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Full text of "The "Illinois way" of beautifying the farm"

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CENTRAL CIRCULATION BOOKSTACKS 
The person charging this material is re- 
sponsible for its return to the library from 
which it was borrowed on or before the 
Latest Date stamped below. 

Theft, mutilation, and underlining of books are reasons 
far disciplinary action and may result In dismissal from 
the University. 

TO RENEW CALL TELEPHONE CENTER, 333-8400 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 

JAN 09 \m 



JAN J 7 1992 
APR 1 4 1394 



1 1995 



DEC ? ? 2001 



UNIVERSITY OF 
ILLINOIS LIBRARY 
AT UR3ANA-CHA1VPA'' 



When renewing by phone, write new due date below 
previous due date. 78733 L162 



_1 . 







ffi ilffinii 








This house is built on horizontal lines, to repeat the great horizontal lines of the prairie. See page 3 



This is Circular 170 of the Agricultural Experiment Station, published 
by the Department of Horticulture, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1914 



COPIES FREE TO ANYONE IN ILLINOIS WHO WILL SIGN A PROMISE TO DO SOME 
PERMANENT ORNAMENTAL PLANTING WITHIN A YEAR 







I. THE CONNECTICUT STYLE OF FARM ARCHITECTURE AND PLANTING 

"Connecticut has many a clapboarded farmhouse shaded by white oaks or other trees that were here when the first white man came, while on 
lawn may be a rhododendron or mountain laurel planted by the great-grandfather of the present owner." (See page 3.) 




St'gn and mail this to Wilhelm Miller, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 



If you have already signed a ballot, give this to a friend. A copy of Circular 170 will be sent to everyone 
who signs one of these promises to do some permanent ornamental planting within a year. 

Australian Ballot for the People of Illinois 

/ WILL 

Q Plant or improve my WINDBREAK, not live in a bare, wind-swept spot. 
Q SCREEN unsightly objects, e. g., barnyard and outbuildings. 

Frame the VIEW of my house from the road and of the farm from my dining- 
room and -porch. 

Plant bushes and vines against the FOUNDATIONS of my house. 

Make a good permanent LAWN, not a cheap weed-patch, and keep the center 
open, not scatter plants over it. 

Have SHRUBBERY, instead of artificial hedges, or temporary flower-beds in the 
middle of the lawn. 

Save old TREES on lawn, roadside, or pasture. 

Q Plant chiefly long-lived NATIVE MATERIAL, not short-lived "quick-growers," 
or foreign and artificial varieties. 

Q Make a practical FLOWER-GARDEN, e. g., a cut-flower, bird, children's, wild, 
winter, or tree-garden, instead of copying something eastern, English, or Italian. 

Q] Plant an ILLINOIS BORDER, sacred to Illinois trees, shrubs, and wild flowers. 

Q Restore and preserve the LOCAL COLOR, instead of destroying every shrub 
within a mile. 

Q Adopt the ILLINOIS WAY, not the gaudy, conventional, and imitative style, 
for I do not want my place to look like every beginner's the world over. 

Q Build and plant a PERMANENT COUNTRY HOME. 

^] PLAN or re-plan my home grounds, or engage a landscape gardener. 

Without agreeing to pay anybody anything, I promise to do some permanent 
ornamental planting within a year. 



Address. 



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OBODY can afford to have bare and ugly home 
grounds. It is bad business. Of course, we do not 
commonly take a business view of our homes; we 
think of home in terms of sentiment. For we all 
want the best there is in life, and we know we can 
raise better children if they have beautiful sur- 
roundings. But, granting that we all have the best sentiment 
in the world, we cannot escape the business side. For in- 
stance, we all have to consider the cost of making a lawn, of 
fertilizing and planting. 

Now, there are two ways of handling these practical matters, 
one of which gives little or no profit while the other gives very 
great profits. Of course, you do not expect to make money out 
of your home you expect to live in it, but the day will come 
when you or your children will wish to sell part or all of your 
property. And the buyer will look at everything you have done 
from the cold, unsympathetic viewpoint of hard-cash value. 
The man of wealth who indulges every personal whim, and 
makes an eccentric place, will lose a lot of money. On the 
other hand, if you leave your place bare, it may be absolutely 
unsalable when the time of need comes, or you will get less than 
it is worth. But, if your farm is sensibly planted, you can 
get a bigger profit for the money you put into trees and shrubs 
than for the same money spent on house, barn, or hogs. Then 
old trees, that cost you nothing to plant, may bring you a 
millionaire buyer. Ten dollars spent on shrubs and vines planted 
against the foundation of your house may add $100 to its 
cash selling value. This circular tells of people who have 
found buyers, or actually made 100 to 1,000 per cent profit, 



from ornamental planting. Such profits sound like a "get- 
rich-quick scheme," but that they are made is true. And the 
reason for these enormous profits is that what you plant on 
your lawn is seen by everybody. It may be much more impor- 
tant to spend $100 on a bathroom; but, for one person who 
sees the $100 you spend on plumbing or interior decoration, 
there are thousands of passers-by who see the $10 spent in 
your front yard. If you spend that $10 in the ordinary way 
of "beautifying the farm," you will get back not one single 
cent. If you spend it in the "Illinois way," you cannot help 
increasing the cash value or salability of your farm, because 
permanent trees are worth, for beauty alone, $i a square inch 
in cross-section of their trunk three feet above the ground, 
and they increase in value every year. 

THE COMMON WAY OF PLANTING IS 
UNPROFITABLE 

The common way of planting is to scatter flower-beds 
over a lawn. (See Fig. 2.) It aims to make the biggest show 
for the money and get immediate results. That is why begin- 
ners make fancy beds of complicated design and fill them with 
coleus and cannas, which give great masses of striking color 
for three months or more. But next winter those beds are 
vacant and ugly, and next spring the same work must be 
done, and every year there is a fresh outlay of money for the 
same thing. Soon the constant repetition of the work gets 
monotonous, and next we realize that the effect is gaudy; 
for our standards are constantly rising, and what we admired 




}f Planting a Lawn 



he "Illinois Way" of Planting a Lawn 



This sort of thing intoxicates beginners the world over. The plants are scattered, so Leaving the center open and grouping the shrubs at the sides, so as to frame a picture 

to make the biggest show. Ninety per cent are foreign or artificial varieties, e.g., cut- of the home. The trees are not trimmed up like street trees, but all the lower branches are 
ved, weeping, and variegated shrubs, or tender foliage plants and double flowers, such preserved, and bushes connect lawn and trees. Ninety per cent are hardy trees and shrubs 



as to mak 
leav 



, , , , 

as cannas, coleus, and the double hydrangea. Why not move such plants to the back yard 
or garden? In the front yard they tend to make all the world look alike. 



. , 

preserved, and bushes connect lawn and trees. Ninety per cent are hardy-trees and shrubs 
native to Illinois. Let Illinois look different from all the rest of the world! (Magnus place, 



. 
Winnetka, same as cover. House by Spencer, grounds by Jensen.) 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 




4. The English Style of Farm Architecture and Planting 

The kind of house that has sheltered ten generations of farmers in the same family. 
Surrounded by English oaks and English daffodils. Let us learn from England to plant 
permanent trees, instead of temporary ones, like soft maples and poplars. 

five years ago now seems in bad taste. It dawns on us that 
any beginner can put flower-beds in the middle of the lawn, 
and that every beginner will try to make each dollar stand up 
on edge where everyone can see it. Thus, we come to hate 
show, and to care more for privacy, permanence, dignity, peace, 
restfulness, outdoor living, winter comfort, views, a playground 
for the children, old trees, cut-flowers in the house all the time, 
and low cost of maintenance. Why lose money by planting 
now what you will tear out five years hence, when you know 
better? Why not anticipate the growth of your own and 
everybody's good taste, so that you will waste no precious 
years, and your place will grow lovelier and more valuable 
every year? 

THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF PLANTING 

The right way is to use permanent plants, instead of tem- 
porary ones; and to place them where they will meet every 
practical need of the family, instead of scattering them for show. 



(See Fig. 3.) And the "Illinois way" is to meet all the outdoor 
needs of the family by having ninety per cent of the plant- 
ing composed of trees and shrubs that grow wild in Illinois. 
Why Illinois trees? Because they are hardy, and therefore 
economical to maintain. We do not have to test their hardiness, 
since Nature has adapted them to our conditions by experi- 
ments covering tens ot thousands of years. Moreover, we want 
Illinois to look different from all the rest of the world, and to 
have a noble character of its own! The highest ideal that any 
farmer can realize is to have a profitable farm with permanent 
buildings and permanent planting, both of which are utterly 
different from those of Europe, and as full as possible of Ameri- 
can and even of state character. 

THE EUROPEAN WAY 

European farm homes are so different that you can usually 
tell simply from a picture whether they are German, French, 
Dutch, Italian, or Spanish. The English farmer often lives in 
a house of brick or stone which has sheltered his family for 
generations. (See Fig. 4.) In front of it stand a pair of oaks 
that have defied the storms of 300 to 500 years. The house is 
covered with ivy or with roses, which climb to the top of the 
red-tiled roof. The yard is surrounded by a hedge of hawthorn 
or of holly. The Englishman boasts that he loves his home 
more than any other man living, and points to the fact that 
the English language is the only one that has separate words 
for "house" and "home." 

THE AMERICAN WAY 

Every old state in America tends to have its own style of 
building and planting. Massachusetts is famous for her Colo- 
nial, or Georgian houses, like the one in which Longfellow lived, 
with century-old elms sheltering the stately roof like gigantic 
umbrellas. Virginia is celebrated for the farmhouses built by 
Washington, Jefferson, Madison, and their friends their 
hospitable roofs shaded by towering tulip trees or ancient 
live-oaks hung with moss. Long Island is noted for the homes 
of its cauliflower growers, with every room open to the ocean 
breeze, and the white, wide-shingled walls set off by feathery 
locust trees, loaded in June with wistaria-like clusters of fra- 




5. The Lancaster County Style of Farm Architecture and Planting 

In Pennsylvania, a single glance from the car-window will often tell you what county 
you_ are in. In Lancaster County you see brick houses like this, with double porches, 
quaint projections on the roof to prevent snowslides, and a "date stone." We need three 
different types of farmhouse and planting in northern, central, and southern Illinois. 



The Delaware County Style of Farm Architecture and Planting 



In Pennsylvania, whenever you see farmhouses of native stone set up in this way, it 
is a fair guess that you are in Delaware, Bucks, or some adjacent county. Let us nave 
local color too, instead of "French rehash" or cheap imitations of Italy or England! Let 
us have permanent farm homes! 



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THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 




7. What We See Too Often in Illinois 

A wooden building covered with meaningless ornamentation and gaudy paints, and with- 
out a single tree or shrub to make it look at home. To fit the country, a house should be 
long and low; this is tall and narrow a total misfit. Country houses should not be built 
on city models. (This citified sham and firetrap cost over $5,000.) 

grant white flowers. Georgia is renowned for her houses in 
the Greek style, which are genuinely adapted to a hot climate 
by reason of their "galleries," or second-story porches, where 
the family can enjoy every passing breeze and feast their eyes 
upon the grandest subtropical tree in the world, Magnolia 
grandiflora. Connecticut has many a clapboarded farmhouse, 
shaded by white oaks that were here when the first white man 
came, while on the lawn may be a rhododendron or mountain 
laurel, planted by the great-grandfather of the present owner. 
(See Fig. i.) In Pennsylvania you can often tell what county 
you are in by a single glance out of the car-window. If you see 
everywhere massive farmhouses of local stone, laid up in Ger- 
mantown style, it is a fair wager that you are in Bucks, Chester, 
or Delaware County. (See Fig. 6.) If your eye meets ancient 
brick houses, with porches extending the full length of each 
house, a diamond-shaped stone bearing the date of its erec- 
tion (see Fig. 5), and odd little projections on the slate roof, 
to keep the snow from falling off in great chunks that may 
bury a person, it is a safe guess that you are in Lancaster or 
some adjacent county. The great variety of majestic oaks 
that have brooded for a century or more over these venerable 
houses proclaim that eastern Pennsylvania is a paradise for 
trees designed by Nature to last through the centuries. Even 



8. What We Want to See Oftener in Illinois 

A genuine farmhouse, built of permanent native materials, and surrounded by perma- 
nent native plants nothing rare, costly, or foreign. Adapted to the climate, soil, labor 
conditions, family, and landscape. Cost $4,000. (Home of Joseph E. Wing, the well-known 
agricultural expert and writer, at Mechanicsburg, Ohio.) 

in the new state of Oregon, the up-to-date apple-growers of 
Hood River are laying the foundations of a state style of 
architecture and gardening, with their low houses, screened 
porches, and paths lined with great double garden roses bloom- 
ing in a profusion that is impossible in the East. Every state 
will eventually have its own style of farm architecture and 
gardening. Nothing can stop it, and we can profit by build- 
ing and planting in the style that will become dominant as 
the centuries roll by. 

THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF FARM ARCHITECTURE 
AND GARDENING 

What we want is an "Illinois way" of farm architecture and 
gardening, and already we have some splendid examples of the 
"real thing." (See the cover, which shows the Magnus place at 
Winnetka, designed by Robert C. Spencer, landscape by 
Jens Jensen.) This house is built on horizontal lines, to repeat 
the great horizontal lines of land, woods, crops, and clouds, 
which are the peculiar glory of the prairie. The hawthorn at 
the right is planted for the same purpose. Over 95 per cent of 
the plants are permanent and native to Cook County. This is 
the work of a new and virile school of western art, which 




9. The "Illinois Way" of Sheltering Crops 

Windbreak of red cedar in a nursery of seedling trees at Dundee, III. Efficient after 
twenty years, none of the lower branches being gone. (Red cedar is unpopular in fruit- 
growing regions because the cedar apples may transmit a disease to fruits.) 



