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Full text of "Illinois monuments at Gettysburg"

ILLINOIS MONUMENTS 



AT 



GETTYSBURG 



COMMISSIONERS: 



JOHN L. BEVERIDGE, 
DAVID P,. VAUGHAN, 
JOSEPH B. GKEENHITT. 



1891 



SPRINGFIELD, ILL. 
H. W. EoKKEK, State Printer and Binder. 

1892. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



Chicago, December 1, 1891. 

Hon. Joseph W. Fifer, Governor of Illinois: 

Sir — The commissioners appointed by Tour Excellency pur- 
suant to an act entitled "An act to appropriate six thousand 
dollars to erect a mark on Gettysburg' battle-field where the 
Illinois troops opened the enp;ag-ement of said battle," respect- 
fully submit herewith their report. 

Yours very truly, 

John L. Beveridge, 
David B. Vaughan, 
Joseph B. Greenhut, 

Commissi onei's. 






^ 



EEPORT OF COMMISSIONERS. 



LEGISLATION AND COMMISSION. 

The Thirty-sixth General Assembly of the State of Illinois 
enacted as follows: 

"An act to appropriate six thousand dollars to erect a mark on the 
Gettysburg battle-fleld where the Illinois troops opened the engagement 
of said battle." 

Whereas, All the loyal states of the Union having had troops engaged 
in that memorable battle have made liberal appropriations to erect suitable 
marks where their troops were engaged, and 

Whereas, The 8th Illinois cavalry, commanded by Major John L. 
Beveridge, opened the engagement on that memorable field, and the 12th 
Illinois cavalry commanded by Capt. George W. Shears, and the 82d 
Illinois infantry, commanded by Lieut. Col. Edward S. Solomon, par- 
ticipated in said engagement, and all were conspicuous for their bravery 
in winning the grand and decisive victory of the late war, therefore 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois, represented in 
the General Assembly, That the sum of six thousand (|6,000) dollars is hereby 
appropriated to procure and erect a suitable mark upon the spot where 
the Illinois troops opened the battle of Gettysburg, and that the Governor 
is hereby authorized to appoint three (3) commissioners, one present on 
the field of battle from each command, who shall procure and have erected 
said mark at a cost not to exceed the appropriation hereby made, and 
that such commissioners serve without pay. 

Section 2. The Auditor of Public Accounts is hereby authorized and 
directed to draw his warrant upon the Treasurer for the sum herein speci- 
fied to said commissioners when appointed upon presentation of the proper 
authority from the Governor for the same, and the State Treasurer shall 
pay the same out of any funds in the State treasury not otherwise ap- 
propriated." 

Approved May 29, 1889. In force July 1, 1889. 

Under and by virtne of this act, on July 9, 1889, the Governor 
appointed commissioners, John L. Beveridfre. of Cook county, 
late major of the 8th Illinois cavalry; David B. Vaughan, of 
Kankakee county, late sergeant of 12th Illinois cavalry; Joseph 
B. Greenhut, of Peoria county, late captain of 82d Illinois in- 
fantry. 

ORGANIZATION AND AVOEK OF COMMISSION. 

The commissioners met in Chicago, October 2, 1889, and or- 
ganized by electing John L. Beveridge, chairman, and Joseph 
B. Greenhut, secretary and treasurer. They set aside five thousand 



c 

dollars (f5,000) for the erection of a monument, leaving 
one thousand dollars (f 1,000) for contingent expenses. To each 
regiment was assigned one face of the monument for regimental 
inscrii)tions, and the fourth and front face was reserved for 
geneial inscrii)tions. Each member of the commssion was au- 
thorized to invite designs to be presented by December 1, 188f?. 
At a meeting of the commissioners December 14, 1889, several 
designs were ])resented. After inspection of the same and con- 
sideration of their merits, the commissioners decided to defer 
further action until they had visited the battle-field at (iettys- 
burg. 

This visit was made in June, 1890. The object of the visit 
was to acquaint themselves with the purposes and plans of the 
Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Association and the character 
of the monumental architecture of the battle-field, and to select 
a site for the Illinois monument. 

In riding over the battle-field, the commissioners found that 
all the loyal states, except West Virginia and Illinois, had 
erected monuments in honor of their troops. These monuments 
number now over three hundred (300). Most of them are plain 
in character, marking the spot where the regiment stood in line 
of battle. The plaiT of the Memorial Association is to com- 
memorate victoi-y and to honor the victors, living and dead, 
and by the monuments, their location and inscriptions, to trace 
the lines of battle and render the field historic. 

The preamble of the act assumes that the 8th lUinois cavalry 
opened the engagement, and the act contem])lates the erection 
of one monument to mark the s])ot where the battle was 
opened. 

It was impossible to follow strictly the act of the legislature 
and conform to the rules of the Memorial Association and the 
facts of instory. The question arose, "Where was the battle 
opened? On the picket line or on the battle line?"' If on the 
picket line, and the monument was ere(;ted on this line, it would 
be two miles beyond the lands of the Memorial Association; 
if on the battle line, the 8th and 12tli Illinois cavalry occu])ied 
the same line and both had part in o])ening the engagement. 

The commissioners thei*efore, at a meeting held June 3, 1890, 
at Gettysburg, considering it would be more in accordance with 
the ])lans of the Memorial Association and the historical facts, 
and believing it would be more satisfactory to the survivors of 
the three i-egiments and to the ])e()ple of the State of Illinois, 
resolved to erect three monuments, one for each regiment, to 
mark the s{)ot where it stood in the line of battle on the morn- 
ing of July 1, 18G3. 

This action of the comndssioners has been fully ai)])rove(I In- 
all the survivoi-s of the three regiments and llliiioisans who 
have visited the battle-field. 



The Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Association is the owner 
of over five hundred (500) acres of land and has been to great 
expense in the purchase, care and improvement of the same. 
The states erectino- monuments have borne a part of this ex- 
pense for the privilege of erecting monuments on the lands of 
the Association. For this privilege the commissioners contrib- 
uted the sum of six hundred dollars ($600), believing it to be a 
legitimate expense in the erection of the monuments. 

The State of New York had erected a monument for the 8th 
New York cavalry regiment on the ground occupied by the 8th 
Illinois cavalry regiment in the first line of battle on the morn- 
ing of July 1, 1863. After a lengthy correspondence with the 
Memorial Association, the New York Monumental Commission 
and the 8th New York Cavalry Veteran Association, it was ar- 
ranged to remove the 8th New York cavalry monument, and 
to place the 8tli Illinois cavalry monument on the foundation 
of the former. The risk and expense of this removal was under- 
taken by the Memorial Association, and the expense of putting 
in a new foundation for the 8th New York monument was as- 
sumed by the Illinois commission. This additional expense was 
necessary and justifiable in order to obtain the true position of 
the 8th Illinois cavalry monument on the battle-field. 

At a meeting of the commissioners held in Chicago, October 
11, 1890, the following resolution was adopted: 

Besolved, That the commissioners approve of tlie designs of tlie Smitli 
Granite Company for monuments for the 8th and 12th Illinois cavalry 
regiments, and the design of Triebel & Sons for the 82d Illinois Infantry 
raiment, to be erected on the Gettysburg battle-field, and that we accept 
the bid of the Smith Granite Company to erect said monuments for the 
8th and 12th Illinois cavalry regiments, and the bid of Triebel & Sons to 
erect the monument for the 82d Illinois infantry regiment, according to 
the designs and specifications furnished, and that the commissioners enter 
into a proper contract for the erection and completion of the same: the 
monuments, with inscriptions, to cost not to exceed $1,500 each, and to be 
placed at such points on the ground of the Gettysburg Battle-field 
Memorial Association as may liereafter be designated. Said monuments 
are to be erected and fully completed by June 1, 1891. 

COKTRACT WITH THE SMITH GRANITE COMPANY. 

This memorandum of an agreement, made at Chicago, Illinois, this 11th 
day of October, 1890, between the Smith Granite Co., of Westerly, R. I., 
a corporation created under the laws of the State of Rliode Island, and 
Messrs. John L. Beveridge, D. B. Vaughan and J. B. Greenhut, Commis- 
sioners of Illinois, 

Witnessetli : The said Smith Granite Co. agrees to furnish and set com- 
plete, upon foundation provided by said Smith Granite Co., in Gettys- 
burg Battle-fleld Memorial Association grounds, in plot selected for tliat 
purpose, two memorials of blue Westerly granite, in accordance with de- 
signs 8tli and 12th Illinois of the Smith Granite Co.'s collection, as per 
design and specifications attached hereto, and which forms a part of this 
agreement, the general dimensions of the same being — tlie 8th : 4 feet 10 
inches x 3 feet 2 inches x 8 feet 1 inch high. The 12th: i feet inches 
X 2 feet inches x 10 feet inches high. Polished panel front and rear 
of each witli Y sunk letters — the inscription to be furnished by commis- 



sion and approved by them before being cut. Photos of models of saddle 
and bronze to be submitted to commission for approval before being cut 
or cast. 

All material and worlcmanship to be of the best quality, ten steel cut, 
and to be completed on or about June 1st, 1891. For more definite de- 
scription see specifications accompanying this contract. 

And in consideration of the faithful performance of the foregoing the 
said Messrs. Beveridge, \'aughan and Greenhut hereby agree to pay to the 
order of the said Smith Granite Co. the sum of three thousand (S3,000) 
dollars on completion of the work, and on the presentation of this con- 
tract. 

The Smith Granite Co., by R. A. Young. 

John L. Beveridge, i 

D. B. Yaughan, > Commissioners for Illinois. 

J. B. Greenhut, ) 

SPECIFICATIONS OF MATERIAL AND WORKMANSHIP 

required for the erection of "Granite Memorials" to be erected in the 
Gettvsburg Battle-field Memorial Association grounds at Gettysburg, Pa., 
upon plot of ground designated for that purpose, "To honor the memory 
of those who gave their lives for their country, July 1st, 2d. 3d, 1863. "" 
The whole to be erected in accordance with drawings prepared by the 
Smith Granite Co., of Westerly, R. I. 

FOUNDATION. 

All excavations shall be made to a depth of six (()) feet, unless rock 
bottom shall be reached, in which case it shall start from that. The 
foundation shall be made of good hard stone and Portland cement laid in 
a substantial manner. It shall be built plumb and straight, and to a 
proper height to receive the monument. 

GRANITE. 

The granite shall be the best "Blue Westerly," even in color, and equal 
to the sample submitted. The cut work shall be good ten (10) steel, all 
I'cds shall be full and the joints filled with wedge lead, driven into same 
making them impervious to water. 

PEDESTAL. 

The pedestal of the 8th Illinois will consist of three (3) pieces of granite 
of the following general dimensions: 4 feet 10 inches x 3 feet 2 inches, 
X 8 feet 1 inch high. The 12th Illinois will be of one piece, general di- 
mensions: -4 feet inches x 2 feet inches x 10 feet inches. Two sides 
of die of each will be polished for lettering in V sunk letters, to be 
selected and approved by committee. 

On 8th will appear above die, in raised polished letters, "8th Illinois 
Cavalry," on front of gable to cap, in bronze. State coat of arms and regu- 
lation sabre, the cap to be surmounted by regulation army saddle cut in 
granite. 

On 12th will appear above polished panel, in large V sunk letters, '•12th 
Illinois Cavalrv, Isi Brig. 1st Div. Cav. Corps,"' above that, in bronze, 
State coat of arms and regulation saber. The cap to be surmounted by 
regulation army saddle, cut in granite. 

15ROXZE. 

The bronze will be U. S. standard bronze, models of which, with models 
of saddle, will be submitted to committee for approval, before being cast 
or cut. 



ROCK WORK. 



The rock work will be broken in such a manner that when completed 
the whole will produce a work of art. 



C03rPLBTI0N. 



When completed, all dirt and rubbish shall be carted away from the 
lot, and the same left in good order. 

IN GENERAL. 

These specifications and plans accompanying, are intended to call for a 
first-class piece of work in every particular. 

The material used, and all work, to be done to the entire satisfaction 
and acceptance of commissioners appointed for that purpose. 

COKTRACT WITH TRIEBEL & SONS. 

This memorandum of an agreement, made at Chicago, Illinois, this 11th 
day of October, 1890, between Triebel & Sons, of Peoria, 111., and Messrs. 
John L. BeA'eridge, t). B. Vaughan and J. B. Greenhut, Commissioners of 
Illinois, 

Witnesseth: That said Triebel »fc Sons agree to furnish and set com- 
plete, upon foundation provided by said Triebel & Sons in Gettysburg 
Battle-field Memorial Association grounds, in plot selected for that pur- 
pose, one (1) memorial of blue Westerly granite in accordance with design 
82d Illinois infantry and specifications attached hereto and which forms 
a part of this agreement, the general dimensions of the same being 5x5x 
12ft 6 in. high. 

The inscription to be furnished by commissioners and approved by them 
before being cut. Photo of model of State coat-of-arms to be submitted 
to the commissioners for approval before being cast. 

