimate friends 
and prominent officials and diplomats. Inasmuch as Cardinal Mun- 
delein 's consecration to the episcopacy antedates that of Cardinal 
Hayes, the former received his notification first. In a brief speech 
after he had received his ' ' biglietto ' ' Cardinal Mundelein said : 

''No one recognizes better than myself that it is for no personal 
merit of mine that this honor has come to me. It has come by the 
great fatherly kindness of the Sovereign PontifP, who desires in my 
humble person to reward his good children of Chicago, and likewise 
in a particular manner to recognize the sterling Catholicity of that 
vast territory lying west of the Alleghanies. 

"But, for that very reason, with the grace of God, this new 
dignity will be an additional incentive for me to labor for the spread 
of God's kingdom in Chicago and the West, to train and equip a 
large body of splendid ministers of the Gospel that our priests and 
people may always be an adornment in the Church and a credit 
to America and a source of strength and consolation to the Holy See. ' ' 

Cardinal Hayes also responded happily. 

The second of the major ceremonial steps in the elevation of the 
two prelates to the College of Cardinals took place on March 26. 
In the basilica of St. Peter's the two prelates received the violet 
silken capes called "mozettas" and the scarlet birettas from the 
hands of the Pope himself. Following the investiture, the Pope de- 
livered an address which lasted twenty-five minutes in the course 
of which he said in part: 

Pope's Address of Welcome 

''Our most happy and affectionate welcome to you, most beloved 
sons, who come from the great land of America. Twice welcome, 
because as citizens and shepherds of that great country you came to 
this, Our Rome, which is also yours because you are our sons, to 
return priests of the Holy Roman Church. 

' ' This great love of your youth, this great light that preceded and 
has presided over your ecclesiastical development renders more splen- 
did in force and splendor of radiation these words: "Priests of the 
Holy Roman Church." 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 15 

''Welcome to you, who have come to let Us hear beautiful things, 
high consoling things, such as you have just spoken ! Truly We 
have heard of the great faith of your people, of the magnificent 
development of their Christian life, of their flaming devotion to 
the Holy Faith and the Holy See, to the Vicar of Jesus Christ and 
to the Eucharistic Jesus Himself. 

"All this fills Us with purest joy and gives Us the golden key 
to the magnificent mystery of the miracle of charity which your 
country has shown Us. All this convinces Us that We have been 
well inspired in seeking and finding a means to demonstrate to your 
great ijeople all Our gratitude, all Our paternal pleasure in honoring 
that people in your persons with the sacred Roman purple. 

"You are not only representatives of that people, luminous rep- 
resentatives of that episcopate and clergy, who, in preparing that 
miracle of charity as in the development of a magnificent Christian 
life, allowed it to be said of them: "As are the priests so are the 
people. ' ' 

Speaking of the need for great ability in the fields in which the 
two Cardinals had labored in America the Pope said: 

"The drama of charity and sorrow is unending; it lasts as long as 
the world. Just so unending is the drama of Divine pity. This drama 
seldom has such a large and potent life as in your country. Life 
in) the United States a century ago could be summed up in the small 
space of a few numbers. What has it now become in so short a time ? 
Speaking only of what We have seen America's intervention decided 
the fate of Europe and the world. Today its charity saves from 
hunger and death millions of individuals. 

In concluding the Pope said: 

' ' The Roman purple, mantle of honor and glory, eloquent symbol 
of souls like yours, ready for all generosity, even for martyrdom, 
typifies the rosy dawn, and is the certain presage of days even more 
beautiful with glory, richer with peace and more fruitful of good." 

This address followed a speech by Cardinal Mundelein as the 
senior prelate on behalf of himself and Cardinal Hayes. Cardinal 
Mundelein interpretetd the Pontiff's motive in creating two new 
American Cardinals by saying: 

"In our humble persons you wished to give unmistakable proof 
of Your fatherly consideration and benevolence, not only to the 
faithful of our prosperous dioceses, but to all Catholics in the United 
States, who, in their faith and devotion to the chair of St. Peter 
and their loyalty to the person of the Holy Father count this as 
their greatest glory." 

The ceremony was concluded by the Pope imparting the Apostolic 
Benediction. 



16 elevation and investiture 

The Cardinal's First Greetings 

Roma, March 25, 1924. 
To Rt. Rev. E. F. Hoban, 
Chicago. 
First blessing today for administrator, clergy and people of 
Chicago. 

George, 

Cardinal Mundelein. 

Taking Over Titular Church 

We again quote Father Shell with reference to the ceremony of 
taking possession of the church of Saneta Maria del Populo by 
Cardinal Mundelein: 

Imagine the thrill that would come from realization that one was walking 
on the spot where centuries ago was scattered the ashes of the unspeakable 
Emperor Nero. That was my experience. The church of Saneta Maria del Populo, 
to which His Eminence, Cardinal Mundelein was given possession today, is built 
upon that spot. It was erected in 1099, that is, the first building. The present 
edifice dates from 1477. 

But thrills and horrors, visions of early martjTs to the Faith and of their 
malignant persecutors, I must admit were not in my mind as I stood in the 
Plaza del Populo for my first glimpse at this fine old church, built by contribu- 
tions of people centuries ago, hence its name. Rather was it a sensation of 
unusual ceremony, an impression of strangeness. 

I had thought this occasion to be a gala one, with great rejoicing and 
much demonstration of pleasure. I had imagined a procession, with guards and 
attendants in medieval garb. But it was not so. We drove quietly in somber, 
closed carriages from the College of the Propaganda Fidei. There were present 
only a few intimate friends accompanying His Eminence. 

There was iuteiise quiet as the cardinal stepped from his carriage wearing 
his long black cloak and the Roman hat used on the street by all ecclesiastics. 
Crowds were gathered about the entrance but they were quietly observant, almost 
reverential in attitude, as though taking part in practices made sacred by long 
years of custom. Through the long lane of people we ascended the steps of the 
church where were gathered the clergy of the church in welcome. 

To an attendant the cardinal gave his hat and cloak, standing forth in 
his trailing cassock of flowing silk, scarlet in hue. The organ breaks out into 
sound. The clergy forms into procession, with a cleric bearing the Cross in 
the lead, followed by acolytes. 

Taking Holy water the cardinal makes the Sign of the Cross, blessing 
himself and others, then blessing the incense. The ceremony then begins, follow- 
ing a form prescribed for the act of possession of a titular church which dates 
from 1650, the time of Pope Innocent X. 

With all the artistic splendor of accomplished Roman singers the choir 
intones "Ecce Sacerdos," as the procession wends its way through the nave 
of the beautiful edifice, adorned as for a feast, towards the sanctuary and the 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 17 

throne arranged with its scarlet decorations. To the throngs on either side 
the cardinal gives his blessing as he moves up the aisle. 

His first act, however, is a visit to the Most Blessed Sacrament in Reposi- 
tory at a side altar. Only after a period of silent adoration in which all 
unite does he return to his place in the sanctuary for recitation of the pre- 
scribed prayers. 

As His Eminence seats himself on the throne, the Notarius stands out and 
reads in Latin the ofilcial document of Apostolic appointment to the church. 
The clergy then approach, making their submission to their pastor, in order 
of precedence. Then follows the address of the cardinal, which as those who 
know him recall, was typically well thought out in plan and eloquently delivered, 
with the familiarity in a foreign tongue to be expected of his scholarly attain- 
ments. His words made a profound impression upon his hearers. 

The Te Deum then was sung and the magnificent tones rang throughout 
the building, recalling thought of the many previous occasions when this im- 
posing ceremony had taken place. 

Following this praise of God came invocation of the Saints especially 
honored here in prayer by the cardinal at the altar. These, I understand, 
besides the patron of the church, include Saints Faustina and Priscus, martyrs 
of the early ages, whose bodies rest under the high altar. Above the altar one 
sees a picture of Our Lady, brought here, I am told, from a chapel in St. 
John Lateran church in 1240 by Pope Gregory IX, and honored by the people 
as miraculous. To invocation of our Lady's help before this picture is attributed 
cessation of a plague in 1578. 

Immediately after prayers of invocation to the saints. His Eminence gave 
his blessing to all assembled, standing before the high altar. 

In the spacious sacristy, later, where all the clergy assemble there is laid 
out on a table the official documents of possession of the church which are 
in readiness for the cardinal's signature. This is affixed and the prelates present 
sign as witnesses. The simple ceremony was then closed. 

The cardinal, following traditional custom, will present the church with a 
portrait, painted in oils, which will be hung with that of the reigning Pope 
in the nave. Also he wUl present an escutcheon of his heraldic coat of arms, 
emblazoned in color and surmounted by the red hat and tassels, which is placed 
over the main entrance of the building and which, side by side with the Papal 
arms, is the outward sign of a titular church. 

As cardinal priest, the archbishop of Chicago will hereafter act as pastor 
of this church of Saneta Maria del Populo. This does not call for his residence 
in Eome, of course. The only formality is that he will have to select a vicar 
to take his place at his titular church, no doubt someone already in residence 
in that capacity. But here will be his official headquarters on subsequent visits 
to Rome. 

At the cardinal's official visit to his titular church, Saneta Maria del Populo, 
on Monday, there was a demonstration which seemed to indicate that already 
he has gained much favor with the people of Rome. Of course they regard 
this church as particularly their own, built as it was by their forefathers in 
response to popular appeal. So their affection for all that is connected with it 
is true and lasting. 

Great crowds rushed to the cardinal's titular church on Monday to do him 
honor. Besides many other cardinals, Vatican officials, members of the Roman 
aristocracy, all resplendent in picturesque costumes, there were thousands of 



18 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

people thronging the great church. Among them were students of the American 
College, representatives of religious orders and American visitors, but by far 
was the throng representative of the average Roman citizen and his family. 

The student choir of the Propaganda College sang "Ecce Sacerdos." The 
cardinal wore his trailing scarlet robe with an ermine cape and was seated 
on the throne in the sanctuary. 

Monsignor Carinci read the documents to which the cardinal responded in 
happy manner, displaying intimate knowledge of Italian. His address was 
eulogistic of the Holy Father and of his splendid efforts for humanity. 

"To be associated with the pontiff, even a little way," he continued, "to 
form part of his great senate and be named one of his advisers is a great honor 
and glory. My joy and satisfaction is shared by millions of people in the great 
western metropolis intrusted to my care and guidance." 

His remarks were received with gladness by the congregation, who were 
frank in their approval, in characteristic comment on the Piazza del Populo 
after the ceremony. 

In a prominent place within the church is arleady hung the cardinal's coat 
of arms, consisting of his motto, "Dominus Adjutor Mens," on a shield sur- 
mounted by the Red Hat, with its flowing tassels. Later there will be placed 
here a portrait of the cardinal. Both are customary features of the ceremony. 

Father Shell tells of some interesting events occurring after the 
great ceremonies: 

We have left Rome and are now resting at — well, it does not matter. But 
the rest is welcome. Let me emphasize that fact. 

They were strenuous days that preceded our departure from Rome on Friday. 
There was so much to do in last minute arrangements. So many sought to do 
honor to the cardinal. Events galore were planned as tribute to him. 

But the most outstanding testimonial of regard came at the railroad station. 
Romans are accustomed to the coming and going of church dignitaries. It was 
therefore a general surprise to see the crowds of people, including Vatican 
officials, ecclesiastics, nobles of the city, members of the faculties of the various 
colleges and students who attended in such large numbers. 

There was no doubt of the sincerity of their feelings. The air was filled 
with shouts of tribute. "Arrividerci" in enthusiastic chorus indicated a popular 
desire to have Cardinal Mundelein visit again in Rome, and soon. There was 
frequent repetition of "viva" and "adio," offering further proof of the popular 
affection developed for the pastor of the People's church, Sancta Maria del 
Populo. 

Only when able to relax on the train is one able to grasp an idea of the 
wonderful experience of the past few weeks. Outstanding among the celebrations 
of which I have not yet spoken was one event produced at the American College 
in honor of Cardinal Mundelein and Cardinal Hayes. The program I have 
already forwarded. 

At American College 

(Editor's Note — We herewith reproduce that program through courtesy of 
the chancery office.) 




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GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 19 

TRATTENIMENTO MUSICALE 

Offerto Dagli Alumni 

del 

CoUegio Americano del Nord in Onore delle 

Loro Eminenze Reverendissime 

CARDINALE MUNDELEIN 

e 

CARDINALE HAYES 

in Oceasione della Loro Elevazione 

Alia S. Porpora 

— — 

CoUegio Americano del Nord. Roma, 

30 Marzo 1924 

— — 
PROGRAMMA 

I. Parte 

1. Beethoven, ' * Prima Simphonia (op. 21) in Do magg 

Adagio molto — Allegro con brio Lawrence Daly, Edwin Hoover 

Address Rev. Thomas O'Rourke 

2. Tu es Petrus D. Lieinio Refice 

3. Zeffiro torna, Madrigale Luca Marenzio 

4. Ave Maria D. Lieinio Refice 

5. I Fiorellini Mendelsshon 

II. Parte 

1. Oremus Pro Pontifice D. Lieinio Refice 

2. Noel Adam 

(Solista. Mr. Francis Johns) 

3. Amavit Eum Dominus Dr. Lieinio Refice 

(Solisti Messrs, Johns, Hoover, Hickey, McHugh) 

4. Sailor 's Song Mosenthal 

— — 
Maestro Direttore: D. Lieinio Refice 

At the Propaganda 

A later program was presented on April 23, by the students of The Propa- 
ganda for His Eminence, Cardinal Mundelein, an alumnus of that college. It 
was in the nature of a musicale somewhat like a closing exercise event. 

Eight students from different nations delivered addresses, each in his own 
tongue. In addition to this an American, John McCarthy, of Buffalo, delivered 
an address of welcome in Italian. 

The other speeches were delivered in the form of essays by Chinese, Japanese, 
Irish, Hindu, Arabic, Indo-Chinese and German students. The students presented 
the cardinal with decorated copies of all the addresses bound in an album. 

It was a wonderful tribute to the widespread influence of the Church. 
From all parts of the world these boys come. In a few years they will go 
forth preaching the Gospel to every nation. Thoughts go back to the days of 
the Apostles when they, too, were gathered together, with their gift of speech, 
going later to all parts of the world in obedience to the Divine Command to 
preach to every creature. 



20 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

I think no more splendid example of the universality of the Church can 
be found anywhere than in this assembly at Rome. It was an experience that 
was especially pleasing to His Eminence. 

This may be the last opportunity of reporting the facts of the cardinal's 
trip to Rome. We are d'le to sail on the Berengaria on May 3, almost as your 
readers will peruse these lines. Then New York, and on to Chicago. 

III. BACK TO LOVED AMERICA 

On the return journey only Monsignor Shell accompanied the 
Cardinal, Cardinal Hayes and all the others having gono their sep- 
arate ways. ]\Iost of the Cardinal's time on board ship was spent 
in his suite wrestling with an accumulation of work that required 
his personal attention. The return journey was, like that which 
brought him to Rome, without personal discomfort. Toward the 
end of it, however, the weather became less agreeable and an incident 
occurred that called out the sympathy of the distinguished traveler 
and delayed his arrival in New York by several hours. A, press 
account reads: 

"All day the Berengaria had plowed through wind and rain and 
smoking seas, the horizon dimmed by fog, while in New York two 
hundred Chicago priests and laymen waited impatiently for the 
word of his coming. It was by a brief wireless message that the 
waiting delegation learned that part of the delay had been caused 
by a tragedy of the sea in which the Cardinal's ship took the part 
of the Good Samaritan. An explosion in the engine room of the 
Baltimore Steamship Company's freighter, Major Wheeler, injured 
the chief engineer, Leon Anderson. And a Cardinal, a boat load 
of anxious passengers and the welcoming committee put their im- 
patience aside while the Berengaria turned twenty miles out of its 
course to take on board the injured man, that he might have efficient 
surgical aid." 

The officers of the ship and passengers speak feelingly of the 
tender sympathy and even affection displayed by the Cardinal for 
the poor mutilated victim of the explosion. 

The Program in New York 

The N. C. W. C. news service on April 8 outlined the program 
to be carried out on the arrival of the new cardinals as follows: 

New York is preparing to give its new Prince of the Church a most hearty 
welcome. The arrangements for the reception of His Eminence, Cardinal Hayes, 
have been placed in the hands of a committe of clergy and laymen of which 
tfie Right Rev. John J. Dunn, V. G., administrator of the Archdiocese, is 
honorary chairman. The active chairman is James Butler, K. S. G. The com- 
mittee is composed of Knights of St, Gregory, the trustees of the Cathedral, 




Under icood <£■ Underwood. 

CARDINAL MUx\"DELEIN, RODMAN WANNAMAKER, NEW YORK, AND 
DENNIS F. KELLY, CHICAGO 

Advance Guard of the Reception Committee on board New York City Official 

Recejjtion Boat. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 21 

the trustees of the Catholic Orphan Asylum and representatives of the various 
lay and religious organizations of the Archdiocese. 

Cardinal Hayes is expected to sail from Cherbourg on the American steamer 
Leviathan which is due in New York on April 27. The committee will charter 
a boat and will go down the Bay to take the Cardinal off the Leviathan at 
quarantine. On the boat with the committee will be all the Suffragan Bishops 
of the Province, and a representative body of the clergy, including the provincials 
of all the religious orders and communities in New York. 

The Cardinal will leave the boat with the committee at the Battery and 
will be escorted np Broadway and Fifth avenue to the Cathedral by a guard 
of motorcycle police and the clergy and laity of the committee in automobiles. 

At least five thousand children will greet His Eminence when he reaches 
the Cathedral, where he will be enthroned in the sanctuary over which hang 
the red hats of his two predecessors who were equally honored by Eome. 

On Wednesday, April 30, there will be a solemn function at the Cathedral, 
beginning at 10 a. m. The Right Eev. Daniel J. Curley, Bishop of Syracuse, 
will pontificate at a Solemn Mass of Thanksgiving in the presence of His 
Eminence. Invitations have been sent to all the prelates of the country, and it 
is expected that there will be a very large representation of the hierarchy present 
on this occasion. At this Solemn Pontifical Mass an address will be read on 
behalf of the clergy by the Very Rev. Joseph F. Delany, D. D., and on behalf 
of the laity by the Hon. Victor J. Fowling. 

On Friday morning. May 2, the children will attend a Solemn Pontifical 
Mass to be celebrated by the Rt. Rev. Auxiliary Bishop John J. Dunn, V. G., 
in the presence of the new Cardinal. At this Mass there will be present repre- 
sentatives of every parochial school and Catholic high school in the city. The 
only address at this Mass will be made by His Eminence. 

The third Solemn Pontifical Mass of Thanksgiving will be offered on Satur- 
day morning. May 3, which will be for the Religious of the Archdiocese. Brothers 
and Nuns from all the schools and institutions of the archdiocese will be invited 
to attend this Mass, which will be celebrated by the Rt. Rev. John J. Collins, 
S. J., former Vicar Apostolic of Jamaica, with His Eminence presiding on the 
throne. 

Arrangements are being made for two large dinners in the Cardinal's 
honor, one of which is by the Catholic Club of New York, to take place Wednes- 
day evening, April 30, at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, and the other under the 
auspices of the Knights of Columbus, on Monday evening, May 5, at the Astor 
Hotel. 

In THE Meantime 

We crave permission to shift the scene for a brief space in order 
to detail the efforts of the home folks for a fitting reception. 

Wishing to show the appreciation so earnestly felt the clergy of 
the archdiocese despatched the following cablegrams: 

Chicago Clergy Tribute by Cable 

Chicago, lU., April 1, 1924. 
To His Holiness Pius Eleventh, 
Vatican, Rome, Italy. 
The Chicago Clergy in meeting assembled express their gratitude to Your 



22 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

Holiness for the honor conferred on our Archbishop and our Archdiocese. With 
filial devotion. 

The Clekgy of the Archdiocese. 

Chicago, 111., April 1, 1924. 
Cardinal Mundelein, 

Palace, Rome, Italy. 
Your Clergy of Chicago this day in meeting assembled at Quigley Seminary 
extend their hearty congratulations and best wishes on your elevation and 
pledge their loyalty and support. 

The Clergy of Chicago. 

To the latter message Cardinal Mundelein responded as follows: 

Roma, April 4, 1924, 

E. F. Hoban, Chicago. 
Sincere appreciation to administrator and clergy of Chicago for their 
message of congratulations and good wishes and grateful for their promise of 
support which is but another evidence of their consistent loyalty to their Church, 
their diocese, and their Archbishop. 

George, Cardinal Mundelein. 

Hold Meeting to Prepare for Home Coming 

More than three hundred pastors of the entire Archdiocese of 
Chicago responded to the invitation of Rt. Rev. Bishop Hoban, Vicar 
General, to be present at a meeting Tuesday, April 1, at Quigley 
Preparatory Seminary. His Lordship convened the gathering to 
formulate plans for making the return of His Eminence, Cardinal 
George Mundelein, an event that shall long be remembered as one 
of the greatest affairs in the history of the Archdiocese. The en- 
thusiasm of the priests and the interest of the people had been 
notable since the day news came from the Holy Father of the honor 
bestowed on our diocese; it remained only for this meeting to give 
definite directions in the best way of expressing the gratitude and 
loyalty of all the people. 

Rt. Reverend Bishop Hoban, V. G., in a very careful plan outlined 
in detail the manner of receiving His Eminence. On Friday, May 9, 
the steamer Berengaria will arrive with Cardinal Mundelein and the 
party from Rome. He will be welcomed there by a committee of 
both lay-people and clerics from Chicago. Monsignor E. A. Kelly, 
LL. D., pastor of St. Anne's church is chairman of the committee 
and under his special direction the large delegation will come from 
New York. 

The special train over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, arriving 
at 2 o'clock, Sunday, May 11 will be met by a committee headed by 
Monsignor Thomas Bona, pastor of the church of St. Mary's of 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 23 

Perpetual Help. The priests at the meeting agreed unanimously and 
enthusiastically that the entire city should have a part in a gigantic 
welcome for His Eminence. 

A monster demonstration participated in by every Catholic society 
and civic organization should mark the line of march from the Grand 
Central depot to the Holy Name Cathedral. It is expected that 
thousands of people will greet His Eminence in a manner that will 
forever assure him of the love and esteem of his people. 

His Eminence Cardinal George Mundelein will be greeted at the 
Cathedral by thousands of the little children from his parochial 
schools. On entering the edifice the Quigley Seminary students will 
intone the Te Deum and Reverend D. J. Dunne, D. D., will be master 
of ceremonies at Solemn Benediction. The Apostolic Blessing will 
then be imparted to all the faithful by the new Cardinal and he will 
also address all the children of his flock. 

On Monday evening, May 12 all Chicago will again pay honor to 
His Eminence Cardinal Mundelein at the Auditorium Theatre. All 
the prominent citizens, all city officials, delegates from every part of 
the Archdiocese will be present. Mr. D. F. Kelly, K. S. G., President 
of the Board of the Associated Catholic Charities, will be chairman 
of the evening. 

On Tuesday morning, May 13, His Eminence will pontificate at 
Solemn Mass in the Holy Name Cathedral in the presence of a vast 
gathering of the clergy and people of Chicago archdiocese. Many 
Archbishops and Bishops from throughout the country will attend 
these services. Immediately following the Pontifical Mass a dinner 
at the Drake Hotel will be attended by every priest of the arch- 
diocese. Reverend John F. Ryan, Diocesan Consultor and Pastor of 
St. Bernard's church is Chairman of the Committee for this affair. 

On Saturday morning following His Eminence will be present at 
the Holy Name Cathedral for a Pontifical Mass by Rt. Reverend 
E. F. Hoban, Auxiliary Bishop of Chicago. This service will be 
attended by all the Sisters from every Religious Community in 
the archdiocese. 

The crowning glory that will bring supreme happiness to the 
Cardinal will be the laying of the cornerstone of the Church at the 
St. Mary of the Lake Seminary, Area, Illinois, Sunday, May 25. 
A committee under the direction of Rt. Rev. Monsignor P. J. Mc- 
Donnell, Rector of St. Mel's church, will begin at once to arrange 
for this wonderful ceremony. The entire Catholic population of the 
counties in the archdiocese, from Cook, Lake, Dupage, Kankakee, 
Will and Grundy, will assemble at St. Mary of the Lake Seminary 



24 ELEVATION AND INV^ESTITURE 

on tliis hijitoric day. It will l)e a splendid opportunity for every 
Catholic to view the finest buildings and equipment that can be 
found anywhere in the world for the training of ecclesiastical students 
for the priesthood. Nothing will be left undone to make this occasion 
truly auspicious. 

Another feature that will mark the home coming of Cardinal 
I\Iundelein to His See in Chicago will be the presentation of a sub- 
stantial offering from the laity for the beautiful Seminary at Area, 
Illinois. At the meeting of the priests it was agreed that some such 
feature should make memorable the return of the Cardinal. Since it 
was intended that the various parishes of the diocese should con- 
tribute a second quota to the Seminary at Area, Illinois, during the 
course of next year, it was suggested and decided upon that the 
quota be advanced to the present time before the arrival of the party 
from Rome. The expenses of building at the present time will be 
paid by the sum realized in this way. This plan was very acceptable 
to the pastors of the diocese because they are confident it will meet 
with the hearty approval of their people, who are anxious and willing 
to serve on this occasion. 

It was known to all that His Eminence graciously received his 
high honors from the Holy Father because of the people of Chicago : 
nothing then could please the Cardinal more than a spontaneous and 
generous response from all his spiritual children as their approval 
of the religious work nearest to his heart. It has been his noble 
ambition to equip a diocesan Seminary, so needful in suuch a great 
archdiocese, that no other in the whole Avorld would surpass it. When 
the people of the diocese give their stamp of approval by their offer- 
ing at this time to this gigantic and all-important undertaking it will 
free His Eminence from all worry and concern for the financial 
obligations of this great institution. 

Cardinal Mundelein has worked untiringly and unselfishly during 
the past eight years to upbuild all Catholic institutions and now the 
seminary is the greatest work of all. When the pastors of the parishes 
advance their respective quotas at this time the sacrifice will not be 
too much because for the next year or two they can leisurely liquidate 
their indebtedness. The good will of the people has always made 
enterprises of this nature very successful in the past: the present 
occasion, being the greatest in the history of the Church in this 
diocese, will find all rallying to make this the greatest success ever. 
Knowing the enthusiasm of the people and the zeal of the clergy 
this plan will meet with spontaneous co-operation from every parish. 




TJnderivood <£• Vtiderwood. 

THE CARDINAL SURROUNDED BY THE CHICAGO RECEPTION 
COMMITTEE IN NEW YORK 



111 the foreground left to liglit, Dennis F. Kelly, Cardinal Muudeleiu, Right 
Reverend Edward F. Hoban, D. D. ; in background, Eugene Moran, New 
York, Edward Kirchberg, Harry P. Keiiney, taken at Vanderbilt Hotel, 
New York, just before the party left for Chicago. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 25 

Truly it will be a wonderful tribute from the Catholics of Chicago, 
a lasting memorial to their interest in the religious and spiritual 
advancement of the diocese. 

Following the meeting committees were appointed and arrange- 
ments carried on. 

The various committees that were appointed by the Et. Reverend 
E. F. Hoban, to assist in the welcome of His Eminence held several 
meetings during the week. Elaborate plans were decided upon and 
the details of same made known in the papers. Mr. D. F. Kelly, 
Chairman of the Laymen Committee, had the pledge of assistance of 
all the prominent men of the city. The members of the Committcs 
are as follows: 

Honorary Chairman of all Committees, Rt. Rev. E. F. Hoban, 
D. D. 

Transportation Committee 

Rt. Rev. E. A. Kelly, LL. D., Chairman, Rev. M. F. Cuifoletti, C. S. C. B., 
Rev. E. L. Dondanville, Rev. Hilary Doswald, O. C. C, Rt. Rev. W. M. Foley, 
Rev. P. T. Gelinas, Rev. A. L. Girard, Very Rev. F. C. Gordon, C. R., Rev. S. 
Kowalczyk, Rev. John Linden, Rev. F. M. O'Brien, Rev. T. E. O'Shea, Rev. 
Edw. Rice, Rt. Rev. F. A. Rempe, Rev. J. C. Quille. 

Parade Committee 

Rt. Rev. Thos. Bona, Chairman, Rt. Rev. F. C. Bobal, Rev. S. V. Bona, Rev. 
D. Byrnes, Rev. A. Casey, O. P., Rev. Jos. Casey, Rev. W. Cahill, Rev. M. Cavallo, 
Rev. John Dettmer, Rev. W. Griffin, Rev. F. J. Jedlicka, Rev. J. Green, O. S. A., 
Rev. M. E. Kiley, D. D., Rev. D. P. O'Brien, Rev. J. L. O'Donnell, Rev. Jos. 
Rondzik, Rev. P. J. Scanlan, Rev. T. S. Ligman, C. R., Rev. C. Sztuczko, C. S. C, 
Rev. W. Vukonic, O. F. M., Rev. K. Zakrazsek, O. F. M., Rev. M. Ki'jszas. 

Banquet Committee 

Rev. John F. Ryan, Chairman, Rt. Rev. P. W. Dunne, Rev. M. S. Gilmartin, 
Rt. Rev. F. C. Kelley, LL. D., Rev. J. P. Schiffer, Rev. J. M. Scanlan, LL. D., Rev. 
John Zwierzchowski. 

Area Committee 

Rt. Rev. p. J. McDonnell, Chairman, Rev. E. J. Fox, Rev. J. B. Furay, S. J., 
Rev. V. Blahunka, Rev. B. C. Heeney, Rev. J. G. Kealy, Rev. J. J. O'Hearn, 
Rev. F. G. Ostrowski, Rev. H. M. Wolf. 

Program for Chicago 

The following advance information was given out for the re- 
ception by Chicago: 

Arrangements practically complete in detail were made at a meet- 
ing Monday evening of the committees in charge of the reception of 
His Eminence, Cardinal Mundelein. 



26 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

Both committees, laity and clergy, met together. The reception 
in New York and the demonstration on his arrival in Chicago were 
covered in detail. Mr. D. P. Kelly, chairman of the laity committee 
presided. Monsignor Bona, head of the clergy reception committee 
here, with a number of his co-workers, was also present. 

The first step in the reception is formation of a deputation to go 
to New York to meet His Eminence. For this a special party is 
planned, although of course many will go at other times. It is esti- 
mated that about two hundred priests and laymen will board the 
special train which will leave at 12:40 p. m., standard time, from 
the La Salle street station on Wednesday, May 7. 

Arriving in New York, headquarters will be found at the Vander- 
bilt Hotel. On Friday morning the delegation will embark on a 
boat arranged to take them down the harbor to meet the Steamship 
Berengaria. It is planned that His Eminence and his party will 
tranship, returning to New York with his Chicago friends. On Friday 
evening there will be an informal dinner for His Eminence. 

On Saturday morning the whole party will leave with the Cardinal 
for Chicago, on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. It is planned to 
arrive in Chicago in the early afternoon. Arrangements will be made 
for His Eminence to say Mass en route and for the entire party to 
attend. 

Arriving in Chicago all will leave the train at the south side 
Baltimore & Ohio station. West 63rd Street and Leavitt Street. Here 
automobiles will be in readiness and the delegates to New York will 
act as escort to the Cardinal in a parade. This will proceed by the 
most direct line, probably Western Avenue, to Garfield Boulevard, 
east to Michigan Avenue, then north to about Roosevelt Road where 
a combination will be formed. 

The Parade 

Along the south end of Grant Park and at points adjacent, the 
various societies of Catholic men in the Archdiocese will gather. De- 
velopments on this feature promise the largest, most representative 
body of Catholic men ever in line in Chicago. All societies have 
assured the committee of their hearty co-operation, with rough esti- 
mates of their numbers that at this stage appear to guarantee from 
twenty to thirty thousand men. 

There will be music galore. In all, nineteen bands have been 
arranged to date. There will be a military touch, perhaps, the details 
of which are not yet arranged. Certainly there will be a large 
mounted police escort and a detail of one hundred firemen in uniform. 



WC3 



2. " -^ 



r; 




GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 27 

The whole parade will be under direction of Colonel Marcus Kava- 
nagh, veteran of the Spanish War. Chief of Staff will be Col. Frank 
R. S'chwengel. 

The parade will move north in Michigan Boulevard, on receipt of 
information from the Cardinal's party. Radio devices will keep the 
units in close touch with each other until the amalgamation. The 
marchers will precede the cardinal, his escort from New York falling 
to the rear as a guard of honor. 

Continuing north on Michigan Boulevard and the Lake Shore 
Drive the head of the column will stop at North Avenue, and the 
lines will form on either side. Through them the Cardinal's party- 
will proceed turning west on North Avenue, past his residence. 

On North Dearborn Street, will be massed the high school stu- 
dents of the archdiocese. The Cardinal will return south on that 
street to the Cathedral where the formal ceremonies of return will 
take place. The Rev, D. J. Dunne, D. D., will be master of ceremonies. 

The children of parish schools in the neighborhood adjacent to 
the Cathedral will be gathered here for their welcome to his Eminence 
and the Papal Blessing to be imparted. The ceremonies will close 
with Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. 

At all points along the line, from the point nearest the Baltimore 
& Ohio southside station, along Garfield Boulevard and Michigan 
Avenue, the children of parish schools will be gathered at special 
stations suggested by the committee in charge. Full instructions will 
be forwarded to each school in plenty of time for participation. It 
is planned to have continuous throngs on both sides of the line of 
march, a distance of about twelve miles. 

Other Events 

On Monday evening, May 12, there will be a public reception 
at the Auditorium in which civic tribute will be accorded Chicago's 
Prince of the Church. 

On Tuesday, there will be solemn ceremonies at the Cathedral 
of the Holy Name, followed by a dinner of the clergy, with the 
Cardinal as guest of honor. 

Complete Plans for the Home Coming 
On May 2 the complete plans for the home coming reception of 
the Cardinal as carried out were announced as follows: 

Letter of Rt. Rev. Edward F. Hoban, D. D. 

"His Eminence, Cardinal Mundelein, will arrive in Chicago on May 11 at 
2 P. M., daylight saving time. He will detrain on 55th and Leavitt Streets, 



28 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

the B. & O. railroad tracks. From this point His Eminence will drive on 
55th Street to Michigan Avenue, and on Michigan Avenue to Eoosevelt Road. 
His Eminence will be escorted to North Avenue in parade by 20,000 men from 
our various Catholic organizations. From North Avenue on Dearborn Street 
to the Cathedral His Eminenco will be escorted by delegations from our orphan 
asylums, high schools and colleges. 

"On 55th Street, on Michigan Avenue to Roosevelt Road, then on Michigan 
Avenue from the bridge, Ohio Street, to North Avenue, and finally, on Dearborn 
Street from North Avenue to the Cathedral, the Cardinal is to be welcomed 
home by parish units composed of adults and school children. This arrangement 
has been made by your reception committee in anticipation of the large numbers 
that it would be impossible to accommodate in the loop. 

"•As stated, we wish to organize the laity of a given parish in a unit of 
adults and children who will take places assigned to them along the way of 
drive and stand in review as His Eminence passes. The children will stand 
on the sidewalks near the curb or on the park space on 55th Street in front of 
the adults holding small American flags in their hands. The parish unit should 
be designated by a banner. Further displays and decorations are left to the 
discretion of the pastor. 

"Oar churches and the homes of the faithful throughout the city, particu- 
larly of those who reside on any of the streets where His Eminence will pass, 
should decorate in Papal and American colors. 

"Badges with a picture of the cardinal in his robes may be procured at 
the headquarters of the Holy Name Society, 163 W. Washington Street, tele- 
phone State 5430, They are to be disposed of at 15 cents. 

' ' The committee requests your co-operation, Reverend, dear Father, by 
announcing the above in your church on the two following Sundays, and by 
forming a parish unit and posting it in the location assigned to you on the 
enclosed card. 

"The above arrangements meet with the approval of the Right Reverend 
Administrator. ' ' 

Bearing signature of the Right Rev. Monsignor Thomas P. Bona, chairman, 
and of the Rev. Daniel Byrnes, secretary of the archdiocesan reception com- 
mittee, the above letter goes out today to all pastors of the archdiocese. Full 
and completely the story of the cardinal's homecoming is told. 

Other members of the reception committee are: 

Right Rev. Msgr. M. J. Fitzsimmons, Right Rev. Msgr. F. Bobal, Rev. M. L. 
Kruszas, Rev. J. Casey, Rev. J. Dettmer, Rev. M. Cavallo, Rev. F. Jedlicka, 
Rev. J. Rondzik, Rev. W. Vukonic, Rev. C. Zakrajsek, Rev. C. Sztuczko, C. S. C, 
Rev. W. Griffin, Rev. T. Ligman, C. R., Rev. W. Cahill, Rev. D. O'Brien, Rev. 
F. J. Scanlan, Rev. J. Green, O. S. A., Rev. J. Casey, O. P., Rev. S. Bona, Rev. 
M. E. Kiley, D. D., Rev. J. O'Donnell. 

Colonel Marcus Kavanaugh, Grand Marshal 

General Orders 

Chicago, April 28, 1924. 
Parade Order No. 1: 

1. Organizations participating in the Cardinal Mundelein Parade, Sunday, 
May 11, 1924, will assemble in the streets assigned to them on the accompanying 
blue print, facing toward Michigan Boulevard. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 29 

2. Societies should be instructed to assemble not later than 1:30 p. m., 
Daylight Saving Time. The parade will move into Michigan Avenue promptly 
at 2:30 p. m., in the following order: 

Escort of Mounted Police. 

Escort of Firemen. 

Grand Marshal and His Staff. 

Military escort. 

Holy Name Society. 

Knights of Columbus. 

Catholic Order of Foresters. 

Ancient Order of Hibernians. 

Catholic Knights of America. 

Chicago District Alliance of Bohemian Societies. 

Lithuanian Catholic Federation. 

Polish Alma Mater. 

Slovak Catholic Federation. 

Italian Societies. 

Polish Military Alliance. 

3. The Marshals of each society will subdivide their respective societies 
into battalions of approximately 500 each, with a platoon front of 16 men. 
The distance between marchers in ranks should be 40 inches. The distance 
between battalions should be 15 yards. The most experienced marchers should 
be placed in the front rank, rear rank and on each flank. The battalion com- 
manders and staffs should precede their respective battalions. 

4. Marshals and their staffs should precede their respective societies by 
8 yards. Colors with color guards should march between the center battalions 
of each society. Bands should march between the Marshal of the society and 
the leading unit thereof. 

5. The parade will move north on Michigan Boulevard at 2:45 p. m. 
upon the firing of a signal gun which will be located opposite the Congress 
Hotel. All organizations should move forward promptly when the signal gun is 
fired, so that proper distances may be maintained. 

6. When the head of the parade has reached Chicago Avenue, the column 
will separate into two columns, each with a front of eight men. The left 
column will march obliquely toward the west curb, and the right column will 
march obliquely to the east curb, and continue in that formation until the heads 
of the columns reach North Avenue. 

7. When the heads of the columns have reached North Avenue, they will 
halt and face the center of the road, establishing lines 8 deep. Each succeeding 
unit will close up and conform thereto. An open lane must be maintained 
between the respective lines through which His Eminence will pass from the 
south to review the marchers. 

8. When His Eminence has passed the right of the line at North Avenue, 
the parade will stand dismissed. 

9. All marshals of societies and commanders of battalions and groups, 
will meet in the auditorium of the Quigley Preparatory Seminary, corner of 
Pearson and Rush Streets on Monday evening. May 5, 1924, at 8 p. m. to 
receive detailed instructions relative to their part in the parade. 

By Order of Marcus Kavanaugh, Grand Marshal. 
Frank R. Schwengel, Chief of Staff. 



30 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

Chicago, April 28, 1924. 
Parade Order, No. 2. 
Trafl&c Control. 

1. His Eminence Cardinal Mundelein will arrive on the B. & O. railroad, 
at 55th Street at the B. & O. track at 2 p. m., Daylight Saving Time, Sunday, 
May 11, 1924. He will proceed by auto, via Garfield Boulevard and Michigan 
Boulevard to Roosevelt Road where he will contact with the parade. Traffic 
should be halted along the route beginning at 1:45 p. m. 

2. Organizations will assemble for parade at 1:30 p. m. Daylight Saving 
Time, on streets running west from Michigan Boulevard for a depth of 2 blocks, 
between Roosevelt Road and Washington Street, both inclusive, as per the 
accompanying blue print. 

3. Fully 20,000 marchers are anticipated and in order to permit orderly 
formation all streets running west between Michigan Boulevard and State Street, 
Roosevelt Road and Washington Street should be held free from traffic beginning 
at 1:30 p. m. and until the parade is headed into Michigan Avenue at 2:30 p. m. 

4. Traffic on Michigan Avenue should be stopped at 2:15 p. m. between 
Roosevelt Road and Randolph Street and all traffic should be stopped north of 
Randolph Street to North Avenue at 2:45 p. m. The parade will move north 
at that hour, 

5. Bus line operating on Randolph Street, Garland Court, Washington 
Street, Michigan Avenue and Jackson Boulevard should be rerouted. 

6. Patrolmen should be provided to keep crowds in check, covering the 
entire length of the parade from Roosevelt Road to North Avenue. It is 
anticipated that there will be an especially large crowd at Roosevelt Road, 
the point of assembly and at North Avenue, the point of dismissal. Extra 
policemen should be provided at those points. 

7. When the parade reaches Chicago Avenue and North Michigan Avenue, 
the column will separate into 2 columns of 8 each, each column marching 
closely to the curb. When the head of the column has reached North Avenue 
marchers will form lines and face the center of the road in order to permit 
His Eminence to pass between the two columns. Patrolmen should, therefore, 
be directed to keep the crowd well back on the curb. 

8. The parade will include a number of mounted organizations, and Field 
Artillery with carriages. All roads leading into the parks at North Avenue 
and Michigan Avenue should be left open so as to provide routes for rapid 
dismissal of these organizations. 

9. A division of high school boys estimated at 3,000 will form on the 
baseball field on Lincoln Park near Dearborn Street at 2:30 p. m. and will 
head into Dearborn Street, marching south at 3:30 p. m. As soon as His 
Eminence has reviewed the marchers on Lake Shore Drive, his party will turn 
west in North Avenue (which should be cleared of traffic) and gain contact 
with the rear of the high school parade at Dearborn Street. This column will 
then march south on Dearborn Street to Chicago Avenue and east on Chicago 
Avenue to the Holy Name Cathedral at State street where it will be dismissed. 

By Order of Marcus Kavanaugh, Grand Marshall. 
Fkank R. Schwengel, Chief of Staff. 



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RIGHT REVEREND EDWARD F. HOBAN, D. D. 



Auxiliary Bishoji of Chicago who directed all arrangements for the home- 
coming reception of Cardinal Mundelein. 



george cardinal mundelein 31 

Full List of Those Directive of Various Features of Welcome 

Executive Committees 

D. F. Kelly, K. S. G., Chairman ; F. J. Lewis, Vice-Chairman ; C. A. Bickett, James 
W. Breen, D. F. Bremner, B. G. Brennan, George E. Brennan, Francis X. Busch, 
Charles T. Byrne, James A. Calek, Thomas H. Cannon, W. J. Carney, P. J. Carr, Edward 
F. Carry, H. J. Cassidy, John R. Caverly, M. J. Collins, James G. Condon, Joseph F. 
Connery, Joseph W. Cremin, Jerome J. Crowley, E. A. Cudahy, W. J. Cummings, Anthony 
Czarnecki, Richmond Dean, Thomas F. Delaney, Frank E. Doherty, W. J. Donahue, George 
Donnersberger, M. A. Donohue, Paul Drzymalski, Marshall Field III, P. Flanagan, George 
P. Gilman, Michael F. Girten, Dr. John F. Golden, John P. Harding, John J. Hayes, John 
Higgins, Edward Hines, K. C. S. G., Edward Houlihan, Harry B. Hurd, E. N. Hurley, 
Edmund K. Jarecki, Byron V. Kanaley, James A. Kearns, Thomas F. Keeley, E. J. Kelly, 
James F. Kennedy, E. M. Kerwin, Edward Kirchberg, W. J. Lawlor, Daniel McCann, 
John A. McCormick, John A. McGarry, Eugene J. McVoy, D. A. Merriman, James P. 
MoUoy, Simon J. Morand, John P. V. Murphy, M. W. Murphy, Michael J. Murray, 
P. A. Nash, James C. O'Brien, Martin J. O'Brien, Quin O'Brien, W. L. O'Connell, P. H. 
O'Donnell, John E. O'Hern, John C. O'Neill, Adam Ortseifen, Perry S. Patterson, S. 
Peabody, William H. Powell, W. H. Regnery, P. J. Reynolds, Andrew J. Ryan, George J. 
Sayer, Sherman J. Sexton, Julius F. Smietanka, Robert M. Sweitzer, C. Fred Yegge. 

Aldermanic 

D. A. Horan, A. J. Koran, J. J. Tuohy, E. J. Kaindl, Dorsey Crowe, C. S. Eaton, 
Christ A. Jensen, Donald McKinley, R. R. Jackson, Frank J. Tomczak. 

ArFvANGEMENTS 
Joseph M. Connery, Chairman ; P. J. Carr, Vice-Chairman ; Joseph E. Bidwill, Jr., 
H. J. Cassidy, Thomas F. Delaney, Michael F. Girten, James E. Gorman, John Higgins, 
Joseph J. Kelley, Thomas J. McNulty, Simon J. Morand, James C. O'Brien. 

Automobile 

W. H. Powell, Chairman ; T. F. Keeley, Vice-Chairman ; Ignatius M. Bransfield, James 
W. Breen, R. J. Collins, Wm. M. Collins, W. J. Cummings, John P. Harding, John P. V. 
Murphy, Perry S. Patterson, Stuyvesant Peabody. 

Broadcasting 

P. B. Flanagan, Chairman ; L. A. Ferguson, Vice-Chairman ; W. R. Abbott, M. J. 
Collins, E. F. Kerwin, D. A. Merriman, W. L. O'Connell, L. H. Przybylski, Oswald F. 
Schuette. 

Civic 

Prank E. Doherty, Chairman; Hon. John R. Caverly, Vice-Chairman; E. J. Buckley, 
Morgan A. Collins, James A. Kearns, E. J. Kelly, John R. McCabe, Martin J. O'Brien, 
P. H. O'Donnell, John J. Sloan. 

Music 

D. P. Bremner, Chairman; G. Donnersberger, Vice-Chairman; B. G. Brennan, W. F. 
Juergens, Edward Kirchberg, John S. Konopa, Thomas J. McMahon, Eugene J. McVoy, 
T. A. O'Shaughnessy, W. H. Regnery, Sherman J. Sexton. 

Parade 

Robert M. Sweitzer, Chairman ; Paul Drzymalski, Vice-Chairman ; Thomas Blachowski, 
James A. Calek, I. F. Dankowski, Joseph Jedlicka, B. V. Mastauskas, Daniel McCann, 
John A. McGarry, Jajnes P. Molloy, Adam Pokrizacki, John J. Soska, J. E. Sullivan. 

Publicity 

Anthony Czarnecki, Chairman; C. Fred Yegge, Vice-Chairman; Frank X. Brandecker, 
Homer J. Buckley, W. A. Curley, W. J. Donahue, Roy D. Keehn, W. D. McJunjkin, 
M. W. Murphy, George J. Sayer. 



32 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

Resolutions 

Edward Hines, K. C. S. G., Chairman; James G., Condon, Vice-Chairman ; C. A. 
Bickett, George E. Brennan, W. J. Carney, Richmond Dean, Harry B. Hurd, W. J. 
Lawkr, John A. McCormitk, John J. O'Brien, John E. O'Hern, Adam J. Ortseifen, 
Julius Smietanka. 

Speakers 

F. J. Lewis, Chairman ; Byron V. Kanaley, Vice-Chairman ; Francis X. Busch, Hon. 
E. F. Dunne, E. N. Hurley, Hon, E. K. Jarecki, Quin O'Brien, William H. Sexton, Silas 
H. Strawn, Boetius H. Sullivan. 

Transportation 

E. A. Cudahy, Chairman; Joseph W. Cremin, Vice-Chairman; W. G. Brown, Thomas 
P. Flyun, Claire Hartigan, Frank X. Mudd, Frank J. Seng. 

Military 

Gen. Milton J. Foreman, Chairman; Col J. V. Clinnin, Gen. Abel Davis, Col. J. J. 
Garrity, Col. T. A. Hammond, Col. Daniel Moriarity, Col. Nelson J. Morris, Col. F. R. 
Scliwengel, Col. Albert A. Sprague, Col. Wm. E. Swenson. 

United States Army 

Major Gen. H. C. Hale, Col. F. M. Caldwell, Col. Samuel V. Ham, Col. M. Me- 
Closkey, Major John P. Smith, Capt. Oscar S. Smith, Col. F. G. Stritzinger. 

United States Navy 

Capt. E. A. Evers, Lieut. John J. Carrick, Lieut. Cmdr. James D. Davidson, Ensign 
T. J. Keane, Lieut. John A. Mulholland, Lieut. J. M. Ross, Ensign James UUman. 

Ancient Order of Hibernians 

Michael J. Murray, Chairman ; P. D. Casey, M. W. Delaney, O .S. Harrington, 
John J. ISIahony, M. R. McHale, P. J. Reynolds. 

Catholic Order of Foresters 

Thomas PL Cannon, Chairman; Patrick E. Callaghan, Edmund S. Cunimings, Nicholas 
V. Fischer, Michael £. Maher, Thomas F. McDonald, Dr. J. P. Smyth, John E. Stephan, 
Leo J. Winiedki. 

Holy Name Society 

John J. Hayes, Chairman; O. M. Carry, J. J. Collins, Hon. J. P. McGoorty, Anthony 
Matre, K. S. G., John A. Schmidt. 

Knights of Columbus 

Edward Houlihan, Cliairman ; William N. Brown, Jerome J. Crowley, James Donahoe, 
Harry P. Kenney, George F. Mulligan. 

St. Vincent De Paul Society 

James F. Kennedy, Chairman ; Chas. J. Boyd, James Burke, Patrick J. Cullen, Peter 
Dean, William J. Ford, Fred A. Kelly, Nicholas J. Kluetsch, William J. LeBeau, James 
Plamondon, John P. Ready. 

Reception Committee 

D. F. Kelly, K. S. G., Chairman; W. Rufus Abbott, M. J. Agnew, Louis P. Abraham, 
Francis B. Allegretti, J. Ward Amberg, Bishop C. P. Anderson, E. E. Andrews, J. Ogden 
Armour, Lester Armour, Harry J. Armstrong, Frank Baackes, Harry J. Baby, Gallus 
Bader, Edward H. Bagloy, George Bailey, Willis W. Baird, Albert Baltazore, E. A. 
Bancroft, A. F. Banks, Hon. Bernard Barasa, Charles W. Barrett, John F. Barrett, Edward 
C. Barry, P. T. Barrj% Peter J. Barth, A. Barthelemy, J. H. Bauler, Louis Behan, Frank 
Behring, Dr. Alberto Benevides, Dr. J. Z. Bergeron, Frank H. Bicek, C. A. Bickett, 
J. E. Bidwill, Jr., Jesse Binga, Thomas Blachowski, W. J. Black, P. D. Block, Thomas 
F. Boland, Charles J. Boyd, William J. Boyd, E. J. Brach, T. J. Carl, John J. Carlin, 
W. J. Carney, Col. Benj. Carpenter, P. J. Carr, Lieut. John A. Carrick, F. M. Carroll, 
E. F. Carry, O. M. Carry, P. D. Casey, H. J. Cassady, R. A. Cavenaugh, Hon. John R. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 33 

Caverly, A. J. Cermak, James H. Channon, James M. Clearey, Allan M. Clement, Col. 
J. V. Cllnnin, J. J. Collins, Morgan A. Collins, M. J. Collins, Richard J. Collins, William 
M. Collins, Charles A. Comiskey, James G. Condon, Thomas J. Condon, John T. Connery, 
Joseph F. Connery, Charles L. Conroy, James J. Conroy, Jolin J. Conroy, William J. 
Corbett, Theodore E. Cornell, Dr. A. L. Cornet, J. J. Coughlin, J. L. Coyne, C. G. Craine, 
Joseph W. Cremin, Dorsey Crowe, Robert E. Crowe, Jerome J. Crowley, Dr. J. J. Gcarin, 
George F. Getz, Geo. A. Gillmeisfer, George P. Gilman, Fred A. Gilson, M. P. Girten, 
E. J. Glackin, John M. Glenn, Charles F. Glore, Dr. John F. Golden, Perley M. Good- 
willie, B. A. Gordon, James E. Gorman, Dr. T. F. Gorman, J. Parker Gowing, Dr. John 
A. Graham, Thomas E. Graham, A. V. Griffin, J. P. Griffin, Stephen D. Griffin, John 
Gunderberg, Leroy Hackett, E. A. Cudahy, E. A. Cudahy, Jr., E. I. Cudahy, Joseph M. 
Cudaliy, Patrick J. Cullen, Edmund S. Cummins, Leo P. Cummin gs, Wm. C. Cummings, 
W. J. Cummings, Lawrence Cuneo, W. A. Curley, J. F. L. Curtis, Anthony Czarnecki, 
G. Dall'Agnol, Ignatius F. Dankows^ci, Lieut. Com. James D. Davidson, Gen. Abel Davis, 
Zarchary T. Davis, Gen. Chas. G. Dawes, Rufus C. Dawes, Peter Dean, Riclmione Dean, 
Thomas F. Delaney, M. W. Delaney, Hon. C. S. Deneen, Thomas C. Dennehy, John F. 
Denvir, Francis Derdzinski, Hon. Wm. E. Dover, Peter Diedrick, John W. Dienhart, 
Dr. G. W. Dittmar, George W. Dixon, William W. Dixon, Frank E. Doherty, John Dolney, 
James Donahoe, W. J. Donahue, M. A. Donahue, Dr. Stephen E. Donlan, Geo. Donners- 
berger, John Dooling, Hon. Thomas A. Doyle, William A. Doyle, Max A. Drezmal, Paul 
Drzymalski, Homer S. Dum, C. P. Dungan, Hon. E. P. Dunne, Robert J. Dunham, Edgar 
O. Eakin, John C. Eastman, Marquis Eaton, C. S. Eaton, Col. B. A. Eckhart, Louis 
Eckstein, Dennis J. Egan, Capt. E. A. Evers, U. S. N. R. F., Joseph R. Fahy, Bernard 
J. Fallon, Charles J. Farley, L. A. Ferguson, H. L. Fembach, Capt. Marshall Field III, 
Nicholas V. Fischer, Charles C. Fitzmorris, P. B. Flanagan, Thomas P. Flynn, Thomas 
W. Flynn, Peter J. Foote, William J. Ford, Gen. M. J. Foreman, James B. Forgan, 
John L. Fortune, William J. Fortune, Daniel V. Gallery, Manuel S. Galvarro, Col. J. J. 
Garrity, Dr. A. C. Garvy, Herman J. Gaul, George V. Mclntyre, William D. McJunkin, 
Dr. Hugh McKenna, Ivan McKenna, Philip J. McKenna, Donald McKinley, Thomas J. 
McMahon, Thomas J. McNulty, James C. McShane, Eugene J. McVoy, D. A. Merriman, 
Chas. M. Moderwell, James P. Molloy, Dr. E. L. Moorhead, Dr. Louis D. Moorhead, 
Simon J. Morand, Col. Daniel Moriarity, Col. Nelson J. Morris, Frank X. Mudd, Lieut. J. 
A. MuUholland, Bernard J. Mullaney, Frank G. Hajicejv, Major Gen. H. C. Hale, Col. 
Samuel V. Ham, Col. T. A. Hammond, John P. Harding, D. V. Harkin, D. S. Har- 
rington, Henry G. Hart, Clare Hartigan, John J. Hayes, William Hayes, Thomas J. 
Healy, Herman H. Hettler, John Higgins, Thomas Hinde, Edward Hines, K. C. S. G., 
Heni-y F. Hoban, A. P. Hogan, Thomas P. Holgate, LL. D., D. A. Horan, A. J. Horan, 
A. J. Horn, Hon. Henry Horner, Edward Houlihan, Harry B. Hurd, E. N. Hurley, M. S. 
Hyland, James T. Igoe, Michael L. Igoe, Samuel Insull, R. R. Jackson, Hon. E. K. 
Jarecki, James Jedlicka, John P. Jelke, Christ A. Jensen, Hon. Norman Jones, P. H. Joyce, 
Dr. Harry P. Judson, William F. Juergens, E. J. Kaindl, Byron V. Kanaley, M. V. 
Kannally, Hon. Marcus Kavanaugh, Eugene P. Kealy, Ensign T. J. Keano, James A. 
Kearns, Dr. J. E. Keefe, Roy D. Keehn, Joseph P. Kelley, Thomas P. Keeley, Chauncey 
Keep, Joseph J. Kelley, D. P. Kelly, K. S. G., E. J. Kelly, Fred A. Kelly, Michael Kenna, 
James P. Kennedy, Harry P. Kenney, E. M. Kerwin, John Kesner, Francis P. Brad>', 
Frank X. Brandecker, Ignatius M. Bransfield, James W. Breen, D. P. Bremner, James R. 
Bremner, B. G. Brennan, John Brennan, George E. Brennan, Patrick Brennan, John B. 
Brenza, Michael Brisch, Hon. Fred A. Britten, Frank Broduicki, Edward O. Brooks, 
W. G. Brown, William N. Brown, Bernard Brozowski, Geo. T. Buckingham, Edward J. 
Buckley, George D. Buckley, Homer J. Biickley, Carl Bueliler, Dr. Wm. E. Buehler, 
E. J. Buffington, Peter I. Bukowski, Dr. H. N. Bundenscn, Dr. A. W. Burke, James 
Burke, Hon. Joseph Buiike, Clarence A. Burley, Frank J. Burns, Francis X. Busch, 
Col. H. M. Byllesby, Charles T. Byrne, Thomas Byrne, Francisco P. Caballero, Dr. C. P. 
Caldwell, Col. P. M. Caldwell, James A. Calek, Patrick E. Callaghan, Thomas H. Cannon, 
Michael E. Maher, Joseph P. Mahoney, Edward R. Mahoney, John J. Mahony, John E. 
Maloney, George P. Mulligan, John P. V. Murphy, M. W. Murphy, Michael J. Murray, 
Joseph Nash, Patrick A. Nash, E. Antonio Navarro, N. J. Nelson, Norman R. New, 
Philip C. Niles, Joseph R. Noel, Arthur P. O'Brien, James C. O'Brien, John J. O'Brien, 
Martin J. O'Brien, Quin O'Brien, Richard M. O'Brien, Edward O'Callaghan, Dr. Albert 
J. Ochsner, W. L. O'Connell, John O'Connor, Hon. J. M. O'Connor, P. H. O'Donnell, 
Hon. John G. Oglesby, John E. O'Hern, Thomas J. O'Malley, W. A. O'Malley, Dr. A. A. 
O'Neill, Dr. Daniel A. Orth, Adam J. Ortseifen, W. Irving Osborne, T. A. O'Shaughnessy, 



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34 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

Joseph E. Otis, Frank M. Padden, F. J. Palecek, James A. Patten, L. B. Patterson, 
Perry S. Patterson, Stuyvesant Peabody, John A. Pelka, Frank Peska, V. L. Peterek, 
Dr. S. R. Pietrowicz, Maurice Pincoffs, Louis A. Pinderski, John T. Pirie, A. D. Plamon- 
don, James Plamondon, Adam Poikrizacki, John C. Popovici, Victor Porazinski, Dr. B. 
Pouritch, William H. Powell, Harry J. Powers, John Prendergast, John Prystalski, L. H. 
Przybylski, Max Przyborski, J. D. Purcell, John H. Quadland, D. B. Quinlan, Edward 
A. Quinn, Matthew Rauen, F. H. Rawson, Edw. H. Raymond, John P. Ready, John F. 
Reed, W. H. Regnery, William H. Rehm, Christopher J. Reilly, George A. Rempe, Nicholas 
J. Reuland, Arthur Reynolds, George M. Reynolds, J. K. Reynolds, P. J. Reynolds, 
Herbert A. Richards, G. A. Richardson, Thomas E. Rooney, Julius Rosenwald, Lieut. 
James M. Ross, Rossiter, Martin J. Rouse, Dr. Joseph H. Roy, John S. Rusch, Joseph 
Rushkewicz, James C. Russell, Dr. Joseph L. Russell, Andrew J. Ryan, Edward P. Ryan, 
Dr. Lawrence Ryan, M. Frank Ryan, W. M. Ryan, John S. Rybicki, Hon. Joseph 
Sabath, Dr. W. C. Sanford, George J. Sayer, Hon. Kickham Scanlan, J. S. Schefbeck, 
Dr. Victor R. Schiller, Dr. H. J. G. Schmidt, John A. Schmidt, Oswald F. Schuette, 
Col. F. R. Schwengel, George E. Scott, John W. Scott, Dr. Walter Dill Scott, J. H. Selz, 
Frank J. Seng, Sherman J. Sexton, Joseph Mangan, J. P. Mann, Dr. Louis L. Mann, 
Arthur Manning, Clayton Mark, J. L. Martin, B. V. Mastauskas, Anthony Matre, K. S. G., 
Henry W. Mawicke, Oscar F. Mayer, John R. McCabe, Daniel McCann, Joseph W. Mc- 
Carthy, Justin F. McCarthy, Col. Manns McCloskey, John A. McCormick, Charles A. 
McCullough, Charles A. McDonald, Thomas F. McDonald, J. C. McDonnell, James B. 
McDougall, Frank McGarr, John A. McGarry, Hon. J. P. McGoorty, Dr. J. J. McGrory, 
Dr. James J. McGuinn, Fred V. McGuire, Thomas McGuire, Dr. W. G. McGuire, M. R. 
McHale, Silas H. Strawn, Boetius H. Sullivan, Chas. H. Sullivan, Hon. Dennis E. 
Sullivan, Frank C. Sullivan, J. L. Sullivan, Dr. T. J. Sullivan, Bernard E. Sunny, Col. 
Wm. E. Swanson, Dr. John Killeen, J. Edward Kinsella, William P. Kinsella, Edward 
Kirchberg, Julius R. Kline, Nicholas J. Kluetsch, C. W. Knoepfel, John S. Konopa, James 
F. Kovarek, Col. Chas. J. Kraft, Peter P. Kransz, Paul Krez, Philip T. Lambert, M. J. 
Lanahan, Joseph A. Lasecki, John Laveccha, John J. Lawler, W. J. Lawlor, Victor F. 
Lawson, Thomas J. Leahy, William J. Leahy, George C. LeBeau, William J. LeBeau, 
R. Carlos Lebret, E. J. Lehmann, O. W. Lehmann, Robert R. Levy, David R. Lewis, 
W. H. Lewis, F. J. Lewis, F. R. Litzinger, W. G. Lloyd, Dr. Arthur Loewy, Dr. M. E. 
Lorenz, Hon. P. O. Lowden, P. J. Lucey, William J. Lyman, Hon. T. J. Lynch, 
William H. Sexton, David E. Shanahan, James B. Shell, James Simpson, William J. 
Sinek, Edwin Skinner, .John J. Sloan, Hon. Len Small, Julius F. Smietanka, Joseph C. 
Smith, Major John P. Smith, Oscar Smith, John M. Smyth, Dr. J. P. Smyth, Fred B. 
Suite, B. W. Snow, Marshall Solberg, John Soska, John A. Spoor, Col. Albert A. Sprague, 
W. J. Stanton, Dr. R. O. Steinbach, John E. Stephan, Dr. H. E. Stephen, Charles A. 
Stevens, Robert W. Stewart, George J. Stoeker, Rabbi Joseph Stolz, John Strake, Col. 
F. G. Stritzinger, H. L. Stuart, Albert Madlener, C. S. Maginnis, T. J. Magner, Fred V. 
Maguire, Thomas Maguire, Edward Sweeney, Robert M. Sweitzer, Julius F. Szatkowski, 
Theo. J. Szrnergalski, M. S. Szmczak, Joseph J. Thompson, Hon. William Hale Thompson, Dr. 
Richard J. Tivnen, Frank J. Tomczak, Charles J. Trainor, Melvin A. Traylor, J. J. Tuohy, 
Ensign Jas. Ullmann, Frederick W. Upham, August G. Urbanski, John Vennema, Dr. Cyrillo 
Vermeren, Dr. Italo P. Volini, Imdwig Von Klinwachter, Charles J. Vopicka, Charles 
H. Wacker, Herman Waldeck, John H. Wall, Willoughby Walling, James Ward, James D. 
Watts, Thomas J. Webb, William H. Wesbey, R. E. Wcstbrooks, Emmett Whealan, F. 
Edson White, Thomas E. W'ilson, Walter H. Wilson, Leo J. Winiecki, Ward Wire, Dr. 
P. C. Wolcott, A. N. Woods, William Wrigley, Jr., C. Fred Yegge, Povilas Zadeikis, Joseph 
Ziemba, Michael Zimmer. 

Meeting Place of Parish Units 

The parish units of which the parade was composed rendezvoued 
as follows : 

Annunciation B. V. M., on Dearborn Street, between Schiller and Carl. 
Assumption B. V. M., on Dearborn Street, between Chicago and Chestnut. 
All Saints, on Michigan Avenue, between 19th and 18th Streets. 
Assumption of the B. V. M. (Slovak), on Michigan Avenue, near 27th Street. 
St. Agatha, on Michigan Avenue, between 15th and 14th Streets. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 35 

St. Andrew on Dearborn Street, between Scliiller and Carl. 
St. Angela, on Dearborn Street, between Division and Gotlie. 
St. Agne.s, on 55th Street, between Hamilton and Hoyne. 
St. Alphon.siis, on Michigan Avenue, between Ontario and Erie. 
St. Anthony (German), on Michigan Avenue, between 20th and 19th. 
St. Ann (Polish), on Michigan Avenue, between 22nd and 21st Street. 
St. Adalbert, on MicJiigan Avenue, between 15th and 14th Streets. 
St. Agnes (Bohemian), on Michigan Avenue, between 16th and 15th. 
St. Anselm, on Michigan, between 52nd and 51st Streets. 
St. Ambrose, on Michigan Avenue, between 53rd and 52nd. 

St. Anne, on 55th, between Wells, Wentworth, La Salle and Federal Streets. 
St. Augustine (German), on 55th Street, between Wallace and Parnell. 
St. Aloysius, on Lake Shore Drive, between Schiller and Barton. 
Blessed Sacrament, on Michigan Avenue, between 40th and 39th Streets. 
St. Barbara, on Michigan Avenue, between 16th and 15th. 
St. Bonaventure, on Michigan Avenue, between Ohio and Ontario. 
St. Boniface, on Lake Shore drive, between Division and Scott. 
St. Benedict, on Lake Shore Drive, between Burton and North Avenue. 
St. Bride, on Michigan Avenue, between 37th and 36th. 
St. Bridget, on Michigan Avenue, between 31st and 30th. 
St. Basil, on 55th Street, between Honors and MarsMeld. 
St. Brendan, on 55th Street, between Racine, May and Aberdeen. 
St. Bernard, on 55th Street, between Federal, Dearborn and State Streets. 
Holy Name Cathedral, from the Cathedral on State and on Chicago Avenue to Dearborn 
Street on both sides of the Street, if possible. 

Holy Cross (Lithuanian), on 55th Street, between Looniis and Ada Streets. 

Holy Cross (English), on 55th Street, between State and Wabash. 

St. Carthage, on Michigan Avenue, btween 36th and 35th Streets. 

St. Catherina of Genoa, on Michigan Avenue, between 30th and 29th Streets. 

St. Casimir, on Michigan Avenue, between 30th and 29th. 

St. Columbkill, on Michigan Avenue, between Ohio and Ontario. 

St. Clement, on Dearborn Street, between Elm and Division. 

St. Clare of Mont., on 55th Street, between Marshfield and Ashland. 

St. Cecelia, on 55th Street, between Emerald and Union. 

Corpus Christi, on 55th Street, between Wabash and Michigan. 

St. Clara, on Michigan Avenue, between 54th and 53rd. 

St. Cyril, on Michigan Avenue, between 54th and 53rd. 

SS. CjTil and Methodius, on Michigan Avenue, between 46th and 45th. 

St. Columbanus, on Michigan Avenue, between 45th, 44th and 43rd. 

St. Charles Borromeo, on Michigan Avenue, between 17th and 16th. 

St. David, on 55fh Street, between Stewart and Shields. 

St. Dominic, on Dearborn Street, between Chicago Avenue and Chestnut. 

St. Dorothy, on Michigan Avenue, between 36th and 35th Streets. 

Epiphany, on Michigan, betv.'ecn 22nd and 21st Streets. 

St. Elizabeth, on Michigan Avenue, between 49th and 48th. 

St. Elizabeth (Colored), on Michigan Avenue, between 4Sth and 47th. 

St. Edv;^ard, on Lake Shore Drive, betv/een Elm and Division. 

St. Felicitas, on Michigan Avenue, between 35th and 34th Streets. 

St. Francis de Paula, on Michigan Avenue, betv/een 34th and 33rd Streets. 

SU Francis (German), on Michigan Avenue, betv/een 20ih and 19th. 

St. Finbarr, on Michigan Avenue, between 19th and 18th Streets. 

Five Holy Martyrs, on 55th Street, between Asliland and Justine. 

Good Shepherd, on Michigan Avenue, between 23rd and 22nd Streets. 

St. Gall, on 55th Street, between Robey and Lincoln. 

St. George (Lithuanian), on Michigan Avenue, between 51st and 50th. 

St. Gabriel, on Michigan Avenue, between 48th and 47th. 

St. Genevieve, on Michigan Avenue, between Ohio and Ontario. 

St. Gregory, on Michigan Avenue, between Pearson and Chestnut. 

St. Gertrude, on Michigan Avenue, between Chestnut and Delaware. 

St. George (German), on Michigan Avenue, between 39th and 38th Street. 

Holy Trinity, on Lake Shore Drive, between Elm and Division. 

Holy Innocents, on Lake Shore Drive, between Division and Scott. 



36 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

Holy Rosary, on Lake Shore Drive, between Banks and Schiller. 
Holy Angel, on Michigan Avenue, between 39th and 38th, 37th Streets. 
Holy Rosary, on Michigan Avenue, betv/een 33rd and 32nd Streets. 
Holy Family, on Michigan Avenue, between 18th and 17th Streets. 
Holy Trinity (Croatian), on Michigan Avenue, between 17th and 16th Streets. 
St. Hedwig, on Michigan Avenue, between Erie and Huron. 
St. Helen, on Michigan Avenue, between Erie and Huron. 

St. Henry, on Lake Shore Drive (Michigan Avenue), between Oak and Bellevue. 
St. Hyacinth, on Lake Shore Drive, between Cedar and Elm. 
Immaculate Heart, on Michigan Avenue, between Pearson and Chestnut. 
Immaculate Conception (Polish), on Michigan Avenue, between 37th and 36th 
Streets. 

Immaculate Conception on Dearborn Street, between Carl and North. 

Immaculate Conception (German), on 55th between Princeton and Wells. 

St. Ita, on Michigan Avenue, Chicago and Pearson. 

St. Ignatius, on Michigan Avenue, between Delaware and Walton. 

St. James (Polish), on Michigan Avenue, between Ontario and Erie. 

St. John Cantius, on Lake Shore Drive, between Bellevue and Cedar. 

St. James, on Michigan Avenue, between 29th and 28th Street. 

St. Jerome (Croatian), on Michigan Avenue, between 26th and 25th Streets. 

St. Joseph (Slovak), on Michigan Avenue, between 21st and 20th Streets. 

St. Jarlath, on Michigan Avenue, between Huron and Superior. 

St. John, on Michigan Avenue, between 17th and 16th. 

St. Jerome, on Michigan Avenue, between Walton and Oak. 

St. Josaphat, on Dearborn Street, between Maple and Elm. 

St. Joseph (German), on Dearborn Street, between Chestnut and Delaware. 

St. Joseph (French), 55th Street, Hamilton and Hoyne. 

St. John Berchman, on Dearborn Street, between Schiller and Carl. 

St. Justin, on 55th Street, between Ashland and Justine. 

St. John Baptist, on 55th Street, between Bishop and Loomis. 

St. Joseph (Polish), on 55th Street, between Union and Lowe. 

St. Joachim, on Michigan Avenue, between 43rd and 42nd Streets. 

St. Lucy, on Michigan Avenue, between Ohio and Ontario. 

St. Lawrence, on Michigan Avenue, between 40th and 39th Streets. 

St. Ludmilla, on Michigan Avenue, between 28th and 27th. 

St. Leo, on 55th Street, between Carpenter and Morgan. 

St. Monica, on Michigan Avenue, between 47th and 46th Streets. 

St. Michael (Polish), on Michigan Avenue, between 49th and 48th Streets. 

St. Margaret, on Michigan Avenue, between 53rd and 52nd Streets. 

St. Martin (German), on 55th Street, between Shields and Princeton. 

St. Michael Arch,, (Slovak), on 55th Street, between Parnell and Normal. 

St. Mauritius, on 55th Street, between Lincoln and Honore. 

St. Michael (German), on Dearborn Street, between Goethe and Schiller. 

St. Mary of the Lake, on Michigan Avenue, between Erie and Huron. 

St. Mel, on Michigan Avenue, between Chicago Avenue and Pearson. 

St. Malachy, on Michigan Avenue, between Chestnut and Delaware. 

St. Mary Magdalene, on Michigan Avenue, betv,-een 32 and 31st Streets. 

St. Mary, on Michigan Avenue, between 24th and 23rd Streets. 

St. Margaret Mary, on Michigan Avenue, between Delaware and Walton. 

St. Mark, on Lake Shore Drive, between Banks and Schiller. 

Our Lady of Grace, on Lake Shore Drive, between Bellevue and Cedar. 

St. Pancratius, on 55th Street between Laflin and Bishop Streets. 

St. Pius, on 55th Street, between Laflin and Bishop Streets. 

St. Patrick's (So. CHiicago), on Michigan Avenue, between 43rd and 62nd Streets. 

St. Philip Neri, on Michigan Avenue, between 42nd and 41st Streets. 

SS. Peter and Paul, on Micliigan Avenue, between 42nd and 41st Streets. 

St. Peter, on Michigan Avenue, between 15th and 14th Streets. 

Queen of Angels, on Lake Shore Drive, between Burton and North Avenue. 

St. Rita, on 55th Streets, between Leavitt and Hamilton. 

Resiirrection, on Dearborn Street, betv.-een Elm and Division. 

St. Rose of Lima, on 55th Street, between Ada and Throop Streets. 

St. Raphael, on Michigan Avenue, between 50th and 49th Streets. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 37 

Sacred Heart (Polish), on 55th Street, on Lowe and Wallace. 

Sacred Heart (Slovish), on Dearborn Street, between Delaware and Walton. 

Santa Maria Incoronata, on Michigan Avenue, between 21st and 20th. 

Sacred Heart, on Slichigan Avenue, between 18th and 17 Street. 

Sacred Heart (German), on Michigan Avenue, between 41st and 40th. 

Santa Maria Adolorata, and Michigan Avenue, between Chestnut and Delaware. 

St. Stanislaus K., on Lake Shore Drive, between Scott and Union and Goethe. 

St. Stephen, o"n Lake Shore Drive, between Gothe and Banks. 

St. Sylvester, on Lake Shore Drive, between Burton and North Avenue. 

St. Stanislaus, B. V. M., on Dearborn, between Chestnut and Delaware. 

St. Stephen (Slovish), on Michigan Avenue, between 29th and 28th Streets. 

St. Sebastian, on Dearborn Street, between Division and Goethe. 

St. Sabina, on 55th Street, between Aberdeen and Carpenter. 

St. Thomas of Cant., on Michigan Avenue, between Huron and Superior. 

St. Theresa, on Dearborn Street between Delaware and Walton. 
■ St. Thomas Aquinas, on Dearborn Street, between Division and Goethe. 

Our Lady of the Angels, on Lake Shore Drive, between Cedar and Elm. 

Our Lady of Mercy, on Michigan Avenue, between Ohio and Ontario. 

Our Lady of Victory, on Micliigan Avenue, between Delaware and Walton. 

Our Lady of Lourdes, on Superior and Chicago. 

Our Lady of the Angels (Polish), on Lalke Shore Drive, between Cedar and Elm. 

Our Lady Help of Christians, on Lake Shore Drive, between Goethe and Banks. 

Our Lady of Good Counsel (Bohemian), on Lake Shore Drive between Schiller and 
Burton. 

Our Lady of Sorrows, on Michigan Avenue, between 35th and 34th Streets. 

Our Lady of Lourdes (Bohemian), on Michigan Avenue, between 24th and 23rd 
Streets. 

Our Lady of Pompeii (Italian), on Michigan Avenue, between 18th and 17th Streets. 

Our Lady of Peace, on Michigan Avenue, between 41st and 40th. 

Our Lady of Good Counsel, on 55th Street, between Seeley and Robey. 

Our Lady of Solace, on 55th Street, between Morgan and Sangamon. 

Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, on Dearborn Street, between Goethe and Schiller. 

Precious Blood, on 55th Street, between Robey and Lincooln. 

Presentation, B. V. M., on Michigan Avenue, between 32nd and 31st Streets. 

Providence of God, on Michigan Avenue, between 28th and 27th Streets. 

St. Procopius, on Michigan x\venue, between 26lh and 25th Streets. 

St. Paul (German), on Michigan Avenue, between 25th and 24th Streets. 

St. Paschal, on Dearborn Street, between Walton and Oak. 

St. Philomena, on Dearborn Street, between Maple and Elm. 

St. Peter and Paul, on 55th Street, between Justine and Laflin Street. 

St. Theodore, on 55th Street, between Throop and Racine Avesue. 

Visitation, on 55th Street, between Peoria, Green, Halsted and Emerald. - 

St. Viator, on Michig:an Avenue, between Superior and Chicago. 

St. Vinceslaus (Polish), on Dearborn Street, between Chicago and Chestnut. 

St. Vincent de Paul, on Dearborn Street, betv/een Oak and Maple. 

St. Venceslaus, on Michigan Avenue, between 30th and 29th Streets. 

St. Veronica, on Dearborn Street, between Carl and North. 

Maternity, B. V. M., on Lake Shore Drive, between Oak and Bcllevue. 

St. Nicholas of Tolentine, on 55th Street, between Hoyne and Seeley. 

Nativity, on 55th Street, between Sangamon and Peoria. 

Notre Dame de Chicago, on Michigan Avenue, between 15th and 14th Streets. 

St. William, on Dearborn Street, between Oak and Maple. 

St. Killian, on Michigan Avenue, between 55th and 54th Streets. 

The following parishes will stand on streets most convenient : St. Matthew, Trans- 
figuration, St. Vitus, St. Patrick, Adams Street, St. Matthias, St. Catherine of Sienna, 
St. Mary of Mt. Carmel (Italian), Our Lady of Hungary, Our Lady of Vilna (Lithuanian), 
Our Lady of Guadalupe, SS. Peter and Paul (Lithuanian), St. Willebrod, St. Thecla, St. 
Nicholas, St. Salomea, Sacred Heart (Croatian), Sacred Heart, Morgan Park, St. Michael 
(Lithuanian), St. Michael, Archangel (Italian), St. Mary, Kensington, St. Louis, St. 
Ladislaus, St. Kevin, St. Joseph (Lithuanian), St. John the Baptist (Syrian), St. 
John of God, St. John Nepomucene, Immaculate Conception, Nina Avenue, Immaculate 



38 ELEVATION AND IN\T!:STITURE 

Conception (Lithuanian), Holy Guardian Angel (Italian), Holy Trinity (German), Holy 
Ghost, Holy Rosary (Slovak), St. George (Slovenian), St. Francis Xavier, St. Francis 
de Sales, St. Ephrem, St. Francis of Assisium, St. Florian, St. Ailbe, St. Anthony, As- 
sumption of the B. V. M. (Polish), St. Bartholomew, St. Columba, St. Camillus, San 
Callisto, St. Constantia, SS. Cyril and Methodius (Slovak). 

Hospital Units 

The following hospitals are invited to take places most convenient 
to them along the the line : 

Alexian Brothers Hospital, St. Anne's Hospital, Hospital of St. Anthony of Padua, 
St. Bernard's Hotel Dieu Hospital, Columbus Hospital, Columbus Extension Hospital, 
Misericordia Hospital and Maternity Home, St. Elizabeths' Hospital, St. Joseph's Hos- 
pital, St. Mary of Nazareth Hospital, Mercy Hospital, Municipal Isolation Hospital. 

These hospitals are in the city, hence it should not be difficult for any of them to 
have a delegation of nurses and internes not on duty on 5Gth Street, Michigan Avenue, 
between 55th Street and Roosevelt Road, on Michigan Avenue, between Ohio Street and 
North Avenue, or finally on Dearborn Street between North Avenue and Chicago Avenue. 

Executing the Plans 

The clergy committee of welcome to the Cardinal on his arrival 
in New York left here on Tuesday morning, May 9. One hundred 
and four priests were in the party. They will combine forces with a 
similar party of Chicago laity and on a chartered steamer will go 
out into New York harbor to meet the incoming liner, Berengaria. 

His Eminence will tranship to the welcoming party's vessel, re- 
turning with them to New York. 

On arrival a procession in honor of the Cardinal, a native New 
Yorker, will be formed, en route to the Vanderbilt Hotel, headquarters 
for the trip. Tonight a banquet for the party will be given. On 
Saturday, the Cardinal and his guard of honor will entrain for Chi- 
cago arriving here on Sunday, at 2 p. m. 

Those forming the clergy party included: The Et. Rev. E. F. 
Hoban, D. D., administrator; the Rt. Rev. Jas. A. Griffin; the Rt. 
Rev. M. J. FitzSimmons, the Rt. Rev. E. A. Kelly, the Rt. Rev. 
F. C. Kelley, the Rt. Rev. F. A. Rempe, the Rt. Rev. F. Bobal ; the 
Rt. Rev. T. P. Bona ; the Rt. Rev. F. A. Purcell ; the Rt. Rev. P. J. 
McDonnell ; the Rt. Rev. Wm. Foley ; the Rt. Rev. Abbott Valentine 
Kohlbeck, 0. S. B. ; the Rt. Rev, S. R. Roumie ; the Rev. Dennis J. 
Dunne, D. D. ; the Rev. John B. Furay, S. J. ; Rev. William H. Agnew, 
S. J.; Rev. Thomas F. Levan, CM.; Rev. H. J. O'Connor, CM.; 
Rev. Edwin Roman, C P. ; Rev. Fabian Kelly, C P. ; Rev. Moses 
Kiley, D. D. ; Rev. Francis Gordon, C R. ; Rev. Thaddeus Ligman, 
C R. ; Rev. Casimir Gronkowski ; Rev. John Linden ; Rev. James 
Scanlan; Rev. John Ryan; Rev. T. M. Burke; Rev. Thomas Egan; 
Rev. Hilary J. Doswald, 0. C C ; Rev. Joseph Casey ; Rev. Stanislaus 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 39 

Bona,V D. D. ; Rev. Hilary Kieserling, 0. F. M. ; Rev. Nicholas L. 
Franzen, C. SS. R. ; Rev. Thomas Kearns ; Rev. John McCarthy ; Rev. 
P. T. Gelinas ; Rev. Thomas F. Quinn ; Rev. Francis J. Magner ; Rev. 
Sidney Morrison; Rev. William Kinsella; Rev. Edward Rice; Rev. 
J. K. Fielding; Rev. Thomas Small; Rev. Edward I. Dondanville; 
Rev. J, A. Hynes; Rev. John M. Bowen; Rev. Harris A. Darche; 
Rev. M. A. Dorney ; Rev. George Eisenbacher ; Rev. A. Croke, 0. S. 
M. ; Rev. F. J. Rice ; Rev. Philip Bourke ; Rev. Francis Cichozki ; 
Rev. Charles Epstein ; Rev. A. L. Girard ; Rev. Victor Primeau ; Rev. 
T. O'Shea; Rev. William Griffin; Rev. P. F. Shewbridge; Rev. T. R. 
Shewbridge; Rev. J. H. Kruszka; Rev. M. Kruszas; Rev. Stephen 
Rubacz; Rev. Francis Rusch; Rev. Francis G. Ostrowski; Rev. D. J. 
Touhy; Rev. Daniel Byrnes; Rev. N. Klasen; Rev. M. 'Sullivan; 
Rev. L. Schlim; Rev. F. Gaudet; Rev. C. J. Quille; Rev. J. Wright; 
Rev. William Egan, 0. S. A. ; Rev P. J. Hennessy ; Rev. Edward 
Dankowski; Rev. William Dettmer; Rev. Frank O'Brien; Rev. Wil- 
liam O'Brien; Rev. William Quinlisk; Rev. B. Brady; Rev. J. Ditt- 
mer; Rev. William H. Dettmer; Rev. J. Morrisey; Rev. Peter T 
Janser, S. V. D. ; Rev. Stephen Kowalczyk ; Rev. 0. Strehl ; Rev, 
J. C. Gillan; Rev. J. J. O'Hearn; Rev. W. J. Suprenant, C. S. V. 
Rev. J. J. Gearty; Rev. E. J. Fox; Rev. Albert Casey, 0. P. ; Rev 
J. J. Kearns; Rev. William F. Caliill; Rev. K. D. Cahill, 0. C. C. 
Rev. John P. Campbell; Rev. M. S. Gilmartin; Rev. M. J. Heeney 
Rev. Thomas Burke; Rev. Jos. McMahon; Rev. J. M. Schutte; Rev 
John Kozlowski; Rev. Francis Grzes; Rev. T. Czastka; Brother 
Baldwin and Brother Lawrence of the Christian Brothers. 

Laymen Go to Meet Cardinal 

One hundred and thirty persons left in a delegation for New 
York on Wednesday to greet His Eminence, Cardinal Mundelein. 
The party left by special train. 

The following are the members of the citizens' committee who 
left for New York to greet the new Cardinal: 

Bernard P. Barasa, D. F. Bremner, Patrick Brennan, George Bren- 
nan, Thomas V. Brennan, James Byrnes, Charles V. Barrett, P. J. 
Carr, John J. Collins, Theodore M. Cornell, Jerome J. Crowley, 
Zachary T. Davis, George Donnersberger and Thomas P. Flynn. 

Arthur Foster, Herman J. Gaul, John Gunterberg, John P. 
Harding, J. G. Herrick, A. P. Hogan, Michael L. Igoe, D. F. Kelly, 
K. S. G., Dr. John J. Killeen, Peter F. Kranz, George M. Maypole, 
Fred V. McGuire, Arthur R. Manning, John R. McCabe, Frank 
McCarr, Peter A. McNally, George F. Mulligan and N. J. Nelson. 



40 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

Daniel McCann, John P. McGoorty, Simon J. Morand, J. P. V. 
Murphy, Norman R. New, James C. O'Brien, Joseph B. McDonough, 
Joseph Sabath, Edward O'Callaghan, Dr. Daniel A. Orth, William 
H. Powell, John P. Neady, Andrew J. Ryan, J. B. Shell, Dr. J. P. 
Smyth, Robert M. Sweitzer, Frank J. Tomezak and J. M. Whealan. 

Ignatius M. Bransfield, John Brennan, W. L. Brown, Thomas H. 
Cannon, R. A. Cavanaugh, E. D. Corcoran, Joseph W. Cremin, I. F. 
Dankowski, Dr. S. E. Donlon, P. B. Flanagan, W. J. Ford, C. J. 
Gaul and Dr. John Golden. 

Arthur O'Brien, Richard M. O'Brien, James O'Neil, Victor A. 
Perazinski, D. B. Quinlan, C. W. Richards, Sherman J. Sexton, 
Joseph C. Smith, J. E. Sullivan, Barrett Whealan, Michael Zimmer, 

E. C. Barry, Thomas Brisch, Patrick E. Callaghan, H. J. Cassaday, 
Joseph F. Connery and C, G. Craine. 

Anthony Czarnecki, Thomas F. Delaney, Paul Brzymalski, Dr. 
Charles G. Fortelka, Col. John J. Garrity, Michael F. Girten, Frank 
G. Hajicek, Matthew Hartigan, John Higgins, Edward Houlihan, 
William J. Igoe, James F. Kennedy, William P. Kinsella, John 
Laveccha, John E. Maloney and Anthony Matre, K. S. G. 

Michael J. Halvey, John J. Haynes, Edward Hines, K. S. G., 
K. A. Hunter, William F. Juergens, H. P. Kenney, Edward Kirch- 
berg, W. J. Lynch, Joseph Mangan, Henry Mawicke, Joseph W. 
McCarthy, K. S. G., Thomas J. McMahon, Frank X. Mudd, M. J. Mur- 
ray, P. G. Nilles, Frank M. Padden and Lawrence Przybylski. 

Nicholas J. Rouland, John A. Schmidt, Charles M. Slattery, Fred 
B. Suite, Adam J. Trembacz, August G. LTrbanski, Leo J. Winiecki, 

F. J. Lewis, K. S. G., Richard J. Finnegan, Charles David, Frank 
M. Rauen, T, J. Courtney, A. A. Rothengass and Joseph F. Kelly. 

The following constitute the committee of aldermen appointed by 
Mayor Dever to officially represent the city: 

Frank J. Tomezak, chairman ; Charles S. Eaton, Robert R. Jack- 
son, Donald McKinlay, John Touhy, Albert J. Horan, Christ Jensen, 
Dorsey Crowe, Joseph O. Kostner, Denis A. Horan and Edward 
J. M. Kaindl. 

Wecomed IN New York 

The press account of the arrival of the Cardinal in New York 

was as follows: 

New York last night joyously welcomed to his native shores and today was 
host to His Eminence, Cardinal Mundelein of Chicago, second newly-made Prince 
of the Church to return to America in a fortnight. 

It was a welcome that was late and disrupted by the twelve-hour delay 
of the liner Berengaria and by miserable weather, but none the less impressive 



a 




GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 41 

and heartfelt, for New York likes to hark back to the days when Cardinal 
Mundelein was a boy here and when he was loved and honored as Auxiliary 
Bishop of Brooklyn. Thousands stood in the drizzling rain and darkness to 
catch a glimpse of him. Myriad flares and rockets pierced the murk while 
sirens shrieked and bands played, lending a startling picturesqueness that 
would have been lacking to the greeting had the plans for a great daytime 
ovation been carried out. 

At noon today, the large party of his own clergy and laity who came 
from Chicago to greet him whisked the Cardinal away to Chicago and the 
magnificent welcome prepared by his own Western people. But not before his 
fellow prelate, Cardinal Hayes, had greeted him personally and the highest 
officials of the Church and City had paid him impressive honors. 

All the pomp and ceremony befitting the return of one of his high office 
had awaited the Cardinal, all the afternoon and evening with hundreds of 
thousands prepared to give him a real triumphant entry. But while the crowds 
awaited, the Berengaria was turning about in her course to perform a work of 
mercy on the high seas, and when she felt her way slowly to Quarantine, through 
a bad fog, it was nearly 10 o'clock and a drizzle of rain was drenching the 
piers. Once at the pier, he was rushed by an automobile to the residence of 
Cardinal Hayes, at St. Patrick's Cathedral and thence to the Vanderbilt, where 
Mayor Hylan and delegations of clergy and laymen greeted him, and where 
he occupied for the night the suite once assigned to Caruso. 

It was 9:10 last night when the searchlights of the Macom, the welcoming 
boat, picked up the Berengaria in the thick darkness at Quarantine, and the 
band on the Manhattan College boat broke into "Home, Sweet Home," to 
the accompaniment of student cheers. A moment later, groat flares, lighted 
by photographers, illuminated the sea all about the great liner. Another band 
took up the ' ' Star Spangled Banner, ' ' the searchlight concentrated on the 
Berengaria, and in this picturesque setting the welcomers caught their first 
glimpse of the new cardinal, a figure waving a silk hat from an upper deck. 

"There's the hat; there he is," shouted the first to see the little red 
skull cap. Then the cheering from the welcoming boat burst out anew, answered 
by a college yell from the Manhattan tug. Thomas J. McGrath, customs in- 
spector, who had gone to school with the cardinal, boarded the liner, and a 
moment later the committee of welcome, headed by Grover Whalen and Eodman 
Wanamaker of New York, and Bishop Hoban of Chicago had gone aboard and 
were escorting His Eminence down the red-carpeted gangway. 

The cardinal smiled happily in the uneven light. With great good-nature, 
he paused on the deck in the rain while the photographers snapped him, first 
this way, then that. Escorted to the after saloon of the Macom, he seated him- 
self and warmly greeted members of the committee of welcome. A round of 
answers to newspaper men, and he conferred the Episcopal Blessing on the 
assemblage. 

"And may God's blessing be on all those you hold dear and near your 
hearts," he added, after the formal blessing in Latin. 

Through the interview with the newspaper men, the cardinal was in fine 
humor. There was little formality, and ho laughed frequently and anywercd all 
questions readily. 

"I am glad beyond measure to be back," he said. "It's good to get 
back to my home town, and it will be even better to get back to Chicago. 
I'm grateful for this reception, and especially to see so many of my Chicago 



42 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

people here. My Chicago friends and I will ever be grateful for the reception, 
although I recognize it as directed not so much toward myself as toward the 
great Church of which I am the representative." 

Asked if he had a message for Chicago, he replied: 

"I will say nothing now, except that everywhere I went in Europe I found 
they were surprised at the interest taken by the Pope in Chicago, and pleased 
that Chicago should be honored by the appointment of a cardinal. I told them 
that we had always lived in peace in Chicago, that there never had been any 
trouble with our non-Catholic brethren, and that it was my earnest wish and 
prayer that we always find the Church an asset and a unifying force. I feel 
that the honor that has been done is to the city of Chicago, and I would like 
to have it treated that way. 

"In my last audience with the Holy Father, he bestowed upon me, for 
you, his special blessing for Chicago, and he added these words in English: 
'And for all America.' " 

It still was raining as the Macom, with the other small craft that had 
gone out to greet the cardinal, docked at Battery Park, but here there was a 
greeting by a great throng. As the fifty automobiles, bedecked in the cardinal's 
colors, hurried along Broadway with its police escort, groups that had braved 
the rain again shouted their welcome. 

At the Vanderbilt cheers lasting ten minutes greeted His Eminence, while 
an orchestra played the national anthem. Here 300 welcomers, headed by the 
Chicago clergy and laymen and Mayor Hylan, had waited for hours. The 
ceremonies were brief, that Cardinal Mundelein might rest before the arduous 
day that awaited him. 

In the New York party that went out to welcome the cardinal were, besides 
Mr. Whalen and Mr. Wanamaker, John Hughes, Eugene F. Moran, Joseph H. 
Moran, H. H. Nevanas, Thomas J. Skuse, John H. Deleny and A. B. Hull, brother- 
in-law of the cardinal. 

In the Chicago delegation were: The Right Rev. E. F. Hoban, D. D., 
auxiliary bishop; the Right Rev. Msgr. E. A. Kelly, chairman of the Chicago 
clergy; D. F. Kelly, K. S. G., the Rev. D. J. Dunne, D. .D.; the Rev. C. J. 
Quille, and E. D. Hines, F. J. Lewis, Joseph F. Connery and Aldermen F. J. 
Tomczak, representing the municipality of Chicago. 

Others on the Chicago committee for the return were: The Right Rev. 
Msgr. Francis A. Rempe, the Right Rev. Msgr. W. M. Foley, the very Rev. 
Francis Gordon, C. R., and the Rev. Fathers P. C. Gelinas, E. F. Rice, E. L. 
Dondanville, T. E. O'Shea, John Linden, F. M. O'Brien, Thadeus Ligman, C. R., 
A. L. Girard, Hilary J. Doswald, O. C. C. and Stephen Kowalczyk. 

Aboard the Special for Chicago 

By Mary Glynn 

A special train stopped to permit Chicago boys, students at St. 

Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, to greet Cardinal Mundelein was but 

one of the incidents of a journey that brought His Eminence home 

for the city's remarkable tribute from all classes. 

As the fourteen car train of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad 
sped on its journey westward it halted at intervals in order that 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 



43 



the blessing of the Cardinal might be bestowed upon the waiting 
crowds. His Eminence had time for all. Even the chauffeur who 
had driven him to the train received a hearty handshake. 

The train pulled out to the strains of ''My Country 'tis of Thee," 
played by a Czecho-Slovakian band, the members of which could not 
speak English, but played it well. A great crowd of New Yorkers 
came along for a final tribute. 

Every way station, every cross road where news of the Cardinal 's 
coming had preceded him was the scene of an ovation. Fleeting 
salutations were given by groups of men who stood with uncovered 
heads and by women with children in their arms, cheering and 
waving as the train swept by. 

His Excellency, Most Rev. Pietro Fumasoni-Biondi, apostolic 
delegate and Very Rev. Paul Marella, auditor of the legation in 
Washington, left New York with the Cardinal but detrained at 
Clifton, a suburb of Washington. 

It was there that Monsignor Bernardini, professor of canon law 
at the Catholic University at Washington and a nephew of Cardinal 
Gasparri, papal secretary of state, boarded the train. He accom- 
panied the Cardinal to Chicago where he remained for the ceremonies 
attendant upon the arrival of his Eminence. 

Chimes playing religious airs were heard as the Cardinal alighted 
in Baltimore to give his blessing to the group of students and priests 
from St. Mary's seminary, who surrounded the train. 

An album, containing signed greetings for the new prince of the 
church was presented to him by the president of the seminary, 
Very Rev. Edward R. Dyer, S. S. It was signed by thirty-two Chicago 
youths studying for the priesthood at St. Mary's and contained a 
facsimile of Cardinal Mundelein's official coat of arms. 

It was here that one of the several colorful incidents which marked 
the homeward journey took place. Wiping their liands on their 
overalls and holding their white peaked caps the engineers of the 
train walked back to the carpeted platform where the Cardinal stood 
with the students around him. They needed no introduction, no ex- 
planation of their wishes. At once His Eminence turned to them, 
and on their knees they received his blessing. 

At eight o'clock on Saturday evening. Cardinal Mundelein v.^cnt 
through the train and stopped at every seat to bid each one of the 
246 persons on board a personal good night, spending a few moments 
in pleasant chat. ' ' Just seeing that everything is all right, ' ' he said, 
smilingly, as he passed. The cooks and porters, too, retired with the 
good wishes of the Cardinal. 



44 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

Sunday morning a stop of one and one-half hours was made a1 
Garrett, Indiana, where Mass was said by the Cardinal in the chapel 
car of the Catholic Church Extension Society loaned for that purpose. 
Later this car was on exhibition at the Grand Central station, Chi- 
cago. Bishop Griffin of Springfield and Monsignor Francis C. Kelley 
also celebrated Mass during this interval. 

The Right Rev. Edward F. Hoban, D. D., left the special train 
at Philadelphia where he took a faster train back to Chicago that 
he might aid in the arrangements for the reception of the home- 
coming Cardinal. It was under his direction that this splendid tribute 
was arranged. Bishop Hoban was honorary chairman of all com- 
mittees. 

Most of the Chicagoans who made the trip entered waiting auto- 
mobiles and continued as guard of honor to the Cardinal on his 
twelve mile trip to the Cathedral where they assisted at Benediction 
of the Most Blessed Sacrament. 

IV. WELCOME HOME 

The Cardinal and his party detrained at the Englewood station 
of the Baltimore and Ohio where welcoming thousands awaited. 

The civic greeting was expressed in the welcome of Mayor William 
E. Dever, who with other members of his welcoming committee were 
among the first to greet His Eminence. The mayor knelt to kiss the 
famous ring that came to its wearer from the Holy Father as a 
mark of the high rank to which he had been promoted. 

It was to prepare for a joyful journey that the waiting auto- 
mobiles were filled quickly by members of the official welcoming 
delegation. A squad of motorcycle policemen filed into first place 
and the drive was cleared for the oncoming procession. It was a 
three hour ride between solid walls of humanity, a twelve mile 
formation of happy thousands. Little children were there galore. 
There were multitudes of them, and it must have pleased the Cardinal 
for they are his especial interest. Banners bearing messages such as 
"God Bless Our Cardinal," "Welcome Home, Our Cardinal," were 
frequent in the lines and American flags in places seemed a solid 
waving blaze of color. 

Parochial school children had prominent places in the lines. One 
could vision the preparation in many a home as white dresses were 
freshly laundered and Sunday suits of the boys brought forth to aid 
in honor of the day. 

It was most evident that youth is eager and enthusiastic because 
glad little faces reflected inward joy. There may have been some 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 45 

rivalry in various little groups as to the one honored to bear a tribute 
of floral blossoms to His Eminence, for it was frequently during the 
line of march that a floral tribute was presented as an expression 
of good will. 

In front of St. Basil's school one little tot in white brought an 
armful of blossoms bigger than herself as a remembrance from her 
school. This was repeated along the line at St. Anne's church. The 
Cardinal paid silent tribute to a deceased pastor at Visitation church. 
At the triumphal journey's end there was a lovely bower of flowers 
piled high on either side of the car, contributions from many. 

There was an ovation at 43rd Street by the colored residents of 
Chicago. It was estimated that it was one of the largest by colored 
people in many years. The Chicago Defender- band played while the 
procession passed and the cheers of old and young added to the wel- 
come in this section. 

Those who lived along the line of march kept open house and 
each place became a center for friends and relatives to gather for 
a point of vantage. Decorations along the way were glimpsed and 
flags fluttered frequently in a beautiful May afternoon sun. 

Infants carried in the arms of their mothers knew little of the 
meaning of it all and yet in years to come can feel they had a part 
in the welcome. Old men and women, perhaps at a sacrifice of 
strength, made the effort to find a comfortable standing place near 
the line. Automobiles, trucks, even the almost extinct horse and 
carriage were requisitioned to 'Carry people to places along the line 
of march. 

When the loop was reached the welcome became almost over- 
whelming. People stood four and five deep flanked against the side- 
walks. At the Art Institute crowds were estimated at between five 
and seven thousand. Great large American flags fluttered and the 
mighty procession passed on. The marchers on foot numbered about 
80,000 comprising the Holy Name Society, the Knights of Columbus, 
Catholic Order of Foresters, Lithuanian, Slovak and Italian societies, 
Ancient Order of Hiberaians, the Catholic Knights of America, the 
Bohemian Brethren, the Polish Alma Mater, and others. Long before 
the hour for the parade members of the societies were assembling, 
reporting for badges and flags, prepared to answer the signal for 
final formation. 

The lines were in orderly arrangement marching to the music of 
over twenty bands scattered throughout the long procession. From 
Roosevelt Road and Michigan Boulevard where the real parade 
started it was the beginning of the grand climax. The scene was not 



46 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

to be soon forgotten. Michigan Boulevard was lined with throngs. 
Buildings along the way were filled with people at windows, on 
balconies any place to view to best advantage. 

There was a colorful touch in the band costumes. The Visitation 
Boys Band v/hieh headed the south side division of the Holy Name 
society made a decided hit with the watchers along the side lines. 
Many a burst of applause testified to the efficiency of the players as 
musicians. The St. Procopius boys' band from Lisle headed the 
west side branches and the Chicago Marine band headed the north 
side division. The St. Mary's Training school band from Desplaines 
was a valuable adjunct to the Holy Name aggregation. 

When the procession reached Ohio Street the foot marchers sep- 
arated making a close passageway sufficiently wide to permit the 
Cardinal's motor and those following to pass through. His Eminence 
and his party turned west on North Avenue to Dearborn Street 
where at a chosen point the north side Catholic high school groups 
were gathered to offer their welcome greeting. Returning south to 
the Cathedral, His Eminence was driven through solid formations 
until the cathedral at North State and Superior streets was reached. 

The Cardinal's Robes 

Seldom has it been the opportunity of Chicagoans to view in 
their city a Cardinal in his ecclesiastical robes. The rich cloak of 
scarlet that he wore with its accompanying scarlet hat with gold 
band was chosen that Chicagoans night behold an unusual dress of 
the Cardinal. The hat is worn only when going to a consistory and 
is "the red hat" of the Cardinal. 

To see His Eminence later as he moved slowly down the Cathedral 
aisle was to again pay tribute of faith in one's heart to a church 
full of ancient traditions. For the robes he wore were in design 
of ancient heritage. Full and majestic they were rich in material 
as befitted a prince of the church. A surplice of finest lace, the 
wide sash about the waist and the cappa magna with its circular collar 
of ermine. About his neck was suspended from a gold chain the 
Cardinal's crucifix and adorning the third finger of his right hand 
was the Cardinal 's ring, massive and beautifully^ engraved, set with a 
sardonyx. 

Thus a city's civic tribute gave place to the religious ceremony 
and Chicago paused to utter a prayer that God may bless this 
newest prince of the church. 



george cardinal mundelein 47 

The Parade in Detail 

The order of the great parade was as shown in ''Parade Order 
No. 1". 