10. The "Illinois Way" of Sheltering Stock 

Windbreak of arborvitK at Crystal Lake, 111. Cattle can be fattened quicker and at 
less cost when protected from winter winds than on unprotected farms. "Arborvitae is the 
best windbreak for Illinois," says a veteran nurseryman," and will last one hundred years." 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



believes in "local color." Its home is the Cliff Dwellers' Club, 
in Chicago. These men no longer fear or despise the prairie; 
they love it, and are opening our eyes to its true wonder and 
beauty. Among them are Lorado Taft in sculpture, Hamlin 
Garland and Nicholas V. Lindsay in poetry; Louis H. Sullivan 
and Frank Lloyd 
Wright in archi- 
tecture; Frank C. 
Peyraud and 
Charles Francis 
Browne in paint- 
ing; O. C. Simonds 
and Jens Jensen 
in landscape gar- 
dening. 

We want 
something better 
than the type we 
see everywhere 
in 1 1 1 i n o i s the 
wooden, citified 
house, that is 
loaded with gin- 
gerbread, painted 
in a half-dozen 
gaudy colors, and 
without a single 
tree or shrub to 
reconcile it with 
natural surround- 
ings. (See Fig. 7.) 
Our first job is to 
build houses that 
will fit the prairie 
climate, soil, labor 
conditions, life, 
and landscape, as 
does Joseph E. 
Wing's house in 
Ohio. (See Fig. 8.) 
His house fits the 
country because it 
is long and low 
not tall and nar- 
row, as city houses 
have to be. It 
fits the labor con- 
ditions, because it 
is a servantless 
house, arranged 
to save the house- 
wife's steps, and 

easy to care for 

with such devices What wild 

as the vacuum- and fragrance wlen in blooml 

cleaner, power-washer, mangle, and other apparatus described 
by Mrs. Eugene Davenport in "Possibilities of the Country 
Home." (This pamphlet may be obtained free of charge by 
addressing a request to the Illinois Agricultural Experiment 
Station.) The Illinois farmhouse must be better adapted to 
our climate than the tenant house . of the Corn Belt, for the 
winter winds sweep right through such a shell, and during 
our hot summers it is "a regular oven." We want a house 
that is warm at twenty below zero, and cool during corn 
weather, by reason of its sleeping- or dining-porch and its 
overshadowing eaves or trees. So, too, with planting; we want 




an "Illinois way" of landscape gardening that will be like 
an old-fashioned ship every line for use, and not a single 
dollar for mere show. Let us plant only what is necessary, 
profitable, or reasonable, and the result cannot help being 
beautiful ! 

WINDBREAKS 
FOR PROFIT 
AND BEAUTY 

"The greatest 
enemy of the 
farmer," says 
Theodore Roose- 
v e 1 1 , "is the 
wind." Clearly, 
the first step in 
the "Illinois way" 
is to provide 
shelter from the 
biting winds of 
winter and the 
drying winds of 
summer. The 
pioneers did this 
before they built 
their cabins, but 
many of their de- 
scendants are cut- 
ting down big 
trees because they 
believe trees are 
not worth the 
space they take 
especially on land 
worth $200 an 
acre. 

Opinions differ 
widely as to the 
best trees for 
windbreaks, and 
the best way to 
arrange them ; but 
much help can be 
had from the most 
elaborate work on 
the subject, viz., 
"Windbreaks," 
by Carlos G. Bates 
(Bulletin 86 of the 
Forest Service), 
which can be had 
at a small price 
from the Super- 
intendent of Pub- 
lic Documents, 
Washington, D. C. L. H. Bailey gives thirteen points in favor 
of windbreaks and four against them in his "Principles of Fruit- 
Growing." See Figs. 9 and 10. 

SCREENING UNSIGHTLY OBJECTS 

An Illinois farmer wanted to sell his farm, but could not 
find a buyer. The reason for this, which no one realized, was 
the ugly, bad-smelling barnyard right across the road from the 
house. One night the barn burned down, and after that the 
farmer sold his farm for more than he had asked before. The 
reason was two-fold: The unsightly barnyard was removed, 



n. The "Illinois Way" of Screening Unsightly Objects 

I, at no cost, in seven years in Champaign County, four miles from Urhana. Imagine its beauty 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 




12. Unsightly Objects That Should Be Screened 13. Free Material for Screening Unsightly Objects 

The humblest renter in Illinois can at least cover an outhouse with wild cucumber vines in one seasonal no cost. Wild cucumber (Echinocystis lobata) is native to Illinois 

But permanant vines are better. Anyone with two hands and a spade can dig up elder, sumach, or trumpet creeper. and the humblest tenant can collect the seeds. Or five cents 

Evergreens are still better, because beautiful the year round. will buy enough to hide the outbuildings shown in Fig. 12. 



and a fine view of the prairie which no one had ever seen was 
revealed. Can't you arrange your windbreak so that it will 
also act as a screen hiding some barnyard, outbuilding, tele- 
phone wires, billboard, or advertisement-covered building? 
The humblest renter in Illinois can at least cover the outhouse 
in a single season without cost, by the aid of wild cucumber 
vines. (See Figs. 12 and 13.) Wild grape (Fig. n) or trumpet- 
creeper will do a better job; and anyone who has two hands, 
a wheelbarrow, and a spade, can dig up enough elder and 
sumach from the roadside to make the outbuildings decent 
without delay. Evergreens make ideal screens because they 
are effective the year round. If these are not thrifty in your 
locality, try lattice. This may cost something for material and 
labor, but it is worth it, because it hides that outbuilding or 
ash-heap without delay, both summer and winter. For other 
screening suggestions, see Figs. 14 to 16. 



THE VIEW FROM THE ROAD 

The salability of a property is often 
influenced by the first impression which 
the public gets of the house. (See Figs. 
19 and 20.) If you see a house too far 
away, it seems mean or small; if you turn 
a corner and are suddenly confronted by 
the house, the approach is too abrupt. A 
house should be first seen from the point 
where it appears to the best advantage. 
Remember this w^hen choosing a site for 
your new house. If the location is fixed, 
can't you rearrange your drive? For 
instance, if the house is visible too far 
away, curve your drive and plant the 
curves, so that the house will be hidden 
until you come to the best place for re- 
vealing it. For other suggestions about 
the approach, see Figs. 17 and 18. 

GIVE YOUR HOUSE A 
BACKGROUND 

A background makes all the difference 
between a house and a home. (See Figs. 




21 and 22.) Your house will be twice as easy to sell if it is 
seen against woods or orchards rather than empty sky. If 
your house is already located and has no background, plant 
some tall-growing trees behind it. Why not plant some of 
the trees that reach their greatest height in the state of 
Illinois, e.g., the sycamore, the linden, the sweet gum, and the 
tulip tree, which has gorgeous cup-like flowers, four inches 
across, of yellow marked with orange? 

A GLIMPSE IS BETTER THAN THE WHOLE 

Again, "a glimpse is usually better than the whole thing," 
as Mr. O. C. Simonds often says. Most of the old farmhouses 
in Illinois are very poor architecturally. The ideal is a new 
and better home; the next best thing is remodeling; but if 
neither is practical, can't you hide the 
unattractive part by planting, and show 
the attractive ? Even a house that is as 
false and ugly as Fig. 7 may have some 
good detail. Study once more the house 
you think hopeless, and hold your hands 
before your eyes in such a way as to hide 
the bad and show the good. Then see 
if you cannot find trees that will do the 
work in a reasonable time. 



FRAME THE VIEW 
YOUR HOUSE 



OF 



14. The Illinois Rose to Cover Clothes-posts 

Clothes-posts need not be ugly. They can be made 
beautiful the year round by planting a prairie rose (Rosa 
sctigera) at the base of each post. To train it, simply tack 
a piece of cloth over each shoot. Let us plant an Illinois 
rose against every clothes-post in Illinois! 



You can greatly increase the value of 
your property by planting the right sort 
of trees at either end of your house, so 
as to frame a picture of your home. 
Many a rich man in the East pays hun- 
dreds of dollars extra for a farm because 
the old house is surrounded by century- 
old elms. He builds a big new house 
under the old trees and at once it looks 
old and mellow. The pioneers thought 
only of shade and shelter from the wind, 
and so they commonly planted trees all 
around the farmhouse, generally too near 
one another and too close to the house. 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 




15. Before Screening Unsightly Objects 
"Every time we sat down to rest or take a meal, I had to look at this barn, windmill, cider-house, and spraying outfit. Finally Mrs. Dunlap and I got sick of it." 




16. After Screening Unsightly Objects 

"So we planted a border of trees and shrubs. Four years later we had this garden to look at. This sort of thing can often he done for about $10." (Signed) Henry M. Dunlap, 
rruit-grower. Savoy, III. 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 




17. A Common Way of Approaching the Farm 



To reach this farmhouse you must drive past a pigsty, corn-crib, henhouse, manure- 
pile, and clutter of farm tools. A bad approach gives a bad impression of the farmer. 
Would you enjoy dealing with this man? If you want a better approach, or system 
of drives, send us a sketch drawn to scale, and we will make suggestions without 
charge. 

Consequently, the houses look dark, damp, and gloomy in win- 
ter, while in summer they look hot and stuffy. (See Fig. 19.) 
The best thing is to cut out enough of the old trees to give some 
light and air, and frame a view of the house from the road. 
(See Fig. 20.) 

It is natural that we should like to have near us the trees 
we love best, but nearly all the most popular trees are unfit 
for framing a view of the home. Take, for instance, those 
that have showy flowers, like the horse-chestnut, the locust, 
and the empress tree, or paulownia; they are forever making 
a litter and should be at a distance from the house. So, 
too, with the quick-growers, like the box elder, the silver 
maple, and the Carolina or Lombardy poplar; they go to 
wreck in storms and their branches fall on the house. Per- 
haps the most inappropriate is the Norway spruce. Many a 
house has suffered a depreciation of hundreds of dollars owing 
to dismal Norway spruces, for they often hasten the decay of 
a roof by giving too much shade and moisture, to say 
nothing of making a home look melancholy, instead of joyous. 



18. The "Illinois Way" of Approaching a Farmhouse 



The approach to William Ritchie's farm at Warrensburg, 111., is a double row of black 
walnut trees, half a century old, lining a drive an eighth of a mile long. The seeds cost 
nothing and the trees have not required more than one day's work a year for one man. 
Considering merely their value as timber, these trees would probably show a profit of 
1,000 per cent. Have a simple, dignified, permanent approach! 

The sugar and Norway maples are fine trees, but, like all 
round-headed trees, they tend to hide the view of a house 
more quickly than is commonly realized. 

The ideal tree for framing the view of your house is one 
that will give enough sunlight and enough shade, enough 
shelter and enough cooling breeze, to keep a family healthy. 
The only tree that does all these things to perfection is the 
American elm not the European. (See Fig. 24.) Moreover, 
a pair of elms will make a pointed or Gothic arch, suggesting 
high-roofed cathedrals and God's first temples. Unfortunately, 
the enemies of the elm are multiplying, and if you plant elms 
you must be willing to stand the expense of yearly spraying 
when the time comes. Be sure to specify vase-formed elms. 
They are the only ones that make the Gothic arch, and are 
more valuable than the other types or straggling kinds. 

A pair of oaks (see Fig. 23) will last longer than elms and 
cost less to maintain. The oaks excel all other trees in nestling 
close to a house and making it look snug and comfortable. 
The common idea that oaks are slow-growers and hard to trans- 




19. A Poor View from the Road 



Many farmhouses are hidden by trees, especially soft maples 
and Norway spruces. The pioneers used to plant forest trees 
in straight lines around a house for windbreak or shade. Now 
these tall trees make a house look smaller than it really is; 
they shade the house too much; they shut out the summer 
breezes; they make a place damp in winter. 



2O. A Good View from the Road 

This home picture is framed by trees. It will be greatly improved by foundation planting, which will remove the 
bare look at the base. But just as it is, it gives a favorable first impression to thousands of passers-by. Imagine it 
surrounded and hidden by maples! Any real-estate dealer will tell you that a good view from the road makes a 
property more valuable. (Farmhouse near Griggsville, Ijlinois. Photograph by Prof. B. S. Pickett.) Give every 
passer-by a glimpse of your house not the whole thing, just a glimpse. If your house is hidden, cut out enough 
trees to frame a view ol the home. 



8 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 








21. A House 



Give Your Farmhouse a Background 



22. A Home 



Do not set your house on a bare hilltop, where it is seen only against earth or sky, for it will look new and raw. Set it in front of an orchard or wood, and it will look old and 
mellow. Make your house blend with the landscape not stand out in gaudy or artificial contrast. (Bailey's "Manual of Gardening.") 

plant is true only of the white oak. The pin, the scarlet, and 
the red oaks are easily moved, and will soon overtake maples 
and other trees that are quicker at the start. They will last 
for centuries after the "quick-growers" are dead. Plant the 
trees that you know will make your property more valuable 
every year. 

A one-story farmhouse, however, will eventually be dwarfed 
by tall trees, and look pitifully inadequate. (See Fig. 19.) For 
small farmhouses it is better to use trees that always remain 
small, like the flowering dogwood or American hawthorns 



not the English. Try a pair of these in preference to Magnolia 
Soulangeana, because they are native. Or try a pair of red 
cedars, the best exclamation points we can buy to relieve the 
flatness of the prairie far better than the Lombardy poplar, 
because evergreen and longer-lived. 

IMPROVE THE VIEW FROM YOUR PORCH 

Views have a cash value which is even greater than that of 
trees. For instance, apartments in New York that face the 




23. How to Make the Best View of Your Farmhouse 

Frame your home picture by planting trees at either end of the house and your property will be more valuable. (Long Island meeting-house shaded by ancient oaks.) Oaks are 
longer-lived than elms and cost less to maintain. "The oaks excel all other trees in nestling close to a house and making it look snug and comfortable." 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



Hudson rent for about 20 per cent more than those that do not 
face the Hudson. In the aggregate, the lake views in Chicago 
make a difference of millions of dollars a year in rents. Every 
millionaire's country home near Lenox and Stockbridge, Mass., 
has been bought because of a view. Every farm that faces a 
river in Illinois has a view, the value of which can be appraised 
by experts. And the prairie view, which was formerly con- 
sidered worthless, now has a value that is recognized by the 
courts. If a man spoils your farm view, it is probable that you 
can recover damages. 