All material and workmanship to be of the best quality, ten (10) steel 
cut, and to be completed on or about .June 1st, 1891. For more definite 
description see specifications accompanying this contract. 

And in consideration of the faithful performance of the foregoing, the 
said Messrs. Beveridge, Vaughan and Greenhut, commissioners, hereby 
agree to pay to the order of the said Triebel & Sons the sum of one 
thousand five hundred dollars ($1,500) on completion of the work and on 
presentation of this contract. 

Triebel & Sons. 

John L. Beveridge, 
D. B. Vaughan, 
J. B. Greenhut, 

Commissioners for Illinois. 

specifications of material and workmanship 

Eequired in the erection of a granite memorial, to be erected in the 
Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Association grounds at Gettysburg, Pa., 
upon plot of ground designated for that purpose, "To the memory of those 
wlio gave their lives for their country, July 1st, 2d, 3d, 1863.'" 

The wliole to be erected in accordance with drawings prepared by 
Triebel & Sons, of Peoria, Illinois. 



10 

FOUNDATION. 

All excavations to be made to a depth of six ((>) feet, unless rock bottom 
shall l)C reached, in which case it shall start from that. The foundation 
shall be made of ^^ood hard stone and Portland cement, laid in a sub- 
stantial manner. It shall be built phimli and straight and to a proper 
height to receive the monument. 

GRANITE. 

The granite shall be the "Blue Westerlis"' even in color, and equal to 
the sample submitted. The cut work shall be good ten (10) steel. All 
beds shall be full and the joints filled with wedge lead, driven into the 
same, making them impervious to water. 

PEDESTAL. 

The pedestal of the 82d will consist of four (4) pieces, general dimen- 
sions 5x5x12 ft. 6 in., all line ten (10) steel cut work. The column to be 
carved with laurel wreath and palm branch, under this the corps badge 
"Crescent". The die to have State coat-of-arms and inscription as fur- 
nished and approved by the commissioners. 

BRONZE. 

The bronze, "State coat-of-arms" to be U. S. standard bronze, model 
of which will be submitted to committee for approval before being cast. 

COMPLETION. 

When completed all dirt and rubbish shall be carted away from the 
lot, and the same left in good order. 

IN GENERAL. 

These specifications and plans accompanying, arc intended to call for a 
lirst-class piece of work in every particular. 

The material used, and all work to be done to the entire satisfaction 
and acceptance of commissioners appointed for that purpose." 

The monuments have been constructed in accordance with 
afore.said contracts and si)ecifications. and have been accepted 
and paid for b^- tlio commissioners. 



11 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 
JOSEPH B. GREENHUT, Teeasueek. 



In Account with the State of Illinois. 



18'J1. 
June 



June 19 



Nov. 



To amount, of appropriation. 



July 
Aug. 


24 
26 
26 


Sept, 


3 


" 


4 


" 


15 


" 


15 


Oct. 


23 


" 


23 



CONTEA. 

By cash to Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial 
Association for priviledge of erecting monu- 
ments on its grounds 

By expense of John L. Beveridge 

By expense of David B . Vaughan 

By expense of Joseph B. Greenhut 

in visiting Gettysburg to select a site for 
monument and attending .t>undry meetings of 
commissioners. 

By expense of dedication to W. M. Taylor, plat- 
form and band 

To T. Zeiglei-, carriages 

By cash to Triebel & Sonfor82d 111. monument, 

as per contract. 

By cash for sodding 



By cash to Smith Granite Co.. 8th and 12th 111, 
monuments, as per contract 

By cash cost of new foundation for 8th N. Y, 
Cav. monument removed 



%0 00 
75 00 


11,500 00 
8 00 


13,000 00 
252 75 



By cash, N. G. Wilson's bill for grading and 
sodding 8th and 12th 111. and 8th N. Y. monu- 
ments 

Expense of John L. ISeveridge 

Expense of David B. Vaughan 

Expense of Joseph B. Greenhut 

to Gettysburg to accept and dedicate the 
monuments. 

Expense of Commissioners' Report 



Dr. 

f(;.ooo 00 



86,000 00 



$600 00 
60 00 
73 40 
70 00 



135 00 



1,508 00 



3.252 75 



21 00 
42 50 
45 00 
47 50 



144 85 
S6,000 00 



THE MONUMENTS. 



The 8tli Illinois cavalry monument is situated west of Get- 
tysburg, on the first ridge west of Seminary Ridge, south of 
Chambersburg pike, on the east side of Reynold's avenue facing 
west, about midway between the pike and Reynold's grove, 
formerly known as McPherson's woods, very near the center 
of the line of battle of the 8th Illinois cavalrv on the morning 
of July 1, 18(d3. 

It is 8 feet 1 inch high and consists of three pieces of granite ; 
a base 4 feet 10 inches x 3 feet 2 inches x 1 foot high ; a die or 
solid block 3 feet 10 inches x 2 feet 2 inches x 4 feet 7 inches 
high, and a cap 4 feet 3 inches x 3 feet 8 inches running to a 
peak 2 feet 4 inches high, surmounted by a regulation cavalry 
saddle complete, with an army blanket rolled and buckled over 
the pommel and one over the rear of the saddle, all being a 
part of the cap stone. 



12 

On the front gable of the cap, in bronze, is the coat-of-arms 
of the State of Illinois, 13 inches in diameter, overlvino- cross 
sabers in bronze 28 inches in length. Across the front in raised, 
polished letters, three inches long, are the words: 

8th Illinois Cavalry. 

The front and reverse sides of the die are polished, in which 
are cut in V sunk letters the following inscriptions : 

Front — 

1st Brig. 1st Div. 

Cavalry Corps. 

First Line of Battle 

July 1st, 1863, 

occupied until relieved by ist corps. 

One Squadron Picketed Ridge East or Marsh Creek and 
Supported by Another Squadron met Enemy's Right 

Advance. 

Lieut. Jones, Co. E, Fired First Shot as the 
Enemy Crossed Marsh Creek Bridge. 

Reverse — 

On Reforming Line Regiment took an Advanced 

Position on Hagerstown Road. Late in the Day Delayed 

Enemy's Advanck hy Attacking his Right Flank, 

Thereby Aiding the Infantry in Withdrawinc to 

Cemetery Hill. In Evening Encamped on Left Flank. 

July 2, 1863. 

Buford's Division Retirkd Towakm) Westmixsteh. 

David Diffenbaugh. 




8th Illinois CaValry. Gettysburg. 




ijth Illinois CaViili'V, GctH'shur! 



13 

The 12tli Illinois cavalry monument is situated west of 
Gettjsburo-, on the same I'idge, north of the Chambersburg- 
pike, on east side of Reynold's avenue facing west, about mid- 
way between the pike and railroad cut, on the ground occupied 
by the regiment in line of battle, on the morning of July 1, 
1863. 

The monument is a die, a single granite rock in the rough, 
4 feet inches x 2 feet inches x 10 feet inches high, rising 
up out of the earth, surmounted by regulation army saddle, 
with blankets on pommel and rear as part of the granite shaft. 

On the upper part and front of the die are cut in large V 
sunk letters the words, 

12th Illinois Cavalry, 

1st. Brig. 1st Div. 

Cav. Corps. 

Abov^e in bronze are the Illinois coat-of-arms and cross sabers 
of the same dimensions and pattern as those on the 8th Illi- 
nois monument. 

On the front and reverse sides of the die are polished surfaces, 
each 2 feet 8 inches x 4 feet 6 inches, in which are cut in V 
sunk letters the following inscriptions: 

I'ront— 

First Line of Battle 

July 1, 1863, 

Held until relieved by 1st Corps. 

One Squadron Picketing Ridge East of Marsh Creek 
Met Enemy's Left Advance. 

killed. 

Ferdinand Ushuer, 
Thomas G. Blanset, 

John Ellis, 
Gabriel B. Durham, 
Homer C. SteDxMAN. 

Reverse — 

Regiment Retired to Ridge on Left Rear; with Brigade 
Fought Dismounted, Repelling Attacks of the Enemy; 
Covered the Withdrawal of Line to Cemetery Hill, and 
IN the Evening Took Position on Left Flank of the Army. 

July 2, 1863. 

Buford's Division Retired Toward Westminster. 



14 

The 82(1 Illinois infantry monument is situated north of 
GettyburjA", west of Cai-lvle road, on the south side of Howard 
avenue, facing northwest. 

This reg'iment, in formation of 11th (■or|)s north of (iettys- 
burg, supported Wheeler's battery, and w^as stationed to the 
right and rear of the battery. The Wheeler battery monument 
is located in Howard avenue, marking the spot where the bat- 
tery opened tire. The 82d Illinois monument is located to the 
right of the Wlieeler battery monument in Howard avenue, 
little in advance of the ])osition of the regiment, to have it 
stand on the grounds of the Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial 
Association. 

The general dimensions of the monument are 12 feet 6 inches 
high and "> feet square at the base. Monument consists of four 
pieces of granite; a base 5 feet inches square x 1 foot inches 
high: a moulded plinth; a die cut concave containing the coat- 
of-arms of the State of Illinois in bronze. 

The inscriptions are as follows: 

Northwest — 

82nd Illinois Infantry. 

1st Brigade, 3d Division, 11th Corps. 

First Line of Battle 
July 1, 1863. 

Northeast — 

Moved in Retreat to Cemetery Hill, July 1, 1863. 

Southwest — 
Occupied the Crest of Cemetery Hill, July 2 and 3, 1863. 

Southeast — 

Participated in Repulse of Swell's Corps on Night 
July 2, 1863. 

Regiment Lost During the Three Days Battle 
112 Killed, AVounded and Missing. 

And a column representing a minie ball ornamented with a 
laurel wreath, a palm branch and a crescent (being the coi']is 
badge), all highly carved in relief. The letters "82d Illinois In- 
fantry" at base of column are raised and ])olished, and thirteen 
raised stars, near the top of column, complete the design, the 
combination makini»: a pleasing outline, well ])roportioned, and 
forming a substantial appearing memorial. 




S-jd Illinois InfantrV, GettVslnir^v. 




PIDWARI) S. SALOMON, 
Lieut. Col. Coinmandino; Sjd 111. Inl'tV, at GlcttV.-shurcr. 



15 

The monuments are constructed of Westerly Rhode Island 
ft'ranite and set upon foundations of stone and Portland cement, 
six (6) feet in depth. 

With the appropriation, monuments grand and ornate could 
not be erected. The3^ are plain, simple structures, comparing 
favorably with most of the regimental monuments erected on 
the battle-field. They are substantial and will endure as a 
memorial of the State of Illinois, in honor of her troops who 
fought on that bloody field, as long as New England granite 
will defy the ravages of storm and time. Their location was 
selected by the commission and approved by the Memorial 
Association. 

In receivino: the monuments, the Memorial Association be- 
comes the custodian thereof, and is bound to ])i'otect and pre- 
serve the same. 

DEDICATION. 

For the purpose of visiting the battle-field and formally dedi- 
cating the monuments erected by the State of Illinois, in their 
honor, the surviving members of each regiment appointed a 
committee of three: 

8th Illinois Committee. 

Lieut. Alexander McS. S. Riddler, 
Captain Andrew Dunning, 
Major Woodbury M. Taylor. 

12th Illinois Committee. 

Sergt. David B. Vaughan, 
Lieut. Jasper Johnson, 
Major William M. Luff. 

82d Illinois Committee. 

Private Peter Adler, 
Lieut. William Loeb, 
Capt. Jacob Gross. 

The three committees met in joint session, elected Lieut. Rid- 
dler, chairman, Capt. William C. Hazleton, of Stli Illinois cav- 
alry, secretary, and Lieut. Loeb, treasurer; named Thursday, 
September 3, 1891, as the da^^ of dedication, and appointed 
Major Taylor, Major Luff and Capt. Gross, with Capt. Hazle- 
ton as secretary, a committee of arrangements. 

This committee provided a special train of Pullman palace 
cars, over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, one fare for the 
round trip. Members of the regiments and their friends, the 
Governor and staff and State officers left Chicago at 1 P. M. 
Tuesday, September i, 1891, and arrived at Gettysburg, Wednes- 
day evening. 



18 

On Thursday a large delegation of Illinoi.sans from Washing- 
ton, 1). C, joined them to take part in the dedicatory exercises. 
Col. C. H. Buehler, Vice-President, and other officers*^ of Gettys- 
burg Battle-field Memorial Association, Mayor H. S. Benner 
and city officers, and many citizens of (Jettysburg also partici- 
pated in the services. 

At 2 p. m. the procession formed in the public square and 
preceded by the Grand Army band of Gettysburg, marched out 
to the location of the 8th Illinois cavalry monument, where the 
general exercises ^xeve held. 



EXERCISES. 

Singing the Doxology. 

"Praise God from whom all blessings flow, 
Praise ITim all creatures here below. 
Praise ITiiu above ye Heavenly host, 
Praise Father, Son and Holy Ghost." 

