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Vol. XII, No. 1 
Fall 1968-69 


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A Study of Food-Service Establishments to Determine 
Feasibility of a Food Service Program at Parkland 
Community College 

Norma Bobhitt and Linda Lou Lucht 3 

A Feasibility Study of Champ aign-Urbana Illinois 
To Determine Need for a Child Care Program 
at Parkland Community College, A Summary 

Sharon X. Adair and May W. Huang 25 

Knowledges in Clothing and Textiles Needed by Homemakers 
and Workers in Clothing Occupations 

Winifred Davis 31 


A publication of the Division of Home Economics Education, 
Department of Vocational and Technical Education, College 
of Education, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 

Members of Division: 

Elizabeth Simpson, Professor and Acting Department Chairman 

Mary Mather, Associate Professor and Acting Division Chairman 

Hazel Spitze, Associate Professor 

Bessie Hackett, Instructor 

Norma Bobbitt, Assistant 

Reba Davis, Assistant 

Mildred Griggs, Assistant in Higher Education 

Christina Brown, University High School 

Business Manager of IfLinois Teacher'. Miss Joan Lorenz 

Vol. XII, No. 1, Fall 1968-69. Published six times each year. 
Subscriptions $5 per year.* Single Copies $1. 

Address: Illinois Teacher 

342 Education Building 
University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 61801 

Telephone: 217-333-2736 

*Due to rising publishing and mailing costs, the Itt^nois Teacher has 
increased the price of issues and annual subscriptions. 


{^Ajhiit ^4u.e o{^ [/otumd XII. Tko, pubtication biicomi2J> "litinoi^ Tuach^A. 
loK ContompoKoKij Rote^: PoJiioyicit, Homn and VomAXy, Emptoymdnt," In 
K.<ii>ponii<i to kappe,ning6 -in i>0Cyi<ity and (A)-ltkln tko, ^toJid, tkLi> tnnovaZion 
n.Q,p^<2J>znt6 a b^ conco^pt o^ korm ^conomicii ^.ducaZlon — aX^ {^unc- 
tlonj), 2mpka^<2J>, and puApo^^^, We hope, that thd nojxi name. maJUL Q,ncou/i- 
agz tdackunji to promote, ^iil{^-illm<int In thAnz vttaZ> o^ human 

In kQ,e,ptng iA)tth tktii t/eoA'^ thomd — kcXton and Jnnovatton--thA2.2. 
^tiidtz^ oJiQ, pn.2A2.ntiid to pK-Ovtdd atd and tn^pvULtijon ^o^ tuachoAA toko 
ojid contojmptattnQ ndw occu.patA,onat pKog^iaym. The, ^tn^t two {^2.a6tbtjLity 
^tudiOyii MQAe. conducted by advanced g/iaduatd ^tudunt^ making cto^eJiy 
mXh juntos coltcgc pdn^onneZ, AZthough the, Kej>Q,a/ich a;a6 dhmcZiid 
towoAd doXoAmoLing the. ne.e.d {^OK po^t--i>e.conda/Ly vocationaZ pAogAomb tn 
the, aAe.aJ> o^ ckitd coJie. and {^ood ^eAvtce., the. methods axe, appAopAtate, 
to Lii>e, at the. high ^ckoot tcveZ and tn otheA aAe.a6 o^ home, economics. 
The. te,chnyique^ and {^onm6 may be. adapte,d oA i>AjnpJU,{^tejd accoAdtng to the, 
te,acheA'-ii avoUZabte, Ae^ouAcej>. 

The. Itnat ^tady, by iJJtnt{^Ae.d VavAJ>, -16 conceAne.d ujtth iohat home.- 
makeAi> and u)age. e,aAneA^ tn i>pe.ct{^te.d occupation^ need to knoi^^ about 
cZotiiing and tcxtiZeJ^. It hai> impHcatiom, {^oA both homemaktng and 
employment a6pect6 o{^ home economics. UAi>, Vavts, a{^teA ^eveAaZ yeaA^ 
o{^ 6tudy tn the United States, hai AecentZy AetuAned to Jamaica to 
6eAve ai> a goveAnment 6upeAvij>oA ol home economics education, 

-Se^^ie HackeXt 


A preliminary step in initiating wage-earning courses in secondary 
and post-secondary schools is documenting the need. This can be a 
tedious and discouraging procedure for teachers already burdened with 
heavy schedules. However, it is an essential task in the establishment 
of a program that capitalizes on community resources and relates stu- 
dent potential to realistic manpower requirements. Successful programs 
require groundwork and legwork. Job training is of little consequence 
if students and graduates cannot locate employment. Therefore, it is 
essential that vocational educators produce evidence that a proposed 
occupational program is feasible. A teacher's interest and dedication 
must be supplemented with hard cold facts that occupational offerings 
fulfill a need. 

Although there are various approaches to documenting the need for 
a wage-earning program, there are two primary areas of focus. (1) In- 
formation must be obtained relating to the needs and interests of stu- 
dents. (2) Data must be collected concerning current and future needs 
of business and industry. 

Many different types of community surveys may be undertaken to 
assess the local employment situation. The size and composition of the 
community, the level and nature of the training proposed, and the 
limitations of the investigator are among the numerous factors which 
influence the choice of survey techniques . 

The two feasibility studies which follow represent the cooperative 
efforts of graduate assistants at the University of Illinois and person- 
nel at the new Parkland Community College in Champaign-Urbana. These 
surveys were planned to provide data for officials to use in securing 
support and in designing new curricula for expanded vocational offer- 
ings at the post-secondary institution. They are published for the 
purpose of providing help for vocational educators — at both high school 
and post-high school levels — who are faced with similar problems. 

The first feasibility study, in the area of food service, was con- 
ducted by Mrs. Norma Bobbitt, research assistant and doctoral student 
at the University of Illinois, and Miss Linda Lou Lucht, instructor in 
Home Economics Education at the University of Delaware and formerly home 
economics teacher at University High School in Urbana. Their report is 
not presented in its entirety. A complete account of the investigation 
may be obtained upon request. 

The second feasibility report, since it was patterned after the 
Bobbitt-Lucht study, is summarized for readers. In the area of child 
care, it was completed by Miss Sharon Adair, graduate student at the 
University of Illinois, and Miss May Huang, graduate assistant from 
Taiwan and currently a teacher in Hammond, Indiana. 




NoTma Babbitt and Linda Lou Luoht 

Don Smith, Dean of Instruction at Parkland Community 
College, reviews plans for the feasibility study with 
Mrs. Norma Bobbitt and Miss Linda Lou Lucht. 


The study was concerned with determining the feasibility of a pro- 
gram at the newly established Parkland Community College in Champaign- 
Urbana to train workers for specialized food-service occupations. 

The writers proposed the following major and related objectives 
for the study: 

Major Objectives 

I. Determine if a need exists for a food-service educational 
program at the community college level. 

II. Determine if necessary cooperation can be obtained for 
providing on-the-job work experience. 

III. Determine if local employment opportunities are feasible 
for graduates of a community college food-service educa- 
tional program. 

Related Objectives 

1. Determine the number of persons involved in food related work 
in food-service establishments in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. 

2. Determine the number of food-service establishments according 
to function as catering, vending, institutional, etc. 

3. Determine the type of jobs in each establishment and the 
number of employees in each job type as chef, cook, waitress, 

4. Determine the average wages of the different types of jobs. 

5. Determine the present and future supply and demand for full- 
time and part-time food service personnel. 

6. Determine the areas of instruction needed for food-service 
employee preparation. 

7. Determine the present training practices of food-service 

8. Determine the need for additional employee training as 
expressed by food-service management. 


Technology is rapidly changing, and thus many new occupations are 
being created. Yesterday's skills are outmoded and jobs for the un- 
skilled are being eliminated. Therefore, a demand has been created for 

vocational and technical education which will assist people in meeting 
their employment needs. Our Federal Government has acted to assist its 
citizens in meeting these needs through several legislative enactments, 
particularly by providing funds for instructional programs and facili- 
ties. Three major legislative enactments have been the 1962 Manpower 
Development Training Act, the 1963 Vocational Education Act and the 1963 
Higher Education Facilities Act, which provide funds for technical in- 
stitutes and community college programs as well as other levels of 

Title I of the Higher Education Facilities Act specifies that 
twenty-two percent of all grant funds for undergraduate facilities be 
set aside for public community college and technical institute facil- 
ities. Actually any recognized public secondary school or two-year 
post-secondary school may be approved to organize a vocational trade 
and industrial program and may be eligible for reimbursement provided 
the school meets the requirements of the State Plan. 

With the emphasis on the area vocational schools and community 
college programs, there will be a need for programs quite different from 
those normally associated with the usual elementary, secondary, and com- 
munity college units. The need for new programs is accentuated by a 
rapidly changing technology. 

The food-service industry in the United States has changed 
remarkably within the last few decades. Increase in the supply and 
variety of food products has resulted from advances in technology and 
processing. Automation has provided improvements in food preparation 
and production methods. Changes in public eating habits have encour- 
aged new and different types of food-service establishments. Greater 
demands will be for skilled food production personnel as a result of 
expansion of the industry and the development of new production 

The growth of the food-service industry and the present and future 
demand for personnel may be influenced by factors in society such as: 
(1) increased population, (2) increased family income, (3) greater 
number of women gainfully employed, and (4) increased number of young 

Purpose of the Study 

The decision for offering a specific employment program should be 
supported by evidence of the following: 

1. that present training facilities are not adequately meeting 
the needs of present and future employees, 

2. that adequate work experience can be provided as part of the 
educational program, 

3. that employment will be available for those who successfully 
complete the program. 

The purpose of this study is to collect data which can be used to 
determine the need for a food-service program at Parkland Community 
College, Champaign, Illinois. 

Parkland Community College officials have indicated an interest in 
incorporating a food-service program into the instructional program in 
the near future. Thus, the officials may have evidence upon which to 
base their decisions. 


Studies in the area of determining need for food-service programs 
are scarce. Therefore, studies of the same nature, that of determin- 
ing need for colleges or other instructional programs, were examined. 
References were reviewed to obtain ideas about the type of information 
to seek and the structure to use in developing an interview schedule. 
A master list of information about foods and food related occupations 
and businesses was arranged. Each piece of information was evaluated, 
selected or deleted, and assembled into a tentative interview schedule 
form. The form was refined after consultation with specialists as: 
Dr. Elizabeth Simpson, Acting Chairman of the Department of Vocational 
Technical Education, University of Illinois; Miss Mildred Bonnell, 
Associate Professor of Institutional Management, University of Illinois; 
Don Smith, Dean of Instruction, Parkland Community College, Champaign, 
Illinois,' and Clifton Matz, Assistant Dean for Career Programs, Parkland 
Community College, Champaign, Illinois. 

The instrument was used in a pilot study in personal interviews 
with food-service personnel in the Campus Town section of Champaign- 
Urbana, Illinois. This sample was chosen because of its similarity 
to the population for the feasibility study. 

The pilot study provided the interviewers with experience and gave 
them confidence in continuing the investigation. It also provided an 
opportunity to identify aspects of the interview schedule needing revi- 
sions prior to conducting the major feasibility study. The revised 
interview schedule was used in personal interviews with food-service 
personnel in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. (See Appendix A.) 

Copies of a letter indicating approval of the project and encour- 
aging businessmen to cooperate were signed by President William Starkel 
of Parkland Community College (see Appendix B) . The letter was co- 
signed by Vice President Luige of the Champaign-Urbana-Danville Restau- 
rant Association^ Manager James Withers, Urbana Association of Commerce; 
and Manager John Neils, Champaign Chamber of Commerce. The letter was 
presented to the interviewees prior to the interviews. 

Explanation of Selection of Establishments 

The telephone directory was used to identify all establishments in 
Champaign-Urbana that fit each category according to the function of 
the business. 

Viking Room at Ramada Inn 

-'^'"^'^1 1 


1 ' 










If 1 











^^^- - 







Mr. Luigi, Vice 
President of 
Champa ign-Urb ana- 
Danville Restaurant 
Association signs a 
letter encouraging 
businessmen to par- 
ticipate in the 
study. A manager 
of a large restaurant, 
Mr. Luigi was inter- 
viewed by Miss Lucht. 

Due to the great number of establishments in the large restaurant, 
small restaurant, sorority and fraternity categories, the investigators 
decided to take a sample of the total group. A Table of Random Numbers 
was used to select 33% of the large and small restaurants. A 10% sample 
of sororities and fraternities was selected. All drive-in and carry-out 
establishments were used without duplicating each type. For example, if 
there were two Top Boy Drive-ins, only one was included. All small 
group-care centers were included with the exception of those that had 
25 or fewer patients. This last decision was based upon interviews 
with personnel of such establishments which indicated that the food- 
service operation of these establishments was mainly a family-type 


The subjects for the feasibility study were primarily the owners 
and managers of food-service establishments in Champaign-Urbana, 
Illinois, Those subjects, who were not owners and/or managers, served 
in a supervisory or managerial capacity. 

The businessmen were contacted by telephone to arrange an appoint- 
ment for the interview. A number of interviews had to be rescheduled 
due to changes in the interviewers' or interviewees* schedules. 

Collection of Data 

Interviews were conducted in April and May, 1968. The interview 
time averaged thirty minutes. However, if time were counted for arrang- 
ing the interviews and travel to and from the interview locations, the 
average time required for each interview would be approximately one 
hour. Most interviewees were cooperative and voiced their opinions 

Norma Bobbitt 
completes an 
interview at 
a group care 
center in 


General Information 

Of the 71 food service establishments, 43 had been in operation 11 
or more years, 10 from 6-10 years and 11 from 3-5 years. Only 7 estab- 
lishments had been in operation for 2 or less number of years. 

Of the 63 interviewees, 21 had held their position for 2 or less 

number of years. The sororities and fraternities had the largest 
number (6) of employees in this category. Most sorority and fraternity 
kitchen managers were students who held these positions in their junior 
or senior year at the University, and thus, with graduation, replace- 
ments had to be made. Of the interviewees, 15 had been employed in 
their present position for 6-10 years, 14 for 11 or more years, and 13 
for 3-5 years. 

Nineteen of the (63) respondents were managers. Twelve were owners 
and managers. Two respondents were owners. Thus a total of 33 or 52% 
of the respondents were owners and/or managers. The remaining respond- 
ents were in supervisory or management positions. 

Three of the food service categories, public school units, univer- 
sity residence halls and University Union had a seating capacity for 500 
or more people. Fourteen of the establishments had a seating capacity 
of 100-500. A majority of the large restaurants (8) were included in 
this category. Only six of the establishments had a seating capacity 
for 25 or fewer persons. 

None of the establishments had a serving capacity of 25 or less. 
A serving capacity of 100-500 or more was provided by 29 establishments. 
Personnel in 16 establishments reported a serving capacity between 50- 
100. Ten other establishments had a serving capacity between 25-50. 

The food-service establishments participating in the study were 
grouped by function into six major categories — catering, drive-in or 
carry-out, vending institutional food service, large restaurant^ and 
small restaurant. The institutional food-service category included 
large group care, small group care, industrial cafeterias, public 
elementary and secondary school units, university residence halls, 
sororities and fraternities, and University Union facilities. There 
were 11 establishments in each category of drive-in, large restaurant, 
and small restaurant which participated in the study. Nine large 
group-care centers and university residence halls in the institutional 
food-service category were included in the study. 

Employee Information 

Eighteen of the establishments employed 6-10 persons. Fifteen 
establishments had 50 or more employees dealing directly with food 
services. The 11-25 range and the 26-50 range each included 14 
establishments. Only 10 businesses had 0-5 employees in the food- 
service operation. 

Large restaurants had the most employees (335) directly related to 
the food-service operation. The next largest group of food-service 
employees were employed by the University of Illinois residence halls 
(290) . Drive-ins and the University Union provided employment for 235 
and 234 employees respectively. The establishment employing the least 
number of employees (4) was reported in the vending category. These 
four employees worked directly with the food preparation. There were 

other employees, but their major task did not deal directly with food, 
so they were not included in this study (see Table 1) . 



Number of Employees 

50 or 
0-5 6-10 11-25 26-50 more 

Establishment by Function Number of Establishments 

No. Percent 
of of 
Empl, Total 


Drive-in or carry-out 

Vending service 

Institutional food service 
Large group-care centers 
Small group-care centers 
Industry (cafeteria) 
Public school units 
University residence halls 
Sororities and fraternities 
University Union facilities 

Large restaurants 

Small restaurants 



2 7 

3 1 




























15 1695 100.2 

The 71 food-service establishments included in this study had a 
total of 1,695 employees (see Table 1). Of this number, 1,047 were 
employed full time and 648 were employed part time. The number of 
employee replacements during the year of 1967 totaled 1,403, which is 
a turnover of 82 percent. The number of replacements in the food- 
service establishments anticipated for 1968 is 792. Some interviewees 
did not respond to the items on replacement. 

The total number of expected new employees in these food-service 
establishments for 1972 — over and above those presently employed — 
amounted to 288. However, several of the interviewees did not make a 

The weekly salaries for those jobs directly related to food service 
ranged from $24 to $250 based on a 40-hour work week. The minimum week- 
ly salary of $24 is for waitresses, but their salary is usually supple- 
mented by tips which vary from $7.50 to $150. In general, the amount 
of tips usually increases as the size of the business increases. The 
largest salary was reported for a restaurant manager. The higher 
salaries were reported for employees in the managerial and/or supervis- 
ory categories. Cooks with a special skill, as a pastry cook or broiler 


cook, tended to have higher salaries than a cook's helper and a second 
cook. The restaurant managers, industrial cafeteria managers, chefs, 
and pastry cooks rated highest on the pay scale. 

Fifty-three of the food service personnel interviewed indicated 
that the United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Ocaupationat 
Tittes was not used to classify the employees in their establishment. 
However, employees were classified in this manner in 10 of the estab- 
lishments included in the study. 

Training Information 

Personnel interviewed in 49 of the 71 establishments indicated 
that a training program did not exist for the employees of their 
establishment. Nine full-time and six part-time employees were 
participating in training programs associated with 14 of the establish- 
ments. In general, the training programs were for persons at the mana- 
gerial or supervisory level. Information was not obtained for training 
which was conducted on the job for the new employees. 

Fifty of the food-service personnel stated that records of addi- 
tional training of employees are not maintained; records were maintained 
in 13 establishments. However, records were used as a basis for promo- 
tion in ten food-service establishments. 

In the Foods Related area. Management PvinQijples was rated as most 
needed by 18 of the personnel. Serving Food and Sanitary Practices 
were rated as the next most needed courses for food service employees 
by 17 and 15 respectively. Principles of Food Preparation and Care and 
Use of Equipment ranked high also. Thirty-nine of the food-service 
personnel felt Thera:peutiG Nutrition preparation was not needed. 
Quantity Foods and Nutrition were viewed as unnecessary for preparation 
in the food-service field. 

In the Business Related Area, 20 interviewees indicated need for 
preparation in Human Relations, Food Control was considered necessary 
by 17 of the food-service personnel. Grooming and Personal Hygiene was 
viewed as an important area of preparation. Accounting was rated as 
the course least needed by 25 interviewees. Seventeen respondents felt 
Business Math was not needed. Purchasing of Food was considered as an 
unnecessary area of preparation by 16 respondents (see Table 3) . 

Work Experience Program Information 

If a food-service program is established at Parkland Community 
College, 51 of the 63 interviewees indicated attendance of personnel 
would be encouraged. Enrollment expenses for present employees would 
be assumed by nine of the establishments. Twenty-five of the inter- 
viewees indicated that enrollment expenses would not be paid by the 
establishment. Partial payment of expenses would be provided by 19 
of the establishments. Ten respondents were undecided about assist- 
ing with enrollment expenses. 



Need for Preparation by Number of Establishmnets 

Area of Preparation 





























































Care and Use of Equipment 
Serving of Food 
Management Principles 
Sanitary Practices 
Safety Precautions 

Therapeutic Nutrition 
Principles of Food Prep. 
Quantity Foods 
Storeroom Operations 

Hospital Food Service 


Need for Preparation by Number 
of Establishments 

Area of Preparation 





























































Purchasing of Food 

Food Control 

Human Relations in Business 

Business Math 


Speech and Communications 

Grooming and Personal Hygiene 

Orientation to World of Work 

Orientation to Food Service 

Economics as Related to Food 

Service Industry 
Other: Personal Economics 
Record Keeping 
Basic Arithmetic 





Firm Assistance 






th Enrollment 



to Attend 


in Hiring 



Establishment by Function 

Yes No ? 


Partial None 



No ? 





2 - - 









Drive-in or Carry-out 

8 2 1 


4 5 



- 3 





1 - - 





- - 




Institutional food service 

Large group-care centers 

9 - - 


1 2 



1 1 




Small group-care centers 

2 2 - 





- 1 




Industry (cafeteria) 

2 1 - 


1 1 



- - 




Public school units 

2 - - 


1 1 



- - 




University residence halls 

1 - - 





- - 




Sororities and fraternities 

2 5 - 









University Union facilities 

1 - - 





- - 




Large Restaurants 

10 1 - 


4 4 



3 - 




Small Restaurants 

11 - - 


6 3 



1 1 





51 12 1 


19 25 



10 6 






Establishment by Function 







































Drive-in or carry-out 

Vending service 

Institutional food service 
Large group-care centers 
Small group-care centers 
Industry (cafeteria) 
Public school units 
University residence halls 
Sororities and fraternities 
University Union facilities 

Large restaurants 

Small restaurants 






Food-service graduates would be given priority in hiring over 
individuals without training in 47 of the establishments. Ten inter- 
viewees indicated priority in hiring would not be given to food-service 
graduates. Six respondents were undecided. 

Fifty of the food service personnel said "yes," their establish- 
ment would provide on-the-job work experience for students. Only 10 
respondents felt their establishment could not provide on-the-job 
work experience. 

The 71 food-service establishments included in the study indicated 
that a number of vocational students could be employed on a part-time 
or temporary basis. One hundred and fifteen persons could be employed 
in the summer. Two hundred and fifteen persons could be accepted for 
on-the-job training. An additional 237 persons could be employed for 
part-time work, that is, during seasonal rush periods, etc. The 
respondent for the university residence halls said the need for 
employees is unlimited. 



Suitable Time Number Interviewed 

Morning 3 

Afternoon 3 

Evening 13 

Morning-Evening 6 

Morning-Afternoon 3 

Noon 4 

Noon- Afternoon 8 

Noon-Evening 1 

Afternoon-Evening 7 

Weekend 4 

At all times 4 


Evening hours were noted as the most suitable time for on-the-job 
work experience for students in a food-service program. Noon-afternoon 
and afternoon-evening were the next most suitable periods for on-the-job 
work experience. 

Several interviewees said more than one period of time was most 
suitable for on-the-job work experience. A few others said it was 
impossible to indicate a time that was most suitable. 



A food-service program at Parkland Community College is favored by 
the majority of management personnel in food-service establishments in 
Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, 

A majority of the food-service establishments do not have a train- 
ing program, A need was expressed for preparation of employees in both 
food related and business related areas. Present training facilities 
are not adequately meeting the needs of the employees, 

Champaign-Urbana food-service establishment personnel are willing 
to cooperate with Parkland Community College by providing on-the-job 
work experience. 

Graduates of the food-service program are likely to be given 
priority when applying for positions in the local food-service estab- 
lishments. However, the pay scale and type of job available may not 
be commensurate with their level of training. 


The feasibility study may provide a guide for other organizations 
or groups who wish to determine the need for an instructional program 
in other areas of study or in other localities. 

The findings of the study could assist administrators of Parkland 
Community College and citizens of Champaign-Urbana in determining 
whether a food-service program should be included in the curriculum. 
The findings could also aid students in deciding whether they are 
interested in a career in the area of food service and in enrolling in 
such a program at Parkland Community College, The study might aid in 
determining the need for new personnel in such programs. It might 
encourage businessmen to develop their businesses if they know qualified 
personnel will be available. 




General Information 

1. Name of establishment 

2. Address Phone 

Street City Zip 

3. Number of years the establishment has been located in this area 




11 or more 

4, Number of years present owner and/or manager has operated the 




11 or more 

5. Name of person being interviewed 

6. Title of person participating in the interview 

7. Total number of employees 0-5 


8, Seating capacity of the food service establishment 0-25 




9. Serving capacity of the food service operation 0-25 




10, Check the function of the establishment 

Catering service 

^Drive-in or carry-out service 

Vending service 


Institutional food service 

^Large group-care centers (serves more than 50 people) 

Small group-care centers (serves less than 50 people) 

Indus t r y 

^Elementary and secondary schools 

University residence halls 

Sororities and fraternities 

University Union facilities 

Large Restaurants 
Small Restaurants 


11. Do you classify your employees according to the U.S. Department of 
Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles? Circle One: Yes No 

Training Information 

1. Do you have a training program for your food service employees? 
Circle one: Yes No 

Number of full-time employees in training program 

Number of part-time employees in training program 













2. Do you keep a record of additional education or training of 
employees? Circle one: Yes No 

3. Are such records used as criteria for promotion? Circle one: Yes 


4. What training have the employees had in the last five years? See 
Form A. 







• • 










Short Course 
or Workshop 


Vo. Program 






How often Program 
is offered 

Length of 

No. of 











Indicate the need for food service employee preparation in the following 
areas: (Place the corresponding number on the blank preceding each 

1. Extreme Need 

2. Great Need 

3. Moderate Need 

Foods Related 
Care and use of equipment, grills 
Serving of food 

4. Slight Need 

5. Not Needed 

Business Related 
Purchasing of Food 
Food Control 

_Management principles, e.g., work 
simplification and organization 
of work 

_Sanitary Practices 

_Safety Precautions 


Human Relations in Business 

Business Math 

Therapeutic Nutrition 
Principles of Food Preparation 
Quantity Foods 
Storeroom Operations 


_Speech and Communcations 
Grooming and Personal Hygiene 
Orientation to World of Work 

Orientation to Food Service 

Economics as Related to Food 
Service Industry 

Work Experience Education Program 

Definition: Employment undertaken as a part of the requirements of a 
school and designed to provide planned experiences, in the chosen occu- 
pation, which are supervised by a teacher-coordinator and an employer. 
Ideally, the student would work a number of hours each week on the job 
during the school year. 

1. If Parkland College offered courses to upgrade your personnel, 
would attendance be encouraged? (Circle one) Yes No 

2. To what extent would the firm assist with enrollment expenses for 
present employees? (Circle one) Full Partial None 

3. Would a graduate of a food-service program at Parkland College be 
given priority in hiring over those without training? 

(Circle one) Yes No 


4. Would your establishment provide work experience for students 
enrolled in a food service program at Parkland College? 
(Circle one) Yes No 

5. Please indicate the number of food-service students who could be 
employed in 

Summer jobs 

On-the-job training for a minimum number of hours 
per week during the school year. 

Part-time work, e.g., seasonal rush periods. 

6. What time of day would be most suitable for on-the-job work experi- 
ence for students in foods-related occupational programs? 



Morning- Evening 


At all times 


New Empl. 

Expected No. 
of replace- 
ments for '68 

Number of 
during 1967 


per wk. 



40 hr/wk. 

Full time 

Part time 

















































(Grill Cook) 
Cook, Short Order 



























New Empl. 

Expected No. 
of replace- 
ments for '68 

Number of 
during 1967 


per wk. 

40 hr/wk. 



Full time 

Part time 


















(or Kitchen Helper) 

Food Checker, 

Food Checker, 
Dining Room 

Floor Man 
















































Manager, Industrial 













New Empl. 

Expected No. 
of Replace- 
ments for '68 

Number of 
during 1967 


per wk. 

40 hr/wk. 

Numb er 
Full time 

Part time 











Steam Table 











Waiter, Formal 






In order to develop vocational-technical programs to serve Junior 
College District //505, Parkland College is studying occupational areas 
in which there are significant employment possibilities with the inten- 
tion of establishing appropriate programs where need exists and where 
students will seek educational preparation prior to embarking on a 

One area of vital concern to Parkland is the food service business. 
Many two-year community colleges across the country are offering or con- 
sidering the offering of one- and two-year food service programs. 
Fortunately for Parkland College, two very able graduate students from 
the University of Illinois, Mrs. Norma Bobbitt and Miss Linda Lucht, 
are investigating the need for a food service program to be established 
at Parkland College. Based primarily on the results of the study done 
by these ladies, Parkland will consider the establishment of a food 
service program on its new campus. The objectives of the program 
would be to prepare young people for service as cooks and intermediate- 
level personnel through a structured educational experience at the 

We at Parkland hope that you will assist and cooperate with Mrs. 
Bobbitt and Miss Lucht in any way that you, as a professional in the 
field of food service, would deem appropriate. Please be assured that 
the results in this survey will be very influential in any decision 
that Parkland College makes regarding the establishment of a food 
service program. 

Sincerely yours, 

William M. Staerkel 






Sharon K. Adair and May W. Huang 

A study of child care establishments, similar to the Bobbitt-Lucht 
food service feasibility study, was undertaken in the spring of 1968 to 
determine the need for a child care program at Parkland College in 
Champaign, Illinois. The researchers sought to discover whether neces- 
sary cooperation could be obtained for providing on-the-job work 
experience and whether graduates of such a program could be employed 

Twenty day care centers, including nursery schools and private 
kindergartens, were located in the Champaign-Urbana area, and personal 
interviews were conducted with directors or staff members. Fifteen of 
the interviewees returned completed questionnaires. 

It was learned that 64 persons were employed in the 15 child care 
establishments participating in the study. Jobs directly related to 
child care service paid an average of $1.60 per hour. The centers 
served 755 children. The total number of children in each center 
varied from 10 to 40. 

Fourteen of the interviewees felt that a child care program was 
needed in the Champaign-Urbana area. Eleven were willing to work with 
Parkland College in developing a training program. Ten would be will- 
ing to cooperate in offering work experience for student trainees. 
Since most of the interviewees did not feel that they could project the 
number of workers needed beyond the present year, opportunities for 
future employment of trained child care workers in the Champaign-Urbana 
area cannot be determined. However, directors of child care establish- 
ments indicated that graduates of a child care program at Parkland 
College would be given priority when applying for positions. 

The following questionnaire was used to obtain information from 
personnel in the local child care establishments. In order to present 
readers with a concise account of responses obtained in this study, 
explanatory headings and summarized data are added in italics within 
parentheses. It will be noted that the 15 respondents did not check 
all items in the form. 


Part A Personal Information of Interviewee (N = 15) 

1 . Name 

2. Position 

3 . Agency 

4. Address ^Telephone 

5. List previous experience which you feel qualified you for your 
present position. (Day oare center assistant^ teacher^ divectov; 

college child care taboratory worker; etementavy^ high school teache r) 

6. List previous educational training which you feel qualified you for 
your present position. {5 — Master's or more ^ 2 — Bachelor's^ 

8 — specialty training at college level) 

Part B General Information for the Center 

7. Type of care (function or functions of the center): (f^o, of centers) 

A. Infant care (02 

B. Day care (_9)_ 

C. Play school (J2 

D. Nursery school (_92 

E. Kindergarten T^j 

F. School for exceptional children (_22 

8. Number of years in operation in this area: (No. of centers) 

A. 0-1 (Z) 

B. 2-4 (2) 

C. 5-10 (6) 

D. 11 or more (_4l 

9. Age of children served: (No, of centers) 



















School age 











Total number of children: 


All day 













( 1) 

11. Fees charged (basis and rate of pay) 



the hour 



the day 



the week 



the month 




(No, of centers) 

(1) (^.50) 

(2) ($1,00-3,6 0) 
(6) ($14,00- 18, 00) 
(10)($17, 00-75. 00) 

12. Do any of the following factors affect fee assessment? 

A. Several children from one family 

B. Drop-ins 

C. Overtime 

D. Irregularity of schedule 

E. Meals included 

F. Day or night 

G. Other 








13. Total number of staff: 

A. Full time 

B. Part time 

14. Rate of pay for the staff: 

A. By the hour 

B. By the day 

C. By the week 

D. By the month 



(3) ($3,60) 

(1) ($7,oo'^J7do ) 

(3) ($25,00-50 ,00) 

(8) (30,00-240,00) 

15. Do you classify your employees according to the United States 
Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titlesi 

A. Yes 

B. No 



16. What are your employees' titles? (director^ assistant^ teacher^ 
teacher' s aide^ day care worker^ helper^ cook^ janitor) 


Part C Willingness to Cooperate and Participate 

in Training Program 

17. Do you feel that there is a need for trained child care workers in 

Champaign-Urbana? .„ ^ , , 

'^ ° (No. of centers) 

A. Yes (14) 

B. No 

18, Would you be willing to work with Parkland College in developing a 
training program? ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

A. Yes (11) 

B. No 

If so, in what capacity? (No» of oenters) 

A. Advising (_62 

B. Counseling (_42 

C. Consulting (_52 

D. Assisting in skill development TjSJ 

E. Evaluating (2j 

F. Other (1) 

19. Would you be willing to allow students to observe and assist with- 
out pay for a short time? ,„ ^ . y 
^ (Bo, of oenters) 

A. Yes (10) 

B. No 

20. Would you be willing to cooperate in a work experience for the 

trainees? .„ ^ , , 

(No. of oenters) 

A. Yes (10) 

B. No 

21, What hours would you prefer to use the student trainees? 

A, Before school (1) 

B . Morning (9) 

C. Noon hour (2) 

D. Afternoons (5) 

E. After school (2) 

F. Evenings ( 0) 

G. Week-ends (0) 

22. Would it be possible for you to cooperate with the trainee in 
arranging a work schedule to fit her class schedule? 

A. Yes (9) 

B. No 

23. How many student workers could you employ at one time? (1-4) 


24. With which of the duties listed do you need most help? 

A. Working with children (_9J_ 

B. Care of physical facilities TSj 

25. Do you have difficulty in filling vacancies with qualified persons? 

A. Yes (4) 

B. No (6) 

26. Would you be willing to hire a person who has completed the gain- 
ful employment program if you had an opening? 

A. Yes (10) 

B. No (1) 

27. Would a worker have an opportunity for advancement with additional 

A. Yes (7) 

B. No (2) 



Winifred Davis 

Educators in the field of home economics have been working assidu- 
ously to produce the type of curriculum which will prepare students more 
adequately for their future roles in the world of work and for the voca- 
tion of homemaking. One of the major problems encountered by curriculum 
workers has been that of coordinating the employment and homemaking 
aspects of the program so that they do not become completely isolated 
and unrelated fields of study. Curriculum planners need to know the 
knowledges and skills common to both aspects and unique to each. It is 
necessary to determine what a competent worker in a home economics 
occupation and a competent homemaker know and are able to do. More- 
over, it is necessary to discover which competences are shared by the 
two vocational areas and which are peculiar to each. 

A study by Whitmarsh,^ to ascertain the knowledges in child devel- 
opment and guidance needed by mothers and by employees in selected 
occupations related to child care, identified some knowledges unique to 
the mother role and some unique to the employee role, as well as some 
common to both. This study was used as a basis for planning a similar 
investigation in the area of textiles and clothing. 

^R. E. Whitmarsh. An Exploratory Study of Knowledge in Child 
Development and Guidance Needed by Mothers and Workers in Occupations 
Related to Child Care, Doctoral thesis. University of Illinois, 1966 



The main objective of the study was to ascertain both specialists' 
and practitioners' assessments of the kind and depth of knowledge in 
clothing and textiles needed by homemakers and employees in selected 
occupations related to clothing and textiles. To accomplish this objec- 
tive, it was necessary to identify those knowledges in clothing and 
textiles which are unique to the homemaker role and to the employee 
roles and those which are common to both. 


The following terms were used in a special way in this study: 

Homemakers: women who are involved in the care of the home and 
family members and are totally responsible for the management of 
the household activities. 

Fabric Sates Clerks: persons who are employed in a department 
store or other clothing and textile business firm and whose major 
tasks are to sell fabrics and items of clothing to the consumer. 

Alteration Ladies: those whose jobs are to make alterations on 
garments of all types purchased from the establishment where they 
are employed. 

Specialists: refers to those persons in the area of clothing and 
textiles who have graduate college training in the area and who 
have had much experience in the various aspects of this field. 

Practitioners: refers to persons who are actually employed in 
occupations related to clothing and textiles, including the occupa- 
tion of homemaking and who may or may not possess formal training 
in the field. 

Three hypotheses were considered. 

1. Some unique knowledges in clothing and textiles are needed by 
homemakers, fabric sales clerks, and alteration ladies, 

2. Certain items of knowledge in clothing and textiles are common 
to homemakers, fabric sales clerk^ and alteration ladies. 

3. The depth of knowledge in clothing and textiles needed by home- 
makers and employees in certain occupations related to clothing and 
textiles is perceived differently by specialists than by practitioners 



This study was limited to knowledges in clothing and textiles 
needed by homemakers and by workers in two selected occupations related 
to this area, Homemakers and employees in the Champaign-Urbana commun- 
ity only were interviewed. The study included items of knowledge only. 


1, It was assumed that the type of instrument used (which was 
based on that used by Whitmarsh^) would be valid and reliable for the 

2. It was also assumed that those interviewed would be capable of 
responding accurately regarding the knowledges needed in their jobs. 


For purposes of this study, fabric sales clerks and alteration 
ladies were selected from business establishments in the Champaign- 
Urbana area. This area was used because (1) educators in this area are 
becoming interested in employment education in occupations which require 
knowledges and skills usually considered a part of home economics, 
(2) many employees are persons who have been employed here after high 
school education, and (3) this area is one of diversity in industry and 

The homemakers comprised a sample drawn from the members of the 
Home Economists in Homemaking section of the American Home Economics 
Association residing in the Champaign-Urbana area. 

The specialists were chosen from a non- random sample of experts or 
persons with specialized knowledge in the field of clothing and textiles 
who are employed on the staffs of all the universities in the state of 


The instrument used for this study was designed to include a list 
of knowledges that will be most helpful in curriculum development in 
home economics. Knowledge of principles and concepts related to topics 
in clothing and textiles were included in the instrument for two rea- 
sons: (1) knowledge of the principles and concepts of a subject makes 
that subject more comprehensible to the learner, and (2) knowledge of 
the fundamental principles and concepts of a subject is closely related 
to effective transfer of the content to a practical situation.^ 

^J. S. Bruner. The Process of Education, Cambridge, Mass.: 
Harvard University Press, 1962. P. 4. 


Since no instrument which measured the depth of knowledge needed 
in clothing and textiles was available, the investigator undertook the 
development of such an instrument. The following procedure was used to 
obtain items for the instrument: (1) Concepts and generalizations in 
clothing and textiles were located in materials developed under the 
leadership of the Home Economics Education Staff of the U.S. Office of 
Education. (2) A list of textbooks and reference books on clothing and 
textiles was compiled. (3) These books were surveyed, and a list of 
knowledges that were deemed important by the authors was made and added 
to the original list of concepts and generalizations, (4) The list 
was then grouped in three categories: textiles, clothing construction, 
and selection and care of clothing. The resulting list was reviewed by 
specialists at the University of Illinois, who made several suggestions 
for changes and additions. 

The final version of the instrument used in this study consisted 
of 30 items to be scored by respondents according to a scale of one to 
five — the higher the number, the greater the depth of knowledge needed. 
An open-ended section was added to the instrument so that additions 
could be made by the subjects (see Appendix A) . 


A personal descriptive data questionnaire included four items of 
information. These were (1) job title, (2) highest academic achieve- 
ment, (3) years of experience in the type of job now held, and (4) 
study in textiles and clothing area (see Appendix B) . 


It was intended to interview personally each of the thirty indi- 
viduals chosen by sampling. Due to the time limitations, it was not 
possible to interview the homemakers. For this group the questionnaires 
were mailed. 

The following procedure was utilized for the fabric sales clerks 
and alteration ladies interviewed on the job: 

1. A uniform introduction to the study and the instrument was 
given to each interviewee. 

2. A copy of the instrument was given to each interviewee. 

3. Items on the instrument were read and views recorded silently. 

4. Any terms that were not fully understood by the interviewees 
were replaced by synonymous terms or phrases by the inter- 

The questionnaires were mailed to the specialists with a cover 
letter explaining the purpose of the study. They were requested to 


respond to each item as it relates to each group. Respondents were 
asked to indicate any knowledges which they consider needed other than 
the thirty items contained in the instrument developed by the investi- 


The responses to the thirty items of knowledge from each group of 
subjects were tallied. The totals and means for each item were calcu- 
lated separately for each group. They were categorized according to 
seven ranges. Then each item for one particular group was compared 
with the means of the other two groups. By observation, the investi- 
gator was able to arrive at certain conclusions for each group. 


One of the main objectives of this study was to discover whether 
there were any significant differences between the items of knowledge 
as scored by the specialists and the practitioners. Therefore the 
following null hypothesis was tested: 

There are no significant differences between the specialists' and 
practitioners' assessments concerning the depth of knowledge needed by 
homemakers and employees in two occupations related to clothing and 
textiles , 

To test this hypothesis the t test statistical model was used: 
S.P. = M;^ = M2 in which M^ = the mean score for the individual items of 
knowledge in clothing and textiles as scored by specialists pertaining 
to the jobs of homemaker, fabric sales clerk, and alteration ladies. M2 
= the mean score for the individual items of knowledge in clothing and 
textiles as scored by homemakers, fabric sales clerks, and alteration 
ladies pertaining to their own jobs. The means were declared signifi- 
cantly different, if the observed differences cannot reasonably be 
explained by sampling error. 

Three such hypotheses were tested — one for each of the three groups 
represented in the study. The null hypotheses were stated as follows: 

1. Specialists' and practitioners' perceptions of the depth of 
knowledge in clothing needed by homemakers are equal. 

2. Specialists' and practitioners' perceptions of the depth of 
knowledge in clothing and textiles needed by fabric sales 
clerks are equal. 

3. Specialists' and practitioners' perceptions of the depth of 
knowledge in clothing and textiles needed by alteration ladies 
are equal. 



Ten fabric sales clerks were interviewed to obtain certain personal 
descriptive information and their opinions concerning the kind and depth 
of knowledge in the area of clothing and textiles needed by them in the 
performance of their jobs. The clerks comprised a sample drawn from the 
department stores and fabric establishments in the Champaign-Urbana com- 
mercial areas . 

The sample of ten fabric sales clerks had an academic qualifica- 
tion ranging from eighth grade to high school level. They had worked 
for a mean of 2.7 years in the job and had completed an average of 1,8 
courses in clothing and textiles. 

The means of the scores assigned by the clerks were computed for 
each item (see Table 1) , The mean score for all thrity items of knowl- 
edge was 3,04. 

From observation the investigator came to the following conclusions; 

1, Only two items of knowledge had high mean scores of 4.00 or 

2, Highest priority was given to items which were directly 
related to the job and to those which apparently have some 
personal appeal for them as individuals. 

3. The ten fabric sales clerks indicated a need for a reasonable 
understanding of a large proportion of the thirty items of 
knowledge in clothing and textiles. A considerable amount of 
knowledge was given second priority. 

4. Very few items were rated as requiring no knowledge. 


Ten alteration ladies were interviewed. These ladies were randomly 
selected from a list of employees in local business establishments. 
Their schooling ranged from eighth grade to high school level. They 
had worked for a mean of 3.6 years in the job and had completed an 
average of 2.5 courses in clothing and textiles. 

The mean score for all the items of knowledge in clothing and 
textiles as scored by the ten alteration ladies was 3.47 (see Table 1). 
The investigator came to the following conclusions: 

1. There were no items of knowledge scored as requiring thorough 

2. High priority was given to items of knowledge which required 
considerable understanding as well as a reasonable understand- 


3. Very few items were scored as requiring no understanding. 
Only two items had a mean score below 2.50 and four items 
had scores between 4.00 and 4.45. 

4. The items which were given high priority were those relating 
to clothing construction and which had direct application to 
the job. 


Questionnaires were mailed to ten homemakers to obtain personal 
information and opinions concerning the kind and amount of knowledge in 
the area of clothing and textiles needed by them in the performance of 
their jobs as homemakers. As stated before, these comprised a sample 
drawn from the members of the Home Economists in Homemaking section of 
the American Home Economics Association who reside in the Champaign- 
Urbana area. Eight replies were returned. 

The sample of eight homemakers had an education up to college and 
university level. They had an average of 4.62 years of homemaking 
experience and an average of seven courses in textiles and clothing at 
the college level. 

The mean scores for all the items of knowledge in clothing and 
textiles as scored by the eight homemakers was 4.00. This was the 
highest group mean of the three groups (see Table 1) . 

The following conclusions were drawn: 

1. Four items of knowledge were scored as requiring thorough 
knowledge. In this respect this group was unique as none 
of the other two groups had scored within this range. 

2. Highest priority was given to items which required a consider- 
able amount of knowledge. Nineteen such items fell within 
this range. 

3. Only six items were scored as needing a reasonable amount of 

4. No item of knowledge had a mean score which would suggest that 
no knowledge was required. 

5. The items given highest priority were those which related to 
both clothing construction and the selection and care of 

6. Seven of the items in the area of textiles were scored as 
requiring a reasonable amount of knowledge and three as 
needing a considerable amount of knowledge. 

Some very interesting comments were made by many of the homemakers 







Fabric Sales 
Clerks N=10 

Ladies N=10 


1 Knowledge of fiber 

properties 3.60 

2 Knowledge of blends of 

fibers 3.50 

3 Knowledge of the contribu- 

tion of yarn structure 

to quality 2.70 

4 Knowledge of weave, knits, 

and other forms of 

fabric construction 3.20 

5 Knowledge of physical and 

chemical finishes for 

6 Knowledge of trade names 

of fibers 

7 Knowledge of how to 

interpret labels 

8 Knowledge of government 

regulations for labeling 

9 Knowledge of standards set 

up in the textile industry 

10 Knowledge of the care of 

different types of fabrics 

11 Knowledge of how to check 

body measurements 

12 Knowledge of relationship 

of figure problems to 
pattern selection 

13 Knowledge of how to select 


14 Knowledge of how to select 

fabric suitable for 

garment construction 3,70 

15 Knowledge of how to select, 

use, and care for sewing 

equipment 3.80 

16 Knowledge of preparation 

of pattern and fabric 

before use 3.60 









































TABLE 1 (Continued) 




Fabric Sales 
Clerks N=10 

Ladies N=10 





17 Knowledge of how to alter 

and adapt patterns 

18 Knowledge of hov7 to follow 

guide sheet instructions 

19 Knowledge of construction 

processes, such as darts, 
seams, sleeves, facing 
and interfacings 

20 Knowledge of how to make 

hems and belts 

21 Knowledge of how to deter- 

mine whether to make or 
to buy clothes 

22 Knowledge of standards for 

selecting clothes 

23 Knowledge of suitability 

of article of clothing 
for the intended use 

24 Knowledge of garment style 

and workmanship 

25 Knowledge of how to select 

clothes and accessories 
for personal attractive- 

26 Knowledge of wise buying 

of ready-made clothes 

27 Knowledge of how to alter 

the length and width of 
a garment 

28 Knowledge of how to adjust 

ready-made garments to 
fit the individual 

29 Knowledge of washing equip- 

ment and techniques 

30 Knowledge of suitable 

methods of storing 
































at the end of their questionnaires. It could be seen that many of them 
were former teachers now retired and working part time in a home 
economics related job. 

In response to the open-ended section of the instrument, one item 
of knowledge in clothing and textiles was suggested by one homemaker: 
Knowledge of coordinating a wardrobe. 




Ten specialists selected non-randomly from faculty members of the 
six universities in the state of Illinois were asked to respond to the 
questionnaire relating to the depth of knowledge in clothing and tex- 
tiles needed by homemakers. These specialists are all highly qualified 
in their field and have had several years of experience in the area. 

The mean of the scores assigned by the specialists was computed 
for each item. The items of knowledge were grouped into seven cate- 
gories according to these means. They ranged from 4.50-5.00, to 
1.00-1.95. One item fell within the range 4.50-5.00, fifteen within 
4.00-4.45, nine within 3.50-3.95, four within 3.00-3.45, and one within 
2.50-2,95. No item of knowledge was scored below this range. 

In response to the open-ended section of the instrument, three 
additional items of knowledge in clothing and textiles were suggested 
by the sample of ten specialists. None of the suggested items was 
mentioned by more than one of the ten specialists included in the 
sample. These items were: 

1. Knowledge of good pressing technique. 

2. Knowledge of relationship between fiber content of a fabric 
and type of sewing thread and construction technique to be 

3. Knowledge of how to make draperies, slipcovers, and other 
household articles. 

The t test was used to determine significant differences between 
means of scores assigned by specialists and the means of scores assigned 
by homemakers. There were no items of knowledge in which differences 
between means for the two groups were significant at the .01 level. 

The grand means for all the items of knowledge were 3.92 and 4.00 
respectively for specialists and practitioners. A t test was used to 
ascertain whether or not there was a significant difference between the 
grand means for the thirty items of knowledge in clothing and textiles 
as scored by the two groups. There was no significant difference between 
the two means. 


By inspection the investigator came to the following conclusions: 

1. A large proportion of the items was assigned a high mean score 
by the specialists. Sixteen of the thirty items of knowledge 
had mean scores of 4.00 or more. These were items related to 
clothing construction and selection and care of clothing. 

2. Secondary priority was given to those items of knowledge that 
related to textiles. 

3. Only four items of knowledge were rated as needing a reason- 
able amount of knowledge, and no item fell below this rating. 


Null hypothesis #1 states that specialists' and practitioners' 
perceptions of the depth of knowledge in clothing and textiles needed 
by homemakers are equal. 

As the preceding analysis of data indicates, null hypothesis #1 
cannot be rejected. 




The ten specialists responded to the questionnaire relating to the 
depth of knowledge in clothing and textiles needed for performance of 
the job of fabric sales clerk. 

The means of the scores assigned by the specialists were again 
computed for each item, and the items of knowledge were grouped into 
seven categories ranging from 4.50-5.00 to 1.00-1.95. Two items fell 
within the range of 4.50-5.00, three within 4.00-4.45, ten within 
3.50-3.95, eight within 3.00-3.45, and seven within 2.50-2.95. No 
item of knowledge was scored below the range of 2.50-2.95, 

No additional items were suggested in response to the open-ended 
section of the instrument. 

The t test was used to determine significant differences between 
means as scored by clothing and textiles specialists and the means as 
scored by practitioners on each of the thirty items of knowledge in 
clothing and textiles. 

On three of the thirty items of knowledge, the differences between 
means for the two groups were significant at the .02 level. On two of 
these three items of knowledge, in clothing and textiles, the special- 
ists indicated that the fabric sales clerks needed significantly more 
depth than was indicated by the sample of practitioners as necessary 
for them on the job. These two items were: 


1. Knowledge of physical and chemical finishes for fabrics. 

2. Knowledge of how to select clothes and accessories for 
personal attractiveness. 

The third item was scored by the practitioners as needing more 
depth than the specialists scored. This item was: Knowledge of how 
to select, us^ and care for sewing equipment. 

The specialists might have felt that this would not be necessary 
for the sale of fabrics, whereas the clerks may have found that they do 
need to have knowledge about selection, use, and care to pass on to the 
customers. In all of the shops represented by the fabric sales clerks, 
sewing equipment is sold along with fabrics. 

The mean scores for the thirty items of knowledge were 3.43 and 
3,04 respectively as scored by specialists and practitioners. A t test 
was used to ascertain whether or not there was a significant difference 
between the means for the thirty items in clothing and textiles as 
scored by the two groups. There was no significant difference between 
the means assigned by the ten specialists and the ten practitioners. 

The investigator made the following observations: 

1. The specialists rated 15 of the thirty items as needing con- 
siderable or thorough knowledge, whereas fifteen were rated 
as needing a reasonable amount of knowledge, 

2. Most of the items of knowledge given high priority were those 
which would contribute to success on the job. 

3. Lowest priority was given to items of knowledge that were not 
directly related to the job of fabric sales clerk. 

Null hypothesis //2 states that specialists' and practitioners' 
perceptions of the depth of knowledge in clothing and textiles needed 
by fabric sales clerks are equal. 

As the preceding analysis of data indicates, null hypothesis #2 
cannot be rejected. 




Ten specialists in clothing and textiles selected non-randomly 
from faculty members of the six universities in the state of Illinois 
were asked to respond to the questionnaire relating to the depth of 
knowledge in clothing and textiles needed by alteration ladies. 

These persons were all highly qualified and experienced persons in 
the area of clothing and textiles. 


After the means of the scores were computed, the items of knowl- 
edge were grouped into the seven categories. Six items of knowledge 
fell within the range of 4,50-5.00, one within the range of 4.00-4.45, 
three within the range of 3.50-3.95, five within 3.00-3.45, ten within 
2.50-2.95, and five within 2.00-2.45. No item of knowledge was scored 
below this range. 

In response to the open-ended section of the instrument, three 
additional items of knowledge were suggested by the sample of ten 
specialists. None of the three items was mentioned by more than one 
of the ten ladies included in the sample. The three items of knowl- 
edge were: 

1. Knowledge of spot and stain removal. 

2. Knowledge of pressing techniques. 

3. Knowledge of types of sewing threads and their use. 

The t test was used to determine significant differences between 
means as scored by specialists and the means as scored by practitioners 
on each of the thirty items in clothing and textiles. 

On three of the thirty items of knowledge, the difference between 
means for the two groups was significant at the .02 and .01 levels. On 
one of these items, "Knowledge of how to check body measurements," the 
specialists indicated that the alteration ladies needed significantly 
more depth than the alteration ladies themselves indicated that they 
needed. The difference was significant at the ,02 level. 

The means for the alteration ladies were significantly different 
from those of the specialists on two of the thirty items of knowledge. 
One of these items of knowledge, "Knowledge of how to determine whether 
to make or to buy clothes," had a score which was significant at the 
,01 level. The other, "Knowledge of how to select clothes and acces- 
sories for personal attractiveness," was significant at the .02 level. 

Possibly the practitioners are faced with the situation of assist- 
ing customers in making decisions about factors arising from these two 
items, whereas the specialists might believe that these duties should 
be delegated to the fabric sales clerk or the customer. 

The grand means for all the items of knowledge were 3.29 and 3.37 
respectively for specialists and practitioners. A t test was used to 
ascertain whether or not there was a significant difference between the 
grand means for the thirty items of knowledge in clothing and textiles 
as scored by the specialists and the alteration ladies. No significant 
difference was found. 

By inspection, the investigator came to the following conclusions: 

1. High mean scores were assigned to a large proportion of the 
items of knowledge. There were six items with mean scores of 


4.50-5.00 and fifteen items of knowledge with mean scores 
ranging from 3.00-5.00. 

2. The items of knowledge given high priority were those involv- 
ing knowledges directly related to the job. 

3. Lowest priority was given to those items of knowledge which 
were incidental and not applicable to the jobs of the altera- 
tion ladies. 

Null hypothesis //3 states that specialists' and practitioners' 
perceptions of the depth of knowledge in clothing and textiles needed 
by alteration ladies are equal. 

As the preceding analysis of data indicates, null hypothesis #3 
cannot be rejected. 


Null hypotheses #1, 2, and 3 state that there are no significant 
differences between specialists' and practitioners' opinions concerning 
the depth of knowledge in 30 items in clothing and textiles needed by 
homemakers and employees in occupations related to clothing and textiles, 
Since no statistically significant difference was found between special- 
ists' and practitioners' opinions, null hypotheses #1, 2, and 3 could 
not be rejected. It was assumed that the specialists selected from the 
institutions of higher learning would be the most knowledgeable group 
from which to obtain opinions concerning the knowledges in clothing and 
textiles needed by homemakers and employees in certain occupations 
related to clothing and textiles. Support of the practitioners' views 
by the group of specialists suggests the conclusion that practitioners 
are also capable of making sound judgments regarding the knowledges 
needed to perform the jobs specified in the study. 


For the items of personal descriptive data pertaining to the edu- 
cational achievement and number of courses completed in Textiles and 
Clothing, the homemakers had means much higher than the other two 
groups. This possibly could be a reason for the higher means scored 
by the homemakers on all the items. 

The group of specialists rated highly almost all the items of 
knowledge for all three groups of workers. 



The items of knowledge needed by homemakers , fabric sales clerks, 
and alteration ladies are presented in Table 2. The mean scores for 
the items of knowledge were used as the basis of assigning a value of 
A, B, or C to each item of knowledge. The value of A indicated that 
the item of knowledge had a mean score that was within the range from 
4.50 to 5.00. The value of B indicated that the item of knowledge had 
a mean score that was within the range of 3.50 to 4.45. The value of 
C indicated that the item of knowledge had a mean scor« that was within 
the range of 2.50 to 3.45. 

For the investigator, the value of A assigned to an item of knowl- 
edge indicated that a thorough knowledge of that item was needed. The 
value of B indicated that a considerable knowledge of the item was 
needed. The value of C indicated that a reasonable amount of knowledge 
was needed for that particular item. 

An item of knowledge was considered by the investigator to be 
needed by a particular group if the mean, as scored by that group, was 
2.50 or greater. Such a score indicated that at least a reasonable 
understanding of that item was needed. 

From the checking, analyzing, tabulating, and observing, the invest- 
igator arrived at the following conclusions: 

1. Only one item of knowledge was found to be unique to a partic- 
ular group. This was item #9, "Knowledge of Standards Set Up 
in the Textile Industry." It was unique in that it received 

a score above 2.5 for only the job of homemaker. 

2. Ten items of knowledge were found to be common to all three 


On the basis of this study, as well as from the writer's readings 
on current issues in curriculum development in home economics, the 
investigator sees certain implications for application of these find- 
ings in curriculum development. 

The common knowledges could be included in core courses at the 
high school level. Items of knowledge needed by homemakers and none of 
the two groups of employees should be included in a course which empha- 
sizes the homemaking aspect of home economics education. Any items 
needed by employees in occupations related to clothing and textiles 
might be included in courses which emphasize preparation for occupa- 
tions utilizing knowledges and skills in clothing and textiles. 

The results (shown in Table 1) indicate that at least a reasonable 





Items of Knowledge 


Fabric Sales 



Knowledge of fiber properties B 

Knowledge of blends of fibers C 

Knowledge of the contribution of 

yarn structure to quality C 

Knowledge of weave, knits, and 
other forms of fabric construc- 
tion C 

Knowledge of physical and chemical 

finishes for fabrics C 

Knowledge of trade names of fibers C 

Knowledge of how to interpret 

labels B 

Knowledge of government regulations 

for labeling C 

Knowledge of standards set up in 

the Textile Industry C 

Knowledge of the care of different 

types of fabrics B 






Knowledge of how to check body 

measurements B 

Knowledge of relationship of figure 

problems to pattern selection B 
Knowledge of how to select patterns B 
Knowledge of how to select fabric 

suitable for garment construction B 
Knowledge of how to select, use, and 

care for sewing equipment B 

Knowledge of preparation of pattern 

and fabric before use B 

Knowledge of how to alter and adapt 

patterns B 

Knowledge of how to follow guide 

sheet instructions B 

Knowledge of construction processes, 

such as darts, seams, sleeves, 

facings, and interfacings A 

Knowledge of how to make seams 

and belts B 


















TABLE 2 (Continued) 


Items of Knowledge 


Fabric Sales 



Knowledge of how to determine 

whether to make or to buy 

clothes A 

Knowledge of standards for 

selecting clothes B 

Knowledge of suitability of 

article of clothing for the 

intended use B 

Knowledge of garment style 

and workmanship B 

Knowledge of how to select clothes 

and accessories for personal 

attractiveness A 

Knowledge of wise buying of 

ready-made clothes A 

Knowledge of how to alter the 

length and width of a garment B 
Knowledge of how to adjust ready- 
made garments to fit the 

individual B 

Knowledge of washing equipment 

and techniques B 

Knowledge of suitable methods 

of storing clothes B 











Note: The following criteria were used to establish levels of knowledge 
for the items according to 10 homemakers, 10 fabric sales clerks, and 10 
alteration ladies. A, items with a mean score between 4.50 and 5.00; 
B, items with a mean score between 3.50 and 4.45; and C, items with a 
mean score between 2.50 and 3.45. 


amount of knowledge is needed by the homemakers and employees in the 
two occupations selected for study on 22 of the 30 items of knowledge. 
This type of knowledge could be gained in core courses or units in 
clothing and textiles. Some of the students in these courses may be 
preparing for homemaking and some for employment in various clothing 
and textile related areas. 

There were many items on which all or two groups studied need 
Gonsidevabte knowledge. Such items could be emphasized or studied for 
depth in a second core course or unit in clothing and textiles. Items 
1, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 were needed in common by the homemakers and 
fabric sales clerks. They all rated them as needing oonsidevahle 
knowledge. There were four such items common to both fabric sales 
clerks and alteration ladies. These were items 11, 12, 14> and 15. 
From this it can be recommended that persons, who plan to be employed 
in these areas and did not complete the basic courses or units at the 
secondary level, should receive this training in specialized courses 
at the post-high school or continuing level. 

In conclusion, this study partially supports the investigator *s 
first hypothesis stated as: Some unique knowledges in clothing and 
textiles are needed for homemakers, fabric sales clerks, and alteration 
ladies. It fully supports the second hypothesis: Certain items of 
knowledge in clothing and textiles are common to homemakers, fabric 
sales clerks, and alteration ladies. 



Instructions (Adapted for each class of respondent) 

For each item in the list that follows, decide which of the follow- 
ing (1,2,3,4,5) best describes the depth of knowledge necessary for the 
performance of your job as [fabric sales clerk; alteration lady, home- 
maker]. Use the following key: 

1. The performance of my job requires no knowledge of this item. 

2. The performance of my job requires only limited knowledge of 
this item. 

3. The performance of my job requires a reasonable understanding 
of this item. 

4. The performance of my job requires a considerable knowledge of 
this item, 

5. The performance of my job requires a thorough knowledge of 
this item. 

Think of the check list items as representing a continuum with the 
positions (1,2,3,4,5) equally spaced. The number you select represents 
your judgment of the depth of knowledge necessary to perform your job. 


If you believe that the performance of your job requires only 
limited knowledge of the item listed below, you would select the "2" 
beside the item. 

Knowledge of how to "gather" a skirt l(2)3 4 5 


Checklist of Concepts, Principles, and Topics 
in Clothing and Textiles 

Variable Scoring 

Number Items of Knowledge Scale 

List I - Textiles 

1. Knowledge of fiber properties 12345 

2. Knowledge of blends of fibers 12345 

3. Knowledge of the contribution of yarn structure to 

quality 12345 

4. Knowledge of weave, knits, and other forms of fabric 
construction 12345 

5. Knowledge of physical and chemical finishes for fabrics, 12 3 4 5 

6. Knowledge of trade names of fibers 12345 

7. Knowledge of how to interpret labels 12345 

8. Knowledge of government regulations for labeling .... 12345 

9. Knowledge of standards set by the Textile Industry. ... 12345 
10. Knowledge of the care of different types of fabrics. . . 12 3 4 5 

List II - Clothing Construction 

1. Knowledge of how to check body measurements 12 3 4 5 

2. Knowledge of relationship of figure problems to pattern 
selection 12345 

3. Knowledge of how to select patterns 12345 

4. Knowledge of how to select fabric suitable for garment 
construction 12345 

5. Knowledge of how to select, use, and care for sewing 

equipment 12345 

6. Knowledge of preparation of pattern and fabric before use 12 3 4 5 

7. Knowledge of how to alter and adapt patterns 12 3 4 5 

8. Knowledge of how to follow guide sheet instructions. . . 12 3 4 5 

9. Knowledge of construction processes, such as darts, 

seams, sleeves, facings and interfacings 12345 

10. Knowledge of how to make hems and belts 12345 


List III - Selection and Care of Clothing 

1. Knowledge of how to determine whether to make or to buy 

clothes 12345 

2. Knowledge of standards for selecting clothes 12 3 4 5 

3. Knowledge of suitability of article of clothing for the 

intended use 12345 

4. Knowledge of garment style and workmanship 12345 

5. Knowledge of how to select clothes and accessories 

for personal attractiveness '.. 12345 

6. Knowledge of wise buying of ready-made clothes 12 3 4 5 

7. Knowledge of how to alter the length and width of 

a garment 12345 

8. Knowledge of how to adjust ready-made garments to fit 

the individual 12345 

9. Knowledge of washing equipment and techniques 12 3 4 5 

10. Knowledge of suitable methods of storing clothes .... 12345 



Personal Data 

Please complete the following items. Use a check (/) for items 2, 3, 
and 4. 

1. Job. Title 

2. Highest educational achievement (check one), 
attended grade school. 

graduated from 8th grade. 

attended high school. 

graduated from high school. 

attended college or other post-high school. 

3. Years of experience in the job you now hold. 
Less than 1 year. 

1-3 years. 

4-5 years. 

6-10 years. 

Over 10 years. 

4. Study in Textiles and Clothing area. 

Part of a junior or senior high school course in home economics, 

A semester course in high school, 

College course. 

Adult course. 

Other (specify) . 


'. /^^ 


Vol. XII, No. 2 
Fall 1968-69 





Federal Legislation for Home Economics 

Elizabeth Simpson 53 

Compendium o£ Legal Aspects o£ Wage Earning Programs 

Mildred Griggs and Bemadine Yoder 57 

Stumbling Blocks in Cooperative Occupational Programs 

Billie McFadden Swartz 75 

Clothing Services --What High School Girls Think 

Margaret Ann Berry 78 

A Look at Some Commonalities in Vocational Education 

Winifred Davis 82 

Suggestions for the Cooperative Extension Service and the School 
for Home Economics Wage -Earning Programs 

Barlene P, Demaree 85 

Students I Have Known 

Elizabeth Simpson 96 


A publication of the Division of Home Economics Education, 
Department of Vocational and Technical Education, College 
of Education, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 

Members of Division: 

Elizabeth Simpson, Professor and Acting Department Chairman 

Mary Mather, Associate Professor and Acting Division Chairman 

Hazel Spitze, Associate Professor 

Bessie Hackett, Instructor 

Norma Bobbitt, Assistant 

Reba Davis, Assistant 

Mildred Griggs, Assistant in Higher Education 

Christina Brown, University High School 

Business Manager of Illinois Teaohev: Miss Joan Lorenz 

Vol. XII, No. 2, 1968-69. Published six times each year. 
Subscriptions $5 per year. Single copies $1. 

Address: Illinois Teacher 

342 Education Building 
University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 61801 

Telephone: 217-333-2736 


Von, the, peat ynoA. EtizaboJjn, S,Ajnpi>on k(U bnnn making n.<iQuJicut vaj^ajU, 
to iJJcuklngton to 4eAue a6 conMittant to thu CkcuAman o^ tkn HoLUm Sab- 
dOYrmittn^ on Education in pKzpa/ving amdndmzYvU to the. Vocational Educa- 
tion Act 0^ 1963. When ^kn ui(X6 invitmd to the. bJkitc HoiUz to MiXnii^^ 
thd signing o^ the. b-ilZ, 6hc wa6 intimidatud by ouA ^ta{^l to mano^uveA 
"on camoAa" 60 that Ittinoi^ TuachoA might havd a i>coop in the. ^ohm o(^ 
a photograph lAjiXh the. President to accompany heA oAticle,. Hou)e.veA, 
pn.eJiAUin.eJi o{\ the. O^^^^ice. took pnA-onity oveA oiui publication 
planii , Atthough Me. oJie. diJ>appointed to have, no candid 6hot 0^ the 
o^()lciat hand- -shaking, u;e oAe veJiy pnoud o^ Vn. Simp^on^ A contJiibution6 
and>cd to pneJie^nt: heJt n.e.viejxi o(^ thij innovative, ttgiJ>latlon iA)kich 
6uppontJ> alZ ai>pe,cti> 0^ home. e,conomic^ e.ducation, 

i)Jhe.n te,acheAJi oji-^ume. n,ej>poni>ibility {^on. coopeJuative, pn.ogn,am6, they 
oAe. tlkeZy to e.ncounteA new and uniquz pn.oblem6. JhAce, aJiticZej> in 
thJji UiAue. de,al Mith typical pn.oblem6 0^ coopeAative. pn,ogn,ami)--hoiC to 
opeAate, ixiiXhin the. {)n.ameiA)onk 0^ the, law, hoM to avoid piX(^aJilii in plan- 
ning and initiating pn.ogn.am6, and how to xeJiate, occupational e,xpeAie,nce, 
to 6tude,nti)' inteAe^ti>. We solicit (^nom oun n.e.adeAii otheA pnoblem- 
Aolving contnibutioni) {^on, the, JltinoiJi TcacheA. 

Ai> the,y pantlcipate. in pn.e, young pe,ople. ^on, the, wontd o^ 
u)on.k, home. e.conomicJ> te.ache/vi> tend to be,come, anyone, that the,y cannot "go 
iX. aZone,." The,y {\ind that. coopeAoting with otheA e,ducat.onji iji be,ne,{^i- 
cial to oJUi conceAne.d, The,y leann that, alt vocational te,acheA6 ^hane, 
a loAge. neAeAvoin o^^ corrvnon knowledge,, a6 ij di6cu66e,d in the. anticle. 
by Wini{)ne.d Vavi6. They dtscoveA that outride the, school theAe ane 
many du,l(^eAent individuali , in6titution6 , and 6eAviceJ> inteAeJtcd in 
heZping youth achieve occupational competency. One -i>uch 6eAvice Ui 
Extension. Von, a long time iX. haj exeJited a iitnong po^iXive in{^luence 
in iti> wonk with youth, and noi^ iX. ti, incAeahing emphai>ti> on coAeeA 
exploAation. An anXXcle by VaAtene VemoAee exemptif^ieJ the coopeAative 
ApinXX o{] Extension adviJ>eAJ. She AuggeAtd neanZy 1001 uoayi> in iA)hich 
Extension and school peAJonnel may complement each othen in employment 

A bit o{] nostalgia conctudeJ thiji ij>6ue o{) llZinotii JeacheA. We 
hope that the poetic ne{\lectlon6 on (\onmeA i>tudenti> may in^piAe otheAi> 
to expneJ>6 thein 6entiment6 in veAi>e. Be6idej> providing a "cneative 
kick," Me\e dXiiCovened that ujnXting poeXny haj amazing theAapeutic 
e{i{)ect6 on chuAning emotion^. 