Consider, therefore, the view from and to your front porch. 
(See Figs. 25 to 28.) The ordinary farmer is likely to spoil 
both these views while really meaning to improve his place. 
For, when he suddenly awakes to the fact that his farm is bare 
and ugly, he naturally falls an easy victim to the tree agent 
with the gaudy colored plates, who tempts him to fill his front 
yard with showy, foreign, artificial plants. These soon hide the 
view to and from the front door. Now the farmer has a great 
advantage over the city man because he can bring into this 
view the scenery outside his front yard. In the city, everything 
outside a man's property is likely to be ugly, commonplace, or 
distracting. The city sights invade his privacy, make his place 
seem smaller, and imprison him amid artificialities. Conse- 
quently, a well-bred city man will often plant his boundaries 
so as to shut out everything beyond his yard. But the farmer 
can leave open the view to hills, water, church, neighbor's 
house, or fields. And he can greatly improve these views by 



planting trees or shrubs near the front porch so as to frame 
these views. (See Figs. 29 to 32.) 

HOW TO MAKE FLAT PRAIRIE INTERESTING 

It is a great mistake to suppose that flat land must be unin- 
teresting. On the contrary, it is the vast breadth of the prairie 
and of the sea that makes them such sublime symbols of the 
Infinite. The peculiar glory of the prairie lies in the vast hori- 
zontal lines of land, wood, crops, and clouds for even the 
fleecy or cumulus clouds, though rounded on top, are flat on the 
bottom. These horizontal lines are fundamental in the new 
western or prairie school of architecture and landscape gar- 
dening. (See cover.) Our great opportunity is to repeat this 
fundamental idea of the prairie in a dozen subtle ways, "like 
a faint and broken echo," as Ruskin says. 

The most valuable plants for framing prairie views are the 
western hawthorns and crab-apples, for their uncountable 
branches repeat endlessly on a small scale the peculiar beauty 
of the prairie. That is why our great landscape gardeners, 
like Simonds and Jensen, have moved thousands upon thou- 
sands of hawthorns from farm pastures to the estates of million- 
aires. Rich men will often pay $50 to $60 for a pair of haw- 
thorns, such as the Illinois farmer can move from his own 
pasture at no cash outlay. Nursery-grown hawthorns are 
costly, because slow-growing, and a pair of cockspur thorns 
7 feet high costs $16. Why not place a pair of hawthorns beside 




24. Why Not Frame the View of Your House with a Pair of Elms? 

The vase-formed type of American elm is the most beautiful. A pair of vase-formed elms will make a finer arch than this higher, and more pointed, like a cathedral. 



10 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



- - 




25. This front yard is full of fancy trees and "quick-growers," scattered everywhere 
to make the biggest show. 

your front porch or living-room window? They are rather hard 
to move, and one in four may die, but try again. Two full- 
grown hawthorns placed just outside your dining-room window 
may add $100 to the salable value of your property, because 
they will make your cornfields look twice as beautiful every 
time you sit down to eat or rest. Be sure to get one with the 
horizontal branching very pronounced, for some do not have it. 
Avoid the English hawthorn, which is not adapted to 
America, and the double red-flowered hawthorns, which are 
gaudy and artificial compared with our western species, e.g., 
the cockspur thorn (Cratasgus Crus-galli), the dotted haw (C. 
punctata), the waxy thorn (C. pruinosa), Eggert's thorn (C. 
coccmoides), and the parsley haw (C. apiifolia). The pear 
thorn (C. tomentosa) sometimes has ascending branches, some- 
times horizontal. Elsewhere in this circular are shown other 
ways of repeating the prairie lines by means of shrubs and 
flowers. 

FOUNDATION PLANTING 

No money that you can invest in planting will add so much 
to the salability of your property as money spent to hide the 
foundations of your house. People commonly plant flowers 
against foundations, but flowers die down in winter and con- 
sequently for half the year they cannot hide the foundations. 
Even at their best, flowers are too weak to harmonize a house 



The Gaudy Style of Planting Hides the View from the House 



26. Here is the beautiful farm view that is completely hidden from the front porch 
of Fig. 25. Have an open lawn toward the best views of your farm. 

with nature. It takes shrubs and permanent vines to do that. 
And it is a big thing to accomplish, for a house without founda- 
tion planting cannot possibly look at home amid its surround- 
ings; it looks bare, ugly, uncomfortable. The shrubs must 
not grow so high as to interfere with the windows, and they 
must be compact, not sprawling or leggy; for this is the one 
place on the farm where something like dress parade is desira- 
ble. For practical suggestions, see Figs. 33 to 40. 

VINES TO MAKE YOUR PLACE LOOK 
"DIFFERENT" 

The costliest and least satisfactory way to make your 
home look "different" is to load the house with ornamentation. 
The next poorest bargain is to scatter all over your lawn flashy 
trees and shrubs, especially the cut-leaved, weeping, and 
variegated kinds, for this will make your place look just like 
every beginner's in every city the world over. The best way to 
put personality and brilliancy and color into home grounds is 
to have a different set of vines for every house. One place will 
have Virginia creeper (Fig. 45), trumpet honeysuckle (Fig. 66), 
and bittersweet (Fig. 47). The next place will have wild grape, 
wild clematis, and Illinois rose. Both will be beautiful the year 
round, and neither need cost a cent because you can dig the 
plants from the open. While you are waiting for the permanent 




The Gaudy Style also Spoils the View toward the House. 

27. This yard is crowded with showy, costly, foreign plants. But the owner will never 28. This yard has an open center, bordered by groups of native trees. If the owner 

get his money back. For the trees hide the views to and from the house, and the lawn is ever wants to sell, his property will be more salable and the old trees will add considerably 

reduced to nothing. The gaudy style kills two views with one Colorado blue spruce. to its cash value. 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



11 




29. We Need "Accent" in Our Prairie Views 

To an Illinois farmer the most beautiful crop in the world is corn. But people complain 
that everything about the prairie gets monotonous. They want something different from 
the universal flatness, especially during the winter. Of course, the prairie is beautiful at 
sunrise and sunset, but why not all day and every day? 

vines to grow, you can cover your porch the first year, without 
spending a cent, by sowing seeds of wild cucumber vine or 
collecting seeds of morning-glory in regions where it runs wild. 
In the garden cities of England, such as Bourn ville and Letch- 
worth, which are the most beautiful of their kind in the world, 
many thousands of dollars have been saved by building very 
plain houses, and providing different sets of vines for every 
house. 

There is one vine that we should like to see on every porch 
in the "Prairie State," viz., the Illinois or prairie rose. (See Figs. 
41 to 44.) There is little danger of overdoing the matter, 
because this plant is now available in thirty-nine varieties, 
having different colors and degrees of fulness. 

And there is one evergreen vine that ought to be planted 
on every brick and stone house in America where English ivy 
is not hardy. This is the evergreen bittersweet (see Fig. 48) 
not the common climbing euonymous (Euonymus radicans), 
for that has a taint of variegation, but the round-leaved 
variety, which the nurserymen call vegetus. It is free trom the 



30. The "Illinois Way" of Accenting Prairie Views 



Your cornfield will look twice as beautiful if seen through a pair of Illinois red cedars 
jlanted beside your front porch. They will frame not only this view, but the view of your 
rcouse from the road. They are far superior to Lombardy poplars because they are long- 
lived and evergreen. They harmonize with the prairie by contrast. The prairie suggests 
'infinite breadth. The pointed cedars are full of aspiration. 



Pi 
hi 



weakness and nuisance of producing white leaves, and years 
before the ordinary type it bears red fruits about the size of 
holly berries, which are brilliant all winter. 

THE LAWN 

It is a fundamental principle of landscape gardening that 
the open lawn, with shrubbery grouped at the sides (see Fig. 
50), is more valuable than a lawn peppered with plants, even 
if they are rare and costly. (See Fig. 49.) There is no doubt 
that you can make every dollar stand on edge and scream 
louder if you scatter plants over your lawn, but you cannot 
make a beautiful home picture in that way. The gaudy style 
of planting, which will always appeal strongly to a beginner 
until the crack of doom, is to scatter over the lawn foreign 
and artificial kinds of trees and shrubs (see Fig. 51), such as 
golden-leaved elder, purple-leaved plum, blue Colorado spruce, 
magenta Anthony Waterer spirea, Kilmarnock weeping wil- 
low, variegated dogwood, grotesque weeping spruces, shredded 




31. Before Framing the View from Your Dining-room 

The broad, unbroken prairie does not make a picture. No artist would care to paint it. 
It lacks interest and has no frame. This is not a picture; s~ "~ ' ' ' in. 

:.. _l L _ I . _l I I I _f _____ .1.1 



32. After Framing the View from Your Dining-room 

Your plowed fields will look twice as beautiful if seen through a pair of Illinois haw- 



r ; it is merely a photograph. But thorns. They illustrate the law of repetition, one of the ten laws which, as Ruskin tells 

it shows the bare, cheerless kind of view that depresses many families at their meals, and us in his "Elements of Composition," are fundamental in al! the fine arts. For their 

makes farmers' wives go insane from loneliness and monotony. Some little portion of your horizontal branches repeat many times, on a small scale, the great horizontal lines of land, 

big view has warm human interest and beauty. You can frame that and shut out the rest! woods, crops, and clouds, whicn are the peculiar glory of the prairie. 



12 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 




33. Before Planting against the Foundations 



See how bare a new house always looks! It is because the foundation is not hidden. 
There is nothing to soften the hardness of brick and stone nothing to connect architecture 
and Nature. A farmhouse cannot look at home without foundation planting. 

soft maples, and those "vegetable exclamation marks" the 
Lombardy poplars. But this is like gingerbread ornamenta- 
tion and flashy paint on a house all for show, and without 
any appropriateness to the country. The better way is to keep 
the center of the lawn open. (See Fig. 52.) Moreover, the 
open lawn costs less to maintain, since you can mow it by 
horse-power, or, at any rate, without forever dodging around 
trees and bushes. The most artistic things are those which 
cost the least to maintain in the long run. 

The worst bargain you can make is to get a "cheap" lawn, 
for it means yearly worry and expense. It is a popular fal- 
lacy that the cheapest way to cover ground is to sow it with 
grass. Shrubs will cover the same area at less cost in the 
long run, since they are cheaper to maintain. The only true 
economy in lawn-making is to spare no expense in plowing, 
preparing, and feeding the soil once for all at the start, instead 
of spending a lot of money every year of your life for fertilizers 
and weed-killers. The making of a lawn is usually the most. 



34. After Planting against the Foundations 

Ten dollars will usually supply all the permanent plants needed for this purpose, and $10 
spent on foundation planting will go farther than $50 scattered over the lawn. (Mr. 
Moeller, Dccatur.) 

expensive item of ornamental planting, but if it is well done 
it gives the deepest satisfaction of all, for nothing else does so 
much to make a farmhouse look happy. The lawn is the can- 
vas on which the home picture is painted. "Lawns and How 
to Grow Them," by Barren, is a book that may save you 
its cost many times on fertilizers, labor, and seeds. You can 
get a free bulletin on lawns by writing to the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., for Farmers' 
Bulletin 195. 

BORDERS ARE BETTER THAN BEDS 

The best way to decorate your lawn is to have irregular 
borders of trees and shrubbery at the sides, not flower-beds in 
the middle. A flower-bed will give you the smallest return 
from your effort because it is a mud-bank half the year; because 
the expense must be renewed every season; because it makes the 
lawn look smaller; and because you have to attend to it during 




35. The Most Popular Shrub for Foundation Planting 



Van Houtte's spirea, famous for its arching stems, lined with flat clusters of white 
flowers in May. Height about 5 feet. This is the best of the spireas, and should not be con- 
fused with the bridal wreath, which is a double variety of S. prunifolia. Have one group of 
Van Houtte's spirea, but do not surround your house with it, as many do. Moreover, the 
spireas get seedy after blooming, and have no winter value. It is better to have year-round 
beauty and interest. (H. J. Sconce, Sidell, III.) 



36. The Best Shrub for Foundation Planting 

The Japanese barberry (Berberis Thunbergii) is perfect for a country that cannot have 
rhododendrons. Its arching stems are beautiful even when leafless. The foliage turns 
scarlet in autumn and the red berries are attractive all winter. Nearly all other shrubs are 
bare at the base, but the Japanese barberry hides the ground completely. It grows slowly 
and usually attains j feet, but may finally reach 5 or 6 feet. Everybody plants these two 
bushes. If you want something different, there are fifty shrubs native to Illinois. 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



13 




37-38. The Downy-leaved Arrow-wood for Foundations (Viburnum pubescens) 

"It bears more flowers than any other viburnum," says Professor Sargent. Blooms in June. The bluish black berries are attractive from August to December. Autumn foliage 
almost black. This shrub grows about 5 feet high and is native to Illinois. Why not plant these bushes beneath your bedroom window and nave a thousand delicate reminders 
of the grandeur of the prairie? 



your rush season, viz., the spring. On the other hand, a good 
border will give you flowers and beauty the year round; it costs 
less to maintain; it makes your lawn look twice as beautiful, 
because it provides a frame; and it has no rush season, since 
you can plant many of these shrubs with safety in the fall. 



The main item of work is pruning, and this does not come all 
at once in early spring, as many people imagine, but is done a 
little at a time after each species blooms. Thousands of city 
people spoil their bushes every March by allowing shrub 
butchers, or fake gardeners, to trim every bush into a ball. 




3940. The Maple-leaved Arrow-wood for Foundations (Viburnum acerifolium) 

This resembles the cranberry tree in having three-fingered leaves, but the berries, instead of red, are bluish black, also the bush is low-growing rarely over 5 feet high. The 
autumn foliage is bright red. It grows in rather dry woods. Plant a group on the shady side of your house. Farmers of Illinois, why should you buy foreign and artificial shrubs 
when you can have better ones for nothing? You do not need to be botanists; all you need is to open your eyes to the beauties of common things all about you! 



