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The Illinois State Question Book 

Questions for First, Second and Third Grade Elementary 

This book contains the questions as given by the State Ex- 
amining Board tor Second and Third Grade Elementary Cer- 
tificates and the questions in the common branches of study 
used in the examination for First Grade Elementary Certif- 

Copyright applied for, February, 1915. 

All rights reserved 

Price, Cloth Bound, 75c. 

E. B. LEWIS, Publisher, Litchfield, 111. 

This Book Aims to Excell All Other Question Books in the 
Following Points: 

1st. In the Number, Ability and Eminence of its Authors. 

2nd. In the Model Forms of Written Answers Included. 
While some of the authors have abridged their answers more 
than they would be in an examination, many others have an- 
swered the topics just as they would if taking the examination 
themselves. It therefore contains model forms, which feature 
alone is of inestimable value to any young teacher. 

3rd. It is the only question book containing the examina- 
tions given by the Illinois State Examining Board under the 
New Certificating Law. 

4th. It gives a fair idea of the standard of work required 
for certificates in Illinois. 

5th. Whole topics are given just as they were in the exam- 
inations, and answered. 

6th. The old ' ' Cramming, " ' ' Pouring In ' ' Process of Form- 
er Question Books has been eliminated. No attempt has been 
made to see how many questions could be manufactured and 
advertised. Most any topic could be resolved into several 
single questions. 



MISS HELEN BRYDEN, Assistant in English, Southern Illinois 
State Normal University — Reading. 

O. C. BAILEY, Superintendent of Schools, Effingham, 111. — Or- 
thography and Penmanship. 

DAVID FELMLEY, President Illinois State Normal University — 

H. AMBROSE PERRIN, Superintendent of Schools, Lincoln, 111. 
— Civics. 

H. T. WHITE, Superintendent of Schools, Carlinville, 111. — Phy- 
siology and Reading. 

MISS MYRTLE GENTRY, Instructor in Summer School, Illinois 
State Normal University and Teacher in Wichita, Kan. — Grammar. 

ELBERT WALLER, Superintendent of Schools, Albion, 111., and 
Author of Waller's History of Illinois. — Illinois History. 

ELMER W. CAVINS, Teacher of Orthography and Penmanship, 
Illinois State Normal University. — Orthography. 

GEORGE H. HOWE, Professor of Mathematics, Illinois State 
Normal University — Arithmetic. 

WILLIAM HAWKES, Superintendent of Schools, Litchfield, 111. — 

MISS LAURA HAYES, Teacher of English Grammar, Illinois 
State Normal University — Grammar. 

EDGAR S. JONES, Superintendent East Schools, Taylorville, 111. 
— Geography. 

A. F. STROME, Department of History, Western Illinois State 
Normal University — U. S. History. 

L. P. FROHARDT, Superintendent of Schools, Granite City, 111. 
— Pedagogy. 

A. S. ANDERSON, Superintendent of Schools, Mt. Carmel, IU. — 
Elementary Science. 

HERBERT BASSETT, Teacher of Geography Western Illinois 
State Normal School — Geography. 

ROY M. SALLEE, Galesburg, 111., Formerly Assistant in Biolcgy, 
Western Illinois State Normal School — Elementary Science. 

CHARLES McINTOSH, Superintendent Piatt County Schools and 
Editor of Illinois State Course of^ Study — State Course and Penman- 

MAR 27 1915 



Section One 

When fourteen topics are given in any one subject the rule 
is that applicants writing for an elementary certificate shall 
answer questions as follows: (1) for a Third Grade, any eight 
of the questions from f to 10, inclusive; (2) For a Second 
Grade, any eight of the questions from 3 to 12, inclusive; (3) 
For a First Grade, any eight of the questions from 5 to 14, in- 

READING — Questions. 

1. The slaves, who were in the hold of the vessel, had been cap- 
tured in Africa. The slaves who were in the hold of the vessel, had 
been captured in Atrica. Read the above sentence. Pause where 
the commas occur. What difference in meaning is there in the first 
and second? 

2. So every bondman in his own hand bears the power to cancel 
his captivity? What would the meaning be if the first seven words 
are read in one group? By vertical lines mark off the correct 

3. In what grade or grades would the following classics be ap- 
propriate? Would you reject any as unsuited for the grades? 
Arabian Nights, Miles Standish, Hamlet, The Legend of Sleepy Hol- 
low, Heynard the Fox, Anderson's Fairy Tales, Idylls of the King, 
The Tale of Two Cities, The Man Without a Country, Robinson 
Crusoe, Story of Ulysses. 

4. We have a secret, just we three, 

The robin and I and the sweet cherry tree; 
The bird told the tree and the tree told me, 
And nobody knows it but just we three. 
But of course the robin knows it best, 
Because he built the — I shan't tell the rest; 
And laid the four little — somethings — in it — 
I am afraid I shall tell it every minute. 
But if the tree and the robin don't peep, 
I'll try my best the secret to keep; 
Tho I know when the little birds fly about, 
Then the whole secret will be out. — Anon. 


In what grade would you introduce this poem? Make out a les- 
son plan showing how you would teach it. 

5. What methods would you use in disposing of unfamiliar 
^vords which the pupil meets in the reading iessoL : 

fi. Cassius — Do not presume too much upon my love; I may d r 
*hat I shall be sorry for. 

rirutus — You have done that you should be sorry for. Julius 
Caesar IV: 3. 

What is the meaning when emphasis is put (a) on you? (b) or 
have? (c) on should? (d) on sorry? (e) on done and should? Ur- 
derline the words which should be emphasized. 

7. Make out a lesson plan for teaching "The Little Red Hen" 
to a first grade class. 

8. The splendor falls on castle walls 

And snowy summits, old in story; 
The long light shakes across the lakes, 

And the wild cataract leaps in glory. 
Blow, bugle, blow, set the wild echoes flying; 
Blow, bugle; answer, echoes, dying, dying, dying. 

O, hark! O, hear! how thin and clear, 

And thinner, clearer, father going! 
O, sweet and far from cliff and scar, 

The horns of Elfland, faintly blowing! 
Blow, let us hear the purple glens replying; 
Blow, bugle; answer, echoes, dying, dying, dying. 

O, love, they die in yon rich sky; 

They faint on hill or field or river. 
Our echoes roll from soul to soul, 

And grow forever and forever. 
Blow, bugle, blow, set the wild echoes flying; 
And answer, echoes, answer, dying, dying, dying. 

Why does the writer use "splendor" instead of "sun-set," and 
"summits" instead of "mountains?" What is meant by "old in 

9. What is the theme of the above poem? In order to make 
plain the theme what words in the third stanza must be emphasized? 

10. Explain the meaning of the following: "wild echoes," "horns 
of Elfland," "rich sky," "purple glens," "leaps in glory." 

11. What is the relation of phonics to reading? Speak of the 
relative place of, and the amount of time to be given to reading 
and literature thru the grades. 

12. Build thee more stately mansions, O my soul, 

As the swift seasons roll; 

Leave thy low-vaulted past! 
Let each new temple, nobler than the last, 
Shut thee from heaven with a dome more vast, 

Till thou at length art free, 
Leaving thine outgrown shell by life's unresting sea! 

— Holmes. 


Explain the meaning of the following: "Low-vaulted past," "out- 
grown shell," "life's unresting sea." How does the soul huild man- 
sions? What is meant by the new temple?" 

13. In "King Lear," the Fool says: "I fain would learn to lie." 
What does this sentence mean if emphasis is put (a) on I? (b) on 
fain? (c) on learn? (d) on lie? 

14. Rip van Winkle; The Pied Piper of Hamlin. Select one of 
these classics. How would you plan to teach it in the seventh or 
eighth grades? In answering cover the following points: 

A. General purpose for teacher and for pupil. 

B. Mode of approach. 

C. Plan of procedure. 

D. Amount of time to he spent in oral and In silent reading. 

ARITHMETIC. — Questions. 

1. Give four examples in the substraction of integers, arranged 
according to difficulty, to illustrate some difficulties arising in sub- 
traction. Tell how each example differs from the preceding. 

2. (a) 

1.1 1/9 + .025 1/2 + 1/11= what? Give exact result, 
(b) Simplify: 

2 2/11 2 1/2-15/6 


3 3/4 4 

3. The circumference of a circle is 548.76 ft. Find the diame- 
ter correct to .01 ft. Use PI = 3.1 41 6. Find the area of the circle 
correct to .01 ft. 

4. Develop the rule for "pointing off" in the multiplication of 
decimal fractions. 

5. A cube whose edge is six inches is cut into two equal parts 
by a plane passing thru diagonally opposite edges. Find the 
volume and whole surface of one of the equal pieces. 

6. Find the weight in kilograms of a piece of iron 3 meters long 
and one decimeter square at the end, assuming the specific gravity 
of iron to be 7.2. 

7. If the area of a triangle whose base is 40 ft. is 600 sq. ft, 
what is the base of a similar triangle whose area is 1200 sq. ft.? 

8. Find the proceeds on a note for $800, dated Jan. 1, 1914, due 
in 90 days, not bearing interest, and discounted at the bank on 
January 27 at 7%. 

9. After being allowed discounts of 10% and 10%, A paid 
$82.60 for a bill of goods. What was the list price? 

10. Give the answers to the following: 

(a) 1% of 2.465= what? 

(b) 16.5 = 200% of what number? 

(c) 48.65= what per cent of 12.36? Answer correct 

to .1%. 


11. Give the form of solution that you would give to a seventh 

grade for each of the following problems: 

(a) 7% of $850 = what? 

(b) |48 = 6% of what? 

(c) 32 = 5% of what number? 

12. Tell which of the following statements are not true, and 
give reasons: 

(a) $24 + 50% = $48. 

(b) 28 cu. in.H-7 in. = 4 sq. in. 

(c) V 900 »<*• «. = 30 ft. 

(d) $2/3 -r $3/5 = $2/3 X $3/5 = $10/9. 

(e) 4 hr. 3 min. 2 sec. X 15 = 60 hr. 45 mln. 30 sec. 

13. Find the ratio of: 

(a) The altitude of an equilateral triangle to its side. 

(b) the diagonal of a cube to its edge. 

14. Write a note for $8,000, with interest at 5%, dated at 
Springfield, Illinois, Jan. 4, 1914, due in two years, and payable 
at the First National Bank of Springfield, Illinois. Make John Doe 
the maker, and William Roe the payee. 

This note is first endorsed in full to John Jones, and then in 
blank by John Jones. Write both endorsements. 

CIVICS — Questions. 

1. What is the purpose of government? Where is the source 
of government in the United States? 

2. What distinction is there between a town and township? 
What offices does a town have? Township? Indicate the time 
of election of each. 

3. How long is the term of a representative in Congress? Of 
a senator? Of the President? Of a judge of the U. S. Supreme 

4. What is meant by civil service? By diplomatic service? By 
consular service? 

5. Explain writ of habeas corpus, bill of attainder, appellate 
jurisdiction, ex post facto law, indictment. 

6. Explain the "town system" and the "county system" of 
county government in Illinois. 

7. Explain how the minority party in any senatorial district 
may send a representative to the general assembly. 

8. Who may be excused from jury service in Illinois? Why 
this provision in law? 

9. What arguments for and against an electoral system of elect- 
ing the president? 

10. State fully and clearly how to find the number of repre- 
sentatives for each state in congress following the taking of the 

11. What is the most important committee in the house of 
representatives, and what is its chief duty? 


12. Describe the ordinary proceedings in the passage of a law 
in Illinois. 

13. How may fugitives from justice be returned to the state 
in which the crime was committeed? 

14. What is meant by implied powers in the Federal constitu- 
tion? Point out a practical application of this power in our history. 


For Third Grade Certificate answer any eight of the first ten ques- 
tions; for Second Grade Certificate, any eight of 
3 to 12, inclusive. 

1. What subjects should be taught in the first two grades? 

2. Discuss the value of a school library. What kinds of books 
should it contain? 

3. What are the four aims of the State Course of Study? 

4. Discuss the value of the State Course to the rural schools. 

5. Explain the plan of alternation of studies and classes. 

6. Make out a suggestive program for the forenoon, of a one- 
room school, or of a grade consisting of two divisions. 

7. Make out a suggestive program for the afternoon, of a one- 
room school, or of a grade consisting of two divisions. 

8. Name and discuss brieiiy from three to five purposes served 
by an examination system. 

How may the disadvantages of an examination system be counter- 
acted in part? What is meant by Patron's Day? What may be 
accomplished by its observance? 

9. What are some of the sources of material for reading lessons 
in the lower grades? 

10. Give five general suggestions on teaching spelling. 

11. What aritmetic work should be taught in the fifth and 
sixth grades? 

12. Make a list of five stories suitable for second grade lan- 
guage work and outline a plan for teaching one of them. 

What aims should be kept in mind in teaching phonics? Give 
a plan for teaching the same. 

ORTHOGRAPHY — Questions. 

1. Syllabicate and mark the accent: ally, cerebrum, discourse, 
idea, industry, inquiry, gondola, horizon, recess, formidable. 

2. In each of the following works mark diacritically the first 
vowel to indicate its correct pronunciation in the word: gratis, deaf, 
arid, piano, water, chasten, produce (noun), forehead, boquet. 


3. Indicate by diacritical markings the sound of e in whey, meat, 
fern, debt, heir; and of u in church, human, rule, pull, cup. 

4. Give the meaning of the prefix in each of the following words- 

(1) antecedent (6) benevolent 

(2) antonym (7) emigrate 

(3) ancestor (8) offend 

(4) preclude (9) impose 

(5) seduce (10) immortal 

(Rewrite the prefixes but not the words; number the prefixes and 
their meanings to correspond with the numbers of the words.) 

5. (a) Add one of these suffixes: ed, ing, ence or ance to each 
of the following words: 

begin benefit 

abhor merit 

stir acquit 

confer gallop 

heap occur 

(b) Give a rule of spelling for doubling the final consonant 
when a suffix is added. 

6. Give the meaning of the root in each of the following words: 

(6) normal 

(7) recognize 

(8) transgress 

(9) deciduous 

(10) fortitude 

(Do not rewrite the words; number the meaning to correspond 
with the number of the words.) 

7. Give as complete and scholarly definitions as you can, not 
merely synonyms, for any five of the following words: 

intercede expire 

dissect admonish 

bisect contaminate 

persecute circumvent 

List of words to be spelled for First, Second and Third Grade cer- 

1 changeable 14 committee 

2 conscience 15 legitimate 

3 develop 16 vegetation 

4 disappoint 17 cartilage 

5 forcible 18 injurious 

6 lullaby 19 geranium 

7 mortgage 20 bulletin 

8 perseverance 21 boquet 

9 privilege 22 inaugurate 

10 ridiculous 23 mischievous 

11 serviceable 24 tyranny 

12 similar 25 recommend 

13 predicament 











PEDAGOGY — Questions. 

1. Discuss the importance of the first day at school. 

2. Discuss the importance of assignments of lessons. What 
should a good assignment include? 

3. What may a teacher properly do to secure regularity of at- 

4. What difference does it make how children sit, or stand, or 
walk? State how you undertake to help them in these respects. 

5. How should a teacher go to work to help children break up 
bad habits? 

6. How may you teach children to memorize so as to save 
time and undue effort? 

7. What ideas have you to guide you in making a program? 

8. Why is attention so important? Under what conditions can 
a child give good attention? 

9. What is the purpose of drills? Describe a good drill in 

10. Give the advantages and disadvantages of departmental 
teaching in the grades immediately below the high school. 

11. Name three difficult problems of high school management 
and give your solution for them. 

12. Discuss discipline in the upper grades compared to that in 
the high school. 


For Second Grade Certificate Only. Answer any eight questions. 

1. Mention three different methods by which the seeds or fruits 
of plants become scattered, and give illustrations of each method. 

2. Name five common weeds thai arrow in cultivated fields. Men- 
tion some qualities that fit plants : ve in cultivated fields. 

3. Name five serious insect pe ' ^d tell what measures may 
be taken to combat each of them 

4. Into what classes may our common birds be divided with 
reference to the time of year that th«y spend in a given locality? 

5. Name three different varieties of corn commonly grown in 
Illinois. Discuss briefly the selection and care of seed corn. 

6. Explain why the air rises up the chimney from the stove or 


furnace. Why does the closing of the dampers of a stove check 
the burning of the fire? 

7. Mention two different methods by which certain plants are 
able to climb. Point out both the advantages and the disadvan- 
tages of the climbing habit. 

8. What is a biennial plant? Name three biennial plants that 
are commonly raised in gardens. 

9. What facts would you have a seventh grade class note and 
record in making a weather record? 

10. Explain how you would make cuttings of such plants as 
the geranium, or begonia. How are sweet potato plants propagated? 

PHYSIOLOGY. — Questions. 

1. What are the four main classes of foods? Which of these 
is indispensable in our diet? 

2. What changes does most of our food have to undergo be- 
fore it can enter the blood? How is this change brought about? 
What do we call the process? 

3. What different things are accomplished by the circulation of 
the blood thru the body? 

4. How does air that is exhaled from the lungs differ in content 
from air freshly taken into the lungs? How does blood that leaves 
the lungs differ in content from blood that is just entering the 

5. Point out the dangers of drinking water from shallow wells, 
also those arising from the use of a common drinking cup. 

6. State definitely what conditions should prevail in a well 
heated and ventilated room. 

7. Discuss the importance of having seats and desks properly 
adjusted as to height for school children. 

8. Discuss the value of regular and well ehosen exercise in 
helping to keep the body in a healthy state. 

9. Distinguish between secretion and excretion. Name the 
excretory organs of the body. 

10. Name some of the conditions that are favorable for the 
contraction of colds. 

11. Name five common bacterial diseases and tell how each is 
most commonly contracted. 

12. Describe briefly the nervous mechanism of reflex action. 

13. Discuss the lighting of a school room. 

14. What should be done with the patient in a case of fainting? 
what is the direct cause of this trouble? 


PENMANSHIP — Questions. 

For Third Grade Certificate answer any four of questions 1 to 5, 

inclusive; for Second Grade, any four of questions 2 to 6; 

for First Grade, any four of questions 3 to 7. 

Penmanship of applicant on this paper will count fifty per cent. 

1. What in general should be the position of body, feet, arms, 
and paper of a pupil ready to begin to write? 

Give directions for holding the pen. 

2. In making out the program for a rural school of twenty 
pupils, how much time daily would you assign for writing in the 
(a) primary, (b) intermediate, (c) grammar grades? 

3. Why are young children usually asked to write with pencils 
or crayon exercises and letters much larger than ordinary script? 
Should copy books be used? Give reasons for your answer. 

4. Write a letter of application for the position you expect or 
desire to fill during the coming year. 

5. To show your conception of how they should be formed 
carefully write: 

(a) the nine digits, 

(b) the small or lower case letters, 

(c) the capital letters. 

6. The principal movements used in writing are the finger, fore- 
arm, and combined. Describe each. 

Which movement do you use in your own writing? Which would 
you teach (a) to primary pupils, (b) to intermediate pupils, (c) to 
grammar grade pupils? 

7. By way of illustration, give specific directions concerning 
form and movement for the practice of one of the above move- 

GRAMMAR — Questions. 

1. Discuss the most important differences between these two 
groups of words: (a) "A little old man with a long beard hobbling 
to meet them." (b) " A little old nan with long beard hobbled 
to meet them." 

2. Point out the complete subject and the complete predicate 
of each sentence: 


(a) Who are you? 

(b) If there be any virtue, if there be any praise, think 

on these things. 

(c) All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested 

in a Congress of the United States, which shall con- 
sist of a Senate and a House of Representatives. 

3. a. Give the rules governing the formation of the following 
plurals and possessives: Cities', knives, feet, writing-desks, men- 
servants, mouthfuls, gentlemen s, brother-in-law's. 

b. Write the plural possessive of: lady, house, alumnus, Miss 
Jones, state. 

4. Classify the following sentences as simple, complex, com- 
pound or compound-complex, showing why, in each case: 

a. Truly there is a tide in the affairs of men, but there is no 

Gulf Stream setting iorever in one direction. 

b. Hearing his imperial name, 

Coupled with those words of malice, 
Half in anger, half in shame, 
Forth the great campaigner came 

Slowly from his canvas palace. 

c. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note, 

As his corpse to the ramparts we hurried; 
Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot 
O'er the grave where our hero lies buried. 

5. Explain what is meant by grammatical person, and by a 
personal pronoun; and give the declension of the personal pronoun 
of the third person. 

6. Name and illustrate four uses of noun clauses. 

7. Give the principal parts of the verbs lie and lay, and a 
synopsis in the indicative mode of 

(a) the verb lie in the third person, singular. 

(b) the verb lay in the first person, plural. 

8. Discuss one of the following topics: 

(a) What are the specific applications of grammar to com- 
position work in matters of punctuation? 

(b) Analysis versus parsing. 

9. Name the most important uses of the objective case; and 
choose the right form to fill these blanks, explaining your choice: 

a. Who made the noise? Only (I, me). 

b. This is the student wall are praising. (Who, whom.) 

c . i s that for? (Who, whom.) 

d. We thought it was (He, him.) 

e boys are going to the ball game. (We, us.) 

10. Classify the following verbs or verb phrases and tell whether 
each verb or verbal belongs to the old or new conjugation (weak 
or strong): 

a. We have heard the news. 

b. The days are growing colder. 


c. We should observe keenly. 

d. There lay the lost pocket-book. 

e. Set the table quickly. 

11. Parse the words In black face: 

One morning, very early, before the sun was up, I rose and 
found the shining dew on every buttercup. 

12. Plan one of the following lessons: 

a. The first lesson on transitive verbs. 

b. A review and drill lesson on the three kinds of clauses. 

c. The classification of nouns as common and proper. 

13. Discuss voice in English, under these heads: 
a. What kinds of verbs have a passive voice? 

b. How are passive verb phrases formed? 

c. What other shifts in construction does a change of voice ne- 


d. What are the proper uses and what some abuses of the 


14. Tell under what circumstances the following clause would 
be limiting, and under what circumstances it would be purely de- 
scriptive; and punctuate the sentence to make the clause purely de- 

He has gone to the city where he always liked to visit. 

GEOGRAPHY — Questions. 

1. Name three elements of climate. Compare the climate of 
the State of Washington with that of Maine, giving reasons for 
the difference. 

2. What geographic conditions make England a great commer- 
cial nation? Why does England need colonies? Why is England 
a strong naval power? 

3. Name at least five geographic conditions that determine the 
location of cities. Give an example of each. 

4. Explain fully two reasons why it is warmer in summer than 
in winter. Explain the change of seasons. 

5. Compare the industries of Plains, Plateaus, Mountains. 
Show how the industries of each are determined by geographic 

6. What is the "Cotton Belt?" The "Corn Belt?" What geo- 
graphic conditions determine the position of each? 

7. China: Position, size, population, surface, mineral resources, 
products, form of government, recent changes. 

8. Name three ways in which water that has fallen as rain may 
disappear. Give conditions which determine which of three things 
shall happen. Which is of greatest advantage to agriculture? 


9. What countries lead in the production of the following: 
(1) Coffee, (2) Corn, (3) Wool, (4) Diamonds, (5) Cotton? What 
states lead in the production of: (1) Hogs, (2) Wheat, (3) Rice, 
(4) Oranges, (5) Cane Sugar? 

10. A ship sails from New York to San Francisco via Cape 
Horn. Name, in order, the wind belts crossed, giving the latitude 
of each. In which wind belts might rainfall be expected? Why? 
In which dry weather? Why? 

11. Describe the topography of Northern and Southern Ger- 
many. Show the influence of the topography on industries of these 

12. What is the atmosphere? Name its constituents and give 
uses of each. How is the atmosphere related to rainfall? 

13. Name six life zones of the earth, including two kinds of 
forests, two kinds of grasslands, and two kinds of deserts. Discuss 
the geographic conditions that produce each kind. 

14. What is meant by "conservation of natural resources?" 
Name the natural resources that should be conserved. Select one of 
our natural resources and discuss fully ways in which it may be 


1. Contrast the Virginia colony with the Massachusetts Bay 
Colony with regard to political and industrial conditions. 

2. What conditions favored the permanency of French colonial 
dominion in North America? Why did such dominion prove to be 
only temporary? 

3. Tell briefly but comprehensively of the resistance of the Eng- 
lish colonies to the mother country from the Stamp Act to the 
battles of Lexington and Concord. 

4. Describe briefly but comprehensively the western movement, 
and the problems involved in it, in the twenty-five or thirty years 
following the second war with England. 

5. Give briefly but completely an account of the Missouri Com- 

6. Enumerate five of the most important weaknesses of the Ar- 
ticles of Confederation. In what way did the Constitution remedy 
these weaknesses? 

7. In the quarter century following the establishment of the 
nation under the Constitution, what were the most important events 
tending to give the United States standing among the nations of the 

8. Give briefly the story of the annexation of Texas. In what 
way did that connect itself with the Mexican war? 


9 What were the provisions of the Kansas-Nebraska Com- 
promise? Why did it give new vigor to the slavery controversy? 

10. What was the fundamental cause of the Civil War? What 
was the more immediate occasion for the war? 

11 Assuming the Emancipation Proclamation to have been 
within the President's constitutional authority, why was amendment 
still necessary? Give two reasons. 

12. Enumerate five of the most salutary accomplishments of the 
Roosevelt administration. 

13. State the circumstances leading up to the Spanish-American 

14 Enumerate the thirteen English colonies in the approxi- 
mate order of their settlement. Which was the first settlement, and 
when established? Which was the best and when established? 


1. Name five Illinois men who won distinction in the Civil war. 

2. State the advantages of Illinois resulting from its natural 
resources and its geographical situation. 

3. Give a brief account of the steps taken in the admission of 
Illinois into the Union. 

4. Give a brief sketch of the "Black Hawk" war. 

5. Describe fully two customs of the early settlers which have 
disappeared from the life of the people. 

6. What was the "Black Code?" Give some of its provisions. 

7. Give a short account of the effort to make Illinois a slave 

8. What part did Illinois take in the "Mexican War?" 

9. Discuss the Lincoln-Douglas debate. 

10. Who was the "War Governor" of Illinois? Why so called? 

11. How many constitutions has Illinois had? Give dates of 
their adoption. Give one leading feature of each. 

12 What Illinois history can you connect with these places: 
Starved Rock, Galena. Old Salem (on the Sangamon), Nauvoo, 
Shawneetown, Vandalia, Alton, Freeport. 

13. Name five governors of Illinois and name some important 
event in the administration of each. 

14. Give the history of the Illinois Central Railroad. 


Answers To Section One 

HEADING. — Answers. 

By Miss Helen Bryden, Assistant in English, Southern 
Illinois State Normal University. 

1. (a) The slaves, who v*ere in the hold of the vessel, had been 
captured in Africa. 

"Who were in the hold of the vessel" is in apposition, therefore 
all the slaves spoken of were captured in Africa. 

(b)The slaves who were in the hold of the vessel, had been 
captured in Africa. This indicates a limited number. Only those 
who were in the hold of the vessel, had been captured. 

2. (a) So every bondman in his own hand, bears the power to 
cancel his captivity. 

Not correct — a man cannot be in his own hand. 

(b) So every bondman, in his own hand bears the power to 
cancel his captivity. 

The bondman has the power within himself to become free, or it 
may be literally considered that he carries a paper (?) with him 
that gives him freedom. 

3. Arabian Nights. Fifth and Sixth Grades. (Simplified Third 

Miles Standish. Sixth and Seventh Grades. 
Hamlet, High School. 

Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Seventh Grade. 
Reynard the Fox. Second Grade. 
Andersen's Fairy Tales. First and Second Grades. 
Idylls of the King. EigLih Grade. 
The Tale of Two Cities. High School. 
The Man Without a Country. Seventh and Eighth Grades. 

Reproduction — Fifth and Sixth Grades. (Simplified.) 
Robinson Crusoe. Third and Fourth Grades. 
Story of Ulysses. Sixth Grade. It can be taught easily in the 

Third and Fourth Grades'. 

4. Second half of First Grade. 

Language lesson — oral — on "Secrets". Who have them. Christ 
mas Secrets. Birthday Secrets. Etc. 

Language lesson — oral — on the Robin. Its breast in spring — in 
fall. Stories of the Robin. Its food. Nest. Eggs. 

Learn to recognize these words or other unknown words. 


Children "draw" trees, nests, bird in tree. 

Head the story, uraw attention to nypnens. 

Teil the story. 

i^eai u. 

At story hour tiy to dramatize. 

auggesuve outline, ^iins — x.o.fc ot W& — Protection of birds — 
t>e wormy 01 trust. 

5. ii a ciiiiu inlets an unfamiliar word in me ieauing lesson 
nave mm try to get it pnoneucaiiy, it he can not, iet mm listen to 
one ot tne cmidren give it. it tneie is a worn mat can not be got- 
ten phoneucau.v, pronounce it lor tne chiia. 

t>. (a; jlou nave done tiiat >ou snouid oe sorry lor . 

When empnabito is placed on you, it gives tne uapression mat. 
Catiaiua uelievto some one else is gmit.y, and crutub as empnatic in 
saying, aou nave uone uai .you snouid be soiry iur. 

(b) "*ou lia%e done tnat you snouid be sorry lor". 

it is not a que&uon 01 tne lUtare uut you nave, already, done 

(O "You have done tnat you should be sorry tor". 
Cassius is not sorry, out ne ought to oe. 

(d) "iou have done that >ou snouid oe sorry for". 
Brutus appeals Kindi>, sorrow iuliy, L o Cast>ius' conscience tor 

t,e; "lou nave uone that you should be sorry for". 
Again Brutus tells Casoius tne deed das ueen penormed, that he 
should feel repentant for it. 