--BeJ^ie Hackett 


Elizoheth Simpson 
Acting Chairman 
Department of Vocational 
and Technical Education 
University of Illinois 

Urbana, Illinois 

On October 16, President Johnson signed the Vocational Education 
Amendments of 1968. These amendments offer both challenge and hope to 
the field of vocational education. They provide for funding of the 
comprehensive, ongoing programs of the field — but they also suuport the 
development of innovative programs, curriculum development, teacher 
education, and new directions in consumer and homemaking education. 

During the summer I had the experience of sitting in on the mark-up 
sessions of the vocational education bill that passed the House with a 
vote of 389 to 0. The Senate version of the vocational education bill 
passed with a vote of 89 to 0. In reporting on these developments. 
Congressman Roman Pucinski, Chairman of the House General Subcommittee 
on Education said: 

If any doubt still lingers that this nation has finally 
decided to bring vocational education — with both feet — 
to the top of the educational spectrum, let the doubters 
look at the fantastic vote on this measure in both 
Chambers of Congress. 

Because the House and Senate versions of the bill were different 
in structure and in certain specifics, the bill went to a joint House- 
Senate conference committee in late summer. I attended the 16-hour 
session of this committee which ended at two o'clock in the morning. 
This proved a fascinating learning experience. 

The resulting conference report was approved by both the House and 
the Senate and then went to the President for his signature — and the 
occasion of the signing was a happy one, indeed, for vocational educa- 
tors across the country. 

Consumer and Homemaking Education 

Part F of the Act, titled Consumer and Homemaking Education y is the 
section of most interest to home economics educators. This section pro- 
vides for State programs of consumer and homemaking education, under 

'Adapted from a presentation at State Conference for Illinois 
Vocational Home Economics Teachers, Fall, 1968. 


authorizations of $25 million for fiscal 1970, $35 million for fiscal 
1971, and $50 million for fiscal 1972. 

Purposes set forth in the Act are for educational programs which 
encourage home economics to give greater consideration to social and 
cultural conditions and needs, especially in economically depressed 
areas, which encourage preparation for professional leadership, and 
which are designed for preparing youth and adults for the dual role of 
homemaker and wage-earner. Provision is also made for ancillary serv- 
ices, such as teacher education and curriculum development. 

At least one-third of the Federal funds made available under this 
section are to be used in economically depressed areas or areas with 
high rates of unemployment for programs designed to assist consumers 
and to help improve home environments and the quality of family life. 
There are sections of the Vocational Education Act — other than the home 
economics section — which also should be of speoi-at interest to home 
economics educators . 

Curriculum Development 

The Act provides for a program of grants and contracts by the Com- 
missioner with colleges and universities. State boards, and other organ- 
izations, to promote the development and dissemination of vocational 
education curriculum materials. 

Exemplary Programs 

Provision is made for a program of grants and contracts by the 
Commissioner for exemplary programs in vocational education, and a 
similar program for use by the State boards in making grants to or con- 
tracts with local education agencies or other organizations to pay all 
or part of the costs of developing and operating exemplary occupational 
education programs. 

For these purposes, the amendments authorize appropriations of $15 
million for fiscal 1969, $57.5 million for fiscal 1970, and $75 million 
each for fiscal years 1971 and 1972 

Leadership Development 

Authorization of funds is provided for a program of Leadership 
Development Awards to vocational education personnel to attend voca- 
tional education development programs at colleges and universities, and 
State programs of in-service training for vocational education personnel, 

Research and Training 

The Act sets apart 10 percent of the funds appropriated pursuant 


to the basic authorizing section to be used for research and training 
in vocational education. 

Challenges to Home Economics Education 

As a vocational education consultant to the Chairman of the House 
General Subcommittee on Education, I now know from first-hand experience 
what a very poor job of interpreting our field we in home economics edu- 
cation have done. During the mark-up session, a number of remarks over- 
heard led me to the conclusion that some still think of homemaking 
education as eggs a la goldenrod, fudge and aprons. The Congressmen 
were quite well-informed about vocational education in general. 

One young Congressman moved that the entire homemaking education 
section be stricken from the bill. Another said, "No, it is important 
to retain this section fov sentimental reasons /* A Congresswoman said 
that she really could not understand why there should be a section for 
homemaking education in this bill. She approved home economics educa- 
tion as an aspect of vocational education when its purpose was to pre- 
pare for remunerative occupations. 

We have not done a good job of interpreting the relationship 
between the homemaking and occupational aspects of our program. The 
relationship is rooted in the large area of common knowledges and 
skills that unites the two aspects of the program. 

In general, we have not told our story well. 

And, sad to say, in some places there has been no story that ought 
to be told. 

Waat kind of home economics can ignore the social 'problems of our 
time — and their all too obvious implications for homes and families — 
hence ^ for home economics education? 

What kind of home economics lets the teacher' s interests or lack 
of willingness to plan — or pupil's ephemeral interests — or old-fashioned 
facilities- -dictate the curriculum? 

What kind of home economics has little girls sewing dresses day 
after day and ends a school year with only two or three weeks for a 
study of child care? 

What kind of home economics purports to integrate a study of home 
management hut can point to time schedules for laboratory meal prepara- 
tion as the only evidence? 

What kind of home economics uses style shows as the means of 
interpreting the program to the community? 

What kind of home economics rejects the need to prepare our young 
women for homemaking AND occupations? 


Uhat kind of home economics wilt not recognize that homes fail 
because of -problems in human relationship and management, failures in 
caring for, and guiding what is most precious in the home, its children, 
and NOT because the homemaker cannot make a garment, not even because 
she is a poor cook? 

What kind of home economics teacher is called on for cookies and 
repairs to gym suits rather than ideas? 

What kind of home economics do you teach? Is it relevant to life 
as it is really lived today? Does it face up to the challenges posed 
by our current social problems? 

Only if we can answer yes to these last two questions do we deserve 
to continue as a field of study. 


What if human exteriors 
Matched their interiors? 
Would some we rate inferior 
Wind up judged superior? — 
(And vice-versa?) 

— E. Simpson 



Mildved Griggs 
Assistant in Higher Education 
University of Illinois 

Bemadine Yodev 
Home Economist-Homemaker 
Arthur, Illinois 




A. Basic minimum age 59 

B. Work hour restrictions 60 

C. Employment certificates 61 

D. Age certificates 62 

E. Basic wage and hour standards 62 

1. Wage payment law 62 

2. Minimum wage 62 

3. Tipped employees 63 

4. Uniforms 64 

5. Exemptions from minimum wage 64 

6. Hour standards 65 

F. Occupational limitations 65 

G. Overtime pay provisions 65 


A. Hazardous occupations 67 

B. Hazardous occupations (Illinois regulations) 68 

C. Health regulations 70 

D. Sanitary regulations 70 


A. Equal pay for women 71 

B. Civil rights 71 

C. Age discrimination 71 

D. Agencies authorized to enforce child labor laws .... 71 





Legislation relating to three areas of concern — child labor laws, 
health and safety regulations, and fair employment practices — has been 
reviewed; provisions have been summarized and compiled to provide a 
convenient resource for individuals responsible for occupational pro- 
grams. This resource, a compendium of the legal aspects of vocational 
wage earning programs in public schools, is oriented particularly toward 
home economics occupations. It includes provisions of both federal acts 
and state legislation for Illinois. 

It is important to note that labor laws differ from state to state. 
Also, where both federal and state child labor laws apply, the higher 
standard must be observed. Readers may observe certain ambiguities in 
the law. For this reason, it may be necessary to consult a professional 
legal adviser when problems arise. 

Many laws have been made in recent years to protect young workers 
— to provide for greater safety and better working conditions and to 
allow them to go to school. Other laws are being written or discussed 
to determine what changes, if any, should be made in existing regula- 
tions to adapt them to current conditions and practices. Recently the 
Secretary of Labor announced a series of public hearings on proposed 
changes in federal regulations for young workers issued under the Fair 
Labor Standards Act. Many of these changes concern children enrolled 
in cooperative vocational education programs.-^ Therefore, it is 
imperative that vocational educators keep informed of the developments 
in the laws that govern work. Both federal and state agencies provide 
up-to-date information on current regulations. It is recommended that 
vocational educators obtain official publications regularly. 

The following outline of regulations relating to wage-earning 
programs is organized so that readers may locate primary, or original, 
sources of legal information. Page numbers of various references are 
provided for each regulation. The references may be located by number 
at the end of the compendium. 

^United States Department of Labor. Federal Register. Washington, 
D.C.: USDL, Mar. 28, 1968, 33 (61). 



Reference No. 

A. Basic minimum age 

















1. Fourteen years is the minimum age for employ- 
ment which is permitted outside school hours 
in a variety of non-manufacturing and non- 
mining occupations for a limited number of 
hours under conditions which do not interfere 
with the individual's schooling, health, or 
well-being. (Refer to I., B., 1.) 
Student helpers employed in child care centers 
shall be at least 14 years of age, and at least 
five years older than the oldest child with 
whom they work. Assistants to the child care 
worker shall be at least 18 years of age. A 
newly employed or designated director or child 
care worker shall be at least 21 years of age. 

Permitted jobs outside school hours and during #7 24 

vacation include: #14(111.) 2 

#9 12 

Office jobs 

Many jobs in eating places #3(111.) 33 

Many jobs in stores 

Some jobs in gasoline service stations 

Packing fresh fruits and vegetables 

Jobs on farms 

Household work 

Newspaper delivery 

Caddy ing. 

2. Sixteen years is the minimum age for most 
employment with the exception of non- 
agricultural hazardous occupations. 























The minimum age is 16 for employment in 
agriculture during school hours or in any 
occupation in agriculture declared hazardous 
by the Secretary of Labor. 

The minimum age is 16 for girls in any capacity #14(111.) 
where such employment requires standing con- 
tinuously for and during the performance of 
the work. (This provision applies to those 
cases where an employer does not afford 
facilities for sitting or where an employer 
makes it a condition of the employment that 
the girls remain continuously standing during 
the performance of their work.) 


Reference No. 

3. Eighteen years is the minimum age for employ- 
ment in a non-agricultural occupation declared 
hazardous by the Secretary of Labor. (Refer 
to II. , A.) 

4. The Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act sets a #2 1 
16-year minimum age for boys and 18-year mini- #6 19 
mum age for girls employed in any work per- //9 13 
formed under contract with the U.S. 

Governm.ent . 

5. The following are exempt from the child labor #6 76 
provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act: //7 6 

#14(111.) 2 

a. Children employed in agriculture out- 
side school hours for the school 
district where such child is living 
while so employed. 

b . Children employed as actors or per- 
formers in motion picture, theatrical, 
radio, or television productions. 

c. Children under 16 years of age 
employed by their parents or guardians 
in an occupation other than manu- 
facturing or mining or in a hazardous 
occupation. (Refer to II., A.) 

d. Children delivering newspapers to the 

e. Home workers engaged in the making of 
evergreen wreaths. 

Work hour restrictions (specific to Illinois) 

1. Minors 14 and 15 years of age. 

a. Work outside school hours when school is 
in session shall be limited to 3 hours a 
day or 18 hours a week. Exceptions are 
agriculture; the sale and distribution of 
newspapers and magazines; or work usual to 
the home of the employer but not in con- 
nection with his business, trade, or pro- 

b. Work when school is not in session shall //7 24 
not exceed 5 days a week, 40 hours in any //9 12 


Reference No. 

one week, or more than 8 hours in any one //18 55,56 
day. (Federal standard 


c. Night work shall be prohibited from 7 p.m. 
to 7 a.m. and from 9 p.m. to 7 a.m. from 
June 1 through Labor Day for children 
under 16 in a gainful occupation in con- 
nection with any theater; concert hall; #7 
place of amusement; mercantile institu- 
tion; store; office; hotel; laundry; (Separate leaf- 
manufacturing establishment; mill; let on the 
cannery; factory or workshop; restaurant; modifications 
lunchroom; beauty parlor; barber shop; in Child Labor 
bakery; coal, brick, or lumber yard; Standards 
or in any type of construction work; effective Nov. 1, 
except those occupations exempt from all 1967) 
provisions of the act. (Refer to I., A., 

2. Minors 16 and 17 years of age in general //? 24 


a. Night work is not prohibited. #9 12 

b. Hours of work shall not exceed 8 hours a 
day, 6 days a week, and 48 hours a week. 

C. Employment certificates (Workers Permit, Worker's Certificate) 

1. Employment certificates are required for #4 2,3, 
employment of workers under 16 in any gainful 6,7 
occupation, except those exempt. (Refer to #3 33 
I., B., 1., a.) 

2. Certificates are issued by city or county #14(111.) 9 
superintendents of schools or their 

authorized agents . 

3. A new employment certificate must be issued //18 55 
each time a child under 16 changes his job. 

4. The Child Labor Law requires that a copy of 
each certificate be sent to the State 
Department of Labor for review. 

5. The issuing officer must decide whether the 
documents the applicant presents indicate that 
he can legally work on the job for which he 
seeks a certificate. The applicant must sub- 
mit proof of age (an unaltered birth 


Reference No. 

certificate) , school record, the intention to 
employ, and a physician's certificate. 

D. Age certificates 

1. The Child Labor Law provides for issuance, #4 8 
upon request of age, of certificates for #7 26 
minors between 16 and 20 years of age. 

#14 13 

2. State employment and age certificates are 

accepted as proof of age under the Fair Labor #18 55 
Standards Act. 

3. Local public school officials issue age 
certificates . 

E. Basic wage and hour standards 

1. Wage payment law states that wages shall be 

paid regularly and in full, on a weekly or #14 102 

semi-monthly basis, and on a fixed day with 

assistance by the Director of Labor or any 

other person in the Department of Labor 

designated by him, in collection of unpaid 

wages . 

2. Minimum wage 

Employees in newly covered employment in 
hotel, motel, and restaurant enterprises, 
or as food service employees of retail or 
service establishments, unless specifically 
exempt (refer to E., 5) must not be paid 
less than the minimum wage shown in the 
following schedule: 

$1.00 an hour, beginning Feb. 1, 1967 

















b. Unless specifically exempt, employees 
engaged in previously covered 

^Newly covered employment: As of February 1, 1967, employment made 
subject to the minimum wage provision of the 1966 amendment to the Fair 
Labor Standards Act is "newly covered." 


Reference No. 

employment^ which includes employees indi- 
vidually engaged in interstate or foreign 
commerce, employees individually engaged 
in the production of goods for interstate 
commerce, and all employees in certain 
large enterprises must be paid the follow- 
ing minimum wages : 

$1.40 an hour, beginning Feb. 1, 1967 -#10 1,2,3 
1.60 " " " " 1968 #20 1,3 

#22 5 

c. Minimum wage for farm work is as follows: 

$1.00 an hour, beginning Feb. 1, 1967 #1 4 

1.15 " " •• " 1968 #10 2 

1.30 " " " " 1969 #11 1 

d. Special provisions: 

Learners, apprentices, messengers, handi- #10 10 

capped workers, and full-time students 

employed in retail or service establish- #22 17 

ments or in agriculture under certain 

circumstances may be paid special lower 

minimum wage rates provided that special 

certificates (learner's permits) are first 

obtained from the Division's Administrator. 

3. Tipped employees^ #10 9 

#12 2 

a. When an employer and his tipped employee #22 4 

agree that all tips are to be turned over 
or accounted for to the employer, to be 
treated by him as part of his gross 
receipts, the employer must pay the 
employee the full minimum hourly wage, 
since for all practical purposes the 
employee is not receiving tip income. 

b. When the employee is permitted to keep the 
tips himself, the Fair Labor Standards Act 
provides that the employee shall be deemed 

^Previously covered employment: Employees covered prior to the 
1966 amendments remain covered under the amended act. 

Tipped employee: Any employee engaged in an occupation in which 
he customarily and regularly receives more than $20 weekly in tips. 


Reference No. 

to have received an amount (as determined 
by the employer) up to 50% of the required 
minimum wage in tips. The employer must 
then pay the balance (not less than 50%) 
of the applicable minimum rate. 

If the employee can show that he is 
receiving less in actual tips than the 
amount credited, the employer is required 
to pay the difference so that the employee 
receives at least the minimum wage in the 
combination of both wages and tips. 

4. Uniforms 

a. When employees are required by law or the #12 3 
nature of their work to wear uniforms, no 

part of the cost of the uniform and its 
maintenance may be charged to the employee 
in any work week when to do so would 
reduce the wage paid below the amount 
required by the applicable minimum wage 
provisions . 

b. No deductions from wages shall be made for 
protective clothing, safety equipment, and 
uniforms; provision and maintenance of 
these shall be provided by the employer as 
part of the cost of production. 

5. Exemptions from minimum wage 

a. The minimum wage is not required for the #11 3 


(1) Workers employed in agriculture by an #22 9 
employer who did not use 500 "man 

days"^ of farm labor in any calendar 
quarter of the preceding calendar year. 

(2) Members of the employer's immediate 

(3) Hand harvest laborers paid piece rates 
in an operation generally recognized 
as piece work in the region, 

(4) Migrant hand harvest laborers 16 years 
of age or under and employed on the 
same farm as their parents. 


^Man day: One day during which an employee performs agriculture 
labor for not less than one hour. 


Reference No. 

(5) EmDloyees principally engaged in the 
range production of livestock. 

b. The minimum wage and overtime requirements //22 13 
are not required for the following: #23 2 

(1) Executive employees 

(2) Administrative employees 

(3) Professional employees 

(4) Outside salesmen 

6. Hour standards #8 133 

a. Employees shall have at least one day of 
rest in seven, preferably two consecutive 
days in seven. 

b. Meal periods shall be at least 30 minutes; 
no work period shall be more than 5 hours 
without a break or rest, 

c. A rest period of at least 10 minutes is 
required in the middle of each half-day 
work period, to be allowed in addition to 
the lunch period and without lengthening 
the workday. 

d. Sick leave and maternity leave shall be 
provided without loss of job or seniority 
rights . 

F. Occupational limitations #5 15 

//8 145 

1. Illinois law empowers city and county govern- 
ments to prohibit women by general ordinance 
or resolution from mixing, selling, or dis- 
pensing alcoholic beverages for consumption. 

2. Illinois law prohibits women's employment in 
or about mines (excluding clerical work) . 

G. Overtime pay provisions 

1. Rate of pay 

a. Employees engaged in employment covered by //lO 7 

the Fair Labor Standards Act prior to the //22 8 

1966 amendment must be paid as follows: 

Overtime: One and one-half times the 
employee's regular rate of pay for all 


Reference No. 

hours worked in excess of 40 in a work 
week. ° 

b. Unless specifically exempt, employees #3 18 
engaged in work made subject to the act by #10 7 
the 1966 amendments must be paid as //22 8 
follows : 

Overtime pay for non-farm work: One and 
one-half times the employee's regular rate 
of pay is required for all hours worked 
over the following: 

44 hours in a work week beginning Feb. 1, 1967 
42 " " " " " " " 1968 
40 " " " " " " " 1969 

c. Employees of nursing homes, rest homes, #10 2 
and bowling alleys must receive 1^ times #22 16 
their regular rate for hours over 48 in 

any one work week. 

d. A special provision permits hospitals to 
adopt a 14-day period in lieu of the usual 

7-day work week, provided at least time #10 2 

and one-half the employee's regular rate 

is paid for hours in excess of 8 in any 

workday and in excess of 80 in the 14-day 


e. Exemptions from the overtime requirements #10 6 
only'^ (specific to home economics related #22 15 
occupations) : 

(1) Employees of hotels, motels, restau- 
rants; employees of retail or service 
establishments who are employed pri- 
marily in connection with certain food 
or beverage services. 

^Work week: A regularly recurring period of 168 hours in the form 
of seven consecutive 24-hour periods. The work week need not coincide 
with the calendar week — it may begin any day of the week and any hour 
of the day. 

^Check carefully the terms and conditions of any exemption. Infor- 
mation on specific exemptions may be obtained from the nearest Depart- 
ment of Labor Office (see appendix) . 



Reference No. 

(2) Workers employed in canning, process- 
ing, storing, marketing, and distribut- 
ing fish, shellfish, or other aquatic 

(3) Workers in seasonal industries where 
longer hours are permitted to prevent 
spoilage of perishable products. 

(4) Employees in mercantile or retail 
trades prior to or following holiday 
seasons . 

(5) Employees of institutions primarily 
engaged in the care of the sick, aged, 
and mentally ill residing on the 
premises. (Refer to G., 1., e.) 

(6) Graduate nurses. 

A. Hazardous occupations (Federal regulations) #4 18,19 

1. Occupations in or about plants or establish- #6 75 
ments manufacturing or storing explosives or #7 9 
articles containing explosive components. 

2. Occupations of motor-vehicle driver and helper. //9 25 

3. Coal-mine occupations. 

4. Logging occupations and occupations in the 
operation of any sawmill, lath mill, shingle 
mill, or cooperage-stock mill. 

*5. Occupations involved in the operation of 
power-driven woodworking machines. 

*Exemptions are provided for apprentices and student learners pro- 
vided they are employed under the following conditions: Apprentices — 
Employed in a craft recognized as an apprenticeable trade; the work 
declared particularly hazardous is incidental to his training; such 
work is intermittent and for short periods of time and is under the 
direct and close supervision of a journeyman. 

Student learners — They shall be enrolled in a course of study in a 
cooperative vocational training program under a recognized State or 
local educational authority; they are employed under a written agree- 
ment which provides that the work declared hazardous is incidental to 
their training, that the work shall be intermittent and for short 
periods of time, and under close supervision of a qualified and 
experienced person; that safety instructions shall be given by the 


Reference No. 

6. Occupations involving exposure to radioactive 
substances and to ionizing radiations. 

7. Occupations involved in the operation of 
elevators and other power-driven hoisting 

*8. Occupations involved in the operation of 
power-driven metal-forming, punching, and 
shearing machines. 

9. Occupations in connection with mining, other 
than coal. 

*10. Occupations in or about slaughtering and meat- 
packing establishments and rendering plants. 

*11. Occupations involved in the operation of 

certain power-driven paper-products machines. 

12. Occupations involved in the operation of 
certain power-driven bakery machines, 

13, Occupations involved in the manufacture of 
brick, tile, and kindred products, 

*iU. Occupations involved in the operation of 
circular saws, band saws, and guillotine 
shears . 

15. Occupations involved in wrecking, demolition, 
and shipbreaking operations, 

*16. Occupations involved in roofing operations. 

"17. Occupations in excavation operations. 

B. Hazardous occupations (Illinois regulations) — #14 4 

Minimum age of 16 years is set by Illinois law. #18 261 
However, federal standard prevails, setting the 



school and correlated by the employer with on-the-job training; and 
that a schedule of organized and progressive work processes to be 
performed on the job shall have been prepared. 

Copies of this written agreement signed by the student-learner, 
employer, and school coordinator shall be kept on file by both the 
school and the employer. The exemption may be revoked at any time 
where it is found that reasonable precautions have not been 
observed. #7 7,8 


Reference No. 

minimum age at 18 years for those occupations //14 4 
covered by Hazardous Occupations Order. //18 261 

(Refer to II. , A.) 

1. In, about, or in connection with any public 
messenger or delivery service, bowling alley, 
poolroom, billiard room, skating rink, exhibi- 
tion park or place of amusement, garage, 
filling station or service station, or as a 
bellboy in any hotel or roominghouse, or about 
or in connection with power-driven machinery. 

2. In the oiling, cleaning, or wiping of machinery 
or shafting. 

3. In or about any mine or quarry, except in 
office, messenger, or other non-hazardous 

4. In stone cutting or polishing. 

5. In or about any hazardous factory work. 

6. In or about any plant manufacturing explosives 
or articles containing explosive components, 
or in the use or transportation of same, 
except in office, messenger or other non- 
hazardous employment. 

7. In or about plants manufacturing iron or steel, 
ore-reduction works, smelters, foundries, forg- 
ing shops, hot rolling mills, or any other 
place in which the heating, melting, or heat 
treatment of metals is carried on, except in 
office, messenger, or other non-hazardous 

8. In the operation of machinery used in the cold 
rolling of heavy metal stock, or in the opera- 
tion of power-driven punching, shearing, stamp- 
ing, or metal plate bending machines. 

9. In or about sawmills or lath, shingle, or 
cooperage stock mills, except in office, 
messenger, other non-hazardous employment. 

10, In the operation of power-driven woodworking 
machines, or off bearing from circular saws. 

11. In the operation of freight elevators or 
hoisting machines and cranes. 


Reference No. 

12. In spray painting or in occupations involving 
exposure to lead or its compounds or to 
dangerous or poisonous dyes or chemicals. 

13. In any place or establishment in which intoxi- 
cating alcoholic liquors are served or sold 
for consumption on the premises, or in which 
such liquors are manufactured or bottled. 

14. In oil refineries, gasoline blending plants, 
or pumping stations on oil transmission lines. 

15. In the operation of laundry, drycleaning, or 
dyeing machinery. 

16. In occupations involving exposure to radio- 
active substances. 

C. Health regulations (specific to Illinois) 

1. Every person employed in food handling or prep- #16(111.) 15 
aration shall furnish such information, permit 

such physical examination, and submit such 
laboratory specimens as the Illinois Depart- 
ment of Public Health may require for the 
purpose of determining freedom from infection. 

2. Any person with an acute respiratory infection 
or other acute contagious or infectious disease, 
or a presumably infected wound, sore, or 
lesion, shall not be permitted to handle food 

or food utensils until the person has a written 
statement from the local, county, or state 
health authority that the person is not a 
disease carrier. 

3. Each member of the staff and substitute of 
licensed day care centers and group day care 
facilities shall have a complete medical 
examination within six months prior to employ- 
ment, and annually thereafter. #17(111.) 12 

D, Sanitary regulations (specific to Illinois) #16(111.) 14 

1. The outer garments of all persons, including 
dishwashers, engaged in handling food or 
utensils shall be reasonably clean and shall 
be used for no other duty. Clean uniforms, 
coats, or aprons shall be considered satis- 
factory. The use of hair nets, head bands, 
or caps to confine long hair is required. 




Reference No. 









2. The hands of all persons shall be kept clean 
while engaged in handling food, drink, uten- 
sils, or equipment. 

3. There shall be no evidence of spitting or of 
the use of any form of tobacco by employees 
in rooms in which food is prepared. 

4. Employees should not work when ill or with 
discharging or presumably infected sores or 
wounds, and should be meticulous about personal 
hygiene, particularly cleanliness of hands and 
nails . 


A. Equal pay for women 

1. The employer must not discriminate on the 

basis of sex within the establishment by pay- 
ing to employees of one sex wages at rates 
lower than he pays employees of the opposite 
sex for doing equal work on jobs requiring 
equal skill, effort, and responsibility which 
are performed under similar conditions. 

B. Civil rights 

1. Employers, emplo3mient agencies, and labor 
organizations may not discriminate against 
applicants for employment and in taking and 
handling job orders for any individual because 
of race, color, religion, national origin or 
ancestry, with respect to hiring, discharging, 
rates of pay or pay practices, employment and 
training opportunities, or membership in a 
labor organization. 

C. Age discrimination 

1. Employers and employment agencies may not dis- #3 19 

criminate against any individual with respect 
to his terms, conditions, or privileges of 
employment because of his age when the reason- 
able demands of the position do not require 
such an age distinction. 

D. Agencies authorized to enforce child labor laws 
See appendix. 













1. United States Department of Labor, WHPC Division. Agvioulture and 

the Child Labor Requirements under the Fair Labor Standards Act 
as Amended in 1966, (Pub. 1171) Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 

2. United States Department of Labor, WHPC Division. Child Labor, 

Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1966. 

3. Cullerton, J. E. (Director). Illinois Labor Bulletin. 1967, 28 

(4). Springfield, 111.: IDL. 

4. United States Department of Labor. Employment Certificates - Eelp 

You Help Youth. (1964 ed.. Bull. 183) Washington, D.C.: 

5. United States Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. February 1967 

Summary of State Labor Laws for Women. Washington, D.C.: 

6. United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Standards. 

Federal Labor Laws and Programs. (Bull. 262) Washington, D.C.: 
USGPO, March 1964. 

7. United States Department of Labor, WHPC Division. Guide to Child 

Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. (Child Labor 
Bull. 101) Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1967. 

8. United States Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. Handbook on 

Women Workers, (Bull. 285) Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1962. 

9. United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Standards. 

Handbook for Young Workers, (Bull, 271) Washington, D.C.: 

10. United States Department of Labor, WHPC Division. Handy Reference 

Guide to the Fair Labor Standards Act as Amended in 1966, (Pub. 
1159) Washington, D.C: USGPO, 1966. 

11. United States Department of Labor, WHPC Division. Hired Farm 

Workers under the Fair Labor Standards Act as Amended in 1966. 
(Pub. 1161) Washington, D.C: USGPO, 1966. 

12. United States Department of Labor, WHPC Division, Hotels ^ Motels ^ 

Restaurants and Food Service Employees, (Pub. 1172) Washing- 
ton, D.C. : USGPO. 

13. United States Department of Labor, WHPC Division. How the Fair 

Labor Standards Act Applies to the Dairy Products Industry. 
(Pub. 1121) Washington, D.C: USGPO. 


14. Illinois Department of Labor. Illinois Lcaos Relating to Labor and 

Employment. Springfield, 111.: IDL, 1965. 

15. United States Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. Part-Time 

Employment for Women. (Bull. 273) Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 

16. Illinois Department of Public Health. Sanitation in Food-Handling 

Faoilities. Springfield, 111.: DPH. 

17. Illinois Department of Children and Family Services. Standards 

for Licensed Day Care Centers and Group Day Care, Facilities, 
Springfield, 111.: DCFS, 1967. 

18. United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Standards. 

State Child Labor Standards. (Bull. 158) Washington, D.C.: 
USGPO, 1965. 

19. United States Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. State Hour 

Laws for Women. (Bull. 277) Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1961. 

20. National Labor Relations Board. Summary of the Labor Management 

Relations Act as Amended through 1959 (Taft-Hartley Act) . 
Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1965. 

21. United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Standards. 

Teenagers Can Be Hired. Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1965. 

22. United States Department of Labor, WHPC Division. The Fair Labor 

Standards Act of 1938^ as Amended in 1961 and 1966, Washington, 
D.C. : USGPO, Nov. 1966. 




State Laws 

Since labor laws differ from state to state, it is suggested that 
inquiries concerning state policies and regulations be addressed to the 
Department of Labor, Capitol Building, of the particular state if the 
specific address is unknown. 

Federal Laws 

Inquiries about the Fair Labor Standards Act (Federal Wage-Hour 
Law) , the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act, and their application, 
will be answered by mail, telephone, or personal interview at any 
regional or field office of the Wage and Hour and Public Contracts 
Divisions of the U.S. Department of Labor. These offices also supply 
publications free of charge. Regional offices are listed below. Field 
offices are also located in most large cities. 










District of 


Regional Office 


San Francisco, Calif, 
San Francisco, Calif. 
Dallas, Texas 
San Francisco 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Boston, Mass. 
Chambersburg, Pa. 

Chambersburg, Pa, 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
San Francisco, Calif. 
San Francisco, Calif. 
Chicago, 111. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Nashville, Tenn, 
Dallas, Texas 
Boston, Mass. 
Chambersburg, Pa, 

Cleveland, Ohio 
Chicago, 111, 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Kansas City 



New Hampshire 
New Jersey 
New Mexico 
New York 
North Carolina 

North Dakota 





Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 







West Virginia 



Regional Office 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Kansas City, Mo. 

San Francisco, Calif, 

Boston, Mass. 

New York, N.Y. 

Dallas, Texas 

New York 


(State Dept. of Labor) 

Kansas City, Mo, 


Dallas, Texas 

San Francisco, Calif, 


Boston, Mass. 

Birmingham, Ala, 

Kansas City, Mo, 



San Francisco, Calif, 

Boston, Mass. 

Nashville, Tenn, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Nashville, Tenn, 

Chicago, 111, 

Kansas City, Mo, 



Billie MoFadden Swart z 
University of Montana 
Missoula, Montana 



Illustrated by Robert Tinkham 

Although increasing numbers of home economics cooperative occupa- 
tional programs have been implemented in the past few years, those 
involved with these programs have faced some problems and limitations. 
Home economics teachers in thirteen such programs in six states were 
surveyed to ascertain the problems which they had encountered in 
implementation and continuation of the programs. The teachers surveyed 
included three each in Colorado, Illinois, and Kansas; two in Califor- 
nia, and one each in Missouri and Michigan. 


Teacher Time 

The key to success in all programs surveyed was adequate teacher 
time. The respondents believed that teachers working with these pro- 
grams should not be held responsible for classes other than those 
directly involved with the cooperative home economics programs. Thus 
freed of other teaching responsibilities, the teacher had time to do a 
community survey, prepare teaching materials, visit students at their 
training stations, and do a complete follow-up of each participating 

When the teacher is pressed for time, usually the first responsi- 
bility to fall by the wayside is the community survey. The absence of 
a community survey has been the cause of one of the most frequent 
criticisms of the program. Some felt that many home economics teachers 
train students with little regard for availability of jobs, both entry 
level jobs and jobs with possibilities for advancement.^ Therefore, 
the teacher should not only survey the community to determine its needs, 
but she should know something of job availability in the surrounding 
communities.^ The Advisory Committee can be of utmost importance in 
helping with the survey as well as in interpreting the program. 

Students' Lack of Initiative 

Selection and placement of students presented a variety of prob- 
lems. Some of these problems are unique to the individual programs; 
others are common to all programs. Most teachers have found those 
students enrolled are less scholastically and occupationally inclined 
and tend to encourage criticism from employers for their lack of 
initiative and responsibility. Many students are found to have little 
understanding and appreciation for the world of work. 

Securing Training Stations 

Another problem frequently mentioned by respondents was the diffi- 
culty, and even impossibility, of securing adequate training stations 
in some rural communities. Although statistics indicate rural communi- 
ties are in most need of occupational training programs , the smallness 
and isolation of these communities limit the availability of training 
stations. In all types of communities exploitation of the young 
trainee by the employer posed a problem. Since a student's success was 

^E. Fetterman. The development of a work orientation program for 
home economics related occupations. Hartford, Conn.: Home Economics 
Education Service, Bureau of Vocational Services, Division of Voca- 
tional Education, Conn. State Department of Education, 1964-66. 

^United States Department of Labor. Young workers: their special 
training needs. Manpower Research Bulletin #3. Washington, D.C.: 
USDL, May 1963. 


found to be directly proportional to the effectiveness of the employer, 
it was extremely important that the employer be sincerely interested in 
the welfare of the student as well as the entire program. Good com- 
munication and understanding between the coordinator and the employer 
was mentioned as a means of eliminating problems which may arise. 

Valid criticism of the training programs was expressed by some 
employers. Many employers requested student employees possessing the 
desirable characteristics of initiative and responsibility. According 
to the respondents, employers preferred that class time be spent on 
developing these and other desirable characteristics rather than learn- 
ing specific skills. Some employers felt they could more easily meet 
their own needs by training the students in various skills. 

Teachers' Lack of Practical Experience 

Those teachers who have had practical work experience in one or 
more of the areas in which they were teaching were more confident of 
their effectiveness and their ability to handle the program. Some 
respondents felt the utilization of other teachers' practical experi- 
ence through team teaching was of help to those who lacked experience. 
Development of teaching materials was easier for those teachers who had 
practical work experience as they understood the requirements and 
demands of the occupations for which they were teaching. 

The relative newness of this type of program in many communities 
may be the reason for some of the problems encountered. Although the 
problems presented here will be solved more readily as teachers, 
schools, and communities gain experience with these programs, there 
must be continual evaluation and revision of each individual program 
to assure that students receive the best possible training for the 
changing world of work. 

^N. P. Berdan. Growing pains with the work experience programs 
Journal of Seaondary Education, December 1965, 40, 351-56. 



Margaret Ann Berry 

Mrs. Berry is 
currently a clothing 
teacher at Manhattan 
High School, 
Manhattan, Kansas. 

Her thesis research 
was conducted at 
Oklahoma State Uni- 
versity under the 
direction of Dr. 
June Cozine. 


Many of the courses that have been offered in gainful employment 
have met a great deal of success, however, some classes have not had 
such attractive results. Students have not enrolled in the classes, 
teachers have been reluctant to initiate the program, desirable part- 
time work experiences have been limited for inexperienced persons, 
and/or students have not entered the labor market after receiving the 

Purpose of the Study 

In an effort to clarify some of the reasons for this happening, a 
study in clothing services was recently conducted at Oklahoma State 
University.-^ The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine 
whether there was enough interest on the part of students to enroll in 
clothing service classes if made available in either the secondary 
schools or the area vocational-technical schools of Oklahoma, and 
(2) to identify the attitudes and interests students have about work 
and clothing service occupations that might influence their decisions 
to select training in this area. 

^M. A. Berry. Attitudes and interests of high school homemaking 
students toward occupations in clothing services. Master's Thesis, 
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, 1967. 


It was hoped that the information obtained in the study could be 
used to assist in: 

1. Determining whether it would be desirable to provide training 
for the area of clothing services as part of the home economics offer- 
ings either in local high schools or in area vocational-technical 

2. Acquainting students and teachers with the various occupations 
in clothing services and with the types of activities that would be 
engaged in for the various occupational services. 

3. Deciding the factors of clothing service occupations that may 
affect the planning or revisions of course curriculums. 

4. Aiding in the recruitment of students. 


The study was limited to junior and senior homemaking students 
from selected high schools in Oklahoma that offer vocational home 
economics. The schools were randomly selected according to size and 
district. A total of 533 girls from nineteen responding schools 

The instrument used for obtaining the data was a questionnaire. 
The questionnaire was developed to obtain personal data, attitudes 
toward work in general, and attitudes and interests toward occupations 
in clothing services. 


From data obtained in this study, the following conclusions have 
been made regarding the extent to which the two objectives have been 
achieved : 

For objective one, which was to determine whether there was enough 
interest on the part of students to enroll in clothing service classes 
if made available in either the secondary schools or the area vocation- 
al-technical schools of Oklahoma, it is believed that there was suffi- 
cient evidence to question the advisability of offering clothing 
service classes in the majority of secondary schools in Oklahoma. 

A minimum of ten students is recommended for a gainful employment 
class. Because the number of students in this study that indicated 
interest in training for an occupation in clothing services does not 
average ten students per school, it would seem that one might question 
including clothing services in the home economics program of a medium 
or small secondary schools. On the basis of this study and unless the 
students change their reactions, there would not be enough interested 
students to justify the expense of setting up the course. 


The type of school in which clothing service classes seemed more 
feasible was area vocational-technical schools. These schools could 
possibly offer cooperative courses with other vocational classes which 
might stimulate interest for prospective trainees. Alterationist and 
dry cleaning assistant are examples of clothing service occupations 
that could be taught cooperatively with another area — distributive 
education. As the respondents indicated much interest in being with 
other people and with meeting clientele, perhaps being able to learn 
selling techniques would both glamorize and strengthen training for an 
alterationist or dry cleaning assistant. Dress design helper is another 
clothing service occupation that could be combined with a different 
vocational training area. Taking courses in art could be beneficial to 
the clothing service trainee aspiring to be a dress design helper. 

It is realized that student interest is not the only reason a 
course is offered. There must also be a need for the trained worker. 
Student interest, however, is the concern of this study and it is 
believed that these interests were assessed. 

The second objective, to identify the attitudes and interests 
students have about work and clothing service occupations that might 
influence their decisions to select training in this area, resulted in 
the following conclusions based on data obtained in this study: 

1. Responses indicated that the respondents held wholesome atti- 
tudes toward working in general and that they possessed desirable out- 
looks on work. Some of the views they seem to have were that they 
would take pride in their work, would be proud to have a job, and would 
find satisfaction in working. They are interested in the social aspects 
of work, environment, salary, advancement opportunities, dress, the job 
itself, and relationships with customers, 

2. Most girls do not seem interested in gainful employment educa- 
tion in clothing services. Some of those who indicated that they were 
interested did not want the training for use in an occupation, but 
rather, they wanted it for personal use. 

3. Glamour seemed to be a major factor in determining whether the 
girls wanted to train for an occupation in clothing services and in 
deciding which occupation they thought would interest them if they did 
desire the training. 

4. Most respondents who indicated that they wanted gainful employ- 
ment training did not appear to be aware of the activities that were 
involved in the occupations that they listed as their first choices. 

5. There seems to be a need to create interest in clothing 
services before it will be successful with secondary school students. 

Implications for Research 

The following suggestions are made for further study; 


1. An item analysis of the instrument as used and revisions as 
would seem desirable. 

2. A further study using the large, non-vocational schools in 
metropolitan areas along with a community survey to determine occupa- 
tional needs of the community. 

3. A similar study with adults. 

Goodbye, Little Thought 

I've an idea, 

a small, insignificant 

window-dressing idea. 

Bury itj kill it, 

cover it up, hut 

don't let it out in the 

open to 

clutter the hig thing. 

Don't contaminate 
the pool of thoughts 
with this little notion. 

Bug it, hold it, 

caress it; 

then let it go 

with one shining tear 

to decorate 

its vanishing substance, 

— E. Simpson 



Winifred Davis 
Home Economics Supervisor 
Kingston, Jamaica 

As more emphasis is being placed on the formulating and expanding 
of curricula for the wage-earning aspects of vocational and technical 
education, one of the major questions which educators are endeavoring 
to explore is "What are the commonalities in vocational education?" A 
review of literature shows that there is great need for research in this 
area. However, a few studies have been done and all point to the exist- 
ence of a large area of commonality among the vocational fields. This 
area of commonality crosses subject matter boundaries in all facets of 
the curriculum-learning experiences and aids, means of evaluation, con- 
tent, and objectives. 

An objective that is common to all areas of vocational education 
is "to prepare persons for and enable them to progress in socially use- 
ful occupations." Some people state it differently as, "to develop 
salable skills." In discussing salable skills, one must keep in mind 
not only occupational trends such as the decrease in unskilled workers, 
the increase in clerical and white-collar workers, the increase in 
service and cosmetic occupations, but also high and increasing rate of 
job mobility. 

The concept of a trial occupation, short-term exploratory job com- 
mitments with numerous job shifts, holds for the graduates of vocational 
education programs as well as it does for persons entering the labor 
market without the benefit of vocational education. If persons now 
entering the labor force can expect, because of technological advances 
and their concomitant effects upon occupations, to work in at least 
three different occupations in the course of their lifetime, then there 
exists a situation that requires the redefinition of salable skills. 
Thus occupations should no longer be viewed in terms of specific jobs 
or job trends in a certain geographical area. 

Many of the attitudes towards work which appear to be directed by 
labor trends are in sharp contrast to our Puritan values. In the past, 
these values dictated that we respect hard work and not pleasure-seek- 
ing. Work is still an acceptable activity, even though it requires a 
new definition with advanced machines and sources of power doing most 
of what used to be called work, but pleasure is no longer degraded, and 
frivolity with its aspects of conspicuous consumption may even be 
acceptable, A need for a new interpretation of what is acceptable 
human activity seems to be quite evident. 

Historically, working man committed himself to a specific occupa- 
tion at a very early age. As industrialization progressed this age was 
postponed. The time may well be at hand when there is no longer any 


need to commit oneself to a specific occupation at any time. Perhaps 
there is needed commitment to understanding the changes that are taking 
place and will continue to take place in the societal structure in 
order to develop the attitudes, understandings, values, and fundamental 
skills common to a variety of occupations which will not only permit, 
but will promote the progress of industry, the job mobility of persons, 
and the redefinition of work role. 

Since the beginning of vocational education as a public school 
enterprise, there has been a constant increase in the number of offer- 
ings. This proliferation is being accelerated daily. Are there areas 
of overlap in course content to justify a common offering? In light of 
previous statements, it follows that everyone preparing for gainful 
employment must acquire realistic attitudes towards work, job mobility, 
and his or her role in the family as well as in society. 

There is considerable evidence to support the proposition that 
personality and attitudes contribute to employability as much, if not 
more, than specific skills and knowledges related to a given position. 
If this is the case, then vocational education must commit itself to 
developing positive attitudes toward work and an understanding of the 
highly advanced technical society. This can be proposed as a basic 
commonality in vocational education. It does not differ among the 
discrete areas into which vocational education is currently divided. 

Another area which permits common instruction in vocational educa- 
tion is the physical sciences. The search for commonalities in the 
physical sciences for vocational education is predicated upon the 
acceptance of the foregoing comments in regard to the changing occupa- 
tional structure and its impact on the individual. Important also is 
the assumption that the men who are most qualified to perform jobs are 
able to understand the scientific basis upon which the jobs are founded. 

Schill^ in "Commonalities in Vocational Education" suggests con- 
sidering three hypothetical jobs related to agricultural education, 
home economics, and industrial education. The jobs are concerned with 
the testing of hybrid seeds in agriculture, large-scale food prepara- 
tion in home economics, and the use of electronic components in 
industrial education. 

Schill suggests that the study of heat energy is one of the physi- 
cal science topics commonly needed. He believes that it is readily 
apparent that all three of the positions mentioned are concerned with 
the source of heat energy, the transformation of the various forms of 
other energy into heat energy, the conductivity of a variety of 
materials, the convection of heat through air circulation, and the 
radiation of heat. 

■^W. J. Schill. Commonalities in vocational education. Paper pre- 
sented at Home Economics Conference, May, 1963, published in A. New Look 
at the Vocational Purposes of Home Economics Education, 


The home economics student preparing for a job in a cafeteria, 
catering service, or the food preparation facilities of a public insti- 
tution has need to know about heat energy. Its sources and intensity 
are fundamental in food preparation. Conductivity, radiation, and con- 
vection are basic concepts applicable to the preservation and prepara- 
tion of food. There are additional concepts that are essential when we 
consider the newer forms of food preparation such as infra-red light. 
Even though the student preparing for an industrial position in elec- 
tronics has no need for preserving food, the concepts of heat are 
equally applicable. He must be able to understand the relationship 
among other sources of energy and heat. Furthermore, he must consider 
conductivity, radiation, and convection in planning for dissipation of 
heat to avoid component damage. In a similar way, the student enrolled 
in an agricultural education class will need to be conversant with 
these terms and learn how to apply them in the testing of hybrid seeds. 

Additionally, a number of topics which are unique to employment 
education are common to all fields of vocational education. A list of 
commonalities in vocational education is reported by Donna Van Camp in 
the Illinois Teacher^ Vol. VIII, No. 1.^ A few examples of these com- 
monalities in vocational education include (1) the social security act, 

(2) evaluating the employer, the company, and the job opportunity, 

(3) retirement plans, (A) working conditions, and (5) attitudes towards 

The definition of commonalities is a problem area in the vocational 
and technical field. There is a great deal yet to be done in terms of 
identifying the unique aspects of each area of vocational education and 
what is common to all. Need for systematic study in this area is 
apparent. It is a certainty that many more common knowledges in the 
area of the physical sciences would be revealed through further 

^D. Van Camp. Commonalities in vocational education. Illinois 
Teacher, 1964-65, 8 (1), 23-32, 



DopZene P. Demavee 
Moultrie County Extension Adviser 
Sullivan, Illinois 

"It is important that students become fully functioning individuals 
in a position to contribute to the development of society."-^ We in the 
home economics profession are in key positions with a vast store of and 
access to knowledge and skills appropriate to meeting a part of this 
great challenge for both adults and youth. 

Two major "businesses" striving to educate people in the field of 
home economics are the school and the Cooperative Extension Service. 
This latter service has personnel in each county and is an arm of the 
state land grant colleges established for the purpose of helping people 
to help themselves through agriculture, home economics, and related 
areas. ^ 

Cooperation of Community in Wage-Earning Programs 

Although wage-earning programs are being established in many 
schools, it must be kept in mind that, at the present time, all youth 
are not being reached through these programs. More will be assisted 
in career exposure and occupational experiences if the school and other 
community groups and individuals will work together. 

Objectives of such cooperation should be: 

1. Expose youth to career opportunities. 

2. Help youth determine which careers are of most interest to 
them within their range of capabilities. 

3. Give many youth opportunities for experiences in job training. 

4. Fully utilize community persons and facilities for successful 
job experiences for youth. 

•^A. J. Knorr. Handbook for Home Economics Curriculum Vevetopers 
and Users. Phoenix, Arizona: Arizona State Department of Vocational 
Education, 1967, p. 1. 

Extension Service in Agriculture and Home Economics. Handbook for 
County Agriculture and Home Economics Extension Advisers. Urbana, 111.: 
University of Illinois, p. 8. 


5. Provide adequate publicity of cooperative career exposure and 
wage-earning endeavors for understanding by the public. 

Similar objectives would also apply to cooperative endeavors 
directed toward adults needing assistance with wage-earning. It should 
be kept in mind that all youth can benefit from such programs and not 
just low income or academically poor students. Cooperation among pro- 
fessional home economists, as well as among those in other professions, 
provides for more adequate use of knowledge, abilities, materials, and 
other resources for the good of society as a whole. Of particular 
importance is the direction of resources toward the preparation of 
girls and women for the dual role of homemaker and wage-earner. 

Present Contributions of Cooperative Extension Service 

in Wage-Earning 

Although the Vocational Education Act of 1963 delegates much of 
the responsibility for vocational training to formal school programs, 
home economists in the Cooperative Extension Service have also made 
contributions toward possible job employment. 

Contributions at the Adult Level 

In many areas workshops and training programs have been held for 
low income families. Subject matter emphasis may differ but aspects of 
meal preparation, nutrition, and clothing as well as money management, 
housekeeping practices, health, safety, and family relationships are 
usually taught. These special programs are found to be much more 
successful when cooperation is obtained from other individuals and 
organizations such as the Department of Public Aid; Public Health 
Department; area resource development committees; technical action 
panels; Office of Economic Opportunity; hotel, motel, and restaurant 
associations, etc.; and colleges and schools in the area. Home eco- 
nomics Extension units, church groups, ministers, local businessmen, 
and others also give assistance. Not to be overlooked is the pub- 
licity obtained through the media of newspaper, radio, and television. 

As a result of the training received in one county in Illinois, 22 
out of 55 women found employment by the end of such a homemaker 's work- 
shop course. Development of potential for employment was only one of 
the goals. It was found that attitudes changed and a number of par- 
ticipants wanted to be retrained for employment. Some gained suffi- 
cient incentive and self-confidence to enroll in specific wage-earning 
courses available in the community. 

In a metropolitan area the county Extension adviser conducted a 

^M, Nuttall, Extension Service and other agencies cooperate in a new 
program for low-income families. Illinois Research ^ Fall, 1963, 14-15. 


workshop on housekeeping techniques followed by on-the-job supervision 
for maid service. Less than one year later the county Department of 
Public Aid reported over $8,300 in financial savings as a result of the 
motivation supplied to the twelve women completing the course. Among 
low income families, middle class standards are not known; fear and 
ignorance must be recognized and overcome, sometimes with respect to 
even so much as using the telephone and riding public transportation.^ 

One program of mass involvement and training included the Chicago 
and Illinois Restaurant Association, University of Illinois Cooperative 
Extension Service, a health department, tourism and recreation councils, 
and Southern Illinois University. Four hundred and thirty seven or 
over 80 percent of the restaurant personnel in a four-county area were 
trained. High school students who hoped to work in food handling dur- 
ing the summer were encouraged to attend afternoon sessions.^ 

The Cooperative Extension Service home economics county personnel 
and state specialists are also assisting with wage-earning in other 
ways. Through Extension group lessons, special interest county-wide 
lessons, workshops, and individual consultations, particularly in the 
clothing construction area, women are frequently given sufficient 
assistance to earn as a result of skills learned. Indirect assistance 
may also be given through specialist's training of a group of home 
economics teachers or organization personnel. 

An idea which may work in other localities comes from the state of 
North Carolina. This was a cooperative venture between the Office of 
Economic Opportunity and the Cooperative Extension Service. As a com- 
munity project in a low-income neighborhood, they set up a model home, 
sprucing it up inside and out and furnishing it within a limited budget. 
Observation and participation in activities such as housecleaning 
methods, painting, furniture selection and renovation, making draperies, 
etc., could result in sufficient knowledge and skills for possible job 

Contributions to Youth 

Presently exposure to the wage-earning world for youth, reached 
through the Cooperative Extension Service in Illinois, is based on 
career opportunities as learned through the 4-H club program. A 

"^E. Schmidt. Working with Culturally Deprived Low Income Women. 
Springfield, 111.: Sangamon County Cooperative Extension Service, 
University of Illinois, College of Agriculture, Oct., 1965, 5 pp. 

^H. A, Cate. Better, safer food service — it's everybody's business. 
Extension Service Review, September, 1966, 37 (9), 12-13. 

^J. R. Christensen. Imitation — key to better living. Extension 
Service Review, January, 1968, 39 (1), 12-13. 


brochure entitled "Exploring Careers" offers an excellent guide for 
self-analysis of interests and abilities, related possible careers, and 
an investigation of selected occupations with suggestions toward prep- 
aration. Further reading, guest speakers, individual interviews, and 
club tours for learning about careers are encouraged.^ 

Other means through which the Cooperative Extension Service pro- 
vides opportunities for career exposure by youth include: informal 
personal contacts by Extension personnel; Extension sponsored Career 
Days; personnel participation in school or other agency sponsored 
Career Days; speakers provided for school programs; career brochures 
distributed to school guidance counselors and students; 4-H community, 
county, and state programs, and camps. 

The Neighborhood Youth Corps program, as part of the Economic 
Opportunity Act of 1964, gives valuable work experiences for youth of 
low-income families. A summer program and a school year program have 
trained 97 young men and women during the past year as Extension aides 
in agriculture, home economics, youth work, and clerical work under 
county Extension personnel guidance in Illinois, ° 

Another possibility leading to a career is the 4-H Peace Corps. 
Former 4-H Club, FFA, or FHA members with farm experience (men) and 
home economics experience (women) may be accepted into a 4-H Peace 
Corps Project where they receive intensive training for service in 
other countries. Upon completion of their two years, volunteers 
should be well qualified for other jobs.^ 

The Cooperative Extension Service in several states has made 
direct contributions toward expanding employment opportunities for 
youth. Schools, short courses, and 4-H projects teach young people 
what they need to know to work in tourist resorts, hotels, motels, etc. 
More intensive training than regular 4-H projects at 4-H training 
centers provides other opportunities. Setting up employment in a par- 
ticular trade before enrolling youth in a project to study for the 
trade has also been part of an experimental program. -^^ A learn-to-earn 

^Extension Service in Agriculture and Home Economics. Exploring 
Careers — A Guide for Illinois 4~H Club Members. (No. 4-H 142) Urbana, 
Illinois: University of Illinois, 12 pp. 

^F. A. Painter. Project Director of Neighborhood Youth Corps, 
Youth Corps Work Training Project No. R-4-7096, sponsored by Coopera- 
tive Extension Service, University of Illinois, July 1968, 

^National 4-H Club Foundation, 4-H Peace Corps Projects. Put Your- 
self in This Picture, Washington, D.C: National 4-H Club Foundation, 
4 pp. 

■^'^J. Banning. Work of the Cooperative Extension Service in Expand- 
ing Employment or Other Income-Earning Opportunities for Youth, Wash- 
ington, D.C: Federal Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
April 1962, 3 pp. (Mimeographed) 


program provided a half day work experience for Junior 4-H leaders in a 
business establishment, with school guidance counselors providing pre- 
liminary discussion on dress and conduct. -^ 

Cooperation of Home Economics Educators 

The previous discussion on ways in which home economists in the 
Cooperative Extension Service are contributing toward possible job 
employment in home economics related areas may present ideas for use 
in schools and communities. Following are some possibilities: 

1. Working together on joint career exploration programs to reach 
all students. Examples: (1) a one day learn-to-earn work experience 
for sophomores with school preparation and follow-up discussion; 

(2) panel presentation program(s) by employers in town to discuss jobs 
in the community, attitudes^ and skills needed, what an employer expects 
from an employee, etc. Perhaps one program could be done with home 
economics related occupations only, preferably during the school day 
when there is a "captive" audience. Parents should be invited as their 
role in career guidance cannot be overlooked. Youth need assistance 
with self-analysis and career exposure prior to selection of a job 
experience. Utilize the school guidance counselor. 

2. Working together on joint career awareness projects. For 
example — window displays in local stores and/or posters on home 
economics career possibilities. 

3. Sharing material and equipment for lessons and programs which 
can save time^ energy, and money. Sharing outlines, publications, and 
illustrative materials can save home economists time as well as office 
help. Artistic talent can also be shared. Equipment from other sources 
for cooperative endeavors might be shared and perhaps purchased jointly. 
A school or other education center may have a closed circuit television 
which could tape Cooperative Extension Service specialist training pro- 
grams for replay for professionals not able to attend the sessions. 

4. Working together for correlation of programs for timely , con- 
centrated coverage, and publicity. For instance, if a school home 
economics wage-earning program emphasizes training as a housekeeping 
aide, the adult Cooperative Extension Service program might correlate 
the lesson "Housekeeping Made Easier." 

5. Using school facilities by cooperating agencies for wage- 
earning workshops and training programs. Programs must be correlated 
with the school program and available facilities. The school home 
economics department and cafeteria facilities could be used for adult 
training programs as well as perhaps exposing younger 4-H'ers to the 

^^E. B. Winner. Progress in Career Exploration. Washington, D.C.: 
Federal Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, April 1962, 
3 pp. (Mimeographed) 


world of some home economics occupations through guided tours of these 
facilities. Appropriate exhibits could also be on display and demon- 
strations be given to persons on tour or at an open house. 

6. Exchanging and shaving of trained persons and their clientele^ 
Professional persons or those that have been trained in wage-earning 
classes could present appropriate talks, demonstrations, and/or films 
to school classes, 4-H clubs, adult groups, etc. These presentations 
could be about career exposure or specific home economics knowledge and 
skills. Reaching beyond the home economics field, the school industrial 
arts class might build a house and the home economics educators furnish 
it by using girls in a non-cooperative wage-earning program or possibly 
an adult group or 4-H room improvement club. 

In order to apply these and the following suggestions, initially 
home economists in a given community will want to meet to correlate 
their programs and resources. Such persons would include all home 
economics teachers regardless of whether financed programs are in opera- 
tion; the county Cooperative Extension Service home economics advisers; 
and possibly other home economics trained women, whether working out- 
side the home or not, who may make contributions. Those most concerned 
— the school teacher(s) and county adviser(s) will want to do some pre- 
liminary planning and decision making for the particular community. 

A more direct line of communication may be found between Coopera- 
tive Extension Service state subject matter specialists and county 
advisers. Thus much up-to-date information could also be forwarded to 
home economics teachers for their use. Extension lesson outlines and 
publications could be forwarded, especially those known to be needed 
by the teachers in their programs. 

When Extension specialists come into the county for training 
schools and special programs, teachers need to be informed in advance. 
Some subjects may be of particular help to a teacher who may desire 
more training in an area and wish to attend the training meeting or 
send a representative. Some suggestions might be in the areas of sani- 
tation, safety, grooming, housekeeping. The county adviser may also be 
willing to share her strong background of knowledge and her resource 
materials on subjects (money management, determining whether a wife 
should work, etc.) as a guest speaker at a school class session. 

An awareness and understanding of school and Extension home 
economics programs, as well as the agenda and calendar schedule, need 
to be shared. This could be done by regular contacts through meetings, 
letters, and telephone calls. The Extension adviser or representative 
could be asked to serve on the school advisory committee. A teacher or 
qualified representative could explain the wage-earning program to 
Extension groups at annual meetings. Extension unit meetings, 4-H 
leader banquets, and other functions. 

The importance of the understanding and cooperation of adults in 
the wage-earning emphasis cannot be overlooked since tax money is used. 
The Extension Service can work together with the school in this 


endeavor. When school personnel talk to Extension groups on the sub- 
ject, publicity in newspapers, radio, and television can be promoted. 

Since the school does not have much direct contact for educating 
parents, the Extension Service could give assistance. The desire for 
"glamour" jobs by most girls excludes from their consideration some 
home economics occupations such as housekeeping aide. It is felt that 
this attitude is promoted by parents and other adults who do not realize 
the extent of the knowledge and skills required to do a job well. Ex- 
tension contacts with adults and youth can do much to upgrade the level 
of such positions in our society. 

The county Cooperative Extension Service through its personnel, 
home economics council, and other contacts may help by serving as a 
clearing house for job placement in some communities. Extension per- 
sonnel may be in a position to know of persons who desire to hire help 
for the home. Thus a service to place such names on a list could be 
handled through the county office. Those seeking jobs could contact 
the office for sources of potential employment. The school could also 
take advantage of this service for wage-earning program employer con- 

4-H Project Career Exposure Suggestions 

Since two of the objectives of the 4-H program are to help young 
people (1) gain new knowledge, skills, and attitudes through real-life 
experiences, and (2) explore career opportunities, perhaps more empha- 
sis should be given to firsthand actual experiences for wage-earning.^^ 
Realizing that 40 percent of all women work outside the home today and 
that this figure will continue to rise, all educators and parents 
should be concerned with providing youth with vocational guidance and 
experiences in wage-earning, especially since many employers are requir- 
ing previous job experience. In many cases, it is helpful for a person 
also to be trained in a second skill in order to have a "job in his 
pocket" which may need to be used temporarily until circumstances change, 

4-H projects such as baby sitting, clothing construction, electric- 
ity, automotive, horse and pony, dog care and training, home grounds 
improvement, etc., provide training to make youth more employable. A 
Careers Opportunity section, with suggestions for preparation for various 
occupations and learning more about careers, could be incorporated within 
existing 4-H programs. The Careers Opportunity section might list 
careers related to each 4-H project along with brief job descriptions. 
Suggestions for preparation would tend to encourage school attendance, 
care in course selections, a good school record, and a desire for 
graduation. Information on general requirements for advanced study or 
training could be included. The vocational aspects of extracurricular 

•^^Extension Service in Agriculture and Home Economics. Illinois 
4-H Club Leader's Guide, (No. 4-H 19, rev.) Urbana, 111.: University 
of Illinois, October 1964, p. 3. 


activities and hobbies could also be explored. In order to learn more 
about the careers, interviews, field trips to appropriate businesses, 
and work experiences should be recommended. Suggestions for club and/or 
family role playing should be provided; observation, discussion, and 
evaluation questions should be included. Supplementary reading and 
film references would be beneficial. 

A 4-H club leader's guide for helping youth develop a good atti- 
tude toward work, a sense of responsibility, and the ability to relate 
knowledge and skills to a work experience is suggested. Leaders also 
need to have suggestions for evaluation of work related experiences. 
County advisers and leaders will need to be trained to think and work 
toward more emphasis on career exploration activities. 

4-H Project Work Experience Suggestions 

Since research shows the need to start career explorations as early 
as the fourth grade, the Cooperative Extension Service through the 4-H 
club program may often reach youth at a younger age than home economics 
teachers in school. Perhaps the role of Extension, in order to reach 
more youth, is to promote an after-school enrichm.ent program with some 
teacher cooperation and utilization of school facilities. Other capable 
individuals and community facilities could also be of service. When 
emphasis reaches career exploration and job experience, there are many 
possibilities. It is an advantage to have work experience before high 
school graduation so that future employment will be easier to obtain. 
The length and type of such experience may need to be analyzed before 
incorporating into a specific 4-H project. 

It must be kept in mind that there may be some youth involved with 
4-H as well as school wage-earning programs. However, most are likely 
to be in one or the other. Most present 4-H'ers are between nine and 
fourteen years of age and will not be able to work on a job except per- 
haps as a one-day experience. Many could participate in individual, 
family, or club money-making activities in order to gain some personally 
involved experiences with the business world. Older youth may want to 
form a career exploration club of their own. 

Home economics subject matter areas only are used for the follow- 
ing suggestions for work experiences in 4-H projects. 

Child Care 

Visit, observe, then help in a pre-school or Sunday school nursery 

or day care center. 
Care for younger family members. 
Care for other children. 
Help with children in a park program. 
Help with children in a hospital. 
Help with a mentally retarded class. 

Make toys and sell as an individual or club activity. 
Set up a toy repair service — individual or club. 
Work as sales clerk for children's toys, books, 



Learn clothing construction and alteration techniques in a 4-H 

club or after-school enrichment program — learn to use heavy-duty 

sewing machines, if available. 
Make doll clothes--sewing and knitting — and sell as an individual 

or club activity. 
Sew and/or knit articles for a church bazaar, children's home, 

school program, or club money-making activity. 
Help mother with clothing alterations. 
Help mother with laundry and ironing. 

Establish a club or individual clothing care service. 
Visit, observe, then work in clothing factory, or as a sales girl 

or alteration assistant in clothing store, fabric shop. 
Work in dry-cleaning establishment or laundry. 

Food and Nutrition 

Learn and practice skills in food preparation in a 4-H club or 

after school enrichment program — practice more at home. 
Practice different types of table service with family at home. 
Practice ordering from a variety of menus at a club meeting. 
Practice taking orders from a variety of menus at a club meeting. 
Practice waitress techniques for family at home or club occasion. 
Work as a waitress or assistant to waitress in restaurant. 
Help with 4-H sponsored barbecue, food stands. 
Visit school cafeteria to learn about kitchen tool and equipment 

identification, use, cleaning, care, and storage. 
Prepare basic foods under adequate supervision in school cafeteria 

during school day or after-school enrichment program — the latter 

food may be frozen for later special occasion to gain waitress 

Work in restaurant, hospital, or camp kitchen. 
Clean refrigerator and range properly. 
Work as grocery store checker, storeroom worker. 
Work in canning, candy, or other food factory. 
Work in store that sells cooking equipment. 
Establish a club or individual meal service for shut-ins or box 

lunch service. 
Establish a club or individual food preparation service — specialize 

in candy, cookies, etc. 
Raise home garden and sell fresh or preserved food. 

Room Improvement 

Learn to make table covers, curtains, draperies, flower arrange- 
ments, etc., in a 4-H club or after-school enrichment program. 

Make or assist with making draperies, bedspreads, furniture 
refinishing, etc., at home, neighbors', or school. 

As an individual or club, make and sell table covers, curtains, 
draperies, pictures and frames, slip covers, rugs, pillows, 
dried flower arrangements by order. 


Establish a corsage making business using fresh or artificial 

flowers . 
Establish a furniture refinishing business. 

Work in a florist shop, hardware, china, or furniture store. 
Work with an interior designer. 

In addition, all 4-H project areas will want to include suggestions 
for practicing job interviews; using a cash register; adding tax and 
giving money; role playing of employer-employee, co-worker, and 
employee-customer relationships. 

Observation, discussion, and evaluation questions would include: 

What types of jobs are available at the establishment you visited 
or where you worked? 

What education or training is needed for the jobs you observed? 

What are advantages of each job observed or experienced? Dis- 

What job(s) would be suited to you? Why? ■'^ ^ 

We as youth leaders must maintain flexibility in our role. Since 
specific employment needs of the future are difficult to project, we 
cannot hope to prepare each person for his life's career. Because of 
the flexibility of jobs in our world of change, we can only attempt to 
broaden horizons of the greatest numbers of youth. Teaching understand- 
ing and cooperation, developing self-confidence and abilities, and learn- 
ing basic techniques for skills will help us to prepare better citizens 
for the future. ^"^ 

Although each situation will determine specifically how home 
economists operate, it is hoped that this article has presented some 
ideas and suggestions for cooperation to help prepare more persons for 
working in home economics jobs of present concern and with abilities 
for future adjustment. 

References Cited 

Banning, J. Work of the Cooperative Extension Service in Expanding 

Employment or Other Income-Earning Opportunities for Youth, Wash- 
ington, D.C.: Federal Extension Service, U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, April 1962, 3 pp. (Mimeographed) 

^^E. M. Champoux. Emphases on wage earning in home economics 
classes in Kansas. Illinois Teacher^ 1964-65, 8 (4), 196. 

l^G. M. Stone. (Dir. of Pub. Rel. , J. C, Penney Co.) Report: 
National Extension Training Conference on Career Exploration and Youth 
Employment. Report to conference, Nebraska Center for Continuing Edu- 
cation, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, October 1962, pp. 91-93. 


Gate, H. A. Better, safer food service — it's everybody's business. 
Extension Service Review^ September 1966, 37 (9), 12-13. 

Champoux, E. M. Emphases on wage earning in home economics classes in 
Kansas. Illinois Teacher, 1964-65, 8 (4), 196. 

Christensen, J. R. Imitation — key to better living. Extension Service 
Review, January 1968, 39 (1), 12-13. 

Extension Service in Agriculture and Home Economics. Exploring Careers 
— A Guide for Illinois 4-H Club Members. (No. 4-H 142) Urbana, 
111.: University of Illinois, 12 pp. 

Extension Service in Agriculture and Home Economics. Handbook for 

County Agriculture and Home Economics Extension Advisers . Urbana, 
111.: University of Illinois, p. 8. 