* 



14 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 




The Illinois Rose for Foundation Planting 

Far better against the house than garden roses. More 
<x>mpact, freer from insects and diseases, and does well even 
in poor soil. Flowers July; fruits red until Christmas; stems 
red all winter; foliage attractive the whole crowing season. 
Let us plant one Illinois rose in front of every home in Illinois! 

(See Fig. 53.) Let your bushes grow naturally. (See Fig. 54.) 
They cost less to care for and look better. To learn about 
pruning, send to Washington for Farmers' Bulletin 181, which 
is free. 

BOUNDARY PLANTING 

Can't you plant the boundaries of your farmstead in such a 
way that the same trees and shrubs will do four jobs? First, 
provide windbreaks; second, screen unsightly objects; third, 
frame the views from porch and 



living-room; fourth, provide 
year-round interest and beauty. 



42. The Illinois Rose for Porch Decoration 

This country home has privacy enough without training the roses uo to hide the porch. The object here is to decorate 
the porch, and this shows what kind of garland you can make with the Illinois or prairie rose (Rosa setigera) The bushes 
in the foreground are rhododendrons, which are impractical for Illinois, but we can get a unique effect by replacing them 
with Illinois roses. Let most of them make compact bushes to hide the foundation, and train a few to make garlands. Why 
not a whole porch, now and then, planted exclusively or chiefly with Illinois roses? 

EVERY TREE WORTH ONE DOLLAR A 
SQUARE INCH 

The Illinois farmer is often tempted to cut down the big 
trees in his pasture because they rob his crops of food and 
moisture. But even if a tree takes $15 a year out of your 
pockets, is it not worth the money in the enjoyment your 
family can get out of it, to say nothing of the shade it gives to 
cattle? The surest way to make your children hate the farm 

is to cut down a century-old 



A Deadly Parallel 



A HEDGE 



A BORDER 



oak which they love. According 
to the Hartford standard, every 



If so, your property will in- sfcor , seasm 0/ 6eau(y ._ Two weeks Beautiful the year rouna'.-FIowers tree is T>rth $i a square inch 



crease yearly in value far more 
than if you merely plant a 
hedge, especially privet. 




Loo 



43. The Illinois Rose for House Walls 

It blooms in July, after most of the Ramblers are cone, 
and lasts nearly three weeks, opening a few flowers daily. 
1 he two colors on the same vine are characteristic, th< 



new blossoms being deep rose and the old ones nearly 
white. This prairie rose (Rosa setigera) offers a permanent 
and cheap way of covering broad expanses of common- 
place or ugly wall. To train it simply tack a piece of cloth 
over each shoot. This will not rot wood, make a house 
damp, or shelter dozens of sparrows. When the house 
needs painting you can lay down the stems and replace 
them without damage. 



of bloom or none, and usually no 
beauty during winter nearly 
half the year. 

Little variety. A hedge 
contains only one 
kind of plant and 
ets monotonous. 
>oks about the 
same month after 
month. No new 
flowers or interest 
every day. 

Rush work. Has to be 
trimmed two or three 
times a year, often 
when necessary work 
is crowding. 
Artificial. Makes a 
farmhouse contrast 
painfully with the 
surrounding coun- 
try. 

Pretentious. Too 
often it is merely 
showy, spectacular, 
stiff, ' 'done for 
effect," insincere. 
Costs more in the end. 
Privet is cheaper at 
the start, but grows 
too fast, and there- 
fore costs more to 
maintain. 



from April to October. Brightly 
colored berries and twigs from 
October to April. 
Great variety. Many 
kinds of shrubs, dif- 
fering in season of 
bloom, color and size 
of flowers, fragrance, 
height of bush, leaf, 
autumn color, and 
fruit. 

Pleasant work. Prune 

a little at a time, 

when the shrubs 

bloom or after not 

before, as a rule. 
More natural. Makes 

a farmhouse blend 

with the surround- 
ing country. 



simply for shade and beauty. 

It will pay you to figure the 
value of the biggest tree in your 



Self-respecting. Makes 
a farmhouse look 
like a country home 
not a feeble imita- 
tion of the city. 

Costs less in the end. 
No bill for trimming 
three times a year for 
the next fifty years. 
No failures to re- 
placewith full-grown 
plants at fancy prices 

MORAL. Plant informal borders of 
trees and shrubs at the boundaries 
oj your property not hedges. 




44. Every Illinoisan Should Know the Illinois Rose 



The Illinois, or prairie rose (Rosa setigera), is a climber 
with deep rose-colored, single flowers 2' 2 inches across, with 
4 to ? flowers in a cluster. It blooms late in June or July, a 
fortnight after garden roses are gone. It is the hardiest and 
most adaptable of all roses. The bush grows about 6 fee 
high. How to know it. It is the only climbing rose nativ 
to America, and the only wild rose that commonly has thre 
leaflets. But the surest character is in the pistil. Othe 
wijd roses have separate styles, like your Fingers, but th 
Illinois rose has the styles grown together into a column, 
like your fist. Thirty-nine varieties arc in cultivation. 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



15 




45. Virginia creeper will keep a porch shady and cool 
throughout the long, hot summers of the corn-belt. _On 
brick and stone use Engelmarm's ivy, instead of Japan ivy. 
It is a self-supporting woodbine. 



46. Crimson Rambler Rose at Princeton, 111. 

Let every house have a different set of vines. It is the best and cheapest way to make a house look "different" 
better than meaningless ornamentation or gaudy paint. (Home of L. R. Bryant.) See page 10, paragraph on "Vines." 



lawn or pasture. Measure the circumference of the trunk three 
feet above ground and reduce to inches. Multiply this cir- 
cumference by itself and divide by 12.56 (which is 4x3.14), 
and you will have the area in square inches, or the number of 
dollars the tree is worth according to the Hartford standard. 
Doubtless a farm tree will not add so much to the cash value 
of property as a city tree, but, even if it is worth only half as 
much, a tree six feet in circumference is worth 206.37 for beauty 
alone. Make an inventory of your most valuable trees and, if 
you sell any or all of your farm, see that you get their value ! 
Surely, when you realize the value of old trees, you will not 
let them die of neglect ! (See Figs. 57 and 58.) 

PLANT PERMANENT TREES NOT 
"QUICK-GROWERS" 

We ought to be ashamed to plant only "quick-growers," 
for they are merely temporary. The pioneers had a legitimate 
excuse for planting box elder, silver maple, and poplars, for 



they needed windbreaks without delay. But quick-growers 
are nearly always a bad bargain; they are soft- wooded, and 
therefore easily broken by storms, after which they fall an easy 
prey to insects and diseases. Quick-growers are the cheapest 
at the start, but the dearest in the end, because they cost more 
to maintain. Just when you need them most they fail you, 
and the cost of cutting down big trees is very heavy. The pin, 
the red, and the scarlet oaks will overtake most of these quick- 
growers in twenty years, and they will last for centuries after 
the quick-growers are dead. Temporary trees get less valuable 
every year after they reach a good size, while permanent trees 
grow more valuable. (See Figs. 59 and 60.) If you want the 
greatest increase of value for your property, plant permanent 
trees, like the tulip tree, the sugar maple, the sweet gum, the 
white ash, and, above all, the oaks. Quick growers often kill 
sales of property because prospective purchasers are getting 
to hate temporary trees. In Cleveland, it is against the law to 
plant poplars. Can't you solve your shade problem without 
them, e.g., by means of a screened porch or summer-house? 




47. The deciduous bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), a twiner with red berries which 
are attractive all winter. Native to Illinois. This one vine, planted by the million, would 
change Illinois from an ugly country in winter to a beautiful one. Who will do it? 



48. The evergreen bittersweet (Euonymus radicans), the only hardy evergreen climber. 
It succeeds where English ivy fails. The best variety is vegctus, which saves years of waiting 
for the red berries that are attractive all winter. Grow it on stone or brick not wood. 



16 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 




49. The Gaudy Style of Lawn Costs More to Maintain 



To say nothing of its bad taste! It takes more hand work to cut the grass around It can be mowed by horse-power, and in the country mowing need not be do 

flower-beds and specimen plants that are scattered over the lawn. The most expensive often as in the city. The open lawn is simpler, more dignified, more restful, and 



50. The Open Lawn Costs Less to Maintain 

It can be mowed by horse-power, and in the country mowing need not be done so 



item in gardening is labor. 

FLOWER-GARDENS THAT REALLY FIT THE 
ILLINOIS FARM 

The kind of flower-garden for which every farmer's wife 
secretly yearns is the kind her great-grandmother had the 
Colonial garden, with box-edged beds filled with roses and 
annual flowers. (See Fig. 61.) The boxwood is not hardy in 
Illinois, and comparatively few large, double roses are thor- 
oughly satisfactory here. The farmer's wife cannot find an 
hour a day for her flowers, and she cannot find anyone to spade 
a flower-garden in the spring. But there are certain fundamen- 
tal needs which people always have felt for flowers, and always 
must gratify. The heart cries out for these things, and the 
cry cannot be stifled. These fundamental flower needs are 
about eight in number: (i) Every mother wants to grow the 
famous old flowers that everybody has always known and 
loved. (2) Every woman that ever lived wants cut-flowers 
in her house. (3) Every family has some member that loves 
birds, and wishes to bring their song, flight, and color nearer 
to the house. (4) All parents want their children to learn 
independence, and to love the country and wish to stay there. 
(5) Every civilized being needs a chance to get back to nature 
some playground, picnic spot, or bit of wildness. (6) Every 
dweller on the prairie knows that about half the year is leafless, 
and dumbly feels the need of winter comfort and cheer. (7) 
Every farmer has at least a rudimentary admiration for old 
trees and other things that grow more precious every year. 
(8) Every citizen of Illinois is proud of his state, takes an 
interest in his state flower, and is glad of every chance to show 
an honest state pride based upon real achievements. Now let 




com 
moi 
repose 



51. The Gaudy Way of Using "Horticultural Varieties" 

Horticultural varieties are cut-leaved, weeping, and variegated trees and shrubs. The 



nmon way is to scatter ^them over a lawn. This system makes the biggest show for the 
>ney, but it spoils the view of house and lawn and destroys all simplicity, dignity, and 
tose. Here we have weeping beech, weeping elm, and purple maples. These particular 
.pics are comparatively mild because they turn green in summer. The worst offenders 
against good taste are purple barberry, purple plum (Prunus Pissardi), and golden cider. 



appropriate to the country. Without it you cannot frame a good view of your home. 

us see how all these fundamental needs can be satisfied by 
up-to-date flower-gardens that are not total misfits, like the 
Colonial garden, but are really adapted to the Illinois climate, 
soil, labor, and farm life. 



1. A Flower-Garden for the Illinois Farmer's Wife 

We believe that it is impractical for the farmer's wife to have 
a separate flower-garden at the present time. But she can make 
her whole place a garden by planning to beautify her farm in 
the "Illinois way." She will have all the flowers she most de- 
sires, but they will not be in a separate garden; each will be 
in the place where it is most needed and can be cared for at 
the least expense. For example, her lilacs, sweet shrub, 
weigela, golden bells, and Tartarian honeysuckle will not be 
in the garden, but in the borders of the lawn. Her mock 
orange may hide the outbuildings. Her spirea, deutzia, and 
barberry will not be in a neglected garden, but against the 




52. The "Illinois Way" of Using Horticultural Varieties 



Here are fancy varieties enough for anyone. They constitute less than $ percent of the 
planting, yet beginners often use 95 per cent fancy material. The "Illinois way" is to have 
05 per cent of the planting composed of trees and shrubs native to Illinois. (Signed) 
Wm. C. Egan, Highland Park, HI. This is the most famous one-acre place in the West. 
It has been visitea by thousands of home-builders and has persuaded many to have open- 
centered lawns, with massed planting at the sides. 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



17 




53. The Wrong Way of Treating a Border 



54. The "Illinois Way" of Treating a Border 



"Every spring, millions of bushes are ruined by 'fake gardeners/ whose only idea of Allow every shrub to develop to the utmost its peculiar beauty. The most flowers are 

'pruning* is to trim every bush into a ball." (See page 13.) By this system they rob you borne on young wood not old; therefore, cut out some old stems every year right to the 
of many flowers, and make_ all shrubs look alike. Do not let these ignoramuses trim your ground. Prune after flowering not before. Try this system. Get a pair of shears and do 



ny flowers, l 
elms into balls. (From Bailey's "Manual of Gardening.") 

foundations of her house. Her perennial flowers, such as iris, 
peony, phlox, and chrysanthemum will not perish of thirst in 
a distant garden, but bloom beneath the kitchen window, 
where they can be watered with the least effort. And her fa- 
vorite annuals, such as asters, calliopsis, cosmos, marigold, 
mignonette, petunias, snapdragons, stocks, verbenas, and zin- 
nias will no longer be raised by the pottering, back-breaking 
method of seed-bed and transplanting, but will be sown in 
long rows, like vegetables, and cultivated by the horses on 
their way to the fields. Some of the old sentiment will be 
gone, but she will . have more flowers at less cost, by growing 
them in simple, wholesale ways. 

2. More Cut-Flowers at Less Cost 

We have just indicated how this can be accomplished with 
the famous old garden flowers. Another way is to cut three- or 
four-foot sprays of flowering shrubs, bring them into the house, 
and stand them in 
umbrella jars. In- 
deed, the best way 
to prune shrubs, 
according to some 
gardeners, is to 
prune them while 
they are in bloom. 
It would mar a 
flower-garden to re- 
move these long 
sprays, but in an 
informal border on 
the lawn they never 
will be missed. A 
third way to have 
plenty of cut-flow- 
ers without cost is 
to gather the com- 
mon roadside flow- 
ers and weeds, e.g., 
the queen's lace 
handkerchief, yar- 
row, bouncing bet, 



sunflower (Fig. 62), 
brown-eyed susan, 
goldenrod, and 
asters. The com- 



a little at a time. No rush season. (Henry M. Dunlap, Savoy, III.) 

mon flowers of the fields, such as red and crimson clover, ought 
to be brought into the house; it is not enough to see them 
outdoors. Try it and be convinced. And do not buy any fancy 
vases loaded with ornament or made of many strong colors. It 
is a waste of money, for flowers will not look well in such 
things. Use simple jugs and jars whatever you have. 