The line of march was north on Michigan Avenue until the head 
reached North Avenue at Michigan Avenue, when it came to a halt, 
entire columns slit in two equal parts. The right eight men marched 
by right flank as far as the East curbing, then faced to center of 
the street. The left eight men marched by the left flank as far as 
the West curbing and then faced about to center of street. 

When this movement was accomplished. His Eminence accom- 
panied by the Guard of Honor, passed through the line, thus formed, 
and reviewed them. When His Eminence and his Guard of Honor 
had reached the head of the column at North Avenue and Michigan 
Avenue, the column was dismissed. 

Holy Name Division 

By John A. Bateman, Chief Marshal, Holy Name Division 

Chicago Holy Name men again proved loyalty to their spiritual leader and 
their deep interest in activities fostered by the general officers last Sunday 
afternoon when 15,000 strong they marched to pay tribute to His Eminence, 
Cardinal Mundelein, on his return from Eome. 

Instead of the suggested quota of 8,000, the Holy Name division comprised 
from 15,000 to 17,000 members of 157 branches, or nearly double that quota. 

Besides turning out in such large numbers, the Holy Name men showed 
their desire to do their part to the best of their ability by assembling at the 
several points far in advance of the scheduled time. Some units were at their 
places at 1 p. m. and the latest branches were on hand before 1:30, so that 
the three brigades were in line and moving into Michigan Avenue promptly at 
2:30 p. m. 

Flags Massed Near Center 

The various branches further indicated their whole-hearted co-operation 
with the general officers of the society and those in charge of the parade by 
readily losing their identity by sending their flags and banners to the color 
unit, which was near the center of the division. By doing this the branches 
made it impossible for anyone to identify them, but they gladly did this in 
order to present a uniform appearance and to comply with the requests of 
the parade executives. 

All who had anything to do with the organization of the Holy Name 
division sincerely thank all Holy Name men who participated in what was 
one of the greatest demonstrations in Chicago's history. Branch presidents 
and others who saw that the marchers were equipped with American flags and 
the official parade badges also deserve the gratitude of the society. 



48 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 



Officers of the Divisions 

The chief marshal of the Holy Name division, in addition to the whole- 
hearted support of the various branch officers, is indebted to the following 
men who were of invaluable assistance in marshaling the huge membership: 

Chief marshal's staff: Major John M. Doyle, Our Lady of Sorrows branch; 
Capt. Ignatius P. Doyle, St. Thomas Aquinas; Capt. E. Kelly, St. Margaret 
Mary. 

Brigade commanders: A. A. Offerman, St. John's, Joliet, north brigade; 
F. E. Miller, St. Agatha's, west brigade; D. W. Anglin, St. Felicitas, south 
brigade. 

Battalion commanders: South brigade: A. W. Swain, St. Agnes; A. B. 
Buttliere, St. Mary of Mt. Carmel; Messrs. Ruby, Brown and Wilkinson, Our 
Lady of Peace. 

West brigade: A. L. Ewing, St. Mel's; W. J. Bolger, St. Agatha's; 
Mark Cribben, St. Agatha's. 

North brigade: Henry Becker, St. Pius; M. J. Mayers, Our Lady of 
Angels; Mr. Geary, Our Lady of Peace. 

Marshal of colors: John F. Bruns, St. Mary of Mt. Carmel. 

Marshal of executive committee: P. J. V. McKian. 

The Holy Name division, marching sixteen men abreast, was a mile long 
as it was on parade. After the men had separated into two divisions of eight 
men each and lined up along the boulevard, they reached from North Avenue 
south of Oak Street. 

The Holy Name division had four bands, the marine band heading the 
unit, St. Procopius College band of Lisle ahead of the west siders, St. Mary's 
Training School leading the colors and Visitation Holy Name band in front of 
the south unit. The south side unit, composed of more churches and branches, 
had the largest number in the parade. St. Sabina's and St. Andrew's branches 
were among those with the largest delegations. 

The parade was one of the largest ever seen in Chicago, if not the largest, 
and the showing in it made by Holy Name men certainly is a source of great 
gratification to all interested in the society. The way the Holy Name men 
turned out was further proof of the general interest and activity of Holy Name 
men, especially since nearly every Holy Name man had an urgent invitation 
to march ydih some other society or parish organization. 



Knights op Columbus Division 

The Kniglits of Columbus division included about 10,000 march- 
ers. 

Formation of the Knights of Columbus Division: Marshal Hon. Francis 
P. Brady, Adjutant, Captain Arthur T. Broche. 

State Council: State Deputy Edward Houlihan, State Secretary Henry J. 
Lynch, Past State Deputy, Joseph J. Thompson and District Deputies. 

Fourth Degree Band: George Serak, Marshal; John J, Phelan, 1st Asst. ; 
Wm. E. Donahue, 2nd Asst.; Wm. S. Callinan, 3rd Asst.; J. J. Clifford, 4th 
Asst.; George Stanton, 5th Asst.; John Fox, Color Bearer. Congress Street right 
resting on Michigan Avenue. 




International Ncwsi\'i'l J'lio.u. 



HIS EMINENCE GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 



As lie appeai-Pcl whon he alighted from the train in Chicago upon his return 
from Rome. He is here sliown in the full ro])es of a cardinal and wearing 
the "Red Hat." 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 49 

The Councils: The formation of the councils was by Battalions and the 
councils were grouped in 13 Battalions as follows: 

Battalions One and Two Included: Band; Chicago, Marquette, De La Salle, 
Illinois, Englewood, Lafayette, DeSoto. Formed on Congress Street from Mich- 
igan Avenue to Wabash Avenue, Assistant Marshals Thomas J. Clancy and 
Arthur Manning. 

Battalions Three, Four and Five, including Band: Phil. Sheridan, Calumet, 
Damen, Feehan, Charles Carroll, Fort Dearborn, Leo XIII, Father O'Connor, 
Commercial, HUdebrand, Loyola-Hyde Park, Quilmette, Columbus, Gen. Jas. 
Shields. Formed on Congress Street from Wabash Avenue to State Street. As- 
sistant Marshals, Joseph M. Cusiek, Joseph I. Lang, and Joseph A. Manning. 

Battalions Six, Seven and Eight, Including Band: Hughes, LaEabida, 
Chicago Heights, Ravenswood, Brownson, Daniel O'Connell, Daniel Dowling, 
Newman, Thomas Aquinas, Commodore Barry, St. Cyr Day, Madonna, Hennepin, 
Arch. McHale, San Salvador. Formed on Harrison Street from Michigan to 
Wabash Avenues. Assistant Marshals, Edward J. Sordelet, Edward T. Dennehy, 
and Joseph Burke. 

Battalions Nine and Ten, including Band: Father Setters, Americus, Blue 
Island, St. Augustine, Gen. Sherman, Father Perez, Washington, Santa Maria, 
Oak Park, Tonti. Formed on Harrison Street from Wabash Avenue to State 
Street. Assistant Marshals, James McDermott and Emmet McCarthy. 

Battalions Eleven and Twelve, including Band: Bishop Ketteler, Nazareth, 
St. James, Genoa, Garcia Moreno, Auburn Park, University, Cardinal, Ridge, 
St. Patrick's, St. Philip Neri. Formed on Seventh Street from Michigan Ave- 
nue to State Street. Assistant Marshals Edward P. Brannick and George H. 
Braasch. 

Battalion Thirteen, including Band: St. Francis Xavier, Pinta, St. Rita, 
Arch. Quigley. Formed on Seventh Street from Wabash Avenue to State 
Street. Assistant Marshall Alex. V. Caprano. 

The Cathedral Program 
By the Rev. Francis A. Ryan 

As announced in advance the Cathedral program was as fol- 
lows: 

The tremendous welcome that will be extended to His Eminence George 
Cardinal Mundelein, Archbishop of Chicago, on his return from the Sacred 
Consistory held at Rome, March 24, 1924, at v/hich His Holiness Pope Pius XI 
created Mm Cardinal Priest of the Holy Roman Church of the title Maria del 
Populo will lead to the Holy Name Cathedral. 

On entering the Cathedral which will be fully illuminated the Cathedral 
choir of one hundred and seventy-five voices will intone the Te Deum, the solemn 
hymn of thanksgiving. The Choir under the direction of Reverend Philip Ma- 
honey and Reverend Paul Smith has prepared especially for this occasion. 

On arriving in the sanctuary His Eminence will complete the "Children's 
Welcome" by giving Solemn Benediction of the Most Blessed Sacrament. Be- 
fore leaving the Cathedral His Eminence will deliver a short sermon to the 
children. The attendants and officers at his service are as follows: 



50 elevation and investiture 

On Ceremonies 

Masters of Ceremonies: Rev. Francis A. Ryan, Rev. William R. Griffin, 
assisted by clerical students of the Quigley Preparatory Seminary; The Mon- 
signori, clergy, regular and diocesan, will attend. Brothers also will be present. 

The ministers to His Eminence, The Cardinal, will be: Master of ceremonies, 
D. J. Dunne, D. D. ; Archepiscopal crossbearer. Rev. Francis M. O 'Brien. 

The assistant priest will be : Rt. Rev. Msgr. F. C. Kelley, D. D. 

Deacons of honor will be: Rt. Rev. Msgr. E. A. Kelly, LL. D. ; Rt. Rev. 
Msgr. F. Bobal. 

Deacon: Rev. Thomas A. Kearns, Subdeaconj Rev. M. S. Gilmartin. 

Laity of Cardinal's escort will be Edward A. Hines, K. C. S. G. ; Denis 
F. Kelly, K. S. G. ; Antony F. Matre, K. S. G. 

On Tuesday morning, at half after ten o'clock in the Holy Name Cathedral, 
the most wonderful ceremony of the entire home-coming will take place. Solemn 
Pontifical Mass will be celebrated by Rt. Reverend Edmund M. Dunne, D. D., 
Bishop of Peoria, in the presence of His Eminence, Cardinal Mundelein. 

Rt. Rev. Peter J. Muldoon, D. D., Bishop of Rockf ord, will deliver the 
sermon. 

1,200 Priests in Line 

The procession into the Cathedral will march from the Cathedral school 
on Cass Street. It is expected that more than twelve hundred priests will do 
honor to the Cardinal by participating in this wonderful ceremony. 

All the students of the Quigley Preparatory seminary and St. Mary's of 
the Lake seminary will be at the head of the procession. Immediately following 
them will be the regular and diocesan clergy of more than a thousand. Forty 
Monsignori will come next and then thirty-five Bishops and four Archbishops. 
Many Superiors of the Religious Orders in the country will also attend. It will 
be the largest gathering of the clergy ever taking place in this part of the 
country. 

It is expected that the Honorable William Dover and his Cabinet will be 
in attendance. All the members of the Judiciary in the city of Chicago, all 
the Federal Government, members of every Consulate, the Board of Directors 
of the Associated Catholic Charities, and a delegation of prominent members 
from every parish in the Archdiocese. 

The people of the entire city will be present on this occasion to do honor 
and show their esteem for His Eminence. The Cardinal will conclude the Pon- 
tifical Services by an address to the clergy and laity of the Archdiocese. 

Monsignori 

Among those present will be: Very Rev. B. J. Shiel; Rt. Rev. J. C. Plagens, 
D. D. ; Rt, Rev. J. M. Doyle, LL. D. ; Rt. Rev. J. H. Schlarmann, D, D. ; Rt. Rev. 
B. G, Traudd; Rt, Rev. T. P, Bona; Rt. Rev. F. J. Van Antwerp; Rt. Rev. 
P. J. McDonnell ; Rt. Rev. F, A. Purcell ; Rt. Rev. S. R. Roumie, O. S. B. M. ; 
Rt. Rev, Francis Bobal; Rt. Rev. P, W. Dunne; Rt. Rev. E. A. Kelly, LL, D.; 
Rt. Rev, F, A. Rempe, V, G.; Rt. Rev. M. J. FitzSimmons, V, G,; Rt, Rev. 
F, C, Kelley, D. D. 

Abbotts 

Rt. Rev. V. Kolbeck, O. S. B., Abbott of Lisle, Illinois; Rt. Rev. M. Veth, 
O. S. B., Atchison, Kansas; Rt. Rev. Arch-Abbott Aurelius, O. S. B., Beatty, Pa. 



george cardinal mundeleln 51 

Bishops 

The Right Rev. Bishops and their Chaplains will be as follows: 

Rt. Rev, H. Howard, D. D., Auxiliary Bishop of Davenport; Rev. Philip L. 
Kennedy, Rev. Francis E. Seanlan. 

Rt. Rev. J. A. Griffin, D. D., Bishop of Springfield; Rev. E. S. Keough, 
D. D., Rev. J. B. Furay, S. J. 

Rt. Rev. F. W. Howard, D. D.; Bishop of Covington; Rev. P. Neuzil, 
O. S. B., Rev. F. Stauble, O. M. C. 

Rt. Rev. J. A. Floersch, D. D., Co-Adjutor Bishop of Louisville ; Rev. P. T. 
Janser, S. V. D., Rev. D. Croke. 

Rt. Rev. A. J. McGavick, D. D., Bishop of La Crosse; Rev. F. Reynolds, 
Rev. P. L. Biermann. 

Rt. Rev. P. J. Muldoon, D. D., Bishop of Rockford; Rev. E. J. Fox, Rev. 
M. A. Dorney. 

Rt. Rev. M. C. Lenihan, D. D., Bishop of Great Falls ; Rev. Edmund Byrnes, 
Rev. A. Skrypko. 

Rt. Rev. T. F. Lillis, D. D., Bishop of Kansas City. 

Rt. Rev. J. B. Morris, D. D., Bishop of Little Rock; Rev. W. J. Lynch, 
Rev. P. T. Gelinas. 

Rt, Rev. E. M. Dunne, D. D., Bishop of Peoria. 

Rt. Rev. J, J. Lawler, D. D., Bishop of Lead ; Rev. J. T. Bennett, Rev. J. 
M. Lange. 

Rt. Rev. J. Chartrand, D. D., Bishop of Indianapolis; Rev. E. L. Dondan- 
ville. Rev. P. T. Shewbridge. 

Rt. Rev. J. Schrembs, D. D., Bishop of Cleveland; Rev. J. J. Code, Rev. 
A. J. Wolfgarten. 

Rt. Rev. J. P. Lynch, D. D., Bishop of Dallas; Rev. W. L, Kearney, Rev, 
D. Konen. 

Rt. Rev. J. McCort, D. D., Bishop of Altoona; Rev. J. M. Bowen, Rev. T. 
J. Bobal. 

Rt. Rev. H. Althoff, D. D., Bishop of Belleville; Rev. A. J. Dedera, Rev. 
O. C. Nabholz. 

Rt. Rev. M. J. Gallagher, D. D., Bishop of Detroit; Rev. F. Kuderko, Rev. 
T. F. Quinn. 

Rt. Rev. D. Gorman, D. D., Bishop of Boise; Rev. L. Schlimm, O. S. B., Rev. 

A. Halgas. 

Rt. Rev. J. T. McNicholas, D. D., Bishop of Duluth, Rev. C. J, Quille, 

Rev, A. Casey, O. P. 

Rt. Rev. J. Jeannard, D.D., Bishop of LaFayette; Rev. W. Agnew, S.J., 

Rev. J. Wirth, O. S. B. 

Rt. Rev. J. F. McGrath, D. D., Bishop of Baker; Rev. H. Kieserlmg, 
O. F. M., Rev. K. Zakrajsek, O. F. M. 

Et. Eev. E. Heelan, D.D., Bishop of Sioux City; Rev. F. Gaudet, S. S. S., 

Rev. J. H. Crowe. t^ t ^.^ n 

Rt. Rev. J. G. Murray, D. D., Auxiliary Bishop of Hartford; Rev. D. Luttrell, 

V. Rev. M. L. Egan, O. S. A. ^ r^,T. ■ 

Rt. Rev. E. B. Ledvina, D. D., Bishop of Corpus Christi; Rev. W. D. O Brien, 

Rev. J. Van Heertum, O. Praem. ^ r. i n v 

Rt. Rev. Hugh Boyle, D. D., Bishop of Pittsburgh; Rev. F. Gordon, C. R., 

Rev. C. Sztuczko, C. S. C. 



52 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

Et. Rev. E. F. Hoban, D. D., Auxiliary Bishop of Chicago ; Rev. M. Ciuf oletti, 
C. S. C. B., Rev. W. Vukonic, O. F. M. 

Rt. Rev. J. G. Pinten, D. D., Bishop of Superior ; Rev. P. Brosnahan, O. S. M., 
Rev. T. Levan, C. M. 

Rt. Rev. P. Barry, D. D., Bishop of St. Augustine; Rev. D. Byrnes, Rev. 
N. L. Franzen, C. SS. R. 

Rt. Rev. J. J. Swint, D. D., Bishop of Wheeling; Rev. L. J. Walter, O. C. C, 
Rev. W. Cartwright, C. S. P. 

Rt. Rev. B. J. Mahoney, D. D., Bishop of Sioux Falls; Rev. E. Roman, 

C. P., Rev. B. Rogers. 

Archbishops 

The Most Reverend Archbishops and their Chaplains are: 

Most Rev. S. Messmer, D. D., Archbishop of Milwaukee, Rev. J. M. Scanlan, 
Rev. J. Dettmer. 

Most Rev. J. Keane, D. D., Archbishop of Dubuque ; Rev. J. J. Jennings, 
Rev. M. J. Sullivan. 

Most Rev. J. W. Shaw, D. D., Archbishop of New Orleans ; Rev. J. J. Den- 
nison. Rev. B. Springmeier. 

Most Rev. A. Bowling, D. D., Archbishop of St. Pa'jl; Rev. M. O 'Sullivan, 
Rev. H. P. Smyth. 

Following the Pages and Master of Ceremonies will come the Subdeacon, 
Rev. M. Kruszas; the Deacon, Rev. F. Ostrowski. The Assistant Priest, Rt. Rev. 
Msgr. W. M. Foley and the Celebrant, Rt. Rev. E. M. Dunne, D. D., Bishop of 
Peoria, Illinois. 

The Ministers to His Eminence, the Cardinal, will include Master of Cere- 
monies, Rev. D. J. Dunne, D. D., and Rev. James Horsburgh. 

After the Pages, Achiepiscopal Cross Bearer and Acolytes, will, come the 
Deacons of Honor, Rt. Rev. Msgr. F. A. Rempe; Rt. Rev. Msgr. P. W. Dunne. 

The Assistant Priests will be Rt. Rev. Msgr. M. J. FitzSimmons. Then 
will follow His Eminence, George Cardinal Mundelein, attended by Knights of 
St. Gregory. 

Mass for the Religious 

On Saturday morning at ten o'clock. May 17, in the Holy Name Cathedral, 
a solemn Pontifical Mass will be celebrated by the Rt. Reverend E. F. Hoban, 

D. D., Auxiliary Bishop of Chicago, in the presence of His Eminence George 
Cardinal Mundelein, for the Religious of the Archdiocese. 

There are more than fifty different Communities represented in the arch- 
diocese and a large number of nuns from each community will be in attendance. 
The entire faculty from 15 colleges and academies, 17 High schools, and 250 
Parochial schools will be in the Cathedral for this service. 

In addition the Sisters from all the Orphanages, Hospitals, Infant Asylums, 
Working Girls' Homes, Homes for the Aged, etc., will be present. After the 
Pontifical Mass, His Eminence will address all the Religious of the Archdiocese. 
The list of the officers will be as follows: Master of Ceremonies, Rev. Francis 
A. Ryan. 

Cross bearer and Acolytes, Clerical students of the Quigley Preparatory 
seminary. The Clergy, regular and secular, and the Monsignori. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 53 

The Ministers to the Rt. Rev. Celebrant will be Subdeacon, Rev. V. Bla- 
hunka; Deacon, Rev. D. L. McDonald; Assistant Priest, Rev. J. F. Ryan; Cele- 
brant, Rt. Rev. Edward F. Hoban, D. D., V. G., Auxiliary Bishop of Chicago. 

The Ministers to His Eminence, the Cardinal, will be Rev. D. J. Dunne, 
D. D., Master of Ceremonies. The Episcopal Cross Bearer will be Rev. John 
A. McCarthy, Deacons of Honor, Rt. Rev. Msgr. P. J. McDonnell; Rt. Rev. 
Msgr. F. A. Purcell. Assistant Priest, Rt. Rev. Msgr. A. J. Thiele. 

At the Cathedral After the Parade 
By Agnes T. Ryan 

It was a great pageant, viewed by nearly a million people massed 
along the route to greet the first Cardinal of the west. Long before 
the High School escort reached the Cathedral of the Holy Name, 
last Sunday, boys and young men had been filing into their assigned 
places, their school banners contrasting with the coat of arms of the 
United States, the papal coat of arms and the escutcheon of Cardinal 
Mundelein, draped from arches and cornices throughout the church, 
gorgeous in its illumination and color. 

Included among this great congregation of youth, for aside from 
the clergy and Cardinal's committee only boys were admitted, were 
the students of the Quigley Preparatory Seminary, Loyola and De 
Paul Universities, St. Ignatius, St. Cyril, St. Eita and St. Stanislaus 
Colleges, De La Salle Institute of Chicago and Joliet, Holy Trinity, 
St. Mel and St. Philip High Schools, St. Patrick's Commercial Acad- 
emy, St. Michael's School for Boys, besides the boys of the Angel 
Guardian Orphanage. 

In the sanctuary, red was the predominating color. The Cardi- 
nal's throne of cardinal red was given an added touch of brilliancy 
by the trimmings of gold. On a line with the throne before the main 
altar, was the prieu dieu under a coverlet of heavy moire red silk. 

At 5:35 P. M., a fanfare of trumpets from the choir loft, an- 
nounced the signal of welcome to the procession that had started 
up the main aisle of the church. 

An acolyte led, followed by the cross bearer with the new papal 
cross. Then came a double file of acolytes. Preceded by two tiny 
acolytes, came the Cardinal, who gave his blessing to the kneeling 
congregation, first on one side and then on the other, as he walked 
up the aisle to the sanctuary, 

Edward Hines, D, F, Kelly and Anthony Matre, Knights of St. 
Gregory, walked as escorts to His Eminence, a step to the rear and 
carried part of his robes. Four small pages stretched out the length 
of the Cardinal's train and bore it along with childish reverence and 
dignity. 



54 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

Then with an alertness and dignity, with his head lifted high in 
the deep knowledge of his consecration — a cardinal wears the color 
of blood as a pledge of his readiness, even for a martyr's death — 
George Cardinal Mundelein stepped to the throne. 

The Rt. Rev. Monsignori, Edward A. Kelly, LL. D., Francis 
Bobal and Francis C. Kelley, D. D., then proceeded to chairs near the 
Cardinal who was also assisted by the Very Rev. Denis Dunne, D. D., 
pastor of Holy Cross Church. 

There was a zeal for his flock as he arose to speak to that vast 
assemblage of boys who looked up at him with eager faces and stead- 
fast eyes. 

Well chosen was his titular church in Rome, the Church of Santa 
Maria del Populo, Saint Mary of the People, for the Cardinal as he 
spoke had a deep realiaztion that these were his people, the young 
folk gathered before him. His address was of their future and that 
of their city, their country, their church. 

It was a straightforward address, delivered with the forcefulness 
of one who never fails to present his message in splendid manner. 

Following the Cardinal's address, there was solemn benediction 
of the Blessed Sacrament given by the Rt. Rev. Edward F. Hoban, 
D. D., assisted by the Rev, Thomas A. Kearns, pastor of Immaculate 
Conception Church, as deacon and the Rev, M. S. Gilmartin, pastor 
of St. Anselm's Church, sub-deacon. The Rev. Francis A. Ryan, 
assistant chancellor, was master of ceremonies. 

The Rt, Rev, James A. Griffin, D. D., Bishop of Springfield, was 
assisted by the Rev. J, P. Morrison of the Cathedral and the Rev. 
Samuel David, pastor of St. Ephrem's Church. 

Present at the services also, were the Cardinal's two sisters, Mrs. 
Theodore Eppig of Long Island, N. Y., and Mrs. Arthur B. Hull 
of Forest Hills, N. Y. Accompanying Mrs. Eppig were her five sons 
and one daughter: Joseph, George, Theodore, Arthur, Edmund and 
Rita. With Mrs. Hull was Mr. Hull, who with Mrs. Eppig and the 
younger children had escorted the newly elevated Cardinal on the 
special train from New York. The four elder Eppig boys had made 
the trip from Campion College, Prairie du Chien, Wis., especially 
for this occasion. 

It was 6:30 P. M., when the Cardinal emerged from the chan- 
cery office on Cass Street, to begin the journey homeward after the 
great day of triumph. 

Here also a surging crowd greeted him. Among them were 
mothers with their little children whom they held up to be blessed 
by this new prince of the Church. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 55 

The blessings given, His Eminence stepped into a waiting auto- 
mobile and was soon turning into the driveway leading into his resi- 
dence at North State Street and North Avenue. 

Here, too, a crowd awaited him. The special poli^ce guard in 
formal dress headed by Captain Prendergast, formed a lane for the 
Cardinal up the stairs. 

At the door, he stopped and turned to his guards. 

"I am very tired," he said, ''but it has been a wonderful, won- 
derful day; a wonderful greeting. May God bless you." 

In the Cathedral Tuesday Morning 
By Rev. Francis A. Ryan 

Thousands of people found their way to the Cathedral of the 
Holy Name on Tuesday morning. They started early in order to 
secure places, with full understanding of the generosity of Chicago 
crowds. They were there in large numbers long before the doors 
were opened. 

The grand old Cathedral, roused to memories of former events 
of note, could recall many scenes of splendor and magnificence. But 
it is almost certain that Tuesday morning presented the climax. 

Thousands could not gain entrance to the commodious building 
when the long procession took its way from the Cathedral school hall 
south on Cass Street, west on Superior, towards the main entrance. 
They could only line themselves along the way of march, permitting 
a thin lane of passage for the clerical procession. 

First €ame the cross bearer and acolytes. Then in turn followed 
students of St. Mary of the Lake Seminary and of seminaries of 
religious orders in the diocese. Priests of the archdiocese, and of 
religious orders with visiting clergy from all parts of the world 
then wended their way along, two by two. Over one thousand were 
in line, preceding thirty-one bishops, three Abbots and four Arch- 
bishops. Then came the officers of the Mass and finally His Emi- 
nence, Cardinal Mundelein with his attendants. 

The cathedral was gorgeously decorated with flags, bunting and 
other ornaments of white and gold. There was a blaze of light and 
a sudden flare of trumpets as the head of the long procession ap- 
peared. The fanfare of clarions continued in a solemn grandeur 
until all were in place, the Cardinal last in the long line. 

"Ecce Sacerdos," sang out the choir as His Eminence appeared 
in the aisle. And Singenberger 's magnificant rendering thrilled all 
as they knelt for the Cardinal's blessing as he moved slowly towards 
the altar. From aloft continued the splendid music presented by 



56 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

the Cathedral Quartette and choir, augmented by Quigley Seminary 
Choir, members of the Casino club and twenty-four musicians from 
the Chicago Symphony orchestra. 

The Right Reverend E. M. Dunne, D. D., bishop of Peoria, was 
celebrant of the Mass. The assistant priest was the Rt. Rev. William 

E. Foley. The deacon was the Rt. Rev. F. Ostrowski; the sub-deacon, 
Rt. Rev. M, Kruszas. 

The assistant priest to His Eminence, the Cardinal, was the Rt. 
Rev. M. J. FitzSimmons, V. G. The Deacons of Honor were Rt, Rev. 

F, A. Rempe and the Rt. Rev. P. W. Dunne. 

Ministers to the Cardinal included the Very Rev. D. J. Dunne, 
D. D., the Rev. Jas. Horsburgh, and the Papal Knights, D. F. Kelly, 
K. S. G. ; E. F. Hines, K. S. G., and Anthony Matre, K. S. G. 

The sermon was preached by the Rt. Rev. P. J. Muldoon, D. D., 
bishop of Rockford, and is printed in full elsewhere in these columns. 

Cardinal's First Address 

His Eminence, at the conclusion of the Mass, addressed the large 
congregation as follows: 

'■'There comes occasionally in the life-time of some of us a day 
when the heart is full and overflowing with gratitude. Such a day 
has come for me. 

"I have just come back from the Eternal City, from the steps 
of the Papal throne, from the presence of Christ's Vicar on earth. 

"The words of welcome and praise from his lips still linger in 
my ears, and the warmth of his fatherly embrace remains with me 
like a benediction. He has laden me and my people with favors, 
and he has bestowed on me the greatest honor in his gift. 

''After God, who has ever watched over me with particular care, 
I am most grateful today to His Vicar to be our loving and beloved 
here on earth, our Holy Father, Pope Pius XI. 

•'And may God long spare him to Father, chief shepherd and 
guide. 

"During all those wondrous days when the attention of the 
Christian world was focused on the Church in the United States, 
my thoughts would wander back in affectionate gratitude to my 
clergy and people, who, after all, were the ones who had made it 
possible for me to ascend to this great dignity ; who, by their loyalty 
and devotion, had won this distinction for their diocese and their 
archbishop ; and, even though they might not themselves wear the 
scarlet robes, yet I prayed that they might all of them share the 
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GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 57 

Pontiff pictured the glorious future of the American Church, and 
lauded in glowing terms our charity and our brotherly love. 

''But, even more generous still, is the cup of my gratification. 
When now I return again to my people, I find the arms of the city 
opened to receive me; I see the tear of welcome glistening in their 
eyes and I hear the chant of joy in the voices of their children ; and 
I feel their happiness is complete, because the father has been hon- 
ored, their bishop has been rewarded and their city and their dio- 
cense singled out for marked distinction. 

"And, even as I thank them with all my heart, in the same 
breath I would reward them, for I bring them the blessing of our 
common Father, of him who is not only our Holy Father in name, 
but our Holy Father in every sense of the word; whose kindness 
appears in every word that falls from his lips, whose goodness looks 
forth from his eyes and lurks in his smile, whose holiness shines out 
best when he offers up the sacrifice of the Mass and gives the bread 
in Holy Communion. 

'' 'Bless them,' he said to me, 'Bless them all, each and every 
one, bless them in my name. 

" 'Bless them because they have been so generous to' the little 
ones, bless them because they have so helped to build up the Church 
of God, bless them because they have been a source of consolation to 
me and have helped to lighten my burden, bless them because they 
have tried to be exemplary Catholics.' 

"Tell me, my good priests and people, if your dear old mother 
dwelt across the sea and she sent you a message of this kind, would 
you not feel that all your efforts were well repaid? That is why I 
said I bring you your reward. 

"But, it is likewise a day of thanksgiving for this city and this 
diocese. Today it ranks with the capitals of the world, with Paris, 
Madrid, Milan, Vienna and even New York, where rules a cardinal 
archbishop. The youngest of them all, only of yesterday, it is chosen 
to be a leader in the West. 

"What an honor this is for every Catholic; but even more, what 
an added responsibility, and yet I am convinced that all of you will 
fulfill that duty, live up to that responsibility, regard it as a pre- 
rogative to be the leaders and exemplars in every effort we make in 
the cause of charity, of education and of religion. 

"Never have the people of Chicago or their priests disappointed 
me; never had I cause to complain of them in the past, never will 
they fail me in the future, I am sure, in any work we may under- 
take for the glory of God and the salvation of souls. 



58 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

"And my prayer today for them and for me is the same as that 
I uttered when first I came among them, that last prayer of Christ 
for those who were to carry on his work on earth 'that they may be 
one with the Father, even as Thou and I art one ; that they may be 
one in us.' " 

Following the reading of the Papal Briefs by Monsignor Fitz- 
Simmons the Cardinal imparted the Apostolic Benediction. 

Bishop Muldoon's Tribute to His Eminence 

The Right Reverend Peter J. Muldoon, D. D., bishop of Rockford, 
Illinois, a priest of the archdiocese for many years and auxiliary 
bishop here before his transfer to the new diocese established at 
Rockford in 1909, preached an eloquent sermon at the Holy Name 
Cathedral on Tuesday morning. 

Your Eminence, Most Eev. and Rt. Rev. Bishops, Monsignori, Very Rev. 
and Rev. Fathers and dearly beloved brethren of the laity: 

We are assembled this morning to offer sincere thanks to God, for the 
steady and sturdy growth of the Catholic Church, both spiritually and materi- 
ally in the United States; we also wish to express our sincere gratitude to Him 
who said to Peter, ' ' Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my Church, ' ' 
that the successor of St. Peter, the Pope of Peace and Charity has seen fit to 
recognize the ever increasing importance of the Church in this section by calling 
from among his confreres the Metropolitan of the marvelous See of Chicago 
to a seat in the College of Cardinals. Our presence is likewise the testimony of 
our gratitude to Pius XI, both for the act which has enhanced the glory of the 
Church in the great west, but also for the gracious words he used when con- 
ferring the honor, for did he not declare: "We have heard of the great faith 
of your people, of the magnificent development of Christian life, of their 
flaming devotion to the Holy Faith, to the Vicar of Jesus Christ, to Jesus in 
the Blessed Eucharist. All this fills us with purest joy and gives us the golden 
key to the magnificent mystery of the miracle of charity which your country 
has shown." 

Furthermore, we wish by this ceremony and our presence, to assure His 
Eminence, the first Cardinal of Chicago, that we most genuinely honor him 
whom the Vicar of Jesus Christ has so generously and so peculiarly honored. 

We rejoice that this portion of the vineyard has blossomed so beautifully 
as to attract Papal attention; has borne fruit so abundantly that special recog- 
nition should be extended; has waxed so strong that the appropriateness of 
a representative from the west in the Senate of the Church Universal, should 
be hailed with praise and enthusiasm. We rejoice also that Catholics have 
played so well their part in the ''Drama of Divine Pity," that he who repre- 
sents Him who said, ''Whatever you do to the least of these you do to me," in 
a b'jrst of gratitude, exclaimed when conferring the Cardinal's Hat, "The 
great Drama of Pity has seldom had so large and potent a life as in your own 
country, where men's hearts contain such wealth of intelligence and force, 
infinitely most precious." 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 59 

On such an occasion as this, sentiments of joy and gratitude pour forth 
as naturally from Catholic hearts, enlivened by faith and graced by love of 
their spiritual mother, ever ancient, but ever new, as docs the sparkling water 
break forth from the spring fed by the eternal snows; but if I do not misread 
public acts, and generous expressions, even those outside the communion of the 
Catholic Church have not hesitated to express their interest in this historical 
and ecclesiastical event. Such exhibitions of brotherly love are most heartening, 
and bespeak the kindness, toleration, consideration and broad sense of apprecia- 
tion for religion and religious personages that live in the hearts of all true 
Americans. 

Nor is this to be wondered at when we consider the Christian atmosphere 
that surrounds our highest tribunals; the Christian principles that have entered 
into' the interpretation of our constitution; the appeal that is made to the 
Almighty from whom all power and beauty comes; by our chief executives in 
public proclamations in time of suffering, trial and thanksgiving. The reveren- 
tial words of the first President still have a meaning to all our citizens. Did 
he not dedicate our country religiously when he said: "It would be peculiarly 
improper to omit, in this first official act, my fervent supplication to that 
Almighty Being who rules the universe, who presides in the council of nations, 
. . . that His benediction may consecrate to the liberties and happiness of 
the United States, a government instituted by themselves for these essential 
purposes. ... In tendering this homage to the Great Author of every public 
and private good I assure myself that it expresses your sentiments not less 
than my own; nor those of my fellow citizens at large, less than either. No 
people can be bound to acknowledge the invisible Hand which conducts the 
affairs of men more than the people of the United States." Noble, religious 
words are these! They still permeate our official, public and private life and 
take new form when occasion permits, in honoring religious institutions and 
religious personages; for these institutions are acknowledged the bulwarks of 
our Christian civilization and deserve affectionate respect, and these personages 
are rightly considered the exemplars of the noblest virtues, the apostles of the 
sublimest doctrine, and the proponents of the most exalted ideals; in other 
words, the same sound judgment of all serious Americans naturally leans to- 
wards the Divine, and what may be termed an instinct of faith becomes eloquent 
in expression when a fellow American is honored ecclesiastically. 

I trust it may not be amiss to express the hope that this unusual ecclesias- 
tical event that we are celebrating with all its attendant ceremonial and pub- 
licity may cause men. Catholic and non-Catholic, to pause for a moment to 
examine the claims of the Catholic Church; to scrutinize her wonderful history; 
to examine the monuments of her fertile genius decorating her pathway during 
2,000 years; to seriously consider her supernatural life and to give her that 
admiration and attention due to "The only constant quantity in the midst of 
variables; a peculiarity not given to any other moral organization." 

We believe that the Church which issued from the upper room in Jerusalem 
was complete as an organiaztion and was endowed with all that was necessary 
for the salvation of the souls of men, as well as capable of bringing lasting 
peace to all nations; that she had a message that would fully satisfy the 
vagrant and restless heart of man, and that message was Jesus and Him cruci- 
fied. The only message that could cause man to cry out — sufficient. Receiving 
it, man is truly little less than the angels; refusing it, man is only a starved 



60 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

wanderer building upon sand. With his message the Apostles with holy 
audacity but without wealth, political or social power changed the pagan world 
and gained a great moral victory. When the authorities of the hour strove to 
hush their song of peace, joy and salvation, they cried the louder, "It is better 
to obey God rather than man." 

Ever since Apostolic days, this admirable organization has had but one 
mission, ''To teach all nations, all things Jesus had commanded to be taught." 
Addition to our subtraction from His doctrine has always been heresy. For 
all nations, all classes and all times she has repeated the identical lessons of 
faith, hope and charity. In season and out of season her task has been to 
guide and direct men's passions in order to elevate mankind; to purify the 
worldly by engraving the sermon of the Mount on their breasts; to scourge the 
vicious to make them saints; to reproach the merely rich that they might ac- 
knowledge their stewardship; to sooth the poor that they might be patient when 
the harness of poverty galled; and to enshrine in the heart of the child the 
image of Jesus, the Son of God. 

This Church is man's best friend for she meets him in all phases of life, 
to defend him even against himself; to encourage him and to educate him as 
an individual, and as a member of the family and as a citizen. The human 
soul and its perfection are ever the quest and care of the Church. At all times, 
in the face of pagan teaching she proclaims the dignity, value and right to life 
of the unborn. When born, she throws about him the mantle of her protection, 
is uneasy until original sin has been washed from his soul, and she can tell him 
Heaven is his inheritance. Be he crippled or deformed or mentally deficient, 
she clasps him closer to her bosom and protects him against false humanitarians 
and harsh legislation that would consign him to cruel care or an early grave. 
Bereft of parents she gathers him into her charitable institutions where conse- 
crated religious men and women may be both bather and mother to him. 

When, as American citizens, irrespective of creed, we speak of the progress 
and ideals of our country, it is not always an empty boast. Critics to the 
contrary, we have, I believe, not only quantity but a fair strain of real quality 
among our citizens, and notwithstanding the accusation of being lovers of pleas- 
ure and materialistic, we have accomplished not only big things but also great 
and noble deeds, especially in regard to the youth of the country. Our Catholic 
citizens in their treatment of the child in an educational way have been an 
inspiration and an example to every patriotic citizen. They have not only 
proclaimed the value of the immortal soul, the need of that soul for the teaching 
of Christ, and the impossibility of rearing men to fit to sen^e in a democracy who 
are without morality which, as the Father of our Country said, cannot be with- 
out religion. These truly are sublime ideals and to translate them in an aduca- 
tional way into everyday life has cost American Catholics a sacrifice monumental 
and perhaps unequaled at any other period. But what matters the cost or the 
sacrifice if a contribution is made to American religious and educational life 
that is substantial, protective and enduring! We frequently hear the cry back 
to the constitution and the fundamental rights of man. If you wish, join in the 
sacred crusade for constitutional rights, but forget not that the Church says 
there is another and more necessary effort, without which the former will be 
spasmodic and weak, namely, to hold fast to Jesus Christ and His teaching for 
He is the way and the truth and the life, and to labor most assiduously that 
the wonderful youth of America be not deprived of the only philosophy and 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 61 

theology that can make conscience sensitive, the heart pure, the will strong 
and the intellect fortified against chicanery. 

May we not hurriedly consider the arresting panorama of the Catholic 
Church guiding, protecting and directing the family. If the family be the unit 
in the state then any organization that risks its all to keep it pure and whole- 
some and untarnished ■ does deserve the praise of thoughtful and patriotic men. 
The morality of the nation can be judged by the respect which is given the 
marriage bond. The permanency and sanctity of the home has always had the 
watchful direction and tender solicitude of the Church. She has no physical 
force to compel men to live in one and unbroken marriage union, so necessary 
for the stability of the state and the family. She has nought to oppose to those 
who at times reject her position in regard to marriage, except undaunted cour- 
age, repeating sweetly but firmly, "It is better to obey God rather than man," 
and, ''What God has joined together, let not man put asunder." 

Again, follow this Church into civil and social life and behold her in court, 
market place and factory, teaching without reservation a doctrine that insures 
stability and order to the family, the State and the Church. "Let every soul 
be subject to higher powers, for there is no power but from God; and those 
that are, are ordained of God." (Romans XIII, 6.) Man to serve truly mast 
serve through an enlightened conscience. There must be authority that civiliza- 
tion may exist; and that authority in whatever form is from God. Disobedience 
to this autohrity is sin, which will be punished by a Just Judge. This teaching 
is not a simple suggestion or a proposed solution for men to accept or reject 
as they please. It is a command and he who violates it violates an ordinance of 
God. The observers of this ordinance are the most Christian and patriotic of 
men. Those who deny its truth are gradually undermining the fabric of tlie 
State and are opening a wide pathway for confusion, weakness and anarchy. 

This organization called the Church, my dear brethren, is, we believe, vfith 
all our heart and soul, divine in her Founder, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, 
divine in her organization directed and informed by the Holy Gnost, and teaches 
a divine doctrine as her. mission. Singular, unique and peculiar, she has 
throughout the centuries, under all forms of government, dispensed the grace of 
Jesus Christ, and today is as young in her attributes as when the Holy Ghost 
breathed upon her, and she went forth to teach in Jerusalem the self -same 
truths that she is teaching in America today. Throughout the centuries, she 
has, without evasion, subterfuge or reservation, proclaimed the divinity of the 
Master, who gave her life and promised to her divine vitality unto the consum- 
mation of the world. 

I have been prompted to give this imperfect and faint outline of the Bride 
of Christ that we might perhaps the better appreciate the exalted dignity con- 
ferred upon those chosen to be counsellors of him who rules and guides ander 
God this instrument of God's mercy to men. 

Our Divine Savior chose and confirmed Peter as head of the Church, and 
from then until now the Popes, the successors of St. Peter in unbroken line, 
have been the Vice-Gerents of Christ. These spiritual rulers have been the 
human agents through which the Master worked. Being human, they have 
always sought counsel and have always been surrounded by the ablest advisers. 
These advisers we today term the College of Cardinals and they form the senate 
of the oldest and most remarkable institution in the world's history. This 
august assembly, selected from many nations, is really international in its 



62 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

thought and vision and considers all men, savage and civilized, as precious chil- 
dren committed to its shepherding. 

Your Eminence, your name has been added to this illustrious College, which 
today, as in the past, is distinguished by the virtues, talents and accomplish- 
ments of its members. To you we turn to explain to your Eminent Confreres 
and the Holy Father Himself, the needs, the zeal, the sacrifice, the prayers, 
the devotion to the Holy See, and the hopes of the Catohlic Church in the land 
of the free — the fairest, freest field ever offered to Christian activity. 

It wo'jld. Your Eminence, ill become me to even allude to your personal 
qualities of heart and mind, after the Vicar of Jesus Christ has taken you by 
the hand and seated you among the members of his intimate household, and 
robed you with the scarlet, emblematic of your consecration to justice and 
charity. His imprimatur on you and your works is a seal so sacred and so 
complete that any atempted repetition or addition would be presumptuous. We 
may, though, and do most heartily rejoice with you in your elevation to the 
Cardinalate, which presupposes active faith, valiant leadership and a multitude 
of good works, and we offer you our sincere felicitations. 

Your position in the Church is most exalted, your responsibility tremendous, 
but incardinated in both is magnificent opportunity. You will henceforth speak 
from a lofty pulpit; you will be seen and heard afar and your words, describ- 
ing Jesus, All Beautiful, All Perfect, All Sufficient, will be a balm to the broken 
hearted, a staff to the weak, a prop to the indifferent and a stimulus to those 
who with pure hearts and chaste hands carry forward the banner of the Crucified. 

Wliat a wealth of opportunity in a civil and social life in unparalleled 
Chicago, not to go farther afield. Eager, restless and grasping is she for the 
things of time, but also seeking and searching that she may have the best 
spiritually and intellectually. Joining hands with the foremost citizens — big 
hearted and broad minded men — for the civic and social betterment of your 
city, you will be truly a Mesenger carrying the salt with its savour of protection 
and purification. 

Earnestly and sincerely do we rejoice with you and felicitate you that 
your Cardinalitial honors open wider than even before the door of opportunity 
to your talents and your service. 

Your Eminence, you would be less than human, if today your heart was not 
charged with many strong and noble emotions. You are circled about by your 
revered and illustrious brothers in the Hierarchy, who utter a fraternal God 
speed you; you are surrounded by a clergy full of zeal, initiative and sacrifice 
and who are leaving after them monuments in churches, schools, and charitable 
institutions worthy of the golden age of the Church; and who pray that you 
may be spared to make more resplendent the See of Chicago ; you are sustained 
by a laity who express their lively faith in generosity and loyalty. We welcome 
you home and say sincerely ad multos annos, but also permit us as the highest 
token of respect and appreciation to join with you in giving expression to the 
sublimest and sweetest sentiment that can issue from the heart of man, viz: Deo 
Gratias. 

One Million Dollar Diocesan Gift to His Eminence 
Aids Seminary 

One million dollars from the Catholic people of Chicago was pre- 
sented to His Eminence, Cardinal Mundelein, on Tuesday afternoon. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 63 

It was their tribute to the Cardinal, planned to aid him in further- 
ing- the project nearest his heart, St. Mary of the Lake Seminary, 
Area. 

It was not for some weeks following his departure for Rome that 
the plan got under way. It is, therefore, a most remarkable expres- 
sion of generous, sympathetic approval. At that time a meeting 
of the pastors was called by the Rt. Rev. E. F. Hoban, D. D., admin- 
istrator. As result of this gathering it was decided to recommend 
to all thought for the Seminary. 

It was conceded that assistance such as a generous offering could 
now bring to the Cardinal's plans would be immensely pleasing to 
him. It was known that he would accept nothing of this nature 
for himself. So the matter came to be presented in all Chicago par- 
ishes, quietly, without display. 

The result was the whole-hearted response which on Tuesday was 
presented to His Eminence in the form of a check. It was given him 
at a gathering of priests and bishops after the Solemn Mass at the 
Cathedral. 

It came as a complete surprise to His Eminence. Bishop Hoban 
made a short speech outlining the reasons and details of the pre- 
sentation. 

The Cardinal replied, proclaiming this to be the most magnificent 
climax to a splendid welcome that might be imagined and urging 
'all present to convey to each individual donor his personal appre- 
ciation of the thoughtful remembrance on behalf of himself and on 
behalf of the thousands of young m.en who will be trained in the 
Seminary in future years to care for the spiritual needs of the 
Catholics of this great archdiocese. 

There was a delightful informality about the occasion. The 
great gathering arose and cheered His Eminence, enthusiastically as 
he arose to receive the check from Bishop Hoban. The affair was 
in the nature of a luncheon at which the Cardinal entertained over 
one thousand guests. 

More Generous Donations for the Seminary 
One Hundred Thousand Dollar Gift 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank X. Mudd of Oak Park presented the Cardi- 
nal with the sum of $100,000 for the new Seminary. Mr. Mudd's 
gift was made without restrictions or conditions. 

The Cardinal determined that it was to take the form of a me- 
morial to Mr. and Mrs. Frank X. Mudd and some building of the 
Seminary group will bear their names. 



64 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

In giving this splendid donation to His Eminence, Mr. Mudd did 
not suggest or impose any conditions or restrictions. The money 
was given for the new seminary, the planning and building of which 
has been the dearest object of His Eminence's affection. The Car- 
dinal determined, however, that this gift would be commemorated 
in the form of a memorial. This will be accomplished by designating 
some building of the imposing seminary group to bear the names of 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank X. Mudd. 

Mr. and Mrs. Mudd live in Oak Park and are members of St. 
Edmund's parish. Mr. Mudd was born in Lebanon, Kentucky, and 
was educated at St. Mary's College, Marion County, Kentucky. He 
has been a resident of Chicago for many years and has always been 
active in the business and civic life of the city. Mr. Mudd was very 
modest about discussing his bountiful gift to the seminary. It was 
only after diligent and persistent inquiry that he consented to give 
information relating to himself. Mr. Mudd is a member of the South 
Shore Country Club and the Chicago Athletic Club and is a zealous 
worker in the Holy Name Society. He is the organizer and president 
of the Live Poultry Transit Company and is also interested and 
identified with the Railway Equipment Corporation. Mr. Mudd in 
a quiet, unostantatious way has always been keenly interested in 
promoting the work of the Church. Mr. and Mrs. Mudd have de- 
voted much of their time and labor to works of Catholic charity. 

Catholic Order of Foresters 

Among the interesting features of the return of His Eminence, 
Cardinal Mundelein, was the presentation of a gift from the Catholic 
Order of Foresters, of which Cardinal Mundelein has been the high 
spiritual director, as were his predecessors, Archbishop Quigley and 
.\rchbishop Feehan. 

At the April meeting of the High Court of the Order, it was 
decided to present a check for $25,000 to His Eminence and that a 
committee of the High Court should form a part of the delegation 
to New York to welcome the Cardinal home. This delegation con- 
sisted of High Chief Ranger Thomas H. Cannon, Vice High Chief 
Ranger Simeon Viger, Lawrence, Mass. ; High Secretary Thomas F. 
McDonald, High Medical Examiner Dr. J. P. Smyth, and High 
Trustee Patrick E. Callaghan. Two other members of the High 
Court, high trustees, John E. Stephan and Leo J. Winiecki, were 
unable to attend. 

On Saturday, May 10, as the special train was returning from 
New York, the Forester delegation, accompanied by several of the 



Q 
1-3 

o 




GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 65 

clerical members, appeared in the Cardinal's car by appointment. 
The high chief ranger made the presentation address to His Emi- 
nence, and concluded by handing the gift of the Order to him. 

The latter, in a most happy response, cordially thanked the offi- 
cers for the gift of the Catholic Order of Foresters. He referred, 
especially, to the fact that the Foresters' gift was the first he had 
received on his return from Rome and it was the first he had received 
from any Catholic organization. He paid high compliment to the 
officers and members of the society as a truly Catholic body of men, 
who were engaged in the work of protecting the homes of their mem- 
bers and at the same time being truly representative in all move- 
ments in the interest of the Church, of education and of charity. 

He stated that it was his intention to devote this gift to the sem- 
inary at Area, 111., and to make it a perpetual memorial to the Order, 
where, not only the present class of priests but future generations 
of the students who would pass through the seminary might note 
that the gift of the society had been a means of great help to the 
seminary. He expressed his desire to continue as the high spiritual 
director and hoped that the Order might continue its career with as 
great success in the years to come as had characterized the more 
than forty years of its career. He concluded by blessing the mem- 
bers of the Order and their families. 

This little ceremony concluded it was followed by the presenta- 
tion by Rev. James M. Scanlan, D. D., member and chaplain of Mc- 
Mullen Court No. 7, of a beautiful engraved address to His Emi- 
nence, which was signed by all the members of both delegations to 
New York. Mr. Henry Mawicke of Our Lady of Lourdes, made the 
presentation address. The volume is a fine example of illuminated 
pen work on parchment, bound in cardinal leather. 

An actual count of the clerical and lay delegation to New York 
disclosed that one-third thereof was composed of members of the 
Catholic Order of Foresters. 

Catholic Daughters of America Give $10,000.00 

Another presentation of much interest made on the train which 
bore the Cardinal froan New York to Chicago was a certified check 
for $10,000.00, the gift of the Illinois branch of the Catholic Daugh- 
ters of America. The representative of the society was the dis- 
tinguished war chaplain. Rev. George T. McCarthy, pastor of St. 
Margaret Mary parish and the chaplain of the active and vigorous 
society. The Catholic Daughters of America number less than eight 
thousand in Illinois but they are thoroughly imbued with the desire 



66 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

to advance the cause of education and accordingly have exerted 
themselves to assist in the movement launched and fostered by Card- 
inal Mundelein for the great University. 

Women's Catholic Order of Foresters 

Catholic women of Chicago were not surpassed by the men in the 
generosity of their gifts nor the zeal of their welcome to His Emi- 
nence, Cardinal Mundelein, in honor of his elevation to the Cardi- 
nalate. A number of women's organizations were represented by 
gifts and in the demonstrations v/omen's organizations took a part 
that received widespread commendation. 

Outstanding among the money gifts was a sum. of $5,000 from 
the Women's Catholic Order of Foresters. The gift, which is for 
St. Mary of the Lake Seminary at Area, was presented to His 
Eminence Saturday, succeeding his return by Miss Mary L. Downes, 
high chief ranger of the organization. 

In the gift is represented the generosity of hundreds of members 
of the order in Chicago and suburbs. The amount was collected in 
nickels and dimes from the working women as well as the society 
matrons who constitute the membership. 

The fund was originally collected to aid in the work of the 
Women's Forester Club, the downtown club for working women, but 
since that activity was no longer in need of the fund, it was turned 
to the other use. 

Civic Reception at Auditorium 
By Gertrude A. Kray 

Reverence for the man, honor for the Church he represents and 
civic pride in possession of a notable personality within its domain. 
This was the three-fold object that brought thousands of people to 
the Auditorium Monday night to join in a testimonial to His Emi- 
nence, Cardinal Mundelein. 

It was Chicago's tribute, the citizens' reception, and generous was 
the response. Thousands could not gain entrance to the great audi- 
torium. Many of them lingered, thronging the streets, hoping for 
even a sight of him as he passed. 

Fittingly, in the great demonstration that brought people of all 
creeds together, the Cardinal, as the representative of a Church that 
proclaims to all its unity and charity, made two of the points of 
attraction, the central theme of his address. Honor for the Church 
of God, and duties of good citizenship, he emphasized. Sincerity 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 07 

and earnestness, as always characterized his speech. His words came 
clear and forceful that reached every part of the great building. 

He was an imposing figure as he stepped alertly across the stage 
of the auditorium to his throne in the center arranged for him. The 
cheers of the vast audience were deafening and the crowd was on its 
feet for some time in respectful tribute. Above his throne hung his 
coat of arms and draped across the back of the hug© stage was 
stretched a great American flag. There was a profusion of American 
flags in the hall proper. The national emblems were draped from 
the boxes and were combined with the papal colors, yellow and gold, 
on the walls and over doorways. 

It was a scene of joy that greeted His Eminence. The sea of 
upturned faces was one on which he could read supreme gladness 
in the honor that had come to him. There was a response in every 
heart, that had been equalled on few occasions of similar nature in 
Chicago. 

On the stage were seated three hundred pastors of the archdio- 
cese with dignitaries representing the hierarchy, officials of the state 
and of the city. Governor Small and Mayor Dever led the city and 
state representatives. George M. Reynolds addressed the audience 
on behalf of non-Catholics of the city. Mr. D. F. Kelly, K. S. G., 
acted as chairman. 

Other addresses were made by M. F. Girten, Jas. A. Calek, Ed- 
mund K. Jarecki and James G. Condon. That of His Eminence is 
given in full elsewhere in these pages. 

Shortly after 8 o'clock the Paulist choristers filed slowly into 
place near the front of the stage and the testimonial was in progress. 
With the opening strains of the ''Star Spangled Banner," boyish 
voices of the youthful leaders resounded high and clear above the 
audience. In the choral number, ''Ecce Saeerods," the singers were 
at their best and the enthusiastic applause was prolonged to show 
them honor. In the closing number, "America," the choristers led 
the singing and quite appropriately added a final patriotic touch to 
an evening of great importance. 

The greeting of the non-Catholic residents of Chicago was ex- 
pressed by George M. Reynolds, who in his opening remarks voiced 
the thought that ''This honor has come to Cardinal Mundelein be- 
cause he has deserved it. He has traveled upward not without 
effort. If we will but look backward into the life of this new prelate 
of the Catholic Church we shall see stepping stones upon whicli 
has been written, faith, determination, hope, duty, sacrifice and all 
the others." 

It was a thought for youth to carry home. 



bo ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

D. F. Kelly Is Chairman 

D. F. Kelly, who introduced the speakers, praised His Eminence 
for the great part he has taken in the formation and operation of 
the Associated Catholic Charities of Chicago. Others among the 
speakers likewise referred to the great task of caring for Chicago's 
poor and how a systematic method had been evolved under the lead- 
ership of this new prince of the Church. 

Mayor Dever, who sat upon the right hand of the Cardinal, ex- 
pressed the opening welcome greeting. He gave evidence of the 
city's pride in his elevation and thanked the people of Chicago of 
all faiths for their welcome. 

Judge E. K. Jarecki 

Judge Jarecki recalled with pride his early days in St. Hedwig's 
parish school and then sketched Chicago church history, concluding 
with the following tribute: 

"Your Eminence, since your appointment and arrival in the 
archdiocese of Chicago as its Archbishop, I have had opportunity to 
follow your various undertakings and endeavors. With the utmost 
pride and deepest satisfaction, I have watched closely the care that 
you have given the orphans, the love that you have had for the poor as 
exhibited in your establishment of the Associated Charities, the in- 
terest and arduous effort you have taken and given to the education 
of the clergy and the youth of our community. All this has been 
a source of real pleasure that has elevated our hearts and souls and 
has increased our own civic pride so that today we can really rejoice 
together with the rest of the archdiocese, that the Roman Pontiff 
has so deservedly elevated you to the dignity and position of 
Cardinal. 

"We, the laity, particularly rejoice in your elevation, because 
your life is a living example of success and achievement attained 
by hard work and self-sacrifice. Originating in modest circumstances, 
you have, by application, sacrifice and devotion to ideals, succeeded 
in a comparatively short space of time to win distinction and elevation 
to a position next to the highest in the hierarchy of the Catholic 
Church. 

"May Your Eminence continue in this good and holy work, in 
this exalted position, for the welfare of our community and the people 
of this archdiocese, and for the good of this great country and our 
own City of Chicago, and may Almighty God shower Your Eminence 
with his greatest blessings." 




I'inlerirood d- Indcnrodd. 



THE MARCHING THOUSANDS 
Consorvative estimates placed the maieliers at one luuulied thousand. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 69 

M. F. GiRTEN 

Judge Girten's was a message of congratulation eloquently ex- 
pressed, including all classes of citizens, briefly enumerating the many 
different features of work for all that have been so successfully di- 
rected by the Cardinal. 

The Judge went on to say that for all these reasons, on this 
occasion we are grateful to and we thank His Holiness, Pope Pius XI 
for the distinction bestowed on the Archbishop of Chicago as a visible 
mark of appreciation and approval of excellent service in this part 
of God's vineyard; ''and in consideration of these honors we pledge 
our loyalty to His Holiness and we assure Your Eminence that 
it shall be our aim to continue our co-operation in every endeavor 
you have begun or may undertake and we hope that in a measure 
our efforts may match your zeal in the things that are for the better- 
ment of our community and our times. May Your Eminence be 
given many, many years of good health to remain our advisor and 
our leader in our service to God and our fellowmen for that is the 
service to which Your Eminence years ago dedicated your health, 
your strength, your talents, your good will, your life, God bless our 
Archbishop George Cardinal Mundelein." 

James K. Calek 

Mr. Calek, speaking of citizens of Slav origin, said that there were 
twenty-eight parishes in Chicago with over eight thousand children 
of those races who formed part of the Cardinal's spiritual charges. 

Speaking of the Americanization progress amongst these children 
he referred to the schools encouraged by His Eminence and of the 
splendid work done in them. 

Again speaking for his confreres he addressed the Cardinal: 

"As such, then, we greet Your Eminence, and rejoice over the 
rare distinction conferred on your august and exalted person. We 
congratulate ourselves, to have been honored by our Holy Father 
in Your Eminence's distinction. We feel we have been honored as 
Americans at large, and as Your Eminence's diocesans in particular. 
We feel honored at the thought, that our beloved Archbishop has 
been deemed worthy to take part in the direct government of the 
great kingdom of God on earth. From this we shall draw a powerful 
inspiration to take lively interest in everjiihing that is to concern 
this great kingdom of Jesus Christ on earth." 

James G. Condon 
Mr. Condon opened his address with a review of the history of 
the church through the centuries and of the aid toward progress 



70 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

ever given by church leaders. In outlining its influence upon Amer- 
ican life, he said: 

''We do not tarnish the luster of others by recording in letters 
of gold the loyalty and devotion of Caatholics to America. We 
are admonished by the rulers of the Church that in order to crown 
our citienship with a befitting glory, we must fortify it with religious 
duty. Therefore in America, loyalty to the republic is a Divine 
admonition, and it is a precept of the church that resistance to 
our country and willful violation of its laws constitute an offense 
against God." 

In paying his tribute to the new cardinal, Mr. Condon said : ' ' By 
the call of Providence he has become a prince of the church and by 
his own choice remains a citizen of America. Here he will live and 
labor for his God, his country and her people. 

"Your Eminence, I utter the prayer of this great gathering made 
up of all creeds and the vast numbers who cannot be here in person 
but who are with us in heart, when I beseech the Great Master to 
make us worthy of you. I express the yearnings of all when I crave 
for them your blessing. 

Pointing to a large American flag, the speaker arrived at his 
peroration : "I speak the hopes of all by asking you as a prince 
of the Church to weave the spirit of that flag in the fabric of nations. 
You are clothed in one of its colors. Tell the story of martyrdom and 
flow of blood in behalf of liberty of conscience and of civil rights 
symbolized in its red stripes. Carry the message of good will, purity 
of purpose and love of mercy revealed in the white. In the blue 
they will see the color of the eternal sky. Bid them keep their 
eyes toward it. It is God's footstool and the gateway to heaven." 

Cardinal's Address at Auditorium Theatre; Response 
TO Civic Ovation 

After all to take one's place in the Supreme Senate of the 
Catholic Church, to be ranked among the seventy that stand highest 
among two hundred of millions in the world, to be numbered among 
the Scarlet-clad Cardinals, who have had and have Saints and States- 
men and learned men among them, is one of the greatest honors that 
can be paid to a man here today. But to be accorded as herewith 
the approval and the applause and the congratulations of those with 
whom one has lived and moved for years, that is even a greater 
gratification. For that reason I am happy tonight. My dear friends, 
this honor would have meant nothing to me, if it had meant nothing 
to you. But because you share it with me, because you have merited 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 71 

more than I, because it means glory to our eity and our people, 
that is why I appreciate it more than I can say. 

Repeatedly have I said both at home and abroad, that the real 
wearers of the Sacred Purple should be the people of Chicago. They 
are the real winners in the contest, it is their labors, their merits, 
their record that have attained this recognition from the head of 
Christendom. I am only their representative, their leader, just one 
of them. And how splendid is the record they have made. It has 
been remarked that I am the youngest member of the Sacred College 
and yet this is not remarkable. Chicago is by far the youngest of 
the cities possessing a Cardinalitial seat; the city itself is barely a 
century old, the diocese only four generations back. When I stood 
in the Propaganda College, I remember that the College was already 
an old building before a single white man had made his home where 
Chicago now stands and where today nearly four million people 
dwell; and so again I am only a representative. It represents the 
coronation of triumphant youth, a youthful church in a youthful city, 
on a youthful continent. Not foolish, vacillating boyhood, but the 
full vigor of powerful young manhood. Even the Holy Father em- 
phasized this when he spoke of this country as a land where every- 
thing is great, where every move is gigantic. But the wonder of it 
all is, that it is not a youth that is hard or thoughtless, but a youth 
that was kind to others in suffering, generous in victory, open-handed 
to those in need and misery. 

In his address on the occasion of the conferring of the red biretta 
to American Cardinals, the Pope paid a strong tribute to this 
country; in fact, veteran newspapermen who were present, claimed 
that never before had a country been so lauded in so marked a man- 
ner by a pope as was our country, on that occasion. ' ' The intervention 
of your country," said the Pontiff, ''decided the issue of the war, 
the intervention of your country in time of peace again saved 
countless lives in hunger and death." 

On every side I noticed a changed attitude towards this country. 
I had not been in Rome for fifteen years. Then we were looked upon 
as a nation of dollar-makers and dollar-seekers. Now the attitude 
was changed. We had shown that when it was a question of human 
lives of saving particularly babies' lives, we knew no lines of race 
or creed. We threw our dollars away for this purpose even quicker 
than we made them. The attitude was now one of respect, like lifting 
one's hat as a young man passed by who had done a fine thing. 
And because Chicago and her sister city, New York, had played so 
prominent a part in doing these things, that is the reason why the 



i2 ELEVATION AND IN\^STITURE 

red hat comes to Chicago and New York. Nor was the gratitude 
that is the expectation of further favors. 

Well do I member when on the eve of my departure from Rome 
that I was taking leave of the man whom I honestly believe to be the 
kindest man I ever knew, I said, ''Now, Holy Father, if we can 
at any time be of service, if there be anything we can do, just a 
word will be sufficient," and he interrupted me, "Ah, you have 
already done great things and we are grateful." And I could only 
answer as I knew the people of Chicago wanted me to answer, that 
this word of gratitude of his more than all else bears out what I 
have ever believed, I had steadfastly maintained, that God had given 
this, my native land, a sublime mission to perform. Long has it 
been to the oppressed of other nations, the land of their hearts' 
desires. 

Ever has it remained the land of the free and the home of the 
brave, but its mission does not end there. It must become the leader 
of the countries of the world. Not in the prowess of war ; not even 
so much in the markets of commerce; rather in the field of charity, 
in the interest of decency, of gentlemanly conduct, of brotherly love. 
One docs not need to travel far abroad to find how keen is the desire 
to keep alive the hatred of the war, to draw us in, if possible, into 
their bickerings and their age-long national hatreds. ''Thank God," 
I said to one, "we Americans are better sportsmen; we want to 
forget a fight as soon as it is over, to shake hands as soon as the 
contest has been decided, as the North and South did. Only the 
ignorant crackers keep up the feuds for generations in our land." 

To see the hand of God in the destiny of the American people 
we need only consider how, from a mixture of emigrant races, 
we are forming a people that is the admiration of the world. The 
Lord surely must have some great mission in store for a people 
with v/hose formation He has taken so much care as with this 
nation of ours. And now comes our duty, yours and mine, to keep 
that people one and undivided ; to keep it far from alien influences, 
and shield it against foreign propaganda. To repel from our midst 
those who would split up in parts, who would halt our progress, who 
would hamper our mission for the peace, the happiness, and the 
real prosperity of our people and our country. 

This is my part of this great purpose. All these races that are 
gathered here this evening, to unite them in one great happy family ; 
to rule them all impartially without fear or favor; to bring their 
children all the same opportunities for success in their work in this 
life, and the hope for happiness in the life to come. It is this work 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 73 

our schools succeed in accomplishing, and in an even greater measure, 
our semmaries will produce, where the future pastors are being 
trained under our own eyes, to be the real leaders of Americaniza- 
tion in this city, youths in whose veins runs the blood of many lands, 
but in whose heart burns ardently, and undyingly, the love of but 
one country, the land of their birth, the land of the Star Spangled 
Flag. 

The selection, the training, the formation of the future leaders 
of the million and more citizens who form the rank and file of the 
membership of the Catholic church in this city, to train them as 
spiritual children of our church and as loyal upright, and law- 
abiding citizens of our country, that is the contribution I would 
leave behind me as archbishop of this great diocese of Chicago; that 
is a privilege that I rank higher even than the honor that has been 
conferred on me. That is the work that will last and keep known 
to men my name long after the scarlet robes I wear have moulded 
in the tomb, and the red hat of the Cardinal swung high in the 
vaulted heights of my Cathedral. To accomplish this I would ask 
for help and co-operation of our fellow-citizens irrespective of race 
or creed, that this city we all love may be known the world over, 
and live on history's pages, not only as the greatest industrial 
and commercial center, but the city that answered to every cry of 
distress and every call of charity with its characteristic response, 
"I will." 

250th Anniversary of Establishment of Church by 
Father Marquette 

A pleasing note was introduced in the civic reception through the 
beautiful embossed souvenir program designed by the artist Thomas 
A. O 'Shaughnessy and bearing the coat of arms of the Cardinal in 
exact colors. 

Appropriately noting the coincidence of this notable event in the 
history of the Church in Chicago just two-hundred and fifty years 
after the establishment of the Church in this part of the world 
by Father James Marquette, S. J., a brief resume of Father Mar- 
quette's life and activities in Chicago and Illinois two hundred and 
fifty years ago was given. 

Extension Society Governors in a Tribute to the Cardinal 

Two hundred representative men selected from all occupations and from 
all parts of the country gathered at the Blackstone Hotel Wednesday evening, 
guests of the Board of Governors of the Catholic Church Extension Society, 
to do honor to His Eminence, Cardinal Mundelein. 



74 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

The banquet was in the nature of a tribute to His Eminence, who is 
also Chancellor of the Society. The Eight Reverend F. C. Kelley, D. D., president, 
acted as toastmaster, introducing the different speakers. In the entertainment 
of the guests he was assisted by the Very Rev. W. D. O 'Brien, LL. D., vice- 
president, the Rev. E. J. McGuinness, the Rev. P. H. Griffin and Mr. F. W. 
Harvey, .Tr. 

William R. Dawes, president of the Chicago Association of Commerce was 
the first to speak for Chicago and its appreciation of the honor paid this city 
in the selection of its Archbishop as a member of the Sacred College of Cardinals. 

Then followed speakers representative of various parts of the country 
presenting report of activities of the Extension Society in their respective dis- 
tricts during the period of years in which His Eminence was Chancellor. 

All were eulogistic in the highest degree of the splendid work done. Each 
speaker in turn told of churches built in remote settlements, of aid given mission 
priests, of assistance rendered in many ways, of work brought to successful 
completion because of the Catholic Church Extension Society. 

The Right Reverend John T. McNicholas, O. P., bishop of Duluth, spoke 
for the western territory ; the Right Reverend J. Chartrand, D. D., bishop of 
Indianapolis, sketched Extension operations in the middle west; the Most 
Reverend John Shaw, D. D., Archbishop of New Orleans, outlined developments 
in the South. 

The Most Reverend Neil McNeil, D. D., Archbishop of Toronto, Chancellor 
of the Church Extension Society of Canada, told of work for church expansion 
in that country and expressed his appreciation of aid rendered his organization 
by the Chicago body and of personal assistance given by the Cardinal. 

The Church Extension Society was organized seventeen years ago by 
Monsignor Kelly who still remains in active direction of the splendid organiza- 
tion he has built up, through assistance rendered by the late Archbishop Quigley 
and the present Chancellor, Cardinal Mundelein. All the speakers empliasized 
their appreciation of his personal interest and indefatigable zeal. 

To relate only one feature of the society's v.'ork, over twelve hundred 
churches have been erected in all parts of the country. Each speaker explained 
that none of these would be possible were it not for Extension assistance. 

His Eminence, the principal speaker, sketched his eight years in Chicago 
where peace and concord dwells among people of all creeds. He outlined the 
splendid work of the Extension Society not only as a means of extending the 
church but also as a mission for bringing this same friendly understanding of 
religious beliefs among our fellow citizens in the far distant places. 

He looked forward to real brotherly love and family harmony, the same 
fair, tolerant, public-spirited attitude towards a religious movement in other 
parts as has been exemplified in Chicago in recent years. 

Seated at the speakers' table were also Mayor Dover, the Rt. Rev. P. J. 
Muldoon, D. D., Rockford, the St. Rev. E. F. Hoban, D. D., Chicago. 

Arranged at the head of separate tables were the following members of 
the hierarchy: 

The Most Rev. A. Dowling, D. D., St. Paul; the Rt. Rev. E. P. Allen, D. D., 
Mobile; the Rt. Rev. M. C. Lenihan, D. D., Great Falls; the Rt. Rev. Thos. 
Lillis, D. D., Kansas City ; the Rt. Rev. J. B. Morris, D. D., Little Rock ; the 
Et. Rev. P. E. HalTron, D. D., V/inona ; the Et. Ecv. J. J. Lawlor, D. D., Lead ; 
the Rt. Rev. E. D. Kelly, D. D., Grand Rapids; the Rt. Rev. Jos. Shrembs, D. D., 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 75 

Cleveland, the Rt. Rev. Joseph P. Lynch, D. D., Dallas; the Rt. Rev. J. B. 
Jeanmard, D. D., Lafayette ; the Rt. Rev. D. M. Gorman, D. D., Boise ; the Rt. 
Rev. E. B. Ledvina, D. D., Corpus Christi, the Rt. Rev. Joseph H. Pru 'Homme, 
D. D., Prince Albert; the Rt. Rev. J. J. Swint, D. D., Wheeling; the Rt. Rev, 
B. J. Mahoney, D. D., Sioux Falls ; the Rt. Rev. Patrick Barry, D. D., St. Augus- 
tine ; the Rt. Rev. Thos. O 'Donnell, D.D . Victoria ; the Rt. Rev. Jas. Griffin, 
D. D., Springfield; the Rt. Rev. Jos. G. Pinten, D. D., Superior; the Rt. Rev. 
Jos. F. McGrath, D. D., Baker City. 

Tribute to Cardinal Mundelein 

By the Rt. Rev. Msgr. F. C. Kelley, D. D., Protonotary Apostolic 

Your Eminence: 

In spite of the fact that the event of this evening seems only a continuation 
of- the feast of yesterday, yet is there a significant distinction between them. 
Both are memorable and joyous; but, yesterday it was the Archdiocese and City 
of Chicago that welcomed their first Cardinal-Archbishop and Metropolitan, 
while today the West and South proclaim the Cardinal-Chancellor of a Pontifical 
institute which has been to both a source of strength and consolation. As 
the Archbishop of Chicago and the Metropolitan of Illinois, Your Eminence 
is the head of a large and important ecclesiastical family, but as Chancellor 
of Extension, Your Eminence is more for you are the protector of the American 
missions, older brother in the Episcopate of those upon v.'hom the burden of 
caring for them depends, inspiration of the men and women — priests and sisters — 
who keep lonely watch and ward over the scattered flock on mountain and 
prairie, and promoter of progress in that part of our common country where 
the future glory of America is to find a place for its highest throne. Wlien 
you sat down at this table. Your Eminence, we forget that you were the 
Cardinal-Archbishop of Chicago. We know you here as the Cardinal of all the 
hopes that find in Chicago their heart and center. 

We are proud and happy to welcome Your Eminence at the gateway of 
the Golden V/est and in you to salute the Sacred Purple. We admit our 
selfishness in it all, for in your strength we are strong, in your dignity we 
are elevated, in your honor we are honored. Eight years ago you were bound 
to the cause of American Home Missions by the same act of High Authority 
that made you Archbishop of Chicago. In creating you Cardinal that same 
High Authority added dignity to a duty which you exercise in common with us, 
the Governors of Extension. 

We fully appreciate. Your Eminence, how great is that dignity to v.'hich 
you have been elevated, and therefore how pleased and proud we ought to 
be, and are, in the reflection of its glory on our v/ork. The College of Cardinals 
has a well-marked and well-honored place in history, and not alone in its 
collegiate character. Its members have never failed to add to its greatness 
by their individual contributions of learning, statesmanship and sanctity. We 
do not forget that to Italy and the world the Sacred College gave Gaetani, well 
called "the greatest jurist of his age"; De Medici the patron of the world's 
first artists in painting, sculpture and architecture; Baronius who, after Eusebius, 
was the Father of Ecclesiastical History; Lambertiui who, as Benedict XIV, was 
called ''the greatest scholar among the popes"; Bonaventure, Bishop of Albano, 
raised to eminence both as a philosopher in the schools, and like Cardinal Charles 
Borromeo to the altars as a saint; and Mezzofanti, the first of all the world's 



76 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

linguists, who spoke and wrote perfectly thirty-eight tongues and could use 
thirty more as well as fifty dialects. Outside Italy, the home of the Sacred 
College, its members have been lights to progress and civilization. When France 
needed a savior she found him in Armand Cardinal Eichelieu. Well did Bulwer- 
Lytton choose the words he put into the mouth of that soldier-statesman: 

I found France rent asunder, — 

The rich men despots, and the poor banditti; — 
Sloth in the mart, and schism within the temple; 
Brawls festering to rebellion; and weak laws 
Rotting away with rust in antique sheaths, 
I have re-created France; and, from the ashes 
Of the old feudal and decrepit carcase. 
Civilization on her luminous wings 
Soars, phoenix-like, to Jove! 

While Sacred Eloquence had her priestly Lacordaires and her episcopal 
Bossuets, there was Giraud, the Lion of Cambray, to stand forth in the red 
of a Cardinal and add the flame of his burning oratory to the tire that warmed 
the French heart to faith in cold days of trial for the Church of God. If the 
English had a martyred Statesman-Archbishop in Thomas a Becket, the Celts 
had one in David Cardinal Beaton, of whom it has been written that he was 
"one of Scotland's greatest statesmen and scholars." Germany has reason 
proudly to exhibit the record of Nicholas Cardinal Cusa, whose astronomical 
writings forecast the later discoveries of Copernicus and Galileo and who, in 
addition, endowed medicine with its tirst plan for accurate diagnosis. Nor is it 
strange that a Cardinal should be a distinguished scientist. Haynald of Hungary 
was a great botanist and collector of botanical specimens and books in the last 
century. His treasures today are in the Hungarian National Museum. Spain 
would not wish to suffer the loss of the permanent prestige given her by 
Ximenes, Cardinal-Archbishop of Toledo, Chancellor of Castile, Founder of the 
University of Alcala, Maker of Madrid, author of the first Polyglot Bible and 
Regent of the Kingdom. But other' Cardinals than Ximines have been educators 
as well as writers. Newman's loss would have been a calamity for English 
literature and he was Rector of the National University of Ireland. Capecelatro 
showed how charmingly biography could be penned. Bcssarion was a master of 
Greek letters. Dovisi, called Bibbiena, was a distinguished author of comedies. 
Piccolimini and Pecci, who both reached the Papal throne, were poets. The 
arms of the College of Christ Church in the University of Oxford are still the 
unchanged armorial bearings that show the red hat and shield of Wolsey, 
her Cardinal-Founder. But, centuries before, a greater and more faithful Car- 
dinal than hte Chancellor of Henry Tudor, Stephen Langtou, won for himself 
the permanent gratitude of civilization. As long as the constitutions of modern 
states are founded upon the rights gained for the people by Magna Charta, 
as long as representative government endures and justice still functions through 
trial by jury, will that great Cardinal's name, leading the list of the Barons of 
Runnymede and "soul of the movement" that gave a free citizenship to his 
country and helped inspire our fathers to gain it for us, he held in grateful 
remembrance. There is however, a Cardinal's name that should be dearer to 
Americans than even the great name of Langton. In the struggle by James 
the First of England against rights which Lord Chief Justice Coke said were 
insured the people by the Great Charter, a struggle between absolutism and 




Laveccha Photo. 
HIS EMINENCE GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 

First portrait of the Cardinal since his return liome. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 77 

democracy, the clear voice of Bellarniine, a Cardinal, was heard in controversy 
against the King. He taught the ancient Catholic tradition that political authority 
is, under God, the authority of the whole community. The supporters of 
autocracy censured Bellarmine because he said that ' ' in the kingdoms of men, 
the pov»-er of the king is from the people because the people make the king. 
Jefferson admitted that the principles he wrote into the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence wore traditional and not his own. They surely were traditional, for 
they are practically identical with the summary from Bellarmine 's De Laicis 
made by Sir Robert Filmer before the year 1680. He wrote ' ' Thus far Bellar- 
mine, in which passages are comprised the strength of all that I have read or 
heard produced for the natural liberty of the subject." We could not take out 
of civilization what vv'as put into it by red-robed cardinals and leave the 
world as rich as she is today. 

As an American as v,ell as a Roman Cardinal Your Eminence will find 
yourself in goodly company. The first bishop who labored on our soil to be 
crea,ted Cardinal, John Cheverus, had twenty-seven years of work for God and 
country in America to his credit. The second President of the United States, 
John Adams, headed the list of non-Catholic contributors to the first church 
that saintly ecclesiastic built in Boston. History speaks eloquently of the 
learning, the devotion ,the sanctity of Cardinal Cheverus. He was, Your Eminence, 
an American Home Missionary, a practical Church Extensionist when the laborers 
were few. His memory clings like sweet incense around the Church in New Eng- 
land. John McCloskey, the first to be created Cardinal while actually occupying 
an Amerii^ian See, was a God-sent administrator in times that tried souls, but 
he was also the builder of what is still our most monumental American cathedral, 
St. Patrick's in New York. James Cardinal Gibbons gave us our best apologetic 
book, now translated into many tongues and used all over the world. John 
Cardinal Farley has been well called the Father of American Foreign Missions. 
The addresses and sermons of William Cardinal O'Conncl are fine-cut cameos 
of eloquence, expected of one who is a cultured musician, composer and writer. 
To him history must assign the inspiration that gave Japan its first Catholic 
University. Denis Cardinal Dougherty, the successful and successive ruler of 
four episcopal sees, a latinist v/ho has few equals in America, a theologian who 
has none, gave the Aglipayan schism its death blow in the Philippine Islands, 
and left monuments there in institutions of learning and charity. Tnilv a 
goodly company. Your Eminence, for you and your beloved colleague of Ne^» 
York. Noilesse oblige say the witty French. Noblesse oblige history echoes back 
to your ears tonight. 

No one in the West has any fear. Your Eminence, but that you will write 
another splendid page in the history of the Sacred College — an American page. 
Indeed, some of it you have already written. Tonight v/e are interested chiefly 
in that part of it which has shown and will show your universal sympathies, 
for it is to these that our missions at home can most confidently appeal. Around 
you, besides fellow-citizens interested in the material prosperity of both West 
and South, are hearts that beat for the scattered ones of the flock, successors 
of those who carried the cross over the prairies and mountains, followers of those 
who blazed the missionary trail with marks of bloody foot-prints. They come 
here to salute you as their Cardinal, their friend, their brother in the work 
of making a greater West and South, as well as a whole country, pleasing to 
God an a joy to all its people. This gathering offers Your Eminence a title 



78 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

that v\'e hope shall remain your own to the end of time, as time was once 
eloquently measured by an American Indian Chief, "as long as the sun and 
moon shall endure." 

Welcomed by Religious 

Two thousand sisters representing communities in the archdiocese, 
had their special part in the homecoming of Cardinal Mundelein. 
His Eminence in a tribute to their services, their zeal and activities, 
at the Welcome Pontifical Services celebrated at Holy Name Cathe- 
dral, Saturday, May 17, addressed them as follows: 

My dear Sisters: 

For me it is a real pleasure to see that the Sisters of the diocese have their 
own part in this historic celebration of the first cardinalitial appointment in 
the western part of the United States. Indeed it is just and fitting, for no 
one has helped more than they to bring this about. The generous, living, active 
Catholicity of Chicago is largely the result of their work. The flourishing 
condition of our seminary, notwithstanding the attractions and temptations of 
a great city is the response to their prayers and the effect of their inspiration 
and devoted solicitude. The magnificent attendance at Mass, the frequency of 
Holy Communion among men as well as women is due to the fact that these 
v/cre taught their religion in precept and example by the Sisters in our parochial 
schools. I have never hesitated to give the credit that is due the Sisters for 
the rapid and healthy growth of the Church of Chicago, wherever I have had 
the opportunity. To the Holy Father I spoke of their work, their numbers, 
their zeal and activity, their self-sacrificing labors for everything that concerns 
Holy Mother the Church. To the head of the Sacred Congregation of Religious, 
v.'ho has care of them, I said that our Women Religious were a constant source 
of consolation to me; that without them our progress would be halted and our 
work hampered; that anything we could do to improve their spiritual life, to 
render their work more efficient, to make their vocation attractive, was not only 
advisable but almost absolutely necessary for the cause of Catholic education, 
the cause in which they are taking so great a part, and which, but for them 
would wither and languish avray. The opportunities do not occur often when a 
bishop can tell and the Sisters may hear what he thinks of them. Therefore, 
an occasion like this to which they have contributed so much and which comes 
largely as the result and reward of their labors and sacrifices is one that must 
bring joy and satisfaction mutually to themselves and to me. 

Last week I came over on a giant steamer, one of the largest and most 
wonderful that man's genius has yet produced. It carried a crew of 1,000 men. 
On the top bridge stood a man, covered with gold lace and decorations. Every- 
body bowed to him, he was in supreme command, his word was law all over 
the ship. But one day I went down into the bowels of the ship, among the 
engines and boilers and dynamos; here I found forty engineers laboring day 
and night in the fierce heat, m.id the deafening noises, in the narrowest of 
spaces; and the thought occurred to me; these are the men who are really 
driving the ship ahead. That is very much like the Church of Chicago. I am 
the captain on the bridge, with the gold lace and the decorations. But the 
Sisters are the engineers in their class rooms, in their hospital wards, in their 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 79 

chapel stalls. They are driving the ship ahead. Yet in the Providence of God 
guiding His Church, both of us are necessary for the work, I on the bridge 
guiding the ship v/ith my hand on the wheel, my eye on the liorizon ahead; 
you in the engine room, in the stoke-hole bringing home to the eternal port the 
bark of Peter with the precious shipload of passengers it contains. 

Nor did I forget you Sisters at the tomb of the Apostles, nor in the 
presence of Christ's Vicar on earth. But before leaving, I asked the Holy 
Father to bless our Sisters and their work. And he responded in the kindness 
of his great heart, and with the fatherly solicitude he has for all his cliildren 
and particularly for the little ones — for his voice sometimes breaks with emotion 
v/hen ho si^cuks of little children Gul!!cring or in want. And ho commissioned 
me to bring you his own apostolic blessing and to deliver it to you according 
to your own intentions, to bless you and your work, your communities, your 
classrooms and the children committed to your care and to all of those near 
and dear to you. And that blessing I will impart to you now, even as though 
the Holy Father had come to you, since you cannot go to him, and I give it to 
you as a precious remembrance of this occasion and as a promise of God's 
blessing on you here and hereafter. 

His Eminence Present at Solemn High Mass at St. James Chapel 

By E. Hillenbrand 

It was the Cardinal's Day at Quigley Preparatory Seminary, 
Tuesday. 

For the fourth time since his return to Chicago, His Eminence 
attended a Solemn Mass, this time in St. James chapel of the beau- 
tiful preparatory seminary. 

The rector of the seminary, Rt. Rev. Msgr. Francis Purcell, D. D., 
was the celebrant. Rev. John Mielcareck was deacon, Rev. Francis 
McCarthy was sub-deacon. Deacons to His Eminence were the Rev. 
Fathers William Mockenhaupt and George Beemsterboer. Rev. John 
Doody was the assistant priest, and Rev. Raymond O'Brien, master 
of ceremonies. 

The Right Rev. E. F. Hoban, D. D., auxiliary bishop, and the 
following monsignori were present: Rt. Rev. M. J. PitzSimmons, 
Rt. Rev, Francis A. Rempe, Rt. Rev. Francis Bobal, Rt. Rev. Thomas 
P. Bona, Rt. Rev. P. W. Dunne, Rt. Rev. William Foley, Rt. Rev. 
E. A. Kelly. 

The St. George Choral society, under the direction of Rev. Philip 
Mahoney, D. D., sang, while the proper of the Mass was rendered 
by the Gregorian choir under the direction of Rev. Paul Smith. 

Led by the students clad in the red and white cassocks, the pro- 
cession filed through the corridors to the sanctuary of the chapel 
which was decorated with the papal colors, the national insignia, 
and pink roses. The ceremony was the most colorful scene that has 
taken place at the seminary since the laying of the cornerstone in 
1920. 



80 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

Following the Mass, the rector tendered the eongartulations and 
welcome of the seminary, saying in his address to the Cardinal : ''The 
visit to 3'our little seminary this morning must awaken deep senti- 
ments, for you have come to those v/ho are closer and dearer than 
the rest of your flock; these are to be of your household." In speak- 
ing he called attention to the fact that the seminarians had offered 
up daily, while His Eminence was abroad, three thousand Hail Marys 
for him. This, he said, was the seminary's spiritual bouquet. 

He announced further the gift of the seminarians of a beautiful 
ostensorium of rare design and workmanship to the chapel of St. 
Mary of the Lake seminary. Area. This ostensorium will be used 
for the first time at the dedication of the new chapel next Sunday, 
and it will also be used for the Eucharistic Congress in 1926, which 
is to be held at St. Mary of the Lake. 

In his reply His Eminence spoke of his return to the city and 
the welcome tendered to him by the priests and the seminarians. He 
told the students that in his audience with the Holy Father he had 
spoken of the "little seminary" and that the Sovereign Pontiff had 
expressed his interest in the "little seminary" as he himself had been 
a student at a "little seminary" for eleven years. To this the Car- 
dinal added a word of encouragement to the seminarians and an- 
nounced a prize which the Holy Father had given him for the 
students most proficient in the recitation of Latin lines. Finally he 
expressed his appreciation of the beautiful gift to the new seminary 
chapel, saying that it was the most appropriate gift that could have 
been offered. 

The Climax Reached in Cornerstone Ceremony 
By Gertrude A. Kray 

Thousands of people from all parts of the archdiocese of Chicago 
shared the joy of His Eminence, Cardinal Mundelein in one of the 
most important events of his homecoming last Sunday, (May 25), 
by assiting at the exercises attendant upon the laying of the corner- 
stone of the chapel at St. Mary of the Lake Seminary at Area. 

It was an event of particular moment for the Cardinal since the 
completion of the institution will be the culmination of a long 
cherished hope — almost a life-long ambition. Its progress has been 
made possible through the generous contributions of Chicagoans and 
the chapel itself was erected to the memory of Lieut. Edward Hines, 
Jr., who died in service June 4, 1918. It is the gift of his parents, 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward F. Hines. 




p. rf; 4. Photo. 

CAKUliXAL MUNDKLEIX PRESIDING AT THE CORNER STONE 
CEREMONIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ST. MARY 
OF THE LAKE 



In the presence of tliivty thousand witnesses, the crowning event of the 

home-coming. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 81 

The setting was a festive one — a bright spot in a colorless day. 
The ecclesiastical robes of the notable churchmen contrasted with 
the more sombre dress of the seminary students, and religious, both 
men and women, who were present at the ceremony. Again this 
was repeated in the attire of the great numbers of people who came 
to witness the exercises. Women in bright hats and modish suits 
brushed elbows with others who had come in rainy day attire. 

A drizzling rain of the early morning did not seem discouraging 
and many persons left their home at an early hour by train or auto- 
mobile to reach the seminary before the opening of the first event 
of the day's program — Mass at 11 o'clock. Others arrived in time 
for the noon Mass. An open air altar was built high above the 
foundations of the chapel and here centered the day's events. 

Special trains on the Soo Line and the North Shore electric 
conveyed a part of the crowd. Many made the trip by motor, but 
it was only the earliest of these arrivals who secured points of 
vantage. Cars lined the roads for several miles east along the 
avenues leading into the village. When two and one-half hours of 
ceremonies were closed there were still trains and automobiles de- 
positing hundreds at the gates. 

No more picturesque spot skirts Chicago than the grounds of the 
seminary at Area. Even under heavy skies there was a fascination 
'about the scene of natural beauty. Hundreds who for the first time 
had viewed Area and its beautiful seminary, became convinced that 
here indeed is a gem of educational possibilities in a setting of real 
attractiveness. 

The ceremonies started at 3 o'clock with His Eminence, Cardinal 
Mundelein, officiating, a procession of 150 seminarians dressed in 
cassocks and white surplices leading the march to the new chapel 
site. The seminary choir of fifty voices sang the music. Following 
in the procession came the Rt. Rev. E. F. Hoban, D. D., auxiliary 
bishop of Chicago, with his deacons of honor, the Rt. Rev. Msgr. 
Francis A. Purcell, D. D., subdeacon, and the Rt. Rev. Msgr. Thomas 
Bona, deacon. His Eminence came last in the procession attended 
by Rt. Rev. Msgr. F. A. Rempe, and Rt. Rev. P. J. McDonnell, as 
deacons of honor, and the Rt. Rev. Msgr. F. C. Kelley, D. D., assist- 
ant priest to the Cardinal. The Rev. F. A. Ryan, and the Very 
Rev. D. J. Dunne, D. D., acted as masters of ceremonies. 

Proceeded by a cross bearer and two acolytes, all in white, His 
Eminence went to the spot where the permanent altar of the chapel 
will be located to read the ritual of the altar blessing, while the 
choir chanted psalms. 



82 ELEVATION AND INVESTITUKE 

Chanting antiphonally with the choir, the Cardinal sprinkled the 
cornerstone with holy water. His Eminence then placed the mortar 
on the stone with a trowel. 

This was followed by the intoning of the Litany of the Saints 
and the Cardinal knelt in front of the altar stone. At its close His 
Eminence arose and placed in a glass enclosure a parchment giving 
names of those participating in the services, the personnel of the 
seminary, the officials of the church, and a current issue of the New 
World. This case was placed in a steel box which was lowered be- 
fore the Cardinal gave the signal for the lowering of the cornerstone. 

On the cornerstone, then cemented into the place by a trowel in 
the hands of the Cardinal, are the words : ' ' This cornerstone of the 
University of St. Mary of the Lake was laid by the Most Rev. 
George William Mundelein, third archbishop of Chicago, under whose 
administration and fostering protection the university was built this 
year of our Lord, 1924." The inscription is in Latin. 

The Rev. William R. Robinson, S. J., president of St, Louis Uni- 
versity, delivered the sermon. 

Solemn benediction was celebrated by His Eminence as the clos- 
ing event of the day. It was given from the central altar where 
High Mass had been celebrated earlier in the day. 

Ralph J. Hines, who was decorated on Sunday by His Holiness, 
through Cardinal Mundelein, at the laying of the cornerstone of 
the chapel of St. ]\Iary of the Lake Seminary at Area, is a son of 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Hines of Evanston and a brother of Lieut. 
Edward Hines, Jr., who died in service June 4, 1918, and in whose 
memory the chapel is being erected at the expense of $500,000 which 
has been donated by Mr. and Mrs. Hines. 

This decoration of the Sword and Cape makes Mr. Hines a mem- 
ber of the Papal household and will necessitate his going to Rome 
every two years and living at the Vatican for two weeks to attend 
His Holiness. It is an honor never before given a layman of Chicago 
and granted but a few times in the United States. Mr. Ralph Hines 
is a graduate of Yale University class of 1921 and followed with a 
two-year post graduate course at Christ Church College, Oxford 
University, England. 

The Cardinal's Address on the Occasion of the Laying of the 
Cornerstone of St. Mary of the Lake Seminary Chapel, 

Sunday, May 25th. 
The ceremony of today is of greater importance to this diocese 
and this metropolis which lies close by than any other church cere- 
mony witnessed by us in many years. For it marks the formal initi- 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 83 

ation of the Theological Department of the University of St. Mary 
of the Lake. While it is true that three years ago the Seminary was 
quietly opened for its work in our midst, yet not until today were 
the faithful of Chicago invited to witness an actual dedication of 
the Seminary or any part thereof. But today when we lay the cor- 
nerstone of the great collegiate church; when the Seminary has 
passed its experimental period; when both the philosophy and the- 
ology faculties are definitely established and have completed the first 
years of their curriculum; when we have more resident students 
even now than four-fifths of the seminaries of the country, we throw 
down the gates and ask our people to come from every part of the 
city and every portion of the diocese and see with their own eyes 
how we have carried out the commission they have given us and 
performed the task they have entrusted to our care. Never since 
its very beginning has the diocese engaged in a task more necessary 
for its well-being than the work now under way in this place. Use- 
less would it be to build churches unless we provided the priests to 
man them. Faulty would be our training of these, unless we did all 
in our power to make them the best that thought, experience and 
tradition could produce. In the future, even more than in the past, 
the priest will enter closely into the life of our people. They will 
look to him to be their guide in their religion and in their civic 
duties, and their leader past the pitfalls and temptations of the 
complex life of a great city like ours. The pastors and priests of 
today see that as well as I do. It is for this reason they are willing 
to bring the sacrifices necessary to make perfect as far as possible 
our own Seminary, for the work it must do. They realizze that the 
young men who will pass under these portals, to remain for six years 
here and go forth then as priests of Jesus Christ, these men are to 
be their successors, those who are to take up later and continue their 
work, to build on the foundations they have laid ; and they want 
these men to be splendidly equipped, in body, in mind, in spirit, so 
that they may be a royal priesthood, superb leaders of a splendid 
people, spreading and guarding and building up God's Kingdom on 
earth. And they would have to be even better prepared, better 
equipped than they ; and for this they are ready to bring every sacri- 
fice. And let me assure you they have brought sacrifices, more than 
you their people can know. Indeed the record they have made by 
their own generous gifts for this diocesan work has never been 
equalled, I believe by any clergy before. And in addition to this, 
they have encouraged you their people, they have communicated to 
you their enthusiasm and they have raised in your souls a pride for 
this workshop of God. Good reason have I to call it God's work- 



84 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

shop ; for here under His guidance and with His help, are we turning 
out those who are to be closest to Him, those who will carry on His 
own work, those who will exercise authority even over Him, when 
they will summon Him down upon your altars. After all, here we 
are but doing in six years, what He Himself did in three, teach and 
prepare and strengthen the future apostles of the Church. And here 
we would carry out Christ's dearest wish, what He taught them to 
be, and what at the end He prayed that they might be; we would 
unite them, make them one. Until now, let us confess it, without our 
Seminary we were unable to accomplish this as much as we would ; 
isolation, varied training, differences of custom due much to different 
seminary training, left us less united than we cared to admit, and if 
continued, it would have left a widening breach in our armour, which 
the enemy could easily have found. But with the oneness of their 
preparation, the newer clergy of the diocese will be a much more 
united and harmonious whole, a much more formidable force to 
attack, a much more unified body of officers and leaders to safeguard 
the interests of the Church for your children's eternal welfare. That 
you yourselves, my people, have recognized this is shown not only 
by your presence here today. It is shown by the loyal and generous 
support you have from the very beginning given to every undertak- 
ing for the benefit of our Seminary through the diocesan or in your 
own individual parishes. You have shown it by the large number 
of your boys who each year have presented themselves at the door 
of the Preparatory Seminary and have made it the largest in point 
of attendance in the world. You have shown it by the fervent man- 
ner in which you have seconded and encouraged all our efforts for 
this work of Religion, particularly by your prayers, by your enthu- 
siasm, by your g^fts. May God bless you for it, and make our efforts 
successful, so that your children may reap abundantly where you 
and I have sowed and make them a wonderful people led by a splen- 
did priesthood. 

And today we come here to bless the very heart of that institu- 
tion, as we lay the cornerstone, we bid the walls of this great church 
arise, this church which a good Catholic family erects as a memorial 
to their son who gave his life for his country. This church which 
will be the great center of devotion for all the students, where gen- 
eration after generation of Chicago priests will come to worship their 
Master, to offer up their lives in the service of Jesus Christ, to make 
their final vows which bind and pledge their lives for His cause. 
This church to which annually the priests of the diocese will come 
for their spiritual retreat, and where when the year's roll is called 




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k, 



,Ioc W. McCarthy, Architect and Designer. 
CHAPEL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ST. MARY OF THE LAKE 

The funds for wliich, five lunidiod thousand dollars, were contributed by Mr. 
and Mrs. Edward Hines in memory of their son who died in the service 
of his countiy darino- the "World War. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 85 

the breaks in the ranks will be seen which death had made in the 
previous twelve months; but where the fresh youthful faces of the 
newest levites who but a little while before were but students here. 
May it be for all of them a source of consolation and strength ; may 
it prove to be through them a powerhouse of grace and comfort for 
you, for your children and children's children through many gen- 
erations yet to come. 

First Request of the Cardinal Is for the Needy 

Parishioners thrilled in their perusal of His Eminence's state- 
ment of the case of charity, printed in The New World and read 
from every pulpit in the archdiocese. They followed his sketch 
of the progi'css of work done for the poor with pride in this fine 
achievement for their Church. They learned with pride that what 
had been done, with their assistance, had drawn high praise from 
our Holy Father, expressed recently to the Cardnal, while in Rome. 

The people also realized the opportunity this appeal for charity 
gave them to show their appreciation of the honor paid Chicago by 
the elevation of the archbishop to the Sacred Purple of a cardinal, 
and they expressed determination to make as large an offering as 
possible this year to prove to His Holiness, Pope Pius XI, that his 
estimate of the charity of the archdiocese was well founded. 

The study of the annual report of the Associated Catholic Chari- 
ties was a source of further satisfaction, showing as it does that the 
great bulk of the money collected from the people went directly to 
the relief of want and suffering. Almost half of the money went to 
the support of the homeless and nearly a third to the relief of needy 
families. The remainder of the sum was spread over a variety of 
services, for old people, emergency relief, etc., and little more than 
nine cents out of each dollar was required to keep records, collect 
and disburse funds, seek out the poor and the hungry and to cover 
all the costs of administration of nearly three quarters of a million 
dollars. 

The statement of His Eminence concerning the increasing amount 
of work and growing efficiency of the Associated Catholic Charities, 
coupled with his urgent request for greater offerings to meet greater 
needs this year, was answered with the usual spirit of Chicago 
Catholics. 

The Cardinal's letter is as follows; 



86 elevation and investiture 

Cardinal's First Letter to His People Is One of Appeal on 
Behalf of the Poor of Chicago 

Dearly Beloved: — My first letter to my people, after my return from Rome 
and after my elevation to the great Cardinalitial dignity, is one of appeal, as so 
many other letters of mine in the past have been. For, before everything else 
comes this, my animal appeal to the Catholic people of Chicago in behalf of 
their own poor. It has been the one united effort on our part effectively and 
in an organized way to practice, both as individuals and as a community, the 
various corporal and spiritual works of mercy, so strongly commended to us by 
our Lord and Savior. These works of charity, all of them in our own midst, 
among friends and neighbors, those who have a double claim upon us, both as 
being of the same household of the faith and as\ being of our own race, of our 
own diocese, of our parish, perhaps even of our own blood. 

Each year since my coming to you as your bishop and chief shepherd my 
main prayer and petition addressed to you, the children committed to my care, 
the petition in which I endeavored to convey the deepest sentiments of a pastor 's 
heart, has been my letter for our Associated Catholic Charities. And to this 
appeal you have always responded in so noble and generous a manner as to 
merit the commendations of your fellow-citizens at home and to attract the 
attention of Catholics the world over. And each year has been better than its 
predecessors and the results more brilliant and satisfying than those of the 
year before. But last year was by far the most successful we have yet had. 
The amount given by our people to the Associated Catholic Charities surpassed 
all previous years. Then, we have kept our overhead expenses to the minimum 
of the past. Moreover, there was less unemployment than formerly; the Lord 
blest us abundantly; and as a result of all this, we were able to meet all worthy 
demands and appeals, and to take care of those whom the Lord has committed 
to our charity. We have been able even to realize to some extent the hopes we 
entertained in the beginning, of making some provision for the lean years that 
will come some time, when the calls on our charity will be more numerous than 
now, and when the hand of our people outstretched to give may not be so well 
filled. And so we are indeed thankful to God because He has given to our 
people the means, and to our people we are grateful because they have so freely 
shared their substance with others more needy than they. If there were but 
these considerations alone, they should be sufiicient to stimulate us to make the 
coming year the banner year in the cause of our charities and to surpass our 
record for generously providing for our poor. 

But an additional incentive is given to us, another motive furnished at the 
outset of this year's campaign. The coronation of all comes this year as 
praise is paid publicly to the Catholic people of Chicago by the Supreme Head 
of our Church for their charity. And the words of praise were given in a 
manner so as to be heard all over the world, for the Holy Father took the 
occasion of pointing out their charitable work in his allocution to the Christian 
world in the recent secret consistory. Nor did His Holiness confine himself to 
simple words of praise, but he showed his appreciation further by signally re- 
warding the people of this diocese in conferring on their archbishop the highest 
honor and the greatest distinction in his gift, the Sacred Purple of a Cardinal 
of Holy Church. Surely, I would be ungrateful indeed and unmindful of a 
sacred obligation did I fail to redouble my efforts in the cause of charity, which 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 87 

has bro'jght so much joy to the heart of our Holy Father and such great recog- 
nition to myself and my people. 

Finally, the supreme motive of all, the consolation our efforts must bring 
to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the Father of the orphan, the Protector of the 
friendless, the Friend of the poor. The reward of countless blessings, the gen- 
erosity of our people will eventually bring upon themselves and their children 
in a cause so sacred and so dear to Him Who tells us "inasmuch as you have 
done this to the least of these My little ones, you have done it to Me." 