(f) You ha*e done tnat you snouid ue sorry tor. 

7. The Little Red Hen. 

1. Draw a little lien on the board or put up the picture of one. 

2. Talk to the children auout tins little nen. 

3. Print the word "lien" on the board, also write it. 
Have little devices in wmcli this> word can be tound. 

4. Let the children pick out an> tiling in the room that is red, 
toucn as a reu riuuon, apple, crayon, etc. 

5. Write the word. 

t>. The word seed is brought out by the object. 

7. The teacher points to the different words and the children 

touch the object. 

8. Teacher spells the words phonetically and the children 

pick out the object. 

This method is carried thru the story. (Repetition is valuable 
in this story). 

Let the cildren tell the story in their own way. 

They have learned the process of the little seed to the loaf of 

8. (a) "Splendor" — the liquid sound is stronger and the word 

connotes a richness and brightness, combined with col- 
ors, that the word sunset fails to do. Splendor is less 
definite and more suited to the style of this poem. 


(b) "Summits". The thought of height is attractive. The 

snow is not on all the mountain, it is on the top, the 

(c) "Old in story". A great many authors have written 

about the "snow-capped mountains", therefore the 
thought is old. 

9. (a) The theme of the Bugle song is, our influence never dies. 
(b) In the third stanza, the third and fourth lines, emphasis 

should he placed on "Our", "roll", "soul", "soul", 
"grow", "forever". 

"Our echoes roll from soul to soul, 
And grow forever and forever". 

10. (a) "Wild echoes". The echoes are wild because they fly 

from one point to another and are not still a moment, 
until they go away. 

(b) "horns of Elfland". Elfland is the land where the elf 

and the fairy live. The echoes grow so faint and la; 1 
away that it sounds as if the elves were blowing their 
tiny horns. 

(c) "rich sky". Rich in colorings of the sunset, red, golden 

and violet. 

(d) "purple glens". The sun rays are above The glen and 

the twilight in the glen has a purple tinge. 

(e) "leaps in glory". The water comes down the mountain 

with such rapidity that it does not simply fall, it springs 
and leaps over the rocks and the rays of the sunlight 
make it golden and sparkling" — "glory". 

11. (a) Phonics is the "key note" to reading. 

(b) "The differences between reading and literature are 
largely due to content and aim". Southern Illinois 
State Normal Training School Manual. 

Reading may be of a literary or didactic type. "The great mass 
of reading done in school is didactic History, Geography, etc.. 
are didactic". Thus reading of this style takes by far the great- 
er amount of time. 

"Reading, as literature, stands alone in the school curriculum. 
No other subject can give skill in the interpretation of discourses 
of this kind. Hence the bulk of reading placed on the program 
should be of the literary form and content". Manual of Course of 
Study, Training Department of Southern Illinois State Normal. 

The reading class must be for preparation for reading and for 
the reading. If dramatization is to be given (by children) do not 
use the reading period for it. It is very important as all worli de- 
pends upon the power to interpret the reading. "Oral reading is 
mental process". 

In the first two grades the children usually read two or three 
times a day but from the third grade to the High School, once a 

12. (a) "Low-vaulted paet". The pearly nautilus first lives in 

a low, slightly dome like one "roomed" shell, as it 
grows it builds an addition to this; larger, higher and 


shuts off the old home by a cloned door. Then growtii 
continues until the nautilus is lull grown. 
Soul iiie. i^uch event in our hie auouid make us grow 
away li'Oiii anything chat is low or uat. i^w ideals. Leave 
the past and nave highei ideais. 

(b) "Outgrown sheii . as we gxow intellectually and spir- 
itually, our loiiiier mougnts una life are Outgrown". 

(cj "hue's unresting sea". The nautilus dies ana leaves its 
shell upon me seashore and is tossed auont uy the rest- 
less waves, so we leave our bouies on hie "earth-sea", 
where 00 much unrest is ieit by the living. 

(d) Tne boui ouilds mansions by navmg purer, stronger 

LnoughLS, feelings and acts. 

(e) "New temple." i^ach victory that we win over ourselves, 

is a growtii. Every advance we niaKe, aduo to this 
growtn and Lne whole makes a more oeauciiui ihe and 
the spirit is 111 a newer, clearer atmospnere. 

13. (a). i lain would learn to lie." 

if "i" is emphasized, it inters that another person 
does he and tne tool is reah> accusing the person. 

(bj. 'I lain would learn to lie." This indicates a desire 
to iearn tne power or art oi telling lies. 

(c). "i lam would learn to lie." 1 do not know how to 
he out 1 should like to learn to do so. 

(d). ' i lain would iearn to lie." iheie is sarcasm, a re- 
proof, a challenge that some one (King Lear) has 
lieu and King .Lear is angry. The thought is implied 
that lie cau do other tiungs but has not reached the 
point of being able to lie. 

14. Rip Van Kinkle. 

A. The teacher's object is to awaken a love for pure, simple 

story reading. 

The pupil's purpose is to gain a love of knowledge 
and note changes in a short time in America. Pat- 

B. Approach — Irving's Biography, History of England as 

connected with American History during the reign of 
George 11 and George ill, Geography of the Katskill 
Mountains and Knickerbocker History. 

C. Plan of Procedure. 
Basis of the story. 

Note book for new words and new meanings. 

Four views. 1. Rip as a boy. 2. As a young man. 

3. His mountain trip and his sleep. Tell of the sup- 
erstition concerning the mountains. 4. His return. 
Purpose of the descriptive introduction? How does it 

affect the story? How does the author handle the 

In reading, note 1. Forecasts. 2 Points of suspense. 3. 

The Principal and also the subordinate characters. 

Why are the subordinate characters so classed? 
Purpose of the author? 


Note bits of humor, pathos, dialogue, beauty. 

Most dramatic situation. 

Authors aim in having Rip return just at the time or 
the election? 

White paragraphs on: 1. Characters. 2. Personal ap- 
pearance of Rip. 3. Nine-pins. 4. Early New York. 

Sometimes a class enjoys the writing of a dramatic 
scene, by using the dialog for the scene, without the 
descriptions or explanations. 

The reading class is for the reading aloud of the as- 
signed work. 

Silent reading reported by "Book Reviews" should be 
assigned on an average of once every six weeks. 
The Pied Piper of Hamelin. 

A. The teacher's purpose is to arouse a love for classic poetry. 

The pupil's purpose is to gain a knowledge of rhyme and 
rhythm and the art of narrative in poetry. 

B. Approach. Biography of Browning. 

Situation. Geography. Customs. Origin of the idea of 

the story. 
Keep a note book with a list of unknown words. Pupil's 
look them up and write the meaning that suits the con- 
1. Find the keynote. 2. Forecast. 3. Suspenses. 4. Learn the 
meaning of the plot. 5. What characters are important in helping 
in the development of the plot? 6. Is the climax suitable? 7. 
purpose of the author. Discussions on the following subjects: 
Did the people deserve the punishment? Who were responsible? 
Who were punished? A town without children. 8. Bits of good 
description and a touch of pathos. 8. Secret of rhythm. Mark 
end words to show difference in rhyme as follows: Stanza 1. a, 1), 
c, c, c, b, d, d, b. Stanzas 2. a, a, b, a, b, a, a, a, c, c, c. 

Time of preparation in seventh and eighth grades in English 
work should be one and one-half or two times the length of the 

ARITHMETIC. — Answers. 

By David Felmley, President Illinois State Normal 













In a, each term of the subtrahend is smaller than the cor- 
responding term of the minuend and may be subtracted 

In b, 1 ten in the minuend must be changed to 10 ones from 
which 8 ones may then be subtracted. 


In c, one ten in the minuend must be changed to 10 ones 
and added to the 5 ones; from the sum 15 ones the 8 
ones may be taken. 
In d, there are no tens in the minuend, hence we must 
change 1 hundred to tens, and then 1 of the tens to ones. 
We then subtract 7 ones from 13 ones, 7 tens from the 9 
tens remaining, and 1 hundred from the two hundreds 
2. We first change the numbers to the same, decimal denom- 
ination, then the fractions to equivalents having the same frac- 
tional unit, then add. 

1.11/9 =1.1111/9 =1.11122 | 

.025 1/2= .025 1/2 = .025 •» 1198 
1/11 = .090 10/11 = .090 iso | 

1.227 103/198 

1. Reducing mixed numbers to improper fractions: 
24 5 11 

11 2 6 



2. Performing subtraction in second factor: 
24 4 

11 « 



3. Multiplying both terms of first factor by 44, of *«cond 
fraction by 6: 

96 1 16 


165 6 165 


c=3.1416Xd. Hence, d- 

548.76 ft. -K3. 1416=174.6753 or 174.68— ft. 

Area=*r* = ^!_=^i = ^ 
4 4tt 2 4jt 


I may use either of the following formulae: 

A=7ir 2 or A :==z - 


I know the true value of c, but only an approximate val- 
ue of d or r. Hence the second formula only will give 
a correct result, true to .01 sq. ft. 

d=l 74.68 —ft. 
r=87.34— ft. 
r 2 =7628.27— sq. ft. 
nr 2 =23964.99— sq- ft. 

This result is too large because we have squared a value of r 
that is too large. 

c=548.76 ft. 

c 2 =301137.5376 sq. ft 

^-=75284.3844 sq. ft. 

—=23963.71— sq. ft. 

This result is true to .01 sq. ft. 

Wanted— .032X1728.4 

This means — of 1728.4 


of 1728.4=1.7284 


of 1728.4=32X 1.7284=55.3088 


To multiply by a fr action involves two processes. 

1. To take the fract < ^al part of the multiplicand that is 
indicated by the denominator of the fraction. 

2. To multiply this result by the numerator. 

If the multiplier is a decimal fraction we perform the 
first operation by moving the decimal point in the divi- 
dend to the left — one place if the denominator is 10, 
two places if it is 100 (that is (10)2) three places if it 
is 1000, (10)3 etc. Hence we may perform the work in 
this fashion: 

1728.4 1.7284 

.032 32 

It is evident that in the new multiplicand, and in the 
product we have as many decimal places as in both multi- 
plicand and multiplier. 


The Tolume of a cube 6" on each edge is 216 cu. in Hence the volume 
of the half-cube is 108 cu. in. The iwo triangular bases of the half-cube 
put together form a 6*x6" square Hence their area equals 36 square 
inches. (See Fig. 1.) 

The two faces of the original cube that serve as faces of the half- cube 
are two 6"x6" squares. Their total area-=72 sq. in. The face formed by 
the cutting plane is a rectangle, whose base is the diagonal of a 6"x6" 

The diagonal of any square equals its side multiplied by V 2 

6"X V 2 =6"X1.4142=8.4852 inches 

The area of the rectangle 6X8 4852" is 50.9112 sq. in. 

Whole surface=36 sq in. +72 sq. in. +50.^112 sq. in.= 
158.9112sq. in 

3 meters=30 decimeters. 

A prism 1 decimeter square and 30 decimeters long contains 
30 cu . dm . 

One cubic decimeter of water weighs one kilogram. 

One cu. dm of iron weighs 7.2 kg. 

30 cu. dm. of iron weighs 30X7.2 kg., or 216 kg. 

In similar plane figures the area-ratio is the square of the 

The area-ratio of the_second triangle to the first riangle is 2 # 

Hence the line-ratio is V 2 or 1.4142. 

The base of the second triangle is 1.4142X40 ft. or 56.568 


Days of grace have been abolished in Illinois, hence no 
allowance for them should be made in this problem. 
Since this 90-day note was discounted on January 2 7, 2 6 
days after the note was made, the period of discount 
was 90 — 26, or 64 days. 

The discount for 64 days at 7 % was 

64 7 

— of _ of $800 or $9.96 

Net proceeds=$800— $9.96=$790.04 


10% of the list price=l/10 of the list price. 

The net price after 1st discount = 9/10 of the list price. 

Net price after 2d discount = 9/10 of 9/10 of list price. 

= 81/100 of list price. 

Since $82.60 = 81% of list price. 

$1.0198 = 1% of list price. 

$101.98= (100% of) list price. 



(a) 1% of 2. 465 = . 02465. 

(b) 16.5 = 200% of 8.25. 

(c) 48.65 = as many per cent of 12.36. 
as it is times one per cent of 12.36. 

1 per cent of 12.36 is .1236. 
48.65 is 393.6 times .1236. 
Hence 48.65 is 393.6% of 12.36. 





Language — 

1 per cent of $850 Is $8.50. 

7 per cent of $850 is 7 times $8.50, whicb is $59.50. 




Since $48 equal 6 per cent of the required sum, one per 
cent of the required sum equals 1/6 of $48, which is $8. 
100 per cent of the required sum (or the required sum) 
equals 100 times $8 or $800 

5% of req. no.= of req. no. 

of req. no=32 




of req no. : =640 

20 H 

Since 5% of any number is— of that number, and since 

J 20 

■4- of the required number is 32, J2_ of the required number is 

20 ^ 20 ^ 

20 times 32, or 640. 

12. All of the five given statements are not true, 

We cannot add unlike numbers. 24 dollars and 5 per 
cent are unlike. 

If the expression meant $24 + 50% of $24, it still would 
hot be true for $24 + 50% of $24 = $36. 

We cannot divide a number of cubic inches by a number 
of inches. There are only two kinds of division. 
In measurement the dividend and divisor are of the same 


denomination and the quotient is abstract; as, 

28 cu. in. H- 7 cu. in. = 4. 
In partition the divisor is abstract and the quotient is 
of the same denomination as the dividend. 

28 cu. in. -f- 7 = 1/7 of 28 cu. in. or 4 cu. in. 

Only numbers have square roots; quantities, surfaces, or 
areas have no square roots. The given expression may be 
interpreted to mean "The side of a square containing 900 
sq. ft. is 30 ft. 

This expression is badly printed but is nonsensical if the 
error in the fourth fraction be corrected. 
The expression $2/3 -f- $3/5 means 
what is the ratio of $2/3 to $3/5 

or, two thirds of a dollar is what part of three-fifths of a 

The analysis may run this way: 
One dollar is 5/3 of (3/5 of a dollar) 
2/3 of one dollar is 2/3 of 5/3 of (3/5 of a dollar) 
or it is 10/9 of (3/5 of a dollar) 
The analysis may run this way: 

$2/3 = $10/15 

$3/5 = $9/15. 
The question now reads — 

10/15 of a dollar is what part of 9/15 of a dollar. 
Now 1/15 of a dollar is 1/9 of 9/15 of a dollar, 
Hence 10/15 of a dollar is 10/9 of 9/15 of a dollar. 
The division is measurement and the quotient is abstract. 


If a compound number is of hr., min., sec, the product 
formed by adding 15 such numbers will be composed of 
hrs., minutes and seconds. 

It is right to say that the difference in longitude between 
two places is fifteen times as many degrees, minutes and 
seconds, as there are hours, minutes, and seconds re- 
spectively in the difference in time. 
13 The altitude of the equilateral triangle is also the altitude of 
the right triangle CDA. whose hypotenuse is 1 and whose base 
is J /2, using the side CA as the unit. Hence the square of the 
altitude is equal to the square of the hypotenuse minus the square 
of the base. (See Fig. 2 ) 

CD 2 -=CA 2 ~AD 2 or Alt. 2 =1 2 — ( l / 2 ) 2 
Alt. 2 =1— Vi, or % 
Alt. =V-5i, or .866 + 
The ratio of .866 to 1 is .866 




The diagonal of the cube, AD, is the hypotenuse of the right 
triangle APD. (See Fig. 3.) 

Tiie base, DP, of this right triangle, APD, is aiso the 
hypotenuse of the right triangle PCD and may be called the 
diagonal of the face of the cube 

PC, CD, AP, are edges of the cube, hence they are each one 
u?iit in length. 

(1) AD 2 =AP 2 +PD 2 

(2) But PD 2 =PC 2 +CD 2 

Substituting this value of PD 2 in equation (1), we have 

AD 2 =~AP 2 +PC 2 +CD 2 

(Diag.) 2 =1_ 2 + 1 2 -hi 2 , or 3 

Diagonal V 3 , or 1.73205 

The ratio of 1.73205 to 1 is 1.73205 


$8,000. Springfield, Illinois, Jan. 4, 1914. 

For value received, two years after date, I promise 
to pay to William Roe, or order, at the First National 
Bank of Springfield, Illinois, Eight Thousand Dollars, 
with interest at five per cent per annum. 

Endorsements — 

1. Pay to John Jones, or order, 

William Roe. 

2. John Jones. 


CIVICS. — Answers. 

By H. Ambrose Perrin, Superintendent of Schools, 
Lincoln, Illinois 

1. The purpose of government is to direct and manage affairs 
that concern alike all people composing a group. This group may 
be large or small. The source of government in the United States 
is vested in the will of the people as expressed by their votes or 
thru their representatives. 

2. The "town" of New England is a local government unit. 
It embraces from twenty to forty square miles of territory. Prac- 
tically, it provides lor all the affairs of the town and has officers 
for the same. In this system the county plays a relatively insig- 
nificant part. Tl e officers are: Selectmen, Town Clerk, Assessor 
and Treasurer, Overseer of the Poor, Constables, School Commit- 
tee, Justice of the Peace, Road Surveyors, Pound Keeper, Fence 
Viewer, and other minor officers. 

The "township as ordinarily used means the town idea of gov- 
ernment applied so that there is a more even distribution of powers, 
duties and officers between the town and the county. This is often 
spoken of as a township because it often agrees with the Congres- 
sional Township. In Illinois they are supposed to be organized 
townships as provided by law. However, but few Illinois so-cailed 
towns or townships correspond to the Congressional Townships 
The officers of the township are: Supervisor, Clerk, Assessor, Col- 
lector, Constables, Highway Commissioners, Justices of the Peace 
and some other minor officers as needed. In Illinois, these officers 
are elected on the first Tuesday of April. 

3. A representative's term is two years, senator's term is six 
years, President's term is four years, and Judge of the United 
States Supreme Court has a life term on good behavior. 

4. Civil service is the use of the merit system in public ser- 
vice. It eliminates office changes dne to political reverses and in- 
sures efficient and stable service. 

Diplomatic service is our system of U. S. representatives to for- 
eign nations. Such representatives administer political relation- 
ships between our nation and the nations to which they are dele- 

Consular service is our system of commercial representatives to 
foreign nations. Such representatives are stationed at most ports 
and large cities. They look after our commercial interests, admin- 
ister the estates of deceased Americans and other duties in looking 
after the Avelfare of Americans abroad. 

5. A writ of habaes corpus is a legal instrument by which a 
person accused of a crime may be brought into court and the 
cause of his imprisonment or confinement investigated. 

A bill of attainder is a bill inflicting death or other punishment 
without judicial trial. 

Appellate jurisdiction means tMt appeal may be taken to said 
court after the case has been tried in the lower courts. 


An ex post facto law is one which makes an act a crime which 
was not so when the act was committed or which increases tne pen- 
alty named in the statutes. 

An indictment is ihe official paper furnished by the grand jury 
to the court when it Cjury) has investigated criminal charges com- 
mitted in the county against a person and advises tnat sucn person 
be brought to trial. 

6. In the town system of county government, each town elects 
one or more supervisors, according to population, who serve as 
members of the County Board of Supervisors. 

In the county system of county government, there is a Board 
of County Commissioners elected from the whole county. The du- 
ties of both boards are about the same, namely the transaction 
or county business. The Commissioner system centralizes county 
affairs and tiie management of the same. The Supervisor system 
divides the powers and most local matters are taken care of by 
township officers. 

7. Each senatorial district is entitled to eiect three members 
at the same time to the lower house of tne general assembly, ihe 
minority party usually nominates only one or two candidates in- 
stead of three. The voters 'plump ' casting 1 1-2 votes for eacn 
or 3 votes for one, thus, in most cases, insuring tiie election of a 
minority representative. 

8. Illinois .provides that the following may be excused from 
jury service; Public Officers, Ministers, Teachers, Physicians, Phar- 
macists, Undertakers and Embalniers, Firemen (Fire Department) 
Dentists and Trained Nurses. 

This provision is based upon the importance of the social ser- 
vice constantly rendered the community and state. In some cases 
a jury is held for days and even weeks. 

9. The great argument for the electoral system of electing 
the President originally was that the electors chosen would be 
men versed in political problems and would vote their decisions as 
to the candidate most fit to undertake the work of President. 

The great argument against the electoral system is that in prac- 
tice the electors blindly follow the dictates of the party. However 
under the popular election of electors the electoral system amounts 
to a popular election of the President by an indirect method. A 
further argument against the system is that it does not truly rep- 
resent the true wishes of the people. 

10. Dividing the total population of the state as shown by the 
last U. S. census by the congressional ratio gives the number of 
representatives. The ratio is the quotient found by dividing the 
total U. S. population by the number of members the house is to 
contain after the new apportionment which is made after the de- 
cennial census. Each state is entitled to at least one representa- 

11. The most important committee in the house of represent- 
atives is the Ways and Means Committee. Its chief duty is to de- 
termine the amount of money needed to run the government and 
to choose methods for raising the same. 


12. When a bill is introduced in either house, it is read by 
title, ordered printed and referred to a proper committee for con 
sideration. If the bill is reported out favorably by ilie committee, 
it comes up for a second reading at which time amendments may 
be offered. After the second reading, the bill is ordered to be en- 
grossed for a third reading. The vote on the final passage is by 
yeas and nays and is entered in the journal. The bill is now sent 
to the other house where it goes thru the same procedure, if 
passed as amended by both houses, it goes to the governor lor his 

13. A fugitive from justice may be returned to the state in 
which the crime was committed by the governor issuing a writ 
known as a requisition upon the governor of the state in which 
the fugitive is found. The wole process of removing by requisition 
a person from one state to another for trial is called extradition. 

14. The implied powers are based upon the elastic clause, 
"Congress shall have power to make all laws which shall be ne- 
cessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing pow- 
ers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the govern- 
ment of the United States, or in any department or office thereof." 

A practical application of this implied power is the establish- 
ment of the U. S. Bank by advice of Alexander Hamilton. Hamil- 
ton claimed "necessary and proper" to mean suitable, not indis- 


By Charles Mcintosh, Superintendent Piatt County Schools 
and Editor of Illinois State Course of Study 

1. Reading, including phonics and spelling, Language, Number 
and Construction Work, Writing and General Exercises, including 
music, drawing, Morals and Maimers and Nature Study, which in 
eludes physiology and hygiene. 

2. All things in our environment to which we attend help to 
educate us, hence the School Library may be made an instrument 
of great value in educating the children. 

(1) By furnishing plenty of easy but interesting reading 
material for the pupils in the primary grades (grades 
1-3) the desire of the pupils to read this material cause 
them to get a large amount of practice in reading and 

helps them to master the mechanics of reading. 

(2) It helps to develop in the pupil the power of easy and 
rapid reading, without which their progress in the upper 
grades can not be what it should. 

(3) It helps the pupils to acquire the reading habit — a hab- 
it in which the pipils read for the pleasure thus afford- 
ed them. 

(4) It helps pupils to learn how to use books. Books of 
reference are of little value to a poor reader, but to a 
good reader all knowledge is accessible. 


(5) It helps pupils to acquire a fund of information about 
many subjects, makes them better informed and gives 
them a wider outlook upon the world, and gives each a 
wider view of his own possibilities. 

The school library possesses all these values, it is need- 
less to say, only when it is intelligently and wisely used. 
There should be two kinds of books in the library. First, 
books suitable to the children of all grades of high mor- 
al tone which pupils will find delight in reading. Sec- 
ond, books that give further information than their text 
books on the subjects they are studying in their classes. 
In other words, general reading books and reference 
books. Both are indispensable in every library. 

3. The four aims of the State Course as given in the introduc- 
tion are as follows: 

First. — To furnish as a basis of work, to superintendents, teach- 
ers and directors, an outline of the various branches required by 
law to be taught in the schools of the State, arranged in the sever- 
al grades, in accordance with established and approved methods. 

Second. — To advance the pupil step by step, thru his school 
life, giving him sredit for work done, and thereby lessening the 
evil effects of a too frequent change of teachers. 

Third. — To unify the work in the common schools of the county 
by furnishing the basis for a closer and more effective direction 
and supervision, and for comparing by means of examinations, or 
written reviews, the results secured in the different schools. 

Fourth. — To enable directors and parents to know better what 
the common schools are accomplishing for their children and to 
co-operate with teachers in the work. 

4. No one thing has ever done more to uplift the rural schools 
than the introduction and intelligent use of the State Coarse of 
Study. Many rural pupils move about from one school to anoth- 
er. This moving is usually done in February or March, — at a 
time when the interest in the school is at its highest point, and 
unless the school to which they go is doing substantially the same 
grade of work as the school from which they come, the pupils 
suffer a distinct loss. Teachers of rural schools are frequently 
changed. Many of these teachers are young and inexperienced 
Often they are without professional training of any kind. In many 
cases they have never attended a country school temselves. Be- 
cause of these conditions, the rural schools need a fixed and a de- 
finite course of study. Without some unifying agency, without a 
course of study and a definite plan of organization carefully work- 
ed out, much of the time and energy of both teachers and pupils 
are wasted. In making the State Course, the conditions as they 
exist in rural schools have been kept constantly in mind, and an 
effort has been made to get the best possible course for the rural 

5. Alternation is the systematic and regular union of two 
grades of pupils on consecutive years of work, both grades doing 
the work of one year in one class, while the other year's work is 
entirely omitted. The next year, the work omitted is taken up, 
and the first year's work dropped. In this way, the pupils in the 


seventh and eighth years' work can be taught in the same class, 
likewise the pupils in the fifth and sixth years' work. In the pri- 
mary grades, the language work for the third and fourth years is 
arranged to alternate, — one year both classes taking the third 
year's work and the next year both taking the fourth year's work. 








11: )5 

Suggestive program for the forenoon of a one room school. 



10 . 
10 : 
10 . 

10 • 



Year Recitation 

All Open Ex. 

1 Primary Wk. 

2 Number 

3 Arith. 
7 Arith. *** 

4 Arith. Read. 
All Teacher direct* seat work 

Fifth Third Second First 

Arith. Arith. Arith. 



Seat Wk 

*** No. 

Arith. Spell Hand 
Hand Wk. 


Primary work 



Grammar Read. Spell. Spell 



*** Number 
" Hand Wk. 


Hand Wk 

7 Suggestive program for afternoon of a ore room school, 


All General exercises 

1 Primary Work 

2 Reading 

3 Reading 

5 Geography 

All writing or draw. 

7 Geog aphy 

5 Spelling 

7 th 











¥ anguage 




Hand work 



2:30 Recess 

2:45 15 1-2 language and 

Nature Study 
3:00 15 7 History and Civics 
3Jl5 15 3 Language and 

Nature Study 
3:30 15 3 Language and 

Nature Study 
3:45 15 7 Physiology 







Hand work 


Hand work 


Hand work 

Hand work 

O) Provides a stimulus for reviewing and organizing the 
materials which have heen taught during the term or 
year. If we wish these materials to be remembered and 
recalled, we must organize them in a logical way. 

(2) An examination is an excellent review exercise. Every 
repetition adds to the stability and worth of the facts 


and principles repeated, especially when we not only re- 
peat but organize our knowledge. 

(3) Tlie examination is of value as a test of the efficiency 
of the teaching. 

(4) The examination may be looked upon by the pupil as 
a partial test of his efficiency in school work. 

The disadvantages of an examination system may be coun- 
teracted in part by 

(1) Having the examinations preceded by thorogoing re- 

(2) By giving the formal examinations only at the close of 
the term, but giving informal tests thruout the term. 

(3) By giving such questions as will require ability to ap- 
ply and use facts and principles in new ways. 

(4) By exercising great care that nervous pupils be not un- 
duly worried over the examinations. 

(5) By requiring all pupils regardless of the quality of their 
monthly work to take the examinations. 

Patron's Day is a day formally set apart for the exhibition 
to parents and school patrons of the work of the school. 

The observance of Patron's Day helps to acquaint the parents 
with the kind of work that is done in school, helps to 
bring them into closer sympathy with the school, en- 
ables the teacher to get the parents' point of view on 
school matters, and enables the teacher to set forth to 
the parents the needs of the school. 

9. The sources of reading material for beginners as suggested 
in our State Course are as follows: 

1. Room-management. 

2. Games and plays. 

3. Stories given to children in literature. 

4. Nature-study. 

10. (1) Choose for class exercise in spelling only such words 

as are (a) somewhat familiar to almost all pupils in the 
class (b) in common use (c) have orthographic difficul- 
ties. Do not waste time on words that pupils know and 
know well. 

(2) To learn spelling in the most economical way use the 
sense of sight, the muscular sense and the sense of hear- 

(3) Depend mainly on written spelling which employs the 
sense of sight and at the same time the muscular sense. 
Review by spelling orally. 

(4) Words misspelled in writing should be written several 
times on a number of different days. 

(5) Lead pupils to form the habit of studying carefully all 
new words as they come to them in all their lessons and 
in their general reading. 

11. Review of notation and numeration, review of fundament- 
al processes of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, 
review of fractions, denominate numbers, percentage. 

12. King Midas; Elves and Shoemaker; The Valiant Black- 
bird; One Bye, Two Eyes, Three Eyesr Why the Sea is Salt. 


(1) Read entire story to children (2) read again, part each 
day commenting on story as you go along, permitting 
children to ask questions, having them repeat parts of it. 
Then have some pupil tell entire story, at first perhaps 
with teacher's help. Finally dramatize the story. 

Aims in teaching phonics are: 

(1) To give the child a real mastery of the printed page 
(2) to make him as independent as possible in his read- 
ing (3) to help him to grow steadily in his ability to help 
himself (4) to lead to clear enunciation. For plan for 
teaching phonics, see page 25, State Course of Study. 