Extension Service in Agriculture and Home Economics. Illinois 4-H Club 
Leader's Guide, (No, 4-H 19, rev. ed.) Urbana, 111.: University 
of Illinois, October 1964, p. 3. 

Knorr, A. J. Handbook for Home Economics Curriculum Developers and 

Users, Phoenix, Arizona: Arizona State Department of Vocational 
Education, 1967, p. 1. 

National 4-H Club Foundation, 4-H Peace Corps Projects. Put Yourself 
in This Picture, Washington, D.C.: National 4-H Club Foundation, 
4 pp. 

Nuttall, M. Extension Service and other agencies cooperate in a new 
program for low-income families. Illinois Research, Fall, 1963, 

Schmidt, E. Working with Culturally Deprived Low Income Women. 

Springfield, 111.: Sangamon County Cooperative Extension Service, 
University of Illinois, College of Agriculture, October 1965, 5 
pp. (Mimeographed) 

Stone, G. M. (Dir. of Pub. Rel . , J. G. Penney Co.) Report: National 
Extension Training Conference on Career Exploration and Youth 
Employment. Report to Conference, Nebraska Center for Continuing 
Education, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, October 1962, pp. 

Williams, M. S., Assistant Director of Cooperative Extension Service 
and Project Director of Neighborhood Youth Corps, University of 
Illinois . 

Winner, E. B. Progress in Career Exploration, Washington, D.C.: 

Federal Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, April 
1962, 3 pp. (Mimeographed) 


Elizabeth Simpson 


Reed-slim and wholly irnocent of curves 

she sat before me, 

one of twenty, 

not quite yet a teen. 

Yesterday she brought her doll to school 

for me to see 

and we spoke of a new dress that 

one might make from scraps. 

Today, I saw her dreaming 

in my classroom. 

She was miles away; 

her eyes remote viewed distant stars. 

She bent, small body 

disappeared beneath the table. 

I dropped a paper, curious to see — 

heartbreaking sight of child, 

almost a woman: 

she was busily fingering perfume 

behind her ears and to the nape of neck. 

Illinois Teaoher is grateful to the photographers for their creative 
interpretations of these poems. 


Dave Williii 



She cried in my arms — 

Tears at fourteen can be so bitter 

when one finds the world unfeeling 

and heartless and 

one's view is 

strengthened and 

daily confirmed. 

She cried that she was unloved 

and unwanted and plain. 

Two years passed and one day 

ahead of me on a crowded city street 

the familiar, emaciated body 

enveloped in black rayon, 

teetering on high heels — 

Gretch. She saw me and ran 

to show her ring. 

Sixteen now - she was married, 

she said, and happy. 

I sighed and hoped it was so. 

Sixteen - Gretch. 

She had quit school. 

She will bear children 

and carry them proudly in her 

emaciated body and talk 

with them with such thoughts as 

she carries in her narrow head. 

What of her children, dear God? 

What of her children's children? 

What of the country, what of the world, 

What of Gretch? 


Jerry Warmbier 



I am haunted still 
by the Madonna-face in 
the sophomore class 
of that evil school 
on the hill, 

Goldie, bright mind 
overlooked, unchallenged 
by a dull curriculum 
and prejudiced faculty, 
living in poverty, 
seeking much more. 

Later, her letters 

almost poetic 

told me her life: 

husband and babies, 

hopes and dreams, 

wonder of partial fulfillment, 

Goldie J oh J Goldie^ 
why did we fail you? 
Surely we failed 
you and your babies 
and others who 
might have been warmed 
by your light. 


S^-rp-.-nt Reasonitiiis u■^ 
i>f (i.H'd \ 1 vi!. Virt 

Verne Turpin 


To a Graduate Student 

Is this the world — 

or just a fragment of time 

with meaning for that fragment alone? 

Is the voice sharp in criticism 

God's voice? 

or merely that of man 

not infallible in judgment? 

Not in one moment or in 

one act alone 

is a man measured 

nor does he find his worth, 

but in the myriad of moments 

and acts that make a life. 

One paper thing is just that — 

important, yes; 

still, just a paper thing. 


Jim Reiter 







A home economics student recently approached a staff member and 
asked, rather sheepishly, if she had a book on the "joys and satis- 
factions of teaching." The dejected looking girl said she could see 
the problems, difficulties, and frustrations and needed something to 
counter with. 

This incident has prompted an informal search for authentic testi- 
monials concerning the intangible rewards in teaching, Itt-inois Teacher 
solicits readers' contributions which may be compiled for later publi- 

Won't you share with us in a brief statement the joys and satis- 
factions you have personally experienced as a teacher? Your words may 
help some disillusioned young person to renew faith in the profession. 



Contributor: Mail to: 

(please print) 

Illinois Teacher 

Address: 342 Education Building 

University of Illinois 
^ Urbana, Illinois 61801 



W-0. /^O /t^>^r?Ul^ C^<L^ vol. All, NO. J 

Winter 196S-69 






Communication With Families Having Special Needs 

Reba Davis 107 

The Value Orientation of the Lower Socio -Economic Class 
with Some Implications for Teachers 

Connie R. Sasse 117 

Teaching Strategies to Promote Thinking 

Eazel Taylor Spitze 132 

Legal Problems of Low- Income Families with Suggestions 
for Teaching in High School Home Economics 

Betty Kennedy Gipson 139 

Stories Based on Legal Problems by Betty K. Gipson 

The Signature 148 

The Missing Birth Certificate 156 

Jack Takes a Ride 165 

Mr. Bates Goes to Court 173 


A publication of the Division of Home Economics Education, 
Department of Vocational and Technical Education, College 
of Education, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 

Members of Division: 

Elizabeth Simpson, Professor 

Mary Mather, Associate Professor and Division Chairman 

Hazel Spitze, Associate Professor 

Bessie Hackett, Instructor 

Norma Bobbitt, Assistant 

Reba Davis, Assistant 

Mildred Griggs, Assistant in Higher Education 

Christina Brown, University High School 

Business Manager of It'lino'is Teaohen Miss Joan Lorenz 

Vol, XII, No. 3, Winter 1968-69. Published six times each year, 
Subscriptions $5 per year. Single Copies $1. 

Address: Illinois Teacher 

342 Education Building 
University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 61801 

Telephone: 217-333-2736 


Tkli> Aj^mo, o{^ JtUnoli, TmchoA U, de,vottd p^umcvUly to kolplng 
tOAchoM, and^A6toind and mnk 2,U^cXiv2Zy M^k p2A6oyi6 u)ko occupy tke, 
bottom Kung^ oi^ the Am2Alcan 6oclo-2,conomtc laddoA. WhoXk^A thzy oaq. 
labeled "the poon.," "mlnoUUe^," ''the loMen. cl(U6," "the cuUuAoUy 
depUved," "the disadvantaged," on, "penj,oni> lA^-lth ^pecAjil need^," it 
n^malns that theln. uodiiaAe ha^ become a majoK concen.n, Heeting thevi 
educational needs li> a nalton-u)tde pn.oblem oi va^t pKoponXionM and a 
dlJiect challmge to home economics educaton^. Hen.e Is a mandate io/i 
action and Innovation » 

The oAtlcle by Reba Vavls descAlbe^ a ba^tc i>eli-help and 
demonstrates "communication whence the cutting edge o^ society Is honed 
to nttty gnttty," Thxough some touching, Kevealtng, and authentic 
statements o^ -inneA-clty adult leaAnen^s, she shorn hoM audlton^y cues 
expose n.eal educational needs which, in twin, {^onm a ba^ls {^on. cun.- 
nlculmn decisions, 

Anothen appn^oach to understanding this so do -economic gn.oup Is 
taken by Connie Sasse, She examines some o^ the lltenatuAe n.eZated to 
value ontentatlons and suggests Mays tn tokich tejachenjs might handle 
dl^leAences among theJJi students. 

The stontes developed by Betty Gtpson, as a n^esult ol hen. Kesexuich 
on legal pn.oblems o^ lo^^J-tncome {^amilles, may pn.ovide teachen^ uxith 
n.eallstlc and meaningful classn.oom learning expentences, The^e dramatic 
episodes may be duplicated and used In many dl{^{^en.ent learning situa- 

The article on teaching strategies by Hazel Spltze u)ays 
to use Such problem-solving techniques In Improving students' ability 
to think, 

— Bessie Hackett 


"Can you hear me? Do you know what I am saying?" 

Reba Davis 

Research Assistant 

Division of Home Economics Education 

University of Illinois 

Urbana, Illinois 

.^ ^ 


Mrs, Davis is a recent 
recipient of the National 
Association of Extension 
Home Economists Fellowship 
She is presently studying 
for a Doctor of Education 
Degree in Home Economics 

We thought we heard the voice from the inner city family with 
special needs say: 

I want to know 

want to grow 

want and need to grow a self which 
can know respect long enough to 
grow self-respect 

want to learn some skills that will 
make my life more bearable. 


Home Economists have responded to Can you hear me? Do you know 
what I am saying? from family after family across the world. 

The plea arose from a densely populated high-rise housing world 
where the author worked for several years.* It is difficult to visual- 
ize the variety of needs which abound in this world of 3,700 people, 
640 families — living in four buildings which occupy about three blocks, 
along with an elementary school. Suburbia sometimes houses this number 
of families on 64 blocks with ten families per block. 

It never occurred to us that we could fail to respond to the 
needs that were so apparent; so we wrote some objectives — for families 
involved to: 

• see themselves as managers of their resources and relationships 
within their environment 

• begin to take some steps to achieve efficiency in the use of 
their human and material resources 

• see themselves as members of a larger society 

• begin to take effective steps to participate in molding their 

• see themselves as people worthy of whatever effort it takes to 
develop into active, responsible citizenship 

• see the Family Center as one source of educational offerings 
which would assist them in learning skills needed to become 
participants in the larger society 

With these goals in mind, we asked the Public Housing Authority 
for a teaching space among the people to develop a program of family 
education. Family Center evolved in a 4-bedroom apartment. Armed 
with a shoe-string budget, we, like our neighbors, had to make-do in 
many instances. Listening with a second ear ^ at a closer range, we 
heard the voice again, "Can you hear me? Do you know what I am 


"If you want me to learn to manage my human and material resources, 
help me discover some to manage where the decisions are not always 
adventures in futility!" 

"I'd like to believe that learning things can help me improve my 
situation. Can you show me that it will? Can you do it in such a way 
that I will feel safe to have this new learning and put it to work in 
my life? If you can't, don't hurt me any more with your false promises." 

*The exact location and agency connection are omitted for protection 
of families involved in the experimental demonstration. 


"Can you help me and my family begin to believe in each other and 
our neighbors? Can you help us enough — just enough to put us on our 
own two feet? We don't expect to stay laeve if you can help us find a 
better way." 

G D\ We thought, we have just the bag of tools to do the job. We 
have a broad base of principles, knowledge, and skills in 

Foods and Nutrition, 


Home Management , 

Family Life, 

House and Surroundings, 

Leadership Development , 

And related subjects. 

A f^ V we will be sure the people themselves chart the course of action 
through the flow-chart: "Improvement in the lives of Individuals and 
Families." (See Appendix.) Fine! We've read all the research we can 
find; we know that all you have to do is begin where people are and 
help them go where they (not we) want to go. We know what "people" are 
like — so on we go. 

Thank God we listened with a third ear» "Can you hear me? Don't you 
know what I am saying?" 

WE HEARD: There are some unknowns! To hear them and know how to make 
the unknowns work with you (us) and not against you (us) may make the 
difference between just another program and a meaningful human experi- 

We discovered a body of unknowns; beautiful, meaningful unknowns! Then 
we were able to think . . . 


— what you need to hear 

— what you need to know 

— what you want to do 

— how you see things and feel about what you see 

— whether you can walk with me 

— ^whether we will meet again! 


— whether I can say what you need to hear 

— whether I know what you want to know 

— whether skills I have can help you do what you want to do 

— whether I can see things and feel about them the way you do 


— whether I can walk with you in a meaningful way 
— whether you will want us to meet again! 

But when we don't know, and know that we don't know — isn't this a 
beautiful body of meaningful knowledge? 

Let's add one more set: 


— 'what you can say that I need to hear 

— what you know that I want to know 

— whether you have skills that can help me do what I want 
to do 

— whether you can see things and feel about them the way I do 

— whether you can walk with me in a meaningful way 

— whether we will meet again! 

Perceived difference in unknown and knowable did make a difference, 
We call this communication process: "Linking Lives across Chasms of 
Human Needs." It was through linking lives that positive motivational 
force for learning seemed to evolve. Feelings of mutual trust and 
freedom to express needs and interest formed the foundations. Appli- 
cation of solid home economics principles, skills, and knowledges to 
problems of people was the follow through. 

The process of responding to people, linking lives, concerns us 
most. It is being able to hear problems, then sift through knowledge 
for appropriate teaching-learning approaches. 

Communication where the cutting edge of society is honed to 
"nitty gritty" reminds us "the teacher is the learner." 

Linking lives is relevant to formation of accurate other-concepts, 
Jourard^ describes the process of formulating accurate other-concepts 
as ". . . this crucial step of hypothesis-testing that even a trained 
scientist overlooks in his perception of people .... Other-concepts 
probably enjoy the unique advantage of being the last of the theories 
which an individual will test, much less abandon." In other words, it 
is easier to believe what I hear and read about "these people" than to 
risk walking into a tentative unknown situation and discover humanness 
at first hand. 

Jeffers^ in Livi-ng Foot offers a participant observer's vantage 

■^S. M. Jourard. Vevsonal Adjustment, New York: Macmillan, 
L963, pp. 320-321. 

^C. Jeffers. Living Poor. Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1967, p. 121. 


view into life in a public housing project. She says, "Poverty, more 
often than not, does not foster niceties of language any more than it 
fosters the development of social graces. The problem is not one of 
having to speak a different language, but of being willing and able to 
listen to what is said and to respond with respect and sincerity." 

Our educational programs clicked when they moved through the link- 
ing-lives communication process. Programs tried other ways moved less 
well or not at all. 

THROUGH SENSORY EVALUATORS (eyes and ears) we watched and listened 
for growth (changed or reinforced behavior patterns reflecting objec- 
tives). Periodic glimpses into the programming processes follow. To 
help you hear them, a brief introduction to selected program partici- 
pants is given. 

A woman with a husband and 8 children living in the same building: 
Her obesity impairs physical mobility. It took almost a year for her 
to muster courage to come to the Center. She came because a neighbor 
kept asking her to join us. These neighbors had helped each other a 
long time before the Center was opened. These glimpses cover a three- 
month time period. 

. . . Here I am^ 40 years old, I can't read or write much^ I 
ain't never been able to Zeamn. nothing. Mama always told me 
to get on out of the way — you're too stupid to learn anything 
anyway! I'd like to learn to sew. Mrs. Jones said you'd help 
me learn? The lady that made my clothes gave me her old 
machine when she went to work. I tried to use it^ but it 
broke. Can you help me get it fixed? I'll pay for the part 
if you can help me find which one. I sure can't buy nothing 
big enough to fit me at the store. 

. . . She had me sewing on them papers nearly all day, I 
couldn't do nothing with my foot or hold the paper right with 
my hands. I certainly couldn't sew a straight line or a 
curved one either. 

. . . Yes J I'm wearing a dress I made. I call myself "Glamour- 
Puss" when I look in the mirror. 

. . . I'm excited. I've been excited all day; it don't feel 
like it did when I had a heart attack. ... Do you really 
think it might be 'cause I'm learning. . . . Susie has to 
have a slacks suit for Saturday ^ I'll make it in these two 
days. . . . Yes J I have to go to the clinic tomorrow^ so I 
can't come down; but I'll go vote while I'm out^ then I'll 
have to rest. I do seem to get around better now and get 
more work done around home too! The kids don't worry me 
quite as bad. ... I dreamed last night that I was making a 
white wedding dress for Mrs. Kennedy, I didn't know why she 
was going to all that trouble since she'd been married before. 
It sure was hard keeping the dress tail clean. 


. . . /1/c, I can't help with the programs for the kids; I need 
help too had myself » Yes^ I will come down and he there for 
the movies when the kids come. If they laugh at me 'cause I'm 
fat J I guess they just don 't know hetter! 

. . . When I walked across the street today ^ two men sure 
looked at me, I wiggled my hips a little and just walked on 
like I didn't see them. 

. . . leh, Charlotte ' s going to Eeadstart this summer^ and 
she'll have some nice dresses to wear every day. Won't you 
have fun at Eeadstart^ Charlotte? Yeh^ she likes to come 
down here and play with the toys. She talks more too! 

. . . You know I used to think about eating all the timet I 
just couldn't seem to think of nothing else. I'm getting a 
little hetter though. Now I can think about sewing and the 
good times we have here at the Center » I can't hardly wait 
until time to come on Tuesdays, 

. , . There ain't really no use in trying to cook no good food 
when nohody appreciates good food anyhow. ... do you think 
my kids could learn to appreciate good food? Do you really 
think my kids might learn hetter at school if they had 
hreakfast first? 

. . . My ole man is good about hringing money home. He wants 
me to dress nice. He's glad I'm getting out and coming down 
here. He says I don't holler as much anymore. . . . Yes^ 
this is the best thing that ever happened to me in my whole 
life. . . . (Can you hear me? Do you know what I'm saying?) 
I can learn ^ ain't that nice? I've learned a helluva lot at 
this Center I 

One of the first cooperators from another building: She had worked 
with us in another building before the Center opened. These glimpses 
span a year. 

, . . Yeh^ let's do reupholstery . I want to make my living- 
room look nice so the girls will hring their hoy friends home 
instead of heing ashamed to. I sure want them to finish high 
school without no habies so they won't he hemmed up like I 
was so early. I want them to get a good education so they 
can make a good living for themselves .... This reup- 
holstery really is hard work, but it's nice to get out of the 
house and he with some other ladies .... Don't it look 
nice! I didn't believe I could do it! You know I sent that 
picture of the couch to my mother , and she said she didn't 
believe I really did it! Yes, lots of peoples have been to 
see my furniture. They thought it was real nice and wondered 
whether they might come to the Center, too. . . . Mr. Sam wants 
me to do a chair for him. He'll buy all the stuff and me a set 
of tools. Can you check with me to see that it's going together 


all right? That money will make our Christmas! . . . Sally 
would like to work this summer. Do you know where she might 
get a cob? She has to have some kind of work that won't 
interfere with our aid. She needs some money to buy some 
things for her senior year in high school .... Yeh^ she's 
working with some kids over at Heads tart. She likes it, she 
really tells some funny stories about what those kids say. 
, . . Yehj I buy Food Stamps. They sure do help. Sometimes 
you can sell a book to somebody going to the grocery store 
anyway when the kids just have to have shoes or something. 
... J try to buy something for treats every once in a while. 
I do want them to know what apples and oranges and candy and 
things are. . . . Yeh, I'd take a job if I could find one 
that paid more than I'm getting. They say I ought to be 
ashamed not to have a job; but I am sick a lot and when you 
can't work, you don't get no check, and it's too much red 
tape to get back on aid again. Besides, I gotta watch after 
these kids. Yeh, their daddy and I divorced long ago. . . . 
Sally is pregnant. Don't tell nobody; we ain't telling it 
yet. Yeh, I thought I'd die when I found out about it. I've 
done talked with my caseworker, and Sally's going to that 
special school. Yeh, she's gonna finish high school. She 
will keep the baby, and I'll take care of it while she 
finishes school. Then she's gotta get a job and support the 
baby. I told my kids how not to have a baby; and if they had 
to have their sex, to just let me know they wanted something 
to keep them from getting caught. What else can you do? 
She's made her bed hard, and she'll just have to sleep in it. 
No, we ain't gonna make 'em get married. That wouldn't work 
either. . . . No, I can't come to the Center much anymore, 
not for a while. I have to stay near the telephone just in 
case. That poor kid may be scared to death when it happens, 
Yeh, I've tried to help her not to be afraid. . . . I don't 
know what I'd do if this Center wasn't here, so I could blow 
off some of this steam. (Can you hear me? Do you know what 
I'm saying?) Sometimes the problems are just too much! 

A young woman, infrequent participant: We do not know how she found 
us, but she did. We think it may have been from direct mail attempts. 

... J woke up in the middle of the night. I didn't know 
why I was awake, but when I looked up there was a gun pointed 
at my head and a big man standing with his hand over my mouth. 
I thought about the six kids asleep in the house and I didn't 
scream. It was hard not to scream, but I didn't know what 
else to do. I didn't want him to hurt the kids. (Can you 
hear me? Do you know what I am saying?) I had to go in the 
living room and submit to rape without making any noise. He 
didn't want my money. I didn't have much anyway. He left 
pretty soon. I couldn't see which way he went. I thought he 
lived in the building. I couldn't see him well, but I believe 
I'd recognize him again. (Can you hear me? Do you know what 


I am saying?) I had to leave those kids and go use a telephone 
to call the -police, I didn't know which way he went. Would he 
be on the porch ^ or in the elevator or somewhere on my way to 
the phone? I was terrified^ hut I had to report this to the 
police. Don't tell any of these people; you know how they 
gossip. My kids won't even know, Yes^ I went over to County 
and they don't think I could be pregnant this soon after my 
menstrual period. (Can you hear me? Do you know what I am 
saying?) I'm afraid to walk around with my head up. I'm 
afraid I'll see him^ and I know I'd scream right there. And 
the police say I have to identify him. I know that's necessary 
for them J but it sure is hard on me! . . . I don't know when 
I'll finish that chair .... Something keeps happening all 
the time .... CAf^ YOU HEAR ME? DO YOU KNOW WHAT I 'M SAY- 
ING? I'm glad you don't make me feel worse by saying I have 
to get it out of here at a certain timet 

The teacher-leader-counselor who works with families with special 
needs can expect more than a two-way stretch to concepts like home, 
family, right, wrong, ADC, Food Stamps, Public Welfare, politics, 
simple, complex, properness , and humanness. For many of us, there 
have not been sufficient, real-life experiences to enable us to sin- 
cerely empathize with the numbers and kinds of problems some families 
handle daily. 

The teacher-leader-counselor who attempts to change behavior 
(eating, particularly) may expect firm resistance unless a non-direct 
approach is used. Parents (significant adults) teach basic behavior 
to their young. It is tough to learn "the best homemaker (mother, 
father, significant adult) I know" might have had access to less educa- 
tion than you (teacher-leader-counselor) , "Please help me understand 
that it was lack of knowledge. My parents did the best they knewl" 
They often had so many storms of life that what they did know for sure 
became inaccessible through dulled awareness. Rekindling awareness 
can often restore in idle mind or a too busy mind to seek what is 

The teacher-leader-counselor who can learn to place himself among 
people, as a tool to be used in their development, can learn the joy 
of working with people rather than working in spite of people. Learn- 
ing to share the load seems harder than learning to carry the load 
alone. Perhaps, through the practice of humanness, sharing the load 
is learnable. 

Sharing the load is beautiful when students, teachers, parents, 
children, agencies, and organizations can know and say, "We did the 
best we knew!" 

One cooperator expressed for us all: "It doesn't matter whether 
you are black or white or blue or green. What does matter is people- 
to-people. This has been hard for us to understand." 


Some major implications for educators from this experimental 
demonstration are summarized briefly: 

1. We (teacher-leaders) can afford to fail, admit it, and quick- 
ly retrench. We need to take a positive approach in using 
funds, time, and personnel to accomplish objectives within 
our limitations. 

2. We must develop the capacity to think in terms of unknowns. 

3. We must learn and use the best human relations skills we can 
find and experience "humanness" at first hand. 

4. We must believe that human beings want to plan for the happi- 
ness of those they love. (Some need help in developing the 
capacity to love.) 

5. We must recognize that educators can make substantial contri- 
butions to a total approach. They can join or initiate other 
groups — at many levels — N W, Who leads and who follows is 
not important. What is important is that we gOj TOCSTHER, 



Areas of Family Opportunity for Growth- 

Nurturance of Human 
Development and Relation- 
ships (physical, mental 
well-being, positive human 
relationships) . 

Management of all 
Resources Available 
(time, energy, money, 
knowledge, skills, etc.) 


Basic Concepts- 








Cultural change 


Personal values 
Decision making 

Cultural change 


■"^ Perceptive Experiences^— 

drawn from 
Specific Family Activities 




Shelter and surroundings 
Human Development 
and relationships 


Feeding family 
Clothing family 
Sheltering family 
Rearing children 
Maintaining relationships. 

Basic Values 
within Society 

*Modified from unpublished materials. Prepared by: Gertrude 
Chittenden (Kansas) , Bernadine Peterson (Wisconsin) , and Phyllis 
Lowe (Indiana) . 



Connie R» Sasse 

Mrs. Sasse recently interrupted 
her home economics teaching 
career when her husband entered 
the Armed Forces . She is pur- 
suing graduate studies at the 
University of Illinois at the 
present time. 

In the current national focus on poverty and poverty-stricken 
people, there is a flood of literature dealing with descriptions of 
poverty and what it is like to be poor. Many of these descriptive 
tracts contain lists of characteristics which can be used in identify- 
ing the "disadvantaged," the current popular label for those in the 
lowest socio-economic and cultural segment of our population. From 
these lists of characteristics, implications for educators have been 
drawn, and suggestions have been made to improve techniques for reach- 
ing students who exhibit these characteristics. One example of this 
type of analysis is the identification of the characteristic that dis- 
advantaged students have a physical, concrete learning style; and an 
appropriate learning experience to use to capitalize on this charac- 
teristic would be role playing. 

However, few examples in the literature give any type of value 
listing or framework of values which might explain the lists of char- 
acteristics and help us see beyond overt behaviors and characteristics 
to the beliefs which are causal factors in these behaviors. For when- 
ever people behave according to their standards of what ought to be 
done, whenever they act according to what they believe is right. 


proper, decent or moral, they are expressing their values.-^ 

Even a brief look at the professional literature concerning the 
value orientation of the lower class quickly illustrates that while the 
great mass of the American people have only recently been made aware of 
the extent of poverty in our affluent society, the lower class has been 
of interest to the sociologist for many years. Since much of the basic 
sociological research in values has been done in comparative studies on 
different social class levels, the group being reported on will be 
referred to as the "lower class." Lower class, in this case, refers to 
those living at or under the level of the United States Government 
poverty index of $3,000 yearly for a family of four. Although economic 
poverty is not the only attribute which contributes to placement in the 
lower class, it is a major factor, and for expediency will be considered 
the determining one. 


Technically speaking, values are constructs in the mind of the 
scientific observer that summarize the general principles used by his 
subjects to guide their behavior. The more abstract the constructs, 
the more useful they tend to be, for then they explain a whole set of 
separate actions that otherwise might seem unrelated. In order to 
emphasize the abstract nature of the key values that lie behind many 
actions, the term "value orientation" is used.^ There are usually two 
aspects of value orientation: the aspect of ought (value) and the 
aspect of is (existential beliefs about reality) . 

Values are studied by two basic processes. One method is to ask 
subjects what they believe is right and proper. The second method con- 
sists of observing and making inductive assumptions about the values 
that seem to be important motivators of the subjects' behavior. 

The Class Concept 

A brief overview of the total class structure in America may help 
bring some perspective to the topic of the lower class. Kahl,^ in The 
Amevican Class Structure ^ identifies five social classes and the per- 
centage of persons in each: 

•^J. A, Kahl, The American Class Structure, New York: Rinehart, 
1959, p. 185. 


^Ibid. , p. 187. 



Upper Class 


Upper Middle Class 


Lower Middle Class 


Working Class 


Lower Class 



These figures are from the mid 1950 's and thus are somewhat out of 
date, although they are valuable in overviewing the total American pop- 
ulation. Current analyses on poverty report approximately 20% of the 
population as being considered below the poverty index. However, from 
Kahl's description of categories, it can be assumed that many of the 
working class people in his classification would fall below the $3,000 
poverty line, and as such would also be referred to as lower class. 
These class types are theoretical groupings, for in practical terms 
there is much overlap between classes. 

Upper Class 

The basic value of the upper class seems to be gracious living. 
The upper class are recognized as being superior in wealth, power, 
social interaction, and status. Money seems to be less intrinsically 
important, as it is taken for granted. The important thing is the 
manner in which it is spent to uphold the traditions of graceful 

Upper Middle Class 

The central value orientation of the upper middle class is oareer. 
The husband's career is the central social fact for the entire family. 
Public behavior and reputation are two of the upper middle classes' 
main concerns, for these factors, contributed to by the entire family, 
have very pronounced effects on the husband's career. 

Lower Middle Class 

Lower middle class people occupy a central position in the status 
structure. They hold jobs that generally do not lead upward so that 
the upper middle class orientation to careers is not meaningful to 
them. Instead, their primary emphasis is on the Tesipectabitity of 
their jobs and their tife styles y for they see respectability as the 
factor which lifts them above the shiftless workers. Aspects of the 
value orientation toward respectability are shown in the emphasis on 
education, as well as the strength of religion in this social class. 
Home ownership is valued as a way of proving stability and family 


Working Class 

The ordinary working class man is a semi-skilled factory worker. 
He generally has no special skill, but drifts from job to job as the 
labor market shifts, and may easily move between the working class and 
the lower class in times of economics stress. His basic value orienta- 
tion is to get by. 

In semi-skilled work the spread of pay from job to job is small, 
often as little as lOc to 15C per hour from the lowest to the highest 
paid jobs on the assembly line. A man with 20 years experience and 
seniority thus earns little more than the most recent addition to the 
factory payroll. There is not much point in working hard to get some- 
where, for there is no place to go.^ 

To the working class man, a job is simply a means to an end, a 
salary, as contrasted to the upper middle class value placed on a 
career. The working class man does not expect to enjoy his work or to 
be interested in it, and this plus his constant movement between jobs 
tends to produce an alienation from work. 

Lower Class 

Lower class reactions to being at the bottom of the social and 
economic class structure and their feelings of degradation in the eyes 
of more respectable persons cause a feeling of fatalism — they know that 
they are down and out and that there is little point in trying to 
improve, as they see so many odds against them. While they may express 
the desire to better themselves, their major value orientation seems to 
be apathy. Admitting that a characterization of apathy as the one main 
value orientation of the lower class is indeed gross oversimplifica- 
tion; the belief that life is unpatterned, and thus uncontrollable, 
pervades the life style of the lower class. 


It is perhaps in the lower class that there is the greatest dis- 
crepancy between ex:pvessed values and observed values. With the preva- 
lence of mass media today, it is not surprising that lower class persons 
basically seek and value the same things as other Americans. While the 
poor do have a more modest absolute standard of achievement than do 
those who are better off, they want relatively more improvement in 
their condition.^ However, many of the poor regard these standards as 
luxuries appropriate only to those who can afford them. Therefore, it 
is possible, without too much discomfort, to behave as if these 

""Ibid. , p. 206. 

^L. M. Irelan (Ed.) Loio Income Life Styles. Washington, D.C.: 
USGPO, 1966, p. 5. 


standards did not exist and at the same time to prefer these standards 
to one s own behavior. 


An outgrowth of the lower class value orientation of apathy is the 
desire for secuTity . Coping with instability threats becomes a dominant 
activity.^ Lower class men identified security (a job they could be 
absolutely sure of keeping) as the most valued characteristic a job 
could possess.^ Lower class working men generally show, limited desire 
to become foreman, partly as a result of the economic insecurity result- 
ing from the loss of job seniority in case of a lay-off,^ 

This quest for security is perhaps even more explicitly demonstrated 
in interpersonal relationship patterns. During the course of growing up, 
the lower class person builds up a network of interdependent relation- 
ships. The standardized response to economic pressure is not saving 
and hard work, but helping one another. There is no shame or loss of 
respectability in this dependence, for everyone expects to be in the 
same situation from time to time.-^^ Having built up this set of more 
or less bridging relationships, the lower class person is less prone to 
suffer their attenuation for the sake of new ties and commitments. For 
men, prospects in the world of work are not sufficiently optimistic to 
Permit turning one's back on any relationship that might provide some 
cushion against insecurity. -^ -^ For women, the uncertainties of married 
life make keeping open this network of relationships an insuranoe and 
sometimes a necessity for survival. Thus security for the lower class 
person lies in a close circle of people he can trust, people whose 
obligations are to him as a person, and not as an incumbent of a func- 
tionally specific role.^^ 

^E. Herzog. Some assumptions about the poor. Social Service 
Review, 1963, 37, p. 395. 

^S. M. Miller and F. Riessman. The working class subculture: a 
new view. Social Problems , 1961, 9, p. 91. 

^R. Centers. The Psychology of Social Class, Princeton, N.J.: 
Princeton University Press, 1949, p. 158. 

^Miller and Riessman, op. cit,j p. 92. 

l°Kahl, op. cit. , p. 214. 

^^A. K. Cohen and H. Hodges. Characteristics of the lower blue 
collar class. Social Problems, 1963, 10, p. 307. 

^^Ibid. , p. 324. 



Longly and loudly espoused as a basic American value, education is 
a necessary part of achieving the American dream. The lower class atti- 
tude toward education, particularly, illustrates the ambivalence referred 
to previously. It has been reported that 65 percent of lower class 
parents will say they want a college education for their children. ^^ 
Lower class white mothers had higher educational aspirations for their 
children than did the fathers. ^^ Among Negroes, 80 percent at all 
levels expressed a desire for college. ^^ Gottlieb, ^^ in his study of 
Job Corps boys found that among both Negro and Caucasian youth, parents 
were for the most part supportive of the academic efforts of their 
children. Negro parents were more likely than Caucasian parents to 
match their interest with involvement. Only one-fourth of the parents 
were reported to have been indifferent or in opposition to the educa- 
tional interests of their children. 

There are other environmental factors influencing lower class 
students to value education. Turner found that these students had high 
ambitions and placed emphasis on education when the family breadwinner's 
education was high for his occupation and when the education of the 
mother exceeded that of the father.-^'' The level of the mother's educa- 
tion was found in another study to be more influential on high school 
boys' educational aspirations than any other factor. ^^ 

Another strong independent variable, related to the valuation of 
education, is the expectation perceived from a "friend of the same 
age."^^ A student is more likely to expect to attend college, to have 
a strong desire to go to college when he does expect to go, to want to 
go when he does not expect to go, and actually to attend when his best 

^^R. R. Bell. Lower class Negro mothers' aspirations for their 
children. Social Forces ^ 1965, 43, p. 498. 

^^W. S. Bennett and N. P. Gist. Class and family influence on 
student aspirations. Social Forces ^ 1964, 43, p. 170. 

■^^D. Gottlieb. Goal aspirations and goal fulfillments: differ- 
ences between deprived and affluent American adolescents. American 
Journal of Orthopsychiatry ^ 1964, 34, p. 935. 

^^Ibid. , p. 120 

l^R. Turner. Some family determinants of ambition. Sociology and 
Social Research, 1962, 26, p. 410. 

^^A. B. Wilson. Residential segregation of social class and 
aspirations of high school boys. American Sociological Review , 1959, 
24, p. 841. 

•^^R. E. Herriott, Some social determinants of educational aspira- 
tion. Harvard Educational Review y 1963, 33, p. 171. 


friend does rather than does not plan to go to college. 


Another factor, affecting valuation of education and college 
attendance, is the class population of the high school the student 
attends. High achievers are less likely to wish to go to college if 
attending a working or lower class school, and, conversely, low 
achievers are more likely to want to go to college if they attend a 
middle class school. ^^ 

Schools and the possibility of college are viewed and valued 
solely as steps to jobs. Students are not interested in the subtle 
pleasures learning can afford, and none crave intellectual understand- 
ing for its own sake. The lower class emphasis in its valuing of edu- 
cation is diplomas y not learning. ^^ 

The difference between the valuing of education in the middle 
class and in the lower class is not so much a difference in desire, but 
rather in the attitudes that parents (and it often follows, their chil- 
dren) have that the educational goals can be attained. ^^ Although 
there is a desire to go to college on the part of many Negro youth, 
expectations are fairly low in terms of occupational placement. First, 
Negroes are less likely to have money for education. Secondly, youth 
perceive that the more "elite" professions are not open to them. 
Thirdly, due to more restricted and confined backgrounds, they are less 
likely to have contact with role models representing a broad range of 
professional occupations.^ Even a highly talented youth is not sure 
what he can do with a college diploma, and he may fear the disruption 
of his familial, community, and peer group security. ^^ 

In the previously mentioned study on Job Corps boys, drop-outs who 
expressed a positive value for education, were questioned on their 
reasons for dropping out. The most important reason given was that the 
respondents felt that there was no agreement between their future goals 
and what they had experienced in school. The lack of clarity as to 
their future roles minimized the students' chances of making some firm 

^^C, N. Alexander and E. 0. Campbell. Peer influences on adoles- 
cent educational aspirations and attainments. American SocioZogicaZ 
Review, 1964, 29, p. 575. 

^^Wilson, op. cit. , p. 843. 

22Kahl, op. cit. , p. 285. 

^^M. Weiner and W. Murray. Another look at the culturally deprived 
and their levels of aspiration. Journal of Educational Sociology , 1963, 
36, p. 319. 

2'^Gottlieb, op. cit. , pp. 935-36. 

^^Miller and Riessman, op. cit. , p. 92. 


association between what occurred in the school and some end goals. In 
addition, even though they might have had a specific occupation in mind, 
these youths lacked knowledge as to what in the formal educational 
process is required for vocational success. Although they recognized 
the importance of education, they did not know how to evaluate the 
various components of the educational process. ^^ 


The unsatisfactory measure of lower class life promotes enjojnnent 
and valuing of the opportunity to escape routines and pressures of day- 
to-day existence. Spectator sports, television, and visiting are 
acceptable ways to get away from unpleasant realities. 


Another component in lower class living is the appreciation of 
excitement, of moving out of the hum-drum. The consumer ship of 
workers, the desire for new goods, whether television sets or cars, is 
part of this excitement or pleasure dimension. ^^ 

In studying delinquent boys, Matza and Sykes found that delinquents 
are deeply immersed in a restless search for excitement. They create 
hazards in a deliberate attempt to manufacture excitement. The aggres- 
sion of delinquents is also seen as another aspect of the excitement- 
pleasure value. The delinquent indulges in verbal and physical assaults, 
giving vent to his basic hostility, his hatred, and his urge to 
destroy. 2^ 

One interesting insight into the source of these values in delin- 
quents is explained by Matza and Sykes. ^^ The emphasis on daring and 
adventure, the rejection of the prosaic discipline of work, the taste 
for luxury and conspicuous consumption, and the respect paid to manhood 
(demonstrated through force) — all these aspects of the lower class 
delinquent find a prototype in a sardonic picture of a leisured elite. 
What is not familiar is the mode of expression of these values. The 
quality of the values is obscured by their context. 

^^D. Gottlieb. Poor youth do want to be middle class, but it's 
not easy. Fevsonnel and Guidanoe Journal , 1961 , 46, pp. 121-22. 

^^Miller and Reissman, op, cit. , p. 94- 

^^D. Matza and G. M. Sykes. Juvenile delinquency and subterranean 
values. Amevioan Sooiotogicat Review^ 1961, 26, p. 713. 

2 9jbicZ. 


Matriarchal Patterns 

A dominant value in the family life of lower class families is 
that of a strong mother-child relationship. This mother-child rela- 
tionship is regarded by some as the strongest and most enduring family 
tie in the lower class. A recent study of lower class women in Phila- 
delphia illustrates the greater significance attached to the role of 
mother as opposed to that of wife. Specifically, the women were asked: 
"If you could only be a wife or mother (but not both) which would you 
choose?" The majority of women chose the mother's role.^^ 

This emphasis on the mother-child relationship stems in part from 
the quality of the husband-wife relationship. From courtship through 
marriage there is a pattern of relative emotional isolation between the 
spouses. The partners cling to the security of the old friendship and 
kinship ties rather than reorganize to make each partner comfortable in 
moving in one network. ^■'- Lower class men and women are likely to see 
themselves as opposed to each other and belonging to quite different 
worlds, ^^ 

From this lack of satisfaction in marriage, women turn to the role 
of mother as a source of emotional gratification. The mother-child 
relationship is also made more important due to the prevalence of the 
female-based household. It has been estimated that between 25 percent 
and 40 percent of the child-rearing units in urban slum areas are of 
this type. Associated with this household type is a marriage pattern 
in which the woman has a succession of marriage partners in her procrea- 
tive years, ^^ The need for love and the desire for children lead some 
women into this pattern of serial monogamy. 

This emphasis on the mother-child relationship also causes a 
lessening of the stigma attached to having an illigitimate child; for 
in the lower class cultural milieu, illigitimacy is not devalued to 
the extent that it is elsewhere. 

Living Conditions 

Obviously, this discussion has not exhausted those values that the 
tcnj3er otass persons cherish. The Job Corps boys interviewed desired to 
live in nice communities, in a nice home, with a nice yard. Their dream 
residential setting included a play area for children. Many of these 
youths stressed the importance of raising their children in a 

^*^Irelan, op. oit, , p. 20. 

'^^Ibid, , p. 16. 

^^Herzog, op. cit, , p. 399. 

^^W. B. Miller. Implications of urban lower-class culture for 
social work. Social Service Review, 1959, 33, p. 225. 


neighborhood where they would be safe and isolated from a delinquent 
influence. Parents who are poor want and prefer better clothing, 
food, and shelter. They desire a level or flow of money income that 
will enable them, not only to get or achieve these things themselves, 
but that will also reduce their continuing vulnerability to little 
lacks, to poverty, and to other contingencies.^^ 

Problems in Orientation 

There are, perhaps, three middle class value orientations that 
appear to be overtly missing in lower class life and which tend to 
hinder lower class individuals in adjusting to middle class school 
and occupational situations. 

1. One obvious difference is in orientation to , Middle 
class individuals tend to be "future oriented," whether they are saving 
for a rainy day or studying for an upcoming examination. Lower class 
individuals have been characterized as "present oriented," caring only 
about the here-and-now, with little concern for the future. Hand in 
hand with this is the middle class concept of delayed gratification 
with lower class individuals seeking immediate gratification. This 
characteristic lack of concern for time and future has been identified 
as a natural outgrowth of the "hand to mouth" life style of the lower 

Jeffers,^^ however, believes that the presumed inability of some 
poor parents to delay gratification is less a matter of weak will, 
limited self-control, insufficient stamina, or lower class norms than 
it is a matter of realistic and rational responses to chronic uncer- 
tainty, of conditioned reflexes related to constant vulnerability to 
the big and little contingencies of poverty. She believes these 
aspects of behavior among the poor are better characterized as 
"contingency oriented" rather than "present oriented." 

2. The second difference in value orientation concerns health. 
People who have little money, no savings, and scant hope for improving 
their finances are not likely to spend money to insure perfect health. 
They consider themselves "healthy" as long as they are able to keep 
working and bringing in the little money they can earn.^ 

The health status of the individual influences his ability to 
perform. Children who are anemic, tired, or ill cannot concentrate or 

^"^D. Gottlieb. Poor youth do want to be middle class, but it's 
not easy. Personnel and Guidance Journal ^ 1967, 46, p. 119. 

^^C. Jeffers. Living Poor, Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ann Arbor 
Publishers, 1967, p. iv. 


^^Irelan, op cit, , p. 57. 


perform well in the classroom. Adults on the job who are not in good 
health also perform on a less efficient level and, in addition, are 
vulnerable to accidents when working with machinery. 

3. The third value orientation which the lower class individuals 
tend not to exhibit is organization. Organization is an important 
value in many middle class activities, yet lower class individuals 
generally do not exhibit this characteristic. One possible explanation 
is that lower class people do not see the need for management and 
organization; in addition, they often lack resources to organize. 

Need Fulfmment 

An important facet of the Theory of Self -Actualization developed 
by Maslow^° gives some insight into the prevalence of certain values 
over others in lower class culture. He postulates a hierarohy of needs 
through which each person grows toward the goal of self-actualization. 
The hierarchy includes a sequence of physiological needs, safety needs, 
belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization 
needs. Only as a person is at least partially gratified at a lower 
level need is a higher need able to emerge.^" Thus a person with unmet 
physiological needs is primarily concerned with the gratification of 
these needs; he has less concern with meeting safety needs and still 
less interest in the gratification of the needs above safety in the 
hierarchical structure. 

Since much of lower class life is a struggle for food, shelter, and 
the other physiological necessities, Maslow's theory provides a basis 
for understanding why lower class people appear to show little interest 
in such needs as esteem. The need for esteem may be important, but it 
pales beside the all-consuming need for food. In some individuals who 
have been chronically deprived of need gratification, the desire to 
grow and move upward in the hierarchy appears to be permanently deadened 
or lowered. A man who has experienced chronic unemployment may be 
satisfied for the remainder of his life if he can get enough food.^^ 

Value Gap 

A basic problem faced by members of the lower class is that they 
are structurally in a position that makes it exceedingly difficult for 
them to attain the cultural goals of the society by legitimate means. 
There is a wide value gap. Therefore, great pressures toward deviation 
are exerted upon the lower class strata. ^-^ 

^^A. H, Maslow. Motivation and Personality , New York: Harper, 1954. 

^'^Ihid., p. 83. 

""^Ibid. , p. 98. 

^•^H. Rodman. The lower class value stretch. Social Forces , 1963, 42, 
p. 208. 


Hyman Rodman^^ has developed a concept called the "lower class 
value stretch" to help bridge the gap between the stated values of the 
lower class and the values that their actions would appear to reveal. 
By the value stretch, Rodman means that the lower class person, without 
abandoning the general values of the society, develops an alternative 
set of values. Without abandoning the value placed on success, such as 
high educational and occupational attainment and high income, he 
stretches the value so that smaller degrees of success are also accept- 
able. While retaining the values of marriage and legitimate childbirth, 
the lower class person stretches these values so that a non-legal union 
and illegitimate children are also acceptable. 

Thus while holding to the values of the dominant society, the lower 
class has "stretched" these values so that they are more meaningful to 
the realities of lower class living. During the course of face-to-face, 
day-to-day living, lower class people come to tolerate and sometimes 
evaluate favorably certain deviations from middle class values. ^^ Once 
the lower class value stretch has been developed, the lower class person 
is in a better position to adapt to his circumstances because he has a 
wider range of values with which to operate. ^^ 

While some middle class individuals find this value stretch diffi- 
cult to accept in place of the more "stable" middle class values, it is 
important to realize that most individuals have a dual set of values — 
those by which they live, and those they cherish as best. A middle 
class man may vigorously lecture his son about lying, but he may also 
brag about "fixing" up his income tax form.^^ 


It would seem to the author that the concept of the lower class 
value stretch could be very useful to teachers. It provides insight 
into why individuals may say they espouse one value, while acting in a 
manner which would seem contradictory. It also illustrates that built 
into the lower class value system are those values which middle class 
teachers generally consider important. The difficult task which 
teachers face is to help students "stretch" the gap in order to succeed 
in the middle class oriented school. 

Supportive Responsibilities 

Two functions that the teacher can fill for the lower class 

""^Ibid. , p. 209. 

'^'^Ibid., p. 214. 

^^Herzog, op. cit, , p. 395. 


student are those of vole model and supportive counselor. When students 
depart most from the expected patterns of behavior, such as lower class 
high achievers or upper class low achievers, support from teachers and 
guidance counselors is needed. '^^ Lower class high achievers need con- 
stant support from adults in the school system, even through their col- 
lege years. "^^ 

There seems to be a lack of adult referents who have the ability 
to aid the lower class students in clarifying goals and assisting in 
the attainment of these goals. ^^ Values change slowly and usually 
through complex incentives, including the emulation of models. In this 
respect the teacher is as important in character building as he is in 
teaching his subjects. ^^ 

In the realm of educational aspiration, it is a feeling of "reach- 
ableness" or "within my grasp" which differentiates the children who 
are in the lower socio-economic status from those in higher social 
classes.^ Teachers can help parents and children learn to feel that 
they can reach higher levels of aspiration. These parents and their 
children must see that many among their group do, in fact, go on to 
higher levels of accomplishment,^-^ 

Value study as a Means of Changing 
Affective Behavior 

Changing values by talking about them in the classroom is a high 
goal and a difficult one for teachers. One approach to changing values 
would be to launch a program to identify the specific values and skills 
that are necessary for survival in the economic world and to explore 
how these values may help in the future without threatening or violat- 
ing the primary values of family and community. ^^ 

The ability to adopt certain middle class values in order to 
achieve certain practical ends, while still retaining roots in and 

'^^D. Gottlieb. Social class, achievement, and the college going 
experience. School Review, 1962, 70, p. 277. 

'^'^Ihid, , p. 280. 

'^^D. Gottlieb. Poor youth do want to be middle class, but it's 
not easy. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1967, 46, p. 122. 

^^J. D. Lohman. Expose, don't impose. National Education Associa- 
tion Journal, 1966, 55, p. 24, 

^^Weiner and Murray, op. cit. , p. 320. 


^^Lohman, op. cit», p. 24, 


identification within the original subculture, can be compared to own- 
ing and wearing different kinds of clothes. Just as we wear sport 
clothes for sports or informal events and formal clothes at other times, 
so too do we have different values and actions for different purposes. ^^ 

Values which could be handled in this way include supplementation 
of verbal skills by the teacher in socially acceptable forms of gesture 
and communication; for example, one needs to look directly at a teacher 
or future employer in order to convey sincerity. Promptness and reli- 
ability can be taught in the same way. Lower class students generally 
are not aware of the importance of promptness and keeping appointments. 

Teachers can help students find ways of bolstering their self- 
image through conventional outlets. Flamboyant dress may lift self- 
esteem but may not be acceptable at school or on the job. 

Other differences can be handled on this same basis: some things 
are necessary for the student to know for his own benefit and not 
because the school is attempting to displace his "inferior" way of life 
with its "superior" one. 

Understanding the Learner 

A thoughtful teacher will recognize that a student's value orienta- 
tion has a direct effect on his motivation and learning behavior. The 
more teachers can learn about the values which their students hold, the 
more effectively they can plan for activities which will be meaningful 
and relevant to the students and which will help the students achieve 
the goals to which they aspire. 


Alexander, C. N., & Campbell, E. 0. Peer influences on adolescent edu- 
cational aspirations and attainments. American Sociotogicat 
Review, 1964, 29, 568-575. 

Bell, R. R. Lower class Negro mothers' aspirations for their children, 
Social Forces, 1965, 43, 493-500. 

Bennett, W. S., & Gist, N. P, Class and family influence on student 
aspirations. Social Forces, 1964, 43, 167-173. 

Centers, R, The Psychology of Social Class. Princeton, N.J.: Prince- 
ton University Press, 1949. 

Cohen, A. K, , & Hodges, H. Characteristics of the lower blue collar 
class. Social Problems, 1963, 10, 303-334. 

^'^Ihid, , p. 26. 


Gottlieb, D. Goal aspirations and goal fulfillments: differences 
between deprived and affluent American adolescents. American 
Journal of Orthopsychiatry , 1964, 34, 934-941. 

Gottlieb, D. Poor youth do want to be middle class, but it's not easy. 
Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1967, 46, 116-122. 

Gottlieb, D. Social class, achievement, and the college going experi- 
ence. School Review, 1962, 70, 273-286. 

Herriott, R. E. Some social determinants of educational aspiration. 
Harvard Educational Review, 1963, 33, 157-177. 

Herzog, E. Some assumptions about the poor. Social Service Review, 
1963, 37, 389-401. 

Irelan, L. M. (Ed.) Low Income Life Styles, Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 

Jeffers, C. Living Poor, Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ann Arbor Publishers, 

Kahl, J. A. The American Class Structure, New York: Rinehart, 1959, 
pp. 91-298. 

Lohman, J. D. Expose, don't impose. National Education Association 
Journal, 1966, 55, 24-26. 

Maslow, A. H, Motivation and Personality, New York: Harper, 1954. 

Matza, D., & Sykes, G. M. Juvenile delinquency and subterranean values, 
American Sociological Review, 1961, 26, 712-719. 

Miller, S. M. , & Riessman, F. The working class subculture: a new 
view. Social Problems, 1961, 9, 86-97. 

Miller, W. B. Implications of urban lower-class culture for social 
work. Social Service Review, 1959, 33, 219-236. 

Rodman, H. The lower class value stretch. Social Forces, 1963, 42, 

Turner, R. Some family determinants of ambition. Sociology and Social 
Research, 1962, 26, 397-411. 

Weiner, M. , & Murray, W. Another look at the culturally deprived and 
their levels of aspiration. Journal of Educational Sociology, 
1963, 36, 319-321. 

Wilson, A. B. Residential segregation of social class and aspirations 
of high school boys. American Sociological Review, 1959, 24, 



Hazel Taylor Spitze 
Associate Professor 
Home Economics Education 
University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 

How does a teacher decide what techniques or methods or strategies 
to use on a given day? Hopefully, she has quite a repertoire at her 
command: discovery methods, work experience, case studies and stories, 
discussion and brainstorming, writing and other creative expression, 
laboratory and demonstration, student presentation and group work, 
interview and debate, project and field trip, displays and exhibits, 
role playing and dramatization, experimentation and projective tech- 
niques, testing and supervised study, recitation and lecture. 

What criteria does she use to choose among her alternatives? Her 
skill with each one may influence her, but let us hope that she has 
skill enough in all of them to enable her to use other criteria for 
choice. Since variety adds interest, she certainly will not choose the 
same one or few all the time. 

Perhaps she would ask herself these questions in making her choice: 

(1) What are the needs of my students? Which methods or strategies 
seem to keep them interested? Which ones make sense to them? 

(2) Do some methods fit the content to be taught better than 

(3) What are my objectives, both general and specific, both long 
range and short run? Do some methods further these objectives 
and others hinder them? 

(4) Which methods will enable each of my students to experience 

(5) Which ones will help each of my students to find learning 

(6) Which methods or strategies will enable each of my students to 
see usefulness in their learning? 

(7) Which ones will develop independence in my students? 

(8) Which ones will develop skills of inquiry, promote thinking, 
and help each of my students to "experience the delight of 
discovering intellectual relationships," to use Bruner's 


One thing should be very clear. The teacher does not choose a 
method for a given day until after she has objectives clearly in mind 
and has chosen her content (that is, the general factual relationships 
needed) to meet these objectives. One of the objectives of almost 
every day's activity, will be to help the students, all of them, to 
develop the ability to think. If the central purpose of American edu- 
cation is, as the NEA Educational Policies Commission has said, the 
development of the ability to think, we cannot relegate this to an 
occasional "lesson." 

What causes people to think? From John Dewey to William H. Burton, 
from philosophers and educators for many decades, we hear the answer: 
They have a problem to solve. Something is not quite right, and the 
person feels a need to make it right. Problems ma^ take many forms, 
but they must be real to the learner if they are to stimulate and 
encourage learning. Actual problems from his own life situation are 
best; a poor second, but sometimes the only possible alternative at 
school, are "created" problems which seem real enough to the student 
for him to accept for solution. 

One example of a "created" problem is that of a person in a story, 
novel, case situation, or play. If the student can identify with the 
character he reads or hears about and sees his problem as plausible, he 
may be interested in trying to solve it. In another article in this 
issue of the Illinois Teacher (see p. 139) we find four such plays (or 
they can be read as stories) in which characters have problems requir- 
ing legal assistance. These problems are common among low income 
families but may occur in any family. The plays or stories might be 
very useful in teaching high school or adult classes. It might stimu- 
late more thinking if the story is interrupted one or more times while 
listeners try to find solutions to the problems, since the characters 
do find solutions at the end. Students might enjoy comparing their own 
solutions with those in the stories. 

Problems that students accept as real enough to work on, and thus 
to be encouraged to think and learn, may, according to Burton,-^ be of 
any of the following forms: 

(1) To find an answer, or to explain, discover, or verify something 

(2) To determine what to do in a given situation 

(3) To determine goals, attitudes, or policies to guide future 
actions or to choose between goals or policies already formu- 

(4) To determine the validity of conclusions, beliefs, or opinions 
expressed by others or to give reasons for supporting one's 
own expressed belief 

(5) To create something new 

(6) To draw logical inferences from accepted statements 

(7) To make value judgments in ethical and aesthetic fields. 

^W. H. Burton, R. B. Kimball, and R. L. Wing. Education for 
Effective Thinking » New York: Appleton-Century-Crof ts , 1960, p. 30. 


Can you think of any other forms? Another way of stating some of the 
above would be: To make a decision — if the consequences of the deci- 
sion make a difference to the student. As Hullfish and Smith^ remind 
us, "A problem is always a personal affair .... The simple fact is 
that individuals become involved in only those problems they accept to 
solve." At another point they say that "... thinking is the term 
used to name the activity of creating, using, and testing of meaning." 

What has meaning for your students? Would the same things have 
meaning for your students as for mine? Can the same curriculum guide 
serve us both? Perhaps it can if it is flexible enough and if you and 
I are both wise enough to keep our own students in mind as we choose 
from it. 

What decisions do our students have to make? What do they feel 
the need to explain, discover, or verify? What answers do they seek 
because they want to know? What beliefs do they wish to test? What 
value judgments must they make? What do they need to create? We must 
find answers to these questions if we are to choose teaching strategies 
which help them learn to think. 

Some students or groups of students have, with teacher guidance 
but not coercion, decided to create something to publish. This may be 
only for their own class or club or high school, but it is still a 
creation and can be highly motivating and require much thought. These 
publications may include a Baby Sitters' Handbook, a Code for Teenagers 
and Their Parents, The XYZ High School Book of Manners, a book of poems 
and stories for the children they will have in their nursery school, a 
Dating Manual, Advice for the Bride, a Good Eating Guide for the 
Expectant Mother, Shopping for Credit in Our Town, or a host of others. 

Other "creations" may include an "agreement I would sign with my 
dealer if I bought something on installment" which the creators later 
compare with real conditional sales contracts; or an agreement between 
a landlord and a renter which they later compare with legal lease forms; 
or a law needed to protect consumers from fraud; or labels for garments 
they have made — the possibilities are limitless. 

Students may also find it necessary to think — and enjoy the process 
— when they engage in creating plans for displays at the county fair or 
in store windows, designs for clothing or for bulletin boards, menus 
for the school cafeteria, posters to publicize a school activity, kit- 
chen rearrangements to increase efficiency, dramatizations to illustrate 
principles of family relationships, toys that help little children 
learn, and so on ad infinitum. Their imaginations can add to the list 
of creations needed. 

Sometimes students pcrept the problems of others as important 
enough to stimulate thi ' ng and to seek solutions. One 4-H group in 
South Carolina did a great deal of thinking and learning when they took 

^H. G. Hullfish and P. G. Smith. Reflective Thinking: The Method 
of Education, New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1961, pp. 107, 81. 


as a project the helping of a destitute family, under the guidance of 
their adult leader. This project, which included menu planning, rewrit- 
ing recipes in simple language, providing needed food, visiting the 
family and giving Christmas presents, and the like, was reported in 
Nutrition News y October 1968 (National Dairy Council). Every community 
has people who need help, and those who help them are also helped by 

When students make decisions, solve problems, thinky they are 
usually choosing from alternatives. Bruner^ says that "since learning 
and problem solving depend upon the exploration of alternatives, 
instruction must facilitate and regulate the exploration of alternatives 
on the part of the learner." Students must be able to generate alter- 
natives, to weigh, analyze, and evaluate alternatives, to choose among 
them and to judge the validity of the choice. Experience is needed to 
develop these abilities. To continue from Bruner, "There are three 
aspects to the exploration of alternatives, each of them related to the 
regulation of search behavior. They can be described in shorthand 
terms as activation, maintenance, and direction. To put it another 
way, exploration of alternatives requires something to get it started, 
something to keep it going, and something to keep it from being 
random. ""* Too much uncertainty can be frustrating to a student and 
cause him to give up because he sees no hope of success, but some un- 
certainty, some problem situation is needed to start the "thinking 
wheels" turning. 

Students can be taught to improve their ability to think, to 
inquire, to solve problems independently. One example of research in 
support of this assertion is the work of Suchman. He felt that tradi- 
tional teaching methods frequently "get in the way of thinking" and 
that methods can and should be devised to improve the quality of chil- 
dren's thinking. In a procedure which he called "inquiry training," he 
helped upper elementary students develop "more autonomous, productive, 
and disciplined verbal problem-solving behavior" while they learned 
some principles of physics.^ He believed that the skills of data col- 
lection and organization and of inductive reasoning must be taught as 
a basis for productive inquiry and that the processes should take 
precedence over content in the curriculum. 

Inquiry training can be done in home economics classes, too. 
Suchman 's procedure was to demonstrate some principle, usually with a 
short film, and then to ask the students to explain it. They could ask 
any question which could be answered with Yes or No, and they could 

^J. S. Bruner. Toward a Theory of Instruction . Cambridge, Mass.: 
Harvard University Press, 1966, p. 43. 


^J. R. Suchman. Inquiry training: teaching children skills and 
strategies for productive thinking in science. Paper presented at the 
1960 annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, 1960. 


continue their questioning as long as they got a Yes answer. Students 
were urged to formulate theories and to test them with appropriate 
questions (Figure out why you think it happened and ask questions to 
see if you are right) . 

In home economics we could demonstrate meat cookery and ask why 
the meat became tough, or cream of tomato soup and ask why the milk 
curdled, or white sauce and ask why it lumped. We could demonstrate a 
garment that did not hang right and ask why, or a process in two dif- 
ferent kitchens and ask why it took longer in one than in the other. 
We could show a laundered garment and ask why it had shrunk or a stored 
one and ask why it had holes in it, or discoloration or spots? Suchman 
discovered that physical science was easier than social science as a 
vehicle for inquiry training, but he did succeed in demonstrating with 
economics principles, too. To demonstrate some of our principles in 
the areas of home management or family relationships, we might use 
brief skits, and then ask why the purchase was unsatisfactory, why the 
decision was not carried out, or why the teenager ran away from home. 
The answers are not as clear-cut and sure in many cases, but students 
can hypothesize and suggest some possible ones and also some ways they 
might test them if they were in the real situation, e.g., "if I were 
the mother in that family, I'd think it might be because . . . and I'd 
try to find out by . . . ," 

One of the most recent helps for teachers who wish to improve 
their procedures for helping students learn to think is Raths et al.. 
Teaching for Thinking,^ Men cannot be both stupid and free, say these 
authors, and one of the cornerstones of a democratic society is faith 
in the use of intelligence. Never has the need to emphasize thinking 
in the education of children been so urgent as today. Raths and his 
co-authors spell out their theory in plain language and suggest con- 
crete procedures for giving students experiences in thinking. They 
emphasize various "thinking operations" and describe ways in which they 
can be encouraged in class: comparing, summarizing, observing, classi- 
fying, interpreting, criticizing, looking for assumptions, imagining, 
collecting and organizing data, hypothesizing, applying facts and 
principles in new situations, decision making, designing projects or 
investigations, and coding. They, too, emphasize that the problems 
must be real. When students are asked to make comparisons, for example, 
there must be "real purpose in the analysis, a real motive for this 
searching for likes and dislikes," and when this occurs, "the quest 
proves to be interesting and stimulating both to teachers and students."^ 
Independent work is urged, and by independent work these authors mean 
"work that starts out with a student's own curiosity, his own questions, 
his own seeking."^ 

^L. E. Raths, S, Wassermann, A. Jonas, and A. M. Rothstein. 
Teaching for Thinking, Columbus, Ohio: Chas. E. Merrill, 1967. 

"^Ibid, , p. 6. 

^Ibid., p. 15. 


"The teacher who would teach with an emphasis on thinking may need 
to be aware of the differences between process and product in relation 
to education," Raths continues in a later chapter. "In short, the 
process is the experience (plus the efforts) that a student goes 
through as he learns. The product is the end result or the 'answer' 
. . . Educators are too concerned with the product of learning and not 
enough with the process. ... As teachers teach for thinking, as they 
emphasize process, as well as product, as they focus on individual 
children, education in their classrooms tends to become custom-made 
rather than a result of mass production."^ 

To assist teachers in selecting activities to encourage the devel- 
opment of thinking abilities, Raths suggests the following criteria: ^^ 

(1) Related to purpose (or teaching objectives) 

(2) Related to operations of thinking 

(3) Related to students 

(4) Related to curriculum content 

What does all this mean to the home economics teacher? Chiefly, 
perhaps, it reminds her that telling is not teaching, that methods 
which consist mostly of teacher talk or recitation or film-strips do 
not give students opportunities to practice thinking. She must deal 
with the real problems of the students or find ways to make vicarious 
experiences real enough to stimulate thinking. To return to the suc- 
ceeding article in this Itlino'is Teacher^ we may suggest that case 
situations, describing problems common in the lives of the students, 
may be one way to do so. Teachers do not always have time to write 
plays and stories as detailed and carefully constructed as the ones 
given here, but those who do can share with others and all can benefit. 
Simple case situations can set forth problems and may stimulate thought- 
ful discussion, especially when students are asked to make decisions or 
recommendations for the characters in the story. A student or a group 
of students can often produce the stories or dramatizations if given 
the opportunity, which, of course, provides another experience in 


Bruner, J. S. Tau^ard a Theory of Instruction, Cambridge, Mass.: 
Harvard University Press, 1966. 

Burton, W. H., Kimball, R. B., and Wing, R. L. Education for Effective 
Thinking, New York: Appleton-Century-Crof ts, 1960. 

Hullfish, H. G., and Smith, P. G. Reflective Thinking: The Method of 
Education, New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1961. 

'^Ibid, , pp. 246-249. 
^^Ihid, , pp. 255-256. 


Raths, L. E., Wassermann, S., Jonas, A., and Rothstein, A. M. Teaching 
for Thinking: Theory and Application, Columbus, Ohio: Chas, E. 
Merrill, 1967. 

Suchman, J. R. Inquiry training: teaching children skills and strate- 
gies for productive thinking in science. Paper presented at the 
1960 annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, 

Merrill Palmer Quarterly of Behavior and Development , July 1961. 
I^EA Journal, March 1963. 
The Science Teacher, November 1960. 



Betty Kennedy Gipson 
Home Economics Teacher 
L. W. Higgins School 
Jefferson Parish, Louisiana 

Since 1952 Mrs. Gipson has taught home economics in both the 
parochial and public school systems of Jefferson and Orleans 
parishes in Louisiana. Her interest in family legal problems 
is influenced by her husband; he is Executive Director of the 
New Orleans Legal Aid Bureau. Mrs. Gipson' s Master's Thesis, 
completed at Louisiana State University, is reported in sum- 
mary. Her study, under the direction of Dr. Alma Beth Clark, 
was conducted in a selected area of New Orleans, Louisiana. 
Readers will be especially interested in her dramatic stories 
(pp. 148-181) for use in teaching. A sampling of references 
is also presented (pp. 182-183) . 




The American family has undergone many changes in the last century, 
Life has become more complicated. In order that our society might func- 
tion efficiently, the number of rules and regulations has increased. 
These rules and regulations, our laws, have become an integral part of 
family life. No longer is a hand shake sufficient to bind an agreement, 
No longer is it possible to merely agree to rear a child who has been 
orphaned. These, as well as many other once common actions of individ- 
uals, are, of necessity, controlled by the laws of our society. 

Problem and Procedures 

This study was conducted to determine the number and types of 
legal problems experienced by low-income families in a selected area of 
New Orleans, Louisiana. An attempt was made to determine the extent of 
use by them of available legal resources. The factors of income, num- 
ber of dependents, and place of residence were studied to determine 
their effect on the number and types of legal problems. A teaching 
method was developed, based on the findings of the study, which could 
be used in high school home economics classes.* 

It was hypothesized: 

1. That many low-income families had legal problems, which were 
numerous and varied; 

2. That the number of low-income families reporting legal prob- 
lems, and the types and number of legal problems of these 
families, were associated with income, size of family, and 
place of residence; 

3. That low-income families were unaware of legal resources and 
failed to utilize available legal resources. 

A questionnaire was administered to 275 Negro heads of families. 
Of these, 177 lived in a federal housing project, and 98 lived in an 
area immediately adjacent to the project. 

Findings and Conclusions 

The legal problems were classified as criminal, family, economic, 
and property. Of the families studied, 189 reported having had legal 
problems during 1964. 

Family legal problems, 40,9 percent, and economic legal problems. 

*In the preceding article Dr. Spitze suggests strategies for using 
materials such as those developed by Mrs. Gipson (see p. 132). 


43.9 percent, were the types of legal problems more frequently reported. 
Fewer property legal problems, 8.9 percent, and criminal problems, 6.3 
percent, were reported. 

Divorce and separation comprised 26.2 percent of the family legal 
problems. Other family legal problems frequently reported were those 
involving birth certificates, and juveniles. Debts accounted for the 
largest number, 18.1 percent, of the economic legal problems. Of the 
property legal problems, 67.3 percent involved landlord and tenant 
relationships. The majority of the criminal problems reported, 51.2 
percent, were serious criminal problems. 

These findings supported the hypothesis that many low-income 
families had legal problems, which were numerous and varied. 

The idea that the number of low- income families reporting legal 
problems, and the types and number of legal problems of these families, 
were associated with income, size of family, and place of residence, 
was supported only in part by the findings of the study. 

A higher percentage of families in the lowest-income group reported 
problems, 75.4 percent, while the highest-income group reported 54 per- 
cent. Families with an income under $1000 a year reported an average 
of 3.95 problems per family, and the highest-income group reported an 
average of 1,51 problems per family. As the income increased, there 
was a decrease in the number of family law problems, and an increase 
in the number of economic and property legal problems. 

The findings were inconclusive as to the relationship of the 
number of dependents to either the number of families reporting legal 
problems or the number and types of such problems. 