All this I commend to the consideration of our faithful as they enter upon 
this seventh campaign for our Associated Catholic Charities, as I thank them 
for what they alive helped me to do and bless them for what they are about to 
do for Christ and His poor. 

Sinceirely yours in Christ, 

George Cardinal Mundelein, 

Archbishop of Chicago. 

Date: Chicago, HI., May 11, 1924. 

V. HONOES FOU PRIESTS AND LAYMEN 

In interview with the press. His Eminence, Cardinal Mundelein, was pleased 
to confirm the published report of honors for Chicago clergy and laymen, which 
had reached here wihle he was still in Europe. The list corrected by him and 
given as follows includes Papal honors for twenty-two Chicagoans. 

The Right Revenernd Francis A. Rempe, V. V., Domestic Prelate, to be 
Protonotary Apostolic. 

MONSIGNORI 

The Rev. John W. Melody, D. D., St. Jarlath's. 

The Rev. Thos. A. Kearns, Immaculate Conception. 

The Rev. John Dettmer, St. Anthony's. 

The Rev. John F. Ryan, St. Bernard's. 

The Rev. Daniel Luttrell, St. Thomas Aquinas. 

The Rev. Edward Fox, St. Charles. 

The Rev. C. J. Quille, Working Boys' Home. 

The Rev. M. Kruszas, St. George (Lithuanian). 

The Rev. D. J. Dunne, D. D., Holy Cross. 

The Rev. F. G. Ostrowski, St. Josephat's. 

The Rev. W. D. O'Brien, Church Extension. 

The Rev. M. E. Kiley, D. D., Catholic Charities. 

The Rev. Herman F. Wolf, Area. 

The Rev. J. Gerald Kealy, Area. 

Order Pro Ecclesia Et Pontifice 

The Very Rev. Francis Gordon, C. R., St. Mary of Angels. 

Knights of St. Gregory 

E. F. Carry, Knight Commander. 

F. J. Lewis, Knight. 
Robt. W. Sweitzer, Knight. 
Anthony Czarnecki, Knight. 
Jos. W. McCarthy. 



ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 



Lateran Cross 



Lawrence J. Ryan, M. D. 
Thomas F. Gorman, D. D. S. 
William J. Hofifmann. 

MONSIGNOR ReMPE 

The Right Reverend Francis A. Rempe, V. G., pastor of St. Clement's 
Church, Orchard Street and Deming Place, was made a Domestic Prelate with 
title of Monsignor, by Cardinal Mundelein some years ago. He is now a Pro- 
tonotary Apostolic. He was born May 8, 1874, in Aurora, 111., and received 
his preliminary school training at St. Nicholas parish there. Later he studied 
under the Franciscan Fathers at St. Joseph's College for four years. 

In 1897 he graduated from St. Francis' Seminary and was immediately 
made assistant of St. Boniface's Church in Chicago. In 1903 he became ad- 
ministrator of St. Paul's Church, and a year later pastor of St. Benedict's 
Church, in Blue Island. Msgr. Rempe organized the St. Clement's at Orchard 
Street and Deming Place, in 1905, and has built a church, school, convent and 
rectory, which the parish now enjoys. 

Monsignor IMelody 

The Right Reverend John W. Melody, D. D., named as Domestic Prelate, 
is 54 years old and was born in the old St. Louis parish of Chicago, burned 
out during the great fiie. He went to Baltimore, where he studied at St. Mary's 
Seminary, taking his degree, and from there he went to Washington, D. C, 
where he took a doctor of divinity degree. For years he served as Professor at 
the Catholic University where he distinguished himself for special abilities uf 
professorship as well as oratory. 

In 1915 he returned to Chicago and was immediately made pastor of St. 
Jarlath's Church at Hermitage and Jackson Blvd., where he is now located, 

Monsignor Kearns 

The Right Reverend Thomas A. Kearns, named as Domestic Prelate, has 
been pastor of the Immaculate Conception Church, at 1415 Park Avenue, for 
the last twelve years. 

He was born in Chicago sixty-three years ago in the neighborhood of St. 
Patrick's parish, where he received his earlier education. Later he went to St. 
Ignatius' College for three years and then to St. Charles' College, near Balti- 
more, for four years, then to St. Mary's Seminary at Baltimore. 

His first charge was as assistant at St. Patrick's Church at Desplaines 
and Adams Streets. In 1895 Father Kearns went to St. Mark's, where he 
remained as pastor until 1912, wdien he took up his present parish, succeeding 
the late Rev. Hugh O'Gara McShane. 



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GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 89 

MONSIGNOR DetTMER 
The Right Reverend John Dettmer, on the list as Domestic Prelate, is head 
of St. Anthony's Church at 518 West Twenty-eighth Place. He was born in 
Elbe, Germany, in 1859. He was ordained in this country in 18S6 after studying 
in St. Francis' Seminary, near Milwaukee. His first appointment was as as- 
sistant pastor of St. Francis' Church at Twelfth Street and Newberry Avenue, 
where he served for two years. He then organized St. George's Church, where 
he spent twenty years as pastor. His next charge was at St. Anthony's Church, 
formerly located at Twenty-fourth and Canal. 

MoNSiGNOR Ryan 

The Right Reverend John F. Ryan, to be honored as a Domestic Prelate, 
was born in Thurles, Ireland, fifty-two years ago and went to the parochial 
schools and St. Patrick's College and Seminary there. In 1899 he came to tliis 
country, first being appointed assistant pastor of St. Mel's Church, at Wash- 
ington Boulevard and Kildare Avenue, where he remained for seventeen years. 
For one year he acted as pastor of St. Patrick's Church in Kankakee and then 
came to Chicago again as pastor of St. Bernard's Church at Sixty-sixth Street 
and Stewart Avenue. Last December Father Ryan dedicated his new $500,000 
church, which seats 1,700 people. 

MONSIGNOR LUTTRELL 

The Right Reverend Daniel Luttrell, named as a Domestic Prelate, was 
ordained in Ireland in 1891. He was born in Tipperary, where he attended the 
Christian Brothers' School, and then finished his schooling at St. Patrick's 
College in Thurles, Ireland. Father Luttrell came to this country and directly 
to Chicago in 1892. He served as assistant and pastor of St. Malachy's Church, 
Western and Walnut, for twelve years. He then went to St. Genevieve's Church 
at Armitage Avenue and Fiftieth Street, where he served for five years. In 
1909 he organized St. Thomas Aquinas Church at Washington Boulevard and 
Leclaire Avenue, which church is now in course of erection. A fine school, con- 
vent and rectory attest his zeal and activities. 

MONSIGNOR KrUSZAS 
The Right Reverend Michael L. Kruszas, who is the first Lithuanian priest 
to be named as Domestic Prelate in this archdiocese, is pastor of St. George's 
Church at 3230 Auburn Avenue. He was born in the St. Stanislaus parish in 
Chicago and educated in the parochial schools in that parish. He received his 
college training in Ohio and was ordained there in 1908. For eleven months 
he acted as assistant pastor at St. George's Church. He then went to Wauke- 
gan, where he was rector of St. Bartholomew's Church for four years. In 1913 
Father Kruszas was named pastor of Divine Providence Church at Nineteenth 
and Halsted Streets. Five years later he took up his duties as pastor of St. 
George Church. 

MONSIGNOR OSTROWSKI 

Nine years ago the Right Reverend Francis G. Ostrowski, named as a Do- 
mestic Prelate, became pastor of St. Josaphat's Church at Southport and Belden 
Avenues. He is 42 years old and was born in Chicago in the St. Stanislaus 
parish, where he attended the parochial schools and the St. Stanislaus College. 



90 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

He later went to St. Mary's College in Kentucky and then to St. Mary's Semi- 
nary in Baltimore, where he received his degree. 

He first became assistant pastor of St. Michael's Church in South Chicago 
for six years and then in the same capacity at St. Adelbert's at Seventeenth and 
Peoria Streets, for four years. He was made pastor of St. Stanislaus parish in 
Kankakee for two years and then pastor of Holy Rosary Church in North Chi- 
cago, before receiving his present appointment. 

MoNSiGNOR Dunne 

The Very Reverend Dennis J. Dunne, D. D., named as Privy Chamberlain, 
is pastor of Holy Cross Church, only recently succeeding the Rev. D. D, Hishen, 
deceased, in that capacity. 

Previously Dr. Dunne had served as Chancellor of the Archdiocese for two 
years, as assistant chancellor for seven years, as professor at Quigley Prepara- 
tory Seminary and as assistant pastor at Corpus Christi parish. 

Monsignor Dunne is a brother of the Rt. Rev. P. W. Dfjnne of St. James' 
Church. He was born in Chicago and educated in St. Jarlath's parish school, 
at St. Patrick's Academy, St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, and in Rome, where 
he took his degree of Doctor of Divinity. 

Monsignor O'Brien 

The Very Rev. William D. O'Brien, who is to be elevated to become a 
Privy Chamberlain to the Pope, is first vice president and general secretary of 
the Catohlic Church Extension Society, He was born and reared in Chicago. 
He received his education in the schools here and at St. Mary's Seminary, Balti- 
more. 

After some years of parish work he became active in the work of the Cath- 
olic Church Extension Society. 

In 1917 he was elected to the second vice-presidency of the Extension So- 
ciety to succeed Bishop Ledvina, who was consecrated to the episcoi^ate as 
bishop of Corpus Christi, Texas, and occupied that position for fourteen years. 
In his present position he has been devoting himself exclusively to Church Ex- 
tension work, assisting the Rt. Rev. Msgr. Francis C. Kelley, D. D., president 
of the society, in the editing of the Extension Magazine. 

Msgr. O'Brien has just been appointed by Cardinal Mundelein as pastor 
of St. John's Church. 

Monsignor Fox 

The Very Rev. E. J. Fox, who becomes a Privy Chamberlain, was chosen 
as rector of St. Charles Borromeo's Church in 1909, where he succeeded the 
Right Reverend Bishop Muldoon then transferred to Rockford diocese. Father 
Fox was born in Chicago in February, 1867. He was formerly pastor of St. 
Anne's Church in Harrington, 111. He took his classical course at St. Mary's 
College in Kansas and received his degree from St. Mary's Seminary at Balti- 
more in 189.^. He was ordained and his first appointment was to the assistant 
pastorate of the Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. 

Monsignor Quille 

The Very Reverend C. J. Quille, who becomes a Privy Chamberlain, was 
born in Chicago on May 23, 1876. He attended St. Ignatius College here and 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 91 

graduated from St. Viator's College at Kankakee, 111. He completed his theo- 
logical studies at St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, and was ordained December 
21, 1901. 

He first served at St. Mary's Church on Wabash Avenue and later St. Ber- 
nard's in Englewood. 

Archbishop Quigley appointed him director of the Mission of Our Lady 
of Mercy, which maintains the Working Boys' Home at 1140 Jackson Boule- 
vard, where he has been most successful. In recent years he has extended his 
activities to the care of young women strangers in the city. He has established 
two Rita Clubs, homes for Catholic young women, with plans for others later. 

MONSIGNOR KiLEY 

The Very Reverend Moses E. Kiley, D. D., superintendent of the Associated 
Catholic Charities, has been named as Privy Chamberlain to the Holy Father. 

Father Kiley was born in Massachusetts and received his early education 
in the parish schools, at St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, and at the American 
College, Rome, where he received his degree. He was ordained in 19"10. 

Father Kiley was first made assistant at St. Agnes Church. On formation 
of the Associated Catholic Charities he was selected by Cardinal "Mundelein as 
the directing head. This office he has filled since with unusual abilities. His 
headquarters are at the Holy Cross Mission, Randolph and Desplaines Streets. 

MoNsiGNOR Wolf 

Msgr. H. F. Wolf was bom September 17, 1876, in Chicago, Illinois. He 
received his primary education at St. Benedict's College, Atchison, Kansas. 
Philosophy and Theology courses at St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore. Subdeacon 
December 19, 1900, by Bishop A. A. Curtis, Deacon December 22, 1900, by Card- 
inal Gibbons; he was ordained to the priesthood December 21, 1901 by Cardinal 
Gibbons. Was eight years assistant rector at Our Lady of Perpetual Help 
Church, Chicago. Became Professor at Cathedral College; spent one year at 
Notre Dame University. Now Procurator at St. Mary of the Lake Seminary, 
Area, Illinois. 

MONSIGNOR EIeALY 
Msgr. J. G. Kealy, D. D., was born October 24, 1892, in Chicago, Illinois. 
Took his classics at Cathedral College; Philosophy and Theology, American 
College, Rome. Subdeacno July 16, 1916, by Cardinal Ponipili; Deacon, October 

28, 1916, by Cardinal Pompili; ordained to Priesthood December 23, 1916, by 
Cardinal Pompili. Became assistant rector at St. Ita's Church, Chicago. Pro- 
fessor Quigley Preparatory Seminary; Prefect of Discipline at St. Mary of the 
Lake Seminary, Area, Illinois. 

Very Rev. Francis Gordon, C. R. 

The Very Rev. Francis Gordon, C. R., was born in Posen, Poland, August 

29, 1860, and has been a resident of Chicago for over thirty-five years. As a 
member of a religious community he is barred by an order ruling from such 
honor as Monsignor, but he is to be decorated with the order of Pro Ecclesia 
et Pro Pontifice. 

He was educated at St. Mary's College, Marion County, Ky., and the 
Gregorian University in Rome, Italy. He was ordained April 20, 1889, in 



92 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

Rome; in 1893 was professor in a College of the Resurrectionist Fathers in 
Adrianople, Turkey; in 1895 procurator of the Congregation of the Resurrec- 
tionists in Rome, and in 1906 superior of St. Stanislaus House in Chicago. 

He is now editor of the Polish Daily News, pastor of St. Mary of the 
Angels' Church, Hermitage Avenue and Cortland Street, and provincial and 
delegate-general of the Resurrectionist congregation in the United States and 
Canada. 

KNIGHTS OF ST. GREGORY 

Edward F. Carry, K. C. S. G. 

Edward F. Carry, named a Knight Commander of St. Gregory, is president 
of the Pullman Company. He was born May 16, 1867, in Fort Wa^-ne, Ind., 
where he attended the local schools. In 1893 he married Miss Mabel Under- 
wood of Chicago. 

He started his business career with Wells & French Co. In 1899 he went 
to the American Car and Foundry Company as vice-president and manager. In 
1916 he became president of the Haskell & Barker Co., and after the reorgan- 
ization in 1921 was named to head the Pullman Company. Mr. Carry for years 
has been a generous donor to benefactions and charitable work in every form, 
very few of which are known. The extent of his practical aid to such work may 
not be estimated. 

F. J. Lewis, K. S. G. 

Francis J. Lewis of 4929 Woodlawn Avenue, to be Knight of St. Gregory, 
is chairman of the board of the F. J. Lewis Manufacturing Company, with 
branch offices and plants in several cities besides Chicago. He was born in 
Chicago fifty-seven years ago. He received his education in the public schools. 
Mr. Lewis is a director of the Standard Trust and Savings Bank of Chicago, 
the Mississippi Valley Trust Company of St. Louis, and has large interests in 
various other lines. He is a member of various clubs. But recently the papers 
carried an announcement of a splendid gift, an endowment fund of half a million 
dollars, for charity, in the name of his wife, only lately deceased. 

Anthony Czarnecki, K. S. G. 

Anthony Czarnecki, to be knighted, was born in Posen, Poland, January 
14, 1878. He came to the United States at the age of eight. Up to 1910, 
when he assumed charge of the savings department of the La Salle Street ISia- 
tional Bank, he was a newspaper writer on a Chicago paper. A year or so 
later he was elected to serve on the board of commissioners. In 1917 he was 
appointed a member of the Board of Education and later re-elected to trustee- 
ship on the board of election commissioners, his present official position. Mr. 
Czarnecki is the first Polish- American named as a Knight of St. Gregory. He has 
been a special writer on the Chicago Daily News for years. 

Robert M. Sweitzer, K. S. G. 

Robert M. Sweitzer, a prominent county official, to be a Knight of St. 
Gregory, was born in Chicago on May 10, 1868; has served the government 
in his present capacity for the past eleven years. He spent twenty-five years 
of his life in the wholesale district of Chicago, and was a salesman for ten 
years before he became county clerk. As county clerk he has a wide variety 




Laveccha Photo. 



RIGHT REVEREND BERNARD J. SHEIL 



Chancellor of the Aiclidiocese of Chicago who accompanied His Eminence 
Cardinal Mundelein thioughont his entire journey, was honored by the 
Pope while in Rome, and who has supplied nnich of the information 
contained in this publication. 



GEORGE CARDINAL MUNDELEIN 93 

of duties. Ho is comptroller or financial officer of the county, the clerk or 
secretary of the county boar's and tlie election commissioner for the country 
towns. 

Joseph W. McCarthy, K. S. G. 

Joseph W. McCarthy, of 665 Sheridan Road, to be a Knight of St. Gregory, 
is an architect and designer of churches and parochial buildings. He was 
born in Jersey City, N. J., June 22, 1884. He was educated in the parochial 
schools and the Holy Innocents School in New York City and later attended the 
St. Gabriel High School in Chicago. In 1901 he became associated with D. H. 
Burnham as an architect for eight years. Two years he spent with Ernest 
Graham and in 1911 he organized his own firm. He is noted principally for 
certain splendid local church buildings and for his designing of St. Mary of 
the Lake University at Area, Illinois. Mr. McCarthy is a member of the Chicago 
Athletic Association, Illinois Society of Arcliitects and the Medievalists and the 
Catholic Club of New York. 

The Lateran Cross 

Cardinal Mundelein brought from Rome and bestowed upon Dr. 
Thomas F. Gorman, D. D. S., Dr. Lawrence J. 'Ryan, M. D., and 
William J. Hoffmann the Lateran Cross, in recognition of their 
earnest and valuable efforts for the Church. 

These distinctions, all bestowed by the Holy Father at the re- 
quest of the Cardinal are an added evidence of the Pope's regard 
and of the Cardinal's desire to prove the Holy Father's design to 
honor the diocese as well as the Cardinal himself. 

It is in order to state that the priests and laymen just now honored 
Avere not the first in Chcago to receive distinctions from Rome. Indeed 
several of the clergy and at least four of the laity had been so 
honored. The first amongst the laj^men was the late William J. 
Onahan, who was knighted by the Pope for his many endeavors 
for the Church throughout a long and exemplary career. 

Next in order to be knighted was Hon. Anthony Matre, who 
was distinguished by Pope Pius X in 1913 for notable services 
rendered the Church throughout the United States. 

Edward Ilines and Dennis F. Kelly were knighted by Pope 
Benedict XY upon the suggestion of Cardinal, then Archbishop 
Mundelein. 

Sir Knight Hines, though helpful in many ways is especially 
notable for his bequests to charity and other Church work. One of 
his gifts was half a million dollars for the University of St. Mary 
of the Lake at Area, donated in honor of his son. Lieutenant Edward 
Hines, Jr., who died in France in the service of his country in 1918. 



94 ELEVATION AND INVESTITURE 

Dennis F. Kelly is one of the most active and effective Catholic 
laymen Chicago has produced. Besides numerous and liberal con- 
tributions to all Catholic causes he has given of his time and best 
energies to promote every Catholic movement. He is president and 
one of the most active promoters of the Associated Catholic Charities 
of Chicago and though heavily laden with his own extensive affairs 
is always amongst the most active in all Catholic, and indeed in all 
civic affairs. 



MISCELLANY 

THE ONLY MONUMENT TO FATHER MARQUETTE 
IN ILLINOIS 

In the year 1895 the Chicago & Alton Railroad Company pub- 
lished a booklet under the title, "A Guide to the Chicago Drainage 
Canal," the outstanding feature of which was a description of the 
journey of Father James Marquette, S. J., over the ''Portage" and 
his sojourn at Summit, Illinois. 

The Marquette story as carried in the booklet and which is quite 
accurate, is as follows: 

"December 4, (1674) Marquette and two companions, coasting south on 
Lake Michigan, and entering the mouth of the Chicago River, at that time 
covered with six inches of ice, hauled his boat 'two leagues' to the intersection 
of what is now Eobey Street with the Chicago Eiver. Here was a rise of land 
later known as 'Lee's Place,' upon which they 'cabined' for the winter, 

"March 30, 1675, the country was flooded and Marquette and his com- 
panions were obliged to take to the trees for safety. In the morning the party 
took canoes, paddled up the river 'three leagues' and rested upon a point of 
land where the town of Summit now stands. Here Marquette observed to his 
surprise, that the river up which he had just come appeared to have another 
outlet to the westward. A study of the ground by the aid of the engineer's 
levels and the memory of those who remember the country as it was before the 
hand of man had changed its appearance, makes it practically certain that the 
place where Marquette landed was just opposite the present Chicago & Alton 
depot at Summit. 

"Here the Chicago & Alton Railroad Company has erected a monument to 
commemorate this event, so interesting in the early history of the region about 
Chicago. 

"This monument consists of granite boulders of various kinds brought from 
the Lake Superior region by the glacial stream, and deposited in this valley. 
The monument is, therefore, of great geological as well as historical interest." 

The booklet contains views of the site as it presumably was at 
the time Father Marquette visited it and as it appeared at the time 
the book was published in 1895 as well as a good view of the monu- 
ment erected. 

Mr. Edward P. Brenan, a descendant of one of the earliest and 
most substantial families of Chicago, takes an unusual interest in 
all historical matters and eagerly grasped the opportunity to secure 
a copy of this booklet from the very few extant. Drawing attention 
of the officials of the railroad to the matter he was favored with a 
complete copy of all the correspondence relating to the erection of 
the monument, and, after having the same substantially bound, pre- 

95 



96 MISCELLANY 

sented both the booklet and the correspondence to the Chicago His- 
torical Society with a summary of the matter as follows: 

Interview With Mr. Robert Somerville, Feb. 28, 1924 

When Mr. Somerville was General Agent of the passenger de- 
partment of the Chicago & Alton Railroad, his interest was first 
aroused in the building of a monument to Father Marquette through 
the zeal of Ossian Guthrie and Professor C. H. Ford, Principal of 
the Calhoun School, in trying to make known to the people of Chi- 
cago, the geological features as well as the historic past of the Des- 
plaines Valley. 

Mr. Ford brought parties out Saturdays to see the progress of 
the drainage canal, and also to show the many geological features of 
the Desplaines Valley. 

Mr. Guthrie selected boulders of a great variety that geologists 
tell us came into this valley with the movement of a great ice cap 
from the North. These he set aside as he found them at different 
points along the canal and Mr. Somerville had men from the Alton 
Railroad gather them up when placed near the right of way and 
then assembled them at Summit on the site of Father Marquette's 
encampment in 1675. 

The railroad furnished all the labor and material necessary to 
build the monument, also paying for a tablet giving a brief account 
of Father Marquette 's stay. Later on vandals stole the tablet and in 
1920 Mr. Somerville, out of his own pocket replaced it with the 
present tablet. 

E. P. Brennan. 

Cliicago. 




Photo hy cotn-tcst/ of E. P. Bi-ouinr}. 



THE ONLY MONUMENT TO FATHER MARQUETTE IN ILLINOIS 

Erected by the Chicago & Alton Railroad Company at Summit, Illinois, one 
of the resting places of Father Marquette on his second visit in 1675. 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical 

Review 

Volume VII OCTOBER, 1924 Number 2 



(3(IImat0 ffljitljaltc ^tstortcal ^oct^tg 

617 ASHLAND BLOCK, CHICAGO 



HONORARY PRESIDENTS 

His Eminence George Cardinal Mnndelein, Chicago 

Rt. Rev. Peter J. Muldoon, D. D., Rockford Rt. Rev. Henry Althoflf, D. D., Belleville 

Rt. Rev. Edmund M. Dunne, D. D., Peoria Rt. Rev. James A. Griffin, D. D., Springfield 

OFFICERS 

President Financial Seceetaby 

Rev. Frederic Siedenburg, S. J., Chicago Francis J. Rooney, Chicago 
First Vice-President 

Rt. Rev. F. A. Purcell, Chicago Recording Secretary 

Second Vice-President Margaret Madden, Chicago 
James M. Graham, Springfield 

Treasurer Archivist 
Jolin P. V. Murphy, Chicago Rev. Joseph P. Morrison, Chicago 

TRUSTEES 

Rt. Rev. J. W. Melody, Chicago Michael F. Girten, Chicago 
Very Rev. James Shannon, Peoria James A. Bray, Joliet 

Rev. William H. Agnew, S. J., Chicago Frank J. Seng, Wilmette 

Mrs. Daniel V. Gallery, Chicago Mrs. E. I. Cudahy, Chicago 

D. F. Bremner, Chicago Edward Houlihan, Chicago 



(3llltnot0 Olatlfoltc ^tstortcal ^^&«6j 

Journal of the Illinois Catholic Historical Society 
617 Ashland Block, Chicago 

EDITORS 
Joseph J. Thompson, William Stetson Merrill 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Rev. Frederick Beuckman Belleville Kate Meade Chicago 

Rev. J. B. Culemans Moline Rev. Francis J. Epstein Chicago 



Published by 

The* Illinois Catholic Historical Society 

Chicago, III. 



CONTENTS 



History of Law in Illinois 

Joseph J. Thompson 99 

The Unification of the Uksulines 

S. M. M. 134 

Historic Old Shantytoavn 

Anon. 140 

Father Marquette's Second Journey to Illinois 

Joseph J. Thompson 144 

The Catholic Clergy in Illinois 

Joseph J. Thompson 155 

Editorial Comment .......... 164 

Gleanings from Current Periodicals 



Saints of Special Honor in California 
An Early Exercise of Tolerance 
Prize Winning School Essays 
The Catholic in American History 



Bev. Paul J. Foik 170 

William Stetson Merrill 172 

Bev. Henry S. Spalding, S. J. 175 

Gertrude LorraAne Conley 178 



Bita Freehauf 181 
Miscellany 187 



LOYOLA UNIVERSITY PRESS 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



98 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical Review 



Volume VII OCTOBER 1924 Number 2 



HISTORY OF LAW^ IN ILLINOIS* 

When we think of our present government in its republican form 
of democracy and only of our many years of operation under such 
a form, we are inclined to look upon every other form of a govern- 
ment as abstract, — a thing apart from us, — and should we wish to 
examine other forms of government, we would naturally and invol- 
untarily seek out far away places and times for such a study. It is 
a fact, however, that upon the domain of Illinois in some part has 
been practiced almost every kind of government known to man. Here 
has flourished tribal government in as pure a form as has been de- 
tailed in the Scriptures. Here have absolute monarchs held their 
sway. Here has the limited or constitutional monarchy governed. 
Here not less than two communistic governments have flourished and 
failed at different times. Here has socialism in its very best and 
most attractive sense been put to the test. Here has existed imperial 
and a territorial government chiefly under benign influences. And 
here, finally, has democracy, or as best known, a republican form of 
givemment existed for more than a century and experienced all the 
vicissitudes and triumphs of which democracy is capable. 

For convenience, the government of our state may be considered 
with reference to the outstanding or controlling features thereof as 
they existed at various periods and with reference to the character 



* An address to the Illinois State Bar Association. The article seems 
appropriate for this publication since the first century of our history deals 
with a strictly Catholic administration of government and law under the 
French. 

The article is besides of present public interest in connection with the 
efforts to popularize the Constitution and laws. 

99 



100 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

of government. Such analysis will disclose the following periods of 
government : 

I. Paternalistic. (The Indian government up to the close of 
the Black Hawk War.) 

II. Absolute monarchy. (Under the French crown from 1665 
to 1765.) 

III. Limited monarchy. (Under English government — 1765 to 
1778.) 

IV. Colonial. (Under colony of Virginia-Plymouth Company — 
1778 to 1787.) 

V. Territorial. (Under United States, 1787 to 1818.) 

VI. Democracy. (As a state, 1818 to the present time.) 

Side by side with the state government, existed at different times 
the following governments practically unaffected by either the gov- 
ernment of the United States or the state of Illinois. 

I. Communistic government. (The Swedes at Bishop Hill, 1846 
to 1860, and the Mormons at Nauvoo, 1840 to 1846.) 

II. Socialism. (The Icarians at Nauvoo, 1830 to 1855.) 

Periods of Government 

I. Paternalistic Period 

(The Indian government up to the close of the Black Hawk War.) 
It would be a mistake to assume that there was no government 
in Illinois until white men set it up. Indeed, it is somewhat remark- 
able what an extended code of law the Indians had. The territory 
received its name from the Indians who were in possession of a large 
part of it when white men first reached here "The Illinois." In the 
language of those Indians themselves, ' ' Illinois ' ' meant men, and they 
called themselves "Illinois" or "men" as a distinguishing appellation. 
There were other tribes and families of Indians with whom they had 
to deal that were in the opinion of the Illinois, so cruel and inhuman 
that they considered them beasts, not men. The true sense then of 
the name Illinois is "good men." The Illinois consisting of at least 
five tribes, Kaskaskia, Peoria, Cakokia, Tamaroa and Mitehigamen, 
resident in the territory out of which this state is formed belonged 
perhaps the largest and in many respects the greatest Indian family 
of America, the " Algonquins. " They were scattered from the At- 
lantic seabord almost to the Rocky mountains. There were glorious 
traditions in their history. The Indian woman, around whom has 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 101 

been woven more poetry and romance than any other, and who has 
been given the credit of greater good, than any other, Pocahontas, 
was of the Algonquin family. In passing it should be said, that 
while their record in Illinois territory does not make them valorous 
or successful in warfare as some of the other Indians, yet, history 
shows them possessed of the highest type of fidelity and a fine sense 
of honor in the fulfillment of their engagements. 

Besides the Illinois, there were in various parts of the territory 
now covered by this state, tribes of Sioux, Sacs, Foxes, Iroquois, 
Kickapoo, Potawatomi, Weas and Piankeshaw and scattering repre- 
sentatives of other tribes. 

The territory was quite accurately divided between these tribes, 
the Illinois occupying the southwestern and western portions of the 
state. When white men first visited Illinois, the "Illinois" had sev- 
eral quite important villages, the most populous amongst them being 
Kaskaskia, located in the neighborhood of the present city of Utica 
in La Salle county. 

Peoria was also another important Indian village, and beside 
these there were other smaller villages. Of these Illinois there were 
according to Marquette, when he visited them, 20,000 men, and in all 
70,000 souls. This estimate is said by some historians to be an ex- 
aggeration, but it seems possible that within the present boundaries 
of Illinois when white men first began to settle here, there were in 
the neighborhood of 50,000 Indian inhabitants. 

Indian Law 

In a population of this size, it would be very strange if there 
were no law. True, the law would have to be unwritten, because 
the Indian neither read nor wrote, but a most interesting code can 
be traced through the conduct of these red children of the forest. 
For instance, in the matter of organization, they had their great 
families with the great chief at the head, like the Algonquins, the 
Iroquois and others. These families were divided into tribes and 
each tribe had its chief and its representatives called sachems. These 
sachems, or wise men, under the chairmanship, headship of the chief, 
sat as a court upon disputes and infractions of tribal rules and dis- 
pensed, if rough, at least even handed justice. There were also grand 
sachems, or those who represented the tribes at convocations or joint 
meetings of the several tribes belonging to a family or nation, and 
the big questions of war or policy were discussed and decided at such 
convocations. 



102 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

With respect to laws bearing upon the individual, there were 
many rules of great interest obligatory upon the members of the 
tribe, perhaps, the first in importance being that which defined the 
family relations. Marriage, though frequently polygamous, was 
strictly enforced, and no promiscuous intercommunication between 
the sexes permitted without marriage. The rules of war and of hunt 
and of territory were well recognized and strictly enforced. In fact, 
they had a rule or law for aU the activities of their circumscribed 
life ; in other words all the law they needed. 

Under the Indian rule the position of woman was peculiar, but 
that too was regulated by rule. She was the hewer of wood and 
the drawer of water, but she was also the family truck. She was 
the revered and respected mother and the Indian stalwart traced 
his lineage to the female ancestor to the exclusion of the male. 
Woman 's rights were perhaps thought very little of in those days, but 
wife abandonment was an effense subject to severe penalties, but not 
nearly so severe as unfaithfulness of a wife. It is known that this 
offense was considered particularly heinous by the fact that it was 
punished by cutting off the nose of the offender. The execution of 
this punishment was entrusted to the offended husband and as in 
those, as well as in other days, there were suspicious husbands, many 
a poor Indian wife lost her nose, perhaps without just cause. 

A most peculiar and interesting custom or rule obtained with 
respect to male children. At birth, every male child was marked by 
his mother either black or white by actually making a black or white 
mark upon such child with Indian paints. No special system seems to 
have been used in this marking, but the distinction between blacks 
and whites was preserved throughout the life of the child. In the 
hunt, and in the battle field there was a healthy rivalry to bring 
great success to the legions of their own number by the blacks, and 
in like manner of theirs by the whites. This competition was encour- 
aged for the sake of improvement in the prowess and accomplish- 
ments of the race. While, of course, there was no extended code of 
laws, we have seen that certain rules of conduct were clarly recog- 
nized and in most cases strictly enforced. 

In Haine's "American Indian," the government of the Indian is 
described in more or less detail, respecting which, the author says : 

The institution of civil government prevailed among the Ameri- 
can tribes throughout the two continents, as perfect and complete 
in form and principle, so far as adapted to their wants and conditions 
in life, as among the more enlightened nations. But their mode of 
life being simple, their wants were few and their plan of govern- 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 103 

ment as adapted to this simple and primitive condition. Their gov- 
ernment was not a government of force. It was not maintained upon 
principles of this kind, but was rather one of acquiescence on the part 
of the governed. It was, in form, patriarchal, after the manner of 
the ancients. They had no such thing as rulers or officers appointed 
to enforce laws and oppress individuales ; so that their government 
was not one of oppression, but one in which all felt an equal respon- 
sibility, and cheerfully acquiesced in all measures prescribed or con- 
curred in for their general good. 

A New England historian, on this subject, says their government 
was * ' rather a patriarchal state ; for the Sachem concluded no im- 
portant things — wars, laws or subsidies — to which the people were 
decidedly adverse. As murders, robberies, adulteries, and the like, 
common among the English, were not common with them, the duties 
of the Sachems were light. So that even Indian history shows how 
crimes are nearly all offenses against property, and grow out of that 
hunger for wealth ; every man wanting to get, or to keep, more than 
his share," 

Quoting Dr. Franklin, Mr. Haines says: 

Dr. Franklin, who, during his life of literary work, gave con- 
siderable attention to the study of Indian character and history con- 
cerning Indian government, says that "all their government is by 
counsel or advice of the sages; there is no force; there are no pris- 
oners; no officers to compel obedience or inflict punishments; hence, 
they generally study oratory, the best speaker having the most in- 
fluence. He further adds, that having frequent occasion to hold 
public councils they have acquired great order and decency in con- 
ducting them. The old men sit in the foremost ranks, the warriors 
in the next, and the women and children, if there are any, in the 
rear. ' ' 

An instance of the enforcement of one of the most drastic of 
Indian laws at a quite recent date within close proximity to Chicago 
is related by Mr. Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard, a highly intelligent 
trader of the very early days in Illinois. Mr. Hubbard, his em- 
ployer Deschamps and the "Brigade" as the company of traders was 
called, were at Chicago on about the 25th of April, 1819, and went 
from there around the lake and up to near the Grand river where 
the Indians were celebrating the "Death Feast," and Mr. Hubbard 
in his Autobiography, says : 

One evening at the close of the feast, we were informed that 
an Indian, who the fall previous, in a drunken quarrel, had killed 
one of the sons of a chief of the Manistee band, would on the morrow 
deliver himself up to suffer the penalty of his crime according to 
the Indian custom. We gave but little credence to the rumor, though 
the Indians seemed much excited over it. On the following day, 



104 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

however, the rumor proved true, and I witnessed the grandest and 
most thrilling incident of my life. 

The murderer was a Canadian Indian, and had no blood relatives 
among the Manistees, but had by invitation, returned with some of 
the tribe from Maiden, where they received their annuities from the 
English government, and falling in love with a Manistee maiden, 
had married her and settled among them, agreeing to become one of 
their tribe. As was customary, all his earnings from hunting and 
trapping belonged to his father-in-law until the birth of their first 
child, after which he commanded his time and could use his gains 
for the benefit of his family. At the time of killing of the chief's 
son he had several children and was very poor, possessing nothing 
but his meagre wearning apparel and a few traps. He was a fair 
hunter, but more proficient as a trapper. 

Knowing that his life would be taken unless he could ransom it 
with furs and articles of value, after consulting with his wife, he 
determined to depart at night in a canoe with his family and secretly 
make his way to the marshes at the headwaters of the Muskegon 
river, where he had before trapped successfully, and there endeavor 
to catch beaver, mink, marten, and other fine furs, which were usually 
abundant, and return in the spring and satisfy the demands of the 
chief. As, according to the custom, if he failed to satisfy the chief 
and family of the murdered man, either by ransom or a sacrifice of 
his own life, they could demand of his wife's brothers what he had 
failed to give, he consulted with one of them and told him of his pur- 
pose, and designated a particular location on the Muskegon where he 
could be found if it became necessary for him to return and deliver 
himself up. Having completed his arrangements, he made his escape 
and arrived safely at the place of designation, and having but few 
traps and but a small supply of ammunition, he arranged dead-fall 
traps in a circuit around his camp, hoping with them and his few 
traps to have a successful winter, and by spring to secure enough 
to save his life. 

After the burial of his son, the chief took counsel with his sons 
as to what they should do to revenge the dead, and as they knew the 
murderer was too poor to pay their demands, they determined upon 
his death, and set about finding him. Being disappointed in this, 
they made a demand upon the brothers of his wife, who, knowing 
that they could not satisfy his claims, counseled together as to what 
course to pursue, all but one of them believing he had fled to Canada. 

The youngest brother, knowing of his whereabouts, sent word to 
the chief that he would go in search of the murderer, and if he failed 
to produce him would himself give his own life in his stead. This 
being acceptable, without divulging the secret of his brother-in-law's 
hiding place, he started to find him. It was a long and difficult 
journey, as he had no land-marks to go by and only knew that he 
should find his brother-in-law on the headwaters of the Muskegon, 
which he finally did. 

The winter had been one of unusuaUy deep snow, and the spring 
one of great floods, which had inundated the country where he was. 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 105 

The bears had kept in their dens, and for some reason the marten, 
beavers, and mink had not been found, so that when their brother- 
in-law reached them he and his family were almost perishing from 
starvation, and his winter's hunt had proved unsuccessful. They 
accordingly descended together to the main river, where the brother 
left them for his' return home, it being agreed between them that the 
murderer would himself report at the mouth of Grand river during 
the ' ' Feast of the Dead, ' ' which promise he faithfully performed. 

Soon after simrise the news spread through the camp that he 
was coming. The chief hastily selected a spot in a valley between 
the sand-hills, in which he placed himself and family in readiness to 
receive him, while we traders, together with the Indians, sought the 
surrounding sand-hills, that we might have a good opportunity to 
witness all that should occur. Presently we heard the monotonous 
thump of the Indian drum, and soon thereafter the mournful voice 
of the Indian, chanting his own death song, and then we beheld him, 
marching with his wife and children, slowly and in single file, to the 
place selected for his execution, still singing and beating the drum. 

When he reached a spot near where sat the chief, he placed the 
drum on the ground, and his wife and children seated themselves on 
mats which had been prepared for them. He then addressed the chief, 
saying : " I, in a drunken moment, stabbed your son, being provoked 
to it by his accusing me of being a coward and calling me an old 
woman. I fled to the marshes at the head of the Muskegon, hoping 
that the Great Spirit would favor me in the hunt, so that I could pay 
you for your lost son. I was not successful. Here is the knife with 
which I killed your son ; by it I wish to die. ' ' The chief received the 
knife, and handing it to his oldest son, said, "Kill him." The son 
advanced, and, placing his left hand upon the shoulder of his victim, 
made two or three feints with the knife and plunged it into his breast 
to the handle and immediately withdrew it. 

Not a murmur was heard from the Indian or his wife and chil- 
dren. Not a word was spoken by those assembled to witness. AU 
nature was silent, broken only by the singing of the birds. Every 
eye was turned upon the victim, who stood motionless with his eyes 
firmly fixed upon his executioner, and calmly received the blow with- 
out the appearance of the slightest tremor. For a few moments he 
stood erect, the blood gushing from the wound at every pulsation; 
then his knees began to quake ; his eyes and face assumed an expres- 
sion of death, and he sank upon the sand. 

During all this time the wife and children sat perfectly motion- 
less, gazing upon the husband and father, not a sigh or a murmur 
escaping their lips until life was extinct, when they threw themselves 
upon his dead body, lying in a pool of blood, in grief and lamenta- 
tions, bringing tears to the eyes of the traders, and causing a mur- 
mur of sympathy to run through the multitude of Indians. 

Turning to Mr. Deschamps, down whose cheeks the tears were 
trickling, I said : ' ' Why did you not save that noble Indian. A few 
blankets and shirts, and a little cloth, would have done it." "0, my 



106 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

boy, " he replied, "we should have done it. It was wrong and thought- 
less of us. What a scene we have witnessed. ' ' 

Still the widowed wife and her children were clinging to the 
dead body in useless tears and grief. The chief and his family sat 
motionless for fifteen or twenty minutes, evidently regretting what 
they had done. Then he arose, approaching the body, and in a tremb- 
ling voice, said: "Woman, stop weeping. Your husband was a brave 
man, and, like a brave, was not afraid to die as the rules of our 
nation demanded. We adopt you and your children in the place of 
my son ; our lodges are open to you ; live with any of us ; we will treat 
you like our own sons and daughters; you shall have our protection 
and love." " Che-qui-och " (that is right) was heard from the as- 
sembled Indians, and the tragedy was ended. 

Many writers have attempted to delineate the Indian laws or 
customs, and it is only fair to state that there is much variance of 
statement, due perhaps to differences in the customs of different 
tribes and divers times. A quite satisfactory, as well as quite com- 
plete statement of such customs is contained in the Margery Collec- 
tion, assuming to be a statement of De La Salle himself. It has 
been frequently quoted as passessing a high order of reliability, but is 
little known. A writer in the magazine of Western History ha;s 
translated the statement, and though quite extended, it is of great 
interest and very comprehensive. 

II. The Period of Absolute Monaechy 

(Under the French crown from 1675 to 1765.) 
For a time, the French people living in Illinois were governed 
as part of New France by the king of France through his governors 
or intendants at Quebec and for another period from 1717 attached 
to the French province of New Orleans, but through the nearly one 
hundred and twenty-five years that passed from the time of the 
earliest settlement at Kaskaskia virtually to the taking over of the 
control of this territory by the United States, this State, all the white 
people therein, and, indeed, virtually all the people, Indians included, 
were under a system of the most remarkable self-government ever 
known to history. 

True, by the Treaty of Paris, the English became entitled to the 
sovereignty over Illinois, but English laws were never enforced. By 
the ' ' Quebec Bill, ' ' passed by the British Parliament in 1774, French 
laws were virtually continued in force. 

It is literally correct to say that the laws were never enforced. By 
Commandments and in modern history perhaps there never was so 
few breaches of the law as occurred in this state under that rule. 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 107 

It is justifiable to emphasize the government of the French people 
of Illinois, in view of the circumstances under which it originated, 
the conditions with which the early inhabitants had to cope and the 
length of time that this pure government subsisted. 

Before the French came white civilization was utterly unknown. 
The inhabitants intruded upon the possessions of savages. While 
building up a new world, they maintained a just government and 
peaceful relations for a period almost as long as the official life of 
the United States. 

While the life of the French in Illinois was simple, it was by 
no means primitive. They had the best there was in society of their 
time, were just as advanced as Old World peoples and while the 
period was troublous in other parts of the country and of the world, 
the French in Illinois were living in peace with their Indian neighbors 
and with all the world. 

The governmental machinery was just as simple as their every 
day life. In a quite satisfactory history of the early years of Illi- 
nois, written by Alexander Davidson and Bernard Stuve, published 
in 1874, we find this description which furnishes the key to French 
life in those days : 

"No regular court was held in the country for more than a hun- 
dred years or till its occupation by the English, evidencing that a 
virtuous and honest community can live in peace and harmony without 
the serious infraction of the law. The Governor, aided by the 
friendly advice of the commandants and priests of the villages either 
prevented the existence of controversies or settled them when they 
arose without a resort to litigation. Although these several function- 
aries were clothed with absolute power such was the paternal manner 
in which it was exercised, it is said that 'the rod of domination fell 
on them so lightly as to hardly be felt. ' ' ' 

The commandant, as he was called, appointed by the Governor 
of Canada in the first instance and la,tterly by the Governor of 
Louisiana, exercised all executive functions, and as stated by Justice 
Breese : 

"This official, up to 1750, exercised supreme judicial power also, 
except in capital cases, they being cognizable by the Superior Council 
of Louisiana, which consisted of the intendant who was the first judge, 
and specially charged with the king's rights, and with all that re- 
lated to the revenue, the king's attorney, six of the principal inhabi- 
tants, and the register of the province, all appointed by the crown, 
subordinate to the major commandant, as he was styled. Each vil- 
lage had its own local commandant, usually the captain of the militia. 
He was as great a personage, at least as our city mayors, superin- 



108 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

tending the police of his village, and acting as a kind of justice of 
the peace, from whose decisions an appeal lay to the major com- 
mandant. In the choice of this subordinate though important func- 
tionary, the adult inhabitants had a voice, and it is the only instance 
wherein they exercised an elective franchise." 

In 1750, the "Court of the Audience of the royal jurisdiction 
of the Illinois," was established and proceedings were carried on 
before a single judge who himself entered his decrees in a " register. ' ' 
Judgment and decrees were executed by the captain of the militia 
or the provost. Judge Breese remarks that "occasions, however, were 
not frequent calling for the exercise of judicial authority or rendering 
a regular administration of justice necessary for the inhabitants were 
generally peaceable and honest and punctual in their dealings." 

It would perhaps be more proper to state that there was very 
little for a court of justice to do than that there was no such court. 
The late Judge Breese in his "Eearly History of Illinois," although 
stating that there was a court, says that the supposition is justified, 

"That the aid of the judge was not often invoked to settle diffi- 
culties, in fact, the most common and usual mode was by the com- 
mandant himself and by arbitration of friends and neighbors . . . 
trifling matters — such small difficulties as will arise even with the 
best regulated communities — were usually settled by the mild inter- 
position of the commandant or the priest — the offending party would 
carry his complaint to the good cure and in the confessional or some- 
where else, the 'tort-feasor' would be required to make the proper 
atonement. ' ' 

The actual situation with reference to court and government is 
clearly stated by Judge Breese. He says : 

' ' Their code of laws was the ' Customes of Paris, ' then the common 
law of France, and introduced into all her American colonies, changed 
and modified, more or less, by the ignorance or arbitrary will of those 
called upon to expound and apply them. Their own peculiar local 
usages, of course, had the force of law. ' ' 

Officers with judicial functions become more important toward 
the end of the French regime in the matter of land allotments or 
conveyances. In a sense the French settlers were squatters, but suc- 
ceeding generations have considered that they earned their possessions 
by the service rendered the county and state in their settlement. In 
the deed of cession from Virginia to the United States and carried 
through all the subsequent proceedings, will be found a clause to this 
effect : 

"That the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers 
of the Kaskaskias, Saint Vincents, and the neighboring villages who 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 109 

have professed themselves citizens of Virginia shall have their pos- 
sessions and titles confirmed to them and be protected in the enjoy- 
ment of their rights and liberties. ' ' 

And the report of the committee of Congress agreed to on June 20, 
1788, provided: 

''That the Governor of the Northwestern Territory be instructed 
to repair to the French settlements on the Mississippi at and above 
the Kaskaskias; that they examine the title and possessions of the 
settlers as above described in order to determine what quantity of 
land they may severally claim which shall be laid off for them at their 
own expense. ' ' 

In addition to the lands of which such settlers were in possession, 
provision was made for confirming to the inhabitants of the several 
villages the common lands or "Commons" theretofore held. 

By reason of these provisions, we still trace a portion of our law 
to the French government and occupancy. Instead of titles beginning 
with the patent of the United States as in the case in all territory 
where lands were unoccupied at the time of securing them by the 
United States, the first link in the chain of title in these Kaskaskia 
lands begins with the possession of some early French settler. 

Out of the supposition that some Pierre or Jacques might have 
made a fraudulent claim has arisen some litigation and at least 
two of such suits have reached the Supreme Court of Illinois and 
at least one the Supreme Court of the United States. The first one 
being the case of Doe, ex dem, etc., vs. Hill, 1 II., 304. In that case, 
in an able opinion by Justice Lockwood, the rule was laid down that 
a confirmation made by the Governor as provided in the report 
adopted by Congress to a person claiming a tract of land in the ter- 
ritory comprised in the report was valid and operates as a release 
of all the interest of the United States therein. It is a matter of 
interest that in this decisive case, John RejTiolds appeared for the 
plaintiff and Thomas Ford appeared for the defendant, the same 
John Reynolds and Thomas Ford who, in their lifetime, served as 
Governors of the State of Illinois. This case was confirmed by an 
able opinion written by Mr. Justice Breese, as will appear by refer- 
ence to the case of Reichart vs. Felps, et al., 33 111., 433, and also 
on appeal as appears by the opinion of the United States Supreme 
Court. 

These, however, are not the only examples of the French titles 
to be found in our laws. In connection with the \'illage of Kaskaskia 
there was, as has been stated, a "Common," which aggregated some 
6,500 acres. The title to this common remained undisturbed in the 



110 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

inhabitants of Kaskaskia down to modern times. Its history is best 
told in a preamble to Senate Bill No. 159, passed by the 46th General 
Assembly, which became a law July 1, 1909, and which provided for 
the sale of the said Common. The preamble reads as follows: 

"Whereas, The inhabitants of the island of Kaskaskia, in the 
county of Randolph, are in common entitled to the use and benefit of 
certain lands commonly known as the Kaskaskia commons, consisting 
of about 6,500 acres, by virtue of an ancient grant recognized and 
confirmed by the government of the United States and the State of 
Illinois; and, 

''Whereas, The right to sell or lease said lads, or any part there- 
of, was granted by the Constitution of Illinois of 1848 to a majority 
of the qualified voters therein ; and, 

"Whereas, Pursuant to said right, a majority of the qualified 
voters of Kaskaskia did petition the General Assembly of Illinois for 
permission to lease said lands, whereupon the General Assembly of 
Illinois passed an Act which was approved January 23, 1851, granting 
said privilege for school and other purposes as herein specified; and, 

"Whereas, The said lands, pursuant to said Act of 1851 have 
been leased in separate subdivisions at different times for a period of 
fifty years, and, 

"Whereas, It appears, from a petition now presented to the 
General Assembly of Illinois by a majority of the legal voters of said 
island, that a portion of the funds secured by the said leasing, 
and intended for school purposes, have been misused and misappro- 
priated by the trustees entrusted with the case thereof ; and, 

"Whereas, It also appears from said petition that the school 
system provided by the Act of 1851 for the said island, is now wholly 
inadequate and insufficient for the inhabitants of said island and that 
the common schools of said island are in need of said funds ; and, 

"Whereas, There is no general law in this State, nor can one be 
enacted, applicable to the case, because there is no other such a grant 
of commons within the State nor any other community so situated; 
therefore," etc. 

It was to be expected that such an important law would be ques- 
tioned and the constitutionality of the act was indeed attacked, but 
the same was found constitutional and valid by the Supreme Court 
in the case of Land Commissioners vs. Commons of Kaskaskia, 249 
III, 578. 

But our interest in the old French regime is still maintained by 
an act which passed at a more recent session of the General Assembly 
and which became a law July 1, 1915, making additional and more 
stringent provisions for the conservation of the school fund created 
by the sale of Kaskaskia Commons Lands. 

In the foregoing, is indicated the traces which the French set- 
tlement has left upon our government and laws. Were there a record, 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 111 

we might be able to read with much satisfaction of governmental 
proceedings of this early day and might be able to quote sound deci- 
sions of these early French tribunals as precedents. 

Mr. E. G. Mason, in an able address before the Illinois Bar Asso- 
ciation, at its tenth annual meeting in Springfield, January 12, 1887, 
on ' ' The Beginning of Law in Illinois, ' ' gave utterance to the follow- 
ing interesting suggestions : 

"To Illinois lawyers, the first edition of Breese's Reports, printed 
at Kaskaskia, in 1831, seems a venerable volume. But how juvenile 
it would appear had the Illinois reports of the last century been pre- 
served to our day. What a fine flavor it would add to the practice of 
the law, if we could cite familiarly the first Pierre Boisbriant, bear- 
ing date in 1718, or the second of D 'Artaguette, in 1735, or, with 
that soulful glance which betokens complete harmony between court 
and counsel, could remind his honor of that well known ruling of De 
La Loire Flancour in 1744, or that famous decision of Buchet in 1752. 
These all and many another held court in the Illinois country long 
before any Englishman had set foot therein, but the reports of their 
proceedings have perished. We shall never know what treasures of 
wisdom and learning, what well considered judgments and what 
weighty opinions, easily applicable, perhaps, to the causes of our 
own time, have vanished from the judicial records of Illinois." 

What became of the ' ' reports of these early courts ' ' is graphically 
described in Mr. Mason's address. Stating that he had reason to 
infer from Judge Breese's statements that such records existed, he 
went to Randolph county and finally persuaded some elderly officials 
to help him search for the records. The following is his account of 
the search: 

"We traced the records from pillar to post; from their deposit 
in an open hall-way exposed to wind and weather, to the transfer of 
what remained to the grand jury room, where their identity was 
fully established by a chronic grand juryman, who had lit his pipe 
by the aid of their leaves during many years of public service, reading 
an occasional fragment before he offered it up at the shrine of tobacco. 
When, by diligent attention to business, he and his associates had 
reduced the residue to the compass of a small box, their hearts had 
softened toward what remained of the venerable manuscripts, and they 
had consigned these remnants to the care of the janitor to be pre- 
served, and until my coming they had been forgotten. The janitor, 
under pressure, confessed that he, too, had used them for kindling; 
and a single scrap of less than a page, containing the entry of judg- 
ments in four cases, was all that remained of the records of the Court 
of the Royal Jurisdiction of the Illinois. ' ' 

As for direct legislation during the French Period, the form of 
government, which existed, would not lead us to expect much in that 



112 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

direction. But it is known that there were at least some rules and 
regulations specially promulgated for this particular part of the 
world amongst which was what has since been known as the Slave 
Code of Louis XIV. This was an extensive body of laws which gov- 
erned the conduct of the slave relations between him and his master, 
and between slave, his fellow-slave, and others and provided drastic 
punishments for its infraction either by the slave, the master or any 
other person. 

There was, too, an extremely interesting and curious regulation 
promulgated in this territory, fixing definitely and minutely the 
order of precedence of officers, ecclesiastics and individuals when 
appearing in public, at church or in social gatherings. 

III. Limited Monarchy 

(Under English Government 1763 to 1778.) 
By the Treaty of Paris all the Territory of New France east 
of the Mississippi river was ceded to Great Britain and that monarchy 
became entitled to the possession of the Illinois territory. It was 
not until 1675, however, that the British actually gained possession 
when St. Ange de Bell Rive surrendered possession of Ft. Chartres, 
the capitol of the Illinois country, at the time located twelve miles 
above Kaskaskia, to the British. A lame administration of law was 
set up subject to the provisions of the treaty, and later to those 
of the Quebec Act, which saved to the French inhabitants their rights 
under the French regime. 

Governor John Reynolds in his work, "The Pioneer Histoiy of 
Illinois," leaves us this picture of conditions: 

The French settlements in Illinois were at the greatest prosperity 
at the close of the war, in 1763, and ever since, to this day, the 
French inhabitants have been declining in Illinois. It is stated that 
old Kaskaskia, the Paris of Illinois, in 1763, contained two or three 
thousand inhabitants, and was a place of business, wealth, and fashion. 
The Jesuits had a college there, and all other ecclesiastical concerns, 
suited to the wealth and population of the country. The commerce to 
New Orleans was regular and profitable. A great portion of the 
Illinois Egypt, the American Bottom, was in a state of profitable cul- 
tivation. Wheat, tobacco, and various other crops were raised not 
only for consumption but for exportation. But over this happy pros- 
perity a sad cloud of misfortune extended. The British whom they 
so bitterly hated, and for good cause, captured the country by force 
of arms, from these innocent and unoffending people." 

And Mr. Moses, secretary and librarian of the Chicago Historical 
Society and for many years a prominent officer in different positions 
in Illinois says that: 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 113 

"The French subjects of Great Britain who had remained in Illi- 
nois early exhibited a disposition to become troublesome and as a 
panacea for most civil ills, General Gage instructed Colonel Wilkins 
to establish a court of common law jurisdiction at Fort Chartres with 
a bench of seven judges — the first British court west of the Alle- 
ghenies. ' ' 

It does not appear that this newly established court was called 
upon extensively to adjust legal difficulties amongst the inhabitants. 
There is some evidence, however, that such adjustments as were at- 
tempted were quite unsatisfactory, more especially because they com- 
prehended the jury as an element of trial, contrary to the long 
established usage of the French people. It appears, also that the 
officers ran counter to the French notions of land titles, and began 
conveying or granting to others lands which were claimed by the 
French settlers. 

The complaints of the French proved a source of much difficulty, 
apparently, to the British government, so much so that Parliament, 
with a view to the conciliation of the French inhabitants, on June 2, 
1774 passed what has since been known as the "Quebec Bill" which 
confirmed the French inliabitants in the free exercise of their religion 
and restored them their ancient laws in civil cases without trial by 
jury. 

Perhaps the principal events of the British government by which 
it will be remembered were its attempts at the wholesale bestowal of 
lands upon its favorites and administrators. 

Governors and agents of the British government succeeded each 
other with considerable rapidity, but the one whose tenure of office 
was longest and whose deeds were most evil was Colonel Wilkins. In 
Davidson and Stuve's History of Illinois, it is said that: 

' ' The most notable feature of Colonel Wilkins ' administration was 
the wonderful liberality with which he parceled out a large domain 
over which he ruled in large tracts to his favorites in Illinois, Phila- 
delphia and elsewhere without other consideration than the requiring 
of them to reconvey to him an interest." 

And since many of the French had left the settlement. Colonel 
Wilkins considered their lands forfeited and granted them away. 

In one tract, a grant was made to John Baynton, Samuel Whar- 
ton and George Morgan, merchants of Philadelphia who "trading in 
this country have greatly contributed to his majesty's service" — "for 
range of cattle and for tilling grain," 13,986 acres, but the metes 
and bounds disclosed the tract to cover some 30,000 acres. 

Another instance of this wholesale disposal of the public domain 
included the grant of a tract which was brought by the ' * Illinois Land 



114 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

Company" from the Indian chiefs and paid for in blankets, shirts, 
stockings and gun-powder to the value of a few hundred dollars 
and which included ten or twelve of thei most southerly counties in 
the State. Still another covered territory bounded by a line begin- 
ning on the Mississippi river opposite the mouth of the Missouri, 
thence up the Mississippi river 6 leagues, then up the Illinois river 
90 leagues to the Chicago or Garlick Creek, thence north 50 leagues, 
thence v/est 40 leagues, thence northeast 14 leagues, thence north 
15 leagues, thence taking a southwest course in a direct line to the 
place of beginning about 40 leagues. The number of acres contained 
in these grants was about 37,479,600. These deeds were registered 
at Kaskaksai. It is a satisfaction to know that the success of the 
American arms in the Revolution prevented the consummation of this 
immense steal. 

"The policy of the British government was not favorable to the 
economic development of the newly-acquired country, since it was 
feared that its prosperity might react against the trade and industry 
of Great Britain. But in 1769 and the succeeding years of English 
control, this policy was relaxed, and immigration from the sea- 
board colonies, especially from Virginia, began. In 1771 the people 
of the Illinois country, through a meeting at Kaskaskia, demanded a 
form of self-government similar to that of Connecticut. The petition 
was rejected by General Thomas Gage; and Thomas Legge, earl of 
Dartmouth (1731-1801), Secretary of State for Plantations and 
President of the Board of Trade, drew up a plan of government for 
Illinois in which all officials were appointed by the crown. This, 
however, was never operative, for in 1774, by the famous Quebec 
Act, the Illinois country was annexed to the Province of Quebec, and 
at the same time the jurisdiction of the French civil law was recog- 
nized. These facts explain the considerable sympathy in Illinois for 
the colonial cause in the War of Independence. Most of the inhab- 
itants, however were French, and these were Loyalists. Conse- 
quently, the British government withdrew their troops from the Illi- 
nois country. The English authorities instigated the Indians to 
make attacks upon the frontiers of the American colonies, and this 
led to one of the most important events in the history of the Illinois 
countiy, the capture of the British posts of Cahokia and Kaskaskia 
in 1778, and in the following year of Vincennes (Indiana), by George 
Rogers Clark who acted under orders from Patrick Henry, Governor 
of Virginia. These conquests had much to do with the securing by 
the United States of the country west of the Alleghanies and north 
of the Ohio in the treaty of Paris, 1783." 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 115 

What is said of the slight need for courts during the French 
period cannot be maintained respecting the English period. The 
different elements of population introduced during this time seems 
to have had the effect of creating disputes, and the courts organized 
in the communities were kept fairly busy. 

Until Dr. Alvord of the State University discovered a large quan- 
tity of court records in the clerk's offices at Belleville and Chester, 
very little was known of the history and activities of these early 
courts, but due to the painstaking efforts of Mr. Alvord and his 
associates at the University, we may read the record of some hun- 
dreds of trials before these early courts, in volumes one and two of 
the Virginia Series of the Illinois Historical Collection. The reader 
of these records will be surprised in many instances to find that these 
courts not only exercised a very sound judgment without the aid of 
precedents or anything much in the way of written laws, but also 
that justice was administered summarily and quite satisfactorily. 

IV. Colonial Period 

(1778 to 1787 ) 

After the territory was won from England by the Virginia Vol- 
unteers under George Rogers Clark in 1778, the country became 
subject to Virginia and, consequently, to the laws of that colony. 
Virginia was herself just beginning to develop a government and 
almost at the time of securing control of the western territory, in- 
cluding Illinois, adopted her constitution which is one of the best 
declarations of human rights found in either Federal or State con- 
stitutions. It also adopted a law defining the form of government 
which is remarkable for its utility and clearness. 

Though Virginia ceded the territory to the United States in 1784, 
no effective steps were taken by the United States for its government 
until the ordinance of 1787 creating the northwest territory was 
adopted by Congress, and consequently the country remained subject 
to the laws of Virginia. 

The First Constitution 

We are in the habit of thinking of our State government as being 
administered through three State constitutions, but in reality, there 
were five, not the least in merit being the first; namely, the consti- 
tution of Virginia. 

By reason of the importance of this enactment and of the further 
fact that it was frequently referred to as the rule of action by which 



116 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

this territory should be governed, the Constitution of Virginia is 
here set out in full. ' 

At the General Convention of Delegates and Representatives from 
the several counties and corporations of Virginia, held at the Capitol, 
in the City of ■Williamsburg, on Monday the 6th day of May, 1776, 
a declaration was adopted as follows : 

Chapter I 

Declaration of Rights made by the Representatives of the good 
people of Virginia, assembled in full and free convention; which 
rights do pertain to them, and their posterity, as the basis and 
Foundation of Government. (Unanimously adopted June 12th, 1776). 

I. That all men are by nature equally free and independent, 
and have certain inherent rights, of which, when they enter into 
a state of society, they cannot, by any compact, deprive or divest 
their posterity; namely, the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the 
means of acquiring and possessing property, and pursuing and obtain- 
ing happiness and safety. 

II. That all power is vested in, and primarily derived from, 
the people; that magistrates are their trustees and servants, and at 
all times amenable to them. 

III. That government is, or ought to be, instituted for the 
common benefit, protection and security, of the people, nation, or 
community. Of all the various modes and forms of government, that 
is best, which is capable of producing the greatest degree of happi- 
ness and safety, and is most effectually secured against the danger 
of mal-administration ; and that when any government shall be found 
inadequate or contrary to these purposes, a majority of the com- 
munity hath an indubitable, inalienable and indefeasible right to 
reform, alter, or abolish it, in such manner as shall be judged condu- 
cive to the public weal. 

IV. That no man, or set of men, are entitled to exclusive or 
separate emoluments or privileges from the community, but in con- 
sideration of public ser^dce ; which not being descendible, neither 
ought the office of Magistrate, Legislator, or Judge, be hereditary. 

V. That the Legislative, and Executive powers of the State 
should be separate and distinct from the Judiciary; and that the 
members of the two first may be restrained from oppression, by feel- 
ing and participating in the burdens of the people, they should, at 
fixed periods, be reduced to a private station, returned into that 
body from which they were originally taken, and the vacancies be 
supplied by frequent, certain and regular elections, in which all, or 
any part of the former members, to be again eligible, or ineligible, 
as the laws shall direct. 

VI. That elections of members to serve as representatives of 
the people, in Assembly, ought to be free; and that all men, having 
sufficient evidence of permanent common interest with, and attach- 
ment to, the community, have the right of suffrage, and cannot be 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 117 

taxed or deprived of their property for public uses, without their 
own consent, or that of their representatives so elected, nor bounden 
by any law to which they have not, in like manner assented for the 
public good. 

VII. That all power of suspending laws, or the execution of 
laws, by any authority without consent of the representatives of the 
people, is injurious to their reghts, and ought not to be exercised. 

VIII. That in all capital or criminal prosecutions, a man hath 
a right to demand the cause and nature of his accusations, to be 
confronted with the accusers, and witnesses, to call for evidence in 
his favor, and to a speedy trial by an impartial jury of his vicinage 
without whose unanimous consent he cannot be found guilty, nor can 
he be compelled to give evidence against himself; that no man be 
deprived of his liberty except by the law of the land, or the judg- 
ment of his peers. 

IX. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted. 

X. That general warrants, whereby an officer or messenger may 
be commanded to search suspected places without evidence of a fact 
commanded, or to seize any person or persons not named, or whose 
offence is not particularly described and supported by evidence, are 
grievous and oppressive, and ought not to be granted. 

XI. That in controversies, respecting property, and in suits be- 
tween man and man, the ancient trial by jury is preferable to any 
other, and ought to be held sacred. 

XII. That the freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks 
of liberty, and can never be restrained but by despotic governments. 

XIII. That a well regulated militia, composed of the body of 
the people, trained to arms, is the proper, natural and safe defence of 
a free state ; that standing armies, in time of peace, should be avoided, 
as dangerous to liberty; and that, in all cases, the military should 
be under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power. 

XIV. That the people have a right to uniform government; 
and therefore, that no government separate from, or independent 
of, the government of Virginia, ought to be erected or established 
within the limits thereof. 

XV. That no free government, or the blessing of liberty, can 
be preserved to any people but by a firm adherence to justice, mod- 
eration, temperance, frugality, and virtue, and by frequent recurrence 
to fundamental principles. 

XVI. That religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator, 
and the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and 
conviction, not by force or violence, and therefore all men are equally 
entitled to the free exercise of religion, according to the dictates of 
conscience ; and that it is the mutual duty of all to practice Christian 
forbearance, love and charity toward each other. 



118 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

Chapter II, 

The Constitution or Form of Government, agreed to and resolved 
upon by the Delegates and Representatives of the several Counties 
and Corporations of Virginia. (Unanimously adopted, June 29, 
1776.) 

1. Whereas, George the third, King of Great Britain, and Ire- 
land, and Elector of Hanover, heretofore entrusted with the exercise 
of the kingly office in this government, hath endeavored to pervert 
the same into a detestable and insupportable tyranny, by putting his 
negative on laws the most wholesome and necessary for the public 
good: By denying his governors permission to pass laws of imme- 
diate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation 
for his assent, and, when so suspended, neglecting to attend to them 
for many years: By refusing to pass certain other laws, unless the 
persons to be benefited by them would relinquish the inestimable right 
of representation in the legislature: By dissolving legislative assem- 
blies repeatedly and continually, to those opposing with manly firm- 
ness, his invasions of the rights of the people: When dissolved, by 
refusing to call others for a long space of time, thereby leaving the 
political system without any legislative head: By endeavoring to 
prevent population of our country, and, for that purpase, obstructing 
the laws for the naturalization of foreigners : By keeping among us, 
in time of peace, standing armies and ships of war : By effecting to 
render the military independent of, and superior to, the civil power : 
By combining with others to subject us to a foreign jurisdiction, 
giving his assent to their pretended acts of legislation : For quarter- 
ing large bodies of armed troops among us: For cutting off our 
trade with all parts of the world : For imposing taxes on us without 
our consent: For depriving us of the benefits of the trial by jury: 
For transporting us beyond seas, to be tried for pretended offences : 
For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves in- 
vested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever: By 
plundering over seas, ravaging our coasts, burning our towns, and 
destroying the lives of our people : By inciting insurrections of our 
fellow subjects, with the allurements of forfeiture and confiscation: 
By prompting our negroes to rise in arms among us, those very ne- 
groes, whom, by an inhuman use of his negative, he hath refused 
us permission to exclude by law: By endeavoring to bring on the 
inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose 
known rule of warfare is in undistinguished destruction of all ages, 
sexes and conditions of existence: By transporting at this time, a 
large army of foreign mercenaries, to complete the works of death, 
desolation and tyranny already begun with circumstances of cruelty 
and perfidy unworthy the head of a civilized nation : By answering 
our repeated petitions for redress with a repetition of injuries: 
And finally, by abandoning the helm of government, and declaring 
us out of his allegiance and protection. By which several Acts of 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 119 

misrule, the government of this country as formerly exercised under 
the crown of Great Britain, is totally dissolved. 

2. We, therefore, the Delegates and Representatives of the good 
people of Virginia, having maturely considered the premises, and 
viewing with great concern the deplorable condition to which this 
once happy country must be reduced, unless some regular, adequate 
mode of civil polity is speedily adopted, and in compliance with a 
recommendation of the General Congress, do ordain and declare the 
future form of government of Virginia to be as followeth: 

3. The Legislative, Executive and Judiciary departments shall 
be separate and distinct, so that neither exercise the powers properly 
belonging to the other; nor shall any person exercise the powers 
of more than one of them at the same time, except that the Justice 
of the county courts shall be eligible to either House of Assembly. 

4. The Legislature shall be formed of two distinct branches who 
together shall be a complete Legislature. They shall meet once or 
oftener, every year, and shall be called the General Assembly of 
Virginia. 

5. One of these shall be called the House of Delegates, and con- 
sist of two Representatives to be chosen for each county, and for 
the district of West Augusta, annually of such men as actually 
reside in and are freeholders of the same, or duly qualified according 
to law; and also one Delegate or Representatives to be chosen an- 
nually for the city of Williamsburg, and one for the burrough of 
Norfolk; and a representative for each such other cities and bur- 
roughs as may hereafter be allowed particular representation by 
the Legislature ; but when any city or burrough shall so decrease, as 
that the number of persons having right of suffrage therein shall 
have been for the space of seven years successively less than half 
the number of voters in some one county in Virginia, such city or 
burrough thenceforward shall cease to send Delegates or Representa- 
tives to the Assembly. 

6. The other shall be called the Senate, and consist of twenty- 
four members, of whom thirteen shall constitute a House to proceed 
on business, for whose election the different counties shall be di\dded 
into twenty-four districts, and each county of the respective districts, 
at the time of the election of its Delegates shall vote for one Senator, 
who is actually a resident and freeholder within the district, or duly 
qualified according to law, and is upwards of twenty-five years of 
age ; and the sheriffs of each county within five days at farthest after 
the last county election in the district, shall meet at some convenient 
place, and, from the poll so taken in their respective counties, return 
as a Senator the man who shall have the greatest number of votes 
in the whole district. To keep up this Assembly by rotation, the 
districts shall be equally divided into four classes, and numbered 
by lot. At the end of one year after the general election, the six 
members elected by the first division, shall be displaced, and the 
vacancies thereby occasioned supplied from such class or division, 



120 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

by new election, in the manner aforesaid. This rotation shall be 
applied to each division, according to its number, and continued in 
due order annually. 

7. That the right of suffrage, in the election of members of 
both Houses, shall remain as exercised at present, and each House 
shall choose its own Speaker, appoint its own officers, settle its own 
rules of proceeding, and direct writs of election for supplying inter- 
mediate vacancies. 

9. All laws shall originate in the House of Delegates, to be 
approved or rejected by the Senate, or to be amended with the consent 
of the House of Delegates, except money bills, which in no instance 
shall be altered by the Senate, but wholly approved or rejected. 

'9. A Governor, or Chief Magistrate, shall be chosen annually 
by joint ballot of both Houses, to be taken in each House respectively, 
deposited in the conference room; the boxes examined jointly by a 
Committee of each House; and the numbers severally reported to 
them, that the appointment may be entered (which shall be the mode 
of taking the joint ballot of both Houses in all cases) who shall not 
continue in that office longer than three years successively, not to be 
eligible until the expiration of four years after he shall have been out 
of that office. An adequate, but moderate salary, shall be settled 
upon him during his continuance in office; and he shall, with the 
advice of a Council of State, exercise the executive powers of gov- 
ernment according to the laws of this commonwealth; and shall not, 
under any pretense, exercise any power or prerogative by virtue 
of any law. statute or custom of England; but he shall, with the 
advice of the Council of State, have the power of granting reprieves 
or pardons, except where the prosecution shall have been carried 
on by the House of Delegates, or the law shall otherwise particularly 
direct; in which case, no reprieve or pardon shall be granted, but by 
resolve of the House of Delegates. 

10. Either House of the General Assembly may adjourn them- 
selves respectively. The Governor shall not prorogue or adjourn 
the Assembly during their sitting nor dissolve them at any time; 
but he shall, if necessary, either by advice of the Council of State, 
or on application of a majority of the House of Delegates, call them 
before the time to which they shall stand prorogued or adjourned. 

11. A Privy Council or Council of State, consisting of eight 
members, shall be chosen by joint ballot of both Houses of Assembly 
either from their own members or the people at large, to assist in 
the administration of government. They shall annually choose out of 
their own members a President, who, in case of the death, inability, 
or necessary absence of the Governor from the government shall act 
at Lieutenant Governor. Four members shall be sufficient to act ; 
and their advice and proceedings shall be entered of record, and 
signed by the members present (to any part whereof any member 
may enter his dissent) to be laid before the General Assembly, when 
called for by them. This Council may appoint their own clerk, who 
shall have a salarj' settled by law, and take an oath of secrecy in 



mSTORY OP LAW IN ILLINOIS 121 

such matters as he shall be directed by the Board to conceal, A sum 
of money appropriated to that purpose shall be divided annually 
among the members in proportion to their attendance ; and they shall 
be incapable, during their continuance in office, of sitting in either 
House or Assembly. Two members shall be removed, by joint ballot 
of both Houses of Assembly, at the end of every three years, and be 
ineligible for the three next years. These vacancies, as well as those 
occasioned by death or incapacity, shall be supplied by new elections, 
in the same manner. 

12. The Delegates for Virginia to the Continental Congress shall 
be chosen annually, or superseded in the meantime by joint ballot of 
both Houses of Assembly. 

13. The present militia officers shall be continued, and vacan- 
cies supplied by appointment of the Governor, with the advice of the 
Privy Council, or recommendations from the respective County 
Courts; but the Governor and Council shall have a power of sus- 
pending any officer, and ordering a court-martial, on complaint of 
misbehavior or inability, or to supply vacancies of officers happening 
when in actual service. The Governor may embody the militia, with 
the advice of the Privy Council, and, when embodied, shall alone have 
the direction of the militia under the laws of the Country. 

14. The two Houses of Assembly shall, by joint ballot, appoint 
Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals and General Court, Judges 
in Chancery, Judges of Admiralty, Secretary, and the Attorney Gen- 
eral, to be commissioned by the Governor, and continue in office 
during good behavior. In case of death, incapacity, or resignation, 
the Governor with the advice of the Privy Council, shall appoint 
persons to succeed in office, to be approved or displaced by both 
Houses. These officers shall have fixed and adequate salaries; and, 
together with all others holding lucrative offices, and all Ministers of 
the Gospel of every denomination, be incapable of being elected mem- 
bers of either House or Assembly or the Privy Council. 

15. The Governor, with the advice of the Privy Council, shall 
appoint Justices of the Peace for the counties ; and in case of vacan- 
cies, or a necessity of increasing the number hereafter, such ap- 
pointments to be made upon the recommendation of the respective 
County Courts, (a) The present acting Secretary in Virginia, and 
Clerks of all the County Courts, shall continue in office. In case of 
vacancies, either by death, incapacity or resignation, a secretary 
shall be appointed as before directed and the clerks by the respec- 
tive courts, (b) The present and future clerks shall hold their offices 
during good behavior, to be judged of and determined in the General 
Court. The sheriffs and coroners shall be nominated by the respec- 
tive courts, approved by the Governor, with the advice of the Privy- 
Council, and commissioned by the Governor. The Justices shall 
appoint Constables, and all fees of the aforesaid officers to be regu- 
lated by law. 

16. The Governor, when he is out of office, and others offend- 
ing against the state, either by mal-administration, corruption or 



122 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

Other means by which the safety of the state may be endangered, 
shall be impeachable by the House of Delegates. Such impeachment 
to be prosecuted by the Attorney General, or such other person or 
persons as the House may appoint, in the General Court according 
to the laws of the land. If found guilty, he or they shall be either 
forever disabled to hold any office under the government, or removed 
from such office pro tempore, or subjected to such pains or penalties as 
the law shall direct. 

17. If all, or any of the Judges of the General Court, shall, on 
good grounds (to be judged of by the House of Delegates) be accused 
of any of the crimes or offenses before mentioned, such House of 
Delegates may, in like manner, impeach the Judge or Judges so ac- 
cused, to be prosecuted in the Court of Appeals; and he or they, if 
found guilty, shall be punished in the same manner as is prescribed 
in the preceding clause. 

18. Commissions and grants shall run in the name of the Com- 
monwealth of Virginia, and bear teste by the Governor, with the 
seal of the Commonwealth annexed. Writs shall run in the same 
manner, and bear teste by the clerks of the several courts. Indict- 
ments shall conclude, against the peace and dignity of the Common- 
wealth. 

19. A Treasurer shall be appointed annually, by joint ballot of 
both Houses. 

20. All escheats, penalties and forfeitures heretofore going to 
the King, shall go to the Commonwealth, save only such as the Legis- 
lature may abolish or otherwise provide for. 

21. The territories contained within the charters erecting the 
colonies of Maryland, Pennsylvania, North and South Carolina, are 
hereby ceded, released and forever confirmed to the people of those 
colonies respectively with all the rights of property, jurisdiction and 
government, and all other rights whatsoever which might at any time 
heretofore have been claimed by Virginia, except the free navigation 
and use of the rivers Potomac and Pohomoke, with the property of 
the Virginia shores or strands bordering on either of the said rivers, 
and all improvements which have been or shall be made thereon. 
The western and northern extent of Virginia shall, in all other re- 
spects, stand as fixed by the charter of King James the first, in the 
year one thousand six hundred and nine, and by the public treaty of 
peace between the courts of Great Britain and France, in the year 
one thousand seven hundred and sixty-three ; unless, by act of Legis- 
lature, one or more territories shall hereafter be laid off, and govern- 
ments established westward of the Allegheny mountains. And no 
purchase of lands shall be made of the Indian natives but on behalf 
of the public, by authority of the General Assembly. 

22. In order to introduce this government, the representatives 
of the people met in Convention shall choose a Governor and Privy 
Council, also such other officers directed to be chosen by both Houses 
as may be judged necessary to be immediately appointed. The Sen- 
ate to be first chosen by the people, to continue until the last day of 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 123 

March next, and the other officers, until the end of the succeeding 
session of Assembly. In ease of vacancies, the Speaker of either 
House shall issue writs for new elections. 

Basides the constitution and the act defining the form of gov- 
ernment, the Virginia assembly, during the time that the territory 
now embraced in Illinois was subject to that colony, passed twenty- 
nine laws on the following subjects in the order named: Rights, Elec- 
tions, Wrecks, Cession, Copy Right, Shipping, Frauds, and Perjuries, 
Banking, Aliens, Conveyances (fraudulent), Bail, Trial (right to 
speedy and impartial), Estrays, Roads and Bridges, Religion (free- 
dom of), Affrays, Conspiracies, Pure Food, Partitions, Informer 
(Collusion), Death (Presumption of by 7 years' absence). Ejectment, 
Mob Violence, Bills of Exchange, Usury, Exchange, Records (Re- 
storation ,of Lost), Fire (Establishment of Companies), Convicts, 
Office (Incompatible). 

V. Territorial Period. 

(As a Territory of the United States.) 

Upon the cession of the territory northwest of the Ohio River 
to the United States and its acceptance thereof, the Congress (then 
the Continental Congress) passed the well known ordinance of July 
13, 1787, which may properly be described as another constitution or 
charter of government. 

This enactment has been highly praised in many quarters and 
undoubtedly contains a great many valuable guarantees, but it was 
very inferior to the constitution of Virginia and granted but meagre 
privileges as to participation in government to the people. 

It failed to provide for the liberty of the press, the right of free 
speech, the right of petition, the freedom of election, the right to 
bear arms, and did not prohibit ex-post facto laws, provisions which 
were included in many of the contemporary State constitutions. The 
right of suffrage was so limited as to virtually prohibit its effective 
exercise. 

The ordinance of 1787 is so familiar, being found in every com- 
pilation of Illinois laws, that it is perhaps unnecessary either to 
publish it or review its provisions except incidentally. 

The territory now known as Illinois was subject to the govern- 
ment and laws of the northwest territory from the time of the 
passage of the ordinance by Congress until 1800 and during that 
time, the Governor and judges acting as a legislature, under the 
authority of the ordinance, enacted laws upon the following subjecs* 



124 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

1. Acts of the territory northwest of the Ohio River, (North- 
west Territory), 

(a) Enacted by the Governor and Judges. 

1788. Militia, Courts, Administration, General Courts, Oaths, 
Criminal Code, Marriage, Coroners, Limitations. 

1790. Liquor, Gambling, Township Organization. 

1791. Publication Notices, Clerk of the Legislature, Records, 
Murder and Treason, Fences. 

1792. Licenses (Liquor and Merchandise), Officers, Revenue, 
Roads and Bridges, County Buildings (Court House, Jail, Pillory, 
Whipping Post and Stocks), Prisoners, Fees and Salaries. 

1795. Executions, Attachments, Small Debts, Debt (Action of). 
Practice, Fines, Orphans, Courts, Recorder, Poor (Relief of). Wills, 
Husband and Wife, Dower, Forcible Entry and Detainer, Common 
Law (adopted) Divorce, Trespass, Partition, Landlord and Tenant, 
Imprisonment for Debt. 

1798. Corporations, Insolvency, Acknowledgment (of Deeds), 
Land Office. 

(b) Acts of the first General Assembly of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory passed at its first session. 

1799. Confirming Act (Confirms Acts theretofore passed by the 
Governor and Judges), Attorneys, Interest and Usury, Arbitration 
and Award, Ferries, Bills and Notes, Mills and Millers, Justices and 
Constables, Elections, Prairie Fires, Wolves, Appropriations. 

These laws were carefully and honestly prepared and form the 
basis of virtually all of the Statute law of this State. 

Before the convening of another session of the territorial legis- 
lature, Congress had divided the territory putting Indiana and Illi- 
nois into a new territory called ' ' the territory of Indiana ' ' and there- 
after, the Illinois country became subject to the laws of the territory 
of Indiana and so remained until 1809 when the territory of Illinois 
was created by Act of Congress. 

2. Laws of the Territory of Indiana. 

When the territory of Indiana was created, the seat of govern- 
ment of the newly created territory, including Indiana and Illinois, 
was established at Vincennes, Indiana. Here the governor and judges 
legislated in accordance with the provisions of the ordinance of 1787, 
until the territory was raised to one of the second grade in 1805, 
when the elected legislature met at Vincennes and annually there- 
after. 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 125 

All laws of the northwest territory were recognized as in effect 
in the new territory, and the governor and judges set to work amend- 
ing former laws and enacting new ones. 

During the period of the Indiana territory, and up to the time 
that Illinois was separated from Indiana legislation upon the follow- 
ing subjects was enacted : 

1801. Levies, court practice, amendment and jeoffairs, establish- 
ing courts of judicature, creating territorial treasurer, respecting the 
establishment of ferries and fees, a salaries act, an act fixing the 
compensation of the clerk of the legislature (governor and judges). 

1802. Surveyors, deputy surveyors and an act fixing their fees. 

1803. The repeal of an act to encourage the killing of wolves, 
resolution repealing certain parts of the fees and salaries act, an 
act in addition to the fees salaries act, amendments to the practice 
act, a law concerning servants, amendments to fees and salaries act, 
a law authorizing the appointment of pilots, an extensive repeal act, 
a law to prevent forcible and stolen marriages and for punishment 
for the crime of bigamy, to regulate county levies, laying a tax upon 
law processes and several resolutions. 

The legislature when convened in 1805-1806-1807 and 1808 
adopted at the various sessions a considerable number of acts, many 
of which are of interest, especially since they became in a large 
measure the laws of Illinois. 

An interesting tradition in connection with one of the laws of 
the Indiana territorial legislature has to do with a conspicuous figure 
in the early history of the northwest. A body of laws had grown 
up authorizing imprisonment for debt, and under the law Simon 
Kenton, who was a noted scout and plainsman, who rendered invalu- 
able services to the country during the Revolutionary War, later in 
his life, was sent to prison at the instance of one of his numerous 
creditors, and languished in jail, such as existed at that time, for 
more than a year. When it became known that the great popular 
hero who had rendered such distinguished service to his country 
(one instance of which was the part he played in the conquest of 
the northwest by George Rogers Clark when he led the detachment 
of Clark's force into Ft. Gage, and took the commander prisoner), 
there was such an outcry against that method of enforcing payment 
of debts, that the Indiana legislature very greatly modified the law 
concerning imprisonment for debt, and it is supposed that this very 
incident had an influence upon the Illinois Constitutional Conven- 
tion in 1818, by reason of which the constitution formulated by the 



126 JOSEPH J, THOMPSON 

convention forbade imprisonment for debt, the first constitution to 
make such provision up to that time. 

It was the legislature of the territory of Indiana that first intro- 
duced into the laws of the northwest the servant or indenture laws, 
afterwards called the black laws, through which the inhibition upon 
slavery contained in the ordinance of 1787 was evaded, and which 
early brought on the contest over the slavery question in Illinois. 

3. Laws of the Territory of Illinois. 

Upon appointment by the president, the governor and judges of 
the new territory of Illinois established in 1809, began to legislate, 
and during the three years preceding the elevation of the territory 
to one of the second grade, enacted thirty-five laws. 

A legislature was elected in 1812 which met annually, and during 
the six years following, legislated upon a large number of subjects, 
enacting some important laws and repealing and amending many 
of the laws enacted by the territories of which the state had formerly 
been a part, and became especially conspicuous for reversing its own 
acts or the acts of former legislatures. 

The original northwest territory and the territories of Indiana 
and Illinois, each declared the common law of England with certain 
named exceptions to be in force, and each succeeding territory 
adopted the laws of its predecessor, so that at the time of the adop- 
tion of the constitution, the laws of Illinois consisted of that part 
of the common law which is still declared to be a part of the law 
of the state, of all the laws enacted by the territory of Indiana, and 
the laws enacted by the territory of Illinois, which remained amended 
or unrepealed. 

The lawj^er in examining this body of legislation will be sur- 
prised to find that the salient features of most of our present laws 
were embodied therein and that a great part of the legislation en- 
acted since that time is but a modification, with some additions to 
those early laws. 

In all these early laws there are quite drastic provisions respect- 
ing punishments for crime, and to the lawyer the inquiry naturally 
arises, were these punishments frequently inflicted? Apparently not, 
at any rate the record of such punishments is rare. As to whipping 
one sentence may be cited, but that within the period of the British. 
A sentence was imposed on May 17, 1769, as follows: 

"It is the opinion of the court that the prisoners are guilty of 
the crime laid to their charge and so under the first article of the 
sixth section of the articles of war we do sentence accordingly Ser- 
geant William Johnson to be reduced to service in the rank as private 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 127 

and receive one thousand lashes; they also sentence John Wells, 
soldier, to receive one thousand lashes." 

During the reig-n of Colonel Clark after the conquest of Virginia, 
Clark himself issued a proclamation which was a virtual slave <iode. 
On December 26, 1778, as commander of the eastern part of Illinois 
he issued regulations for the conduct of slaves which among other 
things provided that "slaves who shall be found after the beating 
of tatoo or eight o'clock in the evening, in the cabins of other slaves 
than those of their masters shall be arrested and in a public place 
beaten with thirty-nine strokes of the whip at the expense of the 
master. ' ' 

Territorial laws, especially of Illinois and Indiana, are somewhat 
easier of access and lawyers are more or less familiar with them, 
but there is a body of decisions comprehending many of the deci- 
sions of the courts of Illinois which have been recorded and are still 
preserved that few people have seen. They are to be found in four 
large volumes in the court house at Chester, Illinois, and constitute a 
most interesting collection of judicial records. Our Supreme Court 
reports begin with that of I Breese, and include only the decisions 
of the Supreme Court since the adoption of the constitution. The 
four volumes of records spoken of contain the proceedings with the 
decisions of the eases tried by the courts corresponding to our Su- 
preme Court during the territorial period. These records are of 
great interest and no doubt the Bar Association will at some time 
desire that they be published in somewhat the same manner as the 
decisions of the State Supreme Court. 

Interesting Early Laws. 

There are many of these old laws that are very interesting and 
some of them especially so to attorneys. As for example: The law 
of the original territory of August 1, 1792, which limited the em- 
ployment of counsel to two in number on one side of a case and pro- 
vided that when there are no more than two attorneys practicing at 
any bar, a client will not be permitted to hire more than one of them. 

Another act of the same date fixed attorney 's fees as follows : 

''For a pleading fee when counsel is employed on an issue in law 
or fact joined in the Supreme Court, two dollars ; for all other causes 
in the Supreme Court and for all causes in the court of common pleas 
and court of general quarter sessions of the peace where an issue in 
fact or law is joined, one hundred and fifty cents; and for all other 
causes in the common pleas court of quarter sessions as a retaining 
fee one dollar; in criminal causes where one or more defendants are 



128 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

tried by jury at the same time or where a cause is determined by an 
issue at law a pleading fee for the counsel in the Supreme Court 
(but to one counsel only) two dollars; and when no trial is had by 
jury nor the cause determined by an issue in law, one dollar and a 
half; and in the court of general quarter sessions of the peace the 
fees shall be the same as is allowed in the court of common pleas. ' ' 

By an act of 1798 this law was amended as follows : 

"Retaining fee one dollar; pleading fee where issue or demurrer 
one dollar and fifty cents; term fee fifty cents; the Attorney Gen- 
eral's deputy in the court of common pleas or quarter sessions one- 
half the fees by law allowed the Attorney General in the general 
court for similar services. ' ' 

An act of October 1, 1795, prescribed the oath which an attorney 
or counsellor at law was required to take. It ran as follows: 

"You shall behave yourself in the office of counsellor at law (or 
attorney as the case may be) while within this court according to 
the best of your learning and with all fidelity as well to the court as 
to the client. You shall use no falsehood nor delay any person 's cause 
for lucre or malice (so help you God)." 

An act was passed in 1792 relative to admission to the bar which 
would answer well even now. 

Going still farther back, we find that the Legislature of Virginia 
on November 27, 1786, passed a very salutary pure food law forbid- 
ding a butcher to sell the flesh of any animal dying otherwise than 
by slaughter, and forbidding a baker, brewer, distiller or other per- 
son from selling unwholesome bread or drink. The punishment for 
violation of any provision of the law was for the first offense, amerce- 
ment; for the second oft'ense, pillory; for the third, fine and impris- 
onment ; and for each subsequent offense the person convicted was 
adjudged to hard labor for six months in the public works. 

In the first year after the organization of the Northwest Terri- 
tory, 1788, by an act adopted September 6 of that year, quite a com- 
plete criminal code was adopted. It dealt with the usual crimes, but 
the notable features in connection therewith were the punishments 
provided. Treason and murder were the only crimes punishable by 
death in this first law, though arson, horse stealing and bigamy were 
made punishable by death in later laws. For arson, the convicted 
person might be whipped not exceeding thirty-nine stripes, pilloried 
for two hours, confined in jail three years, made to forfeit all his 
estate and if a death resulted from the burning, the convict should be 
put to death. For robbery or burglary with theft, thirty-nine lashes, 
a fine of treble the value, one-third of the fine to go to the territory 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 129 

and two-thirds to the party injured. For robbery or burglar^^ with 
abuse and violence, the same punishment as burglary with theft and 
in addition, forfeiture of all property and confinement in prison for 
not to exceed four years. Kobbery or burglary with homicide was 
punishable by death and all persons aiding or abetting were deemed 
to be principals. For obstructing authority, one might be fined and 
whipped not to exceed thirty-nine lashes. For larceny, one might be 
adjudged to return double the value of the goods stolen or to receive 
thirty-one lashes. For forgery, a fine of double the loss caused and 
not to exceed ten lashes and three hours in the pillory. For disobe- 
dience on the part of servants or children, imprisonment was pro- 
vided; for striking a master or parent, not to exceed ten lashes. For 
drunkenness, a fine of one dollar was payable and the person convicted 
might be required to sit in the stocks for one hour. 

As early as 1790, gambling of every species for money or prop- 
erty was forbidden under severe penalties and all gambling contracts 
were declared void. 

Under an act of January 5, 1795, for the trial and punishment 
of larceny under $1.50, upon conviction, the accused might be publicly 
whipped upon his bare back not exceeding fifteen lashes or fined not 
to exceed three dollars, thus apparently fixing a whipping value of 
twenty cents per lash. 

On December 19, 1799, an act was passed to punish arson by 
death. 

On August 24, 1805, under the authority of the Territory of Indi- 
ana, a stringent law v/as passed to prevent horse stealing. For the 
first offense, the thief might be required to pay the owner the value 
of the horse stolen, to receive two hundred stripes and be committed 
to jail until the value of the horse was paid. On a second conviction, 
the offender should suffer death. 

By the same law, hog stealing was made punishable by a fine of 
not less than fifty dollars nor more than one hundred dollars, and the 
thief might be given not to exceed thirty-nine lashes on his bare back. 
This same act provided a fine for swearing. 

By an act of October 26, 1808, the law was further amended 
making horse stealing punishable by death and making the receiver 
equally guilty with the thief and also punishable by death. 

The governor and judges as legislators for the Territory of Indi- 
ana, dipped into the proposition of conclusive presumptions when, 
on December 5 of that year, they passed an act to prevent altering 
and defacing marks and brands and the misbranding of horses, cattle 
and hogs. It provided a penalty for misbranding equal to the value 



130 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

of the animal misbranded, "one dollar and forty lashes on the bare 
back well laid on," and for a second offense, the same fine and "to 
stand in the pillory two hours and be branded in the left hand with 
a red hot iron with the letter "T" (meaning "thief"). 

It provided further that any person bringing to market or to ship 
"any hog, shoat or pig without ears, he or she so offending shall be 
adjudged a hog stealer." 

The first Territorial act to impose any duty upon counties was 
that of August 1, 1792, which required each county to build and 
maintain a court house, a jail, a pillory, whipping post and stocks. 

The whipping post, pillory and stocks were institutions of the 
law to which this State was subject from their institution in 1788 
to 1832. This character of punishment was justified on the ground 
that there were no penitentiaries in which to confine criminals and 
there was a sharp division of sentiment as to which, confinement 
or whipping, was the better mode of punishment, in 1829, when the 
movement for a penitentiary, led by the rough old backwoodsman, 
John Reynolds, afterwards Governor, was launched. 

In all the early acts authorizing the licensing of tavernkeepers, 
fair dealing and proper treatment of the customers were the prin- 
cipal aims. There was plainly no prejudice against the selling of 
liquor, but a determined intent that the public should be weU treated. 

To that end, the tavern-keeper was obliged to furnish good eating 
and sleeping accommodations and to refrain from overcharging. 
The judges or others empowered to grant licenses were authorized to 
fijc a scale of prices for board, lodging and drinks which must be 
rigidly adhered to under severe penalties. 

By an act adopted in 1792, the sheriff and other officers were 
made responsible for the safe keeping of prisoners. If a prisoner 
escaped, the officer was severely punished, and if he were imprisoned 
for debt, the officer coulud be held liable for the debt. 

It is interesting to know that there has been on foot for several 
years past, a movement to have a stringent liability provision in- 
serted in the statutes of the several states relating to mob law, riots 
and unlawful assemblies, and it is of stiU further interest to find that 
the Legislature of the greater territory, by an act of December 19, 
1799, repealed the liability provisions of the early law above referred 
to, expressly upon the ground that escapes were consummated by 
collusion in order that the officers might be held responsible. 

An act passed by the Territory of Indiana on September 17, 1807, 
and another by the Territory of Illinois on July 22, 1809, are genuine 
curiosities, as regulating the manner of holding prisoners in confine- 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 131 

ment, out of doors. The one providing for fixing a boundary (200 
yards at the highest), beyond which prisoners were not allowed to 
pass. It is presumable that when the prisoners were numerous, it 
was easier for them to escape, and consequently the act of 1809 pro- 
vided that guards might be hired to keep them within the bound, or 
if none could be found willing to engage for the purpose, power was 
given to impress guards. All of this was before we began building 
prison strongholds. 

It is quite popular nowadays to advocate the levy of a tax upon 
bachelors, but it is by no means new. As early as June 19, 1795, the 
governor and judges of the Northwest Territory included a tax of 
$1.00 per head on single men, and such a tax was imposed throughout 
the territorial period. 

The governor and judges of the Illinois Territory by an act of 
July 20, 1809, fixed a license of $25.00 per annum for the sale of 
merchandise, and the Territorial Legislature of Illinois by an act of 
December 22, 1814, levied a tax of $40.00 annually on billiard tables. 

By an act of January 9, 1816, the tax on billiard tables was raised 
from $40.00 to $150.00 ; $100.00 to go to the Territorial treasury and 
$50.00 to the county treasury. 

It became the settled policy of the several territories to levy a 
tax on Dunkards and Quakers as a consideration for their being re- 
leased from military duty, and a similar provision as to all persons 
having scruples against military duty still exists in the Constitution 
of 1870. 

For several years past, there has been a great deal of agitation 
concerning the manner of jailing delinquents, thus depriving their 
families of their support, and it is suggested that such persons be 
obliged to work and their earnings, or part thereof, be available for 
the support of their families. The Indiana Territory accomplished 
this purpose over one hundred years ago. By an Act of September 
14, 1807, concerning vagrants, it was provided that "every person 
suspected of getting his livelihood by gaming, every able-bodied per- 
son found loitering and wandering about, having no visible property 
and who doth not betake himself to labor or some honest calling; 
all persons who quit their habitation and leave their wives and chil- 
dren, without suitable means of subsistence, and all other idle, vagrant 
and dissolute persons rambling about without any visible means of 
subsistence, shall be deemed and considered vagrants." 

The act further provided for arrest of all such and upon convic- 
tion that such as are adult, shall be hired out by the sheriff and their 



132 JOSEPH J, THOMPSON 

earnings paid to their families, if they are in need of them, and if 
not, to the discharge of their debts. 

It further provides that if no one would hire them, such vagrant 
should receive not to exceed thirty-nine lashes. Adults might be dis- 
charged by giving bond conditioned upon their going to work and 
keeping at it. If the vagrant be a minor, he shall be bound out until 
of age. 

Penalties Under Early Laws 

The whipping post, pillory and stocks were institutions of the law 
to which this State was subject from their institution in 1788 to 
1832. This character of punishment was justified on the ground that 
there were no penitentiaries in which to confine criminals and there 
was still a sharp division of sentiment as to which, confinement or 
whipping, was the better mode of punishment in 1829, when the 
movement for a penitentiary, led by the rough backwoodsman John 
Reynolds, afterwards Governor, was launched. 

It has been sometimes questioned whether any of these drastic 
punishments were inflicted in this region. The answer appears in some 
writings which have survived, although written references to such 
infliction are very rare. To Governor John Reynolds, the rough dia- 
mond of early Illinois statesmen, is due the credit of abolishing these 
barbarous punishments, and substituting in their stead the present 
system. Writing of the movement for more humane treatment of 
offenders Reynolds says: 

' ' I had reflected upon the subject of punishment of criminals, and 
had reached the conclusion that the criminal law should be changed, 
and that the ancient, barbarous system of whipping, cropping and 
branding for crime should be abolished and the penitentiary substi- 
tuted. This ancient practise had been in operation for ages, and it 
was difficult to change it. * * * but the age required the old barbarous 
system of the pillory, the whipping post and the gallows to be cast 
away, and a more Christian and enlightened mode of punishment 
adopted. ' ' 

Accordingly, as a member of the General Assembly Reynolds in 
1832 introduced a bill for the establishment of the penitentiary, and 
himself carried the provisions of the bill, which was adopted, into 
execution when he became governor. 

Few specific instances of the old barbarous punishments are to be 
found recorded, but a distinguished resident of Chicago has left us a 
particular and specific account of one such. Speaking before the 



HISTORY OF LAW IN ILLINOIS 133 

State Historical Society of Illinois on January 24, 1906, Dr. Samuel 
Willard, amongst other reminiscences, related the following: 

"There was then no penitentiary in the State, hence other penal- 
ties had to take the place of confinement. Near the courthouse on 
the public square (in Carrollton, Illinois) there was set a strong post, 
an unhewn log, ten feet high, with a cross-piece near the top. I 
saw a man brought from the jail by the sheriff and a constable, to 
be whipped thirty lashes for the theft of a horse. He was stripped 
naked to the hips, his hands were tied and the rope was carried to the 
cross-piece and drawn as tight as could be without taking his feet from 
the ground. Then Sheriff Fry took that terrible instrument of punish- 
ment and torture, a rawhide. Probably many of you have not seen 
one. To make it, a taper strip of soft wet cowskin was twisted until the 
edges met, and the thing was dried in that position. It was hard, ridgy, 
and rough, but flexible as a switch, three quarters of a yard long. The 
sheriff began laying strokes on the culprit's back, beginning near his 
neck and going regularly down one side of his backbone, former 
Sheriff Young counting the strokes aloud. Each stroke made a red 
blood-blister. When fifteen blows had been counted, the officer paused, 
and some one ran to the poor wretch with a tumbler of whiskey, then 
the other side of the man received like treatment. Then the man's 
shirt was replaced, and he was led away to the jail. One of the by- 
standers said, '0 Lord! he isn't as bad cut up as G. H. was when 
L. M. bogged him three or four years ago.' Boy as I was, I did not 
know what a dreadful infliction it was. The whipping-post remained 
there two or three years, but I never heard of any further use of it. ' ' 

Joseph J. Thompson. 
Chicago. 



THE UNIFICATION OF THE URSULINES 

From the earliest years of his long pontificate, Pope Leo XIII 
won the veneration of aU Christendom and the admiration of his 
adversaries by his insight into the needs of the times and the tact of 
his diplomacy. He had a knowledge of the century in which he lived 
and saw that organization was a necessity to modern society. Pope 
Leo XIII accomplished lasting good for the Church and not the least 
monument to his memory is the unification of religious orders under 
his wise counsel. 

The Ursuline Order, founded in 1535 by St. Angela Merici, had 
spread from the vine-clad village of Desenzano in Lombardy to the 
remote parts of the civilized world. It now numbered Houses in far 
distant Java, in the wilds of Alaska, in all parts of Europe, the 
United States, South America and Canada. St. Angela had counselled 
her daughters to adapt themselves to the needs and necessities of 
the countries in which they were laboring for the education of youth ; 
and as each House became autonomous as soon as it was self- 
supporting, it is e\adent that the Order could retain little in common 
except its religious spirit. Life therefore, among the Indians in the 
Rocky Mountains and as lived with the Eskimos in Alaska was neces- 
sarily a striking contrast to the calm quiet of cloister life as lived 
in the monasteries of the Ursulines in Europe when at the opening 
of the twentieth century, the venerable Vicar of Christ turned to 
the Ursulines and said: Ut sint unum — Let them be one! 

The Roman Ursuline convent in Via Vittoria, two hundred years 
after its foundation was about to suffer extinction because of con- 
fiscation, death and lack of subjects when the little community ap- 
pealed to the Ursulines of Blois for assistance. Mother St. Julian, 
a woman of broad views and extraordinary talents, was sent as 
Supeior to the struggling Roman House, but after several years of 
trial and discouragment, she consulted His Eminence Cardinal 
Satolli, the Cardinal Protector, about closing the Roman House and 
returning with her little band of Ursulines to France. He listened 
with deepest interest and after serious thought said with prophetic 
intuition: "Mother, I cannot but think that Almighty God ardently 
desires that the lamp of the Ursulines continue to burn at St. Peter's 
tomb. ' ' ( Every Religious Order which has a House in Rome keeps a 



Material for this paper was obtained from personal interview with Mother 
Agatha; the Roman Review and Report of Mother General. 