ORTHOGRAPHY. — Answers. 

By O. C. Bailey, Superintendent of Schools, 
Effingham, Illinois. 

1. al ly', cer' e brum, dis course', i de' a, in' dus try, in' quir y, 
gon' do la, ho ri' zon, re cess', for' mi da ble. 

2. gratis, deaf or deaf, arid, piano, water, chasten ,produet, 

forehead, bouquet. 

w A A ^ 

3. whey, meat, fern, debt, heir, church, human, rule, pull, cup. 

4. 1. ante, before; 2. anti, opposite; 3. an(te), before; pre, be- 
fore; 5, se, aside; 6. bene, well or good; 7. e, out of; 8. ob(of), 
against; 9. im, on; 10. im, in, into, on, not. 

5. (a) beginning, benefitted, abhorrence, merited, stirring, ac- 
quitted, conference, galloped, heaped, occurrence. 

(b) Monosyllables, and words accented on the last syllable, 
ending in a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, double 
the final consonant on receiving a suffix beginning with a vowel 
sound. Exceptions are "ce" and "ge" before "able". 

6. vene, to come; plus, further; sequi, to follow; credere, to 
believe; doto, given; norma, a rule, regular; cogno, to know; gradi, 
to step; cado, to fall; fortis, strong. 

7. intercedes (inters between, cedere = to go), to go between; 

to pass between; to interpose, 
dissect = (dis = apart, secare = to cut), to cut into pieces; to 

bisect = (bi = two, sectus = to cut), to cut or divide into two 

persecutes (per = after, sequi = to follow) = to follow after; 

to pursue for the purpose of inflicting injury; to ha- 
expires (ex = out, spirare = to breathe) = to breathe out; to 

emit the breath, 
admonish = (ad = to, monere = warn ) , = to warn of a fault; 

to reprove with mildness. 


contaminate^ (con = together, tangere = tp touch) rr to cor- 
rupt; to defile; to touch together things that are not 
supposed to be together, 
circumvent^ (circum = around, veno = to come), = to gain 
advantage over by stategy; to impose upon. 

PEDAGOGY — Answers. 
By L. P. Frohardt, Superintendent of Schools, Granite City, III. 

1. The first day at school is a very important one because first 
impressions, which are the most lasting, are then formed. If the 
teacher makes a good impression the first day it will save her many 
a useless annoyance, but if the start is poor because the teacher 
lacks self-control or does not display good tact and act with preci- 
sion matters soon get into a chaotic state and it will be hard to 
establish regular routine and inaugurate good systematic work. The 
teacher should come well prepared and equipped for the first day by 
having well laid plans worked out and all the necessary supplies and 
materials on hand to start off with a full day's work the first day. 

2. The assignment of a lesson is one of the most important parts 
of a text-book lesson. The assignment should be definite and clear 
so that the pupil knows just what is expected of him and that he 
has also the necessary assistance from the teacher to understand 
difficult words or passages and have any insuperable difficulties re- 
moved. Caution should also be exercised not to make the work too 
easy for the pupil. The latter must be held responsible for a definite 
amount of work done by himself so that he may be ultimately led 
to become independent of the teacher in working out an assignment 
or any problem. 

It should further arouse an interest in the subject matter of 
the text and furnish him a motive for an aggressive attack. 

3. A teacher may, (1) in most of the northern states, compel a 
pupil by law to attend; (2) the teacher may use rewards or penalties 
or both. Rewards may be in the form of prizes, immunities or 
privileges. Prizes may be material, as little gifts or tokens when 
certain standards have been reached, or immaterial prizes, such as a 
certificate of honor, special rank in class, special seats, honor roll, 
publishing of names in papers, etc. All these devices may be bene- 
ficial and helpful if properly managed, but attendance should never 
be enforced or secured beyond a certain limit. Health should never 
be endangered to secure a high standard of attendance. 

4. Bad posture in sitting and standing or awkward, clumsy or 
slovenly walking may lead to malformations of body and ill health 
or result in careless and slovenly habits of life which may end in 
bad conduct and character. 

We may help them best by setting a good example before them 
ourselves and be ever on our guard to correct promptly any bad 
sitting or standing position, or awkward walking before habits have 
become fixed. 

5. Bad habits can best be broken up by constant vigilance to 


see that they are corrected and new and correct ones are estab- 
lished in the place of the wrong ones. 

C. The best and most economic way to memorize is to be placed 
in suitable environment, one free from strange noise, rapid move- 
ments, or anything that may dissipate the mind and keep it from 
focalizing itself upon that which is to be memorized, immediately cor- 
recting any errors that may creep in, especially in the earlier stages 
of committing anything, is an essential condition. This is impera- 
tive since an error allowed to be repeated is harder to get rid of 
than to learn something new in the first instance. Therefore constant 
conscious repetition without exception till the matter is firmly fast- 
ened in the mind will be the quickest way to memorize anything. 

7. The following items must be considered in making a program: 
(a) Length of school-term; (b) number of school hours during the 
day; (c) number of subjects to be required; (d) time devoted to 
recess and intermissions; (e) relative importance of subjects at differ- 
ent levels of child's development; (f) relation of different types of 
subject-matter to fatigue; (g) number of pupils in the different 
classes; (h) time devoted to exercises of all kinds. 

8. Attention is the focalization of the mind upon the subject be- 
fore us. The sun's rays in passing thru a lens fall upon a paper without 
any apparent effect until the rays are focalized to a small spot, and 
then a hole is burned. So it is with the mind, its powers, figuratively 
speaking, must b e brought to the burning point. 

A child can give good attention only when no distracting noise, 
strange sounds of any kind or rapid and unusual movements are 

9. Drills may be physical or mental. Physical drills are for 
the purpose of automatizing certain muscular movements; mental 
drills are for the purpose of fastening permanently in the mind cer- 
tain facts, forms, precepts, or principles. 

Two things are necessary in a good drill, viz.: (1) Focalization 
of mind or consciousness upon the process; (2) constant repetition 
upon the process, permitting no exception till automatism results. 

A good drill in arithmetic, say upon a multiplication table, would 
be first the mastery of the correct combination, as 3X9 is 27, not 28, 
26 or any other result except the correct one. Then repetition of this 
combination several times, changing the order, as 3X9, three nines, 
nine times 3, nine threes, etc. Go over other familiar combinations rap- 
idly bringing in the combination to be mastered, till it comes as 
easy and natural as any other known combination. 

The focalization of consciousness upon any combination, word 
or process is absolutely essential at first, but the act should be 
repeated till it becomes automatic. 

10. Some of the advantages of departmental work immediately 
below the high school is that the work can be placed in the hands of 
teachers who have a special aptitude, special training or fitness 
for some subjects and can be so assigned that the best trained 
and equipped teachers are in charge of the work. This cannot so 
well be done when each teacher teaches all the_ ordinary subjects. 

In the departmental plan teachers usually have only to look after 
the instruction of the pupils' of the class as no other pupils are in 


the room at the time of the class instruction, which is an advantage 
feoth for the teacher and the pupils who would have to sit and study 
while a recitation on another subject is conducted in their pres- 
ence, and their minds cannot so well be fastened on the lesson to 
be studied, nor can the teacher's whole mind be on her class in- 
struction while she must have her mind partly on the other pupils 
in her room. 

Some of the disadvantages are the lack of that intimate rela- 
tionship and sympathy that springs up between teacher and pupils 
in a school room when the same teacher and the same pupils are 
together in the same room for time. Pupils can say, this is my teach- 
er, not one of my teachers, and the teacher can say and feel these 
are my pupils. This closer acquaintanceship and sympathy cannot 
be established between teacher and pupils in the departmental plan. 
The life influence of a teacher over her pupils, which is a vital factor 
in all education, especially in the moulding of character, can not be 
made so potent in the departmental teaching where the teacher 
comes in contact with so many different ones none of whom she can 
so thoroly understand and take such deep personal interest in. 

11. Difficulties in high school management: (1) Tardiness is 
usually much greater in the high school than in the grades, as high 
school students' services at home or at some shop or business house 
are much more in demand. There is also an air of independence and 
indifference at times in high school pupils not found in grade pupils. 

Tardiness may be overcome by making the opening exercises of 
such general and intense interest that pupils feel they cannot afford 
to miss them. If this will not prove sufficient for some, more dras- 
tic measures may have to be adopted. Non admission to classes 
unless by a special permit from principal or superintendent or both, 
which involves considerable inconvenience and embarrassment to the 
pupil may prove effectual. In some cases special work imposed and 
time to be more than made up after school hours may prove effec- 
tual. (2) Cheating in examination. This may be cured by raising 
the general standard and sense of honor. Close vigilance while ex- 
aminations are carried on and a total failure of any one who is guilty 
of any dishonesty are usually effectual remedies. (3) Too great at- 
traction toward one another on the part of some of the students of 
opposite sexes. Encouraging the mingling of the sexes under proper 
guidance and restraints in social events will tend rather to prevent 
than increase undue intimacy. Too great propinquity without re- 
straint is to be guarded against. If any two show an undue interest 
in each other they should be kept at a distance from each other by 
being seated in opposite parts of the assembly or study room and 
prevented form mingling too freely during, after, and before school 
sessions while on the school premises or in the school building. 

12. Young people in the high school should not be required to 
follow every little detail of routine in the same manner as is generally 
done in the grades, such as passing to and from their rooms, to their 
seats, sitting or standing in class, etc. This does not mean that high 
school students should be absolutely exempt from every phase of or- 
derly routine, but it should be more of a general nature. They should 
have greater opportunity to exercise their own .judgment, be en- 


trusted with a greater responsibility of eelf govenment, exercise their 
own individuality. 

The period of adolescence needs a wider scope and range of free- 
dom. They should be put largely on their own sense of honor, treated 
more nearly like adults, and should be encouraged to act more on 
their initiative. They should be carefully guided and not so much 
guarded in their actions. 


By Roy M. Sallee, Galesburg, 111. 

Formerly Assistant in Biology, Western Illinois State 

Normal School. 

1. (a) Wind: (Illustrations). Thistle, dandelion, elm, linden, 

milkweed, etc. 

(b) Animals: (Illustrations.) Squirrels burying nuts which 
are never used. 

Birds dropping fruit seeds along fences or under trees. 

(c) Special Structures: Cockleburs, sandburs and beggars' 
lice have hooks to catch in the fur of animals, or the 
clothing of people. 

2. (a) (1) Cocklebur. (4) Pig weed. 

(2) Wild morning glory. (5) Smart weed. 
(3)) Wild mustard, 
(b) Some of the qualities which fit plants to thrive in culti- 
vated fields are: 

1. Strength or vitality. 

2. The habit of seeding after cultivation has ceased. 

3. Ability to grow and produce seeds under unfavor- 

able conditions. 

3. Five Serious Insect Pests, and methods of fighting them. 

(1) White grub or grub worm. — Allow hogs that have not 
had rings placed in their noses to run in the field and 
root freely. 

(2) Corn root worm. — Do not allow field to remain in corn 
for more than two successive years. 

(3) Chinch Bug. — Keep fields free from rubbish. Burn 
weeds and grasses in April just after the bugs have come 
out of their winter hiding places. If the bugs are very 
bad stop wheat growing for a few years. 

To prevent bugs from going from wheat fields to the corn 
fields surround wheat field with a dust strip one yard 
wide. (Do this by plowing and pulverizing.) 

(4) Cutworms. — Break sod preceding year. If replanting is 
necessary replant as late as possible. 

(5) San Jose Scale. — Spray with a Lime-Sulphur Mixture. 
(Formula should be taken from Agricultural Text Books, 
or from State Experiment Station Bulletins.) 

4. Our Common birds may be divided into the following classes 
taking into consideration the time they spend in a given locality. 

1. Permanent residents. 3. Winter residents. 

2. StimmerYesrdents. 4. Migrating Visitors. 


5. (a) Three varieties of corn commonly grown in Illinois: 

1. Keid's Yellow Dent. 3. Learning. 

2. Johnson County White. 

(b) Selection and Care of Seed Corn: 

Select seed corn in the field just before heavy frosts. Take 

ears from healthy looking stalks which have grown under 

ordinary field conditions. Ears should not be taken from 

very tall or very short stalks. 

Alter the selection of the ears they should be placed in a 

cool dry shed either on shelves or on hangers. 

A severe freeze weakens the germ in the seed. During 

very cold periods keep a small fire in the store room. 

6. (a) When air is heated it expands. This warm expanded 

air is lighter than the colder air which is outside the stove 
or furnace. The colder heavier air pushes into the fur- 
nace or stove and forces the warm expanded air upward. 
This cool air becomes warmed, and expanded, and is then 
forced upward by the colder heavier air. 
(b) When a damper on a stove or a furnace is closed the 
warm air cannot pass away so rapidly. This also prevents 
the cold air from pouring thru the stove or furnace so 
rapidly. The fire is then checked because the air is not 
fanning it so much. 

7. (a) Two different methods by which certain plants are able 

to climb: 

(1) By twining. (2) By tendrils or hold fasts, 

(b) The climbing plants are able to reach upward a long 
ways in order to get to the sunlight. Because of this, 
climbing plants can grow where they could not were it 
not for this habit. 

The main disadvantage is the long distance which the wa- 
ter must be carried before the leaves of the plant can use 
it to manufacture food materials. 

8. (a) A biennial plant is a plant which lives but two years. 

During the first year it stores up food which it uses in 
seed production during the second year, 
(b) Three biennial garden plants: 

1. Cabbage. 3. Parsnips. 

2. Turnips. 

9. Weather record facts to be noted and recorded: 

1. Temperature. 3. Strength of wind. 

2. Direction of wind. Strong 


4. Condition of Atmosphere. 
Cloudy. Overcast. Clear. 

5. Form of Precipitation. 

Rain. ' Hail 

Snow Sleet 

* .6 Amount of Precipitation. ■ j ' ■• , 

Much Little' None' 

If a rain guase is available state amount i' 1 inches.. 
7. Barometer Reading. 


10. Cuttings of begonias or geraniums may be made by breaking 
off one. of the smaller branches, removing most of the leaves from 
this branch and then planting the branch in moist sand. It is often 
advisable to turn a common glass upside down over the plant for 
a few days. This saves the moisture which is in the plant. 

Sweet potatoes are propagated usually by planting a few whole 
sweet potatoes in a hot bed. A number of sprouts will soon come 
thru the ground. As soon as these sprouts are about three inches 
in length they are pulled up and set out. 

These sprouts are the commercial sweet potato plants. Some- 
times three or more sets of plants may be obtained from the one 
sweet potato. As soon as one set is pulled another one sprouts. 
This continues until the stored food materials in the potato are 

" Sweet potatoes may also be propagated in the same manner as 
common potatoes, viz., by cutting the potato in pieces and planting 
the pieces. 

PHYSIOLOGY. — Answers. 

By H. T. White, Superintendent of Schools, 
Carlinville, Illinois. 

1. The four main classes of foods are minerals (water and 
mineral salts), proteids, fats, and carbohydrates. All these except 
either carbohydrates or fats are indispensible in our diet. 

2. Most of our food must be softened and made into liquid 
form before it can enter the blood. This change is brought about 
by the operations of chewing, softening, dissolving, and otherwise 
changing the food so as to fit it to pass thru the cell walls into the 
blood vessels. These operations constitute the process called di- 

3. The blood has four uses: it regulates the temperature of 
the body, takes food to the tissues, takes oxygen to the tissues, 
and brings waste matter from all parts of the body, thus ridding 
the body of its poison. 

4. Pure air, as it is taken into the lungs, contains in every 10,- 
000 parts, approximately four parts of carbon dioxide. 2,000 parts 
of oxygen, and 8,0000 parts of nitrogen. When it comes from the 
lungs it. contains approximately 40 parts of carbon dioxide, 1600 
parts of oxygen, and 8,000 parts of nitrogen. 

Blood that is just entering the lungs is laden with carbon di- 
oxide which gets out of the blood thru the thin walls of the lung 
cells into the lung cells. While this is going on fresh oxygen is go- 
ring, from the lung cell thru its thin walls into the blood, hence 
'blood just leaving the lungs is laden with oxygen. 
•• 5. Water; from shallow wells is likely to be contaminated. 
Many 'shallow, wells are .polluted by refuse from, stables, and by 
other filth. Shallow wells are easy receptacles for disease germs, 
especially typhoid germs. 


Common drinking cups are very risky because disease germs are 
left on them by some mouths and then are taken from the cups 
into other people's mouths. 

6. In a well heated room the heat is as evenly distributed as 
possible. The temperature in a room where people are sitting 
quiet should be about twenty degrees centigrade or sixty-eight de- 
grees Fahrenheit. The air should be kept moist by a pan of water 
on the stove or register. 

7. School desks and seats should be high enough so that pupils 
will not feel cramped and yet not so high that their feet do not 
reach the floor while they are sitting. Pupils should train them- 
selves to sit erect. 

8. Regular exercise out of doors if possible, or at least in an 
atmosphere of fresh air, tends to keep the body in a healthy state. 
It aids in purifying the blood thru deep respiration. It gives 
tone to the muscles and the nerves. It helps the lymphatic circu- 
lation as well as blood circulation. 

9. Secretions are for use in the system e. g., saliva and gastric 
juice are made to help digest our food. Excretions are made for 
the purpose of getting rid of the waste, that which is of no further 
use to the body. The kidneys and the skin are the chief excretory 
organs of the body. 

10. To prevent taking cold when your clothing becomes damp 
or your feet wet, keep moving until there is an opportunity to put 
on dry clothing and dry shoes and stockings. Never sit still in a 
room where the air is cold enough to make you chill, move about 
until the temperature is brought up to 68 degrees F. 

11. Only about twenty different kinds of bacteria produce 
disease in man. Diseases caused by germs are known as infec- 
tious diseases because the germ infects or makes its way into the 
body. Bacillus tuberculosis causes consumption, scrofula, and 
white swelling. The diphtheria bacilli, growing in the throat, pro- 
duce diphtheria. Pneumonia, sore throat, and colds occur when 
certain bacteria are present in great numbers. They may find 
entrance thru the alimentary canal, the lungs, or the skin. Germs 
like those of tuberculosis and typhoid fever may reach the intes- 
tines with food or water, and penetrate the cells there, and even 
pass thru the walls of the intestine into the blood to be carried to 
any part of the body." — Human Body and Health, Davidson, page 

12. When the hand touches a very hot object the sensory 
nerves carry the message to the spinal cord which sends baek to 
the hand thru a motor nerve the reply, "Take it off." All this 
happens within one-twentieth of a second, and the hand is re- 
moved even before the brain is aware of what has happened. This 
power of the spinal cord over muscular movements is called re- 
flex action. 

13. The windows of a school room should be grouped in the 
rear half or two-thirds of the wall at the left of the pupils. Each 
window should extend as near to the ceiHng as possible. It should 
not extend lower than the tops of the pupils* beads while they are 
seated. The window space should he at least one-ffth of the entire 


floor area of the room. Shades should be arranged so that direct 
sunlight will not fall upon the books nor upon written work on the 
blackboard. If possible, every school room should be supplied 
with artificial lights, preferably electricity, to supplement sunlight 
on gloomy days. 

14. "Fainting may be caused by pain, fatigue, loss of blood, 
the sight of some gruesome object, such as flowing blood, or by a 
hot and badly ventilated room. The face is pale, the lips white, 
and the breathing is quickened, while cold sweat appears on the 
brow and the palms of the hands. As fainting is caused by in- 
sufficient supply of blood to the brain, the patient should be laid 
flat on the floor. Then the doors and windows must be opened 
and the clothing loosened, while cold water is sprinkled on the 
face. Recovery should occur in a few minutes. As soon as the 
patient is able to swallow give sip3 of hot milk or water. Swal- 
lowing stimulates the heart. Do not give alcohol." — Human Body 
and Health, Davidson, page 294. 

PENMANSHIP. — Answers. 

By O. C. Bailey, Superintendent of Schools, 
Effingham, Illinois. 

1. (a) The body should be placed before the desk, in a half 
right position, (this is the better position, because in the 
average school room there is not room for the front po- 
sition), about two inches from the edge of the desk, and 
in an upright position. 

The feet should rest firmly and flatly on the floor. 
The right elbow should rest on the lower right corner 
of the desk, and the arm extended across the desk at an 
angle of 40 degrees. The left hand rests on the paper 
in front of the right hand and at right angles to it. 
(b) Hold the pen between the first and second fingers and 
the thumb. The first finger bends naturally and rests 
on the top of the holder, about one inch from the point 
of the pen. The pen holder rests on the second finger, 
crossing it near the root of the nail. The thumb rests 
on the holder nearly opposite the first joint of the first 
finger. The third and fourth fingers are bent, resting on 
the paper and forming a movable rest. (Palmer Method). 
2 The state course of study, in the suggested program on pa- 
ges 10 and 11, provides for but one period of writing daily in a ru- 
ral school. The period is 15 minutes, and all write at this time. 

Primary pupils should have a part of the time at the board. 
Give them the first seven and one- half minutes at the board; the 
balance of the fifteen minutes at their seats. Primary pupils 
should always have a writing period at the board followed by one 
at the seat, to keep them from forming the habit of the full arm 


In view of the fact that the rural school program is always in 
a crowded condition, I would say that the above is the best ar- 

3. Young children are asked to write larger, in order, 

(1) To give them a freer movement; 

(2) To avoid the tendency to use the fingers; 

(3) To avoid cramped work. 

Copy books should not be used. After the first few lines are 
written, the pupil ceases to refer to the copy and makes a copy of 
his own. Copies are necessary, however, and a movable manual 
is much better. The pupil can move this down and with it cover 
up his work. 

4. Effingham, 111., July 26, 1914. 

Board of Education, 

Effingham, Illinois, 

Please consider me an applicant for the position of teacher 
in the Third Grade of your schools. 

Inclosed find testimonials concerning my character, education, 
and success in former positions. 

For additional testimonials I would like to refer you to Supt. 
J. W. Davis, Effingham, 111., and Pres. L. C. Lord, E. I. S. N„ 
Charleston, 111. 

Thanking you for the courtesy of a hearing, I am, 
Yours truly, 

(Miss) Effie St. Clair, 

Effingham, Illinois. 

5. Calls for applicant's own writing. 

6. (a) The finger movement is the so-called movement of the 

fingers; an upward and downward movement. It should 
be little used. 

(b) The forearm movement is the real movement in writing. 
It is called muscular movement, because it is controlled 
by the muscles of the forearm. The arm rests upon the 
muscles of the forearm, and moves upon these muscles, 
the fingers being held in a natural and easy manner, and 
the letters being formed by the push and pull of this mus- 

(c) The combined movement is a combination of these move- 
ments for the more elaborate work of the pen artist. The 
fingers are moved slightly in connection with the move- 
ment of the muscles to give peculiar shading. 

(d) Primary, intermediate, and grammar grade pupils can 
and should be taught the muscular movement. It is 
logical, easily learned, and is less exhausting than any 
other movement. 

7. (a) The Muscular movement. 

Place the arm on the desk, the elbow near the right hand 
corner of the desk, the arm resting on the muscle. 
Let the hand rest lightly upon the third and fourth fin- 
gers. Move the hand backward and forward a number 


of times to get the movement before the pen touches the 

Drop the pen to the paper and make the push and pull ex- 
ercise, crossing two spaces. 

Then make the oval exercises as in the capital letter "O", 
also crossing two spaces. 

Hold the fingers in natural position, and without gripping 
the pen holder. Let it glide smoothly over the paper 
without any effort from the lingers. Do not \sork the 
finger joints. 

GRAMMAR. — Answers 

By Miss Myrtle Gentry, Instructor in Summer School State 
Normal University and teacher in Wichita, Kansas 

1. The words, "a little old man with a long beard hobbling to 
meet them', do not assert; therefore they do not form a sentence. 
The words, "a little old man with a long beard hobbled to meet 
them," do contain an asserting element in the verb hobbled; there- 
fore this group of words forms a sentence. 


Complete Subject Complete Predicate 

(a) you are who 

(b) you (understood) think on these things, 

if there be any virtue, 
if there be any praise. 

(c) all legislative powers shall be vested in a Congress 
herein granted of the United States, which 

shall consist of a Senate 
and a House of Representatives 
3. (a) cities' 

The plural form of the noun city is cities. 

Plural nouns ending in s make the possessive form by the 

addition of the apostrophe only. 

(b) knives. 

The singular form of this noun ends in fe. It forms its 
plural by changing the fe to ves. 

(c) feet. 

This noun changed the vowel of the root to form its plu- 

(d) writing-desks. 

The main word of a compound word is generally made 
plural. The word desk is the main word. 

(e) men-servants. 

Compounds consisting of two nouns sometimes inflect 
both parts. 

(f) mouthfuls. 

When the parts have become so united that the word hardly 
seems a compound word, the tendency is to make the last 
part plural. 

(g) gentlemen's. 


Plural nouns not ending in s make the possessive form by 
the addition of the apostrophe and s. 
(h) brother-in-law's. 

Compound nouns form the possessive by adding the pos- 
sessive sign to the last word of the compound. 
3. (b) Either of the following plurals is correct: The Misses Jones 
or The Miss Joneses. In like manner, either of the following plu- 
ral possessives is correct: The Misses Jones' or The Miss Joneses' 
however, the phrase of the Miss Joneses, or of the Misses Jones 
will generally prove less awkward. Then, according to the general 
rule, the plural possessive of alumnus is alumni's; but the general 
custom is to substitute the phrase of the alumni for the possessive 

lady — ladies' alumnus 

house — houses' state — states' 

4. (a) This sentence consists of two independent propositions. 

It is a compound sentence. 

(b) This sentence consists of but one proposition. It is a 
simple sentence. 

(c) This sentence contains two independent propositions. 
Each part contains also a dependent clause. The sen- 
tence is complex-compound. 

5. Person is that peculiarity in the form or use of a noun or 
pronoun that shows whether it represents the speaker, the one or 
ones spoken to, or the one or ones spoken of. 

In most languages, person, so far as rules are concerned, is the 
inflection of a verb to show the person of its subject. In modern 
English except for the verb be there remains no such inflection 
except in the third person, singular number, present tense, indica- 
tive mode. We simply keep on talking about person because other 
languages possess this inflection and English once did. 

A personal pronoun is a pronoun that shows by its form whether 
it represents the person speaking, the one spoken to, or the one 
spoken of. 

Declension of the Personal Pronoun of the Third Person. 






All genders 








her, hers 


their, theirs 






6. Subject. That Wilson is a good president is not denied. 
Predicate Attribute — My belief is that he is guilty. 
Object — I have heard that the concert has been postponed. 
Appositive — She had heard the saying, "Birds of a feather 

flock together." 

7. Present Past Past Participle. 

lie lay lain 

lay laid laid 


Synopsis of the verb lie in the indicative mode, third person, and 
singular number. 

Common Form 
Pre*. He lies Progressive Form 

Past He lay He is lying. 

Future He will lie He was lying 

Pres Perf . He has lain He will be lying 

Past Perf. He had lain He has been lying 

Fut. Perf. He will have lain He had been lying 

He will have been lying 
Emphatic Form 
He does lie 
He did lie 

Synopsis of the verb lay in the indicative mode, first person, and 
plural number. 

Common Form Progressive Form 

Pres. We lay We are laying 

Past We laid We were laying 

Future We shall lay We shall be laying 

Pres. Perf. We have laid We have been laying 

Past Perf. We had laid We had been laying 
Fut Perf. We shall have laid We shall have been laying. 

Emphatic Form 
We do lay 

We did lay 
8. (a) Rules for punctuation cannot be understood without a 
knowledge of sentence analysis. The following rule il- 
lustrates this fact: 

An appositive, a purely descriptive adjective clause, an 
adverbial clause, out of its natural position, and a nom- 
inative of address are set off by the comma. 
The parts of a compound element are separated by the 
comma unless all the conjunctions are expressed or unless 
the parts are connected in pairs. In the latter case the 
pairs only are separated. 

The parts of a compound sentence are separated by the 
comma, even tho the conjunctions are expressed, un- 
less the parts are long and contain commas within them- 
selves. In this ease the parts are separated by the semi- 

A prepositional phrase which is long and out of its natural 
order is often set off by the comma. 
Grammar is of value because it teaches us: 

(1) How to choose correctly between the inflected forms of 

(2) how to frame clear and well constructed sentences, and 
(3) how to get at the thought of long and complicated sen- 
tences that we meet in reading. 

Now in our slightly Inflected English language, the only one 
of all the points given in parsing that is of any great help to us in 
aay of these ways is the construction of the word. This is worth 
more than all the other points taken together, and this is deter- 


mined by sentence analysis. It is therefore a great waste to spend 
much time in giving the full parsing of words. 

9. The objective form of a noun or a pronoun should be used 
in the following constructions: 

(1) Object of a verb, verb phrase, or verbal. 

(2) Predicate attribute of the object. 
(.'!) Object of a prepostion. 

(4) Adverbial substantive, including indirect object. 

(5) In apposition with a noun or pronoun in an objective 
construction. , 

(6) Subject of an Infinitive. 

(7) Joined to a noun or pronoun in an objective construc- 
tion by a verbal of a copulative verb. 

(a) Who made that noise Only I. 
Subject of the verb understood. 

(b) This is the student whom all are praising. 
Object of verb phrase are praising. 

(c) Whom is that for? 

Object of the preposition for. 

(d) We thought it was he. 
Predicate attribute in noun clause. 

(e) We boys are going to the ball game. 

Subject of the verb phrase "are going." 

10. (a) We have heard the news. 

The words have heard are an attributive transitive verb 
phrase. It is made up of the verb have and the verbal 
heard. The verb have is an irregular weak verb. The 
verbal heard is a form of the verb hear which is an irreg- 
ular weak verb. 