3. Children's Gardens That Will Make Strong Characters 

Eight Iowa children who helped one another through col- 
lege began their financial career by cultivating a strawberry 
bed. Why not start your children in business this spring with 
a dollar's worth of gladiolus bulbs? (See Fig. 63.) They can 
sell the flowers without harming the bulbs, and by August 
they will be able to pay you back and buy something they 
desire very much. It may lead to a great business in the coun- 
try, like that of a man in Berlin, N. Y., who has seventy acres 
of gladioli. (See Fig. 64.) The peony is another plant that gives 

two crops flowers 
and roots. A single 
row of peonies culti- 
vated with a wheel 
hoe by your boy 
may change hatred 
of the farm into 
love of it, and 
create a fine busi- 
ness, like that of a 
peony specialist in 
Pennsylvania. The 
farmers near Har- 
risburg, Pa., bring 
to market iris, 
peonies, garden 
pinks, lilacs, gla- 
dioli, dahlias, hy- 
drangeas, and china 
asters. It is pin- 
money for the wife, 
to say nothing of 
the pleasure. 

I n Winnebago 
County children 
learn to grow flow- 
ers at school, 
and other farm 




55-56. The Nannyberry for Boundary Planting (Viburnum Lentago) 

Everyone likes these sweet berries, that turn dark blue or black in September and remain all winter. All summer it is a 
joy to watch the berries change color, and the scarlet stalks make a vivid foil. The bloom comes in May and the clusters 
are often 5 inches across. In autumn the foliage turns to deep orange. It is native to Illinois. This big bush gro" s 
20 feet high or more. Plant nannyberries to mark the boundaries of your yard, screen unsightly objects, feed the birds, 
provide winter beauty, and repeat the prairie lines with their flat flower-clusters. At one time you may see green, pink, 
and blue berries all in the same cluster. See page 14, paragraph "Boundary Planting." 



\ 



18 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 




57. A Shameful Way to Treat Old Trees 

This grand old tree has died of neglect. A few years ago it might have been saved by 
$10 worth of tree surgery. See page 14, "Every Tree Worth One Dollar a Square Inch. 



58. The "Illinois Way" of Honoring Old Trees 



A magnificent tree preserved by Dr. Schenck. A little tree surgery now may save a 
tree in farmstead or field which will add $100 to $500 to the cash value of your farm. 




59. Elms Worth $1,000 a Pair 



"I bought and built here six years ago because of the two street trees in front, paying 
$650 more Tor this lot than for any of the treeless lots a block away which I bought for invest- 
ment. Last week I sold one of these treeless lots for $1,500. If that lot were in the block 
where I live I could easily sell it for $3,000. Hence, I conclude that every pair of big elms 
on Oregon Street adds about $1,500 to the value of each lot or let us say conservatively 
$1,000. Fifty-five years ago, when planted, a pair of these elms was worth $i. If that 
dollar had been put into a savings bank it would have earned $4.43 in half a century at 
3 per cent compound interest. Put into the bank of earth.it actually earned at the rate of 
20% a year, simple interest, or 1,000% in 50 years." (Signed) James W. Garner, Urbana, 
III., June 30, 1913. Plant permanent trees now so that you and your heirs will reap 
some of this great profit! 



60. The Great Hale Oak, "Worth a Million or More*' 



" "Most every day of my life I take my hat off to this tree. 1 his is my way of tree worship. 
When my ancestors bought this farm in 1642, this tree was ollicially called 'the great oak." 
It may be one thousand years old; experts say it is over eight hundred. It is 95 feet high. 
has a spread of 121 feet, and is 19 feet 6 inches in circumference. I would not sell it for a 
million dollars, or any money no matter how great a sum. It stands on private property 
in front of my office, close up to the edge of Glastonbury's main highway. When in the 
Legislature I drafted and helped pass a law that will preserve roadside trees all over our 



state. If this oak ever needs surgery it will get it, but at present it is perfectly sound and 

H_ _ _" ___. ._ off, gentlemen! Long life to the old Hale oak!" (Signed) 

. Hale, Fruit-grower, South Glastonbury, Conn. See page 14, paragraph entitled 
"Every Tree Worth One Dollar a Square Inch. ' 



healthy in body and limb. Hats ofl 
John H. Ha' " 




61. The Kind of Flower-garden That Does Not Fit Illinois 

The Colonial garden is good to-drcam about, but box is not hardy, and few large double 
roses are everywhere satisfactory. Labor is too scarce to make the separate flower-garden 
a success on the ordinary prairie farm. For appropriate kinds, see page 17. 



62. How the Farmer's Wife Can Get Flowers for Nothing 
Send the children to the roadside, fields, and woods for wild flowers, and have them on 
the table every week throughout the season. For a list see page 17, near bottom. Use 
simple, inexpensive vases not fancy forms and colors. 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



19 




63. A Children's Garden That Is Practical on Illinois Farms 

Why not start your boy in business with a dollar's worth of gladiolus bulbs? He can 
sell the flowers without harming the bulbs. Seep. 17, paragraph on "Children's Gardens." 

children who are not so fortunate may get (at the cost of a 
postal card) full directions for growing flowers, by writing to 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture for Farmers' Bulletin 195. 
Won't you help your children start a flower-garden that will 
make for independence, profit, and love of country? Help them 
make a sign that will make people stop and buy; e.g., 



CUT-FLOWERS FOR SALE CHEAP 
RAISED BY ILLINOIS CHILDREN 



5 Cents a Handful 
25 Cents a Basketful 
50 Cents an Armful 



4. Bird-Gardens for Illinois Farmers 

Restore the song birds to Illinois farms! Experts estimate 
that certain birds save American farmers $400,000,000 a year, 



64. What the Children's Garden May Lead To 

A seventy-acre gladiolus farm like Cowee's, or a ten-acre peony farm, like Farr's. It 
may change natre'd of the country into love of farming. 

because they keep down insects that will damage the crops. 
Everyone can bring the birds into his daily life by planting 
shrubbery at the edge of his lawn. You can make more money 
by planting a mulberry hedge around your cherry orchard 
than you can by shooting robins, for the birds will leave cher- 
ries to eat mulberries. Dwarf juneberries will do the same 
trick. You make only 5 per cent from your woodlot now; you 
can double this if you will put up some of the new scientific 
bird-houses which attract woodpeckers, the greatest enemies 
of wood-destroying insects, and therefore the greatest friends 
of the forest. You can have squabs to eat if you will let the 
children raise pigeons, and these pigeons can be housed-m such 
a way as to beautify your barn instead of making a mess of 
it. In these and other ways birds are profitable, to say noth- 
ing of their song, color, and beauty. 

A new kind of bird-garden that is full of western character 
has been designed by Jens Jensen for Mrs. Julius Rosenwald 
and Mrs. Albert H. Loeb. (See Figs. 65 and 109.) Although 
in Chicago, the Loeb garden attracts martins, wrens, and 




65. The Rosenwald Bird-Garden in Chicago 

Every handy farm boy can make a martin house like this, with a cat-guard below. The creeper in Fig. 66 can be 
had for nothing in southern Illinois or from any nurseryman for twenty-five cents. 



66. Every Woman Can Have a Bird-Garden 



Plant trumpet creeper and the humming-birds will come 
close to you while you sit on the porch and sew. 



20 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 




67. Save These Illinois Flowers from Extermination 

American bluebell, or Virginia cowslip, the finest blue flower of spring once abundant 
in Illinois. Loves low meadows and streams. It means more to us than Scotch or English 
bluebells. Let us restore American bluebells to American woods! 

robins. A dancing spring furnishes them with water for drink- 
ing and bathing; a food-house shelters them during winter 
storms; and the flowering shrubs produce edible berries 
the year round. Best of all, the garden is full of state pride, 



68. A Woodlot without Wild Flowers Spoiled by Cows 

Why not fence a portion for the family picnic-ground and wild garden? Restore the 
flowers shown on this page, and others by the methods described on page 22. in the sec- 
tion on "Wild Gardens lor Illinois Farmers." 

for practically every tree and shrub is native to Cook 
County. 

The bird-garden seems destined to spread quickly all over 
America, for it probably gives more for the money than any 




69. A Woodlot Full of Wild Flowers No Cows 

The wild blue phlox (Phlox divaricata) once carpeted the woodlands of Illinois and tens of thousands of their thrilling blue flowers could be seen in May. They will come back and 
stay, if you will spend $2 for enough three-strand wire to inclose an acre. 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



21 




70. Flowers for a Century at no Cost 



71. Restore the Illinois Rose to Illinois Woods! 

In full sunshine the Illinois rose is a compact bush, but in the woods it is a picturesque vine mystic, wonderful. See 
how it flows, like water, over obstacles! It throws a mantle of charity over new stumps, bare earth, and all unsighthness. 

Every Illinois farmer can enjoy the Illinois rose the year round without cost in his woodland pasture. Let the children 

plant them this fall in woodlot or meadow. In a few years gather the fruits and bury them at the edge of the woods, where they will restore charm to the woodland by obliterating 
you will be planting by the thousand for pleasure. the "browsing line" made by cattle. Let us plant Illinois roses along every trail in every piece of woods in Illinois! 



These daffodils have bloomed without care, on a farm, 
for over one hundred years! Every Illinois farmer can 
afford to invest $i in fifty daffodil bulbs. Let your children 



type of garden yet invented, and it can be adapted to any 
climate, soil, or purse. For instance, at no cost, the farmer's 
wife can put a shallow pan of water on a post near her kitchen 



window and watch the bluebirds and song sparrows spatter 
the water, while she peels the potatoes. Twenty-five cents 
will give her a trumpet creeper on the porch (see Fig. 66), 




72. Wild Gardening in the Meadow 

No use to cry "millionaire" or "eastern." Every farm can have this for $10. The bulbs of poet's narcissus cost less than one cent each. Invest $10 this fall and get 1,000 fragrant 
white flowers next May. They will multiply without care and never harm your hay-crop. Plant with a dibble when the ground is soft. 



22 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 





73. Japanese Barberry (Berberis Thunbergii) 74. Common Barberry (Berberis vulgaris) 

Why not have a winter garden of shrubs with brightly colored berries or twigs which will make your place look cheer- 
ful the year round instead of cold and bare? For $3 to $5 you can get a dozen kinds. You can propagate enough to trans- 
form your property. See page 23, paragraph entitled "Winter Gardens for Illinois Farmers." 



to bring the hummingbirds within six feet of her knitting. 
Southward, trumpet vine can be had for nothing from the 
fence-rows. Five cents' worth of gourd seed will keep the child- 
ren out of mischief, and make houses that will bring wrens to 
the porch. A simple martin house, such as handy boys can 
make, will do something to keep down malarial mosquitos 
and typhoid flies. (See Fig. 65.) 

But the old ways of attracting friendly birds are not good 
enough. The ordinary bird-house made by children leads only 
to a tragedy, for the cats get the young birds. There must be 
cat guards. And there is a new type of bird-house to perfect 
which a German has spent thirty thousand dollars and thirty 
years. To find out all about it, write to the National Associa- 
tion of Audubon Societies, 1974 Broadway, N. Y. Send them 
fifty cents for the best book; viz., "How to Attract and Protect 
the Wild Birds," by Hiesemann, and ask for the names of 
manufacturers of scientific bird-houses. Write also to the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture for reprints entitled "Does it Pay 
the Farmer to Attract Birds?" and "Plants Useful to Attract 
Birds and Protect Fruit." 



5. Wild Gardens for Illinois 
Farmers 

Old-style flower-gardening is not 
a sensible occupation for overworked 
farmers. But there are three new 
propositions that are practical for 
Illinois farmers because they can pay 
back their cost in real values, they 
have no rush season, and they involve 
no pottering with seeds. The first is 
to fence a portion of the woodlot, and 
make it a playground, picnic spot, 
and wild garden. The average wood- 
lot has some beauty, but not enough, 
because the cows destroy the low 
branches of the trees and the wild 
flowers. (See Fig. 68.) Keep the cows 
out and the charm will come back; 
shrubs will grow up around the edges, 
so that it will no longer be possible 
to look right through the woods. And 
you do not need to plant the wild 



flowers; the birds will bring the seeds. In four years the 
ground will be carpeted again with hepaticas, bloodroot, tril- 
liums, wild blue phlox (see Fig. 69), American bluebells (see 
Fig. 67), shooting stars, wood asters, and many more. The 
farmer himself need do nothing but build the fence, and the 
only loss will be a bit of pasturage, say ten rods square. The 
trees in the new wild garden will continue to grow more valu- 
able every year for timber. Think of the corn-roasts and holi- 
day celebrations in such a spot! Isn't it better than a hot, 
dusty day at a distant "amusement park"? 

For every hundred flowers that you can raise by seed- 
sowing you can have a thousand by using the axe. Cut out all 
the crooked and spindling trees in woods like Fig. 69, and give 
the largest and most permanent trees a chance to develop to 
the utmost. Don't do this all at once, or you will let in too 
much light and kill the big trees by "sunscald." Distribute 
your cutting over four years, and aim to let in enough light to 
encourage wild flowers but not enough to encourage grass. That 
is the way to carpet the ground with acres of wild flowers, ten 
thousand of a kind in a single colony. 