Invocation by the Rev. W. H. Keith, late chaplain in U. S. 
Army and pastor of the M. E. Church at Gettysburg. 

"Our Father, who art in heaven, we acknowledge Thy loving-kindness 
to-day, in granting us the privilege of meeting on this historic field, where 
the right, as taught us by Thy blessed Son, won its grandest victory. 
Here, where patriot blood was shed, and human life so freely offered. 
Here, where the heroic in patriotism met the heroic in treason, and 
achieved for union and liberty an abiding place in this our nation. 

We thank Thee that so many of these brave men, participants in the 
fearful struggle witnessed on this field, are here to-day to dedicate a monu- 
ment to the memory of their comrades who fell in this battle. 

May these veteran patriots, who have escaped the carnage of war, be also 
saved from the enemy of their souls, that with the redeemed of all lands 
and ages, they may greet their fallen comrades in that country where life, 
joy and peace shall be theirs forever. 

Bless, dear Father, our maimed and needy comrades, who have found an 
asylum from want in the homes i)r()vided for them by a grateful people. 
In their retirement may they have the joy of an experienced Christianity 
and the consciousness that they did what they could for human liberty. 

Grant the consolations of Thy grace to the aged parents, widows and 
orphans of our deceased comrades. May they know that their loss was a 
priceless contribution to civil and religious liberty throughout the world. 

Be Thou, dear Father, very gracious to all the inhabitants of the great 
State represented here to-day by her chief executive, and his associates 
in authority. Hel]) him do all lie can for the moral, intellectual and ma- 
terial advancement of his people, and at the last nuiy he hear Tliee say: 
"Well done, good and faithful servant." 

Be pleased, dear Father, to help Thy servant. Ihe president of these 
United States, in the great work assigned liini. lie his counsellor and 
strength, and may he witness th(> steady growth of our united country in 
christian character and material wealth. 

Blessed God, remember the survivors of armed rebellion against our gov- 
ernment. Be very merciful and kind to them and their loved ones, and may 
the spirit of resistance to tlie rightful authority of our country, once so 
marked in their history, have given place in their atl'ection and manhood to 
true and abiding loyalty to our Hag, and every i)rinciple it represents. 




JOHN L. HKVKKIDGK, 

Coniniissioncr. 
Ma.jor Coniniandiiio- Sth III. CaV., at Gettysburg. 



17 

Look Thou in great compassion upon all the people within our boundaries. 
Make us strong in righteousness, and may those of other lands, who have 
sought a home among us. be induced, by our example, to love Thee and our 
free institutions, which were conceived in the faith of our fathers, and 
brought forth and consecrated by the blood of our patriots. 

Mercifully forgive all our sins and hasten on the day when all shall serve 
and know Thee. And when we shall have served our generation, bring us 
at last to the fellowship of the just made perfect through Jesus Christ our 
Lord. Amen.'' 

Presentation of the monuments to the State of Illinois, by 
ex-Gov. John L. Beveridge, late major of the 8th Illinois cav- 
alry, commanding the regiment at the battle of Gettysburg, 
and chairman of the Illinois Monumental Commission : 

"On the afternoon of June 30, 1863, the 1st and 2d brigades, Buford's 
division of cavalry, 8th Illinois in advance, marched up the road to Em- 
metsburg, through Gettysburg: the first, (xamble's brigade, turning to the 
left, marched out the Chambersburg pike and encamped in the little valley 
between this ridge and Seminary Ridge on the east: 8th Illinois in front, 
south of pike: 8th T^ew York in its rear; 12th Illinois, 3d Indiana and 
Calef's battery north of pike. 

It was a bright, beautiful afternoon. The sunlight danced on the hill- 
tops and dallied with the foliage of the plain. The landscape green was 
dotted, here and there, with patches of grain, yellowing for the harvest. 
The cattle were feeding lazily in the fields. Peace, and prosperity which 
accompanies peace, reigned. All was quiet and still. There was no sound 
or sign of war, save the bugle call, the trappings of the horses, the accou- 
trements of the men and the guns of the artillery. Yet, knowing an armed 
foe: a brave, bold, daring, determined enemy was in our front, a few miles 
to the west, every precaution was taken to prevent a surprise. 

The 8th New York sent a picket force down through McPherson"s woods 
to the south-west: 8tli Illinois sent a squadron out on the Chambersburg 
pike two miles, and picketed the ridge east of Marsh creek: one post in 
pike, three posts south of pike, two posts north of pike and one post in ad- 
vance on the pike at blacksmith shop near tlie bridge: 12th Illinois and 3d 
Indiana picketed the ridge to the riglit of 8th Illinois pickets. Devin's 
brigade picketed to the north and the north-east. 

The afternoon waned: the sun sank below the western hills: twilight 
grew on apace: the stars came out: the moon shed her soft radiance over 
mountain high and valley low; "taps" sounded. Thus picketed, thus 
bivouaced. beneath our own skies, on our own soil, with a sense of security 
and a feeling of homeness, thinking of the loved ones, and breathing praise 
and prayer to Him who had blessed us and our arms, we lay down upon 
the green sward, pillowing our heads on our saddles, to rest and to sleep, 
little dreaming the morrow would usher in a battle so terrible and san- 
guinary which would determine the destiny of the Republic, and fix the 
fate of human liberty on the earth. 

The morning dawned: the sun rose in splendor over the eastern hills; 
no cloud dimmed the sky, nor fog obscured the valley: 'reveille' sounded: 
the camp was astir: men prepared and partook of the morning meal; 
horses were fed and groomed: arms cleaned and burnislied. 

Many troopers and otlicers had gone up to the city to converse with 
friends. For eighteen months we had camped, marched and fought in the 
enemy's country. All Gettysburg, all loyal Pennsylvanians, were that 
morning our kith and kin. About 8:30 A. M., Captain Daniel W. Buck, 
in command of the 8th Illinois squadron on picket, sent word the enemy 
was advancing in force in two columns. Finding no superior officers in 
camp. I ordered another squadron of the 8th Illinois to the front in sup- 
port of the picket line, and sent orderlies up town to give the alarm. 

—2 



18 

'Boots and saddles' was sounded, then 'to horse,' and the Ijritjade stood 
to horse, prepared to mount, when Gen. Buford and Col. (Janible rode into 
camp. The brigade mounted and moved forward into line of l)attle along 
the ridge: 'M Indiana on the right, north of the railroad cut: 12th Illinois 
between the cut and the pike: Calef's battery, two guns north of pike, 
two guns in the pike, and two guns south of pike: 8th Illinois to left of 
battery, on the very ground where we now stand, and the 8th New York 
to the left and rear under the ridge, in front of McPherson's woods. 

Devin's lirigade took position further to the north. Thus formed in line 
of battle we waited the approach of the enemy, ready to do and to die for 
our country. 

In early morn our pickets on the ridge east of Marsh creek observed a 
cloud of dust rising at the foot of the mountains over Cashtown, seven 
miles away. This cloud came nearer, and nearer, and nearer, as Heth's 
division. ililTs corps, six thousand strong, in gray, marched down the 
pike to Gettysburg town. As the enemy neared the stone bridge across 
Marsh creek, an officer riding at the head of the column halted by the 
stone coping to allow his men to pass. Lieut. ]Marcellus E. Jones, now 
postmister at Wheaton, 111., in command of the 8th Illinois picket line, 
standing in the pike, took the carbine of Sergeant Shafer. raised it to his 
shoulder, aimed at the officer sitting his horse, and fired the first shot at 
the battle of Gettysburg. 

Just over the fence from the Chambersburg pike, in a private door-yard, 
on the summit of the ridge, about seven hundred feet east of Marsh creek, 
and three miles from Gettysburg, stands a simple stone, quarried and cut 
at Xaperville, 111., live feet high, eighteen inches square at tlie base, and 
nine inche> square at the top, which speaks for itself. On one face is in- 
scribed, •• First shot at Gettysburg, July 1, 18(53, 7:30 A. M." On another, 
"Fired by Captain M. E. Jones, with Sergeant Shafer"s carbine, Co. E. 8th 
Regiment, Illinois Cavalry.'' On third, -'Erected by Capt. Jones, Lieut. 
Ixiddler and Sergt. Shafer." And on fourth, "Erected 188(J."' To indicate 
the spot where the first gun was 11 red at Gettysburg, these three veterans, 
actors and eye-witnesses of the events written in rock, nearly a quarter of 
a century after the events happened, purchased the ground and thereon 
erected their memorial. This stone, beyond the domain of the Gettysburg 
Battletield ■VEemorial Association, far removed from the many monuments 
on the (Gettysburg Held stands alone, a solitary and silent witness to tell 
the true story of the opening of the great decisive battle of the world, on 
the morning of .Fuly 1, 18G3. 

Other claimants there may be. It is claimed, a nth New York cavalry- 
man fired the first shot at 7:30 A. M. The 9th New York cavalry be- 
longed to I)eviu"s brigade. Devin's brigade picketed to the north of Gam- 
ble's brigade. The enemy did not advance in front of Devin's brigade. 
])utdid advance down the Chambers])urg pike in the iinincdiate front of 
the 8ih Illinois pickets. 

It is claimed, a 17th Pennsylvania cavalryman fired the tlrst shot in 
early morn, near the bridge across Marsh creek. The 17th Pennsylvania 
belonged to Devin's Ijrigade, and had no pickets near ^Marsli creek bridge 
in front of the 8th Illinois pickets. 

It is claimed, a (ith New York cavalryman tired at daybreak into the 
fog. at the sound of the enemy's cavalry close to his picket post. The fog 
was so dense he could not see them, lie must h:ive fired at the champing 
of the bit, the clink of tiie saber, or the clattering of tlie hoof. The (Ith 
New Y(jrk cavalry also belonged to Devin's Itrigade. lie may have tired 
at some imaginary foe. I say iinaginaiT, for tliereis no evidence tiiat the 
enemy had any pickets or scouts along Marsh creek on the night of .lune 
30, 18()3. The claim is improbable. The enemy had no cavalry on the field 
July 1, 18()3. Five brigades of cavalry were with (Jen. Stewart in his raid 
around the right of the Union army, one brigade was witli Gen. Ewell at 
(Jarlyle. and one brigade witli Gen. Lee, near Chambersburg. The claim is 
impossible. There was no fog along the valley of Marsh creek on the 



19 

morniag of July 1, 1863. The claim is preposterous. From investigation, 
I am satisfied, to Capt. .Jones belongs the honor of firing the first gun at 
Gettysburg, on the morning of July 1, 1863, as the enemy advanced to give 
battle. He opened the fight. 

Archer's Tennessee brigade crossed the bridge, deployed skirmishers on 
right of pike and advanced. Davis' brigade crossed next, deployed skirm- 
ishers north of pike and advanced. Brockenbrough and Pettigrew's brigade 
followed. 

As soon as skirmishers deployed, firing commenced all along the line. 
Our pickets mounted, firing, fell back slowly upon the reserve, when dis- 
mounting, sent their horses to the rear and fighting on foot, bravely re- 
sisted and retarded the advance of the enemy. 

When Buford formed his line, Calef's battery opened fire to encourage 
our boys and tell the advancing hosts JTnion troops were prepared to resist 
any farther invasion of northern soil. Through the depression of the hills 
to the northwest, three-fourths of a mile away, beyond Willoughby Run, 
Davis' brigade was seen advancing in column. Upon the head of this 
column Calef trained his guns. Presently the boys of 8th Illinois with the 
led horses were seen coming over the ridge west of Willoughby Run, in 
our immediate front; then a line of smoke along and beyond the crest of 
the hill; then our pickets; then another line of smoke: then the skirmishers: 
then twelve guns wheeled into line, unlimbered and opened fire. As the 
pickets retired slowly down the slope, followed by the skirmishers, Archer's 
brigade in line of battle, rose above the hill, marched up to and past the 
guns. The guns ceased firing till the brigade dropped below their range, 
then opened again. The pickets and skirmishers were down by Wiloughby 
Run. Archer's brigade had advanced half way down the hillside. The mo- 
ment was critical, two guns to one, three men to one. We could easily fall 
back and elude pursuit, but we were not here to retreat, nor was it our 
habit to retreat. 

Reynolds' corps had encamped the night before on Marsh creek, four 
miles south of Gettysburg. The corps was on the march when they heard 
the sound of our guns. Looking to the left rear, we saw Wadsworth's 
division of First corps, led by Reynolds and Wadsworth in person, coming 
across the meadow on the double-quick. Cutler's brigade came into our 
rear, right resting on the pike, and dropped to the ground for breath and 
protection. Wadsworth led two regiments across the pike to meet Davis' 
brigade, the 12th Illinois and 3d Indiana retiring towards Seminary 
Ridge. 