(b) The days are growing colder. 

The words are growing are a copulative verb phrase. The 
verb are belongs to the old conjugation. The verbal 
growing is a form of the verb grow which is a strong verb. 

(c) We should observe keenly. 

The verb should is an attributive transitive verb. 
It is an irregular verb. 

(d) There lay the lost pocket book. 

The verb lay is an attributive intransitive verb. It be- 
longs to the strong conjugation. 

(e) Set the table quickly. 

The verb set is an attributive transitive verb. It belongs 
to the weak conjugation. 

11. The word morning is a common noun. It is of the third 
person, singular number, neuter gender, objective case. Its de- 
clension is: 

Singular Plural 

Nom. and Obj. morning mornings 

Poss. morning's mornings' 

It is used as an adverb modifier of the verb rose. 


The word before is a subordinate conjunction. It joins the ad- 
v'i ,; clause, before the .sun was up, to the verb rose. 

The word was is a copulative verb. It belongs to the strong 
juration. Its principal parts are be, am, \us and been. It 

the indicative mode, and past tense. It is in the third pel 

guiar number, to agree with its subject sun. 

'I he word rose is an attributive intransitive verb. U Is a -.em <>. 

the Strong conjugation. Its principal parts are rise, rose, risen. 

It is in the active voice, indicative mode, and past tense. It U In 

the first person, and singular number, to agree with its subject, I. 
12. (a; before verbs are classified as transitive ana intransi- 
tive, they have been classified as copulative and attribu- 

Classify the verbs in the following sentences as copulative 
or attributive. Name the idea that every attributive 

1. Take this book home. 

2. The days grow cold. 

3. I have many books. 

4. She grows rapidly. 

'). There are many people in need now. 

0. We should help them. 

7. They need food and clothing. 

The snow falls steadily. 
'.). The boys pull their sleds up the hill. 
10. They coast down the hill. 
The verbs in sentences 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 \ 
tributive verbs. These verbs in sentences I 
express transitive action, possessive, obligation, or 
These verbs are transitive verbs. The other ver 
transitive verbs. 
Definitions. A Transitive Verb is a verb that expresses f \ ) a 
transitive act, (2) possession, (3) obligation, or f4) l&r.:: or need. 
An Intransitive Verb is a verb that does not express I 1 ) a 
transitive act, ( 2 j possession, (3) obligation, or (4) lack or need, 
(b) Review and drill lesson on the three kinds of clauses. 
Analyze the following sentences and classify the clauses 
as adjective, adverbial, or noun. If the clause is an ad- 
jective clause, tell whether it is a limiting or purely de- 
scriptive clause. If adverbial tell what idea the clause 
expresses. If a noun clause, give its construction in the 

1. The house that stands on the hill belongs to Colonel 


2. I know that he received the message. 
'■',. He came when his turn arrived. 

4. The house stands where three roads meet. 

5. We study the lessons which the teacher assigns. 

6. The thought that vacation was near kept our energy 


7. I will pay you if you will do the errand. 

8. Mr. Smith, who is my friend, is passing. 


9. That you have done your work well is evident. 

10. The man worked, tho he was very tired. 

11. Our difficulty was that we were scarce of money. 

12. He gave the money that he might help the poor. 

13. The children work as they play. 

14. He promised everything except that he would return 
to school. 

15. They sent for him because he was needed, 
(c) Classification of nouns as common and proper. 

The following nouns are names of the same person: man, 
lather, American, Andrew Blake, farmer, student. How 
many of these names does he share with other persons, or 
have in common with them ? With whom does he share 
each one ? Which one is his own, his unshared, name ? 
The following nouns are names of the same place:: city, 
New York, sea-port, metropolis. Which names does this 
place share with other places ? Which one is unshared, 
or is applied to it alone ? 

The word proper means one's own or unshared. The 
nouns Andrew Blake and New York are proper nouns. 
What then is a proper noun ? 

The word common, in the sense in which it is used in 
grammar, means belonging to more than one. All the 
nouns that you have examined except Andrew Blake and 
New York belong to, or are applied to, more than one 
thing. They are common nouns. What, then, is a com- 
mon noun ? 

Other kinds of common nouns must be studied in later 

13. (a) No English verb has a passive form. Transitive verb 

phrases have a passive voice. 

(b) Passive verb phrases are formed by the use of some 
form of the verb be and a perfect participle, 

(c) The object in the original sentence becomes the subject 
of the passive verb phrase. 

The subject of the verb in the active voice, if it is not 
omitted, becomes the object of the preposition by, when 
the verb is changed to a passive verb phrase. 

(d) The passive voice is used (1) when the name of the 
actor is unknown, (2) when the speaker does not wish to 
tell the name of the actor, (3) when the speaker wishes to 
attract more attention to the other thing involved in the act 
than to the actor. It may also be used occasionally for 
the sake of variety. 

The passive voice is much overworked by many persons 
In most cases, the active voice is simpler and more direct, 
and it should be used unless some special reason for the 
use of the passive exists. 

14. He has gone to the city where he always liked to visit. 

If the speaker had alread been talking about some partic- 
ular city and the hearer knew what city he had in mind, 
the clause in this sentence is purely descriptive and 


should b« a«t off by th« comma; thus, He has gone to the 
city, where he always liked to visit. 
If, on the other hand, the clause is needed to show what city 
the speaker had in mind, it is a limiting clause and no 
comma should be used. 

GEOGRAPHY.-— Answers. 

By Herbert Bassett, Teacher of Geography, 
Western Illinois State Normal School. 

1. Three elements of climate are heat, moisture and wind. 
(Sometimes sunshine is given as a fourth.) 

Washington and Maine are both in the Prevailing Westerlies, 
hence Washington has an oceanic climate, while Maine has a con- 
tinental climate. The Westerlies, on ascending the Coast Range 
and Cascades, give western Washington the heaviest rainfall in the 
United States. 

2. England must be a great commercial nation, primarily be- 
cause of a large industrial population which must have food, raw 
materials for manufacture, and markets for its products. 

The insular position, good harbors, position relative to other na- 
tions, moist climate favorable for textile manufacture, abundant 
coal which means power for manufacturing purposes, absence oi. 
great agricultural areas, and character of the people, all contribute 
to the same end. 

England needs colonies to produce raw materials for her factories 
and to provide markets for her manufactured goods. A large 
merchant marine demands a strong navy for its protection. 

Five geographic conditions that may determine the location oi: 
cities are: 1st, good harbors, examples, New York, Liverpool, San 

2nd, Power for manufacturing purpose, either in the form of wa- 
ter power or coal. Examples of water power, Niagara Falls, N. Y., 
and The Fall Line Cities, of Eastern United States. Examples of 
coal, for power, Pittsburg, Pa., Chicago, near coal fields. 

3rd, The crossing of highways of travel. Ex., Indianapolis is a 
Railroad center. St. Louis is at the crossing of the Mississippi R. 
and Railroads running East and West. 

4th, A rich hinterland, from which many products are sent. Ex- 
amples, Chicago and New York. 

5th, Some local natural resource. Copper, at Butte, Montana, and 
Houghton and Hancock, Michigan. Diamonds at Kimberley, Africa. 

4. It is warmer in summer than in winter; 1st, because the rays 
of the sun are more nearly vertical in summer than in winter. These 
vertical rays have more effect in raising the temperature for two 
reasons: 1st, because a given number of rays cover a smaller area, 
and as a consequence the heat is all concentrated on a smaller area, 


and, 2nd, the vertical rays pass thru less air to reach the earth 
and have lost less of their heat to the atmosphere. 

Sui . mef than winter, .ind, because the days (hours of 

sunshine) are longer in summer than in winter. 

The easons is cL.e to 1st, the revolution of the earth 

around the sun. 2nd, the inclination of the earth's axis, and 3rd, 
Lo the parallelism of the earth's axis. These three causes result 
in the vertica rays of the sun moving back and forth 23 % c North 
and South of the equator, carrying the greater heat first to the 
North and then to the South of the equator. 

... flams are likely to he rather low level tracts of country 
with fertile soil and often plenty of rainfall. These conditions fa- 
vor Agriculture. Plateaus are likely to be semi-arid, favoring graz- 
ing. If well watered the rivers may he swift, favoring manufac 
taring. If deeply dissected by erosion, mining may be the char- 
acteristic industry. Mountains are characterized by mining indus- 
tries, as mineral wealth is likely to he exposed by erosion. 

0. The South. — South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, and Texas, constitutes the "Cotton Belt" producing 
three-fourths of the world's supply of cotton. Cotton requires a 
long season in which lo mature, plenty of rainfall properly distrib- 
uted and favorable soil conditions, all of which are found in this 

The "Corn Belt" includes Western Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, 
Northern Missouri! Eastern Kansas, and Eastern Nebraska. The 
geographic factors are sufficient rainfall, a growing season of not 
less than one hundred to one hundred twenty days, and the ex- 
cellent glacial drift soil. 

7. China: — (Chinese Republic) 

Position: Eastern Asia, 20° to 50° N. Latitude and 75° to 
185° E. Longitude. 

Size: About 4,000,000 square miles, or 1 1-3 times as large 
as United States. 

Population: About 400,000,000 or four times population of 
United States. 

Surface: Delta plains at river mouths, vast plateaus and 
mountains inland. 

Mineral Resources: Vast mineral wealth, largely undevel- 

Products: Silk, Tea, Cotton, Rice and other raw materials 
of commerce are exported. Other products raised for 
home consumption. 

Form of Government: Republican. 

Recent Changes: Government changed from Empire to Re- 
public. Trade with foreign nations, and even the cutting 
off of pigtails by many Chinese indicate the "awakening 
of China". " 

8. Water that has fallen as rain may 1st, sink into earth and 
become ground water. 2nd, Run off forming streams. 3rd, Evapor- 
ate. The conditions which determine which of the three things 
shall happen, are porosity of soil, slope of ground, amount and rate 
of rainfall, amount of water already in soil, dryness of the air, 
presence or absence of vegetation. 


Dry, loose, level ground, the presence of vegetation and slow rain 
fall favor the sinking in of the water. 

Wet, hard soil, steep slopes, the absence of vegetation, and a 
rapid abundant downpour, favor a large run off. 

Very dry air favors rapid evaporation. 

In most regions the formation of ground water is of the great 
est advantage to Agriculture. 

9. The countries which lead in the production of the following 
articles are: — 

Coffee, Brazil. 
Corn, United States. 
Wool, Australia. 

Diamonds, Kimberley, British S. Africa. 
Cotton, United States. 

The States which lead in the production of the following articles 

Hogs, Iowa. (Prom Year Book, Dept. Agr. 1913) 

Wheat, Kansas. 
Rice, Louisiana. 
Oranges, California. 
Cane Sugar, Louisiana. 

10. The Wind belts crossed in sailing from v to Cape; 
Horn are: — 1st, Prevailing Westerlies, from New York to about 35 
degrees north latitude. 2nd, Horse Latitudes, from about 35 to 30 
degrees north latitude. 3rd Northeast Trades, from about 30 to 5 
degrees north latitude. 4th, Doldrums, from about 5 degrees north 
to 5 degrees south latitude. 5th, Southeast Trades, from 5 to 30 
degrees south latitude. 6th, Horse Latitudes, from about 30 to 3f> 
degrees south latitude. 7th, Prevailing Westerlies, from about 35 
degrees south latitude to Cape Horn. The same wind belts will be 
crossed in the reverse order in going from Cape Horn to San Fran- 

Rain might be expected in the Doldrums, because of the as- 
cending air currents, and in the Westerlies, because of the poleward 
mo\ ement of the air. Dry weather would be expected in the Horse 
Latitudes because of the descending air currents, and in the Trades 
because of the equatorward movement of the air. 

11. Northern Germany is a region of plains and lowlands, h 
Agriculture is the leading industry. Southern Germany is rough 
and mountainous, hence manufacturing and mining are the leading 

12. The Atmosphere is the air. Its constituents are Nitro 
Oxygen, Carbon-dioxide, and Water Vapor. It often contain 
purities as dust particles, and minute quantities of various gas 

The uses of the different constituents are: — Nitrogen gives mass 
to air, forming nearly 8-10 of the atmosphere. Dilutes the ; 
element oxygen and forms compounds essential to both plant and 
animal life. 

Oxygen is essential to all respiration, oxidation and decay. 

Carbon dioxide is an essential plant food, it 1ms a large effect in 
regulating the temperature of the earth's surface. 

Water vapor is necessary for rainfall,- upon which all life depend 


The dust particles diffuse the sunlight, and probably serve as 
a nucleus about which the water vapor condenses. 

The atmosphere (winds) distributes the rainfall. When the tem- 
perature of the air is high, its vapor capacity is great. Cooling the 
air causes condensation and precipitation of the water vapor. 

13. Two kinds of forests are: — 

Tropical forests, due to high temperature and abundant rain- 

Temperate forests, due to moderate rainfall and alternate warm 
and cold seasons. 

Two kinds of grasslands are: — 

Savannas, due to high temperature and alternate wet and dry sea- 

Steppes, due to semi arid conditions. 

Two kinds of deserts are: 

Hot or dry deserts, due to high temperature and slight rainfall. 

Cold deserts, or Tundras, due to low temperature. 

14. "Conservation of Natural Resources" means such use of 
natural resources, that the present generation may have all that 
they need without the robbing of future generations. 

The resources which should be conserved are the forests, miner- 
als, soils, waterpower, fish and game. 

Forests may be conserved by 1st, cutting only "ripe" trees; 2nd, 
Care of young trees in felling; 3rd, Prohibiting grazing, especially 
of sheep and goats in young forests; 4th, Prevention of forest fires 
5th, Sometimes, reforestation by planting. 

U. S. HISTORY— Answers. 

By A. F. Strome, Department of History, 
Western Illinois State Normal School. 

1. Virginia at first made marked progress in self government, 
but in 1624, she became a royal province, and self government in 
a measure declined. The governor of Virginia possessed large pow- 
ers. He was appointed by the Crown, and was not dependent on 
the House of Burgesses for his salary. He had large powers of 
appointment, and could veto all acts of the legislature. The fran- 
chise was liberal, but in time ceased to be of much importance as 
county affairs came under the control of the county judges ap- 
pointed by the governor, while the affairs of the parish were man- 
aged by the vestry composed of twelve men who held office for life 
and themselves filled all vacancies. 

As a result of the transfer of her charter to the colony Massa- 
chusetts early attained a large measure of independence and suc- 
ceeded in maintaining it during the greater part of the colonial per- 
iod. The governor was elected by the general court and was de- 
pendent on it for his salary. His powers were therefore, greatly 
limited. The franchise was more restricted than in Virginia, but 
those who voted were thoroly representative of the colony's 
interest. LUcal government instead of declining wa« of increasing: 


importance, the town meeting becoming the most important feature 
of the colonial government. 

Industrially the two colonies also differed widely. Owing to 
the favoring circumstances of soil and climate, Virginia early gave 
herself up to the production of tobacco and developed the planta- 
tion system. In Massachusetts on the other hand, the soil yielded 
only a scanty return, and tho agriculture on a small scale was 
always an important industry, the people also early turned to fish- 
ing, ship-building, trading and manufacturing. 

2. The conditions which seemed to favor the permanence of 
French dominion in America were the strength of the French gov- 
ernment and the fostering care she gave her colonies, her military 
occupation of her territory, and her friendly relations with the In- 
dians. The occupation, however, was bound to prove temporary 
because of the superior genius of the English as a colonizing na- 
tion, and to the fact that the French occupation was mainly a 
commercial and military one, while the English occupation meant 
the settlement and development of the resources of the country. 
In the course of time, superior resources were bound to turn the 
tide in favor of the English. That the French occupation was 
brought to an end as early as 1763 was largely due to the ex- 
igencies of the war in Europe. 

3. The passage of the Stamp Act produced a storm of opposi- 
tion in America. Massachusetts took the lead and sent out a call 
for a general congress to protest against the action of Parliament. 
This was followed by non-importation agreements. In the meantime 
the Liberal party in England temporarily got control of the govern- 
ment and the Stamp Act was repealed. The repeal however, car- 
ried with it the so-called Declaratory Act, asserting the full right 
of Parliament to tax the colonies. This was followed in 1767 by 
the Townshend Acts, and the storm broke out afresh. The colonies 
had opposed the Stamp Act on the ground that it was an internal 
and direct tax, and the Townshend Acts were therefore disguised 
as external taxes in regulation of trade. But the people realized 
that a tax was a tax, and denied all right of Parliament to tax them 
whatsoever. In response to the Act, the non-importation agree- 
ments were revived, and committees of Correspondence devised 
to keep the various colonies in touch. The objectionable Acts were 
finally repealed, but again, as in the case of the Stamp Act, effort 
was made to save the principle of taxation by Parliament by leav- 
ing a nominal three-penny tax on tea. This only served to anger 
the colonies and when English merchants attempted to land tea in 
Boston, the citizens boarded the vessels and threw the tea into the 
harbor. This and other acts of violence, however, brought about 
the passage of the so-called Retaliatory Acts, closing the ports of 
Boston and annulling the charter of Massachusetts, establishing in- 
stead, a military government under General Gage. The Retaliatory 
Acts in their turn stirred the colonies to more determined resist- 
ence, provisions were sent to the suffering people of Boston, and 
a call was issued for a Continental Congress. This congress met in 
1774, and at once took measures providing for more effective re- 
sjstence. It also addressed a petition to the king, but this was ig- 
nored 1 , and "the colonies made" 'preparation for war. Massachusetts 


organized her militia and collected stores. General Gage then at- 
tempted to destroy the stores collected at Concord, and thus 
brought on the first battle of the Revolution. 

4. The period immediately following the war of 1812 was one 
of readjustment for the American people, and thousands who be- 
fore the war had found plenty of employment along the seaboard 
now found it extremely difficult to win a livlihood. In the vast 
region between the Appalachians and the Mississippi however, 
was new opportunity, and soon a movement began which 
in the course of a few short years brought into the union a galaxy 
of new states. Three main routes opened the way to this new coun- 
try, and soon three great streams of emigrants were making their 
way westward. One composed chiefly of New Englanders pushed 
along Lake Champlain and up the Mohawk Valley to the region oC 
the Great Lakes and Northern Ohio; a second composed of botn 
New Englanders and Middle State people made their way to tne 
Ohio regions by way of Pittsburg, or the new national pike; while a 
third stream made up mostly of emigrants from the Southern 
States, followed the Old Wilderness Road to Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, or farther on into Alabama or Southern Indiana and Illi- 
nois. The movement seems to hav© been at its height by 1817, but 
continued on almost unabated for some years. 

The filling up of the West brought new problems to the fore- 
front in national politics. Indeed, there is scarcely a political is- 
sue of the period, 1815 to 1840, which was not the expression of 
western influence. The internal improvement movement was an 
expression of the western demand for an outlet for its products. 
The tariff controversy was largely the result of the western de- 
mand for home markets. It was the need of the West for mere 
money which brought on the Wild Cat Banking craze and its at- 
tendant problems, and finally it was the devotion of this region 
to free labor which finally turned the tide against slavery. 

5. In 1818 the territory of Missouri applied for admission to 
the Union. Nothing was said in the petition in regard to slavery, 
but inasmuch as the people already held slaves it was understood 
that they intended to create a slave state. But by the time the 
Ohio river had come to be pretty definitely recognized an the 
boundary between the slave and free states, and since the greater 
part of Missouri lay north of this line, there was bound to be oppo- 
sition to her admission as a slave state. Moreover, many at the 
north were opposed to any extension of slavery west of the Missis- 
sippi. Consequently when the petition came before the House of 
Representatives for debate, James Talmadge, of New Yor 1 :, pro- 
posed an amendment designed to exclude slavery from the state. 
The amendment passed the House but was blocked in the Senate 
where the slave holding interests had a majority. Neither side 
would yield, and the matter dragged on until 1820, when the ter- 
ritory of Maine applied for admission and another deadlock was 
brought about. The Southern senators refusing to permit Maine 
to come into the Union as a free state unless the Northern repre- 
sentatives would admit Missouri as a slave state. It was clenr that 
a compromise was necessary, and it was finally agreed, after a bit- 
ter struggle that Missouri should come in as a slave state on con- 
dition that Maine be admitted as a free state, and that slavery 


should be excluded from all the remainder of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase north of 36° 30". 

6. Five of the chief weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation 

(a) The confederation was a mere league of sovereign states 
and not a real national union. 

(b) The machinery of government was inadequate. There 
was no well defined executive to enforce the laws, and no 
judiciary to interpret them, or to settle disputes between 
the states. 

(c) Congress had insufficient power; for example, it had no 
power to collect taxes or to regulate commerce. 

(d) The voting in Congress was by states, and the consent 
of nine states was necessary for the passage of any law. 

(e) Congress had no power to enforce its treaties with for- 
eign nations. 

The constitution remedied these defects by creating a real nation- 
al government having direct authority over individuals, by provid- 
ing three distinct departments of government, by conferring on 
Congress full power to levy and collect taxes and to regulate com- 
merce with foreign nations and between states, by giving each 
senator and representative in Congress one vote and requiring only 
a majority for the passage of laws, and by making treaties a part 
of the law of the land enforceable by national authority. 

7. During this period a variety of events tended to increase 
our standing among the nations of the world. First and foremost 
doubtless, was our great national growth. The establishment of 
the national credit during Washington's administration was anoth- 
er large factor. The punishment of the barbary states and the war 
with England also had a salutary effect in that they showed that 
the American people were not inclined tamely to submit to viola- 
tions of their rights. The achievements of the navy during the 
War of 1812 were especially efficacious in impressing upon Eu- 
ropean nations this lesson. 

8. In 1836, Texas, which had come under control of emigrants 
from the United States, rebelled against Mexico and gained her in- 
dependence. Later, Texas applied for admission to the Union. In 
184 4, the Secretary of State, John C. Calhoun, negotiated a Treaty 
of Annexation with Texas, but the Senate refused to ratify it. The 
friends of slavery, however, were determined to annex Texas. The 
democratic party made the annexation of Texas an issue in the 
campaign of 184 4, and on their triumph in the election, Congress 
at oi)ce admitted Texas by a joint resolution, it being impossible 
to secure the necessary two-third vote to ratify a treaty in the 

The annexation of Texas became the direct cause of the War 
with Mexico. Texas claimed the Rio Grande as her western bound- 
ary while Mexico claimed that Texas' west boundary was the Neu- 
ces river. When Texas was admitted to the Union, her claim be- 
came the claim of the United States. President Polk ordered Gen- 
eral Taylor to take possession of the disputed territory and this 
was followed by war. 

9. The Kansas-Nebraska Act, as finally passed in 1853, provid- 
ed for the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, and the organiza- 


tion of the two territories of Kansas and Nebraska, under the prin- 
ciple of Popular Sovereignty that is the right of the territories to 
determine for themselves whether they should or should not have 

The Act was not a compromise, tho the friends of slavery 
maintained that it was merely an extension of the idea of the Com- 
promise of 1850. All parties had professed to regard the Com- 
promise of 1850 as a settlement of the slavery trouble but the re- 
peal of the Missouri Compromise re-opened the entire question. The 
North regarded the Act of 1820 as a solemn agreement, and its 
violation by the friends of slavery started a new agitation in op- 
position to the extension of slavery, which ended only with the 
Civil War. 

10. The fundamental cause of the Civil War was the geograph- 
ic differences between the North and South. These gave rise to 
distinct social and industrial institutions, which, in the course of 
their development brought the two sections into conflict. The 
main points at issue were the tariff and slavery. After 1832, the 
tariff controversy quieted down, but about the same time the South 
came to a realization of the fact that slavery must expand in order 
to perpetuate itself, and a movement was begun for the extension 
of slave territory. This was resisted by the North, which had 
gradually developed an antagonism to the whole institution of 
slavery, and the struggle thus started finally culminated in the 
Civil War. The immediate cause of the Civil War was the se- 
cession of the Southern States. 

11. As Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, the Presi- 
dent has extensive powers in time of war which he does not possess 
in time of peace. The Emancipation Proclamation was issued under 
the authority of these so-called war powers, its ostensible object 
being to cripple the enemy. As a war measure it applied only to the 

territory in rebellion, and would cease to be effective as soon as 
the war was over. In order to make the abolition of slavery gen- 
eral and permanent, it was necessary to make it a part of the con- 
stitution, neither Congress nor the President having that power. 

12. Five of the most noteworthy achievements of the Roose- 
velt administration were: 

a. The rousing of the nation to a consciousness of the need of 
action in restraint of "Big Business.' 

b. The formulation of a definite policy for conserving our 
natural resources. 

c. The beginning of the Panama Canal. 

d. The passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act.. 

e. The revival of the Inter-State Commerce Commission. 

13. Cuba had long been a subject of great interest to the United 
States. Not only had the mis-government, which the people suffered 
at the hands of Spain, stirred the sympathies of the American peo- 
ple, but American citizens had large financial interests on the Is- 
land and the government could not regard with indifference the poli- 
tical conditions there. In 1895, a severe insurrection broke out 
during which millions of dollars worth of American property was de- 
stroyed and many American citizens were thrown into Spanish pris- 
ons. Mo'reoVerj thfe Cuban pVoftle were treated with inhuman cruelty 


by the Spanish General Weyler. The American people were thoroly 
aroused and the government was compelled to take cognizance of the 
situation. President McKinley labored hard to get Spain to grant 
the Cubans some degree of self government, but without success. 
Meanwhile, both Houses of Congress passed resolutions urging the 
recognition of Cuban independence. As time went on, public opin- 
ion became more and more incensed against Spain, until finally, 
when the battleship Maine was blown up, in Havana Harbor the 
people were aroused to such a degree of indignation that the ad- 
ministration was compelled to take decisive action. After a last 
appeal to the Spanish government, which met with an evasive 
reply, President McKinley turned the matter over to Congress. 
Congress then passed a resolution recognizing the independence of 
Cuba and demanding the withdrawal of Spain from the Island. It 
also authorized the President to use the militiary and naval forces 
of the United States to carry these resolutions into effect. The 
passage of these resolutions was a virtual declaration of war against 
Spain and was soon followed by actual hostilities. 

14. The thirteen original colonies in order of the approximate 
dates of their first settlements are: Virginia 1607, New York 1613, 
Massachusetts 1620, New Hampshire 1623, Delaware 1627, New Jer- 
sey 1627, Connecticut 1633, Maryland 1634, Rhode Island 1636, 
North Carolina 1650, South Carolina 1670, Pennsylvania 1682, and 
Georgia 1733. 

Virginia, the first colony established was settled at Jamestown 
in 1607. 

Looked at from the point of view of ideals and their influence 
on the American nation, Massachusetts was doubtless the best of the 
American colonies. The first settlement was at Plymouth in 1620. 


By Elbert Waller, Superintendent of Schools, 
Albion, 111., and author of Waller's History of Illinois 

1. Abraham Lincoln and Richard Yates, Sr., both won dis- 
tinction in a political way. To these we would add Ulysses S. 
Grant, John A. Logan, Richard J. Oglesby, John M. Palmer, and 
John A. McClernand. 

2. In the early days, the rivers were very important means of 
travel and transportation and even yet, they and Lake Michigan 
are important. The climate is such that nearly everything pro- 
duced in the Temperate Zone can be produced with profit in Illi- 
nois. A larger percent of Illinois' soil is under cultivation than is 
the soil of any other state. In most of the State the soil is ex- 
tremely fertile. In the hilly portion of the State where the produc- 
tion of cereals is not so profitable, every variety of temperate cli- 
mate fruit thrives. About two-thirds of the State is underlaid by 
beds of coal of an excellent quality. Plenty of limestone is found 
in a majority of the counties. Clay and shale suitable for brick- 
making is found in large quantities and lead and sine are also 


found. The fact that the state is conveniently located as regards 
raw material and markets for out-put has greatly encouraged var- 
ious industries in the state. 

3. The Enabling Act was passed by Congress on April 18th, 
1818. This defined the present boundary and changed the required 
population from 60,000 to 40,000 people. A census was taken show- 
ing 40,000, tho in reality there were only a little over 35,000. A 
constitution was agreed to in a convention called for that purpose 
but was never voted on by the people. An election was held for 
Governor, Lieutenant Governor, one Representative in Congress, 
and members of the General Assembly. The General Assembly met 
and elected two U. S. Senators and as the final act, Congress ap- 
proved the Constitution December 3d, 1818, and President Monroe 
signed the bill the next day. The birthday of Illinois is Decem- 
ber 4th instead of December 3d as generally supposed. 

4. Black Hawk was a Sac chief, living near Rock Island. He 
was cheated out of his lands and his village was burned in 1831. 
He fled from the state but the following spring he came near his 
old home going to the Winnebagoes. The people became alarmed 
and called for help. Gov. Reynolds led, in person, 1800 troops. 
The President of the United States sent others and after a series 
of blunders on the part of the white people they finally compelled 
him to flee. He took refuge with the Winnebagoes who gave him 
up to the United States authorities August 2 7th, 1832 and the war 
was over. It had cost the United States a million dollars and had 
taken 7,000 troops to put 400 indian braves with their starving- 
families off the land of which they had been defrauded. 

5. It was customary in the early days of Illinois to have "Mus- 
ter Days" at which time the people all gathered together and the 
men engaged in military drill. After the officers had "bawled 
themselves hoarse" they would have a barbecue and "Sleights of 
art and feats of strength went round." They finally degenerated 
into drunken brawls and President Jackson recommended that 
they be discontinued. 

It was customary to have the girls and their mothers seated on 
one side of the church house and the boys and their fathers on 
the other. The preacher did not work for a salary but was gener- 
ally well provided for by his congregation. Often he was simply 
a laborer among them, who preached for the good of the cause. The 
church building was not an imposing edifice, but a modest struc- 
ture. Then the finances of the churches were never embarassed. 