The data revealed that 72,9 percent of the families living in the 
project had legal problems, and that 61,2 percent of the families living 
in the adjacent area had such problems. The families in the project 
reported 2,58 problems per family, while the families in the adjacent 
area reported two problems per family. The residents of the project 
had a higher percentage of criminal problems than those in the adjacent 
area. Likewise, the families in the project had more family legal 
problems than those in the adjoining area. By contrast, the residents 
of the adjoining area reported a higher percentage of economic and 
property legal problems than the residents of the project. 

The hypothesis that low-income families were unaware of legal 
resources and failed to utilize available legal resources was sub- 
stantiated by the study. 

Of the 189 families reporting legal problems, 63.5 percent had no 
legal representation. Of those who had a lawyer, 42 percent used a 
private lawyer, and 58 percent were represented by the Legal Aid 
Bureau. A majority of those who had legal problems failed to utilize 
the services of the Legal Aid Bureau either because of their lack of 
knowledge of the existence of the Bureau or misunderstanding of the 
nature of the services of the Bureau. 


The findings of the study were used as a basis for developing 
stories for use in high school home economics classes. The purpose of 
these stories was to develop a method of teaching which would be of aid 
in increasing the pr obi em- solving skills of students, in making them 
more aware of the community resources available to families in need, 
and in preventing the occurrence of legal problems in their families. 
The stories were designed either to be read as stories or to be acted 
out as plays. Each story contains a list of questions designed to 
assist teachers in helping their students formulate concepts and 
generalizations . 

Implications for Further Research 

This study probed the legal problems of low-income Negro families 
in an impacted area of New Orleans. It is suggested that additional 
study be done of the City at large, sampling all economic and racial 
groups. Such a study would provide information of particular value to 
educators and others involved in community family services. 

The study revealed many types of legal problems which could result 
in family disorganization. It did not attempt to relate the legal 
problems to their effect on family cohesiveness. A study which would 
probe the relationship between legal problems and their effect on 
family stability would be of interest and value to those concerned with 
the problems of the family, 

A more detailed study is suggested in the area of consumer and 
economic legal problems of the low-income family, to determine what 
services are needed to alleviate these problems. 

Implications for Home Economists 

Further thought should be given by home economists to determine 
how they can be of assistance to low-income families. In particular, 
attention needs to be directed to ways they can assist in making these 
low-income families aware of their problems -tnd community resources, 
thus bridging the gap which now exists betwet-n these low-income 
families and the help which they need. 


As the findings in this study indicated, the poor were confronted 
with many types and kinds of legal problems in their day-to-day lives. 
Over 68 percent of the families in this study had legal problems in the 
relatively short period of one year. Low-income individuals need to be 
made more aware of their legal problems and the services available to 
aid them in the resolution of these problems. 

In an effort to aid teachers of home economics in high schools to 
guide students in understanding legal problems of the family, and to 
assist them in learning how to prevent these kinds of problems from 


arising, a series of stories (see pp. 148 to 180) was developed, to be 
used in class to increase the problem-solving skills of students. The 
content of these stories is based on the findings of this study. 

Bases for Choice of Method 

This method of teaching was selected because it provides a way for 
students to gain insight into legal problems of families. It has been 
found to be an effective technique for use in developing an understand- 
ing of how individuals or groups react in various situations.-^ Such a 
technique makes it possible to present situations which might be too 
embarrassing to discuss in a less impersonal manner. While the types 
of problems used in these stories might be the exact types of problems 
being experienced or having been experienced by some of the students, 
they are presented in such a manner that they can be discussed objec- 
tively, and solutions arrived at objectively. Through this method 
pupils experiences vicariously the legal problems of others, and see 
some examples of methods used by the family in the stories which have 
resulted in a degree of success. Not only will students learn of 
specific problem- solving methods, but they will perhaps derive a 
certain amount of encouragement as a result of the success achieved by 
this family. Additionally, they should develop some skill in predict- 
ing how they, as well as others, might react in similar situations, 
making them more empathic and improving their interpersonal relation- 
ships. This method of teaching should be enjoyable, providing both an 
effective as well as a personally satisfying experience. 


The following are educational outcomes which should result from 
the use of these stories. Students should: 

1. Gain knowledge of the legal problems of families; 

2. Increase their ability to analyze problems; 

3. Gain skill in identifying problems; 

4. Become competent in clarifying their values; 

5. Be assisted in evaluating learnings; 

6. Be helped to develop more sense of personal worth; 

7. Develop an appreciation of the legal services available to 
families in need; 

8. Develop a sense of civic responsibility; 

•^W. W. Reeder. Some Methods and Tools to Increase Interest^ Par- 
ticipation^ and Teaching Effectiveness, New York: Cornell Extension 
Bulletin 907, 1958. 


9. Gain direction for increasing economic efficiency; 

10. Develop a sense of security in regard to the due process 
of laws; 

11. Become more evaluative in life situations. 

To develop student interest, a low- income family was identified, 
based on the findings of the study. This family was named "Bates." 
Through the various legal problems of the Bates, the students should 
become acquainted with types of legal problems experienced by low- 
income families, learn how to prevent these problems, and learn how to 
solve these problems through use of community resources. Not only will 
this information be useful to these students as future homemakers, but 
it should be of value to their families now, as the students carry this 
information home from the classroom. It is hoped that the students 
will select a favorite family member and develop a desire to help him 
solve his problems. 

Description of the Typical Family 

The Bates family, although completely imaginary, could exist. It 
consists of Helen Bates, her husband, Fred, and their five children, 
ages fifteen to two. Mr. Bates is a laborer. He has a tenth-grade 
education. Mrs. Bates is a housewife, and has an eighth-grade educa- 
tion. The family income is $3000 a year. The children are Mary, age 
15; George, age 13; Jack, age 12; Lisa, age 5; and Toby, age 2. The 
family lives in a federal housing development. While new characters 
will be introduced, the Bates family will retain its original charac- 
ters and identity. 

Famous Last Words Technique 

The technique of capitalizing so-called "famous last words" is 
used. This was done in the belief that the students will soon pick up 
these phrases and identify them as clues to impending problems, or as 
topics for discussion. At these points, the teacher may wish to stop 
the story to discuss the problem or situation. 

To check the feasibility of this technique of teaching high school 
students, these stories were submitted to a panel of teachers in the 
Desire Project school district, the area of this study. These teachers 
were asked to evaluate the stories to determine if the stories would 
achieve the desired educational outcomes, assuming competent utiliza- 
tion. The teachers were asked to check the language of the stories to 
ascertain if it was within the reading level of their students. Addi- 
tionally, the teachers were asked to check the authenticity of the Bates 
family. Finally, the teachers were asked if they thought their students 
would be motivated by these stories and if they would hold the interest 
of the students. After the teachers' evaluation of the stories, they 
were revised and modified in light of the suggestions and recommenda- 


While each story included in this study was preceded by a discus- 
sion of possible educational outcomes, it was not expected that these 
outcomes would be presented to the students as such. Evidences can be 
secured of pupil progress through various methods of conventional 
evaluation by the classroom teacher, such as testing, oral questioning, 
discussing, and reporting. 

Concepts and Generalizations 

At the end of the stories are concepts and generalizations. The 
generalizations are stated on the teacher level. Students should not 
be expected to speak or develop generalizations at this level, but 
should be guided to formulate concepts and generalizations at the level 
of their potential. 

It is human nature to make generalizations which can be erroneous 
as a result of lack of information, misinformation, attitudes towards 
ideas, people or things, and because of a limited maturity in reasoning 
and vocabulary. Students need to be guided in identifying the under- 
lying factors on which they are building generalizations. However, if 
students are to be educated to utilize knowledge in situations which 
differ from ones in which the knowledge was acquired, they must be able 
to formulate generalizations which will be applicable and appropriate 
to new situations. 

When guiding students in evolving generalizations, the word 
"generalization" per se may have little meaning for students. Such 
teaching techniques as asking the students to make written statements 
which they believe to be true, in this case statements in terms of 
legal problems of the family, will produce some statements from the 
students which will be generalizations. Such a phrase as "the words 
that tell us the big ideas you have gotten from the stories," will 
communicate better with the immature students than asking them to list 
generalizations. These statements may be collected from the students 
in the form of a diary from day to day, or by dropping their ideas into 
an idea box, or by having students evaluate and recognize those state- 
ments which are true generalizations, and placing these on an idea 
bulletin board. 

Teachers who are involved in encouraging students to formulate 
their own concepts and generalizations may find the following criteria 
useful in evaluating the levels of students' generalizations. Dautriel,^ 
in an unpublished thesis, established the following criteria for 
appraising levels of student concepts and generalizations: 

Level I - Generalizations included an over-all awareness within 
a concept area, without expansion of the data. 

E. M. Dautriel. An experiment in teaching: use of concepts and 
generalizations. Unpublished Master's thesis, Louisiana State Uni- 
versity, Baton Rouge, 1964. 


Level II - Generalization includes Level I, plus identification 
of a relationship of the idea to another idea within a concept 
area. The fullest implications of the generalization are not 

Level III - Generalization includes Levels I and II, plus showing 
relation to a particular situation or problem. It may be compared 
with other generalizations. 

Level IV - Generalization includes Levels I, II, and III, plus 
explanations, predictions, interpretations or estimations in the 
use of the generalization. The elemental parts of the generali- 
zation are communicated. 

Level V - Generalization includes Levels I, II, III, and IV, plus 
restructuring and reorganization of knowledge to create a plan of 

Content of the Stories 

The educational purposes for which the stories were designed are 
outlined at the beginning of the stories. The stories included are: 

1. The Signatuve - A situation involving the purchase of a sewing 

2. The Missing Birth Certificate - A story which described the 
need for and the method used in obtaining a birth certificate. 

3. Jack Takes a Ride - A story concerned with a juvenile boy, 
arrested, but found innocent of possession of a stolen auto- 

4. Mr, Bates Goes to Court - A story in which Mr. Bates was 
involved in an automobile accident, and took court action 
to assert a claim for damages. 

Classroom Use of the Stories 

In all of these stories the family is shown to meet with a degree 
of success in solving problems. The panel of high school teachers, 
teaching in the Desire Project area, felt an element of success needed 
to be included in the stories in order to encourage these low-income 
students, who are frequently found to be depressed, discouraged, and 
prone to passivity and helplessness. The happy endings could be re- 
written by the students themselves to make the stories more realistic 
or reflective of the students' own personal experiences. Additionally, 
the students should be encouraged to write stories of their own, based 
on their own families. 

In using these stories of the Bates family, it is suggested that 


each student have a copy of the stories. These stories can be read 
aloud as plays. After the reading of the stories the teacher may lead 
a discussion, asking the students to express their feelings toward the 
people in the plays. The student who appears to identify closely with 
a particular character would probably be the student to select to 
assume the role of that character in the story. The students selected 
would then read the story as a play. 

Another method which might be effective would be to have the 
students read the stories individually, and then divide the class into 
small groups for discussions and reports which would later be given to 
the class. The teacher should provide each group with questions to 
guide them in their discussions for their class reports. 

On the following pages are the stories which were developed based 
on the data from this study. Following each story are suggestions of 
the types of questions which teachers might use in class discussions. 

If the students cannot respond to the questions, the teacher may 
need to assist them in the formulation of the correct answers. The 
teacher may choose to invite a lawyer or other resource person to 
lecture to the class so as to enlarge the students' knowledge in terms 
of their educational needs. After the completion of the story, and if 
a resource person were consulted, the teacher might ask the students to 
write down the advice which they feel would be of use to the Bates 
family, and check their suggestions with the resource person for 




Betty K. Gipson 

This play involves the 
purchase of a sewing machine. 
From it you will learn the 
value of your signature, the 
significance of a contract, 
and the importance of seeking 
information before making a 
large purchase. In addition, 
you will learn about the 
existence of two resources 
in your community which can 
aid the family with 
financial legal problems. 

The characters: 

Mrs. Helen Bates 

Mary Bates, daughter, age 15 

Mrs. Vera Wise, a neighbor 

Sewing machine salesman 
Manager, sewing machine company 

(Mrs. Bates is sitting at the kitchen table drinking a cup of coffee 
and looking at the ads in the morning paper, and her daughter, Mary, 
is washing the breakfast dishes.) 



Mary, stop washing the dishes and come here. There's an 
ad in the morning paper for a sewing machine for only $75. 
Have you heard of a Dynamic sewing machine? 

No. We don't have that kind at school. 

MRS. BATES: We could use a sewing machine, but I don't know anything 
about a Dynamic sewing machine. 

MARY: My home ec teacher says you shouldn't buy anything from a 

company that you're unfamiliar with. She says you should 

look up the information on brand names when you're not 

sure of quality. You're supposed to look it up in some 

MRS. BATES: What's the name of the book? 


Gosh, I don't remember. IT REALLY DOESN'T MATTER. 


MRS. BATES: Well, I'm going to call the company and ask them to send 

out a salesman. After all, I'm certain that the newspapers 
wouldn't let a dishonest company place an ad in the paper. 
Mary, I'm going next door to use the phone, 

(It is the next morning. Mrs. Wise, the neighbor, Mrs. Bates, and Mary 
are talking to the salesman from the Dynamic Sewing Machine Company. 
The salesman has just finished a demonstration of the machine and is 
showing them a picture of a zigzag sewing machine in a desk cabinet.) 

MRS. BATES: This machine certainly seems to be a good buy for $75. 
I've seen similar zigzag machines in local department 
stores for three times that price. But Mary says they 
don't have any Dynamic machines in her sewing class at 
school and that her teacher never heard of this company. 

I can see you know a real value when you see one. It's a 
real pleasure talking to such a smart homemaker. A smart 
homemaker like you could really save money making the 
children's clothing and making things to make the apart- 
ment attractive. So, your daughter takes home economics. 
This sewing machine would really help to improve her 
grades. What kind of grades do you make, Mary? 

MARY: They could be better, but I sometimes make a good grade. 

SALESMAN: Just as I thought. With a machine you could improve and 
maybe even begin to sew for others and make a little 
spending money for yourself. How does that sound to you? 

MARY: Swell! I can always use more spending money. Not to 

mention better grades. Mother, wouldn't the desk cabinet 
look pretty in my room? 

MRS. BATES: Yes, it would. What do you think. Vera? 

MRS. WISE: Well, it certainly is a lovely machine. But how can you 
possibly sell it for $75. I just don't know .... 



LOW OVERHEAD AND VOLUME SALES. But, to get back to you, 
Mrs. Bates. I have to hurry, I have another appointment. 

I'd sure like to have the machine, but I'll have to talk 
it over with my husband tonight. Can you come back 

SALESMAN: I'm sorry, Mrs. Bates, but we only have a few of this 

model for sale and I couldn't promise to have one left to 
sell tomorrow. I have several other calls to make this 
morning, and if I sell out, then you will be out of luck. 
I'm afraid you'll have to make up your mind now. 




Helen, I wouldn't let him rush me into anything. Talk to 
Fred tonight, and let Mary find out more about the machine 
from the library. 

(Who fears she won't get the machine if her mother waits 
to talk to her father) Mother, I'm sure this is a good 
machine. It sews as good as any machine I've ever used. 
Besides, I need a sewing machine. 


Well, I don't know, Mary, 

You and your daughter have been so nice to me, Mrs. Bates, 
I sure hate to see you lose out on this bargain. Wait! 
I just had an idea about how you can save the machine 
until tomorrow and still have a chance to talk to your 
husband. AND IT WON'T COST YOU ANYTHING. To have us hold 
a machine for you, all you have to do is sign this con- 
tract and give me a $25 deposit. Then, if your husband 
doesn't like the machine, we'll tear up the contract, 
refund your deposit, and pick up the machine. YOU HAVE 
NOTHING TO LOSE. You know there are plenty of other 
ladies in this building who would like to own this machine. 
Also, if you sign now and save the company the added 
expense of sending another salesman back, we'll give you a 
$12 buttonhole attachment. Think of the money you can 
earn making buttonholes for the neighbors. Your husband 
will certainly be proud of you. 

Mary, what do you think? I really hate to lose out on 
such a bargain. 

ING A CONTRACT. After all, he says he'll tear it up if 
you aren't satisfied. I know that buttonhole attachments 
are expensive. That would mean you're getting the machine 
for $63. And you said it was a bargain at $75. I DON'T 
SEE HOW YOU CAN AFFORD TO SAY NO. Besides, the machine 
would look nice in my bedroom. 

MRS, BATES: Well, if you think so, Mary, I'll sign, 

MRS, WISE: Helen, I don't think you should sign until you know more 
about the company, and talk to Fred first, 

MRS, BATES: Didn't you hear the salesman say that this was a nationally 
advertised company. He wouldn't mislead me about something 
like that, (Mrs. Bates signs the contract.) 



(Several days later Mrs, Bates' sewing machine is delivered. Much to 
her surprise and disappointment the machine is not like the one the 
salesman demonstrated. The machine is in a portable case and does not 
do a zigzag stitch. She calls Mary and Mrs, Wise to come and see the 


MRS. BATES: This isn't the machine I ordered. The delivery man left 
this pa3rment book showing I owe 12 monthly payments of $8 
each. My goodness, that's $96 more. The company must 
have made a mistake. I've seen machines like this in 
stores for $35 to $40. 

MRS, WISE: This certainly isn't the machine the salesman showed you. 
I thought that the machine he showed you was too nice to 
sell for $75. You should have checked on the company. 

MRS. BATES: I don't need advice now. 



Mother, what are we going to do? 

I'm going to call the company. I'm sure they delivered 
the wrong machine. 

(Mrs. Bates calls the company.) 

MRS. BATES: Is this the Dynamic Company? I'm Mrs. Bates. Your company 
delivered the wrong machine to me this morning. They 
delivered a portable, plain-stitch machine, instead of a 
zigzag, desk-cabinet machine. I ordered the $75 model. 
They left a cheaper model. Also, the payment book shows 
me owing you a balance of $96. The machine only cost $75, 
and I already paid $25. How can I owe you $96 more? 

MANAGER: Mrs. Bates, that $75 was the cash price of the sewing 

machine. What you are paying is the time or installment 
price, and it comes to a total of $121. It was all on the 
paper you signed. If you ordered a $75 machine, then you 
ordered our cheaper model portable. The model you described 
is our deluxe model which we sell for $350. Now, if you 
aren't satisfied with the cheaper model, we would be happy 
to send out our deluxe model. Of course, if you just want 
a cabinet, we have them for $100 to $250. Just let me 
know what we can do to satisfy you. 

MRS. BATES: Well, I guess you'd better come and pick up your machine. 
My husband wasn't too happy about my buying the machine in 
the first place, and I know we can't afford to spend any 
more on a machine now. So come and pick the machine up 
and refund my deposit. The salesman said you would tear 
up the contract if I changed my mind. 

MANAGER: I can't believe our salesman told you that. He didn't 

have authority to make such an agreement with anyone. You 
will either have to live up to your contract or I'll have 
to turn this matter over to our lawyer. 



MANAGER: I'm sorry, Mrs. Bates. We not only can but we will if you 
make it necessary. When you sign a contract, you make 
yourself legally responsible to the conditions set up in 
the contract. Nowhere in our contract did we agree to 
refund your money or agree to allow you to return the 
machine. We can't be held responsible for any verbal 
conditions or promises made by our salesman. 

(Mrs. Bates hangs up and returns to Mary and Mrs. Wise.) 

MRS. WISE: Well, Helen, what did he say? 

MRS. BATES: He said he had not made a mistake, and that he'd sue me if 
I didn't pay for the machine. I guess there is nothing I 
can do. I'm just stuck with the machine. 

MRS. WISE: I know what I'd do. I'd call the Better Business Bureau. 
They might be able to help you. 

(Mrs. Bates calls the Better Business Bureau and tells them what has 
happened. The Better Business Bureau tells Mrs. Bates they have had 
similar complaints about this company, and had she called prior to her 
purchase they could have been of help to her. They would have warned 
her of the bad reputation of this company and told her of the things 
the Dynamic Company had done to other homemakers. They advise that it 
would do no good for them to follow through on her complaint because 
they had been unable to help in prior cases. They suggest she contact 
a lawyer. Mrs. Bates has returned to the kitchen where Mary and Mrs. 
Wise are sitting.) 


I called the Better Business Bureau and they said it was 
too late for them to be of any help. They said I should 

see a lawyer. But 
afraid of lawyers, 
are for criminals, 
pay them one cent. 
$25 than lose $96. 

I can't afford a lawyer. Besides, I'm 
Lawyers scare me like doctors. Lawyers 
I'm no criminal. I'm just not going to 
I'LL SHOW THEM! It's better to lose 
I'll just not tell your father any- 

MRS. WISE: Helen, I really think you should see a lawyer. I don't 
think that the Dynamic Company is just going to let you 
stop paying them. I've heard that the legal aid office 
will help people with their problems if they can't afford 
a lawyer. Why don't you go see them? 

MRS. BATES: No! I've made up my mind. I'm just not going to pay them any- 
thing, and I'm not going to worry Fred about all this. I'll 
show them. 
(Several months have gone by and Mrs. Bates has continued to refuse to 
seek legal advice or pay for the sewing machine. She has received 
several bills and notices from the Dynamic Company, and has just thrown 
them away. On this day a notice of suit was delivered from the court, 
addressed to her and her husband. The notice advised that they were 
being sued for the unpaid balance on the sewing machine, costs of court, 
interest on the installments, and attorneys' fees. The notice advised 
that they had five days to comply with these demands or file an answer 
setting up any defenses.) 


(The scene is Mrs. Bates' kitchen. She and Mrs. Wise are talking.) 

MRS. WISE: Helen, Mary asked me to come over right away. She said 
you were upset. What's wrong? 

MRS. BATES: A man just delivered this court notice. What in the world 
am I going to do? 

MRS. WISE: Is it about the sewing machine? 

MRS. BATES: Yes. I should have listened to you and seen a lawyer. Do 
you think it's too late, now? 

MRS. WISE: I don't know, but if I were you, I'd go find out. 

(Mrs, Bates went to the legal aid office. The attorney reviewed her 
financial situation and determined she was entitled to legal aid serv- 
ices. The attorney contacted the attorney for the Dynamic Company and 
advised of his intention to defend their suit, alleging fraud. The 
Dynamic Company, fearing the adverse publicity of a court hearing, dis- 
missed the suit and refunded Mrs. Bates' money.) 

Suggested Questions 

Function of questions : 


To assist students in identify- 
ing with the Bates family 

To clarify values and 

To identify legal problems 

To identify the cause of 
the problem 

To determine the effect 
of the problem 

1. Does this seem to be a true 

2. Which character do you like best? 

3. What do you think Mrs. Bates' 
goals were? 

4. At what time in the story did 
you understand the goals of Mrs . 
Bates, Mary, and Mrs. Wise? 

5. What do you consider to be the 
real legal problem caused by the 
purchase of the sewing machine? 

6. What actually caused the problem? 

7. What advice can you give Mrs. 
Bates about the use of her 

8. How might this problem affect 
the family? 

9. What might have happened if Mrs. 
Bates had not gone to a lawyer? 


To develop the ability to 
analyze the problem 

To increase knowledge of 

the use of community resources 

10. Now that you have studied the 
problems which can result from 
the unwise use of one's signa- 
ture, what advice would you 
give people who are about to 
make a purchase involving 

the signing of a contract? 

11. What community resources could 
Mrs. Bates have used which 
might have prevented this 

12. How many community resources 
can you name and locate which 
are available to a family in 

To develop economic efficiency 

13. If Mrs. Bates really needed a 
machine, how could she have 
managed to make the purchase on 
her family income? Did she use 
the best method available to 

14. Do you think Mary was of any 
help to her mother when she 
needed advice? 

To develop a sense of security 
in regard to use of law 

15. What do you think Mary could 
have done to help her mother 
avoid this problem? 

16. Do you think it was fair for 
Mary's mother to have to get a 
lawyer? Why? 

Concepts and Generalizations 

A, The signature: 


A lack of knowledge concerning the value of one's signature and 
the responsibilities associated with the signing of one's signa- 
ture may result in serious problems for the individual and his 

When you place your signature on a contract or agreement, it 
means that you accept the conditions set forth in the contract 
and are therefore legally responsible for the contents included 
in the contract. 

3. Seeking advice before making a major purchase or signing any 


agreements may help avoid problems associated with the signing 
of contracts. 

B. Contracts; 

1. A contract is an agreement between two or more persons, and 
holds the parties responsible for those terms included in the 

2. A knowledge of the mechanics of signing a contract can lead to 
a more intelligent approach to management of family affairs. 

3. An awareness of the risks involved in making purchases from 
companies with which one is unfamiliar can help prevent prob- 
lems. There are added risks involved in signing contracts 
with such companies. 

4. Familiarity with the contents of a contract and the reputation 
of the person or company involved aids one in deciding whether 
to sign a contract. 

5. There are agencies in the community such as the Better Business 
Bureau and the Legal Aid Society which can advise one concern- 
ing contracts. 

6. A person who is contracting is only bound by what is actually 
written in the contract, unless fraud is involved. He is not 
held responsible for any oral agreements made at the time the 
contract is signed. 

C. Resources: 

1. There are many agencies and resources in the community to 
advise and help a family with its problems, and to aid in 
decision making. 

2. For those families which lack sufficient financial means, there 
are usually community agencies such as a legal aid office which 
offer their services without charge. 

D. Consumer guides: 

1. If in doubt concerning the reputation of a company, community 
agencies, such as the Better Business Bureau, can provide 
helpful information. 

2. Having all the facts that pertain to a given situation will 
help one in making a more intelligent decision. 


Betty K. Gipson 

This play is centered 
around the problems involved in 
getting a birth certificate. 
In it you will learn the value 
of the birth certificate. Ad- 
ditonally, you will learn the 
steps to take to get a delayed 
birth certificate. You will 
become familiar with various 
agencies in the community which 
can be of assistance in the 
solution of this type of family 
legal problem. 

The characters: 

Mrs . Helen Bates 

Jack Bates, son, age 12 

Mrs. Vera Wise, a neighbor 

Mrs. Smith, clerk, City Bureau of Vital Statistics 

Mrs. Jones, clerk. State Bureau of Vital Statistics 

Mary Bates, daughter, age 15 

Lisa Bates, daughter, age 5 

(It is about 3:30 in the afternoon. Mrs. Bates is in the kitchen 
beginning the preparation of the evening meal. The door slams and 
Jack enters.) 



Hi, Mom. Got anything to eat? I'm starved. (Jack looks 
in the refrigerator.) 

Don't eat the cheese. Jack. I'll need it tomorrow for 
your lunch. Now don't spoil your supper. 


Can I have some of these cookies? Here, Mom, is a note 
from school. 


What now? Are you in trouble again? 

Gosh, no. Mom. It's something about signing Lisa up for 
school for next year. 


(Reading) "Dear parents: We will begin the registration 
of children who will enter school for the first time on 
the last Thursday and Friday of this month. Registration 
will be from 8:30 to 3:00, Please bring your child to 











(Mrs. Bates 



register at the elementary school in your district. In 
order to register your child it will be necessary for you 
to bring his birth certificate. We are giving four weeks 
notice so that you may secure the necessary documents. 
Sincerely yours, the principal." 

Good heavens! Do you know, I don't have a birth certifi- 
cate for Lisa? 

You don't. How 're you going to get one? 

To tell you the truth, I don't know. I had the birth 
certificate for all of you when you entered school. 

Where is Lisa's? 

I just never got around to getting one for her. 

Why don't you ask Mrs. Wise? She just got one for her son 
when he went into the army last month. 

Are you sure? 

Sure, I'm sure. He showed it to me. 

Watch the things on the stove, I'm going next door. I'll 
be back in a few minutes. 

goes next door.) 

Vera, you busy? 

Not at all, Helen. Come in. 

Vera, I won't keep you but a minute. Jack tells me you 
got a birth certificate for your son last month when he 

That's right, Helen. Why? 

Jack just came home from school with a note from the 
principal. It says I'll need a birth certificate for 
Lisa, And I don't have one. Where do you go get one? 

I went to the Bureau of Vital Statistics. 

That's in town, isn't it? 

Yes, it is. If you need the birth certificate any time 
soon, I wouldn't wait too long. THESE PROBLEMS ARE SOME- 

MRS. BATES: Thank you. Vera, I'll go see about it tomorrow. I have 


to rush. I left Jack watching the supper. As hungry as 
he always seems to be, he may very well have eaten it by 

(The next morning, Mrs. Bates goes to the City Bureau of Vital Statistics. 
As the scene opens, she is speaking to Mrs. Smith, a clerk in the office.) 

MRS. BATES: I need a birth certificate for my daughter, Lisa Bates. 

MRS. SMITH: When was she born? 

MRS. BATES: July 10, five years ago. 

MRS. SMITH: I'll see if I can find the records. Excuse me, I'll only 
be a minute. 

(The clerk leaves the room. After a few minutes she returns, empty 

MRS. SMITH: Mrs. Bates, I don't seem to be able to find any record of 
your daughter's birth. 

MRS. BATES: Are you trying to tell me I don't have a daughter? If you 
had to keep up with her for one day, you'd know she had 
been born, 

MRS. SMITH: (Laughing) No, Mrs. Bates, I'm sure I would. I'll need 
more information. Was she born in this city? 

MRS. BATES: No, I'm sorry. I should have thought to tell you. Lisa 
was born in Jamestown. 

MRS. SMITH: In this State? 

MRS. BATES: Yes. It's a small town in the northeastern part of the 

MRS, SMITH: We only have records of persons born in this City. You 
will need to go to the State Bureau of Vital Statistics. 

MRS. BATES: Thank you so much. I'm sorry to have been so much trouble. 

MRS. SMITH: No trouble at all, Mrs. Bates. I wish I could have helped 
you. Very few people know how to go about getting a birth 

(Mrs. Bates leaves and goes to the State Bureau of Vital Statistics,) 

MRS. JONES: Good afternoon. Can I help you? 

MRS. BATES: Yes. I need a birth certificate for my daughter, Lisa 
Bates. She was born in Jamestown, five years ago, on 
July 10. 


MRS. JONES: Is that Jamestown in this State? 

MRS. BATES: Yes, it is. I was just over to the City Bureau of Vital 

Statistics, and they told me I needed to come over here to 
get a copy of my daughter's birth certificate. They don't 
keep the records of persons born outside of the City. 

MRS. JONES: Let me check. I'll be right back. 

(Mrs. Jones leaves. In a few minutes she returns.) 

MRS. JONES: Mrs. Bates, are you certain about the date and place of 
your daughter's birth? 

MRS. BATES: (Laughingly) I should, I was there, you know. Seriously, 
is something wrong? 

MRS. JONES: I'm afraid so. We were unable to find your daughter's 
birth certificate or any record of her birth. 

MRS. BATES: My goodness, how is that possible? 

MRS. JONES: There are several possible reasons for this. The most 
common is that through inadvertence the birth was not 
registered. Perhaps the record was misplaced, destroyed, 
or lost. Unfortunately, people rarely check to see if the 
birth is registered until a certificate is needed. It 
would be wise for parents to check shortly after the birth 
of a child to be sure that the birth is properly registered. 

MRS. BATES: What am I going to do? I can't register Lisa in school 
without her birth certificate. 

MRS. JONES: Don't be upset. You can get a delayed birth certificate. 


MRS. JONES: All you have to do is fill out these forms. Take them 
home and fill them out. You will see that some need to 
be notarized, but this should be no real problem. Return 
the forms as soon as possible, and we will be able to 
issue a delayed birth certificate, 

MRS. BATES: Will that be as good as a regular birth certificate? Will 
she be able to use it now and in the future? 

MRS. JONES: Yes, this will be as good as any other type of birth 

MRS. BATES: Are you certain? It doesn't seem like it would be. 

MRS. JONES: Now don't worry. Fill out these forms and bring them back 
and everything will be all right. YOU SHOULDN'T HAVE ANY 


(Mrs. Bates returns home. Mary, her daughter, is on the porch watching 
Lisa play.) 

MRS, BATES: How is everything, Mary? 

MARY: Fine. Did you get the birth certificate? 

MRS. BATES: No. They couldn't find Lisa's birth certificate. 

MARY: Well, what are you going to do? Lucky Lisa, no school! 

MRS. BATES: It's not funny. I have to get a delayed birth certificate. 
I'll have to fill out these forms and have them signed by 
a notary. 


You mean a lawyer' 

MRS. BATES: No. They said a notary would do. But on the way home on 
the bus I tried to read these papers, and I can't figure 
them out. 


Let me see them. Mother, Maybe I can help you. 
forever filling papers out at school. 


(Mary reads the forms.) 

MARY: All you have to do is fill out these forms in print. 

MRS. BATES: I know that. I don't understand this. (She points.) 
What is a supporting document? 

MARY: Gosh, Mom, I don't know. Wait, here comes Mrs. Wise. 

MRS. BATES: Vera, am I glad to see you. You always seem to be here 
when I need help. 

MRS, WISE: How did everything turn out today? Get the certificate? 

MRS, BATES: No, but I got these forms for a delayed birth certificate. 
And I was telling Mary they require three supporting 
documents, and I don't know what they mean. Do you? 

MRS, WISE: Let me see. (She reads.) Here, Helen, at the bottom of 
the page, they list some types of supporting documents. 
They have listed baptismal records, hospital records, 
statement of the doctor delivering the baby, census 
records, church membership records, health records, a 
notarized statement of someone who was present at the 
birth, family Bible records, and a few more. 

MRS. BATES: Let me see, Lisa was enrolled in the church nursery, and 
Aunt Louise, who now lives across town, was with me when 
she was born, and I'm sure Dr. Atkins is still alive. 









(Mrs. Bates 
returned to 






You know, this seems like a lot of fuss for something YOU 

Why, Mary! You must be kidding. Don't you realize how 
important a birth certificate really is? 

No, not really. What do you need a birth certificate for? 

Mary, you need a birth certificate these days for almost 

Yes, Mary. For example, do you remember when Mrs. Owens* 
husband died last year? 


Well, she needed her birth certificate to get his social 
security benefits, and she needed it to get old age assist- 

Yes, and your son needed one to enlist. You need one to 
get married. 

And if you ever want to visit outside the United States, a 
birth certificate helps in obtaining a passport. 

has collected the necessary supporting documents and has 
the State Bureau of Vital Statistics.) 

Mrs. Bates, I hope everything worked out all right. Were 
you able to get the necessary supporting documents? 

I hope so. I believe everything is in order. I took the 
documents which required notarizing to the notary and he 
put his stamp on them. 

Good. Let me see them. Well, they seem to be in order. 

Can I get the delayed birth certificate now? 

Not immediately, Mrs. Bates. These things take time, you 



How long will it take? I have to have it for the end of 
the month. 

Well, we should have it ready in a few days. You could 
save time by coming to pick it up day after tomorrow, then 
we won't have to waste time with the mail. If you prefer, 
we can mail it. 

MRS. BATES: No. I'd better come back. 


MRS. JONES: That will be fine. We'll surely have it by Thursday. 

MRS. BATES: Thank you very much. You certainly have been helpful. 

MRS. JONES: It was my pleasure, Mrs. Bates. I'm sorry you had so much 

(On Thursday Mrs. Bates returned and obtained the delayed birth certifi- 
cate. Lisa was registered in school Friday. It is now late Friday 
afternoon. Mary enters the living room where Jack and Lisa and Mrs. 
Bates are watching television.) 


Hi, Lisa. All ready for school? 

Yes, and I have a delayed birth certificate, too. I met 
my teacher today. 

MRS. BATES: I'm exhausted. I'd hate to go through that again. 

By the way, Mom, where's my birth certificate? Can't tell, 
I may want to go to Europe this summer. 


Or get married. Ha! Ha! 

Oh, be quiet. Jack. You know I have better sense than that 

Not if you think you're going to Europe this summer. 

MRS. BATES: Be quiet, both of you. 

MARY: By the way. Mother, where's your birth certificate? 

JACK: Why, you gonna take Mom to Europe with you? 

MRS. BATES: Jack, that'll be enough from you. Mary, I don't know 

where my birth certificate is. I'm sure I have one. I 
guess I should see about it someday. BUT I REALLY DON'T 

Function of questions: 

To encourage students to 
participate in discussion 

To define the problem 

Suggested Questions 

Questions : 

1. How did you like this story? 

2. Do you think that Jack's entrance 
into the kitchen was typical of 

a teenage boy? 

3. What was the real problem 
related in this story? 


To establish empathy 

To clarify values and develop 
a sense of civic responsibility 

4 . Have you or anyone you know ever 
needed a birth certificate? Why? 

5. If they did not have one, how 
was it obtained? 

6. Why should parents get a birth 
certificate for their children? 

7. After having read this story, 
how important do you feel it 
would be to get a birth certifi- 
cate for the members of your 

8. How many occasions can you name 
which would require a birth 

To identify the cause of the 

9. What was the real cause of this 

10. What might cause families to 

fail to get a birth certificate 
for their children? 

To determine the effect of the 

To identify solutions to the 

11. How did this problem effect the 
Bates family? 

12. How could this problem have been 

13. What steps were necessary to 
obtain a birth certificate for 

To become more evaluative 

14. Can you name the agencies in 
this story which helped the 
Bates solve their problem? 

15. As you read this story, did you 
feel that Mrs. Bates profited as 
a result of this experience? 

16. If you were ever faced with a 
similar problem, what would you 

17. What impression did you get 
about the family life of the 
Bates? Did they seem to work 
well together? 


Concepts and Generalizations 

A. Birth certificate: 

1. If births of children are properly registered and registrations 
checked for accuracy shortly after birth, later problems may be 

2, A birth certificate is usually necessary in order to get 
married, to enlist in the armed services, to obtain social 
security benefits, to enter school, and to receive welfare 
benefits . 

B. Resources: 

1. A birth certificate can be secured from a city or a state 
agency which records vital statistics. 

2. If a birth is not registered, it is usually possible to obtain 
a delayed birth certificate. 

3. In obtaining a delayed birth certificate, it is necssary to 
have certain documents notarized, and the services of a notary 
public, a public official authorized to administer oaths, are 


Betty K, Gipson 

Once more the BateS 
family is faced with a 
legal problem. This time 
the problem involves Jack. 
In this lesson you will 
learn of the procedure 
often followed in dealing 
with juvenile offenders, 
and you will become 
familiar with the function 
of the juvenile court. 
You will also learn of the 
services of two community 
resources which can assist 
a family with problems. 

The characters: 

Mrs. Helen Bates 

Mary Bates, daughter, age 15 

Mr. Fred Bates 

Police sergeant 

Mrs. Powers 

Mr, Davis, legal aid lawyer 
Jack Bates, son, age 12 
Judge Clark, juvenile court judge 
Assistant district attorney 

(As the play opens, Mrs. Bates is waiting for Mr. Bates to come in from 
work. She is sitting in the living room with Mary. Mrs. Bates is very 
upset. The juvenile police have just called to tell her that they have 
Jack in custody, and that they are waiting for her and Mr. Bates to 
come pick him up. The police explained that Jack was arrested in a 
stolen car.) 




Mary, do you have any idea what this is all about? 
You were walking home from school with Jack this 
afternoon. What happened? 

Mother, I'm not really sure. All I know is that we 
were walking home when Tom Powers came up in a car 
and offered to take us for a ride. I told him I had 
to rush home, but Jack got in the car, I told him 
not to, but he wouldn't listen to me. 

Where did Tom get a car? His family doesn't own one, 

He said it belonged to his uncle. 

It doesn't seem that Tom is old enough to even be 
driving a car. Just how old is Tom? 




I believe he's fifteen or sixteen. I've seen him 
driving a car before. 

Here comes your father. I hate to tell him. He's 
going to be furious. Jack has been in so much 
troub] e. lately. 

(Mr. Bates enters. Mrs. Bates begins to cry.) 
MR. BATES: Helen, what's wrong? 








(Between sobs) Jack is in juvenile detention. He 
was picked up in a stolen car. We have to go pick 
him up. 

A stolen car! Good grief! This must be someone's 
idea of a joke. 

No, Fred, I'm afraid not. When Mary and Jack were 
walking home from school, Tom Powers offered them a 
ride in a car. It seems now that the car was stolen. 

And where was Mary? Didn't I tell her to keep an eye 
on Jack after school? He's been getting in so much 
trouble lately, I asked Mary to see that he came 
straight home from school. Mary, why didn't you do 
what you were told? 

Don't be mad at me, Father. I tried to make Jack 
come home, but he wouldn't listen. He got in the car 
with Tom, and they drove off before I could make him 
get out. 

Fred, don't fuss at the girl. I'm sure she did her 
best. Jack is just stubborn. I'm sure she tried. 

Let's go get Jack, I hate to think of him in that 
place so long. 

Maybe a few hours there is just what he needs. 

Now, Fred, you know you don't mean that. 

Well, maybe not, but I'm getting sick of all the 
trouble he's causing lately. I'm afraid if we don't 
get some help with him soon, he'll end up in more 
serious trouble than this. Helen, I don't know where 

we went wrong. 


(The Bates have just come into the receiving room at the juvenile 
detention home.) 

POLICE SERGEANT: Can I help you? 






I'm Fred Bates, and this is my wife. We've come to 
get our son, Jack. 

Oh, yes. Jack Bates. He was picked up in a stolen 
car with another boy, Tom Powers. He told us that 
the driver, Tom Powers, claimed to have borrowed the 
car from an uncle. 

That's what his sister told us, too. She said they 
were walking home from school, when Tom came up in a 
car and offered them a ride. When they asked where 
he got the car, he told them it belonged to his uncle. 

I'm not unsympathetic, Mrs. Bates, but this isn't a 
matter for the police to decide. The incident must 
be referred to the office of the district attorney 
for possible filing of charges. We're going to 
release him in your custody. Since this is his first 
offense, he can stay home with you. But there will 
probably be a hearing. If so, you will be sent a 
notice of the date of the hearing. In the meantime, 
see that he keeps out of trouble. 

MRS. BATES: Thank you, sergeant, we will. 

(As they are leaving, they meet the mother of Tom Powers.) 

MRS. POWERS: Mrs. Bates, I'm sorry that Tom involved Jack in all 

this trouble. I see that they're letting you take 
Jack home with you. What did they decide to do with 



Since they had no prior record for him, they've placed 


him in my custody until they decide, 
have to get a lawyer. 

I guess we 11 

I don't think you'll need a lawyer. If this is his 
first offense, and you plead him guilty, I'm sure the 
judge will let him off with a warning. I know they 
did this the first time Tom was in trouble. 

I'd never do that! Jack's innocent! He didn't steal 
that car, and we all know it. We're going to do 
everything we can to help him and clear his name. 
RECORD. It's at a time like this that families 
should stick together. Just how do you think Jack 
would feel if we had him plead guilty, when we all 
know he's innocent. I don't mean to be rude, Mrs. 
Powers, and I know you're telling me what you think 
is best, but we couldn't do that to Jack. Goodness 
knows, he's no angel, but he's no criminal either. 


(Several weeks have passed, Mrs, Bates has just been served with the 
notice of trial by the juvenile court deputy.) 




Fred, the notice for Jack's hearing just came, 

I sure would like to get a lawyer to help Jack, but I 
just don't see how we can afford one. The weather's 
been so bad, I haven't been able to work much these 
last few weeks. What 're we going to do? 

Why don't we go to the legal aid office? Maybe they 
can help us. They helped us when I bought the sewing 

MR. BATES: How could I ever forget that. That sounds like a 

good idea. Since it's still early, let's try to take 
care of it today. Get Jack and Mary, and let's go to 
the legal aid office. 

(The Bates go to the legal aid office. They explain the situation to 
Mr, Davis, the legal aid lawyer,) 


I believe I understand this situation. Has Jack been 
in any other trouble with the authorities? 



No. He has been in minor trouble with the school and 
neighbors, but never with the police. 

While these are of concern to you, Mrs. Bates, I don't 
think they will have any effect on this case. Now, 
Mary, you say that you were with Jack at the time he 
got into the car. Tell me what happened. 



We were walking home from school, and Tom Powers came 
up in a car. Tom asked us to go for a ride. I said 
no, that I had to rush home and help mother. We 
asked him where he got the car, and he said he'd 
borrowed it from his uncle. Jack got in the car, and 
they drove off. That's all I know. 

Jack, did you at any time know the car was stolen? 

Only when the police were after us. I asked Tom what 
it was all about, and he admitted he stole the car. 
I tried to get out, but it was too late. Honest, I 
didn't know it was stolen. 


I'll see what I can do. Jack, are you certain you've 
told me everything? I have to know everything to 
prepare your defense. Mr. and Mrs. Bates, and you, 
Mary, leave me alone with Jack. (Everyone leaves 
except Jack.) Now, Jack, level with me. Is there 
anything else I should know? 


JACK: I've told you everything, Mr. Davis. 

MR. DAVIS: Are you absolutely sure? You know that anything you 

tell me is privileged. That means I can't tell it to 
anyone, or be forced to tell it, without your permis- 
sion. You know, too, that it would not go well for 
you if I were not aware of all of the facts. I 
wouldn't be able to properly prepare your defense. 

JACK: No, Mr. Davis. I've told you everything. I'm sorry 

for all the trouble I caused. I wouldn't hold out on 
you. I know you're trying to help me. 

MR. DAVIS: Well, don't worry. I'm going to help you all I can. 

Now you go home. Keep out of any more trouble. I'll 
get in touch with your parents if I need any more 

(On the day of the hearing, Mr. Bates, Mrs. Bates, Mary, and Jack are 

in court. The judge is present with the court reporter and other court 

officials. The assistant district attorney is also present. The case 
is called.) 


The court is ready to hear the case of Jack Bates. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bates, your son is charged as a juvenile 
delinquent by virtue of his unauthorized use of a 
movable vehicle, that is, the automobile. This is a 
formal trial, but its purpose is to do what is best 
for the child and society, and not to punish the 

ASSISTANT DISTRICT ATTORNEY: May it please the court? 

JUDGE CLARK: The court recognizes the assistant district attorney. 

ASSISTANT DISTRICT ATTORNEY: Your Honor, I have spoken at length with 

counsel for the defendant, and have also spoken with 
his sister and parents. After speaking with them, I 
feel that Jack Bates was unaware that the car driven 
by Tom Powers was stolen. Also, I have just learned 
that in the trial of Tom Powers in another division 
of this court, he admitted that Jack Bates knew nothing 
of the theft of the car. Accordingly, I move to dis- 
miss this case. I apologize to your Honor for this 
last minute action, however, I was not aware of all 
of this until shortly before trial. 


Thank you. I appreciate the position of the state, 
and the case is dismissed. 

(The Bates and Mr. Davis leave the court.) 

MR. BATES: Thank you, Mr. Davis, for all you did. 










I'm only too happy that everything turned out so well 
for Jack, I've been thinking about what you said 
about Jack's behavior. He could be heading for more 
serious trouble. I would recommend that you seek 
professional help for him. 

I was talking to my wife about the very same thing. 
But, as you know, we can't afford to pay for such 

You can get help from the Family Service Society. 

What is that? 

It's an organization whose function is to help families 
in trouble. They help with the problems of children, 
marital problems, and other types of family problems. 

Are they expensive? 

To the contrary. They have a very nominal fee, and 
this is waived if a family cannot pay. 

We really do appreciate your advice and all you've 
done for us. We'll inquire about the Family Service 

Suggested Questions 

Function of questions : 

Questions : 

To help students identify with 
the family 

To identify the problem 

To identify the cause of the 

1. For a moment, imagine you were a 
member of the Bates family. 
Would this be a typical experience 
for your family? 

2. In what way is this story typical? 

3. In what way is it not typical? 

4. Do you think you would have 
reacted to this situation as Mrs. 
Bates did? 

5. As you read the story, what did 
you recognize as the legal prob- 
lem experienced by the Bates? 

6. What was the cause of Jack's 
legal problem? 


To determine the effect of the 

To establish empathy 

7. What effect can this problem 
have on Jack and his family? 

8. How do you think this problem 
might affect Mary? 

9. Do you think Mary did all she 
could to prevent this problem? 

To clarify values 

To be helped to develop more 
sense of personal worth 

10. Do you think Mary could have 
made Jack listen to her? Why? 

11. Would you have felt the same way 
about defending Jack as his 
mother did? Do you think she 
should have taken the easy way 
out and had him plead guilty? 

12. How do you think Jack would 
have felt if his family had 
chosen to have him plead guilty? 

13. What suggestions could you give 
the Bates family in solving a 
problem of this type? 

14. What effect can the method used 
by Jack's parents in the solu- 
tion of this problem have on his 

To develop an appreciation of 
the services available to 
families in need 

To develop a sense of security 
in regard to legal processes 

15. How many resources can you list 
which would be available to the 
Bates family for the solution of 
this problem? 

16. Summarize as many functions of 
the Family Service Society and 
the juvenile court as you can, 

17. What do you feel was the real 
motive of the juvenile court in 
reviewing Jack's case? 

Concepts and Generalizations 

A. Juvenile problems: 

1. Juvenile offenders are handled by a separate division of the 
police department, the juvenile division, and treated differ- 
ently from adults. 


2. Juvenile cases are heard by a special court, the juvenile court. 

3. The purpose of the juvenile court is not to punish the child, 
but, rather, to do what is best for him and society. 

4. One is presumed to be innocent until proven guilty. Innocent 
people who plead guilty in the hope of receiving a lighter 
sentence carry a false record. 

B. Resources: 

1. The legal aid organizations render assistance to those who 
cannot afford the services of a lawyer. 

2. The Family Service Society is a counseling society dedicated to 
assisting families with marital and other problems. 


Betty K, Gipson 

It would seem that the Bates 
family is constantly faced with 
legal problems. In this story, Mr. 
Bates has had an accident, and must 
file suit to recover for his injuries 
and damages. In this lesson you will 
become familiar with the Lawyer 
Referral Service, another community 
resource of value to a family with 
a legal problem. You will also 
become familiar with the process 
of taking court action to assert 
a claim. 

The characters: 

Mr. Fred Bates 

Mrs. Helen Bates 

Lisa Bates, daughter, age 5 

Mary Bates, daughter, age 15 

Mrs. Vera Wise, a neighbor 

Mr, Davis, legal aid lawyer 

Mrs. Locke, private lawyer 

Mr, Deed, insurance company lawyer 

(As the play opens, Mr. and Mrs. Bates are just coming home in an 
ambulance. Mr. Bates had been in the hospital for about five weeks. 
He is recovering from injuries received in an automobile accident. 
Mrs. Wise has been keeping Lisa while Mrs. Bates went to the hospital 
to get Mr. Bates.) 






Fred, I think you should go lie down for a while, 
ride home must have been painful. 


I will in just a few minutes. First, I want to sit here a 
while and visit with the family, I've sure missed every- 

You missed me, too, Daddy? 

Sure thing. I missed you most of all. 

Well, I like that! (Jokingly) Lisa is Daddy's girl. 

Mother said I could be your nurse when you came home. Can 
I? Can I? 

MR. BATES: I can't think of anyone who could do a better job. Will 








you start by bringing me a glass of water? Mary, ask your 
mother for my medicine. 

Vera, I want to thank you for keeping Lisa for me. I hope 
she wasn't any trouble. 

Not at all. Is there anything more I can do? Do you need 
anything from the drug store? 

No, thank you very much. 

If there is anything I can do, let me know. Fred, I don't 
mean to be prying, but what are you going to do about 
recovering for your injuries and expenses? 

I'm going to a lawyer as soon as I feel better. The 
doctor said it would be months before I could go back 
to work, 

I understand your car was a total wreck, too. 

Yes, Vera, it was. 

What happened? 

I was coming home from work. You remember the rain storm 
we had about five weeks ago? Well, it was that night. I 
was driving home in that downpour. A car came across a 
red light and I couldn't stop for it in time. Both cars 
were a total loss. I was seriously injured and taken to 
the hospital. 

That's dreadful. Did the man have insurance? 

Yes. But I don't think he wants to admit that he was in 
the wrong. I'm going to see a lawyer. We'll need money 
to pay my expenses and to live off of until I can go back 
to work. 

MRS. BATES: Fred, I think you should rest now. 

(After several weeks Mr. Bates feels well enough to go out. He decides 
to go to a lawyer to see what can be done about his case. As the scene 
opens, Mr. Bates is in the office of Mr. Davis, the legal aid lawyer. 
He has explained his case in detail.) 

MR. DAVIS: I'm sorry to hear about your accident, Mr. Bates. However, 
this office cannot represent you, since we do not handle 
claims for damages. You see, in cases of this sort, you 
can secure the services of a private attorney on a con- 
tingent fee basis, that is, a portion of what you receive 
will pay the fee of the lawyer. Legal aid is designed to 
help a person who cannot afford to pay a fee. I feel you 



have a good case, and you should have no difficulty get- 
ting a lawyer to handle it on a contingent fee basis. 

I didn't know that. You had been such a help to us in the 
past, I hoped you could help us now. 

MR. DAVIS: I appreciate your gratitude, but, unfortunately, I cannot 
be of assistance now. By the way, how is Jack getting 

MR. BATES: He's doing well. He's making better grades in school, and 

has stayed out of trouble. The Family Service Society 

worked with him and us for many months, and we are all 
much happier now. 

MR. DAVIS: That's fine. Now back to your present problem. Don't you 
know a lawyer to whom you could take this case? 

MR. BATES: No, I don't. 

MR. DAVIS: I would suggest that you go over to the Lawyer Referral 
Service. That is a service of the Bar Association which 
attempts to refer clients, who do not know an attorney, 
to an attorney who is listed with the Service. 

MR. BATES: Thank you. I'll go over to the Bar Association now. 

(Mr. Bates goes over to the Lawyer Referral Service of the Bar Associa- 
tion. He is referred to Mrs. Locke, an attorney on the Service. He 
consults Mrs, Locke and advises of the facts of the case.) 


I feel that your case has merit, and I will undertake it 
for you on a contingent fee basis. You will, however, 
have to pay any costs if it becomes necessary to file 





What do you mean by costs? 

Filing costs, and other costs incidental to the suit. If 
you can't pay these costs, you can ask the court to allow 
you to file "in forma pauperis," that is, you can show to 
the court that your financial circumstances are such that 
you cannot afford the costs, in which case filing will be 
allowed without the costs being paid. 

I believe I understand, and would appreciate your handling 
the case for me. Suppose we don't win. How will I pay 
your fee? 

Since I will be handling the case on a contingent fee 
basis, I will be paid only if we are successful. 

Well, I just didn't want to get involved in something I 
couldn't afford. 


(Mrs. Locke and Mr. Bates agree on a percentage for Mrs. Locke to 
handle the case, and she proceeds to represent him. Several weeks 
pass, and Mrs. Locke asks Mr. Bates to call at her office.) 

MRS, LOCKE: I have been working on your case, and have been in touch 

with the insurance company for Mr. Ford, the driver of the 
other car. They have made an offer in settlement, which I 
feel is inadequate, but, nonetheless, I wanted to make it 
known to you. My opinion is that to receive adequate 
damages for you, we will have to file suit. There is, of 
course, the chance that you may lose. My opinion is that 
you have an excellent case. The insurance company admits 
the fault of their insured, Mr. Ford, but alleges that you 
were contributorily negligent in not being able to stop. 
It's up to you to decide if you wish for me to negotiate 
further, or file suit. 

MR. BATES: I will be guided byyDur judgment. I don't feel that I was 
at fault in any way. I made every effort to stop when I 
saw the other car, but just couldn't. He came right 
across the red light at a high rate of speed. He knows 
good and well the accident was his fault. 

MRS, LOCKE: I think I know how you feel, and I'll file suit within a 
day or so. Can you afford the costs of about $30? 

MR. BATES: Not really. We're just barely scraping along now, I 
probably won't be back at work for another week or so, 

MRS, LOCKE: I will ask the court to allow filing "in forma pauperis," 

It will be necessary for you and someone who knows you to 

sign an affidavit as to your limited financial circum- 

MR. BATES: I'll ask Mrs. Wise to sign with me. She knows how bad my 
finances are now. 

MRS. LOCKE: If you and Mrs. Wise can come in tomorrow, I'll have the 
papers ready for signing, 

MR, BATES: Thank you for all you've done, 

(Mrs, Locke has filed suit, and several months have passed. The case 
is now up for trial, Mr, Bates and Mrs, Locke are waiting for the 
hearing of the case. Mr, Deed, the attorney for the insurance company, 
calls Mrs. Locke aside.) 

MR, DEED: Mrs. Locke, I'm in a position to now offer your client a 
settlement in excess of our original offer. We are will- 
ing to pay for the value of his car, the money he lost for 
being out of work, and his medical expenses. 

MRS. LOCKE: I feel that your offer is still grossly inadequate. My 


client has had considerable pain and suffering, which is 
still persisting, and there is some question of a residual 
disability. I would recommend against your offer. 

MR. DEED: Well, I am not authorized to offer any more. 

MRS. LOCKE: I will, of course, communicate your offer to my client, 
however, I believe that we will have to try this case. 

(Mrs. Locke explains the offer to Mr. Bates.) 

MR. BATES: I understand the offer and the risk of having the court 

hear the case, but we've come this far, and I'm willing to 
take my chances. I know I'm right. THE TRUTH WILL HAVE 


I'm glad you feel that way, since I feel that the insur- 
ance company is not making an offer in keeping with your 
loss . 

(The case is heard, and after a lengthy trial, the court finds that the 
accident was the sole result of the negligence of Mr. Ford. The insur- 
ance company is cast in judgment for the value of the car, loss of 
wages, and medical expenses, and in addition Mr. Bates is awarded sub- 
stantial damages for pain and suffering and possible future pain and 
suffering and residual disability.) 


I am pleased at the judgment, Mr, Bates, but we will have 
to wait to see if the insurance company appeals. 

MR. BATES: What does that mean? 


The insurance company can ask the appeal court to review 
the case to determine if the judgment is correct. There 
is always the possibility that you may still lose, but I 
feel very strongly that you have nothing to fear. I'll 
notify you as soon as I hear anything. 

MR. BATES: Thank you. 

(The insurance company has decided not to appeal, and has paid the 
amount of the judgment to Mrs. Locke. She has Mr. Bates come to her 

MRS. LOCKE: Mr. Bates, I have a check for you for your portion of the 

judgment. I have deducted my fee in accordance with our 

agreement. I am pleased that this matter worked out so 
well for you. 

MR. BATES: Thank you for all of your efforts on my behalf. To tell 
the truth, for a while I was a little afraid of a lady 
lawyer, but I know you did at least as much for me as any- 
one could have done. I really do appreciate what you did 
for me. 


Suggested Questions 

Function of questions : 

To get students to participate 

To define the problem 

To establish empathy 

To clarify values 

To determine the cause of the 

To determine the effect of 
the problem 

To develop a sense of personal 

Questions : 

1. Do you think Lisa is her father's 
favorite child? 

2. Was Mrs. Wise being inquisitive, 
or was she really interested in 
the welfare of the Bates family? 

3. Do you have neighbors like Mrs. 

4. Do you think this story was 

5. The Bates family had many prob- 
lems in this story, including 
the legal problem. Can you name 

6. As you see it, what did the 
legal problem involve? 

7. Has anyone in your family ever 
been in an accident and needed 
to take legal action to recover 
for his injuries and damages? 

8. What do you feel motivated Mr. 
Bates to take legal action in 
this story? 

9. Do you think he was justified in 
taking this action? 

10. What was the cause of this prob- 

11. What effect did this problem 
have on the Bates family? 

12. What suggestions can you m^ke 
which would have been of value 
to this family with their legal 

13. Did you feel that as you read 
this story the Bates family had 
grown in relation to its ability 
to cope with problems? 


To evaluate learnings 

To become more familiar with 
community resources 

14, Were you happy and proud of Mr. 
Bates when he stood firm despite 
his misgivings and decided to 
let justice be done? 

15, Several new legal terms were 
used in this story, such as 
costs of court, "in forma 
pauperis," and contingent fee. 
Can you tell what they mean? 

16, What new community legal resource 
was introduced in this story? 

17, Can you give a reason why a 
family with sufficient financial 
means might have use for the 
Lawyer Referral Service? 

18. As you read this story, what 
situations arose in your mind 

in which you felt your family or 
friends could have benefited 
from the services of the Lawyer 
Referral Service? 

To develop economic efficiency 19. 

The Bates family was in obvious 
financial trouble in this story, 
What could each member of the 
family have done to have helped 
improve the family's economic 

Concepts and Generalizations 

A, Legal procedures: 

1. One who has a legal claim will usually find it advantageous to 
discuss it with a lawyer. 

2. Damage suits are usually handled on a contingent fee basis, 

3. A contingent fee is one whereby the lawyer agrees to handle the 
case for a percentage of what a client receives, 

4. There are costs involved in a law suit, but usually there is a 
process by which these costs can be waived for one who is 

Resources : 

1. The Lawyer Referral Service is a community resource offered by 


the local Bar Association which has as its purpose the 
referral of a client to a lawyer if the client does not know 
of one. 

Additional Suggestions for Class Activities 

1. Representatives from various community agencies which deal with 
family problems, including legal problems, might visit classes to 
define their services, 

2. Students might list other types of legal problems their families 
have experienced, and develop similar plays or short stories. They 
may choose to rewrite one of these plays. 

3. Students might make up a list of topics for bulletin board arrange- 
ments and/or posters designed to create interest and to motivate 
the class in attacking the legal problems of families, and seeking 
out community resources, 

4. Provision can be made for further research into community resources 
of value to families of low income. A booklet might be prepared 
and distributed to share knowledge gained. 

5. Several students might develop a questionnaire which they can 
administer to their fellow students to determine the types of legal 
problems experienced by them or their families, and the solutions 
which were used. These courses of action could then be discussed 
and evaluated by the class, and a record could be compiled of any 
improvements or suggestions which they might make in the problem 
solving techniques which were used, 

6. Students might make a list of all the things they know for which a 
birth certificate is necessary. 

7. Students might discuss situations in which either they or a member 
of the family had to have a birth certificate, 

8. The class might be divided into three or more groups of ten or 
less, with a chairman to lead the group in a discussion of the 
importance of a birth certificate. Each group could elect a 
secretary to record and report the discussion to the class. Each 
group could discuss the importance of birth certificates, and why 
they feel that they are important. Personal experiences involving 
the need for birth certificates would add interest to the discus- 

9. Students might wish to write a true life story from their own 
experience, or from the experience of a friend, in which someone 
has been involved with the juvenile authorities and relate how the 
problem was dealt with by the family, 

10, Students might make a list of some of the services that they know 


or feel that the Family Service Society is designed to render, or 
of problems which might lead a family to call on this Society for 

11. Students might make a field trip to juvenile court and see a case 
being tried, and/or make an appointment for the judge to talk to 
the class. 




1. Brownell, E. A. Legal Aid in the United States. Rochester: The 

Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Company, 1951, 333 pp. 

2. Brownell, E. A. Supplement to Legal Aid in the United States. 

Rochester: The Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Company, 1961, 
114 pp. 

3. Caplovitz, D. The Poor Pay More: Consumer Practices of Land-Income 

Families. London: Free Press of Glenco, 1964, 220 pp. 

4. Harrington, M. The Other America: Poverty in the United States. 

New York: Macmillan Company, 1962, 192 pp. 

5. May, E. The Wasted Americans: Cost of Our Welfare Dilemma. New 

York: Harper and Row, 1964, 227 pp. 

6. Silvers tein, L. Defense of the Poor in Criminal Cases in American 

State Courts. Chicago: American Bar Foundation, 1965, 280 pp. 

Publications of the Government, Learned Societies, 
and Other Organizations 

7, Allison, J. L. Legal aid educational practices. Conference Pro- 

ceedings^ the Extension of Legal Services to the Poor^ November 
12-14, 1964, 126-129. Washington: USGPO, 1964. 

8, Cohen, W. J. and Sullivan, E. Poverty in the United States. 

Healthy Education^ and Welfare Indicators, United States Depart- 
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, February, 1964, 6-22. 
Washington: USGPO, 1964. 

9, Directory of Legal Aid and Defender Services. Compiled by National 

Legal Aid and Defender Association. Chicago: American Bar 
Center, 1964. 

10. LeBlanc, N. Landlord- tenant problems. Conference Proceedings^ 

the Extension of Legal Services to the Poor, November 12-14, 
1964, 51-56. Washington: USGPO, 1964. 

11. Orshansky, M. Children of the poor. Social Security Bulletin , 

16 (7), 3-12. Washington: USGPO, 1963. 

12. Paulsen, M. G. The legal needs of the poor and family law. Con- 

ference Proceedings^ the Extension of Legal Services to the Poor^ 
November 12-14, 1964, 18-22. Washington: USGPO, 1964. 

13. Reeder, W. W. Some Methods and Tools to Increase Interest^ Par- 

ticipation^ and Teaching Effectiveness . New York: Cornell 
Extension Bulletin 907, 1958. 


14. Report of the President' s Panel on Consumer Education for Persons 

With Limited Income^ 1965. Washington: USGPO, 1965. 

15. Schorr, A. L. Slums and social insecurity. United States Depart- 

ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, Social Security Admini- 
stration. Washington: USGPO, 1963. 


16. Chilman, C. and Sussman, M. B. Poverty in the United States in 

the mid-sixties. Journal of Marriage and the Family ^ 1964, 16, 

17. Dailey, J. Education and emergence from poverty. Journal of 

Marriage and the Family, 1964, 16, 430-434. 

18. Reissman, F, Low-income culture: the strengths of the poor. 

Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1964, 16, 417-421. 



A home economics student recently approached a staff member and 
asked, rather sheepishly, if she had a book on the "joys and satisfac- 
tions of teaching." The dejected looking girl said she could see the 
problems, difficulties, and frustrations and needed something to counter 

This incident has prompted an informal search for authentic 
testimonials concerning the intangible rewards in teaching. Ittinois 
Teacher solicits readers' contributions which may be compiled for later 

Won't you share with us in a brief statement the joys and satis- 
factions you have personally experienced as a teacher? Your words may 
help some disillusioned young person to renew faith in the profession. 



Contributor: Mail to: 

(please print) 

Illinois Teacher 

Address: 342 Education Building 

University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 61801 


^0^ 706 /^rO'-nxjL C^:_^ Vol. XII, No. 4 

Spring 1968-69 






What Kind of Home Economics for Tomorrow's World? 

Helen H. LeBaron 187 

Youth Orientation to the World of Work: Concept 
and Generalization Framework 

Alice E. Whatlei/j Mary E. Warren^ and Harry J. Parker 191 

Change in Student Attitudes through Operation of a Tearoom 

Robert Cudney 199 


Topical Outlines of Units, Grade 9 206 

Topical Outlines of Units, Grade 10 217 

Vocation Orientation Unit, Grade 10 233 

Home Economics Summer Session Offerings, 1969, 

University of Illinois 254 

Illinois Teacher Issues Available 256 


A publication of the Division of Home Economics Education, 
Department of Vocational and Technical Education, College 
of Education, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 

Members of Division: 

Elizabeth Simpson, Professor of Vocational Technical Education 

Bureau of Educational Research 
Mary Mather, Associate Professor and Division Chairman 
Hazel Spitze, Associate Professor 
Bessie Hackett, Instructor 
Norma Bobbitt, Assistant 
Reba Davis, Assistant 

Mildred Griggs, Assistant in Higher Education 
Christina Brown, University High School 

Business Manager of Illinois Teacher". Miss Joan Lorenz 

Vol. XII, No. 4, Spring 1968-69. Published six times each year. 
Subscriptions $5 per year. Single copies $1. 

Address: Illinois Teacher 

342 Education Building 
University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 61801 

Telephone: 217-333-2736. 


ACTJOh}--A.n koZplviQ to dd^lnii a. {^titu/id 6oc^<2J:y--and JNNOVATJON--ln 
ddvoZoptng a nnw pklto^ophoA-home. £,conomAJ>t K.ot<i--aJi(i ■mpJbiccitioyi6 ■i>iig- 
g<i6te.d -in tkd liAi>t aJvU^cZz by HoJiim LoJSoAon, Thu {^uutu/id o(i home, 
<i(ion.omi.cJi , 6k(i bQXA,2VQJi, ia)M de.p2,nd upon koM (^ivn txutc Aj)6iLQJ> OAH 
n.QJ:>otv(id today. 

TuackoA^ tnvoZvdd tn ddveZoptng omptoymdnt p^ognum^ may be 
di>pQ,CAjxZZy IwtQAdMtdd in othvt aJvticZ^ in tkli ILLINOIS TEACHER. HoZp 
ti> o{j{^eAQxi to cuAAA-CuZum planne/U tn a. {\KammoK.k o^ concdpt^ and gdnoA- 
atlzahionJi {^oK mxk o^nntatton. In^pVtation {^on. Quacking dAJ>tntQA<2J>t(id 
6tuddnti> -Oi p^-ov-lddd thAougk a d2J>c/Llptlon o{^ a tdOAoom opeAatlon. 
lyrniddAjitd pn.actt(iat a^^t^tancd aj> gtvdn tn the, {■^onm o{) a mnJjt plan 
dioLLng lAJiXk pn^dpa/ioution {^OK adult ^oleJ>. 

A ydon. ago topical outtlnQJ> {^o^ a junior liigk ^ckool pn.ogn,am we/ie 
-IntAodiicdd. A6 a continuation o^ thJji coordinated program, unit out- 
lines {^on. ninth, and tenth grades are noiO presented. It -u> hoped that 
readers Mill use the curriculum materials published in thijy ij>sue and 
oiii^er some evaluative {^eedback. 

--Bessie Hackett 


Eelen R. LeBavon 
College of Home Economics 
Iowa State University 
Ames, Iowa 

Of one thing we can be sure — we cannot see tomorrow's world. 