Meredith's, the Iron Brigade, came up to our left, passed into the woods 
and formed in line, the right in the edge of the timber, with the left 
swinging around toward Willoughby Run. To uncover Cutler's front the 
8th Illinois filed to the left, in rear of the Iron Brigade, and took position 
to left and rear of the 8th New York, near Seminary Ridge. Cutler, with 
three regiments and second Maine battery, advanced to this ridge, and 
moved immediately forward through the open ground to the next ridge, 
where stands McPherson's house, and opened fire. 

In the mean time Archer's brigade had descended the hill and was cross- 
ing the Run. To escape Cutler's galling fire, the enemy moved quickly 
into the woods, and unexpectedly encountered the Iron Brigade. With 
Meredith in his front and on his right flank, and Cutler on his left flank, 
after a desperate struggle and great loss on both sides. Archer and a 
thousand of his men surrendered prisoners of war, and his broken and 
depleted line was driven back across Willoughby Run. 

North of the pike Davis charging fiercely upon Wadsworth, before he 
had got his regiments into position, forced him back. Reinforced by the 
()th Wisconsin, 12th Illinois and 3d Indiana, Wadsworth checked the on- 
slaught, charged the enemy, captured a regiment coming down the railroad 
cut and drove Davis back across the Run. 



20 

About 10 A. M. Gen. Reynolds, cheering on his men, was Icilied near tlie 
edge of tlie woods. A monument marks the spot where he fell. On his 
deatli. Col. Doubleday, who iiad arrived on the Held in advance of his 
division, assumed command. 

Gen. Howard, with 11th corps, encamped the night of .June 3U near 
Emmetsbnrg. lie was on the march to Gettysljurg, when hearing the guns, 
he hastened forward with his staff, arrived on the field about 11 A. M., 
after the enemy had been forced bade, and assumed command. Gen. 
Doubleday retained command of the First corps, and the entire corps 
having come up, lu> proceeded to reform the line. The Iron brigade re- 
mained in thi' woods. Cutler retained his i)osition across the pike and 
railroad cut. Middle's brigade took position under tlie ridge south of 
McPherson"s woods. l)oul)leday"s division was stationed to the nortii and 
rear, and llobinson's division was held in reserve. 

Buford stationed the 12th Illinois and 3d Indiana, dismounted, behind 
the fence and rocks south of the Seminary; one section of Calefs battery 
at the south-east point of McPherson's woods, supported liy the 8th New 
York cavalry, and ordered the 8th Illinois out to the south-west, on the 
Ilagerstown road to watch the enemy in that quarter. The 8th Illinois 
occupied an orchard south of the road, near the timl^er, and sent a squad- 
ron through the timber into the open ground beyond. 

About noon Gen. Schurz came up with the 11th corps. He ordered 
Steinwehr's, second division, to occupy Cemetery Hill. At that time Ceme- 
tery Hill was unshaded and its marble head-stones gleamed and glistened 
in the sunlight. He led the tlrst and third divisions through the town to 
the open country on the north, and formed in line, his riglit resting near 
the county poor house, facing north. 

In the evening of .Tune 29tli, Gen. Lee, whose headquarters were at 
Chambers])urg. thirty miles to the west, and whose objective point was 
Philadelphia, was Hrst advised that the Army of the Potomac had crossed 
the river and was marching up through ^laryland. Fearing what Gen. 
Hooker had planned to tlo before he was superseded by Gen. Meade, that 
a strong force would be thrown upon his line of communication, Gen, 
Lee resolved to nuike Baltimore his objective point and compel the Army 
of the Potomac to throw itself in his front to protect that city. He at 
once sent orders to his lieutenants to concentrate without delay at Get- 
tysburg. 

Gen, Ewell, who was at Carlyle, thirty-tive miles to the nortli, received 
his orders in the morning of .lune .'50, as he was preparing to march on 
Harrisburg. He sent Johnson's division with his trai i down through the 
mountains to the Chambersburg pike, near Greenwood, and with Rhodes' 
division marched direct on (rcttysburg. On the nigiit of .lune 30th, he 
encamped near Heidelberg, al)out twelve miles from Gettysburg. 

Gen. Early, with one division of Ewell's corps, had passed through 
Gettysburg three days before, and was at York, forty miles to the north- 
east, under orders to move north along the west bank of the Sus(|uelianna 
river, burn tlu'. bridge and join Ewell in the capture of Harrisburg. 
P]arly received these orders on the morning of June 30. drew in his pickets, 
and started in hot haste for Gettysburg, and by a forced and late march 
encamped that night five miles northeast of Heidelberg, and some fifteen 
miles from Gettyslnirg. 

On the morning of July 1, Gen. Ewell, hearing the sound of battle, 
hastened forward and about 2 P. M. annouiu'ed his presence by opening 
his guns on Doubleday's right, from Knol) Hill, an elevation of Seminary 
Ridge, three-fourths of a mile north. 

The appearance of the eiunny in that (juarter necessitated a change in 
the Federal lines. Gen. T)oui)leday extended his line to the north, with 
the right refused. Gen. Schurz advanced his right resting on Rock creek, 
facing northwest, but unfortunately left an opening of one-fourth of a 
mile between his left Jlaidv and Doubleday's right. 



21 

In the meantime Heth had reformed his line, and Pendar's division, 
Hill's corps, had arrived on the field. Rhodes' division, five brigades, had 
come up and formed in brigade column. About 4 P. M. Heth vigorously 
attacked Doubleday's centre. Ewell drove three brigades of Rhodes' 
division like a wedge into the opening between Schurz and Doubleday's 
lines. Gen. Barlow, in command of Schurz's right, thinking he could 
swing his division around and strike Rhodes' column on the Mank, gave 
the proper orders and commenced the movement, when one of the unex- 
pected and inopp 'rtune things happened which turned the tide of battle. 
Early coming down from the northeast struck Barlow's rij^ht flank, doubled 
it up, and Barlow wounded, his division gave way. The third division of 
11th corps, in which was the 82d Illinois infantry, supporting Wheeler's 
battery, struggled desperately to hold its position against the combined 
attack of Early on its right, and Rhodes on its left flank, but was Anally 
compelled to fall back, through the town, to Cemetery Hill. The 82d in- 
fantry covering the retreat of Wheeler's battery through the town, suffered 
severely from the Are of the enemy down the cross streets. Doubleday's 
right, after a desperate resistance, fell back, then his centre, and then his 
left, and withdrew through the town to Cemetery Hill. 

About 6 P. M. Col. Gamble ordered the 8th Illinois cavalry to retire 
toward Cemetery Hill, making as much show as possible. Recalling the 
squadron on picket to the west of the woods, without waiting its return, 
I moved the regiment into the open fields to the southeast, threw down 
the fences, and formed the regiment in column of squadrons. 

About this time Lane's brigade, Pendar's division, which had formed 
under cover of the woods, emerged from the timber, in echelon, from left 
to right, his last regiment coming out of the woods near the orchard by 
the Hagerstown road, with the 8th Illinois squadron on picket, hanging 
upon its flank. From my position I saw Doubleday's right falling back, 
then his centre, then the Iron Brigade coming out from McPherson's 
woods, l^iddle's brigade, lying under the ridge, was watching the fight to 
the north, unconscious of Lane's advance, and unseen by Lane's brigade 
as it moved steadily forward. Noting Riddle's peril, I made a feint for 
his rescue. I ordered the 8th Illinois, in column of squadrons, forward, 
increased its gait to a trot as if about to make a charge upon Lane's 
right. His right regiment halted, changed front, and fired a volley; Bid- 
die's brigade rose to their feet, saw the enemy, fired and retired across 
the field toward Seminary Ridge. The 12th Illinois and 3d Indiana dis- 
mounted behind the stone wall, covered the infantry and the Sth Illinois, 
its left flank on its withdrawal to Cemetery Hill. 

Joined by Col. Gamble, and the other regiments of the brigade, we 
crossed the Emmetsburg road and went into camp down on a branch of 
Rock creek, covering the left flank of the army, and the infantry slept 
among the tombs on Cemetery Hill. Slocum's corps had come up, Han- 
cock's was not far away, and we lay down to sleep with a sense of relief 
and a feeling of security. The battle of the morning was in our favor: 
the bati-le of the evening against us; the enemy occupied the town: we 
occupied Cemetery Hill, the key to the iDosition, the Gibraltar of our hopes 
and the citadel of our defense. 

The day's work was done, equalled only the second day in heroism, and 
surpassed in carnage and death by the fierce struggle around Gulp's Hill, 
up Cemetery Ridge, at the bloody angle, in the peach orchard, through 
the wheat field, around the Loop, down through Devil's Den, along Death's 
Yalley, and up and around Little Round-top : and on the third day, by 
Pickett's grand charge, across the open fields, upon the Union centre, in 
face of one hundred and fifty guns and fifty thousand muskets. 

The battle is fought. The victory is won. The Nation lives. Here on 
Gettysburg field, the wave of the rebellion culminated. A clump of trees, 
now fenced in by an iron railing, marks the spot where Armisted fell, 
and Gushing, disemboweled, fired his last shot: where the top wave dashed 
against the ridges and rocks, broke and receded never more to rise. 



G^tiysbur^ beci^mes an historic field. All the loyal States, except West 
Tirerinia. having ti\«ops on this field, hare erected monuments, over three 
hundred and thiny in number, in honor of the men who fought here and 
who fell here. Illinois was first in the fight and is the last to dedicate 
her monuments. 

In the winter of 1SS9 the legislature of Illinois appropriated six thou- 
sand dollars for monuments and authorized the governor to appoint 
three commissioners, one from each regiment present at the battle, 
to carry out the will of the legislature. His Excellency appointed Joseph 
B. Greenhut. of Peoria, late captain in the *2d Illinois infantry. David 
B. Vaughan. of Kankakee, late sergeant in the 12th Ihinois cavalry, and 
John L. Beveridge, of Cook, late major of Sth Illinois cavalry. 

The preamble of the act recites the facts that the ?2d infantry, com- 
manded by Col. Edward S. Solomon, the 12th cavalry, commanded by 
Capt. Oieorge W. Shears, and the Sth cavalry, commanded by Major John 
L. Beveridge. were present and took part in the engagement, and assumes 
as a fact that the Sth Illinois aivalry opened the engagement, and con- 
templates the erection of a monument to mark the spot where the battle 
was opened. 

The commissioners visited the battle-field in June. 1*90. and the ques- 
tion arose "Where did the battle open? Was it on the picket line where 
the firing commenced, or on the battle line?" If the picket line, then 
the three named veterans had already erected their memorial to mark 
the spoi. If on the battle line, then the Sth Illinois was entitled to no 
more honor than the 12th Illinois, and Illinois was entitled to no more 
honor than Indiana and New York, for all three States stood side by side 
in the same line of battle on the morning of .July 1. 1863. 

After riding over the field, and finding that a large majority of the 
monuments were of a regimental character, marking some spot where the 
r^ment stood and fought, and believing it would be more in accordance 
with the scope and design of the Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial Asso- 
ciation and the historic facts, and also believing it would be more satis- 
factory to the survivors of the three regiments and the patriotic people 
of Illinois, the commissioners resolved to erect three monuments, one for 
each regiment, marking the spot where it stood in the first line of battle. 

With six thousand dollars we could not erect monuments very 
expensive, ornate or artistic, but we think the Illinois monuments will 
compare favorably with the other regimental monuments erected on this 
field. The commissioners studie<l simplicity and durability. The monu- 
ments are plain, suggestive and historic. They are constructed of New 
England granite, founded on cemented rock, and will stand as long as the 
hills around (lettysburg lift their heads to the skies. 

Our work is finished. Taanking the Governor and the State for the 
confidence reposed in us. as chairman of the commission I am instructed 
to tender these three monuments to His Excellency, and through him. to 
the good people of the State of Illinois to be dedicated to the honor and 
memory of the men. living and dead, who fought on this field." 

Acceptance of the monuments in behalf of the State and pre- 
sentation of the same to the Gettysburg Battle-field Memorial 
As.so«:iation. br His Excellencv, Hon. Joseph W. Fifer. (iovernor 
of the State of Illinois: 

"We are upon historic and thrice consecrated ground. Here American 
valor fought, died and triumphed for union and liberty: here Lincoln from 
out of - . - -:r . --^adow of sad but triumphant death spoke simple 
dedie. i high pathos and meaning that all who follow 

car ..:^e sentiments. If Lincoln in 1S<>3 declared it im- 

I r to hallow this sacred place, what can be left for him 

w - ak? 




Governor of Illinois. 



23 

Nevertheless, it is titting we tliiis come, under the eye of an approving 
nation, and with appropriate ceremonies further consecrate tlie manhood 
and youth of America to those great principles which national valor here 
carried through appalling carnage, upon the points of triumphant bayo- 
nets, across the decisive hattle-Held of the civil war. 

Scarcely liad the American union heen formed when the question was 
asked 'Can a State dissolve it?' Scarcely was the Supreme Court of the 
nation robed when it was declared that not this tribunal but each com- 
ponent state, through its own petty agencies, might judge of the extent 
of the powers conferred by the federal constitution. 