6. As the name might imply, the "Black Code" was for the gov- 
ernment of the negro. It provided: That a negro could not bring 
suit nor testify in court; that if he were found ten miles from 
home he could be taken before a justice and whipped twenty-five 
lashes; that unless he had a certificate of freedom, his time for 
one year could be sold by the sheriff; that he might be sold on ex- 
ecution or mortgaged for his master's debts and that no person 
could bring a slave to the state for the purpose of freeing him 
without giving a bond of $1000 guaranteeing that such slave would 
be a law-abiding and self-supporting citizen. 

7. The writers of the Constitution of. 1818 tried to compel the 
recognition of slavery in Illinois by inserting the expression, "Nei- 


ther slavery nor involuntary servitude shall hereafter be intro- 
duced". In 1822, the advocates of slavery tried to get the. consti- 
tution so amended as to legalize slavery, claiming to no linger oe 
bound by the Ordinance of 178 7. The General Assembly in 1823, 
after unseating one member who opposed the amendment, had a 
bare majority in favor of the amendment. The proposition warf 
accordingly submitted to a vote of the people. It was bitterly con- 
tested in the election August 2d, 182 4 and was defeated Dy 1668 

8. The call on Illinois was for 3,000 troops but it was respond- 
ed to by 0,000. They were led by General James Shields, and the* 
engaged in the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey, 
fialtillo, Victoria, Tainpico, and Buena Vista, and were successful 
in every battle. A few of them were under General Scott on the 
campaign from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico. 

9. In 1858, Lincoln and Douglas were both candidates for the 
U. S. Senate. Lincoln challenged Douglas to a debate on national 
issues. Finally they agreed on seven places where they would de- 
bate. They were as follows: Ottawa, Freeport, Jonesboro, Charles- 
ton, Galesburg, Quincy and Alton. Douglas was popular and Lin- 
coln not very well known. Douglas went with a great deal oi pomp, 
while Lincoln was the opposite. It is generally conceded that Lin- 
coln was victorious for the state went republican tho the dem- 
ocrats held a majority of the General Assembly. They gave each 
other several questions. The second Lincoln gave to Douglas was 
against the advice of his friends but Lincoln was far-sighted and 
asked the question. It drove Douglas to a position that it is be- 
lieved cost him the presidency two years later. 

10. Richard Yates, Sr., was the "War Governor" of Illinois. 
He was so-called because he took such a decided stand in favor of 
the Union even to the point of doing all in his power to organize 
and equip the soldiers in Illinois. 

11. Illinois has had three constitutions, the first in 1818, the 
second, 1848, the third, 18 70. I would consider that a leading 
feature of the first was the various provisions concerning the ne- 
gro, one of the second was a provision prohibiting the state from in 
any way becoming involved with the banks, one of the third was a 
provision concerning Minority representation. 

12. Starved Rock was the scene of the starving out of the last 
of the Illini Federation in the Illinois Valley. Galena was the scene 
of the so-called Winnebago War. Old Salem was the home of Lin- 
coln. Nauvoo was the scene of the Mormon trouble. Shawneetown 
was the home of a tribe of Indians of that name. It was also one 
of the earliest settlements in the State and the location of one of 
the ill-fated State banks. Vandalia was the location of the second 
capital of Illinois. Alton was the scene of the Lovejoy murder. 
Freeport is the place where Douglas answered Lincoln's question 
concerning "Squatter Sovereignty", the answer being known as 
the "Freeport Doctrine." 

13. Shadrach Bond. In his administration the famous "Glack 
Code" was enacted. Edward Coles. In his administration the light 
to amend the Constitution so as to legalize slavery was waged. Jo- 
seph Duncan. In his administration the murder of Elijah P. Lov#- 


joy occurred. Richard Yates, Sr. In his administration Illinois 
furnished 259,000 troops for the Civil War. Richard J. Oglesby. 
In his administration the Thirteenth Amendment was approved. 

14. In 1832, the idea of a railroad from one end of the State 
to the other was talked of by Alexander M. Jenkins of Jackson 
County, and in 1836, the Illinois Central Railroad Company was in- 
corporated, but nothing except a road from Meridosia to Spring- 
field was the direct result. 

In 1850, the U. S. Government gave to the State nearly three 
million acres of land to be used as the State saw best in building a 
railroad from Cairo to LaSalle. A new Illinois Central Railroad 
Company was organized in 1851. By a provision of their charter 
they were given the land that the State had received from Congress 
for that purpose. The Company was to pay no tax on the chartered 
line nor on the land so long as they owned it but in lieu thereof 
they were to pay 5 percent of the gross earnings of the road for 
the first two years; then a provision of the charter was so worded 
that they were to pay at least 7 percent of the gross earnings to 
the State. The road was completed in 185 6. It has been a great 
factor in the development of the State and has paid into the State 
Treasury more than $30,000,000. 


Section Two 

READING — Questions. 

1. State the main object to be kept in view in teaching (a) 
primary reading; (b) advanced reading. 

2. DiBCUSs supplementary reading as to (a) purpose; (b) ma- 

3. Name two methods commonly employed in teaching begin- 
ners to read, and state the special advantage of each. 

4. (a) State two errors in methods of teaching reading which 
lead to monotonous reading by the pupil, (b) State two ways by 
which this fault of the pupil may be corrected. 

5. "Every clod feels a stir of might, 

An instinct within it that reaches and towers, 
And groping blindly above it for light, 
Climbs to a soul in grass and flowers." 
(a) Prom what is the extract taken? (b) By paraphrasing, 
explain its meaning. 

6. Name the author of each of the following: Miles Standish; 
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow; Macbeth; Lady of the Lake; Robinson 
Crusoe; Snowbound; The Great Stone Face; The Chambered Nau- 
tilus; Apostrophe to the Ocean; The Psalm of Life; Thanatopsis. 

7. The general method of teaching a poem embraces the follow- 
ing: I Preparation; II The Whole; III The Parts; IV The New 
Whole, (a) Comment on this arrangement. (b) What would 
you include in the preparation? (c) Why should a study of the 
whole precede the study of the parts? (d) Why at the close should 
we study the poem as a new whole? 

Daisies — Second Grade* 

"At evening when I go to bed, 
I see the stars shine overhead; 
They are the little daisies white 
That dot the meadows of the night. 

And often, while I'm dreaming so, 
Across the sky the moon will go; 
It Is a lady, sweet and fair, 
Who comes to gather daisies there. 

For when at morning I arise 
There's not a star left in the skies; 
She's picked them all, and dropped them down 
Into the meadows of the town." 


8. (a) What preparatory discussion should the teacher make 
before taking up the poem? (b) How would you present Ine whole 
poem ? 

9. (a) What analysis would you make of the parts of the above 
poem "Daisies"? (b) How would you proceed to present the poem 
as "a new whole"? (c) Suppose you desire the class to memo- 
rize tiie poem — what part will you take in the work? 

10. Upon what essential facts are the ease and success in teach- 
ing reading dependent? 

11. Some teachers, in rural schools, devote a portion of the ten 
or fifteen minute period for reading to (a) reading; (u) to the 
telling of the story of the lesson by the pupils; (c) to the spelling 
of the difficult words of the lesson. Comment on this procedure. 

Abraham Lincoln. 

"This man whose homely face you look upon, 

Was one of Nature's masterful great men; 
Born with strong arms that unfought victories won. 

Direct of speech, and cunning with the pen, 
Chosen for large designs, he had the art 

Oi winning with his humor, and he went 
Straight to his mark, which was the human heart. 

Wise, too, for what he could not break, he bent; 
Upon his back, a more than Atlas load, 

The burden of the Commonwealth was laid; 
He stooped and rose up with it, tho the road 

Shot suddenly downwards, not a whit dismayed. 
Hold, warriors, councilors, kings! All now give place 
To this dead Benefactor of the Race." 

12. (a) What would you state as the pupil's aim in studying 

this selection? 

(b( What would you state as the teacher's aim in teach- 
ing it? 

(c) What would you tell the class the poet has attempted 

13. (a) Name the qualities, as given by the poet, that made 

Lincoln "one of Nature's masterful great men." 
(b) Suppose you wished to illustrate Lincoln's "cunning 
with the pen," what selection would you read to the 

14. (a) For what "large designs" was Lincoln chosen? 

(b) What was the "more than Atlas load" that Lincoln 

ARITHMETIC — Questions. 

1. A bin is 10 feet square and 8 feet deep. If it is 3/4 filled, 
how many bushels of oats does it contain? 

2. An army lost in one battle 2/17 of its men and in another 
2/5 of the remainder, after which there were 8100 men left. How 
many men were in the original army? 


3. Divide 3/4 by 5/7 in two ways. Explain ©&oh. Which ahoald 
Be taught first? Way? 

4. The tax to be raised in a certain district is $1250. The rate 
is 2 1/2%. It the property is assessed at 1/3 of its reai value, what 
is the real value? 

5. (a) 36% of John's money is $60 more than 24% of it. How 

much money has he? 

(b) .05 is what per cent of .25? 

(c) .8% of 6.75 equals what? 

(d) 250 is 200% of what number? 

(ej Write with per cent mark: .035, 28.5, 3/4, 7 1/2, .40. 

6. A boy climbs a flag pole to the height of 40 feet. Another 
boy is standing on the ground 120 feet from the foot of the iiag 
pole. If the second boy is 165 feet from a ball on the top of the 
pole, how far is the first boy from the ball? Draw a diagram. 

7. A foundation wall is 45 by 120 feet outside measurement, 
18 inches thick and 8 feet deep. Find number of cubic yards of 
masonry in the wall. 

8. A house is insured for 3/4 of its value; if the premium is $24 
and the rate is 3/8%, what is the value of the house? 

9. A ship is 58° 48' 20" west longitude and receives at noon a 
wireless message from one 43° 2' 5" west longitude. When was 
it sent? 

10. Show by a diagram N. 1/2 of S. 1/2 of E. 1/2 of S. E. 1/4 
of a section of land. How many acres of land in it and how many 
rods of fence will be required to fence it? 

11. How many gallons of oil in a cylindrical tank 6 feet in 
diameter and 20 feet high? How many square yards of sheet iron 
does it require to make it, and what is the weight of the oil if its 
specific gravity is .8? 

12. State the effect of prefixing and annexing ciphers to a deci- 
mal and explain as you would to a class. 

13. A dry-goods dealer sold a piece of cloth, and gained 12 1/2% 
If he had sold it at 90 cents a yard, he would have gained 25%. 
What was the selling price? 

14. As agent, I sold some wheat for $4896 on a commission of 
4%. I invested the net proceeds in dry goods, after deducting 
my commission of 2 % for buying. What was my entire com- 

CIVICS. — Questions. 

1. By diagrams, show the United States land survey system. 
Explain the diagrams. 

2. How may the constitution of the United States be amended? 
Name three restrictions imposed upon the states by the constitu- 

3. Distinguish between the following forms of government: 
absolute monarchy, limited monarchy, pure democracy, republic. 
Give example of each. 


4. Name the officers of a school township. Give length of term 
and state the duties of the officers. 

5. Define bribery, perjury, civil suit, tenure of office, writ of 
habeas corpus. 

6. Explain fully what is meant by congressional district. By 
senatorial district. By congressman at large. 

7. What do you consider to be some of the aims in teaching 
civic* ? 

8. Name the three departments of government and give the 
function of each. 

9. Give qualifications, term of office, and manner of electing 
a congressman; a senator. Mow many of each may a state have? 

10. Name the town offices and give the chief function of each. 

11. How may a senator be removed from office? How a repre- 
sentative? How a supreme judge? How a vice president? 

12. Show the steps thru which a bill must pass from its 
introduction in our legislature until it becomes a law. 

13. Name the courts that constitute the judicial department 
of the government of the United States; of the government of 

14. What bill must originate in the house of representatives, 
aad why? 


For Third Grade Certificate answer any eight of the first ten ques- 
tions; for Second Grade Certificate, any eight of 
3 to 12, inclusive. 

1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a plan of alter- 
nation of studies. 

2. How many classes in reading should there be in a country 
school? Explain the plan suggested in the State Course for com- 
bining the classes in reading. 

3. Explain the useful purposes served by an examination system 
as given in the State Course. 

4. What suggestions for teaching the story and the poem to first 
year pupils is given in the State Course? Why should stories be 
dramatized? Explain the method to be followed in dramatization. 

5. What useful objective material can be used in presenting 
second year number? 

6. W T hat are the principal causes why some children read in a 
hesitating manner? How may the reading of such children be made 

7. Discuss the value of constructive work in the primary grades. 
What important basic principles are involved? 

8. What are the important topics to be studied in fourth year 


9. What kind of work in household arts is suggested in the 
State Course? What is the purpose of such a course? What plan 
is suggested for doing this work in country schools? 

11. What things about a picture should be discussed with pupils 
in the seventh year? Discuss these things with regard to any pic- 
ture to be studied in the seventh year. 

12. Discuss boys' and girls' clubs as adjuncts of the school. 
Discuss the general plan of organization and management of these 

ORTHOGRAPHY.— Questions. 

For Third Grade Certificate answer any four of questions 1 to 5, 

inclusive; for Second Grade, any four of questions 2 to fi; 

for First Grade, any four of questions 3 to 7. A 

list of twenty-five words will be pronounced, 

which will count as four questions. 

1. Define and give examples: homonym, suffix, trisyllable, diph- 
thong, derivative-word. 

2. Give words to illustrate four sounds each of a, e, i, o, u. 

3. Define and give a word containing each of the following: 
post, inter, poly, mono, cede, diet, fleet, polis, rupt, anti. 

4. Syllabicate, accent, and give diacritical marks: acorn, arctic, 
fatigue, tortoise, pedagogy, bronchitis, routine, suicide, recall, bu- 

5. Write at least two synonyms for each of the following: 
scent, unite, scorn, soothe, scene. 

6. Use in sentences so as to show the meaning: coral, choral, 
capitol, capital, quay, isle, caret, carat, statue, statute. 

7. Analyze the following: biped, subscription, secede, auto- 
graph, circumscribe, liberate, contradict, paternal, manufacture, 

PEDAGOGY.— Questions. 

For Second Grade Certificate use questions 1 to 8, inclusive; for 

First Grade, High School and Special Certificates, 

use questions 1 to 10, inclusive. 

1. Name five general aims in public school education. 

2. Show the importance of "starting right" in the manage- 
ment of a school or a class. Explain what you mean bv "starting 


3. Illustrate from your own observation or experience how 
"sympathy for childhood " may work harm if not controlled by the 
right kind of persistence. 

4. Discuss in one hundred words this subject: Preparing be- 
forehand for the "first day of school." 

5. How would you go about making a daily program? Make 
your statement apply specifically to the kind of school in which 
you have taught or expect to teach. 

6. Discuss the hygiene of eyesight in the school-room, with ref- 
erence to these matters: Distance of reading matter from the eye; 
direction of light; ink, pencils and paper. 

7. Speak of several elements that are important in securing 
order in the school. 

8. Present brief arguments for and against corporal punish- 

9. Show what is wrong with the method of conducting recita- 
tions illustrated here, and indicate a better method: 

Who discovered America? 


Of what country was he a native? 

What difficulty did he have with his sailors? 

10. Discuss the civic duties of a teacher, using about 120 words. 


For Second Grade Certificate Only. Answer any eight questions. 

1. How may mosquitoes spread disease? 

2. Explain carefully how a Ben Davis apple tree may be made 
to produce Jonathan and Minkler apples. 

3. Should the crow and the screech owl be killed ? Why ? 

4. When should seed corn be gathered and how should it be 
cared for during the winter ? 

5. How may new onion seeds be produced from seeds planted 
in the spring of the year ? 

6. Is the ground mole carnivorous ? Why ? Describe a mole's 
front foot. 

7. What plants are practical for a school garden? 

8. What causes a west wind ? Define barometer. 

9. Give some of the chief differences between black soil and 
yellow clay soil. 

10. Give some similarities between alfalfa and red clover. 


PHYSIOLOGY. — Questions. 

1. What is meant by food adulteration ? Give examples of this. 

2. Locate and give use of the spleen. Give the evil effects of 
mouth breathing. Describe and give use of the cilia. 

3. What important fluid in the mouth aids digestion? Name 
and locate the glands from which this fluid comes. Describe this 
fluid's action. 

4. Describe the circulatory system and trace a particle of blood 
from a starting point, showing the changes it undergoes in its jour- 

5. What are the two great divisions of the nervous system ? 
Name and describe two kinds of nervous tissue. 

6. What effects do you think the use of intoxicating drinks have 
on character ? What effects on the vital organs ? 

7. Define oxidation and its products. 

8. Name the divisions of the digestive tract. Show changes 
food undergoes in each division of the tract as it makes its transit. 

9. Give function of the following glands, and locate the glands. 
Liver, kidneys, perspiratory, sebaceous, lachrymal, parotid, sublin- 
gual, submaxillary, spleen. 

10. Write briefly concerning the best methods of ventilating a 

11. Discuss the human skeleton as to structure and composi- 
tion of the bones, also their general and particular uses. 

12. Tell of the spinal cord as to color, length and diameter, cov- 
ering, structure, function. 

13. Tell how we see, and in doing so, name all the different 
parts of the eye. 

14. Give five essential hygienic laws of health. 

PENMANSHIP.— Questions. 

For Third Grade Certificate answer any four of questions 1 to 5 : 

inclusive; for Second Grade, any four of questions 2 to 6; 

for First Grade, any four of questions 3 to 7. 

Penmanship of applicant on this paper will count fifty per cent. 

1. Make a line across your paper of the push and pull exercise. 
Make a line across your paper of the indirect oval exercise. 

2. Make in proper form, grouped as you would teach them, all 
of the small letters. What is the proper height of one space letters'.' 

3. White* a correct form of 'a bank draft. Draw a rectangle 3 by 


5 inches to represent the back of your draft. In this rectangle, 
write endorsement in full, making the draft payable to E. F. Dunne. 
Below this write E. F. Dunne's endorsement in blank when he 
transfers the draft to some one else. 

4. What exercises do you use to develop the muscles used in 
writing ? What exercises do you use to teach uniform motion ? 
What value do you attach to such exercises ? 

5. To what extent should the teacher supervise the writing 
done outside the regular writing period ? Give reasons for your 
answer. Explain your plan for doing- this. 

6. Our State Course says that "Correct position, movement and 
rhythm should be established in the first and second grades." Ex- 
plain what you understand by these terms. What means do you use 
in these grades to establish "correct position, movement and 

7. What devices do you use to stimulate a desire on the part oi 
a pupil to improve his writing ? 

GRAMMAR. — Questions. 

1. Define and illustrate these terms: expletive, appositive, ger- 
und, auxiliary verb, collective noun. 

2. Define inflection. What parts of speech are inflected, and 
how ? 

3. Use "what" in a sentence as a relative pronoun, as an ad- 
jective, as an adverb, as an interrogative pronoun, and as an inter- 

4. Point out and give construction of each dependent clause in 
the following: 

(a) Whither thou goest I will go. 

(b) This is the story that we read. 

(c) The ground is wet because it has rained. 

(d) It was so cold that the mercury froze. 

(e) This we know, that our future depends on our present. 

5. Parse the words in black face in the preceding sentences. 

6. Fill blanks in the following sentences and give reasons: 

(a) She invited Kate and (me or I.) 

(b) did you speak to ? (who or whom.) 

(c) She has from a distant city, (come or came.) 

(d) It must have been that I met. (he or him.) 

(e) He speaks the language (plain or plainly.) 

(f) did you call ? (who or whom.) 

(g) The color of the roses red. (is or are.) 

(h) He has the book on the table, (laid or lain.) 

(i) Each of the boys an apple, (has or have.) 

(j) Did you give Mary, or , the message ? (I or me.) 

7. Name and illustrate ten uses or constructions of nouns. 

8. What is the difference between a relative and a personal 
pronoun ? How does a clause differ from a phrase ? 

i). Use a noun clause as the subject of a sentence, objeM com- 
plement, attribute complement, Give .a, sentence with an^adjective 
clause connected by "where. 5 ' What part of speech is ""where"? 


10. Tell part of speech and use of the words in blackface in 
the following: 

There came a youth upon the earth 

Some thousand years ago, 
Whose slender hands were little worth 

Whether to plow, or reap or sow. 
Then King Admetus, who had 

Pure taste by right divine, 
Decreed his singing not too bad 

To hear between the cups of wine. 
And so well pleased with being soothed 

Into a sweet half sleep, 
Three times his kingly beard he smoothed 

And made him viceroy o'er his sheep. 

11. Write sentences showing four uses of an infinitive. 

12. Use in sentences the following verb phrases: 

3rd person, plural number, present perfect tense, indicative 

mode, passive voice. 
2nd person, singular number, present tense, imperative 

mode, active voice. 
1st person, plural number, past tense, subjunctive mode, 

active voice. 
2nd person, plural number, past perfect tense, potential 

mode, passive voice. 
3rd person, singular number, future tense, indicative mode, 

active voice. 

13. Distinguish between gender and sex. Illustrate three ways 
in which gender is shown. 

14. Analyze or diagram: 

One summer morning, when the sun was hot, 
Weary with his labor in his garden plot, 
On a rude bench beneath the eaves, 
Sir Frederigo sat among the leaves 
Of a huge vine. 

GEOGRAPHY.— -Questions. 

1. Why is the making and reading of maps of importance ? 
Explain the use of the scale in map making. 

2. What were the geographic reasons for the building of a great 
city at Chicago ? 

3. Name two important river systems of each continent and 
tell into what each system flows. 

4. Sketch a map of the United States and indicate the regions 
of heavy, medium and scant rainfall. 

5. Give the causes of the trade winds and their directions. 

6. What is the basis of location on the earth's surface ? Ex- 
plain. State the purpose of latitude and longitude, and tell from 
where and how each is measured. 

7. East of the Andes, account for the heavy rainfall in northern 
South America and the scant rainfall in the southern part. 

• 8,- • Tn ,w1iat ways and why liars Atfg&tftiria borate hitb com petition 
with 'the United States? 


9. Give clear explanations of (a) the periodic rise and fall of 
the Nile; (b) the rainy and dry seasons of India. 

10. Account for (a) the Sahara; (b) the Kalahari Desert in 
southern Africa. 

11. Give approximate latitude of the British Isles, describe the 
climate, and compare with that part of America opposite them, giv- 
ing reasons for the difference. 

12. Give approximate or comparative areas of (a) Germany; 
(b) France. Give the boundaries of each. Name the principal 
rivers, and the chief products of each. 

13. Why are summer days here longer than winter ones ? What 
would be the width of each zone if the inclination of the earth's 
axis were 30 degrees ? 

14. Name the chief world regions of wheat production; of cot- 
ton; of manufacturing. What makes commerce necessary ? Name 
the chief commercial nations. 


1. State the chief object sought in the exploration, discovery, 
or settlement made by each of the following: Oglethorpe, Cortez, 
Ponce De Leon, Balboa, Pilgrims. 

2. Give the date and place of the earliest settlement in the 
United States: by the English; by the Spanish; by the Dutch; by 
the French. 

3. Mention one important event connected with the settlement 
of Virginia; of Massachusetts; of Maryland; of New York; of 

4. State fully the physical conditions of a country which are 
necessary to develop a high degree of civilization. 

5. Give the territorial expansion of the United States in chron- 
ological order. 

6. What causes led to the secession of the Southern States, and 
wko were the leading men in the movement? 

7. Give the terms of the compromise of 1850. Which of these 
terms, if any, were later violated ? 

8. Contrast early conditions in Massachusetts and Virginia in 
regard to (a) suffrage, (b) education, (c) social life. 

9. What was the principal public service rendered by each of 
these men: Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, Patrick Hen- 
ry, Thomas Jefferson, Eli Whitney ? 

10. What caused the war of 1812, and during whose presiden- 
tial administration did it occur ? The Spanish-American war ? 

11. What are some of the principal reasons for teaching his- 
tory ? How should history be taught in intermediate grades ? 

12. What two theories of the function and powers of the Na- 
tional Government have been held since the time of Hamilton and 
Jefferson ? 

13. Discuss briefly the social, religious, and political conditions 
in Europe just prior to the discovery of America. 


14. Give an account of the Constitutional Convention at Phila- 
delphia, showing particularly the conflicting interests it represented, 
and the three great compromises brought about. 


1. Describe the prehistoric conditions of Illinois. State briefly 
its mineral resources and the consequent results of the same. 

2. What importance attached to the establishment of the north- 
ern boundary of Illinois ? 

3. What different European nations have owned the territory 
now comprising Illinois ? Who first explored the state ? 

4. When does the Illinois General Assembly meet ? State num- 
ber of members in each house. 

5. Name and locate the different capitals Illinois has had. 

6. What historical importance attaches to Ft. Dearborn, Van- 
dalia, Nauvoo ? 

7. What was the Ordinance of 1787 ? How did the provisions 
of this ordinance affect Illinois ? 

8. Tell the story of George Rogers Clark and his capture by 

9. Make a good historical statement about each of the follow- 
ing: Joliet, Marquette, LaSalle, Tonti, Creve Coeur. 

10. Give the legal boundaries of Illinois, its length, its width 
and area. 

11. State, in your judgment, the principal causes that have op- 
erated to make Illinois one of the wealthiest and most prominent 
states in the Union. 

12. What Illinois men distinguished themselves (a) as states- 
men, (b) as presidents of the United States, (c) as generals ? 

13. Write a short sketch of the development of Chicago. Where 
are our state penitentiaries located ? 

14. From what sections of the United States did the early Ill- 
inois settlers come ? By what two principal routes ? What were 
their views on slavery ? 


Answers to Section Two 

READING — Answers. 

By H. T. White. Superintendent of Schools. Carlinville. III. 

1. (a) The main object to be kept in view m teaching primary 
:o teach children to interpret t i and written char- 

- far as English words permit, we must teach children the 
whic ire the printed word, 

i. e.. v te phonic words. In addition 

to teaching wi and the sound values of letters 

we must teach pupils to interpre: ; e sentences. The 

greater emphasis Is ] >f re? diner, but con- 

tent must not be ignored. 

The main object to } e kept In teaching advanced 

reading is to as ::er intelligently in 

life's affairs. The study ■ in literature 

should occ idling of read- 

ing so that pe but what things 

are most worthy of reading. 

_. (a) Children nee use, from the 

teacher's view - new combinations of 

the mechanical 
processes of re a r:her hand, the 

I something new. 
different from 

(b) Tb in any grade 

isal text, so 
that pupils will not wild be permitted 

to enjoy it, hence it - read. 

3. (a) The word me jacher of beginners. 

to learn unber of words 

the first few weeks of working vocabu 

Children learn wor:. 3 ,uickly. 

(b^ The phoni: more time and more 

skill on the part of ssary. It should 

ed to accomr usually in separate 

th :d is that after 

a child knows the sou: - he can make spoken 

4. (a) S to read a sentence 

w every word in the £ - encourages monot- 

onous .it giving 

• IOU1 

wrds in a 1 drawling 

manner as if each word were isolated 


(b) The first remedy for this is to see that the pupil knows 
every word in the sentence he is going to read; the second is to 
have him speak the words in the same way he would if he were 
not looking at them in print. In the first two grades at least it is 
well to have pupils look away from the printed sentence while they 
are saying it. This has a tendency to promote naturalness of oral 

5. fa) This extract is taken from Lowell's "Vision of Sir Laun- 

(b) "Everv clod is filled with life and strength, and finds an 
expression of its vitality in the grass and flowers." 

6 The author of Miles Standish was Longfellow; of the Legend 
of F.ieepy Hollow, Washington Irving; Macbeth, Shakespeare; Lady 
of the Lake Scott; Robinson Crusoe, Defoe; Snowbound, Whittier; 
The Great Stone Face, Hawthorne; The Chambered Nautilus, Holmes; 
Apostrophe to the Ocean. Lord Byron (Childe Harold, Canto 4); Psalm 
of Life, Longfellow; Thanatopsis, Bryant. 

7 (a) The general method of teaching a poem embraces: 1 Prep- 
aration:^. The Study of the Poem as a Whole; 3 The Parts; 4 The 
New Whole. This is a good arrangement. Surely we should make 
our preparation first, if we make it at all, and any one can see the 
need of preparation. It is then well to read the whole poem as a 
unit to get a general notion author's purpose in writing it. 
We should then see the units within the poem, such as pictures, apos- 
irophes, outbursts of joy and I admiration and the like. Then 
we should re-read the poem as a whole to get as complete an appre- 
ciation of it as we can and till more. 

Mb) Ip the preparation for reading a poem each pupil should 
learn the pronunciation and the meaning of every word as it is 
used in the given poem, the significance of each figure of speech 
and each allusion. Every should get the poets motive his 
feeling; for example, if the poem is a burst of exultation, the child 
should as far as possible have the same feeling. 

(c) It is better to study the poem as a whole before we study 
its part-; as un«ts because by the whole plan we do not break the 
continuity of thought and the exact word combinations between suc- 
cessive stanzas. 

fd) After we have studied each part as a separate unit we 
should study the poem as a new whole to get a complete view, to 
see the parts in their proper setting and thus to enjoy the poets 
feeling more fully. 

8 (a) What have we studied that Robert Louis Stevenson wrote? 
Recite one or more of his poems. What do you remember about Mr. 
Stevenson* If the pupils have not learned anything from Stevenson 
I would read them one or two of his other short selections and tell 
them some of the things about him that most interesting 

tO them. 

(b) To a second grade class I would present the whole poem 
first by reading it aloud to the class several times. 