Well do I remember a meeting at AHEA headquarters in the late 50 's 
when those of us then on the Executive Committee of the Association had 
assembled to discuss the program for the coming annual meeting. One of 
the group had seen a film on "life in the 60 's" and was sharing it with 
us, suggesting that it presented a theme around which the entire pro- 
gram might be planned. The film emphasized the wonderful world of 
miracle gadgets for easy living — supersonic dishwashing, push button 
meals, magic house cleaning, disposable clothing, shopping by dial. A 
few of us objected to such a materialistic emphasis — insisting that the 
major concern of home economics is people — and the theme was discarded. 
Now the 60 's are nearly over, and not one of these gadgets has entered 
the daily living of anyone that I know. 

Yet, none of us present that day in Washington had the vision to 
foresee the challenges that life in the 60 's would bring in reality to 
home economics — 

. that the conscience of the country would be turned to a 

concentration on the problems of the inner city and society's 
hitherto forgotten segment, the disadvantaged of the inner 
city, of rural areas and the migrant. 

. that a public, disenchanted with the educational establishment, 
would identify some of those educational jobs left undone and 
vote vast sums of money and create new agencies to do them — 
OEO, Job Corps, Youth Corps, and the like — and even turn to 
Industry to accomplish new goals. 

• that home economics would be forced to do something about 
training for employment or lose its place in vocational 

. that college students would be shaken loose from their pre- 
occupation with play and the pursuit of careers for money 
security into a concern for people and the meaning of life 
and a distrust of their hypocritical elders. 

^Speech presented at the Illinois Home Economics Association meet- 
ing in Decatur, Illinois, October 25, 1968. 


• that social unrest would hit the universities, with students, 
faculty, labor, all vying to run the institution; and that 
the universities would seek to respond in many ways, one of 
them the reshuffling of programs and departments, and a 
renaming of most everything. 

• that a country burdened by participation in legalized violence 
in a non-war on the other side of the globe would become rife 
with violence at home. 

• that there would be a breakthrough in birth control technology 
that would trigger a sexual revolution and the need to redefine 
the relation of sex to family life. 

Yet these things have occurred. They affect the individuals and 
those families that are the central concern of home economics. 

•Home economics came into being and was shaped by the needs of 19th 
century society. It has remained dynamic in the 20th because it is 
pragmatic, it is resilient, and can respond to sudden demands placed 
upon it. 

Home economics took form at a time when four major societal move- 
ments were underway, and the direction of its growth was determined in 
part by each of them: (1) women's rights, (2) trade unions, (3) science 
applied to everyday problems, (4) egalitarian movement. So home econom- 
ics became a new kind of education for women and a profession for women — 
a means of: applying science to the home, freeing the homemaker from 
household drudgery, alleviating conditions of poor, and establishing 
middle-class values and standards as the ideal. 

During the early part of 20th century, home economics responded to 
new interests and concerns of society. 

• Ninty percent of the people lived on farms, agriculture was in 
prominence, so home economists developed expertise in working 
with rural farm families. 

• Gesell's work at Yale in child development led to the addition 
of education in this area. 

• The economy changed from production to consumption and consumer 
education began to receive added emphasis. 

• The behaviorial sciences received increasing recognition and 
findings were incorporated in home economics teachings. 

• Housing became a social concern and an area of special attention. 

I am old enough to know we cannot today predict much about tomor- 
row's world and how home economics can serve it. 

But I also know that decisions we make in meeting challenges before 


us today will shape our ability to stand up to any new challenges that 
may be presented in the 70's. Resilience, once lost, cannot be regained 
If we expect to pull it out for use in future years, we must keep it in 
working condition, for way leads on to way. 

The kind of home economics that will emerge to deal with the real 
problems of individual and families of tomorrow's world depends on how 
we resolve five issues facing home economics now. 

1. We have ventured far enough into the inner city to learn 
that if we are to be successful there some of us will have 
to learn a few basic skills: cooking, sewing, cleaning, 
making do and doing without. 

Where will our middle-class college students learn them? 

2. Will we develop a technical-level group as well as profes- 
sional home economists so we can proceed along theoretical 
and practical lines simultaneously? 

What will be our relation to technical institutes and 
junior colleges? 

3. Is there a new role for the home economists in business? 

Their original purpose was to help in establishing standards 
for products used in the home. Now most of them are used in 
product promotion. 

The educational materials they produce are not for use of 
the nation's poor and disadvantaged. Is there a new career 
in business for those who can guide the production of 
materials and programs for the low-income groups in our 

4. Home economics has been notoriously unsuccessful in family 
life education in public schools. (There are a few excep- 
tions. ) 

Will it abdicate? Or will it prepare for a massive program 
including realistic sex education? 

Should it take leadership in studying and interpreting the 
revolution in family life to the public? 

5. Home economics finds itself involved in reorganization pro- 
grams on university campuses. Traditional colleges of 
agriculture, home economics, engineering, medicine, are all 
involved as new institutional arrangements are developed. 

What do these mean for the services of family-centered 


What kinds of home economics for tomorrow's world? Should it con- 
fine itself to ministering to society's needs or should it help define 
the society the family will live in? 

Ellen H. Richards said that home economics represents "the freedom 
of the home from the dominance of things and their due subordination to 
ideals." She talked again about how we can "free the spirit for the 
more important and permanent interests of the home and of society . . . 
What ideals? What permanent interests of the home and of society? 

We have formed ties with those in natural and social sciences and 
the arts; should we now add philosophy? Is there a new role for a 
philosopher-home economist? 



Alice Elvod Whatley Mary A. Warren 

Head, Division of Teacher Education Chairman 

in Home Economics School of Home Economics 

Department of Home Economics University of Oklahoma 
University of Texas at Austin* Norman, Oklahoma 

Harry J. Parker 

Director of Planning 

School of Health Related Professions 

University of Oklahoma Medical Center 

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 

"Educators are experiencing a continuing challenge to build a cur- 
riculum which contributes to the orientation of youth to the world of 
work. A basic first step . . . [is] the identification of concepts and 
generalizations considered important for such orientation."^ 

A concept and generalization framework could serve as one basis for 
developing curriculum materials and media to orient youth for employment 
and to stimulate youth's constructive use of human and material 
resources. It could also promote vocational education programs. 

A project to formulate such a framework was funded through the 
Oklahoma State Board of Vocational Education and was undertaken by the 
University of Oklahoma Research Institute. The problem for this project 
was to identify generalizations related to concepts important for youth 
orientation to the world of work. Basic concepts had been identified 
during an earlier research project and conference.^ The identification 
of the generalizations was considered necessary to give applicability 
and support to the concepts.^ During the process of identification and 
evaluation of the generalizations, the concept framework was refined. 

*Formerly at the University of Oklahoma. 

J. B. Perky, Director, Oklahoma State Board of Vocational Educa- 
tion. Preface to report of research, Monograph Series No. 1, Youth 
Orientation to the World of Work: Concepts and Generalizations, 1967. 

TION TO THE WORLD OF WORK, submitted by University of Oklahoma Research 
Institute, Norman, Oklahoma, October 11, 1965, to the U.S. Commissioner 
of Education under provisions of Section 4(c) of the Vocational Act of 

ORIENTATION TO THE WORLD OF WORK, submitted by the University of Oklahoma 
Research Institute, Norman, Oklahoma, September 30, 1967, to the Oklahoma 
State Board of Vocational Education, Stillwater, Oklahoma. 


This study was part of a larger plan to guide high school boys and 
girls to a personal awareness of the demands of the world of work.^ 

Generalizations were identified through: a review of literature 
and media; individual and group study by national, state, and local 
consultants and youth; and an evaluation conference. Concepts, as 
abstract ideas, and generalizations, as inferences, were concerned with 
general preparation for employment. Generalizations were based on 
objective data, experience or theory of consultants; and were considered 
applicable to all areas of high school vocational education and most 
types of employment. Desired behavioral objectives were concerned with 
development of personal potential, integrity, and flexibility; and 
development of respect for human relations and work. 

The identified concepts, as abstract ideas, and identified gener- 
alizations, as inferences, were concerned with general preparation of 
youth for employment. The concept and generalization framework was 
divided into three areas: (1) personal influences on youth orientation 
to employment; (2) environmental influences on youth orientation to 
employment; and (3) combined personal and environmental influences on 
youth orientation to employment. Summarized statements defined the 
scope of each of the three areas. Identified concepts, the italicized 
words in the concept and generalization framework, were expanded into 
background statements. These concept statements were followed by 
identified generalizations designed as messages to support each 
associated concept. 


Personal influences, as unique characteristics from within the 
individual, affect youth orientation to the world of work when 
related to human personality needs and values. 

Human needs and values may be expressed through ethical, intellectual, 
social, and health requirements or qualities, and influence the indi- 
vidual in the work situation. 

1. Individual moral standards of conduct are involved in employ- 

2. Individual belief that one's work contributes to the welfare 
of mankind influences mental health. 

3. Individual ability to reason and use those factors which 
relate self to society affects the work situation. 

4. Individual interest in work may be promoted through varying 
degrees of intellectual stimulation. 

^Phase I and Phase II are the beginning steps of a research-devel- 
TION TO THE WORLD OF WORK, concerned with developing media to communicate 
to youth the concepts and the generalizations identified during this 


5. Individual social and emotional needs and values may be 
expressed through personal behavior on the job. 

6. Individual social and emotional needs may become more active 
after the basic needs of livelihood have been met through 
employment . 

7. Individual physical and mental health may affect each other, 
as well as the work situation and society. 

8. Individual physical and mental health may be affected by the 
work situation. 

9. Individual perception of integrity may be expressed in work 
through responsibility for self. 

Individual personalities may be expressed through mental and emotional 
characteristics, and influence the individual in the work situation. 

1. Individual maturity may be expressed through responses to 
problems, varying degrees of independence, and personal 
involvement in the work situation. 

2. Individual ideas about self may influence personal performance 
in the work situation. 

3. Individual self understanding and self acceptance may promote 
understanding and acceptance of others in the work situation. 

4. Individual maturity level may influence the mental stimulation 
needed for interest in work. 


Environmental influences, as characteristics of the surround- 
ings of the individual, affect youth orientation to the world 
of work when related to technology and automation, economic 
framework, work legislation, work population, work description, 
work opportunity, and individuals or groups. 

Teohnotogy and automation may be expressed through the application of 
science to human work functions and influence the individual in the 
work situation. 

1. Technology and automation influence current and future job 
possibilities and employment. 

2. Technology and automation influence change in occupations. 

3. Technology and automation may create the need for transfer- 
able skills. 

4. Technology and automation may influence education as evidenced 
in current and future training needs. 

5. Technology and automation influence work demand, education, 
and training. 


Economic framework may be expressed through plans developed to meet the 
needs of society and influences the individual in the work situation. 

1. Individual effort includes education for personal development, 
influences technology and automation, and contributes to the 
total economic system. 

2. Individual effort included in the work situation may be 
partially dependent on the value which society places on 
personal endeavor and achievement. 

3. Welfare in society involves the well-being of all people. 

4. Welfare in society is influenced by the ability and willing- 
ness of the individual to fulfill occupational requirements 
after technical competence has been reached. 

5. Power structure in the world of work involves the types and 
degrees of authority which affect work opportunities. 

6. Power structure within the work situation may be affected by 
the degree of economic control, mental and/or educational 

7. Distribution of human and material resources includes the 
allocation of goods and services in both quantity and quality. 

Work legislation may be expressed through social and economic laws, 
regulations, and/or customs and influences the individual in the work 

1. State and federal social and economic laws are designed to 
protect the worker from physical and health hazards; from age, 
sex, or wage discrimination, and/or exploitation; and to pro- 
mote financial security. 

2. Local customs and/or regulations are designed to encourage 
further education and training, increase employee interest, 
improve employer-employee relations, and advance financial 

Work population may be expressed through persons in the total labor 
force, both employed and actively seeking emplo5mient , and influences 
the individual in the work situation. 

1. Technological progress may increase competition for work 
requiring unskilled labor. 

2. Emplo3raent of youth may be associated with greater job turn- 
over and more part-time emplojmient. 

3. Technological advances may influence job opportunity. 

4. Decision concerning gainful employment may be influenced by 
age, marital status, family responsibilities, other sources 
of income, work preparation, work experience, interest, and 

5. Employment opportunity may be influenced by physical 


characteristics of men and women. 

6. Gainful emplo3mient appears to be of greater concern to men 
than to women. 

Work description may be expressed through occupational function and 
status and influences the individual in the work situation. 

1. Occupational information may include such aspects as function, 
qualifications, appeal, and range in income. 

2. The social position of a particular occupation may be reflected 
by the public image of that occupation. 

Work opportunity may be expressed through family, education, work 
experience, and location and influences the individual in the work 

1. Family ideas regarding occupational status may influence work 
opportunity and may or may not agree with the job description. 

2. Educational and vocational information and guidance may influ- 
ence an individual's work opportunities. 

3. Local work opportunities may be a part of experience and 
learning within the community. 

4. An individual's community status and social role may be 
influenced by the work he does, how well he does it, and 
the personal esteem of individuals and groups. 

Individuals and groups influence persons in the work situation. 

1. Peers may influence attitudes and ideas toward work and 
occupational status. 

2. Selection of occupations may be influenced by attitudes and 
ideas about work and occupational status. 

3. Contacts with individuals and groups, as well as mass media, 
influence ideas and attitudes about work. 


Personal-environmental influences, as combined internal and 
external characteristics, affect youth orientation to the world 
of work when related to vocational plans, work situation, work 
demands, work quality, work attitudes, human relationships, and 
vjork and home management. 

Vooationat plans may be expressed through personal occupational selec- 
tions and influence the individual in the work situation. 

1. Personal occupational selections may influence the individual 
in the work situation throughout a lifetime. 


2. Vocational planning includes understanding of allied occupa- 
tions using transf errable skills. 

3. Personal self study with accompanying identification of work 
attitudes influences vocational planning and development. 

4. Vocational planning may be influenced by the values held by 
an individual and his family. 

5. Vocational planning may be influenced by the degree to which 
a particular occupation contributes to individual needs. 

6. Job choice may be influenced by individual belief about social 

7. Job choice may be influenced by and related to self evaluation. 

Work situation may be expressed through characteristics of the employ- 
ment setting, including such factors as employment practices, personal 
work appearance, physical plant, and work equipment and influences the 
individual in employment. 

1. Selection of employees by employers may be influenced by time 
and expense required for training. 

2. Selection of employees by employers may influence productivity 
and job stability. 

3. Employment may be enhanced by an understanding of what is 
expected on the job, as well as by education and training. 

4. An awareness and knowledge of the job application process may 
be influential in obtaining employment. 

5. Awareness of job advancement opportunities may promote interest 
in and continuing preparation for employment. 

6. The importance of personal appearance may vary with job and 
employer . 

7. Personal appearance may influence relations with fellow workers, 

8. Physical work plant and equipment may influence individual and 
group motivation, interest, and productivity. 

Work demands may be expressed through general employment requirements, 
including factors of education, mobility, flexibility, responsibility, 
productivity, and ability and influence the individual in the work 

1. Education and training may promote flexibility in work skills 
and attitudes. 

2. Mobility influences the need for national standards in educa- 

3. Flexibility in work skills and attitudes facilitates greater 
employment opportunity for an individual within an occupational 


4. Production is associated with physical and mental state, work 
attitudes, human relationships, and motivation of the individ- 
ual or group workers. 

Work quality may be expressed through job satisfaction involving per- 
sonal feelings of security, independence, motivation, judgment, creativ- 
ity, and communication and influences the individual in the work 

1. Some assurance of job stability, confidence in one's ability 
and adaptability may contribute to a feeling of security and 
well-being . 

2. Varying needs for personal independence may be met by different 
occupations and influence job satisfaction. 

3. Motivation may be promoted by personal interest, personal 
involvement, and performance recognition. 

4. Motivation in the work situation may encourage creativity, 
responsibility, and job satisfaction. 

5. Decision making at work may be enhanced by knowledge, skill, 
and judgment. 

6. Knowledge, skill, and judgment may influence job stability and 

7. Job satisfaction and advancement may be influenced by consid- 
eration of personality traits in making a job choice. 

8. Some degree of independence on the job may encourage creativity 
in the work situation. 

9. Learning and communication may be related to change in work 

Work attitudes may be expressed through feelings and opinions concern- 
ing dignity of work, pride in performance, and job satisfaction which 
influence the individual in the work situation. 

1. Dignity of work may be associated with performing activities 
believed to be worthwhile by the individual. 

2. Pride in work performance may provide a sense of personal and 
group worth, and economic and social fulfillment. 

3. Job satisfaction may be influenced by individual aspiration 
and capability as compared with present employment. 

Human relationships may be expressed through factors concerning behavior 
among and between individuals and groups, and influence the individual 
in the work situation. 

1. Employee-employer relations may be influenced by mutual respect, 

2. Employee-employer relations may be affected by the communica- 
tion process. 


3. Employee-employer relations may affect individual job satis- 
faction and work productivity. 

4. Relationships with co-workers may influence job satisfaction 
and job advancement. 

5. Public relations may influence job satisfaction and job 

6. The degree to which people depend upon one another in the work 
environment influences human relationships. 

Work and home management may be expressed through factors concerning 
performance, including human and material resources and work-home roles, 
and influences the individual in the work situation. 

1. Human and material resources for work and home management 
include time, energy, abilities, interests, and money. 

2. Management of leisure time, work time, and home time involves 
self discipline to achieve individual goals. 

3. Personal, family, community, and employment relationships may 
affect one another and influence both work and home satisfac- 

4. Work and home roles include consideration of duties and 
responsibilities in home, community, and employment situation. 

5. The comparative importance of work and home roles influences 
the expenditure of human and material resources on any task 
or goal. 

6. Individual money management may be influenced by the status 
system of society, the reward system for accomplishment, and 
personal values. 

7. Management of resources may be influenced by values and experi- 
ences, and may affect individual standards of living at home, 
at work, and in the community. 



Robert Cudney 
Pre-Vocational Coordinator 
High School District 214 
Mt . Prospect, Illinois 

"What can we do for the girls who show very little interest in the 
educational programs we are offering?" was asked not long ago in Mt. 
Prospect, Illinois. A new specialized work-study program had been pro- 
vided for boys of the district, but girls with similar needs were being 
neglected. Girls, it was believed, could also profit from a modified 
program which provided educational and vocational experiences geared 
specifically to their abilities and interests. 

The staff members wanted a program for girls that would fill the 
two-year gap before they became eligible for the established coopera- 
tive work programs — Diversified Occupations, Distributive Education, 
Office Occupations, Home Economics Occupations, and Cooperative Work 
Training. The major objective would be to provide an environment in 
which students would have an opportunity to improve their attitudes as 
their interests in school increased. These students do not relate to 
abstracts; thus a program that provided tangible, visible results was 
seen as the only possible solution. 

In providing a solution to the problem, the administration reduced 
class sizes and assigned teachers who were sympathetic to the needs of 
poorly motivated students. By doing this, the study phase of the pro- 
gram was completed. Still a larger problem had to be solved: "What 
meaningful and satisfying work experiences could be provided in the 

Mrs. Dorothy Scharf , Forest View High School, suggested that her 
Home Economics Department might serve as the work area. She believed 
that there were a number of girls in home economics who would profit 
more from a work-oriented situation than they would from a traditional 
home economics program. 

How could food preparation become a meaningful and worthwhile 
experience for these girls? What could they do that would develop 
pride and a feeling of accomplishment in a task well done? 

An available classroom provided the solution to the dilemma. Why 
not use this room as a dining room? This would become a laboratory 
that would provide an outlet for the product and also present oppor- 
tunities for the girls to develop food preparation and serving skills 
which are so much in demand today. 

Just a room was not enough — it had to be tastefully decorated. 
Great pains were taken to create an environment in which the girls 


would take pride. The room was made appealing by Early American fur- 
nishings — round tables, plush captain's chairs, and hutches. A decorator- 
inspired fabric duplicated the design of the dishes to highlight the most 
comfortable atmosphere. It is not uncommon now to hear the girls 
sharply remind one another, "Take your shoes off, you're tracking up 
the carpet." These are the same girls who "could care less" about the 
appearance of their rooms at home. 

A freshman student serves lunch to guests in the Tearoom. The high 
quality of the food and service has made the Tearoom a very popular 
noonday habit. 


The Tearoom accommodates twenty-four luncheon guests. Faculty 
members of the district, administrative office personnel, and various 
groups from the community are frequent patrons. Guests make reserva- 
tions and purchase lunch tickets at the nominal cost of seventy-five 
cents . 

Freedom to try different approaches and techniques is a refreshing 
new experience for both the girls and the teacher. An example of 
student and teacher enthusiasm is illustrated by an ambitious goal to 
serve lunch every day. After much thought and study, this plan was 
discarded as impractical. Tuesday and Thursday are serving days while 
Monday and Wednesday are preparation days. Friday is clean-up and 
evaluation day. Field trips to places of interest in the area are also 
scheduled on this day. 


The challenge of making new dishes for each meal keeps interest at a 
high level. Here Mrs. Scharf and her cooks prepare plates for the 
waitress (wearing an apron of the Tearoom cornflower print) to serve 
to guests. 


To provide the individual attention required, class enrollment is 
limited to fifteen. The first nine weeks of the school year are devoted 
to the development of skills and knowledge needed for food preparation. 
The girls are then taught to prepare and serve luncheon in the Tearoom. 
Planning the menu, figuring the cost, and buying the ingredients are 
all part of the learning experience. 

Serving guests provides moments of great expectation and suspense. 
"How did they like it? Did I do a good job of serving them?" The 
girls are very anxious for the reactions of the guests. Approval of 
both the food and the service is a great ego-booster for these girls 
who receive so little praise in their school and home experiences. 

These students generally have a very poor image of themselves. 
They are unstable under pressure. On serving day, when the pressure 
reaches a critical level, it takes much patience and persuasion to keep 
them at their tasks. They give up easily. "Why fight it? If it gets 
too tough, I'll just quit." 

The students' confidence in their ability to start and carry out 
specific tasks is greatly enhanced by both group and individual success. 
Some become best at one task, while others gain proficiency in several. 
Even if a girl is best only at making coffee, she can have a feeling of 
pride and accomplishment; a seemingly insignificant skill can be very 
important to her self-concept. 

There has been a great change in manners, dress, and personality. 
The girls show more pride in their personal appearance and take greater 
pains to look neat and clean. At the beginning, they appeared to be 
self-centered and selfish, but gradually they became more sensitive to 
the needs of others. Their ability to listen without being distracted 
or interrupted has improved greatly. Bickering and exchange of sarcastic 
remarks have lessened considerably. Volunteers for jobs have increased 
from almost no volunteers to the point where one has to be careful not 
to hurt the feelings of volunteers who cannot be used. The girls have 
changed from being reluctant to try different jobs to the place where 
they will try any job and want to do it well. The "I don't care" 
attitude has been replaced by a genuine desire to succeed. The girls 
take more initiative in recognizing jobs that have to be done. Instead 
of the "What should I do now?" approach, they anticipate and carry out 
tasks that have to be done. 

These changes tend to substantiate the theory that students who 
may find limited value in existing educational curricula often find 
worthwhile and beneficial rewards through the integration of activities 
which they enjoy and from which they experience success. The tearoom 
experience has enabled students to gain confidence in their ability to 
function in the regular school environment. 

In other classes change is not quite so evident, but other teachers 
generally feel that the program has eased some of the anxiety and frus- 
tration that these students usually display. They agree that students 
are noticeably "settled down" even though there is only a slight change 
in academic interest. 


The intensive counseling provided each girl in the program has 
influenced a change in attitudes and a decrease in hostility and frus- 
tration. Counseling is given regularly on a group basis. Individual 
counseling is provided when it seems necessary or when a student 
requests it. 

Parents of the girls are also offered the opportunity to participate 
in parent groups. The amount of change in the student is usually an 
indication of the amount of time parents give to the group. Parents of 
the students involved in the program give the greatest support. 

Mrs. Scharf takes advantage of the opportunity to give this 
young lady a lesson in cutting and preparing the pie for 
serving. The close individual attention does a lot to 
improve skills and change attitudes. 


How does the teacher react to this type of program? There is no 
doubt that teachers will have many anxious and frustrating moments 
because of conflicts between familiar teaching methods and those 
required to function with this type of group. The teacher must be 
flexible. Mrs. Scharf relates, "When we started, I was really un- 
comfortable not functioning in the traditional way; but as I continued 
along, I realized that these girls were really changing and that my 
attitude toward them had changed." 

The teacher will find that these special students tend to reject 
any type of responsibility; they resist direction and lack motivation 
to carry through a given task. The teacher must be patient, enthusi- 
astic, understanding, and above all, realistic. She must not set 
expectations too high, but she must not underestimate the potentiality 
of the group. 

What work experience to offer the following year was solved by 
placing the Tearoom graduates in the school cafeteria where their 
services were most welcomed and appreciated. The vocational skills 
and maturity gained in the Tearoom have greatly enhanced the girls' 
efficiency in the cafeteria. 

A possible four-year vocational plan for these girls could be as 
follows: The freshman year is spent in the Tearoom; the sophomore 
year, in the cafeteria; junior and senior years, in a cooperative work 
program or an elective area of their choice. 

The Tearoom program has exceeded all expectations. Behavioral and 
attitudinal changes have been amazing. Teachers and students alike 
have observed the transition from a cantankerous group to a cohesive, 
smooth-functioning unit. 



A previous issue of Illinois Teacher (Vol. XI, No. 4) introduced 
materials developed in a curriculum project being conducted at the 
University of Illinois under the direction of Elizabeth Simpson. A 
coordinated program for Grades 7 through 12 was planned according to 
Simpson's curriculum model which perceives aspects of home economics 
to be related by a large area of commonality and based upon a "roles 
of women" core. ^ 

Topical outlines of units in Grades 7 and 8 were published in 
Illinois Teachev, Vol. XI, issues No. 4 and No. 5, along with detailed 
plans for pre-employment units. Two more series of unit outlines for 
Grades 9 and 10 are now presented in sequence as a continuation into 
the high school program. It should be noted that foundation courses 
are designed for Grades 7, 9, and 11; enrichment courses, which could 
be eliminated, are offered in Grades 8, 10, and 12. 

^E. Simpson. Model for proposed curriculum in home economics 
Scope and sequence. Illinois Teacher ^ 1967-68, 11, 253-358. 



Unit I. developing Understanding of Self and Others 

I. Roles of the teenage girl. 

A. The concept of "roles." 

B. Variety of roles. 

1. Member of family of origin — daughter, sister, 

etc . 

2. Friend. 

3. Student. 

4. Citizen. 

C. Role responsibilities. 

D. Role conflicts. 

II. Basic human needs of self and others. 

A. Physical needs. 

1. Identification of needs. 

2. Ways of meeting needs in own and other cultures 

3. Problems associated with difficulty in meeting 

physical needs. 

4. Variations at different periods in life cycle. 

B. Emotional — social needs. 

1. Identification of needs. 

2. Ways of meeting needs in our own and other 

cultures . 

3. Variations at different periods in life cycle. 

4. Problems associated with difficulties in meet- 

ing needs. 

5. Long-range effects if needs are not met. 

6. Personal responsibility with respect to meet- 

ing needs of self and others. 

C. Mental needs. 

1. Identification of needs for knowledge and 

understanding . 

2. Ways of meeting needs. 

3. Problems associated with meeting mental needs. 

4. Meeting own mental needs and helping others 

meet their needs. 


III. Communication, verbal and nonverbal. 

A. Definitions of communication, verbal and nonverbal, 

B. Communication as a major factor in relationships. 

C. Verbal communication. 

1. Methods. 

2. Content. 

3. Voice. 

4. Means of improving. 

D. Nonverbal communication. 

1. Means expression, posture of head and body, 
touch, gestures, dress, cosmetics, home 
furnishings, use of time and space. 

E. Developing ability to communicate more effectively, 

Unit II. Personal Standards of Conduct. 

I. Definition of personal standards of conduct. 
II. Reasons for developing personal standards of conduct. 
III. Cultural and subcultural influences. 

A. Comparison of standards of conduct in our culture 
in past and present. 

B. Comparison of standards of conduct in different 
subcultures in America. 

IV. Value bases for development of personal standards of 

A. Definition of values. 

B. Recognizing personal values. 

C. Origin of personal values. 

D. Nature of values. 

1. Expression of values. 

2. Difficulty in recognizing. 

3. Difficulty in changing values. 

4. Conflicting values within oneself and with 


5. Weighing values in making choices. 


E. Religious values as a base for personal standards 
of conduct. 

1. Differences in religions and interpretations. 

2. Changes in religion as related to changes in 

values . 

3. Results of having religion as base for values. 

4. Efforts of religious institutions to help 

individuals in terms of personal standards 
of conduct. 

F. Status as value base for personal standards of 
conduct . 

1. Definition of status. 

2. Examples that show how status as a value 

determines conduct. 

3. Reasons for status as value base. 

a. Basic need for recognition, participation, 


b. "Symbolic" value. 

c. Importance of status at different stages 

of life. 

4. Significance of status as value in different 

subcultures . 

G. Health as value base for personal standards of 
conduct . 

1. Distinguishing between real and "symbolic" 

values . 

2. Research data on effects of alcohol, tobacco, 

drugs as related to health and conduct. 

3. Diseases — including veneral disease among teen- 

agers . 

H. Conformity as value base for personal standards of 
conduct . 

1. Definition and explanation of conformity. 

2. Possible reasons for felt need for conformity. 

a. Sense of identity with group other than 


b. Fear of deviancy. 

3. Conformity at different stages of life. 

4. Conformity in different subcultures. 

5. Influence of advertising on conformity. 

6. Overconf orming . 


I. Unconventionality as value base for standards of 
conduct . 

1. Definition and examples. 

2. Bases for conventions. 

3. Bases for unconventionality. 

4. Theories about unconventionality of adolescents 

and youth. 

J. Responsibility as value base for standards of 
conduct . 

1. Definition and explanation of responsibility. 

2. Differences in mature responsibility and 

assumed duty. 

3. Examples of responsibility in various sub- 

cultures . 

4. Responsibility to oneself. 

5. Responsibility to others. 

Unit III. Becoming an Attractive Woman. 
I. Personal Grooming. 

A. Concept of "good grooming." 

B. Cultural differences with respect to personal 

C. History of emphasis on appearance of women through- 
out ages. 

D. Value bases for personal grooming. 

1. Human relations. 

2. Health. 

3. Self-respect. 

4. Career or job success. 

E. Grooming routines for teenagers. 

1. Care of skin, hair, nails, body (depending on 

needs of students) . 

2. Collection and care of grooming aids. 

a. Cosmetics and consumer protection laws. 

3. Special grooming problems. 

II. Other influences on personal appearance. 

A. Posture, sitting, standing, and moving. 


B. Mannerisms. 

C. Health habits with respect to 

1. Sleep and rest. 

2. Diet. 

3. Cleanliness. 

4. Exercise. 

III. Enhancing appearance through clothing selection. 

A. Attitudes and values relating to clothing. 

B. Art principles applied to selection of clothing. 

1. Balance. 

2. Proportion. 

3. Emphasis. 

4. Rhythm. 

5. Harmony and unity. 

C. Personality considerations in clothing selection. 

Unit IV. Consumer Buying of Clothing . 
I. Wardrobe planning. 

A. "Needs" versus "wants" in making wardrobe decisions, 

1. Place of clothing in hierarchy of values. 

2. Personal wardrobe needs in relation to ward- 

robe of other family members. 

3. Consequences of impulsive buying or planned 

purchases . 

4. What to buy in terms of coordinating color, 

texture, line and design in wardrobe. 

B. Resources to consider. 

1. Clothes on hand. 

2. Money — personal and family. 

3. Skills — construction and buymanship. 

4. Care and storage facilities. 

5. Potential gifts. 

C. Quality needed in clothing for various activities 
and occasions. 

1. Work and/or school. 

2. Public appearances other than above. 

3. Infrequent use — party or special occasion. 

4. Recreation and relaxation activities. 


D. Considerations for year-round wear. 

1. Outdoor climate. 

2. Air-conditioned indoor climate. 

II. Decisions in the market place. 

A. Motivation and pressures for purchase. 

1. Advertising. 

2. Peer acceptance. 

3. Prestige of brands or stores. 

4. Sales personnel. 

5. New fads or fashions. 

6. Need — real or assumed. 

B. Cost of item in relation to resources and to need. 

C. Fit and becomingness. 

D. Integration into wardrobe. 

III. Shopping practices in buying clothing and accessories. 

A. Using consumer information to investigate before 
buying . 

1. Advertisements. 

2. Analyses of products by testing agencies. 

3. Informative labeling. 

4. Brand names and seals of approval. 

B. Use of "sales." 

1. Knowing typical price levels. 

2. Awareness of types of merchandise promoted. 

a. Regular stock. 

b. Special order. 

c. Irregulars or seconds. 

d. Broken sizes. 

3. Decisions about when to shop at a sale. 

C. Advantages and limitations of various places to 

1. Department store. 

2. Speciality shop. 

3. Discount house. 

4. Mail order house. 

5. Clothing exchange, rummage sale or second-hand 



D. Advantages and limitations of various methods of 

1. Cash. 

2. Charge. 

3. Installment. 

4. Lay-away. 

E. Consumer responsibility to the seller. 

1. Courtesies in handling and trying on merchandise. 

2. Understanding privileges and policies in relation 

to approvals and returns. 

3. Keeping communication open, 

a. Asking pertinent questions to get product 


b. Providing pertinent facts about size, 

color, quality desired, etc. 

4. Showing appreciation for good service. 

5. Making justifiable complaints. 

Unit V. Personal Nutrition. 

I. Importance of nutrition in relation to personal appear- 
ance. (Introduced in Grade 7: related concepts further 
developed in Grade 9.) 

A. Nutritional effects on vitality and strength. 

B. Appearance of skin, hair, teeth, eyes, and nails 
as related to unit 

II. Importance of nutrition in relation to later roles in 

A. Relation of diet of young girl to later pregnancies 
and childbirth. 

B. Food habits. 

1. The relationship of today's food preferences 

and habits to patterns for future family. 

2. Advantages of eating a variety of foods. 

a. Social situations. 

b. Special diets. 

c. Different countries and cultures. 

d. Fun and creativity. 

e. Economies in spending. 


III. Cultural and scientific influences on food. 

A. Cultural differences in relation to intake. 

1. Time and frequency of meals, snacks, etc. 

2. Type of food for specific meals. 

3. Ways of preparing foods. 

4. Standards for appearance and taste. 

5. Values associated with eating. 

B. Technological and regulatory considerations. 

1. Nutritional research and changes in recommended 


2. Influence of new equipment and methods for 

processing, packaging and merchandising 

3. Conditions affecting safety of food for 


4. Natural foods versus dietary enrichments, 

supplements^ and substitutes. 

IV. Special dietary considerations. 

A. In relation to weight gain or loss. 

1. Importance of diet, i.e., total nutrient intake 

and eating patterns; total nutrient intake 
and fad diets. 

2. Importance of medical advice. 

3. Bone structure. 

4. Caloric needs. 

5. Exercise and activity. 

6. Role of glands. 

7. Psychological factors. 

8. Inherited factors. 

9. Cultural differences in values with respect to 

woman's figure and weight. 

B. In relation to illness. 

1. Psychological factors. 

2. Following professional advice. 

a. Diets to accommodate deficient body func- 

tions — permanent or temporary. 

b. Diets to supplement inadequate nutritional 


V. Planning and preparing quick nutritious meals. 
A. Considerations. 


1. Nutritional needs of people to be fed. 

2. Resources available, money, time, energy, 

skills, equipment. 

3. Appearance, color, flavor, and texture of 

food combinations. 

4. Manner of serving • 

B. Use of meal patterns. 

1. Definition of "meal" and "meal pattern." 

2. Function of meal patterns. 

3. Differences in meal patterns. 

a. Cultural — nationality, rural, urban, 


b. Family composition and activities. 

4. Traditional meal patterns. 

a. Breakfast. 

b. Brunch. 

c. Lunch or supper. 

d. Dinner. 

e. Snacks or refreshments. 

C. Steps in meal management. 

1. Planning — menu, marketing, preparation schedule, 

serving and cleanup. 

2. Preparation. 

3. Serving. 

4. Cleanup and evaluation. 

Unit VI. Using Personal Leisure. 

I. Concepts of leisure. 

A. As related to time. 

1. "Free" time, nothing to do. 

2. "Time off" from work, employment, school, or 

home responsibility. 

3. "Discretionary" time, block of unoccupied time 

when one is free to use it as he chooses. 

B. As related to work. 

1. Need for a change of pace. 

2. Need for pe-creation, for compensatory activities 

to balance work. 

C. As an attitude. 


1. Time to "use" or time to "kill." 

2. As freedom and opportunity for, rather than 

freedom from activities. 

D. As a way of life. 

1. Keeping oneself unencumbered by obligations 

of schedule. 

2. Freedom from meeting demands of existence. 

II. Influences on use of leisure. 

A. Goals. 

1. Conditioned by values of self, peer group, and 


2. Conditioned by commercialism and advertising. 

B. Time available. 

1. Frequency of leisure periods. 

2. Amount of time, in any one period and total 

time per day, week, month, or year. 

3. Variations due to type of work and age of 


C. Other resources. 

1. Within self. 

2 . At home . 

3. In immediate or larger community. 

D. Policies and programs of local and/or national 
organizations . 

III. Building leisure skills. 

A. Considerations of balance. 

1. For time alone and time with others. 

2. For short periods and for extended periods of 


3. For various types of personal development, 

physical, mental, emotional, social, and 
for service to others. 

4. For present use and probable future use. 

5. Developing and using a variety of resources. 

B. Analysis of leisure activities. 

1. Developmental. 

2. Social. 

3. Service. 

4. Creative. 


Planning for leisure opportunities in relation to 
plans for 

1. Money. 

2. Food. 

3. Clothing. 

4. Housing. 

5. Own schedule. 

6. Utilizing various media, TV, movies, etc. 

NOTE: (In our work-oriented culture, we tend to think of leisure as a vacuum 
to be filled rather than offering opportunities for personal development and 
service. The purpose of this section is to help the student understand the 
concept of leisure and values related to its use. Techniques of analyzing 
the offerings of the mass media for their content and possible effects may 
be discussed . ) 



Unit I. Looking Forward to Marriage and/or a Job or Career. 

I. Examining adult living. 

A. Areas of adult responsibility. 

1. Personal. 

2. Occupational. 

3. Marriage and family. 
A. Citizenship. 

B. The social setting for today's adult living. 

1. Socio-economic changes related to industrial- 


a. Commercial and industrial expansion. 

b. Specialization. 

c. Urbanization and suburbanization. 

d. Improvements in transportation and communi- 


e. Prosperity and affluence. 

2. Soci-economic changes related to scientific 

and technological advances. 

a. Knowledge expansion. 

b. Exploitation of human and material resources 

c. Automation. 

d. Obsolescense of jobs, skills, and products. 

e. Educational opportunities. 

f. Prosperity and affluence. 

g. Shrinkage of world and space. 

C. Trends which affect adult responsibility. 

1. Population trends. 

a. Population explosion. 

b. Population control. 

c. Increase in proportion of the aging and 

young in the population. 

2. Labor force trends. 

a. Increase in size of labor force. 

b. Increase in proportion of women and of 

married women in the labor force. 

c. Increase in demand for skilled, trained 


d. Decrease in demand for unskilled workers. 


3. Mobility trends. 

a. Greater geographic mobility. 

b. Greater job mobility. 

c. Greater social mobility. 

4. Trends in work and leisure life. 

a. Shorter work week. 

b. More leisure time. 

c. Earlier retirement. 

5. Trends in personal and family life. 

a. Earlier marriages, earlier parenthood. 

b. Lowered household production. 

c. Increased family consumption. 

d. Higher standard of living. 

e. Faster pace of living. 

f. Increased use of labor-saving equipment 

and products. 

g. Easier credit. 

h. Greater dependence on public service. 

6. Movement toward greater and equal opportunity 

for all. 

a. New public attitudes (family planning, 

housing) . 

b. Social security (legislation) and federal 

aid . 

c. Expanded educational opportunities. 

d. Greater freedom of choice. 

D. Adult problems resulting from changes. 

1. Increased wants. 

2. Increased mental illness. 

3. Increased divorce. 

4. Increased juvenile delinquency and crime. 

5. Unemployment of unskilled workers. 

6. Increased competition for jobs. 

7. Difficulties in management of time, money, 

and energy. 

8. Shifted responsibilities. 

9. Altered and confused roles. 

E. Status of women in the population. 

1. Single person, with or without dependents. 

2. Married person, with or without dependents. 

3. Widow, with or without dependents. 

4. Divorced or separated person, with or without 

dependents . 


F. Characteristics of women in the labor force. 

1. Proportion of total. 

2. Composition according to family status. 

3. Age. 

4. Types of occupations. 

5. Work patterns. 

6. Income. 

G. Prospects for employed women. 

1. More women in the labor force. 

2. Longer period of employment. 

3. Higher skill and training requirements. 

4. Increase in service-type occupations. 

5. Less discrimination because of sex or race. 

6. Periodic retraining to adjust to labor demands. 

7. Shorter work week. 

H. Factors affecting women's decisions when to combine 
marriage with employment or community service. 

1. Present and future economic needs. 

2. Individual needs of family members. 

3. Care of children during working hours. 

4. Management of household responsibilities. 

5. Attitudes of husband and family. 

6. Personal rewards of work or volunteer service. 

7. Availability of jobs, transportation, household 

services . 

8. Earning power. 

9. Family values. 

10. Stage of family life cycle. 

I. Advantages of general education for women at high 
school and post-high school levels. 

1. Provides abilities for responsible citizenship. 

2. Contributes to enrichment of family life. 

3. Widens horizons for personal development. 

4. Improves qualifications for employment. 

J. Benefits of wage-earning preparation for women. 

1. Provides abilities for support of self and/or 

others . 

2. Helps when supplementary family income is needed 

3. Adds security during family emergencies. 

4. Provides a means for contributing to society. 

5. Aids in achieving personal satisfaction. 


II. Preparing for adult living. 

A. Evaluation of personal goals. 

1. Recognition of aspirations. 

2. Identification of values. 

3. Realistic examination of future prospects. 

B. Appraisal of available resources. 

1. Finances. 

2. Personal qualities. (See 7th-grade outline, 

Illinois Teacher, 1967-68, 11, 259-265.) 

3. Other people. 

4. Educational opportunities. 

a. High school. 

b. College. 

c. Vocational and technical schools. 

d. Company and government training programs 

e. Adult courses. 

f. Independent study. 

5. Occupational opportunities. 

a. Industries. 

b. Commercial establishments. 

c. Institutions. 

d. Private homes. 

6. Opportunities for volunteer service. 

a. Church groups. 

b. School organizations. 

c. Women's clubs. 

d. Charities and welfare agencies. 

e. Hospitals. 

f. Rest homes. 

g. Children's homes. 

h. Political organizations. 

i. Community government and development 


j . Others. 

C. Planning the use of resources to attain goals 

1. Pursuing education. 

2. Getting married or remaining single. 

3. Selecting living accommodations. 

a. Sharing housing with others. 

b. Type and quality of housing needed 

c. Location of housing. 


d. Cost of housing. 

e. Household services and furnishings required 

4. Choosing transportation. 

a. Use of public facilities. 

b. Sharing with others. 

c. Buying a car, arranging for insurance 

and upkeep. 

5. Selecting group affiliations. 

a. Social. 

b. Religious. 

c. Fraternal. 

d. Service. 

e. Special interest. 

f. Professional. 

6. Assembling work credentials. 

a. Social security number. 

b. Birth certificate. 

c. Work permit. 

d. Diploma, degree, certificate, license. 

e. Professional or union memberships. 

f. Papers concerning naturalization, security 

clearance, military service. 

g. Resume of qualifications, training, and 

h. Letters of reference, 
i. Samples of work, 
j . Photograph. 

7. Locating job leads or opportunities for 

volunteer service. 

a. Personal contacts with friends, relatives, 

others . 

b. School counselors and placement officers. 

c. Bulletin boards at schools, counseling 

services, agencies. 

d. Organizations, institutions, volunteer 

bureaus . 

e. Businesses, industrial concerns. 

f. Classified ads and news articles in news- 

papers, trade, professional, and other 
publications . 

g. Community and state employment offices and 

other agencies, 
h. Private employment agencies, 
i. Letters of inquiry. 


8. Applying for a job. 

a. Application forms. 

b. Letters of application. 

9. Interviewing for a job. 

a. Arrangements. 

b. Business etiquette. 

c. Appearance. 

d. Attitudes. 

D. Achieving goals. 

1. Satisfying relationships with family, friends, 

and co-workers. 

2. Skill in work at home or on the job. 

3. Material rewards. 

4. Advancement in position and pay. 

5. Self-respect. 

6. Personal fulfillment. 

7. Contributions to others. 

Unit II. Becoming a Mature Woman. 
I. Maturity. 

A. Definition. 

B. Aspects. 

1. Physical. 

2. Intellectual (mental). 

3. Emotional. 

4. Social. 

5. Philosophical. 

C. Discriminating between mature and immature behavior 

D. Continuing development toward maturity in all 

1. Ways of developing. 

2. Sources of help. 

E. Maturity in relation to 

1. Responsibility to self and others (individual 

persons and society) . 

2. Communication. 

3. Sexuality. 

4. Relationships with others. 


F. Further exploration of qualities of mature living, 

1. Healthy and mature attitudes. 

a. Objectivity. 

b. Emotional stability. 

(1) Sense of proportion. 

(2) Habits. 

2. Adequate outlets for energy, feelings. 

3. Personal philosophy of life based on value 

considerations . 

G. Steps in mature behavior. 

1. Consideration of goals in terms of values of 

self and "significant others." 

2. Consideration of steps which must be taken to 

attain goals. 

3. Analysis of probable consequences of possible 

courses of action. 

4. Recognition that there is dissonance in any 

major decision. 

5. Making decision without undue frustration and 

accepting consequences. 

II. Evaluation of own level of maturity. 

A. Determining level with respect to the various 
aspects of maturity. 

1. Physical. 

2. Intellectual. 

3. Emotional. 

4. Social. 

5. Philosophical. 

B. Reasons for own status with respect to maturity. 

C. Personal goals with respect to developing as a 
mature woman. 

1. Determination of goals. 

2. Planning for their achievement. 

a. Sources of help. 

b. Role of self -discipline. 

III. Developing sensitivity to needs of others. 

A. Areas of need (review, see outline for Unit I, 
ninth grade) . 


B. Sensitivity through verbal and nonverbal communi- 

IV. Improving communication skills. 

A. Meaning of communication, verbal and nonverbal 
(see outline, Unit I, Grade 9). 

B. Importance of communication in family life, in 
friendships . 

C. Ways of keeping lines of communication open. 

D. Problems in communication. 

1. Problems of semantics. 

2. Problems with respect to frame of reference. 

3. Problems across generations. 

4. Problems in man-woman communication and cultural 

bases . 

E. Determining personal goals with respect to improved 
ability to communicate. 

Unit III. Understanding and Caring for Children. 

I. Development of self-understanding through understanding 

A. Increase in self-identity. 

B. Growth in self -understanding based on knowledge of 
and interaction with children. 

II. Development of children. 

A. Aspects of development. 

1. Physical development. 

a. Growth, changes in proportion. 

b. Coordination, manipulation, locomotion. 

c. Hunger, thirst, activities, rest. 

2. Mental development. 

a. Native capacity. 

b. Acquisition and application of knowledge 

through interaction with environment. 

3. Emotional-social development. 


a. Love. 

b. Affection. 

c. Security. 

d . Relationships. 

B. Rate and sequence of development. 

1. Continuous, irreversible process. 

2. Uniqueness of individual patterns. 

C. Influence of environment on development. 

1. Sensitivity to surroundings. 

2. Imitation. 

3. Interaction with expanding environment. 

III. Caring for children. 

A. Obligations to parents and children. 

1. Following established procedures. 

2. Meeting needs. 

3. Guiding behavior. 

4. Providing for safety. 

5. Providing for development. 

B. Attitudes toward children. 

1. Interest in children. 

2. Friendliness, affection. 

3. Empathy. 

4. Appreciation of children as individuals. 

C. Meeting basic needs through supervised play 
activities . 

1. Importance of play in learning. 

a. Free play. 

b. Guided play. 

2. Selection of materials and equipment for 

a. Large muscle activity. 

b. Small muscle activity. 

c. Sensory experience. 

d. Imaginative play. 

e. Dramatic play. 

f. Expanding interests. 

g. Social interaction. 

3. Guidance. 


a. Understanding behavior and its causes. 

b. Positive and negative techniques. 

c. Effects of methods, actions, attitudes on 

development . 

Unit IV. Planning and Preparing Simple Meals. 

I. Considerations in planning family meals (in part, 
review of ninth-grade content) . 

A. Facilities for eating away from home and family 
preferences with respect to "eating out." 

B. Family members. 

1. Numbers and ages. 

2. Likes and dislikes. 

3. Activities. 

4. Health factors and special requirements. 

5. Skills in food preparation. 

6. Values related to food. 

7. Family customs and traditions. 

8. Ethnic and religious background of family. 

9. Time available for food preparation. 

C. Family's "way of life." 

D. Amount of money budgeted for food. 

E. Equipment available for food preparation and 

F. Nutrition. 

G. Availability of foods. 

II. Meeting nutritional needs of family members. 

A. Regularity of food intake. 

B. Nutritional needs. 

1. Recommended allowances. 

2. Factors affecting needs: age, sex, activity, 

state of health. 

III. Nutrient classes. 
A. Proteins. 

1. Definition and identification of rich sources, 


a. Complete. 

b. Incomplete. 

2. Functions in the body. 

3. Selection for optimum quality. 

4. Preparation (meat or egg preparation). 

B. Fats. 

1. Types and rich sources. 

2. Functions in the body. 

3. Selection. 

4. Use of fat in preparation of food (for examples 

in vegetable and meat preparation) . 

C. Carbohydrates. 

1. Definition and identification of rich sources. 

a. Sugar. 

b. Starch. 

2. Functions in the body. 

3. Selection. 

4. Preparation to aid starch digestibility (for 

example, in cereal and vegetable prepara- 
tion) . 

D. Vitamins. 

1. Definition and identification of rich sources. 

a. Water soluble (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, 

other members of B complex, ascorbic 
acid) . 

b. Fat soluble (A, D, E, and K) . 

2. Functions in the body. 

3. Selection. 

4. Preparation to conserve (vegetable and fruit 

preparation) . 

IV. Management in food selection, preparation, and storage. 

A. Planning for variety and attractiveness in food 
combinations (in part, review of content, grades 
7 and 9) . 

1. Color. 

2. Texture. 

3. Shape. 

4. Flavor. 

5. Temperature. 

6. Form. 


7. Preparation. 

8. Nutrient. 

B. Saving time and energy. 

1. Choice of menu. 

a. Forms of foods selected. 

b. Methods of preparation. 

c. Way meal is served. 

2. Organization of work. 

a. Equipment and supplies. 

(1) Use. 

(2) Storage. 

b. Making a market order. 

c. Planning a time and work schedule. 

3. Work habits. 

a. Posture and motions. 

b. Dovetailed tasks and shortcuts. 

c. Condition of surroundings. 

(1) Work surfaces. 

(2) Cleanup during process. 

C. Shopping for food. 

1. Use of a market order. 

a. Form. 

b. Quality. 

c. Quantity. 

2. Where and when to buy. 

3. Labels and their use. 

D. Home storage of food in relation to keeping 
qualities . 

1. Expediency. 

2. Location (temperature). 

3. Type of container or covering. 

V. Planning and preparing simple family meals — the day's 
dietary for families of varied makeup. 


Unit V. Personal Clothing (may be omitted) . (With emphasis on care 

and repair.) 

I. Use of the sewing machine. 

A. Setting up and closing machine. 

B. Sitting at the machine — posture and bodily set. 

C. Operating the machine. 

1. Treadle (depending upon situation) . 

2. Electric. 

a. Knee control. 

b. Foot control. 

D. Threading the machine. 

E. Starting and stopping machine. 

F. Guiding the fabric under the presser foot. 

G. Testing and adjusting machine stitching. 

1. Thread color, size, and texture. 

2. Length of stitch. 

3. Tension. 

H. Fastening machine stitching. 

1. Backstitching . 

2. Lapping. 

3. Tying a square knot. 

I. Care of machine. 

1. Changing needle. 

2. Diagnosing common stitch irregularities. 

3. Cleaning and lubricating. 

II. Use of needle and thread. 

A. Needle. 

1. Type. 

2. Size. 

3. Threading. 

B. Thread. 

1. Color, size, texture. 

2. Length. 

3. Knotting. 


C. Position of needle, thread, and thimble during 
hand sewing. 

D. Position of fabric or garment during hand sewing. 

E. Permanent hand sewing (running stitch, backstitch, 
combination stitch) . 

F. Fastening a line of permanent hand sewing. 

III. Use of sewing machine or hand stitching in repairing 
broken seams. 

IV . Hemming . 

A. Determining becoming length for skirt. 

1. Build, including size and shape of legs. 

2. Age. 

3. Height of heels worn. 

4. Prevailing fashion. 

B. Measuring so that hem line is parallel to floor. 

C. Establishing hem line crease. 

D. Determining width of hem. 

1. Weight of fabric. 

2. Style of skirt. 

E. Adjusting upper hem edge to fit skirt at point 
where hand stitched together. 

F. Choosing finish for upper hem edge. 

1. Weight of fabric. 

2. Amount fabric ravels. 

3. Alternatives. 

a. Folded under. 

b. Folded under and machine stitched. 

c. Seam binding. 

d. Pinked and machine stitched. 

G. Preparation of seams in hem. 

1. To distribute bulk. 

2. On edge of pleat. 

3. Catch stitch. 

4. Invisible stitch. 

V. Attaching fastenings. 


A. Types and uses for each. 

1. Button and buttonhole. 

2. Button and loop. 

3. Hook and straight or round eye. 

4. Snaps. 

B. Determining size, type, and color of each fastener. 

C. Repairing garmet if damaged in area of fastener 

D. Attaching fastener. 

1. Button. 

a. With a shank. 

(1) Purpose. 

(2) Self-shank. 

(3) Thread shank. 

b. Without a shank. 

2. Thread loop. 

a. Position. 

b. Establishing size. 

c. Making the loop. 

3. Snap. 

a. Location in relation to edge. 

b. Overhand stitch. 

4. Hook and eye. 

a. Location in relation to edge. 

b. Overhand stitch. 

VI. Putting in zippers. 

A. Selecting zipper suitable for need. 

B. Precautions in removing broken zipper. 

C. Establishing length of placket opening. 

D. Preparing placket opening. 

1. Stitching fastened at both ends. 

2. Opening machine-basted. 

3. Seam allowance pressed open. 

E. Applying zipper. 

1. Slot placket (two overlaps with zipper centered 

beneath opening) . 

2. Single overlap placket. 

3. Concealed zipper placket. 

VII. Other aspects of care (review as needed; see eighth- 
grade outline) . 


Jim Reiter 

Is my rote "whatever will be?" 

Or will the future he planned by me? 

Planned Adulthood is one concept developed 

in the Grade 10 unit on vocational decision makint 



A unit plan, "Looking Forward to Marriage and/or a Job or Career," 
has been developed for Grade 10 to complete the sequence of pre-employ- 
ment offerings — "Developing Qualities for Friendships and Employability" 
(Grade 7) and "Occupations Related to Home Economics" (Grade 8). Deci- 
sions for offering this unit in the tenth grade (rather than in the 
ninth grade) were based on the contention that, by this time, most 
girls have passed through a stage of intense self-centered concern and 
are becoming more altruistic and realistic about themselves in relation 
to the world. This tenth grade unit has been selected for publication 
because of the demand for curriculum materials on early orientation of 
young adolescents to their future adult roles. 


The underlying concept in this unit is the process of management — 
planning the use of resources to achieve goals. In order for the teen- 
ager to achieve goals, decisions must be made. Decision making is an 
important aspect of preparing for her present and future roles, among 
which might be family member, friend, student, citizen — and eventually 
homemaker, mother, professional worker, or skilled service worker. 
Such decisions are influenced by social and economic conditions and by 
trends in contemporary living. 

Although a few elements of content are reviews of material included 
in the earlier vocational units, the teacher may wish to repeat other 
aspects of the previous studies, such as the development of personal 
qualities (Grade 7, Unit III). Emphasis of certain areas may be achieved 
at the discretion of the teacher, by deleting some learning experiences 
and expanding others. Additional teaching aids may be located in the 
references for Grade 7, Unit III and Grade 8, Unit III.^ 

As with the previously published plans, this unit is structured 
according to five aspects: (1) objectives, (2) content, (3) learning 
experiences, (4) teaching aids or resources, and (5) means of evalua- 
tion. Levels of expected behavior, classified in accordance with 
taxonomies of educational objectives,^ are indicated in parentheses 
following each objective and learning experience. This is done pri- 
marily to encourage high levels of learning and to promote consistency 
between learning experiences and the behaviors these activities are 

^Illinois Teacher, 1967-68, 11, 297-299, 372-374. 

^B. Bloom, M. D. Engelhard, E. Furst, W. H. Hill, and D. Krathwohl. 
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives ^ Handbook I^ Cognitive Domain. New 
York: David McKay, 1956. 

D. Krathwohl, B. Bloom, and B. B. Masia. Taxonomy of Educational 
Objectives^ Handbook II: Affective Domain, New York: David McKay, 

E. Simpson. The classification of educational objectives. 
Illinois Teacher, 1966-67, 10, 110-144. 


expected to bring forth. Frames of reference may also require clarifi- 
cation: learning experiences are expressed in terms of student activi- 
ties, evaluation experiences in terms of teacher activities. 

Major Objectives 

Comprehends personal, work, family, and citizen roles in the lives 
of women. 

Is awave of the need to look ahead to adulthood in preparation 
for future roles. 

Understands the relationship of socio-economic developments to 
trends in contemporary society. 

Is able to identify and appraise available resources in preparation 
for various adult roles. 

Is aware of the need for planning the use of resources to attain 
goals . 


Unit I. Looking Forward to Marriage and/or a Job or Career 


Comprehends the areas in which adults are expected to assume responsibility 
in contemporary American society. (C-2.00 Comprehension) 

Forms judgments about assuming responsibilities expected of adults. (A-4.1 
Conceptualization of a Value) 

Is able to recognize responsibilities of the adult and to categorize responsi- 
bilities into broad areas of responsibility. (C-4.2 Analysis of Relationships) 



The broad areas of adult responsi- 
bility are: 

a. Personal 

b. Occupational 

c. Marriage and family 

d. Citizenship 

An examination of one's self in light 
of personal responsibilities expected 
of him aids one in preparing for 
personal responsibilities as an adult 

Planning is essential in preparing 
for occupational responsibilities of 
adult living. 

Preparation for marriage and main- 
tenance of a family aids one in 
assuming responsibilities in future 
adult life. 

Development of certain acceptable 
qualities prepares one for the role 
as a citizen in a changing society. 

To the extent that a young person 
understands the nature of adult 
responsibilities, he can make 
realistic preparation for adult 

Divide into small groups and 
locate pictures representing each 
area of adult responsibility. 
Use these on a sectioned bulletin 
board. Suggested titles: "Duties 
of Adults," "Coming of Age in Our 
Society," "Privileges Bring 
Responsibilities." (C-2.00 Com- 
prehension and C-2.10 Translation) 

Explore in buzz groups the 
responsibilities of adult women 
and report findings to class. 
(A-1.1 Awareness) 

Discuss and group the responsi- 
bilities according to the broad 
areas of adult responsibility. 
(C-4.00 Analysis of Relationships) 

Invite homemakers to discuss with 
class factors which contribute to 
success in their marriage. 
(C-l.OO Knowledge of Specific 

Interview women in different 
occupations to discover some of 
the responsibilities that they 
have on the job. Report findings 
to class. (C-2.20 Interpretation 
and A-1.1 Awareness) 

Listen to resource person speak 
on "Woman as a Citizen." (C-l.OO 
Knowledge of Specific Facts and 
A-1.2 Willingness to Receive) 


7 . Invite students from other 

countries to tell about "Women's 
Responsibilities in Other Lands." 
(C-1.00 Knowledge of Specific 

8. Write short papers on related 

topics: "How Adults can be Good 
Citizens," "Voting, a Privilege 
or a Responsibility?" "Feelings 
about Being on My Own," "My Obli- 
gation to Myself," "What a Teen- 
ager Needs to Know about Adult 
Responsibility." (C-2.20 
Interpretation and A-4.11 
Conceptualization of a Value) 


9. Students participate in contest in making bulletin board display related 
to the unit of learning. 

10. Teacher observes students' responses in discussion for indications of 
understanding the nature of adult responsibilities. 

11. Teacher appraises written assignments for depth of comprehension. 


Comprehends the socio-economic developments which have created changes in 
today's adult living. (C-2.20 Interpretation) 

Is wilting to examine socio-economic developments which have influenced adult 
living in our rapidly changing society. (A-1.2 Willingness to Receive) 



Interrelated and complex socio-economic 1 
developments have brought about 
changes in living. 

Industrialization has contributed to 
these changes in many ways. 

a. Much commercial and industrial 
expansion has resulted. 2 

b. Specialization has increased. 

c. Urbanized and suburban areas 
have developed. 

d. Communication and transporta- 3 
tion facilities have greatly 
improved . 

e. Prosperity and affluence have 
increased for many, but not for 

Interview elderly persons in the 
community to gain information on 
socio-economic changes in society 
which affect contemporary living. 
(C-1.12 Knowledge of Specific 

Discuss in class results of the 
interview. (C-2.20 Interpreta- 

List and define the socio-economic 
developments which have created 
changes in living. Use current 
magazines, newspapers, and social 
studies references as sources of 
information. (C-1.22 Knowledge 
of Trends and Sequences) 


Scientific and technological changes 
have played a major part in social 
and economical advancement. 

a. Knowledge has expanded. 

b. Human and material resources 
have been exploited. 

c. Educational opportunities have 
greatly expanded. 

d. Medical advances have reduced 
health hazards and illnesses. 

e. Obsolescence of jobs, skills, 
and products has taken place 
throughout the country. 

Listen to resource person speak 
on "Social and Economic Develop- 
ments Causing Changes." (C-1.2 
Willingness to Receive) 

Select one socio-economic change 
and illustrate in writing, pic- 
tures, or diagram how it has 
affected the personal lives of 
families. Bulletin boards may 
result. (C-2.10 Translation) 



Hopke, Enoyclopedia of Careers, Volume 
I, "The Future World of Work," 
pp. 37-44. 

Current articles and news items 
located by class members. 


6. Determine students' grasp of social and economic conditions and ability 
to reach warranted conclusions by noting participation in groups and by 
checking assigned work. 


Is alert to trends in contemporary living resulting from social and economic 

changes in society. (C-1.22 Knowledge of Trends and Sequences) 

Is w-iZZ'ing to investigate the causes and effects of trends on teenager's 

preparations for adult living. (A-2.2 Willingness to Respond) 

Is able to understand relationship of social and economic developments to 

trends in contemporary society. (C-2.20 Interpretation) 



Trends in contemporary living have 
resulted from social and economic 
changes in society. 

Population trends are toward popula- 
tion explosion, population control, 
and an increase in proportion of the 
aging and young in the population. 

Labor force trends include an increase 

1. Define a trend. 

2. Committees engage in the follow- 
ing activities: 

a. Search for news items or arti- 
cles regarding current trends 
in living. Display materials 
and report findings. Discuss 
meaning of these for family 
life. (C-1.22 Knowledge of 


in size of labor force, proportion of 
women working, proportion of married 
women in the labor force, and demand 
for skilled, trained workers. 

Greater geographic job and social 
mobility have occurred. 

Trends in personal and family life 

a. Earlier marriages, earlier 


Lowered household production. 

Increased family consumption. 

Higher standard of living. 

Faster pace of living. 

Increased use of labor-saving 

equipment and products. 

Easier credit. 

Greater dependence on public 


f , 


Shorter work week, more leisure time, 
and earlier retirement are trends in 
contemporary living. 

An emerging trend is a movement 
toward greater and more equal oppor- 
tunity for all which is indicated by: 

a. New public attitudes (family 
planning, housing). 

b. Increased and broadened benefits 
as a result of social legisla- 
tion (social security, federal 

c. Expanded educational opportun- 
ities . 

d. Greater freedom of choice. 

Social and economic developments 
relate to trends in contemporary 

Trends in contemporary living inter- 
relate and influence broad areas of 
adult responsibility. 

a. Personal 

b . Family 

c. Occupation 

d. Citizen 

A knowledge of the characteristics 
and trends in contemporary living 
enables one to plan ahead and make 
adjustments to changes in society. 


Trends and Sequences) 

b. Question middle-aged (or older) 
adults on trends. "How does 
life of today's young home- 
maker differ from your early 
adult experiences?" "What 
trends do you not view as 
improvements?" Summarize 
changes which have taken place 
within a generation and report 
adults' views to class. (A-1.2 
Willingness to Receive) 

c. Write a script involving a 
family conversation which illu- 
strates current trends in liv- 
ing. Tape record and present 
in class. Have class members 
identify trends. (C-1.22 
Knowledge of Trends and 

Search magazines and newspapers 
for items relating to shorter 
work week, leisure time, and 
early retirement. Clip articles 
and mark in red important ideas. 
Make a bulletin board display. 
(C-2.2 Willingness to Respond) 

Listen to a resource person speak 
on "The Movement toward a Greater 
and More Equal Opportunity for 
All." (A-1.2 Willingness to 

Develop reports on recent special 
legislation. (For more able 
student.) List major social and 
economic developments on black- 
board; brainstorm to compose a 
list of trends which relate to 
each social and economic develop- 
ment. (C-1.22 Knowledge of Trends 
and Sequences and C-2.20 

Discuss areas of choice today 
with respect to 

a. education 

b. politics 

c. religion 

d. individual goals. 
(C-2.00 Comprehension) 



Current periodicals 

Changing Times 




Saturday Evening Post 


Review articles and clippings 
relating to trends which may 
affect personal, family, occupa- 
tional, and citizenship areas of 
responsibilities. (C-1.12 
Knowledge of Specific Facts) 



8. Check individuals in committee work to determine extent of their knowledge 
of trends. 


Comcpvehends that trends in contemporary living are accompanied by problems in 
adult areas of responsibility. (C-2.00 Comprehension) 

Is willing to examine the adult problems as they relate to the effects on 
each area of adult responsibility. (A-1.12 Willingness to Receive) 



New problems arise for adults as 
changes occur in society. 

Problems in adult areas of responsi- 
bility result from social and 
economic developments. 

Problems which have resulted from 
recent socio-economic developments 

Increased wants. 

Increased mental illness. 

Increased divorce. 

Increased juvenile delinquency 

and crime. 

e. Unemployment of unskilled 

f. Increased competition for jobs. 

g. Difficulties in management of 
time, money, and energy. 

h. Shifted responsibilities, 
i. Altered and confused roles. 


View film, The Individual in the 
Modern World. (A-1.12 Willingness 
to Receive) 

Discuss content of film and 
identify problems facing mankind 
in a fast changing society. 
(C-2.00 Comprehension) 



Current articles and news items 
located by class members. 


The Individual in the Modern World. 


3. Observe students during role playing to see whether they understand the 
adult problems which have been discussed. 


Comprehends the characteristics of women in the labor force and understands 
how these affect her status and life as an adult. (C-2.20 Interpretation) 
Is aware of changes in the status and characteristics of women in the labor 
force. (A-1.1 Awareness) 



Knowledge of changes in status and 1, 
characteristics of women in the popu- 
lation aids in understanding the 
current roles of women. 

The characteristics of working women 
may be examined through statistics 
concerning the number in the labor 
force, proportion of total population, 
age, family status, types of occupa- 2 
tions, work patterns, and income. 

Women's status is subject to change 
among the following classifications: 

a. Single person, with or without 3 

b. Married person, with or without 
dependents . 

c. Widow, with or without 
dependents. 4 

d. Divorced or separated person, 
with or without dependents. 

A woman's status with respect to 
management and parenthood affects her 
work life. 

Listen to teacher presenting 
facts and statistics on the 
status and employment of women in 
an illustrated talk. (Use graphs, 
charts, and diagrams, or show 
information using an overhead ' 
projector.) (C-1.12 Knowledge 
of Specific Facts) 

Compare these illustrations with 
those of previous years. (C-1.12 , 
Knowledge of Specific Facts and 
A-1.1 Awareness) 

Discuss how these facts depict a 
changed role for women and relate 
to planning for adulthood. 
(C-2.20 Interpretation) 

Listen to discussion on "Personal 
Roles and Status" by panel compose< 

a. Single person, married, person, 
widowed person, and divorced 
person, each with or without 
dependent . 

(A-1.2 Willingness to Receive) 




U.S. Dept. of Labor, The 1965 Hand- 
book on ]fJomen Workers ^ Ch. 1. 
Horowitz, The Outlook for Youth , 
"Changes in the Role of Women," 
pp. 108-114. 
Lifton, Keys to Vooationdl Decisions y 
"Our World of Work," pp. 206-252. 


5. Quiz students to determine their knowledge of current facts about women 
in the labor force. Check quizzes to ascertain factual knowledge. 