Heated discussions and much ill-will arose. On one side were the Ken- 
tucky and Tirginia resolutions with those who drew them, and the many 
who advocated their principles; on the other were the wise counsels and 
commanding prestige of Washington, the masterly opinions of Marshall, 
the potent and luminous arguments of Hamilton and Webster. One side 
believed this a weak league of states each in itself a political sovereignty, 
which might any day jostle from its uncertain place in the Union; the 
other said 'We have a nation with a nation's powers and a nation's in- 
tegrity, sovereign, grand and free.' 

But for the firebrand flung into the waning conflagration early in the 
century by the rising interest of slavery, the doctrine of national sover- 
eignty would have had a national and bloodless triumph. But slowly and 
ominously up Columbia's fair sky crept two great shadows: the first a fast 
growing slave power, fierce, barbarous and insatiable: back of that, and its 
dire consequence, civil war. The conflict was truly irrepressible. Extreme 
on the northern side were ranged sentimental philanthropists who would 
make no allowance for southern environments, such men as are always on 
hand to do good at others expense and practice high virtues by proxy. At 
the other extreme was the swaggering slave-driver who delighted in blood 
drawn by the lash, and who foolishly supposed the consciences of a great 
Anglo-Saxon people could be awed to silence by a display of bowie knives. 

Between these extreme lines both sides produced able and conscientious 
statesmen: both were infused with sturdy valor: both numbered adherents 
of the truest Americanism, who, in anguish and tears, deplored the awful 
crisis they helplesslv saw approaching: both praved sincerely to the same 
God. 

At length the lightnings from the cloud struck. We older ones knew 
what followed, but none can ever describe it. It is good, however, that 
we all see more clearly since the storm cleared the atmospheres. Brethren 
know each other better since they have looked into the muzzles of 
each others' guns. 

It were folly to now contend, in the pride of individual opinion, as to 
where the right lay in this great strife. History is already pronouncing 
the final judgment. That judgment will be charitable and kind to all; 
but let no faint-hearted patriot doubt that God's eternal truth will be 
established in it. Kor should we forget that at the bar of history, prior 
adjudications of armed force cannot be pleaded. He who would win in 
the supreme court of civilized opinion must leave captured colors and the 
spoil of cities, and come with fruits of justice and humanity in his hands. 
To this judgment bar, we of the north, bring the broken chnin of human 
bondage: we bring tears of joy from cheeks unvisited by smiles: we bring 
the realized hopes of a nation and the imposing majesty of a people: we 
bring the civilizing potency of a union of American interests under a single 
flag: we bring the answered prayers and fulfilled aspirations of our heroic fore- 
fathers, who, in sore travail planted free institutions in a wilderness; and 
here, in all meekness and charity, we are content to rest our cause. Let 
judgment be pronounced. Let it be told whether 'the hero born of wo- 
man' has indeed 'crushed the serpent with his heel' and whether God 
verily has 'marched on' over a redeemed continent. 



24 

If any single battle of the civil war can properly be called decisive, per- 
haps it was that fought on this field. Here the confederate dream of 
nortlieni invasion was dispelled: and when the triumphant guns of Grant 
at X'icksburg answered tliese thundering volleys of Meade, the result 
was known. 

The sons of Illinois were here as on other tields of that war, to do con- 
spicuous and honorable service. Vou have heard what part they took, 
from tlie lips of a distinguished Illinois soldier, who then shared their 
perils and now sliares their honors. They were sons of Illinois: but they 
were in a broader and a better sense sons of the nation. They were not 
here to tight for Illinois alone: yet Illinois honors them and all the more 
for the great national cause they so gallantly upheld. As citizens of the 
great Prairie State we are proud to know it was the virile of two citizens of 
Illinois— Lincoln and (Jrant— that completed tlie work of Wasliington and 
Hamilton, cemented forever the jostling; fragments of the Union, and 
made the term American citizen indeed 'the panoply and safe-guard of 
him who wears it.' 

In the name of the people of Illinois, whose appreciation I am here to 
voice, I accept these monuments. Precious souvenirs are they of a State's 
gratitude to the valor which defended the nation. To future ages they 
will tell the story how, into the balance of destiny, wherein a third of a 
centurv ago uncertainly trembled the fate of the republic. Illinois threw 
her oft-flaslied sword and helped to turn the scale. Here stood her gal- 
lant sons, shoulder to shoulder, with brethren of so many common- 
wealths, baring their breasts to the fury which so nearly rent a nation: 
and here, too, 'on fame's eternal camping ground,' some of them sleep 
in patriot graves, fallen, but not forgotten. 

To the gentlemen who have so well executed their commission in the 
erection of tliese memorials, I return the thanks of their fellow citizens: 
and in turning them over, as I now do, to the Association. 1 will add this 
word. 

In yovir keeping, gentlemen, we of Illinois, in great contldence, leave 
the remains of our sacred dead. We do not rely upon granite or marble 
alone to perpetuate the memory of their sacritices. We know that mem- 
orials made by human hands, far more costly and imposing than the sim- 
ple tablets we leave with you to-day, must soon decav and fall. There 
is a grander and better monument than any of masonry or bronze, which 
is now building to the memory of our nation's defenders, living and dead. 
Tliat monument is the progress, social, industrial and political, of the 
great republic they saved. The life work of every wortliy American citi- 
zen is wrought into this grand monumental structure. It belongs not to 
regiments or i)rigades, to army corps or to political divisions, but to all 
beneath our tlag who have wrougiit in the holy cause of freedom and 
good government. About its shaft cluster the hopes and aspirations of 
every living patriot, and under it, in assured immortality, sleep all our 
heroic dead."' 

Aceepta.Tice of the moiminfMits in behalf of the Memorial Asso- 
ciation by Hon. Edward McPherson, Clerk of the House of Rep- 
resentatives of the Con<»'i-ess of the United States, and one of 
the directors of the Association: 

"Genekal Beveridqe, Govekxor Fifeu, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

After the terse and vivid description of the first day's engagement l»y Gen. 
P>everi(]ge and the comi)reliensive. philosophical and patriotic remarks of 
Governor Fiferon the rei)ellion. its causes and conseciuences, I cannot but 
feel that my duty will be best performed in the use of the fewest words. 

The association which, l)y su])stitution, I am made to represent on this 
occasion, was conceived innnediately on the close of tlie Ijattle in July, 
IWiH. It was incorporated at the llrst meeting of the legislature of Penn- 
svlvania. It has existed thenceforward, in the hands of imblic-spirited 



25 

citizens wlio have sought to prepare and keep the actual lines of battle 
as fitting resting pla 'es for the memorials erected to commemorate the 
valor of the Union soldiery, dead and living. 

This conception has been realized to an extent not realized on any other 
battle-fleld of the w^orld. All the participating states, save one, are here, 
in their proper places, in bronze and marble and granite, lifting up endur- 
ing monuments to mark tlie eternal hills on which slavery got its death 
blow, on whicli freedom won a great victory, on which a continent was 
re-dedicated to the illustration of the rights of man. 

Our Battle-field Association bids me welcome to its field the State of 
Illinois — the Empire vState of the Central Belt — which, like the rest of us, 
slumbered while the conspiracy of disunion was developing, and till 
Sumter was fired upon, but which then awakened and sprang to arms and 
slept not till that act of treason was fully avenged, and till the emblem 
of rebellion wasi finally furled at Appomattox. The Association all the 
more welcomes Illinois because the history of your State is as a radiance 
of glory in the tempest-time through which the country has passed. Her 
place through all that storm was in the front ranlc. To the Supreme 
Court of the nation it gave the luminous intellect of David Davis to help 
set up the new landmarks. To the Senate of the nation it gave the ag- 
gressive intellect and the patriot heart of Stephen A. Douglas, who amid 
the perils of the period forgot all the past and, aflame with loyalty, stood 
on March 4, 1861, by the side of and in full amity witli his former rival, 
Abraham Lincoln, as the president-elect, touchingly but vainly pleaded 
with his 'dissatisfied fellow-countrymen' not to force the 'momentous 
issue of civil war:' and it gave, in later years, to the same august body, 
the faithful heart and sturdy nature of John A. Logan, its soldier-states- 
man. To the army it gave, besides others, the tenacious will, the steady 
purpose, the prodigious force, the overmastering military genius of Ulysses 
S. Grant. And to mankind it gave the matchless name of Abraham 
Lincoln. Yours is thus a pre-eminence of achievement. We concede it. 
And what Illinois gives to this field is accepted as a precious gift, to be 
jealously guarded, to be sedulously preserved from harm, to be honored as 
becomes the gallantry and greatness which these memorials represent and 
commemorate." 

Address by Col. Asa C. Mathews, comptroller of the currency 
and a member of the Army of the Tennessee: 

"Comrades and Friends: The few citizens of Illinois who are temporarily 
on duty at Washington, hearing of the intended coming of the chief ex- 
ecutive of that State, with his staff and others, to aid in the dedication 
of these monuments to the memory of the Illinois soldiers who fought and 
fell at Gettysburg, have hastened here 'to meet you and to greet you." I 
pause on the threshold to say, that more patriotic, union-loving men and 
women never left any city to meet the prominent men of their State, than 
those who meet you to-day from Washington. When we first heard the Gov- 
ernor and his staff were coming, we resolved to send a good strong committee 
of fifty men and women, and when we heard that they were to be accom- 
panied by General Beveridge and his family, we resolved to send a commit- 
tee of one hundred; when, however, we found the fact to be that to these 
were to be added the survivors of the 8th and the 12th Illinois cavalry, 
and the 82d infantry— the men who fought at Gulp's Hill, and the Bloody 
Angle — we resolved to come in a body and take part in the interesting 
ceremonies. It occurred to us that after the monuments were dedicated 
you would be pleased to visit Washington, the capital of the greatest 
"republic that ever existed; that you would like to continue your journey 
to Mount Vernon, and see the tomb of the father of his country: that 
you would like to stand where Lincoln stood when he liberated four mil- 
lions of slaves: that you would be pleased to see where General Grant 
guided the ship of state for eight years, during the dark days of recon- 
struction, and that you would be delighted to visit the Senate chamber 
where the voice of Logan had been heard, and to see the avenue over 
which he marched the Army of the Tennessee in 1865, one of the grandest 



26 

armies that ever marched under any Hag, and to that end we come to ex- 
tend a cordial invitation. Your friends in Washinjilon will give you a 
soldier's greeting-, and we are here to conduct you I'roni this historic field 
to that beautiful city, after the ceremonies are concluded at this place. 

On this historic Held, so lull of memories, after the lapse of 23 years, 
many of the survivors of the great hattlc meet to-day for the first time. 
The mutations of time have thinned their ranks, but the approach of old 
age has not dimmed the'ir ardor or dampened their patriotism. Your 
long journey has l)een made to perform an act of patriotic duty, the evi- 
dence of wliich will live long after the | articipant in the battle shall 
have passed away. The historian has written the battle of (iettysburg 
as one of the most important of the many great l)attles fought in the 
late rebellion. The forces on the respective sides were alout equal in 
number, and the battle w; s fought in the open tleld. 

While the Army of Northern A'irginia had frequently met the Army of 
the P tomac, in "most cases the Army of Northern Virginia had the ad- 
vantage of position and generally fought on the defensive and behind 
fortifications. Matters had changed now. Grant had made such rapid 
and decisive inroads in the west, and especially at A'icksburg. that Lee 
was driven to assume the aggressive and now became the attacking party. 
A fair stand-up battle was to be fought without advantage on either side. 
Lee had the ilower of his army ( hosen for an invasion of the north, 
under his comnumd, and his men were accustomed to victory. The as- 
sault of Havs" brigade, the Louisiana Tigers, and their repulse by the 82d 
Illinois infantry, the 33d Massachusetts, with other forces: the repeated 
assaults and repulses of Longstreet's men on the Federal left, on the 
second day, and the terrible charge of Pickett and his bloody repulse on 
the third day, arc all tilled with evidence of American mannood, which 
challenge the admiration of all admirers of courage and chivalric dash, 
and deserve, if time allowed, particular mention. The contest raged for 
three days with varied success, until the afternoon of the last day. when 
victory crowned the efforts of the Union forces, but not until twenty 
thousand men had been killed or wounded on the respective sides. 

A field so renowned in its conception, and in all its details and varied 
surroundings, it was deemed meet and proper should be marked and per- 
petuated bv everlasting monuments, during the life of the survivors, 
who knew most of the facts. It is intended that the place on the Union 
line, where each command fought, shall l)e marked by some monument. 
In most cases this has been done. The soldier or the citizen from New 
York, which, by the way, had over sixty regiments and some twenty 
batteries of artUlery in "the fight, or Pennsylvania, which had aV)out the 
same force, including the reserve, or i^roud old Massachusetts which had 
a large force, liave long since been able, when he visited this field, to tell 
bv the gr.nd monuments, marking the spot, the places where his friends 
battled for the right. P>ut prior to this time Illinois had not d(me her 
full dutv in the grand work. Today, thanks to the Thirty-sixth (Jeneral 
Assembfv. the work is done. These places made sacred by the blood of 
our people are now pernumently marked and i)ointed out. While the force 
we had on the field was small and did well its part it must not be in- 
ferred that Illinois was an idle spectator in the great conllict for the 
preservation ol the Union. AVc had over 2r)0.u00 men in the field scat- 
tered all over the west and south, 75.000 of whom never returned. 