184 



THE UNIFICATION OF THE URSXJLINES 135 

lamp burning constantly at the tomb of the Prince of the Apostles. 
Its symbolism is too evident to need explanation.) However, accord- 
ing to Canon Law it was impossible for the community at Blois to 
maintain the Roman House as a dependency without the approbation 
of the Bishop of Rome. The Cardinal therefore consulted the Holy 
Father, Leo XIII, and made application for a union of the three 
houses of Blois, Rome and Calvi. His Holiness, de motu proprio, 
suggested that the affiliation be extended to all the Ursuline Houses 
throughout the world. Accordingly, Cardinal Satolli directed Mother 
St. Julian to inform the Ursulines throughout the world of the pope 's 
ardent wishes. A circular was immediately sent to all the Houses 
and the response was so encouraging that not many months later, 
in July, 1899, an official letter signed by His Eminence Cardinal 
Vanutelli, Prefect of the Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regu- 
lars, was sent to all Bishops having Ursulines in their respective 
Dioceses asking them to consider the matter seriously and to have 
the decision of the Ursuline religious made by suffrage. 

In many Houses the desire for the Union was unanimous. How- 
ever, some fears were entertained lest the European strictness of 
cloister, if enforced by proposed Union, might interfere with our 
work among the children in parochial schools, and the LTrsulines of 
Alton, acting under the advice of our Bishop, the Right Rev. James 
Ryan, voted unanimously for the Union with a special proviso as 
to this non-interference. 

In November, 1900, at the request of His holiness. Pope Leo XIII, 
a General Assembly of Ursulines met in Rome. There were nine 
delegates present from America. The Chapter was opened by Car- 
dinal Satolli who outlined very clearly the wishes of the Holy Father 
in regard to the proposed Union, and placed the work under the 
direction of Monsigneur Battandier, protonotary apostolic, one of 
the most eminent consultors of the Sacred Congregation, and of 
Rev. Jos. Lemius, Gen. Treasurer of the Oblates of Mary, who 
addressed the assembled Ursulines in part as follows: 

"Rev. Mothers, God, Who in the government of the world em- 
braces alike the great and the small, the general and the particular, 
nevertheless follows with a more attentive regard and conducts with a 
more paternal hand those beings who are more dear to Him and 
closest to His Heart. First of all the Church, after Jesus Christ, and 
through Jesus Christ the centre of His works; next in this Church 
souls who devote themselves to Him without reserve, and among those 
souls as make of this devotedness a profession and form associations 
for better practising it — that is. Religious Orders, and even among 



136 S. M. M. 

those Orders, those who must promote His glory by the sublimity 
of their vocation and the fecundity of their works. 

"Yours is among the very first. Illustrious by the name of its 
foundress; illustrious by its antiquity of more than three centuries; 
further distinguished by the most fortunate alliance possible of the 
contemplative and active life, continuing by the former ever in our 
agitated times the mode of life of the ancient solitaries, and appro- 
priating to itself by the latter the ministry most dear to the Church, 
that which has for its object childhood ; this ministry of the education 
of youth was inaugurated by the ITrsulines ; others have followed them, 
but never have they surpassed them. . . . 

''An essential property of Divine Providence is to bring all things 
into unity for the most jealous care of the Holy Trinity is to place 
its mark of unity upon all its works. . . . That the Pope desires this 
unification among the Ursulines is a fact that needs no demonstration. 
Last Sunday I had the happiness of being at his feet and he said 
to me : ' Tell the Ursulines that I bless them and express to them 
my satisfaction that they are here.' Nothing is lacking neither in 
yourselves nor around you nor above you that can hinder you from 
accomplishing a work wise and prudent as well as strong and fruitful. 
In God's name begin your Vv^ork. Lay the foundations of that edifice 
of which you are the first stones, an edifice which with God's blessing 
will increase in dimension and solidity." 

The Chapter proceeded under the presidency of Monseigiieur Bat- 
tandier. The Holy Father however reserved to himself the privilege 
of ratifying the choice of officers and the votes of the delegates were 
sent to His Holiness in triply sealed envelopes for papal sanction. It 
resulted in the election of Mother St. Julian of Blois as Mother 
General; Mother Ignatius of Frankfort-on-the-Main, First Assistant; 
Mother Stanislause of Aix-en-Provence, Secretary and Third As- 
sistant; Mother Maria Pia of Saluzzo in Italy, Fourth Assistant; 
Mother St. Sacramento of Bazas, General Treasurer. The new Gen- 
eralate was thereupon fully established, but the work of creating and 
arranging, Novitiates and Houses of Study was not settled at this 
first general chapter. The plan of organization was nevertheless fully 
outlined in nineteen articles which were clearly drawn up. 

When Mother Lucy, the representative from Alton, returned from 
Rome, she had many interesting items to relate to the Community. 
Many changes had to be made which required great sacrifices, espe- 
cially of the older members who were so devoted to cherished com- 
munity customs. Of the delegates who convened at the first general 
chapter no two were dressed exactly alike and it was therefore de- 
termined to adopt a uniform habit. We have a photograph taken in 
Rome before the departure of the delegates which from time to time 
affords much innocent amusement and recreation to the Novices be- 



THE UNIFICATION OF THE URSULINES 137 

cause of the quaint and in several instances ridiculous style of habit 
worn by some of the good Sisters at this first general chapter. New 
habits were made and in the following July when all the Sisters 
belonging to the Alton Community were home from their various 
missions for retreat, a day was appointed for adopting the regula- 
tion dress. The Sisters were instructed in every detail as to its 
arrangement, and at ten o'clock one morning all dispersed going to 
their cells where they found all that was necessary to complete the 
habit of an Ursuline of the Roman Union. They appeared in the 
refectory at noon for dinner clothed in their new garb, and we are 
told that grace was said under difficulties. Each one was glancing 
at her companion for they could scarcely recognize each other. It 
was truly a humorous situation and created much laughter. I remem- 
ber well when our teacher appeared in the classroom for the first 
time clothed in her different habit ; we were delightfully amused and 
wondered what it all meant. One little mischief whispered across the 
aisle to her ' ' chum " : "Oh look ! Mary Evelyn, Sister has on a new 
bonnet, and it's more becoming too. I didn't know nuns had styles 
and fashions, did you*?" Sister saw our ill-concealed humor and 
smiling playfully explained with some little embarassment about the 
formation of the Union and the change in dress which necessarily 
resulted therefrom. 

One dear old saintly Sister was quite willing to conform to every 
new regulation, and to relinquish community customs which had grown 
dearer to her with the passing of the years ; but when she exchanged 
her profession ring, which perhaps had never been removed from 
her finger since it had been placed thereon at the altar forty years 
before, two big tears glistened in her soft gray eyes, and placing it 
in her Superior's hand she sadly remarked: "Mother, it is the one 
thing on earth I cherish." 

However, everyone soon became accustomed to the changes and 
when school reopened the following September the Sisters returned 
to the parochial schools, which had in no way been interfered with 
by the formation of the Union whose purpose it is to foster in every 
possible way every good work already undertaken by the Institute. 

The growth of the Union began at once. Other Communities saw 
its enormous advantages and sought for affiliation. In 1905 Pope 
Piux X de motu proprio earnestly exhorted all Ui^uline Communities 
which had hitherto remained outside the Institute to join it, and 
conferred a plenary indulgence on all Ursulines of the Institute in 



138 S. M. M. 

perpetuity on the anniversary of the approbation of the Union by 
the Holy See, November 29, 1900. 

In the same year twenty-four French Communities of the Roman 
Union suffered from the decrees of dissolution. Of these twenty-four 
eight were completely dispersed, and were it not for the protection 
which the Roman Union affords, these good religious would have been 
compelled to return to secular life. Seventeen members were warmly 
welcomed by the Ursulines of the Alton diocese and soon proved 
themselves invaluable members of the Community both in Spring- 
field and in Alton. 

At the second General Assembly in 1907 the growth of the Union 
was evidenced by the large increase in the number of delegates 
present. A General Chapter is held in Rome every six years and the 
Institute is now represented in all parts of the world. A Review 
devoted to the interests of the Order is published at Rome every 
three months and reaches all the Houses of the Institute. The In- 
stitute has its Coat of Arms which appears on the cover page of the 
Roman Review, 

On closing the Capitulary Sessions of 1910, His Eminence, Car- 
dinal Vives remarked: "The work of the Roman Union has met 
with and will meet with great difficulties — it is a good sign. How 
sad it would be if it did not bear the signet of the cross! I would 
then say it is evident that it is not solid. On the other hand, divine 
blessings have been showered upon it. The Cardinal also remarked: 
' ' The Holy See desires the Ursuline Union, and what the Pope wants 
God wants. The Church has you under her protection." 

The following notes are taken from the report of Rev. Mother 
General on the condition of the Institute at the close of the General 
Chapter held in Rome in August, 1920: 

' ' In 1900, in the enumeration of the Houses after the first Capitu- 
lary Reunion there were in all sixty -three Houses forming the nucleus 
of the Roman Union. In the second General Chapter held in May 
1907 its proportions had increased to eighty-one Houses and forty- 
two branch Houses, therefore a total of one hundred twenty-three. 
Three years after, in 1910, the number had increased to one hundred 
and thirty-five Houses. Finally, in this Fourth General Chapter the 
Union consist of no less than one hundred and eighty Houses. 

The Provinces Number Eleven 

1. The Greco-Italian — has thirteen communities. 

2. Austria and Jugo-Slav — this province was cruelly tried by the 
War, but nevertheless numbers five Houses all of which are crowded 
with pupils. 



THE UNIFICATION OF THE URSULINES 139 

3. Hungary — a province of relatively recent date. 

4-5 — France, East and West — these two provinces have at present 
date about fifty establishments directed by Ursulines the greater num- 
ber wearing secular dress, who are devoting themselves to all kinds 
of enterprises for the salvation and education of young girls of their 
native France. 

6. Belgium — this province numbers only three Houses. 

7. Holland — this province counts five Houses in Holland, eight 
in Java and one in England. 

8-9. The United States North and South. The twenty-two Ursu- 
line Communities are equally di\'ided in each of the Provinces. There 
are furthermore eleven filial or branch Houses which would make the 
number of Houses thirty-three. These thirty-three direct seventy-one 
establishments of which one is a college numbering hundreds of stu- 
dents. Six Indian Missions in Montana; two Eskimo missions in 
Alaska. The Novitiates are at Dallas and Alton for the South and 
at Glengard, Fishkill, for the North. 

10. Brazil — formed of four Houses and a Novitiate. 

11. Latin America — this province comprises the house in Pueblo, 
Mexico, and those of Havana in the Isle of Cuba. 

The Institute at present counts 3,317 members and more than 300 
Novices. 

S. M. M. 



HISTORIC OLD SHANTYTOWN 

Col. Joseph Lee Smith was placed in charge of the garrison then 
stationed at Fort Howard, but being dissatisfied with the low sandy- 
site and wishing a broader outlook, he commenced work in the 
year 1820 one and a half mile back from the shore. These soldiers' 
quarters were called Camp Smith. It was not very long before a 
number of small log cabins (shanties) sprung up between Camp 
Smith and the river, giving the name of Shanty town to the place. ^ 
Here for many years was centered the political, social, and com- 
mercial life of Green Bay. 

Among the most prominent families residing there at that time 
were the Ducharmes, Porliers, Solomons, and other French families 
who had left their homes in Canada and settled in the vicinity 
of Shantytown in the latter part of the eighteenth century. 

In the earlier years of the nineteenth century several English 
families, among whom were the Bairds, the Whitneys, the Dotys, the 
Laws, the Irwins, and the Dickinsons made their appearance and 
settled in the same vicinity. Some of their residences are still stand- 
ing and others have been destroyed only recently. One of John 
Law's residences is the old building with the large door in the center, 
still standing on the east side of the road just north of Hochgreve 
brewery. Another historic spot is Judge Doty's old home built in 
1825, now the Jones place, situated southwest of the Reformatory. 
Here in 1825 was held the first court session of Brown county, the 
seat of justice having been established in Shantytown that year. It 
is only about ten or eleven years ago that the old mission-house situ- 
ated on the summit of the hill, northeast of the brewery, was taken 
down. This house was divided in the center by a broad stairway 
leading to the second floor. Down stairs there were four bedrooms. 
All the rooms in the house contained large beautiful fireplaces. On 
one side of this house, Mrs. Baird, that interesting character whose 
recollections have added much to the interest of this historic old spot, 
lived. Two of her great-grandchildren, Janet and Dorothy Merrill 
were graduated from St. Joseph Academy. On the other side of the 
house lived Mr. Dousman and his daughter Jane, Mrs. Baird 's most 
intimate friend. In speaking of houses, we cannot overlook Colonel 



The following references were taken from the "Collections of the Wisconsin 
Historical Society": 

^Vol. 14, pages 412-430. 

140 



HISTORIC OLD SHANTYTOWN 141 

Ducharme's beautiful French home. This stood directly south of the 
present north building of the brewery. The first thing that attracted 
the traveler was the large spacious porch and roof sloping down to 
the deep eaves. The beautiful French windows which opened like 
doors to the veranda, were filled in with very small glass. The house 
also contained a wide, broad chimney. The inside was just as beau- 
tiful and old Colonel Ducharme was justly proud of his home. This 
interesting character had served in the French army and when 
settling in Shantji;own took with him all his fine military clothes 
in which he dressed on grand occasions. He was an imposing figure 
to behold and when he proudly passed by with head held high and 
shoulders erect the neighbors would slyly wink at each other and say, 
"I wonder if Colonel Ducharme thinks he can open St. Peter's gates 
with his grand air and splendid attire. "^ 

He had four sons who were very good musicians and many a sleigh 
ride went merrier still, because of the strains of Louis Ducharme's 
fiddle, for indeed neither a sleigh ride nor a dancing party was 
complete without him. Dancing and sleigh rides were the chief amuse- 
ment and were of very frequent occurrence. Most of them were in- 
formal, one friend would tell another to come over that evening and 
bring a crowd. About seven o'clock all would assemble and the merri- 
ment began. Sometimes they only danced an hour or so and then 
went for a sleigh ride across the country to Dickenson 's mills on East 
river, which was their favorite haunt.^ 

Life on the whole moved merrily indeed, and the most pleasing 
recreation was the Easter Festival; this was a French and Indian 
pastime but the English were never loath to join in it. Along in 
March and even earlier, sometimes, the Indians and French would 
take their belongings and retreat into the great Maple Forests and 
begin sugar making always taking care to bring the hens along. 
They built nests for them about in the woods. When the sap had 
been boiled and strained they would put the whites of the eggs, 
(thus the need of chickens) into the syrup causing all the impurities 
to come to the top which they then skimmed off with great wooden 
spoons. At Easter time a great Celebration was held, the English 
heartily joining in, maple sugar and maple syrup being most in 
evidence. This of course was a great profit-making industry as well 
as a great pleasure. 

The chief business undertaken was fur-trading, each white family 
having its Indian hunter, who caught the animals and then dressed 

= Vol. 9, pages 322-402. 
•Vol. 15, page 215. 



142 ANONYMOUS 

the skins. In speaking of Indian help, I must not forget to say that 
the Indian as a rule could not be easily made a servant and in 
consequence domestic help was very hard to obtain. The laborers 
they did obtain came from Canada and were called "manguere de 
lard," synonymous with "raw youth." When Daniel Whitney came 
to Shantytown in 1829,^ he established a store and greatly increased 
the commercial life of the place. The only way shoes could be ob- 
tained was to wait for the shoemaker, who came every fall and went 
from house to house making shoes for the whole family, which had 
to last a year, until the next visit of the shoemaker. The only time 
the fashions ever changed in matters of dress was when a lady came 
from the East. She would lend her dress to a neighbor, who would 
cut a pattern from it and so on, until all the ladies had a dress or hat 
of the latest style.^ 

It is time now to speak of the education and religious side of 
this historic old place. In 1820 a Mr. Jacobs started a schoolhouse at 
Shantytown. John Lawe, Jacques Porter, Johnston and Louis Grignon 
were selected as members of the school board. It did not succeed 
very well because of the mixture of nationalities, the Englishmen or 
Bostonians, as they were sarcastically called, objecting to the presence 
of Indian and Half-breed children in the schools. Some days, too, 
it would happen that there would be but one child at school.^ 

In 1827, Rev. Richard Cadle and his sister Sarah established an 
Episcopal mission-house, church and school at Shantytown. His 
efforts were attended with quite a degree of success, he being a 
very lovable character and quick to make friends. Nor was the 
Catholic Church negligent of her children; with untiring zeal she 
sent missionary after missionary to the spot and kept the spark 
of faith ever glowing. About 1831 the great Indian outbreak took 
place and the life of the white man was ever in danger. To make 
matters still more terrible, the cholera broke out. Father Vanden 
Brock, who came with the Sisters of St. Claire, to establish a church 
and school at Shantytown, gives us a vivid description of that time; 
day and night he and the Sisters ministered to the sick and the 
dying, their saintly lives making a very great impression on the 
Indians as well as on the white man. It was necessary at times 
to bury six or seven in one grave. No one could be found who would 
bury them but Father Vanden Brock and Sisters Therese and Clare. ^ 



Vol. 15, page 220. 

" ' Eecollections of Mrs. Baird, Vol. 15, pages 273-238-241. 



HISTORIC OLD SHANTYTOWN 143 

Before closing I must speak about the thing that made Shanytown 
most important, its political life. As I have said before, the seat of 
justice was established in Shantytown in 1825. The first county-seat 
of Brown County was established there in 1829. In the same year 
was laid the town plat of Shantytown, the first in Wisconsin.^ 

Mr. Irwin was made postmaster in Shantytown in 1825. A man 
by the name of Clermont was made rural mail carrier. He started 
out from the Post office at Shantytown taking the Indian trail to 
Manitowoc, thence to Milwaukee and from there to Chicago, going 
on foot all the way and returning by the way of Lake Winnebago 
and the Fox River, the trip taking a month in all. One can imagine 
the eagerness with which the mail was waited for. Sometimes the 
people went as far as five or six miles to meet Mr. Clermont returning. 
In 1892 Mr. Clermont, then 89 years of age, desirous of revisiting 
Chicago, dressed himself in the identical costume that he wore in 
the thirties and walked over his old mail route, two hundred and 
forty miles to Chicago, and back.^ 

In 1830 the county-seat was removed to De Pere and one by one 
the old settlers left dear old Shantytown to settle either in Green 
Bay or DePere and the importance of that vicinity faded into the 
past. 



'Vol. 15, pages 429. 

•Vol. 15, pages 429-454. 

Whatever other data are recorded were gathered together in conversation 
with those who were as interested as I in the historical phase of this little 
town. 

The more modern name for "Shantytown" is "AUouez," named after the 
famous Jesuit missionary who brought th© light of the true faith to the Indians 
along the Fox. 



FATHER MARQUETTE'S SECOND 
JOURNEY TO ILLINOIS 

In October (25) 1674, Father Marquette returned to Illinois, 
and there can be no more certain evidence of his reasons for return, 
or the manner thereof, than the words of his immediate superior. 
Rev. Claude Dablon, S. J., whose duty it was to authorize the journey 
and the establishment of a mission. Father Dablon says : 

Father Jacques Marquette, having promised the Illinois on his 
first voyage to them, in 1673, that he would return to them the fol- 
lowing year, to teach them the mysteries of our religion, had much 
difficulty in keeping his word. The great hardships of his first voyage 
had brought upon him a bloody flux, and had so weakened him that 
he was giving up the hope of undertaking a second. However, his 
sickness decreased ; and, as it had almost entirely abated by the close 
of the summer in the following year, he obtained the permission of 
his superiors to return to the Illinois and there begin that fair mis- 
sion. 

He set out for that purpose, in the month of November of the 
year 1674, from the Bay des Puants, with two men, one of whom 
had made the former voyage with him. During a month of naviga- 
tion on the Lake of the Illinois, he was tolerably well ; but, as soon 
as the snow began to fall, he was again seized with his bloody flux, 
which compelled him to halt in the river which leads to the Illinois. 

From the commencement of this journey we have Father Mar- 
quette's owii words in a letter addressed to Father Dablon in the 
form of a journal. 

From this letter we learn that Father Marquette received orders 
from his superior to proceed to the establishmemnt of the mission 
which had been in contemplation, and that with "Pierre Porteret 
and Jacque Le Castor" he departed for the Illinois country about 
noon of October 25, 1674. 

In this communication to Father Dablon Father Marquette makes 
entries from day to day or from time to time recording the progress 
of the journey and items of interest in connection therewith. Such 
entries are made for October 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 and 31, and for No- 
vember 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 15, 20, 23 and 27. By December 1st, the 
party is coming nearer Chicago, and in consequence the letter or 
journal becomes more applicable to our immediate subject of con- 
sideration. The next four entries fix the direct relation of Father 

144 



Marquette's second journey to Illinois 145 

Marquette's approach to and entrance upon the site of what is now 
Chicago. These entries read as follows : 

(December) 1. We went ahead of the savages, so that I might 
celebrate holy Mass. 

3. After saying holy Mass, we embarked, and were compelled to 
make for a point, so that we could land, on account of floating masses 
of ice. 

4. We started with a favoring wind, and reached the river of 
the portage, which was frozen to the depth of half a foot ; there was 
more snow there than elsewhere, as well as more tracks of animals 
and turkeys. 

Navigation on the lake is fairly good from one portage to the 
other, for there is no crossing to be made, and one can land any- 
where, unless one persist in going on when the waves are high and 
the wind is strong. The land bordering it is of no value, except on 
the prairies. There are eight or ten quite fine rivers. Deer-hunting 
is very good, as one goes away from the Poutewatamus. 

12. As we began yesterday to haul our baggage in order to 
approach the portage, the Illinois who had left the Poutewatamis 
arrived, with great difficulty. We were unable to celebrate holy 
Mass on the day of the Conception, owing to the bad weather and 
cold. During our stay at the entrance of the river, Pierre and 
Jacques killed three cattle and four deer, one of which ran some 
distance with its heart split in two. We contented ourselves with 
killing three or four turkeys, out of many that came around our 
cabin because they were almost dying of hunger. Jacques brought 
in a partridge that he had killed, exactly like those of France except 
that it had tv/o ruffs, as it were, of three or four feathers as long 
as a finger, near the head, covering the two sides of the neck where 
there are no feathers. 

These writings furnish the proof of the first authenticated visit 
of white men to the site that has become Chicago. Upon their 
authenticity depends their probative value as establishing not only 
the first visit of white men to the site of this great metropolis, but 
numerous other facts related or referred to in the writings. 

It is fortunate indeed that conclusive proof of the authenticity 
of Father Marquette's letters to Father Dablon is available. 

These letters, like the relations and reports of all of the Jesuit 
Indian missions, v/ere sent to the superior who, in the case of 
Father Marquette, happened to be, as above stated. Rev. Claude 
Dablon, and were held in the mission house until the time of the 
suppression of the Jesuits, at which time they were brought to the 
Hotel Dieu in Quebec, and preserved there. True, extracts from 
them were sent to France and published there shortly after Father 
Marquette's death, but the original letters lay untouched from the 



146 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

time they were deposited in the convent at Quebec in 1763 until 
1852, when the historian, John Gilmary Shea, discovered them there 
and published them, together with an English translation. 

The originals, in the handwriting of Father Marquette himself, 
still exist, and the great non-Catholic historian and compiler, Reuben 
Gold Thwaite, has done posterity a great service in gathering those, 
along with hundreds of other letters and relations, which he has 
included in the monumental work of seventy volumes known as the 
Jesuit Relations. 

"With respect to the Marquette journal, which we have under im- 
mediate consideration, and also the letters of Father Marquette to 
Father Dablon, describing his first voyage down the Mississippi and 
up the Illinois, Mr. Thwaite has not only given us the French text 
and an English translation, but as well a fac simile photographic 
copy of the original letters. 

Father Marquette at the Mouth of the River 

On that winter day when the first white men ever known to have 
seen the site of Chicago stepped from their canoe, they probably 
scrambled over a border of ice along the lake front. They found 
the ground covered with snow, and immediately had their attention 
attracted by the tracks of animals and turkeys. 

We can follow the three lonely travelers as they set about prepa- 
rations for a stay of some length on the lake shore. To familiarize 
the location it is necessary to remember that at the time of this 
first visit of white men the Chicago river wended its course south- 
ward from its present channel along the lake for about a quarter of 
a mile, and emptied into the lake at a point corresponding to our 
present Madison Street. The soldiers of the Fort Dearborn Garrison, 
under instructions from the War Department in 1824 cut a channel 
from the main Chica-jo river almost directly eastward to the lake, 
which has become the mouth of the Chicago river as we now know 
it, and the old channel in the course of time was filled up and has 
becom-e a part of the underlying ground between Wabash and Mich- 
igan Avenues. 

We are not definitely advised as to the reasons, but it appears 
from Marquette's letter or journal that he and his companions re- 
mained at the mouth of the river from the day of their landing, 
December 4th, until the 11th of the same month. 

At a distance of nearly two hundred and fifty years it is inter- 
esting even to speculate as to how these seven days were spent. As 



Marquette's second journey to Illinois 147 

to what was done a part of the time at least we are not left in 
doubt. To begin with they built a cabin. This we can be reasonably 
sure of, for Father Marquette tells us that many turkeys "came 
around our cabin." The character and appearance of the woods 
cabin is well established, and accordingly representations of the first 
habitation of white men on the site of Chicago, portraying the Mar- 
quette hut on the shores of the lake at the mouth of the Chicago 
river, are thoroughly justified, and a reproduction of the Marquette 
cabin, perhaps of granite, but of similar appearance, would consti- 
tute an appropriate part of a monument or memorial of this most 
important incident in the history of Chicago. 

Father Marquette also tells us that "during our stay at the 
entrance of the river Pierre and Jacques killed three cattle and four 
deer" and notes that one of the deer "ran some distance with its 
heart split in two." 

Around their temporary habitation gathered numbers of wild 
turkeys ' ' almost dying of hunger. ' ' They contented themselves with 
killing three or four. "Jacques brought in a partridge that he had 
killed" and Father Marquette notes that it was exactly like those 
of France, except that it had two ruffs, as it were, of three or four 
feathers as long as a finger near the head covering the two sides of 
the neck where there are no feathers. 

So they provided their meager comforts in the way of a cabin, 
and for their daily necessities by killing deer, cattle, and turkeys. 
Besides and no doubt before providing for their daily necessities 
Father Marquette saw to it that the ]\Iaker and Giver of all blessings 
was accorded due recognition. Since the beginning of their journey 
they have been from time to time thrown in with bands of Indians, — 
first of the Illinois tribes; then of the Pottawatomi, and afterwards 
the Mascoutins. We are assured by the entry of December 1st, that 
Father Marquette and his men "went ahead of the savages so that 
(he) I might celebrate holy Mass," and again by the entry of De- 
cember 3rd, that they embarked "after saying holy Mass." Indeed, 
he assures us under an entry in his journal of March 30th, that he 
was able to say Mass every day. There was possibly one exception, 
that being December 8th. With respect to that day Father Mar- 
quette says: "We were unable to celebrate holy Mass on the day 
of the Conception, owing to the bad weather and cold." This re- 
gretable occurrence was duly made up for on the 15th, in the new 
location, however, for Father Marquette tells us that after getting 
rid of a band of Illinois Indians, headed by Chachagwessiou, "we 
said the Mass of the Conception." 



148 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

Accordingly, there is occasion for slight doubt that the first words 
uttered by the first white man on the morning of his landing upon 
the site of Chicago, after signing himself with the cross and invoking 
the blessing of the Holy Trinity were Introiho ad altare Dei, and 
suiting the action to the word the missionary proceeded to the rude 
altar constructed in the lonely cabin, and there re-enacted the ever 
memorable last supper. From that little altar and in that rude 
cabin went up to Heaven the first prayers ever uttered within the 
confines of Chicago, and the first act of Christian worship was there 
performed. 

Here, too, we may definitely locate the first confessional and the 
first holy table. The penitents and communicants were few, but no 
doubt consolingly sincere. Father Dablon, speaking of Marquette's 
two companions, says: "He confessed them and administered com- 
munion to them twice in the week, and exhorted them as much as 
his strength permitted him. Thus was the first channel of saving 
grace opened upon the site of Chicago. 

The lake front was but a station in the devout missionary's diffi- 
cult way. He must be about his Father's business, and so on the 
11th of December he tells us, "We began ... to haul our bag- 
gage in order to approach the portage." They could no longer row 
with the canoes in the direction they desired to proceed, because 
they found the river "frozen to the depth of half a foot." 

This first known journey of white men across the site of one of 
the greatest cities of the world must challenge our contemplation. 
Behold a holy man waging a persevering warfare with death, staking 
his life against the ulterior powers that enthrall the savage. Like 
his Heavenly IMaster he had his via crusis and was soon to reach 
his Golgotha. From our present position, were it not for structures 
reared in the course of development since that day, we could look 
out and behold that momentous procession; — possibly some savage 
companions leading the way; then the improvised sledge, in which 
was carried all the missionary's earthly possessions, and, finally, the 
holy man himself bringing up the rear. At this distance from that 
momentous day, having learned to revere Father Marquette, and 
being justified in believing him a distinguished member of the court 
of heaven, and in rapt imagination now gazing upon this interesting 
spectacle, we can form some conception of what those blind men of 
Jericho felt when the Blessed Saviour and the multitude swept along 
and with blanched countenances and bated breath they whispered, 
"Jesus of Nazareth passeth by." 



Marquette's second journey to Illinois 149 

History has assigned to Father Marquette a place higher than 
that of any other human being that ever trod the soil of Illinois. 
What a joy it would be, therefore, if we were able to trace out each 
foot print and mark it indelibly. This we cannot do, but we can be 
reasonably certain that he hallowed the course of the Chicago river 
by his presence. 

Near the Portage 

Marquette tells us that they continued this journey for "two 
leagues up the river." Some speculation has been indulged in as 
to the exact point reached at the end of the two leagues' progress. 
There is difficulty in the first place in determining the length of a 
league. At different times and under different circumstances France 
has had a linear measure which made a league at one time 2.42 
miles; at another time 2.764, and at still another time 3.52 miles. 
Near about the time that Marquette made this journey the posting 
league of the French was 3.52 miles, so that full two leagues would 
mean about seven miles. 

It should be said that the site of the Marquette cabin, as agreed 
upon after considerable investigation, is now marked with a large 
cross, with which travelers on the Chicago & Alton Railroad are 
familiar. With respect to this site the historian, J. Seymour Currey, 
in his monumental work, speaks as follows: 

The location of the cabin in which Marquette spent the winter 
of 1674-5 is now marked with a cross made of m.ahogany wood, at 
the base of which is a bronze tablet with an inscription. The site 
was fixed upon in 1905 by a committee of the Chicago Historical 
Society, under the guidance of the late Mr. Ossian Guthrie, an intel- 
ligent and devoted student of our local antiquities, with a view of 
marking the spot in a suitable manner. An entire day was spent 
by the party in driving and walking over many miles of country 
in order to compare the topography with the journal of the mis- 
sionary, and a series of photographs taken. The investigations re- 
sulted in confirming the opinions of Mr, Guthrie, namely, that 
Marquette's winter cabin was situated on the north bank of the south 
branch of the Chicago river at the point where now it is intersected 
by Robey Street, and from which at the present time can be seen, 
by looking westward, the entrance to the great drainage canal. While 
the Society was making plans for placing a memorial on the spot 
other parties took up the project and placed the cross and inscrip- 
tion there; though it is to be regretted that no mention was made 
in the inscription of Mr. Guthrie's researches in identifying the site, 
for it is solely due to his investigations that the site was determined. 
The ''Marquette Cross" stands about fifteen feet high, firmly planted 



150 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

on a pedestal of concrete; and near it stands a wrought iron cross 
three feet in height, which, however, has no historical connection 
with the famous missionary, as it was taken from a burying ground 
in Cahokia, where it marked the grave of some old time French 
resident. 

Mr. Currey's remarks should be supplemented by the further 
statement that the investigators of whom he speaks were Dr. Otto 
L. Schmidt, for many years President of the Illinois State Histori- 
cal Society, and Chairman of the Illinois State Centennial Commis- 
sion; Miss Caroline Mcllvain, Librarian of the Chicago Historical 
Society; Mr. H. S. Kerfoot, an extensive real estate dealer, and 
Thomas A. 'Shaughnessy, artist, historian and writer, the latter 
the moving spirit in the work. Mr. 'Shaughnessy was closely asso- 
ciated with Mr. Guthrie in all his investigations of this matter, and 
examined all his notes and datas. 

At the request of Mr. 'Shaughnessy the Willy Lumber Com- 
pany manufactured at their own expense the mahogany cross. 

The cross first erected was maliciously destroyed some time after 
the dedication, but was replaced by the Willy Lumber Company, the 
donors of the original cross. 

Life Near the Portage 

"Having encamped near the portage, two leagues up the river, 
we resolved to winter there, as it was impossible to go farther, since 
we were too much hindered and my ailment did not permit me to 
give myself much fatigue," thus Father Marquette chronicles the 
decision to remain for the time being near the portage. 

It is interesting again to inquire into the life of these first white 
men at this new point, which also is within the present limits of 
Chicago. 

To begin with a dwelling place was needed, and ' * they constructed 
a cabin in which to pass the winter." It has been stated by some 
writers that Marquette and his companions occupied a cabin con- 
structed by some hunters, and some have speculated upon the identity 
of the hunters. This seems to be erroneous, since Father Dablon 
states specifically that "they constructed a cabin in which to pass 
the winter. ' ' In the judgment of the writer the statements of Father 
Dablon deserve almost equal credibility with those of Father Mar- 
quette himself. It is known that the men who accompanied Father 
Marquette, Pierre and Jacques, returned to the mission immediately 
after Father Marquette's death. They were undoubtedly men of 
considerable intelligence. One of them accompanied Father Mar- 



Marquette's second journey to Illinois 151 

quette on the first voyage, made with Jolliet, as well as upon the 
second one, and undoubtedly gave Father Dablon a circumstantial 
account of everything that happened, so that in addition to the writ- 
ings of Father Marquette, which were delivered into his hands, Father 
Dablon had the verbal statement of these two Frenchmen, who were 
eye witnesses to everything that transpired, and were of course them- 
selves, largely at least, the builders of the cabin. 

It should be sufficient for the present purpose simply to quote 
Marquette's journal for his experience in the cabin on the river 
during the period from his arrival there, on the 12th of December, 
1674, to his last entry made on the 6th of April, 1675. These entries 
read as follows: 

(December) 14. Having encamped near the portage, two 
leagues up the river, we resolved to winter there, as it was impos- 
sible to go farther, since we were too much hindered and my ailment 
did not permit me to give myself much fatigue. Several Illinois 
passed yesterday, on their way to carry their furs to Nawaskingwe; 
we gave them one of the cattle and one of the deer that Jacque had 
killed on the previous day. I do not think that I have ever seen 
any savages more eager for French tobacco than they. They came 
and threw beaver-skins at our feet to get some pieces of it; but we 
returned these, giving them some pipefuls of the tobacco because we 
had not yet decided whether we would go farther. 

15. Chachagwessiou and the other Illinois left us, to go and 
join their people and give them the goods that they had brought, 
in order to obtain their robes. In this they act like the traders, and 
give hardly any more than do the French. I instructed them before 
their departure deferring the holding of a council until the spring, 
when I should be in their village. They traded us three fine robes of 
ox-skins for a cubit of tobacco; these were very useful to us during 
the winter. Being thus rid of them, we said the Mass of the Con- 
ception. After the 14th, my disease turned into a bloody flux. 

30. Jacque arrived from the Illinois village, which is only six 
leagues from here; there they were suffering from hunger, because 
the cold and snow prevented them from hunting. Some of them 
notified La Toupine and the surgeon that we were here ; and, as they 
could not leave their cabin, they had so frightened the savages, be- 
lieving that we should suffer from hunger if we remained here, that 
Jacque had much difficulty in preventing fifteen young men from 
coming to carry away all our belongings. 

(January) 16, 1675. As soon as the two Frenchmen learned 
that my illness prevented me from going to them, the surgeon came 
here with a savage, to bring us some blueberries and com. They 
are eighteen leagues from here, in a fine place for hunting cattle, 
deer and turkeys, which are excellent there. They had also collected 
provisions while waiting for us ; and had given the savages to under- 



152 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

stand that their cabin belonged to the black gown; and it may be 
said that they have done and said all that could be expected of them. 
After the surgeon had spent some time here, in order to perform 
his devotions, I sent Jacque with him to tell the Illinois near that 
place that my illness prevented me from going to see them ; and that 
I would even have some difficulty in going there in the spring, if 
it continued. 

24. Jacque returned with a sack of corn and other delicacies, 
which the French had given him for me. He also brought the tongues 
and flesh of two cattle, which a savage and he had killed near here. 
But all the animals feel the bad weather. 

26. Three Illinois brought us, on behalf of the elders, two sacks 
of corn, some dried meat, pumpkins, and twelve beaver-skins: first, 
to make me a mat; second, to ask me for powder; third, that we 
might not be hungry; fourth, to obtain a few goods. I replied: 
first, that I had come to instruct them, by speaking to them of 
prayers, etc. ; second, that I would give them no powder, because we 
sought to restore peace everywhere, and I did not wish them to 
begin war with the Muiamis; third, that we feared not hunger; 
fourth, that I would encourage the French to bring them goods, and 
that they must give satisfaction to those who were among them for 
the beads which they had taken as soon as the surgeon started to 
come here. As they had come a distance of twenty leagues, I gave 
them, in order to reward them for their trouble and for what they 
had brought me, a hatchet, two knives, three clasp-knives, ten brasses 
of glass beads, and two double mirrors, telling them that I would 
endeavor to go to the village, for a few days only, if my illness con- 
tinued. They told me to take courage, and to remain and die in their 
country ; and that they had been informed that I would remain there 
for a long time. 

(February) 9. Since we addressed ourselves to the Blessed 
Virgin Immaculate, and commenced a novena with a Mass, at which 
Pierre and Jacque, who do everything they can to relieve me, received 
communion, to ask God to restore my health,, my bloody flux has 
left me, and all that remains is a weakness of the stomach. I am 
beginning to feel much better, and to regain my strength. Out of 
a cabin of Illinois, who encamped near us for a month, a portion 
have again taken the road to the Poutewatamis, and some are still 
on the lake-shore, where they wait until navigation is open. They 
bear letters for our Fathers of St. Francis. 

20. We have had opportunity to observe the tides coming in 
from the lake, which rise and fall several times a day ; and, although 
there seems to be no shelter in the lake, we have seen the ice going 
against the wind. These tides made the water good or bad, because 
that which flows from above comes from prairies and small streams. 
The deer, which are plentiful near the lake-shore, are so lean that 
we had to abandon some of those which we had killed. 

(March) 23. We killed several partridges, only the males of 
which had ruffs on the neck, the females not having any. These 
partridges are very good, but not like those of France. 



Marquette's second journey to Illinois 153 

30. The north wind delayed the thaw until the 25th of March, 
when it set in with a south wind. On the very next day, game 
began to make its appearance. We killed thirty pigeons, which I 
found better than those down the great river ; but they are smaller, 
both old and young. On the 28th, the ice broke up, and stopped 
above us. On the 29th, the waters rose so high that he had barely 
time to decamp, as fast as possible, putting our goods in the trees, 
and trying to sleep on a hillock. The water gained on us nearly all 
night, "but there was a slight freeze, and the water fell a little, while 
we were near our packages. The barrier has just broken, the ice 
has drifted away; and, because the water is already rising, we are 
about to embark to continue our journey. 

The Blessed Virgin Immaculate has taken such care of us during 
our wintering that we have not lacked provisions, and have still 
remaining a large sack of corn, with some meat and fat. We also 
lived very pleasantly, for my illness did not prevent me from saying 
holy Mass every day. We were unable to keep Lent, except on 
Fridays and Saturdays. 

31. We started yesterday and travelled three leagues up the 
river without tinding any portage. We hauled our goods probably 
about half an arpent. Besides this discharge, the river has another 
one by which we are to go down. The very high lands alone are 
not flooded. At the place where we are the water has risen more 
than twelve feet. This is where we began our portage eighteen 
months ago. Bustards and ducks pass continually; we contented 
ourselves v/ith seven. The ice, which is still drifting down, keeps 
us here, as we do not know in which condition the lower part of the 
river is. 

(April) 1. As I do not yet know whether I shall remain next 
summer in the village, on account of my diarrhoea, we leave here 
part of our goods, those with which we can dispense, and especially 
a sack of corn. While a strong south wind delays us, we hope to 
go tomorrow to the place where the French are, at a distance of 
fifteen leagues from here. 

6. Strong winds and the cold prevent us from proceeding. The 
two lakes over which we passed are full of bustards, geese, ducks, 
cranes, and other game unknown to us. The rapids are quite dan- 
gerous in some places. We have just met the surgeon, with a savage 
who was going up with a canoe-load of furs; but, as the cold is too 
great for persons who are obliged to drag their canoes in the water, 
he has made a cache of his beaver-skins, and returns to the village 
tomorrow with us. If the French procure robes in this country, they 
do not disrobe the savages, so great are the hardships that must 
be endured to obtain them. 

This letter or journal is addressed 

''To my Reverend Father, Father Claude Dablon, Superior of the 
Missions of the Society of Jesus, New France, Quebec." 
Two endorsements appear on the letter, as follows: 
"Letter and Journal of the late Father Marquette" and "Every- 
thing concerning Father Marquette's voyage." 



154 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

Succinctly, as is seen, Father Marquette has left to the world a 
description of the every-day doings of the first white men who ever 
inhabited the territory now within the boundaries of Chicago. Father 
Marquette's notations make it apparent that there were two French- 
men dwelling not far distant from his cabin during the same time. 
These no doubt were temporary sojourners who had learned of the 
locality and the route by which it might be reached through Father 
Marquette 's report of his former journey. They were not afterwards 
known to be in the territory and undoubtedly remained but a short 
time. 

The holy life led by the saintly missionary in his lone cabin made 
manifest to the numerous savages that passed in a body, gathered 
about, or dwelt near, and to the French hunters, as well as by the 
Father's simple narrative, has left an indelible impression. 

To follow the missionary to his objective and recount the culmina- 
tion of his life's labors in the establishment of the Illinois Church, 
and afterwards to his lonely death at the river side, near what is 
now Ludington, Michigan, will be the task set for a future number. 

Joseph J. Thompson. 
Chicago. 



THE CATHOLIC CLERGY OF ILLINOIS 

I. Pastors and Missionaries Prior to the Erection of the 
Chicago Diocese. 

The Jesuits were the first clergymen in Illinois. Rev. James Mar- 
quette, S. J. was the founder of the Church and the predecessor of 
the noble self-sacrificing body of men who have spread and maintained 
the Gospel of Christ according to the doctrines of the Catholic Church 
in what is now known as the State of Illinois. 

During the Indian missionary period Father Marquette was suc- 
ceeded by fellow-priests of his order, among whom were Father Claude 
Jean Allouez ; Father Sebastien Rale ; Father Jacque Gravier ; Father 
Pierre Francois Pinet; Father Julien Bineteau; Father Pierre Ga- 
briel Marest; Father Jean Mermet; Father Louis Marie de Ville; 
Father Jean Charles Guymoneau; Father Joseph Francois de Kere- 
ben ; Father Jean Antoine le Boullenger ; Father Nicholas Ignace de 
Beaubois ; Father Jean Dumas ; Father Rene Tartarin ; Father Phili- 
bert Watrin; Father Etienne Doutreleau; Father Alexis Xavier 
Guyenne ; Father Louis Vivier ; Father Julien Joseph Fourre ; Father 
Jean Baptiste Aubert and Father Sebastien Louis Meurin. The care 
of these missionaries extended from 1673 to 1777. 

During the same period Fathers of the same order visited the 
territory and administered temporarily amongst whom may be named : 
Joseph de Limoges ; Pierre Francoise Xavier de Charlevoix ; Francois 
Buisson ; Michael Cuignas ; Paul du Poisson ; Mathurin le Petit ; Jean 
Souel; Michel Baudouin; Jean Pierre Aulneau; Pierre du Jaunay; 
Antoine Senat; Jean-Baptiste de la Morinie; Claude Joseph Virot; 
Julien Devernai and Nicholas le Febvre. 

Contemporary with the Jesuits, or, at least coming soon after 
the Jesuits began their ministrations, were the following priests and 
missionaries: In 1680 came Rev. Gabriel de la Ribourde, Rev. 
Zenobius Membre, and Rev. Louis Henepin, all Recollect Franciscans. 

In 1884 came Abbe Jean Cavelier, Sulpeian, and Rev. Anastasius 
Douay, Franciscan. 

In 1699 Rev. Francois Jolliet Montig-ny; Rev. Francois Buisson 
de Saint Cosme and Rev. Anthony Davion, all priests from the Sem- 
inary of Foreign Missions in Canada, came. Father Saint Cosme 
remained and established the foundation of the Fathers of the For- 
eign Missions at Cahokia. He was succeeded by Rev. John Bergier, 

166 



156 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

Rev. Dominic Mary Varley, Rev. Dominic Anthony Thaumur de la 
Source, Rev. John le Mercier, Rev. G. Galvarin, Rev. Joseph Courrier, 
Rev. Joseph Gaston, Abbe Joseph Gagnon, Abbe Nicholas Laurenz, 
and Rev. Francois Forget Duverger, all priests of the Seminary of 
Foreign Missions. Their ministrations in Cahokia extended from 1699 
to the year 1763. 

Martyrs to the Faith 

Amongst these early priests there were several who would appar- 
ently qualify as martyrs and without including those who had 
literally worn their lives out in the service, like Father Marquette 
and Father Sebastien Louis Meurin, there were at least six who 
suffered violent deaths at the hands of the savages. 

The first to give up his life on the soil of Illinois for the faith 
was the aged and gentle Superior of the Recollects, the Reverend 
Gabriel de la Ribourde. Father Ribourde was of gentle birth of a 
wealthy family and being nearly eighty years of age was in a posi- 
tion to have retired and spend the evening of his life in ease, but 
instead chose the Indian missions of America, and coming here with 
La Salle on his first voyage to Illinois, he remained with Father 
Zenobius Membre, another Recollect at Peoria for four or five months 
in the year 1680. 

The Illinois Indians having been routed by the Iroquois, Henry 
de Tonti, Father Membre and Father Ribourde found it necessary 
to abandon the Illinois River for the time being. In May, 1680, 
they embarked in a canoe to paddle up the river, and the canoe 
needing repairs, they landed on May 19, 1680, about eighteen or 
twenty miles above Starved Rock not far from what is now Morris. 
While Tonti and Father Membre were attempting to repair the 
canoe. Father Ribourde wandered off from the river bank, reading 
his breviary and was set upon by a band of Kickapoo Indians and 
killed. 

Although Father Membre escaped death on this occasion it was 
only to perish in 1687 at the hands of hostile Indians in the settle- 
ment which La Salle founded in Texas. 

Next in order of the martyrs was Reverend Francis Buisson de 
Saint Cosme of the Fathers of the Seminary for Foreign Missions. 
After serving in the Holy Family mission at Cahokia for a short 
time Father St. Cosme removed to the south and was waylaid by 
Indians along the Mississippi and killed in 1706. 



THE CATHOLIC CLERGY OF ILLINOIS 157 

The next of the missionaries to suffer death at the hands of the 
Indians was Rev. James Gravier, S. J. Father Gravier had been 
Vicar-General of the Illinois missions and labored for nine years in 
the vicinity of Peoria. During the course of his missionary work 
a libertine Indian who rebelled against church discipline and who, 
being overcome by Father Gravier 's influence, organized an oppo- 
sition, and when the opportunity presented he and his band attacked 
Father Gravier, wounded him several times and shot an arrow into 
his arm which could not be removed but caused his death after much 
suffering in 1708. 

Father Sebastien Rale, S. J., was another of the early mission- 
aries who suffered a violent death for the faith. His tragic death 
in the Abenaki Mission where he had served so faithfully and suc- 
cessfully for thirty years after he left the Illinois, is one of the 
saddest chapters in American history. The gifted missionary be- 
came a pawn of war and a victim of the English in their fight for 
supremacy over the French. Under the pretext that Father Rale 
prevented the Abenaki Indians from joining the British in their 
wars, he was condemned to death by the British authorities, and 
several attempts were made to take his life. A price of one thousand 
pounds sterling was put upon his head. At length in August, 1724, 
eleven thousand British and Indian troops attacked the Abenaki 
village v/here Father Rale was staying, with the purpose of his 
capture. Father Rale, knowing that he alone was the object of 
their search, would not permit the fifty defenders of the village to 
be shot down in his defense, though they were most willing to die 
for him. He, therefore, discovered himself to the invaders. He was 
not mistaken. A loud shout greeted his appearance. The man 
they had so often failed to find was before them. Their muskets 
covered him and he fell, riddled with bullets, at the foot of the cross 
which he had planted in the center of the village. They crushed 
in his skull with hatchets again and again, filled his eyes and mouth 
with filth, tore off his scalp, which they sold afterwards at Boston 
and stripped his body of its soutane, but as it was too ragged to 
keep, they flung it back on the corpse. The murder of Father Rale 
was in part, the fruit of Puritan bigotry, and was indeed gloried 
in as the ''singular work of God." However, there has been a great 
change of sentiment, and the grave of Father Rale at Norridgewalk 
Falls in the Portland Diocese of the State of Maine, near the spot 
where he was so cruelly killed, is marked by a granite shaft, and is 
now a place of pious pilgrimage. 



158 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

In 1736 one of the greatest tragedies of that tragical century 
occurred. Rev. Antonius Senat, S. J., who had labored at Peoria, 
but was at the time the resident missionary of Vincennes, went with 
the garrison of Vincennes and another garrison from Kaskaskia, 
Illinois, as chaplain in an expedition against the Chickasaw Indians. 
Through an unpropitious occurrence the commanders of the expedi- 
tion, Pierre D 'Artaguette, Commandant in Illinois, and Francis 
Morgan, better known as Vincennes, of Vincennes, with a number 
of others, fell into the hands of the Chickasaw. Father Senat, the 
chaplain, would not leave them to suffer at the hands of the Indians 
without religious ministrations and also remained prisoner although 
he was offered his freedom. On March 25, 1736, the prisoners were 
led out in sight of the funeral pyre which the Indians were building 
and when all was in readiness they were brought to the fire, securely 
tied and slowly roasted to death. To the last moment Father Senat 
exhorted his fellow-sufferers to meet their punishment with fortitude 
and trust in God for their eternal salvation. 

The next missionary to suffer a violent death at the hands of the 
Indians was Abbe Joseph Gagnon, who was killed shortly after arriv- 
ing in the Illinois country and not far from the Holy Family mission 
at Cahokia. 

After the Banishment of the Jesuits. 

As will be remembered, the Jesuits were banished from the French 
dominion, or, rather more properly speaking, from the domain that 
had been French, by the infidel superior council at New Orleans, in 
1763, and Father Forget Duverger, the last of the Fathers of the 
Foreign Missions, anticipating similar treatment, left at the same 
time, so that in all of the territory now known as Illinois, there were 
for a short time at least only two priests. These two remaining 
priests were Fathers Luke and Hippolyte Collet, who apparently 
had been in the military service as chaplains with the French forces. 
Father Leonard Philibert Collet, who took in religion the name of 
Luke, had been chaplain at the French posts in Pennsylvania, Pres- 
quile and Riviere Aux Boeufs. They were both at the time located 
at St. Anne du Fort Chartres. Father Hippolyte Collet had been 
in St. Anne's since May, 1759, and Father Luke Collet since May, 
1761. They attended St. Anne's at Fort Chartres, the Visitation at 
St. Phillipes and St. Joseph's at Prairie du Rocher. Father Hippo- 
lyte Collet left the Illinois country in 1764 and Father Luke Collet 
died at St. Anne's Fort Chartres on September 10, 1765, and was 



THE CATHOLIC CLERGY OF ILLINOIS 159 

buried there, but later his remains were removed to St. Joseph's at 
Prairie du Roeher. 

It will be recalled that Father Sebastien Louis Meurin, S. J., 
after much vexatious treatment was permitted to return and arrived 
in his old neighborhood early in the year 1764, but at first made his 
home in St. Genevieve, Mo., from whence he visited the missions on 
the Illinois side. 

After repeated requests for help on the part of Father Meurin 
the Bishop of Quebec sent to the missions in 1768 the great patriot 
priest — the second Marquette — Very Rev. Pierre Gibault. 

Father Gibault arrived in the Illinois country in September, 1768, 
and for twenty-one years was the leading spirit of the entire Middle 
West on both sides of the Mississippi. He restored the Church and 
brought order out of the chaos that existed. He was a brilliant man, 
highly educated, eloquent and well informed. He kept abreast of 
the times and was from the very earliest a champion of the American 
cause, of which he was well informed before George Rogers Clark 
conceived the conquest of the Northwest; and when Clark, under 
the authority of the Assembly of Virginia and Governor Patrick 
Henry, undertook the conquest of the Northwest, Gibault became the 
central figure in the events which led to the espousal by the inhabi- 
tants of the Northwest of the American cause. He was not only 
one of the ablest and most successful priests that had yet been in 
the Illinois country, but the greatest patriot of the Northwest in 
Revolutionary times. 

Father Gibault and Father Meurin covered the field together and 
alone until the death of Father Meurin which occurred on the 23rd 
of February, 1777. For some years until 1785 Father Gibault was 
alone in the territory. He, with his parishioners, had struggled 
through the Revolutionary War and the trying years succeeding and 
had lived to find himself in a new ecclesiastical jurisdiction, being 
now subject to Prefect Apostolic John Carroll, appointed to have 
charge of the Church in the United States. 

The Episcopate of Bishop Carroll. 

In 1785 the Prefect Apostolic sent Father Paul de St. Pierre, a 
Discalced Carmelite, to the territory. Father de Saint Pierre proved 
a devoted priest and ministered to the inhabitants of the Illinois 
country for five years. 

In the process of gathering up the reins of Church government 
Prefect Apostolic, now Bishop Carroll, appointed Rev. Peter Huet 



160 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

de la Valiniere his viear-general for the Illinois country, who arrived 
in Kaskaskia in 1785. Father Valiniere, though a good and pious 
priest, proved a great disturber in the new territory, and did little 
more than create much turmoil. The difficulties raised by him were, 
however, soon overcome when Bishop Carroll sent a band of Sulpi- 
tians to the West. Amongst them were Rev. Michael Levadoux and 
Rev. Gabriel Richard, who came to Illinois and officiated in all of 
the Illinois missions with great success. 

Father Charles Leander Lusson was sent by Bishop Carroll to 
Cahokia in 1798. 

In February, 1799, Fathers John and Donatien Olivier arrived 
in Illinois. Father John was stationed at Cahokia and Father Dona- 
tien at Kaskaskia and Prairie du Rocher. 

Father Donatien Olivier for more than thirty years was the lead- 
ing spirit and principal proponent of the Christian religion in the 
states of Illinois, Indiana and Missouri. He became the vicar-general 
of Bishop Carroll in the Illinois country and inducted Bishop Flaget 
into his See. He was the Tribune of the people and the Herald of 
the Bishop upon all functions and visitations; a man of singular 
piety and great eloquence and most active in all of this difficult 
period in the experience of the Illinois Church. 

Governor Reynolds in his historical work. My Own Times, speak- 
ing of Father Olivier said, "One of the ancient pioneer clergymen 
was the celebrated Oliver of Prairie du Rocher, Randolph County. 
This reverend divine was a native of Italy and was a high dignitary 
of the Roman Catholic Church for more than half a century. He 
acquired a great reputation for his sanctity and holiness and some 
believed him possessed of the power to perform small miracles, to 
which he made no pretensions." Governor Reynolds is probably 
mistaken about his nationality. It is more likely that he was French 
as he came to America from France in 1794 with Rev. William Louis 
Du Bourg, afterwards Bishop of New Orleans. 

Father Olivier was greatly admired by Bishop Benedict Joseph 
Flaget, first Bishop of the Diocese of Bardstown, and by Bishop 
William Du Bourg, bishop of New Orleans, both of whom relied upon 
him and spoke of him in the highest terms. 

Religious and Civic Leaders. 

Father Olivier was the last of the long line of priests who were 
not only the spiritual but the civic leaders of their time. From the 
very earliest days in Illinois to the time of his death there had existed 



THE CATHOLIC CLERGY OF ILLINOIS 161 

this sort of leadership. After the death of Father Marquette the 
mantle fell upon the shoulders of Father Claude Jean Allouez, S. J. 
It was next assumed by Father James Gravier, S. J. The next to 
exercise absolute sway both in religious and civil affairs was Rev. 
Gabriel Marest, S. J. After him came Rev. Jean Antoine le Boul- 
lenger, S. J., followed by the Rev. Philibert Watrin, S. J., then by 
Rev. Sebastien Louis Meurin, S. J., who gave way to the young, 
strong secular priest and patriot, Rev. Pierre Gibault. Father Dona- 
tien Olivier succeeded to the popularity and influence over spiritual 
and temporal affairs and sustained it with great credit for a third 
of a century. 

It was Father Olivier that occupied the place of honor at the 
banquet tendered Marquis de Lafayette when he visited Kaskaskia 
on the 30th day of April, 1825. On that occasion Father Olivier 
sat at the left hand of the distinguished guest and Pierre Menard 
at his right. It was Father Olivier, too, to whom the inhabitants, 
regardless of creed or condition and of their former conduct, fled, 
begging for the rights of the Church and last absolution in the 
excitement of the earthquake which visited the region in 1811. 

Not alone as vicar-general of Bishop CarroU and of Bishops Flaget 
and Dubourg, but as well by reason of his great probity and piety. 
Father Olivier was by common consent the leader. By the French 
Catholics he was revered as a saint. He was admired for his child- 
like simplicity and unaffected piety, which traits he continued to 
exhibit in the midst of his apostolic labors until old age compelled 
him to abandon the field and prepare for death in retirement. He 
died on the 29th of January, 1841, at the Seminary of the Barrens 
in Missouri at the advanced age of 95 years. 

Like Melchisedech these great men were both king and priest. 
Speaking especially of the Jesuits Judge Sidney Breese, one of the 
earliest and ablest judges of the Supreme Court of the State, said: 
"No evidence is to be found among our early records of the exercise 
of any controlling power save the Jesuits up to the time of the grant 
to Crozat in 1712, and I have no idea that any such existed in the 
shape of government or that there was any other social organization 
than that effected by them of which they were the head," and 
Blanchard in his ''Discovery and Conquest of the Northwest," says: 
"The French villages in the Illinois country as well as most other 
places were each under the government of a priest, who, besides 
attending to their spiritual wants, dispensed justice to them, and 
from his decision there was no appeal. Though this authority was 



162 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

absolute the records of the times discloses no abuse of it, but on the 
contrary, proof that it was used with paternal care." 

The same was almost equally true of the successors of the Jesuits, 
Fathers Pierre Gibault and Donatien Olivier. Before the end of 
Father Olivier 's time many English speaking people came into the 
territory — indeed the country was organized as a territory and as 
a state, but Father Olivier was the most influential man in the terri- 
tory and state almost so long as he remained in health. 

Better Organization. 

During Father Olivier 's lifetime the Church began to be more 
closely organized. The diocese of New Orleans was created in 1793, 
and the diocese of Bardstown, or Louisville, Kentucky, was created 
in 1808. For New Orleans Right Reverend William Du Bourg was 
made bishop and at Bardstown Right Reverend Benedict Joseph 
Flaget was bishop. These two prelates assumed the management of 
church affairs in the Illinois country, and when later the diocese 
of St. Louis was created in 1826 and Right Rev. Joseph Rosati was 
made bishop, he was given ecclesiastical jurisdiction over a large part 
of Illinois. And when in 1834 the diocese of Vincennes was created 
and Right Rev. Simon William Gabriel Brute was made Bishop, 
those prelates and their successors exercised a sort of joint jurisdic- 
tion over Illinois until the Chicago diocese was created. Bishop 
Brute became the leader in the eastern part of the state and Bishop 
Rosati in the western part and the clergy who labored in the field 
in the early days of the 19th century, with a few exceptions, belonged 
to these two dioceses. 

It seems that there were at least three clergymen who labored in 
Illinois during this period for whom the Bishop of Bardstown was 
responsible. These were Rev. Stephen Theodore Badin, Rev. F. 
Savine and Rev. Elisha Durbin. Two of these clergymen are re- 
ferred to later as nineteenth century missionaries. As for the other, 
Father Savine, it may be said that he served several years at Cahokia. 

As has already been seen the bishop of Vincennes sent into the 
territory the priests who labored around Chicago, namely, Rev. Tim- 
othy O'Meara, Rev. Bernard Schaffer, Rev. Maurice de Saint Palais, 
Rev. Francis Joseph Fischer, Rev. Hippolyte du Pentavice, Rev. John 
Francis Plunket and Rev. John Gueguen. The rest of the clergymen 
who labored in Illinois prior to the creation of the diocese of Chi- 
cago, with three exceptions, came from the diocese of St. Louis. The 
three exceptions were Rev. Samuel Mazuchelli, 0. P., Rev. Vincent 



THE CATHOLIC CLERGY OF ILLINOIS 163 

Badin, Brother Rev. Stephen Theodore Badin, who came from the 
diocese of Detroit, both of whom did missionary work about Galena, 
and Rev. Rengus Petiot, who also labored at Galena, but apparently 
came from the diocese of Dubuque. 

The great bulk of the clergy of this period, it will be seen, came 
from or were attached to the diocese of St. Louis, including the fol- 
lowing: Rev. Hercules Brassac, Rev. Francis Cellini, CM., Rev. 
Francis Xavier Dahman, Rev. Pierre Vergani, C. M., Rev. John 
Timon, CM., Rev. Charles Felix Van Quickenborne, S. J., Rev. Peter 
J. Doutreluingue, C M., Rev. G. Lutz, Rev. P. Borgna, Rev. Victor 
Pallaisson, S. J., Rev. A. Mascrooni, Rev. John Francis Regis Loisel, 
Rev. Vitalis Van Cloostere, Rev. J. N. Odin, C M., Rev. E. Dupuy, 
CM., Rev. Matthew Condamine, Rev. John McMahon, Rev. John 
Mary Ireneaus St. Cyr, Rev. Peter Paul Lefevre, Rev. L. Picot, Rev. 
Charles F. Fitz Maurice, Rev. B. Roux, Rev. Joseph N. Wiseman, 
Rev. Francis B. Jamison, Rev, G. Walters, S. J., Rev. J. B. Healy, 
Rev. Stanislaus Buteau, Rev. Felix Verreydt, S. J., Rev. Ambrose 
G. Heim, Rev. Timothy Joseph Conway, Rev. Louis Aloysius Parodi, 
C M., Rev. George Hamilton, Rev. Hilary Tucker, Rev. Augustus 
Brickwedde, Rev. John Blassius Raho, C M., Rev. Charles Meyer, 
Rev. M. O'Reilly, Rev. M. Ward, Rev. G. H. Tochmann; Rev. Richard 
Bole, Rev. Hippolyte Gandolfo, Rev. F. Czakert, Rev. John Kenny, 
Rev. Gasper H. Ostlangenberg, Rev. John B. Escourrier, C. M., Rev. 
Ubaldus Estang, C M., Rev. N. Stehle, Rev. Constantine Lee, Rev. 
Joseph Henry Fortman, Rev. Louis Muller, Rev. Louis du Courday, 
Rev. Joseph Masquelet, Rev. Joseph Maquin, Rev. Patrick McCabe, 
Rev. M. Cereos, C M., Rev. B. Rolando, C M., Rev. Michael Carroll, 
Rev. Hilary Tucker, Rev. Joseph Kuenstar, Rev. Alphonsus Mon- 
tuori, C M., Rev. N. Mulen. 

Such is the roster of the clergy that labored in Illinois prior to 
the creation of the diocese of Chicago. 

Joseph J. Thompson. 
Chicago. 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 



Prize Essays. — We are publisliing two prize essays written by pupils of 
the parochial schools of Chicago dealing with history. These essays were 
written under a plan of the Illinois State Court of the Catholic Order of 
Foresters, successfully promoted by the late William F. Eyan, as state chief 
executive during his several terms of office. 

The reader will recognize at once the merit of the plan which brought 
forth these and numerous other similar essays throughout the state of Illinois. 
Only by research and investigation could the data contained in these essays 
be obtained. While there is no pretense that the efforts measure up to the 
standard of scientific history writing, yet several important facts are brought 
out and will be impressed upon a considerable number of readers. 

This, however, is not the chief benefit of the plan. There can be no 
doubt but that the effort has created, to a greater or less extent, an interest 
in the subject of Catholic history, and who will dare deny that some pupil, 
many perhaps, has been influenced in such a manner as to lead to a fuller 
study of history, and, who knows but some may become active students, even 
historians. It is in this hope the plan was devised. How happy would be the 
promoters of it should it result in such a consummation. 

Two Hundred and Fifty Years. — Ten generations of men have come and 
gone since Father James Marquette, S. J., visited our region and established 
the Church. Silver, golden, diamond jubilees, half and whole centennaries 
are observed with eclat, but here is the anniversary of great events which 
occurred two and a half centuries ago. 

For emphasis let us name the high points in the Marquette movements: 

1. With Louis JoUiet and five Frenchmen Father Marquette passed 
through Illinois from the mouth of the Illinois Eiver to the Des Plaines, 
thence by portage to the Chicago Eiver and down the Chicago Eiver to Lake 
Michigan in August and September, 1673. 

2. Father Marquette with two Frenchmen returned to Illinois in 1674, 
landing at the mouth of the Chicago Eiver, then at what is now the foot of 
Madison Street, on December 4, 1674, where he stayed until December 11, 
1674, and during which time he said Mass every day except on December 8th, 
when the cold prevented. On December 11th he with his companions and 
visiting Indians drew his canoe two leagues up the Chicago Eiver over the 
ice and stopped for the winter at what is now Eobey Street and the Drainage 
Canal. Here he stayed until the 29th of March, 1675. 

3. Leaving the Eobey Street cabin on March 29th Father Marquette and 
his party struggled for ten days to reach the village of the Illinois Indians 
(Kaskaskia tribe), then located at what is now Utica, Illinois, where he 
arrived on the 8th of April, 1675. After three days' preparation Father 
Marquette on Holy Thursday, April 11th, 1675, established the Church and 
named the first mission the Immaculate Conception. 

The first of these anniversaries has already passed and was observed in 
various ways in difffferent places. The next occurs on December 4th next 

164 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 165 

and arrangements are being made to fittingly observe it. The third and 
greatest of them all, the establishment of the Church, will occur on April 
Ilth, 1925, next year, and should be fittingly observed. 

Catholic Schools to Observe Marquette Anniversary. — Throughout the 
archdiocese of Chicago the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the coming 
of Father Marquette to Chicago will be celebrated in all Catholic schools. It 
is the desire of His Eminence Cardinal Mundelein that a fitting program be 
prepared and rendered in each school on or near the date (December 4th) 
marking the passage of two hundred and fifty years from the advent of the 
first white man to this region, the first white dwellers of Chicago and the 
first exercise of Christian rites. 

His Eminence has directed that an outline of exercises be prepared and 
that ample time be given for preparation of essays, addresses and musical 
nuiiibers such as will impress upon the youth the significance of the notable 
anniversary. It is worthy of much more than passing notice that at the cost 
of almost inconceivable sacrifice and suffering the great missionary and his 
successors as well brought the gospel, always followed by civilization, to the 
land we now inherit. 

If the present and other generations have passed by with little notice 
these, the most important events in our history, that is only an additional 
reason that the rising and future generations should be more mindful. Truly 
our land has been blest almost beyond all others. Since the days of Father 
Marquette not a single battle between white men has ever stained with blood 
the fair soil of our State. When strife has raged elsewhere, even when want 
has blighted other regions, comparative peace has reigned here, and plenty 
has been the universal experience. Well may we believe the beautiful tradition 
that Father Marquette blessed all the waters and all of the lands of our fair 
State and that his blessing has remained always with us. Hence the propriety 
of fittingly observing this two hundred and fiftieth anniversary. 

Nor is His Eminence content with directing a fitting observance of the 
anniversary in the schools. He also directs that from the altar and the 
pulpit the great day shall be proclaimed. Because Father Marquette was a 
Jesuit His Eminence has directed that the principal church ceremonies shall 
be conducted in the Jesuit church and arrangements are being made for a 
church service that will be a climax of all the observances of the anniversary. 

Incidentally a civic celebration also is being arranged. Announcement 
of the time and place and m.anner cannot be made yet but it is intended that 
the observance shall be worthy of the occasion and the invitation to participate 
is general. 

Abundant material for the preparation of papers and addresses for the 
Marquette program in this and former issues of the Illinois Catholic His- 
TORiCAii Review. 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT 
PERIODICALS 

French Catholic Newspaper in Boston, 1792-1793. — At a meeting 
of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts in April, 1921, Percival 
Merritt called attention to the second French newspaper published 
in Boston, which was edited by a French priest, Louis Rousselet, The 
following account of this newspaper is drawn from the Publications 
of the Society issued in 1923. This missionary had ministered to 
the spiritual wants of the Catholics of Boston at their first church, 
the School Street Chapel, prior to the arrival of the first regular 
pastor. Rev. John Thayer. The first French newspaper was the 
Courier de Boston, conducted by Joseph Nancrede, instructor in 
French at Harvard College from 1787 to 1800, and the paper ran 
only from April 25 to October 15, 1789. ' ' The second French news- 
paper to be published in Boston," said Mr. Merritt, ''was the Cour- 
ier Politique de TUnivers. . . . The publication was projected with 
the view of giving a just idea of the present state of France and a 
connected summary of the French Revolution." The prospectus 
stated that this weekly newspaper would be printed in French and 
English in parallel columns. ' ' In this form the Courier de 1 'Univers 
will be serviceable to those who are imperfectly acquainted with the 
French language." No copy of the paper has been located, accord- 
ing to Mr. C. S. Brigham, who has compiled an exhaustive biblio- 
graphy of American newspapers from 1690 to 1820 ; but references 
to it are found in the Columbian Centinel, where in the issue of Jan- 
uary 19, 1793, the following notice appeared: "Mr. Rousselet, editor 
of the Courier Politique de TUnivers, being suddenly called to the 
Island of Guadeloupe by the desire of a great number of its inhabi- 
tants, in order to fulfill the duties of an apostolic missionary, has 
the honour to testify his regret to the subscribers to his paper that 
he is unable to complete the task that he had undertaken." Only 
six numbers appeared, December 10, 1792, to January 14, 1793. This 
newspaper is not mentioned in the Catholic Encyclopedia. The 
Abbe Rousslet met his death in Guadeloupe, where he was guil- 
lotined, along with three hundred French Royalists, by the French 
revolutionary commissioner, Victor Hughes, who had wrested the 
island from the English in October, 1794. 

« * « 

Huron Religion. — "Religious Conceptions of the Modern Hu- 
rons" is the title of a paper contributed to the Collections of the 

166 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 167 

Kansas State Historical Society for 1919-1922, by William Elsey 
Connelley, who was for twenty years living in familiar intercourse 
with the Wyandots, descendants of the Hurons of the Jesuit mission 
of the seventeenth century. He was adopted into the tribe, who 
were then living in Wyandotte County, Kansas, of which he was 
the county clerk, and he was given an exalted title that had not 
been conferred on anyone since 1780. Mr. Connelley is thus able to 
speak with assurance regarding the myths of this people. His ac- 
count does not accord with that given by the Jesuits of the seven- 
teenth century, because, as he says, Christianity has modified the 
Indian beliefs to some extent. The Huron myth of the Creation is 
related at length. In a foot-note the author gives a list of the totenic 
animals of the Wyandots; and also gives the names of the clans 
with their significance. A later article in the same volume of Col- 
lections gives ''Lists of all the Individual Members of the Wyandot 
Tribe," copied from the Eeport of the Wyandot Commissioners of 
1859, and descriptions of their lands. 



Voyage of the Griffon. — The April Bulletin of the Chicago His- 
torical Society contains the first instalment of an account, to be 
continued in later issues, of "La Salle and the Establishment of 
French Dominion in the Mississippi Valley." The Griffon, the first 
sailing vessel to be built on the Great Lakes, was constructed by 
La Salle's men on the Niagara River, above the Falls, near Cayuga 
Creek. It was named the Griffon out of compliment to Frontenac, 
whose arms carried two griffins. La Salle was absent at the time 
upon a perilous trip on foot from Niagara Falls to Fort Frontenac, 
now Kingston, two hundred and fifty miles distant, to obtain equip- 
ment. Upon the return of La Salle, the vessel set sail on August 7, 
1679, carrying La Salle, Father Hennepin, and Tonty. "The pas- 
sage through Lake Erie, the strait of Detroit, and Lake St. Clair 
was pleasant, but on Lake Huron a violent storm alarmed the ex- 
plorers, who were glad to ride at anchor for a week in the straits of 
Mackinac. After a week at Mackinac, the Griffon entered Lake 
Michigan and sailed across to Washington Island, off Green Bay. 
Here La Salle found some of the advance party of traders who had 
been sent ahead the year before. So severe were La Salle's financial 
straits that he considered it necessary to hurry to his creditors the 
valuable store of furs which the traders had accumulated. The crew 
of the Griffon were accordingly ordered to sail at once to Niagara 
and then return to the southern part of Lake Michigan, where La 



168 GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 

Salle and the main party would wait for them. ' ' The Griffon sailed 
but was never afterwards heard from. The loss to La Salle was, 
according to Alvord, 40,000 Fivres or about $8,000 ("The Illinois 
Country, 1920, p. 81). 



Canadian Historical Bibliography. — "There is no subject-index 
to Canadian literature, historical or otherwise, in existence," writes 
W. S. Wallace in the Canadian Historical Review for March, 1924, 
in an article on ' ' The Bibliography of Canadiana ; ' ' nor is there an 
adequate author catalogue of Canadian books or a bibliography of 
Canadian bibliographies. The student of Canadian history must 
have recourse to guides to American historical literature covering 
both the United States and other countries of the western continents. 
"The beginnings of bibliographical science in Canada we owe to a 
French Canadian, as we owe to French Canadians the most valuable 
achievements in this line in more recent times, ' ' we are told. 

A French lawj^er of Quebec, Georges-Barthelemi Faribault, made 
in 1837 the first catalogue of books on Canadian history. An 
"essay," as he called it, on Canadian bibliography by the Abbe P. 
Gagnon, pastor of St. Romuald d' Etehemin, Quebec, issued in 1895, 
"purporting to be merely a catalogue of the author's private collec- 
tion, was yet conceived on a scale rivalled only by the catalogues of 
the great private libraries of the Old World," writes Mr. Wallace. 
This superb collection was later turned over to the City of Montreal, 
and a second volume, showing the accessions since 1895, was issued. 

N. E. Dionne, librarian of the Legislative Library of Quebec, pre- 
pared a chronological inventory of the books published in the Prov- 
ince of Quebec, in five volumes, "the most comprehensive single 
achievement in Canadian bibliography up to date," 

# * * 

Canadian Historical Society. — A Canadian History Society was 
launched at a dinner in London, November 7, 1923, given by Sir 
Campbell Stuart to the prime minister of Canada, The aims of the 
new organization, as announced in a pamphlet recently issued (Lon- 
don, 1923) and reviewed in the Canadian Historical Review of 
March, 1924, are stated to be: "(1) To maintain an interest in the 
Canada of today among the descendants of those who have con- 
tributed to the upbuilding of its institutions; (2) to ensure the pre- 
servation of historical records relating to Canada and to render 
them available to the Society for the purpose of its publications. 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 169 

(3) to publish in a series of volumes biographies of those who have 
by their services contributed to the history of the country; (4) to 
endeavor by research to discover historical sources. ' ' 

The oldest historical society in Canada, the Literary and His- 
torical Society of Quebec, is this year to celebrate its hundredth 
anniversary. This society, formed by the union of two societies 
started in 1824 and 1827 respectively, has published some valuable 
papers and until the establishment of the Archives Department in 
1872 was almost the sole medium for the publication of historical 

manuscripts and documents in the Canadian archives. 

* * * 

French in Georgia in the 16th Century. — Typical of the thorough 
methods of work of historical students at our greater universities 
today is a paper by Mary Ross of the University of California en- 
titled: "French Intrusions and Indian Uprisings in Georgia and 
South Carolina, 1577-1580, ' ' which appears in the Georgia Historical 
Quarterly for September, 1923. In a foot-note the authoress states: 
"This paper is but a chapter in the larger story that deals with 
Caribbean and La Florida history. . . . The study is based en- 
tirely on manuscript materials in the Archivo General de Indias. " 
In defining the scope of her inquiry the authoress says: "Ribaut, 
Laudonniere and Gourgues are three names that stand out in the 
story of the Franco-Spanish contest for the wide-spreading provinces 
of La Florida ; but these French leaders were but trail blazers for a 
horde of adventurous spirits who coveted the South Atlantic sea- 
board. Scarcely a decade after the Gourgues attack a fourth French 
intrusion was launched against that Spanish borderland. This 
episode in Guale-Orista or Georgia-Carolina history has been hitherto 
all but unknown. Led by Nicolas Estrozi from Bordeaux and Gilberto 
Gil, a Catalan, a motley band of French corsairs moved northward 
out of the Caribbean and between the years 1577 and 1580 entrenched 
themselves in a third French fortification on the Atlantic coast, 
entered into a design with the Georgia-Carolina natives, and planned 
for the destruction of the Spanish establishments at San Agustin 
and Santo Elena (Port Royal). Only the bravery of the Spanish 
forces at Santa Elena in the presidio of San Marcos, and the clear- 
headed generalship and watchfulness of the Spanish governor, the 
renowned Pedro Menendez de Marques, saved the day for Spain and 
defeated the design for a French occupation of the coast." The 
article is amply documented with references to the original manu- 
scripts. 

WiLLUM Stetson Merrill. 

Chicago. 



170 GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 

Michigan's Greatest Woman Educator. — The Michigan History 
Magazine for January, 1924, contains a short biographical account, 
by Ada A. Norton, of Julia Anne King, ''undoubtedly the greatest 
woman educator which Michigan has ever possessed, doubtless among 
the half dozen greatest women educators in Michigan — either men or 
women — and the half dozen greatest women educators in the United 
States." 

The "Place Names of Berrien County," by George R. Fox, will 
prove of greatest interest to those familiar with that region. "Im- 
pressions of Detroit, 1837" (from Mrs. Jameson's, "Winter Studies 
and Summer Rambles"), is a womanly account of that city in a 
delightful chit-chat way. An account on "Frank Dwight Baldwin, 
M. H., Major General, U. S. A. by Sue Imogene Silliman completes 
the magazine. 



Critical Studies in Church History. — The Catholic Historical 
Review for January, 1924, in its first article, "The Apostolic See," 
by Rt. Rev. Thomas Shahan, D. D., evidences the superabundant in- 
formation of the learned rector. "The Bollandists; The Period of 
Trial, ' ' by Aurelio Palmieri, 0. S. A,, clearly indicates the trials of 
the early hagiographers. Dr. Peter Guilday's article, "Arthur 
O'Leary," is illuminating and abounding in vivacity and solid as- 
surance on the thorny question of the Oath of Allegiance in English 
History. 

Dr. F. Zivierlein 's article, ' * What did Calvin want of Francis I, ' ' 
is a correction of Rev. A. M. Fairbairn, D. D., in the Cambridge 
Modem History. Among the Miscellany, ' ' The Fratres Pontifices and 
the Community of Altopasio, " gives an interesting addition to a 
similar article in the October issue of the American Historical Re- 
view by Professor Ephraim Emerton. 



Mid-West and Colonial History. — The Mississippi Valley Histor- 
ical Review of December, 1923, in an article, * * The Industrial Armies 
and the Commonwealth," by Donald L. McMurry, gives a com- 
plete, satisfying study of Coxey's Army and its many, picturesque 
imitators. To one interested in the Burr Conspiracy, * ' The Louisiana- 
Texas Frontier during the Burr Conspiracy," by Isaac Joslin Cox, 
will prove illuminating. "The Proslavery Background of the Kan- 
sas Struggle," by James C. Malin, is a conservative correction of 
modern accounts of "Bloody Kansas." The article abounds in 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 171 

critical suggestions on a controverted question which if followed will 
lead near to historical truth. ''The Development of Chicago as a 
Center of the Meat Packing Industry," by Howard Copeland Hill, 
is a story of "the influence of transportation." 

The Americana for October, 1923, has an interesting article on 
"Historic Pilgrim Shrines," by Mrs. Alton Brooks Parker, the 
result of a visit to Holland and England. To many "The Scotch- 
Irish in Pennsylvania," by E. Melvin Williams will prove illuminat- 
ing. "Some Usages of Long Ago" treats of slavery and the under- 
ground railroad. "The Indians of Bergen County, New Jersey," 
by Frances A. Westervelt, "Old-Time Elocutionary Books," by 
Charles A. Ingrahams. "Highland Scottish Clans," by Joel N. Ens, 
A. M., the "Dorr Family," by Mrs. Herold R. Finley. "Mrs. Wil- 
liam Lawson Peel," by John P. Downs, complete the issue. 

The Records of the American Catholic Historical Society in 
"Trials and Triumphs of Catholic Pioneers in Western Pennsyl- 
vania," translated and arranged by Rev. Felix Fellner, 0. S. B., 
adds to the better understanding of the difficulties of the first Bishop 
of the United States as well as the pioneers. "The Work of the 
Sisters of Mercy in the Archdiocese of St. Louis, Missouri (1856- 
1921)," by Sister Mary Eulalia Herron, exemplifies a phase of 
history which is only of late being written to fill up the gaps in 
Catholic Church History in the United States. 

Paul J. Foik. 

Notre Dame, Indiana. 



SAINTS OF SPECIAL HONOR IN 
CALIFORNIA 

[Note. — The document printed below is one of a collection of manuscripts 
recently acquired by the Newberry Library, Chicago, which comprises transcripts 
made by Mr. Irving Berdine Richman, a lawyer by profession, residing in 
Muscatine, Iowa. By avocation he is an historian, being the author "California 
under Spain and Mexico, 1535-1847, based on original sources," of the vol- 
ume in the series of "Chronicles of America," entitled "The Spanish Con- 
querors," and of many other historical works. The collection mentioned has but 
recently reached the Newberry Library, where it forms a part of the Edward E. 
Ayer Library, an immensely valuable collection of works on the American Indian 
from the earliest period of American history down to the present day. The 
list which follows seems to be a catalog of the saints especially honored in 
California by the Padres of the Spanish missions there, with mention, in each 
case, of the days on which these saints were honored. The saints are classified 
by the names of the Orders to which they belonged. Occasional notes indicate 
an attempt to identify the saints mentioned or, in some cases, to correct the 
classification. Whether these annotations are by Mr. Richman or by another 
hand does not appear. This manuscript was kindly brought to my attention by 
Miss Clara A. Smith, custodian of the Ayer Library. The names of these 
favorite saints appear in many place-names of California. — W. S. M.] 

Benedictine 
San Anselmo, April 21. 
San Benito, March 21. 

San Bernardo, August 20 (Founder of Cistercians). 
San Bruno, October 6 (Founder of Carthusians, branch of Bene- 
dictines) . 

San Carlos, November 4 (St. Charles Borromeo). 
Santa Gertrudes, November 15. 

San Gregorio, March 12 (St. Gregory, the Great Pope). 
St. Helena, August 18. 

Capuchin 
Belongs as a Branch of the Franciscans 

San Felix, May 21 (St. Felix of Cantalicio). 

Dominican 
Santa Catalina, April 30 (St. Catherine of Sienna). 
San Jacinto, August 16 (St. Hy[a]cinth). 
San Ramon, January 23 (St. Raymond). 
Santa Rosa, August 30 (St, Rose of Lima). 

Franciscan 
San Antonio, June 13 (of Padua). 
San Bernardino (of Siena — possibly Bernard the less is meant, 

172 



SAINTS OF SPECIAL HONOR IN CALIFORNIA 173 

but I hardly think that possible as San Bernardino was one of 
the great saints of the Franciscan order). 

San Buen [a] Ventura, July 14. 

Santa Clara, August 12 (St. Clare— founder of the Poor Clares). 

San Franci[sc]o Solano, July 24. 

San Francisco, October 4 (Founder of the order). 

San Juan Capistrano, October 23 (St. John of Capistrano). 

San Luis Opispo, August 19 (St. Lewis, Bishop of Toulome, en- 
tered the order of Friars Minor). 

Santa Margarita, February 22 (St. Margaret — Friars Minor). 

Lazarists (Franciscan) 
St. Vincent de Paul, July 19. 

Jesuits 
San Francis Borgia, October 10. 

San Francis Xavier, December 3 (Missionary to Japan, China, 
Portugal, etc.). 

San Ignati[o], July 31 (Founder). 

Minims 
Under Franciscans 
San Franciquito, April 2 (St. Francis Paula, founder of the 
order). 

Order of Charity 

Under Franciscans 
San Juan de D[i]os, March 8 (St. John of God, founder of the 
order. ) 

Stylites 
San Daniel, December 11. 
San Simeon, January 5. 

General 
St. Andreas, March 30 (St. Andrew). 
San Diego, July 25 (St. James, the great apostle). 
San Diequito, May 1 (St. James, the less). 
San Fiiipe, May 1 (St. Philip, apostle). 
St. John, December 27. 

San Lucas, October 18 (St. Luke, the evangelist). 
San Marcus, April 25 (St. Mark, the evangelist). 
San Mateo, September 21 (St. Mathew, the apostle). 
San Pablo, June 30 (St. Paul, the apostle). 
San Pedro, June 29 (St. Peter, apostle). 



174 WILLIAM STETSON MERRILL 

San Gabriel, March 18 (Archangel). 

San Miquil, September 29 (St. Michael, Archangel). 

San Bias, February 3 (Patron against disease of the throat). 

San Cl[e]mente, December 4 (Bishop [of] Alexandria). 

San Dimas, October 8 (St. Demetrius, martyr). 

San Estevan, December 26 (St. Stephen, proto-martyr) . 

San Fernando, May 30 (St. Ferdinand, King of Spain). 

San Geronimo, September 30 (St. Jerome, Deserite). 

San Gorgonio, September 9 (Martyr). 

San Joaquin, April 16 (St. Joachim, father of the Blessed Virgin). 

San Jose, March 19 (St. Joseph). 

San Juan Bautista, Nativity, June 24 ; Beheaded, August 29. 

San Leandro, February 27 (Bishop of Seville). 

San Lorenzo, August 10 (St. Lawrence, deacon martyr). 

San Nicolas, December 6 (Bishop of Myra). 

San Nicolas, September 10 (St. Nicholas of Tolentino — Austin 
Friar). 

San Quintin, October 31 (Martyr). 

San Timotio, January 21 (St. Timothy, disciple of St. Paul). 

San Ysidore, May 10 (St. Isidore, patron of Madrid). 

San Ylijo (the Holy Ellas) . 

Santa Ana, July 26 (St. Anne, mother of the Blessed Virgin). 

Santa Barbara, December 4 (Martyr, patroness against lightning). 

Santa Lucia, December 13 (St. Lucy, virgin and martyr). 

Santa Monica, May 4 (St. Monica, mother of St. Augustine). 

Santa Paula, January 26 (one of the women with Jerome at Beth- 
lehem) . 

Santa Susana, August 11 (St. Susan [n] a, virgin and martyr). 

Santa Ynez, January 21 (St. Agnes, virgin and martyr). 

Santa Ysabel, August 31 (St. Isabel, sister of St. Louis, King of 
France). 



AN EARLY EXERCISE OF TOLERANCE 

While Louis Phillippe of France was Duke of Orleans he gave to 
the saintly Bishop Benedict Flaget of Bardstown, Ky., valuable 
paintings and church furniture, with which to grace the sanctuary 
of the Bishop's Cathedral in Bardstown. When the articles arrived 
here, United States officials levied the full duty on them, although 
they were free gifts and not within the intent of the revenue laws of 
the time. 

Finally, interested individuals in the Bishop's diocese took the 
matter to Congress and a bill was drawn up in, 1828, which "auth- 
orized the remission of the duties on certain paintings and church 
furniture presented by the King of the French to the Catholic Bishop 
of Bardstown, Kentucky, ' ' 

The bill came up for a third reading on the floor of the House of 
Representatives on Monday, March 19, 1832, and, after it was read 
by the clerk of the assembly, Mr. Hogan of New York, arose and 
* ' regretted that he felt it his duty to oppose the passage of the bill. ' ' 
Among other things he said that "The bill proposed to promote no 
national interest — it addressed itself to the mere liberality of the 
House. Did our Constitution recognize any connection between 
Church and State?" Then Representative Charles Wickcliffe of 
Kentucky, a non-Catholic, was considerably stirred up by the apparent 
bigotry of his fellow-member, and he called him to task in the follow- 
ing language : 

The duty of defending the principle involved in this bill, had, 
however, by the opposition of the gentleman, been devolved upon 
him, and he would detain the House but a very short time in its dis- 
charge. About four years since he had presented the application of 
the worthy individual whom the bill proposed to relieve. That appli- 
cation had always met with the favor of the Committee of Ways and 
Means, and the bill had two or three times passed this House without 
objection, but was never acted upon in the Senate, for want of time. 
The question was again before us, approved by the united voice of 
the committee who reported the bill. "Mr. Speaker, the House will 
pardon me," said Mr. W., "while I tresspass long enough upon their 
time to do justice to a worthy man. Bishop Flaget, for whose relief 
this bill is designed; he is my constituent and friend. He is a man 
who has devoted a life of near seventy years in dispensing acts of 
benevolence and the christian charities. He was once a resident of 
this District, having under his charge the valuable college of George- 
town, where his labors in the cause of science, morality, and religion, 
will long be remembered by all who knew him. 

175 



176 REV. HENRY S. SPALDING 

"His destiny, or the orders of the Church, to which he belongs, 
placed him at the head of the Catholic Church in Bardstown, where, 
in the exercise of the duties of bishop and philanthropist in his dio- 
cese, he has endeared himself to the community whose society he 
adorns. This is not all, sir. With his own means, aided by the lilDeral 
contribution of the members of his own church, and of individuals 
belonging to other denominations, he has built up a college, which is 
both the pride and ornament of the little village in which it is situ- 
ated. In this college are taught all those branches of useful knowledge 
and of science, which qualify man for the duties of life and its 
rational enjoyments. This college, without the aid of governmental 
endowment, brought into existence and sustained by individual enter- 
prise, will lose nothing in comparison with any college in the Union. 
Sir, I believe it the best west of the mountains. In it are annually 
instructed about two hundred of the youth of our country upon terms 
moderate. And we have in its discipline a perfect guaranty for the 
preservation of the morals of our young men. Its portals are opened 
to all denominations. Religious bigotry does not extend its unhal- 
lowed influences over the consciences of the professors or their pupils. 
The benevolence of its founder and its conductors is felt in all ranks 
of society. The orphan and the destitute find ready access to the 
benefits of this institution ; and when there is an inability to pay the 
moderate charges of board and instruction, none are made. I will 
say nothing, sir, of the immense amount of money expended on the 
buildings of this college. 

"Connected with this institution is the cathedral and church, the 
residence of Bishop Flaget. The expenditures inciaent to such an 
establishment as the two I have named, have been more than equal 
to the private means and contributions devoted to the purposes of the 
institutions and its founder has felt and still feels, the consequent 
embarrassments. These embarrassments have been in some measure 
relieved by considerable donations of church furniture and college 
apparatus, from persons in Italy and France. The duties upon such 
articles have been remitted heretofore by the liberality of Congress. 
The articles upon which duties have been paid, and which the bill 
contemplates to refund, consist of paintings and other articles of 
church furniture, presented some years since by the then Duke of 
Orleans, now King of the French, to the Bishop of Bardstown. He 
could not refuse to accept the offering ; by accepting, howover, he 
had to pay the duties, which your revenue laws impose upon articles 
imported from abroad. These articles would not have been purchased 
and imported. They have not been brought into the country as mer- 
chandise, do not enter into the consumption of the country, and there- 
fore do not, I humbly conceive, fall within the principle or spirit of 
your revenue system. They are specimens of art and taste designed 
as ornaments to a house of public worship. 

"I trust, Mr. Speaker, that the circumstance that this application 
is in behalf of a Catholic bishop will not prejudice the mind of any 
member of this House. I am sure it does not the member from New 
York. I would extend this relief to any church or public institution, 



AN EARLY EXERCISE OF TOLERANCE 177 

and to none sooner than the Catholic. I live among them. They 
are, like other denominations, honest in their religious opinions, con- 
tent to worship in the mode their education and habits taught them 
to believe to be right, and which their judgments approve. They are 
honest, industrious and patriotic citizens, devoted to the free institu- 
tions of the country. I mean not to say they are more so than other 
denominations ; certainly they are not less patriotic and liberal in their 
opinions and practices than others of my constituents. I hope the 
gentleman from New York will withdraw his opposition to this bill ; 
the amount involved is small, but it is to the very worthy man, Bishop 
Flaget, at this time of much consequence; at least, I shall look with 
confidence for the judgment of this House in favor of the passage of 
the bill." 

Mr. Hogan replied that the explanation which had been given was 
so perfectly satisfactory to him, that he would, with pleasure, with- 
draw his objections to the bill. 

The bill was passed without further opposition.^ 

(Rev.) Henry S. Spalding, S. J. 
St Louis. 



*From "Abridgement of the Debates of Congress," from 1789 to 1856; from 
Gales and Seaton's annals of Congress; from the Register of Debates, and from 
the official reported debates of John 0. Rives. By Hon. Thomas H. Benton. 
D. Appleton & Co., N. Y., 1857. Vol. XI., p. 639. 

In the preface to his work, Benton writes: "The title page discovers the 
source from which this abridgement is made, and shows them all to be authentic 
and reliable, — well-known to the public and sanctioned by resolves of Congress." 



PRIZE WINNING SCHOOL ESSAYS 



CATHOLICS IN AMERICAN HISTORY IN ILLINOIS 

By Gertrude Lorraine Conley, St. Gertrude's School 

Few realize the important roles Catholics have taken in the 
Christian and material progress of Illinois. 

Some contend that other states are entitled to priority over the 
Illinois district. But if one will carefully delve into the records of 
early Catholicism in the United States, he will learn that in the State 
of Illinois the Church has existed continuously for a longer period 
of time than in any other territorial division. 

First and foremost among the Catholics who have assisted in 
the progress of Illinois are the two renowned explorers, Father Mar- 
quette, a young missionary, and Louis Joliet, his companion. 

Due to the untiring efforts of this young priest, a firm foundation 
was laid. Father Marquette is the founder of Christianity in Mid- 
America. 

It may be interesting to know that Mass was celebrated in this 
country for the first time in 1674, in an humble little building 
situated at a point corresponding to the junction of present Madison 
Street and Grant Park on the shore of Lake Michigan. 

As all the pastors and missionaries of the next two centuries come 
under the classification of pioneer Catholics, it is hardly possible to 
have recourse to all these in their entirety. 

Two very illustrious successors of Father Marquette were : Claude 
J. Allouez, S. J., and Sebastian Rale, S. J. They only assisted in 
strengthening the foundation laid by Father Marquette. 

Robert de LaSalle was the next import character to visit Illinois. 
With him he brought Henri de Tonti and Father Louis Hennepin, 
For some unknown reason, the name of Henri de Tonti has been 
obscured and he does not receive the praise justly due him. For 
twenty years he ruled the Illinois territory. De Tonti was a man 
of great executive ability and under his supervision the state pros- 
pered. After his death his government fell into decay, the people 
of his little empire migrating to other climes. But de Tonti had 
sowed good seed. Men in various spheres of life settled in the new 
community, the peaceful occupation of agriculture was being prac- 
ticed, and before long the whole Illinois country was a scene of 
prosperity. This phenomenal transformation was due to the quiet, 

178 



PRIZE WINNING SCHOOL ESSAYS 179 

unassuming Gabriel Marest, S. J. He was their temporal as well 
as spiritual director. His teachings gained their confidence and in a 
short time they were conversant in the art of agriculture. In 1707 
forty out of twenty-two hundred Indians remained uncivilized, re- 
fusing to be baptized. 

Father Marest was followed by many wonderful men, all of 
whom worked earnestly for Christian advancement in the Illinois 
country. Two of the greatest of these unselfish characters were 
Father Watrin and Father Meurin. Father Watrin labored thirty 
years in the Illinois missions. He worked incessantly from 1733 to 
1763, when the foul edict of the French Council banished all Jesuits. 
The orphaned missions begged for at least one spiritual director, 
so Father Meurin was permitted to return under disheartening con- 
ditions and restrictions. This good priest worked for thirty-one years, 
from 1746 to 1777. He was the last Jesuit missionary in this district. 

In 1786 Pierre Gibault arose to be placed among our immortal 
Catholics of Illinois. The problems of this young priest were, if 
anything, more difficult. As the Indians constituted a speedily dim- 
inishing element, the whites were now in the majority. 

Ten years of toil made him beloved by all. His powers as a 
diplomat were clearly shown in the way he coped with everything. 
In July, 1778, at the time of strife between America and Great 
Britain, his position was made evident when he made possible the 
peaceable conquest of the Illinois territory by George R. Clarke. He 
was the authoritative figure that transferred the allegiance of the 
territory from Great Britain to the New American sovereignty. His 
deeds were poorly appreciated and requited. He died in poverty 
and obscurity due to his sacrificing all his belongings to the new 
government. 

From the period of Father Gibauult up to the present time, the 
work of Catholics in every sphere of life has been a great source 
of comfort and pride to the Church. 

I consider the three existing Catholic orders, the "Knights of 
Columbus," the "Holy Name Society," and the Catholic Order of 
Foresters," fitting structure with which to further the progress of 
Catholicism. 

The Big Brother plan of the Holy Name Society has proved a 
great success. It first started its work in the fall of 1917, while 
several years later followed the establishment of the Boys' Court. 
The Director of each branch assigns five Big Brothers. Datum is 
taken of each delinquent and it is the duty of these "Big Brothers" 
to visit juvenile offenders and assist them in every way possible. 



180 PRIZE WINNING SCHOOL ESSAYS 

This plan has been successful to a very encouraging degree. Since 
January 1919-1921, 440 boys have been delinquent in every con- 
ceivable offense. In 1921 only 40 per cent of these offenders were 
Catholics. This is a decrease of 30 per cent. 

The Knights of Columbus have also been doing creditable work. 
This society was organized in 1882 for the purpose of unifying all 
Catholic American citizens. By an amendment of 1919 the purpose 
of the Order was enlarged to the promoting and conducting of edu- 
cational, of charitable, religious, of social welfare and war relief 
work. The splendid initiative and energy of this organization was 
clearly shown in the "World War. It was conducted in counter dis- 
tinction to the mercenary methods of another organization of similar 
size but not Catholic. 

Last but not least comes the wonderful organization, — "The 
Catholic Order of Foresters." Like de Tonti, the works of this 
organization are hidden and thus its praises go unsung. 

It was organized May 24, 1883, as the "Illinois Catholic Order 
of Foresters." The charter was amended in 1889, however, and the 
order is in operation in twenty-eight states, at last extending into 
Canada. 

It was primaril}^ for the purpose of protecting widows and 
orphans of deceased members. It has been a great force in the 
spiritual and social advancement of its members. Its great work 
has encouraged many to join. The Order's membership has swelled 
to a total of 158,531—37,940 in the State of Illinois, and 29,097 in 
Chicago. 

It is one of the greatest Catholic fraternal organizations and 
stands high in the esteem of its Mother — the Catholic Church. 

And so, if space permitted, we might go on and cite many more 
evidences of the Catholics in Illinois History, but the foregoing serves 
to show the vital part the members of the Catholic Church have 
played in the making and uplifting of our beloved State. 

The good done for the individual by the Church in Illinois is 
beyond reckoning. Eeferring to the work of the Catholic Church in 
Chicago, Archbishop Ireland said: "I do not need to speak of the 
influence of the Church on individual members. Only the Catholic 
can comprehend what this means to liim and to his soul. Now, as 
then, the Catholic priest is laboring for the salvation of souls, strain- 
ing to make men more perfect Christians, consequently better citizens 
and more valuable members of society." 

Gertrude Lorraine Conley. 

Chicago. 



PRIZE WINNING SCHOOL ESSAYS 181 

THE CATHOLIC IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

By Rita Freehaup, St. Raphael School 

(Medal Donated by St. Raphael's Court, No. 722, C. 0. F.) 

They say, I do not love thee, 

Flag of my native land, 
Whose meteor folds above me 

To the free breeze expand; 
Thy broad stripes proudly streaming 

And thy stars so brightly gleaming. 

They say, I would forsake thee, 

Should some dark crisis lower; 
That, recreant, I should make thee 

Crouch to a foreign power; 
Seduced by license ample, 

On thee, blest flag, to trample. 

The above are the opening stanzas of a poem written by the 
Rev. C. C. Pise, D. D., in the first half of the nineteenth century, 
to refute the slanders directed against the Catholic Church and her 
members in an age of religious bigotry. Now, as then, the world is 
filled with hatred and envy against this same Church. 

It was to be hoped that the service of Catholics might be more 
generally acknowledged and appreciated after the wonderful achieve- 
ments of members of the Catholic Church in the late world's war. 
It seems strange to say that instead of opening the eyes of the 
world, it has but roused more religious bigotry than ever, the latest 
of these bigots appearing to-day in the person of a certain American- 
born member of the nobility of England, who renounced allegiance 
to her own native land, and now, in her desire to be popular, takes 
a fling at the Church. 

It would be of the greatest benefit not only to this person but 
to aU our antagonists, to revise their study of United States history. 
They would soon see that the Catholic Church has left memorials 
and monuments of her passage in our country from the borders of 
Canada to the Southermost coast of Florida, and from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, for her children were first in discovery, first in the 
founding of Christianity, first in the liberty, and first and unanimous 
in the support of Washington. 

We read in the ritual of the Catholic Order of Foresters: "A 
good Catholic is the highest type of a citizen." How could it be 



182 PRIZE WINNING SCHOOL ESSAYS 

otherwise? Has not our Lord himself commanded us to "Render 
unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that 
are God's." Mr. C. Cummings states so beautifully in "Truth": 
' ' Who has a more genuine right to live in this, our land, in religious, 
civil and social peace, than the children of that universal Church 
whose illustrious sons, beginning with Columbus, made more than 
ninety percent of all the discoveries and explorations on this con- 
tinent?" Indeed, whether we look to the north or south, east or 
west of our grand country, we encounter as pioneers in the work of 
civilizing and Christianizing the savages the Catholic Missionary. 

With no other purpose than the glory of God and in the interest 
of humanity, these noble men left their home circles, friends and 
native countries to brave the dangers of the wilds, suffering untold 
tortures and gladly sacrificing their lives for religion and civilization. 
We mention but a few of these heroes, who, alone and unaided, laid 
the foundation of the grand edifice of civilization and Christianity 
we are so proud of to-day, namely. Fathers Breboeuf, Daniels, Jogues, 
Allouez, Lallemant, Marquette and hundreds of other equally pious 
and devoted priests. 

Archbishop Spalding says: "The annals of Catholic Missions 
alone present scenes so sublime and so touching. Philosophy may 
speculate on its inflated theories of high-sounding benevolence. 
Protestantism may boast its missionary zeal, but it is only Catholicity 
which can reclaim the savage, tame his ferocity and effectually teach 
him the arts of civilization." Reynolds writes in his "Pioneer History 
of Illinois": "The Jesuits, at this time, were the most energetic 
order of Christians in Europe. There was no country on the globe 
but the Jesuits visited and administered to the spiritual wants of 
the people. No nation of Indians was too far off, or too wild to 
deter these Missionaries from visiting. And Marquette was always 
first to do good in these missions." Parkman says: "The history 
of the Catholic Church in Chicago dates from 1674. It was on the 
occasion of Father Marquette's second trip to the Illinois country, 
that he made a stop at the site of Chicago and here solemnized the 
mysteries of his faith. More than two hundred years ago the Cath- 
olic Church consecrated the site of the present city by solemn rites 
and ceremonies of the Catholic worship." 

Of the grandest figure in missionary life. Father Marquette, 
Branchard writes in the "Discovery of the North West": "The 
memory of Father Marquette is held in reverence and admiration by 
every American, no matter before what altar he worships, or what 
form or tenet his religious creed. ' ' And Parrish writes of him : "In 



PRIZE WINNING SCHOOL ESSAYS 183 

the savage heart of a wilderness, where Marquette had labored so 
long and not for earthly reward, passed away the discoverer of the 
Illinois country, this truly heroic soldier of the Cross, in his thirty- 
ninth year. Marquette and Joliet discovered the one important fact 
underlying their early explorations, that the Mississippi beyond doubt 
discharged its mighty waters into the Gulf of Mexico." 