9. (a) Why was Mr. Stevenson more likely to see the stars at 
bed time than at any other time? When he sees the stars they 
remind him of what? What does he mean by saying that the stars 
are daisies? What are "the meadows of the night"? Which way 
does the moon go across the sky? What does he mean when he says 
that the moon is a lady? What makes him think that the lady has 
picked all of the daisies while he was asleep? Where does he find 
the stars when he goes out of doors in the morning? What did the 
stars become as soon as they fell to "the meadows of the town"? 
What are "the meadows of the town"? 

(b) Each pupil facing the class should read the whole poem 
aloud to the class. 

(c) I would have the children say the poem in concert with 
me two or three times a day until they had all learned it. 

10. "Essentials of First Lessons." 

"The first lessons in reading should make sure of a few vital 
things. The following points are of especial importance: 

(a) The child should associate the written symbol directly with 
the thing symbolized. The method used involves the sentence method. 
The work in phonics which concentrates the child's attention on 
form rather than on thought is not begun immediately, but whea 
begun, it is for some time kept separate from the reading lesson. 

(b) From the very first the child should look upon reading as a 
thought-getting and a thought-giving process. This implies, first, 
that the material used will, from the child's point of view, be worth 
thinking about, and second, that the oral reading will be done In 
sentences rather than in isolated words. The second suggestion pre- 
supposes the silent study of a new sentence before it is read aloud. 

(c) Good reading necessitates rapid eye-movements, rapid recog- 
nition of not only words but phrases. 

fd) Pupils should steadily show growth in power to recognize 
new words. Drill in phonics gives this needed independence. 

(e) The voice and body should help to express thoughts effec- 
tively and appropriately. To aid in gaining freedom of expression, 
dramatization, dialogue, and play of various kinds are used freely 
to help the reading, but are rarely introduced into the reading lesson 
itself except during the first weeks of school. 

(f) Opportunities should be given for expressing the reading 
lesson by hand, in writing, picturing, and other forms of manual 

(g) As an aid to gaining a mastery of the language of choice 
reading selections, some judicious memory work should be required." 
(Reading in Public Schools by Briggs and Coffman, page 49.) 

11. If a recitation period in reading is not longer than fifteen 
minutes, all of that time should be devoted exclusively to reading. 
Preparatory lessons in pronunciation and spelling should be given 
during the spelling period. Lessons in telling the story of the read- 
ing lesson should be given during the language period. Ten or fifteen 
minutes must be spent in reading proper by the pupils. 

12j (a) Th,e pupil's aim in studying the poem "Abraham Lin- 
coln" might be to get a good grade for the day and!, at the end 


of the year, to pass to the next grade. This, however, is a low aim. 
His aim should be, rather, to become better acquainted with his 
friend, Mr. Lincoln. 

(b) The teacher's specific aim is a desire for the pupil to appre- 
ciate more fully the greatness of heart and mind of Mr. Lincoln. A 
more general aim is to have the pupil learn to read better and 
interpret better, any poem. 

(c) The poet has attempted here to have people see beyond 
the homely face of Mr. Lincoln or any other man the qualities of 
true manhood. 

13. (a) The qualities of Lincoln, as given by the poet, are his 
strength, bravery, directness and disregard for superfluous details, 
keenness, ability to think and express himself clearly, sense of humor, 
wisdom, great will power overcoming all obstacles even when the 
very foundations of the earth seem to sink, sympathy in action for 
the oppressed, willingness to endure hardship and to die for a noble 

(b) Gettysburg Address. 

14. (a) Lincoln was chosen primarily for the "large design" of 
saving the Union and secondarily for freeing the slaves. 

(b) He bore the "burden of the Commonwealth," the great cares 
and axieties of a fractured government, and so great were his sym- 
pathies that he felt at least indirectly responsible for the life of every 
soldier taken in the war and for the sufferings of their widows and 

AR,THMETIC- |f ^ 0RGE R ^^ 

8X100 cu. ft =800 cu. ft. n To B ^r°^ 

34 of 800 cu. ft.=6oo cu fiiiL Si ATE NORMAL U.N.H/. 

600X1728 cu. in. Ann ^ , , , Pt , , 

— — : =482.13 + , the number of bushels. 

2150.42 cu. in 


-^- of the number of men remained after the first battle. 

-A- of this number, or JL_ of the number of men were 

5 17 

lost in the second battle. 

_L of the number of men were lost in the two battles 


The remainder, or -i- of the number of men=8100 

The number of men=l5,300. 


3 -j- 5 21 _^_ 20 21 •] 1 

4 7 28 ' 28 ■""■ 20 20 

This should be taught first because it easily and natur- 
ally grows out of preceding work in division. 


(b) 5 __ 7 

L-5--L---3.of -X— -^=1 — l 

4 7 4 5 20 20 


$1250—2^2% of the sum fcr which the property is 

$500=1% of the sum for which the property is 

$50,000=the sum for which the property is assessed. 

This is V$ the real value, therefore the real value is 


36% of John's money — $60+24% of John's money 

Then 12% of John's money^$60. 


1% of John's money=$5. 

100% of John's money -==$500 

-05_ _!.■== 20 =20%. 

.25 A 5 


.8% = . 008 ,008 of 6. 75—. 054. 


250=200% of 125. 


• 035=3! z% 

28, 5=285 %• 


7 1 / 2 =750% 

<0 4=40% 

The square on CB=27,225 sq. ft. 
The square oh AB=14,400sq. ft. 
The square on AO=12,825 ft. 
The line AC=lI3.24+ft. 
The line DC=73.24+ft. 

The perimeter of the wall is 330 ft. 
8X1^X330 „440_. 146? 3 the number of cu _ yd 
27 3 


7 7 


$ 24=— of the insured value. 

^ sou 

$8=-^ of the insured value. 
The injured value therefore=$6400. 
Then $6400— *4 of the value of the house. 
The value of the house is $8533. M/2 


1 H 


58° 48' 20" W., longitude of first ship 

43° 2' 5" W., longitude of second ship. 

IS 46' 15" the difference in longitude. . . 

lhr. 3 min. 5 sec, the difference in time, since a 
difference of 15° of longitude corresponds to ad, fference o^ 1 
hour of time, etc. Sinceit was noon when the message *as 
received by the first ship, it was 1 hr. 3 mm, 3 sec. alter 
noon at 43° 2' 5" farther east when the message was sent. 

^The N. V 2 of S. ! 2 of H. ! 2 of S. E. \ \ of a section of 
land contains 20 acres. 

The dimensions of this plot are 80 rd. by 40 id. 
To fence it would require 240 rd. of fencing. 
9n sq. ft., area of base. 
18ti sq. ft., area of both bases. 
6n ft., circumference of base 
120:r sq. ft., lateral area. 

18tt sq. ft. +120* sq. ft.— 138ju sq. ft., total area. 
3.1416X138=433.54, the number of sq. ft. m total 



433.54 sq. ft.-*-9 sq. ft.™48.17+. the number of sq. yd 
of sheet iron required. 

20X9:1 cu ft=i80jicu. ft., volume of tank. 
3.1416X180=565.488, the number of cu. ft. in tank. 
565.488 X62H lb=3534. 3 lb., weight of tank full of 


.8 of 3534.3 lb.— 28274.4 lb., weight of oil in tank. 

9X3.1416X20X1728 .__. ,___ , . . 4 t 

— =4230.1440, no of gal. in tank. 



.5 .05 .005 .0005 

It can be shown in this series of decimal fractions by 

using the equivalent common fractions, if necessary, that .05 is 
-i- of .5 that .005 is -I_ of .05 and - 1 - of .5, etc. After 

10 10 100 

examining a number of suoh problems a pupil may be led to 
generalize and say that prefixing a cipher to a decimal divides it 
by 10, etc. 

In a similar manner take a number of decimal fractions- 
such as .5, .03, .004 and show by means of the equivalent 
common fractions that annexing a cipher to a decimal does not 
change the value of the decimal. For instance: 

.30-^- 30 _ 3 

100 10 

1000 ]0 

Bv the conditions of the problem: 
125% of the cost of 1 yd.=$.90 
1% of the cost of 1 yd.=J_ of $.90. 

The cost of 1 yd. therefore— 100 X -L- of $.90 — $.72. 

.123^ of $.72— $.09, gain on 1 yd. 
$.72-f$.09— =$.81, selling price per yd. 
4% of $4896—*$ 195. 84, commission for selling wheat 
$4896-~$195.84=$4700.16, the amount to be invested 



in dry goods. 

But the amount also contains his commission of 2% for 


Then $4700.16=102% of the sum actually spent in dry 
goods, or for each $1.02 only $1.00 was spent in dry goods. 

$4700. 16-j-$l. 02=4608, the number of dollars spent in 
buying dry goods. 

$4700.16 — $4608=$92.16, the commission on the dry 
goods purchase. 

$195.84+ $92.16=$288, total commission. 

CIVICS — Answers. 
By H. Ambrose Perrln, Superintendent of Schools, Lincoln, III. 

There are twenty-four "principal meridians in the United States." 
In diagram I, line NS is taken as a principal meridian. A true 
parallel of latitude is established as the "base line"— WE. On each 












! i 





side of the base line and of the meridian line, at intervals of six 
miles, are "township lines." Township A is known as Township 
3 North, Range II East of (said) Principal Meridian. 

Each township is divided into thirty-six one-mile squares called 
sections." They are numbered consecutively beginning with the upper 
right hand corner section and ending with the lower right hand 
corner section. Diagram III. 



Each section, as shown in diagram IV, is divided into parts for 
the convenient description of land. Diagram IV represents section 
twenty one of diagram III. The portion marked X is known as "SW& 
of SE 1 ^ of Section Twenty-one, Township 3 North, Range II East 
of (said) Principal Meridian. (This locates it in diagram I.) 










































Diagram II represents the establishment of correction lines to 
make allowance for the convergence of meridians as they approach 
the pole. 

2. The Constitution of the United States may be amended (1) 
By two-thirds vote of both houses, Congress may propose to the 
several states, amendments to the Constitution; (2) upon the ap- 
plication of two-thirds of the states, Congress must call a convention 
of delegates from the several states for the purpose of proposing 
amendments. In either case the amendment becomes a part of the 
Constitution when ratified by three-fourths of the several states — by 
legislatures or conventions as proposed by Congress. 

States shall net enter into alliances or treaties with other 
states or countries without the consent of Congress; no state shall 
levy duties, imports or exports without the consent of Congress, and 
the proceeds from such when collected shall be for the national 
treasury; no state shall maintain an army or navy in time of peace. 

3. An absolute monarchy is that form of government in which 
absolute power is vested in one monarch. The Roman Republic had 
frequent recourse to this form of government. 

A limited monarchy is that form of government in which the 
powers of the ruler are limited by the Constitution or bylaws. 
Example, England. 

A pure democracy is that form of government in which the laws 
are enacted by the whole body of people. Such a government is 
adapted only to small societies or to narrow territories. Example, 
Athens was a democracy of the purest type. 

A republic is that form of government in which the sovereign 
power rests in the whole body of the people and is exercised by 
representatives elected by them. Example, United States. 


4. The school officers of a township are: Three school trustees, 
one elected annually for a term of three years — elected on the second 
Saturday of April (except where the school township is identical with 
the town, civil township) in which case the election is on the date 
of the town election — first Tuesday in April; one township treas- 
surer who is appointed by the trustees for a term of three years. 

The chief duties of the trustees are: (1) Appoint a township treas- 
urer; (2) divide the township into school districts; (3) apportion 
school funds among the districts of the township; (4) act as cus- 
todian of the school property of the township. 

The chief duties of the township treasurer are: (1) Act as Clerk 
of Board of Trustees; (2) custodian of school moneys of township; 
(3^ make annual and semi-annual reports of conditions and finances 
to trustees; (4) report such matters to the County Superintendent 
of schools as his report to the State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction may demand; (5) make semi-annual itemized account re- 
port to the clerk of each school district. 

5. Bribery is the offense of influencing or attempting to influ 
ence the action of any one in the performance of a public duty by 
offering or promising any personal gain. 

Perjury is the criminal offense of knowingly giving false testi- 
mony in judicial proceedings. 

A civil suit is a suit brought against a person, company or cor- 
poration, called the defendant, by another person, company or cor- 
poration, called the plaintiff, for the purpose of compelling the de- 
fendant to pay the plaintiff a sum of money, or to give up to him 
certain property. 

Tenure of office means the length of time for which the person 
is elected or appointed. 

Writ of habeas corpus (see question 5 of July set). 

6. Congressional districts are the districts into which the state 
legislature divides the state for the purpose of electing representa- 
tives to Congress. Each district is to contain as nearly as possible 
the Congressional ratio (see question 10 of the July set). 

At the frst session after the decennial census, the General As- 
sembly divides the state into 51 senatorial districts from each of 
which three representatives and one senator are elected to the legis- 
lature. These districts are to be formed of contiguous and compact ter 
ritory and bounded by county lines. No district can contain less than 
four-fifths of the senatorial ratio (found by dividing the state popu- 
lation by 51). A large county containing not less than one and 
three-fourths of the senatorial ratio may be divided into separate 

In dividing the number representing the population of each 
state by the Congressional ratio (see question 10 July), fractions oc- 
cur in nearly every case and the sum of the integral quotients will 
be less than the whole number required. To correct this, the states 
having the largest fractions are allowed an additional representative 
er-rh until the numbers provided for is secured. This extra Congress- 
man is called Congressman-At-Large and is elected by the voters of 
the entire state. 


7. Aims in teaching civics: (1) To train future voters for exer- 
cising their duties as citizens in a meaningful way; (2) to make 
government really representative thru enlightened voters; (3) to 
instill the ideas of privileged duties and responsibilities resting with 
the voters of the land; 4) to inculcate a spirit of co-operation and 
helpfulness toward government affairs; (5) to give information con- 
cerning the actual practical workings of representative governments 
as we have them. 

8. The three departments of government are: (1) Legislative 
which has to do with making the laws; (2) judicial which has to do 
with interpreting the laws; (3) executive which has to do with the 
oversight of the enforcement of the laws. 

9. A Congressman must be 25 years of age, 7 years a citizen of 
the United States, and, when elected, a resident of the state from 
which he is chosen. His term is two years. He is chosen by the 
direct vote of the Congressional district. A state may have as many 
Congressmen as the state population is times the Congressional ratio 
(see question 10 July). 

A Senator must be 30 years of age, 9 years a resident of the 
United States, and a citizen of the state from which he is chosen. 
The term of office is six years. He is elected by the direct vote of 
the people of the state. Each state is entitled to two Senators. 

10. The town officers are: Supervisor, clerk, assessor, collector, 
highway commissioners, justices of the peace and constables (others 
may be added). 

The supervisor receives and pays out all funds for the expense 
of the town except for road and bridge purposes, represents the 
town on the county board, and is overseer of the poor. 

The clerk is custodian of all records, books and papers of the 
town, keeps a record of the proceedings of all town meetings, certifies 
to the county clerk on or before the second Tuesday of August, the 
amount of taxes to be raised for town purposes. 

The assessor must deliver to the county clerk a record of the 
assessed valuation of every property holder in the town. 

The collector collects the taxes of the town and pays them over 
to the proper officers. 

There are three highway commissioners. They elect one of their 
number treasurer who receives all moneys collected in the town for 
road and bridge purposes and who pays out the same upon the order 
of any two commissioners. 

The justices of the peace may try civil suits when the amount 
in dispute is less than $200 and all cases of misdemeanor, when 
punishable by a fine, all cases of assault, and assault and battery. 

11. A senator, representative, supreme judge or a vice-president 
may be removed from office only upon conviction by impeachment. 

12. (See question 12 of July set.) 

13. The U. S. Judicial Courts are: Supreme Court. Circuit Court 
of Appeals, Circuil Courts, District Courts, Court of Claims. 

The Illinois Courts are: Supreme Court, Appellate Court, Circuit 
Court, Probate Court, County Court, Justice of the Peace. 


14. Bills for revenue shall originate in the house of representa- 
tives, but the senate may propose or concur with amendments. This 
provision is made because the members of the house are (were) 
the only direct representatives of the people who should control the 
public purse. At least, representatives must stand accountable every 
two years while the senators are accountable to the people by elec- 
tion only every six years. 


By Charles Mcintosh, Superintendent Piatt County Schools 
and Editor Illinois State Course of Study. 

1. The advantages of a plan of alternation for our country 
schools are: 

(a) Reduces greatly the number of classes it is necessary to 
organize in a country school. 

(b) By reducing the number of classes necessary, it makes 
possible a longer recitation period, and thus gives the 
teacher a better opportunity to present the work and test 

(c) In the smaller country schools many of the classes arc 
too small. A class with but one pupil cannot be as in- 
teresting as a class with five or six. Alternation helps 
to make classes large enough to be interesting, develop? 
more of the spirit of competition and emulation and leads 
to better work. 

( d ) Increases the teacher's efficiency by lessening the num- 
ber of recitations for which he must prepare each day. 
The most important disadvantages are: 

ta) It puts children of different ages and different degrees 
of mental development together making it more difficult 
to keep the class working as a unit. 

(b) It sometimes requires the taking up of subject matte** 
out of the natural and logical order. 

(c) In larger country schools, the alternation of studies 
makes the classes too large to be handled effectively. 

2. There should be five classes in reading in a country school, 
and under ordinary conditions only five. The third and fourth 
year classes may and should be combined; likewise the fifth and 
sixth; likewise the seventh and eighth. The classes to organize 
then are one in each of the readers as follows: First, Second, Third, 
Fourth, Fifth. The plan by which the third and fourth year classes 
may be combined is for the pupils to read a third reader of one 
series in the third year, and a third reader of another series in the 
fourth year. In this way two third readers are read in the class. 
In the same way, the fifth year class should read a fourth reader of 
one series and the sixth year class a fourth reader of another ser- 
ies; the seventh year class a fifth reader of one series and the 
eighth year class a fifth reader of- another series. 


3. The useful purposes served by an examination system are 
as follows: 

(1) Provides a stimulus for reviewing and organizing the 
materials which have been taught during the term or 

(2) The examination is in itself a review exercise of no 
mean value. 

( 3 ) Furnishes a test of the efficiency of the teaching. 

(4) May be looked upon by the pupil as a partial te;t of 
his efficiency in school work. 

For discussion of these purposes, see pages 14-15, State 

4. Stories should first be told by the teacher as dramatically as 
possible. It is not wise to read stories to the class in the language 
recitation. The facial expression and the direct glance of the 
teacher is a most valuable aid in impressing the hearers. The sto- 
ries should be retold by the children several times, after which, 
they may be illustrated by the children. 

The poem should be read as a whole, to the children in the best 
possible form. By means of oral explanations, the teacher should 
seek to create a series of vivid images embodying the meaning of 
the poem. Quaint or unusual phrasing should be pointed out; the 
thought of rhythm should be accented or emphasized in the teach- 
er's oral rendition. Blackboard sketches may be made to summarize 
the meaning of each stanza. Following this, the pupil may mem- 
orize the poem. 

Dramatization is the most powerful aid in securing excellent 
expression in oral forms. In dramatizing, the pupils are question- 
ed to bring out the different characters in the story and what each 
one does, then children should be selected to represent each of tha 
characters needed. The play should then proceed. When it is fin- 
ished, the children criticise the manner in which it was done, and 
efforts should be made to improve the dramatization at subsequent 

5. Foot rules with inches divided into eighths. 

Card board strips 1" by 2", 1" by 3", 1" by 4", 1" by 6". 

Inch squares of pasteboard, 2 for each pupil. 

One thousand match sticks four inches long. 

One box of toy money. 

A set of grocer's tea scales, with iron weights 1 oz. to 16 oz. 

A set of cards 4" by 6" with dots like dominoes showing the 

combination of two numbers up to 10 plus 10. 
A similar set of cards with figures instead of dots. 

6. His early training in reading did not give him a sufficient 

mastery over the phonetic side of his work. 

He learned to read a word at a time. 

He has never learned to let his eye take in larger groupings 
of words so that he may run ahead and catch the mean- 

He has worked with the formal side so long that reading is 
drudgery of the hardest kind for him. 

Some of the plans to help these readers are as follows: 

Read silently for the thought. 


Practice reading groups of words, phrases, and clauses. 
Give analysis of subject matter with the aid of the teacher. 
Answering questions upon the thought of the selection in 

the words of the text at times. 
Telling orally what has been read silently. 

7. Construction work gives: 
Quickness of perception. 
Power of concentration. 
Intellectual grasp. 

Helps to give number work that high degree of mental dis- 
cipline which it is so well calculated to afford. 
Adds to the interest and pleasure of the number work. 
The basic principles involved are: Cutting, representative con- 
struction, box making, book making, apparatus making, weaving, 
decorative construction. 

8. Rain, work of water, weather, human types, soil, sky stu- 
dies, trees. 

9. Sewing in the fifth and sixth grades, cooking in the seventh 
and eighth grades. 

The purpose of such course is: 

a. To connect closely the school and home. 

Review the topics presented in this work in the earlier 

grades in the nature study work. 
Centralize all this work around the two leading indus- 
tries that are carried on in the home — -sewing and 
It is suggested that two lessons of ninety minutes each be given 
each month, taking the time after recess on the first and third 
Fridays of each month. 

10. The composition in the seventh and eighth years is to be 
taught in connection with the grammar. There is a specific pur- 
pose in the composition work of each month, this purpose to be in 
the pupil's minds as well as the teacher's. This purpose should 
not be lost sight of next month, but whatever of knowledge about 
sentence structure is gained one month, should be used ever after- 
wards. A fair proportion of the composition should be oral, the 
teacher taking advantage of the opportunities for oral composition 
offered in the recitations in other subjects. Written themes should 
be given occasionally, on subjects carefully assigned, but not writ- 
ten until the subject had been carefully gone over in the class. 
Each composition should be definitely criticised by teacher after 
it is prepared. Five minute themes upon one subject are excel- 
lent for drill in sentence structure. Written work in other sub- 
jects should be good composition in matter and form. 

11. Shape of picture in connection with subject depicted, what 
the center of interest is, where it is placed in the picture, why it is 
so placed, and what means the artist has used to call attention to 
the center of interest. 


Lepage's Joan of Arc. — 

Shape, Nearly square, high to give depth to picture so vision. 
could fte repr'esfentte'd in background. 


Center of Interest. Girl. 

Where placed. In foreground and at side of picture. 

Why so placed. To make prominent, to leave space at side 
for representation of vision. 

Means used by artist to call attention to center of interest. 

Placed in foreground, light falls full upon face and upper 
part of body, other things in the picture subdued and 
not plainly marked out. 
12. The school is concerned in the education of the whole child, 
hence it should be interested in what the child does outside of 
school. His home activities should help the school, and his school 
activities should help with his home duties. Each child needs ac- 
tual contact with nature and natural things. He needs to study 
the various activities about him on the farm. Organizations of 
pupils interested in the same thing help in the accomplishment of 
that thing for each of them. Boy's and Girl's Clubs are formed 
primarily to study farm activities. They furnish opportunities for 
social intercourse on a high plane, they furnish opportunities for 
developing power in initiative, for working hand and brain at the 
same time, for cultivating the power of working with other people, 
for effective team work of a district or locality. There can be a lo- 
cal organization in each district with the teacher as manager, a 
pupil as president, another as secretary. Meetings can be held once 
each month for discussion and explanation of practical work under- 
taken, for literary exercises, etc. These clubs should be affiliated 
with the township and county clubs and with the Farmers' Insti- 
tute and the Domesitc Science Association, the boys clubs with the 
former, and girls' clubs with the latter. 


By Elmer W. Cavins, Teacher of Orthography and Penmanship 
Illinois State Normal University. 

1. A hymonym is a word having the same sound as another, but 
differing from it in meaning; as beach and beech; canvas and can- 

A suffix is a significant syllable joined to the end of a word, 
as manly, fertile, patronize. 

A trisyllable is a word of three syllables; as, po-et-ry. 

A diphthong is a union of two vowel sounds in one syllable, 
as ou in found, and oi in toilers 

A derivative word is a word formed from a primitive word 
by changing it internally, or by adding a prefix or suffix; as, men, 
suffix, strikers. 













. machine 




3. post, after; as in postscript, postpone, (in some words post 
means put o r place as in impost. 

inter, between, among; as in intercede, intersect. 

poi,>, many; as in polygamy, polynomial. 

mono, one, single, sole; as in monotone, monoply, 

cede, go, yield; as in antecedent, secede. 

diet, speak, say, tell; as in contradict, verdict. 

fleet, bend, turn; as in reflect, iiiiiect. 

polis, city; as in metropolis, HOopoEs. 
rupt, break; as in eruption, bankrupt. 

anti, against; as in antipathy, antidote. 

4. acorn , a'korn or a'kern; arctic, ark'tik; fatigue, fa teg'; 
tortoise, tor'tusor tor 'tis; pedagogy , ped' a go ji ; bronchitis, 
bron ki' tis; routine, roo ten'; suicide, su' i sid; recall, re kol' 

bureau, bu' ro. 

5. scent, smell, odor, fragrance. 
unite, join, combine, connect. 
scorn, sneer, disdain, contempt. 
soothe, calm, quiet, pacify. 
scene, view, sight, display. 

6. Coral reefs are abundant in the West Indies, but none exist on 
the western coast of the two Americas. 

The choral club meets twice a week. 

The first word of every sentence should begin with a capital 

The corner stone of our national capitol was laid in 1793 and 
the building completed in 182 7. 

The vessel is unloading at the quay. 

The Thousand Isles are situated in the St. Lawrence River near 
Lake Ontario. 

The mark called a caret resembles the letter v inverted. 

Diamonds and other precious stones are estimated in carats 
and fractions of carats. 

The Statue of Liberty is at the entrance to New York harbar. 

In the United States each state has a "statute of frauds" to 
prevent many fraudulent practices. 
1. biped — bi, two; ped, foot. 

A two-footed animal, as man. "Man has been defined as a 

biped without feathers". — Duke of Argyll, 
subscription — sub, under; script write; ion, act of. 

Act of writing' one's name under, or below; as, under an order 

for a periodical. A sum subscribed or promised; as, his sub- 
scription to the new church building. 
secede— se, aside; cede, go. 

To go aside; to separate. - 


South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union. 

autograph — auto, self; graph, write. 

One's own handwriting; especially, one's name written by him 

Billie Burke, an actress of some note, has recently been selling 
her picture and autograph for one dollar, and giving the money 
to the Belgians. 

circumscribe— circum, around; scribe, write, draw. 

To draw a bounding line around; hence to mark out the limits 
oi; to restrict; as, to circumscribe the power of royalty. 

liberate — liber, free; ate (verb ending) 

To set tree; to release from bondage; as, to liberate a slave 
or prisoner; to liberate the mind from prejudice. 

contradict — contra, against; diet, speak. 

To speak against; to assert the opposite of. "Dear Duff, T prithee 
contradict thyself and say it is not so." — Shakespeare. 

paternal — pater, father; al, pertaining to. 

Pertaining to a father; fatherly; as, paternal love. 

manufacture — manu, hand; fact, make. 

(Formerly, manufacture meant to make by hand.) To make 
wares or other products by hand, by machinery, or by other 
agency; as, to manufacture cloth, nails, glass, etc. 

transmission — trans, across; miss; send; ion, act of. 

the act of sending across from one person or place to another; 
as, the transmission of letters, news, and the like. 

PEDAGOGY. — Answers. 

By L. P. Frohardt, Superintendent of Schools, 
Cranite City, Illinois. 

1. Five aims in Public School Education. 

(a.) To awaken and develop the dormant potentialities of the 
child mind, (b) to give the child the power to interpret symbolic 
speech correctly so that the storehouse of knowledge found in the 
literature of all ages may become his heritage, (c) To supply him 
with a fund of correct habits so he may live a correct social life 
among other civilized beings, (d) To supply him with a fund of 
knowledge so that he may have a basis for determining facts and 
principles for correct judgments that will be necessary in solving 
the problems of civilized ideals and standards that are to be the 
criteria by which his conduct is to be moulded. These must be col- 
ored with emotion to become corrective of his conduct. 

The whole may be briefly summed up in the true and ulti- 
mate aim of education, viz.; to equip the child most completely for 
his highest possible degree of social efficiency. 

2. A prompt and vigorous attack of any undertaking inspires 
confidence, while a poor beginning weakens confidence, and caus- 
es wrong and dilatory, habits to become established before work 
gets under full headway. 


A right start is when everything starts off the first day with 
little or no friction or delay, and practically every item of daily 
routine initiated and every class organized and having received 
specific assignment of work for following day. 

3. A weak-kneed principal or soft-hearted teacher may cause 
an unruly pupil to become a standing source of disorder to the en- 
tire school and the unruly pupil himself may ultimately receive 
greater punishment, possibly even fatal to him, when, on account of 
his unsocial conduct which the weak-hearted teacher allowed to 
become habituated in school, society must correct with the most 
rigid severity in the deprivation of the liberty or even the life of 
the offender. 

A young teacher just from college began her school and tried 
to run it on the "soft pedagogy" theory. Harshness or sternness 
were to her mind unnecessary arid out of place. It was but a day 
or two and several boys began to make matters rather lively for 
her. Her principal found it out and called her attention to the 
fact that she must change their conduct. 