Our i)osition in the Mississippi A'alley was such that we could never con- 
sent to the dismeml)ernient of tlie I'nion. The Mississippi river was our 
natural outlet to the sea and we proposed to open it to the commerce of 
tlie world, if to do so, we had to make a grave-yard from Cairo to the 
moutli of the river. Tliere were not men enough south of us to defeat 
Illinois alone in that contest. That river had to be opened and it was 
done the dav after tliis great battle was fought. On that day there were 
surrendered "at Yicksburg fifteen general officers and 31.000 troops to the 
forces of (Jeneral (Jrant. They constituted the largest force ever sur- 
rendered at one time, in the great rebellion, not excepting the surrender 
at Appomattox. 



27 

Illinois, however, did great and good service on this field. The names 
of G-enerals Beveridge, Merritt and Farnsworth, and the officers and men 
of the 8th and 12th Illinois cavalry and the 82d Illinois infantry will go 
down into history with the names of Hancock, Webb and Crawford and 
their men, who defended the 'Bloody Angle.' Illinois is proud of their 
deeds of patriotism and valor, and to-day does herself honor by honoring 
them. The soldiers of Illinois stood shoulder to shoulder with the men 
of Pennsylvania and the other loyal states on this great field, in driving 
from this grand commonwealth tlae enemies of the Union. 

While the great contest was a physical one, there was beyond it and 
beneath it, a great principle of government, which actuated the Union 
forces. 

This government was dedicated by its founders to the idea that all men 
were created equal, and that it was a 'government of the people, for the 
people and by the people ' and that in all contests in regard to its proper 
management and the elections occurring therein, the will of the majority 
when legally expressed, should govern the whole. Th s principle of gov- 
ernment, and its proper practice, had been acquiesced in by all the states 
from the foundation of the government, to the election of Mr. Lincoln 
in 1860. Then for the first time, it was declared by certain of the south- 
ern states that the will of the majority should not govern, and that they 
had the right to secede from the Union whenever they thought proper. 
They were told that such action would not be tolerated: that 'liberty 
and union were one and inseparable:' that one could not live without 
the other, and that a resort to forcible means would be met with 
sufficient force to overcome all resistance, and that the union of the 
states would be maintained at all hazards, and at whatever cost they 
made necessary. 

The conflict came; you know the result, so do they and so does the 
world. American manhood was not lacking on the part of the north. It 
was resolved that the experiment of self-government should not 'perish 
from the earth,' and as a result, to-day we are a happy and united na- 
tion of over sixty millions <;f people, marching at the very head of the 
column of the nations of the civilized world, and slavery no longer con- 
taminates the soil of this country. Our dignified bearing and courage 
drove monarchy from Mexico and made a republic of snnny France. The 
flag of this grand Union is respected in all countries and the down- 
trodden of all nations point to us as the beacon light of liberty and 
progress regulated by law and upheld by a strong, healthy, moral senti- 
ment among our people. The cavalier thinks more of the Puritan and 
the western man now, than he did in 1860. 

It was my duty in 1890 to cross the continent from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific ocean. It was the near approach of our natal day. Everywhere, 
and on all occasions, the evidence of a high patriotic devotion to the 
country, was visible. The love of one's country is natural : all parties 
have that love, and there is 'always the clinging to the land of one's 
birth.' If the red man loves his native hills, and the Laplander his 
snow-capped mountains and icy plains, and is devoted to them, how much 
more should we love our country, with its splendid development, wonder- 
ful possibilities, and its intelligent and progressive people I 

Perpetuate, if need be, all the battle-fields of the late war, to the end 
that the crime against the Union may not ;tgain be attempted: but, in 
my judgment, the participants, and the whole people, should cultivate a 
feeling of patriotic devotion to the Union of the states and justice to all ; 
that feeling will make the Union as perpetual as time itself. If our Con- 
federate friends can and will reach the patriotic standard of the Union 
Army, the government will last forever. This nation should learn war no 
more. The last war cost us 600,000 lives, the tlower of our youth, and 
over six billions of money. Peace is the blessing that should be perpetual 
in this country. It should be at the fireside and should be praised by 
every tongue. A man who favors peace makes tlie best warrior in time of 
war, and the man who favors war on slight provocation, in time of peace, 
seldom gets to the battle-field and never stays long. 



28 

ISTow, my friends, as you return to Illinois, carry to the people of that 
grand old commonwealth our best greetings. Express to them the hope 
that they will never auain be called to defend the flag against attacks of 
treason ;it home or from invasion from al)road. Express to them the fact, 
however, that we entertain the l)elief that if again called to duty, they 
will again r(>si)ond as they did in ISdl, when called to defend llie nation. 
The uprising of the Kevolutionary fathers to establish the independence 
of the country was no moi'c prompt and no more patriotic than tlie up- 
rising of the people of Illinois to defend the Union, when it was assailed 
in 1861. 

Peace to the ashes of those who fell, and happiness to those who 
survive. 

These monuments may soon crumble and fade away, or they may stand 
as long as the pyramids of Egypt, but they will not outlive the story of 
the devotion to the country of the patriotic Union men who died on this 
field that the republic might live. Their names and fame will live for- 
ever, and go on, 

'Till the sun turns cold, 
And the stars grow old. 
And the leaves of the Judgment Book unfold.'" 

Address by Col. Horace S. Clark, Commander of the Depart- 
ment of Illinois of the Grand Army of the Republic and a mem- 
ber of the Army of the Potomac: 

"CoMUADEs andFkiknds: As the representatiye of more than thirty 
thousand surviving soldiers for the Union, now residing in the State of 
Illinois, for them and for myself, I cheerfully join in these ceremonies. 

The regard in which the life of the individual man is held is evidenced 
by the conduct of the survivors who knew him, and the character of the 
survivors is known by such conduct. 

The high regard of our country and its appreciation as a nation, and of 
the ditferent states which were represented by regiments in the great 
battle of Gettysburg, for the patriotism and valor of those who dared risk 
their lives for the nationality of the states and the perpetuation of the 
Union is evidenced V)y the memorials erected on this historic field, monu- 
ments marking the sacred ground where each command, in most deadly 
conflict, met and defeated the armed allies of treason and rebellion. 

Upon this field, as upon every other Held of conflict, did the sons of 
Illinois maintain the glory and honor of our grand State, and the charac- 
ter of her illustrious leaders. 

Here, where we now stand, looking over this beautiful country, the 
Eighth and Twelfth regiments of Illinois cavalry and the Eiglity-second 
regiment of Illinois infantry, in the veiy advance of our army, met and 
received the shock of the invaders upon th(>S(iil of l*ennsylvania, and held 
them in check, against such overwlielming numliers until tlu' arrival of 
the main army, as to elicit the praise and gratitude of the nation, there- 
by contributing largely in turning what seemed to l)e impending defeat 
and disaster, into a glorious victory, hailing the surrender of \'icksburg 
and giving unto trembling patriotism courage throughout the land. 

In commemoration of the heroism of these regiments and to the memory, 
dead and living, as Governor Beveridge has so well said, of the individual 
members, are our services lield to-day. 

These monuments, erected tiirough legislative ajiproprialion, witii a 
hearty approval of our (Jovernor and the people, are the testimonial 
homage of a grateful commonwealth, to the honor and bravery of these 
noble sons of Illinois, against which time shall not prevail. 

As we have, unto the memory of our martyred Lincoln, Grant and 
Logan, and tliousands more of tliat 250. ooo patriots given by Illinois, as a 
sacrifice to the principles of liberty and self government, do we, the rep- 



29 

resentatives of that prosperous and liberty loving people, join in paying 
just tribute to the memory of those who so gallantly represented our 
State in this terrible conflict, and while we look with pride upon the 
bravery and patriotism of our departed comrades, these memories bring to 
us a feeling of sorrow, which cannot be dispelled by military pomp and 
parade, nor can eulogies however touching and heartfelt, drive away the 
sadness of the hour : yet tiie clieering thought comes to us tliat whether 
life was given up in the midnight rally, amid the beating of the long 
roll, and the cry of 'fall in, fall in," with the rattle of musketry and 
deadly hail, in tlie bayonet charge, on the forced march, upon the cold 
wet ground, in the liot southern sun, or in rebel prison pens, in the field 
hospital away from home and kindred, or whether the soul took its flight 
in peace and quiet among loved ones, or elsewhere, it was the death of 
the patriot, and no sting of death was tliere. 

The sacrifice was offered and came like deatli to the conqueror, like the 
sigh of joy from the wounded hero as he hears the glad cries of liis vic- 
torious comrades, who liave escaped the deadly missiles of the vanquished 
foe. 

Tlie gratitude of future generations awaits the noble sacrifice, while the 
present beams with honor and glory for the dead, and care for those who 
survived. 

As songs are chanted to the memory of those who are gone, let us be 
true to the living, and true to the words of the immortal Lincoln, which 
we now seem to hear gently wafted over this hallowed ground, like 
'the still, small voice' for more than a quarter of a century in time, 
'Care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and 
orphans." 

How well this admonition has been kept by the government is shown 
by its great liberality towards the survivors, and to their widows and 
orphans. 

I would that we, as individuals, had more power of human sympathy, 
that we might stop in the turmoil and struggle for possessions and posi- 
tion, and the happiness whicli is supposed to follow in their train, in 
glitter and in splendor, and have greater care for struggling liumanity, 
that we might, in the midst of great national prosperity, liave more regard 
for those whose suffering has contributed so largely thereto: a prosperity 
marvelous and wonderful, even at the time of the country"s greatest peril, 
away from the actual seat of war and from those who participated therein, 
and continues to the present time, such material prosperity and wealth ds 
was never known before. 

In the great struggle of life for property, position, comfort and happi- 
ness, the soldier, as a class, has not had an equal chance. 

In the loss of time, with but meager pecuniary recompense, while in 
the service of his country, and often crippled by wounds received in action, 
weakened by disease, hardships, privations, exposures and sufferings, the 
soldier could not start anew in the strife of civil life on an equal footing 
with liis more favored friends. 

As he cast off his armor of war and launched into the stream of civil 
life, with the same heroism and courage as he did in the war. he found 
his struggle upward and against the current. 

The rapid increase in value and general appreciation which marked the 
time of war, was now changed to reduction and depreciation, but manfully 
and heroically has he struggled on, commanding respect and admiration, 
and rightfully can he claim a share of the present wonderful prosperity, 
through wise legislation he has, by the generous suffrages of the people, 
helped to make for tlie government of the country he fought to preserve, 
and while we honor and praise the great leaders whose history is written 
in the grandeur of the nation and in those records made possible by the 
bravery and patriotism of those who dared to follow where others dared 
to lead, we must not forget that many of those brave men and their loved 
ones are in want and distress, and we must not forget that they are truly 



30 

the wards of the nation, and extend tliat spirit of true sympathy that 
reaches forth the liclpin^- hand in such manner as to do honor to tlie donor 
and to tlie object of charity alil<e, and alone;- the pathway of life, monu- 
ments ot Ivindness to the living- will adorn our way, more lasting- than the 
f,n-anite shafts erected to the memory of tlie dead, and as tlie reaper of 
death trathers one by one of our comrades to their eternal resting place, 
along the line pass the word 'Close up, boys, close up,' and in the con- 
sciousness of well doing let us trust to the services that the justice which 
we do so freely give to those in whose honor these services are held, will 
continue in the future as in the past, the priceless evidence of a nation's 
gratitude and honor." 

Preceded by the music, the procession inoved to the location 
of the 12th Illinois monument, where special services were held. 

Address by William M. Luff, Esq., late major of the 12th Illi- 
nois cavalry: 

"CoMKADES: We have met here as the representatives of our comrades 
in arms, living and dead, who gathered on this historic ground on the 
first day of .July, 1863, when that great general, John lUiford, with the 
8th and 12th regiments of Illinois cavalry, opened the battle of Gettys- 
burg. This little band of comrades represents not only the survivors of 
that immortal Held, but those who there nobly finished a patriot soldier's 
career; striking manfully their last hard blow in the battle for the Union 
and cheerfully giving their lives for the cause. Beneath the green sod of 
this beautiful valley, they rest peacefully and their sleep is sweet, while 
a grateful State and a grateful nation honor their repose. It is fitting 
that the memory of their brave deeds should live in imperishable granite, 
as well as in the hearts of the people, and that our great State of Illi- 
nois should plant here a monument to commemorate the heroism 
and devotion of her gallant sons. Well has the sculptor done his work 
and long after we shall have passed away will this stone stand as a per- 
petual memorial of their brave deeds. It marks an epoch in the history 
net only of the United States but of the world, of that grand struggle, 
as old as the world itself and forever going on, for liberty. The battle 
that was so nobly fought and won here, was for the maintenance of those 
principles of freedom and equality declared in our great bill of riglts in 
1776. The sam(> pure ])atriotisiii that inspired the mighty authors c»f that 
declaration sustained the heroes who fought for its maintenance here: and 
now in every state of a restored and firmly estalilished union, all are boi'u 
free and equal and with eciual rights l)efore the law. Law ana order — 
the constitution and laws adopted by the people, sustained by arms— reign 
in all the land. Long may it be before a resort to force becomes neces- 
sary to maintain the rights of the humblest citizen. 