75. The Sort of Winter Garden Any Farmer Can Have 

Every countryman has one great advantage over the city man because he can grow 
evergreens. Evergreens are sure to die in the smoky air of cities, but in the country, 
they add to the value of a place every year, because they are beautiful the year round 
ftnd make a better background for flowers and autumn colors than deciduous trees. Planted 
singly on the prairies they are likely to die, but in thick groups, behind shelter-belts, they 
are likely to succeed. See page 23, paragraph on "Winter Gardens." 



j6. The Illinois Rose for Your Shrubbery Border 

Garden roses, i.e. the large, double-flowered varieties, cannot thrive permanently in 
a shrubbery border, and they look out of place. On the border of your lawn you want the 
Illinois or prairie rose (Rosa setigera). In the rough and tumble of a hardy border the 
Illinois rose can usually hold its own against foreign shrubs and weeds. And it arches over 
so as to connect lawn and shrubbery. Nurserymen of Illinois will you specify one group 
of Illinois rose in every border you plan or plant in this state? See page 26. 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



23 




77. High Bush Cranberry in Flower (Viburnum Opulus) 



78. High Bush Cranberry in Fruit 



One of the most valuable shrubs for year-round beauty. It blooms in May. The large showy flowers are sterile; the inner ones make fruits. The autumn foliage is bright red, 
and the scarlet berries are attractive all winter, as they are not eaten by birds. Many people now prefer this to the snowball because of its fruits. It is not troubled by plant-lice as 
the snowball is. This shrub is native to Illinois and can be easily told by the maple-like, or three-fingered leaves. 



In the meadow, too, it is perfectly practicable to have daffo- 
dils and poet's narcissus by the thousand, as English farmers do. 
These fragrant yellow-and-white flowers bloom in April and 
May, and do not interfere with the hay crop. You can mow 
the hay at the regular time without hurting next year's crop 
of flowers, for the daffodil leaves turn yellow and fall while 
the bulbs are ripening for next year. There is an old field 
near Trenton, N. J., where daffodils have multiplied without 
care for over a hundred years. (See Fig. 70.) Daffodil bulbs 
cost only two or three dollars per hundred, which is two or 
three cents apiece. If you like, you can get your money back 
in six months, for you can cut and sell three dollars' worth of 
flowers without harming the bulbs. But you won't want to. 
You will prefer to enjoy the flowers in the meadow. The 
bulbs of the poet's narcissus (see Fig. 72) cost only half a 
cent apiece, and five dollars invested this fall will give you a 



thousand flowers next May. Why not buy some of the bulbs 
this fall and make a trial? 

6. Winter Gardens for Illinois Farmers 

You can make an outdoor winter garden for $3 to $5 that 
will pay back its cost in cash in two years, to say nothing of 
the pleasure it will give you. Get a dozen kinds of shrubs 
with brightly colored twigs, such as the red-stemmed Illinois 
rose; the red, purple, and yellow dogwoods; the salmon, blue, 
and golden willows; the green forsythia, kerria, and memorial 
rose; and they will give you a fine show of color the very day 
you plant them in the fall or early spring. Take orders for 
them, if you like, as a certain farmer in Dixon does. Any 
nurseryman will be glad to give you a commission, and your 
winter garden will pay its own cost. 




79-80. The Silky Dogwood for Your "Illinois Border" 

This shrub (Cornus Amomum or sericea) is famous for its winter beauty, the purplish red branches being second in vividness only to the Siberian red dogwood. I he bush grows 
3 to 10 feet high and blooms in June or July, about a month later than the Siberian. The berries are pale blue, sometimes bluish white. Native to Illinois. Plant silky dogwoods near 
your house, in your lx>rder, bird-garden, or winter garden, and enjoy their gorgeous color every sunny day from November to March. See page 26, first paragraph. 



24 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 




81. Coneflowers as They Grow Beside Illinois Roads 

The most peculiar plants of Illinois are the prairie flowers, and the most characteristic family is the Compositae, includ- 
ing compass plant, sunflowers, gaillardia, perennial asters, sneezewccd, bpltonia, goldcnrods, brown-eyed susans, the pur- 
ple, pink, and yellow coneflowcrs. The secret charm of all these flowers is that each is a miniature edition of the prairie. flow 
Why not have a "prairie garden" composed largely of these flowers and those mentioned on page 26? Let us make a The 
refuge for these disappearing flowers a border of pjairie flowers in every Illinois homel 



82 Coneflowers in an Eastern Garden 

This shows that the millionaires cultivate what we have 
been taught to ignore or despise. Many of our prairie 
flowers have found their way into the gardens of the world. 
They will look better here than in any other country, 
when every Illinois home has an Illinois border. 




83. Shall We Yield to the East in Appreciating Beauty? 

Look at these Illinois or prairie roses planted along an eastern drive, covering raw banks more cheaply than grass, and edging the road to the exclusion of weeds! Is there beauty 
here, or can we see beauty only in bedding plants? Are we so uncultured that we can enjoy only rare, costly, showy, foreign, artificial things nothing simple, natural, common? We 
have nearly exterminated our unique prairie flowers; let us bring them back to every Illinois home! We have blindly copied the rest of the world, bestrewing our fair lawns with stars 
of cpleus and circles of cannas; let us have a style of our own! Let us know and love every wild plant within a mile of our homes, discover its peculiar beauty, and cudgel our imagi- 
nations for nobler ways of using the Illinois trees, shrubs, and flowers! 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



25 



The next step is to invest $5 in a dozen kinds of shrubs 
that have berries which are attractive all winter. Get first 
high bush cranberry (see Figs. 77 and 78), the Japanese and 
common barberries (see Figs. 73 and 74), and the multillora 
rose, because its berries are red, and red is the warmest color 
against the snow. You can also enjoy all winter the black ber- 
ries of Regel's privet, the blue berries of the white fringe, the 
red hips of the Scotch rose, and the scarlet berries of the Ameri- 
can, Japanese, and evergreen bittersweets. The fruits of the 
rugosa rose, winterberry, and mountain ash will be attractive 
until New Year's. 

Every farmer can enjoy a winter garden of evergreens such 
as no millionaire in any western city can have because of soft- 
coal smoke. (See Fig. 75.) Plant evergreens for windbreaks 
and screens, and the beauty will take care of itself. At present, 
America is one of the bleakest and ugliest countries in the world 
for nearly half the year. But Illinois can become famous for 
its winter beauty if we all set to work planting permanent 
native material. We never can do so well as England with 
evergreens, but we can improve conditions by planting ever- 
greens in large groups instead of singly. And we can work out 
a new type of winter beauty with the aid of western mate- 
rials, especially hawthorns, crab apples, and shrubs with 
brightly colored berries or twigs. 

7. A Tree- Garden, or Arboretum 

One of the most interesting gardens in Illinois is the tree- 
garden, or arboretum, of Mr. L. R. Bryant, a farmer at Prince- 
ton. (Sea Fig. 84.) An arboretum is a time-honored farmer's 
hobby that is worthy of a real man, for at least three Penn- 
sylvania farmers had famous tree-gardens John Bartram, 
John Evans, and the Painter brothers. It would be folly now 
for any farmer to try to grow all the hardy trees in the world, 
for even the Arnold Arboretum cannot do that on three hun- 
dred acres. Let the millionaires waste their money in trying 
to grow plants of hostile climates, such as those of Europe and 
the Pacific Coast. It is not even practical to grow all the trees 
of allied climates; viz., those of China, Japan, and Korea. 
The most profitable scheme for the Illinois farmer is to collect 
only the trees of Illinois. Assemble these near a house-site that 
you may be willing to sell twenty-five years from now, and some 




84. A "Tree-garden" Is a Hobby Worthy of a Real Man 

Bartram. Evans, Painter and others increased the values of their farms by their tree- 
gardens. (Arboretum of Mr. L. R. Bryant, Princeton, Illinois.) The best scheme is a 
collection of Illinois trees and shrubs. 

day there will come down the road a millionaire city man who 
wants a country home and cannot wait a quarter of a century 
for trees to grow. Then is the time to get your pay for all you 
have spent on your collection of Illinois trees. 

Your white pine, short-leaf pine, arborvitae, red cedar, and 
juniper will look mighty good to a millionaire who wants some- 
thing that is longer-lived than cheap Scotch pine and dismal 
Norway spruce. What buyer can resist your butternut, pecan, 
shagbark hickory, hornbeam, ironwood, sweet birch, Ameri- 
can beech, pin oak, red oak, scarlet oak, black oak, shingle 
oak, white oak, bur oak, American elm, hackberry, red mul- 
berry, tulip tree, papaw, sassafras, sweet gum, sycamore, prairie 
crab, service-berry, pear thorn, long-spine thorn, wild plum, 
choke cherry, red bud, coffee tree, honey locust, wafer ash, 
wahoo, sugar maple, red maple, buckeye, yellow buckthorn, 
basswood, Hercules' club, flowering dogwood, sour gum, per- 
simmon, silver bell, white ash, western catalpa, and black 
haw ? 

Surely this is a gorgeous list, which would be irresistible to- 
a Chicago buyer, and also to your children, some of whom will 
not care to leave a farm with an Illinois arboretum on it! 




5. Children, Is This Your Ideal? 

Are you content to live in this way? Or do you want a permanent country home? Do 
you wish to become Wall Street millionaires and live the feverish life of a big, artificial 
city? Or do you think that the finest way to live is to have a permanent country home. 
Why not a race of real American country gentlemen not mere city folks who spend 
summers on extravagant country estates? (See page 26.) 



86. The Illinois Type of Country Gentleman 



This house was built from honest profits made by raising corn on this very farm 
not money made in a great city by Wall Street methods of fleecing widows and orphans. 
The owner is not an absentee landlord, skinning his land and his tenants, but a real farmer. 
He is not a mere summer resident, but lives in the country the year round. (Harvey J- 
Sconce, Sidell, III.) Give us more real American country gentlemen! 



' 



26 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 




87-88. Trees Will Make Your Place More Salable! 



"This house cost no more than the other and was better in some important ways, 
but it had no trees in the yard. We wanted our children to have a shady playground 
before they grew up. So 

8. Every Home Should Have an "Illinois Border" 

Mr. J. Horace McFarland, of Harrisburg, Pa., has a "dead 
line" on his home grounds beyond which no plant is tolerated 
that is not a native of Pennsylvania. Nothing will add more to 
an honest state pride than a border of Illinois shrubs on every 
farm lawn. In April you can have the bloom of red bud; in 
May, the arrow-wood and sheepberry; in June, the prairie rose, 
high bush cranberry, lead plant, and false indigo; in July, but- 
tonbush and arborescent hydrangea; in August, the shining and 
staghorn sumachs and Hercules' club; in September, witch- 
hazel; while all winter you can enjoy the red berries of the high 
bush cranberry and the red stems of the Illinois rose. 

While the shrubs are getting their growth, why not fill some 
of the spaces between them with famous prairie flowers that 




89. Our New Winter View 90. Our Old Winter View 

When our family grew too large for the house that we sold to the Picketts we had to move to a big lot that was 
tcly bare. 1 he contrast was so painful that we would gladly have paid $3,000 in cold cash if we could have moved all 
reis and shrubs. To reproduce as nearly as possible what had been planted before our time would have cost $1,200. 



"When 
absol 
those 
To 
mo' 
yej 

something nowl 




We bought this house and have never regretted it. The original cost of plans and 
planting was about $30, and the trees saved us twelve to seventeen years of waiting." 
(Signed) Mr. and Mrs. B. S. Pickett, Urbana, III. 

have found their way into the gardens of the world? In spring 
you can have the prairie violet, sharp-leaved beard tongue, 
purple poppy-mallow. In summer will bloom the gaillardias, 
long-headed and purple concflower, rough ox-eye, mealy sage, 
compass and cup plants, and Pitcher's sage. In autumn you 
can have the showy linear-leaved sunflowers, the gray-hended 
coneflower, the Kansas gay feather, and Stokes' aster. You 
need not rob Nature or waste precious time in hunting Illinois 
flowers, for practically every plant mentioned in this circular 
can be bought from nurserymen; and nursery-grown plants 
usually give better results than collected stock because they are 
better prepared to stand the shock of transplanting. If you 
cannot appreciate the beauty of common wild flowers, see Figs. 
81 and 82, and read "The Religion of the Prairie" on inside 
back cover. 

THE CHILDREN'S IDEAL A 
PERMANENT COUNTRY HOME 

What do the children on Illinois 
farms most desire? Do you wish to 
become Wall Street millionaires, and 
live the feverish life of a great arti- 
ficial city? Or do you think that the 
finest way to live is to have a perma- 
nent country home? The highest type 
of life yet invented, in the opinion 
of many, is that of the English squire 
at his best. All over this world there 
are younger sons who are working 
to realize just one ideal to go back 
to, England and make a permanent 
home, not in London, but in the coun- 
try. Why not a race of real Ameri- 
can country gentlemen, not mere city 
folks who spend summers on extrava- 
gant country estates? Already we 
have them in New England. Witness 
the four Thayer places at Lancaster, 
Mass.; also dozens of southern homes. 
Col. F. O. Lowden, of Oregon, Illinois, 
lives in the country the year round, 
and boasts that he makes his farm 
pay. Mr. Henry M. Dunlap, of Savoy, 
and Mr. Harvey J. Sconce, of Sidell, 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



27 




91. Before Landlord and Tenant Become Friends 

Bad for both, bad for the land, and bad for future generations. We need a better 
system of tenantry, at least as good as that of northern Italy. And it must grow out of 
the "Illinois system of permanent agriculture." 

are real Illinois country gentlemen who have permanent homes 
and well-planted grounds, and these improvements have come 
out of Illinois farms, not city speculation. Is the rising genera- 
tion willing to live in the cramped, cheerless, citified farmhouses 
and bare grounds of today (see Fig. 86), or do the children 
aim at something more permanent, comfortable, and fitting? 

WHAT YOU CAN GET FOR NOTHING 

The best ornamental plants that any Illinois farmer can use 
may be had for the cost of digging; viz., Illinois trees, shrubs, 
vines, and flowers. Dig only where there are too many plants 
for their own good. Do not rob the public. Ask permission of 
private owners, and do not be greedy. Can't you find within 
ten miles of your home all the plants shown in Fig. 110? 
Beginning at the upper left corner, they are: Flowering dog- 
wood to frame the view of your house; American bluebells, 
to restore charm to your woods; white pines, to make a digni- 



92. After Landlord and Tenant Become Friends 

The landlord supplies the paint; the tenant the labor. The landlord gives a dollar's 
worth of seeds; the tenant raises the flowers. T he landlord opens his eyes to native beauty; 
the tenant digs vines from the woods. Both arc richer, happier, better. Time one year. 