Is able to make inferences from occupational trends concerning women's voca- 
tional prospects. (C-2.30 Extrapolation) 

Is able to distinguish factors which affect women's decisions concerning when 
to combine marriage with employment or community service. (C-4.10 Analysis 
of Elements) 

Becomes acquainted with various adjustments which must be made by different 
families when the homemaker is employed outside the home. (A-1.2 Willingness 
to Receive) 



When one is aware of future occupa- 
tional trends, he is more able to 
prepare himself and plan realistically. 

The prospects for the employment of 
women in tomorrow's society are very 
promising . 

a. The percentage of women in the 
labor force has greatly 

b. Discrimination because of sex 
and race has lessened. 

c. The work week has shortened. 

d. Provision has been made for 
periodic retraining to adjust 
to labor demands for highly 
skilled workers. 

e. Service-type occupations in 
which many women are employed 
have expanded. 

f. Periods of employment have 
lengthened . 

Read from sources listed, then 
write paragraph on facts studied 
concerning future prospects in 
the employment of women. Summarize 
and discuss in class. (C-2.30 

Construct a bulletin board illu- 
strating occupational prospects 
for women. Suggested titles: 
"Crystal Ball," "Outlook for the 
70' s," "Feminine Forecast." 
(C-2.10 Translation) 

Write brief descriptions, based 
on personal knowledge, of a case 
in which a homemaker decided to 
remain at home rather than seek 
outside work. Identify the in- 
fluencing factors. (C-2.2 


Decisions concerned with combining 
marriage and employment or community 
service are influenced by many 

a. Present and future economic 

b. Individual needs of family 
members . 

c. Care of children during working 
hours . 

Management of household respon- 

Attitudes of husband and family, 
Personal rewards of work or 
volunteer service. 
Availability of jobs, trans- 
portation, household services. 

h. Earning power, 
i. Family values, 
j. Stage in family life cycle. 




f . 

Divide into two groups and pre- 
pare information for, and partici- 
pate in, debate on, "Woman's place 
is in the home." (C-2.20 

Interview women in the community 
performing dual roles, to dis- 
cover factors affecting decisions 
to combine marriage with employ- 
ment. From this a list can be 
formulated. (C-2.20 Interpreta- 

Present minute dramas (may be 
written by committees) of situa- 
tions in which family members 
consider the desirability of the 
homemaker seeking employment or 
volunteering for service. 
(A-1.2. Willingness to Receive) 


U.S. Dept. of Labor, 1965 Handbook on 

Women Workers. 

The Outlook for Youth 
Hopke, Encyclopedia of Careers, Volume 

I, "The Future World of Work," 

pp. 37-44. 
Sifferd, Selecting an Occupation, 

"Watch the Trends," Ch. 2. 


7. Check statements during debate to ascertain students' ability to make 

inferences from facts gathered. Reactions in responses and rebuttal will 
give clues to the extent of their understanding of the problem. Have 
members of class respond to checklist on the performance of each group 
in the debate. 


Knows the advantages of education for women's place in a changing society. 
(C-1.12 Knowledge of Specific Facts) 

Recalls generalizations about importance of general and vocational education. 
(C-1.31 Knowledge of Generalizations) 

Sees the necessity and has appreciation for general and wage-earning educa- 
tion to enable women to function in today's society. (A-1.12 Willingness to 
Receive and A-3.3 Commitment) 




Our complex society necessitates con- 1^ 
tinuous education in order for an 
individual to function effectively. 

General education for women may develop 2 
abilities for responsible citizenship, 
contribute to the enrichment of family 
life, widen horizons for personal 
development, and improve the qualifi- 
cations for emplo3mient. 3. 

As society becomes more highly tech- 
nical and mechanized, greater need 
for wage-earning preparation for women 
develops. The benefits which may 
accrue from such preparation include 
the following: 

a. Providing abilities for the 
support of self and/or others. 

b. Helping when supplementary 4. 
family income is needed. 

c. Adding security during family 

d. Providing a means of contrib- 
uting to society. 

e. Aiding in achieving personal 



Lifton, Keys to Vooationat Decisions , 

"How Your Schooling Affects Your 

Future," pp. 420-427. 
Krug , Living in Our Communities , 

"Continuing Education," Ch. 17, 5. 

pp. 346-362. 
Research and Policy Committee, 

Raising Low Incomes through Improved 



Ellis, Teen Times ^ "Young Women and 
the World of Work." 


Brochard, School Subjects and Jobs. 

Read a reference on women's edu- 
cation — importance, kinds, 
benefits. (A-1.1 Awareness) 

Present statistics which compare 
earnings with level of education 
attained. (C-1.12 Knowledge of 
Specific Facts) 

Conduct a panel discussion on 
topics related to the importance 
of education: "Why we need more 
education than our grandmothers," 
"The purposes of school subjects," 
"Handicaps of being illiterate," 
"How people can be encouraged to 
remain in school." (A-3.3 Com- 

Participate in circular response 
discussion. Possible questions 
for consideration: 

a. Why is general education of 
great importance to women? 

b. Why are vocational education 
and training for women given 
so much stress at this time? 

c. Do you consider a and b of 
equal importance? If so, why? 
If not, why not? 

Summarize generalizations. 
(C-1.31 Knowledge of Principles 
and Generalizations) 

Plan and conduct a survey of 
women to determine their attitudes 
toward their own education: "What 
has your education done for you?" 
Summarize findings under the 
appropriate headings — "general 
education" or "vocational educa- 
tion." Have students write con- 
clusions based on results of 
survey. (A-1.1 Awareness) 



6. Determine the extent of commitment to education by careful observation of 
reactions in discussion. 


Comprehends personal aspirations and values* as they relate to probable 
expectations. (C-2.20 Interpretation) 

Appraises personal aspirations in light of realistic examination of future 
prospects. (C-6.20 Judgment in Terms of External Criteria) 



When one examines his aspirations and 1 
values in relation to probable expecta- 
tions, he is more able to direct his 
efforts realistically. 

In the evaluation of personal goals, 
certain conditions are involved: 2 
recognition of aspirations, identifi- 
cation of values, realistic examina- 
tion of future prospects. 


Books 4 

Sorenson, Psychology of Living, 

"Planning Your Career 
"Glossary of Terms." 

pp. 617-643; 

Review the definition and meanings 
of terms: goals, values, aspira- 
tions, expectations, motives, 
drives, purposes. (C-1.11 
Knowledge of Terminology) 

Brainstorm on the importance of 
"personal goals." (C-2.20 

Write a short essay on "The 
Future Me." (C-2.10 Translation) 

Role-play incidents depicting 
realistic and unrealistic aspira- 
tions. (C-3.00 Application) 

Identify (from returned essays) 
the values which are involved in 
their aspirations. They will 
comment on their chances of 
achieving these goals. (C-6.20 
Judgments in Terms of External 


6. Check students' essays to examine their expressed aspirations. Review 
papers to discover how they perceive their values. 
Examine comments to determine how realistic their expectations are. 

*Concept of value is developed in Grade 7 Outline, "Developing Qualities 
for Friendships and Employability ," Illinois Teacher, 1967-68, 11, 271-296. 



Appraises available resources in preparation for adult living. (C-6.20 
Judgments in Terms of External Criteria) 

Is willing to examine available resources in preparation for adult living. 
(A-1.2 Willingness to Receive) 



Appraisal of available resources con- 
tributes to preparation for adult 

Finances, personal qualities, other 
people, educational, employment, and 
volunteer service opportunities are 
some kinds of resources which help 
people to achieve their life goals. 

Types of educational opportunities 
available are high school, college, 
vocational and technical schools, 
company and government training 
programs, adult courses, and 
independent study. 

Some occupational opportunities are 
located in industries, commercial 
establishments, institutions, and 
private homes. 

Opportunities for volunteer services 
are: church groups, school organiza- 
tions, women's clubs, charities and 
welfare agencies, hospitals, rest 
homes, children's homes, political 
organizations, community, government 
and development committees, and 



Roth, Living in Today's World, "Know- 
ing Yourself," pp. 166-171. 


Wolfbein & Goldstein, Our World of 

Bailard, Your Abilities. 
Sinick, Your Personality and Your Job. 
Worthy, What Employers Want. 

1. Discuss the following expressions: 

a. "Success in life is measured 
by one's paycheck." 

b. "The time of the self-made man 
is gone." 

c. "It's not what you are, but 
whom you know that counts." 

(A-1.2 Willingness to Receive) 

2. Explore ways in which students 
can finance their education. 
(C-1.20 Knowledge of Ways and 
Means of Dealing with Specifics) 

3. Participate in panel discussion 
on "Opportunities for Education, 
Emplo5mient, and Volunteer Serv- 
ices." One panel to be made up 

of class members with a moderator; 
the other of selected resource 
persons, such as guidance counselor, 
employment agency representative, 
and chairman of a local volunteer 
group. Summarize information. 
(C-1.12 Knowledge of Specific 

4. Formulate a list of local agencies, 
groups, and institutions. Select 
one for investigation concerning 
opportunities for volunteer serv- 
ice. Discuss findings and com- 
munity needs. Write a news 
article. (C-1.12 Knowledge of 
Specific Facts) 

5. Determine the volunteer activities 
of class members. Question 
students about their satisfaction 
and rewards in serving others. 
(A-1.1 Awareness) 



How to Judge Authorities. 


Public Appearance. 


6. Test students on ability to appraise resources. (See Appendix.) 

7. Observe attitudes expressed by individuals towards money, work, and 
opportunity in order to help them in counseling and guidance. Check 
essay test to ascertain criteria used and to assess ability to make 
judgments of available resources. 


Is able to make a tentative plan for attainment of goals for the future. 
(C-5.20 Production of a Plan) 

Realizes the importance of planning the use of resources to attain goals 
(A-3.1 Acceptance of a Value) 



Planning the use of available 
resources aids in attaining goals, 
and involves making decisions in 
various areas of living. 

Major life decisions which influence 
personal goal achievement are those 
related to: educational pursuits, 
getting married or remaining single, 
and vocational and avocational 
choices . 



Lifton, Keys to Vocational Decisions y 

"Girls and Their Futures," pp. 406- 

Krug, Living in Our Communities ^ 

"Continuing Education," Ch. 17, 

p. 346; "Exploring Vocations," 

ch. 16, p. 328. 
Horowitz, The Outlook for Youth, "The 

Importance of Planning," pp. 164-168; 

"Preparing Yourself," pp. 178-181. 

Read assignments on future plan- 
ning, then answer questions based 
on readings: 

a. Why should we "steer" rather 
than drift into the future? 

b. What can people do to prepare 
for the unpredictable events 
or circumstances in their 

c. What factors are involved in 
planning and preparing for 
continued education? 

d. How do boys and girls differ 

in their expectations, interest, 
concerns, and desires in plan- 
ning for emplojnnent and 

(C-2.10 Translation) 

Discuss how single persons can 
lead a full and rewarding life. 
Cite examples which illustrate 
contributions to society by 
single men and women. (A- 1.1 



Benefits of Looking Ahead. 


Preparing for the World of Work. 


3. Begin an outline of a tentative 
plan for future living to include 
points discussed and to provide 
some alternatives, if some un- 
foreseen events occur. 
(C-5.20 Production of a Plan) 

4. Appraise answers to study questions to discover extent of understanding 
Observe students' ability to distinguish factors which affect housing 
selection in their analysis of the case situations. Check students' 
skill in organizing their plans. 


Understands factors to consider in determining choices of living accommoda- 
tions. (C-2.20 Interpretation) 

Aoquives information about transportation, group affiliations, and work 
credentials. (C-1.12 Knowledge of Specific Facts) 

Applies information by planning the uses of resources to attain goals. 
(C-5.20 Production of a Plan or Proposed Set of Operations and A-3.00 



To attain the goal of appropriate 
living accommodations one needs to 
evaluate factors as: 

sharing housing with others, 

type and quality of housing needed, 

location of housing, 

cost of housing, and 

household services and furnishings 

To choose the appropriate mode of 
transportation one may consider: the 
use of public facilities, sharing with 
others, and buying a car for which 
arrangement for insurance and upkeep 
must be made. 

One's group affiliations may enhance 
or deter attainment of one's goals. 

Choice of affiliations involves con- 
sidering the purposes of various 
groups — social, religious, fraternal, 
service, special interest, profes- 
sional organizations — in terms of 
one's values. 

Present a case situation concern- 
ing an employed graduate faced 
with a housing problem. Class 
members suggest factors to con- 
sider in selecting living accommo- 
dations. Discuss advantages and 
disadvantages of alternatives. 
(C-4.10 Analysis of Elements) 

Use telephone directory to identify 
different types of transportation. 
(C-1.12 Knowledge of Specific 
Facts) Investigate costs of 
various types of transportation 
in the community. Compare 
figures and determine pros and 
cons of the different choices. 
(C-4.10 Analysis of Elements) 

Survey adults to discover organ- 
izations to which they belong. 
Classify in categories and discuss 
the motives which influence pref- 
erences. Determine the rewards 
in group affiliations for young 
people and adults. (C-4.10 
Analysis of Elements) 


Work credentials may be a resource in 
attaining the goal of securing a job. 

Work credentials include social 
security number, birth certificate, 
work permit, diploma, degree, 
certificate, license, professional or 
union membership, papers concerning 
naturalization, security clearance, 
military service, and resume of 



Hopke, Encyclopedia of Caveers , "How 

to Find a Job," Vol. 1, pp. 27-36. 
Lifton, Keys to Vocational Decisions, 

"What to Do First," p. 459. 
Greenleaf, Occupations and Careers^ 

"Getting Your First Job," 

pp. 125-141. 


Identify the items needed for 
work credentials. Determine pro- 
cedures involved in assembling 
materials. Collect and examine 
samples. Compile credentials 
for selves as part of planning. 
Include personal resume, refer- 
ence sources, etc. (C-5.20 
Production of a Plan) 

Continue outlines of plans for 
future living as new areas are 
studied. (C-5.20 Production of 
a Plan) 

6. Record individual contributions in the investigation of transportation 
costs and in the survey of group affiliations. Examine work in planning 
and compiling credentials to check ability to apply learning and to 
integrate operations. 


Comprehends the use of job leads, interviews, and writing skill in securing 
a job. (C-2.20 Interpretation) 

Is alert to the function of these factors in attaining goals. (A-1.3 Con- 
trolled or Selected Attention) 



Personal contacts with friends, 
relatives, school counselors, and 
placement officers are sources of 
leads for jobs. 

Bulletin boards at school, counseling 
services, agencies, organizations, 
institutions, volunteer bureaus, 
businesses and industrial concerns 
can give leads for jobs and service 

1. Divide into groups and choose a 
job and a volunteer activity, 
suitable for part-time work, to 
investigate. Through committee 
work, make plans and carry out 
the location of leads. Report 
findings and sources of informa- 
tion. (Follow through with 
application if there are students 
interested in securing part-time 
work.) (C-2.20 Interpretation) 
(C-5.20 Production of a Plan) 


Classified ads and articles in news- 2 
papers, trade, professional, and 
other publications can provide job 

Community and state employment offices 
and other agencies, private employment 3. 
agencies, and letters of inquiry are 
also means of discovering job leads. 

Skill in business writing aids in 
securing employment. 

A knowledge of the procedures and 4, 
techniques of interviewing contributes 
to one's preparation for employment. 



Lifton, Keys to Vooational Decisions, 

"Finding Part-Time Jobs," Ch. 11, 

pp. 456-502. 
Horowitz, The Outlook for Youth, 

"Finding and Applying for a Job," 

pp. 180-188. 


Feingold & List, Eow to Get That 

Part-Time Job. 
Mitchell, Eow to Get the Job. 
State of Illinois, Timely Tips for 5 

Job Seekers. 
Nat'l. Assoc, Your First Job. 
New York Life, Your Job Interview. 


Earning Money While Going to School. 
Finding the Right Job. 
Getting a Job. 
Office Courtesy. 
Office Etiquette. 


The Job Interview. 


Discuss characteristics of good 
business letters or have a 
business or English teacher talk 
on letter writing. (C-1.24 
Knowledge of Criteria) 

Complete sample application forms. 
Have students write letters of 
inquiry and/or application and 
submit them to a respected person 
for criticism. Revise and re- 
write. (C-3.00 Application) 

Invite a school official or 
employer to discuss questions 
concerning interviews: 

a. How are arrangements for 
interviews made? 

b. What practices constitute 
"business ethics"? 

c. How does one dress for an 

d. How does appearance affect 
getting a job? 

e. How do people show their 

f. What are some tips for suc- 
cessful interviews? 

(A-1.3 Controlled or Selected 
Attention) (C-2.20 Interpretation) 

Role play job interviews (with 
the above resource person, if 
possible). (C-3.00 Application) 

Complete future plans, summarizing 
tips for finding job leads and for 
interviewing for employment. 
Include points on letter writing 
and sample letter. (C-5.20 
Production of a Plan) 

7. Observe committee activities to discover ability to plan for finding job 


leads. Check application forms; appraise original and revised letters 
for evidence of writing capability. Note skill displayed in job inter- 
views. Examine completed plans according to objective standards to 
ascertain students* ability to produce a plan. 


Comprehends the factors which are evidences of goal achievement. (C-2.20 


Is aware of the evidences of goal achievment. (A-1.1 Awareness) 



Indications of goal achievement are 
satisfying relationships with family, 
friends, and co-workers, skill in 
work at home or on the job, material 
rewards, advancement in position and 
pay, self-respect, personal fulfill- 
ment, and contributions to others. 



Read and report on new items, 
articles, or biographies of 
persons who have achieved success 
in some aspect of living. 
(C-1.12 Knowledge of Specific 
Facts and A-1.1 Awareness) 

Identify ways in which goal 
achievement may be measured. 
(C-2.00 Comprehension and 
A-1.1 Awareness) 

How to Keep a Job. 

Office Teamwork. 

Personal Qualites for Job Success. 

You and Your Work. 

Your Earning Power. 

Rate listed indications of goal 
achievement in order of import- 
ance. Tabulate ratings on black- 
board and discuss attitudes 
inferred. (C-2.20 Interpretation) 


Getting and Keeping Your First Job 
Your Boss is Proud of You. 

Cite examples to show how persons 
may sacrifice some goals for the 
achievement of others. (A-1.1 

5. Discuss differences among genera- 
tions in regard to goals in life. 
(A-1.1 Awareness) 


Appraise reports on readings to determine students' perception of success 
and their consciousness of the meaning of goal achievement. Note evidences 
of insight from contributions in class discussions. 



Greenleaf, W. J. Occupations and Careers. St. Louis: Webster Division, 

McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1955. 
Hopke, W. E. (Ed.). The Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance, 

Vol. 1. Chicago: J. G. Ferguson, 1967. 
Horowitz, A. (Ed.). The Outlook for Youth. Vol. 34, No. 1. New York: 

H. W. Wilson, 1962. 
Krug, E. A., Quillen, I., & Bernd, M. Living in Our Communities. (4th ed.) 

Chicago: Scott Foresman, 1963. 
Land is, J. T. & Land is, M. G. Building Your Life. (3rd ed . ) Englewood 

Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1964. 
Lifton, W. M. (Ed.) Keys to Vocational Decisions. Chicago: Science Research 

Associates, 1964. 
Lifton, W. M. & Williams, A. widening Occupational Roles Kit. Chicago: 

Science Research Associates. (300 occupations briefs and five guidance 

filmstrips and other materials.) 
Neurgarten, B. L. , Bellmar, F. R. , Shull, W. , Lewenstein, M. R. , & Henry, 

W. E. Planning My Future. Chicago: National Forum. 
^Research and Policy Committee. Raising Low Incomes through Improved Educa- 
tion. New York: Comii.ittee for Economic Development, 711 Fifth Avenue, 

September, 1965. 
Roth, L. v., Hobbs, S. M., & Drake, A. C. Living in Today's World. (2nd 

ed.) River Forest, Illinois: Laidlaw Publishers, 1964. 
Sifferd, C. S. Selecting an Occupation. Bloomington, Illinois: McKnight 

and McKnight, 1962. 
Sorenson, H. & Malm, M. Psychology of Living. (2nd ed.) New York: McGraw- 
Hill, 1957. 
United States Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. 1965 Handbook on Women 

Workers. (Bull. 290) Washington: USDL, 1965. 


Cromwell, Hatch & Parmenter. Success in the World of Work. Bloomington, 

Illinois: McKnight and McKnight, 1955, $.90. 
Hatch & Parmenter. You and Your Future. Bloomington, Illinois: McKnight 

and McKnight, 1958, $.90. 
Hatch, Parmenter & Stefflre. Planning Your Future. Bloomington, Illinois: 

McKnight and McKnight, 1962, $.90. 
Hatch, Parmenter & Stefflre. Planning Your Life's Work. Bloomington, 

Illinois: McKnight and McKnight, 1962, $.90. 
Parmenter, M. D. You and Your Work Ways. Bloomington, Illinois: McKnight 

and McKnight, 1955, $.90. 

*Teacher reference. 



Bailard, V. Your Abilities. Chicago: Science Research Associates, $.90. 
Brochard, J. School Subjects and Jobs. (Rev. ed.) Chicago: Science 

Research Associates, $.90. 
Feingold, N. & List, H. Finding Fart-Time Jobs. Chicago: Science Research 

Associates, $.90. 
Mitchell, D. How to Get the Job. (Rev. ed.) Chicago: Science Research 

Associates, $.90. 
National Association of Manufacturers. Your First Job. (free) 
New York Life Insurance Company. Your Job Interview. New York: New York 

Life Insurance Company, 1957. 
Sinick, D. Your Personality and Your Job. (Rev. ed.) Chicago: Science 

Research Associates, $.90. 
State of Illinois, Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. 

Timely Tips for Job Seekers. Springfield: Department of Labor, 1963. 
Wolfbein, S. & Goldstein, H. Our World of Work. (Rev. ed . ) Chicago: 

Science Research Associates, $.90. 
Worthy, J. C. What Employers Want. Chicago: Science Research Associates, 



Ellis, M. Young woman and the world of work. Teen Times , 1964, September/ 
October, p. 9. 


The Individual in the Modern World (Association) 

Benefits of Looking Ahead (Coronet) 

Earning Money While Going to School (Coronet) 

Finding the Right Job (Coronet) 

Getting a Job (Encyclopedia Britannica) 

How to Judge Authorities (Coronet) 

How to Keep a Job (Coronet) 

Office Courtesy (Encyclopedia Britannica) 

Office Etiquette (Encyclopedia Britannica) 

Office Teamwork (Encyclopedia Britannica) 

Personal Qualities for Job Success (Coronet) 

You and Your Work (Coronet) 

Your Earning Power (Coronet) 


Getting and Keeping Your First Job (Guidance Associates) — with record, 

purchase only, $29.75. 
The Job Interview (Eye Gate) 

*The listing of films and filmstrips includes some which have not been 


Preparing for the World of Work (Guidance Associates) — with record, purchase 

only, $29.75. 
Public Appearance (McGraw-Hill) 
Your Boss is Proud of You (McGraw-Hill) 

Appendix--Test on Resources^ 

DIRECTIONS: In each category: (a) State specifically the resources which 
are available to you. (b) Explain how these resources can help (or hinder) 
the achievement of your personal goals. 

1. Personal qualities 


2. Other people. 


3. Educational opportunities. 


4. Occupational opportunities. 


5. Service opportunities. 


6. Finances. 


CHECKING: Suggested rating scale: 10 points for each category. Part A, 
four points for a specific, inclusive list of available resources. (C-4.00 
analysis of elements) Part B, six points for a complete explanation and 
appraisal. (C-6.20 judgment in terms of external criteria) 

*This essay test could be typed on two pages in order to allow more 
writing space. 



First four weeks - June 16 to July 11 


VOTEC. 456 - Problems and Trends in Home Economics Education. Trends in 
home economics education, bases for curriculum decisions, and methods of 
curriculum development are studied. Special emphasis is given to teaching 
for the development of concepts and generalizations. Opportunity is provided 
for work on problems of individual concern. 

1 unit - 8 to 11, T.W.Th.F. Dr. Elizabeth Simpson 

VOTEC. 459 - Workshop in Curriculum Development: Consumer Education. 
Identification of basic concepts and principles needed for everyday consumer 
functioning; exploration and creation of teaching tools and strategies suit- 
able for secondary and adult education. Enrollment limited to twenty-five. 

1 unit - 1 to 4, T.W.Th.F. Dr. Hazel Spitze 


H.Ec. 323 - Recent Advances in Foods and Nutrition 

111 unit - 8 to 10, T.W.Th.F. 

H.Ec. 410 - Problems in Family Living 

1 unit - 10 to 12, T.W.Th.F. 

Second four weeks - July 14 to August 9 


VOTEC 451 - Supervision in Home Economics Education. Designed for teachers 
who may be responsible for student teachers, or for a group of teachers in a 
given school or system. Deals with theory, principles and techniques for the 
improvement of teaching and development of teachers. Experience will be given 
with a variety of means for analysis of teaching behavior. 

1 unit - 1 to 4, T.W.Th.F. Dr. Mary Mather 

VOTEC. 459 - Workshop in Curriculum Development: The Teaching of Family 
Relationships . Focus is on the importance of family life and sex education 
in contemporary society. Special attention will be given to the needs of 
individual students as they strive to understand themselves and their rela- 
tions with others through their family life cycle. A variety of teaching 
techniques and materials will be explored. 

Helen Gum Westlake 
1 unit - 8 to 11, T.W.Th.F. Visiting Lecturer, 



H.Ec. 375 - Home Equipment 

111 unit - 9 to 12, M.T.W.Th.F. 

Eight weeks - June 16 to August 9 

H.Ec. 330 - Eccperimentat Foods 

111 to 1 unit - 1 to 4 M.W.; 1 to 5 T.Th. 

H.Ec. 470 - Seminar in Fomity and Consumption Economy 

1 unit. hrs. to be arranged 

Other special problems courses in Home Management, Home Furnishings, 
Consumer Economics, Textiles and Clothing are offered. Open by permission 
of the instructor with schedule to be arranged. 


f " ^^ 

/ST-^/^z-w-w «---^w.^ vol. Ail, INO. :d 

Spring 1968-69 






Foreword i;j. ^^j 

Improve Learning Through Displays t!'.'- ^^ 
Robert A, Tinkham 257 

Home Economics Occupations in an Institution 
for the Mentally Retarded 

Margaret Blanford 264 

Management, Your Stock- in -Trade 

Virginia Guthrie 286 

Trade Secrets 288 

Using Independent Study in Home Economics 

Fern Horn 293 

Development of Single -Concept Films 

Gayle Gilbert Strader 302 


A publication of the Division of Home Economics Education, 
Department of Vocational and Technical Education, College 
of Education, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 

Members of Division: 

Elizabeth Simpson, Professor of Vocational-Technical Education, 

Bureau of Educational Research 
Mary Mather, Associate Professor and Division Chairman 
Hazel Spitze, Associate Professor 
Bessie Hackett, Instructor 
Norma Bobbitt, Assistant 
Reba Davis, Assistant 

Mildred Griggs, Assistant in Higher Education 
Christina Brown, University High School 

Business Manager of Illinois Teaaher: Miss Joan Lorenz 

Vol. XII, No. 5, Spring 1968-69. Published six times each year. 
Subscriptions $5 per year. Single Copies $1. 

Address: Illinois Teacher 

342 Education Building 
University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 61801 

Telephone: 217-333-2736 


W/ien iX domoji to acJU^on and A,nnovcLtion, komn o^conoYniMtM o^tQ,Yi cutu 
yi¥ii>p'iA.2,d th^Mn day^ by p2Ai>ovUi tn otkoA voccutlonaZ {^i-oJidA. IndiutAAjUi 
2.du.catou , io^ i.Yi^,, dnjoy a n.2,puitcition {)on. pn.odLLCA,ng ^t/ilfz^ng cLci- 
ptcLy6 u)-iXk a thA(2,(2.-dAymyu>ionaI., mul}U.-^e.iUon.y mpact. One, o^ tk<i^<i 
pn.0 liii>6i.onalJi , V^, Robe/vt TZnkkam, i^koAd^ iiOm<i o^ hJj> ^unctlonat "knou)- 
koiA)" mXk ^eade/u -in thd lAjii>t cuvticte,, Aynong otkoA idexu, fie dZ!iCiU6(i6 
hoM to -involve, the. ob^eAveA in the, to tat "^hoM and teZt." 

AnotkeA. i>tAmuJiuii> to actton and -innovatA,on Aji pn.ovtde.d tn the. ahXi- 
cleA by feAn Hon.n and Gayte. StAodeA. T^ackeA^ oAe e,ncouAage,d to tAy out 
tnde,pe,nde.nt ^tiidy iitAate.gteM M-ltk tkeJA -i>tude-nti> . The, ymchanlc6 o^ 
making tndlvtduatized le, packeX^ and o{^ deveZoptng ^tngle. concept 
vLiiual aid6 oAe, Q,xptatne.d, TkeJie, hmggeJition^ may be. paAZlcaljaAJiy tuef^uX 
{^on. i,kWi de.vetopme.nt tn ocaupationat dia^6eJi. 

VeveZopeAii o^ new occupattonat pA.ogAam6 oAe -iometUme^ ^kocke.d by 
tke. de.ptk 0^ the, uncoveAe,d ne.e.d Ion. theJA 6eAvtce^ and by the. e.xte.nt o^ 
appn.e.cJjitto n exp^e^^ed {^on. theJA contAtbLitlon6. A ca^e. tn potnt aj> tke. 
e.xpeAte.nae. o^ Ua/iganeX 'SZan{^on.d aX. Ltncotn State Sckool ^oK. the. mzntatty 
n.eXaAde.d. HeA high school an.e. not only acquAAtng ratable, ^ktttii 
much tn demand, but the.y oAe. e.x.peALe,nc,tng the. joy o{^ heZptng tho^e. taiXh 
6pe,(ilat ne.e.d6. ThU pKognam, deJ>cAibe.d in deXaiZ -in tka> ^4u.e, t^ mofte. 
than doubting iJj> opeAation in one. ye.aA. 

Spe.cutatton conceAning hou) bu^y pe.opte. manage. thexA many KoteJ> 
pn.ompte.d the. ILLINOIS TEACHER 6ta{^{^ to do an Inlonmal 6uAve.y and to 
6haAe, the. n.eJiUtt^ nUXh xe.adeA^. \JiAg-inAja Guthxte. pn.ovi.deyi> i>ome. 
the.on, insight to accompany the.^e, colte.cte.d "^ccAetJ," o^ 
manageAlat ^ucce^^. 

kUiO -in tkU Aj>6ue. an.e, 6ome. ol the, n,c6pon^eJ> n.e.ceAve.d l^iom n.eRdeA6 
to the. n.e.ce.nt i^oticitatlon o^ teJ>tmoniatM on the. intangible, KewoAd^ o{^ 
teaching , 

--BeJi^le. HackeXt 


Robert A. Tinkham 
Associate Professor 
Industrial Education 
University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 

Recently, Sidney Harris, syndicated columnist for the Chicago Daily 
News, made the statement, "at its highest level, the purpose of teaching 
is not to teach — it is to inspire the desire for learning. Once a 
student's mind is set on fire, it will find a way to provide its own 

Apparently, what he had in mind in this September 22, 1968 article, 
judging by what followed this opener, was college teaching. There is, 
however, enough truth in the idea to make it applicable to less-than- 
college-level instruction as well. 

Among the many avenues of communication now available to teachers, 
one that is frequently overlooked in spite of its numerous advantages, 
is the area of the educational display. Today, industry has discovered 
the value of good display and has capitalized on its impact in putting 
a message across. In a similar manner, educational institutions such 
as some of the progressive museums have become vital forces in a com- 
munity through the skillful use of exciting new display techniques that 
combine the real thing, good design, and sound psychology. 

It cannot be honestly said that teachers have completely ignored 
displays. The truth is that displays are assembled periodically but, 
almost invariably, they are simply a gathering of some of the products 
of pupils and have as much organization as a window in a cut-rate drug 
store or a down-at-the-heels dime store. 

If an educational display is to be effective and not just grow like 
Topsy, certain steps should be taken in logical order to help insure 

1. Determine physioat facilities 

It is frustrating to say the least, to discover 
that an object which is an important part of a 
display is just a quarter of an inch too big to 
be placed in the display case. Likewise it is a 
jolt to find that the lighting system in a built- 
in display case throws some deep shadows on 
material that you had planned to be easily read. 
The point is that the first step in planning an 
effective display is to get a clear picture of 
the physical characteristics of the display area. 


Among the questions that should be answered would be the following: 

(1) What are its actual dimensions? 

(2) What are the light conditions? Does it rely only on normal 
lighting or are there special lights in the case to attract 
attention and provide better illumination? 

(3) Can auxiliary lights be brought in by means of an extension 
cord plugged into a nearby outlet? 

(4) Are there provisions for adjustable shelves and, if so, for 
how many? Furthermore, where can they be positioned? 

(5) Assuming that the display will not damage the display case 
in any way, are there other possibilities for supporting 
materials used in the display? Can signs, for example, be 
suspended from the ceiling? 

(6) Can the display case be locked up to protect expensive pieces 
of equipment? 

(7) Is the case opened in the back or does it have moveable glass 
panels on the front? First choice is usually for the latter 
for ease of loading. 

(8) What are the display case colors that must be worked with or 
covered with another material? 

(9) Is there a possibility of excessive heat from the enclosed 
lights that might damage a part or parts of the display? 

When these questions have been answered, it is possible that the 
best next move would be to make an accurate scale drawing of the dis- 
play case interior to be duplicated for use in the initial planning 
stage. If the objects which go in the case are kept to scale also, it 
is much easier to get a fairly accurate picture of the final outcome. 

2. Decide on objective (s) . 

Obviously the purpose in making a display 
is not simply to keen a teacher busy. It is not 
just fun and games but must be a valid part of 
the overall instructional program and aimed at 
some specifics in the whole operation. What 
these goals are should be determined by the 
teacher after a careful consideration of the 
potentials inherent in a display. 

Hopefully, a good display causes a change in the viewer. She may 
be introduced to something resulting in a widening of her horizons. 


She might see examples of products, such as textiles, which must be 
viewed firsthand for a real appreciation. She may be taken into an 
industrial firm (by photographs) that manufactures a well-known product 
(shown live) for a better understanding of processing and working con- 
ditions. She may see selected pieces of bad design that later will 
keep her from making a foolish purchase. 

Although it is true that all of the outcomes cannot be anticipated 
(how could the teacher guess that one girl would develop an interest in 
photography as a hobby having seen the field trip type of display men- 
tioned above?), still, the instructor should have some goals in mind 
that would be appropriate for the type of viewer she hopes to attract. 
These, of course, form the basis for decision making and provide the 
rationale behind the entire planning. 

There is a definite advantage in taking time to do some analyzing 
of the typical viewer — students in the home economics program. Going 
outside of the usual instruction, analysis is particularly helpful in 
the case of the planning of a display which is part of a community 
relations program and is to be located in a downtown store window at 
special times such as during Education Week. 

3. Plan a method of getting and keeping the viewer ^s attention. 

Having decided what the main thrust or the theme of the display is 
to be, the display maker has an opportunity to make use of her creative 
talents. These will be put to the test in solving her next two problems 
first, how to slow the passer-by down and, second, how to get her in- 
volved in the message found in the display. 

In terms of the first question — that of getting attention — the 
home economics teacher has a number of things going for her. With her 
background in design she knows something about color, formal and 


informal balance, flow, focal points, rhythm, textures, and the various 
other elements of good composition. With a blending of these factors, 
the results should have an interesting visual attractiveness that compels 
the viewer to take a second look. Not to be overlooked are the attention- 
getting qualities of colored lights and movement. (The latter can be 
achieved by means of a geared-down record turntable or even by such a 
thing as a scarf that is blown by a small, concealed fan.) 

It is possible that the color of the interior of the display case 
is all wrong for the display that is being planned. In this case, the 
solution lies in covering it with another material such as cloth or 

There are circumstances in which an interior is redone to add to 
the theme or the motivating element of the display — for example, a dis- 
play which deals with the world of work could well have a background of 
pages from the help-wanted section of the local paper. Another possi- 
bility would be the use of a panel of questionable current advertise- 
ments in a display with a consumer education theme. 

In recent years the pages of our popular periodicals and newspapers 
have been brightened by the prize-winning advertisements for the Volks- 
wagen automobile. Notice how cleverly they entice the reader with such 
captions as: 

"Live Below Your Means" 
"Since It's Never In, It's Never Out" 
"It Comes in Three Economy Sizes" 
"Every New One Comes Slightly Used" 

Obviously the teacher who is planning a display does not have the 
services of an expensive ad agency at her disposal. But, on the other 
hand, the VW ad men do not have a corner on the market for communica- 
tions that make the viewer take notice. What is recommended here is 
that the teacher exercise her ingenuity and her sense of humor perhaps 
in developing instant rapport. If this sounds like an impossible dream 
she should consider the size of her job compared with that of the VW 
and writers who faced the Goliaths of Detroit. 

Moving to the second problem — that of getting the viewer involved 
— it can be said that one of the best examples of involvement in educa- 
tional displays is found in the Museum of Science and Industry in 
Chicago. Here in this unique and remarkable museum the major purpose 
seems to be to stimulate and challenge the viewer through actual par- 
ticipation and intellectual activity. There are buttons to push, levers 
to move, objects to touch, and rides to be taken (as in the case of the 
trip to the coal mine) . The activity theme is so well established that 
even the observing of chicks breaking out of their shells gives one the 
feeling of involvement. 

There is no easy transfer from the big, elaborate, and successful 
program at this museum to the problems of a teacher planning a display. 


One primary thing can be learned, however, and that is that the effec- 
tive displays are dynamic rather than static. They show therefore a 
real concern for what is happening to the viewer and, consequently, 
make every effort to get this person involved — emotionally, intel- 
lectually, and even physically — when the circumstances are favorable. 

If the goal then is to turn people on, what are some of the methods 
that might be used to achieve this objective? 

• Challenge them with a question 

("Which of these kitchen layouts won the prize?") 

• Use a friendly informal approach 
("Have fun with small fry.") 

• Challenge them with a problem 
(Installment buying — Godsend or nightmare?") 

• Capitalize on an item of current interest 
("How safe are food additives?") 

• Have them do something 

("How would you improve this telephone stand?") 

(Use the pad at your left to sketch. Drop your solution in box.) 

• Use humor 

("Well what do you know!") ("Phyllis Diller slept here.") 

("A plastic Duncan Phyfe!") ("We can put a man on the Moon but 

we can't improve on Chippendale!") 

• Use popular vernacular ("Is this your bag?") 

4. Sketch your best layout for the display 

Preliminary to the final 
decision as to how the display is 
to look should be a period of 
brainstorming a number of possi- 
bilities. This can best be done 
by making quick sketches so that 
the results can be visualized 
better. As an aid in this sketch- 
ing, some teachers make a scale 
drawing of the display case which 
they duplicate and thus have an 
accurate picture of the area on 
which they can sketch parts of 
the display. 

From these sketches the final 
plans evolve which will include 
the wording of all signs and cap- 
tions plus notes regarding the 
colors to be used. 


5. Prepare the necessary signs 
and captions 

Any teacher who sees the value of 
good displays (and bulletin boards, for 
that matter) and plans to capitalize 
on this potential, should develop her 
skill in doing hand lettering. While 
it is true that cardboard letters are 
commercially available and for some 
may be the only answer, still most 
teachers find that, with some prac- 
tice, they can do acceptable letter- 
ing and are not limited to what is 
available and relatively expensive 
in art supply houses. 

Although there are a number of books on hand lettering, the "bible" 
in the field is still the Speedball Textbook,^ an excellent introduction 
to lettering by means of speedball pens and lettering brushes. With an 
abundance of various styles of alphabets and stroke-by-stroke instruc- 
tions, this book, which sells for approximately one dollar, has con- 
vinced many that here is a valuable skill that can be mastered. 

One word of caution: when other teachers discover that you have 
this skill, they may have an irresistible urge to keep you busy. It is 
at this point that you sweetly but firmly indicate that you would be 
very happy to help them develop a similar talent and when do they want 
to start? 

6. Assemble the elements 

This step may take the least time 
of all and yet there may be problems 
which make it a frustrating time- 
burner. Possibly, in spite of your 
planning, there is inadequate light; 
or additional captioning is needed 
to clarify something. In any event, 
you are in the final stages and will 
soon be resting from your labors. 
Hopefully you would be fairly con- 
fident at this point that you had, 
in the words of Sidney Harris, 
created something "to inspire the 
desire for learning." 

■^George, Ross F. Speedball Textbook for Fen and Brush Lettering , 
19th edition. New Jersey: C. Howard Hunt Pen Company, 1965. 


7. Evaluate the results 

Santayana, the philosopher, made a statement at one time that, 
unfortunately is little known by those who could profit the most from 
it. A paraphrased version would go something like this: those who 
can't learn from what has already happened will continue to make their 
same stupid mistakes. 

With this in mind, you are encouraged to pick up as much feedback 
as you can regarding the display — the more candid the responses are, 
the better! The methods used to do this would range all the way from 
informal conversations to the system devised by some teachers in train- 
ing at the University of Minnesota. After they had put a display in a 
corridor wall display case, they stood out of sight behind the rear 
doors of the case to listen for comments by viewers. The remarks, to 
say the least, were candid and enlightening. 

One final word for the neophyte display maker: don't let the 
success or failure of your first effort influence you too much. If 
it went well, rest assured that you have even better ones coming up. 
If it was not up to expectations, you can still learn from it and 
really get to them on the next one. 



Margaret Blanford 
Home Economics Occupations Coordinator 
Lincolnland Area Vocational Center 
Lincoln, Illinois 


Meeting the needs of the community and the student is a great 
challenge for vocational education today. Home economics has both the 
opportunity and the responsibility to help meet these needs. It was 
with these thoughts in mind that the home economics teachers at Lincoln 
Community High School began working to set up a program of home econom- 
ics courses for gainful employment. 

Early in 1967, Lincoln Community High School and nine neighboring 
high schools cooperatively established Lincolnland Area Vocational 
Center to help meet the vocational training needs of non-college-bound 
high school students. This vocational center offered training in seven 
different vocational areas, and 11th and 12th grade level students were 
transported to the center for instruction on a one-half day basis. 
These students spent the remaining one-half day in classes in the home 
high school. The vocational center, however, offered only limited 
opportunities for girls, thus a student need became apparent. 

As a first step toward meeting this need, the local home economics 
teachers began a community survey. Since the Lincoln State School for 
the mentally retarded is the largest employer in the community and 
employs persons with widely varying skills and backgrounds, it was 
promptly contacted by the home economics teachers. Dr. Louis Bellinson, 
Superintendent of the Lincoln State School, informed the teachers that 
the institution has a continuing need for employees and would be will- 
ing to provide an almost unlimited number of closely supervised work 
stations for students in the areas of child care and food service and 
would be willing to cooperate in every way with such a venture. Thus 
ended the coimnunity survey since the community need was determined and 
available work stations were located. 


The home economics teachers then met with district administrators 
and proposed that courses in occupational child care and occupational 
food service be offered through the vocational center. These course 
proposals were subsequently accepted by the principals of the area 
schools, and an advisory council was formed. 

The advisory council consisted of the home economics teachers from 
the participating area high schools, personnel from the Lincoln State 
School, and persons from the community who were associated with food 
service and child care occupations. The council members worked hard 
during the rest of the 1967-68 school year and established goals and 
content for the new course offerings. The advisory council also sug- 
gested supplementary experience for the area home economics teachers; 
so the Lincoln State School In-service Training Department provided a 
three-day workshop concerning the structure of the institution and the 
nature of mental retardation. This workshop proved to be beneficial, 
and the teachers have requested that a similar session be held each 
year. The advisory council has continued to meet on a bi-monthly basis 
and has been very helpful in the implementation of the total program. 

The home economics occupations program was designed in two parts: 
(I) Eleventh-grade students take a preparatory year-long course in 
either child care or foods in the home high school (see course of study, 
pp. 268-274). (II) Twelfth-grade students are transported to the 
Lincoln State School for on-the-job training and specialized classroom 
instruction (see course of study, pp. 277-285). Work stations chosen 
for 12th-grade students in child care include only wards where young 
children (under 12 years of age) are cared for. Work stations chosen 
for 12th-grade students in food service include a wide variety of 
experiences in food handling, preparation, and service. 

The home economics occupations program began functioning with 
students in September, 1968. Students enrolled in the llth-grade foods 
and child care prerequisite classes at their home high schools, and 
twenty-three students entered the 12th-grade child care course at the 
Lincoln State School. Here they divide their time between classroom 
instruction and on-the-job training and practice. The curriculum is 
constructed to provide a period of orientation and then a progressive 
type of supervised experience with gradual increase of duties and 
responsibilities and exposure to a variety of related career oppor- 
tunities. This allows some individualization of training for students 
depending on their abilities and needs. 

These working students are paid $1.25 per hour through the Expanded 
Youth Corps Trainee Program which has been available to all Illinois 
mental health facilities for the emplojmient of Diversified Occupations, 
Health Occupations, and Home Economics Related Occupations students in 
high schools and secondary-level vocational centers. The Lincoln State 
School has additionally provided many other benefits and services for 
this program — a registered nurse to instruct child care students in 
direct patient care, a vocational foods instructor to train students in 
food services, classroom space on the institution grounds, a large 
quantity of teaching aids, and instructional equipment. Provisions 


have been made for Civil Service Examinations to be given to the working 
students at the end of the school year so that successful students may 
continue immediately as full-time employees if they wish. 

With cooperation at every level it has been possible to provide 
very close supervision and individual instruction for the students 
involved. Without this cooperation all efforts could easily have been 
in vain. It is hoped that by having one general training station, the 
coordinator will be able to supervise a significantly larger number of 
students than would be possible in other types of cooperative programs, 
as time otherwise spent in travel can be devoted to the students. 

One of the major difficulties in the establishment of the program 
has been in overcoming community hesitation and doubt about working 
with the mentally retarded. Thus, public relations has been an import- 
ant part of the coordinator's activities. Slides have been taken of 
the work stations and of students on the job. These slides have been 
used in programs which were presented in all of the participating area 
schools. Another promotion device has been field trips from the area 
schools to the Lincoln State School to see the work stations and the 
students on the job. However, the working students themselves have 
possibly been the most potent factor in promoting the program. They 
like what they are doing and urge their friends to enroll. All of 
these promotion efforts seem to be yielding results. The enrollment 
for the 1969-70 school year will be approximately 40 students on the 
job in child care and approximately 15 students on the job in food 

At present it appears that about 78 percent of the students trained 
this year will continue as full-time employees at the Lincoln State 
School or will go on for further education in related fields. Thus, it 
is believed that the student, the vocational center, and the Lincoln 
State School will all benefit from this program. 

The coordinator shares the feelings of the student who said, "I 
enjoy it. I feel that I am doing something for someone else as well as 
myself. I think it's a great opportunity, and I believe I'll be a lot 
happier and more helpful now." 


The warm response to 
demonstrations of af- 
fection quickly breaks 
down preconceived bar- 
riers. Student-learners 
soon discover that their 
love can do wonders for 
mentally handicapped 

Vocational students 
enroll in the prepara- 
tory course previous to 
their institutional work 
experience. This course 
(Child Care I) includes 
study of mental retarda- 
tion. The chance that 
someday this child will 
walk on his own is much 
greater because of the 
understanding and help 
given by the devoted 
student trainee. 



Home Economics Occupations Course: Child Care I (Classroom Instruction) 

Department: Home Economics Grades: 11 and 12 

Prerequisites: None Credit: 1 Unit 

Text: The Developing Child (Brisbane) 

Supplementary Resources: Films, transparencies, pamphlets, filmstrips, 

etc., which are listed by units at the end of 
the course outline. 

Overview: This course is designed as a prerequisite for the home eco- 
nomics occupations on-the-job training program in child care 
offered to 12th grade students. (The on-the-job training 
program in child care is conducted at the Lincoln State 
School for the mentally retarded where the students work 
with children 14 years of age and under. See p. 275.) 


1. Understanding of the structure and function of human repro- 
ductive systems. 

2. Understanding of the process of human growth and development. 

3. Understanding of the continuing effects of both heredity and 

4. Understanding of the importance of providing adequately for 
the basic physical and social-emotional needs of children. 

5. Knowledge of various types of mental handicaps. 

6. Knowledge of characteristics of various stages of human 
development . 

7. Understanding of the importance of the family in child 

8. Some ability to supervise and care for children. 

9. Acquaintance with various types of child care facilities. 

10. Knowledge of employment opportunities in the field of child 




A. Historical view 

B. Current thinking and trends 

C. The development process 

1. Heredity 

2. Environment 

D. The role of the family in child care 


A. Functions of genes and chromosomes 

B. Inherited traits - dominant and recessive 

C. Disturbances in genetic processes 


A. Anatomy 

B. Physiology 

C. Comparison and contrast of male and female systems 


A. Process of fertilization and implantation 

B. Signs and symptoms of pregnancy 

C. Complications of pregnancy 

D. Abortions 

1. Spontaneous 

2. Therapeutic 

3. Criminal 

E. Prenatal care 

1. Types of care needed 

2. Necessity of care 

3. Local costs 

F. Stages of embryonic and fetal development 

G. Common causes of birth defects 

1. Hereditary 

2. Environmental 

H. Prematurity 

1. Causes 

2. Physical characteristics of the premature infant 

3. Special care needed by the premature infant 

I. Role of family members during a pregnancy 

A. Birth processes 


1. Stages of labor 

2. Normal delivery 

3. Caesarean section 

B. Postpartum care 

1. Mother 

2. Infant 

C. Characteristics of the normal newborn 

D. Adjustments of family members to the new baby 


A. Physical needs 

B. Social-emotional needs 

C. Disturbances caused by unsatisfied needs 

D. Universality of basic needs 


A. Differences between mental retardation and mental illness 

B. Some causes of retardation 

1. Pre-natal 

2. Peri-natal 

3. Post-natal 

C. Characteristics of several types of mental retardation 

1. Hydrocephalus 

2. Microcephalus 

3. Down's Syndrome 

4. Cretinism 

5. Encephalocele 

6. Meningeocele 

7. Phenylketoneuria 

8. R.H. and A.B.O. incompatibility 

9. Selected other types 

D. Disorders frequently associated with retardation 

1. Cerebral palsy 

2. Epilepsy 

E. Levels of retardation and care needed by each level 

1. Borderline 

2. Mild 

3. Moderate 

4. Severe 

5. Profound 

F. Similarities in basic needs of retarded and normal children 

G. Special common needs of retarded children 

VIII. INFANCY (0-2 Years) 

A. Physical characteristics and care needed 


1. Nutritional needs and feeding techniques 

2. Skin care 

3. Clothing selection and care 

4. Disease prevention 

5. Accident prevention 

6. Motor development and normal reflexes 

B. Social characteristics 

1. Language development 

2. Toilet training 

C. Emotional characteristics 

1. Aggressive personality 

2. Passive personality 

3. Withdrawn personality 

D. Effects of deprivation 

1. Maternal deprivation 

2. Sensory deprivation 

IX. EARLY CHILDHOOD (3 years to 6 years) 

A. Physical characteristics 

1. Motor development 

2. Home play equipment 

B. Social characteristics 

1. Teaching self-care skills 

2. Habit training 

C. Emotional characteristics 

1. Common fears 

2. Development of positive self -concept 

3. Sibling rivalry 

D. Intellectual development 

1. I.Q. and testing 

2. How learning takes place 

3. Learning blocks 

4. Techniques for helping children learn 


A. Foster home 

B. Licensed day care home 

C. Licensed day care center 

D. Nursery schools 

E. Field trips to various care facilities 


A. Importance 

B. Techniques 

C. Accident prevention 


D. Sanitation 

1. Disease prevention 

2. Personal hygiene 

E. Children's play equipment 

F. Children's books 

G. Children's music 

H. Children's art and art materials 


A. Conduct pre-school program for normal children (5 weeks) 

B. Conduct pre-school program for retarded children ( 1 week) 

C. Observation and reporting 

XIII. MIDDLE CHILDHOOD (6 years to 12 years) 

A. Physical characteristics 

B. Social characteristics 

C. Emotional characteristics 

D. The school and the child 

XIV. ADOLESCENCE (brief coverage) 

A. Physical development 

B. Social characteristics 

C. Emotional development 

D. Parent-teen conflict 


A. Process of aging 

B. Characteristics of the elderly 

C. Common problems of the elderly 

D. Special care frequently needed by the elderly 

E. Care facilities for the elderly 


A. Job opportunities in the field of child care 

B. Further education available in the field of child care 

C. In-depth look at opportunities offered by Lincoln State 



References are listed by units as described in the course outline. 
(Many of the films are loaned to the classes by Lincoln State School 
or the Illinois Department of Public Health.) 

I. Film: "Generation to Generation," 
Old family photographs 

II. Film: "Chromosome Puff" (Association Films) 
Film: "Heredity" 

III. Film: "Human Reproductive Systems" 

3M Transparencies: "Human Reproductive Systems" 

IV. Film: "LSD - Insight or Insanity" 
Film: "Food for Life" 

3M Transparencies: "Conception, Prenatal Development, and Birth" 
Filmstrip: "VD and Your Health" 
Filmstrip: "Life Before Birth" 
Filmstrip: Alcohol and Drugs" 
Book: Safeguarding Motherhood (Saul T. DeLee) 
Pamphlet: "Your Premature Infant" (Ross) 
Pamphlet: "So You're Going to Have a Baby" 

V. Film: "Reproduction and Birth" 

Model of pelvic bones and full-term fetus (Ross Laboratories) 
Selected 3M transparencies from set: "Conception, Prenatal 

Development, and Birth" 
Book: Safeguarding Motherhood (Saul T. DeLee) 

VI. None 

VII. Film: "Reports on Down's Syndrome" 

Film: "Introducing the Mentally Retarded" 

Transparency (homemade) : "Levels of Retardation" 

Large Flipchart (Ross Laboratories) 

Pamphlet: "Your Mongoloid Baby" 

Pamphlet: "Questions and Answers about Epilepsy" 

Pamphlet: "Facts on Mental Retardation" 

Pamphlet: "The Child Who is Mentally Retarded" 

Pamphlet: "A Synopsis of Mental Retardation" - TEACHER REFERENCE ONLY 

VIII. Film: "Know Your Baby" 

Film: "Maternal Deprivation and Growth Failure" 

Film: "Choosing Children's Clothing" 

Film: "Terrible 2's and Trusting 3's" 

Filmstrip: "ABC's of Infant Feeding" 

3M Transparencies: "Children's Safety" 

Pamphlet: "As Your Baby Grows" (Ross) 

Pamphlet: "Discovering Parenthood" (Ross) 

Pamphlet: "Mother and Baby" (Ross) 

Pamphlet: "Feelings of Conflict in New Parents" (Ross) 


Pamphlet: "Breast Feeding Baby" (Ross) 

Pamphlet: "Your Baby Becomes a Toddler" (Ross) 

Pamphlet: "How to be a Parent and Like It" (Ross) 

Pamphlet: "Developing Toilet Habits" (Ross) 

Pamphlet: "The Phenomena of Early Development" (Ross) 

IX. Film: "Sibling Relations With Parents" 
Film: "Sibling Rivalry" 
Film: "Children's Emotions" 
Film: "Frustrating 4's and Fascinating 5's" 
Film: "Social Development" 

Pamphlet: "Seeing Our Children in Focus" (Ross) 
Pamphlet: "Your Child's Appetite" (Ross) 
Pamphlet: "Your Child's Fears" (Ross) 
Pamphlet: "Your Child and Sleep Patterns" (Ross) 
Pamphlet: "Your Children's Quarrels" (Ross) 
Pamphlet: "Developing Self-Esteem" (Ross) 
Pamphlet: "Your Children and Discipline" (Ross) 
Pamphlet: "When Your Child is Unruly" (Ross) 

X. Film: "Children's Play" 

Field trips to various child care facilities 

Pamphlet: "Standards for Licensed Day Care Centers and Group 

Day Care Facilities" (State) 
Pamphlet: "Questions and Answers about Nursery Schools" (State) 
Pamphlet: "Licensing Information, Day Care Centers, Group Day 

Care Facilities" (State) 

XI. 3M Transparencies: "Selecting Children's Toys" 

Filmstrip: "Play as a Learning Medium" (J. C. Penney Company) 
Pamphlet: "Criteria for Selecting Play Equipment for Early 

Childhood Education" 
Newspaper Articles 

XII. None 

XIII. Film: "Sociable 6 to Noisy 9" 
Film: "10 to 12" 

Pamphlet: "When Your Child is Contrary" (Ross) 
Pamphlet: "Your Child's Progress in School" (Ross) 
Pamphlet: "Guiding Children's Social Growth" 

XIV. Film: "Teens" 

Filmstrip: "Sex - A Moral Dilemma" 
Filmstrip: "Generation Gap" 
Pamphlet: "You and Your Adolescent" (Ross) 
Selected Columns of Ann Landers 

XV. Field Trip to Nursing Home 

Pamphlet: "What to Look for in a Nursing Home" (AMA) 
"Mental Health in Illinois" Vol. 5, No. 5 
Selected News Articles 

XVI. Pamphlet: "How Would You Like to Do Day Care" (State) 
Slides of students in HEO working on the job at LSS 
News articles and want ads 


Home Economics Occupations Course: Child Care II (On-the-job Training) 

The high school trainees begin their job experience 
with supervised practice in meeting the physical, 
social, and emotional needs of one patient. 

Department: Vocational Center Credit: 2 Units 

Prerequisites: Credit or concurrent enrollment in Child Care I 

Text: Teaching the Mentally Retarded^ A Handbook for Ward Personnel. 
(Gerard J. Bensberg, Ed., Southern Regional Education Board, 

Supplementary Resources: Films, filmstrips, transparencies, tape 

recordings, duplicated materials, guest 
speakers, observation trips. 

Overview: The primary aim of this course is to give practical experi- 
ence and training to students in the area of child care at 
the Lincoln State School. Specific purposes of the insti- 
tutional experiences are listed below: 

1. To develop the ability to apply related technical 

2. To orient the student in the basic skills in the field 
of child care. 

3. To develop within the student attitudes of initiative, 
responsibility, and resourcefulness. 

4. To develop and practice safe work habits and procedures 


5. To provide on-the-job training in related work experi- 

6. To integrate for the high school student an educational 
experience usually not found in a school or at home, 
with a strong element of personal service to handi- 
capped individuals. 

7 . To provide actual work experiences for high school 
students under supervision of professional trained 
workers in serving mentally retarded persons. 

8. To provide motivation and job satisfaction through 
these work experiences. 

9. To develop within the student good work habits, respect 
for authority, and the need for service and their con- 
tribution in the area of mental retardation. 

10. To open up vistas of career opportunities in the field 
of Mental Health in both occupational and professional 
levels and provide opportunities and assistance for 
advanced training and education. 


1. Understanding of the mentally retarded. 

2. Awareness of the contribution of the various services 
to patient well-being. 

3. Skill in recognizing and meeting the needs of the 
mentally retarded. 

4. Skill in observing and reporting patient conditions. 

5. Skill in self-evaluation. 

6. Ability to maintain good employee-employee relations 
and good employer-employee relations. 

7. Ability to fulfill all the duties of the Child Care I 
(defined in Illinois State Job Listings) with the 
exception of administering medications. 

Many of the basic health care skills are taught by a registered 
nurse who is employed by the Lincoln State School and who is assigned 
to this program. "Cooperative" related content and other work skills 
are taught by the coordinator of this program. The students will be 
expected to gain knowledge and skill both in the classroom and on the 
wards. However, the subject matter outline which follows includes 
classroom learnings in greater detail. The student will be expected 
to apply these learnings while working under supervision on the wards. 




A. Processing in 

1. Personnel records 

2. Physical examinations 

3. Security check 

B. Tour of the institution 

C. Rules and regulations of the institution 

D. Classroom review of retardation and the characteristics of the 

E. Tour of work assignments (buildings and wards where students 
are assigned) 

F. Observation of work station where individual student is 
assigned for ward experience, and classroom discussion of this 

II. DIRECT PATIENT CARE EXPERIENCE (1-to-l relationship) - 7 weeks 

A. Supervised practice in meeting physical, emotional, and social 
needs of one patient 

B. Basic direct care skills 

1. Body mechanics for employee and patient 

2. Skin care 

3. Discipline 

4. Artificial respiration 

5. Medical emergencies 

6. Injury reporting 

7 . Habit training 

8. Self-care skills 

9. Bathing 

10. Mouth care 

11. Care of hair and nails 

12. Temperature 

13. Pulse 

14. Respiration 

C. Cooperative related information 

1. Choosing a career 

2. Job interviews 

3. Employer-employee relations 

4. Grooming and dress at work 

5. Safety 

III. DIRECT PATIENT CARE EXPERIENCE (1 student to 3 or 4 patients) 
- 9 weeks 

A. Supervised practice in meeting physical, emotional, and social 
needs of 3 or 4 patients 

B. Basic direct care skills 

1. Isolation technique 


2. Communicable disease prevention 

a. Hepatitis 

b. Shigellosis 

3. Epilepsy 

a. Nature of the disease 

b. Care of the patient with seizures 

4. Use of sterile supplies 

5. Sanitation 

a. Causes of sepsis 

b. Safe housekeeping techniques 

c. Use of disinfectants 

d. Prevention of spread of bacteria 

6. Care of eyes, ears, and nose 

7. Collection of specimens for the lab 

8. Enemas 

C. Cooperative related information 

1. Social problems 

2. The drop out 

3. Civic and community responsibility 

4 . Money management 

5. Installment buying 

6. Consumer credit 

III. DIRECT PATIENT CARE EXPERIENCE (1 student to 6 to 10 patients) 
- 9 weeks 

A. Supervised practice in meeting physical, emotional, and social 
needs of 6 to 10 patients 

B. Basic direct care skills 

1. Restraints — types and uses — stressing their use as a 

2. Feeding techniques for children with special problems 

3. Special care of the diabetic patient 

4. Care of the terminally ill 

5. Care of the dead 

6. Hot and cold applications 

7. Special care needed by the blind and deaf retarded 

8. Family problems and relationships when a child is found 
to be retarded 

9. Techniques for the aide in dealing with the families of 

C. Cooperative related information 

1. Federal, state, and local taxes 

2. Social Security 

3 . Income tax 

4. Preparation of student income tax forms in class 

5. Federal laws and employment 

6. Labor unions 


IV. DIRECT PATIENT CARE EXPERIENCE (1 student to 1/2 to full ward) 
- 9 weeks 


Supervised practice in meeting physical, emotional, and social 

needs of patients 

Basic direct care skills 



Observation and participation on several different types 
of wards where patients require various kinds of care 
Observation of patients receiving special services such 
as speech and hearing therapy, activity therapy, religious 
education, special education, etc. 
Escorting to special treatment areas 

Exposure to and some practice in operant conditioning 
Special behavior-problems 

C. Opportunities in the field of mental health 

1. Administrative structure and hierarchy in Illinois 

2. Administrative structure and hierarchy at Lincoln State 

3. Guest speakers 

4. Civil Service examination for classification of Child 
Care Aide I 

D. Cooperative related information 

1. Insurance 

2. Salary and fringe benefits 

3. Letter of application for employment 

4. Review job interviews 

5. Guest Speaker - what the employer looks for in a potential 

High school student trainees share their child care 
responsibilities with co-workers representing dif- 
ferent generations. 


Home Economics Occupations Course: Food Service II (On-the-job training) 

Department: Vocational Center Credit: 2 Units 

Prerequisites: Credit in some home economics course which includes 
foods or expressed interest in becoming employed in 
a food service occupation. 

Text: Being a Food Service Worker y Student Manual. (Hospital Research 
and Educational Trust) 

Supplementary Materials: Films, filmstrips, transparencies, charts, 

and miscellaneous duplicated materials. 

Overview: This course is designed to give practical experience and 

training to students in the area of quantity food service at 
the Lincoln State School. Specific purposes of the institu- 
tional experiences are listed below. 

1. To develop the ability apply related technical information. 

2. To orient the student in the basic skills in the area of 
food service. 

3. To develop within the student attitudes of initiative, 
responsibility, and resourcefulness. 

4. To develop and practice safe work habits and procedures. 

5. To provide on-the-job training in related work experience. 

6. To integrate for the high school student an educational 
experience usually not found in a school or at home, with a 
strong element of personal service to handicapped individuals. 

7. To provide actual work experiences for high school students 
under supervision of professional trained workers in serving 
mentally retarded persons. 

8. To provide motivation and job satisfaction through these 
work experiences. 

9. To develop within the student good work habits, respect for 
authority, and the need for service and their contribution 
in the area of mental health. 

10. To open up vistas of career opportunities in the field of 
mental health in both occupational and professional levels 
and provide opportunities and assistance for advanced 
training and education. 


1. Understanding of the principles of food storage, preparation, 
and service. 

2. Understanding of the importance of proper food handling and 
nutrition in the maintenance of good health. 


3. Awareness of the contribution of dietary services to the 
well-being of the employees and patients served. 

4. Ability to maintain good employee-employee and employee- 
employer relations. 

5. Skill in performing the duties of Dietary Worker I or Cook I 
(as defined in Illinois State Job Listings) . 

Some of the classroom food service content will be taught by a 
vocational foods instructor who is employed by the Lincoln State School 
and who is assigned to this program. The rest of the classroom food 
service and "cooperative" related content will be taught by the co- 
ordinator of this program. The students will be expected to gain knowl- 
edge and skill both in the classroom and at work stations. The subject 
matter outline which follows includes only classroom learnings in detail, 
The student will be expected also to apply these learnings while working 
under supervision. 


One of my greatest joys in teaching occurred while I was teaching 
an Independent Study course to three students. During our weekly in- 
dividual conferences it was an unforgetable experience and joy to 
observe the growth and development of these students. I am sure the 
feeling I experienced must have been similar to what a mother experi- 
ences when she watches her children grow from childhood to maturity. 
It was as well a bit awesome and frightening to realize the "power" I 
possessed through questioning, directing, and suggesting which could 
lead these students to a self-realization and knowledge they had not 
known before. 

Sister Willann Mertens 
Mount Mary College 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 




A. Processing in 

1. Personnel records 

2. Physical examinations 

3. Security check 

B. Tour of the institution 

C. Rules and regulations of the institution 

D. Description of the types of patients and the care which they 
receive at this institution — the differences between retarda- 
tion and mental illness 

E. In-depth tour of dietary areas and descriptions of the jobs 
available in the dietary area 

F. Introduction of the supervisors in the dietary department 

G. Special rules and regulations of the dietary services 

A. Work station practice 

1. Food storage areas 

a. Fresh produce 

b. Fresh meat 

c. Frozen foods 

d. Cereal products 

e. Canned goods 

f. Seasonings 

g. Dairy products and eggs 

2. Paring room 

a. Cutting machinery 

b. Preparation techniques 

c. Sanitation 

3. Salads and sandwiches 

a. Preparation 

b. Storage 

4. Cafeteria line service 

a. Portion control 

b. Attractive service 

c. Work area cleanliness 

d. Safety 

e. Storage and service of cold foods 

f. Storage and service of hot foods 

g. Cleaning of equipment 

h. Beverage preparation and service 

5 . Dishwashing 

a. Procedure and operation of dish washer 


b. Procedure and operation of pot and pan washer 

c. Procedure for receiving used and clean dishes and 

B. Basic knowledges and skills 

1. Safety for the food service worker 

a. Overview of hospital food service 

b. Safe use of equipment and work area 

(1) Cutting tools 

(2) Broken glass 

(3) Spills 

(4) Electrical equipment 

(5) Fall prevention 

(6) Other precautionary procedures 

2. Sanitary food handling 

a. Principles of bacteria growth and prevention of growth 

b. Protection of food by proper handling 

c. Personal cleanliness 

(1) Hand washing 

(2) Clothing (uniform - apron) 

d. Bacteria reservoirs and spreaders 

e. Importance and technique of maintaining clean work area 

(1) Cleaning agents 

(2) Use of cleaning equipment 

(3) Care of cleaning equipment 

f. Waste disposal 

g. Pest control 

h. Spoiled food vs. poisoned food 

3. Following directions 

a. Terms and definitions common to food preparation 

b. Recipe reading 

c. Weights and measures 

d. Conversion tables 

e. Simple mathematics 

f. Measuring equipment 

g. Package sizes and descriptions 

C. Cooperative related information 

1. Choosing a career 

2. Job interviews 

3. Employer-employee relations 

4. Grooming and dress at work 

5. General safety principles 

6. Social problems 

7. The drop out 

8. Civic and community responsibility 

9 . Money management 

10. Installment buying 

11. Consumer credit 


A. Work station practice 

1. Proper and skillful use of equipment 

a. Steam kettles - large and small 

b. Steamers 

c. Rotating ovens 

d. Deep fat fryers 

e. Gas grills 

f. Mixers, choppers, blenders 

2. Mechanically prepared special diets 






Food preparation 


Fresh pared produce 


Frozen produce 


Fresh meat 


Frozen meat 



f . 