Standing here to-day amid these peaceful scenes, our thoughts will 
still stray backwards to the old days of "H.'i: and, such is the force of 
memory as to scenes and events so deeply impressed, we can see the long 
lines of cavalry marching and forming as plainly as though it were yester- 
day. The striking figure of our commander, the soldierly bearing of 
our men only attained by long service, their uniforms worn, soiled and 
dusty, their guidons torn and stained by the smoke of iiattle. jiresent a 
picture once seen never to lie forgotten. Such is my admiration for tiiese 
men, of whom I can speak as one wiio saw and knew them, that 1 do 
not hesitate to say that for skill, courage, promi)t obedience to command 
and all the high qualities that distinguish the first-class soldier, they 
were never eijualed in any army. They rode straight to the front and 
their aim was unerring. (Jettysburg proved that no task could daunt 
them, no situation appall. Ready and [)romi)t they responded to every 
call and well upheld (he renown dearly won on other hard fought fields. 

Comrades, I am sure you will glarlly follow me in these backward glan- 
ces toward what we may, without vanity, call the glorious days of the 
republic, when the chosen of the nation stood up here to do battle for 
freedom and for the right. Many a noble soul reached here the ultimate 




GEORGE W. SHEARS, 
Captain Co. H, Commanding 12th III. CaV., at Gettysburg. 




DAVID B. VAUGHN, 

Commissioner. 

Scrgcai.t Co. I, 12th 111. Cav., :it Gettysburg. 



test of devotion and the survivors of that tierce conflict grow fewer year 
by year. We cannot hope that many of us will meet here again to re- 
view the past, but let us trust that the future may have for the old sol- 
dier, good store of comfort and that the respect and consideration of his 
fellow citizens may never be wanting. 

There is no time to speak in detail of the achievements of the 12th. but 
it is proper, on this occasion, to give a brief sketch of the history of the 
regiment. 

The 12th Illinois cavalry was organized at Camp Butler, near Spring- 
field, and was mustered into the United States service on the 28th day of 
February 1862, Col. Arno Voss commanding. The regiment arrived in 
Tirginia about the ttrst day of July, 1862, encamped at Martinsburg and 
was engaged in scouting and fighting guerrillas in the Shenandoah valley 
until early, in September. A detachment composed of company A and 
parts of companies F and G, about fifty men in all, under command of 
Col. Hasbrouck Davis, on the Tth of September charged a force of 300 
rebel cavalry at Darksville on the Winchester turnpike, completely rout- 
ing them. Other companies of the regiment then came up and the 
enemy was pursued to Winchester, ten miles, losing twenty-five killed and 
thirty prisoners. Upon the evacuation of Martinsburg, the regiment 
marched to Harper's Ferry. It formed a part of the column of 1,200 cav- 
alry that marched out of Harper's Ferry on the night of September 14, 
1862, the day before the surrender, passed through the enemj'"s lines and 
reached a point near Williamsport, Md., before daylight on the morning 
of the 15th. Here the command captured 112 wagons loaded with am- 
munition and provisions belonging to Longstreet's train, which were 
driven to Greencastle, Pa. This capture seriously crippled Longstreet in 
the battle of Antietam, fought on the ITth. The regiment served in Mary- 
land and Virginia until the spring of 1863, when it joined the cavalry 
corps of the Army of the Potomac. Col. Voss was. temporarily, placed 
in command of a brigade and was succeeded in the command of the regi- 
ment by Lieut. Col. Davis. The next important service of the regiment, 
under Col. Davis, was the Eichmond raid in April, 1863. After this the 
regiment was assigned to the first brigade, 1st division, cavalry corps, 
Buford's, where it encountered much hard service during the campaign 
of 1863, including the battle of Gettysburg. Here it was commacded by 
Capt. George W. Shears, a brave and capable officer. In ISTovember, 1863, 
the regiment re-enlisted as veterans and was sent to Chicago to recruit. 
It left Chicago under command of Col. Davis, 1,200 strong, in February, 
1861, going to St. Louis and thence to New Orleans. Col. Davis was at 
this time made brigadier general and was succeeded in command of the 
regiment by Lieut. Col. Hamilton B. Dox. Part of the command joined 
Gen. Banks on the Red river campaign, and after much hard fighting re- 
turned to New Orleans. The regiment was constantly engaged in scouts, 
raids and actions in Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas and Tennessee until 
the close of the war, when it was sent to Texas and remained on duty 
there until May, 1866. I will now call upon Capt. W. H. Bedman. of 
Company C, who fought at Gettysburg and who will give some particu- 
lars of the services of the regiment in that battle." 

Address by W. H. Redman, Esq., late captain in the 12th 
Illinois cavalry: 

"Comrades, Ladies and Gextt^emen : I must confess for the moment 
I feel somewhat embarrassed, for comrade Luff has introduced me as 
captain. This was not intentional on his part and I excuse him. Permit 
me to assure you the record will show that I served in the ranks at Get- 
tysburg. My old comrades of the Twelfth cavalry, including Captain 
Luff, will attest this. It has become popular of late to be classed with 
those who bear the distinction of having been private soldiers. At least 
it seems when an old veteran seeks preferment or public endorsement, if 
he was a private he gets to the front; and especially is this so in the 
Prairie State where most of us have our homes. Out there even a Fifer. 
when heralded as "private" proves a winner. It has at last dawned upon 



32 

a dazed world, and especially upon the people of the ^reat Prairie State, 
that the men who fought in the ranks are worthy of consideration. 
Thanks for justice, if it does come late. It is better late than never. 

Well, ray emharrassment is not so great after all, for the captain was 
kind enough to say I was a 'tighter.' All Illinois soldiers were lighters, 
whether they gave or obeyed orders. 

We areasseml)led to-day upon hallowed ground. Here upon this very spot 
of eai'th we stood in battle array and in deadly strife, in the hot days of 
July 1, 2 and .'?, ]S(i:}. Here the blood of many Union soldiers was spilled 
like water and tiieir lifeless bodies laid in death's cold embrace. Was the 
cause for which they died a holy one? If so, then I am right in saying 
'hallowed ground.' They contended for national unity and universal 
freedom. They faltered not, but fell in line of duty. Listen to the im- 
mortal words of Lincoln, uttered in his address nearly twenty-eight years 
ago, on yonder hill, in dedicating that beautiful cemetery where they now 
rest. 'We cannot dedicate. We cannot consecrate. We cannot haJlow 
this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here have 
consecrated it far altove our power to add or detract.' Inspired truth, 
disputed then, but axiomatic now. 

We are in the midst of the blessings of profound and tranquil peace, a 
peace which ha>^ reigned supreme, casting its benign sunshine of prosperity 
upon a united and happy people for more than a quarter of a century: a 
peace assured at the battle of Gettysburg, and conquered upon Appomat- 
tox field, when that chieftain of chieftains issued the order, 'The war is 
over : let us have peace : ' a peace which all the world accredits to the 
valor of that grand army of patriots, who, responding to the call of duty, 
sprang to arms in 1861-5. It came as the finale of a long and bloody 
conflict in which father and son, brother and brother were arrayed against 
each other. It came, and though purchased at a fearful price of blood 
and treasure, it is worth all it cost. It is ours to enjoy and ours to trans- 
mit to our posterity, and may it continue as long as the sun shall rise 
and set upon America's fair domain. 

For the time being we have laid aside the ordinary cares and duties of 
life and come hitherto be present at and assist in dedicating these monu- 
ments to the honor of the three Illinois regiments which were engaged in 
the great battle here fought. Our mission is at the same time both pleas- 
ant and sad. It is pleasant, in the realization of the truth, eternally 
established, that the services which these stones were erected to com- 
memorate were put forth in a just and righteous cause, which, under the 
guidance of an All-Wise providence, was carried to a glorious and final 
triumph : sad because of the vivified remembrance of the heartrending 
scenes here witnessed. 

Willingly and yet sadly we muse upon the happenings of those hot 
summer days. Here we were taught the true lesion of patriotism. Here 
love for the old Mag. bursting into a tlame, consumed the briglitest hojies 
of treason. Here the spirits of our brothers took llight to the realms l)e- 
vond, and on eagle wings tlcw away to God and eternal victory. Ah ! 
time does not efface nor changed circumstances destroy the recollections 
of those events. They come trooping home to-day. 

My dear and worthy comrade, General Beveridge, has very graijhically 
andverv correctlv j^ointed out to you the position occupied by the Eighth 
and Twelfth Illinois cavalrv when the enemy opened his batteries upon us 
earlv in the morning of July llrst. The general has told you howiJeneral 
Buford. with his cavalry held his position at this point until (General 
Revnolds came up with" the infantry: and the fact that General Beytu)lds 
was killed in advance of the position of the cavalry, as is evi(U>nced by 
the location of the monument erected where he fell, shows very clearly 
that Buford and his cavalry were equal to the emergency. 

The general vcrv ajjpropriately makes nuMition of the fact that comrade 
.rones of the Kigli'tli fired \\\v llrst shot on the Tnion side. He is right, 
and it is right and proper that the credit and honor should go where it 
lielongs. But the general omits on item of history which deserves mention 




;:OSEPII 15. GRKKXHrr, 

Commissioner. 

Captain Con mar.diniX Co. K, S2d 111. Inl 'ty, at Gettysburg. 



33 

here. The omission was not intentional on the part of the major. Par- 
don me, General Beveridge, I am thinking of yon as of the time when 
yon were winning your stars. You were a major then, and let me assure 
you that you never held a higher position or performed a greater service 
to your country than when you commanded the Eighth Illinois cavalry. 
I want to say now and here, that while General Beveridge is correct as 
to who tired the first shot, that Private Ferd Uskiier, of Co. C, Twelfth 
Illinois cavalry was the first man to lay his life upon the altar of his^ 
country at Gettysburg. Over there to my right, on that hillside, but a 
few rods away, about seven o'clock in the morning on that eventful day 
just as we were forming into line. Private Ushuer was struck with a piece 
of bursting shell, which was one of the first fired by the enemy. He was 
instantly killed. As proof of what I say I point to the records, and here 
near me stands Ushuer's weeping mess-mate, comrade R. A. Drury, whose 
hand I have not grasped for more than twenty-five years, who with me, 
witnessed that awful scene. Ushuer was but eighteen years old. A manly 
boy, a true patriot and as brave a hero as ever unsheathed a sword. I can find 
no t^race of his last resting place, although I have made a diligent search. 
He undoubtedly sleeps with the 'unknown' in the National cemetery. 

Comrades, we are surrounded by shafts of marble and granite. They have 
been erected as a sign and witness of patriotic deeds here performed. We 
dedicate three more monuments. Over there in that cluster of trees', not 
far in the distance, you see a monument erected to commemorate the 
bravery of the men who fired the first shot. I say, well done. It should 
be so, and General Beveridge very properly makes mention of that fact at 
this l3ime and on this occasion. Our children and our children's children 
will know where the first shot was fired. But who will tell them where 
Ushuer cfellV He was the first sacrifice. But who will know it when we 
are goneV 

If General Reynolds died the death of a patriot, and no one disputes it, 
so did comrade Ushuer. If one is to be remembered, the other should be. 
I ask that the name of Ferd Ushuer shall be engraved upon the monument 
here dedicated to the honor of the Twelfth cavalry. Shall it be done? 
And will it also upon this stone appear that he was the first man killed 
at Gettysburg? Governor Fifer and General Beveridge. in the name of the 
comrades of the Twelfth cavalry. I appeal to you to see that this request 
is granted. 

Comrades and friends, I am done. I bid you farewell. We have met for 
the last time. A little more fieeting time and then the great hereafter. 
May it be the aim of each to so live that when the last "reveille" shall 
be sounded it shall be said of us, 'Well done, good and faithful servants, 
come up higher." " 

Thence preceded by the band, the procession moved to the 
location of the 82d Illinois monument, where the following; ser- 
vices were held : 

Address by Joseph B. Greenhut, Esq., one of the Illinois Mon- 
umental Commissioners, and late captain in the 82d Illinois 
infantry : 

"Friends and Comrades: We are assembled here to-day on the spot 
where, on the first day of July, 1863, our regiment stood in line at the be- 
ginning j of the first day's memorable battle of Gettysburg. More than 
twenty-eight years have passed since that eventful struggle, but our mem- 
ory is refreshed and brightened when we cast our eyes about us and view 
these familiar fields and surroundings, and we are impressed, in part, 
with the feelings which raged in our breasts when we were formed into 
line on this field to stem the advance of the rebel army. It was a hercu- 
lean task "we had to perform, when we consider that only a small portion 
of our army was in the field on the first day's battle, while tht^ larger por- 
tion of Lee's army was concentrated on our front and right. 