A Few Trees 



93. What You Can Get for the Price of a Hog 

Here are two Illinois farms which prove that a few trees make all the difference between 
a house and a home a place to work and a place to live. These trees cost originally about 
$17 to $22. 1 hey were planted without any plan or reason but they are better than nothing 
because trees increase in value every year. Plant some trees now. Sell a hog and have 
some beauty! 




94. Unplanted Street in Somerville, Mass. 

"This street and the next were built by the same real-estate dealers. The houses are 

a 1 exactly alike, but those on the implanted street rent for $300 a year while those on the e, s e proi e , 

planted street rent for $420. The renters gladly pay the 40 per cent more for the privilege yiejds him a net profit of $330, which is 57 per cent more than on the Unplanted street 
ol living on the planted street. The beautiful street actually cost less than this ugly one. This is unanswerable proof of the cash profit in planning streets and planting trees." 
became the curbstone on this street, which is unnecessary, cost more than all the trees and (Signed) Loring Underwood, Landscape Architect, lioston. 
shrubs on ihe planted street." 



95. Planted Street in Somerville, Mass. 

"Assuming the cost of each house as $3,000 and the landlord's yearly expenses as 3 per 
cent, his net profit is $210 a year from each implanted house, while each planted house 



28 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



fied approach; high bush cranberry for red berries against the 
snow all winter; Virginia creeper for the porch; sumach to 
screen an outbuilding; the old tree in the field to leave for the 
children; elders for your bird-garden; a tulip tree to make a 
background for the house; red cedars for windbreaks; Illinois 
rose for your Illinois border, and high bush cranberry to repeat 
the prairie lines and make the "religion of the prairie" a joy. 

WHAT YOU CAN GET FOR TEN DOLLARS 

For $10 you can accomplish any one of the following things: 
You can buy fifty white pines and fifty hemlocks a foot high, 
which will some day shelter house and barn from the wind and 
screen the outbuildings. 

You can buy four elms, 8 to 10 feet high, to frame the view 
of your house, front and back, and a pair of hawthorns, 5 or 6 
feet high, to frame the view of the prairie from your porch. 

You can get twenty Japanese barberries 2 feet high, to plant 
against the foundations of your house, or twelve vines, all 
different, to give your house character and year-round interest, 
and twenty-four more to transform the outbuildings from 
ugliness to beauty. 

You can plant enough mulberry hedge to save your fruit 
from troublesome birds and encourage desirable birds. 

You can start the children in the cut-flower business, with 
ten different kinds of perennials, one for each week of vaca- 
tion. Thus each week they will have ten clumps from which to 
cut and sell flowers. You can have a bird-garden composed of 
twenty to forty different kinds of shrubs with edible berries. 

You can have a winter garden composed of twenty-four 
kinds of shrubs, with twigs that are attractive from October to 
March. 

You can have an Illinois border, containing eight kinds of 
shrubs, with a dozen of each kind in a group. 

You cannot make a big profit if you merely sit down with 
a catalogue and order $10 worth of miscellaneous plants you 



happen to know and like, and then scatter them aimlessly 
about. But it is wonderful what you can accomplish with $10 
if you have any kind of a plan. 

Have you $10 worth of love for your home? If 10,000 of 
us will spend $10 each this year, on planting, what a wonder- 
ful improvement that $100,000 will make in the appearance of 
Illinois! And how much your $10 will add to the happiness of 
your family! Why not save $10 on luxuries, and invest it in 
planting for home happiness? 

WHAT YOU CAN GET FOR THE PRICE OF A HOG 

For $17 to $22 you can have any two or three of the com- 
binations just named. For example, you can plant evergreens 
that will make a combination windbreak, screen, and winter- 
garden. Or you can frame a lawn, make an Illinois border, 
and attract friendly birds all with the same plants and in the 
same part of your grounds. By close figuring, it is even possible 
to accomplish all the objects here mentioned, except two; viz., 
make a lawn and get a first-class plan for your home grounds. 
We do not wish to discourage anyone by underestimating the 
cost of gardening. It often costs a city man $100 to make a 
lawn of one acre, for the seed alone costs $25, plowing and har- 
rowing $7.50, subsoiling $5, sowing $i, manure $10, while the 
grading and other expenses may bring the total to $100. The 
farmer, however, need not make a cash outlay of more than 
$25 for a lawn, or say the price of a hog. Sell a hog, and have 
some beauty! 

WHAT YOU CAN GET FOR ONE HUNDRED 
DOLLARS 

A good many farmers are now getting their places planned 1 
and planted for $100, the price of five hogs. Can't you? Do 
not go at this matter either in the spirit of show or of senti- 
mentality, but consider this business proposition: Can't you 



Machine 
Shed 


X 


Granary - Shop 



Pasture 



Granary 



Barn N 



_ 

mm around 



I 

! Bush Fruiis ChickenYard 



| 



Hou Garden 




'/ 1 

} -' 
i 



Lane ,' 



& GXooo) 

Wn i ' ' ! I i .' . \ i 







y-._ 



Highway 
96. Before Enlarging the Farmstead 



T ne .y. art ' was on 'y I0 .S * 12 f cet and was bounded by two straight rows of box elders, 
nch hid all the good views and left all the ugly outbuildings in plain sight. Otherwise 
the yard was bare no playground, no foundation planting, hardly a flower. The next 



wh 

J - " *""- '** JJI.4 > . i .11 I 11 , , IIU I' ill M I 1.1 I i. n i | ,i.i j i i i i i, , llultllj a IH1WC1. 1 lie lIVAb 

shows how George Curtiss, of Stockton, Jo Daviess Co., plans to improve the farmstead, 
hig. 07 has been re-drawn and improved by Mr. L. E. Fogjesong, but it shows what a 
student can do after attending a dozen lectures and six practical exercises. Many farmers 
should do as well as this after studying this circular. 




of i ' V) 

v v 'jii^'H^S^ 

\j-* ? , rf &/ ^ P^" 

' -y Hiihway 9- 

7 if 



97. After Enlarging the Farmstead 

The yard is now 170 x igo feet, which is three-fourths of an acre an increase of r$o 
per cent. He gets five good views by cutting out useless trees; nearly triples his lawn; 
removes and groups in better places the utilities, e.g., small fruits, chickens, and smoke- 
house; screens outbuildings and chicken-yard; cuts out the decaying fruit trees, while 
saving the best; protects his house from winds by evergreens; gets room for a tennis-court; 
plants the boundaries and foundations; makes a flower-garden visible from the parlor; 
and adds a bird-garden all at a cost of $46.15, the price of two hogs. 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



29 



invest $100 in plans and planting in such a way that it will add 
$500 to $ 1,000 to the salable value of your home in five or ten 
years? Can you make as big a profit by putting that money 
into house, barn, or hogs? The plan is the most important thing 
of all! 

HOW TO PLAN YOUR HOME GROUNDS 

The ideal is to have a first-class landscape gardener, because 
a beginner cannot do so well as an expert, and landscape gar- 
dening is a life-study. It is a fine art, like architecture, music, 
poetry, or painting. The landscape gardener costs more at 
the start, but is cheaper in the end, because he saves you all 
the bother and expense of rearranging everything when you 
learn better. He will usually save his fee on nursery stock 
alone by buying the right kinds and getting them at wholesale 
rates. Nearly every nursery of national reputation now has a 
landscape department, and most plans involving $100 or less 
are made in this way. Some of this work is good, but there are 
unworthy men in every line of business, and some do not rise 
above the temptation to specify four plants where one will do, 
or to use only their own stock, or to scatter plants in the gaudy 
way. 

Can't you plan your own grounds with the aid of this cir- 
cular? If you prefer to have experts submit plans, you can 
check their value by seeing how well they provide for every 
need mentioned in the first sentence of each paragraph in this 
circular. No book can ever tell you just how to plan your place, 
for no two places are or should be alike, and ready-made plans 
are of little or no value. 

HOW TO GET A FREE ILLUSTRATED LECTURE 

You can get a free lecture, illustrated by colored lantern- 
slides, called "The Illinois Way of Beautifying the Farm," by 
applying to Wilhelm Miller, University of Illinois, Urbana. He 
will send you a box containing about fifty slides, with self- 
explanatory captions, so that you can read them to a local audi- 
ence and thus avoid all lecturer's fees and traveling expenses. 
The only cost is the express both ways, which is about $i. 
Thus, the small rural communities can have an entertainment 
worth at least $i a seat at a cost of one-half to five cents a 



person. If there are 1,000 farmers in your neighborhood, by 
thorough advertising you can get 200 to turn out, and you can 
persuade 100 to sign the Australian ballots (see back cover), 
which are practically promises to do some ornamental plant- 
ing within a year. By organizing and "following up," you can 
get the farmers to spend an average of $10 the first year, for 
nearly every farmhouse needs foundation planting. Copies 
of the "Australian Ballot" will be supplied, and can serve as 
programs. Every farmer can take home an extra copy and 
nail it up where it will remind him daily of the ideals he intends 
to realize this year. 

THE ILLUSTRATIONS IN THIS CIRCULAR 

We are indebted to the J. Horace McFarland Co., Harrisburg, Pa., 
for Figs. 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 19, 23, 24, 36 to 40, 42, 45, 47 to 50, 
55 to 58, 60 to 64, 66 to 69, 72 to 74, 76 to 82, 103, 104, 110, and 112. To 
N. R. Graves for Figs. 41, 44, 71, and 83. To L. E. Foglesong for Figs. 
87, 96, 97, and 98. To Henry Fuermann & Sons for the front cover and 
for Figs. 3, 65, 99, 100, 101, 102, 105, 106, 108, and 109. To Wm. Robinson 
for Fig. 4 from photograph by George Champion. To E. J. Hall for Fig. 
7. To Mrs. Flora Sims for Figs. 11, 31, 43, and 89. To Prof. J. W. Lloyd 
for Figs. 15, 16, and 54. To the U. S. Department of Agriculture for Figs. 
17, 25, 26, 27, 28, 91, and 92. To The Decatur Review for Figs. 18, 23, and 
24. To Professor B.S. Pickett for Figs. 20, 88, and 90. To The Macmillan 
Co. for the use of Figs. 21, 22, and 53. To Arno H. Nehrling for Figs. 29, 
30, 35, and 86. To the H. C. White Co. for the hawthorn used in Fig. 32. 
To A. W. Bryant for Figs. 46, 75, 84, and 85. To W. C. Egan for Figs. 51 
and 52. To B. A. Strauch for Fig. 59. To Chester M. Whitney for Fig. 70. 
To Loring Underwood for Figs. 93 and 94. To R. E. Brand for Fig. 95. To 
A. G. Eldredge for Fig. 107. To the Department of Horticulture for Fig. 
85. To Miss B. J. Colwell for Fig. 8. 



THE ILLINOIS WAY OF PLANTING 
SCHOOL GROUNDS 

You can make fifty dollars' worth of improvement in the 
looks of your school at a cost of ten dollars, and also bring 
back the birds, by adopting the "Illinois Way." 

Here is a simple scheme for making permanent improvement 
in your school grounds, which is practical in city or country, 
even if you have no technical knowledge of botany or horti- 
culture, and even if you have no money! Plant shrubs and vines 
native to Illinois against the joundations of your school. Ten 



Parlor tjnntf /foonj 




98. A Foundation Planting of Illinois Shrubs and Vines 
The sort of thine that any farmer can do without cash outlay by collecting the plants 
of his own neighborhood. He will get better results by buying nursery-grown plants of the 
same species at a cost of $20 to $40. The arrows point toward vines. 



KEY TO THE ILLINOIS FOUNDATION PLANTING 
(Explaining Fig. 98) 

1. Maple-leaved arrow-wood (Viburnum acerifolium). 

2. High bush cranberry (Viburnum Opulus). 

3. Hazelnut (Corylus americana). 

4. Gray dogwood (Cornus candidissima or paniculata). 

5. Downy-leaved arrow-wood (Viburnum pubescens). 

6. Buffalo currant (Ribes aureum). 

7. Red chokeberry (Aronia arbutifolia). 

8. Silky cornel (Cornus Amomum or sericea) 

9. Red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera). 

10. Black chokeberry (Aronia nigra). 

11. Shadbush (Amelanchier Botryapium). 

12. Scarlet sumac (Rhus glabra). 

13. Sweet-scented sumac (Rhus aromatica). 

14. Illinois or dwarf sumac (Rhus copallina). 

15. Ferns and asters (Aster, etc.). 

16. Sheepberry (Viburnum I.entago). 

17. Illinois or prairie rose (Rosa setigera). 

18. Round-leaved dogwood (Cornus circinata). 

19. Northern fox grape (Vitis Labrusca). 

20. Summer grape (Vitis sestivalis). 

21. Frost grape (Vitis cordifolia). 

22. Trumpet creeper (Tecoma radicans). 

23. Climbing bittersweet (Celastrus scandens). 

24. Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia). 

25. Virginia virgin's bower (Clematis virginiana). 



30 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 




99. Before Framing the Winter View with Hawthorns 

ke, river, and prairie view in Ill , 

the time. A cheap, practical, and permanent way to enliven it is shown in Fig. 100. 



Many a lake, river, and prairie view m Illinois is dull, monotonous, and cold much of Every farmer may practice the "religion of the prairie" by planting stratified trees 
.. . 1: :* :_ _i : c:~ which repeat the lines of the prairie. (Same bank as Fig. 99, on M; 



100. After Framing the Winter View with Hawthorns 

planting st 

agnus place, Wmnetka.) 