The glowing reports of Father Marquette and Joliet set all Canada 
on fire and swept over France, filling many daring men with a craze 
for western enterprise. Among these we find La Salle, of whom 
Illinois has ever been mindful, as well as of other Catholic explorers, 
naming countries and towns for these famous men. "Never," writes 
Parkman, ''under the impenetrable mail of paladin or crusade beat a 
heart of more intrepid metal. America owes La Salle an enduring 
memory. ' ' 

But Catholics were not only the first discoverers, explorers, and 
founders, they were also the first geologists and botanists of the 
territory within the boundaries of the present United States. They 
were the first people whose well-organized community-life became the 
foundation of colonies and later states. Reynolds says of the first 
Catholics in our own home state, Illinois: "The inhabitants were 
devoted and strong believers in the Roman Catholic Church. They 
were willing to fight and die for the maintenance of the doctrines 
of their Church, Their spiritual teachers were of sincere piety and 
religion. The people being governed by the precepts of the gospel, 
enforced by the power and influence of the Church, formed a pious 
and religious community which was the basis of the happiness of 
the people of Illinois in primitive times." 

Let us turn another leaf in the history of our country and read 
of the matchless record of Catholics in the War of the Revolution, 
the great struggle for American Independence. The colonial times 
were dark and intolerant for Catholics, as the old anti-Catholic 
prejudices were still very much alive. During the war however, the 
colonial Catholics, forgetting the many wrongs of the past, unan- 
imously supported the patriot cause. It was then that our country 
stood in need of loyalty in the masses, statesmanship in the leaders, 
money in the treasury, and fighting men in the field. Out of the 
population of three million at that time the Catholic Church counted 
not more than thirty thousand members. However, of loyalty, states- 
manship, money and men, she furnished more than her share. Nor 
did her sons distinguish themselves only in the army and navy, but 
also in council-halls and legislatures. In the day of trial the Catholic 
faith proved the grandeur of its principles. It produced no traitors, 



184 PRIZE WINNTNG SCHOOL ESSAYS 

no oppressors of their country. Authority proved that one-third 
of Washington's army were Catholics from native and foreign coun- 
tries. Before the war Catholics were barred from holding commissions 
in the army, yet many speedily rose to high positions in the Con- 
tinental army, and were among the most trusted of Washington's 
aids. Among prominent Catholic leaders in the army may be men- 
tioned, Stephen Moylan, the French Counts Lafayette and Rocham- 
beau, the noble poles Kosciusko and Pulaski, the German Barons 
Steuben and De Kalb, and the Indian Chief Orono. Stephen Moylan 
occupied, one after another, offices of trust in the American Army 
and rounded out the full measure of his service with General Greene 
in the Southern campaign at the close of the war. William Paea, 
a signer of the Declaration of Independence, held numerous political 
offices in his own state, and was a member of the State Convention 
which ratified the federal Constitution. Thomas Fitzsimmon was a 
member of the First Continental Congress, took part in the Trenton 
campaign, and was a member of the convention that framed the 
Constitution of the United States. Daniel Carroll of Maryland was 
the only other Catholic member. 

Eminent Catholics in the navy were Captain John Barry and 
Jeremiah O'Brien. Catholics who figured prominently in Congress 
were the famous Charles and Daniel Carroll, William Paca, and 
Thomas Fitzsimmon. There was an entire Catholic regiment, sons of 
Ireland, in the Pennsylvania Line. Washington's personal guard, the 
flower and choice of the army, was largely composed of Catholics. 

The Catholics of the United States, in common with their fellow- 
citizens, hailed with joy the election of George Washington as first 
President under the new Constitution. Before the inauguration, 
Bishop Carroll, on behalf of the Catholic Clergy, united with the 
representatives of the Catholic laity in an address of congratulation 
to the new President. The memorable and cordial reply of Washing- 
ton "To the Roman Catholics of the United States," was as follows: 
' ' I hope ever to see America among the foremost nations in examples 
of justice and liberality ; and I presume that your fellow-citizens will 
not forget the patriotic part which you took in the accomplishment 
of their revolution, and the establishment of their government, or 
the important assistance they received from a nation in which the 
Roman Catholic faith is professed. May the members of your 
society in America, animated alone by the pure spirit of Christianity, 
and stiU conducting themselves as the faithful subjects of our free 
government, enjoy every temporal and spiritual felicity. ' ' 



PRIZE WINNING SCHOOL ESSAYS! 185 

In the Civil War, that terrible conflict which shook, as it were, the 
very foundation of our nation, when half the country was laid waste 
and rendered desolate, the Catholic Church shed her brilliant light 
of charity through the gloom of war and at the end of the struggle 
still stood undiminished in strength and unbroken in unity, the pride 
of her children and the admiration of thousands who, before the war, 
had looked upon her progress with jealous concern. 

Let the brave Catholic generals of this dark period pass in review, 
Sheridan, Rosecrans, of whom Sheridan says: "A visitor to the city 
of Washington will find no more regular attendant at Mass than 
Rosecrans, the hero and idol of the Army of the Cumberland." 
Kearney, Mulligan, Shields, Meagher, McMahon, Thomas Cochran, and 
numerous others the mention of whom would make this essay too 
long. Let me but add one quotation of F. C. Cummings: "When 
the torch of war was blazing in hamlet and city, and the sword was 
lifted against the nation's life, they (the Catholics) registered their 
fealty in cause and country and wrote some of the noblest records 
in the annals of our land. They paid well the price that the wavering 
chances of fortune, treason, and rebellion exacted for this treasured 
heritage of freedom." 

Just to mention the Spanish-American War we merely state that 
our army and navy sent against Spain was one-third Catholic. 

Then came the W^orld's War, in which great conflict the civil 
allegiance of Catholics was everywhere demonstrated. As ever, our 
Catholics answered their country's call with the same spontaneity 
and zeal as on all previous occasions. Among men conspicuous in this 
terrific struggle, who took their religion from Rome and their civil 
allegiance from Washington are the Major-Generals J. T. Dickinson, 
Kernan, Bullard, O'Ryan, McAndres, Mclntyre, etc. The Brigadier- 
Generals Doyer, Ryan, O'Neill, Nolan, Callan, Lenihan and others. 
What war organizations equalled those of the Catholic Church? 

As a resume the Catholic Church may well say to Columbia: 

To save thy flag from slavery's stain 

When knave and traitor tried 
To rend its spangled folds in twain 

For these my children died. 
I gave thee all a sister could 

To keep that banner free. 
My love, my strength, my heart 's best blood 

Was freely poured for thee. 



186 PRIZE WINNING SCHOOL ESSAYS 

And Columbia might well respond thus: 

Above their honored graves I weep 

And bless each patriot name; 
Upon my breast embalmed they sleep 

In everlasting fame. 
The land they freed, the flag they saved 

Forget not what is due 
To those who in my hour of need 

Proved to their country true. 



Rita Freehaup. 



MISCELLANY 

EARLY ILLINOIS AND CHICAGO DOCTORS* 

Jesuit priests were the first medical practitioners in Illinois. It 
would of course be an error to call them doctors, but a knowledge 
of medicines was necessarily a part of their training for the mission- 
ary field and many of them were in fact quite proficient in medical 
knowledge and skill. Every missionary carried what he would now 
call a "first aid kit" and stocks of drugs and medicines were a 
natural and usual part of the missionary equipment. 

As has been seen by other references in this periodical, the second 
party of white men to reach Illinois contained a doctor and this same 
doctor had for a patient no less a man of distinction than the great 
missionary, Father James Marquette, S. J. Strange as it may seem 
the name of this first of the physicians of Illinois has not been found. 
That he treated Father Marquette for dyssentery within what is now 
the limits of the city of Chicago in the early months of the year 1675 
is established beyond doubt. 

There are numerous instances of the administration of remedies 
of a medical nature during the years succeeding Father Marquette 
marking the strictly missionary period which may be said to have 
extended to the end of the French regime — 1763, a review of which 
would be very interesting but would require more research than this 
writer is now prepared to devote. It is proposed here to direct 
attention to a few outstanding figures of the period immediately suc- 
ceeding the missionary era and then review the beginnings of the 
profession in Chicago. 

Leaders and Statesmen 

Without much more research than the writer has given the subject 
it would be impossible to state how many physicians were in Illinois 
at the outbreak of the Revoluutionary War but the record of one is 
written large on the pages of revolutionary history. I refer to Doctor 
Jean B. Laffont. It will be remembered that at the outbreak of the 
war the British held three important posts and some minor ones in 
the Old Northwest. These three were Kaskaskia, Vincennes and De- 
troit. There were also defenses at Cahokia and other points. The 
story of the Clark conquest is also familiar and Father Pierre Gibault 



^Prepared for the Illinois Medical Journal. 

187 



188 MISCELLANY 

is well known as the central and leading figure of this conqiiest. After 
he had firmly established Clark in Kaskaskia he proposed the im- 
mediate conquest of Vincennes and volunteered to accompany a party 
of laymen to Vincennes to wan over the inhabitants of that territory, 
suggesting Doctor Laffont as leader of the party. The story of this 
mission can best be told in the official documents and reports relating 
to it. After Father Gibault's suggestions Colonel Clark selected the 
party and gave Dr. Laffont the following commission: 

"Fort Clark, 14 July, 1778. 
Sir: 

Having the good fortune to find two men like M. Gibault and 
yourself to carry and to present my address to the inhabitants of the 
Post Vincennes, I do not doubt that they will become good citizens 
and friends of the states. Please disabuse them as much as it is 
possible to do, and in case they accept the proposition made to them, 
you will assure them that proper attention will be paid to rendering 
their commerce beneficial and advantageous ; but in case these people 
will not accede to offers so reasonable as those which I make them, 
they may expect to feel the miseries of a war under the direction of 
the humanity which has so far distinguished Americans. If they be- 
come citizens you will cause them to elect a commander from among 
themselves, raise a company and take possession of the fort and the 
munitions of the King, and defend the inhabitants until a greater 
force can be sent there. (My address will serve as a commission.) 
The inhabitants will furnish victuals for the garrison which will be 
paid for. The inhabitants and merchants will trade with the savages 
as customray but it is necessary that their influence tend towards 
peace, as by their influence they will be able to save much innocent 
blood on both sides. You will act in concert with the priest, who I 
hope will prepare the inhabitants to grant your demands. If it is 
necessary to grant presents to the savages, you will have the kindness 
to furnish what shall be necessary provided that it shall not exceed 
the sum of 200 piastres. 

I am Sir, respectfully your very humble and very obedient servant, 

G. R. Clark. 

To Jean B. Laffont, July 14, 1778. 

In accordance with the arrangement the journey of one hundred 
and fifty miles was made on horseback and amongst the numerous 
accounts of the embassy and its mission that of Ezra Mattingly in the 
Magazine of Western History is here reproduced: 

"A priest. Father Gibault, volunteered to secure Vincennes. His 
services being accepted, he left, accompanied by Moses Henry, Indian 
agent, and Doctor Laffont. Father Gibault tall?;ed to the leading 
citizens as he visited them in his official capacity (as pastor) and 
finding them ready to revolt, he soon laid his plans for capture. On 
Sunday, August 6, 1778 the people went to church. Services being 



MISCELLANY 189 

over, Francis Bosseron, a French merchant, arose and asked the priest 
for information concerning Clark and his conduct and intentions. 
The reply showed that he would soon appear before Vincennes able 
to conquer it. Prospect of war was decisive; a proposition that 
Vincennes declare itself for America was unanimously accepted and 
Doctor Laffont administered the oath to the congregation. The people 
marched to the fort, which was at once surrendered by its commander, 
St. Marie, who was glad to do so and in a few days the stars and 
stripes first floated in the winds that blow over the great State of 
Indiana. The flag was made by Madam Coddan of Vincennes, on 
order of Francis Bosseron, for which she received ten livres, and 
was hoisted August 8th, 1778." 

•The unqualified allegiance of the white inhabitants being secured 
the next requisite was the conciliation of the Indians. Clark in his 
reports to the government of Virginia tells how this was done : 

"The Grand Couette (Chief of the tribes along the Wabash), re- 
ceived a spirited compliment from Father Gibault, who was much 
liked by the Indians, * * * and the Big Door returned the compliment 
which was soon followed by a 'talk' and a belt of wampum." 

In agreement with the ''talk" sealed by the belt of wampum the 
great chief remained faithful to the American cause and became the 
ally of the Americans to very great purpose. Had it not been for 
his fidelity history might have to be written in other way. 

Returning to Kaskaskia Father Gibault made a full report of 
proceedings and to keep the record straight directed Doctor Laffont 
to prepare and sign a document as follows: 

Kaskaskia, August 7, 1778. 

' ' I cannot but approve that which Mr. Gibault said in the contents 
of his journal (even) if he did omit some historical truths which 
might have been worthy of narration. What he said is pure truth. 
All that he has begged me to add and which he will tell you and 
asked me to present and which he forgot is, that in all civil affairs, 
not only with the French but with the savages, he meddled with 
nothing, because he was not ordered to do so and it was opposed to 
his priestly vocation; and that I alone had the direction of affairs, 
he having confined himself toward both (the whites and the Indians), 
solely to exhortation tending toward peace and union and to the 
prevention of bloodshed; and so, Sir, for the temporal affairs with 
which I alone was entrusted, I hope to derive from it all possible 
satisfaction, for I acted in all things with inviolable integrity. My 
zeal and my sincerity persuade me, that you will have Sir, the kind- 
ness to accept the good wishes which I have the honor to offer you, 
and believe me, with a most respectful regard. Sir, 
Your very humble and obedient servant, 

Laffont. 

Kaskaskia, August 7, 1778. 



190 MISCELLANY 

With this modest letter Jean Baptist Laffont, medical practitioner 
in Illinois before and during the Revolutionary War makes his bow 
to history and so far as I have seen is not again mentioned. Like 
his noble pastor and mentor, Father Gibault, he has never received 
the slightest honor or reward, publicly or privately, and like the great 
patriot priest even his grave is unknown. The achievements of these 
few men resulted in the northern boundary of our country being 
fixed at the great lakes instead of at the Ohio river, when the treaty 
was signed, thus gaining for America all the territory embraced in 
the great sovereign states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and 
Wisconsin. 

Were I physician I would never rest content until this worthy 
doctor of Revolutionary fame was suitably memorialized and his 
memory rescued from oblivion. 

Leading the Statehood Movement 

As a result of the conquest just described the territory of the 
Northwest was formed in time and under the famous Ordinance of 
1787 the inhabitants of Illinois were made subject to the government 
of that territory the seat of which was located at St. Marys, Ohio, 
although that region was not settled for one hundred years after 
Illinois. In turn the Territorj^ of Indiana was created and Illinois 
was made the tail of the Indiana Kite. In 1809 the Territory of 
Illinois was finally created and governed as a territory. Patriotic men 
who had long dwelt in Illinois, the oldest part of all the Northwest 
Territory, were impatient for self-government and many of the most 
worthy were eager to suppress the slavery evil that existed in the 
face of the inhibitions of the Ordinance of 1787. Amongst the most 
effective of such men was Doctor William Bradsby. In the Territorial 
legislature he was the father of the bill introduced to repeal the in- 
denture laws that had been enacted for the purpose of evading the 
XJrovisions forbidding slavery and he was a signer of the famous ad- 
dress against slavery that was the forerunner of all the antislavery 
agitation. Hark back now to Abraham Lincoln, and back to Owen 
Lovejoy and back farther to Edward Coles, all honored as the great 
abolitionists ; but fifty years before Lincoln and Lovejoy and twenty- 
five years before Coles was William Bradsby, M. D., the uncomprom- 
ising foe of slavery. His record of patriotism and statesmanship 
does not conclude with his splendid anti-slavery work. He is for 
Illinois, self-governed, independent and a sovereign State of the Union. 
Accordingly, without heeding longer the cries for delay or the strong 



MISCELLANY 191 

opposition he introduced and pressed the resolution which made 
Illinois a State. 

Now, who has heard of Dr. Bradsby? It is quite probable that 
no reader of this journal ever heard his name pronounced nor ever 
saw it in print. Bradsby was of Irish extraction. His sterling old 
father of the same name was settled in Illinois before the Revolu- 
tionary War and young Bradsby started his career as a school teacher. 
No man of early Illinois stood higher in the estimation of his con- 
temporaries and but few have to their credit as many meritorious 
achievements. 

I mention here but two illustrious pioneers of the medical pro- 
fession. There were many others. 

Joseph J, Thompson. 
Chicago. 



DIAMOND JUBILEE OF REV. CONSTANTINE J. LAGAE, S. J. 

1864 - 1924 

To a few it is given to spend fifty years in the service of the altar 
and be granted the blessed privilege of celebrating a golden jubilee, 
but it is rare that a religious lives to greet the diamond da^vn of a 
day that marks the sixtieth year of a life of consecrated self immola- 
tion. In Holy Family Church, on Sunday, September 28, Rev. Con- 
stantine J. Lagae, S. J., celebrated the diamond jubilee of his entrance 
into the Society of Jesus. The venerable Jubilarian was born at 
Roulers in Belgium on January 12, 1841, and made his early studies 
there. Twenty-three years later he entered the Jesuit Novitiate at 
Tronchiennes. When the great Indian missionary, Father DeSmet, 
went to Belgium seeking recruits for the American missions, the 
young novice eagerly offered himself for the work; he came to the 
United States with Father DeSmet and was sent to Florissant, Mis- 
souri, where he spent three years completing his novitiate training 
and preparing himself for teaching, in the Jesuit Normal School. 
Thence he went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and took up the duties of Pro- 
fessor in St. Xavier's College. In 1870 he went to Woodstock, Mary- 
land, to study Philosophy and Theology and in 1875 was ordained to 
the Priesthood. From 1877 to 1879 he was engaged in the duties of 
teaching and of the ministry and in 1880 was made a member of 
Father Damen's mission band. He spent five arduous years on the 
missions and is remembered still by many as an impressive and zealous 



192 MISCELLANY 

preacher. From 1885 and 1894 he was one of the pastors of Holy 
Family Church and while here directed the Married Ladies' Sodality, 
running its membership up close to the three thousand mark, and 
setting a standard of a sodality that has never been excelled. From 
1895 to 1896 he was pastor of Holy Family Church, Omaha, and 
from there he was sent to St. Charles, IVIissouri, where for fourteen 
years, he labored as pastor of St. Charles Church. He returned to 
Holy Family Church in 1911, where his genial priestliness is stiU a 
telling factor in the parish. Father Lagae would resent fulsome 
praise ; he has spent sixty diamond years in the service of the Master 
solely for love of Him knowing that He who seeth in secret will re- 
ward him, hence would take no pleasure in words of human com- 
mendation, so we hope and pray that God may grant him many 
years among us, years like the past that have been rich in the example 
of a saintly priest and faithful religious. 




CALVIN COOLIDGE 

President of the United States 

In Tkibute to Father Marquette 



To tlie tlioiiylitfulncss of a Chicago friend I am indebted for the 
renunder that on this day 250 years ago, Father Marquette and his com- 
panions began to erect the first hat to be used by white men on the site 
of what is now Chicago. I like to think of that as the founding of 
Chicago. I like to feel that this great city owes its lieginning to the 
master explorer who was first a devout missionary of religion. 

I am glad to turn aside here to add my little part to the tribute 
which the city is today paying to the memory of Marquette. Of the 
men who laid the foundations of our country he deserves his place among 
the foremost. His published articles and letters give, I believe, the 
earlist prophecies of the destiny that awaited this central valley of the 
vast lakes and rivers. 

You i^eople of the Chicago empire have built into the solid structure 
of accomplishment the things which lie a quarter of a millenium ago 
saw with the clearness and faith of prophecy. 

[From Presidents' address at luucheon of Chicago Commercial Club 
at the Drake Hotel, Chicago, December dth, 1924.] 



OFFICE OF THE MAYOR, CITY OF CHICAGO 
William E. Dever, Mayor 

PROCLAMATION 

WHEREAS, The City Council of the City of Chicago at 
its regular assembly on the 3rd day of December, 1924, unan- 
imously adopted the following preamble and resolutions: 

"TO THE HONORABLE THE MAYOR AND CITY COUNCIL OF 
THE CITY OF CHICAGO 

WHEREAS, the fourth day of December, 1924, marks the two-liun- 
dred and fiftieth anniversay of the commencement of the residence of 
the first white men on the site of the city of Chicago, and 

WHEREAS, Rev. James Marquette, S. J., recorded in his journal, 
written in the years 167-4 and 1675, under date of December 4th and 
later dates the following- facts: 

'Dec. 4. We reached the river of the Portage (Chicago River) which 
was frozen to the depth of one-half foot'" ■. 

Dec. 12. We began yesterday to haul our baggage in order to ap- 
proach the portage-'**. During our stay at the entrance of the river, 
Pierre and Jacques killed three cattle and four deer***. We contented 
ourselves with killing three or four turkeys out of the many that came 
around our cabin***. 

Dec. 14. Having encamped near the Portage, two leagues up the 
river, -ne resolved to winter there. 

Mar. 30. My illness did not prevent me from practicing religious 
devotions every day. 

Mar. 31. We started yesterday and traveled three leagues up the 
river***.' And, 

WHEREAS, this residence of the first white men is one of the most 
important events in the history of Chicago, making known as it did the 
site which was to be the future metropolis, and 

WHEREAS, the residence of Father Marquette was not only the first 
hal)itation of white men but also the first place of Christian -worship on 
soil which became the site of Chicago, therefore 

BE IT RESOLVED, by the City Council of the City of Chicago, 
the Mayor concurring herein, that in honor of the memory of James 
Marquette and in commemoration of his sojourn on the site of Chicago 
and his religious ministration here, that the fourth day of December 
be and the same is hereby named and designated as ' Marquette Day, ' 
and that suitable ceremonies and exercises be and are hereby recom- 
mended for that day as a commemoration of the signal events of 
Chicago 's beginnings. ' ' 

(Resolution adopted by the City Council, -.December 3, 1924. Edward J. 
Padden, Chief Clerk.) 

Accordingly by virtue of the power and authority vested 
in me as Mayor of the City of Chicago, I hereby proclaim the 
4th day of December in each year as "Marquette Day" to 
be observed and celebrated in accordance with the terms of 
the foregoing preamble and resolutions so adopted by the 
City Council of Chicago. 

Done at the office of the Mayor, in the City of Chicago, 
this 4th day of December, 1924. 

(Signed) William E. Dever, 

Mayor. 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical 

Review 

Volume VII JANUARY, 1925 Number 3 



(Sllmub tolfaltc ^tstortcal ^omtg 

617 ASHLAND BLOCK, CHICAGO 



HONORARY PRESIDENTS 

His Eminence George Cardinal Mundelein, Chicago 

Rt. Rev. Peter J. Muldoon, D. D., Rockford Rt. Rev. Henry Althoff, D. D., Belleville 

Rt. Rev. Edmund M. Dunne, D. D., Peoria Rt. Rev. James A. Griffin, D. D., Springfield 

OFFICERS 

President Financial Secretaby 

Rev. Frederic Siedenburg, S. J., Chicago Francis J. Rooney, Chicago 
First Vice-President 

Rt. Rev. F. A. Purcell, Chicago Recording Secretaet 

Second Vice-President Margaret Madden, Chicago 
James M. Graham, Springfield 

Treasurer Archivist 
John P. V. Murphy, Chicago Rev. Joseph P. Morrison, Chicago 

TRUSTEES 

Rt. Rev. J. W. Melody, Chicago Michael F. Girten, Chicago 
Very Rev. James Shannon, Peoria James A. Bray, Joliet 

Rev. William H. Agnew, S. J., Chicago Frank J. Seng, Wilmette 

Mrs. Daniel V. Gallery, Chicago Mrs. E. I. Cudahy, Chicago 

D. F. Bremner, Chicago Edward Houlihan, Chicago 



^Iltnots fliatljoltc ^tstorical ^^6te6i 

Journal of the Illinois Catholic Historical Society 
617 Ashland Block, Chicago 

EDITORS 

Joseph J. Thompson, William Stetson Merrill 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Rev. Frederick Beuckman Belleville Kate Meade Chicago 

Rev. J. B. Culemans Moline Rev. Francis J. Epstein Chicago 



Published by 

The Illinois Catholic Historical Society 

Chicago, III. 



CONTENTS 



250th Anniversary of the Arrival and Sojourn of Father 

Marquette on the Site of Chicago 195 

Sermon at the Pontifical Mass 

Bev. James J. Merts, S J. 198 

Persons and Places Associated with Histort of Father Marquette 

Joseph J Thompson, LL, D. 203 

An Artist's View of Father Marquette 

Thomas A. O'Shaughnessy 210 

The Temporal and Spiritual Work of Father Marquette 

Eon. William E. Dever, Mayor of Chicago 211 

Marquette and Illinois 

Eon. Quin O'Brien 212 

The Spirit of Marquette 

Bev. Eerbert C. Noonan, S.J. 221 

250th Anniversary History of Illinois 

Joseph J. Thompson, LL. D. 227 

Story of the Chicago Portage 

Lucius M. Zeuch, M. D. 276 

Editorial Comment 280 

Gleanings from Current Periodicals . 284 



LOYOLA university PRESS 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

194 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical Review 



Volume VII JANUARY, 1925 Number 3 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH ANNI- 
VERSARY OF THE ARRIVAL AND 
SOJOURN OF FATHER MARQUETTE 
ON THE SITE OF CHICAGO 

The second of the Marquette anniversaries was appropriately ob- 
served during December, 1924. The first anniversary was observed 
during 1923. To be explicit, especially for the benefit of those who 
have not been following the historical sequence it may be stated that 
in the year 1673 Father Marquette with Louis Jolliet made a voyage 
of discovery down the Mississippi, and up the Illinois River. That 
was two hundred and fifty years ago in 1923. Father Marquette 
made another journey into the "Illinois Country" in 1674. That was 
two hundred and fifty years ago in 1924. There is a third anniversary 
approaching. Father Marquette established the Church in Illinois 
on the eleventh of April, 1675. That will be two hundred and fifty 
years ago on the eleventh of April, 1925. The observance of the 
first of these three significant anniversaries has been described in the 
columns of former numbers of the Illinois Catholic Historical 
Review. This number deals extensively with the observance of the 
second anniversary and a future number will deal with the third 
which will take place during the year 1925. 

Observance at the Boulevard Bridge 

The first Marquette observance in Chicago in the order of time 
was centered at the Michigan Boulevard bridge over the Chicago 
River, familiarly known as the "Link" bridge. 

195 



196 250th anniversary of marquette's arrival at Chicago 

The view from the high bridge is one of the most pleasing in 
the city. Looking toward the East one sees the broad sweep of the 
river as the channel was cut by the soldiers of the Fort Dearborn 
garrison in 1824 and far out into Lake Michigan. To the westward 
the view of the river is clear as far as the forks or branching place. 

Father Marquette in the Fall of 1673 and again on the eleventh 
of December, 1674, passed by this point, so that an observance or 
memorial here or indeed at any point on the main Chicago River or 
on the south branch thereof would be appropriate. 

The City Council adopted resolutions endorsing the observance of 
the 4th of December as the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of 
the landing of Father Marquette on the site of Chicago and directed 
the Building Department to construct a hut in imitation of that in 
which Father Marquette dwelt on the Chicago river. The hut was 
built and exercises were held near it which the Chicago Daily News 
of December 4, 1924, described as follows: 

Clad in the coonskin caps and leathern clothing of the early pioneer, 
three men paddled a long Indian canoe up the Chicago Kiver this afternoon, 
landed at the Wrigley building, and were met by a solemn group of Chica- 
goans attired in the garb of redskins of years gone by. 

The affair was the re-enactment of the landing of Father Marquette on 
his second visit to Illinois 250 years ago. The feature of the event was the 
unveiling of a replica of the tiny hut, Chicago's first structure, in which the 
Jesuit priest-explorer from France spent his winter here. 

Arrangements had called for President Coolidge to carry the role of the 
chief of the Illini tribes and until noon it was believed that he would be 
the first to clasp the hand of the "explorer," but members of his party 
deemed it wiser that the executive spend the time resting rather than ex- 
posing himself in the damp, chill weather with hours of entertainment still 
to come. 

David Bremner of Loyola University took the part of Pere Marquette. 
With him in the little craft were Vincent Smith, president of the Chicago 
Yacht Club, and Maries Miner, noted sculler and water craftsman. 

The observance was participated in by the Chicago Historical So- 
ciety, The Chicago Commercial Asosciation, the Benevolent and Pro- 
tective Order of Elks and other associations and individuals. Mr. 
Thomas A. O 'Shaughnessy was active in the promotion of the ob- 
servance. 

President Coolidge, who came to the city on that day to address 
the Commercial Club at the Drake Hotel, had intended to make a 
halt at the place and give a brief addresss, but on account of the 
inclemency of the weather he stopped just long enough to commend 
the picturesque replica of Father Marquette's hut, and to say that 



250th anniversary of MARQUETTE's arrival at CHICAGO 197 

he had paid his tribute to the great apostle and explorer in his address 
before the Commercial Club. 

That the ceremonies on the plaza might be sponsored by represen- 
tative groups of men, Mr. O 'Shaughnessy secured the co-operation of 
the Chicago Lodge of the Order of Elks, notably the Exalted Ruler, 
Francis Sullivan who, in turn, interested the Mayor, His Honor Wm. 
E. Dever. Wm. Sinek and Samuel Rosenthal together with Mr. 
O 'Shaughnessy formed the Executive Committee. 

At the suggestion of the Mayor the City Council appointed a 
Committee of three hundred to join with the Association of Commerce 
in promoting the celebration. A summary of the story of Father 
Marquette's accomplishments and an outline of the celebration was 
sent to President Coolidge by Wm. E. Dawes, President of the Asso- 
ciation of Commerce, and this formed the theme of the President's 
high eulogy at the Commercial Club. 

At the plaza celebration, Mayor Dever was the principal speaker. 
He made an appeal for the fulfillment of Father Marquette 's promise 
that the route along which he made his journey would one day become 
the great waterway from the Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. 

A pictureful feature of the celebration, also suggested by ]\Ir. 
'Shaughnessy, who, incidentally, is an ecclesiastical artist, was the 
re-enacting by the students of the Loyola University of the first land- 
ing of Father Marquette. The Lincoln Park Boat Club supplied the 
canoes, and trees and tangled underbrush set off the replica of the 
little hut-chapel of Father Marquette, in which he celebrated the first 
Mass in Chicago. 

Mention must also be made of the Commissioner of Public Works, 
John J. Sloan, City Architect, Charles Kalal, Miss Lida Thomas, Sec- 
retary of the Lincoln Park Commissioners; D. F. Kelly and Reverend 
Joseph Reiner, S. J., of Loyola University. The students of Loyola 
University who re-enacted the pageant of Father Marquette's land- 
ing were: 

Father Mkrquette Edward Bremner 

and his companions the following: 
John C. Duffy, John A. Conley, Henry Remien, John Simon- 
aitis, John Lane, Felix Vamiara, Peter Stanul, Joseph To- 
varek, William Colohan, Harry Erts, Anthony Belb. 

The Archdiocesan Observance 

The official church observance was held by direction of Cardinal 
Mundelein at St. Ignatius (Jesuit) Church, Loyola and Glen wood 



198 250th anniversary of Marquette's arrival at Chicago 

Avenues, Chicago, at eleven o'clock A, M., Sunday, December 7, 
1924, and consisted of a Solemn Pontifical Mass and a special sermon. 
Rev. William H. Agnew, S. J., President of Loyola University, was 
celebrant. Rev. Joseph Reiner, S. J., Dean of Loyola University, was 
deacon, and Rev. Walter M. Seymour, S. J., Loyola Academy, was 
subdeacon. Rev. James J. Mertz, S. J., Professor of the Classics, 
Loyola University, preached the panegyric on Marquette. The follow- 
ing were in the sanctuary : Right Reverend Edward F. Hoban, D. D., 
V. G., Auxiliary Bishop, Right Reverend Monsignor T. A. Keams, 
Right Reverend Monsignor Edward J. Fox, Rev. T. F. Farrell and 
Rev. Vincent L. Jenneman, S. J., Rev. James F. Walsh, S. J., and 
Rev. Walter G. Cornell, S. J., acted as chaplains to His Lordship, 
Bishop Hoban. 

Mayor William E. Dever and Mrs. Dever and many others prom- 
inent in the civic and business life of Chicago were present. The 
large church was filled to its capacity. At the conclusion of the 
Solemn High Mass Father Mertz spoke as follows: 

Sermon at Pontifical Mass in Celebration of the Father 
MAiiQUETTE Anniversary 
Rt. Rev. Bishop, Rt. Rev. Monsignori, Reverend Fathers, 
Dearly Beloved: 
(Father Mertz read President Coolidge's tribute. See frontispiece.) 
These were the first words spoken to the citizens of Chicago by 
the first man of the land, President Coolidge, on the occasion of his 
recent visit to our city. They bring back the memory of a scene of 
long ago, when the first white man, built the first hut on the banks 
of the Chicago river. That first white man was James Marquette, 
the Jesuit priest and missionary of the new world. His was the 
heart of an apostle, his the soul of an intrepid warrior, his the vision 
and the enthusiasm which sent him forth from his own home city 
of Laon in France to consecrate him, and not only him, but all who 
were to follow in the coming years, to the cause of Christ and His 
Church, under a flag that stands in the storm, dust and shock of 
battle, these last nineteen hundred years and more — the cross, ele- 
vated on Calvary. This is the theme of today's celebration, far too 
grand to be grasped in a few moments of thought and feeble words 
of man, and yet so inspirational, that we men and women, who live 
in the great city of the West, "in this valley of great lakes and 
rivers," must stop and think whether "we are really building into 
the solid structure of accomplishment ' ' the virtues of one of the coun- 
try 's greatest heroes — the priest, missionary and explorer — Jacques 
Marquette of the Society of Jesus. 



250th anniversary of MARQUETTE's arrival at CHICAGO 199 

Back in the pages of past and perhaps forgotten history, we find 
the lad, who was born on June 1, 1637, growing up amid the sur- 
roundings of chivalry, hearing from his father the stories of the val- 
orous deeds of his} ancestors in behalf of king and country, and from 
his mother the quieter heroism of love for God and loyalty to the 
Faith of Christ. These were the virtues bom in the breast of the 
young man who dreamed of big things on the field of battle for 
country and greater things for God. His warrior blood longed for 
the fray, his loyal heart for action and on his 17th birthday, he 
bade farewell to Laon, to answer the call of God, ' ' Come follow Me. ' ' 
Early had he heard of his champion and become acquainted with his 
ideal — Ignatius the knight, Ignatius the loyal, who had been laid 
low at Pampoluna and in apparent defeat had conquered himself 
and hod bowed his head to the King of kings. Ignatius had become 
the founder of a militant group, the skirmish line of Christ's cause. 
This company Marquette had joined. His first years in this order 
of soldiers, were years of prayer, years of study and teaching and 
always years of longing, as he heard of the deeds of his own brethren 
in religion — the heroic Jogues, the strong Brebouf, the Ajax of the 
missions, as heroic and courageous as any Christian in the Coliseum 
or any Crusader under the walls of Jerusalem, — and most of all of 
the great apostle of the Indies, the man of firm and noble soul, Francis 
Xavier. 

Tliis longing for the field far off across the sea in New France 
was satisfied when the command of his general sent the young soldier 
of 29 on the long sea voyage of three to four months to the Quebec, 
the soldier knew from the letters of his fellow soldier Jesuits. 

We will not delay speaking of his sojourn in Quebec. We will 
not picture him saying Mass for the packed congregation of woods- 
men, French soldiery, and savages. There is no dread in his heart 
of bravery, the heritage of the brave father and mother back in 
France. We will not follow him to his first mission at Three Rivers 
or Montreal to wait till he could go to the Ottawa country, at the 
Sault Ste Marie. His long trip, the toil, famine, ill treatment, the 
precious portions of the missions, the poverty and mortification — all 
these features of his hard life we will not mention, but they were 
preparing him for his real life work the evangelization of a new 
people, the Illinois. 

War had broken out between the Ottawas and Hurons and the 
Dakotas, a Sioux tribe. The Hurons determined to leave for other 
homes and Marquette went along to the island of Mackinac, to the 
mission of St. Ignace. It brought the missionary into lands which 



200 250th anniversary of Marquette's arrival at Chicago 

we to-day call our own. All along there was one thought in his 
mind, one ambition yet to be fulfilled, and always did he pray to 
the Immaculate Mother for an opportunity to discover and explore 
the mysterious river — an event for which every Frenchman was eager. 
On the eighth of December the commission came to seek the river 
and Louis Jolliet and Marquette waited the long winter, and pre- 
pared for the journey. On the 17th of May the long trip down 
Green Bay into the Fox River began. They portaged into the Wis- 
consin, and on the 17th of June they shot their canoes out on the 
heaving waters of the Mississippi. They were in a new country 
which was to be dedicated to God. Down to the Arkansas they pad- 
dled and then back by means of guides they came to the country of 
the friendly Illinois. Sickness and weariness could not stay him. 
The long trip North to his home mission was made and once more 
he determined to go back and found a mission in honor of the Im- 
maculate One. All summer long he waited and prayed for strength. 
He set out again in the fall and reached the site of Chicago Decem- 
ber 4th. The winter months he spent on the Chicago river. The 
spring brought him down to Kaskaskia and here his last work was 
to be done. Here the frail black-robe spoke of God — spoke to nature 's 
children — spoke in nature's church. The savages knew and recog- 
nized courage. They saw the young man torn by suffering, they saw 
him braver than any of their chiefs. They knew he had come for 
them, had learned their language, endured their insults, shared their 
lives, their feasts, their funerals. They knew he had done it all for 
the cause of the Great Chief. They begged him to stay and he estab- 
lished the first mission in the state of Illinois — the mission of the 
Immaculate Conception — And then once more he was off to give a re- 
port — but the frame was tired, the soldier had fought his fight and 
the great Captain Christ was calling. This time it was not to battle, 
but to victory. What mattered it how young he was or where — he 
was only 38 years of age — a life 's ambition had been realized. It was 
Saturday, the 18th of May, 1675. 

We admire his life and we draw inspiration from his work. He 
stands closer to us than we seem to realize, but to make the great 
Marquette a living reality and an example in our everyday life, this 
is more important than sounding his praises in reading aloud the 
open pages of the history he has made and written. And that more 
perfect reality of Marquette in our lives in this, the 20th century, 250 
years after he lived his own prophetic life of determination which the 
great city of Chicago has in her motto— ''I will"— that more perfect 
reality is to live a life fully attuned to those virtues he practiced and 




HON. WILLIAM E. DEVER 

Mayor op Chicago 

AVho participated otiicially and personally in all the Marquette 
Day observances and proclaimed December 4:th, Marquette Day. 




HON. ROSS A. WOODHULL 



Alderman from Seventh Waad, Chairniau of Finance Committee 

and Floor Leader of City Council who introduced resolution 

making December -ith Marquette day. 



250th anniversary of Marquette's arrival at Chicago 201 

which gave him the enthusiasm to dare and do all he has accomplished 
for this, our own Middle West. 

And these virtues characteristic of his life were two great loves. 
An all embracing love of men which drew its strength from his all 
consuming love of God. To him the present was but the opportunity 
of doing good and preparing for the future. It was the chance to 
build a kingdom, not of worldly pomp and splendor and magnificence, 
which too often are but the trappings concealing the germs of unrest 
and decay— it was to build a kingdom which would be happy under 
the flag he loved, but a nation dedicated to the principles of Christ. 
The flag of France has long since stopped waving over this central 
territory, but the standard of Christ rises aloft over the kingdom of 
Christ established on the banks of the Lake of Illinois and the great 
Conception river, the Mississippi. A nation of men and women who 
must live true to his vision if they are to be happy and to make 
right use of the heritage Marquette has left. Our nation and we its 
members must ever realize that greatness consists not so much in 
material wealth and prosperity, but in spiritual poise and balance and 
surrender to the Christ and His principles which the great Marquette 
came to preach. 

And this will mean another kingdom in the heart of every one. 
The young missionary 250 years ago evangelized the individual. He 
took the chief of the tribe and made him realize that true greatness is 
not hatred of enemies but love and forgiveness, is not lust for blood 
and the lust of the flesh but meekness and purity; he took the 
squaw and gave her a place in the heart of the brave, he took 
the children swarming in the villages and taught them the virtues 
of obedience and truthfulness, and love for father and mother. In 
simple words, he taught the dignity of the family and home life, 
the doctrine of conjugal love and fidelity, the union of hearts and 
wills. This is Marquette's work, this is our work if we love the 
pioneer builder of our own glorious city. Only by living good lives, 
"soberly and justly and godly," as the greatest of all pioneer priests 
and missionaries, St. Paul, says — will we pay our respects and return 
our thanks to the first white man of Chicago. Only by coming back 
and keeping the principles of holy home life will we build and accom- 
plish things. 

And once again. The mission Marquette founded in this state of 
Illinois was the mission of the Immaculate Conception . . . be- 
cause the second great love in the heart of Marquette was the love 
of the ]\Iother of God. To her he prayed, for her he toiled and fought, 
like the gallant knight he was, fighting for his lady love and the 



202 250th anniversary of marquette's arrival at Chicago 

cause of her Son. This is our mission also — A dedication of our lives 
to that same Queen, whose greatest feast of all we celebrate tomorrow, 
under the title of Her Immaculate Conception. It is for us, then, in 
imitation of ]\Iarquette, to purify the love of our hearts by dedicating 
them to the Immaculate One, to whom these United States have long 
years ago been dedicated. It is for us to carry out in our every-day 
life those beautiful virtues of prayer and humility and submission to 
the will of God, faith and hope and love which make our Lady the 
inspiration of young and old, of men and women of every nation and 
clime and belief. It is for us citizens of Chicago to dedicate monu- 
ments to the great Marquette, monuments, indeed, not of marble and 
bronze, but monuments of hearts of courage and strong determina- 
tion to take our lives out of the commonplace and elevate them to 
something grand and noble and sublime and supernatural, by making 
them spiritual as Marquette's life was. 

This is the story of Marquette. Our own lives must be the pane- 
gyrics of the man who wrote the introduction of Christianity in this 
central valley. The early black-robe was the builder of an empire 
for Christ, an empire of religion which has grown so great here in 
Chicago. The early black-robe has not disappeared. He is still 
amongst us. He is in our churches, in our confessionals, at our altars, 
in our homes ; he is with us from birth to death ; in life and death he 
still ministers to our needs and comforts us in our sorrows. But the 
impress of that terrible self-denial which stripped Marquette of every- 
thing, even of his very life for the sake of this our own country, will 
demand on our part, of priest and people, a self-denial, if not of life, 
then at least of detachment from the things of this world and of 
attachment to things of God, the love of our faith and of our country 
and our city which was discovered and evangelized by the priest, 
the missionary, the explorer, the man of faith, the saintly Jacques 
Marquette of the Society of Jesus. 

James J. Mertz, S. J., 
Loyola University, Chicago. 

Observance Under the Auspices of the Illinois Catholic His- 
torical Society 

The civic observance was held under the auspices of the Illinois 
Catholic Historical Society in the assembly hall of the Quigley Pre- 
paratory Seminary on Sunday, December 7, 1924, at 8 o'clock P. M. 

Although the weather conditions were very unfavorable the hall 
vvas filled with highly representative men and women of all races and 
creeds. The meeting was presided over by Rev. Frederic Siedenburg, 



250th anniversary of MARQUETTE's arrival at CHICAGO 203 

S. J., President of the Society who delivered a brief introductory 
address and introduced the speakers, in accordance with the pre- 
arranged program. 

Right Reverend Monsignor Francis J. Purcell, D. D., invoked 
Divine blessings upon the assemblage after which Joseph J. Thomp- 
son, LL. D., editor of the Illinois Catholic Historical Review, 
was introduced and spoke as follows: 

Address of Joseph J. Thompson, LL. D. 

Editor, Illinois Catholic Historical Review 

Reverend President, Reverend Clergy, Mr. Mayor, Ladies and Gen- 
tlemen : 

I wish, for just a moment, to direct my remarks to the memory of 
Father Marquette, and thon to state the relationship of the University 
of St. Mary of the Lake as it has been re-established by our dis- 
tinguished spiritual leader. Cardinal Mundelein, to the visit and so- 
journ of Father Marquette to what has become Chicago. 

Two hundred and fifty years — a long span measured by individual 
lives — a long period to wait for due recognition of an heroic historical 
personage. Although Father I\Iarquette wrote complete reports of his 
journeys in our region, which were sent to his superiors in this and 
the home country, yet nearly two hundred years passed before the 
significance of such accounts was recognized. You will remember that 
the originals of Father Marquette's journals were deposited in the 
Convent of St. Mary in jMontreal, and there they reposed until the 
scholar and historian, John Gilmary Shea, discovered them, and trans- 
lating them from the French in which they were written, published 
them in English in 1858. 

Other historians caught their significance and were inspired by 
them. The first of these, at least in importance, was the renowned 
Francis Parkman, who gave us the wealth of historical literature with 
which we are familiar. His contemporary was Jared Sparks, who was 
a veritable devotee of Father Marquette. Succeeding Shea and Park- 
man and Sparks came the historian and great compiler, Rheuben Gold 
Thwaites, who, taking inspiration from Shea's Cramoise publications, 
gave the world the monumental Jesuit Relations, and thereby fixed 
the foundations of American history for Canada and all the region 
lying between the Alleghenies and the Rocky Mountains. 

Even before the Thv/aites translations were available, however, 
there were delvers into the lore of the past who, their available ma- 
terials considered, gave good accounts of Marquette and the early 



204 250th anniversary of marquette's arrival at Chicago 

missionaries and explorers. Amongst these and perhaps the most ac- 
curate of them was the revered (especially by all Illinois lawyers) 
judge of the Supreme Court, Sydney Breese. Nor may the rugged 
old Irishman, Governor Reynolds, be despised in this respect. 

As time passed, others learned to admire the gentle priest, and 
more than fifty years ago Col. Thomas M. Hoyne, elected mayor of 
Chicago, publicly urged the erection of a monument to Father Mar- 
quette by the citizens of Chicago in recognition of priority of resi- 
dence upon the site of the city, as well as in honor of his lofty mis- 
sion and character. Our best historians, Alvord and Quaife and 
Fathers Garraghan and Kenny, are devoted to Father Marquette and 
have dwelt upon his character and accomplishments. 

Indeed, we have almost a cult of local devotees of the saintly mis- 
sionary, who have made his career the basis of painstaking labor and 
research. The first amongst historians in our midst, but too renowned 
to be too particularly localized, is Doctor Otto L. Schmidt, not alone 
our fellow worker here, but the nestor of historians of Illinois — ^the 
sponsor of all worthy historical works in all the state. When any- 
thing of an historical nature is to be done, Dr. Schmidt is looked to 
lead the movement. 

More than twenty years ago the question of the exact location of 
the more permanent abode of Father Marquette whUe in our imme- 
diate neighborhood was discussed, and amongst the many who took a 
deep and persistent interest in the question was Miss Valentine Smith. 
With the invaluable aid of a distinguished engineer, Ossian Guthrie, 
and the co-operation of the Chicago Historical Society, Doctor Otto 
L. Schmidt, who even as long ago as that was the strong prop of his- 
tory movements ; the artist, Thomas A, 'Shaughnessy, a life-long de- 
votee of Father Marquette ; Miss Caroline Mcllvaine, executive secre- 
tary of the Chicago Historical Society ; William D, Kerfoot, a pioneer 
realtor, and others, the spot was definitely located, and with the assist- 
ance of the owners of the real estate and the president of the Willy 
Lumber Company, who furnished the labor and materials, a mahogany 
cross was raised to mark the site. This cross has been the scene of 
frequent pilgrimages since, and in this two hundred and fiftieth anni- 
versary of Father Marquette's sojourn will be a favorite place of visi- 
tation for those who love and esteem great worth. 

Some of those engaged in the investigations and activities just al- 
luded to deserve more extended mention, and especially Dr, Schmidt, 
Mr. 'Shaughnessy and Miss Mcllvaine, Let it suffice to say that 
they have been and are in eveiy worthy historical movement. 



250th anniversary of MARQUETTE's arrival at CHICAGO 205 

I account it a privilege to call special attention to two indefatig- 
able workers whose labors of many years in the interest of due recog- 
nition for Father Marquette and the early history of this region are 
just drawing to a successful conclusion. The exact location of the 
"portage" or carrying place of all the pioneers, including Marquette 
and Jolliet, has been unknown for more than a century. We lost 
trace of it. It was most important historically. It marked the route 
of trade and travel for more than two hundred years. Dr. Lucius M. 
Zeuch and Engineer Robert B. Knight set themselves the task of find- 
ing the portage site and if possible preserving it and its memories 
for succeeding generations. Seven long years they have pursued 
their investigations. Clues and deductions have lead them all over 
the United States and even across the Atlantic. Surveys and descrip- 
tions never before found by investigators have been examined and em- 
ployed. The analytical mind of the learned physician with a distinct- 
ly historical bent, combined with the structural and mathematical 
faculties of the engineer, all coupled with a dogged persistence, finally 
solved the intricate problem, with the result, soon to be published in 
detail, of locating accurately this historic spot. Nor did they cease 
their labors when the object of their search was attained. In their 
belief the premises should be preserved. They found the demands of 
modern development about to encroach upon the site. A garbage dis- 
posal plant was projected for it by the Sanitary District. What to 
do? Save it. How best? By shifting the title of the real estate 
from the Sanitary District to the Forest Preserves. Action, — quick 
action, was necessary. Now they need help. The research work they 
could and did do alone, but this was something else. Dr. Schmidt 
was summoned. The historical forces quickly lined up. Visits to the 
trustees of the Sanitary District, the County Board, the Chicago Plan 
Commission. The splendid story told. The beauty and significance 
of the sight revealed. Acquiescence — enthusiastic indeed, and a prac- 
tical certainty that this beautiful and exremely ineresting memorial of 
our earliest days will be appropriately preserved. Another splendid 
accomplishment for Marquette. 

On the platform with us tonight also is Mr. Robert Somerville, 
who, while general passenger agent of the Chicago and Alton rail- 
road, caused to be erected the splendid boulder monument so familiar 
to all of us as a memorial of Father Marquette's sojourn in what is 
now Summit, Illinois. Mr. Somerville has also constituted himself 
the guardian of the monument, and when vandals destroyed the bronze 
tablet, he replaced it with a new one. He is the special guest here 
this evening of Mr. Edward P. Brennan, one of the staunch members 



206 250th anniversary of marquette's arrival at Chicago 

of the Illinois Catholic Historical Society and a representative of 
one of the most substantial pioneer families of Chicago. 

I have been directing my remarks largely to those who are with 
us here. I wish to remind you of one who is not amongst us tonight, 
but has been gathered to the Fathers. — The first president of the Illi- 
nois Catholic Historical Society and all his life devoted to historical 
research, the late lamented Count William J. Onahan. It seems hardly 
possible that just six years have passed since the first annual meet- 
ing of our society was presided over by this distinguished citizen of 
Chicago. He was truly devoted to Father Marquette and of a cer- 
tainty would be gratified at the proceedings of this evening. He is 
represented in a manner by his talented daughter, Mrs. Daniel V. Gal- 
lerry, long favorably and affectionately Imown as a writer of distinc- 
tion over her maiden name — Mary Onahan. She gives constantly oi 
her best efforts to the Illinois Catholic Historical Society in the ca- 
pacity of a member of the Board of Directors and of important com- 
mittees. Her charming daughter, Margaret Gallerry, the granddaugh- 
ter of our beloved but departed past president, graces our platform 
also, for the purpose, with my own daughter, Noelle Thompson, of 
unveiling our portrait gift. 

It would be ungenerous to omit mention of others who, while not 
so active in the actual development of history, yet, nevertheless, are 
of indispensable assistance. No review of friends and supporters 
should be attempted without naming our distinguished spirit- 
ual leader, Archbishop-Cardinal Mundelein, who gave his approval 
and blessing at the very outset and has remained our staunch sponsor 
and supporter. 

Is it enough to say of our Reverend President, Father Siedenburg, 
that our society owes its continued existence to him. Extremely busy 
with a multiplicity of other duties, he has, nevertheless, persistently 
forwarded and championed the interests of the society and has for 
many years past in a variety of ways aided the cause of history. 

Very Reverend William H. Agnew, S. J., president of Loyola Uni- 
versity, and Rev. Joseph Reiner, S. J., dean of the same great educa- 
tional institution, are here to demonstrate their interest in this sig- 
nificant anniversary and their pride in, and devotion to, their dis- 
tinguished brother in religion. 

With us tonight, too, are Rt. Reverend Monsignor John Webster 
Melody and Rt. Reverend Monsignor Francis J. Furcell, both direc- 
tors of the society and both patient helpers. Here, too, are Hon. Mi- 
chael F. Girten, a director of the society; William Stetson Merrill, 



250th anniversary op MARQUETTE's arrival at CHICAGO 207 

an associate editor ; Sir Knight Anthony Matre, K. S. G., and one of 
the most distinguished Catholic laymen in the country. 

Here is Chicago's first citizen, Mayor William E. Dever, accom- 
panied by his good wife, to attest his interest and that of the city 
over whose destinies he presides in this very important work and this 
extraordinary anniversary. 

Present also is Doctor William J. Bogan, the first assistant super- 
intendent of education of the City of Chicago whose interest in the 
problems we deal with has been demonstrated on many occasions. 

Finally the matchless Chicago orator, Quin O'Brien is here and 
may be safely relied upon to prove himself a devotee of Father 
Marquette and Chicago, 

But I cannot continue indefinitely in this direction. I may be 
excused if I speak of all others present as being animated by the 
same spirit of research and veneration for worthy progenitors and 
eager to contribute their efforts to the advancement of the cause. 

I may be permitted also to mention that Father Marquette has 
devoted friends and admirers all over Chicago and all through the 
State and the Mississippi Valley who have joined with us in the 
Illinois Catholic Historical Society to proclaim his works and to 
study the history in general of our region. 

I have felt it incumbent upon me, representing for the moment 
our society, to make it known that without regard to creed or race 
or nationality, numerous devotees of Father Marquette, and their 
number is increasing, are working on from day to day and from 
year to year with the purpose that due recognition shall be accorded 
Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet and all the early missionaries 
and explorers, in order that succeeding generations may realize and 
as far as may be, requite our obligations to their memory. I entertain 
the hope that Dr. Schmidt will marshall the Marquette forces to the 
accomplishment of something worthy of our great explorer and mis- 
sionary. 

Localizing Father Marquette 

You will remember that Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet 
passed through the site of Chicago in the fall of 1673, They had 
swung around the circle, starting from Mackinac, down Green Bay, 
up the Fox River, down the Wisconsin, down the Mississippi, up the 
Illinois and the Des Plaines, and down the Chicago, out into Lake 
Michigan and up the lake to their starting point. He had promised 
the Kaskaskia tribe of Indians he would return and plant the Church 



208 250th anniversary of marquette's arrival at Chicago 

among them, and as soon as he became physically able he set out to 
redeem his promise. 

In the course of the return journey we find him landing at the 
"river of the Portage" on December 4, 1674. This was the Chicago 
river and its mouth or entrance was then at the point where the 
present Madison Street ends. The river emptied at that point until 
the year 1824 when the United States government through the War 
Department caused a new channel to be cut by the members of the 
garrison at Fort Dearborn, following the present channel. 

Father Marquette and his two companions remained "at the 
entrance to the river'' from the 4th to the 11th of December, ac- 
cording to his own statement preserved in his journal. He dwelt in 
a cabin there. He said Mass there every day except December 8th, 
which he says was too cold. There then, was the first habitation of 
white men and there was the first church. 

Roughly the spot upon which Marquette dwelt was the northwest 
corner of what is now Madison Street and Michigan Boulevard. Let 
us follow this site through the two hundred and fifty years that have 
elapsed since Father Marquette dwelt upon and consecrated it. 

After Marquette, in 1696 came another member of his Order, 
Father Frangois Pinet, and established there the Mission of the 
Guardian Angel. After the abandonment of that Mission the site 
remained unoccupied until 1837 when Rev. Timothy O'Meara, the 
second pastor of the modern church of Chicago secured possession of 
the site, established a frame church on the rear and a combination 
school and residence on the front of the property. 

It was thus the first Bishop of Chicago, Right Rev. William 
Quarter, D. D., found the physical property of the Church when he 
arrived here on May 5, 1844. Almost his first step upon his arrival 
was to procure the passage of an act by the State Legislature of 
Illinois chartering the University of St. Mary of the Lake, which he 
then and there established in the combination school and dwelling 
on the Marquette site. Under the guidance of Bishop Quarter and 
his successors the university fiourlshed until 1864 when its place was 
filled by other institutions. In 1920, however, it was re-established 
by the then Archbishop, George W. Mundelein, under the same 
name and charter, which by its terms was perpetual. The site, of 
course, was changed, but it is interesting to reflect that the actual 
ownership was unchanged. The Marquette site remained the property 
of the Church until 1920, when there occurred a "conversion," The 
real estate was converted into money and the money, the proceeds 
of the sale, was used in the re-establishment of the university. 



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MAEQUf]TTE CABIN AT ENTRANCE TO CHICAGO RIVER 

As ici)ioduce(l ijy Chicago City Building Dcpartnieut at north end of Link 

Bridge for celebration of the 250th anniversary of Father Marquette's 

residence on the site of Chicago. 



250th anniversary of MARQUETTE's arrival at CHICAGO 209 

Thus we trace the relationship between the site consecrated by 
Father Marquette and the great institution of religion and education 
rising Phoenix like about the beautiful lake which makes the name 
literally fitting, in our western suburb. A fitting monument, this 
marvelous institution, destined no doubt to bo accounted amongst 
the greatest of its kind in all the world, to the discoverer and ex- 
plorer of this region and the apostle and founder of the Church in 
mid- America. To my mind the sequence of events above alluded to 
borders upon the extraordinary. In an age of greater faith it might 
be thought supernatural. We are assured that "God moves in a 
mysterious way his wonders to perform." 

Suppose, however, that our facts be disputed or our reasoning 
be considered faulty or far-fetched ; then, disregarding all relationship 
depending upon identity of site and conversion of property we may 
note an even more direct connection between Father Marquette, the 
founder of the Church in this region and every developemnt of that 
Church, including the great religious and educational institution to 
which reference is made and including also the elevation of the 
leader of the church to the cardinalate. 

Consider now every development of the Church since it was 
established here by Father Marquette, including the millions of com- 
municants, their good lives and works, all the magnificent churches, 
schools, hospitals and charitable institutions from the Great Lakes 
to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Alleghenies to the Rocky Moun- 
tains — all developed from the Marquette foundation, and of them all 
what promises to be the greatest? Unquestionably, the University 
of St. Mary of the Lake. And what the greatest distinction? The 
elevation of a successor of Father Marquette to a dignity second only 
to the Papacy. 

Is it not most fitting then that these momentous events, the estab- 
lishment of the Church and the supreme achievement and advance- 
ment thereof be the foremost subjects of consideration on this quarter 
millennium anniversary? 

Considered from whichsoever angle one may choose it seems fitting 
to link together these great events as well as these two great actors 
in them. We accordingly desire to signalize and memorialize in a 
small but permanent manner this obvious relationship by placing 
in the newly established University of St. Mary of the Lake a tablet 
in gold, graven with the likeness of the most distinguished successor 
of Father Marquette and the refounder on a monumental scale of 
the institution first established upon ground consecrated by the foot- 



210 250th anniversary of marquette's arrival at Chicago 

prints of the saintly missionary, or, at any rate, the institution that 
marks the highest development of the Marquette foundation. 

Monsignor Pureell, on behalf of the Illinois Catholic Historical 
Society, I have the honor to present to you for the University of 
St. Mary of the Lake this portrait of George Cardinal Mundelein 
as a memorial of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 
arrival and sojourn on the site of Chicago of Reverend James Mar- 
quette, S. J., to vi^hose labors and inspirational influence, and be- 
lievably for other reasons as well, the institution owes its existence. 

Mr. Thomas A. 'Shaughnessy was then introduced and spoke as 
follows : 

Address of Thomas A. 'Shaughnessy 

I have been asked to speak on Marquette from the standpoint of 
art. It was my privilege to be the grandson of one of Chicago's pio- 
neer citizens who with Ossian. Guthrie helped in building the Illinois 
and Michigan canal. 

Coming to Chicago from my native state, Missouri, some years 
ago, I met with Ossian Guthrie and he so thrilled me with the story of 
Marquette and his certain knowledge as to definite locations where 
Marquette had lived and labored for the development of America and 
particularly of this district that I could envision the scenes of Mar- 
quette as Marquette lived them. Ossian Guthrie was so clear and con- 
vincing that I differed then with most historians of this section who 
had asserted that Marquette had never set foot upon the territory of 
Chicago proper. I undertook to prove the truth of Ossian Guthrie's 
statements and with the co-operation of the Chicago Historical So- 
ciety I am happy to say that those who held to minute details and 
overlooked big facts in history were confused ; and the story of Father 
Marquette was heard, proven and accepted as a matter of historical 
fact. Dr. Schmidt was the representative of the Chicago Historical 
Society which made that finding which has since been accepted as un- 
disputed fact. Delvers into history too often keep their eyes fastened 
upon inconsequential details and overlook big facts. Dr. Schmidt, 
Caroline Mcllvain and William D. Kerfoot, representatives of the 
Chicago Historical Society, went over the entire Chicago district with 
Ossian Guthrie and the story of Marquette's having been the first 
white resident of Chicago was made clear and accepted as fact. 

My activities in this matter were due to the fact that as an artist 
I realized the magnificence of the picture that Father Marquette's 
life means. I realized the helpfulness to Chicago and to all America 



250th anniversary of MARQUETTE's arrival at CHICAGO 211 

of making that wholesome picture clear to the growing children. I 
hope that the people of Chicago will soon be privileged to see one of 
the most beautiful monuments that has been reared in this city mark- 
ing the very spot upon which Marquette, in the heart of Chicago, 
erected the first white habitation when he dedicated the ground upon 
which this city stands forever to the Immaculate Mother of God. I 
thank you 

Hon. William E. Dever was next presented and addressed the 
meeting as follows: 

Address of Hon. William E. Dever, Mayor of Chicago 

Right Reverend and Reverend Fathers, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

The statement of the Reverend Chairman that I am quite busy 
is true. From reading the daily papers you learn enough of me to 
know that I am busy talking if nothing else. 

This is the third Marquette celebration this week. There are 
many other activities in this city ; but I did think and do think that 
this occasion is so significant that the Mayor of Chicago, whomsoever 
he might be at the moment, should by his presence if by no other 
means, signify his deep interest. 

One of my cabinet members, ]\Ir. Joseph J. Thompson, is deeply 
interested in the history of Father Marquette and his sojourn in 
Chicago. I think as the chairman has already said, that when Mr. 
Thompson lauded others by name for their endeavors to do honor 
and credit to Father Marquette, he left himself too much out of 
the picture. I want to say a word about the work he has done and 
is doing, through which he will definitely fix the name and character 
of Slarquette in the permanent history of this city so that it will 
be kno\vn of all men. His great constructive work is a labor of 
love and has engaged him through many years, developing not only 
the life of Marquette but the history of discovery, exploration and 
development of Chicago and indeed the entire ]\Iississippi Valley, and 
as best he may he is seeking to impress upon his own and succeeding 
generations the debt we owe to the devotion and sacrifices of our 
progenitors, that all may be better citizens of his and our beloved 
city and country. I take pleasure in paying my respects to Mr. 
Thompson because I have known of his work through all the years 
of his labors. He is preparing a comprehensive history that will be 
a source of genuine satisfaction to all his readers, an authoritative 
text book on the subjects he treats and a monument to his labors 
and devotion. 



212 250th anniversary of marquette's arrival at Chicago 

I wish also to pay my respects to Mr. Thomas 'Shaughnessy, 
who likewise said little about himself and his work. The big things 
done in the name of organizations, whether social, political or re- 
ligious are frequently loaded upon the shoulders of ardent spirits. 
When we think of the relation of Father Marquette to Chicago of 
bringing the name of Father Marquette to public notice we should 
not forget all that Mr. 'Shaughnessy has done for the cause. 

My attention has been attracted during the last few days to the 
career of Father Marquette not alone as viev/ed by the historian 
but as well by the man who keeps a record of the political, the social 
and the physical developments of great communities and who recog- 
nizes him as one who had something definite to do with the great 
physical progress of this region. This lone man traversed the wilds 
and haunts of savages, seeking the salvation of souls, primarily of 
course, but he observed and recorded and reported as accurately as 
if he had been a fiscal agent the physical conditions and advantages 
of the regions of his discovery and exploration. He reported the 
conditions of soil and climate and production and especially of waters 
that must make the Mississippi Valley with intelligent development 
the greatest community of all time, the most fortunate region in all 
the world. As if by intuition he and his companion, Jolliet, traced 
out the natural waterway connecting the great Lakes with the Gulf 
of Mexico and upon these first visits of white men to our soil two 
hundred and fifty years ago showed all succeeding generations the 
answer to the transportation problem from what was to become the 
great metropolis, Chicago, to the gulf of Mexico and the high seas. 
We have been too slow to avail of the route marked out, but I con- 
fidently expect that the twenty millions of dollars which our legislature 
has appropriated will soon be wisely utilized to make the Marquette 
water route all that it should be in keeping with the needs and 
requirements of our great city and state. 

I am very proud indeed that our progress had its beginning in 
the religious mind and soul of a man as great as Father Marquette. 
If we consider only the temporal results of his work we haven't 
told the complete story, because after all, his great work was not 
picturing or preparing for the creation of the great physical develop- 
ment. His heart and mind were devoted to the interior development 
of man himself. He turned savagery into civilization and laid the 
basis of this religious community. Those are things bringing comfort 
to those in public office who know of the materialism and cynicism 
of this age. And so long as this city exists, so long as we who have 
survived to participate in the 250th anniversary, so long as we 



250th anniversary of MARQUETTE's arrival at CHICAGO 213 

follow lines pointed out by Marquette, both in our physical develop- 
ment and moral and intellectual progress Chicago will continue to be 
a great city, a great community, and we hope it will even be greater. 
I think this is a subject well worthy of an orator. I do not wish 
to take the time of the distinguished gentleman, Mr. Quin O'Brien, 
whom you are to hear. I came here as a privilege and as the chief 
executive officer of the city first inhabited by Father Marquette. I 
regard this as an occasion which must interest all good citizens of 
Chicago. 

Next followed Hon. Quin O'Brien, the orator of the occasion who 
spoke as follows: 

Address of Hon. Quin O'Brien 

We have assembled to-night to pay homage to the name and 
memory of one of the great benefactors of humanity, — a young 
French nobleman who scorned pedigree and purse that he might 
carry Christ 's Cross and die for savage fellow men, — a humble Jesuit 
priest who invaded a wild continent with no weapons but a canoe 
and a crucifix, an inspired idealist, who sought to found an empire 
on the Rock of Ages — an intrepid explorer, who, like Columbus, staked 
his mortal life against distances, difficulties and dangers and died a 
martyr unconscious of his success. The life and achievements of 
Father Marquette is a theme more suited for an epic poem of Homeric 
proportions than for a brief commemorative talk. The Iliad acclaims 
no heroism to match his coUosal courage. Ulysses compassed not 
half so much in all his fabled wanderings. 

About ninety miles northeast of Paris, in one of the most pictur- 
esque parts of northern France, lies the ancient fortified City of 
Laon. Its lofty citadel hill is crowned with historic edifices that 
are eloquent of fifteen centuries of civic renown. The massive ruins 
of a baronial castle speak of the days of Caesar and Charlemaigne ; 
the time-defying masonry of Abbeys and Colleges tells of the pre- 
Renaissance centuries when this was the greatest center of learning 
in all Europe; the beautiful Gothic Cathedral, concealing its age of 
seven hundred, presides over the whole with majestic dignity, and 
reveals why Laon is so rich in triumphs of art, learning, statesman- 
ship and culture. But it is not in the tales of Caesar, or Charlemaigne 
nor of the eighty-seven Bishops, three Popes and four Saints which 
Laon has given to the world, nor of the great Anslem or Abelard 
who taught there that the American tourist is most interested, but 
the fact that there was born and reared Father Jaques Marquette, 



214 250tii anniversary of Marquette's arrival at Chicago 

the Jesuit missionary and explorer, the discoverer of the site of 
Chicago and the Mississippi River. 

Born of wealthy and noble lineage in the age of Richelieu and 
"The Three Musketeers" when adventure and romance were in 
flower, when young French noblemen yielded to the call of pomp, 
power and pleasure, young Marquette was put to a severe test. His 
father, a favorite of the King of France was a rich Judge and 
diplomat of vast estates and prestige, and naturally wished his 
talented son to prepare for high office in the State or Army. His 
mother. Rose De LaSalle, was a lineal descendant of Jean Baptiste 
De LaSalle, founder of the Order of the Christian Brothers, and 
mother of Sister Francoise, who founded a similar Order called 
Marquette Sisters for the free education of girls. His father and 
brothers urged him to a life of worldly honors, power and luxury. 
His mother and sisters advocated Christ's ideal of service, suffering 
and sacrifice. He was at the crossroads at which every boy sooner 
or later must choose, but how few with such extreme contrasts 
and temptations! Oh what a soul test was there! More severe than 
was ever put to a boy since the certain rich young man of the Gospel 
in the Divine presence of Christ himself, shrank shuddering away. 
But be it said to his eternal honor and glory young high-spirited 
Marquette at the early age of seventeen freely gave up his fortune 
and the world with all its pomps and pleasures, took up his cross 
and decided to become a Jesuit Missionary. 

The next twelve years were spent in his native land, studying and 
teaching in the Order. He sometimes chafed under the rigors and 
confinements of the cloistered life, especially when news came of the 
struggles, suffering and triumphs of his missionary brothers in the 
wilds of America or in other remote parts of the world. He studied 
carefully the life and methods of St. Francis Xavier and others in 
their mission work in Asia and elsewhere, and ceaselessly prayed 
and repeatedly petitioned his superiors to send him to America. 
Whether they feared that his physical frailties and gentle nature were 
unequal to the hardships or that his services as a teacher and lecturer 
seemed more valuable in their numerous schools of France, the records 
are silent. 

At last, in sixteen sixty-six, when he was twenty-nine years old, 
they yielded to his entreaties, and sent him to Quebec for service 
among the Indians. He spent the first two years learning the 
languages, customs and traditions of the various tribes until he 
mastered six of their principal languages and several dialects; and 
then with a few companions he labored taming, teaching and christian- 



250th anniversary of MARQUETTE's arrival at CHICAGO 215 

izing the Indian tribes who roamed in the vicinity of the upper Great 
Lakes. So successful was he that he was placed in charge of missions 
at Sault Ste Marie, at La Pointe Desprit on the southwest shore of 
Lake Superior, and at Mackinac. Between these outposts he spent 
four years moving from one to the other as the various attacks of 
the fierce Indian warfare necessitated. 

At that time America was a wild, unexplored wilderness, save a 
narrow strip along the Atlantic seaboard. Its geography, its rivers, 
its resources were but little known except from rumor and wild 
surmise. The Indians told of still fiercer savages, animal monsters 
and demons which infested the interior and slaughtered ruthlessly. 
They also told of a mythical river, so large that it was called "The 
Father of Waters," and carried in its mighty flow the contributions 
of thousands of rivers and lakes. Whether it flowed into the Atlantic, 
the Pacific or the Mexican Gulf was not known. France and the 
Catholic Church v/ere desirous that this river and the vast domain 
which it drained should be discovered and explored ; but the task was 
beset with almost insurmountable dangers and probably death. It 
required daring men, who were inured to living and suffering in the 
wilds, who knew the Indian language and habits, who had the 
scientific knowledge to explore, interpret and record what they saw, 
and who had the zeal and courage to face death in any form. Such 
a task called for volunteers. Father Marquette had all the qualifica- 
tions for it, except possibly the requisite physical strength. He de- 
cided to chance everything in the attempt. In the Spring of 1673, 
in company with Louis Jolliet of Quebec, an agent of Governor 
Frontenac of Canada, and five Frenchmen, supplied with two frail 
birch-bark canoes, some dried meat and Indian corn, he started out 
on one of the most hazardous ventures, among wild nature, wild 
beasts and wilder men that ever challenged the courage and endurance 
of men. 

It is not possible in this brief address to trace the long perilous 
course they took through lakes and rivers and overland, nor to recount 
the adventurers, the Indian and animal attacks, the wounds, the sick- 
ness, the hunger, the hair-breadth escapes, they endured during that 
four month journey which covered more than two thousand five 
hundred miles. Largely by means of the Fox and the Wisconsin 
rivers, they reached the Mississippi on June 17, 1673, at the site of 
Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. They spent another month exploring 
the Mississippi and its tributaries from there to the mouth of the 
Arkansas. Learning from the Indians the characteristics of the river 
from that point to the Gulf of Mexico and fearing the hostility of 



216 250X11 ANNIVERSARY OF MARQUETTE 's ARRIVAL AT CHICAGO 

the Spaniards and strange southern Indian tribes they returned, 
paddling their canoes up stream on the Mississippi and Illinois rivers 
and then on the Chicago river and Lake Michigan to the mission at 
Green Bay, Wisconsin. Here, weak and pallid from long illness and 
hardships Marquette put up for the winter. Jolliet and his com- 
panions with records and trophies of the trip pushed on towards 
Quebec by canoe, but it capsized in the LaChine rapids of the St. 
Lawrence near Montreal, causing a loss of part of the ^crew and all 
of Jolliet 's papers, Marquette never heard of the loss of his faithful 
companions and the papers. 

Weak, wasted, and sick almost unto death, he stayed at the 
mission camp all winter, intending to return in the spring to found 
a mission among the Illinois Indians as he had promised them the 
fall before. His malady and weakness detained him until late October, 
vv'^hen with two Frenchmen in a canoe, he set out to brave the rigors 
of the late fall and early winter on Lake Michigan. Half way down 
the west coast he was joined by nine canoes of Illinois and Potta- 
watomi Indians as an escort. Storms, ice-flows and Marquette's 
illness delayed them and it was the 4th day of December two hundred 
and fifty years ago when they reached the mouth of the Chicago 
river which Marquette's diary records "was frozen to the depth of 
'half a foot." 

The curtain of history thus rising on the site of Chicago revealed 
no promising or prophetic scene. No reception committee greeted the 
distinguished visitor. No Greek chorus chanted a "happy prologue 
to the swelling act of an imperial theme." No heavenly choir 
heralded the miraculous birth of a future metropolis. All was cold 
and cheerless v/ith no sign of life except the snow tracks of vnld 
turkeys and buffaloe on the frozen marshes and low sand dunes lying 
between two wildernesses, the one of water the other of prairie, 
over which the icy blasts swept for a thousand miles. The pioneer 
priest with numbed hands wrote in his journal, "the land along the 
shore is good for nothing." If he could have been vouchsafed a 
vision of the Chicago of today with its three million people, its match- 
less lake-front boulevard lined with soaring edifices and heaven- 
pointing towers, his prayers in the snow would have been changed 
to paeans of joy as he would cry out with us of today: 

' ' Thou wondrous blossom of the West 
We are so passing proud of thee ! 
' See, ' say we to the elder world, 
'How cities grow when men are free.' " 




HON. QUIN O 'BRIEX 



Orator of the occasion of observance of 250tli anniversary of 

Father Marquette's arrival and sojourn on the site of Chicago, 

December 7, 1924. 



250th anniversary of MARQUETTE's arrival at CHICAGO 217 

A great cross on the bank of the south branch of the Chicago 
river at Robey Street now marks the spot where the sick explorer 
spent the harsh winter in a rude cabin, praying, fasting, saying Mass 
and teaching his Indian visitors the elements of Christianity. The 
following spring he went on to the Illinois Indian settlement at 
Kaskaskia (now Utica in La Salle County) where he established the 
promised mission and with his fast ebbing vitality, instructed thou- 
sands of these simple people of the prairie and forests who sat in 
circles as in an amphitheatre, first the chiefs and elders to the number 
of five hundred, next the warriors and boys numbering fifteen hun- 
dred and last the women, girls and children, in the truths of the 
Catholic faith. His farewell was taken Easter Sunday. The drooping 
apostle felt the approach of death and hurried back to die at his 
beloved Mackinac. A large escort of the Illinois accompanied him 
a,s far as the mouth of the Chicago, where his two devoted companions 
laid him in a bark canoe and on bended knees paddled along the 
south and east shores of Lake ]\Iichigan. The lake was choppy, the 
journey slow and painful and the invalid sinking fast. He ordered 
them to land at the mouth of a river at the present site of the City 
of Ludington, Michigan, where on a knoll in the wilderness on 
Saturday night, May IS, 1675, he laid down to die. He gave minute 
directions to his men for his burial, administered the sacrament to 
them and as they held the Crucifix before his fading eyes in the 
flickering firelight, they heard him give fervent thanks to God for 
being a missionary of Jesus and for the privilege of dying like St. 
Francis Xavier for a strange race in the wilderness on a day dedicated 
to the Virgin Mother, the patron of all his labors. 

His real funeral, befitting his life and martyrdom for the red 
men, was to come later. The sad news of the death of their "great 
black-robed apostle" spread far and wide among the Indians and the 
fact that like Moses of old he was buried in a strange land denied 
his prayer of lying among his people at St. Ignace. The following 
year a band of Kiskakon Indians whom he had instructed and eon- 
verted at LaPointe and a like number of Iroquois went to his lonely 
grave and in accordance with their tribal customs exhumed the body 
and dissected it, "cleansed the bones and exposed them in the sun 
to dry ; ' ' then, carefully laying them in a box of birchbark they set 
out to bring them to the mission of St. Ignace at Mackinac. Thirty 
canoes fi.lled with bronzed pallbearers and mourners made up the 
strange funeral procession which moved slowly on the water over 
two hundred and fifty miles. They were met by another procession 
headed by Jesuit fathers, who intoned the de profimdis. After a 



218 250th anniversary of marquette's arrival at Chicago 

solemn Requium Mass the martyr's bones were again interred in a 
vault beneath the mission church at St. Ignace, where they rested 
for more than two hundred years, when some of them were removed 
as sacred relics to the Jesuit College in Milwaukee which bears his 
name. 

The historian Bancroft in a tribute to this intrepid leader of 
the army of "slaughtered saints whose bones lie scattered" in their 
heroic efforts to achieve "the amazing miracle of America," said, 
"the people of the West will build his monument." The State of 
Wisconsin has placed his statue in the Hall of Fame in the Capitol 
at Washington; the State of Michigan has replicas of this statue in 
the City of Marquette and at Mackinac ; the State of Illinois has not 
yet done justice to the memory of the man who wrote the first 
chapter of "her wondrous story." He should be memorialized not 
only in bronze and marble, not merely in history, song and story, 
but in some collosal extension of the work he started in some public 
improvement of continental scope. What could be more fitting than 
the consummation of a Deep Water system to be known as "The 
Marquette Waterway," running from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to 
the Gulf of Mexico, along the water routes which Marquette first 
explored, making a Kosary of Commerce on which States and 
Provinces would be the beads and great cities the resting places? 

But whether it is given to the great waterway or not, the name 
and memory of Father Marquette will never die. His bloodless 
victories of peace will outlive most of the battles which now form 
the staple of history, because with the cross of Christ he made the 
supreme sacrifice to explore a continent and Christianize a race. 

"He was a man, co-equal with his fate, who did great things 
unconscious they were great." 

Father Marquette's memory will live as Columbus lives, as Father 
Damien lives, as St. Xavier lives, because he labored, lived and died 
not only for the children of his age, but for unborn millions. In the 
ransomed souls of an alien race, in the fertile fields he opened to 
civilization, in our matchless metropolis which marked his winter 
camps and guards his memory, in the renewed splendor of the cross 
he bore and which he enriched with his sacrifices. Father Marquette 
lives now and will live forever. 

QuiN O'Brien. 

The meeting closed with musical numbers and benediction by 
Very Reverend William H. Agnew, S. J., President of Loyola Univer- 
sity, Chicago. 



250th anniversary of MARQUETTE's arrival at CHICAGO 219 

Observance at the Marquette Cabin Site 

On the 14th of December, 1924, an observance was held at what 
is known as the IMarquette Cross, by arrangement of Miss Valentine 
Smith. 

In his journal written at the time he was in what has become 
Chicago, Father IMarquette says he was "at the entrance to the river" 
from the 4th to the 11th of December. Under date of December 12, 
1674, he wrote as follows: 

As we began yesterday to haul our baggage in order to approach the Portage, 
the Illinois who left the Poutewatamis arrived, with great difficulty. We were 
unable to celebrate holy Mass on the day of the Conception, owing to the bad 
weather and cold. During our stay at the entrance of the river, Pierre and 
Jacques killed three cattle and four deer, one of which ran some distance with 
its heart split in two. We contented ourselves with killing three or four turkeys, 
out of many that came around our cabin because they were almost dying of 
hunger. Jacques brought in a partridge that he had killed, exactly like those of 
France except that it had two ruffs, as it were, of three or four feathers as 
long as a finger, near the head, covering the two sides of the neck where there 
are no feathers. 

And under date of December 14, 1674, he made the following 
notations : 

Having encamped near the portage, two leagues up the river, we resolved 
to winter there, as it was impossible to go farther, since we were too much 
hindered and my ailment did not permit me to give myself much fatigue. Several 
Illinois passed yesterday, on their way to carry their furs to Nawaskingwe ; we 
gave them one of the cattle and one of the deer that Jacque had killed on the 
previous day. I do not think that I have ever seen any savages more eager for 
French tobacco than they. They came and threw beaver-skins at our feet to get 
some pieces of it; but we returned these, giving them some pipefuls of the 
tobacco because we had not yet decided whether we would go farther. 

On December 15th and 30th, January 16th, 24th and 26th, 
February 9th and 20th and March 23rd, 30th and 31st, he made 
notes of what was occurring and what he and his two companions 
were doing, the first written records ever made in what is now 
Chicago. 

With these notes and memoranda it was possible to locate with 
a degree of accuracy the stopping places of the great missionary. Of 
the first stopping place he says plainly it was "at the entrance of 
the river." Of the second he says it was "near the portage, two 
leagues up the river." In 1907 under the urging of Miss Valentine 
Smith, Mr. Thomas A. 'Shaughnessy, Ossian Guthrie, Dr. Otto L. 
Schmidt and Miss Caroline Mcllvaine steps were taken which resulted 



220 250th anniversary of marquette's arrival at Chicago 

in fixing a point now marked by the junction of Robey Street and 
the Drainage Canal as the site of Father Marquette 's second stopping 
place in what became Chicago. AVitli the permission of the owner of 
the land and the aid of a neighboring lumber company a mahogany 
cross was raised at the spot which still stands. 

It was at this cross that the devotees of Father Marquette gathered 
on Sunday afternoon, December 14th, 1924, to commemorate Father 
Marquette's residence there two hundred and fifty years ago. 

The trustees of the Sanitary District of Chicago placed at the 
disposal of the party journeying to the cross the Robert R., the smart 
little steam vessel which does duty on the river and canal, and was 
personally represented by Hon. John Jontry, who made everyone 
welcome. Mr. Murray Blanchard represented the Illinois Waterways 
Commission and contributed to the comfort of the pilgrims, A press 
report of the meeting reads in part as follows : 

The celebration was held at the foot of the giant mahogany cross 
to the priest-explorer's memory at Robey street and the river. Miss 
Valentine Smith, city archi^dst during ]\Iayor Carter Harrison's ad- 
ministration and who headed the municipal committee that placed it 
there, presided. 

Representatives of the French and British governments and Mayor 
Dever, as well as of the leading historical and patriotic societies of 
Chicago, participated. A delegation comprising the principal officers 
of the Daughters of the American Revolution in Chicago took a 
conspicuous part. 

A telegram expressing the hope that Congress would grant the 
Sanitary District's appeal for 10,000 cubic feet of water was sent 
to Secretary of War Weeks at the conclusion of the meeting. 

*' An eminent engineer recently was asked to name the father of the 
present deep waterway plan," began Alderman Johntry. "His im- 
mediate response was 'Jacques Marquette.' " 

Jesuit Makes Address 

Other speakers included M. Henri Didot, French vice consul; 
the Hon. Douglas Rydings, British vice consul ; Assistant Corporation 
Counsel Joseph J. Thompson, representing the mayor; Dr. Otto L. 
Schmidt, president of both the Illinois and Chicago Historical So- 
cieties; Murray Blanchard, engineer for the Illinois Division of the 
Sanitary District, and Alphonse Campion, president of La Mutuelle, 
the the first French society established in America. 

The Rev. Herbert C. Noonan, formerly head of Marquette Uni- 
versity but now president of St. Ignatius College, who delivered the 
invocation, also spoke as a member of the religious order that brought 
the Jesuit explorer to America. 



250th anniversary of MARQUETTE's arrival at CHICAGO 221 

Address of Rev. Herbert C. Noon an S. J. 
The Spirit of Pere Marquette 

We are all prone to hero-worship. Every man admires those great 
personages who have flashed like meteors across the pages of history. 
Even Napoleon Bonaparte, who wrote twenty years of European 
history in human blood, has a host of admirers because of his wonder- 
ful campaigns. General Ulysses S. Grant is hailed as a renowned 
warrior because his military plans were crowned with success, which, 
as Cicero tells us, is one of the marks of a great general. 

Marconi, Tesla and Edison are the objects of praise in the scien- 
tific world because of their inventive genius. 

The name of Washington, as the Father of his Country, and that 
of Jefferson, as the Sage of Monticello, who was the great exponent of 
democracy, are household words. Abraham Lincoln will always be 
held in honor as the Great Emancipator. 

Gladstone will ever be reckoned among the world's illustrious 
historical personages because of his achievements as prime minister 
of Great Britain, Those who knew him intimately also revered him 
because of his ardent religious nature and true Christian charity. 
A little street sweeper for whom Gladstone always had a kind word 
fell ill and was sought out in his poorly furnished attic room by 
the renowned statesman. As the busiest man in the empire, who was 
filled with the spirit of Christ, took his departure, the sick boy re- 
marked to a chum : "It isn 't so lonely here now that Mr, Gladstone 
has talked with me a little while and prayed with me and left that 
piece of silver on the table." Esteemed as an intellectual giant, the 
British premier was equally renowned as a highly spiritual man. 

Father Damien, ''the hero of mournful Molokai," whom Robert 
Louis Stevenson immortalized when a bigoted clergyman attempted 
to cast aspersions upon him whose sublime deeds "robed with honor 
the ignominy of leprosy," will always be revered and loved because 
he lived and died for the forsaken lepers in that distant isle of the 
Pacific. 

We all admire those who have done great things, who have ac- 
complishments to their credit. If these achievements are spiritual 
and eternal they will be rated more highly than those which are 
natural and temporal. 

Father James Marquette, whom we are honoring today, will always 
be remembered as the joint discoverer, v/ith Louis Joliet, of the 
Mississippi River. He has a still greater title to glory as a priest and 
missionary in quest of immortal souls that were redeemed by the 



222 250th anniversary of marquette's arrival at Chicago 

precious blood of Christ, Had he not been a missionary, Marquette 
would not have been an explorer. Discovery and exploration w^ere 
only a means to an end in the mind of the great apostle. 

On December 4, 1674, James Marquette landed at the mouth of 
the Chicago river. This great event was suitably commemorated 
December 4, 1924, on the 250th anniversary. On December 12, 1674, 
Marquette and his two devoted companions, Jacques Le Castor and 
Pierre Porteret who had dragged their canoe along the ice on the 
way to the home of the Illinois tribe, found a deserted log cabin 
that had been the property of French hunters. It was built on a 
spot six miles from the river's mouth, at the foot of what is now 
Robey Street. As the ice was getting thicker daily and there was 
no prospect of a thaw, and as the missionary was feverish and ex- 
hausted, it was decided to spend the winter months in this cabin. 
This large mahogany cross before which we are now holding the 
commemorative exercises of this event, a cross that was erected in 
1907 to commemorate the discovery of the Mississippi by Marquette 
and Jolliet on June 17, 1673, marks the spot upon which this log 
cabin stood. I may remark, in passing, that our worthy chairman, 
Miss Valentine Smith, was one of the members of the committee that 
was instrumental in having the cross erected. 

This spot is, indeed, sacred to me because it witnessed the efforts 
of a brother Jesuit, two and a half centuries ago, to reach the Indians 
of the Illinois tribe and bring them the glad tidings of redemption. 

It is sacred to me, too, because it was comprised in the limits of 
the Holy Family parish from 1857 to 1873. All who are connected 
with Holy Family Church and St. Ignatius College, therefore, deem 
this ground holy. Brother Thomas Mulkerins, S. J., who has spent 
forty-five years of his life as sacristan of the Holy Family Church, 
and Mr. Joseph J. Thompson, the erudite editor of the Illinois Cath- 
olic Historical Review, stand sponsors for the accuracy of the above 
statement. 

Another reason why this spot is dear to me is because my Alma 
IMater, Marquette College of Milwaukee, was named after the great 
missionary who lived on this ground which is now in the very heart 
of the great city of Chicago, during the trying winter months of 1674 
and 1675. This school, named after the great missionary and explorer 
whose residence in Chicago two hundred and fifty years ago we are 
commemorating this afternoon, was founded in 1880 and developed 
into a university in 1907. Having been connected with Marquette 
University from 1915 to 1922, I learned to know that Marquette is 
as dear to the people of Wisconsin as he is to the people of Illinois, 



250th anniversary of MARQUETTE's arrival at CHICAGO 223 

and that th§ institution which has honored the great Jesuit mission- 
ary and which has treasured his relics since their discovery by Father 
Jacker in 1877, has caught his spirit and derived inspiration from 
his name. 

What that spirit of Pere Marquette was we may gather from the 
fact that he devoted himself to his labors as a missionary with such 
zeal and assiduity that his body gave way under the strain. Nine 
short years after his arrival in America, in the year 1675, the intrepid 
soldier of the cross breathed his last on the eastern shore of Lake 
Michigan near the site of the city of Ludington. " Consummatus in 
hrevi, explcvit tempora multa." Marquette had chosen St. Francis 
Xavier as his model and his prodigious labors among the Ottawas and 
Hurons, his zeal, his long journeys covering over two thousand miles, 
his mastery of a large number of Indian languages, his meekness, pa- 
tience and fortitude, his personal sanctity, give him a high place 
among the close followers of ' ' The Apostle of the Indies. ' ' 

As Marquette imitated Xavier in his zeal for the propagation of 
the Faith and his yearning to bring countless tribes captive to the feet 
of Christ, in a word, as he imitated the older missionary in life, so, 
too, in death. Marquette had the great grace of dying alone and for- 
saken — forsaken by all save the Master and the Blessed Mother of 
God for whom he always cherished a tender, child-like affection — in 
a desolate hut on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, far from his 
home in sunny France, far from Laon and those near and dear to 
him, truly a martyr of charity, dying for souls most precious in the 
eyes of the Redeemer. 

For well nigh two centuries the name and achievements of Pere 
Marquette seemed buried in oblivion. From 1700 to 1877 the last 
resting place of Marquette was unknown; but, in the latter year. 
Father Jacker of St. Ignace discovered some fragments of the bones 
of the great missionary and requested the Jesuit Fathers of Mil- 
waukee to accept them as a precious deposit to be preserved in per- 
petuity. From that time on Marquette's name was on the lips of 
many. Many cities vied with one another in doing honor to his 
memory. 

In the years 1887 and 1897 ; again in 1904, 1907, 1909 and 1910 ; 
and finally in 1923 and 1924, Bancroft's prophetic words, ''The people 
of the West will build his monument, ' ' were to some extent fulfilled. 

In 1907 Chicago honored the Jesuit discoverer of the Mississippi 
by erecting the large cross before which we stand. During this year, 
1924, much has been said in praise of the great missionary and ex- 
plorer to whom the State of Illinois is so deeply indebted. Let us 



224 250th anniversary of Marquette's arrival at Chicago 

hope that something will be done in the near future, that a monu- 
ment will soon rise which will be worthy of the city of Chicago and 
of the hero who was the first white man to reside in this city and to 
forecast its .future greatness. 

If the spirit of Marquette can be learned from he study of his 
life, it can be also become manifest from the study of Trentanove's 
statue, a replica of the one that graces Statuary Hall in Washington, 
and from the character traits that appear in Lamprecht's well-known 
painting of the missionary. Both statue and painting are to be 
found in the main reception room of Marquette University. 

The statue brings out Marquette's characteristics as a priest and 
missionary, his calmness, dignity and self-possession. Self-control, 
achieved through years of effort, appears in every outline of Trenta- 
nove's creation. The Florentine sculptor emphasizes the missionary 
traits more than those of the discoverer. 

On the other hand, the Munich artist brings out the qualities of 
the discoverer and explorer, alertness, rapt attention, courage, en- 
thusiasm and initiatve. Lamprecht pictures Marquette as standing in 
his canoe looking westward towards the Mississippi. What a depth 
of longing there is in that look! The dusky savages, grouped about 
the canoe, have fixed thier gaze upon the Black-Robe. A weeping In- 
dian woman is begging him not to risk the fancied dangers that 
threaten his life in a westward journey. Two Miami guides are 
pointing towards a portage from the Fox River to the Wisconsin. 

As we know from history, the words of those guides did not fall 
on unheeding ears. Before they had ceased speaking the canoe was 
pushed back into the water, the voyage up the Fox River continued, 
the portage reached and crossed, the Wisconsin followed, until its 
waters mingled with the turbid stream of the Mississippi. 

If we make a comparative study of th0 creations of the Florentine 
and Munich artists, one of which supplements the other, we form the 
same concept of the spirit of Marquette as we derive from the study 
of his life and heroic achievements. 

It is the spirit of an enthusiast filled with love for the Master. 
Such love must be translated into deeds ; for genuine and all-consum- 
ing as it is,, it must find an outlet. Marquette viewed the deeds that 
are done on behalf of one's fellow-man, created in the image of God, 
as expressions of divine love. His life of devoted service to mankind 
was di\'ine in its motive. His altruism was not selfishness in disguise, 
because God was ever present to the great missionary. To such a 
soul the heavens always proclaim the glory of God. The towering 



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The Makquette Cross 



Obspivaiicc of 250tli anniversary of Father Marquette's residence on the 
site of Chicago, held at spot where his cabin was located, on December W, 1924. 
Re-^-. Herbert C. Noonan, S. J., seen bestowing blessing. Near about the cross 
are, at left, M. Henri Dido, French Consul at Chicago, Miss Valentine Smith, 
Alphonse Campion, Mrs. Amos W. Walker, Madame Henri Dido, Bettie 
Walker, and visitors; at right, Murray Blanchard, Joseph J. Thompson, 
Alderman John Johntry, Mrs. Henry Grien, Mrs. James Hutchinson, Mrs. 
Louis Hopkins, Mrs. Daniel W. Earle, Regent Chicago Chapter D. A. R., and 
a delegation of Daughters of the Ameiicau Republic. 



250th anniversary of Marquette's arrival at Chicago 225 

mountain and the tiny rivulet serve as stepping stones by means of 
which man mounts to the very throne of the Most High. 

Marquette had vowed undying service to the cause of Christ. In 
the tabernacle of his heart the Master was enthroned. There was 
no person or thing that could dispute His regal sway. Christ was 
ever in the heart and on the lips of the heroic missionary. Marquette 
was a knight in the service of the Master; his spirit was the spirit 
of chivalry and of knighthood such as the world knew when knight- 
hood was in flower. 

Our beloved country has much to learn from this hero whom we 
may revere and honor without danger to ourselves. If America wishes 
to retain the high position which she now enjoys among the nations 
of the earth ; if she desires to develops men of the type of Washington 
and Lincohi, whose lives were spent in the service of their fellow- 
men, she must call a halt on selfishness and check the modern ten- 
dency towards materialism. The advance of the commercial spirit 
in our day of frenzied finance is a threat against the life of idealism. 

How can altruism live if the dollar h& allowed to rule the nation ? 
In a country where selfishness has its deadly grip upon the, throat of 
the nation the higher life must perish, idealism must die, and the 
things of the spirit must be stifled. 

Unless the waves of materialism are beaten back, some future Gib- 
bon will pen the sad story of ' ' The Decline and Fall of the American 
Republic. ' ' 

Trentanove 's exquisite statue of Marquette was placed in the Stat- 
uary Hall in the Capitol Building at Washington because the life of 
the great missionary and explorer was one of consecrated service to 
mankind. Marquette is in the midst of statesmen, generals, and 
heroes, men of varying religious beliefs and of different eras of our 
country's history, men in whose lives idealism reigned, characters of 
the type of John Winthrop, Roger Williams, Washington, Jefferson, 
and Abraham Lincoln. 

The intrepid missionary and explorer is not out of place in that 
galaxy of national heroes ; for his life was one of consecrated service. 
Filled with the love of God, he proved that love by deeds of unselfish- 
ness, by acts of sublime sacrifice on behalf of those for whom the 
Master offered up His life. The State of Illinois and the City of Chi- 
cago must ever keep in loving remembrance the name and memory 
of Pere Marquette. 

May we not cherish the hope that some hero-worshiper in our great 
and prosperous city, mindful of the difference between true and false 



226 250th anniversary of Marquette's arrival at Chicago 

heroism, will pay tribute to the true type by building a suitable monu- 
ment to Pere Marquette? 

Chicago will honor itself by paying tribute to truei greatness, and 
a statue combining the characteristic traits of the heroic missionary- 
explorer, as revealed in the artistic creations of Lamprecht and Tren- 
tanove, will not only make known to future generations the spirit of 
Pere Marquette, but also teach the nobility of a life, filled with divine 
love and dedicated to the service of mankind. 

Herbert C. Noonan, S. J. 

St. Ignatius College, 
Chicago. 



TW^O HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH ANNI- 
VERSARY HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 

By Joseph J. Thompson, LL. D. 
Foreword 

In the following chapters will be found, as nearly in chronological 
order as it seems practical to adopt, the story of the discovery, de- 
velopment and progress of the great state of Illinois. 

The record of the geographical division of the world, which has 
for more than three centuries been designated by some form of the 
title ''Illinois," as it may be gathered from various sources, includes 
some of the most interesting events that have been chronicled with 
reference to the Western continent. 

From the first lofty accounts of the region, penned by the saintly 
and erudite Father Marquette, to the latest incident of historic in- 
terest in the year 1924, when this work concludes, the march of events 
is interesting, striking, majestic, justifying the pride in their com- 
monwealth felt by the residents of Illinois. 

It would tax the ability of a writer much greater than the present 
author to do complete justice to this great state, and the great men 
and women who have populated and developed it. The chronicler is 
largely confined to the task of setting down important events as 
they have occurred. It is not for him to call forth the shadows of 
the great departed, and command them to pass in panorama, to be 
viewed in the light of their efforts and achievements. If one could 
people a great stage with all the men and women of the past who 
have rendered special services and conferred signal benefits upon 
our state, making visible their noble deeds, then indeed would we 
have approached the honor and the service due such a community. 
How far short of this ideal the present effort falls the writer is pain- 
fully aware, but the shortcomings are of mind and not of heart. 

As one passes from chapter to chapter, and from event to event, 
in this narrative, he will be struck by the fact that this has never 
been an ultra-conservative community; indeed, if he shall take occa- 
sion to note the fact, he will be surprised at the frequent outbursts 
of violence and evidences of intolerance. The conviction will be 
thrust upon the reader that the citizenry of the state always has 
been quite contentious. Radicalism may be said to have been a 
feature of the Illinois populace, and no stratum of society has been 
immune from such infection. The radicalists in high places, amongst 

227 



228 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

the learned and exclusive, have been as violent in Illinois as the lowly 
and unlettered, and it is worth noting that the radicals of the self- 
styled better element, have been as frequently, at least, if not more 
frequently, proven erroneous than those of the less pretentious. It 
is consoling, however, to reflect that despite temporary abberrations 
and violent outbursts, sometimes doing present injustice or injury, in 
the end good judgment usually prevailed, and thiB people, through 
their law-making bodies or otherwise, have generally arrived at sound 
conclusions, and so far as is perhaps humanly possible wrought 
justice and righteousness. 

It is recognized that the present is perhaps a more intimate and 
personal work than books of this character usually are. It purports 
to record what the author believes to be of chiefest interest to all 
classes of people, and to give appropriate attention proportionately 
to such features. Few books of history have perhaps said so much 
concerning religion and nationality, for example, but what is said 
here seems to be fully justified, if we really believe what we profess 
with respect to such subjects. It may be an occasion of some question 
that in speaking of religious events or considerations the* Catholic 
Church is so prominently, and frequently first mentioned. This should 
occasion no surprise, since that Church was first in time, and has 
always been predominently first in membership, and generally in 
every feature of church work and development. Racial strains, too, 
have been greatly influential in Illinois, and deserve much more con-^ 
sideration than has usually been given such topics. 

A special work of this nature is amply justified by the important 
position of the region which has so long borne the name of Illinois. 
It deals not alone with the present state, but with a territory equal 
to some of the greatest empires, and involves a great section of 
America. If New England, the Pacific slope or Mexico, for example, 
deserve special treatment in history, then, indeed, is the history of 
the Illinois country worthy of special study. 

The present writer is under heavy obligations to many others who 
have delved into the record of this region, and by means of notes or 
otherwise gratefully acknowledges such obligations. 

Joseph J. Thompson. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 229 

Chapter I. Marqttette and Joliet 

1. Father James Marquette and Louis Joliet. The first men of 
the white race that are positively known to have been in Illinois were 
Father James Marquette, a Jesuit priest, Louis Joliet, a Canadian 
Frenchman and five Canadians who accompanied them to assist in 
rowing the boats in which they traveled and in procuring food and 
performing other necessary work. The journey which brought them to 
Illinois was undertaken at the direction of the French government. 
Many reports of the existence of a great river to the west of the 
French settlements in Canada had reached the white inhabitants and 
thiB discovery and exploration of the region where the river was said 
to be had long been much desired. It was not, however, until the 
year 1672 that definite action was taken and the men were selected to 
undertake the voyage. Father Marquette tells of this action on the 
part of the government in a letter he wrote some time afterward de- 
scribing the journey. 

2. Directed to Undertake a Voyage of Discovery. "The feast of 
the Blessed Virgin — whom I have always invoked since I have been 
in this country of the Ottawas, to obtain from God the grace of being 
able to visit the nations who dwell along the Mississippi River — was 
precisely the day on which Monsieur Joliet arrived with orders from 
Monsieur the Count de Frontenac, our governor, and Monsieur Talon, 
our intendant, to accomplish this discovery with me. I was all the 
more delighted at this good news, since I saw that my plans were 
about to be accomplished and since I found myself in the blessed 
necessity of exposing my life for the salvation of all these peoples, and 
especially of the Illinois, who had very urgently entreated me, when 
I was at the Point of St. Esprit, to carry the word of God to their 
country." It is thus Father Marquette introduces the story of his 
journey. 

3. The Journey Begun. Preparations were carefully made and 
on the 17th day of May, 1673, Father Marquette, Louis Joliet and 
their five aids set out in two canoes for their momentous journey. The 
start was made from Michilimackinac, now known as Mackinac, lo- 
cated at the extreme north end of Lake Michigan, in what is now 
the State of Michigan. 

4. The Route Followed. Looking at the map one will see that 
proceeding from Mackinac around the western bend of the lake a 
neck of water separates itself from the lake and projects southwardly 



230 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

into the land. This body of water is called Green Bay, and it was 
by Green Bay that the party descended to its lowest extremity. There 
they pushed into the Fox River which empties into Green Bay at the 
point and rowed up stream in a southwesterly direction to a point 
that became known as ' ' The Portage, ' ' now the city of Portage, Wis- 
consin. 

5. The Portages. This and other landing places used in these 
early days, like that of Chicago and at the headwaters of the St. 
Josoeph's River in Indiana, were called portages from the fact that 
canoes and goods in transport were taken out of the water and carried 
overland to another stream. As travel increased these portages became 
points of importance and usually trading posts grew up around them, 
some of which developed into important cities. 

6. Re-Enihark Upon the Wisconsin River. Leaving the Fox River 
and carrying their canoes laden with their supplies overland to the 
Wisconsin River they again embarked and pushed down stream in a 
southwesterly direction to the mouth of that river. 

7. Devotion to the Blessed Virgin. When they reached the di- 
vide, that is, the top of the water-shed, where the waters cease to 
flow into the great lakes and commence to flow toward the Mississippi, 
the lands beyond which were strange, the French never having pro- 
ceeded that far, "We began," says Marquette, "all together a new 
devotion to the Blessed Virgin Immaculate, which we practiced daily, 
addressing to her special prayers to place under her protection both 
our persons and the success of our voyage." 