She said she was going to win them by love. The boys soon 
"caught on", and a merry time was theirs. She talked to the 
boys in endearing terms and cried over their misbehavior. Mat- 
ters went from bad to worse till her principal told her she must 
either get better results in discipline at once or he would have to 
get someone who could. A hint as to the manner in which this 
might be brought about was also dropped. The suggestion was 
followed out and he stood by while the remedy was applied to see 
that It was effectually done. This was the turning point in this 
teacher's career. Before the end of the year she was one of the 
most successful of his teachers. The love theory was not set aside 
but only changed in the manner in which it was applied. Hickory 
oil or strap oil are at times very efficacious, especially in extreme 
cases, and the remedies are not at all at variance with the true love 

4. Preparing for "First day of School." 

(a) Make a visit to the building to acquaint yourself with its 
general arrangements and conditions, the location of wardrobes, 
closets, exits, etc. (h) Have on hand a proper supply of materials 
of all kinds at least for the first day. (c) Get names of pupils and 
list of classes from predecessor and, if possible, a statement of the 
work done by the predecessor in each of the classes, and a copy of 
each of the text books used (d> Construct a tentative program and 
make a general plan for the passing of lines and the general routine 
of the school, (e) If in a graded school, meet the principal be- 
forehand and get suggestions from him about your work and the re- 
quirements of the school. 

5. If in a country school, I would get from the records of the 
preceding year a list of the number and kinds of classes, and from 
this and the present apparent needs construct my program, con- 
solidating classes as far as practicable and give to each class its 
proper proportion of time according to the importance and size of 
the class. 

If in a village or city graded school I would endeavor to get a 
copy of last year's program of the same gratfe I am to teach. I 


would follow this to the extent it would appeal to me as practical 
and make such re-arrangements as would seem needful, arid, 
having drawn up a tentative program, 1 would submit it to the 
principal for suggestions or corrections. 1 would then endeavor 
to carry out this program on the very first day, making only such 
changes thereafter as occasion might demand. 

6. There should be sufficient light in every school room, about 
one-fifth of the area of the flloor space, and the light should, if 
possible, come from the left side. Front light should always be 
avoided. Curtains should be provided and regulated according to 
the amount of light obtainable, partly cut off on bright days and 
the full amount on cloudy days. 

Ink should be jet black, not pale or blue, and the paper should 
be a dead white, not glossy, or of some gray or yellowish tint. Dead 
white paper and jet black ink are generally most practicable. 

Pencils should be of proper length, of good material and prop- 
erly sharpened. , 

Distance of reading matter from the eye should be about four- 
teen or fifteen inches. 

7. Good order is secured by constant vigilance and seeing that 
all are constantly and properly employed. Idleness is a prolific 
source of disorder. The teacher herself must be quiet and com- 
posed and not loud and blustering in her manner. Any appear- 
ance of disorder should be promptly checked. The teacher must be 
resourceful and tactful to have good order. 

8. Corporal punishment is very liable to be used injudicious- 
ly and indiscriminately. Unless properly administered it aggra- 
vates rather than corrects the evil. It is also liable to cause legal 
proceedings against the teacher by resentful parents, if the pun- 
ishment were severe, and this causes unpleasant notoriety; and if 
the teacher should lose the case it would practically end her use- 
fulness in that school. 

If corporal punishment is administered judiciously and under 
proper conditions it may be the quickest and most direct and short- 
est method of correcting an evil. While frequent and indiscrim- 
inate corporal punishment may be a sign of weakness on the part 
of the teacher, totally refraining from it may also be a sign of 
weakness. If all other means have faiied it should be resorted 
to In a judicious way. 

9. Questions of the kind indicated are not thought-provoking 
and can be answered by a single word instead of a complete sen- 

It would be better to ask the pupil to give a brief account of 
the discovery of America. Give a brief sketch of the life of the 
discoverer. Any facts not brought out in this way could be got- 
ten by additional questions, but the pupil should be given an op- 
portunity to exercise thought and to display originality. 

10. The teacher should, if possible, be a citizen of the commun- 
ity in which he teaches. He should take an active part in the so- 
cial, civil, religious, and commercial interests of the community. 
He should lead or take part in anything that makes for the bet- 
terment of the community in the fullest sense of the word. It 
may not be best to be an active politician, in the sense of partisan 


politics, but he should have deep and firm convictions and dare 
to express them tactfully when occasion demands. He should al- 
ways exercise his right of suffrage and vote for the best candidates 
as far as he understands them. 


By A. S. Anderson, Superintendent of Schools, Mt. Carmel, 111. 

1. The female mosquito possesses a piercing stylet. Certain 
species of mosquitoes seeking food by piercing the skin of a per- 
son infected with malarial or yellow fever, is able to carry the germs 
of these diseases to a healthy person. 

2. Branches containing flower buds of the Jonathan and the 
Minkler apple tree called scions are grafted on a growing Ben 
Davis Apple tree called the stock. 

The many methods of grafting are only many ways of doing the 
samt thing, the essential of which is first to carefully match the 
line of the bark and wood of the scion to the stock of the tree, sec- 
ond, to maintain a smooth contact with careful wrapping, and keep 
the whole wound covered with grafting wax to prevent evaporation 
of the sap of the tree. Thus it is possible to grow Jonathan and 
Minkler apples on a Ben Davis apple tree. 

3. No. They are both of more use than harm to growing veg- 
etation, for they both destroy rodents that are much more distruc- 
tive to crops. The crow also destroys great numbers of injurious 

4. Seed corn should be gathered after it is completely filled and 
before frost. After seed corn is gathered, it should be kept from 
freezing until it is thoroly dry. It should therefore be kept suspea fl- 
ed or crated in such a manner and in such a place that dry and tem- 
pered air may circulate around each ear of the corn until it is thor- 
oly dry. 

5. Seeds planted in the spring will produce onions that should 
be planted again the next spring. These onions will then produce 
seeds at the end of the second season alter the first seeds were 
planted. If onion sets are planted first, onion sets will be produced 
at the end of the second season instead of seeds. 

ij. No. Because it is mainly insectivorous. The trout foot is enry 
broad and fully webbed, also provided with strong claws adapted for 


7. For flower gardens those flowers that blossom before the raid- 
die of June or after the first of September, for example, nastur- 
tiums, violets and the like. For vegetable gardens those vegetables 
that mature for use before the middle of June, for example, lettuce, 
radishes and the like. 

8. Any wind is caused by inequality of atmospheric pressure of 
different regions. This inequality is due to rise of temperature of 
different regions. Air that is heated expands and being lighter it 
rises, the surrounding heavier air is pulled by gravity into the place 
occupied by the light air. This causes currents of air or wind. The 
direction of a wind is determined by the relative position of a high 
pressure region and a low pressure region. Fundamentally, a low 
pressure area east of a high pressure area will cause a current of 
air to flow from the high pressure area to the low pressure area and 
produce what is called a west wind. 

A barometer is an instrument used to measure differences in air 
pressure. The most common forms are the mercuric barometer and 
aneroid barometer. 

9. Black soil is rich in organic matter, because it contains hu- 
mus or vegetable mould. For this reason it is more productive. It 
is more easily tilled, because it never becomes so compact as clay. 
Yellow clay soil contains little or no organic matter. For this rea- 
son it is lacking in some essential elements for a productive soil. 
It is hard to till because it is compact and brittle when dry, and 
plastic and tenacious when wet. 

10. Both are rich in proteids thus being very valuable as fool 
for animals. 

Both harbor bacteria on the roots. These bacteria form nodules 
that contain nitrogenous compounds. Nitrogen is an essential for 
plant growth. Both of these plants are valuable in restoring nitro- 
gen to the soil by means of these bacteria and thus these plants 
serve as fertilizers to soils needing nitrogen. 

By William Hawkes, Superintendent of Schools, Litchfield, III. 

1. By adulteration of food is meant the substituting of a material 
of inferior quality for the genuine, or the addition of- some foreign 
substance for preserving purposes or to give to the substances an 
added value. 

Milk to which water has been added or from which cream has 
been extracted is a somewhat common form of adulteration. For- 
maldehyde is sometimes added to milk to preserve it. Coffee when 
sold in the ground state, may be chiefly chicory, beans, barley, wheat, 
or peas. Syrups and honey are often adulterated with glucose or 
cheaper grade syrups. Candy is often colored by harmful coloring 

2 The spleen is a gland located just under the diaphram to the teft 
of the stomach. It is a storehouse of nutritive material, and a de- 
stroyer of Impurities. The worn out red corpuscles of the blood are 
destroyed in it, and new white corpuscles are probably created there. 


Mouth breathing makes deep breathing almost impossible; the 
air taken into the lungs is not so thoroly warmed or strained as 
it is when taken thru the nostrils; the mucous membrane of the 
nose of a mouth breather becomes dry and shrinks, decreasing the 
circulation and inducing nasal catarrah; it gives the face an unpleas- 
ant appearance; and has bad effect upon the voice, giving it a hard 
twang and robbing it of its pleasantness. 

The cilia are hair like projections of protoplasm. They are 
found in the epithelial cells of the air passages and are continually 
in motion. They sweep forward with a rapid movement and recover 
the original position with a slower movement. They thus continu- 
ally sweep toward the entrance of the air passages particles of dust, 
etc., which may have entered. 

3. Saliva. The saliva comes from the parotid, the submaxillary, and 
the sublingual salivary glands. The parotid glands are located be- 
low and in front of the ear on each side of the face, the submaxillary 
under the two halves of the lower jaw, and the sublingual under- 
neath the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth, below the 
tongue. The saliva moistens the food in the mouth and prepares it 
for 8 wallowing, and also changes some of the starch of the food into 

4. The circulatory system consists of the heart, the arteries, the 
capillaries, and the veins. The heart is located in the thoracic cav- 
ity and forces the blood outward on its journey around the body. 
From the upper portion of the heart arises the aorta, the chief artery. 
This artery subdivides or sends off branches until all parts of the 
body have been reached. 

As the arteries subdivide and send off more and more branches 
they become smaller and smaller, until a network of microscopical 
hair-like tubes is formed, reaching every portion of the body. These 
are the capillaries. The capillaries then unite in the different parts 
of the body, becoming larger as they unite, to form veins. The blood, 
forced onward by the pressure of other blood sent out by the heart, is 
gathered from the capillaries into the veins, and carried to the heart 
whence it is forced into the lungs. When a particle of blood reaches 
the right side of the heart from the veins it is dark purple in color 
and contains little or no oxygen, much carbon dioxide, and some 
other body wastes. From the heart the blood is forced into the lungs 
where it comes into contact with the air taken in by breathing, gives 
off its carbon dioxide, and takes on a fresh supply of oxygen. This 
changes its color from dark purple to bright red. From the lungs 
the blood is carried to the left sio> of the heart still carrying its sup- 
ply of oxygen and some of its body wastes. From the heart the 
blood passes to all parts of the body. As it passes the kidneys and 
liver the wastes are removed and excreted as it passes the capillaries 
of the stomach and intestines, it takes on some of the prepared food 
materials and carries them to some portion of the body where the 
cells are at work and where oxidation takes places. Here the oxygen 
of the blood is given off to supply the energy needed in oxidation, the 
food substances are given up to he built into new tissue to repair 
that broken, carbon dioxide, formed by the oxidation of the tissue 


is taken on, and the blood begins its return going to the heart and 
lungs to start the same process again. 

5. The brain, spinal cord, and nerves arising from them are called 
the central nervous system. The ganglion and nerves arising from 
them, not included in the above, are the Sympathetic nervous system. 

In general the gray matter of the nervous system consists of 
nerve cells. A nerve cell is composed of the protoplasmic cell body 
with its cell wall and branches. These branches are called tlendrons 
or dendrites if short and axons if they are long and put the coll into 
communication with a distant part of the body. The white matter of 
the nervous system is composed mostly of nerve fibers. A nerve 
fiber consists of the middle core or axis of protoplasm, and two sur- 
rounding sheaths of tissues. The central axis is the conducting part 
of the nerve fiber. 

6. The use of intoxicating drinks weakens the will power of the 
user, destroys the ability or desire to make fine moral distinctions, 
weakens the intellectual abilities, and has a general harmful effect 
upon the character. 

The effect of the contiuned use of intoxicating drinks upon the 
heart is to caues its cells to undergo a fatty degeneration and thus 
weaken heart action; in the lungs a congested condition of the capil- 
laries is produced which calls for more oxygen; the increased rate of 
breathing causes a greater demand on the muscles and the digestive 
tissues, and thus there is a resultant loss to the body of both energy 
and heat. 

The result of intoxicating drinks upon the brain may be inferred 
from the fact that experiments where large doses of alcohol have 
been used, invariably indicate that the "reaction time" is lengthened. 
Many large corporations have forbidden the use of alcoholic bever- 
ages among their employers because of the recognized fact of im- 
paired efficiency. 

7. By oxidation is meant the chemical combination of oxygen with 
some other substance. Within the muscles of the body are stored 
up carbohydrates, proteids, fats, and oxygen. Under proper condi- 
tion the cell brings about the chemical union of the oxygen with 
some of the other elements and certain products result. Among 
the products of chief importance to the body are heat and energy. 
Waste products such as carbon dioxide, various forms of acid, and 
other wastes are produced, which are excreted from the body. 

8. The digestive tract is composed of the mouth, stomach, and in- 
testines. In the mouth the food is masticated or ground up, moist- 
ened for swallowing, and the change of its starch into sugar is begun 
by the saliva. In the stomach the food is till further mixed or churned 
by the muscular action of the stomach. By this action the food is 
mixed with the gastric juice. This juice contains two enzymes, pep- 
sin and rennin. The pepsin transforms the proteids of the foods to 
soluble form called peptone. The rennin acts npon the proteids found 
in milk, after which this proteid is digested as other proteids are. 
Probably some mineral salts are dissolved by the hydrochloric acid 
of the stomach, which also destroys some disease germs and fer- 


There is some preparatory action for digestion upon food stuffs 
in the stomach besides the digestion of the proteids. Fats are li- 
quefied by the heat of the stomach. Froteids cover of starch, fats, 
etc., are removed by the proteid digestion and starch and fats are 
thus freed for digestion. The mixture of all these digested and un- 
digested particles results in milky fluid called chyme. 

The chyme enters the intestine where the last stages of diges- 
tion are carried on. The small intestine receives thru one duct 
the secretions of the liver and pancreas called the bile and the pan- 
creatic juice. It also secretes by its own glands the intestinal juices. 

The bile acts upon fats by saponifying them. It also tends to 
prevent the putrefaction of foods in the intestine, and separates the 
proteids into such forms that they may be acted upon by the pan- 
creatic juice. 

The pancreatic juice completes the transforming of the proteids 
to peptone, the remaining starches not acted upon by the mouth di- 
gestion are converted into sugar and prepared for absorption. 

The intestinal juice converts what remains of the starch to 
sugar and also converts all sugar into grape sugar. 

9. The liver is located just beneath the diaphram on the right side. 
on a line with the stomach and partly overlapping it. The liver 
stores digested sugar and starch in the form of glycogen; it destroys 
poisons brought to it by the blood and secretes the bile. The action 
t>f the bile is given in 8. 

The kidneys are located one on each side of the backbone just 
below the lower ribs. The kidneys receive the waste laden blood 
from the body and remove much of the waste-urea from it. The 
urea mixed with water, is excreted from the body, while the waste 
freed blood, returns to the circulation. 

The perspiratory glands are located under skin in all parts of the 
body. They collect from the blood nitrogenous wastes, some salts 
and water, and excrete them upon the surface of the body. 

Sebaceous glands are scattered thruout the body in the dermis. 
They secrete oil and discharge it upon the hair and skin. 

The lachrymal glands are situated on the outer and upper orbit 
of the eye. They secrete a salty liquid called the tear or the lachry- 
mal fluid. 

The parotid, sublingual, and submaxillary glands — see 3. Spleen- 
see 2. 

10. The best method of ventilating a school room is to have a con- 
stant supply of fresh air forced into the room after having been 
brought to the proper temperature. There should be a ventilating 
shaft connection with an opening near the floor. In most schools 
this method is not provided. When no method whatever is provided, 
one window on the side of the building from which the wind is not 
blowing, should be lowered from the top and another raised from the 
bottom. If this makes it too cold for pupils or is found impractical, 
the lower sashes of the windows should be raised six inches and the 
space thus made filled with a board sawed to fit. This allows of 
some ventilation between the sashes. 


In the ordinary stove heated room the stove should be "jacketed." 
There should be a pipe provided to bring in to the jacket a supply 
of fresh air from outside and a ventilating register near the floor 
should be provided for the extraction of the vitiated air. This 
method can be used in any stove heated room. 

11. Bone is composed of animal matter, cartilage or gristle, and 
mineral matter, chiefly lime. If a large bone is examined we find it to 
be covered with a tough cartilaginous coat called the periosteum, a 
layer of hard bone, one of soft or spongy bone, usually a hollow 
space filled with a fatty substance called marrow. 

When examined more closely it is found that the bones are 
pierced by canals, called the Haversian Canals. Thru these open- 
ings the blood vessels of the periosteum penetrate to all parts of the 
bone. These main canals are connected by smaller ones called cana- 
liculi. These small canals are at right angles to the larger ones, 
and connect them with a series of cavities called lacunae. The 
lacunae contain the living bone cells. These bone cells secrete from 
the material brought to them by the blood the bone materials. The 
lime part of the secretion forms in concentric rings about the lacunae 
and these layers are called lamellae. 

In general, bones are to give shape to the body, to produce motion 
when acted upon by the muscles, and to protect the more vital 
parts of the body. 

The flat bones are used generally for protection as in the case 
of the ribs, the shoulder blades and the bones of the skull, while the 
larger bones of the limbs are used to give motion to the body. 

12. The spinal cord is about seventeen inches long, about three- 
quarters of an inch in diameter, and is composed of both gray and 
white matter, the white being on the outside. It has three membranes 
for an outer covering, dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater. 

While the cord is nearly cylindrical in shape t it is somewhat 
flattened from front to back and has two fissures,' the anterior one 
being wide and shallow and the posterior one being narrow and deep. 
The white matter of the cord is on the outside and consists of nerve 
fibres running lengthwise of the cord. Within the cord is a darker 
substance called the gray matter, which is composed chiefly of 
nerve cells, tho some fibers are present. This gray matter is ar- 
ranged in the form of a letter H or forms a body of somewhat butter- 
fly shape. The cord gives off at regular intervals nerve roots which 
unite a short distance from the cord to form pairs of nerves on the 
opposite sides of the cord. There are in all thirty-one pairs of these 

The spinal cord has two functions. It receives impulses from 
different parts of the body. Some of the impulses are received by a 
nerve cell in the cord, and a motor impulse is sent out and action 
ensues in some part of the body, without the action of the brain. 
This is reflex action. The spinal cord also transmits nerve impulses 
from all parts of the body to the brain, and motor nerve impulses 
from the brain to all parts of the body. 

13. We are surrounded by a substance which fills all space, called 
ether. By some disturbing body vibrations are set up in the ether. 


Some of these vibrations enter the eye and fall upon the retina which 
Is an expansion of the optic nerve located at the back of the eye-ball. 
This irritates the optic nerve which carries the impulses so received 
to the brain and "we see." The vibrations from the external ether 
enter the eye thru a small opening in front. This opening is the 
black part of the eye, and is called the pupil. Surrounding the pupil 
is the colored part of the eye — the blue or the brown, etc., called 
the iris; back of the pupil is the crystalline lens, which divides the 
eye-ball into two chambers or cavities. The one of these in front 
of the lens is filled with a watery fluid called the aqueous humor and 
behind the lens is a much larger chamber filled with a semi-liquid 
substance called vitreous humor. The general shape of the eye- 
ball is given by the cartilaginous outer coat called the sclerotic coat. 
Within this is a very thin black membranous coat called the choroid. 
The sclerotic coat forms the outside of the eye-ball and gives it 
shape. It has a curious opening in front which is covered by a tough 
transparent membrane called the cornea. The optic nerve enters 
the back of the eye and spreads out there forming on the inside 
of the eye-ball a sensitive coat called the retina. 

14. 1. Take plenty of exercise in the open air every day. Walking 
or some form of athletic games is excellent for this. 

2. Take plenty of sleep, seven or eight hours each day, in a 
well ventilated room. 

3. Chew the food thoroly. Eat slowly. Eat only simple 
nutritious food and only amid pleasant surroundings. 

4. Keep personally clean. Bathe daily. Drink plenty of water, 
and take time to properly care for the body. 

5. Obey the laws of public health. Be careful to keep articles 
of food clean. Be scrupulous in observing quarantine and all other 
public health regulations. Keep the mind in a healthy state by think- 
ing kindly, healthy, optimistic thoughts. 

PENMANSHIP. — Answers. 

By Charles Mcintosh, Superintendent of Piatt County Schools. 

1. Requires applicant's own writing - . 

2. (1) mnx (2) iuwve (3) lbhkf (4) aoc (5) tqpq 
(6) jgyz(7)s r (See page 66 State Course.) 

The height of the one space small letters should be one-sixteenth 
of an inch (See page 65 State Course.) 


Monticello, Illinois, January 16, 1915 

Pay to the order of E. B. LEWIS $100.00 

One Hundered Dollars 

and charge to the account of 

Chicago National Bank J. W. AYRE 

Chicago Illinois Cashier. 

Pay to the order of 

E. F. Dunne 

E. B. Lewis 

E. F. Dunne 


4. There are a number of exercises that may be used to develop 
the muscles used in writing, as follows: (1) Opening and closing 
the hand, (2) shaking the hand from the wrist, (3) using the pusn 
and pull exercise arm resting on muscles of the fore-arm hand not 
touching the desk, (4) same exercise fingers turned under and nails 
gliding on paper, (5j same exercise with open hand, (6) same exer- 
cise with clenched hand, (7) push and pull and oval exercises on 
board, (8) making form of letters in air, etc. 

To teach uniform motion, have the various exercises given above 
performed to music, or while counting. 

Calisthenic exercises in rhythm also help to teach uniform mo- 
tion. Proper muscular development and control are very necessary 
to good penmanship, as is also the habit of uniform motion in mak- 
ing the letters. 

5. The teacher should exercise the greatest scrutiny possible 
over all the writing of her pupils, especially those pupils in the pri- 
mary and intermediate grades where the habits are being formed. 
Correct position in writing, uniform movement and good form are 
largely matters of habit. Unless the suggestions made in the writing 
period are followed in doing the written work required in other sub- 
jects, there can be but little improvement in penmanship. In many 
schools too much written work is done in the primary and interme- 
diate grades. From the standpoint of penmanship, at least, it would 
be better if less were done more carefully and painstakingly. If the 
teacher could insist that the small amount of written work required 
be well and carefully done, improvement in writing would be sure to 

6. Correct position means the correct manner of sitting in writ- 
ing. This means body erect, feet flat on floor, desk of proper height, 
arm on desk, etc. 

Movement refers to the kind of movement used in the writing, 
whole arm, finger, muscular. The State Course suggests the mus- 
cular movement from the very beginning. 

Rhythm means a uniform rate of movement in writing. 

In order to establish these things in the first and second grades, 
the pupils should be asked to assume the correct position before be- 
ginning to write and when they get out of position should be brought 
back in the proper one by the word "position" pronounced by the 

To establish the muscular movement, the Course suggests that 
when exercises are practiced on the board, they be written immedi- 
ately at the seat to avoid the habit of the whole arm movement. It 
means that all the pupils' writing should be done with the muscu- 
lar movement, and that the pupil be never allowed to drift into the 
finger movement. 

Rhythm is established thru calisthenic exercises, muscular exer- 
cises, various writing drills to music, or counting in the absence of 

7. The pupil must first feel that it is important that he improve 
his writing. His attention should be called to the importance of leg-, 
ible writing in all written work. What is written down is written 
in order that it may be read by some one else, or read by the same 


individual at some future time. Neither of these results can follow 
unless the writing is legible. 

Call the attention of the pupil to the fact that it is a pleasure 
to read a neat, carefully written letter or paper where the letters 
are correctly formed, and that it is anything but a pleasure to read a 
slovenly written composition that is scarecely legible. 

Pupils should be encouraged to pass judgment on their own pen- 
manship to compare the various lines written in the writing period 
each day to determine which specimen is best. They should be en- 
couraged to tell why that specimen is better than any of the others. 
It Is a good plan to get a sample of the pupil's best writing at least 
once each month, and compare the sample written any one month 
with the samples written in previous months and to note the im- 
provement, if any, that he is making. 

When a class has prepared a written exercise, it is well occasion- 
ally, to hold the various ones before the class, and let the class pass 
judgment as to which is best. Post the best written paper en the 
board for several days. 

GRAMMAR— Answers. 

By Miss Laura Hayes, Teacher of English Grammar, Illinois State 
Normal University. 
1. (a) An expletive is according to the derivation of the word a 
"filler in." It is a word which has no use in the sentence except to 
change the form. It is called by some grammarians a form word. 
There is a God. 

(b) An appositive is a substantive added to another substantive 
without the aid of a connecting word. It may classify, identify or 
merely repeat. Mary, my sister, is here. 

(c) A gerund is a verbal noun ending in "ing." Finishing the 
work required skill. 

(d) An auxiliary verb is a verb which helps in the formation 
of the tenses of other verbs. In the sentence, I have a pencil, the 
word have expresses the idea of possession and is not an auxiliary 
verb, but in the sentence, / have found a pencil, the idea of action ia 
asserted of the subject of thought. The word have is therefore only 
an auxiliary verb. 

(This term is not used by many grammarians.) 

(e) A collective noun is a common noun which even in its sin- 
gular form represents more than one individual or thing of the same 
kind. Example. I saw a flock. 

2. Inflection is a slight change in the form of a word to denote 
a difference in meaning or a difference in construction. Nouns, pro- 
nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are inflected. Words are in- 
flected in the following ways: 

(a) By a eh-auge in the words as take, took; woman, women. 

(b) By adding a letter or a syllable as walk, walks; boy, boy's, 
boys; box, boxes. Sometimes the last letter must be changed or 
omitted. Sometimes it must be doubled as baby, babies; write, writ- 
ing; omit,- omitted. 


(c) By the use of helping words as walks, have walked; beautiful, 
.more beautiful. 

(d) By the use of different words as I, my or mine me; good, 
better, best. 

3. (a) I have what you are looking for. The word what is a 
relative pronoun. 

(b) What weather we are having. The word what is an adjec- 

(c) What partial judges these are. The word what is an adverb. 
(This use is not sanctioned by some grammarians, tho mod- 
ern dictionaries are beginning to use it. I do not approve of it.) 

(d) What are you looking for? The word what is an interroga- 
tive pronoun. 

(e) What! You don't mean it. The word what is an interjection. 

4 (a) Whither thou goest I will go. The adverbial clause 
whither thou goest is added to the word go by means of the conjunc- 
tive adverb whither. It expresses place. 

(b) This is the story that we read. The adjective clause that 
we read is added to the word story by means of the conjunctive pro- 
noun that. The clause is limiting. 

(c) The ground is wet because it has rained. The adverbial 
clause because it has rained is added to the word ivet by means of 
the subordinate conjunction because. The clause expresses cause. 

(d) It was so cold that the mercury froze. The adverbial clause 
that the mercury froze is added to the word so by means of the 
subordinate conjunction that. The clause expresses degree. 

(e) This we know, that our future depends on our present. The 
noun clause that our future depends on our present is in apposition to 
the word this. 

5 (a) The word we is a personal pronoun. It is of the first 
person, plural number, either masculine or feminine gender, nomina- 
tive case. It is the subject of the clause. 

Its declension is: 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom.: I. We. 

Poss. : My, mine. Our, ours. 

Obj. : Me. Us. 

(b) The word ground is a common noun. It is of the third per- 
son, singular number, neuter gender, nominative case. It is the sub- 
ject of the sentence. 

Its declension is: 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom.: Ground. Grounds. 

Poss. : Ground's. Grounds.' 

Obj.: Ground. Ground. 

(c) The word wet is an adjective showing the condition of the 
ground. It is used as the predicate attribute of the sentence. It is 

Positive; Wot. 

Comparative: Wetter. • - - • • -- 

Superlative: Wettest. 


(d) The words has rained are an attributive intransitive verb 
phrase. It is made up of the verb 7ms and the past participle rained. 
The verb rain is a new conjugation verb whose principal parts are 
rain, rained, rained. 

The phrase is in the active voice, indicative mode, present perfect 
tense. It is in the third person and singular number to agree with 
its subject it. 

(e) The word so is an adverb expressing the degree of the cold- 
ness. It is added to the word cold. It is not compared. 

(f) The word this is an adjective pronoun. It is of the third 
person, neuter gender, singular number, objective case. It is the 
object of the sentence. 

It has only the plural form these. 

6. (a) She invited Kate and me. The word me must be used because 
it is the object of the word invited. 

(b) Whom did you speak to? The word whom must be used 
because it is the object of the preposition to: 

(c) She has come from a distant city. The word come must be 
used because the verbal in a present perfect tense is a past participle. 

(d) It must have been he that I met. The word he is used be- 
cause it is the predicate attribute. 

(e) She has come from a distant city. The word come must be 
used because it is an adverb showing the manner of the speaking. 

(f) Whom did you call? The word whom must be used because 
it is the object of the verb phrase did call. 

(g) The color of the roses is red. The word is must be used be- 
cause it must agree with its subject color. 

(h) He has laid the book on the table. The word laid must be 
used because it is the past participle of the transitive verb lay. 

(i) Each of the boys has an apple. The word has must be used 
to agree with its subject each. The word each is always singular In 

(j) Did you give Mary or me the message? The word mc must 
be used because it is the indirect object. 

7. Ten uses of the noun with illustrations are: 

1. Subject of a sentence or clause. The man is here. I know 
the man whom Mr. Smith saw. 

2. Object of a sentence or clause. I saw a man. I know the man 
who saw Mr. Smith. 

3. Predicate attribute of a sentence or clause. The man is Mr 
Smith. The man, who is my friend, spoke to me. 

4. Predicate attribute of the object. They elected him treasurer. 

5. Object of a verbal. The girl sweeping the room is neat. 

6. Appositive. Mary, my friend, visited me. 

7. Adverbial substantive. He ran a mile. 

8. Indirect object. Give John the book. 

9. Object of a preposition. He goes to school. 

10. Nominative of address. Mary, sit still. 

8. (a) A relative pronoun is a pronoun which joins an adjective 
clause jto a noun, or pronoun. It must have the use of a pronoun in the 
clause- and it must b'e used* as- a' conjunction. • •• . . 