—3 



34 

None of us knew what a hot day's fl^ht was liofore us when we broke 
canii) at lOnmielsliurt;' early on the niorninj^ of .luly 1st. and be^an our 
niarrh towards ( Jet tysl)ur^^ We had not ^^one very far when ord(>rs came 
lo move fastei' and to ])e pi'epai'cd for an ens^ayeiiient. As we apjiroached 
the town of (lettyshui'y on tlie Einmetsbur^ road, we could hear the first 
shots that were tti'ed by the cavalry skirmish lines, and soon thereafter 
received word that tlie First corps, which was ahead of us, was already en- 
yafjinji- the enemy, and then the sad news that (Jen. Reynolds had been 
killed. We then moved double-(iuick through the town to this field, when 
our ])atteries were placed in position, and at once opened tire on the ad- 
vancing enemy. I was detailed in command of two companies of our reg- 
iment to support Dilger's battery, and I can bear witness of the etfective 
work done by that gallant l)atter\ in holding the enemy in check. We 
were exposed to the fearful cannonade tire which the enemy opened in our 
front, and by which we had several of our men wounded. We held our 
ground for a long time against the large force in our front, but latei' in 
the afternoon Ewell's corps flanked us on the right, and as our numliers 
were entirely too small to combat the overwhelming force of the approach- 
ing enemy on our right, there was no other alternative for us but to re- 
treat through the town and take up a position on Cemetery Hill. 

Tt was in this retreat through the town that our regiment suffered most 
severely, the reliels coming in through the side streets, which compelled 
us to tight our way through the entii'e town. Besides the killed and 
wounded we suffered in this street conHict. a munber of our officers and 
men were cut off and captured by the enemy. It was a fearful struggle 
against great odds, and as our regiment covered the rear of our l)rigade 
in that retreat, it has been a surprise to me that we were not entirely an- 
nihilated or captured in our endeavor to force our way through the town 
up to Cemetery Hill. Each of us can. however, vividly recollect the haii'- 
breadth escapes experienced on that occasion without any allusions on my 
part. From Col. Soiomon. who had his horse shot from under him in the 
street, down through the entire raid< of otticei's and ukmi, none will ever 
forget that terrible day. 

As soon as we reached Cemetery Hill, we felt that we were in a better 
position and could resist any further attacks, if they should be made on 
us, and the rebels evidently came to the same conclusion, as they did not 
make any further attempt that day. 

During the night we were reinforced l)y the remainder of our army, 
which reached (iettysburg from different points, and which l)rought con- 
fidence and encouragement to us who had withstood the hardships of the 
engagement of the first day's liattle. and when daylight ajipeared on the 
second day of .luly, we were pi'epared and i-cady for the second day's 
struggle. 

The early morning hours of the second day were spent in comparative 
iiuiet, eacli army in full view of the other, and each waiting for the 
other to i)egin the tight. The rebels, however, who had possession of tlie 
town, had tilled the houses standing on the outskirts and just below 
Cemetery Tlill. with sharp-shooteis, ITor the pur]K)se of ])icking off our 
officers whom they could easily spy standing or walking aV)()ut on Cemetery 
Hill. This had f)ecome finite troultlesome. and (Jeneral Schur/ ref|uested 
Colonel Solomon to send a detail of ahout one hundred men to dislodge 
those sharp-shooters. 1 had the honor to command that detail, whicli 
was made uji of volunteers, and stormed those houses, driving out the 
sharii-shoofers, and keejjing i)ossession of the liouses the balance of the 
day. In making up this detail an incident happened whicii I shall re- 
nu'tnber as lf)ng as I live, and I cannot refrain from i-eferring to the same 
ai this time. Jirave John Ackerman, a private in my company who on 
every previous occasion was the first to respond when volunteers were 
asked for to engage in some daring work, did not come to the front on 
this occasion. 1 was very much surprised at his action, and stepi)ed over 
to liim- to speak with him alKiut it. He said to me. "Captain, J cannot 
go witli you this lime. T feci as if something terrible was going to haj)- 
pcii to inc lo-(ia\.' lie looked very pale and despoiidcni. lielieving that 



he did not feel well, I left hiui after sa>iny a lew eiicoui-aginf>- words to 
liira. Within an hour after I left him, Ackerman was Ivilled. a rehel 
shell cuttinK^ off' more than half his head. Plis remains are buried on 
Cemeterj' ilill close to where he was killed. It is singular that he is the 
only one of our regiment killed at Gettysburg whose name appears on any 
headstone in the Kational Cemetery. 

The great artillery duel consisting of tiring of more than two hundred 
cannon, which was the beginning of the second day's battle, was especially 
severe on the exposed position occupied by the 11th corps on Cemetery 
Hill, and the rebels seemed determined to dislodge us from our position. 
They were unsuccessful in their efforts, but all of us can recollect the 
myriads of shells and bombs that Hew in our midst and over our heads, 
dealing out death wherever they struck in our ranks, and very few of the 
headstones which marked the graves in that old cemetery were left un- 
broken after that shower of shells. 

The terrible charge the rebels made on the evening of the second day, 
to force us from our position on Cemetery Hill, has passed into history as 
one of the most desperate and bloody of this memorable battle. The 
charge was made from the streets of the town, by the rebel brigade known 
as the Louisiana Tigers, and it is officially stated that out of l.Too men 
in that brigade, less than 300 Tigers returned to the town after that 
charge. 

The third day's battle was nearly a duplicate of the d;iy preceding, our 
regiment holding the same position on Cemetery Hill and standing the 
terrific tire of the enemy with the same bravery and gallantry tliat had 
characterized our organization from the beginning. We can all recollect 
how. with frantic desperation, the rebels tried to dislodge us from the 
position we occupied, but all their attempts were unavailing, and when 
the radiant sun sank behind the western horizon, after the third day's 
battle, the rebels signalized their defeat by uuiking a hasty retreat south- 
ward. 

We can also vividly remember how lighthearted and joyous we felt on 
that early 4th of July morning, when we gazed on those' fields and hills 
in our front, which, only the evening before were full of life, covered 
with rebel soldiers and cannon, and now looked deserted and forsaken. 
We then first began to fully realize the great victory we had won, a vic- 
tory which I confidently believe was the turning point for the salvation 
of this country. But while the face of every Union soldier on that morn- 
ing was glowing with the flush of heroism, there were but few, however, 
who could pass without sad emotions over those fields which were so 
thickly strewn with the dead and dying that, in many places it was im- 
possible to walk without stepping on some of the dead: but such are the 
consequences and results which follow the terrors of war, and I sincerely 
hope it may never again become necessary in this glorious country to call 
out large armies, and to bring such great sacrifices in order to perpetuate 
our liberties and freedom. 

It is not necessary here to-day to eulogize the many brave deeds of the 
officers and men of our regiment on this battle-field, as the official records 
bear ample testimony on that subject, and I doubt whether any regiment 
can show a better record for bravery and efficiency than the old S2d Illi- 
nois. 

This monument which has been erected through the generosity of the 
State of Illinois to commemorate the noble deeds of the <S2d regiment 
on this battle-field, will stand for ages as a tribute of a grateful people 
to her sons now living or dead, who participated in this, the greatest 
battle which was fought during the war for the preservation of the 
Union. 

We, the surviving members of the 82d regiment, fully appreciate this 
token erected in our honor by the State of Illinois, and in behalf of our 
comrades, I desire to express, through His Excellency, ( Governor Fifer, 
our sincere thankfulness for the same.'' 



36 

A(l(li-(>ss by Hon. Jncol) dross, late State Treasiiver, and cnii- 
taiu in the 82(1 lllinoi.s iufanti'v: 

"Tweiily-ci^ht years ago we stood uixtii tliis same spot, Iml imdcr cii'- 
(nimstances ditferent from those which bi-ing us liere lo-day. At that 
time we hurriedly came, double quick step, from Emmctsburg to the re- 
lief of our sorely pressed cavalry and the First army corps. T(j-(hiy we 
are here in order to unveil a monuujent erected by our State in honoi- of 
our fallen comrades. The wild tuuuilt of l)attl(' greeted \is then, to-dny 
we enjoy peace and quiet. The proud monuments surrounding us on all 
sides bear evidence of the deadly struggle which devastated tliese ricli 
tlelds, and covered them with the blood of tiiousands of I'nion men and 
Confederates, and a brief recital or our participation in the memoralile 
events of those days may therefore not be out of place. 

Our regiment, the 82d Illinois infantry, arrived here at 1:30 o'clock in 
the afternoon of the 1st of July, and found that the brave General Rey- 
nolds and many of his valiant troops had been mowed down by the 
enemy's bullet*. The boys who, in May of the same year, had sulTered so 
heavily at Chancellorsville, were commanded by Lieut. Col. Edward S. 
Solomon, our brave Col. Hecker not having recovered fi'oni the wound re- 
ceived in that battle. Solomon's valor justified the contidence wliicli his 
soldiers placed in him in the fullest measure, two horses being shot under 
him, and he himself suffering severe injuries in the fall, but with un- 
daunted courage he remained on the tleld at the head of his comnuind to 
the end of the tight. 

We were successful in the repulse of the enemy until the Conft'dcrale 
General Ewell came to his succor with reinforcements of 4U.0U0 men. whicli 
necessitated a retreat, the enemy's force being six times stronger in num- 
ber than ours. Our britrade, under the connuand of brave Schemmeljjfen- 
nig, covered the retreat, and all proceeded in good order until we were 
attacked by the enemy in the streets of Oxettysburg, where we became en- 
gaged in a l)loody hand-to-hand tight, losing many in killed, wounded and 
prisoners. Arriving at Cemetery Hill, we lookup a position and success- 
fully resisted the fire of the enemy. We shall never forget the second day 
of the battle, where for more than two hours we were exposed to the 
most fearful cannonading ever witnessed. In the evening, our division 
hurried to the support of Gen. Slocum, who was being hotly pursued, when 
we charged bayonets and drove the enemy from the field with wild 
hurrahs. 

On the M of July, when Gen. Hood's attack on the left wing was re- 
])ulsed and finally the enemy was driven back along the whole line, we 
were also engaged in a hand-to-hand fight, and are proud to say that W(> 
j«irticipated to the last in the final overthrow of the desperate foe dur- 
ing these memorable days. 

Our losses were severe and many of our brave connades sleep in these 
shady groves around Gettysburg. This battle-Held, as well as nuuiy others, 
particularly Mission Ridge, llesaca, Dallas, Pine Mountain. Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek and lientonville. will forever bear eloquent 
testimony concerning the valor of our regiment, and that in conmiemor- 
ation of the courage and patriotism with wbicli we discliarged the sacred 
duty to preserve the union of our states in a bloody four years' conflict, 
the erection of this monunumt is well deserved. 

liut on this halhtwed ground it becomes us lathcr to stand in silent 
admiration of the men who gave up their lives in defence of our gloi'ious 
countiT. Sacred is tliis spot, and forever will it gather tliose who love 
their country in order to do worship at the shrine of patriotism. Grand 
and glorious were the achievements of the army of citizens who shouldered 
the nuisket, not for the sake of conquest or for glory, but to protect the 
fabric of our government, than which human wisdom has never, in the 
history of the race, devised anything equal. This spot on which we 
stand, decided, more than any other battle ground during the war of the 
rebellion, the fate of our nation. It was the last invasion of our free 



37 

states, by a desperate foe, who was too blind to recognize tliat the su- 
premacy of the federal oovernment was the strongest guaranty of the 
lil)erties of the people, as it is the surest protection against aggressions 
from without. The country has emerged from the war more powerful 
than it was before. The notion of the right of a state to secede from 
the Union found its grave on this battle-tteld, and to-day our government 
stands before the world the strongest and greatest of all, and the people 
the most prosperous of all the nations on the earth. The blood of the 
patriots who lie buried here has cemented the Union, and may the Union 
live forever and ever." 

Haviii2* dedicated the monuments and traced the Federal lines 
of battle during the three days of the bloody contest, by the 
monuments erected by the several loyal states, the party left 
Crettysburo- at 2 P. M., Friday for Washinoton, D. C; sto])ping' 
there one day; arriving in Chicago at 12 M.. Monday, all high- 
ly pleased with the success of the trip, the services of dedication 
and the visit to the battle-field and the national capital; and 
prouder than ever of the part the three Illinois regiments took 
in the battle of Gettysburg, in defense of the nation and the 
nation's capital. 



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