Sauces and dressings 




Cooked desserts 


Cereal products 



4. Dietary experiences outside dietary services building 
(wards and bakery) 

a. Observation and work in bakery 

b. Observation and work in South Hospital kitchen 

c. Observation and work in ward building kitchens 
(3 or 4 different buildings to gain experience 
preparing foods for patients with special needs) 

d. Observation and work in Annex dietary department 

Basic knowledges and skills 

1. Nutrition needed for maintenance of good health 

a. Vitamins 

b. Minerals 

c. Protein 

d. Carbohydrates 

e. Fats 

f. Water 

2. Food preparation for preservation of vitamins and minerals 

3. Food preparation for preservation of flavor and color 

4. Food preparation principles and procedures for the follow- 
ing food groups 

a. Cereals I Temperatures, cooking times, 

b. Dairy products I Cooking methods, texture 

c. Fruits and vegetables j preservation, Seasoning 

d. Protein foods I 


5. Special diets 

a. Types prepared at the institution 

b. Conditions requiring special diets 

c. The diabetic patient - his special food needs 

Cooperative related information 

1. Federal, state, and local taxes 

2. Social Security 

3. Income tax 

4. Preparation of student income tax forms in class 

5. Federal laws and employment 

6 . Labor unions 

7. Insurance 

8. Salary and fringe benefits 

9. Letter of application for employment 

10. Review of job interviews 

11. Guest Speaker - what the employer looks for in a potential 



The joys and satisfactions of teaching are usually realized through 
small daily events. One such happening occurred during my sixth year of 
teaching just as I was beginning to feel I was "spinning my wheels." 
There came a knock at my classroom door, and when I opened it, there 
stood a smiling young woman holding a two-year-old by the hand, a baby 
in her arms. I recognized her as a drop-out that had evidenced little 
interest in Home Economics. After we had exchanged greetings, she 
asked if she might speak to the class. She told the group she had been 
a poor student but had learned more than she realized which included 
how to care for children, feed a family, and make a budget. Almost 
every day at least one student will tell a teacher that he or she has 
learned something. These small happenings are the real satisfactions 
of teaching. Joy is felt when a student finally masters a skill or 
begins really to understand a concept. 

It is true that every day brings problems, difficulties, and frus- 
trations. It is also true that personal satisfaction comes from solving 
the problems, easing the difficulties, and eliminating the frustrations. 
I have taught for twenty-five years at either the high school or college 
level and I can truly say the satisfactions are the things I remember 
rather than the problems. 

Dr. Aleene Cross 
University of Georgia 
Athens, Georgia 



* '(nf \ f '^^^^^^^^^^L & 

Virginia Guthrie 

Assistant Professor of Home Management 

Department of Home Economics 

University of Illinois 

Urbana, Illinois 

WHAT IS MANAGEMENT? To the management "specialist" management 
means one thing; to the non-specialist it may mean something else. 
Both manage, irrespective of the quality of managerial skill. What the 
specialist identifies or recognizes as management may be different from 
what the non-specialist thinks of as management. Is one right and the 
other wrong? "Rightness" or "wrongness" is not the issue. It is a 
matter of concept. 

The current concepts among management specialists include these 
views or ideas : 

• Management is a PROCESS, largely mental, which follows certain 
steps (there is a lack of consensus as to how many steps) . 

• The purpose of management is to help one to achieve his goals 
(one manages in order to achieve desired results) . 


• Acheving goals involves the controlling, using, channeling of 
resources (natural, material, and human resources). 

• The heart of management is DECISION MAKING. 

• The quality of the results of one's management depends upon the 
quality of one's choices. 

• Management is a MEANS to an end, not an end in itself. 

So, too, are managerial "tools" means to desired goals, not ends 
in themselves. Time-and-energy-saving practices are managerial "tools" 
(short-cuts, lists, schedules, appointment calendars, delegated tasks, 
dovetailing). Do you try to save time for the sake of saving time or, 
do you try to save time in order to be: prompt in meeting responsibil- 
ities, able to perform competently, neatly groomed and socially poised, 
relaxed and good-natured in interpersonal relationships? 

Agreement on whether "organization" IS management or a PART of the 
planning step (or a separate step) is less important than the fact that 
organization is essential to effective management. Organization requires 
DECISIVENESS (e.g., sorting, categorizing, keeping like things together 
in a definite place; marking a magazine when it arrives, clipping, 
filing; DECIDING what to keep and what to discard, what to take on a 
trip and what to leave behind). A "good" manager is well-organized; a 
well-organized person is a good manager. 

Decisions are guided, even if unconsciously, by one's values and 
standards. Values and standards serve as decision criteria. When 
decisions are consistent with our values and standards (criteria) we 
have a sense of satisfaction with the decision and the action which 
follows. ("I don't iron sheets, but I do serve nutritious meals.") 
Standards tell us what we consider to be essential; they guide our 

Management is "the administrative side of family living."^ Business 
and industry distinguish between management and labor. In the home or in 
our personal lives, management and labor become so merged that management 
(deciding) gets over-shadowed or lost sight of by labor (the doing) . 

All of us manage. Would we manage better if we kept our goals in 
mind and if we remembered that management is a MEANS for bringing 
desired results rather than assuming our OBJECTIVE is good management? 

^Nickell, P. & Dorsey, J. M. Management in Family Living. New 
York: Wiley, 1967, p. 80. 



"I wonder how she manages all she does!" is a statement which 
seems to occur with increasing frequency as women's roles continue to 
multiply. It may be prompted by honest curiosity, admiration, or 
inspiration — even a hint of envy. Whatever the motivation, it sug- 
gests a simple research problem: to discover the secrets behind this 
"woman power." 

One need not look far these days to locate "organizers" on the 
distaff side who are functioning in many capacities. This became evi- 
dent as soon as the Illinois Teacher staff decided to survey local 
offices and classrooms to question busy people concerning their "secrets 
of managing personal-home-work responsibilities." It was discovered 
that respondents were easy to find and eager to share their personalized 
"tools" of management. The responses that follow suggest that individ- 
uals (even home economists) vary in their concepts of management as well 
as in their styles of management. 

Ona Harpestady Faculty Wife - Mother of Four - Graduate Student - 
Research Assistant 

• Know your values. (Learn to say no. Do not waste time doing 

things that are unimportant to you and your 

• Know your limitations. (If George can do it better, let him. 

Do not spin your wheels trying to do 
jobs for which you are not qualified.) 

• Be flexible. (Expect the unexpected. Plan alternative schedules 

and courses of action.) 

• Don't worry. (Worry is a mixture of indecision and guilt feel- 

ings, both of which are time consuming and unpro- 
ductive. ) 


Norma Babbitt y Homemaker - New Mother - Research Assistant in Home 
Economics Education - Doctoral Candidate 

• Lists, lists, lists and more lists is the attempt at management 
for me! Responsibilities for home-school-work are listed. Of 
course these lists develop into other lists. Often the more 
immediate tasks are "starred" or numbered to help with the 
organization for the day. For me the biggest task of all is to 
"muster up" enough energy to complete the other tasks so the 
lists, lists, lists can become shorter, shorter, shorter ... 

Judy Flewelling y Clerk-Typist in Agriculture Education - Homemaker 

• I believe that the biggest help in managing one's personal-home- 
work responsibilities is a very cooperative family — one that 
pitches in and helps do extra chores when necessary. Planning 
ahead and writing down menus, appointments, meetings, chores, 
etc., is a must! If it can be afforded, household help — clean- 
ing woman, ironing woman, etc., is highly recommended. A sense 
of humor, maintained even though one's house is not spotlessly 
clean, is a real asset to the working wife! 

Mary Mather ^ Home Economics Educator 

• Keep like things together and always in the same place, easy to 

• Use plenty of dividers or partition makers whether file folders, 
boxes, separate drawers, or shelves to classify materials. 

• Have a wastebasket handy when you open mail (both home and office) 
so extraneous material is quickly eliminated and clutter is 

• When a professional magazine arrives, open it and mark special 
articles to read later. 

Ruth T. B. Jones y Faculty Wife - Instructor in Home Economics - Free 

Lance Editor 

• I like to think I dovetail my routine tasks in a sort of syncopat- 
ing way. The tempo and the theme may vary, but for instance: I 
usually organize my day's schedule while I'm getting breakfast 
and putting away the clean dishes from the dishwasher; I may plan 
several menus along with the shopping lists while I'm using the 
vacuum cleaner; it's likely that I will work on my household 
accounts while the washing machine and the dryer are in action; 
and there's nothing like the privacy of one's daily ablutions 
for planning and rehearsing aloud any imminent talks, speeches, 
introductions, and the like! 


Ruth GovvelZ ^ Supervisor, Stenographic Services 

• After being organized and trying to organize everyone else for 
eight hours, unless I have demands on my time, I become dis- 
organized at home and let things stack — but only so long. Then 
comes a day of reckoning and I do it all at once. But, the only 
answer is organization. I plan what I am going to do and do it; 
it is only when I have an opportunity to slump, that I do it. 
This year as a district chairman of an organization, I plan 
exactly when and what I must do, and I do it — no shilly shallying 
around . 

Cindy Theiss y Wife - Mother - Home Economics Education Student 

• Whenever I get new resource material which is unrelated to that 
I already have, I immediately put it in an inexpensive manilla 
folder and mark it appropriately. Then, when I need to locate 
the new material, I know exactly where it is, and it is not 
mixed up with something else. 

Elizabeth Simpson , Professor of Vocational-Technical Education - 

Travelling Consultant - Speaker - Researcher - 
Author . . . 

• Dress to lively music. This keeps you moving when you might 
prefer returning to bed. Floyd Cramer on the piano or organ 
works well for me. 

• When you need to work late, eat lightly, make a huge pot of 
coffee, call a good friend for a visit (brief — this is to make 
you secure), take a hot bath, put on gown and robe, settle down 
with a good light, and discipline yourself to stay there for 
the necessary time. 

• At one A.M. , a bowl of cereal or fruit juice gives a bit of 
energy to keep going. 

• Treat yourself to flowers for the table, new sheet music, or a 
new record when you begin to bog down. 

• Time your ironing and mending and similar tasks that do not 
require full concentration to coincide with TV programs that you 
shouldn't miss — such as special news programs, plays, etc. 

• A big time saver for me is a huge table (made from a door) placed 
by the bed. It holds record player, records, clock, books I am 
reading, cleaning tissues, etc. 

• Spend some time thinking through the values that are operative 

in the alternatives for solving any problem situation. Recognize 
that any major decision involves some dissonance and determine to 
live with the dissonance as well as the harmony of your decisions. 


Delegate responsibilities to those with the special knowledge 
and ability that the task requires - and TRUST. 

Packing-for-travel ideas: If you travel a great deal, plan your 
wardrobe around "packables" — knits, crushable hat, flat purses. 
Unpack dresses and suits immediately when you reach your hotel 
room. Hang skirts from desk or table drawer — with bands caught 
in the drawer (especially good idea if your room is short on 
clothes hangers) . Use lots of tissue paper in packing — to wrap 
shoes, place between dresses, etc. If a dress has a roll collar, 
place a length of crushed paper in the roll so it will hold its 
shape. Roll undergarments to conserve space in packing. Don't 
bother with a robe and slippers unless you will be holding a 
committee meeting in your room. If your home ec . committee meets 
late at night, you may want these "extras." Wrap hair spray and 
other potential "leakables" in tissue and a small hand towel. 
Don't travel so "light" that you never have the right garment. 

Anna Jane Bretzlaffy Homemaker - Clerk Typist III in Counselor Education 

• When making cookies, I make a double batch and put the raw 
batter in small containers (enough for one meal) and freeze. 
The morning of the day that I plan on serving them, I remove 
them from the freezer; and by dinner time they are thawed 
enough to make spoon drop cookies fresh for one meal. 

Betty Mathis f Secretary - Homemaker 

• In order to accomplish everything that needs to be done, I have 
to stick to a schedule as much as possible and not spend too 
much time on any one particular task. Sometimes at the office 
there doesn't seem to be enough time in the day to complete all 
the jobs I would like, but at home overtime eliminates this 

Hazel Spitze y Faculty Wife - Mother - Home Economics Educator - Author 

• The first requirement for a woman to be able to manage a home 
and a career is that she Want to do so. She needs to have clear 
objectives, and she needs to en^oy both her home and her work. 
Flexibility in schedule, procedures, and attitude is essential. 

• When a problem seems large and frustrating, I try to break it 
down into sub-problems of manageable scope. One of the sub- 
problems is the matter of efficiency in household operation. I 
don't iron sheets and I don't feel apologetic about it. But I 
do serve nutritious meals every day. What is essential! Some- 
times, of course, it is essential to be inefficient in order to 
please a husband or child and then inefficiency is wisdom. 


Joan Lorenz , Business Manager of Illinois Teacher 

• A great aid to me in organizing my personal and business affairs 
is making lists. On Sunday I jot down the meetings I must attend 
and the phone calls and errands I must do during the week. This 
has helped eliminate last-minute confusion on many occasions. 

• The second suggestion I have to offer is to keep physically fit. 
From my own personal experience, I find that if I feel well I 
will accomplish more. After jogging a mile on my noon hour, I 
am able to work more vigorously in the afternoon than in the 
morning . 

Bessie Eaokett ^ Teacher - Educator - Editor of Illinois Teacher - 

• Every month I put a sum of money in pockets of an old robe hang- 
ing in my closet. Once a week I take out a specific amount. 
Admittedly, this "old sock" technique is risky in case of fire 
or theft, but it is a painless way of budgeting. It provides 
family members with ready cash for certain purchases, and it 
eliminates some of the bother of writing checks. 

• I write myself notes and make short lists. When I can cross out 
all the items, I have a feeling of accomplishment. Then I add 
other tasks, one at a time. 

• I have a desk next to my bed where I spread out papers. Since 

I don't enjoy sleeping under books and papers, things get picked 
up daily. 



The wonderment of a teenage girl as she begins to understand her 
feelings and her development. My wonderment at their ever changing 
moods, ideas and interests. There is never a dull moment ... .The 
opportunity to praise a non-academic student for work well done and to 
give her sense of accomplishment ... .The delight in seeing great artistic 
potential begin to flourish and to have a chance to encourage this per- 
son in thinking of new career opportunities to utilize this ability in 
the home economics field.... The frankness and open mindedness shown by 
the majority of the teenagers, as well as the sincerity, gives renewed 
faith in the teaching profession. 

Miss S. Bigland 
Dixon Grove Middle School 
Weston, Ontario, Canada 


Fern M. Horn 
Professor, Home Economics Education 
Wisconsin State University 
Stevens Point, Wisconsin 

More secondary schools are experimenting with new ideas as well as 
making basic alterations in conventional practices. Although gains 
have been made, the search for greatly strengthened educational systems 
continues. "To date, few innovations have embodied changes in the kind 
of people employed, in the ways they are organized to work with students, 
in the instructional materials they use, in the times and places in 
which teachers teach, or in the responsibility placed upon students for 
their own learning. These are tests of effective curriculum change."-^ 
Therefore, I cannot emphasize strongly enough that all curriculum inno- 
vations to be effective must focus on the function of home economics, 
must utilize our understanding of how one learns, and must employ a 
concerted effort on the part of the teacher to make it meaningful to 
the student. 

In a national seminar held at Ohio State University in August, 
1967, Postlethwaite stated that "the current trend in education is to 
incorporate more and more of the subject matter into some kinds of com- 
munication media .... [Many] attempt to use one single medium to 
communicate all facets of a given subject."^ Thus the concepts to be 
covered are often shortchanged and not always presented most effective- 
ly; whereas, a multiple approach may contribute to responsiveness in 
different individuals as well as to a more thorough understanding of 
the concept. 

The opportunity to study one's teaching behavior, as developed by 
Flanders in the analysis of classroom interactions, makes one aware of 
the lack of student self -direction. This brings about the need for 
change in instructional techniques, such as, the use of inquiry train- 
ing, as developed by Suchman, where students determine the direction of 
their search for solutions to problems. But, as Snygg points out, "the 
reason for including any particular subject in the curriculum is the 
fact that it can contribute opportunities for developing skills and 
experiences that will help the student to achieve the abilities, atti- 
tudes, and concepts of himself and the world .... The teacher must 

■^L. S. Michael. The high school is changing tasks. The Challenge 
of Currioulav Change. College Entrance Examination Board, 1966, p. 17. 

^S. N. Postlewaite. The use of multi-media in science education. 
Educational Media in Vocational and Technical Education. Leadership 
Series No. 14, Columbus, Ohio: The Center for Vocational and Technical 
Education, Ohio State University, 1967, p. 101. 


supply the situation and example that will promote the discovery and 
development of student concepts and skills."^ 

However, Frazier feels that "group standards can impede learning 
in the facts and skills department. Yet we must insist that other 
people are more often than not relevant and significant in learning; 
more than that, they are frequently essential."^ In other words, he is 
saying that while independent study is important for some aspects in 
learning, interaction with others is a vital base for the instructional 
program. It can be a significant factor in the transition from child- 
hood to adulthood. Therefore, the question arises as to how these two 
methods of instruction can be coordinated into a meaningful experience 
utilizing the concepts of the discipline. 

The practice of varying the size and composition of classes to fit 
specific methods of content and instruction has become more common. A 
variety of student groupings should provide for large group instruction, 
small group discussion, and independent study. Performance, not time, 
should be a criterion of student achievement. The desire to learn and 
the teaching of effective methods of inquiry are probably the most 
important accomplishments that students can gain from their school 

Let us take a closer look at the use of independent study. One 
outstanding example, which has been in operation almost five years and 
has utilized research evaluation of its program, is at Valhalla High 
School in Valhalla, New York. Here the program is "directed" and in- 
corporates three ingredients: student projects, student planning, and 
close staff guidance. Students apply for the opportunity to pursue 
independent study in a selected subject and develop a plan which is 
critically reviewed by a selection committee. Suggestions are made for 
improvement of the plan and then students go to work. The students are 
still responsible for class assignments and examinations. 

In the evaluation of this program, achievement grades, critical 
thinking, study skills, research and library techniques, and originality 
were investigated. It was found that students in the independent study 
program did as well or better than the students in the control groups. 
Those students in the program for a second year showed impressive gains. 

Many other schools across the country have independent study pro- 
grams in operation. However, reports of evaluation of these programs 
are missing in the literature. One of the key factors to success in 
independent study programs is that students know how to study. In 
addition, various types of physical arrangements and materials are 
needed, i.e., carrel-type desks, audio-visual aids, paperbacks, maga- 
zines, reference books, programmed texts, and typewriters. 

^D. Snygg. Cognitive field theory. Influences in CurviQulim 
Change. ASCD, December, 1966, p. 27. 

^A. Frazier. Personal powers vs individual differences. Educa- 
tional Leadership. March, 1967, p. 484. 


There are various types of activities which can take place: 

• Practicing a skill 

• Doing advanced work on a class project 

• Getting remedial help 

• Doing independent research 

• Listening to audio -materia Is 

• Viewing films and filmstrips 

• Working on a programmed text 

• Developing a special interest 

The emphasis is on freedom of movement and choice with goals of 
self-direction and self-discipline. Certain ground rules are enforced. 
A teacher may require a student to work in a specialized study area. 
Those who have difficulty are closely scheduled; approximately 3% are 
in this category. 

The report of one survey showed that the average student in 
independent study worked in four different study areas during the 
week; he spent more time in quiet study than in the "talking" commons; 
he used the English learning center more.^ 

There are a number of self-instructional science centers, such as 
Postlewaite's at Purdue where botany laboratory work is taught by an 
audio-tutorial system; and the science demonstration center at the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota laboratory school where carrels are designed for 
self-instruction and include instruments, specimens, and materials 
needed and directions for their use. Some of these centers may be 
developed in home economics classrooms. The family kitchen or clothing 
work area is easily adapted to this. 

I think we need to keep in mind, however, that no single teaching 
strategy will produce self-directed, self -realizing , creative individ- 
uals. As I read the article by Kapfer in the January Phi Delta Kappan,^ 
I became concerned that the learning packages he describes could be very 
sterile. His example of stereotyping could become very real if this is 
the only approach a student had to a concept. The value of interaction 
with peers is lost, and this is a vital part of maturing and holding a 

Reichert, in discussing this problem, pointed out, "Some teachers 
might think independent study is a device to relieve some faculty of 
the obligation to pay attention to the student. On the contrary, 
independent study properly done increases the load of the teacher . . . , 
Teachers must help children ask provocative questions and learn to find 
answers themselves. This must be taught; it doesn't just happen . . . . 

^A. Glatthorn & J. Ferderbar. Independent study for all students 
Phi Delta Kappan. March, 1966, pp. 379-382. 

^P. G. Kapfer. An instructional management strategy for individ- 
ualized learning. Phi Delta Kappan. January, 1968, pp. 260-263. 


It is possible for too much independent study to be a narrowing experi- 
ence . . . ."'^ 

Alexander thinks that to "turn to independent study as the approach 
in education might be as fallacious as previous reliance on uniform text- 
books, assignments, and homework. Properly conceived independent study 
appears to be a very promising way of individualizing a substantial por- 
tion of the learner's curriculum . . . ."^ Alexander identifies five 
patterns of independent study, all of which may be commonly used in 

1. Independent study privileges or option: This is a pattern in 
which independent study is optional, although encouraged and 
facilitated by scheduled time, for a large number of students, 
even the entire student population. 

2. Individually programmed independent study: In this pattern 
each member of a designated group is guided individually in 
planning and conducting a program of independent study related 
to his particular learning needs. This pattern sometimes uses 
programmed materials. 

3. Job-oriented independent study: This pattern focuses independent 
study on preparation for a particular job, vocation, or career. 
This preparation may range from a semiskilled occupation to 
graduate level research in an academic discipline. 

4. Seminars based on independent study: In this pattern the 
seminar is more than a class by this name. It is a situation 
wherein students engaged in independent study can come together 
to share their reading, projects, or research findings. 

5. "Quest-type" programs for development of special aptitudes: 
This pattern includes a variety of independent study activities 
for students who work almost completely on their own in the 
exploration, extension, and refinement of special talents, 
aptitudes, and interests not necessarily related to career 
choice. ^ 

Individualized packets of experiences are illustrative of several 
types of independent study devices. Carefully developed and used, they 
could foster the process of inquiry, critical thinking, and research; 
they could contribute to the learning of study skills and library tech- 
niques and to the development of originality. From my work with students. 

^E. C. Reichert. Some innovations in education with implications 
for teacher preparation. Journal of Teacher Education, 1967, 18(2) :149-152, 

^W. M. Alexander. Shaping curriculum: blueprint for a new school. 

Influences in Curriculum Change. ASCD, 1966, p. 46. 



I have found some to be aesthetically or scientifically or sociologically 
inclined, and these students prefer corresponding approaches in their 
packets of learning experiences. For example, let us examine the con- 
cept "effect of color" (included in Minnesota curriculum materials at 
the seventh grade level) using these three approaches. 

The scientific approach might include these types of experiences: 

1. Choose a favorite color. Using tempora or water color, paint 
a 3" square of white paper. Change the hue slightly with 
another color. Keep adding more of the color, painting another 
square each time. Then add white or another color. 

2. Use a prism to show the breaking down of light into various 
colors . 

3. Define hue, intensity, value, related or contrasting colors, 
warm or cool colors, tints, shades. 

4. Arrange glasses of water in a series adding increasing amounts 
of black to water, thus showing change in value. 

5. Group colors together that seem to be related and determine 
what makes them related. 

6. Look at a bulletin board made for depicting moods through 
color. Identify differences in intensity. 

7. Make scales similar to the black and white value scale, only 
this time use colors. 

8. Describe a dress in warm colors for a thin figure and one in 
a receding color harmony for a large figure. 

9. Formulate reasons as to why one has color preferences. What 
might cause these preferences to change? 

The aesthetic approach might incorporate these experiences: 

1. Determine the effects of various colors on eyes and skin of 
several girls. 

2. Recall how color is associated with enhancement of the animal 
kingdom as well as with human beings. Recall the beauty of 
the "proud peacock." 

3. Arrange color combinations from scraps of paper. Choose them 
emotionally — what you like. Analyze them to see if you have 
chosen related colors, contrasting, or both. 

4. Have several large prints of pictures in a variety of hue, 
value, and intensity combinations. Compare them for light 
and dark effect, bright and dull, warm and cool. 


5. Select two girls who represent opposite extremes in strength 
and contrast of coloring. Holding colors up to the girls, 
decide which intensities enhance each girl's coloring and 
which do not. 

6. Formulate reasons as to why one has color preferences. What 
might cause these preferences to change? 

The sociological approach could incorporate these types of experi- 
ences : 

1. Tell a story in which the moods or conditions change. Then 
imagine the people and environment are colors, and "see" how 
they would change if conditions were varied. 

2. Choose three or more colored papers and make a color scheme 
that seems expressive of a play or character in fiction. 
Include one happy, neutral, and tragic (circus, witch, etc.). 

3. Determine what color combinations would be best for winter, 
spring, sports, summer. 

4. Determine why certain occupations utilize colors in their 
uniforms . 

5. Formulate reasons as to why one has color preferences. What 
might cause these preferences to change? 

The reader has probably noticed that the last experience was 
identical for each group, as it is the one that calls forth the broad 
generalization sought. The examples are only a beginning in the 
development of varied approaches to color through learning packets. 

There are a variety of ways in which such packets can make learn- 
ing more meaningful. They do take time to develop. A workshop, such 
as was held in Clearwater, Florida (summer, 1968), speeds the process 
and provides an opportunity for sharing. 

Following is a suggested format for independent study used at the 
workshop in Florida. It is similar to "UNIPAC" in design. 



LESSON 1: Concept - Influence of peer group on clothing (or could be 

on title page) 

Interest Approach - 

Objectives - 1) The learner will become aware of the influ- 
ence of one's friends upon the choice of 
clothing worn. 

2) The learner will be able to identify five 
ways in which her friends influence the 
clothing she selects to wear. 

Instructions 1) Study in Teen Guide to Eomemaking . . . . 

2) Use magazines on the shelf labeled to be 
used for clipping to find illustrative 
pictures . 

3) (Select the following experiences . . . .) 

Materials - 1) (List references, periodicals, programmed 
texts, pamphlets.) 

2) Media (films, filmstrips, tape recording, 
etc . ) 

3) Methods (research in learning center, con- 
ferences, observation, etc.) 

4) Equipment 

Frohlem or Experiences - 

1) Arrange a bulletin board of pictures of 
appropriate dress for the type of activities 
in which you participate. 

2) Write a short paper on how fads are short- 
lived because they meet a need for a novelty 
for a short time and are distinguished for 
the attention-getting effect and not for 
their beauty or quality. 

3) List ways in which dress of you and your 
friends differs from that of another age 

4) List dress characteristics of students of 
your age group. Identify similarities and 
differences with other groups. 

Self -evaluation - (This is an activity, experiment, exercise, 
or questions to be answered. Can be combined 
for several lessons.) 



Alexander, W. M. Shaping curriculum: blueprint for a new school. 

Influences in Currioulwn Change. ASCD, 1966, p. 46. 

Frazier, A. Personal powers vs individual differences. Educationat 
Leadership y March, 1967, p. 484. 

Glatthorn, A. & Ferderbar, J. Independent study for all students. Phi 
Delta Kappan, March, 1966, pp. 379-382. 

Kapfer, P. G. An instructional management strategy for individualized 
learning. Phi Delta Kappan, January, 1968, pp. 260-263. 

Michael, L. S. The high school is changing tasks. The Challenge of 

Curriaular Change, College Entrance Examination Board, 1966, p. 17, 

Postlewaite, S. N. The use of multi-media in science education. Educa- 
tional Media in Vocational and Technical Education, Leadership 
Series No. 14, Columbus, Ohio: The Center for Vocational and 
Technical Education, Ohio State University, 1967, p. 101. 

Reichert , E. C. Some innovations in education with implications for 
teacher preparation. Journal of Teacher Education, 1967, 18, 
Part 2, pp. 149-152. 

Snygg, D. Cognitive field theory. Influences in Curriculum Change, 
ASCD, December, 1966, p. 27. 


Ausubel, D. P. Learning by discovery. Educational Leadership, 
November, 1962, 20, pp. 113-117. 

Beggs, D. W. Ill & Buffie, E. G. (Eds.) Independent Study: Bold New 
Venture. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1965. 

Bishop, L. K. Independent study: individualizing instructional pro- 
grams. The Clearing House, September, 1967, pp. 9-14. 

Empey, D. W. What is independent study all about? Journal of Secondary 
Education, March, 1968, pp. 104-108. 

Frymier, J. R. (Ed.) Independent study ... Panacea? Fraud? Theory into 
Practice, December, 1966, 5, pp. 205-234. 

Kapfer, P. G. An instructional management strategy for individualized 
learning. Phi Delta Kappan, January, 1968, pp. 26-263. 

Kapfer, P. G. & Swenson, G. Individualized instruction for self-paced 
learning. The Clearing House, March, 1968, pp. 405-410. 


Lagios, S. A. Seminars and independent study. Journal of Secondary 
Education, Summer, 1967, pp. 226-228. 

National Society for the Study of Education. Individualizing Instruc- 
tion , Sixty-first Yearbook of the National Society for the Study 
of Education, Part I. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962. 

Shoreline High School Faculty. An inquiry into independent study. 

Washington Independent Study Project, Research Project No. 03-01, 
1963. State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, 

Taba, H. Learning by discovery; psychological and educational rationale. 
Elementary School Journal, March, 1963, 63, pp. 308-315. 

Trump, J. L. Independent study centers — their relation to the central 
library. NASSP Bulletin. Libraries in Secondary Schools: A New 
Look, January, 1966, 50, pp. 45-51. 



A Teen Nutrition Program met with surface success. Meetings 
followed on schedule, speakers arrived on time to present excellent 
topics, the teenagers responded appropriately at the appropriate 
times, no mishaps or accidents occurred. Yet, what was the lasting 

About three years later I had a chance meeting with one of the 160 
teenagers who had participated. She reported that the lives of two in- 
dividuals were directly affected by that program. Both had chosen home 
economics as a career and were enrolled in college programs majoring in 
nutrition. From the program, she learned that home economics and home 
economists can be more than cooking classes. 

I don't know about the other 158 participants — certainly they 
didn't all enter home economics. But, perhaps, each also has a greater 
respect for the depth and value of home economics. I like to think so. 

Mrs. Mary Ann Krug 

State Supervisor 

Home Economics Occupations 

Chicago, Illinois 



Gayle Gilhert Strader 
Laboratory School 
Eastern Illinois University 
Charleston, Illinois 

Less than one year ago the phrase "single-concept film" held 
little meaning for me. This fact is astounding to me (and to my col- 
leagues who hear me rave about them) when I realize what an integral 
and exciting facet of my teaching single-concept films have become. 

"My" films came about as a result of reading and research done in 
connection with an independent study. The concern of this study was 
the need for more up-to-date and efficient methods of teaching clothing 
construction. It is believed that self-instructional methods of teach- 
ing clothing construction will help alleviate numerous problem situa- 

My goal has been to prepare, try out, and evaluate self -instruc- 
tional materials which meet some of the objectives I had previously 
developed. As was intended, these materials appear to be as effective 
at junior high, high school, and adult levels as they are at the college 
level. While my written objectives deal with cognitive and psychomotor 
domains of learning, I feel I have discovered ways of making the affec- 
tive domain self-instructional also. These will be discussed further 
in the evaluation section of this report. 

There are, of course, many means of self-instruction. I chose to 
involve single-concept films in this particular project because they 
were new, interesting, and one of my colleagues in instructional 
materials wanted me to try making some films with him. It was most 
helpful to have a person with technical background (although he had 
never made single-concept films previously) , but who had no home 
economics background. When a step was unclear to him, we assumed it 
would also be unclear for a student and I restated the direction. 
While we had the equipment set up, we made 2" x 2" slides covering 
the same processes. 

I was able to make nine films and direct a ninth grade student in 
developing steps and photographing her own sequence. 

The films themselves last about three minutes and, just as their 
name indicates, deal with a single concept. They can be made with any 
movie camera; however, we used color, Super 8mm. After they were 
developed, we put them into a cartridge which allows them to run over 
and over with no rewinding involved. Sometimes these are called film 
loops. The total cost of film, developing, and placing in the cartridge 
is about $6.00. Copying a film can be done at less expense. Commercial 
films in cartidges cost about $20.00 and, as well as being in short 


supply, may not handle a process in the same manner as an individual 

The projector is a special compact one which is easily operated. 
The operation is so simple that my own five-year-old changes films and 
turns the projector off and on "to see Mommy's hands." The screen can 
be as simple as a piece of paper or one of any number of special 
screens. My personal favorite is a rear -view screen because no special 
lighting effects are necessary. Ideally, these projectors and screens, 
along with the films, would be placed on moveable carts which would be 
within arm's reach of the potential user. 

A student studies one of the film loops made by Mrs. Strader. 
Manipulating the projector herself, she is encouraged to set her 
own pace for learning. 


The processes involved in developing these films are very educa- 
tional for the maker. First of all, one must decide on a single con- 
cept and then attempt to break this concept into logical, sequential 
steps which can be understood by the novice. These steps must then be 
typed onto title cards which fit the camera. Many times this means a 
step must be rewritten to allow for spacing. Materials are prepared 
next and equipment set up for photographing. Experimenting with various 
colors and textures is helpful in determining their effectiveness. 
Timing the process is an important step since the films last a limited 
number of minutes. Trying a "dry run" while carefully watching the 
clock is one method of timing. The other method we tried was to video 
tape the process before actual filming. The video tape also points up 
other problems such as lighting, focus, and hands or equipment blocking 
the view. Actual filming comes next and, while the finished film is 
short, "shooting" the film takes considerable time depending on the 
process and the problems encountered. The lights used are extremely 
hot and rest breaks may be needed. Developing usually takes less than 
a week. When the film returns, it must be gone over to determine if 
any retakes or splices are necessary. When these are accomplished, the 
film is put into a cartridge and is ready for use. 

I have been able to try the films in a number of situations. 
Since junior high is the level at which I usually teach, more oppor- 
tunities have been available at this level. Not only have we used the 
movie films, but also the 2" x 2" slides which were made at the same 
time as the movies. However, students are much less receptive to using 
the slides. They prefer the movement and the ease of operating the 
single-concept film projector. The film loops are also more fascinat- 
ing since they are a new learning aid for students. 

Seventh grade boys as well as girls learned readily from viewing 
the films. Most of them were able to wind a bobbin and thread the 
machine after two viewings, and the most that anyone required was three 
viewings. However, they have enjoyed them so much that even though we 
finished sewing several weeks ago, they wait outside "ny door in the 
morning so that they can see them just for fun. (Affective learning? 
I think so ! ) 

My eighth graders are currently using the films. All ten films 
have been more than a welcome addition to this class. With two film 
stations in the classroom, I can meet individual needs almost as effec- 
tively as three teachers. The order in which to see the films is 
posted. The girls can "ask" the films some of their questions and con- 
sequently they are progressing at a faster pace with less frustration 
than if they had to vjait for me to answer each individual question. 
In fact, they act disappointed when I must use the "live" demonstration 
method to explain a process. Even in small groups, students find it 
more difficult to see a process "live" than when it is filmed at close- 
up range. 

The high school, college, and adult persons with whom I tried the 
films had had no previous sewing experience. Each of them was provided 
with the necessary equipment, and each was instructed to view the films 


and follow the instructions. The following sequence for viewing the 
films was posted: 

Winding the Bobbin 414 

Threading the Bobbin 

Threading the Slant Needle Machine 

Marking Darts with Tracing Paper 


Pinning Darts 

Stitching Darts 

Pressing Darts 

While they worked , I was in and out of the room and answered an 
occasional question. Accomplishing all of the processes required 
between one and one-half and two hours in all three cases. 

The high schooler viewed each film twice until she got to the set 
on stays titching and darts; those she needed to see only once each. 
The college girl saw each film through once and then went back and 
stopped the film when necessary to complete the step as she saw it the 
second time. The adult preferred seeing a film through, watching it 
again as she did a process, and then seeing it once more to check her- 
self. It appears that people grow more cautious with age! However, 
each of them was able to follow the instructions and to enjoy the entire 

These films are a "fun" way to learn and an exciting way to teach. 
Because the films show a process from the position a student will be 
performing, they are better than live demonstrations. Now I know why 
students do things wrong-side-out and backwards; during live demonstra- 
tions, they face us and stand on both sides! Another distinct advantage 
of having the films is that when a student is absent, she can easily get 
caught up by seeing the films. Perhaps the most enjoyable part of the 
films from the teacher's viewpoint is that they allow for more time to 
offer words of encouragement and to give help with specialized problems. 

My plans for the future include trying to design sequences for 
other areas of home economics and acquiring more projectors and screens 
so that I can use the films I have to their fullest potential. 

Making these films has given me more insight into the learning 
process, particularly sequencing. Of course, my own appreciation of 
technical production of visual aids has also grown. To any person who 
is earnestly interested in discovering ways cognitive, psychomotor, 
and affective learning can be achieved, I recommend producing a film 
loop of his very own. 



Gausman, C. H. & Vennes, J. The single concept film-tool for individ- 
ualized instruction. Amevican Vocational Journal ^ 1969, 44 (1), 14 

Johnson, H. , Clawson, B. & Shoffner, S. Using programmed instruction 

to teach a skill for transfer. 
61, 35. 

Journal of Home Eoonomios , 1969 

Short, S. H. , et al. Development and utilization of a self-instruction 
laboratory. Journal of Home Eoonomics y 1969, 61, 40. 

Excerpts from a former student's letter to Mrs. Betty Voland, Franklin, 
Indiana . 

As I was making out my menu for Thanksgiving tonight it took me 
back to the many days I spent in Home Ec . at Puter Grove H.S., 

Greenwood, Ind I have wanted so many times to say 

"thanks" for all we learned. Everything I do can be traced 
right back to those hours. They were enjoyable. 

I had company last week for spaghetti and I remembered all the 
spaghetti we cooked then. You would have thought we were all 
from Italy, the way we ate it! 

If your students ever ask you if they'll ever have to use all 
that information, you can tell them "yes" a dozen times a day! 

I just wanted to drop you this note to let you know your efforts 
are worthwhile, and certainly are appreciated! I don't know how 
often a teacher is told that but I imagine the thought runs 
through all our minds quite often. I just wish my three 
daughters could have you in school. If they can't I'll just 
have to pass on what you've taught me. 


^^ ■ "^'^ VA uws^ tx:.. Vol. XII, No. ■ 

■ ^_ Spring 1968-69 






The Video Tape Recorder- -A Versatile Tool 
in Home Economics Education 

Uavy E. Mather 307 

Plans for Instruction 

Bessie Eaokett 328 

Procedures for Evaluation 

Norma Bobbitt 355 

Attitudes of Adolescent Girls and Their Mothers 
Concerning Home Economics 

Doris Walters 364 

Illinois Teacher Subscription Form for 1969-70 367 


T}' \r s V^W or THE 

AUG ■' 1363 

A publication of the Division of Home Economics Education, 
Department of Vocational and Technical Education, College 
of Education, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 

Members of Division: 

Elizabeth Simpson, Professor of Vocational-Technical Education, 

Bureau of Educational Research 
Mary Mather, Associate Professor and Division Chairman 
Hazel Spitze, Associate P "essor 
Bessie Hackett, Instructor 
Norma Bobbitt, Assistant 
Reba Davis, Assistant 

Mildred Griggs, Assistant ir Higher Education 
Christina Brown, University High School 

Business Manager of Illinois Teacher'. Miss Joan Lorenz 

Vol. XII, No. 5, Spring 1968-69. Published six times each year. 
Subscriptions $5 per year. Single Copies $1. 

Address: Illinois Teacher 

342 Education Building 
University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 61801 

Telephone: 217-333-2736 


An i-nnovatLvQ. homo, 2,0,0 Yiomi.cji t2,acheA wJjtk an hljq, {^ok action and a 
ItaJji {^on. dhnma aj> JbikeZy to cLU>ciov2A homd {^aj>ciinating tue.4 {^0^ vldno 
taptng nqutpfndnt In tke, ^vut oAttcZo, by MoAy Hatk^A. Sd^tdn^ o^^oAtng 
numoAoiUi po66.lbttltleJ> ^OK mpAovem2.nt o{^ tn^t/iuctionat iibJlZ^, taptd 
tiaaklnQ 6eA6AX}n6 oAd o^ttn {^ound to pH-odacd thoAapmttc. ^aAh cj^j^ec^ 
06 a fitiiixZt o{^ tkd "AQZl-con{^n.ontatlon" lokich occuAJi. Vn.. Matke/i 
ddvoJiopud koA vtddo nxpoAtUd thAougk concdnt/uitdd Inddp^nddvit i>ta.dy 
and Q-xttn^tve. phRdtidaJi dxpzAtdncd Mkick Included a^i><mbLLng and 
opzAoting dqtvipmdnt. 

An Innovative tuackoA dducaton, M^Xk a yen {^on. actUxin In cuAAtcLitum 
Adcon^tMictlon and a tmttdd timz ^ckudatu may {^-Ind aj>6ti>tancd -in the. 
omptoymdnt ciouJUd dd^c/uiption {^datuAdd tn this ti>6ud. Thd Adady-madd 
ptan6 , alAdady LUdd tn an dxpdAimdnJjoZ andd^gAaduatd couAybd at thd 
UnAVdA6AXy 0^ JULinoti,, oAd pmbtUihdd a6 a donvdnidncd o{^{^dAlng. Hopd- 
iuJUiy, tkdy may bd ^amptdd, bo^iAOMdd, adapted, OA Advt^dd to mddt 
nddd6 oi pAdpoAying texichd/u ^oa ndW occiipatlonaZ pAogAom^. Atso 
tncZuiddd OAd ddvtcdJi {^OA a^i>zji>i>tng knouitddgd and attltudd^ tn tkd oAda 
0^ employmdnt dducation. Vdddback concdAnlng matdAtatii uu>dd Mtit bd 
iitncdAdty appAdctatdd by tkd aixthonj^. 

--Bd^^td Hackdtt 


Mary E. Mather 


Home Economics Education 

College of Education 

University of Illinois 

Urbana, Illinois 

Dr. Mather focuses students' attention 
on one aspect of teaching behavior. 

Home economists in tune with the times are aware of social changes 
affecting families and their members. Mass media, city and suburban 
living, scientific research and technology are creating new life styles 
at a whirlwind pace. Likewise, new media and tools are making new 
styles of teacher education a possibility. 


Television equipment has been used by many schools as an aid in 
teaching for several years. A few of the major ways have been by taking 
advantage of special broadcasts, focusing cameras on demonstrations to 
give each student a front-row seat via the TV screen, and extending the 
effect of a master teacher to larger groups or remote classrooms. The 
discussion in this article, however, deals with a different aspect of 
television equipment and use, namely the video recorder. 

A few years ago a portable video tape recorder, suitable for class- 
room use, was considered a probable product of the future. Now such 
equipment is commonly found in major teacher education institutions and 
in many local public schools. Three essential pieces — video camera, 
tape recorder, and television monitor — working as a unit can vitalize 
teacher education courses, give opportunity for laboratory experiences 
in teaching prior to student teaching, help a neophyte teacher be more 
self-directive, an experienced teacher be more analytical or experi- 
mental, and change the role of supervisors of teachers. 

"To See Ourselves as Others See Us". — How often this expression is 
used when one is wondering what impression may be created in a given 
situation. Video recording gives that opportunity. The young teacher 
education student may wonder what it is like to try to teach something 
and how she comes across, whether or not she will feel comfortable in 
the role of a teacher. Practicing, and recording for viewing and 
analysis, a variety of teaching skills prior to actual classroom teach- 
ing helps to answer the question of potential student teachers, "What 
am I supposed to do if I'm not to lecture all the time?" 

If one of the primary goals of education is to help youngsters 
learn to think, and to act independently, then is this not an equally 
important goal for students at any level, and for teachers? As 
teachers learn to teach, or wish to improve their teaching, each needs 
to develop her own style and to reflect on the results of her efforts 
on her students. Video cameras and recorders help with this job. 
Identification of specific teaching skills, often referred to as 
"micro-teaching skills" to be practiced one at a time, and research 
about teaching behavior have given us tools for analysis, while the 
video recorder collects evidence for the analysis. 


The use of a video recorder is not essential to micro-teaching, 
but it is a very beneficial addition. Micro-teaching is a scaled-down 
version of a real teaching situation: a short time, a few students, 
and practice with a specific teaching skill without the complexity of 
a total class situation. It is a preliminary experience to give 
practice in certain teaching behaviors. Teach, critique, reteach, and 
critique again is the typical cycle for these short episodes. The 
student trainee gets immediate feedback from evaluative ratings made 
by his "pupils" and from his supervisor. 

When a video recording of the practice session is made, instant 


replay recreates the lesson on the monitor rather than from the indi- 
vidual minds of student and supervisor. Both have the same frame of 
reference, the same evidence to examine. Objectivity is increased. 
The student may react less defensively when the criticism is directed 
to the image on the screen rather than at her person. 

Instant replay provides the student teacher and her instructor 
with an immediate view of recorded activity. 

A second benefit from the use of the video recording is that the 
student can supervise herself, i.e., analyze her own performance in 
terms of her strengths and weaknesses. Students see many things them- 
selves that the supervisor does not need to mention. However, if a 
student gets too concerned about superficial details, the supervisor 
may need to steer her into other channels. To encourage students to 
diagnose their own difficulties and to plan alternative actions, the 
trainees can be given an opportunity to view own recordings privately, 
plan the reteaching (being specific about changes to be made) , reteach, 
critique ovm lesson again, then later meet with the supervisor to com- 
pare analyses. The supervisor would have also seen the taped lessons, 
and the tapes would be available for any clarification needed during 
the conference. Time-consuming? Yes. But self-analysis is important 
if trainees are to continue to develop professionally when on their own. 

Video tapes are as erasable and reusable as audio tapes. The idea 
that beginning efforts are not "canned" for posterity often appeals to 
the neophyte teacher trainee. Yet an opportunity to see oneself at 
different stages in one's development as a teacher by reviewing some of 
the older episodes may give clear evidence of growth (or lack of growth) 
in certain areas and point to needs for new efforts. 


Micro-Teaching Skills 

Researchers at Stanford University identified certain teaching 
skills as part of their micro-teaching technique clinics in the mid- 
60 's.-*- Decisions will always have to be made for any program as to 
which teaching skills will be the most useful. Although many are of 
significance to all teachers, some will differ according to the subject 
field, grade level, or other variable. The selection of the skills to 
be developed also depends on the objectives of a given teacher educa- 
tion program. If certain teaching skills seem to be of little use to 
the teacher in terms of payoff in the classroom, one should question 
spending time on their development. 

Teaching skills identified for development by the Votec Micro- 
teaching Project at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 
adapted from those earlier listed by Allen at Stanford, are as follows:' 


Set provides the motivation for immediate student 
involvement; it tells what is to be covered and 
indicates the structure. If the teacher is able 
to achieve immediate involvement at the beginning 
of the lesson, the likelihood of interactions 
throughout the lesson is much greater. The 
effectiveness of the total lesson will be deter- 
mined in large measure by the students knowing 
where they are, where they are going, and what 
is expected of them. 


Awareness of student behavior is an 
important part of the teaching process. 
If visual cues indicate lack of interest, 
confusion or boredom, variation of the 
teaching skill by appealing to other 
sensory channels can obtain the desired 
student behavior. A good teacher uses 
visual cues to evaluate the lesson and 
provide the environment for maximum 
learning . 

D. W. Allen. Miovo -Teaching: A Description. Stanford, California: 
Stanford University, School of Education, 1967. See also D. W. Allen and 
K. Ryan. Microteaching . Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1969. 

H. J. Sredl and R. L. Nelson. Developing Teaching Skills Through 

Microteaching. Urbana, Illinois: Vocational & Technical Education 

Department, College of Education, University of Illinois, 1969. 

Art work by Dr. Robert A. Tinkham, University of Illinois. 



It has long been known that attention 
spans vary with individuals and that 
boredom serves as a deterrent to the 
learning process. This emphasizes the 
importance of varying the stimulus to 
maintain student attention. Maintaining 
student attention can be achieved by 
varying interaction styles, appealing to 
different sensory channels, and re- 
focusing student attention. 


How effectively the teacher uses questions 
will determine student involvement in the 
lesson. Questions should require students 
to USE IDEAS rather than just REMEMBER 
IDEAS. The teacher should go beyond the 
first question, asking higher oder questions 
that cannot be answered by a simple "yes" or 
"no." Higher order questions should cause 
the student to think about the problem and 
explore different solutions to it. 


A single frame of reference limits 
the student's understanding by 
exploring only one point of view 
related to the lesson. Several 
frames of reference will deepen and 
broaden the student's understanding 
and relate new knowledge to old 
knowledge. This allows the student 
to view the lesson from numerous 
points of view. 

For example, in learning about the world of work, if the 
teacher uses only one reference — that of organized labor 
— the learning experience would be very limited. However, 
if we look at the world of work from the viewpoints of 
management, organized labor and non-union labor, the 
student's total understanding would be much greater. 



Behavior, whether it be positive or 
negative, is caused by positive or 
negative conditioning and reinforce- 
ment of that conditioning. The use 
of reward or punishment to reinforce 
the desired pupil behavior is an 
important part of the teacher's role. 
To obtain desired pupil behavior, 
negative conditioning must be replaced 
with positive reinforcement. The 
development and effective employment 
of this ability are of prime import- 
ance in the classroom setting. 


Closure is more than a quick summary 
at the end of a lesson. It can be 
used in the middle of a lesson to 
pull together the major points and 
again at the end of that lesson to 
reinforce what the student has 
learned. Closure should provide a 
feeling of achievement and relate 
the lesson to the course objective. 

Five of these skills — establishing set, frames of reference, 
reinforcement, questioning, and achieving closure — were selected by 
Bell as most pertinent to instruction procedures in teaching voca- 
t ional homemaking . ^ 

In the Bell experiment with video recorders and micro-teaching 
skills, she found that the addition of micro-teaching training to the 
regular program for preparing student teachers was a relatively more 
powerful treatment in contributing to teaching effectiveness than the 
usual form of preparation provided by preservice experiences. She also 
suggests that students could participate in self-evaluation more 
effectively when engaged in micro-teaching. 

A study at Ohio State was made to test the use of video recorders 
for the improvement of student teacher self-evaluation (micro-teaching 

t. G. Bell. A Report of an Investigation of Mioroteaohing in the 
Development of Teaching Ferformanoe in Home Economics Education at 
Texas Technological College. Lubbock, Texas: School of Home Economics, 


skills as such were not involved, however). In this study, it was 

hypothesized that: 

- student teachers would become more aware of more factors 
concerning their lessons when viewing video tapes of their 
lessons than when analyzing them without tapes; and 

- with successive lessons student teachers would note more 
factors relating to teaching behaviors suggested on the 
supervisor evaluation form than were noted previously. 

Student teachers participating in this study did make more evaluation 
comments concerning their lessons when viewing video tapes than without 
the tapes. Although they tended to make fewer evaluation comments with 
each lesson, they did note more factors of teaching behavior which were 
suggested on the supervisor evaluation form. The video tape recorder 
also tended to make them more aware of their mannerisms, grammar, skill 
in handling teaching techniques, appropriateness of questions, student 
discipline, and clearness of speech. 

Model Tapes and Micro-Teaching Skills 

Knowledge about the skill to be developed is necessary before 
practice can begin. The components could be described in a lecture, 
perhaps using visuals as part of the presentation; the students could 
read material about the skill, but seeing it demonstrated is more 
worthwhile. The ubiquitous video tape plays a role here. It is far 
easier to make video recordings of experienced teachers demonstrating 
the specific skill than to plan for movies showing teachers in action. 
Several episodes could be recorded to show the skill in different 

Class discussion to identify the behaviors which make up the skill 
is desirable after viewing the model tape. The instructor may wish to 
present ideas for comparison, then have the class view the tape a 
second time in light of the discussions. Individual practice and 
recording would follow. 

The use of model tapes could also be handled in an auto-tutorial 
manner if appropriate monitoring stations could be arranged. Supple- 
mentary audio recordings, or voice override on the video tape, for 
instructor's comments might then be necessary. Having a chance to 
compare one's performance to the "model" helps in adapting one's 
behavior better than never having seen a model, but viewing one's own 
performance with the supervisor providing some discrimination training 
based on salient clues in the modeled performance has been shown to be 

A. S. Riegel. Experimentation with the Videotape Recorder for 

Self -Evaluation of Student Teachers in Home Economics. Unpublished 

Master's Thesis. The Ohio State University, 1968. 


even more effective. 

One would expect that a teaching skill useful in many subject 
fields could be satisfactorily demonstrated by an experienced teacher 
in any field. Although the demonstration may be very satisfactory, its 
service as a model to students in diverse fields may be limited. Each 
field may need to develop its own models. Having one teacher in a 
given field demonstrate all techniques may seem like an overdose if a 
single model, yet some students have reacted to seeing different 
teachers show different skills by saying, "You expect me, as one 
person, to learn how to do all those things?" 

As well as being used in relation to practicing a skill, model 
tapes could be used with teacher education students prior to observa- 
tion in a classroom, or observations of filmed or taped classroom 
situations. Familiarity with these specific skills would enable 
students to see them in action in a wide variety of situations. In 
addition, this experience could serve as an exercise in focusing their 
observations. Training in observation skills may be as necessary as 
training in teaching skills. 


In this section "student teaching" refers only to that one part of 
students' professional laboratory experiences typically off-campus in 
public school settings. Practically all experiences with the video 
tape recorder (described earlier) could be part of students' profes- 
sional laboratory experiences prior to student teaching. At the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, opportunity is given to work 
with teacher education students during sophomore and junior years as 
well as in the "professional semester" of the senior year. Some ideas 
gained from experiences in this program will be shared in the remainder 
of this article. 

Micro-teaching experiences in the Teaching Techniques Laboratory 
start in the sophomore year. This gives the student a chance to try 
herself out as a teacher; to get used to the television equipment, to 
the idea of self-confrontation (or curiosity about how she looks) , to 
being critiqued; and to start on the habit of self -analysis. What she 
teaches is not so important at this point as how she teaches it. The 

Orme (1966) and Young (1968) as quoted in D. B. Young, The modi- 
fication of teacher behavior using audio video-taped models in a micro- 
teaching sequence. Educational Leadership ^ 1969, 26, pp. 399, 401. 

The Teaching Techniques Laboratory at the University of Illinois 
is under the direction of the Office of Student Teaching. Several 
small rooms are available for micro-teaching practice sessions with 
high school students or university freshmen. Graduate assistants aid 
in the critiquing of video recordings. 


Teaching Techniques Laboratory can be a non-threatening situation; she 
is not being "on-stage" as in student teaching, and the critiquing is 
done by someone who is not her teacher. The fact that this person is 
outside her field may help to keep the focus on teaching behavior 
rather than on content. This in itself may be less of a threat to the 
neophyte teacher than criticism of both together.' 

During the junior year the dimension of curriculum content is 
added to the experiences of teachers in preparation. Tryout lessons 
here are concerned with "what" as well as "how." Continued practice 
with new skills and practice in self-analysis are desirable. Much 
could be taped and viewed individually with an occasional comparison to 
an analysis made by the instructor. Structured rating devices, each 
for a specific teaching skill, can aid students in diagnoising their 
needs as well as giving useful data for comparison purposes to see 
progress made. 

A potential student teacher tries out an idea in 
using visual materials to create a color wheel. 

J. E. Erickson. On the development of school supervisory person- 
nel: a case in point. Journal of Teacher Education ^ 1969, 20, p. 68. 


Seniors in methods class may practice skills individually, viewing 
their own lessons, being critiqued, and doing self-analysis; but they 
also profit from group discussion following two or three recrodings 
during a class period. They pick up ideas from each other, grow in 
their analytical ability as well as in their ability to give and take 
criticism. Both types of experiences are desirable — individual self- 
analysis of own teaching compared to a supervisor's interpretation, 
and sharing in learning from each other. Some students, of course, 
need more practice in one than the other. Whenever possible, and when 
group and individual feelings warrant it, all personnel who will be 
participating in the supervision of the student teachers in the class 
are invited to come to these group sessions. 

When college instructors have been video taped and there has been 
play-back and analysis (with or without students present) , instructors 
are more likely to understand any reluctance of students to go through 
the experience, while students are more likely to feel willing to do it, 
The taping and analysis of one's own lesson can be another demonstra- 
tion of "actions speaking louder than words." In addition, this experi- 
ence gives students more practice in analysis and can demonstrate that 
the instructor is willing to take risks and is concerned about her own 
continuing development as a professional person. 

TV Equipment in the Student Teaching Center 

When a student had been accustomed to taping her lessons, getting 
feedback from the replay, and having accurate evidence as a common 
basis for analysis with her supervisor, using video taping equipment 
during student teaching seems logical. Mobile equipment can "pay a 
visit" if the local school does not have its own equipment. A thorough 
knowledge of the media and intensive practice in its use when on the 
campus facilitates effective use during the student teaching period. 
Many of the tensions inherent in student teaching can be eased. The 
student teacher arrives equipped not only with theory, but with 
practical experience in teaching, thus enhancing her status as far as 
the cooperating teacher and students are concerned. Having been exposed 
to critiques by supervisors and students she will be more open to sug- 
gestions and may request critiques of certain aspects of her instruction 
to maximize the student teaching opportunity. However, if the student 
is still having trouble with self-confrontation she may prefer not to 
be taped, and she may rationalize the cooperating teacher's interpreta- 
tion of her work as not being accurate. 

If equipment is not trouble free under mobile conditions, if skill 
in assembling and operating is meager (assuming no technician on hand) , 
or if time is at a premium when a student teacher walks into the assigned 
classroom, the equipment, with all its advantages, may seem a burden. 
The cooperating teacher's ability to manage the technical aspects of 
the equipment can be of great assistance. Training and practice in use 
of the video tape recorder is desirable for all personnel in the teacher 
education program. 


When a student teaching center has its own video taping equipment, 
compatible with equipment back on the campus so that recordings may be 
viewed on either set, some of the problems discussed will be eliminated. 
If the use of recordings is limited to student teacher and cooperating 
teacher, the situation is simplified. But when, or if, one objective 
of using the equipment is to extend the opportunities for consultation 
with the college supervisor, additional problems arise. 

Planning for Video Recording and Viewing 

Timing is always a problem. When equipment is shared, schedules 
can be complicated, but they must be honored. Decisions must be made 
as to how long a given student teacher may use the equipment at any one 
time, as well as how frequently and when she may have the opportunity. 
Twice during a six- or eight-week student teaching period would seem to 
be a minimum frequency, yet this could depend on the amount and type of 
prior experience with the equipment. Also, when equipment is shared, 
each student teacher might not have it at the optimum time for her own 
sequence of experiences. 

What is most profitable to tape for feedback and analysis, and how 
much of a lesson to tape are other decisions that need to be made. 
When using equipment for the first time, there is a tendency to tape 
everything forgetting the replication of time necessary for the view- 
ing. (Also, the novelty of the equipment may not have worn off.) 

Student teachers and supervisors need help about being selective 
in what to tape. Decisions based on goals of the feedback and analysis 
sessions are probably the most valid. With what does the student 
teacher want and need help? With what kind of situations does she need 
improvement, and thus more opportunity for reflection and analysis? 
Or, does she need reinforcement for some success experiences? Selective 
rather than global taping is to be desired. Mutually agreed upon plans 
for taping (or not taping) seem most satisfactory. The video camera is 
not a spy! 

Since a major advantage of the video tape recorder is direct feed- 
back to the person involved, viewing the parts of an experience selected 
for analysis before planning steps for subsequent teaching is desirable. 
This is not always easy to schedule. Student teachers and cooperating 
teachers usually view the evidence together during a conference. If 
schedules allow, the student teacher can view the tape alone, then come 
to the conference and mutual viewing with observations and questions 
already noted. This technique might be useful if the student teacher 
has been leaning too heavily on the suggestions of the cooperating 
teacher. The supervisor in the situation may also wish to prepare for 
her role in the conference by looking at the tape prior to the confer- 
ence, if time permits. 


Supervisors and the Critiquing 
of Video Tape Recordings 

Without the use of a video tape recorder (or audio recording) , 
supervisors have typically given feedback to the student teacher about 
her performance by using some system of notes and/or recall in an effort 
to help the student teacher analyze her strengths and weaknesses. Fresh 
impressions are often lost before conference time. When, or if, student 
teachers do not like what they hear or read, they may rationalize by 
thinking that the cooperating teacher was not paying close attention, 
or that she had misinterpreted what was said. The latter is quite 
likely, since no matter how objective one tries to be, one's personal 
biases do enter in. Supervisor and student teacher have a more objec- 
tive base on which to discuss the teaching activity when using video 
tape recordings. 

Confrontation by irrefutable evidence of how one performed and 
what happened as a result can be a traumatic experience. However, when 
students have had experience in receiving feedback from previous video 
recordings in micro-teaching practices, "shock" about how they look 
during student teaching recording is less likely. The sensitive super- 
visor would, of course, want to do critiquing in terms of the way the 
student views herself and the way she tends to operate. For example, 
is she scared? shy? dependent? defensive? confident? overconfident? 
dogmatic? open to suggestion? Awareness of possible changes in a 
student's basic manner is also necessary. 

Selective viewing and critiquing. — There may be a temptation to do 
too much commenting since the camera catches so much. A wealth of 
evidence may be there. Better supervisory techniques demand paying 
attention to fewer points at one time and getting improvement on these 
before moving to other ideas. 

Viewing the tape in a global fashion is not of much help in improv- 
ing teacher practices of the learner. When time permits, however, 
supervisors may find it useful to run through all parts of the recorded 
material before deciding in a diagnostic way which parts of the situation 
need attention. Then one or two points can be selected for review, 
analysis, and discussion. This technique can be particularly useful 
to one learning to use video recordings as a basis for critiquing; it 
may help to deter any tendency to be "picky." 

Non-directive techniques. — Using video recordings gives good oppor- 
tunity to be non-directive in one's approach to supervision. The 
teacher, as a learner, can reflect on her own performance to a greater 
extent than when dependent on someone else's interpretation of what has 
happened. When student teachers have had practice in self-appraisal of 
their video recordings in micro-teaching sessions prior to student 
teaching, they are probably ready to carry on in planning for improve- 
ments without undue prompts by the supervisor. Some students, not as 
experienced in self -appraisal, or some personality types may need more 
help from the supervisor in order to utilize the recordings effectively. 


"Teaching is not telling" is just as true in this teaching situation 
as in any other. Admonitions and reminders may fall on deaf ears. What 
is of significance to the supervisor may not be meaningful to the 
student or of immediate concern. Using video recordings can change the 
role and responsibility of the supervisor from that of bringing a list 
of problems to the conference to which the student teacher is expected 
to respond, to that of responding to the student teacher who has identi- 
fied her own problems. This relationship can set a pattern for on-going 
improvement and future relationships with other supervisory personnel. 

Viewing lessons taught by cooperating teacher. --Some student 
teachers need more training in observation than others. Some may occupy 
themselves so much with other activity or thoughts when in the classroom 
they do not "see" what is being demonstrated for them by the cooperating 
teacher. Critiquing one's own recorded lessons with the student teacher 
also viewing can then be of value, even though she has observed the 
lesson "live." The regular teacher can provide desirable "prompts" at 
appropriate points in the form of questions or comments to help the 
neophyte become more perceptive. 

Training supervisors by using video tape recorders. —Teaching 
behavior of the cooperating teacher and supervisor in the supervisory 
conference is of as much significance as teaching behavior in the 
classroom. There is evidence" that practicing what is expoused as 
desirable teaching is not followed to the extent that it could be. 
Improvements in the use of the conference as an effective teaching 
activity can be sought just as much as improvements in classroom 
teaching. Again the video tape recorder can help by having recorded 
incidents for analysis, followed by setting of goals for improvement, 
"reteaching," and critiquing again. 

A second possible benefit from video recordings could be practice 
in making judgments in the evaluation of student teachers' lessons. A 
systematic procedure for preparing supervisors could be developed 
through analytical evaluation of recorded lessons using common rating 
devices. Practice in observation and analysis followed by a comparison 
of evaluations made by a number of supervisors could result in more 
effective observations and consistent gains in supervisory effective- 


Several ways have been tried at the University of Illinois to 
extend the consultative service of the college supervisor during the 
two years that portable video taping equipment has been taken to student 
teaching centers. In addition to using this portable video recording 
equipment in selected student teaching centers, some student teachers 


M. Lindsey. Supervision as teaching. Speech presented at Associa- 
tion for Supervision and Curriculum Development Annual Conference, 
Chicago, 1969. 


used equipment belonging to the local school in which they were teach- 
ing. They then mailed recorded tapes back to the university. Fortunate- 
ly, all equipment used was compatible. Although it is evident that 
college personnel can receive much information about the student teacher 
in action from the tapes, the prime purpose is not for "inspection," but 
for analysis and help. Observations about the various ways video record- 
ings have been used follow. 

Equipment Used Concurrently with Supervisory Visit 


Some Limitations 

Conferences based on record- 
ings are likely to be more 
objective than those based 
on recall of lesson. 

By using equipment, college 
supervisor can reinforce 
belief in its value. 

Presence of both college super- 
visor and recording equipment 
may be too threatening to some. 

Supervisor may be too busy being 
primarily a technician and camera 
man to accomplish much else. 

3. Supervisor can serve as 

resource person to clarify 
how to use equipment to 
best advantage. 

Equipment Used Separately from Supervisor's Visit 
with Tapes Sent Back to the College 


Some Limitations 

1. Supervisor can see a broader 
range of teacher's perform- 
ance than on "live" visits 

1. There may be a time lag between 
actual recorded lesson and oppor- 
tunity for supervisor viewing and 
telephone conferencing. 

Supervisor can observe at 
more stages in student 
teacher's development, 
perhaps be in a better 
position to give help as 
needed . 

Time and money costs of 
supervisory visits can be 
cut when tapes do the 

It may be difficult to schedule 
for previewing tapes at time 
equipment is available. 

There may be problems in schedul- 
ing of conference: 

a) at time mutually convenient 
to all parties concerned, 

b) allowing for needed privacy 
and telephone connections at 
student teaching center, 

c) when TV equipment is available 
in home office. 

When a local school has its own television recording equipment, it 


is easier to arrange a combination of mailed tapes, plus recordings and 
viewing when the supervisor visits, than when mobile equipment has to 
be shared. However, f shared equipment has to be scheduled in several 
schools, it may be necessary to have a combination use of recording 
equipment when the college supervisor is present and when not present. 
Since a first visit to a student teaching center is often for the 
clarification of plans and expectations, it would seem that a relatively 
early visit of the equipment at a time when the supervisor was present 
would aid its effective use. This would vary, however, depending on 
the degree of sophistication already attained by the cooperating teacher 
and student teacher in use of the equipment. 

Problems listed in the above analyses are not insurmountable, but 
need to be recognized as a first step in solving them. Duplicate equip- 
ment, one set always available at home in the office, helps a great 
deal. As programs grow, however, it is conceivable that more than one 
supervisor may need to use equipment at the same tine to prepare for or 
hold conferences. 

Telephone conferences. --Speaker phones installed at appropriate 
locations in student teaching centers and college offices aid in main- 
taining an atmosphere conducive to a conference, as well as contribut- 
ing to ease of communication between all parties and mutual listening 
to recorded material. A regularly scheduled time for a weekly confer- 
ence can be established as part of the total student teaching schedule 
rather than attempting to find convenient times later. 

Conference aids. --student teachers and cooperating teachers can 
make an audio recording simultaneously as the video recording is done. 
This can be reviewed as a refresher about the lesson immediately prior 
to the telephone conference. A second aid would be to have the student 
teacher view her recorded video material before mailing it, note the 
parts about which she would like reaction or help, mail these with the 
tape to the college supervisor, keeping carbon copies for reference 
during the conference. 

Recording equipment as too much novelty or threat. --A thorough 

knowledge of how to use the equipment by all parties concerned, plenty 
of time to get used to it, as well as extensive practice in its use 
(both in the technical aspects and in its role of feedback) , helps to 
lessen the other problems listed previously. 


Frequent mention has been made of the opportunity for self-analysis 
of recorded teaching by student teachers. The same opportunity can be 
used by teachers who are not in the student teacher category. One 
hopes that every teacher is always a student of teaching. Planned in- 
service programs of teacher improvement are possible with some of the 
techniques discussed earlier — in combination with supervisory consultants 
from the school system, by a type of independent study on one's own or in 
cooperation with colleagues. 


An innovative in-service education program of "mini-courses" has 
been developed by the Far West Laboratory for Education Research and 
Development in Berkeley, California. Teachers work in their own 
schools, often quite remote from the Laboratory, with self -instructional 
materials sent to them. Materials are in the form of handbooks, films, 
evaluative checklists, and video tapes. 

Mini-course I, designed to help teachers with effective question- 
ing in classroom discussion is outlined as follows:^ 

I. OBJECTIVE: To change teacher behaviors that will increase 
the pupil's readiness to respond to discussion questions. 

Specific behaviors to be developed: 

A. Ask question, pause 5 seconds, then call on pupil, 

B. Deal with incorrect answers in an accepting, nonpunitive 

manner . 

C. Call on both volunteers and non-volunteers in order t(3 

keep all pupils alert and distribute participation. 

II. OBJECTIVE: To change teacher behavior so as to decrease 

teacher participation and raise the level of pupil responses. 

Specific behaviors to be developed: 

A. Redirection - directing the same question to several 


B. Framing questions that call for longer pupil responses. 

1. Ask for sets or groups of information when framing 

information level questions. 

2. Avoid yes-no type replies. 

C. Framing questions that require the pupil to use higher 

cognitive processes. 