8. They Discover the Mississippi. Exactly one month after be- 
ginning the journey on June 17, 1673, "with a joy that I cannot 
express," says Father Marquette, they entered the Mississippi River 
and thus consummated one of the most important discoveries since 
Columbus sighted San Salvador. Father Marquette fulfilled his 
promise with respect to naming the river. He tells us in his journal 
that at the beginning of the journey he placed the "voyage under the 
protection of the Blessed Virgin Immaculate, promising Her that if 
She granted us the favor of discovering the great river, I would give 
it the name of the Conception, and that I would also make the first 
mission that I should establish among those new peoples, bear the 
same name. ' ' And the discoverer tells us, ' ' This I have actually done 
among the Illinois." So the first name given by white men to the 
Mississippi River was The Conception. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 231 

9. The First Landing from the Mississippi was in Iowa. The 
party proceeded down the Mississippi without stopping until the 25th 
of June when they "perceived on the water's edge some tracks of 
men, and a narrow, somewhat beaten path leading to a fine prairie. 
Resolving to investigate, Father Marquette and M. Joliet, leaving the 
others with their canoes, followed the path and presently came in 
sight of an Indian village on the banks of the river and two others 
on a hill about a mile from the first. Most investigators have located 
these villages on the Des Moines River and accordingly this visit of 
Marquette and Joliet was paid to our sister state of Iowa, the first 
known visit of white men to that state. 

10. Received affectionately hy the Indians. "We heartily com- 
mended ourselves to God, ' ' says Marquette, * ' and after imploring His 
aid, we went farther without being perceived, and approached so near 
that we could even hear the savages talking. We therefore decided 
that it was time to reveal ourselves. This we did by shouting with all 
our energy, and stopped without advancing any farther." When the 
Indians saw them, unattended, and noted the "Blackgown" (the name 
the Indians gave the Jesuits on account of the black robe they wore) 
they sent out two of their number with a peace pipe to meet them 
and brought to them hatchets, guns, manufactured beads, etc. The 
missionaries gave medals, crucifixes and other religious articles. Belts 
of wampum were also given as presents during speech making cere- 
monies. Having conferred with them Father Marquette spoke to them 
of their journey and of Christ. 

11. A Lasting Friendship Established. Finally all were as- 
sembled together in the fashion of the savages including the chiefs 
and head men and they were made welcome, feasted and entertained 
after which, says Marquette, "I spoke to them by four presents that 
I gave them. By the first I told them that we were journeying peace- 
fully to visit the nations dwelling on the »river as far as the sea. 
By the second I announced to them that God, who created them had 
pity on them, inasmuch as, they had so long been ignorant of Him, 
He wished to make Himself known to all the peoples ; that I was sent 
by Him for that purpose, and that it was for them to acknowledge 
and obey Him. By the third, I said that the great captain of the 
French informed them that he it was who restored peace everywhere 
and that he had subdued the Iroquois. Finally, by the fourth, we 
begged them to give us all the information that they had about the 
sea, and about nations through whom we must pass to reach it." 



232 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

12. The Significance of the Presents. The presents of which Mar- 
quette speaks were given in accordance wdth Indian customs. They 
were usually articles of personal apparel, skins, tobacco, food, and 
religious articles. Wampum was beads made of shells broken up 
in small pieces and pierced so that they could be sewed or strung. 
A wampum belt was made by sewing or fastening such beads to a 
strip of leather or skin, generally worked on in designs. The savages 
did not write and had therefore no written records but presents 
of this character were given to evidence promises or statements made 
by them or to them. The present could be preserved and the state- 
ment remembered by the present given when it was made. Marquette 
was well acquainted with this custom and gave the four presents as 
testimony or reminders of the statements he made to the savages. 

13. Great Chief A7iswers Marquette. The Chief of the tribe arose 
and made a most eloquent answer: "I thank thee, Blackgown, and 
thee, 0, Frenchman, for having taken so much trouble to come to us. 
Never has the earth been so beautiful, or the sun so bright as today ; 
never has our river been so calm, or so clear of rocks, which your 
canoes have removed in passing; never has our tobacco tasted so 
good or our corn appeared so fine, as we now see them. Here is my 
son, whom I give thee to show thee my heart. I beg thee to have 
pity on me, and all my nation. It is thou who knowest the Great Spirit 
Who has made us all. It is thou who speakest to Him and hearest 
His word. Beg Him to give me life and health and to come and 
dwell with us in order to make us know Him." 

This meeting and the addresses of Father Marquette and the great 
chief have been immortalized in Longfellow's Hiawatha. The poet 
identifies Hiawatha with the great chief and renders his address in 
the beautiful Hiawatha meter. 

14. The Nature of the Feast. At the council at which Father 
Marquette and the chief exchanged pledges of friendship was served 
a great feast "consisting of four dishes, which were to be partaken 
of in accordance with all their fashions. The first course was a 
great wooden platter full of sagamite, that is to say, meal of Indian 
corn boiled in water and seasoned with fat. The master of ceremonies 
filled a spoon with sagamite three or four times, and put it to my mouth 
as if I -were a little child. He did the same to M. Jolliet. As a second 
course, he caused a second platter to be brought on which were three 
fish. He took some pieces of them, removed the bones therefrom, and 
after blowing upon them to cool them, he put them in our mouths as 
one would give food to a bird. For the third course, they brought a 



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HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 233 

large dog that had just been killed but when they learned that we 
did not eat this meat, they removed it from before us. Finally, the 
fourth course was a piece of wild ox, the fattest morsels of which 
were placed in our months." 

15. Warned of the Dangers of Their Undertaking. As a pro- 
tection against hostile Indians the chief gave Father Marquette a 
peace pipe which was a powerful talisman amongst the Indians. 
Father Marquette says "There is nothing more mysterious or more 
respected among them. Less honor is paid to the crowns and sceptres 
of kings than the savages bestow upon this. It seems to be the god 
of peace and of war, the arbiter of life and death. It has but to be 
carried upon one's person and displayed, to enable one to walk safely 
through the midst of enemies, who, in the hottest of the fight, lay 
down their arms when it is shown. ' ' In presenting the peace pipe the 
chief begged Marquette and Joliet "on behalf of all his nation not 
to go farther, on account of the great dangers to which we exposed 
ourselves. ' ' Marquette replied that ' ' he feared not death, and regarded 
no happiness greater than that of losing his life for the glory of 
Him who has made all." A large delegation of the savages accom- 
panied them to their canoes and with tender farewells and mutual 
pledges of friendship, the travelers parted from their new found 
friends and proceeded on their journey down the river. 

16. The Terrible Thunder Bird. "We embark in the sight of all 
the people, who admire our little canoes, for they have never seen any 
like them," says Marquette. Floating down the river they found 
many strange sights to arrest their interest. "While skirting some 
rocks which by their height and length inspired awe, we saw upon 
one of them two painted monsters which at first made us afraid, and 
upon which the boldest savages dare not long rest their eyes. They 
are as large as a calf; they have horns on their heads like those of 
deer, a horrible look, red eyes, a beard like a tiger's, a face some- 
what like a man 's, a body! covered with scales, and so long a tail that 
it winds all around the body, passing above the head and going back 
between the legs, ending in a fish's tail. Green, red and black are 
the colors composing the picture. Moreover these two monsters are 
so well painted that we cannot believe that any savage is their author 
for good painters in France would find it difficult to paint so well, 
and besides, they are so high up on the rock that it is difficult to reach 
that place conveniently to paint them." Father Marquette made a 
sketch of these curious paintings and many reproductions of his sketch 
have been published. These paintings are said to represent the 



234 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

"Thunder Bird," and there is an interesting legend connected with 
the pictures which were painted on the high rocks opposite what is 
now Alton, Illinois. According to the legend, the thunder bird was 
a hideous monster with wings and great claws and teeth, accustomed 
to devour every living thing with which it came in reach. Many 
Indians, their wives and children, are said to have been devoured by 
it and many devices were proposed to rid the world of the scourge. 
Finally a young Indian warrior offered himself as a sacrifice for the 
destruction of the monster. He proposed that they watch the great 
bird-animal and that when he left his abode in the rocks on one of 
his long flights they could tie him, the warrior, securely to a stake 
i^n the ledge of rock in front of the mouth of the cave and that a 
number of other warriors station themselves near in hiding, armed 
with poisoned arrows so that when the beast returned from his flight 
Uiey might kill him. The proposition was accepted and when the 
beast again took flight, everything was arranged as proposed. Upon 
the return of the monster he discovered the young warrior and imme- 
diately attacked him, fastening his teeth and claws in his body. The 
thongs with which the warrior was tied held him securely and the 
more the monster tried to drag the warrior away, the moore he became 
entangled with the thongs. At a concerted moment the concealed 
warriors opened upon the monster with their poisoned arrows, and 
before he could release himself he was killed. To make the painting, 
it is said that the monster was stretched out before the rock and 
an outline of him marked out. Then the picture was painted and 
filled in with the various colored paints. On account of aU the suffer- 
ings of the Indians inflicted by this monster, all passers-by were 
directed to discharge an arrow at the image. Later when firearms 
came into use, guns were discharged at the object by reason of which 
the painting became greatly marred. Such is the tradition of the 
' ' Piasa " or " Thunder Bird. ' ' Most writers ridicule the whole subject, 
but it seems certain that the paintings existed in Marquette 's time and 
many other travelers of a much later date saw them. They were quite 
distinct when seen by Stoddart in 1803 ; when visited in 1838 only one 
could be seen, of which traces were still discernible in 1848, soon 
after which the rock was quarried away. 

17. Passing the Turbulent Missouri River. The party had 
scarcely left the sight of the painted monsters and were even yet 
conversing about them when they heard the noise of a rapid which 
they were approaching. "I have seen nothing more dreadful," says 
Marquette. "An accumulation of large and entire trees, branches 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 235 

and floating islands, was issuing from the mouth of the river Pekis- 
tanoui (Missouri), with such impetuosity that we could not without 
great danger risk passing through it. So great was the agitation that 
the water was very muddy and could not become clear." It is be- 
lieved that there was a flood in the Missouri at that time and that the 
great agitation was caused by the discharge of the flooded river. The 
waters of the Missouri are noted as being darker than that of the 
Mississippi and the united waters of the two rivers is darker after 
their junction. 

18. The Demo7i's Ahode. Shortly after passing the mouth of the 
Missouri, Marquette says, "we passed by a place that is dreaded by 
the savages, because they believe that a manitou is there, that is to 
say, a demon, that devours travelers and the savages who wished to 
divert us from our undertaking, warned us against it." Lest we 
should be frightened at this statement, Father Marquette tells us what 
was the cause of fright. ' ' There is a small cove surrounded by rocks 
twenty feet high, into which the whole cuurrent of the river rushes, 
and being pushed back against the waters following it, and checked 
by an island nearby, the current is compelled to pass through a 
narrow channel. This is not done without a violent struggle between 
all these waters, which force one another back, not without a great 
din, which inspires terror in the savages, who fear everything." 
"But," Father Marquette remarks, "this did not prevent us from 
passing." This cove and rock which so terrified the Indians in the 
early days is now known as the "Grand Tower." 

19. They Pass and Note the Ohio River. Proceeding upon their 
journey they passed the mouth of the Ohio River, which in the early 
days was called the Ouaboukigou (Wabash), it being erroneously sup- 
posed that the main stream, made up by the junction of the Wabash 
and the Ohio, was the Wabash instead of the Ohio. Father Marquette 
makes some observations relative to the Shawnee Indians who dwell 
upon the Wabash and of the cruelties practiced upon them by the 
Iroquois. 

20. Discover Iron Ore. "A short distance above the river of 
which I have just spoken are cliffs, on which our Frenchmen noticed 
an iron mine which they consider very rich. There are several veins 
of ore and a bed a foot thick, and one sees large masses of it united 
with pebbles." The iron deposits of Missouri and Arkansas were 
worked soon after the first white settlers came. 



236 JOSEPPI J. THOMPSON 

21. A Test of the Calumet. A short distance below the Ohio the 
party perceived some savages armed with guns and in what the 
travelers thought was a hostile attitude. Father Marquette at once 
held out the "plumed calumet" presented to him by the chief of the 
village where they had stopped and the Frenchmen prepared for an 
encounter. Father Marquette spoke to them in the Huron language 
and received a reply that he thought was a declaration of war. He 
learned, however, that the Indians were as much frightened as was 
his party and that what he took for a threat was an invitation for 
them to draw near, that the Indians might give them food. On a 
better understanding, the party landed and visited their cabins and 
were given "meat from wild cattle and bear's grease with white 
plums, which are very good" says Marquette. Marquette noted a 
similarity between this tribe and the Iroquois and Hurons and the 
investigators think, although they were in the country of the Chicka- 
saws, that these Indians must have been either Tuscaroras or Chero- 
kees, both of which tribes were of Iroquois origin. These Indians 
had guns, hatchets, hoes, knives, beads, and flasks of double glass in 
which they kept their powder. The Indians told Marquette that they 
bought all these and other goods from Europeans who lived to the east. 
These were, no doubt, the Spaniards of the Florida country. Best of 
all, the Indians told them they were only ten days' journey from the 
sea (Gulf of Mexico). As was his invariable custom Father Marquette 
talked to them of the Gospel, and instructed them in the faith. "I 
gave them as much instruction as I could, with some medals." 

22. A Serious Indian Attack. Near the 33rd degree of latitude 
the explorers saw another Indian village which they found was that 
of the Mitchigamea, one of the Illinois tribes, apparently temporarily 
in that region. They were originally from the neighborhood of Lake 
Michigan, from which that body of water takes its name. These 
savages were really warlike in their manifestations. "They prepared 
to attack us," says Marquette, "on both land and water, part of 
them embarked in great wooden canoes, some to ascend and some 
to descend the river, in order to intercept us on all sides. Those who 
were on land came and went as if to commence the attack. In fact, 
some young men threw themselves into the water to come and seize 
my canoe, but the current compelled them to return to land. One of 
them hurled his club which passed over without striking us. In vain 
I showed them the calumet, and made them signs that we were not 
coming to war against them. The alarm continued, and they were 
already preparing to pierce us with arrows from all side, when God 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 237 

suddenly touched the hearts of the old men, who were standing at the 
water's edge. This no doubt happened through the sight of our calu- 
met, which they had not clearly distinguished from afar, but as I did 
not cease displaying it they were influenced by it and checked the 
ardor of the young men." Peace succeeded and the white men were 
brought to the shore and into the camps and given sagamit^ and fish. 
After Father Marquette had tried six languages which he spoke he 
found an old man who understood the Illinois tongue to some extent 
and told the Indians, through him as interpreter, the purpose of their 
journey, speaking to them of God and asking information concerning 
their further journey. "I know not," says Marquette, "whether they 
apprehended what I told them about God, and about matters per- 
taining to their salvation. This is a seed cast into the ground, which 
will bear fruit in its time." As to further information they were 
referred to the inhabitants of another yarge village, called Alvamsea 
(Arkansas), which was only eight or ten leagues lower down. This 
tribe kept the travelers all night, fed them sagamite and sent them 
off with an escort in the morning. 

23. With the Akamsea (Arkansas). Marquette and his com- 
panions were correctly informed as to the location of the next tribe 
or Indians. Akamsea was a village of the Quapaw Indians of Sioux 
stock. The name Akamsea means ' ' down-stream people. ' ' The village 
visited by Marquette appears to have been above the Arkansas River 
and was perhaps near the spot where Ferdinand De Soto, the early 
Spanish explorer, met his death in 1541. As the party neared this 
village, two canoes were seen approaching. The commander stood erect 
holding in his hand the calumet with which he made signs of friend- 
ship. He sang a pleasant song and offered tobacco to smoke and 
sagamite and bread made of Indian corn to eat. The strangers were 
brought on land and seated on mats prepared for them while the 
savages gathered around them, the elders nearest them, then the 
warriors and finally "the common people in a crowd." A young 
Indian was found who could understand the Illinois language well, 
and through him Father Marquette spoke to the assembly, of course, 
of the Faith. "They admired what I said to them about God and 
the mysteries of our holy Faith and manifested a great desire to 
retain me among them, that I might instruct them," says Marquette. 
These savages too, assured the explorers that they were close to the 
sea, and they knew as well, that such was the case on account of the 
latitude. For that and other sufficient reasons Marquette and Joliet 
after a consultation, resolved to return from there. 



238 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

24. Retracing Their Journey. "After a month's navigation, 
while descending the Mississippi from the 42nd to the 34th degree, 
and beyond," says Marquette, ''and after preaching the Gospel as 
well as I could to the nations I met, we started on the 17th of July, 
from the village of the Akamsea, to retrace our steps. ' ' In returning, 
they followed the Mississippi until they reached the mouth of the 
Illinois River. Here they entered the Illinois and pushed up that 
stream. 

25. Nature of the Country — Fruits and Nuts. Father Marquette 
was not unmindful of the natural objects to be seen on the journey 
and the richness in resources of the country passed. At the first 
Indian village at which they stopped, that of the FoUes Avoine, the 
French name for the Menominee, he observed fields of wild oats and 
describes the manner of gathering, hulling and cooking that grain, 
which, when cooked as the Indians prepared it, he says had "almost 
as delicate a taste as rice." Marquette investigated a mineral spring 
and sought out a medicinal herb that Father Claude Jean AUouez, 
S. J., another of the great missionaries, had seen in the neighborhood 
visited by Father Marquette. At the village of the Maskoutens, he 
observed that much Indian corn was raised and that great quantities 
of plums and grapes were gathered. Along the Wisconsin Eiver they 
noted that the soil was very fertile, there were oak, walnut and bass 
wood trees, and they saw deer and cattle in large numbers. Along 
the Mississippi they saw also deer and cattle and bustards and swans 
but were more impressed by the great number of fish, many species 
of which were strange. After reaching 41 degrees they saw many 
turkeys and also saw for the first time, buffalo, which were so much 
of a curiosity that Marquette not only described them, referring ex- 
pressly to " a rather high hump on the back, ' ' but also drew a picture 
on his manuscript. Farther down but while still opposite Illinois, they 
found quantities of mulberry, the prickly, pear, the persimmon and 
the chincapin. After passing the Ohio they noted canoes which are of 
course common to that country. About this time the mosquitoes began 
to torment them and Marquette perhaps came nearer murmuring than 
ever before. 

26. The Wonders of Illinois. Upon entering the Illinois River, 
Marquette exclaims : ' ' We have seen nothing like this river that we 
enter, as regards its fertility of soil, its prairies and woods, its cattle, 
elk, deer, wildcats, bustards, swans, ducks, parroquettes and even 
beaver. There are many small lakes and rivers. That on which we 
sailed is wide, deep and still for 65 leagues." 



HISTORY OP ILLINOIS 239 

27. stop at Peoria Lake. The first stop in Illinois was at Peoria 
Lake, where a village of the Peoria tribe of Indians was located. The 
Peorias were of the Illinois confederacy and are therefore known as 
Illinois. Of the stop at Peoria Lake Father Marquette says: "We 
passed through the Illinois at Peoria, and during three days I preached 
the Faith in all their cabins, after which, while we were embarking, 
a dying child was brought to me at the waters' edge and I baptized 
it shortly before it died, through an admirable act of Providence for 
the salvation of that innocent soul. ' ' This incident repaid Marquette 
for the travail of the journey, for he says : ' ' Had this voyage resulted 
in the salvation of even one soul, I would consider all my troubles well 
rewarded, and I have reason to presume that such is the case." 

28. With the Kaskaskia Tribe. Proceeding from Peoria the 
travelers presently found on the river ''a village of Illinois called 
Kaskaskia, consisting of 74 cabins." The Illinois consisted of five 
tribes, namely : Kaskaskias, Peorias, Mitchegamea, all of whom Father 
Marquette saw on this journey, and the Cahokias and Tamaroas. The 
village of the Kaskaskia which Marquette visited on this journey was 
near what is now Utiea in La Salle county. Investigators say that 
there were usually five fires in each cabin and that usually two families 
were apportioned to each fire. Families have been estimated at five 
persons. Accordingly the village contained a population of some 
three thousand six hundred. "They received us very well," says 
Marquette, "and obliged me to promise that I would return to in- 
struct them." This promise Marquette fulfilled as will be seen in 
the next chapter, and in that connection occurred one of the most 
momentous events of our history, namely the establishment of the 
Catholic church in mid-America. 

29. End of the First Journey. One of the chiefs of the Kaskaskia 
with his young men escorted Father Marquette's party to Lake 
Michigan. On this part of the journey the party passed the site of 
the present city of Joliet and named a hill there Mount Joliet and 
down the Chicago river and it was at that time no doubt that the 
first white men saw the site of Chicago. "At the end of September" 
says Marquette, "we reached the Bay des Puantz (Green Bay), from 
which we had started at the beginning of June." Marquette's jour- 
ney ended at the Jesuit Mission of St. Francis Xavier on Sturgeon 
Bay, now De Pere, Wisconsin. Here he wrote the story of his journey 
from which we have quoted above. Jolliet went on to Quebec to 
report to the Grovemor. 



240 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

30. Findmg of Father Marquette's Journal. The Catholic his- 
torian, John Gilmary Shea, first made known to historians Father 
Marquette's journals. After the closing of the Jesuit mission houses, 
the original Marquette Manuscripts were brought to St. Mary's con- 
vent in Montreal where they lay hidden for a century and a half, 
and until discovered by Mr. Shea who published them both in French 
and in English in 1852. Since then others have published the jour- 
nals and they may be found in full in Shea's *' Discovery and Ex- 
ploration of the Mississippi," in volume 59 of Thwaites, Jesuit 
Relations, and in a late publication by Louise Phelps Kellog, Ph. D., 
Early Narratives of the Northwest. Father Claude Dablon, S. J., was 
Superior of the Jesuit Missions over Father Marquette at the time 
he made this and his next succeeding journey and was fully advised 
of the journals, and commented upon and explained them. 

31. Jolliet — The Lost Report. Jolliet separated from Father 
Marquette at the end of the lake journey and went on to report to the 
Governor the result of the exploration. When upon the point of 
landing at Montreal, Jolliet 's canoe capsized and all its contents in- 
cluding his journal, maps and charts were lost. He made a verbal 
report to the Governor and later recited all the details of the trip to 
the Jesuit fathers, from which Father Dablon composed an account 
embodying some of the interesting items of the report. Joliet was only 
twenty-eight years old when he made this voyage and just at the 
threshold of his usefulness. He was afterwards employed by the gov- 
ernment to undertake exploration and other responsible work. He 
married in Canada and became the ancestor of a notable family. 

Chapter II. Marquette Returns — Establishes Church 

1. Illness at St. Francis Xavier's. We left Father Marquette at 
the Convent of St. Francis Xavier, the Jesuit mission, then existing 
at what is now De Pere, Wisconsin, where he suffered an illness of 
which he tells us he was cured in the month of September of the 
following year. During his stay at the mission he wrote the journal 
from which we have been quoting, and negotiated with the superiors 
of his order to return to the Illinois in fulfillment of his promise. 
In October the fur traders from Quebec and its vicinity came up 
the St. Lawrence and over the lakes, reaching the mission and bring- 
ing the orders for which Marquette was eagerly waiting, authorizing 
him to proceed to the Illinois. 

2. Starting on the Second Journey. "After complying with your 
reverence's request for copies of my journal concerning the Mis- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 241 

sissippi River," says Father Marquette, "I departed with Pierre 
Porteret and Jacques (Le Castor) on the twenty-fifth of October, 1674, 
about noon." 

3. On Lake Michigan. Father Marquette adopted a different 
method of recording the events of this journey, which took some- 
what the form of a diary, although he did not make an entry each 
day. The journey was quite difficult and nothing of a very cheerful 
nature is recorded until the first of November. On that day they were 
cheered by a visit from Chachagwessio, the great chief of the Illinois 
Indians, a quite prominent historical figure who "arrived at night 
with a deer on his back of which he gave us a share. ' ' On the fifth of 
November they fell in with a company of Indians celebrating a feast, 
and Father Marquette seized the opportunity of instructing them in 
the Faith. On the twenty-third, Father Marquette is taken ill again 
and the long period of sickness from which he suffered begins. The 
weather became very cold and the lake rough so that the journey 
was a very trying one the whole of the month of November. 

4. The Travelers Reach Chicago. On the fourth of December the 
little party reached the mouth of the Chicago River which Father 
Marquette called "the River of the Portage." They found the ice 
frozen to the depth of half a foot. The Father notes there was more 
snow there than elsewhere as well as more tracks of animals and 
turkeys. Father Marquette and his companions remained at the mouth 
of the river for seven days. In his entry of December 12, he says, 
"as we began yesterday to haul our baggage, in order to approach 
the Portage, the Illinois who had left the Pottawatomi arrived with 
great difficulty," ♦ * * "during our stay at the entrance of the 
river, Pierre and Jacques killed three cattle and four deer, one of 
which ran some distance with its heart split in two." 

5. The Encampment. According to Father Marquette's journal, 
they began to haul their baggage from the mouth of the river in order 
to approach the Portage, on the eleventh of December. By his entry 
of December fourteenth we learn that "having encamped near the 
Portage two leagues up the river, we resolved to winter there, as it 
was impossible to go farther since we were too much hindered, and 
my ailment did not permit me to give myself much fatigue. ' ' Father 
Dablon who was Father Marquette's superior and who had an oppor- 
tunity of conversing with the two Frenchmen who accompanied 
Father Marquette after the end of the journey, says that "it was 
there (on the Chicago River) that they constructed a cabin in which 
to pass the winter." 



242 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

6. The First Known ^Yh^te Inhabitants of Chicago. So far as 
known, Father Marquette and his two companions were the first white 
men to make an extended stay within what is now the limits of 
Chicago. Father IMarquette himself, with Jolliet and one of the two 
Frenchmen accompanying him on this trip and four others had, as 
we have seen, passed through what is now Chicago in August or 
September, 1673, but did not make any extended stay. It is very 
interesting to know what these earliest Chicagoans did and saw and 
heard, and Father Marquette's journal tells very much of that. He 
tells us of the passing of the Illinois Indians on the fourteenth of 
December carrying their furs to market. ''We gave them one of the 
cattle and one of the deer that Jacques had killed on the previous 
day," says Marquette. The band of Illinois Indians that met them 
on the lake and landed on the Chicago River, camped not far from 
them, and were about the premises until the fourteenth of December. 
In connection with these Indians Father Marquette writes under date 
of the fifteenth of December that being rid of the Illinois, "we said 
the Mass of the Conception." In his journal entry of December 12, 
he remarks, "we were unable to celebrate holy Mass on the day of 
the Conception, owing to the bad weather and cold." He did not 
fail, however, in his special devotion to the Immaculate Conception 
but as soon as the opportunity presented, fulfilled that duty. Con- 
trary to what one might expect from the rigorous surroundings, 
Marquette says, "we lived very pleasantly, for my illness did not 
prevent me from saying holy Mass every day. ' ' He records, however, 
that they were "unable to keep Lent except on Fridays and Satur- 
days." The hunting was good and Jacques and Pierre were success- 
ful hunters. They were able to bring in cattle, deer, turkeys and 
pigeons in considerable numbers. 

7. Father Marquette's Neighbors. In the new, wild country in 
which Father Marquette and his companions were stopping, most of 
the human beings that they saw were savage Indians. They were in 
no way terrified by these, however, as the Indians were always 
friendly to Father Marquette and all sought to serve him. There 
was a village of the Illinois only six leagues from where they were 
situated and they saw the residents of that village frequently. 
Strange to relate, there were two Frenchmen living in the neigh- 
borhood eighteen leagues away. One of the Frenchmen was called 
La Toupine. His right name was Pierre Moreau. He was a noted 
wood ranger and had been a soldier at Quebec. The other was a 
surgeon, and has not been designated by any other name, and nobody 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 243 

has been able to find out who this stranger was. That he was a good 
man and a devout Catholic is proven by the fact that as soon as he 
learned of the presence of Father Marquette and his companions 
on the Chicago River, he hastened to them with food and supplies. 
They told the Indians that their habitation was open for the Black- 
gown, and as Marquette said, "they have done and said all that could 
be expected of them." He tells us too that the surgeon spent some 
time with him in order to perform his devotions. Whither the surgeon 
came and where he and his companion went, no man knows, but they 
brought some cheer and comfort into the heart of the missionary. 

8. The Indian Conference. Father Marquette records as of the 
26th of January that "three Illinoisans brought us on behalf of the 
elders, two sacks of corn, some dried meat, pumpkins, and 12 beaver 
skins. In presenting these very useful articles, the Indians' form 
of address was used. The purpose of the presents was declared to be 
"first, to make me a mat; second, to ask me for powder; third, that 
we might not be hungry; fourth, to obtain a few goods." To this 
formal presentation. Father Marquette says, "I replied: that first, 
I came to instruct them by speaking to them of prayer, etc. ; second, 
that I would give them no powder because we sought to restore peace 
everywhere and I did not wish them to begin war with the Miamiis; 
third, that we feared not hunger ; fourth, that I would encourage the 
French to bring them goods and that they must give satisfaction to 
those who were among them for the beads which they had taken, 
as soon as the surgeon started to come here." Father Marquette 
further tells us that ' ' as they had come a distance of twenty leagues, 
I gave them in order to reward them for their troubles and for 
what they had brought me, a hatchet, two knives, three clasp knives, 
ten brasses of glass beads, two double mirrors, telling them that I 
would endeavor to go to the village but for a few days only, if my 
illness continued. 

9. The First Novena in Illinois. Father Marquette's illness con- 
tinued but he prayed confidently for relief and under his entry of 
February 9th tells us that "since we addressed ourselves to the 
Blessed Virgin Immaculate and commenced a novena with a Mass, 
at which Pierre and Jacque, who do everything they can to relieve 
me, received communion, to ask God to restore my health, my bloodj'- 
flux has left me, and all that remains is a weakness of the stomach. 
I am beginning to feel much better, and to regain my strength." 
This was the first novena in Illinois offered and thus answered. So 
firm was Father Marquette's belief in the solicitude of the Mother 



244 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

Immaculate that he not only believed firmly that she had procured 
for him relief from his sickness, but was lead to exclaim, "The 
Blessed Virgin has taken such care of us during our wintering that 
we have not lacked provisions and have still remaining a large sack 
of corn with some meat and food. We also lived very pleasantly, 
for my illness did not prevent me from saying holy Mass every day. ' ' 

10. They Resume Journey. The severe winter lasted until late 
in March. Father Marquette tells us that the thaw did not start 
in until the 25th of that month. Hot weather then came suddenly, 
however. On the very next day game began to make its appearance. 
Pierre and Jacque killed thirty pigeons. On the 28th the ice broke 
up, and formed a floe in the river above them. On the 29th, the 
waters rose so high that Marquette and his companions had barely 
time to escape from the cabin. They put their goods in the trees, 
and tried to sleep on a hillock. The water gained on them all night 
but there was a slight freeze and the water fell a little. In the ex- 
citement of the moment, Father Marquette records under date of 
March 30th that "the barrier has just broken, the ice has drifted 
away and because the water is already rising, we are bound to 
embark to continue our journey." 

11. Some Difficulties of Early Travel. Under date of March 31, 
Marquette says, "We started yesterday and travelled three leagues 
up the river without finding any portage. We hauled our goods 
probably about half an arpent. Besides this discharge, the river has 
another one by which we are to go down. The very high lands alone 
are not flooded. At the place where we are, the water has risen 
more than twelve feet. This is where we began our portage eighteen 
months ago. Bustards and ducks pass continually; we contented our- 
selves with seven. The ice, which is still drifting down, keeps us 
here, as we do not know in what condition the lower part of the 
river is." 

12. Disagreeable Delays. Under date of April 1, Father Mar- 
quette tells us they were delayed by a strong wind but that they 
hope to go tomorrow to the place where the French are, that is, 
La Toupine, and the surgeon, at a distance of 15 leagues. On the 
6th he states that "strong winds and the cold prevent us from pro- 
ceeding, but they just met the surgeon with a savage going up with 
a canoe load of furs. The cold was so great, however, the state of 
the weather evidently having changed, that the surgeon was obliged 
to give up his trip, and made a cache, that is a cave, in which he 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 245 

deposited his beaver skins and determined to return to the Indian 
village nearby with Father Marquette. Here Father Marquette's 
journal ends, while he is yet only part way upon the last section 
of his journey. 

13. Completing the Journey. It is a matter of much regret that 
we have not a further account of this momentous journey by Father 
Marquette himself. Either he did not write anything further or if 
he did write an account of his subsequent movements, such account 
has been lost. We are not without reliable information as to what 
Father Marquette afterwards did. His two companions returned to 
the mission from which they started, and no doubt gave the mission- 
aries their detailed verbal account. Father Dablon was one of these 
missionaries, and the superior of the mission at that time, and 
he has detailed Father Marquette's movements from the time he 
started on the second voyage to that of his death and subsequent 
burial. Respecting the remainder of the journey, Father Dablon says 
that Father Marquette se out "on the 29th of March. He spent 
11 days on the way during which time he had occasion to suffer 
much, both from his own illness from which he had not entirely 
recovered and from the very severe and unfavorable weather." It 
will easily be seen that it was a difficult trip, when it took eleven 
days to travel from Chicago to what is now Utica, a distance of about 
50 miles. 

14. Father Marquette's Arrival at His Destination. "On at last 
arriving at the village," says Father Dablon, "he was received as 
an angel from Heaven. After he had assembled at various times the 
chiefs of the nation, with all the old men that he might sow in their 
hearts the seeds of the Gospel and after having given instruction in 
the cabins which were always filled with a great crowd of people, 
he resolved to address all in public in a general assembly, which he 
called together in the open air, the cabins being too small to contain 
all the people." 

15. Marquette Establishes the Church. A beautiful prairie close 
to the village was selected for the great gathering. The site was 
adorned and decorated after the fashion of the country by covering 
it with mats and bear skins. The altar was erected and above and 
about it were four large pictures of the Blessed Virgin, draped and 
hung with silken cloths and banners in such fashion that the pictures 
were visible on all sides. In a circle surrounding the altar sat the 
chiefs and elders, five hundred in number. The young men remained 



246 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

standing. The audience numbered more than fifteen hundred men 
without counting the women and children, who were numerous, the 
village being composed of twenty-five hundred to three thousand 
inhabitants. Such was the setting for this august ceremony. The 
day was Holy Thursday, April 11, 1675, the anniversary of the day 
on which Christ instituted the Blessed Eucharist. 

16. The Ceremonies. "Father Marquette addressed the whole 
body of people and conveyed to them ten messages by means of ten 
presents which he gave them. He explained to them the principal 
mysteries of our religion, and the purpose that had brought him to 
their country. Above all, he preached to them Jesus Christ on the 
very eve of that great day on which he had died upon the cross 
for them, as well as for all the rest of mankind. Then he said holy 
Mass." Thus was established the mission of the Immaculate Con- 
ception of the Blessed Virgin, which has existed from thence to the 
present, and was introduced Christianity, the Catholic religion in 
the interior of America, nearly two hundred and fifty years ago. 

17. The First Easter Services. "On the third day after, which 
was Easter Sunday (April 14, 1675), the altar being prepared in 
the same manner as on Thursday, he celebrated the holy mysteries 
for the second time, and by these two, the first sacrifices ever offered 
there to God, he took possession of that land in the name of Jesus 
Christ, and gave to that mission the name of the Immaculate Con- 
ception of the Blessed Virgin. ' ' 

18. Father Marquette's Farewell. At this Easter Sunday service, 
the saintly Marquette, worn with illness and hardships, and realizing 
that his days were numbered, announced to his newly organized 
mission that he was obliged to leave, but pledged his word that he 
or some other of the Fathers would return to carry on the work 
which he had inaugurated. "He was listened to by all those peoples 
with universal joy, and they prayed for him with most earnest en- 
treaty to come back to them as soon as possible." Upon taking leave 
"He set out with so many tokens of regard on the part of those good 
people that as a mark of honor they chose to escort him for more than 
thirty leagues on the road, vieing with each other in taking charge 
of his slender baggage." 

19. Going to His Grave. We have no means of determining 
exactly how Father Marquette traveled from the Kaskaskia village 
to the lake, whether by canoes or across country. We do know, 
however, that he embarked with his two companions in a canoe on 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 247 

Lake Michigan, that he skirted the southern end of the lake, and 
pushed on up the eastern side near the shore. That shortly after he 
embarked upon the lake, "he became so feeble and exhausted that he 
was unable to assist or even move himself and had to be handled and 
carried about like a child." He began to make preparations for death. 
He was frequently heard to repeat, "I know that my Redeemer 
liveth," and ''Mary, Mother of Grace, Mother of God, remember 
me." He recited every day his breviary, and although so low that 
his sight and strength were greatly impaired, he continued to do so 
until the last day of his life, despite the remonstrances of his com- 
panions. ' ' 

20. Preparing for Death. ''The evening before his death which 
was a Friday, he told (his companions) very joyously that it would 
take place on the morrow. He conversed with them during the whole 
day as to what would need to be done for his burial, about the man- 
ner in which they should inter him, about the spot that should be 
chosen for his grave, how feet, hands and face should be arranged, 
how they should erect a cross over his grave. He even went so far 
as to counsel them three hours before he expired, that as soon as he 
was dead they should take the little hand bell of his chapel and sound 
it while he was being put under the ground." Thus did he converse 
with them as he awaited death. 

21. The Death-Bed Scene. Perceiving an eminence that he 
deemed well situated to be the place of his interment, he told them 
that was the place of his last repose. They wished, however to pro- 
ceed farther, as the weather was favorable and the day was not far 
advanced. Contrary winds which arose suddenly, compelled them, 
however, to enter the river which Father Marquette had pointed out. 
They accordingly brought him to the land, lighted a little fire for 
him, and prepared for him a wretched cabin, of bark. They laid him 
down in the least uncomfortable way that they could and left him 
for a brief space to attend to their canoe. "His dear companions 
having afterward rejoined him, all disconsolate, he comforted them, 
and inspired them with the confidence that God would take care of 
them after his death in these new and unknown countries. He gave 
them the last instructions, thanked them for all the charities which 
they had exercised in his behalf during the whole journey, and en- 
treated pardon for the trouble that he had given them. He charged 
them to ask pardon for him also, from all our Fathers and brthren 
who live in the country of the Outaouacs. Then he undertook to 
prepare them for the sacrament of penance, which he administered 



248 JOSEPH J, THOMPSON 

to them for the last time. He gave them also a paper on which he 
had written all his faults since his own last confession, that they 
might place it in the hands of the Father Superior, that the latter 
might be enabled to pray to God for him in a more special manner. 
Finally, he promised not to forget them in Paradise. And, as he 
was very considerate, knowing that they were much fatigued with 
the hardships of the preceding days, he bade them go and take a 
little repose. He assured them that his hour was not yet so very 
near, and that he would awaken them when the time should come, 
as in fact, two or three hours afterward he did summon them, being 
ready to enter into the agony. 

They drew near to him, and he embraced them once again, while 
they burst into tears at his feet. Then he asked for holy water and 
his reliquary and having himself removed his crucifix, which he 
carried always suspended round his neck, he placed it in the hands 
of one of his companions, begging him to hold it before his eyes. 
Then, feeling that he had but a short time to live, he made a last 
effort, clasped his hands, and with a steady and fond look upon his 
crucifix, he uttered aloud his profession of faith, and gave thanks to 
the Divine Majesty for the great favor which he had accorded him 
of dying in the Society, of dying in it as a missionary of Jesus Christ, 
and above all, of dying, as he had always prayed, in a wretched 
cabin in the midst of the forests and bereft of all human succor." 

22. He Yields Up His Spirit. ''After that he was silent, and 
communed within himself with God. He had prayed his companions 
to put him in mind when they should see him about to expire, to 
repeat frequently the names of Jesus and Mary if he could not 
himself do so. They did as they were told and when they believed 
him to be near his end, one of them called aloud, 'Jesus! Mary!' The 
dying man repeated the words distinctly several times and as if at 
these sacred names, something presented itself to him, he suddenly 
raised his eyes above his crucifix, holding them riveted on that object, 
which he appeared to regard with pleasure. And so, with a coun- 
tenance beaming and all aglow, he expired without any struggle, and 
so gently that it might have been regarded as a pleasant sleep." 

23. Marquette's Grave. The two poor companions shed many 
tears over him, composed his body in the manner which he had de- 
scribed to them. Then they carried him devoutly to burial, ringing 
the while the little bell as he had bidden them, and planted a large 
cross near to his grave as he had requested. The burial place of 
Father Marquette was on the bank of the river which from that 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 249 

time took his name, near the modern town of Ludington, Michigan. 
The death took place on Saturday, the 18th of May, 1675. 

24. Later Funeral Ceremonies. Two years thereafter, on the 19th 
of May, 1677, a band of the Kiskakons, an Ottawa tribe of Indians 
who had been converted to the Faith by Father Marquette when 
he ministered at the Point of St. Esprit, who had been hunting in 
the neighborhood of the lake, were returning to their village when they 
discovered Marquette's grave, marked as his companions had left it. 
They thereupon resolved to open the grave and carry the remains 
to the mission of St. Ignace where Father Marquette had last been 
stationed before his voyage to the Illinois. They prepared his re- 
mains as was customary amongst Indians, and laying them in a box 
of birch bark, they set out for St. Ignace. ' ' There were nearly thirty 
canoes which formed in excellent order that funeral procession. There 
were also a goodly number of Iroquois who united with our Algonquin 
savages to lend more honor to the ceremonial. When they drew near 
our house. Father Nouvel, who is its superior, with Father Piercon, 
went out to meet them and accompanied by the Frenchmen and 
savages who were there, and having halted the procession, put the 
usual questions to them to make sure that it was really the Father's 
body which they were bringing. Before conveying it to land, 
they intoned the De Profundis in the presence of the thirty canoes 
which were still on the water, and of the people who were on the 
shore. After that the body was carried to the church, care being 
taken to observe all that the ritual appoints in such ceremonies. It 
remained exposed under the pall, all that day, which was Whit- 
Monday, the 8th of June, and on the morrow, after having rendered 
to it all the funeral rites, it was lowered into a small vault in the 
middle of the church where it rests as the guardian angel of our 
Ottawa missions." 

25. Resting Place of Remains Lost. In time the mission of St. 
Ignace and the little church which covered the remains of the saintly 
Marquette were destroyed and for more then two hundred years the 
resting place of the saintly missionary was unknown but on Septem- 
ber 3rd, 1877, the bones of the great missionary were discovered by 
the Very Reverend Edward Jacker and through him the little monu- 
ment was erected over the grave on the site of the old mission. 
Travelers now view this monument located at the head of what is 
called East Moran Bay near Point Ignace. Not all of the remains lie 
under this little monument, however, a portion being preserved in 
Marquette College, a Jesuit institution at Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 



250 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

26. Visitors to Marquette's First Grave. Nearly fifty years after, 
Marquette was buried on the hill near the Pere Marquette River, a 
noted traveler and historian, Reverend Pierre Francois Xavier de 
Cherlevoix, S. J., visited the site of the first resting place of Marquette 
and noted the surroundings. In 1818, Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard, 
an early resident of Chicago, then a youth, engaged in the fur trade, 
visited the spot, and, says Hubbard, "we saw the remains of a red 
cedar cross erected by his men at the time of his death, to Marquette 
at his grave, and though his remains had been removed to the mission 
at Point Ignace, the cross was held sacred by the voyageurs who in 
passing paid reverence to it by kneeling and making the sign of the 
cross. It was about three feet above the ground, and in a falling 
condition. "We reset it, leaving it out of the ground about two feet, 
and as I never saw it after, I doubt not that it was covered by the 
drifting sands of the following winter and that no white man ever 
saw it again." Three years later, a devout Sulpitian, Rev. Gabriel 
Richard, who first labored in the West in Illinois but later became 
the pastor at Detroit, was led by the Indians to the site of Father 
Marquette 's first grave, and in honor of the great missionary he raised 
a wooden cross at the spot in the presence of eight Ottowas and 
three Frenchmen, and with his penknife, cut on the humble monu- 
ment this inscription: ''Fr, J. K. Marquet died here 19th of May, 
1675." He celebrated Mass there on the following Sunday and pro- 
nounced the eulogium of the missionary. A statue of Father Mar- 
quette is now in process of erection on the spot. 

27. Biography. Father Jacques (James) Marquette was a Jesuit 
priest of the province of Champagne, France. He was born at Laon, 
June 10, 1637. He entered the Jesuit Order at Nancy, October 8, 
1654. He arrived at Quebec, September 20, 1666, and labored in 
several Canadian Indian missions until he entered upon his voyage 
of discovery of the Mississippi River and the country of Illinois in 
1673. 

28. Bibliography. Several accounts of the life and labors of 
Father Marquette have been published. The journals quoted from 
here were first published in English by John Gilmary Shea in 1852. 
Good English translations are contained in the Jesuit Relations, Vol. 
59, and in Louise Phelps Kellog's Narratives of the Northwest. There 
is a life of Father Marquette by the great historian and biographer. 
Sparks, and a very readable biography in Father T. J. Campbell's 
Pioneer Priests of North America, Vol. 3. Father Marquette is the 
most distinguished figure in the history of Illinois. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 251 

29. Days of Waiting and Hoping. For the poor Indians, the 
death of Father Marquette brought months of waiting and hoping 
for the successor which the Blackgown had promised. His death and 
the circumstances of it had been communicated to the missionary 
fathers by the faithful Pierre and Jacque, and they in their solicitude 
for the welfare of the forest children were anxious that a successor 
be sent to the newly established mission. There were, as there always 
is, difficulties in the way of such a course but such difficulties had to 
be overcome, and as soon as possible a successor to Father Marquette 
was found in the person of Father Claud Jean Allouez. The superior 
of the mission, Father Dablon, speaking in reference to the choice 
of a successor said : "A successor to the late Father Marquette was 
needed, who would be no less zealous than he. To fill his place Father 
Claud Allouez who had labored, the leader in all our missions to the 
Ottowas, with untiring courage was selected. He was engaged at the 
time in that of St. Frangois Xavier at Green Bay. 

30. Father Allouez' Journey to the Illinois. We are not advised 
as to the exact time that Father Allouez left Green Bay on his journey 
to the Illinois. We have some details of that journey that are very 
interesting. It was the winter season in which the good missionary 
made the journey, and a considerable part of it was made in a 
quite extraordinary way for that day. The lake being frozen, the 
canoe was placed on the ice, and a sail rigged which "made it go 
as on the water." When the breeze died down, the canoe was drawn 
along the ice with ropes. Allouez told his superior in a letter that 
''after journeying 76 leagues over the lake of St. Joseph (Lake 
Michigan then was called by that name), we at length entered the 
River which leads to the Illinois (that is, the Chicago River). 

31. The Beception Accorded the Missionary. "1 met there," says 
Allouez, "eighty savages of the country by whom I was welcomed in 
a very hospitable manner. The Captain came about thirty steps to 
meet me, carrying in one hand a firebrand, and in the other a calumet 
adorned with feathers. Approaching me he placed it in my mouth and 
himself lighted the tobacco which obliged me to make pretence of 
smoking it. Then he made me come into his cabin, and having given 
me the place of honor, he spoke to me as follows." The purport of 
the savage chieftain's address was that he and his tribe were en- 
dangered by their enemies and that the presence of the Jesuit mis- 
sionary would shield and preserve them. He therefore begged the 
missionary to come with him to his village at once and in com- 



252 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

pliance with the request Father Allouez departed with his Indian 
escort without delay. 

32. The Missionary Beaches Kaskaskia Village. "Notwithstand- 
ing all the efforts that were made to hasten our journey, ' ' says Father 
Allouez "it was not until the 27th of April (1677) that I was able 
to arrive at Kaskaskia, the great village of the Illinois. I entered 
at once the cabin in which Father Marquette had lived and the old 
men being assembled there with the entire population, I made known 
the reason for which I had come to them namely, to preach to them 
the true God living and immortal, and his only Son, Jesus Christ." 

33. The Greater Village. Father Allouez found the village greatly 
increased in population since the time Father Marquette had visited 
it. "Formerly," says he, "it was composed of but one nation, that 
of the Kaskaskias. At the present time there are eight tribes in it, 
the first having summoned the others who inhabited the neighborhood 
of the River Mississippi. One cannot well satisfy himself as to the 
number of people who compose the village. They are housed in 351 
cabins which are easily counted as most of them are situated upon 
the bank of the River." Using the same calculations as before, it 
will be seen that the number of Indians in the great village when 
Father Allouez visited it may have been near 25,000. 

34. Planting the Cross. Six days after his arrival, and on May 3, 
1677, the feast of the Holy Cross, Father Allouez erected in the 
midst of the town a cross thirty-five feet high, chanting the Vexilla 
Regis in the presence of a great number of Illinois of all tribes. The 
raising of a cross was a ceremony observed in all the missions at the 
earliest practicable date after establishment. The great hymn, the 
Vexilla Regis, always chanted on such occasions, was first sung when 
a part of the true cross upon which Christ was crucified was sent by 
the Emperor, Justin II, from the East at the request of St. Rade- 
gunda, and was carried in great pomp from Tour to her monastery 
of St. Croix at Poitiers. The first stanza reads : 

Behold the Royal Standard raised,- 

The wondrous Cross illumines Heaven 

On wliieh True Life did death endure 

By whom our life through death was given. 

This was the first cross raising of which we have an account in the 
territory now known as Illinois but during the missionary period 
a chain of crosses which constituted a new Via Crucis stretched from 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 253 

Port Royal, near the entrance of the St. Lawrence all the way up 
that river to its sources, around the Great Lakes, down the Illinois 
and Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. 

35. The Impression Made by This First Cross-Raising. Respect- 
ing the impression made upon the Indians by this first cross raising 
witnessed by them, Father Allouez says, "I can say in truth that 
they did not take Jesus Christ crucified for a folly nor for a scandal. 
On the contrary they witnessed the ceremony with great respect and 
heard all the mystery with admiration. The children even wanted to 
kiss the cross through devotion and the old commended me to place 
it well so that it would not fall." Such was the impression made 
upon these savages by Marquette's few days of sojourn amongst 
them and the entrance to their habitation of Father Allouez and the 
words the missionaries had spoken to them. 

36. Methods Adopted by Father Allouez. This first visit of the 
new missionary was necessarily brief, as Father Allouez had to visit 
other portions of his vast field of labor. Accordingly he immediately 
applied himself to give all the instruction he could to the different 
nations. "I went for that purpose, "saj^s Father Allouez, "into the 
cabin of the chief of the nation I wished to instruct, and there making 
ready a small altar using the ornaments of my portable chapel, I 
exposed the crucifix. When they had looked at it, I explained to 
them the mysteries of our holy Faith. I could not have desired a 
larger audience or closer attention. They carried to me their smaller 
children to be baptized and brought me the older ones to be in- 
structed. They then repeated all the prayers that I taught them. 
In a word, after I had done the same for all the nations, I recognized 
as a result a number of people for whom nothing remained save 
cultivation, for them to become good Christians. ' ' Having thus prog- 
ressed with his work Father Allouez left his forest children with the 
promise to return as speedily as possible. 

37. A Long and Successful Missionary Career. Father Allouez 
was the Vicar General of a vast territory reaching from Michilimack- 
inac on the north to the Illinois Tribes on the south, and spent his 
time passing from one to the other, and laboring in each. "We have 
direct accounts of his presence at the Kaskaskia Village in 1679, 
1684, and 1689. He died at Fort Miami in the present state of 
Indiana in 1690. He has been called the St. Francis Xavier of 
America and is credited with having preached the Gospel to 100,000 
savages and with having baptized 10,000. He was one of the greatest 
and most successful of the American missionaries. 



254 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

38. The Missionaries the Only Representatives of Civilization. 
During the period from the time of Marquette's first visit in 1673 
to the year 1680, the missionaries were the only representatives of 
civilization in Illinois. They had kept the light of faith burning and 
made progress in the civilization of the Indian tribes. The year 1680 
ushered in a new era of activity through the coming of a number 
of Frenchmen under the leadership of Robert Cavalier de La Salle. 

Chapter III. The Native Indians 

1, Indian Nations. The Indians found in America by the first 
white people who came were scattered over the country, and to first 
appearances were pretty much all alike, but when their characteristics 
and peculiarities were studied it was found that they differed racially 
somewhat as white people do and when these characteristics and 
peculiarities were analyzed it was found that there were two great 
divisions or nationalities within the territory now known as United 
States, one of which was called Algonquins and the other Iroquois. 
The Algonquins were very widely spread. They were found on the 
St. Lawrence, along the Atlantic coast, in Maine, and the Carolinas, 
in the region of the Great Lakes, and on the Mississippi and Illinois 
rivers, while the Iroquois were numerous in New York and what 
became the New England States, and farther south. Each of these 
big nations had divisions or confederations. The Iroquois had a con- 
federation of five great divisions known as the Mohawks, the Oneidas, 
the Onondagas, the Cayugas and the Senecas, to which a sixth was 
later added, the Tuscaroras. The Iroquois are accordingly frequently 
referred to as the "Five Nations" or the ''Six Nations." The Al- 
gonquins were divided into many divisions, one of which was the 
Illinois, and the Illinois was composed of five tribes, the Tamaroas, 
the Mitchigamea, the Kaskaskia, the Cahokia and the Peoria. These 
five Illinois tribes were to be found in the territory now known as 
Illinois but were not always confined to Illinois, the tribes moving 
about as circumstances dictated. Many descriptions have been given 
of the characteristics of the different divisions and tribes of Indians 
but we are interested here chiefly in what is known of the Illinois 
tribes. 

2. Location of the Illinois Tribes. When the French first came 
to Illinois, or at least when they first begun to note the difference 
in the Illinois Indians they found the principal residence of the 
Kaskaskia tribe to be in the neighborhood of what is now Utiea in 
La Salle county. Their village there was called Kaskaskia or Lavan- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 255 

turn. The Peoria tribe had its main village near what is now the 
city of Peoria. The Cahokia tribe had its residence near the place 
that has become known as Cahokia, some four miles from the present 
city of St. Louis. The Tamaroa were found near there also but it 
has been ascertained that the Tamaroas formerly lived in the southern 
part of the state near the present town of Tamaroa. The Mitchigamea 
were found on the Mississippi river below the Ohio but their former 
home had been much farther north and near Lake Michigan, and 
it was from this tribe that the lake and the state of Michigan took 
their name. As we have already seen, the Kaskaskia tribe removed 
from the Utica site in 1700 and located themselves on the Kaskaskia 
a few miles from the Mississippi in what became Kandolph county 
where they remained to the end of their history in Illinois. In time 
the Mitchigamea and the remnant of the Peoria came to Kaskaskia 
also. The Tamaroa remained permanently at Cahokia and blended 
with the Cahokia tribe, 

3. Other Indians in Illinois. There were at various times after 
white men came to Illinois other Indians not belonging to the Illinois 
confederacy. Amongst those were the Miami Indians who again were 
divided into tribes including the Kickapoo, the Weas and Piankeshas. 
The principal tribe of the Miamis was located most of the time 
around the foot of Lake Michigan and frequently spread over into 
Illinois. The Kickapoo were to be found in the central part of the 
state with headquarters near what became Springfield, the Wea were 
gathered around old Port Ouatanon near what is now the city of 
Fort Wayne, Indiana, while the Piankeshas were in southwestern 
Indiana and southeastern Illinois. A western contingent of the 
Shawnoes penetrated Indiana and Illinois along the Wabash. In the 
northern part of the state again were the tribes of the Pottawotami, 
who were much in the neighborhood of Chicago, while in the north- 
western part of the state, tribes of the Sacs and Foxes were frequently 
found and also occasional bands of the Sioux Indians which belonged 
in Iowa and farther west. The Winnebagoes sometimes spread over 
into Illinois from the Minnesota and Wisconsin country. The names 
of several of those tribes survive in the geography of Illinois, 

4, Indian Organization. The organization or government of the 
Indians was uncertain. For some divisions or tribes ethnologists have 
worked out quite an elaborate system of organization, but there is 
very little reason to believe that any definite plans were followed for 
any great length of time. Volumes have been written about the man- 
ners and customs of the Indians but they differed so much in different 



25G JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

localities and even in the same tribe that very little can be said with 
certainty as to the prevalence of such customs. There were a few 
customs which were quite common to all the tribes and one of these 
was the council. Almost every tribe of Indians held councils upon 
important matters and it was a quite general custom to call the entire 
tribe together for this purpose. When they had met they sat on the 
ground in a circle, the older men occupying the inner position, the 
warriors next behind them and lastly the women and children. The 
speakers occupied the center of the circle and after debate a con- 
;-ensus of opinion on the subjects considered was obtained. 

5. The Food of the Indians. The Indians found here by the 
white men understood the use of fire. They knew how to ignite a 
fire with flint and they understood the utility of preserving fire by 
means of logs, knots and decayed wood, somewhat after the manner 
of tinder. They therefore cooked much of their food which consisted 
principally of dishes prepared from the Indian corn which they 
raised, fruit, nuts and wild game, Buffalo, deer and bear, and wild 
turkeys, grouse or prairie chickens and partriges were abundant. The 
fish supply was also plentiful. Illinois indeed was a bountiful land 
and there was seldom a dearth of provisions amongst the Indians 
dwelling here. With all these excellent articles of food, it appears 
nevertheless that the Indian frequently indulged in dog flesh. Indeed 
a dog dinner was considered a luxury and served as a banquet on 
state occasions. Of course under such circumstances it was hard for 
the Indians to understand why white people hesitated or refused to 
eat such a delicacy. It will be remembered that the Illinois offered 
Father Marquette a steaming dish of dog meat but that the good 
missionary politely but firmly refused it. 

6, The Family Relation. Writers agree quite generally that the 
family relation was more or less strictly recognized in all divisions 
and tribes. The family in its larger sense included blood relations 
and was recognized by some sort of a designation, usually adopted 
from the animal kingdom such as the bear family or the wolf, hawk 
or eagle. More properly speaking these were separate clans. These 
families or clans had badges or emblems of distinction somewhat as 
Europeans subject to a monarchial government have coats of arms. 
These emblems were called totems and were displayed on long poles 
raised in front of the dwelling place of the clan and otherwise. In 
its restricted sense family meant with the Indians the same as it 
does with us, a man and wife and their children. Generally speaking, 
however, there could be no marriage within the elan, A wolf could 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 257 

not marry a wolf nor a bear a bear. Marriage itself though some- 
times accompanied by much ceremony was in general a quite simple 
affair. It required nothing more than the consent of the parties and 
of the wife's parents. It was not especially binding upon the male 
party who might leave liis wife at any time. In some of the tribes 
abandonment was visited with punishment or disadvantages but in 
general the abandoned wife had no recourse. 

7. The Dwelling Places of the Indians. The dwellings of the In- 
dians were quite temporary in their nature. Poles were cut, sunk in 
the ground, bent over and tied together near the top. The bark of 
trees or mats woven from rushes were fastened from pole to poi' 
and furnished some shelter from the cold wind and rain. Some of 
these huts were quite large. The Iroquois especially built large en- 
closures which were called "long houses" and were often referred to 
as wigwams. Some of these were 250 feet long and 30 feet wide and 
were capable of housing twenty or thirty families. All of the tribes 
used large wigwams in some cases and there were usually several 
families housed in each wigwam. Each closely related group in an 
Indian dwelling had a fire and there were sometimes three or four 
families for each fire. These fires were all kept up and the smoke 
gathered in the wigwams, having no chance of escape except through 
openings left in the imperfect covering or the entrances. There were 
no chimneys and no windows, but in more permanent structures open- 
ings were left in the top. 

8. Indian Dress. Most pictures of Indians show them without 
much clothing, but after the white people came amongst them and 
established trade with them they covered their bodies with clothing 
except in the very hot weather, when they left their bodies bare to 
the waist and went barefoot. The usual garments of the men were 
a long shirt reaching to the knees, a breechclout, and leggings that 
reached up to the thighs. The shirt and leggings were usuaUy dyed 
black or blue and the breechclout red, and all were usually decorated 
with beads and quills. The women wore a two-piece garment, short 
leggings and moccasins. Their garments too were usually decorated 
with quills and beads. Both men and women wore robes for greater 
protection from the cold, as we wear overcoats and wraps, and later 
when they traded with the writes they wore blankets. Amongst the 
Indians it was the men who painted their faces, using various colors 
and figures. The women did not paint their faces. The men let 
their hair grow long on the top of their heads in what was called a 
scalp lock, braided it and bound it up about the head with a band 



258 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

of otter skin or a woven sash. The women wore their heir in a single 
braid down the back. 

9. Employment of the Indians. War, hunting and fishing were 
the chief employments of the Indian man. The principal training 
of the Indian youth was for war, and war was the only avenue to 
renown amongst the male Indians. When not at war, however, they 
hunted game for food, generally at designated periods of the year 
and whiled away much of their time in fishing. They engaged in no 
menial labor, as tilling the soil or tending crops seemed to them. Such 
labors were left for the women who stirred up the ground, planted 
the com, kept the weeds from choking it and guarded it from the 
crows and other enemies, gathered, prepared and cooked the food, 
and reared the children. The women were the chief toilers and 
bearers of the burdens amongst the Indians. 

10. Indian Children. The Indians were prolific. They married 
early in life and bore many children. From birth almost the Indian 
baby was thrown on its own resources. The mother's work required 
that she spend little time in special care of the baby and accordingly 
the little papoose, as the Indian baby was called, was wrapped up 
with a blanket, strapped to a flat piece of wood and tied upon the 
mother's back while she was working, or at intervals hung upon a 
branch of a nearby tree. Once a day the little prisoner was released 
from his hard cradle and allowed to play and roll on a blanket on 
the grass. At two years of age the board prison was discarded and 
the little savage was permitted to run or crawl about and the training 
for life was begun. When a girl was four or five years old she was 
taught to carry wood and water. When eight years old she was shown 
how to make up a pack and carry it on her back, as she grew older 
she learned to cut wood, to raise corn, to gather it, to wash and do 
the usual work of an Indian woman. An Indian boy's training 
was quite different. Since he was to be a warrior, he was not asked 
to do common work, but was allowed to run wild. He was taught to 
run, jump, swim, and wrestle and he was scarcely ever punished for 
disobedience as it was thought punishment would break his independ- 
ent spirit. At a very early age boys were taught to shoot with a 
bow and arrow and gradually taught lessons that would be useful to 
them in war. To make a great warrior out of him, he was required 
to undergo periods of fasting and of watching to test his endurance 
and perseverance and he was early dedicated by what was intended 
to be an impressive ceremony to some great spirit, the purpose of 
all the teachings being to make him a great warrior. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 259 

11. Indian Hunts. The Indians hunted all sorts of game and in 
the Illinois country buffalo, deer, bear, foxes and wolves abounded. 
The bow and arrow was the principal weapon used in such hunts, 
and with the assistance of the Indian ponies or small horses, the 
Indians were able to kill many of the fleetest of these animals. The 
buffalo hunts were especially exciting. One way of killing buffalo 
practiced by the Illinois and other tribes of Indians was to drive 
them over precipices on the river's brink. Buffalo Rock, a large 
promotory on the north side of the Illinois river, a few miles below 
Ottawa is said to have been named from this practice. It was cus- 
tomary to select an active young man, and put on him the skin of a 
buffalo. In this disguise he would take a position between the herd 
of buffalo and a cliff on the river and the hunters would surround 
the herd of buffalo and drive them in the direction of the decoy. 
When the buffalo came near enough to see him he ran toward the 
cliff and disappeared behind a tree or in a crevice while the buffalo, 
thinking him one of their number and that he had passed over the 
cliff, rushed headlong to death on the rocks below. 

12. Wars and Preparations Therefor. As the chief means of 
gaining renown was through war, every ambitious young Indian 
wanted to go to war, and if there was no enemy to fight, quarrels 
were frequently raised amongst the kindred tribes. If there was no 
cause of war then war was frequently provoked. The first step in 
the preparation for war or for going upon the "war path" was 
the "war dance." A leader who was ambitious for renown would set 
out to raise a war party. He first appealed to the patriotism and 
courage of his friends and then he would play upon their supersti- 
tions, telling them that the Great Spirit had made known tc him in 
dreams that their enterprise would be successful and that their war- 
path would be strewn with the dead bodies of their foes. Painting 
themselves with vermillion to represent blood and bringing such 
trophies in the shape of scalps as they already had won, they would 
commence a war dance which was a sort of rehearsal of the battles 
in which they expected to engage. The various stages of such re- 
hearsal included fii*st a representation of the warriors entering upon 
the war path, next the posting of sentinels to avoid being surprised 
by the enemies, then the advance into the enemies' country, the 
formation of ambuscades to surprise the foe, the strife and carnage 
of battle and fall of the foe, the terrible crash of the war club or 
tomahawk, the retreat of the enemy, the scalping of the slain, the 
feast of vultures on the dead bodies and the triumphant return of 



260 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

the warriors. This was all acted out with such wonderful reality 
that the actors forgot it was mimicry and became frenzied in the 
interest manifested. Thus they were wrought into a state of mind 
that prepared them for any savagery. When actually engaged in a 
war and especially when winning the Indians were very savage and 
ruthless, and apparently took great pleasure in mutilating their 
victims. The practice for which the Indians were most noted was 
scalping. In this barbarity the Indian seized his enemy by the hair 
and by the use of his scalping knife, which in the earlier days was 
made of bone, he cut the skin in a circle around the skull and tore 
the scalp from the head. The scalps taken by the savages were pre- 
served with gi'eat care and used as trophies and ornaments. Be- 
sides the scalping knife the primitive Indians used as weapons the 
bow and arrow, war clubs and axes made of stone called Tomahawks 
and sometimes metal implements. Later white men provided them 
with guns, swords and knives and these were used in a cruel and 
reckless manner by the Indians. 

13. Religion of the Indians. It is rather remarkable that nearly 
all of the Indians had some sort of a religion. Most of the tribes 
believed in a Great Spirit who was all-powerful, all-wise and all-good. 
Sometimes this Great Spirit was located in the sun, sometimes in the 
moon. Most of the Indians also believed in a future life and as 
hunting was the Indian's greatest diversion here, they believed that 
the future life would be one long happy hunt and consequently it 
became common to talk of the region to which the Indians went after 
death as the ' ' happy hunting ground. ' ' Accordingly when an Indian 
died his survivors buried with him his bow and arrows, and the 
paints with which he decorated himself. His horse was sometimes 
slain upon or near his grave that he might be ready to mount and 
proceed to the happy hunting ground. 

14. Burial of the Indians. "It was a common thing amongst 
the forest tribes, to choose as suitable places for interment, elevated 
spots above the reach of floods. Very often the branches of a tree 
would be used for this purpose. In a crotch of the tree the dead 
hero's drinking tins and other utensils were placed near, as though 
the dead man might want them again at some unexpected moment. 

The bodies of the dead were v^rrapped in many kinds of grave 
clothes, and then placed, sometimes at full length and sometimes in a 
sitting posture, in the rudest kind of coffin, which was most fancifully 
painted in all sorts of glaring colors. Over all this the dead man's 
blanket was stretched, and fastened to the trees. As long as any 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 261 

of the body remained these graves were guarded with jealous care. 
There was a deep reverence in the mind of the Indian, both the 
dying and the dead. If, in the course of some conflict, a comrade 
had been wounded, he was not left to die uncared for and alone, 
but often, at great risk, his companions would make a rude litter and 
bear him away from the field of battle, that he might have his wounds 
dressed, or that at least he might die in peace. 

It was customary, where there was a goodly company of Indians 
living together on the level prairie lands, to select some place by a 
river or stream, a little elevated, if possible as the general burial place 
of the tribe. These ancient Indian cemeteries presented a very re- 
markable appearance. One reason for the elevation of the bodies of 
the dead, was to keep them free from the onslaught of wolves and 
other pests of the prairie; and the huge flags that were placed here 
and there over bodies more recently interred, were intended to keep 
off wolves, vultures, and other birds of prey. ' ' 

15. The Fate of the Indians. In general the American Indian 
has suffered a sad fate. As a race the red men have been guilty of 
many atrocities but the evil conduct of which the Indians have been 
guilty has very frequently been provoked by white men. There is a 
remarkable contrast in the manner in which the Indians have been 
dealt with and which has been reflected in the life of the Red Race. 
Wherever the French or Spanish came in contact with the Indians 
they treated them well and brought them to a comparatively high 
degree of civilization. On the other hand wherever the English and 
the early Americans met the Indians they treated them as inferior 
and indeed as worthless and only in the way. The policy of the 
French and Spanish was to civilize the Indian, make a good Christian 
and good citizen of him, that of the English and the early Americans, 
to drive them out and if necessary exterminate them. To be sure, it 
has been frequently stated that the French policy was a failure, 
that there was little or no good in the Indian and that generous and 
humane treatment only made him helpless and dependant. It has 
been urged also that progress demanded that the savage give way to 
the civilized, that it was a waste of nature's resources to have the 
country populated by a race that could not or did not utilize the 
boundless opportunities presented by the vast Indian territory. Of 
course this theory puts money above men and wealth before salva- 
tion. So far as the Illinois Indians were concerned, however, that 
theory succeeded and the Indian was eliminated. Before being driven 
from his home, however, he was debauched by contact with immoral 



262 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

white men and ruined with whisky with which mercenary traders 
plied him in order that they might fleece him of his goods. It will 
here stand to the credit of the Jesuit missionaries that wherever they 
exercised control and wherever they could influence commanders and 
rulers, the Indian developed into a meritorious Christian citizen, and 
what pleased the missionaries more was the fact that so far as human 
knowledge extends they were the means of salvation for thousands of 
the red children of the forest. 

Chapter IV. La Salle's Explorations 

1. The French Government Takes an Interest in the Newly Bis- 
covered Lands. Joliet's verbal report to the government of Canada 
was conveyed to the French government at Paris, and the French 
publisher Thevenot published a garbled version of Marquette's ac- 
count of the first voyage by means of which many obtained informa- 
tion of the newly discovered lands and became interested with re- 
spect to colonization. There was in Canada at the time a young 
Frenchman named Robert Cavalier. He was an ardent admirer of 
the Canadian governor. Count Frontenac, and had already been en- 
trusted with some important missions for the Governor and rewarded 
with grants of land. He had also undertaken some explorations as 
far as the Ohio country and as early as 1666. Learning of Marquette 
and Joliet's voyage, young Cavalier conceived the idea of exploring 
the region they had discovered. 

2. La Salle Petitions the King. Governor Frontenac and other 
powerful friends sent a memorial to the King of France through 
his great minister Colbert asking authority to conduct a voyage of 
exploration, and for certain rights and privileges in such lands as 
he might explore. In the petition permission was asked to establish 
at his own cost certain posts with seigniorial rights over all lands 
which he might discover and colonize within twenty years, and the 
right to govern all the country in question. The petition was favor- 
ably received and a commission dated May 12, 1678, was issued by the 
King under which Robert Cavalier of La Salle was permitted "to 
labor at the discovery of the Western parts * * * of New France and 
for the execution of this enterprise to build forts at such places as 
you may think necessary and enjoy the possession thereof * * * on 
condition nevertheless that you finish this enterprise within five 
years. ' ' 

3. Making Ready for the Voyage. The first thing Cavalier, since 
known as La Salle, did after securing his commission was to engage 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 263 

ship carpenters and procure iron girdage and anchors for two 
vessels. This indicated that he had in mind the projects he afterward 
attempted to carry out, namely the building of one vessel for the 
lakes, and another for the Mississippi River. 

4. Raising Money for the Enterprise. La Salle had little or no 
means of his own. He owned the seigniorial rights of Fort Fronteac 
but needed cash to conduct his voyage and the only means he had 
to secure it was to borrow. Accordingly he secured a loan from a 
notary named Simonnet, of 4,000 livres (a livre was of the value of 
twenty cents) an advocate named Raoul loaned him 24,000, one 
Dumont loaned him 6,000, his cousin Frangois Plet, a merchant, 
loaned him about 11,000 livres at an interest of 40%, and Governor 
Frontenac procured for him another loan of about 14,000 livres. This 
loan was secured by a mortgage on Fort Frontenac. His brothers 
and relatives said they spared nothing to enable him to carry out 
the undertaking. Thus LaSalle procured the funds necessary to under- 
take his journey but his most valuable asset was the friendship of 
the great French ministers, Colbert and Seignelay, and the Prince de 
Conti, all of Paris. He had another friend. Abbe Renaudot, who 
helped him in many ways but conferred the greatest benefit he ever 
received when he introduced him to an Italian officer and protege of 
the Prince de Conti named Henri de Tonti. He found, too, another 
friend and valuable aid in the person of La Motte de Lussiere. 

5. La Salle and His Party Sail for America. On the 14th of 
July, 1678, La Salle with Tonti, La Motte and thirty men set sail 
for Canada and reached Quebec two months later. 

6. Preparations for the Voyage. At Quebec La Salle met Father 
Louis Hennepin, a Recollect friar, and by the permission of Governor 
Frontenac engaged him to accompany the exploring party in the 
capacity of missionary. He at once sent Father Hennepin to Fort 
Frontenac and from thence to the neighborhood of the Niagara Falls, 
to direct the construction of a fort and a vessel. In this work, Henne- 
pin was accompanied by La Motte and sixteen men. La Salle with 
the rest of the party was to follow as soon as he could finish his 
preparations. 

7. Hennepin Discovers the Niagara Falls. It was while upon this 
journey and in the month of December of 1697 that Father Hennepin, 
following his bent for exploration, climbed the hills now called 
Queenstown Heights and pressed on in the solitudes of the unknown 
region until the great cataract we know as the Niagara Falls burst 



264 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

upon his sight. So far as known Father Hennepin was the first white 
man to gaze upon this great natural wonder and his description of 
the cateract is as accurate as any that has since been written. 

8. Building the Fort. Two leagues above the mouth of the 
Niagara, La Motte began the building of the fort. So solidly frozen 
was the ground that it was necessary to use hot water to soften it 
in order to permit of sinking the pickets. 

9. La Salle and Tonti Follow. In the meantime La Salle and 
Tonti with their small vessel set out to join La Motte and Father 
Hennepin and on this short journey happened the first of La Salle's 
misfortunes. The little vessel in which his supplies and the materials 
for his two vessels were contained was wrecked by the incapacity or 
wilfulness of the pilot, and everything contained in it except the 
anchors and cables destined for the new vessels were lost. They 
reached the Fort near the mouth of the Niagara, however, but already 
his men had begun to give signs of disloyalty, and even the conduct 
of La Motte was questionable. Parkman the historian says, ' * La Salle, 
seldom happy in the choice of subordinates, had perhaps in all his 
<3ompany but one man whom he could fully trust and this was Tonti. ' ' 

10. Building the Griffon. Despite his misfortunes. La Salle set 
to work at once upon his first vessel. The little vessel in which Father 
Hennepin and La Motte had come up the Niagara from Fort Fron- 
tenac had been anchored below the rapids of Lewiston and drawn 
ashore to save it from destruction by the floating ice. As there was 
no other means of passing the rapids and the cataract, the goods 
had to be unloaded from the vessel and carried round the rapids to 
the Falls a distance of at least twelve miles. The thirty men with 
litters formed in line and trudged over the snow and up the heights, 
while Hennepin "plowed through the drifts with his portable altar 
lashed fast to his back." Stopping at what is now called Cayuga 
Creek near the site of the present Canadian village named La Salle, 
the construction of the ship planned by La Salle was begun. 

While the Frenchmen and others of La Salle 's party were engaged 
at this work, two Mohegan hunters built wigwams of bark for the 
men to live in, and a chapel for Father Hennepin where Mass was 
celebrated on Sundays and Saint's Days. When the ship had 
progressed to the point of laying the keel. La Salle out of respect 
for Father Hennepin's vocation asked him to drive the first bolt, 
but the good friar declined the honor in favor of the leader of the 
expedition. By Spring, the vessel which was of forty-five tons, burden 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 265 

was completed and ready for launching. It was christened the Griffon 
in honor of the armorial design of Governor Frontenac, a replica o^ 
which was carved on her prow, being in fact an eagle, the very 
bird which later became the emblem of liberty all along the southern 
shores of the lakes which the Griffon traversed. 

11. La Salle Returns to Frontenac. It became necessary for La 
Salle to return to Frontenac, and the Griffon lay anchored on the 
shore at Black Rock until early in August when he returned. This 
time he was accompanied by three more Recollect priests. One of 
them was Rev. Melithon Watteau. He was to remain at Niagara. 
The others, Fathers Zenobe Membre and Gabriel de la Ribourde, 
were to accompany the exploring party and enter upon the missions 
in the new lands. 

12. Sailing the Lakes. At last on the 7th of August, 1679, La 
Salle and all his party embarked upon the Griffon, sang the Te Deum, 
and fired a cannon. "A fresh breeze sprang up and with swelling 
canvass the Griffon plowed the virgin waves of Lake Erie where sail 
was never seen before." 

13. Landing at St. Ignace. After a stormy voyage in which the 
wreck of the vessel was threatened and a vow made to St. Anthony 
of a chapel in his honor the Griffon put in at St. Ignace and the 
party made a landing. ' ' The Griffon fired her cannon and the Indians 
yelped in wonder and amazement. The adventurers landed in state 
and marched under arms to the bark chapel (of the Jesuits) in the 
Ottowa village, where they heard Mass. La Salle knelt before the 
altar in a mantle of scarlet bordered with gold. Soldiers, sailors, and 
artisans knelt around, — black Jesuits, grey Recollects, swarthy 
voyageurs, and painted savages, a devout but motley concourse." 
(Parkman.) 

14. Sends the Griffon to Niagara. Here, for some important 
reasons. La Salle determined to send the Griffon back to Niagara, 
laden with a cargo of furs which he had secured. Accordingly on the 
18th of September, the parting shot was fired and the Griffon set 
sail with orders to return to the head of Lake Michigan as soon as 
she had discharged her cargo. As will be seen, the Griffon was never 
heard of thereafter. 

15. La Salle Starts for the Illinois. La Salle with fourteen men 
who remained, in four canoes laden with a forge, tools, merchandise 
and arms, put out from the Island and skirted down the Wisconsin 



266 JOSEPH J, THOMPSON 

side of Lake Michigan. They found their trip on the lake very 
difficult and were on the point of losing their boats and their lives 
several times. Proceeding, they circled the southern shore of Lake 
Michigan until they reached the mouth of the St. Joseph River on 
the first day of November. Here La Salle was to meet Tonti with 
twenty more men, but it was several days before Tonti appeared. 
While waiting La Salle set his men to building a fort. Finally, on 
the twentieth of November, Tonti came but with only half of his 
men. Having run out of provisions he left the others behind to 
sustain themselves by hunting : Happily the men left behind, except 
two deserters, arrived a few days later and preparations were Begun 
for continuing the journey. 

16. Entering the Illinois. Preparations having been completed 
the entire party consisting of thirty-three men in eight canoes, re- 
embarked on the 3rd of December, 1679, for the last stage of the 
journey to Illinois. They rowed up the St. Joseph River to the site 
of the present city of South Bend, Indiana, and after search in the 
wilderness by La Salle for the portage, during which he lost his way 
and had to sleep out under the falling snow, and in which he dis- 
covered deposits of coal, a landing was effected and the party en- 
camped. In the morning the canoes and baggage were shouldered and 
the march for the Kankakee River, some five miles distant, was begun. 
The antipathies which La Salle became famous for creating, had 
their first expression on this portage. 

"As they filed on their way a man named Duplessis bearing a 
grudge against La Salle, walking just before him, raised his gun 
to shoot him through the back but was prevented by one of his com- 
rades. ' ' 

Reaching the headwaters of the Kankakee, they set their canoes 
on the thread of v/ater and pushed down the sluggish streamlet. The 
stream grew wider and deeper as they progressed but for several days 
and nights their journey was a dreary one, through a land apparently 
without game. After almost exhausting their food supplies, they were 
gratified at finding a buffalo bull, mired in a slough near the river. 
The buffalo was quickly dispatched and twelve strong men with ropes 
dragged the body from the mire and a feast was made of his flesh. 

17. On Illinois Soil. The scene changes, they have now entered 
Illinois and soon pass from the Kankakee to the main river, and by 
the last of December, they had reached the site of the Kaskaskia 
village where Father Marquette had, nearly five years before, estab- 
lished the mission of the Immaculate Conception. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 267 

18. La Salle at Kaskaskia. The site of Father Marquette's mis- 
sion has been variously known as Kaskaskia, Lavantum, the Rock, 
and Fort St. Louis. When La Salle's party reached it on the first 
of January, 1680, he found the village uninhabited. Father Hennepin 
counted four hundred and sixty deserted lodges. These lodges were 
shaped somewhat like the arched top of a baggage wagon. They were 
built of a framework of poles covered with a mat and rushes closely 
interwoven, and each contained three or four fires of which the 
greater part served for two families. Accordingly there were at that 
time, in the old village, housing facilities for twelve or fifteen thousand 
savages. The inhabitants were all absent on the winter hunt. Seeing 
the- village, the travelers had thought they would find food there 
but in this they were disappointed since the dwellers were absent. 
The deserted town was searched, however, and presently caches, or 
covered pits were found in which the Indians had hidden their stock 
of corn. La Salle shrank from displeasing the Indians but his needs 
were very great, and accordingly he took thirty minots of corn, hoping 
to remunerate the owners of it later. 

19. All Attend Mass. On landing, an altar was prepared and 
Mass was celebrated and Father Hennepin preached a touching ser- 
mon exhorting patience, faith and constancy, and having secured a 
supply of corn, the party proceeded upon the journey. 

20. Arrive at Peoria Lake. Pushing down the river the party 
arrived at the extension of the river since known as Peoria Lake, and 
there found a number of Illinois Indians in their winter quarters. As 
the savages presented a somewhat warlike appearance, La Salle had 
his canoes drawn up in a posture of defense, and prepared for any 
hostile action of the tribes. He at the same time made peaceful over- 
tures and with the help of Father Hennepin succeeded in gaining the 
friendship of the Indians. The party was invited on shore, and food 
was placed before them. La Salle on his part made the Indians a 
gift of tobacco and hatchets and told them that he had been forced 
to take corn from their granaries to prevent his men from dying of 
hunger and offered them restitution or payment. By telling the Illinois 
that the French government would protect them against their enemies 
he gained the friendship of the tribe and was invited to remain with 
them. 

21. Monso's Conspiracy. La Salle had incurred many enmities, 
and one of the fruits of these was gathered on the first night after 
his arrival at the Peoria village. That very evening a Mascoutin 
chief named Monso, with five or six Miami Indians and a supply of 



268 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

knives, hatchets and kettles to be used as gifts assembled the chiefs 
of the Illinois in the middle of the night and told them that he had 
come on behalf of certain Frenchmen whom he named, to warn his 
hearers against the designs of La Salle whom he denounced as a 
partisan and spy of the Iroquois and that La Salle was now on his 
way to stir up the tribes beyond the Mississippi to join in war against 
the Illinois. Noting the next day a change in the attitude of the 
chiefs, La Salle at once suspected his enemies of an attempt to create 
trouble. Through a fortunate circumstance, La Salle learned of the 
midnight meeting, and its purport and when the Indians prepared 
a council meeting at which they intended to disavow their friendship 
to La Salle, that bold leader altered the program by arising imme- 
diately upon the convoking of the assembly and informing his audi- 
ence that he knew well their purpose and had full knowledge of their 
meeting with Monso the night before. Said La Salle: "We were not 
asleep, my brother, when Monso came to tell you, under cover of 
night, that we were spies of the Iroquois. The presents he gave you, 
that you might believe his falsehoods, are at this moment buried 
in the earth under this lodge. If he told the truth, why did he not 
show himself by day? Do you not see that when we first came 
among you, and your camp was all in confusion, we could have 
killed you without needing help from the Iroquois? And now, while 
I am speaking, could we not put your old men to death, while your 
young warriors are all gone away to hunt? If we meant to make 
war on you, we should need no help from the Iroquois, who have so 
often felt the force of our arms. Look at what we have brought you. 
It is not weapons to destroy you, but merchandise and tools, for your 
good. If you still harbor evil thoughts of us, be frank as we are, 
and speak them boldly. Go after this impostor, Monso, and bring 
him back, that we may answer him, face to face, for he never saw 
either us or the Iroquois, and what can he know of the plots that he 
pretends to. reveal?" This bold speech confounded the Indians and 
established firmly La Salle's friendship with them. 

22. Fort Crevercoiier. In keeping with his purpose to establish 
a chain of forts as an extension of those already built along the St. 
Lawrence and the Great Lakes, La Salle resolved to build a fort 
at Peoria. Accordingly all hands were set to work and the first 
military stronghold ever built in Illinois was soon constructed. 
Simultaneously La Salle set to work upon the second ship which he 
had planned to build before starting upon his journey. He was 
expecting news from his other vessel, the Griffon which as we have 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 269 

seen he had sent back to Niagara with a valuable cargo of furs, but 
no word came. He had suffered many misfortunes and the outlook 
was gloomy, and under the influence of his disappointments, it is 
saiid that he gave to his fort the name Crevecouer, which means 
"broken heart." This assertion has been questioned and the origin 
of the name has been otherwise credited, but Father Zenobe, the 
Recollect missionary who was with him at the time and continued 
in his association to the end of his life, states that the name was 
given on aceouunt of La Salle's feelings of grief and disappointment. 

23. La Salle Goes in Search of the Griffon. At last, impatient 
of waiting, La Salle resolved to return to Canada and learn the fate 
of his vessel. Before starting, however, he laid out a program of 
action for the men he was leaving behind. Tonti was to assume com- 
mand as Governor, Father Ribourde and Father Membre were to re- 
main at Fort Crevecouer as missionaries amongst the Indians while 
Father Hennepin with two Frenchmen was to row down the Illinois 
to the Mississippi and then north in the Mississippi on a voyage of 
discovery to the sources of that river. The vessel was to be com- 
pleted and all arrangements made to pursue the Journey of discovery 
upon which the party had started out, on La Salle's return. 

24. Father Hennepin's Journey. Father Hennepin started first 
— on the 29th of February, 1680, and, driving down the Illinois he 
in due time reached the Mississippi and thence his little party rowed 
up the Mississippi, meeting with several adventures, the most serious 
of which was capture and imprisonment by a band of Sioux Indians. 
Being released from the Indians by Greysolon Duluth, the famous 
French Courier du Bois, (wood ranger) he proceeded as far as the 
Falls of St. Anthony which he named, and went thence overland to 
Quebec, and in time to Europe. Father Hennepin never returned to 
America. One of his compainions, Michael Accou, came back to Illi- 
nois and will be heard of again as this story proceeds. 

25. La Salle Starts for Frontenac. La Salle set out on his jour- 
ney and reached Fort Frontenac, May 6, 1680. Even before proceeding 
that far, however, he had received the most distressing news. He 
learned that he had not only lost the Griffon and her cargo worth 
10,000 pounds, but a ship from France containing his goods worth 
more than 25,000 livres had been wrecked at the mouth of the St. 
Lawrence and was a total loss — that of twenty men from Europe 
engaged to join him, some had been detained by his enemies, and 
all but four of the others, being told that La Salle was dead, had 



270 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

left for Europe again. His agents had plundered him, his creditors 
had seized his property, and several of his canoes richly laden had 
been lost in the Rapids of the St. Lawrence. 

26. Mutiny at Fort Crevecouer. La Salle was still to hear 
further distressing nev/s. Within a few days after leaving Fort 
Crevecouer, he had stopped at the Kaskaskia village made familiar 
to us by Marquette's visits, and just recently passed by La Salle's 
party. Here the rocky elevation nearby which has since become 
known as Starved Rock, attracted his attention, and he judged it a 
good location for a fort. Meeting two of the men he had sometime 
before sent back to inquire about the Griffon, he sent word by them 
to Tonti to examine the site of the rock, to determine if it would 
be suitable for a fort. Receiving this word, Tonti with Father 
Ribourde pushed up the river to the Rock, and in his memoir tells 
us what happened while he was gone. "Whilst I was absent, all 
my men deserted. They took away everything that was finest and 
most valuable and left me with two Recollects and three Frenchmen 
newly arrived from France. Stripped of everything, and at the mercy 
of the savages." The fort had been destroyed and everything of 
value carried off or thrown into the river. 

27. Beginning Anew. Thus was La Salle stripped of every- 
thing. But, though his resources were apparently exhausted, and 
his projects defeated, he did not despair. Before the receipt of all 
this bad news, he had procured materials for his vessel on the Illinois 
River, and necessary tools and supplies for his Illinois party and 
with indomitable courage, he set to work devising means to get these 
things to Illinois. So doogged was he in his determination that by 
the tenth of August, he was able to set out for the Illinois again, 
this time accompanied by another faithful lieutenant, Frangois 
Dauphine de la Forest, a surgeon, ship carpenters, joiners, masons, 
soldiers, voyageurs and laborers, in all, twenty-five men. 

28. Tonti and the Recollects. Leaving La Salle on his way back 
to the Illinois for a brief space, we may trace the action of Tonti 
and the Recollects in Illinois. The missionaries and the few French- 
men that remained faithful, remained in the vicinity of Fort Creve- 
couer until September and Tonti made journeys up and down the 
Illinois doing whatever seemed best until an Indian outbreak oc- 
curred. The Iroquois, the traditional enemies of the Illinois, came 
from the East in September and began a savage warfare, in which 
Tonti was involved and played a most heroic part. It became ex- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 271 

pedient however, for him and the Frenchmen to quit the territory, 
and accordingly they set out on the eighteenth of September for 
Mackinac. 

29. The Assassination of Father Eihourde. Tonti tells us in his 
memorial that after making five leagues in the canoe (Father Membre 
who was with him at the time says it was eight leagues), "we landed 
to dry some peltries which were wet. While we were repairing our 
canoe. Father Gabriel de la Ribourde told me he was going aside to 
pray. I advised him not to go away because we were surrounded 
by enemies. He went about 1,000 paces off and was taken by forty 
savages of the nation called Kickapoo who carried him away and 
crushed his head. Finding that he did not return, I went back to 
look for him with my men. Having discovered his trail, I found 
it cut by several trails which joined and ended at last in one." 
Though Tonti and Father Membre searched diligently, throughout 
the night and all of the next day, they found no further trace of 
Father Ribourde, and were obliged to proceed, leaving him behind. 
Some time afterwards, portions of Father Ribourde 's personal be- 
longings, part of his breviary, his beads, and crucifix, were found 
in the possession of Indians of the Kickapoo tribe and it was learned 
that a party of that tribe came upon Father Ribourde, killed him 
and secreted his body. Father Ribourde 's was the first blood shed 
in the cause of religion upon the soil of this state. The site of this 
first martyrdom is somewhere between the modern cities of Morris- 
town and Ottawa, and deserves to be marked by a cross or grotto 
as a memorial of this good priest and the site of the first shedding 
of blood for the Faith on our soil. Tonti and Father Membre after 
giving up hope of finding Father Ribourde, proceeded on their jour- 
ney, passed up the lake, stopped at Green Bay and travelled from 
there to Michilimackinac where they resolved to stay until they had 
tidings of La Salle. 

30. La Salle Back in the Illinois Country. By the fourth of 
November we find La Salle at the ruined fort of St. Joseph which 
the mutineers from Fort Crevecouer had wrecked and pillaged. Al- 
most without stopping he ascended the St. Joseph River and crossed 
the portage tot he Kankakee, as on his former voyage, and was soon 
on the Illinois. 

31. A Sea of Buffalo. In his impatience to reach Tonti and the 
few loyal adherants. La Salle had very little time or inclination for 
any thing else, but while passing along the Illinois River somewhere 
near the center of the present state a sight met his eyes that moved 



272 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

all his party to wonder. ' ' Far and near, ' ' says Parkman, ' ' the prairie 
was alive with buffalo; now like black specks dotting the distant 
swells, now trampling by in ponderous columns or filing in long lines, 
morning noon, and night to drink at the river — wading and plunging 
and snorting in the water, climbing the muddy shores and staring 
with wild eyes at the passing canoes." His party shot several of the 
big cattle, and other game during a hunt which they organized, and 
pressed on. 

32. War's Devastation. The party passed on through the great 
Kaskaskia and found it deserted and in ruins. They also found 
abundant and ghastly evidence of the slaughter which the Iroquois 
had committed in the savage war which Tonti and the Recollects left 
the region to escape. They proceeded down the river and found them- 
selves in a valley of horrors. On one side of the river they saw 
successive abondoned cabins of the Illinois, and on the other, of the 
Iroquois, evidences of the flight of the Illinois and the pursuit of 
the Iroquois. They passed Peoria Lake and reached Fort Crevecouer 
which they found demolished as they had expected from previously 
obtained information. The vessel on the dock was entire, but the 
Iroquois Indians had drawn out the nails and spikes which held it 
together. On one of the planks was written in French, **Nous sommes 
tous sauvages," meaning, "We are all savages." As they drew near 
the mouth of the Illinois River, they saw a meadow on their right, 
on the verge of which they noted several human figures erect, but 
motionless. They landed and approaching the place found the grass 
all trampled down and all around were strewn the relics of the 
hideous orgies which formed the sequel of an Iroquois victory. The 
figures were half consumed bodies of women still bound to the stakes 
where they had been tortured. There were other sights too horrible 
to record. All the remains were those of women and children. The 
men, it seemed had fled and left them to their fate. 

33. La Salle Sees for the First Time the Mississippi River. Again 
entering the canoes they descended to the mouth of the Illinois River 
and La Salle's eyes for the first time rested upon the Mississippi. 
In a sense that moment was the culmination of many of his dreams, 
but he had little time for reflection. He was impatient to find Tonti 
and his party and accordingly, having stripped the bark from a 
great tree overhanging the river, as a means of catching any future 
traveler's eye, he fastened to it a board with a drawing of his party 
and a peace pipe for the information of the Indians, and for Tonti 's 
information should he happen that way, a letter stating that he (La 
Salle) had been at that point and had returned up the river. 



K 
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I— I 

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HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 273 

34. Back up the Illinois. Retracing their course in feverish 
anxiety, they rowed as white men had never done before on the 
Illinois River, but in spite of La Salle's disturbed state of mind, a 
natural phenomenon moved him sufficiently to inspire a memoran- 
dum. It was nothing lers than the passing of a great comet which 
not only attracted La Salle's attention but caused much excitement 
in civilized centers of all the world. 

35. Tracing Tonti. By the sixth of January, 1681, the little 
party reached the junction of the Kankakee and Illinois Rivers, and 
instead of branching off in the Kankakee, the stream on which they 
came, they pressed on up the Illinois and soon discovered a rude 
cabin in which they found evidences as they believed of the recent 
presence of Tonti and his companions. Cheered by their discovery 
they hurried on overland towards the St. Joseph and after a very 
difficult tramp, reached Fort Miami where La Forest and the men 
left with him welcomed them. 

36. The Winter at Fort Miami. Thus had La Salle crossed and 
recrossed Illinois in search of Tonti and his men, and was still without 
knowledge of their whereabouts. It was winter, however, and further 
journeying held little promise of success. Accordingly he determined 
to spend the winter at his fort. But while La Salle thus paused in 
his search, he was not idle, he devoted himself to establishing good 
relations with the various Indian tribes, and other important work, 
and he never lost sight of his purpose, to explore the Mississippi to 
the sea. With the Spring he began active preparations for the con- 
tinuance of that enterprise. 

37. Beginning All Over. Having fully determined to start again 
on his explorations, he decided to go back to Canada, appease his 
creditors and secure further means for the prosecution of his work. 
Accordingly, near the end of May he set out from Fort Miami, and 
after an easy voyage reached Michilimackinac where it was with 
great joy he found Tonti, Father Membre and the few faithfuul fol- 
lowers. In his laconic way Tonti says, "He (La Salle) was very glad 
to see us again, and notwithstanding all reverses we made new prep- 
arations to continue the exploration which he had undertaken." 

38. Preparations for Another Start. Without delay La Salle, 
Tonti and Father ]\Iembre set out for Fort Frontenac, paddling their 
canoes one thousand miles and reaching their destination safely. 
Again was La Salle confronted with his misfortunes. Harrassed by 
his creditors and forced to beg additional help, his position was ex- 
tremely difficult. So loyal was Governor Frontenac, however, that 



274 JOSEPH J, THOMPSON 

through his assistance and that of his secretary, Barrois, an able 
business man, and the help of a wealthy relative, he again placated 
his creditors and secured sufficient additional means to undertake 
another journey. After making his will in favor of a cousin, Frangois 
Plet, to whom he was greatly indebted, he gathered a new force and 
set forth once more. 

39. Moving Again. Writing to a friend, in France, La Salle 
expressed the hope that this journey would ''turn out well, for I 
have M. de Tonti who is full of zeal, thirty Frenchmen, all good men, 
without reckoning such as I cannot trust, and more than one hundred 
Indians, some of them Shawnoes, and others from New England, all 
of whom know how to use guns." As the party proceeded others 
were added and there were some desertions, so that the expedition 
finally included fifty-four persons. In the dead of winter, the last 
days of December, 1682, the party reached the Chicago River. There 
they made sledges upon which they placed their canoes, the baggage, 
and a disabled Frenchman, and dragged them from the Chicago to 
the northern branch of the Illinois River, and proceeded down its 
frozen course. It was not until they passed Lake Peoria that they 
found open waters. We need not dwell upon this trip. The most 
hastily performed of all of La Salle's journeys through Illinois, but 
we will be interested in its conclusion at what is now New Orleans. 

40. Proclaiming Sovereignty and Planting the Cross. On the 
ninth of April the party having successfully descended the Mississippi 
to the Gulf of Mexico, and preparations having been completed, the 
ceremony of proclaiming sovereignty, taking possession of the country 
for the King of France and planting the cross took place. 

41. The CeremoTiy. A detailed report of these great ceremonies 
has been preserved in the Department of Marines at Paris from which 
it appears that everything being in readiness, the entire party, under 
arms, chanted the Te Deum, the Exaudiat, the Domine Salvum fac 
Regem and then after a salute of firearms and cries of Vive le Roi, 
a column was erected and La Salle standing near it proclaimed in a 
loud voice: "In the name of the most high, mighty, invincible, and 
victorious prince, Louis the Great, by the grace of God, King of 
France and Navarre, fourteenth of that name, this ninth day of April, 
one thousand six hundred and eighty-two, I, in virtue of the com- 
mission of his majjesty, which I hold in my hand, and which may be 
seen by all whom it may concern, have taken, and do now take in 
the name of his majesty, and of his successors to the crown, possession 
of this country of Louisiana, the seas, harbors, ports, bays, adjacent 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 275 

straits, and all the nations, peoples, cities, towns, villages, mines, 
minerals, fisheries, streams, and rivers comprised in the extent of 
said Louisiana, from the mouth of the great River St. Louis, on the 
eastern side * * * of which and of all that can be ceded, I hereby take 
to witness those who hear me, and demand the act of the notary 
as required by law. ' ' Whereupon the whole assembly responded with 
shouts of Vive le Roi, and salutes of firearms. ' ' After which La Salle 
said that his Majesty as an eldest son of the Church, would annex no 
country to his crown without making it his chief care to establish 
the Christian religion therein, and that its symbol must now be 
planted, which was accordingly done at once by erecting a cross, 
before which the Vexilla Regis and the Domine Salvuni fac Regent 
were sung. 

42. Witnesses of the Ceremony. The notary who accompanied 
the party drew up a document called a Proces Verbal, reciting all the 
details of the ceremony and requiring the signature of witnesses 
thereto. The following attached their names to this document in 
the manner here written. 

De La Salle Pierre You 
P. Zenobe, Recollect Missionary Gilles Meuroret 

Henry De Tonti Jean Michel, Surgeon 

Francois De Boisrondet Jean Mas 

Jean Bourdon Jean Dulignon 

Sieur d'Autray Nicholas De La Salle 
Jacques Cauchois 

43. Returning from the Gulf of Mexico. The return journey 
need not be dwelt upon. Near the end of January, 1682, the party 
arrived at the Chicago River. By the middle of July they had rowed 
up Lake Michigan to Michilimackinac. La Salle resolving to go to 
France to arrange for planting a colony on the Gulf, directed Tonti 
to "go and collect together the French who were on the River Miami 
and construct the fort of St. Louis in the Illinois. Tonti proceeded 
to execute the design and was but just begun at his fort when La 
Salle, having changed his plans joined him. Together they set to 
work at the fort and it was finished in March, 1683. La Salle 
presently left for France and Tonti remained as Governor of the 
Illinois with his castle, Fort St. Louis, on the Rock of the Illinois. 
(Starved Rock.) 

(To Be Continued) 

Joseph J. Thompson. 
Chicago. 



IN MEMORY OF THE MEN W^HO FIRST 
SAW CHICAGO 

Dr. L. H. Zeuch, 3014 Fullerton Avenue, for many years a mem- 
ber of the Chicago Historical Society, and Robert Knight, deputy 
commissioner of buildings, are fostering a movement that has as its 
object erection of a memorial to the men who first hit upon Chicago 
as the sitef of a commercial center. These they conceive to have been 
voyageurs and missionaries — and Indians — who, in the latter half of 
the 17th century, established trade intercourse that they believe will 
have reached its greatest fulfillment only when the lakes-to-gulf water- 
way project has been realized. 

Following several years of research devoted to a verification of 
their facts, Dr. Zeuch and Mr. Knight collaborated on the article 
printed below. 

Story op Chicago Portage 

The story of the Chicago Portage, which is the name given to the 
passage that connected the south branch of the Chicago River and Des- 
plaines River, is the story of the beginning of Chicago itself. Chi- 
cago's location was not an accident. Long before the coming of the 
white man, even before discovery of America, the site of the present 
city was an important meeting place of the Indians in their migrations 
to and from the Great Lakes and the Mississippi Valley. 

Histories record the importance of the Chicago Portage and re- 
count the deeds of the valorous voyageurs and missionaries and of the 
Indians and traders who passed through it. Furs that were pur- 
chased for one string of beads or a tomahawk and subsequently sold 
for hundreds passed over it on their way to Paris. 

It was here that Louis Joliet and Father Marquette passed through 
in the year 1673 returning from the discovery of the Mississippi 
River. They were the first white men to visit the site of Chicago. 

Marquette First Pioneer 

Here Father Marquette camped during the winter of 1674-75 on 
his return voyage to found a mission among the Indians about Starved 
Rock. He was the first white man to permanently reside at the site 
of Chicago. In the year 1679 LaSalle and Tonti passed through here 
with their expedition to take possession of the Mississippi VaUey in the 

276 



IN MEMORY OF THE MEN WHO FIRST SAW CHICAGO 277 

name of iGng Louis XIV of France and to build forts and to estab- 
lish French, colonies. The failure of LaSalle 's plans and the driving 
out of his colonists left the region in the possession of the Indians 
and for one hundred years the country was closed to the white men 
until the treaty of Greenville in 1795 aagin opened the Chicago Por- 
tage to commerce. 

In the days of no roads and no settlements this was one of the few 
passageways connecting the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes system of 
waterways with the Mississippi and its tributaries. It was the great 
highway of travel and transportation. 

In 1816, by treaty with the Indians, a strip of land twenty miles 
wide (ten miles north and ten miles south of the portage and about 
parallel with it) was ceded to the government to facilitate the con- 
struction of a military road and a proposed ship canal. The "Indian 
Boundary Line" as shown on all maps of Chicago, gives the location 
of this strip. The Illinois and Michigan canal was the direct result 
and Chicago's greatness began with the conception of this waterway 
and its opening to commerce. 

Fell Into Disuse in 1836 

The old Chicago Portage was used until about 1836, when through 
the removal of the Indians from this region by the government and 
through other causes it fell into disuse. The exact route of the pas- 
sage from the Chicago River to the Des Plaines by way of the old 
Chicago Portage is not marked and no one gives very explicit direc- 
tions as to its location. However, landmarks of this historic artery 
of trade in the seventeenth century are still to be found. 

Many centuries ago the shore line of Lake Michigan was a little 
west of Riverside, 111., and the Des Plaines river emptied directly into 
the lake. The lowering of the lake level advanced the shore line and 
the Des Plaines for a time flowed through what was later known as 
Mud Lake. A further lowering of the lake level caused the Des Plaines 
to flow south and southwestward to the Illinois River through the old 
outlet of Lake Michigan into the Des Plaines valley, leaving Mud 
Lake little more than a slough which drained into the Des Plaines 
through a small creek and connected with the forks of the south 
branch of the Chicago river. This allowed continuous passage by 
water from the Des Plaines to Lake Michigan. 

In dry weather a "portage" or "land carry" was necessary be- 
tween the Chicago River and Mud Lake. This usually extended from 
about the present location at Western Avenue and the west fork of 
the south branch to a short distance east of Kedzie avenue, where 



278 DR. LUCIUS M. ZEUCH 

Mud Lake was entered. The present course of the Chicago River 
from Kedzie avenue to its junction with the Ogden ditch at West 
39th Street and South Central Avenue follows very nearly the old 
channel worn by the Indians and traders through Mud Lake. The 
old channel from that point turns southwest to the present line of 
the Chicago & Alton tracks where the little creek began, which was 
the outlet of Mud Lake to the Des Plaines. 