101. The Old Way of Treating Water Views 

All vegetation on the banks was destroyed so as to get the widest view possible. No 
cruder conception of art can be imagined than blank lawn, blank water, and blank sky. 
Yet many people still fancy that trees are "unnecessary" by the ocean or lake shore. It 
has never dawned upon them that a view needs a frame. Trees make it possible to break 
up the broad views into many intimate pictures as seen from the house, without destroy- 
ing the broad view, which is still visible from the best place, viz., the shore. (This photo- 
graph actually shows a portion of the same lawn seen in Fig. 102.) On a gray winter day 
one can hardly distinguish land, water, and clouds in such a view. 

dollars will usually buy all the shrubs necessary to surround 
a country school, and ten dollars spent at the "dramatic spot" 
will go farther than fifty dollars scattered over the lawn. 
Fifty dollars may be necessary for a city school, but you can 
raise the money by private subscription if you will show these 
pictures to the right man. The results will be so satisfactory 
that in three or four years, when the shrubs mature, your 
community will consider getting a comprehensive plan for your 
schools, which will make provision for playgrounds, school 
gardens, planting, and all other outdoor features. 

Even if you have no technical knowledge and no money you 
can do the foundation planting this spring. No plan is neces- 



102. The "Illinois Way" of Treating Water Views 

"I persuaded my neighbor to plant this tree to frame his views of Lake Michigan, and 
to form a natural arbor? Isn't this better than a man-made arbor? From here he has an 
unbroken view of the magnificent shore-line to the left. From the porch his lake view is no 
longer cold, dull, and monotonous, but intimate and personal, because this stratified 
hawthorn is silhoutted against water and sky, repeating on a smaller scale the great lines 
of the landscape. Formerly, when a steamer went by it was lost in space; now it makes a 
strong and stirring picture when seen between the hawthorn and the oak. T he dotted haw 
(Crattegus punctata), we moved from the woods." (Signed) W. C. Egan, Highland Park, III. 

sary. All you need is the gumption to help the children dig 
and fertilize the ground, to take them out on two or three 
Saturday afternoon walks, and to bring home the common 
bushes that grow wild within a mile or two of the school. 
Surely, you can tell wild grape, Virginia creeper, wild clematis, 
bittersweet, sumach, prairie rose, buckbush, or elderberry? 
If not, any farmer can tell you some of them even in winter. 
And even if only one kind is available that is better than 
nothing. A schoolhouse surrounded by sumach or elder looks 
twice as well as one that is absolutely bare. You can dig these 
bushes in March or early April, before the buds begin to swell. 
Then you can organize the children to protect the birds and 




103. A Road without Hawthorns 

A sure way to kill interest in country life is to cut down all hawthorns and crab apples, 
and leave only weeds, poles, wires, and mud. Along the roadside we want thorny shrubs 




that will take care of tnemselves and not be overrun by animals. 



104. The Same Road with Hawthorns 

Illinois can excel tiie rest of the world in beauty only by planting everywhere the pecu- 
liar trees and shrubs which Nature designed her to grow to perfection, especially stratified 
hawthorns and crab apples. , 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 



31 




105. The "Illinois Way" of Landscape Gardening Is Not a Mere Dream It Really Exists Now 

Here is a part of the famous "prairie river" in Humboldt Park, Chicago, with a miniature cataract modeled after those in the Rock River, and a bank full of yellow, daisy-like 
flowers, e.g., compass plants and coneflowers, symbolizing the vast sheets of composite flowers that once glorified the prairie state. (Designed by Jens Jensen.) 

water the shrubs during the summer. A teacher who hasn't schools need foundation planting, why native shrubs are best, 
spunk enough to do this much would better quit. why the gaudy style is objectionable, and why the "Illinois 

The Arbor and Bird Day Manual for 1914 explains why Way" is better. 




1 06. You Can Restore and Intensify the "Local Color" on Your Farm 

The people of Chicago have created at great expense the sort of thing every farmer can enjoy for nothing. This prairie river landscape was designed by Jensen, and planted with 
common Illinois flowers, e.g., swamp rose mallow, blue flag, water-lily, calamus, phlox, etc. 



32 



THE "ILLINOIS WAY" OF BEAUTIFYING THE FARM 




107. An Illinois Bird-Garden 

"Under this wild grape-vine is a little pool that attracts thousands of birds. Over fifty species have been counted 
within a short time, and this too in a great city! The songs, colors, and actions of these birds have delighted our family 
every day for many years. Anyone can have this sort of bird-garden. 1 he pool is simply an oval piece of concrete, about 
2 by 3 feet, and the water is only three inches deep in the middle. Cost not more than $2 for cement, plants, and labor." 
(Signed) O. C. Simonds, Landscape Gardener, Chicago, 111. 



thorns and crab apples, dogwoods, 
elders, and viburnums. 

To feed the birds the year round, 
plant some of the following: (The num- 
bers in parenthesis indicate the number 
of species of birds known to feed on 
these berries.) Common and red elder 
(67); silky, gray, red, and green dog- 
woods (47); fragrant, Illinois, and 
smooth sumach (47); high bush and 
dwarf blueberry (37); dwarf June- 
berry (20); maple-leaved and other 
viburnums (16); Illinois and Eastern 
spice bush (11); Illinois, glossy, and 
smooth rose (10); Missouri and wild 
black currant (10). (Statistics from 
McAtee's "Plants Useful to Attract 
Birds and Protect Fruit," which you 
can get free from the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture by asking for Yearbook 
Separate No. 504). 

To furnish nesting-places for birds, 
plant the Missouri and wild black cur- 
rants. Intersperse the viburnums with 
the Illinois rose, and then keep out the 
cats by means of box traps and chloro- 
form. 

On light and sandy soil plant red 



SHRUBS FOR SPECIAL NEEDS 

For the north or shady side of your schoolhouse plant 
silky, gray, red, or green dogwood, fragrant sumach, wild 
black currant, common or red elder, dwarf blueberry, high 
bush blueberry, maple-leaved viburnum, arrow-wood, nanny- 
berry or downy viburnum. 

To repeat the prairie lines, plant stratified Illinois haw- 




108. The "Illinois Way" of Cemetery Planting 



Not a stone in sight. The dominant thought is comfort, beauty, inspiration. Every spring this landscape changes 
from death to life. It is Nature's symbol of the resurrection of the soul. The cemetery should not be the place of hopeless 
grief, but a temple of beauty a vision of a better life here and now. (Graceland Cemetery, Chicago, designed by O. C. 
Simonds.) 



elder, dwarf Juneberry, green dogwood, or fragrant, Illinois, 
and smooth sumach. All shrubs in the table will grow in a wide 
range of soils, except blueberries. 

Against high foundations plant Illinois spice bush, common 

elder, high bush blueberry, arrow-wood, nannyberry, high 

bush cranberry, red bud, black haw, scarlet and cockspur thorn, 

bladder nut, winterberry, strawberry bush or burning bush. 

To prevent cutting across and to protect birds from 

their enemies, plant prickly ash and 

Illinois rose, mixed with other shrubs; 

cat-brier trailing over other shrubs, or 

low-running blackberry. 

[The above lists were prepared by 

Mr. Franz A. Aust and Mr. L. E. 

Foglesong, who have rendered valuable 

assistance in many ways.] 

PERMANENT VINES 

MAY. Wistaria Chinensis. 

JUNE. *Wild grapes, * Illinois rose 
(Rosa setigera) and its varieties. 
Baltimore Belle, Queen of the Prairies, 
and Gem of the Prairies, also Rosa 
multiflora. 

JULY. Memorial Rose (Rosa Wichu- 
raiana), *trumpet creeper, and *wild 
clematis. 

AUGUST. Clematis paniculata and 
*AmpeIopsis cordata (Vitis indivisa), 
with showy blue berries. 

SEPTEMBER. *Virginia creeper and 
*EngeImann's ivy. 

OCTOBER TO MARCH. Evergreen bit- 
tersweet (Euonymus radicans, var. 
vegetus), trailing myrtle (Vinca minoi), 
* Illinois rose and multiflora rose. 

'Native to Illinois. 




log. A Bird-Garden in the Heart of Chicago, Which Is an Outdoor Living-Room the Year Round 

It consists of a dancing spring, with rockwork modeled after the Rock River, a food-house to shelter the birds in winter, and shrubs with edible berries to feed the 
round. The bird-garden is probably the best type of ornamental garden ever invented in America. It is more permanent than the Colonial garden, costs less to main 
lite, and is attractive more months in the year. It can be adapted to every climate, environment, and purse. (Mrs. Albert H. Loeb's garden, designed by Jens Jensen.) 



THE RELIGION OF THE PRAIRIE 

The most creative people who ever lived were the Greeks, 
but the greatest race the world shall ever know will be cradled 
in the Middle West. The climate and the landscape make that 
certain. For the Middle West is the world's greatest runway 
for the winds and for ideas. We have no complicated moun- 
tain systems, as Europe does, to breed endless artificial differ- 
ences of dress, language, and thought. There is not one range 
between the Alleghanies and the Rockies to stop the sweep of 
the winds or the triumphal march of man's progress. A better 
\\ay of doing things, or a nobler ideal, spreads like a prairie 
fire. An extreme climate breeds a lusty body, and a broad 
landscape instils breadth of mind. These two forces, acting 
siiently throughout the centuries, will beget a corresponding 
breadth of soul. Environment must, in time, make its mark. 

No longer do men fear, hate, or 
despise the prairie. They once thought 
that flat land must ever be monoto- 
nous, dull, stupefying. But a new, virile, 
prairie school of art has opened our 
eyes to the meaning of those vast 
horizontal lines of land, crops, woods, 
and sky, which are the peculiar glory of 
the prairie. 

The heavenward-pointing mountain 
i$ not the only symbol of aspiration; 
the ever-stretching ocean and the prairie 
a|te also symbols of the Infinite. The 
biarren mountains and unharvested sea 
njtay smite the soul with awe, but the 
joyous prairie is the world's loveliest 
reminder of God's endless bounty. The 
siecret charm of every prairie view is the 
1 ision which it inspires of a united 
and prosperous humanity. The sublime 
breadth of the earth's surface stirs every 
>ne to consecrate his life toward realizing 
1 ;hat vision. This is the "religion of the 
oraine" that is getting into men's bones. 
Everyone who works for the good of 
, lis community knows what this means. 



Western art, therefore, is essentially religious. Its chief 
motive is to glorify the horizontal lines that symbolize infinite 
breadth and bounty. Religion makes the western architect 
and landscape designer repeat in house and garden the lovely line 
of the land. Religion thrills the western painters to portray the 
widespread arms of crab apple and hawthorn. Religion stirs 
western musicians, sculptors, and poets to express the vast 
scale and subtle sweetness of the prairie. The religion of the 
prairie is the gospel of beauty. The waving banners of the corn 
beget the insurgent soul. The Middle West is a "far-flung 
battle-line" that fights corruption and ugliness in every form. 
Can't you see it marching irresistibly toward the inevitable 
goal of universal brotherhood ? Isn't this your religion ? Have 
you enlisted for the fight ? If not, join some chamber of com- 
merce, commercial club, or farmers' organization and work! 
Let us all sacrifice something for the common good ! 



no. What You Can Get for Nothing 

The best plants in the world, free, Illinois trees, 
shrubs, and flowers. Beginning at the upper left corner, 
they are: Flowering dogwood, to frame the view of 
your house; American bluebells, to restore charm to 
pur woods; white pines to make a dignified approach; 
_iigh bush cranberry, for red berries against the snow 
aliwinter; Virginia creeper for the porch; sumach, to 
screen an outbuilding; the old tree in the field to leave 
for the children; elders for your bird-garden; a tulip 
tree, to make a background For the house; red cedars 
for windbreaks; Illinois rose and high bush cranberry 
for your Illinois border. Dig only where there are too 
many for their own good, ana do not be greedy. Better 
still, buy them from Illinois nurserymen. 







* 

; 



:t 



J. Horace McFartand Company, Mount Pleasant Press, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 




IT I. Before You Plant against the Foundations 

Your house, whether you live in city or country, will look as bare as these houses did 
in 1013, before seventeen houses in three blocks were planted under the direction of Profes- 
sor Root. The foundation is the one spot around every house that needs attention first of 
all. Forget everything else and register a promise right now that you will do the funda- 
mental thing necessary to make your house look like a real home ! 



112. After You Plant against the Foundations 

In three years your planting will look as well as this, for small shrubs of nursery sir.e 
mature in three or four years. The best way is to use Illinois plants for Illinois problems, 
as much as possible, but any way is good, provided you use permanent shrubs and vines. 
Invest $10 now in foundation planting ana you will be so delighted with the results .hat . 
in three years you will have a comprehensive plan for your home grounds. 



I WILL 

D Plant or improve my WINDBREAK, not live in a bare, wind-swept spot. 

D SCREEN unsightly objects, e. g., barnyard and outbuildings. 

D Frame the VIEW of my house from the road and of the farm from my dining-room and porch. 

D Plant bushes and vines against the FOUNDATIONS of my house. 

D Make a good permanent LAWN, not a cheap weed-patch, and keep the center open, not 
scatter plants over it. 

D Have SHRUBBERY, instead of artificial hedges, or temporary flower-beds in the middle 
of the lawn. 

D Save old TREES on lawn, roadside, or pasture. 

D Plant chiefly long-lived NATIVE MATERIAL, not short-lived "quick-growers" or foreign 
and artificial varieties. 

D Make a practical FLOWER-GARDEN, e. g., a cut-flower, bird, children's wild, winter, or 
tree garden, instead of copying something eastern, English, or Italian. 

D Plant an ILLINOIS BORDER, sacred to Illinois trees, shrubs, and wild flowers. 

D Restore and preserve the LOCAL COLOR, instead of destroying every shrub within a mile. 

D Adopt the ILLINOIS WAY, not the gaudy, conventional, and imitative style, for I do not 
want my place to look like every beginner's the world over. 

D Build and plant a PERMANENT COUNTRY HOME. 

D PLAN or re-plan my home grounds, or engage a landscape gardener. 

Without agreeing to pay anybody anything, I promise to do some permanent ornamental 
planting within a year.