III. OBJECTIVE: To increase the teacher's use of probing behaviors 
in order to guide the pupil to more complete and thoughtful 

Specific behaviors to be developed: 

A. Prompting. 

B. Seeking further clarification and pupil insight - This 

is a combination of two probing behaviors treated 
separately in the preliminary field test form of the 
course. Seeking further clarification and seeking to 
increase pupil awareness differ largely in terms of 
the quality of the pupil's initial reply. 

C. Refocusing the pupil's response. 

W. Borg. Paper read at American Education Research Association. 

annual meeting, 1968. 


IV. OBJECTIVE: To reduce teacher behaviors that interfere with 
the flow of the discussion. 

Specific behaviors to be developed: 

A. Refrain from repeating own questions. 

B. Refrain from answering own questions. 

C. Refrain from repeating student answers. 

The instructional package includes an introductory film which 
explains the rationale of the program, the material involved, and an 
assignment for a practice lesson. After the teacher carries through 
on this practice lesson, getting used to the procedures and equipment, 
there are four regular instructional sequences (one for each objective) 
which follow this pattern: 


1. Teacher views instructional film (or tape) for the objective. 
Specific behaviors to be developed are illustrated with actual 
classroom scenes. 

2. Teacher views another model tape (or film) where a similar 
lesson is taught; attention is focused on key points via the 
comments of a narrator, or by other prompts. 

3. Teacher is asked to prepare a 10-minute lesson (one that fits 
current class work) to apply new skills he has seen. 


1. Tries his first micro-teaching lesson in a small room with a 
few of his own students. Records lesson on video tape. 

2. Teacher replays tape after students leave — 
a first viewing for a general impression, 

a second viewing to be analytical about skills using an 
evaluative checklist. 

3. Replans lesson based on evaluation. 

1. Reteaches lesson, using a different small group of students, 
and records lesson on video tape. 

2. Teacher views tape as before — once for a general impression, 
then a second time to evaluate specific performance skills. 

3. After school, with another teacher who may be involved in the 
same mini-course, views tape the third time for mutual discus- 
sion and further feedback and suggestions for improvement. 
The teacher may prefer to do this viewing alone or to ask some 
other person to help in suggestions. 

4. Assignment of readings in handbook. 








6 words 

12 words 

The same basic sequence is followed for each of the objectives 
previously outlined. About 10 percent of the instruction involves 
telling the teacher, about 20 percent involves showing the teacher, 
and the remaining 70 percent of the time is spent by the teacher trying 
his own skill and watching his own performance to evaluate progress, 
eliminate bad habits, and more firmly establish the new techniques he 
is learning. 

A research team, using the materials and methods sketched above 
was able to show distinct improvement in teachers' skill in effective 
questioning. An analysis was made of video taped lessons of 48 teachers 
both before and after they had taken Mini-course I. The following 
results were reported about specific behaviors which were sought: 

Before After 

Average amount of teacher talk 
Fact questions reduced 
Higher cognitive questions raised 
Average of student response 

In addition, one-word student replies were significantly reduced, 
as were three negative teacher behaviors: repeating the question, 
repeating the student's answer, and answering one's own question.-*-^ 

Any classroom teacher who has access to video taping equipment 
(and is willing to be self-analytical) could set her own goals for 
improvement after having an opportunity to see and analyze some of her 
recorded teaching. With subsequent taping she would have a basis for 
checking on her improvement. Or a teacher might adapt the micro-teach- 
ing technique (small group, few minutes: teach, record, critique, 
replan, reteach, record, critique) for the specific behavior she wishes 
to develop. 

Many teachers may have used audio recordings of their lessons as 
a basis for analysis. Having a visual image of both students and 
teacher to observe non-verbal behaviors adds a significant dimension 
for analysis. The expense of video cameras and recorders at the present 
time is recognized, but such equipment will probably continue to become 
more readily available just as audio recorders have. Research is con- 
tinuing on various ways to get the best use from these tools. Cost is 
surely relative if the quality of education is greatly improved. 

Using Video Recordings as Teaching Tools 
in the Classroom 

As well as using tapes for self-analysis or as demonstration models 

F. S. Rosenau. How to cut teacher talk in half. Educational 
Leadership y 1968, 26, p. 95. 



in teacher education, creative teachers will find many ways to have 
their classes benefit from recordings. The novelty of being recorded 
will soon wear off, but allowance does have to be made for the novelty 
factor. Beneficial results will not be immediate in every case. A 
few suggestions follow. 

Laboratory classes. --in these situations, depending upon the goal 
for the analysis, video recording without any audio portion accompanying 
may be even more meaningful. One may not need all the sounds of a 
foods laboratory, but on the other hand, the amount of noise may be the 
problem under study. The behavior at issue or the habit that needs to 
be changed can be identified and a recording made. Students then can 
be confronted with "seeing themselves as others see them," and goals 
may be set for improvement. The camera may carry the message far more 
convincingly than reminders from the teacher. Some examples of where 
this silent feedback can help: 

Food preparation classes when students resist wearing any 
band or net to control hair because they "don't ever touch 

Some students just standing around, letting others do more 
than their share. 

Unsafe use of knives or other equipment, or unsafe practices 
such as leaving doors and drawers open. 

Unnecessary traffic from work station to work station. 

Video recordings may be helpful in foods classes in other ways, 
too, especially when trying to develop efficient methods of work for 
quantity food production and service, or for any job where efficiency, 
speed, or analysis of a skill are important. 

Role-practice and role-playing.— Typically in situations involving 
these techniques teachers ask such questions as: "What happened in the 
situation?" or "What did you see when . . .?" One naturally wants the 
class group alert and watching, but many a time a rerun to be sure of 
observations would be helpful. For some situations, such as in role- 
practice, it may be just as important for the student to see himself 
as to have his actions evaluated by his peers. 

Some examples follow: 

- practicing for a job interview. 

- meeting a new person or a new "public." 

- social introductions. 

- conversation skills. 

- practice as a "teacher" prior to laboratory or job experiences 
in child development. 


The author observed television recording equipment related to the 
last example used as follows: On one day the students role-played as 
children, demonstrating many different typical behaviors they thought 
children might have. The prime purpose of this was to get the high 
school juniors and seniors thinking like children. The role-playing 
situations were all recorded on video tape. At a later day the subject 
under scrutiny was how teachers, or other adults, might act in giving 
guidance in different situations. Some of the recorded situations were 
viewed on the television screen. After each the question was raised 
"If you were the 'teacher' and you observed this, what would you do, IF 
you felt something needed to be done?" Discussion and some more role- 
playing for practice with guidance techniques followed. 

Evaluation of special occasions. --Special performances, such as 
programs for school assemblies or parents' night, could be recorded. 
If, or when, one expects an evaluation session to follow, it is often 
difficult to get students to re-live the experience; they tend to be 
glad it is over. But if one wishes to reinforce the idea that we profit 
from past experiences best when next steps are an outgrowth of evalua- 
tion of previous experience, the TV recording can help. Some teachers 
might prefer using such a recording immediately; others might wish to 
use it prior to the next planning experience, or at both times. Evalua- 
tion sessions for special meals (or those not so special) can also be 
handled by similar means. Recordings are particularly helpful if 
evaluation sessions have to be somewhat separated in time from the 
actual performance. 


Equipment for video tape recording is not inexpensive at this 
time, but greater demand and technological improvements are likely to 
increase availability, flexibility, and general usefulness. The video 
tape recorder should not be merely another gadget used with insuffi- 
cient understanding of its potential for effective improvement of 
teaching. Many studies are being made about its use. Certain conclu- 
sions seem to be emerging. More research is needed to confirm conclu- 
sions, as well as to explore new uses, so that research can provide 
practitioners with intelligent direction. 


Allen, D. W. Miovo -Teaching : A Be script ion. Stanford, Calif.: 
Stanford University, School of Education, 1967. 

Allen, 5. w., & Ryan, K. Micvoteaching . Reading, Mass.: Addison- 
Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., 1969. 

Bell, C. G. A Report of an Investigation of Microteaching in the Devel- 
opment of Teaching Performance in Home Economics Education at 
Texas Technological College. Lubbock, Texas: School of Home 
Economics, 1968. 


Borg, W. The Minioourse: Rationale and Uses in In-Service Education 
of Teachers. Paper read at the AERA Annual Meeting, February, 

Erickson, J. E. On the development of school supervisory personnel: 
a case in point. Journal of Teacher Education y 1969, 20, 66-69. 

Lindsey, M. Supervision as Teaching. Paper given at the ASCD Annual 
Conference, Chicago, March, 1969. 

Riegel, A. S. Experimentation with the Videotape Recorder for Self 
Evaluation of Student Teachers in Home Economics. Unpublished 
Master's thesis. The Ohio State University, 1968. 

Rosenau, F. S. How to cut teacher-talk in half. Educational Leader- 
ship, 1968, 26, 93-95. 

Sredl, H., & Nelson, R. Developing Teaching Skills Through Microteach- 
ing. Urbana, 111.: Vocational and Technical Education Department, 
College of Education, University of Illinois, 1969. 

Young, D. B. The modification of teacher behavior using audio video- 
taped models in a micro-teaching sequence. Educational Leader- 
ship, 1969, 26, 399-403. 



To touch a life... a student... to know them well... to have an in- 
fluence upon their character and personality development .. .to watch 
them grow... to be able to awaken a dormant element and see a person 
develop. . .this is teaching! More than ever I believe that teaching is 
a way of developing a whole individual and subject matter is only a 
tool. The real test of teaching comes later when values are evidenced 
Often a student will not remember the facts and lessons, but the cli- 
mate of the classroom and the feelings in a "caught" moment. 

Mrs. Mildred Dunn, Supervisor 
Home & Family Life Education 
Galveston Public Schools 
Galveston, Texas 



Bessie Eackett 


Home Economics Education 

University of Illinois 

Urbana, Illinois 

Encouraged by state and federal support, the employment aspect of 
home economics has become an important and vital area at the secondary 
level. The establishment of occupational programs throughout the country 
provides evidence that the role of the home economics teacher in public 
schools is changing rapidly and that more and more teachers will need 
to be prepared to take on responsibilities of these expanded vocational 
programs . 

Following the passage of the Vocational Education Act of 1963, 
personnel at various colleges and universities hastily planned and con- 
ducted workshops to help experienced teachers start new occupational 
programs. Graduate courses for in-service teacher education followed. 
In addition, there were workshops, training sessions, and advanced 
graduate classes to equip professionals at the college level to prepare 
secondary and post-secondary teachers for their new duties. It appears 
that because of the pressures of more immediate concerns, the under- 
graduate student was somewhat neglected. In many instances she was 
given an overview of the wage-earning aspect of her field but little 
practical help in establishing a coordinated program. Now college home 
economics educators are being urged by state departments to include 
special courses in their undergraduate curriculums to prepare future 
teachers to plan, implement, and conduct programs in emplo3nnent educa- 

Staff members in the Division of Home Economics Education at the 
University of Illinois recognized the need for specialized study of 
employment education at the undergraduate level, and it was decided to 
offer an experimental course during the 1968-69 school term. It was 
felt that the knowledges and skills involved in managing a wage-earning 
program were too complex to be learned in a brief unit of a methods' 
course. Wage-earning programs differ radically in their organization 
from traditional home economics programs. They call for new instruc- 
tional methods and techniques. They demand a whole new area of voca- 
tional subject matter. They require a broadened philosophy of home 
economics as it relates to the total field of vocational education. 

Colleges have tended to lag in adjusting their curriculums to the 
requirements of new secondary vocational programs. Undergraduate 
courses designed to prepare teachers of occupational classes in home 
economics are conspicuously absent from catalogs. Hopefully, the 
detailed plans which follow will suggest course content and will help 


home economics education staff members in other institutions in up-dating 
the preparation of home economics teachers. 

Plans developed for the occupational course include (1) a list of 
major objectives, (2) a topical outline, (3) a block plan indicating 
concepts to be explored in each of three weekly class sessions during 
the course of a semester, and (4) detailed unit plans. 

The unit plans are broken down into daily sessions, corresponding 
to the block plan. These may or may not coincide with an approved 
schedule, but they are sufficiently flexible so that they may be changed 
or combined to accommodate different time plans. They represent 
"resource units" rather than "learning units" in that the learning 
experiences would need to be selected due to time restrictions. Teach- 
ing aids and resources are listed separately following the unit plans. 
(See p. 351.) 


Objectives are stated in terms of student behaviors desired at the 
completion of the course. 

1. Has formulated a personal philosophy of occupational educa- 
tion which is workable, realistic, and consistent with social 

2. Understands the bases for the development of occupationally- 
oriented programs in home economics. 

3. Appreciates the responsibility of the home economics profes- 
sion for promoting programs at all levels which provide people 
with marketable skills and which help them to manage a dual 

4. Is aware of federal involvement in the support of vocational 

5. Understands how vocational education is organized and super- 
vised at the state level and knows requirements for reimburse- 
ment of local programs. 

6. Is able to document the need for an occupational program in 
a community. 

7. Is able to proceed in an orderly manner in planning and 
initiating a wage-earning program. 

8. Is able to plan and coordinate on-the-job work experience and 
related class instruction. 

9. Is familiar with aids, resources, and facilities for various 
areas and types of occupational instruction. 

10. Appreciates the importance of maintaining positive relation- 
ships with school personnel, parents, employers, and community 
members in operating a wage-earning program. 


11. Is aware that both students and teachers can benefit from the 
cooperative efforts of all vocational instructors. 

12. Understands methods of evaluating offerings to assess attain- 
ment of objectives and to discover ways of improving a program. 

I. Development of occupational education 

A. Major bases for establishing vocational programs 

B. Socio-economic conditions affecting employment 

C. Characteristics of women workers 

D. Problems of managing a dual role 

E. Trends and projections in family living and in employment 

F. Values of wage-earning preparation 

G. Implications for home economics education 

II. Federal involvement in vocational education 

A. Provisions of legislation related to vocational education 

1. Smith-Hughes Act - 1917 

2. George-Barden Act - 1946 

3. Vocational Education Act - 1963 

4. Nurse Training Act - 1964 

5. Manpower Development and Training Act - 1962 

6. Economic Opportunity Act - 1964 

7. Amendments to the Vocational Education Act ('63) - 1968 

B. Problems and issues in the politics of education 

C. Promotion of vocational education by professional and special 
interest groups 

III. State plans for vocational education 

A. Meaning and intent 

B. Organization, supervisory personnel 

C. Vocabulary of employment education 

D. Levels of training 

E. Types of vocational programs 

F. Types of home economics occupational programs 

G. State guidelines for establishing programs 
H. Qualifications for teacher certification 
I. Reimbursement of programs 


J. Procedures for obtaining approval 
K. Services provided by state agencies 

IV. Local vocational programs 

A. Financial support and administration of various types of 
programs - public and private 

B. Vocational offerings of various levels 

1. Pre-vocational 

2. High school 

3. Post-secondary 

4. Adult 

C. Local situations which affect vocational offerings 

1. Economic conditions 

2. Needs of business and industry 

3. Employment opportunities 

4. Needs of special groups 

5. Availability of personnel, facilities, and resources for 

developing programs 

6. Public attitudes 

7. Special problems 

D. Descriptions of local programs 
V. Steps in initiating programs 

A. Consulting with administration, vocational coordinators, 

B. Determining current state guidelines 

C. Establishing local administrative policies and procedures 

D. Documenting need 

E. Identifying student characteristics 

F. Organizing an advisory committee 

G. Planning program offerings 
H. Locating training stations 

I. Providing facilities, equipment, teaching resources 
J. Introducing the program to prospective students 

VI. Procedures for coordinating occupational programs 

A. Conferring with advisory committee, administrators, vocational 

B. Establishing policies, regulations 

C. Determining procedures for student participation in the pro- 

D. Selecting and/or devising forms, instructional aids 


E. Keeping records 

F. Planning and teaching a work-related class (explored in 
detail in Unit VII) 

G. Conferring with students; placing them in training stations 
H. Supervising students on the job; evaluating their performance 
I. Cooperating in instruction 

1. Sharing materials 

2. Team teaching 

3. Utilizing knowledges and skills of other vocational 

teachers, subject-matter specialists, guidance staff, 
librarians, outside resource persons 

4. Providing for communication among areas 

J. Communicating with school personnel, parents, and employers 

K. Interpreting the program through various media to prospective 
students, school personnel, parents, employers, other citizens 

L. Organzing an occupational club and extra-curricular 
activities (if considered desirable) 

M. Providing for job placement and follow-up of students who 
have completed their training 

N. Evaluating the program 

1. Determining who shall conduct the evaluation 

2. Reviewing goals for the program 

3. Establishing criteria for evaluation 
A. Obtaining and analyzing data 

5. Formulating a judgment 

6. Making recommendations for improvement 

VII. Developing learning units for a work-related class (emphasizing 
knowledges and skills needed for all occupations) 

A. Outlining basic concepts to be developed 

B. Determining objectives 

1. Criteria for selection 

2. Behavioral statements of objectives 

C. Selecting content and formulating generalizations (possible 
units are listed in detail because the content element is 
unique to the employment aspect of home economics) 

1. Concepts of work, values and benefits of work 

2. Personal qualities for job success 

3. Clusters of occupations related to home economics 

4. Worker requirements, restrictions 

5. Appraisal of working conditions 

6. Occupational outlook 

7. Vocational decision making 

8. Educational planning 

9. Personal credentials 



10. Entrance into an occupation 

11. Legal aspects of work 

12. Management of money 

13. Social security, other benefits 

14 . Income tax 

15. Management of time and energy, work simplif cation on 

the job 

16. Relationships on the job 

17. Business ethics 

18. Health protection for self and others 

19. Safety at work 

20. Workers' organizations (unions, etc.) 

21. Provisions for transportation 

22. Living arrangements away from home 

23. Friendships in a strange community 

24. Management of home, personal, occupational life 

25. Specialized home economics subject matter 

26. Others 

D. Providing learning experiences 

1. Criteria for selection 

2. Organization and sequence 

E. Locating instructional resources 

1. Types of resources appropriate for employment programs 

2. Sources of materials and aids related to employment 

3. Location of resource persons and community services 

F. Providing for on-going student and teacher evaluation 

1. Evidences of growth, attainment of class objectives 

2. Implications from appraisal for relating class work to 

realistic requirements of the job work experience 

VIII. Planning for specialized courses 

A. Determining need for workers in specialized areas of home 
economics at sub-professional levels 

B. Identifying occupational clusters 

C. Conducting job analyses 

D. Writing job descriptions 

E. Establishing competences to be developed for job clusters 

F. Appraising teacher qualifications 

G. Developing various aspects of curriculum plans (treated 
earlier in detail) 

1. Behavioral objectives (based on competencies) 

2. Content (generalizations in specialized area) 

3. Learning activities (geared to unique knowledge and skills) 

4. Teaching resources, aids, facilities, equipment, and supplies 

5. Evaluation of knowledges, attitudes, and skills 


IX. Planning programs for individuals with special needs 

A. Identifying problems characteristic to groups 

1. Physically and emotionally handicapped 

2. Academically limited, disinterested, potential dropouts 

3. Pregnant girls, teenage mothers 

4. Minority groups 

5. Disadvantaged adults 

B. Establishing the need for specialized instruction 

C. Exploring ways of helping special students to become employable 

D. Developing a curriculum geared to students' needs 

E. Assisting with job placement and follow-up 



It is with humility that I stand before a class. Am I prepared 
to make every minute of their valuable time a worthwhile and rewarding 
experience? In this day and age of educational explosion — have I kept 
pace with the changing times to give my students the most up-to-date 
information by the best known method? 

It is with this challenge that I find teaching a great reward. 
After I have prepared myself — then I watch the students grow. . . . 
And greater yet are the joys of having them come back in future years 
to tell how much they appreciate the use of knowledge and skills learned 
in my classes. 

Perhaps my satisfactions can be summed by the following quote: 

"There is a destiny which makes us brothers. 
None goes his way alone. 

All that you send into the lives of others 
comes back into that of your own." 

(Author Unknown) 

Elizabeth Mohr Jones 
Home Economist 
Lebanon, Indiana 




Class Sessions 

Overview of Course 

A) Bases for establish- 
ing vocational pro- 

B) Socio-economic condi- 
tion affecting 

C) Characteristics of 
women workers 

D) Problems in managing 
a dual role 

E) Trends and projections 
in family living and 

F) Values in wage-earning 

G) Implications for home 
economics education 


A) Provisions of legisla- B) Problems and issues 
tion related to voca- in the politics of 
tional education education 


A) Meaning and intent 

B) Organization, super- 
visory personnel 

C) Vocabulary of employ- 
ment education 

D) Levels of training 

E) Types of vocational 

F) Types of home econom- 
ics occupational 


A) Financial support and 
administration of 
various types of pro- 
grams - public and 

B) Vocational offerings 
at various levels 

C) Local situations 
which affect voca- 
tional offerings 

C) Promotion of vocational 
education by profes- 
sional and special 
interest groups 

G) Illinois Guidelines for 
establishing programs 

H) Qualification for 

teacher certification 

I) Reimbursement 

J) Procedures for obtain- 
ing approval 

K) Services provided by 
state agencies 

D) Descriptions of local 


A) Consulting with 

administration, voca- 
tional coordinators, 

B) Determining current 
state guidelines 

C) Establishing local 
policies and 

D. Documenting need 


6. E) Identifying student 


7. H) Locating training 


F) Organizing an 

advisory committee 

I) Providing facilities, 
equipment , teaching 

G) Planning program 

J) Introducing the pro- 
gram to prospective 


A) Conferring D) Selecting and/or F) Planning and teaching 

B) Establishing policies, devising forms, a work-related class 
regulations instructional aids 

C) Determining procedures E) Keeping records 

9. G) Conferring with 

students, placing 
students on the job 
H) Supervising students 
on the job; evaluat- 
ing their performance 

10. L) Organizing an occupa- 
tional club, related 


I) Cooperating in 

M) Providing for job 
placement and 

J) Communicating with 
school personnel, 
parents, employers 

K) Interpreting the pro- 
gram through various 

N) Evaluating the program 


A) Outlining concepts 

B) Determining objectives 

C) Selecting content and - 

D) Providing classroom 
learning experiences 

— *- formulating generalizations in various areas 

E) Locating instructional F) Providing for on-going 
resources student and teacher 



A) Determining need for 
workers in special- 
ized areas 

B) Identifying occupa- 
tional clusters 

C) Conducting job 

D) Writing job descrip- 

14. E) Establishing compe- 
tences to be 
developed for job 

F) Appraising teacher 

G) Developing various 
aspects of curriculum 


A) Identifying problems 
characteristic to 

B) Establishing the 
need for specialized 

C) Exploring ways of 
helping students 
become employable 

D) Developing a cur- 
riculum geared to 
students' needs 

E) Assisting with job 
placement and follow- 





1. Understands why the purposes of home economics education have changed. 

2. Is aware of directions of change in the roles and responsibilities of 

family members . 

3. Believes in the need for vocational education. 


Knows the bases upon which 
occupational programs are 
established . 

Comprehends how socio- 
economic conditions have 
affected employment. 


Major bases for curriculum 
decisions include: social 
conditions, student needs, 
local needs, content of 
field, educational develop- 
ments and philosophy. 

Interrelated socio- 
economic conditions have 
changed patterns of 
family living, promoted 
employment of women, 
altered job requirements, 
and created complex prob- 
lems of adjustment. 


Take an objective pre- 
test on knowledge of 
employment of women. 

Listen to explanation of 
transparencies - bases 
for vocational education, 

Examine list of socio- 
economic conditions. 
Discuss how they affect 
employment of men and 
women, old and young. 

Knows characteristics of 
women workers . 

Is aware of problems 
involved in managing a 
dual role. 

Characteristics of women 
workers which have signif- 
icance for vocational 
educators include: ages, 
numbers, work patterns at 
different stages of life 
cycle, family composi- 
tion, earnings, types of 
occupations, etc. 

When homemakers work out- 
side the home, various 
problems arise requiring 
adjustments in family 

Read references on status 
of women. Identify and 
list significant facts 
concerning their employ- 
ment. Compare these with 
responses to pre-test. 

Listen to panel of 
employed persons discuss 
problems of managing a 
dual role. 

Knows trends in family 
living and in employment 
and their implications for 
home economics. 

Appreciates the value of 
wage-earning preparation. 

As roles of family members 
become less clearly defined, 
both sexes can profit from 
preparation for homemaking . 

As more homemakers enter 
the labor force, the need 
for skill in managing a 
dual role increases. 

One's economic security is 
directly related to his 
marketable skills. Wage- 
earning preparation helps 
to break the poverty cycle 
among the disadvantaged and 
benefits all society. 

Discuss the following ques- 
tions : 

1. What are trends in 
employment of women? 

2. What do trends imply 
for home economics? 

3 . Why do youth need to be 
prepared for wage earn- 
ing in high school? 

4. What suggestions are 
made to improve the 
curriculum and make 
young people employable? 

Ill, Teacher, v. XI, No. A 
'"H.S. Exits" - Rupert Evans 



Check pre-tests to deter- 
mine knowledge of women 

Note contributions on 
status of women. 

iListen for clues about 
[attitudes toward occupa- 
itional education. 



1. Is aware of the increasing commitment of the federal government to prepare 

citizens for employment. 

2. Recognizes that home economics educators today have a professional responsi- 

bility to participate in making decisions concerning vocational education, 


Knows major provisions of 
acts: Smith-Hughes, 
George-Barden, Vocational 
Education 1963, Nurse 
Training, MDTA, Economic 
Opportunity, '68 Amend- 


Trends in vocational 
legislation are toward: 
expanded programs, 
increased federal support, 
focus on people rather 
than programs, consumer 
problems, recognition of 
special needs, increased 

The federal government 
provides for occupational 
training through many 
departments and agencies. 


Contribute to diagramming 
on blackboard the "evolu- 
tion of vocational legis- 
lation," using references 
to supply facts. 

Determine for the acts: 
the focus, kind and 
amount of support , 
agencies involved, 
innovations, etc. 

Is aware of current prob- 
lems and issues in the 
politics of education. 

When one becomes informed 
about problems and issues 
in education, he is better 
able to contribute to the 
resolution of conflicts. 

Brainstorm to identify 
issues in education. 

Debate critical issues. 

Knows how special interest 
groups influence legisla- 

Is aware that home econo- 
mists can influence support 
of their programs. 

Organized interest groups 
have replaced local and 
sectional forces to become 
a prime source of political 
influence in the nation. 

When home economists in- 
volve themselves in politics, 
they are more likely to 
have their contributions 
recognized by law-makers. 

Check professional journals 
for indications of political 

Listen to resource person 
tell how a professional 
organization (AVA, AHEA) 
influenced decisions on 


Explore ways to communicate 
with legislators. 

Identify and discuss prob- 
lems and issues of home 
economics at the state 
level . 


Check for awareness of 

Note concern shown toward 

Observe degree of commit- 

implications of federal 

solving educational 

ment to professional 

involvement . 

problems . 

responsibilities as 
expressed in discussions. 



1. Knows the nature of state support for vocational education. 

2. Understands the functions of the state home economics area. 


Is aware of state plans 
for vocational education. 

Understands the organiza- 
tion of the state depart- 

Knows the meaning of 
terms peculiar to voca- 
tional education. 


When states formulate 
acceptable plans for 
administering vocational 
programs, they qualify 
for federal funds. 

An understanding of the 
state vocational program 
aids educators in con- 
ducting local programs 
and in utilizing resources 

A knowledge of meanings of 
terms reduces semantic 
problems and facilitates 

Is aware of various types 
of vocational programs 
offered at different 

Various types of voca- 
tional programs are 
encouraged by state 
financial aid. 

Reimbursed programs vary 
among the states. 

Knows state guidelines for 
establishing programs: 
qualifications for teachers, 
financial support, pro- 

Is aware of ancillary 
services provided by various 
state agencies. 

A knowledge of state guide- 
lines helps to plan a pro- 
gram which will be approved. 
Standards concern class and 
work hours, teacher quali- 
fications, rate of reimburse- 
ment, etc. 

Ancillary services include 
supervision and administra- 
tion, research, teacher 
training, and vocational 



Locate information about 
state plans. Report 

Examine transparency 
depicting organization of 
state department. Note 
names of areas, super- 
visory personnel, and 
their duties. 

Define terms listed on 
handout sheet. Discuss 
differences in 


Note acquaintance with 
state departments and 
ability to use terms. 

Summarize pertinent 
information contained in 
state annual reports. 

Identify types of programs 
supported by state funds. 

Compare expenditures and 
enrollments within home 
economics and among voca- 
tional fields. 

Take notes on current 
requirements for occupa- 
tional programs. 

Listen to resource person 
describe a vocational 
research project or discuss 
vocational guidance. 

Summarize related vocational 
services. Discuss how 
these might serve local 

Quiz (optional) on devel- 
opment of vocational 
education, federal and 
state programs. 



1. Is aware of variations in vocational offerings at the local level. 

2. Understands how local problems and needs affect vocational programs. 


Is aware of types and 
levels of vocational pro- 
grams and the terms by 
which they are identified, 


The local community 
assumes the major 
responsibility in deter- 
mining the types of 
vocational programs to be 

There are programs - 
private and public - 
geared to various levels 
of training. 

Is able to interpret 
local conditions in terms 
of vocational offerings 
needed . 

Local vocational offer- 
ings are influenced by 
economic conditions; 
needs of business and 
industry, job oppor- 
tunities; needs of special 
groups; availability of 
personnel, facilities, 
resources; public atti- 
tudes; special problems. 

Is familiar with a variety 
of local vocational pro- 
grams . 

There are wide differences 
in local vocational pro- 
grams, since they are 
planned according to com- 
munity needs, preferences, 
and resources. 



Classify on board, accord- 
ing to level, different 
types of vocational pro- 
grams . 

Determine opportunities 
within a 50-mile radius. 
(This may be developed 
into a directory or map 
for a bulletin board.) 


Rate students on contri- 
butions in investigating 

Participate in buzz 
groups to study case 
examples of local problem 
situations. Report recom- 
mendations for vocational 
programs. Include sug- 
gestions for home 
economics . 

Note ability to relate 
program offerings to 
local needs. 

Visit local program. 
Describe for class the 
organization, offerings, 
and special features. 

Have local resource persons 
explain their programs to 
class . 

Assess students' awareness 
of special features of 



1. Understands the sequence of steps involved in initiating an occupational pro- 

gram in home economics at the secondary level . 

2. Is able to perform the separate tasks required to establish an occupational 


3. Appreciates the need for planning and organizing efforts in launching a 

successful program. 


Is able to plan confer- 
ences concerning the 
feasibility of a 

Knows how to go about 
contacting state 

Is aware of the need for 
establishing positive 
relationships and secur- 
ing support . 


The manner in which a 
teacher approaches 
administrators and super- 
visors for guidance influ- 
ences the support which 
will be given. 

Understands the kinds of 
decisions which must be 
made in determining 
policies and procedures. 

Since there are individual 
differences among schools, 
there will be variations 
in policies and pro- 
cedures . 

Knows types of surveys, 
procedures for conducting, 
and information to be 
obtained . 

Is able to document the 
need for a wage-earning 
program by collecting and 
interpreting objective 
data . 

Surveys are used to document 
the need for programs. 

There are many types of 
surveys and a variety of 
procedures for conducting 



Set up individual filing 
systems to serve as 
resource kits for estab- 
lishing a program. 

Brainstorm points to con- 
sider in preliminary con- 
ferences with admini- 

Role play conferences with 
individ-uals who exhibit 
both positive and nega- 
tive attitudes. 

Identify justifications 
which might be used to 
"sell" a program. 


Observe for clues to 
ability to establish good 
relationships . 

Report on readings or 
interviews with voca- 
tional educators con- 
cerning policies for 
operating a program. 

Identify conflicting 
viewpoints and philoso- 
phies and debate issues 

Note understanding of 
factors influencing 
policy decisions. 

Identify from readings the 
different types of surveys. 

Locate, examine, and compare 
different forms used in 
making surveys and tabulat- 
ing data. 

Listen to experiences of a 
person who has made a 
survey . 

Plan and conduct a limited 
survey (if time permits) . 
Analyze data, formulate 
recommendations . 

Appraise contributions on 
surveys. Check ability to 
use findings. 


Knows the kinds of infor- 
mation about students that 
have bearing on offerings. 

Is able to obtain informa- 
tion on characteristics of 
prospective students by 
various methods. 


Characteristics of 
potential students which 
affect offerings include: 
grade, age, aspirations, 
aptitude, etc. 

The success of an occupa- 
tional program is deter- 
mined largely by how well 
it meets students' needs. 

Knows how to go about 
organizing an advisory 

Understands the function 
of an advisory committee, 

Recognizes the contribu- 
tion which citizens can 
make in promoting a 

Factors to consider in 
forming advisory com- 
mittees are: qualifica- 
tions of members, size, 
organization, functions. 

Although functions may 
vary, advisory committees 
tend to promote and sup- 
port programs and provide 
a link with the community. 

Knows the factors involved 
in the operation of an 
occupational program. 

Is able to formulate a plan 
for a program based on an 
analysis of a particular 
local situation. 

The operation of a program 
is facilitated when con- 
sideration is given to: 
the nature of classroom 
instruction, types of work 
experience, etc. 

The quality of a program 
plan is directly related to 
accurate assessment of the 
local situation. 



Invite a guidance coun- 
selor to speak on gather- 
ing information about 

Examine and discuss voca- 
tional interest tests. 

Listen to recording on 
assessing student charac- 
teristics. Summarize 
information which is 
relevant for program 
planning. Determine how 
one might obtain informa- 


Assess ability to identify 
and obtain pertinent 
information about students. 

Discuss the following 

questions about advisory 


How are members selected? 

How many? 

What are the functions? 

Who leads meetings? 

What are the operational 


What are the advantages? 

Role play an organiza- 
tional session. 

Note responses to ques- 
tions for clues to under- 
standing of advisory 

List factors which must be 
considered in planning an 
occupational program. 

Read local case situations 
and formulate plans for 
occupational programs 
geared to each. 

Check ability to plan 
offerings suited to indi- 
vidual situations. 


Is familiar with criteria 
for the selection of 
training stations. 

Knows how training 
stations are located. 

Knows how to contact and 
interview an employer . 


When criteria are used to 
evaluate and select work 
stations, the job experi- 
ence is likely to be 

Locating training stations 
is facilitated when a co- 
ordinator is informed 
about procedures. 

Is familiar with differ- 
ent kinds of facilities, 
equipment, and teaching 
resources used for occu- 
pational instruction. 

Occupational programs 
differ as to facilities 
and equipment provided 
and resources used. 

When a program planner is 
familiar with a variety 
of facilities and aids, 
he tends to be able to 
choose those which fit 
his needs. 

Is aware of strategy used 
to introduce a new program 
to prospective students. 

The manner in which a new 
program is presented will 
affect its acceptance. 



Examine and discuss 
criteria used in select- 
ing work stations. 

Interview coordinators to 
find out how they located 
training stations, prob- 
lems encountered. 

Have an employer explain 
his views about the work 


Assess knowledge of 
training stations from 
reported interviews. 

Visit local programs in 
operation. Focus on 
facilities, equipment, 
and resources used. 
Report findings. 

Identify and compile a 
list of useful resources 

View films related to 
vocational preparation. 

Check observation reports 
Note contributions to 
resource lists. 

Have a panel of vocational 
students tell how they 
became interested in the 
occupations program. 
Question them on ways to 
introduce a new program. 

Quiz on steps in initiating 
programs . 



1. Understands the procedures involved in coordinating an occupational program. 

2. Is able to perform the separate tasks required of a coordinator. 

3. Exhibits interest in teaching in an occupational program. 


Is aware of the importance 
of communication among 

Understands purposes of 
policies and regulations. 

Is able to plan procedures 
for conducting a program. 


Conferences with school 
personnel enable co- 
ordinators to clarify 
policies and procedures. 

Establishing policies and 
procedures before school 
begins provides for con- 
sistency and tends to 
eliminate confusion. 

Knows types of forms used 
in work programs. 

Is able to locate or 
devise forms and instruc- 
tional aids. 

Recognizes the need for 
keeping records, under- 
stands methods used. 

Coordination of occupa- 
tional programs is facil- 
itated when appropriate 
forms and aids are 
available and when pro- 
cedures for record keeping 
are clearly understood. 

Understands the nature and 
function of a work-related 

A work-related class is 
oriented toward development 
of knowledges and skills to 
aid students' performance 
on the job. 



Discuss purposes of 
organizational conferences. 

List items to be consid- 
ered in establishing 
policies . 

Compare policies of 
various programs. 

Determine different pro- 
cedures used to coordinate 
class and work experience. 


Observe attitudes toward 
establishing policies. 

Examine, criticize, and 
classify forms and aids 
according to type. 

Determine how records are 
kept by coordinators. 
Discuss purposes of and 
tips for record keeping . 

Note ability to judge 
quality of forms. 

Visit a work-related class, 
Focus on how it is related 
to the students' job. 
Submit a report. 

Grade students' reports. 


Understands problems 
involved in job placement, 
supervision, and evalua- 
tion. Knows procedures 
commonly used. 


Placing students on the 
job is a task which 
requires patience and 

When one is familiar with 
various means of supervi- 
sion and evaluation, he 
is likely to select 
methods suitable to his 
needs . 


Listen to a coordinator 
discuss procedures for 
placing students in 
training stations, super- 
vising work experience, 
and evaluating performance. 

Choose an evaluation form 
and rate a worker on his 
observed performance. 

Believes that cooperative 
efforts among vocational 
educators can enhance 
offerings . 

Is aware of ways in which 
teachers can pool their 
efforts . 

There is a trend in 
vocational education 
toward cooperation among 
the various fields. 

Cooperation in instruc- 
tion and coordination may 
lead to enrichment of 

Arrange a panel of persons 
from different vocational 
fields. Discuss coopera- 
tive efforts (team teach- 
ing , etc . ) . 

Read and compare descrip- 
tions of cooperative 
vocational programs. 

Recognizes the importance 
of maintaining avenues of 
communication among school 
personnel, parents, 
employers, and students. 

Is able to publicize pro- 
grams through various media. 

The functioning of a program 
is affected by communica- 

Interpreting the program to 
the community leads to 
understanding and support. 

List persons with whom a 
coordinator must communi- 

Cite examples of faulty 
communications and con- 
sequences which could result 

Write a radio-TV script or 
news story describing a 


Collect clippings and con- 
struct a bulletin board on 
"interpreting programs." 


Check evaluation forms 

Note the extent of 

Observe attitudes toward 

completed by students. 

students' awareness of 

communications. Evaluate 

cooperative teaching. 

written program description. 


Is aware of extra-curricu- 

Recognizes that job 

Knows procedures for con- 

lar activities related to 

placement and follow-up 

ducting an evaluation of a 

occupational programs. 

are increasingly 
incorporated into voca- 
tional programs. 

Is aware that youth need 


help in securing and 
keeping jobs. 


Many vocational fields 

The unemployment situation 

The extent to which objec- 

have club activities in 

demands that vocational 

tives are achieved is 

conjunction with occupa- 

programs make provisions 

determined through evalua- 

tional programs. 

for job placement and 



Evaluation provides clues 
for improvement. 


Inquire of vocational 

Interview personnel in 

Listen to a report of a 

students about organiza- 

employment agencies 

project designed to evalu- 

tions related to their 

regarding emplojmient of 

ate a course or program. 

particular programs. 
Determine activities. 


Locate statistics on 

Brainstorm ways in which a 
program might be evaluated. 

Report on banquets and 

unemployment of young 

special programs related 


to occupational courses. 

Discuss social problems 
connected with jobless 


Note reports of inquiries 

Determine awareness of 

Assess knowledge of methods 

and attitudes toward 

employment problems and 

of evaluation. 


insight into implications. 

Quiz on procedures for 
coordinating an occupational 




1. Is aware of the scope of content that may be studied in a work-related class. 

2. Understands criteria used to select various elements of curriculum plans. 

3. Develops a short unit plan for a work-related class. 


Knows the various con- 
cepts which are appropri- 
ate to study in a work- 
related class. 

Is able to outline a unit 
of study. 


There are certain unique 
knowledges which are 
appropriate for work- 
related classes. (In- 
cluded in the course 
outline. ) 


Examine course outlines 
in curriculum guides for 
work-related classes. 

List possible topics and 
select one as a project 
for the development of a 
unit plan. 


Watch to be sure that a 
wide range of topics are 
identified. Check as 
outlines are developed to 
provide help. 

Is able to state clear 
objectives in behavioral 
terms . 

Objectives are likely to 
be meaningful when they 
are validated and stated 
according to established 

Discuss criteria for 
selecting and stating 

Use these as guidelines 
for writing unit 
objectives . 

Continue to search for 
references which will be 
useful in developing 

Examine objectives to 
locate problems students 
have in writing . 

Formulates valid generaliza- 
tions for topics outlined. 

Transfer of learning is 
enhanced when students are 
able to draw warranted 
generalizations . 

Using criteria as guide- 
lines helps in selecting 
and stating generalizations, 

Review bases for the devel- 
opment of generalizations 
and principles for stating 

Write generalizations 
related to topics following 
criteria which have been 
studied . 

Check generalizations and 
offer tips for improvement. 



Develops a variety of 
learning experiences in 
keeping with objectives. 


A variety of experiences 
geared to students' needs 
and interests promotes 
attainment of objectives. 


Review criteria for 
selection of learning 

Plan learning experiences 
for unit. Consult cur- 
riculum guides for ideas. 


Check progress in devel- 
oping learning experiences 
and make suggestions. 

Locates or devises 
resources appropriate 
for instruction. 

Enrichment of learning 
occurs when resources are 
relevant for subject 
matter and are suited to 
students' interests and 

Discuss how to locate 
useful bibliographies for 
wage-earning courses. 

Examine curriculum guides 
for references . 

Compile a list of teach- 
ing aids and references. 

Note students who have 
difficulty in locating 
resources and help dis- 
cover useful materials, 

Plans on-going means of 
evaluation for both 
students and teacher. 

Continuous evaluation indi- 
cates whether or not learn- 
ing is taking place. 

There are many evaluation 
techniques, both objective 
and sub j ec t ive . 

Review evaluation techniques. 

Plan various evaluation pro- 
cedures for unit. Devise 
a quiz . 

Examine and grade unit 
plans according to pre- 
determined rating form. 



1. Is aware of job opportunities for trained workers in specialized areas of home 

economics . 

2. Knows how to investigate an occupation. 

3. Knows how to proceed in planning a course for a cluster of home economics- 

related occupations. 


Is aware of a variety of 
occupations in all areas 
of home economics. 

Is aware of job oppor- 
tunities for workers in 
these occupations. 

Knows the procedures for 
conducting a job 
analysis . 

Is able to write a job 



Areas of occupational 

training in home economics 


child care and guidance 

clothing management, pro- 
duction, and services 

food management, produc- 
tion, and services 

home furnishings, equip- 
ment, and services 

institution and home 
management, and support- 
ing services 

There are occupations at 
all levels of training in 
each of the occupational 


Listen to an illustrated 
lecture on home economics 

Discuss the "cluster con- 
cept." Identify levels of 
occupations within a 

Locate current informa- 
tion on the availability 
of jobs. 


Observe extent of knowl- 
edge about home economics 
occupations . 

Job analysis is a tech- 
nique for establishing an 
orderly procedure in 
vocational instruction. 

When jobs are broken down 
into elements or tasks, 
methods and materials may 
be developed for a course 
of study. 

Discuss readings on pro- 
cedures for conducting a 
job analysis, purposes of 
making analyses. 

Analyze a job related to 
home economics. (A 
worker might be observed 
or interviewed.) 

Note understanding of 
purposes of conducting 
job analyses. 

Job descriptions may result 
from job analyses. They 
identify the nature of the 
occupation, worker require- 
ments, location of jobs, 
etc . 

Read job descriptions in 
the DOT. Note what is 

Discuss coding systems, 
purposes, problems in using 

Explore ways to give dignity 
to menial occupations. 

Write description of job 
analyzed . 

Check written job 


Is aware that job compe- 
tences represent objec- 
tives for occupational 


When one is competent for 
a job, he possesses 
knowledges and skills to 
meet minimum standards of 

Knows requirements for 
teachers of specialized 
courses . 

Work experience in areas 
of instruction promotes 
understanding of job 

Knows how to locate resources 
for developing specialized 
occupational courses. 

Plans for a wide variety of 
occupational courses are 
available in curriculum 
guides which may or may not 
be available to the class- 
room teacher. 


Job competences serve as 
specific objectives for 
specialized occupations 


Listen to recording of 
discussion of job 

Develop a simple check 
sheet for determining 
degrees of skill in 
rating a worker. 


Examine check sheets to 
note awareness of success- 
ful job performance. 

Share occupational 
experiences of class 
members. Discuss oppor- 
tunities for expanding. 

Check state standards for 
teacher qualifications in 
home economics. Compare 
with other vocational 

Note attitudes toward 
acquiring job 

Investigate and report on 
what is included in special 

Discuss facilities and 
equipment needed. 

Identify resources which 
could be of help in 
developing courses. 

Observe students' know-how 
and confidence in pursuing 
a job in special course 



1. Is aware of ways in which home economists can help persons with special needs 

prepare for employment . 

2. Is able to empathize with disadvantaged persons. 


Is aware of groups with 
special problems. 


Groups requiring special 

courses are: 

physically and emotion- 
ally handicapped 

academically limited, 
disinterested, potential 

pregnant girls, teenage 

minority groups 

disadvantaged adults 

Is aware of vocational 
programs for special 

Special vocational train- 
ing enables many individ- 
uals, who may otherwise 
become public charges, to 
become economically 
independent and 
emotionally secure. 

Is aware of problems in 
finding jobs for dis- 
advantaged groups. 

Disadvantaged persons 
require help in locating 
emplojmient . 



Identify groups with 
special needs. Locate 
information pertaining to 
their needs and problems. 

Visit a vocational pro- 
gram which is designed to 
meet the needs of a 
specific group. 

Identify jobs related to 
home economics to which 
disadvantaged persons might 

Discuss ways in which 
home economics training 
might help prepare these 
people for work. 

Discuss problems involved 
in locating employment, 
safety factors, etc. 


Note extent of concern 
for needs of special 

Observe attitudes toward 
disadvantaged and 
expressed desires to work 
with groups. 

Check students' resource 

Administer final 

Books, Articles and Pamphlets 

American Home Economics Association. Career Facket. Washington, D.C.: AHEA, 

Benjamin, L. So You Want To Be a Working Mother \ New York: McGraw-Hill, 

Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Division of Vocational and 
Technical Education. Program Activities for Vocational Education in 
Illinois^ Annual Descriptive Report. Springfield, Illinois: State Board 
of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, 1967. 

Brown, H. , Lemmon, L., & Lippeatt, S. The changing roles of women. Illinois 
Teacher, 1966-67, 10 (2), 24-38. 

Conley, R. W. The Economics of Vocational Rehabilitation, Baltimore: Johns 
Hopkins Press, 1965. 

Eichelberger , L.J. A unit of study on "orientation to the world of work." 
Illinois Teacher, 1965-66, 9 (Bonus issue). Bibliography, 46-47. 

Evans, R. High school exists. Illinois Teacher, 1967-68, 11 (4), 245-250. 

Fleck, H. Education for work. Toward Better Teaching of Home Economics , 
New York: Macmillan, 1968, pp. 351-367. 

Fleck, H. The impact of automation. Practical Forecast, April 1965, 10 (8), 

Forms for use in an employment program, Illinois Teacher, 1966-67, 10 (3), 


Fults, A. C. Workshop for the Preparation of Home Eoonomios Teachers in Food 
Service. Project No. OE 5-85-136. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern 
Illinois University, 1965. 

Ginsberg, E. Life Styles of Educated Women. New York: Columbia University 
Press, 1966. 

Goodman, R. The employment aspect of home economics education. Illinois 
Teacher, 1966-67, 10 (6), 248-289. 

Greenleaf, W. J. Occupations and Careers, St. Louis: Webster Division, 
McGraw-Hill, 1955. 

Griggs, M. , & Yoder, B. Compendium of legal aspects of wage earning programs. 
Illinois Teacher, 1968-69, 12 (2), 57-74. 

Hackett, B. Dynamics of vocational and technical education. Illinois Teacher, 
1967-68, 11 (2), 95-97. 

Hafstrom, J. L., & Dunsing, M. M. Employment of the wife-mother: effect on 
four types of family expenditures. Illinois Research, Spring 1965, 7 
(2), 4-5. 

Hall, 0. A. Home Economics Careers and Homemaking. New York: Wiley, 1958. 

Hopke, W. E. (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance. 
Chicago: J. G. Ferguson, 1967. 2 vols. 

Johnson, P. How do student-learners and training stations rate. Illinois 
Vocational Progress, September 1967, 15 (1), 21-24. 

Kupsinel, P. E. Borne Economics Related Occupations. Danville, Illinois: 
Interstate, 1967. 

Mager, R. F., & Beach, K. M. Developing Vocational Instruction. Palo Alto, 
California: Fearon Publishers, 1967. 

Marshall, W. H. Home economists and legislation affecting families. Journal 
of Home Economics, 59 (8), 641-43. 

New York Life Insurance Company. Career Opportunities , New York: Career 
Information Service, New York Life Ins., 1961. 

Noar, Gertrude. Teaching the disadvantaged. Washington, D.C.: NEA, 1967. 

Nye, F. I., & Hoffman, L. W. The Employed Mother of America, Chicago: 
Rand McNally, 1963. 

O'Donnell, B. Descriptions of Home and Community Occupations Related to Home 
Economics. East Lansing, Michigan: Educational Publication Services, 
College of Education, January, 1967. 

Public Affairs Committee. Helping the Slow Learner, Pamphlet 405. 381 Park 
Avenue South, New York 10016: Public Affairs Pamphlets. 


Pucinski, R. Vocational education — a hope for the future. Illinois Teaohev , 
1967-68, 11 (2), 98-101. 

Rinewald, C. Education for emplo3mient. National Association of Secondary 
School Principals Bulletin^ December, 1964, 48. 

Rotz, P., & Whitmarsh, R. The Employment Aspect of Home Economics Education^ 
a Selected Bibliography with Annotations, Urbana, Illinois: Division of 
Home Economics Education, 1965. 

Simpson, E. Federal legislation for home economics. Illinois Teacher y 
1968-69, 12 (2), 53-56. 

Swartz, B. M. Stumbling blocks in occupational programs. Illinois Teacher ^ 
1968-69, 12 (2), 75-77. 

State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Division of Vocational 
and Technical Education. Advisory Committees — Organization and Use in 
Vocational Education. Springfield, Illinois: State Board of Vocational 
Education and Rehabilitation. 

United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Educa- 
tion. Administration of Vocational Education^ Rules and Regulations, 
(Rev. ed.) Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1967. 

United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of 

Education. Management Problems of Homemakers Employed Outside the Home. 
Vocational Division Bulletin No. 289. Washington, D.C.: USGPO. 

United States Department of Labor, dictionary of Occupational Titles, (3rd 
ed.) Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1965. 

United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational 
Outlook Handbook:, 1966-67 Edition, Washington, D.C.: USGPO, 1967. 

United States Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. 1965 Handbook on Women 
Workers, Washington, D.C.: USDL, 1965. 

United States Department of Labor, Women's Bureau. The Changing Status of 
Womeny Report of the Chicago Regional Conference, Washington, D.C.: 
USDL, 1962. 

Wenck, D. The Employed Homemaker, University of California Agricultural 
Extension Service in Orange County, 1964. 

Wenck, D. Employed and nonemployed homemakers — how they manage. Journal of 
Home Economics^ November, 1967, 59 (9), 12>1-12>Q, 


Granberg, G. Autotutorial Kit to Help Teachers Identify Steps in Planning for 
Occupations: Programs in Home Economics ^ 1967, Seattle: University of 


Resource Persons 

Coordinators or administrators of vocational programs. 

Employer of student trainees. 

Guidance counselor. 

High school students in wage-earning programs. 

Personnel of emplo3nnent agencies. 

Persons involved in evaluative research. 

University students or faculty from different vocational areas. 

University student or faculty member in guidance and counseling, 

Other Instructional Aids 

Clippings of local programs. 

Collected examples of local case situations. 

Criteria for selecting training stations. 

List of terms used in vocational education. 

List of socio-economic conditions. 

Observation report forms. 

Pre-test on employment of women. 

Quiz on development of federal and state programs. 

Quiz on steps in initiating programs. 

Transparency on bases for vocational education. 

Transparency showing organization of state department. 



Norma Babbitt 
Research Assistant 
Division of Home Economics Education 
University of Illinois 
Urbana, Illinois 

As part of a larger research project oriented toward clarifying 
the goals of teacher preparation, an evaluation is being undertaken to 
determine whether the undergraduate employment course (previously 
described) is helping students: (1) to obtain significant knowledge 
about the occupationally oriented programs in home economics, (2) to 
make a significant change in attitudes toward the occupational aspect, 
and (3) to desire to become teachers in occupationally oriented pro- 
grams. Two instruments have been developed to measure students' 
knowledge of and attitudes toward the employment aspect of home 
economics education. Because of the limited scope of certain items, 
the knowledge test is not presented in its entirety. However, the 
opinionnaire is published in its original form. 


1. Students for an occupational program should be selected on the basis 
of their 

a. grade averages. 

b. need for financial assistance. 

c. desire to work on a job. 

*d. need for developing a marketable skill. 

2. The initial step in establishing a home economics occupations pro- 
gram is to 

a. organize an advisory council. 

*b. conduct a community survey. 

c. have students apply for the program. 

d. sell the school guidance counselor on the program. 

N. Bobbitt. A comparative study of undergraduates, homemaking 
teachers and occupational teachers to ascertain attitudes, knowledges, 
and plans in relation to an employment emphasis in high school home 
economics. Doctoral dissertation in progress. University of Illinois, 

Items which apply only to Illinois programs have been omitted 

from the original instrument. 


3. The function of an advisory committee is to 

a. make decisions for administration and instructional staff. 

*b. advise and counsel administrative and instructional staff. 

c. advise and counsel administration on hiring and firing employees. 

d. advise and counsel students concerning work experience. 

4. Ideally, a home economics occupations advisory committee should be 
composed of 

a. parents of vocational education students. 

b. all teachers of local vocational education programs. 

*c . all major trade or occupational groups of employers and employees, 
d. all of the above. 

5. Ideally, advisory committee meetings are led by the 

a. local home economics teacher-coordinator. 
*b. advisory committee chairman. 

c. local superintendent of schools. 

d. vocational supervisors. 

6. Ideally, a teacher-coordinator should make a supervisory visit to 
each student's training station 

*a. once a week. 

b. once each grading period. 

c. once a month. 

d. once during a six-week period. 

7. A follow-up survey of the home economics occupations program should 
seek to identify the opinions about the program from 

a. parents of graduates of the program. 

b. employers of cooperative student graduates. 

c. graduates of the program. 
*d. all of the above. 

8. The initial funding at the federal level for training in Home 
Economics was appropriated by the enactment of 

a. George-Barden Act, 1946. 

*b. Smith-Hughes Act, 1917. 

c. Smith-Lever Act, 1914. 

d. George-Deen Act, 1936. 

9. The 1963 Vocational Education Act authorized federal grants to 
states to assist 

a. solely with development of new programs of vocational education. 

b. only with improvement of existing programs of vocational education. 

c. support of youth organizations of new programs of vocational 

''d . with development of new programs and improvement of existing 
programs of vocational education. 


10. The trend of employment education in home economics was given 
impetus by enactment of 

a. Manpower Development Training Act of 1962. 

b. National Defense Education Act of 1958. 
*c. Vocational Education Act of 1963. 

d. Area Redevelopment. 

11. The 1963 Vocational Education Act made funds available for voca- 
tional education for 

a. the underemployed. 

b. the unemployed. 

c. the academic, socio-economic or other disadvantaged persons. 
*d. all of the above categories of people. 

12. A document that provides for employment of student-learners at 
wages lower than the legal minimum wage is a 

a. worker's permit. 

b. training agreement. 

c. student agreement. 

*d. student-learner's permit. 

13. A health permit is issued to students who successfully complete 

*a. a specified physical examination. 

b. a community health and sanitation course. 

c. the President's physical fitness program. 

d. a specified personal health course. 

14. A health permit is required by the State Health Department for 

a. all students who become employed. 

*b. students employed in jobs that involve handling of foods. 

c. only those students who have had serious health problems such 

as tuberculosis. 

d. none of the above situations. 

15. A document signed by the student and the instructor outlining the 
experiences the student is to receive on the job is called a 

*a. student agreement. 

b. training agreement. 

c. worker's permit. 

d. student-learner's permit. 

16. A document that defines the responsibility of the parent, instructor, 
student and the cooperating employer is called a 

a. student agreement. 

*b. training agreement. 

c. worker's permit. 

d. student-learner's permit. 


17. A document that defines the responsibility of the student to the 
program and to the employer is called a 

*a. student agreement. 

b. training agreement. 

c. worker's permit. 

d. student-learner's permit. 

18. Student-learner permits are issued for a period not to exceed 

a. six weeks. 

b. one semester. 
*c. a school year. 

d. a calendar year. 

19. A brief which identifies the nature of an occupation, worker 
requirements, location of jobs, etc., is referred to as 

*a. job description. 

b. job analysis. 

c. trainee evaluation form. 

d. appraisal of training center form. 

20. Unless specifically exempted, employees must be paid at least 

per hour as of February 1, 1968. 

a. $1.25 

b. $1.40 
*c. $1.60 

d. $1.80 

21. By federal regulations in order to be eligible for a student- 
learner's permit, a student must be aged 

a. 14 years. 

*b. 16 years. 

c. 18 years. 

d. 21 years. 

22. A student-learner may work in a hazardous occupation, exempt from 
federal regulations if 

a. he is enrolled in a course of study in a state approved voca- 

tional training program. 

b. he is employed under a written agreement which provides that 

hazardous work is incidental to his training and such work 
is closely supervised. 

c. safety instructions are given by the school and correlated by 

the employer in the on-the-job training. 
*d. all of the above conditions are met. 

23. The minimum age as set by the Secretary of Labor for a person in 
any occupation (except certain agriculture occupations) which would 
be declared hazardous is 

a. 14 years. * c. 18 years. 

b. 16 years. d. 21 years. 


24. If the establishment is not involved in interstate commerce an 
employer may pay less than the legal minimum wage if 

a. the establishment has a gross income of less than one million 


b. the establishment employs five persons or less. 

c. the cooperative teacher obtains a waiver for the student from 

the State Department of Labor. 
*d. if any of the above are true. 

True-False Items 

25. The Vocational Education Act of 1963 specifies that 10% of Smith- 
Hughes and George-Barden funds be spent on occupationally oriented 
programs. (T) 

26. The 1963 Vocational Education Act makes use of advisory committees 
mandatory for vocational programs at the local level. (F) 

27. The Vocational Education Act of 1963 and the Perkins Act of 1963 
were separate enactments which authorized federal grants to states 
for use in furthering vocational education. (F) 

28. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 prohibits employers from discriminating 
on the basis of sex in the payment of wages for equal work. (T) 

29. Certification requirements for teachers of occupational programs 
are essentially the same for all states. (F) 

30. Child labor laws differ from state to state. (T) 

31. Where both federal and state child labor laws apply, the higher 
standard must be observed. (T) 

32. For a student-learner, the total school and work week should not 
exceed 40 hours. (T) 

33. The wage rate for a student learner shall not be less than 75% of 
the actual minimum wage. (T) 

34. The employment of a student-learner must not have the effect of 
displacing a worker presently employed in the establishment. (T) 

35. As an apprentice or student-learner, a person may be exempted from 
federal regulations of hazardous occupations. (T) 

36. The work permit is issued by the local school superintendent or 
someone appointed by the superintendent. (T) 

37. A student-learner's permit provides for employment of the student 
at wages lower than the minimiim wage. (T) 


38. Education for wage-earning occupations is the traditional purpose 
of home economics at the secondary level. (F) 

39. There are two separate and distinct home economics programs at the 
secondary level; one is homemaking education and one is occupa- 
tional preparation. (F) 

40. The on-the-job supervisor should not assist the teacher-coordinator 
in deciding what should be taught in the related class. (F) 

41. An interrelated vocational education program integrates the course 
content of two or more of the vocational disciplines, as distribu- 
tive education and home economics education. (T) 

42. Student-learner should be accepted by employers as a "learner for 
a specific job" and not as a "learner for employment." (F) 

43. The home economics occupations program is a program primarily 
designed to prevent high school dropouts or to encourage dropouts 
to return to school. (F) 

44. The work-study program and the cooperative education program have 
had the same objectives and thus are essentially the same. (F) 


The following series of statements concern your perception of the 
occupational home economics program. There are no right or wrong 
answers. This is simply a survey of beliefs. 

After each statement, please indicate your thinking by CIRCLING 
ONE OF THE FIVE POSSIBLE ANSWERS. Please do not put what you think you 
ought to feel, but what you do feel. 



if you strongly agree with the statement 

if on the whole you tend to agree 

if you are undecided 

if on the whole you tend to disagree 

if you strongly disagree with the statement 


A "cooperative home economics program" refers to an occupational 

course in which a student receives classroom instruction in addition to 
on-the-job training. 


1. Participation in the cooperative home 
economics program interferes with other school 

work and activities of the student. SA A U D SD 

2. Employers frequently fail to realize what the 
cooperative home economics program is and what 

it can do. SA A U D SD 

3. The student trainee should have the details of 

her job or jobs explained to her thoroughly. SA A U D SD 

4. Student trainees are often placed in any part- 
time job available with little regard to career 

objectives or training opportunities provided. SA A U D SD 

5. As a usual thing, job assignments are not 
correlated with the student trainee's aptitudes, 

interests and abilities. SA A U D SD 

6. The student trainee is often put to work and is 

not given added instruction from time to time. SA A U D SD 

7. The cooperating employer and delegated staff 
members should give direct supervision to the 

student trainee. SA A U D SD 

8. The student trainee should be given an opportunity 
to observe experienced personnel and discuss 

problems before she tries out her own techniques. SA A U D SD 

9. Frequently cooperating employers do not encourage 
leadership and initiative in keeping with the 

student trainee's ability. SA A U D SD 

10. Participation in the cooperative home economics 
program does not interfere with school club 

activities of pupils that occur after school. SA A U D SD 

11. The cooperative home economics program requires 

too much time for on-the-job work experience. SA A U D SD 

12. Classroom instruction is closely related to 

experiences on the job. SA A U D SD 

13. The wages received during the work experience 
period usually are adequate for the work that 

is performed. SA A U D SD 

14. All home economics instructors ought to be con- 
ducting cooperative home economics programs. SA A U D SD 

15. The cooperative home economics program attracts 

the more academically able students. SA A U D SD 


16. The cooperative home economics program is not 

held in high esteem among other faculty members 
in the high school. 


17. Student trainees are often placed in jobs that 
are routine and repetitive. 

18. Participation in the cooperative home economics 
program lowers the pupils' chance of attending 



19. The cooperative home economics program requires 
too much of the home economics instructor's time, 


20. The cooperative home economics program develops 
a closer relationship between the school and 
business community. 

21. The cooperative home economics program does not 
promote good pupil attitudes toward work. 

22. Cooperating employers do not cooperate in 
developing and following training plans. 

23. Education for employment in home economics will 
interfere with the purposes of education in 
homemaking . 

24. The inclusion of home economics courses in 
employment preparation will reduce the 
enrollment in homemaking courses. 

25. Employment preparation in secondary home 
economics will likely reduce the high school 
drop-out rate. 

26. Many students who have the ability to continue 
their education beyond high school will elect 
courses at the high school level which prepare 
for emplo3nnent . 

27. Employment education is primarily for the slow 
learner . 









28. A solid background for developing a worthwhile 
education program in home economics-related 
businesses is provided by classroom instruction 
in home economics occupations. 

29. There are too many legal barriers to overcome in 
designing an emplo3mient education program in home 
economics . 




30. The employment education program promotes good 

pupil attitudes toward work. SA A U D SD 

31. Work experience develops in the trainee an 
appreciation for the responsibilities of 

management . SA A U D SD 

32. The trainee is told as much about the business 

as possible, thus becoming better informed. SA A U D SD 

33. Participation in the cooperative home economics 
program causes students to get lower grades in 

other classes in high school. SA A U D SD 

34. The trainee is able to develop valuable skills 
by participating in the cooperative home 

economics program. SA A U D SD 

35. The cooperative home economics program should be 

encouraged without major change. SA A U D SD 

36. Preparation for employment in home economics 

courses will make girls more readily employable. SA A U D SD 

37. Education for employment will revitalize the 

entire home economics curriculum. SA A U D SD 

38. Most employers would welcome employees who have 
had some preparation for the skills needed on the 

job. SA A U D SD 

39. Many jobs in home economics occupations do not 
require knowledges and skills in home economics 

subjects. SA A U D SD 

40. Experiences obtained by students in home economics- 
related businesses are so specific that they have 
little application to other home economics occupa- 
tions. SA A U D SD 



Doris Walters 


Home Economics Department 

Kearney State College 

Kearney, Nebraska 

During her graduate studies at 
Colorado State University in 
1967-1968, Mrs. Walters con- 
ducted her study of attitudes 
toward home economics. 

The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes regarding 
home economics of home economics students, non-home economics students, 
and mothers of both of these groups. 

The random sampling of selected students was secured from the two 
senior high schools, Meritt Hut ton and Northglenn, in School District 
//12, Adams County, Colorado. A questionnaire and attitudinal scale 
were administered to 66 girls who were enrolled in home economics, 18 
girls who had no home economics in the seventh through the twelfth 
grades, and 30 girls who had only one semester in the eighth grade. 
Since there was little difference in attitudes regarding home economics 
of the girls who had no home economics and those who had only one 
semester in the eighth grade, these two groups were combined for the 
study. Of the questionnaires and attitudinal scales sent to the mothers 
of these girls, 89 or 76% were completed and returned. The question- 
naire solicited information regarding the amount of home economics each 
girl had in the junior and senior high school. The attitudinal scale 
was comprised of 24 statements pertaining to attitudes toward home 


The data secured in this study indicated that the attitudes regard- 
ing home economics of home economics students and their mothers were 
more favorable toward home economics than the non-home economics 
students and their mothers. Although the attitudes of the mothers of 
home economics students were closely related to the attitudes of their 
daughters, there was evidence that their attitudes were not as favor- 
able toward home economics as their daughters. The mothers of non-home 
economics students tended to be somewhat more favorable than their 
daughters toward home economics. 

Results of this study indicated: some students felt that the home 
economics program was not meeting their needs; there was too much 
repetition in home economics courses; more challenge to the student was 
needed in the presentation of subject matter; there was a lack of under- 
standing of what was offered in the home economics curriculum. 

Examination of evidence obtained in this study led to two recom- 
mendations: the home economics instructors and counselors need to 
communicate the purposes of home economics to the students, parents, 
and the community; they also need to plan a detailed scope and 
sequence for each home economics course offered at both the junior and 
senior high school levels to eliminate excessive repetition. 


The attitude scale consisted of the following items which were 
rated according to level of agreement along a five-point continuum 
(from strongly disagree to strongly agree) . 

1. English, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and other such 
subjects should receive more credit toward graduation than home 

2. More than one year of Home Economics should be taken in order for 
girls to attain the knowledge and skills needed as homemakers and 
as family members. 

3. Education for Home Economics is not as important for those students 
who make A and B grades in school as it is for those students who 
usually make C, D, and F grades. 

4. The benefits received from the Home Economics program justify the 
cost to the taxpayer of the equipment and maintaining the depart- 

5. Home Economics should be an important part of the basic education 
of boys. 

6. At least one course in Home Economics should be taken by boys in 
high school, whether or not they are going to college. 


7. Students enrolled in the college preparatory course in high school 
have so many required subjects they are not given any time to take 
courses in Home Economics. 

8. At least one course in Home Economics should be taken by girls in 
high school, whether or not they are going to college. 

9. Home Economics stresses a wide range of subject matter. 

10. Home Economics helps students to understand, guide, and care for 
young children. 

11. Home Economics helps the student to look at his abilities, atti- 
tudes, goals, and to understand how these influence him now and 
in the future. 

12. The subject matter taught in Home Economics places emphasis on 
skills, attitudes, values, and knowledge needed in meeting and 
solving problems of everyday living. 

13. Home Economics encourages students to think. 

14. Courses such as Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, or English 
require students to work harder than in Home Economics. 

15. Home Economics courses help the student develop better relation- 
ships within the family. 

16. Home Economics courses are too easy and present no challenge to 
the student. 

17. Home Economics courses repeat the knowledge, skills, and under- 
standings which have already been taught in the home. 

18. The preparation for employment, included in specific Home Economics 
courses, enables the student to become readily employable. 

19. Students are likely to learn the frilly, unnecessary things in 
Home Economics rather than practical things. 

20. Home Economics courses help the student appreciate the factors 
involved in spending personal and family income. 

21. Girls are able to manage their time and energy more effectively as 
a result of studying Home Economics. 

22. There is too much repetition of subject matter in the different 
Home Economics courses. 

23. The subject matter covered in Home Economics does not keep up with 
the changes of our time. 

24. Students in Home Economics learn to identify their basic, personal 
values and how these influence their pattern of living. 



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Excerpts from former students' letters to Mrs. Dorcas A. Carter 
Division of Home Economics, Cheyney State College, Cheyney, Penn. 

Just a little note to let you know that I am traveling again 
into a new and exciting area of Home Economics. I am follow- 
ing in your wonderful footsteps .... 

. . . I really appreciated those words of encouragement that 
you extended .... 

I just want to thank you for seeing me through the year.