Looks Same as in 1673 

East of the Ogden dam for only a short way does this creek fol- 
low its original course, but west of the Ogden dam, which is built 
square across it at Harlem avenue, the creek is almost identically the 
same as it was, even to the maples or "The Plein" upon its banks 
when Joliet and Marquette paddled into it in 1673 to obtain a little 
later their first glimpse of the site of Chicago. 

This historic creek is a few hundred feet south of the boundary 
of the Cook county forest preserve which lies between Harlem Ave- 
nue and the Des Plaines River at 49th Street. The diversion of the 
Des Plaines River which accomplished the purpose that the Ogden 
dam failed to do, by preventing the spring floods coming down into 
the Chicago River, has left the creek and the old bed of the river 
quite shallow, but their beds and banks are unchanged otherwise. A 
marker on monument should by all means be placed on this historic 
spot to preserve its location to posterity. 

The length of the "land carry" or "portage" varied greatly with 
the seasons. At times it was less than a mile; at others three miles 
and at others it was seven miles, right to the Des Plaines River. "When 
the Des Plaines was dry or nearly so, the "land carry" was often over 
100 miles long or to beyond the mouth of the Vermillion River below 
Starved Rock. 

Course of Old Land Carry 

The old "land carry" began at the forks or about opposite the 
present beginning of the sanitary canal at the west fork of the; south 
branch and extended along the north bank of the river and Mud Lake 
to and along the Des Plaines River. From a little west of South 
Cicero Avenue its route followed the old Tolleston beach, which is very 
conspicuous as a low sandy ridge. It then ran westward and bearing 
slightly to the south, crossed West 39th Street just west of South 
Central Avenue. It ran thence through Mount Auburn Cemetery, 
crossing Harlem Avenue about 200 yards south of West 43rd Street 



IN MEMORY OF THE MEN WHO FIRST SAW CHICAGO 279 

and extending through the Cook County forest preserve to the Des 
Plaines River. The Des Plaines was forded at this point and the 
road continued on the west side of the river, along the ridge about to 
where the old Tolleston beach and the old Calumet beach came to- 
gether. This is at about the point where Joliet avenue and West 47th 
street in Lyons connect with the Chicago and Joliet road. 

The Chicago and Joliet road from this point on follows very nearly 
the original course of the old portage road to La Salle, 111., passing 
through the towns of Joliet, Channahon, Morris, Seneca, Marseilles, 
Ottawa and Utica. 

Location Easily Accessible 

Just below the old fording place in the forest preserve is the place 
of embarkation upon the Des Plaines. It marks the end of the seven 
mile ''land carry" from the Chicago River. It is situated right 
where the Des Plaines cuts through the old Tolleston beach, about 
1,200 or 1,300 feet south of the line of West 43d street. This loca- 
tion is easily accessible by automobile ; or it may be reached by walk- 
ing from the car line down Harlem avenue to 43d street and turning 
into the forest preserve west to the Des Plaines River. 

This spot as well as the entrance to the Portage creek should be 
marked by a permanent monument to preserve and identify it and to 
stimulate a study of the history of the great northwest and of its 
development in which both played the greatest and most important 
parts. — Reprint from the Chicago Daily News of Dec. 21, 1920. 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 



Seven Years of Effort. This month of January marks the end of seven 
years effort to gather and publish basic data relating to the history of the 
Catholic Church and the Catholic people in the central part of the United 
States, starting where the Church started and following its development 
through the years. 

Looking back over these seven years one must be somewhat startled by 
the volume of foundation matter that has been brought together and to the 
light of day. This must be especially true for those who had no idea of the 
magnitude of the part played by the Church and by Catholics in the discovery, 
exploration, settlement, development and progress of the region. 

At the same time it must be gratifying to all Catholics to know that 
their Church and their co-religionists bore such an honorable as well as con- 
spicuous part in everything that has made our state and our country great 
and worthy and honorable. 

We are convinced that our non-Catholic fellow citizens also have pride 
a«d satisfaction in the contemplation of the lives and achievements of the 
pioneers, the most worthy of whom were the saintly missionaries who blazed 
the way for the teeming millions who were to find plenty and happiness and 
comfort in this most favored of all God's possessions. 

At the beginning of another year, after seven years of faithful labors, 
is it too much to beg that a more general interest on the part of our fellow 
Catholics be manifested in this work? We have been submitted to a. seven 
year test. Is the work a worthy one? All should now be able to judge. If 
it is will you not make manifest your apprecition? 

The Marquette Anniversaries Thus Far. All of the observances and cele- 
brations of the first journey of Father Marquette to the Illinois country, held 
during the year ]923, have been described in former numbers of the Illinois 
Catholic Historical Eeview. In this number we have attempted a description 
of the observances of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of his second 
journey to this region in so far as that visit related to Chicago. 

Our readers have been made familiar with the Marquette story through 
the Marquette letters or journals which we have heretofore published in full 
and through many commentaries of historians and others that have appeared 
in our columns, but we believe readers of this number of the Review will 
get a peculiar satisfaction from the contents of this issue and especially from 
the sermon of Father Mertz, the address of Father Noonan and the masterly 
oration of Hon. Quin O'Brien. 

The three observances noted and described in this issue and the action 
of the City Council promulgated through the proclamation of the Mayor 
designating December 4th, Marquette Day in the City of Chicago and urging 
its annual observance mark the actual accomplishments in the cause of due 
recognition of Father Marquette for the year 1924. 

There remains for the year 1925 due recognition and observance of the 
culmination of all Father Marquette's labors, the establishment of ithe 

280 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 281 

Church in mid-America. This stupendous event occurred on April 11th, 1675. 
The Knights of Columbus have pledged themselves to the sponsorship of 
appropriate observance of this important anniversary and preparation will 
soon be begun to redeem that pledge. 

A Decision Much to be Regretted. The Supreme Council of the Knights 
of Columbus at the instance of the Fourth Degree branch of the Order set 
out upon some history v.ork and by the announcements raised high hopes of 
some worthwhile work. Commissioners were appointed and a program was 
adopted through which a few publications appeared but the work did not 
prove to be of the character the situation demanded and was abandoned. 

At the very last a program was hit upon that would have been of in- 
calculable value had it been adopted and carried out. This plan of procedure 
contemplated the preparation and publication of a history of each state in the 
Union in a separate volume, prepared by a writer of ability and historical 
information in each state. 

It is to be hoped that this plan may be revived and that the contemplated 
series of State histories will become a reality. It is only by some such plan 
that a satisfactory general history may become possible. Let a series of 
State histories like this be published and even though some or all of them 
be defective, historians of this and succeeding generations will be encouraged 
to seek out the defects and imperfctions and address themselve to the com- 
pilation of general histories that would be of the highest degree of useful- 
ness. 

Fellow members of the Knights of Columbus let us beg you to unite with 
us in urging the Knights of Columbus to reconsider their action and undertake 
this splendid work. 

A Brief History. In this number of the Illinois Catholic Historical 
Review we are running an instalment of a manuscript prepared by the editor 
from notes and data gathered during several years of historical studies under 
the title, "Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary History of Illinois." 

As will be seen it is written in a popular style and intended to be as 
pleasant from a reading standpoint as history may reasonably be made. While 
it is written in an appropriately serious vein it is thought not to be ponderous 
or so deep as to discourage the youthful or beginners. 

The chief reason for the publication of the chapters presented herewith 
is to secure the reaction of readers. What do you think of such a work? Is 
it worth reading and if so is it worth publishing? In seeking the judgment 
of readers the question of profitableness is not taken into account. Suppose 
we admit that the prospects of profit from such a publication would not be 
especially bright. Is it, anyway, such a work as should be available in our 
libraries and schools, public and private and if so how may it be made 
available ? 

Discover Traces of Well Dug by Trappist Monks. Excavators seeking to 
solve the mystery of the ancient Caliokia mounds, discovered a shallow hole on 
Monk's Mound which is believed to be what remains of a well dug by theTrap- 



282 EDITORIAL COMMENT 

pist monks, who lived on the top of the Mound more than 100 years ago. This 
ancient well is the only existing evidence of the Trappist colony, according to 
Edward Payne of Springfield, noted collector of Indian relics. 

Written history, however, tells the story of the courageous colony of 
religious men, who, living atop the great Mound since named for them, fought 
and lost a gallant tight against the ravages of disease and natural hardships, 
and of whom almost no trace now remains. 

In 1808 several Trappists left their home in Kentucky, traveling west- 
ward in search of new land, and while using St. Louis as a base from which 
to investigate near-by possibilities, chanced to travel into the mound district. 
Being impressed with the ideal conditions which the mounds afforded for a 
Trappist 's home, they negotiated the purchase of 400 acres of farm land, 
including the largest mound, since known as Monk's Mound. 

The monks' home was founded upon this Mound in 1810, and included 
soome twenty small buildings. Members of the organization, many of them 
well educated, lived their lives atop this huge rectangular hill, spending their 
time in prayer and sacrifice, and gaining their sustenance from small plots 
of grain and vegetables which they cultivated. 

They lived in perpetual silence, usiing gestures to convey messages to 
each othter. Their food consisted only of vegetables, soups and milk. Day 
for them began at 2 a. m. and lasted until 7 or 8 at night. Trappists wore 
a gown of white and a crown scapular, and at night they merely doffed the 
scapular and slept in their robes on coarse straw cots. 

Misfortunes overtook the colony before they had been long in their new 
home. Forced to drink impure water, many were made ill with feverish attacks, 
but those strong enough to resist dug the well, which still exists, and health 
was soon restored. They lived in their seclusion for several years until malaria 
fever spread through the entire community, causing the death of many. The 
few that survived, discouraged and disheartened, left Cahokia forever, going 
first to Pittsburg and finally back to France. 

At the death of a Trappist, all of his brethren would gather in the death 
chamber and pray continuously until the last spark of life went out. After 
the funeral, which was very simple, the survivors laid out the grave for the 
next persons, to die. Because of this practice, it was often said the Trappists 
dug their own graves. Graves were marked with a simple wooden cross bear- 
ing the name of the deceased and the date of death. 



For an Institute of Church History. The immediate creation of an American 
Institute for Church History is needed, if invaluable materials for the writing of 
American Catholic Church histoiy are not to be lost for all time. Dr. Peter Guil- 
day, of the Catholic University, declares in a brochure, "On the Creation of an 
Institute for American Church History." wliich he has privately printed. He 
proposes that the institute be established at once. 

"If the Catholic Church in the United States is to be given the place 
it deserves in the history of the nation," he says, "it will only be done by 
bringing to light the history of the past." 

The author of the pamphlet seeks through the institute to do two things: 

First, he would remove three great handicaps to the writer of American 
Catholic history. He would establish a National Catholic archives, whose source- 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 283 

collections would be preserved available to scholars; he would create a Na- 
tional Catholic library where all printed materials on American Catholic 
history would be assembled; and he would found an institute proper for 
America Church history, where specialists would be trained for a service 
woefully undermanned — workers who by gathering invaluable Catholic his- 
torical materials would halt the tragedy of their careless destruction. 

Second, he would make of this instrument for the saving of American 
Catholic history, an imposing centenary monument to John Gilmary Shea such 
as that greatest of American Catholic historians would himself applaud. 

Dr. Guilday calls attention to only a few of the appalling and unpardon- 
able instances of destruction of Catholic historical data in this country, then 
passes on to the practicability of his proposal for the Institute. 

For all three phases of the project, there already exist admirable begin- 
nings, sound healthy bases on which to build, he says. The embryo of the 
archives is at hand in three collections, the Shea Collection at Georgetown 
University; the Caltimore Cathedral archives, largely national in scope, and 
the Cahokia Archives of America, at the University of Notre Dame. — N. C. TV. C. 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT 
PERIODICALS 



Marquette Statue Is Put in Place in Rome, — Word has been received here 
of the placing of the original plaster cast of a notable statue of Father Mar- 
quette on exhibition at the Vatican, Rome, at the request of Pope Pius X. 
The east is that of the statue made by Gaetano Trentanove to represent 
Wisconsin in Statuary Hall, Washington, D. C. 

Chevalier Trentanove resided in Milwaukee many years and is a sculptor 
of note. He now has a villa near Florence, Italy. His statue of Father 
Marquette was chosen to represent Wisconsin at Washington because of the 
great missionary's contribution to the advancement of civilization through 
his wide explorations and preaching. 

Early Lake Superior Copper Mining. — In the Wisconsin Magazine of 
History for December, 1924 appears an article by Louise Phelps Kellogg on 
"Copper Mining in the Early Northwest." The Indians mined copper on 
Lake Superior. Copper pieces to the number of 13,000 have been recovered 
from Wisconsin mounds alone. Prehistoric Indian mines have been found on 
the north shore of Lake Superior and on Isle Royale. "William H. Holmes, 
one of our leading archeologists, is convinced that the Lake Superior mines 
were worked by Indians for hundreds of years." Jacques Cartier in 1535 was 
presented by an Indian chief with "a great knife of red copper that came 
from the Saguenay. " In 1653 Father Bressani wrote of seeing copper from 
distant parts. Father Allouez in 1665 made a report on copper deposits on 
Lake Superior. The intendant of New France reported on the Lake Superior 
mines in 1710. But no practical mining was undertaken by white men until 
Louis Denis Sieur de La Ronde, a lieutenant in the French navy, began 
prospecting in 1731 in company with St. Pierre. A little vessel was built 
at Sault Ste. Marie to transport men and supplies to Fort La Pointe, miners 
v/ere engaged and great hopes were entertained of success; but his death 
brought his efforts to an end in 1740. An abortive attempt was made by 
British traders in 1771 to mine on the Ontonagon River. The vast distances 
over which the ore had to be transported, the dangers of navigation, the 
severities of the climate, the lack of settled population and the unstable 
equilibrium of tlie natives were causes that led to what "can only be regarded 
as an heroic failure." 



Priest Describes Buffalo Hunt. — The North Dakota State Historical So- 
ciety Collections, volume five, just issued, contains a letter translated from 
the French of M. Belcourt, A. M. C, written from Minnesota in November, 
1845, in which he gives an animated account of a buffalo! hunt. The hunters 
whom this missionary was accompanying were half breeds. "We had hardly 
traveled more than a half hour," he writes, "when we caught sight of a 
herd of buffalo bulls. We recognized them from quite a distance by their habit 
of keeping farther from each other than the cows do. Wc advanced at a gentle 

284 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 285 

gallop and were within two or three rods of them while they were still grazing 
peacefully. Then we slowed our horses down to a walk; for if one goes up 
softly, they do not take flight until one gets very close to them. Although 
they showed little anxiety at our appearance, they gave evidence of bad 
humor. Some threw into the air eddies of dust with their front hoofs; others 
rolled on the ground like horses, then with the agility of a hare, they sprang 
up quickly. A few, more careful of their gravity, looked at us fixedly, letting 
escape from time to time a dull and muffled bellowing. The twitching of 
their tails showed us, nevertheless, that our presence was not any more 
agreeable to them than to their companions. 

"At last the signal was given; we strike spurs to our horses and these 
thick and heavy masses flee swiftly before us. Several are overthrown at 
the first onslaught; others, feeling themselves mortally wounded, stop, furiously 
tearing up the ground or pawing it with their front hoofs like rams. Under 
a bristling tuft of hair their eyes sparkle with rage and warn the most 
intrepid hunters to keep at a respectful distance. The instinct of the buffalo 
leads them to gather together in a mass when they are attacked. The bulls 
who have gotten separated from the cows gather together first, then flee before 
the horses until they rejoin the cows; the latter gather together in their 
turn and flee before the former, but much more rapidly. To reach the cows 
one must get through the compact phalanx of the bulls and it is in this that 
the chief danger lies." 

The reason for the e.vtinction of the bison from our western prairies 
becomes apparent when one reads of the spoils of this one hunt. "After 
the first course, which lasted about a half hour, I counted one hundred and 
sixty-nine cows. We camped near the place. The next morning in another 
course one hundred and seventy-seven were brought down. The third day 
several horsemen rested; those who did hunt brought back to camp 114 cows, 
the fourth day 168 cows were killed. In all there were 628 cows." Much 
meat was lost by the way the meat was cut up by the women. Pressed out 
into long shreds, the meat was stretched on drying frames like pieces of 
linen; and when dry was pulverized, mixed with melted fat, seasoned with 
dried fruits, and packed in skin sacks. 

The priest goes on to say: "We numbered in all 309 souls; I had catechised 
regularly 68 children. Mass was said every day; God was served and glorified 
by the union that reigned among all the members of our little community. 
Several heard Mass every day, and every Sunday from ten to fifteen came 
to the Holy Table. On these days I gave instruction in the language of the 
country; this attention pleased the half breeds exceedingly, accustomed as 
they are to hear preaching only in the French language which they under- 
stand." 



French Pur Traders of New France. — The Massachusetts Historical Society 
Proceedings for the year 1923-24 contains an interesting account, by W. B. 
Munro, of the character and ways of the so-called coureur-de-bois of the 
French possessions in America in the seventeenth century. "Beaver was the 
fur of furs," says Mr. Munro; "the mainstay of the trade and the de- 
pendence of Canada upon it was complete. Hence the French colonists on 
the St. Lawrence regarded their control of the beaver country as the very 



286 GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 

keystone of commercial and political policy." The source of the beaver pelts 
was the great region now covered by the States of Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, 
Michigan, Iowa and Minnesota. "The most active figure in the fur-trading 
system was the individual forest trader, the coureur-de-hois. He was the or- 
ganizer and captain of redskin commerce, the liaison officer between the tribes 
of the West and the commercial companies which maintained their ware- 
houses at Montreal. Usually a man of good birth with some military training 
and fair education, the average coureur-de-bois was a commercial rover by 
chooice; he was not an outcast from civilization. He became a forest trader 
because the life appealed to him." Young gentlemen, some of noble birth, 
saw in the fur trade an opportunity of acquiring fortunes and plunged into it, 
some for a year or two in the wilds, and others held by the attractiveness 
of the free life they led, remaining many years in the wilderness with occa- 
sional visits to civilization. ' ' The coureur-de-hois learned to live like a savage 
and he did not always forget the art when he came back to the shores of 
the St. Lawrence. The manners and morals of these traders, so many of 
whom were young gentilshommes of good family, permeated the whole social 
life at Quebec and Montreal and greatly to its detriment." 

These traders did not transoort merchandise to any great extent. "Their 
real business was to gather large bodies of Indians together and pilot them 
down the trade routes to Montreal in time for the summer fairs. The French 
trading posts at Detroit, Mackinaw, Green Bay and elsewhere were not store- 
houses for merchandise and very little actual bartering went on at any of 
them. It was the idea of the French that the trade should come to the colony, 
not that the colony should go to the trade." 

"When the largest flotilla of the summer came down the lakes the 
governor of the colony usually arrived from Quebec and opened the fair 
with a solemn pow-wow in which pledges of friendship were given and re- 
ceived." Clothing, utensils, personal ornaments and brandy were the articles 
most sought by the Indians in exchange for their furs. "The Church in 
New France did, its best," Mr. Munro says "to stop the exchange of brandy 
for furs at these colonial fairs and its long fight in this connection forms 
one of the bright pages in the annals of the trade; but the Church, in spite 
of its unremitting efforts, never succeeded in Volsteading the colony. This 
was because the traders had the ear of the colonial authorities and convinced 
them that without brandy the Indians could not be kept within the French 
sphere of influence. They would divert their furs to Albany where they 
would get rum and heresy into the bargain." 

The Prench in Illinois. Francis X. Busch, in an adlress delivered before 
the Illinois Historical Society, recently printed in the 1922 volume of the 
Transactions, traces the coming of French explorers to Illinois from Father 
Marquette and La Salle in what he calls the Exploratory Period, through 
the Eevolutionary period to the meeting of the first territorial legislature 
in 1812. Mr. Busch takes pains in foot-notes to indicate the exact location, 
as far as known, of the various forts and villages connected with the travels 
of these pioneers. Father Marquette, on his voyage up the Illinois River, 
stopped at an Indian village called Kaskaskia. This was not, however, 
located at the site of the village of the same name later founded by the 
French, but near Utica, Illinois. "The mission (begun by Father Marquette) 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT' PERIODICALS 287 

was removed to Peoria when Tonti removed Fort St. Louis there. In 1700 
Father Gabriel Marest, the Jesuit priest in charge, again removed the mission 
southward to the lower end of the Mississippi bottom, near the present site 
of Kaskaskia." 

Fort Frontenac, over which La Sale, then newly raised to the nobility, 
was appointed governor by Louis XIV, was near the site of Kingston, Ontario; 
and Fort Creveeoeur, "probably the first permanent structure erected by white 
men in Illinois," was built by La Salle near the present site of Peoria, 
Illinois. In speaking of La Salle's voyage in the ship Griffon, built by him 
and his party on Lake Erie in August, 1679, Mr. Busch gives the erroneous 
impression that the Griffon proceeded down the west shore of Lake Michigan 
and thence eastward to the mouth of the St. Joseph Eiver, Michigan; 
whereas that vessel turned back at Green Bay and was never afterwards 
heard from. Malamet or Maramech, the fort built by Nicholas Parrot, a 
French trader from Quebec, was located "verj' probably at or near the site 
of Marameg on the Fox River." 

The Jesuits had maintained a mission at Cahokia from Marquette's time 
up to 1699 when Seminary priests from Quebec arrived. Mr. Busch, in 
locating the site of the Mission of the Guardian Angel, places it "at or near 
the mouth of the Chicago Eiver." On September 27, 1717, the Illinois country 
which had hitherto been a dependency of Quebec, was incorporated with 
Louisiana and became part of that province. 

Church in North Dakota. — The Quarterly Journal of the University of 
North Dakota for April, 1923, in an article on "Early Eeligious Activities" 
by Charles H. Phillips, gives the following notes on the beginnings of the 
Catholic Church in that State. 

"There are stories of a Catholic priest who came out with the Hudson 
Bay Company as early as 1812. His purpose was to exercise a moral restraint 
on the members of the Company and to make an attempt at the conversion 
of the Indians. The Sioux were on this side of the river and were continually 
at war with the Chippewas of the Minnesota lake region. Some Fuench 
adventurers were also in the country and through intermarrying with the 
Indians, became the progenitors of the half-breeds still living along the 
Canadian border. This priest is reported to have built a sod chapel at St. 
Joseph which was later renamed Walhalla. This was probably the first white 
settlement in the State." Missions were established at Pembina as well as 
at Walhalla, 

History of Stevenson County, Illinois. — In 1854 William J. Johnston wrote 
for the Freeport Bulletin a series of papers entitled: "Sketches of the 
History of Stevenson County, Illinois, and Incidents connected with the Early 
Settlement of the Northwest." These papers were afterwards reprinted in a 
book issued at Freeport, which became so scarce that but two copies were 
known to S. J. Buck when he wrote his "Travel and Description, 1765-1865" 
for the Illinois State Historical Society. One of the original copies is in 
the Newberry Library, Chicago; the other is in Madison, Wisconsin. The 
entire book is now reprinted in the latest volume of the Transactions of 
that Society from a manuscript copy in its possession. In the earlier chapters 



288 GLEANINGS PROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 

the course of exploration of the West is traced, the text is given of the 
treaty of 1804 between the United States and the united tribes of the Sacs 
and the Foxes, incidents of early mining arei related, and the Black Hawk War 
is told in much detail from data derived apparently from personal inquiries 
and from official documents. 



Mount Saint Helena. — The California Historical Society Quarterly, in an 
article on "Historic Mount Saint Helena," has an account of a curious co- 
incidence in the naming of the mountain, which is located a few miles north 
of Santa Rosa, California. Tradition, based largely on local knowledge, 
has the story that the name Mount Saint Helena was given to the mountain 
first by a Spanish friar, secondly by a party of Russians escorting the Princess 
de Gagarin to the summit, and lastly by a pioneer ship captain and trader 
named Stephen Smith. Strange as the story may seem, the author, Honoria 
Tuomey, supports it by evidence, not documentary to be sure, but fairly 
well authenticated. "Accompanied by some Indian neophytes, the padre was 
journeying northward from the Mission San Rafael Arcangel beyond the 
valley of the Petalumas toward the Llano de Santa Rosa seeking the best 
site for anotheii mission. The time was the early '30 's. As the padre arrived 
in sight of the lofty bulk in the center of the horizon, his attention was 
held by the peculiar shape of the mountain. . . . There flashed to his mind 
a recollection of a tomb in an old abbey in the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of 
Eheims; he pointed to the distant mountain and exclaimed: "Behold Saint 
Helena on her bier! It is her effigy even to the pall." So much for the 
Spanish friar. The Russians, however, in 1841 named the mountain for 
Helena, empress of Russia. Lastly the pioneer Yankee named it after his 
sailing vessel, acquired from the Russians, which bore the name "Saint 
Helena." The only documentary evidence is a copy of the copper plate affixed 
to the summit by the Russians, which the author possesses. 

Wm. Stetson Merrill. 
Chicago. 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical 

Review 

Volume VII APRIL, 1925 Number 4 



(3(IIinar0 fliatlfoltc ^fetnrical ^orfetg 

617 ASHLAND BLOCK, CHICAGO 



HONORARY PRESIDENTS 

His Eminence George Cardinal Mundelein, Chicago 

Rt. Rev. Peter J. Muldoon, D. D., Rockford Rt. Rev. Henry Althoff, D. D., BelleviUe 

Rt. Rev. Edmund M. Dunne, D. D., Peoria Rt. Rev. James A. Griffin, D. D., Springfield 

OFFICERS 

Presidknt Finaxcial Secretary 

Rev. Frederic Siedenburg, S. J., Chicago Francis J. Rooney, Chicago 
First Vice-Pre.sident 

Rt. Rev. F. A. Piircell, Chicago Recording Secretary 

Second Vice-President I»[argaret Madden, Chicago 
James M. Graham, /Springfield 

Treasurer Archivist 
John P. V. Murphy, Chicago Rev. Joseph P. Morrison, Chicago 

TRUSTEES 
Very Rev. James Shannon, Peoria Michael F. Girten, Chicago 

Rev. William H. Agnew, S. J., Chicago James A. Bray, Joliet 

Mrs. Daniel V. Gallery, Chicago Frank J. Seng, Wilmette 

D. F. Bremner, Chicago Mrs. E. I. Cudahy, Chicago 

Edward Houlihan, Chicago 



^Ittnotg Cattfcltc l^tstorrcal ^e&tefo 

Journal of the Illinois Catholic Historical Society 
617 Ashland Block, Chicago 

EDITORS 

Joseph J. Thomp.son, William Stetson Merrill 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Rev. Frederick Beuckman BelleviUe Kate Meade Chicago 

Rev. J. B. Culemans Moline Rev. Francis J. Epstein Chicago 



Published by 

The Illinois Catholic Historical Society 

Chicago, III. 



CONTENTS 



The Establishment of the Church in Illinois 



Frontispiece 



Account of the Second Voyage of Father Marquette 

Bev. Claude J. DaUon, 8. J. 291 



A Tribute from a Bigot 

Et. Rev. Julian Benoit 

The Emigration of a Family 

Chtcagou — The Grand Chief of the Illinois 

History in the Press 

Early History of Sisters of Charity 



John Louis Morris 302 

A Pioneer Priest 309 

Helen McCalpin 323 

Joseph J. Thompson 332 

Teresa L. Mahrr 338 

A Sister 350 



Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary History op Illinois 

Joseph J. Thompson 360 

Editorial Comment ......... 



Martin H. Glynn 

Book Reviews ..... 
Gleanings from Current Periodicals 

Louis Phillipe's Gifts to Bishop Flaget 



. 366 

Kaelen King, M. A. 368 
. 374 



William Stetson Merrill 378 



Bev. H. S. Spalding, S.J. 383 



LOYOLA university PRESS 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

290 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical Review 



Volume VII APRIL, 1925 Number 4 



ACCOUNT OF THE SECOND VOYAGE 

AND THE DEATH OF FATHER 

JACQUES MARQUETTE 

(Relation of Rev. Claude Dablon, S.J.) 
The Church Established 

The mission of the Illinois was founded in the year 1674, after 
the first voyage which Father Jacques Marquet made to disicover 
new territories and new peoples who are on the great and famous 
river Mississippi. 

The year following, he made a second voyage in order to estab- 
lish there the mission ; it is that one which we are about to relate.^ 

Section 1. Narrative of the Second Voyage that Father 
Marquet Made to the Illinois. He Reaches Them. Notwith- 
standing His Illness, and Begins the Mission of La Concep- 
tion. 

Father Jacques i\larquette, ha\dng promised the Illinois on his 
first voyage to them, in 1673, that he would return to them the 



' Full accounts, including Father Marquette 's own letters, have been given 
of his first journey and have been published in former numbers of the Illinois 
Catholic Historical Review. Father Marquette's own journal of his second 
journey has also been reproduced. That journal ended before he reached the 
site of his mission (the Kaskaskia Indian village at what is now Utica). Father 
Dablon, who was Father Marquette's superior at that time, was kept advised 
by Father Marquette's written account and the verbal reports of the two men, 
Pierre Porteret and Jacques La Castor, who accompanied Father Marquette, 
and wrote this relation soon after Father Marquette's death. This relation is 
published in full in Thwaites' Jesuit Eelations, Vol. 59; reproduced in Kellogg, 
Early Narartives of the Northwest, p. 262. 

291 



292 REV. CLAUDE J. DABLON, S. J. 

following year, to teach them the mysteries of our religion, had 
much difficulty in keeping his word. The great hardships of his 
first voyage had brought upon him a bloody flux, and had so weak- 
ened him that he was giving up the hope of undertaking a second. 
However, his sickness decreased; and, as it had almost entirely 
abated by the close of the summer in the following year, he obtained 
the permission of his superiors to return to the Illinois and there 
begin that fair mission. 

He set out for that purpose, in the month of November of the 
year 1674, from the Bay des Puants, with two men, one of whom 
had made the [first] voyage with him. During a month of naviga- 
tion on the Lake of the Illinois [Lake Michigan], he was tolerably 
well; but, as soon as the snow began to fall, he was again seized 
with his bloody flux, which compelled him to halt in the river which 
leads to the Illinois [Chicago River]. It was there that they con- 
structed a cabin in which to pass the winter [at what is now Rohey 
Street and the Drainage Canal], amid such inconveniences that, his 
malady increasing more and more, he saw clearly that God was 
granting to him the favor which he had so many times besought 
from Him ; and he even told his two companions very plainly that 
he would certainly die of that malady, and during that voyage. 
Duly to prepare his soul, despite the severe indisposition of his 
body, he began this so severe winter sojourn by the retreat of St. 
Ignatius, which he performed with every feeling of devotion, and 
many celestial consolations; and then he passed the whole of the 
remaining time in holding communion with all Heaven, having, in 
these deserts, no intercourse with the earth except with his two 
companions. He confessed them twice in the week, and exhorted 
them as much as his strength permitted him. A short time after 
Christmas, that he might obtain the favor of not dying without 
having taken possession of his dear mission, he invited his com- 
panions to make a novena in honor of the Immaculate Conception 
of the Blessed Virgin. His prayer was answered, against all human 
probability; and, his health improving, he prepared himself to go 
to the village of the Illinois as soon as navigation should open, which 
he did with much joy, setting out for that place on the 29th of 
March. He spent eleven days on the way, during which time he 
had occasion to suffer much, both from his own illness, from which 
he had not entirely recovered, and from the very severe and un- 
favorable weather. 



second voyage and death of father marquette 293 

Planting the Church 

On at last arriving at the village, he was received as an angel 
from Heaven. After he had assembled at various times the chiefs 
of the nation, with all the old men, that he might sow in their minds 
the first seeds of the Gospel, and after having given instruction in 
the cabins, which were always filled with a great crowd of people, 
he resolved to address all in public, in a general assembly which he 
called together in the open air, the cabins being too small to contain 
all the people. It was a beautiful prairie, close to a village, which 
was selected for the great council; this was adorned, al'ter the 
fashion of the country by covering it with mats and bear skins. 
Then the Father, having directed them to stretch out upon lines 
several pieces of Chinese taffeta, attached to these four large pic- 
tures of the Blessed Virgin, which were visible on all sides. The 
audience was composed of 500 chiefs and elders, seated in a circle 
around the Father, and of all the young men, who remained stand- 
ing. They numbered more than 1,500 men, without counting the 
women and children, who are always numerous, the village being 
composed of five or six hundred fires. The Father addressed the 
whole body of people, and conveyed to them ten messages, by means 
of ten presents which he gave them. He explained to them the 
principal mysteries of our religion, and the purpose that had brought 
him to their country. Above all, he preached to them Jesus Christ, 
on the very eve (of that great day) on which he had died upon 
the Cross for them, as well as for all the rest of mankind;^ when 
he said holy Mass. On the third day after, which was Easter Sun- 
day, things being prepared in the same manner as on Thursday, he 
celebrated the holy mysteries for the second time; and by these 
two, the only sacrifices ever offered there to God, he took possession 
of that land in the name of Jesus Christ, and gave to that mission 
the name of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin. 

He was listened to by all those peoples with universal joy; and 
they prayed him. with most earnest entreaty to come back to them 
as soon as possible, since his siclaiess obliged him to return. The 
Father, on his side, expressed to them the affection which he felt 
for them and the satisfaction that they had given him; and pledged 



^ The day referred to was Holy Thursday, April 11, 1675, just two hundred 
and fifty years ago now, today, April 11, 1925, as I write this not*. 

April 11, 1675, was the birthday of the Church in mid-America, and April 
11, 1925, Easter Saturday, is the 250th anniversary of the birth of the Church 
in our region. — Ed. 



294 REV. CLAUDE J. DABLON, S. J. 

them his word that he, or some other of our Fathers, would return 
to carry on that mission so happily inaugurated. This promise he 
repeated several times, while parting with them to go upon his way ; 
and he set out with so many tolcens of regard on the part of those 
good peoples that, as a mark of honor, they chose to escort him for 
more than thirty leagues on the road, vying with each other in taking 
charge of his slender baggage. 

Section 2. The Father Is Compelled to Leave His Illinois 
Mission. His Last Illness. His Precious Death in th^ Heart 
OF the Forest. 

After the Illinois, filled with great esteem for the Gospel, had 
taken leave of the Father, he continued his journey, and shortly 
after reached the Lake of the Illinois, upon whose waters he had 
to journey nearly a hundred leagues, by an unknown route, whereon 
he had never before travelled; for he Avas obliged to coast along the 
southern shore of the lake, having come by the northern. But his 
strength was so rapidly diminishing that his two men despaired 
of being able to bring him alive to the end of their journey. Indeed, 
he became so feeble and exhausted that he was unable to assist or 
even to move himself, and had to be handled and carried about 
like a child. 

Meanwhile, he preserved in that condition an admirable equa- 
nimity, resignation, joy and gentleness, consoling his dear compan- 
ions and encouraging them to suffer patiently all the hardships of 
that voyage, in the assurance that (lOd would not abandon them 
after his death. It was during this voyage that he began to make 
more special preparations for death. He held communion, some- 
times with our Lord, sometimes with His holy Mother, or with his 
guardian angel, or with all Paradise. He was often overheard 
repeating these words. Credo quod redeniptor mens vivit; or Maria, 
Mater Gratiae, Mater Dei, memento mei. In addition to the spiritual 
exercise, which was read to him every day, he requested toward the 
close that they would read to him his meditation preparatory for 
death, which he carried about with him. He recited every day his 
breviary; and although he was so low that his sight and strength 
were greatly enfeebled, he continued to do so to the last day of his 
life, despite the remonstrance of his companions. 

Eight days before his death, he was thoughtful enough to prepare 
the holy water for use during the rest of his illness, in his agony, 
and at his burial; and he instructed his companions how it should 
be used. 



SECOND VOYAGE AND DEATH OF FATHER MARQUETTE 295 

The evening before his death, which was a Friday, he told them, 
very joyously, that it would take place on the morrow. He conversed 
with them during the whole day as to what would need to be done 
for his burial: about the manner in which they should inter him; of 
the spot that should be chosen for his grave ; how his feet, his hands, 
and his face should be arranged; how they should erect a Cross over 
his grave. He even went so far as to counsel them, three hours before 
he expired, that as soon as he was dead they should take the little 
hand-bell of his chapel, and sound it while he was being put under 
ground. He spoke of all these things with so great tranquility and 
presence of mind that one might have supposed that he was concerned 
with the death and funeral of some other person, and not for his own. 

Thus did he converse with them as they made their way upon the 
lake, until, having perceived a river, on the shore of which stood an 
eminence that he deemed well suited to be the place of his interment, 
he told them that that was the place of his last repose. They wished, 
however, to proceed farther, as the weather was favorable, and the 
day was not far advanced; but God raised a contrary wind, which 
compelled them to return, and enter the river which the Father had 
pointed out. They a;ccordingly brought him to the land, lighted 
a little fire for him, and prepared for him a wretched cabin of bark. 
They laid him down therein, in the least uncomfortable way that 
they could ; but they were so stricken with sorrow that as they have 
since said, they hardly knew what they were doing. 

A Holy Death 

The Father, being thus stretched on the ground in much the 
same way as was St. Francis Xavier, as he had always so passion- 
ately desired, and finding himself alone in the midst of these for- 
ests, for his companions were occupied with the disembarkation, 
he had leisure to repeat all the acts in which he had continued 
during these last days. 

His dear companions having afterward rejoined him, all discon- 
solate, he comforted them, and inspired them with the confidence 
that God would take care of them after his death, in these new and 
unknown countries. He gave them the last instructions, thanked 
them for all the charities which they had exercised in his behalf 
during the whole journey, and entreated pardon for the trouble 
that he had given them. He charged them to ask pardon for him 
also, from all our Fathers and brethren who live in the country of 
the Outaouacs. Then he undertook to prepare them for the sacra- 



296 REV. CLAUDE J. DABLON, S. J. 

inent of penance, which he administered to them for the last time. 
He gave them also a paper on which he had written all his faults 
since his own last confession, that they might place it in the hands 
of the Father Superior, that the latter might be enabled to pray 
to God for him in a more special manner. Finally, he promised 
not to forget them in Paradise. And, as he was very considerate, 
knowing that they were much fatigued with the hardships of the 
preceding days, he bade them go and take a little repose. He as- 
sured them that his hour was not yet so very near, and that he 
would awaken them when the time should come, as, in fact, two 
or three hours afterward he did summon them, being ready to enter 
into the agony. 

They drew near to him, and he embraced them once again, while 
they burst into tears at his feet. Then he asked for holy water 
and his reliquarj^; and having himself removed his crucifix, 
which he carried always suspended round his neck, he placed it in 
the hands of one of his companions, begging him to hold it before 
his eyes. Then feeling that he had but a short time to live, he 
made a last effort, clasped his hands, and, with a steady and fond 
look upon his crucifix, he uttered aloud his profession of faith, and 
gave thanks to the Divine Majesty for the great favor which he had 
accorded him of dying in the Society, of dying in it as a missionary 
of Jesus Christ, and, above all, of dying in it, as he had always 
prayed, in a wretched cabin in the midst of the forests and bereft 
of all human succor. 

After that he was silent, communing within himself with God. 
Nevertheless, he let escape from time to time these words, Sustinuit 
anima niea in verba ejus; or these. Mater Dei, memento mei — which 
were the last words that he uttered before entering his agony, which 
was, however, very mild and peaceful. 

He had prayed his companions to put him in mind, when they 
should see him about to expire, to repeat frequently the names of 
Jesus and Mary, if he could not himself do so. They did as they 
were bidden; and, when they believed him to be near his end, one 
of them called aloud, "Jesus, Mary!" The dying man repeated 
the words distinctly, several times; and as if, at these sacred names, 
something presented itself to him, he suddenly raised his eyes above 
his crucifix, holding them riveted on that object, which he appeared 
to regard with pleasure. And so, with a countenance beaming and 
all aglow, he expired without any struggle, and so gently that it 
might have been regarded as a pleasant sleep. [On May 18 or 19, 
167 5 A 



SECOND VOYAGE AND DEATH OF FATHER MARQUETTE 297 

His two poor companions, shedding many tears over him, com- 
posed his body in the manner which he had presicribed to them. 
Then they carried him devoutly to burial, ringing the while the 
little bell as he had bidden them; and planted a large Cross near 
to his grave, as a sign to passers-by. 

"When it became a question of embarking, to proceed on their 
journey, one of the two, who for some days had been so heartsick 
with sorrov/, and so greatly prostrated with an internal malady, 
that he could no longer cat or breathe except with difficulty, be- 
thought himself, while the other was making all preparations for 
embarking, to visit the grave of his good Father, and ask his inter- 
cession with the glorious Virgin, as he had promised, not doubting 
in the least that he was in Heaven. He fell, then, upon his knees, 
made a short prayer, and having reverently taken some earth from 
the tomb, he pressed it to his breast. Immediately his sickness 
abated, and his sorrow was changed into a joy which did not forsake 
him during the remainder of his journey. 

Section 3. What Occurred at the Removal of the Bones 
OF the Late Father Marquette, Which Were Taken From His 
Grave on the 19th of May, 1677, the Same Day as That on 
Which He Died in the Year 1675. A Brief Summary of His 
Virtues. 

God did not permit that a deposit so precious should remain in 
the midst of the forest, unhonored and forgotten. The savages 
named Kiskakons, who have been making public professions of 
Christianity for nearly ten years, and who were instructed by Father 
Marquette when he lived at the Point of St. Esprit at the extremity 
of Lake Superior, carried on their last winter's hunting in the 
vicinity of the Lake of the Illinois. As they were returning in the 
Spring, they were greatly pleased to pass near the grave of their 
good Father, whom they tenderly loved; and God also put it into 
their hearts to remove his bones and bring them to our Church at 
the mission of St. Ignace at Missilimakinac, where those savages 
make their abode. 

They repaired, then, to the spot, and resolved among themselves 
to act in regard to the Father as they are v/ont to do toward those 
for whom they profess great respect. Accordingly, they opened 
the grave, and uncovered the body; and, although the flesh and 
internal organs were all dried up, they found it entire, so that not 
even the skin was in any way injured. This did not prevent them 



298 REV. CLAUDE J. DABLON, S. J. 

from proceeding to dissect it, as is their custom. They cleansed 
the bones and exposed them to the sun to dry ; then, carefully laying 
them in a box of birch-bark, they set out to bring them to our 
mission of St. Ignace. 

A Strange Funeral Procession 

There were nearly thirty canoes which formed, in excellent order, 
that funeral procession. There were also a goodly number of Iro- 
quois, who united with our Algonquin savages to lend more honor 
to the ceremonial. When they drew near our house. Father Nouvel, 
who is its Superior, with Father Peircon, went out to meet them, 
accompanied by the Frenchmen and savages who were there; and 
having halted the procession, he put the usual questions to them, 
to make sure that it was really the Father's body which they were 
bringing. Before conveying it to land, they intoned the De Pro- 
fundis in the presence of the thirty canoes, which were still on the 
water, and of the people who were on the shore. After that, the 
body was carried to the church, care being taken to observe all that 
the ritual appoints in such ceremonies. It remained exposed under 
the pall, all that day, which was Whitmondaj^ the 8th of June ; and 
on the morrow, after having rendered to it all the funeral rites, it 
was lowered into a small vault in the middle of the church, where 
it rests as the guardian angel of our Outaouas missions. 

The savages often come to pray over his tomb. Not to mention 
more than this instance, a young girl, aged nineteen or twenty years, 
whom the Father had instructed, and who had been baptized in the 
past year, fell sick, and applied to Father Nouvel to be bled and to 
take certain remedies. The Father prescribed to her, as sole medi- 
cine, to come for three days and say a pater and three ave's at the 
tomb of Father Marquette. She did so, and before the third day 
was cured, without bleeding or any other remedies.^ 

A Contemporary Appreciation 

Father Jacques Marquette, of the province of Champagne, died 
at the age of thirty-eight years, of which twenty-one were passed 

' Should Father Marquette 's cause be presented at Rome three instances 
from this relation of Father Dablon might be competent. First, Father Mar- 
quette's restoration to health after his novena for that favor made in the 
Chicago cabin; next, the restoration of his companion who prayed at his grave 
and pressed some of the clay covering Marquette 's remains, to his breast and, 
finally, this cure of the young girl who prayed at his grave. 



SECOND VOYAGE AND DEATH OF FATHER MARQUETTE 299 

in the Society— namely, twelve in France and nine in Canada. He 
was sent to the missions of the upper Algonquins, who are called 
Outaouacs; and labored therein with the zeal that might be expected 
from a m.an who had proposed to himself St. Francis Xavier as the 
model of his life and death. He resembled that great saint, not only 
in the variety of barbarian languages which he mastered, but also 
by the range of his zeal, which made him carry the faith to the ends 
of this new world, and nearly eight hundred leagues from here into 
the forests, where the name of Jesus Christ had never been pro- 
claimed. 

He always entreated God that he might end his life in these 
laborious missions, and that, like his dear St. Xavier, he might die 
in the midst of the woods, bereft of everything. Every day, he inter- 
posed for that end both the merits of Jesus Christ and the inter- 
cession of the Virgin Immaculate, for whom he entertained a singular 
tenderness. 

Accordingly, he obtained through such powerful mediators that 
which he solicited with so much earnestness ; since he had, like the 
apostle of the Indies, the happiness to die in a wretched cabin on 
the shore of Lake Illinois, forsaken by all the world. [At what is 
now Ludington, Michigan.] 

We might say much of the rare virtues of this noble missionary: 
of his zeal, which prompted him to carry the Faith so far, and pro- 
claim the Gospel to so many peoples who were unknown to us ; of 
his gentleness, which rendered him beloved by all, and made him 
all things to all men — a Frenchman with the French, a Huron with 
the Huron s, and Algonquin with the Algonquins; of the childlike 
candor with which he disclosed his heart to his superiors, and even 
to all kinds of persons, with an ingenousness which won all hearts; 
of his angelic chastity; and of his uninterrupted union with God. 

But that which apparently predominated was a devotion, alto- 
gether rare and singular, to the Blessed Virgin, and particularly 
toward the mystery of her Immaculate Conception. It was a pleas- 
ure to hear him speak or preach on that subject. All his conversa- 
tions and letters contained something about the Blessed Virgin Im- 
maculate — for so he always called her. From the age of nine years, 
he fasted every Saturday; and from his tenderest youth be- 
gan to say the little office of the Conception, inspiring everyone 
with the same devotion. Some months before his death, he said 
every day with his tAvo men a little corona of the Immaculate Con- 
ception which he had devised as follows: After the Credo, there is 
said once the pater and ave, and then four times these words: Ave 



300 REV. CLAUDE J. DABLON, S. J. 

Filia Dei Patris, ave Mater Filii Dei, ave Sponsa Spintus Sancti, 
ave Templum totius Trinitatis: per sanctam Virginitatem et Im- 
maculaium Conceptionem tuam, purissima Virgo, emunda cor et 
carnem meant: in nomine Patris et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti, — con- 
cluding with the Gloria Patri, the whole repeated three times. 

He never failed to say the Mass of the Conception, or at least, 
when he could do so, the prayer of the Conception. He hardly medi- 
tated upon anything else day and night. That he might leave us 
an ever-enduring testimonj^ of his sentiments, it was his desire to 
bestow on the mission of the Illinois the name of La Conception. 

So tender a devotion toward the Mother of God merited some 
singular grace; and she accorded him the favor that he had always 
requested — to die on Saturday. His companions never doubted that 
she appeared to him at the hour of his death, when, after pronounc- 
ing the names of eTesus and Mary, he suddenly raised his eyes above 
his crucifix, holding them fixed on an object which he regarded with 
extreme pleasure, and a joy that showed itself upon his features; 
and they had, at that time, the impression that he had rendered 
up his soul into the hands of his good Mother. 

One of the last letters that he wrote to the Father Superior of 
the missions before his great voyage, is sufficient evidence that such 
were his sentiments. He begins it thus: ''The Blessed Virgin Im- 
maculate has obtained for me the favor of reaching this place in 
good health, and with the resolve to correspond to the intentions 
which God has respecting me, since He has assigned me to the 
voyage toward the south. I have no other thought than that of 
doing what God wills. I dread nothing — neither the Nadosis, nor 
the reception awaiting me among the nations, dismay me. One of 
two things will happen: either God will punish me for my crimes 
and cowardice, or else He will give me a share in His Cross, which 
I have not yet carried since my arrival in this country. But this 
Cross has been perhaps obtained for me by the Blessed Virgin Im- 
maculate, or it may be death itself, that I may cease to offend God. 
It is that for which I try to hold myself in readiness, surrendering 
myself altogether into His hands. I entreat Your Keverence not to 
forget me, and to obtain for me of God that I may not remain 
ungrateful for the favors which He heaps upon me." 

There was found among his papers a mnuscript entitled, "The 
directing Care of God over a ]\Iissionary, " in which he shows the 
excellence of that vocation, the advantages which it affords for self- 



SECOND VOYAGE AND DEATH OF FATHER MARQUETTE 301 

sanctification, and the care that God takes of Gospel laborers. One 
sees in this little abstract the spirit of God which possessed him. 

Rev. Claude Doblon, S. J., 
(Written about the year 1678). 

[The manuscript emhodying this relation ivas found ivith the 
Marquette manuscripts in St. Mary's Convent, Montreal, where all 
three still repose.] 



A TRIBUTE FROM A BIGOT TO THE 

EARLY JESUIT MISSIONARIES 

IN ILLINOIS 

Benedetto Croee, tlie Italian historical philosopher declares that 
all history is contemporary history; that the very dead lie in their 
graves waiting to be called to explain the part they played in the 
history of their own day. Fantastic at this theory seems, one is 
inclined to believe that it is partly true when he thinks of the many 
writings of the early Jesuit Fathers, the tirst historians of Illinois, 
which lay so long awaiting the resurrecting hand of Reuben Gold 
Thwaites, who was to collect and edit them as the Jesuit Relations 
and Allied Documents. This collection was to explain many things, 
hitherto not understood and to correct some mistaken views. This 
work in the original French or Latin form together with English 
translations and accompanied by many notes fills seventy-three large 
volumes. 

Mr. Thwaites stated that the history of New France was unsur- 
passed by any contemporary American history in richness of ma- 
terial and details. This we owe to the Jesuit Fathers.^ 

But the question naturally arises: can we trust the works of men 
whose society is notorious for falsehood, intrigue and even murder? 
[Does the writer joke or simply falsify? Of course the Jesuit Society 
is notorious for none of tJiese things, and it would he a serious reflec- 
tion upon the ivritcr's sanity to assume that he is serious.] 

Men of much critical ability have depended upon the reliability 
of these early documents: George Bancroft relied upon them and 
Parkman cherished them in their day and in our own times such men 
as Thwaites and Professor Colby are fully convinced that with all 
the errors, crudeness and what we call exaggeration that fill the pages 
of the Relations, that nevertheless the Fathers were sincere and fully 
believed what they wrote. [Surprising concession.] 

Practically all of the writing was done right in the field of labor 
and did not consist of afterthoughts written in ease and at leisure. 
The writer was often suffering from extreme heat or cold, was hungry 
or ill fed; slaking his thirst with the most impure water while being 
tortured by swarms of mosquitoes and gnats and was surrounded by 
all the horrors of Indian life. Suffering and danger gave rise to 



^ A paper read at meeting of Historical Society of Illinois. 

302 



A TRIBUTE FROM A BIGOT TO THE EARLY MISSIONARIES 303 

irregularity of form and style, but the same wild life inspired bursts 
of enthusiasm that resulted in poetic lines or phrases that would do 
honor to the odes of any bard. 

A strict application of historical criticism shows many mistakes 
but a growing feeling of security in depending upon the reliability 
of the Relations. One of the finest indications of reliability found by 
Thwaites was the lack of self praise on the part of the American 
Jesuit Missionaries. For instance, Father Bruyas wrote, "Although 
I have converted sixty savages as yet I have done nothing but 
stammer. ' '^ 

The Jansenists and Recollects have accused them of much exag- 
geration. The latter should be excellent critics when this fault is 
concerned for one of their greatest priests, Father Hennepin could 
increase the height of waterfalls and the length of snakes, as well 
as travel in a canoe as fast as a modern steamer on a part of a river 
he had never seen. The writings of this famous missionary show 
these changes and impossibilities in the relation of his experiences.^ 
The Recollect Father Membre boldly declared that he approached 
the Iroquois at the side of M. Tonti, while better evidence indicates 
that the Father was some distance from the scene.^ These well proved 
[the proof furnished hy higoted swivel-chair explorers] falsehoods 
seem to have had no other source than the self-glorification of the 
author. The Jesuits do relate instances of unparalleled heroism, but 
they do so in a simple manner and give the glory to God, to Mary, 
or to some toiling, suffering brother. 

There was a great deal (?) of rivalry between the Jesuits and the 
Fathers of the Seminary of Foreign Missions for the control of the 
field of southern Illinois, and although bitter things were written and 
said on each side, the individuals did all they could to aid one another, 
and a strong point in favor of their relations is the Jesuit account 
of the kindness to the Fathers of the Seminary substantiated by those 
latter Fathers themselves. 

Father St. Cosme wrote, "I cannot explain to you, monseignor, 
with what cordiality and works of esteem these reverend Jesuit 
Fathers have caressed us during the time we had the consolation of 
staying with them."^ Much of our knowledge of Indian life must 



* Thwaites: Jesuit Relations. LI: 13. 

* Parkman, Francis : La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West. 165. 

* Ibid. 166. 

"Shea, John Gilmary, St. Cosme: Voyages. 160. 



304 JOHN LOUIS MORRIS 

depend upon the sincerity of the Jesuits, but on the other hand other 
writers of Indian affairs substantiate what the black gowns wrote. 

Descriptions of the deer and buffalo are similar to those found 
in writings of later days, while the relating of how wild pigeons hid 
the sun as they flew reminds us of the stories of our grandfathers, 
who, perhaps, never read a Jesuit Relation. 

The use of science in criticism proves that the Jesuits shared in 
the erratic beliefs of their time, but likewise this same science cor- 
roborates much of their wi'itings. One instance is that a priest wrote 
that he covered his canoe and sealed his letter with a pitch that oozed 
from a rock. This sounds like a happy invention of the author, but 
geologists have found and explained the phenomenon. Another mis- 
sionary described a plant as growing either in forest or prairie, that 
resembled a French lime, was delicious and grew on a stalk that 
resembled a fern. Botanists have declared this to be our common 
Mayapple. 

Now if we believe them sincere, what explanation can be given 
for the difference between their holiness and the ill reputation that 
the Society of Jesus bears in general? [This writer has been dead, 
from the neck up, for fifty years apparently. The Jesuits never had 
an evil reputation. Liars and charlatans slandered them hecmise of 
their activities in promotirig Christianity and h\iman well-being.] 

In the first place all Jesuits believed it to be for the glory of God 
to further their Order, and even murder was permitted in order to 
accomplish this. [This libel outranks the wildest of the Godless tra- 
ducers of past centuries and displays a depth of ignorance and 
mendacity not heretofore exceeded.] But there was a difference in 
the work of the members of the Society. The Catholic Church firmly 
believed that all who died unbaptized would be lost. [A fine authority 
on Catholic belief.] So there was the great mission field with thou- 
sands who would be eternally condemned if priests did not reach 
them. A man who could undergo Jesuit training would suffer any- 
thing to save these dying souls. The life of the Indian was simple, 
there was little ease, but the constant danger of death and the hope 
of saving lost souls inspired the missionary to lead a pure and holy 
life. In contrast to this, the member who was sent to royal courts 
fell a victim to the ease and immoralities of his surroundings. Where 
a gift of trinkets would win the good will of a savage, the darkest 
intrigue was often necessary to sway a prince or a royal lady. [Dis- 
gusting.] 



A TRIBUTE FROM A BIGOT TO THE EARLY MISSIONARIES 305 

Enthusiasm and willingness to intrigue were not the only quali- 
ties that have caused the Society of Jesus to endure trials and perse- 
cutions for almost four centuries. [Fool!] 

The newly founded society was dedicated to fight the Reforma- 
tion, but the Jesuits practiced many of the beliefs of the Protestants. 
They believed in education and science. When condemned by either 
Pope or Inquisition, instead of submitting the Jesuits endeavored to 
control them and often succeeded. {Well! Did anyone ever?] 

We have touched very little upon the history of the Illinois mis- 
sionaries this far, but I believe that a careful study of the philosophy 
and general history of the Order of Jesuits will ever give a useful 
background for any local doings of the black gowned Fathers and a 
study of their labors. 

Twenty-seven Fathers and five lay brothers form the known Jesuit 
missionary body that served in what is the present State of Illinois. 
So few times have these men been named collectively that I will here 
give the list as found by Professor Alvord, for my period, 1673-1729. 

Father Jaques Marquette 1673-1675 

Father Claude Jean Allouez 1674-1688 

Father Jaques Gravier 1688-1695 

Father Sebastien Rale 1691-1693 

Father Julien Binneteau 1696-1699 

Father Pierre Francois Pinet 1696-1697 1700-1704 

Father Gabriel Marest 1698-1714 

Brother Alexandre 1699- 

Father Joseph de Limoges 1699-1700 

Brother Gillet 1702- 

Brother Jean Francois Guibert 1702-1712 

Father Jean x\ntoine Le BouUenger 1702-1741 

Father Jean Mermet 1704-1716 

Father Jean Marie de Ville 1702-1720 

Father Charles Guymonneau 1716-1736 

"In Canada not a cape was turned, nor a mission founded, nor 
a settlement begun, nor a river entered but a Jesuit led the way," 
was the comment of George Bancroft many years ago.^ But a fuller 
collection of the Jesuit writings have shown that not onlj^ in Canada, 
but in the present State of Illinois as well, other brotherhoods founded 
some of the missions and many rivers were first entered by white 



* Bancroft: History of the U. S. Vol. II, page 138. 



306 JOHN LOUIS MORRIS 

men not clad in gowns of black. The writings of Father Marquette 
show that during the winter he spent near the present site of Chicago 
in his illness he cast himself upon the mercy of certain traders under 
a well known trader, M. Taupine, whose prosperity had been so great 
that he had the services of a surgeon to offer the broken missionary. 
So the famous courier de Bois preceded the Fathers to Illinois, al- 
though the latter must leave the first accounts written on the bosoms 
of her mighty rivers. 

The early missionaries to our State were distinguished men in 
many cases before they arrived upon her soil. Every one had seen 
service in Canadian missions before being sent to this new field. 
There is evidence that this was not accidental. Father Marquette 
had become acquainted with some of the Illinois tribes, as they came 
near his Canadian mission to trade, and he wrote that he longed to 
make the name of Jesus known among these Southern tribes. 

So the Indians of the Illinois tribes seemed superior to those of 
Canada and the climate appealed to Canadians, who were laymen 
as well as clergymen. The climate was mild and the soil fertile; a 
great contrast to the cold, barren land of Canada. Then, besides, 
the Jesuits were planning a great Jesuit Empire as they had founded 
in far-away Paraguay. These shrewd priests foresaw that the broth- 
erhood that controlled the Illinois country would eventually hold 
sway over the great province of Louisiana as well, so only men who 
had stood the rigorous test of serving in Canadian missions were 
sent. 

The missionaries desired to make as permanent settlements as 
possible, and to do this they did all they could to teach the red men 
to farm. The child of the forest and plain, however, was not so 
easily led to change his modes of living and the accounts of the 
Fathers are filled with the story of their wanderings with the tribe 
as they went out on their Fall hunting expeditions. 

It is significant that the present flourishing cities of Chicago, 
Peoria and Cairo were once the sites of Jesuit missions, and although 
Kaskaskia, the last place to which the Mission of the Immaculate 
Conception was moved is only a village, after all, it was one of 
importance at one time. 

The Jesuits loved to work together for company and the advant- 
ages of the confession. A few zealous converts were always made in 
each new mission, and these built the rude log chapels and the living 
quarters of the Fathers. The latter in turn taught the neophytes 



A TRIBUTE FROM A BIGOT TO THE EARLY MISSIONARIES 307 

how to lead a holy life and also instructed them in farming. The 
priests sometimes had tlieir own gardens, and so good were tiie water- 
melons that they raised that one Father "ate quantities" of them. 

Some of the conversions made seem to have been genuine and 
lasting, but many of them were of short duration. In prosperous 
and healthy times tlie Indians thought the religion of the missionarj' 
was a good thing, but during a famine or an epidemic the Father 
was a "bird of death," 

Father Marquette seems to have held sway over his neophytes 
by his very gentleness while others used tact ; Father Gravier became 
so stern that he put a wayward Indian out of the Church. 

The Jesuit has often been accused of being a participant in politi- 
cal affairs. This was true to a large degree as the missionaries often 
carried messages from government authorities and the sermons to 
the Indians sometimes rang nearly as loudly with the praises of the 
king of France as they did with those of the King of Heaven. As to 
the Fathers being in trade they do not deny and Jesuits of high 
authority justified it. But the tendency in general was to wish to 
limit the fur trade to those peltries that were really a medium of 
exchange among the savages and not a means of making great traders 
rich. There was one traffic that the Jesuits unanimously fought, and 
that was the liquor trade; no matter if the Order did find a way to 
overcome the vow of poverty, even if it did some times pay to be- 
friend the trader, the fearful curse of liquor was one that threatened 
to overthrow all the plans of a great Jesuit Empire in North America. 

The fate of the Illinois Fathers is interesting: nearly every one 
died in the service of the Church and the Order of Ignatius Loyola. 
The touching story of the death of Father Marquette has now become 
a classic. Old Father Gravier died from the effect of a wound 
made by an arrow head ; Sebastian Rale returned to the scenes of his 
early labors and met his death at the hands of British soldiers; 
some died from exposure and exhaustion, but it was a little beyond 
our period when Father Senat, the only Illinois Jesuit to be burned 
at stake, met his fate. 

Did the Jesuits have any lasting influence upon our State? As 
we look at our wonderful farms it is hard to forget that a Jesuit 
student, Louis Joliet, foresaw the greatness of our soil and the Fathers 
introduced the raising of wheat as well as being pioneers in the 
improvement of the cultivation of corn. 



308 JOHN LOUIS MORRIS 

We marvel at our educational system and something whispers of 
the mission school of long ago, the Jesuits were Illinois' first school- 
masters. 

In church as we listen to the sweet choral strains we are borne 
away on the soul of music down through the ages until we hear the 
chanting of that old hymn of the Church Militant : 

"The banners of Heaven's King advance, 
The mystery of the Cross shines forth." 

And we feel that the singer is a black gowned priest, for the Jesuits 
were our first ministers of the Gospel. 

John Louis Morris. 



Note. — The fabled Janus was endowed with two faces and was supposed to 
be able to look in two direcliong at one and the same time. This modern Janus 
is more like the circus clown Vvho attempts to ride two horses going in opposite 
directions. 

The most conclusive evidence of malice or ignorance or both is the repetition 
of the fabrications and inventions, repeatedly exploded, of the first centuries 
after the so-called "reformation." During tliis period a few historians, in 
general, and a largei' number in instances were drawn into the slime of false 
proxDaganda, and influenced by their prejudices, set down some of the then 
current lies as history. To use lies and slanders as propaganda is one thing, 
and bad enough at that, but to seek to incorporate them into history is a 
capital crime. For the last hundred years no historian of any merit or scholarship 
has given any credence to the inventions of the ignorant " evangeliste, " who, 
with the purpose of supporting their own silly isms and building up their 
dissenting sects went to any length or deptli of falsiiicatiou. 

Mr. xMorris needs to be reminded that v/lien he essays to v/rite history he 
enters the realm of truth. Stale lies, especially, have no place in the domain 
of history. It might be well for him to remember also that the vast majority 
of all the people of the earth who now profess Christianity, and of all who 
have ever professed Christianity were and are Catholics of the same kind they 
always were, and of which the Jesuits are now and always since their organiza- 
tion have been, honored representatives, and that every time he or anyone else 
repeats any of these or other slanders he offers a direct insult to this vast 
host of his fellow men. J. J. T. 



RT. REV. JULIAN BENOIT* 

His Early Life 

Julian Benoit, the tenth of eleven children, was born in Sept- 
moncel, a mountain village in the great Jura range, France, on the 
17th day of October, 1808. 

At the early age of eight years he was sent to St. Claude, the 
Episcopal city, to begin his college studies. He remained there eight 
years, and then went to the Seminary of Vaud to begin the study of 
philosophy. He studied theology for one year in the Grand Seminary 
of Orgelet, and then at the capitol city of Lons-le-Saunier. 

When the young Julian, scarcely seventeen years of age, presented 
himself for the study of theology at the Seminary of Orgelet, he was 
of very small stature and of a boyish appearance. Probably from 
these causes, the Superior, Very Rev. M. Genevet, having eyed him 
closely, asked him the mortifying question whether or not he had 
already made his first communion. Having completed his theological 
studies and not arrived at the required age for ordination, twenty- 
four years, he taught for one year at the "Little Seminary" of 
Arinthod, and the year following in the Seminary of Nozeroy. Thence 
he went to Lyons, where he secured a professor's position in a college, 
which he held four years, in the meantime also writing for a leading 
journal of that city. During these years he had taken the sacred 
orders of Sub-Deacon and Deaconship. About the close of his fourth 
year in this position, the Rt. Rev. Gabriel Brute, (accent acute on 
the e). Bishop of Vincennes, Indiana, came to Lyons in the interest 
of his diocese. He was stopping at the house of a merchant to whom 
he had letters from the merchant's brother, a Jesuit Priest on the 
missions of Kentucky. The young Deacon Benoit having formed the 
acquaintance of the American Bishop, and having at his disposal a 
suite of rooms, invited the Prelate to make his home with him during 
his stay in Lyons, which was about two weeks. During this time the 
young host became quite charmed with his guest. He saw in him 
great learning and sanctity. On the last day of this visit he accom- 
panied the Bishop to Fourviere, a place of pilgrimage near Lyons, 
and having served the Bishop at Mass told the Prelate if he could 
be of any use to him in America he cheerfully offered him his services. 
The Bishop replied to him. You are a spoiled child. All I could 



^Mousiguor Beuoit ministered iu Old St. Mary's, Chicago, iu lSoO-40. 

309 



310 A PIONEER PRIEST 

give you in my diocese would be corn bread and bacon. To which 
the young man answered: If you can endure that, why not I, and 
if you have accustomed yourself to such hardship I will soon get 
used to it. Hereupon the necessary permissions were obtained from 
Bishop de Chamod, of St. Claude, and the young Deacon was soon 
on his way westward, exchanging a home in his native France for 
one in the New World. Bishop Brute at this time had but two priests 
in his diocese, which embraced all of Indiana and a greater part of 
eastern Illinois. 

Emigrates to America 

He set sail at Havre de Grace, June 1st, 1836. After a long and 
tedious voyage (on a sail vessel of course) of fifty-two days, he 
reached New York. After a few months at St. Mary's Seminary, 
under the care of the Fathers of St. Sulpice, Baltimore, he received 
the orders of holy Priesthood by the Saintly Bishop Brute, on St. 
Mark's day, 1837. The ordination took place at the old Mountain 
Seminary, of Emmitsburg, Maryland. 

Starts for Indiana 

Succeeding the day of ordination, the new church of Fredrick- 
town was dedicated, Father McElroy being the pastor. There was 
quite a gathering of great church men on the occasion, with all of 
whom the young ecclesiastic had the honor of becoming acquainted. 
Rt. Rev. Bishop England, of Charleston, preached, as did also the 
Rev. John Hughes, Pastor of St. John's Church, Philadelphia, after- 
wards Bishop and Archbishop of New York. 

Bishops Brute, Purcell, Rev. Father Reynolds, Pastor of a church 
in Louisville, and afterwards Bishop of Charleston, and Father 
Benoit, after the dedication services started on their journey over the 
mountains by stage to Wheeling, where they took the Ohio River to 
Cincinnati. 

At that time Cincinnati had two Catholic Churches, St. Xavier's 
Cathedral, and Holy Trinity, of which Father Henni, afterwards 
Bishop and Archbishop of Milwaukee, was pastor. After a sojourn 
here of three days the journey was continued to Vincennes which 
was reached in the year 1837. 

Rev. Julian Benoit was at once appointed to Leopold, near Evans- 
ville, and as the Wabash and Erie Canal was then being constructed, 
he was also to look after the spiritual wants of the men on these 
public works. 



RT. REV. JULIAN BENOIT 311 

After a time here, he was sent to Rome, on the Ohio River, where 
he remained one year, after which he was sent to Chicago, Illinois, as 
an assistant to a Reverend Father O'Meara. 

From Chicago he attended Lockport, Joliet, and several other of 
the canal towns along the line. He was recalled and again sent to 
Leopold, his first Mission. After three and a half years of labor 
on these missions, for which time he had received the munificent 
salary of $63.00, he was sent to Fort Wayne, where he arrived April 
16, 1840. 

Arrived at Fort Wayne 

At Fort Wayne he found a frame church rudely built, not plas- 
tered, with a few rough boards for benches. The dimensions of the 
building were 35 x 65 feet and a debt rested upon it of $4,367. Half 
the present Cathedral Square had been purchased for the church, 
but had not been paid for. In the course of time, under the manage- 
ment of Father Benoit, the other half of the square was secured and 
the whole block paid for. During the first six months of his stay in 
Fort Wayne Father Benoit boarded with Francis Comparet, after 
which time he rented a small frame building and began his own house- 
keeping. 

At this time his missionary work extended in and beyond Fort 
Wayne to the present Academy, Besancon, Hesse Cassel, New Haven, 
Decatur, LaGro, Huntington, Columbia City, Warsaw, Rome City, 
and Lima (Lagrange County), Girardot Settlement and Avilla, going 
on sick calls as far as Muncie. It should be borne in mind that the 
only way then to reach these places, except a few canal towns, was 
on horseback. 

Help was sent him, as the labor was too great for one priest, and 
his first assistant was Father Hamion, who died in 1842. The next 
was Father Rudolph, who came here in the autumn of the same year. 

Visits Europe 

In 1841 Father Benoit visited Europe. On his return he brought 
Father Rudolph, whose name was just mentioned, who remained three 
years, and afterwards became the founder of the famous convent and 
church buildings at Oldenburg. He has gone to his reward. He 
also brought with him 25,000 francs, a donation from parties in 
Alsace to the Sisters of Providence in Vigo County. 

The canal between Fort Wayne and Lafayette was begun in 1835. 
In 1840 it was continued to the Ohio line. The Maumee fever was 



312 A PIONEER PRIEST 

ravaging among the laborers and calls were frequent for the clergy, 
who endured a good many hardships on these sick calls. Many of 
the men died from the effects of this sickness. Sometimes their visits 
to the sick took the priests as far east as Defiance. Father Benoit 
was twice asked by Bishop Purcell of Cincinnati, to attend the spiri- 
tual wants of Catholics at Defiance, particularly sick people; Father 
Benoit represented to the Ohio Bishop the great burden already upon 
him ; an appeal was made to Bishop Brute, who forthwith added the 
new charge to Fort Wayne, and the orders were at once obeyed with 
cheerfulness. 

During the digging of the canal the State Treasury became de- 
pleted and the laborers were paid in due bills. When the State 
cashed these, Father Benoit was very gratefully remembered by the 
men because of his services among them. The contractors were fore- 
most in this generous recognition. 

In 1845 he brought three Sisters of Providence to Fort Wayne 
from St. Mary's, Vigo County, who opened a school shortly after- 
wards. Their humble beginning in the work which their benefactor 
so blissfully planted, has since grown to great magnitude. He fur- 
nished their house completely. Later on he helped build the north 
wing, and in 1883 gave them towards erecting the south wing of the 
present building the munificent sum of $5,000. 

He also opened a school for boys, in a shop on the corner of 
Jefferson and Clinton Streets, where he afterwards built the present 
brick structure for the purpose it serves, built it as he did the old 
Episcopal residence on Calhoun Street which afterwards gave way 
to Library Hall, out of his own funds. He also erected the present 
Episcopal dvv'elling, toward which the diocese contributed about 
$2,000, he furnishing the house completely and expending about 
$14,000 upon it. 

His Wealth 

At this juncture it is well to state that Father Benoit made 
some prudent, and in some instances, rather venturesome investments 
and speculations in real estate about the opening of the late civil 
war. From these investments grew his handsome fortune, all of which 
he sought to dispose of before his death. To a few only is it known 
what a large amount he gave in secret charity to worthy persons. 
One instance is knovm to his Bishop where, during the course of one 
year, he divided quietly nearly $2,000 to deserving poor people who 
had made their wants known to him. A short time before his death 



RT. REV. JULIAN BENOIT 313 

he gave St. Joseph Hospital the sum of $2,000, and five days before 
his demise, he gave Father Bramnar $400, to be expended by the 
St. Vincent dc Paul Society for the poor of Fort Wayne. 

The Miami Indians 

The remnants of the old Fort Wayne still stood when Father 
Benoit came to the village of the same name. The old Council House 
of the Miami Tribe of Indians still remained. It stood on East 
i\Iain street a little west of the Fort. The place was frequented by 
the Miamis Avho lived in Northern Indiana, about Fort Wayne, 
Huntington and Peru. They had a War-Chief and a Peace-Chief. 
The name of the first was Godfrey who died in 1840, just previous 
to Father Benoit 's reaching Fort Wayne. The name of the Peace- 
Chief was John B. de Richardville who lived until the Autumn of 
1841. He was called the Tallyrand of the Miamis, because of his 
shrewdness both among his own people and among the whites. 

At the death of Chief de Richardville Father Benoit was at Vin- 
cennes attending an ecclesiastical retreat. The Chief asked repeatedly 
during his sickness for the clergyman of whom we write, but he 
died without seeing him again ; he received the last rites of the 
Church however at the hands of Rev. Michael Clark, then stationed 
as Lafayette, and was buried just south of the old frame church. 
When the Cathedral was begun, the remains and monument of the 
Chief were transferred to a new graveyard. The wealth of Chief 
John de Richardville was supposed to be $200,000, and of this he 
had promised to give Father Benoit $20,000 before he died, but 
being away from home on the occasion of the chief's death he never 
received the gift, in place of which however the Chief's children gave 
the clergyman a section of land west of Marion, Indiana, which sold 
at the time for $3,000. 

Confidence of the Indians in Father Benoit 

As is pretty well known the United States Government bought 
the Indian lands hereabouts and paid for them in annual instalments. 
On the occasion of these payments the post-traders were on hand to 
present their claims for merchandise sold to these Aborigines. At 
every payment the Indians invariably insisted that Father Benoit 
count their money, and that he should be present when the post- 
traders presented their bills. In one of these instances Father Benoit 
caused to be deducted from the amount asked by unscrupulous traders 
the sum of $75,000. This act created no good will on the part of the 



314 A PIONEER PRIEST 

losers and whilst a person was employed to make the Priest's days 
few, the scheme was betrayed, the man was told to leave the place 
within fifteen minutes, and he complied. 

He Accompanies the Indians 

In 1848 the Indians received orders from the Government to 
leave their reservations about Fort WajTie and go to the territory 
of Kansas. They numbered about eight hundred and were led by 
Chief Lafontaine, whom together with his wife and children Father 
Benoit had received into the Church. The Indians however refused 
to leave unless Father Benoit would go with them. But Bishop De la 
Hilandiere refused to consent, desiring that Father Benoit should 
not leave his congTegation. Finally the Government sent on some 
troops. The Captain called upon the Rev. Father and begged of 
him to lead the Indians away peaceably, for unless you go with them, 
said he, they will not go, and I will be obliged to hunt them down 
like wild beasts and kill them. Upon these representations Father 
Benoit secured the services of Father Neyron, the only survivor of 
the band of twenty-two Priests that came to Indiana when Father 
Benoit came, and started on his tour to please the Indians and save 
bloodshed. The tribe started overland, in the summer of 1849, and 
Father Benoit went by canalboat to Cincinnati, thence over the Ohio 
and Mississippi to St. Louis, where he took the stage for the present 
Kansas City. He finally reached the reservation marked out for the 
Indians by the Government, and stayed in the encampment with his 
beloved children of the forest about two weeks. He returned home 
by stage the entire route, travelling nine days, day and night, in one 
continuous trip. Out of six persons in the group he was the only one 
to endure the hardships of the trip in one continuous journey. 

A Visit from Father Badin 

Father Badin, the first Priest ordained in America, at that time 
Vicar General of Bardstown and Cincinnati, came upon a visit to 
Father Benoit (year not remembered) and remained with him for 
six months. The proto-Priest was then eighty years of age. Father 
Benoit 's house being but a poor frame building and the winter com- 
ing, the venerable guest to escape the rigors of winter left for 
Cincinnati. Father Badin had visited Fort Wayne though much 
earlier, and it may be of interest here to give a copy from his own 
handwriting of the record of a baptism and interment, the first on 



RT. REV. JULIAN BENOIT 315 

record in the Church annals of Fort Wayne. The record of baptism 
is translated from the French and reads as follows: 

Fort Wayne, Diocese of Bardstown. 
On the 23rd day of January, 1831, I, the undersigned Missionary Priest, 
baptised Peter David, born the 5th of October, 1830 of the civil marriage of 
Peter Gibaud and Mary Gibaud. The sponsors are John Baptist Becket and 
Theresa Duret, his w-ife. 

Steph. Theod. Badin, 
V. G. of Bardstown and Cincinnati. 

His first record of burial is translated from the Latin and is aa 
follows : 

On the 23rd of January, 1834, I gave christian burial to Richard Doyle, 
aged 40 years, a hibernian from the Diocese of Ferns, who died suddenly the 
day previous, six miles from this village. 

Stephen Theodore Badin, 

Missionary Apostolic, 
Vicar General of Bardstown. 

Father Benoit's First Recorded Baptism in Fort Wayne 

The first baptism recorded by Father Benoit reads thus: 

I, the undersigned, this 29th day of the month of April, 1840, baptised 
James, legitimate son of Mark Carty et Mary Ryan, born the 27th day of the 
month of June, 1839. The sponsors were John Ryan and Mary Crawly. 

(Signed) J. Benoit. 

It may be proper here to mention that his last public function 
was the burial of Peter Henry, on which occasion he sung a Requiem 
Mass (following the text with difficulty because of his poor eyesight), 
September 9th, 1884. 

Father Benoit Goes to New Orleans 

In 1853 whilst Bishop de St. Palais was in Europe, Father Benoit 
obtained permission from the Vicar General of the Diocese to go to 
New Orleans, but upon the Bishop's return he was recalled. He went 
to New Orleans again in 1860 and remained there about seven months. 
On each occasion of his stay in that city he preached in his native 
tongue the Lenten Sermons in the Cathedral. His visit on this last 
occasion was to solicit funds for the building of the Fort Wayne 
Cathedral. 

The New Diocese of Fort Wayne 
In 1857 the Diocese of Fort Wayne was established out of that 
of Vincennes. The new Diocese comprises that part of Indiana north 



31G A PIONEER PRIEST 

of the southern boundary of Warren, Fountain, Montgomery, Boone, 
Hamilton, Madison, Delaware and Randolph Counties. Rt. Rev. 
John H. Luers was appointed First Bishop and consecrated January 
10th, 1858. "Whilst Father Benoit had the privilege of returning to 
the diocese of Vincennes, and even had an urgent invitation to join 
the diocese of Cleveland he preferred to remain in Fort Wayne. 

Building of the Cathedral 

Just previous to his last visit to New Orleans he left $1,000 with 
the building committee, Messrs. Henry Baker, Michael Hedekin, Morris 
Cody and Jacob Kintz, who, under his directions laid the foundation 
of the present Cathedral. Upon his return from New Orleans Father 
Benoit together with the gentlemen above named began gathering a 
subscription for the new edifice. During the several months devoted 
to this work they raised a list for $18,000 of which $4,000 never were 
paid. About the time the building was completed a fair was held 
which netted $2,600. The building was begun in 1860. The Corner 
Stone was laid on Trinity Sunday by Rt. Rev. Bishop Luers, and 
the sermon preached by Most Rev. Archbishop Purcell. The first 
brick was laid July 10th. In the autumn of 1861 the building was 
finished and dedicated. 

The architects of the Church were Rev. Julian Benoit and Mr. 
Thomas Lau. The brick work was done by Contractor James Silver, 
and the carpenter work by Thomas Lau. The cost of the Church 
exclusive of the Pews, Organ, and Altars, was $54,000. The organ 
cost $3,000, the Main Altar $1,200, Pulpit nearly as much, and the 
Bishop 's Throne $700. The large Candlesticks on the main Altar were 
made to order in Paris, and cost 4,500 francs. An exact fac-simile 
of these was afterwards placed in the famous Church of the Madeline 
in Paris. 

From the above statements the knowledge can be readily obtained 
what a handsome balance stood to this great Pastor 's credit in building 
the Cathedral. 

He Visits Europe 

In the Autumn of 1865 Father Benoit started on his second visit 
to Europe and was absent thirteen months, of which he spent four 
and a half months in Rome. He was a frequent visitor to the office 
of Cardinal Barnabo, with whom he transacted business for different 
parts of France and America. He twice had a private audience 
with Pius the Ninth. 



RT. REV. JULIAN BENOIT 317 

On this visit to France he was offered the position of Vicar 
General of the Diocese of St. Claude, a city within a few miles of 
his birth-place, his native Diocese which he exchanged twenty-eight 
years previously for a life of hardship and toil in the sei'vice of 
God and man in the wilds of North America. But he preferred 
to return to the people whose language he labored to acquire and 
whose customs he made his own in order to lead souls to the Re- 
deemer of man. 

In 1874 he went to Europe as a member of the First American 
Pilgrimage, this being his third trip out across the Atlantic. He 
was absent from May till September. Rome, with her celebrated 
Shrines and Hallowed Spots was the objective point of these Pilgrims 
from North America. This visit was made shortly after the spoliation 
and sacking of Rome by Victor Emanuel. 

Father Benoit on this occasion visited the mountain home of his 
boyhood days. His father and mother though were no longer among 
the living. They died in 1852, ten years after his first visit from 
America. 

Vicar General, Administrator, and Theologian to the National. 
Council of Baltimore 

Father Benoit 's first appointment as Vicar General was in 1852, 
for the Diocese of Vincennes. When Bishop Luers took charge of his 
new Diocese, he appointed Father Benoit his Vicar General. During 
Bishop Luers' visit to Europe in 1865 the Very Rev. Julian Benoit 
was appointed Administrator of the Diocese. 

In 1866 during the session of the Second Plenary Council of 
Baltimore Vicar General Benoit was honored with the office of 
Theologian to the Council by Bishop Luers. 

At the death of Bishop Luers, June, 1871, Very Rev. J, Benoit 
became Administrator of the Diocese until the consecration of the 
nev/ Bishop, Rt. Rev. Joseph Dwenger, the present incumbent, April 
14th, 1872. 

He was also Theologian at the four Provincial Councils of Cin- 
cinnati. He did not attend the fifth, held in 1882, because of his 
advanced age. 

Shortly after Bishop Dwenger took charge of his new field of 
labor, he continued in office as his Vicar General him to whose life 
this sketch is devoted, and whilst the Bishop was away from his 
Diocese paying his decennial visit to Rome in 1883, Father Benoit 
was, by the Bishop, appointed Administrator of the Diocese. 



318 a pioxker priest 

Papal Prelate 
Very Rev. Julian Benoit was signally honored on the 12th of 
June, 1883 by the present Pope, Leo the Thirteenth. When Bishop 
Dwenger was waited on by the Clergy of his Diocese just previous 
to his departure for Rome, he was asked to convey to His Holiness 
the desire of the Clergy of the Fort Wayne Diocese, to see Father 
Benoit invested with the Purple and receive the honors and title of 
Monsignor. Whilst the Bishop told his Clergy that such had already 
been his own plan, he heartily concurred in their wishes and would 
cheerfully present them to the Holy Father. In accordance with the 
above telegram from Rome to Father Benoit, on the date above 
named, informed him of the honor bestowed upon him, and the Papal 
Brief was received shortly afterward. 

Father Benoit Invited to the Third Plenary Council of 

Baltimore 

Previous to the opening of the Third Plenary or National Council 
of Baltimore which was held during parts of November and De- 
cember of last year, Monsignor Benoit was invited by Bishop Dwenger 
to accompany him to the Council, and he was invited also by Arch- 
bishop Gibbons, at first through his secretary, and a second time 
through an autograph letter of the Archbishop and Apostolic Dele- 
gate. His great age however and his loss of hearing prevented him 
accepting the several proffered invitations. 

A Broken Heart 

This is perhaps as suitable a place as any in this hurriedly written 
sketch to say that Father Benoit had many hardships to endure in 
his early days in America. After he ha'd been in the country about 
three years he begged of Bishop Brute to permit his return to France 
and to say farewell to America. When the good Bishop represented 
to him the great need in Indiana of Priests, and his own approaching 
dissolution he asked the young Father not to cast upon his conscience 
any such burden as would be the case if he granted this request. 
Don't let me go into the presence of God with the guilt of having 
allowed you to return to your beloved France from the face of so 
much work that is to be done in the New World. 

Could anybody at that time have foretold the young Priest that 
all these years he has lived were before him, he would have placed 
himself at the foot of a tree somewhere in the great dismal and 
unbroken American forest to die of a broken heart. 



rt. rev. julian benoit 319 

Declines a Bisphopric 

When in 1871 he learned to a certainty that among the three 
names forwarded to Rome from which one should be selected the 
next Bishop of Fort Wayne his own was strongly urged, he wrote 
to the Eternal City and presented his reasons why he did not desire 
the appointment. Among other things he stated his advanced age, his 
feebleness and rapidly declining strength, adding that propaganda 
could spare itself much unnecessary work by overlooking his name in 
the case entirely, that he could not under any circumstances consent 
to accept any such position. 

Providence 

As an occasional instance of the kindness of Divine Providence 
he related a few days previous to his death the two following edifying 
and touching illustrations: In the long years ago Father Benoit 
was called to visit a Mrs. G., old, blind, and suffering from cancer 
in the breast. When leaving the sick person he told her to give herself 
no anxiety about sending for him. I will see you again said he before 
you die. Some months afterwards Father Benoit upon retiring for 
the night, could not compose himself to sleep. The thought of his 
promise to Mrs. Guerin continually troubled him. At two o'clock 
of that night he arose, saddled his horse and traveled over a distance 
of twelve miles, to carry the comforts of Holy Church to the invalid. 
He found the patient very low, administered the last rites and turned 
homeward. He had gone scarcely two miles when the woman had 
slept the sleep of death. 

Another Illustration 

In 1839 Father Benoit started from Vincennes to Chicago on 
horseback. About two o'clock in the afternoon he came to a fork in 
the road, and took the way to his left. Having gone about four miles 
he saw a little log cabin and a man close by. He asked if on the right 
way to his destination, and was told that he must turn back four 
miles and take the other road. He found that he must then go ten 
miles farther before finding another house. He consequently asked 
shelter for the night but received the reply that the cabin was 
small, the family large and the mother very sick, consequently they 
could not accommodate him. Father Benoit then told the man that 
if he would take care of his horse, he would be quite content with 
any small corner of the cabin. Finding that he would be so easily 
contented he was told to stay. When preparing to retire he found 



320 A PIONEER PRIEST 

upon the walls back of the old fashioned bed-curtains some Catholic 
pictures. He turned back and inquired whether the family be 
Catholic. He was answered in the affirmative. Finally he asked the 
sick woman if she would like to see a Priest. I would indeed she 
answered, did I but know where to find one. Father Benoit told her 
he could secure the services of a Priest for her if such be her wish, 
told her there is one not far distant, and finally made his identity 
known. The joy of that poor soul can be better imagined than 
pencilled. "For seventeen years, she said, I have prayed to God not 
to let me die till I should see a Priest and receive before my last 
hours of life the comforts of my holy religion, on my way to eternity. 
how good is Grod is his Providence." Father Benoit taught cate- 
chism that night in that little cabin until one o'clock. He continued 
the instructions next day until afternoon, and on the following morn- 
ing offered the Holy Sacrifice, administered first communion to the 
children and the viaticum to the sick mother. Just after breakfast 
that morning when a preparing to continue his journey back to the 
division in the road from which the good Father had strayed, the 
soul of that mother winged its way from its cabin home in the forest 
to a better land beyond the skies. 

Sickness and Death 

Father Benoit complained during the month of November of a 
severe pain in his left ear, and from the ear he thought the pain 
led to his throat. He would not consent to having a physician called, 
even though the pain became intensified. Upon Bishop Dwenger's 
return from the Baltimore Council, the malady growing worse, the 
Bishop concluded to send for Dr. Dills, who came and examined the 
ear found nothing wrong with it. Examining the throat he soon dis- 
covered however that the venerable Father was afflicted with a disease 
that would end his days. Dr. Dills on his second visit brought with 
him Drs. Woodworth and DeVilbess and the three pronounced the 
case cancer of the throat. Father Benoit was not slow to discover 
what the doctors pronounced of him, and with a calm and deliberate 
spirit of resignation he began to prepare for his final dissolution. If 
Providence desires to take me by the throat, he jocosely remarked, 
then God's will be done. 

An altar was erected in his room and for a few times he still felt 
able to offer the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. Owing to the weakness 
of his eyes, he had received, some time in November, permission from 
Rome to use a Votive Mass of the Blessed Virgin from memory. The 



RT. REV. JULIAN BENOIT 321 

last time that this servant of God offered the Sacrifice of the New 
Law was on Sunday morning, January 11th. On Friday morning, 
January 23rd, the Righ Reverend Bishop offered Mass in the room 
of the saintly Vicar General at which the man devoutly assisted the 
last time upon earth. The evening preceding, January 22nd, he was 
with the household at tea, and spent a half hour with several of the 
visiting and home Clergy in the Bishop's room, from v/hich he re- 
turned to his own apartments never to leave them in life. 

His sufferings from the time increased, yet he bore all in that 
calm resignedness to God that is characteristic only of a holy soul 
that has schooled itself in virtue and devotion to God. 

When Mother Prudentia, the worthy Lady Superior of St. Joseph 's 
Hospital, was asked to send one of her noble band to attend Mon- 
signor Benoit in his illness she detailed Sister Vincentia, who like 
her twin kindred in holy religion are devoted to self-sacrifice and 
the comfort of others ; she cared for the aged Father till he closed 
his eyes in death, when he no longer needed the ministration of her 
words of solace or her tender hands to bind his aching head or guide 
to his lips a cup of nourishment that she had herself prepared, 
scarcely allowing herself the few hours of needed rest during all these 
days of the three weeks fast. She was ever near to alleviate the least 
of his wants and may God reward her. 

His Last Moments 

At five minutes past eight o'clock on Monday evening, January 
26th the household was called together and notified of his fast ap- 
proaching death. Just previous to this the venerated patient uttered 
his last words on earth. Turning to Doctor Dills and Sister Vincentia 
he said : "I am going home to my heavenly father. I thank you for 
your kindness to me, and when I get to Heaven I will pray for you. 

Rt. Rev. Bishop Rademacher, of Nashville, at one time a Priest 
in this city and Diocese, having been notified of the condition of 
Father Benoit, had reached the house a few hours previous. Dr. 
Thomas J. Dills had just reached the rooms to look after his patient. 
The Rt. Rev. Bishop Dwenger and Rademacher, Rev. Fathers Koenig, 
Brammer, Lang, Boeekelman and Ellering filed into the room. The 
Rev. Fathers J. H. Oechtering and Messman had left the house about 
half an hour previously. I^ieeling about the bedside of the dying 
Priest in addition to those above named were Sisters Vincentia and 
Helena, of the Poor Handmaids, St. Joseph Hospital, Sisters Mary 



322 A PIONEER PRIEST 

John, and Henrietta, of St. Augustine's Academy, Mrs. Legraw and 
]\Iiss Rousset. 

The Bishop of Nashville lead in the reading of the touching pray- 
ers of the ritual, the others responding, whilst the Bishop of Fort 
Wajaie held the hands of the expiring pioneer Priest clasping the 
crucifix, the image and cross of his Savior; for whom he labored on 
earth and whom he looked to as his reward in Heaven. 

The last sacrament had been administered to him at his own re- 
quest, in the full enjoyment of his mental faculties by Rev, A. Mess- 
man, of St. Peter's Church. 

Thus passed from its earthly home the spirit of Julian Benoit — 
softly as the ripened fruit is detached from the parent bough, gently 
as the zephyr breeze is wafted o'er the balmy vale of Agra. Yea, 
still more gently and with better fragrance did the sweet soul of 
Julian, on the eve of the day dedicated to his patron Saint, pass to 
fruition in its heavenly home. 



THE MIGRATION OF A FAMILY 

The Family Tree^ 

The history oi* the liiiman race records occasionally great move- 
ments of people, vast migrations of groups or tribes or nations. The 
great westward movement which peopled the western hemisphere with 
Europeans and made the nations of these two continents is perhaps 
the most immediately significant to us. We are accustomed to talk 
glibly of migrations, of immigrants, of Am.ericanization, of melting- 
pots; but frequently it means little because discussion of people in 
the mass is usually indefinite and pointless. When numbers of people 
are moved by similar motives or driven by the same circumstances 
to act in unison, the effect in perspective is a great mass motion. 
But on analysis it may be found that the individuals are prompted 
by the same instinctive self-interest that prompts their other actions. 
We say great numbers of people came from Ireland and settled in 
the Middle West. Some may add that they have contributed to the 
material welfare of the nation by providing farmers and workers in 
the cities, by giving to the world producers in many lines. If we 
examine one unit, one family, of that vast migration, we may come 
to an explanation of how the West was peopled, how this part of the 
nation grew so rapidly, and with such a diversified population. We 
may also find some reason why our ancestors could build States, 
could break a way into the unknown, could be pioneers, while their 
softer descendants have much ado to keep within the smooth grooves 
01 their daily lives. 

If we follow the family and fortunes of Owen and Cecelia Mc- 
Alpin, we shall see how this small unit has dispersed itself through 
the Mississippi Valley and beyond. We shall find that their living 
descendants number today one hundred twenty-one and are scattered 
over the western half of the continent. The story must chiefly con- 
cern Cecelia McAlpin for two reasons: she lived the longer and by 
her mere presence could influence her family more than could her 
deceased husband, and some of the events which are a part of the 
family tradition show her to be a woman of more than ordinary 
courage and enterprise. 

Cecelia Gibbon was born in Glencastle, County Mayo, Ireland, in 
1790. She was the daughter of Dominic Gibbon and was one of 



^ This excellent study is published partially as a reward for the research and 
industry exhibited and partly as an example of geneological portraiture. — Ed, 

323 



324 HELEN MCCALPIN 

seven children. Since the seat of the ancient family of Gibbon was 
Mayo, she probably belonged to that old sept. She married Owen 
McAlpin, a native of Galway. He was a tailor and a town man to 
whose disposition and temperament farm life was never agreeable. 
They made a home for themselves near Newport and lived there until 
1831. 

The reason for their leaving Ireland need not be dwelt on here. 
Their circumstances were not very different from most of thir coun- 
tr^Tnen, and there is no doubt that they had reason enough to leave 
Ireland. The economic necessity was certainly strong, but others 
surely must have been present. We shall never know now the inner 
motives of these people, the appeal that America made to them. 
They were dissatisfied at home and had the courage to wander forth. 
That their reason had nothing to do with political questions is 
evidenced by the fact that they settled in Canada first. 

Like most of the Irish, Cecelia McAlpin had a deep affection for 
the "old country," which in her last years led her to dwell in 
memory over the old scenes and relate stories of her youth. She 
loved to tell her grandchildren how when she and her husband deter- 
mined to leave and were ready, there was a great crowd of their 
neighbors and friends who came to wish them well. The light of 
memory lit up her faded eyes as she recalled the faces in that group, 
the cries and keenings of the fearful and the timid, the latent long- 
ings of the young and venturesome, the sorrowful affection of sin- 
cerely grieving friends. They were a day's journey on foot from the 
port and most of the day the procession followed with many tears. 
She was well night heartbroken when they had to turn back and 
leave her, but her path lay before her and she followed it unfalter- 
ingly. She was not a very young woman, and the misgivings and 
cautiousness of maturity may have dimmed the confidence she had 
in the enterprise, but her dauntless spirit sent her forth. 

The journey to Montreal was made, of course, in a sailing vessel 
and lasted six weeks. There was one unusually severe storm, and 
John, the youngest child, aged two, made some such remark as this: 
"The Lord will take care of us, "—in Gaelic. So they brought with 
them an abiding faith that was natural of expression to a mere baby. 
In Montreal they stayed for a while until they found and secured 
the land that was their goal. It was located in the vicinity of Three 
Rivers, in the Quebec Province, and there the family settled. In 
December of that year, 1831, the youngest child of the family was 
born. The father of the family was not suited to farm life, and that 
together with the rigors of several Canadian winters so discouraged 



THE MIGRATION OF A FAMILY 325 

the group that they determined to move South. They had learned 
of the success of some of their countrymen in southern Indiana where 
timber land was very valuable, and in the Fall of 1837 they left their 
farms and journeyed south. 

By this time what substance they had was dissipated. The cost 
of bringing a family across the ocean, of buying land and farm 
equipment, with the added losses of indifferent success had depleted 
their sum. The older boys were now sixteen and eighteen and were 
able to do a man's work, but the severity of the climate made them 
yield. Having once made a journey across the trackless ocean, the 
prospect of an overland trip seemed to offer no greater difficulty. 
The first winter was spent in New York State, the father plying his 
trade, the boys working on the Erie Canal. In order to complete 
the journey it was necessary to stop occasionally and earn money 
for the next stage. The whole family was under economic pressure 
to live from day to day and to save for the journey. The next sum- 
mer found them headed in the direction of the Ohio River, but 
chance took them further south. They stopped always in good sized 
towns where the workers of the family might obtain employment. 
They crossed Pennsylvania to the south, and having heard of the new 
National Road and the ease of travel by that route, they entered 
Maryland hoping to reach Cumberland. On arriving at Harper's 
Ferry the father, Owen McAlpin, became ill and died (1839). The 
mother was now left with the children in the middle of the journey, 
and upon her fell the decision of their future. She seems not to 
have hesitated at all as to what course to pursue because they con- 
tinued their travels. Perhaps she thought that there they were 
among strangers and at least in Indiana there would be countrymen, 
if not acquaintances. So they proceeded. One long stop was made 
in Ohio where again the sons worked and the mother added to the 
family income by receiving into the home some young Irishmen to 
board. 

In 1841 they arrived in Madison, Indiana, which at that time was 
a thriving small city, whose chief industry was steamboat building. 
It was here that the youngest son, John, acquired that interest in 
steamboats which led finally to the cutting off of his life. Having 
arrived in Indiana, the family established themselves. The boys went 
to work and again the mother helped out. At this time she estab- 
lished a hotel and assumed the management of it herself. Shortly 
after this time she was able to leave there and start out on another 
expedition. 



326 HELEN MCCALPIN 

Upon leaving Canada the family did not dispose of the land they 
had bought. Cecelia McAlpin then determined that she would sell 
it. She seems always to have been a woman of enterprise, of quick 
decisions, and quick actions. Having decided to sell the two farms, 
she at once proceeded to the business. It was necessary for her to 
go back to Canada, but the way she had led the emigration was long 
and tedious, and her simple directness of character demanded a 
shorter route. The canals and the railroads of that period were not 
connected in many places and few of the roads and railroads ran 
north and south. Nothing daunted she went on foot for a great part 
of that journey when no other means at once presented itself. Part 
was made in canal boats, part in stages, but family tradition has it 
that she "walked" both ways. The eldest son, Patrick, being the 
"scholar" of the family, kept an account book for the group. In it 
were recorded the stages of the journey, the amounts of money the 
boys earned on the canal; and in it Michael, the wit of the family, 
wrote this of his mother: "Cecelia McAlpin returned today from 
Canada (date). She walked there and back. Bully for Cecelia." 
One wonders which of her descendants of this generation would 
undertake an expedition demanding such physical courage and pre- 
senting equal dangers in this day. Another incident which followed 
this one closely bears out the impression of her single-mindedness, 
clear thinking, and fearless directness. 

On her return from Canada she had a goodly sum in gold, the 
proceeds from the sale of the two farms. With perfect simplicity, 
she hid it in the house — in the coffee mill — a place she could keep 
her eye upon as she went about her household tasks. In the house 
at that time (a small hotel was little more than a large house) there 
was a man from Ireland, a County Mayo man, whom she welcomed 
as being from the home place. In a moment of quite feminine weak- 
ness she confided the secret of the gold to him. With all her quali- 
ties of strength and power, she showed a woman's heart. Why she 
let slip her secret or how will always remain her secret. Perhaps 
she had misgivings as morning came, for she arose early and went 
to the hiding place to assure herself that all was well. One can 
fancy her dismay on discovering that both man and money were 
gone! There may have been dismay, but there was not despair. 
Self-accusations arose within to perplex her, but she saw distinctly 
the line of action that lay before her. No tears of self-pity dimmed 
her sight. Immediately she set out to follow the thief. In three 
weeks she returned with all of the money. What an opportunity 



THE MIGRATION OF A FAMILY 327 

for a novelist! However, the truth is that the details of the chase 
and capture are not known now. One can imagine much. 

How clearly the personality of that fearless woman stands out 
in the few stories left by her. She was a woman possessing in great 
degree the supreme virtues of faith, hope and charity. Many are the 
stories her grand-daughters remember in which those virtues shone. 
She feared nothing but her God and wrong doing, and her faith was 
invincible. In appearance she was quite tall in her youth, because 
her nickname was "Cicely, the Tall." She held her head high and 
looked the world in the face. She feared no man nor deeds of men. 
The ancient family of Gibbons has for its motto ''Nee Timeo Nee 
Sperno." She surely embodied that phrase. Her keen eyes saw 
clearly into the lives of others as well as searched her own heart. 
One can fancy that there must have been the freshness of a fog- 
dispelling ocean breeze about her. Sham and pretense could not 
live near her. In other circumstances she might have been a great 
compelling force in public affairs, but instead her destiny led her to 
do a small part in the building of an empire in the Middle West. 

The eldest daughter of the family, Bridget, married Ebenezer 
Davis and with him went to North Vernon in Indiana to establish a 
home. The inheritance that was Bridget's from her mother was a 
great self-sacrificing and lively faith. Her husband was a non- 
Catholic; yet Bridget's are the only ones in the family who have 
entered the religious life. She remained all of her life in North 
Vernon, but her children carried on the westward march. Celia 
Davis married Michael Fenoughty and settled near Paola, Kansas. 
Of their nine children, three entered religion. One is Father Joseph 
Fenoughty, S. J., and two of the daughters entered the Order of 
Sisters of Mercy whose mother-house is in Fort Scott, Kansas. Jane 
Davis McGauly, who lived in Indianapolis, had one daughter who 
entered the Order of Sisters of Providence and taught until her death 
at the school called St. Mary's of the Woods. 

Time passed and the young people of the McAlpin family had 
grown up. Patrick felt the call of the West and in 1846 started for 
western Iowa. He might have made the greater part of the trip in 
boats down the Ohio and up the Mississippi, but he chose the over- 
land route and a covered wagon. The journey lasted six weeks and 
ended when they arrived in Crawford County. He settled on land 
which was then to be bought very cheap. His homestead was beauti- 
fully situated near one of the highest points in the county and, like 
all the land in that vicinity, was rich soil. Standing on top of the 



328 HELEN MCCALPIN 

highest of the rolling hills of the old McAlpin farm one can see for 
miles in every direction the rich fields of the almost treeless prairie 
marked out like a huge patchwork quilt. Patrick had twelve children, 
some of whom stayed in Iowa, while others carried on the westward 
movement and moved on to Nebraska, South Dakota, and Oklahoma. 
One of his granddaughters, Lulu Maguire (now Mrs. Charles Knowles 
of Omaha), had the far-sighted courage of her great-grandmother, 
and went to South Dakota. There she took up a homestead claim, 
fulfilling all the usual requirements of the government regulations by 
herself. Although she has not lived there for several years, she still 
owns a valuable farm. 