A personal pronoun is a pronoun which shows by its form, even 
when standing alone, whether it represents the speaker, the one 
spoken to, or the one spoken of. 

(b) A clause must have a subject and a predicate and is used 
like a noun, adjective or adverb. A phrase may not have a subject 
or a predicate and may be used like any part of speech. 

9. (a) A noun clause used as the subject of a sentence is illustrated 
in the following sentence: That the earth is round has been proved. 

(b) A noun clause used as the object complement is illustrated 
in the following sentence: I know that the earth is round. 

(c) A noun clause used as the attribute complement is illustrated 
in the following sentence: Her reply was, "I will go." 

(d) A sentence with an adjective clause connected by the word 
where is illustrated in the following sentence: I went to Bloomington 
where I bought a dress. The word where is really two parts of speech. 
As a conjunction it joins the clause to the word Bloomington, and 
as an adverb it is added to the word bought. 

10. (a) The word there is no part of speech. It is an expletive or 
form word used to change the form of the sentence. 

(b) The word youth is a noun used as the subject of the sentence. 

(c) The word years is a noun used as an adverb added to the 
adverb ago. It is an adverbial substantive. 

(d) The word satv is an infinitive used as the object of the prep- 
osition to. The prepositional phrase is added to the word worth. 

(This construction is historically correct, and is used by many 
grammarians. There are some who would doubt it, and these would 
call the word saw an infinitive used as an adverb.) 

(e) The word who is a conjunctive (relative) pronoun. As a 
conjunction it joins the clause who had pure taste by right divine to 
the words King Admetus. As a pronoun it is the subject of the 

(f) The word taste is a noun used as the object of the clause. 

(g) The word right is a noun used as the object of the preposi- 
tion by. The prepositional phrase is added to the word had. 

(h) The word divine is an adjective added to the word right. 

(i) The word decreed is a verb used as the predicate of the 

(j) The word singing is a gerund used as the object of the verb 

(k) The word too is an adverb of degree added to the adjective 

(1) The word cups is a noun used as the object of the preposi- 
tion between. The prepositional phrase is added to the word hear. 

(m) The word pleased is a participle added to the word he. 

(n) The word icell is an adverb added to the word pleased. 

(o) The words being soothed are a verbal phrase used as the ob- 
ject of the preposition with. The word being is a gerund and the 
word soothed is a past participle. The prepositional phrase is added 
to the word pleased. 

(p) The word sleep is a noun used as the object of the pFeposi« 
tion into. The prepositional phrase is adde4 to tfce word.sootft'ed, .. 


(q) The word heard is a noun used as the object of the word 

(r) The word and is a co-ordinate conjunction joining the two 
predicates of the sentence. 

(s) The word him is a pronoun used as the object of the sen- 

(t) The word viceroy is a noun used as the predicate attribute of 
the object and a part of the predicate attribute. It shows the effect 
of the making viceroy upon him. 

11. Sentences illustrating four uses of the infinitive are as follows: 

1. To be here is good. The infinitive is used as the subject of 
the sentence. 

2. To see is to believe. The infinitive is used as the predicate 
attribute of the sentence. 

3. You ought to study. The infinitive is used as the object of tne 


4. She does nothing except study. The infinitive Is used as the 
object of the preposition except. 

12. The verb phrases which are underlined in the following sentences 
illustrate those which are asked for in this question. 

(a) They have been praised a number of times. 

(b) Praise him. (The word praise is only a verb, not a verb 
phrase. A verb phrase cannot be used unless we use the emphatic 
or the progressive form.) . . 

(c) If we praised him, he would like it. (The word praised is, 
however, not a verb phrase.) 

(d) You might have been praised. (The best authorities do not 
use the potential mode. I do not.) 

(e) He will praise him. 

13 Sex refers to the object itself, gender to the word which represents 
the object. A man is of the male sex, but the word man is masculine 

Gender may be shown in three ways: 

1. By a change of the word itself as boy, girl; son. daughter. 

2. By inflection of the word as prince, princess; host, hostess. 

3. By reference to some other word as Mr. Smith is my teacher. 
The word teacher, which may be either gender, is here masculine, be- 
cause it refers to the male Mr. Smith. 

One summer morning, when the sun was hot, 

Weary with labor in his garden plot; 

On a rude bench beneath the cottage eaves, 

Sir Federigo sat among the leaves of a huge vine. 
This is a complex declarative sentence. The main proposition is 
one summer morning, weary with labor in his garden plot. On a rude 
tench beneath the eaves. Sir Federigo sat among the leaves of a huge 

The subject is the words Sir Federigo. The copula and predicate 
combined (predicate) is the word sat. The word weary is an adjec- 
tive added to the word Sir Federigo. The phrase with his labor is 
an adverbial prepositional phrase added to the word weary. The word 
labor is the principal term in the phrase and it has as an adjunct the 


possessive modifier his. The phrase in his garden plot shows the 
place of the labor and is added to the word labor. It is an adjective 
prepositional phrase. The word plot is the principal term of the 
phrase and it has as adjuncts the possessive modifier his and the 
noun garden, which is used as an adjective. 

The word morning is a noun used as an adverb. It shows the 
time when the assertion is true and is added to the word sat. The 
word one is an adjective added to the word morning. The word sum- 
mer is a noun used as an adjective added to the word morning. The 
clause ivhen the sun was hot is an adjective clause telling something 
about the morning and is added to the word morning by means of 
the conjunctive adverb when Which is added to the word was in its 
clause. The word sun is the subject of the clause. The word was is 
the copula. The word hot is the predicate attribute of condition. 
The word the is an adjective added to the word sun. 

The phrase on a rude bench shows upon what he sat and is added 
to the word sat. It is an adverbial prepositional phrase. The word 
bench is the principal term of the phrase and it has as adjuncts the 
adjectives a and rude. The phrase beneath the eaves shows the place 
of the bench and is added to the word bench. It is an adjective prep- 
ositional phrase. The word eaves is the principal term of the phrase 
and it has as an adjunct the adjective the. The phrase among the 
leaves shows the place of sitting and it is added to the word sat. It 
is an adverbial prepositional phrase. The word leaves is the principal 
term of the phrase and it has as an adjunct the adjective the. The 
phrase of a huge vine shows what leaves (or the whole of which a part 
is taken) and is added to the word leaves. It is an adjective preposi 
tional phrase. The word vine is the principal term of the phrase and 
it has as adjuncts the adjectives a and huge. 

GEOGRAPHY— Answers. 

By Superintendent Edgar S. Jones, Taylorville, III. 

1. Maps are representations of certain geographical truths, hence 
a making or a reading of them gives the ideas in a most graphic man- 

The school room, yard or nearby lot or field may be drawn to a 
scale of so many feet to an inch or a fraction of an inch. Prom 
these local areas the work may continue until the state or continent 
is reached when the scale consists of so many miles to an inch or is 
merely a proportionate scale. One of the main reasons is the cen- 
tering of the railroads around the south end of Lake Michigan as 
well as the water line of transportation by the way of the Great 
Takes. Another factor is tho unusually fertile soil to the south and 
west. Still another , reason is the nearby coal fields and the iron of 
the Lake -Superior? • regions*- - - - 


3. North America. Mississippi. Gulf of Mexico. 

St. Lawrence. Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

South America. Amazon. Atlantic Ocean. 

La Plata. Atlantic Ocean. 

Africa. Nile. Mediterranean Sea. 

Congo. Atlantic Ocean. 

Europe. Danube. Black Sea. 

Rhine. North Sea. 

Asia. Yang tse Kiang. Yellow Sea. 

Ganges. Bay of Bengal. 

4. After the sketch is made draw eight horizontal lines over the 
middle Mississippi Valley thus showing the medium rainfall; the 
scant rainfall of the southwest may be represented by vertical lines 
while the northwestern and southeastern parts of the United States 
may be represented by oblique lines or heavy dots. 

5. When the air is considerably heated as it is in the equatorial 
region, it rises. As the heated air Is pushed up it moves toward the 
north and south in the direction of areas which are not as highly 
heated, finally reaching the surface. Owing to the rotation of the 
earth the surface currents flow from a greater pressure to a Iowct 
pressure. The trade winds blow from the northeast and from the 

6. Climate is the basis of location if it is taken into considera- 
tion that climate is determined by latitude. 

The purpose of latitude and longitude is to determine the exact 
location of a place with reference to the equator and a chosen 

Latitude is the distance north or south from the equator, being 
measured on meridians, while longitude is the distance east or west 
from a selected meridian. Longitude is measured on parallels. 

7. The trade winds bring from the ocean a large amount of 
moisture, hence we find in the Guianas and northern Brazil an ex- 
cessive rainfall. In south Brazil is to be found the zone of calms. 
This produces practically a desert as is found in Bolivia and in the 
Desert of Atacama. The westerly zone in which is located central 
and southern Chili has a dry belt. 

8. With the development of agriculture and especially the rais- 
ing of wheat, corn, cattle and sheep, Argentina is competing with the 
United States for the markets of Europe. 

9. The annual rise of the Nile is attributed to the fact that the 
source of the river is in the belt of calms. The rise of the river 
begins about June 1st and reaches its highest point in October 
when it recedes until the following June. Part of the source, how- 
ever, in the winter is in the path of the trade winds. 

In winter the monsoons blow from the land to sea thus causing 
the dry seasons. In summer the monsoons blow toward the land 
from the ocean thus bringing an excess of vapor. 

The trade winds have been, blowing a long distance over the 
land/ -hence they have but little vapor -for the Sahara re^ons. 


Another reason is that the winds are blowing from a cooler to a 
warmer region and are taking up moisture rather than losing it. 
10. The British Isles extend from 50 degrees to 60 degrees north 


The climate of the British Isles is more even than that of the 
continent of Europe, being influenced by the Gulf Stream and the 
westerly winds. The western coast receives the greater rainfall and 
it is also a noticeable fact that the range of temperature between 
summer and winter in Ireland is seldom more than 25 degrees. 

The British Isles correspond to Labrador and British Columbia 
in North America. Labrador is especially influenced by the polar 
currents. British Columbia's temperature is reduced by the warm 
winds from the Pacific Ocean. 

France is about four times as large as Illinois while Germany 
compares favorably with the combined areas of Iowa, Missouri, Illi- 
nois and Indiana. 

France is bounded on the north by the English Channel, on the 
east by Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and Italy, on the south by 
the Mediterranean Sea and Spain, on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. 

Germany is bounded in the same order as follows: North Sea. 
Denmark and Baltic Sea, on the east by Russia and Austria, on the 
south by Austria and Switzerland, on the west by France, Belgium 
and Netherlands. 










Live stock. 
Sugar beets. 







Live stock. 
Manufactured products. 

On March 20th the sun shines vertically on the Equator, the circle 
of illumination extending from pole to pole. The days and nights 
are everywhere of equal length. On June 22d the vertical rays of 
the sun extend to the Tropic of Cancer and the circle of illumination 
extends 23% degrees beyond the north pole and lacks 23% degrees 
of reaching the south pole. On account of the inclination of the 
earth to the plane of the ecliptic the length of day increases until 
June 22d, when the greatest length is attained. On September 20th 
the day and night are again equal for the reason that the direct rays 
of the sun are shining on the Equator. 

If the earth's axis were inclined 30 degrees, the width" of each 
Frigid Zone would be 30 degrees. Twice the width of the Frigid Zone 
would be the width of the Torrid. This would be 60 degrees. One 
hundred and eighty degrees— 60 degrees the ToVritf and 60 degrees" 


both. Frigids equals 60. One-half of 60 degrees equal 30 for each tem- 
perate zone. 

Wheat production — Northern Mississippi Valley, Nile Valley, 
France, Valley of the Danube. 

Cotton — Southern United States, India, Nile Valley. 

Manufacturing — England, Germany, United States, Prance. 

The fact that no single country produces all the various needed 
products makes transportation between the countries necessary. 

Great Britain, Germany, United States, Netherlands, France, 
Russia, Japan and Brazil. 


By A. F. Strome, Department of History, Western Illinois State 

Normal School. 

1. (aO Oglethorpe's purpose in obtaining a grant of land and 
making a settlement in America was to provide a place of refuge and 
new opportunity for the debtor class of England. 

(b) Cortez was a Spanish soldier sent by the Governor of Cuba 
to conquer and plunder the rich Indian kingdom of Mexico. 

(c) Ponce de Leon at different times had different objects in 
view, as discovery, exploration, settlement and conquest. His chief 
motive in the exploration of Florida was the desire to discover the 
fountain of youth. 

(d) Balboa was a Spanish adventurer and bankrupt. His chief 
motive was the desire for easily acquired wealth. It was while on 
an outlaw expedition in search of wealth that he discovered the 

(e) The Pilgrims came to America because of the desire for re- 
ligious freedom. They had at first found refuge in Holland but fear- 
ing that they would soon lose their character and identity in the 
midst of the foreign population they decided to come to America 
where they could govern themselves and worship as they chose, and 
bring up their children without fear of the corrupting influences of a 
foreign life. 

2. (a) The earliest English settlement in the United States was 
that of the so-called "Lost Colony" made in 1587, on Roanoke Island. 
The first permanent settlement was that of Jamestown, made in 1607. 

(b) It is not possible to say when and where the first Spanish 
settlement within the United States was made. The first permanent 
settlement was that of St. Augustine made in 1565. 

(c) The first French settlement was that made by Ribault at 
Port Royal on the Carolina coast in 1562. 

(d) The first Dutch settlements were made at what are now 
Albany and New York in 1613 and 1614. 

3. (a) One of the most important events in the early history of 
Virginia was the convening of the House of Burgesses in 1619. 

(b) An important event in connection with the early days of 
Maryland was the passage of the Toleration Act in 1649. 


(c) An event of great significance In connection with the settle- 
ment of Massachusetts was the transfer of the Company's Charter to 
America in 1629. 

(d) Doubtless the most important single event in the early his- 
tory of New York was the establishment of the Dutch West India 
Company in 1621. 

(e) The most important event in connection with the settlement 
of Georgia was the introduction of slavery in 1749. 

4. Among the more important physical conditions favoring the 
growth of civilization are: 

(a) A temperate climate. It is only the people of a temperate 
climate who have the energy, the resources, and the leisure necessary 
to the development of a high degree of civilization. 

(b) A moderate and well distributed rainfall. Neither excessive 
rainfall nor excessive dryness is conducive to the development of a 
varied agriculture, and agriculture is civilization's basic industry. 

(c) Natural resources. A favorable distribution of fertile soil, 
minerals, water power, etc., stimulates a varied production and the 
consequent specialization which is essential to a high degree of civ- 

(d) Accessibility. Second only to production is distribution, and 
easy distribution is possible only where the country is readily acces- 

5. In the course of our national development the following ad- 
ditions have been made to the original territory of the United States: 

(a) Louisiana, by purchase from France in 1803. 

(b) West Florida to the Perdido River seized by the order of 
President Madison in 1810. 

(c) Remainder of West Florida seized in 1812. 

(d) Florida, including the territory previously seized, purchased 
from Spain in 1819. (Treaty ratified in 1821.) 

(e) Texas by annexation in 1845. 

(f) Oregon territory south of parallel 49 degrees assured to the 
United States by a treaty with England in 1846. 

(g) California and New Mexico territory by conquest and ces- 
sion from Mexico in 1848. 

(h) The Gadsden Purchase, 1853. 

(i) Alaska by purchase from Russia in 1867. 

(j) Hawaii by annexation in 1898. 

(k) Porto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines by cession from Spain, 

(1) Island of Tutuila by joint agreement between the United 
States, Germany and England in 1900. 

6. The doctrine of secession was as old as the national govern- 
ment. It had been advanced at various times by states or sections 
which felt aggrieved at the action of the national government. The 
South had long maintained the doctrine as a defense against what it 
termed the tyranny of the majority. When the Republican party 
was formed the Southern leaders believing or professing to believe 
that if this party got control of the government their liberties and 
institutions would be in danger, prepared to carry their threat into 


effect. In 1860 Lincoln was elected, and South Carolina immediately 
passed an ordinance of secession. She was followed by the remainder 
of the southern states. 

Among the more prominent leaders in this movement were Jef- 
ferson Davis, Howell Ccbb, Robert Toombs, and Juda P. Benjamin. 
7. The chief terms of the compromise measure of 1850 were: 

(a) That California should be admitted as a free state. 

(b) That the slave trade should be abolished from the District 
of Columbia. 

(c) That a new and more stringent fugitive slave law should be 

(d) That New Mexico and Utah territories should be organized 
without any provision relative to slavery. 

(e) That the boundaries of Texas should be fixed and that she 
should be paid a sum of money for the relinquishment of her claims 
on New Mexico, and the release of the United States from all obliga- 
tion to pay the Texan debt. 

The principle of Popular Sovereignity as set forth in the com- 
promise measure was practically nullified later by the decision of 
the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott case. It was also claimed by 
the South that the Fugitive Slave Law was violated by the North 
in the passage of the Personal Liberty Bills. 

8. (a) The franchise in Massachusetts was limited by law to 
church members, and by practice to the propertied classes. Only 
about one-fourth of the adult males enjoyed the right of suffrage at 
any time during the seventeenth century. 

The suffrage laws of Virginia were on the whole more liberal 
than those of Massachusetts. At first all white males seem to have 
voted. In 1670 the right was limited to freeholders, A freeholder 
was defined by an Act of 1736 as meaning the owner of one hundred 
acres of wild land, or fifty acres of improved land, or of a house and 
lot in town. Shortly before the Revolution these qualifications were 
reduced one-half. 

(b) The Puritans of Massachusetts believed that education was 
one of the chief means of fighting the devil. Especially were they 
anxious that their children should be able to read the Scriptures. 
One of their first concerns therefore was the establishment of the 
public school system. In 1636 it was voted to found a college, and 
In 1647 the general court passed an Act for the establishment of a 
common school in every town of fifty families, and a grammar school 
in each of the larger towns. 

Virginia was more backward in the cause of education. Here, 
owing to the aristocratic character of Virginia society and the fact 
that the population was scattered, a system of public schools was 
not established. However, several free schools of a private character 
were founded, and the children of the wealthier planters were in- 
structed by private tutors. Higher education was fostered by the 
establishment of William and Mary College in 1691. 

(c) The social life of Virginia and Massachusetts differed widely. 
That of Massachusetts was centered about the church and was char- 
acterized by frugality and Puritan severity, while that of Virginia 


centered in the great plantation and was marked by all the luxury 
and freedom characteristic of the life of the upper classes in Eng- 

9. (a) Alexander Hamilton's greatest public service was the 
formulation and carrying into effect of his financial plans, thus 
strengthening the new government and establishing its credit. 

(b) Benjamin Franklin's greatest service was his work as rep- 
resentative to France during the American revolution. It was chiefly 
due to his influence that France entered into alliance with the 

(c) Patrick Henry's greatest service to his country was doubt- 
less his speeches setting forth the theory of colonial rights. 

(d) Thomas Jefferson's greatest service was the purchase of 

(e) Eli Whitney's great contribution to his country was the in- 
vention of the cotton gin. 

10. In a general way it may be said that the war of 1812 was 
caused by England's outrageous violations of our neutral rights. For 
many years, indeed, ever since the outbreak of Napoleonic wars, we 
had been the victims of the efforts of England and France to injure 
each other, and the injury due to this cause was aggravated by Eng- 
land's known desire to crush the American carrying trade. It is 
scarcely a fair statement, however, to say that the war was waged 
solely in defense of "Sailors' Rights." It was due largely to the 
rising tide of American national life, and that life found its most 
vigorous expression in the new west. The men who wanted war, the 
"War Hawks," were for the most part young men from the west, 
men whose spirit rebelled against any further submission to the 
abuses to which their country was subject. 

The war was fought under the administration of James Madison. 

The Spanish American War was the outgrowth of Spain's mis- 
government in Cuba. Not only did Americans have large interests 
in Cuba, but the American people were naturally sympathetic for the 
Cubans who were in rebellion against the oppression of the Spanish 
government. Finally, after the Maine was blown up, public opinion 
became irresistible in its demands and the government was com- 
pelled to declare war in behalf of the Cubans. 

This occurred during the administration of President McKinley. 

11. The reasons for teaching history may be summed up in the 
statement that good citizenship demands that history be taught. 

(a) A good citizen is one who understands our present day life 
and institutions, and our life and institutions can be understood only 
in the light of their development. 

(b) The good citizen is patriotic, and history teaches patriotism 
by teaching the meaning of our country. 

(c) The good citizen is moral, and history teaches morality by 
showing the consequences flowing from wrong action and the rewards 
of right actions. 

(d) The best citizen is the cultured citizen, and one of the ele- 
ments of culture is an intelligent knowledge of the past. 


History teaching in the intermediate grades should be confined 
to a few topics inherently interesting to children, and these should 
be treated with fullness of detail. It is a mistake to attempt anything 
like a general survey in these grades. The effort to do this entails 
condensation of statement and children cannot visualize condensed 

12. Since the time of the adoption of the constitution the people 
of the United States have been in a general way, divided into two 
great parties with respect to the powers and functions of the national 
government. One party has favored the interpreting of the consti- 
tution broadly, permitting the national government to exercise very 
large powers under authority of the so-called elastic clause, which 
authorizes congress to make all laws which shall be necessary to 
carry the specially enumerated powers into effect. The other party 
has held to a strict interpretation of the constitution maintaining 
that the national government should exercise only such powers as 
were expressly conferred on it. The first great political parties were 
formed upon this issue. Hamilton and the Federalists advocated the 
doctrine of broad construction while Jefferson and the Democratic 
Republicans advocated strict construction. At the present time the 
<ssue is not so sharply defined, but the Republican party in general 
stands for large national powers while the Democratic party empha- 
sizes state rights and limitation of federal powers. 

13. In the period immediately preceding the discovery of 
America, Europe was undergoing a great change. The old mediaeval 
system was breaking up. Feudalism was disappearing, the towns 
were rapidly growing under the influence of a revived commerce, 
luxury was increasing, and even the modes of thought were changing, 
own sake, and consequently gave more attention to the things of this 
world. The result was a great revival of learning and new develop- 
People were beginning to realize that life was worth living for its 
ments in the way of discoveries and inventions. Political conditions 
were also changing. As the Feudal system declined, the national 
governments arose into power and influence and began to play a part 
in the new life. In religion alone was there marked evidence of de. 
cline. The great church organization was corrupt and the people were 
losing confidence not only in the clergy, but even in the doctrines of 
the church. However, the influences of change, were exerting them- 
selves in the field of religion, and the way was being prepared for the 
great religious revival which began only a few years after the dis- 
covery of America. 

14. The constitutional convention was called to meet at Phil- 
adelphia in May of 1787. The delegates who attended were the best 
men of the country, men who were fully conscious of the perils which 
beset the nation. But from the first it was apparent that there were 
almost irreconcilable differences of opinion as to the proper remedy 
for the existing evils. The representatives from the large states were 
generally in favor of the formation of a strong national government, 
while the small state group fearful that the small states would be 
overshadowed by the large states strove to preserve the confederation 
idea. The two parties were frequently in deadlock, and failure some- 


times seemed inevitable. The main point at issue between the two 
parties was the question of representation in congress. The small 
states demanded equal representation, while the large states de- 
manded that representation be based on population or wealth. After 
a bitter struggle the question was settled by yielding to the. small 
states equal representation in the Senate, while representation In 
the House of Representatives was to be on the basis of the large state 
idea of representation according to population. This settled the great 
question of issue between the large and small states, but after this, 
other questions of a sectional character came up. The second great 
controversy grew out of the first. When it was decided to base rep- 
resentation in the lower house on population, the question arose as 
to whether slaves were to be counted as population or wealth. The 
same point came up in connection with the question of direct taxation, 
it having been decided to apportion direct taxes according to repre- 
sentation. The slave holding states naturally wished to count slaves 
as population in determining representation, and as wealth in appor- 
tioning direct taxes. The northern states wished to count them as 
wealth in apportioning representation, and as population in appor- 
tioning taxes. The question was settled by counting three-fifths in 
both cases. 

The third great struggle came up in regard to the regulation of 
commerce. New England desired that congress be given full power 
to regulate both foreign and interstate commerce. The southern 
states fearing an export tax on farm products and a prohibition of 
the slave trade opposed New England. The question was settled by 
giving congress full power to regulate commerce, with the exception 
that no duties on exports were to be levied and that the slave trade 
should not be prohibited before the year 1808. With these difficult 
questions out of the way the convention completed its work and ad- 
journed on September 17th. 


By Elbert Waller. Superintendent of Schools, Albion, III., and Author 
of Wallers History of Illinois. 

1. The first people in Illinois were, without much doubt, the 
Mound Builaers. They were succeeded by the Indians, all of whom, 
except the Shawnees, belonged to the Algonquins. Among the tribes 
may be mentioned the Kaskaskias, the Kahokias, the Peorias, the 
Tamaroas and the Mitchigamies, all of whom belonged to the Illinois 
Federation. To these we would add the Miami Federation, composed 
of the Miamis, the Eel-Rivers, the Weas and the Piankeshaws. 

2. When Illinois was admitted to the Union the boundary was 
so changed as to add a strip fifty miles wide across the north end. 
This gave us a lake front which made vast shipping interests pos- 
sible, giving us the site for the City of Chicago. It also gave us a 
large population in the state that favored the Union in the time of 
the Civil War, and did much toward holding Illinois as a loyal state. 

3. Spain, France and England. Louis Joliet, then Robert 
Cavalier de La Salle. 


4. At twelve o'clock noon on Wednesday next after the first 
Mondav in January of odd-numbered years. Fifty-one in the Senate 
and one hundred and fifty-three in the House of Representatives. 

5. Kaskaskia, at the mouth of the Kaskaskia River, Vandalia on 
the Kaskaskia River, about a hundred miles from the mouth, Spring- 
field on the Sangamon River. 

6. Massacre of Fort Dearborn in 1812, Capital of Illinois from 
1820 to 1839. Scene of trouble with the Mormons. 

7. A code of laws for the government of the northwest territory. 
Applied to early government of Illinois, defined its boundary, set 
conditions on which it might become a state, prohibited slavery. 

8 In 1778 he floated down the Ohio and landed near Fort Massac, 
crossed over and took Kaskaskia from the English and hoisted the 
Stars and Stripes, thence across the country and took the British 
post at Vincennes, and thus amid untold dangers and hardships, 
established the authority of Virginia over this region. The U. S. 
Government later voted him a sword, but as he said, he needed mone^. 
He died in poverty in 1818. 

9. In 1673, Joliet, an explorer, and Father Marquette, a mission- 
ary crossed the present State of Wisconsin to the Mississippi River, 
sailed down to the mouth of the Illinois River, thence up to its 
source, thence across the portage to Lake Michigan and to the point 
of starting. Marquette returned to the Illinois country and there 
died. LaSalle was also a French explorer, who with Henry Tonti, 
an Italian soldier, founded Fort Creve Cour on Lake Peoria. LaSalle 
left Tonti there and explored the country to the mouth of the Mis- 
sissippi River, then returned and built a fort on Starved Rock. 
Tonti staved at the fort and LaSalle went to France for supplies and 
men and tried to return by way of the mouth of the Mississippi River, 
but was assassinated by one of his own men. Tonti tried to protect 
Fort Creve Cour against the Iroquois, but was forced to give it up 
and it was destroyed. After varying hardships and misfortunes, he 
went to the mouth of the Mississippi River to search for LaSalle, but 
never found him. After learning of LaSalle's death he returned to 
the French settlement at Green Bay. 

10. Beginning at the mouth of the Wabash River, thence up the 
same and with the line of Indiana, to the northwest corner of said 
state, thence east with the line of said state to the middle of Lake 
Michigan, thence north along the middle of said lake to north latitude 
42° 30 minutes, thence west to the middle of the Mississippi River, 
thence down the middle of said river to its confluence with the Ohio 
River, thence up that river along the northwestern shore to the point 
of beginniing. 388 miles long, 190 miles wide, area 56,000 square miles. 

11. Its natural resources in the way of minerals and fertile 
lands, its navigable rivers, its climate, its location in the parkway of 
commercial routes, its proximity to the older states and its people 

12 E. K. Kane. Sidney Brees, Lyman Trumball, James Shields, 
David Davis, Stephen A- Douglas, Abraham Lincoln and John A. 
Logan as statesmen; Abraham Lincoln and U. £. Gran< as pre^idents;^ 
U. S. Grant, John '& Logan, Richard J. jlesl 


13. Old Fort Dearborn, erected in 1804, is the original site of 
Chicago. In 1812 the Indians attacked them and a large number of 
the people were massacred. In 1836 the last of the Pottawatomiea 
left Chicago and the next year it was incorporated as a city. The 
Chicago fire occurred in 1871. It covered 2,200 acres, caused the death 
of over 300 people and the destruction of $200,000,000 worth of property. 
It has now a population of nearly 3,000,000 people. The state peniten- 
tiaries are at Joliet and at Chester. 

14. Some came from the New England states by way of the 
Great Lakes and settled in the northern part. People of Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio and Indiana settled principally in the central part. People 
from Virginia and Maryland, coming down the Ohio, and those from 
Kentucky, Tennessee, the Carolinas and Georgia settled principally 
in the southern part. Those who settled in the northern part mainly 
opposed slavery, as well as did most of the people of the central part, 
but those who settled in southern Illinois quite generally favored it 


019 741 191