In 1854 John SIcAlpin and his mother left Indiana and traveling 
by way of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers came to St. Louis. Here 
he engaged in a boat stores business. In the next year he married 
Mary Merrin, a native of County Roscommon. Of their three chil- 
dren only William lived to maturity. John's business was successful 
for a time and prosperity seemed near when in 1857 some financial 
troubles swept away all of his possessions and much of his hopes. 
He salvaged what he could from the wreck of his fortunes and 
started anew in a business he knew was profitable. In those early 
days of river transportation it was the custom of owners of steam- 
boats to sell the liquor business on the boat as a kind of concession. 
John McAlpin bought the liquor business of the steamboat St. Nich- 
olas, a comparatively new boat in the New Orleans-St. Louis service. 
The boat was four years old in 1859 when Captain Reeder and 
Captain Glime purchased her for $25,000 and John McAlpin became 
the owner of the bar. On the first trip under the new management 
about seventy-five miles south of Memphis there was a terrific explo- 
sion. The boat took fire and in a short while was a total wreck. 
There were but nineteen who survived that night, and of these only 
six escaped serious injury. John McAlpin was directly over the 
boilers when the accident occurred. He was badly scalded and was 
thrown into the water. Some still on board threw out planks, doors, 
and furniture to those in the water to assist them in saving them- 
selves. The following is an account of the disaster in The Missouri 
Repuhlican of April 29, 1859. The journalistic method of that day 
seems to have been to compile a series of quotations from various 
people— survivors and witnesses. The assembling of the narrative is 
left to the reader. A survivor named James Chillson, who was second 
pantryman aboard, said this: 



THE MIGRATION OF A FAMILY 329 

"... I got on a plank with him (McAlpin). Both of us 
got tangled up in the cattle, which were tied together with ropes, 
and which were swimming around. I got loose and finally succeeded 
in freeing him, not. however, until he was nearly drowned. We 
remained near the wreck nearly two hours before being taken up by 
the 'Susquehanna.' Later we were transferred (at Memphis) and 
brought to St. Louis on the 'Philadelphia'." 

The long period in the water, the delay in being transferred from 
one boat to another, the lapse of days before adequate medical atten- 
tion was begun served to undermine his robust health. He was never 
quite well again and died the following Spring (1860). His son 
William remained in St. T^ouis. In 1884 he married Kate L. White 
of St. Louis and had twelve children of v/hom eight are living. This 
section of the McAlpin family has always been decidedly urban and 
perhaps for that reason has been less adventurous. The eldest daugh- 
ter married a farmer and lives in the vicinity of the Patrick McAlpin 
homestead and among his descendants. The second son's business 
took him to Chicago. With the youngest son who makes his home 
with his eldest sister, these are the only ones outside of St. Louis. 

The last family group is that of Maria McAlpin. She married 
Bartley Regan in Madison, Indiana. Two of their three children 
are still living. After his death she married Eli Jenkins. Of this 
marriage there were four children. Maria had the adventurous and 
enterprising spirit of her mothei-. She lived for many years in Vail, 
Iowa, but when the Ignited States Government opened up the Okla- 
homa Territory for settlement, she heard the call of the frontier 
country, felt the lure that is in the life of the pioneer. Here again 
the family tradition is rich in stories of the early days in Oklahoma, 
the rush for land in good locations, the hardships of crude living, 
and the never failing good humor that met every diffculty. Those 
who live in urban comfort and who even loudly express their love for 
the great open spaces have scarcely any conception of the life of 
the pioneer woman. And when a woman has known from the days 
of her youth v/hat "new country" means and is willing at the age 
of fifty-eight to venture forth to a new frontier, we must admire her 
courage and reverence her spirit. The pioneer women must have 
possessed a philosophy of life that made them see into and beyond 
the years of hardship to the ultimate rewards. Perhaps that fine 
faith and hope is the gift of the open country and is denied to 
dwellers between stone walls. 



330 HELEN MCCALPIN 

At the time the Jenkins family went to Oklahoma (1889) the 
line of migration in that family divided, for some of the children were 
married and settled in western Iowa. Mary, Annie, and Clara re- 
mained in Iowa. The others went with their mother. Later Alice 
and her mother moved to San Diego, California, where Alice died. 
Another one of the daughters, Clara, moved to San Francisco in 
1920, but lived only one year after reaching there. Thus this family 
which began as a small unit in County Mayo, Ireland, gradually 
moved westward across the continent of North America from Mont- 
real to San Diego, leaving here and there other units who are carry- 
ing on and forming a part of the great American commonwealth. 

There remains one point which needs some explanation. Through- 
out this account the name has been spelled McAlpin, while the 
descendants of John have always spelled it McCalpin. William, the 
son of John, and Charles, son of Patrick, are the only living men of 
the second generation. John died when William was four years old, 
and so what the son knew of the spelling of the name came through 
old account books and such left by his father. In every case it was 
spelled with the two c's. One explanation is that at the time John 
McCalpin was engaged in the boat stores business another man named 
John McAlpine, a Scotchman, was eengaged in another business close 
by. To avoid confusion he put the "c" into his name. Another says 
that an inborn dislike for all things Scotch made him put it there. 
Still another says that it was a characteristic of the time to clip 
syllables like "Mc" and "0" and "Fitz" from names in informal 
speech, and since Alpin begins with an awkward aspirate the "c" 
was prefixed for euphony. The responsibility for the change seems 
to rest with John, for Patrick had been to school several years before 
leaving Ireland. He had a reputation for "learning" in the family. 
The whole family used the Gaelic speech at home and learned English 
at school and in the world. Whatever the explanation the part of 
the family that spells the name with the *'c" expects to keep it, 
having a reverential affection for the name, while those without it 
say they will never add it. 

It is in family stories like these that one comes to a realization 
of the dignity and yet the insignificance of a human life. It has 
dignity because it serves a purpose of the Omniscience. It is insig- 
nificant when one considers the infinitesimal portion one family group 
makes in a nation of millions of souls. When one seeks for the 
explanation of a great migration it may be seen in that fusion of 



THE MIGRATION OF A FAMILY 331 

the importance and the unimportance of the individual. Each one 
must be actuated by a moving purpose and each must take his place 
as one small part of the while. If we could look over this vast 
American people with supernatural sight, we should distinguish here 
and there the bits of color that are the particles of the fire of courage 
and enterprise, of fortitude and faith that have been transmitted to 
this generation by our ancestors, the high spirited, whole souled 
pioneers. 

Helen McCalpin. 
St. Louis. 



CHICAGOU - THE GRAND CHIEF OF 
THE ILLINOIS 

Protonym of the Western Metropolis 
By Joseph J. Thompson, LL. D. 

Chicago is a name to conjure with; the City of the Lake on its 
way to unquestioned supremacy! How did Chicago get its name? 
Who will say the final word on this question about which there has 
been so much speculation? 

One way of judging and the way most frequently employed by 
those who have discussed the matter, is to study the derivation and 
meaning of the word in the language from which it may have been 
derived. Now what word or words in the Indian dialect stand for 
or are nearly equivalent to Chicago. 

It is known that several different tribes of Indians inhabited the 
region of Chicago and it is pretty definitely settled that the Ojibway 
(Chippewa), the Miami, and the Pottawatomi were here in succession. 
Let us examine the dialects of these three divisions of Indians for 
words similar to Chicago. 

Ojibway 

Kah-go, meaning to avoid, to forbear, to stay away from. Mit-tio- 
ga-ga-go, meaning bare, barren, "not a tree." Kago, meaning some- 
thing great, big, strong. 

Miami 
Se-kaw-haw, meaning skunk or polecat. 

Pottawatomi 

Cho-ca-go, meaning bare or destitute. Tuck-cho-ca-go, meaning de- 
void of timber. 

Many writers have argued that the name, Chicago, was derived 
from the Indian name for skunk or polecat, or from the wild onion, 
leek or garlic that is said to have been abundant in the neighborhood 
in early times. Some argue that the plant gave the name to the 
river on the banks of which it grew abundantly and that the river 
gave the name to the town and city. 

332 



CHICAGOU — THE GRAND CITIEF OP THE ILLINOIS 333 

On the other hand the name is credited to an Indian chief. In 
this connection it is well to remember that Indian names were fre- 
quently bestowed by one tribe upon another or upon individuals of 
other tribes. For example, the Menominee, meaning wild rice, were 
so called by other Indians because they lived in a locality in Wis- 
consin where wild rice grew abundantly. 

Now, it is conceivable that a chief who lived in a region where 
wild onions, leek or garlic grew abundantly and proclaimied ,its 
presence to all comers might be called by other tribes the chief or 
the Indian of the wild onions — Se-kaiv-haiv, Chachagwessiou, Chicagou 
or one of the variations of the name. 

■ There are, however, certain other considerations which fix the 
name more directly upon an Indian Chief, or upon one of a line of 
Indian Chieftains, the first of whom known to history was the dis- 
tinguished chief of the Illinois (Chachagwessiou) who accompanied 
Father Marquette on his journey down the west side of Lake 
Michigan in November and December of 1674, and who Father Mar- 
quette says was, "greatly esteemed among his nation, partly because 
he engages in the fur trade." A great "Captain of Industry" who 
traveled long distances, to Mackinac and all about in the great 
business of the time. This chief did not live in Chicago, however. 
Father Marquette tells us that on the 15th of December, 1674, 
"Chachagwessiou and the other Illinois left us (from the winter 
cabin on the Chicago River) to go and join their people and give 
them the goods that they had brought. He says further that he 
told them, the Indians, before they left that he would defer "the 
holding of a council until Spring when I should be in their village." 
In compliance with this promise Marquette went to the village in 
the Spring and held the council. 

It is well known that this council was held on the plains at the 
Indian village on the Illinois River just opposite the promontory now 
known as Starved Rock. This fact does not establish absolutely, how- 
ever, that this was the habitat of the great merchant chief. Several 
years later, 1680, Robert Cavalier De La Salle built a fort at the 
site of the present city of Peoria which he named Crevecouer, but 
which Father Louis Hennepin who was present at the time says the 
Indians called Chicagou. It appears also that the upper part of the 
Illinois river or some of its tributaries was called the River Chicagou 
several years before the stream running through what is now 
Chicago was so named. 

All these facts indicate that this great chief, Chicagou, was a 
man of much prominence over a vast territory. But there is more. 



334 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

Following history to the year 1724 we find Chief Chicago in the 
entourage of Father Nicholas Ignatius De Beaubois, S. J., on his 
journey to France. There are several other Indians also, but Chief 
Chicago is the man of greatest note, is received by the King in 
audience and feted and honored in many cities. This Chief Chieagou, 
who went to Paris is from the southern part of Illinois immediately. 
He and his people were located then along the Mississippi from 
what is now St. Louis south. Bossu, an army man of that day tells 
us "The grand Chief of the Illinois is descended from the family 
of the Tamaroas, who were formerly sovereigns of this country." 
This same Chieagou led the Indian contingent from Illinois country 
when D'Artaguette joined Bienville in 1836 to war against the 
English and the Choetaws and Chickashas, in which war D 'Artaguette 
Vincennes, Father Antonius Senat, S. J., and seventeen others were 
burned at the stake. 

Bossu, before referred to, has written the last chapter of the 
history of the Chicago djaiasty. He happens to be in the Illinois 
country just at the time when the English of the eastern part of the 
country have moved against the French in Ohio. Braddock and 
Washington were leaders of the English forces, De Jumonville first 
led the French and he was defeated and killed. Bossu speaks of the 
conflict : 

"I forgot to tell you in my last (letters written to a friend in 
Paris) that I have been invited to the feast of war, given by the 
Grand Chief of Illinois, in order to raise warriors and march with 
the Chevalier Villers. This gentleman obtained leave from the 
governor to raise a party of French and Indians and to go with them 
to avenge the death of his brother, M. De Jumonville, who was killed 
by the English before the war broke out. 

"The Grand Chief of the Illinois is called Papappe Chagouhias; 
he is related to several Frenchmen of distinction settled among these 
people. This prince succeeded Prince Tamaroas, surnamed Chieagou, 
who died in 1754. He wears the medal of the late Cacique (given 
him by the King of France on the occasion of his visit to Paris).' 
This Illinois Prince has convinced the French that he is worthy of 
wearing it, by his friendship for our nation. The detachment of the 
Chevalier De Villiers being ready to set out Pappappe Chagouhias 
has desired to serve him with his warriors as a guide. They left Fort 
Chartres on the first of April, 1756, and arrived towards the end 
of May on the boundaries of Virginia where the English had a little 
fort surrounded with great pales." 



CHICAGOU — THE GRAND CHIEF OF THE ILLINOIS 335 

History abandons the Chicagous there. What conclusions are we 
able to draw from these references? These. There were apparently 
three of the line referred to. The Chicagouwessi who travelled with 
and aided Marquette. The Chicagou who went to Paris and was 
decorated by the King. Pappa Chagouhias who lead tlie Indians in 
the French and Indian War. We may conclude also that the Chicagou 
line of Chieftains were superior chiefs over all the tribes of the 
Illinois Indians. Later Chiefs of individual tribes of the Illinois 
confederation came into prominence such as Rouensa, Armapinchicou, 
DuQuoin and others, but during the time of the Chicagous the 
several tribes were more nearly of one family and the Chicagous 
seem to have ruled over all. 

Now, what became of the Chicagous? And what direct authority 
have we for believing that the river and the city of Chicago were 
named for them? 

"Waubun, " an interesting book reciting the early history of 
Chicago by Mrs. Kinzie, the wife of John Kinzie, spoken of often 
as the first settler of Chicago tells us what happened to one of them, 
perhaps the first one of our acquaintance. Mrs. Kinzie says that 
a distinguished Indian Chieftain named Chicago was drowned in the 
river and that the savages thereafter gave it the name of Chicago. 

According to Haines, The American Indian, p. 721, the stream 
we know now as the Chicago River was not so called until about 1710. 
Accordingly if Mrs. Kinzie is right about the Indian tradition of 
the drowning of the great chief that event must have happened 
about 1810. At any rate the name of the river is thus accounted 
for. 

Monette wrote a work entitled a ''History of the Mississippi 
Valley, published in the year 1804. The Indian tribes were all here 
during his life time and he had excellent opportunities for knowing 
of them. In his History he tells of the fidelity of Chicago and the 
other Illinois to the French: " D ' Artaguette, the pride and flower 
of Canada, had convened the tribes of the Illinois at Fort Chartres; 
he had unfolded to them the plans and designs of the great French 
Captain against the Chickasaws and invoked their friendly aid. At 
his summons the friendly chiefs, the tawney envoys of the North, 
with "Chicagou" at their head, had descended the Mississippi to 
New Orleans, and there had presented the pipe of peace to the 
Governor. "This," said Chicagou to M. Perrier, as he concluded an 
alliance defensive and offensive, "this is the pipe of peace or war. 
You have but to speak, and our braves will strike the nations that 



336 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

are your foes." They had made haste to return and had punctually 
convened their braves under D 'Artaguette. Chieagou was the Illinois 
Chief from the shore of Lake Michigan, whose monument was reared 
a century afterwards upon the site of the village and whose name is 
perpetuated in the most flourishing city of Illinois." As we have 
seen in Captain Bossu's letter quoted above this Chief died in 1754. 
Monnette is almost contemporary authority for the statement that 
the city of Chicago was named for him, 

Bossu says the Chicagos were of the Tamaroa tribe. Father 
Maturin Le Petit, S. J., who was present when Chieagou, the second 
of our acquaintances of that name, presented the pipe of peace to 
Governor Perrier at New Orleans, says that he was of the Michigamea. 
Of course both these tribes were of the Illinois family and this di- 
vergence only lends support to the supposition that in the earlier 
days there was a head chief of all the Illinois tribes who might 
come from any one of the tribes according to ability or prowess. 

It should be a sufficient answer to the arguments made by some 
that the name of the river and the city of Chicago is derived from 
skunk, skunkweed, garlic or wild onions to direct attention to the 
falct that in the Indian days the name variously spelled by those 
who attempted to approximate the sounds made by the natives applied 
to many different places or waters from Canada to the Gulf of 
Mexico. The lower Mississippi was at one time called Checagou by 
the tribes along its banks. When De Soto's ill starred expedition 
crossed the Mississippi in 1539 the Chicasaw Indians called the river 
and the region Chucagua. In Franquelin's large map of 1864 the 
Kankakee River is called Chekagou and the Chicago River is called 
Cheagoumeman. In De Lisle 's map of 1718 the present Des Plaines 
River is called Chieagou, and the same name is given a section of 
Lake Michigan, but in a map prepared by the same man in 1703 
the name is given to the present Chicago River only. D'Anville in 
his map of 1755 calls the Des Plains Chicago and also gives that 
name to a part of Lake Michigan. On Mitchell's map of the site 
and river are marked "River and port of Chieagou." In Popple's 
map of 1733 the Chieagou is mentioned but seems to refer to St. 
Joseph where Fort ]\Iiami was located and where an Indian village 
called Chicago then stood. On La Hontan's of 1703 a deep bay 
south of Chicago is called Chegakou and the portage is given the 
same name. In Charlevoix's map of 1724 the name Checagou seems 
to apply to a portion of Lake Michigan. In Senex's map of 1710 
the Chicago River is not shown, but the name is clearly applied to 



CHICAGOU — THE GRAND CHIEF OF THE ILUNOIS 337 

a village of the Maskoutens or Kiekapoos or both located on the 
present site of down town Chicago. Moll's map of 1720 names only 
the Cheeagou Portage. As we have seen, Father Hennepin, 1680, 
called the Illinois River tlic Checaugou. Coxe in his map of Louisiana 
calls the Illinois the C'hicagoii. Samson's map of 1G73 styles the 
Mississippi the Chicagna. In Margry's of 1679 the Grand Calumet 
is called Chekagoue. Father Zenobius Membre,, who accompanied 
La Salle and who wrote the history of La Salle's voyage (1681-1682), 
says they "went toward the Divine River (Illinois) called by the 
Indians Cheeagou." Referring to the same journey La Salle himself 
says that "the division line called Chieagua, from the river of the 
same name which lies in the country of the Mascoutens. " 

Will it be said that all these various localities were infested by 
skunks or that wild onions or garlic grew so abundantly in all of 
them as to give a character from which a name was bestowed. 

The answer is that the Grand Chief or Chiefs, the Great Chicagous, 
were known in all these parts, highty respected and every place they 
touched almost named in their honor. 

Chicago may well be proud of its name if, as these facts indicate, 
it was derived from the chiefs whom history has left us a record of 
who were known by the name. 

Joseph J, Thompson. 
Chicago. 



HISTORY IN THE PRESS 

Compiled and Edited by Teresa L. Maher 

Says Missionaries Were Leaders in Illinois 

Pioneer preachers had much to do with the settlement and devel- 
opment of Illinois, according to a study of their activities which has 
just been completed by Elbert Waller, a member of the Illinois House 
of Representatives. 

"The word of God as preached by these frontier parsons had 
more to do with the every-day life of many of the early settlers 
than most persons imagine, ' ' Waller says. Many of them were leaders 
in the settlement of the various disputes, political and otherwise, which 
were of interest at the time. 

The pioneer of all Illinois churchmen, he declared, was Father 
Jacques Marquette, who founded the first mission within the present 
borders of the State. It was known as the Mission of the Immaculate 
Conception and was founded on the shore of Lake Michigan near 
where Chicago now stands. [Inaccurate. The mission was founded 
at what is now Utica, just across the Illinois River from Starved 
Rock.— Ed.] 

As the Indians moved, the priest moved the mission with them, 
but the original name of the mission still exists as the name of a 
parish in the region of Kaskaskia, the first capital of Illinois. Mis- 
sions were maintained among the Indians by the French, but it was 
not until the early part of the 19th century that the Church began 
to be a power in the everyday affairs of the white settlers. [Of course 
this statement is without foundation. The Catholic Church has been 
a living, guiding force in Illinois and surrounding States ever since 
the day of its founding, April 11, 1673.— Ed.] 

Prominent among the early churchmen, Waller finds, was Rev. 
James Lemen, who came to the Illinois country in 1796 and organized 
a number of Baptist churches. He took a leading part in the slavery 
controversy which divided residents of the State and was a powerful 
influence in bringing Illinois into the rank of free States. Lemen 
organized eight Baptist churches and pledged their members to fight 
the advance of slavery. Later, when the sentiment of these church 
members changed and they became advocates of slavery, he split off 
from the main body and organized several more churches with anti- 
slavery citizens as members. 

338 



HISTORY IN THE PRESS 339 

John Mason Peck, a Yankee Baptist, and Rev. Peter Cartwright, 
a Methodist, also took prominent roles in the struggle against slavery. 
Cartwright gained the reputation of being the most eloquent preacher 
in the early history of the state. When the Methodist Church divided 
on the slavery question in 1844 Cartwright stood firmly upon his 
principles, declaring that "God will show my deluded brethren the 
error of their way and bring them back to the way of righteousness. ' ' 
It was not until 1924, however, that the Northern and Southern Meth- 
odist Churches were reunited. 

In addition to ministering to the spiritual needs of their parish- 
ioners the pioneer preachers faced the necessity of earning their 
living. They tilled the soil and hunted during the week and preached 
on Sundays. 

Daughters of the American Revolution to Celebrate Centenary 
OF La Fayette's Last Visit 

An enthusiastic group of D. A. R. members, Louis Joliet Chapter, 
gathered yesterday afternoon in the home of Mrs. Clinton Dillman, 
418 North Eastern Avenue, to take part in paying respeet to the last 
visit to America by General La Fayette. The 100th anniversary of 
that event is approaching, and Mrs. John Frazer, of Lockport, gave 
an interesting paper detailing La Fayette's last trip and ended the 
paper with a descripion of his grave tn France, where the American 
flag is always flying. Historical data and anecdotes relative to the 
hero added not a little to the interest of the paper. 

Mrs. Emerson Lewis, formerly of Joliet, delighted the members 
with French music, playing two of De Bussy's compositions: "Ara- 
besque" No. 1 and No. 2, and "Moonlight." 

After singing "Illinois" the members adjourned until the birth- 
day meeting which will be held the fourth Saturday in January in 
the home of Mrs. Theodore Gerlach. At this time the State Regent 
will be the honored guest. 

La Fayette Was Shipwrecked on Ohio River, Claim 

Shawneetown, 111., January 24. — Shipwrecked at midnight on an 
unknown river. General La Fayette, Revolutionary War hero from 
France, underwent the most harrowing experience of his entire second 
visit to America as he was returning east from a trip to Illinois, it 
is recalled in connection with the centennial celebration of his visit 
here, now being planned. 



340 TERESA L. MAHER 

The general with his party had left Shawneetown on the river 
boat Natchez, whose captain had been instructed to make all possible 
haste. In {he pitch of night, after all but the watches had retired, 
the boat suddenly struck a snag on the Ohio River, 120 miles below 
Louisville, and all was confusion. Although the boat listed and 
became almost entirely submerged in ten minutes, all the passengers 
reached land safely. 

Colonel Lavasseur, General La Fayette's private secretary, in 
describing the incident, remarks that although there was but one 
boat in which to escape from the sinking vessel, every passenger's first 
concern was for the noted general. In spite of their frenzy, when 
someone shouted, "Here is La Fayette," the noise quieted, and the 
demoralized crowd stood aside to allow the general to descend into 
the boat. On the morning following, another boat which happened 
to pass the spot, picked up the shipwrecked party, and took them to 
their destination. 

La Fayette was treated with the greatest respect during his visit 
to this State. His first stop was at the old town of Kaskaskia, where 
he was royally dined, and later attended a ball in his honor. The 
most touching incident of his visit occurred when a few tottering 
revolutionary heroes who had fought under him fifty years before, 
gathered about him and paid respect. 

The Frenchman's visit to Shawneetown was shorter than his stay 
in Kaskaskia, but the welcome given him showed the same veneration 
and reverence that he had received during his first stop in this State. 
Citizens from near and far had come to Shawneetown for the occa- 
sion, and when his boat landed, they formed a double line from the 
wharf to the hotel. The officials passed down the line, met the general 
and escorted him back through it to the hotel, while the people stood 
bare-headed. 

Several toasts were drunk. La Fayette's being, "The citizens of 
ShawneetowTi and Gallatin County : may they long continue to enjoy 
the blessings which are justly due to industry and love of freedom. ' ' 

The line to the wharf again formed as the great man took his 
departure. Upon the approach of the boat bearing the distinguished 
visitor, twenty-four rounds in salute had been fired, and as he left, 
another salute bid him farewell. 

State Acts to Buy Soutfiern Indian Mounds 

Springfield, 111., October 25.— Definite steps have been taken by 
the State to purchase some of the Cohokia Mounds, ancient land 



HISTORY JN THE PRESS 341 

marks left by a pre-historic race in Madison and St. Clair Counties, 
for which the 53rd General Assembly voted an appropriation, accord- 
ing to Col. C. R. Miller, director of the department of public works. 
Col. C. R. Miller, accompanied by Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, Chicago, 
president of the Illinois State Historical Society, A. E. Campbell, 
assistant attorney general, Rep. T. L. Feketee, E. St. Louis, C. M. 
Slaymaker, E. St. Louis, and others made a personal visit to the 
mounds this week. 

Surveys of the land are in progress. Colonel Miller said, and as 
soon as they are completed, and the exact acreage determined, a 
reasonable offer for the land will be made the present owners. 

" Condemnation proceedings will be instituted through the attorney 
general's office in order that the State may secure the land on an 
equitable basis, in case the land owners refuse to accept the reason- 
able price offered, ' ' Colonel Miller said. 

"Purchase of these mounds by the State will preserve for the 
world one of the most important pieces of work left by a pre-historic 
race on the American continent. 'Monks Mound' is the largest pre- 
historic artificial earthwork in the United States and is to the mound 
builders, whose history antedates that of the Indians, what the pyra- 
mids were to the Egyptian Pharaohs. The mound is 99 feet high, 
998 feet long and 721 feet wide." 

The age of the mounds is a matter of conjecture. History relates 
they were covered with dense forests when the first white men came 
250 years ago, while articles found in the mound by Dr. Warren R. 
Moorehead, member of the U. S. Board of Indian Commissioners, show 
they were built by a race of people who had reached a rather advanced 
stage of civilization and whose numbers reached thousands. 

Great Cahokia Indian Mounds Will Be Saved 

Prehistoric Monument Covers More Space Than Biggest Pyramid 

Springfield, 111., August 1. — The danger that industrial progress 
will erase the biggest question mark in North America before its 
mystery is solved is past. Negotiations for the purchase of Great 
Cohokia Mound have been started by the State of Illinois. The 
mound, the largest monument left by prehistoric Americans, will be 
preserved in a State park. 

Larger than the Pyramids of Egypt and with its secret more 
closely guarded than that of the Sphinx, Cohokia Mound stands on 
the edge of the teeming industrial district of Ea-st St. Louis, 111. It 



342 TERESA L. MAKER 

is only six or eight miles east of the heart of St. Louis. Numbers 
of railroads and paved highways carry thousands of persons within 
sight of it every day. 

Many Smaller Ones 

The mysterious earth heap is surrounded by scores of smaller 
mounds of similar character, some of which will also be preserved in 
the State park. 

Great Cahokia is a flat-topped pyramid, 700 by 1,000 feet at its 
base and 100 feet high. It covers a greater area than the largest 
Egyptian pyramid and is declared to be the largest earth-work of 
human hands in the world. 

Archaeologists estimate that it would have taken a force of 1,000 
men, working steadily ten years, to build the mound. The size of 
the mound is taken to indicate there must have been a settled popu- 
lation of at least 100,000 in the region at the time of its construction. 

What great king the artificial hill was raised to commemorate, 
what weird ceremonies were held on its summit, or in its interior; 
what strange race toiled to heap it up and practically every other 
question that comes to mind regarding the mound can be answered 
by only groundless guesses. All that is known is that Great Cahokia 
and the smaller mounds were built by some race preceding the In- 
dians and that a settled civilization far superior to that of the Indians 
was necessary to bring such a large body of workers together. 

Little Rese.-vrch 

Although Great Cahokia was noticed and commented upon by 
early explorers, little research has been done in them. George Rogers 
Clark noticed the mound during his campaign, which won the North- 
west Territory from the British. After questioning Indians of the 
region concerning Cahokia and its smaller neighbors, he wrote : 

"They say the mounds were the works of their forefathers and 
that they (the forefathers) were formerly as numerous as the trees 
of the woods. ' ' 

In the last two years Dr. Warren K. Moorehead, chief of the 
Department of Archaelogy of Philps Academy, Andover, Mass., has 
conducted the first scientific investigation of the mounds in co-opera- 
tion with the University of Illinois. Several of the smaller mounds 
were cut clear through, exposing complete sections. The structure 
of the mounds proved them to be the work of man and not natural 



HISTORY IN THE PRESS 343 

as some authorities had contended. Pieces of flint, pottery, shells, 
bone and charcoal were found in the mounds, but nothing was dis- 
covered that threw any real light on the people who built them. 

With the mounds in possession of the State, the investigations 
will continue. Great Cahokia will be preserved, a standing question 
mark to scientists of this and future generations. 

[The largest of the Cahokia mounds takes its name from a community of 
Trappi&t monks who e^^tablished a school for boys on one of the mounds in 
1809. This foundation contained twenty buildings and more than four hun- 
dred young Illinoisans were taught there. It was the first educational institu- 
tion founded in Illinois after the Eevolutionary war.— Ed.] 

PiASA Bird, Indian Relic, to be Restored 

Giant Cliff Painting at Alton Lost in Quarry Operations 

Alton, Illinois, July 17. — More mysterious and inscrutable than 
the Sphinx of Egypt, the great Piasa bird, which once brooded over 
the Mississippi valley from the cliffs above this town, is to be restored. 

The work of repainting the great Indian petroglyph, or cliff 
picture, which was destroyed by quarrying operations years ago, has 
been undertaken by the local Boy Scout council, and Herbert Forcade, 
an eighteen-year-old artist of this city, has undertaken to do the work. 

The Piasa bird, or Pi-a-sau bird, as the Indians called it, ranked 
with the most famous relics of prehistoric people found in this country 
or in the Eastern hemisphere. Scientists appear to have solved some 
of the puzzling problems that surrounded the origin of the Pyramids, 
the Sphinx, the relics left by the Aztecs and the monolithic pillars 
of Stonehenge. Archaeologists have even attempted to reconstruct 
the history of the Neanderthal man, but the origin, purpose and 
symbolic value of the Piasa bird has remained a closed book, sealed 
by the loss of Indian traditions that once might have explained the 
monster. It is the one great relic of prehistoric times in the western 
hemisphere which the government has allowed to be destroyed, scien- 
tists assert. 

Like Chinese Dragon 

The Piasa bird resembled nothing which now remains of Indian 
art, and looked more like a Chinese dragon than anything else, 
according to those who have seen the original. Marquette, the first 
white man known to have seen the painting, made a sketch of it, 
which was later lost, and no authentic picture taken from the original, 
has been found. Two artists who saw the petroglyph before its 



344 TERESA L. MAHER 

destruction have drawn sketches from memory, however, and their 
pictures agree closely enough to give an idea of the appearance of 
the monster. Jlarquette described the picture in the history of his 
trip down the Mississippi made in 1673 in the following words: 

"As we coasted along the rocks, frightful for their height and 
length, we saw two monsters painted on one of these rocks, which 
startled us at first, and on which the boldest Indian dare not gaze 
long. They are as large as a calf with horns on the head like a deer, 
a fearful look, red eyes, bearded like a tiger, the face somewhat like 
a man's, the body covered with scales and the tail so long that it 
twice makes the turn of the body passing over the head and down 
between the legs and ending at last in a fishes tail. Green, red and 
a kind of a black are the colors employed. On the whole these two 
monsters are so well painted that we could not believe any Indian 
to have been the designer, as good painters in France would have 
found it hard to do as well. Besides this they are so hig-h on the 
rocks that it is hard to get conveniently at them to paint them." 

Marquette Left It 

Marquette was the product of an age that believed it was not well 
to investigate too thoroughly occult matters, since such an investiga- 
tion might bring one face to face with the Devil himself. [Of course 
this statement about Marquette's fears is silly. A reflex of the in- 
ventions of bigots of an earlier age.] In addition he was going into a 
strange and wonderful land which awed him by its vastness and 
mystery. He was probably well enough satisfied to view the painting 
from the river and pass on as soon as possible, but the description 
of the Piasa bird has not been materially changed by later writers. 
If he had added that the body of the monster was covered with 
scales, that its tail was segmented like a scorpion and that it had 
two great, long squared shoulder wings, his description would have 
tallied exactly with the pictures of the bird that have been constructed 
from memory. 

Marquette's omission of the wings is explained by the fact, ob- 
served by old residents of Alton, that the distinctness of the image 
on the cliffs varied always with the weather. At times the picture 
would be scarcely discernible and at other times it would be very 
vivid, while portions of it frequently faded or stood out boldly with 
changes in humidity. This also explains why Marquette saw two 
monsters while some of the later observers saw but one. Those that 
did see two said that the second was like the first and pictured it 



HISTORY IN THE PRESS 345 

as standing behind the first. ]\Iarquette 's estimate of the size of the 
picture, made from the distance, lias also been disputed by later 
writers, one maintaining that the picture was between sixteen and 
eighteen feet long, while another asserted that it was thirty feet long 
and twelve feet wide. 

Lost in 1857 

The Piasa bird was still visible in the middle of the 19th century, 
but had faded until it stood out plainly only when the weather was 
favorable. In 1856 and 1857 quarrymen, who were cutting back 
the face of cliffs, to obtain limestone, blasted away the relic and it 
was irreparably lost. 

The present project to repaint the bird was launched in order to 
provide a memorial of the original and to restore to the picturesque 
cliffs above the city, the romance which the Piasa bird lent them. 
The exact design to be followed and the question of colors will be 
settled by the artist and archaeologist with whom he consults. 

Indian Uprising Caused Congress to Name Illinois 

Springfield, 111., November 22. — Uprisings and massacres by Illi- 
nois Indians drew the attention of the United States Congress to the 
land that is now Illinois, just one hundred and twenty-four years ago, 
the first year that Congress met in Washington, D. C. The ten years 
previously Congress had met in Philadelphia. 

This State had previously been a part of the Northwest Territorj^ 
but from 1800 to 1809 it was part of Indiana Territory. 

Consequently, the first representative this State had when the 
Government moved its headquarters to Washington, D. C, was the 
territorial delegate from Indiana — William Henry Harrison, who 
afterward became the first governor of Indiana. His report from 
his constituents in ' ' Indiana, ' ' informed congressmen that the rangers 
in the Illinois country were hard to handle, and were continuing to 
alarm settlers by the frequency of small massacres. 

In 1809, William Henry Harrison ceased representing Illinois. 
This State was made a territory in itself, but its representative in 
Congress was appointed by the President. This condition continued 
only three years, when Illinois was made a second rate territory, with 
power to elect its own delegate. The first delegate so elected was 
Shadrach Bond, who later became Illinois' first governor. 



346 teresa l. maker 

Nauvoo Was Once Colony of Communists 

Pioneer in Illinois Section Recalls Days of Grape Production 

Nauvoo, Illinois, July 18. — The days when Nauvoo was one of the 
greatest grape producing centers of the United States, and the seat 
of one of the most successful communist colonies ever established in 
the new world are recalled by Emil J. Baxter, who is still engaged 
here in the business of grape production and who came to Nauvoo 
shortly after the Slormons left. 

Mr. Baxter was a member of the French communist colony which 
Etienne Cabet established in Illinois in the fifties, his father having 
joined the project in 1855 when Emil was a small boy. The grape 
industry, developed by the learians, as the colonists were known, was 
at one time one of the leading industries of the State. Nauvoo was 
known in all parts of the country before Chatauqua, New York, and 
the Lake Erie region were famous. Mr. Baxter remembers having 
seen one hundred varieties of Illinois grapes on display at the World's 
Fair, 1863. This was because nothing was known, at the time, of 
the adaptability of the various varieties and every type was tried. 

Mr. Baxter's grandfather was a Scotch captain of artillery under 
the Duke of Wellington, and at the end of the war he liked France 
so well that he married a French girl and settled down in the country. 
Mr. Baxter's father was born in France and spoke and looked like 
a Frenchman. When he came to this country he had some ideas on 
co-operation that agreed well with those of Etienne Cabet and he 
accordingly moved his family to Nauvoo and became a member of 
the community. 

Cabet had brought to this country between 400 and 500 people 
who were seeking to establish a Utopian community. Settling on the 
improvements which the Mormons had left but a short time before 
the colony built a flour mill and a distillery and planted large vine- 
yards on the city lots which the Mormons' population of 22,000 had 
laid out. Nauvoo had been the largest city in the State, but the 
departure of the Mormons had reduced it to a village. 

Cabet 's colony managed to steer through several crises, but the 
more energetic members became tired of supporting the shiftless 
members and one by one dropped away until the scheme had to be 
abandoned in 1860. Mr. Baxter's father, after putting a great deal 
of money into the project, withdrew in 1857, but later returned and 
purchased land in the vicinity. Utilizing the knowledge of grape 



HISTORY IN THE PRESS 347 

culture that lie gained as a member of the colony he set out large 
vineyards which are still bearing. At his death his three sons took 
over the business and expanded it until they were cultivating one 
hundred and sixty acres of vineyards in Illinois and forty acres in 
Iowa. 

In addition to this they became extensive growers of apples, pears 
and other fruits. Mr. Baxter is still in the business and is still reap- 
ing profits from the industry started by the Icarians. The Baxter 
Brothers have also devoted their attention to the honey business, but 
retired from this some time ago. Mr, Baxter .served on the Nauvoo 
City Council for approximately thirty-seven years and on the School 
Board for twenty-seven years, in addition to serving a term as mayor. 

Famous Heroes in Blackhawk War, Data Shows 

Galena, 111., August 1. — Three presidents and a galaxy of the 
most famous military heroes the United States has ever boasted took 
part in Illinois' famous Blackhawk war, according to Edward L. 
Burchard, of Chicago, a lecturer of Northwestern University, who has 
collected data on pioneer days in northwestern Illinois for the State 
Historical Society. 

Jefferson Davis, later President of the Confederacy, was a subal- 
tern at Prairie Du Chien at the time, Lincoln served with the Illinois 
forces and Zachary Taylor v/as one of the army men who took part 
in suppressing the uprising. General Albert Sidney Johnson, who 
later opposed Grant at Shiloh, was chief of staff in the Blackhawk 
v/ar, and serving with him as inspector general was Anderson of 
Fort Sumter fame. General Twiggs, who later commanded the army 
of the Confederacy in Texas, was another famous Civil War figure 
that took part in the Illinois conflict. Grant, although he did not 
take part in the war, later made Galena his home. 

General Heintzelmann, of Union fame, Col. E. D. Barker, later 
a martyr at Ball's Bluff, and General Winfield Scott himself were 
all on the scene. As most of the troops were drawn from southern 
Illinois and Kentucky, the presence of so many military men from 
the South left a lasting impression on the territory and many towns 
and counties in Illinois are named for southerners. Six northern 
Illinois counties are named after Kentucky colonels: Jo Daviess, 
Stephenson, Boone, Henry, Ogle and Whiteside. 



348 teresa l. maker 

Claim Former Governor Built First Railroad 

East St. Louis, III, November 28. — Credit for building and operat- 
ing the first railroad in Illinois is claimed for Governor John 
Rej^nolds, who in 1837 built and put into operation a railroad six 
miles long, from near this city to East St. Louis. The railroad 
utilized horse-power and was used to carry coal into St. Louis. In 
his own account of the building of the road Governor Reynolds said : 

"I had a large tract of land on the Mississippi bluffs six miles 
from St. Louis which contained an inexhaustible supply of coal. It 
was nearer to St. Louis than any other mine on this side of the river. 
A few others, with myself, projected a road across a swamp into 
St. Louis, which would give us a market for the coal. We knew very 
little about the construction of a railroad or the capacity of the 
market for coal. 

"We were forced to bridge a lake more than two thousand feet 
across, and we drove piles down more than eighty feet to get a solid 
roadbed. The members of the company hired the hands and took 
charge of the work. We graded the track, cut and hauled timber, 
built the road and had it running all in one season. 

"We had not the means nor the time, in one year, to procure the 
iron for rails or a locomotive, so we were compelled to work the road 
without iron and with horsepower. We completed the road and 
delivered coal all winter. It was the first railroad built in the Mis- 
sissippi valley. ' ' 

In the following year, Governor Reynolds offered the road for 
sale and it was sold at a loss of approximately $20,000. 

Seven Illinois Governors Were Born in Kentucky 

Springfield, 111., August 7.— If Virginia is the "Mother of Presi- 
dents" Kentucky deserves the title of "Mother of Illinois Governors," 
according to records at the State Historical Library here, which show 
that seven Illinois governors were born in the Blue Grass State, while 
one other migrated from Kentucky to Illinois after having been born 
m another State. Four Illinois governors were born in New York, 
while only three were born in Illinois. 

Maryland was the birthplace of Shadrach Bond, Illinois' first 
chief executive, and Coles, who succeeded him, came from Virginia. 
Edwards and Reynolds were born in Maryland and Pennsylvania 
respectively, but Ewing, Duncan and Carlin who followed, were all 
born in Kentucky. After Carlin came Ford from Pennsylvania, 



HISTORY IN THE PRESS 349 

French from New Hampshire, and Matteson, Bissell and Wood from 
New York. Kentucky then again claimed the honor and Yates, 
Oglesby and Palmer all claimed that State as the place of their 
nativity. Beveridge was born in New York, but Cullom, who fol- 
lowed him, was a Kentuckian. Hamilton and Fifer were born in 
Ohio and Virginia respectively, John Peter Altgeld, who followed, 
was born in Germany and is the only naturalized governor the State 
has ever had. Governor Tanner was born in Virginia. Richard 
Yates, Jr., the son of a Kentuckian who became governor of Illinois, 
is the first native born chief executive the State had. Yates was 
born at Jacksonville. Deneen, who was born at Edwardsville and 
Small, who was born at Kankakee, are the only other governors who 
were born in Illinois. Dunne was born in Connecticut and Lowden 
in Minnesota. 

All of the former governors of the State, with the exception of 
Coles, who is buried in Philadelphia, and those now living are buried 
in Illinois. Five governors, Edwards, Ewing, Bissell, Cullom and 
Tanner are buried in Springfield. Bond is buried at Chester, Rey- 
nolds at Belleville, Duncan at Jacksonville, Carlin at CarroUton, 
Ford at Peoria, French at Lebanon, Matteson at Chicago, Wood at 
Quincy, Yates Sr., at Jacksonville, Oglesby at Elkhart, Palmer at 
Carlinville, Beveridge, Hamilton and Altgeld at Chicago. 

Old Palmyra Has Crumbled 

Mount Carmel, 111., August 4. — Old Palmyra, ill-fated county 
seat of a territory that once included Cook County, the most thriving 
and important town in the territory of Illinois at one time, has 
crumbled away. Today the site of the once pretentious young me- 
tropolis is a great wheat field, with a few bricks and stones scattered 
about to show that a city once existed. 

How the early citizens of Palmyra fought the fever, and how it 
finally conquered the city because of unhealthy surroundings; how 
the British and the native Americans fought over the removal of the 
capital, and finally agreed to abandon the old city, is told in records 
belonging to D. H. Keen, great-grandson of Peter Keen, one of the 
founders of Palmyra. 

Built in 1815 on the banks of the Wabash, three miles up the 
river from Mount Carmel, the town of Palmyra was chartered as 
capital city of the County of Edwards, then comprising half the State 
of Illinois and also a part of Michigan and Wisconsin. 



350 TERESA L. MAHER 

Back of the little city were poisonous swamps, and in summer the 
river ovei'flowed, bringing with it fever and death. Decaying vege- 
tation sent out a constant stench. The town was built on a sandy 
ridge, between the swamps and the lowlands of the river. The build- 
ers refused to listen to the warnings of friendly Indians to the effect 
that "red man die here; white man die too." 

No court house was built in Palmyra. Instead, the home of Ger- 
vase Hazleton, one of the pioneer founders, was used as a court 
building. Records say that Hazelton received six and one-fourth 
cents a year for the use of his home, and this was the only expense 
Edwards County, larger than many States, incurred for its court 
house. 

The western part of the County, what is now Edwards County, 
had been settled by the British, who were well in control of affairs, 
and they demanded the removal of the county seat to the western 
side of the Eonpas Creek. The American settlers refused, and when 
the election of 1824 decided the removal, they organized four com- 
panies of militia and prepared to keep the capital at Palmyra. 
Finally, the British made a compromise proposal, and the county 
was divided into two equal parts, thereby creating the new County 
of Wabash. 

Capitol Momcd 

The capitol was then moved from Palmyra to Centerville, and 
the exodus of those who had not already been taken by fever began. 
In a year or two the town was practically deserted. 

In 1859 the town was visited by a relative of Peter Keen, one of 
the founders, and the following record was left : 

"Many of the houses are falling. There are large two-story frame 
houses, with rooms inside in good preservation, glass in windows, 
weather-boarding all torn off. The frames were filled in with a com- 
position of clay and straw, presenting a weather-worn, decaying 
appearance; bats, swallows, frogs and serpents are the only inhabi- 
tants of the place. Southwest of the village is the graveyard, the 
place where most of .the inhabitants now dwell. It is the largest 
graveyard in the county." 

At present there are a few marks of the once-thriving city. The 
last house has fallen and decayed, not a log and but a few bricks 
and stones are left, and passengers or crews of steamboats passing 
the old Palmyra landing are able to discern nothing except the 
great field of wheat and the surrounding swamps. 



history in the press 351 

Old Letters Shed Light on U. S. History 

Eobert Livingston's Story Tells of Louisiana Purchase 

St. Louis, Mo., October 7. — In the archives of the Missouri His- 
torical Society at Jefferson Memorial here there rests, temporarily, 
a set of letters in which the true story of the Louisiana purchase is 
told. 

The letters were written from the year 1801 to 1803 by Robert 
Livingston, American ambassador to France at that interesting period 
ill the world's history. They are addressed to Rufus King, then am- 
bassador to CTreat Britain, and some of them contain the signature 
of James Monroe, in addition to that of the author. 

Nothing more than a little matter of $4,000 stands between the 
Missouri Historical Society and the coveted manuscripts which were 
recently brought to the attention of John H. Gundlach, St. Louisan, 
and himself an insatiable collector of old books and manuscripts. 

An entirely new light is thrown on the story of the great pur- 
chase, generally considered the most important event in American 
history, next to the revolution itself, by these letters, and an effort 
will be made to raise funds for their purchase. 

Gundlach has recently made an invaluable addition to his own 
private collection of books and manuscripts in the form of a set of 
autographed letters written by Napoleon Bonaparte. 

Most of them are addressed to his cousin, the Due de Belluno, one 
of the military leaders in the Napoleonic wars, and contain charac- 
teristically concise instructions as to the conduct of the campaigns 
preceding the great Russian disaster. The letters are dated 1813. 

' ' I shall consider it a piece of good news, ' ' says one letter, ' ' when 
I learn that the enemy of 8,000 has got itself into a mess at Leipsic 
and has been destroyed. ' ' 

Another is a letter from Jerome Bonaparte conveying to his 
mother the news of the late emperor's death. "For all we know, the 
accursed English had conspired to murder him ! ' ' the bereaved brother 
writes. 

Equally interesting is a lengthy letter written by the Marquis de 
Lafayette to the noted Englishwoman, Lady Sidney Morgan, vividly 
describing the last days of Napoleon in exile. 

Forty-odd autographed letters of Richard Wagner, many of Lin- 
coln and Roosevelt, several of Beethoven, Haydn and other celebrities, 
as well as part of the original minutes of the first constitutional con- 



352 TERESA L. MAHER 

vention, are part of the Gundlaeh collection which represents the 
work of a lifetime in assembling. 

"The passion for collecting manuscripts is nothing short of a 
disease," Gundlaeh says, "and once you've been bitten by the mi- 
crobes there's no cure for you. But to get the fullest pleasure out 
of this hobby, you must be free from all narrowness, all prejudice — 
"national, religious or political. You simply stand off and, in a purely 
objective way, watch the march of history, ' ' 

"Old Settlers" of Morgan County Tell History 

Jacksonville, 111., November 7. — History from its source is being 
collected in Jacksonville and Morgan County through interviews with 
"old settlers" regarding tradition, custom and anecdotes of the early 
days. Interest in the subject has been aroused by the announcement 
of the Public Library Board of a competitive contest for the best 
history of Jacksonville, which is being held in preparation for the 
Centennial of the city next year. 

Prizes of $100, $50 and $25 have been offered for the best histories 
submitted. It is expected that much early history that otherwise 
would be lost, will be given the public through the contest. 

Rules of the competition require that all material must be original 
and that 75 per cent of the data must be history prior to 1875. A 
minimum of 7,500 words is required of each history. Manuscripts 
will become the property of the Jacksonville Public Library, which 
reserves the right to publish any that are submitted. 

Historic Spots 

Springfield, III, January 8. — Great progress toward completion 
of one of the finest systems of State parks in the United States was 
made in Illinois last year, according to Col. C. J. Miller, director of 
the State Department of Public Works and Buildings. 

State parks in Illinois, the report explains, were very carelessly 
maintained up until four years ago. The control of the parks was in 
the hands of a commission and authority was so scattered that there 
was little unity of purpose. When the parks were turned over to 
the Department of Public Works and Buildings a definite program 
was laid out, which includes the reclaiming or the preservation of 
every spot in the State hallowed by unusual historical interest. 

The State is now maintaining ten parks and will soon acquire 
an eleventh. Improvements on these parks already completed or in 



HISTORY IX THE PRESS 353 

progress will cost approximately $65,000. The parks now being kept 
by the State are the Lincoln Monument, the Lincoln Homestead, the 
Vandalia Court House, once used as a Statehouse, the Douglas Monu- 
ment, Fort Massac, Fort Chartres, Old Salem Park, Starved Rock 
Park, Fort Greve Coeur and the Matamora Court House. The State 
expects to obtain possession of the Cahokia mounds within a short 
time. 

Starved Rock park is the finest park owned by the State. The 
department has sought to make of this one of the finest tourists camp- 
ing grounds in the United States and to this end has installed a shelter 
house equipped with every imaginable modern convenience. Shower 
baths, hot and cold water, tourists' stoves, special wash tubs, electric 
lights, tables and other conveniences have been installed. 

In addition to the program for making the Cahokia mounds a 
State park, the department plans to repair the Lincoln homestead in 
Springfield, paint and reshingle the home and the barn, clear adjacent 
lots and landscape the vicinity. The recent storms did some damage 
to the trees around the house, and this will be repaired as far as 
possible. The home is to be rewired so that the danger from fire will 
be reduced by placing all of the wiring in conduits. 

To Ask Memorial Park to Honor Lewis and Clark 

Alton, 111., January 17. — Citizens of Alton and vicinity plan to 
urge members of the General Assembly to establish at the mouth of 
Wood River a memorial park in honor of the Lewis and Clark expedi- 
tion, which began its memorable journey of exploration from that 
spot in 1804. The State Historical Society and other organizations 
are expected to support the movement. 

A bill will be introduced in the Assembly by Senator H. G. Gib- 
berson of this city to appropriate funds for the purchase and main- 
tenance of a suitable park site. Governor Small will be asked to give 
it his endorsement and several committees from this and nearby cities 
are expected to go to Springfield and urge the passage of the bill 
when it comes up for consideration. 

Historians and others interested in the movement point to the 
start of the Lewis and Clark expedition as one of the most notable 
events in the history of Illinois. 

The exploring party, which traversed practically the entire length 
of the ]\Iissouri River and reached a point near the Pacific coast, 
marked the formal possession by the United States of the vast and 
practically unexplored tract of land which had been bought from 



354 TERESA L. MAHER 

France in 1801 under the title of the Louisiana purchase. It is now 
divided into fifteen of the richest and most prosperous States in the 
Union. 

Following the purchase of the territory, President Jefferson de- 
cided to send an expedition to explore the country in an effort to 
find out just what the nation had obtained for its expenditure of 
$15,000,000. Captain Meriwether Lewis and Lieutenant William 
Clark, younger brother of George Rogers Clark, were appointed to 
command the expedition and in the fall of 1803 arrived at the mouth 
of Wood River where they went into winter quarters. Their force 
consisted of forty-three men who had been specially selected for the 
arduous trip because of their splendid physique, knowledge of wood- 
craft and their bravery. The expedition started the following Spring. 

Recall Days of Pioneers in Oregon 

Generals Grant and Sheridan Spent Hard Days in Far West 

Little known incidents in the early army careers of Generals 
Ulysses S. Grant, Phil Sheridan and George B. McClellan are related 
in an account of a year they spent at old Fort Vancouver, Oregon 
territory, written by Mrs. Delia B, Sheffield, who as the wife of a 
sergeant in the Fourth United States infantry, the command to which 
they were attached, shared their pioneering experiences there in pre- 
Civil war days. 

A movement has been launched to restore old Fort Vancouver near 
what is now Vancouver, Wash., across the Columbia river from Port- 
land, Ore. The Fourth United States infantry, one of the pioneer 
organizations of the army, now is stationed at Fort George Wright, 
Spokane. 

Mrs. Sheffield's memoirs of these days have been made public by 
William S. Lewis, historian of the Eastern Washington Historical 
society, who received them from Mrs. Caroline Hathaway Cook, Mrs. 
ShefBeld's daughter. 

Women Along 
General, then Captain Grant, was regimental quartermaster and 
was in charge of the transportation of the Fourth infantry on its 
long journey from Governor's Island, New York, to Fort Vancouver 
in 1852. The trip was commenced on July 5, by steamer for Aspin- 
wall, Panama, and thence across the Isthmus of Panama by train, 
boat, on mulebaek and afoot. The officers were accompanied by their 
families and some of the women carried small babies. 



HISTORY IN THE PRESS 355 

To add to the difficulties of the journey, the California gold rush 
was in full swing, and after the regiment had boarded a steamer on 
the Pacific side of the Isthmus, Asiatic cholera broke out. San Fran- 
cisco was reached September 1, but no shore leave was granted for 
fear of desertions to seek gold. At Benecia, Cal., an army post, the 
regiment went into camp to recuperate until September 18, and then 
again boarded ship for Fort Vancouver, which was reached some days 
later. 

Merely Trading Post 

Besides the army barracks there, the town consisted of the Hud- 
son's Bay company's trading post and a dozen log huts of Indian 
and half-breed employes of the company, which carried on extensive 
trapping operations with Fort ^^ancouver as the base. 

In order to raise the money to bring his family from the east. 
Captain Grant with a fellow officer leased a tract of land not far 
from the fort, which he planted to potatoes and oats. However, Mrs. 
Sheffield's account relates, the river flooded out the crops. 

In the spring of 1853 Captain Grant asked Mrs. Sheffield to take 
into her home as boarders himself, Lieut. Phil Sheridan, Capt. George 
B. McClellan and two others. When she objected that she would be 
unable to care for so large a household. Captain Grant replied : 

"Oh, that can be easily arranged. I shall detail one of the soldiers 
who is a good cook to do the cooking, and besides, I have an excellent 
cook book and am a pretty good cook myself, I am sure that we 
shall manage very well." 

Second Blow to Fortune 

Grant missed his wife very much at this time and frequently ex- 
pressed a desire to resign from the army and live with his family, 
which some time later he did. After the potato failure. Grant and 
his business associate bought all the chickens for 20 miles around and 
chartered a vessel to ship them to market in San Francisco. The ship 
returned with the news that the chickens had died on the way, 
however, thus dealing a second blow to Grant's fortunes. 

When Grant was ordered to report for duty at Humboldt, Cal., 
he gave Mrs. Sheffield his cook book, his feather pillows and some 
trinkets. 

"During Grant's stay of one year at Fort Vancouver he had not 
made an enemy and gained the friendship and good will of every- 
body," Mrs. Sheffield wrote. "He was indeed one of nature's noble- 
men. ' ' 

Teresa L. Maher. 

Joliet. 



EARLY HISTORY OF SISTERS OF CHARITY 
OF ST. AUGUSTINE 

Who Left France in 1851 to Minister to Sick and Orphans 

By a Sister of Charity, C. S. A. 

To pay homage to heroism is a natural instinct. Let a man but 
distinguish himself by deeds of unusual braveiy or self-sacrifice for 
humanity's good and the whole world thrills with appreciation. It 
matters not what country claims him as her own; it matters little 
what century marks his birth ! he becomes the glory, the heritage of 
all nations and of all times. Soldiers who risk their lives for their 
country's welfare amid the hardships and horrors of war, are justly 
honored; but there are others who have gone forth with hearts not 
less valiant to face unknown dangers and hardships for the Kingdom 
of Christ. This directs our thoughts to the founding of the Sisters 
of Charity of St. Augustine in Cleveland, Ohio, and to the considera- 
tion of the pioneer days of this Community. Our minds gratefully 
revert to those noble women "with the hearts of Vikings and the 
simple faith of children who, in the midst of incredible hardships, 
laid its foundation. 

Left Home and Loved Ones 

Let us consider some of the sacrifices made by that heroic van- 
guard who came to aid the struggling Church in America and to 
carry on those works of charity which always go hand in hand with 
the establishment of Catholic Faith. All too little are their praises 
sung ; too seldom do we think at what a cost they have laid the foun- 
dations of those institutions of charity and zeal with which our land 
is covered. These zealous pioneers of the Church in America were 
called upon to leave homic and loved ones, to gaze for the last time on 
those tear-wet faces pale with the anguish of parting, with the pain 
of which their own hearts were quivering, that they might minister 
in a strange land to strangers made brothers by the all-embracing 
law of Christian charity. 

In 1850, the first Bishop of Northern Ohio went to France to 
obtain Sisters to carry on this work of Christian Charity, in his new 
diocese. Sister Bernardine and Sister FrauQoise, two Augustinians, 
and two postulants, Louise Brulois and Cornelia Muselet gladly 

356 



EARLY HISTORY OF SISTERS OF CHARITY 357 

offered themselves; but Sister Bernardine, who was to be the leader 
of the little band, was at the time in charge of St. Louis Hospital, a 
government hospital in Boulogne-sur-mer. So well were her abilities 
recognized that she was unable to obtain a release from her position 
until her term should expire the following year. On the feast of Our 
Lady of Mercy, September 24, 1851, the little Community sailed from 
Havre, France, in company with the famous missionary, the Rev. 
Louis de Goesbriand, whom the Bishop had sent to conduct them to 
their new home on the shores of Lake Erie. These Augustinian 
Sisters planted the seed in American soil and it grew to be a noble 
tree, the tree of the Sisters of Charity of St. Augustine, who shelter 
the orphans, the poor and the sick. 

Not only did they find themselves in strange surroundings instead 
of amongst the old, familiar scenes, and meet those in whose eyes no 
kindling light of recognition and love beamed, but customs which 
had become a part of their very lives were changed for new and 
unaccustomed ways. A strange language sounded in their ears. 
There were besides a thousand minor sacrifices — the severing of all 
those ties, scarcely perceptible, scarcely realized, until the wrench of 
separation tore them root and branch from the heart round which 
they had long twined, leaving it wounded and sore. In place of the 
comforts and refinements to which they were accustomed, they faced 
the hardships, the grinding poverty, the days and nights of irksome, 
unrelenting toil of a pioneer life. 

Such were the supreme sacrifices required of two Augustinian 
Sisters from the Convent of Arras, France, and the two young postu- 
lants who, in 1851, promptly answered to the call of Bishop Rappe 
for volunteers to care for the sick and orphans of his newly estab- 
lished diocese in Ohio. Not unfrequently in the course of his mis- 
sionary labors in northern Ohio, his heart ached for his people. There 
was much sickness amongst settlers and several epidemics of cholera 
had worked havoc amongst them. Seeing the sufferers, with no skilled 
gentle hand to care for them, naturally his mind turned to his native 
France. He thought of the clean, airy hospitals, of the white robed 
Sisters, who, with Christlike sympathy cooled the fevered brow, bound 
up the gaping wound, and skillfully nursed the pain-racked body. 
He saw them kneeling by the bedside of the dying, aiding and com- 
forting the departing soul with their prayers. He contrasted the 
scanty ministrations that his own poor people received, either for 
soul or body, because the laborers were few, the Catholics scattered, 
the territory large and but recently formed into a diocese. How he 



358 BY A SISTER OF CHARITY 

longed for some of these Angels of Mercy to care for them in their 
sickness and need. 

]\Ieanwhile, one who was in every way worthy to be associated 
with those valiant women as co-founder of the Sisters of Charity of 
St. Augustine, was pursuing the course of her religious training 
with the Ursulines whom the Bishop had brought to Cleveland from 
France the year previous. 

Catherine Bissonnette was from Sandusky, Ohio, and during the 
cholera epidemic which raged amongst the inhabitants she went fear- 
lessly into the homes visited by the dread disease and tenderly cared 
for the poor victimes. Afterwards she gathered together the children 
left orphans by the ravages of the pestilence, taking for the purpose 
a house which had been abandoned, either through fear, or by the 
death of the occupants. 

Such noble heroism attracted the attention of the Bishop. Her 
charity, her readiness to do and suffer and sacrifice all things for 
others, her unquenchable zeal, characterized her as one who could 
"put her hand to strong things," and he recognized in her one emi- 
nently qualified to be associated with the founders of the new Com- 
munity of Sisters of Charity whose coming he awaited. 

Pending their arrival and the erection of the hospital of which 
thej^ were to take charge, he had placed her with the Ursulines to 
make her Novitiate as a Sister of Charity, — her heart's desire.. She 
received the name of Sister Mary Ursula. The very day that she 
pronounced her vows as a Sister of Charity she joined the new Com- 
munity, which was by this time established at St. Joseph Hospital on 
Monroe Avenue, the first hospital in the City of Cleveland, which 
continued until it merged into St. Vincent Charity Hospital in 1865 
to welcome home the sick and injured soldiers from the Civil War. 

Only on the last day, will the unfolded scrolls reveal fully, the 
suffering, the hardships, the poverty, the long hours of toil and 
nightly vigil which these Sisters so cheerfully endured through love 
for God and the suffering poor. The mere recital of some of the 
hardships that made up their daily life cause us to marvel at the 
undaunted courage, the unfaltering trust in God's Providence, 
which enabled them to persevere under such awful odds. In addi- 
tion to their heavy day's work they sewed for the support of the 
orphans, receiving provisions in exchange for their needlework. 
Their numbers were few and there was much work to be done. 



EARLY HISTORY OF SISTERS OF CHARITY 359 

Each sister took her turn staying up all night with the sick, con- 
tinuing at her post the next day without opportunity for rest, 
until the following night. At least once every week this stretch of 
forty hours on duty fell to each. The endurance of hunger and 
cold and the privation of many of those things which seem to us 
absolutely necessary were cheerfully borne that the sick and the 
orphans might be provided for. 



TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH ANNI- 
VERSARY HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 

{Continued from January Number) 
Chapter V. Henry De Tonti, First Govenor of Illinois 

1. The First Attempt at Settlement. The fort completed, Tonti 
set to work to colonize and civilize the Indians. "During the winter," 
he himself tells us, "I gave all the nations notice of what we had 
done to defend them from the Iroquois, at whose hands they had 
lost seven hundred people in the preceeding years. They approved 
of our good intentions and established themselves to the number of 
three hundred lodges at the fort, the Illinois, the Miami and the 
Shawnoes. ' ' Here they were taught the rudiments of agriculture and 
the ways of civilized life and as time passed other tribes removed 
to the neighborhood and established themselves. 

2. The Iroquois Agai7i Make War Upon the Illinois. Scarcely 
were the federated Indians settled under their new government when 
the Iroquois Indians renewed their war. Information was brought to 
Tonti on the 20th of March, 1684 that these savages were about to 
attack and preparations for defense were begun. The Iroquois ap- 
peared on the 21st of March, and opened their attack, but were 
repulsed with losses. After six days' seige they returned with some 
slaves which they had made in the neighborhood but who afterwards 
escaped and came back to the fort. 

3. l^onti Temporarily Displaced. Just after the close of the 
Iroquois scige, the commander of the French forces at Michilimack- 
inac, Oliver Morrell, Sieur de La Duryante, arrived at Fort St. Louis 
with sixty men. When Tonti heard of the contemplated attack of 
the Iroquois, he sent word to Duryante to come to his assistance and 
it was in answer to this appeal that he now appeared. Duryante was 
accompanied by Father Claud Jean AUouez, S. J., whom we have 
seen had been in the Illinois missions for several years prior to this 
time, but had to be absent at intervals. These visitors brought un- 
pleasant news to Tonti. They advised him that La Salle's enemies 
had succeeded in discrediting him in having their own favorites pre- 
ferred before him. The rights formerly granted to La Salle were 
wrested from him and turned over to others. Tonti was ordered to 
give up the fort to De Baugis, and like a true soldier, obeyed the 
command of his superiors, and "went to Montreal and thence to 
Quebec. ' ' 

360 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 361 

4. Action Reversed. At Quebec Tonti met De La Forest and 
learned of a reversal of the orders formerly issued. Immediately 
upon being apprised of the action taken against him, La Salle busied 
himself with his defense, and so successfully that Lettres de Cachet 
were dispatched from the government, and intrusted to De La Forest 
by which La Barre was directed to deliver up to La Forest, the 
lands belonging to La Salle. La Forest also advised Tonti that La 
Salle was on his return journey to America by way of the ocean to 
find the mouth of the Mississippi and that he had obtained a com- 
mand for him (Tonti) who v/as to go back to Fort St. Louis as 
Captain of Foot and Governor. 

5. Tonti Returns to the Fort. In accordance with these instruc- 
tions Tonti returned to Fort St. Louis and La Forest went back to 
Fort Frontenac. It was in June, 1685 that Tonti returned. De Baugis 
who had supplanted Tonti, in his turn retired and left Tonti in com- 
mand. 

6. Solicitous for La Salle's Welfare. Not hearing from La Salle, 
Tonti went to Michilim.ackinac, in the Autumn and there learned from 
De Nonville that La Salle was seeking the mouth of the Mississippi 
in the Gulf of Mexico, and so great was his solicitude for his beloved 
leader that he resolved at once to go to his assistance. Putting his 
resolution into execution, he arrived in the middle of January, 1685, 
at Fort St. Louis and departed from there on the 16th of February 
with thirty Frenchmen and five Illinois and Shawnoe Indians in 
search of La Salle. Reaching the Gulf, Tonti sent one canoe towards 
the coast of Mexico and another towards Carolina to see if they 
could discover anything. They each sailed about thirty leagues in 
either direction but were obliged to stop for want of fresh water, 
but no trace of La Salle was found. With many misgivings the party 
returned, reaching Fort St. Louis on Jan. 24, 1686. 

7. /n the Campaigji Against the Iroquois. When Tonti was in 
Michilimackinac, the year before, the Governor asked his aid in prose- 
cuting a campaign against the Iroquois. Now that he had done every- 
thing he could to find La Salle he felt at liberty to yield to the 
Governor's request, and immediately upon his return from the Gulf 
of Mexico embarked with two Indian chiefs to confer with the Gov- 
ernor. Receiving directions to return to the Illinois, he sent word to 
his savage allies declaring war against the Iroquois, and inviting them 
to assemble at the Fort. This they did in April, 1687, and after a 
feast, and war council, he started with such forces as he was able 



362 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

to gather, on April 17, 1687 for the Niagara country, leaving in all, 
twenty Frenchmen at the Fort with Belle Fontaine as Governor. 
The war party grew as it proceeded so that some five hundred war- 
riors completed the journey of two hundred leagues to Fort Detroit 
which was reached on the 19th day of May. Largely through Tonti 's 
exertions, the fighting favored the French, and with the remarkable 
faculty for covering distances, Tonti quickly reached the Niagara 
where he built a fort. 

8. Escorts Father Gravier to the Illinois. The Iroquois being 
checked for the present, Tonti started on his return journey, coming 
home by way of Detroit and Michilimackinac. At Detroit he was 
joined by Father Jacque Gravier, S. J., coming to Illinois to take 
the place of Father Allouez, but lately occupied by Father Sebastian 
Rale in charge of the Illinois missions. 

9. News About La Salle. On his arrival at Fort St. Louis, Tonti 
found Abbe Jean Cavelier, the brother of La Salle and others of 
La Salle's party who had arrived at the Fort in his absence. These 
visitors, contrary to the fact as Tonti afterwards learned, told Tonti 
that they had left La Salle "at the Gulf of Mexico in good health." 
This news rejoiced Tonti and he received his visitors and treated them 
with eveiy mark of courtesy. Upon their departure in the Spring, 
Tonti granted them abundant supplies and advanced to Abbe Cavelier 
a considerable sum of money which the priest said his brother had 
directed him to procure from Tonti. 

10. Tonti Learns of the Death of La Salle. After the departure 
of Abbe Cavelier and the others of his party, and in September of 
the same year, a Frenchman named Couture brought two Iroquois 
Indians to Tonti who informed him of the death of La Salle, relating 
all the circumstances. These tidings so grieved Tonti that he resolved 
at once to proceed to the site of La Salle's settlement on the Gulf 
of Mexico and bring back the survivors of the La Salle party, and 
accordingly he set out on the proposed expedition. 

11. An'ives Near the Site of the III Fated Colony. After a most 
trying journey Tonti with his greatly diminished party arrived near 
the place where La Salle and his people were put to death. He 
visited the Indian tribes in the neighborhood and by boldly charging 
them with fouul play, secured a confession of their gilt. 

12. La Salle's Sad Fate. For reasons which are very poorly 
explained, La Salle failed to find the mouth of the Mississippi, and 
the point where he had in 1882 raised the standard of France and 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 363 

the cross, with great ceremonies. In searching for them, his ships 
had sailed beyond the mouth, and were finally driven ashore on 
what is now Texas. Unable to do better, he set up an encampment, 
and began exploring the country. On one of his journeys in which 
he was accompanied by his brother Ablje Cavclier, the priest. Father 
Anastatius Douay, two nci)hevvs, one a cavalier, the other de Morange, 
and several Frenchmen besides a Shawnoe Indian, two or three of 
his disgruntled companions conspired to murder La Salle and fearing 
that La Salle's nephew, de Morange, might interfere with their de- 
signs, they killed him. Cloing to seek Morange, the murderers dis- 
charged their weapons at La Salle. "He received three bullets in his 
head and fell down dead." Thus was the promising life of the great 
explorer snuffed out in the wilderness, on the 19th of March, 1687. 
Much saddened Tonti returned to the Fort in September, 1690, and 
began to consider of his status, now that his superior and friend was 
dead. 

13. Tonti Petitions the King. Tonti 's status was now uncertain 
and wishing to know what was his position, he petitioned the King 
setting forth that he had been in the employ of the French govern- 
ment, beginning as a cadet and continuing in other capacities to the 
present time, giving the nature of his employment, but that due to 
the death of La Salle he now finds himself without employment and 
modestly requests that in consideration of his voyages and heavy 
expenses and considering also that during his service of seven years 
as captain he had not received any pay, he asks that he may be 
assigned to the command of a company, and still continue in the 
service of His Majesty. The petition was approved by Governor 
Frontenac, and forwarded to the King. De La Forest who as we 
have seen was also a lieutenant of La Salle presented a similar 
petition asking that he and Tonti be given joint control of Fort 
St. Louis and granted the privileges passing with such control. These 
petitions were granted by order of the Council of State on the 14th 
day of July, 1690, and Tonti remained at Fort St. Louis while La 
Forest conducted a trading station at Chicago. 

14. Tonti a Just Governor. The policy of federation and pacifica- 
tion of the Indians was continued by Tonti and it seems fair to say 
that on the plains of Illinois surrounding the Fort on the Rock was 
gathered the first and only successful federation of Indian tribes that 
ever existed on the American continent, having for its object piece and 
progress. 



364 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

15. The Composition of the Indian Union. In Tonti's Indian 
federation the Illinois predominated. To the number of six thousand 
they had gathered under the influence of his protection. Scattered 
along the valley and among the adjacent hills or over the neighboring 
prairie were the cantonments of a half score of other tribes and 
fragments of tribes, Shawnoes from the Ohio, Abenakis from Maine, 
]\liami from the sources of the Kankakee, besides Kickapoo, Weas, 
and others as appears from Franquelin's map of the colony made in 
1684. In a report made to the Minister of Marine in Paris it was 
stated that about four thousand warriors or 20,000 souls were gathered 
around the Fort. Such was the state within the boundaries of our 
present commonwealth that Tonti governed with the strictest justice 
for nearly twenty years. 

16. Life at the Fort. All the information we have concerning 
life at Fort St. Louis is contained in the letters of the missionaries 
who labored there or stopped in passing to confer with the genial 
governor from whom they always received a hearty welcome. During 
the twenty years that Tonti dwelt at the fort, he had frequently 
as his guests Fathers James Gravier, Julien Binateau, Frangois Pinet, 
and Gabriel ]\Iarest, Jesuits, and he was also visited by Abbe Jean 
Cavelier, Sulpitian, Father Anastatius Douay, Recollect, and Fathers 
Francois Jolliet Montigny, Father Frangois Buisson de Saint Cosme, 
and Father Anthony Davion of the Seminary of Foreign Missions, 
all of whom spoke in the highest terms of praise of the genial Italian 
governor and wrote letters in which more or less historical informa- 
tion is contained. The names of some of the prominent French laymen 
who were in and about the fort have come down to us, amongst whom 
m.ay be mentioned Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle, Henri de Tonti, 
Daniel Greysolon Du Lhut, Greysolon de la Tournette, Frangois de la 
Forest, Sieur Juchereau St. Denis, Frangois de Boisrondet, Michael 
Dizy, Pierre Chenet, Frangois Pachot, Frangois Hazeur, Louis le 
Vasseur, Pierre le Vasseur, Mathieu Marlin ,Frangois Charron, 
Jacques de Faes, Michael Guyon, Andrede Chalneau, Marie Joseph 
le Neuf, Michael de Grez, Phillipes Ensault, Jean Petit, Rene Fexeret, 
Riverin, Chanjon, D'Autrey, D'Artigny, La Chesnaye, Poisset, La 
Porte, Louvigny, De St. Castin. Descendents of several of these may 
be traced to other regions in the state. 

17. Fort St. Louis Described. Henry Joutel was an intelligent 
Frenchman who accompanied La Salle on the fatal trip to Texas, and 
who was in the party at the time La Salle was murdered. He was 
also with the party that made its way back to Fort St. Louis after 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS 365 

the murder, and being obliged to remain at the fort for several 
months on account of the cold winter weather, he employed his time 
in traveling about and obsrving the country, and later wrote a 
narrative which is very interesting. Referring to the fort, Joutel 
says "Fort St. Tjouis is in the country of the Illinois, and seated on 
a steep rock, about two hundred feet high, the river running at the 
bottom of it. It is only fortified with stakes and palisades and some 
houses advancing to the edge of the rock. It has a very spacious 
esplanade or place of arms. The place is naturally strong, and might 
be made so by art, with little expense. Several of the natives live in 
it, in their huts. I cannot give an account of the latitude it stands in, 
for want of proper instruments to take an observation, but nothing 
can be pleasanter and it may be truly affirmed that the country of 
the Illinois enjoys all that can make it accomplished, not only as to 
ornament, but also for its plentiful production of all things requisite 
for the support of human life." 

18. Tonti's Departiire, Subsequent Labors, and Death. The order 
of things was changing. In the death of La Salle Tonti lost a powerful 
friend, who had the faculty of easy approach to those in power. 
Through La Salle, too, Tonti had gained the strong support and 
friendship of Governor Frontenac, but Frontenac too was called to 
his reward. There was constant objections to the granting of monop- 
olies or placing restrictions upon the fur trade, as a result of which 
the trading post established at Fort St. Louis and Chicago, the 
privileges of which Tonti and La Forest enjoyed, were abandoned by 
the home government, and Tonti was directed to go to the Lower 
Mississippi while lia Forest v/as recalled to Canada. Obedient to in- 
structions Tonti joined D 'Iberville who was at the head of the 
French settlements, near the Gulf of Mexico and again distinguished 
himself both in the wars with the hostile Indians and in peace by 
prodigious labors in nursing the yellow fever victims in the settle- 
ment. It was in this work of mercy that the bold explorer, warrior, 
and leader lost his life. His was a noble career, and wholly un- 
requited. He has received scant credit through the centuries for the 
beneficent and important labors of his life. No layman connected with 
the history of Illinois deserves a higher place in the affections and 
recollections of succeeding generations than Henri Tonti. Like many 
another worthy forerunner, much of his beneficent work has been for- 
gotten and even his grave is unkno^vn. 

Joseph J. Thompson. 
Chicago. 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 



DOCTOR MELODY CALLED 
Right Reverend Monsipior John Webster Melody, D. D., a distinguished 
clergyman of the Archdiocese of Chicago and a widely known scholar, writer 
and educator, departed this life after a hrief but serious illness on March 7, 
1925. The officers and members of the Illinois Catholic Historical Society 
are especially grieved for that since the inception of the Society seven years 
ago Monsignor Melody has been a member of the Board of Directors and a 
firm friend and supporter of every activity of the Society. An extended 
obituary and appreciation will appear in the next number of the Illinois 
Catholic Historical Review. 



Is History Popular? — Attention is directed to two communications in this 
number of the Illinois Catholic Historical Eeview detailing miscellaneous 
historical information. The first, prepared and compiled by Mr. William 
Stetson Merrill, Associate Editor of the Eeview and Assistant Librarian of 
the Newberry Library, deals with historical notes found in the current 
magazines and the second by Miss Teresa L. Maher, an advanced and able 
teacher of the city schools of Joliet, gathering together the historical notes 
in the current press. 

We think these compilations must prove popular as they undoubtedly 
are very interesting. Mr. Merrill 's contributions have boon running through 
several numbers and we have had numerous comments and commendations 
with reference to them. The present is the first of Miss Maher 's offerings 
and the editor is so well pleased with it that he, by this means wishes to 
direct the readers' special attention. We feel that many of our readers 
could help materially by forwarding meritorious historical articles or valuable 
historical materials which could profitably find a place, in a modified form 
if necessary, in our columns. Co-operation of this character will be appre- 
ciated. 



The Church in Illinois Two Hundred and Fifty Years Old. — The eleventh 

of April, 1925, just past, was the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of 
the establishent of the Church in Illinois. On the 11th of April. 1675. Holy 
Thursday, Father James Marquette, S. J., by the authorization of his superiors, 
the Church and the* civil authorities, officially established the Catholic Church 
in the "Illinois Country," the name bestowed upon the large territory of 
which the various tribes of the Illinois confederation of Indians were the 
inhabitants. 

The exact place of the establishment was at what is now known as the 
city of Utica, on the Illinois Eiver, in what is now La Salle County, Illinois. 
At the time of the founding of the Church the place was the habitat of the 
Kaskaskia tribe of the Illinois Indians. 

On the occasion of a former journey through what is now the State 
of Illinois, during which Father Marquette, accompanied by Louis Jolliet and 
five Frenchmen, discovered the Mississippi River, floated down its course as 

366 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 367 

far asi the Arkansas, returned to the mouth of, and entered the Illinois river 
and paddled up that stream, he had visited the Indians at this same location 
and promised to return and established the Church amongst them. This first 
visit occurred during the month of August, 1673. 

The particular foundation established by Father Marquette was dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin and named "The Immaculate Conception." From this 
original establishment grew and developed all the branches and parishes of 
the territory which became the States of Illinois, Indiana. Missouri. Michigan 
and Wisconsin and in a relative manner all branches of the Church in all 
that vast territory of the United States between the Alleghenies and the 
Rocky Mountains. 

Though the Church is since far-flung and wide-spread, yet nevertheless 
the original foundation still stands. The site of the Marquette foundation 
remained at what is now TJtica until 1694 when it was removed down the 
Illinois River to what is nowi Peoriaj From there it was transplanted in 1700 
to a point seventy-five miles south of what became St. Louis, some twelve 
miles east of the Mississippi River to the new habitat of the Kaskaskia 
tribe of Indians. The new Indian settlement took its name from the Indian 
tribe and the river on which the settlement was made took also the name 
Kaskaskia. The original name of the foundation. Immaculate Conception, 
never changed, and the locus has remained near that chosen in 1700 to the 
present time, the change in the course of the Mississippi River compelling :\ 
relocation of the church buildings and grounds to a distance of a few miles. 

The Church of the Immaculate Conception, the Marquette Church, then, 
still stands, a creditable Gothic structure, fully adequate to the parish needs, 
in the northern part of Randolph County, Illinois. And what a record that 
foundation has made during its two hundred and fifty years of existence! 
To say nothing of all that has sprung from it and consider only what the 
parish records carefully preserved disclose it may truthfully be said that no 
church establishment in the United States presents a more interesting history. 

This writer is unable to tell if any notice or attention was given to 
the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Church in 
mid-America, which occurred on Easter Saturday, this year. He has heard 
of nothing. He has written more than one-hundred letters to bishops, priests 
and laymen, and published more than one hundred thousand words in advocacy 
of special observances of the great day, but all seem to have fallen upon 
deaf ears. Were it not a matter entirely within the province of the Church 
and churchmen he would have compelled notice of it as he has done of the 
anniversaries of Marquette's journeys. But in this matter he was powerless 
and his efforts were fruitless. 



NECROLOGY 

MARTIN H. GLYNN 

Former (lovernor Martin H. Glynn, an international as well as 
a national figure in the fields of journalism, law, government and 
politics, died unexpectedly at his home in Albany, N. Y., December 
14, 1924. People from all walks of life, all professions and all trades 
gave expression to their sense of loss as they paid their final honor 
to the man who had done so much to settle the ancient feud between 
Great Britain and Ireland, and who at the same time had contributed 
to the welfare of great groups of people while helping make American 
history. 

Mr. Glynn had returned to his home on the night before his 
death from a hospital in the suburbs of Boston where he had been 
under treatment for spinal trouble. He complained of great fatigue, 
arose late the next morning and almost immediately collapsed. Death 
due to heart disease, probably an outcome of the spinal disease and 
nervous ailments, came without Mr. Glynn's recovering consciousness. 

History will remember former Governor Glynn not only as an 
American editor and politician but also as the intermediary between 
Lloyd George and De Valera in the settlement of the Irish question. 
Mr. Glynn himself regarded his part in bringing the long-standing 
controversy between England and Ireland to an amicable conclusion 
to be the greatest accomplishment of his life, overshadowing every- 
thing that he had done in American public life. 

It was while Mr. Ghnin was abroad early in 1921 that he per- 
formed his services in aid of peace between Ireland and England. 
He gave the following account of his work in December, 1921, when 
he returned to his home in Albany : 

"My work in the matter," he said, "started in Rome in a meeting 
with Bishop Mannix of Australia and others. Bishop Mannix and I 
also were together in London and worked together there, Archbishop 
(now Cardinal) Hayes of New York did great work for the cause 
in Rome. Some day I will write the details of the mission but this 
is not the time. But this I will say: Through me, Lloyd George 
invited Mr. De Valera to come to London to try to settle the Irish 
question without 'exacting promises or making conditions.' He said 
that if Mr. De Valera would accept the invitation on these terms, 
the Irish question could be settled, not in one meeting, but in a 
series of meetings. Mr. De Valera accepted, and it turned out that 
Lloyd George was right. 

368 



NECROLOGY 369 

''The Prime Minister held that a series of conferences would lead 
to a settlement without Ireland going out of the Britisli Empire and 
yet taking her place among the nations of the world. Lloyd George 
told me that the ambition of his life was to settle the Irish question 
with the same pen with which he signed the armistice. England 
has done a generous thing and the Irish people through their leaders 
have won a glorious victory." 

Speaking of Lloyd George's part in the negotiations, Mr. Glynn 
said: 

' ' He kept every promise he sent to De Valera through me and the 
world owes Lloyd George a debt of gratitude for what he has done." 

When Lloyd George visited America after the war he paid this 
tribute to Mr. Glynn's part in the Irish negotiations in a speech at 
Albany on Oct. 6, 1923 : 

"Governor Glynn and I in a dingy room in London, the office 
of the Prime Minister, had most unusual conferences of momentous 
results. He told me very frankly how the Irish people viewed the 
feud of centuries and what they desired in the way of liberty; how 
the American people felt on the subject. And I told him, equally 
frankly, what I believed to be the purpose of Great Britain. 

''At the end of those interviews he took my views to the Irish 
leaders and he brought their hopes and aspirations, clarified, to me. 
Out of this exchange sprang the new Ireland, the Irish Free State. 

' ' The people of Albany — Governor Glynn 's townsmen — should feel 
highly honored, because no man did more to bring a settlement of 
the Irish question, no man did more to end the feud that had existed 
for seven hundred years, than your distinguished fellow-citizen, 
Martin H. Glynn. And I am glad to be in your city to bear testimony 
to you of the great help he brought to me." 

An editorial in the New York Times of Oct. 7, 1923, commenting 
on Mr, Lloyd George's tribute, spoke of Mr. Glynn in the following 
terms : 

"Without official position he did what no Ambassador could have 
done. His Irish lineage and sympathy helped him. His unusual 
acquaintance with Irish and English history equipped him to meet 
Englishmen and Irishmen alike. His knowledge of American senti- 
ment was particularly clarifying. And in the task of persuading 
those between whom a feud had existed for 700 years his gift of 
speech doubtless counted for much." 



370 NECROLOGY 

Mr. Glynn held that De Valera and the other extreme Sinn Feiners 
were wrong in holding out against the terms of the Irish Free State 
settlement, and urged the Irish people to support Michael Collins 
and Arthur Griffith in carrying out the settlement successfully. 

Mr. Glynn's "gift of speech," referred to in the editorial on 
the Irish settlement, made him an orator of national reputation. His 
greatest forensic feat was his keynote speech at the 1916 Democratic 
Convention in St. Louis, when Woodrow Wilson was renominated for 
the Presidency. Mr. Glynn was temporary chairman of the conven- 
tion. 

It was in this speech that Mr. Glynn originated the phrase "He 
kept us out of war, ' ' which many persons believe was responsible for 
the re-election of President "Wilson. Theodore Roosevelt was quoted 
as saying that Mr. Glynn 's speech was the most effective contribution 
to the literature of the campaign, and was the greatest single factor 
in Mr. Wilson's re-election. In the speech Mr. Glynn took an advanced 
position on pacifism, declaring that it was not the custom of the 
United States to go to war over provocations that admitted of an 
honorable settlement. He also argued, however, in favor of prepared- 
ness for war in case we should need to take up arms. 

Although he was Governor of New York State for only a little 
more than a year, filling out the unexpired term of the impeached 
Governor Sulzer and being defeated by Governor Whitman, Mr. 
Glynn was highly commended for the large amount of progressive 
legislation placed upon the statute books while he was in office. 

Governor Glynn gave New York State its first workmen's com- 
pensation act. His signature enacted the law providing for the estab- 
lishment of a land bank system to aid the farmers in financing the 
operation of their farms. The statute doing away with party con- 
ventions and providing for State-wide direct primaries was signed 
by him. Other important statutes that were enacted through .the 
recommendation of Governor Glynn were measures providing for the 
use of the Massachusetts form of ballot in New York the election of 
United States Senators directly by the people ; an optional city charter 
act ; appropriation of $217,000 to pay the farmers for diseased cattle 
destroyed; establishment of a market commission and a State em- 
ployment bureau which has agencies in various parts of the State 
and which aids many thousands of persons yearly to obtain employ- 
ment, and many other bills, including measures designed to promote 
the construction of highways in the State. 



NECROLOGY 371 

In his record as Governor, Mr. Glynn was as proud of his economy 
in managing the finances of the State, and of his common sense 
methods of administration, as of any of his acts. He maintained that 
he had saved the State $11,000,000 during his short term of office. 
His reform of the finances of the State, according to Francis Lynde 
Stetson, made him one of the four greatest Governors New York 
State had had up to that time. The others, according to Mr. Stetson, 
were Samuel J, Tilden for administrative reform. Grover Cleveland 
for civil service reform, and Charles E. Hughes for moral and electoral 
reform. 

President Wilson, Samuel Gompers and Nathan Strauss were 
among the leading public men who paid tribute to Mr. Glynn's record 
as Governor. Governor Glynn embodied, according to President Wil- 
son, ''the cause of progressive legislation and the advancement at 
every point of the interests of the people." Samuel Gompers, whose 
death preceded Mr. Glynn's by only two days, said that Governor 
Glynn had enacted "the best workmen's compensation law on the 
statute books of any State in the United States or of any country 
in the world." 

Nathan Straus said that Governor Glynn in his short term of 
office had secured "constructive legislation that places our State in 
the front rank of progressive States. ' ' Mr. Straus particularly praised 
him for his success in getting the Legislature to pass the direct 
primary law. 

As a Democratic Governor and a Catholic, Mr. Glynn was sub- 
jected to the same kind of attack by his Republican opponents as 
was Governor Smith in the recent campaign. It was charged that 
Governor Glynn, although he came from up-State, was dominated 
by Tammany Hall, and that he was under the influence of the Catholic 
Church in matters of public interest, especially the schools. He denied 
both these charges most emphatically, declaring that he was his own 
master, that he was not a Tammany man, that he was opposed to any 
church interfering with the State and that he was against the use 
of State money for religious schools. 

The attack on Governor Glynn as Tammany-controlled was partly 
caused by the circumstances under which he became Governor. He 
had been elected Lieutenant Governor under Governor Sulzer in 
1912, having been nominated by the Democratic Party and William 
R. Hearst's Independen,ce League and having defeated James W. 
Wadsworth, Republican candidate for Lieutenant Governor and now 
United States Senator. When Governor Sulzer was impeached, many 



372 NECROLOGY 

persons believed that he had been humiliated because he had refused 
to bow to the will of Charles F. ]\Iurphy, and that Mr. Glynn, who 
automatically became Governor, would be more tractable. Subse- 
quent events, however, proved that Governor Glynn was never under 
the Tammany leader's thumb. Otherwise he would hardly have been 
endorsed for Governor in 1914 or made temporary Chairman of the 
National Convention in 1916 by President Wilson, who had little love 
for Murphy. Mr. Wilson made him a member of the President's In- 
dustrial Commission in 1919. 

Before he became Lieutenant Governor and then Governor, Mr. 
Glynn had made an excellent record as Controller of New York State 
and as a member of the United States Congress. He was nominated 
for Controller in 1906 by the Democratic Party and the Independence 
League, and defeated Morton E. Lewis of Rochester. 

During the panic of 1907 Mr. Glynn displayed great executive 
and financial ability as Controller. New York State had $22,000,000 
in banks and trust companies at that time. The Controller personally 
took charge of the situation and protected the State against loss of 
a single dollar. When he became Controller he had compelled all 
State depositories to give surety company bonds instead of personal 
bonds to protect the State funds. In this panic this change proved 
most effective. Banks in which were deposited some $800,000 of State 
money closed their doors, yet every cent of that sum was paid into 
the State Treasury within sixty days. 

Mr. Glynn's election to Congress occurred in 1898 from the 
Twentieth Congressional District (Albany) and he served until 1901. 
He was only 25 years old at the time of his election. His record in 
Congress was officially commended by the National Association of 
Letter Carriers, the National Encampment of the Grand Army of 
the Republic, the Patrons of Husbandry of New York State and 
several labor organizations. He was appointed by President McKinley 
in 1901 as a member of the National Commission of the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition. 

His entry into public life resulted from an interest in politics 
inculcated in him by newspaper work. Born in Kinderhook, near 
Albany, on September 27, 1871, he received his early education in 
the public schools, was graduated from St. John's College, Fordham, 
in 1894, and became a reporter on the Albany Times-Union. Study- 
ing law between times, he was admitted to the bar, but never prac- 
ticed law to any extent. He became managing editor of the Albany 



NECROLOGY 373 

Times-Union in 1895, and later became editor and owner of that 
newspaper. He sold the paper last April to Mr. Hearst, but re- 
mained as editor and publisher. 

Except for illness, Mr. Glynn might have nominated Governor 
Smith for the Presidency in the Democratic National Convention last 
June. He underwent an operation for the removal of his tonsils, 
however, shortly before the convention, 

Mr. Glynn married Mary C. E. Magrane, daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. P. B. Magrane of Lynn, Mass., in 1901. They had no children. 
The funeral services took place on Dqcember 17th at the home and 
in the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception. Martin H. Glynn 
died as he had lived, a consistent and conscientious Catholic. 

Kaelin King, M. A. 



BOOK REVIEV\/S 

The Rockford Diocese in History. — The diocese of Rockford is 
the youngest diocese in the State of Illinois. It was erected Septem- 
ber 23, 1908 and Right Rev. Peter James Muldoon, D. D., was 
appointed the first bishop. This distinguished prelate still presides 
over the diocese which has made wonderful strides. 

The diocese has a Catholic population of about sixty-five thou- 
sand, about one hundred and thirty resident priests, nearly eight 
thousand students in its educational institutions, eight hospitals, 
two homes for the aged and one orphan asylum. It comprises the 
counties of Jo Daviess, Stephenson, Winnebago, Boone, McHenry, 
Carroll, Ogle, DeKalb, Kane, Whiteside, Lee and Kendall and covers 
a territory 6,867 square miles. 

Reverend Cornelius J. Kirkfleet, Ord. Praem, one of the dis- 
tinguished pastors of the diocese is the author of the History of 
the Diocese of Rockford, and the John Anderson Publishing Com- 
pany, 511 North Peoria Street, Chicago, is the publisher. 

Father Kirkfleet has several other historical and biographical 
works to his credit and displays a satisfying familiarity with history 
writing. The five hundred pages of the well-printed book are re- 
plete Avith interest and one could wish that the history of each 
diocese throughout the jurisdiction of the Church could be so well 
detailed. What a splendid general history of the Church could be 
prepared from such mines of source material. 

There were many good subjects for the writer of this history. 
To begin with the spiritual head of the diocese, Bishop Muldoon, 
is one of the most distinguished prelates in America and has been 
an actor and leader in many of the most important events and move- 
ments of his time. Again, the late war focused attention upon the 
Rockford diocese especially by reason of the fact that Camp Grant, 
almost the greatest of the World War cantonments, was located 
here and near the episcopal city. To the thousands of service men 
congregated at Camp Grant and to the other thousands of visitors 
Bishop Muldoon was the unofficial but much beloved father of the 
camp, and his priests and people Avere, the guides, philosophers and 
friends of the boys and their people. 

Father Kirkfleet tells all this in a most pleasing way and much 
more. The bishop, the priests, the people, Protestant as Avell as 
Catholic, pass in review before the reader and one finishes reading 

374 



BOOK REVIEWS 375 

the book with satisfaction and gratitude that another excellent 
record has been preserved. 

Fifteen Hundred Years of Europe. — The above is the title of a 
new book of some six hundred pages just issued by the O'Donnell 
Press of (Chicago and we feel safe in saying one of the best made 
books coming from the press in recent years. 

We are sure that not many readers of the present day have 
read or seen many books like this one. It cannot be said that it 
follows ancient or modern styles or even that it fits in between. 
One would at once recognize that it was written by an author who 
thought in some other language and wrote in the English. While 
the book concerns itself with history one must constantly keep re- 
minding himself that he is studying history or he may think he is 
dealing with philosophy or psychology or maybe romance. 

An inability on the part of most of us to square this work with 
straight history or at once to grasp the plan or sequence detract 
nothing from the merit of the book. These difficulties but call 
for an acuter perception and a deeper study, which will be rewarded 
if diligently pursued. 

The author of the book is Rev. Julius E. De Vos, a distinguished 
clergyman and scholar of the Archdiocese of Chicago. It is the 
product of half a lifetime of study and research and will be amongst 
the collection of publications of permanent worth. For interesting 
information it will rank with such works as "Wells' Outline of 
History," Van Loon's "Story of Man," and other works of that 
nature, but will be found free of the foolish philosophy, so called, 
which disfigures these works. 

"Fifteen Hundred Years of Europe" should find a place in 
every collection of valuable books. 

The Church in Virginia (1815-1822).— By the Rev. Peter Guilday, 
Docteur es sciences morales et historiques (Louvain), Professor Church 
History, Catholic University of America, President, American Cath- 
olic Historical Society, Philadelphia. 

Doctor Guilday, the Dean of Catholic historians in America, has 
fully sustained his character for accuracy and exhaustiveness in the 
preparation of his late work, The Church in Virginia, (1815-1822.) 

The record of these seven years is a painful one and most dis- 
tressing for the Church. It is, as set down by Doctor Guilday, the 



376 BOOK REVIEWS 

complete story of the "trustee system" which had such a baneful 
effect in the early days, and at the same time a demonstration of 
Ihc virility of tlio Church which survived and eventually flourished 
in spite of the assaults from within upon its very existence. 

Most of the source material used by Doctor Guilday is for the 
first time brought to light and the student of history revels in the 
wealth of original documents woven into the narrative by the author. 

Cfeneral history has profited much by Doctor Guilday 's "Intro- 
duction," Avhich occupies, with copious foot notes, thirty-five of the 
more tlian two hundred pages of the book. It is in the "Introduc- 
tion" that Doctor Guilday details the "emancipation" ot the Church. 
Under colonial laws the Catholics and the Catholic Church were 
practically proscribed in all the colonies. The Declarations of 
freedom and of rights abolished religious discrimination and the 
declaration of Virginia in the Convention of 1776, proposed by 
Patrick Henry and set forth in George Mason's Bill of Rights, quoted 
by the author is refreshing after the decades of intolerance and 
bigotry. It read: "The fullest toleration in the exercise of religion, 
according to the dictates of conscience, unpunished and unrestrained 
by the magistrate; unless under color of religion any man disturb 
the peace, happiness or safety of society." 

It was a provision of the disestablishment of religion, however, 
that brought about the baneful "trustee system." The Virginia 
constitution when adopted prohibited absolutely the grant of any 
"charter of incorporation .... to any church or religious de- 
nomination," thus practically forcing the churches to hold their 
property by trustees. 

This splendid publication is a virtual digression or bypath from 
Doctor Guilday 's monumental "Life and Times of John Carroll." 
To include it in his larger work would lead him too far afield, but 
to fail to publish the immensely important matter that was so inti- 
mately connected with the early history of the Church in the days 
of Bishop Carroll and those immediately following would have left 
an awkward situation to say the least. Now, thanks to this pains- 
taking and indefatigable author we have the last word on both these 
important topics. 

The Jesuits in New Orleans and the Mississippi Valley. — By 
courtesy of Hon. W. 0. Hart, a distinguished non-Catholic lawyer 
and scholar of New Orleans, the editor of the Illinois Catholic 
Historical Review is in receipt of two copies of the valuable book 



BOOK REVIEWS 377 

entitled as above, one for the Illinois Catholic Historical Society 
and one for the editor. 

Rev. Albert Hubert Bivier, S. J., is the author and the work 
bears the imprimatur, "John W. Shav/, Archbishop of New Orleans," 
and the imprimi potest, "E. Cummings, S. J., Praep. Prov. Neo. 
Aurel. ' ' 

The autlior says that "the scholastic year 1923-1924: is a notable 
one in the life of the Society of Jesus in Louisiana. It recalls the 
250ih anniversary of the discovery of the Mississipi)i by Father James 
Marquette, S. J., the bicentenary of the founding of the first mission 
of the Jesuits in Louisiana, the 160th anniversary of their expulsion 
from Colonial France, the centcnnary of their return to the Missis- 
sippi, the Diamond Jubilee of the beginning of the Church and 
College of the Immaculate Conception in New Orleans, the 50th 
Anniversary of the enthroning of the historic statue of the Immacu- 
late Virgin along with the erection of the glorious bronze altar in 
the church and the twentieth anniversary^ of founding of Loyola. 
"Such a striking array of anniversaries, it appeared to me," says 
Father Bivier, "deserved some notice. . Hence this humble and un- 
pretentious sketch of the lives of these heroic missionaries, who suffered 
and died to spread the kingdom of Christ on the banks of the world 's 
greatest river named by Marquette, "The Immaculate Conception." 

And so the author proceeds through 175 neatly printed pages to 
tell the story of the Jesuits in New Orleans and the Mississippi Valley 
in a very interesting manner. Everyone fortunate enough to have 
the opportunity will profit by reading Father Bivier 's book. 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT 
PERIODICALS 

Louisiana Historical Material. — The Newberry Library has re- 
cently acquired a complete set of the Louisiana Historical Quarterly 
from January, 1917, to date. In looking through the volumes one 
comes upon much material dealing with the Spanish and French 
period of Louisiana history, which is of especial interest to Catholic 
historical students. 

' ' Bernardo de Galves ' diary of the operations against Pensacola, ' ' 
translated from a pamphlet belonging to Mr. Gaspar Cusacks, is 
printed in volume one. "On October 16, 1780, General Bernardo 
de Galvez led the Spanish forces against Pensacola. The expedition 
resulted in the defeat of the English arms which furnishes Louisiana 
history with her claim of participating in the American Revolution." 
An early but remarkably comprehensive bibliography of works relat- 
ing to Florida and early Louisiana by A. L. Boimare, published in 
full in the same volume, includes one hundred and ninety titles, 
accompanied by notes in French written by the author. This list was 
prepared in 1853 by Boimare while librarian at New Orleans. 

"Contest for Ecclesiastical Supremacy in the Valley of the Mis- 
sissippi, 1763-1803," by Clarence W. Bispham of the Louisiana His- 
torical Society is a rather hectic treatment of the rival activities of 
the Jesuits and the Capuchins in that part of New France. It 
professes to be based upon original documents calendared in the 
Carnegie Institution 's ' ' Guide to the Materials for American History 
in Roman and Other Italian Archives." The Catholic student may 
make sober use of the material here brought together without neces- 
sarily accepting the editor's somewhat lurid narratives of events, 
some of which he claims to have been "shrouded in mystery." The 
Catholic Encyclopedia, commenting upon what a Louisiana historian, 
Gayarre, calls "The War of the Capuchins and the Jesuits," says: 
"The archives of the diocese, as also the records of the Capuchins 
in Louisiana show that it was simply a question of jurisdiction which 
gave rise to a discussion so petty as to be unworthy of notice." 

"The Ursulines of Louisiana" is an address at the centennial by 
the corresponding secretary of the Society, Mrs. Heloise Hulse 
Cruzat; "the share women took in its establishment," she calls it. 
A translation is given of the treaty of the Company of the Indies 
with the Ursulines, September 13, 1726. Passages are quoted from 

378 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 379 

contemporary letters describing the early life of the Community. 
Clarence W. Bispham, in his paper on "Fray Antonio de Sedella, " 
(Jan. 1919) reviews Dr. Shea's adverse judgment upon the character 
of this early vicar-general of Louisiana, as Shea gives it in his 
"Plistory of the Catholic Church in the United States," vol. 2. "If 
Shea was right," he says, "then the people of New Orleans were all 
wrong, and their loves and admiration for this venerable priest were 
misplaced." "A History of the Foundation of New Orleans (1717- 
1722)," a complete work by Baron Marc de Villiers, appears in the 
April, 1920, issue, translated from the French by Warrington Dawson. 

"The Founding of Biloxi" is the title of an address by Andre 
Lafargue printed in the October, 1920, number. Biloxi, founded in 
1699, "was the first white settlement effected in territory named 
after the Great Louis," and is associated with the names of Iberville 
and his brother Bienville. 

"One of the items eagerly sought by collectors of printed matter 
concerning the history of Louisiana is the report made by Charles 
Gayarre, Secretary of State of Louisiana, to the Legislature of 1850, ' ' 
writes Henry P. Dart in the October, 1921, issue, "covering his 
official effort to obtain copies of Spanish documents of an historical 
nature regarding Louisiana during the period of Spanish dominion. 
This has been long out of print and is practically inaccessible." The 
Report is reprinted in the same number. 

"Records of the Superior Court of Louisiana," "Index to the 
Spanish Judicial Records of Louisiana," "Cabildo Archives," are 
the titles of three series of documentary material of interest to the 
student of Louisiana history, which have been appearing in in- 
stallments in successive issues of this quarterly. The Society seems 
to be animated with the spirit of loyal interest in the history of the 
lower Mississippi Valley and with a desire to present the results 
of scholarly research with impartiality. 

The Acadians. — "Notes on the Fate of the Acadians," by C. E. 
Lart, which appears in the Canadian Historical Review for June, 
1924, contains extracts from various unpublished documents in 
French and Canadian archives relating to the removal of the French 
inhabitants of Acadia in 1755. A "Memoire sur les Acadians ou 
FranQois Neutres" recounts (in French) their story as follows: 

"The French neutrals were settled on the River Annapolis where 
they formed a population of about 3,000 families. They were ceded 



380 GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 

to the English by the Treaty of Utrecht and kept their churches, 
their priests, and the free exercise of their religion. Surrounded by 
English they persevered in an inviolable attachment to French and 
to their religion and this was the cause of their ruin and of all the 
misfortunes which they suffered from that time. They refused to 
take the oath required of them because this oath attacked their 
religion. The English treated them as seditious and availed them- 
selves of this pretext to inflict upon a people whose attachment to 
their country and to their religion was their only crime, cruelties 
for which humanity blushes." A circular letter from the Governor 
of Nova Scotia, dated August 11, 1755, recites ''the refusal of the 
inhabitants to take the oath of allegiance within one year from the 
Treaty of Utrecht; the fact that they pretended neutrality but con- 
tinually furnished French and Indians with intelligence, quarters, 
provisions, and assistance in annoying the government.'- Such were 
the "two sides" to this question. One is tempted to blame King 
Henry VIH as ultimately responsible for the sorrows of "Evange- 
line." The distribution of the Acadians among the American Colo- 
nies is better known than the fortunes of parties that were settled 
in France on